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KOBBE'S 



NEW YORK 

AND ITS 

ENVIRONS. 




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NEW YORK 

AND ITS ENVIRONS 



GUSTAV KOBBE 



WITH MAPS AND ILUUSTRATIOl 



NEW YORK 

HARPER Si BROTHERS. FRANKLIN SQUARE 



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ILLUSTE iTIO\^ 

AD Opposlle page 36 



MAPS AND PLANS. 

New York City In front of book. 

Centbal PiEK Opposite page 333 

Nkw Tons AKD ViciNirr " ■' 204 

MiNHiTTiH Elevated Railroad " ■' S3 

SlETBoroLiTAN MusECii OP Art, 1st floor " " 202 



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CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

Topography and Statlstlca,— History,— Routes of Trarel. 
— Baggue Inspect1on.~Street Car Unas,— Elevated P*"- 

roads.— Hotelg.— KeatanrantB.— Newspapt" 

— TDrMah andKiuBlaii Batba.— Foreign Co 

Banks.— Postal InforaiEitlon.—Kesaenger . 

Setvloe.— TeleBTaph and Cable Batei. — etoies.—Lav Courts. 



-TnrMali andPnsBlan Baths. — Foreign ConsnlB.— Bankers.— 
anks.— Postal InfonnaMon.— Messenger Serrlco.- Kipresa 
etvloe.— TeleBTaph and Cable Bates. — etoies.—Lav Courts. 
■Charits.— CollMBS.— CInbfl,— Athlelioa and Sport— Money. 
— Direotorlea and Railway Gnldea 



CHAPTER I. 
'e Island <Statue of Liberty), I 



grant Depot) and Qovernor's 



TbB^ Battery.— Baree 



CHAPTER n. 
BiireBr to W*li, Stbepi. 



in,— Washington Heudqaar- 
■oadway).— Trinity ChurolL T6 

CHAPTER III. 

Will. Strkkt. 

Stock Kschanee.—Sub-Treaaury.— Assay Office. —Office 

BuHdtag8.-«ustom House 87 

CHAPTER IV. 

Wali, Street to Citt Hail Pjkk. 

Equitable BuildliiB.— Signal Service.— Chamber of Com- 

merue.— Western Union BulldinB.— John Street M. K. 

Church.— Fulton Street Prayer Meeting. —Oldest House Iji 

New York.— St. Paul's Chapel.— Post Office 116 

CHAPTER V. 

City Hail P*bk akd Vicmmr. 

City Halt— GoTemor's Room.— Roaster's Office.— New 

Court House.- £aet River Bridge 131 

CHAPTER VI, 

Detovhs from Crrr Hail Park. 

Harper&Brothers.— Cherry Streofc.— Newsboys' Lodeing- 

Houae.— Chinatown.— Bowery. -Five Points 141 



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CHAPTEK Yll. 
Ciir Hall Park to Mmisoit SflttdEB. 
Grand Street.— Board of Eduoatiou,— Polisb Jew Qnai- 
ter. —Ludlow Street JaiL— St. Auenstine Chapel.— Police 
Headquarters.— Board of Health.— Asl«r Library.- Cooper 
Uuion.- Bible House. -bt. Mark's P. E.Church- Hiatorloal 
SoelBtjr.— A. T. Stewart's.— Grace Cbureh.— Union Square — 
Yoang Women's Chriatlan Association.- Eetai! Sfiopping 
Distrfit tr. ..II 

CHAPTER vni, 

WashiuKton Square. —Kew York Hospital .—Twenty-tlird 
Street,— National Academv of Design.— Madison Sqnare.— 
Johu Jacob Astor.— Union LoaKoe Club — Grand Central De. 
get.- St. Bartholomew's P. E. Church and Mission.— Jay 
Gould. — Columbia Collefre.- St. Patr'-'''" '■-'•■'•■t—' t— 
derbllt Housea.— St. Thomas's P. E. C 



ColleffB.- St. Patrick's Cathedral.— Van. 
' "Tiomas'sP. E. Churot li 

CHAPTER IX. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art -LenoK Llbrarr.-Amerl- 

san Museum of Natural History a 

CHAPTER X. 

General Featrrcs. — Obelisk.- Statues.— Menageri e.— De- 
:allBdTour j; 

CHAPTER XI. 

EiBT Of Cknteai, PiEK. 

Fire Department.- West and Northwest of Centra] Park. 
-Riverside Park.-Grauts Tomb.-HlRii Brldee.-Battle ot 



CHAPTER XII. 

•V-BLIC 

Island.— Randt 



Ileyue Hospital.- Morgne,- Blaekmell 's Island.- ff 
' lall's Island.— Harfs Island. 



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CHAPTER Sin. 
Lons Island.— Jersey Coast.— Hudson River.- St. 



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PEEPACE. 

Thia aims to be a work worthy of the great city to 
which it is a guide. It is not intended to usurp the 
functions of a directory; but to poiut out and describe 
saeh features of New York City and its varied life, as 
an intelligent and cultured stranger might, be interested 
in seeing, carehavingbeentaken to discriminate between 
what is ot interest to New Yorkers only and what a visitor 
to the city would And worthy ot attention There is much 
in New York which must be familiar to those who have 
long resided in it or have been enterprising enough to 
explore it, which can have no place in a guide if onlv 
because too nianv details would tend to confuse rather 
than enlighten a vtianger Yet the author believes that 
many New Yorkers who consider themselves familiar 
with their city may fiist learn from this book what ft 
i-eaily wonderful and attractive place theyli\ein Con 
Biderable historical matter haa been introduced in the 
description of what ma\ bv comparison, be called the 
ancient part of the city— that port on of it which lies 
below Canal street — for onlj in th s way could an ade 
quate idea be conveyed of the de\elopemcnt of the little 
Dutch trading post of New Amsterdam into the stately 
metropolis of the New World, The stockade erected along 
the present line of Wall street as a means of defense 
against Indian attacks; the skiff which constituted the 
ferry to Brooklyn, starting from what is now the corner 
of Exchange place and Broad street, down the ditch 
which ran through the latter street; cattle grazing on 
I pasture where City Hail Park now is; 



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10 

anglers casting their lines in the Fresh Water Pond or 
Collect where the Toratra now stands;— such liistorieal 
datft will, it is hoped, serve to empbasize the contrast 
between the New York of to-day and the New York of 
the past. 

The main portion of the book is arranged in the form 
of an itinerary. This is preceded by an Introduction 
giving general information regarding the city's topogra- 
phy and history; routes of travel, hotels, restaurants, 
shops, postal and telegraph facilities and similar raat- 
tei-s. The itinerary begins at the southern end of the 
city. The islands in the harbor are first described. 
Then, starting at the Battery, the stranger is conducted 
up Whitehall street to Bowling Green; from there up 
Broadway to Madison square and thence up Fifth ave- 
nue to Central Park, detours being made to points of 
interest east and west of the main thotoiigbfares. The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Lenox Library and 
the American Museum of Natural History are tlien 
described, and a chapter on Central Park follows, the 
itinerary concluding with a description of those parts of 
the city east, west and north of the Park. A chapter is 
then devoted to points of interest in the environsof New 
York. The author will consider it a favor if any one dis- 
covering mistakes of commission or omission will call 
his attention to them. 

GUSTAV KOBBfi. 
Sbobt Hills, 

Essex Coumtv, New Jersey. 



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INTRODUCTORY. 



TOPOGEAPHlf AND STATISTICS. 

TopOORAPHT. — New York Cityis situated; latitude, 40°, 
42" 40' north; longitude, 74°, 0' 3' west, at the mouth 
of the Hudson river, 18 miles from the Atlantic ocean, 
190 miles southwest oi Boston, 205 miles northeast of 
Washington, and 715 miles east of OhicaKo. It com- 
prises the Island of Manhattan, Qovemor's Island, the 
most southerly point io the bay, occupied, however, 
i by the United States Government; Blackwell's, Ward's 
and Kandall's Islands in the East river, and so much 
of the mainland north of the Harlem river ■which is 
bounded north by the city of Yookers, west by the 
Hudson riyer and east by the Bronx river. Its greatest 
length from the Battery to its most northerly point is 16 
miles ; its greatest width, from the mouth of the Bronx 
to the Hudson river, i% miles ; its area, 41^^ square 
miles {26,500 acres). 

The most important part of the City is the Island 
of Manhattan, 131 miles long and Si miles wide at its 
widest point, at Fourteenth street, being very much 
narrower both below and above this line, especially at 
the Battery and above One Hundred and Sixtieth street, 
where it narrows to a strip between the Harlem and the 
Hudson rivers. Its area is 33 square miles (14,000 axires). 
Its honndarias are : North, Spuyten Duyyil creek and 
the Harlem river ; west, the Hudson river ; east, the 
East river; south. New York bay. The highest point, 
338 feet above tide water, U at Washington Heights, 
and the extreme northern poinl is the termination 
of the bold bluff which rises between the Hudson 
a,nd HarJem rivers. Various sections of the City have 
local names. Yorkville begins at Eighty-sixth street on 
the East side and tans to Harlem, whicli extends from 
about One Hundred and Tenth street north and north- 
east of Central Park to One Hundred and Fifty-nmth 
street, embracing the section east of Eighth avenue. 
Bloomingdale, IvfanhattanviUe. Carmansvine and Wash- 
inston Heights. The last named, with Port Washington, 
ore oil the west side of the upper part of the IsUnd of 



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Manhattan. (See large map ol City.) So much of the 
City as lies on the mainland is called the " Annexed Dis- 
trict." Here are, among other localities, all shown on 
the map of the City, Morrisania, West Farms, Tremont, 
Fordhara, Williamsbridge and Woodlawn. 

Population and Structures. — The total number of 
strudtures of all Idnda in New York City has been enu- 
merated atabout 107,000, of which some 71,000 are below 
Fifty-ninth street, 75,000 being used wholly or in part 
for dwellings. The population of New York City is » 
matter of dispute between the Federal Census Bureau 
and the City authorities, the Federal census placing it at 
1,518,601, and the census made under the supervision of 
the City authorities at 1,710,715. When, as is the case 
with liondon, not only the City itself, but what might 
properly be called the Metropolitan District, the suburbs 
lying within a radius ol twenty miles of New York, is 
considered, the population is very much larger, probably 
appioaching 3,000,000, 

Food Supply. — The annual food supply for this popu- 
lation has been comput«d as follows : Beef, 4^3,056,600 
lbs.; Veal, 367,105,000 lbs. ; Mutton and Lamb, 78,740,- 
000 lbs,; Pork, 244,465,300 lbs. Total,!. 113, 758,000 lbs. 
Fish, 54,750,000 lbs, ; Oysters, about 15,000,000 a day 
during the season, from September 1st to May 1st; Poul- 
try, 7S, 436,000 lbs. ; %gs, 66,863,400; Butter, 84,671,400 
lbs. ; Ve^tables, 8,000 barrels a day. For Wines see 
Commercial Slatistica below. 

Groton Aqueducts. — New York's water supply is de- 
rived from the Croton water-shed, the Croton rlier 
being a stream in Westchester County, about 40 miles 
from New York and emptying into the Hudson. The 
various lakes and streams which make up this water-shed 
are caretuUy guarded against pollution. The first 
Croton aqueduct was built in 1842. Its capacity for the 
last. 16 years has been 94,744,742 gallons per day, the 
water flowing into it from Croton Lake, artificially 
formed by a dam at the head of the aqueduct, which 
raised the Crolon river 40 feeL There are also storage 
reservoirs. From Croton Lake the old aqueduct runs 
southwest, crossing the Harlem river by Hish Bridge, 
where there is a reservoir and a water-tower for supply- 
ing the upper part of the city; unother tower being at 



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Ninth avenue, Kiiiety-seTenth and Ninety -eighthstreeta. 
The main reservoirs are those in Central Park, which 
are respectively a retaining and a receiving reservoir, 
the former, tlie mors northerly, having a capacity ol 
1,000,000,000 gallons and thereceivingreservoir of 150,- 
000,000; the high-service reservoir at High Bridge hav- 
ing ft capacity of 11,000,000 gallons. The supply not 
proving adequate, on account of the remarkable growth 
of the city, aaact for the construction of a new aque- 
duct and Uie incidental reservoirs and dams was passed 
in 1883. This new aqueduct has been in operation since 
June, 1890, although a complete system of reservoirs 
and dams has not Vet been conBtmcted. The new aque- 
duct ^sotaps the Creton water-shed at e, point near the 
S resent Croton Lake, and runs to a gatehouse at One 
[undred and Thirty-fifth street and Convent avenue 
and thence through pipes to various points, including 
the reservoirs in Central Park. It is considered a great 
wort of engineering. It was constructed horse-shoe 
shape at an average depth of 170 feet below the surface, 
tunneling through solid rock being resorted to wherever 
it was found practicable. Instead of being led across 
the Harlem river on a bridge, as the old aqueduct was 
across High Bridge, it runs 307 feet below the river bed 
through solid rock, rising perpendicularly to the estab- 
lished grade frem the south shore of the river. The 
followmgare some of the statistics of the new aqueduct: 
Length, 33t miles; height of inside horse-shoe, 13.53' 
at greatest height, and 13.60" at greatest breadth to the 
Harlera river; beneath the Harlem river a well lOi feet 
in diameter; capacity 350,000,000 gallons per day. Cost 
so far about 133,000,000. Changes are contemplated in 
the original plans for storage reservoirs in the Croton 
water-shed, so that information concerning these cannot 
yet be given, nor can the full cost of the work be esti- 
mated until plans are finally adopted, 

Sfreet i?an.— -According to the last Quarterly Report 
of the Department of Public Works the total length of 
paved streets in New York City is 361,19 miles ; of 
sewers, 438.58 miles; and there are in use 26,981 gas 
lamps, 881 electric lights, and 138 naphtha lamps. 

From the Battery to Fourteenth street, a distance of 
3}^ miles, the streets are irregularly laid out, following-. 



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especially in the lower part of this section, the Hues ol 
old thoroughfares. Above Fourteenth street the citj is 
laid OLit into avenues— 1 to 12, and A, B, 0, D east of 
First avenue, where the broadening of the city neces- 
sitates; with LexiDgton and Madison avenues above 
Twenty-third street, and Park avenue built over 
Fourth avenue from Thirty-fourth street to Forty- 
secood street, the Fourth avenue horse-cars running 
under it through a tunnel. Fourth avenue continu- 
ing again above the Grand Central Depot. So much 
of the city as lies on the mainland is not, however, 
regularily laid out as yet; nor in tlie northwest and 
eitretne northerly part of the Island is the division of 
avenues and streets characteristic of the street plan from 
Fourteenth to Fifty-ninth street esaetly carried out. In 
this regular street plan the avenues are mostly 100 feet 
and the streets60feetwide, with the exception of import- 
ant thoroughfares like Fourteenth, Twenty-third, Thirty- 
fourth, Forty-second, Fifty-seventh, and other streets in 
the upper part of the eity, which are liH) feet wide. 
There are twenty blocks to a mile. The house numbers run 
from Fifth avenue east and west, the odd numbers being 
on the upper side, the even numbers on the south side of 
the streets, and respectively on the west and east sides of 
the avenues. The street numbers are so divided as to 
give 100 to a block, from 1 to 100 west or east being found 
on the first block west or east of Fifth avenue, and so on. 
Broadway, which below Fourteenth street is the main 
artery of the city's commerce, is only 80 feet broad. 
Beginning at Bowling Green it runs in a straight line to 
Tenth street, where it deflects towards the west and 
continues on the line of the old Bloomiugdale road to a 
point at Fit^-nintli street where it crosses Eighth ave- 
nue. The Boulevard, which continues Browlway to 
Inwood, near the end of the Island, is 150 feet wide and 
is a well loid-out thoroughfare, as is also St. Nicliolas 
avenue, wliicli leaves Central Park at Lenox avenue and 
One Hundred and Tenth street and runs to One Hun- 
dred and Sixty-second street, at which point it joins the 
old Kiagsbridge road. Wall street, in some respects the 
most important slreet in the United States, being the 
financial centre of the whole country, is a narrow canon 
less than half a mile long. 



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15 

FoliticallHmsions.— ThaCitj is dmdsA into twenty- 
four Wards— the Twenty-third ADdTwentj-fourth being 
on the mainland — but lor purposes of representation in 
Congress, the State Senate and the State Assembly is 
also divided into Congressional, Senatorial and Assembly 
districts. These larger divisions are in turn subdivided 
into election districts. 

Commerce. — New Yorkis the most important port of the 
tJnited 8tates,about 65 percent, of the entire foreign com- 
merce o£ this country being carried on through it. As a 
port of entry it embraces all the towns and cities and 
other settlements on New York Bay, the Hudson and 
East rivers, including the important cities of Brook- 
lyn and Jersey City. Some iuteresting statistics ot the 
City's entries and clearances of vessels will be found 
under Custom House. Other commercial statistics , ob- 
tained from the Chamber of Commerce and showing 
the relative coiamereial importance of New York and 
the rest of the United States, are as follows: The 
toUl foreign commerce of the United States for 1889, 
latest statistics accessible, was $1,613,137,633, of which 
1876,808.110 fell to New York. Sugar and molasses. 
New York $44,367,704; the rest of the United Slates 
only about |5,000,0<X) in all. Coffee, New York 
$58,860,819; the rest of the United States only about 
$16,000,000, all told. Tea, New York $9,643,514; the 
rest of the United States only about $3,000,000, all 
told. Wool, New York $41,048,679 as against about 
$11,500,000. Silk, New York $31,139,113 as against 
about $6,325,000. Champagne, New York $3,673,753 
as against about $750,000. Still Wines in casts, 
$1,503,308 as against about five-eighths of a million; in 
bottles. New York $975,861 as against about $350,000. 
About 75 per cent, of the immigration into the United 
States passes through New York. 

Water Froni.—The Island of Manhattan alone has 
24?/mUes o( water front, all but 2J^ miles of which, on 
the ITarlem EJver is available for deep sea resaels, and a 
ship canal, now in course of construction by the United 
States Government, will make tiie Harlem River front 
equally available, besides affording a route from Long 
Island Sound independent of the passage through Hell 
Gate. At present most of the shipping is accommodated 



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1ft 

below Fourteenth street on the North River and on the 
East KiTer below Grand street. From the Buttery to 
these points there is a perfect forest of nmsts, ships of 
all nations, among them many steamers being moored 
iiere. A great improvement and extension of New 
York's water front is in contemplation, but at present 
this important feature of the city is pictoresque chiefly 
through its dirty surroundings and its irregularity. 
The lar^ map of the city in the front of the book shows 
the various ferries and steamship lines. The Battery is 
given up chiefly to ferries. From here the tour of the 
East RiTcr lies along South street. To Coenties slip 
the piers are lined with small sailing vessels, Coenties 
slip being the center for canal-boats ; and beyond, 
between \VaJl and Pulton street ferries, are large and 
small sailing vessels, many of them fruiterere, and sev- 
eral steamship lines. The piers nesi Fulton Market 
derive a local color from, the fishing smack'j that cluster 
near the wholesale flsh-market under the shadow o£ the 
great Bast Elver Bridge. Above Catheune "street are 
the dry docks, and beyond these iron foundries lumber- 
yards and gas-works. Pier A, to the noith of the Bat- 
tery, is used as headquarters for the Department of 
Docks and fSr the River Police Pier 1 is the Iron 
Steamboat Company's pier. At Fulton and Vesey 
streets is Washington Market, and in iti vitimty the 
great produce-distributing district of the city, the piers 
here being used for ferries and for various vessels tribu- 
tary to this business. At Warren and Murray streets 
are the great Boston boats, the Providence and Pall 
Eiver lines, and from here to Twenty-third street a suc- 
cession of foreign and domestic steamship companies. 
The great European steamships have piers in the neigh- 
borhood of Christopher street, and just aboie this is the 
floating oyster-market, a =ei ie= of moored barges 

Approaches by Water — The appioaohes to Aen ToiL 
from the Atlantic ocean are most beautiful The light 
house on Fire Island beach on the Long Islind coast is 
usually the first point sighted by incoming European 
vessels. From here vessels are signaled by telegraph 
to New York City. The most conspicuous pictuie 
on the Jersey coast, which won afterwards luoms up 
are the twin lights on the Highlands if Na^csink back 



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17 

of Sandj Hook beach. The steameK in entering the 
Lower bay approach so near Sandy Hook that the details 
of its shore— a waste of sand, stunted cedars and scrub 
oak, with a light-house and two beacons, a telegraph 
tower from which vessels are also signalled, an unfinislied 
fort, and various apparatus of the United States Ord- 
nance Corps — are discernible. Between Sandy Hook, 
which is part of a ^"'JT peninsula and the mainland, 
is Sandy Hook bay. To the north and northwest is 
Staten Island. Between its south shore and the New 
Jersey shore is Raritan hay, into which the Rsritan river 
empties, and on the west Staten Island is separated 
from New Jerseyby the narrow Staten Island Sound, 
which joins the Kill vou Kull — the latter separating the 
Island on tlie north from the mainland and entering 
New York bay. The broad sheet of water lying bet ween 
Sandy Hook and the Kai'rows is known as Lower New 
York bay, of which Raritan bay and Sandy Hook hay 
may be considered parts. Across from Sandy Hook, on 
the Long ^and siiore, are Coney Island andEoekaway 
Beach, the former with its numerous large caravansa- 
ries, its Observatory and huge wooden elephant, while to 
the north the Staten Islaiid and Loni: Island shores. 



1st, three miles tielow Swinburne Island. Prom this 
ship all vessels arriving from infected portsare boarded. 
Three miles above this are Swinburne and Hoffman 
Islands, artiftcially made upon a reef, and respectively 
seven and eight miles south of New York City; the 
hospital for contagious diseases being located on 
Swinburne Island, and quarters for well persons from 
infected vessels on HoHman Island. vessels from 
non-infected ports are hoarded from Clifton, Staten 
Island, just inside the Narrows, where also the 
Custom House Inspector usuaUy boards vessels from 
forei^ ports. On Cne Staten Island shore of the Nar- 
rows is Fort Wadsworth; on the Long Island shore, 
PortHamCton; a little off the shore, the circular Fort 
Lafayette, built in 1813, where during the Civil War 



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18 

political suspects were imprisoned. Onee through the 
Narrows, New York City liesstraight ahead — to the right 
Brooklyn, to the left Staten, Island, and further up the 
harbor Bergen Neck and Jersey City. The Statue of 
Liberty on Bedloe's Island {p. 69), and the East liivoi 
Bridge (p.l38\, become next to the city the most eon- 
spicnoua features in the view. Governor's Island, ■with its 
picturesque fortifications lies but a thousand yards south 
of the Battety, the southernmost point of the Island of 
Manhattan, and Ellis Island, where is the official funnel 
through which three-fourths of the immigration pours 
into lEe United States lies between Eedloe s Island and 
the Jersey shore. At the Battery the harbor sweeps 
around on the east into the Ems! river (the local name 
for Long Island Sound), acid on the west into the Hud- 
-■■ ^3 which the local name of North river is given, 



the German, Dutch and Belgian on the New Jersey side, 
the North German Lloyd (Bremen) and Hamburgh jiiets 
being at Hoboken, The East river runs between New 
York City and Brooklyn, broadening out after sweeping 
to the east from the Island of Manhattan into the beau- 
tiful expanse of Long Island Sound, 110 miles long and 
from threeto twenty mileswid w'thL ngl land on the 
east and New York and Conne t ut on the west. On 
Throgg's Neck, about twentym 1 Ir m the Battery, and 
on WiUet'sPoint, ontheoppos t h a ef rt HcaUons, 
those on the foimer being Fort S I uj 1 the East 
river are Blackwell's, A^rd and Randall Islands, 
which are described under Publ c CI a t e and Correc- 
tion. 

Sell Gale lies in the narrow b n 1 n f h East river, 
just north of Blackwell's Islani h tw n A toda and 
Ward's Island. Navigation of t wa made dangerous 
not only by the sharp and nar ow t n f th iver and 
the resulting rush of tide, but also by a ledge 'f rocks 

Srojecting from the Long Island shore for a considerable 
istance and rising at various intervals almost to the 
surface, causing numerous dangerous currents and 
eddies. From 1870 to 1876, under the United States 
Government, Gen. Newton directed a series of opera- 
tions, drilling the principal rooks and charging them 



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with nitro glTceniie wh ch vaa expkde-1 duriig the 
summer of 18"fa Oetobpr 10 188j Flood Bnck rtbiol 
was evpn larger than the rock blown up a 18"6 was re 
moved by sim lar operations 

HISTORY 

Thu Mand of Manl attan was disooverel by Henry 
Hnduon after whom tl e Hudson nver i= named m 
September 1609 Tho igh the Dutch in whose 'ervice 
Hudson 3 expe lit o i w is undertaken di'ipatched trad 
ing vessels to this region, the first settlement on the 
island appears to have been made in 1633, and it was not 
until leal that a governor, Cornells Jacobson May, was 
installed. In 1635 May was succeeded by William Ver- 
hulst, and he in turn, in 1638, by Peter Minuit, under 
whose administration Fort Amsterdam, on ground now 
just south of Bowling Green, was erected (p. 84). The 
purchase of Manhattan Island from the Indians was 
effected by Minuit, the price paid being goods to the 
value of $34. In 1644 the fortifications were extended 
to what is now the line of Wall street, and ran from the 
East to the North river. They consisted of a ditch and 

Salisaded breastwork, these being. completed in 1653. 
[eanwhile Peter Stuyvesant. who was governor for seven- 
teen years and under whom the rule of the Datch virtually 
terminated, although there was a brief interregnum in 
1673, had arrived m 1647. March 13, 1664, Cfiarlea II 

f ranted the entire territory to his brother, the Duke of 
ork, and the latter's representative. Col. Richard 
Nichols, arriving before New Amsterdam with a small 
fleet, the eity was surrendered without an attempt to 
resist the superior force. Kew Amsterdam was changed 
to New York, Col. Nichols assuming the governorship. 
In July, 1673, Capt. Manning, being in command of the 
city, surrendered ignomiuiously to a Dutch force, but 
the Dutch remained In possession only until November 
10, 1674, being ousted by the treaty of peace between 
England and the States General. Events of import- 
ance prior to the rupture of the colonies from Great 
Britain were : In l68t>, a rebellion headed by Jacob 
Leisler, the leadei' of the progressive party, who chose 
these forcible means to settle a disputed election, the 
rebellion ending in his trial and death ; in 1696, the 



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building of the first Trinity Churcli ; in 1703 e, 
fatal eptdemie; in 1735, the Zenger trial, which estab- 
lished the freedom of the press in America, Zenger in 
his New York Weekly Journal, having opposef Gov. 
Cosby's claim to half the salary of his predeeessov, and 
haying been therefor imprisoned for libel, but eventu- 
ally acquitted on a trial by jury; in 1741, the negro plot, 
information on the part of a nwress leading to the 
hanging of some and burning of other negroes, who were 
supposed to be in a conspiracy to attack the whites and 
sack the city, although there seems but little doubt that 
the girl's testimony was perjured. The dissatisfnction 
which led to the Revolution and the final separation of 
the colonies from Great BritainSrst vented itself in New 
York in lies, a congress of delegates from nine colonies 
meeting here and adoptinga hill of rights, which asserted 
the sole power of taxation to be vested in the colonies. 
The Sons of Liberty were organized to oppose the Stamp 
Act, and in 1770 a meeting of 8,000 citizens resolved to 
oppose all oppressive measures. The Colonial Assembly 
terminated April 8, 1775, delesrates to the Continental 
Congress being elected July 25th of that year, and the 
twenty-one pieces of cannon, all that were mounted on the 
city forts, were removed. After the battle of Long Island 
September 15, 1776, the British crossed to Manhattan 
Is&nd, and after Washington had withdrawn from 
Harlem Heights the city remained in the possession of 
the British until the close of the war, the final evacua- 
tion taking place November 25. 1783. During the 
Eevolutiou there were two disastrous fires, in the first 
of which, September 31, 1776, Trinity Church was 
destroyed. The British had used all the churches es- 
eepting the Episcopal for prisons, riding-schoola and 
bari-acks, leavinglhem nearly destroyed or in a state ill 
adapted for religious uses, and had wrought other depre- 
dations. Both under the Dnteh and English colonial 
governors the city had been the seat of goTernment. 
From 1785 to 1790, it was the seat of government of 
the United States, Washington being inaugurated Anril 
30, 1789, and from 1784 to 1T97 it was the State capital. 
In 1788 the Hospital Riot, caused by one of the students 
in tlie New York Hospital (p. 60), who was operating 
ill the dissecting-room, waring an arm fi'om the cadaver 



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at sojie boys who peeped in at him through the win- 
dow, amoh gathering and attacking the building, in 
1791, 1795 and 1798, the city was visited bj yellowi 
lever. During the last ten years ol the last eentuiy tbe \ 
city began to extend a. little beyond the present City i 
HaU Park. The comer-stoae of the City Hall was laid 
in 1803, the structure being finished in 1813. The eity s 
growth from the beginning of the century has been very 
rapid. By 1805 it had extended beyond the Collect and 
Marsh, respectively at the site of the jiresent Tombs and 
the line of Canal street; the Collect being filled in at this 
time and Canal street laid out. There wore disastrous 
fires in 1804, and in 1811. By this latter year the city 
had grown to such proportions that a eonimissJon was 
appointed to survey and lay out the island north of 
Houston street, a work which was completed in 1821. A 
further expansion was caused by the yellow fever em- 
demies of 1819, 1833 and 18S3, which drove people to 
the upper part of the island. Gas was generally intro- 
duced in 1835, and in this same year the completion of 
the ErieCanal further stimulated the city's growth, the 
Harlem Eailroad was incorporated in 1831. Notwith- 
standing the cholera epidemics of 1833 and 18S4, the 
great fire of December IG, 1835— which destroyed 648 of 
the finest commercial structures in the city, east of 
Broadway, below Wall street— and the great financial 
panic of 1887, the city continued to progress. The 
first Croton Aqueduct was built in 1843. July 19, 
1845, there was another great fire, which destroyed 
15,000,000 worth of property in the district bounded by 
Broadway, Exchanee place. Broad and Stone streets. 
The Astor plane riots, which grew out of the rivalry 
between Macready and Forrest, the actors, occurred in 
May 1849, and resulted in the loss of several lives. A 
cholera epidemic in the summer of 1849 carried oK over 
5,000 persons. July 14, 1853, an industrial exhibition 
was opened in the Crystal Palaee, a fine building in the 
form o£ a Greek cross. It was burned in 1858. Mean- 
while there had been another cholera epidemic in 1855. 
In 1857 the Metropolitan Police was established, and the 
resistance to the act ot the Legislature by Fernando 
Wood, then Mavor, resulted in what are known as the 
Police Kiots. during the Civil War, New York fur- 



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nisbed 116,383 men to the Federal M-mies. July 18, 
1883, the moat serious riot from whioh New York has 
ever suffered broke out in opposition to the draft, the 
mob holdins posseasioii ot the city for three days, the 
riot being finally quelled on the 17th. There were sev- 
eval collisions between the rioters and the troops, nud it 
is estimated that over 1,000 persons were killed, among 
them several negroes, against whom the mob's fury 
seemed especially directed. July 12, 1871, 63 persons 
were killed in a riot which grew out of a procession of 
Orangemen in celebration of the Battle of the Boyne. 
Trouble having been apprehended, the paraders were 
provided with a militia escort, whioh was compelled to 
lire upon those who attacked the procession. lu 1871, it 
was (fiscovcred that a ring, known as the Tweed ring, 
and consisting of several of the most prominent officials 
of the city, had been robbing the treasury, and in the 
ensuing election in November, the opponents of the ring 
were elected, and the leader of the ring, William m! 
Tweed, and several of the conspirators were convicted 
and imprisoned, Tweed dying in prison. A portion of 
Westchester county was annexed in 1873, and a great 
stimulus to the growth of the city has been given by 
the elevated railroads, the fii-st of which was built in 



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EAILBOABS.* 

From Grand Cektbal Depot, Fortt-secokd Street 
AND Fourth Avenue. 

JVete York Central and Hudson Eimr Bailroad.—To 
all points on east shore of the Hudson River, eooneet- 
ing at Albany for Saratoga, Lake George, both shores 
oC Lake Chnraplain, the Adirondacks and Montreal. 
Fast vestibuled ear serrice for Buffalo and Niagara Falls 
via Utiea, Syracuse and Eoehester, and Jrom Buffalo in 
connection with the Lake Shore Line and "Big Poii " 
Lines to Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis and Sc, Louis 
Connection also (or Detroit. 

NewFor/e and Sarlem liailroaa.—h»,ke Mahopac and 
iJerlcshire Hills, besides many of the Westchester Count? 
suburbs. 

ifew York, JVew Haven o^id Hartford RaUroad.-~ 
For Starafgrd, South Norwalk (connection for Eidge- 
fleld and Lilchfleld), BridKeport (connection for Stock- 
bridge and Lenox), Nevf Haven, Hartford, Springfield, 
and Boston. Also for Qu^c. 

New York and Boston Shore Idne.—Rans on the 
tracks of the New York, New Haven and Hartford to 
New Haven; to Boston Tia tlie shore of Long Island 
Sonnd (New London and Stoiiington) and Providence. 

New York and New England Railroad.—Raas on tlie 
tracks of the N ew York, Sew Haven and Hartford Rail- 
road to New Haven, and then via Willimantie to Boston. 

From oTHflst Depots. 

Baltimore and Ohio Mailroad.—FeTTj from foot of 

Liberty street. Depot, Jersey City (Central Railroad 

of New Jersey). Fast vestibuled Pullman ear service to 

Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Pittsburgh, 

•Foreignera will find the eervloe on the ereat railroads of the 
United States most admirable, ererythlnir beina done to eecunj 
■peed with Bafet]', and every ooii£<]aratiDD helnjc paid to tba 
pomfort of the ptaieaeer Bogeage to a reaaoEabla amount 
(say a trunk and portmantcaa to each paMenear) Is carried free, 
the passenger reorfvlng a oheofc for It at ffia bagRage office. 
The (ares are also reasonable— in thsanthor's pspertenoe lowet 



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37 

Clereland, Chicago, Cincinnati and St. Louis, and all 
points west. To Philadelphia tlie service is over the 
Eoyal Blue Line, composed ot the Centra! Railroad of 
New Jersey, Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

Brooklyn, Bath and West End Eailroad. — Ferry foot 
of Whitehall street to Thirty-ninth street, Broohlyn, 

Central Railroad of Jfew Jersey , — Ferry from foot if 
Liberty street. Newark, Elizabeth, Plainfield, Bound 
Brook, Easton, Allentown and the Pennsylvania coal 
region (Williesbarro, Scranton, Reading and Ilarris- 
biirg), and via Philadelphia and Reading Kaili-oad to 
Trenton and Philadelphia, See also New Jersey South- 
ern Railroad and New York and Long Branch liailroad. 

Delaieare, LaekawannaandWeetem Bailroad. — Ferry 



Mountain, Delaware Watei^ap, Wilkesbarre, Scranton, 
Richfield Springs, Utiea, Syracuse, Oswego, Jthaca and 
Buffalo (connects for the West). Morris and Essex Di- 
vision to Newark, Orange, Summit and Morristown. 
Also branches to Montelair and Bemardsville. 

Long Island Sailroad. — Ferry from East Thirty- 
fourth street and James Slip, Depot ot Hunter's Point 
(LonglslandCity). For Manhattan Beach, Long Beach, 
Babylon, Shinnecock Hills, Southampton and points on. 
Long Island generally. 

Manhattan Beach and Coney Islatid Bailroad, — Same 
ferries and depot as Long Island Railroad. 

}fev> York and Oreen/aood Lake Bailroad. — See Now 
York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad. 

New Jeney Southern Railroad. — Finely appointed 
twin screw steamers from foot of Rector street. Depot 
at Atlantic Highlands. N. J. To Jersey Coast Resorts. 

New York and Northern. — Connects at One Hundred 
and Fifty-fifth street with Sixth and Ninth avenue L 
Railroad, Croton Lake, Lake Mahopae and interme- 
diate points, 

NeiB York and Sea Beach Sailroad.— "For Coney 
Island. Perry foot of Whitehall street to Bay Ridge. 

Northern Railroad of New Jersey. — Same ferry and 
depot as New York, Lake Erie and Western. Piermont 
and Nyaek. 



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New York, Lake Erie and Western Bailroad. — Fetry 
foot of Chambers street or West Twenty-third street. 
Depot, Jersey City. Fast vesMbiiled Pullman ear ser- 
vice to the PennsylTanin coal regions; Elmira, Walkiii's 
Glen, Rochester, BnfEalo. Niafrara Palls, Detroit, Cleve- 
land, Chicago, Cincinnati, Louisville and St. Louis. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — Ferry foot of Desbrosees 
street or Cortlandt street. Depot, Jersey City. Fast 
vestibuled Pullman car sei-vice to Pliiiadelphia, Wil- 
mington, Baltimore, Washington and points South, 
Soufliwest and West, the Pcnnsylvaiiift Railroad system 
being the most extensive in America. 

New Yorh and Long Branch Mailroad. — Owned by 
the Central Railroad oC New Jersey. Operated by the 
Central Itailrond of New Jersey and the Peiinaylvania 
Railroad. For points on the Jersey Coast to Point 
Pleasant. 

New Yorle, Ontario and Western Railroad.— Ferry 
foot of Jay street or West Forty-second street. Depot, 
Weehftwken. Utica, Rome, Oswego, Cape Vincent, 
(Thousand Islands), Buffalo (eonneetion for the West), 
and Suspension Bridge (Niagara PalJs). 

West Shore liailroad.— Percy and depot same as New 
York, Ontario and Western Railroad. Runs along the 
west shore of tlia Hudson River to West Point, New- 
bnrgh, Kingston (Catskill Hountaiiis) and Albany, and 
theiioe to Buffalo and Niagara Fulls via Utica, Oswego 
and Rochester, 

Slaten Island Rapid Transit Company. — Ferry foot 
of Whitehall street. Depot, St. George, Staten Island. 
Points on Staten Island. 

Montreallo New York. — "New Canada Short Line," 
Grand Trunk Railroad, Delaware and Hudson Canal 
Company's Railroad (west shore of Lake Ohamplain); 
Hudson Eivor Hailroad. Central Vermont Railroad 
(east shore of Lake Champlain) and Hudson River 
Railroad. 

Ottaiea to New York. — Canada Atlantic Railroad via 
Delaware and Hudson Canni Company's Railroad or 
Central Vermont Railroad. 

Qitehee to Nete York. — Quebec Central via Centi'al 
Vermont and Now York, New llaveji and Hartford 
Railruad. 



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BAGGAGE INSPECTION. 

Tha Customs officer usually boards foreign vessels 
from Cliftoc, S. I., and distributes blank forms upon 
which the passenger designates articles subject to duty 
in his baggage. In case ot a, family, the senior member 
can. make the statement on one form, and swear to it. 
Should any one trunk or package in the baggage contain 
dutiable articles of b. value exceeding $501), or should 
its contents be so numerous or varied as to forbid a thor- 
ough examination on the vessel or wharf, it is sent to the 
public stores for appraisement. On landing at the wharf, 
the baggage when discharged is examined, and any at- 
tempt at smuggling is punished by confiscation of the 
article whose concealment has been attempted. The 
Customs oPIlcers of the United States will be found atten 
ttve and polite and liberal in their interpre * on of the 
Customs laws, especially where no atte?npt at mn^K ng 
is made, tha rule applicable being that a pa f, s 
allowed to bring into the country articles f p rbuna 
use as numerous and aa good in quality as to COKb ent 
with his station in life. 



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STEAMBOATS 
To Principal Landings on the Hudson Biver. 



IMDIKGS. "SS' 


1 FA 


«!. 












^la?"' 


^.tiul" 


S 






13 60 


I4B 










Oflttkrti (Albony Day I.iiio) . . jDeBbroeaea 








..| IBB 


ioo 


'in 












■■ {i 


:::: 








Httilum {Albtmy Diij Hue). . Deshroaeea 
Hyde PnrkXT H«ry Pciwall) DealiroBBBs 


'si 












































:: ion 


IW 
















































. '^ 








Tray (Albonj DAT Line) Deahrossea 

Troy (CHiMns' Uiiel «. loih... 






























15 


an 


11 



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Steamlioats to Landing not «n tlie Hndson River. 





^■'vJ:r^ 


„._ 




LANDINGS. 


«f£'- 


""ZT 


1 




Kector 

SutteryPavk. 

mi 

•Feck slip.... 

Sir- 

rarroy!!'.;"! 


$0 60 
800 

son 

300 
BOO 

"so 

1 26 
160 

T6 
1 40 

;s 

236 
17S 


S6 

"ro 

1 sn 
"io 

60 


"0 






BoBton, bast, via Fal! River. 
BoKtuD, by boa!, ufaNnirvlcb 


eio 
SIS 




























™ 




















[orrlB. 

iVnnklln.'!"; 
•pfckalip".'.' 

Peck slip.!!'.! 
'PeckSl'ip!!!' 

Si;:; 




Ss^"-"'::::::::::: 


SI 




























































lE°fii: 




^'"'^p'""'- 


14 



ot or Eoel Thirty-fliBt 



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FERRIES. 


FERRY. 


Fare 


FROM N-EW YORK TO 


Astoria 


3 


93d St.. R E., to Astoria. 




7 


Beekman st. B. E. to Astoria, 


Buy Ridk'e''.'.'.'.'.'. 


10 


Whitehall St. to Bay Eidge. 
26th St. B. B. to Blackw'l'slsl'd. 


Blaekwell's Island 


30 




So 


53d St. E. R. to BlackwTs Isl'd. 


Brooklyn 


3 


Catherine st. to Main st. B'klyn 
Pulton St. N. Y. to Pulton st. 
Brooklyn. 




3 


Whiteh'lst.tO Atlantic St. B'k'n 




^ 


Whitehall st. to Hamilton av. 

Brooklyn. 
Whitehall to 30th St. So. B'klyn 




5 




3 


Wail St. to Montague st. B'klyn 
Grand st.E.R. to Grand st.BVn 


Brooklyn,' E.'d!! 


2 




3 


Houston St. to Grand st. B'klyn 
Grand St. to Broadway, E. D. 




3 




3 


Roosevelt st. to Broadw'y, E. D. 




3 


E.33d5t. to B'dw'T, B'k'n, B.D. 


OoUegePoint.';;; 
Fort Lee 


10 


BSth St. E. E. to College Point 


10 
15 


130th street to Port Lee. 




W. 18th St. 


Governor's Island 


Pass 


Pier 3, E, E.,to Governor's Isl'd 


Green Point 


3 






8 


26th St. E. E. to Hart^s Island 


Hart's Island 


40 


Hoboken 


3 


Barclay st. to Newark and Per- 
ry sts., Hoboken, 




8 

3 


Christopher st. to Newark and 

Perry sts., Hoboken. 
14th st.N.R. to 14th St. Hob'k'n 


Hunter's Point!'.! 


6 


See Long Island City. 


Jersey City 


^ 


Desbrosses Et. to Montgomery 
St., Jersey City. 




3 


Cortl'dt3t.to M'ntE'm'y st.J.C. 
West 34th st N. K. to Mont- 




3 


.. ,. 


3 


gomery St. Jersey City. 
Liberty St. toCen. E, R,of N. J, 






Dock. 



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FERRIES-Contlimed. 



Long Island City . 



FROM NE\T YOKK T 



Chambers st. to Pavonia Feriy, 

Erie R. E. Dock. 
33d et. N. R. to Pavonia Ferry, 

Erie E. R, Dock, 
James' Slip to Long Island City 
S4tiist.E,K,toLongl3!'ndCity 
Pier 33 E. R. to Morrisania. 
26tli St. E. R. to Randalls Isl'iid 
116 or 120th St. E. R. to Kan- 

dall's Island. 
132d St. E. R. to Randall's Isl. 
Whitehall st. to Staten Island. 
26th St. E. E. toWard's Island 
115th St. East River. 
42d St. N. R. to R. R. Slip. 
4ad St. N. R. to Old Perry Slip 
Jay Bt. N. E. to R. R. Slip. 



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CAB AND COACH PARES. 

Eegnlated by city ordinance. Complaints mada to 
the Mayor's MarHhal, Room ], City Hall. It is the duty 
of every cab or ooauliman to hand to the passenger a 
card, giving rates, and to have tlie card conspicuously 
posted ill his vehicle under penalty of a fine. The rates 
are in full for fvom 1 to 4 persons in ci conch and 1 or 2 
persons in a cab or hansoni. It is well for a passenger 
to make a Iwrgain before entering. 

Cab and Sansom Sales. — 60 cents first mile or part 
thereof; S3 cents each additional mile. S3 cents for 
stops over 5 lo 15 minutes. By the hour, going from 

8 lace to place with stops at the passenger's option, $1.00 
it first hour or part thereof, and 60 cents for each suc- 
ceeding half hour or part thereof. 

Ooaeh Bates.— il.W forfirst mile or part thereof; 40 
cents each additional half mile or part thereof. Stops 
over 5 to 15 minutes 38 cents. By the hour $1.50; 75 
cents each succeeding liaJf hour. 

MAIN STREET CAR LINES.* 

New York City is pretty well gridiraned with horse 
and cable railroads (usual fure 5 cents). The stranger 
will generally find the elevated railroadsmost conrein'ent, 
especially between distant points. Therefore only street 
railways most important from the visitor's point of view 
are given. 

South and North. 

Broadway Line. — Prom Central Park througn Seventh 
avenue and Broadway lo the Battery. Transfers at 
Barclay street to University place branch, and at Park 
place to Seventh avenue branch and vice versa. 

JBleecker Street and FuUon Ferry Jjtne. — From Pulton 
Perry to Twenty-third Street Ferry, via Broadway, 
Bleecker, Hudson, Fourteenth streets and Ninth avenue 
to Twenty-third Street. Branch from East Kiver 
Bridge, 

" Belt Idnes." — Run along ok near the water front 
of both the East and North rivers crossing the city 
through Fifty-ninth street. 



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Eighth Av&nuf. Line. — Prom Broadway and Vesey 
Btreet, via West Broadway, Hudson, street to Eighth avo- 
nue, Fifty-ninth street (Central Park). 

From Broadway and Canal street, to Eighth avenue 
and One Hundied and Pifty-fourth street. 

Fowlh Aventie Line. — From Broadway and Post Office 
(lower end), tiiroiicii Park row, to Centre street. Grand 
street. Bowery, I^urth avenue, Grand Central depot. 
Transfer cars at Thirty-second street, to Thirty- fourth 
street or Hunter's Point Ferry (Long Island Bailroad). 

MaMson Avenue Line. — Same route as Fourth Avenue 
Line to Grand Central Depot, to Vanderbilt avenue, 
Povty-fourth street, Madison avenue to bridge over Har- 
lem Hiver, to One Hundred end Thirty-eighth street 
(Mott Haven), 

Sixih Avenue Line. — From Broadway and Vesey 
street, via West Broadway, Canal, Variclt, Carmine 
EtreetHtoSisth avenue, Fitty-ninth street (Central Park). 

Third Avenue Line. — From Broadway and Park row, 
through Park row to Chatham square, Boweiy, Third 
avenue, Harlem, connecting with the foltowing^lines ; 
Harlem, Morrisania, Tremonl, and Fordham; Sdrlem, 
Morrisania, and West Farms; Harlem and Fori Morris. 

Harlem and Manhatlanville {High Bridge Branch). — 
From One Hundred and Twenty-fifth street, East River, 
to New Amstei'dam avenue, to One Hundred and 
Eightieth street (cable). 

EiST AKB West, 

Chriatopher and Tenth Street Line. — From Chris- 
topher Street Fei-ry to Ferry foot East Tenth street. 

Central Cross-Toum, Bailroad. — From Twenty-third 
street, E^st Eiver Ferry, through Avenue A, to 
Eighteenth street, Broadway, Fourteenth street to Chris- 
to^er Street Ferry. 

Deibroeees, Veslry, and Grand Street Line. — From 
Grand Street Perry, through Grand street to Desbrossea 
Street Ferry. 

Fourteenth Strett and Union Square Line. — Chris- 
topher Street Ferry to Fourteenth street and FourtJi 
avenue. Connection by branch at Ninth avenue and 
Fourteenth street with ferry font of West Fourteenth 



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Chambers Street. — From the Erie Perry, foot of 
Chambers rtreet, to Duaiic, Ghumbers, New Chanibeis 
street, James Slip. 

Gratid Street £raneh. — From foot of Granil street to 
Eiie Ferry. 

Harlem and Manhaftanville. — From Eflst rircr nt 
One Hundred and Twenty-filth street, through One 
Hundred and Twenty-flfth street to Manliattanviile. 
Ti'aiisters at New Amsterdam avenue for cable load up 
New Amstei-dam avenuo to Ono HuodrKd and Eighty- 
seventh street. 

Twenty-tMrd Street and Erie Ferry. — From foot of 
West Twenty-tliird street to foot of East Twenty-third 
street. Branch to Thirty-fourth Street Ferry. 

Fortysecoiid Street and Botd^-ard Line. — From 
Thirtv-fourth Street Feriy, East Kiver, via First ave- 
nue, Vorty-secoud street. Seventh avenue, Broadway, to 
Boulevard at Seventy-second street, to Fort Lee Ferry, 
Brancli from Thirty-fourth Street Ferry to Forty-second 
street, to West Shore Ferry, West Poky-second street. 
Branch from First avenue and One Hundred luid Tenth 
street to Fort Lee Ferry. 

Fiflk Avenue Stage iine.— From South Fifth avenue 
anil Bleeckerstroet, through Waslitngton square, tbrougli 
Fifth avenue to Eighty-sixth street. 

MANHATTAN ELEVATED BAILWAI, 

DAILY, INCtOMNG S^NDJ^YS. 

This is the most rapid and convenient local tronsfwr- 
talioii route. It has stations convenient to all iin- 
poriant points ou the east side, and to ali important 
points below One Hundred and Pifty-fifth street on the 
west side of the city. The aceompanyin^ map shows 
)iiore clearly than any description the various branches 
of tliisimportnnt system which has contributed lai^ely 



deposit ticket in the giate-bos before entering train. 
Below are further particulars with a lift of stations. An 
asterisk • aftw a stution denotes that ci-oss-town car 



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^% 



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bepin runniiif; in 1868. The present Sisth avenue 
■branch was nest opened U\ June, 1878. 

SECOND AVENUE LINE. 

This line is open from 5.80 A. U. to 11.53 P. M. 

Passengers for Thirty-fourth. Street Ferr^, East Itiver, 
change ears at Thirty-fourth Street Staflon and take 
branch train for ferry. No extra charge. 

Passengers to or Irom City Hall change cars and cross 
the Bridge at Chatham Square Station, 

Passengers to or from Suburban Rapid Transit Rail- 
way cliange cars at One Hundred aad Twenty-ninth 

STATIONS. 
South Ferry, Hanover square. Pulton street,* Frank- 
lin square, Cliatham square, Canal street,* Grand street,* 
Eiyington street. First street, Eighth street.*Fourteenth 
street,* Nineteenth street. Twenty-third street,* Thirty- 
fourth street,* Forty-second street,* Fiftieth street. 
Fifty-seventh street. Sixty-fifth street, Seventieth street, 
Eighttetli street, Eighty -sixth street, Ninety - Eecond 
street. Ninety-ninth street. One Hundred and Elev- 
enth street, One Hundred and Seventeenth street. One 
Hundred and Twenty -first street. One Hundred and 
Twenty. seventh street, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth. 

THIRD AVENUE LINE. 

This line, including City Hall Branch, is open at all 
hours of the day and night. 

City Hall passengers, to or from Second Avenue Line 
change cars and crass the Bridge at Chatham Square 
Station. Direct connection made at City Hall Station, 
■without going to the street, with trains crossing Brook- 
lyn Bridge. 

Passengers for Grand Central Depot change cars at 
Forty-second Street Station and take branch train, 
which is run from 6. CO A. M. to 12.00 midnight. No 
extra charge. 



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Passengers foi- Tliiiiy- fourth Street Fcrr^, East River, 

cliangc ciira at Tliirtj--foui-tli Street Station and take 

lirancli train, wJiicIi is riin from 5.S0 A.M. to 13 midnight. 

STATIONS. 

Soutli Ferry, Hanover squai-e. Pulton street,* Frank- 
lin square, City Hall, CLatliam scitiare, Canal street,* 
Grand street,* Houston street,* !Ninth street,* Four- 
teenth sti-eet,*Bightecutli street,* Twenty-lhird street,* 
Twenty-eighth sErcet, Thirty-fourth sti'ect,* Thirty- 
fourth Street Ferry, Forty-second street,* Grand Cen- 
tral,* Forty-ecTenth street, Fifty-third street. Fifty- 
ninth Etreet,* Sixty-seventh street, Seventy-sisth street, 
Eighty-lourth street, Eiehtj-ninth street, Kiuety-uinlh 
street. One Hnndreil and Sixth street. One lluntlrod and 
Sixteenth street. One Hundre<l and Twenty-iiftli street,* 
One Hundred and Twenty-nintli street. 

SIXTH AVENUE LINE. 

This line is open at all hours of the day and night. 

Passengers lor Grand Central Depot leave train at 
Porty-seeond Street Station. Crosstown cars run 
between Station and Depot, Fare 5 cents. 

Now York and NorthemEailway Connection. — Trains 
eonneeting with the New York and Northern Eailway 
tlirougli trains eiirry a blue disc on the forward part of 
the engine. 

Passengers for stations on Nintli Atciiho Line change 
cars at Piity-niiith Street Station, No extra, cliargo. 

STATIONS. 
South Ferry, Battery place. Rector street, Cortlandt 
street. Park place. Chambers street,* Franklin street, 
Grand street,* Bleecker street,* Eighth street,* Four- 
teenth street,* Eighteenth street. Twenty-third street,* 
Twenty-eightli street. Thirty-third street,* Forty-second 
street,* Fiftieth street. Fifty-eighth street, Fifty-tliird 
street and EigiiUi avenue, Fifty-niutli sti-eet and Kinlli 
avenue,* Sixty- sixth street. Seventy - aecoud street, 
Eighty -first street. Ninety -third street. One Hundred 
and Fourlli street, One Hundred and Slxfeentb street 
and Eighth avenue, One Hundred and Twenty-liftfi 



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I b.-sdb, Google 



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Btiect * One Huodred and Tliirty-flfth street, One Hun- 
dred and Forty-fifth street, One Hundred and Fifty- 
fiftli street. 

NINTH AVENUE LINE. 

This line b open from 5.30 A. M. to 7.57 P. JI. 

Passeogers for Sixty-sixlli street, Seircnty - second 
street, EiglUy-first street, Ninety.thlrd etreel, One Hun- 
dred and Fourth street, One Iliindred and Sixteeulli 
street. One Bundled and Twenly-fltih street (Harlem), 
Cue Hundred and Thirty-fifth street, One Hundred and 
Forty-fittli atrcei. One Hundred and Fifty-fifth street. 
Port Washington, High Bridge and the New York and 
Northern Railway, change cars at Fifty-ninth street. 
No extra charge. 

STATIONS. 
Soutli Ferey, Battery place, Rector street, Cortlandt 
street, Barclay street, Warren street, franklin street, 
Desbrosses street,* Houston street,* Christopher street,* 
Fourteenth street,* Twenty-third street,' Thirtieth 
street, Tbirty-fotirtli street,* Forty-second street,* Fif- 
tietii street, Fifty-ninth street.* 

HOTELS. 

It is presumed that readers of this Gaide will not care 
to patronize any but absolutely unexceptioujiblo hotels. 
Therefore only such arc given. Should a reader discover 
any reason for findingf ault with the service at any of these 
hotels he will confer a favor on the author by communi- 
cating the facts to him. Lodgings, in the sense in which 
the English use that term, are not to be had in New 
York. For boarding-house.s reference muit bo had to 
the advertisements iu the daily newspapers. 

Tlie New York hotels, like those of other large cities 
of the United States, are conducted on the American or 
European plan, or on both. In tlie American plan the 
charge includes both room and meals; in the European 
plan the charge is for loom only, the guest being at 
liberty to take his meals either at the hotel restaurant or 
elsewhere. Several liotels combLne both plans. For a 



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40 

visitor whose businoBS or pleasure takes him about tlie 
citv, tlie Enropenn plan is preferable, as it renders hiiri 
independent or liis hotel timing the day time. Excel- 
lent rooms in hotels on the European plan can be had at 
f2 ti (laf, the price running from $1 to |3, tLelastDgiirc 
being for double rooms. Suites wifh sitting, bed aud 
liatli room, eiin bo bad at from §35 to $W a week. 
Among the best known hotels arc: 

EuKOPBAS Plas — Aslor Hffttse, in the heart ot tlie 
down, town business district on Urondway, between Vesey 
and Barclay streets, opposite the Post Office; Bi-evaort, 
U Fifth avenue, with a larae English patronngo; Baek- 
ingham, Eifth avenue and Fiftieth street (one of the 
most exclusive in the city); Mvere/t, Fourth avenue and 
Seventeenth street, OTenooking Umon square; Gileeg, 
Uroadway and Twenty-ninth street; Grand, Broadway 
and Thii'ty-first street; Boffman, 1111 Broadway (on 
^ladison square); Rokl Brunaieick, 225 Fifth avenue, 
OIL Madison square; Hotel Bam, 1D4 East Fifteeuth 
street (near Union square); Uoiel Xmperial, Thirty- 
second street and Broadway; Hotel Norfixandie, Thirly- 
eighth street and Broadway; Langham, Fiflh avenue 
and Fiftj-sceoiid street (an exccllenl; family hotel); 
Plasa, Fifth a\-enue and Fifty-ninth Street (the main 
entrance to Central Park); St. James, 1133 Broad- 
way (near Madison square) ; Union iiqiuire, 18 Uuion 
square; ^temnffo, Broadway and Twenty-fourth street. 

AMKBiCAy Plak — Clarendon, 210 Fourth avenue (near 
tJnion square) wilh a large Englioh putronage; IHfth 
Avemie, m a line situation at Filtli avenue and Twenty- 
third street (Madisim square), in the centre of the ahop- 
Eing and annisemeiit district — one of the best known 
otels in the United States; Grand Central, 671 Broad- 
way; MetropoUtan, 68i Broadv/ay (convenient to the 
wliolesale dry goods district); Murray Mill, Park avenue 
and Fortv-flrst street (convenient to the Grand Central 
IJopot); Jrtjw York Hotel, 721 Broadway (a favorite hotel 
with Siratheniors): Sttirievanl, 1180 BTOa^lway; Vic- 
toria, Twenty-sevcuOt street, Broadway, and Fillli ave- 
nue (near Madison square); Wes/miiteier, Irving jiliice 
and Sixteenth street (a quiet neighboi'hood neai- Lnion 
square); Windeor, Fifth avenue and Forty-sixth street 
—one of the best linown hotels in tlie United States. 



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41 

The Clarendon &nA- Sturievant (see above) give their 
Jniasts tbc clioice of iJie European or American plan. 
William WalilorE Astor ia building two hotels, which 
will undoubtedly be unexceptionable. They are respec- 
tively at Fifth avenue and Thirty-third street (North- 
west corner) and Fifth ttvenne and Fifty-ninth street 
(North-east corner), overlooking the Plaza and Central 
Park. A flrst-class hotel is also building on the South- 
east eoiner of Fifth aveaue and Fifty-ninth street. 

BESTATJKANTS, CHOP-HOUSES AND OYSTER 
SALOONS. 

EESTArttASTS,"--The most noted restaurant in New 
York City, in fact in the United States, is Delraonico's, 
3 South William street (the site of the first reatanrant 
bearing the now famous name); 23 Broad street, near 
the Stock Exchange, and south-west corner of Fifth 
avenue and Twenty-sisth street, near Madison square. 
The charges at these restaurants are high, but not out of 
proportion to the escellenee ol the cooking and service. 
Here, as at nearly all American restanrants, "one por- 
tion " is enough for two persons, so that a meal for two 
persons will not cost them more than each would have 
to pay if dining alone. Therefore, an even numbered 
party can luxuriate at Delmonico's and otiiev flrst-class 
high-priced restaurants (such as the Savarin and the 
Hoffman Ilouse) at a comparatively small cost to each 
member of the party. For from $8,00 to $5.00 between 
them, two persons can secure a plain but admirably 
cooked and served dinner at such restaurants. Table 
d'hote breakfasts, lunches and dinners can be had at 
various establishments, which nsuaUy serve also k la 
carte, the dinners costing from 75 cents to $1.50, gener- 
ally including a pint of vin ordinaire (breakfast and 
lunches at proportionately less expense). Following is 
a list of reliable restaurants from downtown upwards; 
nearly all the restaurants have cafes attached. An 
asterisli implies special excellence. In the author's 
opinion. Specialties are bracketed. Bragugliaa-Carreno, 
la Broadway [Spanish dishes]; 'Hoffman Caf^, 7 Beaver 
street; *Delinonico, 2 S. Wilham street; *Delmonico, 23 



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43 

Braad street; Kolh, 164 Pearl sti-ent; *Savarin, 130 
Broadway; Cable, Bailey & (Jo.. 130 Broadway; *iIoff- 
nian CaK, 60 Broailway ; J. A. P. Fisk, 7G Broad 
street; Sutlieriand, 64 Liberty street; Heckiiian, 123 
William street, table d'hGle (in the oldest building in 
NewYork); Mouqwiii, 140 Fulton street; *AscorHonse, 
Broadway and Vesey Btreet; Backy, 31 Frankfort Etreet 
[German — Garinan wines]; " Eathskdler," 3 Tryon. 
lEow, tahh d'/iGte [Gemiau— imported beers]; Holtz & 
Freystedt, 349 Broadway [Gorman — German wines]: 
Metropolitan Hotel, fiSf Broadway; Filippliii, 887 
Broadway; Vienna Baker}-, Broadway and Tenth etreet 
[IHeniia rolls, coffee, Um and cliocolate]; St. Denis 
Hotel, Broadway nnd Eleventh street; Hotel Hungaria, 
4 Union square, Eiist, (able d'hSle [Hungariau wines];' 
Union Square Hotel, 19 Union square; BiceadoDns, 
48 Union square, Bast [Italian]; Everett House, Fourth 
avenue and Seventeentti street ; Pursell, 910 Broadway, 
table ^hSte; Martinelli, 186 Filth avenue, table d'Mte 
[Italian]; Jloretti, 13 East. IVenty-fii'st street, table 
d'liSte [ItaliHu] ; Clark, K., 33 West Twenty-third street; 
Albemarle Hotel, Broadway and Twenty-fourth street; 
'Hoffman House, Broadway and Twenty-flfth street; 
*Hotel Brunswiek, Fifth avenue and Twenty-fifth street, 
table d'hSle; *Delmoiiieo, Filth avenue and Twenty- 
sij:th street; St. James Hotel, Broadway and Twenty- 
sixth street; Coleman House, Broadway and Twenty- 
!nth street; Hcijn, 29 West Twenty-seventh street 



street ; Parker's, 1,397 Broadway Oargely patromzed by 
sportsmen); Murray Hill, Park avenue and Forty-first 
street; Grand Union Hotel, Fourth aveuue and Forty- 
sccnud street. 

Chop-Houses. — *' Old Tom's," Tliames street (rear of 
Trinity Church); Parrish, 64 John street; Esehbnoli, 
Fourth avenue, betweeu Twentieth and Twenty-first 
streets ; " Studio," Sisth avenue, between Twentieth 
rtiid Twonty-iirst streeis ; Browne, 81 West Twenty- 
seventh street. 

Oyster Saloons. — Oyster saloo7is are scattered all 
over the city, and the eliaraoter of the cooking and ser- 
vice can generally be judged of by appcavance,--. Oysters 



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are served at nearly all good restaurants in New York. 
Speeially well-known oyster saloonsare A. & P. Borlon, 
Pulton Market; O'Neill, 358 Sixth avenue; Burns, 783 
and 904 Siith avenue. 



Nearly all the large hotels have well equipped biUinrd 
rooms. Best known among other hilliard rooms are the 
" Columbia," 948 Broadway, and Seston's, 1,393 Broad- 
way. 

LIBRARIES. 

Apprentieas', 18 East Sixteenth street (8 A. M.— P. 
M.); Astor, Lafayette Place (9 A. M.— 5 P. M.; 4.30 P. 
M. in winter); City, Citj HaU (10 A. M.— 4 P. M.); Col- 
umbia College, Forty-ninlh street and MadiEon avenue 
(8 A. M, — 10 P. M.l; Cooper Union, Seventh street and 
Fourth avenue (8 A. M.— 10 P. M.); Harlem, 3338 Third 
avenue (9 A. M.— 9 P. M.); Leaox, Fifth avenue and 
Seventieth street (11 A. M. — 4 P. M.); Mercantile, Astor 
Place (8 A. M.— 9 P. M,}; New York Hospital, 8 West 
Sisteecth street (10 A. M.— 5 P. M.); NewTork Society, 
67 University Place (8 A, M.— P. M.). 

NE>YSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. 

The principal daily newspapers are : Morsino — 
Mormiiff Advertiser,lndepeii'ii!ni,29Fiii:k'Ri>w; Serald, 
Independent, Broadway and Ann street. Fifth avenue 
and Twenty-third street; Mojttiitg Joarnal, Indepen- 
dent, 163 Nassau street; Fress, Republican, Park Row 
(Potter Building); Sun, Independent, Printing House 
Square; Titnes, Independent, Printing House Square; 
Tribune, Republican, Printing House Square; World, 
Demooratio, Pulitzer Building (adjoining Bast River 
Bridge). German — Staala Zeilwig, Democratic, Tryon 
Row. French — Cov/rier dea Elata Unis, Democratic, 
19 Barclay street. Commercial — Oom/mercial BuUeiiii 
(except Sunday), 83 Braadway; Journal of Commerce 
(except Sunday), 76 Beaver street. Eveniso (except 
HuaAayy—Gommenial Advertiser, Republican, 39 Park 
Row; Mail and Express, Republican, 23 Park Row; 



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Evening Pott, Independent, Broadway and Tulfon street; 
Evening Telegram. Independent, Brosidwny and Aim 
Btreot; Ecematj 8un, Independent, Printing IIoiiBe 
Square; Evening World, Democralic, Pulitzer Build- 
inR. Weekly. — Frmik LeiUe'» Illnitrated Ifhttpaper, 
110 Piftli avcnne falso Qennan) ; Hai-per't llasnr (tlie 
leading weekly for women) ; Ilai'per'a Weckh/ (llie 
leading veekly oF the United States), Franklin Square; 
lUititrated Americnn, Bible House ; NaHon (the leading 
political weeklr of the United States), 210 Broadway. 



(illustrated) — Certiur^, S3 East Seventeenth street; Cos- 
mopolitan, Twenty-sixth street and Fifth avenue; JZor- 
per's New Jlonthly Magazine, Franklin Square; Scrift- 
ner'8 Magazine, 743 Broadway. 

THEAIBES. 

The most desirable seats in New York theatres are, 
exeept private boxes, in the parquet (also orchestra or 
dress circle). These cost $1.G0 each, though at the 
'■popular" theatres prices range much lower. Opera 
glasses may be liirecl m the lobby. Programmes free. 
The leading tlieatres, stoek companies marked *, iiro : 

Academy ot Music, Bast Fourteenth Btreet, corner of 
Irving place; Ambeiig's Theatre, Fifteenth strpot and 
Irving place; Bijou Theatre, Broadway and Thirtieth 
street; Broail way Theatre, Fortv-first street and Broad- 
way; Casino, Broadway and Thirty-ninth street (light 
opera); *Daly's Theatre, Broadway and ThirLielh slreet; 
1" ilth Avenue Theatre, Twenty-eighth street and Broad- 
way; Fourteenth Street Theatre, Fourteenth slreet and 
Sixth avenue; Garden Theatre, Madison avenue and 
Twenty-seventh street; Grand Opera House, Eighth 
avenue and Twentv-third street; Ilammerstcin's Colum- 
bus Theatre, One Hnudred and Tweuty-ftfth street and 
Lexington avenue; nammerstein's Harlem Opera House, 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth street and Seventh ave- 
nue: •Ilarrigan'a Theatre, Thirty-fifth street, east of 
Sisth avenue ; Hertmann's Theatre, Broadway and 
Twenty-uiuth street; *Lyeeum Theatre, Fourth avenue 
and Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth streets; Madison 



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4K 

Square Garden, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh 
streets, and Fourth and Madison avenuns; *Madison 
Square Theatre, Twenty-Iourth street, uear Fifth Ave- 
nue Hotel; Metropolitan Opera House, Broadway and 
Thirty-ninth street; New Park Theatre, Thirty-fifth 
street and Broadwar! Niblo's Garden Theatre, 523 
Broadway; Palmer's 'Tlieatre, Broadway and Thirtieth 
street; Proetor's Theatre, Twenfcy-third street, between 
Sisth and Seventh avenues; Standard Theatre, Sisth 
avenue, Broadway and Thirty-third street; Star Theatre, 
Broadway and Thirteenth street; Tony Pastor's Theatre 
(Variety), Tammany Hall, Fourteenth street, nearThird 
avenue ; Union Square Theatre, Union square and 
Broadway, 

C0NCEBT8. 

The principal concerts to wliich the public la ndmit 

ted are given at tlie Music Hall, Seventh avenue and 

Fifty-seventh street, by the Philharmonic Symphony 

and Oratorio (choral) societies. Piirquet, $1 50 

CONCERTVAEIETT PEErOBMANCES. 



MUSEUMS. 

Amerieaii Museum Natural History, Manhattan 
square. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Central Park, near 
Eighty-first street and Fifth avenue entranee. 

New Yorlt Historical Society, 170 Second avenue. 

PICTURE EXHIBITIONS. 

iud Seventieth street. 



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Metropolitan Sliisenm of Avt, Central Park, :iear 
Eichty-first street and Fifth avenue entraiico. 

See also Aii Stores, Academy of Design and Art 
Stiidentii' League. 

TURKISH ASD RUSSIAN BATHS. 

Produce Exchange, 8 Broadway; Hoffman House, 7 
West Twentv-fdurth street; Windsor Hotal, 7 East 
Fort j-sisth street; 18 Lafajetto Place. 

CYCLORAMA. 

Falls ol Ulagara, Nineteenth street and Foiirili avo- 
DIVISi; SEEYICE. 

Trow's DirectorycoJitninsapompletelist of churches 
of all denominntious with tho pastors' names. The hest 
known churches in New Tork aie: 

Baptist. — Adoniram Judaon Mcmoi'inl, Thompson 
street nnd Washington Square, Edward Judson; Cal- 
vary, Fifty-sc'vontli street, between Sixth ind Seventh 
avenues, R. 8, McArthur; Fifth Avenne, 6 West Fortj-- 
Bixlh street, W. H. P. Fauiieo. 

Conqregathnal. — Broadway Tahei'nacle, Broadway 
and Tliirty- fourth street, Win. M. Tajlor. 

MethmUst £^i»eopat.—St. Andrew's, Calvary. Wash- 
ington Square; John Street, 44 John street; JIadison 
Avenue, Sixtieth street and Madison avenue. 

Pre»byteriau. —Brick, 410 Fifth avenue, Henry J. 
Van Dyke; Chnrcli of the Covenant, 28 Park avenue, 
J. II. McElvaine; Fifth Avenue, 708 Fifth avenue, 
John Hail; Fourth Avenue, 386 Fourth o 



Presbyterian churches in Ihe cliy. 

Proleatant Epigeopal. — Trinity, the most noted church 
in New York City, Broadway and Rector stnMjis, Mor- 
gan Dix; St. Paul's (Trinity Pariah), Broadway and 
Vesey streets, James Mulcahcy ; St. Augustine's Ciiiipel 
(Trinity Parish), 107 Bust Houston street, A. C. KJmbor. 
Oilier well-known congregations among the 90 odd of 



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47 

this denomination nrc: All Souls, Sixty-sistli street and 
Madison avenue, R. Heber Newton; Grace, Broadway, 
near Tenth street, W. R. Huntington; Uearenly Rest, 
651 Fifth avenue. D. Parker Morgan; St. Anil's, 7 West 
Eigliteentti street, Tliomas Gatlainiet; St. Bartholo- 
mow's, 848 Madison avenue, David H. Greer; St. 
George's, 7 Eutiierford pla«e, Win. S. Rainsford; St. 
Ignatius (ritualistic), 56 West Fortietli street, A. Ritchie; 
St. Marlt's, Stuyvesant street and Second avenue, J. H. 
Rylance; St. Mary, the Virgin (ritualistic), 238 West 
Forty-fifth street, T. MeK. Brown; St. Thomas's, Fifth 
avenue and Fifh--third street, John W. Brown; Trans- 
figuration, 5 Bast Twenty-ninth street, George H. 
Houghton; Bishop, Henry C. Potter, Dioeesan House, 
29 Lafayette place. A Protestant Episcopal Cathedral 
is to be built on the site of the old Lealte & Watts 
Orphan Asylum building, on high ground, just north- 
west of Central Park. There is also a Protestant Epis- 
copa! City Mission, 68 Bleecker street, an interesting 
ministration ol which is the City Prison Mission, Brook- 
hoist Morgan, missionary. 

Reformed Dutch. — Collegiate Middle Church, 14 La- 
fayette place, Talbot W. Chambers ; Fifth Avenue, 
Port^-eighth Street and Fifth avenue, Edward B. Coo; 
Madison ATeune, Fifty-seventh street and Madison ave- 
nue, A, E. Kittredge; South Twenty-first street and 
Fifth Avenue, Roderick Terry. 

Romam OathoUc— St. Patrick's Cathedi-al, the finest 
church Btriicture in America, Fiftieth and Fifty-flrst 
streets, and Fifth avenue. Archbishop Corrigan; St. 
Francis Xavier, David A. Sterrick; St. Panl, the Apos- 
tle, Pilty-ninth street and Ninthavenue, John McQuirk. 
There are 75 churches ot this denomination. 

Unilarian.— Ail Sonls (formerly Dr. Bellows') 345 
Fourth avenue, T. C. Williams; Messiah, 61 East Thirty- 
fourth street, Robert Collyer. 

Umversalisl. — Divine Paternity (formerly Dr. Cha- 
piii's), 538 Fifth avenue, C, H. Eaton. 

Synagogues.— Temple Emanu-El, S21 Fifth avenue, 
Gustav Gotlheil, Betb-EI, Fifth avenue and seventy- 
sixth street, Dr. Kohler; Ahavash Cheaed, 652 Lexing- 
ton avenue, Dr. Kohut ; Shearith Israel, 5 West Mine- 
teenth street. 



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FOREIGN COSSULS. 

Argentine Republic— C, Carranza, 60 Wall street. 
Austria- Hungry — T. A. Havenieyer, 33 Broadway. 
Helgium — Cbas. Mali, 839 Broiwlway. 
Bolivia — 3IeIciior Obarrio, 136 Liberty street. 
Brazil— A. T. <le iraccdo, 28 State street. 
Cliili— F. A. Bcelen, 13 Cortlandt slreet. 
China— 8hcn Woon, 38 West Ninlli street. 
Colombia— Cllmaco Calderon, 34 Slate street. 
Costa Bica— A. 0. Flint, 143 Pcsrl street. 
Denmark- Henri 31. Biiem, 89 Wall street. 
Dominican Republic— E. Vasquez, 31 Broadway. 
Ecuador — I>oiningi> L, Ruiz, 51 Liberty street, 
li^ance — Vicointe Paul d'Abzac, 4 Bowling Green. 
German Empire — August Feigel, 3 Bowling Green. 
Great Britain — Wm. Lane Booker, 34 State street. 
Greeco^D. N. Botassi, 115 Pearl street. 
Guutemala— Jncob Baiz, 103 Front street. 
Hajti — John Haustedt, 101 Pearl street. 
Hawaiian Islantls— E. H. Allen, 51 Leonard street. 
Ilondnras — Jacob Baiz, 103 Front street. 
Italy— G. Pafllo Rivit 23 State street. 
■Tapan— S. Fnjii, 7 Warren street. 
Korea — Everett Frazer, 134 Water street. 
Liberia— Joseph W. Tates, 19 William street. 
Mexico— Juan N. Navari'o, 85 Broadway. 
Monaco — Jivmes Diipas, 4 Bowling Green. 
Netherlands— J. R. Tlanten, 19 William street. 
Nicaragua — Alexander L Ootlioal, 140 Pearl street. 
Norway — Oiiristopher Ravn, 41 Broad street. 
Peru— Juan Qiiintana, 19 Whitehall street. 
Portugal — Baron d'Alnieriiim, 103 Broad street. 
Russia- A. OlaroTsky, 23 State street. 
Siam- Isaac T. Smith, 115 Broadway. 
Spain— A, B. Toreso, 30 Broadway. 
Sweden — Christopher Ravn, 41 Broad street. 
Switzerland— J. Bertsclimann, 69 Btaver street. 
St. Dominco— E. Vasqacz, 81 Broadway. 
'TQrkey--Baltazzi Effendi, 183 Broadway. 
ITroguay — Estray.ulas, 130 Fi-ont street. 
Veneznela — Di'. Rafael Villaviceiieio, 18 Broadway, 



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BANKERS. 

Bankers. —August Belmont & Co,, 130 Broadway; 
Browu Bros. & Co., 59 Wall street; Cheque Bank, 2 
Wall street; Di'esel, Morgan & Co., 23 Wall street; A. 
laelin & Co., 36 Wall street; Eugene Kelly & Co., 45 
Exchange place; Kessler&Co., 54 Wall street; Kidder, 
Peabody & Co.. 15 Wall street; Knauth, Nnchod Sc 
Kuhno, 6 S.WiUiara street; KountJie Bros., 130 Broad- 
way; Morton, Bliss & Co., 28 Nassau street; Post, 
Martin & Co., 45 Wall street; RooEeTelt & Son, a3 Wall 
street; J. & W. Seli^man & Co., 31 Broad street; Wins- 
low, Lanier Si Co,, 17 Nassau street and 180 Broadway. 

BANKS. 

Followingaretheprincipalbanksof theeity, Nation- 
al: Bank ofCoraineree, 27 Nassau street; Bank of New 
York, 48 Wall street; Chemical, 370 Broadway; City, 
52 Wall street; Pirft, S Wall street; Importers and 
Traders, 347 Broadway; Mechanics, 33 Wall street; 
Park, 314 and 216 Broadway. State: Bank of Amer- 
ica, 46 Wall street; Bonk of the Metropolis, 39 Union 
square ; Bank of the State of New York, 33 William 
street; PifEh Avenue, 631 Fifth avenue; German-Amer- 
ican, 50 Wall street; Manhattan Company, 40 Wall 
street ; Pacific, 470 Broadway. Savings Banks : Bank 
for Savings, 64 Bleecker street ; Dry Dock, 343 Bowery ; 
Kmigrant and Industrial, 51 Chainhers street; German, 
157 Fourth avenue; Manhattan Savings Institutiou, 
644 Broadway; Seamen's, 74 Wall street; Union Dime, 
54 West Thirty-second street. 

POSTAt INPOKMATION. 

General Post Office, Broadway and Park IlOW. 
There are eighteen branch P. O. Stations and twenty- 
one sub-stations, the latter in drug stores. Hotel Ruests 
can mail their letters and parcels at their hotel. There 
are no deliveries on Sunday. Closing of foreign mailsis 
advertised in tie newspapers. The following is con- 
densed from the JVew York Post Office Guide, copies of 
which can be obtained at the General Post Office. Pre- 
payment of postage is necessary. The rates for first, 



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Firal class: Letters woigliiii}; oiio oiiiiro or less, 2 
emits; 3 cents additional lor every ostm oimoe; postal 
cards, 1 cent. Second elaaa ; Nuwepapcrs or iwriodicals 
when EBiit by publisher or news agents, 1 ceut a pound, 
or fraction thereof; otherwise, 1 cent for every tounoes, 
or fraction thereof. Third class: Printed matter uu- 
sealed, induding boolis, circulars, handbills, engravings, 
music, magazines, pampliteU, newspapers, proof-shecis 
and manuscripts accompjiiiying same, 1 cent each 3 
ounces, or fraction thereof; limit of weight, 4 lbs,, ex- 
cept for a single hook, which may be more. Fourth 
close : All mnilable matter not included iu jiteceding 
classes, prepared for mailing so as to bo easily with- 
drawn anu esarainod, 1 ceut per ounce, or fraction 
tliereof; but Eecds, plants, cutlnigs, bulbs, roots and 
soioDS, are 1 cent for each 2 ounces. Foreign Postage : 
5 cents for a single letter to all the countries belonging 
to the Postal Union; postal cards, 3 cents. To countries 
not belonging to the union the rates var/, Uiwiaiiaile : 
Poisons, fresii fruits and vegetables, live animals, ex- 
plosives, and other dangerous articles or suhstaiioes. 

Domestie. — Obtained at the General Post Oilico, and 
at any of the branch or sub-stations, between tlio boura 
of 10 A. M. and G P. M. Applicant must All up a blank 
form giving the amount he desires to send, the place at 
which it is to be paid, the name of the payee, and his 
own name, roes; On orders not exceeding J5, Scents; 
over $5 and not exceeding $10, Scents; over f 10 and 
not exceeding $15, 10 cents; over $15 and not exceeding 
$30, 15 cents; over $30 and not exceeding $40, 20 cents; 
over $40 and not exceeding $50, S5cent$; over $50 and 
not exceeding $60, 30 cent^; over $G0 and not exceeding 
$70, 85cents;oyer$'r0ftndnot exceeding $80, 40 cents; 
os-er $80 and not exceeding $100, 45 cents. Interna- 
tional. — International monej-'orders payable in the fol- 
lowing countries; Great Biitniu and Ireland, Canada, 
Germany, Prance, Italy, BeiH'iuin. Switzerland, Sweden, 
Norway, Beiimark, Portugal, Ketherlands, Luxemburg, 



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51 

Austro-Hungary, New South Wales, Queenalard, Vic- 
toria, New Zealand, South Australia, West Australia, 
Tasmania, British India, Japan, Hawaii, Jamaica, Cape 
Colony, Egypt, Constantinople, Hone Kong, Bermuda, 
Gibralkir, Iceland, Natal, Wtiidward Islands, Leeward 
Islands, Ceylon, Falkland Islands, Straits Settlements 
(Singapore, Penang and Malacca), Gambia, Mauritius, 
St. Helena, Trinidad, Malta, Tangier, Beyrout, Salonica, 
Azores ami Madeira Islands. Fees; On orders not ex- 
ceeding $10, 10 cents; over $10 and tiot exceeding $20, 
SO cents ; over $30 and not exceeding $30, 30 cents ; over 
$30 and not exceeding $40, 40 cents ; over $40 and not 
exceeding $50, flO cents; over $50 and not exceeding 
$60, 60 cents; over $60 and not exceeding |70, 70 cents; 
over$70andnotesceeding$80, aOcents; over $80 and 
not exceeding $00, SO cents; over $90 and not exceeding 
$100, $1. Obtainable at the General Post Office and all 
branch offices, except M, S and T. 

Postal Notes, good for three months, are issued for 
any sum from one cent to four dollars and ninety-nine 
cents ($4.99) inclusive, but not for anyfractional part of 
a cent, ot a uniform fee of three cents. 

They can be purchased at the General Post Office or 
at any branch station or sub-station, and are payable at 
any money-order office in the United States, including 
branch stations and sub-stations in New York. They 
are payable to bearer, and no identification is required. 

Under conditions, which may be ascertained at the 
General Post Office, branch or sub-stations, unsealed 

Earcels of merebandise not over 11 pounds may be sent 
y parcels post to Jamaica, Barbadoes, Bahamas, 



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merchandiw (also those from Great Britain, Ireland or 
British Colonies) which hare remained undelivered for 
two weeks and whith do not bear the names and ad- 
dresses of tho senders (escopt those addressed to street 
and Datnber, which are advertised as soon as they arc 
returned by eaii'ier as being undelivemble) nre advertiseil 
tit New York twice a week. The advertised lists of saeh 
innltec are also displayed in the lobbies of the Genera] 
Post Office. Undelivered locallettersare not advertised, 
but remain at the Po&te lieataide for thirty davs await- 
ing call, and if then uiiclaiined are sent to the Dead 
Letter OfRoe, Washington. 
Adi-ertised Foreign Mail Matter. — AU letters, book 

Jackets, and packages, of apparent value, arriving 
■om foreign countries and found to be nndeliveraWe 
throug:h the ordinary methods, are treated as follows : 
1. Uaddressed " Po»ie MeBtamie" ox "to be eaileii for," 
they are retained, awaiting call, for two months, before 
being advertised. 2. If addressed tostreetnndnuraber, 
but founil undoliverable, they are advertised as soon as 
returned by carriers. 3. iraddressed"i%s(Q^ee"oniv, 
they are retained fifteen days and then are advertised. 
All nre retained awaiting call for four weeks after being 
advertised, and all then nnclaimed are sent to the Dead 
Letter Oilice. Mail matter of foreign origin (except that 
from Great Britain, Ireland and British Colonies) re- 
maining uncalled for at the New York Office Is advertised 
in newspapers printed in tiie languages of the countries 
in which such matter originates. 

Fee for Advertising. — A charge of one cent is made on 
the delivery of each article of advertised mail matter, to 
cover the cost of advertising. 

SPECIAI. DELIVEBY. 

Letters and packages are delivered by specinl jnes- 
senger if, in addition to the regular postage, a 10 cczit 
special delivery stamp is affixed. 

TELEPHONE. 

New York and its suburbs are servud by the Jfetropol- 
itau Telepiione and Telegraph Company, whiuh has 
numei-ous offices. There is, also, a lung-diatiuice tele- 



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53 

HE8SENQEB SEBYICE. 

Messenger service is maintained by tho American Dis- 
t til aph Company and the Iilutual District Mes- 
>e g C mpaiiy, Tiiese companies have numerous 
(R and u essengers can be summoned from most of 
th h t 1 

EXPItESS SEBTICE. 

D m t a id Bail way Expresses can be "ordered at 

ost f th h tels,th.e companleseallingfor the baggage 
1 parcels. Foreign express matter shonld bo delivered 
at the ofBees of the following ; 

AiitiTicam, Express Co., 65 Broadway, American 
European Express (Baldwin Brothel's & Co.), olHce, 63 
Broidway; Sermuda and N'ew York Express, 15 Mur- 
raystreet; Gonlanseaa's Mapid Foreign Express Co., 71 
Broadway and 653 Sixth avenue; Gulatai- & Go.'e 
Express, 55 and 57 Beaver street; Davies, Turner & Oo., 
Ameriean, Eoreigiitmd European ExpresaCo.. 40 Broad- 
way; E. Loseea European Expreet, 111 Broadway, 
basement; Foreign Express Oo. (Limited), 15 Murray 
street; Hampton Jr. & Co. Exm'ess, 40 Exchange place; 
Eensel, Bruckman <6 Lorbacker, 35 William street; 
Langes European E^^resa, 49 Exchange place ; Morris 
European i& American Ea>preas Co.,'i.SBTo&(i-wa.y; li. F. 
Bowmg c6 Oo.'s Foreign Express, SO Exchange place 
and 65 Beaver street; Pilt i& Scott's Foreii/n Express, 
35 and 87 Broadway; Seolt'e Foreign lielivery, 157 
Broadway; Sleglich & Baese (European Parcel), 76 
William street ; The Iniemalional Express, 47 Broad- 
way; The l^ansailanlic Express (3. Terkuilc), 81 and 38 
Broadway; Uhiled Foreign Expresa Co., 71 Broadway 
and 659 Sixth avenue; Uniled Stales Express Go., 49 
Broadway; Universal Express, 3. MeUger & Co., 30 
Broadway; Wella, Fargo & Co.'s European Express, 63 
Broadway. 

The American Express Co., TTnited States Express Co. 
and Wells, Pargo & Co., have branchfti iu various parts 
oE the city. 

TEIEGBAPH AND CABIE KATES. 

Telegraph and cable rates aro apt to vary, but will 
generally ba found at or near the rates given below. 



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5i 

which are those now in force. These give it good gen- 
eral idea of the cost of iclegmphing in New Voilt, and 
from Few York to other poinfe in the United States and 
Canada, and other foreign countries. Except in cable 
messages the "place from," date, address and signature 
"-S not charged for. In cable messages every woi'd 



company in tlie United States, has its main oi&e at 
Broadway and Dey street. The principal branch offices, 
Fifth avenue and Twenty-third street and 16 Broad 
street, are connected by pneumatic tubes with the main 
offioo. There are branch oflices in the principal hotels, 
exchanges, the post-ofHco and railway stations, and at 
many other points in the city. Day and night offices; 
Broadway and Dey street; 5!)9 Bi-oad way (near Houston 
street}; 854 Broadway (near Poiii-teenth street): Fifth 
avenue and Twenty-third street; Broadwayand Twenty- 
ninth street; Sistn avenue and Forty-seventh street; 
134 East One Ilundred an<i Twenty-filth street. 

Telegraph Rates. — Kates for messages of ten words or 
under (numbers must be spelled out): Lociil, 20 cents; 
to Baltimore, JId., 25 cents; Boston, Mass., 25 cents; 
Chicago, ni., 40 cents; Cincinnati, O., 40 cents; Gal- 
veston, Texas, 75 cents; Montreal and Qnebee, 40 cents; 
New Orleans, La., 60 cents; Omaha, Neb., 50 cents; 
Philadelphia, 20 cents; Pittsburg, Pa., 25 cents; St. 
liouis, Mo,, 40 cents; Salt Lake City, Utah, 75 cents; 
San Franciseo, Cal., |l; Wastiington, D, C„ 25 cents. 
"Words in excessof ten are charged at considerably lower 
rates, as are also night messages. 

Cable Ratea, — Canle messages can be sent from the 
main offices and branches of the Western Union and 
other cable companies at the following rates ^r word : 

Great Britain, Ireland, Prance, Germany, 25 cents; 
Bermudas, 81 cents; Belgium, 31 cents; Denmark, 35 
cents; Holland, 83 cents; Sweden, 39 cents; Norway, 
So cents; Switzerland, 31 cents; Hungary, 36 cent's; 
Italy, 84 eenfs; Uussia, 48 cents; JEgypl — Alexandria, 
58 cents; Cape Colony, $2.43; Japan, |2,11; Australia, 
f3,54 to $2.68; India, $1.31: Sonth America: Ecuador, 
$1.84: Pern, $1,83 to $3,68; Chili, $2.25; Argentine 
llepnblie, $1.83 to f2.l:(; UrugiiEtv, $3; Kriizil, $1.69 



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lo $3.13; Colon and Panama, 07 cents; Harana, 40; 
St. Thomas, $1.96. 

STOKES. 

ANTiQuiTiESAm)Binc-A-BBAc,—Sj'pher& Co., 348 Filth 
avenue; A. A. Vantine & Co. (Oriental), 87fi Broadway. 

BooKaBLLERs.- — Baker ifeTajlor Co. , 740 Broadway; J. 
W. Bouion, 706 Broadway and 8 West Twenty-eighth 
street ; Brentano's, 5 Union Sqnare (also large dealers in 
periodicals) ; F. W. Chriatern, 354 Fifth avenue (French); 
C. T. DiliiDffhain, 730 Bi'oadway; Dodd, Mead & Co., 
5 East Nineteenth street (also lar^ dealers in rare 
books) ; E. P. Dutton & Co.. 31 Weat Twenty-third ' 
street: David Q. Francis, 13 East Fifteenlli street; W. 
M, Goldthwaite, 107 Naaaau street (maps and guides); 
Hunt t& Katon. ISO Fifth avenue; Ivison, Biakeman & 
Co., 800 Broadway; W. E. Jenkins, Sal Sixth avenue: 
Leggat Bros., 81 Cliamhera street; 8. B. Luyster 



HeNally & Co., 323 Broaiiway; A. D. F. Randolpli & 
Co,, 183 Fifth avenue; Chas. Scribner's Sons, 745 
Broadway; Qustnv E. Stechert, 838 Broadway (Ger- 
man); E. Steiger & Co., 35 Park place (Oerman); F.A. 
Stokes & Co., 183 Fifth avenue; B. Westermnnn & Co., 
813 Broadway (Oerman); Worthington Co., 747 Broad- 
way. Harper & Bros., Franklin square, and !>. Appleton 
& Co., Bond street, neai Broadway, deal only in ilieir 

Boots akd Shoes. — W. Arnold, 44 West Twenty-third 
street; A. J. Cammeyer, 167 Sixth avenue; G. Cantreil, 
35 West Tweiity-thiiil street; W. McCJenahan, 58 Eaat 
Twenty-third street; J. & 3. Slater, 1185 Broadway. 

Ci.iiiBS.—^ee Men's Furnishing Goods. 

CAttPBTa iND livQS. — W. & J. Sloane, 884 Broadwav ; 
A, A. Vantine & Co. (Oriental), 879 Broadway. 

Ohildeen's Outfits. — Best & Co., Weat Twenty-third 
street. 

China AND Glass. — Bawo&Dotter, 30 Barclay; Davis 
CoUamoi-e, 331 Broadway and 151 Fifth avenue; Gilman 
Collamore, 384 Fifth avenue; Frank Haviland, 14 Bar- 
clay; Wilhelra & Graef, 1141 Broadway; A. A. Vantine 
& Co. (Oriental), 879 Broadway. 



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50 

CioAus AND Tobacco. — Cignrs can bo purchased at 
liotels, cafes and restaurants, ftiid at the larf,'o groceries. 
Tobacco may bo purchased nt the large grocei'ies. Cigar 
and tobacco stores ore numercns. 

Art Stores.— 9. P. Aveiy, Jr.. 368 Fifth avenue; 
BouBsod, Yaladon & Co.; Knoedler & Co. (Gcupil'e), 
170 Fifth avenue; Keicbard&Co., 326 Fifth avenue; 
William Sehauss, 204 Fifth avenue. Sngravings and 
Etchings.— P. Keppel & Co., 20 East Sintcentli street; 
C. Kkekuer, S East Seventeenth street ; 11. Wunderlich 
& Co., 868 Itrnadway. 

Confectioners.— Hujler, 150 and 8G3 Broadwav and 
21 West Forty-second street; Mailiard, 130, 178 and 
1007 Broadway. 

Dbessbakebs. — B. Altnian & Co., 301 Sixth avenue; 
Arnold, Constable & Co., Broadway and Niiieteentli 
street; Donovan, 282 ftloilison avenne; Everall Bros., 
236 Fifth avenue (tailor-made) ; Ghonnley, 43 Fjiat 
Nineteenth sti-eet; Krakuucr, 301 Fifth avenue; Red- 
fern, 310 Fifth avenue; Stern Bros., 33 W. Twenty, 
third street. 

Day Goods,— B, Altman &, Co., 301 Sixth arenne; 
Aitken, Son & Co., 873 Broadway ; Arnold, Constable & 
Co., Broadway and Nineteenth streets: Bloomingdale 
Bros., 096 Third avenne; John Daniell & Sons, 761 Bi-oad- 
way; E, J, Denning & Co., successor to A. T, Stewart* 
Co., Broadway and Tenth street (have also general house 
Iiirnisliings); Klirioh Bros., 365 Sixth avenue; J. A. 
Heam & Son, 26 to 80 West Fourteenth street ; II. C. F. 
Koch & Co., 319 Sixth avenue; Leboatiliier Bros., 845 
Broadway and 48 East Fourteenth street; Lebontiljier 
Bros., 50 West Twenty-third street; J. Lichtenstein & 
Sons, 381 Grand street; Lord & Taylor, 895 Broadway 
and 257 Grand street; James MeCreery & Co., 801| 
Broadway; J. McCutcheon & Co. (linens\^ 64 West 
Twenty-third street; K. II. Macy & Co., Fourteenth 
street and Sixth avenue (have also gonemlhonse furnish- 
ings); E. A. Morrison, Broadway nearEighteentli street; 
H. O'Neill & Co.. 821 Sixth avenue; Edward Ridley & 
Sons, 301 Grand street; Simpson, Crawford & Simpson, 
300 Sixth avenue; Stern Btos., 83 West Twenty-third 
street; A. A. Vantino & Co. (OrientJll), 879 Broadway. 

Florists, — Bebus, 1,153 Broadway; Ilanft Brothers, 



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57 

324 Fifth aTenue! Hodgson, 645 Fifth aTonue; Klundet 
Co., 1144 Broadway; McConaell, 546 Filth avenue; 
Stumpp, C15 Madison aronue. 

PuBRjERS.— C. G, Gunlhei-'s Sons, 184 Fifth avenue; 
Jaeoltel, 11 East Nineteenth street; Siiayne, 103 Prince 
and 134 West Forty-second streets. 

FusNiTOKB Dealers. — Cottier &Co., 144Fiflh avenue; 
Herter Brothers, 154 Fifth avenue; Herts Brothers, 804 
Broadway; Mareotte & Co., 333 Fifth avenue; Pettier, 
Stymus & Co., 375 Lexington avenue; Rous & Co., 133 
Filth avenue. 

Gloveks. — Hiirris Brothers, 865 Broadway. See also 
Dry Goods. 

Haberdashers. — See Men's Furnishing Goods. 

Harness. — DemarestA Co., 51 Warren street; Wood 
Gibson, 333 Fifth avenue; J. Newton Van Ness & Co., 
50 Warren and 120 Chambers streets. 

Hats.— Dnnlap & Co., 181 Broadway and 180 Fifth 
avenue; Knox, 213 Broadway and 104 Fifth avenue; 
Youmans, 180, 719 and 1107 Broadway. 

Jewelers.— Black, Star &, Prost, 251 Fifth avenue; 
Benedict Brothers, 171 Broadway; JaqoesS Marcus, 857 
Broadway (Union square); Theodore B. Starr, 306 Fifth 
avenue; Schumann & Sons, 860 Broadway; Tiffany & 
Co., Fifteenth street and Union square. 

Mes'3 Fubnishino Goods. — Samuel Budd, 1101 
Broadway; John Forsythe, 201 Broadway; Ingersoll & 
Glenney, 1139 Broadway; Kaskel &, Kaskel, 20 West 
Twenty-third street; Michaelis & Eohman, 14 West 
Twenty-third street; F. Miller & Sons, 1151 Broadway; 
Ward, 895 Broadway. See also Dry Goods. 

MiLLiNBBS.—Halsey, 253 Fifth avenue; Jacqnin& Co., 
63 West Twenty-third street ; Snedden, 183 Fifth ave- 
nue; Tieree, 881 Fifth avenue. See also Dry Goods. 

Music Stores.— G. Sehirmer, 85 Union square; B. 
Schuberth & Co., 83 Union square; Novello, Ewer & 
Co., 31 East Seventeenth street; C. H. Ditson & Co., 867 
Broadway; W. A. Pond & Co., 25 Union square. 

Newspapers and Periodicals. — There are newf!- 
stands in the principal hotels and at railroad and L R.R. 
stations. Brentano's, 5 Union square, deals largely in 
domestic and foreign newspapers and periodicals. 

Opticians. — Levy, Dreyfus & Co., 11 Maiden Lane; 



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Mayor, 2 Astor Ilouse; Wftldsteii), 11 XTnioii square; 
Pike, 13 East Twenty-third street; Cross & Co., ItfWest 
T wenty-thirtl street. 

Photookaphkrr. — Palk, 947 Broivlway; FredoriekB, 
770 Broadway; Hai^ave and Gubelman, 88 West 
Twenty-thini street; Kurtz, 6 East Twenty-third street; 
Sarony, 87 Union square. 

PnoTOORAPHic AppAttATL'8. — E. & H, T. Anthony 
& Co., 591 Broadway; Loeber Brotliers, 111 Nassau 
street; Newcomo& Owen, 69 West Thirty-si.-cth street: 
Scorille & Adams Co., 433 Uroomc. 

SiLVKROTiTTira.— Black, Star & Frost, 251 I'ilth 
avenue; GorUam Btanttfac taring Co,, 889 Brcmdwny; 
Tiffany & Co., 15 Union square; Theodore It. Starr, 
S06 Fifth aveuuc; Whiting Manufacturing Co., 81 
Union square. 

Spobtisc Ooods. — Haas Brothers, CO West Twenfj-- 
sixth street; Horsman, 341 Broadway; Peck & Snyder, 
138 Nassau; Spalding Brothers, 241 Broadway; Squires, 
178 Broad ivii3-. 

SrAtiosERS. — Brentano's, 5 Union square; Dcmpscy 
& Carroll, 8S East Fonrtoenth street; Tiffany & Co., 
Fifteenth street and Union square. 

TiitOKS.— J. W. Bell .& Son, 173 Fifth avenue; 
Cooper & Jarvis, 54 Broa^lway; Evorall Brothers, 286 
Pittli avenue; John Patterson & Co., 35 West Twenty- 
sixth street; Brooks Brothel's, 938 Broadway; Uedfern, 
210 Fifth areniie. 

Tovs.— Seharles Brothers, M West Twenty-third 
street; Schwarz, 43 Bast Pourteeath street. 

Tbusks and TitAVMLiNa Bags. — Cnttnaeh, 786 Broad- 
way; Crouch & Fitzgerald. 556 Broadway, 133 Sixth 
avenue ; Bazar dti Voyage, 1 Wall and 1 Cortland t streets ; 
Roemer, 83 Fifth avenue ; Prichnrd, 74 West Twenty- 
third sircet, 

UsBRELLAS. — See Dry Goods and Men's Fm-nUhtng 
Gqnds. 

. — Sec Jewelers. 
LAW COURTS. 



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68 

United States District Court,- and original jurisdictions 
in civil law and equity suits between citizens of diflerent 
States; also in suits arising under the revenue, copyright 
and patent laws. 

United Slates District Ooart. — Federal Building, 
Broadway and Park row. Juriediotion in admiralty 
and maritime cases; iu cases where an alien sues ou 
tort in violation of a treaty or the laws of nations; suits 
instituted by the United States, suits by and against 
foreign consuls. 

The Supreme Court of the United States sits in Wash- 
ington. 

STAIE COURTS. 

Supreme Court. — County Court Souse, Citv Hall 
Park. The eeneral law and equity coun of the State of 
New York. Tlie appellate branch known as the General 
Term passes on appeals from the trial judges of this 
court, the final appeal being from the General Term to 
the Court of Appeals wUch sits at Albany, 

Oyer and Terminer. — County Court House, Cityllall, 
The criminal branch of the Supreme Court. 

Court of Gommoti Pleas.— County Court House. 
Concurrent jurisdiction with the Supreme Court within 
the county limits (actions involving real estate withm 
the city, etc.), 

Superior Cou 
Court House. ... 
of Common Pleas. Both these courts bold General 
Terms, the final appeal being U> the Court of Appeals. 

Gity Court. — City Hall. Jurisdiction in smaller civil 
oases and a limited maritime jurisdiction. Also a Gen- 
eral Torro, final appeal being to the Court ol Common 
Pleas. 

District Courts. — Inferior civil courts; appeals being 
to the Court of Common Pleas. 

Surrogate's Court. — County Court House. Jurisdic- 
tion in matters relating to wiUs and administration of 
the estate of a decedent. 

Court 6f ffeneral Sessions of the Peace. — 32 Chambers 
street. Criminal jurisdiction concurrent with the Court 
of Oyer and Terminer within the limits of the county. 



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Held by tlio Recotiicr, City Juiifiie and Judge of tlie 
Court of Gceneral Sessions. Appeals to QeiienilTerm of 
Supreme Court and Anally to Coni-t of Appeals. 

Court of Special Sessions of the Peace, — Tombs, Cen- 
tre street, between Leonara and Franltlin streets. 
Jurisdiction over nil misdemeanors. 

A building for the City Criminsl Coiivts is being 
erected on Centre street, oiie block above tlie Tombs. 

I\}lice Courf*— Inferior criminal tribunals, 

CHAEITY. 

Hospitals. — The most important hospitals besides 
charity hospitals are : A'eie York Sospila!, 7 West 
Fifteenth street. 311. Sinai Soapilal, Lexington ave- 
niiB anil Sisty-sixtli street, a general hospital for pa- 
tients of all creeds itnd classes, with a capacity of 
two liimdred beds. It treatai last year 2,563 eases. 
Visitjng days : Saturdays ftnd Sundays, 2 to 4 P. M ; 
Wednesdays, 3 to 3 P. M.; to the children's ward, Sat^ 
urdaTS only, 3 to 4 P. BL Those able to jmy board are 
charged f 7 per week. Presbyterian HospHtU, occu- 
pyin|r, with its dispensary, the entire block between 
Madison and Fourth ft' " ' ■" " '-"--■ 



4 P. M., known also as the Lonoi Hospital, naving been 
founded by the late James Lenox. Qerman Hospital, 
Fourth avenue and Seventy-seventh street, notwithstand- 
ing its name, open free to the sick poor of every nation- 
ality, coior or creed. Private patients, $15 to |3S 
per week. Visiting days, Wednesdays and Thursdays 
irom 3 to 4 P. M, Hahnemann Hospital, Park avenue 
between Sisty-serenth and Sisty-eightli streets, as the 
name signifies, a homceopatliic ho'spi&l, but designed for 
the boiler class of poor who can pay a small sum per 
week. Private patients $10tofl40perweek. Roosevelt 
Hoapilal, Fifty-ninth street and Ninth avenue, endowed 
bv the late James H. Roosevelt, a member of one ot the 
oldest and best known families in the city, is one of the 
greatest institutions of its kind in the city, Fmo to all 
who cannot afford to pay. It is built on the pavilion 

elan and has a capacity of one hundred and seventy 
eds. According to its last rejxirt it treated, in one year, 
3,754 cases inwards, and 3,326 in the accident-room. 



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Viaiting days; Sundays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 
1 to 3 P. M. SI. Luke's Ho^ital, Fitty-fourth street and 
Fifth avenue, a hospilal connected with the Pretestant 
Episcopal Church, but aflordin^ medical and suiraeal 
aid and nursing without distinction of age or creed, in 
atnte, curable and non-contagions diseases. Friends of 
patients admitted on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays 
from 10 to 12 M. Chapel service on Snndaysat 8 -^0 P.M. , 
whicli relatives of patients who cannot call on visiting 
days may attend witli the privilege of remaining in the 
wards after worship nntilS P. M. Capacity two hundred 
and twenty beds. Treated 3,051 patients last year. Sis- 
Urs 0/ the Poor of SI. Francis, B03 to 617 Fifth street, 
running through to Sixth street, a Roman Catholic 
institution, but non-seotarian in its reception of patients. 
Capacity, two hundred and forty beds. Treated 2, 7G6 
patients last year. Visiting days, Sundays and Thurs- 
days from 3 to 5 P. M. Maintains also St Joseph's Hos- 
pilal East One Hundred and Pcrty-third and One Hun- 
dred and Forty-fourth streets, between Brook and St. 
Anne avenues ; capacity two hundred and fifty beds, 
Bbnevoient Societies, — Colored Orpftan. Asylwn, 
"West One Hundred and Porty.third street and Boule- 
vard, receives colored orphans of both sexes between the 
ages of 3 and 10, and provides for them ^atnitou sly ex- 
cept when they are mtrusted to the institution by a 
parent or gnardiau, when 75 cents per week is charged. 
Full orphans are instructed in home industries, and iii- 
dontured into families or trades at the age of 12. Three 



hundred and sixty-seven inmates last year. Visiting 
days: Mondays and Fridays from 1 to 4 P. M. Insiim- 
tion for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, 904 



to 9S3 Lexington avenue, corner of Sixty-seventh street. 
Pupils able to pay are charged $400 per annum. Imbo- 
oil^ not received. Here deaf mute children from 6 to 
14 years of ngearetaught by the most improved methods 
to use articulate sounds. Gatholia Froieciory, West- 
chester, Westchester county, cares for destitute Catholic 
duldreo as follows : Children under 14 years of age in- 
trasted for protection or reformation ; between 7 and 14, 
committed by a police magistrate as truant, idle, vicious 
or homeless ; between like ages, transferred by the De- 
partment of Public Charities and Correction, Boys, 



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who are in charge of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
receive a common school education iinil ai'o taught 
trades. The girls, who a,re ia chiirge of the Sisters of 
Chiiritf, receive a common school education and htc 
taught industriul cinployinenla. Cared for 8,^30 last 
year. Children's Aid Soeitfy, 34 St. Mark's place, 
seeks to elevate poor children b<r sAthcring those Si\\a 
attend no schools into its industriafscliools, caring aixl 
providing for homeless children in its ]o:]ging'liousc$, 
and procuring homes for them in the rural districts in 
the West, Under proper conditions the Societv will as- 
sist families with children to tlie South and West. It 
had eharae last year of 88,853 children. Its most inter- 
esting loitging-house and seliool is the Newsboys' Lodging 
Honse {page 142). Five Poijils Bouse of Iiidiislri/, 155 
Worth street (page 147). Five I^tifa Mission, 61 Park 
street (page 145). Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan 
Anfflam, Amsterdam avenne and One Hundred and 
Tliirty-sistli street. InslUtdion for the Deaf and Duti^. 
Eleventh avenue and Oue Hundred and Sisly-fhird 
atreot, for the free education of the deaf and dumb 
wiHiout regard to the circumslances of the parents, cx- 
cjjpt tliat Hiuy must reside in the Sttitc of Few York. 
Tiie children are taught various trades liy wliich tliey 
may support themselves on leaving the institution. 
ImlieUa Home. Amsterdam avenue and One IlHodred 
and Kinolietli atreot, founded Hiy Oswald Ottendorfcr 
in memory of his wife. A home for the core and maiii- 
tonanoe of aged indigent persons over 60 years of age, 
without diatlnclion as to age, creed, color or nation- 
ality, and a hospital and dispensary for chronic inval- 
ids and convnleseents. Juvenile A^um, One Ilnndred 
and Seventy-sixth street nnd Anistordata avenue, a ro- 
formotory for vicious children of hotli sexes iMstwecn 
the ages of 7 and 14 years. Visiting days at the asy- 
lum: Last Tliuraday of each month. St. Jolm's 
Oiiild, 31 University place, organizes waler excui'- 
^ons for sick children in summer and maintains a 
Kcaiiide nursery nt Cedar Grove, Now Dorp, Staten 
Tsliinil. Slielteiiiig ArmM, Amaterdam avenue and One 
Hundred and Twenty - ninth sti'eet. For llio care of 
homeless and destitute children from 5 to 13 years of 
age, for whom no other institutinn provides, such as 



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those whn are at once blind, deaf and dumb, and also 
children who are deserted or temporarily homeless. 
Children are trained in household and other work. 
U-micd Hebrew Chariiits, 58 St. Mark's place, isa union 
of some of the most important Hebrew benevolent so- 
cieties in the eity. Charity Orgamzation Society, 31 
University place, directs persons in search of relief to 
the institution caverinK tbeit special cases, and is there- 
fore one of the most important adjuncts to the pnblic 
and private charitable ministrations of the city. In the 
"New V'ork Charities Directory " ($1), published by this 
Society, detailed information regarding all these institu- 
tions may be found. 

COLLEGES.' 

Columbia College, Forty-ninth street and Madison, 
avenue; University of tlie City of New York, Washing- 
ton Square and Waverly Place; College of the City of 
New York, 17 Lexington avenue; College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Fifty-ninth street, near Ninth avenue; 
University Medical College, foot of East Twenty-sixtfi 
street; Caruegie Medical College, Twenty-sixth street 
and First avenue; College of Pharmacy, 309 East 
Twenty-third street; New York ColleM of Dentistry, 
245 East Twenty-third street; General Theokigiciil Sem- 
inary of the Protestant Episcopal Chnrch, Twentieth 
street, between Ninth and Tenth avenues; Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1200 Fourth avenue (near Seventieth 

CLUBS. 

Aldine Cliib, chiefly a publishers' club, 20 Lafayette 

Slace. Arion Society, a vocal society, with a fine cluh- 
ouse at Fifty-ninth street and Park avenue. Authors 
Glui, 19 West Twenty-fourth street. Calumet Club, 
Twenty-sixth street and Fifth avenue. Century Aiso- 
dation, composed chiefly of litterateurs, arti^s and 
connoisseurs of literature and act. Forty-third street, 
between Fifth and Sixth avenues. German Club, 
Fitty-nintli street, near Sixth avenue. Barmonie Club, 
45 West Forty-second street, and Pi-ngresa Club, Six- 
ty-lliirtl street and Fifth avenue, wciilthy and influen- 
tial Hebrew clubs, Kniekeiioeker Cluti, Thirty-second 



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u 

street and Fifth avetiuo, tlie moat exclusive dull in 
the dly. Laie^/era' Clah, 130 Broadwny. Lntoa Oltih, 
1 north - east corner Twenty-first street and Pitlh avu- 
iiiie, numbiiring many actors, arlists nnd other pro- 
fessiouul men among its members. Ulanhattan Club. 
Tiiirty-fourtli street ftud Fifth nvcnne, the principal 
Democratic club in the city. JPcio York Club, TJiirty- 
iiflh street and Fifth [iveinie. JVeio York Pi-ent Glub. 
120 Nassau street. T!ie P^ayert. of which Edwin 
Booth, the tragedian, Is president, IS Gramercy park. 
Union Club, north-west corner Twenty-first street 
and Fiffh avenue, the most widely Known social 
club in the city. Union League Cluh, Till rty - ninth 
street and Fiftii avenue, the mosl influential He- 
publioan dull in Ihe United Stales. Untverdty Clii-i. 
Twenty-sixth street and Madison avenue; member- 
ship restricted to gradaalea of colleges or similar in- 
stitutions or to those who have attended such at least 
three years. 

ATHLETICS AND SPORT. 

AlhleHcs.—-'Tho leading athletic club iu New York 
is the New York Athletic Club, with a fliio club-house 
at Fifty-fifth Bti'eet and Sixth avenue, with all eouve- 
nieuces for athletic and gymnastic exercises and souiiil 
enjoyment. The club also owns Traver's Island, near 
New Roidielle, where it has a club-house, boat-house, 
baseball and tennis grounds and an athletic track. The 
Itfanhattan Athletic Clab has a handtfome and well-ap- 
pointed building, with a roof, summer garden and other 
dttractivo features, at Hadison avenue and Forty-fourth 
street, and owns Berrian's Island iu the East river, off 
Aslori,!. The liacqiiut and Tennis Club, 37 West Forty- 
third street, has racquet courts and complete gymnastic 
and athletic equipment. The Young Men's Christian 
Association has a gymnasium at Fourth avenue and 
Twenty-tiunl sti-eet, and grounds and a boat-house at 
Mott Haven on the Harlem river. The Stalen Island 
Athletic Club, with grounds and boat-hooso at AVest 
Brighton, S. I. ; the New Jersey Athletic Club, atBergen 
Point, N. J., aud the Orange Athletic Club, at East 
Orange, iT. J., are the nioit important suburban athletic 



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clubs. Athletic games are held in the fall and spring. 
The Berkeley Ijodies' Athletic Association has a well-ap- 
pointed building in Porty-fonrth street between. Fifth 
and Sixth ayenues, nest to the Berkeley Lyceum, 

Driving. — The most fashionable driye in New York 
is through Central Park, the maindrive entering at Fifth 
avenue and Fifty-ninth street, leading around the park 
and back again to this entrance. Another beautiful 
drive is that along RiTersideavenno (see Rivereide Park). 
St. Nicholas avenue, a line road, begins at Sixth, avenue 
and One Hundred and Tenth street, at the upper end of 
Central Park, and runs to Fort Washington, joining 
there the Kingsbridge road and its continuation (Broad- 
way) to Tonbers. The Boulevard, another broad 
thoroughfare, begins at Eighth avenue and Fifty-ninth, 
street, and, crossing St, Nicholas avenue, finally joins 
the Kingsbridge road. Central avenue (or Jerome 
avenue), begins at McComlj's Dam (or Central Bridge) 
and continues to Yonkers, crossing Moshola Parkway, 
which will connect Bronx and Van Cortlandt Part, 
This is where the owners of fast trotters speed their 
horses. Gabe Case's, " Judge"Smith's and Florence's 
are well-known road houses on this avenue, which is best 
reftched by Seventh avenne, above Central Park, The 
Sput hem Boulevard starts from the bridge aci'oss the 
Harlem river at Third avenue, gradually swingingwest- 
wai\l, and finally joining Jerome avenue at Jerome 
Park. 

Miding. — There are fine bridle Paths in Central Park 
and a bridle path in Riverside Park. Riding in the 
ring may bo practiced at the foDowing well-equipped 
riding-schools; Dickel's (the oldest in the city), 1S4 
West Fitty-sisth street; Durland's, at the Grand Circle, 
Eighth avenue and Fifty-ninth street, opposite the 
entrance to Central Park; Central Park Riding Acad- 
emy, Fifty-eighth street and Seventh avenue; Antony's, 
Ninetieth street and Fifth avenne; West End, 13S West 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth street; Belmont, One 
Hundred and Twenty-fourth street and St. Nicholas 
avenue; Boulevard, Sixtieth street and the Boulevard. 
An hour's ride in the ring costs about f 1.50, and on the 
road from $3.50 to $3.00. 

Base-bail.—Tha base-ball stason lasts from May to 



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66 

November, The location at which the gnraes take place 
being; subject to ehaiige, the reader is i-efeired to the ad- 
vertisements ill the daily papers and the placards on the 
Ii lailroad stations. One of the best known amtiteur 
clubs in the vicinity of New York is the Stateti Island 
Cricket and Base-ball Club, with irroiinds at Livingstou, 
S. I. 

Orickel. — Cricket has never been able to supplant or 
to seriously encroach upon the prerogatives of base-bull 
as the "national game" ot the United States. There 
are several cricket clubs in New York and vicinity, 
among them tlie St. George, with grounds at Hoboken, 
and the Staten Island, with grounds at Livingston. 

Bicycling. — The roads of Central Park, Prospect Park 
(Brooklyn), and those around Orange, X. J,, on the 
Morris and Essex Branch of the Dalaware, Lackawanna 
and Western Railroad are well adapted to bicycling. 
Bicycles may be purchased at any of ttie sporting goods 
sloi-cs. Tlic principal clubs are; Tlie Kew Yorii, US 
West End avenue, .ind Ixion, 4 Bast Fifty -ninth 

Tennis. — A number of tennis eiuba have headquarters 
in a tennis court building on the south side of Porty-flrst 
street, near Seventh avenue ; and there are tennis courts 
on the grounds of the various athletic clubs, and in Ihe 
buildings ot the larger of these clutis. 

Aquatics. — The most accessible rowing course is on 
the Harlem river. Boats may be hired in the vicinity 
ot the bridge crossing the Harlem at Third avenue, at 
One HuntlredandFifty-Sfthstreet(terminosof the Sixth 
and Ninth avenue L Hiilroads), and at High Bridge. 
The Columbia College Boat Club, Grameroyand Nassau, 
and the Young Men's Christian Association, have boat 
houses on the Harlem; the Now York and Manhattan 
Athletic Cluljs respectively, at Travers' and Berrian's 
Island; the Alcyone, footofConrt street, Brooklyn; the 
Staten Island Athletic Club, at West Brighton, S. I.; 
the Argonauta and New Jersey Athletic Clubs, at Ber- 

ftn Point, N, J, There is also a fine rowing course at 
ewark, on the Passaic river. The usual rate of boat 
hire is fifty cents for the first hour, the rate £or time 
after the first hour being considerably less. 



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Canoeing. — The principal clubs are the Kew York, 
with ft house at Tompkinsville, Stateii Island, and the 
Knickerbocker, at the foot of West One tluudred and 
Fifty-second street. 

Yachting. — The foremost yacht club of New York and 
Ticiniw is tho New York Yacht Club, which boasts a 
fleet of some 2G5 vessels, among them some fifty steam 
yaohts. Its trophies include the famous "America 
Cup." Club-house, 07 Madison avenue. Other clubs 
are the Atlantic, at Bay Ridge; the Seawanhaka, at 
Tompkinsyille, S. I. ; the Harlem, at 510 East One 
Hundred and Twenty-flrst street; the Larchmont, at 
Larchmont, on the Sound; and the American, at Rye, 
Westchester Co, For regattas and steamers going over 
the course, see adTertisemunts in the daily papers. At 
45 Beaver street, yachts may be chartered for a cruise 



n Central Park, Prospect Park (Brooklyn), 
and Van Cortlandt Park (reached by New York and 
Northern Railroad). At Central and Prospect Parks 
commodious structures with restaurants and other con- 
veniences are erected, and skates can be hired for 25 
cents an hour, 

2W/, — The New York Jockey Club has superbly 
appointed tracks and buildings (in the Pompeian villa 
style), at Morris Park, Westchester, New York. The 
Coney Island Jockey Club has its tracks at Sheepshead 
Bay near Coney Island, The Monmouth Park Racing 
Association has beautiful grounds and bulLdings at 
Monmouth Park, neat Long Branch, N. J., its first 
meeting opening July 4th. Other race tracks worthy of 
a visit are at Lmdon and Elizabeth, N. J. The meet- 
ings, the routes to tlie various tracks and railroad and 
admission charges are duly advertised m the dailv news- 
pape- 



._ , , England. The 

hunts are iroR hunts, a fos being sometimes turned 
loose at the end of the drag. 



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MONEY. 

The money ordiuarOj' in use in the Unitod States 
consists of the following coins ; 1 ecrit (copper), 5 
cents (nickel), 10 cents, 25 cents (quarter of a dolliir), 
50 cents (half a doUar), and 100 cents or $1.00, the last 
three being of silver. There are also $3.50, $5.00, 
f 10.00 and $20.00 gold pieces, and $1,00, $2.00, $5.00, 
$10.00 and $30.00 bills, and so on up to |IO,000. An 
English pound sterling is worth $4.86, subject to varia- 
tions in exchange rate. 

BIEECTOEIES AND RAILWAY GUIDES. 

Trow's New York City Directory contains, besides* list 
of names, a great amount of ffliscellaneous information, 
such as theofGcia) register of the City Government, lists 
of churches, clubs, etc. Maokey's ABC Guide and 
Bullinger's Counting House Monitor, both issued weekly, 
give the latest J ocal railroad and steamboat information, 
movement'; of ocean steamers, postage and telegraph 
rates, etc. These publications are found at all hotels aJid 
other semi-public places, and Trow's is also to be con- 
sulted at most drug stores. Railway guides for the 
whole country are; Official Railway Guide, 50 cents; 
Band, McNaAy & Co.'s OfGcial Guide, 25 cents; Knick- 
erbocker Railway Guide, 25 cents; X Y Z Guide, 25 
cents. The Pathfinder covers Sew England only, 35 



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BEDLOE'S, ELLIS AND GOYERNOR'S ISLANDS. 

Statue of Ijiubktv.— Auguste Bartholdi's "Liberty 
Enlightening' llie Worlil," the largest statue of both 
ancient and modem times, stands on Bedioe's Island, 
part of the State of New Jersey, a mile and three-quar- 
ters from the Battj^ry, and about the same distance from 
the other shores of tlie harbor. It is reached by steamer 
from the Battery, hourly every day, from 9 A. M, to 
5 P. M. Fare for the round trip, 25 cents. 

Bedloe's Island derives its name from Isaac Bedloc, a 
Dutch settler, who purchased it of the Colonial Govern- 
ment. During the Revolmiou, Captain Kennedy, com- 
mander of the British naval station in New York, bought 
it for A siunraer residence, and it was called Eenneily 
Island. In 1800 the United States acquired it and 
erected a fort on it. The present double star-shaped 
fortification, Fort Wood, within which the pedestal for 
the statue staniis, and which is a feature of great nrchi- 
tectnral value in the view of the colossal monum.nt, was 
built in 1841. 

The idea of executing a colossal statue, emblematic of 
Liberty, and commemorative of the traditional good-will 
between Franco and the United States, to be presented 
by the former to the latter, seems to have been conceived 
by Bartholdi soon after the establishinent of the French 
Republic in 1873. In order that the work should be 
truly international, it was decided that, while the 
statue should be presented by the people of France, the 
pedestal should be erected by the people of the United 
States. The undertaking was launched at a banquet at 
the Hotel de Louvre, Paris, November 6, 1875. A com- 
mittee was formed in the United States, and the neces- 
sary legislation securing Bedloe's Island as a site for the 
statue was procured from Congress. Richard M. Hunt 



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70 

and Gen. Cliarlea P. Stone (Stone Pacha) acted respect- 
ivftk as ftrchiteot ol tlie peilesUl and engiiieer-iii-onief. 

llie right arm of the statue was exhibited at the Ceii- 
teimial iti PhiladelphiA(187G)aiid aftcrirai'ds in Madison 
Square, New York. The head was esecutod for tlie Paris 
Exposition of I8T8. October 24, 1881, the anniversary 
of the battle of Yoi'ktowii, all t)iQ pieces of the base oiid 
frame-work were put in place; Levi P, Morton, then 
United States minister lo Prance, riveting tlie first piece 
mounted, tlie left foot. Ground for the pedestal was 
broken in April, 1883, and the work was coiitintied until 
December, 1884, when, owing to a lock of fnnds, it was 
suspended. Finally these were snpplied by a popular 
subscription through the New York World, and the 
statue, naving been brought over from France in the 
transport Isire, was unveiled with appropriate ceie- 
moiiies, October S8, 1886. 

The colossal proportions of the statue forbidding its 
beinpf curved in stone or east in metal, the seuiptor de- 
termined upon slieefs of copper {repouss^ laid upon a 
skeleton of stone, wood and ii'on, a method which had 
been einploj-ed on the immense statue of Carlo Borro- 
meo, cardinal and saint, erected two centuries ago on the 
shore of Lago Maggiore. The statue is supported by an 
iron truas-work, the core ot which is fonned by four 
large stanchions, bound together by St. Andrew's 
crosses, from which outgoing braces support the surface 
of the statue. From the foot of the stanchions bolted 
braces run 26 feet into the masonry of the pedestal, 
where they are connected with an iron frame-work. 

The pedestal is an admirable work of arehitecture, 
supportmg without dwarfing the statue, whose noble 

Kroportions thus produce their full effect upon the be- 
older. The solid concrete foundation, ninety feet 
square at the base, sixty-five feet square at the top and 
siaty-five feet ten inches in height, is the lai^st single 
block of artificial stone in the world. The pedestal 
itself is eighty-nine feel high, so that the surface upon 
which the statue stands is one hundred and fifty-four 
feet and ten inches above the liase of the foundation. 
The statue itself rises one hundred and fifty-one feet and 
one inch, so that the whole work is tiiree hundred and 
live fi!et eleven ijiohes in height. The statue weighs 



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n 

430,000 pounds, or 335 tons; the bronze alone 300,000 

Sounds. In money, value of services whicli were given 
'ee, eic, the statue cost about $300,000; the pedestal 

about $300,000. Following are a number of interesting 

measurements: 

Faet. Inches. 

Hel^Iitfrombase to txjreh. p....... -151 1 

Fouiidailonof pedestal to tor«h 805 11 

Heel to top of head. Ill 6 

Lengtli of hand 10 B 

Indesfineer 8 

Circumference atSBCond joint 7 S 

Size of fingei' nail ISilO Inches. 

Head from chin to craniuiQ ,.., 37 8 

Read, tljickneea from ear to ear 19 

Distance across tbe eye 3 S 

length o( nose 4 6 

Bight arm, leng:th 43 

Kleht ann. greatest thickneBS. 12 

Thloknees otw^st S5 

Widthofmonth 3 

Tablet. lengUi 23 7 

Tablet width 18 7 

Tablet, thickness... S 

Other famous statues ot colossal size compare with the 
" Liberty Enlightening the World" as follows; 

Jupiter Oljinpas 43 

Meuinon GS 

Borromeo. at Lake UiwKlore 86 

ArmiolDs, in Westphalia 63 

Colossus, Bbodes lOB 

Nero (about) 118 

Statue of IJberty 151 

The statue may be described ftS a draped female figure, 
crowned with a diadem, a flaring torch in the uplifted 
right hand, and a tablet held close to the body by the 
left. Its artistic value has been seriously questioned, 
but the fact remains that it is, nest to the East River 
Bridge, the most imposing feature in the view of New 
York harbor from the south, and unqualifiedly the most 
imposing in any view of which the bridge is not a part. 
On fair days the steamer plying between the Battery 
and Bedloe's Island is crowded every trip. Admission 
to the pedestal and statue is free, a special permit being, 
however, required (or admission to the right arm and 
torch. These permits are issued by the Major General 
commanding the Department o( the Atlantic on Qover- 



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nor's Island, and bj; the Engineer and Inspector of the 
Thinl Lightjiociso District, Tompbinaville, titaten Island. 
Oue iiiindred and seven ty-lhroe stops lead to tlie balcony 
on the pedestal; one hundred and sixty-four from the 
Imlcony to tlie heml, wMch will comfortably hold forty 

{cople; andfifLy-six from the head up the arm to the 
alconyai'onnd tlie torch, which vill hold twelve people. 
In all, therefore, the steps nuinbcc three hundred tuid 
ninety-three. Uef ore beginning the ascent visitors are 
obliged to chock overcoils, wraps, canes, umbrellas, 
etc., with the guard, wlio also lets out Jan terns for a 
small fee. As the passage up nnd down the spiral stair- 
ways within the statue itself is in places very dark, the 
use of lanterns is advisable. The ascent to tne balcony 
is easy, and one which all visitors should make, as from 
this point a sujicrb view of New York and of the East 
Eiver Bridge is had. Governor's Island, with its green 
mounds and iU fortiflcations mellowed by age; the 
superb sweep of the waters of the harbor around tlie Bat- 
tery into the North andEast rivers, the cluster of tnwei's 
and spires and the noble span of the bridge, a niodcl of 
strength and grace — these are the chief elements in a 
view in which the gi'and and tlie picturesque are won- 
derfully harmonized. The ascent through, the statue 
itself is arduous, and should not be attempted by any 
one who is nervous or not in prime physical condition. 
There are windows in the diadem from which a magnifi- 
cent view is to be had, and that from the torch balcony 
is still grander. 

The statue forms part of tlie light-house system of the 
United States, there being nine duplex electric lights in 



side this there are five single arc lamps on the salients 
of the fort within which the statue stands, so that the 
light will be thrown on the statue, thus making it even 
more striking by night than by day. This beacon is 
not included in the system of lights for New Yoik bar 
bor. As many as 1,500 birds have lulled themselves m a 
single night, flying against the lighted toich 

Ellis Islabd.— The facilities of the Barge Office 
(p. T6), having proved entirely inadepiaf t) 1 po=e 



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quickly of the immigration passing through it, there 
has just heen completed on J511ia Island, which lies be- 
tween Bedloe's Island and the New Jersey shore, a new 
landing depot for immigrants. 

EHia Island, area two-and-a-half acres, was formerly 
the site ol Fort Gibson, dismantled in 1861, when the 
islaiid was occupied as a naval magazine. It at onetime 
belonged to the Ellis estate, and every child born on it 
has been christened Ellis. Nearly ftfty years ago, three 
pirates, among them the noted Gibfe, were executed 
there. The sujierstitious Battery boatmen tell a roman- 
tic story about a yonng girl, who assisted her soldier 
lover to escape from confinement on the Island in a boat, 
hut the boat was capsized and both were drowned, and 
the boatmen are fully convinced that the spirit* of 
these two lovers are seen strolling aloDg the beach of the 
island, arm in arm, on the night of tno anniversary of 
their death. 

Ellis Island is reached by ferry from the Battery. In 
an indentation on the south side is a fine basin 8(K) feet 
long by 200 feet wide. The dirt dredged from this 
basin was used to add to the area of the island. The 
idand is protected on the northeast aide by a erib-work 
breakwater, 356 feet long and 40 feet wide, which runs 
past the opening of the baain so as to keep it clear from 
all obstructions. A short distance back from the basin, 
facing it and the Narrows, is the bnilding for the recep- 
tion and registration of immigrants. The main struc- 
ture is 350 feet long by 200 feet wide, with two wings, 
one story in height, 130 (oet long and 80 feet wide, so 
thattheentirefpontageisiOOfeet. Fourtowers.eachfour 
stories high, rise at each corner, and in the front center 
is a pediment with three story towers on each side. On 
the first iloor are the general, local and railroad bag- 
gage niRces and ofHces for baggage checkers. On the 
east end of the second story are rooms for the offleials. 
The oifiees of the physicians and the receiving hospital 
are in a separate building. Immigrants enter double 
door-ways on either side of the mwn entrance, and pass 
upstairs into three compartments, after which they pass 
through narrow aisles before the registry clerks. North 
of these rooms are two lai^ waiting-rooms. West of 



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tlie registry department, on tlio second floor, are tlie 
tdograph ofHoe^ money exchange, and tlio iiiilroad and 
ticket olllocB, Drinking water is luniisbed from attcEian 
wells. luimiffianta, having been registered, and having 
purchased railroad tickets or met their friends, jirocoed 
ijownstaira to the baggage-room and pick out their bag- 
gage. As iminigrante from all parts of the world come 
to New York, it is necessary tnat the registry clerks 
speak from six to eight laugunges. There ni'e, besides 
the ofiicial attendants, a number of missionaries who 
distribute Bibles, and are also ready to give advice to 
immigrants. The rliysieiniis in churgeof the dispensary 
give treatment on uie spot, or in serious cases transfer 
the patient to some hospital. About flvehuiidred people 
a month Are treated, immigrants being entitled to free 
treatment for a year after the date of arrival. 

The iiniiibcr of imtnigrunts ol all nationalities — and it 
is most interesting to watch the strange faces and 
costumes of those who pour into the country out of this 
office— in 1890 was 856,310. In 1888 the number was 
388.3D5, find in 1883, 455,000. 

Governor's Island.— On Governor's Island, 65 acres in 
area, and a mile anda quarter in circumference, situated 
about 1,000 yards ofl the Battery, and separated from 
the Brooklyn shore by what is known as Buttermilk 
channel, formerly so shallow that there was at low tide 
land eoniiection between Governor's and Long Islands, 
are the headquarters of the Military Department of the 
Atlantic. It is reached by government steamboat from 
foot of Whitehall street. 

The Island is well shaded and swarded, having been 
In the earlier days of the Dutch settlement one of the 
richest pastures in the province. Its most striking fea- 
ture fmin the water is Castle Williamson the northwest 
point, a stone work completed in 1811, with three tiers 
of casemates from which cannon protrude. On the sea- 
wall in front of it is the sunset gun, which is discharged 
at sunset as a signal to vessels to display their lights. 
Ou the Dorthern shore of the Island is the Kew York 
arsenal of the United States Ordnance Department, the 
ground being covered by pyramids of cannon-balls and 
by Jarge guns. A little beyond this is a building in 
which the "United States Military Service Institution 



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75 

maintains a militarv mnseiim, ainorg the objocts ol in- 
terest being the well-mounted stuffed skill of Rietizi, the 
charger who bore General Sheridan on his famous dash 
of twenty miles from Winchester to Five Forks, where 
Ilia timely arrival turned a rout into a victory (or the 
Union arms. Fort Columbus, a stone work containing 
several commodious building naed chiefly as adminis- 
trative offices, is sitaated at about the center of the Isl- 
and. The parade ground is a beautiful stretch ofsmootli 
lawn. The South Battery is a small triangular work on 
the southern point. Although, every provision is made 
lot adding to the strength of the fortincations by throw- 
ing up earthworks, Governor's Island is not a very 
formidable means of defense, but it is preserved as a 
military post largely because of the ease from which 
troops could be landed from there should it be necessary 
to suppress & riot in New York. The cattle from the 
first two ships dispatched by the West India, Company 
in 1635 for Manhattan Island were landed on Governor's 
Island; but want of water necessitated their speedy 
transfer to Manhattan. In 1637 Governor Van Twillet 
bought the Island, then called Nutten, and since his 
purchase it has been known by its present name. 



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CHAPTER II. 



BATTERY TO WALL STREET. 

The Battery. — The Battery, the southernmost point of 
the Island of Manhattan, isuponmadogi'onnd, the island 
Laving extended originally only to about Pearl street. In 
1693, there being rumors of a French expedition against 
Mew York, the "The Wliitehall Battery" was erected 
on a heavy platform laid upon Schreyer'a Hook, a ledgo 
estfinding from the southern end of the island, and end- 
ing in "The Capske,"a number of jutting roeks. Ac- 
cording to a description of the city in 1756, this battery 
wasbuilt of stone, and the morions of cedar joists filled 
in with earth, and mounted ninety-two cannon. Prom 
this point tlie British evacuated Now York, November 
35, 1783. 

The water-front was originally at what is now Pearl 
street, and Water, Front ami South sti-eets were subse- 
Quontly formed by filling in. Similarly much of the 
Battery was made. It is now larecly occupied as a, pub- 
lic park with tliirty-one acres riomy laid out, well shaded 
and open to all the sea breezes. It was in colonial days 
the most fashionable part of the city, lined with resi- 
dences of wealthy citizens. These were long since con- 
verted into office buildings, mission houses or ware- 
houses. Here are the South, Hamilton, Thirty-ninth 
Street (Brooklyn), Bay Riilge and StJtten Island Ferries 
am] the boats for Ellis, Liljcrty and Governor's Island, 
All the elevated roads have tlieir sonthem terminus at 
this point. 

Barge O^e. — The first building of any note on the 
water front west of the ferries, is the Barge Oflice. Hero 
are a branch office of the Surveyor of the Port and the 
headquarters of the Customs Inspectors, and here during 
the iaterval between the abandonment of Castle Garden 



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n 

and the occupancy of Ellis Island, was the depot for the 
landiuK of immigrants, 

U. S, Marine Hospital. — Adjoiniog the Barge Otllce 
on the east side is the United States Mfti-inij Hospital. 
Here there is a dispensary, the hospital being at Staple- 
ton, Staten Island. Sailors of the American merchant 
marine are entitled to free treatment at this dispensary 
and hospital. Here men for the revenue marine aiidfor 
the life-saving service are esamined, and pilots undergo 
a special examination for color-blindness. The office 
registersahout sis hun^l red visits a month. 

Next to the Barge Office on the west side is the land- 
ing for the boat to Bedloe's Island (p. 6!)). Adjoining this 
is an L-shaped basin where the Battery boatmen keep 
row-boats, holding from twelve to fourteen persons, the 
charge being |1.00 an hour. Between here and Castle 
Garden is a fine sea-wall, from which one has a snperb 
viewover the water, andean watch the lively panorama 
of ferry-boats, tow-boats, steamers, tugs and sailing- 

Castle Garden. — Castle Garden, which stands upon 
this sea-wall, was UTitil the spring of 1800 the lafiding 
place for immigrants, the control of immigrants being 
then taken from the State authorities by the United 
States Government, It was erected duruig the war of 
1813 as a fortification, and was reached by a bridge, but 
afterwards the space between it and the shore was filled 
ill. Being comparatively useless as a fort, it was con- 
verted into a summer garden. Here, August 18, 1834. 
Lafayette landed upon a carpeted stairway under an 
arch decorated with flags and wreathed with laurels. In 
the evening aa immense balloon, representing a knight 
mounteduponthefamousracerEclipse, was sent np from 
the Garden. In 1833 President Jackson, and in 1843 
President Ty'^r held receptions here, and September 7, 
1850, Jenny Lind made her American debut under the 
management ot P. T. Bamum. It was opened as a 
landing depot for immigrants in August, 1855. The first 
immigrants who passed through it came on the German 
bark Ewopa, and walked ashore from the vessel's gang- 
plank. It will soon be converted into iin aquarium. 

Pier A. —Beyond Castle Garden is Pier A. where the 
police hoat Patrol lias its landing. At the pier are the 



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TJie Fairol is the station of tlie Twenty-fourtli Precinct, 
which is thus always afloat. Besides the steamboat this 
Irt'cciiict has seven row-boats, four of which are con- 
tinually on patrol along the wharves, looking out for 
smufffilers, river thieres, and for lost articles anJ 
suicides, or cases of accidental drowning, Tiio jurisdic- 
tion of the precinct extends as f jir south as Eobitis Kcef, 
and up the Hudson and East river to the ends of the 
city bouudariea. On the Patrol are fine Are pumps, 
which have often been brought into successful requiaitiou 
quelling conflagrations along sliore. The precmct has 
also done capital servieo m suppressing mutinies on 
Tessels anchored in the harbor, and in restoring order 
upon escursion boats, where free flglits have been in 
progress. The Tweaty-eighth Precinct does impor- 
tant duty in patroling the docks and bulk-heads on the 
west side up to Ponrceenth sti'eet, and on the east side 
to Pier 25 at Gouverneur's Slip. 

Adjoining Pier A is the Iron Steamboat Companj's 
Pier, and next to this, on West street, is Pier 1, occupied 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company as a freight 
depot. This corner gives the stranger an excellent idea 
of the enormous amount o£ business transacted along 
the water iront. Bales, cases, and barrels are heaped up 
on tliis pier, and dozens of carts and drays are engaged 
in loadjiig and unloading fieight. Alt is seemingly 
bustle and confusion, and yet everything is conducted 
according to a system. 

Theelevatedrailroadmnsinan undulating line throngh 
the Battery into Greenwich street. Near tlie sea-wall 
between the Barge Office and Castle Garden is a band 
stand where concerts are given in summer, and on such 
occasions there is an immense outpouring of humanity 
from the lower wardsoE thceity. The Battery is bounded 
on tho north by State street, which sweeps around to 
West street. To the east of South Ferry, South streot 
begins and Wliiteliall street leads directly up from tlie 
ferry to Bowling Green. 

BiTTERT TO BowwNO Gbebk. — Between tlie ferry and 
Bowling Green are sovcml of the oldest city streets, but 



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before begmning a, tour ia this direction, it may be well 
for tlio visitor to take a glance down South street, where 
a perfect forest of masts will give him an excellent idea 
of the vast amount of shipping carried on from this port. 
At tlie.foot of Moore street, and also at Coenties Slip, 
both of tbcm but a short distance from South Perry, in- 
numerable canal-boats and barges are moored, for it is 
here that most of the large tows are made up or dis- 
persed. 

Moore street is particularly interesting beeaaso the 
first wharf ot the city was built on its line. This wbarl 
is mentioned as early as 1G4^, and extended from the 
present Peari street, whose north side then touched the 
river, only Jar enough out to make possible the landing 
of gciods by scows and small boats. In 1859 it was ex- 
tended fifty feet, and near it on Pearl street, between 
Whitehall and Broad streets, some ol the Dutch mer- 
chants bad their principal warehouses. Whitehall street 
derived its name from a large dwelling supposed to have 
been erected by Pctrus Stuyvesant (p. 19) at the corner 
of Whitehall and State streets. Water street is interest- 
ing because it marks the first attempt of the city to win 
territory Irora the harbor. The city sold water lots between 
the present Whitehall street and Old Slip, on condition 
that the purchasers should fill in the street and protect 
it by a line ot bulkheadsin front of their lots. Front and 
South streets were subsequently added. Bridge street 
derived its name because on its bne a bridge crossed the 
ditch which anciently ran through the middle ot Broad 
street. Stone street was so named because it was the 
first street to be paved with stone under an ordinance of 
16B7. On Whitehall street is the United States Army 
buildinff, which oecnpiea the east side of the block be- 
tween Water and Pearl streets. It has a fortress-like 
bnse of granite extending two stories in height, the rest 
of it being in brick. Its entrance resembles a sallyport, 
and over it the seal ot the War Department is hewn in 
granite. This building is a branch of the War Depart- 
ment, and is under Its orders only. It is a depot for 
quartermaster's supplies and tlie like. 



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Pbauncbs' Taterh.— a short detour from 'Whitahall 
street through Pearl street to Brood loads to one ot the 
most famous liistoric sites and buildings in the city, the 
old Praunces' Tavern, which is atill o public-house. 

It was originally biiilt by Etienne Delancey, a Hugue- 
not, who arrived m New Yorlj in 168G. Ho was a mer- 
chant ot considerable wealth, to which he added greatly 
by his commercial successes here. When, in 1700, he 
ninrried into the Van Courtlandt family, his father-in- 
law conveyed tlits property to him. Wlien Delancey, in 
1763, built a, new residence at what is now the Boreel 
Building, 115 Broadway, Samuel Fraunces opened the 
Pearl street house, under the sign " Queen Charlotte," 
OS a tavern. It owes its historical fame to the fact that 
in its ^at room, which is still preserved, in the second 
story, Washington delivered his farewell address tohia 
officers in 1783, Here, also, in 1768, tlie New York 
Chamber of Commerce began to hold its meetings. The 
'■" ■ V somewhat gaudily papered. On the 

cheap print ( _ _ 

offieors, and a pair of boms which, when alterations wi 
being made in the building, were dug out from near tne 
foundations. On the west wall are copies of minutes of 
the Obamber of Commerce, showing that it was insti- 
tuted here April 5, 1768, the tavern then being kept 
by Bolton & Siegel, and copies oC another minute dated 
^eaday, the 6Ui December, 1788, which reads; 

■■ Resolved, a, proper room tor the meetinit of the membors of 
the Chamber of Commerco ia to be provided ftnd tbe Treaaurec 
Is (o have, Bread, and Cheese, Beer, Punch. Pipes and Tobaco, 
provtded at the eipence of the memberB preseDt, ao thatitdolh 
not Biceed ona Bhillinj; eaoh man, whioh each person Is to poy 
to the Treasurer at their reapeollve meetlne." 

On the same wall hangs a fac-simile of a hand-bill, 
which Praunces issued September 10, 1770, when he 
again became proprietor of [he tavern, TJiis hand-bill 

" Oa Thursday tlie SOtii instant, vrill be opened the Qiteen's- 
Head Tarein near the Eiuhnnee, for many years kept by the 
subscriber, (iate hy Bolton & Siejcei). is now fittlne up in the 
mnat. mntoel and convenient manner for the Beoeptlon and Er- 
>, of those Bentlemen, Ladiea and o*' ' 



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tbe ^reateat entertalnineiits io tbts city w«ca at the above ta 
em, in thattma of the BobBoriber, 1ib flatters Mmself the pvi 
lie aregoweUsaWBfled of bJB ability to serve them bb tovnnii 
Uie sweilinit o[ an adTertlEement useless other titan t< 



his focmer triends, and the puWie In Kencral, that every ei 

' illbenBeato irtva liiein tlie highest satistaEtion, ar 

3t respect on ail oocaEloiie shown by their already muc 



deaTorwillbenBeato irtva liiein the highest si 

thantmostreBpact' ' "" '--■-- 

obltBed and very 



Obedient aerrant, 

N. B.— Dinners and suppers dressed to send out for lodgers and 
oihers 'who live at a convenient distance. Also cakes, tarts, 
jellies, whip-slllybabs, blaumsge, sweetmeats, eto.. in any quan- 
tity, cold meat in small gnanticies. beafatealia, etc., at any hour, 
piokled oysters for the west IniUes or elsewhere." 

In this famous room where the beaux and belles of old 
New York feasted, during the intervals between danc- 
ing, on tarts and sillybuba, the guest can now sit down 
to a meal of Frankfurter sausages and sauerkraut. 

Produce Eschahob. — On the east side of Whitehall 
street the block between Stone and Beaver streets is oc- 
cupied by the superb fire-proof granite, brick, terra cotta 
and iron building of tho New York Produce Exchange, 
flniahod May 1, 1884 The building is 300il50 feet, 
and opens on the northeast side upon a broad terrace. 
Prom the street to the roof of the main structure the 
height is 116 feet, to the coping of the tower 325 feet, 
and to the top ot flag-staft SCO feet. Tho tower clock 
measures 12 feet in diameter, each number on its face 
ia a foot in length, and the flag 50 feet by 30 feet is said 
to be the largest ever made. The ground floor is occu- 
pied by the Produce Eiehango Bank, a branch of the 
United States Post-office, the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, tho chief New York branch of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company and the Maritime Exchange. 
On the second floor is the enormous hall of the ex- 
change, 320 feet by 144 feet, and GO feet high to the sky- 
, light. It ia said that 7,000 men oonld transact business 
comfortably on this floor. The long tables prorided with 
drawers and compartments contain samples of various 



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ai'ticles dealt in oa the exohange, anil are leased to men 
bers. Wlicat is dealt in around a circular seriesof steps 
sunk into the jloor of the exchange and called the pit. 
Scattered over this room are telegraph and telephone 
booths, fables for reporters and boards on which the 
prices arc listed, Bacli of the pit is what is known as 
the eall-room, in wliich 500 seats arranged like those of 
ail amphitheatre ascend from the floor. Ilero gi'ain and 
and provisions are dealt in. On the third floor there is 
a visitors' gallery, from whicli the Imstling life of the 
eschange may be watched. Of course, the business is 
transacted in a much qnietor manner than tliat of the 
Stock Esthange (p. OS). There is a steady hum, and 
nt times perhaps a roar, but there is a certain continuity 
of sound here, Tery different from the screeches and 
yells so oharaoteristie of the Stock Exchange. On the 
third floor are rooms for various officers and commit- 
tees, and in the reception-room is a large picture of the 
laying of the corner stone in which numei-ouB portraits 
are introduced. Above this are four stones of ofBceo 
In the basement are vaults for deposit and storage and 
Turkish and Bussian baths. 

A feature of the Produce Eschange that is appreciated 
by about 800 visitors daily, is the tower luilt lu the 
style of a campanile and reached by one of tl o oleintors 
on the Stonestreetside which ascends 14 stones a flight 
of stairs leading one story highfC to the i-oof. Prom 
here is had a superb view of the eity and its environs. 
Everything lies spreail out to beholders like a map. To 
the south IS Battery Park, the Uai'ge OfUce and the un- 
dulaliuff line of the elevated road as it curves around to- 
wards Greenwich street. Governor's Island, Bedloe's 
Island lie like restful spots of green in the shimmering 
expjinse of harbor. Beyond are the Narrows. The view 
to the cast embraces Brooklyn Heights, the East River 
Bridge and the East river as far as the bend which ii, 
makes towards the east. Nearer by is thii Cotton Ex- 



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ohangp, a yellow brick building ou Hanover sqnave. 
Stmiglit north is ei view of Broad street and Wall slreet, 
and above the roots on Broadway is Trinity spire. The 
Hudson river can bu iollowed north to the beginning 
ol tte Palisades. To the west are the Orange Mountains, 
and neai'ei by Castle Garden aad the Washington Build- 
ing at No. 1 Broadway. 

The Produce Exdiange represents a total expenditni-e 
of abont $3,300,000. The following statistics m regard 
lo the material employed will be of interest as showing 
the grand scale on which bnildings in New Toric are 
erected: It ennsnnied 13,000,000 brick, IB miles of iron 
girdpr. If miles of eohimns, 3,061 tons of terra eotta, 
7i miles of sash eocils and chains, and S1> miles of 
steam pipes. The elevators carry about 33,000 people 

Tha first meeting of an Eschange in Kew York was 
ou a bridge which, at Exchange P&ce, crossed the ditch 
once rnnuing through Broad street. This was March 
34, 1670. The first Exchange building was erected in 
1900, at the foot of Broad street. In 1754 the Royal 
Exchange was built upon arches over n canal at the foot 
ol Broad street. From this the Exchange went to the 
Merchants' Exchange, now the United States Custom 
House in Wall ati-eet. The New York Produce Es- 
change assumed its name and succeeded to the rights of 
various bodies in 1868. It was then located at the cor- 
ner of ■Whitehall and Pearl streets, the building having 
been erected in 1860. The present site was {lurchased 
in 1880. The membership of the Exchange is limited 
to 3,000. It is controlled by a President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Treasurer and twelve Managers, who together con- 
atitutfl tlie Board ot Managers. Besides arbitration 
committees for each trade appointed by the President, 
there is a general final arbitration committee of five 
members not managers, elected by ballot of the Board. 
Attendance of witnesses is compulsoryi and no appeal is 
admissible unless fraud or corruption is alleged. A 
complaint committee takes cognizance of accusations 
against members, and seeks to restore harmony or to in- 
duce arbitration; if the committee fails in these points, 
the dispute is referred to the Board of Managers, whose 
ootion is final. The rooms of the Eschange are open for 



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bustaeFS friim 9 A. M, to 4 P. M., excepting Satui'days, 
when tlie Kschaiige takes a half-holida]'. The Exchan^ 
isbcliered to do the largest business of any similur insti- 
tution lu the world. 

A fen statistics will give an idea of the amount of 
business transacted on the Eschaiifre: In 1889 2,947,005 
barrels of flour were doiilC in; 1,123,148.600 bushels of 
wheat; 333,135,800 bushels of corn; 90,108,000 bnshels 
oloats; 833,030bushelsolrye; l.aiT.WObushelsot bar- 
lev: 73.030 barrels o( pork; 1,039,853 tierces of lard, 
arid 21,569,000 pounds of tallow. 

The Maritime Exchange, to the left of the Beaver 
street entrance, is open from 8 A. M. to 5 P. M. Its 
large membership is composed chiefly of persons inter- 
ested directly or indirectly in maritime commerce. It 
reports maritime and commorcial news, and more espec- 
ially furnishes a record of the movements of vessels in 
adTance of the daily papers. It has an excellent mari- 
time library, and tne Hydrographic Office of the Navy 
Department, which publishes the valuable Monthly Pilot 
Chart, has its quarters in the Exchange. For a fee of 
$1 the Kschange wiH send to an^ point in the city no- 
tice of the arrival ot a vessel in time for the person no- 
tified to reach the wharf before the vessel 

BowLiSG GitEES.— The site now inclosed by Bowling 
Green, Whitehall, Bridge and State streets is perhaps 
the most interesting historical portion of the eity. This 
was the ori^nal Sowar end of Manhattan Island, and 
within its limits, early in the spring of 1615, a small log 
fort was erected. In 1636 this small fort was replaced 
by a red cedar palisade surcou 1 ng a storehouse, the 
whole being erected by an eng neer brought over for 
that special pnrpose by M nuit It eo ild not have been 
a very formidable fort Teat o for there is a tradition 
that a goat which once ass n ed CI e offensive was able 
to fight its way through the pal oados Near by it the 
erection of the first churcl o Ma hattaii Island (Re- 
formed Dutch) was begun in 1638 (p. 134). 

The fori. w»- rlomolished in 1787, and a Goveniracnt 



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house ^as built, it being then apposed that the TJniteil 
States Governineiit would be permanently located in 
New YorL It wns a stately red brick structure, with 
Ionic columns. After the seat of government was re- 
moveij to Philadelphia it served as a residenee for the 
State Governors, among theni George Clinton and Jay, 
but becaioe, soon after tne beginning of the preseut cen- 
tury, the United States custom-lionsB. It was taken 
down in 1815, and the present block ot houses now occu- 
pied by steamship offices and foreign consulates was put 
up for purposes of residence. 

Bowling Green is the old drill-ground in front of the 
sallyport of the ancient fort. Two roads ran from it, one 
along the present line of Broadway as far as City Hall 
Park, the other to the Long Island Ferry at what is now 
I'eckSlip. Ill 1659,and for thirty years thereafter,Bowling 
Green was the scene of an annual cattle fair which drew 
great crowds to town, many inducements being held out 
to visitors, among them exemption from liability to 
arrest for debt. In 1732, the space in front of the fort 
was leased to several residents on Broadway, and was 
converted into a bowling green. In the fall of 1770, 
about the time the angry feelings which finally led tti the 
Revolution had been temporarily subdued by concessions 
on the part of Great Britain, a ieaden equestrian statue ot 
George III arrived and was erected on Bowling Green, 
the space being inclosed by an iron railing built by 
tlie city at a cost of £800. The statue stood there until 
tlio evening of July 9, 1770, when the Declaration of In- 
dependence having been read from the City Hal! in Wall 
street, it was demolished by the excited soldiera and 
populace. Tlie pieces into which it was hewn were 
sent to Oliver Wolcott. at Litchfield, Connecticut,, 
whose wife and daughters manufactured 42,000 bullets 
from the lead. The crowns which ornamented the 
railing were hacked off at the same lime. This railing 
is one of the city's most Interesting Revolutionary relics. 

Broadway runs out of Bowling Green on the line of 
the old road which extended straight up to City Hall 
Park. 



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86 

fare, is not only a hatiilsomc and important offico-build- 
ing, but it also stiimls nponaslte of considerable liistnric 
iiilerest. Here stood (be KeiiTiodj mansion, built in 1745 
by Archibald Kotinedy , tlie eleventh earl of Cassilis. It 
would be eonsiderEt! a fine dwcliiug eren to^lay. It was 
entered tlirough a hftndsomclycsr*-ed doorway, ILe balls 
were wide, the staircases brond and tlie rooms stxicious. 
Tbe parlor measured about fifty feet in lengtli, and opened 
tliroufth an arcliuponftporeh which coulil accommodate 
a cotillon. No. S BtoadvFay was the Watts mansion, and 
the two houses wore connected by a bridge, so that when 
large entertainments were given thoy could be tiirown 
into one. The (gardens extended to the Norlh Riverand 
wers overlooked by broad piazziis. General Putnam 
had bis headquarters at this house, and here, July 30. 
I77G, Wiishington received Colonel Patterson, Lonl 
Howe's Adjutant-General, who came charged with what 
tlie British considered conciliatory overtures. Lord 
Howe had sought previously to commnuicate with 
Wasliington, in a letter addressed "George Washington, 
Esq," This the American Commander-in-chief bnil de- 
clined to receive. At the meeting at the Kennedy house 
Colonel Patterson produced ft letter addressed "George 
Wasltington, Bsq., etc., etc., etc.," explaining that the 
tlirea etceteras were iuteiided to cover Washington's 
oGlcial title. Washington declined to receive any com- 
inunication not addressed to him by hisf ull official title, 
saying that the etceteras iniglit mean anything. Colonel 
Patterson then communicated veriMtlly the substance of 
the letter, namely, that, Lord and General Howe were 
empowered to pardon the rebellious colonists. The 
Americflu Commander-in-chief replied that the colonists 
bad committed no wrong which required pai'don, Tbe 
interview was without result other than to induce the 
Howes to address Washington by his official title in 
f utui'e. WasbicgtoD entertniucd Colonel Patterson at a 
collation at whiou he met the American General's offi- 
cer. In taking leave he asked Washington, "Hasyour 
Excellency no command to my Lord or General Howe?" 
"None, sir," was the reply, "but my particular compli- 
ments to both of them." 

In 1T80, after Benedict Arnold's treason had been dis- 
covered and lie bod escaped into the liiiiglisli lines, he 



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had quarters at the Kennedy hou Abo t 33 ars 
ago this wascoiiTertedintotheWa.h ngt 11 t 1 h h. 
ia Lurri gave way Ui the present b Id 

To stand at the head ot Bowling & 1 lock p 

Broadway, gives one a eontiiiuo f m t n 

the crowds pour like a steady atro rap d d w th 
street. Horse ears and other vehi 1 f 11 1 so pt n 
are also in line, moving up or do t w B ud 
is gradually being transformed int 1 betw h 
ofBoo buildings. The einaller stru g g w y 

and their giant successors are rear th h d 1 I 
From the liead of Bowling Green tl t p us 

is the fine granite building which tl 1 ii L 

from Broadway to Beaver street, d k wn as tl 
Wells building, 18 Broadway. Adj g i 1 

Standard Oil Baildiiij, a granlie p 1 a ma> tl 

wealth which built it. Rnnning frotn 4t to 45 Broadway 
is Aldrich Court. This and the site occupied by No. 39 
Broadwiiy. a sniall brown -atone ofBce building, com- 
prise the ground whore the lirst habitntion of white men 
on Manhattan Island was located. An early American 
explorer. Captain Adrian Block, whose vessel, the Tiger, 
had been destroyed by fire, erected four houses or huts 
herefor himself and his men in November, 1613. This 
same Captain Block (after Vhom Block Island is named} 
built a new vessel called the Unrest, of 38 feet keel, 
441^ feet on deck, and U}4 feet beam, which, except the 
eanoes of the aborigines, was the first vessel launched 
in the waters of New York. Aldrieh Conrt is an 
eHeotive piece of architecture of brick upon a granite 
base. The Tower building at 50 Broadway, with its 11 
stories, is a remarkable example of a clever utilization of 
a narrow plot of ground. 

At the north-east comer of Broadway and Exchange 
place is the handsome building of the CortBolidaied 



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Sioe& and Petroleum, SxcTumge, a rival o( the Stock 
Exchange. In 1837, wiiiio ihe Now York Stock Es- 
ehaiige Leli] ibs meetings in a, room of the Merchants' 
Exchange, now llie Custom House, an open board of 
brokers in. opposition to it Wiis orgiiiiized in tlie Rotim Ja. 
Unable to force itself into the regular Stock Eiehunge 
room, its inenibore out away portions of tiio beams and 
ilug out bt'icks at points in the flooring and walls of the 
board rooni, and obtained quotations hj listening ut 
the lioles so made. This open board, however, proTod a 
failare, A second one was organized in 1863 in a 
William street basement, snrcasliciilly called "The 
Coai-hole." It gained members enough and did sufficient 
business ta force the regular Exchange into n consolida- 
tion. The Stock Exchange lias, however, never had so 
great a rival as the Consolidated Stock and Pcti'olenni 
ExcliouKP, which originated in 1876 as the New York 
Mining Stock Exchange, and has by oonsolidation wilh 
various other Esolianges acquired its jiresent name and 
iiiiluence. It moved luto its handsome new building in 
April, 1888. This fronts 91 feet on Broadway, 13a on 
Exchange place, and 87 on New street. The board-room 
contains nearly 10,000 square foot of space, ana the ven- 
tilating and lighting appliances are of the best. 

At 80 Broadway is the huge yet eracefnl granite 
structure of the Union Ti'ust Co., biult by George B. 
Post. Itisoneof the handsomestbuildings iuthc city, 
and a fine example of llotuitncsqvie, now being widtly 
introduced. It fronts 73 feet on Broadway ami is 100 
feet high. 

TKifliTY CnuBCH. — On tl c wc>t s le of B o Iwxy, at 
the liead of Wall street s tl e most f mous church 
edifice in the United State T fyClu 1 wl b with 
its ancient graveyard, f ms a wonderfully rostf I spot 
lit the junction of the t o greatest b s uess rtenes of 
New York, and, indeed of tie Now World No g cater 
coiitrast can possibly be mag ned than the se of 
peace which overcome one hen e ter t ^ 'inity 
Church after leaving the tnrmo I of B oadwaj au I Wall 



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]i^t^: 



TKINITY CllUliClI. 



:.ChX>^Ic 



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Sidory. — Trini^ parish is of great historic interest, 
beioff tho parent of tlie Epiacopal ChuMh, not only in 
New Yoi'k, but of the United States. 'I'he first home of 
the Church of England in America was in a little ehapel 
near the Batterr, which had been vacated for larger 
quarters by the Dutch church. In 1697, under William 
and Mary, a grant was made under the title of the I'ar- 
ish of Trinity Church of a parcel of land deeoribed as 
" Jii or near to a street without the north gate of the 
city, commonly called Broadway," A furtlier grant was 
made in 1705 of Queen Anne's farm, which lay along 
the North river, between what ate now Vesey and 
Christopher streets. The present Trinity Churelt is the 
third building of Ihat name on the same site. Tiie first 
structure was 148 feet long and 73 feet brond, -willi 
a. steeple 175 feet high, and history says that it was or- 
namented t>eyond any other place of worship in the city. 
The first and second rectors were Mr, Vesey and the 
Rev. Henry Barclay, after whom respectively Vesey and 
Barclay streets are named. During llr, Baroiay's min- 
istry Ihe church became too small to accommodate the 
cong regal ion, and St. George's Chapel, which is now a 
distinct parish, was erected (p.l67). By 1783 a third 
church was needed, and St, PaiiVs was ei-ected, 

Wiien the Revolution broke out Trinity was strongly 
loyal. Dr. Auchmuty. the rector, having retired from 
the cit>^, Mr. Ingli?, who oiBciated in his stead, persisted 
in praying for the king, and this even in the mce of a 
band of 150 armed men, who, one Sunday morning, 
marclied into the ehureh with loaded muskets, bayonets 
fised, and drnms and fifes playing. The congregation 
was affrighted, but Mr. Inglis, notwithstanding the fact 
that lie invoked the blessings of God upon " our most 

fracious sovereign. King George," was not molested, 
t was thought wise, however, to ciosc the churcb, and it 
remained so until the British army entered New York. 
A few days afterwards it burned down, with the rectory 
and the parish school. It was rebuilt in 1778, but the 
structure then erected being in 1839 adjudged unsafe, 
the ereotion of the present building was determined 
upon. This was completed in 1846. 

Trinity Parish is commonly supMsed to be an enor- 
mously wealthy institution, applications for charity fall- 



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ing upon, it aa if it had unlimited pocket-money. As a 
niiil.ler of fiiet, liowever, id uiumot bo siiiil to liavo more 
tliaii enough for its own support and the BUiijiort of 
otiiBr cliurehes and charities, luiuir in number, deiiend- 
cut upon it. Tlicse about aijsorb its annual income, 
wliicli reaches Eomethiiig lilie liaK a Ditllion dollars. 
Uud the parish been ahle to foresee the wonderful rise 
ia value of New York real estate and lield on to all the 
land grautcd it, the wealth now at its disposal would be 
fabulous, bnt until it was confronted with the actual 
nocBSsityof retrenching it was almost recklessly gener- 
ous. Struggling sister ohurclies and chanties, cduea- 
tioital institutions, and even perrioii': without the slightest 
claim to its bounty, recelTedTfroiu tt donations of loud 
ami money for tho asking. 

The parish now oontams seven churches. These are 
the historic St. Paul's (p. 125), St, John'-, in Varick 
street; St. Augustine's, on ErsI Hou^lon strc.it nciirtjie 
Bowery (p. 151); Trinity Chapel, Twoitj fiflh ali'eet 
near lirondway; St. Chryso^tom'a, Serentii avenuo and 
Twenty-ninth street; St. Agnes' (just completed). Ninth 
avenue and Niuety-first street; and St. Cornelius's, on 
Governor's Island, I'ews are free, witli the esceptionot 
those in Trinity Chapel, and otiiers in the older churches 
held by inheritance. 

For many years Trinity Church at the head of Wall 
street lias been an object of vcLienition to the citizens of 
New York. A writer (W. H, Uideitig, in tho Oeniuru 
magazine) has well expressed these feelings in the fol- 
lowing words; "There are few persons, believers or 
infidds. who do not possess an affectionate int^erest in 
' Old Trinity.' Its history is, in a measure, tiie histoiy 
of the city. For orer two hundred jears its worshippeis 
have included the most honored citizens, many of whom 
have gone from their seats in tlie naves to graves in tlie 
burial ground outside. It has survived many changes, 
'many vicissitudes, uud in meditative I'etrospect wo seo 
many pictures in the vista of its post. The first buijd- 
ing was outside tlie upper gate of the city, and now the 
sira is near the lower extremity. Under the King and 
under tho Republic, it has existed fur one purpose, and 
that is expressed when, above the noise of the traffic 
that plies around it, the chimes in its high steeple ring 



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91 

out their melodious proclamations. In this vioinity 
Bi-oadway is crowded to esces'< From early morning 
until tate at night busy or ca w n bu ssmen hasten 

£ast the church or pause to tall ts 1 adow ; and the 
Qe gothic pile of brown sa d t e am. morating the 
generations associated will t n 1 ardlj lail to awaken 
a thought of more enduri tl ng>i th ti e commerce 
wliich impels these ea„ m hant biiDkei's and 
brokers." 

Hxtei-ior and Interior. — Tnn ty CI u h building is 
considered one of the finest pec t Gothic archi- 

tecture in the city, and i sp te ot the na ly enormous 
structures devoted to secula purpo>"es wh h have «prung 
up in its ncighhorhood, it still remains the most inter- 
esting and most conspicuous building in the lower part 
of the city. It is open daily, and visitors are constantly 
entering and going out ol the gate. Many of these 
visitors are strangers in the city, attracted simply by 
curiosity, but others leave their places of business or 
interrupt their walk lor Uio purpose of spending a few 
moments in devotion in this venerable structure. Per- 
haps the contrast between the world outside and this 
sanctuary is all the greater for the fact that the turmoil 
ot Broadway and Wall street is not entirely shut out, 
but is heard like the constant roar of a distant cataract. 
The groined roof is supported by rows of carved Gothic 
columns; daylight is warmed and toned by the richly 
stained windows by which it enters the interior, and the 
beautiful altar and reredos cfiectively end off the vista. 
The altar and reredos, memorials of the late William 
B. Astor, were erected by his sons. The altar is of pure 
white marble with shafts of red upon which are capitals 
carved in foliated designs. These shafts divide the 
front and sides into panels. The design of the central 
panel includes passion fiowei^, a Maltese cross in mosaic 
set with cameos, a Christ head, and symbols of the 
Evangelists. It is flanked by two kneeling angels. 



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Ears of wheat, also in inoanic, form tlie carviogs of the 
otlier panels. T]ie cornice is designed in grape vines 
inlaid with five ei-osses of red marble, and Biipjwrts a, 
white marble slab. ThesuporaltHris red Iiislwn mar- 
ble, and on itafucearo the words "Ilolj'l Iloiyl Holy I" 
in mosaic. On each, side there is an extension forming 
a slielf alons tbe whole length ol the reredos, and 
designed for the i-eception of flowera at fesiiTals. The 
rereuos is of Cuen stone carved in foliated designs, the 
wliole being in perpeiulicidar Gothic style. In the base 
are three square panels filled with colored mosaic con- 
ventional designs. Above the super altar seven panels 
of white mnible 'sculptured in alto relievo show scenes in 
thelifeof Cbj'ist immediately preceding and subsequent 
to the Last Supper. Buttresses divide tiiis reredos into 
three bays ; conspicuons on either are statuettes of 
the twelve apostles. The center piece represents the 
crucifixion, and at the points of tiie btitlres^es stand 
seraphims playing tambourines, Inles and timbrals. 
Behmd the reredos is a large stained glass window with 
pictures of Christ and the apostles. 

The steeple and spire of Trinity Church are 284 feet 
high. Tliotiscent of tills steeple wasformet'lvone of the 
usual incidents of a visit to New York, but strangers are 
nolongeradinittedunlessthey obtain a permit from the 
rector, whose office is in the building behind St. Paul's 
Church, corner of Vesey street, where he maybe seen 
fn>m 1 to 3 P, M. It may bo said, however, tliat per- 
mits are granted only in special cases, and that, as a 
rule, applications for them would only be a waste of 
time. The view from this steeple is one of the finest to 
be had in the city. To the north one looks sti'aight up 
Broadway to Grace Church. The crowds below are so 
small that thej look like swarms of bugs rather than 
human Iwings, and horse cars and vehicles seem moving 
in oppositedtrDOtionswithai'egularityahnost resembling 
flies of Holdiors. iSroailway is al)out the only street that 
can be disliugui^lied in this direclioii. The city looks 
like a deceit of houao-tops, the monotonous line of which 
is broken only liere and tiiere by ciiimneys, wreaths of 
wliite smoke and spires. Lookuig toward the North 
river one looks right down upon lie decks of sailing vcs 
scis and schooners, and across (he liver, beyond Ihi.- 



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03 

heights behind Jersey City and Hoboken ate Iho Orange 
Mountains and the cJersey Higlilands. To the south, is 
the glisteiung- harbor witn its emerald islands, the gate- 
way of the Narrows, and in Iho extreme distance Sandy 
Hook and tiie ocean. Eastwaid Wall street runs like a 
mere iane to the river, Brooklyn Heights rountUiig off 

Mr. William Waldorf Astor is platinina to erect as a 
memorial to his father, the second John Jacob Astor, a 
massiTe bronze gateway to the old church. The plan 
includes a massive pair of bronze doors to the front en- 
trance and swinging inward. These doors are to bear 
designs from sacred history and allegory, and to include 
the finest features of the famous Baptistry gates of 
Florence. 

The Graveyard. — As interesting as the church itself, 
and possibly more interesting to strangers is the grave- 
yard in which it stands. Several headstones in this date 
back to the time of the first Trinity Ohnreh building. 
Around the walls of the church are sepnlchnres and 
vaults. The most conspicuous monument near the 
entrance is that of Captain James Lawrence, U. S. N., 
which is near the soutii gate. 

This monument stands in a sqnare plot of grass, sur- 
rounded by chains suspended from eight trophy cannon. 
It is in the form of a sarcophagus in brown stone, and is 
fittingly massive and effective. In the east end of the 
bier are carved an anohor and hiurel wreath, and on the 
west end part of a sloop of war. On the north face ot the 
pedestal is a laudatory, but unexaggerated inscription, 
which tells also the leading events in the hero's career. 

"Iq memory of Captain James Lawrence of the United States 
Navy, who fell on tlie lat flay ot June, IBIS, in tlie Sad year of his 
aBB,m the action between the fri Kates CheaapealtB and Shannon. 
" I diatingnlahed on Tarlona ocoationB, but especdally vlien 
indinE the sloop of war Hornet, be oaptore and Sunk hte 



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94 

The east face beivrs the following inserlptiotl, leterring 
to his last words, which have become almost a motto 
with the American navy : 

" The heroic commander of the frigate Chesapeake whose rO' 
mains are beredeposlted, expressed with h[s ezpirintc bi'eath bie 
devotion to hia conntry. Neither the fury of batt'e, the aiiguleh 
of a mortal wonnil. nor tlio hiirrors ot ftpproachiiig- death could 
sabiiuo his ewlianl s|ihiL His dyiiij; words wore, "Don't give 
up the ship,' " 

Captain Lawrence's widow and Lieut. Augustus C. 
Ludlow, who was his executive officer and fell with him, 
are buriod with him beneath this memorial. 

On the souih aide of the cemetery, about half-way be- 
tween Brondway and New Church street, is the monu- 
ment erected by the corporation of Trinity Clmrch to 
the memory of Alexander Hninilton, n small obelisk on 
a broad pedestal and bearing the iuscription : 

" The patriot ot Inoormptahle integrity, the soldier of ap- 
proved valor, the statemaii of oonsummate wiedom, whose 
tnlozitsandvirtneswillheBdiDired hyaRrateful posterity loug 
after this marble Bbali have molded Into dust." 

At the foot of this memorinl his wife is buried. Near 
the southwest end of the church is the grave of Albert 
Gallatin, who was Secretary of the Treasury in 1801-1813, 
and near by is the grave of Phil. Kearney, who fell in 
1863, at Chantilly. Kearney, born in New York, June 
S, 1815, was a famous fichter. After craduating at the 
United States Military Academy, lie went to Prance and 
took part aa a cavalry oiBccr in the Algerian war in 
1839-JS40. In tlio Mexican war. after the battle of 
Churiibusco, he pursued the fteeingcnemy atfhe head of 
a company of dragoons into the city of Mesico itself. 
In cntting his way out again he was snot in tlio left arm, 
which had bo bo amputated. After this he rode 
into buttle with his bridle between his teeth, his sabra 
in \ih right. In 185!), he again went tn France, and 
served in the French army in the war with Italy, leading 
several decisive charges. He was on a reconnoitering 
ospcditlon when killed at Cbanlilly. 

At the head of the first path on the northern side of 
the church, is the grave of William Bradfonl, the 

Srinterof the first newspaper in New York, who died 
ere on the 2'ii\ of May, lTo3. Tlie stone having become 
marred by age, iL was restored with tlie original i use rip- 



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95 

tioriby theveatryof Trinity Church in May, 1863. This 
inscription is worth quoting for its quaintness, iii which 
partioulat it resembles manyot theother old head-stones 
in the graveyard : 

" Reader, reflect how BOOH you'll quit this stage ; 
You Snd. bat few attain tr> such au age. 
Life Is tall o( pain : Lo I Here's a Place of Rest, 
frepare to meet your God, then you are blest." 

William Bradfoi'd was horn ia Leicester, Englanii 
lie came to this coumry with William Peiin in 1683. In 
1085 he set up at Philadelphia the first press south of 
New BnglanS, and the third in the colonies. In 1683, 
on account of political differences, he came to New 
York and set up hero the first press in the pruvince. On 
the letli day of October, 1735, he began the is=iie of the 
New York Gazette, which was the first paper printed in 
the city. 

Diagonally across the path from Bradford's grave a 
plain slab sunk in the sod marks the last resting-place 
of the ill-fated Charlotte Temple, a beautiful gin, who 
before the Revolution, eloped from England to this 
country with a British ollicor, and was hero betrayed 
and deserted by him, dying insane and in bitter poverty. 
This is a piace of pilgrimage for many people, and the 
grave is rarely without flowers, some cut, some growing 
m potis placed there by loving hands. 

In the northeast comer of the biirying-ground is the 
large Gothic memorial to "Those brave and good men 
who died while imprisoned in this city for their devotion 
to the cause of American independence." This is direct- 
ly opposite the head of Pine street. It was erected at 
the time when it was feared that the city would continue 
the street through the graveyard, and its erection was 
regarded as a clever ruse on the part o( the church coi'- 
poration to prevent the extension of the street. The 
oldest headstone in the graveyard is a small brown stone 
in memory of Kiehard Churcner, bearing date 1681, and 
standinft directly opposite Charlotte Temple's grave. 

CAanlies. — The wealth of Trinity Church is estimated 
at about $5,000,000, and, as has been stated, the income 
derived from this goes not only to the support of the 
parish and its missionary work, but also to that of some 
twenty sister churches. Large sums ore annually paid 



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OG 

to the Episcopal f miUs of Iho diocoso and fo the dioce- 
san fund, and tb« expenses of the convention tail in n 
lal^ iiieasaie ou the vestiy of Trinitj Chiireh. Nuincl- 
oua charitable societies are conneclcci witli the pnrisli, 
A large school building st;inds Imck of tiic cliurch on 
Sew Church street. Here there are both day and night 
classes. There is also an industrial school for the ex- 
clusive pui'poaeof teaching young giris to sew, Triuity 
Church Association was formed in 1879 and incorporated 
in 1887 to carry on charitable work down-town. This 
association supervises and supports a mission house at 
309 and 211 T niton street, in charge of the Sisters of St. 
Mary. This is the headquarters for work amon^ tlie 
poor. Here are a dispensary, a kindcrgai'tcn, a training 
school in household service for young girls, a relief 
bureau, a kitchen garden, and licre also are given enter- 
tainmentiand lectures. Tlio Association also maintainsa 
seaside homo for chEdren at Great Eiver, near Islip, L.I, 
The separate chapels of the parish have also numerous 
charitable societies. The parish as a whole also main- 
tains a hospital where, during the year, au average oi 
350 patients are treated. 



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CHAPTER III. 



VfAll STREET. 



Wall street runs along the line of outer fortifications, 
which in 1614 were erected ns a, defense against the In- 
dians, the Governor ordering at the time that a good 
Kolid fence be built across the island. For cine years 
this fence formed the northern boundary of a sheep 
pasture, a, part of which was then granted to a number 
of influential citizens, who seem to have held the land 
for speculative purposes. In 1653 tho wall was strejigth- 
ened, and agate known as the "Land Gate" was built 
at the present junction of Wall street and Broadway, 
right in front of the site on which Trinity Church now 
stands. The first building of any note on the street was 
erected in 1656 on the spot now occnpied by the Custom 
House. Lots ranged in price from 150 to $100. North 
of tho street was an orchard, and there is an account of a 
bear huat in it about this time. It is not improbable 
that an occasional bull may have strayed into the sheep 
pasture at tho south, so that in those days already Wall 
street had its bears, bulls, and lambs. In 1699 the wall 
was finally demolished, and in 1700 the City Hall, the 
predecessor of the famous Federal Hall, was erected 
where the Sub-Treasury, facing Broad street, now 
stands. Opposite it, on the upper part of Broad street, 
were a cage, pillory, whipping-post and stocks, but not 
the kind of stocks that are now dealt in in this vicinity. 
In 17G6 William Pitt was honored lor having excused 
tho cause of the colonists by a marble statue at Wall and 
William streets. But dnring the British occupancy ol 



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the city in the EeTolntion, the statue was beheaded and 
otherwise disfigured, iind in 1789 it was reiiioTed, and is 
now in tlie bnilding of the New York Historical Society. 
On tiic north corner of Wall street and Broadway, is 
the United Sank Building, occupied by the First 
National Bank, knonn among finatioial circles ns Fort 
Sherman, Irom the lavoc witS which Senator Sherman, 



when Secretary of the Treasury, is said to have regarded 
it, tiie Bank of the Republic and numerous offices. Be- 
tween this building ana Nassau street, on tlie north si 



of Wall, are the Schermerhorn luid Astor buildings. On 
the opposite side of the street is the handsome Mortimer 
building, on the east corner of Wall and New streets. 
This is a structure of dark, buff brick, with an entrance 
in tlie form of a deep arch, through which a stone stair- 
way curves up to the first floor, an unusual architectural 
efleet ia the business quarters of the city. 

New Yobk Stock ExcnAi-OE. — Nest to this is the 
narrow Wall street entrance to tlie Stock Exchange, 
the main fronts being on Broad and New streets; but of 
course it would have been absurd for the institution 
which rules and sometimes almost ruins the country 
flnancially, not to have an entrance on WaJ! street. 
Strangers gain ftdmi-ssion to the visitors' gallery by this 
entrance. 

The first New York Stock Rxchango was formed 
by seventy-four brokers, who in 1793 mot under a 
button-wood tree in front of the present No. 69 Wall 
street. Until 181T its business was chiefly transacted at 
the Tontine Coffee-housp, at the comer of Wall and 
Water streets. Prom that time until 1861, when it 
moved into the present edifice, it liad various meeting' 
places, among theni a private office and an upper room 
in the Merchants' Exchange (on the site of the present 
Custom House), 

Thepresent building was designe<l by James Eenwick. 
Its greatest front ia on New street, whore it occupies 153 
feet. It also has a frontage of 70 lect on Broad street, 
where the main entrance is. The part on Wall street is 



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09 

really only an L, yet the Stock Escliange is always aaso- 
ciated with. Wall street. The best view of the building 
is obtained on Broad street. It is a substantial flve- 
story white marble structure, with the colamna and up- 

g;r stories of colored granite built in the French 
enaissance style, costing about $8,000,000, the title be- 
ing Tested in the New York Stock Exchange Building 
Company, The annual espenses for wear and sflJaiiea 
are about $200,000. 

Board Room. — That portiou of the building which 
the stranger will waatto see first istheBoard Room, the 
ftnancia! nerve center of the country. The turmoil of 
this room must be heard to be appreciated — to describe 
it is impossible. It surpasses even the proverbial bear 
garden. Perhaps it is more like a tribe of Indians es- 
eeuCing a war dance than anything else. The transac- 
tions which take place in it are telegraphed all over the 
civilized world, and it ia not exaggeration to say that 
the business interests of the whole country throb in uni- 
son with it. A pduic in Wall street means financial 
disaster throughout the United States. This Board 
Eoom is on the New street side of the ground floor, and 
is 300x98 feet. At 10 A. M. a gong strikes for the open- 
ing of business, at 3:15 P. M. for deliveries, at 3 P. M. 
(or closing. Strangers are not admitted to the ground 
floor except as a matter of courtesy through a member, 
but aa excellent view is had from the galleries on the 
second floor, which are reached from tiie Wall street 
entrance. Besides the Boivrd Eoom, there are ou the 
ground floor the Long Room for telegraph apparatus ior 
subscribers at $100 a year, and the Keadmg Room, The 
clickot the iamous "tickers" running out their paper 
ribbons of quotations makes music joyous or sad, accord- 
ing to the information which the ribbon conveys to the 
speculator who consults it. 

In the Board Room every stock has its special location, 
which is designated on a row of sign pillars running 
along the middle of the room from end to end. For 
purpose ot oommmiion with the outside world each 
broker is numbered and if ho is wanted a knob bearing 
his number is pulled, and instantly this number appears 
conspicuously in a space in front of the visitor*' gallery. 
The room is electrically lighted from three chandeliera 



Chhh^Ic 



100 

and Is Admirably Tcntilated Clocks announce both 
■Wssliington and New York t n 

Since 1879 the limib of me I rah i of tl c Fxol a ge 
has been eleven hu Ired Iti go em ne t e ted 
in a Goveriiinjf Coram ttee of forty i f r eluase , 
one of which retires e ery year and a its Pr dent and 
Treasurer. The President serves gratuitously. The 
initiation fee is f 30,000, or if membMship ia ooouired by 
purchase of a scat, $1,000. Tke latter U tiie usual 
method. As highas f36,0OOhasbeeii mid for a scat. 
No initiation fee was demanded under the bnlton-wood 
tree ia 1793. In 1833 it was f35( in 1827, |100; inlSS:). 
$l.iO; ia 1843, $350; in 1S63, $3,000, and in 1866, 
$10,000. The present rate was established in 1879. 

Brokers are of three classes — the first do a regular 
commission buslncs and never speculate ; the second are 
the "scalpers," who buy with the intention of selling' to 
other brokers at arise; the third are the "trftders,"who 
confine their operations for a long period to a certain 
line of stocltsoreven to one particular stock. A divi- 
sion of "scalpers" are known as "guerrillas." Tliesc 
deal in inactive stocks. Certain parts of tlie floor have, 
through guerrilla transactions, become known as "Hell's 
Kitchen and "Robber's Roost." Members of the Ex- 
change in dealing with non-members are required to 
charge a commission of at least }^ of 1 per cent. Even 
offering to do business for lessis punishable by esputsion 
and the sale of the offending membei''s seat. 

Exchange Slang. — The slang of the Exchange is a fit 
subject for a linguistic study. There are many terms 
besides those of "scalper," "guerrilla."and "trader," 
which have a special meaning on the floor of this insti- 
tution, "bull" and "bear" being the most familiar. A 
" bull " is an operator who is " long of stock," i. e., who 
has "loaded "himself with a large number of stoolis, 
bought perhaps in a large quantity at a time, and who 
espects to "unload" on a rising market. Katurally lits 
tendency is to " bull the market," send up tiie prices of 
stocks. Sometimes he has to resim to fictitious measuifs 
snchaa "ballooning" — cirenlating rose-colored reports 
ancnt its value, makinc fictitious sales, etc., and muy 
flpjan h*j -fiird-^fil in " flv tifpi**^ — p-vnn.n-1 hrc ^rjidit ff'ijudl- 



o.-sdb, Google 



101 

presses the stock at will he "milksthe street." "Bears" 
are those who agree to deliver siock at a future date ata 
certain price, lower, of course, than its price at tke time 
the contract is made. The bear's policy is to so depress 
the stock hetween the date of the contract and the date 
of the delirery that he can buy_ it at a lower price than 
that at which ne is to deliver it, tlius making the bal- 
ance. Hence, the "bear" is usually found "sunning a 
stock," for he Is obliged to depress or " break " the mar- 
ket ill order to "cover his shorts,"*, e., buy in the stock 
he has to deliver at a figure low enough to yield him a 
profit or at least save him on the transaction. Some- 
times he is "cornered" by a "pool" or a combination 
of operators who are bulling tlie stock. The conflict be- 
tween bull and bear is irrepressible, and at any particu- 
lar time it is simply a qnestionas to whether the bull can 
toss the bear or the bear can get his arms around the 
ball's neck and squeeze him. 

U. S. ScB-TuBASimr.— The most interesting building 
on Wall street is undoubtedly the Sub-Treasury, and this 
not only because of the vast sums of money deposited 
there— at times |200, 000,000— but also because it occupies 
thesite of the old Federal Hall, on the balcony of which 
Washington took the oath as the first President of the 
United States. It stands on tlie east corner of Wall 
and Nassau streets. 

ais(orj(,— When in 1699 the old fortifications on Wall 
street were torn down, the stones from the bastions were 
appropriated to the building of the City Hall on Ihis site. 
This became, of course, the center of politiaal life in the 
city. It wasnot onlyaCitvHall, but a Municipal and 
Colooial Court House, a jail and the Capitol of the prov- 
ince. Here the freedom of the American Press was 
established in 1135 at the trial of John Zenger; here in 
1765 the people of Kew York protested against the 
Stamp Act; here, July 18, 1776, the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was read to the escited populace, and here lor 
a time sat the Continental Congress and the old Congress 
after the Kevoiution. Wlien Congress had selected New 
York City as the Capifal of the Nation, the citizens 



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■ (if New York determined to transfoiin Ihoir City Hall 
. into the more imposing Federal Hall. An urclivar 
through tlic basement formed a promeinide. Four heavy 
Tuscan eolumns suoported the grand balcony, and 
four high Doric pillars a pediment on which were 
carved a great American eagle having thirteen arrows, 
the arms of the United StaUs and other onianientnl fig- 
tires. The furniture used by this Congress, and Wash- 
ington's desk and table may be seen at the Qoveruor's 
Boom in the City Hall (p. 134). 

WaithingloH Inauguration. — Washington traveled to 



Elizabeth lie was rowed, April 28, 1789, to New York in 
a superb barge by thirteen masters of vessels i[i white 
uniform with black caps ornamented with fringes. As 
the barge drew up to Murray's wliarf, near the foot of 
Wall street, cannon were flred and the bells of llie city 
were rune. Washington was escorted by a procession 
composed of troops, the officers of the State and city, 
the clergy, the French and Spanish embassadors arid 
citizens to the Franklin House, which stood at tiie inter- 
section of Fratikliu square and Cherry street, then a 
lovely retreat, a strikingly pretty feature of which was a 
fine cherry orchard from whicn Cherry street derived 
its name. The 30th of April, the day on which ho 
took the oafh as the first President of the United States, 
was ushered in by a discharge of cannon at sunrise at 
old Fort George near Bowling Green. Athalf-fiast nine 
services were held at all the churches in the city. At 
noon the inilitarr paraded in front of the liouse on 
Cherry street, and at half-pasttwelvemarehod to Federal 
liall, where they were drawn up on either side ot llie 
street, Washington passing tlirough the lines and pio- 
ceediug to the Senate Chamber. He was almost imme- 
diately conducted to the grand balcony in front of the 
Senate Chamberwhich looked out on Broad street. Near 
him stood Vice-President John Adams, Governor George 
Clinton, OhancellorLivingston, Roger Shei'itian, Richard 
Henry Lee, Generals Henry Knox and Arthur St. Clair, 
Baron Steuben and Samuel Otis, the Secretary of the 
S nate. In the center of the balcony wiii^ a luble, the 
covering of which was red velvet. On this lay a crimson 



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veli^ cushion and on tiiis a large Bible. Thjs Bible hail 
lieen borrowed at tlie last raoineiit of St. John's Lodge, 
No. 1, F. and A. M., it having been discovered just be- 
fore the oath was to be administered that there wiis no 
Bible in Federal Hall. Washington, with due solemnity, 
advanced to the front of the balcony, laid his band oa 
his heart, bowed several times, and retired to an ai'm 
chair near the table. When the universal shout of jor 
and welcome had subsided, and profound silence reigned 
all about liim, Washington arose and came forward. 
Chancellor Livingston read the oath, and Washington, 
resting bis hand upon the table as ho stood, repeated it. 
Mr. Otis then took the Bible awd raised it. Washington 
stooped and kissed it. As lie did so, a flag was raised 
upon the cupola of the Hall, and, as it was unfurled to 
the breeze, there was a discharge of artillery at the Bat- 
tery, the bells of the city rang out, and the multitude 
sent up a great shout. Washington bowed to the people 
and then retired into the Hall. In the Senate Chamber 
he then delivered his inaugural address, and afterwards, 
accompanied by the Vice-President, the Speaker, the 
two houses of Congress, and those who had been invited 
to the inauguration ceremony, proceeded to St. Paul's 
Church (p. 125) where a service of thanks^ving was 
conducted. The Washington Inauguration Centennial 
celebration is too recent to require a detailed account. 
It lasted three days, beginning April 29, 1B89, the prin- 
cipal ceremony taking place on. the steps ot the Sub- 
Treasury. 

The Blabce of WasTiivglon which stantls upon these 
steps was unveiled November 26, 1883. It is a bronze 
figure of colossal size by J. Q, A. Ward, and represents 
Washington taking the oath. It was erected by volun- 
tary sufecriptlon under the auspices of the Chamber ol 
Commerce of the State ot New York. Sunk in the 
pedestal in front of the figure is a large brown stone 
slab bearing the following inscription: "Standing on 
this stone in the balcony of Federal Hall, April 30th, 
1779, George Washington took the oath as the firat 
President of tiie United States of America." 

Presejit Sutlding.^-Attm the seat of government of 
the United Slates w,is removed to Philadelphia, Federal 



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Uall was occupied by tlie State Assembly and the Courts. 
In 1813 it was taken dosvn and tho buildings erected ou 
its site gave way ii: 1843 to the old Custom House, which 
is now the Sub-Treasury. This is a Urge, light granite 
hiiildiog, ill Doric style, ostendiDg from Wall to Pine 
street. On the Wall street trout eighteen granite stops 
extending the entire breadth of the building lead to a 
dignified portico supported by eight marble columns. 
Within ja a rotunda of siKty feet diameter, sixteen Cor- 
inthian columns, fifteen ot which are monolith?, sup- 
porting the dome, a gallery running around the rotunda. 
On the floor are ranged the desks of the various depart- 
mentsof the Sub-Treasury. This branch ot the Treasury 
department has been here since 18G2, when the Custom 
House was removed to tho building on the south side 
further down the street which it now occupies. 

Transaclions. — This institution received during the 
last tiscftl year $1,157,931,583.33, and paid out $1,130,- 
698,103.88. Its receipts come from the Custom House, 
the Post Offices of this district, and from tho Treasury 
Department , for disbursing officers, sueh as anjiy and 
navy paymasters, and for pensions. It-s disbui'semeuts 
wereraadewplfti^ly of Treasury drafts, money paid out 
to disbursing oraeers, tho redemption of ITuited States 
bonds, thepaymentotcoupons and interest on bonds, and 
the redemption of mutilated currency. It will redeem 
any piece ot paper money which is not mutilated moi-e 
than two-fiftus. If mutilated to a greater extent, the 

2uest for redemption has to be accompanied by an ' 
liavit explaining the manner in which the mutilation 
occurred. The extent to which mutilated money is re- 
deemed through this agency is shown by the following 
statistics for one year : Gold oertifloales, #49,141,000; 
silver certificates, $15,983,000; United States notes, 
$30,345,000; National Bank notes, $3,813,000; frac- 
tional notes, relics of war days still in circulation, jl,.500. 
It may be said of this institution in a general way tiiat 
it transacts two-thirds of tlio financial affairs of the 
United States Government. Some 375,000 pension 



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cliecks are cnsbed in flii'' ofBcG encli qnartcr. making 
about 70 per cent, of tbe entire pension list of tijo 
United States, The largest single check ever drawn 
in the office wau one for $30,000,000, and it is ofFset 
by the smallest single transaction, which was for one 

Qold VmdU. — The raalts in wliieh the gold and gold 
certificates are stored are on the floor of the rotunda on 
the north side, respectively to the left and right of the 
passage-way, and are well lighted, and cheerfully car- 
peted; quite different from, the vaulted and glooujy re- 
cesses which one would naturally expect to enter. But, 
however cheerful tiiey ai'e, tliey are ua secure as if tiiey 
were the darkest of dungeons, being separated from the 
rotunda by four huge, heavy doors with the moat modem 
lock appliances. The vault in vrhioh gold exclusively is 
kept ia to the left of the passage-way. It is fitted up 
with one hundred and thirty closets, each holding one 
hundred bags, each bag containing $5,000 in gold coin, 
BO that each closet contains ha!f a million dollars. 
There has been as much as $64,000,000 stored in this 
vault at otic time. The other vault is used not only 
lor the storage of gold coin, but also for the storage 
of gold certificutes. Tliese arc done up iu packages of 
one imndred notes, and ten of these packages go into a 
bundle, so that each bundle contains one thousand notes. 
At the time wlieu the author visited this vault he waa 
allowed to hold in bis hand a package containing 
^10,000,000 in gold certificates. It was made up of one 
tliousand $10,000 certificates, and the package repre- 
sented the smallest space into which that amount of 
money could be compressed. It was the length of an 
oiHiinary bill, and about four inches in thickness. It 
was almost as light as a feather, but representeda weight 
in coin of IBJ^ tons. There ate, besides tliese two largo 
vaults on either side of the passage, a small vault for the 
reception of nickels and pennies. 

Go-in Division.— Passing out of the rotunda toward 
Pine street, there is on the right-hand side of the baiid- 
ing the coin division. Here business honses and corpor- 



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will ilraw at one timo $10,000 in pennies. The Manhat- 
tim Elevated Railroml, on I ho other hand, which receives 
liirgo quunlities of small coin, exehaiififes tliid tliree times 
a, week for large bills. At tho time of deposit a certificale 
ia given, then the coin deposit is carefully esaraineil, 
and wiiatever is light- weight, mutilated or counterfeit 
is thrown out and charred against the depositor. Coaii- 
torfeits are, before tney are returned, so effectually 
marred that they cannot be passed upon iraanspecting 
per.'ons. It is learned from the ex()eneneo of this de- 

Sartraent that counterfeiting is earned on to an extraor- 
inary extent. A favorite method is to dig out the 
metal fmrn between the two faces of the coin, and then 
All it ii|i with metal of about the same weight. F'Veii 
one ci-iil^ ]>iaces are coaiiterfeited, and there is a counter- 
feit peDiiy in circulation upon which is stamped " Sot 
one cent, Ofcoarso the experts who receive the coin at 
the Sub-Treasury can detennine at the ilrst touch, iu 
nearly every instance, that a coin is a connterteit, and 
tiiere are also expert counterfeit detectives among the 
men who handle paper money. 

Jn the upper story i^ im armory, where various 
weapons are kept in readiness for defense In i-iiso of 
not. The Bhutiers arc of steel aud the building isforll- 
ficd in various ingenious ways, not only on all sides, bal 
on the wiof, to ward oft an attack from the adjoining 
buildings which are higher than the Sub-Treasury, The 
system of defense is naturally kept secret. 

rhosl er vault is in the basement in the northwest 
con ei ol the l>uihiinjr. Here the silver is stacked up in 
I „s I ke bags of salt. The bulk is in dollars. The 
IIe^ts Iver coin now- in circulation is the dime. A 
f w i alf-d inc3 and throe-cent pieces are occasionally 
p ciented but tliese are retired as rapidly as tliey are 
rece ve 1 as are also the two-cent copper pieces. A thou- 
•ii I dollars' woKh of coin is packed in each bag. Tliei'e 
h IS been about f38.000,000 worth of silver in tiiis vault 
Mtatiine. The Bilker is shipped in larpo quantities to the 
South, when the cotton crop is being picked, as the 
negroes prefer tliebright coin dollars to the paper dollar. 
The general pnblic is not admitted to a detailed inspeo- 
tion of the Snb-Treasnrj', but appliealioua made to the 
Sub-Treasurer will receive consideraliim. 



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U. S, Assay Office. — Adjoining the Sub-Treasnryis 
the United Stntes Assay Office, a marble building in 
claasic style, erected 1823, for a branch of (lie United 
States Bank, It is the oldest Btrualure on Wall street. 
It is a branch of the United States Mint, and everything 
is done here which is done at the Mint, except coming. 
Domestic ballioii, doinestio coin which is nneurrent on 
account of mutilation or light weight, foreign bnllion, 
foreign coin, jewelers' bars, watch-cases, old plate, the 
latter class of articles often from " fences " (receivers of 
stolen goods), are brought here to be melted up and cast 
into bricks. 

Operalione . — the operations of the Assay OlBce during 
the lust fiscal year are represented by the following sta- 
tistics: There was deposited, in gold, bullion to the 
value of $16,365,933.37, partings ¥1,443.136.61; in nn- 
eurrent coins of the United States, |417.000-, in foreign 
coins, $1,117,659.06; in silver, bullion to the amount of 
$4,166,044.17, partings $03,941.t;2; in coins, $3,001.05. 
The work ot tne assay department of this institution 
comprised the testing of some 10,000 melts of gold and 
silver, besides many other melts of the fine metals, and 
the testing of some foui- hundred barrels of sweeps, and 
many hundreds of special assays. Sweeps arc obtained 
from the retorts, cloths, strainers, brushes, brooms, 
dusters, and other articles which are npL to catch silver 
or gold dust, or to become in any way impregnated with 
the precious metals used in the Assay OfHce. These are 
ground up, placed in barrels, and assays from ^ch 
barrel made so as to determine its general value. The 
barrels are then pnt up at auction and sold to the highest 
bidder, a report ot the assays being first made to the 
bidders. 

In the melting and refining department there were 
refined last year by acid 2,332,101 gross ounces. There 
were puepared and delivered to the superintendent 
18.334 bars o[ gold and 35,993 bars of silver, a total of 
44,237 bars; and 1,104,355 poundsof sulphuvioafiid were 
used in the parting operations, and 1,593,545 pounds of 
spent acid and 139,913 pounds ot blue vitriol were sold 



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during tha year, realizinjf $9,015.03. Sixty-one thou- 
sand ounces ot silver from tlie aeid refinery were used 
over in parting gold deposits. 

Tlie melterand refluer operated during the year on 
OT0,783 standard ounces of gold and returned a surplus 
of 416,394 standard ounces. Tlie foino ofQccr operated 
on 4,294,0S4 standard ounces of eilver and returned an 
escesH of 5,031. SOslandard ounces. The bars of precious 
metal refined hero arc sold largely to inanufacturiMg 
jewelers, are sent to the mints for coinage, and arc also 
used as exchange when the rate of exchange reaches 



what is kuown in financial circles as the sliipping point. 
" '■' ' *■ Office luinio ' 

i ranging in value frojti $luO to i 



Vaults, — III the vaults of Ihe Assay Offi 
dollars' ivortli of gold and s.ilvcr is piled up in lirichs of 



The gold vault, on the ground floor of tlie building ou 
the Wall street side, is a little room, and yet it will hold 
$70,000,000 worth of gold. 

JCeftning. — The most interesting operation to the visi- 
tor is undoubtedly the refining department on the Pine 
street side of the huilding. The bullion being received 
on the ^ound floor, is here granulated by being melted 
in erueihles and then thrown into water. Having been 
gi'anulated, it is sent up to the acid-room ou the top 
floor, where it is boiled seven times in sulphuric acid. 
Tills eliminates the silver from the gohl, leaving the 
gold in a dirt colored powder in a filter-box, but a bos 
of this dirt is worth about tlOO,000, The powder hav- 
iiig been thoraugbly washed, is placed into a press, and, 
under a pressure of two hundred tons, the moifture is 
squeezed out of it, and the powilor assumes the form of 
a ronnd cato. It is then ri^ady to be refined. Silver 
undergoes a more complicated troattueiit. Having l>eci) 
boiled in sulphnric acid and cliiiiituited from tlie gold, 
it inns down in a liquid form us sulphate of sdver 
through pipes to Ihe story below, where it is received 
into vats lined with copperplales. These copper plates 
separate the silver in the form of a graypowder, leaving 
sulphate of copper in the vats which flows down into 
the floor below where it is erystalized on copper plates. 
The silver powder is treated like the gold in the |irc"S, 
and is then iiwly to be melted. The crystHli70[t Mii- 
phnte of copper ia sold. The inelllng tuumtf- iiie on 



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the sBme floor on vpIucIi the granulation takes place. 
The cakes are thrown into largo black lead crucibles, 
which are placed in (urnaees. When the metal is 
sizzling and bubbling in the crucible, a thick coyering 
. of bono ash is spread over it, and through a little hole 
made in this tmno ash nitre is poured on ths molten 
metal. The nitre draws up the copper impurities which 
form n slag with the bone ash. This is remored from 
time to time, and tlie process repeated for about three 
hours. When the metal is reflned, it is dipped out in 
ladles, and poured into forms from which it is ii(ted as 
red-hot bricks of gold and Eilrer and placed upon tables 
to-cool. The glow of a red-hot gold brick is something 
which possesses a glory all its own, being like the gor- 
geous golden hue of a sunset sky. 

Asaaying. — The process oE assaying is somewhat more 
complicated, and is not as readily understood as the 
simpler process ol refining. All bullion, whether it is 
simply for assay, or for refining purposes, is received in a 
room on the ground floor on the Wall street side of the 
building. Hera it is weighed and receipted for. It is 
then run into bars, "pig gold and "pig" silver one 
might call them, from which delicate slips are taken. 
These slips are sent up to the assay department, which 
occupies the upper stories on the Wall street front of the 
building, and here delicate portions are weighed out on 
scales which will weigh the y,^ part of a drachm. 
They are wrapped up in a thin strip of pure lead shaped 
somewhat like a cornucopia and technically called cor- 
nets, and put in little calcined hone cupels. These aro 
then deposited in gas cupel furnaces and as the lead 
melts the base metals are carried with it into the bone of 
the cupel or are osidizeJ, leaving a button, ot pure gold 
and silver in the bottom. Thisis then weight, and the 
loss shows the amount of base metal contained in the 
original. The button is then rolled out into a thin strip 
which is boiled in nitric acid, the acid eating out the 
silver and leaving the pure gold. The best time to visit 
the Assay Office is about 10.80 A. M., when the refining 
is most apt to be in progress. 

The Sub-TreasniT stands opposite Broad street, one of 
the main arteries ot business running into Wall street. 
Originally the ground here was marshy, and a brook ran 



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from the mnrsh through the middle of Broad street to 
the rivei'. In 1637 the sidcB of lliia brook were lined 
with plittilcso that it might hotter serve its purpose a'j an 
open drain. The marsh ended at Excliange PJace, 
which is one block below Wall street, and the ground 
between the endoftheswamp and Wall street itself was a 
sheep pasture, so that sheep were sheared in this part of 
New York long before the Stock Esehango was estab- 
lished here. In I6T6 the inarsli and tho ditch were 
filled Hp, and tlie street made ievcl. Tlio corners of 
Wall and Broaii streets ore considered among the most 
Tftliiahle parcels of real estate in the City of New York. 
The west comer is occupied by tiie Wilks Building, 
sulBciently imposing to make it worthy of its costly 
site. Kext to it stands tiie Broad street front of the 
Stock Exchange, and beyond this a branch of Dcl- 
nionico's. The eastern coi'iier is occupied by the Dresel 
Building, a white marble sis-story building in the 
Renaissance style, and built for the banking firm of 
Drexel, Morgan & Co. The superb brick structure ad- 
joining it on Broad street, occupying a frontage of 175 
feet and ten stories high, is the Mills Building, This 
has an L opening on Wall street, where the building oc- 
cupies a frontage of 35 feet. On busy days the elevators 
in this building hare carried as man; as 17,000 passen- 
gers. The view down Broad street from the comer of 
Nassan is graceEully ended oS by the distant campanile 
of the Produce Exchan^, 

Exehtmge J^ace, which runs from Broadway to Han- 
over street, crossing Broad street, is interesting, because 
In the old days a bridge crossed the dltth at Broad 
street at this point, and on this bridge tlie fir;t Mer- 
chants' Exchange was organized, March 24, 1670; its 
members meeting on the bridge every Friday morning 
at 11 o'clock. The small boj^ of the vicinity having 
been accustomed to coast in winter down the hill from 
the countiT road which is now Broadway, to tlie sheep 

Easture, which is now Broad street, they were ordered 
y the Mayor to suspend their sport on Fridays, between 
11 and IS, so as not to disturb the deliberations of the 
Exchange. Tho Long Island Ferry once started from 
this bridge at Exchange place, tho skiff proeeoding down 
tlie ditch through Broad street into the river, the ferry 



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house standing at the present corner of New street and 
Kschange Place, Nassau street is a, narrow thorougfi- 
fare leading from Wall street to City Hall Park. It 
follows the line of an old lane, whioh, when a petition 
for the opening of the street was presented in the early 
days of the city, was quaintly described as a "cart lane 
running by the pie woman's to the Commons," City Hall 
Park then being the common pasture of the town. This 
is now the great thoroughfare for lawyers on their way 
from this part of the cityTio the Court House in City 
Hall Park, and here are the stores of law-hook publishers 
and secondhand book dealers, and it is also occupied hy 
numerous handsome office huildiaps. 

Proceeding down Wall street,, from Nassau, the next 
building to attract attention is that of the Mechanics 
Bank at Nos. 31 and 38, bniit of granite and Indiana 
limestone and presenting an imposing front of nine 
stories. Conspicuous on this front, is a bronze casting ot 
a mechanic's brawny arm and hand wielding a hammer. 
The bank acquired this property in the last century and 
the deeds to it are said to run back to the days of l^eeu 
Anne. Another conspicuous building housing one ot 
the historio banks of the country, the Bank of the Man- 
hattan Company is the nine story granite structure built 
conjointly by the bank gust named, and the Merchants' 
Bank at Nos. 40 and 43 Wall street. One of its finest 
features is the grand entrance arch. Tlie Manhaltafi 
Company's Bank was organized by Aaron Burr in op- 
position to the Bank of New York, one of whose found- 
ers was his bitter political rital, Alexander Hamilton. 
Its banking privilege was secured by clever ruse. Just 
after the yellow fever scourge in New York, when it was 
thought that the epidemic might have been caused by 
the brackish water in the wells which then furnished the 
only water supply to the city. Burr obtained a charter 






3 surplus capital in any viBty not inconsistent 
with the laws and constitution of the United States or of 
ijie State of New York, This clause was utilized in a 
manner which the Legislature granting the charter Jittie 
dreamed of, for it led to the incorporation ot the Man- 
hattan Company's Bank in nQO. The Manhattan Com- 



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pati7 did, as a matter of fact, construct water-works and 
ior some time supjdied the city with water, and it still, 
in order to retain its charter, maintains in a building on 
Centra street a haga tank. Opposite the biulding of t)ie 
ManhattAn Company is the nine etory building of tlio 
United States Trnst Company, Kos. 45 and 47 Wall 
street. It is bailt of granite varied witli browiistone, tlie 
carving on which is as delicate as lacc-woik. On the 
northwest corner of Wall and Wiiliaia streets is t!io 
handsome biiiiding of the Bank of America, wiiile the 
Bank of New York, the oldest bank in the State and tlw 
Eecondoank organized in the United States, occupies a 
fine building on the northeast comer. This is the bank 
founded bj Alexander Hamilton, whioh Burr songlit to 
antagonize when he incorporated the Manhattan Com- 
pany's Bank. The Bank of New York eonimenced busi- 
ness OR the 0th of June, 1TS4, being then located in tlic 
Walton mansion on Franklin square, at 136 Pearl 
street, about opposite the stnictore now occupied by 
Uarper Bros. (p. 141). In 1787 the bank removed to No. 
11 llauover smiare, and in 1798 to the site it now oc- 
cupies. The Walton house remained standing until 
1881, having fallen, however, upon sorry times, being 
last occupied as a loclging house for immigrants, Tlic 
Bank of New York was formally incorporated in 1791, 
re-organized under the Free Banking Act in 1853, and 
in July, 1879, became a national bank. 

Proceeding down William street to the south, the 
visitor will reacli, near the comer of Beaver street on 
the east side, the handsome building of the Farmers' 
Loan and Trust CommiDj', and near it, on tlio corner 
of William sti-eet and Hanover square, tlie yellow brick 
structure of tlio G'Uon Exehange. Tliis Exchange 
was orgacizoJ August 16, 1870, and occupied, until May 
4, 1872, premises at 14S Pearl street, from that time to 
A[>ril 39, 1883, premises in Hanover square, and moved 
into the present building April 3D, 1885. It is calcula- 
ted that the cotton crop of the United States is nearly 
6.940,000 bales or iiea^3,44«, 41 0,000 pounds. For the 



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118 

restnuvant established by tbisfamouslioTise. Retaming 
to Wall street, the nest object of interest is the United 
States Custom House. 

United States Custom: House. — Tliis occupies the 
entire block bounded by Wall, William, HanoTer streets 
1 B h g PI d is connected by a bridge with 

tl b Id g the southern side o£ Exchange 
PI wt th tl I Officer has his headquarters. 

Tl C torn H u b Iding is of Quincy granite, in 
I tyl w 1 a p rtico of granite columns, each 38 

t t h gh d 4^ feet diameter. Its main entrance is 
W li eet, dl ds into a fiue rotunda with a dome 
supported by 8 pilasters of mwble The building was 
originally constructed for a Merchants' Kschange but 
when the Sub Treasury was established in 1863, it wis 
purchased by the National Government f u t 
purposes It may be snid without evagg a n 
CTcry man, woman and child in the Unit * 

aflect-ed hj the bu'-intss transactions of tl is p 

pal Custom House of the country, for ther du a 
collected on wearing apparel, articles of mam n 
house furnishings, food and drink, all of wh h 
more because the United States Government es d y 
upon thenu 

The New York Custom House has less p po n f 
expense to the amount of duties collected tlia a yo h 
ill the land, and is an enormously profitable institution 
to the Government. Its receipts in 1889 were $154,831,- 
,163.38; its expenses only $3,800,000. Altogether there 
■ were 275,000 entries for qierchandise, and the. record of 
vessels entered was as follows: From foreign ports, 
5,657, and Erom domestic ports, 3,477; while there cleared 
tor foreign ports, 4,948, and for domestic ports, 3,773, 
The mode of passing goods through the Custom House 
is very complicated, and requires for its proper supervi- 



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114 

Port. All tho work done in tlio Collector's ofllcc 1^ tlien 
verified by the NuTul office. Tho employees number 
about 1,700 people, including several feiiiRle inspectors, 
vhase business it is to pTOvciit women Ij-om enuigftling 
articles through the customs in tlieir wenring fipnirel. 
The inspectoi's have their lienci quarters at the Bdrae 
Office, wliich has already been describeil (p. 7^ 



routine through which a passenger's baggage must pass 
' ' re a passenget Can tase it or have it removed from 
port has already been explained (p. SO). 



inloflding and delivery of goods from the vessels 
at the wharf involves more circu instance. The captain 
proceeds to the Custom House and delivers the manifest 
ot his cargo and other papers to the Collector, this being 
technically described as an " entry " of the vessel. Un- 
til this and other incidental nets are performed by him, 
the cargo of the vessel can not he touched. Wlien all 
preliminary steps have been taken and bulk is broken, 
the goods are passed from the vessel to tho dock under 
the supervision of two inspectors, wiio see to it that 
samples of the goods are sent for apjiraisemeiit to the 
Public Stores, and also that the rcEulations of tho customs 
are otherwise complied with. When the goods at the 
Public Stores have been examined and appraised, the 
consignee is notifted of the amount of duty payable. He 
will already have paid duties on the face of the invoice, 
bnt the result of the appraisement may be to either lower 
or iucreasB these, in which case ]iart of his payment is 
refunded, or he is obliged to matte an additional pay- 
ment. The pTOuess is, of conrso, much more complicated 
than this, so complicated in fact that merchants usually 
employ)' Custom House brokers to transact this branch 
of tlieir business, but the above is about tho simplest 
way of describing the method. 

Oppo-sitotheCustoraHousejOnHonovorandWall streets, 
is tho old banking firm of Brown Bros. & Co. Tliereia 
noCliing of especial interest heyond licre (o the foot of 
the street, where along South street another busy, bus- 
tling shipping scene greets the eye. The Elevated 
Railroad crosses Wall street at Pearl street. Pearl 
street, it will be rememhered by those who have fol- 
lowed the itinerary of tills guide, begins at Statu 
street, and therefore lias swept around in a semi-circle to 



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115 

this point, and from here on it makes another sweep 
jointng BtoaJway above Duane street, runnijig a semi- 
circulai' course. Its peculiar line is due to the fact that 
it iras built up along aa old cow-path which ran from 
the old fort along the outlying settlements to the com- 
monpasture which is now City Hall Park. At the foot 
o( Wall street is a ferry to Brooklyn, having its Brook- 
lyn landing at the foot of Montague street. 



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CHArTEE IV. 

WALL STBEET TO CITY HALL PAEK. 

Broadway above Wall street to City Hall Park is still 
a succession of large buildings. At No. Ill Broadway, 
opposite Pine street, is the Trinity Building', whose 
southern windows look out on the old churchyard. The 
block above this on the same side is occupied by the 
Boreel .BiiU-ling, 115 Broadway, the site ot the old 
De liuncey mansion, where the Washington Iiiaugurar 
tion Ball took place, and which was subsequently oc- 
cupied by the City Hotel, a famous hostelry in its day. 
Pine street, which runs into Broadway at the head of 
Trinity cemetery, is a narrow thoroughfare lined on 
cither side with office buildings. 

BQriTiBi.B Bltldino. — Between Pino and Cedar 
streets, on the east sideof Broadway, stands thebuilding 
of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, which houses 
3,500 tenants, and through which pass more than 30,000 
people a day. Almost every kind of business capable of 
teing transacted in offices is represented in this building. 
It is a granite structure in classic style, a certain large 
effect being introduced by an architectural deviue in 
ftiving two stories the external appearance of one very 
higii story. The present stracture was built in 1885, 
the company at that time acquiring the whole block on 
Broadway^ and a large portion ot the block on Nassau 
street. The entrance is a massive coffered graniio 
Roman arch, leading into a double vestibule with 
pilasters of yellow marble with capitals of Meiiean onyx 
and lintels of Knoiville marble, ceiled with polished 
marble and bronze friezes. The arcade beyond is SO feet 
broad by over 100 feet long, with a great arched skylight 



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at the end of the main corridor is a mosaic by F. 
Lathrop, representing the tutelary significance of liXe 
insurance. In the corner of the bnilding at Broadway 
and Pine stiwt is the C&U Savarin, and hack of this 
across the hall, the restaurant of the same name. The 
Mercantile Trust Company seyeral banks, and the well- 
known hanking firms of Winslow, Lanier & Co., August 
Eelmont & Co., and Kountze Bros. & Co., liave oflSces 
iierc. A large portion of the fifth and sixth floors is 
reserved for the Lawyci's' Club and a floe law library, 
the building being a great headquarters for liiwyers. 

A portion of the tower is used by the U. S. Signal 
Semee, and it is from this point that New Yorkers as- 
certain why they are either freezing or sweltering. 
Here the famous humidity statistics originate. This 
tower, however, is used chiefly for the office of the Signal 
Service, the various instmments for measuring the baro- ^ 
metric and atmospheric pressure, for determining the 
temperature, the direction of the wind, the velocity of 
the wind, and the amount of rain-full being exposed on 
an iron tower built up from the roof and considerably 
higher than the Broadway tower, to the office in which, 
however, the records are automatically transmitted. In 
this ofBce is a small printing outfit for printing signal 
ofB.ce charts, made up from reports and observations 
received from all over the country at 8 A. M, and 8 
P. M. On a flagstaff attached to the Broadway tower 
weather signals are raised, warning mariners agaiustcold 
waves and storms — flags by day and lanterns by night. 
The highest temperature reported from this office was 
100 degrees on June 6, 1881; the lowest, 6 degrees he- 
low 7ero Jan. 10, 1875, The wind attained its great- 
est velocity, 73 miles, on Dec, 81, 1880. The tower 
roof is no longer accessible to the public, but it is inter- 
esting t« stroll around the roof of the main, building and 
observe the number ot superstructures upon it, which 
form a little village all by themselves. The view, how- 
ever, is much out oH by tall buildings, 

Passine out ot the Equitable Bnilding, on the Nassan 
street side, and proceeding to the corner of Cedarstreet, 
the fine buDding of the MiUuai Life Insurance Com- 

£any (C. Clinton, architect), occupying the hloelt 
etween Cedar and Liberty streets, and one ot the finest ^ 



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Bpecimcns of Italian Renaissdnce in the city, is seen. 
Its most impressive feature is a portico two stories 
high, the capitals of the polished granite eolmnns on the 
second story being carved heads emblematic of America, 
Europe, Asia, ana Africft. This baildinff stands upon 
an historic Bite, that of the old Middle Dutch Church 
(p. 128), wliich, during the Revolution, was occupied as 
a riding-school by tlie British calvary, and also as a 
jirison. Subsequently it passed into the possession of 
the United States, and Was occupied as a post-office 
until the present Federal building on Broadway and 
Park row was erected. The CftomSeJ-o/ Commerce of the 
State of New York occupies quarters in this building. It 
coliectsandpublishesannually valuable statistics relating 
to the commerce o£ tlieSlala and city. Being composed 
of leading men in commercial and financial circles it 
exerts considerahle inflnenoa upon legislation. The 
walls of its spacious headquarters are hung with the 
porlraits of many of its distinguished members. Pour 
of the portraits were painted for or purchased by the 
Cliamber. These are of Cadwallader Golden, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of the Colony, painted 1772, by Matthew 
Pmtt; Alexander Hamilton and De Witt Clinton, by 



effected by Sherman while Secretary of the Treasury, 
The Chamber was instituted April 5, 17C8, at Prannees' 
Tavern, and has an unbroken record of the minutes of 
every meeting from that date down. 

Passing up Nassau street to Liberty street and through 
Liber^ street to Broadway, there stands on the north 
side of Liberty street, No. Sl.thtiJieaiHstateUxchanffe, 
theoHeet of which is to facilitate the sale and transfer 
of real estate, primarily in the Ci^ of New York, but 
furthermore, also, throughout the United States. For- 
merly the public sales of real estate were effected in the 
basement of Trinity Building at 111 Broadway. The 
present Biohange was opened on the 14th of April, 1885. 
All sales ot land in New York City under decreei orders 
or judgments have to be made in the looms of this Ex- 
change. The Building Material Exchange occupies 
quarters in the rear jiart of the auctKii room The 
Exchange keeps books in which it regi-ter: for a fee of 



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119 

five dollars, property within the city limits, and even 
considembie property without the eity boundaries offered 
lor sale. It lias, also, valuable records, and offers its 
membeva other privileges. The first private deed on 
record iu New York City is a conveyance of a lot 30 s 
110 feet on Bridge street, between WhitehHll and Broad 
streets, for twenty-four guOders, wliich is about $9.60 in 
our money. Auction sales of real estate on the Exchange 
last year amounted to 844,083,763. 

Leaving the Exchange and proceeding to and np 
Broadway, the nest street is Maiden Lane, This "Bas 
once a country lane crossing the island along a stream 
with marshy shores, and it was called the Maiden's 
Path, T'lTaagde Poatje in the original Dutch, because 
washwomen plied their occupation along the banks of 
the stream. Here, also, the tanners once had their pits. 
The street entering Broadway opposite is Cortlandt 
street, named after the old Van Cortlandt farm, part of 
which was appropriated tor opening the street. On the 
southeast comer of Cortlandt and New Church streets 
stands the large building of the Coal and Iron Eschange, 
and on the north side of the street, not far from Broad- 
way, is the Telephone Building, 

WKSTEiLN Cnios BuiLDiNO — The nest street entering 
into Broadway on its west side is Dey street. Here 
stands one of the most conspicuouB buildings in the 
city, housing one o£ the greatest corporations in the 
United States, the Weslern Union Telegraph Company. 
When this company began operations in 1856, it had 
87,318 miles of poles and cables, 75,686 miles of wire, 
and 3,250 oflices. The statistics for messages, receipts, 
expenses and profits do not esist for this year, but in the 
following year the company handled 5,870,288 messages, 
its i-eceipts were S6,S58,03S.36, and its profits #3,634,- 
918.73. The average toll for a message was a little over 
$1.04, The marvelous incretise in the company's busi- 
ness, and the manner in which it, itself, has grown with 
its growth of business, is clearly shown by the statistics 
for 1890. It had 678,997 miles of wire. Itsofficesnum- 
bered 19,383. It handled 65,878,762 messages. Its 
receipts were $32,387,037.61, Its profits were $7,313- 
735,10, and the average cost for a message had fallen 
from a little over f 1.04 to a little over 83 cents. In this 



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buililing' is the nerve^ie liter of the network of wire 
ivbich stretches uU over this coanti^, and runs along tho 
Iwttom of tho sea to nearly all civilized countries or Ihe 
gli>be; and one can sit in this building' and by simply 
touching a knob eommniiieate with every piaeo in the 
world where there isa telegraph station. In July, 1880, 
tlio uppt storiesof the WestomUiiion Building were de- 
stroyed by Are. The building, remodeled by J. ILIIarden- 
bfiiTTh, occupies a frontitfie of 7o feet on Broadway, and 
including an adjoining building, runs SOO feet on Dey 
street. The Broadway building is nine stories high, and 
is built of brick with terra eotta trimmings. The prin- 
cipal feature of the Broadway front are three wide arches 
on piers which extend through two stories, and are 
crowned with capitals. There are seven arches on the 
Dey street fron^ and the top story is formed by an 
Hicado of arched openings, the whole being surrounded 
by a iieary coroioe of terra eotta. Tho adjoining build- 
ing on Dey street is of the same geiicriil character and 
design, but the structure is tenstorieshi^h. Thesevonth 
and eighth stories, communicating with those of the 
Ilroadway buCding, form immense operating rooms 75 
X 100 feet, fitted up with the most improved apparatus. 
There are employed in all departments in these build- 
ings about 1,200 people; over 3,000 wires center in the 
operating room; 100,000 messiiges are handled, on the 
average, in the operating room every day. There are 
ITSbraneh oiHces in the city. From this building telo- 
graphio communication cau bo had with any part of tho 
world. Tbe company's own submarine cables, which 
land at Wbitosand Bay, Devon, Enchind, and at Coney 
Island, N, T., with land wii-es in England, and under- 

5 round and aerial cables across Long Island and the 
trooklynBrit^ at this end, give a direct connection with 
London. Thence messages are transmitted, either by 
tlic various government systems or submarine cable com- 
panies, or by both, to all parts of Europe, Asia, Africa 
and South America. The company has also direct con- 
nection, through its own submarine cables, which lie be- 
tween Florida and Ilavana, with Cuba, all the West 
India Islands and the northern parts of South America ; 
and by means of the cables of the Mexican and Central 
and South Aijeriean Telegraph companies, which start 



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131 

from Galveston, Texas, it reaches all the important 
places in Central America and on the west coast o[ SoutJi 
America, and has an alternate route, via tha land lines 
from ViUparaiso across the Andes, to the Argentine Re- 
public, Brazil, etc. 

In the basement of the building are immense boilers 
and engines which furnish power for the djnamo ma- 
chines and for the operation of the pneumatic tubes, 
which extend to doivn-town olliaes in the neighborhood 
of the exchanges, and to the principal up-town sub- 
offices, nine in all, and terminate at the up-town central 
office at Twenty-third street and Fifth avenue. Through 
this pneuroatie system, ■which comprises about 16 miles 
of brass tubes, an endless procession of leather boscs, in 
which are messages of every conceivable import, is kept 
moving either by the compression or exhaustion of air. 

JoHM Street M, E. Cuurce. — Opposite Dey street 
John street runs inio Broadway. On the south side of 
John street, between Nassau and William, is the oldest 
Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. It is 

E reserved chiefly for memorial purposes, but also for a 
nsiness men's prayer meeting, wnicn is held from ]3;15 
to 1 P, M. during the week, although the worshipers 
sometimes become so excited that they prolong themeet- 
ing, their shouts of praise and joy, ana their waOings of 
contrition being heard on the street above the noise o[ 
the traffi.c. The history of this ediSce is interesting. In 
1768 a few Methodists neld services at a private house, 
and afterwards in a room in the barraclts near Cliambcrs 
street and Broadway, where the New York Hospital 
afterwards stood, A Captain Thomas Webb, who 'was a 
Methodist minister as well as a soldier, spent the winter 
of 1706-67 in New York, As he preached in his regi- 
mentals, and was also a man of eloquence, be attracted 
such great crowds that the room in the barracks became 
too small and the services were transfeiTcd to a rigging 
loft in William street. Here the society prospered, and 
in 1768 a little rough stone church was erected on the 
site of the present edifice. As dissenters were not al- 
lowed to worship Inchurches, aflreplaee and mantel were 
built in order to give the place a resemblance to a pri- 
vate house. Philip Embury^ the famous carpenter 
preacher, built the pulpit with his own bands, and 



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preached the dedicatory sermon the 30th of October, 
17U8. The gallery was renehed by a liwiilcr. lu 1817 
the structure was taken down and a liirgur one built on 
the i-ite. Dy 18it, however, tlie up-town movemeiit hiul 
dvawii most of the eougregation aw.iv from Its vicinity, 
and the ground upon which it stood twing valuable, tlio 
churoli was torn down, ftud a smaller one built, the lest 
of the land being utilized for business structures. 

Back of what is now IT John street, thongh the site is 
also given as No, 15 and No. 31, stood the famous old 
John Street Theatre. This was not absolutely the first 
place of amusement in New York, for there is a vague 
record of a theatre as fur back as 1740. and in 17S0 a 
company acted in a building on tlie east side of Na^au 
sti'eet, between Maiden Lane and John streeL The John 
Street Theatre was opened in 1767. The performances 
began at 6 o'clock, and ladies who desired good places 
were requested to send their servants by 5 o^lock to se- 
cure them. The theatre stood 60 feet back of the street, 
and its patrons were compelled to walk through a badly 
lighted wooden passage. The interior accommodations 
were a pit, two rows of rough boxes, and a gallery. The 
theatre was lighted by candles. During the Revolution 
it was called the Tlieatre Roi^al, and amateur theatricals, 
some of the plays being written by Major Andre, were 
acted by British ofilcers. Washington patronized it 
during the time that he resided in the city as President 
of tlie United States. Above John and Dey streets, 
Broadway is crossed by Fullan street, one of the most 
crowded thoroughfares of the city. This street runs 
from river to river, and has on its western end Wash- 
ington, and on its eastern end Fult«n Market. At the 
latter point is also the Pulton Ferry to Brooklyn. The 
southeast corner of Pulton street and Broadway is occu- 
pied by the Eeening Puat Building. From here to Ful- 
ton Ferry (Bast River) Ihe street is largely given over 
to retail busioess establisliments. 

FiUton Market, Fulton street and EJast river is one 
of the best known establishments of i*s kind in New 
York. Including restaurants there are 318 stands, and 



1 especially brilliant 



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di^ay of Jish at the market. Opposite, on the east side 
of South street, next to the river, is a wooden stracture, 
three stories hish, which is utilized for a, wholesale fish 
innrket. Here the flshing-smaeks discharge their cargoes, 
and early in the mortiiag the place is made hideous witli 
the shouts of licensed venders and retail dealers laying 
in their stock for the day. Washington Market, at the 
western end ot Fultou street, is a somewhat similar 
structure. It is surrounded by the great produce dis- 
trict of New York, virtually the distiihuting center of 
the country. Saturday evenings, the booths which 
abound in Tesey and Barclay streets, and from which 
frnit and produce, hardware, stationery, toys and in fact 
almost ©very variety of cheap merchandise is sold, are 
illuminated by oil torches, which throw a weird, reddish 
light, Teded by clouds of thick smoke, over the scene, 
the spectacidar efliect being heightened by the hoarse 
shouts of venders and the more subdued, but also more 
steady, roar of the surging crowd. 

Oldest House in New York. — Between Fulton and 
John streets is No. 133 William street, which is consid- 
ered by good authority the oldest house in New York. 
Wheu William street was opened in 1693 from Wall 
street to Fulton, lots were granted on condition that 
stone houses at leaat two stories high should be built 
within two years. No. 132 was built at that time, and 
therefore must have been, erected between the years 1093 
and 16R4. The house is two stories high with dormer win- 
dows in the roof, and is buUt ot narrow Holland bricks. 
There were large open fire-places in the house, one of 
which, in the second Stoty, still remains. They were 
deeorated with white and blue tiles representing Bib- 
lical subjects, and several of these have been preserved. 
The house is now occupied as a restaurant. Eight back 
of this house was Golden Hill, where the first blood of 
the Revolution was shed (p. 131), and in the house wMch 
once stood opposite, Wasliington Irving was bom. 

Fulton Street PnaYEa Meetting. — At 113 Fulton 
street are the offices ot the oldest church organization in 
the United States, the Collegiate Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church, of which tlie Pulton Street Prayer Meet- 
ing is a chapel, known as the North Chureh ChapeL 



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134 

The Fulton Street Praj'er Moeting being decidedly the 
most interesting odjuuct of tliis ancient organization to 
tlie public, and aiso tiie only adjunct of it accessible to 
tiie public on wcclc-days, this is the proper place ia 
■wliicli to give It liistoi'v of tbis venerable body. 

The Collegiate Dutch Chureli was organized in 1628. 
In 1623 tlie first church services on Manhattan TsJand 
were held by Dutch and Walloon immigrants in the loft 
of the first horse-mill built on the island, and in this loft 
the church was organized in 1638. In the spring of 
1633, when the Rev. Everardus Bogardus came out from 
Holland, the erection of a building exclusively for pur- 
poses of worship was begun on the north side of Pearl 
street, about midw^ tietween Whitehall and Broad 
streets. During the Indian War of IMS, a stone church 
was erected inside the fort. The old Middle Church, 
wliieh occupied the site between Cedar and Liberty 
streets, where the Hntual Life Insurance Building now 
stands (p. 118), was built in 1729, and was kept ui use 
until 1844, when it was leased to the governmeut of the 
United States, and was used as a post-offlce until 1875. 
The OoUegiate Church maintains three churches and 
three chapels; the churches being at 14 Lafayette place, 
which is the old Middle Church, Fifth avenue and 
Twenty-ninth street, and Fifth avenue and Forty-eighth 
street. 

The J^tlton Slreel Prayer Meeting^ is held on the 
second story of 113 Fulton street. It is capable of seat- 
ing over 51)0 persons. Signs nn the wall tell the vis- 
itor that "No pei'son is lulowod to consunie over five 
minutes in prayer or testimony," "No controverted 
religious subjecisalluwed lo be mtroduced." On other 
curds are scripture exhottattons. Evei-y day a differ- 
ent leader conducts the meeting, so that the style 
and experience may be varied. As soon as the clock 
strikes IS, the le;ider gives out a hynin, generally a 
familiar one, in which the whole congregation can join 
heartily. Then there is reading and an introductory 
prayer. After more singing, the leader reads extracts 
from the letters which nave been received since the 
meeting of the day before. These number from BO to 
100, and are requests for prayers either for the writer or 



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136 

(or some telatiTQ or friend, for the reform of a drinking 
father or neglectful husband, for the forgiveness of 
some sin that weighs heavily upon the conscience, for 
children who have been led into dn, for the conversion 
of infidels. These letters coine from all parts of the 
Unttod States, and even from foreign countries, showing 
how wide-spread is the fame of the Puiton Street Prayer 
Meeting, The leader calls on some brother to pray as ■ 
requested in the letters, and, after singing, the meeting 
is thrown open to all, and prayer fiSlows prayer, the 
supplications teilingof many experiences similar to those 
which were related in the letters. After this experience 
meeting the proceedings are brought to a close with the 
Doxology. 

St. Paul's Chapel. — On Broadway, between Pulton 
and Vesey streets, stands St. Paul's, a chapel of Trinity 
Parish and the only colonial relic among the churches 
of New Yorlt. It was the third Episcopal church built 
In the city. Its comer-stone was laid in 1754 and it was 
finished in 1750. It seems curious to the beholder to-day 
that its rear should be towards Broadway, but whea 
the church was built the space between it and the North 
river was clear of buildings, and the frontage in that 
direction was considered far more attractive. It is f, 
venerable classic structure, the air of antiquity being 
enhanced by the graveyard which surrounds it. The 
rear on Broadway is a portico supporting a pediment, 
in which is a niche occupied by a statue of St. Paul. 

Within this portico, and set in the rear wall of the 
church, is a monument to General Richard Montgomery, 
the Revolutionary soldier, bearing the following inscrip- 

The State of New York eauaed the temains of Hajor-General 
Richard ]ICoiit«oaierr to be oonveyed from Qitebeo and depos- 
ited beneath tulB monument the StSdarcJJnlr, 1S18. 

This momuuent was erected br ^o order of Oongress -Qie 

twenty-ftftb of Jarnnur, ITTfl, to transmit to poitertty a natefnl 
remembranoeof tbe pntrlotlBni, oondoot, eoterpriee and perss- 
veranoe of Mojor-Goneral Klotiard Montgomery, who, after a 
series of Buooesaes ainfdet the most diaooaraffine aifficiilties. fell 
in the aftack on Qaebeo. 31st Deoember. J7?5, at-ed S7 years. 



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126 

A rough-hown design of military accontremcnts is a 
feature ot the niemariHl. Richard Moiitgojiiery, whom 
t?u» memorial honors, vras born near liaphoe, Ireland, 
December 2, 1736. He was commissioned an officer in 
the British army when he was only eighteen years old. 
He was conspicuous at Ihe siege of Louiabiu^, and in the 
expeditions against Martinique and Havana. In 1T73 
he came to New York and married a danghterof Robert 
K. Livingston. After a series of successes which made 
him master of the greater part of Canada, he effected a 
junction with Arnold, and at 3 A. M., December 31, 
1775, attempted to capture Quebec by a coup de main. 
The first barrier was curried, but as lie was pressing on 
to the second at the head of his troops, he fell with two 
of his aides, killed at the first and only discharge of the 
British artilleiT, and his army retreated. 



Irish patriots. To the north of the rear of the chapel is 
a tall monument erected to the memory of Dr. McNevin, 
and to the south is an obelisk in memory of Thontua 
Addis Emmet. In the east face of this obelisk not far 
below the pyrimidian is a bust of Emmet in relief, and 
below this about 6 feet above the pedestal an oval in 
which is a relief design of clasped hands, the shamrock 
beicg on the wiist of one, and stars on the other. 
Another interesting monument in this cemetery is t)iat 
to Oeorge SVedericK Cooke, the English actor. It stands 
in the central part of the graveyard, and was erected by 
£dmund Kean. Cooke, born at Westminster, April 17, 
1736, died from the effects of intemperanceat New York, 
September 26, 1»13. His fli'st appearance iu the United 
States was October SI, 1810, at the Park Theatre, New 
Yoi'k, on the site of 33 Park row, not so very far from 
where he lies buried. The inscription on his monument: 
■■ Three klnedooiB claim hie birth ; 

was written by Halleek. Upon the monument is also 
engraved "Erected to the memory of Ueorge Frederick 
Cooke, of the Theatre Eoyal Drury Lane, 1821 " 
Kean's son, Charles Kean, finding, when here in 1840, 
that his father's monument t > Cooke had falkn into 
decay, had it repaired, and added to the inscription 



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187 

" RejMUHKl by Charles Kean, 1846." It wss, ns further 
inscriptions upon it tell us, again repaired ia 1874 by E. 
A. Sothern, nnd in 1690 by Edwin Booth, a gracetal 
tribute from the greatest American tragedian to a great 
English predecessor. 

After Washington had been inaugurated on the bal- 
cony of Federal Hall (p. 101), he proceeded to St. Paul's 
Church, where serriees where held, and the same relig- 
ious lormality was olwerved at the Washington Inaugu- 
ration Centennial, when Bishop Potter preached the ser- 
mon. President Harrison occupying Ihe pew which 
Washington had used, which is on the left side of the 
ehuroh and is marked by a bronze memorial tablet 
donated by the Aisle Committee at the Centennial ser- 
vice. On the opposite side of the church is the pew 
occupied by Governor George Clinton. 

On the block above St. Paul's is the Astor House, one 
of the best-known hotels of the city, lu the i-otunda, 
reached through the Broadway entrance, from 2,000 to 
3,500 take their luncheon every day of the year, except 
Sundays. 

Post-Ofpice, — At the point where Park Row runs into 
Broadway, forming a triangle bounded by Park Raw, 
Broadway and Chambers streets, was, until the erection 
of the Federal or Post-OfRce Building, the beginning of 
the old oomtiion pasture now City Hall Park. Broadway 
originally ran in a straight line only as far as the point 
where Park Row now diverges from it. The road then 
continued on the present line of Park Row to Chatham 
Square, where there was a hill, the Scjuare being formed 
by the necessity of laying out the road in a circuitous 
line so as to make the ascent of the hill as easy as pos- 
sible; and it was not until Broadway was continued in a 
straight line from the poiirt where the old Commons be- 
gan that the triangle, at whose lower end the Post-OfSce 
stands, was formed. 

It is worth while to stand at the point of this triangle 
to watch the mighty tide of travel that surges and roars 



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in its course up aud down Broadway. Great biiildiugs 
catch the eye in eitlior direction, but hold it only for a 
momeut, for tlie panorama of huniHnitj, of men, woraeu 
and chitdren, of millioDsiro and beggar, of vehicles of 
every description, allows of no diversion. 

The Building, —The Post-Offlce Building is used not 
only for a post-ofB.ee, but also for the United States 
Courts, thelTiiited States District-Attorney's office and 
other Federal purposes. Its architecture is Doric, with 
a suggestion of Renaissance, and has been severely criti- 
cised. The fact remains, novever, that, possibly only 
by reason of its massivenesa or its superior position, it 
has tlie effect of a dignified and imposing structure. It 
is a granite building f rontinjr 840 feet on Broadway and 
the same distance on Park Bow, and 290 feet on h]ail 
street, whieh runs along its northern end. An effective 
feature of the building is an entrance looking down 
Broadway, from which the two great fronts on Broad- 
way and rai'k Kow spread out. A large dome, modeled 
after that of the Louvi-e, rises above tie skj-line on the 
middle of the Broadway f^ide. 

Business.— The New York Post-Offlce, like the New 
York Custom House, is a source of profit to the Govern- 
ment, yielding some $3,500,000 above expenses. Pi-oin 
the last otneial statement of transactions of the 'Sew 
York Post-Offlce, prepared for the annual report of the 
Chamberof Commerce, it appears that during the year 
1889, 543,006,005 pieces of mad matter were handleil, in 
8,338,820 bags, weighing 333, 637,060 pounds. The sales 
of postage stamps, stionped paper and postal cards 
amouuteu to $5,192,903.61 ; the sales of newspaper and 
periodical stamps to $380,213.61 ; the box rents to 
¥60,993.33; and the total business of the money-order 
department embraced 3,163,630 items, amounting to 
$91,004,353.55. In the registry department 7,471,083 
packages of letters were handled. Several statistics 
relating to the inquiry and dead letter department are 
also interesting; 46,023 letters and packages were refused 
by persons to whom they were addressed, for postage 
due ; 8,433 letters were sent to fictitious addresses ; 
42,303 letters remaining unclaimed at hotels were re. 
turned to the Post-Offlce ; 653,080 letters wore either 



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129 

misdirected or iiisuffieiently addresseii, and of these 
480,067 were corrected iiMd forwarded. Atuoog those 
insaffieiently addressed was one from Germany, directed 
"To my dear son John, New "york," This letter waa 
sent to the dead letter office along with 1,163,S03 
others. In the foreign department 2C,05a,7J!4 letters 
were forwarded and 31,601,619 letters were received. 

The average daily business of the New Yorlt Post- 
Office involves the handling of over 600,000 letters 
and about 9,000 hags of newspaper mail. The most 
interesting operation of the Post-Office, the receiving 
and distrinution of letters, can be watched from a gal- 
lery which runs along the Park Row side of the mezza^ 
nine floor. It is moat easily reached from the entrance 
at the point of the triangle looking down Broadway, 
from which a flight of stairs leads to the floor upon 
which it is located. Guards are in attendance, whose 
duty it is to direct visitors to this or any other part of 
the building. The gallery looks down upon the ground 
floor. On the sonthem end of the Park Row side is the 
city department, and on the Broadway side the outgoing 
domestic, in these departments are shelves with pigeon 
holes arranged according to mail routes in the outgoing 
domestic department, and according to carriers' boxes 
and branches in the city department. On both sides 
are long tables where the stamping is done. As fast as 
the letters are received through the various drops in the 
corridors on the ground floor, they fall upon a table, and 
as they do so they are faced up and passed on to a long 
table where they are stamped. From the stamper they 
pass to the separator, and from him to the mail-maker, 
who verifies tlie separation, ties the letters according to 
routes into bundles, putting ou each bundle a printed 
label marked with its direction. The mail-maker's work 
is in turn verified by the route ^ent in the postal ear, 
who marks any errors he may discover npon the labels, 
which are returned to the New York Posl^OfBce, where 
a strict account is kept. On the Mail street side are 
lai^ pouch racks, in which pouches with open maws, 
receive the letters that are showered into them. The 
foreign department is on the extreme northeast end. 
Everything in the Post-OfBce is done on schedule, and a 
person can ascertain by inquiry of the proper official at 



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ter, in any part of the United States. It may be said, 
ill fact, that tlie Post-Offloe grinds out letters like a 
machine, for if tlie visitor will waieh the carriers' table in 
the center ol the floor, ho will see that the carrier has 
hardly taken the mail for his route out of the bos before 
the Bfsorter is throwiag mail into the hox fur the next 
delivery. 



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CITY HALL PARK AND VICINITY. 

City Hall Paik, which, before 1875 and before the Post- 
OfSee was erected, oeciipieil the entire triangle bounded 
bj Broadway, Park Row and Chatcbers street, is one of 
the old historic sites of the city. It was the old Com- 
mons, used for a paatnrago and for public celebrations. 
Five times each year during one period of the city's his- 
tory, a public bonfire wag lighted, and wine and victuals 
distributed at the town's expense. Not tar from where 
the Register's office now is, stood the gallows; after- 
wards a powder-house was built on the site, it being con- 
sidered sufB.cientlj remote from the city for the storage 
of so dangerous an article. 

In the years preceding the Revolution, when public 
sentiment here was in a constant state of ebulition, this 
part of the city witnessed many exciting scenes. Acon- 
t«st between the noted Liberty Boys and the British 
garrison resulted in the first shedding ot blood on behatE 
of American liberties, two months before the Boston 
massacre, to which event that honor has generally been 
assigned. January 4, 1770, when the news of the repeal 
of the odioiis Stamp Act reached New York, the liberty 
Boys erected a large liberty pole on the Commons, op- 
posite the barracks. Several times ib wiis destroyed by 
the soldiers, and as often re-erected by the people. 
January ISth, two days after the soldiers had destroyed 
the pole, several Sons ot Liberty caught three soldiersin 
the act of posting insolent hand-bills, apprehended them, 
and marched them toward the Mayor's office. A crowd 
gathered, and when a baud of some twenty soldiers at- 
teraptfld to rescue their comrades with cutlasses and 
clubs, the citizens drove them bock upon Golden Hill, 
the highest point of which was just in the rear of what 



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is now 122 'WiUiam street, the oldest house in New York 
{p. 123). Several citizens were ivoitmled, ami oneof them 
iilleil m the affray. Tlie Sons of Liberty tlien purchased 
a plot of lund'on the Commons, directly opposite 
wliat is now 352 Broadway, and (here erected another 
pole, upon, which "Liberty and Property" was in- 
scribed. 

The Park is now an exceedingly attractive snot and 
resting-place. At the junction of Park Eow and Nassau 
street is the triangular point upon which the handsome 
granite Bomfinesque structure ot the Times building 
stands, one ot the happiest architectural creations in 
the city. This and the Pulilaer Building (see below) are 
by George B. Post. Here is " Printing House Square," 
entirely occupied by newspaper ofllces. The statue of 
Benjamin Fi-anklin, the tutelary divinity of printing in 
this country, was erected in 1873, after a design by 
Flassraan, at tho expense of Captain De Groot. Diago- 
nally opposite the l^imes building on the corner ol 
Nassau street, is the structure occupied by the Tribune 
buildinc, conspicuous by reason of its tall tower, and a 
good example of the Neo-Grec style of architecture. In 
front of the SHbune publication ofBee is a flue statne of 
Horace QreeUy, founder of the Tribune, by J. Q, A. 
Ward, which represents the great journalist seated and 



.ipparently pausing a moment 1o think before putting 
Ills pen to paper. Adjoining ihe Tribune is the Sun 
building. On the opposite corner ot Frankfort street 
is the large new buildtnfj of the New York World, the 
Pulitzer Building, with its great dome, aSoi-ding from 
its elevation of ^09 feet a superb view of the city and 
ite environs. 

The municipal buildings in City Hall Park are the 
City Hall itself, the new Court House and the Register's 
office, or Hall of Records, and two other structures in 
the noi-th-eiiat corner. 

City HiiJ.,—TheCityHall, although it was built early 
in this century, is still considered one of the finest, if not 
thefinesi, public building, from an architectural point 
of view, in the United States. Tlje flrat City Ilali in the 
history of Manhattan Island was a tavam bnilt in 1642 
on tho uorth-west comer of Peart street and Coenties 
alley, then close to the shore, and ceded after the orga"- 



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ization o( a city inagistraoy in 1653tothecity as a 5io(i( 
Hays, ns which it was used until 1700, when the City 
Hall on Wall street, at the head ol Broad, was built. 
In 1788 this was entai^d and converted into Federal 
Hall. In 1803 the corner-stone ot the present City HaJl 
was laid hy Mayor Edward Livingston. It was finished 
in 1813 at a cost ot more than half a million dollars. Its 
architect was John McComb, whose work, though ehar- 
acteristio enough to be justly praised as original, shows 
the influence of the Adams Bros, and of Sir William 
Chambers. The City Hall, when cross-sectioned north 
and south, resembles the Kegtster OiRce in Edinburgh, 
built by the Adams Bros, in 1774, and the main stair- 
way is somewhat likethat built by the same architects in 
the Glasgow Assembly Kooms. The architecture is classic. 
The building consists ot a central stmcture of two 
stories and an attic, surmounted by a cupola, and two 
wings ot two stories each, the whole resting on a base- 
ment of brown freestone. The front and sides are ol 
white marble, the rearot freestone. There is a tradition 
that freestone was used for the rear, because the building 
then stood so far out ot town that it was thought the 
rear would not be noticed sufficiently to make it 
worth while to build it of marble. A broad flight 
of steps leads from the south to an Ionic colonnade, 
and thence to a large vestibale opening into a corri- 
dor communicating with the staircases, halls and rooms,. 
A large circnlar stone staircase faces the entrance 
from Uie center of the Bttueture, and on the second 
floor a circular gallery runs around ten marble Corinth- 
ian colnmns. The cupola is surmounted by a statue 
of Justice and a flagstaff. A person looking at the 
building from a position in front of it, is apt to be struck 
by the want of something to lessen the effect of talhiess 
produced by the cupola, and also the monotony of the 
straight roof line. The architect had, in fact, designed 
a pedimental foil for the base of the cupola, showing the 
city arms and statuary, so that from this point of view, 
at least, the building is unflnished. In August, 1856, 
a spark from the fireworks set oH from the roof of the 
City Hall, at the celebration of the laying ol the first 
Atlantic cable, ignited some materials stored near the 
base ol the cupola, and the latter was entirely destroyed. 



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134 

Tlie building contains tlio olRcea of several oitv offi- 
cials, amonff tiiemtlic office of the Mayor, which is in the 
western wing on the ground floor. This oflice is con- 
nected with the Council Cliamber, iii which hangs ii 
large painting of Washington, hy Trumbull, ordered of 
him by the City of New York in ITTO. This is a fnll 
length portrait, and is highly interesting not only for its 
subject and the fact that it commemorates au event of 
the greatest historical importance, the evacuation of 
the city by the British, but also because it is an example 
of a noted early American painter's work. Washington 
stands beside u white charger, which is pawing the 
ground, its head lowered. The Coininaiiaer-in-cniet's 
rig'ht hand holding the reins rests upon the horse's 
croup; his left arm is akimbo, the hand upon his sword- 
hilt, holding at the same tirao his chapeau. He is 
watching the evMuation of the city by the British in the 
distance. 

Governor's Soom. — The most interesting room to 
strangers in the City Hall is the suite of large apart- 
ments on tliesecondfloorfront, known as the Governor's 
Eoom, In this is the furniture used by the first Con- 
gress of the United States in the old Federal Hall. Di- 
rectly opposite the entrance is the large desk used by 
Washington while President; and between the doors 
leadine to the East Boom of the suite stands another 
desk iuso used by Washinstou. The funiiture is all of 
niahogany, and calculated to excite the envy of people 
who can appreciate its beauty and its value as relics. 

In this room are numerous portraits of State Governors 
and Mayors. These paintingsare not catalogued, and are 
somewhat difficult oi identification, but they are never- 
theless a valuable portrait eallery of State and local in- 
terest. There are tliree Trumbulls in the Governor's 
room, chief among them being the fine portrait of Gov- 
ernor George Clinton, who was Governor of ihe State at 
the time Washington was inaugurated President. He 
was a distinguished soldier as well as a statesman of 
force and influence, and it is as a soldier that TiMimbull 
has painted him. He stands in uniform with drawn 
swora, his strong face wearing a look of determination. 
A liattle scene in the background adds to the spirited 
efEeet of this picture, which hnngs in the east wing of 



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of Van Buren by Inman, the latter hanging over the 
desk used by Thomas Jefferson, which stands in the 
space between the two dooisleading into the main room. 
On the Jefferson desk is alaust of DeWitt Clinton, Un- 
ilor the desk is a huge punch bowl, which was used in 
this city at the banquet and celebration o£ the opening 
of the Erie Canal, It was presented to the city by Gen- 
eral Jacob Morton. Inside is the bibolar exhortation: 
"Drink deepl You will preserve the city and encourage 
canals," Many, doubtless, would be willing to preserve 
nnmerons cities and encourage any number ol canals 
upon Biinilar terms. In the south doorway between 
the east wing and the maia room is a portrait of 
Washington woven in silk in Lyons, Prance, at a 
cost of $10,000. In tiie main room, there is above 
the email Washington desk, between the doors l^iiig 
to the east 'wiiig, a copy of Gilbert Stuart's full- 
length portrait of Washington, On the north wall is a 
life size portrait of John Jay, by Weimar. Jay, a 
typical statesman of the wig and knee-breeches school, 
is standing, his right arm testing on the back of a hif^li 
chair, his left on a book upon a table. Between tlie 
doors leading into Ihe West Room is a full-length por- 
trait of Lafayette, by Morse. Lafayette stands upon a 
tiled terrace. He wears a black coat, rooray buff 
trousers, and a brown cloak lined with red is draped 
about him. lu the background are busts ol Washington 
and Franklin. In the west wing are two Trumbnlls, 
the most important of them being a portrait of Governor 
Morgan Lewis on the extreme right of the west wall. 
Governor Lewis was a great fighter, not only in tlic 
Kevolution, but in the war of 18J3, and Trumbull has 
painted him as a soldier. A small portrait of Gen, 
Williams, who was killed in the second war with Bnglaiid 
at Lake Charaplain, is the other Trumbull. It hangs 
on the south wall, beside a large iron statue of Jefferson, 
which was presented to the city by Commodore Uriali 
Levy. Other portraits in this room are a full-length 
likeness of William H. Seward, by Inman, and Hamilton 
Fish, by Hicks, and small portraits of De Witt Clinton 
and Baron Steuben. Soward is shown as a sandy-haired 



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I!i6 

young man in erening drc^, standing hj a mstic chair 
amid rural surroiiiidingK. 

On the same floor with tlie GoTornor's Room, (n the 
northwest corner of the buihliug, is the Aldermen's 
Chamber. In this room ore sis full-length portraits, ouo 
of JeSerson at n table, i^uill in hand, loouiti;,'' up from 
his wridiif; as if wrapped m thought. Hourac, by Van- 
deriyn, whose most familiar work, by the way, is the 
Landing ot Columbus, an engraving; of which on our 
five dalTuc notes makes parting with these less eotl than 
would otherwise be tiie case, is shown standing in grace- 
ful pose in black coat, buff vest and knee breeches. The 
portrait of General and President Taylor, and that of 
Andrew Jackson, who is shown with uncovered head 
and drawn sword, his eyes flashing with the fire of 
battle, are also by Vanderlyn, A strong portrait of 
Clay is by Jarvis. 

Wiiileon the subject of the paintings belonging; to the 
city, it m^ be stated that in tlie office of the Commis- 
sioner of Public Works, No. 31 Chambers street, about 
opposite the new Court House, are Jarvis' portrait of 
Bolivar, Morse's of Monckton, and Jari'is' painting of 
Commodore Perry, a picture of some spirit, but open to 
ike criticism that the small boat in which Perry stands 
would inevitably have upset had he in reality sti-uck the 
attitude in which he is. 

Back of tlie City Hall stands the white marbie build- 
ing of the JVeio Coui-i S««(e, a structure of Coriiithiati 
architecture, three stories high, 250 feet long by 150 
wide. Its most imposing feature is the portico and 
stops with columns on the Chambers street front. The 
State Courts and several of the city departments are 
located in this building. 

Beoister's Officb. — To the east of the City Hall 
stands the old Hall of Records or Register's Office, which 
is one of the most noted historic buQdings in the city, 
being a relic of the Revolution, and in fact theonly pub- 
lie building directly connecting us with Revolutionary 
times. Beginning with the occupation of Kew York by 
the British until Evacuation Day in 1783, it was crowded 
with American prisoners of war and others who had in- 



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137 

ourred the enmity of the British authorities, and wns ruled 
over by the infamously brutal Provost-Marshal Cun- 

Iti 1757, when tlie city was below Wall street, and 
City Ilall Park was in the suburbs, the additional room 
needed in the City HaD, which then stood on tlie site of 
the present Sub-Treasury in Wall street, made it neces- 
sary to build a new jail. Thus originated the present 
Hall of Records, which, when it was finished, stood far 
in the fields adjoining the high road to Boston, sur- 
rounded by the pillory, the wiipping-post, the stocks 
and the gallows. In the stormy days which preceded 
the Revolution, obnoxious patriots were imprisoned 
therein. Its interest as a Eevolutiona^ prison begins 
with theoecupationof New York by the British. There 
is a tradition that Hale, the martyr spy, spent his last 
night here, in charge of Cunningham, his eseoutioner. 
The American prisoners were halC-starved, and other- 
wise most cruelly treated, and to add to the horrors of 
this dungeon, they were obUged to mingle with the 
worst classes ol criminals who were also incarcerated 
here. The well, the sick, the dying, the new-comers, 
and the prisoners emaciated by long confinement were 
here huddled together. An account written by a pris- 
oner Bays;"So aosely were we packed that wlicn our 
bones ached at night from laying on the hard plank and 
we wished to turn, it could only be done by word of com- 
mand, being so wedged and compact as to form almost 
a solid mass ot human bodies. The allowance to each 
man was 2 pounds ot hard biscuit, and 2 pounds of raw 
pork per week,_ but no fuel with which to dress it was 
allowed." It is also charged that American generals 
and soldiers were here slowly starved to death, or poi- 
soned by having arsenic mixed with their rations, and 
here these staunch patriots suSered the tortures of the 
damned rather than gain their freedom by entering the 
British aorrice. Ethan Allen, who was confinednere, 



ningham refused to release his prisoners, and, when 
approach ot Washington rendered longer stay danger- 
ous, he threw away the key. It is believed to be the 
only Revolutionary prison remaining in the country. 



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138 

East River Bbidob. — Next to the Pulitzer liuilditig, 
is the New York terminus of the East River Bridge, to a 
stranger, jwirliaps, tlie moat imposing public work in the 
Uiiitcd States, niid probably the most iiitetesthiff sight 
in New York. It is the laigest siispeiisioii biiJge in the 
world, so grand and yet so graceful that it is ijnpos- 
tible to convey a sense of its beauty in words. To be 
full}" appreciated it shoulil be seen from the river, wbicJi 
is best accoinplishol by crossing over to Brooklyn and 
back by the Fulton Perry, or if one desires a more dis- 
tant view, by the Wall street ferry. It should then be 
crossed from the Bi'ookiyn side ou foot. As early as 
1865, plaus [or a. bridge to Brooklyn from this point were 
prejiared, and in 1867 a company was fonned. In 1875 
the enterprise was made a, State work. Its conslruetion 
was begun after the plans nnd under the supervision of 
John. A. Rocbliiig, tlie originator of wire Euspcnsion 
bridges. Work was delayed by tardiness of appropria- 
tions and other vexatious incidents. The piers were 
built with the aid of caissons of aeize hitherto unknown, 
that on tho New York side weighing 7,000 tons, with a 
concretefillingofB.OOOtons. The Brooklyn lower was 
finished May 18, 18TS, it baring been built up from a 
clay bottom 44i feet below low-water mark. The tower 
on the New York side was completed in July, 18T6, 
being built up from be<l roek TSJ feet below low-water 
mark. The fif^t wire was run serosa in Juue, 1877, and 
the four huge cables were completed by October 7, 1878. 
The bridge was opened May 34, 1688. In the conrse of 
construetiou therewere twenty fata! undnutncrousdisabl- 
ing accidents. In the first accident John A. IWblingwas 
injured and he died of lockjaw, July 22, 1879. His son, 
Washington Roebling, succeeded liim. In ISTO ho was 
stricken with caisson disease, the result of a lire in. the 
Brooklyn caisson, but he was able, through tiis wife, to 



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i3g 

buperinlcnd Uie coDstruction, and later was moved to a 
residence io Brooklyn in view of iLe bridge, from wliicli 
point lie could direct the work. 

The towers are pierced by two archways, 31^ faet 
wide and 118 feet above high water. The arches are 
130i feet high. The floor of the bridge rana through 
these. This is supported by four cables 16 inches in diam- 
eter. The bridge is divided into five parts. On the out- 
side on either skIo are the roadways for vehicles. On 
the inside of these roadways are the roadbeds for the 
trains, which are run on the cable system, and between 
these roadbeds, thut is, in the middle of the floor, is the 
walk for foot passengers. This is upon a higlier level 
than either of the othei- divisions. Pares; foot passen- 
gers 1 cent; cars 8 cents (10 tickets 35 cents); vehicles 
5 cents. 

The following statistics give an idea of the immensity 
of the work : 

Size of New York caisson. 173x102 feet ; size of Brooklyn oals- 
BOtt, 168x102 feet : timber and Iron Id eaisBDn. e.253 cublo yards ; 
concrete ill well-lioles, eliambers. etc., 6.089 ciiblo feet; weight 
of IfewYorkcaJaBon, abcotT.OOOtoQS; wBigbt of concrete flU- 
ing, B.aw tons : New York tower cnntalns 46.945 cubic yards 
masonry: Brooklyn tower oontainB38,B14 cubic yards masomy: 
leii);tl] of river iitan, IJOi faet a liumea; leoftth ol each laiid 
span. 630 feet ; leiurth of Brooklrn approaob, Kl feet ; Isnirth of 
New York approaota.l.liaafeetelaDnes; total lengtbof bridge, 
B.SBB feet; width of Mdn, 8S feet; nainbeT of oables, four; 
diameter ot eaohoabls, UftliehsBiilnt wire was run out Hay 
,K9, l8n;oat>]&'maklQ|{oinnmencCd.]'uiiell, 1817 tleiigtli of each 
Binicle wire In cables. S,BTB feet ; leoBth of wire in four csblei, 
14.3(il mlies ; wtight of fonr cables, Inclodve of wrapidng wh«, 
8,58^ toDB ; ultimate Btrenfith of esoli cable, 1S,900 torn ; irdghi 
of wire (nearly) 11 feet per lb. : each cable <)ODtalusB,S86 pai- 
aUel ttalyanlzed steel, oil coated wires, olosely wrapped to a 
solid oyllnder 1^ iucbea in diameter j depth of tower founda- 
tion below bishwator, Brooklyn 46 feet ; depth of tower foun- 
dation belowlilgli water, New York, TBfeet; size of towers at 

■•'-' *~ line, 140XB9 feet ; sise of towers at iwif oonrsa, IMi 

alheivhtot towers above blRhwatcT.STS feet: clear 
ridtceln center of river span above uiRh wate- -* 

(.P., 158 feet; height of floor at toweri aboveMgiiw 

Bt S Inobes ; Rrade of nwdway, ^ feet In 100 feet; height 

._, J i.n I — L. _i_g (jj anohoragesat baao. 

p,llTil04feet;lielght ot 

„_, , __ ; weight of each anchor 

plate, aa tons. Attaobed to tbc four large oablea are 8,173 haug- 



blgb water line, 140xB9 feet ; bIbc of towers at I'uof o( 
asfect; total heigbtot towers above blghwatcT.STS feet: cleai 
height ot bridtce In center of river Span above bigh water, al 
90deg. F.jlSB feet; height of floor at towerg above Miii water 

'Blnohea; grade of nwdway, ^ feet In 100 feet; hel ' 

rs above roadway, ICIB feet; size of anohoragesat bi 

feet; slzeot anchoraaes at top, llTil04feet; belght ... 

anchoragea, 89 feet rrcnt. BS feet rear ; weight of each anchor 

lag cables. 

The view up and down tlie river on a clenr day i. 



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snperlj. One can see bojonil Governor's and BeiUoe's 
Isrniids; down the hnrbor to Statcn Island and the ^'iti'- 
I'uws; lip tlio Easti'ircr to the bend at Corleara Hook, 
getting a glimpse ot the Navy Yard. New York is a 
plain ot roof tops piei'cod by ititmraerable spires and 
cliimncys, Brooklyn, being situated on liighergi'oniid, 
eliowa perhaps to greater ad vanta^ The rivei' streets 
of both cities aie lined with fihippin^ of all kinds, and 
the river itself is «.live with every variety of craft. 

TraMe. — The report of the President of the trustees 
of the East River Bridge for the year ending December 
1st, 1890, gives an excellent idea of the vast importance 
of this structure. The receipts from tolls were 41.137, 
004.50, divided as follows: Promenade, 118,614,68; 
carriageways, ¥76,405.59; railroad, $1,033; 014. 23. The 



passengers for the year was 8,323,073. The aggregate 
number of foot and railway passengers for the year was 
40,898,484. The receipts from all sources wcre"«l,330,- 
493.D0. The traffic reached its maximum on Nov. S4, 
when 154,550 passengeis were carried in the cai-s. This 
has been exceeded only once in the history of the bridge, 
and that was on ApnlSO, 1889, Washington Inaugura- 
tion Centennial, wjien 159,259 passengers were carried. 
From the opening of the bridge untirDecember 1 last, 
the uoinber of passengers transported was 180,721,240. 



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CHAPTER VI. 

DETOURS FROM CITY HAIL PARK. 

From City Hal! Park several interesting detours can 
be made. On Frankfort street the huge arches upon 
which the New York approach to the Brooklyn Bridge 
is built can ho seen. These have been utilized for busi- 
ness purposes. Between Frajikfort and Fulton streets 
lies the headquarters of the leather trade, the ' ' Swamp, " 
so called from the swampy ground of the old Beekman 
farm, situated here ; a pungent odor fills the ajr in this 
district. Frankfort street leads into Franklin Square 
(part of Pearl street), where the famous historic pub- 
lishing house of Harper & Bros, is situated. 

Harpeb & Brothebs. — This is an iron structure on 
tha west side of the square, a few doors below FraJikfort 
street. The firm was founded in 1817, by James and 
John Harper, and was at first a printing house only. 
The first book printed by the old firm of J. & J. Harper 
was " Seneca's JTorals," and it is a curious coincidence 
that the firm of Harper & Bros, issued a new edition o( 
this work on tha day of the death of Fletcher Harper, 
who, with his brollier. Joseph Wesley Harper, joined 
the original firm soon nfler its establishment. The first 
book published by the Harpers on their own iwicouut was 
" Locke on the Human Understanding." This was :n 
1818. About 1833 the firm was changed to Harper & 
Bros. December 10, 1853, the firm's buildings on Cliff 
and Pear! street were destroyed by fire, inToWing a loss 
of $l,(X)O,00O, only one-quarter of which was insured. 
Nevertheless, the business was continued without intcr- 
mption in temporary quarters, and the present iron, 
fire-proof structure of seven stories, and ooeopying half 
an acre, partly on Franklin Square, and partly on Cliff 
street, was erected. It is still considered a model struc- 
ture of its kind. A noteworthy feature is the absence of 



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142 

a staircase in the buildings themselves, a spiial stair 
way leadinc up from an open court, the building bema 
reiiched bybridgea from this staircaao. IFarpeis Jllaga 
zim wfts established in 1850, Harper^ Weekly in 1857 
Harper^ Bazar in 1867, and Harpers' Young People \<t 
1879. These periodicals, and the long list of books pu'o 
lished by Hai'pcr & Bros., are printed on the spot, tho 
cstiiblisfimeiLt being considered tho most comjilcte piiTi- 
lishiugliousein tlic worid; everything pertaining to tlie 
printing of books, including the iilustrfttioiw iind wood- 
cutting, bein^ done under one roof. For tiiis reason it 
is Bti interesting establishment to Tisit, Permits may 
be obtained on the premise;:. 

Leading from Franklin Square in a northeasterly direc- 
tion is Oherry Street, once a fashionable thoroughfare, 
Washington having had hisflrstresidence as President on 
thecornerofCherrystreet and Franklin Square. Now it is 
in the very slums, and is appropriately enough approach- 
ed through the obscure shadows east by the elevat«il rail- 
road station. Here is the domain of sotne of the worst 
tenements in New York, Many of these are tho old 
fashionable residences crowded with poverty-stricken 
occupants, but there are others of more recent building 
which are, if anything, worse. Filth, noisome odoi's, 
and a general appearance of dilapidation mark this street 
and its vicinitv. Here are the famous double-decker 
tenements, as tney are called, consisting of a huge tene- 
ment divided by a narrow alley, which usually reeks 
with filth, the building on either side of it being prob- 
ably occupied by a population larger than that of many 
a country village or town. The visitor will hardly care 
to linger long in this street, and will probablybe glad to 
retrace his stops up Frankfort street to City Hall Park 

Opposite the New York entrace of the East Eiver 
Itriilge is Tiyoii Row, where the flue building of the 
Slates Zeitung stands. Park Row continues on toward 
the liowery, and Centre street branches off to the left. 
Park Jtow is here a street of cheap hotels, pawnbrokers, 
clothing stores, jewelers and saloons. It is not a very 
attractive thorouglifare, but it leads to some rather pic- 
turesque portions of the city. 

Newsboys' Lodoiso Hol-se. — New Chambers street, 



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1^ 

which runs out of Park Row on the right leads to the 
Newsboys' Lodging House, one of the buildings of the 
Children's Aid Society (p. 62), which also conducts an 
industriiil school here. The Society strives to help 
children by encouraging them to be self-siipportinfr. 
The boys pay sis cent-s for lodging, and sis cents for each 
meal, but will not be turned away if they cannot pay. 
The institution has sheltered since its foundation 37 
years ago 339,360 boys, and the total expense of carry- 
ing on the work has been $433,256.76, of which the lads 
themselves have contributed $173,776.38. There is a 
good gymnasium, iibra^andreading-room in the house, 
aad a day and night indnstrial school. Last year 7,177 
boys were registered, 59,533 lodgings and 83,081 meals 
were provided, and homes and employment were found 
for 837 boys, all this fine work being accomplished at a 
net cost of only $6,511,83. 

Heturning to Park Row, and continuing toward the 
Bowery, Baxter street, which enters the Bow on the left- 
hand side, is reached. This is the headquarters of the 
cheap or second-hand clothing stores, and it is impossi- 
ble to walk through it without being button-holed by the 
runners-in, who occupy the side-walks in front of the 
stores where clothing of all kinds is hung out and flap- 
ping in the breeze. A tour of this street is not par- 
ticularly agreeable, but it is nevertheless a somewhat 
interesting esperience. In the street below Baxter, 
Mvlberry, where the Italians are packed like sardines, 
are other side-lights on life in New York. Where Mul- 
berry street crooks like an elbow, not far from Bayard 
street, is the famous " Bend," where the sanitary police, 
during the summer, scatter disinfectants all day long, 
and where policemen are constantly making tours of 
inspection to find out whether the rooms of the tene- 
ments are not overcrowded to stiSiug, Hero are the 
so-called two-cent restaurants, where a meal and a 
night's rest in a chair are furnished at the small price 
mentioned. The twcwsent restaurant is really only a 
higher-toned name for the stale beer dive, and is nsually 
situated in a damp, mildewed cellar. The beer is ob- 
tained by the keeper of the dive from the barrels which 
saloon-keepers put out on the sidewalk, and after it has 
been simmering all day long in the hot s 



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in 

is retouched willi olicmicalf. Some of the dives liave 
expressive names, siieh as the ■' House ol Blaze?," 
" Bundit's Roost," and the " Black and Tan." 

Entering into Park Bow one block fuctlior down is 
Blott street, ■which from Park Row to Baynril street is 
kiionn tiA ChiTUiloien. Lookiii); down upon the curious 

I d v'c'ons life that is led there by the Chinamen and 
their vtct ms, are the ehiivch and school of the Trans- 
fig rat with an iin^e of the Saviour in a niche 

tH ve tl e portico. No stranger contrast exists in the 
c ty than tl is evidence of Christianitj in this heathen 
quarter of the city, with its Chinese signs and lanterns 
sway g fro n every balcony aud window, and on wires 
tl at are stretched across the street. At 6 Mott street, 
w thin a, stone's throw of the church, is a Chinese 
temple Some of the small shops in this street are 
great Ch lese importing houses, and their owners who 
1 ve he e are wealthy enough to occupy Fifth aveiino 
houses if they cared to. The whole oi Chinatown is 
squalid in appearance, its buildings are rickety, old and 
ill-piuserved, aud the street is baiUy kept, but nothing 
about tlie whole place is as revolting as the faces of the 
white wives of these Chinamen, who are nearly all of 
tlicitt victims of the o^ium liabit, and in the last stages 
of tiiat decadence which overcomes those wlio fallow 
enough to seek relief from the woes of .lite in " hitting 
the pipe." It may be said here that this neighborhood 
belongs to what is known in police parlance as the 
"blomly Sixth," the Sixth Ward of the city being con- 
sidered about the worst, and requiring the most surveil- 
lance; and a visit here, or in fact to any of the slums of 
Xew York — an amusement technieaUy known as " slum- 
ming "~-is best made at night, under the guidance of a 
detective, application for whose services may be made at 
Police Headquarters, which see. At the foot of Park Row 
is Chatham Sqnare, nearly the entire space being occu- 
pied by the structure of the elevated railroad, for from 
ihis point the City Hall branch leaves the main line, 
and the Second avenue branch comes into it. 

The Botpery, which begins here, is no longer what it 
used to be, but is still, especially at night, when the 
cheap stores, lodging houses and dime museums which 
line It on either side are brilliantly illuminated, a pretty 



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lively thoroughfare. But the Bowety boy and his 

5 lory have departed from it, the change being chiefly 
ue to the fact that the large section of the city lyinf; to 
the east of it has of late years heen taken up by Polish 
Jews. Near Canal street, on the west side of the 
Bowery, is the Thalia Theatre, once the principa! Ger- 
man theatre in the city, but now oceupipd by a Hebrew 
company. It was once famous as the iJowery Theatre. 

As several detours made later on in the course of 
(loscribing the city from City Hall Park to Union Square 
will bring the stranger again to the Bowery, it will 
hardly be necessary for him to at present pursue its 

" le further than Canal street. To see it thoroughly, 

' " ■ ■' ■' "■ - " * - ■ - "' ■ side 



e 



however, ho should visit it at night, when the east si .._ 
population and the sailors' boanling-houses south of it 

out their denizens upon it. A curious feature of 

York trade is witnessed in Division Street, which 
leaves the Bowery from Chatham Square. The south 
side of this street cunning from Chatham Square to 
Market street is taken up by an almost unbroken line of 
Hebrew millinery stores, the sidewalks being occupied 
by runnerS'in as importuning as those of Baxter street, 
but differing from the latter in that they are girls in- 
stead of men. 

FlVB PoiSTS Missios. — Retumingnp Park Row toCity 
Hall Park, there is au interesting detour down Centre 
street. Proceeding to Worth street, and turning into it 
to the east, the famous, or rather intamona, Five Points 
is reached, at one time the ■vilest spot in New York. An 
immense amount of noble mission work has redeemed it 
from theold reign of vice and debauchery, leaving, how- 
ever, plenty of work for the missionaries in the neigh- 
boring streets. Dickens speaks of it in his"American 
Notes," saying: "Debauchery has made the very houses 
prematurely <^d. Where dogs would howl to lie, women, 
men and boys slink off the street." He speaks of hide- 
ous tenements "which take their name from robbery 
and murder," and dwells upon the coarse, bloated faces 
at the doors. In 1848 the city converted the little tri- 
angle formed by the meeting of Worth, Park and Baxter 
streets, which come together here in such a way as to 
form five corners, whence the name of the locality, into 
a kiud of park, to which, as if in howling sarcasm, the 



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146 

name ol Paradise Park wns given. In 1850 the Ladies' 
Home Missionary Society of tlie Metfiodist CImrch wns 
formed to I'edeem this spot, which one of tlie ladies eoti- 
nected with the mission described as a more vivid repre- 
sentation of hell than she liad ever imagined. A room 
in one of the miserable buildings W8S hired, and an at- 
tempt was made to establish a Sunday school in it. 
The hoys who were attracted to it by curiosity rather 
than by any desire to improve their condition, threw 
somersaults, fought and cursed; but instead of being 
disheartened, those in charge of the mission redoubled 
their efforts, and matters soon improved to such an ex- 
tent that a day school was added. Temperance meetings 
also became a feature of the work, and as one of tlie 
best means of improving the condition of those living in 
this hopeless locality, employment was found for such 
as were willing to earn an honest living. By 1854 the 
mission had made such progress that its quarters becnme 
toocramped, and an effort was made to enlarge them. 
With this purpose in view, tlio society purchased what 
was known as the "Old Brewery," which was thespecial 
den of vice in this headtjuarters of iniquity. It had 
been erected as a brewery m 1793, and changed into a 
tenement in 1837. It was known as the "Den of 
Thieves," and the nari'ow aJley which ran avoimd it as 
"Murderers' Alley." Mysterious deaths, no doubt due 
to violence, occurred here, and the "sudden death of 
the OldBrewery" was an expression current in police 
circles. It was upon this infamous spot, 63 Park street, 
that the Ladies'HomeMissionarySocietyerected the Five 
Points Mission House, which has done such noble work 
in redeeming this section of the city. Not only is re- 
ligious instruction given here, but there is a day school 
with an important industrial department, including n 
cooking class and a fresh-air home. Deserving poor are 
supplied with clothing, food and medicines. Lodgings 
can also be had in the mission house, a feature of these 
being several suites ol rooms for destitute families. A 
few statistics will give some idea of the work done an- 
nually by this mission. Relief was la.<t year afforded lo 
683 entire families; to 8,160 individuals 38,791 articles of 
clothing were distributed; 91,400 dinners were served to 
pupils at the day school; 320 children were s^nt to the 



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147 

oouDtTf during the Rnmmer, and a great amount of food 
vas distributed to poor applicants. 

House of Industry. — Opposite the Five Points Mission 
House, at 155 Worth street, the Fire Points House of In- 
dustry, another admirabio institution, was incorporated in 
1854. It waa originally an industrial school for adults, 
butis now for children only. Itisaroomy, brick build- 
ing, diridod into a chapel, class-rooms, and living apart- 
ments. The babies' sleeping-room with about 40 tiny 
eribs and the babies' nursery adjoining, ate always peeu- 
liJiily interesting to Tisitors, as there are some 80 little 
ones usually at play here. The most touching sight, 
however, is to see them alt taking their noon-day nap in 
their little cribs, or at their evening prayers, when they 
kneel down in their snow-white night-gnwiis and repeat, 
"Nowllayme down to sleep." On the topfloorisa 
play -room, 90x45 feet, where the children romp and 
motro n.ei.|.y during the play hours. The dormitories ar" 



also roomy and airy, and the beds are as clean and neat- 
looking as any to be lound in the best-conducted house- 
The chapel is on the lowest floor, and is used not 



only for the inmates of the House of Industry and others 
from outside who choose to join in the services, but is 
also loaned to the City Mission for an Italian church. 
At oue end is a raised platform with rows of tiny arm- 
chairs where the little lolk are seated during se;:Tice. 
The rest of the space is for adults, and a gallery is 
reserved for vistors. The best time to visit the institu- 
tion is at the even-song service on Sunday, at S o'clock, 
after which the children go to supper, where they may 
also be seen. The manner in which they conduct them- 
selves, and the general loveliness of the scene, are the 
most charming evidence of the admirable work done by 
the Five Points House ol Industry, Connected with 
the institntion is a homrepathlc dispensary and hospital. 
The day school, under the supervision of the Board of 
Education, is graded up from a kindergarten. At the 
^e of thirteen, the children leave the House of 
Industiy, but the Trustees piaee them in homes both 
hereandoatsideotthecity, andseelt in everyway to keep 
track of any former inmate. Various industrial occupa- 
tions are taught in the house, the course for boys includ- 
ing type-setting and carpentry. The work for last year 



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148 

is summed np as follows : 415,191 meals were given, the 
average attendance ttt scliool was 206, Mid the Eervices 
of 40 teachers and employees were called into reqiiisi- 
tioii. The pupils of tlio diiy school siiieo its organiza- 
tion aggregate 41,010. The system of bringing pupils 
from outside into the house has worked very well, as it 
has prevented the stagnation ot mind sometimes seen in 
institutions in which children are wholly isolated fi'om 
outside influences. 

Tub Tombs. — [Permit from the Commissioners of 
Public Chai'itics and Correction, 66 Third aveiiuo]. 
On tlie west sideof Centre street, between Franklin and 
Leonard, stands the Tombs, the most famous of New 
York's city prisons. Tlie granite structure is a fine 
example of Egyjitian architeSure, and is fittingly dark, 
gloomy and forbidding looking. No part of New York's 
topography has been so clianged by tlie growth of the 
city as the site upon which the Tombs stands. Here 
was the old Collect or fresh water pond, a lovely sheet 
of water, the resort of anglers in summer, and of skaters 
in. winter. In places the pond was 60 feet deep, and it 
Iiad tlie common reputation of being bottomless. Onan 
island in it, stood tne gibbet upon which twenty negroes 
were hung during the negro riots (p. SO). On tlie 
waters of the Collect John Fitch conducted, in the sum- 
mer of 1700, the first trial o( the first steamboat with a 
screw propeller. The pond's outlet was along the pres- 
ent line of Canal street and when, in 1809, Canal street 
was laid out and otiier improvements were made in this 
vicinity, the Collect was fi Lied in, and the pretty sheet of 
water, which had been for so many years the delight of 
pleasure-ieekors, disappeared from the topography of 
the city. The Toml>s has been an abode of woe for 
nearly fifty yeai's. It is not only a jhII, but in its 
various departments exhibits the machinery of the 
criminal law in full operation. A broad flight of steps 
leads from Centre street to a hull into wliicli the 
Tombs Police Court and the Court of Special Sessions 
open. In the Tombs Police Court, which is to the 
right, jnstice is meted out to some 30,000 people a year. 
On the opposite side of the hall is the Court of Special 
Sessions, which is connected by a bridge known us th; 
Bridge of Sighs, with the prison. Across it prisoners 



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are led after conviction. The prison itself is entered 
from Franklin street. In addition to the old granite 
building, two prison buildings of yellow briclt have been 
erected in the yards. These are known as the new 

Srisons, The cells are in tiers. If a. condemned mur- 
erer is awaiting eseontion, and the day ot execution is 
so near that the " death watch " has been set upon him, 
the visitor will see the murderer's c^e, which is pnt up 
in whichever o( the corridors happens to be most 
convenient at the time. In it the condemned are kept 
ten days before execution. It is made of wire nettine, 
and usually occupies half the length of the corridor. It 
also has a wire ceiling to prevent any one in the cells 
above thrnwing- any weapon, rope or poison to the con- 
demned, by which he might be able to commit snieide. 
The Tombs is saddest during visitors' liours (f A. M. 
to 2 P, M.), when mothers, sisters, wives, sweethearts 
and oljiers interested in the prisoners hold whispered 
conversations with thpra through the bars of their ceUs, 
many of the women breaking down when the hour for 
parting comes. In the keeper's apartments is a cabinet 
of murderers' weapons, each ot the implements there 
having a history. 



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CHAPTER Vil. 

FROM CITY HALL PAKK TO MADISON SQUARE. 

Broadway and the streets runcing into it are, from City 
Hall Park to tlie vicinity of Bleecker street, given over 
to the wholesale dry goods dlstriet. WTiile the crowd 
and turmoil, the blockades of vehicles, the shouts of 
drivers, and the struggle of pedestrians at the crossings 
are interestiug, there is no feature of special importance 
to call for particular mention. 

Canal street (p. 148) is one of Ihe main arteries of coni- 
meree from the Bowery and Broadway to the North 
river water front. 

Grand SiKEET. — An interestingdetour from. Broadway 
may he made at Grand street, which runs from Corlears 
Hook on theEastrivertoCanalstreet, crossing it and en- 
tering DesbroBses street, which continues on to the Nortli 
river. AtGrandand Elm streets the 5oiwdo/J?rfiM(iij'oM 
has its ofiices. The whole number of pnblio scliools in 
New York last year was 803. Grammar schools lor males, 
46; for females, 48; for both sexes, 18. Primary de- 
partmentsot grammarschools, 8(1; primary schools, 38; 
evening schools, 23; nautical school, 1; corporate schools 
under supervision of the Board, 48; number of teachers 
Bmi)loyeJ, 4 306- number of pupils, 807,108; total ex- 
penditures, $S 600 635 84 The most interesting portion 
of Grand street lies east of the Bowery for here Grand 
street becomes the great retail shopping district for 
a densely popilated section of the city. The Polish 
Jews throng this part of the city and on Friday 
afternoons hold an open air market in Iloster street 
one block below Grand the -vendors being most numer- 
ous in the neighboihood of Ludlow street. This is 
a picturesque feature of life m New York. In Liid- 
Sow street, just iioitli of Grand, is Ludlow Street Jail, 



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161 

and back of it, on Essex street, the Essex Market Police 

Court. In. Ludlow Street Jail prisoners arrested in civil 
suits or on process of the Federal Courts are held. It is 
the Elba of "Napoleons of Finance," who are often 
finally transported from here to the St. Helena of Sing 
Sing. Ludlow Street Jail is a county jail and permission 
to visit it must be obtained at the Sheriffs office. New 
Court House, City Hall Park (p. 136). On a little open 
space, known as Oriental Park, stands the famous print- 
ing press manufacturing establishment of R. Hoe & Co. 

St. AueusTiNE Cbapbl. — Returning to Broiid way, and 
continuing along its course, a detour through East 
Houston street brings the visitor to St. Augustine 
Chapel, on thesouth side of this street, a few steps east of 
the Bowery. The purpose of this, the only Protestant 
Episcopal church, and one of very few chutches in this 
neighborhood, is to provide means of worship in a hand- 
some and comfortable structure to poor people, and also 
Co instruct children. The chapel and mission house form 
a fine Gothic structure. On fanndays, holy days, and on 
nights when services are held, the cross on the spire ia 
illuminated, and its gleam has cheered many a poor 
wanderer through a stormy night. The church is as 
handsomely decorated as if it stood in one of the wealth- 
lest sections of the city, and is most commodious and 
cheerful. This doubtless is an important factor in its 
success as a mission station. There is a vista of 214 feet 
from the gate at the main entrance through a long vesti- 
bule to the stained chancel windows, whose cheerful 
colors seem a standing invitation to enter and bo com- 
forted. The chapel bell was cast in 1700, and given to 
Trinity by the Bishop of London in 1704, Beneath the 
chapel are Sunday-school class-rooms, which, with the 
other class-rooms in the mission house, will accommo- 
date 1,600 scholars. A da^ school, an Industrial school 
for boys and girls from a kindergarten upward, is in ses- 
sion here during the week, and the building is always 
open to visitors during the day. 

In the building ou the northwest corner of Bond 
street and the Bowery the OommiMioners of Excise have 
their office. According to the last annual report of the 
Excise Board the total number of licensed drinking 
places in the city, other llian hotels, "" " 



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steamboals, waa 6,743. Receipts from liquor licenses 
amouDted to $1,442,740; distributed, aCter the expenses 
of the Excise Board had been deducted, among various 
relormatory and benevolent institutions. At the south- 
west corner of Houston and Mulberry streets is the largo 
building occupied by JPftcft, and at No. 300 Mulberry 
street Mtween Houston and Bleedcer is the building oc- 
cupied by the Police Department, and by the Board of 
Health. It is coinmonlv known as Police Headquorters 
or the Police Central Office. 

Police IlEAiMjirABTEBS. — The police force of New 
York City numbers 3,421, including oneSuperinteudent, 
lour Inspectors, each of them in charge of a, certain dis- 
trict, 86 captains, 168 sergeants, 40 detective-sergeants, 
363 roundsmen, whose duty is to see that patrolmen are 
on their beat, and 3,023 patrolmen, distributed m thirty- 
five poliee precincta and detailed for duty in the Police 
Courts, the Sanitary Company and the Tenement 
House Squad. The Nineteenth precinct, in what is 
known as the "Tenderloin District," in the heart of the 
city, into which large hotels, restaurants, theatres, 
gambling-houses and varied resoits are crowded, has the 
lai^st force, a total of 131. There is one policeman to 
about each 550 cf the population of the city, as com- 
pared with one policeman to every 343 in the Metropoli- 
tan district of London, and one to every 100 in the 
ancient city of London. 

The total annual cost of maintaining the New York 
police force is about $4,425,000. The first public watch- 
men <iTere appointed in 1698. the ordinance stating that 
each watchman should be clothed in a "coat olyecitty 
liverv, with a badge o[ ye citty arms, shoes and stock- 
ings."" The entire force' is now under the supervision of 
a Board of Police Commissioners, oonsistingof four mem- 
bers, one of whom is the president of the Board. To 
facilitate operations, there is a system of telephone and 
telegraph communication between Police Beadquartei's 
and all stations; and at Headquarters and each station 



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are patiol wagons for the quick transportation of 
large bodies of the force. The "Broadway Squad," a 
body of policemen of eoaspiouons stature and strength, 
is charged with preTenting blockades, escorting passen- 
gers, especially nervous females, across the B&eet, and 
maintaining order on the crowded portions of Broadway 
below Fourteenth street. According to the last annua! 
report the number of arrests made during the year was 
82,200, of which 19,926 were females; 3,968 lost children 
were taken care of by the Police Matron at Headquarters 
(one of the most interesting departments to visitors), and 
all but 23 restored to parents or guardians ; property to the 
TaluB of 1647,145.28 passed through the Property Clerk's 
office or was delivered at various precincts, Witliin the 
past ten years 745,046 arrestshave been made. A record 
of cheap lodging houses and dormitories is also kept. Of 
these "hot-beds of vice " there a^e in the city 270, with 
13,648 rooms, which received during thopast year 4,074,- 
035 lodgers. The Detective Bureau, the most famous 
branch of the New York police force, attained its present 
proficiency under Superintendent Thomas Byrnes. 

An interesting feature of Police Headquarters is a 
museum ot criminal implements and the Rogues' Gal- 
lery, a cabinet of photographs of noted criminals, many 
of whom are fine-looking men and women, and the last 
persons in the world one would suspect ot any crime. 
The contents of the museum include burglars' out- 
fits, murderous instruments, each with a history and 
a victim; and, most ghastly of all, the nooses with which 
certain murderers have been hung, the black caps which 
were drawn over their faces, and the cords with which 
their hands and feet were bound before they were svning 
off. 

BoARn OF HEALTa. — The Board of Health consists of 
a Pi-esident, a Commissioner of Health, the Health Of- 
ficer of the Port, the President of the Board of Police, 
According to the last annual report 898,875 inspections, 
including 10,987 tenement houses, were made Idt the 
Sanitary Bureau. The corps inspecting food and chemi- 
cals destroyed 1,495,630 pounds of fruit and vegetables ; 
1,763,283 pounds of meat and flsh. The disinfecting 
corps fumigated 26,345 rooms and disinfected 83,452, 
The summer corps of physicians visited 264,530 families. 



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1C4 

Tho Board of Health's last ■dnnnal vitnl statistics show 
14,400 marria^s, 40,476 births, and 39,583 deaths. 

One block abore Houston street, at the northeast 
corner of Bleeeker and Broadway, is the lat^e building 
of the Manhattan Savings Institntion, and nest to it is 
a small classic building occnpied bj the Blecckcr Street 
Bank for Savings, tho oldest saTings lank in the city. 
With Bond street, which runs into Broadway from the 
west one block above Bleeclier street^ the publishers', 
and more especially the retail booksellers' district, may 
be said to begin (p. 111). On the south side of Bond street, 
near Broadway, is the puhtisbing Brm of D. Appleton 
& Co.; diaries Scribner's Sons, who are also publishers 
of Scribiier'a Magazine, are at 743 and 747 Broadway, 
opposite Astor Place; and on Lafayette Place, which 
runs parallel witliBroiidway to Astor Place, are a num- 
ber of publishing firms aiiu the Astor Library, proba- 
bly the best and moat utilized reference library m the 
city, whiio tho Jlerfiuiiilo Library building is a large 
structure on Astor Place, 

St. JosEpn's Home, — On the northeast corner of 
Great Jones street and Lafayette Place is St. Joseph's 
Home, nnder the Mission of the Immaculate Virfrfn for 
the Protection of Homeless and Destitute Children, a 
greut Eomiin Catholic charity. It started in snuill 
quartern in Warren street in 1876, but by 1880 had grown 



I institution wliich rcqnireil the present ten-sloiy 
ig for the prosecution of its work. The iii' ' " 
management of tho Mission House is under tho ci 



the Sisters of St Francis. There are, among the child- 
wn, two divisions, having distinct dining-rocuas and 
dormitories. Those in llie first division, destitute, 
homeless l>oys, who await the time when suflicienlly 
f^ti'ong and possessed of a good rudimenfary and indus- 
trial eilucationlhey may enter some trade, store or office 
in which tiie Jlission secures them work, reside in the 
home. The second division is ior working boys who 
pay whatever they oau loi the excellent accommodations 
sffordi'd them, and are apt, thanks to this Mission, to 
bi'ciime self-supporting, nonest and industrious citizens. 
There are about 1,800 children in the Home. Con- 
nected with the institution is Mount Loretto, a 
fine stretch of fertile fartu land with a nui»ber of 



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I5S 

buildings upon it, situated on the south shore of Staten 
Island. 

At the northeiiRt corner oE Lafavette Place and Fourth 
street is tlie largo building of the be Vinne Press, and a 
few doors above on the same side of the street, in a 
priyato house, the old Middle Dutch Reformed Church 
{p. 124). At No. 37 on the opposite aide is the Episcopal 
Diocesan House. 

AsTOR LiBKiRT.— On the east side of Lafayette Place, 
not far from the oornef ot Astor Place, in a large build- 
ing of brown stone and brick is the Astor Library. It 
was originally endowed by John Jacob Astor, who died 
in 1848, leaving ^00,000 for the library. His son, 
William B. Astor, and his grandson, John Jacob Astor, 
added respectively $550,000 and $700,000 to this endow- 
ment. The library, incorporated January 1, 1849, 
opened at 33 Bond street, with 20,000 volumes. The 
board of trustees included Washington Irving, as presi- 
dent, and J, G. Cogswell, as librarian. In 1854, the 
central portion of the present structure was opened. A 
wing was added in 1859, and another in 1881. Open, 
except Sundays and legal holidays, 9 A. M. to 5 P. M., 
closing, however, at 4.30 P. M, and 4 P. M, in winter. 

The Astor Iiibrary is intended to be, above all, a 
reference library for students. It is not a circulating 
library. The entrance leads into a vestibule decorated 
in Pompeiian style, and containing twenty-four classic 
busts of Greeks and Romans. A flisnt ot sliaii-s 
rises to the floor above, where the librarian's as- 
sistants receive applications for and hand out books. 
Near this are the tables with catalogues, and also a 
cabinet containing a card catalogue of accessions 
since 1880. On this floor are, besides the distribut- 
ing desks, the North and South Reading Rooms, sur- 
rounded by 90 alcoves, four stories in height, for the 
shelvinR of books, their capacity being 315,000 volumes. 
On the floor below 350,000 additional volumes can be 
placed. At the east «nd ot the middle hall is a bust of 
the library's founder, John Jacob Astor, and at the west 



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166 

end one of Dr. Cogswell, A bnst of Wnslilngton Ining 
is conspicuous ill the Eonlh liall, Tliosa desiring to 
prosecute ^tial studies are allowed, on bringiac il let- 
ter of introdiietioii from some rcs|)oni"ible person Known 
to the librarian, to have access lo ilie alcoves where llicy 
can make their notes or write. 

SlatisHcs. — There are no' 

pamphlets, about 268,(K)0 i 
estate is estimated at about $3,000,000. The whole 
number of i-cjidera for the past year was 64,310, of 
whom 10,236 were alcove readers. In the depa,rimcut 
of Science and Art 73,790 volumes were in use, and m 
the depaTtmentof History tisd Literature 97,737, making 
a total for both departments of 170,547. In the former 
department the branch most consulted was Chemistry 
and Physics, 8,339 volumes; and the least consulted 
Domestic Economy, only S49 volumes. Tliis last figure 
is an apt commentary on certain aspects of American 
life. It may be noted that l.GiJo volumes on Slusic were 
in use, the libiiiry being especially rich In this depart- 
ment, containing the full oreliestral scores of Wagner's 
operas and music dramas. In tlie department of History 
and Literature the branch of American Ilistory was most 
largely in use, showing a total of 17,916 roluraes. 
British Literature was next wilh 17,039, and then 
American Literature with 9,102 volumes. Dutch 
Literature was last with only 11 volumes. It may be 
noted that in the branch of Heraldry and Genealogy 
there were 3,653 volumes used, showing an active hunt 
for ancestors on the part of some New York families. 

Eare Books and Mnwiseripls, — The library has an in- 
teresting collection of rare books and manuscripts, the 
earliest date (8T0 A.D.) being an illuminated manuscript 
on vellum entitled "Kvanj^liBtarium, sive Lcctiones ex 
Bvangelis." The finest is, however, a superb manu- 
script of the seveiiteeuth century on Tcllum parchment, 
<k great size anil beauty, and bound in purple morocco 
with eilt momiliugs. It is an "Antiphouale," contain- 
ing 338 pages of the Antlphonal music in use in the 
Roman Catnolio church service, 272 small and 53 targe 
miniatures in the highest style of French art, the larger 
paintings representing scenes from the Bible, some of 
the work being authoritatively attributed to Lebmi!. 



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157 

The superb binding is ornnmented with a fleur-de-lis, 
and with the cipher ol Charles X, at whose coronation 
it was desigaod to be used. Another fine work in the 
collection is entitled "Graduale da Tempore Omiiius 
Anni," 1494, It is finely illuminated on vellnm wilt 
huge Gothic letters and square musical Dotes, and minia- 
tures ol sacred Bubieeta. To judge by the arms and 
portraits of nobles which fill the borders, it was probably 
executed by order of the princes assisting at the corona- 
tion of Ma^iruillian as King of the Romans in 1466. In 
the collection are also one o£ sis copies of the first letter 
of CoJumbua, describing his discovery of a new world; 
the first edition of the Bible printed with a date, "Biblia 
Sacia Latina, 1463," an original eofiy of the Papal Bull 
against Lnther, and three folio editions of Shakespeare 
(first, second and fourth), which are enough in them- 
selves to attract many visitors. Their dates are respec- 
tivelv 1623, 1633 and 1685. Among letters and auto- 
graphs are specimens from Franklin, Jefferson, Hamil- 
ton, Fredericic the Great, Humboldt, Beethoven, Liszt, 
Cuvier, and TaJma. Most of these rare works and 
■e arranged in cabinet and g. 



rarest objects in the collections are shown only on appli- 
cation. (See also Lenox Library.) 

Cooper Ukioit. — At the junction of Third and Fourth 
avenues, fronting on Astor Place, is the bioivn sioiic 
building of the famous Cooper Union, foutidcd by Peter 
Cooper, the American philanthropist. 

The eoruer-stone of the Union was laid in 1854, and 
in 1859 Cooper deeded the property to sis trustees to 
carry out the purposes whicn he had in view. It has 
been estimated that stnce the Union was opened 30,000 

Cupils have attended the classes alone, not counting the 
setures which have an average attendance of 200, nor 
the reading-room and library, which are used by from 
1,400 to 1,500 readers a day, and on holidays, such as 
Thanksgiving, by some 3,8(K). 

Schools. — In tliD free night school of Science and Art 
(7:25-9 ;30P.M.) a regular collegiate mathematical course 
can be iiad. Women are admitted to the Scientific but 



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not to the Art department, except the class in perspec- 
tive drawiiis, tliere being a free art school for womaji 
during the diiT. 

The WemaiiS AH Sclmol (9 A. Jf. to 1 P. M.) em- 
braces ft full theoretical ami practical course in art. 
JUany pupils of this school have secured situations as 
drawing tenchers. Pattenisdesignedby niembersof the 
class in design are bought hy leading manufacturers in 
this country and woven and printed in fabrics, so that the 
ta£te and ekill of the pupils in this dejiartnicnt are dis- 
played in dry goods stores in New York and other cities. 
The amount earned hy the pupils of the term of 1888-80, 
and by the m^vious years graduates is estimated at 
$3S, 404.03. Thei* are also free day schools in stenog- 
raphy and tytve-writiiiK and in telegraphy for women. 
Saturday nights free lectures aro delivenHl in the great 
hall of the birikliiiK in the basement, and thci'e are lec- 
tures suppletnentalto the various couj'ses, 

'j'he Free Beading-Room of the Cooper Union. 125x80 
feet, with deep alcoves at the sides, is one of tlie Jai'gest 
and beat equipped in the country. The chief and most 
useful resources of the frequenters of this readin 



The attendance at the various departmt ,— 

clnJing 560,429, at the Free Reading-Rooin, reached a 
total of S64,010 — certftinly a magnificent showing, em^ 
cially as the large attendance at the various lectures aas 
not been taken into consideration. 

Bible JIousb. — The large brick building occupying 
the entire block bounded-by Tiiird and Fourth avenues. 
Eighth and Ninth streets, and just north of the Cooper 
Union, is the Bible House, in which the American Bible 
Society has had since 18o3 its offices, composing and 
printing establishment and bindery, employing QOO 
hands in the work of printing the Bible in Eiiglisii and 
many foreign languages. 

Instituted in 1816, the Society iias since then dis- 
tributed 52,73B,075 Bibles. 

The Society carries on ilswork by auxiliary branches, 
and by colporteurs. Bibles and other publications are 



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The total cash receipts lor general purposes during the 
year endinff March 31, 1889, were ¥597,603.05. In ad- 
dition to this the sum of |43,316.05 was received and 
permanently invested. The disbursements for general 

Eurposes amounted to $629,955.74. The Society ptib- 
shes Biblea and portions ot the Bible in many loreigu 
languages, includmg, besides those of Europe, Hebrew, 
Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Zulu, Ponga, various Indian 
tongues, Hawaiian and Syriac, and volumes in raised 
letters for the bluid. Among large editions of the Scrip- 
tures that have been printed in other lands at the 
Society's expense maj; be specified 32,700 yolumes in 
Constantinople, 1,275 in Beyroot, 88,519 in Japan, and 
223,100 in China. Prom its organization, the chief re- 
liance ot the American Bible Society, both for the circu- 
lation of Bibles and the subscription of funds, has been 
its numerous auxiliary societies throughout the United 
States. Recently the work of afouvtb general re-supply 
of the United States has bten undertaken. Over G,300,- 
000 families were visited ; 8,146,828 copies of the Bible 
in 27 difEerent languages being distributed. Some of the 
more important in foreign lanpiages were as follows; 
GerBian,473,930; Swedish, 330,377; Norwegian and Dan- 
ish, 153,707; Italian, 57.883; Welsh, 89,387; Finnish, 
a,S14; Polish, 2,817; Hungarian, 3,648; Bohemian, 
9,934; Chinese, 7,343. One of the Society's Important 
auxiliaries. The New York Bible Society, office at the 
Bible House, makes a specialty of distributing Bibles 
among immigrants and seamen. It keeps an agent at 
the immigrant landing office, where some 68,000 volumes 
are annually distributed, and has an agent working con- 
stantly along the water front of the city who, during the 
year last reported, visited 1,843 vessels, distributing 
6,030 volumes. 

In the Manager's room is the main part of the 
Society's valuable and unique collection of ancient and 
modern versions o( the Holy Scriptures, including the 
two editions ot 1611, the Oxford reprint of 18S3, the 
the Cambridge Paragraph Bible, the Caxton Memorial 
Bible, the first English Bible printed in the United 
States, the Psnlterium Americanum of 1718, the " Vine- 
gar Rilile" (Vinegar tor Vineyard in headline of Luke 



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xx), the "Breeches Bible" ("breeches" used in Qan, 
iii, 7), and the earlier editions of tho Kheimish Testa- 
ment and the Bouny Bilile. It is esjMtcially lith in works 
relating to the history of tlie Enghsh Bible and the ef- 
forts which have been made during two centuries to 
amend and improre it, and among its treasures are the 
archives of the American revisers and the collection of 
books made for their use. Among the few manuscripts 
owned by the Society is a Hebrew roJl containing a por- 
tion of the Pentateuch, brought from China, where it is 
supposed to have been in use for several centuries. 

On Stuyvesant Place, which runs into Astor Place and 
Third avenue, stands SI. Mark's Ftoiestant Episcopal 
Church, erected as a private cliapel by old (Jovernor 
Stuyresant (p, 19), and opened for worship as a public 
cbu'rch in 1779. Jn the graveyai'd in which the vener- 
able structure stands, gtuvvesant is buried, the stone 
marking the site where he lies being in the east wall of . 
tlie church. It was from this graveyard that the body 
of 4 T Stewart wa" =to!on (p 1C4) 

N Hi Soc Ty N Se 

Av 

9 A P m 



res as ta g 000 

of b , , (DO bound volumes of newspapers l ^ued 

in America front 1704 to the present tiina; a large col- 
lection of manuscripts, public and private documents 
fi-om the earliest colonial period to the Civil War, and it 
is esceptionally strong in works relating to American 
history and genealogy. Here the American in search of 



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161 

a family tree can find a whole forest and select as fine 
and varied a line ot ancestors as that purchased by Major- 
General Stanley in the "Pirates of Penzance." The 
Society also has s. large permanent picture gallery, and 
while many of the paintings are porLraJts which have 
only local interest, many others are valuable works of 
art. It owns the Abbott collection of Egyptian anti- 
quities, well-known to Egyptologists through the studies 
of distinguished scholars, and the Leaos collection of 
Assyrian sculptures, consisting of thirteen large marble 
slabs excavated by Layard from, the ruins of Nineveh, 
These are in the basement of the building. The library, 
art, and Egyptian galleries are on the fl.oors above, the 
entrance to the library being 6a the second floor. 

The walls of the stairway are lined with paintings 
which have not found accommodation ia the gallery 
proper, and on the landing ot the first story at the en- 
trance to the library is a nude, finely modeled figure of 
an Indian, a replica by Thomas Crawford from his 
"Progress of Civilization in America," a group eie- 
outed by order of the National Government for the Capi- 
tol at Washington. The art gallery and the collection 
of Egyptian antiquities are reached from the library. A 
catalogue ia loaned by the hbrarian. 

Mgy^lian Antiquities. — Conspicuous in the Abbott 
collection of Egyptian antiquities are; 1 — A colossal head 
in sandstone, tlie face painted red, being a portion, of a 
statue of Thothmes III, who, according to Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, was the Pharaoh of the Esodus, 1491 B.C. 
This Pharaoh wears the white crown oC Upper B>ypt, 
with the sacred serpent, the emblem of royalty, in front. 
43 — A small coffin in unbaked clay. This illustrates a 
curious usage among the Egyptians. At the entertain- 
ments of the rich just as the company was about to rise 
from the repast, a small ooffiu was carried round con- 
taining a perfect representation of a dead body, the 
bearer exclaiming; "Cast jour eyes on this nguro. 
After death, you, yourself, will resemble it. Drink 
then, and be happyl 44, 45, and 46 are bricks without 
straw, possibly made by the children of Israel; 140— 



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Three wooden eats with glass eyes, from the cat tombs 
of Sakliftron. One Iiiis its face gilded and contains the 
mummy of a cat, 153— I'hreo large mnmmies of the 
Saei'ed Bull, Apis, found in tlie Tombs of Dafhour. 
These are perhaps llie most valuable cshiJiits in the coi- 
led ion, (IS these mummies are very rare. It is said 1:0 
other mtisenm possesses a speeimcn. On the back of 
ihe middle bull may be seen a, net of ivpe used for tlie 
purpose of carrying objects between two persons, a stick 
being paKied under the two pieces of wood, and sup- 
ported on the shoulders of the carriers, together with 
a large rope bag found in the pit with the bulls, and sup- 

Eosed to liaTe been used by their attendants to carry the 
rod for the sacred animals. Two skulls of the sacred 
bull are found in the same ease. 334 — Papyrus in the 
Hieratic character 86 feet long, and in such perfect pres- 
ervation that it does not require to be stretched on 
paper. 460 — A beautifully executed sixwa iu hard 
wood, representing a, Nubian woman swimming, sus- 
taining ill her extended arms a duck or goose which is 
hollowed out and forms tlie bowl ot the spoon, 554 — An. 
iron helmet with a neck-^uard in chain armor, found at 
Thebes, with the fragment of a breastplate (575) made of 
pieces of iron in the form of scales, one of which is the 
cartouche of the Egyptian king Shishak, who invaded 
Jerusalem 971 years B.C. 743 — A caricature painted on a 
fragment of limestone, represeutine; a lion seated on a 
throne as a king, and a fox as liijui priest making an 
offering ofaplueked goose and a feather fan. 76ft— A 
funereal papyrus 23 feet long, exquisitely written in 
very small hieroglyphics and finely illuminated, being 
porlect both at the commonoement and the end, the 
illustrations representing the most remarkable events in 
tlie life of the deceased. 1,0S0 — A gold signet ring 
bearing the name of Shoofoo, the Suphis of the Greeks, 
3,835 B.C., a fine piece of antique cold woigliing nearly 
three sovereigns; hieroglyphic details minutely eiwjraved 
and boautitiilly executed. Pound in a tomb at uhizeh, 
1,053 — Two ear-riiigs and a necklace found in a jar at 
Dendera. They are iiiade of gold leaf, have tliree pen- 
dants of lapis-lazuli, and two beadsof blue glass attached 
to tu^ centre, where there is also a» oval amethyst bead 
capped at each end with gold. The name ot Alenes, the 



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first Pharaoh nl Esypt, who reigned 3,750 B.C., is 
stamped upon the ear-rings, and upon eight oval plates 
of the necklace, 

Picture Gallery. — The picture gallery embraces the 
entire collection at the old New York Gallery ol Fine 
Arts, which contains the Luman Keed collection. In 
1867 the Bryau Gallery of Christian Art, and in 1883 
the DQrr collection were donated to the Society, From 
1 to 175, the paintings in the gallery are chiefly by early 
American artists, representing John Trumbnll, C, W. 
Peale, Rembrandt Peale, Benjamin West, Stuart, A. B. 
Durand, Elliott, Jarvis, Vanderlyn, Mount, Morse, In- 
man, Cole. 175 — Bamshoreugh, liandscape. Names of 
oidltalianmast^rsarefoundintheBryan collection which 
runs from 178-556. Severa!, however, are but indifferently 
authenticated, lK—6uido of Sienna, "Virgin and 
Child with Four Saints," Prom the collection of Artand 
de Montor, 183 — Simone Memmi, "The Last Judg- 
ment." This is the picture of which Michaels wrote a 
graphic description in the Gazette de France. 197— 
nrw/ino, "Adoration of the Infant Christ," 198 — Leo- 
nardo di Yinei, "St, John Weepinc." 200 — Raphael, 
"Birth and Resurrection of Christ. The anthenticily 
ot this and the last-named picture rests entirely upon 
critical opinion. 308— K/ion, " Tlie Repose in Egypt." 
The authenticity of this replica is argued from the 
absence of some figures in the baeliground and the intro- 
duction of a rivulet in the foreground, and a butterfly 
upon a flower in the right comer, it being presumed 
that a copyist wOTild liave made an exact copy. 214 — 
Paul Veronese, "Abraham Discarding Hagar and Ish- 
mael." S30 — Andrea Montana, "The Crucifixion." 
The Jewish type is preserved in the features of many of 
the figures, and in this crowded canvas no two pieces of 
offensive or defensive armor are alike, which is worthy 
of particular remark, as Sijuarcioni, the master of Mon- 
tegna, had the largest and most varied collection of an- 
cient arms which existed in his day. HSZ^Correggio, 
"The VirMn and Child, Mary Magdalene and St. 
Jerome." The original is at Parma. The authenticity 
of this replica is argued from differences in minor points, 
as the work of a copyist would probably have reproduced 
the original with all possible fidelity. 333 — Domenichino, 



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"St, Paul borne to Heaven by Angels," 242 — Sah'at<>r 
Rosa, "Landscape," with hJEtorical figures. 

Among esnmples of the Dutch School are: 359 — Jan 
Beereslr^Un, "Winter Scone," a line esample of ihis 
master. 380— Diraui, "The Artist in his Studio," 291— 
JanvanSyek, "TheCnieifision." 828 — Portrait signed 
with R. (Rembrandt). 384-388— Jii*iejis, tlieanthenticity 
of 837 has been denied by critics of authority. 843 and 
344 — Jacob Ruysdad. 849 — Jan iS/een, family scene. 
851 — David Teniers, the younger, "Incantation Scoiip." 

Early German: 875 — DSrer, "St. George and the 
Dragon." 377 and 378— Holiein. 

Spanieh School: 333-38ft- Teinsffues, 387-300— i/a- 

Frewh Sehool: 898-403— Mcfto^os Poiiesin. 403- 
405 — Ouaspare Poussin. 431-423 — Anloitte Watleau. 
436-441— Of-euae. 444 and 445— remei. 567-574 are 
Indian portraits by St. McmJu, and 578-591 is a collec- 
tion of paintings ol the Inoas ot Peru. 

The DQrr collection embraces Nos. 634-813. 634 and 
C3o— ilf«rt/?o. 648— Attributed to Titian, " Martyrdom 
of St. Laurence," signed. Possibly the first of three 
pictures on this subject which Titian painted. 644 — 
Attributedto Titian, " Aretinotiie Poet." Thispicture 
was found in tiie wagon of a vivandiere named Machaii, 
who was killed at the battle of Marengo, and finally 
passed into the private cabinet of Deiion, diractor of the 
AIuE^e Napoleon. There are many examples of the 
Dutch school in tha Diitr coUeetion, among them, 736^ 
" Combat ot Cavalry," attributed to Rembrandt. 

Returning to Broadway and continuing upthatthor- 
oughfare the first structure of interest is the large iron 
building bounded by Ninth and Tenth streets, Broadway 
and Fourth avenue, and occupied by the dry goods house 
of K. J. Denning & Go., successors to A. T, Stewart, the 
famous " merchant prince," and the pioneer among the 
ereat retail dry goods dealers of the city. Alexander T. 
Stewart was boru in Lisbiirn, near Belfast, Ireland, on 
the 20Ui cl October, 1838, died in New York April 10, 
1876. Having studied for the ministry he came to New 
York in 1833, where he tanght sehool for a short time, 
soon afterwards retnrning to Ireland to secure the mod- 
erate fortune left him by his father. He invested it in 



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165 

a stock of Belfast laces and linens ■which he brought with 
him, to this country, opening in 1825 a stoce at 211! Broad- 
way. The venture was successful and his business grew 
to extraordinary dimensions. He erected the store at 
Ninth and Tenth, streets and Broadway in 1862. His 
fine marble residence on tlie northwest corner of Thirty- 
fourth street and Fifth avenue, now occupied by the 
Manhattan Club, was for many years the most conspicu- 
ous private house in the United States. Where Broad- 
way verges toward the northwest is Grace Church. 

Grace Church. — Open daUy <9 A, SI, to 5 P, M.). 
Hardly any building in the city occupies so advanta- 
geous a position from an architectural point of view, for 
it faces obliquely down Broadway, efCeotively ending oH 
the vista from down town. The first Grace Church was 
built in 1755, on Broadway near Trinity Church; the 
present in 1S46, It is a fine example of ornamental 
Gothic. The parsonage and the structure joining it to 
the church, known as Grace House, are in. the same 
style. In front of the parsonage is a pretty garden, with 
well-kept lawn, flower-beds and shrubbery, the whole 
forming a most picturesque break in the line of business 
houses. All the windows of the church are stained-glass 
memorials. The large chancel window illustrates in 15 
separate piotnres the Te Deum, In the left transept 
window are the Patriarchs and Prophets, in the right 
the Saints, Connected with the church is a pretty little 
chantry, in which services are held daily, at 4.30 P. M. 
The eongreaition is very wealthy and fashionable, and 
there is an idea prevalent that it is a self-satisfied col- 
lection of worshipers, partaking of religions stimulants 
in commodious and elegant quarters, and not caring 
very much what becomes of the souls of the rest of the 
world. As a matter of fact, however, Grace Church 
does a vast amount of arduous mission work, having a 
chapel on East Fourteenth street, i>otween Third and 
Fourtli avenues, a mission house at 540 and 643 East 
Thirteenth street, a summer home at Far Rockaway, a 
library and reading room in Grace House, on the church 
premises, and. a Memorial House at 06 Fourth avenue, 
where an immense amount of industrial and mission 
work is accomplished. A pretty feature of this is a day 
nursery where working women may leave their children 



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166 

foi' tho (lay, the little ones being entertained and fed by 
tLa good people of Grace Church at a charge of only five 
cents to the mothers. 

Unios Square. — Broadway is intercepted at Four- 
teenth street by Union Square, one of the prettiest pub- 
lic parks in tho city, covering' about 3J^ acres, and ex- 
tending from Fourteenth, to Seventeenth sti'eet, and 
from Broadway to Fourth avenue. It is laid out in 
lawns, with shrubs, shade-trees and flowers. In the 
center is a, pretty fountain with water plants, and on the 
oast side, near Sixteenth street, a drinking fountain. At 
the north end of the Square is a broad space for parades 
and reviews. A cottage within the park faces tliis plaza 
a;id has a balcony for reviewing officers, and along tlie 
southern end of the plaza in front of the cottage is a 
long row ol ornamental colored lamps. The Square is 
illuminated at night by a cluster of brilliant electric 
lights on a tall pole near the center of the park. 

There are three statues on Union Sqnare; In the south- 
east quarter a bronze equestrian statue of Washington 
of heroic size, by II. K. Browne, one of tho finest monu- 
ments in the city; opposite Broadway, at the southern 
end of the park, liartholdi's graceful statue of Lafayette, 
erected in 1876 by French residents of the city "In re- 
membrance of sympathy, 1870-1871"; in the southwest 
quarter a bronze statue of Lincoln, by H. K. Browne. 

The Square is surrounded by important business 
buildings. The most attractive is that occupied by 
Tiffany & Co., the famous gold and silversmiths, on the 
so thweat corner of Fifteenth street, a visit to which 
should be made, as its contents form a veritable museum 
of lewelry and allied arts. Between the Livingston 
Bu Id gad Tifiany's is Brentano's, a noted pertolical 
and book store. The music trade also has its head- 
quarters at and near Union Square. The most con- 
sp cuo 3 bu Iding on the northern side of the Square is 
that partly occupied by the Century Company, which 
J bl I es tl e Centiiry magazine aud 5/. Nicholas. Ad- 
]0 ng tl s on the corner of Fourth Avenue is the 



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1G7 

Everett House. Fourteenth street to the west is given 
up to a great variety of retail business, including several 
piano warerooms, while to the east of Union Square on 
the same thoroughfare are numerous concert hails and 
lestauianta, Steinway Hall, the headquarters of the 
l-iaiio manufacturing house of Steinway, and on the 
coiner of Irving Place and Fourteenth street the oM 
Academy of Jlusic, once famous as the home of Italian 
opera, and in days gone by graced by the most fashion- 
able audieneoa of the city, but now given over to theatri- 
cal parposes of a different onler. Kest to it on the east 
is Tammany HdII, the headquarters of the famous local 
Democratic organization. Tlie most noted German 
theatre in the city, Amberg's, stands at the corner of 
Irving PlH«e and Fifteenth street. Irving Place ends at 
Twenty-first street with Graraercy Park, This coraprises 
about an acre and a halt, but is not open to the 
general public, being reserved lor those living in the 
neighboi'hood. At Sixteenth street and Stuyvesant 
Square is St. George's P. E. Church (open all day) and 
its iino parochial house, the headquarters of a vast 
amount of mission work, 

YoDNO Women's Christun Assocution.— On Fif- 
teenth street, between Union Square and Fifth avenue, is 
the fine building of the Young women's Christian Asso- 
ciation, an organization nliich accomplishes an iininense 
amount of good in its special field of work. This waa 
founded in 1870 and incorporated in 1873, and its advan- 
tages are offered more especially to those young women 
who are dependent upon their own efforts lor support. 
There is a circulating library of some fifteen thousand 
Tolumosof miscellaneous reading matter, open daily from 
» A. It. to 5 P. M. and from 7 to 9 P. M ; a reading-room 
op«n daily during the same hours; an employment bureau 
open from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M., which secures employment 
for girls with the exception ot domestic service; a board- 
ing house directory, open from 10 A. M. to 1 P. M. and 
from 7 to 9 P. M., which directs applicants to boarding 
places, more particularly with private families, thus secur- 
ing for tbem as near an approach to home surroundings 
as possible. Concerts and lectures are also given during 
the winter and spring, and there is Bible instruot.ion 
every Sunday on the promises. Admission to the 



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Jecturea is by lickot obtducd on iwrsonal application at 
the building. The support of tlio association is by vol- 
untary coati'ibutiona, 

Oa the aoulli sldo of Sixteenth street, between Union 
Square and Fifth avenue, is the free circulating library 
and reading-room of the General Society of JHechanic^ 
and Ti'itdcsmen, an inatltution. generally known as the 
Apprenticed Library, free to all persona pi'esentznff a 
certificate approved by a member o( the soeieLy, which 
has meeting rooms on the second floor. Connected 
with the society is e. free school o( mechanical and 
tree-hand drawing, which is conduoted in the base- 
ment. On this same block, and adjoining the Appren- 
tices' Library, is the etching and engraving store of 
P. Keppel & Go. Similar establishments in this neigh- 
borliood are Klftclinor'B on the nortli side of Seventeenth 
street, between Union Square and Broadway, and 
Wunderiieh's on tlio east side of Broadway, between 
Seventeenth and Bighteeiitli sti'cets. On the some block, 
but on the west side of the street, is "Huyler's,"anoted 
candy store. 

Broadway, between Union Sijuaro and Twenty-third 
street, is one of the great shopping districts of the city, 
and all tlie establienments mentioned below are worth 
visiting, as business is carried on there on a colossal scale. 
On the block between Eighteenth and Nineteenth strecf s 
are,at 877, A. A, Vantino&Co., whose store isaninsenm 
of oriental goods; and, ftdjoiuiijg this, the dry goodsstoro 
of Arnold, Constable & Co, Opposite this is the great 
carpet warehouse of W. & J. Sloane, filled with articles 
of domestic and foreign manufacture from the cheapest 

Sriced to the most costly. Between Nineteenth and 
'wentietb Etrcels are, on the west side, the Oorham 
M/g. Co., silversinitJis, and the dry goods house of Lord 
& Taylor. The northea.'st corner of Broadway and Nine- 
tecutti street, which is not yet occupied by a business 
building, and affords the curious eight of a private 
residence In spacious grounds in the line of the rush and 
turmoil of traffic, belongs to the Cioeiet estate, and will 
doubtless in time be given over to commerce. On the 
norlhwest corner of Twenty-firet street is the china store 
of Davis, Coil aniore & Co. At Twenty-third street Broed- 
way crosses Madison Square. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 
FITTH AVENUE. 

FEOM "WiSHlKSTOS SQUABE 10 CEBTBaL PiEK. 

In order to gain a comprehensive idea of Fifth avenue, 
wtieh. Broadway crosses at Madison Square, it is neces- 
sary to proceed down " the Avenue" to its beginning at 
Washington Square. 

Washtmgtoh Square. —Washington Square, originally 
a Potter's Field, is a public square of about nine acres, 
bounded on the north by Waverlcy Place, on the south 
by West Fourth street, on the east by University Place, 
and on the west by Slacdougal street. Washington 
Square separates the most fashionable from one of the 
least fashionable quarters of the city; though one does 
not now, as formerly, in crossing Washington Square, 
pass from the abode of wealth to the abode of poverty 
and vice, for the southerly neighborhood has been greatly 
improved. It still harbors a> large colored population 
and the " French quarter." 

The most noteworthy building on the south side of 
Washington Square, is the Adoniram Judson Memorial 
Chnrch and Mission, built in memory of the well-known 
Baptist missionary to Burmah. It stands on the comer 
of Thompson street. On the east side, between Wash- 
ington Place and Waverley Place, is the oastle-lifce 
structure of the University of tne City of New York, 

New Yoek Univebsjty. — This institution of learning 
originated iu the action of a number of citizens who met 
December 6, 1839, and considered the estabhshment of 
an university, the plan being lo add a graduate course 
to the regular college currieuhim. Instructioa began in 
1833, In 1841 a Medical School was added, and in 1859 



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170 

a Law School In 1886 tho gcaduale ilivision of tho 
Bohool of j\rts and Sciences was greatly estejidcd, so 
that tlie institution is now I'eally deserving of tlio name 
University, The Schooiof Arls and Suieiices aad tlio 
I.BW School occupy the building on Washington Squai'e, 
tiie erection of winch was begun In 1883. It contains, 
besides tlie I'cgular recitation roomsand laboratotieH, llic 
counoil-i'ooin, and an oxccllent law library. AinoiiK tlio 
distingnished members of tho fivcitlly have been I'rof. 
Samuel F. B. Morse, who la a voom in the south tower 
can'ied on experiments which resulted in the invention 
of the telegrapli, and Praf. John W. Draper's experi- 
ments in photo^aphy weivi carried on in what is now 
the library. 

The Medical Scliool occupies a building on Kast 
Twenty-sixth street, between First avenne and tlie East 
river, opposite Bellevtie Hospital. Here a course of two 
years enables the student to acquire, on satisfactory ex- 
amination, tlie degree of M. D., provided he has studied 
m d' ■ for an additional year. Part of the structure 
u^et aboratories in cheraistrv, physiolocy. biology, 

pa h gr and materiamedieaistKeXioomisIdiboratory, 
n to bnild and equip it having been ^iren 

u Dr. Aifred L. Loomis, the donor remaining 
an m , The last matriculation in this departinont 
an un d to 633, and included besides many New 
Y k re a id students from other parts of the country, 
f Norway, Turkey, Kiiasia, Prance, Canada, 
Persia, Chili, Hungary, Mesico, Germany, Central 
America, Austria, liulgaria and Poland. 

In theUniversitybuddiiigKolwrt Wiuthrop laid the 
ficeue of his powerful novel, "Oeei! Dreeme." Above 
the University, University Place extends up to Four- 
teenth street. On the east side of this thoroughfare are 
at No. 9 the College for Training Teachers, and at Ji'o, 
21 the Charity Organization Society. 

WiSHiNOTow SftiTARE, KoRTU. — The houses on the 
north side of Wasliington Square are examples of tlio 
old style New York fi^ionable residences, of brick with 
white steps and porticoes, white sills and pediments, and 
in many instances white doors. Between Fifth avenue 
and University Place stands a row of these houses in an 
almost unbroken line, like a eouipauy of soldiers. Fifth 



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171 

avenue ends at the north side of this square, but a broad 
thoroughfare continues it through the park and circling 
uround a basin, about in the centre, winds into SoutK 
Fifth avenue and Thompson street. East of the basin is 
a statue of Garibaldi, represented as a hero of (he 
swftshbneliler order, erected by Italian citizens of New 
York in 1888. 

Washinbton' Arch. — The most conspicuous structure 
in or about the square will be the Washington Centen- 
nial Memorial Arch, built of marble from designs of 
Stanford White. It will staJid fiO feet south of Fifth 
avenue, 86 feet high with a span 30 feet wide, the piers 
havinga width of 10 feet each. The abutments will be 
occupied by large rectangular panels, and the architrave 
festooned with garlands. At the base of the piers are to 
be figures ia statuary. It will be flanked by slender mar- 
ble columns rising slightly above the level of the imposts 
of the arch and each surmounted by the figure of an 
eagle. These columns wOl support lamps on either side 
near the ground. The erection of Ihis arch was sug- 
gested during the Washington Inauguration Centennial 
inl889, when a temporary arch of Mr, White'sdesign was 
put ap at Fifth avenue and Washington Square. The 
areh is now in course of construction, and certain details 
of decoration have not yet been decided upon, but it will 
undoubtedly be one of the noteworthy sights of New 
York. 

A good idea of Fifth avenue may be obtained by tak- 
ing one of the stages which, starting from South Fifth 
avenue and Bleecker street, cross Washington Square arul 
then run up Fifth arenue to Eighty-fourth street, nenr 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fare, five cents. A 
number of stages have accommodation for passengers 
outside. Fifth avenue from Washington Square to Cen- 
tral Park is, however, well worth a trip on foot. It is 
crossed between these points by several great thorough- 
fares, among them Fourteenth, Twenty-third and Forty- ' 
second streets, and near these it is given over to business. 
Along the rest of its course, however, it is occupied by 
fashionable residences, hotels aJid clubs, and the busi- 



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173 

ness eondueted on it is mostly of a kind which appeala 
to people of wealth and fasMoii, 

Fi'om Washiiifrton Square to Fourteenth t eet th 
greater part of Fifth avenue is given iij to e d 
At Teuth street a detoar may bo made o t) o Jeffe 
son Market police court and prison, Tenth st eet a 1 
Sixth avenue. To this police court all tl e pr one s 
apprehended in the iamous "teiiderlom prec net (p 
152) are brought. Tbc prison itself is bndt on ode 
principles, »nd whoever has been througl the te e e t 
house district ol New York will probably conclude 
that the prisoners are ranch better off as far asliglit and 
air arc concerned than they were before tltey wcro 
apprehended.* 

On the north side of Tenth street, between Fifth and 
Sixth avenues, is the well known Studio Building, a 
large brick Btructnre, the earliest built eKclusivaly for 
studio purposes. The studio of William M. Chase, one 
of tlie handsomest in the city, which m»y be visited 
Saturday afternoons, is in this building. Other studio 
buildings are the Sherwood, 58 West Fifty-seventh 
Btr&;t, the building of the T. 51. C. A. (p. 174), and the 
University Building p. 100). 

An interesting detour may be raade througli Four- 
teenth street to Sislh avenue, both Fourteenth stwot 
and the last-named avenue being- amotig the most 
crowded retail business thorougli fares of the city. The 
large bazaar of li. H. Mucy & Co. stands on the soutli- 
eaat corner of Fourteenth sbreet and Sixth avenue, and 
is well worth a visit, for under its roof one can purchase 
the furnishings of a house as well as an outfit for one's 
self. It is merely a matter of choice whether the visitor 
wiU make a shoil detour up Sixth avenue and vi^it sonic 
o( the hirge retail houses on that thoroughfare, or do so 
from Twenty-third street. 

'BytakintratthispoiDttliearnfB-town cars whicli mn down 
West 'Fanth street to CbriatapLar Btroet terry, the visitor can 
reaob thepteniof the White Star and Inmim Un«e of steamBhtps. 
and It wfifbe wurtlt wliile tn iln se If the Teutmila, whtuh hulds 
ths record (3 daj-s, l^; hr>iin> ami 03 minates), tlis Jtahaie. Iiol h 
of the White Star liiio, the tMg itf Fiirli or the UUd qf yew 
York, of the Inman Une. are In |)ort Tlia C'uiiorcl, Onion and 
French Uties are near here and the Bremen and Ilambur;! lines 
In Hobokon are easily reuclied by Christopher street fen'y. 



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178 

New York Hospital,— On the north side of Fifteenth 
street, belween Fifth and Siisth aTenues, and running 
through to Sixteenth street, is tiie lar^ building of the 
New York Hospital, one of the oldest institutions of its 
kind in the United States, and the oldest in New York, 
haviDg received its charter from George III, June 13, 
1771. During the Revolution, its building, Broadway 
and Duane sti-eet, served for barracks. Mot until Jan- 
narj 3, 1T!)1, was the hospital hrst opened to patients. 
Treatment of patients suffering from mental disorder 
has always been part of the work of the Society. These 
were treated in the Hospital until the Society purchased . 
ill 1816 a farm at Bloomingdale, where the Jiioomingdale 
Asvlum was completed and ocenpied in 1821, 

The present New York Hospital edifice was built in 
1877, Besides the reception and private rooms and the 
wards of the hospital, there are in the building a fine 
medical librai^ and pal^hological collection. The total 
number of patients treated last 3'ear was 1,716, of which 
306 are to be credited to the Bloomingdale Asylum, 
where, since 1831, 8,683 patients have been admitted. 
The original building of the New York Hospital waa 
one of the first structures on Broadway above Chambers 
street. Although it was not regularly opened as a 
hospital until 1791, anatomical experiments were carried 
on until 1788, when a medical student threatened some 
peeping boys with a cadaver's arm. The frightened 
boys conveyed the intelligence to others and a mob 
gathered, upon which the soldiers were compelled to 
fire before the eseitement was queUed. 

The iarge building on the northwest comer of Fifth 
avenue and Sixteenth street, is occupied by Jwdge, and 
other publications ; and on the south side of Sixteenth 
street, near Sixth avenue, are the church and college ot 
SI. Janets Xavter, weU-known Catholic institution?. 

On the northw^ comer of Fifth avenue and 
Eighteenth street Is Chieketing Hall, and directly oppo- 
site it the resid^ce of the late August Belmont. At 
154 Fifth avenue is the large, building of the Methodist 
Book Concern, -which alijo includes the rooms of the 
missionary socioly; on the northwest corner the Union 
Club, the largest purely social club in the city; and 
opposite it the Lotus Club, which includes a number 



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Boiissod, Valadon & Co.'b (Goiipil's) art store, where 
generally a number of flne pHintings cim Ln; seen on 
csliibitlon. 

Twbstv-ThirdStrbet.— At Twenty-thM street, both 
Filth avenue (iml Uroadway enter Malison Square, Tlie 
block bouniled by Twenty-second street, Brrodway wid 
Fifth avenue, runs here to a niiiTOw point, forming a 
triangle corresponding to another on the north, but, un- 
like the latter, occupied by houses. Twenty-third street 
both east and west of Fifth avenue, is an important 
thoroughfare. Between Fifth ami Sixth avenues it is a 
crowded retail busiueas block, there boiiig here sevei'al 
of the beat, known dry goods houses in the city, and also 
tlie publisljiiig liouses of Q. f. futmim'e Sons, and E. . 
P. Button & Co. 

On the north side is the Eden Musee and on tlie north- 
east corner of Sixth avenue and Twenty-third street the 
Masonic Temple. On East Twenty-third street are, at 
No. 6, the American Art Galleries, where paintings are 
geneniUy on exhibition, and on the southwest corner of 
Twenty-third street and Fourth avenue the building of 
the Youns Men's Christian Association. 

Touso Men's CnBisrujr Association.— This is virtu- 
ally a young men's club of a, soinowliat religious tend- 
ency, offering also opportunities for' instruction, the 
club and instniotion fees being within the raoana of 
nearly every self-supporting young man. The Associa- 
tion oHera to its sabscribers the privileges of reading- 
room, parlors, gymnasium, Iwwling alleys, library and 
baths, all well furnished. Informal social gatherings 
take place at stated interrals; there are "members 
meeti»gs"nnd musical aud other entertainments, and 
athletic clnb, outing, rambling, football auil tennis 
clubs. The Association owns an athletic ground at 
One Hundred and Fiftieth street, near Slottavenue, and 
boat-houses on the Harlem riTer n^r by. Regular 
comiictiCive sporte are here held in the spring and fall. 
The educational department carries on its work in a 
liberal and extended manner, classes and lectures being 
lield chiefly in the evening. 

Xational Academy op Desiqn. — On the northwest 



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175 

comer of Fourth avenue and Twenty-thiwl street is the 
Natioiml Academy ol Design, a buildiHg of white and 
grey marble and bhie stone, coiiied after a Venetian 
jiidaee, with 80 feet fi'ont on Twenty-third street and 
09 feet on Fourth avenue. A double fiight of steps rises 
to the main etitrance on the Twenty-thictl street front, 
and here a massive stairway leads from a vestibule to the 
third story in which are exhibition galleries lighted from 
the roof. The Academy was founded in 183S and ia still 
by virtue of its age, membership and influence the best 
known institution of its kind in the country. Its mem- 
bership is composed entirely of artists, known as National 
Academicians (N. A.), who form the corporate tiody, and 
■ ' ?3 (A, N. A.). Exhibitions of painting and 



2S cents. 

Connected with the Academy are schools of art, open 
from the first Monday in September to June Jst follow- 
ing. Those desiring to become students must submit 
some specimen ol their work. Features of the course 
are the " Harper Fund Leetnres," the expenses of which 
are defrayed by a fund given by Harper & iiros., the 
publishei's. 

At 143 Bast Twenty-third Street is the Art Students' 
Ijeague, founded JnneS, 1875, instruction being given 
Iiere by artists identified with the propressive tendency 
of the Society of American artists. The Lei^ue is soon 
to occupy fine quarters in the new building of the 
American Fine Art Society (composed of the Society of 
Amerioaa Hrtists, the American Water Color Society, the 
Institute of American Architects, and the Art Students' 
League) on West Fifty-seventh street, between Sixth 
and Seventh avenues, where tlie various societies named 
will exhibit. On the southeast corner of Lexington 
avenue and Twenty-third street is the CoUege of the 
OUy of New York, which is under tlio jurisdiction of 
the Department of Public Schools, the tuition in it being 
free. On the southeast comer of Twenty-third street 
and Fourth avenue is the New York Soeidy for the Pre- 
vention of Crusty to Children, an admirabie institution. 



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Ill ite rooms may bo seen a coUpption ol implements 
which cruel parents and others have used in torturing 
littla ones. During its sixteen years of existence ii. lias 
rescued nearly 28, SOO children, besides sheltering, feed- 
ing aiid clothin^roany more at its room. The President 
or the Society, Bl bridge T. Gerry, was largely instru- 
mental ill its founding. The Society for the Fret'enlion 
of Cruefly to Aiiimak. is building a new struclui'e on 
the southeast corner of Fourth avenue and Twcnti'-tliird 
street. IMring twenty-J-ears it has prosecutecl soma 
16,000 cases in court, compelled a temfwrary Euspension 
from work of over 39,000 disabled animals, humanely 
killed over 29,000 horses disnbled past recovery, and re- 
moved from the streets in ambulances over 5,000 horses. 
It has a mnseam of implements with which animals have 
been cruelly treate<l the stufted skin of a dog killed at a 
prize fight, nith all its hideous rounds the stuffed skins 
of the victor and ^ ictim of a cocking roam a victim of 
rabbit coursing and similar objects 

Madisos Sqlare— Fifth avenue cms^es JTadnon 
Square in a straight 1 ne Bioadway diagonallj foiinmg 
with Fifth a\ nue on the northiii. t con r a •'m 11 
triangle occupod Ly a mono te it to Mijor (rcntral 
Worth (ace belon) At Bioalway and Tweiitj third 
sti-oet, fronting the Squiit is tie Fifth Aieiiue Hotfl 
Broadway Is, from here to Forty second street gnen up 
largely to fine hotels, theatres, restaurants and sliops. 
Ii! the lines of promenaders who throng its sidewalks 
there is apt to be a dash of the "oJT-color" element, 
which becomes more pmnonnced as the shades of night 
deepen, for Broadway, tvam Twenty-thiul to Thirty- 
fourth streets, is the main artery of the "Tenderloin 
District" (p. 152). A block above the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel are the Albemarle and the Hoffman House. The 
Hoffman House Cafe is elaborately decorated and hung 
with works of art, among them Boiigiiereau's " Nymphs 
and Satyr." On the cast Madison Squai-e is Ijounded by 
MiuiisDQ avenue, which runs to the northern end of 



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m 

Ma I att»n I iai d and s al t entirely given over to 
res dc ce o tlie orth by Twetity-sistli street. On 
the northeist corner of F fth avenue and Madison 
Squa 15 3 he Bra civ Dot 1 and diagonally opposite 
it Del n n o the mo t famous restaurant in the 
Umted States. 

MosuMBNTS. — There are three monuments in Madison. 
Sqiitue. On the southwest corjier is a bronze statue by 
Randolph Rogers of William H. Seward, Lincoln's Sec- 
retary of State ; on the northwest corner a statue of 
Admiral Parragut, by Augustus St, Gaudens, presented 
to the city by the Farragut Memorial Association in 
May, 1881, and in the northern triangle, formed by the 
intersection of Fifth avenue and Broadway, the wortli 
monument. 

Farragut Slalue. — Tlie Parragut statue is considered 
the most artistic work of its kind, in Hew York and in 
fact one of the finest of modem statues. The sculptor has 
solved the problem of producing a picturesque represen- 
tation of a man in moaern clothing, giving even artistic 
valne to such prosaic articles as trousers. The pedestal 
also is a noteworthy Tariation from the oi'dinary con- 
ception of this necessary accompaniment of a statue, and 
would have been still more striking had the monument 
been placed on some elevation as the sculptor believedit 
wouiil be. This pedestal, tho plans for which ware 
drawn by Stanford White, is of North River blue stone, 
and is flanked by a curving wall beneath wliich is a 
seat, each of the anns forme« by the curved back of a 
sea fish. Next to the pedestal are allegorical figures; 
that on the left Loyalty, on the right. Courage. Wavy 
lines, on. the pedestal and over the inscription on the 
wall, cover the designs and letters like a veil of undula- 
ting sea. The inscription on the right wing of the wall 
is biographical ; that on the left is as follows : 

"TTiat the memory of a daring and sajtaoious commander and 
Kentle Breat-aouled roan, whose life from childhood was given 
to his cunntry, but who served hersiipremeiy in the war f"r the 
Union A. D. MDCCCLXI-MDCCCI^v; may be preserved and 
honored, and tliat they who come after hlra and who wili owe 
Llm BO much may see htm as he was seen by friend and foe. hia 
• ' .-. ..^.v„ . . 'J. MDCCCLXXSI." 



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, . B coolness and thie moral strength 
wliich atcoiriiwiny authorit^r, a boldness ol eoneentioii 
and an initiative force, ivhieh are peculiar to Ameneftiis 
aiid of which Farragut was a living example. ***** 
There is the sailor with his simple and well ordered cos- 
tnme, the frock-coat buttoned close, the skirt loose in 
the ^itid, the figure well balanced with the le;^ a little 
apart as is natural on a moving ground." The whole 
figure has the soljdily o{ a iiving person, not the mere 
avoirdupois of a lump of bronze. 

Duvid Glasgoe Farragut was born at Campbell Station 
near Knosvillc, Tenn., July 5, 1801, He died at Ports- 
mriutli, N, H., August 14, 1870. He became a midship- 
mauat thoageof eleven, his first service being aboard the 
famous Essex dnring her engagement with the Alert. 
and also wlicn she surrendered to the Phmhe and Ciierttb 
inlhobayol Valparaiso, 1814. Commodore I'oi'Lercom- 
niendcd the gallant bobavior of the lad, F:irragut, 
expressing his regrets that lie was too young for promo- 
tion. In 1823 he took tMirt in the attack on the pirates 
at Capo Cruz, Cuba. During the next 40 years his 
promotion washy the slow process oi seniority, and when 
the Civil War broke out he was sixty years old and only ft 
Captain, He was then at Norfolk, Va., onwaitingorders, 
and when Virginia seceded he took his pistols and his 
family, and hastened north to offer his services to the 
government. After nine months' idlenessatWashiiii^n 
ne was ordered to command the espedition for tlio 
capture of New Orleans. Here ho performed his first 
great feat of war, which drcvr the eyes of the world 
1 him. On the night of April 31. ISr ' ' 



upon h. — — „ , ... 

the forte nndcr tremendous fire and destroyerl twenty 
arnied ^teaniers, four iron-clad rams and many fire rafts, 
silenced [he two Chalmette batteries three miles below 
New Orleans, and at noon the second day had the city 
beneath his guns. He next passed the fortifioations at 
Vicksbnrg. but there being noco-oporativelandforca he 
repassed them and withdrew to Pensacola for repairs. 
July 11, 1803, bereeeivcd the thftnks of Congress and later 
was placed first on the list of Rear Admirals. In th, 
autumn he captured Corpus Cliristi, Sabine Pass and 



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179 

Galveston. In March, 1863, he got the Hartford and 
Albalross past Port Hndson to Vicksburg, establishing 
communicatiou with the uppei MissiBsippi fleet ana 
blockading the Red River ^tWnoaupplies could reach 
the Confederate forces. Late in May ce eoHDperated at 
the reduction of Port Royal, and August 6, 1864, he 
assisted at the capture of Mobile. Here, lashed to the 
rigging, he dnshed tothe head of the fleet at the first 
favorable opportunity. He again received a vote of 
thanl:s from Congress and was created Vice- Admiral, 
and July 25, 1866, Admira], Prom 1867 to 1868 he was 
in commandof the European squiidron and was received 
with great honor at eveiy port he visited, 

Worlh Momiment. — ITie Worth monument is directly 
opposite the Fatragut statue. It ia of granite, in the 
shape of an obelisk. On the south face there is a bronze 
relief of Worth, mounted, and above it an armorial 
design ; on the east face, cut in stone in a pane! of the 
pedestal, ' ' Ducet amor Patris " ; on the nortn. face, a coat 
ot arms, and on the west face, " By the Corporation of 
the City of New York, 1857— Honor the Brave." The 
names of battles in which Worth was engaged are sculp- 
tured on bands around the obelisk. 

William Jenkins Worth was bom at Hudson, N. Y., 
1794; died at San Antonio, Texas, May 7, 1849. He 
entered the array as a private in 1812, became Second 
Lieutenant in 1813, and subsequently aide to Generals 
Lewis and Scott. At the battle ol Chippewa he won the 
brevet ot Captain for gallant conduct, and at Lundy's 
Lane, that of Major. In 1815 he became Captain. Prom 
1821 to 1828 he was Instructor of infantry tactics and 
commanderof cadets at West Point, In 1841 he had 
the chief command in the war against the Seminoles, 
and ill 1842 was brevetted Brigadier-General. Ho dis- 
tinguished himself during the Mesiean war in numerous 
battles, especially in stonning the City of Mexico. He 
was brevetted Major-General and received swords from 
Congress, the State of New York, and his native county. 
He died of cholera. His remains rest beneath his monu- 

Mabisoh Square Garden', — The most conspicuous 
building in llie neighborhood of Miidison Square, is tlio 
Madison Square Garden, tlie work of Stanford While, 



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filling the block boiinded by Madison and Fourth avc- 
niies, Twenty-sixth and Iwentj-seventh streets. Its 
interior is divided into an ampliitheatre, entered from 
Madison avenue, and holding 15,000 people, surpassing 
the capacity of any other hall in the world; a tlieatre 
occupying the nortliern corner on Madisou avenue, with 
a beautifully decorated interior; a ball-room, the most 
elaborately decorated room in the building, in tlie styJe 
of Louis XVI, accommodating 1,500 people; arestanrant; 
open airgarden on the roof, which will hold from 



tower, readied by elevator, 300 feet above the street, the 
only point of ol>servation in the upper part of the city 
from which a view of New Torlt and its environs may 
he iiad. Directly opposite t)ie Madison Square Garden, 
southeast corner of Sfadison Square and Madison ave- 
nue, is the University Club. 

Returning to Fifth aTenue, there is at So. 304 the art 
store of WQIiara Schaus, and at 2S6 tliat of Beichard & 
Co., where pictures may usually bo seen on exhibition; 
on tlia soutliwest corner of Twenty-eighth street. No. 
246, t1>ebric-!k-bmo and antique store of Sypher&Co.; 
at No, 2S4, the foreign (chiefly French) book-store of 
Christem; on the northwest corner of Twenty-eighth 
street, one of the Collegiate Reformed Butch churches 
(p. 134), with a tablet reciting its history; on the oppo- 
site comer, the Jine building of the Cafntnet Club, and 
between Fifth and Madison aTennes, on the north side 
of Twenty-ninth street, the ProtesUTOt Episcopal Church 
of the Transfiguration, standing bach among well-kept 
grounds, a most picturesque break in the line of houses, 
and popnlarly kiiownas'' the little church around the 
comer, from which so many actors have been buried. 
Joseph Jefferson relates in nis "Autobiography" tlie 
circumstances from which it derived its name and it» 
popularity with the dramatic profession. When George 
Holland, the actor, died, Joseph Jefferson, with a son of 
the deceased, called upon the pastor of Mrs. Holland's 
sister, who, however, upon hearing that Holland had 
been an actor, declined holding service at the ohurtb, 
adding "There is a little chnrch around the corner 
where you may get it done." " Then, if this be so, God 



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181 

bless 'the little ohurcb around the corner,' " exclaimed 
Jefferson. 

At the northeast corner of FiEth avenue and Thirty- 
seeotid street is the KitiaJcerboelcer Club, the most ex- 
clusive socinl club in tlie city. The block on the west 
side of Fiftli avenue, between Thirty-third and Thirty- 
tovirth streets, belongs to the Astor estate. On the corner 
of Thirty-third street Wiiliam Waldorf Aator, the 
present head of the house, is erecting a hotel. The 
fortune of the Astor family is chiefly in real estate, 
ft is valued at about $150,000,000 and yields an annual 
income of about $13,000,000. The estate is said to own 
some 2,700 dwelling-houses. 

John Jacob Astor, the founder of this great estate, 
was bom at Waldorf, near ncidelberg, July 12, 1703; 
died at New York in 1848. He waa the fourth son of a 
butcher, and worked for his father until he was sixteen 
years old. He then joined a brother who Mas working- 
for an uncle in the piano and flute factory of Astor 
& Broadwood, London. In 1T83 he sailed for Balti- 
more, with an invoice of musical instruments, but 
conversations which he had on shipboard with a furrier 
cjused him to enter the fur hosiness in New York. He 
was not long in setting himself up in business on his 
own account as a furrier, and at the same time acted as 
agent for Astor & Broadwood, being the first regular 
dealer in musical instruments in the United States. 



established himself in a dwelling separate from his 
store. In 1811, he founded Astoria, at the mouth of 
the Columbia river, Oregon, his idea being to go into 
the trapping and trading business on a huge scale in the 
far West, but the war ol 1813 interfered with his plans. 
He died worth $30,000,000. He was founder of the 
Astor Library (p. 155), 

The bill which rises from Thirty-fourth street to 
Forty-second street, is known as Murray Sill, and is 
named after an old family which once owned much of the 

B^perty. When, after the battle of Long Island, the 
ritish were pursuing the Americans, who were fleeing 
toward the upper part of Manhattan Island, Mrs. Murray 
entertained tne English ofloers long enough for Burr to , 



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conduct a retreating colnmn two miles lon^ unobserved 
within half a mile of the house. The marble structure 
oti the northwest comer of Thirty-fourth street is now 
the home of the Manhaltan Cltib, whidi is the represen- 
tative Democi'atic elub of the city. The building was 
erected by tlie late A. T. Stewart (p. 184) as a residence. 
The house above it is occupied by Uie New York Club. 

UsioH League Cltib.^^u the northeast comer of 
Fifth avenue and Thirty-ninth street is the fine building 
of the Union League Club, the representative Republican 
club of the city, and one of the largest and most im- 
portant politico^ocial clubs in the tJnited States. It 
was organized February 6, 1868, incorporated February 
18, 1865, May 13, 1863, it occupied its quarters at No. 
26 East Seventeenth street. April 1, 1868, it removed 
to the house southeast comer oi Twenty-sisth street and 
Madison avenue, now occupied by the University Club, 
and into its present bnilditig March 5, 1831, The clab 
was organized during thedarkest hours o£ the Civil War, 
" to promote, encourage, and siistain, by all propet 
means, absolute and unquali&ed loyalty to the govern' 
ment of the United States." The t«tal membership of 
the club is limited to 1,600. The admission fee is $^00, 
the annual dues of resident members f 7S, and of non- 
resident members $45. The club has exhibitions ol 
fictures in its gallery, and also holds receptions to which 
idies are invited. The income of the club, according 
to the last annual report, was $306,428.46, o£ which 
$133,050 was from admission fees and annual dues. The 
receipts from the restaurant amounted to $63,174.32; 
for wines, $30,601.45; for liquors, $19,651.54; and for 
cigars, $33,494.56. The payments for salaries and 
wages to employees aggregated $56,476.75!, The archi- 
tects of the building were I'eabody & Stearns, of Boston. 
It is in Queen Anne style, of Baltimore pressed brieli, 
with brownstone trimmings and ornaments of monlded 
briek, occupying 84 feet on Fifth avenue and 133 feet on 
Thirty-ninth street. 

The reading-room on the first fioor, which runs the 
entire len^h of the Fifth avenue side and is decorated 
In Pompeiian style, has on each side four pillars with 
Corinthian capitals, with reading-stands for periodicals 
running to the wail and forming pleasantly secluded 



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niches. The stairway to the second floor has a oarved 
oak balustrade and at the fii-st laniling tliere is a great 
aich of oak, behind which there is a Targe stained-glass 
window. The hall of the second floor is ■vaulted in 
Moresque style, studded with opalescent glass. On the 
Fifth avenne side is the well stocked library. Over the 
north alcove hangs Carpenter's picture of the Inaugura- 
tion o£ Lincoln. The dining-room occupies the greater 
Brtion of the Fifth avenue side of the fourth floor, 
inc 80s80 feet. The decorations are by La Fat^e. 
The large dormer window, already referred to, opposite 
the door, is a rose window studded with brilliant glass. 
The wails are paneled in oak in English seventeenth 
century style. The center of the ceiling rises to a sharp 
Gothic roof and is deeiirated in gilt, bine and green. 

At the southeast corner of Fortieth street is Frederick 
W, Vanderbilt's house. The reservoir on the west side, 
extending to Forty-second street, is a good example of 
Egyptian architectun'. It was part of the old system of 
waterworlis and is practically no longer in use. To the 
west of it, bounded by Fortieth and Forty-second streets 
and Sixth avenue, is Bryant Park, 

Metropot.itan Opera Hot' sk. — A detour may be made 
down Fortieth street to BroadwOT, on the west side of 
which, between Thirty-ninth andFortiethstreets, stands 
the Metropolitan Opera House, and on the southeast 
corner of Thirty-ninth street and Broadway the Casino, 
a fine esnmple of Moorish architecture. The Metro- 
politan Opera House has the largest auditorium of any 
opera house in the world, and its stage is exceeded in 
size only by thatof the Imperial Opera at St, Petersburg 
and the new Opera at Paris. It is built of yellow \>tick 
in the style of the Italian Renaissance. The auditorium 
is divided into a parquet, two tiers of boxes, dress circle, 
balcony and gallery. It is calcnlated that the house 
can be emptied in three minutes. The auditorium is 
decorated in yellow, which is relieved by the red nphols- 
tery of the boxes. The usual proscenium is omitted, 
its place being taken by paneled pilastei-s. In the center, 
above the opening for the stage, is Lathrop's "Apollo 
Crowned by the Muses," and among the decorations of 
the pilasters are Maynard's figures of the Chorus and 
Ballet. The boxes are 7 feet front by 18 feet deep, and 



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184 

are intended /or sij, Broadway above Porty-seeond 
street; is largely gLvon over to fiiieapartmonthouses, asis 
also Seventh aveiino, which Bvoadwivy crosses lit Porty- 
second street. 

RetTiniiag to Fifth avenue and proceeding up lo 
Forty-second street, there ia on the north sidu of Forty- 
second street and Fourth arenue tlie ffrand Genirai 
Depot, whieh extends to Forty-flfth street. This struet- 
nre, 695 feet long by 240 feet wide, is of pressed 
briektrimmed with iron painted wliite. It is used by 
three railroads — the New Yorlc Central and Hudson 
Eiver, the New York and Harlem, which is a ijranch of 
the former, and the New Tork, New Haven and Hart- 
ford. The waiting-room and oflcos o£ the last named 
are on the south side; those oE tlie other two companies 
on the west. The glass-covered arch from under which 
all trains start has a span of 300 feet, is 110 feet high 
and tnniiiiig the entire length of the building, and is 
capable of accommodating 13 trains of 13 passenger 
ears each. On the west side is a police station for the 
offteers who are on special duty at the depot. An addi- 
tion, also extending from Forty-second to Porh-fifth 
street, and covering about half the block between Fourth 
and Lesingtoii avenues, is used for incoming trains and 
there are accommodations here for people who are wait- 
ing for trains. 

Si. Bartholomew Miadon. — One of the finest mission 
houses in Now Tork City stands on the north side of 
Porty-seoond street east of Third avenue, covering a lot 
75 feet front by a little over 100 feet deep. It is a hand- 
some structure of live stories, after plans of William H. 
Russell, of Eenwick. Aspinwall & Eussell. In the 
iKisement is a large lavatory with batjis and showers, 
and a plunge 38 feet long by 18 feet wide, into which 
unfoi'tunates who come to th'a mission under the influ- 
ence of liquor are dipped. The center entrance on the 
ground room leads to tiie Rescue Mission room, which 
will accommodate 1200 people. Theentraneeto the dif- 
ferent stories of the building is on the eastern side. In 
the rooms of these stories a great variety of mission 
work and instruction will be carried on, a special feature 
being a kindergarten class. On the fourth floor there is 
a gymnasium, and a portion of the roof will be made 



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into e, summer garden. The house is in tlic stylo of the 
Italian Renaissance, The first story is of Jndianti lime- 
stone with a granit* water table. Prom the first story 
cornice to tlio top there will he light buff brick with 
terra cotta triinniiiigs. The facade has three hays filled 
in with east iron work and miillions forming the frames 
of the windows. The fifth story, in the cornice, is richly 
modeled in terra cotta. The mission house belongs to 
the parish of SI. Bartholomew, whose church stan^ on 
the southwest corner of Forty-fourth street and Madi- 
son avenue, and is one of the wealthiest congregations in 
the city, seyerat iiiombora of the Vaiiderbilt family wor- 
shiping there. On the east side of Madison avenue, 
between Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth streets, is the 
handsome new' building of the Manhattan Athletic Club, 
and on the northeast corner of IJaiiiaon avenue and 
Porty-flfth street the Eailroad branch of the Young 
Mens Christian Association, built from funds supplied 
by the Vanderbilts. 

On Fifth avenue abore Forty-second street are many 
places of worship, as well as fine private residences. The 
northeast corner of Forty-third street is occupied by 
the Temple Emanu-Ei, a Jewish synagogue, the prop- 
erty of ft very wealthy organization. It is in Saraeenio 
style, the finest specimen of its class in the United 
SUtes and one of the costliest places of worship in 
the cit^. Conspicuous on the Fifth avenue front are 
two miimrets, with artistic open work. The material 
used in its construction are brown and yellow sandstone, 
black and red tiles altemattiig on the roof. (L. Eidlitz, 
architect). On the southwest comer of Forty-fifth street 
is the tJniversalist Church of the Divine Paternity; 
between Forty-fifth and Forty-sixth streets, on the east 
side, the Church of the Heaveidy Rest; and on the block 
above, the Windsor Hot«l, 

Jay Gould,— On thenortheast corner otForty-seventh 
street. No, BTU Fifth avenue, is the residence of Jay 
Gould, a bi'ownstone structure with a mansard slate roof. 
Jay Gould was born at Eosbury, Delaware Co., N. T. 
As a boy he worked on his father's farm, and to defray 
the expenses of his tuition at Hobart Academy he be- 
came l>ook-keeper for a blacksmith. Subsequently he 
made surveys oi Ulster, Delaware and Albany counties. 



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186 

and organ ked surveying parties for two cmintieain Ohio 
and one ill Miohigan. Fiiiin theprojlte ot tliis work he 
saved $5,000. In 1856 he iniblislied ft "llistoiT at 
Delaware County." After a year in tlie lumberiii<t busi- 
ness, lie put all his money into bonds of the Rutland and 
Washington B. li. at 10 cents on the dollar, and so suc- 
cessful was he In this and similar enterprises, that he 
became in 1850 a broker in New York, investing heavilT 
in Erie Itailiray stock, becoming president of the roail, 
a position he Ijeldnnlil 1872. Ilehassince then acquired 
immense Western railroad interests, and is the coii- 
troling personality in Manhattan (N. Y, City) Elevated 
Eaiilway and in the Western Union Telegraph Co. 
March 13, 1883, rumors that he was financiHUy embar- 



in securities i 
$SO.OOO,000 more if they st 

On the southeast comer of Forty-eighth street is the 
residence of Ogden Goelet, whose brother, Robert Goe- 
let, resides on the southwest corner of Forty-ninth 
street. The Ooelets are, next to the Astors, the largest 
private holders of real estate in New York City, the 
annual income from their estate having lately tui-ned 
the 12,000,000 point. The northwest corner of Forty- 
eighth street is occupied by another of the Collegiate 
Dutch Kef ormed churches (p. 124). It owns the bell pre- 
sented by Minuit (p. 13) to the flret congregation in 
New AnisterJam. On the east side, between Forty-ninth 
and Fiftieth streets, is the Buckingham Hotel and its 
adjunct, the Belgravia. 

Columbia Colleqe. — On the east side of Madison 
avenue, occupying tlio entire block bounded by Madison 
and Fourth avenues. Forty-ninth and Fiftieth streets, 
is Columbia College, the greatest educational institution 
in the city and in the front rank of the eilucational in- 
stitutions of the eonntry, a position it has attained 
within recent years, during which, under the last part 
of the administration of President Frederick A. P. 
Barnard and his successor, Seth Low, it has been fulfill- 
ing its mission as a great university. 



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187 

fliisiora.— <!olumbia College was eharteied as King's 
College OctoberSl, 1754. lu December, 1746, money for 
it was raised by public lottery and vested, in November, 
1731, ill ten trustees. ■Episcopalians ])redoniinatiug 
among these and Trinity Cliurch haying made a liberal 
grant oC land to the College, there was great opposition to 
the chartering of the institution, it being looked upon as 
a design to introduce a church establishment into the pro- 
vince. This opposition being, however, in a great mea- 
sure surmounted, Dr. Samuel Johnson, ot West Haven, 
Conn., became president, and in July, J754, in a room in 
the school-house belonging to Trinity Church, commenced 
the instructiou of a class of students- 
Ill 1755 Trinity Church granted land to the college 
bounded by Church, Barclay and Murray streets and 
running down to the North River, the condition being 
that the president should always be a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and that prayers should be 
drawn from the Protestant Episcopal prayer-book. The 
consideration paid was 13 shillings and the annu^ 
rental of a pepper-corn. The trustees held their first 
meeting May 17, 1755. The Goremors built a structure 
180 feet long by 30 feet deep at the foot of Park Place. 
In 1763 Dr. Johnson resigned the presidency and was 
succeeded by Rev, Dt. Myles Cooper, of Osfocd. In 
1777 a medical department was added. Dr. Cooper was 
a violent loyalist and during the excitement of a Liberty 
meeting a mob approaeliedthe college for the purpose of 
laying violent hands on its Tory president. In order to 
dday them longer and enable Cooper to escape, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, then a student at the college, mounted 
the college steps and beean haranguing the mob, while 
another student warned the president. Cooper ran off 
only half-dressed, clamljered over the college fence, 
dashed down to the shore of the Hudson and trotted 
along the river bank until near morning, when he found 
shelter "in the house of his friend, Mr. Stuyvesant," 
remaining there for that day, and on the following night 
taking refuge on board the Kingfisher, a British sloop-of- 
war. During the Revolution the college was used for 
military purposes, 

In May, 1784, the corporate title was changed from 
King's to Columbia College. In November, 1813, in 



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consequence ol the establislimetit ot the College of 
Physioiana and Sui^eons in Now York, t!:e medical 
scliool was ilisuonti lined, liut in 1860 the College of 
Physicians find Sui^cotis was luerged into Columbia 
College ns iis medical ilepartuient. The Law School of 
Col itmbift College was estahlished in May, 1858 ; in 1863, 
the School of Mines, certainly a mtsnonier for an in- 
stitution in which a full scientiiiG course is carried on ; 
in 1880 a Scliool ot Political Science, and in 18&0 a 
" ! was removed ivom 
... V7 occupies in 1857. 

It derives its large income, not sny too large, however, 
for the vsst amount ot work it carries on and the 
beuefits which accrue to its students at a very moderate 
foe, from the rental of buildings on the land granted to 
it by Trinity Church, and alKO on a tract of land ot about 
80 acres between Fifth and Sistli avenues, from Forty- 
seventh to Fitty-flrst streets, the latter granted by the 
State to the College iu 1814 and valueti at the time at 
only $9 000. The pi^ofeaaors and other instnietors ot 
Colnmbia College are probably the best paid in the 
United States. In 1874 a new building for the School 
of Mines was erected at a cost ot $150,000, and in 18T9 
a new buildiiis (Hamilton Uall), after the plans by C. C. 
Uaight, for the School of Arts. Dr. Banianl became 
president in I8(i4 and held the olBce until his death iti 
April, 1883. It was about 1880, during his presidency, 
that the College began to be regenerated, and t!ie work 
inaugnrateil by Dr. IJarnai'd is now being carried out by 
Seth Iiow, who was elected president in October, 1880. 
In May, 1800, the tmstees adopted a plan tor university 
instruction in connection with the College, created a 
new faculty styled the Faculty ot Philosophy, jiiaced all 
university woi'k in mathematics and the natural and 
applied sciences under the charge of the faculty of the 
School ot Mines, and constituted a Universitv Council to 
have general supervision of the work ot the University as 

lieparlmenis. — Columbia College employs a prcs dent 
and 304 professoi-s, instini tors a id ass st nti an 1 has 
in all the departments 1 G48 ^t deuN nho a e st nu 
latcdiu their work by cprous al aHo a I olarsl p 
and fellowships, many of ll e n fo d I b pr ate en 



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183 

dowment. Tlio term college has almost become a mis- 
nomer foi the institution, its woik having expanded so 
enormously during recent years. Coluinbia seems 
destined to have a great future as a imiTersity, both be- 
cause oi its resources and the learning of its Tarious 
faculties, and its loeation in the chief scientific, art, and 
literary center of the New World. Free tuition is given 
to deserving young men under certain conditions, and 
seTeral free scholarships have been estahlished. The 
departments of instruction in the School of Arts em- 
brace elaborate courses in the classics, literature and 
studiespertaining to the usual college curriculum, with 
many elective studies, Thereisa course of post-graduata 
instruction in the higher branches of the studies pursued 
in the under-graduate department, with degrees of 
Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Letters, 
and Doctor of Science, The system of instruction in the 
ScJiool of Mines embraces a full scientiic curriculum, 
including Architecture, with post^aduate courses in 
Electrical Engineering, Sanitary Engineering, and for 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, There are also 
special higher courses of all studies tanghtin the school. 
The School of Law eseeeds in reputation any law school 
in the United States. The School of Folitieai Science 
gives a complete general view of all branches of internal 
and external public polity, from the threefold standpoint 
of history, law and philosophy. The School of Philoso- 
p%'s course of study embraces the higher branches of 
several of the studies pursued in the School ol Arts. 
For SeTiool of Medicine see page 200. 

The students and graduates of Columbia College have 
the use of a library containing over 100,000 volumes, 
and subscribing to more than SOOdifEerent serials. There 
are also in the various departments cabinets and col- 
lections of specimens and models, and the various 
laboratories are fully equipped. 

The block on Madison avenue above Columbia College 
is occupied by a group o£ buildings resembling a Floren- 
tine palace, one of the most striking blocks of residences 
in the city. Among its residents are such well-known 
citizens as Whitelaw Keid, editor of the IWfiune, and 
Edward D. Adams, 

St. Patrick's Cathedral.— The entire block bounded 



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100 

by Fiftieth aod Fifty-flvst streets and Fifth and Madison 
avenues is oeonpied by St. Patrieli'B Cathedral, consid- 
ered the Iflrgest and the ftnost church building in. the 
United States. Open every day. 

The comer-stone of this noble structure was laid An- 
gust 15, 1858, by Archbishop Hughes, some 100,000 peo- 
ple having gathered to witness the ceremony, May 35, 
1870, the Cathedi-al w;is dedicated by Cardinal McCIos- 
kcy, surrounded by 36 arehbisliops and bishops, and 
more than 400 priests. 

Exterior. — The building, after plans of James Ron- 
wick, is A fijie esample of decorative and geometric style 
of Gothic architecture. Tho architecture of the resi- 
dences of the archbishops and canons, in tho rear of tho 
Cathedral, hurmouizes nith that of the main stmcture. 
The dimensions of the Cathedral are: Length, 306 feet; 
height of sido aisles, ,^4 feet ; breadth of nave and choir 
with the chapels, ISO feet; length of transept, 140 feet; 
height, 108 feet. Above the base course, the whole ex- 
tenor is of white marble. The principal front on Fifth 
avenue consists of a ceiitral gable 156 feet high, with a 
tower and spire on each side i-eaehing to a heiglit of 330 
feet. In the towers 110 feet above the grade of the ave- 
nue is a fine chime of bells, the heaviest in tho conntry, 
weighing 30,000 pounds as against Trinity's 15,000. 

£iUnor. — The interior of the Cathedral is cruciform, 
and is divided into a nave, two transepts, and a choir 
or sanctuary. The nave is 164 feet long, 06 feet wide 
between the side aisle walls, and 134 feet broad if tho 
side aisto chapels are included. Itisdividedby columns 
into seven bays, each bay being S3 feet in length, with 
the esoeption of the first one, which is 26 feet long. It 
is cross-sectioned into n center aisle, 48 feet wide and 
110 feet to the apex of the groined ceiling; two side 



aisles 24 feet wide and 54 feet high, the chapels under 
the window sills at the side aisles being 14 feet wide by 
IS feet high, transepts 144 feet long, choir or sanctuary 



S5 feet long, having three bays, antf being terminated nt 
the cast end in the central aisle by t!ie seini-deoagon 
apridc. Tiic columns which divide the central aisle 



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ST PWRICX'S rWHEDRAL 



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IDl 

from the side aisles are of white marble, 35 feet high, 
and consist of four main columns and eight others ulus- 
tored to a central shaft, tile combined diameter being S 
feet ; the arches between the columns rise to 54 feet ; the 
treforiam is 15 feet high, and is covered bv the root ot 
the aide aisle. A passage 56 feet above the floor of the 
Cathedral leads thtough the treforium all around the 
building. The third story windows arc a continuation 
of the tracery of the treforium. The spring line of the 
ceiling of the central aisle is 77 feet from the floor. The 
seating capacity of the floors of the naves and transepts 
is about 8,500, divided among 408 pews from 8 to 11 feet 
in length. The sanctuary floor is raised sis steps above 
the mtiin floor, and the high altar is three steps higher, 
the steps being of gray marble, and the platform in 
front of the altar of richly colored marble. All the 
woodwork is of white ash. 

Altars.— The high altar stands at the east end of the 
structure in the center aisle of the choir. The reredos, 
33 feet wide and 50 feet high to the top of the center 
pinnacle, was carved at St. Brieuc, France, in Poitiers 
stone, and was presented by the clergy of the diocese. 
In the center tower of the rcrodos is a niche, containing 
a, statue of the Saviour, the two flanltinif towers bearing 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, the towers being 
crowned with pierced spires of open tracery work. The 
three niches between the central and corner tower on 
either side contains angelic figures bearing emblems of 
the Passion, The altar proper and the lower division ot 
the reredos are of purest Italian marble inlaid with ala- 
basters and precious marbles, and were constructed in 
Italy, Niches and panels in the front ot the bottom 
part ot the altar contain respectively statues of the 
Evangelist, and bas-reliefs of the Last Supper, the Carry- 
ing of the Cioss, and the Agony in the Garden, all o£ the 
purest Carrara marble. The tabernacle on the altar is 
of marble decorated in Boman mosaics, and flanked by 
columns of rare marbles. Its door ot gilt bronze is set 
■with emeralds and garnets, and was the gift of Cardinal 
McGloskey. A crypt or vault of sufficient capacity to 
contain 43 coffins and intended for the entombing of the 
archbishops of New York, is under the floor of the 
s^inctuary. 



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1D2 

Other altars are: The Altar of the Blessed Virgin, at 
the eastern end of the north side aisle of the sanetuoiy. 
of French oak ajid white marbto; the Altar of the tia- 
cred Heart, in tJie south transept, of bronze; the Altiir 
of tJio Holy Family, in the nortli transept, of Cuen stone, 
the gift of Joseph Donohtie of San Francisco ; St. 
Josepli's Altar, in front of the west walls of the saeristy, 
of bronze and mosaic. This allar and the window of 
St. Agnes, above it, are gifts of >lrs. Agnes Maitland. 

The Archbishop's T)irone, of carved French oak, is 
erected against flie first column inside the sanctuary. 
The superb Gothic canopy OTcr it is suppoited by 
columns and crowned by octagonal lanterns of fine 
design. The sanctuary rail of polished brass branches 
oat from the first column in tue form of an elliptical 
curve. Tlie Pulpit at the first column outside the 
sanctuary of the main altar on the epistle side is of 
Gothic style and is the gift of the clergy of the diocese 
over which Cardinal SfcGlostey presided when he was 
archbishop, and a memorial of the fiftieth anulversary 
of his ordination to the priesthood. 

Windows. — There are in alt seventy windows in the 
Cathedral, Thirtyisoven of these represent scenes from 
Scripture and the lives of tlie Saints and have been 
donated, and form a rich collection of stidiied glass. 
The two windows of the transept are the most elabor- 
ate. The sis-bayed window over the south transept 
door is the titular window of the Cathedral, being the 
window of St. Patricb, consisting of eighteen scenes 
from the life of that saint, the series beginning at tlie 
base of the left-hand bay and running upward in lines 
of three each. In the center of the tracery St. Patrick's 
coronation in heaven is represented. Aronnd it in a 
circle hover angels (aft«r Fra Angelico), each holding a 
scroll on which the line of a hymn is inscribed, all the 
scrolls together constituting the entire hymn. This 
window is the gift of old St. Patrick's Cathedral to the 
new, and, like all the other stained-glass windows of llic 
Cathedral, was executed in France. Located over the 
north transept door is the window of the Blessed Virgin, 
the gift of the Albany diocese. It is in nineteen scenes, 
which are read from left to ripht in lines of six each, the 
coronation being represented lu the (.racery window. 



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198 

^anctuaTT, six 
three on each side, relate to sacrifice: and the five v . . 
dows of the apse contain subjects from the life of Christ. 
On the last of the sacrificial windows on the south side, 
the "Saorifiee on Calvary," the gift of JoIid Laden, the 
kneeling figure before tlie altar ts Cardinal McCloskey, 
and his otCering: is the Cathedral itselt. The windows in 
the Chapel of Our Lady represent the Presentation of 
the Blessed Virgin in tiie Temple, John Kelly; the 
Adoration ot the Child Jesus, Tiiomas H. O'Connor; the 
Virgin Exposing to Veneration the Infant Jesus after 
His Birth, Mrs, Julia Colemau. Opposite this window 
■on the south aisle of the chiitoh are the Death of St, 
Joseph, Joseph Florimond Loubat, St, Alphonsus Ltgouri 
miraeulouslT giving Speech to a Dumb Youth; in the 
right-hand oay St. Susanna, and in the left-hand bay 
St. Theresa, Susan Elizabeth Lonbat, in memory of 
Theresa Aimee Loubat, Countess of Comminges Guitant. 
In the center of tie next window is a life-size figure of 
St. Agnes ; in the right-hand bay the apostle St. James 
the Greater, below this the Blessed Virem appearing te 
him at Saragosea, in Spain; in the lelt-hand bey, St, 
Thomas the apostle, and below, St. Thomas touching the 
wound in the side of the Saviour, Mrs. Agnes Maitlaad. 
In the southern arm of the transept is the window 
of St. Louis, King of France, Henry L. Hoguet; 
adjoining this tiie window of the Sacred Heart, Mrs. 
Elenora Isclin; on the same line in the north tran- 
seopt St. Paul's window, Eugene Kelly, in memory of 
Hev. John Kelly; adjoining this, the window of St. 
Augustine and St. Monica, representing St. Augustine 
at the death-bed of his mother, Mamie and Lena Cald- 
well, in memory of their parents; on the east side of the 
north transept door, St. Matthew's window, Andrew 
Clark; on the west side, St. Mark's window, Bernard 
MoGuire; on the west side of the south transept door, 
St. Luke's windoWjDenis J. Dwyer; on the east side, 
St. John's window, William Joyce; on ttie west wall of 
the north transept, the window of St. Charles Borromeo, 
showing the cardinal during the plwrue of Milan, Lor- 
enzo Deimonieo; on the west wall of the south transept 
the window of St. Patrick, preaching to an assembly of 
Irish peasants, James Kenwick. The scene underneath 



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shows the archll:<?ct submitting his plan to Archblsliop 
Ilaghes. CarJitiaJ McCIoskey stauds in the foreground. 
Thci'e are ten aisle triiidows, begiiiiiitig ou the tiortit or 
KOspel side. At the angle of the transept there are : St, 
Beruard prcnehiitg the Heeoud Cnisade, Diocese of 
Kochester; The Murtyrdom of St. Ijawrence, Dioeeao of 
Ogdeiiahiirp; The l^ijial Approbation o( the Constitu- 
1 ioii of the Urothere of the Christian Schools, by Benedict 
Xlir, Juniiftry 26, 1735, The Christian Brothers; St. 
Cohimbaiius Administering to Tliierrr II, King o( 
BurRnndy, the Kebnfco which led to his Convei'sion, 
Jeremiah and William Devlin, in lueinory of Daniel 
Devlin; The Three Baptisms — in the center our Lord's 



aisles St. Vincent de Paul, the saint in the central 
division, habited in stole and surplice; on the right 
hand, the saint undiTgoing punishment ou behalf of a 
prisonerwhoisseengoiueonhis way rejoicing; on the 
left, the saint holding an infant in his arms and directing 
a sister o( cliarity to another infant asleep on the pave- 
ment, James Olwell. The window of St. Elizabeth, St, 
Andrew and St. Catherine, — St. Andrew in the center 
taking upon himself the cross; beneath, tho scene of his 
execution ; on the right, St. Catherine, leaning upon the 
wheel with which her ci'uol torture and death were in- 
flicted ; below, the nuptials of St. Catherine to our Lord 
(afterltubens); to the left, St. Elizabeth bearing bread to 
thopoor, which turned in to flowers when her unjustly sus- 

Fiicious husband insisted upon seoingwhat she was curry- 
Dg so carefully concealed, J. A. and Eliza O'Reilly. 
The Annunciation, WiUiam and John O'Brien; S'l. 
Henry in the battle against the Slavonians, the most 
spirited window in tho series, Henry J. Anderson. The 
Immacuiate Conception, commemorating tho proolamiir 
tion of tills dopma by Pius IX, the pontifC standing on 
his throne in I lie act of giving the apostolic benediction 
after having proclaimed the dogma. Above the heail of 
the Pope is a figure o£ the Immaculate Conception. Tho 
statues of St. Peter and St. Paul on either side are 
copied from Ihc statues in the entrance to St. Peter's, 



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ble of aecommmlating a, choir of 100 singers. Access to 
it ia had by a spiral staircase situated in the soulli lobby 
of the Pitth avenue entrance, which also leads to the 
passage around tlie treformm. Tlje orfjan lias four man- 
uiils and a compass of two anil one-half octaves in the 
pedals. 

Roman Cailiolio Orphan Asylum.— Tvio larg^ blocks 
bounded respectively by Fifth and Madison Bvennes, 
Fifty-first and Fifty-second streets, and by Madison and 
Fourth avenues and tlie same streets, are devoted to the 
purposes of the Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum, the 
asylum for boys occupying the Fifth avenue b'lock, and 
that for girls the Madison avenue block. The latter is 
a comparatively new building, and admirably arranged. 
There are an average of 400 children in each oE the 
buildings, the choir of the cathedral being drawn from 
the boys' asylum, Neither girls nor boys arc required to 
wear a uniform, and are not brought up with the idea 
that they are dependent on charity, the course of in- 
struction aiming to make them independent men and 
women. It includes a common school education, music 
and singing for both the boys and the girls, and sewing, 
croohetmg, cooking and housekeeping for Uie girls, and 
trade instruction for the boys. Each building has a 
large playground, and a feature of the Madison avenue 
structure is a beautiful chapel 145 feet in depth. The 
best time to visit the Female Orphan Asylum is on 
Wednesdaybetween 13:30and 2:80 P. M,, when the girls 
are instructed in calisthenics; the boys asylum, Tues- 
days and Thursdays at 3 P, M,. when they go through a 
r^nlar military drill under the command of a militia 
oincer. On state occasions they are uniformed and fully 
accoutred. The Asylum was organized in 18J7, and in- 
corporated under its present name in 1853. 

Vakderbilt Houses. — On the west side of Fifth avenue. 



n Fifty-first and Fifty-second streets, are the resi- 
dences erected by the late Williara H, Vanderbiit, the 
southerly building being occupied by his widow, th§ 
northerly by his aon-inlaw, W. D. Sloane. Co tho 
north side of Fifty-aecoud street opposite the Sloane resi- 



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m 

denee is the residence of Wm. K. Tanderbilt. Cornelias 
Vanderbilt resides on the novtLwest corner of Fifty- 
seventii street. The "Vftndcrbiit Iiouses," as tlic two 
bi'ownstone buildings between Fifty-first and Fifty- 
secoud streets are popularly spoken of, were first occupied 
ill January, 1883, JIrs, Vanderbilt tlu'owing them open to 
her friends on tbe 17th of that month. They were built, 
furnished and decorated by Herter Bros, in a little more 
than two years. Their architecture has been severely 
criticised, but this makes them none the less objects of 
interest to the curious. 

The houses are connected by a vestibule in the middle 
of the block. The dooj's leading into Mrs. Vanderbilt's 
house are reduced copies of the Ghiberti gates in Flor- 
ence. The main hail, carried up to the full height of 
the house, is surrounded by galleries from whjeu the 
private living rooms ate entered. On the gronnd iloor 
IS a high wainscoting of English oak, square columns of 
dark red African marble supporting the first gallery. 
Facing the entrance is a large fireplace withafuil'Sized 
bronze female figure in relief on each side, and massive 
sculptured marblo chimney-pieces. On the east side is a 
door flanked by carved oaken seats. This leads to the 
drawing-room. The woodwork of this room is a maze of 
carving, gilded and glazed with warm tints. The walls 
are hung in pale red velvet embroidered in foliated and 
floral designs, crystal being sprinkled among the leaves 
and flowers to represent dew-drops. At the northern 
end of this room a door leads to tlie library, the decora- 
tions of which are oonspioaous for the beautiful eifeet 
proilueed by antique Greek patterns in mother-of-pearl 
and brass on mahogany and rosewood, the furniture be- 
ing designed to harmonize. South of tbe drawing-rooin 
is the Japanese parlor, wiiichis modeled and furnished 
in free Japanese fasliion. A ceiling of laamboo ivitli its 
pole rafteis, a rich low-toned tapestry with panels of 
velvet, a low cabinet in imitation of lacguer work with 
innumerable shelves for bric-il-brac running around the 
rooJii, a larne open fireplace with ft seat covered with uji- 
cut velvet, are features of this apartment. The dining- 



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197 

room is finished in the style ot the Italian EenaisaanM, 
ftn arrangement of glass-faced cases supported by rich 
consoles resting on a beautitul wainscot ot rieli golden- 
hued English oak, delicately carved. The ceiling is 
elliptieally arched witli oblong panel? carved in designs 
of fruits and foliage in various tints of cold, and fres- 
coed with bunting scenes by Luminals. The main stair- 
case, which rises from the north of the main tall, is 
lighted by nine stained windows by Lafatce. 

The entrance to the picture galfery is from the wefit 
end of the hall, but there is a separate entrance from 
Fifty-first street. The picture gallery is, of course, a 
strictly privat* one, but artists of recognized rank and 
connoisseurs who apply through acquaintances of the 
family have little diffieiilty in obtaining admission to it. 
On a niche ot the broad arch ovpr the entrance from the 
house is Alma ToiJema's classic " Entrance to aTheatre." 
Opposite, before the fireplace recess, hangs DetaiEe's 
famous painting showing two wounded French officers 
carrying a mortally wounded comrade out of a shattered 
church between two lines of Prussians who have fallen 
back on either side to make way lor them. As the ar- 
rangement of the pictures is changed from time to tiriie 
as accessions are received, the exact order of their hang- 
ing cannot be given. The collection embraces Vibert's 
capital " Cardinal and Monk Destroying Forbidden 
Books," the Cardinal, however, firet gorginjt himself 
on the contents. Villegoi' " Royal Christening," the 
baby shrieking lustily, much to the consternation of all 
concerned; the same artist's picture of a Turk sensu- 
ously outstretched on a difan listening to the music of 
a fair almond-eyed slave; Forlutty's " Dancing Arabs," 
five wildly whirling figures, two of them discharging their 
firearms, watched by their motionless comrades, wrapped 
in the folds ot their white burnous; five MiUeis: a 
peasant girl of sturdy frame carrying water; peasant 
mother teaching her daughter how to kniC; woman 
emptying a paof into a gSss jar just outside the door, 
near which are ducks and geese; shepherdess wrapped in 
a cloak knitting; Iwo hunters in a snowy wood. Van 
Marcke's cattle collected outside a thatched stable in an 
orchard, Mtisaonier'a picture of a commandant in a 
^«en bufl coat, white trousers and top boots, straddling 



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198 

porapouslj; before an open firajjlace, puffing at his pipe, 
and Irowning over a dispatch handed to Lim by a, sol- 
dier, while a brother offloer in scarlet lonnges on an easy 
chair. The same artist's picture of troops halting while 
oftlcera question a peasant. Oerome'a "Swonl l)anee" 
of a, beautiful slave before an Oriental dignitary, and 
an Oriental (loldier leaning against the pillar oC a court- 
yard and raising an earthen cup lo his lips. Zanioeois' 
"King's Favorite"; Roybet't "Florentine Daines and 
Cavaliers ato Concert"; £reton'a Peasant Girl busy at 
her distaS, seated on a large stone, with shore and sea 
for background; BwMuereau's "Italian Flute Player"; 
Frere'a "Two little Water Carriers in a snowy street". 
The girl has set down her pitcher to rub her chilled 
hands. Daahigny's "Cattle on the Shore of a Quiet 
Ijalie"; Roia !B<wkew'3"iinntsiQan" leauing against 
a tree, dogs I'esting, and four horses awaiting their 
riders, the whole canvas flooded by a beautiful li^ht. 
In the smaller adjoining room is JHeiieonier'a portrait of 
William H. YandeTbilt shovring hitn in an upright posi- 
tion in an arm-chaii', his right Tuind resting on his knee, 
his left fin^riiig Jiis watch cliain ; Meiasoiner's "Artist 
and Wife' viewing the former's work; Diai'a "Scene 
in the Forest ol Fontainbleau"; the same ailist's 
"Moorish Children"; FromenHn's "Gambling Scene in 



Moltke and Staff"; Itoaa Bonheur'e "Sheep"; A'jioua'a 
"Village Festivity"; DelacToix'a "Indianj Warrior at 
the He»l of his Troops." A number of fine water colors 
hang in a galley about this room. 

Tlio Vanderbilt family is of Dutch origin. SIcmbersof 
it were settled at Flatbusli, L. 1., about 1C50. In 1718, 
Jacob Van der Bilt purchased a farm near New Dorp, 
Staten Island. The family became members of the 
Moravian Church, Cornelius Vanderbilt(the "Commo- 
dore " and founder of the family's wealth) was born near 
Stapleton, May 37, 1794 Ho earneil his first capital by 
doing a certain amount of work within a certain time on 
his mother's farm. His mother, thinkinj it impossible 
for him to do the work within tho time specified, offered 
him $100 if he would accomplish the task. He hired a 
number of boys ou his promise to give them free trips in 



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the boat he intended purchasing with the money. The 
■work was done ; lie bought a, boat with the money and 
Etarted a ferry to New York. Nineieen years later he 
was able to build a stately residence at Stapkton He 
became a captain Hiid later an owner of steamboats, sul>- 
sequently owning steamships. He foresaw the promi- 
nent part railroads were destined to play in the develop- 
ment o( the country and abandoned wsler traffic for 
railroad investments. The family now conirol the Sew 
York Cenlral and Hudson Kiver Railroad and many 
connecting lines. (See also p. 300). 

On the northwest comer of Fifth avenue and Fitty- 
third street is SI. Tlioma^ Protestant Episcopal Church, 
& wealthy congregation which does a large amount ot 
ehftiitable work. The chancel contains a representation 
in bronze of the Adoration of the Cross, hy Lafarge. To 
the left hangs Lafarge's picture of the Resurrection; to 
the right Mary meeting the Shining An^ls in the Garden, 
also by Lafavge. The entire block on the west side of 
Fifth rtvenue between Pif ty-f onnh and Fifty-fifth streets 
is taken up with St. Luke s Hospital. On the northwest 
corner of Fifth avenue and Fifty-fifth street is the Fifth 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, ot which Eev. Dr. John 
Hall, one of the most noted Presbyterian divines, is 
pastoi". On the southwest comer of Fifth avenue and 
Pifty-seventh street is the residence of es-Secretary 
William C. Whitney, on the southeast corner that of 
Oollis P. Huntington, on the northwest comer that of 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. Central Park begins at Fifty- 
ninth street, the open space beginning at Pif ty-eighth 
street being tlie Plaza, Fifty-seventh street is one of 
the finest residence streets in the city, and it is well 
worth the vistor's while to make a short detour through 
it in either direction from Fifth avenue. At the soutfi- 
east comer of Pifty-seTcnth street and Sixth avenue is 
the Sherwood Studio building, and between Sixtli and 
Seventh avenues the Fine Arts Society's building. On 
Fifty-ninth street, l«tween Sisth and Seventh avenues, 
are ihe series ot a[)arlment houses known in the aggre- 
gate as the "Central Park," but separately named after 
cities of Spain. They lorm an enormous pile of build- 
ings, and show, perhaps, the largest scale upon which 
structures ot this kind have been planned in New York. 



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The Ti-iitoi interested in seeing another typical struc- 
ture of this oliiss will find tlie Unltota, a yellow briek 
pile, on beve(ity-«econd street and Eighth avenue, of 
inteie'-t It la Msible fmni iniiny jwints in Central 
Park, anil m Tact l^ so eonspieuoiis an object thiit it 
often loom* up Jii the landscape of tlie upper part of 
the city. 

At Ninth avenue and Fifty-ninth street is Hie flno 
church and school of the Paulist Fathers, and opposite 
it the Roosevelt Hospital, one of the greatest institutions 
of its kind in the city (p. 60). 

CoLLKOB OP Phtsiciaks AND SuROEONs.— Here also 
ia the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Colura- 
bia College, a group of buildings which ore a donation 
from the Inlc William H. Yandcrbilt and his family, and 
from William D. Sloauo, Mr. Vanderbilt's son-in-law. 
They consist of the school building proper, the Vaudor- 
bilt clinic, and tlie Sloane Maternity Hospital. On the 
second floor is a fine pathological collection, ineluding 
the Swift Pimiologieal Cabinet, and a large laboratory. 
The fourth floor, which is lighted entirely from above, 
and illuminated by electricity at night, is derotcd to 
dissecting. It is fitted np with thirty-^x tables, at 
which one hundred and thirty-eight students can dissect 
simultaneously. Smaller rooms for private dissection, and 
for the teaching of operative surgery upon the cadaver, 
are grouped aronnd this apartment. The northern portion 
of the building is devoted nearly entirely to laboratory 

Surposes. The Vnnderbilt Clinic, endowed by sons ot 
lie late William H, Vanderbilt as a memorial, contains 
a fully equipped dispensary, and, in connection with the 
EChooI, serves as a field for extended clinical instruction. 
It contains a theatra for clinical lectures, illustrated by 

Sraetiioal work, which accommodates an audience of nearly 
)ur hundred. The Sloane Maternity Hospital, at the 
corner of Fifty-ninth street and Amsterdam avenue, 
adjoining the clinic, has a capacity of tliirty beds. 

In tiie vicinity ot Central Park and Fifty-ninth Street 
arcanumbcrof ridingschools, the ride through the Park 
being a favorite jaunt for equestrians. The most conve- 
nient of tliese schoolsfor strangers to visit are Durlaod's, 
situuted at the Grand Circle, near the Eighth avenue en- 
tranf e to Central Park ; and Dickel's Riding Academy, 



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201 

tlie oldest in the city, at 134 West Fiftj-sixth street, 
near Sixth avenue. Between Fifth and Madison ave- 
nues, running through from Fitty-eighth to Fifty-ninth 
street, is the four-story brick stmoture of the Hiding 
Club, a private association with a membership ot abouV 
500, being the largest and most eselusive organization 
of its kind in the country. The club building has ac- 
commodations for 300 horses, and a ring 100x105 feet; 
initiation fee $20; annual dues $100. 

In and near Central Park are three of the greatest in- 
stitutions in the city. The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art in Central Park, neat Fifth avenue opposit* Eighty- 
third street; the Lenox Library, on Fifth avenue between 
Seventieth and Seventy-first streets; the American Mu- 
seum o£ Natural History in Manhattan Square, between 
Seventy-seventh and Eighty-first streets, separated from 
Central Park only by Eighth avenue. The visitor who 
wiahes to see these institutions thoroughly cannot do so 
by making them incidental to a tour of Central Park. 
They are, therefore, described at this point, the tour ot 
Central Park being given in Chapter X. 



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CHAPTER IX. 



METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. 

Open every wcok-ilaj- 10 A. JT. to f, P. M., and 
Tuesdays and Satiird.iys 8 P. M. to 10 P. M. Admis- 
sion free except Mondays and Tuesdays 25 cents, Tues- 
day nights, liowevur, being free. Tije Metropolilan 
Mnsenm of Art, situated in Central Park near Fifth 
ftvenue and Eiglity-flrst street entrance, ia a plain but 
substantial bunding leased lo tlie Museum by the city. 

Hand-books. — The colleotions are not yet completely 
catalogued. Tlicrenro a brief gcneml guide (10 cents); 
three hand-books of the paintings (10 cents each); a 
hand-book of I ho drawings, water-colors, photographs 
and etchings (10 cents); of the Oriental Porcelains (10 
cents); iiud of the Johnston Collection of Bngrared 
Gems (15 cents). Many of the important exhibits in tiie 
vjirious uiicatulogued collections are, however, fully 
labeled. 

HiSTORV. — The first attempt to fonnd the institution 
which has developed into the Metnyiolitau Museum of 
Art, was made at a meeting of the Union League Club, 
inPebroary, 1808. The mutter was referrpd to thoArt 
Committee of the club, whiuh, Novembers;!, 18GD, called 
ft meeting at the Academy of Music. A committee of 
fifty was appointed, which Bubscqucntly was enlarged to 
nil. Subsequently a provisional constitution was 
adopted, and at an execnuvo meeting May 14, 1S70, a 
special charter which had been secured from the Legis- 
lature, April 13, 1870, was prewnted, and a perjnanent 
con^^titLttlOIl adopted. John Taj'lor .Tohnstnn, a well- 
known art coniioiflsour, was elected president. lie has 
been a valued adviser and Irieud of the . _ i i. 



___ . .;s honoi-ary president. Id April, 18T1. the Iipgis- 
l;Lturo passed tkeActby virtneof wbich the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art occupies its present quarters, where it may 
c.incinue as long as it coin piles with tlie terms of tlie lease, 
blit which it is at liberty to leave upon giving duo notice. 



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FIRST FLOOR. 

METKOPOLITAK MUSEDM OP ART. 



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SECOND FLOOR. 

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF AKT. 



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803 

It moved into this building during March and April, 
1879, having previously occupied buildings respectively 
on Filth avenue, between Fifty-third and Fifty-fouri^h 
streets, and on the south side of Fourteenth street, be- 
tween Sixth and Seventh avenues. During the removal 
to the present structure, the tnistees carefully superin- 
tended the packing of the various objects, doing much 
of the work with their own hands, a fact whioa illus- 
trates the deep interest they take in the welfare of the 
institution. In December, 1888, the first extonaion to 
the building was opened, and, as the collections in the 
museum are growing at e, remarkably rapid rate, another 
is now being erected. 

Membership,— The contribution of $1,000 or more to 
the funds of the Museum at any one time entitles the 
donor to bo a Patron. Suoh person enjoys a Patron's 
right in perpetui^ lor each sum of $1,000 so contributed, 
and has the privilege of appointing his siieaessor. The 
contribution of $500 at one time entitles the donor to be 
a Fellow in perpetuity, who also has the right to appoint 
his successor. The contribution of f200 at one time 
entitles the donor to be a Fellow for life. Persons may 
become Annual Members at a subscription of $10. 
Patrons, Fellows, and Members are entitled to certain 
desirable privileges. The present officers of the Musenm 
are : President; Henry Q. Marquand ; vice-presidents, 
William 0. Prima and Daniel Huntington: treasurer, 
Salem H. Wales ; secretary, L. P. Di Cesnola ; libra- 
rian, William N. Andrews, h. P. Di Cesnola is direc- 
tor ; Isaac H, Hall.: curator of the Department of 
Sculpture; John A. Paine, curator of the Department 
of Casts; George H. Story, curator of the Department 
of Paintings; and Arthur L. Tuokerman, manager of 
the Art Schools. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is the most import- 
ant institution of its kind in the United States. Iti 
wealth and varie^ of collections it cannot, of course, 
compare with the British Museum, or with several otheis 
in foreign countries. But when it is considered how 
recent a creation it is, its growth to its present dimen- 
sions is most remarkable. Moreover, it has proceeded 
upon the admirable plan of making such collections as it 
possesses complete of their kind, and it therefore, in 



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204 

some details, sorpasses all other similar institutions. 
The CesQoia collection, tlie glass mid gem cOI lection :», 
and the collection of Egyptian textiles, for instance, Hie 
unrivaled; the collection of mummies, though small, is 
varied, and each specimen in it is very fine and inter- 
esting; the collection of Indian idols from New Mexico 
is nniqne, and the collections of paijititigs by Dutch 
inastei-s and of the work of the most distinguished modern 
piiiiiters arc large and important. 

Tiie diagrams show the general arrangement of the 
building. 

The Collections. — The entrance (A) leads into the 
HaU of Gaels of Ancienl Sculpture (B). Here are re- 
productions of the most noted reiuainsof ancient Greeli, 
Roman, Asavrian and Egyptian sculpture, all the ob- 
jects being labeled. On the fioor o£ the lai'ger portion 
of the lial!, runnine east and west, are statues of ancient 
sculpture. Around the wall at the top, beginning on 
the west side of the principal entrance, are reproductions 



Hall of Architectural Casts (0). In the alooTe (I , 
collection of Eenaissance wrought iron. Against the 
pier at the north end Is the ''Assnmption of the Virgin," 
by JUitea della Sobia, and on the sides of the pier are 
photographs of several works of the Delia Robias. The 
"Assumptioii," a fine example of Luca della Robia's 
work, was originally in the mortuary chapel of the Prince 
of Piombino and was presented to the Museum by Henry 
G, Marouand, who is also the donor of the wrought iron 

Hall of Architectural Casts(6r). — The central exhibit 
in the Hall ot Architectural Casts into which this 
passage leads is the superb pnlpit from the Cathedral at 
Sienna, tlic work of Nichola Fisano, 1268 A. D. Facing 
it from the south is the elaborate fa^de of the Guild of 
the Butcher's House at Hildesheim, 1539 A. D, Facing 
it from the north is a one-twentieth reprodnetion of the 
front of the Cathedra! Notre Dame, Paris. To the right 
of the pulpit is a superb reproduction of the Parthenon 
exterior and interior with the frieze and sculptures of the 
pediment colored. To the left of the pnlpit are, among 
other objects, Bay of CloisterSj St. John ijiteran, Rome, 



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Twellth Century A. D. ; Shrine of Saint Selmldns, 
Nuremberg-, Peter Visclier & Sons, 1519 A. D. ; Stntidard 
Bearer from the plnza of St. Mark's, Venice; i ' 
dro Leopardi, 150ii A. D. 



from the frieze o[ the eella of the Parthenon, arranged 
so that the center o( the eastern frieze of the Parthenon 
forms the center of the north face of tlie gallery, the 
whole corresponding as nearly as possible to the position 
of tlie original on a line from this center. Atl the 
architectural casts in this hall are purchases mode with 
a fund bequeathed to the Museum, in 1884 by lievi S. 
Willard. 

The object in this room which will probably strike the 
general visitor as most interesting ia the large canvas, 
"Diana's Hunting Party," by Mans Maknrt, on the 
west wall. It was presented by Mrs. Ellen Josephine 
BancUer. It is 81 feet in length by 14 feet in height 
and has become familiar through frequent reproductions. 
Diana and her train have reached the rocky shore of a 
lake in full pursuit of a deer, which has just plunged 
into the water. In spite of the many and important 
accessory figures Diana remains the central object of 
interest. She standsfirmly posed upon a rock, her lance 
poised for the throw. Her face, crowned with auburn 
hair, is beautiful, but lighted up with the fierce joy of 
the hunt. Of the sis nymphs in her train all but one 
seem impelled by the same savage spirit, the one escep- 
tion being the nymph at Diana's left, who looks up to 
the goddess with a pitying glance, as if pleading for the 
hunted animal. Between the deer and its pursners 
seven naiads have swam protectingly, one oi them — 
the chief figure in this group — rising far out of the 
water, with her aubnrn hair streaming down her back 
and her arms high uplifted as if protesting and exposing 
her own fair body to Diana's weapon. The nude forms 
of these naiads follow in their lines the sweeping undu- 
lations of the waves which dash up into the rocky cove. 

Over this canvas and also over the canvases on the 
other walls are tapestries by Furgnad de Lavergne 
dated 1788. The paintings on the east wall are Ber^a- 
min Coneianfa "Justinian in Coimcil," presented by G. 



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206 

Mannheimer ; Luduiig Knaua' " Peace," and Oaslav 
liichter's " Viotory," tlielust two presented by Jacob P. 
Schiff, 

Egyptian Anliqitiiies. — The visitor siioiilil now pro- 
ceed to thellall ot Ancient Sciilpturt! and Kgyntian An- 
tiquities {C) and liew the unimmies and otlier Kgyptinii 
niitiquiticB in this iiall and in t)ie room ot Aneient Ten's 
Oottas (F), and then couUuue his study of tlie forms or 
ancient burial, as sliown in tlic cases of E|;yptian Tnum- 
niies, by inspecting tlie fine sarcophagi in tlie Ilall of 
Ancient Statuary, Inscriptions and Bronzes (il). Tlie 
inummies are in two lines of cases, lieginning on the 
floor on the west side of the Hull of Ancient Sculpture 
and Egyptian Antiquities (C), The specimens are varied 
and mosilyinafinestateot preservation. Many of them 
are from the sealed tomb of Gourraet-Mourrai, discov- 
ered by Maspero in 1880. The student can here see the 
mummy swathed in mummy cloth; thecartonage which, 
consistmg of some 15 to 20 strips of linen gummed to- 
gether, was pressed over the Itody and thus made to re- 
produce its contour and even the featui-es of the face; 
the first casket into which the mummy and cartonage 
were placed, and the outer case into which the smaller 
one was set. Indeed one eshibit shows even a third 
case. (See below.) The caskets were shaped to conform 
witli the figure of the deceased and the carved features 
on the upper lid were a representation of the face of the 
dead. The cases are fully labeled. 

One of the finest caskets in the collection is in case 83, 
which is the fi.rst In the lino of cases to the left on enter- 
ing from the Hall of Casta of Ancient Sculpture (B). 
This is made of cedar probably from Lebanon, and 
certainly not from a less distance than the Taurus range. 
Case 79 forms with case 77, and the casket standing on 
the top ot case 68, the most oompleta exhibit in the ool- 
leetion, 79 showing the inner casket and mummy of 
Khelshire from Gebelin, 77 containing the outer casket 
and cartonage, the latter finely preserved, of the same 
mummy, and a second outer casket standing on the top 
of 68 We have, therefore, here a complete example of 
the Egyptian mode of preserving the dead. On the 
upper shetf of 78 are mummied feet and hends from 
Tliebes, showing the appearance of the features and the 



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feet several thousand years after they were embalmed. 
Though the features can be easily traced the he&ds are 
glwstly objects after all, and one cannot help thinking 
that it is preferable to chaiige into a plain white skeleton, 
rather than to remain a browii and shrunken mummy. 
la 75 are the mummy, cartonage and the wooden figure 
of lonnofirto, who, to judge from the liierogliphics on 
the casket and the carved features, must have been a 
yonng woman of beauty and wealth. Case 73 contains, 
beside an inner casket and mummy, three closets lor 
the preservation of funerary statuettes, and two boxes 
divided witJiin into four compartments for the protection 
of funei'ary jars. 

The collection of miseellaneous Egyptian antiquities 
begins at case 48on the west wall of the Hall of Ancient 
Sculpture and Egyptian Antiquities (C). This contains 
one of the latest Known collections of funerary statu- 
ettea (" respondents ") of porcelain, elay, wood and terra 
cotta. These were buried with the deceased in mummy 
cases and closets, such as are exhibited in case No. 73 
above. Those in blue porcelain are from the remark- 
able discovery of tombs of kinj^s and princes of the 
twenly-Ilrst dynasty at Deir-El-BaharL These statu- 
ettes hold in their hands hoes and picks and have 
baskets slung over their shoulders. The belief was that 
when the deceased entered the Biysian Fields and work 
was demanded of him by the supernatural authorities 
there, these statuettes would rise up and perform tiie 
labor required of the deceased. This collection of 
statuettes extends through cases 48 to 53 and are from 
the Maapero collection. Other collections represented 
in the Egyptian antiquities are tho^ of J. w. Dresel, 
Jas, Douglass, and Farnham. Besides the statuettes re- 
ferred to, there are ; In 49 a statuette of mi Egyptian 
ftntleman, a wooden head-rest showing that the 
gyptian gentleman had very uncomfortable sleeping 
accommodations ; a mummified Osiris on a block con- 
taining the mummy of a sparrow ; in 51 to 53, besides 
funerary statuettes, the fine Egyptian bronzes of the 
Drexel collection, there being on the floor of 51 a 
statuette of Osiris standing upon a hawk-shaped 
coffin containing the mummy of a hawk (the gilt 
of £. M. Laimbeer); in 66, top shelf, several mummies 



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of cat^ and in other parts of llie case bricks, ■with 
and without straw, stamped with tlic cartouche of 
the rulers, ciiiefly of the eigliteenth dymistv. during 
which the Cliildren of Israel were captives in Kgypt, the 
iuference being that some of these bricks were niiulc by 
them. A oollectiou of ancient Ejryptian textile fiibrics 
will be foiuKl in standai'ds in the Hall of Ancient Stjilu- 
ary aud Egyptian Antiqiiitiee (C) and in the Hall of 
Ancient Statuary and Inscriptions and Bronzes (II). 
Mauy of the specimens are woven in colored patterns 
and comprise articles of apXHi-rel, both plain and orna- 
raentai, and mummy cloths, with designs or attached 
borders, which were found nt Sakkamh, Fairum and 
Ahkiuyn. They date chiefly from the second to tJie 
eleventh century of the Chilatiiin era. The most in- 
teresting standards are those in the Hall of Ancient 
Statuary, Inscriptions and Bronzes (H), which were 
presented to tiie Museum by George F. Baker, who pur- 
chased thoin of Eraile Brugsch B«y, curator of tho 
Bonlelt Museum, now at Gizeh, Cairo. No 1310, iii the 
southwest standard of H, shows what may lio tiie 
earliest pictures of episodes in tho life of Christ, as they 
date from the third century A. D. These standards, 
with those in the Hall of Ancient Sculpture and Aiinient 
Antiquities, form the moat complete collection of its 
kind in the world. 

Greek Vases. — There are two small but excellent col- 
lections on this side of the firsC floor lo be inspected 
liefore takinp; up tiie sni'copliagi chiefly from the Cesnohi 
collection, to wliich all the other objects in the rooms on 
this side of the building belong, ai>d which, therefore, 
should be considered together. The first oC tho small 
collections referred to consists of veiy fine specimens of 
Greek vases contained in four large table-ciiRes standing 
on tlio floor of the Koom of Ancient Terra Cottas (F), 
These were dl-icovered at Alexandria, and are admirable 
specimens of Greek art in Egypt. They were probably 
mostly made and sold as wat«r lars (hydriae), but, as the 
Greeks cremated their dead and no other strictly funer- 
ary jars could bo obtained, hydriae were used for ciner- 
ary purposes aud inscribed in ink or scratches with the 
name of ttic deceased and the date of his de;ith, 

Ou the west center pier bctivcen this room and the 



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Hall of Ancient Statuary Find Egyptian Antiquities le 
the Ward collection of clay tablets from Assyria and 
Babylonia, a small but excellent eabinet. 

Hall of Aneiettf Se^dpture, ItiaeripHons and Bronzes 
(J5).— The Sarcophagi in this hall lorm an interesting 
continuation of the mummy series. No. fl, which stands 
against the east nail in the passage between the Room 
of Ancient Terra Cottas (F) and the Hall of Ancient 
Statuary, Inscriptions and Bronzes (II), is a superb 
marble sarcophagusof R^man workmanehipdatingironi 
1 or 3 A. D., discovered near Borne, the sculpture being . 
of the vigorous Roman type. B is a Greek sarcophagus 
from Tarsus, presented by Abdodebdas. It is of Boman 
style of the time of the Roman Empire. One side is 
nnflnished, showing that it was intended to rest against 
the wall of the tomb. 3 is the casket of a king of 
Cyprus, who reigned abont 600 B. C, found at Golgos in 
Cyprus. On the southern end of this casket is a rep- 
resentation (sculptured) of the myth of Perseus and 
Medusa. Pei'seus has cut off the Medusa's hea<! and is 
making off with it in his wallet, Pegasus and Chrysaor 
spring from the neck of Medusa. Perseus and Medusa 
aro of Assyrian features and in Assyrian garb, showing 
the Assyrian origin of a lujtb winch has always been 
attributed tfl thi & eeks rhe east side of the casket is 
pure Greek, but s e dently cop e1, because, although it 
represents only a hunt those engaged in it are niUy 
armed for battle e of the nost interesting of all 
the specimens of a cophagi \d. 1, as it shows quit« 
a remarkable c nb at o of va ions styles of art, and 
seems to reflect tl e co il i of nations wiiieh, from time 
to lime, inhab ted Ojp s It was discovered at 
Amathus, a Phteniciau city of Cyprus, in a tomb 65 
feet beiow the surface of the soil. A large part of the 
cover is missing, but the rest is in an eseellent stat« of 

R reservation. The friezes show not only the Egyptian 
)tus, but also the egg and tongue design ot Greek origin. 
The borders at each end are Phceniciau, as are the panels, 
the south end showing the Cyprian Venus, a nude 
figure, excepting for the necklace, in her characteristic 
attitude supporting her breasts with her hands. The 
Sphinxes on the pediments are again Greek, as they have 
lem^e hqads. - There are also Greek figures on the sides. 



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210 

ftmong them being' warriors in chariots! the number of 
eiHDkcs in the wheels of the chariots diSeriiii;, thus coii- 
tradiotirig tlie tlieory which was once ingeniously 
Biivaiieed tiiat it would be possible to detei'mine the 
relative age of sculpture containing chariots by the 
number of spokes in the wheels, the suggestion being 
that the fewer the spokes the more ancient the piece of 
sculpture, as it would showruder and more primitive 
metnods of manufact tiring chariots. 

On the east wall of the northern end of this hall are 
panels of ancient figures and gliized Persian tiles, 
AgniuEt the east wall in the liorth corner are the frag- 
ments of the bronze crabs taken from the base of the 
obelisk (Cleopatra's Needle) now in Central Park. 

Cesnola OoUeciion. — Having disposed of the other col- 
lections and miscellaneous objects on the eastern side of 
the first floor, it is now possible for tlie visitor to view sya- 
tematicnlly the Ccsnola collection of Cvpriot antiquities. 
Cyprus is one of the largest inlands in the Mediterranean, 
theKittim of the Bible. Itsflrstoolonists were probably 
thcPhotniciaosof Tyre; and the most ancient antiquities 
in the Cesnola collection are objects of Phtonician tnako. 
There were two E^yiitian occupations, a,nd the island at 
various times paid tribute to Persia and Assyria, so that 
we have ainoTig the antiquities oomin^liumcdiately after 
tliose of PhtEDician origin, Egyptian and Assyrian 
relics. From about 333 B. C. until 58 B. C. the island 
was held by the Ptolemies and was then reduced to a 
Roman province. The antiquities of these epochs are 
Archaic Greek, pure Greek and Grasco-Roman. The 
various divisions of the collection are arranged to show 
the progression from the Phtenician through the Egyp- 
tian and Assyrian, Archaic Greek and Greek to the 
Groseo-Roman. These antiquities were discovered by 
General Louis Palma Di Cesnola, while TJ. S. Consul at 
Cyprus. Soon after he bad settled in tlie consulate at 
Imrnaoa he became impressed with the thought that as 
Cyprus had been the gi^t central meeting point of the 
ancient races above mentioned, relics of these races might 
be discovered, and he decided to institiile excavations, 
which he conducted with great tact and perseverance. 

The objects excavated were remarkably well preserved, 
owing to the fact that the Cypriots built their walls of 



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ail 

mud. In 1874, after the Hetropolitaa Museum of Art 
had in 1873 acquired the collection of Cypriotantic^uities 
made by Cesnola, up to that year, he continued hm es- 
plorations on the site of ancient Ouriuin. Discovering 
the mosaic pavement of & temple in that mined city, he 
sank a shaft some SO feet below it. Here he found a 
vanlted passage leading to a door, on breaking through 
which he entered the treasure chambers of the temple, 
four vaulted rooms containing objects in gold, silver, 
pottery, alabaster ftnd bronze. Piles of silver dishes 
which had become attached to each other by oxidation, 
^ave evidence of the richness of the room. These ob- 
jeets had great inherent value, hut they were even more 
raluable as an illustration of art history, which had been 
a sealed book heretofore. The temple of Curium was 
destroyed certainly as earlv as 6 B. C., possibly earlier. 
It is at about this time that the history of Greek art 
Kommonced, and as the treasnres of this temple dated 
back to an earlier period, it will be seen that the dis- 
coveiy was of importance f I'om an historical point of 
view, afEording as it did a knowledge of Greek art older 
than any yet Kiio\ra. In fact, when Gen. Di Cesnola 
opened the doorway at the end of this vaulted passage, 
he opened the entrance to an art history and a history of 
man and of clviIiz.ition precedinj; the earliest known 
liistory of Greek art, and leading back to the source of 
Greek civilization. Indeed, in the light thrown upon 
the origin of Greek art by this collection, the Greeks ap- 
pear as inspired adapters of the art of earlier civiliza- 
tions, rather than as originators. The valuable Curium 
treasure was aiso obtained by the Museum. The authen- 
ticity and iiitegrityof the Cesnola collection was attacked 
and vindicated in court in what is known as the Peuer- 
dent-Cesnola trial, which lasted tlirough November and 
December, 1883. 

Statuary, Inaeripticma and Bronzea. — Arrranged in 
the Hall of Ancient Statuary, Inscriptions and Bronzes 
(U) against the piers on the west side and on the center 
piers, beginning with case 10, is a collection of statuary 
illustrating the various epochs of art represented in the 
Cvpriot discoveries — Phcenician. to Gr^co-Romanj No, 
ifl, in case 11, is an Assyrian statue in a remarkably line 
state of preservation; No, 19 is a statue, probably of 



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Hciaeles, with a lion's ekai for a cloak And lictid'dress; 
No. 22, in ciisD 13, an A.^syrian heiid with wooderlully 
flno sculpturing of the liair, was lioirowcd and copieil 
Biislilii. In tlio Qost wing of this liall arc cases of 



X 



nHhwallfti . . „ - 

trcasore, including Ini^ cauldrons witli ornamental 
handles, Tnses ol ereat beauty, rairrorsi, weapons of 
various kinds, tripods, the bit from a bridle, and the 
candolahra of u t«mplc. 

Terra Coltag. — In the Hall of Ancient Terra Cottas 
(F) begiiiiiiTjg on the nortli wall, against which stand 
oiises 1 to 6, are tlio terra cottas of the Cosnoln coiloc- 
tion, a Inrce number of pieces of great interest to stu- 
dents, Tnc pieces from 1 to 83 are various representa- 
tions of Venus, beginning with the Semitic Venus or the 
Venus of Cyprus, a nude female figure supporting hor 
breasts with lier hands (the first examples liaving animal 
heads), and running the ethnological gamut to pure 
Greek, 83 being a graceful little figure of a Gi'cek Venus 
wicit a child, very much like a sculptured re^iresentation 
of a Madonna and child. Then comes a series of statu- 
ettes of musicians, probably of the temples. The little 
group, 130, seems to represent a judge (in the center) 
watching a sentence executed upon a thief, the lamb 
held by the man on the right probably being the object 
stolen. In tlie lower part of cases 1 to 8 are larger ob- 
jects of statuary, including 248, a finely preserved Phceni- 
cianhead as shown by tlie pointed feacui-es; and 268, a 
woman's head in pure Greek style. The terra eotta 
lieads in these cases are unique as far as size is con- 
eemed. The eases continue from 7 to 18 alone; Iho east 
wail of this room. There are, beftinning on the upper 
shelf, liorsemen from the rudest kind of Phcenician art, 
showing the giraffe-neck horses sucii as are found in the 
early pottery of the Cesnola collection, to the fine figure 
418, and the elegantly sculptured hoi'sc's bend besiiio it. 
Six pieces, 334 A-P, found in one tomb, evidently iUus- 
trate the funeral procession of the person biuded there. 
In the cases around the piers are a large number of teira 
cotta lamps. 

Seulpinres. — The Cesnola collection continues in the 
Hall of Ancient Sculpture and Egyptian Antiquities (C), 



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S13 

Th a 1 E se n floor-cases on the easL side of 

th h U E k bl n case 2 la 183, a colossal Assy-'. " 

ti h ad It was 1 iiied ici the Feuerdeiit-Cesnola 
t al tl t tl n added to this statue, and this 

p A yr K tl n was submitted to the indignity 
of haling- a hole drilled in his nasal organ. No. 157, (4/—— ■ 
in case la, in the line ranged <^ainst the east wall, is the 
most famous exhiljit in. the Feuerdent-Cesiiola trial. It 
was claimed that General Di Cesnola had attempted to 
palm, this off as a figure of Venus holding a mirror, and 
that the mirror had been taken from some other statn- 
ette and patched upon 157. Asculptortcstifled that the 
restorer liHfl been so cnttiusiastio in hiswork that hehad 
added a sisth toe to one of the feet, but this was after- 



various representations cf the god Pan. 
of 31 to 33 are chiefly Archaic Greek and Greek heads of 
Acierais. The objects iu33 and 84 are Gneco-lkiman; 
in 35, unclassified. 1'he mu'bles of the Cesnola collec- 
tion are in id and 44, the latter containing a large 
■votiTe shii>, from whieh men are being cast orerboard to 
sea monsters, found at Tarsus in 1876 and presented by 
John Todd Edgar. Ciise 4*) contains fine alabasters 
from Phcciiician, Egyptian and Greek tombs at Cyprus, 
chiefly from the Curium treasure. In 46 are various 
articles in serpentine and in 47 several ^reen-giazed 
terra cottas, the collection extending to 57, inclusive. 

Foltery. — In order to continue the inspection of the 
Cesnola collection it is necessary to cross the Hall of 
Casts and Ancient Sculpture (B) to the Halt of Glass, 
Laces and Ancient Pottery (D). The collection of pot- 
tery begins in the northwest corner of the Hall, being 
arranged in wall and floor cases, the latter containing 
large vases. The gem of the collection is the large Tasa 
on the top shelf in floor case?. Thisitfrom the Curium 
treasure, and is known as the Great Vase of Curium. 
It is of brown clay, and covei'ed from top to bottom 
with decorations. In shape it is unique in the collec- 
tion, being the only jar on a high foot, and the only 
vase with font handles. The lid is crowned with a little 
tydria. Prom its size and profusion of decoration this 
vase is one of the finest specimens of its class, and in its 
early days must have been a superb work of art. 



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214 

Cases 8 and 9 around the northwest pier, and also 10 
against the west wait, contain smaJl objects, amotig them 
numei'0113 whorls frojn Cyprus spindles. On tlio second 
shelf o[ 11 is an object loal:iiig lilica cluster of small salb 
eellars. This was probably iiseil for partridge eggs, 
which are still soli as a delieitcy in Cyprus in little 
wickers closely resembling in shape this article of ancient 
pottery. In 13 are milk pans; on tho third shelf of 18 
near 19 and in 19 seceral infants' feeding-bottles, pcr- 
lorated so that tliey could be hung around the neck by 
a string. On the top sliclf of 30 are two vnses which arc 
filled through a hole in the bottom, a funnel extending 
to within a very sjiort distance of the top. In 21 and iHi 
are probably the first objects in the collection niiide with 
the potter's wheel. Two little vases in 35 are arranged 
to show how the trefoil mouth, wliieh has been so much 
praised in Greek vases, o«|jinated in Oriental art. No. 
3,800 is a small vaseof exquisitJi shape crowned with an ox 
head. If this ox head were to beciit in two horizontally, 
the snout, cars and back of the head would form a trefoil, 
and in order to show this more eJearlya pretty little tre- 
foil rase is placed next to it. On the first shelf of S6 and 
extending along the corresponding shelf to 30, is a series 
of vases naving for nozzles a pitcher or jar held by a 
female figure leaning against the neck of a large vuse. 
No. 3,3S3 B in 39 shows thi'eo cups on a hollow pipe et 
different heights, so that water will run from the Iiigiiest 
into the other two and lastly from the nozzle. Case 30 
contaius a vase, the top of which is modeled after the 
head and bust of a woman. In 34 are vases on whidi 
are rudely painted human heads with mouths for noz- 
zles; in37, rases with trefoilmouths, the perfect develop- 
ment of which by the Greeks may be seen in case 43; in 
38 a number of cups, the adaptation of whoso shape by 
the Greeks may be seen in 44. One of the gems of tho 
collection, a lovely slender amphora, stands upon the 
middle of the fourth shelf in 41. Cases 45 and 46 con- 
taiu some specimens of Italian potteiy presented by Gen. 
Cesnola to the Museuni. 

Olaas. — Most of the pieces in the Museum's tinequaled 
collection of ancient glass belong to t!ie Cesnola collec- 
tion. N^o other museum contains glass dating back to 
800 B. C. like the specimens of Aesyrian, Phtenician 



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315 

and Egyptian glass in csf e G9, ^un^ the eastern cen- 
ter pier o( the room. The gem of tlie ancient glass . 
collection ia in 47. It is of unrivaled iridescence, sup- 
posed to liave been cnused by the liqnieaceiice of tne 
bodies in the toiubs in w)iich the glass was found. 
There are other fine examplea of iridescence in the 
eoilection. The glass, excepting the cabinet dating 
back to 800 B. C, is mostly from 1 B. C. to 1 A. D. 
The Marquand collection of Grseco-Roman glass begins 
at floor case Ii3 on the east side of this hnll. Probablj 
the most valuable piece in this case is a yellow cap con- 
snicuous on the top step, which bears an inscription and 
also shows figures of warriors. On the fourth step of 
case 04 is an exquisitely shajied bine vase. In the lower 
parts of these cases are specimens of mediteval French. 

Slass, the finest specimen being a cap with a crown and 
eur-de-lis as a cover, on the west side of case 68. 
Cases 05 and 66 contain the Jarves collection of Vene- 
tian glass. Case 65 dates from 1500 to lOOO, the finest 
Epeciiueii being a large yellow vase standing upon the 
coil of a sea serpent. Case 66 dates from 1600 to 1700. 
In it is a superb toilet cabinet entirely of glass. Case 
67 dates from 1700 to 1750 and shows a falling off in the 
grade of workmanship. Case 68 dates from 1750 tolSOO, 
the most interestingobjocts in it being two candelabra. 
MisceUaneojis.— Boviii the center of this hall are 
standards containing a collection of laces, one standard 



tliis hall and the Boom of Carved Wood and Musical 
Instruments (E) is a case of shrines, a bequest of 
Mrs. A, M, Minturii. The Room of Carved Wood and 
Musical Instruments contains a remarkable exhibition 
of the latter, composed of the Joseph W. Dresel and J. 
Crosby Brown collections, consisting of antique and 
modem musical in stmmen is of great variety in construc- 
tion and nationality, many of them Oriental and aborigi- 
nal, all of them being^ ethnologic ally arranged, and 
thoroughly labeled. Besides the instruments there are in 
this room a finely carved clock of English work, dated 
1640, a valuable cabinet inlaid with Oriental porcelains, 
and a case of drawera and shelves, to which a gold mcilal 
at the Centennial Eshibition of 1870 was awarded, it be- 



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cotilaius sevenii Jiotablo examplea of the work o£ Am 
can and Europciiii eculpture, aiuotig th«ui a CH^t of 
ISarye's " Lion iinil Serpent." 

SriiBCABES. — There are staircases (K) at either corner 
of the Hall of Ancient Statuary (H) and of the Hull of 
Jloderii Sculptni'e (I). These hitter are respectively the 
snuChwcst and northwest stairways, 'I'iie southwest 
stairway is hung with Fagnani's pictures of the Niiie 
Sluses, which are portrail* of New York women, and 
with ten other paintings, of which 19 is MuriUo's 
" Holy Family," tlie picture known as the "Brevoort 
S[urillo,"pre«enteil by the late John Jacob AstorBristed. 
The southeast stairway has, among a number of old 
masters, a fine example of Antonio Pollajuolo (Floren- 
tine School, 1483 lo 1498), "St. Christopher and the 
Infant Christ" (110^, cut Irom the walls of the chapel 
of the Miohelozzi Viila and presented to the Museum uy 
Cornelius Vanderbilt, and the "Head of a Cherub." by 
Correggio (111). Among the paintings on the nortlieast 
stairway is Huhen'a " Lions Chasing the Deer " (130). 

Paiktisos. — The flue collection of painlings by both 
old andinodern musterswhich is own»l by the Museum, 
is distributed throufth various gallciies on the seeoiid 
floor, and ia arranging the descriptions thereof, it has 
been thought best to conduct the visitor conaecntively 
through the galleries in which are huug the modern 
paintings (the most interesting (o the general public) 
jiud then through those which contain examples of the 
old masters. The visitor will find tije most noted of the 
iiioilern paintings In the old western gallocy U, which is 
reached irom either of the staircases on the ivestem side. 
The southern end o( this gallery is filled with 18, the 
" Horse Fair," by Rosa Bonheur, presented byComelius 
Vanderbilt. in 1887. It was first es:hibitea at the Paris 
Salon in 1853, but it did not find a purchaser. In 185fi 
she offered to sell it to Bordeaux, her native town, for 
13,000 franca (83,400). The town ^fusing to purchase 
it, she sold it to Gambert for 40,000 francs, painting for 
Jiim a q^uarter-stze replica, from which Thomas Landseer 



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217 

innile the famous eDgroving. Gambert sold the original 
ill 1857 to William P. Wricht, of Now York, for S0,000 
francs. In 1870 lie offered to te-purehase it for 50,000 
francs, but tiie ofEer was relused. Wlion tlie Wright 
collection was sold the picture was bought by A. T, 
Stewart, aud at the sale of his collection it was purchased 
by Mr. Vaiiderbilt for $S3,B0O. The replica from which 
the engraving is made, is now in tixe National Gallery at 
London. A second, still smaller teplica, brought on its 
last sale $20,000, and a still smaller water color drawing 
of it, f 13,000. Another ot the modem masterpieces in 
this gallery which is among the first pictures of the col- 
lection to "be sought out by visitors, is 71, Meissonier's 
" Friedland, 1807," which hangs between the doors of - 
the west wall. It was presented to the Kuseura by 
Henry Hilton, in 1887, having been purchased by him 
for $66,000 atthe Stewart sale. Thebeholder can hardly 
f ;iil to be impressed with the magnificent swing ot horses 
and riders as the regiment of euirrasiers dashes past 
Napoleon I in review on its way to battle. The horses 
seem almost as if they might leap pell mell from the 
canvas into the open, Meissonier writing to Mr. 
Stewart, January 7, 1876, says: 

■■I did not intend to paint a battle-I wanted to paint Napo- 
leon at tlieaome of his glory— I wanMd to paint the love, t lie 
adoration ot the soldiers for the great Captain in whom they 
had faith, and foe whom they were ready to die, • • • As 
to the executicin, only a painter (and oae of great experience) 
oati say what time labor and patience have been brought to bear 
upon this work to produee a sin[rle whole out of so many di- 
verse elements. The growing wheat Is even proof ot the difli- 
Cldtles I have ensountered in covering it with the dost whieh 
hides so many thtugB." 

A third work apt to attract attention is 93, Belaille's, 
the " Defence of Champigny," a spirited battle scene, 
for, although the enemy is not visible, his nearness is 
felt. Groups of oificers and soldiers, sappeurs making 
embrazures in the wall, barricadiers, artilUrists placing 
guns in position, and the spirited detail on the balcony, 
all oombme to make this a notable canvas full of the 
fierce enenjy and action ot war. It was also presented 
by Mr. Hilton. There are several other notable paint- 
ings in this galleryj among them FoHuny's portrait ot 
"A Spanish Lady in Blael!," a picture of surpassing 
grace and a model of portraiture, on the west wall be- 



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SIS 

tween the door and the north wall. Nest to it is 76, 
Datmaf's " Un Quntunc" (A Quartette), a capital woi'k, 
presoiiled \>j Mrs, Wm. H, Dunnat. The olaest of the 
singers, eviUentlf the basso, sits on a beiicli singing 
away in an unemotional style, as if his duty consisted 
solely in pcojueing a certain amount of sound. A hand- 
some young girl beside him, though evidently weary, is 
trying to foree a professional smile. The leiior stand- 
ing behinil leans graeefully against the wall, and tonor- 
lilie is smiling while singing as if flirting with some fair 
listener. 138, at the soutliern end of the west wall, 
L'Hermitte'a, "The Vintaife," presented by William 
Schaus, shows a robust youiig woman resting her kindly 
ioolt upon a vigorous boy lialf recumbent upon the 

f round devouring grapes, while a bronzed man and a 
ale old woman are busy cutting bunches from the 
vines. The broad, vigorous treatment of the figures and 
vineyard isadmirable. About oppoaito this is jBaiseros's, 
"Boatmen at Barcelona" (105), presented by George I, 
Scney, A groupof gossiping old salts, so trne to life that 
you eanevenpioturetlie features of the one whoso lace is 
turned away. 89 and 06 are capital little sheep scenes 
by Mauve, the wool bein^ delightfully thick and 
soft looking, while 86, Clatrin's "Moorish Sentinel." 
bequeathed by Stephen Whitney Phoenix, 



pointed out as a line example of rich coloring, 
tlus ^llery the visitor should pass into V to the 
The most striking canvas in tliis gallery hangs oi 



north wall, 41, Fratieois Attgusie Bmt'iner, "Woodland 
and Cattle," withitsflood of beautiful light, presented 
by James Clinch Smith and his sistei'S. Next to this in 
interest is 83, £eroHe'a " Orgau Rehearsal, " presented by 
George I. Soney, a l8i;ge canvas, which has all the disen- 
chantment of a peep behind the scenes. Among other 
pictures in this gallery Is Piloiy'a "Thnsnelda at the 
Triuraphiil hlntry of Germanicus into Rome," painted to 
ordorior thelate A.T. Stewart and presented by Horace 
jiusscll. Before being sent to this country it was ex- 
hiiiited in Berlin at the request of Emperor William I, 
aTid It liirge replica of it Inings in the lliinich Gallery. 
Tim principal figure is Iha proud Thusnel da, with her 
little son. 

From this gallery Ihe visitor should proceed to llio 



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310 

Ralleries containing the Catharine Lorillard Wolfe col- 
iGotion of paintings (S and R), which are reached 
Lhrougii tlie Gallery of Memorials of Washington, 
Frnu)(liii and Lafayette. 

Miss Wolfe, who bequeathed the collection to the 
Museum, was the daughter o£ John David Wolfe, who 
at the time of his death was President of the American 
Museum of Natural History id New York. Beginning- 
in Gallery S the most noteworthy canvases are; 1 — 
The fine portrait of Miss Wolfe by Cabanel, nainted 
from sittings at Paris in 1876, showing an intellectual 
face set upon a slender, aristocratic fignre. 15 — Bonnal, 
" Egyptian Pellah Woman and Child," a womanirith a 
wonderfully pathetic face, bearing upon her shoulders a 
sleeping child whose head rests on hers. 16 — Brelun's, 
'■Returning from the Christening." IS—Munkacstj, 
" i Pawnbroker's Shop." 19 — Fsferi'* "The Eepri- 
mjind,"fullof thepainter's capital humor. QO—Bargue, 
" ABashi Bazoiik,"afine exainple of rich though sub- 
dued coloring, 33 — Troyon. "Holland Cattle." 25 — 
Merle, " Falling Leaves," a lovely figure of a girl halt 
drapedinblaeltgoldstripe'lgauze, 37 — Sosa Smihew, 
"Weaning the Calves. 23—Kaiilbach, "Crusaders 
Before Jerusalem," an allegorical painting, the inten- 
tion of the artist being to express symbolically the idea 
that Christianity is the religion of the universe. 80 — 
Lefebvre, "6raziella,a Girlof Capri." 32 — Kaemmerer, 
"Stud^of a Girl's Head," full of this artist's eharacter- 
isticchic. 33 — Madrazo, "Girls at a Window," a co- 

Suetish bit, 86— Filoly, "Parable of the Wise and 
'oolish Virgins." 44 — jSehreyer, "Arabs on the March." 
45 — ie limLc, " Roman Ladies at the Tomb of their 
Ancestors," a strong little canvas, ^^GirStne, "Prayer 
in a Mosque; old Cairo." SI— Coi, "The Storm,^ a 
powerful canvas, showing sheep huddling together in a 
wild winter storm, 53 — Sougaeau, "Kiver Landscape." 
60— Coro/, "Ville d'Avery." 61— Troyon, "Study ot 
a White Cow." 

Gallery R; 63 — Meissonier, "The Brothera Adrian 
and William Van de Velde." 64 — GerSme, "Boy of 
the Biscliari Tribe." S8— Breton. "A Peasant Girl 
KnittiuK." 63— Cmifure, "The Idle Ktudent." 74— 
Breton, "Religions Procession in Britany," perhaps the 



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most interesting painling in the cnllection, vitb spni'e, 
wiry figures of peasnnts, weariug tiio trunk hoso of tlje 
sixtoenth century, their features thin yet bronaed ami 
strong; and lines of pcusant women and girls looking on 
as the piocession passes. Id—Defregger, "German 
Peasant Girl." 79 — Souguereau, " Brotlier and Sister." 
84 — Meissonier, "A General and Adjutant." 82 — 
Dupre, "The Old Oak," 9i—DelaiUe, "Skirmish he- 
tiyeen Cossacks and the Imperial Body Gnard, 1814." 
aa—Veniel, "Horses." 101— Vibert, "The StJirtled 
Confessor." 102— Henner, "A Bather," one of this 
artist's characteristic nudes. lOS— Max, " The Last 
Token," the popular paiatinR', familiar from numerous 
reproductions, of a voung girl about to suffer Christian 
martyrdom in the Colosseum looking up as if to discover 
whose friendly hand dropped the flower that has fallen 
at her feet, 'ill — Cabanel, "The Shiilamite Woman," 
full of e«gor espeotation. 113 — Meyer Von Bremen, 
"TheLetier," lla — Knaus, "Eeposeof the Holy Family 
ill Effypt." ne—Moybet, " The Game ot Cards.'' 118— 
WilTems, "Preparing for the Promenade." llfl — Beme- 
Bflleeour, "Soldier in the Trenches." 132 — FtUero, 
"Twin Stars." 123— Dor^, "The Retreat from Mos- 
cow." 136— St'ito, " The Massacre of the Mamelukes." 
137 — ieiotV, " Wandering Minstrel, Old Karemburg." 
im— Meissonier, "The Sign Painter." 140— £e?oiV, 
"In His Cups." 141 — Boughion, "A Puritan Girl," the 
last-named painted on wood, the preceding tliree being 
water colors. 

In order to continue with the collections of modern 
paintings, the visitor sliould nest proceed to GsiJlery X. 
Arnong the paintings hung here are usually such as are 
loaned to the Museum, which may bo either old or 
modem. Some very noted pictures have, from time to 
time, been loaned to the Museum. The last most nota- 
ble collection hung in this gallery was that loanetl by 
II. 0. Ilavemeyer, consisting of fourteen masterpii'ces, in- 
cluding three portraits by Itembrandt, among them the 
famous "Gilder," Among modern paintings belonging 
to the Museum in this gallery are: 34— 5as/i«ii Le Fhge, 
"Joan of Arc," one of the most notable modem can- 
vases in tlie Museum, showing Joan of Arc before she 
became her country's savior, her face that of a homely 



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221 

peasant gii-1, but lighted up with the fire of esaltation 
anil the spirit ol propheej, while in the baekground are 
the shadow;; figures of her future; 5T:—Meeeersckmitf, 
"Wallenstein'sOanip," a scene in the spring of 1635, 
representiug an episode iu the war of the Reformation 
in Anstriaand Hungary; 64 — Broiik Vacslav, "Colum- 
bus at the Court of Feidinfind and Isabella," a large 
canvas presented by Morris K. Jesiip, it being most fit 
that it should hang in this Museum, as it represents the 
beginning of Amoricnti history, showing Columbus 
after liis repulse by other European States resorting to 
the Court of Spain, where Isabella offers her jewels to 
defray the expense of the expedition, the Moorish wars 
having exhausted the Spanish treasury. Tlie contract 
between Ferdinand and Columbus is about to be signed. 
To the east of this gallery is Gallery Y, which is de- 
Toted to the fine collection of old masters, chiefly Dutch, 
which extends into Gallery O. Most noteworthy in Gal- 
leryYare: 4— ffrewje (early French), StudyforaH^d 
in the " Father's Curse," 5 -Karel Be Moor, " The 
Burgomaster ot Leyden and his Wife." 7 — David 
Tenters, the younger, " The Marriage Festival," a small 
canvas containing no less than seventy-three figures. 
11 — Trumbull, " Portrait of Alesander Hamilton," pre- 
sented by H. G. Marquand, an excellent example of this 
early American paiutor'a work, anil considered worthy 
by the curator of being hung among portraits by Dutch 
masters, IS — Adrienne De Tries, " Portrait of a Dutch 
Gentleman." 33 — Aart De Cfelder, "Portraitof a Dutch 
Admiral," full of healthy vigor. 30 — Sir Joshua Reyn- 
olds, "Portrait of the Honorable Henry Fane and his 
Guardians, luigo Jones and Charles Blair." This fine 
example of the great English portrait painter's work was 
presented by the late Junius S, Morgan, of London, 85 
— Bonifacio, " The Musical Party," a decorative can- 
vas of the Venetian School, looking as if intended for 
part of a. frieze; presented by Morris K. Jesup. 48— 
Jordaens, " The Visit of St. John to the Infant Jesus," 
one of the most notable canvases in the Museum, being 
among the finest known paintings by this artist. It js 
wonderfully rich and glowing in color, a style for whieii 
Jordaens was noted. The babies ai'e chubby, healthy 
and very Dutch looking. 51 — Franz Sals, " Hille Bobbe 



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" Portrait of John Jay," an interesting enaraple of llic 
CHrly American School. 77 — Attributed to Gttravaggio. 
Italiaoiichoolof theaeventeeotheenturj', "St. Pranciaot 
Assissi," notable for the beautiful light on the iipturnrfl 
face. 78 — Fon. Dyck, "St. Martlia iiitoreediDg- witli 
God for a cessation oE the plague at Tarascon," 02— 
Nicholas Pouagin^teaicti), mythological subject. B3 — 
Oilbert Stuart, " Washington," painted at Washington, 



s hung, it is necessary to cross the Gallery of 
jiuieiicau A ntiquities (P). The paintings in were pre- 
sented by Henry G. JInrquand. Most notable are: 3 — 
Terbiirg, "Portrait of a Qeiitlenian." 4 — Yclaaguei:, 
"OlivuTOS," a tliree-qiiarters left portrait of a man in 
black, a flue example of this great Spanish artist. 14 — 
Velatmiez, a fine portrait of himself, three-quart^ers left 
with black hair, dark habit, and narrow linen collar. 
X^^Gaineborovgh (English), "Landseajic." A broad, 
luiainous, richly wooded landscape glowing with color 
and animal life. 20 — Ziconardo da Vinci, "Portrait of 
a Lady." 21 — Rembrandt, "Portrait of a Man." A 
head or thrc&qnarters portrait of a man wearing a black 
slouched hat and dressed in a rich golden brown gabar^ 
dine, the entire figure standing out softly yet plainly on 
a luminous background. A mellow brown light is 
diffused over the whole canvas, 2%— Franz Hals, 
" The Smoker," executed in the same bold and impres- 
sionist stvle as 51 in Gallery X. The numerical so- 
qiience is here broken by the haDging next to 22 of 43, 
Pr/tnz Hals, "Portraits of Two Gentlemen," a most 
beautiful piece of portraiture, very different in treat- 
ment from No. 22, and its companion-piece, showing 
great refinement of workmanship, the canvas being 
a model of its kind. 23 — Itubeiis, " Susanna aud the 
Elders." Susanna, half undc, is seen in a crouching 
attitude near a fountain. The Elders, one of them 
climbing over a stone balustrade, the other holding on 
to the branch of an apple tree, gaze eagerly upon the 
alarmed maiden. The Susanna is a portrait of Rubens' 
second wife, Helen Fourment, whom he frequently used 



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as B model. She ia also shown in 63, Gallery Y. 35— 

Hogarth (English), "Miss Bich Bmlding u Hoase of 
Cards," the portrait of a charmiugly frank looking 
young girl dressed ia white, S7 — Ruysdael, "Land- 
scape," in subdued yet rich color?. 28 — Velasquez, 
" Portrait of Baltasar Carlos," eldest son of Phillip IV. 
29 and 30— Rembrandl, 38. the "Portrait of a Man i" 
iiO, the " Adoration of the Shepherds," a pieture similar 
to tiiat in the National Gallery, London, with, however, 
a few differences. 31 — Qain^oTough, "A Girl with a 
Cat." 82— liirner (English), "Saltash," painted aboat 
1812-14, showing the EiverTftmar in theforeground, with 
a barge moored at a dock on the left, and on the right 
a boat drawn on shore. On the wall at the right of 
the large beer-house, shown in the picture, is scrawled : 
"England expects every man to do his duty." Tliroueh 
a square gateway in the building a street is seen. TTlo 
canvas is enlivened by eronps of men, women, children, 
sailors and horses, SS—Jier/nolda, " Lady Carew," a 
charmingly simple and delightful portrait of a maiden 
in a grayish wnite dress open at the neck, her head 
turned three-quarters to the left, her hair arranged in a 
coil, 85and M—Jiubens, "Pyranms and Thisbe " and 
"Portrait of a Man." 37~GonBtalle, "ALockonthc 
Stour," a capital example of this English painter, 38 — 
Van Dffke, " James Stuart, Duke o( Richmond and 
Lennox," probably as fino an example of Van Dylie's 
style of portraiture as can bo found, and worthy ot pro- 
longed study. 39 — ConBtable, " The Valley Farm." 

Drawings and EiCHiNea, ^Gallery leads through 
Gallery N into Gallery L and its alcove M, containing 
drawings, water-color painting, photographs and etch- 
ings. The collection of drawings is composed of two 
Krtions: the first, Nos. 1 to 670, was begun in the 
tor part of the last century by Count Alaggiori, of 
Bologna, a learned scholar and connoisseur and a mem* 
bev of the Academy of Sciences in that city, and has 
been gvadnally increased by additions from collections 
of Senior Marietta, Professor Angellri, Doctor Goastalla 
and Mr. James Jackson Jarves, from whom it was pur- 
chased in 1880 and presented to the Museum by Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt. The other portion, Nos. 671 to 851, 
was collected by Cephas Q, Thompson and by him pre- 



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S34 

wnted to the Mnsenm in 1887. Tho Whole foririB a very 
Cue collection of Ha kind. HIiLiiy of t)iu druwiiigs ai'e 
Kinall, someof tiieni perhnps nutliiiig more tliiiiiskelubi.'s 
for lai^r works or of works wliich were never carried 
out, but eaoli will well repay stuily. Hwe aro found in»nj 
^s of old masters — Varavaggio, AndreaPozzo, Carlo 



. DommiieMiw, Garaeei, Gitereino, Giddo Eeni, 
fSiU-ator Rosa, Paul Veronese, Titian, Tintoretto, Mem- 
brandl, Vna ijyi-e, Rubens, David Tuniers, younfi^r and 
cider, Darer, MwiUo, Con-eggio, Velagquez, Vorleae, 
Watleau, Callot, Claude Lon-alm ami Greuze. The 
collection is arrKngod irt staiidanls and also along the 



wall, bCK"'"'"^ O" ^^^ nofthwest wall. Above thotn. 
the wall optioi-ite the alcove, is a sketch ol Cliavan 
" Symbnlical i'igni'e of the Sorbomie." I'lia water- 



II the alcove nro by Willium P. Richards, and 
tiiere are besides these a collection of steel engravings 
and otchii^gs, llie latter extending Into tlie main room, 
anil a cose of war medals and uecoration!i. Witli this 
sallcry and its alcove the collection of paintings, draw- 
ings and prints i» ended and there remain now the mis- 
ccllaacous coUections on this fiuor, 

EsouAVED Gems, bto, — (iallery Q contains the fine 
Khig-Johnilon collection of Engrail Oeois (prfsenied 
bv John Taylor Johnston), nhiL'li is arranged in cnsvs 
along the west ^«tll, the collection of Assyrian cvlindcrs 
witli an impresEJon of each along the north wall between 
tliQ doors. On the east wall is the fine Moaes-Lazarus 
collection of fans, snuH-boseR, painted medaUions, etc., 
and against the south wall the Curium Treasure 
(liscovered by General Di Cosnoia in the Temple at 
Curium, Cyprus. In the center of the room in eight 
large cases is the collcctian olMeditevat .xiid Iliatoria 



\a is, besides the 
Itryiuit vase, a fine specimen of Tiffany's workmanship, 
presented to the poet on his 80th birthday, a goid medal 



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struck by tlie King of Italy in 1882 in honor of General 
Ccsnola; in the northwest corner case, h. cabinet of 
objects fiom the celebrated DemidofE Collection, also 
the Battersea ^nameia,presented by Henry G, Marguiind, 
and gold and silver South American relics ; in the 
southwest comer ease, two large Sevres vases, which the 
unfortunate Iiouis XVI of France sold through Gouver- 
rieur Morris to Doctor Hosacli ; in the southeast comer 
case, silver objects from the Cesnola collection and pieces 
of Peruvian silver from the spoils of the Pizarro con- 
quest. The Curium treasure along the south wall 
brings the Cesnola collection to a rich and fitting close: 
Case 1 — Gold cups in Phcenieian, Assyrian and Grecian 
style. Case 3— -Silver and' gold-plated bracelets, ear- 
riiiK^S "laggtr hair-pins and neclaaces. Case 3— Gold 
necklaces and bracelets. Case 4 — Gold ear-rings and 
rings. Case 5 — Gold ear-rings, brooches and various 
fflortunry and votive ornaments. Case 6 — Seal rings 
with engraved, gems. 

Gallery T contains a large number of interesting 
memorials of Washington, Pranlilin and Lafayette; 
Gallery Z, a. remarltably choice and varied eolleetiou of 
Japanese and Chinese objects of art, the most important 
of them being labeled. Part of the collection was loaned 
by Rufus E, Moore, the other pnrt bequeathed by 
Stephen Whitcney Phcenis. The general visitor will 
probably be . most interested in the superb cabinet of 
swords, which stands against the balustrade of the gal- 
lery. Gallery W contains a large collection of Oriental 
porcelain, chiefly Chinese. The choicest pieces are in 
cases apiinst the balustrade; the rest in wall cases. 
Gallery IT has reproductions ot gold and silver work, 
chiefly from the treasures of St. Petersburg, 

AMEKicis Antiquities. — In Galleiy P, is a collection 
of American antiquities. THe table cases on this floor 
hold a unique collection of Indian idols, obtained in 
New Mexico, by L. Bradford Prince. The idols on the 
west Bide are still in use among the Indians of New 
Mexico, and it is considered a death oflonse to betray 
their secrets, so that Mr. Prince had to pledge himself 
never to divul|:e the name of the person or persons from 
whom he obtained these idols and the secret of their 
worship. It has always been supposed that since the 



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Spanish conquest the Indians of ITew Mexico hare been 
f-ooA Christians, but here we liave evidence of idolatry 
flourishing in secret among them, Tliese deitjea are 
nrranged in groups of seven each, each group represent- 
ing a fiimiiy or gods. For instance 24 and SO are hus- 
blind and wife, while the five smaller objects, 30 to 37, 
are their children. 

LENDS LIBRARY. 
Admission free. Open everv wcelt-day, except Mon- 
ihiy, from 11 A. M. to 4 P. M. On Fifth avenaebetween 
Seventy and Soventy-first streets. Endowed by the late 
Jumes Lenox, a bibliophile of rare taste and an art con- 
noisseur. It was incorporated in 1870, and the massive 
limestone building in classic style was first opened to vis- 
itors in January, 1877, The general visitor will probably 
be most interested in the picture gallery on the second 
floor. A catalogue of tiie collection is on sale at fifteen 
cents. Directly opposite the entrance to the gallery on the 
north wall han^ tlie most conspicuous portrait in the 
collection, JJo. 70, Gilbert Sl«arrs portrait of George 
Washington, a full-length painted for Peter Jay Monroe 
it) 1799. Washington is standing. He is clad in blaclc. 
The fingers of his right hand rest firmly on a table. His 
left foot is slightly forward. The pose is strong and dig- 
nified. Grouped around this portrait are; 56 — James 
Jfeoie, half-length portrait of Washington in uniform; 
84 — Portrait of Washing-ton copied from the portrait by 
Charles Wilson Peale m Arlington House, painted in 
1773. 85 — Bemirandt Peaie, Portrait of Washington. 
Besides these Washington Portraits, there hang in this 
group : 85 — Qilhert Stuart, Head of Mrs. Robert Morris. 
64 — Sir Joshua ifo^JMJlia (English), Portrait of Edmund 
Burlte (probably a. copy), 99— S'. B. Morge, Portrait of 
Lalayett«, painted in Washington from sittings in the 
month of February, 1825, presented by Wm. H. Osbom. 
J4r— CAorfes R. Leslie, Portrait of Washington Irving. 
147 — Portrait of John Milton, formerly in the possession 
of Chas. Lamb, presented by Robert Lenox Kennedy. 
73 — Landseei; "Study of a White Horse." liJ7 — 
Jinienes, "A Spanish Cafe." Noteworthy pictures on 
tiie right of this group arc: 52—Horaee Yemet, "Siege 
of Saragossa,"a powerful canvas. 53 — Fred, de Braek- 



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leer, the elder, "Mid-Iient in a School," 59 — Sahntin, 
" The Reception of ft Young Prince," the contrast be- 
tween the difB.dent curiosity of the Imls and the assur- 
ance of the young prince being capitally brought out. 
The most conspicuous painting on the north wall is, 
146 — MunkaCBy, "Milton Dictating Paradise Lost to his 
Daughters," too well known through its reproduction as 
an etching, and in various periodicals, to require descrip- 
tion. Presented bv Bobert Lenox Kennedy. Itisflanked 
on the left by 1m — Henry Raeburn, Portrait of a. gen- 
tleman; on the left by 103 — Sir Joslnta Reynolds, A 
oliarming picture of a boy in a red Telvet dress 



Metcalf, Keynold's executor. Other noteworthy paints 
inga on this wall are: 83— fiufiner, "The First 
Grandchild." 92 — Daniel Simtington. after Trumbull, 
Alexander Hamilton. 43 to 47^ — SKetolies by Sir David 
Wilkis. 97 — Daniel Huntington, Christopher Columbus. 
On tne south wall is 101 — Sir Joshua Jteynolds, Mrs. 
Billington as St. Cecilia, a beautiful full-length portrait 
ot tUU famous singer vrith a choir of angels fluttering 
around her and singing to the music ot her voice. Mrs. 
Billin^n had a great admirer in Haydn. On seeing 
this picture in Reynold's studio as it was nearin? com- 
pletion, the great composer, eyeing it critically, re- 
marked: "You painted it wrong." Mrs. Billington 
looked annoyed, and the artist, greatly di^leased, 
asked: "In what respect?" "Why, said Haydn, "the 
angels siiould have been listening to Mrs. Billington, in- 
stead ot Mrs. Billington listening to the angels." Upon 
this, Mrs. Billington jumped up and gave the composer 
a hug and a kiss. Next to this picture hangs on the 
right, 34— J". Jf. W. Turner, "Staffa, Fingal's Cave," a 
canvas most characteristic of this master, especially in 
the wonderful conflusion of the waves in. a heavy sen. 
It was bought from the artist for Mr, Lenox in August, 
1845. On tlie left. 33—7. M. W. Turmi; "A Scene on 
the French Coast," with an English ship-of-war stranded, 
in which a gorgeous sunset is lepteaented in the smooth 
mirror-like wet sand and water. Other painting on 
this wall are; 100 — Sir Joshua Reynolds, Portrait of 
Miss Kitty Fisher, with doves. Miss Kitty's attitude ia 



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eharmitig aa she holds out her hand for another tiove to 
aliglit, 143 — Sir Henry Saebum, Portrait of Lady 
BelhaTeii; and 105— eifteri StitaH Neicton. "The Dull 
Lecture." On the west wall over the door is 138 — 
Valati, " A Boar Hunt on the Cumpagna." To the left 
ofthedoor, 118 — Eseoaura, "TlieParrot Dealer at the 
Chateau of Blois," limeof Louis XIII, 133 — Samaeois, 



David Wilkie. To the riglit of the door. 80 — Attdrea 
del Sarto, "Tobit and the AnseI,"oneor the most note- 
worthy eaavases in tlio colleetioc. A collection of sculp- 
tures is in the vestihule. 

The L-ollection of rate books in the hnll to the north of 
tlie vestibule, on the ground floor, is the richest in this 
country, and is especially noteworthy in Bibles, many 
of these being Incunabula, or speeimens of the first prod- 
ucts of tlie art of printing. There are also remartcablc 
collections of Shakespeareana, Miltoniana. and editions 
of £Mnyan'9 "Pilgrim's Progress," and of Eliot Indian 
Bibles. On the extreme right of the south wall is the 
alcove ot porcelains. Adjoining this and extending to 
the doorway are, in throe small cases, nine copies of Ihe 
first edition of Milton'a " Paradise Lost, " with variations 
in tho title; the first edition of Milton's "Comus," 
"Lycidas," and "Poems"; and his polemic "Pro 
Populo Anglicano Defensio et Eikonoclastes," and the 

Si'oclamation ol the King, dated August 13, 16Q0, 
irected against tiiis work. In the doorway itself ure 
sis small cases containing choice worlis. Arranged in 
three oases along the southern wall of the room, to the 
right of thedoor on entering, are rare editions of SftoAes- 
peare, in the irst case, two copies of the First Folio, 
with two titles, respectively 1833 and 1623, tlie latter 
being the so-called Liechfiela copy mentioned by Dibdin ; 
beginning in the first case, and extending through the 
second, seven copies, each with variations of the Secottd 
Folio, 1633; in tlie thiril case, two copies of tho Third 
Folio, 166*<4, and two of the Fourth Folio, 16S3. In 
all the oases are early editions of single plays. 

The collection of Bibks is contained chiefly in two 
" "'s ot fuur cases each, placed back to back, extending 
'' "' .e left down tho middle of the room to a 



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239 

poiat opposite tbe entrance. In the first case ie the 
"McKarin " t/f " Qutenherg Bible," printed hy Guten- 
berg, prohably with llie ussistance of Fust, at Maim. 
1450-1456, and probably the first book printed frora 
movable type, a work valued at about $30,000. Among 
Latin Bibles, in cose 3 is one printed at ^wremburg by 
Anlonitit Koberger, 1477, with commentaries, emen- 
dations, and interlineations in tlie handwriting ol 
Melanehthon; in case 4, Ooverdale's Bible (1535), the first 
complete Bible printed in England; in easel, at the head 
of the north line, a Bible printed by Johann Zainer, Ulm, 
1450, the first with summaries at the heads of chapters; 
in ease 2, Sloek Bibles and other block books (printed 
from carvings in wood), among the Bibles the first and 
second editions ol Biblia Paupsmm, the only known 
examples of Italian xylographio work. In this case is 
also the only perfect copy of the sixlk and nwesi edition 
of "SanctiJohannis Apooalypsis," consisting of forty- 
eight leaves of xylographic printing. In case 4, New 
Testament, London, by Robert Barken; the first I3-mo 
edition of King James' version, and the only copy of it 
known; TyvMlVs "New Testament," 1538, the first 
portion of the Scriptures in English printed on English 
ground; and Ooverdale's "Now Testament," the first 
edition separate from the Bible. 

The Bibles are continued in the alcove of the middle 
of the north wall. In the second case is, "Torquemada 
on tliB Paalius," Mainz, by Schoefer, 1476, the first book 
printed with a date ; in the third case the " Wicked" 
Bible, London, 1631, and the German " Wieked" Bible, 
Salle, 1731, both open at the pace showing the version 
of the 7th Commandment to which they owe the epitliet 
*' Wicked"; the first edition otiha " Pilgrim's Progress," 
part 1st, London, 1678, onlyone other copy being known; 
also the first edition of the second part; the earliest 
extant edition of the " New England Primer," Boston, 
1737; and the only known copy of the Jirsiedtiion. of the 
Psalms in "Moeter"by Mttus, London, 1641, a work 
which Scottish writers have declared never existed ; 
fourth case, a superb manuscript on vellum, propably 
the finest in the collection, entitled, "QiuUo Clovio 
Christ! Vita Ab Evangelistis Descripta." This manu- 
script is beautifully ornamented with sis full-page paint- 



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in^sisixminiaturesottheErangelistaj eight historiated 
borders and four headings with figures for intitulations, 
all heightened with gold in the hest style of Italian art 
hy Qiulio Olovio. It is hoiiud in crimson velvet with a 
patent look and key, was es*cutetl for Alexander, 
Cardinal Farnese, and presented to Pope PanI III. 

In the middle of the alcove, out on the floor, ate two 
eases, that ou the east side containing n complete collec- 
lion of Jiihn. Eliot Indian Bihiea, and others of Eliot's 
ivurks, together with an autographic letter of Eliot, nnd 
letters of other early Few Eng:land colonial northies; 
tjie letters presented by Robert Winthrop, of Boston. In 
the west case are "Doetrina Cliristiana," ZumM-raga, 
Mexico, 1543-44, one of the earliest productions of the 
pi'ess in America, it being a fact worth iiotinc' that 
printing was done in Mexico earlier than iik the colonies; 
"Bay Paaira Book," printed by Stephen Daye, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1S46, the first bcok in the English Ian- 
gauge printed in America; "Laws and Acts of New 
York," WiUiam Bradford, New York, 1603-1694, the 
first book printed in the city or province of New York 
(p. 95); Petnis de Alyco (Pierre d'Aillj), "Imago 
Mundi," about 1483, supposed to have directed Colum- 
bus to tlie possible existence of a Western Continent. 

'' - - 1^ against the wall east of the alcove, - ' '- 



discovery of America, among them the rare account o 
the tliird voyage of Vespucius; four ot the famons 
Colnrnbiis letters, one of wJiich was certainly printed by 
Stephen Plannck, at Rome, 1403; a coiiiplfte series of 
tlie Cortez letters, several autograph letters by Diego 
Columba'?, who sncceeded his father as Admiral of the 
Indies; "Cosino^phia Introduetio," 1507. in which 
the word "America oeenrs forthe fli-st time; one of 
the earliest maps of America, Vienna, 1530, and "Con- 
questa de Peru," Francisea de Xeres, Salamanca, 1547. 
In the third ease, down the middle of the room, in the 
south line east ot the door, are: The first German Bible, 
printed by Be'ary Eggestein, tilrasiarff, about 1466. and 
the first edition of the IJohemian Bihie, Prague. 1480. 
At the east end of the center lino of eases, on the north 
sidi.', is a ciise containing cliiefly Aldine chissios, and 



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S31 

neit to it examples of Gaston's works, among the latter 
the '■ Breeches Bible," Westminater, 1484, so-called be- 
cause o( the use of the word, "hreeches," Genesis, iii, 7. 
The library proper in the south win^ numbers about 
50,000 volumes and is especially rich in works of early 
American history and belles-letters, and in works relating 
to Shakespeare and biblical literature, and contains the 
large musical libraiy of the Inte Joseph W, DrexeJ. A 
carefully selected library of English and French litera- 
ture was recently bequeathed to it by Felix Astoin. 



The American Museum ot Natural History is situated 
in Manhattan Park, which extends Trom Seventy- seventh 
to Eighty-first streets, between Eighth and Ninth ave- 
nues. It is governed by a board of twenty-five trustees, 
and its privileges are extended upon the same terms as 
those of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, excepting 
that the tickets carry with them the further privilege of 
utilizing the stndv collections which are not on exhibi- 
tion to the general public. The city furnishes the build- 
ing, the Museum occupying it under a lease similar to 
that ot the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Museum 
is open every week day from 10 A. M. to 4;30 P, M., 
and also Wednesday and Saturday evenings. The insti- 
tution is still in the early stages of its development, its 
plan being to gradually extend its collections until it can 
offer every facility for the study of natural science. Its 
growth has been remarkably rapid. It was chartered in 
1869. The nucleus of its collections was formed by the 
purchase of the D. G, Elliott collection of North Ameri- 
can birds, to which waa soon added the collection of 
birds and mammals of the late Prince HaximiUian of 
Neuwied; the principal acquisitions since then have 
l>een the James Hall collection of fossils, which is the 
bpst of American palteozoic forms, and is one of the most 
important cabinets in the Museum; the Jay collection 
of shells, presented by Miss Catharine L. Wolfe (p. 310), 
as a memorial of her father, John David Wolfe, who 
was the first president of the Museum; the Baily colleo- 
tioi) of minerals; the Jesup collection of woods; the 



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Jesup collection of building stones; the Hmmona archtc- 
logicitl collection of Alaskan objects. The present Ijuild- 
ing being too small for the complete eshibition of the 
collections of tlie Museum, the city is now erecting a 
large addition of briclt faced with brownstore at thii 
southern end, which has caused a temporniy transfer of 
■'leeutcance to tlie northeast side. Thei 



33, 1877. Tlie liailsin this buUdin^ are 170 teet long 
by 60 foet wide, the stories vaijing in height from 18 to 
30 feet. During tliis year the new addition will probably 
bo carnplet«d, when large additions will be made to tlie 
exhibits, and their arrangement possibly altered. In the 
addition is it fine lecture-ixiom already completed, where 
lectures are delivered under the auspices of the State 
Superintendent of Public Instructian, and under the 
special charge of Prof. A. S. Biekmore. 

CoLLECTioss. — JesHp Collectiotts; The hall on the 
ground floor is chiefly taken np with the Jesup Collec- 
tion of Ainpriciui Forestry, and the Jesup Collection of 
Economic Km nriiology, liolh tlie gift of Morris K. Jesup, 
the president (if the Museum. The Jesup Collection of 
■ Americuii Kiin.vlry is belicveil to contain a specimen of 
the wood of itit but twelve kinds of trees in the Unitctl 
States, and is thoroughly arranged in large cases placed 
at right an-;1'H In t)ia walls of the room between the 
windoira, an i^ilniiruble arrangement forsecuring perfect 
lighting, wli^i'b is followed throughout the building. 
^mh specinicii is split atiout half way down its entire 
leiigili. The lower half, therefore, which is inlaot, 
shows theap[>cai'anceot the tree with its burk untouched, 
while the upper split hiJf shows the grain of the wood, 
beautifully polislied. The collection is thoroughly labeled, 
the cards giving not only the family and speeiea of 
the tree, but its sp<iciflc gravity, percentage of ash, co- 
efficient of elasticity, etc. On each label is also a chart 
showing in green the geographical distribution of tha 
tree. Besides the wood, tbero are artiflciallv prepared, 
but none the less admirable, specimens of the lent and 
blossom of CHch tree. An impoitant adjunct of this 
collection is tiio Jesup Collection of Economic Entomol- 
ogy. This is exhibited on table cases in tha alcoves, and 



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in the midJle of the room. It consists of brftnchcB, 
leaves and blossoms of the vaiious trees exhibited, and 
iipon them iiiseets which are destructive to their growth. 
These, though artifloial, are most natural in appeatanee. 
The insects, of course, are sometimes of great beauty, 
such as butterflies and large eaterpillais, so that both, 
oolleetions are as beautiful as they are interesting, and 
are with the general visitor a very popular feature of 
the Museum. Mammal Grov.pa. — In thishallar- ' — 



« five specimens of Labrador duok. One 
of them is oil a stump upou a snow-covered shore, others 
stand upon thin iee which esteiids a little out over the 
water, another is swimming in the water itself. Other 
similar groups will be found in the Hall of Birds in tlie 
floor above. The croups, uniijue ia this country, are 
the gift of Mrs. R, L. Stuart. 

BiBD Hall.— The hall on the second floor is devoted 
to the collection of birds and other mammals, although 
the latter are not very numerous, the chief feature being 
a fine collection of monkevs. IlandlMok to this hal^ 
15 centa. There are aboiit 50,000 birds all told in the 
Museum, but not all of these ore on exhibition, many of 
them being preserved in the study I'oom on the top 
floor in niotn-prool tia cabinets. Among the study 
collections ia one especially fine of humming birds' and 
a collection of from 10,000 to 12,000 birds' esgs. There 
is a small eshibition at these latter in Uie first alcove to 
the left on entering the Bird Hall. Of the objects, not 
birds, on eshibition in this hall, those which will prob- 
ably attract most attention are the stufied skin and 
skeleton of Mr. Ormvley, the famous chimpanzea from 
the ZoSlogical Garden in Central Park; in the middle of 
the hall the skeleton of Jvmho, the famous elephant, 
loaned by Bamum & Bailey, and at the southern end of 
the ball the oases containing a fine collection of monkeys. 

The birds exhibited in this hall number about 11,000 
specimens, of which about 3,000 are North American, 
3.000 are South American and 5,000 from the Old World. 
The North American birds occupying eases from B to P 
on the east side of the hall, form a faunal collection of 
birds of the United States and of regions thence noith- 



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231 

Tanl to Greenland and the Arctiu Ocoan, nearly ercry 
species aud Eiib-si>ei.ies in tiiis great tract of eoimtry 
being represented by cine or more speeinieiiB. TheSoutU 
Ainei-ieiin birds occupy the remaimiigcases F to J on the 
piisti;idcof tlic hall, and include birds from Mexico, VVe^t 
Indies, Central America and South America. The Old 
World birds occupy all the eases on the west side of the 
hall. Each collection is aiTanged systematically, start- 
ing at the north end of the hnll with the highest or more 
specialized gi'onp, the song bird, and ending with the 
lowest, whidi in the North Aniericaii birds arc the auks, 
loons, and grebes, and in the South American and Old 
World birds the pengnins and strnthuous birds. Manv 
New World birds have been arranged with Old World 
epeoimens so that the series on the west side of the hall 
is within certain limits a general systematic collection 
of the birds of the world. Besides the birds in the 
general collection, there are in this hall cases containing 
the balance of the interesting mammal groups and two 
cases of birds of brilliant plumage. 

On the floor above, a gallery leads around this hail, 
and suspended on a leTel with this gallery is a huge war 
canoe made from one tree by the £ella-Bella tribe 
opposite Queen Charlotte Island, British Columbia, and 
presented by Heber R, Bishop, Only the bottom of it 
can be seen from the Bird Hall, but it is one of the most 
interesting features to be seen from the Ethnological 
Gallery. 

Ethnological Gallery. — The collections in the Ethno- 
logical Gallery on the third floor begin in ease A on the 
east side, with weapons, a full suit of coeoa-nnt fibre 
armor and soma very scant articles of wearing appeail, 
chiefly from Samoa and the Fiji Islands. Case B—Pine 
collection of hideous masks used in war and sacred 
dances, and of weapons from Kew Ireland. C— Beauti- 
fully cnryed paddles from tlie ishmds of Mangaia and 
Maori weapons, carved idols, ornaments and apparel, 
all offine workmanship. D — Paddles from New Ireland, 
and weapons, espeeiallr effective-looking short clubs, 
from the Fiji Islands. E — Long war dubs finely carved, 
from the Fiji Islands and Samoa. P — Besides war clubs 
several reed pipes from New Ireland, feather head-^ar, 
baskets and gourds from New Guinea. G — Ferocious- 



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looking shark teeth, weapons from the King's Mill group. 
H — Several Cava bowls from Tnnga Isiands, I iind J — 
Weapons and articles of apparel from various Pacific 
islands. In the middle of the southern end of the 
gallery is a. huge Haida idol from British Columbia. 
Oil the castside of the gallery beginning on the southern 
end with K is an admirable collection of hideous masks 
from Alaska (Emmons collection). L — Alaskan utensils 
of wood, and horn spoons, gumbling implements, large 
wooden food dishes almost like troughs and baskets of 
spruce (Emmons collection). M — Fishing implements 
and seal-kiiling clubs from Alaska (Emmoiis collection). 
Also cloth, beautifully carved pumpkin vessels, shield, 
baskets, large water-jars and brass rod vessels and Zulu 
snuff-boxes, Africa, — several of these objects presented 
by C. P. Huntington, N— KafBr weapons, Zulu war 
shields and basket work, and British North American 
and other American Indian articles. O — North American 
objects, among them a mummy discovered in Grand 
avenue cave, Kentucky, and articles from British 
Guiana. P — American mound pottery. Q — African 
articles. R — Central and South American antic[Uities. 
T — Skulls and dessicated heads fromthe Pacific islands, 
shmnken to a ghastly smallness but preserving the 
features, the efiect being heightened by long, black hair. 

Besides the collections on exhibition, there is in the 
study room up stairs the fine A. E. Douglass collection 
and library of prehistoric Indian relies, many of these 
from Florida mounds opened by Mr. Douglass himself. 
It has a line of perfect pott«ry and the largest collection 
of hematite relics known, about 350 very interesting pipe 
heads, discs for games, perforated gorgets and ceremonial 
objects, 

Cfeologieal Boil.— This is on the fourth floor. The 
collections exhibited consist of a conchological, a rain- 
eralogical and a geological collection, the latter embrac- 
ing a collection ol £issil organic remains and other 
imktei'ial illustrating the geotogical formations, princi- 
pally of this country. (Hand-liook, 15 cents.) The 
conchological collection occupies the two ranges of cases 
placed on the west side of the middle oC the room and is 
what w«s formerly known as the Jay collection, made 
bj Dr. John C. Jay, of Jtye, N. Y., and purchased with 



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the library pertaining ^ it by Miss Catharine L. Wolfe, 
and presented to the Museum as a memorial o£ her 
father, John David Wolfe, the first president of the 
Museum. The collection is thoroughly labeled. The 
shells moat popular because of tlieir beauty, the cj-praeas 
and the cones, will be found respectively in oases 17 and 
18 and in eases 19 to 31. 

The Mineralocieal Collection occupies fourteen desk 
cases arran^d along: the east side of tlio middle hall and 
is classified according to Dana's system of mineralogy. 
Coinmeaciiig at the flret case on the east side theira is 
arranged a collection representing the uatife elements 
as far as the collection contains specimens. Then follow 
the diflerent si'OKps. Among the minerals is a fine 
cabinet of maWhites, a group ot quartz crystals from 
Hot Springs, Arkansas, and specimens of e-tquisitely 
^atized trees, and the TiSany collection of gems and 
gem inaterialsand a special case illustrating the geology 
of Maiiliattan l^limd, among the minerals Deing a huge 
garnet. 

Tho Geological Collection occupies the large cafes 
forming alcoves along each side of the room and the 
alcove cases between them. The cases are mostly either 
lettered or niiinbered. The large cases ^ong trie sides 
of the room are lettered on the end of t!ie ease under the 
gns bracket; the alcove cases are numbered on the end. 
In tlio ends of the idcove cases is arranged a special 
series of fo^iLs to illustrate the American portion of 
"Dana's Manual of Geology," a large part of the species 
exhibited tieinj; the very ones from which the figures in 
the Manual were taken. On the label will bo found the 
name of the species and that of its anthor, the page of 
the Manual where figured, and the number of the flgui'e 
repi'esenting it, the group of plants or animals to wliich 
it Belongs and the locality whence obtained. There is 
also a copy of Dana's Manual of Geology kept in alcove 
Mo. 3 for tho nso of risitora who wish to coiisult its 
pages. This feature is one never before attempted in 
any collection or museum. Against tlie windows are 
beautituUy colored transparencies of localities (chiefly 
Western) showing interesting geological formations. 

The most interesting object in this hall to I he general 
public is tho skeleton of the MasMo7t Oigankus, whose 



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extreme length to tlie anterior curve of the tusks U 18 
feet; to the end of the task sockets, 14 fi'et; height to top 
of doi^al spine, 8 feet 6 inches; brefiilth across the hip 
bones, Bleet; lengthof tusk along the outer curve, 7 ieet 
6 inches. The bones of this skeleton were found imbedded 
in peaty materiftl on. the edge of what was less than fifty 
years before an open pond, subsequently however (Irained, 
HI liittle Britain, near Newburg, N. Y. Other interest- 
ing !^kcletons are that of the Moa, a fossil bird from New 
Zealand, wliich stands in the first alcove to the right of 
the entrance, and a fossil Irish deer which stands at 



cabinet of fine ^um copaJs full o 
slabs in the vestibule and in the southern end of the hall 
showing the strides of a fossil reptile, Brontozoum 6i- 
• ga/rtietan. These were made by a large lizard-like animal 
naving a habit of walking on its hind feet, the strides 
measuring about 4 feet each. The general collection 
is thoroughly labeled. The admirable hand-book is in- 
dispensaUe to a proper understanding of the exhibits in 
this ball. 



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CENTRAL I'ARK. 

Central Park is boiitideLl south hy Fiftj-nintli street, 
north by One Hundred and Tenth street, east by Piltli 
avenue, nest bj Eighth avenue. It is an evidence of 
how human sliill, guided by artistic taste, may make 
glad the waste pliiees. Work upon it was begun in 
1857, np to which time the grouiid now covered by whst 
is considered one ol the most beautiful pleasure groun<1s 
in the world, was a dreary expanse of rook, brush niid 
swamp. Perlmps tlie very ruggedness of the orisinal 
has contributed not a little to the beauty of the finisije<l 
work; tiie huge boulders which here and thire project 
from tlie beautiful lawns, or stjind guard on the waters 
of the lakes and ponds, adding not a little to the im- 
press ivene^s of the landscape. 

General Featuebs.— Central Park is a little over S| 
miles in length, and a little more than half a mile iu 
breadth; its area being 840 acres, with miles of drive, 
averaging in width 54 feet and extending in places to a 
width of 60 feet; Gf miles of bridle paths avert^fing 16^ 
feet iu width, and 3D)^ miles of walks. Some 400 acres 
are wooded, the trees, shnibs and vines put out since the 
opening of fho park numbering over 500,000. The 
benches distributed throughout the park, placed as much 
as possible in secluded nooks and within the sheltering 
shade of the trees or arbors, have a seating capacity of 
11,000. The various drives are usually alive with every 
variety of fashionable equipages; the main entrance for 
this picturesque procession being at Fifth avenne and 
Fifty-ninth street. Those who are interested wtrticu- 
larlyin fast horses can see these entering the Park at 
Eighth aveniio and Fifty-ninth street. The Park De- 
partment has made a grand division of Central Park 
into the South and North Park, regarding the new 
Croton Reservoir as the line of division. For the beauti- 
ful landscape effects in which the Park abounds, the 



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MAP <F CENTRAL PARK. 



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nnilmQanaDnDrliDna 



oi-edb, Google 



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public 18 indcbtwl to Frederick Law Olmsted ond Calvert 
Vatix; the architectural features being by CalYert Vaus 
and the late J. Wtey Mould. 

JTnfnMWM.— The entrances w the Park, nineteen in 
number, are called gates, and it is the intention of the 
Park Commissioners, when sufficient money for carry- 
ing out their purpose is on hand, to justify tte term by 
putting up gates of handsome nrchilectural design at the 
various entrances. The names and locations of the 
entrances and localities, as otBcially given, will be found 
on the accompanying map of Central Part, ■" 

Lakes and Reaervoira. — The lakes and ponds in the 
Park have an area of 48^ acres. The largest of these 
is the liake, whose shores, at about its middle, approach 
£0 closely as to virtually form a strait dividing it into 
two parts. It covers about SO acres. The Pond, cover- 
ing about 5 acres, lies in a lovely depression just to the 
west of the entrance of Fifth avenue and Fifty-ninth 
street. The Conservatory Water, BJ acres, is near Fifth 
avenue and Seventy-fourth street, and derives its name 
from its viciniW to the site reserved for a conservatory. 
The Pool, the Loch, and Harlem Meer, are a chain of 
ponds covering respectively 3 acres, 1 acre and ISJ 



d larger lying nearly ei 
Eighty-sixth and Ninety-sixth sti'eets. A walk and 
bridle path lead around it. The reservoirs have u com- 
bined area of 143 acres. 

Boats, Goal Carts, etc. — On the Pond are the so-called 
Lohengrin boats, 33 feet long and holding twelve people 
and consisting of a catamaran propelled by a stem 
velocipede, which is concealed in a swan, whence the 
boats derive their name. Fares: Adults, 10 cents; 
children, 5 cents; adults, twelve tickets for $1 ; children, 
twenty-five tickets for $1. On the Lake are regular row 
boats. Fares : Circuit of the Lake, 3 miles, one pas- 
senger, 10 cents; children under twelve years of age, 
5 cents; six adults, 50 cents; sis children, 25 cents. 
Party boats: One person, half honr, 30 cents; eacii 
additional person, 10 cents; children, 5 cents. Boats 
without boatmen can be engageil at the bout house at 



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tliese rates, but a deposit of |IS is required. Boats can 
be bad until It P.M. At the Mull are donkej/i and goat 
carts, lOcentS; near the ball ground a caiTouiei, 5 ceols, 
and in various parts of tho Park swings, 5 cents. 

Meals. — Meals may be bad at tbe Casino and at 
McGown's Pass Tavern ; ligbt rcfresbnneniB at tbe 
Dairy, and mineral ivaters at tbo Spa. For Skating sec 
under Sports, p. 64. 

Besides the Metropolitan Museum of Art (p. 203), 
there are in the ParK the Obelisk, a number of statues 
and groups of statuary and the Menagerie. 

Obelisk.— Tbo obdisk is a memorial of one of the 
most ancient races standing in tbe chief pleasure ground 
of one of the youngest of nations. How old it is may 
be judged from the fact that it was probably gazed upon 
by Moses. 

From Alexandria in N^w York. — The history ot its 
acquisition W New York City begins with tbe opeu- 
iuf^ of tho Suez Canal in 1809, when the Khedive 
intimiited to William Ilenry Uurlbert. nn Americmi 
joiu-HHliat, that it might lie possible for the Uniteii States 
to acquire it a.4 a gift. Mr. Hmibert., on his retnm to 
New York, brought the matter to the altention of Wil- 
liam H. Vanderoilt. and bi Oetohei', 1878, the Secretary 
of State of the United States instructed the United 
StatesConsitl-GeneralatAleKandriato open negotiations, 
which resalted favorably. In 1870, bids for its removal 
from Aiesandria and its transportation to New York 
were advertised for, and Commander Henry H. Oorringe, 
U, S. N., secured a contract for its removal, transfer 
and erection in Centtal Park, for $75,000. England 
delayed 78 years in transporting to London tbe twin 
obelisk of that in New York. The New York obelisk 
was erected January 2, 1881. Gorringe arrived at Alex- 
andria October 16, 1879. November 6th of the same 
year he put 100 Arabs at work escavating the pedestal, 
pushing the work vigorously, as great opposition to tlie 
removiU of the obelisk had arisen, and lie had reasnu to 
fear violence. The obelisk was turned and lowered to a 
horizontal position December fl, 1879. It was then Gor- 
ringe dii^covered, in the foundation and steps, stones and 
implements of masonic siguifieauce, and he carefully 
noted ilieir position, replacing them exactly wlien ho 



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241 

erected the obelisk in New York, He purchased the 
steamer Desaonff, and embarked with his cargo ol 1,475 
tons Jntie 12, 1880, arriving at New Yorlt July 20th. 
The obelisk was disembarked at Staten Island un traclis 
and cannon balls, aud 60 great interest had been awak- 
ened in it that the visitors on one day alone numbered 
17,011. It was re-embarked, and on September 10, 1880, 
drawn from the foot of Ninety-sixth street and East 
river on tracks with rollers to Greywaoke Knoll, a beau- 
tiful rise of ground just west of the Metropolitan 
Moseuni of Art. On October 0th, 9,000 Free Masons 
paraiied and their Grand Master laid the foundation 
Btone; and January 82, 1881, the obelisk was unveiled in 
the presence of 30,000 Bpeotators. The total cost of 
triittsportation, amounting to $103,576, was defrayed by 
Mr. Vanclerbilt, By a special act of Congress, Ameri- 
can I'egistry was allowed the Dessong. 

Desoriptum and ffistori/.—The Obelisk is a striking: 
example of graceful and elegant simplicity. Its total 
height is 90 feet, the height of the monolithic shaft 
l)eiiig 69 feet. Its thickness at the base is 8x8 feet, and 
its weight 448,000 pounds. It is of red syenite from the 
Assouan quarries. The plinth, of syenite, stands on a 
base with three steps of hard limestone, the foundation 
being a mass of concrete, capped with masonry to a level 
with the pavement. This is the only obelisk, excepting a 
Email one at Corfe Castle, which is accompanied by its 
original pedestal and steps. 

The monolith itself is a qnadrilateral shaft ending in 
a pyrimitlion. On this pyrimidiiin are inscriptions in 
hieroglyphics which show that the obelisk dates from 
the reign of Thothmes Hi, the greatest Egyptian king, 
1591 to 1565 B.C., and the inscriptions on the center iiue 
of the three sides of the monobth on which the hiero- 
glyphics are still legible, are also dedicated to Thothmes 
and consist chiefly of his list of titles and of flattering 
epithets, all the inscriptions being singularly alike. 
They furthermore show that the obelisk was erected by 
Thothmes before the Temple of the Sun at HoUopolis. 
Oil either side of the center line of inscriptions on each 
of the threefaees are lines of hieroglyphics in which a 
subsequent king, Raraescs II, 13S8 to 1823 B.C., glorified 
himself; and about 933 B.C., another king, Usorkon I, 



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Heliopolis to Alexandria bjCleopatra, whence the name 
Cleopatru's Needle, and to have been erected at Alex- 
andria in front of tlie Temjile of the Ciesars. Its com- 
S anion, which now stands in London, had fallen, and 
jng tain prostrate in tlie dust before it had been re- 
moved to that city. Onrs was stiil standing;, and is the 
real Cleopatra's Needle, although the nuuio is oIj^o given 
to the obelisk in London. 

Bivme Grabs. — At the base of (he monolith there were 
originally four bronze crabs, only two of which, how- 
ever, remained. These are now in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. Theycoiitain Greek and Latin inscrip- 
tions whkli point to tno year when the obelisk was re- 
erected in honor ot the Oiesars at Alexandria, the 
inscriptions reading: "In the year 8 of CaJ'ar, Barbarns 
dediouled, Poutius being the architect." This would 
place the date of its re-erection at 33 B.C. The faces 
of the obelisk having shown the effects of wear owing 
to the severity of oar climatic changes, have been coated 
with parafflne. 

Statues akd Geobps. — The statues and statuary 
groups in Central Park and their location are in their 
alphabetical older: Beethoven — On the Mall east of the 
music stand, a bronze bust on a granite pedestal, un- 
veiled July a2, 1884. Looking up toward the bust is 
an allegorical figure which is only life size, although the 
bust is " heroic." Jo/sfor (the South American, liberator) 
— On the Summit Hock Concourse on the west side of 
the Park near the Eighty-first street entrance, an 
equestrian statue by K. Do la Cora, a gift from the 
people and government of Venezuela, unveiled June 17, 
1884. Sums — At the south end ot the Mall, a bronze 
etatue of the poet by John Steele, Edinborough, pre- 
sented to the city in 1880 by Scotch residents. 
Commerce — Near the entrance at Eighth avenue and 
Fifty-ninth street, an allegorical bronze figure eight 
feet high, presented by Stephen B. Guion. Eagles am'- 
ffooi— East of the Mall, a bronze group by Fratin^re- 
sentcd by Gordon W. Burnhain, 1883. Faleoner-~-WeSt 



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243 

of the head o£ the Lake on a high bluff, a graceful 
bronze figure by George Sinionds, presented by George 
Kemp, 1873. Malleek, Mts Greme— On the Mall, a 
bronze statue of the poet on a grunite pedestal, modeled 
by Wilson. McDonald. Samilton, Mexander — Near 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art on the west side of 
the east drive, a granite statue by Conradts, presented 
by John C, Hamilton, in 1880. Humboldt— On the west 
side of the drire near the entrance at Fifth avenue and 
Fifty-ninth street, a bronze bust on a granite pedestal, by 
Guatav Blaeser, presented by Qerman residents Septem- 
ber 14, 1869, on the lOOth anniversary of Humboldt's 
birth. Indian Hunter — West of the Mall, a spirited 
bronze figure by J. Q. A. Ward. Mazzini — West drive 
near theSeventn Uegiment Monument, an heroic bronze 
bust by Turini, presented by Italian residents in 1878. 
Moore^—Oa the east shore of the Pond, a bronze 
bust of the poet bv Dennis B. Sheehan, presented 
May 38, 1880. by the Moore Sfemorial Cominittee. 
Morse, S. F. B. (p. 170)— Near the entrance at Fifth 
avenue and Seventy-second street, iife-sizo bronze statue 
by Byron M. Pickett, erected in 1871 by an association 
01 telegraphers. Schiller — In the Eatnble, a bronze 
bust by O. L. Richler, presented bv Gennan residents in 
1869. Seoli — Near the southern end of the Mall, a bronze 
statue of the novelist and poet on an Aberdeen granite 
pedestal, copied f I'om the statue by John Steele in E^in- 
torough, presented by Scotch residentaln 1872, Seveitlh 
Begimetil — On the west drive near Seventy-second 
street, a bronze figure of a private soldier, by J. Q. A. 
Ward, erected in 1874 as a memorial of those members 
of the Seveuth Regiment, National Guard of the State 
of New York, who felt during the Civil War. Shake- 
speare — At the southern end of the Mall, a gracefully 
poised bronze statute by J. Q. A. Ward, erected May 
33. 18T3, the SOOth anniversary of the poet's birth. The 
IHlgrim — Near the lake on the crossing of the eastern 
drive and the roadway leading from the entrance at 
Fifth avenue and Seventy-second street, a flue bronze 
statue S feet high, by J. Q. A. Ward, a gift of the Now 
England Society to commeiTi orate the landing of the 
Pilgrims on Plymouth Rock in 1630. Tlie StillEunt— 
Near the Obelisk on a rock overlooking the east drive, a 



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Btrong bronze casting by Kemeys, representinfi; a panther 
cronohed for the leap wpon ita Tictim. Tigress and 
Younff — A short distance west of tlie temiee, an ftrtis- 



Thomas Bali, presented by Gordon W. Biimham. 

Mbnaoerib. — Tlie CoJitnil Park llciiagerie, n latr 
collection, is situaTud at Sixtv-foiirtli street und Piflli 
avenue. It occupies about 10 acres of ground. The 
location is a temporary one, it being tlie purpose to 
eventually remove the oollection to 07ieof the new parks 
Bitaated on tho north side of the Harlem river. Sigus 
are attached to the cages giving tlie coinmou and scicn- 
tiflo nacne of tlte animals, family to which they belong, 
habitat and name of donor. Tlie caniivora are fed at 
SJ^ P. M.; sea lions, pelicans, elc, at 8 A. W.; monk- 
ej-s at 9 A. M. and 8 P. M. Tlie first paddock met 
with on the walk from Pifty-nimh street contains deer. 
2. Monkey house. 3. Small house adjoining monkey 
hou^ contains itiimerous specimeiiB of uuxls. 4. The 
hti'ge stone building is used fur the ofBces of administra- 
tion of the Park and the Park Police. It was erected in 
1831 for use as a State arsenal. In the building is to be 
seen a colossal marble statue of Columhus. carved by 
Miss Emma St«bhins. 5. The large building in the 
rear of the arsenal building contains the larger earn irora, 
such as lions, tigers, leopards, jagnar, puma and hyaena, 
also a splemlid speoinien of two-hom«l rhinoceros from 
Africa, the only living specimen in this country. 6. To 
the north of this huliding is the tank for liipnopotami, 
the youngest ot which was born in the Slciiagerle 
October ^ ISOO, being the firvt one ever raised in 
America. 7. To tlie aonth of the carnivora building 
are a numher of cages containing small hlack bears, and 
a tank in which art sea lions from the Pacific Ocean, 
and numhers ot witter fowl. 6. The next building is 
occupied by antelopes. 9. In the rear Is the elephant 
house, containing four specimens of Ihe Indian species. 
" Tip," the largest, in 8 feet inches in height, weighs 
0.000 pounds, and is 30 years old. 'i'his animal formerly 
belonged to the King of Italy, Victor Kmnnuel, and 
afli.T liis death was purchased by Adam Forcpaugh, and 



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346 

Bubseqoently presented to the Menagerie. It !s at 
timeis very unvuly, havine killed six men before it t-ame 
into tiiB menagerie. Paddock in tte rear, lO. In 
the rear of the elephant paddock is the prairie dog 
inolosure. 11. Purtfcer up the till are several cages 
eontainins foxes, raccoons, eto., and the bear pit, with 
Polar, grizzly and large black bears, A walk leads 
aroQnd this pit to the top, where the visitor can ioon 
down, on the animals. From this point also a good Tiew 
is obtained of the grounds of the Slenagorie. 13. Con- 
tinuing down the steps there is reached a strMght ■walk 
with several paddocks on each iide, containing the 
American bison or buffalo (the bnll a remarkably fine 
speeiraen), African buHalo, zebra fiom India, llamas 
from Soath America, avudada or Biirbary wild sheep 
from Africa, and the camels. All of the latter weie 
bred in the Menagerie. A wire inclosure contains the 
emu from Austrwia, and etorlts and cranes. 13. The 
buildings north of the old arsenal aie the small mammal 
house; a variety of small carnivorous animals; the eagle 
house, and an mclosure containing a variety of water- 
birds and waders. 

General View. — An excellent general view of the 
Park may be had by those who care to merely skim over 
it, instead of to studyits beauties thoroushly, by making 
a tour in one of the Park carriages, wnien are to be 
found at the entrance at Fifth avenue and Fifty-ninth 
street. They make Ihe trip «p to McGown's Pass 
Tarern, near the northern end of the Parli. and return, 
at twenty-five cents for each person, children fifteen 
cents, and stop en route at the various points of interest. 
Visitors may alight, and by taking a return ticket on 
leavine the carriage, return by another carriage. The 
publicnacka, which may be found at most of the entrances 
on Ffly-ninth street, charge about double these rales. 

Detailed Toub.— Usually, when visitors have seen 
the Managerie, the Mall, the Miisems and the Obelisk, 
they think they have made a tour of Central Park. As 
a matter of fact, they may be said to have only just 
skimmed over it, for Centwl Park, while beautiful as a 
whole, is most exquisite in its various details. Tliere 
are paths, nooks, arbors and vistas which have endeared 
themselves to all who are familiat with this wonderful 



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pleasnre ground, details of wliiuji strangers, merely go- 
ing over tlje graund na most strangers do, Imve no 
IcTiowledgo whtitsoever. The Park being long and nar- 
row, it is easy to start in at either end and make a ren- 
sonatily thorough tout of it without retracing one's 

After entering the Parle at Fffth avenne and Fifty- 
ninth street the Tisitor should linger and watth the won- 
derful procession of carriages of all descriptions. He 
should then take the first path to the loft and descend 
to the beautiful little sheet of water called the 
■'Pond,'' whose wiivelets riripJe up towards the 
weeping willows overhanging the I'Ocky shores. The 
patb along the southern shore leads to the 
wharf where the Lohengrin bouts ai'C anchored. 
Besides these boats, black swans ^lide in and out of the 
numerous bays which penetrate into the shore. After 
passing the wharf the path rises towaril the Sixth avenue 
entrance to arocky eminence. Further on, it leads to a 
much higher mass of rock, Copeot Rock, on which there 
is a large mstic summer house, shady, cool and inviting 
and affordii^ glimpses of the west drive to which a path 
descends. It is preferable, however, to continue on 
around the " Pond." The path leads to a superb rise of 
pine-crowned rock called the " Promontory, and pass- 
ing beldnd this crosses a little bridge spanning a mmia- 
ture strait, which toward the north broadens out again. 
A little beyond the bridge the paths separate, that to the 
south leading over to the Menagerie, while that to the 
north rises agaki to the main drive with its brdliant 
throng of vehicles. Taking the latter and proceeding 
along the drive, over the bridge which crosses the eques- 
trian path, the visitor reaches a small path on the left 
which descends to a romantic dell, from which glimpses 
of the northern extremity of tho pond are had, and leads 
up again to the Kinderberg (Children's Hill), a rustic iirbor 
of great beauty large enough to accommodate several 
hundred people. This arbor is loveliest of a spring or 
autumn day when the vines are rustling in the breeze 
and elinta of sunshine are dancing over the floor. Many 
children ai'e usually gathered in tliis arbor, for near it 
are the swings and tho Dairy and by crossing the drive 
to the west by the path whicH descends from this arbor 



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Grounds, there is a pntli kailiiig throHRli what is known 
as the Mai-ble Arch to the Midi, This path is deeply 
shaded and its level is far below that of the drive, and, 



after passing under the Marble Arch, it rises by n flight 
ol steps to the Mall. The efieet of the beitutitul vista 
which bursts upon the view as one emerges from the 
Areh is one o£ the great triumphs of architueture and 
landscape gardening in the Park, After taking a general 
view of the Mall, peering down its colonnades of stately 
trees, and obtaining glimpses of the Green— a tree-dotted 
stretch of meadowland to the ■west, with a fine flodt of 
sheep — it is practicable to make a detour from the Mall 
totheMenagerie(p. 244), and, after one has exhausted the 
Bights there, to retrace one's steps to the Mail, but over 
a different path, which leads through a very romantic 
section of rocks and trees and small open passages of 
meadow called the Dene. This path, after crossing the 
main drive, rejoins the Mall at the concert pounds; but 
the Casino Concourse, the Casino, and the Pergola can 
be i Deluded. 

The Mall is, however, worthy of a stroll along its 
entire length. It is about one-third of a mile ia leuglli, 
beginning at the Marble Areh and extending to the 
Terrace, which commands a view of the Esplanade and 
Lake. Concerts are given at the music stand near the 
northern end "Wednesday and Sunday afternoons during 
the summer. It is a beautifully shaded stretch of 
ground, rows of stately trees forming green arched 
colonnades, and between the main walk and the side 
paths and drives are beautifully laid out lawns. At the 
southern end ara the statues of Halleek, Scott, Sliake- 
speare nnd Burns. Around the band stand are orna- 
mental benches and the Beethoven statue stands in an 
open space to the rigiit. On days when concerts are 
given the Mall is so crowded us to be practically impas- 
sable. The Terrace, at the northern end of the Hall 
upon high ground, is built of yellow stone and from it 
thi'ee stairways lead down to the Esplanade, the central 
stairway being sunk under the road and leading through 



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a brilliantly tiled and omamented arch, or, perhaps, 
more propei'ly speaking, ball, witli niches on either side. 
The two Eide stuirs are open, the sides bearinj^ stona 
panels with deUeately carved designs of birds, animals 
atid fruits. The Tiew from the edge ot t' " "'" " 



shore, with grey rocks, whose vuggeiinesa is softened by 
deep foliiige; then comes llie green o[ the Ramble, with 
t he grey tower of the Belvedere in the backgronud. the 
ivliole being half framed In by the soft green mounds 
that rise on either side ot the Esplanade. In the main 
bHsin of the Methesda I'otmlain are a, nmiiber of rare 
water plants. These are all completely Ltbcled and in- 
clude tne Lotus, the beantifiil, flesh-colored India water 
lily, tlie PapvEiis plant and the beautiful South Aiueri- 
cail floating pond-weed. 

The ISetliesrla Fountnin is a representation of the 
story of the Pool of liethesda, St. John (5, 3-4). Its 
orowninp featnve is the figure of an angel who appears 
to hiive just alighted on a mass of ropk, and extends her 
hands tis if blessing the waters whicit gusli from it into 
the upper basin of the fountain, overflowing this and 
drippnig iiito the lower bisin, throwing a silvery veil 
over four figures symbolic of Temperance, Pnritv, 
Health and Peace. The fountain whs designed and tlie 
figures were eseeuted by Emma Stebbins. 

A tour in and out among the bays and under the 
bridges of the iate in one of the boats is quite neces- 
sary to a tlioraugh appreciiition of the beauties of the 
Park. A stranger should also not fail to talte the path 
which leads along the Lake around to the boat house 
and past it over the high ground to the north to some of 
the most roraantie portions ot the Ramble, over rooky 
hills and down into surprisingly beautiful glens, finally 
crossing the gracefnl Bow Bridge, which spans the Lake 



this InMdge the Cherry Hill Concourse is reached, a point 
to which people in carriages drive, as it commands a 
superb view ot the Lake and its shores. Then, leaving 
tlie Concourse and fullowiiig the path along the drive lo 



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349 

the west, and passing the Webster statue one has a con- 
tinuous view of the vrestem end of tke Lake 'whith is 
much larger than the eastern division. At the extreme 
notthwestem end is Bank Rock Bay, named from its 
bold rocky shores. It is crossed by a bridge at its point 
of entrance into the Lake and taking this bridge and 
following the path to the right, one reaches — through 
what seems a natural cleft in the rock shutting out 
CTei'y sign of civilization — the Cave. This is one of the 
most romatitio parts of the Park, for after emei^ing 
from the Cave and ai^ending a flight of narrow stairs 
hewn out of the solid rock, cue can take a wild and 
rocky path along a little Eti'eam cailed the Gill and thus 
pass through some of the most beautiful parts of the 
Jiati^le, which, as a whole, is probably toe most se- 
cluded part of the Park, being rocky, well wooded and 
having here and there little clearings like meadows on a 
mountain side. Here, iu fact, one is shutout from ab- 
solutely any suggeation of the city whicli lies at either 

Emerging from the Bamble over Vista Rock, one 
reaches at the southern end of the old receiving Reser- 
voir, the Belvedere, a pretty granite building, from 
whose tower, 60 feet high, an escelleut ticw of the Park 
and its surrouudings is had. A path leads from the 
Itelvcdere to the east to the Obeltsk (p. 340) and to the 
Metropolitan Museum, of Art (p, 202), and to the west 
of the entrance at Eighth avenue and Seventy-ninth 
street opposite the American Museum of Natural History 
(p. 231). 

Proceeding from tho Obelisk to the new receiving 
Reservoir, wnich lies like a great lake almost across the 
entire Park, one cin take a walk whiuh leads all around 
it and enjoy the fresh breeze aa it blows over the water. 
It is worth while to inspect the South Gate House. Af- 
ter reaching the North Gate House, at the northwestern 
extremity of the Reservoir, it is best to take the path 
which leads down to the North Meadow, a broad stretch 
of tree-dotted grass where the tennis grounds are. 

Prom here walks lead across the extreme westerly 
drive to the Pool which lies far down below the drive 
and is the first of a series ot lakes and water courses 
which terminate at the extreme northeasterly part ot 



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the Park in Harlfm Jtfeer, Tho vnad not only goes 
around the PonI, but leads from it under n. ridg« of 
HHfuriJ roek along the little Btroam width connects tho 
I'oul with the Loch. At the head of tho Loeh a heauli- 
ful little brook comes trailinff down among the rooks 
from the Nurth Meadow and the path itsf If, after leav- 
ing the Loch, follows another stream until tho visitor 
find himself at Jlarlem Meer. To tiis right is a high 



tory an I 
.stieO 



OW iferfo«6i, he can obtain ft fine V 

the Meer. IIo then, instead of donblinft his steps, can 
proceed from the Iteionhc in a southerly direction 
towards McGown's Pass Tavern, across the drive and 
take a path which will bring him to the head of the 
Loeh. This he ci'osses hy a bridge and then ascends the 
bigh and densely wooded westerly shore of tlie Loch. 
Beaching liie westerly drive, he can cross it to wliat is 
known as Harlem Heights, or ho can keep to the right 
and plunge into a maze of woodland and rocks rising to 
the height on which the old Blcck llouiie stands, wlience 
he can descend and leave the Park at One Hundred and 
Tenth street. 

To the west of tho northern end of Central Park Is 
Momingside Park, rising toward Bloomingdale Heights. 
A conspicuous feature of this view will he the gi/Mil. 
Protestant Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
to be built oil the Heights, near Momingside Park, 



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CHAPTEE XT. 

EAST, WEST AMD NORTH OF CENTRAL PARK. 

East, West &nd North ot Central Park are several club 
liouses and armories and many of the great charitable 
institutions of the city. 

East 07 Cestbal 'Park. — There is a perfect cluster 
ot these nud of other public institutions east of Central . 
Park from Sixty-fifth street to Seventieth street, estetid- 
ing west as far as Madison avenue, and enst to Third 
avenue. Among these are the Armory of the famous 
Seventh Regiment, a brick building with granite trim- 
mings, 200 feet by 405 feet, occupying the entire block 
bounded by Fourth and Lexington avenues. Sixty-sixth 
and Sixty-seventh streets, with a fltie driU hall (SOO feet 
by 300 feet), staff, reception and company rooms, a 
library, gymnasium, and rifle range, 300 feet long; Mt. 
Sinai Hospital, Lexington avenue and Sixty-sixth street 
<p, 60); Association for the Improved Instruction of 
Deaf Mutes {p. 61) ; Foundling Asylum, Sixty-eighth 
street and Third avenue (p. SI); Presbyterian Hospital, 
Madison avenue and Seventieth street (p. 60); Normal 
Coll^, Fourth avenue and Sixty-eighth street (p. 150). 
On Sisly-seventh street, betweeu Thinl and Second 
avenues, js tho handsome structure of the New York 
Turn Yerein. On Sisty-seventh street, between Fourth 
and Third avenues, are the headqunrters of the NfU' 
York Fire Department. Connected with this is an en- 
gine house ar,(l a drill yard, and this is the best place 
for the visitor to study the rperations of the famous 
New York Fire Department, and to inspect its apparatus. 
The force is under the supervision of a Bow^l of three 
-"— ' The active force, tmifonned, is divided 



into a Chief of Department, S Deputy-chiefs, 13 Chiefs 
of Battalion, 83 Foremen, 90 Assistant Foremen, 136 
Engineers of steamers, and 678 Firemen; making a total 
of 1,003. The stables for training horses until they be- 
come so expert that as soon as they hear the signal they 
leave their stalls and take their places at the shafts, this 



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E53 

harness dropping upon tliem by aa automatic arrange, 
meiit, is in West Ooo Hundred and Thirty-ninth street, 
l)etweeii Columbus and Amsterdam avenues. The pay- 
roUsfor 1889aggregfttedalittleovcr$l,605.000. Tlierc 
are 56 en^nes, two of them vessels for work in quench- 
iag lire ^ong tite water front or among sliipping, and 
20 hook and ladder companJeB. The average number 
of alarms responded to by oauh conipan)' during )Hst year 
was 116; the average iiiiniber of fires at which each com- 
pany performed duty, 50; there having been 3,834 fires; 
the total loss being f4,143,777. 

Fifth avenue eontinues to the Harlem river, itscoursc, 
however, being interrupted Irom One Hundred and 
Twentieth to One Hundred and Twentj-fourth streets by 
Mount Morris Square, The Harlem river, whieh begins 
at One Htindred and Twenty-seventh street and East 
river, flows for its greater length northwest and north, 
thus causing the sudden narrowing of the island at the 
north. There ia nothing in whicn tie stranger will be 
partieularlf interested in the east side of the city, 
between Central Park and the Harlem rirer. The Har- 
lem ifl CKMScd by a railroad bridge at Second avenue, 
connecting the Harlem river branch of tijo Now 
York, New Haven & Hartford road and the 6id)nrljan 
rapid transit system will) the Second avenue 
branch of the Ma'iihattan elevated railroad; at Thit-d 
avenue by ft bridge for foot piissengers and vehicle*; by 
a railroad bridge connected with the Grand Ceuti'al 
Depot ej-stem at Foui'th avenue; by a bridge for foot pas- 
sengers and vehicles at Madison avenue; by what is 
known as the WcOomb's Dam Bridge or Central Bridge 
at McComb's Lane; by a bridge connecting the Few 
Tork&Northerii U. R. with tlio Manhattan elevated road 
at Eighth avenue; by High Bridge (p. 256), Washing- 
ton Bridge (p. 2S6J, and Kiin>;'s Bridge, and by arnilroad 
bridge at the point where Spuyten Duyvil creek ciiteta 
the Hudson. Ia the annexed district, as so much of the 
city as lies above the Harlem river is called, are a cum- 
ber of new parks which, when fully laid ont, will add 
greatly to thcbeautyof thispartof tliecity; the Catholic 
Protectory at Westchester; St. John's College, Fonlliam, 
a notnble Catholic eduuationul institution, and Woodlawn 
Cemetery. 



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West and Northwebt of Cestral Pahs. — A new 
section of the-city lias been springing up west of Central 
Park »nd on the narrow northern end of Manhattaci Is- 
land during the last ten veaj's. Tliis promises to be 
the most beautiful quarter lor residences on Manhattan 
Island, for tlie houses hare been buUt since modem ideas 
of beauty and fitness have co ne 'nto vogue. As a 
es It the e are ent re bloclts where houses ai'e built in 
n el tectu ai I am o y a d o otonoi s rows of brown 
stone or br k are ot to be Been here This section 
f the e tv al o has the aid t onal ad "antage o£ a 
number of broad well laid out thoroughfares (see 
D g p 65) 

R VERS DB I AKK — On th s western 16 of the eity is 
R ver le Park which ru s along tl e I luff above the 
river from Seventy-second to One Hnndred and Twenty- 
ninth sti'eet a disianceof nearly three miles, the average 
width being about 500 feet. It is really little more than 
a broad avenue laid out with a road, sidewalk and bridle 
path, the slope to the New York Central & Iludson Eiver 
track being m a somewhat wild, unfinished state. A 
striking feature of the Park are the beautiful views ot 
the river which it affords. West Bud avenue, running 
pavflilel with it on the east is being bui^t up with hand- 
some residences, and it is believed by real estate experts 
that the futnre home of fashion will be on these two 
avenues, it being the opinion that business will drive 
fashion eventually out of Fifth avenue. 

Grant's Tomb. — Near tlie upper part of ELverside 
Park is the tomb of General Grant, who was buried 
here August 8, 1885, with the honors of war, the pro- 
cession being the finest and the crowd of people the 
greatest ever seen or gathered in New Yorlc before the 
celebration ot the Waaliington Inauguiatioii Centennial. 
The tomb is now a plain vault, but the committee hav- 
ing in charge the monument to General Grant have 
chosen a design by John U. Duncan. This will be an 
imposing architectural memorial, having a square base 
100x100 feet at tlie ground line and a height of 160 feet 
in the base line. The lower part of the structure is to 
be of the Doric order and the upper of the Ionic. It is 
to be crowned by a dome supported by four arches, 
under whioli are galleries, from wliich a superb view up 



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254 

the tiTer and ot the eurrounding cmintry may be had. 
TJio (loiiio will be pjramirlal and surmounted by n group 
of shituiiry. Id tlie erypb, which will ba o£ wliite 
granite, ivud will be reached by rcur stujrways and pro- 
tected from iiitrusioti, are places lor the display of 
banners, relics and personal sourenira of Grant. The 
crypt is in ait apse, so tliat tlie memorial ball, which is 
the main room on thisHnor, may be utilized for patri- 
otic or civic gatherings. Directly in front of the main 
entrance there is to be an equestrian stutiie of Grant. 
The entire work will cost $500,000. 

At the end of Kivei-side Purk is Claremont Hill. The 
Claremont, a restaurant with excellent service, occupies 
the former residence successively of Viscount Courtenay 
(Earl of Devon) and of Joseph Bonapnrt<>, Between the 
tomb and Claremont, righton the bluff, is a little mar- 
ble headstone marking thofrraTeof achild. On account 
of its quaintuess it has been allowed to remain there by 
the tiiy anthoiities, and it will form a touching contrast 
to tlie grand stnisture ot the Grant monument. It 
bears the inscription; "Ereei.eil to the memory of an 
amiable child, St. Clare Pollock. Died 15 July, 1797. 
in the 5 year of his age." A road descends from the 
Park to One Hundred and Twenty-seven Ih street, from 
which One Hundred and Tweiity-nfth street, the r 



thoroughfare between the eastern and western estremiiy 
of Ihe city at this point, is reached. Between the upper 
part of Riverside Bvea no and Momingside Park, which 
tatter I'uns from One Hundred and Tenth street, at a 
point a little weet of the northwestern extremity of Cen- 
tral Park to One Hundred and Twenty-third street, are 
on One Hundred and Twelfth street the site of the old 
Licake& Watts Orphan Home, whoso ground is to be 
occiipied by the new Protpstant Episcopal Cathedral of 
St. John the Divine, which will probably be the finest 
church structure iu this country, and on spacious 
groundi bounded by the Boulevard and Amsterdam 
rt"enth) avenue. One Hundred and Sixteenth and Om 
Huudred and Twentieth streets, the Bloominsdale In- 
sane Asvlum, which is a department of the Mow York 
Hospital (p. 173). A good view of tlie upper part of llic 
city, which is here a nnrow strip of Li^li ground, be- 
tween the Harlem and Hudson rivers, is obtained by 



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tailing the oaljle road (five cents), which niiia Jrom One 
Huniired and Twenty-fifth street to Fort George, One 
Hundred and Seventy-dfth street, up New Amsterdam 
aveDiie, and tb^n continuing, if the visitor so desires, on 
foot, crossing King's Bridge, and there taking the New 
York and Northern Hailrtrnd trains, which connect with 
the rapid transit system ot the elevated mads, or the trains 
of the New Yorit Central and Hudson River Railroad to 
the Grand Central Station. The various public and semi- 
public iiistitutionsof interest in this part of the city are, 
besides those referred to, the Convent of the Sacred Heart, 
a gi'eat Roman Catholic educational institution, occupy- 
ing a large tract of land which begins at St. Nicholas 
avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-sisth street; the 
Colored Orphan Asyiuni in Cacraansville. on One Hun- 
dred and Forty-third street, between Amsterdam and 
West End avenues (p. 61); tlie SUellering Arms, Am- 
sterdam avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-ninth 
Street (p. 6t): Hebrew Orphan Asylum, Amsterdam 
avenue and One Hundred and Tliirty- sixth Btrcet 
(p. 61); Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Eleventh 
avenue and One Hundied and Sixty-second street 
(p. 61|; Juvenile Asylum, Amsterdam avenue and 
One Hundred and Seventy • sixth street (p. 61); the 
Isabella Home, Amsterdam avenue and One Hundred 
and Ninety-first street; the Thirty - second Precinct 
Police Station, Amsterdam avenue and One Hundred 
and Fifty-third street, where there is an estensive col- 
lection of relics of the battle of Harlem Heights; the 
new cemetery of Trinity church, between Amsterdam 
avenue and Twelfth avenue. One Hundred and Fifty- 
third and One Hundred and Fifty -fifth sli'ccts, tiie 
two sections which are separated by the Boulevard 
being coooected by a bridge. It was especially in the 
vicinity of Trinity cemetery that tbe battle of Harlem 
Heights raged. At One Hundred and Forty -fifth 
street, a considerable distance back from Amatei'dam 
avenue, stands Mamilton Orange, the residence of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, which he left on the morning of July 
11th, 1804, for Weehawken, to he killed in his duel with 
Burr. Near llie old mansion are the thirteen trees 
planted in a circle by Hamilton aa symbolic of tbe 
thirteen original Stales of tlio Union. Just above Trinity 



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cemetery is what is kown as Anduboa Pack, where t)ie 
distinguished omtthologist Audubon reaideil, ihegrounds 
heiiifi now occupied by iiJHidsome residences. At One 
Hundred and Sisty-firsl street, overlooldnKtho Ilnrlcm 
River, is tliecJdJumelraansimi, which was Washington's 
headc|uartcrs during the tuitLlc of Harlem Heights. Tliia 
mansion was built by Roger Morris, wljo was struolt 
with the beauty ol its situation on iiis frequent rides to 
Tonkere, where ho was courting the heautifnl Mnry 
Philipsc, of Philipse Manor, and to this mansion he 
brought her as his bride in the eunimer ol 1758. Her 
name lins been associated with Washington, whom she 
is said to have captivated in 1756. The mansion sub- 
sequently passcd into the hands ol the celebrated 
Madame Jumel, who, after having been twice a widow, 
married Aaron Burr, then 78 years old. 

Siffh Bridge. — On the bold shores of the Harlem 
river between One Hundred and Seventieth and One 
Hundred and Seventy-fourth streets is High Bridge 
Park, in which there is n small reservoi^and a p^oil 
restaui'dnt. The river is spanned here by High Bndge, 
now overshadowed as a "sight" by the East Eiver 
Bridge, but still one of the features of the landscape, 
along the Barium. It was built to conduct the old 
Croton Aqueduct across the river. It is 1,460 feet lonjr, 
and composed of thirteenarchcs, the crown of the highest 
beii^ 116 feet above the river. Foot passengers only 
can cross the bridge. A fine feature of the view to the 
north is Waahinglon SHdgR, which crosses the Harlem 
river at Une Hundred and Hhghty-flrst street. It has two 
sniicrb central arches of 510 feet span, their crowns 
being 185 feet above the river. The side arches, four on 
the west end and three on the east, are of gninito faced 
with pressed stone. Just northwest of High Bridge 
between Oiie Hundred and Seventy-third and One Hnu- 
dred and Scventy-Stlh streets are the buildings of the 
Juvenile Asyhim. 

Tliis portion of tho city is called Washington Heights, 
and tlie station on the Now York Central & Hndaon 
River R, R,, whieli runs along the foot ot the bluff, Port 
Washington. There were earthworks here which the 
British captured in Xovembcr, 17T0. Fort George, 
where the cable road stops, derives its name from i\ 



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357 

redoubt which was here during the EoTolvition. The 
upper eud oi tlic island is known as Inwood 

Battle of Harlem Seiffhte.—Th^ Bitttle of Harlem 
Heights was fought September 16, ITTO. Washington, 
after the battle of Long Island, crossed o\er lo New 
Tork and retreating to tho upper part of the island 
made liis headquarters at the Apthorpe mansion, which 
stood at what is now tho coriier of Ninety-flret streei and 
Nintli avenue, until the fall of 1830, when it was torn 
down to make way for the opening of the street. Wash- 
ington WHS here hut a sliort time, and it is said that he 
liail not left it ten miniites to follow his retreating col- 
umn before Howe and bis stafE moved in. Washington 
then made his hendquarters at the Morris house, now 
known as the Jumel mansion (see above). The British 
were thus in possession of wiiat is now known as 
Bloomiii glial e Heights, tlie Americans intrenching them- 
selves on Washington or Hariem Heights, the battle, 
however, always being spoken of as the battle of Harlem 
Heights. This elevation was separated by a ravine from 
Bloomingd^ale Heights, and although this district is all 
built up the depression along the line of the old ravine 
is still clearly diseemible at One Hundred and Fifty- 
seventh, street from the bridge over the Boulevard eoa- 
neeting the two wings of Trinity Cemetery. 

The morning of September 16 Washington sent out 
Colonel Knowlton with 125 men to reconnoitre. De- 
scending a ravine, which led to the river through what 
is now Audubon Park, Knowlton followed the shore at 
the foot of the blufi to a point not far from the location 
ot Grant's tomb. He and his soldiers here climbed up 
the bluS and came suddenly, just as the sun was rising, 
upon tho left flank of the liritish Yanguard, under 
General Iieslie. The British rushed to attjick tho hand- 
ful ot Americans. Kuowlton, waiting till they came 
within six rods, poured a telling fire mto their ranks. 
After eight rounds, fearing that he might be out-flanked 
and surrounded, he retreated slowly and in good order 
down the blufi, retracing his steps along the shore for 
about two and one-half miles, then, having climbed the 
west slope of the ravine, faced about, and, sending for 
reinforcements, stood his groimd. Leslie, leaving 800 
men in ambush on the river front, led 100 of his men on 



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'irgiii 



to the edge of Bloomingdale Heigrhts on the south side of 
the niYiUB. WHshiiiglDii ordereil Slajor Ijoitth wiili his 
. riflemeji to join Kiionhoii and to endeavor, 
. 1 Colonel Beid, to get ill the rcnr of tlie enemy. 
TJio Brilit^li, seeitiff a more hnndful of Americans, 
rushed down the slope of the raviue to a fence uear n 
litlle riviilct, which purled along Ihe bottom of tho 
radue towards the itudioii. The Americans chared 
them, mid after a shoi'p skirmish drove Uicin hark. Br 
an error, llie Jiritish rescrrcs were Httiichcd in tiie flank 
instead of in the rear, and at n i>oint Mhidi is now One 
Hundred and Fifjy-Uiird sti'eet in the JSouluTard 
Kiiowlton VBS kiU«l, and Leitoh alf^o full. The 
Americans were Then reinforced iukL drove the Briti^ih 
through the woods into a buckwheat field. It. was now 
nearly noon, and Howe and his offlccrsnt Bloomitigdale, 
iieering Uis iinng in the dii'ection of Uarleni Heights, 
and beooiniiig uneasy for the safety of Leslie's com- 
mand, sent some (i.OUU piekcd Higlilanders and Hessian 
troops on the double-quitk lifter him. This detachment 
encountered Gen. Greene, and from 11 to Si;30 the battle 
iiiged over tcrritorr extending from Manhattan villo or 
One Hundred and Thirtj-flfth street to about One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-fifth street. Tlio fiercest conflict of tho 
dnj was waged on the ground now occupied byTrinily 
Cemetery, The British were finally driven down Bfcak- 
neck Hill, n part of the old Kiiigsbtidge Road. There 
were about 6,uU0 Americans to 6,000 picked British and 
Hessian troops, and the result of the battle not only 
gave Washington an oiiportiinity to withdniwhis forces 
without further molestation, but alio inspired his ti'oops, 
who had found themselves able to cope successfully with 
the flower of Howe's command, wiih new eourj^, and 
did much to efface the demoralizing infiiietice of tlio de- 
feat on Long Island. The above is adoplfd from sev- 
eral greatly vaiying accounts of the battle ol Harleni 
Heights. 



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CHAPTER XII. 



PUBLIC CHARITIES AND CORRECTION. 

Public Chawties abd Coeeection. — The Depart- 
ment of Public Chttrities and Correction, has its licail- 
quarters at 66 Third avenue, where permits to visit the 
city prisons and other institutions under its jurisdiction 
muatbeobtainMi, Amongtheprisons,tho Tombs (p. 148), 
and the JeSerson Market pnsoa (p. 172), are the most 
interesting to visit; and of the othttr institutions, Bellc- 
vue hospital, the Morgae, and the Institutions on Biack- 
well'a Island, The permit consists of a printed slip with 
a list of all the institutions under charge of the Depart- 
ment, but unless the ofHeial signing it makes e, cross 
against the insane asylums, the visitor will not be admitted 
to these. Boats for the various Island institutions which 



East Twenty-sisth street, in the immediate vicinity of 
Bellevne Hospital and the Morgue at 10:30 A. M. and 
1 :3U P. M., Saturdays, Sundays and holidays excepted. 

Bellevne Hospital. — Bellevne Hospital being situated 
near the starting point for the various islands at the foot 
of East Twenty-sisth street, may be visited most con- 
veniently at the time the trip to the islands is made. 
The entrance to the hospital is at the foot of East 
Twenty-sixth street. Patients are admitted npon the 
reeoniinendatioii of a regular physician, or in ease of 
accidents and sudden illness at any hour of the day or 
night. Visitors' hours are from 11 A. M. to3 P. M, The 
hospital hHS a capacity of 700 beds. Patients able to 
pay are charged $3.50 per week. The institution is 
niana^ied by a board of physicians, which on the last day 
of every month assigns from its own members the physi- 
cians who are to have charge of the various wariis for the 
ensuing month. The grades ofjunior and senior assist- 
ants, house physician or surgeon, the term ot service 
being six months, have been adopted, and in the inspeo> 



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S60 

tion of tlie wards tho rules of tlie United States Militai7 
IIospitHl previiil, Tho annual eost of tho iustitiition to 
the city U about $100,000, 

Ilorgtie.'--ln Iho Bellovue nospital gronnds are the 
City's Uead-IIouse and Morgne two of tho ghastly sights 
of Sew Vork, In. tho Bcad-IIouse tha bodies nto 
cleansed and otherwise leiidered as sightly as possible 
before being exposed in the Morgue. lu the luitor, 
which is a low one-story building, the corpses are laid out 
ill an almost nude state on a row of marble slabs upon 
which jets of water constantly play. 

Bodies reiTiaiuing unclaimed after seventy-two hours 
are buried in the City Cemetery. Clothes exhibited 
thirty days, and if not identified, preserved one yejir. 
Photographs of the corpse, with the registered number 
of the crave, also kept. 

Blaekwell's JiJnwtJ.— Blaakwell's Island was bought by 
"I'au Twiller, a Dutch Colonial Governor, in 1637, He 
stocked it with cattle. It suljsequently passed into the 
possession of Capt. Manning, who so igiiominloiisly 
Burrenilered Kew Tork to the Dutch. After having been 
publicly di$giaoed he retired to this island, w)nch he 
subsequently settled upon his daughter Mary, who 
maiTiedilobertBlaofcwell.tromwhomit derives its name. 
The most southerly building on Blackwell'a Island, a 
granite stnicture, formerly the sniail-pox hospital, is the 
residence /or tho female nurses of the Cliarity Hospital. 
Nest to ic is the Laandry, where work is done by women 
from the Work-House. The two wooden buildings jiist 
south of the Hospital aro pavilions for epileptics. The 
Charily JlospHal itself is a. 4-story granite building ex- 
tending across the island, with a frontage of about BOO 
feet on encEi branch of the Kast river. It has a capacity 
of 1,14:1 lieds, engagesthe services of 135 attendants, and 
the average daily number of patients is 1,000, La<t 

Sear about 8,000 patients were received here, and 7,302 
isclturged. There were 5G4 deatlis and STQ births 
The most interesting department for visitors is the baby 
warden the first floor. Everylhinghei'oas in the other 
wai'ds is spick and span, and every effort is mnde 
to keep the little ones as happy as iiossible. Con- 
nected with the nospilal is a training-school for fenialo 
nurses, a library, iind rooms for various charitable niis- 



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361 

sions which seek to ameliorate the moral condition of the 
patients. The medical serrice ol the Hospital is under 
the charge of a Cliief of Staff with some 34 house 
physicians and assistants, who also perform medical 
service at the other institutions on the island. The 
house stafl of 8 physicians and surgeons reside in the 
Hospital, and are appointed after a rigorous examination 
for a term of 18 months. 

North of the Charity Hospital is the Piniientiary, 
which is also the County prison for women, there being 
no women in the various State prisons; each county be- 
ing by law compelled to take care of its own female 
criminals. This is a granite building, 600 feet long, 
containing 750 cells arranged in tiers. The number of 
prisoners averages about 1,(^00 a day, the total for last 
year being 8,013, of which 3B0 were women. A card 
with a record of each prisoner's crime, name, age, date 
of conviction and an ival, term of Bentence and religion 
is attached to the ouLside of the coll. The best time to 
seethe prisoners is at 13o'elocli, when they are at dinner, 
well guarded and compelled to maintain absolute silence. 
It is also interesting to watch tliem at work. They are 
compelled to follow various trades, such as carpentering 
and tailoring, ajid they also do a large amount of stone- 
cutting, there being several quarries on the island, the 
granite tor the large buildings having come from them. 
The convict labor Uw does not touch the Penitentiary 
because all the work hero is done for the department 
itself. There are 50 blacksmiths, 110 shoe-makers and 
broom-makers and tailors ; abont 70 carpenters and 

Sainters, 3 or 3 upholsterers, 35 tinsmitiisand plumbers, 
> clothing-cutters and about 130 stone-cutters. Most of 
the women are emplojed in sewing or chamber work in 
the female prison. Besides this, Uie Penitentiary fur- 
nishes all the unskilled labor for the department. The 
hours of work are from 7 A. M. to 6:80 P. M. in sam- 
mer and4:30P. M, in winter. In thequarrythe men 
are under a heavy guard, and in case of fo^gy weather 
they are massed together and surrounded, in order to 
prevent their escape by the river. They proceed to or 
from their work by the lock-step. 

The criminal, on entering the Penitentiary, is first 
taken to the barber shop, whore he is shaved and has his 



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hail' cut, is bathed, weighed nnd measured, has his de- 
scription notoil, is dressed in n. striped suit and Assigned 
to worlc. Tliere ace good bathing-nouses along the river 
iront which tlie prisoners may use in siimraer. Books 
may be talten from Iha library (or two weeks at a time. 
Prisoners are alloweil to receive visiloi's anil write a let- 
ter once in four weelis. Besides the guanla on tjie island i 
there are guard-boats constantly patrolling the rivor. ■ 
Korth of the Penitentiary is the Penitentiary farm and 
the dwelling of the Sujwrintendent. The quarry is at 
the head of the Penitentiary grounds. 

'r\>e Alms House is nuat above these. Attached fo it 
is a ho5|>itai for females. The old Blnckwell homest«sd 
is occupied by the Warden. In mild weather tlie rows of 
benches under the shady trees are occupied by poor old 
men and women. Conspicuous on these grounds is the 
Pi-otestaiit Episcopal Cliapel of the Good Shepherd, 
erected in 1888 by George Bliss as a mcriioriai of his 
wife. In the basement of tho chapol is a larpT> reading- 
room. A Roman Catholic rois^on is also maintained at 
tlie Alms House, and various guilds do good work here. 

Above the Alms House are the Fire Engine House and 
the Gas-works. The Work House beyondia rather a dis- 
agreeable place to visit ; its inmates tisiially belonging to 
the class known as " drunks," the lowest order or crim- 
inals — the very scum and refuse of a great city. 

The total admissions for last year were 33,477, o( 
whom 11,708 were males and 10,771 were fonialvs. Be- 
yond here is the female Insane Asylum. 

Ward's Island is more attractive looking than Black- 
well's, but not as interesting to the visitor. It contains 
some 300 acres, and so much of it as is not occupied by 
buildings is well laid out. The Department of Public 
Charities and Correction has charge here of the I^Iale 
Insane Asylum and a Homeopathic Hospital. The In- 
sane Asylum is an imposing structure of urick trimmed 
with gray stone. Invalid soldiers of the civil war who 
enlisted m city regiments arc provided for in a pleasant 
home on this island. 

Randoil's Island, separated from Ward's Island by 
Little Hell Gate, and divided from the Westchester 
shore ly the Harlem Kills, lies in the mouth of the 
Harlem river. Under the Commissioners of Public 



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Ohatlties and Correction are the Wiot Asylum and 
other institutions provided by the city for destitute 
children — the Niu-scry, Chiidren'a and Infants.' hospitals 
and rarious schools. Besides these there is on the south- 
em end of the island a House of Refuge, a Eae building 
under the care of the Society for the Reformation of 
Juvenile Delinquents; the buildings and grounds, whieh 
are finely laid out, occupying abont 80 acres. Children 
sentenced by police magistrates are brought to this insti- 
tution whose inmates number about 900. 

JIoTi'a Island lies between Sand's Point and Pelhain 
Neck on Longlsland Sound. Here are a branch Luna- 
tic Asylum. Ilospital, Work-House and City Cemetery 
(the Potter's Field) where about 3,501) unknown and 
paupers are animally inteiTed. Here are 75,000 drunk- 
ards' graves. A soldiers' monument is the only memorial 
stone in this pathetic piece of ground. 



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CHAPTER XIII. 

ENTIRONS. 

The most nttractiTe tours in the Ticiiiity of New York 
ftce tliose of the Lo^iq Island und Jersey Coast resorts, 
ami of the JTudson, Eu'er. Greenivood Lake (New York 
and Greenwood Lake E. R.), partly in New York State 
and partly in New Jersey, aud Lake Sopatcong (Del- 
inTare, Lacka\Tanna & Western E. R.) in the Highlands 
of New Jersey are also worth visitias. The Delaware 
Water Gap, though nob properlv speuking within the 
eDYiroiis of New York, should also tie mentioned, as it 
can be reached (Delaware, Lackawanna & Western E. E, 
ferries from Christopher and Bai'clity streets) in about 
three and a halt hours and is one of the grandest pas- 
sages of scenery in the United States. 

liosB IsLAKD. — Long Island is 115 miles long, averag- 
ing 12 miles in width. Tho summer resorts are on the 
ocean or south sliore. A sandy barrier extends some 
distaneeout fi'omtliemniD slioi'eneurly th wl 1 1 gth 
of the island and the ocean penetrating it th gl na 
row inlets has formed several flne bays, tl 1 t f 
whicli is the Great Sonth Bay. 

Bkooklyn. — Brooklyn, the third hiigest t the 

United States in point of population (over 804 000) an 1 
the fourth largest in manufacturing and al 

interests, is on Long Island, opposite New Y k T 
strangers tho point of groateet attraction i B klyn u. 
the United States Navy Yurd, on the so th 1 re f 
Walliibout Bay, best reached hv elevated ml d f m 
the East River Bridge. The afca of the N y Y 1 
144 acres, with a water frant of over n mil Ti 'i a d 

£ roper, 45 acres, is inclosed by a iiigh wall. Two dry- 
Dcks, one 286 feet long by 35 feet wide at the bottom, 
and 30T by 88 feet at the top and 86 feet deep, the othet 
465 ftiet long bv 210 wide, the latter for the docking of 
tho modern wi'ir ships of tho United 8tat«s Nai-y, are 
among the most tonspiouuus features of the Yard. 



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2G5 

Pertaps even more interesting than these are the 
modern war yessels, olio or several of which are iisnaily 
moored here, and also the vessels upon which construc- 
tion is ill progress. Tiie United States Naval Lyceum, 
founded in 1833, has besides an extensive lihrarv, col- 
lections of curiosities gathered during cruises in foreign 
seas, and fine geological and minendogical cabinets. 
The SI well kept acres suiTOunding the Naval Hospital 
form a pretty feature o( tlio Yard. 

I^vspeet PaTk, situated on high ground In the sonth- 
■westcm part o[ Bi'Oolilyn, commands a superb viaw o£ 
botli tlie Upper and Lower Bays to the Atlantic Ocean. 
Jt is best reached by the Flatbush avenue ca.rs from Fid- 
ton ferry. An excellent idea of the Parlt can be had by 
taking the Park carriages (So cents), which convey the 
visitor to the highest point of the P k L k t C 
riage Concourse, from which a fin w t h h d 
The Ocean Parkway, a superb th ghf 210 f 
wide, leads from Prospect Park to th 1 

distant. Ac the principal eutran tl P U th 

Piaza on Fiatbush avenue, is a ra m ! i t th 
soldiers and sailors of the Civil "W 1 t t f 

Lincoln. 

Oreemoood Cemetery, superbly 1 t 1 h ht 

overlooking New York Harbor, is h d b 1 t 1 

railroad ftom the Brooklyn termin E tl Ea&t R 

Coney Island is the great seaside r- =c t f 

the populace of New York and Brookl d th b 

urbs, ttiough the easterly part of th 1 1 d k as 

Brighton Beach and Manhattan Be h are 
elusive. At West Brighton, where t pi r>i t d 

1,000 feet into tlie ocean, affording not only a landmg 
for the l>oats of the Iron Steamboat Co., hut also aceora- 
raodations for restaurants, bath houses and promenades, 
are Cable's. Vanderveer's aud the West Brighton hotels, 
where good, yet comparatively inexpensive accommoda- 
tions may be had; the Elephant Hotel, built in the form 
of a mammoth pachyderm ; an observatory 300 feet high, 
commanding a suiirb view; and untold nural>ers of 
small shows of all kinds, eating houses, and resorts of 
varied character. The Ocean Parkway, from Prospect 
Park, Brooklyn, ends at tlio more easterly of the two 



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5CG 

iron piers. The Concourse leads irotn West Brighton to 
Brighton Bench, where there is n spacious hoteJ, witli 
Uirge dicing looras and piuziSHS. Dcvoud it is Maiihnttan 
llenoh, niiich, with its adjunct, llie Oriental Hotel, 
forms the most esclasivs resort on the Island. Muf'ic 
every day during the season at 2 and 7:31) P, M. Ad- 
mission 10 cents and SScents, Fireworks every night; 
udmiaaion, with reserved seat, 60 cents. Strangers de- 
eirias to see Coney Island muter the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, are advised to stop either nt the ManhatUm 
or OrienbU, and make dctotir^ from there. 

Roekaioay Beach. — Manhattan ISeach is conneotei] hj 
a ferry, 10 cents, with Kockaway Beach, another great 
excursion resort, which a stranger desiring to study the 
chivmcteri sties of the populace will find interesting. It 
is reached from New Yorlc by the Long Island Kailroad 
(Thirty-fourth street lerry), round trip 50 cents, and l>y 
steamboats (p. 30), The scene at Kockaway ISeiieii re- 
sembles that on the popular portion of Coney Island. 

Long Beach. — Kast of Rooka way Beach, 34 miles from 
New York, is Long Bench, readied by the Long Isliuui 
Itailroad. The bexch here is one of tlie best on Long 
Island, for surf bathing and there are boating, yacht' 
ing and fishing m Hempstead Bay. The Long'Beiieh 
Hotel is large <md well conducted. A railway leads to 
Point Lookout at the extreme eastern end of Long 
Bench, k% miles from the hotel. There are at Point 
Lookout a good l)otel and a niunlM>r of cottages. 

Babylon and Fire Island, — Babylon, which lies on the 
mainland of the Great South Bity, afiords excellent Jlsh- 
ing, bathing and boating, and has au excellent hotel in 
the Argyle. Across the bay fro;n Babylon is Fire Is- 
land, a long, narrow strip of sand, reached from Baby- 
lon by steamer. There are fine surf bathing, and in the 
bay Atili water liathing; and e:ioellent blue fishing. The 
iSurf House is a. large, well-itept hotel. 

Jkusev Coast.*— Those Jersey Coast resorts which 
may bo properly classed as among the environs of New 
Yoi'k — say to Elberon — are reached by the Jersey 
Soiiliiern rente (boat from foot liector street to Sandy 



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Hook) and by the Now York and Long Branch B. R., 
operated by tlie Oenti-al R, R. of New Jersey (ferry from 
foot of Libcity street to Jecsey City) and the PennS}-!- 
\ania R E (ferry from foot of Cortlandt street). Of 
tliese the Jersey Southern is the most deUghtful, a 
fleet of fine steamers, inclading the two last, twin-screw 
steamers Srmdv Book and Motimotdh and the St. Johns, 
which, until the first two named were built, wsa the 
fastest boat on the bar, plying between the foot of Rector 
sircei liud Aihiotic Higtlands. The train, after run- 
ning for a short disiauce tlirongh tlie woods on Sandy 
Hook, emerges upon the beaeli, in full view of the 
ocean on one side and the Navcsink river on the other, 
1 that the railroad trip from tke Hook is cool and 



Prom SigMiatd Beach, the first stop, a bridge crosses 
the Navesiiik to the inainlanJ, the Mtghlands of Nave- 
sink, among which Fenimore Cooper kid the scene of 
his romance, " The Water Witch.'* 

Lighthouse Hill is named from the picturesque twin 
lightlionses, the " Highland Liglits," wiueh stand on its 
small, bare plateau, semi-eacircled by thick woods. 

Navuink Beach, adjoining Highland Beach, consists 
of cottages esteTKling to Noratandie-by-lhe-Sea, a flrst- 
class hotel (open June 15-Oetober 1), cajiable of accom- 
modating 300 guests. It commands a fine view of both 
ocean and river. Extending from this liotel to Seabright 
is liummn Seaeh (formerly Stokem's), a line of pretty 
summer cott^;es. 

Seabright is one of the gayest resorts on the coast. On 
the Rumson Road, not far from the Jumping Point 
Drawbridge, are the house and grounds of the Seabright 
Lawn-Tennis and Cricket Club, On Mufnson Neck are 
some of the finest country residences in tlie United 
States. Hotels at Seabright: Octagon, |4; HotelShrews- 
hai-y, $3.50. A picturesque feature of Seabright is the 
fisliing viUage of Naavoo. 

The great charms of MonmmUh Beaeh are its privBcy 
and refinement. The nearest approach to a hotel is the 
Club House, in which ore a few sleeping apartments and 
a spacious dining-room, the latter for the use of the oc- 
cupants of some 25 cottages, which are let to friends of 
the reKular cottagers. There is a Casino, with hall 



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and a stage tor private theatricals, a l)owli)ig:-aIley and a 
billiurd-room. 

Long Branch is often spoken ot as llie "Brighton 
of America." It derives its name from ttie adjacent 
branch of tho Shrewsbury river. It is known to have 
been iti 1784 a camping gronn^lol the Cranberry Indians. 
In 1753 M. confereiico was Iicld at Crasswicks between the 
Indians and four scttlci's from lihode Island to nirange 
for the pnrehasB by the latter of a portion of the State 
which now incliules Long Branch. After nmch palaver, 
it was agreed that tliey should be allowed to bny as mucli 
land as a man could walk aronnd in a day it one of them 
eonid throw an Indiiin champion in a wrestling match, 
John Slncnm, n man of large size and athletic strength, 
waslho white champion. After a long struggle he threw 
his mail. 

The Long Branch of to-day is a sea-shore cosmopoiis. 
The features which attract the vast summer thi'oiig to it 
probably repel as many, if not more, from it, a circum- 
stance to which the majority of t!ie luoro rational resorts 
on the coast doubtless owe their origin. The leading 
characteristics of Long Brandi may be described in one 
sentence: It supports numerous hotels, churches and a 
synagogue; the "tiger" has two snperbiy appointed 
jungTes, in one of which at least one man is known to 
have left of a single night 135,000 for the voracious 
animal to paw over and devour; it is " fashionable" in 
the sense in which the word is used by thoEte who fondly 
imagine that lavish display of wealth 'is evidence of liigh 
social position. 

Yet, as there are islands in a rushing, roaring stream, 
so there are some spots in Long Branoli where the noisy 
throng have not intruded. Besides many private cot- 
tages there are the fine hotel, cottages and grounds of 
Hollywood, near the West End station, a settlement 
within itself, niider one management and including a 
liuge bathing pavilion shut in by high walls from the 
gHze of the igndbile valgus and for the use of the Ilolly- 
wood guests only. Another pavilion is that of Ihe West 
End Hotel, a first-lass establishment. 

Ocean avenue toward evening is probably the liveliest 
thoroughfare in the United States. Here one can see 
almost every kind of vehicle— -sEiigcs crowded nith cs- 



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cnrsionisls, bu^es drawn by sivif t roadsters, tandems, 
f onr-in-haiids, 1-cavts, etc., many. of them perfcelly ap- 
pointed and each interesting in its own way, as lepre- 
senting one of the many types of people to be found at 
this resott. 

A short distance from Long Branch is the Monmouth 
Park moe-traek (p. 65). 

Elberon, a continuaUon of Long Branch on the soiitli, 
is one of the most complete and elegant resorts on the 
Jersey coast, with mneh the same refined and exclusive 
characteristics as Monmouth Beach. The Elberon 
Casino was incorporated in 1882 with a capital of $50,000, 
and the company also erected the adiniraole hotel called 
the Elberon (from %i npward). Among the handsome 
residences of this place is the Francklyn cottage, 
rendered famous ns the refuge to which President Gar- 
field was brought, and where he was lulled into his final 
sleep by the murmur ot the sea. General Grant's former 
summer home is also at Elberon. 

Among the resorts south of Elberon are Aehury Park 
and Ocean Grove, two populous summering places, 
largely dominated by the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
camp meetings and other religions exercises being a 
feature of life at the "Grove,'" Seagirt, still further 
south, is one of the most refined and delightful resorts 
on the coast, the Beach House being patronized by a 
number of refined Kew York and Philadelphia families. 

From Long Branch to the south there runs back of the 
coast a section of New Jersey which is thickly wootled 
with pines. Lakewood, reached by fast trains of the 
Central R. R, of New Jersey, foot of Liberty street, is 
a charming winter resort in this balmy foi'est, (Laurel 
House and Hotel Lakewood.) 

HuDSOS RiVBK. — For natural beauty there is no trip 
out of New York City comparable with a tour of the 
llndson Eiver by steamboat. The boats of tlie Albany 
Day Line leave the foot of Vestry street at 8:45 A. M., 
and foot of West Twenty-second street at 9 A. M., due 
at Albany at 6 P. M. Boats of this line leave Albany in 
the morning, and it is possible to take the morning b'oat 
from New York to West Point, which may properly he 
considered the estreme northern limit of the ei ' 
New York as covered by this book, and leturii 



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o( the same line m tlie aftcmooi:. Round trip, $1. 
. Other boats by wbieh the trip up the liuiison can be 
iJiiide, but without the (aeility fur raturninK to New 
York the same Ufty, are: Mar;/ Powell, toiisiilei'eil tlie 
sffifteat steiimboat in the woriJ, cDtering the Higli- 
lands on the trip up the river about sunset, when the 
scene nlonj; this oejinfilnl stretch ol the Hudson is nio-'t 
inspiring. The Albany night boats leave foot of Canal 
street at 6 P. M., and the Troy night boats foot of Chris- 
toplier at S I'. M., both arriTing at their destinations at 
o'clock the nest morning; fare f3, esolusive of meals. 
(See, also, p. 30). 

Railroad* which ailonl glimpses of the most Lcnutifiil 
points on the river are tiie New York Central and llnd- 
son River B. R, along the east bank to Albany, and tlie 
Now York, West Shore and BufCiulo R. R. on the west 
sliore to Albany (p 20). 

TA.e Trip by Steamboat. — Before the end of the Island 
of Manhiutiin is reaciied, tlie Palisades rise in sheer 
ascent to a height of 800 feet from the river's 'west bank, 
forming a ootumnar trap-rock precipice of unique 
grandeur 30 miles in length. The old Revolutionitry 
lortiftoatjoi}. Fort Lee, was on the brow of the Palisades 
at a point about opposite the present Fort Washington, 
<One Hundred and Eiehty-fcst to One IIundreQ and 
Eighty-fitUi streets) where tlie Revolutionary fort ol 
that name stood. There are large excursion grounds at 
Pert Lee. Spiiyten Duyvil Creek comes into the river 
at the eud of the Island of Manhattan. Fifteen miles 
fi-oia New York, on the east shove, lies lit. St. ViJieenf, 
the site of the convent in charge of the Ladies of the 
Sacred ileart. Two miles furlher up the river, on the 
satiie shore, is the city of Tonkere, and five miles beyond 
this, Vobbi' Ferry. At Piermont, twonty-two miles up 
the western shore, the river widens out and assumes a 
lake-like appearance, and is locally known as Tapnau 
Zee, a reach oE ten miles by four miles atitswiuest 
point. Washington had his headquarters at Tappan, 
about throe miles sontliwest of Fiermoot, and here ^iiijor 
Andr^ was imprisoned and executed Octobers, ITOO. 
"" headquai-ters still stands, and the site where Andre's 



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871 

Irvinglon, where Washingtonlrvingresideditihispretty 
cottage, Sunnyside, which, though near the shore, can- 
not be seen from the river, because ol the sheltering 
trees and shiubbery. The next setclement on the east 
shore is Tarrytovm, ■wiiioh overloola Tappan Zee at its 
widest point. AH this region has been invested with 
a romantic interest by Irving's sketches. Irring's 
honsa at Irrington is tlie original of Wolferfs Sooii. 
The vailey of Sleepy Hollow lies along the conrseof Mill 
river, bnt a little way north of Tarrytown, and over the 
stream tlie traveler can still cross by the stone bridge 
made famous by Irving in hia slietch of Ichabod Crane. 
Near the old Dutch Church in this valley, which is the 
oldest religious structure in tJiis State (1699) is the 
spot where Andre was captured by three American 
minute-men while on his way to the British lines just 
after he had concluded the negotiation for the treason of 
Benedict Arnold. Opposite Tarrytown is the pvetly su- 
burban and summer residence place, Ifyaek. Just above 
is High Tom, a grand old headland, and near it 
Eochland Lake, which cannot, however, be seen from the 
river. About opposite Rockland Lake is Sing Sing, where 
one of the New York State prisons is situated, the great 
buildings having been constructed of marble and lime- 
stone from localquarries. Above Sing Sing is a promi- 
nent headland known as Crolon Foinl, the Croton river 
here entering the Hudson (p. 11). At the foot of the 
northern slope of the Dunderberg on the west shore is 
Saverstrav). Here in a house then belonging to Joshua 
HettSmith and still standing, Arnold and AndrS metto 
arrange finally for the surrender of West Point, and it 
was tjter crossing the river from here that Andre was 
captured. The widening of the river is known as Hav- 
erstraw Bay, and as the boat enters this, the Highlands 
ore seen in the distance above. Sfot^ Point, on the 
western shore, nt the northern end of Haverstraw Bay, 
is a rocky promontory marked by a light-house, and 
was, in the Itevolution, the site of a fort captured by 
the British June 1, 1179, re-captured at the point of the 
bayonet in a brilliant charge up the declivity lead by 
Mad Anthony Wayne, midnight of July loth, 1779, and 
abandoned for lack ol the necessary force to hold it. 
Peekshill, on the enst bank, not far above Stony Point, 



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273 

is the site of tlie State Militia Camp, wliicli is located 
on what is knonn hs ATithon}''s Now, a short distance 
abovu the tdwii. In the river-bed, ue»r CiildweU's Land- 
ing, at tlio foot of Duuderberg Mounluin, opposite 
PeekskUl, OaptHin Kidd is supposed to have buried part 
of his treasure, aud search for it has been made from 
time to time — onoe by a j'^^larlj' organized company 
with extensive appaTHtus. Dnnderbei'g Mountaiii,on f lio 
'\vest shore, and Anthony's No»e, on the east, form the 
southern gates of the Highlands, the niopt lieautitul 
passage of the river. Tlie little island lying near the 
eotrnnoe is lonn Island, a piciiio gronnd. Ju^<t above 
Anthony's Ko^e is Sugar Loaf Mounlain. t865 feet), so 
called from its peculiar shape. It was while brcaklast- 
ing with Col. Beverly Robrason in a house still sland- 
ingat the foot of Sugar Loot Mountain that Arnold re- 
ceived the news of Andre's arrest, and fled to the Vvi- 
tvre, a British vessel anchored down the river. At £^tt- 
termilk Falls, on the west bank, a, series of cascades 
coniing down from an elevation of 100 feet into the 
river, is Cranston's Hotel, andbiitashort distance above 
it. West I^nt. Opposite West Point is Gan-iaofis. ThoKc 
who desire to continue the trip through the Highlands 
to ili'eioAur^A.willfindon the west bank the superb head- 
land of Crow Nest (1.438 feet) where J. Iloilman Drake 
laid the scene of his "Culprit li'ay,"and above it the Storm 
King (1,620 feci). Cola Spring, above Garrisons, rests 
upon the slope of Mount Taurus. Kestling on the 
northern slojie ot the Storm King is the pretVf village 
of ComwaU. BotweenitandNewhui^his Jveiu Windsor, 
and opposite Kewburgh FishMll Landing. Newburgh is 
not as interesting a place for a sojourn as West Point, 
but the visitor can while away an hour at Washington's 
headquarters, the old stone mansion soiith of the town 
built in 1750, whore, Juno 23, 1783, the Hevolutionary 
army was disbanded. The State, which owns the houpe, 
has gnlhered in it acollcction of Revolutionary rtlicK. 
The grounds ahoat the house command a view of tlie 
euperb entrance to the nighlands. 

West Point.— At West Point is the United Stales Mil- 
itary Academy, whose buildings stand upon a laemitiriil 
pljitcau at the foot of (Jrow Nest, l.i7 feet above the 



er. The road leading from llio landing is cut o 



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8T3 

the cliff of sofid rack. Among the buildit^ are the 
Cadets' Barraeks, the Academic Building, both of stone, 
the latter eoniainingclass-roomE, laboratories and f;jxa.- 
nasiiims; the Mess Hall, the Chapel, and tlie Mnseuia 
of Oi-dnance and Trophies. The low building on the 
terrace iielow the library is the Biding Hall. Beautiful 
views of the river are commanded from West Point. 
mote espeuially, however, from Trophy Point to the 
north, which derives its name from the captured cannon 
to be seen there. Here is also a portion of the chain 
which the Americans stretched across the Hudson in 
1778 to prevent the passage of British vessels up the 
river. At Fort. Clinton, on the northeast angle ot the 
plateau, is a momiment to Kosciusko, which the cadets 
erected 18S8. Flirtation Walk, where every cadet is 
supposed to lose his heart more or less frequently, is a 
path along the bank of the river sheltered from view by 
ti'ees ami shrubbery. On the parade ground is a bronze 
statue of Major-Qeneral Sedewick, killed at the battle 
of Spottsjlvaiiia, May 9, 1864, and an obelisk to Lieut.- 
Col. Wood, who was killed at the head of a sortie from 
Fort Erie, Canada, in 1814. In the cemetery are, among 
other notable monuments, the Cadets' Monument, a 
castellated column surmounted by an nm and trophy, 
and a massive sarcophagus beneath which rest the re- 
mains of Gen. Winfleld Scott. The best time to visit 
West Point is during Juno, July and August, but more 
especially at the time when the exercises and drills pre- 
paratory to graduation are taking place. These usually 
' occur in June. Neat West Point, 600 feet above the 
rivet, on Mount Independence, are the ruins of the Rev- 
olutionary Fort Putnam, from which a superb view is 
had. The West Point Hotel (*4.00 a day) is at the north 
of the plateau and Cranston's Hotel ($4.00 a day) the 
accommodations of which are unexceptionable, is near 
enoiu;h to enable its guests to enjoy all the varied sights 
of West Point. 

States Island*. — Sailor^ Snug Earior: This is an 

institution with an annual income of about $100,000, 

situated on the north shore of Staten Island. It is 

reached by ferry fiom foot of Whitehall street to St. 

•For desenpfiijii ot stiten lalaiiil see "Kobbfi's Staten 



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274 

George and tlienee by train to Sailors' Snug: Harbor sta- 
tion, (h'aro 10 cents; timeBOiiiin. from New York.) To 
the ilai'SJor sailors o( ovei^ nationality are admitted, tlie 
ciiilj requiremout for admission being tliot thoy have hoii 
a five years' sea service under tlie Sturs and Stripes, and 
are incapable of self-sappoit. Here are blind sailors, laitic 
sailors, sailors without legs, sailom without arms, and 
sailors physically and mentally Eound, but perhaps too 
old to stand the exposure of a mariner's life. They have 



forma of punishmeut is to deprive Jock of bis pipe. On 
all secular days the visitor is welcomed and inmates of 
the institution are Tery glad to act as guides, for an 
optional fee. through tne grounds and buildings. 

Gi.E>r Island. — A popnTar excursion ground in Long 
Island Sound, near New Rochelle. Reached by steam- 
boats making many trips doily. See advertisements in 
newspapers. 



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With the Kearesi EknaUa Sailroo'l SlatU. 
Aaademr of Oeeiga—SM street— All lines 



Mny Day Hue— Dee 
lerioan AnUcLnUies 



Ancient Sculpture 

Annaied District 

Aptirentlaes' Llbr^y 

Approaohes bj Water 

Aqnatlot 

AicMteotncol Casta 

Aqueducta 

ArmoiT, Tth R«L~CTth st— 3d a< 

ArmrBnIldliiK,U 8 

Asbiiry Park 

Assay OtBce,n B 

Astoria Fetry— 9ad stteet-Sd avenne , Sfltb street— SA ai 

1 9th street-3d at 



I , eetb St ~Si ai 



Aator Llbrary-fiUi atceet— 6tJi ai 
Atbletlos 



Battery, The— South Ferry— All lines 

Baxter street 

Bay Bldge Ferry— Suutta Ferry— All lines 

Bedloa's Island — Isee Bartholdl Btatue ) 

Belleyue Hosidtal 

" Bend," The— Chatham 'Jquare— Sd ave 

Benevolent Sooielies 

Bible Honae—Kinth stree|r-3d ave 



BiBecker Street Bank for SavingB 
Bloornlnedale Insane Asylum— lIBth street-Sth 
Board of Educatlnn— Grand utreet— 3d and atli a 
Board of Health— Houston sireat— JJ ave 



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Boreel BuUdioft. - 

Bowery— Houston, Grand, Clmtliam SQuaro— 8d ave 144 

Bowllns Green— South Ifeny— AU lines 8J 

Brentaao'a— Fourteeutli Htrest-Gth aiul 3d aves 106 

Broad Btreet IW 

Broartway l* 

Broadway— So. I— Battery I'laee— Btli * 'Jtii aves S5 

Wasliington at. 86 

" BeiiedltC Arnold at Us 

Pntnamat 66 

Brooklyn 18,264 

Brooklyn Bridge— City Uall—aa uud «a aves 138 

BryantPark 183 

BrBinen Une— (seoHoboken and Christopher Street Ssnies)^, S5 

Cab and Coach Fares 81 

Cahle Rates. o3 

CalninetClub 180 

Canal Street 148,150 

Castle Garden— South Perry— All lines 17 

Catharine Street Ferry— diatham Sq.iiara— 3d and Sd aves. . 3£ 

Cathedral— Protestant Epiaoopal SSB 

Roman Catholic 160 

■■ Altarsln 191 

" " " Wiudows iu 193 

Central Park 288 

Lower Entrance— 59th St.— Sd, Bth, and OCh aves. 

Central Entrance, East aide— 8(th et.— 3d ava. 

Central Entrance, West Side— 8Ist St.— 6th aye. 

UpperEntrance— lOSthst.— adavB.; 110th St.— Bth ave. 

Central Park Apartment Honses .i.. 1B9 

Central B, K. of N. J.— Cortlaadt-Oth and flth aves S7 

C^nlurjf Camiiany IGG 

Cesnola Collection ~10 

Chamtter ot Commerce 118 

Charity 60 

Chatham Square — 144 

CEtlzena'Liiie— Chrlstopherst.— Sthave.;8thgt— etbave... 30 

Cherry atreet 142 

OhlofcerinjcHall 178 

Chinatown ■ ■ 141 

Christopher Street FeiTy— 9th aya.; 8th St.— ethave SSS 

Chop Honses 4a 

City Hall— 2d Js Sd avs.; Park PI— 0th av.; Wairen-Otii av. ISa 

City Hall Park la?, 131 

City Hall Park, Liberty Boys at 181 

Claremonf iSi 

Cleopatra's Needle— (see Obelisk.) 

ClnbT 7?. 03 

Collejros 03 

Coll^of PhysdansandSurgeons— Wthst.— fith&ethaves. 200 

CoUeeePolot Feny— B3dst.,2davo. &S9thBt.-Sdaye. £2 

CoUeaiate Dutcli Oinroh 134,181,180 

Colored Orphan Asylum K5 

Columbia ColleBe-BOth sL-Oth ave.; 4nh St.— Bd ava I8S 

Commerce W 

Coney isiaiid. '..'.'. '. '^^'^'^'v.'.'.v,'.'.'.'.\'^v^'^'.'.'.''.'..'.'.'.'.'^'.'. aes 



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ConTent Saoced Heart-lSSth st— 3d and 6Ui aves £55 

Couka, George Frederick. MuliQinent to laS 

Cooper Union— 8th St.— 6th ave.; Sthst.-Sdave 157 

Cotton BxohangB— Hanover aqnare— and ond 3d ayea 119 

Crioket 66 

Cnnard Line— Houston— atli & 3d apes.; Eleeokcr— 6Ch ave. £4 

Custom Hotuw—Seotor--WeBt side ; Haaoier eii— East side. 118 

Coatoms Inapeotion SV 

Oyolorama « 

Dakota Apartment T. 
" ' id Dnmb Aayl 



Deaf and bnmb Aaylum. . . 
Deaf Mato Aaylum 
- ■ j.Laokawi 



Delamaxe. Latuatwanna £ Weit. B.R— (see Eoboken Ferry) 27 

Delmonloo'a 41,113,177 

BetBflle,"Iletenoeof CbBmplsn7,"liy 217 

De Vtone Pceas IBS 



DlrineSocvloe , 46 

Division Etreet W5 

DririnK 65 

BdenMnsde 45, ITl 

East Birer. . . 



srBclage—fseeBrooMyn Bridge.) 

Ellis Island— Sonth Feny— All Ones. 



BDmiet, Thomas Addla, Monument to 126 



, Add^Mi 

Karlrons _ 

Equitable Bailillna 118 

Essex Market PoHoe Court 161 

Ecening /tosf Building 139 

Binhanffe Place 110 

Biolsa Board 151 

Sipnss Servloe £3 

EleratedRallroadfi 88 

Fall Mver Steomeca- Park Pi,— 6th ave.; Warren- 9tli aye.. 81 

FamiKnt, Statue of 177 

FederalHall 102 

" " Washington Inaugurated at 103 

Ferries 33 

rifth avenue Ififl 

Fifth AyenuB Presbyterian Church IBB 

Fttlh Avenue Stages 171 

Fire Department SSl 

Food Supply 13 

Foreign Consuls 49 

Fort Amsterdam 19 



' Lafayetto 

' Schnyler 

' Wadswortli. . . 



ronndllnjt Asylom 

Faunoes' Tavern 

French Line— Houston— flth ave. ; Bleeckei'— 6tli a* 

French Quarter 

Fulton Ferry— Fulton— and and Sd ayea 



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PultonMarliet liW 

PnltoDStroet 133 

Fulton titreet Flayer Meeting iw 

QentlemBu'B BidlUE; C[Qb 201 

GermanHospltal— TGtliBt.— Sdnrc! !S[h ^l.-'!j<l avo 89 

aiaQlaland ST4 

Goelet Beddeiioes IHG 

Qolden HIll—FIrst blood sbed far Aintilum liidGpendet^oe. . 131 

Gould, Jay, realdenoe of. 183 

Oorernors Island— South 7eny— All Hues 7i 

GoTemor'B Boom fa City Hall 134 

GraoeCliurch 165 

Qramercy Ptu'k lOT 

Grand CentifJ Dopot— Forty-aeoond street— All llnea £6, 181 

Grand street 150 

Grand Street Ferrj^Giiiid-^Bd, Sd, and Gth avas SS 

Grant's Tomb— lasth St.— 8d and Bth ayes S58 

Greeley. Horace, Statae of 1S9 

GreenpiMnt Ferry— Twenty-third street— All lines 32 

Greenwood Cemetery set 

Onion I4ne— EooBton— Sd aiid Otli aves.; Bleecker— «th av, . ul 
GntteuberK Bible— (see Lenox Library.) 
Hamburgh Line SteamerB— (see Hoboken Ferry.) 

Hamilton Gcanee 105 

Hamilton Ferry— South Ferry— All lines. 

Harbor Polloe 77 

Harlem Heights— Battle of 850, ar 

Harlem Railroad— Forty seeond street- All ihied s& 

Harlemffiyer U iSSfiS 

Harpw £ Bros,- Franklin aquare— 3d and 3d ares 141 

Hart'slBland 288 

HellOate 18 

HEghBrulm 1S,S68 



History.. IC 

HobokenFerry— Barclay— 9th ave,— (see Ohristoplier St.). . . 3S 

Hospitals 60 

Hotels BS 

Houston Street Ferry-Ist st.— 3nd ave.; Bieeukor— 8th Bve. ffi 

HudaonRlver WS 

Hudson Hirer Railroad— Forty-aeoond street— All lines se 

Hunter's Point Perry— Mth street Ferry— W and Bd aves. .. . . Si 

Huntington, c. P.. residence of 18C 

LnmiKrant Depot Ti 

InmanUne— Chrietopher— Dthave.j Sth st,— Bth are m 

Inwood BSl 

Iron Steamboat Line (Pier l.>— Battery Plaoe— All lines 81 

Isabella Home. SK 

Italian Quanar 349 

Jettecson Market Polioe uonrt— 8th Bt.—6th ave ira 

Jeisey Oty IH 

Jersey City Ferry— Desbrosses—BUi ave.; Grand— M, Sd, 6th ES, sa 

Jersey Coast. . . "" 



John Street M. I 
John street Thei 
Jvdqe Building. . 
.Tudson Memoris 



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379 

Jnmel Mansion sa 

JiiTBDile Asylum 255,356 

Knickerbocker Club 181 

isfayette. Statue ot 166 

iHW Coucla 58 

.eUgtt VaUey B. S.— <Bee FennsylvaDla S.R.) 

liberty BnlifSiteniug Uie Word— <S9e Bartholin Statue]. 

isnox Libiary 236 

Jbr£u4eB 43 

4ehthoniBeHm 267 

.incoln, Statue of 166 

'LlttlaChurohAroond IheCoraec" 180 

LoneBranali S6S 

LonglfQand 18,SM 

liOQB Island B.B.— B4th Sttset Feiry— 3d and 3d ares 37 

Iiong Island Bound IS 

Lotus Club 173 

Lad ow Street Jail 161 

UBdlaon Square — Twenty-thica Btreet— All llnee ITS 

Modisan Sqaare Oai^en—S3th street— 3d andsthaves 180 

Maiden lane IIQ 

Manhattaii Seacb— (see Day lUdge Ferry and L. I. BJt.) 

Manhattan Co." "—'■ 

HaahattanOlu 

Manbattan labmd'. 

Marine Hospital -a 

Masonic Temple— Twenty-third street— 6th aye 174 

MeisBonler'B''Priedlaad. 1807." 217 

Meoaiwrte— (see Central Park .) 



UoD^omery. Uajor-Qen,, Monument t( 
Mount siiiai Hospital 



Mnlherrr street . . . 



Mulhenrstn 
MuciByHlll.. 



liew Court Eonaa 136 

Now Jersey Coast 288 

Sew Jersey SoaHiern R. R.— Hector St.— 6th St Btb aves 37 

Hensboys'^ Lodging Uonae 143 

Newspapers 43 

New York and Now Ilayen It. R—«id street— All lines 36 

New York and Northern B.E,— 155th street— etbaTB 28 

N. Y. Central * Hudson R. R.— Fortyaecond St.- All Itaes. . 36 
N. Y.. lake Erie & Western R. R.— Chambers— eth avo.; 

Warren— Othftve.; sad bL— 6th andflthaves 33 

New York Hospital 178 



North River.., 



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Obslialt— 84th street— 3d ava 

Oldest HoHseinHew York 

Oj-ster Salouns 

Paradise Park 

ParkKow I 

Pavonia Pecrj--<ati) N. T., K E. & W. K. U.) 
PennsylvBuia B. B.— Sumo as Jersey City Verrj. . . 



Pullce Headqnsrten IKi 

Politloa! DiTiaiona 15 

Polish Jeir Quarter 150 

Populatioo 18 

Postallnformatlon 40 

Post Offlce— CityHall— SdandSdaves.; ParkpL-OUiave.. IZT 

PreabFterian Hospital SSI 

PilntltiH Honee Square ]a3 

Prodooe Bxohange—Batterr place— 0th and Bth aves 81 

ProspBOtPark 364 

Proyidenoe Ltne for Boston— Cbambers St.— 8th aye SI 

PuakBmWag loS 

Pulitzer Bnlldlnic IBS 

QnarantittB. 17 

R^lroads 36 

Bailway Ouldus 68 

BandaU'B Island 2Ba 

Seal Eatats ExcbanKS 118 

~ ■■ "■ ;aBe Jersey City Ferry) 83 



Ite^^ter'B Offloa , . . 
Iteseryoira . . . 



Eidine Si 

Blyerslde Park— Sereiity-aeeond atcuet— 6tli bto 253 

Botes' G^ery 153 

Eoman Catholic Orphan ABrfiim 195 

Rooseyelt Hospital— Fifty-ninth street— 9th aye 800 

Roosevelt Stieet Ferry— FrankUn Square-^Sd aiid 3d ayes.. Si 

Bosa Bonitenr's " Horse Fahr." SIS 

et. AnffUBtlne's Chapel— Houston street— 3d ave J51 

St^ B^halomeiy Mission 1S4 

8t. Bartholomew's P. K. Chnroh 185 

St. Franota Xavler's B. C. Ctmreh., 1J3 

St. Qaorfre'B P. E. Cbnrch IW 

St. Joseph's Home 154 

St. Luke's Hospital 199 

St. Mark's P. H. Chorob 160 

St. PatriolCs R. CCathsdrnl— 60th St.— BUi ay.; 53d St.— 3d uy. 189 

St. Paul's P. K.Chn™h--ParfcPlsoe-flthBvc ISS 

St Thomas' P. B. Chnroh 199 

SaudyHcKik IT 

Bewiiivi.W.H.. Statue of. r.r 

SIffiial Servk-e. U. a iff 

BIoBi IB Maternity Hosphal 200 

SIuiniiilii«. Ul 

SonthFerry— South Ferry— AIL lines S3 

Stiiten Island 18.273 

Stataa Island Ferry— South Perry— All lines 33 



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statue of Liberty— (see BarHioldi Statue , 1 

Steiimboitt« 30 

Steaioahips S3 

Stewart, A. T 160. 16i 

8ta«k Ezchange— (see Wall street) 93 

Stock UzohaDice (ConsolidatedJ—Beotor— 6Ui Ss Otii aves. ... ST 

Stores M 

Street Car Lines M 

Street Flan 13 

Stmotnres, Number of 13 

atndloBuUdlne 17* 

Stndios 113 

St-nyreaant. Petrua 73,160 

Sub-Treasarr, U. 8 lOl 

Sua ISS 

aipftmp, The 141 

Tammany Hall Ilj7 

Telegrapii Kates 58 

Telephono 62 

Temple Emanu-Kl ,. 185 

Theatres 4i 

Tombs, tiie 118 

'^•pograpliy. II 

Trinity Cemetery^!;!*.!!!'.!!!'.!;'.'.'.!!!!!'.'.;!!!!"!!!.'.!! '.'.'.'ass, SOT 

TrinllrOhuroh— Beotorstreet^-6tliand9thaTeB 88 

Tnrf S5 

Twenty-third Street Ferry-aM street— All llnea 83 

ITMon Club— Twenty-third Etceet-eth and Sd aves 173 

Union Leajtue Clnb 188 

IFnlmi Square— Vourteenth street— All lines 16C 

University Clnb ISO 

UnlTOralty Building 109 

UniFBrsltyottheCltrofNewYork. 160 

VanderWlt Cllnio EOO 

Vaiderbillt, "Commodore," Bloeraphy of 1S8 

VaiiderWIt Houses IK 

Vanderbilt Picture Qallery 197 

Variety Parfonnancea 45 

WallstPset—Beotor St .West side; HanoverSq., East side. 07 

" " Perry— Hanover Square— 3d and Sd avBB 83 

Ward's Island S67 

WaehlnKtoo Arcb m 

WaBhiiigton Bridge gM 

waeliinston at St. Paul's Chapel 137 

Waahlnston'fl Inausnration 103 

Waahlnston Market 123 

WasMnKtan Sguara— Slghtb street— Cth ave les 

Washln^n Belioa— (see Mef^ Mua, of Art and Lenos Lib.) 

WasMnston Statue at U. S. Sab-Treaenry 103 

" " on Union Sqnare 106 

Waahingfon, Tramboll's Portnflt of 134 

other Porti'Bits of (see Lenoi Library), 

Water Front ... 13 

Waiworks 45 



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