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John Swett 




• ■> « > 

• * • • • 

> • • • 

W R D -A N AEir^S-I^S-n 








Gold Medaust fok Text-Books, Pabis Exposition, 1878; and Authob of 


UiSTOBY/' *' Language Sebies," etc. 




i • ^ ^ 

••• ••••'••t ••• •• • 

Copyright, 1879, 
By William Sm'inton. 

^'■iJU J- 

•,. ' 


The present text-book is a n^w-modeling and rewriting 
of Swinton's Word-Analysis, first published in 1871. It 
has grown out of a large amount of testimony to the 
effect that the older book, while valuable as a manual of 
methods, in the hands of teachers, is deficient in practice- 
work for pupils. 

This testimony dictated a double procedure : first, to 
retain the old vuthods; secondly, to add an adequate 
amount of new matter. 

Accordingly, in the present manual, the few Latin 
roots and derivatives, with the exercises thereon, have 
been retained — under " Part II. : The Latin Element" — 
as simply a method of study* There have then been 

♦ To teachers who are unacquainted with the original Word-Armlysis^ 
the following extract from the Preface to that work may not he out of 
place: — 

** The treatment of the Latin derivatives in Part II. presents a new 
and important feature, to wit : the systematic analysis of the structure 
and oi^nism of derivativef^^nls, tQtg^l))p^ with the statement of their 



added, in " Division II. : Abbreviated Latin Derivatives/' 
no fewer than two hundred and twenty Latin root- 
words with their most important English offshoots. In 
order to concentrate into the limited available space so 
large an amount of new matter, it was requisite to devise 
a novel mode of indicating the English derivatives. 
What this mode is, teachers will see in the section, pages 
50-104. The author trusts that it will prove well suited 
to class-room work, and in many other ways interest- 
ing and valuable: should it not, a good deal of labor, 
both of the lamp and of the file, will have been mis- 

primary meaning in such form that the pupil inevitably perceives its 
relation with the root, and in fact makes its primary meaning by the 
very process of analyzing the word into its primitive and its modifying 
prefix or suffix. It presents, also, a marked improvement in the method 
of approaching the definition, — a method by which the definition is seen 
to grow (mt of the primarj' meaning, and by which the analytic faculty of 
the pupil is exercised in tracing the transition from the primary meaning 
to the secondary and figurative meanings, — thus converting what is 
ordinarily a matter of rote into an agreeable exercise of the thinking 
faculty. Another point of novelty in the method of treatment is pre- 
sented in the copious practical exercises on the iise of words. The 
experienced instructor very well knows that pupils may memorize endless 
lists of terms and definitions without having any realization of the actual 
living power of words. Such a realization can only be gained by ustTig the 
word, — by turning it over in a variety of ways, and by throwing upon it 
the side-lights of its sjmonym and contitisted word. The method of 
thus utilizing English derivatives gives a study which possesses at once 
simplicity and fruitfulness, — the two desiderata of an instniment of 
elementary discipline." 


To one matter of detail in connection with the Latin 
and Greek derivatives, the author wishes to call special 
attention: the Latin and the Greek roots are, as key- 
words, given in this book in the form of the present 
infinitivey — the present indicative and the supine being, 
of course, added. For this there is one sufficient justifi- 
cation, to wit: that the present infinitive is the form in 
which a Latin or a Greek root is always given in Webster 
and other received lexicographic authorities. It is a 
curious fact, that, in all the school etymologies, the pres- 
ent indicative should have been given as the root, and is 
explicable only from the accident that it is the key-form 
in the Latin dictionaries. The change into conformity 
with our English dictionaries needs no defense, and will 
probably hereafter be imitated by all author of school 

In this compilation the author has followed, in the 
main, the last edition of Webster's Unabridged, the ety- 
mologies in which carry the authoritative sanction of 
Dr. Mahn ; but reference has constantly been had to the 
works of Wedgwood, Latham, and Haldeman, as also to 
the " English Etymology " of Dr. James Douglass, to 
whom the author is specially indebted in the Greek and 

Anglo-Saxon sections. 

W. S. 

New York, 1879. 




I. Blemvnts op thb Engush Vocabulary . • . x 

II. Etymological Classes of Words . . . > • 5 

III. Prbpixbs and Suffixes ...... 5 

IV. RuLBS op Spblung usbd in forming Dbrivativb Words • 6 

PART 11. 


I. Latin Prefixes ....*.* 9 

II. Latin Suffixes ........ za 

III. Directions in thb Study of Latin Dbrivatxves . . sx 

Latin Roots and Engush Derivatives . . • 33 

Division I. Method of Study .... 33 

Division If. Abbrbviatbd Latin Derivatives . 50 



I. Greek Prefixes ..,....• 105 

XL Greek Alphabet ....... 106 

Greek Roots and English Derivatives .... S07 

Division 1. Principal Greek Roots . . • 107 
Division II. Additional Grbbk Roots and their De- 
rivatives ..... zao 



I. Anglo-Saxon Prefixes ...«•• zas 

II. Anglo-Saxon Suffixes ...... 135 

Anglo-Saxon Roots and English Derivatives . . taj 

Specimens of Anglo-Saxon . . . . * 132 

SpsaMENs op Semi-Saxon and Early English . Z35 

Anglo-Saxon Element in Modern English . . . Z36 



L Words drrivbd from the Names cp Persons . . 142 

X. Nouns ........ 143 

0. Adjectives ....... X44 

IL Words derived from the Names of Places • . . X40 

III. Btymologv of Words used in thb prinopal School Studies 149 

X. Terms in Geography . . . . * X49 

a. Terms in Grammar ...... 150 

3. Terms in Arithmetic 154 

• ••«• •• «• 

/ * • • • •••••• ••• •. • • * 




1. Etymolog^^ is the study which treats of the derivation 
of words, — that is, of their structure and history. 

2t English etymology, or word-analysis, treats of the deri- 
vation of English words.. 

3t The vocabulary^ of a language is the whole body of 
words in that language. . Hence the English vocabulary con- 
sists of all the words in the English language. 

I. The complete study of any language comprises two distinct in- 
, quiries, — the study of the grammar of the language, and the study 

of its vocabulary. Word-analysis has to do exclusively with the vo- 

II. The terra "etymology" as used in grammar must be carefully 
distinguished from ** etymology " in the sense of word-analysis. Gram- 
matical etymology treats solely of the grammatical changes in words, 
and does not conceni itself with their derivation ; historical etymology 
treats of the structure, composition, and history of words. Thus the 
relation of lovesy loviiig^ loved to the verb love is a matter of grammati- 
cal etymology ; but the relation of lover^ lovely, or loveliness to love is 
a matter of historical etymology. 

1 '* Etymology," Greek et'umon, the true literal sense of a word according to its 
derivation, and log'os, a discourse. 

t " Vocabulary," Liatin vocabvla'riiim, stock of words ; from vox, vocis, a voice, a 


• <■ • •• • • 

III. The English VQcabulaiy is very extensive, as is shown hy the 
.", : : -'^^i ttiitlji JVel)8|jef's Utabridged Dictionary there are nearly 100,000 
* " '* Vords.'" Buf Ifshoilld'te observed that 3,000 or 4,000 serve all the 
ordinary purposes of oral and written communication. The Old Tes- 
tament contains 5,642 words; Milton uses about 8,000; and Shake- 
speare, whose vocabulary is more extensive than that of any other 
English writer, employs no more than 15,000 words. 

4t The principal elements of the English vocabulary are 
words of Anglo-Saxon and of Latin or French-Latin origin. 

5t Anglo-Saxon is the earliest form of English. The whole 
of the grammar of our language, and the most largely used 
part of its vocabulary, are Anglo-Saxon. 

I. Anglo-Saxon belongs to the Low German ^ division of the Teu- 
tonic stock of languages. Its relations to the other languages of Europe 
— all of which are classed together as the Aryan, or Indo-European 
family of languages — may be seen from the following table : — 

Celtic stock as Welsh, Gaelic. 

Slavonic stock as Russian. 

lado- , Greek / Italian. 


/ vjrrecK / iiaiian. 
European ^ Classic STOCK | ^atin ^Spanish. 

^ French, etc. 
( Scandinavian : . . as Swedish. 
Teutonic stock | ^^^^ , High Ger.: as Mo<lern German. 

( Low Ger. : as Anglo-Saxon. 

II. The term ** Anglo-Saxon " is deiived from the names Angles and 
SaxonSy two North German tribes who, in the fifth century a. d., in- 
vaded Britain, conquered the native Britons, and possessed themselves 
of the land, which they called England, that is. Angle-land. The 
Britons spoke a Celtic language, best represented by modem "Welsh. 
Some British words were adopted into Anglo-Saxon, and still continue 
in our language : as basket, gotvn, pan. 

1 By the Low German languages are meant those spoken in the low, flat countries 
of North Germany, along the coast of the North Sea (as Dutch, tlie language of Hol- 
land) ; and they are so called in contrudistiuction to High German, or German 


6t The Latin element in the English vocabulary consists 
of a large number of words of Latin origin, adopted directly 
into English at various periods. 

The principal periods during which Latin words were brought directly 
into English are : — 

1. At the introduction of Christianity into England by the Latin 
Catholic missionaries, A. D. 596. 

2. At the revival of classical learning in the sixteenth century. 

3. By modem writers. 

7t The French-Latin element in the English language 
consists of French words, first largely introduced into Eng- 
lish by the Norman-French who conquered England in the 
eleventh century, A. d. 

L French, like Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, is substantially 
Latin, but Latin considerably altered by loss of grammatical forms and 
by other changes. This language the Norman- French invadere brought 
with them into England, and they continued to use it for more than 
two centuries after the Conquest. Yet, as they were not so numerous 
as the native population, the old Anglo-Saxon finally prevailed, though 
with an immense infusion of French words. 

11. French-Latin words — that is, Latin words introduced through 
the French — can often be readily distinguished by their being more 
changed in form than the Latin terms directly introduced into our 
language. Thus — 

Latin. French. English. 

inimi'cus ennemi enemy 

pop'ulus • peuple people 

se'nior sire sir 

8t Other Elements. — In addition to its primary constitu- 
ents — namely, the Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and French-Latin — 
the English vocabulary contains a large number of Greek 
derivatives and a considerable number of Italian, Spanish, 
and Portuguese words, besides various terms derived from 
miscellaneous sources. 


The following are examples of words taken from miscellaneous 
sources ; that is, from sources other than Anglo-Saxon, Latin, French- 
Latin, and Greek : — 

Hebrew : amen, cherub, jubilee, leviathan, manna, sabbath, seraph. 

Arabic : admiral, alcohol, algebra, assassin, camphor, caravan, chemis- 
try, cipher, cofifee, elixir, gazelle, lemon, magazine, nabob, sultan. 

Turkish : bey, chibouk, chouse, janissary, kiosk, tulip. 

Persian : azure, bazaar, checkmate, chess, cimeter, dem\john, dervise, 
orange, paradise, pasha, turban. 

Hindustani: calico, jungle, pariah, punch, rupee, shampoo, toddy. 

Malay : a-muck, bamboo, bantam, gamboge, gong, gutta-percha, mango. 

Chinese : nankeen, tea. 

Polynesian : kangaroo, taboo, tattoo. 

American Indian : maize, moccasin, pemmican, potato, tobacco, torn- 
ahawk, tomato, wigwam. 

Celtic : banx)w, basket, cart, darn, kiln, kilt, mop, plaid, wire. 

ScaTidinavian : dale, ford, gate. 

Dutch, or Hollandish : block, boom, bowsprit, reef, skates, sloop, yacht. 

Italian : canto, cu2)ola, gondola, grotto, lava, opei*a, piano, regatta, 
soprano, stucco, vista. 

Spanish : armada, cargo, cigar, des^ierado, flotilla, grandee, mosquito, 
mulatto, punctilio, sherry, sieiTa. 

Portuguese : caste, commodore, fetish, mandarin, palaver. 

9i Proportions.— On an examination of passages selected 
from modern English authors, it is found that of every hun- 
dred words sixty are of Anglo-Saxon origin, thirty of Latin, 
five of Greek, and all the other sources combined furnish tlio 
remaining five. 

By actual count, there are more words of classical than of Anglo- 
Saxon origin in the English vocabulary, —probably two and a half times 
as many of the former as of the latter. But Anglo-Saxon words are so 
much more employed — owing to the constant repetition of conjunctions, 
prepositions, adverbs, auxiliaries, etc. (all of Anglo-Saxon origin) — that 
in any page of even the most Latinized writer they greatly prepondei-ate. 
In the Bible, and in Shakes])eare's vocabulary, they are in the proportion 
of ninety per cent. For specimens showing Anglo-Saxon words, see p. 136. 



lOt Classes by Origin. — With respect to their origin, 
words are divided into two classes, — primitive words and 
derivative words. 

11a A primitive word, or root, is one that cannot be re- 
duced to a more simple form in the language to which it is 
native : as, man, good, run. 

12* A cferivative word is one made up of a root and one 
or more formative elements : as, manZy, goodjiess, runner. 

The formative elements are called prefixes and suffixes. 
(See §§ 16, 17.) 

13i By Composition. — With respect to their composition, 
words are divided into two classes, — simple and compound 

14* A simple word consists of a single significant term : 
as, school, master, rain, bow, 

15i A compound word is one made up of two or more 
simple words united : as, school-master, rainbow. 

In some compound woi-ds the constituent parts are joined by the 
hyi)hen as school-master; in others the parts coalesce and the compound 
forms a single (though not a simple) word, as rainbow. 


16* A prefix is a significant syllable or word placed before 
and joined with a word to modify its meaning : as, unsafe = 
no^safe; remove = move ^acZ:/ circumnavigate = sail arowwcZ. 

17* A suffix is a significant syllable or syllables placed 
after and joined with a word to modify its meaning : as, safely 
= in a safe manner ; movable = that may be moved ; nav- 
igation =ac^ of sailing. 

The word o^ signifies either a prefix or a sufi^ ; and the verb to 
affix means to join a prefix or a suffix to a root-word. 



Tell whether the following words are primitive or derivative, and 
also whether simple or compound ; — 

•l grace 

"^ 16 music-teache 

r f 31 large 

- 46 friendly 

•2 sign 

•n? footstep 

<■ 32 truthful 

• 47 reform 

3 design 

m 18 glad 

—33 manliness 

•^48 whalebone 

'*'i midshipman 

^9 redness 

- Vm milkmaid 

""^ quiet 

«5 wash 

^•20 school 

^^35 gentleman 

-» 50 quietude 

% sea 

* 21 fire 

<-U6 sailor 

riii gardener 

**7 workman 

'*22 watch-key 

"^37 steamboat 

% 52 form 

•8 love 

*23 give 

'^ 38 wooden 

"53 formal 

— ^ lovely 

^24 forget ^ 

•39 rich 

■^54 classmate 

*10 white 

* 25 ii"on 

-40 hilly 

1 55 trust 

11 childhood 

-'20 hardihood 

Ail coachman 

- 56 trustworthy 

^ 12 kingdom 

* 27 young 

• 42 waim 

^ 57 penknife 

* 13 rub 

•28 right 

443 sign-post 

- 58 brightness 

-^4 music 

"t 20 ploughman 

"^44 gi'eenish 

59 grammarian 

- 15 musician 

t80 day-star 

* 45 friend 

' 60 unfetter 



Rule I. — Final "e" followed by a Vowel, 

Final e of a primitive word is dropped on taking a suffix 
beginning with a vowel : as, blame -f able = blamable ; guide -f- 
ance= guidance; come -f-ing= coming; force + ible= forcible; 
obscure + ity = obscurity. 

Exception 1. — Words ending in ge or ce usually retain the e before 
a suffix beginning with a or o, for the reason that c and g would have the 
hard sound if the c were dropped : as, pe^ce + able = peaceable ; change -I- 
able = changeable ; courage + ous = courageous. 

Exception 2. — Words ending in oe retain the e to preserve the 
sound of the root: as, shoe + ing=shpeing ; hoe + ing = hoeing. The e 
is retained in a few words to prevent their being confounded with similar 
words: as, singe + ing = singeing (to prevent its being confounded with 


Rule 11. — Final ^^e'* foUotved by a Consonant, 

Final e of a primitive word is retained on taking a suffix 
beginning with a consonant: as, pale4-ness=paleness ; 
large + ly = largely. 

ISzception 1. — When tlie final e is preceded by a vowel, it is some- 
times omitted : as, due + ly=duly ; true + ly= truly ; whole + ly= wholly. 

ISzception 2. — A few words ending in e drop the e before a suffix 
beginning with a consonant: as, judge + ment=judgment ; lodge +nient 
=lodgraent ; abridge + men t= abridgment. 

Rule III.— JPiital ^^y" preceded hy a Consonant, 

Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, 
is generally changed into i on the addition of a suffix. 

ISzception 1. — Before ing or ishy the final y is retained to prevent 
the doubling of the % : as, pity + ing= pitying. 

Exception 2. — Words ending in ie and dropping the e by Rule I. 
change the i into y to prevent the doubling of the i : as, die + ing= 
dying ; lie + ing = lying. 

ZSxception 3. — Final y is sometimes changed into e : as, duty + 
ous = du teous ; beauty + ous = bea u teous. 

Rule IV. — Final *^y** preceded hy a VoweU 

Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a vowel, 
should not be changed into an / before a suffix : as, joy + less 
= joyless. 

Rule V. — Troubling, 

Monosyllables and other words accented on the last sylla- 
ble, when they end with a single consonant, preceded by a 
single vowel, or by a vowel after qn, double their final letter 
before a suffix beginning with a vowel : as, rob+ed=robbed ; 
fop-H ish= foppish ; squat + er=squatter ; prefer'-f- ing=pre- 

Exceptions. — X final, being equivalent to ks, is never doubled ; and 
when the derivative does not retain the accent of the root, the final con- 
sonant is not always doubled : as, prefer' + ence= preference. 


Rule VI. — No naubiing, 

A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single 
vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, should 
remain single before an additional syllable: as, toil4-ing= 
toiling; cheat -hed= cheated; murm ur 4- ing= murmuring. 










a- vert 

to turn from. 




to release from. 



to hold from. 



to stick to. 



to be pleasing to. 



to yield to. 



to fix to. 


— to 


to give pain to. 



to bind to. 



to tie to. 



to hang to. 



to reach to. 



to yield to. 


- The forms ne-, 

af-, etc., are eiiph 

onic variations of ad«, and 

follow generally the nilc tlat the final consonant of the prefix assimilates 

to the inlt 

ial letter of the i-oot. 

am- ^ 
anib- 1 

K — arownjd. 


to cut around. 
going around. * 

ante- . 

' — hefoTt 


going before. 



to take before. 

liis- ( 

) hi-ped 

a two-footed animal. 
tv/ice cooked. • 


circu- \ 

^ = arfmnvi 


to sail around. 
journey arouiul. 



to come together. 



equal until. 


— willi or io- 


born together, 

a speaking mlh another. 



to put together. 




relative with. 



Note. — The forms co-, eos-, col-, com-, and cor-, are euphonic 
variations of con*. 




' = against 

contra-diet to speak against. 

contro-vert to turn against. 

counter-niand to order against. 

= down or off de-pose ; de-fend to put doxmi; fend off. 

dis- 1 (asunder dis-pel to drive asunder. 

di- V = • apart ; op- di-vert to turn apart. 

dif- J yposite of dif-fer to bear ajsar^; disagree. 

Note. — The forms dl- and dif- are euphonic forms of dla- ; dif- is 

used before a root beginning with a vowel. 




■= out ox from, ^,^^^^^ 


to shut out. 
to cast out. 
from the center, 
a flowing out. 

Note. — e-, cc-, and ef- are euphonic variations of ex-. When pre- 
fixed to the name of an office, ex- denotes that the person formerly held 
the office named : as, cic-mayor, the former mayor. V 

extra- = beyond extra-ordinary 


en-, eni- 

(in uouns and in-clude 
ver s.) il-luniinate 

= in, into, on im -port 


beyond ordinary. 

to shut in. 

to throw light on. 

to carry in. 

to pour water on. 

to force on. 

Note. — The forms ii-, im-, and ir- are euphonic variations of In- 
The forms en- and em- are of Greek origin. 


(in acljectives 


not sane. 


and nouns.) 


not noble. 


— not 


not legal. 



' not mature. 



not regular. 



inters | between or inter-cede 

Intel- ) a/mong intel-ligent 

intra- = inMe of intra-mural 

intro- = tnthin, into intro-duce 

jnxta- = near juxta-position 

non- =: not non-combatant 

to go between, 
choosing betioeen, 

inside of the walls. 
to lead into, 
a placing tiear, 
not fishtin£c. 

Note. — A hyphen is generally, though not always, placed between 
nou' and the root 






in the way^ 
= againstj 
or out 

ob-ject to throw against, 

o-mit to leave out, 

oc-cur to run against; hence, to 

of-fend to strike against. 

op-pose to put one's self a^ain^^ 

per-vade ; per-fect to pass through; thor- 
oughly made, 
pel-lucid thoroughly clear. 

Note. — Standing alone, per- signifies by : as, per annum, by the 


post- = after, behind post- script 

pre- = before pre-cede 

preter- = beyond preter-natural 
for, forth, pro-noun 



ox forward pro-pose 

written after, 

to go before. 

beyond nature. 
for a noun, 
to put/or^. 

Note. — In a few instances pro- is changed into pur-, as ^rpose ; 
into por-, as portray ; and into pol-, as ;?oflute. 





back or anew 


= backwards retro-grade 
= a^side, apart se-cede 

to drive back. 
to buy back, 

going backwards. 

to go apart 














under or 








without care. 
w-ithout folds. 

to write under. 

to follow after. 

to undergo. [under. 

to bring to mind from 

to hint from under. 

to bear by being under. 

to under-hd[A. 


Note. — The euphonic variations guc-, guf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, result 
from assimilating the h of sub- to the initial letter of the root. In 
** sustain " s .s- is a contraction of subs- for mih-. 

under or 




above or 


a flying under. 

above nature, 
to over-see. 

. super-natural 
over super-vise 

Note. — In derivatives through the French, super- takes the form 
sur-, as «wr-vey, to look over. 




^ throughjover, trans-gress 
) or beyond tra- verse 

to step beyond. 
to pass over. 

beyond the mountain 
beyond, or ultra-montane /^^^ AIds^ 

= extremely ultra-conservative ^^^(y conservative. 







.^thitrmybe;fit p^^gj^^i^ 

^^ ^ solu-ble 




tliat may be cured. 

that may be done. 
that may be dissolved. 

relating to the heart. 
like a demon. 

relating to or re- cardi-ac 
sembling demoni-ac 

Note. — The suffix -ac is found only in Latin derivatives of Greek 





o/; ' having the 

quality of 

-acy < = 

I condition of be- 
ing ; office of 

sapon-aceous having the quoUity of 

cap-acious having the quality of 

holding much. 





-al = 

I a>ct, condition J 
or collection of 










-ary = 

-ate = 

condition of being sin- 
offi>ce of a curate. 

act o/ marrying. 
condition of a vassal. 
collection of leaves. 

— The suffix -age is found only in French- Latin derivatives. 

adj. relating to ment-al relating to the mind. 

- n. the act of; that remov-al </i« oc^ o/ removing. 

which capit-al that which forms the 

head of a colunm. 
relating to mankind. 
befitting a man. 
one who follows a trade. 

state of being watchful. 
quality of being elegant. 

being watchful. 
one icho assists. 
relating to the moon. 
like a circle. 

relating to a letter. 
one who is sent out. 
a place where birds are 

one who is sent by 

having the quality of 

to perform the act of 

adj. relating to hum-an 

or befitting hum-ane 

n. one wJio artis-an 

state or quality vigil-ance 
of being 


adj. being 
n. one wlio 

= relating to ; like 

fadj. relating to 
{ n. one who ; 
plaice where 



r n. one who is 







adj. having the qual- accur-ate 

ity of 
v. to perfonn the a>ct navig-ate 

of or cause 






V = minute 
= one to whom 

vesi-cle a minute vessel, 

animal-cule a minute animal. 


one to whom something 
is referred. 

Note. — This suffix is found only in words of French- Latin origin. 



= one who 


one who has charge of 

an engine. 

one who has charge of 
a brigade. 

Note. — These suffixes are found only in words of French-Latin 

-ene = having relation to terr-ene 




having relation to the 

state of being present 
quality of tending to- 

n. one who or which stnd-ent one who studies. 

being or -ing equival-ent being equal to, equal- 

^ state of being or tend-ency 
quxdity of 

Sn. 071611 
adj. bei 

-escence = state of becoming conval-escence state of becoming well. 
-escent = becoming conval-eseent becoming well. 

-ess = female lion-ess & female lion. 

Note. — This suffix is used only in words of French- Latin origin. 

•ferous = producing 


producing cones. 

fie = making, causing 


causing sleep. 

i som£thinu done 
I or made 


something done with 

fy = to m>ake 


to make strong. 



n. one xoho 


one who has countrified 



= " 

adj. like^ made of^ 
relating to 




like a hero. 
made of metal. 
relating to history. 

KoTE. — These suffixes are found only m Latin words of Greek origin, 
namely, adjectives in -tKos. In words belonging to chemistry deriva- 
tives in -io denote the acid containing most oxygen, when more than 
one is formed : as nitric acid. 


= that which 

just-ice that which is just 

) _ . ^ mathemat-ics ihe science of quantity. 

. >=zthe science of •*!, *. • ^i: • r v 

-ic 3 •' anthmet-ic me science of number. 

Note. — These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin. 

-id = being or -ing acr-id ; flu-id being bitter ; flowing. 

puer-ile relating to a boy 



relating to; 
apt for 

-ine ]= relating to; like 





the act of, state 
of being, or -ing 

= to make 

torender, or per- 
form the act of 







apt for being taught. 

relating to a woman 
like an alkali. 

the act of expelling. 
state of bein^g corrupt, 

to maJce public. 
to render fertile. 

Note. — The suffix -ise, -ize, is of Greek origin, but it is freely added 
to Latin roots in forming £nglish derivatives. 

c state or act of; hero-ism state of a hero. 

-um I idiom Gallic-ism a French idiom. 

Note. — This suffix, except when signifying an idiom, is found only 
in words of Greek origin. 





one who practices art-ist 
or is devoted to botan-ist 




ov-e whopractices an art. 
oiie who is devoted to 

OTie who is favored. 
being well defined. 
one who is brought 

— The foim -yte is fonnd only in words of Greek origin. 

n. one who is 
adj. being 




state or quality 
of being 




-ive = 




n. one who is or 

that which capt-ive 
adj. having the power cohes-ive 

or quality 

= feminine testatr-ix 

state of being secure. 
quality of being able. 
state of being free. 

one who is taken. 
having power to stick. 

a woman who leaves 
a will. 


-ory ^■ 




(See -ise.) 

state of being or act excite-ment state of being excited. 
of; that which induce-ment that which induces. 

state or quality matri-mony state of marriage. 
of; that which testi-mony 

one who ; that audit-or 
= which; quality inot-or 
of err-or 

' adj. fitted or relat- preparat-ory fitted to prepare. 

ing to 
n. phice where ; that armor-y 

_ _. . verb-ose 

= abounding m -, 

^ popul-ous 

condition or qual' servi-tude 
ity of forti-tude 

that which is testified. 

OTie who hears. 
that which moves. 
qimlity of erring. 


place where arms are 

abounding in words. 
abounding in people. 

condition of a slave. 
quality of being brave. 





(See -ity.) 
= minute 

-ulent = dbounding in 



act or state of; 
that which 




a minute globe. 

astounding in wealth. 

act of departing. 
that whicJi is created. 



Konn SufSxes . . 








one who {agent); that 








one who is {recipient); 



► ^^^ 

that which is. 









state ; condition ; quxili- 




ty ; act. 








» ^^_ 

: place where. 




> _ 

: diminutives. 





A^'eotive Snffixes . 







— relating to; like; being. 





abounding in; having the 



^ — that may be. 


— having 'power. 


— cavMng or producing. 


— of; having the quality. 


— becoming. 


Verb Suffixes 



to make; render; perform 
an act. 




a. "Write and define nolftts denoting the agent (one who or that 
which) from the following : — 

1. Nouns. 

Model : ari-^ist-^ariUi, oiw who practicts an art.* 

1 art 6 vision auction 13 tragedy 17 note 

2 cash 6 tribute 10 cannon 14 mutiny 18 method 

3 hnmor 7 cure 11 flute 

4 history 8 engine 12 dnig 

S. Verbs. 

i profess 8 act 6 preside 7 visit 

2 descend A imitate 6 solicit '8 defend 

15 gi'ammar 

16 ci'edit 

10 music 

20 flower(/o?'-) 

9 survey 
10 oppose (ojppoTi-) 

1 adverse 

8. Adjectives. 

2 secret 3 potent 

4 private 

5. Write and define nouns denoting the recipient (one who is or 
that which) from the following : — 

1 assign 3 captwn (taken) 5 favor 7 natus (bom) ft refer 

2 bedlam 4 devote 6 lease 8 patent lO relate 

ۥ Write and define nouns denoting state, condition, quality, or 
act, from the following : — 

1. Nouns. 
5 pilgrim 7 desix)t o vassal 

chei-o 8 judge 10 vandal 

1 fnaffisCmte 3 cure 

2 parent 4 pj'ivaXe 

1 conspire 

2 man*y 

3 forbear 

1 eieacrsLte 

2 delicate 

4 repent 

5 ply 

6 abase 

3 dislant 

4 excellent 

2. Verbs. 

7 excel 10 accompany 13 abhor 

8 jirosjier 11 depart 14 compose 

9 enjoy 12 abound 15 deride (e&m-) 

8. A^ectlves. 

5 current 7 prompt (i-) » docile 

6 parallel 8 similar 10 moist 

* For the full definition, reference should be had to a dictionary ; but in the present 
eiercise the literal or etymological aignillcation may sufHoe. 


d. Write and define nouns denoting place where from the follow- 
ing words : — 

1 grain 2 deposit S i:)enitent 4 arm 5 observe 

e. Write and define nouns expressing derivatives of the following 
nouns : — 

1 part 2 globe 3 animal i v^rse corpiLS (body) 


a. Write and define adjectives denoting relating to, like, or being, 
from the following nouns : — , ^ 

1 parent 9 Persia 17 moment 25 ocean 33 splendor 

2 nation 10 presbytery IS element 20 metal 34 infant 

3 fate 11 globule 19 second 27 nonsense 'ia puer {b. hoy) 

4 elegy 12 lu7ia (the moon) 20 parliament 28 asti'ouomy 36 canis (a dog) 

5 demon 13 oculus {the eye) 21 honor 29 botany SI felis (a. c&t) 

6 republic 14 consfll 22 poet 30 period 38 promise 

7 Rome 15 sol (the sun) 23 despot 31 tragedy 39 access 

8 Europe 10 planet 24 majesty 32/cri;or 40 transit 

6. Write and define adjectives denotmg abounding in, having the 
quality of, from the following nouns : — 

1 passion 4 fortune 7 aqiui- (water) 10 courage 13 victory 

2 temper 5 j9o/?i«Z- (people) s verb (a word) II plenty 14 joy 

3 ope)'- (work) 6 afiection «) beauty 12 envy 15 glohe 

c. Write and define adjectives denoting that may be, or having 
the power, from the following verbs : — 

1 blame 3 move 5 collect 7 aud- (hear) 9 vary 

2 allow 4 admit (miss-) « abuse 8 divide (vis-) 10 ara- (plough) 

Write and define the following adjectives denoting — 

{causing or prodiidng) 1 terror, 2 sopor- (sleep), 3 flor (a flower), 4 pesiis (a 
plague) ; {having the quality of) 5/ari?ia(meal), G crust, 7 argilla (clay) ; 
{becoming)^ s effervesce. 



Write and define verbs denoting to make, render, or perform the 
act of, from the following words : — 

1 authentic 4 aniina (life) 7 just 10 false 13 equal 

2 person 5 inelior {better) 8 sancti(^(ko\y) 11 facilis{esLsy) 14 fertile 

3 captive 6 ample pan 12 magmis {great) 15 legal 



1 • A Latin primitive, or root, is a Latin word from which 

a certain number of English derivative words is formed. Thus 

the Latin verb du'cere, to draw or lead, is a Latin primitive or 

root, and from it are formed educe^ education, deduction, ductile, 

reproductive, and several hundred other English words. 

2« Latin roots consist chiefly of verbs, nouns, and adjec- 

3. English derivatives from Latin words are generally 
formed not from the root itself but from a part of the root 
called the radical. Thus, in the word " education," the root- 
word is ducere, but the radical is due- (education = e + due 
+ ate + ion). 

4t A radical is a word or a part of a word used in forming 
English derivatives. 

5t Sometimes several radicals from the same root- word are 
used; the different radicals being taken from different gram- 
matical forms of the root-word. 

6t Verb-radicals are formed principally from two parts of 
the verb, — the first pereon singular of the present indicative, 
and a part called the supine, which is a verbal noun corre- 
sponding to the English infinitive in -ing. Thus : — 

Istpers, sing, pres. i)id, duco (I draw) 

Jloot due- 

Derivaitve .... edu^ 

^ . , ^ (drawing, or 

Supine . . . (luctum to draw) 

Root .... duct- 

Jkrivative . . ductile 


I. In giving a Latin verb-primitive in this book three "principal 
parts " of the verb will be given, namely : (1) The present infini- 
tive, (2) the first person singular of the present indicative, and (3) the 
supine — the second and the third parts because from tliem radicals are 
obtained, and the infinitive because this is the part used in naming a 
verb in a general way. Thus as we say that lot^edy loving, etc., are 
parts of the verb **to love," so we say that a^mo (present ind.) and 
ama'tum (supine) are parts of the verb ama're, 

II. It should be noted that it is incorrect to translate aino, atncUum 
by "to love," since neither of these woi*ds is in the infinitive mood, 
which is amare. The indication of the Latin infinitive will be found 
of great utility, as it is the part by which a Latin verb is referred to 
in the Dictionary. 

7t Nonn-radioals and adjective radicals are formed from 
the nominative and from the genitive (or possessive) case of 
words belonging to these parts of speech. Thus : — 

NoM. Case. Boot. Derivative. 

iter (a journey) iter* reiterate 

Gen. Case. Root. Derivative. 

Itineris (of a journey) ittner- ^tTierant 

felicis (nom. felix^ happy) feltc- fclidty 

Note. — These explanations of the mode of forming radicals are given by way of 
general information ; but this book presupposes and requires no knowledge of Latin, 
since in every group of English derivatives firom Latin, not only the root-words in 
their several parts, but the radicals actually used in word-formatiuu, are given. 

Pi^nnnciation of lAtin Words. 

1. Every word in Latin must have as many syllables as it has vowels 
or diphthongs : as miles (= mi'les). 

2. C is pronounced like k before a, o, u ; and like 8 before e, i, y, and 
the diphthongs ce and ce : as cado, pronounced ka^do ; cedo, pronounced 

• 3. G' is pronounced hard before a, o, w, and soft like j before e, t, y, 
CB, a: as gusto, in which g is pronounced as in August ; gero, pronounced 


4. A consonant between two vowels most be joined to the latter : as 
benCf pronounced be^ne. 

5. Two consonants in the middle of a word mnst be divided : as mille, 
pronounced miVk. 

6. The diphthongs ce and os are sounded like e : as cosdo, pronounced 

7. Words of two syllables are accented on the first : as ager, pro- 
nounced a^jer. 

8. When a woi-d of more than one syllable ends in a, the a should be 
sounded like ah : as musa, pronounced mu'saJi. 

9. Tj s, and c, before ia, ie, ii, io, iu, and eu, preceded immediately 
by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change into sh and zh : as 
fa'ciOf pronounced fa'sheo ; san/cio, pronounced san'sheo ; spa'iium^ pro- 
nounced tpa'sheum. 

Note. — The mode of pronouncing Latin words is not uniform even among English 
scholars ; thus, there Is the English method {ye'ni), the continental (yd'ne), and the 
Roman {vD&'nt). For the purposes of Word-Analysis, the English method is recom- 
mended, and that method is followed in syllabifying Latin words in this book. 



1. AG'BBE I a'BOy ae'tutn, to do, to drive. 

Radicals : ag- and act-. 

1. act, V. Analysis : from ou^tum by dropping the termination 

«m. Definition : to do, to perform. The noun " act " is 
formed in the same way. Definition : a thing done, a deed 
or performance. 

2. ac'tion : act + ion = the act of doing : hence, a thing done. 

3. act/ive : act + ive = having the quality of acting : hence, busy, 

constantly engaged in action. 

4. act'or: act + or = one who acts : hence, (1) one who takes part 

in anything done ; (2) a stage player. 
6. argent : ag + ent = one who acts : hence, one who acts or trans- 
acts business for another. 


6. ag'ile : ag + ile = apt to act : hence, nimble, brisk. 

7. co'gent : from Latin cogens, cogentis, pres. part, of cog' ere (= co 

+ agerey to impel), having the quality of impelling : hence, 
urgent, forcible. 

8. enact' ; en + act = to put in act : hence, to decree. 

9. transact' : trans + act = to drive through : hence, to perform. 


(1.) What two parts of speech is "act " ? — Write a sentence containing 
this word as a verb ; another as a noun. — Give a s}'nonym of 
"act." Atis. Deed. — From what is "deed" derived? Am, 
From the word rfo — hence, literally, something done. — Give the 
distinction between "act " and " deed." Ans, " Act " is a single 
action ; " deed " is a voluntary action : thus — " The action which 
was praised as a good deed was but an act of necessity." 

(2.) Define "action "in oratory; "action "in law. — Combine and de- 
fine in + action. 

(3.) Combine and define in + active; active + ity; in + active + ity. — 
What is the negalive of "active " ? Ans. Inactive. — What is the 
contrary of " active " ? Ans. Passive. 

(4.) Write a sentence containing "actor" in each of its two senses. 
Model : " Washington and Greene were prominent actors in the 
war of the Revolution." "David Ganick, the famous English 
actoTf was born in 1716." — What is the feminine of "actor" in 
the sense of stage player ? 

(6.) Combine and define agile + ity. — What is the distinction between 
"active" and "agile"? Aiis. "Active" implies readiness to 
act in general ; " agile " denotes a readiness to move the limbs. — 
Give two synonyms of " agile." Ans. Brisk, nimble. — Give the 
opposite of "agile." Ans. Sluggish, inert 

(7.) Explain what is meant by a *^ cogent argument." — What would be 
the contrary of a cogent argument ? 

(8.) Combine and define enact + ment. — What is meant by the **encuA- 
ivg clause " of a legislative bill ? — Write a sentence containing 
the word " enact." Model : " The British Parliament enacted 
the stamp-law in 1765." 

(9.) Combine and define transact + ion. — What derivative from "per- 
form " is a synonym of " transaction " ? 


2. AI<IE'NUS, another, foreign. 

Radical: alien-. 

1. allien : from alienus by dropping the termination us. Defini- 

tion : a foreigner, one owing allegiance to another country 
than that in which he is living. 

2. aKienate : alien -|- ate = to cause something to be transferred to 

another : hence, (1) to transfer title or property to another ; 
(2) to estrange, to withdraw. 

3. inalienable: in -h alien + able = that may not be given to an- 



(1.) Combine and define alien + age. — Can an alien bo elected President 
of the United States? [See the Constitution, Article H. Sec. L 
Clause 5.] — What is the woixi which expresses the process by 
which a person is changed from an alien to a citizen } 

(2.) Combine and define alienate + ion. — Give a synonym of "alienate" 
in its second sense. Ans. To estravgp-. — What is meant by say- 
ing tliat "the oppressive measures of the British goverament 
g)^dually alienated the American colonies from the mother coun- 
try " ? 

(3.) Quote a passage from the Declaration of Independence containing 
the word ** inalienable." v 

3. AMA'RE, to love ; AMI'CUS, a friend. 

Radicals : am- and amio-. 

1. a'miable : am(i) + able = fit to be loved. 

0b8. — The Latin adjective is amaMlis, from which the English 
derivative adjective would be amable ; but it has taken the 
form amiable. 

2. am'ity : am -h ity = the state of being a friend : hence, friend- 

ship ; good- will. 

3. am'icable : amic -f able = disposed to be a friend : hence, 

friendly ; peaceable. 

4. inim'ical : through Lat. adj. inimi'cus, enemy : hence, inimic(us) 

-f al = inimical, relating to an enemy. 


5. amateur' : adopted tbrough French amateur, from Latin anuUor, 
a lover : hence, one who cultivates an art from taste or attach- 
ment, without pursuing it professionally. 


(1.) What word is a synonym of "amiable" ? Ans. Lovabh. — Show 
how they are exact synonyms. — Write a sentence containing the 
word ** amiable." Model: "The amiable qualities of Joseph 
Warren caused his death to be deeply regretted by all Americans." 
— What noun can you form from ** amiable," meaning the quality 
of being amiable ? — What is the negative of "amiable" ? Aiis. 
Uiiamiable. — The contrary ? Ana. Hateful, 

(2.) Give a word that is nearly a synonym of "amity." Aiis. Friend- 
sfiij). — State the distinction between these woi-ds. Aits. " Friend- 
ship " applies more particularly to individuals ; "amity " to socie- 
ties or nations. — Write a sentence containing the word "amity." 
Model: "The Plymouth colonists in 1621 made a treaty of 
amity with the Indians." — What is the opposite of " amity " ? 

(3.) Give a synonym of "amicable." Ahs. Friendly. — Which is the 
stronger? Aiis. Friendly. — Why? Ans. "Friendly" implies 
a positive feeling of regaid ; "amicable" denotes merely the 
absence of discord. — Write a sentence containing the word "ami- 
cable." Model: "In 1871 commissioners appointed by the 
United States and Great Britain made an amicahle settlement of 
the Alabama difficulties." 

(4.) What is the noun corresponding to the adjective " inimical " ? Ans. 
Enemy. — Givo its origin. Ans. It comes from the Latin witmi- 
euSf an enemy, through the French ennemi. — What preposition 
does "inimical" take after it ? Ans. The preposition to — thus, 
'* inimical to health," "to welfare," etc. 

(5.) What is meant by an amaleur painter ? an amateur musician ? 

•4. AN'IMUS, mind, passion ; AN'IMA, life. 

Radical : anim-. 

1. an'imal : from Lat. n. anima through the Latin animal: literally, 

something having life. 

2. animal'cule : animal + cule= a minute animal: hence, au ani- 

mal that can be seen only by the microscope. 


3. an'iinate, v. : amm + ate = to make alive : hence, to stimulate, 

or infuse courage. 

4. animos'ity : anim -f ose + ity = the quality of being (ity) full 

of (ose) passion : hence, violent hatred. 

5. unanim'ity: un (from wntw, one)-f-auim-f ity:=:the state of 

being of one mind : hence, agreement. 

6. rean'imate : re -h anim -f ate = to make alive again : hence, to 

inl'use fresh vigor. 


(1.) Write a sentence containing the word "animaL" Model: '* Mod- 
em science has not yet been able to determine satisfactoiily the 
distinction between an animal and a vegetable.*' 

(2.) What is the plui-al of ''animalcule"? Ajis. Animalcules ot ani- 
malcidoi. — Write a sentence containing this word. 

(3.) What other i>art of sj^eech than a verb is ''animate" ? — What is 
the negative of the adjective ' * animate ? " Ana. Iimnimute, — De- 
fine it. — Combine and define animate + ion. — Explain what is 
meant by an " animated discussion." 

(4.) Give two synonyms of " animosity." 

^6.) What is the literal meaning of " unanimity" ? If people ai-e of one 
inindy is not this "unanimity"? — What is the adjective corre- 
sponding to the noun "unanimity" ? — What is the opposite of 
"unanimity"? — Write a sentence containing the woi-d "una- 

(6.) Compara the verbs " animate " and " reanimate," and state the sig- 
nification of each. — Has " reanimate " any other than its literal 
meaning ? — Write a sentence containing this word in its figura- 
tive sense. Model: "The inspiring words of Lawrence, 'Don't 
give up the ship ! * reanimated the courage of the American sail- 
ors." — What does " animated convei-sation " mean ? 

6. AN'NUS, a year. 
Radical : ann-. 

1. an^nals: from annua, through Lat. adj. annalis, pertaining to*the 

year : hence, a record of things done from year to year. 

2. an^nual : through annum (annu 4- al), relating to a year : hence, 

yearly or performed in a year. 




3. annu'ity: througb Fr. n. annuite=iBL sum of money pajrable 


4. millen'nium : Lat. n. millennium (from anrnts and miUe, a thou- 

sand), a thousand years. 

5. peren'nial : through Lat. adj. perennis (compounded of per and 

annus), throughout the year : hence, lastii^g ; perpetual. 


(1.) Give a synonym of "annals." Ans, History. —yflasit is the dis- 
tinction between "annals" and "history"? Ans. "Annals" 
denotes a mere chronological account of events from year to year ; 
" history," in addition to a narrative of events, Inquires into the 
causes of events. — Write a sentence containing the word " annals," 
or explain the following sentence : " The annals of the Egyptians 
and Hindoos contain many incredible statements. 

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "annual." 

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "millennium. 

(5.) What is the meaning of a *' perennial plant" in botany ? Ai\^, A 
plant continuing more than two years. — Give the contrary of 
"perennial." Ans, Fleeting^ short-lived. 

6. ARS, ar'ttfi, art, ahilU 

Radical : art-. 

1. art: from artis by dropping the terminations. Definition: 

1. cunning — thus, an animal practices art in escaping from 
his pursuers ; 2. skill or dexterity — thus, a man may be said 
to have the art of mani^ng his business ; 3. a system of rules 
or a profession — as the art of building ; 4. creative genius 
as seen in painting, sculpture, etc., which are called the " fine 

2. aj1;'ist: art-fist=one who practices an art: hence,. a person 

who occupies himself with one of the fine arts. 

Obs. — A painter is called an artist ; but a blacksmith could not 

• properly be so called. The French word artiste is sometimes 

used to denote one who has gi*eat skill in some profession, 

even if it is not one of the fine arts : thus a great genius in 

cookery might be called an artiste. 


3. ar^tisan : through Fr* n. artisan, one who practices an art : 

hence, one who practices one of the mechanic arts ; a work- 
man, or operative. 

4. art/ fUl : art + ful = full of art : hence, crafty, cunning. 

5. art/less : art + less = without art : hence, free from cunning, 

simple, ingenuous. 

6. ar'tifioe : through Lat. n. artificium, something made (fa'cere, to 

make) by art : hence, an artful contrivance or stratagem. 


(1.) What is the particular meaning of "art" in the sentence from 
Shakespeare, ** There is no art to read the mind's construction in 
the face " f 

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "artist" — Would it be 
proper to call a famous hair-dresser an artist ? — What might he 
be called ? — Combine and define artist + ic + al + ly. — What is the 
negative of " artistic " ? 

(3.) What is the distinction between an "artist " and an " artisan " ? 

(5.) Give a synonym of "artless." Am, ItigentLOUs, natural. — Give 
the opposite of "artless." Ans, WUy, — Combine and define 
artless + ly ; artless + ness. 

(6.) Give a synonym of " artifice." — Combine artifice + er. — Does " ar- 
tificer " mean one who practices artifice ? — Write a sentence con- 
taining this word. — Combine and define artifice + ial ; artifice + al 
+ ity. Give the opposite of "artificiaL" 

7. AUDI'BE I au'dto, audl'tiim, to hear. 

Radicals : aadi-, and aadii-. 

1. au'dible: audi +ble= that may be heard. 

2. aa'dieQoe : audi + ence = literally, the condition of hearing : 

hence, an assemblage of hearers, an auditory, 

3. aa'dit : from audiHyLvrC^^io hear a statement : hence, to exam- 

ine accounts. 

4. au'ditor: audit + or = one who hears, a hearer. 

Obs. — This word has a secondary meaning, namely : an officer 
who examines accounts. 


$. obe'dimit : through obediensj obedierU(i8\ the present participle 
of obedire (compounded of ohy towards, and audire) : literally, 
giving ear to : hence, complying with the wishes of another. 


(1.) '* Audible" means that can be heard : what prefix would you affix 
to it to form a woi-d deuotihg what can not be heard ? — What is 
.the adverb from the adjective "audible"? — Write a sentence 
containing this word. 

(2.) What is meant when you read in history of a king*s giving audience ? 

(8.) Write a sentence containing the word "audit." Model — "The 
committee which had to a'udU the accounts of Arnold discovered 
great frauds." — How do you spell the past tense of "audit" ? — 
Why is the i not doubled ? 

(5.) What is the wmn corresponding to the adjective "obedient"? — 
What is the verb corresponding to these words ? — Combine and 
define dis + obedieifL 

& CA'PUT, cap'tUs, f Ae h^oA. 

Itadlcal : capit-. 

1. cap^ital, a. and n. : capit + al = relating to the htad: hence, 

chief, principal, first in importance. Definition : as an ad- 
jective it means, (1) principal ; (2) great, important ; (3) pun- 
ishable with death ; — as a noun it means, (1) the metropolis 
or seat of government ; (2) stock in .trade. 

2. capita'tion: capit + ate +ion = the act of causing heads to be 

counted : hence, (1) a numbering of persons ; (2) a tax upon 
each head or person. 

3. deoap^itate : de + capit + ate = to cause the head to be taken 

off ; to behead. 

4. prec/ipice: through Lat. n. priBcipitium : literally, a. headlong 


5. precip'itate : from Lat. adj. 2wiJ(njn^(M), head foremost Defi- 

nition : (1)<(W a verb) to throw headlong, to press with eager- 
ness, to hasten ; (2) {as an adjective) headlong, hasty. 



(1.) Write a sentence containing "capital** as an adjective. — Write a 
sentence containing this word as a noun, in the sense, of a7y. — 
Write a sentence containing "capital *' in the sense of slock. — Is 
the eapUal of a state or country necessarily the metropolis or chief 
city of that state or country ? — What is the capital of New York 
State ? — What is the tnetropolis of New York State ? 

(3.) Combine and define decapitate + ion. — Can you name an English 
king who was decapitated? — Can you name a Fi'ench king who 
was decapitated ? 

(4.) What is the meaning of ** precipice " in the line, "Swift down the 
precipice of time it goes " ? 

(5.) Combine and define precipitate + ly. — Write a sentence containing 
theac^ective "precipitate." Model: "Fabius,the Roman gen** 
eral, is noted for never having made any precipitate movements," 
— Explain the meaning of the verb " precipitate " in the fallowing 
sentences: "At the battle of Waterloo Wellington precipitated 
the conflict, because he knew Napoleon's army was divided"; 
" The Romans were wont to precipitate criminals from the Tar- 
peian rock." 

0. OITIS, a citizen^ 
Radical : civ-. 

1. civile : civ + ic = relating to a citizen or to the affairs or honors 

of a city. 

Obs. — The " civic crown " in Roman times was a garland of oak- 
leaves and acorns bestowed on a soldier who had saved the 
life of a citizen in battle. 

2. civ'il : Lat. adj. civilis, meaning : (1) belonging to a citizen ; 

(2) of the state, political ; (3) polite. 

3. civ'ilize : civil ize = to make a savage people into a commu- 

nity having a government, or political organization : hence, to 
reclaim from a barbarous state. 

4. civiliza'tion : civil + ize + ate + ion = the state of being civil- 


5. dyil'jan : civil + (i)an = one whose pursuits are those of civil life 

— not a soldier. 



(2.) What is the ordinary signification of "civil *' ? — Give a synonym of 
this word. — Is there any difference between "civil" and "po- 
lite " ? Ana. " Polite " expresses more than " civil," for it is pos- 
sible to be ** civil " without being "polite." — What word would 
denote the opposite of " civil " in the sense of " polite " ? — Com- 
bine and define civil + ity. — Do you say iwicivility or incivility, 
to denote the negative of " civility " ? — Give a synonym of " un- 
civil." Ana, Boorish. — Give another synonym. 

(8.) Write a sentence containing the woixi " civilize." — Give a participial 
adjective from this woi-d. — Wliat compound word expresses Jialf 
civilized ? — What word denotes a state of society between savage 
and civilized ? 

(4.) Give two synonyms of "civilization." Ans, Culture, refinein&nt, — 
What i* the meaning of the word " civilization " in the sentence : 
" The ancient Hindoos and Egyptians had attained a considerable 
degree of civilization " ? — Compose % sentence of your own, using 
this word. 

10. COR, cor'dtB, the heart. 

Radical: cord-. 

1. core : from cor = the heart : hence, the inner part of a thing. 

2. cor'dial, a. : cord -\- (i)al = having the quality of the heart : hence, 

hearty, sincere. The noun " cordial ** means literally some- 
thing having the quality of acting on the heart : hence, a stimu- 
lating medicine, and in a figurative sense, something cheering. 

3. con'cord : con -|- cord = heart with (con) heart : hence, unity 

of sentiment, harmony. 

Obs. — Concord in music is harmony of sound. 

4. dis'cord : dis + cord = heart apart from (dis) heart : hence, dis- 

agreement, want of harmony. 

5. record' : through Lat. v. recordari, to remember (literally, to get 

by heart) : hence, to register. 

6. courtage : through Fr. n. courage : literally, heartiness : hence, 

bravery, intrepidity. 
Obs. — The heart is accounted the seat of bravery : hence, the 
derivative sense of courage. 



(1.) ** The quince was rotten at the core''; "The preacher touched the 
core of the subject " : in wliieh of these sentences is ** core " used 
in its literal, in whicli in ita JigunUive, sense ? 

(2.) "What is the Anglo-Saxon sj'nonyni of the adjective ** cordial " ? — 
"Would you say a *^ cordial laugh " or a " hearty laugh ** ? — What is 
the opjwsite of "cordial"? — Combine and define cordial + ly : 
coixlial + ity. — "Write a sentence containing the iioun ** cordial " 
in its figurative sense. Model : " "Washington's victory at 
Trenton was like a cordial to the flagging spirits of the American 

(3.) Give a synonym of "concord." Ans. Accord. — Supply the projier 
A'ord : ** In your view of this matter, I am in {accord ? or con- 

cord T) with you." ** There should be among friends." " The 

man who is not moved by of sweet sounds." 

(4.) "What is the connection in meaning between "discord" in music 
and among brethren ? — Give a synonym of this word, ^^w. 
Strife. — State the distinction. A)is. *' Strife" is the stronger: 
where there is "strife" there must be "discoixl," but there may 
be "discord" without "strife" ; **discoi*d" consists most in the 
feeling, " strife " in the outward action. 

(6.) "What jiart of speech is " record' " ? — "When the accent is placed on 
the first syllable (rec'oi-d) what jmrt of speech does it become ? — 
Combine and define record +er ; un + record + ed. 

(6.) •* Courage " is the same as having a stout what ? — Give a syn- 
onym. Alls. Fortitude. — State the distinction. Aris. " Cour- 
age " enables us to meet danger ; " fortitude " gives us strength to 
endure jjaiu. — Would you say "the Indian shows courage when 
he endures torment without flinching" ? — Would you say " The 
three hundred under Leonidas displayed fortitude in opposing the 
entire Persian army " ? — What is the contrary of " courage " ? — 
Combine and define courage + ous ; courage + ous + ly. 

11. COR'PUS, cor'poris, the body. 

Radical : corpor-. 

1. cor'poral : corpor -|- al = relating to the body, 

Obs. — The noun " coi'poral," meaning a petty officer, is not de- 
rived from corpus: it comes from the French caporal, of 
which it is a corruption. 


2. cor'porate : corpor + ate = made into a body : hence, united 

into a body or corporation. 

3. incoi/porate : in + corpor+ate = to make into a body: hence, 

(1) to form into a legal body ; (2) to unite one substance with 

4. corpora'tion : corpor + ate + ion = that which is made into a 

body : hence, a body politic, authorized by law to act as one 

5. cor'pulent : through Lat. adj. corpulentus, fleshy ; hence, stout 

in body, fleshy. 

6. cor^puscle : corpus + cle = a diminutive body ; hence, a minute 

particle* of matter. • 

7* corps : [pronounced core] through Fr. n. corps, a body. Defi- 
nition : (1) a body of troops ; (2) a body of individuals en- 
gaged in some one profession. 
8. corpse : through Fr. n. corps, the body ; that is, oiily the body — 
the spirit being departed : hence, the dead body of a hiunan 



(1.) Give two synonyms of ** corporal." Ans. Corporeal and bodily, — 
What is- the distinction between "corporal" and "corporeal"? 
Atis, "Corporal" means pertaining to the body; "coi-poreal" 
signifies material, as opposed to spiritual. — Would you say a 
corporal or a corporeal substance ? corporal or corporeal punish- 
ment ? Would you say corporal strength or bodily strength ? 

(3.) Write a sentence containing the verb " incorporate " in its^r^ sense. 
Model : " The London company which settled Vii^nia was in- 
corporaied in 1606, and received a charter from King James I." 

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word " corporation." [Find out by 
what corporation Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled, and write 
a sentence about that.] 

(5.) What noun is there corresponding to the adjective "corpulent " and 
synonymous with "stoutness"? — Give two synonyms of "cor- 
pulent." Alls, Stout, Itbsty, — What is the distinction? Ans, 
** Corpulent " means fat ; " stout " and " lusty " denote a strong 


(6.) What is meant by an " army corps " ? Ans, A body of from twenty 
' to fOTty thousand soldiers, forming several brigades and divisions. 
How is the plural of corps spelled ? Atis, Corps, How pro- 
nounced ? Ans, Cores. — What is meant by the "diplomatic 
corps" ? 

(8.) What other form of the word "corpse " is used ? Aris, The form 
corse is sometimes used in poetry ; as in the poem on the Buiial 
of Sir John Moore : 

**Not a drum was heard, not a faneral note. 
As his corse to the ramparts we hurried.'* 

12. CRED'BRE t cre'do, cred'ltum« to believe* 

Radicals : cred- and credit-. 

1. creed : from the word credo, " I believe," at the beginning of the 

Apostles' Creed : hence, a summary of Christian belief. 

2. cred'ible: cred -f ible = that may be believed: hence, worthy 

of belief. . 

3. cred'it : from credit(um) = belief, trust : hence, (I) faith ; (2) 

reputation ; (3) trust given or received. 

4. cred'alous : through the Lat. adj. credvlus, easy of belief : credul 

-f ous = abounding in belief : hence, believing easily. 
6. discred'it : dis -f credit = to dwbelieve. 


(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "credible." Model: 
" When the King of Siam was told that in Europe the water at 
certain seasons could be walked on, he declared that the statement 
was not credible" — What single word will expi'ess iiot credible ? 
— Combine and define credible + ity* — Give a synonym of ** credi- 
ble." Atis, Trustworihy. — State the distinction. Ans. "Credi- 
ble" is generally applied to things, as ** credible testimony"; 
" trustworthy " to persons, as " a trustworthy witness." 

(8. ) What is the meaning of credit in the passage, 

*' John Gilpin was a citizen 
Ot credit and renovrn" f 

Give a synonym of this word. Ans, Trust, — What is the dis- 
tiu(Hion ? Ans. " Trust " looks forward ; " credit " looks back — 


. we credit what has happened ; we trud what is to happen. — 
"What other part of speech than a noun is "credit " ? — Combine 
and define ci-edit + ed. — Why is the t not doubled ? 
(4.) What is the meaning of ** credulous " in the passage, 

** So glistened the dire snake, and into fhiud 
Led Eve, our credulous mother "?— Milton. 

What noun corresponding to the adjective "credulous" will ex- 
press the quality of believing too easily ?— What is the negative 
of ** credulous " ? — What is the distinction between ** incredible " 
and ** incredulous " ? — Which applies to persons ? which to things ? 
(5.) To what two parts of speech does ** discredit" belong? — Write a 
sentence containing this word as a noun ; another as a verb. 

13. CURHBREi cur'ro, cur'sum, to run^ 

Radicals used : cnrr- and cur*-. 

1. cui/rent, a. : cuit+ ent= running : hence, (1) passing from per- 

son to person, as a " curre^it report " ; (2) now in progress, as 
the " current month." 

2. cur'rency : curr -f ency = the state of passing from person to 

person, as " the report obtained currency " : hence circuhition. 

Obs. — As applied to money, it means that it is in circulation 
or passing from hand to hand, as a representative of value. 

3. cui/sory : curs + ory = running or passing : hence, hasty. 

4. excui/sion : ex + curs + ion = the act of running out : hence, 

an expedition or jaunt. 

5. incui/sion : in + curs + ion = the act of running in : hence, an 


6. precui/sor: pre + curs + or = one who runs before: hence a 



(1.) What other part of speech than an adjective is ** current " ? — What 
is now the current yeai* ? 

(2.) Why are there two r*8 in ** currency " ? Atis, Because there are two 
in the root currere. — Give a synonym of this woi-d in the sense of 
"money." Ans. The "circulating medium." — What was the 


" currency " of the Indians in early times ? — Compose a sentence 
using this word. 

(3.) When a speaker says that he will cast a " cursory glance " at a sub- 
ject, what does he mean ? — Combine and define cursory + ly. 

(4.) Is ** excursion " usually employed to denote an expedition in a 
friendly or a hostile sense ? 

(5.) Is "incursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a 
friendly or a hostile sense ? — Give a synonym. Atis. hivasion, 
— Which implies a hasty expedition ? — Compose a sentence con- 
taining the word incursion. Model : " The Parthians were long 
famed for their rapid incuntioiut into the territory of their enemies." 

(6.) What is meant by saying that John the Baptist was the precursor 
of Christ ? — What is meant by saying that black clouds are the 
precursor of a storm ? 

14. DIO'NUS, uforthy. 

Radical : dign-. 

1. dig'niiy : dign + (t')fy = to make of worth : hence, to advance to 


2. dig'nity : dign + ity = the state of being of worth : hence, be- 

havior fitted to inspire respect. 

3. indig'nity : in -h dign -f- ity = the act of treating a person in an 

unworthy (indignus) manner : hence, insult, contumely. 

4. condign' : con + <lign = very worthy : hence, merited, de- 


Obs. — The* prefix con is here merely intensive. 


(1.) What participial adjective is formed from the verb "dignify"? 
Ans, Digiiified, — Give a stronger word. Ans. Majestic. — Give 
a word which denotes the same thing carried to excess and becom- 
ing ridiculous. Ans. Pompous, 

(2.) Can you mention a character in American histoiy remarkable for the 
dignity of his behavior ? ^- Compose a sentence containing this 

(3.) Give the plural of " indignity." — What is meant by saying that 
" indignities were heaped on " a person ? 


(4.) How is the word " condign " now most frequently employed ? jins. 
In connection with punishment: thus we speak of ** condign pun- 
ishment/' meaning richly deserved punishment. 

15. DOCE'BEi do'ceo, doe'tum, to teach. 

Radicals : doc- and doct-. 

1. do</ile : doc + ile = that may be taught '• hence, teachable. 

2. do</tor : doct + or = one who teaches : hence, one who has 

taken the highest degree in a university authorizing him to 
practice and teach. 
4. do</trine : through Lat. n. doctrinaj something taught ; hence, 
a principle taught as part of a system of belief. 


(1.) Combine and define docile + ity. —Give the opposite of "docile." 
Ans, Indocile. — Mention an animal that is very docile. — Men- 
tion one remarkable for its want of docility. 

(2.) "What is meant by ** Doctor of Medicine " ? — Give the abbreviation. 
— What does LL. D. mean ? Ans. It stands for the words legnm 
doctor, doctor of laws : the double L marks the plural of the Latin 

(3.) Give two synonyms of " doctrine." Ans. Precept, tenet. — What 
does ** tenet " literally mean? Ang. Something held — from Lat 
y. tenerCf to hold. -^Combine and define doctrine +aL 

16. DOMINUS, a master or lord. 

Radical : domin-. 

1. domin'ion ; domin + ion = the act of exercising mastery: hence* 

(1) rule ; (2) a ten-itory ruled over. 

2. dom'inant : domin + ant = relating to lordship or mastery : 

hence, prevailing. 

3. domineer': through Fr. v. fiomin«r; literally, to "Zordit"over 

one : hence, to rule with insolence. 

4. predom'Inate : pre + domin + ate = to cause one to be master 

before another : hence, to be superior, to rule. 



(1.) What is meant by saying that "in 1776 the United Colonies threw 
off the dominion of Great Britain '* ? 

(2.) What is meant by the ** dominant party" ? a " dominant race" ? 

(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "domineer." MoDEt : 
" The blustering tyrant, Sir Edmund Andros, domineered for sev- 
eral years over the New England colonies ; but his misrule came 
to an end in 1688 with the accession of King William." 

(4.) " The Eepublicans at present predominate in Mexico " i what does 
this mean ? 

17. FllllrS, an end or li$niim 

Radical : fin*. 

1 . fi'nite : fin + ite = having the quality of coining to an end : 

hence, limited in quantity or degree. 

2. fln'ish : through Fr. v. finir; literally, to bring to an end : hence, 

to complete. 

3. infln^ity: in4-fin + ity=the state of having no limit ; hence, 

unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity. 

4. define' : through Fr. v. definer; literally, to bring a thing down 

to its limits : hence, to determine with precision. 
6. confine' : con + fine ; literally, to bring within limits or bounds : 

hence, to restrain. 
6. affin'ity ; af (a form of prefix ad) + fin + ity = close agreement. 


(1.) What is meant by saying that ** the human faculties are Jt7iite " ? — 
What is the opposite of "finite" ?•— Give a synonym. Ans. 
Limited^ — What jmrticipial adjective is formed from the verb to 
" finish " ? — What is meant by a ** finished gentleman " ? 

(3.) Give a synonym of "infinity." Ans. Boundlestmess. — " The micro- 
scope reveals the fact that each drop of water contains an infinity 
of animalcuhe." What is the sense of infinity as used in this 
sentence ? 

(4.) Combine define + ite ; in + define + ite. — Analyze the word ** defini- 
tion." — Com|iose a sentence containing the word " define." 


(5.) Combine and define confine + ment. — What other part of speech 
than a verb is "confine"? jiiis, A noun. — Write a sentence 
containing the word ** confines." 

(6.) Find in the dictionary the meaning of "chemical afiniiy" 

18. FI.U'£R£ t lin'o, flux'um, to flowm 

Radicals : fla- and flax-. 

1. flux : from fluxitm = a flowing. 

2. flu'ent : flu + ent = having the quality of flowing. Used in 

reference to language it means flowing speech : hence, voluble. 

3. flu'id, n. : flu + id = flowing; : hence, anything that flows. 

4. flu'ency : flu + ency = state of flowing (in reference to lan- 

6. affluence: af (form of a«?) + flu + ence = a flowing to: hence, 
an abundant supply, as of thought, words, money, etc. 

6. con'fluence : con + flu + ence = a flowing together : hence, (1) 

the flowing together of two or more streams ; (2) an assem- 
blage, a union. 

7. in'flux : in + flux = a flowing in or into. 

8. super'fluous : super + flu + ous = having the quality of over- 

flowing : hence, needless, excessive. 


(2.) What is meant by a "fluent" speaker ? — Wliat word would de- 
note a speaker who is the reverse of "fluent"? 

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "fluid." 

(4.) What is meant by " fluency " of style ? 

(5.) AVhat is the ordinary use of the woixl " aflJuence " ? An ** affluence 
of ideas," means what ? 

(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "confluence." Model: 
" New York City stands at the of two streams." 

(8.) Mention a noun con-esponding to the adjective "sui>erfluous." — 
Compose a sentence containing the word "superfluous." — What 
is its opposite ? Ans. Scanty, meager. 


10. GREX, gr^'tUj a floek or herd. 

Radical : greg-. 

1. ag^gr^gate, v, : ag (for ad) + greg + ate = to cause to be brought 

into a flock : hence, to gather, to assemble. 

2. egre'gious : eH-greg+ (i)ou8, through Lat. adj. egre'giusy chosen 

from the herd : hence, remarkable. 
Obs. — Its present use is in association with inferiority. 

3. con'gregate : con + greg + ate = to perform the act of flocking 

together : hence, to assemble. 


(1.) What other part of speech than a verb is ** aggregate " ? — Why is 
this word spelled with a double g ? 

(2.) Combine and define egregious + ly. — What does an ** egregious blun- 
der " mean ?— Compose a sentence containing the word ** egre- 

(3.) Why is it incorrect to speak of congregating together ? — Combine 
and define congregate + ion. 

2K). I'RE s e'o, I'tum, to go. 

Radical : it-. 

1. ambi'tion : amb (around) -f- it + ion = the act of going around. 

Definition : an eager desire for superiority or power. 

Obs. — This meaning arose from the habit of candidates for office 
in Kome going around to solicit votes : hence, aspiration for 
office, and finally, aspiration in general. 

2. ini^tial, a. : in -f- it + (i)al = pertaining to the ingoing : hence, 

marking the commencement. 

3. ini'tiate : in + it -h (i)ate = to cause one to go in : hence, to 

introduce, to commence. 

4. Bedi'tion : sed (a«M?c)+it + ion = the act of going aside; that 

is, going to a separate and insurrectionary party. 

5. transmit : trans + it = a passing across : hence, (1) the act of 

passing ; (2) the line of passage ; (3) a term in astronomy. 

6. tran^sitory : trans + it -h ory = passing over : hence, brief, 




(1.) Compose a sentence containing the word *' ambition." Model: 
** Na})oleon's ambition was liis own gi'eatness *,; Washington's, the 
greatness of his country." — What is meant by ** military ambi- 
tion " ? " political ambition " f ** literary ambition " ? — What, 
adjective meama possessiiig ambition ? — Combine and define un + 

(2.) What is the opposite of "initial"? Ans. Finalftclosing. — What 
jwirt of speech is ** initial " besides an atyective ? — What is meant 
by " initials " ? 

(3.) What is meant by saying that ** the campaign of 1775 was initiated 
by an attack on the British in Boston " ? — Give the opposite of 
"initiate " in the sense of "commence." 

(4.) Give a synonym of " sedition." Ans. Insurrediaiu — Give another. 
— Compose a sentence containing this word. 

(5.) Explain what is meant by goods "in transit.'^ — Explain what is 
meant by the " Nicai-agua transit,** — When you s^ieak of the 
** transit of Venus," you are using a term in what science ? 

(6.) Give a synonym of "transitory." — Give its opposite. Ans, Per- 
ma7ien(:'f abiding, 

21. TA'PIS, lap'ldlfl, a ttone. 
lUdlcal : lapid-. 

1. lap'idary: lapid -f-ary = one who works in stone: hence, one 

who cuts, polishes, and engraves precious stones. 

2. dilap'idated : di -f- lapid + ate + ed = put into the condition of 

a building in which the stones are falling apart : hence, fallen 
into ruin, decayed. 

3. dilapida'tion : di -f lapid + ate + ion = the state (of a building) 

in which the stones are falling apart : hence, demolition, 


Use the word " lapidary" in a sentence. Model : " When Queen Vic- 
toria wanted the Koh-i-noor to be recut, she sent it to a famous 
lapidamj in Holland." 

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "dilapidated." Modbl : 
"At New^mi-t, Rhode Island, there stands a dilapidoUd mill, 


which some writers have foolishly believed to he a tower built by 
Norsemen in the twelfth century." — If we should speak of a " di' 
lapidated fortune," would the word be used in its literal meaning 
or in a figurative sense ? 
(3.) Give two synonyms of "dilapidation." Ans, Ruin^ decay, 

22. L£X, le'sis, a law or ruiem 

Radical: leg-. 

1. le'gal : leg -f- al = relating to the law ; lawful. 

2. ille'gal : il (for in, not) + leg -f- al = not legal : hence, unlawfuL 

3. leg'islate : from Ugis + latum (from Lat. v. fer*re, latum, to bring), 

to bring forwanl : hence, to make or pass laws. 

4. legitimate : through Lat. adj. legitimus, lawful ; legitim (us) + 

ate = made lawful : hence, in accordance with established law. 

5. priv'ilege : Lat. adj. privus, private ; literally, a law passed for 

the benefit of a private individual : hence, a franchise, pre- 
rogative, or right. 


(1.) Point out the ditfei-ent senses of *' legal "in the two expressions, 
"the legal profession" and "a legal right." — Combine and de- 
fine legal + ize. 

(2.) Give an Anglo-Saxon synonym of "illegal." Ans, UnlawfuL — Show 
that they are synonyms. Ans. il(in) = un; ^=law; andal = 
fuL — Compose a sentence containing the word " illegal." — Com- 
bine and define illegal + ity. 

(3.) What noun derived from " legislate " means the law-making ."power ? 
— Combine and define legislate 4- ion ; legislate + ive. 

(4.) Give the negative of "legitimate." 

(5.) Wliat isthe plural of "privilege" ?— Define the meaning of this 
word in the passage, — 

** He ftlaima his privilege, and nays 't is At 
NothiDg should be the judge of wit, but wit" 

23. UT'EBA, a letter, 
lladical : liter-. 

L lit/eral : liter + al = rekting to the letter of a thing ; that is, ex- 
act to the letter. 


2. lit'erary : liter + ary = pertaining to letters or learning. 

3. obliterate : ob + liter -|- ate = to cause letters to be nibbed out ; 

hence, to rub out, in general. 

4. literature: tlirough Lat. n. literatura= the collective body of 

literary works. 

5. illit'erate: il (for in, not) -f- liter + ate = of the nature of one 

who does not know his lettei's. 

(1.) Define what is meant by a " lUcral translation." 
(2.) Give a synonymous expression for a ** literary man." — Compose a 

sentence containing the terms " literary society." 
(3.) Give a synonym of "obliterate" in its literal meaning. Ans, To 

erase. — 1 F we should speak of obliterating the memory of a wrong, 

would the word be used in its piimary or its derivative sense ? 
(4.) When we speak of English ** liteiature " what is meant ? — Can you 

mention a great poem in Greek ** literature " ? — Compose a sentence 

containing the word "literature." 
(5.) Give a s5'nonym of "illiterate." Jtis. Unlearned. — What is the 

opposite of "illiterate" ? Ans. Leanved, 

24. MOBS, mor'tU, death. 

Radical : mort-. 

1. mor^tal : mort + a = relating to death. 

2. mor'tify: mort + ify= literally, to cause to die : hence, (I) to 

destroy vital functions ; (2) to humble. 

3. immor'talize : im (for in, not) + niort + al -f- ize = to make not 

subject to death : hence, to perpetuate. 


(1.) What does Shakespeare mean by the expression to "shuffle off this 
mortal coil " ? — Combine and define mortal + ity. — What is tlie 
opposite of " moi-tal " ? — Give a synonjmi. Jns. Deathless. 

(2.) State the two meanings of " mortify." — What noun is derived from 
this verb ? Ans. Mortificatimi. — When a sui^geon speaks of " mor- 
tification " setting in, what do(»s he mean ? — What is meant by 
"mortification" when we say that the British felt great ^nortifica* 
lion at the recapture of Stony Point by General Anthony Wayne ? 


(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "immortalize.'* Model: 
"Milton immortalised his name by the production of Paradise 

25. NORIHA, a rul0. 

Radical : norm-. 

1. noi^mal : norm -f al = acconling to rule. 

2. enoi/mous : e + norm + ous= having the quality of being out of 

all rule ; hence, excessive, huge. 

3. enor'mity : e + norm + ity = the state of l>eing out of all rule : 

hence, an excessive degree — generally used in regard to bad 

4. abnor'mal : ab + norm + al = having the quality of being aioay 

from the usual rule : hence, unnaturaL 

(1.) What is meant by the expression, ** theriormal condition of things" ? 

— What is the meaning of the term a ** normal school" ? Ans, 
It means a school whose methods of instniction are to serve as a 
model for imitation ; a school for the education of teachers. 

(2.) Give a synonym of " enormous." jins. Immense. — Give another. — 
What is meant by 'Uiiormoiis strength " ? an ** enormous crime ? " 

— Combine and define enormous + ly. 

(3.) Illustrate the meaning of the word " enormity " by a sentence. 

28, 0R1>0, or'dinls, order, 

Radionl : ordin-. 

1 . oi/dinary : ordin + ary = relating to the usual order of things. 

2. extraoi/dinary : extra + ordin + ary = beyond ordinary. 

3. inor^dinate : in + ordin + ate = having the quality of not being 

within the usual order of things : hence, excessive. 

4. subor^dinate : sub -f ordin + ate = having the quality of being 

under the usual order : hence, inferior, secondary. 

5. or^dinance: ordin -f- ance = that which is according to order: 

hence, a law. 


6. insnbordina^tion : in + sub + ordin + ate + ion = the state of not 
being under the usual order of things : hence, disobedience to 
lawful authority. 

If jLXiaCIsSj* 

(1.) "What is meant by " ordinary language " ? an ** ordinary man '* ? 
(2.) Combine and define extraordinary + ly. — Compose a sentence using 

the woi-d " extraordinary." — Give a synonym of ** extraordinary." 

Ans, Unusual. 
(3.) Explain what is meant by saying that General Charles Lee had 

*^ inordinate vanity." — Is "inordinate" used with reference to 

praiseworthy things ? 
(4.) What part of speech other than an adjective is "subordinate" ? — 

What is meant by ' * a subordinate " ? — What does * * subordinate " 

mean in the sentence, ** We must subordinate our wishes to the 

rules of morality " ? — Combine and define subordinate + ion. 
(5.) What does the expression ** the ordinances of the Common Council 

of the City of New York " mean ? 
(6.) Com})ose a sentence containing the word "insubordination." — Give 

the opposite of ** insubordination " ? Ans. Subordination, obedi- 


27. PARS, par'tis, a part or »hare» 

Radical : part-. 

1. part : from partw = a share. 

2. parotide : part + (t)cle = a small part 

3. paj/tial : part -f- (i)al = relating to a part rather than the whole : 

hence, inclined to favor one party or person or thing. 

4. parity : through Fr. n. partie : a set of persons (that is, a part 

of the people) engaged in some design. 

5. pai/tisan : through Fr. n. partisan =iS^ party man. 

6. depart' : de + part = to take one's self away from one part to 



(1.) What part of speech is ** part " besides a noun ? — Write a sentence 
containing this word as a noun ; another as a verb. 


(2.) Point oat the connection of meaning between ** particle " and ** par- 
ticular." ^915. ** Particular *' means taking note of the minute 
parts or particles of a given subject. 

(3.) What is the negative of ** ^xirtial " ? Ans. Impartial, — Define it. 

(4.) Explain what is meant by a " political ^r^^." 

(6.) Combine and define de|)art + ure. 

28. PJES, pe'dls, a foot. 

Radical: pad-. 

1. ped'al : ped -f al = an instrument made to be moved by the foot. 

2. bi'ped : bi -f ped = a two-footed animal. 

3. quad'raped: quadru + pedc=a four-footed animaL {Quadru, 

from quatuoTy four.) 

4. ped'dler : literally, a trader who travels on foot. 

5. expedite' : ex + ped + ite {ite, equivalent to ate) = literally, to 

free the feet from entanglement : hence, to hasten. 

6. expedi'tion : ex + ped + ite + ion = the act of expediting : hence, 

(1) the quality of Iwjing expeditious, promptness ; (2) a send- 
ing forth for the execution of some object of importance. 

7. imped'iment : through Lat. n. impedimentum ; literally, some* 

thing which impedes or entangles the feet : hence, an obstacle, 
an obstruction. 


(2.) Makeup a sentence containing the word "biped." 
(3.) Make up a sentence containing the word "quadruped." 
(4.) What is the English verb from which " peddler " comes ? — In what 
other way is " peddler " sometimes spelled ? Ans, It is sometimes 
siielled with but one d — thus, pedUr, 
(5.) '* To expedite the growth of plants ' : what does that mean ? — Give 

the opposite of "expedite." Ans, To retard, 
(6.) Point out the double sense of the word " expedition " in the follow- 
ing sentences : "With winged expedition, swift as lightning." — 
Milton, " The expedition of Cortez miserably failed." — PrescoU, 
(7.) Compose a sentence containing the word "impediment." — What is 
meant by " impediment of speech " ? — Is the word here used in 
ite literal or its figurative sense ? 


29. RUM'PBRBt mm'po, mp'tnmt tobremk. 

Radical : rupt-. 

1. rup^ture : rupt + ure= the act of breaking with another ; that 

is, a breach of friendly relations. 

2. erup'tion : e + rupt + ion = the act of breaking or bursting out. 

3. abrupt' : ab + rupt = broken off short : hence, having a sudden 


4. corrupV : cor (for con) + rupt = thoroughly broken up : hence, 

decomposed, depraved. 

5. interrupt' : inter + nipt = to break in between : hence, to hinder. 

6. bank'rupt : literally, ene who is bank-broken, who cannot pay 

his debts, an insolvent debtor. 


(1.) What other part of speech than a noun is ** rupture ** ? Ans. A 
verb. — Compose one sentence using the word as a verb, the other 
as a noun. — What does the " rupture of a blood vessel " mean ? 
Is this the literal sense of the woi*d ? — The " rupture of friendly 
relations " between Maine and Massachusetts : is this its literal or 
its figurative sense ? 

(2.) Compose a sentence containing*the word '* eruption." 

(3.) Combine and define abnipt + nes8 ; abrupt + ly. — When we speak of 
an ** abrupt manner," what is meant ? — When we speak of an 
** abrupt descent," what is meant ? 

(4.) Explain what is meant by " corrupt principles " ; a ** corrupt judge." 
— Combine and define corrupt + ion ; corrupt + ible ; in + corrupt 
+ ible. — What other part of speech than an adjective is "cor- 
rupt"? — What part of speech is it in the sentence "evil com- 
munications corrupt good mannei's " ? 

30. TEM'FUS, tem'poris, time. 

Radical : tempor-. 

1. tem^poral : tempor + al = relating to time : hence, not everlast- 


2. tem'porary : tempor + ary = lasting only for a brief time. 

3. contem^porary : con + temix)r + ary = one who lives in the same 

time with another. 

\ N. 


4. tem^perance : through Fr. n. temp^cmce ; literal meaning, the 

state of heing weU timed as to one's habits : hence, moderation. 

5. extem^pora/^neous : ex+ temporane(us) + ous= produced at the 


6. tem'porize : tempor + ize = to do as the times do : hence, to 

yield to the current of opinion. 


(1.) Give the opposite of " temporal." Aiis, Eternal, Illustrate these 
two words by a sentence from the Bible. A'iia. ** The things which 
Bxri seen are temporal ; but the things which are not seen are eter- 

(2.) Give the opposite of "temporary." Ans. Permaiient, — What is 
meant by the ** temporary government of a city " ? — Give a syn- 
onym of " temi»orary.'* Ans. Transitory. — Would you say that 
man is a ** temporary being" or a " transitory being " ? 

(3.) Compose a sentence illustrating the use of the wonl '* contemporary. 
— What adjective conesjionds to this adjective ? 

(4.) State the distinction between "temperance" and "abstinence." — 
Write a sentence showing the use of the two words. 

(5.) What is meant by an " extemporaneous speech ? " 

(6 ) What is one who temporizes sometimes called ? Ans A ^tTne-server. 



Note. — In Division II, the English derivatives from Latin roots are given in ab- 
breviated forni, and are arranged in i>arugraphs under the imrticular radicals, Aroin 
which the several groups of derivatives are formed. Tlie radicals are printed at the 
left in bold-face type — thus, acr*, ace'rb-, etc. Derivatives not obviously connected 
with the Latin i-oots are given in the last paragraph of each section. Pupils are re- 
quired to unite the prefixes and suffixes with the radicals, thus forming the English 
derivatives, which may be given either orally or in writing. Only difficult definitions 
are appended : in the case of words not defined, pupils may be required to form the 
definition by reference to the signification of the radicals and the fonuative elements : 
thus, acr -|- id = acrid, being bitter ; acr -f- id -f- >ty = state of being bitter, bitterness. 

1. A'CEB, a'cris, sharp; Acer 1)118, bitter ; Ao'idufl. wiir ; Ace'tnm* 


acr : -id, -idity ; ac'rimony (Lat. n. acrimo^nia, sharpness of tem- 
per) ; acrinio'nious. 

acerb: -ity ; exac'erbate, to render hitter; exacerWtion. 

acid : ac'id ; -ify, -ity ; acid'ulate (Lat adj. acid'vXus^ slightly sour) ; 
acid'ulous ; subac'id, slightly acid, 

acet : -ate, a certain salt ; -ic, pertaining to a certain acid ; -ify, 
-ification, -ose, -oiis. 

2. AE'DES, a house. 

ed : ed'ify ; edifica'tion ; ed'ifice (Lat. n. edifi'cium^ a large build- 
ing) ; e'dile (Lat. u. aedi'lis, a Roman magistrate who had charge 
of buildings). 

8. M'QJJTSQ, equal ; ^qnalis, equal, just. 

equ : -able, -ation, -ator, -atorial, -ity, -itable ; ad'equate (Lat v. 
adequa^re, adequa'tum, to make equal) ; inad'equacy ; inad'e- 
quate ; iniq'uity (Lat. n. ini^uitas^ want of equal or just deal- 
ing) ; iniq'uitous. 

equal : e'qual (n., v., adj.), -ity, -ize ; co-e'qual ; une'qual. 

4. M'Wi/Lt an age ; .ffiter'nitas, eternal. 

ev : co-e'val ; longev'ity (Lat. adj. Im'gus, long) ; prime'val (Lat. 

adj. pri'musj first). 
etern : -al, -ity, -ize ; co-eter'nal. 


5. A'GEH, a'gri* a field, land. 

asri : agra'rian (Lat. adj. agra'rius, relating to land) ; agra'rian- 

ism ; ag'iiculture (Lat. n. cuLtvfra^ cultivation), agricultural, 


Per'egrinate (Lat. v. peregrina'ri, to travel in foreign lands) ; 

peregiina'tion ; pirgriiu ( Fr. n. y^lerin, a wanderer) ; pirgrini- 


AGEBE, to do. (See p. 23.) 

6. AIi'EBE: ale, al'itum or al'tuxn, to nourish; AIiES'CEBE: 

ales'co, to grow up. 

al : al'iment (Lat. n. cUime^i'tum, nourishment) ; alimen'tary ; al'i- 
mony (Lat. n. alimo'nia^ allowance made to a divorced wile 
for her support). 

alit : coali'tion (-ist). 

aiesc : coalesce' (-ence, -ent). 

ALIENIJS. (See p. 25.) 
7. AL'TEB, another ; Alter'nus, one after another. 

alter ; al'ter, -ation, -ative (a medicine producing a change) ; unal- 
tered ; alterca'tion (Lat. n. alterca'tio, a contention). 
altem : -ate, -ation, -ative ; subartem, a subordinate officer, 

AM ABE; Amiens. (See p. 25.) 
ANIMITS ; Anima. (See p. 26.) 
ANNUS. (See p. 27.) 

8. ANTI'QUIJS, old, ancient. 

antiqu : -ary, -arian, -ated, -ity ; antique' (Fr. adj. antique), old, 

9. AF'TUS, fit, suitable. 
apt : apt, -itude, -ly, -ness ; adapt' (-able, >ation, -or). 

10. A'QUA, water. 

aqae : -duct (du'cere, to lead) ; a'queous ; suba'queous ; terra'que- 
ons (Lat. n. terra, land) ; aquat'ic (Lat. adj. aquat'icus, relating 
to water) ; aqua'rium (Lat. n. aqua'rium, a reservoir of water), 
a tank for water-plants and animals. 


11. AB'BITEB, ar'bitri, a judge or umpire. 

arbiter : ar' biter, a judge or umpire. 

arbitr : -ary, -ate, -ation, -ator ; arbit'rament (Lat. n. arbitramen'- 
turn, decision). 

12. AB'BOB, arni>ori8, a tree. 

arbor : ar'bor, a lattice-work covered vriUi vines, etc., a bower ; -et, a 
little tree ; -ist, -cscent, -(e)ou8 ; arbore'tum, a place where speci- 
mens of trees are cvltivated; arboricult'ure (-ist). 

18. AB'MA, arms, weapons. 

arm: arm (n. and v.) ; arms, weapons; -or, defensive tveapons ; ar'- 
morer ; ar'mory ; arnio'rial, belonging to the escutcheon or coat 
of arms of a family ; ar'mistice (sis'tere^ to cause to stand still) ; 
disarm' ; unarmed'. 

Arma'da (Span, n.), a naval warlike force; ar'my (Fr. n 
armee) ; ar'mament (Lat. n. armamen'ta, utensils) ; armadil'io 
(Span, n.), an animal armed with a bony shell. 

ABS. (See page 28.) 

14. ABTICULUS, a UtUe joint. 

articul : -ate (v., to utter in distinctly jointed syllables), -ate 

(adj. formed with joints), -ation ; inartic'ulate ; ar'ticle (Fr. 

n. article). 

15. AS 'FEB, rough. 

asper : -ate, -ity ; exas'perate ; exas'peration. 

AUDIBE. (See page 29.) 

16. AUGE'BE : au'geo, auc'tum, to Increase. 
aug : augment' (v.) ; augmenta'tion. 

auct : -ion, a sale in which ike price is increased by bidders ; -ioneer. 
Author (Lat. n. aac'tor, one who increases knowledge) ; au- 
thor'ity ; au'thorize ; auxil'iary (Lat. n. auxiViura^ help). 

17. ATVLStA bird; Au'gur, Aus'pex, aus'picia, a soothsayer. 
augur : au'gur (n.), one who foretells future events by observing the 


flight of hirdsy (v.) to foreteU.; au'gury, an omen; inau'gurate, 
to invest with an office by solemn rites ; inaugura'tion ; inau'guraL 
augpici : >ous, favoraJble ; inauspi'cious ; aus'pices. 

18. BAB'BABUS, aarage, nnciTllized. 
barbar : -ian (n. and adj.), -ic, -ism, -ity, -ize, -ous. 

19. BIS, twice or two. 

bl : bi'ennial (Lat. n. an'nus, a year) ; big'amy (Greek n. gamos, mar- 
riage) ; bil'lion (Lat. n. mU'liOy a million ; literally, twice a mil- 
lion) ; bipar'tite (Lat. n. pars, par^tis, a part) ; bi'ped (Lat. n. 
pes, pefdiSf foot) ; bis'cuit (Fr. v. cuit, cooked) ; bisect' (Lat. v. 
sec'tum, cut) ; bi' valve (Lat. n. vaUvce, folding-doors) ; bi'nary 
(Lat. adj. hi'ni, two by two) ; binoc'ular (Lat'n. oc'uluSj the 
eye) ; combine' ; combina'tion. 

20. BO'NIJS, good; Be'ne, welL 

bonus : bonus (something to the good of a person in addition to 
compensation), bounty (Fr. n. bont^^ kindness) ; boun'teous ; 

bene : ben'etice (Lat. v. fa>c'ere, facHum, to do), literally, a benefit, an 
ecclesiastical living ; beneficence ; beneficent ; benefl'cial ; 
ben'efit ; benefac'tion ; benefac'tor ; benedic'tion (Lat. v. dic'- 
erg, dicUum, to say) ; benev'olence (Lat. v. vel'le, to will). 


In this and the foUowing exercises, tell the roots of the words 
printed in italic: The equator divides the globe into two equal 
parts. Good agriculturists read agricultural papers. In the pri- 
meval ages the longevity of man was very great. The pilgrims have 
gone on a pUgrinuige to the Holy Land. The svbaltem had no alter- 
native but to obey. To remove the stain a powerful add must be 
used. The alim/my which had hitherto been allowed was no longer 
considered adequate. The discourse, though learned, was not edify- 
ing, God is an eternal and unchangeable being. The handsome 


edifice was bnmed to the ground. The plants and animals in the 
aquarium were brought from abroad. Though the style is anti- 
quoted, it is not inelegant. The arbitrary proceedings of the British 
Parliament exasperated the Americans. God is the bountiful Giver 
of all good. The President made a short inaugural address. By 
combined effort success is sure. One of Scott's novels is called The 
Antiquary. It is barbaroy4f needlessly to destroy life. George Pea- 
body was noted for his benevolence. The Romans were famous for 
their great aqueducts. 

21. CAD'SSBE : ca'do, oa'sum, to ftlL 

cad: -ence, a failing of the voice; cascade' (Fr. n.) ; deca'dence. 

cide: ac'cident; coincide' (con + in); coincidence ; decid'uous ; in'- 
cident ; oc'cident, ike place of the falling or setting sun, the west. 

case : case, the state in which a thing happens or falls io bt; casual 
(Lat. n. ca sus, a fall) ; cas'ualty ; cas'uist, one who studies cases 
of conscience ; cas'uistry ; occa'sion. 

Chance (Fr. v. choir, to fall), something that befalls without ap- 
parent cause ; decay (Fr. v. d^choir, to fall away). 

22. C^DnSBE : cad'do, Ctt'sum, to cat^ to kill 

cide: decide', to cut off discussion, to determine; frat'ricide, the kill- 
ing of a brother (Lat. n. fra'ter^ a brother) ; hom'icide (ho'mo^ 
a man) ; infan'ticide (in'fan^, an infant) ; mat'ricide {mafter, a 
mother) ; pai-'ricide {pa'ter, a father) ; reg'icide (rex, re'gis, a 
king) ; su'icide (Lat. pro. sui, one's self). 

else: con-, ex-, pre- ; concise'ness ; decis'ion ; deci'sive ; excis'ion ; 
incis'ion ; inci'sor ; precis'ion. 

28. CAL'CUIiUS, a pebble. 

calcul : -able (literally, that may be counted by the help of pebbles 
anciently ufsed in reckoning), -ate, -ation, -ator ; incalculable ; 


94. OANDE'BE : ean'deo, can'ditiun, to be white, to shine 
(literally, to bam, to glow) ; Can'diduSt white 

cand : -id, fair^ sincere ; -or, openness, sincerity ; incandes'cent. 

can'did : -ate (in Rome aspirants for oflSce wore white robes). 

Cen'ser, a vessel in which, incense is burned ; in'cense (n.), per- 
fume given off hy fire; incense' (v.), lo inflame with anger; 
incen'diary (Lat. n. incen'dium^ a fire) ; can'dle (Lat. cande'la, 
a white light made of wax) ; chandler (literally a maker or 
seller of candles) ; chandelier' ; canderabra. 

25. CAN'EBl! : ca'no, oan'ttim» to sing ; Fr. chanter, to sing. 

cant : cant, hypocritical sing-song speech ; canta'ta, a poem set to music ; 

can' tide ; can' tides, the Song of Solomon ; can' to, division of a 

poem ; discant' ; incanta'tion, enchantment ; recant', literally, to 

sing ba>dc, to retract 
chant : chant ; chant'er ; chan'ticleer ; chant'ry ; enchant'. 

Ac'cent (Lat. ad. and cantus, a song), literally, a modulation 

of the voice ; accentua'tion ; precen'tor (Lat. v. prmcan'ere, to 

sing before). 

86. CAF'EBE : ca'pio, cap'tum, to take. 

cap : -able, -ability ; inca'pable. 

cip : antic'ipate ; eman'cipate (Lat. n. ma'nus, hand), literally, to 
take away from ths hand of an owner, to free ; incip'ient ; mu- 
nic'ipal (Lat. n. municip'ium, a free town ; mu'nia, official du- 
ties, and cap' ere, to take) ; partic'ipate (Lat. n. pars, par'tis, a 
part) ; par'ticiple ; prince (Lat. n. prin'ceps, — Lat. adj. pri'mus, 
first : hence, taking Xh^ first place or lead); prin'cipal ; prin'ci- 
ple ; recip'ient ; rec'ipe (imperative of redp'ere; literally, 
" take thou," Ijfeing the first word of a medical prescription). 

ceive (Fr. root = cap- or cip-) : conceive' ; deceive' ; perceive' ; re- 

capt : -ive, -ivate, -ivity, -or, -ure. 

cept : accept' (-able, -ance, -ation) ; concep'tion ; decep'tion ; decep'- 
tive ; except' (-ion, -ionable) ; incep'tion ; incep'tive ; inter- 


cept' ; pre'cept ; precep'tor ; recep'tacle ; recep'tion ; suscep'- 
celt (Fr. root = capt- or cept-) : conceit' ; deceit' ; receipt'. 

Capa'cious (Lat. adj. ca'pax^ capa^cis, able to hold : hence 
large) ; capac'itate ; capac'ity ; incapac'itate. 

CAPUT. (See page 30.) 

27. CA'BO, carnis, fleah. 

earn : -age, slaughier ; -al, -ation, the flesh-colored flower ; incai/nate ; 

Came'lian (Lat. adj. car'netu, fleshy), a flesh-colored stone; 
car'nival (Lat. v. valcy farewell), a festival preceding Lent ; car- 
niv'orous (Lat. v. vora^re, to eat) ; char'nel (Fr. adj. chamel, con- 
taining flesh). 

28. CAU'SA, a canae. 

caus : -al, -ation, -ative ; cause (Fr. n. cause), n. and v. 

Accuse' (Fr. v. acctiser, to bring a charge against), -ative, 
-ation, -er ; excuse' (Fr. v. excuser, to absolve) ; excus'able ; 
rec'u.sant (Lat. v. recusa're, to refuse). 

29. CAVE'BE: oaVeo, cautum, to beware. 

caut : -ion, -ious ; incau'tious ; precau'tion. 

Ca'veat (3d per. sing, present subjunctive = let him beware), 
an intimation to stop proceedings. 

80. CA'VUS, hollow. 

cav : -ity ; concav'ity ; ex'cavate. 

Cave (Fr. n. cave), literally, a hollow, empty space; con'cave 
(Lat. adj. conca'vus, arched ) ; cav'il (Lat. n. cavil'la, a jest). 

81. CEDISBE : ce'do, ces'sum, to go, to yield. 

cede : cede ; accede' ; antece'dent ; concede' ; precede' ; recede' ; 

secede' ; unprec'edented. 
ceed : ex-, pro-, sub- (sue-). 


cess ; -ation, -ion ; ab'scess, a collection of matter gone aioay, or 
collected in a cavity ; ac'cess ; acces'sible ; acces'sion ; acces'- 
sory ; conces'sion ; excess' ; exces'sive ; interces'sion ; inter- 
ces'sor ; preces'sion ; proc'ess ; proces'sion ; recess' ; seces'sion ; 
success' (-ful, -ion, -ive). 

S3. CENSE'RE : cen'seo, cen'snm, to weigk, to eitimate, to tax. 

cens : -or, -ure ; censo'rious ; cen'surable ; recen'sion* 
Gen'sus (Lat. n. census, an estimate). 

88. CEN'TBUM, the middle point. 

centr : -al, -ical ; centrifugal (Lat. v. fii'gere, to flee) ; centrip'etal 
(Lat. V. peiferCf to seek) ; conceu'trate ; concentra'tion ; concen'- 
tric ; eccen'tric ; eccentric'ity. 

Cen'ter or cen'tre (Fr, n. centra)^ n. and v. ; cen'tered. 

84. CEN'TUM, a hundred. 

cent : cent ; cent'age ; cen'tenary (Lat. adj. centena'rius) ; centena'- 
rian ; centen'nial (Lat. n. an'nus, a year) ; cen'tigrade (Lat. n. 
gra'dus, a d^ree) ; cen'tipede (Lat. n. pes, pe'dis, the foot) ; 
cen' tuple (Lat. adj. centu'plex, hundredfold) ; centu'rion (Lat. 
n. centu'rio, a captain of a hundred) ; cent'ury (Lat. n. centu'ria, 
a hundred years) ; percent'age. 

86. CEB'NEBE : cer'no, cre'tum, to sift^ to see, to judge ; Disori- 

men, disorim'inis, distinction. 

cern: con-, de-, dis- ; unconcern'; discem'er, discem'ible, dis- 

cret: decre'tal, a booh of decrees; discre'tion ; discre'tionary ; excre'- 

tion ; se'cret ; sec'retary. 
disciimin : -ate, -ation ; indiscrim'inate. 

Decree' (Fr. n. decret) ; discreet' (Fr. adj. discret) ; discrete' 

(literally, sifted apart), separate, 

86. OEBTA'BE : cer'to, oerta'tnm, to contend, to yie. 
cert : coD'cert (n.) ; concert' (v.) ; disconcert' ; preconcert'^ 


87. CIN'QEBE : cin'go, oino'tum, to gtid. 

cinct : cinct'ure ; pre'cinct ; succinct', literally, girded or tucked 
upy compressed^ concise ; succinct'ness. 

88. CIB'CUS, a circle ; cir'culus, a little circle. 

cipc : cir'cus, aw open space for sports ; cir'clet. 
circul : -ar, -ate, -ation, -atory. 

Cii-'cle (Fr. n. cercU) ; encir'cle ; sem'icircle. 

SO. OITA'BE : ci'to, cita'tum, to stir up, to route. 

cite : cite, to summon or quote ; excite' (-able, -ability, -ment) ; 
incite' (-ment) ; recite' (-al) ; resus'citate (Lat. v. suscita're, to 
' raise). 

citat : cita'tion ; recita'tion ; recitative', a species of musical reci- 

CIVIS. (See p. 31.) 

40. CIiAMA'BE : ola'xno, clama'tum, to ciy out, to ahont ; Clam'or* 

a load cry. 

claim : claim (v. and n., to demand ; a demand), ac-, de-, dis-, ex-, 

pro-, re- ; claim'ant ; reclaim'able. 
clamat: acclama'tion ; declama'tion ; declam'atory ; exclama'tion ; 

exclam'atory ; procloma'tion ; reclama'tion. 
clMnor : clam'or (v. and n.), -er, -ous. 


The decay of the tree was caused by the incisions which had acci- 
dentally been made in the bark. The captives wiU l)e set at liberty, 
but the precise time of their em/incipatuyn has not been fixed. The 
harbor is capa^us, and can receive vessels of the largest size. The 
merits of the candidates were discriminated with great candor. We 
were encluinted with the carnival at Rome. This recitation is satis- 
factory. Have you ever seen a centigrade thermometer ? Nothing 
is so successful as success. The number of concentric circles in the 
trunk marked the age of the tree. No censer round our altar beams. 
The heat being excessive, we took shelter in the recesses of a cave. 
Precisuni is the j>rtncipaj quality of good writing. Franklin's father 


was a tallow ehandUr. Last century there was great carnage in 
America. Infanticide is much practiced in China. The proclama- 
tion was widely circulated. The president was inaugurated on the 
4th of March. The census is taken every ten years. Conceit is 
worse than eccentricity. Have you filed your caveat ? 

41. OLATTDSIBS : dau'do, clau'sum, to shut, to cloee. 

clud : conclude' ; exclude' ; include' ; preclude' ; seclude'. 

clus : conclu'sion ; conclu'sive ; exclu'sion ; exclu'sive ; recluse' ; 

close: close (v., n., adj.); clos'et; close'ness ; inclose' (-ure) ; en- 
close' (-ure). 
Clause (Fr. n. clause) ; clois'ter (old Fr. n. cloistre). 

42. CIjIN.A'BE: cli'no, clina'tum, to bend; Cli'vus, a slope or hilL 

clinat : inclina'tion. 

cllne : de-, in-, re-. 

cliv : accliv'ity ; decliv'ity ; procliv'ity. 

48. COLHEiBE: cole, curtum, to till, to cultivate (Low Lat. Culti- 

▼a're, to cultivate). 

cult : cult'ure (Lat. n. ciUtu'ra, a cultivation) ; ag'riculture (Lat. 
n. a'j/er, a field) ; arboricult'ure (Lat. n. ar^bor, a tree) ; flor'i- 
culture (Lat. n. flos^ flo'ris^ a flower) ; hor'ticulture (Lat. n. 
ho/tuSf a garden) ; ausculta'tion (Lat. n. ausculta'tio^ a listen- 
ing ; hence, a test of the lungs). 

caltlv : -ate, -ation, -ator. 

Col'ouy (Lat. n. colo'nia, a settlement) ; colo'nial ; col'onist ; 

col'onize. ^ 

COB. (See page 32.) 

OOBFU8. (See page 83.) 

CBEDBBE. (See page 35.) 

44. OBBA'BE : ore'o» orea'tum, to create. 
creat : -ion, -ive, -or, -ure ; create' (pro-, re-). 


45. CBBS'CEBB : cres'co, ore'tum, to grow. 

cresc : cres'cent ; excres'cence ; decrease' ; increase'. 
cret : accre'tion ; con'crete ; concre'tion. 

Accrue' (Ft. n^ accrue, increase) ; in'crement (Lat. n. in- 
cremen'tum, increase) ; recruit' (Fr. v, recroitre, recru, to gruw 

46. OBUX, cru'ciSa a crosB. 

cruc : cru'cial (Fr. adj. cnicialey as if bringing to the cross : 

hence, severe) ; cru'cible (a chemist's melting-pot — Lat. n. cru- 

. cih'idum — marked in old times with a cross) ; cru'ciform 

(Lat. w.for'ma, a shape); cru'cify (Lat. \.fi{fere,jlx^um, to fix); 

crucifix'ion ; excru'ciating. 

Cross (Fr. u. croix)\ cro'sier (Fr. n. croder)', cruise (Dan. 
V. kruisen, to move crosswise or in a zigzag); crusade' (Fr. 
n. croisade, in the Middle Ages, an expedition to the Holy 
Land made under the banner of the cross) ; crusad'er. 

47. CUBA'BS : cul>o (in compos, cttmbo), cub'itum, to lie down. 

cub : in'cubate ; incuba'tion ; in'cubator. 

cumb : incum'bency ; incum'bent ; procum'bent ; recum'bency ; 

recum'bent ; succumb' (sub-) ; superincum'bent. 

Cu'bit (Lat. n. cvh'itus, the elbow, because it serves for 

leaning upon) ; in'ciibus (Lat. n. in'cvbm), the nightmare. 

48. CIJ'BA, care. 

cur : -able, -ate, -ative, -ator ; ac'curate ; ac'curacy ; inac'curate ; 

Cu'rious ; prox'y (contracted from proc'uracy), authority to act 
for another ; secure' (Lat. adj. seen' rue, from se for st'n«, with- 
out, and cu'ra^ care) ; secu'rity ; insecure' ; si'necure (Lat. prep. 
si'm, without — an office without duties). 

CIJBBEBE. (See page 36.) 

49. DA 'BE : do, da'tum, to give. 
dat: date (originally the time at which a public document was 


given — daHum); da'ta (Lat. plural of «ia'«ttm), facts or truths 
given or admitted ; da'tive. 
dit : addi'tion ; condi'tion ; ed'it (-ion, -or) ; perdi'tion ; tradi'- 
tion ; extradi'tion. 

Add (Lat. v. adUlere, to give or put to) ; adden'duni (pL 
adden'da), something to he added, 

50 • DEBS'BE : delieo, deb'itum, to owe. 
debt : debt ; debt'or ; indebt'ed ; deb'it (n. and v.). 

51. DE'CEM, ten ; Dec'imus, the tentli. 

decern : Decem'ber (formerly the tenth month) ; decem'virate (Lat, 
n. wV, a man), a body of ten magistrates ; decen'nial (Lat. n. 
an'nus, a year). 

decim : dec'initd ; dec'imate ; duodec'imo (Lat. adj. duodec'imus, 
twelfth), a hook Jiavirig 'twelve leaves to a sheet. 

o2. DENS, den'tis, a tooth. 

dent : dent, to notch ; den'tal ; den'tifrice (Lat. v. frica're, to 
lub); deu'tist; dentition (Lat n. denti'tio, a cutting of the 
teeth ; eden'tate (Lat. adj. edenta'tus, toothless) ; indent' ; in- 
denture; tri'dent (Lat. adj. tres^ three), Neptune^s three-pronged 
scepter; dan'delion (Fr. dent-de-lion., the lion's tooth), a plant. 

5S. DHIJSf a Ood; Divi'nus, relating 40 God, divine. 

de: de'ify ; de'ism ; de'ist ; deist'ical ; de'ity. 
divin : divine' ; divina'tion (Lat. n. divina'tio, a foretelling the aid 
of the gods) ; divin'ity. 

54. DIC'EBE : di'co, dio'tum, to say. 

diet : dic'tate ; dicta'tor ; dictato'rial ; dic'tion ; dic'tionary (Lat. 
n. dictiona'rium, a word-book) ; dic'tum (pL dic'ta), positive 
opinion ; addict' (Lat. v. addic'ere, to devote) ; benedic'tion (Lat. 
• adv. he'ne, well) ; contradict' ; e'dict ; indict' (Lat. v. indidere^ 
to proclaim), to charge with a crime ; indict'ment ; in'terdict ; 
jurid'ic (Lat n. jus^ ju'ris, justice), relating to the distribution 
of justice; maledic'tion (Lat. adv. ma'te^ ill) ; predict' ; predic'- 


tion ; valedic'toiy (Lat. v. va'U, farewell) ; ver'dict (Lat. adj. 
vefrus, true). 

Dit'to, n, (Ital. n. defto, a word), (he aforesaid thmg; in- 
dite' (Lat. V. indicfere, to dictate), to compose. 

65. DI'ES, a day; French jour, a day. 

dies : di'al ; di'ary ; di'et ; diur'nal (Lat. adj. diur'nusy daily) ; 
merid'ian (Lat. n. merid'ies = mefdius di'es, midday) ; merid'- 
ional; quotid'ian (Lat. adj. quoiidia'nusy daily). 

jour: jour'nal; jour'nalist; jour'iiey; adjourn'; adjoum'ment ; 
so'journ ; so'jouriier. 

DIQNUS. (See page 87.) 

56. DIVIP'EBE : diT'ido, divi'sum, to divide, to sepaiato. 

divid: divide'; div'idend; subdivide' ;. individ'ual, literally, one 
not to he divided, a single person. 

divis : -ible, -ibility, -ion, -or. 

Device' (Fr. n. devis, something imagined or devised) ; de- 
vise' (Fr. V. deviser, to form a plan). » 

DOCEBE. (See page 38. ) 

67.^ DOIiE'BE : doleo, doli'tum, to grieve. 
Dole'ful ; do'lor ; dol'orous ; condole' ; condo'lence ; in'dor 
lent (literally, not grieving or caring), lazy. 

DOMINUS. (See page 8&) 

58. DU'CEBE: du'co, duc'tum, to lead, to bring forward. 

due : adduce' ; conduce' ; condu'cive ; deduce' ; educe' ; ed'ucate ; 
educa'tion; induce'; induce'ment; introduce'; produce'; re- 
duce' ; redu'cible ; seduce' ; superinduce' ; traduce' ; tradu'cer. 

duct : abduc'tion ; dnc'tile (-ity) ; conduct' (-or) ; deduct' (-ion, 
-ive) ; induct' (-ion, -ive) : introduc'tion ; introduc'tory ; 
prod'uct (-ion, -ive) ; reduc'tion ; seduc'tion ; seduc'tive ; aq'- 
ueduct (Lat. n. a'qua, water) ; vi'aduct (Lat. n. vi% a rood) ; 
con'duit (Fr. n. conduit), a channel for conveying water. 


59. DU'O, two. 

do : du'al ; du'el (-ist) ; duet' ; du'plicate (liat. v. plica're, to fold) ; 
dupli'city (Lat. n. dwplic'itas, double dealing). 

Dubi'ety (Lat. n. duhi'etdSi uncertainty) ; du'bious (Lat. adj. 
du'hius^ uncertain) ; indu'bitable (Lat. v. dubita're, to doubt) ; 
doub'le (Ft, adj. doubUy twofold) ; doubt (Fr. n. doubt), -ful, 
-less ; undoubted. 

60. DU'BUS, hard, laBting; DUBA'BE: du'ro, dura'tum, to last. 

dur : -able, -ableness, -ability, -ance, state of being held hard and 

fast ; duresse, hardship, constraint ; endure' (-ance) ; ol/duracy. 

durat : dura'tion ; in'durate, to groio liard; indura'tion ; ob'duracy. 


When the speech was concluded loud acclamation arose. In many 
parts of the colony much of the wast-e land has been reclaimed, and 
agrvnUtural operations now receive the due attention of the colonists. 
The patient declined to undergo auscultation. Fishing is a healthful 
recreatuyn. Many of the crusaders were inspired with great courage. 
Security was offered, but it was not accepted. The incumhent could 
not stand the crucial test, and hence succumbed. A curious ex- 
crescence was cut from the tree. To Neptune with his tride^ii the. 
Greeks ascribed divine power. A French journalist has been indicted. 
The valedictory was pronounced in December. What is the differ- 
ence l)etween addition and divisio^i ? We may easily predict the 
ruin of an indolent ddttor. How many m^aledictions are heaped on 
dentists ** ! The reduction of the public debt is desirable. The 
prisoner was doleful because he was in duresse vile. An educated 
man is known by his accurate use of lan<:;uage. The dandelion is a 
productive plant. The pilgrims received the priest's benediction be- 
fore setting out on their journey. The decimal system conduces to 
the saving of time. 

•1. EMIiBE : e'mo, emp'tum, to bny or take. 
empt; exempt' (-ion) ; per'emptory (Lat. adj. peremptofrius, wholly 
taken away), decisive, final; pre-empt'; pre-emp'tion, (he 
right of buying before others ; redemp'tion. 


Redeem' (Lat. v. redim'ere, to buy back) ; redeem'er ; prompt 
(Lat. adj. promp'tas^pro-emp'-tus, taken out; hence, ready); 
pronipt'er; prompt'itude ; prompt'ness ; impromp'tu (Lat. in 
promp^tUf in readiness). 

62. ERRA'BE : er'ro, erra'tum, to wander. 

epp : err, -ant, -antry ; er'ror (Lat. n. er^ror) ; erro'neous (Lat. adj. 

erro'neus, erring). 
eppat: errat'ic ; erra'tum (pL er'rata), a mistake in printing; 


63. ES'SE, to be; en, en'tis, being. 

ent : ab'sent (-ee) ; ab'sence ; en'tity ; nonen'tity ; omnipres'ent 
(Lat. adj. omfnis, all) ; pres'ent (-ation, -ly) ; represent' (-ation, 
-ative) ; misrepresent'. 

Es'sence (Lat. n. essen'tia^ being) ; essen'tial ; quintes'sence 
(Lat. adj. quin'tris, fifth), the highest essence; in'terest (3cl pers. 
sing. pres. indie, of interesfse = it interests or is of interest) ; 

64. FA 'CERE : fa'oio, fac'tum, to do or make ; French Faire. 

fac: face'tious (Lat, atlj. /oce'^tts, merry) ; fac'ile (Lat. adj. /a'ci- 
lis, easily done) ; facil'ity ; facil'itate ; fac'ulty (Lat. n. fa- 
cul'tas, power, ability) ; fac-sim'ile (Lat. adj. sim'Uis, like), 
literally, waA;« like, an exact copy; facto' tum (Lat. adj. to' turn, 
the whole ; literally, do the whole), a servant of aU work 

flc : lien'efice (see bene) ; deficit (literally, it is wanting), a lack ; 
defi'ciency ; defi'cient ; difficult (Lat. adj. difficfilis, arduous) ; 
efficacy (Lat. adj. efjicax, effica'cis, powerful) ; effi'cient, caus- 
vng effects ; office (Lat. n. offWium, a duty) ; officer ; offi'cial ; 
ofli'cious ; profi'cient ; suffice', literally, to make up what is 
wantiyvg ; suffi'cient. 

fact : fact ; fac'tor ; fac'tion, a party actirvg in opposition ; fac'- 
tious ; facti'tious (Lat. adj. facti'titis, artificial) ; benefac'tor ; 
manufac'ture (Lat. n. ma'mis, the hand). 

feet : affect' (-ation, -ion) ; disaffec'tion ; confec'tion, literally, 7)iade 


iDiih sit^ar (-er) ; defect' (-ion, -ive); effect' (-ive) ; effect'ual; 
infect' (-ton) ; infec'tioiis ; per'fect, literally, th/yr&aghly made 
I (-ion); imper'fect (-ion); refec'tioa ; refec'tory. 

faire (past participle /ai^) ; fash'ion (Fr. n. fagon^ the make or form 
of a thing) ; fea'sible (Old Fr. faisibk, that may be done) ; feat ; 
affaii/ ; coun'terfeit, literally, to make again^ to imitate ; for'feit, 
(Fr. V. forfavrey to misdo), to lose by some fault; sur'feit, v., 
to overdo in the way of eating. 

65. FAIiliSiBXi : fallo, f al'sum, to deceivd ; French Faillir, to &11 

short or dp amiss. 

fall : fal'lacy ; falla'cious ; fal'lible ; faUibil'ity ; infal'lible. 

fals : faLse (-hood, -ify) ; falset'to (Ital. n. = a false or artificial voice). 

fail : fail'ure ; fault (Old Fr. n.faidte) ; fault'y ; fal'ter ; default' (-er). 

06. FA'NUM, a temple. 

fan : fane ; fanat'ic (Lat. adj. fanal'icus, literally, one inspired by 
divinity — the god of the fane), a wUd enthusiast; fanat'ical ; 
fanat'icisra ; profane', v. (literally, to be before or outside of 
the temple), to desecrate ; profane', adj., unholy ; profana'tion ; 

67. FA'BI, fa'tus, to speak. 

fat : fate, -aj, -ality, -alism, -alist ; prefatory. 

Affable (Lat. adj. affab'ilis, easy to be spoken to) ; affabil- 
ity ; ineffable ; in'fant (Lat. participle, infans, infan'tis, lit- 
erally, not speaking) (-ile, -ine); in- fancy; nefa'rious (Lat. adj. 
nefa'rivs, impious) ; preface (Fr. n. j)reface)y something spoken 
or tmritten by way of introduction. 


6S. FATE'BI : fa'teor, f as'sus (in oomp. fes'sus), to acknowledge, to 


fess : confess' (-ion, -ional, -or) ; profess' (-ion, -ional, -or). 

69. FEXIX, feli'cifl, happy. 

felic : -ity, -itoue ; infeli'city ; feli'citate, to make happy by con- 


70. FEN1>EBE : fen'do, f e&'sum, to keep off, to strike.* 

fend : fend (-er) ; defend' (-er, -ant) ; offend' (-er). * 
fens : defense' (-ible, -ive) ; offense' (-ive) ; fence (n. and v., abbre- 
viated from defence) ; t fencer ; fencing. 

71. FEB'BE : fe'ro, la'tum, to bear, to ciurry. 

fer : fei-'tile (Lat adj. fer'tUis, bearing, fruitful) ; fertil'ity ; fer'- 
tilize ; circum'ference, literally, a measure carried around any- 
thhvg ; confer', to consult ; con'ference ; defer' ; deference ; 
deferen'tial ; differ (-ence, -ent). ; infei'' (-ence) ; offer ; prefer' 
(-able, -ence, -ment) ; proffer ; refer' (-ee, -ence) ; suffer 
(-ance, -able, -er) ; transfer' (-able, -ence) ; coniferous (Lat. 
n. co'nus, a cone) ; florif erous (Lat n. flos, fio'ris^ a flower) ; 
fructiferous (Lat. TL,fruc'tus, fruit) ; Lu'cifer (Lat. n. /?ix, lu/yis^ 
light), the morning or evening star, Satan; pestiferous (Lat. n. 
pes'tis, pest, plague). 

lat: ab'lative (literally, carrying away; the sixth case of Latin 
nouns) ; collate' (-ion) ; dilate' (-ory) ; elate' ; ob'late, flat- 
tened at the poles ; obla'tion, an offering ; prel'ate ; prel'acy ; 
pro'late, elongated at the poles ; relate' (-ion, -ive) ; correla'- 
tion ; correl'ative ; super'lative ; translate' (-ion) ; delay' (=di8 
+ lat, through old Fr. verb delayer^ to put off). 

72. FEB.VE'Bi: : ferVeo, to boil ; Fermen'tnm, leaven. 

ferv: -ent, -ency, -id, -or; effervesce', to bubble or froth up ; effer- 

ferment : fer'ment, -ation. 

7a. FES'TTTS, joyAil, meny. 

fest : -al, -ival, -ive, -ivity ; feast (Old Fr. feast, a joyous meal) ; 
fete (modem Fr. equivalent of feast), a festival; festoon 
(Fr. n. feston, originally an ornament for a festival). 

* Fen'dOt Jkn'dere, Is ased in Latin only in composition, 
t Another mode of spelling defend. 


74. FIDISRE: fi'do, to trust ; Fi'des, faith; Fidelia, tnuty. 

fid: confide' {-ant, -ence, -ent, -ential) ; diffidence; diffident; 
per'fidy (per = through and hence au;ay /rom good faith); 

fldel : fidelity ; in'fidel ; infidel'ity. 

Fe'alty (Old Fr. n. fMie= Lat. fdeVitas), loi/alty ; fidu'cial 
(Lat. n. fdu'ciuy trust) ; fidu'ciary ; afti'ance, to pledge faith, 
to betroth ; atfida'vit (Low Lat., signifying, literally, he made 
oath), a declaration on oath ; defy' (Fr. v. dt^fi&r, originally, 
to dissolve the bond of allegiance ; hence, to disown, to chal- 
lenge, to brave). 

75. FI'GEIIE : fi'go, fiz'um» to join, liz, pierce. 

fix : affix' ; cru'cifix (Lat. n. crux, cru'cis, a cross) ; cru'cify ; fix'- 
ture ; post'fix ; pre'fix ; suffix (n., literally, something fixed 
below or on ; hence, appended) ; transfix', to pierce throtigh, 

76. FIN'GERS : fin'so, fic'tum, to form, to feign ; Figu'ra, a shape. 

Act : fic'tion ; ficti'tious. 

fLgar : fig'ure ; figura'tion ; configura'tion ; disfig'ure ; prefig'ure ; 


Feign (Fr. y, feindre, feignant, to pretend) ; feint (feint, past 

part, offeindre) ; effigy (Lat. n. effigies, an image or likeness) ; 

fig'ment (Lat n, figmen'tum, an invention). 

FINIS. (See page 40). 

77. FIRIiUS, strong, stable. 

firm : firm ; firm'ness ; infirm' (-ary, -ity ) ; fir'mament, originally, 
firm foundation ; affirm' (-ation, -ative); confirm' (-ation, -ative). 

78. FIiAMliA, a stream of lire. 

flam : flame ; inflame' (-able, -ation, -atory). 

Flambeau' (Fr. n. flambeau from v. flamher, to blaze) ; fla- 
min'go (Span. n. flam,enco), a bird of a flaming red color. 



Age does not filways exempt one from faults. Peremptory tuxlers 
were given that all the princes should be present at the diet Many 
beneficial results must come from the introduction of drawing into 
the public schools. The lady is affable and perfectly free from affec- 
tation. The field is fertile and produces abundant crops. The pro- 
fessor's lecture related to edentate animals. Men sometimes feign a 
fealty they do not feel. The lady professed that her felicity was in- 
effable. The King seized a flambeau with zeal to destroy. It is a 
nefarious act to make a. false affidavit. Fanaticism is oft«n infectious 
The confirm-ed offender had issued many counterfeits, Dickens gives 
us the quintessence of the facetious. In figure the earth is an oblate 

70. FIjEC'TEBE : flec'to, fiex'um, to bend. 

fleet: deflect' (-ion) ; inflect' (-ion) ; reflect' (-ion, -ive, -or). 
flex : -ible, -ile, -ion, -or (a nmscle that bends a joint), -ure ; flex'- 
uous ; flex'uose ; cir'cumflex ; re'flex. 

80. FliOS, flo'ris, a flower. 

flor: -al, -et, -id, -ist ; Flo'ra, the goddess of floxoers; flor'iculture 
(Lat. n. cultuWa, cultivation) ; florii'erous (Lat. v. fer're, to 
bear) ; flor'in (originally, a Florentine coin with a lily on it) ; 
flour (literally, the flower or choicest part of wheat) ; fiow'er 
(-et, -y) ; flour'ish (Lat. v. fkres'cerey to begin to blossom, to 
prosper) ; efflores'cence ; efflores'cent. 

PLUERE. (See page 41.) 

81. F(EDn8, foed'eris, a league or treaty. 

feder : fed'eral ; fed'eralist (in the United States a member of the 
l>arty that favored a strong league of the States) ; fed'erate ; 
confed'erate ; confed'eracy ; confedera'tion. 

82. FOTilUM, a leaf. 

fol! : .aceous, -age, -ate ; fo'lio (ablative case of fo'liwm^ a leaf), 
a book made of sheets folded mice; exfo'liat-e, to come off in 


scales; foil, a thin leaf of metal; treToil, a plant with three (tres) 
leaves; einque'ioil (Fr. cinqtiey five). 

8S. FOR'MA, shape, form. 

form: form (-al, -ality) ; conform' (-able, -ation, -ity) ; deform' 
(-ity) ; inform' (-ant, -er, -ation) ; perform' (-ance, -er) ; re- 
form' (-ation, -atory, -er) ; transform' (-ation) ; for'mula (Lat. 
n. /or'wttZn, pL fcy/muUe^ a little form, a model) ; for'mulate ; 
murtiform (Lat. adj. mul'tn^, many) ; u'niform (Lat. adj. u'nus, 

84. FOB'TIS, strong. 

fort : fort ; for'tress, a fortified place ; for'tify ; fortifica'tion ; for'ti- 
tude ; com'fort, n., something that strengthens or cheers (-able, -er, 
-less); discom'fort; efioTijaptUting forth of one's strength; force 
(Fr. n. force, strength); for'cible; enforce' (-ment) ; reinforce' 

85. FBAN'GERE : fran'go, frac'tum, to break ; Fra'gilis, easily 


f rang, f ring : fran'gible (-ibility) ; infran'gible ; infringe' (-ment) ; 

f ract : frac'tion ; frac'tious ; fract'ure ; infract' (-ion) ; refract' (-ion, 


Fra'gile; frag'ment ; frail (old Fr. adj. fraile = Lat. fra'- 

gilis) ; frail'ty. 

86. FRA'TEB, fra'tris, a brother ; Frater'nus, brotherly. 

fratr; frat'ricide (Lat. v. caid'ere, to kill). 
fratem : -alj -ity, -ize ; confrater'nity. 

Fri'ar (Fr. n.frh'e, a brother); fri'ary. 

87. FBONS, fron'tis, the forehead. 

froDt : front (-flge, -al, -less, -let) ; affront'; confront' ; eifront'ery ; 
fron'tier (TV. n. frontihe) : front'ispiece (Lat. n. frontispi'dum, 
from frons and spicfercy to view ; literally, that which is seen in 


8g FBU'OR : fruo'tus, to enjoy ; Frn'ses, corn ; French Ppuit, fnilt. 

f ruct : -ify, -ification ; fnictiferous (Lat. v. ftr're^ to bear). 
frug : -al, -ality ; friigiferuus (Lat. y.fer^re, lo bear). 
fruit: fruit; iVuit'erer; iVuit'fiil ; fnii'tion. 

89. Fn'GERS : fu'sio, fu'situm, to flee. 

fug : fuga'cious ; centrifugal (Lat. n. cm'trum, the center) ; feb'ri- 
fuge (Lat. 11. fe'brisy fever) ; fugue (Lat. n. fu'ya, a flight), a 
mtmcal composition; refuge (-ee); sub'terfuge; ver'inifiige 
(Lat. n. ver'mis, a wonii). 

fugit: fu'gitive (arlj. and n.). 

90. PU'MITS, smoke. 

f um : fume ; fu'niid ; fumif erous (Lat. v. jtr're^ to bear), jytoducing 
8-moke; fu'matory, a pUint with hitter leaves; per'fume (-er, -ery). 
Fu'niigate (Lat v. fumigaWe, fumiga'tum, to smoke), to disin- 
fect; fumiga'tion; fu'migatory. 

91. FUNDERE : fun'do, fu'sum, to pour. 

fund : refund' ; found (Fr. v. fondre = Lat. fun'dere), to form by 
pmiring into a mould (-er, -ery) ; confound' (Fr. v. confondre, 
literally, to pour together ; hence, to confuse). 

f us : fuse (-ible, -ion) ; confuse' (-ion) ; diffuse' (-ion, -ive) ; effuse' 
(rion, -ive) ; infuse' (-ion) ; profuse' (-ion) ; refuse' (-al) ; suffuse' 
(-ion); transfuse' (-ion). 

9f . GER'ERE : ge'ro, ges'tum, to bear or eany. 

ger: ger'und, a Latin verbal ttoiin; bellig'erent (Lat. n. beVlum, 
war) ; con'geries (Lat. n. conge'ries, a collection) ; vicege'rent 
(Lat. vi'ce, in place of), one bearing rule in place of another, 

gest : gest'ure ; gestic'ulate (Lat. n. gestic'tdus, a mimic gesture) ; 
gestiaila'tion ; congest' (-ion, -ive) ; digest', literally, to carry 
apart : hence, to dissolve food in the stomach (-ible, -ion, -ive) ; 
suggest', literally, to bear into the mind from below, that is, indi- 
rectly (-ion, -ive) ; reg'ister (Lat. v. reger^ercj to carry back, to 
record) ; reg'istrar ; registra'tion ; reg'istry. 


03. OIO'NERX! : sis'no, gen'itum, to beget ; Gens, sen'tis, a clan or 

nation ; Ge'nu8» gen'eris, a kind. 

genit : gen'itive, a case of Latin nouns ; coiigeii'ital, horn with one ; 
primogeii'itor (Lilt, oA]. pri'mus, ^r^^), an ancestor ; primogeii'i- 
ture, state of being first born; progeii'itor, an ancestor. 

gent : genteel' (Lat. adj. genti'lis, pertaining to the same clan ; 
hence, of gooil fiiniily or Uith) ; gentil'ity ; gen'tle {genti'lis^ 
of good birth), mUd, refilled ; geii'try (contracted from gentlery), 
a class in EnglisJi society ; gen'tile, belonging to a nation other 
Uian tJie Jewish, 

gener : gen'eral (-ity, -ize) ; gen'erate (Lat. v. genera're, genera tuDiy 
to pi*oduce) ; genera' tion ; i-egenera'tion ; gener'ic ; geu'erou^s ; 
genei-Qs'ity ; con'gener, of the same kiml ; degen'erate, to fall 
off from tlie original kind ; degen'eracy. 

Gen'der (Fr. n. genre^\A\i. ge'mis, generis), tlie kind of a 
noun as regards (lie sex of the object ; genial (Lat. adj. geida'lis^ 
cheerful) ; gen'iiis (Lat. n. ge'nxus, originally, the divine nature 
innate in everything) ; gen' nine (Lat. adj. genui'nus, literally, 
proceeding from the original stock ; hence, natural, true); ge'- 
uus, a kin I including many specie.s ; engen'der (Fr. v. cn^en- 
drer, to beget) ; iugen'ious (Lat. adj. ingenio'sus, acute, clever); 
ingen'uous (Lat. adj. ingen'nus, frank, sincere). 

04. ORA'DI : jcra'dior, ffres'sus, to walk. 

grad : grada'tion ; gm'dient (gradiots, gradien'tis, pi-e.s. ixirt. of v. 

griuH), rate of ascent, grade ; grad'ual (Lat. n, grad us, a step); 

grad'uah' ; «legrade' (-ation); ingre'dient (Lat. part, ingre'diens, 

entering) ; ret'i*()grade. 
gross: aggiWsion ; aggres'sive ; con'gress (-ional) ; digress' (-ion); 

e'gre.*<s ; in'gres.'s ; ])rog'i-ess f-ion, -ive) ; retrogi-es'sion ; trans- 

gi"es.s' (-ion, -or). 

Grade (Fr. n. grcuh = Lat. gra'dm, degree or rank) ; degree' 

(Fr. n. degre'= dn + gradus), 

05. ' GRA'TUS, thankful, pleasing. 

grat: grate'ful ; gra'tis (Lat gi'a'tiis, by favor, for nothing) gral'- 
itude ; gratu'ity ; gratu'itous ; grat'ily (-ieation) ; cougrat'ulate 
(-ion, -ory) ; ingra'tiate. 


Grace (Fr. grdce = Lat. gra'tia^ (slvot, grace) ; grace'ful ; gra'- 
cioiis ; grace'less ; disgrace' ; agree' (Fr. v. cufrt'er, to receive 
kindly), -able, -meiit ; disagree'. 

n. GRA'VIS, heavy. 
grav : grave, literally, lieavy : hence, serious ; grav'ity ; gravita'tion ; 
aggravate, (-ion). 

Grief (Fr. grief =^lA\t. gra'vis), literally, Jieaviiiess of spirit^ 
sorroio; grieve; griev'ance; griev'ous. 

GREX. (See page 41 ) 

97. HABE'RS: ha'beo, hab'itam, to have or hold; HABITA'RE, 
hab'ito, habita'tum, to use frequently, to dwell. 

habit : habit'ual ; habit'uate ; hab'itude ; hab'itable ; hab'itat, the 
natural abode of an animal or a plant ; babita'tiou ; cobab'it ; 
inhab'it (-able, -ant). 

hibit : exhib'it, literally, to Jiold out, to sJiow (-ion, -or) ; inbib'it 
(-ion) ; prohib'it (-ion, -oiy). 

Hal/it (Lat. Jiab'ihis^ state or dress) ; habil'inient (Fr. n. ha- 
hillefinent, from v. hahiller^ to dress) ; a'blc (Lat. adj. hah'ilis, lit- 
erally, that may be easily held or manjiged ; hence, apt, skillful). 

98. Hi&RS'RE : he'reo, he'sum, to stick. 

her: adhere' (-ency, -ent); cohere' (-ence, -ency, -ent) ; inhere' 

hes : adhe'sion ; adhe'sive ; cohe'sion ; cohe'sive. 

Hes'itate (Lat. v. hcesita^rCf ]uesita'tumy to be at a stand, to 

doubt) ; hes'itancy ; hesita'tion. 

99. H.^'RES, here'dis, an heir or heiress ; French H6riter, to he heir to. 

liered : bered'itary, descending to heirs, 

herit: her'ibible ; her'itige ; inher'it (-ance) ; disinher'it. 

Heir (Old Fr./i«iV= Lat. /ta?Ves); heir'ess; heir'loom (Anglo- 
Saxon geloma, gooils). 

100. HO'MO, hom'inis, a man ; Huma'nus, hninan. 

horn: honi'age (Fr. liomiiiage^ literally, acknowledgment by a inan 
or vassal to his feudal lord ) ; hom'icide (Lat. v. catd'ere, to kill). 


human : hu'man, hehnying to n man ; humane', luiving the feeliiigs 
p'oper to a many kind; hiiiimu'ity ; bii'uiauize ; iiihu'nuui. 


Floral devices were tastefully introduced. The friar gives himself 
to reflection, and does not care a florin for worldly pleasui*es. The 
tree is covered with foliage, but Ijears no fruit. The rights of the 
fraternity have been infringed. The metal was fused in iron i)ans. 
By the hiw of •primogeniture the eldest son will succeed to the estjite. 
Congress met, and a general of the army was chosen i)resident. The 
gradient is gentle, and the access easy. The reform of the refractory was 
in the highest degree genuine. We received our frugal meal with 
gratitude. Many of the inhabitants ])eri8hed in \h^ flames. Hamil- 
ton and Jay were leading federalists. To err is* human ; to forgi^'e, 
divine. The boy gesticulated violently, but it was a mei-e sMerftige. 
Your wonls infuse comfmt into my heart. May one not be human 
without being humane ? Do you know the difference between the 
genitive and the ablative case ? 

101. HU'MUS, the earth; Hu'milis, ou the gi-ound, lowly. 

hum : exhume' (-ation) ; inhume. 

humil: humirity ; humil'iate (-ion); hum'ble (Fr. adj. huiMe^z. 
Lat. hu'milis). 

IHE. (See]mi;e4l.) 
102. JA'CERE: ja'cio, jao'tum, to throw or cast 

jeet: al/ject ; ad'jective ; conjecture (-al) ; deject'ed; dejec'tion ; 
eject' (-ion, -ment) ; inject' (-ion) ; interject' (-ion) ; object' 
(-ion, -ionable, -ive, -or) ; ])i'oject' (-ile, -ion, -or) ; reject' (-ion) ; 
subject' ^ion, -ive) ; traject'ory. 

Ejac'ulate (Lat. v. ejaculare, ejacula'tum, to hurl or throw) ; 
cjacula'tion ; ejac'ulatory ; jet (Fr. v.jHei-=j(i'cere); jet'ty; jut. 

lOS. JUN'GERE : Jnn'so, junc'tum, to Joui ; Ju'ffum, a yoke. 

juuct : junc'tion ; junct'ure, a jwint of time vuide critical by a join- 
ing of circunutauces ; ud'junct; conjuuc'tion ; conjunc'tive ; dis- 


junc'tioii ; disjunc'tive ; injunc'tion ; sabjunc'tive (literally, 
joined subonliuately to something else). 
jug: con'jiigal, relating to marriaye; con'jiigate(-ion); sub'jugate 

Join (Fr. v. joindre^:^ Lat. jun'gere) ; adjoin' ; conjoin' ; dis- 
join' ; enjoin' ; rejoin' ; subjoin' ; joint (Fr. part, joint = Lat. 
jiDic' ttim) ; joint'ure, property settled on a wife, to be enjoyed 
after her hu^and^s death ; jun'ta (Spanish junta =YaX. junc'tus, 
joined), a grand amncU of state in Spain ; jirn'to (Span, junt), 
a body of men united for some secret intrigue, 

104. JUHA'BE : ju'ro, Jara'tum, to swear. 

jur: jii'ry ; ju'i-or ; abjure' ; adjure' ; conjure' ; con'jure, to effect 
something as if by a7i oath of magic ; cou'jurer ; per'jui'e, (o 
forswear; per'jurer ; per'jury. 

105. JUS, ju'ris, right law ; Jus'tus, lawfa] ; Ju'dex, ju'dicis, a judg& 

jur : jurid'ical (Lat. v. dica're, to pronounce), relating to the admin- 
istration of justice ; jurisdic'tion, legal authority; jurispru'deuce, 
science of law; ju'rist ; in'jure ; in'jury. 

just : just ; jus'iice ; justi'ciary ; jus'lify ; justifica'tion. 

judic : ju'dicature, profession of a jwlge ; judi'cious, according to 
sound judgment ; prej'udice, w,^ judgm^it formed beforehand ; 
prejudi'cial ; judge (Fr. n. jttt/c = Lat. ju'dcx) ; judg'nient ; pi-e- 

106. LE'GEHE : le'go, lec'tum, to gather, to read. 

leg : le'gend (originally, stories of saints to be i-ead — legen'da — in 
cbui-ch) ; leg'endary ; leg'ible ; le'gion (originally, a body of 
troo\>s gatJiered or levied — le'gio); el'egance ; el'egant ; sac'ri- 
lege (originally, the gathering or stealing of something sacred 
— sa'crmn). 

lig: dil'igent (originally, esteeming highly; hence, assiduous); 
el'igible ; intel'ligible ; intel'ligence ; intel'ligent ; neg'ligent 
(literally, not — neg = nee = not — ])ickiug up). 

lect : lect'ure (-ei ) ; collect' (-ion, -ive, -or) ; recollect' (-ion) ; 


eclec'tic (Greek ec = «) ; elect' (-ion, -or, -oral) ; in'tellect ; 
neglect' ; pivdilec'tiou, a likiruj for ; select' (-iun) ; les'sou (Fr. 
n. le^on = Lat. kc'lio^ a i-eading). 

107. IjSVA'HE : le'vo, leva'tum, to raise ; Iie'vis, easily raised, light ; 

French Ijever, to rise or raise. 

lev: lev'ity ; levita'tion ; alle'viate (-ion); el'evate (-ion); rel'- 
evant, literally, raising up : hence, 'pertinent, applicable ; rel'e- 
vancy ; irrelevant. 

lever : leav'en (Fr. levain, yeast) ; Levant', literally, tJie place of tJie 
ridng sun — the countries near the eastern part of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea ; lev'ee ; le'ver (-age) ; lev'y . 

IiEX. (See page 43 ) 

108. lil'BEB, free 

liber : -al, -ality, -alize, -ate, -ator, -ty. 

Deliv'er (Fr. v. delivrer = LdU delibera'rey to set free); de- 
li v'emnce ; deliv'ery. 

lilTlSRA. (See page 43.) 
109. IjO'CUS, a place. 

loc : -al, -ality, -alixe, -ate ; locomo'tive (Lat. v. itwve're, to move) ; 
allocate ; col'locate (-ion) ; dislocate (-ion). 

110. IiO'QUI: lo'quor, locu'tus, to speak. 

loqu : lo<jiia'cious ; loc^ua'city ; collocjuy ; collo'c[nial ; el'ofiuent ; 

niagniro(|nent (Lat. adj. inMfnwt, big, pompous); ol/lofiuy ; 

solil'(Kpiy (Lat. adj. so'las, alone) ; ventriFotiuist (Lat. n. ven'- 

ter, the stomach). 
locut: circiimlocu'tion ; elocu'tion ; iuterloc'utor. 

111. ZjU'DSBI!: lu'do, lu'sum, to play or deceive. 

lud: luMici-qus (Lat. adj. lu'dicrus, Ri)oilive, laughable); allude', 
litemlly, to play at, to refer to iiulirectlij ; delude' ; elude'; 

lus : allu'sion ; colUi'sion ; delu'sion ; delu'sive ; illu'aiou ; pi-e- 
lu'hive ; prelu'.sory. 


112. IiUX, lu'cis, light; liu'men, lu'minis, light, 

luc : Lu'cifer (l^jit. v.fer're, to bear) ; lii'ekl ; elu'citliile ; transhi'cenl. 
liiinin : hrmiiuiry; lu'miiious ; illu'minate ; illu'iiiine. 

113. MAG'NUS, great ; Ma'jor, greater; Magis'ter, master. 

iiiagn : magiiaiiim'ity (Liit. ii, an'imm, bouIi ; inng'iiate, a nicin 

of rank; luag'uiiy (-ei) ; umgnil'iceiit (Lat. wfac'tre, to make). 

shoivinff grandeur ; iiiag'nitiule. 
maj : inaj'esty (-ic) ; ma'jor (-ity) ; niay'or ; may'oralty. 
maglster : mag'istrate ; iiiag'istracy ; Jiiagiste'rial ; jiias'ter (Old 

Fr. ma/«<?'^ = Lat. truKjis'ter) ; mis'titiss (Old Fr. onaislresse = 

Lat. ma(jis'tra, ieui. of niagis'ter), 

114. MA'NUS, the hand ; French Main, the hand. 

niau : inaii'acle (Lat. ii. iruin'ica, a fetter) ; manii/ukte, to woik 
with the hand (-ion, -oi) ; man'tial ; maiiiifnct'iire (Lat. v. 
fac'ere, to make) ; luanufac'tory ; iiuummit' (Lat, v. mit'tere, 
to send) ; nian'iiscript (Lat. v. scrib'ere, scHp'turrij to write) ; 
auianiieii'sis (= al) + mu'niis), oyie xoho does handwriting for 
another ; eniaii'cipate (Lat. v. caj^'ere, to take) ; quatlnrmanous 
(Lat. quataor, four). 

main : man'iier (Fr. n. 'inaniei-ey originally, the mode in which a 
thing is Jiandled) ; maneu'ver (Fr. n. nuaiauvrcy litendly, hand 
work ; Fr. n. osuirre = o^jms, work) ; manure', r. (contracted from 
Fr. 7na7iosuvrer, to cultivate l>y manual labor). 

115. MA'RE» the Bea. 
Mai'ine' (Ijat. atlj. nmri'nus, pertaining to the sea) ; niar'iner ; 
mar'itime (Lat. adj. mariti'mus = mari'nus) ; f^ubmarine' ; trans- 
marine' ; ultramarine'; mermaid (Fr. n. wer = Lat. nui'rc). 

ltd. ME'DIUS, the middle. 

Mediaj'val (Lat. n. wvum, ^^S^), relating to the Middle Ages ; 
me'diate (-ion, -or) ; me'diocre (Lat. a<lj. medio' cris, middling ; 
hence inferior); medioc'rity; Mediterra'jiean (Lat. n. ter'ra, 
land) ; me'dium (Lat. ii. imUUum, the middle) ; imme'diate 
(prefix i?i=uot), vjiih noUiing intervening ; interme'diate. 


117. MBMINIS'SISsineinlni, to remember; Me'mor, mindful; MEM- 
OB A'BS: mem'oro, memora'tum, to remember, to meMtion. 

ihemlnisse : meinen'to (imper. mood ; literally, remember thou)^ a 

reminder, a memoriaL 
memof : meni'qrable ; memoranMum (Lat. m-emorari'diis, p. part, of 

memora're ; literally, something to be reniembereil) ; conimera'- 

orate (-ion, -ive) ; mem'ory (Lat. n. memo'ria) ; memo'rial (-ize); 

Mem'oir (Fr. n. m^moire = Lat. mem^an/dum) ; men'tion (Fr. 

n. mention = Lat. men'tio^ a speaking of) ; remem'ber (Old Fr. v. 

rememhrer=lai.t. remem'arare); remem'brance; remem'brancer ; 

reminis'cence (Fr. n. reminiscence^ from Lat. v. reminis'ci, to 

recall to mind). 

118. MENS, men'tis, the mind. 

ment : men'tal ; dement'ed ; demen'tia, insanity ; ve'hement (Lat. 
ailj. ve'hemen8 = ve, not, and mens; literally, not reasonable), 
furious, ardent, 


We reject insincere homage. When the body was exhumed the 
jury decided that poison had been administered. Legendary stories 
were related by the friar. The lessons were selected with intelligence. 
Levity and gravity are different qualities. The mayor^s speech was 
more ludicrous than facetious. The magistrate claimed jurisdiction in 
the locality. We heard Hamlet's soliloquy finely delivered. Do you 
recollect the m^ignifkent lines at the beginning of " Paradise Lost" ? 
The lecturer was lucid in his allusions. In medireval times homage 
was exacted of all vassals. The mariners ma-neuvered beautifuUv. 
Your magnificent donation will }ye gratefuUy remembered. The mer- 
maid is a mere delusion. Illegible manuscript is a decided nuisance. 
The eastern part of the Mediterranean is called the Levant, Frank-' 
lin's memoirs are very interesting. 

110. MEB'CES, hire; Merx, mer'cia, merchandise. 

mere: mer'cantile (Lat. part, m^r'cans, m/ercan'tis)) mer'cenary 
(Lat. adj. merceno/rius)^) mer'cer (Fr. n. mercier), one who deals 


in silks and woolens; mer'chant (Lat. part, mer^cans) ; mer'cban- 
dise ; com'merce (Fr. n. commerce) ; commer'cial ; mar'ket (Lat 
n. merca'tus, a place of public traffic). 

120. MEH'GERE : mer'go, mer'sum, to dip, to sink. 

merg : merge ; emerge' ; emer'gency, ihxit which arises sttddenly ; 

mers : emer'sion ; immerse'. 

121. MIGHA'BS : migro, migra'tum, to remove.- 

migr : em'igrant (Lat. part, mi'grans^ migran'tis). 

migrat : mi'grate (-ion, -ory) ; em'igrate (-ion) ; im'migrate (-ion) ; 

transmigra'tion, (he passage of the sovl into another body after 


122. MIXES, mil'itis, a soldier. 

mllit: -ary, -ant ; mii'itate, to act against; mili'tia, enrolled sol- 
diets not in a standing army, 

128. MINE'BE : min'eo, min'itum, to hang over. 

mlu : em'inent (Lat. part, em'inens, standing out); em'inence ; im'- 
minent, literally, threatening to fall; pre-em'inent ; pre-em'- 
ineuce ; prom'inent ; prom'inence ; superem'inent. 

124. MINTTISRE : min'uo, minu'tum, to lessen ; Mi'nor, less ; 

Mi'nus, less. 

mlnut : minute' ; minu'tiae (pi. of Lat. n. minu'tia, a very small 
object) ; min'uend (Lat. part, mimien'dtis, to be lessened) ; min'- 
uet (Fr. n. minuet = Lat. adj. minu'tuSj small), a dance of small 
steps ; dimin'ish (Lat. v. diminu'ere, to lessen) ; diminu'tion ; 

minor : mi'nor, n. and a. ; minor'ity. 

minus : mi'nus (Lat. adj. comp. deg., less) ; min'imum (Lat. adj. 
super, deg., least) ; min'im. 

125. MINIS'TER, a servant or attendant. 

minister: min'ister; ministe'rial ; min'istry; admin'ister ; admin- 
istra'tion ; admin'istrative ; administra'tor. 


126. MIBA'BI : mi'ror, mira'tus, to wonder. 

mir : admire' (-able, -ation) ; mir'acle (Lat. n. mirac'ulum, a won- 
derful thing) ; mirdc'tilous. 

Mirage' (Fr. n. mirage, a reflection); mir'ror (Fr. n. miroir, 
from V. mirer, to view). 

127. MI8C£'R£ : mia'ceo, mix'tum, to mingle. 
inlsc : mis'cellany ; miscella'neous ; promis'cuous. 
mixt : mix ; mixt'ure ; admixture ; intermix'. 

128. MI'SER, wretched. 
miser : mi'ser (-able) ; mis'ery ; conimis'erdte (-ion). 

129. MIT'TSjBIi: mit'to, miB'sum, to send or cast 
mit : admit' (-ance) ; commit' (-ee, -ment) ; demit' ; emit' ; inter- 
mit' (-ent); manumit' (Lat. n. manus^ the hand), to release from 
davery ; omit' ; permit' ; pretermit' ; remit' (-ance) ; submit' ; 
transmit' ; mit'timus (Lat. we send), a warrant of commitment 
to prison, 
miss: mis'sile; mis'sion (-ar}'); admis'sible; admis'sion ; com'mis- 
sary, an officer who furnishes 'provisions for an army, comniis- 
sa'riat ; com mis'sion (-er) ; com'promise ; demise', death ; em'- 
issary ; intermis'sion ; omis'sion ; permis'sion ; premise' ; preui'- 
ises ; prora'ise (-ory) ; remiss' (-ion) ; submis'sion ; submis'- 
sive ; transmis'sion ; transmis'sible. 

SO' MOPERA'RI: mod'eror, modera'tus, to keep within bounds; 

Mo'duBy a measure or manner. 

moderat: mcjd'erate (-ion, -or); immod'erate. 

mod ! mode ; mood ; raod'ify (-able, -er) ; modifica'tion ; accom'- 
niodate (-ion) ; commode* (Lat. adj. com'modusy convenient), 
a small sideboard ; commo'dious, literally, m,easured with; com- 
mod'ity, literally, a convenience; incommode'; mod'em (Lat. 
adv. mo'doy lately, just now) ; mo<l'emize ; mod'ulate (Lat. n. 
m/)d'ulus, a measuring of tones) ; modula'tion. 

181. MONE'BE : mo'iieo, mon'itum, to remind, to warn. 
mon : admon'ish ; nion'ument (Lat. n. monvmenUtm); premon'ish ; 


.suin'mon (Lat. v. 8um7noru/re = siib + mone'rey to remind privily), 
to call by auikority, 
monlt : moii'itor (-ial) ; admoni'tion ; admon'itory ; premoni'tion ; 

132. SiONS, mon'tis, a mountain. 

mount: mount, ii, a high hill ; w to rise or ascend ; moun'tain (-eer, 
-ous); moiuit'ebank (It. n. baiwo, a bench); amount'; dis- 
mount' ; i)ar'amount (Fr. par=z Lat. per, exceedingly), of the 
highest importa}ice ; proni'ontory (litemll}', the /ore-part or pro- 
jecting part of a mountain) ; remount' ; surmount' (rable) ; 
tan'tamount (Lat. adj. tan'tiis, so much); ultramon'tane (liter- 
ally, beyond the Alps ; i. e. on the Italian side). 

133. MONSTRA'RSj : mon'stro, monstra'tum, to point out. to show 

nionstr : mon'ster ; mon'strous ; monstros'ity ; nuis'ter, literally, 

to show up, to display, 
monstrat: dem'onstrate (-able, -ion, -ive); remon'strate ; remon'- 


184. MORDE'BE : inor'deo, mor'sum, to bite. 

mord: mor'dant, biting, serving to fix colors ; moi-da'cious (Lat. adj. 
mor'dax, niorda'cis, biting), severe, sarcastic. 

mors: mor'sel, liteitdly, a little hite ; remorse', the biting of con- 
science (-ful, -less). 

MOBS. (See page 41) 

135. M03, mo'ris, manner, custom ; pi. Sio'res, manners or morals. 

mor: mor'al (-ist, -ity, -ize); inmior'al (-ity); demor'alize (-ation). 

186. SiOVE'BE : mo'veo, mo'tum, to move. 

mov: move (-able, -er, -ment); remove' (-able, -id). 

mot: (-ive, -or); commo'thon ; emo'tion (-al); locomo'tion (Lat. n. 

lo'cus, a place); promote' (-er, -i.)n); remote' (-ness). 

Mob (Lat. adj. mob' ills, easily moved); mo' bile (-ity); mo- 

men'tum," (he force of a nurvhig body, impetus. 


187. SiUL'TUS, multi, many, much. 

multl : mul'titiule ; multitudinous ; multifa'rious ; nuiriiforrn ; 
luul'tiple (Lilt. adj. mid'tiplas for miU'tiplex, manifold); murti- 
ply (Lat. adj. mul'tiplex); mul'tiplicate (-ion); multiplic'ity. 

138. MU'NUS, mu'neris, a gift, a ■enrlce. 

mun : numic'ipal (Lat. n. niunicip'iiim, a free town), pertaininfj to 
a corporation ; municii)arity ; munificent ; munii'icence ; com'- 
mon (Lat. adj. c&mma' ivin — con + muniia ; Htendly, ready to be 
of service) ; commune', v, literally, to share (discourse) in com- 
mon ; commun'ion ; commu'nity ; com' ; conrumuist ; 
commnn'icate (-ion, -ive) ; commu'nicant ; excommu'uicate ; 
irauiu'nity {in 4- munus ; literally, absence of service). 

maner: reniu'nei'ate (-ion, -ive). 

139. MUTA'RSj : mu'to, muta'tum, to change. 

mut: mu'table (-ity); immu' table ; commute'; transmute' (-able). 
mutat: muta'tion ; commuta'tion ; transmuta'tion. 

140. NAS'CI: nas'cor, na'tus, to be born, to grow; Natu're, nature. 

nase: nas'ceiit, grmoing ; renaissance' (a style of decorative art 

revived by Raphael). 
nat : na'tal ; na'tion, originally, a distinct race or stock (-al, -ality, 

-ize); intema'tional ; na'tiye (-ity); cog'nate ; in'nate. 
natur : nat'unil (-ist, -ize, -ization) ; preternatural ; supernat'ural. 

141. NA'VIS, a ship. 

nav : nave, the middle or body of a church ; na'val ; iia'vy ; nau'ti- 
cal (Lat. adj. nauUicus, from nauta or nav'iia^ a sailor); nav'i- 
gate (Lat. v. iiaviga^re= im'vi8-\-a(fere)\ nav'igable ; uaviga'tion ; 
nav'igator ; circumnav'igate. 

142. NEC'TEBE: nec'to, nex'um, to tie or bind. 

nect: connect' (-ion, -ive); discounect' (-ion). 
uez: annex' ; anuexu'tion. 



The administration of affairs is in the hands of her majesty^s minis- 
ters. A miscellatieous collection of goods was sold on commission. The 
m>erchant remitted the money called for in the emergency. The sugges- 
tion to mx>dify the plan was tantamount to its rejection. Do you ad- 
mire Bunker Hill Monument ? A viiser is an object of commiseration 
to all who know him. RerMi7ieration will be allowed according to 
the amount of labor. The major has been promoted to the rank of 
colonel. All who weie connected with the m/>vem»ent were excommii- 
nicated. As the annexed territory is chiefly maritime it will greatly 
increase the commerce of the nation. The monitor admonished the 
pupils with great gentleness. The committee said the master had 
done his work in an admiraUe manner. The Pilgrim Fathers emi- 
grated to this country in 1620. A minute missile m^yved towards us. 
What is the subjunctive m^ood or mode ? A multitude of communists 
appeared in Paris. 

145. NSjGA'RE : ne'go, nega'tum, to deny. 

negat: nega'tion ; neg'ative ; ab'negate(-ion) ; ren'egade, an apos- 

Deny' (Fr. v. denier = Lat. de 4- nega're, to contradict) ; deni'al ; 

144. NEU'TER, neu'tram, neither of the two. 
neutr : neu'ter ; neu'tral (-ity, -ize). 

146. NOCE'BE : no'ceo, .no'dtum, to hurt. 

noc : no'cent, hurtful ; in'nocent ; in'nocence ; innoc'uous. 

Nox'ious (Lat. adj. nox'ius, hurtful) ; obnox'ious ; nui'sance 
(Fr. V. nuire = Lat. noce^re), 

146. NO'MEN, noxn'iniB, a name. 

nomen: nomenclature, a list of technical names; cogno'men, a 

uouiiu : uom'inal ; uom'inate (-ion, -ive) ; nomhiee' ; denom'iuate 


(-ion, -or) ; ig'nominy (Lat. in -h no'meiiy a deprivation of one's 
good name) ; ignomin'ious. 

Noun (Fr. n. worn = Lat. ivofmen) ; pro'noim ; misno'mer 
(Old Fr. mes = wrong, and Twmmer, to name), a wrong name* 

NORMA. (See page 45.) 

147. NOS'CEBIj: nos'co, no'tum, to know; No'ta, a mark. 

not : note (-able, -ary, -ice, -ify, -ion) ; no'ticeable ; notifica'tion ; 
noto'rioue (Lat. adj. not(/riu8, making known), known in a had 
sense) ; notori'ety ; an'notate (-ion) ; denote'. 

No'ble (Lat. adj. no'hilis, deserving to be known) ; noblesse' 
(Fr. n. noblesse = Lat. nohil'itas) ; nobil'ity ; enno'ble ; igno'ble 
(Lat. prefix ig = in) ; cog'nizance (Old Fr. cognizance = Lat. cog- 
iwscenUia, notice or knowledge), judicial observation ; connois- 
seur' (Fr. n. connoisseur, a critical judge) ; incog'nito (Italian 
incognito, from Lat. part, incog^nitus, unknown), unknown, in 
disguise ; rec'ognize (Lat. re, again, and cognosfcere, to know) ; 
recog'nizance, a term in law; recogni'tion ; reconnoi'ter (Fr. v. 
reconnoitre), to survey, to examine, 

148. NO'VUS, new. 

nov : in'novate (-ion, -or) ; ren'ovate (-ion, -or). 

Nov'el (Lat. adj. noveVlus, diminutive of no'vus), adj. some- 
thing new, out of the usual course ; n., literally, a story new and 
out of the usual course ; nov'elist ; nov'elty ; noy^ice, a beginner; 
novi'tiate, time of being a twvice, 

149. NU'MERUS, a number. 

numer : (-al, -ate, -ation, -ator, -ic, -ica-l, -ous) ; enu'merate (Lat. v. 
eiiumera're, enumera'tum, to count or tell of), to reckon up singly ; 
enumera'tion ; innu'merable (= in -j- nu'm^er -^able, that may 
not be counted) ; supernu'merary, one above the necessary num- 
ber; num'ber (Old Fr. n. numhre = Lat nu'merus), 

IM. NUNCIA'BSj: nuncio, nuncia'tum, to announce; Nun'cius, a 


iianciat : enun'ciate, to utter (-ion) ; denuncia'tion ; pronuncia'- 
tion ; renuncia'tion, disavoxoal, relinquishment. 


Nun'cio (Sp. n. n«ncio= Lat nun'cius), a messenger from the 
Pope ; announce' (Fr. v. aii?w»icer = Lat. (wi + nwnctaVe), to pro- 
claim ; announce'iuent ; denounce' (Fr. v. denoncer = Lat. de + 
nuncia're), to CLCcuse pvhlidy; pronounce' (Fr. v. prononcer^z 
Lat. ^0 + nuncia're) ; pronounce'able ; renounce' (Fr. v. re- 
noncer'= Lat. re + nuncia're), to disclaim ; renounce'ment. 

151. NUTBI'RE : nu'trio, nutri'tum, to nourish. 

nutri : nu'triment, that which, nourishes ; nutri'tion ; notri'tious ; 

Nour'ish (Fr. v. iwurrir= Lat. nutri' ere) ; nurse (Fr. v. nourrice, 
a nurse) ; nui-'sery ; nurs'liug, a little one who is nursed ; nurt'- 

162. OTUS> op'eris, a work or deed ; OFSBA'BI, opera'tus, to work. 

oper: operose, requiring labor , tedious, 

operat: operate (-ion, -ive, -or); co-operate (-ion, -ive, -or). 

Op'era (It. opfera = opera, pains, pi. ofo'pus), a musical drama ; 


ORDO. (Seei)age45.) 

153. PANDEBIj: pan'do, pan'sum, and pas'sum, to spread; Fas'sus, 

a step. 

pand : expand', to spread out. 

pans : expanse' (-ion, -ive). 

pass : pass ; pass'able, that may he parsed, tolerahle ; pas'sage ; com'- 
'i^Qs^, Y. to stretch round ; encom'pass ; surpass'; tres'pass (<re« 
= trans), to pass beyond due bounds. 

Pace (Fr. n. pa^= Lat. pas'sus); pas'senger (Old Eng. passa- 
ger) ; pass'over, a Jewish festival ; ' pass'port C= pass -|- port, lit- 
erally, a permission to leave a port or to sail into it. 

154. FAB, equaL 

par : pai^ity ; dispar'ity ; dispar'age, to injure by compariso^i of un- 
equals; dispar'agement. 

1 From pass and over, a feast of the Jews instituted to conmiemorate the providen- 
tial escai^e of the Jews* to Egypt, when God, smiting the first-liom of the Bgyptians, 
passed over the houses of the Israelites, which were marked with the blood of the 
Itaschal lamb. 


Pair (Fr. adj. paire = Lat. par), two of a hind ; peer (Old Fr. 
peer or pair = Lat. par), an equal, a nobleman ; peer'age ; peer'- 
leas ; conipeei*' ; nou'pareil (Fr. iwny not, and pareil, equal), a 
peerless Uiing or person. 

loft. FABA'BSj : pa'ro, para'tum, to make ready, to prepare ; SBFA- 
RAIIE: aep'aro, separa'tum, to separate. 

parat : compai-'ative ; pi-epara'tion ; prepar'atory ; repam'tion. 

separ: sep'arate, literally, to prepare aside: hence, to disjoin; sepa- 
m'tion ; sep'arable ; insep'arable. 

Parade' (Fr. n. parade, litemlly, a parrying), military display ; 
pare (Fr. v. panr,Xo pare or ward oft") ; par'ry (Fr. v. parer, to 
ward oft) ; appara'tus (Lat. apparatus = ad + paratus, literally, 
something prepared for a purpose) ; appar'el (Fr. n. appareil, 
preparation) ; compare' (Fr. v. comparei'= Lat. compara're), to 
set things together to see how far they resemble ea^ch other ; prepai*e' 
(Fr. V. preparer = Lat preparaWe) ; repair' (Fr. "V. r^rer= Lat. 
repara^re), literally, to prepare again, hence, to restore after injury; 
irrep'arable ; sev'er (Old Fr. v. sevrer= Lat. separa're)^ to reiider 
asunder; aev'eral (Old Fr. adj. several =z Lat. separa'lis, sepa- 
rate) ; sev'erance ; dissev'er. 

FABS. (See page 40.) 
156. FAT1IR, pa'tris, a fiEtther ; Fa'tria, one's native country. 

Pater'nal (Ljit. adj. pate/niw, pertaining to a father); imter'nity 
(Lat. n. pater^nitas, Tt. paternity), fathership; patri'cian (Lat. 
adj. patri'cius, from pa-tres, fathei-s or senators), a Eoman wo- 
hleman ; pat'rimony (Lat. n. patrimx/nium), an estate iiiherited 
frifm (me*s ancestors; pa'tron (Lat. n. patro'nus, a protector), die 
who countenances or supports ; pat'ronage ; pat'ronize ; pat'tern 
(Fr. n. pattern, something to be copied), a worfeZ / expa'triate, to 
banish; expatria'tion. 

lo7. FA'TI : pa'tior, pas'sus, to bear, to snfTer. 

pati : pa'tient ; pa'tience ; impa'tient ; compat'ible, consistent 'icith ; 
compat'il)ility ; incompatible. 


pass : pas'sion, strong agitation of the mind ; pas'sive ; impas'sive, 
insensible; coiii^^as'sion, sympaUiy ; coiapas'sionate. 

168« FBLXERE : pel'lo, pursum, to drive. 

pel (com-, dis-, ex-, im-, pro-, re-). 

puis : pulse, the heating of an artery as blood is driven through it ; 

pul'sate ; pulsa'tion ; compursion ; compul'sory ; expul'sion ; 

propursion ; repulse' ; repuFsive. 

169. PISNDB'RE : pen'deo, pen'sum, to hang. 

pend : pen'dant, a long, narrow flag; pend'ing, n4}t decided, during; 

append' ; append'age ; depend' (-ant, -ent, -ence) ; indepeud'- 

eut ; independ'ence ; suspend'. 
pens : pen'sile, hanging ; suspense' (-ion). 

Pen'dulous (Lat. adj. pe^i'dtdtis, hanging) ; pen'dulum (Lat. 

adj. pen'dulus) ; appen'dix (Lat. n. appen'dix, an addition). 

160. FEN'DERE : pen'do, pen'sum, to weigh, to pay. 

pend : com'pend (contraction of compendium) ; compen'dium (Lat. 
n. compen'dium, that which, is weighed, saved, shortened) ; com- 
pen'dious (Lat. adj. compendu/sus, brief, succinct) ; expend' ; 
expen'diture ; sti'pend (Lat. n. stipen'dium, literally, the pj^y 
of soldiers) ; stipen'diary. 

pens : pen'sive, thoughtful ; pen'sion, an aUovxmce for past services 
(-eer) ; com'pensate (-ion) ; dispense', to deal out (-ary) ; dis- 
pensa'tion ; indispen'sable ; expense' (-ive) ; rec'ompense. 

PBS. (See page 47.) 
161. FET1SRE : pe'to, peti'tum, to attack, to seek. 

pet : centrip'etal (Lat. n. cen'trum, center) ; compete' ; com'petent, 
fit, suitable; com' ^tence, sufficiency ; incom'petent. 

petit : peti'tion, a request (-er) ; compet'itor ; compet'itive ; repe- 

Pet'ulant (Fr. &<{}. petulant^ fretful) ; ap'petite (Fr.n. appStit), 
a seeking for hunger; impet'uous (Lat. 'eA]. impetuo'sus, vehe- 
ment) ; impetuos'ity ; im'petus (Lat. n. im'petus, a shock) ; re- 
peat' (Fr. V. repeter-=z Lat. repeHert). 



Numerous objections were submitted against the innovations about 
to be introduced. The obnoxious articles have been removed. The 
nominee by his ludicrous speech neutralized all that his friends did 
for him. Part of the apparatus prepared for the occasion was dam- 
aged in transmission. The patronage of the nobility and gentry con- 
nected with the neighborhood was asked. Many parts of the edifice 
are highly ornate, Christ had compassion on the mvltiikide, for they 
had been a long time without food. The petitioner's application for 
a pension was not repeated. How can an acid be neutralized 1 The 
renegcuie was brought to ignominy. The prince was travelling incog- 
nito. The young lady seems pensive rather than petulant. Here is 
a new edition of the rwweZ, with annotations by the author. The 
opera seems to be well patronized this winter. Webster had a com- 
pendious nu)de of stating great truths. What is meant by centripetal 
motion 1 What is the difference between the numerator and the 
den^miinator ? 

169. FLEC'TEBE : pleo'to, plex'um, to twist ; PLIC A'BE : pll'co, 

plica'tuin, and plic'ituxn, to fold. 

plex : com'plex (literally, twisted together) ; complex'ion ; com- 
plex'ity ; perplex' (literally, to twist thoroughly — per : hence, 
to puzzle or eml>arra88) ; perplex'ity. 

pile : ap'plicable (-ity) ; ap'plicant ; ex'plicable. 

pUcat: applica'tion ; com'plicate (-ion); du'plicate ; im'plicate 
(-ion); replica'tion, an answer in Zaw; sup'plicate, to entreat 
earnestly ; supplica'tion. 

pUcIt: explic'it (literally, out-folded; hence, distinctly stated); 
implic'it, vmplied. 

Ply (Fr. V. plier = lj3it. plica' re), to work diligently ; pli'able, 
easily bent ; pli'ant ; pli'ancy ; accom'plice, an associate in 
crims ; apply' (Old Fr. applier = Lat. applica're) ; appli'ance, 
ike thing applied ; comply' (Fr. v. plier), to fold with : hence, to 
conform or assent ; compli'ance ; display' (Old Fr. v. desployer, 
to unfold); doub'le (Fr. adj. dovhle =Lat. du'plex, twofold) ; 
du'plex; duplic'ity (Lat. n. duplicfitas^ ivom du'pUx, double); 


employ' (Fr. v. employer =laL implica're), to luep at vork; 
employe; employ 'er; employ 'ment ; exploit' (Fr. n. exploit = 
Lat. explic^itum-y literally, something unfolded, set forth : hence, 
a deed, an achievement) ; ini])ly', litendly, to infold: hence, to 
involvey to signify; mul'tiply (Fr. v. multiplier = IjaL murtuSf 
much, many) ; qnad'ruple (Lat qua'tuor^ four) ; reply' (Old Fr. 
V. replier= Lat. replica' re^ to answer) ; sim'ple (Lat. sine pU'ca^ 
without fold), not compounded^ artless ; sim'pleton (compai-e It. 
simplicione, a silly person) ; simplic'ity (Lat. n. sknplic'itas) ; 
sim'plify ; sup'ple (Fr. adj. souple = Lat. sup^plex^ bending the 
knee, from sub and plica're) ; sup'pliant (literally, bending the 
knees under, kneeling down); treb'le (Old Fr. adj. treble = 
Lat. ^rt'i)^, threefold) ; triple (Lat tri'plex); triplet, three lines 
rhyming aUemately. 

16S. PON15BE : po'no, pos'itiim, to place. 

pon : compo'nent, forming a compound; depone', to hear testimony ; 
depo'nent ; oppo'nent ; postpone' (-ment). 

posit : posi'tion *; pos'itive ; pos'itivism, a system of philosophy ; pos'- 
itivist, a Miever in the positive philosophy ; ap'posite, adapted 
to; compos'ite, compound; composition ; compos'itor ; deccjm- 
posi'tion ; depos'it (-ary, -ion, -ory); deposi'tion, H^ giving 
testimony under oath ; exposi'tion ; expoa'itor ; imposi'tion ; 
interposi'tion ; juxtaposi'tion ; op'posite (-ion) ; preposi'tion ; 
proposi'tion ; supposi'tion ; suppositi'tious ; teansposi'tion. 

Pose (Fr. v. pawr = Lat pon! ere), to bring to a stand by ques- 
tions ; post ; post'age ; post'ure (Fr. n. posture = Lat positu'ra, 
position); compose' (Fr. v. composer = LaI. compon'ere); com- 
pos'ure ; com'pound (Lat v. compon'ere) ; com'post, a mixture, 
a manure ; depot' (Fr. n. de'pdt =LAt. depos'itum) ; dispose' (Fr. 
y, disposer); dispo'sal ; expose' (Fr. v. esposer); expos'ure ; 
impose' (Fr. v. imposer) ; im'post, a tax placed on imported 
goods ; impos'tor, one guilty of fraud ; impost'ure ; interpose' ; 
oppose' ; pi-opose' ; prov'ost (Old Fr. provost, from Lat prcepos'i- 
tus, placed before, a chieQ, <^ principal of a college ; pur'poee 
(Old Fr. n. purpos, propos=lAt. propotfitum), an end set before 


one; repose' (Fr. v. reposer) ; suppose' (Fr. v. supposer); trans- 
pose' (Fr. V. transposer). 

164. FORTA'BE : per 'to, porta'tum, to cany. 

port : port'able ; poi-'ter (-age) ; deport'nient ; export' (-ation, -er) ; 
im'port (-ance, -ant, -er) ; pur'port, design; report' (-er) ; sup- 
port' ; insupport'able ; transport' (-ation). 

Portfo'lio (Lat. n. fo'liurriy a leal); portman'teau (Fr. n. 
manteauj a cloak); importune' (Lat. adj. importu'rvas, unseason- 
able) ; import' unate ; importu'nity ; op'portune (Lat. adj. op- 
portu'nus^ literally, at or before the port or harbor : hence, 
seasonable) ; opportu'nity ; inop'portune. 

165. FOS'SE, to be able ; Fo'tens, poten'tis, powerful, mighty. 

posse : pos'sible (Lat. adj. possib'ilis) ; possibd'ity ; impos'sible. 
potent : po'tent ; po'tency ; po'tentate ; poten'tial ; im'potent ; 

omnip'otent (Lat. adj. omfnis, all) ; plenipoten'tiary (Lat. adj. 

pU'nus^ full). • 

166. FBEHEN'DERE r prehen'do, prehen'sum, to lay hold of, to 


prehend: apprehend'; comprehend'; reprehend'. 

preliens : prehen'sile ; apprehen'sion ; apprehen'sive ; comprehen'- 
sible ; comprehen'sion ; comprehen'sive ; reprehen'sible. 

Appren'tice (Old Fr. n. apprentis, from v. apprendre, to learn) ; 
apprise' (Fr. v. apprendrey part, appris^ to inform) ; comprise' 
(Fr. V. comprendrey comprU), to include ; eii'terprise (Fr. n. en- 
trepise, something undertaken) ; impreg'nable (Fr. adj. imprena- 
6fo, not to be taken); pris'on (Fr. n. prison); prize (Fr. n. prise, 
something taken, from prendre, pris, to take) ; reprieve' (Old 
Fr. V. repreuver, to condemn), to grant a respite ; repri'sal ; sur- 

167. PREM'EBIS : pre'mo, pres'sum, to press. 

press : press (-ure) ; compress' (-ible) ; depress' (-ion) ; express' 
(-ion, -ive); impress' (-ion, -ive, -ment); irrepres'sible ; oppress' 
(-ion, -ive, -or) ; repress' (-ion, -ive) ; suppress' (-ion). 


Print (abbreviated from imprint^ from Old Fr. v. preimdre 
= Lat. premfere) ; im'print, the name of the pvhlisher and the title- 
page of a hook; imprima'Lur (Lat. let it he printed)^ originally, 
a license to print a hook, the imprint of a publisher, 

168. FBI'MUS, first ; Frin'oeps, prin'oipiB, chief, original. 

prim : prime ; pri'mate, the highest dignitary of a church ; pri'macy ; 
pri'mary ; prim'er ; prime' val (Lat. n. ce^vum, an age) ; prim'i- 
tive ; primogen'itor (Lat. n. gen'itor, a begetter) ; primogen'iture 
(Lat. n. genitu'ray a begetting), the exclusive right of inheritance 
which in English law helongs to the eldest son or daughter ; pri- 
mor'dial (Lat. v. ordi'ri, to begin), existing from the beginning ; 
prim'rose (Lat. n. ro'sa) ; prin'ceas ; prince (Fr. n. prince = Lat 
prin'ceps) ; prin'cipal ; prin'ciple. 

Pre'mier (Fr. adj. premier, first), the prime minister; pri'or 
(Lat. adj. prior, former) ; pri'oress, (he female superior of a con- 
vent; pri'ory, a convent ; prior'ity, state of being first ; pris'tine 
(Lat. adj. pristi'nus, primitive), original, ancient. 

169. FBOBA'RE : pro'bo, proba'tum, to try, to prove. 

prob : prob'able, likely, credible ; probability ; iniprob'able ; pro'- 
bate, the proof of a mil; proba'tion, the act of trying ; probi^'- 
tioner ; proba'tionary ; probe, to try by an instrument ; prob'ity, 
tried integrity; approba'tion, commendation; rep'robate (adj. 
literally, proved against), base, condemned. 

Prove (Old Fr. prover, New Fr. protiver= Lat. proba're) ; proof 
(Old Fr. n. prove = Lat. pro'ha, proof) ; approve' (Fr. v. ap- 
prouver = Lat. approha're) ; appro v'al ; disapprove' ; improve', 
(-ment) ; reprove' ; reproof. 

170. PUN'OEBE: pun'so, punc'tum, to prick; Func'tum, a point 

pung : pun'gent ; pun'gency ; expunge', to mark out 
punct : punctil'io (Sp. punctilio, from Lat. punc'tum, a point), a 
nice point of exactness in conduct, etc. ; punctil'ious ; punct'ual 
(-ity) ; punct'uate (-ion) ; punct'ure ; compunc'tion, remorse. 
Punch (abbreviated from puncheon^ from Lat n. pwMfti^), a 



pricking), an instrument for cutting holes ; point (Fr. n. ^nte 
= Lat. punc'tum) ; poign'ant (Fr. part, poignant, stinging) ; pou'- 
iard (Fr. n. poignard), a small dagger. 

171. PUTA'REj : pu'to, puta'tuin, to think, to prone, to count or reckon. 

put : compute' (-able, -ation) ; depute' (Lat. v. deputa're, to allot), 
to empower to act ; dep'uty ; dispute' (-ant) ; iiidis'putable ; 
impute' (literally, to reckon in), to charge ; repute' ; disrepute' 

patat : pu'tative, supposed ; am'putate, to cut off the limb from an 
animal ; deputa'tion ; imputa'tion ; reputa'tion. 

Count (Fr. v. compter = Lat. computa're) ; account' ; dis- 
count'; recount'. 

178. BAP1!B£ : ra'pio, rap'tum, to seiae suddenly, to snatch or hony 


rap : rapa'cious (Lat. adj. ra'pax^ rapa'cis, greedy) ; rapac'ity ; rap'id 

(Lat. adj. rap^idus, swift) ; rapid'ity ; rap'ids ; rap'ine (Lat. n. 

rapi'na, robbery). 
rapt: rapt, transported; rapt'ure (-ous); enrapt'ure ; surrepti'tious 

(Lat. V. surrip'ere, surrep'tum, to take away secretly), done by 


Hav'age (Fr. v. ravager= to lay waste) ; rav'ish (Fr. v. ravir 

= Lat rap^ere). 

178. BICGISBE: re'go, rec'tum, to role; Beo'tus, straight 

reg : re'gent ; re'gency ; reg'imen (Lat n. reg^imen, that by which 

one guides or governs anything) ; reg'iment (Lat. n. regimefii'- 

turn) ; re'gion (Lat refgio^ regio'nisy a region) ; cor'rigible (Lat. 

V. corrig'ere = con + reg'ere) ; incoi'rigible. 
rect : rec'tify ; rec'titude ; i*ec'tor (-ory) ; correct' (Lat v. corrig'ere 

= con + reg^ere), to remove faults ; direct' (-ion, -or, -ory) ; erect'; 

insurrec'tion ; resurrec'tion. 

Re'gal (Lat. n. rex, refgis^ a king) ; regalia ; reg'icide (Lat v. 

casd'ere, to kill) ; reg'ular (Lat. n. reg^vla, a rule) ; reg'ulate ; 

realm (Old Fr. realme, from Lat adj. rega^lis, royal) ; reign (Fr. 

n. rkgne= Lat reg'num) ; corrigen'da (sing, corrigen'dwm), tilings 


to be corrected ; dress (Fr. v. dresser = Lat diri^ere) ; address' (Fr. 
V. adresser, to direct) ; redress' (Fr. v. redresser = Lat. re-\-diri(fere\ 
to rectify f to repair ; source (Fr. n. source, from Lat. sur'gere, to 
spring up) ; surge ; insur'gent (Lat v. insur'gere). 

174. RI'VUS, a river. 

riv : ri'val (Lat. n. riva'lis, one who used a brook in common with 
another) ; ri'valry ; outri'val ; riv'ulet (Lat n. rii/tdus, diminu- 
tive of ri'vus) ; derive' (literally, to receive as from a source) ; 
deriva'tion ; deriv'ative. 

17&. BOGA'BE : ro'go, roga'tum, to ask. 

rog : ar'rogant, protid, overbearing ; ar'rogance ; prorogue' (Fr. v. 
proroger = Lat proroga're), 

rogat : aVrogate ; to repeal ; ar'rogate, to assume ; arroga'tion ; de- 
rog'atory, detracting ; inter'rogate (-ion, -ive, -ory) ; prerog'a- 
tive (literally, that is asked before others for an opinion : hence, 
preference;, exclusive or peculiar right or privilege ; proroga'tion, 
prolonga'tion ; superer'ogate (Lat. super + erogaWe, to spend or 
pay out over and above), to do more than is necessary; superero- 

176. BUM'FEBE : nim'po, rup'tum, to break. 

rupt: rupt'ure, to part violenUy; abrupt' (-ly, -ness) ; bank'rupt 
(It n. 6anco, a merchant's place of business) ; bank'ruptcy ; cor- 
rupt' (-ible, -ion) ; disrup'tion ; erup'tion ; intemipt' (-ion) ; ir- 
rup'tion ; irrup'tive. 

177. SA'CEB, sa'cri, holy. 

sacr : sac'rament (Lat. n. sacram&ii' tum, an oath, a sacred thing) ; 

sa'cred (orignally, past p. of Old Eng. v. sacre, to consecrate) ; 

sac'rifice (Lat. v. fad ere, to make) ; sac'rilege (literally, that 

steals — properly gathers, picks up, leifere — sacred things); 

sac'ristan (Low Lat. saxyrista'nns), a church officer. 
seer : (in oomp.) con'secrate (-ion) ; des'ecrate (-ion) ; ex'ecrate 

(-ion); ex^ecrable ; sacerdo'tal (Lat n. sacer^dos, sacerdo^tis, a 

]>riest), pertaining to the priesthood. 


178. SAIiUS, salu'tis, health; Sal'TUS, safe. 

salut: sal'utary, 'promoting health; salu'tatory, giving scUiUation; 

salute' (-ion). 
salv 2 sal' vage, rexoard for saving goods ; sal'vo, a volley ; salva'tion. 
Safe (through Old Fr. scdf or sauf) ; sale'ty ; save ; sav'iur ; 

salu'brious (Lat. adj. salu'brisy health-giving) ; salu'brity. 

179. SCANDERXi : scan'do (in oomp. soen'do), scan'dum (in comp. 

scen'sum), to climb. 


Bcend : ascend' (-ant, -ency) ; descend' (-ant) ; condescend' (-ing) ; 

transcend' (-ent) ; transcenden'taL 
Bcens : ascen'sion ; ascent' ; condescen'sion. 

180. 8CBIB1SBE : scri^bo, scrip'tum, to write. 

8crib : ascribe', to impute to ; circumscribe', to draw a line around, to 
limit ; describe' ; inscribe' ; prescribe', to order or appoint ; pro- 
scribe' (literally, to write forth), to interdict; subscribe'; su- 
perscribe'; transcribe'. 

script : script, type in imitation of handwritirvg ; script'ure ; ascrip'- 
tion ; con'script, one taken by lot and enrolled for military service ; 
conscrip'tion ; descrip'tion ; inscrip'tion ; nian'uscript (see mor- 
nus) ; post'script ; prescrip'tion ; proscrip'tion ; subscrip'tion ; 
superscrip'tion ; tran'script. 

Scribe (Fr. n. scribe) ; scrib'ble ; escritoire'. 

181. SBOA'BE: se'co, sec'tum, tocut. 
sec : se'cant (Lat. pres. p. sefcans, secan'tis), a line (hat cuts another, 
sect : sect (literally, a body of persons separated from others by 
peculiar doctrines) ; secta'rian (-ism) ; sec'tion (-al) ; bisect' 
(Lat. his, two) ; dissect' (-ion) ; in'sect (literally, an animal 
whose body is apparently cut in the middle) ; insectiv'orous 
(Lat. V. vara're, to feed) ; intersect' (-ion); venesec'tion (Lat. n. 
vena, a vein). 

Seg'ment (Lat. n. segmen^tum), a part cut off. 

189. SEDB'BS: se'deo (in comp. se'do), ses'sum, to sit. 
sed : sed'entaiy (Lat. adj. sedenta'rius, accustomed to sit) ; sed'iment 


(Lat. n. tedimen^tum, a settling or sinking down) ; sedimen'tary ; 

sed'ulous (Lat. adj. sed'idus, sitting close to an employment) ; 

Bid : assid'uous ; assidu'ity ; insid'ious (literally, sitting in wait 

against) ; preside' (literally, to sit before or over) ; pres'ident ; 

pres'idency ; reside' (-ence) ; res'idue ; resid'uary ; subside' ; 

sess : ses'sion (-al) ; assess' (literally, to sit by or near a person or 

thing) ; assess'ment ; assess' or ; possess' (Lat. v. possid'ere, 

posses^ sum, to sit upon : hence, to occupy in person, to have or 

hold); posses'sion ; possess'or ; posses'sive ; prepossess'^ to take 

possession of beforehand, to pr^vdice. 

188. SENTI'BB: sen'tio, sen'sum, to feel, to think. 

sent : scent (Old English sent), odor ; sen'tence (Lat. n. senten'tia) ; 
senten'tious (Lat. adj. sententio'sus, full of thought); sen'ti- 
ment (Fr. n. sentiTnent) ; sentimen'tal ; assent', to a^ree to ; 
consent' (literally, to think or feel together), to acquiesce, to per- 
mit ; dissent' (-er) ; dissen'tient ; presen'timent ; resent' (liter- 
ally, to feel back), to take HI ; resent'ment. 

sens : sense (-less, -ation, -ible, -itive) ; insen'sate ; non'sense ; 
sen'sual (Lat. adj. senww/lis) ; sen'sualist ; sen'suous. 

184. SE'Qni : se'qucr, secu'tus, to follow. 

sequ : se'quence, order of succession ; con'sequent ; con'sequence ; 
consequen'tial ; ob'sequies, formal rites ; obse'quious (literally, 
following in the way of another), meanly condescending ; sub'- 
sequent (-ly). 

secut: consec'utive ; per'secute (-ion, -or) ; pros'ecute (-ion). 

Se'quel (Lat. n. seque'la, that which follows) ; sue (Old Fr. 
V. suire, New Fr. suivre= sefqui), to follow at law; suit ; suit'able ; 
suit'or ; suite (Fr. n. suite), a train or set ; ensue' (Fr. v. m- 
suivre, to follow, to result from) ; pursue' (Fr. v. poursuivre, to 
follow hard, to chase) ; pursu'ance ; pursu'ant ; pursuit' ; pur'- 
suivant, a stcUe messenger ; ex'ecute (Fr. v. executer = Lat. 
exfsequi) ; execu'tion ; exec'utor ; exec'utrix. 


185. SEBVA'BE : ser'ro, serva'tum, to save, to keep^ to bind. 

serv : conserve' ; observe' (-able, -ance) ; preserve' (-er) ; reserve' ; 



servat : conserv'ative ; conserv'atory ; observa'tion ; observ'atory ; 
preserva'tion ; preserv'ative ; reserva'tion. 

Res'ervoir (Fr. n. reservoir = Lat. resenxj^o'nwm, a place where 
anything is kept in store). 


The puzzle is complicated and displays much ingenuity on the 
part of the inventor. A reply may be explicit without showing 
duplicity. It was urged that the election of delegates be postponed. 
The portTnanteau containing important papei'S was left at the m^- 
cJianVs office. An impostor is sure to show opposition to the course 
of justice. Coleridge holds that it is possible to apprehend a truth 
without comprehending it. The bankrupt was so arrogant that his 
creditors were not disposed to be lenient with him. Most of the 
questions proposed by the rector were answered in the negative. 
What is the origin of the word derivation ? The region is described 
as healthful. The manuscript was transcribed and sibbscribed by 
the author. It is salutary to be rivals in all worthy cmbitions. 

186. SIG'NUM, a sign. 

sl^n : sign ; sig'nal (-ize) ; sig'net ; sig'nify ; significant ; signifi- 
cance ; significa'tion ; assign' (Lat v. assigtw/re, to designate) ; 
assignee'; consign' (Lat. v. comigna're, to seal) to intrust to 
another ; consign'ment ; coun'tersign, to sign what has already 
been signed by another; design', to plan; design'er ; des'ignate, 
to nam^e, to point out ; designa'tion ; en'sign, the officer who 
cairies the flag of a regirnent ; insig'nia, badges of offi^ ; resign' 
(-ation) ; sig'nature (Lat. n. signatu^ra^ a sign or stamp). 

187. SIMIIiIS, like. 

simil : sim'ilar (-ity) ; sim'i-le, a formal likening or comparison ; 
simil'itude ; verisimilitude (Lat. adj. veWuSy true) ; dissim'ilar ; 
assim'ilate ; fac-sim'ile (Lat v. fac'ere, to make), an exact copy ; 
sim'ulate (Lat. v. simuWre, simula'tum^ to make like). 


Dissimula'tion (Lat. v. dissimuh/re^ dimmvla'tum^ to feign); 
dissem'ble (Fr. v. dis8&mhler = 'LsX, dissimvla're) ; resem'ble (Ft, 
V. ressernhler). 

188. SIS'TEBZi : sisto, Bta'tum, to caiue to stand, to stand. 

sist : assifit' (-ance, -ant) ; consist' (-eut, -ency) ; desist' ; exist' (for 
ex-sist), to Btand out: hence, to he, to live; exist'ence; co-exist' ; 
pre-exist' ; insist', to stand upmi, to urge firmly ; pereist' (-ent, 
-ence) ; resist' (-ance, -ible) ; subsist' (-ence). 

189. SOIi'VEBE : sol'vo, solu'tum, to loosen. 

solv : solve (-able, -ent, -ency) ; absolve' ; dissolve' ; resolve'. 
solut: solu'tion; ab'solute (-ion) ; dis'solute (-ion); res'olute (-ion). 
Sol'uble (Lat. adj. solu'bilis) ; solubil'ity. 

190. SFEC'EBE or SFICERE : Spe'cio or spi'cio, Bpec'tum, to be. 

hold ; Spe'cies, a kind. 

spic : aus'pices (literally, omens drawn from the inspection of birds); 
auspi'cious ; conspic'uous (Lat. adj. conspic'utis, wholly visible); 
conspicu'ity ; des'picable (Lat. despicdb'Uis, deserving to be de- 
spised); perspic'uous (Lat. adj. perspic'uus, that may be seen 
through) ; perspicu'ity ; suspi'cion ; auspi'cious. 

spect: as'pect ; cii-'cumspect (-ion); expect' (-ant, -ation) ; inspect' 
(-ion, -or) ; perspec'tive ; pros'pect (-ive) ; prospec'tus (Lat. n. 
prospec'tus, a view forward) ; respect' (literally, to look again : 
hence, to esteem or regard) ; respect'able ; respect'ful ; re'tro- 
spect (-ive) ; suspect'. 

species : spe'cies ; spe'cial (-ist, -ity, -ize) ; spe'cie ; spec'ify (-ic, 
-ication) ; spe'cious, showy, 

Spec'imen (Lat. n. spec'imen, a sample); spec'tacle (Lat. n. 
specfxic'tdiLm, anything presented to view) ; specta'tor (Lat. n. 
specta'tor, a beholder) ; spec'ter (Lat. n. sfpecftrum, an image) ; 
spec'tral ; spec'trum (pi. spec'tra), an iinage; spec'troscope (Gr. 
v. spok'ein, to view), a7i instrument for analyzing light ; spec'u- 
late (Lat. n. spedxda, a lookout), to contemplate^ to traffic for 
great profit ; specula' tion ; spec'ulative. 


191. SPIBA'BE : spi'ro, spira'tum, to breathe ; Spir'itus, breath, spirit. 

spir : spir'acle, a breathing pore ; aspire' (-ant) ; conspire' (-acy) ; 
expire' ; expir'ing ; inspire' ; perspire' ; respire' ; transpire'. 

splrat : aspira'tion ; as'pirate ; conspir'ator ; inspira'tion ; perspi- 
ra'tion ; respira'tion ; respir'atory. 

spiritus: spir'it ; spii-'itual (-ity) ; spir'ituous. 

Spright'ly (spright, a contraction of spirit) ; sprite (a contrac- 
tion of spirit). 

192. SPOND£'RE: spon'deo, spon'sum, to promise. 

spond: correspond', to answer one to another ; correspond'ence ; cor- 
respond'ent ; despond' (literally, to promise away : hence, to 
give up, to despond) ; despond'ency ; respond'. 

spons: spon'sor, a surety ; response' (-ible, -ibility, -ive); irrespon'- 

Spouse (Old Fr. n. espotut, espouse = Lat. spon^sus, spon'sa) ; 
espouse' (Old Fr. v. espouser^ Lat. spo^isa're, to betroth, from 

198. STA'BE: sto, Bta'tum (in comp. sti'tum), to stand; pros. part. 
Btans, stan'tis, standing); SIS'TEBE: sis'to, sta'tum, to 
cause to stand ; STATU'ERE: stat'uo, Btatu'tum, to station, 
to fix, to place. 

stant ; cir'cumstance (from part, circumstans', circumstan'tisy through 
Lat. n. circumstan'tia, Fr. circonstance), the condition of things 
surrounding or attending an event ; circumstan'tial ; circumstan'- 
tiate ; con'stant ; con'stancy ; dis'tant (literally, standing asun- 
der : hence, remote, reserved) ; dis'tance ; ex'tant ; in'stant ; 
instanta'neous ; tranaubstan'tiate, to change to another substance. 

Stat : state ; sta'tion (-ary, -er, -ery) ; state'ly ; state'ment ; states'- 
man ; stat'iie (-ary) ; stat'ure. 

stit: supersti'tion (literally, a standing over, as if awe-struck); 

statut : stat'ute (-orj-). 

stitu: con'stitute (literally, to set or station together: hence, to 
establish, to make) ; constitu'tion (-al) ; constit'uent ; constit'- 
uency ; des'titute (literally, put from or away : hence, forsaken, 


in want of) ; in'stitute (literally, to place into: hence, to found, 
to commence) ; restitu'tion ^ sub'stitute (-ion). 

Sta'ble ; (Lat. adj. stab'ilis, standing firmly); staVlish ; estab'- 
lish (-ment) ; stay, literally, to keep standing ; ai/mistice (Lat. 
n. a/wia, anns), a temporary stand-still of war ; •arrest' (Old Fr. 
arrester = Lat. ad + restare, to stay back, to remain) ; contrast' 
(Lat. contra -f- sta^re, to stand against) ; inter'stice ; oVstacle ; 
ob'stinate ; sol'stice (Lat. n. «oZ, the sun). 

194. STRIN'GBBE: Btrin'ffO, stric'tum, to bind ; to draw tight. 

string : strin'gent ; astrin'gent ; astrin'gency. 

strict : strict (-ness, -ure) ; dis'trict, a defined portion of a country ; 
restrict' (-ion). 

Strain (Old Fr. straindre = ljSLt, strin'gere); constrain'; dis- 
train' ; restrain' ; restraint'. 

106. STBIT'EBE : Btru'o, struc'tum, to build, to place in order. 

struct : struct'ure ; construct' (-ion, -ive) j destruct'ible ; destruc'- 
tion ; instruct' (-ion, -ive, -or); obstruct' (-ion); superstruct'ure. 
Con'strue ; destroy' ; in'strument (Lat. n. instrumen'tum) ; 

196. SU'MEBE : su'nio, sump'tum, to take ; Sump'tus, cost^ expense. 

sum: assume'; consume' (-er) ; presume'; resume'. 

sumpt: sumpt'uous (Lat. adj. sumptVro'stis, expensive); sumpt'uary, 

relating to expense ; assump'tion ; consump'tion ; consump'tive ; 

presump'tion ; presump'tive ; presump'tuous. 

197. T AN'GERE : tan'go, tac'tum, to touch. 

tang: tan'^'ent, a straight line which touches a circle <yr curve; 

tact : tact, peculiar faculty <yr skill ; con'tact ; intact'. 

Attain' (Fr. v. attaindre, to reach); attain'able ; conta'gion, 

communication of disease by contact or touch ; contam'inate, to 

defile, to infect ; contig'uous ; contin'gent. 


TBMFUS. (See page 48.) 

198. TEN'DEBE: ten'do, ten^sum or ten'tum, to stretch. 

tend : tend, to aim at, take care of; tend'ency ; attend' (-ance, -ant); 
contend' ; distend' ; extend' ; intend' (literally, to stretch to), 
to purpose, to design; portend' (literally, to stretch forward), to 
presage, to betoken ; pretend' (literally, to stretch forth), to affect, 
feel ; subtend', to extend under ; superintend' (-ence, -ent). 

tens: tense (adj.), stretched; ten'sion ; intense' (-ify); osten'sible 
(Lat. v. osten'dere, to stretch out or spread before one), apparent ; 

tent : tent, literally, a shelter of stretched canvas ; tentac'ula, the 
feelers of certain animals ; atten'tion ; atten'tive ; conten'tion ; 
conten'tious ; extent' ; intent' (-ion) ; ostenta'tion ; ostenta'tious ; 
por'tent, an iU omen. 

199. TENE'BSS : ten'oo, ten'tum, to hold ; French Tenir (radical tain), 

to hold. 

ten: ten'able ; ten'ant, one who holds property under q>nother; ten'- 
antry ; ten'ement ; ten'et (Lat. tenet, literally, " he holds"), a 
doctrine held as true ; ten'ure. 

tin (in compos.) : ab'stinent ; ab'stinence ; con'tinent ; incon'tinent ; 
per'tinent ; imper'tinent. 

tent : content' (-ment) ; contents' ; discontent' ; deten'tion ; reten'- 
tion ; reten'tive ; sus'tenance. 

tain : abstain' ; appertain' ; contain' ; detain' ; entertain' (-ment) ; 
pertain' ; retain' (-er) ; sustain'. 

Tena'cious (Lat. adj. fe'rwKc, tena'cis, holding firmly) ; te- 
nac'ity ; appur'tenance, that which belongs to something else ; con- 
tin'ue (Fr. v. continue = Lat. continefre); contin'ual ; contin'- 
uance ; continua'tion ; continu'ity ; discontin'ue ; coun'tenanoe 
(literally, the contents of a body : hence, of a face) ; lieuten'ant 
(Fr. n. lieu, a place) ; maintain' (Fr. n. main, the hand), lit- 
erally, to hold by the hand: hence, to support, to uphold; 
main'tenance ; pertina'cious ; pertinac'ity ; ret'inue, a train of 


900. T£B'RA, tha Mffth. 

teir: tei'race (Fr. n. terrasse) ; terra'queous (Lat. n. a'qiui, water) ; 
terres' trial ; ter'ritory (-al) ; tei'rier, a small dog that goes into 
the ground after Imrrowing animals; Mediterra'nean (Lat. n. 
me' dins, middle) ; subterra'nean. 

Inter, to put in the earth, to bury ; inter'nient ; disinter'. 

901. TSSTIS, a witiMU. 

test : tes'tify ; attest' (-ation) ; contest' ; detest' (-able) ; protest' 
(-ation, -ant) ; prot'estantism. 

Tes'tament (Lat. n. testamenftum, a will) ; testamen'taiy ; 
testa'tor ; tes'timony (-al) ; intes'tate, not having left a wilL 

902. TOR'QUBBS : tor'queo, tor'tuni, to twist. 

tort : tort'ure ; contort' (-ion); distort' (-ion); extort' (-ion, -ionate); 

Tor'tuous (Lat adj. tortuo'svs, very twisted); tortuos'ity; 
torment' (Lat. n. tormen^tumy extreme pain). 

90S. TBA'HBBIS: tralio, trac'tum, to draw; Fr. Trair, part part. 


tract : tract (-able, -ile, -ion) ; ab'stract (-ion) ; attract' (-ion, -ive); 
contract' (-ile, -or) ; detract' ; distract' ; extract' (-ion, -or) ; 
protract' ; retract' (-ion) ; subtract' (-ion). 

Trace (Fr. n. trace) ; track (Old Fr. n. trae) ; train ; trait ; 
treat (-ise, - ment, -y). 

904. TBIBU'EBS: trib'uo, tribu'tum, to aUot, to giva 

tribut : trib'nte (-ary) ; attrib'ute ; contrib'ute (-ion) ; distrib'ute 
(-ion, -ive) ; retribu'tion ; retrib'utive. 

906. TBU'DEBE : tru'do, tru'sum, to thnwt. 

trud: detrude', to thrust down; extrude'; intrude' (-er) ; obtrude' ; 

trus : abstruse' (literally, thrust away : hence, difficult to be under- 
stood) ; intru'sion ; intru'sive ; obtru'sive ; protru'sion. 

THE LATIN ELEMENT. : : >^Z t \ J 101' 

»' • • » « . . ' '^ - ^- - - .' 

20e. TU1!BE: tu'eor, tu'itus or tll'tus/^io^waCcfiC'.'' 
tuit: tui'tion, instruction; intui'tion, ^ act *or'^ pd^^f of tM" mind 
hy whicli it at once perceives the truth of a thing withoiit argu- 
ment; intu'itive. 
tut : til' tor ; tuto'rial ; tu'torage. 

907. UN'DA, a wave. 
und : abun'dance, literally, condition of overflowing — abunda^re, to 
overflow); abun'dant ; superabun'dant ; inun'date (-ion); re- 
dun'dant (literally, running back or over: hence, exceeding 
what is necessary) ; redundance ; redun'dancy. 

Un'dulate (Lat. n. un'dula, a little wave); undula'tion; 
un'dulatory ; abound' ; superabound' ; redound' (Old Fr. v. 
red(mder= Lat redunda're, to roll back as a wave or flood). 

206. U'TI: u'tor, u'sus, to use. 
ut: uten'sil (Lat. n. uten'silcy something that may be used); util'ity 

(Lat. n. utUHtas, usefulness); u'tilize. 
us : use (-able, -age, -ful, -less) ; us'ual (Lat. adj. uma'lisy of frequent 

use); u'sury, ULegal interest paid for the use of m>oney ; u'surer ; 

abuse' (-ive); disabuse'. 

209. VAD'EBS : va'do, va'sum, to go. 
Tad: evade'; invade' ; pervade'. 
vaa: eva'sion ; inva'sion ; perva'sive. 

210. VAIiE'BE: va'leo, vali'tum, to be strong, to be of valae; Tal'- 

idus, strong; Vale, furewell. 

val: valedic'tory, bidding farewell ; valetudina'rian (Lat. n. valetu'- 
do, state of health), a person in ill-health ; val'iant, brave, heroic; 
val'or (-ous); val'ue (-able, -ation, -ator); convales'cent, regain- 
ing health ; equiv'alent (Lat. adj. e'quuSy equal) ; prev'alent, very 
common or general; prev'alence. 

vail (Fr. radical): avail' (-able); prevail'. 

valid: val'id; valid'ity; in' valid. 

211. VENI'BE : ve'nio, ven'tum, to come, to go. 
vent: vent'ure, literally, something gone upon; vent'uresome ; ad'- 
vent ; adventi'tious, accidental, ccuual ; advent'ure (-ous); cir- 

1-;'102 •./::.•:-: : word-analysis. 

• » 


*/• ; •/• V • iuimfietit' i cs^trayen'tion ; con' vent, a monastery ^ a nunnery ; 
conven'ticle, a'piace of assembly ; conven'tion (-al); event' (-ful); 
event'ual ; invent' (litei-ally, to come upon), to find otU, to 
contrive ; inven'tion ; invent'ive ; invent'or ; interven'tion ; 
peradvent'ure ; prevent' (-ion, -ive). 

Av'enue (Fr. n. avenue, an approach to) ; contravene' ; con- 
vene' ; conven'ient (Lat. pres. part. conve!ni&as, convenien'tis, lit- 
erally, coming together), suitaMe ; conven'ience ; cov'enant, an 
agreement between two parties ; intervene'; rev'enue; supervene', 
to come upon, to happen. 

212. VEB'BUM, a word. 
verb : verb (-al, -ally, -ose, -osity) ; ad' verb ; prov'erb. 

Verba'tim (Lat adv. verba' Um, word for word); ver'biage 
(Fr. n. verbiage, wordiness). 

218. V£B'TERE : ver'to, ver'sum, to turn. 

vert : advert' ; inadver'tent (literally, not turning the mind to), 
heedless ; ad'vertise, to turn pMic attention to ; adver'tisement ; 
animadvert' (Lat. n. an'imus, the mind), to turn the mind to, to 
censure ; avert' ; controvert', to oppose ; convert', to change into 
aiiotherform or state ; divert' ; invert', literally, to turn the out- 
side in; pervert', to turn from ike true purpose; retro vert'; re- 
vert'; subvert'. 

vers : adverse' (-ary, -ity ) ; animadver'sion ; anniver'sary, the yearly 
(Lat. n. an'nus, a year) celebration of an event ; averse', having 
a dislike to; aver'sion ; con'troversy ; converse' (-ant, -ation); 
conver'sion ; diverse' (-ify, -ion, -ity); ob' verse ; perverse' (-ity); 
retrover'sion ; reverse' (-al, -ion); subver'sion ; subver'sive ; 
tergiversa'tion (Lat. n. ter'gum, the back), a subterfuge ; trans- 
verse', lying or being across ; u'niverse (Lat. adj. u'nus, one), the 
system of created things ; univer'sal (-ist) ; univer'sity, a univer- 
sal school in which are taught all branches of learning. 

Verse (Lat. n. ver'sus, a furrow), a line in poetry ; ver'sify ; 
versifica'tion ; vei-'sion, that which is turned from one language 
into another, a statement; ver'satile (Lat. adj. versat'ilis, turning 
with ease); ver'tex (pi. ver'tices), the summit; ver'tical ; ver'- 


tebra (pi. ver'tebrse); ver'tebrate; ver'tigo ; vor'tex (Lat. n. 
vor^tex, a whirlpool) ; divorce' (Fr. n. divorce), a separatum. 

814. VE'BUS, true ; Ve'rax, vera'cis, veracious. 

ver : ver'dict (Lat. ii. dic'tunu a saying), the decision of a jury ; 
ver'ify, to prove to he true ; verifica'tion , ver'ity (Lat. n. ver'i- 
tas, truth) ; ver'itable ; verisim'ilar, truth-like ; verisimiVitude ; 
avei/, to declare true ; aver'ment ; ver'ily ; ver'y. 

verac : vera'cious ; verac'ity. 

♦ 216. VI'A, a way. 

via: vi'aduct (Lat. v. du'cere, due' turn, to lead); viat'icum (Lat. n. 
viat^icvm, literally, traveling money), the sacrament administered 
to a dying person; de'viate (-ion); de'vious ; oVviate, to meet 
in (he way, to remove ; ob'vious ; per'vious, affcrrding a passage 
through; imper'vious. 

Voy'age (Fr. n. voyage)-, convoy', to escort; en'voy (Fr. v. 
envoyer, to send), one sent 09i a special mission; triv'ial (Lat. n. 
trivfium, a cross road), trifling ; triviality. 

816. VIDE'BE : vi'deo, vi'sum, to see. 

vid : ev'ident, clearly seen ; ev'idence ; invid'ious, literally, looking 
against : hence, likely to provoke envy ; provide', to look oid for, 
to supply ; prov'idence ; prov'ident. 

vis: vis'ible ; vis'ion (-ary); advise'; advis'able, expedient; im' pro- 
vise, to compose and recite without premeditation; provis'ion ; 
revise' (-al, -ion); supervis'ion ; supervis'or. 

View (Fr. v. voir, to see, vu, seen); review'; in'terview ; 
vis'age (Fr. n. visage, the countenance); vis'it (-ant, -or, -ation); 
vis'or, part of a helmet perforated to see through ; vis'ta (It. n. 
vista, sight), a prospect as seen through an avenue of trees ; advice'; 
en'vy (Fr. n. envie — lM, invid'ia, from invidefre, to see against) ; 
in'voice (It. n. awiso, notice), a priced list of goods ; peruse' 
(Lat. V. perMe're, pervi'sum, to look through) ; provi'so, a stipu- 
lation; pru'dent (Lat. adj. prufdens from prov'idens); pru'- 
dence ; purvey', to look oui for in the way of buying provisions ; 
purvey 'or ; survey' (-or). 


217. VIN'CEBE: vin'co, vic'tiim, toconqaer. 

vine : vin'cible ; invin'cible ; convince' ; evince', to show clearly. 
vict : vie' tor ; vic'tory (-ous) ; convict', to prove guilty of crime ; 

evict', to dispossess ; evic'tion. 

Vanquish (Fr. v. vaincre, vaincu = liSLt. vin'cere); prov'ince 

(Fr, n. province = Lat. provin'cia, literally, a conquered country). 

218. VOCA'BIS : vo'oo, vooa'tum, to call ; Vox, vo'cis, the voice. 

vocat: voca'tion, literally, caUing, occupation; voc'ative, the case of 
a Twun in which the stbbject is caMed, or addressed ; a<}[vocate, to 
plead for ; convoca'tion, an assembly^ a meeting ; equiv'ocate 
(Lat adj. e'quuSy equal), to use words of doubtful meaning; equiv- 
oca'tion ; evoca'tion, oc^o/coZZiw^/or^; in voca'tion ; provoca'- 
tion ; provo'cative ; revoca'tion. 

voc : vo'cable (Lat. n. vocah'ulum^ that which is sounded with the 
voice), a word; vocab'ulary ; vo'cal (-ist, -ize); vociferate, to 
cry with a loud voice ; ad'vocacy, a pleading for, a defense ; irrev'- 

Voice (Fr. n. voix = Lat. vox), sound uttered by the mouth ; 
vouch, to call out, or affirm strongly; vow'el (Fr. n. voueUe, a 
voice-sound) ; advow'son, right of perpetual caMing to a bene- 
fice ; convoke', to call together ; evoke' ; invoke' ; revoke'. 

219. VOIj'VEBE: volVo, volu'tum, to rolL 

volv : circumvolve' ; convolve', to roll together ; devolve' ; evolve' ; 

involve' ; revolve' (-ion, -ionist). 
volut : circumvolu'tion ; evolu'tion ; revolu'tion (-ary, -ist, -ize). 
Vol'nme (Lat. n. volu'men, a roll, or inscribed parchment sheet 

rolled up), a single book ; volute', a kind of rolled or spiral scroll ; 

vol'uble, literally, rolling easily : hence, having great fluency of 

speech ; convol'vulus, a genus of twining plants ; revolt'. 

220. VUIj'GUS, the common people. 
vulg : vul'gar ; vul'garism ; vulgar'ity ; vul'gate, a Latin version 
of the Scriptures. 

Divulge', to make knoum som>eihing before kept secret ; divulge'- 
ment ; promul'gate (-ion). 








^^vriihout; not 


amphi. ^armrui; both amphi-bious 

ana- \ = 








dis- ) 

tli- j 

eo- ) 

ex- j 



hdck; trough- 

against; oppo- 

= av)ay; out 


dmonoT against 

through or 

two^ double 



state of being without 
an-omalou8 nx)t similar, 
amphi-theater place for seeing all 

living in both land and 

reasoning bach 
loosening throughout, 
a feeling against, 
opposite the Arctic 
one sent out 
away from the sun. 
a rushing down. 
















= out of 

ex- is used before a root beginning with a vowel. 

a flowing do^mi, 
measure through the 

speaking across (from 

one to another). 

a word of two syllables, 
a double assumption. 
ill digestion. 
ovi of the center, 
an outgoing. 



in or on 

^^upon; for 


power m one. 
stress on. 
skin upon skin, 
lasting /or a day. 

Note. — ep- is used before a root beginningwith a vowel or h aspirate. 



eu- \ 
ev- J 

hyper- 1 

rveU or good 

■' over or beyond 
■ under 












beyond; trans- meta-physics 
ference met-onymy 

para- site 

by the Me of p„.heUon 

peri- sBs around 









vriih or together ^^:^^^, 



sounding ioeU, 

good news. 

half a sphere. 


beyond the North. 

a placing under (=«Lat. 

science beyond physics. 

transference of name. 

growing by the side of 

mock sun by the side of 
the real. 

the measure around any- 

something written before, 

one coming to a new 

placing together, 

part with part. 

letters taken together, 

feeling together. 


NoTB. — The form ay- is used before s: ayl- before i, sym* before ft, j», 


A a 


A d 

E € 

H ,, 

e 6 
I t 

K K 

A X 
M /i 



g GamvuL, 

d Ddta, 

e as in met EpsHon. 
z Zeta, 


e as in me 






N V 

O o 
n XT or 
S 0-, 
T T 
Y V 



ff final B 


X Xi, 

o OS in not Omicron. 

u or y 




o as in no 








Pronunciation of Greek 'Words. 

Gamma has always the hard sound of g^ as in give. 

Kappa is represented by c in English words, although in Greek it 
has but one sound, that of our Jc 

UpsUon is represented by y in English words ; in Greek it has 
always the sound of u in mute, 

Chi is represented in English by ch having the sound of k; as in 

In Greek words, as in Latin, there are always as many syllables 
as there are vowels and diphthongs. 

An inveited comma placed over a letter denotes that the sound 
of our h precedes that letter. 



1. A'£B (ai|p), ttie air. 

a'arate, to combine with air; to mix \ a/eronaut (Gr. ii. Jiau^tes, a sailor), 

with carbonic acid. 
a-e'rial, behnging to the air. 
a^eriform, having the form of air. 
a'erolite (Gr. n. lith'os, a stone), a 

meteoric stone. 

a balloonist, 
aerosta'tion, aerial lutvigation, 
air, the aimosphere ; a melody ; the 

bearing of a person. 
air'y, ope^i to the air ; gay, sprightly. 

apago'ge, a leading away; an in- 
direct argumetU, 

dem'agogae (Gr. n. de'nws, the 
people), a misleader of the people. 

parago'ge (literally, a leading or 
extension Ix^yond), the . addition 

2. AG'EIN {aytiy), to lead, 

of a letter or syllable to the end of 
a word. 

ped'agog^e (Gr. n. jmzis, a child), 
a schoolmaster ; a pedantic person. 

syn'agogue, a Jewish place of wor- 

3. A'OOX (aynv), a contest. 

Bg'ony, extrejne pain. 
ag'onize, to be in a^ony. 
antag'onisxn, direct opposition. 

antag'onist, or antagonis'tic^ con- 
tending against. 



4. ANG'EI^I^EIN (ayycAAcii/), to bring tldlngg; ANO'EI^LOS {ayytXkoi), 

a messenger. 

an'gel, a ^ritual inessenger, 
angel'ic, relatiiig to an aiigeL 
archan'gel (Gr. prefix archi-t chief), 
an av^cl of the highest order. 

evan'gel (Gr. prefix eu, well), good 

tidings ; the gospel. 
evan'gelisty one of the writers of 

ike foar gospels. 

5. AR'CHE (apxii), beginning, government, chief. 

an'archy, want of government, 

ar'chitect (Gr. d. tek'tojif work- 
man), literally, a chief builder y 
one who devises plans for build- 

ar'chives, records, 

hep'tarchy (Gr. hepta^ seven), a 
sevenfold ffovemvient, 

hi'erarcliy(Gr. adj. hi^erosy sacred), 
dominion in sacred things ; a sa- 
cred body of rulers. 

mon^arch (Gr. adj. vxmi^os, alone), 
OJMJ who rules alone, a sovereign, 

mon'archy, govemmewt by one per- 
son, a kingdotn. 

oligarchy (Gr. adj. ol'igos, few), 
government by a few, an aristoc' 

pa'triarch (Gr. n. pfWer, a father), 
thcfatJier and ruler of a family. 

patriar'chal, relating to patri- 

6. AS'TBON (orrfMvh a star* 

as'terisk, a mark like a star (*) 
used to refer lo a note, and soine- 
times to mark an omission of 

a8'teroid«(Gr. adj. eVdos, like), mie 
of the numerous small planets be- 
fween Mars and Jupiter, 

as'tral, belonging to the stars. 

astrol'ogy, th£ pretended science of 
foretelling events by the stars. 

astron'omy (Gr. n. nom'os, a law), 
tlie scieiice that treats of the stars, 

astron'oxner, one skilled in astron- 

disas'ber, calamity^ misfortune, 

disaa'trooB, unlucky; calamitous. 

7. AUTOS (avTo^), one^s self. 

autobiog'raphy (Gr. n. bt'os, life, 
graph' eiUf to write), the life of a 
persofi written by him.self. 

au'tocrat (Gr. d. krat'os, power), 
a7i absolute ruler, 

autocrat'ic, like an au'^ocrat. 

au'tograph, one's own handvmting. 

aatom'aton (Gr. tn^maW-A, striv- 
ing after), a self-etcting ma- 

authen'tic, genuine, true. 

authenticity, genuineness. 



8. BAlLliEIN (jSoAAcii'), Co throw or eauU 

em'bleixi, a representation ; a type, 
emblemat'icaJ, cmUaining an em- 

hyber'bole, a figure of speech lokich 

represents things greater or less 

than they are. 

par'able, a story which illustrates 

somefoLct or doctrine. 
paxab'ola/09i6' of the conic sectiotis. 
prob'lem, a qiicstion proposed for 

sym'bol, a sign; a representation. 
symbol'lcal, represeiiiing by signs. 

9. BAP'TBIN (jSairreic), to wash, to dip. 

bap'tism, a Christian sacravient, in 
the observance of tohich the indi- 
vidual is sprinkled toith or im- 
mersed in water. 

baptize^ to sprinkle with or im- 
vierse in toater, 

bap'tismal, pertaining to baptism : 
as baptismal vows. 

bap'tist, one toho approves only of 

baptism by immersion. 
anabap'tiat, one toho believes Outt 

only adults should be baptised, 
catabap'tisti ww opposed to bap- 

pedobap'tism (Gr. pais, paidos, a 

child), infant baptism. 

10. CHBON'OS (xi>om). time. 

chron'ic, laMing a lojtg time ; peri- 

chron'icle, a record of events in tJie 
order of time ; a history recording 
facets in order of time. 

chronology, the science of comput- 
ing tite dates of paM eveiUs. 

chronom'eter (Gr. n. meVrmiy a 
measure), an in^rmneni for meas- 
uring time. 

anach'ronism, an error in comput- 
ing time. 

syn'chronal, ) existing ai the sa7ne 

syn'chronous, ) time. 

11. ORAM'MA (YPOfiMa). a letior. 

gram'mar, the science of language. 
gramma'rian, mie skilled in or wJw 

teaches grammar. 
grammat'ical, according to the rules 

of grammar. 
an'agram, the change of one word 

into another by transposing the 

di^agram, a writing or drawing 

made for illustration. 

ep'igram, a short poem ending with 

a unity thought. 
mon'ogram(Gr.adj. mon'os, alone), 

a character composed of several 

lef/ers interwoven, 
pro'granime, order of any entertctin- 

tel'egram (Gr. teUe, at a distance), 

a message sent by telegraph. 




graph'ic, toell delineated; giviiuf 

vivid descriplicni. 
au'tograph. See au^tos* 
biog'raphy (Or. n. hifos, life), the 

history of a life, 
calig'raphy (Gr. adj. kaVos, beau- 
tiful), beautiful icriting. 
geog'raphy (Gr. n. ge, the earth), a 

description of the earth. 
historiog'rapher (Gr. n. histo^ria, 

history), one appointed to write 

holograph (Gr. adj. hoVos^ whole), 

a deed or vrill wholly written by 

the grantor or testator. 
lezicog'raplier (Gr. n. lea^iconf a 

dictionary), the compiler of a dic- 
lith'ograph (Gr. n. lithhs, a stone), 

an impression of a drawing made 

on stone. 
lithog'raphj, (he art of writing on 

and- taking impressions from 


13. HOD'OS 

ep'isode, an incidental story intro- 
duced into a poem or narrative. 

ez'odos, departure from a pla/^e; 
the second hook of the Old Testa- 

mebh'od, order^ system^ way, man- 

Meth'odist, t?ie folloioers of John 

(yfM^ii'), to writs, 

orthog'raphy (Gr. adj. oHthos, cor- 
rect), the correct spelling of words. 

pho'nograph (Gr. n. phohie, sound), 
an instrument for the ^mechanical 
registration and reproduction of 
audible sounds, 

phonog'raphy, a system of short- 
hand ; the art of constructing or 
of using the phonograph* 

photog'raphy (Gr. n. phos^ phot'os, 
light), the art of producing pic- 
tures by light. 

stenog'raphy (Gr. acfj. sten^os, nar- 
row), tlie art of writing in short" 

tel'egraph (Gr. te^e, at a distance), 
an apparatus for conveying intel- 
ligence to a distance by means of 

topog'raphy (Gr. n. top'os, a place), 
the description of a particular 

typog'raphy (Gr. n. tu'pos, a type), 
the art or operation of printing. 

(o3of), a way* 

Wesley. (The name has refer- 
ence to tlie strictness of the rules 
of this sect of Christians). 

pe'riod (Gr. n. period^ os, a passage 
round), the tim/e in which any- 
thing is performed; a kind of 
sentence ; a puncttuUion mark. 

syn'od, a meeting of ecclesiastics. 

14. HU'DOR (uaotp), water. 

hy'dra, a waier-snake ; a fabulous 
monster serpent slain by Hercules. 

hydran'gea, a genv>s of plants re- 
markable for their absorption of 

hy'drant, a uxUer-plug. 

hydrau'lic (Gr. n. au^los, a pipe), 
relating to the motion of water 
through pipes ; worked by water. 




hydraa^ics, the science which treats 

ofjiuids in motion. 
hydroceph'alas (Gr. n. keph'ale, 

the head), dropsy of the head. 
hy'drogen (Gr. v. geit'ein, to beget), 

a gas which with oxygen produces 

hydrog'raphy, the art of inariJtime 

sm'fwying and riuipping. 

hydrop'athy (Gr. n. paiVoSy feel- 
ing), ike water -cure. 

hydropho'bia (Gr. n. phoVos, fear), 
literally, dread of water ; cajiiiie 

hy'dropsy, a collection of water in 
the body. ("Dropsy" is a con- 
ti'action of hydropsy), 

hydrostat'ics, the science which 
treats ofjiuids at rest. 

15. KR.4.T'OS (xA^TOf), rtUe^ goverfitnent, strength. 

aristoc'racy(Gr. adj. aris'tos, best), 
govemmejU by nobles, 

aris'tocrai, one who favors aristoC' 

aa'tocrat. See au'tos. 

democ'racy (Gr. n. de'mos, the peo- 
ple), government by the people. 

dem'ocrat, one who upholds deinoc' 
racy; in the United States^ a 
inerhber of the devnocratic party. 

theoc'racy, gavemrnent of a state by 
divine direction^ as the ancient 
Jewish stale. 

16. liOG'OS (Aoyof), speech^ ratio^ degeription, science. 

log'ic, ^ science and art of reason- 

logi'cian, one skilled in logic, 

log'arithms (Gr. n. arithhnos, nam- 
ber), a class of numbers that 
abridge arithmetical calculations. 

anal'ogy, a resembUmce of ratios, 

ap'ologne, a moral fable, 

apol'ogy, a defense, an excuse, 

cafalogae, a list of names in order. 

chronol'ogy. (See chronos.) 

conchol'ogy (Gr. n. kon'chos, a 
shell), the science of shells, 

dec'alogae (Gr. dek'a, ten), the ten 

doxol'ogy (Gr. n. doxa, glory), a 
hymn eacpressvng glory to God, 

ec^ogae, a pastoral poem, 

entomol'ogy (Gr. n. ento^ma, in- 
sects, and V. tem'vsin, to cut), the 
natural history of insects. 

ep'ilogne, a short poem or speech at 
the end of a play, 

etymol'ogy (Gr. et'umon, true 
source), a part of grammar ; the 
science of the derivation of words, 

en'logy, praise, cominendation, 

geneal'ogy (Gr. n. gen'os, birth), 
history of the descent of families, 

geol'ogy (Gr. n. gi, the, earth), the 
scie7ice which treats of the internal 
structure of the earth 

mineral'ogy, the science of minerals. 

mythol'ogy (Gr. n. muHhos, a fable), 
a system or science of fables, 

omithoFogy (Gr. n. orhiis, oHni- 
thoSf a bird), the natural history 
of birds. 

pathol'ogy (Gr. n. path'os, suffer- 
ing), that part of medicine which 
treats of the causes and nature of 




philol'ogy (Gr. phiVos, loving, 
ibnd oO} tJie science which treats 
of langimges, 

phrenology (Gr. n. phr&ii, the 
mind), the art of reading the mind 
frxnn the form of the skull, 

physiology (Gr. n. phiifsis, nature), 
the science which treats of the or- 
ganism of plants and animals. 

pro'logue, verses recited as itUro- 
ductory to a jjlay, 

paychol'ogy (Gr. n. psu'che, the 
ao\xl), mental philosophy ; doctrine 
of man*s spiritual naiure. 

syl'logism, a form of reasoning can- 

sistirig of three propositions. 
tautol'ogy (Gr. tau'to, the same), 

a repetition of the same idea in 

different words, 
technology (Gr. n. tech^ne, art), a 

description of the arts, 
theoPogy. See theos. 
tozicol'ogy (Gr. n. tox'iwn^ poison), 

the science whidJi, treats of poisons 

and their effects. 
zool'ogy (Gr. n. sx/on, an animal), 

that part of natural history which 

treats of animals. 

17. lUST'BON (fAcrporX a measure. 

me'ter, arraiigement of poetical feet ; 

a measure of length. 
met'ric, denoting measurement. 
met'iical, pertaining to meter. 
anemom'eter (Gr. n. an'emos^ the 

wind), an instrument measuring 

the force and velocity of the urind. 
barom^eter (Gr. n. ha'ros, weight), 

an instrument that indicates 

changes in the weather. 
diam'eter, measure through any- 

geom'etry (Gr. n. ge^ the earth), a 

branch of tnathematics. 
hexam'eter (Gr. hex^ six), a line of 

six poetic feet. 
hydrom'eter (Gr. n. hu^dor, water). 

an instrument for determining the 
specific gravities of liquids, 

hygrom'eter (Gr. adj. hu'gros, wet), 
an instrument for measuring the 
degree of mmsture of the atmos- 

pentajn'eter (Gr. pen^te, five), a 
line of five poetic feet, 

perim'eter, the external "boundary 
of a body or figure. 

sjrm'metry, ike proportion or har- 
mony of parts. 

thermom'eter (Gr. adj. theHmos, 
warm), an instrument for meas- 
ing the heat of bodies, 

trigonom'eiry (Gr. n. trigo^non^ a 
triangle), a branch ofmathe^natics. 

18. MON'OS (i^ov<k\ sole, alone. 

mon'achism, the condition of monks; 
a 7nonastic life. 

mon'ad, something ultimate and in- 

mon^astery, a house of religUms re- 

monk (Gr. n. mo^i'aehos), a religious 

monog'amy (Gr. n. gam^os, mar- 
riage), the marriage of one wife 

mon'olog^e (Gr. n. log^os), a speech 
uttered by a person alone, 

monoma'nia (Gr. u. ma^nia^ mad- 
ness), madness confined to one sub- 



moAop'oly (Gt. v, poVein, to sell), 
the aole power of selling anything. 

monosyllable, a word of one syl- 

mon'otheism (Gr. u. the'os, God), 

the belief in Uie existence of only 

mon'ot3ne, uniformity of tone, 
monoVony, sameness of sound; vxmt 

of variety. 

19. O'DE (wdi)). a sang. 

ode, a lyric poem, 

mel'ody (Gr. n. meVos, a song), an 

agreeable succession of' musical 

par'ody, the aUeraiion of the toords 

of an author to another subject. 

pros'ody, the study of versification, 
psal'mody, the practice of singing 

trag'edy (Gr. n. trag'os, a goat *), a 

drarnatic representation of a sad 

or calamitous event. 


The periods of astronomy go far beyond any chronology. The phono- 
graph and the telegraph are both American inventions. By the .aid of a 
diagram the problem was readily solved. Dr. Holmes, the Autocrat of 
the Breakfast Table, has written msmY parodies. In the struggle between 
monarchy and democracy Mexico has often been in a state of anarchy. 
His antagofnist suifered great a^ony from the disaster that occurred. The 
eulogy pronounced on the great zoologist Agassiz was well deserved. 
What is the etymological distinction between geography and geology ? The 
aeronaut took with him a barometer, a therm/imeter, and a chronometer, 
I owe you an apology for not better knowing yonr genealogy. Typography 
has been well called ** the art preservative of all the arts.** Wlio is called 
the great American lexicographer? Tautology is to be avoided by all 
who make any pretence to grammar. One may be a democrat without 
being a demagogue. You cannot be an architect without knowing geom- 
etry. Zoology shows that there is great symmetry in the structure of 
animals. The pretensions of astrology are now dissipated into thin air. 
Many persons skilled in physiology do not believe in hydropathy. Long- 
fellow*8 "Evangeline" is written in hexameter, and Milton's ** Paradise 
Lost" in pentameter, 

20. ON'OM A (ovoma)} a name. 

ABon'ymoiu, uiihoyi a name. 
meton'ymy, a rhetaruxU figure in 
which one word is put for another. 

on'omatopos'ia, thefarming of words 

whose sound suggeMs the sense, 
paron'ymous, of like derivation. 

* For the eicplanation of the etymology see Webster's Unabridged. 



patron jm'ic (Gr. n. pett'erj a father), 
a name derived from a parent or 

psea'donym (Gr. adj. pseu'des, 
false), a fictitious name. 

syn'onym, a loord having the 9ame 
meaning as another in the same 

21. PAN (irai', vavroi), all; whole. 

panace'a (Gr. v. ak'eomai, I cure), 
a universal cure, 

pan'creas (Gr. n. kre'as^ flesh), a 
fleshy gland sitttated at the bottom 
of the stomach, 

pan'dect, a treatise which co-mbines 
the whole of any science. 

panegyr'ic (Gr. n. ag'ora, an as- 
sembly), an oration in praise of 
some person or event. 

pan'oply (Gr. n. hopfla, armor), a 
complete suit of armor, 

panora'ma (Gr. n. hor^ama^ a sight 
or view), a large picture gradually 
unrolled before an assembly, 

pan'theism (Gr. n. ihe'os^ God), the 
doctrine that nocture is (xod. 

pan'theon, a temple dedicated to all 
the gods, 

pan'tomime, a scene or representa- 
tion in dumb show. 

22. PA'THOS (rafi^i). Buffering^ feeling, 

pathet'ic, affecting the emotions. 
pathol'ogy, the science of diseases, 
allop'athy, a mode of medical prac 

antip'athy, dislike, aversion. 

ap'athy, waiU of feeling, 
homeop'atliy, a mode of medical 

hydrop'athy. See hudor. 
sym'pathy, fellow-feeling. 

23. PHIL'OS (<^iAo9), a friend, a lover. 

Philadelphia (Gr. n. adeVphos, a 
brother), literally, the dty of broth- 
erly love. 

philan'thropy (Gr. n. aiUhro^pos, 
a man), love of mankind. 

philharmon'ic (Gr. n. Juirmo^nia., 
harmony), loving harmxmy or 

philos'ophy (Gr. n. sophi*a, wis- 
dom), the general laws or prin- 
dples belonghig to any department 
of knowledge, 

philos'opher, one versed in philos- 
ophy or science, 

philosoph'ic ) relating to philoso- 

philosoph'ical ) phy. 

24. PH A'NEIN (4>aivtiv), to rauge to appear ; PH ANTA'SIA (t^oirao-ta), 

an imitge, an idea. 

diaph'anons, translucent. 

epiph'any, t?ie festival commemora- 
tive of the^manifestation of Christ 
by the star of Bethlehem, 

fan'cy, a pleasing image ; a eoneeii 

or whim, 
ftoifoifalf full of fancy ; abounding 

in ivild images. 



fanta/sia, a musical composition 
avowedly not governed by the or- 
dinary viusical rules. 

phan'tom, a specter^ an apparition. 

phase, an appearance. 

phenom'enon, anything presented 

to the senses by experiment or ob- 
servation; an unusual appear- 
syc'ophant (Gr. n. sukon, a fig, 
and, literally, an informer against 
stealers of figs), a msan flatterer. 

phoneVio I ^^f t^ ^^ 
phon'ic ) 

eu'phony, an agreeable sound of 

25. PHO'NE Omvh), a sound. 

sym'phony, harmony of mingled 
sounds; a musical comjnmtion for 
a fall band of instrum>ents. 

26. PH08 (^«iK, ^»To«X Itghi, 

phos'phoniB (Gr. v. pJierein, to 
bear), a substance resembling waXy 
highly inflaynmaMe, and lumi- 
nous in tfie dark. 

phos'phate, a salt of phosphoric 

phosphores'cent, luminous in the 

phosphor'ic, relating to or obtained 

from phosphorus. - 
photog'raphy. See graphein. 

phys'ic, tnedidnes. 

phya'ical, natural ; material ; re- 
lating to the body. 

physi'cian, one skilled in the art of 

phys'icist, a sliident of nature. 

phys'ics, natural philosophy. 

physiog'nomy (Gr. n. gno^m&Hj a 
judge), the art of discerning the 

27. PHU'SIS (<^v(rK), nature. 

character of the mind from the 
feaiuresofikeface; the particular 
east of features or counicTiance. 

physiol'ogy. See logos. 

metaphys'ics, literally, after or be- 
yond physics ; hence, the science 
of mind. 

metaphy si'cian, one versed in meta- 

28. POIi'IS 

police', the body of officers employed 

to secure the good order of a 

pol'icy, the art or mantier of govem- 

vng a nation or conducting public 

a fairs; prudenee. 
pol'itic, wiae^ expedient. 
polit'ical, relating to politics. 
politi'cian, one devoted to politiea. 
pol'itica, the art or science of govern- 

meiU ; struggle of parties. 

(iroAicX a city, 

pol'ity, the constitution of civil gov- 

acrop'olis (Gr. adj. akfros, high), a 

cosmop'olite (Gr. n. kos'mos, the 
world), a citizen of the world. 

metrop'olis (Gr. n. me'ter, a moth- 
er), the chief city of a country. 

necrop'olis (Gr. ailj. nek^ros, dead), 
a burial-place; a city of the 




29. RHE'O (pew), J fiow, J apeak. 

rhet'oric, the art of cornposUion; 

tJie science of oratory. 
rhetori'cian, one skilled in rhetoric, 
rhen'matism, a disease of the lirnbs 
(so called because the ancients 
supposed it to arise from a de- 
flection of the humors). 

res'in, a gum which flows from cer- 
tain trees. 

catarrh^ adischargeof fluid frmn the 
nose caused by cold in the head. 

diarrhce'a, purging. 

hem'orrhage (Gr. n. haima, blood), 
a flowing of blood. 


30. SKOP'BIN ((TKovtiv), to gee, to watch. 

scope, spacCt aimy intention. 
bish'op (Gr. n. episfkopos, overseer), 

a clergyman who has charge of a 

epis'copacy, church government by 

epis'copal, relating to episcopacy, 
kalei'doscope (Gr. adj. kal'os, 

beautiful), an optical instntment 

in which we see an endless variety 

of beauiiful patterns by simple 

change of position. 

mi'croscope (Gr. adj. mikfros^ 

small), an instrumjent for examin' 

in>g smill objects, 
micros'copist, oiie skilled in the use 

of the microscope, 
steth'oscope (Gr. n. steGi'os, the 

breast), an instrument for exam- 

inijig the staU of the chest by 

teVescope (Gr. fe'Zc, afar off), an 

instrument for mewing objects far 


31. TAK'TOS (toic't<k), arranged; TAX'IS (rofiO, arrangement. 

tac'tics, the evohUion, maneuvers, 

etc., of military and naval forces; 

the science or art which relates to 

tacti'cian, one skilled in tactics. 
syn'tax, the arrangement of w(yrds 

into sentences. 

syntac'tical, relating to syntax, 
tax'idermy (Gr. n. der^ma, skin), 
the art of preparing and arranging 
the skins of animals in their nat- 
ural appearance. 
tax'idermist, one skilled in taxi- 


L ■' 

32. TECH'Ni: (rexvi}), art. 

tech'nical, relating to an art or 

technical'ity,. a technical expres- 
sion ; that wftieh is techwical, 

technol'ogy, a treatise on or descrip- 
tion of the arts. 

technoFogist, one skilled in tech- 

polytech'nic (Gr. adj. poVus, many), 

comprising ^nany arts, 
pyr'otechny (Gr. n. pur, fire), the 

art of making fire^fforks. 



33. THE'OS (««k)^ Ood. 

the'ism, belief in the existence of a 

theoc'racy. (See kratos,) 

theol'ogy. (See logos.) 

apothto'sis, glorijication, deifica- 

a'theism, disbelief in the existence 
of God. 

a'theist, one who does not believe in 

the existence of God. 
enthn'siasm, heat of imagination; 

ardetit zeal. 
pan' theism. {See pan.) 
poPyiheism (61*. adj. poliiSf many), 

the doctrine of a plurality of Gods. 

34. TITH'ENI (ritfcvot), to plaee, to set. 

theme, a stdject set forth for dis- 

the'sis, a proposition set forth for 

anath'ema, an ecclesiastical curse. 
antith'esis, opposition or contrast 

in words or thoughts. 

hypoth'esis, a supposition, 
paren'thesis, something itiserted in 
a sentence which is coinplete with- 
out it. 
syn'thesis, a putting together, as 
opposed to analysis. 

35. TON'OS (tohk), tension, tone. 

tone, tension, vigor, sound. 
ton'ic, adj. increa^ng tension or 

vigor: n. a inedicine which in- 

crecues strength. 
tone, a series of mV'Sical notes on a 

particiUar key. 
attune', to make musical ; to make 

one sound agree hUh another. 

bar'ytone (Gr. adj. ba'rus, heavy), 
a ihale voice. 

diaton'ic, proceeding by tones and 

in'tonabe, tq sound; to modulate 
the voice. 

intone', to give forth a slow, pro- 
tracted sound. 

sem'itone, half a tone. 


1. Derivation of ** antithesis '* ? — Compose an example of an antithesis. 

— Point out the antithesis in the following : — 

'* The prodigal rohs his heir ; the miser robs himself." 
'* A wit with dunces and a dunce with wits." 
** Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull. 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing, full." 

2. Derivation of "hypothesis." — Give an adjective formed from this 


noun. — What I^tin derivative cori-esponds literally to ** hypothe- 


ais** 1 Ans. Suppositwn. — Show this. ^?i9. Supposition is composed 
of sub = hypo (under), and position (from ponerCf to place) = thesis, 
a placing. — What adjective from ** supposition" would correspond 
to "hypothetical" ? Aiis. SupposUitimis, 

3. Derivation of *' parenthesis" ? — Compose a parenthetical sentence. 

4. What is the opposite of "synthesis"? — Give the distinction., Ans, 

Analysis is taking apart ; synthesis is putting together. — What 
adjective is derived from the noun ** synthesis " ? 
5 What adjective is formed from "demagogue"? Ans. Demagogic or 
deinagogical. — Define it. — Compose a sentence containing the 
word "demagogue." Model : " Aaron Burr, to gain popularity, 
practiced the arts of a demwgogue" 

6. What adjective is formed from " pedagogue " ? Ans, Pedagogic — 

What would the ^* pedagogic art" mean ? — Is " pedagogue " usually 
employed in a complimentary sense ? — Give a synonym of " peda- 
gogue " in its literal sense. 

7. Derivation of " anarchy " ? — Compose a sentence containing this woixl. 

Model: "Many of the South American States have long been 
cursed by anarchy" 

8. What adjective is formed from " monarchy " ? Ans. Monarchical. — 

Define it — Can you mention a country at present ruled by a mon- 
archical government ? — What is the ruler of a monarchy called ? 

9. Compose a sentence containing the word "oligarchy." Model : 

" During the Middle Ages some of the Italian republics, as Genoa 
and Venice, were under the rule of an oligarchy." 

10. From what root is ** democracy " derived ? — What adjective is formed 

from " democracy " ? — Is Russia at present a democracy? — Can you 
mention any ancient governments that for a time were democracies ? 

11. What adjective is formed from " aristocracy " ?— What noun will de- 

note one who believes in aristocracy ? Atis. Aristocrat. — What 
does "aristocrat" ordinarily mean? Ans. A proud or haughty 
person who holds himself above the common people, 

12. What is the etymology of " thermometer " ? 

13. Illustrate the meaning of "chronometer" by using it in a sentence. 

14. What adjective is formed from "diameter"? Ans. Diametrical. — 

What adverb is formed from " diametrical " ? — What is meant by 
the expression " diametrically opposed " ? 

15. What science was the forerunner of astronomy ? An>8. Astrology. — 

Give the derivative of this word. — What word denotes one who is 



skilled in astronomy ? — Form an adjective from " astronomy." — 
Compose a sentence containing the woixL *' astronomy." Model : 
** The three great founders of aatrovuymy are Copernicus, Kepler, 
and Newton." 

16. From what root is "telescope" derived ? — Combine and define tele- 

scop +ic. — Compose a sentence using the woixi "telescope." 

17. From what root is "microscope" derived? — Combine and define 

microscop + ic — What single word denotes microscopic animals ? 
Alts. Animalculce. — Compose a sentence containing the word 
"microscope." Model: " As the telescope reveals the infinitely 
distant, so the microscope reveals the infinitely little." 

18. Compose a sentence containing the word "antipathy." Model: 

"That we sometimes have antipathies which we cannot explain is 
well illustrated in the lines : 

* The reason why I cannot tell, 
I do not like you. Dr. PelL» " 

19. What adjective is formed from "apathy" ? 

20. Derivation of " sympathy " ?— Give a synonym of this Greek deriva- 

tive. A718. Compassion, — Show why they are literal s3monynis. 
Ans. Sym=con or com, and pathy = passion ; hence, compassion = 
sympathy. — Give an English derivative expressing the same 
thing. Ans. Fellow-feeling, 

21. From what two roots is "autocrat" derived? — Form an adjective 

from "autocrat" — Who is the present "autocrat of all the Rus- 
sias" ? — Could the Queen of England be called an autocrat?— 
Why not ? 

22. Compose a sentence containing the word "autograph." Model: 

"There are only two or three atUographs of Shakespeare in ex- 

23. Derivation of " automaton "? — Illustrate the signification of the 

word by a sentence. 

24. What word would denote a remedy for "all the ills that flesh is heir 

to" ? — Compose a sentence containing the word " panacea." 

25. Derivation of "panoply "? — In the following sentence is " panoply " 

used in a literal or a figurative sense ? "We had need to take the 
Christian panoply, to put on the whole armor of God." 

26. From what two roots is " i)antheism " derived ? — What word is used 

to denote one who believes in pantheism ? 



27. Can you mention an ancient religion in which there were many gods ? 

— Each divinity might have its own temple ; but what name 
would designate a temple dedicated to all tlie gods ? 

28. Give an adjective formed from the word ** panorama." — Compose a 

sentence using the woixl " panorama." 

29. What is the derivative of " eulogy*' ? — Illustrate its meaning by a 

sentence. — Form an ailjective from "eulogy." 

30. What is the etymology of "pseudonym" ? — Give an example of a 




at'mos, vapor, sinoke — atmospAre, 

aa'los, a pipe — hydraulic. 

ach'os, pain — ache, headache, 
ainig'ma, a riddle — enigma, 
ak'me, a point — acme, 
akou'ein, lo hear — acoustics. 
ak'roSy high — acropolis {polls), 
^ allel'on, each other — parallel, par- 
an'er, a man — Andrew, Alexander. 

^ ajifihoB, a flmcer — anther, anthol- 
ogy, polyanthus. .^•^iii'os, life — biography, biology. 
\ ' anthro'poB, a nian — Anthropology^ ho*\Mi% a plant — botanic, botani 
anthropophagi, misanthrope, phil- cal, botanist, botany, 
anthropist, philanthropy. „/«1i>ron'cho8, the throat — bronchial 

1*1 V A * ^ J.* 1 1*1* 

bal'samon, balsam — balm, embalm. 
ba'ros, weight — barometer, barytes. 
ba'sis, the bottom — base, baseless, 

basement, liasis. 
bi Vlion, a book — bible, biblical. 

ark'tos, a bear — arctic, antarotic. 

ar'gos, idJe — lethargy, lethargic. 

aris'tos, best — aristocrat {kraios), 
aristocracy, aristocratic. 

arith'mofl, numher — arithmetic, 
arithmetician, logarithm, loga- 

aro'ma, spice, odor — aromatic 

arte'ria, a bloodvessel — artery, arte 

ask'ein, to discipline — ascetic, as 

asphal'tos, pitch — asphalt. 

ath'los, a contest — athlete, athletic. 

bus'sos, bottom — abyss. 

cha^nps, M^M — chalybeate. 

charas'sein, to stamp — character, 
characterize, characteristic 

chains, grace — eucharist 

cheir, the Juind — surgeon (short 
for chirurgeon), surgical. 
J^hlo'roB, green — chloride, chlorine. 

choVe, bile — clioler, cholera, chol- 
eraic, melancholy. 

chor'de, a string — chord, cord, 



cluiB'tos, anointed — chri8in,Chiist, 
Christian, Christmas, Christen- 
dom, antichrist. 

chro'ma, color — chromatic, chrome, 
chromic, chromotype, achromatic. 
^ chra'soB, gold — chrysalis, chryso- 

chn'loB, the milky juice formed by 
digestion — chyle, chylifaction. 

chti'moB, juice — chyme, chemist, 
chemistry, alchemy, alchemist. 

cUd'mon, a spirit — demon, demo- 
niac, demonology. 

de'moB, the people — demagogue, 
democracy, democrat, endemic, 

den'dron, a tree — dendrology, rho 
^der'ma, the skin — epidermis. 

des'potes, a ruler — despot, des- 
potic, despotism. 

diai'ta, manner of life — diet, diet- 
ary, dietetic. 

dido'ni, to give — dose, antidote, 

e'chein, to sound — echo, catechise, 

catechism, catechumen, 
eklei'pein, to fail — eclipse, ecliptic, 
elek'tron, amber — electric, elec- 
tricity, electrify, electrotype, 
em'ein, to vomit — emetic, 
ep'os, a word — epic, orthoepy, 
er'emos, desert^ solitary — hermit, 

er'gon, a work — energy, energetic, 

surgeon {cheir, the hand). 
eth'nos, a nation — ethnic, ethnical, 

ethnography, ethnology, 
eth'os, custotn, manner — ethics, 

eu, goodf well — eulogy, eulogize, 

euphony, evangelical. 

dog'ma, an opinion ^ dogmsi, dog^^^'^'^^^^ to produce — genealogy 

genesis, heterogeneous, horooge 
neous, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen 

gignos^ein, to know — diagnosis 
diagnostic, prognosticate. 

glos'sa, glot'ta, the tongue — glossa 
ry, glottis, polyglot. 

glu'phein, to carve — hieroglyphics 

gno'mon, an indicator — gnomon 
physiognomy (phusis). 

go'nia, a comer — diagonal, hepta 
gon, hexagon, octagon, trigono- 

g^om'nos, naJced — gymnasium, gym- 
nast, gymnastics. 

hai'rein, to take or choose — heresy, 
heretic, heretical. 

matic, dogmatize, dogmatism. 
dox'a, an opinion, glory — doxology, 

heterodox, orthodox, paradox, 
dram'a, a stage-play — drama, dra- 

niatic, dramatist. 
drom'os, a course — dromedary, 

dru8, an oaJc — diiiid, dniidical. 
duna'ihai, to be able — dynamics, 

dynamical, dynasty. 
du8, i7/, wrong — dysentery (entera, 

the bowels), dyspepsia (peptein, 

to digest). 

ekkle'da, the church — ecclesiastes, 
ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical. 

gsjn.'<M,.marringe — bigamy, polyg 

amy, misogamist. 
gas'ter, the stomach — gastric, gas 

ge, t?ie earth — geography, geology, 

geological, geometi-y, George 

apogee, perigee. 



harmo'nia, a fitting together — har- 
mony, harmonious, harmonize, 

hek'aton, a hvmdred — hecatomb. 

he'lios, the sun — heliotrope, aphe- 
lion, perihelion. 

he'mera, a day — ephemeral 

hep'ta, seven — hepttfgon, hep- 

he'ros, a hero — hero, heroic, hero- 

kan'on, a rule — canon, canonical, 

ar'dia, the heart — cardiac, peri- 

ken'os, empty — cenotaph, 
eph'ale, the head — acephalous, 
hydrocephalus (hydor), 

ker'as, a horn — rhinoceros. 

kle'ros, a portion — clergy, clerical, 
clerk, clerkship. 

kli'maz, a ladder — climax. 

ine, heroism. 

^het'eros, another, unlike — hetero-JjKli^nein, to bend — clinical, recline, 
dox, heterodoxy, heterogeneous, ko'mos, a merry feast — comedy, 

-J^ex, six — hexagon, hexangular. 
hi'eros, sacred — hierarchy, hiero- 
glyphics (glyphein, to carve). 

{od^\ comedian, comic, encomium, 
ko'nein, to serve — deacon, deacon- 
ship, diaconal, diaconate. 

hip'pos, ahorse — hippodrome, hip-Tko'nos, Lat. conns, a cone — cone, 

popotamus, Philip, philippic. 

hoPos, all — holocaust, holograph, 
catholic, catholicity. 
•^ hom'o3, like, the sarne — homogene- 
ous (genna^in, to produce). 

hor'os, a boundary — horizon, aph- 

hn'men, ^ god of marriage — hy- 

hnm'nos, a song of praise — hymn, 
hymnal, hymnology. 

ich'thns, afi^h — ichthyology, 
id'ea, a form or pattern — idea, ideal, 
id'ios, peculiar — idiom, idiosyn- 
crasy, idiot, idiotic. 
ia'os, equal t— isothermal. 

kai'ein, to burn — caustic, cauterize, 
holocaust (holos, whole). 

ka'kos, bad — cacophony. 

ka'los, beautiful — caligraphy, calo- 
type, kaleidoscope {skopein). 

kal'aptein, to conceal — apocalypse. 

conic, conical, coniferous, coni- 

kop'tein, to cut — coppice, copse, 

kos'moa, the world — cosmography, 

kri'tes, a judge — crisis, criterion, 
critic, critical, criticism, hyjK)- 

kmp'tein, to conceal — crypt, apoc- 

krustal'los, ice — crystal, crystal- 

knk'los, a circle — cycle, encyclical, 
Cyclops, cyclades, encyclopaedia. 

kalin'diros, a roller — cylinder. 

lam'banein, to take — syllable, dis- 
syllable, polysyllable. 

lam'pein, to shine — lamp. 

\sJoB, the people — layman, laity. 

latrei'a, worship — idolatry, heli- 

lith'os, a stone — litharge, litho- 
graph, aerolite. 



lu'ein, to loosen — analysis, paraly- 
sis, paralytic, ^Kilsy. 

man'ia, nuidness — mania, maniac. 

mar'tur, a witness — martyr, mar- 
tyrdom, iiiartyrology. 

mel'as, hladc — melancholy, Mela- 

master, a mother — metropolis. 
-Y" mik'ros, snuill — microcosm, micro- 
scope, microscopic. 

mi'mos, an imitator — mimic, mim- 
icry, pantomime. 
-^^'Tnor'phe, shape — amorphous, meta- 
J^ mn'rias, Cen thousand — myriad. 

mn'thos, a fable — myth, mythol- 

nar'ke, tor2!)or — narcissus, narcotic. 

nans, a ship — nausea, nauseate, 
nautical, nautilus, aeronaut. 

nek'ros, dead — necropolis. 

ne'sos, an island — Polynesia. 

nom'os, a law — astronomy, Deu- 
teronomy, econoiny(oi^05,a house), 

ol'igos, few — oligarchy (arche). 

or'phanos, deserted — orphan, or- 
JL- or'thos, riglU, straight r- orthodox, 
orthoepy, orthography. 

paidei'a, instruction — cyclopaedia, 
pais, a child — pedagogue, pedant, 

pedantic, pedol^aptist. 
pap'as, Lat. papa, a father — ])a- 

pacy, pope, popedom, popery. 
paradei'808, a pleasant garden — 

pat'ein, to toalk — peripatetic 
pen'ie, ^M — pentagon, pentecost 

pet'ra, a rock — Peter, petrescent, 
petrify, petroleum, saltpeter. 

phoiyo8,/car — hydrophobia (hudor^ 

phra'sis, speech — phrase, phrase- 
ology, paraphrase. 

phren, the mind — phrenology, fran- 
tic, frenzy. 

phu'ton, a plant — zoophyte. -A* 

pWnaein, to toander — planet, 

plas'sein, to m^mld — plaster, plas- 

plen'ra, the side — pleurisy. 

pnea'ma, hreath, spirit — pneu- 

po'lein, to sell — hihliopolist, mo- 
nopoly, monopolize. 

pol'as, many — polygamy, polyglot, -i 
polysyllable, polytechnic. 

por'oB, a passage — pore, porosity, 
|x)rous, emporium. 

pot'amos, a river — hippopotamus. 

pons, the foot — antipodes, polypus, ^ 

pras'sein, to do — practice, practi- 
cal, practitioner, impracticable. 

presbu'teroB, elder — presbytery, 
presbyterian, presbyterianism. 

pro'tos, firU — protomartyr. 

psal'lein, to touch, to sing — psalm, 
psalmist, psalmody, psalter. 

pnr, fire — pyramid, pyrotechny. 

rhin, the nose — rhinoceros. 
rhod'on, a rose — rhododendron. 

sarx, flesh — sarcasm, sarcastic, sar- 

Bched'e, a sheet — schedule. 

ache'ma, a plan — scheme. 

schis'ma, ao^iiTmon — schism, schis- 



sit'os, com — parasite, parasitical. 

skan'dalon, disgrace — scandal, 
scandalous, scandalize, slander, 

skeptes'thai, to consider — sceptic, 
sceptical, scepticism. 

skep'tron, an emblem of qffux — 

Boph'ia, wisdmn — sophist, sophis* 
try, philosopher (philos)^ philoso- 
J^ sphai'ra, a globe — sphere, spheri- 
caI, spheroid, hemisphere. 

stal'aeiiL, to drop — stalactite, sta- 

steFlein, to send — apostle, apos- 
tolic, epistle, epistolaiy. 

sten'oB, narrow — stenography. 

sthen'os, strength — calisthenics. 

stig'ma, a mark — stigma, stigma- 

strat'os, an army — stratagem, 
strategy, strategist. 

stroph'e, a turning — apostrophe, 

ta'phos, a tomb — epitaph, ceno- 

tau'to, the same — tautology. 

tek'ion, a builder — architect. 

t e'le, far off — telegraph , telescope. -^ 

tem'nein, to cut — atom, anatomy, 

tet'ra,^ four — tetragon, tetrarch. 

ther'me, heal — thermal. 

thron'os, a throne — throne, en- 

top'os, a place — topography. 

trep'ein, to turn — trope, tropic, 
tropical, heliotrope. 

ta'pos, a stamp — type, typography, 

tnrandioa, a nder — tyrant, tyran- 
nical, tyrannize, tyranny. 

zein, to boil — zeal, zealous. 
zeplia'ros, the west wind — zephyr. 
zo'on, an animal — zodiac, zoology, -4-^ 
zoological, zoophyte. 




A — (corrupted from A.-S. on) signifies in, on, at : as abed, aboard, 
aside, aback ; and gives the adverbial form to adjectives, as in 
aloud, aboard. 

Be — gives a transitive signification, as in bespeak. It is some- 
times intensive, as in bestir, and converts an adjective into a 
verb, as in bedim. Be, as a form of by, also denotes proximity,^ 
as in beside : as bystander. 

For ' — means privation, or opposition : as forbear, forbid, forget 

Fore — before : as foretell, forebode. 

Mis — error, torongness: as mistake, misstate, misinform. 

N — has a negative signification, as in many languages : thus, never, 
neither, none. 

Off — from offspring. 

Out — beyond : as outdo, outlaw. 

Over — above: as overhang, overflow, overturn. 

To — in to-day, to-morrow, a corruption of the. 

Un — not, the reverse : as, unskilled, unlearned. 

Under — beneath : as undermine. 

With — against (German under) : as withstand. 


Ar, ard, er, yer, ster • — signifying agent or doer ; as in beggar, 
drunkard, beginner, lawyer, spinster. Er forms verbs of adjec- 

^ For is different tromfoTt, and corresponds to the German ver, different fW>m vor. 
A, be, for^ gtt are often indifferently prefixed to verbs, especially to perfect tenses 
and perfect participles, as well as to verbal nouns. — Bosworth. 
' Ster was the Anglo-Saxon feminine termination. Females once conducted the work 


tives, as lower, from low, and also forms the comparatives of 

Ess, as in songstress, is borrowed from the French. 

Dom, ship, lic, wic — from dom^ judgment ; ahip^ shape or condi- 
tion ; ric, rice, power ; vjic, a dwelling — signify state, condition, 
quality, etc., as in kingdom, friendship, bishopric, Berwick. 

El, kin {=chmy German), let (from French), ling, ock — have a 
diminutive effect^ as in manikin, streamlet, youngling, hillock, 

En — adjective ternunation, as wooden, from wood ; it also converts 
adjectives into verbs, as deepen from deep. 

Fold — from feoUdan, to fold ; a numeral termination, like pU, from 
the Latin plico, I fold. 

Ful — full ; truthful 

Hood, ness — of uncertain derivation, signify state, etc., as in 
priesthood, righteousness. 

Ish — isc (Saxon), isch (German), denotes a quality ; like rakish, 
knavish, churlish, Danish. Ish is also employed as a diminu- 
tive — blackish. 

Less — loss : as penniless, hopeless. 

Like and ly — like; lic (A.-S.) : as warlike, manly. 

Some — sum (A.-S.), sam (German), lonesome, handsome. 

Teen — ten, as in fourteen. 

Ty — from tig (A.-S ), ten ; zig (German), as in aOx'ty, Teen adds 
ten — ty multiplies by ten. 

Ward — weardy icUrts (German), verstu (Latin), against, direction, 
towards ; downward, eastward. 

Wise — udsay manner ; likewise. 

Y — igf, an adjective termination ; dreorig (A.-S.), dreary. 

of brewing, baking, etc, hence brewster, baxter : these words were a/terwards applied 
to men when they undertook the /same work. SUr is now used in depreciating, as in 

trickster, youngster. 




In pronouncing Saxon words, all the letters have the same powers 
as those of the modern English alphabet except c, which always 
has the power of k : thus, cyng is pixjnounced as if written king, and 
cyth, kindred, as if written Hth, 

J, k, q, V, and z do not occur in Anglo-Saxon, Jbut cw has the 
power of qu, and u, at the end of a syllable, or between two vowels, 
has the sound of v : thus, cwen, a woman =91^671; heatUh=heaveth; 
and etten = even. 

The vowels sound as in mat, pen, sin, Twt, and fun. A, I, and i, 
with an acute accent over them, have sounds corresponding to the 
vowels heard in lame, vene, and fine ; 6 accented sounds like 00 in 
moon, and 6 accented sounds like ou in house ; thus, hdm = kam^. ; 
fet ^=ijeei ; die = dike ; hoc = hook ; and m&e := moiise. 

Diphthtmgs were never used by the Saxons. In pronouncing the 
words that contain them, each vowel has a distinct sound. Ae, 
generally written ce, seems to be a distinct letter having the sound 
of a in hat : thus, hlaec or hloBC = hkick ; glacd, or gked = glad, Ae 
accented has the sound of a \n father, as in Idedan or kedan, to lead, 
and Idem, or Idem, to teach. 

Oe was introduced by the Scandinavians, but it seldom occurs. 
Where it is used, as in danuin, to deem, it has the sound of e in m>e, 

E before a and has the sound of y as a consonant ; i before e 
and u has the same sound : thus. Earl = yarl ; eow = you ; iett == 
yttt ; and iiigoth = y&goth, youth. 

acsian, to inquire — ask. 

8BC, an oak — acorn, oak, Auckland. 

8Bcer, afield — acre, acreage. 

«r, before — early, ere, erelong, erst. 

aft, hind-part — after, abaft. 

agan, to have — owe, own, owner, 

onght, disown. 
ariaan, to arise — raise, rise, rouse. 

b4can, to haJce — baker, bakeiy, 
bakehouse, batch. 

bsec, hack — backbite, backslide, 
backward, aback. 

bselg, a bag. 

bsenc, a bank or raised place — bank, 
banker, bankrupt, bankruptcy, 
bench, embankment. 

bald, bold, brave — bold, boldnesjj. 

b^na, death — bane, baneful, hen- 

beacnian, to beckon — beck, beckon, 



bellan, to roar — bawl, bellow. 

beodan, to pray, to bid — bid, bid- 
ding, bead, beadsman, beadle, for- 
bid, unbidden. 

beorgan, to protect — borough, bor- 
row, burgh, bui^lar, burrow, har- 
binger, harbor, berth. 

beorht, bright — bright. 

beran, to hear, to bring forth — bar- 
row, bear, bier, birth. 

bidan, to wait — abide. 

bindan, to bind — band, bond, bond- 
age, bundle. 

bl8BC,jMi/«— bleach, bleacher, bleak, 

blawan, to blow — blade, bladder, 
blast, blaze, blazon, blister, blos- 
som, blow, blush, bluster. 

bletsian, to bless — bless, blessing. 

brad, broad — broad, breadth, board, 

brecan, to break — bray (to pound), 
breach, breaker, breakfast, brink, 

breost, the breast — breast, breast- 
plate, breastwork, abreast. 

breowan, to brew — brew, brewer, 

bnicaa, to tise — broker, brokerage, 
brook {to eiidure), 

bnan, to cultivate — boor, boorish, 
neighbor, neighborhood. 

bugan, to bow or bend — bay, bight, 
bough, bow, buxom, elbow. 

byldan, to design, to tnake — build, 
builder, building. 

byman, to bum — brand, brandish, 
brandy, brimstone, brown, brunt, 
auburn, firebrand. . 

cselan, to cool — chill, chilblain. 
ceaplan, to buy — cheap, cheapen, 
cheapness, chaffer, chapman. 

cennan, to produce — kin, kind, 
kindness, kindred, akin, man- 

ceorl, a churl — carle, churlish. 

claene, clean — clean, cleanly, clean- 
liness, cleanse, unclean. 

clath, cloth — clothe, clothier, cloth- 
ing, clad, unclad. 

cleafan, to cleave ; clifian, to ad- 
here — cleaver, cliff, clover, club. 

cnafa, a boy — knave, knavery. 

cnawan, to know — knowledge, ac- 
knowledge, foreknow, unknown. 

cnyll, a loud noise — knell. 

cnyttaa, to knit — knitting, knoty 
knotty, net, network. 

cracian, to crack; cearciaii, to 
creak — crack, crackle, creak, 
cricket, croak, screech, shriek. 

coman, to come — comely, comeli- 
ness, become, overcome, welcome. 

cnnnan, to know, to be powerftU — 
can, con, cunning, keen. 

cwellan, to slay — kill, quell 

dseg, a dny — dawn, daylight, day- 
star, daisy = day's eye. 

dsel, a part — deal, dole, ordeaL 

deer, a wild animal — deer. 

deorc, dusky or black — dark, dark- 
en, darkly, darkness. 

die, a dyke — dig, ditch, ditcher. 

disc, a plate — desk, disc, dish. 

doeman, to think — deem. 

dom, judgment — doom, doomsday. 

don, to do — doer, deed, undo. 

dragan, to draw — drag, draggle, 
drain, draught, draughtsman, 
draw, dray. 

dri£ui, to drive — drift, driver, 

drigan, to dry — dry-salter, drought, 



drug (originally dried platUa), 

drincan, to suck in — drench, drink, 

drunk, drunkard, drunken, 
drypan, to drip or drop — drip, 

drop, droop, dribble, drivel. 
dwinan, to pitu — dwindle, dwine. 
dyn, a noise — din, dun. 

eage, the eye — eye, eyeball, eye- 
bright, eyelid. 

eald, old — alderman, earl. 

efen, juM — even, evenness. 

erian, to plov^h^ to ear — earth, 
earthy, earthijuake. 

fiteger, bright — fair, fairness. 

finer, fear — fearful, fearless. 

fiuran, to go — fare, farewell, ferry, 
ford, seafaring, wayfarer. 

fedan, to feed — feed, feeder, fodder, 
food, father, fatherly. 

fengan, to seize — fang, finger. 

feond, an enemy — fiend, fiendish. 

fledgan, to fly -^ flag, flake, fledge, 
flee, flicker, flight. 

fledtan, tofioat — float, fleet. 

fldwan, to flow — flood, flow. 

folgian, to go after — follow. 

fot, the foot — foot, fetter, fetlock. 

fredn, to love — free, freedom, 
friend, friendship. 

firetan, to (jnn,w — fret, fretful. 

fugel, a bird — fowl, fowler, fowl- 

ftil, unclean — filth, filthy, foul, ful- 

folliaxL, to whiten — full {to scour 
and Uiicken cloth in a mill), ful- 
ler, fnller's-earth. 

fyTtfire — fiery, fireworks, bonfire 

gabban, to mode — gabble, gil)e, 
gibberish, jabber. 

galan, to sing — nightingale. 

gangan, to gro — gang, gangway. 

gast, a ghost — gas, ghastly, ghost, 
ghostly, aghast. 

geard, an enclosure — garden, or- 
chard, yard. 

gaotan, to pour — gush, gut. 

gerefa, a governor — grieve (an 
overseer), sheriff, sheriffdom. 

getaa, to get — get, beget, begotten, 
foi^t, forgetful. 

gifan, to give — give, gift, forgive, 
forgiveness, misgive, unforgiven. 

glowan, to glow — glow, glowing. 

god, good — God, gospel, gossip. 

grsBS, grass — grass, graze, grazier. 

grafim, to dig — grave, graver, 
graft, groove, grove, grub, en- 

grapian, to grapple; gnpan, to 
gripe ; gropian, to grope — grap- 
ple, grapnel, gripe, gi-ope, group, 

greet, dtist — gritt3% groats. 

gr6waii, to grow — grow, growth. 

gnind, the ground — ground, ground- 
less, groundsel, groundwork. 

habban, to have — have, haft, be- 
have, behavior, miRl>ehave. 

hsBge, a hedge — haw, hawthorn. 

hael, sound, wJiole — hail, hale, heal, 
health, healthful, healthy, holy, 
holiness, whole, wholesome. 

ham, a dioelling — hamlet, home, 
homely, homeline&s. 

hangian, to hang — hang, hanger, 
hinge, unhinge, overhang. 

hiX, heat — heat, heater, hot. 

healdan, to hold — halt, halter, hilt. 



hold, 1>ehold, uphold, npholsterer, 

heard, hard — harden, hardihood, 

hardship, hardware, hardy. 
hebaii, hetaji, to li/l — heap, heave, 

heaven, heavy, upheavaL 
hedan, toheed — heed, heedful, heed> 

fulness, heedless, heedlessness, 
heorte, the heart — hearten, heart- 
less, hearty, heartburn, heart's- 

ease, dishearten. 
hliC bread^loeS. 
hleapan, to leap — leap, overleap, 

elope, elopement, 
hoi, a hole — hole, hold (of a thip)t 

hollow, hollowness. 
hristlan, to make quick sounds— = 

rustle, rustling. 
hnntian, to rush — hunt, hunter, 

htis, hmise — housewife, husband, 


hweorfian, to turn — swerve, wharf. 

hyraa, to hear — hear, hearer, hear- 

liedaii,^ lead — lead, leader, load- 
star, loadstone, mislead. 

l8e£ui, to leave — left, eleven, 

Ii4ran, to teach — learn, learner, 
learning, lore, unlearned. 

lang, loTig — long, length, length- 
en, lengthy, linger. 

lecgan, to lay — lay, layer, lair, law, 
lawful, lawless, lea, ledge, ledger, 
lie, low, lowly, outlaw. 

leofian, lybban, to live — live, 
lively, livelihood, livelong, alive, 

leoht, lighi — lighten, lightsome, 
lighthouse, enlighten. 

He, like — like, likely, likelihood, 
likeness, likewise, unlike. 

locian, to stretch fonoard — look. 

loma, utensils, famiiure — loom, 
hand-loom, power-loom. 

loaian, to lose — lose, loser, loss. 

Int, love; Infian, to love — lover, 
lovely, loveliness, lief, beloved, 

ly£ui, to permit — leave (permis- 
sion), belief, believe, believer, 

lyfb, the air — loft, lofty, aloft. 

macian, to make — make, maker, 
match, matchless, mate, inmate. 

msengan, to mix — among, mingle, 
commingle, intermingle, mongrel* 

TOftgi>.Ti^ to be able — may, might, 
mighty, main, mainland, dismay. 

mearc, a boundary — mark, marks- 
man, marches, remark. 

metan, to measure — meet, meeting, 
meet (fit), meetness. 

mand, a defence — mound. 

muman, to murmur — mourn, 
mourner, mournful. 

myud, the mind — mind, miudful, 
mindfulness, remind. 

nsBS, a nose — naze, ness. 

nama, a naine — name, nameless, 
namesake, misname. 

nead, need — need, needful, need- 
less, needs, needy. 

neah, nigh — near, next, neighbor. 

niht, night— ni^i, nightfall, night- 
less, nightmai*e, nightshade. 

oga, dread — ugly, ugliness. 

psBth, a path — pathless, ^lathway, 



plegan, to eoserdae, to sport — play, 
player, playful, playmate. 

rsBcan, to reach — reach, overreach, 
rack, luck^rent. 

r^edaa, to read — read, readable, 
reader, reading, riddle. 

refian, to seize — bereave, bereave- 
ment, raven, ravenous, rive, rob, 
i-obber, robbery, rove, rover. 

raad, red — red, redden, ruddy. 

recan, to heed — reck, reckless, 
recklessness, reckon, reckoning. 

rennaji, to run — run, nmner, run- 
aivay, outran. 

ridan, to ride — ride, rider, road, 
roadster, roadstead. 

ripan, to reap — reap, reaper, ripe, 
ripen, ripeness, unripe. 

ruh, rough — rough, roughness. 

s»gaa, to my — say, saying, hear- 
say, unsay. 

sar, painful — sore, soreness, sor- 
row, sorrowful, sorry. 

scacan, to shake — shake, shaky, 
shock, shocking. 

Boeadan, to shade — shade, shady, 
shadow, shed (a covered enclosure). 

acedan, to scatter, to shed — shed (to 
spilT), watershed. 

Bceofan, to push — shove, shovel, 
scuffle, shuffle, sheaf. 

scedtan, to shoot — shoot, shot, sheet, 
shut, shutter, shuttle, overshoot, 
undershot, upshot. 

sceran, to cut — scar, scarf, score, 
share, sharp, shear, sheriff, shire. 

Bcinaii, to shine — sheen, outshine, 
moonshine, sunshine. 

Bcreopaii, to creak — scrape, scraper, 
scrap, scrap-book. 

Bcrob, a bush — shrab, shrubbery. 

scyppan, to fortn — shape, shape- 
less, landscape. 

sellan, to give — sale, sell, sold. 

seon, to see — see, seer, sight, fore- 
see, oversee, unsightly, gaze. 

settan, to set ; sittan, to sU — set. 
setter, settle, settler, settlement, 
set, beset, onset, outset, upset. 

sfde, side — side, sideboard, aside, 
beside, inside, outside, upside. 

singan, losing — sing, singer, song. 

slsec, slack — slack, slackness, slow, 
sloth, slothful, sluggard, sluggish. 

sleia, to slay — slay, slaughter, 
sledge (a heavy hammer). 

slidan, to slide — slide, sled, sledge. 

slipan, to glide — slip, slipper, slip- 
pery, slipshod. 

smitan, to smite — smite, sniiter, 
smith, smithy. 

snican, to creep — snake, sneak. 

socc, a shoe — sock, socket 

soft, soft — soften, softly, softness. 

soth, true — sooth, soothsayer. 

specan, to speak — speak, speaker, 
speech, bespeak. 

spell, a message — spell (discourse) j 

spinnan, to spin — spinner, spi- 

st^ a stone — stony, stoneware. 

standan, to stand — standard, un- 
derstand, understanding, with- 

steall, a place — stall, forestall, in- 
stall, pedestal. 

steorfan, to die — starve, starva- 
tion, stai'veling. 

stician, to slide — stake, stick, 
stickle, stickleback, sting, stitch, 
stock, stockade, stocking. 



stigan, to ascend — stair, staircase, 
stile, stirrup) sty. 

streccan, to stretch— etvetch., stretch- 
er, straight, straighten, straight- 
ness, outstretch, overstretch. 

styran, to steer — steer, steerage, 
steersman, stern {the hind part of 
a ship), astern. 

styriajL, to stir — stir, hestir. 

sdr, sour — sour, sourish, sourness, 
soiTel, surly, surliness. 

swerian, tosivear — swear, swearer, 
forswear, answer, unanswered. 

8wet, sweet — sweet, sweetbread, 
sweeten, sweetmeat, sweetness. 

t^Cecan, to show, to teach — teach, 
teachable, teacher. 

tellan, to count — tell, teller, tale, 
talk, talkative, foretell. 

thencan, to seem — think, thinker, 
thought, thoughtful, methinks. 

thringan, to press — throng. 

thyr, dry — thirst, thirsty. 

treowe, tru^ — true, truth, truth- 
ful, truism, trust, trustee, trust- 
worthy, tiiisty. 

twa, two — twice, twine, twisty be- 
tween, entwine. 

tyman, to turn — turn, turner, turn- 
coat, turnkey, turnpike, overturn, 
return, upturn. 

wacan, to awake — wake, wakeful, 
waken, wait, watch, watchful, 
watchfulness, watchman. 

wamian, to defend, to beware — 
warn, warning, warrant, wary, 
weir, aware, beware. 

wearm, glowing — warm, warmth. 

wegan, to move — wag, waggle, 
wain, wave, way, wayfarer, 
weigh, weight, weighty. 

weordh, toorth — worth, worthy, 
worship, worshipper, unworthy. 

werian, to cover — wear, wearable, 
weary, wearisome. 

winnan, to labor — win, won. 

wftan, to know — wise, wisdom, 
wizard, wit, witness, witty. 

wringan, to twist — wrangle, wrench, 
wriggle, wring, wrinkle. 

writhan, to tunst — wrath, wrath- 
ful, wroth, wreath, wreathe, wry, 
wryneck, wrong. 

wonian, to dwell — wont, wonted. 

wyrm, a vxyrm, a serpent — worm. 

Specimens of Anglo-Saxon, and the ssone literally 
translated into Modern English. 


Ccsdmon: died about 6S0. 

Nu we sceolan herian 
heoibn-Hces weard, 
metodes mihte, 
and his mod-ge-thonc, 
wera wuldor-fieder ! 
swa he wundra ge-hwtes, 

Now we shall praise 
the guardian of heaven, 
the might of the creator, 
and his mind's thought, 
the glory-father of men ! 
how he of all wonders. 



€ce dryhten, 
oord onstealde. 
He eerest ge-sceop 
ylda beanmm 
heofon to hr6fe, 
halig scyppend ! 
thn middan-geard 
mon-cynnes weard, 
ece dryhten, 
sfter teode, 
fimm foldim, 
frea eelmihtig ! 

the eternal lord, 
formed the beginning. 
He first created 
for the children of men 
heaven as a roof, 
the holy creator ! 
then the world 
the guardian of mankind, 
the eternal loid, 
produced afterwards, 
the eai'th for men, 
the almighty master ! 


For tham ned-fere 
nenl wiitheth 
thances snotera 
thonne him thearf sy, 
to ge-hicgeune 
er his heonon-gange 
hwet his gaste 
godes othe yveles 
efter deathe heonon 
demed weorthe. 

Bede : died 736, 

Before the necessary joumey 

no one becomes 

more prudent in thought 

than is needful to him, 

to search out 

before his going hence 

what to his spirit 

of good or of evil 

after his death hence 

will be judged. 


Tha feng iElfred iEthelmilfing 
to West-Seaxua rice ; and thaes 
ymb lenne mouath gefeaht iElfred 
cyning with ealne thone here lytle 
werode ret Wiltoune, and hine lange 
on dsg geflymde, and tha Deniscan 
ahton wsel-stowe geweald. And 
thses geares wurdon nigon folc- 
gefeoht gefohten with thone here 
on tham cyne-iice be suthan 
Teniese, bntan tham the him 
Alfred, and ealdomien, and cyn- 
inges thegnas oft rada ouridon the 

Then took Alfred, son of Ethel- 
wulf to the West Saxon's king- 
dom ; and that after one montli 
fought Alfred king against all the 
army with a little band at Wilton, 
and them long during the day 
routed and then the Danes obtained 
of the battle-field posses<don. And 
this year were nine great battles 
fought with the army in the kingdom 
to the south of the Thames, besides 
those ill which Alfi^, and the alder- 
men, and the king's thanes oft in- 



man na ne rimde. And thtes geares 
wsron of-slegene uigon fwrlas, and 
an cyning ; and thy geare namon 
West-Seaxan frith with thone here. 

roads rode-against which one noth- 
ing accounted. And this year were 
slain nine earls and one king ; and 
this year made the West-Saxons 
peace with the army. 


Lucjs, Cap. L V. 5-10l 

5. On Herodes dagum ludea cyn- 
inges, wjes sura saceri on nanian 
Zacharias, of Abiau tune : and his 
wif wses of Aarones dohtrum, and 
hyre nama wses Elizabeth. 

6. Sothlice hig wsron butu riht- 
wise beforan Gode, gangende on 
eallnm his bebodum and rihtwis- 
nessum, butan wrohte. 

7. And hig naefdon nan beam, 
fortham the Elizalieth waes unbe- 
rende ; and hig on heora dagum 
butu forth-eodon. 

8. Sothlice wies geworden tha 
Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on 
his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan 

9. JSSXer gewunan thtes sacerd- 
hades hlotes, he eode that he his 
ofTrunge sette, tha he on Godes 
tempel eode. 

10. Eall werod thses folces wtes 
ute gebiddeude on thaere offrunge 

Luke, Chap. T. v. 5-10. 

5. In the days of Herod the Icing 
of Judea, there was axeitain priest 
by name Zacharias, of the course 
of Abia : and his wife was of the 
daugliters of Aaron, and her name 
was Elizabeth. 

6. And they were both righteous 
before God, walking in all the com- 
mandments and ordinances of the 
Lord without blame. 

7. Aud they had no child, be* 
cause that Elizabeth was barren ; 
and they in her days were both of 
great age. 

8. And it befell that when Zacha- 
rias should do the office of the 
priesthood in the order of his coui-se 
before God, 

9. After the custom of the priest- 
hood he went fortli by lot, to bum 
incense when he into God's temple 

10. And all the multitude of the 
people were without ])rayiug at the 
time of incense. 


Fseder ure, thu the eart on heo- 
fenum ; si thin nama gehalgod ; to- 
becume thin rice ; geweordhe thin 
willa on eorthan, swa swa on heo- 
fenum. Ume ge dseghwamlican 
hlaf syle us to-dseg ; and forgyf us 

Father our, thou who art in 
heaven ; be thine name hallowed ; 
let come thine kingdom ; let be 
done thine will on earth, so as in 
the heavens. Our also dailv bread 
give thou to us to-day ; and foigtve 



lire gyltas, swa swa we forgifadh 
arum gyltendum ; and ne gelsede 
thu us on costnunge, ac alys us of 
yfle, etc. 

thou to us our debts, so as we for- 
give our debtors ; and not lead thou 
us into temptations, but deliver 
thou us from evil, etc. 

Specimens of Semi-Saxon and Early English. 


He nom tha Englisca hoc 

Tha makede Seint Beda ; 

An other he nom on Ijatin, 

Tha makede Seinte Albin, 

And the feire Austin, 

The fulluht broute hider in. 

Hoc he nom the thridde, 

Leide ther amidden, 

Tha makede a Frenchis clerc, 

Wace was ihoten, 

The wel couthe writen, 

And he hoc yef thare aethelen 

Allienor, the wes Henries queue, 

Thes heyes kinges. 

He took the English book 

That Saint Bede made ; 

Another he took in Latin, 

That Saint Albin made, 

And the fair Austin, 

That baptism brought hither in. 

The third book he took, 

And laid there in midst, 

That made a French clerk, 

Wace was he called, 

That well could write. 

And he it gave to the noble 

Eleanor, that was Henry's Queen, 

The high king's. 


Henry, thurg Code's fultome, 
King on Engleneloande, Lhoaverd 
on Yrloand, Duk on Norman, on 
Acquitain, Earl on Anjon, send I 
greting, to alle hise holde, ilaerde 
and ilewede on Huntindonnschiere. 
Thajt witen ge wel alle, haet we 
willen and unnen thset ure nedes- 
men alle, other the moare del of 
heom, thffit beoth ichosen thurg us 
and thurg thflet loandes-folk on ure 
kiueriche, habhith idon, and sehul- 
len don in the worthnes of God, 
and ure treowthe, for the freme of 
the loande, etc. 

Henry, through God's support. 
King of England, Lord of Ireland, 
Duke of Normandy, of Acquitain, 
Earl of Anjon, sends gi'eeting to all 
his subjects, learned and unlearned, 
of Huntingdonshire.. This know 
ye well all, that we will and 
grant what our counsellors all, or 
the more part of them, that be 
chosen through us and through the 
landfolk of our kingdom, have 
done, and shall do, to the honor of 
God, and our allowance, for the 
good of the land, etc. 


Anglo-Saxon Element in Modern English* 

That the young student may be made aware of the extent of the employment of 
Anglo-Saxon in our present language, and that he may have some clue to direct him 
to a knowledge of the Saxon words, the following extracts, embracing a great propor- 
tion of these words, are submitted to his attention. The words not Teutonic ar« 
marked in Italics. 


Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all our woe. 
With loss of Eden, till one greater man 
Restore us and regain the blissful seat — 
Sing, heavenly Muse. 

With thee conversing, I forget all time, 
All seasons, and their change ; all please alike. 
Sweet is the breath of mom, her rising sweet. 
With charm of earliest birds ; pleasant the sun 
When first on this delightful land he spreads 
His orient beams on herb, tree, fruit, and flower, 
Glisteiing with dew ; fragrant the fertile earth. 
After soft showers ; and sweet the coming on 
Of grateful evening mild ; then silerU night 
With this her solemn bird, and this fair moon, 
And these the gerns of heaven, her starry train, 


To be, or not to be, that is the quedion ; 
Whether *t is nobler in the mind to suffer 
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune. 
Or to take arms against a sea of trovhles, 
And, by opposing, end them ? To die, to sleep ; 
No more ; — and by a sleep to say we end 
The heartache and the thousand ncUural shocks 
That flesh is h£ir to ! 't were a consummation 
DevouMy to be wished. To die ; to sleep ; 
To sleep ? — perchaiice to dream ! 


All the world 's a stage-y 
And all the men and women merely players. 
They have their exits and their entrances. 
And one man in his time plays many parts; 
His acts being seven ages. At first the infanty 
Mewling and puking in his mirses arms. 
And then the whining school-hoy, with his satchel 
And shining mommg face, creeping like snail 
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover, 
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his mistress* eyebrow. Then a soldier. 
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard, 
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel ; 
Seeking the babble rtputatiofn 
Even in the canruni^s mouth. 


In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the 
earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon the face of 
the deep : and the Spirit of God vnoved upon the face of the waters. And 
God said. Let there be light ; and there was light. And God saw the 
light, that it was good ; and God divided the light from the darkness. 
And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And 
the evening and the morning were the first day. — Genesis L 1-6. 

And it came to pass, that when Iscmc was old, and his eyes were dim, 
so that he could not see, he called Esau, his eldest son, and said unto 
him. My son. And he said unto him, Behold, here am I. And he said. 
Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my death. Now there- 
fore take, I pray thee, thy weajwns, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out 
to the field, and take me some venison ; and make me savoury meat, such 
as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat ; that my soul may bless 
thee before I die. And Rehekah heard when Isaac spake to Esau his 
ton. And Esau went to the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. 
And Rebekah spake unto Jacob her son, saying, Behold, I heard thy 
father speak unto Esau thy brother, saying. Bring me venison, and make 
me savoury meat, that I may eat, and bless thee before the Lord before 
my death. — Cfenesis zzvlL 1-7* 



These as they change, Almighty Father ! these 
Are but the vajricd God. The rolling year 
Is full of thee. Forth in the pleasing spring 
Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness and love. 
Wide flush the fields ; the softening air is haJm ; 
Echo the mountains round; the forest smiles ; 
And every sense and every heart is jotj. 
Then conies thy glory in the summer months, 
With light and heat refulgent. Then thy sun 
Shoots full perfection through the swelling year. 


I was yesterday, about sunset, walking in the open fields, till the 
night insensibly fell upon me. i at first amused myself with all the 
richness and variety of colours which ajipeared in the western parts of 
heaven. In proportion dA they faded away and went out, several stars 
tLn^ planets appeared, one after another, till the whole firmament was in 
a glow. The blueness of the ether was exceedingly heightened and en- 
livened by the season Of the year. 


Let Indians, and the gay, like Indians, fond 
Of feathered fopperies, the sun adore : 
Darkness has more divinity for me ; 
It strikes thought inward ; it diives back the soul 
To settle on herself, our point supreme. 
There lies our theater : there sits owe judge. 
Darkness the curtain drops o'er life's dull scene : 
*T is the kind hand of Providence stret<*.hed out 
*Twixt man and vanity ; *t is reason's reign. 
And virtue's too ; these tutelary shades 
Are man's asylum from the tainted throng. 
Night is the good man's friend, and guardian too. 
It no less rescues virtue, than inspires. 

Wisdom is a fox, who, after long hunting, will at last cost you the 
jiains to dig out. 'T is a cheese, which l^y how mueh the ridier has the 


thicker, homelier, and the coarser coat ; and whereof, to a judicious 
palate, the maggots are the best. 'T is a sack posset^ wherein the dee|)er 
you go you will find it the sweeter. But then, lastly, 't is a nut, which, 
unless you choose with judginent, may cost you a tooth, and pay you with 
nothing but a worm. 


The beatUies of her person and graces of her air combined to make her 
the most amiable of women ; and the charms of her address and conver- 
sation aided the impression which her lovely figure made on the heart of 
all beholders. Ambitious and a^dive in her temper , yet inclined to cheer- 
fulness and society ; of a lofty spirit, cmistaiU and even vehement in her 
purpose, yet pJitic, gentle, and affable, in her dem^eanor, she seemed to 
^rtake only so much of the male virtues as to render her estimable, with- 
out relinquishing those soft graces which compose the proper ornament of 
her sex. 


In the second century of the Christian era, the empire of iZorn^ compre- 
hended the fairest jvor^ of the earth, and the most civilized portion of 
mankind. The /rtm/tcr* of that extensive monarchy were guarded by an- 
cietU renovm and disciplined valour. The ^eii^Ze but poioer/ul influence 
6f laws and Tnanners had gradually cemented the tcnimi of the pi'ovinces. 
Their peaceful inhabitatUs etijoyed and abused the advantages of wealth 
and luxury. The image of a free constitution was presei'ved with decent 


Of genius, that poiiw which eottx^i^u^ a jx>ce ; that quality without 
which Judgnient is cold, and knowledge is wwr^ / that tfn€?Y/y which coZ- 
/e<rf«, combines, amplifies, and animaies ; the superiority must, with some 
hesitatioti, be allowed to Dryden. It is not to be inferred that of this 
poetical vigor Pope had only a little, because Dryden had more ; for 
every other writer since Milton must give place to Pope ; and even of 
Dryden it must lie said, that if he has brighter paragraphs, he has not 
better poems. 


Ancient of days ! august Athena ! where, 

Where are thy men of might — thy graiid in soul ? 


Gone — glimmering through the dream of things that were. 

First in the race that led to Glory's good. 

They won, and passed away. Is this the whole ? 

A schoolAyofB tale — the wonder of an hour I 

The warrior's weapon and the sophist's stole 

Are sought in vain, and o'er each vwuldering tower, 

Dim with the mist of yeai*s, gray flits the shade of power. 


rhe way was long, the wind was cold. 
The Miiistrel was infirm and old ; 
His withered cheek and tresses gray 
Seemed to have known a better day \ 
The harp, his sole remaining joy. 
Was carried by an orphan hoy. 
The last of all the bards was be 
Who sung of boixier chivalry ; 
For, well-a-day ! their date was fled ; 
His tuneixxX brethren all were dead ; 
And he, neglected and oppressed. 
Wished to be with them and at rest. 


Ah ! little doth the young one dream. 
When full of play and childish cares. 
What power is in his wildest scream. 
Heard by his mother unawares ! 
He knows it not, he cannot guess ; 
Years to a mother bring distress; 
But do not make her love the less. 

My son, if thou be humbled, jjoor. 
Hopeless of honor and of gain. 
Oh ! do not dread thy mother's door ; 
Think not of me with grief and pain» 
I now can see with better eyes ; 
And worldly grandeur I despist. 
And Fortune with her gifts and lies. 



Not wholly in the busy world, nor quite 
Beyond it, blooms the garden that 1 love. 
News from the humming city comes to it 
In aound of funeral or of marriage bells ; 
And sitting muffled in dark leaves you hear 
The windy clanging of the winter clock ; 
Although between it and the garden lies 
A league of gi*ass, washed by a slow broad stream, 
That» stirred with languid jnUses of the oar, 
Waves all its lazy lities, and creeps on, 
Barge laden, to three arches of a bridge, 
Crowned with the minsteT'towers, 






at'las, a collection of maps hound 
together : ** Atlas," a fabled giant 
who, according to the Greek no- 
tion, bore the earth upon hh 

acad'emy, a superior grade school ; 
a society of learned men : * * Acade- 
mus," a Greek in whose gai-den 
near Athens Plato taught. 

ammo'nia, the pungent matter of 
smelling-salts : * * J upiter Ammon, " 
near whose temple in Libya it was 
originally obtained. 

' bac'chanal, one who indulges in 
drunken revels: "Bacchus," the 
god of wine. . 

bow'ie-knife, an American weap- 
on : Colonel ** Bowie," the in- 

braggado'cio, avainboaster : "Brag- 
gadochio," a boastful character in 
Spenser's Faery Queen. 

bud'dhism, a wide-spread Asiatic 
religion: "JJuddha," a Hindoo 
sage who lived about 1000 B. C. 

cal'vinism, t?ie doctrines of Calvin : 
"Calvin," a Swiss theologian of 
the 16th century. 

cameriia^ a genus of evergreen 
shrubs: "Camelli," a Spaniard 
who brought them from Asia. 

cicero'ne (sis-e-ro'ne or chi-che-ro'- 
ne), a guide: "Cicero," the Ro- 
man orator. 

cincho'na^ Peruvian hark: Coun- 
tess ** Cinchona," wife of a Span- 
ish governor of Peru (17th cen- 
tury). By means of this medicine 
she was cured of an intemiittent 
fever, and after her return to 
Spain she aided in the diffusion 
of the remedy. 

daguerre'otype, a picture produced 
on a metal plate : " DagueiTe," 
the inventor (1789-1851). 

dahPia, a garden plant: "Dahl/* 
a Swedish botanist. 

dunce, a dull, slow-witted person : 
" Duns Scotus," a subtle philos- 
opher of the 13th century. His 
method of reasoning was very 
populai* in the schools during the 
Middle Ages, and a very skillful 
hair-splitter was called a Dunse ; 
but at last, through the influence 
of the antagonists of the philos- 
opher, the word passed into a 
term of I'eproach. 

ep'icure, one fond of good living : 
" Epicurus," a Greek philosopher 
who was said to teach that pleasure 
is the chief good. 



Fah'renheit, a themuymeter that 
marks the freezing-point of toater 
at 32** (which is different from 
both the centigrade and the Reau- 
mur thermometer) : * * Fahrenheit, " 
the inventor. 

Aichsia (fu'si-a), a genus of JUnoer- 
iiig plants: "Leonard Fuchs," a 
German botanist of the 16th cen- 

gal'vanism, a branch of the science 
of electricity: ** Galvani," an Ital- 
ian physician, its discoverer. 

gen'bian, a medicinal root: ''Gen- 
tian," king of Illyria, who is said 
to have first experienced the vir- 
tues of the plant. 

goVelin, a rich tapestry: "Jehan 
Gol^eelen," a Flemish dyer. 

guillotine', an instrument for be- 
heading: "Guillotin," who in- 
vented and brought it into use at 
the time of the French Revolution, 
last century. 

hy'giene, the principles and rules of 
health : " Hygeia," the goddess 
of health in classical mythology. 

Jes'ait, a member of the Society of 
Jesus, formed by Ignatius Loyola 
twl534; "Jesus." 

lynch, to punish without the usual 
forms of law: said to be from 
"Lynch," a Virginia farmer, who 
took the law into his own hands. 

macad'amize, to cover a road with 
small broken stones : "Macadam," 
the inventor. 

magno'lia, a species of trees found 

in the southern parts of the United 
States : " Magnol," a French bot- 

men' tor, a faithful monitor : * * Men- 
tor, " the counselor of Telemachus. 

mor'phia, the narcotic principle of 
opium : "Morpheus," the god of 

ne'gika^ a mixture of tvine, water, and 
sugar: Colonel "Negus," who in- 
troduced its use in the time of 
Queen Anne. 

or'rery, an apparatus for showing 
the motions, etc., of the heavenly 
bodies: the Earl of "Orrery," for 
whom one of the first was made. 

palWdium, sometJiing that affords 
effectual defense, protection, and 
safety: Greek "palla'dion," an 
image of " Pallas Athene," which 
was kept hidden and secret, and 
was revered as a pledge of the 
safety of the town where it was 

paa'ic, asudden fright : * * Pan, " the 
god of shepherds, who is said to 
have caused alarm by his wild 
screams and appearance. 

pe'ony,a plant of the genus Pjsonia, 
having beaiUiful showy ftawers: 
" PflBon," its discoverer. 

pet'rel, an ocean bird : diminutive 
of Peter, probably so called in al- 
lusion to "St. Peter's" walking 
on the sea. 

pha'eton,an.op07icarr^a^e; "Phae- 
thon," the fabled son of Phoebus 
or the Sun, whose chariot he at- 
tempted to drive. 

pinch'becky an alloy of copper and 



zi7ic resembling gold : said to be 
fixnn one ** Pinchbeck," the in- 

quas'sia, a bitter wood used as a 
tonic: "Quassy,** a negi"o who 
discovered its qualities. 

rodomontade', vain bluster : * * Rodo- 
moute," a boasting hero who fig- 
ures in Ariosto's poem of the 
Orlando Furioso, 

silhouette (sil-oo-etO) the outline 
of an object filled in toitk black 
color: "Silhouette" (see Web- 

tan'talize, to torment or tease: 
"Tantalus," according to the 
poets, an ancient king of Phrygia, 
who was made to stand up to the 
chin iu water with fruit hanging 
over his head, but from whom 
both receded when he wished to 

typhoon', a violent hurricane which 
occurs in the Chinese seas : ** Ty- 
phon," a fabled giant who was 
taught to produce them. 

volca'no, a burning mountain: 
Vulcan," the god of fire. 



Amer'ican, relating to America: 
from "Amerigo (I^tin, Americus) 
Vespucci " — contemporary of Co- 

A'rian, relating to Arius: a theolo- 
gian of the 4th century who de- 
nied the divinity of Christ. 

Aristote'lian, relating to the deduc- 
tive method of reasoning set forth 
by Aristotle : a Greek philosopher 
of the 4th century B. c. 

Armin'ian, relating to Arminius: 
a Dutch theologian of the 16th 
century, who opposed the doc- 
trines of Calvin. 

Baco'nian, relating to the inductive 
method of reasoning set forth by 
Bacon : an English philosopher of 
the 17th century. 

Carte'sian, relating to the philosophy 
of Descartes • a French philosopher 
of the 17 th century. 

ce'real, relating to grain; from 
" Ceres " — the Roman goddess of 
corn and tillage. 

Coper'nican, relaiing to Copernicus: 
a German philosopher of the 16th 
century, who taught the theory 
of the solar system now received, 
and called the Copemican sys- 

Eliz'abethan, relating to the times 
of Queen Elizabeth of England 

Eolian, relating to the wind : from 
" ^olus " — the god of the winds 
in classic mythology. 

Eras'tian, relating to Erastus, — 
a German theologian of the 16th 
century,' who maintained that 
the Church is wholly dependent 
on the State for support or au- 

Escula'pian, relating to the healing 



art: from"E8Culapiu8" — the god 
of the healing art among the 

Gor'dian, intricate, complicated^ 
difficult : from * * Gordius " — king 
of Phrygia who tied a knot which 
could not be untied. * 

Hercale'an, very large and strong : 
from " Hercules "—a hero of antiq- 
uity celebrated for his strength. 

hennet'ic, rekUing to Hermes — 
the fabled inventor of alchemy ; 
adv., hermetically, in a per- 
fectly dose manner. 

Hudibras'tic, in the manner of the 
satirical poem called Hudibras, 
by Samuel Butler (1612-1680). 

jo'vial, gay, merry : from * * Jupiter " 
(Jovis), — the planet of that name 
having in the Middle Ages been 
supposed to make those who were 
born under it of a joyous temper. 

Linne'an, relating to Linnceits — 
the celebrated Swedish botanist. 

Lu'theran, relating to the doctrines 
of Luther — a German religious 
teacher of the 16th century. 

MacliiaveViaii, cunning and sinis- 
ter in politics : from " Machiaveli " 
— an Italian writer of the 15th 

mercu'rial, active, sprightly — hav- 
ing the qualities fabled to belong 
to the god ** Mercury." 

Mosa'ic, relating to Moses, his 
writings or his time. 

Newto'nian, relating to Sir Isaac 
Newton and his philosophy. 

Pindar'ic, after the style and man- 
ner of Pindar — a lyric poet of 

platon'ic, relating to the opinions 
or the school of Plato, — a philoso- 
pher of Greece, in the 4th cen- 
tury B. c. 

Platon'ic, relating to the interior of 
ifte earth, or to ike Plutonic 
theory in geology of the formation 
of certain rocks by fire: from 
•' Pluto " — in classic mythol- 
ogy, the god of the infernal re- 

procrus'tean, relating to or resem* 
hlin^ the mode of torture employed 
by Procrustes — a celebrated high- 
wayman of ancient Attica, who 
tied his victims upon an iron bed, 
and, as the case required, either 
stretched out or cut off their legs 
to adapt them to its length. 

Prome'thean, relating to Pro^ne- 
theus — a god fabled by the an- 
cient poets to have foimed men 
from clay and to have given them 
life by means of fire stolen from 
heaven, at which Jupiter, being 
angry, sent Mercury to bind him 
to Mount Caucasus, and place a 
vulture to prey upon his liver. 

QuixoVic, absolutely rmnaniic, like 
^ Don Quixote — desciibed by 

Cervantes, a Spanish writer of 

the 16th century. 

Satur'nian, distinguished for pur- 
ity, integrity, and simplicity; 
golden, happy : from ** Saturn " — 
one of the gods of antiquity 
whose age or reign, from the 
mildness and wisdom of his gov- 



ernment, was called the golden 

Socrat'ic, relating to the philosophy 
or the fnethod of teaching of Soc- 
rates — the celebrated philosopher 
of Greece (468-899 B. c). 

stento'rian, very loud or powerful, 
resembling the voice of Stentor — 
a Greek herald, spoken of by 
Homer, having a very loud voice. 

Thes'pian, relating to tragic action : 
from ** Thespis ** — the founder of 
the Greek drama. 

Tltan'ic, enomums in size and 
strength: from the * 'Titans " — 

fabled giants in classic mythol- 

Uto'pian, ideal, fanciful, chimeri- 
cal: from "Utopia"— an imagi- 
nary island, represented by Sir 
Thomas Browne, in a work called 
** Utopia," as enjoying the 
greatest perfection in politics, 
laws, and society. 

▼olta'ic, relating to voltaism or 
voltaic electricity: from "Yolta" 
— who first devised apparatus for 
developing electric currents by 
chemical action. 


ag'ate, apredotisstone: "Achates," 
a river in Sicily where it is 

al'abaster, a variety of soft marble : 
"Alabastrura," in Egypt, where 
it is found. 

ar'ras, ta2)eslry: "Arras, " in France, 
where it is manufactured. 

arte'sian, applied to vjells made by 
boring into the earth till the in- 
siiniment reacJies water which flows 
from internal pressure : ** Ai*tois" 
(anciently called Artesium), in 
France, where many of such wells 
have been made. 

At'tic, marked by such qrtalities as 
characterized the Athenians, as 
delicate vnt, purity of style, ele- 
gance, etc. : * * Attica," the country 
of the Athenians. 

ban'tam, a , small domestic fowl: 

** Bantam," in Java, whence it was 

hxrh, a BarbaryJiorse: "Barbary," 
in Africa. 

bay'onet, a dagger fixed on the end 
of a musket : ** Bayonne," in 
France, where it was invented, in 

bedlam, a lunatic; asylum : ** Beth- 
lehem," a monastery in London, 
afterwards used as an asylum for 

bur'gundy, a French wine: "Bur- 
gundy," where it is made. 

cal'ico, a kind of cotton cloth : "Ca- 
licut," in India, where it was first 

cana'ry, a wine and a bird: the 
"Canary" Islands. 

can'ter, an easy gallop: "Canter- 
bury>" in allusion to the easy pace 



at which the pilgrims used to ride 

car'ronade, a short cannon : ** Car- 
ron/' in Scotland, where it was 
first made. 

cash'mere, a rich shawl, from (he 
xoool of the Thibet goat : " Cash- 
mere," the country where first 

chalced'ony, a variety of uncnjs- 
talized quartz: **Chalcedon," in 
Asia Minor, where obtained. 

champagne', a wine: '* Cham- 
pagne," in France, where pro- 

cher'ry, a red sioned-fruit : "Cera- 
8us" (now Kheresoun), in Pontus, 
Asia Minor, whence the tree was 
imported into Italy. 

chest'nut, a fruit: "Castanea," in 
Macedonia, whence it was intro- 
duced into Europe. 

cog'nac, a kind of Freruh brandy : 
**Co^ac," in France, where ex- 
tensively made. 

cop'per, a metal : ** Cyprus," once 
celebrated for its rich mines of the 

cord'wainer, a worker tn cordwain, 
or cordovan, a Spanish leather: 
** Cordova," in Spain. 

cnracoa', a liquor or cordial fla- 
vored with orange-peel : the island 
of "Curagoa," where it was first 

cnr'raiit, a small dried grape: 
"Corinth," in Greece, of which 
currant" is a corruption. 


dam'ask, figured, linen or silk: 
** Damascus," in Syria, where 
first made. 

dam'son, a small blaekplum (short- 
ened from ** Damascene ") : Da- 

delf, akindofeartlienware: "Delft," 
in Holland, where it was origi- 
nally made. 

di'aper, a figured linen cloth, used 
for towels, napkins, etc.: " Ypres," 
in Flanders, where originally 

dim'ity, a figured cotton doth: 
•♦Damietta,"in Egypt. 

gamboge', a yellow resin used as a 
paint: "Cambodia," where it is 

ging'ham, cotton cloth, made of yam 
dyed before tooven : * • G uincamp, " 
in France, where it was first made. 

gain'ea, an English gold coin of the 
value of twenty^one shillings : 
"Guinea," whence the gold was 
obtained out of which it was first 

gyp'sy, OTie of a toandering race : 
old English "Gjrjitian," from 
"Egypt," whence the race was 
supposed to have originated. 

hol'land, a kind of linen doth: 
"Holland," where first made. 

hoVlands, a spirit flavored vnth 
Juniper berries: "Holland," where 
it is extensively produced. 

in'digo, a blue dye: " India." 

jal'ap, a cathartic medicine: "Ja- 

lapa," in Mexico, whence it was 

first imported in 1610. 
jet, a mineral vMd for ornament : 

" Gagates," a river in Asia Minor, 

whence it was obtained. 



lan'dan, ) a kind of carriage open- 
lan'daulet, ) ing at the top: "Lan- 
dau," a town in Germany. 

madei'ra, a wine: *' Madeira," 

where produced, 
magne'sia, a primitive earth : 

** Magnesia," in Thessaly. 
mag'net, the loadstone^ or Magnesian 

malm'sey, a wine: ** Malvasia," in 

the Morea. 
mar'sala, a wine: "Mai*sala," in 

mean'der, to flow in a winding 

course: "Meander," a winding 

river in Asia Minor, 
mil'liner, one who makes ladies* 

bonnets, etc, : "Milan," in Italy, 
moroc'co, a fine kind of leather : 

"Morocco," in Africa, where it 

was originally made. 

nankeen', a buff-colored doth: 
"Nankin," in China, where first 

pheas'anti a bird wh^tse flesh is high- 
ly vaJ.ucd flw food : " Phasis," a 
river in Asia Minor, whence it 
was brought to Europe. 

pis'tol, a small hand gun: "Pis- 
toja," in Italy, where first made. 

port, a toine: "Oporto," in Portu- 
gal, whence extensively shipped. 

sardine', a small Mediterranean fisJi, 
of the herring family : "Sardinia," 
around whose coasts the fish 



sauteme', a wine: "Sauterne," in 
France, where produced. 

sher'ry, a wine : " Xeres," in Spain, 
where it is largely manufactured. 

span'iel, a dog of remarkable sagac- 
ity : "Hispaniola," now Hayti, 
where onginally found. 

tar'iff, a list of duties or customs to 
be paid on goods imported or ex- 
ported : " Tarifa," in Spain, where 
duties were collected by the Moors. 

io'paz, a precious sUnie : * * Topazos, ' ' 
an island in the Red Sea, where it 
is found. 

trip'oli, a fine grained earth used in 
polishing stones: "Tripoli," in 
Africa, where originally obtained. 

turquois', a bluish-green stmie: 
"Turkey," whence it was origi- 
nally brought. 

worsted, well-twisted yam, spun 
of long-staple wool: "Worsted," 
a village in Norfolk, England, 
where first made. 






aataro'tic : 6r. arUi, opposite, and 
arktos, a bear. See arctic. 

archipel'ago : Gr. archi, chief, and 
pelagoSf sea ; originally applied to 
the .£gean Sea, which is studded 
with numerouH islands. 

arc'tic : Gr. arktikos, from arktoa, 
a bear and a northern constella- 
tion so called. 

Atlaji'tic : Lat AtlaiUieus ; from 
"Atlas," a fabled Titan who was 
condemned to bear heaven on his 
head and hands. 

az'is : Lat. axiSj an axletree. 

bar'baroas : Gr. harbaros^ foreign. 
bay : Fr. baU, fronx Lat. haia^ an 

can'cer : Ijat. caiicer^ a crab (the 

name of one of the signs of the 

cape : Fr. cap^ from Lat. eajmtj 

cap'ital : Lat. eapitalis, from captU, 

cap'ricom : Lat. caper, goat, and 

comUy honi (the name of one of 

the signs of the zodiac). 
car'dinal, adj. : Ijat cardiruUis, from 

cardo, cardinis, a hinge, 
chan'nel : Lat. canaliSf from cawna, 

a reed or pipe, 
dr'cle : Lat. circus, from Gr. kirkoi, 

a ring. 

circnm'ference : Lat. circum, 

around, and ferre, to bear, 
cit'y : Fr. cite, from Lat. civitas, a 

state or community, 
civ'ilized : Lat. dvilia, pertaining 

to an organized community, 
cli'mate : Gr. klima, kliinaios, 

slope, the supposed slope of the 

earth from the Equator to the 

coast : Old Fr. co^ (New Fr. c6te), 

from Lat. costa, rib, side, 
con'fluence : Lat. ctni, together, and 

fluere, to flow, 
con'tinent : liat. con, together, a^d 

taiere, to hold, 
con'toor : Lat. con, together, and 

tonius, a lathe. 
coon'ty : Fr. cornU, from Lat. comi^ 

tatus, governed by a count. 

degree' : Lat. de, and gradus, a step. 
diam'eter: Gr. dia, through, and 
Toetrmi, measure. 

Eqoa'tor : Lat. equus, equal. 

es'tuary : Lat. cestuare, to boil up, 
or be furious ; the reference being 
to the commotion made by the 
meeting of a river-current and the 

frig'id : Lat. frigidu^, from Jrigere, 

to be cold, 
geog'raphy : Gr. ffe, the earth, and 

graphs, a description. 



globe : Lat. globus, a round body, 
g^lf: Fr. golfCy from Gr. kolpos, 
boeom, bay. 

har'bor : Anglo-Saxon, hereberga, 

from beorgan, to shelter. 
hem'isphere : Gr. ft^mif half, and 

sphaira^ sphere, 
hori'zon : Gr. horizein, to bound. 

In'dian (ocean) : India, 
isth'niiui : Gr. isthmos, a neck. 

lake : Lat. Icums, a lake, 
latitude : Lat. kUiiudo, from latiLs, 

lon'gitude : Lat. longitudo, from 

loiigus, long. 

merid'ian : Lat. meridies ( = me- 

diiis, middle, and dies, day), noon, 
metrop'olis : Gr. meter, mother, 

And polls, city, 
mon'archy : Gr. nuniarclUs, from 

monosj alone, and arckein, to rule. 
moon'tain : Fr. vrwrUagne, from 

Lat. 771071^, montis, a mountain. 

oVlate : Lat. oblatus (oh and past 
part, of ferre, to bring), brought 

o'cean: Gr. olceamts, from oJnis, 
rapid, and iiadn, to flow. 

Pacific : Lat. padjicus, from pax, 
pacts, peace, and /ocere, to make. 

par'allel : Gr. para, beside, and a/- 
Iclon, of one another. 

penin'sula : Lat. penes, almost, and 
insula, island. 

phys'ical : Gr. pfiysis {phusis), na- 

plain : Lat. planus, ilat. 

plane : Lat. planus, flat. 

pole : Gr. polos, a pivot 

political : Gr. polis, a city or state. 

prom'ontory : Lat. pro, before, and 
MOTts, numtis, a mountain. 

relief : Fr. relever, from Lat rele- 

vare, to raise, 
repub'llc : Lat res, an affair, and 

publica, public : that is, a com- 

liv'er : Fr. riviere, from Lat. ripa, 

a shore or bank. 

sav'age : Fr. sauvage, from Lat. 

sUva, a wood, 
sea : Anglo-Saxon, see, the sea. 
soci'ety : Lat societal, from socius, 

a companion. 


ad'jective, Lat. adjectivus, from ad 
and jacere, to add to : a word 
joined to a noun or pronoun to 
limit or describe its meaning. 

ad'janct, Lat. adjuiuius, from ad 
and jungere, to join to : a m/)di- 

• fier or subordinate element of a 
sequence, • 

ad'verb, Lat adverbittm, from ad, 
to, and verbum, word, verb : a 
word used to modify the meaning 
of a verb, an adjective, or another 

anal'ysis, Gr. analusis, from ana 
and Itiein, to unloose, to resolve 
into its elements : the separation 



of a ^ntence into its eotiatUuent 

antece'dent, Lat. antecedens^ pres. 

part, of antecedere, to go before : 

the noun or pronoun r^yresented 

by a relative pronowu 
apposi'tion, Lat. appositio, from ad^ 

to, and ponere, to place beside : 

the state of two nouns put in the 

same ease withoiU. a connecting 

word between thein. 
ar'ticle, Lat. articulus, a little 

joint; one of the three words, a, 

an, or the. 
aoxil'iary, Lat. .aim^iartv, from 

auxilium, help, aid : a verb used 

to assist in conjugating other verbs. 

case, Lat casus, from cadere, to 
fall, to happen : a grammatical 
form denoting the relation of a 
noun or pronoun to some other 
word in the sentence. 

clause, Lat claudere, clausum, to 
shut : a dependent proposition in- 
troduced by a connective. 

compar'ison, Lat. comparaiio, from 
comparare, to liken to : a varia- 
tion in the form of an adjective or 
adverb to express degrees of quan- 
tity or quality. 

com'plemeni, Lat. compleimntum, 
from con and plere, to fill fully : 
ths toord or words required to com- 
plete the predication of a transitive 

com'plex (sentence), Lat. com- 
plezus, from con and plectere, to 
twist around : a sentence consist- 
ing of one independent proposition 
and one or more clauses. 

com'pound (sentence), Lat. com- 

posure (» con and ponere), to put 
together : a sentence consisting of 
two or Tnore independent propo- 

conjiiga'tion, Lat. conjugatio, from 
con and jugare, to join together : 
the systematic arrangement of a 
verb according to its various gram- 
matical forms. 

conjunc'tion, Lat. conjunctio, from 
con and jwngere, to join together : 
a word used to connect sentences or 
the elements of sentences. 

declen'sion, Lat. declinatio, from 
declinare, to lean or incline : the 
process of giving in regular order 
the cases and numbers of a Twun 
or pronoun, 

ellip'sis, Gr. elleipsis, a leaving or 
defect : the oonissiooi of a vford or 
words necessary to complete the 
grammatical structure of the sen- 

etymol'ogy, Gr. etumologia, from 
etumon, the true literal sense of a 
word, and logos, a discourse : that 
division of grammar which treats 
of the classificaiion and gram^ 
magical forms of ujords. 

fem'iniiie (gender), Lat femininvs, 
from femviia, woman : the gender 
of a jwun denoting a person of the 
female sex. 

gen'der, Lat. genius, generis, kind : 

• a grammMical form expressing the 

sex or non-sex of an object named 

by a noun. 

gram'mar, Gr. gramma, a letter, 



through Fr. grammaire: the sci- 
ence of language. 

imper'ative (mood), Lat. impera- 
tivuSf from imperarc, to command ; 
the mood of a verb used in tiu 
stcUemerU of a command or re- 

mdic'atiTe(mood), Lat indicativus, 
from indieare^ to proclaim : the 
mood of a verb used in the state- 
merU of a fact, or of a matter taken 
as a fact. 

inflec'tion, Lat. infleodo, from in- 
flectere, to bend in : a change in 
the ending of a word. 

interjec'tion, Lat. interjectio, from 
inter and jacere, to throw be- 
tween : a irord which exjn^esses 
afi emotion, bid which does not 
enter into the construction of the 

intran'si^ve (verb), Lat. iniransi- 
tivus = in, not, and transitivus, 
from trans and ire. Hum, to go 
beyond : a verb that denotes a 
state or condition, or an action not 
terminating on an object. 

mas'cnline (gender), Lat. masculus, 
male: the gender of a tioun describ- 
ing a person of the male sex, 

mode. See mood. 

mood, Lat. mMus, through Fr. 
mock, manner : a grammatical 
form denoting the style ofprMoa- 

ncn'^er (gender), Lat. neuter, nei- 
ther : the gender of a noun denot- 
ing an object wUhmU life. 

nom'inative (case), Lat. nomina- 

tivus, from nomen, a name : that 
form which a noun has when it is 
the subject of a verb. 

noun, Lat. nomen, a name, through 
Fr. nom : a name'VJord, the name 
of anything. 

nom'ber, Irfit. numerus^ through 
Fr. nombre, number: a gram- 
matical form expremng one or 
more than one of the objects named 
by a iwun or pronoun, 

ob^ject, Lat. ob and jacere, to set 
before : that toward which an ac- 
tivity is directed or is considered 
to be directed. 

objec'tive (case), Lat. objectivus, 
from ob and jacere : the ease which 
follows a transitive verb or a prep- 

pane, Lat. pars, a part : to point 
out the several parts of speech in a 
sentence and their relation to one 

par'ticiple, Lat. partidpium, fr«m 
pars, part, and capere, to take, to 
share : a verbal adjective, a word 
which shares or participates in the 
nature both of the verb and of the 

per'son, Lat. persona, the part taken 
by a i>erfomier : a grammatical 
form which shows whether the 
speaker i^meaady the perwn spoken 
to, or the person spoken of. 

phrase, Gr. phrasis, a brief expres- 
sion, from phrazein, to speak : a 
combination of related words form- 
ing an element of a sentence, 

ple'onasm, Gr. pleonastnos, from 
pleion, more : the use of more 



tvords to express an idea than are 

plu'ral (number), Lat. pluralis, 
from plus, pluris, more : the num- 
ber which designates more than 

possess'! ve (case), Lat. possessivus, 
from possidere, to own : that form 
which a noun or pronoun has in 
order to denote otimership or pos- 

poten'tial (mood), laX, potens^ po- 
terUis, being able : the mood of a 
verb used in the staiement of som^e- 
thiitg possible or contivgent, 

pred'icate, Lat. prcedicatum^ from 
pree and dicare, to proclaim : the 
word or words in a proposition 
which express what is affirmed of 
the subject, 

preposi'tion, Lat. proBpositio, from 
pr(B and ponere, to put before : a 
connective word expressing a rela- 
tion of meaning bettoeen a noun or 
proiwun and some other word. 

pro'noan, Lat. pronom>en, from 
prOf for, and nomen, a noun : a 
word used instead of a nqiin, 

prop'osition, Lat. proposition from 
proponere {pro and ponere), to put 
forth : the combination of a svh- 
ject with a predicate. 

reVative (pronoun), Lat. relativns, 
from re and ferre, lotus, to bear 
back : a pronoun that refers to an 
antecedetU noun or pronoun. 

sen'tenoe, Lat. aententia, from sen- 
tire, to think : a comhiiwlion of 
wordsexpressingacomplete thought. 

siin'ple (sentence), Lat. simplex, 
from siTie, without, and plica, 
fold : a sentence having but one 
subject a'iid one predicate, 

suVject, Lat subjeclus, from sub 
and jacere, to plaice under : that 
of which something is predicated, 

sabjonc'tive (mood), Lat. subjunc- 
tivus, from sub and jungere, to 
subjoin : the mood used in the 
statement of something merely 
thought of, 

syn'tax, Gr. suntaxis, from sun, to- 
gether, and taxis, arrangement : 
that division of grammar which 
treats of the relations of words in 

tense, Lat. tempus, time, through 
Fr. temps : a gramm/Uical form 
of the verb denUing the time of the 
action or event. 

tran'sitive, Lat. transUivus, from 
trans and ire, itum, to |>ass over : 
a verb that denotes an action termi- 
nating on some object, 

verb, Lat. verbum, a word : a toord 
thai predicates action or being. 

voice, Lat. vox, vocis, voice, through 
Fr. voix : a grammatical f&rm of 
the transitive verb, expressing 
whether the subject names the actor 
or the recipient of the action. 




addiction, Lat addilio, from ad- 

dere, to add. 
al'iqaot, Let. aliquot, some, 
arith'metic, Gr. a^j* arithmetiket 

numerical, from n. ariihnws, 

avoirdupois^ Fr. avoir du pois, to 

have [a fixed or standard] weight. 

cancelWtioiii Lat. cancellatio, from 
cancellare^ to make like a lattice 
{cancelli)y to stiike or cross out. 

cent, Lat. centum, a hundred. 

ci'pher, Arabic si/run, empty, zero. 

cube, Gr. kubos, a cubical die. 

dec'imal, Lat. decimus, tenth, from 
decern, ten. 

denominator, Lat. .deiiominare, 
from de and iwiniimre (nomen, a 
name), to call by name. 

digit, Lat. digitus, a finger. 

dividend, Lat. divideridus, to be 
divided, from dividere, to divide. 

division, Lat. divisio, from divi- 
dere, to divide. 

divi'sor, Sp. divisor, that which 
divides, from Lat. dividere, to 

dollar, Ger. th/iler, an abbreviation 
of Joajchiinsthaler, i. e. a piece of 
money fii-st coined, about 1518, 
in the valley (thai) of St. Joachim, 
in Bohemia. 

equa'tion, Lat. oBquatio, iromasquus, 

expo'nent, Lat cxponens, pres> 

l)ait. of exp&iiere, to set forth (= 

ear and ponere). 
fac'tor, hsX.facto^', that which does 

something, from facere^ factum, 

to do or make. 
fig'nre, Lat. figura, shape, from 

fingere, to form or shape, 
frac'tion, Lat. f radio, from fran- 

gere, to bitiak. 

in'teger, Lat. integer, untouched, 

in'terest, Lat. interest = it inter- 
ests, is of interest (3d per. sing, 
pres. indie, of interesse, to be be- 
tween, to be of importance). 

min'aend, Lat. minuendtu, to be 

diminished, from minuere, to 

mul'tiple, Lat. multiplex, from 

multus, much, and plieare, to 

mul'tiply, multiplication, etc. See 


naught, Anglo-Sax. nawhit, from ne, 

not, and awiht or auht, aught, 

nota'tion, Lat. notatio, from notare, 

to mark {fiota, a mark). 
numeni/tion, Lat. numeraiiOf from 

nurnerus, a number. 

quo'iient, Lat. quolies, how often, 
how many times, from qvM^ how 

subtrac'tion, Lat sttbtractio, from 
sub ' and trdhere, to draw from 

u'nit, Lat. unus, one. 

ze'ro, Arabic ^frun, empty, cipher. 

TO"—^ 202 Main Library 









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