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Full text of "New York city and vicinity during the war of 1812-15, being a military, civic and financial local history of that period, with incidents and anecdotes thereof, and a description of the forts, fortifications, arsenals, defences and camps in and about New York city and harbor .."

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IIEW lORK 




AND VICINITY 



'HE lAR OF 1812-'15, 

W^ BEING 

A MILITARY, CIVIC AND FINANCIAL 

Xocal 1bi8tori2 of tbat periob, 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES THEREOF, 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE FORTS, FORTIFICATIONS, ARSEI^ALS, DE- 
FENCES AND CAMPS IN AND ABOUT NEW YORK CITY AND 
HARBOR, AND THOSE AT HARLEM AND ON EAST 
RIVER, AND IN BROOKLYN, AND ON LONG 
ISLAND AND STATEN ISLAND, AND 
AT SANDY HOOK AND 
JERSEY CITY. 

WITH 

An Account of the Citizens' Movements^ and of the Military 

and Naval Officers, Regiments, Companies, 

etc., in service there. 



BY 

R. S. GUERNSEY, 

Author of Meclianics' Lien Latca Relating to Kew York City, etc., etc., etc. 
IN TWO VOLUMES- 



VOL. II. 



New York : 

CHARLES L. WOODWARD, Bookseller, 

78 Nassau Street. 

1895. 



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Entsrbd Accobdino to Act of Conqekss in thk Year 

ElOHTf EN BUXDEED AND NlXBTT FiVE, 

By R. S. GUERNSEY, 

In the Office or the Librarian of Conorb^s at 

Wabbinoton, D. C. 



LimTBD Edition. Not STEREorrrKD. 



No. 



GIM BRM. A MOHAN, Pnintcm, 
4ft ROM ST., Ntw YORK. 



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v. ^ 



PREFACE. 



New York City, May 15, 1895. 

In placing this the concluding volume before the public the 
writer will say to those who may read this and the previous vol- 
ume that this work was not pursued and did not progress with- 
out personal sacrifices to the writer, if that can be called a sac- 
rifice which is willingly surrendered or exchanged by choosing 
one of several coui*8es. The writer felt in the work that it 
would be its own reward, if completed, in any event which 
might i-esult to the writer. 

Again, it was a useful and effectual diversion from the petty 
cares of life, and rendered it worth something more than a 
struggle with them. 

He still feels a peculiar personal gratification and satisfaction 
about it that all along made the labors light, while they ex- 
tended over more than a score of years. He felt that no one 
el^e would gather the material for the work, and that none 
other would write it with so much detail. The laurels that he 
thought to wear in his younger days are fully replaced in his - 
mature years by the feelings of satisraction at the completion of 
this lifework of his leisure moments. 

After the materials for this subject were gathered and the 
knowledge of its treatment by writers had been ascertained, the 
writer would have lost his self-respect had he not pursued the 
work to completion in the manner that it is now placed before 
the world in the present comprehensive volumes. 

The makers of history are the partakers of history, which 
include those that record the famous achievements and events 
of mankind. We have come and we will go, but the march of 
history will go on forever. Its records must and will be studied 
to enlighten and interest those who seek to govern mankind and 
wish to learn the results of past efforts, as well as to gratify a 
pride in the achievements of their ancestors. The printmg press 



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IV 



PREFACE. 



has now rendered such records indestructible. They are foot- 
steps on the rock of ages. 

' With a realizing sense that *' they are not dead who live in 
%9orks they leave behind," this work is placed in the world as a 
contribution to local history at an eventful period, showing an 
example of lite and government in war. Not fearing to have it 
compared with any history of the past in interest and detail, and 
hoping that future local histories of other places will surpass it 
in interest and merit is the sincere expression of the writer. 




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CONTENTS OF VOL. IL 



CHAPTER XXII.— Gloomy Pi-ospects for the Winter of 1818-14— 
Hfgh Prices — Action of the Fuel Association — Special Election 
of Member of Congress— Charitable Objects — Action of the 
Washington Benevolent Society — Action of the Common 
Council — Church Donations and Contributions, pp. 1-17. 

CHAPTER XXHI.— Views of Political Parties- Effect of Na- 
poleon*8 Campaign of 1818 — Hopes of Peace— Public Feeling — 
Dinner to Commodore Chauncey at Washington Hall — Dinner 
to Commodore Rodgers at Tammany H'lll— Running the 
Blockade, pp. 18-28. 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Military Preparations by the State— Volun- 
teer Wanted — Bounties Offered — Gunboat Service in New 
York Harbor— Commodore Lewis— Fulton's Steam War Ves- 
sel — FortiQcations Needed at the Narrows — Blockhouses — De- 
lay in Building Forts — Proposition to Make New York City the 
Seat of State Government — Action of the Common Council — 
" The Governor's Room *' in City Hall, pp. 29-48. 

CHAPTER XXV.— Enforcing the Embargo— Seizure of Specie 
at New York— Unpopularity of the Embargo— Repeal of the 
Embargo Laws— Revival of Trade — Local Politics — Election of 
State Officers and Members of Congress, pp. 49-64. 

CHAPTER XXVL— Financial Conditions— Treasury Notes Is- 
sued—Loans Called For — John Jacob Astor— Jacob Barker — 
Subscribers to the Loan— Paper Money Plenty, pp. 65-75. 

CHAPTER XXVII.— River and Harbor Navigation About New 
York — Coasting Trade— British Privateers in the Sound— Com- 
modore Lewis After Them— Roinforcement of the British 
Squadron — Blockade of All the Ports of the United States — 
Strength of British and American Navies— Official Inspection 
of Defences of New York — Major General Morgan Lewis in 
Command— Movements of the Enemy, pp. 76-90. 



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vi CONTENTS OF VOL. IL 

CHAPTER XXVIII.—Political Effect of the Blockade— Peace 
Negotiations— Views of Democrats and Federalists— Tam- 
many Anniversary— Federalists Celebrate the Restoration of 
the Bourbons — Oration by Mr. Morris— Newspaper Accounts 
of the Celebration— Public Dinner and Toasts— Questions Be- 
fore the People, pp. 91-108. 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Fourth of July Celebration— Tammany and 
Washington Society Processions— Mr, Wheaton*s Oration — 
Tammany Dinner and Toasts — Amusements of the Day- 
Evening Entertainments — Fireworks at Vauxhall Garden, pp. 
109-182. 

CHAPTSR XXX.— Rigorous Blockade— Great Fears of an Inva- 
sion by Sea— Action of the Common Council— A Torpedo Boat 
—Call for Militia— Sketch of Gen. J. P. Boyd— Desertions- 
Military Executions on Gh>vernor*s Island— Citizens* Meeting — 
Exempts to be Enlisted— Committee Appointed— Report of 
Committee -Threatening Attitude of the Enemy, pp. 188-148. 

CHAPTER XXXI.— Reports on Defences of the City— Fortifica- 
tions Necessary— Gov. Tompkins' Military Orders- Gov. Pen- 
nington*s Address to New Jeraey Militia— Apathy of the Peo- 
ple — Amusements of the Day— Dinner at Tammany Hall to 
Crew of the ^Meo?— Action of Common Council— Address of 
Common Council to the Citizens — Appeal for Aid to Build 
Fortiflcations—Public Meeting Called, pp. 149-181. 

CHAPTER XXXn.— Active Military MovemenU— State Militia 
Ordered to Serve at New York City and Vicinity— Where They 
Came From— Cadets from West Point — Volunteers from New 
Jersey, pp. 18-^189. 

CHAPTER XXXin.- Fortifications on Long Island— First Vol- 
unteers for Work on Defences in Brooklyn— Committee of 
Defence Appaal— Grouid Broken at Fort Greene— Lines of 
Defence and Location of Forts in Brooklyn — Citizens* Meeting 
—Address by Col. Marinus Willett— Sketch of Colonel Willett 
— Resolutions Adopted— Enthusiastic Proceedings— Commit- 
tee of Citizens, pp. 190-207. 

CHAPTER XXX[V.— Workers on Fortifications in Brooklyn 
and at Harlem— Depredations by the Enemy— Bombardment 
of Stonington— British Fleet in Gardlnei-'s Bay— Report of the 



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CONTENTS OF VOL, 11. vii 

Progress of the Defences Around New York City— Attempt to 
Capture the City by Water Temporarily Abandoned— The 
Enemy's War Vessels Move to the South — Baltimore and 
Washington in Danger— Enthusiastic Volunteer Workers on 
Defence Still Continue in New York and Brooklyn, pp. 208>380. 

CHAPTER XXXV.— Capture of Washington— Effect in New 
York— To Arms ! To Arms I— Committee of Defence Appeal 
to Citizens— Major-Q^neral Lewis's Letter to Common Coun- 
cil— More Men and More Money Wanted— Recommendations 
of Committee of Defence Adopted— Large Loans Obtained by 
the City for Defence, pp. 281-240. 

CHAPTER XXXVL— Militia Ordered into Service— Training in 
Fort Columbus— Call for Implements of Defence— Militia 
Under General Stevens Mustered into Active Service Under 

\ Major-General Lewis— Sketch of General Stevens' Family— 
Sketch of General Lewis's Family— Military Orders-- Rockland 
County Militia— Martial Law in the City— Call for New Jer- 
sey Militia to Defend New York— Philadelphia Asks for New 
Jersey Militia— Secretary of War Grants the Request— Gover- 
nor Pennington Orders Nineteen Companies to Powle*s Hook 
(Jersey City)— Colonel Frelinghuysen in Command There, 
pp. 241-268. 

CHAPTER XXXVIL— Financial Situation in the Nation and in 
the City — Failure of the Attempt to Obtain Loans for the 

\ Nation— Suspension of Specie Payments— Resolutions and Reg- 
ulations by City Banks— The City I^isues Fractional Currency, 
pp. 269-277. 

CHAPTER XXXVin.— Dangers of Invasion on the Frontiers- 
Admiral Cochrane Threatens— Large Naval Force of the 
Enemy — Almost a Panic in the City— Mayor Clinton's Charge 
to the Grand Jury — Words of Encouragement — ^Recommends 
an Adjournment of the Court— Resolution of Approval by the 
Grand Jury— United for Defence— Negotiations for Peace, pp 
278-291. 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— The Situation— City Officials Sent to Wash- 
ington — Workers on the Fortifications— Tammany Society- 
Cannon Loaned the City by John Jacob Astor and Others — 
The Privateer Qtneral Armstrong Sails— Capt. Samuel C. 
Reid, pp. 292-303. 



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viii coNTFyrs of vol, if, 

CHAPTER XL.- Military Organ zations in Ihe City— Militia 
Unifo' ms— Station of Troops — New Jersey Militia— Dissatis- 
faction Among New York Troops— Riotous Conduct— Military 
Punishments, pp. d0i-dl5. 

CHAPTER XLI— The Enemy Attack Baltimore— Great Excite- 
ment and Active Militai-y Movements in New York — Means of 
Defence— Condition of Fortifications— Workers on the De- 
fences—Appeal of Committee of Defence — Fort Laight Built, 
pp. 816-834. 

CHAPTER XLIL-Disorderly Militia-Courts-Martial- Military 
Duties— Military Life in the City— Drills and Parades, pp. 835- 
350. 

CHAPTER XLIIL— Fulton's Steam Frigate— Lack of Money to 
Complete Her— Petition to Committee of Defence for Help- 
Money I<oaned by the City— Report to the Common Council — 
Display at the Launching— Description of Her and Her Arma- 
ment—Other War Vessels Proposed, pp. 351-859. 

CHAPTER XLIV. -Militia Dissatisfied— Another Commander 
Wanted— Appeal for Workers on Fortifications — Removal of 
Major-General Lewis— His Farewell Address to His Soldiers — 
Governor Tompkins Placed in Command— Objection of Gov- 
ernor Pennington— Reply of Secretary of War, pp. 860-367. 

CHAPTER XLV— Action of State Legislature— Governor 
Tompkins in Command at New York— Military Ordei*s— Gov- 
ernor Tompkins Inspects the Fortifications— Reviews the Sol- 
diers— Pri vat eei-s Sail— Grand Parade on Evacuation Day — 
Orders to Muster Out of Service — Major-General Stevens's 
Farewell Address— Common Council Thanks Citizens and Sol- 
diers for Services, etc., pp. 368-388. 

CHAPTER XLVl.— Description of the Fortifications Around 
the City in 1814— Jamaica Ba3^— Brooklyn— Sandy Hook— 
Staten Island— Jersey City— General Swift Reports— Safety of 
the City, pp. 889-400. 

CHAPTER XLVIL— National Financial Condition— Loans Ob- 
tained at Great Discount on United Slates Securities— More 
United States Treasury Notes Issued— Paper Money Abun- 
dant—High Prices— Banks Loan the Government— National 
Direct Tnxes Increased— Quota for New York City, pp. 401-413. 



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COJS TENTS OF VOL JI. ix 



CHAPTER XLVIII.— State and City Financial Condition— Loan 
by the City to United States on Treasuiy Notes Guaranteed 
by Governor Tompkins— State Militia Paid Ofif— City Banks 
Loan to Pay New Jersey Militia— Governor Tompkins' Patri- 
otic Action— Martin Van Buren on Governor Tompkins— 
Government Suit Against Him — His Vindication by a Jury 
and by Congress— Repaid by the National Government — What 
New York City Should Do. pp. 414-426. 

CHAPTER XLIX.— Financial Standing of New York City- 
Annual Expenditures— City Debt— Revenue and Taxation- 
Valuation of Real and Personal Property— State Taxes— City 
Fractional Currency — Charitable Aid to Soldiers and to Suf- 
ferers on Niagara Frontier— Charter Election, pp. 427-482. 

CHAPTER L.— Holiday Season of 1814-15— Numerous Dinners 
to Prominent Men— Arrival of Cartel Ship Jenwy— Rigoroi:s 
Blockade of the AtlanticCoast— Vigilance of Military Authori- 
ties— General Boyd Placed in Command at New York by Gov- 
ernor Tompkins— Commodore Decatur Runs the Blockade- 
Skirmish With the Enemy and is Captured— Other War Ves- 
sels Run the Blockade, pp. 483-489. 

CHAPTER LI.-Prospectsof iheCampaignof 1815— Feeling in 
New York— Prof^pects of Peace — The Negotiations at Ghent — 
The Congress at Vienna— A National Day of Fasting and 
Prayer — Longing for Peace, pp. 440-450. 

CHAPTER LIL— Colonel BogarduB in Command at New York— 
Presentalion to General Brown by the City — Salutes for Victory at 
New Orleans — Treaty of Peace Arrives— Demonstrations of Joy in 
New York — Salutes From the Forts— Action of the Common 
Council— Preparations for a Grand Celebration, pp. 451-466. 

CHAPTER LIIL— The Treaty and President's Proclamation Ar- 
rives — Newspaper Enterprise— Common Council Designates 22d 
February for the Celebration — Political Prejudices Prevail— 
Washington Benevolent Society Dinner and Toasts — City Cele- 
bration Postponed— Celebration in the Suhurls— Military Cele- 
bration—Governor Tompkins* Announcement to the Militia- 
Commodore Decatur is Paroled— Grand Celebration Expected, 
pp. 467-482. 



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CONTENTS OF VOL 11. 



CHAPTER LIV.— Cilj Celebration of Peace— Public and Private 
II luminatioDs— Grand Display of Fireworks— Statements of Eye 
Witnesses— Transparencies Emblematic, Allegorical and Patriotic 
—Those at City Hall- Fireworks at the Oovernment House- 
Transparencies and Paintings Upon All Kinds of Buildings, Pub- 
lic and Private, pp. 488-494. 

CHAPTER LV.— Terms of the Treaty— Negotiations at Ghent- 
Congress at Vienna— European Diplomacy— Effect of the Treaty 
in Europe and America— Origin of .the Monroe Doctrine— Last 
Hostile Gun Fired in the War— Last Capture at Sea — President's 
Address on Disbanding the Army — Dramatic Part by New York 
City in the War — Concluding Remarks, pp. 495-500. 



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APPENDIX OF NOTESy PP. 511-569. 

NOTE I.— List oT City Officers, 1814-15, p. 511. 

NOPE II.— List of Baokaand Baok Officers, 1812-15. p. 512-514. 

NOTE III. — Names of Taxpayers and Amount of Personal Prop- 
erty Over $5,000, 1815, pp. 514-526. 

NOTE IV.— List of Privateers from New York City, 181*3-15, pp. 
527-582. 

NOTE v.— List of Captured Vessels Brought to New York City, 
1812-15. pp. 58!WW5. 

NOTE VI.— General Swift's Report on Fortifications in 1814. etc. , 
pp. 535-544. 

NOTE VIL— Final Report of Committee of Defence, pp. 544-551. 

NOTE VIII.— Some Military Orders and Regulations, New York 
and New Jersey, p. 552-564. 

NOTE IX.— The Muster Rolls of Soldiers That Served in the 
War, pp. 564-569. 

INDEX OF TOPICS. 



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CHAPTER XXII. 

Gloomy Prospects for the Wioter of 1813-14— High Prices— Action 
of the Fuel AssociatioQ — Special Election of Member of Congress 
— Charitable Objects— Action of the Washington Benevolent 
Society — Action of the Common Council — Church Donations 
and Contributions. 

j^^'^l'- z^r N HILE the winter was at hand there were 
no fears of an attack along the sea- 
board, yet many thought of the pros- 
pects for the coming year with dread 
and apprehension. The outlook was 
anything but cheerful. Our military 
affairs so far were very discouraging. 
Little or no progress had been made 
by conquest, the offer for negotiations for peace 
had not been well received by the enemy, and had 
been declined. 

In the President's message to Congress on the 7th 
of December, he clearly stated the situation. He 
said: **The British Cabinet, either mistaking our 
desire of peace for a dread of British power, or 
misled by other fallacious calculations, has disap- 
pointed this reasonable anticipation. No commu- 
nication from our envoys having reached us, no in- 
formation on the subject has been received from that 
source. But it is known that the mediation was 
declined in the first instance, and there is no evi- 
dence, notwithstanding the lapse of time, that a 



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GLOOMY PROSPECTS AHEAD, 



change of disposition in the British councils has 
taken place, or is to be expected. 

^^ Under such circumstances, a nation proud of 
its rights and conscious of its strength has no 
choice but an exertion of the one in support of the 
other." 

In fact, the only notice taken by the enemy of 
any offer to negotiate for terms of peace was to 
decline to accept the offer of the Emperor of Russia 
to act as a mediator in the matter. 

Merchandise and the necessities of life were be- 
coming higher, and the means of conveyance 
was greatly narrowed, particularly at the seaports 
and on the coast and along the water-ways. The 
supply from privateers was almost the only source 
for obtaining imported articles. Retail dealers 
were principally supplied by auction sales, where 
each one could get such goods at such price as he 
thought he could retail at a profit. There was 
really no fixed price for anything. When goods 
were purchased at auction they were retailed at a 
reasonable profit only so long as the price at future 
auctions remained nearly the same. If the auction 
price was up or down, the retailer must follow the 
prices paid by others, or keep his stock on hand if 
the price was lower than what he was willing to 
sell at. If higher than he paid, he would mark his 
goods up to coiTespond with the prices that others 
could afford to sell at. The embargo had enhanced 
imported ai'ticles, while home agricultural produc- 
tions were much lower, which was caused by a less 
demand of the latter for exportation. 

The Federalists widely circulated the following 
statement, entitled, *^Mr. Madison's Christmas 



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HIGH PRICKS. 



Box for Farmers ; or, Crumbs of Comfort Growing 
Out of the Embargo " : 

*^ The farmer who brings his produce to market 
in the best order, and under an approved inspec- 
tion, will be able to barter it on the following 
terms : 

*' For ten barrels of superfine flour he may receive 
one bag of coffee (one hundred pounds). 

^^ For one barrel of flour, one pound and a half of 
tea. 

* ' For nine barrels of flour, one hundred pounds 
of brown sugar. 

*' For one barrel, two gallons of molasses. 

'* For one barrel, one bushel of salt." 

This comparison of merchandise was calculated 
for the latitude of Philadelphia, and of flour at the 
farm, without cost of delivery. At New York, Bos- 
ton or Baltimore prices might be more or less than 
at Philadelphia. For instance, in September, 1813, 
flour was $11.87 in Boston, $8.50 in New York, 
$7.50 in Philadelphia, and $6 in Baltimore. Coffee 
was $2 1 in Boston and New York, and $25 in Bal- 
timore. Tea was $1.75 in New York and Boston, 
and $1.9^ in Baltimore, $3 in Savannah. Brown 
sugar was $18.75 in Boston, $22 in New York, and 
$26.50 in Baltimore. A bushel of salt was sixty- 
two and a half cents in Boston, sixty-five cents in 
New York, $1.10 in Philadelphia, and $1.25 in Bal- 
timore Molasses was eighty-four cents per gallon 
in Boston, ninety- four cents in New York, $1.10 in 
Philadelphia, and $1.15 in Baltimore. Pork was 
$27 in Boston, $21.50 in New York, $17.60 in Phila- 
delphia, and $21 in Baltimore. 

Combinations were many for the purpose of put- 



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M0N0P0LIK8 ARISE. 



ting up prices of the necessities of life. The Colum- 
hiauy of December 1st, said: ** Among the variety 
of monopolies to which the exigencies of the times 
have given rise, such as those of butter, groceries 
and other essential conveniences of life, and to those 
we have heard the article of leather added, none has 
excited more serious alarm with many citizens than 
a report of the forestalling of wood on the banks of 
the Hudson, which was mentioned some time ago. 
From the want of our usual supply of coal from 
Europe and Virginia, an additional quantity of 
wood is required for our winter's consimaption. A 
species of turf has been tried, but with partial suc- 
cess. Notwithstanding the remarkably warm and 
open weather we have had till the present advanced 
state of the season, firewood has maintained the 
enormous price of about three dollars for a load of 
oak, and four dollars for hickory, which, at two 
and one-half loads to the country cord, will make 
$7.50 for the former and $10 for the latter, exclu- 
sive of the charge for carting, etc. At the same 
time a great proportion of our citizens have delayed 
procuring their winter's stock, which must raise the 
price still higher, if not prevented by the arrival of 
immense quantities, w^hen they finally purchase 
their supply. Under these circumstances, the situ- 
ation of the indigent through the winter may be an- 
ticipated with the most painful sensations. The 
corporation are expected to pay liberal attention to 
the suffering poor, and private charity will be 
strongly excited in their behalf." 

A cord of wood was eight feet long, four feet 
high, and four feet wide ; each stick was four feet 
long and might be large or small. It was usually 



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FUEL ASSOCIATION. 



cut once for fire-places and cut twice for stoves. It 
was brought raostly from the north side of Long 
Island and from the Hudson River counties. 

On the evening of the 22d of December a meet- 
ing of citizens was held at the City Hotel for the 
purpose of furnishing and distributing fuel to the 
suffering poor in the city. A general committee of 
one person in each ward was appointed to receive 
donations and purchase fuel, and a sub-committee 
of two in each ward was appointed to ascertain 
those in need of relief and give orders to general 
committee to furnish the fuel. 

The Fuel Association, as it was called, held stated 
meetings frequently. They were usually at John 
M. Coleman's, No. 41 Nassau Street. At a meeting 
held on December 31, 1813, it was reported that 
the general committee from each ward were : Ist, 
Joshua Jones ; 2d, Garret Van Waggenen ; 3d, 
Ebenezer J. White ; 4th, Richard Cunningham ; 5th, 
Benjamin Strong ; 6th, Clarkson Crohus ; 7th, Wil- 
liam B. Crosby ; 8th, Aquilla Giles ; 9th, George 
Gossman ; 10th, Samuel Stillwell • at large, Leonard 
Bleecker and J. H. Coggshall. 

The ward committees were : 1st, John V. B. 
Varick, Jerome Johnson, Samuel Tooker, Jacob 
Sherred ; 2d, Thomas Carpenter, Richard R. Law- 
rence, Eliphalet Williams, John Adams, Isaac 
Carow, Joseph Riley ; 3d, Andrew S. Norwood, 
John P. Mumford, Ruf us L. Nevins, Pelatiah Perit, 
Benjamin Taylor, Nathan Smith ; 4th, Abraham 
Barker, Sylvanous F. Jenkins, John Brown, Edward 
Prolyn, John Westervelt, Thomas Cotterell; 6th, 
John Morss, Thomas Franklin, James Lovett, Wm. 
Buchan, Grove Wright, George Ennis, Roger 



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ELECTION OF CONGRESSMAN, 



Strong; 6th, Anthony Steinback, John Baker, 
James Scott, James Nelson ; 7th, John Wellington, 
Isaac Doughty, Whitehead Hicks, Wm. Bran ; 8th, 
Thomas Masters, Thomas C. Butler, Ebenezer 
Clark, Edmund Kirby ; 9th, Samuel A. Lawrence, 
Gerard De Peyster, Gerard Beekman ; 10th, Stephen 
Allen, John 0. Totten, Amos Clark, Solomon 
Wheeler. The chairman was Leonard Bleecker ; 
the secretary was J. H. Coggeshall. 

The amount of moneys collected by the Fuel As- 
sociation was $4,566.57 and ten loads of wood from 
Frederick De Peyster. The final report, made in 
March, shows that 1,315 loads of wood were distrib- 
uted to about three thousand places. The cost of 
the wood was $3.25 per load. 

The winter of 1813-14 was very mild. Steamboats 
on the Hudson between Albany and New York did 
not cease to run until the 23d of December. Sloop 
navigation below West Point kept up much later. 

Christmas Day, which fell on Saturday that year, 
was not kept as a day for religious observances. 
Saturday had previously been the off-night of the 
theatres, but both of them had performances on that 
evening for the first time during the season. The 
Naval Panorama and Scudder's Museum were open 
during the day and evening.* 

On the 28th of December, 1813, a special election 
was held under the law of April 6, 1813, for a re- 
presentative in Congress in place of Egbert Benson, 
who had resigned. The candidates were WiUiam 
Irving, Democrat, and Peter A. Jay, Federalist. 
Mr. Lrving was elected by a majority of 376 votes. 

* There was no Thanksg^viDg Day kept in 1818, as it had not 
yet become the custom in the State of New York. 



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DEMOCRATIC GAIN, 



The majorities by wards were : 

Federal. 
84 
60 



3d Ward, 

4th '' 

5th '' 

6th '' 

7th " 

8th " 

9th '' 

10th '' 



Democrat, 



14 



40 



214 

59 
212 

89 



Total Democratic majority, 
'' Federalist 



Democratic majority, 



574 
198 



376 



That Congressional District comprised the city of 
New York, excepting the 1st and 2d Wards. It was 
under the apportionment law of June 10th, 1812.* 

The Evening Post said of the election: * * Although 
it will be seen from this statement that the Demo- 
cratic candidate has prevailed, yet there has been a 
change in favor of peace and commerce since the 
charter election of November, of about foiu* hundred 
votes. * * * We have been defrauded 
out of this election by gerrymandering the dis- 
trict." 

Whether this statement was true or not, the com- 
parison can be easily made, as an account of the 
charter election has already been given. 

That election was some indication how the 
people in New York City felt about continuing the 

* For descriptiOQ of New York City CoDgressional Districts at 
' hat time, see Vol. I., p. 288. 



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8 NEW TEA1V8 ADDRE88. 

war. The total number of votes cast on that occa- 
sion was not made public. The result of the elec- 
tion was quite a surprise to the Federalists. Mr. 
Irving was a brother of Washington Irving, the em- 
inent author. 

A notable literary event of the season was the 
publication of a "New Year's Carrier's Address " to 
the patrons and friends of a weekly publication 
called The War, which was edited and owned by 
Samuel Woodworth, who afterwards became the fa- 
mous- author of "The Old Oaken Bucket." It 
briefly reheai'sed in rhyme the principal events of 
the war during the year. It is a " broadside," one 
foot and a half long by one foot wide ; the matter 
is in three qolumns of ordinary size type. It is ap- 
propriately divided by choruses, which are made 
for tunes mentioned as they are reached. The first 
chorus is to the tune of " Ye Tars of Columbia ; " 
the next is " Vive La ; " then " Battle of the Nile ; 
then " Anacreon in Heaven ; " then, " Arethusa." 
" Yankee Doodle " is the chorus to Perry's victory, 
as follows : 

" Still upon the lake or main 
We carry all bef oi^e us. 
Freemen join the merry strain. 
The Yankee Doodle chorus." 

The name of the writer does not appear, but it was 
known to be Mr. Woodworth.* 

No newspapers were published on the first day of 
the year. 

A few days after the first of January, the Daily 

♦ This is the earliest Carrier's Address in New York that I have 
ever seen, and hence have been particular in describing it. 



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BKNEVOLENT ASSOCIATIONS, 



Gazette and General Advertiser, a New York morn- 
ing daily paper, a Federalist, though professing to 
be neutral, had a '^ Carrier's Address " of its own 
published in its columns, and claimed to give a irtie 
review of the old year. 
The address begins as follows : 

** Our newsboat now no longer trips 

To meet the richly laden ships. 

And bring us news from foreign lands 

Of Bonaparte's warlike bands 

Being * teazed and scratched ' by that commander. 

Old Long Tom's Wirtuous Alexander.' 

For Navigation now is dead, 

Dull, sleepy Commerce gone to bed, 

And we are making Indian fights 

That * sailors may enjoy their rights ' 

Under our marine head ; therefore. 

Instead of large ships, many a score, 

A few small schooners now are found. 

With smacks and chebac boats *down Sound.' 

But though we columns can't display 

Of cheering ship news eveiy day. 

Yet days sail swiftly — time steers true ; 

He never reefs, nor yet lies to ; 

And by his log-book now 'tis seen 

We've entered latitude Fourteen,^^ 

* * * * * 

Whatever the prospects of the distant future were, 
immediate relief to the poor and needy was indis- 
pensable at the then condition of many citizens. 

The poor and needy at home in the city of New 
York were remembered and cared for by many 
private acts of benevolence. Concerts and public 



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10 WASHINQTON BENEVOLENT SOCIETY, 

entertainments were given, and the proceeds de- 
voted to charitable objects. 

The Washington Benevolent Society held a meet- 
ing at Washington Hall on the evening of January 
5th, and unanimously adopted the following pream- 
ble and resolutions : 

*'As the sufferings of the poorer classes of our 
citizens for the want of many of the necessaries of 
life, particularly of fuel at this inclement season, 
are, in consequence of the war, multiplied beyond 
those of any former period, and as the funds appro- 
priated to charitable purposes by this society will 
be, unless increased by the beneficence of the rich^ 
inadequate to the extension of such ample relief to 
the poorer members and their families as their ne- 
cessities require and the constitution of the society 
contemplates ; therefore, 

^^ Resolved, That a general committee, consisting 
of one person from each ward, be appointed to 
solicit and receive donations, and to appropriate 
them for the relief of indigent members of this 
society. 

'^ Resolved, That John Shdell, James Turk, Josiah 
Sturges, Leonard Fisher, Charles Stuart, Daniel E. 
Tylee, James Smith, Thomas C. Butler, William A. 
Hardenbrook and Cornelius Schuyler compose the 
said general committee, and that they be author- 
ized to increase their number by adding two mem- 
bers from each of the wards." — Extract from the 
minutes, Isaac M. Ely, Secretary. 

The ward committees subsequently added, to 
whom applications were to be made for relief by 
residents in the several wards, were : 1st, John 
Slidell, Gould Hoyt; 2d, James Turk, WiUiam 



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TAMMANY SOCIETY. H 

Wallace, Elijah Humphries ; 3d, Josiah Sturges, 
Isaac Stoutenburgh, Nathaniel Griffith ; 4th, Leon- 
ard Fisher, Thos. R. Mercein, Neheraiah Allen ; 5th, 
Charles Stewart, John B. Murray, Thos. Darling ; 
6th, Daniel E. Tylee, Lewis Angevine, John Mc- 
Clure ; 7th, John Rook, Seal N. Lewis, Nevington 
Grenard; filth, Thos. C. Butler, Edmund Kirby, 
James Wallace ; 9th, WilUam A. Hardenbrook, 
Thos. 0. Taylor, William Wilmerding ; 10th, Solo- 
mon Wheeler, Cornelius Schuyler, Stephen Kings- 
land. 

Although Tammany Society was claimed to be a 
benevolent institution, it does not apper that any 
action was taken by that body to help its members, 
but prominent members of that society were active 
in deeds of charity without regard to political 
opinions. 

The Common Council gave their official aid. On 
the 24th of January they voted an appropriation 
from the city treasury of $2,000, $100 of such sum 
to be placed in hands of each alderman and assistant 
alderman in each of the ten wards, to be distributed 
by such alderman and assistant alderman to aid the 
poor and needy in his ward. This was very accept- 
able to many who had felt the rigors of war in 
many ways. 

Neither were the suflferings and needs of more dis- 
tant neighbors forgotten. On the 22d of December 
a very destructive ffre occurred in Portsmouth, N. 
H., which was then an important naval station. A 
meeting of citizens was called at Tontine Coffee 
House on January 19th, and a committee appointed 
to receive contributions. The committee consisted 
of Matthew Clarkson, Oliver Wolcott, William 



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12 CHURCH CONTRIBUTIONS 

Bayard, Robert Lenox, David B. Ogden, and Charles 
March. 

The committee received $4,064.20 which they 
forwarded on February 13th to the sufferers in 
Portsmouth. The following were the sources of the 
donation. 

From the Episcopal Churches, . . $1,406 40 
St. Peter's Roman Catholic, . . 645 50 
Presbyterian Church in Chamber 

Street (Rev. Mr. McLeod), ... 100 00 
Presbyterian Church in Murray Street 

(Rev. Dr. Mason), ... 450 00 
Presbyterian Church in Cedar Street 

(Rev. Dr. Romeyn), ... 388 50 
Brick Presbyterian Church (Rev. Mr. 

Spring), 

Presbyterian Church in Wall Street, 
Presbyterian Church in Rutgers 

Street, . . 
Methodist Churches, 
Baptist Church in Fayette Street 

(Rev. Mr. Williams), 
Baptist Church in Mulberry Street 

(Rev. Mr. McClay), 
Moravian Church (Rev. Mr. Mortimer) 
Society of Friends, 
Mr. T. Everett, Brooklyn, 

Total, $4,064 20 

An appeal for aid came from the sufferers on the 
Niagara frontier, about the middle of January.* 

* In the latter part of the month of December, 1818, in the 
midst of a very severe winter, the whole Niagara frontier on 
the American side, from Fort Niagara to Buffalo, a distance of 



173 00 


147 00 


106 00 


224 60 


85 00 


50 00 


36 00 


206 00 


40 00 



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NIAGARA FRONTIER SUFFERS. 13 

On the 24:th of January, 1814, at a meeting of the 
Common Council, a letter from the Committee of 
Safety and Relief at Canandaigua, addressed to the 
Mayor of New York, asking for aid for the sufferers 
on the Niagara frontier was read, and the following 
resolutions were offered by Josiah Ogden Hoffman, 
the recorder, upon which he delivered an eloquent 
and touching address. He was regarded as one of 
the most elequent men of that day. 

^' Whereas, it appears from a communication ad- 
dressed to the Mayor of this city, that the most 
calamitous events have occurred on the Western 
frontier of this State, whereby an extensive country 
has been depopulated, and thousands of our fellow- 
citizens have been driven from their habitations, 
destitute of the necessaries of life and exposed to 
the rigors of the season and to all the privations 
and evils of poverty ; and it being incumbent on us 
at all times to himible ourselves before the Almighty 
to supplicate His mercy, and more especially at the 
present time to pray that the calamities which afflict 
our country may be removed, and that those which 
menace us may be averted. It is therefore 

^^ Resolved, That Wednesday the second day of 



forty miles, and far into the interior, was swept by the British 
and Indians. Six villages — Fort Niagara, Lewiston, Schlosser, 
Tusc€irora, Blacls Rock and Buffalo — and many isolated country 
houses and four vessels were consumed, the butchery of in- 
nocent persons, and the survivors were made to fly in terror 
through the deep snow to some forest shelter or remote cabin of 
a settler far beyond the mvaders' track. In a letter written 
from Le Roy. a village ten miles east of Buffalo, in Genesee 
County, on the 6th of January, 1814, the writer says: '* I met be- 
tween Cayuga and this place upward of one hundred families 
in wagons, sleds and sleighs, many of them with nothing: but 
what they had on their backs, aor could they find places to stay 
at." 



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14 APPROPRIATION AND DONATIONS, 

February next be set apart as a day of fasting, 
humiliation and prayer, and the people of the city 
are requested to abstain from all business and labor 
on that day, and to assemble in their respective 
places of worship and devote themselves with hum- 
ble and contrite hearts to the oflBces of religion, and 
to those devotional exercises which are suitable to 
an occasion so solemn, and at a crisis so important 
to the well-being of our country. 

^^Resolvedy That the smn of three thousand dollars 
be and is hereby appropriated out of the city treas - 
ury towards the relief of our brethren of the West. 
That it is respectfully recommended to the different 
religious congregations of this city to cause collec- 
tions to be made for the same purpose in their re- 
spective churches on the day above set apart as a 
day of fasting, humiliation and prayer, and to de- 
posit the same with the Mayor of this city, who is 
hereby requested to transmit such contributions, 
together with this donation, to the Committee of 
Safety and Relief at Canandaigua, to be expended 
under their direction for the benefit of the sufferei-s 
on our Western frontier." 

These resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Collections were taken up from time to time in 
the churches here for the same purpose, and private 
subscriptions were liberally made. On the 14th of 
February, 1814, it was reported to the Common 
Council that the Churches had raised $1,285.94, and 
that private subscriptions amounted to $3,023, and 
that the $3,000 appropiiated by the city had all 
been paid over to the Committee of Safety and Re- 
lief at Canandaigua, for the sufferers of the West- 
ern border. In May private contributions for the 



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INDIGNANT CLERQ TMEN 15 

^ame purpose, to the amount of $2,200, were for- 
warded for the Niagara sufferers. 

A notable occurrence took place in regard to the 
action of the Common Council in regard to the 
Niagara sufferers. On January 28th a meeting of 
the Protestant clergy of the different denominations, 
excepting the bishops and clergy of the Episcop^d 
Church, was held at the Brick Church for the pur- 
pose of considering the recommendation of the 
Common Council in their resolution of January 
24th to observe the 2d day of February as a day 
of fasting, humiliation and prayer on account es- 
pecially of the distressing events which had recently 
occurred on the western frontier of this State. 
The Rev. Dr. Alexander McLeod was called to the 
chair. The deUberations of the meeting resulted 
in the following resolutions : 

^^ Resolved f That the clergy present see, with 
great satisfaction, the testimony borne by the Hon- 
orable the Corporation of the City of New York, in 
their act of the 24th inst., to the government of 
God and to His righteousness in afflicting our nation 
for its sins ; and they do now, as always heretofore, 
receive with the most unfeigned respect, the recom- 
mendation of their civil rulera to acknowledge extra- 
ordinary visitations of Divine Providence by such 
extraordinary expressions of public devotion as the 
occasion requires. 

^^ Resolved, That it would have given the clergy 
present the sincerest pleasure to have seconded with 
their best efforts the recommendation of the Honor- 
able the Common Council to observe Wednesday, the 
2d of February next, as a day of fasting, humiliation 



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16 CUT COUNCIL REPROVED. 

and prayer, had it comported with their conviction 
of duty ; and that they deeply regret the suddenness 
and surprise with which that recommendation came 
upon them, having never heard of it before it was 
announced in the pubHc prints ; and that they 
especially regret the necessity which they feel of 
differing in their judgment from that honorable 
body as to the immediate duty of the citizens of 
New York ; not being able to perceive that a distant 
local calamity, however severe, creates any peculiar 
obligation to observe a day of local fasting and 
humiliation in a spot at the opposite extremity of the 
State — more particularly as such obsei-vance tends 
to confound the distinction between general or par- 
tial afflictions, as laying a foundation for general or 
partial fasts — and as this city, in common with the 
whole nation, was recently engaged in solemn 
humiliation before Gk)d, on account of the existing 
war whereof the distressing events of the frontier 
are a part. 

''Resolved, That the Rev. Dr. McLeod, the Rev. 
Dr. Mason and the Rev. Dr. Mathews be a commit- 
tee on the part of this assembly to wait on his 
Honor, the Mayor, and in the most respectful 
manner to acquaint him with their declining to 
comply with tlie recommendation of the Honorable, 
the Corporation in their resolution of the 24th inst., 
and present him with a copy of the foregoing reso- 
lutions, with a request that he will be pleased to 
lay them before the Honorable Common Council at 
as early an hour as possible. 

'^ Resolved J That the committee aforesaid cause 
the proceedings of this meeting to be published, if 



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KIND PUBLIO FEELING. 17 

after their interview with his Honor the Mayor 
they shall deem it advisable. 

"Alex. McLeod, Chairman. 

*^ J. M. Mason, Secretary.'' 

No further notice was taken of the recommenda- 
tion of the Common Council above referred to. 

We must observe with admiration that amid the 
holiday season, while all felt the stringency and 
gloom of the circumstances, the more fortunate 
were not unmindful of the sick and poor and less 
fortunate among their fellow-countrymen. 



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CHAPTER XXm. 

Views of Political Parties — Effect of Napoleon's CampaigD of 1818 — 
Hopes of Peace — Public Feeling — Dinner to Commoiiore Chaun- 
cey at Washington Hall — Dinner to Commodore Rodgers al 
Tammany Hall— Running the Blockade. 



HE true situation of the contending na- 
tions in Europe which resulted from the 
campaign of 1813, was so little knuwn 
by the people that it had as yet (Janu- 
ary, 1814) no perceptible effect either to 
discourage or encourage the friends and 
well-wishers of Napoleon in America. They were 
still hopeful, and believed in his ultimate success. 

The Democrats affected to believe, and earnestly 
proclaimed, that the success or defeat of Napoleon 
by the allies would have no perceptible effect upon 
the settlement of the questions with England, upon 
which the alleged causes of the American war was 
based. 

The Federalists asserted that the overthrow of 
Napoleon meant for us a speedy peace with Eng- 
land, and that, with peace in Europe, the questions 
which it was claimed were the causes of the Ameri- 
can war would not arise with England, as they 
would thereby be removed. 

The Federal Republican (Baltimore , of January 
3, 1814, contained the following : 



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BAD NEWS FROM EUROPE. 1^ 

"Nothing decisive will be done by our govern- 
ment towards an accommodation with Great Britain 
until Mr. Madison is satisfied that the power ol 
France is at an end. Whenever he is so satisfied,, 
we have no doubt a treaty of amity and commerce 
will be negotiated with Great Britain. France 
forced us into this war, and while she is able to ap- 
ply the force to keep us in it, there is no hope of our 
getting out of it." 

It was not until the authentic intelligence ar- 
rived of the evacuation of Dresden and the defeat of 
Napoleon by the allies at the battle of Leipsic, in 
October, 1813, that it was seen that it resulted in 
the practical deliverance of Germany from the do- 
minion of France, and placed the German States 
among the allies against Napoleon. At the same 
time an almost total overthrow of the French 
domination in Italy took place. 

The victories of Wellington in the Peninsula dur- 
ing the campaign of 1813 were such that Spain was 
free from the armies of France. Napoleon had has- 
tened to Paris to prepare to resist the dreaded inva- 
sion of the allies, and found his people weakened, 
discom'aged, and no longer wilUng to continue a 
military hfe devoid of victory and glory. 

Relating to the result of the campaign of 1813 in 
the European wars, and its effect on Napoleon, Alli- 
son says: '*The vast and splendid fabric of the 
French Empire had disappeared like a dream ; its 
external influence, its foreign alliances, had van- 
ished ; the Uberated nations of Europe, amid shouts 
of triumph and songs of congratulation, were crowd- 
ing in arms to overwhelm its remains." 

The thoughtful and intelligent saw that the effect 



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20 PROSPECTS OF PEACE. 

of these important changes in Europe would un- 
doubtedly cause very marked efforts of the British 
in the conduct of the war in America, as Great 
Britain had now become more secure at home, and 
'Could divert her large land and naval forces to the 
American campaign. 

The arrival of a British vessel at Annapolis, with 
a flag of truce, caused great rejoicing, particularly 
as it was supposed to propose peace or an armistice 
preliminary thereto. This intelligence did not ar- 
rive in New York until January 4th. 

On January 10th it was reported that the British 
government had offered to negotiate at Gottenburgh 
or London direct with American commissioners. 

The Columbian said : 

^' Peace is the order of the day at present. Spec- 
ulation is flat and almost dead. This morning 
sugar sold for from $18 to $20 per hundred ; coffee, 
$20 to $23; lump sugar, $30; h skin tea, $1.50; 
hyson, $1.37 ; bohea, 96 cents. How long the fit 
will hold is not possible to know." 

Governor Tompkins' message (speech) to the New 
York Legislature on the 25th of January gave little 
hope for a suspension of hostilities. It refeiTed to 
the proposition of the Prince Regent for transferring 
the place of negotiations to London or Gottenburgh, 
and said, "It is hoped that the contemplated ne- 
gotiation may result in the conclusion of an honor- 
able and lasting peace. But we must consider that 
pacific conferences are greatly procrastinated by the 
proposed change of the place of treating. ... If 
the late proposition has proceeded from a willing- 
ness to restore amity, upon principles which may be 
.mutual and consistent with the established maxims 



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HOLIDAY FESTIVITIES. 21 

of public law, the impending conferences will, very 
probably, eventuate propitiously. But we ought 
not to permit the hope of that result to lull us into a 
fatal security, for it may be that we must ultimate- 
ly depend upon an unanimouSy vigorous and sttccess- 
fvl prosecution of the unavoidable contest in which 
we are involved, for the establishment and security 
of oxir just rights." 

The state of public feeling made the festivities of 
the hoUday season less numerous than formerly. 

The Common Council did not attempt to give anjr 
more public dinners to any of the prominent military 
and naval oflScers, as was done the previous season.. 
After that time the dinners and entertainments 
partook strongly of political party action, in which 
the Federalists were led by the Washington Benevo- 
lent Society and their entertainments at Washing- 
ton Hall. The Democrats were led by Tammany 
Society, and their entertainments were mostly at 
Tammany Hall. 

Maj.-Gen. Dearborn had taken up his headquar- 
ters comer of State and Bridge Streets, in a large 
and commodious house, where he entertained liber- 
ally and elegantly up to a few days before the com- 
mencement of the new year. He took his departure- 
for Albany to preside at the court-martial trial of 
Gten. Hull, which convened on Monday, the 3d 
of January. The absence of many military oflScers 
from New York also had a similar effect. The^ 
notable entertainments were confined principally to- 
naval heroes. In a former chapter is given an ac- 
count of the dinner to Maj.-Gen. Harrison, which 
took place at Tammany Hall, on December 1st, and 
the dinner to Commodore Bainbridge, at Washing- 



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^^2 DINNER TO COMMODORE CRATJNCET, 

ton Hall, on December Sth, apnd the dinner to Com- 
modore Perry, at Tammany Hall, on January 11th. 

A naval dinner wets given to Commodore Chaun- 
cey at Wafihington Hall, on the 5th of February. 
It was without any previous announcement in the 
newspapers. 

The Mercardile Advertiser said the dinner was 
^ven on Sunday, 6th ; the Daily Oaestte said it was 
on Saturday ; the Evening Posty the Columbian and 
the Commercial Advertiser said it was on Friday. 
The National Advocate did not mention it at all. 

Commodore Chauncey was then commander of 
the United States naval forces on the Lakes Cham- 
plain, Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, etc. His 
headquarters wOTe at Sackett's Harbor; on I^^ake On- 
tario, where he contemplated active operations in 
the Spring, and he was on his way there, on his 
return from Washington, when this dinner was 
given him in New York. 

At that dinner it was said there were about three 
hundred and fifty guests. Richard Vanck was 
president. The vice-presidents were Gten. Morton> 
John T. Champlin, John Hone aAd David A. Ogden. 
The Mayor, the Recorder, and several naval officers 
were present. 

Commodore Chawmcey's toast was : **3%€ Citi- 
zms of New York. — Celebrated for their hospitality^ 
May ihej always possess the meana to gratify their 
wishes." 

The toast' to the Commodore was by Mr. Vorick : 
**' Our Chiest. — The gallant Commodore Chauneey«" 

The usual number of Federal toasts (tbirteeiab) 
were given. The volunteer toasts were by Qen. 
Morton, John T. Champlin, John Hone> David A. 



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RUNNING TEH BLOCKADE. 23 



Ogden, De Witt Clinton, Josiah Ogden Hoffman, 
Col. John Swartwout, Mr. Willink, the president of 
the Holland Society. 

Commodore Chauncey left New York on the 15th 
of February for Sackett's Harbor, with one hun- 
dred seamen for the fleet there. 

The embargo laws and the blockade had the effect 
of making the port of New York very quiet. In 
the fore part of the year 1814 there were few occur- 
rences of interest along the coast. 

On the evening of the 18th of February the Presi- 
dent, in command of Commodore Rodgers, on a re- 
turn cruise of seventy-five days, run the British 
blockade off Sandy Hook and entered New York 
harbor. The blockading squadron then consisted of 
three sliips of war. The Plantagenet, seventy- four 
(Captain Lloyd), was the nearest, and Commodore 
Rodgers expected a brush with them and cleared his 
^ip for action. He fired a gun to windward as a 
proof of his willingness to fight, but he was not 
molested. It gaused much comment at the time — 
favorable to Commodore Rodgers. 

The following extract from a letter, dated Febru- 
ary 22, 1814, from an officer of the President tp 
his friend in Providence, details the affair : 

'•Situations in which we have been placed this 
cruise will, I think, add luster to the well-established 
character of Qoipmodore Rodgers. 

*' After passiing the light (Sandy Hook), saw; sev- 
eral sail, one large sail to the windward, backed our 
maintop sail and cleared for action. The strange 
sail came down wi|;hin gunshot, hauled her wind on 
the larboard tack. We con^inued^ with our Qiain- 
topsail to the mast three hours, and seeing no prob- 



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24 COMMODORB R0DQER8 ARRIVES, 

ability of the seventy-four gunship's bearing down 
to engage the President, gave her a shot to wind- 
ward and hoisted our colors, when she bore up for 
us reluctantly ; when within half a gunshot, backed 
his raaintopsail. At this moment all hands were 
called to muster aft, and the Commodore said a few 
but impressive words, though it was unnecessary, 
for what other stimulant could true Americans 
want than fighting gloriously in sight of their na- 
tive shore, where hundreds were assembled to wit- 
ness the engagement ? Wore ship to engage, but 
at this moment the cutter being discovered off, 
backed again to take in the pilot, and the British 
seventy-four (strange as it must appear) making 
sail to the southward and eastward. Orders were 
given to haul aboard the fore and main tacks to run 
in, there being then in sight from our deck a frigate 
and a gun- brig. 

'* The commander of the seventy-four had it in 
his power for five hours to bring us at any moment 
to an engagement ; our maintopsail to the mast 
diuring that time." 

The circumstances were not understood rmtil some 
months after. On returning to England Capt. Lloyd 
called for a court of inquiry, and excused himself 
by alleging a mutiny in his ship, and on that charge 
several of the seamen were executed. 

The President had to wait seven hours and a half 
for the tide to rise at Sandy Hook before she could 
sail over the sandbar, which she did about 5 p.m. 
The frigate Loirey of thirty-eight guns, and a 
schooner, besides the Plantagenet, composed the 
blockading squadron at that time. 

The policy of the President then entering the 



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DINNER TO COMMODORE RODGERS. 25 



harbor of New York, under the circumstances, might 
well be questioned. The Commodore might have 
continued his cruise or entered an American port 
that was not blockaded. When once in New York 
harbor he was effectually ** bottled up," and must 
stay there, virtually out of the service, or at most, 
only a further means of guarding the entrance at 
Sandy Hook bar, and to get out must run the block- 
ade at favorable wind and high tide in the face of 
the enemy who kept watch of her. It will be re- 
membered that she was rated as a forty-four gun- 
ship, and her actual metal was fifty-four guns, and 
her force was about four hundred and twenty men. 
This was a great addition to the force at New York. 
It was usual at that time when our war vessels 
passed inside Sandy Hook to come to anchor near 
there. The President anchored near the lighthouse 
inside the Hook. From that point they were safe 
from molestation by the enemy, unless there was a 
concerted attack and siege of New York. A large 
part of her force could be made available in the 
harbor defences and in the land fortifications in 
case of an attack. She remained there until the 
next January, as will more fully appear, and her 
presence may have been of weight enough to have 
warded off the contemplated attack on New York in 
the summer of 1814, and to have diverted the enemy 
to Baltimore and Washington, because they were 
less protected. 

A dinner and entertainment was given to Com- 
modore Rodgers at Tammany Hall by citizens 
(members of Tammany Society and their friends) on 
the afternoon of March 7th. Tickets for the dinner 
could be had at the bar of Tammany Hall, and of 



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26 COMMODORE RODQERS' TOAST. 

either of the following gentlemen : John L. Broome, 
Edward H. Nicoll, John B. Tredwell, John Rodman, 
Henry W. Bool, John Ferguson, Benjamin Bailey. 

About three hundred and fifty guests were present, 
among them Captains Evans and Trenchard, of the 
Navy ; Commodore Jacob Lewis and the lieuten- 
ants, surgeon, chaplain and purser of the frigate 
President. Many shipmasters were present They 
sat down at five o'clcok. Walter Bo wne was presi- 
dent. Fred Jenkins, Wm. H. Ireland, W. Fish, 
Augustus Wright and Alderman Buchmaster were 
vice-presidents. The usual niunber of Democratic 
toasts were given. Commodore Rodgers' toast was : 
*' Peace, if it can be obtained without the sacrifice 
of national honor, or the abandonment of maritime 
rights ; otherwise, war until peace shall be secui^ed 
without the sacrifice of either." Eighteen cheers. 
The volunteer toasts were by F. Jenkins, W. HL 
Ireland, W. Fish, Dr. BuUus, Captain EL W. Bool, 
John Rodman, Mr. McDonald, Dr. Walker, Robert 
White, Rev. Mr. Cook. 

After Commodore Rodgers had retired the presir 
dent gave as a toast : *' Commodore Rodgers. — The 
zealous patriot and the brave commander, who has 
three times traversed the ocean, and thus proved 
that the flag of his country is its own protection." 
Eighteen cheers. The toasts were accompanied by 
appropriate music and a variety of songs. One o£ 
the company sang a song called ** The Warrior's 
feeturn," to the air of *^ Aipprican Star." 

After the dinner the naval officers, by invitatjipn^ 
ajtteuded. the Park Theater, which honored the qc- 
casion by a general illumination and the e^ibitiou 
Kit, a large tranj^parency of the Conomodorei with ^r 



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PRIVATBBR *'MARS:' ^7 

blematic devices. On the arrival of the naval officers 
in the house the play was suspended, while the 
visitors were greeted with the cheers of the audience 
and a patriotic air from the orchestra. The plays 
were '* Wild Oats" and a farce called '* Eight to 
One." 

On the 7th of March the privateer MarSy of fifteen 
guns, Captain IngersoU, of New York City, on her 
return home, was chased ashore at Hempstead by a 
British seventy-four and a frigate. Captain Inger 
soil, most of the officers and about thirty of his 
crew got safely to shore. Thirty of the crew and 
about forty prisoners, and the privateer were taken 
possession of, and after the men were taken out, 
set fire to and burnt. The Mars had made six cap- 
tures diuing her cruise, four of which were manned 
and ordered for the United States, one sunk and 
the other was ransomed. 

A few days afterwards the Americans captured on 
board the privateer Mars and made prisoners were 
delivered to one of our vessels near Sandy Hook. 

In December, 1813, a law was passed by the 
British Parliament prohibiting the receiving of a ran- 
som for captured vessels. This was in aid of a more 
rigorous blockade of American ports . It was several 
months afterwards before it became fully known so 
as to be put in force along the American coast. 

The flotilla stationed near Sandy Hook kept a 
watchful eye for the protection of coasters that the 
-enemy might attempt to capture. The following 
is an official report of an incident of that kind : 

"New York, March 8, 1814. 
" Sm: — I have the honor to inform you that on Sat- 



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28 BUNNING THE BLOCKADE. 

urday last (5th) the enemy drove a schooner on 
shore loaded with coals and dispatched his barges to 
take possession of her. A detachment of men from 
the flotilla, with a small field piece, drove them off. 
I. took possession and launched the vessel, and 
brought her safe into port. I have the honor, etc., 

**J. Lewis. 
" To Wm. Jones, Secretary of the Navy." 

The Peacock, which had been launched from 
Adam & Noah Brown's shipyard in September (ante^ 
Vol. L, p. 317), in command of Lewis Warrington, 
had been under sailing orders for some time, await- 
ing a favorable opportunity to get out of New York 
harbor by running the blockade. She could cross 
Sandy Hook bar at low tide. On the evening of 
the 12th of March she successfully made her escape 
unobserved by the enemy and proceeded on a cruise 
along the southern coast for British trading vessels- 
from the West Indies. 



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CHAPTER XXIV. 

llilitary Preparations by the State— Volunteers Wanted— Bounties 
Offered— Gunboat Senrice in New York Harbor— Commodore 
Lewis— Pulton's Steam War Vessel— Fortifications Needed at the 
Narrows— Blockhouses— Delay in Building Forts— Proposition 
to Make New York City the Seat of State Government— Action 
of the Common Council— " The Governor's Room " in City Hall. 

AS New York City began to assume 
^^ the aspects of a besieged city, and 
the inhabitants to feel that war 
was upon them, they began to 
think of their means of repelling 
an invasion. 

The third year of the war was at 
hand, with less favorable prospects 
of victory and of peace than at any time previous. 
The naval forces of the enemy on the Atlantic coast 
the previous years had been so small that there had 
been no fear of an attack upon any place of import- 
ance. The enemy were victorious on the northern 
frontier, and there was no prospect of another at- 
tempt to invade Upper Canada. Lower Canada, 
which included Quebec, was not taken into consid- 
eration as a good field for invasion. 

New York State had been so far the principal 
theater of the war, and prospects were that still 
greater military activity, for better or for worse, 
would take place within her borders, probably New 
York City would be attacked. No wonder, then, 
that the campaign of 1814 was anxiously and fear- 



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30 PROTECTION OF NEW YORK. 

fully looked forward to by many, as about to bring 
the crisis of the war, and, perhaps, of the Union of 
the States. 

The noriihem and western paries of the State of 
New York were in great danger of an invasion, 
which would materially weaken the defence of New 
York City, by drawing the militia from her. 

The National Government seemed to leave New 
York City to take care of itself. The most active 
military operations had been undertaken on the 
northern and western frontier. 

This line of action began to show itself early in 
the year. On the 15th of February a cavalcade of 
twelve long iron thirty-two-pounders, each weighing 
upwards of three tons, each mounted on a wagon 
made for the purpose, drawn by six horses, left New 
York City for Sackett's Harbor, all the way by 
land, for the navy on Lake Ontario, the vessels of 
which were being built for the Government by 
Henry Eckford, the shipbuilder of New York City.* 

New York City was deemed by the Governor 
more important to protect, being the commercial 
metropolis of the nation and a great and populous 
city. At that time the capture of a city meant pil- 
lage and destruction, as was then the practice in all 
the European wars, and as had been already exhib- 
ited in this war. 

The more modern and civilized practice of treat- 
ing a captured city is to accept a ransom to prevent 
its destruction. In such a case the amount of the 



♦ It appeared afterwards that it cost the Government f 400 to convey 
each of the said cannon from New York City to Sacketi's Harhor,. 
The same sized guns could then be conveyed from Liverpool to- 
Eingston, opposite Sackelt's Harbor, for less cost than that. 



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STATE MEANS OF DEFENCE. 31 

ransom money becomes a national burden, to be paid 
off by general taxation of all parts of the nation.* 

The executive officers of the State of New York 
were fully alive to the great danger of invasion. 
The quota of commissioned officers for the militia 
regiments were speedily filled up early in the spring. 
Many who had held commissions therein by brevet 
were appointed to full commands. Non-commis- 
sioned officers were also appointed, and the enroll- 
ment of all liable to serve in the militia was 
attempted as the law directed, and oflScers and pri- 
vates were assigned by Governor Tompkins to the 
respective divisions, brigades, regiments and com- 
panies in which they were to serve in case of emer- 
gency, when called upon by the authorities. 

The Adjutant-General's report of New York 
State militia in the early part of 1814, showed that 
there were 86,597 infantry, 4,717 artillery, and 4,462 
cavalry, a total of 95,776 on the muster rolls. There 
were two brigades Of artillery, and, one of infantry 
not reported, which would make about twelve hun- 
dred more men, a total of about ninety seven thou- 
sand men ; besides those in the volunteer service. 

The militia organizations throughout the State 
had not increased in effectiveness or numbers since 
war had been declared, two years previous (see note. 
Vol. IT., p. 90), excepting in New York City and the 
seaboard counties. But even there it was not so 
much improved as would reasonably be expected 



* Under tbis rule of the law of nations, if New York City sliould 
be now captured in a war and a ransom paid to prevent its destruc- 
tion, tlie burden of the ransom would reach every part of tl»e nation, 
however remote from the seaboard. The i^eneral Government is 
bound to protect every part of its territory from invasion. 



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32 IMP0R2ANCE OF NSW TORK CITY. 

by the enthusiasm displayed by the young men on 
the declaration of war. 

The infantry were classified into eight divisions, 
with forty-two brigades, with one hundred and fifty- 
six regiments. The cavalry consisted of one divi- 
sion, with four brigades, with eleven regiments. 
The artillery consisted of four brigades, with thirteen 
r^ments. 

The equipments of the mihtia, by the same report, 
showed that there were only 28,237 serviceable 
muskets, 636 serviceable artillery, 63 field pieces, 
2,699 swords, and 3,679 pairs of pistols. 

The mihtia, which had been called out for only 
a short term of service in the previous years, were 
dismissed, and were subject to call by the GK>vemor 
of the State or by the Commander of the Eighth 
Military District for the northern and western part 
of the State, and for the Third District, which com- 
prised New York City, etc. 

The force in actual service about New York in 
March was about the same as it was in November 
previous, which has been already stated (ante Vol. 
n., p. 342), being not more than were in service in 
the previous March (1813), about three thousand 
five hundred men, when the Governor stated that 
twelve thousand five hundred, at least, would be 
necessary to protect New York City and harbor 
(ante Vol. H., p. 172). 

New York City was deemed by the Governor 
more important to protect against invasion than 
any other part of the State. It was here that the 
inhabitants were to defend their households and 
their homes, as well as to protect their country and 
obey her call for assistance. 



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GOV, TOMPKlNff ORDERS. 3S 

Governor Tompkins paid particular attention to 
the defence of the seaboard. Some of the militia 
regiments in New York City and vicinity were con- 
soUdated and others created by his orders as Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

On 7th of December (1813) the Third Regiment 
(Col. Sitcher) was divided into two regiments. The^ 
companies and corps in it belonging to the city of 
New York were retained in it and designated as the 
Third Regiment of Aji;illery. The residue of the 
old regiment, with some other companies, was or- 
ganized as the Thirteenth Regiment of Artillery 
and placed under command of Lieut. -Col. Martin 
Boerum, of Brooklyn, who was major in the old 
Third Regiment. The First BattaUon of the Thir- 
teenth composed the artillery corps in Westchester 

County and was placed in command of Major 

Lyon. The Second Battalion consisted of the 
artillery corps in Kings, Queens and Suffolk 
Counties, and was placed in command of Major 
Barbarien. 

The staff oflBcers belonging to each of said regi- 
ments before the division were to be retained and 
continue to act in the same grades in the new regi- 
ments which they held in the old Third Regiment, 
and the new Third Regiment was organized with 
Lieut. -Col. Andrew Sitcher as commander,* and 

* This regiment, it is well to observe, is now (1891) the Eighth 
New York National Guard (infantry), .under command of Col- 
Georfre D. Bcott. Its popular name is " Washington Grajs." Its 
magnificent new armory is situated corner of Park Avenue and 
Ninety-fourth and Ninety-fifth Streete. On the 27th of July, 1847^ 
by general orders, the Governor chanecd the name of the Third Regi- 
ment to the Eighth Regiment, N. T. B. A. It is the oldest militia 
resriment in New York State. It was organised in 1786. 



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34 ARTILLERY AND CAVALRY 

several promotions of company oflBcers were made 
by brevet the next day. 

On March 2d, 1814, Joseph O. Bogart was placed 
in command and W. T. Hunter was made first 
Major. 

The following are important military orders relat- 
ing to the defence of the seaboard: 

'' Head Quarters, N. York, Dec. 16, 1813. 
'''The Commander-in chief is pleased to organize 
all the Troops of Cavalry in the city of New York and 
•Richmond, now under the command of Major James 
Warner, with Captain Wilson's Company of Horse 
Artillery of Kings County, and Captain Sibbalds of 
New York, into a Battalion of Horse Artillery, and 
will take the requisite measures to supply them 
with Field pieces and Caissons accordingly. The 
Second Regiment of Cavalry will hereafter consist 
of two Squadrons, that of Long Island to be called 
the First Squadron, and that of Westchester County 
to be called the Second Squadron of said Regiment. 
Major James Warner, the Adjutant, ana other staff 
officers of the Second Regt. of Cavalry resident in 
the City of New York are transferred to this Bat- 
talion of Horse Artillery without prejudice to their 
present grade or rank. Should Major-Gteneral 
Stevens find that it will be a satisfaction to the 
Corps hereafter mentioned to be incorporated with 
the Battalion of Horse Artillery hereby organized, 
and that it will promote the safety of the City and 
Harbor of New York, he is authorized to organize 
this Battalion, and the troops of Captain Mercein, 
Captain Shaw and the Trodp of Cavalry in Kings 
County into a Regiment, and to brevet the Field 



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TO DEFEND THE 8EAB0ABD, B5 

OflBcers according to seniority of Rank. Major 
James Warner will be the First Major Commandant 
of the Battalion of Horse Artillery organized by this 
order, and Captain James Guion, Jun., will be the 
Second Major of said Battalion. Major-General 
Stevens will cause this order to be promptly exe- 
cuted, and will notify Brigadier-General Giles and 
Lieut. -Col. Jacob Odell, of the Cavalry thereof. 

*' He is empowered also to direct the number and 
place of parades of said Battalion according to the 
provisions of the 27th section of the Militia Law of 
this State. 

" By Order of the Commander-in-Chief, 
** Robert Macomb, 

^^Aid-de-Camp." 

*' Head Quarters, Albany, 8th Jan'y, 1814. 
*^ The Commandant of the First Division of the 
Infantry of the State of New York, by the author- 
ity of the President of the United States, made for 
that purpose, is required to detach and organize 
forthwith, from that part of his Division which is 
in the Counties of Queens and Suffolk (having refer- 
ence to the burden of actual service already endured 
by the militia of those Counties respectively, and to 
the duty to be performed) two Companies, each to 
consist of one Captain, two Lieutenants and two 
Ensigns (to be assigned by the Major-General of the 
said Division or by the Commandants of Brigades 
with his approbation), six Sergeants, five corporals, 
two musicians and ninety privates, which two com- 
panies are to repair forthwith to Sagg Harbor or to 
such other frontier points of Long Island as the 
Commanding officer of the Third Military District of 



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36 PROTECTION OF LOFO ISLAND. 

the United States may designate. These Companies 
are called for under and pursuant to the Act of 
Con^Cress passed 28 February, 1795, in consequence 
of the imminent dangef of the Invasion of Sagg 
Harbor and the adjoining Coast upon the discharge 
of the Militia now in service there, and will be liable 
to serve three months from the time of arrival at 
the place of rendezvous, and will be entitled to the 
same camp equipage, pay and rations as the regular 
troops of the United States. 

** The Major-General of the Artillery of the State 
of New York, upon the requisition aforesaid, is 
directed to detach and organize from the Artillery 
of Suffolk and Queens, or to accept and organize a 
Volunteer Corps of Artillery, to consist of a Captain, 
one Lieutenant, three Sergeants, two Corporals, two 
musicians and thirty-six privates, and to order them 
to repair forthwith to Sagg Harbor for the purpose 
and according to the law before specified. They are 
to obey the Senior officer in service there. 

**The Commander-in-Chief holds the Command- 
ant of the Division of Artillery and of the First 
Division of Infantry responsible for a prompt com- 
pliance with his order, without which immense in- 
jury may happen to Sagg Harbor, and to that 
part of Long Island which is near to Gardner's Bay. 

**They are also vested with discretion ta accept 
and organize volunteers from any part of the State 
for the service above mentioned, and to give all the 
needful directions respecting details of the detach- 
ment which the Commander-in-Chief could legally 
were he present. 

*' By Order the Commander-in-Chief, 

^*SoL. Van Rensselaer, 

^^Adjt. -General" 



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FL TING ARTILLEll Y ORGANIZED. 37 

** Head Quarters, Albany, Feb. 28, 1814. 
**The Commander-in-Chief believing that a Regi- 
ment of Horse Artillery will be a very valuable 
Corps for the defence of the southern frontier, and 
it being represented to him that the Corps organ- 
ized into a Battalion by a Gteneral Order of the six- 
teenth day of December last, under Major James 
Warner, is suflBciently numerous for a regiiyent, is 
pleased to organize the said Battalion into a Regi- 
ment of Horse Artillery. Major James Warner will 
be the Lt.-Col. conmiandant thereof. Major James 
Guion, Junior, of Richmond County, the first Major, 
and Capt. Lewis KL Storms of New York the Second 
Major, with staff and other officers as are now in 
commission in said Corps, and as may be appointed 
by the Council of Appointment. The said Regiment 
is annexed to the division of Artilleiy and be sub- 
ject to the orders of the Major-Qeneml of said Di- 
vision. 

** By Ordei' of the Commander-in-Chief, 

" Anthony Lamb, 
^^Aid-de-Camp." 



i( ' 



** Head Quarters, Albany, Feb. 28, 1814. 
It appearing to the Commander-in-Chief that 
Horse Artillery will be more efficient Corps than 
Cavalry for the defense of the Sea Board and shores 
of the Sound or East River if furnished with pieces, 
Caissons and other equipments by the public, and he 
having by orders of this day organized one regi- 
ment of Horse Artillery in the Southern District, is 
pleased to oi^anize and transfer the Cavalry of 
Westchester, Queens and Suffolk Counties into a 
separate Regiment of Horse Artillery, to be called 



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38 QA VALRY ORQANIZBD. 

the Second Regiment of Horse Artillery. These 
Regiments are formed into a Brigade to be called 
the fii'st Brigade of Horse Artillery. Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Jacob Odell of Westchester County will com- 
mand the said Brigade. Lt.-Col. William Jones 
will be Commandant of the Second Regiment of 
Horse Artillery and Major WilUam Oakley will be 
the fir^ Major thereof. 

*^Brigadier-Gteneral Giles of the Cavalry, having 
been made a Major-General by the Council of Ap- 
pointment, that part of the Third Brigade of Cav- 
alry heretofore commanded by him (not organized 
into Horse Artillery), consisting at present of the 
Cavalry in Rockland, Orange, Ulster, Putnam and 
Dutchess Counties, will be commanded by Briga- 
dier-Genl. George D. Wickham, of Goshen, 
Orange County. 

** The Horse Artillery of the First and Second 
Regiments will parade twice at least in each year 
by Squadrons, three times at least by Companies, 
and once by Brigades, and will as soon as conveni- 
ent, if it be requested, be furnished with field pieces 
and implements, Caissons, and ammunition for ex- 
ercise and improvement. The Brigade of Hoi'se 
Artillery hereby organized is annexed to the Artil- 
lery until further orders. 

" By Order the Commander-in-Chief, 
"Sol. Van Rensselaer, 

"Adjt.-General." 



Many of the military organizations that started 
up in the previous spring had been dormant during 
the year 1813. 



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VOLUNTEERS WAN2SD, 39 

In January, 1818, Washington Irving, the emi- 
nent author, wrote : 

*^ This war has completely changed the ^f ace of 
things. You would scarcely recognize our old 
peaceful city. Nothing is talked of but armies^ 
navies, battles, etc. . . . 

**Had not the miserable accoimts from our fron- 
tiers dampened in some measure the public zeal, I 
believe half of our young men would have been 
military mad." 

Now, it was a year later than when Irving wrote 
the above, and the war on the frontiers had been 
even more discouraging, and the rumors and hopes 
of an armistice, and a prevalent Repugnance to 
enter the ranks as a common soldier, all had a ten- 
dency to render volunteering even more dull than at 
any previous time during the war, although the in- 
ducements were much more enticing. Increased 
pay and large bounties were offered by laws of Con- 
gress, and the volunteer could in a great measure 
choose the place and kind of service deemed most 
desirable. Everything was done to arouse the lag- 
ging miUtary spirit. 

A writer at that time said : 

** At length we have the pleasing satisfaction of 
beholding the stripes of our country suspended from 
the windows of public buildings, which to the be- 
holders speaks a language that would emulate any 
being who possesses the least particle of navy or 
military spirit. It is very common to see at the 
same view * 124 dols. bounty, and 160 acres of good 
land, clothing, pay, rations, etc., too,' given to* 
everyone who voluntarily comes forth to defend his 



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40 BOUI9T1E8 OFFERED. 

country, and three months' advance, and fifteen 
dollars bounty to go to the Lakes with Commodores 
Chauncey or Perry.' 

• " These men are wanted principally to defend 
our extensive frontier, and no doubt but our rulers 
will receive the thanks of the people for coming 
forth in such a manner as to induce every well- 
wisher to his country to turn out and rally round 
the standard which our f athera so nobly fought and 
bled for. 

** Turn your eyes to the left, there your attention 
is attracted by large capitals, reading thus : * Wanted 
— Seamen, Landsmen, and Boys for the XJ. S. 
Flotilla, for the sole defence of New York ; good 
pay, provisions, etc.' This is an opportunity which 
ought to be embraced by every seafaring man who 
has a family in New York." 

The flotilla (gunboat) service at that time had be- 
come a very important arm of protection for the 
bays and harbors of the United States. This service 
was unpopular with the regular officers of the navy, 
because of its narrow opportunities and the class of 
men of which the service was composed. They were 
usually bay and river craf tmen, seamen, ordinary 
seamen with famiUes which were nearby riggers, 
and naval mechanics out of employ, etc., and many 
others who would not engage in the regular naval 
service. The temptations to insubordination and 
vice were much greater in this scattered and amphi- 
bious kind of force than on board our ships of war, 
and the rigors of naval discipline, unless tempered 
with judgment and great moderation, discouraged 
the recruiting for this service. 

The flotilla service in New York harbor was pre- 



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COMMODORE LBW18* FLOTILLA. 41 

f errable to that in some other places, while at the 
43ame time it was the most useful and most im- 
portant to this seaboard. It was under the com- 
mand of f* Commodore" Jacob Lewis, as he was 
usually designated, although he held only the com- 
mission of a commander in the United States Navy. 
He had been captain of the privateer Bunker Hill, 
of four guns and sixty men, in the early part of the 
war, and was a brave, venturesome, dashing sailor. 
Every movement of his while in command of the 
flotilla of gunboats was paraded before the public in 
the most favorable light, and he made his reports of 
his movements, attacks, skirmishes, captures, etc., 
direct to the Secretaiy of the Navy, as if he was a 
veritable commodore. The services that his little 
fleet of gunboats rendered in the protection and 
•defense of New York harbor and vicinity cannot be 
over-estimated. 

A letter from a prominent exchanged prisoner of 
war, who had been held on board the Plantagenet, 
in March, said of Commodore Lewis and the fleet 
of gunboats under his command : 

'*In my humble opinion, this little band of heroes 
have been the whole safeguard of Amboy and the 
towns adjacent ; and should these places be de- 
stroyed, in all human probability a descent upon 
this city would immediately follow. For the 
grounds of my suspicion I will state that while on 
board the seventy-four a month since, off Sandy 
Hook, as a prisoner I was informed that an excur- 
sion on the Highlands, thence to Amboy, had been 
long contemplated, but that they were deterred by 
the gunboats at Sandy Hook. 

*' The flotilla appears to be a permanent thing, 



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42 FULTOirS IRONCLAD 

and those who volunteer for this necessary service 
are not liable to be taken anywhere else. They are 
commanded by an able and experienced officer, who, 
should an opportunity offer, will evince to the world 
the wise policy of Mr. Jefferson in causing to be 
built the lately detested boats." 

The number of gunboats in New York harbor fit 
for service was thirty-eight. Thirty-one were in 
service, and seven were subject to orders. The force 
consisted of about five hundi^ed men. 

The regular naval force at New York in March^ 
1814, consisted of the President ^ 44 ; Alert^ 18 
(guard ship), and Ptacock, 18, Lewis Warrington, 
master and commander. The latter was under sail- 
ing orders and was watching to run the blockade 
and put to sea. (See ante, p. 29.) 

Floating batteries of vaiious kinds were sug- 
gested from time to time for the defence of New 
York harbor. 

Many attempts had been made by several in- 
ventors to have the government build an ironclad 
or floating battery on their models. Robert Fulton, 
of steamboat fame, was one of the most prominent 
and influential. He induced a committee of promi- 
nent persons to examine his models and report on 
his plans. It was as follows : 

*' New London, Jan. 3d, 1814. 
*' We, the undersigned, have this day examined 
the model and plans of a vessel of war submitted to- 
ns by Robert Fulton, to carry 24 guns, 24 or 32- 
pounders, and use red hot shot ;— to be propelled by 
steam at the speed of from fom: to five miles an 
hour, without the aid of wind or tide. The pi-oper 



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8TBAM WAR VE88BL. 43 

ties of which vessel are : that without masts or sails, 
she can move with sufficient speed ; that her ma- 
chinery being guarded she cannot be crippled ; that 
her sides are so thick as to be impenetrable to every 
kind of shot ; and in a calm or light breeze she can 
take choice of positions or distance from an enemy. 
Considering the speed which the application of 
' steam has already given to heavy floating bodies, 
we have full confidence that should such a vessel 
move only four miles an hour, she could, under the 
favorable circumstances which may always be 
gained over enemies' vessels in our ports, harbors, 
bays and sounds, be rendered more formidable to an 
enemy than any kind of engine hitherto invented. 
And in such case she would be equal to the de- 
struction of one or more seventy-fours, or of com- 
pelling her or them to depart from our waters. We 
therefore give it as our decided opinion, that it is 
among the best interests of the United States to 
carry this plan into immediate execution. 

^' Stephen Decatur, 
** Jacob Jones, 
*'JA8. BroDLE." 

** New York, Jan. 10th, 1814. 
** We, the subscribers, having examined the model 
of the above described vessel of war to be propelled 
by steam, do fully concur in the above opinion of 
the practicability and utility of the same. 

*^ Samuel Evans, 
'' 0. H. Perry, 
*' L. Warrington, 
"Jacob Lewis." 

An appropriation was'asked for from the Presi- 



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44 CONDITION OF FORTIFICATIONS 

dent for the purpose of building this battery, but as 
he had not the authority to make the appropriation, 
the Naval Committee agreed to have the vessel con- 
structed at their own expense and risk; provided 
assurances should be given that the National gov- 
ernment would receive and pay for her when her 
utility should be demonstrated. This offer was ac- 
cept^ by the government, and in March, 1814, Con- 
gress, on the appUcation of many of the officers of 
the government, and actuated by the earnest solici- 
tation of many influential citizens of the city of 
New York, passed a law authorizing the President 
of the United States to cause to be built, equipped 
and employed, one or more floating batteries for the 
defence of the waters of the United States. 

The fortifications for the defence of the harbor 
required att*^ntion. 

The completion of the works on Staten Island and 
on Hendrick's Reef were not hastened during the 
summer of 1813, and no other works in the vicinity 
of New York were erected in addition to those al- 
ready mentioned in Chapter X. 

A redoubt or protecting work on Signal Hill, on 
Staten Island, near the Narrows, for which the State 
made an appropriation of $22,000 in April, 1813, had 
been partly completed. Other works were much 
needed there. In April, 1814, the State Legislature 
made a fiuliher appropriation of $50,000 to complete 
the fort on Staten Island, '* or applied te such other 
works of defence in the vicinity as may be deemed 
necessary to promote public security." 

These sums were to be expended by the State 
Commissioners of Fortifications, subject to the ap- 
proval of Gten. Swift, of the corps of engineers. 



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AT THE NAUROWS, 45 

On the east side of the Narrows very little had 
been done during the year. Work had been barely 
commenced on Hendrick's Reef (see ante Vol. I., p. 
178). Nothing had been done towards building a 
fort on Denyse's Heights, for the protection of 
Hendrick's Reef. The fortifications there were tem- 
porary earthworks. 

(Jen. Armstrong had recommended to the National 
government, in January, 1813, that the land in that 
vicinity be purchased for the erection of fortifica- 
tions, according to the plans of Gen. Swift (ante 
Vol. I, p. 178). The matter had laid dormant ever 
since. 

The State Commissioners of Fortifications now 
took the matter in hand and commenced negotia- 
tions for the purpose of purchasing .the farm land 
about there. Their negotiations resulted in a deed 
dated April 22, 1814, from William Denyse to the 
Mayor, Aldermen, etc., of New York City, in con- 
sideration of $8,875, by which he sold his farm, con- 
sisting of sixty-three acres, twelve roods and one 
hundred and thirty perches. And about the same 
time Jacques Cortelyou sold a plot adjoining, of one 
acre and thirty- three perches, for $1,000, to the 
Mayor, Aldermen, etc., of New York City. 

When Gen. Joseph G. Swift took charge of super- 
intending the land fortifications for the defence of 
New York harbor, the plan comprised a system of 
blockhouses to prevent the enemy landing by flo- 
tilla at such points as were most liable to such an 
invasion. They were to be at Bath Beach, at 
Utrecht Bay, at Denyse's Heights at west end of 
Long Island, and at Jamaica Bay, and at Princess 
Bay on Staten Island, and near Sandy Hook light- 



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46 BLOOKHOUSm NEEDED. 

house, and at the Highlands of Navesink and several 
other places in the neighborhood of the places above 
mentioned. They were of easy construction. A 
Mr. Cropsy, a carpenter of Utrecht, was employed 
byGten. Swift to construct these buUdings.* 

The blockhouses of those days were a kind of 
wooden fort built o£ square timbers, bullet proof, 
and to protect against hght artillery. They were 
about twenty feet square and two stories high ; the 
upper story projected two or three feet beyond the 
walls of the lower one. Loopholes were in the 
walls, the floor and projection, to fire through on 
the enemy with musketry, and the upper room was 
usually furnished with cannon. 

They were effective to prevent an assault with 
small arms, and often were built to protect a Une of 
earthworks. Those built along the sea coast were 
at some points to prevent the landing of a flotilla, 
and out of reach of the enemy's war vessels. They 
were two stories high, and according to the location 
of the spot they wished to command, and had two 
or three small cannon on top. The lower story was 
sometimes built of stone. Th^y were manned by 
detachments detailed each day for guard duty from 
the soldie^^ stationed near them. 

The building of these structures was not hastened 
during the year 1813, only at places where they were 
immediately needed. There were some built at 
Sandy Hook and at the Highlands in 1813 (ante 

* Sandy Hook at that time belonged to Richard Hartshorne. It 
was covered witli cedar. In 1817 ilie peninsula extending from 
Portland Highlands to the sea, a distance of seven miles, was pur- 
chased by the Government for the sum of $20,000. Its extent has 
grown by accretions, which make it now nearly double its former 
jsize. 



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GO VERN0IC8 ROOM IN CITY BALL. 47 

Vol. II. , p. 180), aiid one at Spermaceti Cove (ante 
YoL n., p. 301). Those intended at the Narrows, 
and on Jamaica Bay, and [at Rockaway and some 
other places had been neglected. 

The blockhouses and earthworks and other tem- 
porary fortifications which had been erected during 
the summer and fall of 1813 were mostly built at 
the instance and expense of the State authorities 
within whose borders they were placed. Block- 
houses and intrenchments were the usual form of 
those forts about the port and harbor of New York. 

The reason of this delay in the construction of de- 
fences and fortifications was not because they were 
not deemed necessary, but because of the general 
apathy of public opinion to the importance of works 
of defence. 

A room in the City Hall had been set apart by the 
Common Council for the use of the Governor. On 
April 15, 1814, $1,000 was appropriated by the State 
to furnish it, but it was not deemed sufficient, and 
the Common Council, on May 9th, made a further 
appropriation of $1,000 to complete the furnishing 
of it. It is still known as the *' Governors Room " 
in the City Hall. 

A concurrent resolution of the State Senate and 
Assembly requested Governor Tompkins to inquire 
as to the accommodation that might be obtained for 
holding the next session of the Legislature in 
the city of New York, and also to ascertain what 
wordd be the probable expense of a temporary re- 
moval of the seat of government to New York City. 

At the meeting of the Common Council on July 
1, 1814, a letter from the Governor, inclosing the 
resolution, was laid before the Common Council. 



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48 LBQ18LATURE INVITED TO NEW TORE. 

It was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs^ 
Fish, Wendover and King, who reported, August 
15th, that rooms could be provided for the purpose 
in the new City Hall. 

The following was then adopted over four nega- 
tive votes : 

" Resolved^ That as soon as the Common Council 
is informed that the honorable the Legislature have 
determined to hold their next session in this city, 
immediate measures be taken to fit up and furnish, 
at the expense of this corporation, suitable rooms 
for the honorable Senate and for the honorable the 
Assembly, and for such of the officers of govern- 
ment as are necessarily connected with the Legis- 
lature at their place of meeting, and that the papers 
and other articles belonging to said offices be re- 
moved to this city at the expense of this corpora- 
tion." 

The next session of the Legislature would not 
take place until January, 1815, unless sooner con- 
vened by the Governor. It would be of new mem- 
bers of Assembly, elected in April, 1814. 



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CHAPTER XXV. 

Enforcing the Embargo—Seizure of Specie at New York— Unpopu- 
iarity of the Embargo— Repeal of the Embargo Laws— Revival of 
Trade— Local Politics— Election of State Officers and Members 
of Congress. 

\^ MBARGK) laws were very unpopular 
^' among all classes of people at that 
time. All the ills felt, and which 
usually exist in a community in a 
time of war, were attributed to the 
embargo. The President was em- 
powered to be a dictator in the en- 
forcement of it. 

Under that law (section 11) the 
powers given to the collectors to re- 
fuse permission to put any cargo on board of any 
vessel, boat or other water craft, or to detain any 
vessel or to take into their custody any articles for 
the purpose of preventing violations of the embargo, 
were to be exercised in conformity with such in- 
structions as the President should give, and under 
such rules as he (the President) might prescribe for 
that purpose, made in pui'suance thereof, '* which 
instructions and rules the collector shall be bound to 
obey.^^ These iiiles were issued, dated December 
24, 1813. They were very explicit in regard to 
American vessels and their giving bonds, etc. 




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50 ENFORCiyQ THB EMBARGO, 

Vessels licensed for the coasting trade or fisheries 
were not allowed to depart from the port they were 
in when notice of the embargo was received, with- 
out a clearance or permit, but collectors were au- 
thorized and empowered to grant permission to 
vessels or boats whose employment had uniformly 
been confined to the navigation of bays, sounds, 
rivers or lakes within the jurisdiction of the United 
States, or the Territories thereof, in those cases 
where, in the opinion of the collector, there would be 
no danger of the embargo being violated. All ves- 
sels laden with a cargo were not allowed to depart 
from the port without giving bonds, and those with- 
out cargo were not allowed to take one without 
giving bonds. These bonds were conditioned as to 
the landing of the cargo at the port for which they 
were cleared. 

David Gtelston was the Collector of Customs for 
the district of New York at that time. He was ap 
pointed by Mr. Jefferson in July, 1801, and held the 
office up to November, 1820. He was an ardent 
democrat and was called " Mr. Jefferson's collector." 

The Surveyor of Customs was John Haff, ap- 
pointed in August, 1813, as successor of Peter A. 
Schenck. The naval officer of customs was John 
Ferguson, appointed in August, 1813, as successor 
of Samuel Osgood. 

In the foi-e part of January, Mr. Gtelston, as Col- 
lector of the port of New York, seized, under the 
embargo law, a quantity of specie, about $140,000, 
which was boxed up and on the way to Boston, 
ostensibly for the **New England Bank." It was 
brought back and deposited in the Manhattan Bank, 
to ascertain if it really belonged to the New Eng- 



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8K1ZUBE OF SPECIE, 51 

land Bank, or was intended for the Canada market, 
where British government bills were at a great 
discount. At that time the demand for specie in 
Albany and other places, for the Canada market and 
for the banks, was such that ten per cent premium 
had been paid for it in exchange for paper. 

The stockholders of the New England Bank pe- 
titioned the Legislature of Massachusetts to demand 
of the President of the United States the restitution 
of the money so illegally seized by Mr. Gelston, and 
the punishment of the offender. The legislative 
committee to whom the question was referred com- 
mented severely on the act of Mr. Gelston, and di- 
rected the Governor of Massachusetts to express to 
the President of the United States ** the great sensi- 
biUty which the Legislature of Massachusetts feels 
at the outrage, and its expectance that the money 
will be immediately restored," and as an atonement 
to the injured citizens of Massachusetts, that the 
President remove the said collector from oflSce. 
The resolution passed both Houses on the 27th of 
January. 

The Governor (Caleb Strong) transmitted to the 
President a copy of the resolution as requested, to- 
gether with the evidence in support of the complaint. 
The President replied to the Governor's request 
that *^ as the course of proceeding marked out by the 
law for the parties complaining is sufficiently under- 
stood, it remains only to assure your Excellency 
that the case will receive whatever interposition may 
be necessary and proper in their behalf from the 
executive authority of the United States. The case 
as it relates to the responsible officer will be duly 
inquired into, with a view to ascertain the circum- 



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52 UNPOPULARITY OF EMBARGO LAWB. 

stances on which the seizure and detention in ques- 
tion were grounded, and by which the conduct 
therein ought to be tested." 

As it was subsequently ascertained that the money 
was really destined for Boston, it was given up by 
Mr. Gtelston to the New England Bank, after several 
weeks' detention. 

One hardship of the embargo law was in prevent- 
ing the coasting vessels from returning to the places 
to which they belonged without bonds. A bill was 
presented in Congress in January for the relief of 
•coasters so situated. It was delayed from time to 
time until February 9th, when it passed the House 
by a vote of 100 to 40. It afterwards passed the 
Senate and became a law on March 4th. 

The embargo law was most severely felt by Massa- 
chusetts, which then included Maine. None of her 
ports were blockaded. The only other ports left 
open by the enemy were four, to wit : — Portsmouth, 
N. H. ; Newport, Bristol and Providence, R. I. 

It caused the most bitter expressions of feelirg 
from Massachusetts against the administration. 
When the embargo of 1807 was enacted they claimed 
that it was to help the French by diverting English 
vessels from war service against the French, to 
trading vessels to take supplies to the English ar- 
mies. The embargo of 1813 might have been said to 
the people to be in aid of the blockade of American 
ports, because a less number of British vessels were 
required to enforce a blockade. Had the law been 
enacted by an avowed Federal administration, and 
one opposed to the war, it would probably have been 
said to the people (and many would have believed 
it), that it was to aid the enemy in their blockade. 



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REPEAL OF EMBARGO LAWS, 53. 



Perhaps some future writer will draw a similar 
conclusion from it. 

The feehng was so strong against it among the 
commercial community of the seaboard States, and 
the action of Massachusetts was such, that to the 
great surprise of the nation, the President sent in a 
Message on April 1st which in effect was a sugges- 
tion to repeal the embargo laws. 

The subject was referred to the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, who on April 4th reported to the 
House in favor of the measure, stating that previ- 
ous to the late changes in Europe the bearing of the 
restrictive measures was for the most part confined 
to the enemy ; that at present a prospect existed of 
extended commercial intercourse with friendly pow- 
ers in Europe ; that all Germany, Denmark and 
Holland, heretofore under the double restraint of 
internal regulation and external blockades, were 
liberated therefrom, and changes equally favorable 
to commerce appeared then to be taking place in 
Spain, Portugal and Italy and the more extreme 
ports of the Mediterranean. These considerations 
and othei s, among which are the augmentation of 
the revenue, maintenance of the public credit, in- 
creasing the piice and promoting the circulation of 
the produce of the country, they reported a bill for 
the repeal of the embargo and modification of the 
non-importation laws. 

After many modifications and changes the biU in 
express terms repealed the embargo law of De- 
cember 17th, 1813, and modified the non-importation 
laws. 

The modification of the non-importation law con- 
sisted in allowing the ships and vessels of neutral 



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54 RBSTRICTlOha AGAINST TRADE 

nations to import any goods, wares or merchandise 
of the growth, produce or manufacture of Great 
Britain or Ireland, or any of the colonies or depend- 
encies thereof, or of any place or country in the 
actual possession of Great Britain. 

It also provided, *' That nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to authorize or permit the import- 
ation of goods, wares or merchandi&e, or of any 
article the property of, or belonging at the time of 
such importation, to the enemy or enemies of the 
United States." 

The bill passed the House of Representatives by a 
vote of 115 to 37, and the Senate by a vote of 29 to 
4. Jt was sent to the President and became a law 
on April 14th. 

When this bill passed the House of Represent- 
atives, Mr. William Irving voted against it, while 
Mr. Jotham Post voted for the bill. In the Senate 
Messrs. Ruf us King and German, the Senators from 
New York, voted for the bill as passed. Mr. 
Lefferts, from Brooklyn, also voted for this bill. 
Dr. Sage, from Sa^s:^ Harbor, was not present. 

The removal of the embargo and allowing im- 
portations at once revived the shipping and coasting 
trade, and running the blockade was constantly 
done at little danger. There were still many re- 
strictions that would greatly affect commerce and 
intercourse with the British colonies and with neu- 
tral countries. 

The law prohibiting non-intercourse with the en- 
emies of the United States, passed July 6, 1812, 
still prevented many vessels from entering seaports 
of the United States. 

Under that law (§ 1), any ship or vessel owned 



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WITH THB ENEMY, 55 

in whole or in part by any citizen of the United 
States would not be peimitted to depart therefrom 
to any port or place without the United States, 
without giving a bond with sureties to the amount 
of uch vessel and cargo, conditioned that such ship 
or vessel should not proceed to or trade with the 
enemies of the United States. If any vessel at- 
tempted to proceed without first giving such bond, 
such vessel and cargo should be forfeited to the 
United States, and the master or commander thereof 
be subject to fine and imprisonment. 

By section 2 the attempt to transport overland 
or otherwise any naval or military stores, arms or 
munitions of war, or any article of provisions from 
any place in the United States to any place in Upper 
or Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, or New Brunswick, 
was subject to forfeiture, fine and imprisonment. 

Section 3 authorized the collectors of the several 
ports to enforce said law. 

Section 4 was the most important. It provided 
^' that no ship or vessel belonging to any citizen or 
citizens, subject or subjects of any state or kingdom 
in amity with the United Stages j except such as ai 
the passage of this act shall belong to the citizen or 
citizens^ siitject or subjects of stich stale or kingdom^ 
or which shall hereafter be built in the limits of a 
stale or kingdom in amity with the United States or 
purchased by a citizen or citizens^ subject or sub- 
jects of a state or kingdom in amity with the United 
States, as aforesaid, from a citizen or citizens of the 
United States, shall be admitted into any port or 
place of the United States, unless forced by a stress 
of weather or for necessary repairs," under pen- 
alty of forfeiture. 



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56 FEDERALISTS MEETING 

This law was so framed as to prevent British vessels 
that were only nominally those of a neutral nation, 
but in fact belonged to a subject of Great Britain, 
from being transferred and held by a neutral nation 
after July 6th, 1812, or sailing only under a neutral 
flag. The cargo was deemed of the same nationality 
as the vessel which carried it. 

It has been already stated (ante Vol. I., Chapter 
XXI.), that the embargo law of December, 1813, 
greatly hindered this kind of intercourse. 

The repeal of the embargo laws and the modifica- 
tion of the non-importation laws was hailed with 
delight in New York City and in all the seaport 
towns. This was the first ray of sunlight that 
beamed on America from the changed national af- 
fairs in Europe. 

This was regarded by the Federalists as a triumph 
of their party principles. After the bill had passed 
the House of Representatives, on the 7th April, as 
reported by the committee, the Federalists were soon 
using it for electioneering purposes. There was to 
be in New York State the annual general election 
of members of Assembly and State Senators, and 
also Representatives in Congress for the term which 
was to begin on the 4th. of March next following. 
The time for the election was on the last Tuesday 
of April, and would continue for three days. The 
Federalists were the first to take the field at this 
election. 

On the evening of the 12th of April the ^^ Friends 
of Liberty, Peace and Commerce," of the city of 
New York, held a meeting at Washington Hall, 
pursuant to public notice. Richard Varick was 
called to the chair, and James Walsh was appointed 



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AND REaOLUTlONS, 57 

secretary. The following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted : 

^^ Resolved J That it is the right of freemen at 
^ all times to express their opinions of pubUc men and 
measures ; that it is especially their duty to do so 
when convened to dehberate on the choice of repre- 
sentatives ; that in expressing such opinions it is 
improper to censure without just cause, or wantonly 
to impair the confidence of the people in their rulers ; 
but on the other hand, it may be considered a dere- 
liction of principle to pass over in silence such 
measures of government as are deemed injurious to 
the public weaJ, or to the prosperity of individuals 
in their accustomed and honorable employments. 

'^ Resolved J That whilst this meeting congratu- 
late their fellow-citizens on the abandonment of a 
course of measures, which by destroying our com- 
merce has reduced the country from a state of un- 
exampled prosperity to the verge of national bank- 
ruptcy, they cannot but condemn the inconsistent 
and versatile policy of these men who, without 
obtaining any one of their avowed objects, have 
enormously accumulated the national debt while 
they have impaired the national credit, increased 
the burdens of the people while they have dimin- 
ished their capacity to bear them, and have finally 
been deterred, by necessity rather than choice, from 
persevering in schemes which threatened to involve 
our country in ruin and disgrace. 

'^Resolvedy That the various measures of the 
general government under Mr. Jefferson and his 
successors in relation to the commerce of the United 
States have been productive of general loss, and 
extensive ruin among individuals, without answer- 



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^S DECLAIIATION OF PRmCIPLSA 

ing any valuable purpose to the nation, either in its 
foreign relations or domestic concerns ; that com- 
mercial men and those whose business has depended 
upon navigation have been deceived, abused and , 
oppressed under the specious pretexts of husband- 
ing our resources and protecting our seamen ; while 
the real objects of all the restrictions under which 
we have been doomed to suffer privations and 
misery was to second the views of the French gov- 
ernment in its destructive warfare upon foreign 
trade, denominated the * Continental system,' and 
at the same time so to temporize with circumstances 
as to maintain the popularity and power of the 
present administration. And that the evidence in 
support of this opinion is greatly strengthened by 
the circumstances under which the abolition of the 
embargo and non-importation laws has been recom- 
mended, and by the leading members of the House 
of Representatives on the passage of the bill through 
that house. 

^' Resolved J That this meeting view the proposed 
repeal of the restrictive system, which has so long 
oppressed the people of the United States, as an 
acknowledgment of its ineflBcacy, as a proof of the 
incompetency of its authors to the management of 
our national concerns, and of the wisdom of those 
who opposed its adoption and progress. 

" Resolvedy That the only satisfactory mode of 
insuring happier results is a change of rulers by 
constitutional elections ; that purity and wisdom in 
the councils of our State are necessary means for 
tlie attainment of a general reform ; and that with 
our present conviction of the manifest imbecility and 
inconsistency of the dominant party, we feel that 



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CANDID AT ICS FOR LOCAL K LECTION. 59 

we can rely with safety upon the talents and integ- 
rity of those men only who have been educated in 
the principles of Washington. 

^^ Resolvedy Therefore, that we pledge ourselves 
to support with becoming zeal and by all honorable 
means the following candidates at the ensuing elec- 
tion in this city : 

** For Representatives in Congress from the First 
Congressional District, Cornelius Bedell, of Rich- 
mond, and William Townsend, of Queens. From 
Second Congressional District, Jacob Lorillard and 
John Anthon.* 

''For Senator for the Southed District, Abraham 
Odell, of Westchester, t 

''For Members of Assembly for the City of New 
York : John Wells, Augustus Wynkoop, Abraham 
Russell, Samuel Jones, Jr., Richard Hatfield, David 
B. Ogden, PhiUp Hone, Thomas Carpenter, Robert 
McDermut, Peter A. Jay and James Palmer. 

^^ Resolved J That it be recommended to our 
friends to call ward meetings and make all suitable 
arrangements to give success to the foregoing nomi- 
nations." 

The Democrats called the opposition " Tories." 
A Toiy was then thus defined : " Those who desert- 
ed their country's cause in our struggle for indepen- 
dence, and from the just indignation and vengeance 
of our Washington were protected by the British, and 
now plead for our present overl>earing and oppress- 
ing enemies, to the prejudice of their own coun- 

* For an account of the Congressional Districts, see ante Vol 
I., p. 228. ^ 

t The Southern Senatorial District then comprised the coun- 
ties of New York, Kings, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk and West- 
chester. 



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60 DEMOCRATS NOMINATE 

try ; who seized upon the sacred name of Washington 
for their standard, with an hypocrisy and impu- 
dence that nothing but the intrigues of England 
could support ; who seized also upon the name of 
our sacred constitution for a further pretext to 
effect their hellish machinations ; England, who 
for more than thirty years, * with calm, cool, de- 
liberate villainy,' has labored to effect a division 
among us." 

The popular idea of '' Whig " and '' Tory " at that 
time was derived directly or indirectly from Trum- 
bull's famous epic poem, *'McFingal," written dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. 

The Federalists called themselves **The Prienda 
of Peace, Liberty and Commerce." 

The Democrats (then called Republicans by them- 
selves and Democrats by the Federalists) held their 
nominating convention for New York City much 
later, being on the 18th day of April. Col. Henry 
Rutgers was chairman and Col. James Warner waa 
secretary. 

The motto of the Democrats was ** Union of the 
States— Sailors' Rights and Free Trade." 

Their candidates for Congress were: George 
Townsend, of Oyster Bay, and Henry Crocheron, of 
Staten Island, for the First District. In the Second 
District the candidates were William Irving and 
Peter H. Wendover. Darius Crosby, of West- 
chester, was candidate for State Senator from the 
Southern District. 

Their candidates for members of Assembly for the 
City of New York were : George Warner, Francis- 
Cooper, Joseph Smith, Ogden Edwards, Peter 
Stagg, Isaac Pierson, Jacob Drake, Peter Sharpe,. 



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CANDIDATES FOR LOCAL ELECTION, 61 

Samuel Torbert, Charles Baldwin and Augustus 
Wright. 

All the candidates were voted for at large, and 
not by districts. Every man could vote opiy in the 
ward of hiS actual residence. He could vote for 
Senator upon a freehold situated in a different 
county. In voting upon a freehold for members of 
Assembly and Congress, the freehold must be in the 
county of residence.* In voting for Senator a day's 
possession of a freehold was suflBcient, but in voting 
for members of Assembly and Congress six months' 
previous possession was required. In every case 
the seizin of the freehold must be bona fide. New 
York City was entitled to eleven members of As- 
sembly at that time. 

A meeting was held on the 22d of April by persons 
who called themselves Washington Federalists, they 
nominated a spurious ticket for Assembly. Some 
eminent Federalists were placed on it, but they 
promptly disavowed any connection with the move- 
ment. The avowed object was a division of the 
true Federalists, in order to defeat the success of 
the general ticket. They nominated the following 
for Assembly from New York City : Peter A. Jay, 
Richard Hatfield, Robert McDermut, Thomas Car- 
penter, William Codman, Gulian C. Verplanck, 
Gerard de Peyster, William Davidson, Benjamin 
Butler, David Sherwood and Joseph W. Brackett. 
Messrs. Jay, Carpenter and McDermut declined 
to run on that ticket. 

A meeting was held by them on the evening T)e- 

♦ A8 to other qualifications required to be allowed to vote for 
a member of Assembly and for Congress, see ante Vol. I., p. 
130. 



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62 8PL1T AMONG THB FEDEBAL18T8. ' 

fore the first day of the election. Oliver Wolcott 
was chairman and Thomas Morris secretary. They 
accepted the withdrawal of Messrs. Jay, Carpenter 
and McDermut, and approved of the other candi- 
dates ^^ as consistent and American Federalists." 

They were called '* Coodyites" because Mr. Ver- 
planck was one of the leaders of this movement.* 
They were also known as the Radcliff party, be- 
cause they advocated the appointment of Jacob 
Radcliff for Mayor and Hugh Maxwell for Surro- 
gate. Mr. Clinton had already been reappointed 
Mayor for another year. The Federal young men 
called a meeting at Washington Hall on Monday, 
April 25th, to denounce this new party. T. V. W. 
Varick was chairman and Andrew T. Gk)odrich sec- 
retary. The meeting was opened by Mr. Murray 
Hoffman (afterwards Judge of the Superior Court) 
'*with an eloquent view of the situation of our 
country." He depicted in strong colors the imbecil- 
ity of our rulers, the knight errantry of their at- 
tempt on Canada; their idle prosecution of the war, 
their wavering abandonment of the restrictive sys- 
tem, and their willingness to secure their popularity 
at the expense of every American feeling. 

There was great feeling displayed in the canvass. 
One of the most noted and influential occmrences 
was the stand taken by Richard Riker in favor of 
the Democrats. He had long been in the Federal 
party, and was active in the canvass of Mr. Clinton 

* •There bad been a few Federalists that bad been dissatisfied, and 
refused to co-operate with the regular Federalists for several years. 
They were called •*Coodvite8" because several pamphlets and 
newspaper articles appeared under the name of ** Abimele<rh Coody, 
Ladies' Shoemaker." They were opposed to De Witt Clinton for 
Mayor. The writer was known to be Gulian 0. Ycrplauck. 



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RB8ULT OF THE KLBCTION. 63 

for President against Mr. Madison, in 1812. He 
was for a vigorous prosecution of the war at that 
time, but still acted with the Federalists. Now he 
came out openly and boldly at a large meeting of 
the 3d Ward Democracy and presented resolutions 
that had the most telling effect in favor of the 
war. The Assembly ticket was regarded as the 
most important, because the State was so evenly 
* balanced in the Assembly that the election in New 
York City would probably tuni the scale. The 
Senate was Federal, and had by this means blocked 
some legislation in favor of the war. There was no 
question but that the State was in immediate 
danger of invasion, and some legislation was neces- 
sary for self -protection, at least, without regard 
to the position of national politics. With the As- 
sembly Federal, and the probable effect it would 
have on State legislation and measures that would 
affect the militia for the defence of the State, it was 
a grave question to vote for a member of Assembly. 
The question was put, and derided in favor of war 
measures. 

All the Democratic candidates for assembly from 
Nfew York City were elected by an average majority 
of 167. The '*Coodyite" ticket only had mem- 
bers of Assembly. They polled ninety-three votes 
in some wards. The lowest in any ward was 
eighty votes. The total number of votes polled in 
New York City was eleven thousand, being one 
thousand more than ever before. 

In the First Congressional District the two Demo- 
cratic candidates were elected. The Federal ma- 
jority in the Ist and 2d Wards was 323. In the 
Second Congressional District both the Democratic 



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64 EFFECT OF THE ELECTION, 

candidates were elected by an average majority of 
436. The State Senator for the Southern District, a 
Federalist, was elected by 254 majority. 

The Commercial Adt^ertiser said of the Federal- 
ists : ''Of the persons of this description who 
omitted to vote in the first three wards, there is a 
sufficient number to have carried in the whole of the 
Federal ticket.'* This was the first time that any 
Democrats were elected to the Assembly from New 
York City. 

We need not speculate as to what would have 
been the effect if the Federal ticket had prevailed 
then throughout the State of New York. The 
movements of the enemy were such in threatening 
New York City, and the actual invasion of the 
northern part of the State, and the result before the 
Legislature was called to a special session by the 
Governor in September, when all were in favor of 
self-defence, as a matter of necessity. 



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CHAPTER XXVI. 

Financial Conditions— Treasuiy Notes Issued— Loans Called For 
— John Jacob Astor— Jacob Barker— Subscribers to the Loan 
—Paper Money Plenty, 

'HE financial needs of the Government 
had become more urgent than in the 
previous two years of the war. Many 
of the liabilities contracted then were 
becoming due in the early part of the 
year 1814. All the loans asked for had 
been taken, and the treasury was almost empty. 
Of the loan of $7,600,000, taken under Act of Au- 
gust 2, 1813, being by installments, one-half of it had 
been paid in during the year 1813, and the other half 
became due January 15 and February 15, 1814. 
This, when paid, would not satisfy existing press- 
ing liabiUties. The embargo had stopped revenue 
in that direction, and there would be nothing to 
meet the current expenses of the war. Immediate 
reUef must be obtained in some manner before aid 
could be derived from the new internal revenue, 
and taxation laws of 1813, which came into effect 
on January 1, 1814. To obtain loans required de- 
lay, and would take many months to n^otiate 
them, and that, too, at a very large discount and loss 
to the Government. The resort to another issue of 



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66 MORE TBBA8UBT NOTES, 

Treasury notes was the most politic, although it had 
its drawbacks. 

However, on the 4th of March, 1814, a law 
was passed authorizing the issuing of five mil- 
lion dollars in Treasury notes, payable in one year 
from date of issue, and bearing interest at same 
rate and the same in tenor and effect as those of 
1812 and 1813, which has been previously stated 
(Chapter XVITt.). This law also gave further au- 
thority to the Treasurer to issue five million dollars 
more in Treasury notes, which latter amount should 
be considered as part of the stock loan of the year 
1814. 

The immediate issue *of these Treasury notes as 
needed would give some relief until time could be 
obtained in which to raise funds under a law of 
March 24, 1814, which authorized a loan of twenty- 
five millions on six per cent stock, to run thirteen 
years. 

Jacob Barker, of New York, was then an active 
lobbyist in matters relating to financial measures, 
and probably he had more to do with the laws re- 
lating to the issuing of Treasury notes, and the 
terms under which the loans were asked, than any 
other one man. 

There were many financial schemes and plans laid 
before the Secretary of the Treasury by Mr. Barker 
about the time of the first loan of 1818, and were 
persistently kept up by him all the time until long 
after the war was over. 

Mr. Barker spent much time in Washington dtar- 
ing this session of Congress, and had a great Aeal 
of hrfhience trith the President and his Cabinet. 



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JACOB BABKJfR LOBBTJNO. W 

Tbe lichral BepuUiocm saad of Jacob Barker in 
IfMCk : 

*^ This gentleman is agMn carrying all before him 
at Wafthington. We speak not ot the great *oom- 
mercial men ot the West,* bnt among all the pol- 
iticians and merchants of the East there is xkA, one 
that can compete with this distinguished g^itle^ 
man. He appears upon all commercial, financial 
and banking operations to be the Magnus ApoUo of 
the administration, and we hare no doubt that his 
word controls the policy of the Government in rela- 
tion to commerce and finance. The merchants of 
New York would no doubt stare to see Jacob Barker 
t§te k t^te with the President, the great man at the 
levee, the confidential counselor of the departments,^ 
and addressing grave Senators with an air as posi- 
tive and dictatorial as though he was the con^itu- 
tional dictator of America." 

In his *' Incidents in the Life of Jacob Barker** 
he states that his principal business at Washington 
during the session of Congress was for the purpose 
of having a law passed to establish a national bank, 
which was then violently opposed by the Federal 
members of Congress. 

The loan on United States stock, under Act of 
March 24th, was advertised on April 4th for ten mil- 
lion dollars, as part of the twenty -five million loan. 
The offers were to be closed by 2d of May, and were to 
be payable one-fourth on the 25th of May, and one- 
fourth on the 25th day of each of the ensuing months 
of June, July and August. The installments could 
all be paid at once after payment of the first install- 
ment. On failure of payment of any installment^ 



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68 ANOTHER LOAN ASKED. 

the next preceding installment was to be forfeited. 
Scrip certificates were given to the persons making 
the payments, and were assignaUe by indorsement 
and delivery, and after all payments were made 
would be funded in the United States six per cent 
stock, with interest payable quarterly. No offers 
for a sum less than $25,000 was to be' considered by 
the Gh)vemment, but a commission of one-fourth 
of one per cent was allowed to any person collecting 
subscriptions for the purpose of incorporating them 
in one proposal. There were many persons who 
would take smaller sums than $25,000. This gave 
an opportunity for them to take such sums as 
they could, as the stock would be issued in small 
simis. 

When the loan was offered in April, Mr. Jacob 
Barker advertised in the New York Evening Post for 
persons to join an association to loan money to 
the Government through him. The amoimt after- 
wards offered to be taken by him was relied upon 
by him to be obtained from others, he retaining the 
quarter per cent commissions allowed on the loans 
obtained by him. 

The subscribers in New York City for parts of the 
ten millions of United States loan, under Act of 
March 24, 1814, accepted May 2, 1814, were as fol- 
lows: 

John Taylor, $150,000 

Alanson Douglass, 50,000 

Smith iSt NicoU, 80,000 

Herman Hendricks, .... 42,000 

G. B, Vroom, 600,000 



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SUBSCRIBERS IN NEW YORK 



69 



Samuel Flewelling, .... $257,300 

Jacob Barker . . . . . 5,000,000 

Whitehead Fish, 250,000 

Some of the persons who were included in the 
offer made by Jacob Barker were : 
Isaac Lawrence, 
Fred De Peyster, 
John Rathbone, Jr., 



Francis Depau, 
James Lovett, . 
Edmund Elmendorf, 
Wm. P. Van Ness, . 
Walter Morton, 
Benj. Huntington, . 
Walter Bowne, 
Wm. Van Ness, 
Alex. Ferguson, . 
David Delapierre, , 
PhiUp S. L. Breton, 
John L. Broom, 
Frederick Bruen, . 
James R. Wilson, 
John Icar<|, . 
Earl De Pfearce, 
Isaac Jones, 
John M. Hicks and — 



Hicks, 



$25,000 
25,000 
25,000 
20,000 
20,000 

5,000 
25,000 
10,000 
10,000 
20,000 
20,000 
.200 

3,000 
10,000 
20,000 
15,000 
30,000 
10,000 
• 6,000 

4,000 

2,000 



In his report for December, 1814, the Secretary of 
the Treasury said: ''Of the sum of $9,795,056, 
which were offered at eighty-eight per cent, or at 
rates more favorable to the United States, five mil- 
lions were offered with the condition annexed that 
if terms mare favorable to the lenders should be 



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70 OOMDITIOMS OF THE LOAN. 

allowed for any part of the twenty-five million auth- 
orised to be borrowed the present year (1814), the 
9ame terms should be extended to those holding tlie 
stock of the ten million loan." 

The sum above referred to was that offered by 
Jacob Barker. 

As an apology for accepting this offer, with its 
conditions, the report said : ^^ Taking into consid- 
eration the expectation then entertained of an early 
return to peace, and the importance of maintaining 
unimpaired the public credit by sustaining the price 
of stock in the meantime, and also considering the 
measure was sanctioned by precedent, it was agreed 
to accept the loan with that condition.* Had the 
sum to which the condition was annexed been re- 
jected, the consequence would have been to reduce 
the amount obtained to less than five millions, a sum 
altogether inadequate to the public demands, or by 



* The precedent above referred to occurred under the Adt of 
February 8, 1818. On the first askin^c for subscriptions to that 
loan on 12th and Idch March, 1818, only the sum of $3,956,400 
was obtained. On second asking, open 25th to 81st of March, the 
offers were only $1,881,800, being a very insufflojpnt and dis- 
oouragin^ amount. The time Having expired, negotiations were 
in progress whereby, on 5th of April, John Jacob Astor sent the 
following offer to Mr. Gallatin, then Secretary of the Treasury : 

"Nbw York, April 5. 1818. 

•* 5tr;— I will take for myself and my friends in New York, two 
millions and fifty-six thousand doHars* worth of the loan author- 
iced by Congress in February last, receiving six per cent stock 
at the rate of eighty-eight dollars money for one hundred of the 
six per cent stock, payable in New York by instalments as pro- 
posed by you, or as may be otherwise agreed on. I understand 
that in case Oovernaient should make another loan during the 
jFsar I am to Im placed on as good footing as the lendevs of 



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I 
THB A8T0M, FABIBH AND OJMABB LOANS. 71 

depreaaing tioie stock to ei^ty-fiye per omxt to have 
obtoisod oqI J a littla moore than six imUioiis« which 
would still hare been insufficient to answer the pur- 
poses oi the Gk)Yemment." 

The loan was not all taken, there being a defi- 
dency of about six million dollars yet to make up 
the amount authorused by the Act of 24th March, 
besides the Treasury notes which were to be issued 
and con^dered as part of the tw^ity-flve million 
loan. 

Some of the trouble that Mr. Barker had in 
paying his installments and the efforts of the Gov- 
ernment to obtain the furthi^ loan of six million 
dollars, and some account of Mr. Barker's claims 

moaey or contractors for that loan will be. I also understand 
that I am to receive the quarter per cent whidi is to be paid to 
persons procuring subscriptions to the present loan." 

On the same date Messrs. David Parish and Stephen Oirard, of 
Philadelphia, made a proposition to take so much of said loan 
as will amount to $8,000,000, or to the residue of said loan not 
taken. 

For this they were to pay $88 for every stock certificate of 
$100, and also one«quarter per cent for the amount loaned. 

The following was also part of this proposal of Messrs. Parish 
and Oirard : *' Provided you wUl agree to allow us the option of 
accepting the same terms that may be granted to persons lend- 
ing money to the United States by virtue of any law authoriz- 
ing another loan for the service of the year 1818, that Congress 
may pass before the last day of the present year.'* 

Under these proposals the amount so offered would take $11,- 
tOe,000 in stock. Of this latter sum, only $10,101,800 in stock 
could be received. 

On the Tth of April the Secretary of the Treasury accepted 
theoB oiCert and took from Mr. Astor $S,O0a4M)0 worth of the loan, 
And fron Messrs. (Hrard and Pariah, $7,055,800. 

The repoii of the Aetiag Secretary of the Treasury (Wm. 



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72 PLANS FOB OTHSB L0AS8, 

against the Gh)Yenimeut on his said contract, will 
be more folly treated of in a sabsequent chapter. 

Some weeks after the first loan of 1813, and when 
it appeared that more funds would be required hj 
the Government, a syndicate or association, headed 
by John Jacob Astor, of New York, David Parish 
and Stephen Girard, of Philadelphia, and John Mc- 
Donald, of Baltimore, attempted to negotiate with 
the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of 
War for the introduction of British goods through 
Canada to the United States, coupled with a loan 
of their avails. This n^otiation continued up to 
the end of July, 1814, but nothing ever came out of 
it. Mr. Barker was not in this scheme, however. 

Jones), made to Congress on dd of June, 1818, did not mention 
the terms of this loan, nor mention the condition, or in any way 
refer to its conditions. 

Rumors had for some time been afloat that the terms of the 
loans were such that the Government desired to keep it secret, 
as it would affect Government credit and prejudice future loans,, 
and also affect the price of Government stock. This action of 
the Treasury Department caused still further suspicion that all 
was not right in the transaction. 

When the bill came up in July, 1818, to authorize a further 
loan of $7,500,000, and was under debate in the Senate, Bufus 
King, from New York, presented the following resolution, which 
was unanimously passed on July 26th, 1818 : 

'' Bewlved, That the President of the United States be, and he 
ia hereby requested to cause to be laid before the Senate the 
terms upon which the loan made in pursuance of * An Act 
authorising a loan for a sum not exceeding sixteen millions of dol- 
lars,* passed the 8th day of February last, has been obtained or 
contracted for, together with a copy of such contract.*' 

The letters of Mr. Astor, of New York, and of Messrs. David 
Parish and Stephen Girard, of Philadelphia, of April 5, 1818» 
which contained the terms of the offer and the acceptance 



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TRBAaURT NOTES A8 CURRENCY, 73 

Obtaining money by the issue of Treasury notes 
was more politic, for being issued at par and at a 
less rate of interest than the stock, it seemed more 
economical to the Government, and would have 
been so had the time of their payment been long, or 
the future prospects of peace and prosperity more 
assured. The Treasury notes before issued were 
none of them for less than one hundred dollars, and 
this hindered their being used in circulation as cur- 
rency. It was plainly seen that if these notes were 
made of smaller denomination their use as currency, 
in the payment of taxes, etc., would gi-eatly facili- 
tate their ready issue and be more convenient to 
the community; but to make them a legal tender be- 
tween individuals for private debts was not to be 
thought of for a moment. None of these Treasury 
notes were for less than twenty dollars. 

Although it was then difficult to obtain loans on 
Government security, it was not felt by the people. 
The large volume of Treasury notes which had been 
issued up to May, 1814, and were in circulation as 
currency, made money plenty among the people. 
These notes were not legal tender for private debts, 
but this made little difference in their circulation, 
as they were receivable for all pubhc debts and 

.thereof by Mr. Oallatin, were laid before the Senate. So well 
satisfied was Mr. King, and every other member, of the propriety 
of Mr. Gallatin's conduct, that after the documents had been 
read not a single word of complaint was uttered in the Senate. 
■ The bill was subsequently passed and became a law on August 
% 1818. The terms of the loans under it proved more favorable 
to the Government than those last referred to, so that the con- 
ditions of the former loans amounted to nothing and became 
null. 



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?* FLMNTY OF FAFEB MOJTSr. 

dues aody of oourae, for fubscriptioiis to Qovsem- 
meat stocks, custom duti^ taxes, etc. The inter- 
est on these had not aeeomulated lai^ Plough for 
people to hold them, particulariy those for small 
sums. Bank lulls had rapidly increased in the 
amount issued by them since the issue of Treasury 
notes, particularly when it was known that these 
bank bills would be taken by the OoFemment or 
the people in exchange tor Government stocks and 
for Treasury notes. 

Very few oi the substantial banks of the United 
States would take Treasury notes in exchange for 
their own notes, or receive them on deposit or for 
dues to the bank, and many would not handle them 
in any manner. Tte only banks in the city of New 
York that would handle them up to this time were 
the Manhattan Ck). and the Mechanics^ Bank. Per- 
haps it was better tlxat all banks would not take 
them, for this kept them in circulation and in pri- 
vate use and among the people. 

If prices were high it was no cause of popular 
concern so long as there was plenty of money at 
hand to pay them. 

At a public sale in New York of a deceased gen- 
tleman's private stock of wine, in April, it brought 
the extraordinary price of $25 per gallon ; about 
seventeen hundred bottles and forty-eight demi- 
johns were sold at that rate. A few weeks later, 
among the articles of the cargo of the prize ship 
Nereid, one lot of wine, consisting of three decant- 
ers and one dozen tumblers, were sold at auction in 
New York for $112, another lot for $90^ andanothw 
for $85. 



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POPULAR FBEL1NQ8. 75 

Valuable and useful cargoes were frequently 
brought or sent into port as prizes of some of the 
many American privateers that were swarming on 
the ocean. 

The great mass of the people of New York did 
not now seem to be at all axudous about the condi- 
tion of national affairs. They had become so accus- 
tomed to the war, with its false promises and fears 
and experiences, that there was a remarkable apa- 
thy and blindness about the actual danger. 80 long 
as there was no present trouble or privation they 
gave little thought to the future. The hope of peace 
had been so long before them that it had become 
chronic in their feeling--4^ wish was the father of 
the thou^xt — ^and they would refuse to believe any 
rumor to the contrary. Every intelligence from 
abroad would be distorted to be an emissary that 
meant peaoe. It was otherwise to those in author- 
ity in the city, State and national councils. They 
were all anxious for the future. 



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a 



CHAPTER XXVn. 

River and Harbor Navigation About New York — Coasting' 
Trade — British Privateers in the Sound — Commodore Lewis 
After Them — Reinforcement of tho British Squadron- 
Blockade <St All the Ports of the United States— Strength of 
British and American Navies — Official Inspection of Defences 
of New York— Major-Oeneral Morgan Lewis in Ck)mmand — 
Movements of the Enemy. ^ 

^ ' AVIG ATION opened on the Hudson 
River early in March, and the steam- 
boats to Albany first commenced to 
run on the 19th of March. There 
'"i were three of them to Albany and 
one to Poughkeepsie. One started 
for Albany each alternate week 
day, commencing on Monday, and 
returned from Albany each alternate day, commenc- 
ing on Tuesday. One to Poughkeepsie and inter- 
mediate places, twice a week. Another steamboat 
to Amboy, N. J., and occasionally another went to 
Elizabethport, N. J. There was one on the ferry to 
Hoboken and one on the Paulus Hook (Jersey City) 
ferry. There was one that went to Brooklyn, but 
did not run regularly on the ferry from Beekman's 
Slip (now Fulton Street) to Old Ferry Slip (now 
foot of Fulton Street), Brooklyn. Her first trip was 
on May 10th, 1814. The lease for nmning this 
steam ferry boat was executed on January 24th, 1814. 



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THE EMBARGO AND THE COASTING TliADE. 77 

These were all the steamboats that were then run* 
ning in this part of the United States. Steamboats 
only carried passengers at that time. The ste^jn 
ferries carried passengers, teams, etc« 

On April 5th the crew of the frigate Macedoniany 
blockaded at New London, sailed on board sloops on 
the Hudson River for Albany, on their way to the 
Lakes. Commodore Rodgers was present when they 
took their departure from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. 
He was heartily cheered by them. 

In April, Commodore Rodgers and the officers and 
crew of the President were transferred to the 
Gtierriere at Philadelphia. Commodore Decatur, 
with his officers and crew, were transferred from 
the United States (then blockaded at New London) 
to the President in New York harbor. 

The trade along Long Island Sound was the least 
affected by the embargo. The enemy's blockading 
squadron there kept strict watch for captures. 
Running the blockade in that direction was hazard- 
ous. 

The removal of the embargo in April naturally 
had a tendency to immediately revive the coasting 
trade. This also awakened the alertness of the 
enemy. 

The following item appeared in one of the New 
York daily papers : '^ April 5, 1814. Arrived this 
morning from New London, packets Cordelia^ 
Capt. Taber ; Juno, Capt. Howard ; Mary, Capt. 
Harris ; Jefferson, Capt. Forsyth ; smack Lookout, 
from Hempstead, and smack Fox from Qroton, in 
about 24 hours passage. Of the enemy a 74 and a 
frigate lay off New London, a frigate was at Plumb 



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fi AAW BT TMM BlfEMT 

Iskttid, imd A brig ^mishig with two dtnall skxyps in 
company. They had sent some baiges one day la«t 
WMk ov^ to Long Island near Southold, whare 
firing was heard, and the next morning four Mnall 
vessels were seen at anchor near the Comtnodore, 
harii^ probaMy been cut out from our coast. 

** The naval campaign in the Sound seems to be 
opening, and the vigilance and activity of the 
coasters and citizens near the shores will be requi- 
site to preserve their property from the depredations 
of the foe." 

The small boats of the enemy on Long Island 
Sound were particularly aggressive and annnoying. 
The 8th of April was designated by the Governor of 
Ck>nnecticut as a day for humiliation, fasting and 
prayer. On the night of the 7th a number of British 
barges, containing about two hundred and twenty 
men, under Lieut. Coote, from the blockading squad- 
ron, entered the mouth of the Connecticut River and 
passed up about seven miles and landed at a part of 
Saybrook, called Pettypaug, at four o'clock in the 
morning, where they found and destroyed four 
ships, four brigs, four schooners and nine sloops, 
owned in New York, Hartford, Middletown and 
Pettypaug. Many of the vessels were new and 
valuable. Among the number were two new letter 
of marque built schooners, These raiders continued 
their excursion all the next day, which was also 
GkK)d Friday, as well as the State fast day, and 
passed out of the river Friday evening to escape the 
militta, which were gathering in large force to 
attack them« 

Commodore Lewis at once made his way from 



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G UI9BOAT BNGAermENt, 1^ 

N#w Toric Gikf ttp the Sound wilh thirteen gu* 
boaitt for the pitnlecttcm of ttee coMt tr«le agaimt 
the BHtish prirate^^ caUed the Liverpool Batoh&t^ 
wfaidi WM cnming rery mischievoiMly all atong the 
Cotmecticiit shore. She fled eastward at Lewis' 
approach, atid when he reached Saybrook be found 
more than fifty vessete afraid to weigh anchor, for 
fear of this priyateer. Lewie undertook to convoy 
them with his flotilla to New London. The entire 
fleet sailed on the 25th of April, and during the 
afternoon Lewu had a sharp engag^nent with a 
British frigate^ sloop and tender, but our merchant 
fleet escaped them and entered the Thames with 
safety. The blockading squadron was near by, 
and Lewis determined to attack the blockading 
squadron with his gunboats. He b^an by firing 
hot shot, which set the British vessels on fire, and 
he soon disabled the sloop which had attacked him 
while convoying the coasting vessels, and he 
maimed the frigate also, when night set in and the 
firing ceased. It was excessively dark and at dawn 
Lewis saw the enemy towing away the maimed 
vessel, and several other British frigates made their 
appearance and Lewis withdrew and returned to 
New York. 

Captain Paget, of the Superb (seventy-four), one 
of the enemy's vessels cruising off Sandy Hook, 
fmsA a fiag on shore on April 31st, the int>fessed 
object of which was to assure Commodore Lewis 
that no fishermen would be mc^ested by His British 
Majesty's vess^ of war. 

As has been before stated, the political and miH<* 
tary affairs of Europe which resulted ^'omthe cam* 



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BB1TI8H OFFER TO 



paign of 1813 looked to the downfall of Napoleon, 
which meant peace there, and would leave England 
free to carry on the war against America, with all 
her nmneroos ^md well-appointed fleets and armies, 
in a most vigorous manner. This was determined 
upon by England some time bef(»re the result of 
tiie campaign of 1813 was even known in America. 
With this end in view the navy was to be the prin- 
cipal arm of the British service. 

On November 22, 1813, the British Cabinet ap- 
pointed Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane to succeed 
Sir John Borlasse Warren as commander at the 
North American coast ; the Jamaica and Barbadoes 
stations to be separate commands ; Admiral Brown 
to continue to hold at Jamaica ; Gen. Ebrington to 
take the command at Barbadoes , Admiral Durham 
to succeed Sir Francis Laforey at the Leeward 
Islands. 

Soon after Admiral Cochrane's arrival at Bermu- 
da, he issued an offer to emigrants from the United 
States to settle in Canada. The terms were intended 
as very liberal, but there is no evidence that any citi- 
zen of New York or of the United States ever was 
induced by them, even at that troublesome time, to 
accept them, or ever changed his residence on that 
account. 

The following is a copy of the proclamation : 

** Whereas^ it has been represented to me that 
many persons now resident in the United States 
have expressed a desire to withdraw therefrom, 
with a view of entering into His Majesty's service, 
or as being received as free settlers into some of 
His Majesty's colonies, 



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AMERICA N EMIGRANTS, 81 

*' This is therefore to 

*' Give Notice, that all those who may be disposed 
to emigrate from the United States will, with their 
families, be received on board of His Majesty's ships 
or vessels of war, or at the military posts that may 
be established upon or near the coast of the ynited 
States, where they will have their choice of either 
entering into His Majesty's sea or land forces, or of 
being sent as free settlers to the British Possessions 
in North America or the West Indies, where they 
will meet with all due encouragement. 

^^ Given under my hand at Bermuda, this 2d day 
of April, 1814. 

^* Alexander Cochrane, 
'^ Admiral, etc. 
^* By command of the Vice- Admiral, 

''William Balhetchet." 

This proclamation was widely published in the 
American newspapers and caused much merriment 
at the time. 

If the oflfer to emigrants from the United States 
only caused derision, the Admiral had it in his power 
to issue a proclamation that would awaken them to 
his sincerity of purpose. Rumors had been afloat 
that Admiral Warren had issued a proclamation of 
of blockade of all the United States ports on the 
Atlantic coast, in February, excepting Boston and 
Newport. 

On the 7th of March a Spanish vessel arrived at 
Newport, and had the following indorsement on her 
register: 

'^ Pursuant to an order from Sir J. B. Warren, 



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82 BLOCKADE OF ALL PORTS. 

Admiral of the Blue, and commaDder-in-chief, etc.,. 
etc., these are to certify that I have boarded the^ 
Spanish brig St. PiOy and warned of all the ports in 
the United States of America being under a state of 
blockade, except Newport and Boston. Given under 
my hand on board H. M. ship NarcisssuSy off the 
Delaware, March 2, 1814. 

''J. R, LUMLEY, Capt." 

This notification was without foundation in fact.. 
It is probable that Captain Lumley thought that the- 
blockadeof November 16th covered as much as his 
notice indicated. In America it was thought to 
be another blockade. On May 7th authentic in- 
telligence arrived that Admiral Cochrane had issued 
a proclamation of strict and rigorous blockade of all 
the remaining ports, harbors, etc., in the United 
States which the blockade by Admiral Warren, 
dated November 16, 1813, had not included, and 
those were still continued in a state of blockade. 

The proclamation continued: **And, whereas, 
since the institution of the said blockade, the enemy, 
availing himself of the supphes which have been 
furnished by means of neutral communication to 
those ports and places of the United States which, 
were left open and unrestricted, hath already fitted 
out numerous vessels of war, and is now engaged in 
constructing and setting forth several ships of the 
line, as well as frigates and other armed vessels, 
for the purpose of prosecuting the war with Great 
Britain, and frustrating the object of the said block- 
ade, etc. . . 

" In addition to the said ports and places block- 



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BRIT18H NAVY AT SEA . 83 

aded as aforesaid, all the remainining ports, har- 
bors, bays, creeks, rivers, inlets, outlets, islands, and 
sea coasts of the said United States of America, from 
the point of land commonly called Black Point* then 
to the northern and eastern boundaries between the 
United States and the British provinces of New 
Brunswick, in America, to be in a strict and rigor- 
ous blockade. 

" And I do further declare that I have stationed off 
the said ports and places hereinbefore mentioned, a 
naval force adequate to maintain the said blockade 
in the most rigorous and effective manner." 

It was issued from Bermuda, and dated April 25^ 
1814. 

This was the final order of blockade, which with 
those already issued, officially blockaded the entire 
sea coast, bays, ports, etc., of the United States. 
This order of blockade had been issued without any 
knowledge by the Admiral of the state of affairs 
that had taken place in Europe in the early part of 
1814. The repeal of our embargo laws undoubtedly 
had something to do with it, and the knowledge of 
the fitting out of three war vessels from the navy 
yards in Portsmouth, N. H., and Charlestown, 
Mass., may have had some effect. 

On June 3d the British navy at sea was as fol- 
lows : Ships of the hne, 38 (from forty-four to fifty 
guns, 9); frigates, 124 ; sloops, etc., 93 ; bombs 9 ; 
and fire ships, 7 ; brigs, 127 ; cutters, 28 ; schoon- 
ers, etc., 41. Total, 467. This force was disengaged 

♦ Three miles south of Narragansett Pier. 



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S4 STRENQTH OF AMERICAN NA VT, 

and could be at once brought to bear upon the 
United States, and added to the force already there. 

In November, 1813, the enemy had seventy-one 
war vessels at Halifax and Newfoundland stations, 
and in South America twenty-eight, and at the 
West India station, and on the passage there sixty- 
height more. Total, 167. The number on blockade 
duty on the American coast was not reported. Two 
of fifty guns each were fitted out for the American 
service in November and December, 1813, and four 
of forty guns each were fitted out the fore part of 
the year 1814, and were akeady on our coiist. 

The American naval force then on the Atlantic 
stations, as appears by an official report in March, 
consisted of thirty-three vessels, exclusive of gun- 
boats, as follows : 3 seventy-fours, building ; 3 
forty-fours, building ; 3 forty-fours, on different 
stations ; 3 thirty-sixes ; 1 thirty two, cruising ; 2 
twenty-fours, corvettes ; 8 sloops, of eighteen guns 
each ; 5 sloops, of sixteen guns each ; 2 brigs, of 
fourteen guns each ; 2 schooners, of fourteen guns 
each ; 1 bomb brig. 

Only twenty-seven of the above were in actual ser- 
vice. There were 120 gunboats in the several ports 
on the Atlantic coast and bays, and 32 barges 
equipped, and 59 barges building, and eleven armed 
vessels attached to stations and flotillas. 

A large number of British vessels were still en- 
gaged in the blockade of French ports. The allies 
of Great Britain in the war against Napoleon would 
not allow their war vessels to take the place of those 
of the British navy, the effect of which would be to 
allow the latter to use them in blockading American 



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SIRENOTH OF BRITISH NA VT. 85 

ports, and thus prevent trade with nations that were 
neutral in the American war. They also required 
their own war vessels (which were few in number) 
for the purpose of protecting their own coasts from 
incursions of the French. 

The British naval force, which was officially re- 
ported two months later, consisted of 981 vessels, as 
follows : At sea — 85 ships of the line, eleven of forty- 
four guns ; 115 frigates, 84 sloops, 5 yachts, 6 bombs, 
12S brigs, 17 cutters, 33 schooners, gun vessels, 
luggers, etc. Total at sea, 484. In port and fitting — 
37 of the line, five of forty-four guns, 20 frigates, 28 
sloops, etc., 2 bombs, 128 brigs, 9 cutters, 14 
schooners. Total, 163. Guard ships — 4 of the line, 
4 of fifty guns each, 3 frigates, 5 sloops. Total, 16. 
Hospital ships, prison ships, etc. — 29 of the line, 2 
of fifty guns each, 2 sloops. Total, 33. Ordmary 
and repairing for service — 73 of the line, 10 from 
forty-four to fifty guns each, 79 frigates, 49 
sloops, etc. ; 4 bombs, etc. ; 15 brigs, 1 cutter ; 1 
schooner, etc. Total, 225. Building— 23 of the line, 
4 of forty- eight guns, 9 frigates, 17 sloops, etc.; 2 
brigs. Total, 55. This did not include those on the 
American lakes, nor a large number of private 
armed vessels that were hired to protect the coasting 
trade of Great Britain and her possessions. 

At the time of the declaration of the American 
war, the French navy were as follows : 8 frigates,, 
of one hundred and twenty guns each ; 6 frig- 
ates of eighty guns each ; 69 frigates of seventy- 
four guns each ; 72 frigates averaging forty guns 
each. Total vessels, 155 ; carrying 9,425 guns. 

This navy had become a wreck. It could no 



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86 NEUTRAL NATIONS OBJECT. 

longer help us by drawing British war vessels away 
from America. Hopeful and far-seeing American 
statesmen beheved that this comprehensive blockade 
order would be objected to by neutral nations, as they 
were all jealous of the great naval power of Great 
Britain. The extent of the vast line of the blockade 
and the force necessaiy to hold it (paper blockades 
had ceased to be regarded as vahd), and the distant 
countries that it would aflfect would cause some 
action against it on the part of neutral nations. 
Many neutral vessels were seized during the 
spring and summer of 1^14 that had clearances for 
American ports on the New England coast, and were 
taken to Halifax, and at the protest of the nations 
to which they belonged they were held until further 
directions were obtained regarding them. This hope 
was fulfilled, and special action was taken about it. 
The Boston Palladium of 29th October, 1814, said : 
^*It was reported a few days since that several 
of the neutral nations of Europe had complained to 
the British government of the extent of the blockade 
of the ports of the United States. And yesterday it 
was reported that an order bad been received at 
Halifax permitting the neutral vessels which had 
been sent in there and not adjudicated, to sail for 
their original ports of destination in the United 
States, not known to them to be blockaded at the 
time they commenced their voyages, and to return 
with cargoes. 

** No doubt there has been a negotiation in Eng- 
land on the subject of neutral vessels turned oflf 
from ports not known by them to be blockaded when 
they sailed, and the above is possibly the result. To 



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SKlRMian AT SAND T HOOK. 87 

take a return cargo under such circumstances would 
be among their rights. 

'*A considerable number of neutrals have been 
waiting at Halifax the issue of the despatches sent 
to England." 

This blockade did not have any appreciable effect 
upon the port of New York, as most of her trading 
points had been covered by the previous blockades, 
but it caused much apprehension of the prospects 
for a more vigorous prosecution of the war on the 
part of the enemy. In the fore part of May, Gen. 
Dearborn and Gen. Swift, of the corps of engineers, 
-examined all the defences of New York harbor, 
completing the inspection on the 17th of May. The 
^nemy was quite active in the vicinity of New York 
and elsewhere on the coast. 

A letter from Commodore Lewis, commanding 
the United States flotilla of gunboats at New York, 
to the Secretary of the Navy, gives an account of 
^nboat skirmishes. 

"New York Harbor, May 29, 1814. 

* * Sir : — I have the honor to inform you that on the 
19th I discovered the enemy in pursuit of a brig 
'under American colore standing for Sandy Hook. 
I ordered a detachment of eleven gunboats to pro- 
<3eed to sea and pass between the chase and the 
^nemy, by which means to bring him to action and 
to give opportimity to the chase to escape, all which 
was effected. The enemy, after receiving my fire, 
bore away, and the brig in question entered the har- 
bor — proved to be the brig Regent^ from France, 
with a very valuable cargo. 



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88 SKIRMISH IN THE SO UND. 

** And on Monday the 23d, I engaged the enemy 
before New London, and opened a passage for forty 
sail of coasting vessels. The action lasted three 
hours, in which the flotilla suffered very httle. No. 
6 received a shot under water, and others through 
the sails. We have reason to beUeve that the 
enemy suffered very great injury, as he appeared 
unwilling to renew the action the following morn- 
ing. My object was accomplished, which was to 
force a passage for the convoy. There are before 
New London three 74s, four frigates, and several 
small vessels ; the latter doing great injury from 
their disguised character and superior sailing. 

**I have the honor to assure you of my high 
respect, J. Lewis. 

** To Hon. William Jones, Secretary of Navy." 

Up to this time Fort Tompkins consisted of only 
temporary earthworks, although it had been de- 
signed by the engineers to be a formidable fortress of 
masonry of the most substantial and permanent 
form. The state appropriations had not been sufficient 
to carry out the work, but now, the recent appro- 
priations for fortifications on Staten Island had been 
applied to it and the work had been pushed forward. 

The corner-stone of the permanent structure of 
Fort Tompkins was laid on the 26th of May, in the 
presence of Governor Tompkins, Commodore De- 
tur and other distinguished men. The band that be- 
longed to the British frigate Macedonian when she 
was captured by the United Staies, gave zest to the 
occasion. A special steamboat was engaged for the 
distinguished visitors. 



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FULTON'S STEAM IRONCLAD. 89 

About the end of May Gen. Swift invited Gov- 
ernor Tompkins and Mayor Clinton to examine with 
him the East River to Throgg's Point, and the main 
channel to sea by Sandy Hook. Gen. Swift then 
gave his opinion that there should be constructed a 
line of defences in the rear of Brooklyn, and another 
from opposite Hallet's Point in Hell Gate west 
along the ridge of Harlem Flats, across York Island 
to Mount Alto on the Hudson River, near foot of 
West 124th street. 

On 29th May Col. Nicholas Fish, of the Committee 
of Defence, called upon Gen. Swift in Brooklyn and 
informed him of the uneasy apprehension of the 
citizens of New York, and wished to consult on the 
mode of communicating with the War Department 
on the measures needful to defend the city. 

The Society for Coast and Harbor Defence was 
organized in May for the purpose of building the 
steam war frigate according to the model and plans 
of Robert Fulton. 

An attempt had been made to have a law passed 
by the New York Legislature to make this body a 
corporation, but it was defeated. 

The building of the vessel was then committed to 
this association, who appointed a sub-committee of 
five gentlemen, whose names were Major Gen. 
Henry Dearborn, Col. Henry Rutgers, Oliver Wol- 
cott, Samuel L. Mitchell and Thomas Morris. Col. 
Rutgers was made chairman of this body, and Wm. 
B. Crosby, secretary. 

As the recognized agents for that purpose, Mr. 
Fulton was appointed by them the engineer. Work 
upon her was hastened with all convenient speed. 



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^0 OBN. Mono AN LEWIS IN NEW YORK, 

On the 20th of June, 1814, the keel of the war vessel 
planned by him was laid in the shipyard of Adam 
& Noah Brown in New York City at Corlear's Hook. 

On June 10th Governor Tompkins and Mayor 
Clinton visited Gen. S\\if t, and it was determined to 
employ spies, by funds of the city, to visit the Brit- 
ish squadron off Sandy Hook. The spies brought 
sketches of the cabins of Sir John B. Warren and 
Sir Thomas M. Hardy, who, it was asserted, con- 
templated a descent at some point on the coast 
between Rhode Island and Chesapeake Bay. Gen. 
Swift reported this to the Secretary of War. 

In the early part of June, Gen. Dearborn was re- 
lieved of his command of the Third Military District 
and Col. Robert Bogardus, of the Forty-first U. S. 
Infantry, was temporarily in command. 

Major-Gen. Morgan Lewis was assigned by the 
President to the Third Military District, and he took 
command on the 15th of June, with headquarters 
in New York City. 

In the fore part of June authentic intelligence was 
received that large reinforcements from the British 
fleets and armies that had been engaged in the 
European contests, now terminated, were pro- 
ceeding to America to join the forces already there. 
The British force at Bermuda on June 17th were re- 
ported as nine ships of the line, and thirt-een frigates, 
besides many transports and fifteen thousand land 
troops. 

The forces at Halifax station had been lai'gely in- 
creased from Europe, and many more were expected 
to be soon added to the land and naval forces, pre- 
paratory to an attack upon the United States. 



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CHAPTER XXVin. 

Political Effect of the Blockade— Peace Negotiations— Views of 
Democrats and Federalists— Tammany Anniversary — Federalists 
Celebrate the Restoration of the Bourbons — Oration by Mr. 
Morris — Newspaper Accounts of the Celebration — Public Dinner 
and Toasts— Questions before the People. 

The eflfect of Admiral Cochrane's proclamation of 
a strict and rigorous blockade of all the ports and 
harbors of the United States were viewed differently 
by commercial men. Some claimed that it was a 
bad outlook for the country, while others thought it 
otherwise, arguing that under it Boston and the 
Eastern States were included in a blockade for the 
first time, and more unity of action and feeling 
would be necessary for the common defence. 

The expression of the feeling of the administration 
or war party about that time appeared prominent in 
the councils of Tammany Society. The Twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the founding of that society was 
at hand. The following announcement was made : 

^' Brothers — The anniversary of this society will 
be celebrated this day. At sunrise the national 
standard will be displayed on the Hall. At 6 
o'clock P.M. the members will assemble for the 
dispatch of ordinary business. At 7 p.m. an oration 
will be delivered by brother Matthew L. Davis, 
and at 8 p.m. the society will partake of a supper 



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92 A TAMMANF ANNIVERSABT, 

each member may invite a republican (democratic) 
friend. 

** By order, 

''H. Westervelt, Secretary." 

The following account is taken from the Colum- 
bian : 

*' The 25th anniversary of the Tammany Society 
was celebrated at their Hall on the 12th of May, 
1814. The society assembled at seven o'clock p.m., 
and after performing the ordinary business an 
oration was delivered by Matthew L. Davis." 

After the oration the society, together with a 
number of pohtical friends, partook of a supper pro- 
vided for the occasion by Messrs. Martling and 
Cozzens. 

The toasts drank were : 

1. The Day We Celebrate — a day sacred to friend- 
ship and patriotism. 

2. Our Country — her honor and her rights ; let the 
degenerate sons who would desert her in the hour 
of peril be an outcast in her prosperity. 

3. The State of New York — awakening from her 
sleep of delusion and strangling the serpent of cor- 
ruption with a giant's grasp. 

4. The President of. the United States. 

5. The Vice-President of the United States. 

6. The Governor of the State of New York. 

7. The Navy — unequalled in her prowess, un- 
rivalled in fame. 

8. The Army — may they yet do justice to the con- 
fiding hopes of their country in their valor and. 
devotion to its service. 



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PATRIOTIC TOASTS, 93 

9. The Heroes who have Fallen in Battle — the 
path of glory led them to the grave. 

10. The War, compelled for safety and for right — 
may its termination be honorable, as its object is 
just. 

11. The Union of the States — the security of our 
rights, the pledge of our greatness. 

12. The Memory of Washington — the glory of his 
country, the ornament of his kind. 

13. Thomas Jefferson — through its infancy and 
manhood the faithful guardian and devoted servant 
of his country. 

14. The Memory of the Sages and Heroes of the 
Revolution — ever to be cherished in the grateful rec- 
ollection of those for whom they toiled, and suffered 
and bled. 

15. Wisdom in our Councils, and Energy in our 
Measures. 

16. The Elective Franchise — the infallible cure 
for all disorders of the State. 

17. Our Maritime Rights — they can never be sur- 
rendered without the basest ingratitude to our 
brave tars, who so gloriously maintained them. 

18. Our Fair Daughters of Columbia. 

By the President. — The brave Capt. Warrington — 
he has added another trophy to the naval glory of 
our country. 

The toasts were interspersed with cheers and the 
singing of patriotic songs. 

The peace party at home was still active and in- 
fluential, and among the Federalists numbered some 
of the ablest men in the nation. They claimed that 
the downfall of Napoleon was favorable to win popu- 



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94 NEU0T1ATI0N8 FOR PEACE 

lar support and approval, which the administration 
must regard, and peace must result without obtain- 
ing from Great Britain any concessions which had 
been insisted upon by the administration. 

Negotiations for peace had been offered on the 
part of the United States as early as March, 1813, 
under the mediation of Russia, although it had been 
talked of since September, 1812. In the recess of 
the Senate the President appointed Albert Gallatin> 
James A. Bayard and John Adams, the latter then 
United States Minister to St. Petersburg, jointly and 
severally to negotiate a peace with Great Britain 
under the mediation of Russia. On the 15th of April, 
1813, the envoys were furnished with their full 
powers and with their instructions in detail from the 
department of state. On the 16th of May the en- 
voys sailed from New York for St. Petersburg, with- 
out knowing whether or not they would meet Brit- 
ish commissioners on the subject. In September, 
the negotiation through Russia was declined, but 
on November 4th a proposition for direct negotia- 
tion at Gottenburg, was made by the British 
government. This proposition reached Washing- 
ton on January 1, 1814, and was promptly accepted. 
Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell were added to the 
commissioners, and on the 28th of January received 
their instructions. On the 25th of February 
Messrs. Clay and Russell sailed from New York to 
join their colleagues. 

The feeling of the majority of the American com- 
missioners were in favor of the war policy of the 
United States. But that had very little to do with 
the proposed negotiations, as the commissioners 



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OFFERED BY THE UNITED STATES, 95^ 

were provided with full instructions from the state^ 
department as to the terms upon which peace could 
be had. The terms were well known at home and 
abroad as soon as formulated. The demand was 
nothing more nor less than had been repeatedly- 
claimed from Great Britain long before the war, and 
was ostensiby the cause of the war. There was^ 
nothing in the conduct or result of the war in the 
United States that would lead any person to sup- 
pose that Great Britain would now recede from 
her stand taken at the beginning of the troubles, 
and there certainly was much less reason for sup- 
posing that the result of the wars in Europe had 
induced Great Britain to seek or desire peace in 
America. 

After waiting at Gottenburg for some time, to- 
meet the British Commissioners, the American com- 
missioners received a proposition to transfer the ne- 
gotiations to Ghent. This was accepted and the 
American commissioners immediately repaired 
there. But no British commissioners were there 
yet, and no apology given for the delay. The course 
of events in Europe led our commissioners to expect 
further instructions — the American people were 
waiting to hear from them. 

In the early part of June, authentic intelligence 
arrived from Europe that France was occupied in 
March by three hundred thousand troops of the 
aUied powers, to be followed, if necessary, by five 
hundred thousand more. She had large forces 
abroad, but these being dispersed and without 
comunications couM no longer be of any use to 
France, nor even assist each other. A portion 



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96 FRANCE AND NAPOLEON 

of these forces were shut up in distant fortresses, 
which they might hold for a longer or shorter time, 
but which must necessarily yield to a blockade. 
Two hundred thousand French troops were prison- 
ers of war. Paris was in possession of the allies. 
Napoleon had abdicated the throne. In this state 
of aflPairs it was deemed policy on the part of 
France to put an end to hostilities by an armistice 
which was declared on the 22d of April. 

The preliminary treaty of peace between France 
and the allies was ratified on the 23d of April. The 
result of this was the restoration of the Bourbons 
to the thrones of France, Spain and Portugal. 

The condition of Europe as viewed in America 
was summed up by Mr. Holmes in the Senate of 
Massachusetts on June 8, 1814. He said : 

'* France is a mere colony of England. The king 
acknowledges that he owes his crown to Great Brit- 
ain. The balance of Europe is destroyed. Russia 
is exhausted. Austria and Prussia are drained. 
Spain is a desert. Holland is bankrupt. Sweden 
has enough to do reduce the frozen regions of Nor- 
way to subjection, and Denmark may look for her 
future power in British ports." 

The intelligence of the exile of Napoleon to the 
Isle of Elba was received here on June 10th. This 
last seemed to settle the question of peace in 
Europe. 

The Federalists or peace party seized upon this 
news to make a demonstration of their views. Sev- 
eral of them met together on the 18th of June, and 
afterwards made the following announcement : 

'^ At a meeting of the citizens of New York, as- 



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FSDERAL MEETING, 97 

sembled this 18th of June, 1814, at the Tontine 
Coffee House, to adopt some suitable mode of cele- 
brating the recent deliverance of Europe from mili- 
tary despotism, Mr. John B. Coles being called to 
the chair and Mr. Jonathan Goodhue appointed 
secretary, the following resolutions were adopted : 

^^ Resolved J That the subversion of the power of 
Napoleon in France, and the restoration of the 
Bourbons to the throne of that nation, is an event 
at which the friends of liberty and humanity 
throughout the world must rejoice, as it delivers 
Europe from a tyrant, stops the effusion of human 
blood, and saves the world from the apprehension 
of military despotism ; 

^^ Resolved, That, deeply impressed with the impor- 
tance of this great event, we will, in a suitable 
manner, commemorate the same, and that the fol- 
lowing gentlemen be a committee to make the 
necessary arrangements for the commemoration : 
Gen. Clarkson, Gen. Stevens, Col. Fish, Col. Varick, 
John B. Coles, Esq., John Wells, Esq., David B. 
Ogden, Esq., George Brinkerhoff, Esq., Charles 
King, Esq. 

''John B. Coles, Chairman. 
''Jonathan Goodhue, Secretary. ^^ 

The officers of the Washington Benevolent Soci- 
ety at that time were : Isaac Sebring, President ; 
Jacob Radchff, First Vice-President; Zachariah 
Lewis, Second Vice-President ; Leonard Fisher, 
Treasurer ; Isaac M. Ely, Secretary ; Anthony 
Woodward, Assistant Secretary ; David B. Ogden 
and Coe Gale, Jr., Councillors; Henry H. Onderdonk 



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98 CELEBRATION OF THE 

and Wm. Stevens, Physicians ; John P. Groshon, 
Charles Stewart, John Baker and Lewis Hartman, 
Standing Committee and Committee on Relief; 
Samuel Green, Centinel. 

The following notice was published : 

** The committee of arrangements having fixed on 
Wednesday, the 29th of June, for the celebration of 
the recent deliverance of Europe from the yoke of 
military despotism, give notice that the exercises of 
the day will take place in Dr. Romeyn's church, in 
Cedar street, and will commence at eleven o'clock in 
the forenoon. The Rev. Dr. Mason will open by 
prayer, after which an oration will be delivered by 
the Hon. Governeur Morris. 

'* Those gentlemen who are to attend the public 
dinner to be given at Washington Hall on that day 
will be entitled to tickets of admission for them- 
selves and friends." 

(Signed by the committee of arrangements.) 

At the time and place designated. Rev. Dr. Mason 
commenced the exercises of the day by reading part 
of the tenth chapter of Isaiah ; after a prayer an 
anthem was sung. The Hon. Governeur Morris then 
addressed the audience for nearly an hour. He took 
a rapid view of the great events in Europe for the 
last twenty-five years, the French revolution and the 
course of Napoleon, and concluded with the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons to the throne of Prance — a 
family to whom, under Providence, we are, he said, 
in a great measure indebted for our independence 
and freedom. 

The oration was received by the numerous and 



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DOWNFALL OF NAPOLKON, 99 

respectable audience with the highest marks of 
satisfactioa and applause. An anthem was sung 
and thus these exercises were closed. 

This address by Mr. Morris caused much com- 
ment at the time among all parties. It was de- 
risively known as Mr. Morris's ^^ Bourbon speech." 
It was lauded by the friends of peace and the 
Federalists, but the friends of the Administration and 
the Democrats denounced it. I have a full copy of it 
before me at the present writing. It is full of strik- 
ing sentences and oratorical flourishes. He was re- 
garded as the most eloquent speaker of the age. 
The speech commences as follows : 

" 'Tis done. The long agony is over. The Bour- 
bons are restored ! France reposes in the arms of 
her legitimate prince. We may now express our 
attachment to her consistently with the respect we 
owe to ourselves^ At the conclusion of the ad- 
dress, he said : 

** The Bourbons are restored. Rejoice, France ! 
Spain ! Portugal ! 'You are governed by your legiti- 
mate kings. Europe, rejoice ! The Boiu:bons are 
restored. The family of nations is complete. Peace, 
the dove descending from heaven, spreads over you 
her downy pinions. Nations of Europe, ye are breth- 
ren once more. Embrace, rejoice ! And thou, too, 
my much wronged country I My dear, abused, self- 
murdered country ! bleeding as thou art, rejoice. 
The Bourbons are restored. Thy friends now reign. 
The long agony is over. The Bourbons are re- 
stored." 

In the afternoon of that day, at four o'clock, the 
pubUc dinner was had at Washington Hall, in ac- 



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100 FEDERAIJ8T DINNER 

cordance with the published notice. Hon. Rufus 
King presided. The vice-presidents were Major 
Gten. Ebenezer Stevens, Gen. Mathew Clarkson, 
Col. Nicholas Fish and Messrs. Cornelius G. Bo- 
gart and John B. Coles. The walls were taste- 
fully enriched with flags of the various nations 
whose emancipation became the subject of congrat- 
ulation ; and with the emblems were displayed in 
the form of shields most elegantly paints, the 
whole enriched with garlands, shields, etc. Among 
the shields was that of William Tell, the emanci- 
pator of Switzerland. The allegorical allusion to 
the restoration of the Pope under the auspices of 
Russia, Austria, etc., was striking. The temple of 
garlands encompassing the portrait of Washington, 
supported on each side by the arms of America and 
France, the colors of each nation entwined to the 
eagle's mouth, the whole surmounted by the Rus- 
sian and Austrian flags, had a fine effect. 

The whole was designed by Mr. J. R. Smith, and 
the garlands executed by Mr. Qerlain. 

All foreign consuls attended the dinner, except 
the French Consul. 

The eminent John Jay was not able to be present. 
He was solicited to attend by Hon. Rufus King, but 
he regretted that his health prevented his presence 
on **so joyful an occasion." Chancellor Kent was 
present. 

After dinner the following toasts were drank : — 

1. The United States — Perpetuity to our civil and 
religious liberty. 

2. France — The first friend of America, may the 
recall of her king become the harbinger of concord 



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AND T0A8T8. 101 

at home and the restoration of her ancient rank 
among the nations of the world. 

3. The Constitution of the United States — The 
bond of our Union, the guarantee of a repubhcan 
government ; may it be cherished in the affections 
and protected by the arms of freemen. 

4. The Memory of Washington, the Deliverer of 
Ovr Country — By his valor and patriotism at the 
head of our armies he established an independence 
by his wisdom and firmness ; at the head of our 
government he preserved it from the fangs of that 
Jacobinism which has desolated Europe. 

5. The Recent Deliverance of Continental Europe 
from the Iron Scepter of Military Despotis m — Na- 
tions have recovered their independence and their 
oppressor is humbled in the dust, we therefore re- 
joice. 

6. The Emperor of Russia, the Deliverer of Eu- 
rope — A bright example of wisdom, fortitude and 
perseverance in adversity, but still more illustrious 
by clemency, justice and moderation in prosperity. 

7. The Emperor of Austria — Who nobly sup- 
pressed the feelings of nature to break the tyrant's 
chains. 

8. The King of Prussia — Worthy of Frederick the 
Great, he has redeemed the dominions and glory of 
his crown. 

9. Siveden — By the firmness of her councils she 
has baffled the schemes of the tyrant, and by the 
gallantry of her arms has revived the days of her 
great Gustavus. 

10. The United Netherlands— EslvIj and faithful 
friends of the United States, may their power by 



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102 FBDKRALISTff TOASTS, 

sea and land be established upon its ancient foun- 
dations. 

11. Spain — The Inquisition abolished and the 
King dehvered from bondage, niay the wisdom of 
the CJortez restore the ancient freedom and splendor 
of the nation. 

12. Portugal — The bravery of her sons has given 
freshness to the laurels of their ancestors. 

13. Peace— While we rejoice in its restomtion to 
the continent of Europe, may toe soon participate 
in its blessings on terms of safety and of honor. 

By Mr. Rufus King. — The establishment of a just 
balance of power among the nations of Europe, 
under which the rights of each shall be protected 
by the guarantee of all others. 

By Mr. G. Morris. — America — Sole exception in 
the Christian world ; may she soon be restored to 
the family of nations. 

After Mr. King and Mr. Morris had retired, Col. 
Fish took the chair and gave the following toasts . 

Our Worthy President, Rufus King — The- pride 
and hope of his country. 

Qovemeur Morris, the Orator of the Day — Suc- 
cess to the sound political principles which he has 
so ably and so eloquently unfolded. 

By the Recorder, Josiah Ogden Hoffman. — The 
Events We Celebrate — The emancipation of Europe 
is the jubilee of man. 

By the Hon. Richard Stockton (of New Jersey). — 
Louis XV III. y King of France and Navarre — Heir 
apparent to American gi-atitude. 

By the Russian Consul. — The City of Moscow — 
Long to be remembered for emitting the first gleam- 



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FBDBRALI8Tff TOASTS. 103 

ings of freedom which broke through Europe's 
deepest gloom. 

By the Spanish Consul. — Perpetual peace between 
the United States and Spain. 

By the Portuguese Consul. — May the doors of the 
Temple of Janus be closed forever in this charming 
country, and all nations form but one family. 

By Gten. Stevens. — The Events We Celebrate — 
Should they unexpectedly produce for our country 
a dishonorable demand, may it unite a free people 
as capable to defend their honor as to acquire their 
independence. 

By Gen. Clarkson. — These Slate Sy united at home, 
in friendship with the world ; may they cultivate 
peace on earth and good- will towai'ds men. 

By John B. Coles, Esq. — Wisdom and virtue, 
the parent and nurse of liberty and happiness ; folly, 
prejudice and vice their bane and ruin. 

By Ciharles King, Esq. (who took the chair after 
CoL Fish retired). — The Veteran Bliicher — Who has 
covered the baldness of age with the laurels of 
victory. 

The following account is from the Evening Post 
of June 30th, 1814: 

** The story was circulated that in the decorations 
of the room where the dinner was held, the British 
flag had been hoisted over the American. From 
this and various other causes a large concourse of 
people collected in front of Washington Hall, late 
in the evening, after the principal part of the com- 
pany had retired, and at length some among them 
proceeded to insult the gentlemen as they came out 
of the door, with the cry of * Tory ! Tory ! ' and some 



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104 NEWSPAPER COMMENTS 

stones were thrown into the windows. The watch- 
men and constables soon appeared and arrested 
twenty persons in all ; twelve of these were dis- 
charged in the morning, and eight were held in one 
hundred doUai's bail each to appear at trial at the 
Sessions." 

The Commercial Advertiser gave the following 
account of it : 

**The Riot. — Last evening, while the company 
mentioned above were still at the dinner table, a 
mob of near two thousand people collected in front 
of Washington Hall. They appeared much en- 
raged, used much severe and insulting language, 
and broke a number of the ^\indows. Some of tha 
stones thrown into the hall struck one or two of the 
gentlemen at the table. The peace officers were 
soon convened. Twenty or thirty of the most 
turbulent rioters were taken to the police office and 
confined, and the mob were dispersed. We under- 
stand that the rioters were examined this morning 
by the police magistrates, that eight of the leaders 
were bound over for trial at the next Sessions, in 
the sum of one hundred dollars each, with surety, 
and that the residue were discharged. The names 
of the persons bound over are as follows: — James 
McDougall, James Duke, John Leycraft, Abraham 
Thornton, Walter Van Vechten, David Truesdall, 
Richard Van Orden, Patrick Ruder. For this breach 
of the peace the citizens of New York are un- 
doubtedly, in a great measure, indebted to the 
editor of the Coltimhian. He has published for 
several days a number of paragraphs directly cal- 
culated to inflame the unthinking populace and to 



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ON THE CELSBUATION, 105 



produce the scene which actually occurred. Of 
these paragraphs we select the following from the 
• Cohnnbian of Monday, that it may be seen that we 
do not misrepresent the fact, and that the contempt 
of the public may light on the head which so richly 
deserves it: — 

*^ How great a fire a little spark may kindle. In 
all well regulated cities it is forbidden to place fire 
in stoves dangerously situated; and in some it is 
not permitted to smoke cigars in the streets — but in 
none is it allowed to keep powder in the midst of 
population and danger from accident. Although he 
is not excusable who applies the match, are they 
unblamable who inflame the atmosphere and pre- 
pare the combustible materials ? Those who will- 
fully excite and provoke disorder and violence can- 
not be wholly guiltless of their effects. And where 
there is no regard to decency, duty and honor, there 
should at least be some thought of common pru- 
dence." 

Of the celebration the Commercial Advertiser 
said : 

^* The Celebration. — A number of Democratic 
papers in different parts of the Union, mortified and 
exasperated at the destiny of their idol, Bonaparte, 
are daily leveling their malignant spleen at the 
men who think proper to celebrate the emancipa- 
tion of Europe from military despotism. Of these 
Jacobin papers the Columhfan of this city stands 
pre-eminently conspicuous — ^* the vilest among the 
vile." For several days, that paper has been filled 
with base and groundless imputations against many 
of the worthiest men in the community. It has 



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106 PEACE IN EUROPE 

denounced every American who rejoices in the 
downfall of the French tyrant as a traitor to our 
country, rejoicing in the victories of our enemy. In 
spite, however, of this pitiful slanderer — ^in spite of 
the whole host of Democratic editors who are 
mourning over Napoleon's defeated glory, the 
honest citizens of this country will rejoice with the 
rescued and exulting nations of Europe. Yes, we 
rejoice that the rod of the oppressor is broken, and 
the captives are set at Uberty. We rejoice in the 
sudden and providential emancipation of more than 
a hundred millions of our fellow beings. We 
rejoice that the most sanguinary and unrelenting 
tyrant the world ever saw has finished his blood- 
stained career. We rejoice that the great scourge 
of nations is stript of its colossal power, and driven 
as an outcast from that suffering and desolated con- 
tinent. We rejoice that Spain, Portugal, Fiance, 
Holland, Italy, Prussia and the whole of the Ger- 
manic Empire are all delivered from the iron yoke 
under which they have so long struggled. Yes, we 
rejoice — every Christian ought to rejoice — eveiy 
man on eai-th in whose bosom dwells one spark of 
humanity will rejoice that the tremendous torrent 
of human blood which for twenty-five years has del- 
uged the fairest portion of the civilized world is 
stayed by the Omnipotent Sovereign of the Uni- 
verse, and that peace and national independence, so 
long strangers and exiies, are permitted once more 
to revisit the poor,. suffering, afflicted inhabitants 
of Continental Europe. 

*' These are the subjects of our rejoicing, and he 
who condemns us for mingling our thanksgiving 



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AHfB THE WAR IN AMERICA. 107 

• ■ ■ 

and our gratulation with the universal voice of 
Europe on these glorious results is a pitiful and 
narrow-minded wretch, unworthy to be^ called a 
Christian, a patriot, or a man. To our own country 
we anticipate also the happiest results from the 
events we have celebrated. Should we, however, be 
disappointed in this — should our enemy reject offers 
of peace on terms mutuaUy beneficial and honorable 
— should Great Britain attempt to destroy our inde- 
pendence — should war rage here as it lately raged 
in the Old World, it will be your Holts and your 
Duanes and your Gales, men who cannot feel for 
others' woes, who can neither weep with those who 
weep, nor rejoice with those who rejoice, that will 
first shrink from the contest. It is always beings 
hke these who would sacrifice their countiy for their 
own personal emolument or safety." 

The celebration could not be properly referred to 
as showing any feeling hostile to the welfare of the 
United States. The patriotism of those whose 
names appear prominent in it were never questioned 
or doubted. Hon. Rufus King was the prime mover 
of the demonstration. 

The exile of Napoleon had put a somewhat defi- 
nite aspect upon the American war — there would 
either be peace at once or a more vigorous and 
determined effort of invasion by land, aided and 
supported by the great power of the British navy, 
which was now unincumbered. In case of British 
success in America it meant peace, but the peace of 
subjection on such terms as Great Britain might de- 
mand. Should there be great efforts to avert it on 
the part of America ? — or must it come after pillage 



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108 NO SURRENDER, 



and desolation, accompanied by the greatest possible 
national humiliation of surrendering up independ- 
ence which had been so long cherished and held up 
by sire and son to the admiration of all nations, and 
proved such a bright page in the history of the 
world ? To us at this distant day it seems as if 
there would have been no wavering as to the de- 
termination of the men and women of that day. 



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CHAPTER XXIX. 

Fourih of July Celebration— Tammany and Washington Soci- 
ety Processions- Mr. Wheaton's Oration— Tammany Din- 
ner and Toasts— Amusements of the Day — Evening Enter- 
tainments—Fireworks at Vauxhall Garden. 

PROM the narrative already given of occur- 
) rences immediately preceding the Fourth of 
July the reader will infer that its celebration 
was in keeping with the political feeling 
already shown by the leaders, with no small portion 
of the populace at their back — but how and in what 
manner and to what extent it would reach without 
allowing almost treasonable hostility to the general 
government no one could conjecture; although both 
political parties claimed to be friends of the general 
government and acting for the general welfare, their 
line of action to secure these ends for the people con- 
tinued to be directly opposite to each other, as they 
had been for many years before the declaration of 
war. From a careful study of the men and man- 
ners of that period the writer believes that the 
motives of each party were pure and honestly 
patriotic, and designed for the welfare of the people 
and the benefit of the country. 

We cannot at this distant day properly judge 
which party was the most wise and exercised the 
most foresight as to the future welfare of the coun- 
try in the political struggles of [those times. But 



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110 VETERAN CORPS CELEBRATE 

we can see that the actual effect was more the re- 
sult of accident, or a series of them, than of prac- 
tical wisdom on the part of any party or class of 
men. In fact, the leaders of that day could not 
have prevented the result to the American people. 

The plans for the celebration of the 4th of July, 
1814, had been started many weeks before that date, 
but had changed many times as events arose that 
affected the opinions of the political societies that 
took up the matter and were not formulated as 
finally carried out until a few days before that na- 
tional anniversary. 

The earliest movement in the observance of the 
day was by the Independent Veteran Corps of Artil- 
lery, under the command of Capt.Geo.W. Chapman. 
They assembled at the Arsenal on Elm Street at three 
o'clock A.M. They then marched to the residence of 
Governor Tompkins, on Bowery Lane, near Houston 
Street, and offered him the compliments of the day 
and fired a federal salute of eighteen guns in front 
of his house. He had returned from Albany the day 
before ; they were received by his excellency with 
his usual urbanity. The corps then returned to 
the Arsenal and was dismissed. 

At sunrise an artillery salute was fired at the 
Battery by men detailed from General Morton's bri- 
gade. The uniform Militia, under General Morton, 
paraded on the Battery at half- past six in the morn- 
ing. At seven o'clock they were reviewed by 
Governor Tompkins and Major-General Stevens. 
After performing several evolutions they took up 
a line of march up Broadway and Parrc Row to the 
jail, then across the^Park .in front of City Hall to 



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THK iTH OF JULY, m 

Broadway, then down to Fulton (Partition) Street, 
then to Greenwich Street, and then down to the 
Battery, where a feu de joie was fired by the 
Artillery. 

At nine o'clock the Veteran Corps of Artillery re- 
assembled at the Arsenal and marched to the resi- 
dence of Captain Chapman, on Washington street, 
ne&r Beach street, where they were presented with 
an elegant standard by Mrs. Frances Warren Fraser. 
She delivered the following address : 

^^ Gentlemen : I congratulate you on the thirty- 
eighth anniversary of American Independence — a 
blessing which cost you the privation, toils and 
perils of a seven years' arduous contest. With heart- 
felt pleasure do I view the war-worn veteran, claim- 
ing no exemption for age or infirmity, again draw 
his sword in his country's cause. As a feeble testi- 
mony of my respect, permit me to present your 
honorable corps a standard consisting of thirteen 
stripes, the number of our revolutionary States. 
Blue, predominating, is emblematic of the fidelity of 
our immortal Washington and his brave comrades 
of the Revolution. Red, indicative of that precious 
blood shed in obtaining our independence, and 
white, studded with golden flowers, representing the 
blessings which accompany an honorable peace ; the 
pointed banner in a field of white, surmounted with 
your appropriate motto {Pro Deo et Pair id), will for- 
oibly^remind you of the purposes and QbUgations of 
your association. 

'* Veterans! Accept this standard. May you 
always display it in your country's cause and furl 
it with honor ! " 



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112 TAMMANY CELEBRA TE8. 

The standard was received with present arms by 
the corps and a salute of martial music. Lieut. 
Isaac Kieler replied in behalf of the corps. After 
this the corps then marched to the Arsenal and fired 
the signal salute for the joining the procession of 
the day. For this purpose they were in three pla- 
toons. The advanced guard, under Captain Chap- 
man ; the rear guard under Lieutenant John Nixon 
and the guard of honor for the Genius of Colum- 
bia, orator of the day, and standards of the different 
civic societies under Sergeant Osborn. 

The public celebration was by two grand pro- 
cessions — one represented the Democratic party and 
led by Tammany Society ; the other represented the 
Federalists, led by the Washington Benevolent So- 
ciety and the Hamilton Society. 

The principal or main celebration being by Tam- 
many and many other civic societies combined. 

The announcement of Tammany was as follows : 

^^ Tammany Society ok Columbian Order. 

'* Brothers: You are requested to assemble at 

Tammany Hall on Monday next, the 4th inst., at 

half -past eight o'clock in the morning, to join in the 

celebration of the 38th anniversary of our national 

independence. Each brother will appear with the 

buck's tail in his hat, and may be provided with 

tickets for the anniversary dinner at the bar, to 

which each brother has the privilege of inviting a 

Republican friend. 

'^ By order of the Society, 

*'H. Wester VELT, Sec'y. 
''July 2d." 



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THB ATff OF JUL T. 113 

An eye witness gave the following account : 
At sunrise the national flag was displayed at all 
the public buildings and on the shipping in the har- 
bor. At nine o'clock the different societies (except- 
the Washington Benevolent and Hamilton) began 
to assembl) in Nassau street opposite Tammany 
Hall. The Grand Marshal of the day, Garrit Sickles, 
Esq., assisted by his aids, arranged them in the fol- 
lowing order : 

1. Tammany Society, each member with a buck- 
tail in his hat. 

2. Hibernian Provident Society. 

3. The bearer^of the national flag, accompanied by 
the Genius of Columbia (an allegorical figure that 
originated in Tammany Society and used by them 
in all pubUc parades of that society), supported on 
her right by Wm. Donovan, Esq., the assigned rea ?er 
of the Declaration of Independence and on her left by 
Benj. Parshall, Esq., the assigned reader of Wash- 
ington's farewell address. In the rear of these were 
Robert Swanton, the chairman, and George Har- 
sin, Jr., the secretaiy and treasurer of the general 
committee of arrangements, each bearing an em- 
blem of his office. All these were flanked by the 
blue banners of the different societies, accompanied 
by a detachment from the Veteran Corps of Artil- 
lery under Sergeant Osborn. 

4. Columbian Society. 

5. Cordwainers' Society. 

6. Military officers off duty. 

7. Veteran corps of artillery with their field 
pieces. 

At ten o'clock the Grand Marshal and his aides in 



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114 lAMMANT PR0GE88I0N. 

cocked hats and long plumes, preceded by a band of 
music, took their station at the head of this body, and 
at the signal of eighteen guns fired by the Veteran 
Corps of Artillery, proceeded down Beekman Street 
to Pearl, down Pearl to Wall, up Wall to Broad- 
way, up Broadway to Cortlandt, down Cortlandt to 
Greenwich Street, up Greenwich to Duane, up 
Duane to Hudson Square (St. John's Park), along 
Hudson Square to Anthony, up Anthony to 
the new theater west of Broadway. The van of 
the procession then opened to the right and left, fac- 
ing inward ; the Grand Marshal and his aids pro- 
ceeded down between the lines and met the Genius 
of Columbia and her party and conducted them up 
to the theater, the military and societies following in 
reverse order. The band was vigorously playing 
Yankee Doodle in the meantime. The front of the 
theater was decorated with transparencies showing 
some of the glorious achievements of our naval 
heroes. 

On entering the theater the grand national stand- 
ard was placed in the centre of the stage, the Genius 
of Columbia, the orator of the day and the readers 
were seated on the stage, and the standards, ban- 
ners, etc., of each society were airanged on each 
side and appropriate scenery was at the rear. The 
military and civic societies were seated in the body 
of the house. The doors were opened to the public 
at 11 o'clock. The grand marshal called the whole 
to order and the exercises proceeded as follows : 

1. Music by the band. 

2. Reading Declaration of Independence. 

3. Music by the band. 



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FEDERALISTS' CELEBRATION. \\b 

4. Washington's Farewell Address. 

5. Music and collection. 

6. Oration by Henry Wheaton, Esq.* 

7. Music by the band. 

On retiring from the theater the same order was 
retained as on entering. The march was up An- 
thony street to Broadway, down Broadway to Pearl, 
down Pearl to Chatham, down Chatham to Tam- 
many Hall. A hollow square was then formed and 
the band played a few appropriate tunes, nine 
cheers were then given and the whole were dis- 
missed. 

The grand standard of the United States was dis- 
played in front of Tammany Hall until sundown. 

The Federalists' celebration was commenced by 
the display of the United States flag at sunrise on 
Washington Hall on Broadway (where Stewart's 
Building now is). The membei's of the Washing- 
ton Benevolent and Hamilton societies assembled at 
Columbia College Green (now Park Place) at ten 
o'clock, each member with his badge worn in the 
usual manner. The procession formed at half past 
ten and moved at eleven o'clock, in the .following 
order : Volunteer escort, grand marshal of the day 
and his four aids ; Hamilton Society, grand mar- 
shal of the Hamilton Society and his four aids, 
committee of arrangements ; banner of independ- 



*Mr. Wheaton was at that time editor of the National Advo- 
cate, the only dailv paper in New York city that openly ahd 
avowedly supported the administration and defended the Fresi- 
dent and Governor Tompkins in every act and every baneful ac- 
cusation against them. He afterwards became the eminent 
author of the History of the Law of Nations and other works 
which bear his name. 



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116 WASHINGTON BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 

ence, flanked on the right by a banner bearing the 
date of the evacuation ot the city by the British and 
on the left by a banner bearing the date of the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution by the State. 
The Hamilton Society formed in nine divisions, be- 
tween which was borne the banners of the society, 
supported by members in military uniform in the 
following order : Trumbull, Ames, Wayne, Lin- 
coln, Lawrence, Ludlow and Washington ; grand 
standard, flanked on the right by the banner of 
Yorktown and on the left by banner of Monmouth ; 
tylers, assistant treasurer and assistant secretaries, 
and treasurer and secretary, counsellor carrying 
the constitution of the society, standing commit 
tee ; president, first vice-president on his right 
and second vice-president on his left ; deputy mar- 
shal. 

The Washington Benevolent Society, in the 
following order: The banner of independence,, 
flanked by two smaller banners and supported by 
miUtary and naval characters of the Revolution •, 
the society, four abreast, in fourteen divisions, each 
under the dh^ection of two assistant marshals, pre- 
ceded by a banner on which was inscribed the 
name of a deceased patriot of the Revolution. 
This was called the Washington band and was in 
divisions, which were seven on each side of a ban- 
ner, as follows : on the right, Hancock, McDoug- 
all, Putnam, Schuyler, De Kalb, Knox, Greene \ 
on^ the left, Wooster, Mercer, Montgomery, War- 
ren, Steuben, Lincoln, Hamilton ; the Washing- 
ton standard, flanked by two others, borne and 
supported as the banner of independence. Captain 



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FEDERALISTS' PROCESSION. 117 

Van Wart, one of the captors of Major Andre, 
bearing a standard emblematic of that event ; 
Washington band of music, committee of arrange- 
ments, standing committee and oflBcers of the 
society ; orator of the day, Theodore Varick, Esq. ; 
president of the society, with first vice-president 
with the United States Constitution on his right, 
and on his left second vice-president with Washing- 
ton's farewell address ; escort. 

The route of the procession was from College 
Green, (Park Place) to Broadway, down Broadway 
to Partition (now Fulton street), down Partition 
street to Greenwich street, up Greenwich street to 
Chambers street, up Chambers street to Broadway, 
up Broadway to Washington Hall, corner of Duane 
street. When the van arrived at the hall the pro- 
cession halted and opened to the right and left, face 
inward, and marched from the rear through the line 
and entered the hall. The officers of the Hamilton 
Society were seated on the right of the stage and 
those of the Washington Society on the left. The 
Washington and Hamilton standards were placed 
on the stage and the banners were distributed in dif- 
ferent parts of the hall. 

The exercises were opened by a prayer, then a 
piece of solemn music by the band. The Declara- 
tion of Independence was read by Francis Child, Jr. 
A piece of soft music was played, during which a 
collection was taken up for the relief of indigent 
members of the two societies. An ode prepared for 
the occasion, set to music, was then simg by Mr. 
Uii K. Hill. The oration followed. Then martial 



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118 MILITARY PARADE. 

music by the full band — Yankee Doodle as a finale, 
and the members were dismissed. 

The members of these two societies partook of a 
dinner in the afternoon at Washington Hall, but in 
separate rooms. 

The address of Mr. Varick and the toasts given at 
the dinner were not published. 

In Mr. Wheaton's address he said : 

^^The awful danger of the crisis admonish us to 
Union ! In that word is contained a potent charm 
that, could we wear it near our hearts, would assiure 
our safety in any perils that may await us. We 
must now gather the fair fruits of peace which hang 
on the precipice of our degradation, beneath which 
the abyss yawns for our independence, or we must 
grasp them on the field of battle where vaJor is the^ 
herald of victory. 

* ih * * * * * 

** And is there any still baser wretch, a coward 
living to die with lengthened shame, who would 
wish to purchase peace by a sacrifice of national iur 
terests and rights and honor ? — to see us descend 
from that rank in the scale of nations to which the 
virtue and valor of our fathers exalted us ? " * * * 

The Governor, nor the military as a body, nor the 
Mayor or other city officials did not take any part 
in either of the processions nor attend the dinner of 
either of the societies. The military parade was 
headed by the Governor and his guards and was en- 
tirely independent of any other procession. 

The Independent Veteran Corps of Artillery, after 
accompanying the procession to the Anthony Street 
Theater and the conclusion of the ceremonies there. 



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TA MM AN 7 TOASTS, 1 1 9 

were dismissed with the procession at the park ; 
then they retired to a dinner at Kent's Hotel, on 
Broad street, and drank to appropriate toasts. 

The flotilla of gunboats under Commodore Lewis, 
came up from Sandy Hook and formed in a semi- 
circle in front of the Battery dressed in various 
colors, in which position they fired a salute at mid- 
day. Immediately after which they sailed with the 
favoring breeze and the ebbing tide to their station 
at Sandy Hook. 

The French brig Olivier, which had recently ar- 
rived in port, was anchored in the Hudson off the 
Battery. She was decorated with the flags of all 
the nations of Europe except that of England. She 
answered the different salutes fired from our forti- 
fications. As she was about getting under way to 
sail down to Sandy Hook with the tide she fired a 
federal salute and as she passed Castle Williams her 
salute was returned with twenty-one guns. 

On the dismissal of the Tammany procession the 
members of Tammany Society sat down to a repast 
prepared by Messrs. Marling & Cozzens, the pro- 
prietors of Tammany Hall hotel. After the cloth 
was removed the following toasts were drank. 

1. The Ever-memorable Fourth of July, '76— the 
birthday of our independence. Three cheers. 

2. The President of the United States. Three 
cheers. 

3. The Vice-President of the United States. 
Three cheers. 

4. The Heads of Departments. 

5. The Governor of tfie State of New York. 



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120 TAMMANY TOASTS. 

6. The Memory of Washington and other de- 
parted Heroes of our Revolution. 

7. The Army and Navy of the United States. 
Nine cheers. 

8. The Union of the States — the palladium of our 
safety. Thirteen cheers. 

9. The Congress of '76. 

10. Thomas Jefferson, the author of our Declara- 
tion of Independence — the statesman, i»hilosopher 
and patriot. Three cheers. 

11. The People of the United States — pre-eminent 
in freedom, invincible in union. Six cheei-s. 

12. Domestic Manufactures. 

13. The State of* New York — emancipated from 
political thraldom. Thirteen cheers. 

. 14. The Memory of Pike, Lawrence and other De- 
parted Heroes, who have fallen in this second strug- 
gle for independence. 

15. The Ocean : its surface to those who advo- 
cate its freedom, its bottom to those who would 
wish to usurp it. Three cheers. 

16. Honorable Peace or Vigorous War. Three 
cheers. 

17. Our Ministers in Europe — ^they will never dis- 
grace their country by agreeing to a dishonorable 
peace. Three cheers. 

18. The American Fair. 

VOLUNTEER TOASTS. 

By the deputation from the Columbian Society : 
America, Sole Exception in the Christian World— the 
only member of the family of nations that can boast 



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TAMMANY TOASTS. 121 



the celebration of the thirty-eighth anniversary of its 
independence. 

By Henry Wheaton, Esq. (orator of the day). 
The Army — Presaging flashes of heroic enterprise 
show what it will perform when com manded by a 
general worthy of American soldiers. 

By Matthew L. Davis, president of Tammany 
Society : William B. Crawford, our Minister in 
France — the sincere and ardent friend — the firm 
and intelUgent statesman — the inflexible and dis- 
interested republican. 

After the orator (Heniy Wheaton, Esq.) retired 
the following toast was drunk with three cheers : 
The Orator of the Day — his merits we leave the pub- 
lic to appreciate. 

By A. Stagg, president of the Tammany Council : 
Liberty given to us by the Fathers of the Revolution 
— that wretch shall perish who would try to wrest 
it from us. 

By Lawrence Myers, treasurer of Tammany So- 
ciety : The United States Ship Independence — well 
built, well rigged and well manned — may she soon 
have an opportunity of meeting one of John Bull's 
74s to teach them a lesson of American Naval Tac- 
tics. 

By a member : Baron Lescallier, the French 
Consul-General — the true friend of his own country 
and of America. 

By a member : The late Celebration of the Resto- 
ration — When Machiavelli and Beelzebub join in 
collusion to deceive, ye gods direct. 

By a member : The Republicans of New York — a 
terror to British influence and toryism. 



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122 SOCIETY OF THE GINOINNATL 

The State society of The Cincinnati assembled at 
the City Hall at one o'clock for their annual business 
meeting. The following were elected officers for 
the year : 

Eichard Varick, Pt^esident. 

Ebenezer Stevens, Vice-President. 

Henry S. Dodge, Secretary. 

Leonard Bleecker, Treasurer. 

Jonas Addoms, Assistant Treasurer. 

Messrs. Bicker, Burrall, Cooper, Fowler, Giles, 
Leaycraft, Loomis, Steddiford and Waterman, 
Standing Committee. Messrs. Troup, Stevens and 
Livingston, Delegates. 

After the meeting they retired to . the Tontine 
Coffee-house, where at four o'clock they sat down to 
a dinner prepared for the occasion. Commodore 
Decatur, then lately elected an honorary member, 
dined with the Society. After dinner eighteen 
toasts were drank, each followed by an appropriate 
piece of music by Moffit's mihtary band. The only 
notable toast was, ^^ Peace, Plenty and a Gk)od 
Government to our Country." 

The steamboats, Car of Neptune, of the Albany 
line, and Fire Fly, of Poughkeepsie, made ex- 
cursions on that day in company, probably for the. 
safety of their passengers. They started from 
the foot of Cortlandt street at nine o'clock and 
proceeded round the Battery, up East River to 
Wallabout, and then returning went up the 
Hudson River a few miles and returned about one 
o'clock. They started again about three o'clock 
and ran down to Staten Island, but did not pass the 
Narrows, and returned about dusk. The fare for 



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8TEAMB0A T EXCURSION. 123 

each excursion was one dollar for giown persons 
and fifty cents for children. The capacity of each 
boat was only one hundred persons. Refreshments 
could be had at the bar on board. 

The first steamboat excursion that I have found, 
took place on May 25th previous. It was the new 
steamboat Fulton, which went to Sandy Hook, with 
about fifty persons on board. Many went for the 
piuT)ose of expecting to see some of the British 
vessels about there 

The New York Circus gave an afternoon and 
evening performance of the usual character. 

The American Museum, at No. 21 Chatham street, 
gave notice that it would be open from sunrise to 
eleven o'clock in the evening, for exhibition of liv- 
ing wild animals, wax figures, paintings, curiosities, 
etc. Among them was the famous crossbow used 
by William Tell when he shot the apple upon his 
son's head. Also a model of the splendid Palace of 
St. Cloud, formerly the residence of Bonaparte, 
which, by means of machinery, set in motion one 
hundred and thirty artisans, mechanics, etc. In 
the evening a band of Pandean minstrels performed 
on their Arcadian pipes many appropriate airs 
suited to the occasion. 

The Evening Post said : 

*'The fathers of the city showed their respect 
to the occasion by eating an excellent dinner, and 
quaffing the best of wines together, and when they 
rose from the table, about sunset, ordered all the 
bells in the city to set up a funeral toll, which was 
faithfully observed, ^swinging slow with sullen 



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124 BVBNING ENTBBTAINMBNTa, 

roar,' for about two hours, being the usual manner 
in which the guardians of our city express joy." 

It was the season when the theatei-s were closed, 
but there were special performances on the evening 
of the Fourth. At the New Theatre on Anthony 
street, in honor of the day, the front of the theater 
was brilliantly illuminated,^ and a variety of trans- 
parencies ''commemorating the glorious achieve- 
ments of our naval heroes." The performances 
commenced at a quarter past seven. The first play 
was a comedy in three acts, called '' The Birthday, 
or ReconciUation." After which another play in 
thi-ee acts, called *' The Point of Honor, or School 
for Soldiers," was performed. The concluding 
piece was a pantomimic spectacle, called '' The cap- 
ture of York and the Death of General Pike." The 
scenery and decorations were entirely new, and pre- 
sented a view of Lake Ontario, battle of York, 
Commodore Chauncey's fleet, etc. 

The Park Theatre, also, had appropriate perform- 
ances and patriotic representations. A large trans- 
parent painting on the front of the building showed 
the Goddess of Liberty, the United States flag, and 
the American Eagle. The entertainment commenced 
at 7:30 o'clock, and was entitled ^* Miller and his 
Men, "after which an interlude, called The Launch 
of the Independence ; or. Our Infant Navy Rising 
into Manhood." Among the principal songs sung 
in this piece were : — * '^Behold the Columbia," by Mr. 
Darley ; '* We have met the enemy and they are 
ours," by Mr. Pritchardj'; ** Yankee Sailors have a 
smack," by Mr. Yat^s ; ''Ye Sons of Free Colum- 
bia ! " by Messrs. Yates, Pritchard, Darley, Norton, 



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FIREWORKS, 125 



etc. The interlude concluded with a transparency 
representing ^^Tlw Independence,^^ seventy-four 
guns ; her launch, Charlestown Bridge, Navy 
Yard, Bunker and Breed's hills, Warren's Monu- 
ment, etc., etc. Mrs. Burke sweetly sang the song 
'^ Softly Waft Ye Southern Breezes." The enter- 
tainment concluded with ''Valentine and Orson; 
or, the Wild Man of the Woods." 

The celebration at Vauxhall Garden in the even- 
ing was never before equaled in display and 
grandeur. The allegorical illuminations consisted 
of the Temple of Patriotism, ItK) feet front, upon 
which was a Trojan column forty feet high on 
which was a statue of Washington, crowned by 
Fame, with a civic wreath and the motto ''To 
merit." Washington was surrounded by colors 
bearing the names of our naval heroes : — Rogers, 
Hull, Jones, Decatur, Bainbridge, Lawrence, 
Ohauncey and PeiTy. At the foot of this column 
were large pieces called the "Union of Strength," 
in the center appeared the figures "'7()." In front 
of all, for the last ccnip de feUy was a piece 100 feet 
front called "The Monument, or Reunion of Amer- 
ican Patriots," composed of ten large pyramids, 
each twenty feet high, bearing names of the follow- 
ing civic societies : — Cincinnati, St. ^Tammany, 
Columbian, Washington, Hamilton, Mechanic, 
Hibernian, St. Andrews, German and Fi-ench. Be- 
tween each pyramid was a large iirn, eight feet high, 
each bearing a name of one of the defenders of the 
country and each pyramid was adorned by a 
garland of flowers united to each other by fes- 
toons, each bearing an American flag. The whole 



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126 F1RBW0BK8 



of this was illuminated by more than three thou- 
sand burning lances. During the exhibition the 
Washington column was encircled by a large 
Glory in fireworks. In the background was a 
painting seventy feet front, showing a grand 
architectural avenue. 

The fireworks consisted of forty new pieces, ex- 
ecuted by N. G. Bachia, divided into two parts, 
accompanied by select miUtary and naval music 
by a large band. 

The first part commenced by (1) a brilliant fiery 
arrow flying a distance of three hundred feet, 
branching out in thirteen brilliant rays, illuminating 
the word ^'Independence;" (2) the American 
Eagle, changing to the word " Huzza I " (3) the 
wheel of fortune with sm^prising changes; (4) a 
brilliant fixed sun changing to a glory of turning 
fires ; (5) the goal of Americans, terminating by 
the illuminated word '* Justice;" (6) the changes 
. of war, represented by a roly-poly alternately bright 
and dark and up and down ; (7) a brilliant comet 
with a long tail ; (8) the ladies' caprice, with many 
changes ; (9) the caduceus of Mercury, with many 
intricate designs; (10) the fighting suns, being a 
number of suns in opposite motion, terminated by 
a single one; (U) a piece of various fires repre- 
senting the globe lighted by the sun : the sun sets 
and the moon rises ; (12) the Egyptian pyramids 
illuminated ; (13) the turbillion or combat of the 
planets ; (14) the star of Diana changing to eight 
suns ; (15 and 16) the star of America, changing to a 
brilliant Glory ; (17) the drum of peace ; (18) /ew de 
joie in rockets, stars and serpents ; (19) eight 



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AT VAUXHALL GARDEN . 127 

large wheels passing each other producing an illu- 
minated pyramid in the center ; (20) a grand dis- 
play called "Union of Strength," representing 
thirteen stars allegorical of the United States, which 
suddenly changes to as many suns, the whole en- 
circled by a brilliant serpent (symbol of immortal- 
ity), which intersects and entertwines the suns, in 
the center the figui'e " '76"; the whole concluded 
by a general display of rockets, serpents, maroons, 
stars, etc., etc. 

The second part commenced with the appearance 
of the illuminated words "Rights of Man," and 
a piece called Washington Motto, in which several 
times appeared a transparency with eighteen fixed 
stars (representing the number of States), G. W. in 
the center and the words "Be united;" (2) the 
timepiece consisted of two very brilliant columns 
fifteen feet high, one of which represented the Con- 
stitution and the other Wisdom. The dial repre- 
sented the figure of Time pointing out the two very 
memorable epochs, '76 and '83. The whole was 
encircled with a glory and ended in a discharge 
of thirteen rockets that exploded in the air ; (3) a 
large wheel encircling the earth including two sun- 
wheels ; (4) Fountain of St. Cloud ; (5) the rising 
sun increasing in brightness ; (6) the Rose of Cin- 
cinnati, a beautiful piece ; (7) the spinning wheel, 
with pleasing changes ; (8) changing radial of 
twenty fires ; (9) gi-and turbillion Caprice ; (10) a 
large transparent balloon encircled by four suns; the 
interior was suddenly illuminated and displayed 
the motto Vivat respublica ; (11) Ladies' Fancy ; 
(12) Archimedes' Screw ; (13) a number of dead- 



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1 28 (JO VEUyOE \S UARD. 

and-alive wheels in combat ; (14) a brilliant mosaic 
balustrade eighty feet long ; (15) a grand, brilliant 
and varied feu de joie with numerous fires, diversi- 
fied in their color and arrangement ; (16) the flam- 
beau of Cupid ; (17) a large wheel on a horizontal 
platform dancing a Swiss waltz ; (18) a large 
pyramid of Roman candles ; (19) a battery ; (20) 
the conclusion was the pieces called ''The Monu- 
ment, or Reunion of American Patriots," before 
described, suddenly appearing brilliantly illumina- 
ted to the extent of one hundred feet front, with 
ornaments of every description of fireworks, termi- 
nating by a brilliant bouquet consisting of rockets,, 
maroons, serpents, etc., etc. 
Admission to this exhibition was fifty cents. 

The Evening Post gave the following account : 

''Yesterday being the annivei'saiy of American 
Independence, the same was celebrated in this city 
agreeably to previous aiTangements, and which 
having already been published need not be repeated. 
The day was uncommonly fine, perhaps on no for- 
mer occasion has so numerous a concourse been 
seen in our pubhc streets to witness the various 
processions, which were also more than usually 
lengthened. The military made a very elegant and 
soldierly appearance. Their highly improved music 
since within a year produced the most exhilarating 
effect. His Excellency, the Governor, was attended 
for the first time by a guard on foot.* 

♦The "Governor's Guards" were organized as an independent 
battalion in General Morton's brigade by general orders, dated 
May 9, 1814 ; Daniel E. Dunscomb, major ; Charles McKenna and 
James B. Murray, captains. Other officers were breveted and 



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NEWSPAPER COMMENTS. 12^ 

** The Tammany Society turned out with all their 
might ; they particularly exhibited a fine show of 
pappooses just under twenty. The genius of Co- 
lumbia appeared in female attire, and to make the 
representation as natural as possible, they judi- 
ciously selected the most deUcate and thinnest gen- 
tleman among them, whose cheek bespoke more of 
the lily than the rose, walked with downcast eye, 
as he gracefully and modestly held his inside gar- 
ments just above the knee. 

** The orator of the day (Mr. Wheaton) did not ap- 
pear personally in the procession, but was repre- 
sented, I presume, by Citizen Swanton, who carried 
himself with uncommon bashf ulness of deportment,, 
caused, I suppose, by reflecting how soon he has. 
become a savage leader since he arrived in thi& 
young country. The boasted Irish wit, Peter Samp- 
son, did not show himself on this occasion. The 
tribes were decently clad and preserved quietness 
and good order during the whole line of march. 
The buck's tail still keeps its place in the hat of 
every member, but since the cruel and unbecoming 
massacres of the Prophet, the bearskin has been 
discarded, aims and legs are no more seen in 
buflf, and, for the sake of humanity, I am glad to- 
add, naked pappooses no longer are exposed to be 
broiled to death by their dear papas in the beams of 
a vertical sim." 

Although there was much less disaffection in 
Tammany than on the preceding national anni- 

assigned to places. The roster of officers will more fully appear 
ID the appendix. At that time the number of men did not. 
exceed one hundred and fifty in the battalion. 



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130 TAMMANT'8 COSTUME, 

vei*sary, yet they had not recovered far enough to 
carry the banners that represented their different 
tribes, or to put on their war paint and their mo- 
gasins and bear skins and their feathers and carry 
tomahawks and other emblems of their predecessors 
of the forest, they made much better showing than 
on the previous occasion of their discomfiture — 
But alas I their glory in the costume of the red- 
man had departed forever, and little was left them 
of their former glory but in name. The buck tails 
were the only emblem that survived their con- 
version to civihzation.* 

The names of the oflScers of Tammany Society for 
the years 1813 and 1814, the two years during the 
heat of the continuance of the great schism caused 
by the change of costume, etc. (which has been 
narrated in Chapter XIV.), have been kept a pro- 
found secret from that time to the present. The 
names of the officers for the year 1812 and also 
for 1815 were published in full. The names of 
the officers for 1813 and 1814 that the writer has 
been able to collect from pubUcations at that time 
were as follows : 

Matthew L. Davis, President. 

Henry Westervelt, Secretary. 

Lawrence Myers, Treasurer. 

John Stilwell, Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Abraham Stagg, Vice-President and President of 
the Council. 

John White, Secretary of the Council. 

Ischacher Cozzens, Door-keeper. 

♦The 4th of July, 1812, was the last time that Tammany So- 
ciety appeared in full aboriginal costumes. The war of 1818 
<;aused them to throw it off forever. 



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FEDERALIST OPINIONS, 131 

There were thirteen counciloi's, but the writer 
could obtain the names of but four of them. 
These were : Ithamar Osborn, Garitt Sickles, Clark- 
son Crohus, and Peter Embury. These four per- 
sons were councilors in 1812 and 1815 ; it is pre- 
sumed that they remained such during the 
schism. The aboriginal appellation by which the 
oflScers were designated were still discarded, and 
continued for many years thereafter. 

It was thought by the FederaUsts that Mr. Morris' 
oration at the celebration of the downfall of Na- 
poleon was good enough for a 4th of July ad- 
dress. Two of the leading newspapers in the city, 
on €he morning of the 4th of July, contained Mr. 
Morris' oration in full. 

The proceedings of the various Washington 
Benevolent Societies throughout the country in re- 
gard to the overthrow of Napoleon were also pub- 
lished from time to time after the 4th of July, as 
they reached New York in the newspapers of the 
day. 

The New York Evening Post of July 9th con- 
tained the following editorial : 

*' The rejoicings of the Federahsts at the downfall 
of tyranny, the emancipation of Europe, and the 
revival of the commerce of all the nations of the Old 
World, will rescue our country from the foul crime 
of being all abettors and supporters of the Corsican 
in his diaboUcal plan of universal domination. 
The Washington Benevolent Societies throughout 
the Union should take immediate steps to cause to 
be transmitted to every capital of the European 
continent the different resolutions and orations corn- 



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132 FEDERALIST OPINIONS. 

memorative of the most glorious event which has 
happened in centuries. Let thera be forwarded to 
Paris, Madrid, St. Petersburgh, Vienna, Beriin, 
Stockholm, Italy, Holland, Belgia, Pori;ugal, 
etc., where they will be translated into all the 
languages of Europe, and thus our national 
character drawn in a great degree out of the mire 
of infamy into which in an evil hour it was plunged 
by the heartsick friends of the execrable Napoleon.'^ 
The demonstrations at this celebration of the na- 
tional anniversary were evidently made more as a 
matter of duty, and for effect, than from spontaneous 
heartiness. The entire populace were divided mto 
two great parties — one was for war, the other for 
peace. The fear of disunion of the States hung 
heavy over all. 



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CHAPTER XXX. 

Jiigorous Blockade — Great Fears of an Invasion by Sea— Action 
of the Common Council— A Torpedo Boat— Call for Militia — 
Sketcli of Geo. J. P. Boyd — Desertions — ^Military Executions 
on Governor's Island — Citizens* Meeting — Exempts to be 
Enlisted — Committee Appointed — Address of Committee — 
Threatening Attitude of the Enemy. 



^HE local excitement incident to the cele- 
bration of the 4th of July was kept 
alive for many days afterwards by pub- 
lications in the newspapers of accounts 
of the dinners and toasts of the many 
societies and associations that had 
shown honor to the day by private dinners among 
themselves and their associates. 

In the midst of this excitement, on the 6th of 
July, the attention of the inhabitants of New York 
City were turned to the news of the near approach 
of the enemy off Sandy Hook and at the increasing 
number of their war vessels in Gardiner's Bay, 
which had long been given up to them as their gen- 
eral rendezvous. 

The blockade at Sandy Hook was kept up with 
vigilance. The President, by proclamation dated 
June 29, 1814, directed that **none of the vessels 
of neutral powers shall be molested in entering 
ports of United States by the public or private 
armed vessels of the United States." This had no 



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134 FEARS OF THE ENEMY, 

effect on the port of New York at that time, .the 
blockade was so effective against neutrals. 

When the enemy's war vessels were seen from 
the lighthouse at Sandy Hook, a signal was dis- 
played on the telegraph on Staten Island, and 
thence to the city, showing the number visible. 
This occurred almost daily when the weather was 
clear.* 

The following news item appeared in the New 
York Evening Post of July 6th : 

** We learn by several gentlemen who ari-ived 
this morning from Sandy Hook, that on Saturday 
morning last (July 2d) sixteen sail of vessels were 
discovered from Squam Beach under a press of sail, 
standing to the eastward by the wind, supposed to 
be ships of war." 

A day or two afterwards it was ascertained that 
on the 5th of July twelve or thirteen Vineyard 
boats, with fish, etc., bound to New York, were 
captured by the enemy in Fisher's Island Sound. 

The Columbian of July 7th contained the follow- 
ing : 

*' An intelligent passenger in the cartel schooner 
OscaTy who left Bermuda the 19th of June, and ar- 
rived a few days since at Newport, R. I., states that 
the expedition preparing under Cochrane consisted 
of nine sail of the line, eighteen frigates, besides 
transports and fifteen thousand troops. Nine thou- 
sand of the troops had within a shoi-t time arrived 



♦ For description of the telegraph, see ante Vol. I., pp. 77, 178, 
179. 



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COMMITTEE OF DEFENOK. 13& 

from England, and were then constantly on shore^ 
recruiting their health preparatory to the expedition. 
Cochrane was to sail with his squadron for our 
coast about the first of July. Our informant says 
various opinions as to the destination of the expedi- 
tion were stated at Bermuda. Some supposed the 
Chesapeake, some New Orleans the object. May 
we not suppose New York ? " 

Up to this time New York City had done little 
during the preceding year to defend itself against 
an invasion by sea or land. This was caused by the 
local political feeling, and a hope that the State 
would still further aid in the construction and com- 
pletion of the fortifications that had already been 
commenced to defend the seaboard. 

Now active measures by the city were deemed 
necessary to meet the crisis. At a meeting of the 
Common Council, on the 6th of July in the after- 
noon, the following resolution was unanimously 
adopted : 

^^ Resolvedy That a committee, consisting of the 
Mayor, Aldermen Fish and Wendover, be ap- 
pointed to confer with His Excellency, the Governor^ 
and Major-General Lewis touching the exposed situ- 
ation of this city, and report at the next meeting 
of the Board." 

The Common Council standing committee of de- 
fence, which was appointed in December previous, 
consisted of Colonel Nicholas Fish (father of Hon. 
Hamilton Fish), Peter Mesier, George Buckmaster, 
John Nitchie, Joseph W. Brackett, and Gideon 
Tucker. Only two of this committee were demo- 
crats, Buckmaster and Tucker. This action was 



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136 DANGEROUS CONDITION 

not a reflection on the standing committee of de- 
fence. 

While many of the Common Council and. the 
Mayor were ardent federalists, and were present at 
the recent demonstrations of joy at the overthix)w 
of Napoleon and the restoration of the Bourbons to 
the thrones of France and Spain, it was not because 
of their lack of patriotism or want of love for their 
own country that led them to make such demon- 
strations, but it was from the deepest motives of 
patriotism and care for the future welfare of the 
nation that actuated them. They were brave to 
stand up amid the popular outcry, and be called 
^'tories," 'Misunionists" and ''traitors" by their 
political opponents. It evidently was not for self- 
ish objects, or prospects of future rewards, that led 
them to do thi». There could not have been a body 
of men chosen in the city that would have been 
more earnest and active to look out for the safety 
and welfare of the city, and protect it against any 
invader. 

A special meeting of the Common Council was 
then called by the Mayor for the 14th of July, to 
hear and consider the report of this special com- 
mittee. 

In an open letter to Major-General Lewis, pub- 
lished on July 8th, the writer said : 

'* The city is liable to attack in three ways : 

*' 1. By vessels by way of Sandy Hook. (2) By 
troops landed on the back of Long Island and cross- 
ing to Brooklyn, and (3) by a land and naval force 
down the Sound ; the land troops disembarking in 
the Sound, and the fleet aiding their attack. 



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OF THE CITY. 137 



*^From the first of these (although it appears to 
engross the whole attention) I think we have noth- 
ing to fear ; because the British ai*e too pnident to 
risk then- ships against a chain of land batteries, and 
too wise to land men at a wharf which may be 
raked by a single cannon, and annoyed from every 
building in the vicinity. 

*' From the other attacks we have everything to 
fear, because the means of resisting them have not 
been considered or organized. It cannot be denied, 
for the maps all show it, that there are several inlets 
at the back of Long Island, where troops may be 
landed with safety and convenience ; and if the 
landing takes place in the evening, I think it prob- 
able that in the morning their cannon upon Brook- 
lyn heights would give the first intelligence of 
their landing ; and if the British should again (as 
in the last war) occupy these heights, which com- 
mand the city and Governor's Island, I take it for 
granted the city must, as then, be surrendered to 
them. 

''What are our means of resistance, after the 
minutiae of putting up signal poles, fixing places of 
rendezvous, offering rewards for information of the 
enemy's landing, etc. ? The country ought to be well 
examined and redoubts and breastworks of earth 
thrown up. But above all, strong intrenchments 
should be made upon Brooklyn heights, so that in 
CJise of necessity troops passing from this city might 
hold these heights until the forces of the State, or 
at least of the city and harbor, could be formed and 
brought to their relief. Arms should also be now 
distributed to the militia being in exposed situa- 



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13 S MILITARY 8TRKNQTH. 

tions, that they may feel the confidence inspired by 
good equipments. 

** The third attack is the most dangerous, because 
the extent of shore and the uncertainty of the place 
of landing seem to baffle precaution ; but a prudent 
general would not omit everything — would not al- 
low the whole line from Connecticut to the City 
Hall to be unprovided with a single defence — yet 
such is our situation. In making this attack, it is 
probable the enemy would disembark either at 
Throgg's Neck or Ward's Island, and some measures- 
should immediately be taken to obstruct or prevent 
an advance from both these points ; the more ef- 
fectual (because it would apply to all landings off 
this island), would be to erect redoubts or tetes du- 
pont at the head of Harlem, Ward's and King's 
bridges, and so to place the cannon in them as ef- 
fectually to rake the bridges. . Beside these, materials 
should be provided and kept constantly ready to de- 
stroy the bridges, and temporary breastworks should 
be thrown up on Harlem heights, etc., etc." 

The forces of the United States army for the de- 
fence of New York harbor, on 7th July, 1814, were 
as follows : Artilleryists, under Col. James House, 
370 ; 14th Infantry detachment, 100 ; 15th In- 
fantry, Col. David Brearly, 350 ; 27th Infantry, 
Col. Alexander Denniston, about 400 ; 32d In- 
fantry, Col.S.E. Fotterall, 300 ; 41st Infantry, Col. R. 
Bogardus, 392 ; 42d Infantry, Col. W. N. Irvine, 374 ; 
46th Infantry, Col.W. S. Tallmadge, about 350 ;sea 
fencibles, Capt. Lemuel Morris, 78. 

The 27th, the 41st and the 4()th were recruited in 
New York. 



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SKETCH OF GEN. BOYD. 139 

About sixty of the sea fencibles were from 
Hudson, N. Y. They were under Lieutenant Beek- 
man,and were in Col. Bogardus' 41st United States 
Infantry. 

Besides these were the militia and gun boats. 

On the lOlh day of July Brig. -Gen. John P. 
Boyd arrived and took command of these forces in 
the harbor.* 

The Common Council had made an appropriation 
of several hundred dollars to one Berrian, of New 
York City, to construct a torpedo boat for the pur- 
pose of destroying some of the enemy's war vessels 
in Long Island Sound. The following description 
of it was published at the time of its destruction : 

^* A new invented torpedo boat resembling a tm-tle 
floating just above the surface of the water, and 
sufficiently roomy to carry nine persons within, 

♦Gea. John Parke Boyd was born in Massachusetts, December 
24, 1764, of Scotch parents. He entered the United States army 
in 1786 as ensign in Second Regiment. He went to East India 
in 1789. and was placed in command of one thousand infantry 
in the army of the Nizam against Tippoo Sultan. He remained 
in service in India several years, and rose to the rank of and com- 
manded ten thousand cavalry. He returned to the United States 
in 1808, and was appointed C'olonel of the Fourth Regiment in 
the United States Army. He was at the battle of Tippecanoe 
in November, 1811 ; in August, 1812, was made a brisnadier gen- 
eral, which rank he held throughout the war. He led his 
brigade in the capture of Fort George, in May, 1813, and also in 
the battle of Chrysler's Field (or Williamsburgh), Canada, in 
November, 1818. He was in several skirmishes during the year 
1813 against the British and Indians on the frontier of New 
York. He continued in service at New York City until the close of 
the war. His miliary opei*ations while there will be detailed 
in the following pages. In June, 1815, the military officers of 
the Third Military District gave a public dinner in New York to 
Genei'al Boyd, in testimonyof their high respect for him as an 
oflficer and a gentleman. He left the army when his brigade 
was disbanded, on June 15, 1815. He was appointed Naval 
o£flcer at Boston by President Jackson, in 1830, and died there 
the same year on the 4th of October. 



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140 THE TORPEDO BOAT. 

having on her back a coat of mail, consisting of 
three large bombs, which could be discharged by 
machinery, so as to bid defiance to any attack by 
barges, left this city one day last week to blow up 
some of the enemy's ships off New London. At one 
end of the boat projectc d a long pole, imder water, 
with a torpedo fastened to it, which, as she ap- 
proached the enemy in the night, was to be poked 
under the bottom of a seventy- four, and then let off. 
The boat we understand to be the invention of an 
ingenious gentleman by the name of Berrian." 

The following is an account of the end of the tor- 
pedo boat, on July 1, 1814 : 

*' A gentleman who arrived here last evening from 
Sagg Harbor, informed us that on Thursday last the 
torpedo boat was run ashore at Norton's Point, op- 
posite Faulkner's Island, and on Sunday she was 
destroyed by the Sylph, sloop of war, and a frigate. 
One man who attempted to swim ashore from the 
torpedo was drowned ; the others made their 
escape." 

The boat was thirty feet in length and rowed by 
about twenty oars, and built bomb proof, rising 
only eighteen inches above the water. She was 
called the Turtle, 

The President issued a call for 93,500 militia, dated 
on the 4th of July. A requisition was made 
through the Secretary of War on the governor of 
gach State, stating the quota required from each 
State, with a request to the governor to hold in 
readiness for immediate service such militia detach- 
ments and to fix on the places of rendezvous with 
a view to the worst exposed points. Governor 



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CALL hOR MILITIA. 141 

Tompkins received this requisition on the 11th of 
July. 

The quota for New York State was 13,500 men, to 
be organized and equipped into thirteen regiments 
and one battalion^ viz. : 1,350 artillery, 12,150 in- 
fantry, 3 major-generals and 7 brigadier-generals. 

The quota for New Jersey was 5,000 men. One-half 
of them, being the East Jersey division, was subject 
to the commander of the Third Military District, 
at New York. 

This call upon the States for detached miUtia was 
for the same number, and apportioned among the 
States in the same manner as was that of April, 
1812. See Ante Vol. L, pp. 88 and 89. By Section 
8 of Chapter 82 of the Act of Congress of April 18, 
1814, they could not be required to serve more than 
six months in any one year. 

The large quota of mihtia called from States at 
once awakened the public to a realization of mili- 
tary life. Desertions from the army had been fre- 
quent and extensive, and little regard had been paid 
to them because it was feared that its publication 
would cause a decrease in volunteering. 

It had gone on so long that it was determined to 
coax back deserters as much as possible. Accord- 
ingly, on the 17th day of June, 1814, the President 
issued a proclamation stating that **afull pardon 
is hereby granted and proclaimed to each and all 
such individuals as shall within three months from 
the date hereof surrender themselves to the com- 
manding officer of any mihtary post within the 
United States or the territories thereof, and all officers 
and soldiers of the army are required to continue 



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142 EXECUTION FOR DESERTION, 

their exertions in detecting and bringing to trial 
deserters from the army." 

Desertion was pimishable with death. Many 
trials for that oflfense had taken place on Gover- 
nor's Island. On the 7th of May, 1814, there was 
a general order for the proceedings on the execution 
of a sentence of death. 

The following is a copy of the record in one of 
those cases : 

Headquarters 3d Military District, 

N. Y., July 7th, 1814. 
Capt. Moses Swett or officer commanding troops on 
Governor's Island. 
Sir : — The general court martial which convened 
on Governor's Island on the 23d ult., of which Col. 
D. Brearly, of the 15th Inft. is president, having 
sentenced John Reid and Roger Wilson, privates 
in the corps of artillery, to be shot to death— By 
power in me vested you are hereby directed to have 
the sentence carried into execution on the day and 
at the hour prescribed in the general order of the 
3d inst., for which this shall be your warrant. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

Morgan Lewis, 
Major-General Commanding 3d M. D. 

Garrison Orders. 

Fort Columbus, July 7th, 1814. 

The troops on Governor's Island will parade to- 
morrow morning at 11:30 o'clock on the Grand 
Parade, for the purpose of witnessing the execution 



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MILITARY PUNISHMENT, 143 

of the prisoner sentenced by a general order of the 
3d inst. to be shot to death. 

The troops will form three sides of a square, the 
artillery will form the right and left flank, the In- 
fantry the rear; the execution parties, consisting 
of a sergeant and twelve privates, will parade at 
11:30 o'clock and placed under the command of 
Lieut. Forbes, Provost Marshal ; the guards of the 
advanced posts will have their sentries at their re- 
spective posts, and will repair to the parade at 11:30, 
those under charge of the Provost Marshal will join 
the execution party, for the purpose of escorting 
the prisoner to the place of execution. 

The execution parties, in divisions preceded by the 
music with the Provost Marshal at their head, will 
march in front of the prisoner, the music playing 
the dead march ; the guards formed in divisions 
will march in rear of the prisoner. The procession 
will enter the square from the rear, face ten paces 
from the coffin placed in the center, upon which 
the prisoner kneels by a signal from the Provost 
Marshal. The music ceases, the warrant and sen- 
tence of death is read, the signal to fire is then 
given to the execution parties. 
By order of 

M. SwETT, Commander. 

''Roslyn Castle" was the dirge with muffled 
drums that always accompanied a soldier to his 
grave. 

The sentence of a prisoner for theft was as 
follows : 

"He to be drummed once up and down the 
parade with the rogues' march, with his coat turned 



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144 CALL FOR EXBMPTB. 

and the word thief written thereon in large letters. 
Further, that he stand within view of the evening 
parade each day for one week, with his coat in the 
same manner, except when on guard duty, and to 
have his whiskey stopped for one month. '* 

Whipping, as a punishment of a soldier, was abol- 
ished by Act of Congress, Chapter 55, April 10, 1812. 

We have before seen that when the militia were 
called into active service, and under the pay of the 
general government, they became subject to the 
rules and articles of war Uke the regular army. 
But there was one advantage the militia had, and 
that was that a court martial for any oflfense must 
be composed of militia officers only.* 

The news of the victory of the battle of Chippewa, 
on the 5th of July, was received with great joy 
several days after that event. On the 13th a na- 
tional salute was fired from the Castle Williams in 
honor of the victory. The national flag was also 
displayed on some of the public buildings all day. 

On that day Gk)vernor Tompkins inspected the 
fortifications of the harbor of New York. 

The following call was published July 12th by 
some of the citizens of New York : 

'* At this crisis our country stands in need of the aid 
of every citizen. To render this aid more effectual, 
those citizens who are exempt from military duty are 
requested to meet at J. Sagar's, corner of Nassau and 
George streets, to-morrow evening (July 13th) at 
eight o'clock, for the purpose of forming themselves 
into artillery companies for the defence of the city. 

• Ante Vol. I., p. 199. 



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FOR MIU2ARY DUTY. 145 

On the 13th the citizens assembled at the time and 
place designated, and called Captain Alexander 
Coffin, Jr., to the chair, and Mr. Elkanah Doolittle 
was appointed secretary. On niotion it was resolved 
that a muster roll be made for the citizens exempt 
from military duty to sign. The muster roll was 
ma ie and signed by many of those present. It was 
then resolved that a committee of ten be appointed 
from the muster roll to secure the enUstment of 
those exempt from military duty. 

The following were the committee appointed — 
one from each ward : First Ward, Garritt Sickles ; 
Second Ward, Thomas Haynes ; Third Ward, Alex- 
ander Coffin, Jr. ; Fourth Ward, Elkanah Doolittle ; 
Fifth Ward, Samuel Burling ; Sixth Ward, Robert 
De Grusha ; Seventh Ward, Charles Devoe ; Eighth 
Ward, Benjamin Aycrigg ; Ninth Ward, Michael 
Cashman ; Tenth Ward, John A. Crolius. 

The committee was further authorized by resolu- 
tion to request the citizens of the different wards to 
meet on the evening of the 19th at the places where 
the polls of the last general election were held, in 
the respective wards, for the purpose of adopting 
measures to accompUsh the object in contemplation. 
The committee was requested to report at a meeting 
which was to be held on the evening of the 16th, a 
plan or a system of by-laws to govern the company 
which is to be enrolled. 

A resolution of thanks was presented to Mr. E. 
Riley for the offer of two of his best drums for the 
use of the company when organized. 

This committee appointed a sub-committee, con- 
sisting of Alex. Coffin, Jacob Mott and Robert De 



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146 ADDRB88 TO EXEAfPTS 



Grusha, for the purpose of inducing all American 
citizens exempt from military duty to sign a roll for 
defence of the city. 

The following address was issued and published in 
some of the city daily papers : 
'' To the citizens of New York exempt from military 
duty : 

*' The times are portentious — we are menaced with 
invasion by a foe, who, if he gets possession of this 
city, will show us but little, if any lenity. Remem- 
ber the scenes of Havre-de-Grace, Hampton, etc., 
and then say whether it be not the duty, as it ought 
to be the inclination, of every American, be his local 
politics what they may, to stand forth in the defense 
of everything dear to freemen. Rally, then, round 
the standard of your country, and sooner let us die 
in the last ditch than tamely and cowardly surren- 
der this delightful city into the hands of an invading 
foe, whose known rule of warfare is an indiscrimi- 
nate destruction of property heretofore held sacred 
among civilized nations ; as also the violation of 
every moral and religious principle. Discard for a 
while, at least, the party bickerings which disturb 
the social harmony that ought to exist at this mo- 
mentous crisis. Let there be no distinction among 
us but that of endeavoring to exceed each other in 
courage and patriotism, should this soil be contam- 
inated by any foreign foe. Those who will not de- 
fend their country in times of danger like the pres- 
ent, in their veins does not run one drop of American 
blood, nor does one American sentiment inhabit 
their breasts. Upon such men we do not call, but 
we invite every American exempt from military 



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FOR MlLirAUT DUTY. 147 

duty to attend on Tuesday next at his ward meet- 
ing to sign the roll that will be prepared for the pur- 
pose of forming a company or companies of artillery 
for the defence of the city. 

" First Ward, Kent's Hotel, Broad Street ; Second 
Ward, Battin's, corner Burling Slip and Water 
Street ; Third Ward, Hodgkinson's, corner Nassau 
and Fair Streets ; Fourth Ward, Harmony Hall ; 
Fifth Ward, Liberty Hall ; Sixth Ward, Dooley's, 
corner Cross and Duane Streets ; Seventh Ward, 
John Morns', 165 Bancker Street ; Eighth Ward, 
Liberty Pole, Roswell's; Ninth Ward, Thomas Rog- 
ers, Bloomingdaie; Tenth Ward, Warren Academy, 
Third Street, at eight o'clock. 

"Alex. Coffin, | 

Jacob Mott, > Committee. 

Robert De Grusha, ) 

" All editors of newspapers in the city favorable 
to the institution are requested to insert this once 
or twice." 

There were several causes of exemption from 
military service feven in case of invasion. Among 
those exempt were all under eighteen years of age 
and over forty-five ; all members of fire companies, 
their services being deemed particularly necessary 
in case of invasion in keeping down fires. There 
were in June, 1814, forty-one fire companies in the 
city, and four hook and ladder companies, and one 
hose company, the total membership being about 
one thousand persons. 

The Columbian of July 14th contained the fol- 
lowing : 



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148 PBOORESS OF THE WAR 

*' While we are talking and dreaming of peace 
the war assumes on all sides a more active char- 
acter. 

** In the Chesapeake the enemy continue their 
predatory system to an alarming degree, and seem 
to meditate still more serious mischief. Whether 
they will effect it is another thing. 

** At the eastward the waters and fishing vessels 
are indiscriminately molested, plundered or burnt 
by the blockading squadrons ; their crews robbed 
even of their shirts, and the inhabitants on the 
coast held in continual fear from a destroying foe 
whose bravest efforts seem to be directed against 
the most defenceless. This nnich to the credit of 
the enemy. But their depredations, we trust, are 
not to be continued without some effectual opposi- 
tion. 

* • On the Niagara frontier the campaign has opened 
with defeat to tlie enemy and honor to the Ameri- 
can arms. We therefore look with a degree of con- 
fidence to its continued operations. To-morrow 
may afford something of importance. 

'* Our army near Champlain is daily receiving re- 
enforcements, as is also that of the enemy, and we 
shall soon hear of hostile operations in that quarter. 

** At Sackett's Harbor Commodore Chauncey is by 
this time ready for sea, and may be on the lake with 
his squadron to co-operate with the land forces or 
meet his antagonist in a naval combat." 



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CHAPTER XXXI. 

Reports on Defences of the City— Fortifications Necessary — 
Gov. Tompkins' Military Orders — Gov. Penning^ton*s Address 
to New Jcrdey Militia— Apathy of the People— Amusements 
of the Day— Dinner at Tammany Hall to Crew of the Esuex- 
Action of Common Council — Address of Common Council to 
the Citizens— Appeal for Aid to Build Fortifleai ions— Public 
Meeting Called. 



fN THE 14th of July the Common Counca 
met with closed doors to hear and consider 
the report of their special committee ap- 
pointed at the preceding meeting, relating to the de- 
fence of the city. 

The report showed the condition of affairs and 
stated what action the committee de'^med necessary 
for the adequate protection of the city. The com- 
mittee also presented a series of resolutions for the 
Common Council to adopt, in furtherance of the 
recommendations. 

The report and resolutions were approved by the 
Common Council, and were ordered to be kept secret 
for the then present. 

Resolutions were passed, appointing Aldermen 
Mapes and Smith a committee to forthwith call upon 
the President of the United States and solicit his at- 
tention to the subject, and that Col. Nicholas Pish 
and Alderman Wendover be a committee to wait 
upon the Governor with the report. 



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150 REPORT ON DEFBNCE8, 



The Common Council instructed its committee of 
defence to immediately request Gen. Swift, of the 
U. S. Corps of Engineers, to furnish them as soon 
as possible with the plan of such additional works 
of defence as might be deemed necessary by him to 
place the city in a state of complete defence. 

Gen. Swift had already stated to the War Depart- 
ment the inefficient condition of the defences of New 
York City. When the corporation had resolved to 
take the matter in hand he received orders fix)m the 
SecretaiT of War to render every aid in his powder to 
such plans for protection as the city might adopt. 

The following is the • 

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE, 

TO THE COMMON COUNCIL, ADOPTED JULY 

14th, 1814: 

The Committee have endeavored to obtain infor- 
mation on the importantobjectsof inquiry committed 
to them, and they hasten to lay it before the Com- 
mon Council. It maybe classed under these heads : 

1. To the probabiUty of a hostile attack. 

2. To the means of resistance. 

3. To the measures which ought to be adopted, in 
order to protect the city and the surrounding coun- 
try, in consequence of the deficiency of such means. 

With regard to the first point, the Committee 
have no particular information. It is well known 
that the British have a vast disposal force in Europe, 
a part of which is intended for America ; that the 
British Naval Commander-in-chief has not appeared 
off the American coast this season, but has remained 
at the island of Bermuda, in all probability with a 



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REPORT ON DEFENCES. 151 

view to concentrate his forces for some important 
object, and that upon the whole there is reason to 
beheve that a blow is intended to be struck which 
will greatly injure this country ; but the point of at- 
tack cannot be known. Whether the enemy intends 
to aim at New Orleans, Norfolk, Washington, Bal- 
timore, New York, or Newport, or whether he has 
adopted any definite plan cannot be determined but 
by the course of events. That alarm exists in all 
those places ; that all are exposed ; and that pru- 
dence and patriotism dictate the indispensable 
necessity of adopting all proper measures to repel 
his attacks cannot be doubted. When we consider 
the immense prize which this city affords to his 
cupidity, the importance of its position in relation 
to ulterior measures of offence ; in relation to the 
prosperity of a vast inland country ; and in relation 
to the well being of American commerce and navi- 
gation ; and when we further consider that this 
State is the principal place from whence a war 
against Canada is carried on, it is not absurd to 
suppose that policy may prescribe an attack upon 
our maritime frontier with a view to inflict a vital 
injury upon us, and with a further view to 
aid the operations of the enemy in the north- 
ern and western parts of this State. These ap- 
prehensions may be dissipated by subsequent 
events ; and it is to be ardently hoped that in the 
midst of our preparations for defence the public 
anxiety may be relieved, and the prosperity of our 
country promoted by intelligence of an honorable 
peace. 
The means of resistance may be considered undcM* 



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152 REPORT ON DEFENCES, 

these heads: 1. Fortification. 2. Troops, a. Muni- 
tions of war. 

The city may be approached in two ways by 
water, and in two ways by land. 

An enemy may come to us by Sandy Hook, and 
by the Sound. He may land at Gravesend Bay, as 
he did during the last war, and arrive at Brooklyn, 
in the rear of the fortifications. He may land 
troops above Hell Gate, and approach us in a north- 
ern dii'ection. 

, The water communication by Sandy Hook, is pro- 
tected by several strong and very important works, 
and the only deficiencies we need now point out are 
the neglect to finish the important works on Hen- 
drick's reef and the adjacent commanding works on 
Long Island. 

Vessels of any burden can pass through Hell Gate 
with safety. The experiments and observations of 
Commodore Decatur have put this beyond doubt. 
This pass is totally unprotected ; but prompt meas- 
ures are being taken by the general government, 
and Commissioners of Fortifications, acting under 
the authority of the State, to erect a strong work of 
12 guns at Hallefs Point, which it is to be lioped 
will be followed up by another on Mill Rock. 
These forts would effectually prevent the passage 
of the enemy, by water, in that direction. 

With respect to land attacks by Long Island, and 
from above Hell Gate, no measures have been 
adopted to repel the enemy. Indeed, all our works 
of defence have been erected ui)on the hypothesis 
that he would assail us by ships. When we con- 
sider that he can. land troops within 8 or 10 miles of 



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MBAN8 OF DEFENCE. 153 

the city, in more places than one, and that nothing 
has been done to impede or preclude his operations 
in this way, there is room for serious reflection. 
We might, indeed, mention, as a solitary exception, 
the intended erection by the Commissioners of For- 
tifications, of a strong block-house at the principal 
inlet into Jamaica Bay, which will prevent him 
from coming in barges to Canarsie landing, within 
seven miles of the city, and at the same time cover 
an important section of the country from his ma- 
rauding incursions. 

With respect to troops, we have reason to believe 
that all the regular force in this part or its vicinity, 
does not exceed 1,600, of which a great portion con- 
sists of raw recruits, and perhaps not 74 are ac- 
quainted with the use of great guns. The various 
forts in this harbor contain 400 cannon, which, with 
the artillery that will be required in case of a hos- 
tile attempt, ought to be manned by 4,000 men. 
The men are now dispersed among the various forts 
from Sandy Hook to Greenwich, and it is obvious 
could never be concentrated to any given point in 
order to meet the advance of the enemy, without a 
total abandonment of the works. 

The inadequacy of the regular force is palpable, 
and we have no reason to believe that the regular 
militia can supply the deficiency. The brigade of 
artilleiy does not contain more than 1,000 effective 
men, a considerable portion of which is principally 
conversant with the duties of infantry, and even 
fifty of this corps are now stationed at Sag Harbor 
for the defence of that place. 

The national government have recently ordered 



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154 MUNITIONS OF WAR. 

13,500 of the militia of this State to be held in readi 
ness for service. This force, for the purpose of 
immediate defence, is merely an army on paper. 
Before the men can be assembled together from 
various parts of the State, twenty or thirty days 
may elapse, and the objects of the en.emy be com- 
pletely attained ; and when assembled, they will be 
raw troops unacquainted with the duties of a camp, 
without discipUne, without mutual confidence, and 
ignorant of the first elements of the military art. 

As to munitions of war, the annexed official 
statement exhibits the meagre contents of our 
State arsenal : — Of field artillery, we have ten 
pieces, four of which are six-pounders ; of muskets, 
we have 2,230, of which only 548 have cartridge 
boxes ; and the fixed ammunition is also inconsider- 
able. The Governor has taken measures to obtain 
1,000 additional muskets, which may be daily ex- 
pected. 

The United States have not, in this place, more 
than 1,000 muskets. They have 10 iron six-pound- 
ers in good order, 4 eighteens, and 3 twelves ; 1 
brass twenty-four i)ounder, 2 twelves, and 1 five- 
and-a-half -inch howitzer; there are also 11 iron 
eighteen-pounders, on old caiTiages, which probably 
require remounting. The quantity of fixed ammuni- 
tion is not known, but it is apprehended that it is 
entirely inadequate to the crisis. 

After this brief exposition of our situation, the 
most important object of inqTiiry is, what remedies 
shall be adopted to supply the desiderata, and to 
meet the exigencies of the case. 

As a corporate body with municipal powers, and 



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RBCOMMENDA T10]S\'<, 155 



without any authority to impose taxes, or to raise 
troops, it is evident that the Common Council are 
not able to apply an adequate remedy. So far, both 
as a representation of our defenceless situation, as 
an application of a portion of our pecuniary re- 
sources, as animating our fellow-citizens to spirited 
and patriotic exertion, and as an adoption of all 
proper means, either as individuals or public func- 
tionaries, may have a benign influence, it is our 
incumbent duty to act promptly, in^mediately, and 
energetically. 

The National Government is specially charged 
with the general defence ; and it is presumed that 
a respectful representation of this Board, by a com- 
mittee, to the President of the United States, may 
have beneficial effect, as it is completely in his 
power to direct the unfinished works to be com- 
pleted, and new works to be constructed ; to direct 
the regular forces in this quarter to be augmented ; 
to order a portion of the militia into immediate 
service, in order to repel invasion, or to cause them 
to be paid by the United States after being ordered 
out by the authority of this State; to cause the 
munitions of war to be augmented without any 
great inconvenience or expense, as it is believed 
that the United States have arms and ammunition 
sufficient, which may be ordered to this place. 

Next to the General Government, we must look to 
the State Government for protection. The Governor 
has authority, by the 68th section of the Militia Law, 
to order into service, at the expense of the State, 
any portion of the militia, in case of invasion or 
other emergency, when he shall judge it necessary. 



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156 FOIITFFIED CAMPS RECOMMENDED, 

He may also increase the munitions of war in 
this quarter, by purchase, or by ordering them 
from other arsenals where they are not wanted. 

It appears to the Committee that it is indispen- 
ably necessary, in order to protect this city against 
attacks by land, to have two fortified camps — one 
on the heights of Brooklyn, and the other on the 
heights of Harlem — and that they should be im- 
mediately occupied by the militia. These encamp- 
ments may prevent the approach of the enemy in 
the most exposed quarters ; will enure the men to 
arms and discipline : will serve as places of rendez- 
vous for the militia in case of alarm, and will give a 
decided tone and countenance to public confidence. 
An encampment at Harlem will have this addition- 
al advantage : it will keep open a communication 
by land with the continent if the enemy shall obtain 
the command of our watei*s. The land at Harlem 
may be occupied without any expense ; that at 
Brooklyn may be obtained at a reasonable rate 
during the war, by paying an annual rent. It is 
presumed that these camps may be fortified by the 
voluntary labor of our fellow-citizens, and by the 
militia ordered to occupy them. 

A respectable i>ortion of the physical force of this 
city is exempted from serving in the militia, except 
in cases of invasion. The body of firemen, consist- 
ing of upwni-d of 1,(MJ0 able-bodied men ; those who 
have served a certain period in the artillery ; and 
persons above the age of 45, come principally under 
this description. To render this force of any use, it 
ought to be organized. The firemen might compose 
one regiment, tlie exempts another. 



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RESOLUTIOya ADOPTED. 157 



Although the Governor is authorized to call out 
the militia, at the expense of the State, yet, as no 
legislative appropriation has been made for this ob- 
ject, it would be proper that the Corporation should 
loan the necessary funds on this occasion. 

The removal of the shipping from our harbor to 
some place of safety, besides being beneficial to the 
owners, will diminish the inducement of the enemy 
to attack the city, and will prevent the services of an 
efficient body of men from being diverted from the 
public defence to the conservation of the shipping. 

With a view of bringing these propositions before 
the Common Council in a formal shape, the Com- 
mittee submit the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That Alderman Mapes and Alder- 
mdn Smith be requested forthwith to call upon the 
President of the United States, and respectfully to 
solicit the attention to the objects above stated as 
being within the purview of his official powers. 

2. Resolved^ That the Committee of Defence and 
Comptroller be a committee to procure the necessary 
ground on the heights of Brooklyn, the money 
therefor to be advanced by this Board, for an annual 
rent for the purposes above expressed, in full confi- 
dence that the same will be refunded by the State 
or General Government. 

3. Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor 
be respectfully requested to call out, for the defence 
of this city, under the authority given him by the 
militia law, a competent number of militia to oc- 
cupy the proposed camps, and that the Corporation 
will loan the necessary funds, not exceeding $300,- 
000, to be reimbursed by the State. 



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158 RESOLUTIONS ADOPFKB. 

4. Resolved, That his Excellency the Gk»vernor 
be further respectfully requested to increase, by all 
means in his power, the munitions of war in this 
part of the State, and to cause the field artillery and 
arms to be put in complete order. 

5. Resolved, That the Committee of Defence be 
instructed to attend to the organization of the ex- 
empts as above stated ; to the removal of the ship- 
ping, and to procuring the voluntary labor of our 
fellow-citizens on the encampments above men. 
tioned. 

6. Resolved, That the Commissioners of Forti- 
fications be requested to hasten the erection of 
works on Hal et's Point, and Mill Rock, or such 
other works as they may judge necessary, to pre- 
vent the approach of the enemy to this city by the 
Sound. 

7. Resolved, That General Fish and Mr. Wend- 
over be a committee to wait upon the Governor 
with these resolutions. 

8. Resolved, That the Finance Committee be 
authorized to inquire and report as to the means of 
raising the moneys that may be required under 
these resolutions. 

The Committee having been dii'ected by the Com- 
mon Council 'o confer with his Excellency the 
Governor, and Major-General Lewis, conceive it no 
more than an act of justice to state, that those 
gentlemen have evinced every disposition to promote 
the defence of this city, and will unquestionably 
afford all the aid in their power for the attainment 
of this important object." 

The weak points where the enemy would be most 



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LOCATION OF FORTS. 159 

likely to make an attack were well known, and had 
been openly discussed for some time previous. 

The report of Gov. Tompkins to the State Legis- 
lature, dated March 15th, 1813 (see portion of it, ante, 
Vol. I., p. 1Y8), was carefully made as to the 
measures necessaiy. In that report Gov. Tompkins 
said : 

'' Preparatory to an estimate of the forces which 
may be suflScient for the harbor of New York it 
will be proper to mention the points, w hich, in ad- 
dition to the present fortifications, may be occupied 
to great advantage : 

*' 1. A battery upon the block which has been 
sunk opposite the Navy Yard, on the mud bank or 
island found between the East River and the chan- 
nel of the Wallabout Bay, would be a great protec- 
tion to the easterly side of the city ; such a work it 
is probable will be erected by the Navy Department, 
f ^'2. An open excavated battery of position on 
the high bank of the Long Island shore, between 
the house of Jeremiah Johnson and Williamsburgh, 
would be very powerful and commanding. * 

'* 3. A similar work will be required on the west- 
erly side of the river, at or near Corlear's Hook. 

*' 4. A battery of eight or ten columbiads at some 
proper place on the shore of the East River, between 
Throgg's Neck and BlackwelFs Island, is necessary 
to guard against the approach of vessels from the 
Sound. 

^* 5. Works at Hoboken and Powles Hook (Jersey 
City) should also be accepted. 

* ^ 6. A bomb battery for five or six ten-inch mortars 
at or near the quarantine ground, will be essential to 



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160 FULTON'S inoyCLAD. 



prevent vessels from lying in that anchorage to 
repair damage or to wait for a favorable wind or tide. 

** 7. Redonbts, each containing a block house, upon 
the high ground of Long Island, southwest of Brook- 
lyn, which commands Red Hook, Governor's Island 
and the city, and also upon the eminences in the rear 
of the fortifications on Staten Island will be of great 
importance." 

Work had been commenced in June, and was in 
progress, for the building of a fort at Hallet's Point, 
on the Brooklyn side of Hell Gate. The corner- 
stone for it was laid on the 14th of July, and it was 
called Fort Stevens, in honor of Major-Gten. Ebe- 
nezer Stevens, of the New York State militia artil- 
lery. It was an open battery of twelve guns. The 
day selected w^as the anniversary of the capture of 
Stony Point by Gen. Wayne. 

A party consisting of Mayor Chnton, Col. Wil- 
liams, Major Fairlie, Gen. Morton, Gen. Stevens, 
Gen. Swift and Dr. Swift, his father, then assem- 
bled at Hallet's Point, and named the position Fort 
Stevens^ After this, Gen. Stevens gave the party a 
dinner at Mount Napoleon, his country seat. 

On the same day an order w\as issued by the Gov- 
ernor, detailing a militia detachment from Gten. 
Steddiford's brigade, to guard the ironclad frigate 
which was being built at Brown's yard, under the 
direction of Robert Fulton. The guard consisted 
of one sergeant, one corporal and twelve privates. 

The next day Gen. Swift sent Lieut. James Gads- 
den, his aid-de-camp, to commence a block house 
on Mill Rock and a tower in the rear of Haliet's 
Point, to cover the right of oiu' line of defence. 



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FORTS AT HARLEM 161 

On July 16th the work on Harlem Heights was 
commenced at Mount Alto, on the Hudson River 
near 123d street. The trenches were opened by a 
detachment of volunteer militia, citizens from the 
city, under Major Van Horn. The line was from 
Mount Alto, extending east across Bloomingdale 
road, where it was a bastion called Fort Horn, and 
along the elevated ground to McGowan's Pass and 
along the ledge of rocks and the elevated ground 
overlooking Harlem Flats, to Hell Gate. That line 
was taken in preference to an advanced one^ because 
it was short and money and men were not yet at 
command. 

The State had already done much in the way 
of building fortifications and supplying them with 
mihtia, and further appropriations were made to 
complete them.* While other parts of the State 
were actually invaded, and New York City only 
threatened, there was no choice as to how the State 
should act. This left the entire responsibility of 
the defence of the city mainly upon the citizens, in 
the way of fortifications. The necessary number 
of militia could probably be had, but the city must 
pay them and supply the munitions of defence, and 
trust to the future action of the National and State 
Governments to reimburse the expense. 

On the 20th of July Gov. Tompkins, as Command* 
er-in-chief of the New York State Militia, ordered 
and directed that all of the militia of the State be 
kept in complete order for service and ready to 

* The committee of fortifications for the city and State 
were De Witt Clinton, ArtKur Smith, Gen. Jacob Morton, Gen. 
Peter Curtenius, and Major James Fairiie. 



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162 00 V. TOMPKINS. 



mai'ch at a moment's warning to any part, of the 
State attacked, or in immediate danger of being at- 
tacked. The following is a copy of it : 

State of New York. 
General Orders. 

Head'QuarterSy Albany^ July 20th, 1814. 

In compliance with a requisition made by the 
Pi-esident, pursuant to the laws of the United 
States, t|ie Commander-in-chief of the State of New 
York directs that 13,500 of the militia of the State 
of New York be detached, organized, equipped and 
held in readiness for actual service. 

The First Brigade of artillery, the Third and Tenth 
Brigades of infantry, and the uniform companies of 
artillery, light infantry, grenadiers and riflemen 
■of Westchester, Rockland, Orange, Putnam and 
Dutchess Counties will form the first division. 

The artillery of Rockland, Orange, Dutchess and 
Putnam will be formed into a battalion, of which 
Major Samuel Slee, of Poughkeepsie, will be com- 
mandant. The second major of the battalion will 
be assigned by the commandant of the tenth regi- 
ment of artillery. This battalion will be attached 
to the First Brigade of artillery. 

The light infantry companies of the before-men- 
tioned counties will be formed into one battalion, 
and the rifle companies into another battalion, and 
those two battalions into one regiment. 

The First Brigade of horse artilleiy, and the Fif- 
teenth, Twenty-second, Twenty-ninth and Thirty- 
third Brigades of infantry will likewise be prepared 



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ORGANIZES THE MILITIA. 163 

and equipped for immediate service, under the re- 
spective officers now commanding them. 

The second and third divisions of the requisition 
are to be detached and organized as specified in the 
annexed detail. 

The Commander-in-chief directs, that all the 
residue of the militia of the State of New York be 
likewise kept in complete order for service, and 
ready to march at a moment's warning, to any part 
of the State which may be attacked, or in immedi- 
ate danger of being attacked ; and enjoins it upon 
all officers to cause their corps to be immediately 
and thoroughly inspected, and the penalties for 
deficiencies of equipments to be rigidly enforced. 
Brigade and division inspectors are charged to be 
attentive to the execution of this order. 

The services of the first and second divisions, and 
of the uniform corps in the counties of Ulster, 
Delaware, Greene, Rensselaer, Albany, Schenectady 
and Dutchess which shall tender their services on 
this occasion, will be required at New York and its 
vicinity. 

Volunteers for this detachment are to be accepted 
by commandants of regiments, brigades or divisions, 
and reported to the adjutant-general immediately. 

The Commander-in-chief invites the uniform 
corps, throughout the State, to exhibit, at this time, 
the same military pride and patriotic order which 
many of them have displayed on former occasions. 
The crisis demands united exertions, and the Com- 
mander-in chief is persuaded that the promptitude, 
bravery and patriotism of the militia generally will 
be proportioned to the emergencies to which the State 



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164 OFFICERS ASSIGNED, 

of New York may be subjected. By order of the 
Commander-in-chief, 

: (Signed) Sol. Van Rensselaer, 

Adjutant-Oeneral. 

The following officers are detailed for service ; the 
residue are to be assigned by commandants of di- 
visions, brigades and regiments. 

Jfq/or-(?6;weraZ5—Ebenezer Stevens, Benj. Mooers, 
Nathaniel King. 

Inspectors — Ebenezer Irving, Jr., Moses I. Can- 
tine, Thomas Greenly. 

Quarter-Masters— B(\Y\mY(i Hart, Cornelius Mar- 
tin, Samuel CampV>ell. 

Judge- Advocates — Hugh Maxwell, Lemuel Jenk- 
ins, William Hotchkiss. 

Brigadiers — Gerard Steddiford, Jacob Morton, 
Jonas Mapes, Martin Heermance, Samuel Haight, 
Daniel Wright, Oliver Collins. 

Brigade-Majors — Theophilus Pierce, John Brush, 
Joseph Lord, Nathaniel Pitcher, Ransom Rath- 
bun. 

Brigade Quarter-Masters — Cornelius Bogert, P. 
H. Schenck, William Macomb, Thomas P. Baldwin, 
Joshua Hathaway. 

Lieutenant-Colonels — Jonathan Varian, Isaac Bel- 
knap, Jr., Abraham Van Wyck, Anthony Dela- 
mater, Anthony Wheeler, John I. Van Dalsen, 
Daniel Warren, Sebastian Vischer, Thomas Davis, 
James Green, John Prior, Hendrick Van Schaick, 
Pliny Adams, C. P. Bellinger, Emstus Cleveland. 

Jfo/ors— William Hammond, David W. Bate^ 
Samuel Slee, S. V.W. Varick, Clarmont Livingston, 



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HELP FROM NEW JERSEY. 165 

adjutants; I. Tompkins, quarter -master; Matthew 
Oliver, paymaster. 

The Third and Tenth Brigades of infantry were 
made up of New York City regiments, as we have 
before seen. Gen. Jacob Morton was in command 
of First Brigade of artillery. The Fifteenth Bri- 
gade of infantry was from the southern part of 
Westchester County ; the Twenty-second from 
Kings and Queens Counties, the Twenty ninth from 
Rockland County, and the Thirty-third from Suf- 
folk County. These were all placed under com- 
mand of Ma jor-Gten. Ebenezer Stevens, with head- 
quarters in New York City. 

New Jersey was on hand to aid in the defence of 
New York harbor. 

Gov. W. C. Pennington, of that State, was the 
first to take official notice of the call by the Presi- 
dent for militia from the States. The number (five 
thousand) requested from New Jersey was so small, 
and her Une of defences so important, that the Gov- 
ernor requested that the quota should be made up 
of miHtia volunteers. His request was dated July 
14th, in which he appealed to the patriotism of the 
people as follows : 

** The Commander-in-Chief thinks it his duty to 
remind the militia of New Jersey that the crisis 
calls for a manifestation of public virtue. The 
events of the war in Europe have left America to 
again contend singly with the British Empire. The 
eyes of the world are upon us. Let us convince the 
enemy that the moment he lands on our shores he 
will be met by freemen in arms, able and willing 
to defend their country. The citizens of New Jer- 



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166 MILITIA FORCES. 



sey were among the first in our glorious struggle 
for national independence and in- the formation of 
our national government ; they will not be the last 
in arms to maintain what they have so heroically 
contributed to achieve and wisely to establish." 

Governor Pennington requested that all offers of 
volunteers should be made within twenty days. 

The official report of the Adjutant-General of New 
York State showed the militia force of the State in 
1814 to be 95,026 officers and men. The report of 
New Jersey showed the militia force of that State 
to be about thirty-six thousand officers and men. 

On the 26th of July, Aldermen Mapes and Smith, 
the committee appointed on the 14th of July to 
confer with the President of the United States re- 
lating to the defence of the city, made a satisfactory 
report, which stated that he would co-operate, so 
far as his power extended, in promoting the objects 
of the corporation ; particularly, the munitions of 
war, the fortified camps, and the immediate call 
into service of three thousand militia at the expense 
of the United States would be attended to, the cor- 
poration advancing the pay of the troops. This 
arrangement was immediately sanctioned by the 
Common Council. 

The following is the 

REPORT MADE TO COMMON COUNCIL ON JULY 26TH, 

1814. 

''The committee report that, in pursuance of 
their instructions, and fully impressed with the 
urgency of the business committed to them, they 
repaired with all possible dispatch to the seat of 



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NATIONAL AID PROMISED. 107 

government, and waited on the Executive on the 
19th inst., also, by his direction, on the Secretary 
of War. 

*' Your committee had a full and attentive hear- 
ing, and it is but justice to remark, that their ap- 
plication received that prompt and early attention 
which the importance and magnitude of the subject 
required, and that every disposition was evinced on 
the part of the Government to comply, as far as in 
their power, with the wishes of this corporation. 

** They beg leave to submit the following, as the 
result of their final interview with the Secretary of 
War, to whom the application was referred : 

'* The Government will call into immediate ser- 
vice three thousand militia (the number contem- 
plated by this Board), to be considered as part of 
the State's quota conditionally ordered by the Pres- 
ident on 22d of June. 

^' All the requisite arms and other military stores, 
as well as ordnance for two fortified camps, will be 
furaished by the War Department, except so many 
muskets as can be supplied from the State arsenal. 
Such muskets as the general government may fur- 
nish will be considered as the property of the State, 
and be chained against their proportion allowed by 
the law of Congress for arming the whole body of 
the militia, the Governor giving a receipt for the 
same. The troops will also be fvirnished with sub- 
sistence and camp equipage, but their monthly pay 
is to be advanced by the corporation, which will 
again receive it from the general government. 

'^ Proper and skillful oflScers (Gen. Swift and Col. 
Wadsworth, as your committee are infomied) will 



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168 MILITARY STORES 



be directed to lay out the proposed camps, to super- 
intend the fortifying the same, and to provide and 
inspect the ordnance necessary for the purpose. 

** As an impression prevailed that there existed 
at this poi-t a great deficiency of militaiy stores, 
your committee deem it not improper to present to 
the Board the annexed schedule of such as were at 
this depot on the 1st of April, which quantity, it is 
understood, has been rather increasing. By this 
document of the War Department it will be per- 
ceived that there is an ample store of everything 
but muskets ; of this article your committee are in- 
formed that there are two thousand on their way 
from Philadelphia, and a large stock at Springfield, 
which, if wanted, could in a few days be delivered 
hei'e. 

'' With respect to the number of men in the har- 
bor, there is considerable difference between the 
retui-ns to the War Department and those lately 
reported to this Board, the former stating the 
force at 2,r»00, while the report of the special com- 
mittee makes it only 1,600 ; the cause of this differ- 
ence between the two returns, it is not in the ]>ower 
of your committee to explain at present. 

(Signed) '* Jonas Mapes, 

Thos. R. Smith.'' 

schedule to report. 

** 347 pieces of iron heavy cannon, 18 poundei-s 
and upwards, including 22 colunibiads, 50-pounder8, 
and 1 loO-pounder, mounted on fixed carriages and 
<Kiuipped for service. 



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AT NEW YORK. 169 



^^ 5 18-pounder8 on travelling carriages, defective 
in the wheels, new wheels having been ordered. 

'^ 11 12- and 9-pounders on travelling carriages. 

** 26 6-pounders on travelling carriages, of which 
seven are brass. 

*' 5 8-inch howitzers on travelling carriages. 

^' 5 10-inch mortars mounted on wooden beds. 

**40 old cannon mortars, dismounted and unser- 
viceable." 

The difference between this report and that made 
to the War Department is owing to this circum- 
stance : The first embraces the field artillery on the 
island of New York alone, the other includes all the 
field artillery on that of the different islands in the 
port. 

At this meeting it was resolved that the injunc- 
tion of secrecy on the action of the Common Council 
be removed so far as related to the measures of de- 
fence, and that the said committee select from their 
report such parts of it as they judged discreet to be 
made known, and to give publicity to the same, also 
to give summary of the last report. It was deemed 
necessary to arouse popular interest. Up to this 
time the proceedings in the Common Council were . 
unknown to the people, and they seemed to take little 
interest in them. 

The great abundance of Treasury notes and paper 
money among the people (noticed in Chapter XXVI.) 
had made them extravagant and much given to 
amusements and personal enjoyments, taking little 
regard for the future. The cry of ^' There is an 
enemy at our doors ! " by those in authority had been 
repeated so often, and nothing had come of it, that 



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170 POPOLAR APATHY, 

no attention was given to it now. The city news- 
paper of the day called attention to the popular 
apathy as to the dangerous condition of the city, and 
the devotion of the people to amusement and pleasure 
to an extent never before known in the history of 
the city. 

The Columbian said : 

'^ Jf a stranger were to judge from the public ex- 
hibitions and diversions of the day, he would think 
the citizens of New York were a pretty gay and 
lively and tolerably careless people, considering the 
times." 

The following is a list of amusements for the 
week ending July 30th : 

Monday — Dwyer's Lecture on Heads. (Comic.) 
Tight rope and dramatic representations in the 
evening, at Broadway Circus Building. 

Tuesday — Serenade in the evening from the por- 
tico of the Flag staff at the Battery by the Mace- 
donian band. 

Wednesday — Dinner to Essex crew. Steamboat 
trip to Sandy Hook. Evening — Essex crew on exhi- 
bition at Broadway Circus. Fireworks at Vauxhall 
Garden, and dramatic entertainment, ** Hearts of 
Oaks." Serenadeat the Battery. Music and pleasure 
party in the steamboat Nassau from Beekman Slip. 

2%Mr5day— Evening concert at Connolly's Military 
Garden, Brooklyn. The Belvedere House and 
Garden opens with fireworks, Brooklyn, by R Kent. 

Friday — Evening dramatic representations, at 
Broadway Circus. Fireworks at Vauxhall Garden. 

Daily — American Museum, naval panorama^ 
Commodore Perry's Victory. Mechanical panorama^ 



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AM08EMKNT8 OF THE DA Y. Yi\ 

of Chesapeake Bay ; ditto Baltimore. Wax figures. 
Telescopic views of the planets, inoon and stai*s 
from building at the Flag staff. 

The following is an account of a steamboat ex- 
cursion the next week : 

" The steamboat Nassau exhibited a novel and 
pleasing appearance on Tuesday evening. She was 
brilliantly illuminated and«had on board a party of 
ladies and gentlemen, with a band of music. She 
left Beekman Slip at nine o'clock and proceeded 
slowly but majestically down the river close to the 
wharves into the North River, passed the Battery 
and went up as far as Jay Street ; then pix)ceeded 
alongside the President frigate, when rockets were 
thrown from the boat, and three cheers given by 
the party, the music striking up the ^* President's 
March." The crew of the President returned the 
compliment by giving three cheers. The boat then 
passed close around the President and returned to 
the place where she started. The battery and the 
wharves were crowded with spectators, who were 
much pleased with the sight, and cheered as the 
boat passed them." 

The dinner given at Tammany Hall to the sur- 
vivors of the crew of the Essex and the Essex 
Junior was by subscription. 

The committee of arrangements were : Francis 
Cooper, Stephen Whitney, Preserved Fish, Abraham 
R. Lawrence, Abraham Stagg, James Warner, 
Elisha Tibbets, Henry W. Bool, Thomas Carberry, 
James Lovett, Richard Hatfield, John Haff, Je- 
romus Johnson. 

The crew (about one hundred and twenty) 



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172 DINNER TO THE 



marched from the Battery in procession up 
Broadway, attended by Commodore Decatur's 
{Macedonian) band of music, the marines in 
new uniform and the seamen who were in the 
engagement at Valparaiso harbor with crape on 
their hats in respect to their slaughtered comrades. 
They carried flags with the patriotic inscriptions 
displayed by Captain Poji;er in the action in Val- 
paraiso harbor. 

It will be remembered that when Captain Porter 
sailed out of New York harbor on July 3rd, 1812, his 
motto flying at the mast-head of the Essex was 
'' Free Trade and Sailors' Rights" (ante, Vol. I., p. 9). 
When the British vessels under Commodore Hillyer 
laid siege to the Essex in Valparaiso harbor, some of 
them had flags with mottoes in answer to that of Cap- 
tain Porter, One of the enemy's mottoes was ^' God 
and Country, British Sailors' Best Rights — Traitors 
offend both." Captain Porter replied to this by the 
motto, "God, our Country and Liberty — Tyrants 
offend both." 

The procession halted between the park and the 
CityJHaU, and were joined by a coach with five of 
their wounded companions. They were saluted by 
nine hearty cheers from the spectators. 

The dining-room was appropriately decorated. 
There'were one hundred and eighty-four persons at 
the dinner. 

In the [evening the crew attended the cii^cus, and 
were on/exliibition there, being announced in the 
advertisements as **The heroes of Valparaiso." 

They were the escaped prisoners that ha I been 
captured by the enemy at Valparaiso. 



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CREW OF THE ESSIiX. 173 

Capt. Porter, with the remains of his crew were 
paroled prisoners, and arrived off the northeastern 
coast of Long Island on July 5th, in the Essex 
Junior, The enemy detained him in such a manner 
as made them again prisoners, and not subject to the 
parole. Under these circumstances, Capt. Porter 
attempted an escape. He, with his men, lowered a 
boat, manned and armed it, and put off from the 
Essex Junior. When he was discovered the Saturn 
went in pursuit of him, but he eluded the enemy. 
After rowing and saiUng about sixty miles, Capt. 
Porter succeeded, with great difficulty and hazard, in 
reaching the town of Babylon, L. I., where he landed 
on the 6th, and then in a carriage reached the 
Brooklyn navy yard on the 7th, and was followed by 
the boat with its crew on wagon wheels. He crossed 
the Brooklyn ferry and landed in the city at foot 
of Beekman Slip in the afternoon. On entering 
his carriage there the hoi^ses were immediately un- 
harnessed, and he was drawn by the citizens to his 
lodgings in Greenwich Street, amidst the cheering 
and acclamation of the spectators. 

Capt. Porter and his crew were on waiting orders 
at the Brooklyn navy yard when the dinner was 
given. 

The late Admiral D. G. Farragut was a midship- 
man taken prisoner in that conflict, and was present 
at the dinner.* 



♦ The only wound that Admiral Farrap^t ever received during 
his service m the navy was at this battle in Valparaiso harbor 
in 1814. He was twelve years of age. He was knocked down 
the hatchway by a failing man, and was severely bruised. 
Capt. Porter made honorable mention of the lad in his official re- 
port to the Secretary of the Navy. 



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174 MEMORIAL TO COMMON COUNCIL, 

A meeting of some citizens had been held about 
the middle of July on the subject of the defence of 
the city, and a memorial addressed to the Mayor 
and Common Council of the city was drawn up and 
circulated for the purpose of obtaining signatures 
thereto. The following is a copy of it : 

"To the Honorable, the Mayor and Corporation of 
the City of New York : 

''The citizens whose names are undersigned 
respectfully represent that, in their opinion, our 
beloved country, and probably the city of New 
York, the center of our affections and interests, is 
exposed to imminent danger of invasion by a pow- 
erful, vindictive and exasperated enemy, and that 
the period has therefore arrived when all good citi- 
zens ought to combine in defence of everything 
dear and valuable in this life. Your memorialists 
do not call in question the vigilance, zeal or fidelity 
of the public authorities ; they disavow any inten- 
tion of weakening or distracting their measures ; 
on the contrary, it is their sole object to animate 
and strengthen the public councils, and to maintain 
that inestimable privilege of our free institutions, 
which prescribes that, in whatever manner the en- 
ergies of freemen are displayed, the guardians of 
the laws should always remain the directors of the 
public force. Your memorialists are well satisfied 
that the great body of their fellow-citizens are dis- 
posed at this interesting crisis to bury in oblivion 
the causes of past dissensions, and that what has 
appeared to be an alarming apathy in respect to the 
great interests of our country ought, in truth, to be 



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BEQOLUTIONa OFFERED, 175 

ascribed to a respectfxil deference for the Govern- 
ment, and a reluctance to engage in public concerns 
without a regular authority for that purpose. 

''Your memorialists are, however, convinced 
that inaction is no longer consistent with the pub- 
lic safety, and that the urgency of our situation 
requires that the Government should now be aided 
by the voluntary and patriotic efforts of good citi- 
zens, and they respectfully request that measures 
may be immediately devised for ascertaining their 
sentiments and combining their exertions. 

"New York, July 20, 1814. 

(Signed) "Oliver Wolcott," 

and by others. 

The names of the persons who signed it cannot 
now be ascertained. They were not published nor 
recorded in the proceedings of the Common Coun- 
cil. 

This memorial was presented to the Common 
Council on the 1st of August by Alderman Wend- 
over, with the following resolutions : 

^^ Resolved, That the Common Council highly ap- 
prove of the sentiments expressed in the memorial 
presented by Oliver Wolcott and others in behalf of 
themselves and a number of the citizens of this 
city, on the important subject of taking immediate 
and effectual measures for its greater security and 
defence. 

^^ Resolved, That it be earnestly recommended to 
the citizens generally of this city to meet in the 
park in front of the City Hall on Wednesday 
next, the 3d inst., at twelve o'clock at noon, for 
the purpose of appointing a committee to inquire if 



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17G RB80LUT10NS REJh'CTED. 

any and what means ought and may be devised to 
put this city in a better posture of defence, and in 
conjunction with the committee of defence of this 
Board to provide all practical means in concert 
with the General and State Grovernments calculated 
to prepare for and stimulate our fellow-citizens in 
the protection and defence of everything we hold 
dear and valuable in life, and to repel any at- 
tack that may be made by the enemy against this 
city." 2^ 

The question being taken thereon, and a division 
being called, it was decided in the negative by a 
vote of ten to seven, as follows : 

Negative — Mesier, Mapes, McCartie, Lawrence, 
Fish, Nitchie, Lawrence, King, Hardenbrook, 
Brown — ten. 

Affirmative — Buckwater, Wendover, Mimson, 
Tucker, Cannon, Mann, Burtis — seven. 

It was claimed that, although the resolutions 
were not adopted, the aldermen did not discounte- 
nance the proposed meeting, but merely left the 
citizens to exercise their constitutional privilege in 
such manner as they thought proper. 

The special committee of defence, pursuant to di- 
rection of the Common Council on the 26th of July, 
published a summary of their reports the next day. 
It only showed the urgent need of more fortifica- 
tions and need of more soldiers. 

This was read at the next meeting of the Com- 
mon Council, in the afternoon of August Ist. 

The standing committee of defence then recom- 
mended to the Common Council that the following 
address be issued by the Mayor to the citizens of 



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ADDRKBS TO THE PUBLIC. 



New York. This was unanimously approved and 
adopted by the Common Council, as follows : 

FelloiV' Citizens : The times are portentous, our 
country is involved in war with one of the most 
powerful nations in the world ! A nation possess- 
ing at all times, most efficient means of annoyance, 
and now, in consequence of late events in Europe, 
left with but one object against which to direct the 
whole attention of her enormous naval and military 
forces. This object is our beloved country ! Pow- 
erful fleets and armies have sailed from Europe ! 
Doubts whether, during pending negotiations, this 
force would be employed against us, have paralyzed 
the efforts of many, and under the expectations of 
a speedy peace we have all rested in too mu h se- 
curity. We ought not to be kept back from neces- 
sary preparations by doubts, not to be lulled asleep 
by expectations. While we hope for a speedy and 
honorable peace, let us prepare ourselves for the 
wor^t. Let us place ourselves in a situation, should 
it be the policy of the enemy to attack us before the 
negotiations are terminated, to meet him with the * 
most prompt and rigorous opposition. 

Where the place of attack will be, it is impos- 
sible for any to divine ; it therefore becomes us to 
be prepared at every exposed point. The immense 
importance of New York to this country need not 
be mentioned. Its value to the enemy, if possessed 
by them, would be incalculable. 

Fellow-citizens, this city is in danger ! We are 
threatened with invasion. It is the duty of all good 
citizens to prepare for the crisis ! We must arm 
ourselves to aid the regular force of the government 



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178 ADDRBSa TO THB PUBLIC. 

in a vigorous defence. The questions are not now, 
whether the war was just or unjust in its com- 
mencement ; whether the declaration of war was 
politic or expedient ; whether the causes have long 
ago ceased or not ; whether our government might 
or might not have brought it to a speedy and 
honorable termination ; or whether they have done 
their duty toward us since they have involved us in 
this war ? These are solemn questions which will 
one day be agitated, and which must be answered 
hereafter. But now we must repulse the enemy 
from our city in case he attacks us ! This is the 
first object of our attention, and the present in- 
quiries ought to be, will we defend our country, our 
city, our property, our families ? Will we go forth 
to meet and repel the invading enemy ? Shall we, 
at a time like this, when our all is in jeopardy, re- 
frain from calling into requisition all the physical 
force of our city for a manly resistance ; shall we 
refuse to sacrifice our time, our labor, our exertions, 
our property or even our lives, if necessary, to pro- 
tect our city, and place it in a state of security ? 

As the immediate guardians of the city we have 
not been idle ; we have repeatedly called upon the 
State and General Governments for assistance. We 
have, in behalf or our fellow citizens, made to gov- 
ernment liberal offers of pecuniary aid. We have 
received from them promises of succor. And we 
feel desirous that, in addition to what they may do 
and what we as a corporation have done, our fellow- 
citizens may Use all their efforts to co-operate with 
the government in the important object of our 
safety and defence. 



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ADDRESS TO THE PUBLIO. 179 

We have observed, with much satisfaction, the 
efforts which have been abready. made by citizens 
exempt from mihtia duty, to organize themselves 
into effective corps. We cordially approve of all 
such patriotic efforts ; we recommend to all such 
citizens capable of bearing arms, to enrol themselves 
without delay, or to connect themselves with the 
uniform companies already established, to the end 
that by suitable preparations and discipline they 
may be able effectually to assist in repeUing any 
hostile attack. 

We recommend to the whole mihtia of our city to 
keep themselves in complete order for service, ready 
to march at a moment's warning, to turn out as 
frequently as possible for exercise and improve- 
ment ; and to the officers of the mihtia we would 
earnestly recommend the most prompt and thorough 
attention to the inspection of their men, that every 
one may be properly equipped with arms and ac- 
coutrements as required by law. 

We recommend to all our citizens a cheerful prof- 
fer of their services to the officers of the United 
States, to aid by voluntary labor in the completion 
of the works of defence now erecting, and in the 
construction of such other as may be deemed im- 
portant by those to whom the safety of our city is 
immediately intrusted. 

We recommend to such of our citizens as have 
not yet removed their vessels, to do it without delay. 
This measure is considered one of great importance. 
It will take away one of the inducements to a hos- 
tile attack. It may prevent the destruction of the 
city by conflagration, should our shipping be fired 



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180 RECOMMENDATIONS APPROVED, 

by the enemy at our wharves ; and it would preserve 
for our defence multitudes of brave and vigorous 
men who might otherwise be engaged in removing 
them in the hour of alarm. 

Surely the city of New York and the adjoining 
counties possess men enough who will be willing to 
hazard their lives for their families and friends, and 
strength enough, if properly organized and directed, 
to repulse any power of the enemy which may pre 
sume to attack us. Let there then be but one voice 
among us. Let every arm be raised to defend our 
country, and with an humble reliance on the God of 
our fathers. Our country demands our aid. She ex- 
pects that every man will be found at his post in 
the hour of danger, and that every free citizen of 
New York will do his duty. 

De Witt Cunton, 

Mayor. 
"^The address was signed and published by the 
Mayor on August 3d. It was said to have been 
written by him. '1 he tone of it and his literary 
abilities will lead no one to doubt that the Mayor 
was the writer of it. 

Some citizens held a meeting at the City Hall 
next day (August '4th), at which Col. Henry Rutgers 
was chosen chairman and Oliver Wolcott secretary. 
The following resolutions were adopted : 

^^ Resolved unanimously : That this meeting highly 
approve the measures proposed for the defence of 
this city, and recommended to the citizens in an ad- 
dress published by his honor, the Mayor, on the 3d 
inst. 

" Resolved unanimously : That for the purpose of 



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PUBLIC MEETING CALLED. 181 

carrying the said measures into systematical opera- 
tion, in concert with and under the direction of 
the public authorities, the citizens of New York be 
invited to attend a public meeting at the park, in 
front of the City Hall, on Monday the 8th inst., at 
twelve o'clock/* 

The call for a meeting was widely published and 
was generally approved. Some of the newspapers 
objected to such a meeting. 

A line of torpedoes, designed by Robert Fulton, 
had already been placed at the Narrows, and at 
Throgg^s Neck, and at several places in Long Island 
Soimd. 



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CHAPTER XXXII. 

Active MiHtai*y Movements^State Militia Ordered to Serve at 
New York City and Vicinity — Wliere Tiiey Came From — 
Cadets from West Point — Volunteers from New Jersey. 

E local military authorities in every 
part of the State were on the alert, 
actively engaged in complying 
with the order of the Governor of 
July 20th. Officers of corps were 
ordering parades and inspections 
as to sufficiency of equipments 
I and of uniforms. Brigade and 

division inspectors were careful in their duties, but 
yet were lenient to the delinquents in many cases 
where it was shown that a good reason existed for 
the deficiencies of equipments or of complete uni- 
form. Reinspections were ordered in many cases 
after sufficient time had elapsed for delinquents to 
comply. 

On the 30th July Gen. Morton ordered a parade 
of the Fii-st Brigade of artillery for inspection at 
the Battery parade. It was ascertained that his 
brigade consisted of about one thousand men. Tt 
was composed of the Second, Ninth and Eleventh 
Regiments of New York City and Third Regiment 
of Kings County. The Eleventh Regiment at that 
time contained 449 men. 

1^ Some of the companies drilled at the guns daily 
and others with small arms at the Battery Park. 



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CALL FOR MILITIA, 183 

The brigade of artillery paraded by battalions 
every Monday, Wednesday and Friday afternoon. 

Up to this time none of the militia had been 
ordered to rendezvous for actual service, but some 
volunteers had arrived in New York under the order 
of July 20th. An order was issued, dated July 30th, 
signed by Thomas Christie, Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the Third MiUtary District, which prescribed 
that, *'In all cases where troops are encamped 
within this district the officers attached to them 
are to encamp and remain with them." 

On the 2d August Gov. Tompkins, at the request? 
of Major-General Morgan Lewis, ordered Gen. Rose, 
of the Thirty-third Brigade (Suffolk County), to de- 
tach a company of militia from his brigade, to con- 
sist of one captain, two heutenants, two ensigns, 
five sergeants, six corporals, two musicians (fife and 
drum), and ninety privates, and station them at 
Sagg Harbor. In the same order Gen. Jeremiah 
Johnson, of the Twenty-second Brigade, was re- 
quired to furnish a company from that portion of 
his brigade in Queens County, organized same as 
above, to be stationed at Sagg Harbor, Gen. Rose 
to officer this company from his brigade. 

About the time this order (of July 20th) had be- 
come fully known throughout the State, the Gov- 
ernor issued another order calhng into military 
service four thousand men, for the defence of the 
city of New York and vicinity. This order was 
dated August 4, 1814, and required a rendezvous by 
battalions or in corps of not less than one full com- 
pany, on the 18th of August, as designated in the 
order, for the purpose of proceeding to New York. 



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184 MILITIA ORDERED FROM 

All of the men called for were from the Hudson 
River counties, as follows : 

INFANTRY. 

Orange County, 540 men, of Nineteenth Brigade. 

Orange County, 432 men, of Thirty-fourth Brig- 
ade. 

Sullivan and Ulster Counties, 432 men, of Twenty- 
third Brigade. 

Greene and Albany Coimties, 540 men, of Thirty- 
seventh Brigade. 

Columbia County, 540 men, of Twelfth Brigade. 

Dutchess County, 648 men, of Twentieth Brigade. 

Dutchess County, 540 men, of Thirtieth Brigade. 

ARTILLERY. 

The artillery companies of Rockland and Orange 
Counties, under Lieut. -Col. Selah Strong. Those 
from Putnam and Dutchess, under Lieut. -Col. Na- 
than Myers. 

LIGHT INFANTRY AND RIFLEMEN. 

^^One full company of the Second "Regiment of 
riflemen (Albany County), and if more shall volun- 
teer, they are to be accepted and serve under Lieut. - 
Col. S. M. Lockwood, if three companies shall vol- 
unteer." 

The order included the Ught infantry and rifle 
companies of Rockland, Orange, Dutchess and Put- 
nam Counties, as organized under the order of July 
20th. 

VOLUNTEERS. 

In addition, the order provided that such of the 
imiforra corps in the coimties of Delaware, Greene, 



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HUDSON RIVER 00 UNTIES. 185 

Rensselaer, Albany, Schenectady and Ulster as 
would volunteer their services for the defence of 
the city of New York and vicinity should report to 
the Governor immediately. 

All the artillery, light infantry and riflemen were 
required to appear at rendezvous with complete uni- 
form. The artillery were required to take with 
them their field pieces and equipments. The Ught 
infantry, riflemen and infantry were required to 
be equipped with a musket, bayonet or rifle, with a 
cartridge-box or rifle pouch, and with knapsack, 
blanket and canteen, and they were advised in the 
order ^'to provide themselves with a frock and 
trousers for fatigue dress, to preserve their uni- 
form." Substitutes were taken, but they must 
comply with the above requirements. 

This order was particularly harfl on the infantry 
mentioned in it, as the call was to be made up of 
men exclusive of the uniform companies of said 
brigades ; therefore they must provide their own 
uniform and equipments immediately at their own 
expense. 

All of those called must provide their own trans- 
portation to the places of rendezvous, which were 
at some points on the Hudson River convenient for 
them to take sloops for New York City. No provi- 
sion was made for rations while on the way to the 
rendezvous.* 

Three thousand of these troops were called out 

* It was this order and others like it appiving to other por* 
tions of New York State in the summer of 1814, that caused so 
much hardship at the time, and whici) has heen the subject of 
much State legislation and expense, and yet deprived the soldier 
of that day of his earnings and held out false hopes of repay- 



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186 8TBINQBNT ORDERS. 

under the act of Congress of 1795, to serve for three 
months from the date of the rendezvous, or for six 
months if the public interest required it, but could 
not be compelled to serve for a longer period. The 
residue of one thousand under the order, called out 
under New York State authority, were not liable to 
serve longer than three months. 

A few days after this order, one hundred and 
twenty of the cadets from West Point arrived in 
the city and were stationed on Governor's Island 
for ten days' tour of duty. 

The following order was issued : 

^' Adjutant-General's Office, 

** Albany, August 14th, 1814. 

^'On the arrival of the several detachments of 
militia ordered into service on the 4th inst., at their 
respective places of rendezvous, the commanding 



ment to him and to those depending upon him for support, in 
such a manner as to be a shameful disgrace to any country. 
State or nation. 

When we reflect that the Governor of New York, in his posi- 
tion as Commander-in-Chief of the militia of the State, was 
compelled to resort to such measures, and that they were actu- 
ally applied to more than one-half of tlve men in the State th<U 
were subject to mUUary duty, it is worthy of notice by historical 
writers. 

The men of New York State of that day did not leave their 

Elows in tite furrows, as was said to have been done at the out- 
reak of the Revolutionary War, but they left their crops in 
the field waiting and wasting, to be harve%ited oy the owners, or 
to be fired by a ruthless and maddened foe. 

For more than three-quarters of a century has the matter 
been unnoticed in history, and as there is a strong probability 
that it will ever remain so unless recorded in this work, I will 
proceed to give an outline of it, which can easily be filled up 
from ofliciai records. 

The hardship to the soldiers of New York State which these 
orders engendered were often spoken of, and after many years 
meetings were held by the survivors to form some plan by which 
they could be reimbursed in part for the loss that they haV 



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HABD FOR THE IITFANTRT. 187 

officer will report themselves and their corps to the 
commandant of the Third Military District of the 
United States, or at the headquarters of the Com- 
mander-in-chief of this State in the City Hall in 
New York. 

*' No officer will be suffered to continue in the 
detachment unless he be completely uniformed and 
equipped according to law. 

*' The commanding officer at each rendezvous will 
procure water conveyance to New York for his 
troops, upon the most reasonable and economical 
terms; and should the contractor fail to supply 
rations in season at the proper place, the command- 
ing officer of the rendezvous will procure them at 
the contract price. Duplicate receipts must be 
taken for all expenditures, and no expenses are to 
be incurred in expectation of reimbursement, ex- 

thu8 sustained. It was not until forty years afterwards that 
there was any encouragement to claimants. The United States 
bounty land laws had much influence on the movement. 

Under the acts of Congress of 1850 and 1855, the survivor or 
his widow or minor children of a deceased soldier could obtain 
the bounty land warrant, and the service must have been not 
less than fourteen days, except where the person was engaged 
in any battle. 

In 1857 the laws of New York provide for the payment of 
claims for services rendered and supplies furnished by the militia 
and volunteers *' in the late war with Great Britain." " The proof 
to authenticate such services and expenses shall be the state- 
ment on oath of the services rendered and the expenses incurred 
by the person claiming compensation, stating the time of such 
service, the place or places, and the names of the oflicers com- 
manding, and that the claimant has received or is entitled to 
bounty lands by virtue of the laws of the United States, passed 
in 1850 and 1855," and be verified on oath. The commissioners 
were directed to report to the comptroller the names and 
amounts proved due the claimants and acertiflcate to the claim- 
ants or tneir legal representatives, and the comptroller was 
authorized to indorse on such certificate when presented that 
the amount thereof would be paid to the claimant, with interest 
at six per cent from August, 1858, as soon as the money shall have 



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188 NEW JJBBSET MILITIA, 

cept such as are provided for by existing laws. By 
order the Commander-in-chief. 

"Sol. Van Rensselaer, Adjt. -General" 
Major-Gten. Lewis also made a requisition on 
Governor Pennington, of New Jersey, for two 
hundred men to encamp on the Heights of Navesink, 
near the telegraph station. Gk)v. Pennington, on 
the 11th, ordered the following volunteer companies 
into that service, to march on the 16th for the 
encampment for thirty days or until relieved. His 
detachment consisted of Captain James J. Wilson's 
company of infantry, of Trenton (Jersey Blues); 
Captain Stephen D. Day's company of infantry, of 
Orange; Captain John T. Plume's company of 

been received from the government of the United States. It 
will be observed that these ciaims were not for services, but for 
"coDtingeat expenses,'* the soldiers in some instances having 
furnished their own transportation as well as their food and 
clothing. 

The long period that had elapsed (forty-four years) and the 
lack of knowledge and insufficient evidence and other causes 
had thinned the number to at lea»>t one- third of those to 
whom the law could be applied. The number of the certificates 
made out under the law was 17.228; of these more than one 
thousand had not been called for up to 1884. 

In the meantime old soldiers had been forgotten and new 
ones brought to mind, and there seemed to be no chance of get- 
ting any money from the United States Government to pay 
these claims, so in 1869 the State of New York made an appro- 
priation of $50,000 to be paid upon such of those certificates as 
were held by the soldier onlv, and was to be paid pro rata 
among the survivors who resided within the State of New York. 
In 1870 an appropriation of $100,000 was made for like purpose, 
and again in 1874 a like sum was appropriated. 

In 1884 the report showed that there was then outstanding on 
those certificates, principal and interest, the sum of $1,889,784. 

In 1885 the United States Senate Committee on Claims 
reported a bill for the payment of the said certificates without 
interest, but it failed to pass. The amount of said certificates 
upon which no principal or interest had been paid was $704,218.47, 
and so the matter now (1892) stands— in a very unfavorable 
light for claimants. 



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NEW JER8ET MILITIA, 



189 



artillery, of Newark ; Captain Moses F. Davis's rifle 
company, of Bloomfield ; Captain Wni. Ten Eycke's 
rifle company, of Freehold, and Lieut. James Ten 
Eycke's volunteers, of Middletown Point. The 
quartermaster was Gen. Abraham Reynolds. 

Governor Tompkins and Major-Gen. Lewis were 
anxiously waiting for the quota which New Jei-sey 
was to supply under the requisition of the War De- 
partment of July 4th. The Governor of New Jersey 
announced on the 12th of August that thirty-two 
uniformed companies had volunteered their services, 
and were ready to take the field. Twelve of these 
had volunteered for the defence of New York harbor. 
The volunteers amounted to 179 artillery and 704 
infantry, etc. The deficiency of the quota of 5,000 
officers and men were ordered to be made up by draft, 
which the Governor ordered, specifying the number 
of officers and men that each county must furnish. 

All those from Bergen and Essex were in one 
regiment, and those from Morris and Sussex in an- 
other, and those from Somerset, Middlesex and Mon- 
mouth another. These three regiments composed 
one brigade, placed under command of Brig. -Gen. 
William Colfax. Those of Hunterdon and Burlington 
to form a regiment and those of Gloucester, Salem, 
Cumberland and Cape May another. These two 
formed a brigade under command of Brig. -Gen. Ebe- 
nezer Elmer, and known as the Cumberland Brigade. 
The whole of the quota was placed under the com- 
mand of Maj. -Gen. William N.Shinn of Mount Holly. 
The brigadier-generals were to attend to the for- 
mation of the regiments, and to dispose of them in 
the best manner to make them serviceable. 



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w 



CHAPTER XXXm. 

Fortifications on Long Island— First Volunteers for Work on 
Defences in Brooklyn — Committee of Defence Appeal — 
Ground Broken at Fort Greene — Lines of Defence and Lo- 
cation of Forts in Brooklyn — Citizens' Meeting— Address by 
Col. Marinus W ill ett— Sketch of Col. Willett— Resolutions 
Adopted— Enthusiastic Proceedings— Committee of Citizens. 

FEW days after the Mayor's address, Gen. 
Swift completed his plans for the defences 
on the Brooklyn end of Long Island, and 
sent them to the Common Council. 

Gen. Swift's complete plans for the defence of New 
York City were by a continuance of the line of de- 
fences on Manhattan Island by a block house on 
Mill Rock, in East River, and thence to Fort 
Stevens, on Hallett's Point, and a castle on the 
high ground to protect Fort Stevens. These were 
for water approaches. 

The lines of intrenchments to protect the Navy 
Yard were from the south end of Wallabout Bay 
to the solid ground near the present corner of Hud- 
son avenue and Park streets ; thence south across 
Myrtle avenue to about the line of Willoughby 
street ; thence turning east to Fort Greene place. 
The northern parapet of Fort Greene extended east 
to the line of Cumberland street, midway between 
Myrtle avenue and Willoughby street. The south- 
ern parapet of Fort Greene made many detours 
with bastions until it reached the western parapet 



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FORTS IN BROOKLYN, 191 

on the line of Fort Greene Place ; thence westward 
to DeKalb avenue, west of Hudson avenue, where 
was located a redoubt (afterwards called Redoubt 
Cummings) ; thence southerly to the south side of 
Fulton avenue, midway between Bond and Nevins 
streets, to a bastion (afterwards called Washington 
Bastion) ; thence southerly on the same hne to State 
street, to a redoubt (afterwards called Redoubt 
Masonic) ; thence on the same line to Pacific street, 
a bastion (afterwards called Fort Fireman) ; thence 
southwesterly, by detours and bastions, to the junc- 
tion of Wycoff and Bond streets, at the marsh of 
Gowanus Creek. Fort Swift was in the middle of 
Atlantic avenue, at the junction of Court street, 
and there was a battery on the west side of Gow- 
anus Creek, at the junction of Degraw and Bond 
streets, (afterwards called Fort Lawrence). 

These fortifications in Brooklyn were to prevent 
a land attack from the east and south. Fort 
Swift was mainly for the protection of Governors 
Island. 

The main roads from Brooklyn east were one to 
Jamaica and Rockaway, by the way of Bedford and 
the half-way house, and another called the new 
road over the Wallabout bridge, through Bushwick 
and Newtown, to Jamaica. They branched off the 
old Ferry road, near the present junction of Nevins 
street and Flatbush avenue, on Fulton avenue. 

The first body of citizens that followed the 
Mayor*s suggestion to volunteer labor and contrib- 
ute services towards the erection of fortifications 
for the defence of the city was Capt. Bremner's 
company of artillery, of Col. Harsen's Eleventh Regi- 



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192 BUILDIISO F0UTIFICA120N8. 

ment. They offered their services to the Committee 
of Defence the next day. 

The Common Council Committee of Defence 
made the following announcement in the National 
Advocate on the morning of Monday, August 8th : 
'^Gen. Swift having furnished the Committee of 
Defence of the corporation with a plan for the con- 
struction of additional works of defence, near 
Brooklyn, the work will be commenced this morn- 
ing by the artillery company, under the command 
of Capt. Andrew Bremner, who have volunteered 
their services for the day. The committee invite 
their fellow-citizens to follow their laudable ex- 
ample. 

*' To facilitate the business, the Committ.ee of De- 
fence announced that they will meet daily at the 
Mayor's office in the City Hall between the hours of 
eleven and twelve o'clock, to receive the tenders of 
similar services, and to arrange working parties." 

Gen. Morton was appointed secretary of the 
committee. 

The day proved to be very rainy from early morn- 
ing until late in the afternoon, so that Capt. 
Bremner's company did not proceed to Brooklyn to 
break ground for the fortifications as intended. 

All the officers in Gen. Mapes' brigade of infantry, 
consisting of two hundred men, were the next vol- 
unteers for building defences. There was also a 
body of citizens from the Seventh Ward that vol- 
unteered for service. 

On the morning of the 9th, at an early hour, 
Gen. Mapes crossed the ferry to Brooklyn, but they 
waited for Capt. Bremner's company to break 



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THE ENEMY NEAR, 193 

ground, as they were the first that offered their 
services. 

At eight o'clock Capt. Bremner and his company 
arrived on the spot,' Fort Greene, and joined Gen. 
Mapes, and the former broke ground under a salute 
from several six-pounders. All the men proceeded 
with the building of earthworks under direction of 
Gen^^Swift and his assistants, Lieut. Gadsden, and 
Messrs. Nicholls and Mercein. 

On the 10th, the Master Butchers of New York 
City attended. Many offers were received by the 
committee. 

The citizens' meeting called for the 8th in City 
Hall Park was not held because the weather was 
unpropitious. 

Notice was published in some of the newspapers 
for a public meeting to be held in the park in front 
of the City Hall on Wednesday, the 10th day of 
August, at twelve o'clock, for the purpose of con- 
sidering proper measures to be taken for the defence 
of the city. The call was signed by Col. Henry 
Rutgers as chairman, and Oliver Wolcott, secretary. 

On the 10th of August, 1814, the Columbian issued 
an extra containing the following statement : 

** New York, August loth. — Reinforcements have 
arrived in the mouth of Long Island Sound. Our 
informant counted on Sunday (7th) in Gardiner's 
Bay three ninety-gun ships, four seventy-fours, 
four frigates, and one brig. Other accounts in- 
crease the number of smaller vessels to fifteen sail 
in that neighborhood and off New London. There 
was no transports or troops on board the shipping, 
the crews of which were sickly and were to be 



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194 RECOMMENDATIONS BT 

landed on Montauk Point to recover and recruit. 
Whether the ships were direct from Europe, or 
gatliered from other parts of our coast, was not 
known. 

" Montauk is common pasture for about 1,500 
cattle, 1,400 sheep and 200 horses, belonging to the 
citizens of East Hampton, and would furnish re- 
freshment for the well as well as for the sic^^, if not 
removed by the owner." 

A letter from Sagg Harbor about that time said 
of the enemy : 

'* They are permitted to come on shore and get 
whatever they choose within ten or twelve miles of 
us. The officers and crews of their war vessels are 
daily feasting on the rich produce of the American 
soil at a liberal price. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Defence, on 
August 9th, it was 

** Resolved^ That it be recommended to our fellow- 
citizens to enroll themselves in their respective 
wards for the purpose of offering their services in 
the construction of work^ for the defence of this 
city. That this enrollment be made under the di- 
rection of a committee to be appointed in each ward. 
That persons who from bodily indisposition or other 
cause may prefer a pecuniary contribution to that 
of personal service be permitted to do so, and that 
the sum of $1.25 he deemed the equivalent of a day's 
tour of personal service, to be applied in prociuing 
persons to perform such parts of the duty as may 
require instruction and practice. 

** That the committee of each ward report forth- 
with to the Committee of Defence the number of 



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COMMITTEE OF BEFENOE. 195 

persons enrolled for personal service, and of those 
for pecuniary contribution, to the end that the de* 
tachments which from time to time may be requis- 
ite may be duly apportioned among the wards. 
That the said committee appoint a person in each 
ward to summon the required detachments, and to 
assemble and conduct them to the place of rendez- 
vous. 

^^ Resolved, That the citizens of the respective 
wards be invited to meet at the following places on 
Thursday evening next (11th), at eight o'clock, for 
the purpose of appointing such committees : 

1st Ward, Washington Hotel, 42 Broad street. 

2d Ward, Battin's, comer Water street and Bur- 
Ung slip. 

3d Ward, Coleman's, Fair street. 

4th Ward, Harmony Hall. 

5th Ward, Liberty Hall. 

6th Ward, Dooley's, comer Cross and Duane 
streets. 

7th Ward, John Morris's, 165 Bancker street. 

8th Ward, Stratten's, upper end. Broad way. 

9th Ward, Anthony Smith's Tavern. 

10th Ward, Jonathan Haviland's, No 21 Bowery 
Lane. 

These resolutions were published the next morn- 
ing. 

On the loth, pursuant to public notice, there as- 
sembled in the Park, in front of the City Hall, an 
immense concourse of citizens. Col. Henry Rut- 
gers was unanimously called to the chair, and Oli- 
ver WoLOOTT, Esq., appointed secretary. They 
took their station in the center balcony. Col. Wil- 



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196 PUBLIC MBBTINQ. 

LETT, standing near the chaiiTnan, and the flag of 
the nation waving over his head, delivered an ad- 
dress to his fellow-citizens, well calculated to inspire 
animation and courage. 

He began by asking the indulgence of his fellow- 
citizens for the talk of an old man. He then pro- 
ceeded : 

Three score and fourteen years have brought with 
them some bodily infirmities : had it been otherwise 
and that my strength of body had remained as un- 
impaired as my love for my country, and the spirit 
that still animates me, you would not, my friends, 
have seen me here this day. I should have been 
amongst that glorious band, that, on the waters of 
Erie and Ontario, have achieved so much fame and 
lasting glory for their country ! 

A life of 74 years has afforded me opportunities 
of seeing many great and surprising changes. 

Fifty-eight years are now passed since I was a 
witness of press gangs traversing these streets, and 
dragging men from their houses on board of ships of 
war ! What a contrast between that time and this I 
Let those now reflect upon it, who, instead of thank- 
ing that kind Providence which delivered us from 
such oppressive domination, employ their whole 
power to weaken and subvert a government made 
by ourselves and for ourselves — the fruit of our 
blood and toil ! What spirit is this, that, in the pres- 
ent crisis of our country, can lead to measures so 
disgraceful ? Shall we abuse and villify those men 
we have placed at the head of our affairs, because 
they do not act just as we are pleased to say they 
should ? Are we, for that reason, to refuse corn- 



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ADDRESS OF COL. WILLKTT. ]97 



pliance with the laws of our country ? No, my fel- 
low-citizens ! for it is justly stated in the address of 
the common council, that we are not, in the present 
situation of our country, to inquire into the wisdom 
of the measures which resulted in the declaration of 
this war. It is a fact, that we are at war ; and that 
that war has been undertaken agreeably to the con- 
stitution of our country. Every man bound to sup- 
port the constitution of the United States, is, there- 
fore, bound to support the war — because it is a con- 
stitutional act, and such is the law of the land. But, 
had I power to detail, and you patience to hear, 
what I have known and observed of the haughty, 
cruel and gasconading nation that makes war 
against us, your feelings would outstrip my words, 
and anticii)ate the voice and commands of author- 
ity. The terms I use towards our enemy are not 
mine alone, nor proceeding from the personal 
warmth of my individual character. Such were the 
sentiments of men as great as this or any nation 
can boast of — Washington and Franklin. Dr. Frank- 
lin delivered his opinions in his correspondence with 
Lord Howe ; and those of G9neral Washington I 
have had from his own lips. 

Forty years ago I was at a meeting of citizens as- 
sembled on this green. The acclamation then was 
" jom or die. " The unanimity of that day procured 
the repeal of some obnoxious laws ; but the design 
of enslaving us was not relinquished. Troops were 
stationed throughout the colonies to carry the nefa- 
rious intention into execution. Many were the broils 
between the citizen and the soldier : for the spirit of 
the citizens was aroused, and they viewed, with 



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198 ADDRESS OF COL. WILLETT. 

just indignation, the mercenary troops that were to 
overthrow their liberties. They were stung by the 
ingratitude of the nation to which they had yielded 
loyal obedience, and assisted in its Avars with ardor 
and alacrity. But had the enemy then conquered 
us as we did them, how different would have been 
our situation at this day.' Reflecting on this, it 
seems to me almost incredible that there should be 
Americans that could espouse the cause of such an 
enemy. Of what stuff are such hearts made ? Is 
it possible that any such should be amongst the sons 
of those who fought your battles, my fellow-citizens, 
and won your freedom ? 

It was in the war of the revolution, a favorite 
toast — 

'' May every citizen be a soldier, and every soldier 
a citizen." 

Our citizens must now again become soldiers, and 
those soldiers be good citizens — not parading sol- 
diers, fellow-citizens, but fighting soldiers — soldiers 
wilUng and ready to encoimter hardships and fa- 
tigues of war. I am not what I have been ; but 
such as I am, wherever the enemy seek to deal most 
destruction, there you may look for me. And as to 
this mistaken idea, that American militia are un- 
equal to the contest with British regulars, I am a 
living witness to the contrary. With militia I have 
encountered them. I have met them when their 
numbers were double mine ; and I have routed and 
pursued them. You, my fellow-citizens, if you wiU, 
can do the same. There is no terror in them for 
brave men, who dare look them in the face, and 
lock the bayonet with them. Let those who would 



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SKETCH OF COL. WILLETT, 199 

dismay you by the terrors of war, ''^rather reflect 
upon the part they have had in encouraging your 
enemy ; and though war, like pestilence, may have 
been visited upon nations for their crimes, yet 
against this enemy we have committed no offence. 
We bore with the cruelty, injustice and oppression 
of that insolent nation till it became insupport- 
able. 

Instead, therefore, of cavilling at the measures or 
operations of the war, let us rather unite to banish 
envy, hatred and discord, from among us ; and I'e- 
solve, with all our might, to resist that implacable 
enemy, who will never respect us till we again com- 
pel him so to do. 

Permit me, then, my dear fellow-citizens, to con- 
clude with a chorus we were used to sing in the 
camp in days of much more danger : 
Let Europe employ all her force, 

We'll meet them in array, 
And shout — Huzza — Huzza — Huzza, 
For Life and Liberty. 

This pithy discourse, from a tried and trusty 
statesinan of the revolution, whose acts were vouch- 
ers for his words, had its full effect, and was 
cheered with unbounded applause.* 

Mr. Rikevy from a committee appointed for the 
purpose, consisting of Drs. Mitchill and M'Neven, 



*Marinu8 Willett wan born at Jamaica, L. I., in 1740. He 
was grandson of Thomas Willett, the second Mayor of New York 
City. He commenced his military career in the old Colonial 
wars against the French and Indians. Wa« a lieutenant in 
Colonel D«>lancey'8 regiment under (General Abercrombie. 
Was at the disastrous attack upon Fort Ticonderoga in 1758, »nd 
was with Bradstreet's expedition when it captured Fort Fron- 



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:^00 RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED 

Messrs. Wolcott, Riker, Anthony Bleecker and 
Sampson, reported the following address and resolu- 
tions, which were received with applause, and unani- 
mously adopted : 

tenaA\ now Kingston, Canada. Was one of the '*Sons of Lib- 
erty" in New York in 1770, opposed to the Stamp Act. After 
the skirmish at Lexington, in 1775. the British troops in garri- 
son at New York were ordered to Boston, and in addition to their 
own, attempted to carry off a large quantity of spare arms. 
Willett resolved to prevent it, and though opposed by Mayor 
Hicks and others, he, with a few **Son8 of Libertv." captured 
the baggage waerons containing them, and took them bark to 
the city. In 1775 he was appomted second captain in Colonel 
McDougars regiment and accompanied General Montgomery 
in his expedition against Canada. Was placed in command of 
St. Johns on the Sorel, and held that post until January, 1776. 
After the Declaration of Independence in 1776 he was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel, and at the opening of the campaign in 1777 
was placed in command of Fort Constitution on the HudRon. 
In May of that year he was ordered to Fort Stanwix (Schuyler) 
on the Mohawk (now Rome. N. Y.). He arrived ihere in July. 
The fort was still unfinished. On Aujiust 2d the British forces 
and their Indian allies, amounting to 1,700 men, under St. Leger 
besieged the fort, which then hid only 750 men under Colone. 
Gansevoort. During the siege, St. Leger sent a strong detach- 
ment of British and Indians to intercept General Herkimer and 
3 event an attack upon his intrenchments from the rear. This 
ed to the battle of Oriskany. With St. Leger's forces thus weak- 
ened, it was resolved that a sortie should be made on (he enemy's 
encampment. Two hundred men were placed under Colonel 
Willett. The sortie was duringly and successfully made without 
the loss of a man. The British forces wei*e scattered and driven 
back. Twenty-one wagon loads of clothing, blankets, stores, 
camp equip ige, five British standards, the bnggaue of Sir John 
Johnson, with all his papers and those of other officers, contain- 
ing every kind of information necesstiry to the garrison. This 
great exploit was duly noticed by Congress by a vote of thanks, 
and an « legant sw«»rd was presented to him in the name of the 
United States. While the bloody battle of Oriskany was in pro- 
gress the enemy heard the firing of (%>loiiel Willett's guns in his 
attack upon their camp. It cannot be doubted that this greatly 
contributed to the result of that battle in the retreat of the 
enemy. The garrison in Fort Siauwix was enabled to hold out 
until General Arnold came to th**ir assistance, and St. Leger 
retreated on August 23, 1777. Colonel Willett was left in com- 
mand of the fort, while all the forces that could be spared were 
sent to General Gates at Stillwater to meet the enemy under 
General Burgoyne. A full account of the enemy's campaign in 



I 



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AND ADDRh'88 TO CIVIZENS. 201 



Fellow-citizens — Once more we are engaged in 
war with a powerful nation. 

The ocean is denied to us — our commerce is pros- 
trated — our waters are violated — our land is invaded 

the Mohawk Valley caa be found in Lossing's "Field Book of 
the Revolution/' He remained at Fort Stanwix until the sum- 
mer of 1778, when he joined the army under General Washing- 
ton and was at the battle of Monmouth. Was in Sullivairs 
campaign against the Indians in the summer of 1779, and was 
actively engaged in the Mohawk Valley in 1780. 

In 1781, Gov. George Clinton placed him as colonel in com- 
mand of all the militia levies and State tix>ops that might be 
raised for the protection of the Mohawk country. He arrived 
at Fort Rensselaer (Canajoharie, N. Y.) near the end of June. 
He learned of an Indian and Tory encampment of about three 
hundred men in a thick cedar swamp about six miles northeast 
of Cherry Valley, N. Y. All the m€»n he could muster for an 
attack wan about one hundred and Orty. By an ambush and a 
bayonet charge he routed the enemy and drove them from the 
valley with heavy loss. 

In October, 1781 anoth<'r invasion of the Mohawk Valley was 
made by about 1,000 men. Colonel Willett had but about 416 
men to meet them. He did this in such a manner that at the 
battle of Johnstown, N. Y., on October 25, 1781, after a severe 
struggle, the enemy retreated to a mountain top six miles distant, 
and Colonel Willett harassed them so that they at last retreated 
towards Canada, he following them until they were well out of 
the Mohawk Valley. 

In 1782, after the signing of the preliminaj-y treaty of peace, 
General Washington conceived thi- design of securing Fort 
Ontario, where Oswego now is. The expedition was placed 
under Colonel Willett, who set out for the fort in February. The 
weather was intensely cold, and Willett's attempt became known 
in the fort after he arrived in sight of it, he returned and noth- 
ing came of it. 

In 1790, General Washington appointed Colonel Willett to 
negotiate with the Creek Indians for a ti*eaty of friendship and 
alliance. Colonel Willett visited that nation, but could do little. 
He then induced Alexander McQilvany, a half breed and abc'Ut 
thirty of the principal chiefs to come to New York City, which 
was then the national capital. When they arrived they were 
received by the members of Tammany with great ceremony, 
and were in Indian costume, and wore feathers, mocca^-ins, leg 
gins, painted their faces, and sported huge war clubs and burn- 
ished tomahawks. When the Civeks entered the "wigwam" 
they were so surprised to see such a number of their own race, 
that they set up n whoop of joy which almost terrified the 
people present. Gov. George Clinton, Chief Justice Jay, Mr. 



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202 ADDBfCSS TO CITIZKNS 

— ^hostile fleets and armies threaten to convert our 
habitations to heaps of ruins. 

We are called upon to save our possessions from 
spK)il and destruction ; to secure our persons from 
slavery and death ; to protect our families against 
outrage and violence ; to guard our institutions from 
assault and overthrow ; to defend by free-born valor 
our dear-bought independence. 

The lawful authorities, aware of this condition of 
things, have made provision to meet it. The national 

Duane, then Mayor, Thomas JeffersoQ, then Secretary of States 
and many other distinguished men were present. The Creek, 
were overjoyed with their reception. They drank ** fire, water.*' 
performed a dance, and sang the E-iho song. Mr. Smith, the 
grand sachem of the society, made a speech to the Indians 
through their interpreter, in which he tola them that although 
the hand of death was cold upon those two great chiefs, Tam- 
many and Columbus, their spirits were walking backwaixl and 
forward in the wigwam. The Sagamore presented the chiefs 
with the calumet, the pipe of peace, and it was accepted. In 
the evening they were taken lo the theater by the sachems 
and members in costume. Before they left the city they entered 
into a treaty of friendship with '* Washington, the beloved 
Sachem of Thirteen Fires,** as they were pleased to call him. 

General Washington soon after made Colonel Willett a briga- 
dier-general by brevet. 

He was sheriff of New York County from 1784 to 1787, and 
from 1791 to 1795, and was Mayor of the city in 1807. 

He was presidential elector in 1824 and was president of the 
electoral coKege. 

On September 25, 1812. Colonel Willett. in a letter to Maj.-Gen. 
Van Rensselaer, of the New York militia, offered his services and 
also some advice as a veteran. In reply Gen. Van Rensselaer 
said, '* I shall remember your counsel with gratitude and pleas- 
ure as a precious legacy from a soldier of great experience.** 
He died August 22, 1830, aged ninety years. Thejcorpse, in com- 
pliance with a written request of the deceased, was habited in 
a complete suit of citizen's apparel of small clothe^, including 
an old-fashioned three-cornerea hat. The coffin in which he was 
buried was made of pieces of wood collected by himself many 
years before from many RtfVolutiona»'y battle-grounds. His 
remains were placed in the family vault in Trinity churchyard. 

*'A Narrative of the Military Affairs of the late Col. Marinus 
Willett" was published in 1831, and was said to have been made 
up chiefly from his own manuscripts. It contains a portrait of 
the old hero of many wars, of varied causes and objects. 



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ADDRB88- TO GITIZENB, 203 

government has augmented our security, by fortifi- 
cations, troops and floating force. The State has ex- 
tended its care, and caused other works of defence 
to be erected. The common council of the city, has 
labored to insure our safety. It only remains that 
the sons of liberty Ci)me forth in their might ; and 
demonstrate that in a contest for all that is near and 
dear to them, they are invincible. 

Our regular regiments are already at their sta- 
tions. The organized militia will join them on the 
shortest summons. The several corps of volunteers 
are inflamed with patriotic aixior. To these bands, 
other military associations will be added, composed 
of those who enjoy honorable exemptions from or- 
dinary service, but who will come forward on this 
trying occasion. 

This meeting is called for the purpose of eiiabling 
us to renew our pledge, to support the constitution ; 
to invigorate the laws ; to aid with our best efforts 
the administration of our l)eloved country ; to see 
that it be not approached by spies and emissaries ; 
to defend the great interests of the union with our 
treasure and our blood. 

It is our glory and our boast that we are freemen. 
Our constitution and government are acts of our 
free and unbiassed choice. They are ours and we 
will never abandon them. 

The citizens are the safeguards of a free State. — 
Their right to keep and bear arms has never been 
infringed. We will use these weapons resolutely in 
support of our privileges ; with these we will man- 
fully oppose the enemy who shall presume to invade 
them. 



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204 RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED. 

With these convictions let us make a combined 
effort. Let some contribute their labor towards the 
completion of the public works. Let others prac- 
tice the art of the artillerist or the fusileer. Let 
others again minister comfort to the wives and chil- 
dren of those who heroically meet danger in the 
field. All will thus be animated and united ; and 
the joyous sentiment pervade every patriotic bosom, 
that, guarded by the love and valor of the people, 
the republic is safe ! 

Resolved, That the citizens here assembled, will 
to the last extremity, defend their city. 

Resolved, That we will unite ourselves in arms 
with our brethren of the country, and on the first 
approach of the enemy, make it a Common Cause. 

Resolved, That humbly confiding in the favor of 
the Almighty, we hope to prove ourselves not un- 
worthy of that freedom won by the heroes of the 
revolution — and trust that the enemy they van- 
quished will receive from us a similar defeat. 

Resolved, That we highly approve of the mea- 
sures for public defence which have been devised by 
the government of the United States — by his excel- 
lency, the governor of the State, and by the corpora- 
tion of this city — and that we will co-operate in car- 
rying the same into effectual execution. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the citizens 
generally, to meet as soon as may be practicable, 
with convenience in their respective wards, for the 
purpose of electing discreet and efficient committees 
to promote the execution of the following objects : 

1. To complete the voluntary enrollments of per^ 
sons exempted by law from military service. 



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NAMK8 OF COMMITTEE. 205 

2. To encourage the enrollment of seafaring citi- 
zens for service in the harbor, or as artillerists. 
And 

3. The enrollment of citizens for voluntary labor 
on the public works. 

Resolved, That it be the special duty of the ward 
committees to provide, under- the direction of the 
corporation of this city, for the relief and protection 
of the families of such persons as may be absent on 
public duty, and also, to provide in the best manner 
practicable, for the protection of such helpless per- 
sons and their property, as in case of alarm may be 
desirous of removing into the country. 

Resolved, That all associations for military service 
and for performing labor on the public works, be 
reported to, and receive their instructions from 
such officer or officers as have, or may be designated 
for that purpose. 

Resolved, That we will endeavor to promote con- 
cord and will discountenance all attempts to weaken 
the patriotic efforts of good citizens. 

Resolved, That we will endeavor to discover and 
subject t(» the animadversion of the laws, all persons 
who shall be concerned in any illicit commerce or 
improper intercourse with the enemy. 

Resolved, That Henry Eutgers, Oliver Wolcott, 
Marinus Willett, Cadwallader D. Golden, John 
Swartwout, Thomas Morris, John Mills, William 
Edgar, Jr., Eichard Eiker, Anthony Bleecker, 
Abraham Bloodgood, Stephen Price, Abraham 
Stagg, James Lovett, Abraham Dally, William 
Sampson, John Vanderbilt, Jr., Samuel Tooker, 
John Hone, David Bryson, Jacob Sherred, Benjamin 



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206 UNITY OF FEBLINO. 

Ferris, William Codman, Rensselaer Havens, and 
Peter Wilson, Se. be a committee to confer with 
such committee as may be appointed by the corpo- 
ration and by the respective wards, and in conjunc- 
tion with them, to adopt all measures essential to 
the public safety. 

Resolved^ That thiscommittee correspond with our 
fellow-citizens in this and the neighboring States, 
for the purpose of inviting them to form voluntary 
associations, similar to those proposed in this city. 

Resolved^ That the proceedings of this meeting 
be signed by the chairman and secretary, and pub- 
hshed in all the public papers of this city. 

Henry Rutgers, hairman. 
OoLCOTT WoLCOTT, Secretary. 

^' During the reading of the above address and res- 
olutions, the countenance of the citizens indicated 
the most deep and concentrated feeling ; and at the 
close, the air was rent with loud and prolonged ac- 
clamations of approbation and assent. And no 
sooner was the question of adjournment put and 
carried, than each citizen retired to his lawful oc- 
cupation, and the scene of unexampled enthusiasm 
instantly remained silent and unoccupied," said the 
Colurnbian. 

This request was readily responded to by the citi- 
zens of each ward, on the evening of August 11th, 
by a meeting at a place within each ward respec- 
tively, previously designated by the Common Coun- 
cil Committee of Defence, in pursuance of the invi- 
tation of the two committees of defence, for the pur- 
pose of enrolling for personal labor, or contributing 
pecuniary substitute, and to carry into effect their 



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HARMONY FOR DEFENCE, 207 

recommendations. At nearly every meeting that 
evening a committee of prominent citizens in each 
ward was appointed for that purpose. 

All party feuds were in a great measure sus- 
pended, newspaper editors excluded all acrimonious 
political discussions. The ward committees ap- 
pointed to carry into effect the resolutions of the gen- 
eral meeting were selected from the most respectable 
of the citizens, without the least regard to the poUt- 
ical party to which the persons selected belonged. 



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CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Workers on Fortifications in Brooldyn and at Harlem — Depre- 
dations by the Enemy — Bombardment of Stonington — Brit- 
iflli Fleet in Gardiner's Bay^Report of the Progress of the 
Defences Around New York City— Attempt to Capture the 
City by Water Temporarily Abandoned — The Enemy's War 
Vessels Move to the South— Baltimore and Washington in 
Danger — Enthusiastic Volunteer Workers on Defence Still 
Continue in New York and Brooklyn. 



HIS call for voluntary labor on the 
fortiJBcations, which were little more 
than earthworks, 'was enthusiasti- 
cally responded to by almost all per- 
sons in every condition of life. Those 
that did not labor contributed largely 
to defray necessary expenses. Each successive day 
parties of volunteers, to the number of from jBve hun- 
dred to one thousand, labored on the works in Brook- 
lyn and Harlem, on the earthworks. Volunteers 
came from neighboring counties and from New Jer- 
sey, and were in clubs, schools, churches, societies, 
fire, military companies, factory hands and repre- 
sented townships and counties. 

The Committee of Defence announced on the 10th 
of August, that a contribution of $1.25 would be 
regarded as equal to one day's work on the f ortifica- 



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WORKEBS ON DEFENCES. 209 

tions around New York, and would be applied in 
that way. 

There were many money contributions direct ta 
the Committee of Defence, and somo were to the 
ward committees designated for that purpose. On 
the 12th of August it was announced that the banka 
and banking institutions in the city had contributed 
$250 each to aid in building defences. 

The committee soon found that the superin- 
tendence of the works, the arranging of fatigue par- 
ties, and the various other concerns incident to the 
defence of the city, demanded nearly the whole of 
their time and attention, and they met daily at the 
City Hall from eleven to twelve o'clock from Aug- 
ust 11th, while the completion of the works waa 
progressing. 

Minutes of their proceedings, showing the number 
of voluntary workers on the defences, and where 
they were from, and what particular body or class 
they represented, and also the amounts voluntarily 
contributed, and the names of the donors, and also 
a general statement of the expenditures for the de- 
fences. These minutes were tiled with the clerk 
of the Common Council, as part of their records. 

The next day after the meeting the laborers on 
Fort Greene were the tanners and curriers, the 
Veteran Corps of Artillery, a society of Plumbers, 
A large force of military exempts from the Second 
Ward, Major Dunscomb's Battalion of Governor's 
Guards, Captain Swain's company of artillery of the 
Third Artillery Regiment, and others. 



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210 WOBKBRS ON DBFRNGKS, 

August 12th. The committee received tenders of 
service from the regiment of horse artillery, the 
^ity watch, gentlemen of the bar and law students, 
the inhabitants of Greenwich Village, the citizens of 
the vicinity of Spring street, New York, the Indepen- 
dent Blues, Mr. E. Ludlow, and lOOJmasons and la- 
borers in his employ, a company of 32 cartmen, 200 
journeymen house carpenters, 400 citizens of the 
Eighth Ward, carpenters employed at St. Peter's 
•Church, Mr. Uppington, gold beater, and 14 men em- 
ployed by him. 

August 13th. The following further offers were 
received : Two parties of the city watch, 60 cart- 
men, Fire Engine Company No. 26, 200 journeymen 
printers, 1,000 " Patriotic Sons of Erin," 30 pilots, 
Col. Beekman M. Van Beuren's regiment, com- 
pany of artillery, 182 workmen employed by Ward 
& Tallman, 150 free colored people, 70 members of 
the Asbury African Church (colored). 

It was announced that nearly five thousand 
persons were on the list to work the following week. 

The following notice was published : 

** The Committee of Defence earnestly recom- 
mend to the working parties that they would make 
preparations to rendezvous at Beekman's or 
Catherine Slip ferry each day at half-past five 
o'clock in the morning, the hour heretofore ap- 
pointed (being seven o'clock) having been found 
inconvenient, as the working parties are unable, 
owing to delays at the ferries and other causes, 
to reach the scene of action until the cooler part 



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DEPREDATIONS BY THE ENEMY. 211 

of the day is past and the weather becomes very 
warm. 

'* Jacob Morton, Secretary." 

While the means of defences were being strength- 
ened and men were being drilled and marshalled, 
ready to take a stand wherever most needed, the 
enemy were gathering at many points, evidently 
for an attack. 

The proximity of the enemy, and his depredations 
at various points along the coast, had a tendency to 
keep the people awake as to the possibility of an 
immediate attack. 

Intelligence of the bombardment of Stonington 
had not reached New York when the meeting at the 
City Hall Park took pUce. It was not known in 
New York City until the 12th. It caused little 
comment. 

On that day it was reported that on the morning 
of the 9th of August Commodore Hardy appeared 
oflE Stonington with a squadron consisting of the 
RamilUeSy seventy-four; Pactolus, forty- four; 
bombship Terror^ the brig Dispatchy twenty-two 
guns, and numerous barges and launches, each 
carrying a carronade, and the latter prepared to 
throw rockets to burn the town. 

The attack commenced on the evening of the 9th, 
and was continued for the greater part of three 
days and nights. The enemy attempted to land 
in their launches, but were driven back. A great 
nimiber of rockets, balls and shells were thrown 
into the town. 

Several other small towns and places along the 



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212 THE BNBMT'8 FLEET 

eastern coast north of the Potomac were attacked by 
the British about this time. 

The British squadrons that sailed from Bordeaux 
under command of General Ross, and the one under 
Rear Admiral Malcolm that sailed from the Medi- 
terranean near the end of May before mentioned, 
arrived at Bermuda, the place of general rendezvous, 
the last part of July. They there found Vice- Ad- 
miral Cochrane waiting their arrival to direct their 
future naval operations. 

On the 3d of August the whole of the Bordeaux 
and about half the Mediterranean armament, with 
an additional squadron then at Bermuda, compris- 
ing a fleet of sixty vessels under Vice-Admiral 
Cochrane, with a land force of six thousand men 
commanded by Major General Ross, sailed from 
Bermuda for Chesapeake Bay, and entered it on 
the 10th of August. This was known in New York 
a few days later. The other division of the Mediter- 
ranean armament proceeded to join Sir George Pre- 
vost in Canada. Before that time Rear Admiral 
Cockburn, with a portion of his fleet, appeared oflE 
Sandy Hook and at the mouth of Long Island Sound 
in Gardiner's Bay. 

On Sunday, August 7th, the enemy's vessels in 
sight in Gardiner's Bay were two ninety-gim^ships, 
four seventy -fours, four frigates and one brig, be- 
sides many others off New London. 

There was also reported active movements of the 
enemy along the frontier of New York. There was 
an ominous quiet in the demeanor and movements 
of the main forces of the enemy that led to the firm 



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THREATEN NEW YORK, 213 

belief that they were waiting for something — ^for 
the perfection of some plan. 

Whether a concerted attack was to be made at 
different points or only upon the seaboard at Piew 
York or Baltimore, and, then on to Philadelphia and 
Washington, was conjecture, with strong circum- 
stantial evidence to sustain it. 

The President issued a proclamation, dated 
August 8th, calling an extra session of Congress to 
meet at Washington, on September 19th. This 
proclamation was not known in New York until the 
16th of August. It was no surprise. 

In an oration on the life, character and services 
of Governor Daniel D. Tompkins, delivered by Eev. 
Peter J. Van Pelt, on the 23d of June, 1843, in the 
church at Tompkinsville, Staten Island, the speaker 
stated that in August, 1814, he was chaplain of the 
State troops at New York, and that it was commu- 
nicated to him confidentially by an honorable officer 
in our army, that Admiral Cockburn had sent word 
to a lady friend and relative, to whom both were 
related, residing in Broadway, that on a certain 
day he hoped to have the honor to dine with her at 
her house, as he expected to be in command of the 
city of New York ; and said the officer, ^*He will 
attempt and do it if possible, for I know his daring, 
determined disposition and character." Mr. Van 
Pelt hastened with this intelligence to Governor 
Tompkins and Major-General Lewis, and such or- 
ders were issued and such vigilance and preparation 
made, by those in authority, that the popular be- 
lief was that a crisis was approaching. The call for 



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214 BEPORT ON DEFENCES. 

help on the fortifications was more earnest. Com- 
modore Decatur, with a naval force of one thousand 
men, was placed in command of the harbor, to co- 
operate with the land forces. 

The Committee of Defence^ on Monday, the 15th 
of August, made the following report of the progress 
of the works for defence : 

RtePORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE MADE AND 
AGREED TO IN COMMON COUNCIL, AUGUST 15, 1814. 

The Committee of Defence respectfully report to 
the Common Council, that in pursuance of instruc- 
tions from the Board, they immediately requested 
Brigadier-General Swift of the corps of Engineers, 
to furnish them as soon as possible, with the plan 
of such additional woiks of defence as might be 
deemed necessary by him to place this city in a state 
of complete defence. To this request that valuable 
officer gave the most prompt attention. On being 
furnished by him with a plan, the Committee made 
an appeal to the patriotism of their fellow-citizens 
to furnish voluntary aid in the erection of the works. 
The appeal waa answered by them with one heart 
and one mind. Prepared for this appeal by the ad- 
dress of the Common Council, every one was 
anxious to offer his services on the interesting oc- 
casion. Volunteer associations pressed forward 
with their overtures, all anxious to be engaged in 
the honorable employment of self-defence on the 
earliest day that could be appointed. In these 
overtures, the Committee remarked with heartfelt 
pleasure, that there appeared to be no distinction of 



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REPORT ON DEFEN0E8, 216 

party or situation in life. Citizens of every politi- 
cal party seemed to vie with each other only in 
efforts to protect our city from invasion by the 
enemy. They all appeared to meet on the ground 
of self-defence as a common ground. 

That the city must be gallantly defended was the 
universal opinion, and every individual felt it 
necessary to spare no pains, no means within his 
power, to deter from, or to repel any hostile at- 
tempt. The rich and the poor have alike proffered 
their services, and have wrought together on the 
same works, intermingling their labor with the 
most patriotic emulation. Those who were unable 
to give their personal labor to the common cause, 
have voluntarily come forward and contributed 
liberally in money for the employment of substi- 
tutes. And many of these fellow-citizens have 
given both money and personal labor with 
alacrity. 

The committee think proper to mention these 
facts as honorable to their fellow-citizens in the 
highest degree, and to show to the corporation that 
they have not calculated in vain on the patriotic 
spirit of their constituents, and their disposition in 
every respect to obey and carry into effect the sug- 
gestions and recommendations of the constituted 
authorities. The committee think that from the 
confidence the citizens appear to have in the zeal of 
the Corporation, and the ardor they evince in sec- 
onding their efforts, the proposed works will be 
nearly, if not quite completed, by the voluntary 
labor and contribution of the citizens The com- 



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216 REPORT ON DEFENCES. 

mittee regret, that, in a time like this, when the 
daily labor of their poorer fellow-citizens is so im- 
portant to themselves and their families, our situa- 
tion should be such as to place them under a neces- 
sity of devoting that labor to the public service. 
They hope that this consideration will induce those 
who are more able in their circumstances to con- 
tribute more liberally, to enable the Committee to 
employ hired laborers, when the claims of their 
families may compel those patriotic citizens to dis- 
continue their gratuitous labors. 

The works in the rear of Brooklyn were com- 
menced on Tuesday last, by the officers of Briga- 
dier-Gteneral Mapes' brigade, and the artillery com- 
pany of Captain Andrew Brenmer, who had the 
honor of breaking the ground. On each successive 
day, parties of volunteer citizens to the amount of 
from five hundred to upward of one thousand a 
day have labored on the works. The spirit 
of volunteering personal labor seems still to 
be ardent, many thousands are now on the 
lists of the committee waiting their turn 
for doing duty. Voluntary contributions to 
the amount of about $3,500, have been received by 
the Committee from public institutions, and indi- 
viduals residents in the city and abroad, as a com- 
mutation for pei'sonal service, and to furnish the 
committee with the means of defraying necessary 
expenses. 

The inhabitants of Kings County have, in a 
very laudable manner, volunteered their services, 
and the Committee understand, that the yeomanry 



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RBVORT ON DBFENCE8. 217 

of our sister state, New Jersey, are unsolicitedly, 
making preparations to tender their services. 

The Committee have met daily to superintend the 
business committed to their charge. 

The Committee have learned with great satisfac- 
tion, that the Secretary of the Navy has assigned 
the command of the naval forces in our harbor to 
Commodore Decatur, who is inatructed co-operate 
with the land forces in its defence. The high repu- 
tation of this gallant officer has inspired great con- 
fidence in our fellow-citizens, and the numerous 
corps of seamen and marines under his command, 
will form no inconsiderable acquisition to our means 
of defence. (The following, originally in the re- 
port is erased. ** This officer is in possession of a 
plan of securing this harbor from naval attack, 
which at a small expense, will, in his opinion, se- 
cure it from any naval force whatever. The general 
features of the plan have already been communi- 
cated by him and the Committee." * The report as 
finally made then goes on) '^From the confidence 
which the Committee have in his skill and judg- 
ment, and which they are persuaded is also cher- 
ished by the public, they do not hesitate to recom- 
mend, that they be authorized to furnish him with 
the means of executing such additional plans of 



♦ The part of this report that was erased undoubtedly referred 
to torpedoes. At that time there was a line of Fulton's torpe- 
-does at the Narrows, and at Throgg's Neck and at other places 
in Long Island Sound. 



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218 WORKERS ON DBFBNCB8. 

defence as he may conceive essential to the public 
security." 

Nicholas Fish, 
Peter Mesier, 
Gideon Tucker, 
George Buckmaster, 
John Nitchie. 

In their minutes on that day is the following 
entry : 

**Aug. 15, 1814. Resolved^ That the members of 
the Common Council, together with the officers of 
the Board, will assemble on Wednesday next at six 
o'clock A.M. at Beekman Slip Wharf and proceed to 
Brooklyn to labor at the works there erecting for 
the defence of the city." 

The Brooklyn ferry company charged only half 
fare for the volunteer workers on defences in 
Brooklyn. New York City paid that. 

The horse boat Williamsburg was gratuitously 
offered for the purpose of conveying from Corlaer's 
Hook to the Navy Yard such persons from that part 
of the city as may tender their services from day ta 
day for work on the fortifications on Brooklyn 
Heights, starting in the morning and returning in 
the evening. 

In 1814 the ferriage to Brooklyn was raised from 
two cents to four cents for each passenger. Ta 
Williamsburg, six cents, to Jersey City it was 
twelve and one-half cents, andtoHoboken it was 
six cents. 

On August 16th all the daily newspapers in the 
city suspended operations and their employees and 



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WORKERS ON DBFBNGE8. 219 

those connected with the business worked on the 
fortifications in Brooklyn. The force was seven 
hundred strong.* 

Among the laborers on the fortifications on 
Brooklyn Heights on August 17th were seventy six 
of the inhabitants of Paterson, N. J., in military 
dress, under the direction of Col. Abraham Godwin, 
an old Revolutionary officer. They arrived at Jer- 
sey ferry at an early hour in the morning, having 
walked all the way, and between six and seven 
o'clock passed across the city to Beekman Slip, with 
martial music and colors flying. They excited the 
liveliest feelings of patriotism and enthusiasm in 
the spectators. 

Colonel Godwin, in behalf of his company, after- 
wards acknowledged with gratitude the favorable 
reception they met with from the corporation, and 
also the high respect paid them by the gentlemen of 
the New York Bar and others who worked with 
them on that day, and the refreshments furnished 
them by Messrs. Eider & Clark, of New York City. 
A company of ladies from New York City went 
to Brooklyn, and forming a procession at the ferry, 
led by the music of Tammany Society, increased in 
numbers as they went to Fort Green, to between 
two hundred and three hundred, where they per- 
formed an hour's work on the fortifications amid 
the plaudits of the citizens on the ground. Several 
patriots of the Revolution were among them, and a 

♦ At that time the New York Typographical Society had the follow 
ing officers: Peter Force, president; Andrew Mather, vice-president; 
^enry McEee, treasurer; Joseph firoderick, secretary. 



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1 



220 ARRIVAL OF MILITIA. 

lady seventy-two years of age wheeled a barrow of 
earth with great activity. 

The works were progressing at Harlem. On the 
morning of the 18th the members of the Common 
Council, with two hundred men employed by the 
corporation at Bellevue, who volunteered their ser- 
vices, commenced a tort at McGowan's Pass and 
called it Fort Clinton. The ground was broken 
under a Federal salute from Capt. Messerve's troops 
of flying artillery. 

The steam ferryboat York started from Cortlandt 
street slip for Manhattanville with a load of passen- 
gers who had volunteered their services for work 
on the fortifications at Harlem Heights. On their 
way they met five sloops loaded with mihtia on 
their way to the city from- up the river. There were 
about two thousand of them, and they were that 
day stationed in the neighborhood of Harlem 
Heights. The first night they were without tents 
and without straw. 

On the 18th the telegraph signal on West Battery 
(Castle Clinton) announced that five of the enemy's 
war vessels were off Sandy Hook. This excited no 
alarm. One of the newspapers remarked the next 
day that it would take five times five vessels at 
Sandy Hook to cause alarm in the city. 

On the 19th the blockading squadron of the enemy 
off Sandy Hook ordered all the smacks and boats 
off the fishing banks, with the assurance that any 
that should be found there after twenty-four hoiu« 
would be destroyeil. 

A few days after this it was reported that five 



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HABBOR DBFBNCE8. 221 

barges of the enemy attempted to land at Hemp- 
stead, but found the tide too low and gave up the 
design. There was probably no truth in the rumor. 

On the 20th twelve hundred Irishmen in the or- 
ganization known as **The Patriotic Sons of Erin" 
performed voluntary labor on Fort Green, in the 
sodding of the parapets. 

On the 22d one thousand free colored men worked 
on the defences between Fort Green and Gowanus 
Creek. 

The military spirit was by necessity (not for glory) 
fully aroused. The old volunteer corps were filled 
up and new ones formed; volunteering was the 
order of the day. A corps of two thousand exempts 
was formed in the city. 

The following order was issued relating to the de- 
fence of the harbor : 

'^General Orders. 
'* Adjutant-General's Office, 3d Miutary Dis- 
trict. 
**New York, Aug. 19, 1814. 

*' Colonel Forbes, of the42d N. Y., will proceed 
to-morrow with said regiment to Sandy Hook 
and assume the command of that post, including 
Fort Gates, and the militia of New Jersey encamped 
on the Highlands of Navesink. On his amval 
there the 32(1 Regt. will embark on board the same 
vessels and take post at or near Fort Richmond, 
the commanding officer of said regiment reporting 
to Capt. James R. Hanham, of the artillery , who will 
assume the command of all the positions and troops 
on Staten Island. * * * Colonel Forbes will 



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222 HAUBOli DEFENCES. 

cause the Sea Fencibles to be trained both as infan- 
try and artilleryists, and will confine them to land 
service until further orders. The barge they have in 
use he will cause to be delivered to Commodore Lewis 
on his receipt, and will apply to the Commodore for 
such service as he may be required to be performed 
on the water. * * * 

" By Order, 

'*Thos. Christes, 

*^Asst. Adj.-Gen.'' 

At that time New York City was thought to be 
well prepared against an attack by water. 

On the 20th of August some of the uniformed 
companies of militia from the Hudson Eiver 
counties arrived and went into camp at Brooklyn. 
They were part of the quota called for by the Gover- 
nor and more were expected daily from that source. 

Care was taken that all these preparations should 
be published so as to reach the enemjr's vessels on 
the coast. 

It was known that the enemy and the blockading 
squadron received the New York daily newspapers 
regularly in one way or another, and very little 
effort was made to prevent it. 

Admiral Cockburn knew the preparations for his 
reception, and he abandoned his plan of an attack 
on New York, and suddenly disappeared from the 
vicinity of New York, and sailed south. It was 
then that increased fears were entertained about the 
safety of Washington. Although it was regarded 
worth little as a militia hold, the moral effect of the 
surrender of the capital of the nation to an enemy 



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WABHINOTON IN DANGER, 223 

could not be over-estimated in the eyes of Euro- 
peans. To them a national capital meant London, 
Paris, Vienna, Brussels, Berlin, Rome, Madrid, Lis- 
bon, Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburg, and 
all the great cities of Europe. Washington at that 
time contained less than 7,000 white inhabitants 
and about 2,600 blacks, and not much valuable 
property apart from public buildings and the navy 
yard. Alexandria had about the same in population. 
If one was captured the other must soon follow the 
same fate. 

So little thought had been bestowed to their pro- 
tection by the military authorities that they were 
literally without any regular military force. 

The Federal newspapers were decryipg the lack of 
proper defence of the capital of the nation and 
stated the moral effect of its capture abroad. The 
administration newspapers contrarily maintained 
that there was no danger of it, and that it was not 
worth capture in a military point of view. 

Captain Porter was in New York City and heard 
that Washington City was in danger of the enemy. 
The remainder of his gallant crew of tlie Essex 
were also there. He summoned them as follows: 

'* Free Trade and Sailors' Rights ; " to the crew of 
the old Essex. Sailors ! The enemy is about at- 
tempting the destruction of our new ship at Wash- 
ington and I am ordered there to defend her. I 
shall proceed immediately and all disposed to ac- 
company me will meet me at five o'clock this after- 
noon at the Navy agent's office. D. Porter. 

'' New York, August 22d, 1814." 



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224 CREW OF THB BB8BX. 

It will be remembered that the oflScers and crew 
of the Essex were captured by Captain HiUier, as 
Already stated (ante, p. 173),and had been paroled as 
prisoners of war. They were declared discharged 
of their paroles by reason of some action of the cap- 
tors. They were officially notified of this by the 
Secretary of the United States Navy on August 
11th, only a few days previous to this call. They 
had been paid their prize money a few days pre- 
vious. 

When at Philadelphia, on his way to Washington 
Captain Porter, on the 26th of August, caused the 
following notice to be pubUshed in some of the 
New York newspapers : 

** FREE TRADE AND SAILORS' RIGHTS." 

<< ^y The crew of the old Essex and as many vol- 
unteers as they can bring are required to repair to 
Washington without delay to defend their new 
ship." 

As an indication of the state of affairs in 'New 
York City at that time, we observe that at a meet- 
ing of merchants in the evening on the 24:th, for the 
purpose of requesting that the banks in the city 
should take some action to prevent specie being 
sent out of the country, a committee of seven 
was appointed to confer with the banks' officers 
upon the subject. A meeting of the officers of the 
banks was held next day to meet the committee of 
merchants, and it was declared that there was no 
reason for suspension of specie payments. 

In the haste to get men in the military service, 



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DONATIONS FOR DEFENDERS. 225 

nearly all preparation for their equipment and the 
proper accommodation for them after their arrival 
here was overlooked. Much suflfering was caused 
thereby, and the committee of defence was ap- 
pealed to for aid. The following notice was pub- 
^shed in the National Advocate on August 24th: 

'* DONATIONS FOR DEFENDERS." 

"Several thousands of our fellow-citizens from 
the interior of the State, having, in obedience to 
the call of the constituted authorities, relinquished 
the comforts of home, and repaired in arms to the 
vicinity of this city to aid in its defence, it is our 
anxious desire and ever-incumbent duty to render 
their condition as agreeable as possible, and to 
reconcile them to the sacrifices they are making. 
Placed in a newr situation, and from the nature of a 
military life, exposed to privations and hardships, 
and particularly not furnished with the food to 
which they have been accustomed, it is greatly in 
our power to sup'ply their wants and to increase 
their comforts without any material sacrifice. For 
this purpose, donations in money will be received 
by the treasurer of the Committee of Defence, 
Thomas R. Mercein, Comptroller's office. City Hall, 
and other contributions, particularly of vegetables, 
will be received by Major Ingraham, Brigade 
Quarter- Master at Brooklyn, and by Major McComb, 
Brigade Q.-M. at the Heights of Harlem. 

'* In making this appeal to the patriotism and 
benevolence of the public, the committee are per- 



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226 WORKERS ON DEFENCES, 

suaded that they will not be unsuccessful; next 
to the great duties we owe to our country, we must 
rank those due to tiie gallant men who are ready to 
offer up their lives in its defence. 

*' Nicholas Fish, 
** Chairman of Committee of Defence.** 

Gteneral Hermance's brigade was stationed at 
Harlem Heights. Little or no preparations had 
been made to provide for so large a body of men. 
The inhabitants were few, and they were willing 
to give all the aid within their power. This they 
had done from the first. A few days 'after this ap- 
peal for donations, Gteneral Hermance, in a pub- 
lished notice, expressed his acknowledgment to 
Messrs. Valentine Nutter, James Beekman, Abra- 
ham Brazier, Henry Post and Mr. E. McQowan, and 
the inhabitants of Harlem, for their friendly atten- 
tion to the ofiicers and men, and the use of their 
dwellings and barns during the unsettled state of 
his camp, and also for contributions of vegetables 
for food. 

On the 25th of August the master butchers 
turned out a force amounting to about two hun- 
dred and worked with zeal and ardor, and nearly 
completed the sodding of Fort Green. They carried 
the flag at their head which was displayed by the 
butchei-s at the celebration of the Federal Constitu- 
tion in New York City in 1788. 

The next day a number of them were at work on 
the fortifications at Brooklyn Heights. They car- 
ried the same historic flag. Among other emblems 



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TAMMANY SOCIETY. 227 

on a flag was a large ox prepared for the slaughter, 
with the motto : 

*' SkiD me well, and dress me neat. 
And send me on board the Federal fleet.*' 

The HamUton Society and the Sons of Erin 
had, as a society, each performed a day*s tour of 
labor on the fortifications. Many of these societies, 
as was the case with others, had members that 
belonged to several other organizations, and per- 
formed labor with them. Thus one person would do 
several days' labor. 

Much ostentation was displayed by the workers 
in this way. 

The Washington Benevolent Society had tendered 
their services to the Committee of Defence, but had 
not specified the time when they would perform the 
labor. They were ahead of Tammany Society in 
this oflfer. 

Tammany Society took another method. A notice 
was published calling a meeting of the members to 
consider the time and place when their work should 
be performed. On the morning of August 25th the 
following call was issued: 

•* To the Tammany Society or Columbian Order. 

''Brothers: The voice of patriotism calls you to 
the service of your country. Prepare yourselves with 
zeal and promptitude to obey that loud summons. 
Your committee have pledged themselves to the 
Committee of Defence that one thousand of our so- 
ciety shall^ on Wednesday the 31st, appear on 
Brooklyn Heights to aid in erecting the fortifications 



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228 WASHINGTON BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 



intended to defend our city against the menaced 
assaults of a ferocious and brutal foe. Redeem that 
pledge as becomes freemen ! You are requested to 
meet on Wednesday next at five o'clock, at Tam- 
many Hall, for the purpose of proceeding to Brook- 
lyn. 

'* The committee respectfully solicit the members 
to sign the roll, without loss of time, which is left 
at the hall and in the hands of the committee, in 
order that the number of rations necessary for the 
subsistence on that day may be provided, and which 
will be provided on the ground free from any ex- 
pense to the members. 

'^ The wards will, without any defalcation, on 
Monday evening next, return to the committee of 
arrangements the respective lists of subscribei's. 

'* WiLUAM J. Waldron, 
Peter Embury, 
Garret Sick els, 
Stephen Allen, 
Abram Dally, 

** Committee. " 
The Washington Benevolent Society was not to be 
left behind by Tammany Society. After the call by 
Tammany, the former hastened *^ to get there fii'st." 
On the 26th the Washington Benevolent Society, to 
the number of about eight hundred performed a* * tour 
of labor" at Fort Gretni, in Brooklyn. At half -past 
five o'clock in the morning they assembled in front 
of the City Hall, and were arranged in order of pro- 
cession under Colonel Piatt as grand mai'shal of the 
day. The banners of the society were distributed at 



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WORKERS BY MOONLIGHT. 229 



equal distances through the lines, and Commodore 
Decatur's band of music from the frigate President 
placed in the center. The presiding oflScer of the 
day and grand marshal were on horseback. The 
procession moved through Beekman and Pearl 
streets to the steamboat at Beekman Slip, and then 
continued in the same ord,er to Fort Green. Gen- 
eral Swift assigned to them the honor of breaking 
ground on a new line of defence. Dinner was 
provided on the ground, as was usual. At the close 
of the day's labor the society returned to New York 
in the same order observed in the morning. They 
moved through the park in front of the City Hall> 
and, halting, gave three cheers, and then proceeded 
to the front of Washington Hall, on the corner of 
Broadway and Reade street, where the tune of 
Yankee Doodle was played by the band. Six cheers 
closed the performance of the day. 

A large number of this society was also engaged 
on the same day with the Marine Society and the 
Society of Tallow Chandlers at Harlem Heights, and 
with the butchers at Fort Green. 

The same day about two hundred citizens of Pater- 
son, N. J., were working at a redoubt near Fort 
Swift. 

The weather was very hot at that time. It was 
proposed by some that night- work could be done to 
advantage. The moon was in its full and arose at 
a time most favorable for such an enterprise. A 
roll was circulated to obtain the names of persons 
who would work on such an occasion. On Friday 
the following notice was published : 



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230 A 80NQ OF THE DAT 

''The gentlemen who have signed the roll to per- 
form one night's work at the fortifications on 
Brooklyn Heights are hereby informed that Tues- 
day next, at moonrise, is the time appointed to ren- 
dezvous at the steamboat wharf." 

It was announced that Friday evening, August 
26th, would be the last night of performance at 
New York Circus. '' Venice Preserved ; or, a Plot 
Discovered," was the play. 

A pantomime called '* Harlequin Patriot ; or, 
Brooklyn Heights," was the afterpiece. 

It was announced that the band of music belong- 
ing to the United States frigate President would 
perform some patriotic tunes. Box tickets, $1 ; pit, 
fifty cents. 

About this time appeared a poem written by 
Samuel Woodworth, afterwards famous for being 
the author of ''The Old Oaken Bucket." Wood- 
worth was then publishing a weekly paper in New 
York, called Tlie War. The poem was entitled, 
*'The Patriotic Diggers," and was sung to the tune 
of " Great Way Off at Sea, or Bob and Joan." It 
was popular for many years after the war. 

The refrain of this song was : 

•*Pickaxe,^shovel, spade. 

Crowbar, hoe and barrow: 
Better not invade, 
Yankees have the mai'row." 



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CHAPTER XXXV. 

-Capture of Washington— Effect in New York — To Arms ! To 
Arms !— Committee of Defence Appeal to Citizens — Major- 
General Lewis's Letter to Common Council — More Men And 
More Money Wanted —Recommendations of Committee 
of Defence Adopted— Large Loans Obtained by the City for 
Derence. 



f HE inhabitants in the city of New York, 
up to this time, were far more inter- 
ested in the movements of tlie enemy 
on the northern and western frontier 
of the State than they were in those 
along the seaboard. 
In the evening of the 26th the Evening Post 
published the following in the form of an extra : 

*' BATTLE OF BLADEN8BURG. 

" By the pilot stage which left Philadelphia this 
morning at one o'clock, we have received from our 
correspondent a proof-sheet giving the following 
particulars of a battle between the enemy and Gen- 
eral Winder, at Bladensburg, at which our troops 
suffered severely. General Stansbury is said to be 
either killed or badly wounded, Major Pinckney 
wounded and taken prisoner. Colonel Sterry badly 
wounded. Our troops retreated into Washington, 
followed by the enemy. 

** On the envelope which covered our proof-sheet 



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232 CAPTURE OF WASHiNQTON. 

was written : ' The bnemy have entered Washing- 
ton AFTER A SEVERE BATTLE,' and the passengers in 
the stage, we are sorry to say, confti-ni it. They state 
the news was brought to Philadelphia about half- 
past eleven o'clock, by express." 

The inhabitants now indeed felt that a crisis was 
approaching, and they must join together to aid the 
military forces of the nation and State in every man- 
ner possible. The utmost earnestness and excitement 
prevailed. Probably at no subsequent period dur- 
ing that *' Battle Summer" of 1814 were the fears 
and apprehensions of the inhabitants of New York 
city at a greater tension. 

On the morning of the 27th the Columbian con- 
tained the following : 

^'TO arms! CITIZENS. TO ARMS ! 

*' Your capital is taken ! 13,000 British troops 
may have marched for Baltimore, and before this 
hour it may have fallen. Six days ago the people 
at Washington were in perfect security. In six 
days the same enemy may be at the Hook, and if 
they assail your city with a powerful force by land 
and by water, what will be your fate ? Arise from 
your slumbei^s ! Let ev ery citizen arise and enroll 
himself instantly and prepare to defend our city to 
the last extremity ! This is no time to talk ! We 
must act, and act with vigor, or we are lost." 

On that day the Committee of Defence made an 
appeal to the citizens, calling attention to the miU- 
taiy disasters at Baltimore and Washington, and 



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TO ARMS! TO ARMS! 233 

asking them to renew their exertions for the better 
defence of the city. It was as follows : 

APPEAL OF COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE. 

**New York, August 27, 1814. 
**The disastrous intelligence from the South, 
ought, instead of producing despondence, to act 
with redoubled energy upon our patriotic exertions, 
and to produce the most animated efforts for defend- 
ing our firesides and our altars against the attacks of 
the enemy. Let not our public spirit evaporate in 
words and professions. Let it be shown in our con- 
duct. For this purpose let every man capable of 
bearing arms provide himself with a musket and 
the necessary accoutrements. Let all exempts be 
immediately enrolled and organized. Let the milita 
turn out daily for drill and discipline. Let the ar- 
tillery practice with the great guns. 

'* The efforts which are now making, and which 
have been made in the direction of works and de- 
fences, are honorable indications of patriotism. Let 
them be accompanied and followed up by those 
other acts which are indispensable to complete our 
system of defence, and then, whatever may be the 
result, we shall have the proud satisfaction of doing 
our duty, and shall stand acquitted in the sight of 
God and our country. 

*^ Nicholas Fish, 
John Nitchie, 
Thomas R. Smith, 
George Buckmaster, 
Peter Mesier, 
Gideon Tucker, 
J. W. Brackett, 

'' Committee." 



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234 MEASURES FOR DEFENCE, 

Ruf US King called on Gteneral Lewis in the morn- 
ing and urged to prompt and vigorous measures of 
defence. On the subject of money he said: **Let 
a loan be immediately opened. I will subscribe to 
the amount of my whole fortune." This was pub- 
lished in the afternoon papers on that day. 

Major-General Lewis, the next day, Sunday, laid 
before the Committee of Defence the following letter 
addressed to the Common Council: 

^^TfflRD MiUTARY District. 
' ' Headquarters, New York, August 28th, 1814. 

* 'Gentlemen: Believing that this district is threat- 
ened with invasion within the meaning of my in- 
structions of the 12th ult., I have determined to 
call on the Governor for the full amount of this 
State's quota of militia, consisting of 13,500 men, 
to be immediately placed at my disposal and 
brought to this city. I have also determined in like 
manner to call on New Jersey for its proportion, 
whicli is 5,000. 

** To supply rations for such a force for sixty days 
will require the sum of $220,000, exclusive of camp 
equipage, quarters, fuel, etc. The public depart- 
ments here are at present penniless, and I must apply 
to the patriotism of the corporation to raise the neces- 
sary funds, in the first instance, not doubting the gov- 
ernment will, in due time, reimburse its advances. 

** The preservation of this city will certainly justify 
the means, and the safest and surest means of se- 
curing it against invasion is complete preparation 



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MEASURES FOR DEFENCE. 235 

for its defence. I hope the fall of Washington will 
be to us a useful lesson. 

^*I am, etc., 

** Morgan Lewis. 

** To the Honorable Common Council, New York 
City." 

At the meeting cf the Common Council on Monday 
the Committee of Defence made a report to the Com- 
mon Council showing the progress of the works and 
the need of more men and of money to pay and 
provide for them, and asking the Governor of the 
State to call for twenty thousand additional mihtia 
for the defence of the city, saying, **The fate of 
Washington warns us not to remain unprepared." 

They recommended to the corporation to borrow 
one million dollars for the purpose of defence. 

The following is a copy of the report: 

REPORT OP THE COMMrFTEE OP DEFENCE MADE AND 
AGREED TO IN COMMON COUNCIL, AUGUST 29, 1814 

** The Committee of Defence are happy to report 
to the Corporation that the ardor of the citizens in 
bestowing voluntary labor on works of defence for 
our protection continues unabated, and that the 
works have progressed and are progressing with 
astonishing rapidity. 

" The Committee on the other hand regret that 
they are under the necessity of informing the Board, 
that from all the information they can obtain, it is 
reduced to a certainty, that the expenses of what- 
ever additional defences may be necessary for the 
city, both as to the erection of the works, and the 



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236 MEASURES FOR DEFENCE, 

paying, provisioning, and accommodating men for 
our defence, must be derived from our own 
resources or not obtained at all. If this city is to 
be defended from hostile attacks, the Corporation 
must provide the funds in the first place, and look 
to the general Government for an indemnification. 

** The Committee have therefore requested of his 
Excellency, the Governor, on the recommendation 
of the military commanders of the United States, 
forthwith to call out twenty thousand additional 
militia, for the defence of this city. They have 
taken this step under a conviction of its necessity, 
and from a further conviction that the Board would 
sanction the measure, feeling also its necessity, jand 
being sensible that the present crisis admits of no 
delay. 

** With a view of meeting the expenses into which 
the calamitous state of our country and the duty 
of self-defence have driven us, it will be necessary 
for the Board to provide necessary funds. The 
Committee are of opinion that to draw the neces- 
sary funds from the banks of our city would be 
straightening them too much in their operation, and 
have a tendency to increase the present distress in 
the pecuniary transactions of our fellow-citizens. 
They therefore respectfully suggest to the Board the 
propriety of authorizing a loan to be opened for a 
sum not exceeding one million of dollars, at seven per 
cent, payable in one year, with interest half 
yearly, for which the bonds of the Corporation shall 
be given to the lenders. 

**It will be necessary for the comfortable accom- 



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MEABdRES FOR DBFBNGE. 



modation of the militia to be called out, that proper 
barracks be erected for the purpose, and that meas- 
ures be immediately adopted for their erection. It 
will be necessary that arrangements should be 
made for supplying the troops with good and whole- 
some provisions, and in case it should not be in the 
power of the general Government to supply them, 
the supply must be made by us. 

*^We commend to the Board, that some proper 
person or persons be authorized immediately to raise 
the buoys stationed in our harbor, as owing to the 
smallness of our commerce, they may easily be dis- 
pensed with, and because their continuance may be of 
great importance to the enemy, and their removal 
put a great obstacle in the way of his approach. 

^* We recommend to the Board, that the Commit- 
tee be authorized to make some arrangements, if 
necessary, for employing the steam and horse boats 
in the harbor for the transportation of troops ; and, 
as at such a crisis as this, many necessary things 
may suggest themselves or be suggested to the 
Committee which may require expedition in the ac- 
complishment, the Committee respectfully recom- 
mend to the Board that they be authorized to 
execute them without express delegation of power 
for that purpose. The Committee are sensible that 
they are making large demands upon the confidence 
of the Board ; they covet not such extension of 
power and confidence, but they think them all im- 
portant to the safety of our threatened city. The 
fate of Washington warns us not to remain unpre- 
pared. A small expenditure of money might have 



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238 LOAN A8KKD, 



saved our capital and prevented this disgi'ace upon 
the nation. And shall the city of New York, the 
first in the Union, in point of importance, also fall 
the sacrifice to a spirit of penuriousness which will 
count the expense of self-protection when all is in 
jeopardy ? The Committee are as sensible as the 
Board can be that the duty of protecting us belongs 
to the general Gtovernment, but when a government 
is unable to protect, the crisis demands that the citi- 
zens should strain every nerve to protect them- 
selves." 

The recommendations in the report were unani- 
mously agreed to. A loan was at once authorized 
and placed under the direction of the Finance Com- 
mittee. It was placed before the public in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

*' The Corporation of New York to their Fellow- 
Citizens : 

**The crisis of our national affairs has rendered 
it indispensable for the corporation of the city to 
advance the funds necessary for the protection of 
this part of the State. In order to be safe we must 
rely upon our means — upon ourselves ! Any other 
reliance in the present state of the country would 
be delusive and might be ruinous. 

**The corporation have, therefore, for the sole 
and exclusive purpose of defence, imanimously 
authorized the Committee of Finance to open a loan 
for a million of doUai's at an interest of seven per 
cent, the principal payable in a year and the in- 
terest semi-annually. The bond of the corporation 



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LOAN OBTAINED. 239 

will be given to the 8ub8criJ)ers to the loan, and it 
is presumed that this country cannot furnish better 
security for the payment of the debt. 

'*It is unnecessary for the committee to enforce 
the important consideration which arises out of this 
proposition. As patriots, we are called upon by 
the most sacred obligations to assist our country in 
the hour of danger and peril. As fathers, as hus- 
bands, as citizens, as Christians, we. are bound to 
protect our wives, our children, our houses and our 
altars against the attack of the enemy ; and as men 
who do not look to higher considerations than in- 
terest, we will even find it expedient to advance 
funds when such advance may be considered as a 
premium for insurance against invasion. 

** Subscriptions are now open at all the banks in 
the city for this purpose. The money will be re- 
ceived in four equal payments ; the first at the time 
of subscribing, and the remainder in three equal 
monthly payments. The receipts of the different 
cashiers will be evidence of the payment. Interest 
will be allowed on each installment, and when the 
payments are complete, bonds will be issued in due 
form. 

*' By order of the Committee of Finance, 

*' Augustine H. Lawrence, 
*' Chairman." 

The sum required was speedily subscribed and 
placed at the disposal of the committee. Thus they 
were enabled not only to supply the wants of the 
several departments, to cause the works of defence 
to goj^on with rapidity, to procure whatever might 



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240 LOAN OBTAINED, 



be deemed necessary for defence, but also to provide 
many things for the comfort and convenience of 
their fellow-citizens who had left their families and 
domestic comforts and who were in arms for the 
defence of the city. 



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CHAPTER XXXVI. 

liilitia Ordered into Service — Training on Governor's Island- 
Call for Implements of Defence— Militia Under General 
Steveos l^f ustered into Active Service Under Major-Genend 
Lewis— Sketch of General Stevens' Family— Sketch of Gen- 
eral Lewis* Family— Military Orders— Rockland County 
Militia— Martial Lai* in the City— Call for New, Jersey- 
Militia to Defend New York— Philadelphia Asks for New 
Jersey Militia^ Secretary of War Grants the Request — Gov- 
ernor Pennington Orders Nineteen Companies to Powles^ 
Hook (Jersey City)» Colonel Frelinghuysen in Command 
There. 

^. Governor TOMPKINS, appreci- 
ating the necessity of prompt mil- 
itary action on the part of the 
State, independent of the action of 
the national f orces, and yet to act. 
in conjunction with them, being at. 
his home in New York City, imme- 
diately issued the following order- 
on Saturday : 

' State of New York. 
General Orders. 
Head Quarters, New York, Aug. 27th, 1814. 
The detached division, consisting of the First Brig-^ 
ade of Artillery, and the Third and Tenth Brigades 
of Infantry, will parade by brigades on Tuesday 
next (August 30th), at an hour and at place of ren- 
dezvous to be appointed by Maj.-Gten. Ebenezer 
Stevens,, and will then be formed into a division and 




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242 0RDER8 TO MILITIA. 

be inspected and maneuvered by the Major-GteneraL 
Every soldier is required to appear completely 
equipped, according to law. The inspector will be 
particularly careful to ascertain the quality and 
quantity of equipments, and will immediately re- 
port an inspection return to the commander-in-chief. 

It is recommended to the brigadiers forthwith to 
consolidate and organize their respective brigades 
for actual service ; to assign the officers who are to 
take the field ; to cause notice to be given to every 
individual of that organization of his place of ren- 
dezvouSy in case of sudden alarm, and of the officer 
whom he is to respect and obey on his arrival there. 
When they are thus organized and notified, it is 
xecommended that the officers assigned to com- 
^mand assemble at least three times a week for im- 
provement, and that times and places be designated 
for the non-commissioned officers and privates to 
meet for the same purpose ; and that competent 
and confidential persons be employed to instruct 
them in discipline. 

The Commander-in-chief has repeatedly urged 
upon the militia to equip themselves with a musket, 
etc., as is enjoined upon them by the' Constitution 
and laws. He trusts the emergency which threatens 
us cannot fail to awaken to this important duty the 
immediate attention of every patriotic citizen who 
has hitherto neglected it. 

It is recommended' to the associations of exempts, 
organized in the city of New York, to attend to im- 
provement in discipline as often as possible. Any 
•of these corps, or other associations of patriotic 



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0RDBR8 TO MILITIA. 243 

citizens who may wish to parade and be inspected 
with the division on Tuesday will report themselvi^B 
to Major Qeneral Stevens, and he is directed to as- 
sign them a station emd have them inspected. 

The Commander-in-chief cannot omit this oppor- 
tunity of exhorting the militia and hisjellow-citi* 
zens of the Northern district generally to arm them- 
selves and to turn their attention immediately 
and ardently to military instruction and discipline, 
and he renews the injunction upon the commandants 
of the militia of Rockland, Westchester, Kings,. 
Queens, Richmond and Suffolk Counties to hold 
their corps equipped and in readiness to take the 
field at a moment^s warning. 

By order of the Commander-in-chief. 

Anthony Lamb, 

Aide-de-camp. 

Gteneral Stevens responded to the order as follows : 
PmsT Division op New York Detaohbd Miutia. 
Division Orders. 
City op New York, Aug. 29th, 1814. 
In conformity with the above general orders 
(Aug. 27th), that part of the First Division of De- 
tached Militia therein designated will parade on 
Tuesday morning, the 80th inst., precisely at 11 
o'clock, on Stuyvesant Ground, near the rope- 
walks, completely armed and equipped, according 
to law. 
By order of Major-General Stevens. 

W. B, Crosby, 

Aide-de-Camp^ 



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1IU TRAINING ON Q0VERN0B8 ISLAND. 

We have already se^i (Ante, page 138) the num- 
heic of the United States forces for the defence ot 
New York harbor. The men were recent volun- 
teers and had not been siiflBciently trained to do the 
most effective service. A rigid discipline was at 
once entered upon. 

The following is one of the garrison orders then 
issued : 

Qabrison Orders. 

Fort Columbus, Aug. 2^th, 1814. 

The artillery with a company of Infantry will be 
drilled at the Battery (on Governor's Island), every 
Monday, Wednesday and Friday morning, from 
five to one-half past six o'clock, commencing at 
Fort Columbus ; taking guns in course through all 
the batteries. Commanding officers of companies 
will cause their companies to be drilled with mus- 
kets each Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning 
during the same hours. All officers are punctually 
to attend company drills. Sergeant Dillahunty 
will drill the non-commissioned officers of artillery 
from one-half past nine to eleven o'clock every 
morning until further orders. At • the sound of 
alarm by the bugle the troops will turn out on their 
company parade. The Infantry will be conducted 
by the senior officers to the covert way of the ditch 
of Fort Columbus as its proper alarm post, and the 
artillery will be conducted by companies to their 
batteries. The conductors of artillery, aided by 
Quarter-Master, Sergeant, and Powder Monkeys, 



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CALL FOR ARMS. 245 



will furnish the implements and ammunition and 
arrange them to the pieces. 
By order. 

Chas. Anthony, 

Adj. Corps Art. 

It was well known that there had been from the 
first a great lack of arms and equipments of all 
kinds sufficient for the men of the First Division. 
Those that had arrived from the river counties for 
service in the defence of the city were no better 
provided. Governor Tompkins issued and pub- 
lished the following call on the inhabitants : 

General Orders. 
Head-Quarters, New York, Aug. 29th, 1814. 

The Commander-in-chief having been informed 
that several inhabitants of this city are possessed of 
cannons, pistols, broad swords and other mihtary 
articles which are not wanted for their own private 
use, and which will be of service to the public in 
case of invasion, requests that every inhabitant 
having articles of that description in his possession 
will report them to the Commissary of Military 
Stores at the State Arsenal, where such of them as 
be fit for use will be received and paid for. 

By order of the Commander-in-chief. 

Anthony Lamb, 

Aide-de'Camp. 

The two following orders were also issued on the 
same day, and all of them pubUshed in the morning 
papers the day after their date : 



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246 o^ll fob volunteers. 

Qenbral Orders. 
Head-Quarters, New York, Aug. 29th, 1814. 

The Commander-in-chief is desirous of organizing 
a regular corps of troops of one or two thousand 
men, including officers, for three months' service^ 
and to be continued if sanctioned by the Legislature 
for twelve months, or during the war. He will 
allow the same pay to the officers as is allowed to 
officers of the army, and an addition of two dollars 
per month to non-commissioned officers, musicians, 
and privates, in lieu of boimty and clothing with 
such other encouragement as the Legislature may be 
pleased to grant. The organization of companies, 
regiments, and of the brigade, will be according to 
the United States regulation, and the uniform will 
be provided by the corps, plain and cheap. The 
C!ommander-in*chief will commision the officers as 
soon as the corps shall be enlisted. 

Their services will be confined for the present to 
the defence of the seaboard of the State of New 
York, and they will be subject to the orders of the 
Commander-in-chief of this State, until provisions 
may be made otherwise. 
By order. 

Anthony Lamb, 

Aide'de-Camp. 

General Orders. 
Head-Quarters, New York, August 29th, 1814. 

The Commander-in-chief will organize a battahou 
of Sea Fencibles, upon the plan of organization pre- 
scribed by the act of Congress relative to that corps. 



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MOVBMBNTa OF TROOPS. 247 

to act either by sea or land, in defence of the city 
and harbor of New York and its vicinity. Captains, 
mates, and marines generally, are invited to form 
such corps immediately. The oflScers will be com- 
missioned as s(>on as companies shall be listed. 
By order of the Commander-in-chief. 

Anthony Lamb, 
Atde-deCamp. 

There were rumors that some of the troops at 
Governor's Island and other places in the vicinity of 
New York city had been ordered for the northern 
frontier, near Lake Champlain. The National Ad- 
vocate of August 30th said : ** We are authorized to 
say that no troops stationed at Governor's Island 
have proceeded, or are ordered to proceed to the 
north. That troops are constantly on the march 
from the south to join their regiments on the front- 
iers is a fact ; and that some may have passed through 
this place last week is probable, but that any of the 
disposable force stationed in this city and harbor 
have been ordered to the north is false and ground- 
less." 

On August 29th the Montgomery Rangers, Albany 
Biflemen and Captain Dole's Trojan Greens ar- 
rived and were stationed at Fort Green. Their ele- 
gant uniforms and fine equipments attracted many 
visitors. 

In Governor Tompkins' special message to the 
New York State Legislature in September he stated 
that **the success of the enemy at Washington 
spread a momentary panic on the seaboard." The 
order of 27th August for parade and inspection on 



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^48 BBNDEZVOm ORDERBD 

80th wa43 only a necessary preliminary to actual 
service. Without waiting for the inspection the 
Governor on 29th ordered a rendezvous of militia 
for immediate active service, as follows : 

State op New York. 

General Orders. 

Head-Quarters, New York, Aug. 29, 1814. 

The division of Major-Gteneral Stevens, detached 
and organized by general orders of the 20th July 
last, and the Twenty-second Brigade of Infantry, 
are ordered, pursuant to a requisition for that pur- 
I)Ose, into immediate actwd service^ for the defence 
of the city and harbor of New York. Gteneral 
Stevens's division and the Twenty-second Brigade of 
Infantry will rendezvous on Friday next, the sec- 
ond day of September, at eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing, at such place or places as Major-Gtenei-al 
Stevens may assign. Upon the arrival of the troops 
at the places of rendezvous they will be reported to 
the commanding oflScer of the Third military dis- 
trict. 

All corps of exempts, enlisted volunteers, corps 
of sea fencibles, and other associates of citizens 
who are disposed at this moment of danger to oflEer 
their services in the defence of the country, are 
earnestly requested to report themselves, and repair 
to the field as soon as they have formed themselves 
into companies. 

The Twenty-ninth Brigade of Infantry will as- 
semble at such place as Brig. -Gen. Peter S. Van 
Orden may appoint, on Saturday, the third of 



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FOR DRFBNOB OF NSW YORK. 249 

' September next, at nine o'clock in the forenoon, 
where it will be consolidated into one regiment, and 
the field and staff assigned by the brigadier-gen- 
eral. The troops will then proceed immediately to 
New York by water or land, as General Van Orden 
may direct, who will also have means of transpor- 
tation provided immediately. 

The detached regiments commanded by Lieuten- . 
ant-Colonels Visscher and Davis will rendezvous on 
Monday, the fifth of September, at Albany and 
Troy, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, and being 
there consolidated into battalions by the respective 
brigadier-generals, will repair forthwith to New 
York. 

Brig. -Gen. Putnam Farrington, of Delaware 
County, will immediately send one full regiment 
from his (Twenty-fifth) brigade to New York, 
and will organize the companies with one captain, 
two lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, six cor- 
porals, two musicians and ninety privates to each, 
and the regiment with four field officers and the 
usual staff. 

Brig. -Gen. Jacob Odell will organize one full 
-company or troop of horse artillery from the first 
regiment of his brigade, and one full company 
-or troop from the second regiment, and Brig.- 
Gen. George D. Wickham will organize and send 
to New York immediately two full troops of cavalry 
of his brigade, with one major to be selected by him. 
The troops of horse artillery and cavalry will form 
one squadron, to be commanded by Lieut. -Col. 
James Warner. 



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250 RENDEZVOUS ORDERED. 

The commandant of the militia of Saratoga 
Comity will order one full battalion of militia from 
his brigade to repair to New York, without a mo- 
ment's delay. The brigadier-general will not wait 
for a draft or detachment, but will order a regiment 
en masse to be consolidated into a battalion if 
necessary, with one Ueutenant-colonel, one major, 
and one adjutant for field and staff. 

One full battalion will be ordered in like manner 
from each of the following brigades of infantry, 
viz. : the Twelfth, Ninth, Twentieth, Twenty-third,. 
Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-fourth and Thirty- 
seventh, to be ordered out en masse and organized, 
and to march immediately.* 

The artillery, light infantry and grenadier com- 
panies of the counties of Albany, Schenectady, 
Ulster, Sullivan, Rensselaer, Columbia, Dutchess- 
and Delaware Counties, with so many only of their 
oflScers as may be in proportion to the number of 
men in each, will immediately assemble and repair 



* The location of the brigades of infantry mentioned in this 
order were as follows : 
Ninth, Saratoga County. 
Twelfth, Columbia County. 
Twentieth, Dutchess County. 
Twenty-second, Kings and Queens County. 
Twenty-third, Sullivan and Ulster County. 
Twenty-fifth, Delaware County, 
Twenty-ninth. Rockland County. 
Thirtieth, Dutchess County. 
Thirty-first, Albany. 

Thirty-fourth, Orange and Ulster County. 
Thirty-seventh, Greene and Albany County, 



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MUSTER INTO 8BRVICE. 251 

to New York, and report themselves to the com- 
manding oflScer in the Third military district. The 
commandants of artillery will take with them their 
field pieces and equipments, and will provide trans- 
portation for their men upon the most economical 
terms. 

Every officer and man embraced in this order is to 
provide himself with at least four days' provisions, 
ready cooked, and Will be authorized to draw back 
rations, in consideration thereof, on his arrival at 
New York. The personal equipments of a soldier 
are a musket and bayonet or rifle, cartridge box 
and bayonet belt, knapsack, blanket, canteen and 
twenty-four rounds of ammunition. 

The crisis has arrived when the culpable remiss- 
ness which has hitherto prevailed among militia 
officers in respect to deficiencies of equipments 
among their men is seriously felt ; all indulgence in 
this point must henceforth cease ; it has always 
been pernicious, but now becomes criminal. Every 
officer and soldier therefore is enjoined strictly to 
comply with the requisitions of the law in this re- 
spect, and is assured that all delinquencies here- 
after will be rigidly noticed and severely pun- 
ished. 

By order of the Commander-in-chief. 

Anthony Lamb, 
Aide'de-Camp. 

At the parade for review and inspection of the 
First Division of State miUtia on the 30th there 
ivere six thousand men, all residents of New York 
Oity, excepting part of the Third Regiment of 



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252 MUSTER INTO BBRVICB. 

artillery and part of the 146th Begiment of 
infantry from Staten Island. 

The consolidation of companies and r^ments 
were then made, and necessarily excluded upwards 
of forty captains, besides other officers, from com- 
mand, and they were therefore out of service. 

At the rendezvous muster on 8d of September, 
the First Division of New York State militia, under 
command of Maj.-Gten. Ebenezer Stevens, was 
turned over to report to Maj.-(Jen. Moi^an Lewis 
and mustered mto the service of the United States. 

The following order was issued : 

State of New York. 
General Orders. 
Headquarters, New York, Sept. 8, 1814. 

The Commander-in-chief has witnessed with high 
satisfaction the alacrity with which the division 
under the command of General Stevens has entered 
into actual service. The equipment and soldier-like 
conduct of the troops and the large number of vol- 
unteers that have joined the division give honor- 
able testimony of the mihtary and patriotic spirit 
which, at this interesting crisis, animates all ranks 
and conditions. It is such generous zeal, such 
unanimity of feeling and action that constitute 
the real strength of a free community. 

The division being now transferred to the com- 
mand of Major-General Lewis for a term of service, 
the Commander-in-chief, while he expresses the 
pride he feels in being able to furnish to the national 
demand so fine and formidable a body of men,. 



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MILITIA IN BBRVIOB, 25» 

exhorts them to persevere in the punctual perform- 
ance of their duties as citizens and soldiers; to- 
exert themselves to the utmost to deserve the ap- 
probation of their present commandant ; and never^ 
for a moment, to forget that to their courage and 
good conduct are confided the safety of their fire- 
sides, the protection of their families, the welfare 
and reputation of their city, and the honor of the 
nation. 

By order of the Commander-in-chief. 

WASmNGTON iRVINa,* 

Aid'de-Camp, 

From that time until discharged Major-Gteneral 
Stevens and the First Division of New York State 
militia were subject to the commander of the Third 
Military District of the United States, t 

* The rank of this famous author was that of Colonel, which 
he held until the close of the war. 

t A biographical sketch of Gton. Ebenezer Stevens has already 
been given in Volume IL of this work, page lOS. As many 
of his descendants are among us the following account of his 
family is given : 

General Stevens married 1st, at Providence, Rhode Island, 11 
October, 1774, Rebecca, daughter of Benjamin Hodgdon, of New 
Hampshire, by whom he had issue : 

I.— Elizabeth, born Providence, R. I., July, 1775 ; died Bos- 
ton, Mass., June, 1777. 
II. — Horatio Qates, born Stamford, Conn., 19 September, 
1778, died New York, 16 June, 1878 ; Major-General 
New York State Militia; Vice-President New York 
State Society of the Cincinnati ; served in the war of 
1812 as Lieutenant-Colonel of Second Regiment of New 
York Artillery ; married Eliza Lucille Rhinelander of 
New York, by whom he had issue : 
1.— Mary Lucille Stevens, born August 11, 1817. 



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254 0IWSB8 TO ABTILLBRT. 

On the same day division orders were issued per- 
mitting the officers and men residing in the city to 
return to their respective homes subject to further 
oi-ders. 

The following order was issued by Gteneral Mor- 
ton : 

First Brigade, New York State Artillery. 
Brigade Orders. 

New York, Sept. 2, 1814. 

In pursuance of division orders of this date, the 
troops will be dismissed and the officers and men 
permitted to return to their respective homes. The 
commanders of regiments and battalions will direct 
their respective companies to be drilled by com- 
panies at such places as shall be most convenient, 

Married November 7, 1887, Albert R. GallatiD, 
son of Albert Gallatin. Died December 28, 1892. 
2.— John Rhinelander Stevens, member of the New 
York State Society of the Cincinnati ; bom 
June 21, 1828 ; married Elizabeth M illan, June 
29, 1875 ; died January 8. 1889. 
nL— Rebecca Hodgdon, born New Windsor, New York, 24 
November, 1780; died I June. 1815; married to John 
Peter Schermerhorn, of New York. 
IV. — George Alexander, born at West Point, 21 September, 
1782, died at sea, , 1807. He was lost on bis re- 
turn from France on board the Qipsy, one of his 
father's merchant vessels, which foundered while be- 
ing chased by a British man-of-war during the oper- 
ations of the ''Orders in Council." Unmarried. 
General Stevens married 2d, at New York, 4 May, 1784, Lu- 
cretia Ledyard (widow of Richardson Sands), daughter of Judge 
John Ledyard, of Hartford, Conn., by whom he had issue : 
v.— Samuel, born New York, 14 March, 1875 ; died New York, 



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0RDEB8 TO ARTILLBRT. 255 

to-morrow morning, from six to eight o'clock ; in 
the afternoon, from four to six o'clock ; and this to 
be continued daily until further orders. The Field 
officers will visit the company parades and render 
every assistance in ttieir power to discipline the 
men. 

All firing either of cannon or small arms is 
strictly forbidden. 

The general cannot dismiss the troops without 
expressing his high satisfaction with their appear- 
ance to-day. He is pleased to find that the call for 
duty and for the defence of o\ir country has in- 
creased the First Brigade of artillery. 
By order of Brig. -Gen. Morton. 

J. Vandbrbilt, 
Atde-de-Camp. 

25 December, 1844; YaleOoUege, 1806; a distinguished 
member of the New York Bar ; one of the flrtt Com- 
missioners of the Croton Aqueduct Construction. Tin* 
married. 
VL— William, bom New York, 4 May, 1787 ; died Poughkeep- 

sie, 1 November, 1867. Unmarried. 
VII.— Alexander Hodgdon, bom New York, 4 September, 1789: 
died 80 March, 1869 ; Yale College, 1807 ; M.D., LL.D.; 
President of the New York Academy of Medicine ; of 
the College of Physicians and Surg^ns ; of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association ; of the Medical Society of the 
State of New York ; ^Professor of Principles and Prac- 
tice of Surgery. University of State of New York, New 
York. Married 1st, Mary Jane Bayard, of New Jersey ; 
2d, Catherine Morris, of Pelham, Westchester Co., N. 
Y.; 8d, Phoebe Coles Lloyd, of Long Island. 
Vm— Byam Kerby, bom New York. 20 April, 1792 ; died As- 
toria, 15 Febmary, 1870; Yale College, 1811; mer- 
chant of the house of Ebenezer Stevens' Sons. Mar- 



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256 ALACBITT OF TEE MILITIA. 

The country regiments were very prompt in 
responding to this call for the defence of New York 
York City and harbor. Within nine hours after 
the orders of August 29th left New York they were 
delivered to Brigadier-Gteneral Van Orden in Rock- 
land County by a route of sixty-six miles at four 
o'clock in the morning. Within six hours more the 
commandants of regiments received their orders, 
and every captain in the brigade, two excepted, 
were notified to turn out their companies. On 
Saturday, September 3d, the whole paraded at 
Greenbush (Orangetown), where the brigade waa 
consolidated into a single regiment, when the troop& 
marched four miles to Slote's landing, embarked on 
board the transports in small boats, which de- 
tained them till night, and arrived at New York 

ried Frances Gallatin, of New York, daughter of Albert 
Oallatin. 

IX.-pJohn Austin, bom New York, 99 January, 1795 ; died 
New York, 19 October, 1874 ; Yale College, 1818; mer- 
chant of the house of Ebenezer Stevens' Sons ; Presi- 
dent of the Merchants* Exchange ; of the Bank of 
Commerce in New York, from 1889 to 1860 ; of the 
Associated Banks of New York, Philadelphia, and Bos- 
ton in 1863, and Chairman of the Treasury Note Com- 
mittee, which managed the one hundred and fifty mil- 
lion loan to the Government of the United States dur- 
ing the civil war. Married Abby Weld, of Brunswick, 
Me., formerly of Boston, Mass. 
X.— Henry Hewgill, bom New York, 28 February, 1797 ; died 
Poughkeepsie, 6 October, 1869. Merchant. Married 
Catherine Clarkson CroBby, of New York. 

XI —Mary Lucretia Lucy Ann, born New York, 16 April, 1796^ 
Married to Frederick William Rhinelander, of New 
I York, Died Newport, 26 August, 1877. 



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ABRIVAL IN NEW TOBK: [ 257 

by two o'clock on Sunday morning, September 
4th. 

This uncommon expedition was owing to the 
alacrity of the troops, aided by the general zeal of 
the inhabitants, who volimteered in furnishing 
rations and conveyance to the rendezvous for the 
citizens called into the public service. 

At Fishkill, Dutchess County, a company re- 
ceived orders on Monday (29th), turned out on 
Tuesday, and were in New York on Wednesday. 

At that time. General Van Orden's brigade of in- 
fantry consisted of only two regiments, the Eighty- 
third and 160th, which comprised all the infantry^ 
in Rockland County. Every able-bodied man in the* 
county belonged to these two regiments, except those 
that belonged to the light horse, or the artillery com- 
pany at Nyack ; the artillery company consisted of 
one brass six-pounder and aboutjSforty men, under 
Major Dibble. 

The light horse was of about eighty men, and was 
ordered to muster; after review it was dismissed 
in September, 1814, and never recalled. The popu- 
lation of the county then was less than eight thou- 
sand persons. 

Major-Gten. Morgan Lewis, then in his sixtieth 
year, exhibited all the zeal and patriotism which was 
characteristic of his youth, and through his whole 
course of 'military, and civil public services, always 
alert, always industrious and tireless in his official 
duties. A large force of militia had arrived, and 
more were coming in daily. It was apparent that 
strict military government must be enforced, and 



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258 MILITARY RBQ ULATI0N8. 

rules prescribed for their well-being and effective 
service. ' 

It is probable that no commander in the service 
could formulate and prescribe a better code for such 
a government under the circumstances than Major- 
General Lewis. His experience, education and 
mental qualifications were exceptionally pre-eminent 
for such an emergency. Ue promulgated the follow- 
ing : 

EuLBs AND Regulations to be Observed in the 
Camp Daily. 

Adjutant-General's Office, Third Military 
District. 

New York, August 29th, 1814. 

General Orders 

To be observed by the Militia of the State of New 
York, in the service of the United States, in 
the Third Military District. 
When the citizen first exchanges the comparative 
ease and aflfluence of domestic for the rigor and pri- 
vations of military life, his future health, welfare 
and usefulness greatly depend on an early acquain- 
tance with the fiirst rudiments of his new profession. 
He must set out, therefore, with a determination to 
tmderstand and to practice certain rules indispen- 
sable to his security against disease in camp, dis- 
comfiture in the field, and consequent deprivation of 
life too often the fatal issue of each. Those rules 
must be inculcated by the example, and enforced by 
the authority of his oflScers of every grade. The 



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ly CAMP IN THE CITY. 259 

first attention is to bis habitation. While under 
canvas each tent should be surrounded with a small 
ditch to carry oflf the water, that the floor within 
may be kept dry, taking care that the earth from 
the ditch be not thrown against the tent. 

No eating must be permitted in the tents, except 
m bad weather ; and every fine day the^nts should 
be struck, on a signal given by drum for the pur- 
pose, at ten in the morning, and removed from the 
floor, that the bedding, etc., may be aired, the mois- 
ture and noxious effluvia expelled. After one hour 
they may be repitched on a similar signal. 

All the messes must eat by 'signal, at the same 
hour, and the soldiers of the same tent must belong 
to the same mess. The propriety of this arrange- 
ment will readily occur to those who reflect, that it 
is essential to military operations that each individ- 
ual of our army should be prepared for duty at the 
same instant of time. 

Cleanliness in every situation of life is essential to 
health. In an army it is peculiarly so. The strict- 
est attention, therefore, must be paid to it, not only 
in the tent of the soldier, but throughout the camp. 
The company oflScers will therefore attend to the 
cleanliness of their men in their persons, clothing, 
cooking and mess utensils of every description, and 
in conjunction with the oflScers of the poUce, to that 
of the camp, by having all bones and impurities of 
every description collected and burnt, or buried. The 
police oflficers will also be on the alert, to punish 
every man who shall ease himself anywhere except 
in the sinks, and will take care that the ordure in 



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^60 MILITABT REO ULA TIONS. 

Gverj sink be each momiDg covered by the carap 
colour-men 

A subaltern, four non-commissioned officers and 
eight privates, as camp-colo\ir-men, with a drummer, 
will be each day detailed for the duty from each 
regiment, neither of whom are on any account to be 
absent during the time they are so on duty. The 
attendance of the officers and drummers will be at 
the tent of the adjutant of the regiment ; these will 
form the regimental poUce of the day. 

It is the duty of officers of every grade to stop 
•every non-commissioned officer and soldier they 
meet without the chlam of sentinels, to examine his 
pass, and commit him to the nearest guard if his 
pass is irregular, or if he has none ; from thence he 
must be sent with his crime to his regiment. 

Reveille will beat every morning at day-break, 
which shall be the signal for officers and soldiers to 
rise, and prepare for parade. Half an hour after the 
Troop will beat, which is the signal for officers and 
soldiers to assembly on their company parades for 
roll-call and inspection. The roll shall then be called, 
and the soldiers' arms and accoutrements be in- 
spected by the platoon officers, and every deficiency 
noted in the company book, and a return thereof 
made every Monday morning to the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the district. After roll-call and inspection, 
the drill shall commence, by sections of half pla- 
toons, except the troops detailed for the duties of the 
day, and be continued for two hours. 

At half -past eleven o'clock a.m. the Troop shall 
again beat, and the troops be paraded by companies 



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MILITAR T REO ULATIONS. 261 

without arms, the roll called, and the men taught 
for an hour to march by platoons. 

At 4 P.M. they will again assemble by companies, 
with their arms, on beating the Troop, and after call- 
ing the roll, be drilled by sections for two hours, as 
in the earlier part of the day. 

The Retreat will beat at sunset (after which no 
non-commissioned officer nor soldier is to be out of 
<^mp, unless on duty)— the roll will then be called, 
the men warned for the duties of the succeeding day, 
And orders of the day read to them. 

The Tattoo will beat at nine in the evening, when 
^very soldier will retire to his quarters for the night. 

The drums of the police will always beat the Drum- 
mer's Call sixteen minutes before the time of the re- 
spective beats, when all the drums of each regiment 
will assemble at the colours of the regiment, from 
whence they will beat along the front of their re- 
spective regiments to the right, from thence to the 
left, and back to the center. The beat will always 
<x)mmence with the regiment on the right. 

There will be detailed for duty daily from each 
regiment, in the respective brigades, a quarter, or 
•camp guard, to consist of one subaltern, two ser- 
geants, four corporals, and forty men, which will fur- 
nish a cordon of sentinels around the camp. There 
will be also, in like manner, detailed for daily duty, a 
picket guard from the brigade, to consist of one cap- 
tain, two subalterns, four sergeants, eight corporaJs 
and eighty privates, from which an outer Une of sen- 
tinels will be placed at the distance of two or three 
hundred yards from the inner line* or cordon. 



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262 MILITARY REQ ULAT10N8. 

A field ofiBcer will be appointed each day as officer 
of the day, whose duty it will be to visit the guards 
by night and by day, and to report their conduct and 
all other occurrences the following morning to the 
commanding general of the brigade, who will trans- 
mit the same to the headquarters of the district. 

All guards will be relieved at seven in the morn- 
ing. 

An officer from each brigade will attend at the 
office of the Adjutant-General of the district, each 
day at noon, for orders. 

Muster roUs and inspection returns of each brigade 
must be immediately made, agreeably to a form 
which will be furnished by the acting Inspector-Gen- 
eral of the district. 

The commanding general earnestly recommends 
to the militia officers now in service, the establish- 
ment in each brigade of a military school, for the 
instruction of officers in the common drill : and if 
they have not officers of their own corps sufficiently 
qualified for teachers, to employ them from other 
corps. 

By order of Maj.-Q«n. M. Lewis.* 
Thomas Chrystie, 
Assistant Adjutant-Ofneral. 

* For sketch of the services of Qeneral Lewis in the Revolu- 
tionary War see Schuyler's ** History of New York State Society 
of The Cincinnati." For some account of his services in the 
War of 181d see Lossing's " Field.Book of the War of 181d." 

A sketch of the public life of Gleneral Lewis is in " Street's 
New York Council of Revision.*' 

So many of his descendants ai'e among us that the following- 
will be interesting to the public 



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ABMINQ TEE MlLIllA.^ 265 

Gten. Joseph G. Swift was appointed Inspec- 
tor-General of the whole force and was virtually in 
command of the defences of the city, he having to 
supervise everything, not only the construction of 
the defences around New York and their arma- 
ment, but the providing of commissary and med- 
ical supplies. 

The following supplies were furnished to the fol- 
lowing commands by the State of New York, 
through (General Stevens, from August 30th to 
October 6th, 1814 : 

MU8KBT8. ACOOITTRBHBNTS. 

General Hermance. . 1,189 1,074 

" Haight.... 1,787 1,769 

'* Van Orden 866 872 

'' Johnson . . 766 766 



Maj.-Cten. Morgan Lewis [second son of FraiiC's and Elizabeth 
(Annesly) Lewis], b N. Y. City, October 16, 1754; d N. Y. 
City, April 7, 1844 : m at Clermont, Columbia County, N. Y«, 
May 11, 1779, Gertrude Livingston [daughter of Judge 
Robert R. and Margaret (Beekman) Livingston]; b at Cler- 
mont, April 16, 1757 ; d N. Y. City, March 9, 1888, and had 
an only child. 

Margaret Lewis, b at Clermont, Columbia County, N. Y., 
February 5, 1780 ; d at Staatsburgh, Dutchess County, 
N. Y., September 28, 1860; m at Staatsburg, May 29, 
1798, Maturin Livingston [son of Robert James and 
Susanna (Smith) Livingston]; b. N. Y. City, April 10, 
1769; d N. Y. City, November 7, 1847, and had twelve 
children. 

1. Morgan Lewis Livingston, b at Staatsburg, N. Y., 
April 8, 1799; d N. Y. City, November 8, 1869; 
ra, N. Y. City, March 80, 1829, Catherine Manning 
[daughter of James and Elizabeth (Storm) Man- 



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264 CALL UPON NBW JERSEY. 

HUSKBTS. ACOOUTRBMBNTS. 

^neral Swartwout 339 339 

'' Boyd...... 54 54— 30 rifles. 

" Steddiford. 807 

" Mapes .... 1,223 

'• Morton ... 220 

Sea Foncibles 473 473 

Liieut.-Col. Warner. 23 pistols. 

Major-Gteneral Lewis, by letter dated August 
80th, addressed to (Governor Pennington of New 
-Jersey, required the whole of the New Jersey State 
quota of five thousand militia to assemble in the 
vicinity of New York. The commander of the 
Fourth Military District, Major-Gleneral Bloomfield, 
made claim that General Ebenezer Elmer's brigade 
■of about two thousand of the New Jersey militia 
^should be furnished for the defence of Philadelphia 

ning ;] b N. Y. City, January 18, 1809 ; d N. Y. City, 
April 27, 1888, and had issue, 

2. Julia Livingston, b at Staatsburg, N. Y., September 
15, 1801 ; d at Grasmere, near Rhinebeck, N. Y., 
June 28, 1882 ; m, N. Y. City, December 12, 1888- 
Maj. Joseph Delafleld [son of John and Ann (Hal, 
lett) Delafleld ; b N. Y. City, August 22. 1790; d 
N. Y. City. February 12, 1875, and had three sons 
and one daughter. One of the sons, Joseph, died 
in infancy. 

8. Alfred Livingston, b at Staatsburgh, N. Y., June 80, 
1808 ; d without issue at Staatsburgh, January 8, 
1855. 

4. Gertrude Laura Livingston, b at Staatsburgh, N.Y., 
October 9, 1805 ; d at Hopeland, near Rhinebeck, 
N. Y., February 7, 1888 ; m, N. Y., October 24, 1826. 
Major Rawlins Lowndes [son of Thomas and Sarah 
Bond (Ion) Lowndes, of South Carolina] ; b South 



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OBN. ELMERS BRIGADE. 265 

and the Delaware River. The Governor of New 
Jersey referred the decision of the question as to 
Gteneral Elmer^s brigade to the Secretary of War. 
This brigade was subsequently ordered to the com- 
mand of the Fourth District for the protection of 
Philadelphia. 

Under the order of August 12th the following 
number of men were required to be furnished in ' 
addition to the volunteers in the several coimties of 
New Jersey, officers included, to fill the quota of 

five thousand. 

Drafts. Vols. 
Biurlington 435 — 

Gloucester 410 — 

Cumberland 291 — 

Salem 195 71 

<3ape May 72 — 

Carolina, September 1, 1801 ; d at Hcpeland, N.T., 
August 10, 1877, and bad issue. 

6. Mortimer Livingston, b N. Y. City. December 1, 1807; 
d Staten Island, N. Y., August 24, 1857; m, N. Y. 
City, May 11, 1839, Silvia De Grasse Depau 
[daughter of Francis and Silvie Maxime (De Grasse) 
Depau] ; and bad an only cbild. 

6. Susan Mary Elizabeth Livingston, b at Staatsburgh, 
N. Y., November 29, 1809 ; d N. Y. City, February 
30, 1875; m at Staatsburgh, N. Y., October 80, 
1888, William Price Lowndes [son of Thomas and 
. Sarah Bond (Ion) Lowndes, of South Carolina] 
b South Carolina, September 21, 1806; d Morris- 
town, N. J., February 2, 1887, and bad four chil- 
dren. 

.7. Robert James Livingston, b at Staatsburgh, N. Y., 
December 11, 1811 ; d N. Y. City, February 22, 
1891 ; m, N. Y. City, October 22, 1838, Louisa Ma- 



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266 VOLUNIEEB C0MPANIB8 

Drafts. Vols. 
Bergen 202 14 

Essex 312 279 

Morris 185 105 

Middlesex 210 85 

Monmouth 399 — 

Somerset 124 158 

Hunterdon 417 87 

Sussex 598 32 

Gk)vemor Pennington issued the following order : 

Hj:ad-Quartebs, 
Tbbnton, N. J., Aug. 31, 1814. " 

In consequence of a requisition made by Major- 
Gteneral Lewis, commanding general of Third 
Military District, the Commander-in-chief orders 
the following volunteer companies to fmarch 
immediately under the orders of their respective 

tilda Storm [daughter of Qarrett and Susan 
(Gk>uverneur) Storm]; b N. T. City, Bfarch 10, 
1810 ; d Long Branch, N. J., May $0, 1888« and had 
two children. 

8. Lewis Livingston, b Staatsburgh, K. Y., March 16, 
ISU; d atOrasmere, near Rhinebeck, N. Y., April 
14, 1886; m. N. Y. City, January 18, 1848, Julia 
Augusta Boggs [daughter of James and Sarah 
Lloyd (Broome) Boggs] ; b N. Y» City, November 
16, 1817; d at Grasmere,|November 24, 1884, >nd 
had two sons. 

0. Maturin Livingston, b Staatsburgh, N. Y., March 4, 
1816 ; d N. Y. City, November 39, 1888 ; m, Novem^ 
her 13, 1853, at Taunton, Mass., Ruth Baylies 
[daughter of Edmund and Elizabeth (Payson) Bay- 
lies], and had two daughters. 
10. Henry Beekman Livingston, b Staatsburgh, N. Y., 
January 30, 1818; d Novembers?, 1861, at Tivoli^. 



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, ORDERED TO NEW TORE. 267 

commanders to Powles' Hook, opposite the city 
•of New York: 

Captain Kilbum, Artillery, from Orange. 
Captain Harrison, Rifle, from Orange. 
Captain Lindsley, Rifle, from Essex. 
Captain Mitchell, Rangers, from Paterson. 
Captain Crane, Rifle, from Caldwell. 
Captain Ball, Light Infantry, from Bloomfield. 
Captain Halliday, Rangers, from Morristown. 
Captain Carter, Rifle,'from Battlehill. 
Captain Brittin, IMsiliers, from Chatham.' 
Captain Fair, Light Infantry, from Hackensack. 
Captain Garrison, Infantry, from Salem. 
Captain Brees, Light Infantry, Baskingbridge. 
Captain McKessack, Rifle, from Somerset. 
Captain Fell, Light Infantry, from New Hampton. 
Captain Donlevy, Rangers, from Belvidere. 
Captain Nelson, Artillery, from New Brunswick. 

N. T.; m, October 9, 1844, Mary Leila LivingstoQ 
[daughter of John Swift and Anna (Thompson) 
Livingston] ; d N. T. City, April 14,.1888, and had 
issue.* 

11. Margaret Angelica Livingston, b Staatsburgh, N. Y., 

March 16, 1820; m N. Y. City, December 10, 1845, 
Alexander Hamilton, Jr. [only son of James A. 
and Mary (Morris) Hamilton]; d at Nevis, near 
Irvington, N. Y., December 80, 1889, and had issue, 
who died in infancy. 

12. Blanche Geraldine Livingston, b at Staatsburgh, N.Y., 

, 1822; m, , September 6, 

1842, Lydig M. Hoyt [son of Goold and Sabina 

(Sheaflf) Hoyt; b New York City, , 1821 ; 

d at Staatsburgh, N. Y., , 1868, and 

had issue. 



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268 iJV- LAMP AT JBB8B7 CITY, 

Captain Vandycke, Horse Artillery, New Bruns- 
wick. 

Captain Scott, Light Infantry, New Brunswick. 

Captain MacKay, Rifle, New Brunswick. 
And will hold themselves in readiness to march 
to the same place as soon as they receive orders for 
that purpose from Brigadier-General Colfax.* 

Brigadier-Gteneral Colfax will immediately repair 
to Powles' Hook and take command of the whole 
and give the necessary orders for drawing out the 
remainder of the brigade assigned him by orders of 
the 12th inst. as soon as the detailed militia under 
said order shall be inspected in the respective coun- 
ties who are ordered into immediate service. As^ 
soon as inspected they will be formed into regi- 
ments at Powles' Hook, agreeable to the orders of 
the 12th inst. * ♦ # # 

Camp equipage to be removed from Newark. 
By order of Commander-in-chief. 

James J. Wilson, 
Adjutant-Oeneral. 

When these arrived at Powles' Hook (Jersey 
City) they were placed under command of Col. 
John W. Frelinghuysen, and consisted of twenty- 
three companies at that station. 

* General Colfax wa8 a veteran of the Revolution, having been 
Commander of Qeneral Washington's body guard. 



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CHAPTER XXXVn. 

Financial Situation in the Nation and in the City — Failure of 
the Attempt to Obtain Loans for the Nation— Suspension 
of Specie Payments— Resolutions and Regulations by City 
Banks— The City Issues Fractional Currency. 



'HE loan obtained by the city of one mil- 
lion dollars was a heavy one for the 
times and circumstances, and this, too, 
without discount or delay. It was in 
hope of future reimbursement to the 
city by the State and nation, but this 
did not enter into the consideration or 
security on the part of the subscribers. On their 
part it was self-preservation, and patriotism and 
pride. 

A large part of the twenty-five million loan of 
March 24th (already mentioned in Chapter XXVI.), 
had not yet been obtained by the National Govern- 
ment. The issue of United States Treasury notes 
and their use as currency made money plenty and 
prices high, as previously shown (Ante, p. 73). 
Those that had subscribed for the national loan had 
found it very difficult to meet their terms of pay- 
ment, and it was certain that Mr. Gallatin, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, had granted some of 
them indulgence on the time of payment of in- 
stallments. 



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270 FINANCIAL SITUATION. 

On the 17th of May, 1814, Jacob Barkei: wrote to 
Gteneral Armstrong, then Secretary of War: 

** The success of the allies and the general block- 
ade operate very much against the loan : so diffi- 
cult is it to raise money that Mr. Parish told me it 
was impossible to raise a single $100,000 in Phila- 
adelphia on a deposit of United States stock. A 
Mr. Williams, a director in one of the banks at Bal- 
timore, and Mr. Lawrence, a director in the Man- 
hattan Bank, went to Boston to borrow money for 
these banks, and, although they offered to deposit 
United States stock at fifty per cent and the secur- 
ity of their banks, that they could not get a single 
$100,000." 

It was publicly stated that Mr. Barker had failed 
to make his payments promptly to the government. 
This was denied by Mr. Barker, however. 

The National Government was greatly in need of 
money. Its sources of revenue had not yielded as 
much as had been expected, while its expen- 
diture had been much more than had been antic- 
ipated. 

It was stated that the government loan for six 
milUon would be taken in Europe. This was not 
believed, however. 

The additional issue of five million in Treasury 
notes was also completed as allowed under the act 
of March 24th, making in all ten million of Treasury 
notes outstanding under this act. 

The banks of New York City greatly curtailed 
discounts for merc)iants. It was claimed that it 
was because of British Government bills to the 



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CALL FOB ZX)Ajm. 271 

AmouQ^tof cue hundred tbouaajid poiud8 sterling 
iiad been taken and paid for in specie. 

In July it was stated in the public jotumals that 
the citiee in the United States were flooded with 
Britash Ooyemment bills ofEered at ten and oue- 
haJf per cent discount. A JSew York newspapeor 
aaid that the amount offered in that -city was one 
hundred thousand pounds sterling ($500,000)^ and 
asked how they were to be paid for but by drawing 
the specie out of the banks^ 

Specie was becoming in very great demand and at a. 
premium. On the evening of 24th August a meeting 
of some merchants was held pursuant to pubUahed 
notice for the purpose oi m^ng the banks in the 
city to take some action to prevent specie beiiJ^g 
flent out of the country. A committee of seven 
was appointed to confer with the bank officers upon 
the subject. A meeting of the officers of the city 
banks was held next day to meet the committee of 
merchants and traders, and it was declared by the 
bank officers that there was no reason for the siis- 
pension of specie payments. It was, in fact, a feeling 
of pride on the part of the city banks not to be the 
first to suspend specie payment, for up to that time all 
banks in the United States still continued specie pay- 
ment in the redemption of their own issues of bills. 

Only two of the New York City banks would 
haindle Treasury notes in any manner. 

On July 26, 1814, the government advertised for 
offers for a loan of six million dollars, part of the 
twenty-five million loan of March 24th, to be closed 
<m August 22, 1814. 



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272 SPECIE PAYMENT SUSPENDED. 

No offers for this loan was made up to the latter 
date^ on account of the proximity of the enemy and 
of the military situation. 

The British forces entered Washington on the 24th 
of August. The banks of Philadelphia and all others 
south of that city suspended specie payment at 
once. The banks of Philadelphia did not formally 
suspend until August 31st. 

When the news arrived that the banks of Phila- 
delphia and all those south of that city had sus- 
pended, a meeting of the bank ofBcers of this city 
immediately took place and appointed a committee 
to act in the matter. 

A meeting of the joint committee from all the 
banks in the city of New York took place. WiUiam 
Few was appointed chairman and Charles Wilkes 
secretary. Letters from the cashiers of several banks 
in Philadelphia, and from other unquestionable 
authority were read, stating that all the banks in 
Philadelphia, had come to a resolution to suspend 
payments in specie, whereupon the following reso- 
lution and preamble were agreed to : 

'' Considering that the banks in Philadelphia have 
determined to suspend their payments of specie; and, 

^' Considering that it cannot be doubted that such 
suspension of payment in Philadelphia will be fol- 
lowed by an increased demand on the banks here, 
and probably a diminished confidence ; and, further, 
that there is a considerable balance now due, and 
accumulating from the banks in Philadelphia to the 
banks in this city, therefore ; 

*' Resolved,'' That the banksjin[the^ city of New 



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BANK REGULATIONS. 275 

York, with the utmost regret, find it necessary to 
suspend their payments in specie. 

*' William Few, Chairman, 
Charles Wilkes, Secretary ^ 
A meeting of merchants and traders at the Tontine 
Coflfee House, on the 1st September, 1814, was held. 
Gten. Ebenezer Stevens was called to the chair, 
and WiUiam Henderson was appointed secretary. 

The chairman read a communication which he^ 
had received from the chairman of the joint^com- 
mittee of the banks, as follows : 

''New York, Sept. 1st, 1814. 
''Sir — I am desired by the committees of the sev- 
eral banks in this city to communicate to you for the^ 
information of the meeting at which you preside,, 
that they have come to the following resolutions : 

" That the banks in this city will continue to take^ 
the notes of each other in all payments. 

" That, having always considered the payment of 
specie as forming a salutary and a principal check 
to an undue emission of notes ; and that check 
being, by the unfortunate situation of affairs, for the 
present removed, they have agreed, unanimously, 

"To adopt such measures as will effectually, in 
their opinion, prevent an improper increase of the 
circulation of bank paper. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"W. Few, Chairman:''' 

* William Fbw, one of the most eminent and prominent citi- 
zens of New York, was a veteran militia ofBcer, having servei) 



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S74 BANK BEQULATI0N8. 

The following resolutions were then unanimoody 
adopted : 

' ^ Besdvedj That while this meeting regi'et the cir- 
cumstances that have obl^ed the banks to suspend 
their payments in specie, they fully concur in the 
necessity of that measure. 

^' That the confidence of this meeting in the stabil- 
ity of the banks remains undiminished, and that 
relying on the prudence of the directors to restrain 
their loans within safe limits, they will by every 
proper means, uphold the credit and assist the cir- 
culation of their notes. 

" That they will continue to receive the notes of 

4M a Colonel of Militia in Oeofrg^ in the Revoluttooary War, 
and distinguished himself there in several actions with the 
British and Indians. He settled in Oeorgia in 1776v and in 1780 
was a dele^te to Congress, and remained such until the peace 
of 1788. In 1786 he was again a member of Congress, and was 
jtlso a member of the Convention that framed the Federal Con- 
stitution in 1787, which he signed. On its adoption he was 
•chosen a United States Senator from Georgia until March, 1798. 
He held many positions of importance in Georgia. In July. 
1799, he removed to New York City, and was a member of the 
State Assembly in January, 1802. New York City was at thai 
time represented by some of its most respected and eminent 
•citizens, among whom were Philip T» Aroularius, John Broome, 
Thomas Farmar, Brockholst Livingston, Samuel Osgood, Henry 
Rutgers, Thomas Storm and others, who subsequently became 
prominent in life. He continued a member until 1806. He was 
State Prison Inspector in 1802, and again in 1811. He was 
always prominent and influential in financial circles in New 
York City, and was a director in the Manhattan Company for 
many years. He was a lawyer by profession, but never prac- 
ticed in New York. He was Alderman in 1814 and 1816. He 
was a director in the first Savings Bank ever established in this 
<oity, in 1816. Died at Flshkil], N. Y., in 1828. 



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BANK REGULATIONS. 276 

the banks of this dty in all payments as hereto- 
fore. 

'^ That at a period when the specie in the conntrj 
is gradoallj lessenii^, and by the embarrassments 
of our commerce the usual means of supply are cut 
off, it appears to this meeting expedient to diminish 
by every proper method the export of specie, and to 
husband our resources in the hope, that at no dis- 
tant period, the banks will be able to resume their 
payment of specie — ^therefore, 

*'jBe«oZrect, That we will avoid all negotiations 
which may render specie payments necessary, and 
by every means in our power discourage the expor- 
tation thereof. 

'^ Besolvedy That the proceedings of the meeting 
be signed by the chairman and secretary and pub- 
lished.*' 

Resolutions were adopted by the bank officers that 
the banks would keep an interest account each with 
the others, and that the debtor banks should pay 
interest monthly. That no bank should increase its 
loans except when bound to loan to the State govern- 
ment, or by general consent of all the banks. That 
the debtor banks should reduce their discounts 
whenever it should be recommended by the general 
committee. 

The nominally specie-paying banks of the East- 
em States had been constantly withdrawing their 
bills from circulation for some time previous, and 
specie was at a premium, dealing principally with 
the bills of the banks of other States and foreign bills, 
and as they had practically no bills put, no 



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376 ^^W^ YORK CITY 

suspension of specie payment was necessary by 
them. They did not pay specie because no demand 
was against them for it. 

Under this state of affairs suspension of specie 
payments practically extended throughout the 
United States. 

The suspension of specie payment by the banks 
necessarily made small change in coin scarce by its 
being withdrawn from general circulation. Great 
inconvenience was felt from this source, as no bank 
currency was for less than one dollar. 

The Common "Council of New York City took 
measures to reUeve this inconvenience as much as 
possible. On the 2d of September, 1814, an ordi- 
nance was passed by them authorizing the finance 
committee of the Common Council to issue smaU 
notes not to exceed twelve and one-half cents each 
to the amount of $5,000. On September 12th 
twenty-five and fifty-cent bills, not to exceed $20,- 
000 more, were authorized, and on November 21st 
$50,000 more was authorized. They were coarsely 
engraved on wood and .were printed with common 
type on bank bill*paper and were about four inches 
long by two and a half inches wide. The mot- 
toes of '^Keep Within Compass," ''Mind Your 
Own Business," ''Never Despair," "Mobilitate 
Viget," were on many of them the same as 
on the Continental paper money, and were 
said to be placed there at the instance of John 
Pintard. 

They were printed by F. and W. Mercein, 98 
Gold Street. The various denominations were in 



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ISSUES FRACTIONAL CURRENCY. 277 

cents as follows : One, four, six, nine, twelve and 
one half, twenty-five and fifty. 

They were issued when required and a record 
kept of the number, but none of them had a num- 
ber upon it. The first issue was about the middle 
of September. 

All the various specimens I have seen of this cur- 
rency bear date on the 26th of December, 1814, 
signed by John Pintard. Some of other dates were 
signed by Thomas Franklin and William McNeal, 
respectively. The signatiu'es were engraved. 

The notes read as follows : 

**The Corporation of the City of New York 
promise to pay the bearer on demand (four) cents. 
New York (December 26th, 1814). 

*^By order of the Corporation. 

*'J. Pintard." 

Those dated December 26, 1814, for four cents, 
contained on the back of it an engraving of Ful- 
ton's steam iron-clad war frigate and the motto 
" Mobilitate Viget." Those for six cents contained 
a sun dial and the motto, "Fugio," '^Mind Your 
Own Business." Those for nine cents contained a 
circle and compass and the motto '*Keep Within 
Compass." Those for twelve and one-half cents 
contained Hope sitting against a rock with chain 
and anchor in hand, and the motto ^^ Never De- 
spair." 

This measure not only had the advantage of be- 
ing for the convenience of citizens, but also in the 
nature of a loan without interest, and no specified 
time of payment or redemption. 



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CHAPTEE XXXVm. 

Dang^Es of Invasion on the Frontiers — ^Adniira] Cochrane 
Threatens — Large Naval Force of the Enemy — Almost a 
Panic in the City— Mayor Clinton's Charge to the Grand 
Jury — Words of Eaoouragement— Recommends an Adjourn- 
ment of the Court—- Resolution of Approval hy the Grand 
Jury — United for Defence— Negotiations (or Peace. 

f PTER Gk)vemor Tompkins' order of August 
4th, calling on the militia to be ready for 
the^ defence of New York City, had been 
issued, affairs on the Ni^ara frontier, near 
Buffalo, became more critical by the siege 
of Fort Erie. Governor Tompkins, feeling that he 
should not leave New York, dispatched one of his 
aids. Col. John B. Yates, to Buffalo to confer with 
the principal officers there as to the needs and neces- 
sity of a larger force for defence. In the mean time,. 
General Izard, who had command of the army on 
the northern frontier of New York, had notified 
Gtjvemor Tompkins of his (General Izard's) ordered 
withdrawal of a large part of his forces, consisting of 
about four thousand men, from the Champlain fron- 
tier, by. direction of the Secretary of War. 

The destination of General Izard's army was kept 
a profound secret. He marched to Schenectady 
and as far as Johnstown, Montgomery County, 
at which place he was on the 10th day of September. 
It was surmised that his destination was either 



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INVASION FROM CANADA. 279 

Obw^;o or Sackett's HaTbor, or the Kiagava frontier, 
an of which were in imn^ent danger of the enem j.. 
Transportation by water to the Niagara frontier (xmld 
be made from either Oswego or Sackett's Harbor. 

The defence of the Cham|dain frontier was there- 
by left to the raw mdUtia and a force of between two 
and three thousand men under General Macomb to 
protect Captain Macdonough's squadron on the lake 
and the fortifications and miUtary stores on land ai 
Plattsburgh. The country to the west and north of 
Plattsburgh to Champlain and Chateaugay were ex- 
posed to the enemy that was then in force near the 
border. This intelligence did not arrive in New York 
untQ after the capture of Washington. 

The movements of the enemy near Lake Cham- 
plain was of more significance to New York City 
and the nation than would at first appear. Gov- 
ernor Tompkins was more thoughtful of the im- 
portance of this point than was the Secretary of 
War, when he ordered the withdrawal of General 
Izard's army from Lake Champlain. 

Little or no aid could be expected from Vermont. 
Governor Chittenden had in November previous 
issued a proclamation recalling all the Vermont 
miUtia from service in New York State, and in 
January had directed Major-General Chipman to 
hold his forces in readiness *'to march at the 
shortest notice to such point or place as they be 
^hrected for the defence of this State (Vermont) 
against any invasion which may be attempted by 
the enemies of our country. " 

This meant self-defence and nothing more. 



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280 PLAN OF ATTACK. 

The authority displayed by Governor Tompkins 
over the militia, at that time for the defence of 
that neighborhood was all that a military com- 
mander-in-chief or dictator could exercise. The 
Governor in his message subsequently explained 
the situation at that time as follows : 

*' From information received and corroborated by 
the movements of the enemy there was sufficient 
grounds of beUef that one great object of his cam- 
paign was to penetrate with his northern army by 
the waters of Lake Champlain and the Hudson, and 
by a simultaneous attack with his maritime forces 
on New York, to form a junction which should sever 
the communication of the States. To defeat this 
arrogant design, to save the State from inroad, and 
our cities from destruction, it was necessary, im- 
mediately, to exercise fuller powers and more 
ample resources than had been placed in my 
hands by the Legislature." 

Major- General Moores, of Plattsburg, was at that 
time commander of the division of militia in that 
part of the State. He was directed by Governor 
Tompkins, after the departure of General Izard, to 
call out all the militia most convenient to that part 
of the State. It would be several weeks before 
many of them could be at Plattsburg. 

All the aid that could be expected from Vermont 
was by volunteers ; no quota from Vermont had 
been ordered by the President in his call for militia 
on July 4:th. 

On the 1st of September, Governor Tompkins 
ordered a special session of the State Legislature to 
meet at Albany on September 26th. 



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INVASION BY 8EA. 281 

About the same time, Governor Pemiington 
-ordered all the State Militia of New Jersey " to be in 
readiness to march on short notice to protect every- 
thing dear to freemen," and made a lengthy and 
patriotic address on that occasion. 

On the 1st of September, the President returned 
to Washington, and, a few days later, from the 
ruins of the Capitol, issued a proclaipation giving 
pubUcity to a letter written by Admiral Cochrane 
to James Monroe, Secretary of State. 

This letter purported to have been written soon 
after Admiral Cochrane arrived in Chesapeake Bay 
with his fleet of sixty war vessels. It stated that 
he had been called upon by the Governor-General 
of the Canadas to aid him in carrying into effect 
measures of retaUation against the inhabitants of 
the United States, for the wanton destruction com- 
mitted by their army in upper Canada, and that in 
compliance therewith he should issue orders to the 
naval force under his command to destroy and lay 
waste such towns and districts on the coast as might 
be found assailable. These threats were not commu- 
nicated to the American government until after the 
capture of the city of Washington and Alexandria 
had shown the manner in which they were intended 
to be executed. The President stated that the con- 
duct of the British left no prospect of safety to any- 
thing within the reach of his predatory and incen- 
diary operations, but in a manful and united deter- 
mination to chastise and expel the invader, urging 
all the citizens of the United States to unite their 
(hearts and hands in giving effect to the ample 



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»82 DANOtR OF NEW YORK. 

mesms possessed for that purpose, enjoining all 
officers, ciril and military, to exert themselves in 
executing the duties with which they were respect- 
ively charged, and requiring the officers command- 
ing the several military districts to be vigilant and 
alert in providing for their defence, and authorizing 
them to call to the defence of threatened and ex- 
posed places portions of the militia most convenient 
th^^eto, whettier they were parts of the detached 
quota or not. 

This gave ample authority to each State to defend 
itself, independent of any action on the part of the 
national authorities, so long as they did not conflict 
or impede the latter. New York State was then in 
more imminent danger than any other portion of the 
nation, being assailed on its northern and western 
frontiers, and its seaboard liable to attack by land 
and water forces. 

The British war vessels on the American coast, or 
near it, on September 1, 1814, were officially stated 
to be as follows : 102 ships of the Hne, 146 frigates, 
96 sloops, 74 brigs and 58 schooners. 

The force was previously known to be very large 
and powerful, but the exact number as stated in the 
report was not known until a few weeks later. 

The withdrawal of nearly four thousand men un- 
der General Izard from the Champlain frontier, 
about the 28th of August, presented to the Governor- 
General of Canada the prospect of an easy conquest 
of Plattsburgh and the. little army under General 
Macomb. 

On the 1st of September the British army entered 



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MAYOR OLiNTON'S ADDRESS. 28S 

i^ territory of the United States and ooauiHed the 
village of Ofaamplain. At this time General Ma- 
comb had not an oiganiised battahon, General Izaa^d 
haying taken the flower of the army to the Lake 
frontier. The garrison was composed of the conva- 
lescents and the recruits of the new regiments, the 
ordnance and stores all in the greatest confusion^ 
and the works in no state ot defence. The enemy 
kept on towards Plattsbui^ with continual skir- 
mishes with but slight embarrassment It was evi- 
dent that there the British fleet on the lake would 
join the land forces in any attack. 

Many groundless rumors of the movements of the 
enemy were in circulation, but it was evident that 
^1 felt that the worst might be near at hand. Cour- 
age was needed as much as valor and patriotism. 
Those that could inspire courage in the hearts of 
their fellow-citizens in this trying period were in- 
deed public benefactors. 

The grand jury of the city and county of New 
York convened on the 5th September. It was the 
duty of the Mayor to address them at the opening 
of the Court of Sessions. The following is the ad- 
dress of Mayor Clinton oil that occasion : 
^* Gentlemen op the Grand Jury: 

"The situation of our country renders it neces- 
sary to devote our undivided atteiition to its protec- 
tion. Duties of paramount obligation will justify 
US in adjourning this Court in order that we may, 
with our best means and to the full extent of our 
^facilities, exert ourselves for the pubhc defence. We 
^shall, therefore, Gentlemen, dispense with your 



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284 MAYOR CLINTON'S 

further attendance ; but we cannot permit this op- 
portunity to pass by without exhorting you and 
through you the great body of our fellow- citizens, 
to act with that wisdom and enei^y, with that forti- 
tude and patriotism which this most important crisis 
demands and which the most sacred and imperious 
considerations require, and surely an occasion so ex- 
traordinary will warrant a deviation from the usual 
routine of judicial proceedings without implicating 
us in a violation of oflScial decorum. Notwithstanding 
the dark cloud which hangs over our country there 
is nothing in the events which have occurred, or in 
the prospect before us, which ought to create de- 
spair if we are faithful to ourselves. The seat of 
our National Government has been taken and the 
enemy will no doubt follow up his advantages, but 
it is not here as it generally is in other countries, 
the fall of the Capitol will not produce the prostra- 
tion of the country. Its energies remain unim- 
paired, its resources in full vigor, and all that is req- 
uisite is that the spirit of the nation should ascend 
to the emergency of the pressure, and that its physi- 
cal strength should be properly arranged and skill- 
fully directed. Whatever diversity of opinion may 
exist with regard to the orginal character, of the war, 
we must all agree that it has now become, on our 
part, a war of defence. The enemy has officially 
announced his intention to destroy and lay waste 
such of our Atlantic towns and cities as are ex- 
posed to his attacks. The exactions on Alexandria 
and the smoking ruins of the national edifices at 
Washington admonish us of what we are to expect 



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PATRIOTIC APPEAL. 286 

if we shall meanly succumb or ingloriously retreat. 
In such a cause, mvolving our personal character, 
the welfare of our families, the prosperity of our 
country and the honor of the nation, it becomes us 
not to hesitate about our course. Whatever we may 
think, or whatever we may have thought of men and 
measures, whether favorably or unfavorably, there 
can be, there ought to be no difference of opinion, 
no collision of action when the safety of our coun- 
try is at stake. For her sake, for the sake of all 
that is near and dear to us, let us sacrifice upon the 
altar of patriotism every feehng, every passion, 
every prejudice, every predilection that may enfeeble 
resistance and impair exertion. For this purpose it 
is necessary, absolutely necessary, that there should 
be at least a truce to the animosities of party ; that 
we should join hand and heart in the great work of 
patriotic exertion, and that we should merge all per- 
sonal, all local, all party considerations in the great 
duties we owe to owx country. If this is done with 
zeaJ and in good faith we have nothing to appre- 
hend. This State alone can furnish two hundred 
thousand men capable of bearing arms. If but a 
portion of this force is brought into action under 
judicious guidance we can easily repel all hostile at- 
tacks, but if, instead of putting our shoulders to the 
wheel, we call upon Hercules for assistance, if we 
rely upon the energies of others and not our own, 
if, like the men of Athens, we go about enquiring 
what news ? instead of acting with vigor, and if, like 
the Jews of old, when the sacr^ city was besieged, 
we commit ourselves to the furies of civil discord, 



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2S6 PATRIOTIC APPEAL. 

instead of warring against the common enemy, ihea 
indeed will we be unworthy of the name of Ameri- 
cans and of the rights of free men ; then will the 
hand of divine vengeance be upon us, and then will 
the sun of American glory, which is now r^^udly 
descending to the horizon, set in clouds and dark- 
ness and be extinguished for ever. Let us, then, 
'exhort you, when you go from this place, to prepare 
yourselves for the crisis to come and to discipline 
yourselves for the defence of your country, and to 
encourage all within the sphere of your influenoe 
to follow your example. If any of you have 
pledged your Uves, your fortunes and your sacred 
honor in the support of the present contest, let me 
tell you it is high time you should redeem your 
pledge, and if any of you have not, let me also tell 
you that it is a sacred duty to make yourselves ready 
for the sacrifice whenever it shall become necessary. 
Besides preparing yourselves for personal services in 
the field there are other, important benefits which 
you may confer on your country. Although much 
liberality has been manifested in pecuniary contri- 
butions, yet they have been by no means propor- 
tioned to the emergency, and althou^ unprece- 
dented exertions have been made in the ei'ection of 
works of defence, yet much remains to be done. 
Exert, then, all 5'^our influence in calling forth the 
resources of our fellow-citizens for the defence of 
this city; endeavor with all yoiu* power to extin- 
guish the spirif of party in the love of country. 
When we carry on a war against a foreign foe in the 
defenqe of our firesides and our altars let us be at 



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ACTION OF THE GBAND JURY. 287 

peace among ourselves. A free nation animated by 
one mind and rising in the majesty of undivided 
strength can never become the victim of subjuga- 
tion. And it is to be ardently hoped that we shall 
repel by our conduct on this momentous occasion 
the imputations which foreign malevolence has en- 
deavored to fasten upon us, that we are a nation of 
talkers and boasters ; that we are great in profes- 
sion and small in performance, and that we are not 
able to protect our own independence. As for our- 
selves, gentlemen, we shall not attempt to amuse 
you by a parade of specious professions, which have 
become stale, unmeaning and disgusting : We are 
sensible of the importance of our duties, and with 
the blessing of heaven we shall endeavor to dis- 
charge them." 

At the close of the address the following resolu- 
tion was adopted by the Grand Jury, and presented 
to the Mayor before the Court adjourned : 

*' Resolved^ That this Grand Jury fully approve of 
the patriotic sentiments delivered to tliem at the 
opening of the Court by His Honor the Mayor, and 
that a copy of the same be requested for the purpose- 
of publication, and they also concur in opinion with 
the Court as to the propriety of an adjournment at 
the present juncture of affairs. 

Wm. Bayard, Foreman, 
Wm. Lawrence, Secretary/' 

The Grand Jury was composed of the following; 
gentlemen, viz. : 

William Bayard, foreman; Perez Jones, Willie ni* 
King, Ephraim Harty I^evi Coit^ Gideon C. Forsyth^ 






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288 NBQ0TIATI0N8 FOB PBACR. 

Evander Cbilds, James Levitt, John S. Roulet, 
Alex. Bobinson, Michael Bruen, Alex. Coffin, Jr., 
Peter R. Post, Abraham King, Nathan Sayre, Pre- 
jserved Fish, Wm. Lawrence, Naphtali Phillips. 

The Court was accordingly adjourned subject to 
being called to convene by the Mayor- 

An important element in the course of Uie 
united efforts everj- where to repel the invader was 
i;he instructions given by the President and his 
^cabinet to the United States Commissioners for 
peace negotiations on 25th and 27th June which 
had been forwarded to Ghent on 27th June. 

In a former chapter (ante p 95) we left the Amer- 
ican Peace Commissoners waiting et Ghent for the 
English Peace Commissioners in June 1814 or for 
an apology for their delay. We will now continue 
the proceedings. 

The pohtical and military situation in Europe 
were such as led to the downfall of Napoleon, and 
meant peace there, and would leave England free 
to carry on war against America without any 
other nation to interfere. Our financial and mili- 
tary affairs were very discouraging. Little or no 
progress had been made by conquest, and the at- 
tempted negotiations for peace had not been en- 
couraging. The state of affairs in Europe were 
much changed from what they were when war was 
declared. (See Vol. I. pp. 82,188.) During the two 
previous campaigns England detached no greater 
force from her continental war with Prance and 
-other European powers than what she deemed 
necessaiy to maintain her possessions in America ; 



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NEGOTIATIONS FOR PBAOE. 289 

in fact it was of a defensive character here. With 
Napoleon's abdication on 5th of April, 18 14, and the 
Bourbons restored to the throne of France and 
Spain, and peace reigning in Europe, and all 
nations regarding England as the one great power to 
whom all must look up to, she had evidently deter- 
mined to open the campaign in America on an ex- 
tended scale. She had on hand numerous and well 
appointed fleets and armies, the oflScers of which 
dreaded a peace establishment and were anxious to 
distinguish themselves on the theatre of the Amer- 
ican war, and retrieve the honor their country had 
lost in their naval contests with American vessels. 

In the month of June, authentic intelligence was 
received that large reinforcements from the British 
fleets and armies which had been engaged in the 
European contests were proceeding to America. 
This intelligence necessarily changed the objects of 
the American government in relation to the war. 
All views of Canadian invasion and conquest 
were laid aside and a defensive attitude at once 
taken. 

These changes in Europe and the affairs and feel- 
ings at home induced the President and his cabinet 
on the 25th of June, 1814, to revise their instruc- 
tions of 15th April, 1813, and 28th January, 1814, 
and transmit to their envoys others of a different 
character, almost without any demand, and more in 
favor of peace adapted to the crisis. These were 
published and forwarded to the commissioners for 
concessions. 



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1- 



290 OFFERS FOR PEACE. 

These instructions authorized them to waive if 
necessary every point for which the war was com- 
menced. 

It was claimed that with peace in Europe none 
of the causes of the diflScidties could arise or be 
continued by any of the European nations. 

The new shipping laws of the United States, 
would also tend to prevent like occurrences. (See 
^ Vol. I. pp. 399, 410, 411, 412.) 

On the 11th August, 1814, our envoys were in- 
structed by letter that the United States Govern- 
ment would go no further than as stated in instruc- 
tions of June 25th and 27th "because it will make 
no sacrifice of the rights or honor of the nfition." 

" If Great Britain does not terminate the war on 
the conditions which you are authorized to adopt, 
she has other objects in it than these for which she 
has hitherto professed to contend. 2?uU such are 
entertained^ there is much reason to presume. Those, 
whatever they may be must and unit be resisted by 
the United States. The conflict may be severe, but 
it will be borne with firmness, and, we confidently 
believe, be attended with success. '' 

This appeal was to the patriotism and courage of 
every individual. 

After nearly three months had elapsed since these 
instructions had first been sent to our envoys at 
Ghent nothing had yet been heard of the arrival 
there of the British Commissioners with whom it 
was expected that a meeting had been held near the 
end of June. Whatever doubts were entertained 



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PROSPECTS OF PRAOB. 291 

as to the intention of Great Britain in regard 
to the war in America they were soon dispelled by 
the extensive military movements and operations 
of her armies and the conduct of their comman- 
ders. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX. 

The Situation— City Officials Sent to Washington —Workers on the 
Fortifications — Tammany Society — Cannon Loaned the City by 
John Jacob Astor and Others — The Privateer €kneral Arm- 
itrong Sails — Capt. Samuel C. Reid. 



HILE the enemy were closing in for 
' an invasion, both by sea and land, 
th.e inhabitants were alive to the 
importance for great and united ef- 
forts for the protection of the most 
threatened points. The enemy had 
made no secret of their intended 
campaigns against various points in the United 
States. They were boastful of their intentions. In 
June the Quebec and Montreal newspapers an- 
nounced a plan of the campaign for 1814, as then 
agreed upon. It had become apparent that it was 
being followed. The danger must be kept before 
the people to urge them to continued exertion. 

With all the money. that had been asked for at 
their disposal, the committee of defence wished to 
remind citizens that it was still necessary not to 
allow their zeal to abate. The following notice was 
published on August 30th : 



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VOLUNTEER W0RKSB8. 293 

**Nbw York, August 29, 1814. 

^' As the state of our affairs has become more 
alarming, the Committee of Def Mice are solicitous 
to urge on the completion of the works of defence. 
They will, therefore, enlarge their working parties^ 
particularly at Harlem, and gladly receive the 
offers of servicee from companies of their pakiotic 
fellow-citizens for that place and Brooklyn. 

^'Nicholas Fish, 
'' Chairman.'^ 

The Common Coimcil committee of defence sent 
Messrs. E. W. King and J. W. Brackett, of the Com- 
mon Council, to Washington to confer with the 
national authorities as to how the money should 
be expended upon the fortifications. As it was 
ultimately to be refunded by the general govern- 
ment, this was necessary, so as to avoid any ques- 
tion about it in the future. In the meantime the 
works were being constructed. The moonlight 
workers before mentioned met at moonrise on the 
evening of the 30th August, and proceeded under 
Major Hunter, in a body six hundred strong, to 
Brooklyn Heights, and worked until sunrise on the 
31st. They were followed a few hours later by 
Tammany Society. The following account is from 
the NationcU Advocate of September 1st : 

** At five in the morning yesterday the members 
of Tammany Society began to gather in front of their 
hall, to work on the defences at Brooklyn. At six 
o'clock the society being formed to the number of 
1,500, and the Columbian Society to the number 
of two hrmdred, marched four abreast, preceded by 



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294 VOLUNTBBR WORKERS 

a band, to Beekman slip to take the steam feiry to 
Brooklyn. As not all of them could be carried at 
one time, the remainder marched off to Catharine s|ip 
and took the horse boat to Brooklyn, where they 
worked with diligence and activity until half-past 
five o'clock, when work was discontinued, the line of 
march was formed, and they returned to New York 
in the same order that they had in the morning de- 
parted. They marched to Tammany Hall and 
were disbanded. After three cheers each man re- 
tired to his home. 

** We must not omit to state that the whole of the 
provisions and liquor for this great body of men 
was provided by the liberality of Mr. Matthew L. 
Davis, president of Tammany Society.'* 

Some of the other newspapers stated that Tam- 
many had only turned out one thousand men and 
the Columbian Society one hundred and fifty men 
on that occasion. The labor was performed at Fort 
Green. 

The names of the committee of the Columbian 
Society were James S. Martin, Abraham Rich, R 
Cunningham and Thomas Jeremiah. 

The Masons of New York city gave a day's ser- 
vice at Brooklyn on Ist September. They were then 
very popular and numerous in the city of New York. 
De Witt CUnton was the Grand Master of the Grand 
Lodge of the State. The lodges assembled at 
sunrise in front of city hall and with Mayor Clinton 
at their head, about one thousand in number, pro- 
ceeded in Masonic form of procession to the scene of 
labor. Their work was done principally at what 



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ON THE FORTIFICATIONS. 295 

was afterwards called Fort Masonic, in honor of those 
who labored in its construction. Each lodge 
provided its own refreshments. Other Masonic 
lodges co-operated. 

On this occasion an elderly gentleman, one of the 
order (I could not ascertain his name), who had two 
sons (his only children) in the service of his country, 
one of them highly distinguished during the war for 
his wounds and his bravery, sung the following 
•stanzas while the lodges were at refreshment : 
^' Hail children of light whom the charities send. 
Where the bloodhounds of Britain are shortly 
expected. 
Who, your country, your wives, your firesides to 
defend, 
On the summit of Brooklyn have ramparts 
erected. 

Firm and true to the trade, 
Continue your aid 
Till the topstone with shouting triumphant is laid. 
The Free and Accepted will never despair, 
Led on by their worthy Grand Master and Mayor. 

^* For me whose dismisss^l must shortly arrive. 
To heaven I prefer this my fervent petition, 
May I never America's freedom survive. 
Nor behold her disgraced by a shameful sub- 
mission. 

And though righteously steeled. 
If at last she must yield, 
May my sons do their duty, and die in the field. 
But the Free and Accepted will never despair. 
Led on by their worthy Grand Master ar d Mayor." 



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VOLUNTBSR WORKERS, 



On the same day the Hamilton Society, on its 
fifth anniversary, worked at Harlem Heights. 
Dinner was provided on the grounds free of expense. 

A notice was published on 3d September stating 
that on and after September 5th, dinner for the 
workers at Harlem Heights would be on the table 
at twelve o'clock. The expense was met by contribu. 
tions by the citiisens. 

The students of Columbia College, one hundred 
strong, worked at Harlem on the 8th September. 
The Iron Greys worked on the 10th September. 

The volunteer workers at Harlem became so few, 
and the steamboat took so long, that the boat ceased 
to run there on ^e 10th September ; this, of course, 
greatly lessened the attendance. Brooklyn was sa 
near that nearly all the volunteer laborers went 
there. 

The fortifications were rapidly approarching com- 
pletion. On 31st August it was reported that 
McGowan's Pass was nearly completed. On Sep- 
tember 3d Fort Green was so far completed that Com- 
modore Decatur took command there. Fort Swift 
was finished and Fort Lawrence was nearly done. 

By the middle of September Fort Green had 800 
feet of barracks, two-thirds with double rooms, 
nearly ready for troops, and it would soon be con- 
nected with a chain of redoubts and intrenchments 
to Fort Swift and to Washington Bastion, on the 
Jamaica road (Fulton street), near Court street. 

On September 14th the following questions relat- 
ing to the situation at New York were published in 
the Ncdional Advocate : 



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CQN8WBRA TION OF DBFRNGB8. 297 

'^ What would have been the advantage of a line 
of telegraph from the Patnxent to Washington, 
when the enemy landed and took up his line of 
march for that city ? 

"What would be the consequence if the enemy 
should proceed up the Sound and arrive at Throgg's- 
Neck before any alarm should be given ? Is it prac- 
ticable ? K so, why not have a line of tel^raj^ as 
far as New London ? Why not have tar barrels for 
alarm on all the neighboring heights to call all the 
country en masae when necessary ? Will or will not 
vidett^ cost more than telegraphs ? Is it not of great 
importance to get information as rapidly as possi- 
ble ? 

" Would it not be of the utmost consequence that 
the commanding generals of New York and Phila- 
delphia should have an arrangement for the pur- 
pose of succoring each city in case of an attack ? 
Could not wagons and horses in each city be classed 
and numbered for the purpose of transporting an 
army of five thousand men in haste from city to city? 

*^ Would it not be well to have aU the horses and 
w£^on8 on the two great roads between Philadel- 
phia and New York numbered to serve as relays ?* 
And telegraphs erected so as to notify the cities in 
ten minutes of the approach of the enemy ? 

"Would it not be well to turn the light-house at- 
Sandy Hook into a tower immediately and finish* 
the block houses at said place ? Is it not absolutely 
necessary to have more boats at the Hook to throw 
troops across to or from the Highlands, and without 
delay I 



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^98 CONSIDER A TION OF DEFENCES. 

"Cannot the enemy land at Flushing Bay and 
march to the Williamsburgh Heights without pass- 
ing the strong works at Brooklyn ? Is the distance 
-eight miles, and can they not fire the city from 
Williamsburgh Heights with rockets ? Will not the 
-enemy avoid the works above mentioned and land 
either on Staten Island or at Oravesend Bay or both ? 
What would be the consequence ! Can our forts at 
Staten Island defend themselves in the rear % And 
would it not be well to make the barracks in the 
redoubts in rear of the works on Staten Island 
•of logs, that they may be rendered impervious to 
musket balls ? 

' * Is it intended to sink ships to prevent the pass of 
the enemy ? If so, how many will it take, and where 
are they to be sunk ? Are they to be sunk between 
the middle and west banks at the Narrows ? Will it 
not require one hundred vessels to cover the pass ? 
Is it not out of reach of any battery* Can the 
'enemy not take them up, or rather displace one 
at their leisure under cover of their shipd' fire, and 
although one hundred are necessary to obstruct 
their pass, will not the displacing of one open a 
suflScient pass for the enemy I 

'' Will not a Jine of battle ships, before wind and 
tide, ciiack any one of the vessels when sunk and 
make a pass, and thereby dispense with trouble and 
delay f 

" If it is determined to obstruct the pass by sinking 
i3hips, would it not be better to sink them opposite 
the Hook battery f Is the only objection to that, 
that the enemy will take the Hook and command 



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CONSIDBRATION OF DEFENCES. 299 

the pass ? If that be all, would it not be better than 
to sink the ships and make the Hook impregnable 
by niunbers and blockhouses and obhge the enemjr 
to land on the outer beach should he make an at- 
tack ? 

** Is it not difficult to land on the outer beach \ 
Does it not happen that for the space of eight or ten 
days successively it is impracticable to land with 
troops ? 

^* Would not seven thousand men from Jersey, to- 
gether with the flotilla force, prevent any force 
from landing' at the Hook ? If so, would not the 
enemy be reduced to almost one point of attack on 
this city, and our force on Staten Island and Long 
Island Heights become a disposable one, to be 
thrown to any given point, and would not all Jersey 
be protected ? Otherwise, the towns of New Bruns- 
wick, Elizabeth, Newark, Rah way, etc., etc., would, 
be exposed. 

** What would be the effect if the enemy should 
get possession of Sandy Hook, and bring his whole 
force into the bay to Winter ? Could he be dispos- 
sessed of it by any force which would be brought 
against him ? 

" Would the Government not be under the neces- 
sity of maintaining a garrison of twenty thousand 
men in and about New York and Jersey during 
the Winter as well as Summer ? 

^^ Would not the enemy keep us on the alert every 
flood tide and favorable wind during the cold as. 
well as the warm season, by being in a situation to* 
do so? 



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-300 MR. A8T0R LOANS CANNON, 

" If this be tnie, would it not be better to render 
the Hook impregnableand the channel impassable 
immediately by sinking ships and increasing the 
number of torpedoes ?" 

In August John Jacob Astor, Joshua Barker and 
Jenkins & Havens offered to loan the committee of 
defence several cannon for the defence of the harbor. 
This was gladly accepted. Those offered by Messrs. 
Jenkins & Havens were part of the armament of 
the privateer brig General Armstrong^ before men- 
tioned (ante Vol I., p. 124). She had been in the 
port of New York for some time, and was now 
about to start on another cruise. She was still 
-owned by Jenkins & Havens and Thomas Farmar. 
On the former cruise she had carried nineteen guns 
and one hundred and fifty men. But now, by loan- 
ing the city many of her cannon, she could still do 
effective work as a privateer, and with less valuable 
risks. Therefore twelve long nines of her guns were 
taken off. She was equipped with six long nines 
and a " long tom,'' a forty- two pounder, and with a 
-Kjrew of ninety men under Captain Eeid was ready 
to sail. 

Her officers were: Captain, Samuel C. Eeid; 
first lieutenant, Fred. A. Worth ; second lieutenant, 
Alex O. Wilbams ; third lieutenant, Robert John- 
.son ; sailing master, Benj. Starks ; quartermaster, 
Bazilla Hammond ; captain of marines, Robert E. 
Allen ; prize masters, Thomas Parsons, James 
Davis, Eliphalet Sheffield, Peter Tyson. 

The letter of instructions from Messrs. Jenkins & 
Havens, agents, to Captain Reid was as follows : 



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A PBIVATEER SAILS. 301 

"Nmw Yobjc, 3d Sept., 1814. 
"Capt. Samuel C. Rbid : 

**The private armed brig-o£-war, General Ami' 
strong, iind^ your command, b^g now ready for 
a cruise, it becomes necessary for us to furnish 
instructions thereto. In doing this, we do not mean 
to debar you the privil^e of exercising your discre- 
tion in the choice of a station, but we recommend, 
as in our opinion being the most hkely of affording 
objects for enterprise and profit, that you stretch 
off to Madeira, where you will be most Ukely to 
intercept the Brazil convoys, and should you be 
successful in faUing in with vessels, fiiush your 
cruise there. 

^^K, on the contrary, you cannot succeed in 
capturing vessels enough, and of sufficient value to 
man, we would recommend you to go throu^ the 
Cape de Verde Islands and fill up your water, and 
from thence on the coast of Brazil. The prizes you 
may order for -the United States, we think will be 
best to be ordered direct for New York or Wilming- 
ton, and in the event of their safe arrival at any 
port in the United States, you will direct them to 
write to us immediately on arrival, that we .may 
send on a confidential person to take charge of the 
property, in preference to appointing agents at 
different places. 

*'0n your return to the United States, should 
you have any prisoners on- board, take care to 
secure them until they are delivered to the proper 
officer in order to obtain the bounty. Hoping that 
your cruise terminate successfully and honorably to 



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302 CAPT. 8AMUBL C. RBID. 

yourself, oflScers and crew, and your country, we 
are Your assured friends, 

** Jenkins & Havens, Agents. 

**P. S. — Be very particular in strictly prohibiting 
any plunder or depredations on neutrals or other 
vessels.'' 

On the 9th September Captain Reid ran the 
blockade, and on the same night after leaving port 
he was chased by a British frigate and a ship of the 
line. At noon the next day they gave up the chase.. 
On the 12th, Captain Reid exchanged a few shots 
with a British man-of-war brig, and proceeded on 
his course. On the 5i6th he came to anchor in the- 
port of Fayal, which was then under the dominion 
of Portugal. The details of her subsequent battle 
and her destruction by Captain Reid to prevent 
capture by the enemy need not be detailed here. 
The payment for her loss was for many years before - 
Congress and the subject of much diplomatic coire- 
spondence. But her owners never recovered any- 
thing for it. 

After the destruction of the Oeneral Armstrong 
Captain Reid returned to New York. After peace 
was declared the owners of the Oeneral Armstrong 
and other citizens of New York desired to give Cap- 
tain Reid a testimonial of their regard for his gal- 
lant defence of the vessel. An elegant service of • 
silver was made for the occasion. It consisted of a 
large silver pitcher, with an emblematic engraving, 
of the action and a suitable inscription thereon, also* 
a silver teapot, sugar bowl, n^ilk ewer, slop bowl, . 
and two silver tumblers, all made in the best man- 



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CAPT BAMUBL (7. BEID. 303 

ner. The presentation took place in Tammany 
Hall, in the presence of a great number of citizens, 
and an address was deUvered by Mayor John Fer- 
guson appropriate to the event. Captain Reid died 
in New York city, January 28,*1861, and is buried 
in Greenwood Cemetery. 



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CHAPTER XL. 

Military Organizations in the Citv— Militia Uniforms — Station of 
Troops — New Jersey Militia — Dissalisfaclion An:ong New York 
Troops— Riotous Conduct — Military Punishments. 



HE organiz<ation of independent com- 
panies and battalions in the city^ 
which had been somewhat dormant 
after the first year of the war, was 
now in the flush of mihtary ardor, 
more as a matter of necessity than of 
free will, for it was now apparent that all would be 
or might be required at a moment's warning to help 
defend their homes. Some of the most famous of 
these organizations have been frequently mentioned 
before. 

The '* Iron Greys," called so because of their uni- 
form, was a company of infantry under Capt. 
Samuel Swartwout. The New York " Hussars" was 
a troop of cavalry under Capt. William Craig. 
Abraham Lott was first lieutenant and John A. 
King second lieutenant. The Neptune Corps of 
Sea Fencibles was under Capt. Alexander Coffin. 
Another corps of Sea Fencibles was under Capt. 
James T. Leonard, of the United States Navy, and 



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THE •♦ IRON ORETS " 305 

was composed of ship masters, mates, pilots, sea- 
men and others. 

About that time Fitz-Green Halleck composed a 
poem on the *' Iron Greys," to l)e sung to the tune 
of '' Adams and Liberty." It was published in the 
Neu) York Gazette, The last one of the six stanzas 
of which it consists is as follows : 

'' All hail to the band who like Spartans have 
joined 
Heart and hand to repel the assaults of aggression. 
Inspired by one soul, and informed by one mind, 
They will check by their deeds the inroads of 
oppression . 
May glory emblaze, in the liveliest rays, 

The patriotic skill of the true '* Iron Greys," 
And gratitude honor the worth of the brave 
With a wreath for his brow and a tear for hi& 
grave." 

The Old Butcher Troop was ci viilry, all composed of 
butchers, excepting a cartman named Bromjush,aiid 
was underthe command of Capt. JohiiFenin. Home 
of them were drafted men and the bal mce con) posed 
of volunteers. It was ordered into service at t he 
Wallabout, where it performed three months' duty. 
They were attached to the conmiand of Gen. Jacob 
Odell, of Westchester County. Their dress wns a 
blue short-tail coat, trinmied with silver lace, which 
cost $60 ; buckskin breeches, cost $15 ; long boots, 
cost $15 or $20 ; a leather cone cap, with falling or 
hanging red horse hair, cost $20. 
The following appear among the independent or- 



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306 €1TT MILITARY COMPANIES. 

ganizations : Veteran Corps of Artillery, Capt. 
Geo. W. Chapman ; Major Smith's Battalion of 
Artillery (Ninth Regiment); Major Dunscomb's 
Battalion of Governor's Guards ; Lieut. -Col. G. A. 
Bogart's Horse or Flying Artillery ; Independent 
Greys, Geo. Richards, captain; Lieut. -Col. James 
Warner, one Regiment of Horse Artillery; New York 
Exempt Artillery No. 1, Capt. Wm. Leycraf t ; First 
Ward Exempt Company of Artillery, Capt. John E. 
Seaman ; Sixth Ward Exempt Company of Artillery, 
Capt. R. Hodge ; City Guards, Capt. George As- 
bridge; Republican Greens, Lieut. -Col. Charles 
Eagleson ; Company of Riflemen, organized Sep- 
tember, 1814, for three months, Capt. James G. 
King, First Lieutenant John C. Hamilton, Second 
Lieutenant Phillip Rhinelander. 

J. W. Jarvis attempted to raise a regiment of 
riflemen. 

The Governor authorized Armand Lavaud to raise 
a corps of Horse Rangers, to be attached to the mili- 
tary guard in the city. 

The dress of some of the militia was almost fan- 
tastic. In one day a company of cavalry in red, 
from New Jersey, crossed the city to work on the 
fortifications in Brooklyn, and a company in green 
and one in blue did similar service. 

The uniform for the musicians in the Gtjvernor's 
Guards was : A Polish cap covered with scarlet 
■cloth and edged with black velvet, white feather ; 
scarlet coatee, single breasted, with small skirts, 
black stripes in front, with black stripes on the 
skirt and three rows of artillery buttons in front ; 



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THK •« 8BA FENCIBLE8:' 307 

• 
pantaloons of white drilling, worn over boots, with 
six bell buttons on the legs ; black neck stock, 
black morocco belts and bright sabres. 

The regular **Sea Fencibles," organized the first 
year of the war, whose name became so familiar to 
New Yorkers during the war, was a body of volun- 
teers composed of sailors and boatmen raised in the 
city for the term of one year, and were continued 
during the war. They were placed under the com- 
mand of Commander Jacob M. Lewis (commonly 
called Commodore). 

The United States gunboats, about forty of them 
stationed at New York, were detached from the 
navy and put under Commander Lewis. The 
officers of the boats retained their places as if in the 
navy, and received additional pay from the State 
during the time they were in actual service. They 
were all under the direction of the commander of 
the third military district. They were sometimes 
called ** marine mihtia." 

Many of those above mentioned were mustered 
into the sei'vice in September as independent organi- 
zations or were amalgamated in other bodies. There 
were a large number of unauthorized nominal 
organizations that practiced drilling, etc., but they 
had no arms or accoutrements, and never held 
any commissions. Such were the College Greens, 
being students of Columbia College, and many 
other smaller bodies. In case of an attack they 
would probably have been assigned to duty. 

A spirited address to Lishmen appeared in some of 
the New York papers, signed by Messrs. Wm. James 



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308 APPEAL TO IRIBUMEK 

MacNeven and Wm. Sampson, calling on their 
countrymen to organize a corps for three months' 
service. The following is an extract : 

^^ Our appeal is to the constant, our call is on the 
brave ! Such only are invited whose hearts can an- 
swer to the call ; broken like the rest in fortune, 
we have neither bribe nor patronage to offer, nor 
anything to show but the dangei-s of the field. 
Nor shall we solicit or cajole. Zeal and affection 
must be the common stock ; with these qualities 
the poor is rich enough, without them the rich are 
too poor. We have no interest but the safety of 
our (adopted) country ; no ambition but to march 
with its defenders. Thrice happy if in doing so 
we avenge the wrongs of our dear native land." 

The regiment called the ^'Kepublican Greens" 
was composed of Irishmen. 

The cost of a uniform was of considerable conse- 
quence at that time. Captain Asbridge proposed 
that his company or regiment should differ from 
other military bodies in the economy of dress. The 
following was regarded as a ''cheap, neat and 
becoming uniform " for said organization : 

A blue broadcloth roundabout, narrow rolling 
collar ; single breasted, buttoned in front With bell 
buttons, a row each side extending to the top of the 
shoulder, with one on each side the collar ; the cost 
about $15 ; beaver cap, straight crown, about nine 
inches high, helmet point, diminishing gradually 
towards the back, leaving there only half an inch 
brim ; a waving red plume, the staff of which sup- 
ported by a stripe of broad gold lace running from 



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COST OF MILITARY DRESS. 309 

the base or rim of the hat and forming a cockade 
near the top, with a narrow band of lace ; cost 
about $10 ; cartouche box covered with red morocco, 
and a red belt around the waist ; cost about $5 ; 
yellow nankeen pantaloons, black neck handker- 
chief, boots. 

The cost of a uniform for privates in the United 
States Army in May, 1814, was as follows : In- 
fantry, $36.29; Artillery, $36.51; Dragoons, $54.- 
33 ; Light Artillery, $36.94 ; Riflemen, $41.21. 

The uniform in use in the regular army has 
been before described. That did not include the rifle 
regiments. On 17th March, i814, the uniform of 
the non-commissioned officnrs, privates and mu- 
sicians of rifle regiments was prescribed as fol- 
lows : 

Short coat of gray cloth, single breasted, flat yel- 
low buttons, which exhibit a bugle surrounded by 
stai'S with the number of the regiment within the 
curve of the bugle, one row of ten buttons in front, 
three on each sleeve, and three on each skirt length- 
wise, with blind buttonholes of black twist braid in 
herring-bone form. 

Waistcoat of gray cloth, with sleeves of the same, 
rising two inches above the ankle joint, and not 
higher. 

Cap of leather, with a plate and design similar to 
» that of the butting, and a short green pompon in 
front. 

For field or active service the oflBcers' uniforms 
were like those of the privates excepting as to 
quaUty. On other occasions they were permitted 



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310 ARTILLERY IN CITY FORTS. 

to wear the uniform of the artillery except as to the 
buttons, the position of them, etc., which were the 
same as the field coat. 

Epaulets of gold. 

Sabres yellow mounted for officers and non- com- 
missioned officers. 

We have before seen that the men in General 
Morton's brigade were permitted to be quai*tered at 
their homes. As they were nearly all residents of 
New York city, this was a matter of great con- 
venience to them, as well as saving of expense and 
labor in providing camp accommodations for them 
if necessary. 

They were assigned to duty as follows : 
<^ First Division New York Detached Milttia. 
*^ Division Orders. 

'^New York, Sept. 5, 1814. 

. . . ^' The second regiment of Gteneral Mor- 
ton's brigade and Major Dunscomb's battalion of 
the same brigade wiU take charge of the West Bat- 
tery (Castle Clinton). 

" The battalions commanded by Majors Forbes 
and Smith of the same brigade will take charge of 
the North Battery (Jted Fort). 

*' The Third Raiment of the same will take charge 
of Fort Gansevoort. . . . 

^^ A captain's guard at least will always be kept 
in each fortress. . . . 

'^The regiments commanded by Colonel Harsen 
and Col. J. 0. Bogert will have charge of the park 
of artillery when formed. . . . The men 
employed by Mr. Brown under the direction of 



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ARTTLLERT IN C1T7 FORTS. 311 

Brigadier-General Swift in the public works of de- 
fence will not be taken from his employ for any 
other service. 

^'The men required for artificers will be con- 
sidered as detached from the line and not as hired 
men exempt from duty. 

*' John W. Mulligan is hereby appointed aid to 
the Major General and will be obeyed and respected 
accordingly. 

^' By order of Major-General Stevens. 

'' W. B. Crosby, 
''Aid-de-Camp." 

At that time (September 2, 1814), the Eleventh 
Regiment mustered 451 men, including all officers, 
privates and musicians. On 5th September the 
Eleventh Regiment took charge of the North Bat- 
tery (oflE Hubert street), and of a battery of light 
artillery stationed on Broadway, near Greenwich 
lane, at corner of what is now Waverley place. 
Guard was mounted daily at 8 o'clock a.m. through- 
out the city, and each company performed guard 
duty alternately for twenty-four hours. 

General Morton's brigade orders required that the 
reveille beat at sunrise, the retreat at sunset, and 
the tattoo at 9 o'clock p.m., guards to be relieved 
at 8 o'clock A.M. 

Although the militia were in the service of the- 
United States, still Governor Tonipkins was allowed 
to make suggestions to them. The following is a 
letter from him to General Mapes : 

*'New York, September 8th, 1814. 

"Sir : — You are requested to call into service oiu 



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312 VIDETTES ON LONG ISLAND. 

Monday or Tuesday next that part of your brigade 
wjiich is on Staten Island. 

^' There are quarters and tents at the State Works 
at the Narrows, for nearly seven hundred and fifty 
men in addition to the force now stationed there. 
There also are quarters at the Quarantine, and in 
two public stores, which Mr. Gelston consents 
should be occupied for four himdred or five hun- 
dred men. 

'* I presume, therefore. General Lewis, upon appli- 
cation to him, will order the Staten Island Battalion 
to encamp in tents at the Narrows, or remove those 
tents to Red Bank in Princess Bay, and encamp 
them there or send them to the public buildings at 
the Quarantine ground ; and I must i-efer you to 
Major-General Lewis for the purpose. If they are 
to occupy the Quarantine ground, the quarter- 
master must have some repairs and cleaning done 
before their arrival. 

^ * I am respectfully yours, etc. , 

*'Brig.-Genl. J. Mapes. D. D. Tompkins." 

On September 8th a company of Colonel War- 
ner's cavalry and two companies of artillery from 
General Stevens' division were organized and sta- 
tioned as a vidette express from east end of Long 
Island to the headquarters of the commanding 
general in New York city. The videttes were sta- 
tioned at intervals of ten miles, and the artillery 
were to protect them from sudden capture. 

The State militia destined for the defence of New 
York city were constantly arriving. The last con- 
siderable arrivals were on September 11th, when 



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MUTINOUS CONDUCT. 313 

twelve sloops carae down North River with an aver- 
age of one hundred men each. Many volunteer 
companies from Now Jersey crossed the city for the 
forts near Brooklyn. 

On Sunday, 11th September, twelve hundred 
troops, New Jersey militia of General Colfax's 
brigade, stationed at Jersey City under command 
of Colonel Frelinghuysen, marched to Bergen 
Heights to attend open-air service by their chaplain, 
Rev. Steven Grover, of Caldwell, N. J. 

There was much dissatisfaction among the troops 
that came from the interior of the State. They had 
not been able to equip themselves in the manner 
required by the orders under which they were 
called into service, their camp ^ accommodations and 
supplies were very unsatisfactory and they were 
hai'd to submit to military discipline. The fact 
that a mutiny occurred on account of rations in 
General Haight's brigade, stationed on the Brooklyn 
side of the Narrows, was kept out of the newspapers 
of the day, but the writer is enabled from original 
records in his possession to give some account of it. 
. The following order was issued : 
'^ Adjutant-General's Office, Third Military 
District. 
'^Kew York, September 6, 1814. 

'* The mutinous conduct of some troops of the 
brigade commanded by Brigadier-General Haight, 
in outrageously attacking the issuing store of 
the contractor and destroying his provisions, is an 
act of mutiny of so serious a nature that General 
Haight will instantly take measures to ascertain the 



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314 MILITARY PVNI8HMENT8, 

perpetrators, and if discovered to send them to 
Governor's Island for trial by a general court 
martial. 

^* Should this mutinous spirit, in the opinion of 
General Height, require the aid of any other corps to 
quell it, he will apply for the necessary force to 
Major-General Stevens, who will furnish it from the 
division. The contractor will be compensated for 
the provisions thus destroyed by stopping from the 
pay of the individual or corps committing the out- 
rage ; if neither can be ascertained, then the deduc- 
tion to be made from the pay of the brigade. 

*^The commanding general regrets that he is 
obliged again to call on the several brigades to make 
returns of then* rolls of muster and inspection, also 
the company lists of delinquents and deserters ; it 
must be obvious that it is of the first importance 
that he knows his force in order to its ultimate dis- 
position and that he be informed of delinquents and 
offenders that they may be brought to punishments 

" By order 

'^ Thomas Chrystib, 
^*Actg. Adj.-Gen." 

Whipping or flogging, as a punishment, was not 
allowed in the army or in. the militia service, but it 
was in use in the navy and marine service. 

There were various modes of punishment as a 
means of enforcing discipline. Stoppage of " grog '! 
and rations, imprisonment and manual labor were 
resorted to in the army. 

A newspaper of the day stated that for his slov- 
enly appearance a militiaman was kept standing 



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EXTRA PAT FOR LABOR. 315 

or marching all day before his comrades, with his 
accoutrements and imiform in reverse position, 
with one sleeve oflE to show the dirty shirt he was 
punished for wearing. 

After the militia were mustered into service extra 
pay was allowed to non-commissioned officers and 
privates, who were drawn as artificers to work con- 
stantly on fortifications, bridges, barracks, roads or 
other public works for a term not less than ten days 
(Sundays excepted). They were allowed for each 
day's actual labor fourteen cents and one gill of 
spirits each in addition to their usual pay and 
rations. Those who were drawn for constant labor 
Xnot as artificers) received only ten cents per day 
-and one gill of spirits. These were detailed to 
jnake tents, uniforms, etc. 



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CHAPTER XLI, 

The Enemy Attack Ball! more— Great Exciiemeut and Active Mili- 
tary Movements in New York — Means of Defence— Condition 
of Fortificalioiis — Workers on tlie Defences— Appeal of Com- 
mittee of Defence— Fort Laigbt Buili. 

^N the 12th of September intelli- 
gence was received that the eneniy 
were approaching Baltimore in 
force for a vigorous attack. 

Great excitement pi-evailed in 

the city of New York at that thne, 

but it was tempered with the 

thought that the attack there 

would cause the enemy to defer any attack upon 

New York city until after the capture of Baltimore 

and Philadelpliia, and New York city might be saved 

the slaughter that any attack would engender. 

Much would depend upon the result of the inva- 
sion on the Champlain border. It was theie that 
all eyes were turned and for which all hopeful hearts 
beat. 

New York city now had the appearance of a closely 
besieged city. Troops were constantly marching 
and countermarching by night and by day. Horse- 
men in military array were rapidly riding to and fro, 
and sentinels were pacing the streets, and guard 



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MKASURES OF DEFENCE, 317 

outposts were scattered throughout the city, and 
groups of soldiers' tents were in some of the streets 
and on open lots in parts of the city which were in 
close proximity to the most thickly inhabited por- 
tions of Manhattan Island. 

The suburbs of the city had still more warlike 
appearances. The Heights of Harlem from East 
River to Hudson River were literally lined with 
fortifications, occupied by swarms of soldiers. Jer- 
sey City Heights was a camp of New Jersey militia, 
and on Staten Island on the east and north sides, 
and near Sandy Hook, were also forts and camps. 

At Rockaway Bay and at various points along 
the shore westward were defences and military 
camps up to the Narrows, and from Gowanus Creek 
along the Heights of Brooklyn to Wallabout Bay 
was a strong line of defences connecting forts and 
bastions. 

It was from the enemy's war ships that the great- 
est danger was apprehended and provided against. 
The report of the State Commissioners of Fortifica- 
tions to Governor Tompkins, dated September 23, 
1814, states : 

''The entrance to Jamaica Bay, on the south 
side of Long Island, affording to the enemy a safe 
landing for boats of small burthen to within a few 
miles of the Navy Yard, it was judged prudent to 
fortify that passage, as well as to guard that land- 
ing, as to afford protection to our coasters, who fre 
quently tike shelter in that bay from the enemy's 
cruisers. This according with your Excellency's 
sentiments, we caused a strong block house, mount. 



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-318 FORTIFICATIONS ALONG BAST RIVER. 

ing a 24-pounder in the top, to be erected on the 
west end of Rockaway Beach, at the entrance of 
that bay. . This has been taken charge of by the 
United States and an adequate force is stationed 
thereat. . . . 

**The approach to our city by the Sound, even 
for vessels of considerable force, is well known to 
be practicable, and very great solicitude has been 
shown by all classes of the community that the 
pass of Hell Gate should be strongly fortified. This 
became a subject of early consideration vsrith us, 
and finding that a partial appropriation had been 
made by the general government for that purpose, 
we felt it an imperious duty to co-operate with 
them in an object of great importance. A site hav- 
ing been selected by General Swift on Hallett's 
Point, upon which to erect a f oiii, we made a purchase 
of the ground necessary therefor, and a deed has been 
executed to the people of the State for the same. 
The works on this point have been pressed forward 
writh great activity, some cannon are already 
mounted, and in a few days the battery will be in a 
-complete state of defence. It has also been thought 
desirable to occupy an adjoining eminence, and a 
lK)wer of solid masonry has been commenced and is 
in a state of great forwardness. . . . 

*^ A small island in the middle of the stream near 
the rapids of Hell Gate, and known by the name of 
Mill Rock, presenting a very commanding situation 
for the defence of that pass, is occupied by the 
direction of General Swift, and a battery and block 
jfaouse are erected thereon. These also ai^e in great 



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. FOHTS ON STATEN ISLAND, 319 

forwardness and will in a short time be completed. 
From these different works, in connection with the 
hazard attending the navigation at that place, we 
have great reason to believe that that approach to 
our city is completely protected, and that an enemjr 
who should attempt it would pay dearly for his. 
temerity. 

* * The main work at Staten Island (Fort Tompkins),, 
being the principal object of the appropriation of 
the Legislature, has, of course, engaged our unre- 
mitted attention. It has been forwarded with all 
the dispatch consistent with a due regard to the 
durability of the work. . . . 

^^ We cannot close this report to your excellency 
without expressing to you our high satisfaction with 
the talents and zeal of the gentlemen (Gteneral 
Wilhams and Gteneral Swift) who have planned and 
conducted the works of defence, both on the part of 
this State and of the United States. While the 
positions have been selected with judgment, their 
plan and construction evince a science which will 
do honor to our country." 

An extract from General Swift's letter to State 
Commissioners of Fortifications, dated September 
24, 1814, and accompanying commissioners' report 
to the Governor, states : 

*^ The practicability of an enemy passing Sandy 
Hook with a strong leading breeze, and of effecting 
a debarkation of troops at or near Princess Bay — the 
present assailable situation of the works at the east 
end of Staten Island, and the importance of this 
position to an enemy in facilitating an attack upon 



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320 FORTS ON STATEN ISLAND. . 

the upper harbor and city — all conspire to prove 
how very necessary it is to accelerate the work at 
Port Tompkins." 

Another official report shows that ''At Fort Tomp- 
kins there were nine guns each to three curtains 
and eight to two ; six guns each to four of the 
towers and eight to the larger one circumscribing the 
magazine, making seventy-five guns of the largest 
caliber. The guns were so arranged that the fire of 
fourteen could be concentrated to any one point on 
every side. 

''The casemates gave an asylum under bomb 
proof of fourteen thousand square feet, allowing 
ten square feet to each man. Fourteen hundred 
men could be thus sheltered. 

"Ten magazine casemates are for provisions and 
are not taken into the calculation. 

" Five proposed barracks will furnish accommo- 
dations for eight hundred men. The men in the 
barracks would always be ample for the whole gar- 
rison duty and for fighting every gun, hence Fort 
Tompkins may receive into its bosom all the men of 
the open batteries, should they be overpowered by. 
numbers, and prevent an enemy from existing in 
them even long enough to spike the guns, every 
object in view and within cannon shot being com- 
pletely commanded. Add to this the possession of a 
never-failing well of water and it will be seen that 
it can stand a siege against ten times its force." 

All of the fortifications were provided with coast 
carriages for the cannon there, by which means 
they could be moved from one place to another. 



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CARTMEN IN 8KRV1CE. 321 

The general orders of the Tliird Military Depart- 
ment, dated September 25th, required : 

'^ The deputy quartermaster will engage six hun- 
dred of the cartmen of this city to be at all times 
prepared with their horses, and one hundred of theni 
with their carts also, to enter the public service as 
carters and drivers. The terms will be as follows : 
An exemption from all other military duty, forty 
cents per day for the use of the horse with the 
usual allowance of forage, twenty-five cents a day 
for the use of a cart ; as a driver will not be re- 
quired for each horse, supernumerary drivers to be 
subject to employment as littermen or to any other 
service connected with the duties of the civil staflE. 
To each twenty a conductor will be appointed, to 
whom the harness of the squad will be entrusted." 

New York city was now defended by 570 pieces 
of battering cannon and mortars, besides the pieces 
on board the President and Alert and gunboats 
and a formidable park of field artillery — in all not 
less than nine hundred pieces of ordnance, and it 
was said that 25,500 men, including exempt volun- 
teers, could be concentrated at any given point in 
and around New York city within three hours. 

Detachments from General Colfax's brigade of 
New Jersey militia were stationed at Newark, 
Elizabeth, Perth Amboy and New Brunswick. Col. 
J. W. Frelinghuysen's command, stationed at Jei'sey 
City Heights, were inspected and put in better order. 

On 19th September it was reported that the com- 
missary of the Third MiUtary District issued twenty - 
five thousand rations daily. Tliis did not niclude 



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322 COIdMANDBRS A88I0ASD. 

all those in service on shipboard in the harbor and 
some others in the city of New York. 

There were then in the mihtary service for the 
defence of New York city men that represented 
every battle of the revolutionary war from Bunker 
Hill to Yorktown, excepting some of the more 
southern battles. 

The brigades of militia were made up and oi^an- 
ized by the following order : 

^' State op New York. 
'^ General Orders. 

'^ Head-Quarters, New York, Sept. 14, 1814. 

^^The militia of the State of isew York, ordered 
into service by general orders of the 29th August, 
are organized as follows : Major-Gteneral Stevens' 
division consists of the brigades of Generals Mor- 
ton, Steddiford and Mapes, with this modification 
of the last-mentioned brigade, that the Richmond 
County battalion is detached therefrom, and its 
place supplied by the battalion from Columbia 
County, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Jacob R. Van Rensselaer. 

''The Richmond battalion, the battalion from 
Orange and Ulster, commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonels Smith, Bevier and Woodward, and the 
detachment of Richmond Horse Artillery, are 
formed into a brigade, to be commanded by Briga- 
dier-General Swartwout. Brigadier-General John- 
son's brigade remains without alteration. 

'' In place of Major Dibblee's battalion from Rock- 
land, Lieutenant-Colonel Roger's battalion from 



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COMMANDERS ASSIGNED, 323 

Saratoga, Major Lush'8 battalion from Albany, 
and Captain John R. Williams' company of light 
infantry are added to General Haight's brigade. 

*'The Rockland County regiment, and the bat- 
talions commanded by Lieutenant- Colonels Post 
and Cai-ver, are to form a brigade, to the command 
of which Brigadier-General Peter S. \'an Orden is 
assigned. 

*'The artillery, light infantry, grenadier and rifle 
companies of Albany (except Captain Williams' 
company), Rensselaer, Schenectady, Greene, 
Columbia, Ulster, Orange and Dutchess, which are 
to rendezvous by companies, pursuant to the gen- 
eral orders of the 29th ult., are formed into a regi- 
ment to be commanded by , which regiment, 

together with Colonel Farrington's regiment, from 
Delaware County, will form a brigade under the 
command of Brigadier-Gteneral Peter Curtenius. 
The Dutchess County battalion of Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Southerland is annexed to Gen. Hermance's 
brigade, Lieut. -Col. Warner's squadron of horse 
artillery and cavalry will form an independent 
command, and will act under the immediate orders 
of the commandant of the third military district. 

^* Major-General Stevens and the commandants of 
brigades are required to exhibit to the commander- 
in-chief returns of the oi^anization and number of 
officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians and 
privates under their respective commands by 10 
o'clock on the morning of Saturday next. 

^'Lieutenaot-Colonel Warner, and the command- 
ants of sea fencible corps, not heretofore placed 



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324 COMMANDERS AS8I0NED. 

under the command of Commodore Decatur, will 
present similar returns by the same time. 

" If hereafter, either by the discharge of detach- 
ments or any other circumstance,* a considerable 
diminution of the present force should take place, 
the commanding officer of the district is authorized 
from time to time to consolidate the militia in ser- 
vice, and discharge supernumerary officers. 

*' By order of the commander-in-chief. 
** Robert Macomb, 

^^Aid-de-Camp." 

The First Brigade of Artillery, under (Jeneral Mor- 
ton, was composed of Second, Third, Ninth and 
Eleventh Regiments of New York city and Thirteenth 
Regiment of Kings County. 

A battalion from the artillery companies from 
the counties ' of Rockland, Orange, Putnam and 
Dutchess, amounting to 540 men, under Col. Samuel 
Slee, was attached to Gteneral Morton's brigade. 
It had 5 lieutenants, 15 second lieutenants, 25 
sergeants, 30 corporals, 5 drummers and 5 fifers. 

The 3d Brigade of Infantry, under Gen. Jonas 
Mapes, and the 10th Brigade, under Gten. Gterard 
Steddiford (actually commanded by Brevet Gen. 
Peter Curtenius). The 22d Brigade of Infantry, 
under Q^n. Jerenuah Johnson, was composed of the 
militia of Kings and Queens Counties, being the 
Sixty-fourth, Ninety-third, 100th and 117th Regi- 
ments. The Brooklyn regiment was the Sixty - 
fourth. It consisted of five companies of one hun- 
dred men each. The brigade was 1,7§0 strong. 

The 33d Brigade of Infantry, Suffolk County, 



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COMMANDERS ASSIGNED. 325 

Gten. Abraham Rose ; the 29th Brigade, of Rockland 
County, Gen. Peter S. Van Orden ; the 15th Brigade 
of Infantry, under Gen/ Pierre Van Cortlandt, of the 
southern part of Westchester County, and all the 
uniform companies of artillery, light infantry, 
grenadiers and riflemen, of Westchester, Rockland, 
Orange, Putnam and Dutchess Counties, were 
formed into 1st Division, under command of Maj.- 
Gen. Ebenezer Stevens. 

The battalion under command of Lieut. -Col. 
Jonathan Varian contained 720 privates, 8 captains, 
16 lieutenants, 16 ensigns, 40 sergeants, 48 corporals, 
8 drummers and 8 fif ers. 

The independent regiment of light infantry and 
rifle companies from the counties of Westchester, 
Rockland, Orange, Dutchess and Putnam contained 

864 men, under command of 

The 19th Brigade, Orange County, 540 men ; 30th 
Brigade, Dut/chess County, 540 men ; to be formed 
in a regiment under Lieut. -Cols. Isaac Belknap, Jr., 
and Abraham Van Wyck. The 20th Brigade, Dutchess 
County, 648 men ; 34th Brigade, Orange County, 
432 men ; to be formed in a regiment under Lieut. - 
Col. A. Delamater and A. Wheeler. The 12th Brigade, 
Columbia County, 540 men ; 23d Brigade, Sul- 
livan and Ulster, 432 men ; 37th Brigade, Greene 
and Albany, 540 men, under Lieut. -Cols. John J. 
Van Dalssen and Daniel Warner ; to form three 
battalions, another lieutenant-colonel to be assigned 
said detachment. 
The news of the naval victory on Lake Cham- 



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326 NBW8 OF BATTLB8. 

plain was brought to New York city by the steam- 
boat Firefly on the 14th. 

The Albany Argus extra, published on Monday, 
September 13th, at noon, contained a letter dated 
September 11th, ten o'clock, which stated the victory 
on Lake Champlain, and was expecting the land 
battle. This intelligence was brought to Pough- 
keepsie by Thos. Wigton on horseback in twenty- 
one hours from Albany, and from Poughkeepsie to 
New York by steamboat Firefly, 

The battle was still raging at Baltimore, and the 
land battle at Plattsburg was going on, and at Fort 
Erie there was a crisis. On the afternoon of the 
15th news arrived of the defeat and reti-eat of the 
enemy from Plattsburg, the repulse of General Ross 
at Baltimore and the strengthening of Fort Erie and 
the probable withdrawal of the enemy from the 
siege. The morning newspapers announced in a 
brief headline — ** Victory ! North, South and 
West!" 

The intelligence of the battle at Baltimore caused 
attention to be directed to the defence in case of an 
attack from that direction. 

The following order was issued and at onoe put 
in operation. 

^^ General Orders. 
*^New York, September 17, 1814. 

*' Lieutenant-Colonel Warner will establish a line 
of videttes from the corps of cavalry between New 
York and Philadelphia by stationing two videttes 
at intervals of ten miles ; they will be subject to the 
order of the commanding general, to whom the 



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STATION OF RE0IMENT8. 327 

officer to be stationed at the end of the line will 
report." 

The forts in the city along the Hudson River side 
were put in a stronger defensive condition. On 
the 18th, by order issued on that date, the com- 
manding officer of the West battery and of the 
North battery, and of Fort Gansevoort were re- 
quired to report any deficiency of the following : 

Each gun must be furnished with a gunner's belt 
and implements ; priming horse and tube box and 
two leastic thumb stalls, a post fire stock and lint 
stock, ramrod and sponge, ladle, one worm, six hand- 
spikes, a water turn and broom, six badge barrels to 
each battery, one hundred rounds of cartridges 
and round shot, and ten of grape to each gun. 

On the 19th the following assignments of Gten- 
eral Morton's brigade of artillery were made : 

At West Battery (Castle Clinton the Second 
Regiment, Major Smith's battalion, and Major 
Dunscomb's battalion (Governor's Guards). 

At North Battery, off Hubert street, Eleventh 
Regiment, under Colonel Harsen and Major Dib- 
blee's battalion from Rockland County. 

At Fort Gunsevoort the Third Regiment, Major 
Forbes' battalion and the detachment from the 
Thirteenth Regiment. 

The corps of Veteran Artillery were stationed at 
the State Arsenal on Bridge street^ and were to 
mount a corporal guard for the protection of that 
place. 

The men wore allowed to remain at their former 
quarters, and a captain's guard to be mounted at 



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328 STATION OF BBGIMBM'S, 

the forts and two field officers were assigned to 
each battery. 

General Morton was directed to assign two field 
officers to each battery ; he assigned Major Stevens 
and Major Smith to the West Battery (Castle Clin- 
ton) ; Major Mercein and Major Dibblee to the North 
Battery ; Lieut. Col. Bogert and Major Forbes to 
Fort Gansevoort ; a detachment of eight matrosses 
and two gunners to each gun at the several forts 
and a non-commissioned officer stationed at each 
gun, and another non-commissioned officer to each 
accade of two guns. The men were to be furnished 
from the corps stationed at each battery according 
to their relative strength. 

The Tenth Brigade of Infantry, under command 
of Brevet Brig.-Gten. Curtenius (General Steddiford 
being president of a court tnartial), were stationed 
at Greenwich, near Christopher street, in the vicinity 
of State Prison grounds. 

Those men that were not residents of New York 
city in that brigade were encamped there. 

On 19th September, Lieut. -Col. Cadwalader D. 
Colden was assigned to take command of the 
uniform companies of militia from the interior of 
the State that were attached to General Curtenius' 
brigade. It was known as the Fifth Regiment of 
New York State Artillery and Infantry. 

More strict attendance of the men was required. 

On 1 5th September, by division orders of that 
date, it appears that 

"The commanding general has learned with 
regret that certain officers of the detached militia in 



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STATION OF nniUADfCS, 329 

the service of the United States are in the habit of 
granting furloughs and discharges which, in some 
instances, have extended to whole corps," and 
attention is called to the articles of war, which pro- 
vide that '^no furlough shall be given during a 
campaign, nor any but by the general commanding 
the district or army and for a cause of disabihty, 
which disabihty shall be certified to by a regimental 
or hospital surgeon." 

Major- Gteneral Stevens' headquarters were at 56 
Beekman street. 

From official reports made about September 25th, 
it appears that at that time the forces were stationed 
as follows : 

One, brigade of 1,500 men stationed at Ward'a 
Island, under command of Brig.-Gen. Peter S. Van 
Orden. 

One brigade of 1,600 men at Harlem Heights, 
Forts Fish and Clinton, commanded by Brig.-Gten. 
Martin Hermance. 

One brigade of 1,750 men at Greenwich, near 
Christopher street and vicinity of State Prison 
grounds, under command of Brevet Brig.-Gen. 
Peter Curtenius. 

One division of 5,700 men, under Maj.-Gen. 
Ebenezer Stevens, at Benson's Point and about Hell 
Gate. 

One squadron of cavalry, 400 strong, commanded 
by Lieut. -Col. James Warner, 

One brigade of 1,800 men stationed at Bath (now 
Fort Hamilton), under command of Brig.-Gen. 
Samuel S. Haight. 



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330 STATION OF BR1QADE8. 

One brigade of 1,750 men stationed at Brooklyn, 
near Fort Greene, under command of Brig.-Cten. 
Jeremiah Johnson. 

Force of 1,000 Sea Fencibles stationed in the 
Rockaway and Gravesend block houses and in Forts 
Gates, Diamond, Lewis and Stevens. 

One brigade of 2,150 men stationed at Staten 
Island, under command of Brig.-Gten. Robert 
Swartwout. 

A brigade of infantry of New Jersey militia, con- 
sisting of twenty-three companies, about 1,200 men, 
under command of Col. John W. Fi'elinghuysen, sta- 
tioned at Powles Hook (Jersey City). 

A large force of New Jersey militia, consisting of 
about 1,500 men, infantry and artillery, st^vtioned 
at the Highlands of Navesink, near Sandy Hook. 

There were in the forts about New York city and 
harbor, 3,316 men, regulars in the United States 
Army and in General Boyd's brigade. 

The naval force in New York harbor in August 
consisted of the President , forty four guns, Commo- 
dore Decatur ; the Alerty eighteen guns, and Com- 
modore Lewis's flotilla of thirty-eight gunboats, 
manned by about 1,300 men. , 

General Boyd's command was as follows : 

*'New York, September 23, 1814. 

^^ The Thirty-second, Forty-first and Forty- second 
Regiments, United States Infantry, with the com- 
pany of Trojan Greens commanded by Captain 
Dole, will form one brigade under the immediate 
command of Brig. -Gen. J. P. Boyd, who will con- 
centrate the said corps at New Utrecht immediately. 



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VOLUNTBER LABORERS. 331 

Captain Leonard's Sea Fencibles, assigned to the 
defence of Fort Diamond; Captain Fowler's, assigned 
to the defence of Fort Lewis and the block houses 
dependent thereon, and Captain Ingersoll, assigned 
to the defence of the block house at Rockaway, will 
all be considered subject to the orders of General 
Boyd, in their respective commands. By order 

'^Thos. Christie, 
** Assistant Adjutant-Gteneral." 

On 30th September Major Wooster took com- 
mand of Fort Stevens with four companies of Sea 
Fencibles. 

Volunteer laborers were from time to time at 
work on the defences. 

On the 19th September the Free Masons again 
worked at Brooklyn and opened by a salute by 
Major Hunter. 

On 20th September the Washington Benevolent 
Society proceeded to Brooklyn and worked upon 
Washington Bastion and nearly completed it. 

The Master Butchers on the 20th, with 180 strong, 
worked on the Brooklyn fortifications. A commit- 
tee of them made arrangements with the Committee 
^ of Defence and a few days afterwards were assigned, 
one hundred strong, to work on the right of Mc- 
Gowan's Pass, at a location now in Central Park, 
near Fifth avenue. They started early in the 
morning, headed by a fine band of music, carrying 
a large banner on which was painted : 
*^ Friends of Our Country." 
" Free Trade and Butchers' Rights." 
"From Brooklyn's Fields to Haarlem Heights." 



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332 REQUEST TO NEWSPAPERS. 

They worked until sundown, throwing up a 
breastwork of about one hundred feet in length, 
twenty in breadth and four feet in height, neatly 
sodded. 

The following notice explains itself : 

'' Circular. 
^' Committee of Defence Chamber. 

'' September 21st, 1814. 
"Sir: — WhUe the Committee of Defence have 
been devoted to the adoption of measures for the 
defence and security of the city against the hostile 
attempts of the enemy with which it is threatened, 
it ha© afforded them infinite satisfaction to find so 
zealous and unanimous co-operation pervading all 
descriptions of citizens. 

*' It is, however, with regret they observe occa- 
sional publications in some of the public papers 
rather calculated to disturb the tranquillity which 
so happily prevails. The crisis seems to demand 
that party questions should not be agitated at pres- 
ent. They, therefore, presume to recommend an 
entire suppression of party discussions in all future 
publications, at least so long as the combined exer- 
tions of all are necessary to the defence and security* 
of the city. 

** I am, with great respect, 

** Your most obedient servant, 

'*NiCH. Fish, Chairman." 

On 27th September the following request was 
published : 

" The Committee of Defence, while they applaud 



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FORT LAIQHT BUILT. 333 

the spirit which has actuated the whole body of 
citizens in erecting defences against the common 
enemy, feel themselves under the necessity of again 
calling on their patriotism in that way. They 
request another tour of duty without delay in the 
forts, particularly on those at Harlem Heights, in 
order that they may be completely finished and in 
readiness to resist any attack the enemy may have 
the temerity to make." 

On 28th September the Juvenile band, composed 
of two hundred pupils from Manhattan School, 148 
Chambers street, under Mr. A. Picket, went to work 
at Brooklyn Heights. 

On 12th October Tammany and Columbian So- 
cieties worked on the fortifications at Harlem 
Heights. 

The work upon the fortifications, when by the 
local militia detachments or in bodies, was without 
pay. 

The Eighty-fifth Regiment of city militia, com- 
manded by Lieut. -Col. E. W. Laight, were placed 
on a tour of fatigue duty near ManhattanviUe, and 
went into camp there on Monday, October 10th. 

On Friday morning the regiment broke ground on 
the height above their encampment, and in true 
military style, under a salute of small arms, named 
the post, after their respected colonel, "Fort Laight." 
Some officers in the meantime, by stratagem, de- 
tained him in the encampment, unadvised of the 
compliment until completed. 

The Columbian of October 18th contained the 
following : 



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334 FALSB ALARM. 



''On Saturday evening last the regiment of city 
infantry commanded by Col. E. W. Laight 
marched into town from their encampment near 
Manhattanville, which they entered on the Monday 
previous, on a tour of fatigue duty. They each day 
cheerfully and actively labored on the fortifications 
and at night reposed on the field. 

''About two o'clock on Saturday morning an alarm 
was made in camp to ascertain how expeditiously 
the regiment could be formed in case of emergency. 
Every company officer and the privates were asleep ; 
in four minutes after the drums beat to arms each 
company was dressed and formed in front of their 
tents, and in ten minutes from the alarm the regi- 
ment was formed in open column for the march. 

' ' The regiment was reUeved on Saturday afternoon 
by a detachment from Colonel Ward's regiment."* 

♦ The remains of '* Port Lftight ** are yet (1894) plainly visible 
near south side West 125th street, one hundred and twenty yards 
east of Eleventh avenue. It was built of stone. 



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CHAPTER LXn. 

Disorderly Militia— CourU-Martlal— Military Duties— Military Life 
in the City— Drills and Parades. 



OURTS-MARTIAL were found to be 
among the earliest necessities adjunct 
to the mustering in of the militia. 
These courts were of all kinds and vari- 
eties and of various jurisdictions and 
purposes. They were all issued in form 
out of the Adjutant-GeneraFs office of 
the Third Milifc^ry District. 

We have before seen (Vol. I., p. 199) that a court- 
martial for the trial of an accused militiaman 
must be composed of militia officers only, and 
they were subject to the rules and articles of 
war when called into actual service by the general 
government ; but the militia officers composing the 
court must be designated by the commander of the^ 
military district. 

The militia officers as well as their men had to be 
called to order. On 22d September General Morton 
called attention to the *^ extreme remissness" of 




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336 DISORDERLY SOLDIERS. 

Major Dibblee's command in cantonment (camp) 
at upper end of Broadway, near Clinton Place. 

On 26th September General Lewis, in a general 
order from the Adjutant-General's office of the 
Third Military District, stated : 

*^It is painful to the commanding general to ob- 
serve the little attention paid to the orders of the 
29th August last (see ante, p. 258). 

*' The officers of the militia, regardless of orders, 
X)ermit their men to stray from their camp at all 
hours in companies, in some instances from fifteen 
to twenty, whose depredations on the inhabitants 
are frequently the consequence." 

The order further provides that the officers will 
be held responsible for the conduct of their men and 
will be arrested and court-martialed. 

The most famous was on 24th September, which 
was provided by general orders from the Adjutant- 
Oeneral's office of Third Military District, as follows : 

^' A general court-martial under the act of Con- 
gress of 28th February, 1795, for the trial of those 
of the militia of the State of New York ordered into 
service of the United States in the third mihtary 
district who have failed to rendezvous pursuant to 
orders, will convene Monday 2(>th inst. at Harmony 
Hall and will consist of the following members : 

^^ President, Brigadier-General Steddiford ; mem- 
bers, Brigadier-General Hermance, Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Varian, Major Wigton, Maj. Daniel E. Duns- 
<5omb, Captain Acker (of Colonel Warner's caval- 
ry), Capt. Gulian C. Verplanck. Supernumeraries, 
Lieut. -(3ol. Jasper Ward, Major Charles Graham ; 



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COUHTS^MARTIAL ORDERED. 337 

Judge- Advocate, Pierre C. Van Wyck." Hugh 
Maxwell was soon afterwards substituted as judge- 
:advocate. 

This is the court that afterwards tried one Jacob 
E Mott for failure to appear and be mustered into 
the militia service under the orders of August 4th 
and 28th, 1«14, for the defence of New York city. 
The court continued, though some of its members 
changed from time to time, until 13th May, 1818, 
when Mott was tried and fined $96, for which he 
was liable to be imprisoned for twelve months un- 
less the fine was paid. The important legal ques- 
tions that arose in the case came before the United 
States Supreme Court in 1827 as Martin vs. Mott 
(12 Wheaton's Reports, p. 19), where it was held that 
the judgment of the court-martial for the offence 
was valid. The State court had previously held 
that it was void. 

As late as September 30th it was reported that 
several companies of the Second Regiment of artil- 
lery and the battaUon of ** Governor's Guards " were 
without small arms. 

On the 30th September it was announced in 
general orders that General Stevens' division be 
mustered and inspected for payment. This event 
was particularly welcome to those who were called 
into the service from outside the city of New York 
under the Governor's order of August 4th and 29th 
{see ante, p. 185). 

The amount to be paid, however small, would 
greatly relieve those men that had already incurred 
.so much expense at the sudden calL This was the 



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838 EXPENSES OF MILITIA. 

first payment that was made for their services. In 
most cases it was less than the amount necessariljr 
expended to go into the service at New York city. 

We have before seen (Vol. I., p. 199) that a militia- 
man when called into active service must provide 
his own clothing and personal equipments (see 
ante, pp. 185, 251). 

The expenses of a militiaman at that time were 
hard to be borne. Under the laws of 1857, before 
referred to (ante, p. 187), for the payment by the 
State of the expenses by men who were called into 
military service in the war of 1812, the claims now 
on file in the State Adjutant-Gteneral's office at Al- 
bany are ample evidence. 

The details of one are sufficient as an example of 
aU. The claim of Elias Conklin, who was a sergeant 
in Capt. John Wood's Rifle Company, under com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. Jonathan Varian, is as fol- 
lows : Conklin was from Dutchess County, and 
served at New York city for ninety days from 
August 25, 1814. He had to pay for his own trans- 
portation to and from New York city, which was 16 
each way. The cost of the uniform and equipments 
provided by himself was as follows : Uniform 
coat, 120 ; cap, $3 ; plume, $1 ; pair pantaloons, $4 > 
vest, $2.20 ; ordinary coat, $15 ; blanket, $3 ; knap- 
sack, $5 ; canteen, 75 cents ; cartouch box, 75 
cents ; belt, $1 ; tomahawk, $1.60 ; rifle, $37 ; pair 
stockings, $1.50; two shirts, $4; pair shoes, $3^ 
pair Surrow boots, $5 ; neckerchief, $1.25, 

How this and similar claims have been disposed 
of, see ante, p. 188, note. 



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DRILLS AND DUTIES. 339 

Duane's Handbook of Infantry Tactics was pre- 
scribed for use by division orders. 

The artillery drilled with small arms also as well 
as with field pieces. 

The supply of small arms was short, as we have 
already seen (ante, p. 263). Many of them were not 
supplied until the early part of October. 

In many instances the State provided small arms 
and accoutrements. For the number of muskets 
furnished to those in service at New York between. 
August 30th and October 6, 1814, see ante, p. 263. 

The necessary guard and other duties at head- 
-quarters were performed by the infantry companies, 
with their respective officers, in weekly rotation. 

The infantry of the Third and Tenth Brigades 
that were quartered at home were drilled every 
morning from six to eight o'clock and afternoon 
from four to six o'clock, by companies, at some 
parade ground selected by the regimental field 
officers. 

The battalions formed twice in each week, the 
regiments once m each week, the brigades once in 
two or three weeks. The whole division, under 
Major-Gteneral Stevens, 'had several fine parades 
during the term of service. 

The different regiments performed their tour of 
duty at Harlem and were each encamped in the 
field imtil relieved by a new corps from the city. 

Guard duty was important and responsible. The 
report was required to be in writing. The report of 
daptain McEenna as officer of the guard for 26th 
;and 27th September^ 1814, is as follows : 



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340 GUARD REPORT. 



"West Battery, 27th Sept., 1814. 
'*At 8 O'clock yesterday relieved Captn, 
Shaw and mounted Guar^ ; received the garrison 
(except the entry to the SaUy port) in good order^ 
also in charge twelve prisoners, one of whom, John 
Pranscisco, was delivered to Lieut. J. H. Gallaghan^ 
of Captn. Perry's Company Sea Fencibles as per 
commitment. At i past 2 p.m. visited by Major 
Hunter, officer of the day ; at 3 p.m. delivered David 
Lowery, Samuel Lowery and John Smith to Lieut^ 
March, the officer who committed them ; at 5 p.m. 
they were returned to the Garrison and a verbal 
order from the said officer to recommit them into 
close confinement, stating that the prison at Gov- 
ernor's Island was full and that they could not be- 
received at that post as the prison of this Garrison 
was also full ; I could not receive them, to report 
which I repaired without delay to Headquarters, but 
was unable to see the General or any of his aids. I 
also made a second call to the same effect, and ia 
consequence thereof I made report of the same to 
Lieut. -Col. Stevens, who ordered me to refuse- 
receiving them under the then existing circum- 
stances. In the interim the officers who returned 
with them had left the Garrison. I was consequently 
under the necessity of placing them under close con- 
finement, altho' humanity forbad© increasing the 
number to eleven in a prison not large enough for 
six. At i past 12 a.m. was visited by the Grand 
rounds, who strictly examined the Guard and Garri- 
son ; at 8 a.m. gave an order to the Contractor for 
one day's provisions for the prisoners, delivered the- 



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REPORT OF OFFICER OF THE DAT. 341 

prisoner Van Home to Lieut. Gilbert of the regu- 
lars as per receipt — Delivered the garrison to Lieut. 
Brett, 2d Officer of 1st Company Gtovemor's Guards. 

** Parole, Countersign, 

**Eaul. Princeton. 

** (Signed) Charles McKenna, 
**Capt. 1st Comp'y Governor's Gds." 

The report of the officer of the day for Friday, 
October 7, 1814, is as follows : 

" Officer of the day. Major Daniel E. Dunscombe, 
of the Independent Battalion 6t Governor's Guards. 

** Parole — CromweU. 

'* Countersign — Britain. 

** Commenced the visit at three o'clock p.m. at 
the West Battery : on duty 1 officer, Lieut. Luflf, of 
Major Smith's Battr. 

*' 2 Non-commissioned Officers. 

**16 privates, of whom only fourteen were 
equipped. 

'' Examined the guard and found but two mus- 
kets fit for service. 

<< Examined the Battery and found nine pieces in 
a state of repair, the rest in good order ; of imple- 
ments there were missing 3 Aprons, 7 Iron Crow* 
bars, 2 Handspikes. 

'* 10 prisoners in confinement (list herewith), 2 
sentinels out. 

'' Oen. SteddiforcT 8 Headquarters J 36 Beekman St. 

'* On duty 1 officer, Lieut. HofEman, 10th Brigade. 

**2 Non-commissioned Officers. 

**22 Privates. 

"2 do. Absent. 



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S42 INSPECTION OF OUARD8. 

^'Exarained the guard and condemned two unfit 
for service ; niany of the men were destitut-e of 
Cartridge Boxes. 

^' 5 Sentinels posted, six prisoners in confinement. 

'^Oen. Mape^ Headquarters. 

'' On duty 1 Officer, Ensign Watts, Sd Brigade. 

** 3 Non-commissioned Officers. 

'^ 23 Privates. 

^^ Examined the guard and found the muskets all 
in good order, but as before many were unprovided 
with Cartridge Boxes. 

** 1 prisoner, 5 Sentinels out. 
'^Encampment on Stuyvesant^s Ghround, 3d Brigade. 

^' On duty 1 Officer, Lieut. Peabody, Col. Van 
Eensselaer's Regt. 

** 4 Non-commissioned Officers. 

"^^60 Privates, many of whom were employed in 
the police service of the Oamp. Of the Guarcb most 
were without either belts or Cartridge Boxes, and 
with wooden snappers instead of flints. 

^ 7 prisoners in confinement, 20 Sentinels out. 

'^^ The Officer of the day recommends to the special 
notice of the Gteneral the fact that this encampment 
is totally unprovided with any kind of shelter for 
the men while on sentry. 

" Jbrfc ^P Artillery at Dydes*, — Upper Broadway. 

''On duty 1 Officer, Lieut. Fowler. 

'^ 3 Non-commissioned Officers. 

^' 37 Privates. 

** Absent 1 Non-commissioned Officer ) on extra 

^VePrivAtes S duty. 



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INSPECTION OF GUARDS 343 

*' Examined the travelling pieces : all in good 
-order. 

'* 12 Sentinels posted — No prisoners. 
^^ Fort Gansevoort. 

*' Found this post in charge of Capt. Swaim, of 
Col. Bogert's B^ment, and learned from him, that 
the OflB^r who preceded him in the command had 
left the Garrison with one prisoner, in charge of a 
non-commissioned Officer and one private, in conse- 
quence of which Col. Bogert had desired him to 
take chaise of it as Officer of the Guard. 

^'On duty 1 Officer. 

'* 4 Non-commissioned Officers. 

**20 Privates — of these several were absent pro- 
^curing necessaries for the tour of duty on which 
they had been unexpectedly called. 

^' Examined the Garrison and fotmd it in good 
order. 4 Sentinels out ; 1 prisoner, I. Hamilton. 
'' North Battery. 

'' On duty 1 Officer, lieut. Coles, Eleventh Regi- 
onent N. Y. S. Artillery. 

*' 3 Non-commissioned Officer. 

'' 18 Privates. 

** Examined the Battery, found the guns and im- 
plements in good order. The Magazine ventilators 
.are rusted and one out of repair, one of them 
broken. The Travelling pieces likewise in good 
<order, with the exception that three wanted aprons. 

" 4 Sentinels out, 2 prisoners. 

^^ State Arsenal (Bridge street). 

** On duty 1 Officer, Lieut. Nixon, Veteran Corps. 

^'* 1 Non Commissioned Officer. 



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444 GRAND ROUNDS. 



*' 8 Privates. 

*' EJxamined the Field Artillery and found two- 
pieces wadded, which could not be remedied for 
want of a worm. 

^^ 2 Sentinels out. No prisoners. 

^' This post is in want of a Guard House. 

** GRAND ROUNDS. ^ 

'* Commenced the Grand rounds at 10 p.m. and 
visited the Several Posts before mentioned. 

'* The parole was not demanded either at the State- 
Arsenal, (General Mapes' Headquarters, Encamp- 
ment at Stuyvesant's or the Park at Dydes'. 

'* At the State Arsenal, there were only six rounds 
of cartridges amofig the whole guard. 

*' At Fort Gansevoort the number of prisoners had 
been since the former visit increased to seven, as ap- 
pears by the accompanying report. 

^^ At i past 2 A.M. of the 8th October reached the 
West Battery, where having passed the outer Senti- 
nels, who hailed properly, went up to the inner, 
sentinel and took away his musket, he not receiving 
me correctly, nor taking any precaution to prevent 
his being disarmed. One of the escort who received 
the musket from the Sentinel proceeded through 
the Wicker Gate (where he met several of the 
guard who did not attempt to hinder him) to the 
Officer's Quarters, where he ntiade a prisoner of 
Lieut. Luff, OflScer of the Guard. 

'* Ordered the escort, consisting of Captns. Mc- 
Kenna, Murray and Crocker, Lieut. Brett and 
Sergeant Major Clare, to take charge of the garrison, 
which they accordingly did, disarmed the Sentinels- 



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ENEMY IN THE SOUND. 345- 



and took the Officer and all his command into 
custody. . The escort mounted guard until sunrise, 
when, having communicated with and received 
orders from Brig. Gtenl. Morton, left the Garrison 
in charge of Captn. McKenna and a detachment 
from my battalion, who had been summoned by the 
Sergeant Major." 

About 1st October the enemy's war vessels ap- 
peared in Long Island Sound near Pelham Bay. 
On 3d October Commodore Lewis took nineteen 
gunboats and two bomb ketches from the lower bay 
and proceeded up through Hell Qa,te to the Sound, 
but was not able to get a shot at them. 

There were frequent rumors of the appearance of 
the enemy near Harlem. 

In this connection it is interesting to read the 
account of the late Israel Russel, which he gave in 
October, 1856, and which appeared in ''Valentine's 
Manual" for 1857 (p. 489), of the guard duty, inci- 
dents, etc., at that time : 

''Being in the United States service, receiving 
pay and rations (those who did not quarter at 
home), we were strictly under the army regulations 
and governed in all things by the rules and articlea^ 
of war. The officer of the day at headquarters 
made his Grand Rounds at night, and generally, as 
there was more amusement in it than otherwise^ 
would have a goodly number of brother officers to 
accompany him. I recollect going the rounds one* 
night with Major James Strong, officer of the day,, 
and others from our headquarters in Cherry street.. 
The first post visited was Colonel Van Rensselaer's,. 



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346 GRAND ROUNDS. 



on the Bowery farm. Fort Gansevoort was the 
furthest post on the North River. The fort at 
Hubert street, called the North Battery, the fort 
(now Castle Garden) at the Battery, and the head- 
quarters of the other different corps on duty in the 
city, made up a ride of three or four hours, was 
good exercise and with the little plans of surprise, 
the evenings passed oflf very pleasantly. 

'* While on our tour at Harlem, in the month of 
October, we had a merry time. Capt. William H. 
Maxwell was the life of our camp, but there were 
several others quite equal to him. One evening it 
was planned by some of the senior officers that the 
countersign should be changed at twelve o'clock, 
and as some of the officers were disposed to go out 
and have a gay time of it, the plan was to bring 
them in prisoners to the guardhouse on their return. 
It was a beautiful moonlight night, and in the stiU 
air the voices of these military gentlemen could be 
heard at a great distance, and they appeared to be 
-enjoying a most luxuriant treat of frolic and fun. 
It was after twelve o'clock before they began to 
Tetum, and when they did, one after the other was 
brought to the guardhouse as prisoner. We had 
one lieutenant-colonel, three captains, six or eight 
lieutenants and ensigns. But the joke was not 
taken in as good part as it was given ; they were 
very angry, raged and stormed, and conceived it 
a great indignity offered them. They preferred 
•charges against the officer of the guard, who was a 
lieutenant, and threatened to have him cashiered. 
He was the only responsible one they could charge 



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FALSE ALARM. 34T 



with it. He felt secure, for there were those, his 
superiors who planned it, who shielded him. When 
we returned to the city they endeavored to carry out 
their threat, and it was agitated a good deal for a 
week or two. Finally, Gteneral Mapes, in his good- 
natured, pleasant manner, laughed them out of their 
anger, and it was all forgotten. 

''The same night, after all was quiet and the 
officers and men had retired to their tents and were 
wrapped in sleep, the moon had gone down and a 
heavy dew was falling, the same officers who had 
planned the first caused a false alarm to be given, 
by directing the sentinel on the outskirts of the camp 
to fire alarm guns, and such measures were taken 
as to give an impression that a real attack had 
been made by the enemy. It was at this time fully 
expected an expedition would be fitted out and an 
attack made in this direction through the Sound, 
so that it only wanted a little strength of imagina- 
tion to believe it was A reality. The whole regiment 
was speedily mustered, the officers all at their posts 
in a short time, and almost all under the full belief 
that it was an actual attack of the enemy. They 
marched off, but no enemy could be found. The 
officers made a good parade of it, and toward morn- 
ing, as daylight dawned, they returned to camp, 
giving evidence by the appearance of their clothes, , 
which were wet by the heavy dew, marching, 
through the fields, that it had not been a short one. 
This has always been a pleasant incident to remem- 
ber and speak of, when any of Colonel Dodge's, 
officers and men met in after time." 



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348 GARRISON GUARD DUTY. 

The following guard report is a sample of garri- 
son guard duty at that time : 

^^Ouard Report. 
*' New York City, North Battery, 
'' September 25, 1814. 

** In compliance with garrison order of the 24 th 
inst., Captain Rockwell's company, under my com- 
mand (Captain Rockwell being sick), relieved the 
detachment from Captain Forman's company, under 
command of Lieutenant Benedict, at 8 o'clock a.m., 
and detailed a guard of three sergeants, one corpo- 
ral and twenty -one privates. 

** At 9i A.M. was visited by Major Meix^in ; at 
10 A.M. detailed a fatigue party of eight men to col- 
lect the straw which had been scattered throughout 
the garrison during the late storm, piled up the 
wads, etc., etc., which duty was performed with 
promptitude and cheerfulness. Major Hodson, 
Captains Bremner, Anderaise, Brown and several 
other oflScers of the regiment visited the garrison 
during the day. At 4 p.m. paraded the guard and 
drilled one hour ; at 5^ p.m. was visited by the 
officer of the day (Major Purdy) and suite, who 
were received on right of the guard with presented 
arms. Major Purdy (in direct contradiction of 
what is believed to be the uniform practice of this 
regiment) ordered the guard to be countermarched 
so that he might advance upon its left — which order 
being repeated, was obeyed. The roll was then 
called and the arms and accoutrements of the guards 
inspected. At 11^ p.m. was visited by the Grand 
Hounds, who were received in due order, examined 



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DRILLS AND PARADES. 849 

the several posts and were apparently pleased with 
their reception. 

''Sept. 26th, at 8 a.m., paraded the guard and 
drilled one hour ; at 9 a.m. the guard was reUeved 
by a detachment from Captain Anderaise's company 
of the 11th Regiment. 

''Christopher Wolfe, 
^' Lieut. 2d Co., 2d Battalion, 11th Reg., N. Y. . A ." 

Company drills were at any convenient place. There 
were three places where brigade parades and drills 
took place — Stuyvesant's farm, east of the Bowery, 
between First and Fourth streets ; Greenwich parade 
ground (ante, Vol. I., p. 2:^9) and ground near Belle- 
vue Hospital, at Second avenue and Twenty- 
eighth street. Regimental parades often took 
place at one or the other of these places, or near the 
forts in the city. The afternoon parades proved a 
great attraction and were usually attended by a 
large number of citizens and strangers to see the 
showy uniforms and hear the fine martial music 
that prevailed, particularly with the city regiments. 

In Clark's history of the Second Company of the 
Seventh Regiment, written in 1864, when there were 
still many persons Uving in the city who well remem- 
bered that period and were then members of the 
Eleventh Regiment of Artillery, he stated that the 
martial corps or band of that regiment was then 
imder the instruction and leadership of Fife Major 
Cochran, whose fame as a musician extended to 
every household in the city. The clear notes of his 
fife were always listened to with admiration and 
deUght, and the music at the evening parades at 



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350 COURTS-MARTIAL, 

the grounds off the North Battery, while the regi- 
ment was stationed there in the Fall of 1814, was 
always afterwards associated with the most pleas- 
ant recollections of the war. 

Additional courts-martial were needed and were 
organized. 

By general orders dated 6th of October a general 
court-martial, to consist of nine members of the New 
York detached militia, was ordered to convene at 
Tammany Hall on 10th October to hear such cases 
as might be brought before it. 

President, Brigadier-Gteneral Curtenius; members^ 
Lieutenant-Colonels Ward, Harsen and Sayre^ 
Majors Thorn, Piurdy and Hunter, Captains McClure 
and Bradhurst ; supernumerary, Captain Stanton ; 
Judge Advocate, Pierre C. Van Wyck. 

On 22d October a general court-martial for the 
trial of such cases in the New York detached militia 
as may be brought before it was ordered to convene 
at Tammany Hall on the 25th October. 

President, Lieut. -Col. E. W. Laight ; members, 
Majors D. D. Smith, Israel Purdy, William Thorn, 
Captains J. J. Drake, Edward Rockwell and blank ;. 
supernumerary, Lieut. H. W. Nicoll. 



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CHAPTER XIAU. 

Fulton's Steam Frigate-^Lack of Money to Complete Her— Petition 
to Committee of Defence for Help — Money Loaned by the 
City— Report to the Common Council — Display at the Launch- 
ing — Description of Her and Her Armament — Other War Yes* 
sels Proposed. 

HE building of '^Fulton's Steam War 
Frigate," before mentioned (ante, pp. 
42-89), was progressing. The national 
government had furnished $95,000 to- 
wards her construction. A large part 
of this sum was in Treasury notes and 
could not be used to pay the work 
men; money was needed for that pur* 
pose. The commiltee of defence 
loaned the construction committee $10,000 on the 
Treasury notes to pay off the workmen on September 
24th. More money was still needed, and the national 
government could not immediately furnish it. The 
superintending committee therefore applied to the 
city for aid. On September 26th they laid the fol- 
lowing statement before the Common Council. 




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362 STATEMENT TO 



^^ To THE Common Council of the City of New 

York. 

'''The undersigned having at the request of the 
Secretary of the Navy of the United States under- 
taken to superintend the building and the equip- 
ment of a vessel of war to be propelled by steam, 
beg leave to represent to the Corporation, that with- 
out their co-operation in procuring money for its 
•completion, this engine of defence, which promises 
;to be so serviceable in protecting the city in the 
'event of an attack upon it, must remain unfinished. 

The pecuniary means that have been furnished by 
Government to carry on this work amount to $95, 
000 ; $15,000 of that sum having been remitted to 
us in cash, and $80,000 in Treasury notes. Hither- 
to we have been able to purchase materials and 
carry on the work with the latter description of 
paper, which we have been informed by the Navy 
Department, is the only species of remittance that 
can be made to us, and which, in the present em- 
barrassed state of society, is found to be inadequate 
to the purpose. 

'' Unwilling to stop the progress of a work which 
we deem to be so important to this country, and 
particularly to this city, and having latterly found 
it impracticable to carry it on without money, 
we applied to the banks for aid, proposing to de- 
posit with them Treasury notes for the amount they 
might advance. On our being informed by those 
institutions that they were precluded, by arrange- 
ments made among themselves, from affording us 
ihe requisite advances unless the same should be 



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THE COMMOI^ COUNCIL, ^ o53 

considered as part of a sum which they had agreed 
to loan to the Corporation for the defence of the 
city, we applied to the Committee of Defence to 
sanction the advance to be thus made to us, but 
learned with regret from that Committee, that the 
sum of money borrowed by the Corporation and 
placed at their disposal would be absorbed by their 
own operations. We then renewed our application 
to the banks, and were informed by Mr. Wilkes, in 
behalf of all those institutions in this city, that they 
would increase their loan to the Corporation to the 
amount of our wants if they should be requested by 
the Corporation to do so. Considering that this 
offer of the banks fully obviated the objection of 
the Committee of Defence, we sent them a copy of 
Mr. Wilkes' letter, requesting that they would 
authorize the loan to be made to us, but were in- 
formed by them in answer to this last application 
that their powers were limited to the loan already 
made. 

*^ Under these circumstances we are compelled to 
resort to your body for aid and assistance. In 
addition to the sum of $95,000 already expended 
on the steam vessel and her machinery, we shall 
require $80,000 more to finish her. For this last 
sum or such parts of it as we may be furnished 
with by the Corporation, they will be supplied by us 
with United States Treasury notes. 

"When it is recollected that Mr. Fulton has de- 
vised a system of maritime defence which promises 
to be of such extensive use, and whose disinterested- 
ness has prompted him not only to make a gratui- 



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354 ASKING FOR MONET. 

tous tender of it to his country, but to undertake^ 
also, Nvithout any pecuniary compensation, the labor 
of superintending its construction ; when also the 
ship carpenters, Adam and Noah Brown, have ex- 
pended their last shilling in the building of the 
vessel, and this under the nK)st discouraging 
pecuniary difficulties, occasioned by advances which 
have enabled them to fit out with unexampled 
celerity the brig on Lake Champlain, with which 
the gallant McDonough defeated a superior British 
force, we cannot believe that the patriotic and en- 
lightened body to whom we address oiurselves, will 
hesitate in furnishing the means to enable us to 
finish so important a work, and which, without 
their aid, must remain incomplete. There are now 
upward of 260 workmen employed on the hull and 
machinery of the steam vessel ; these men require 
for the daily subsistence of themselves and their 
families, their wages as fast as they are earned, and 
so completely are their employers exhausted of the 
means of paying them, that, had not the Com- 
mittee of Defence, at the soUcitation of his Honor, 
the Mayor, loaned to us $10,000, the workmen must 
have been dismissed last Saturday. 

*' We shall add nothing to what has been already 
said about the efficiency of this mode of harbor 
defence, but content ourselves with referring the 
Board to Commodore Decatur and other naval 
officei's, whose opinions on that subject will un- 
doubtedly have the weight which their professional 
skill entitles them to. ''Oliver Wolcott, . 

'* Thomas Morris." 



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LAUNCHING OF THfC BOAT. 355 

Col. Henry Rutgers, the chairman, was absent 
from the city and did not sign the communication, 
but he approved of it. 

The city took about ^6, 000 of the United States 
Treasury notes and gave currency for them. 

Early in September the following appeared in the 
National Advocate : 

'* The Fulton steam battery will be launched in a 
few weeks. As she approaches to a finish the public 
confidence in her success increases, although our 
enemies, the British, say we have nothing worthy 
of notice or to honor human nature. This work 
and torpedoes prove we have, and I hope will make 
them fear and respect us. 

**Her oak, her iron, her copper are American, the 
workmanship, the engines, the invention are also 
American, and when afloat Americans will man her 
and fight her like Americans." 

Work upon the frigate was continued as rapidly 
as convenient Many of the workmen were detailed 
from the militia in service and were allowed full 
workmen's wages, but were not allowed to draw 
pay and rations as if in actual service in the militia. 

T\Tien the vessel was ready to launch the follow- 
ing military order was issued : 

** Artillery Brigade Order. 

'' New York, October 27, 1814. 

' * The steam frigate now building for the defence of 
this city will be launched on Saturday next at the 
dock yard of Messrs. A. & N. Brown at Manhattan 
Island. 

*^ In compUment to this means of defence so hon- 



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356 DESCRIPTION OF 

orable to the genius of our country and so interest- 
ing to this metropolis a detachment of two hundred 
men from the Second Regiment with muskets, the 
musketry of Major Smith's battalion under a major, 
and six pieces of artillery from the Third Regiment 
under a major, with the troop of horse artillery 
will parade so as to form at the dock yard at eight 
o'clock precisely; the whole will be under command 
of Lieut. -Col. H. G. Stevens.* The quartermaster 
will furnish ammunition for the salute which will 
be fired at the launching of the frigate. 

* ' By order, 

^'J. Vanderbilt, 
*' Brig Major." 
The launching took place at the time designated, 
in the presence of a large concourse of people and 
amid great enthusiasm. She was named '* Fulton 
the First," but was not completed until the follow- 
ing May, a few months after the death of Robert 
Fulton. 



* He was appointed first lieutenant of a company in the regiment 
of artillery in the cly and county of New York, on the 8d day of 
April, 1804. i 

Captain of a company in the First Regiment of the First Brigade of 
the artillery of New York, on the 28th day of March, 1806. 

First major on the 21st day of February, 1812. First major of 
the Second Redment of artillery, in the militia of New York, on 
the 20th day of July, 1818. 

Brevet lieutenant^olonel of the Second Regiment of the First Bri- 
gade of artillery, in the militia of the State, by order dated Septem- 
ber 21, 1814. 

Lieutenant colonel of the Second Regiment of artillery, in New 
York, on the 8th day of May, 1815. 

Brigadier-general of the First Brigade of artillery cf the State of 
New York, on the 24th day of April, 1817. 

His resignation as brigadier-general was accepted on the 24th day 
of May, 1823, and he was honorably discharged at his own request. 



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THE VESSEL. 357 



The vessel measured 145 feet on deck, 55 feet 
breadth of beam, drew 8 feet of water, mounted 
thirty 32-pound carronades and two 100- pound 
columbiads. 

It was a structure resting upon two boats and 
and keels separated from end to end by a channel fif- 
teen feet wide and sixty- six feet long. One boat con- 
tained the copper boiler for generating steam, which 
was the motive power. The machinery occupied 
the other boat. The paddle wheel revolved in the 
space between them, similar to the horse boats of 
that day. The main or gun deck supported the 
armament and was protected by a parapet four feet 
ten inches thick of soUd timber, pierced by embra- 
sures. Through twenty-five port holes were as many 
thirty- two pounders intended to fire red-hot shot, 
which could be heated with great safety and con- 
venience. Her upper or spar deck, upon which 
many hundred men might parade, was encompassed 
with a bulwark for safety. She was rigged with two 
stout masts, each of which supported a large lateen 
yard and sails. She had two bowsprits and jibs, 
and four rudders, one at each extremity of each 
boat, so that she might be steered with either end 
foremost. Her machinery was calculated for an ad- 
ditional engine, which might discharge an immense 
column of hot water, which it was intended to throw 
upon the decks and through the port holes of an 
enemy and thereby deluge her armament and am-^ 
munition. 

A portion of the specifications is as follows : 

'* The boat is framed on an angle of about eighteen 



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358 THB STEAM POWER. 

degrees all around the vfessel, when the top timbers 
elevate the balls and the lower timbers direct them 
under her. The top deck, which glances the ball, 
may be hung on a mass of hinges near the ports 
which are in the upper slant. Said deck is supported 
by knees and cross timbers on the lower sides, so that 
it may be sprung with powder, if required, when 
boarded by the enemy, to a perpendicular, when the 
said deck will be checked by stays, while the power 
of the powder will be exhausted in the open air, 
and then fall or spring to the centre of the deck 
again. The aforesaid deck will run up and down 
with the angle, which may be coppered or laid with 
iron. The gun deck may be bored at pleasure to 
give room, if required, as the men and guns are 
under said deck. The motive power is applied be- 
tween her knees, where there is a concave formed 
to receive them from the bow to the stern, except a 
small distance to each end forming an eddy. The 
power may be reversed to propel her either way. 
Said power is connected to upright levers to make 
horizontal strokes alternately. The elevation of her 
timbers and gearing will be proportioned by her 
keel and tonnage." 

The boiler was not put in until late in November. 
Talman & Ward, of Corlear's Hook, built the 
cylinder of the engine for her. It was four feet in 
diameter and weighed three tons. The power was 
one hundred and twenty horse. 

It was said that Commodore Porter was to take 
command of this vessel when ready for service. 

About that time there were many plans for sim- 



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OIHEB VESSELS PROPOSED. 359 

ilar war vessels proposed. In December, 1814, 
Uriah Brown laid before Congress his plan for a 
system of defence by land or water by the use of an 
inflammable fluid, and it was favorably reported 
upon. 

The vessel was to be iron clad, of long surface 
and propelled by steam at rate of five miles per 
Jiour, and the fluid was to be ejected upon the object 
by steam. 



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CHAPTER XLIV. 

Militia Dissatisfied— Another Commander Wanted— Appeal for 
Workers on Fortifications — Removal of Major-General Lewis — 
His Farewell Address to his Soldiers — Governor Tompkins 
Placed in Command— Objection of Governor Pennington— 
Reply of Secretary of War. 



^HERE was much dissatisfaction 
among the soldiers at this time. 
They had been kept away from 
home during harvest time, and 
\^ their crops had suffered waste, and 
more than all, they had not re- 
ceived pay, and their supplies were 
insufficient, because the govern- 
ment had not the means at hand to furnish them. 
Discontent and murmurs pervaded the. camp. 

The action of the Rockland County militia was 
most notable and ultra. Appeal after appeal was 
made to General Van Orden by his men for fur- 
loughs to go home and harvest their crops, but in 
vain. So one night two or three companies marched 
out of camp and went home. After getting in their 
crops and arranging as best they could for the- 



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MILITTA DISSATISFIED. 361: 

future, they quietly met, re-formed and marched 
back to camp. For such a breach of discipline what 
punishment could be devised ? It would hardly do 
to march two companies of men out and shoot 
them for desertion. Nor could any leader be found 
among them. The action had been spontaneous on 
the part of all, and each and all were guilty alike. 
It was finally concluded to give them extra duty. 
So they were marched up and down the roads 
around Harlem for four hours at a time, then given 
a rest and then marched again. The news of this 
mammoth desertion coming to the ear of General 
Lewis, an investigation was ordered, and when the 
cause of the desertion was understood all the Rock- 
land Couhty militia were given a leave of absence, 
on condition that if called on they would immedi- 
ately hasten to the front. They were never recalled. 

It was thought that a change would make the 
men more hopeful and patient. Governor Tomp- 
kins, by his untiring industiy and watchful care, 
and his frequent appearance among the soldiers, 
had become a great favorite with them. He was a 
much younger man than General Lewis, and this- 
also had its effect. He was also very popular with 
the national administration, and was offered the 
position of Secretary of State. He declined this, 
undoubtedly more from patriotic motives than from 
personal ease and comfort. His choice was to be 
placed in command of the entire military forces for 
the defence of New York city, where his services 
and influence would be of the most avail. 

About the middle of October it was authentically 



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362 GOVRRKOR TOMPKINS 

reported that when the extraordinary session of the 
Legislature closed Governor Tompkins would im- 
mediately leave Albany for New York city to take 
command of the military district in place of Maj.- 
Gen. Morgan Lewis. 

On October 24th the Recorder laid before the Com- 
mon Council a letter from the Secretary of War 
relating to the removal of Maj.-Q^n. Morgan Lewis. 

What this communication was we have no means 
ot ascertaining ; it was not set forth in the minutes, 
as it was secret and of a confidential nature. It was 
probably only the announcement of Governor 
Tompkins being selected as the commander in 
place of Major-General Lewis. 

It has been rej)eatedly stated that (governor 
Tompkins was appointed a major-general in the 
United States army and as such took command at 
JNew York city in 1814. 

This is not so. He never had any regular miUtary 
appointment in the United States army nor in the 
New York State militia. Any military authority 
or power that he had was ex-officio as governor of 
ihe State of New York. 

In Colonial times and during the war of the 
revolution and that of 1812-15 the governor of a 
•colony or a State was ex-officio a major-general of 
militia — a commander of the division which 
-comprised the colony or State over which he pre 
sided. 

We have before seen (ante, Vol. I., pp. 91-94) the 
authority that Governor Tompkins exercised in as- 
rsigning commands and in creating brevets, etc. 



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APPOINTED COMMANDER. 363 

The records of the United States and the Tomp- 
kins papers, which are now in the New York State 
Library, show that the authority that Governor 
Tompkins had from the United States authorities* 
for taking command at New York city was as fol- 
lows: 

*' War Department, October 14, 1814. 

''Sir — The President commits the command of 
the Military District No. 3 to you. and requests that 
you will rep€iir to the city of New York without a 
moment's delay to enter on its duty. 

*' I have the honor to be, sir, 

'* Your Excellency's Ob't Serv't, 
'* Jas. Monroe. 

'' His Excellency, 

''Gov. D. D. ToMPKiNa" 

The successful repulse of , the invaders at the 
north, west and in the south had a tendency to 
make the inhabitants in New York city feel less 
fear of an attack, hence their voluntary labors upon 
the fortifications greatly diminished. 

The Committee of Defence issued the following 
appeal to the people : 

'' The Committee of Defence, having reason to 
believe that this city is in great danger of an attack 
from the enemy, and that it may reasonably be 
expected to take place within a few weeks, deem it 
proper thus publicly to make it known to their 
fellow-citizens, at the same time they call on them 
for a renewal of their patriotic labors without delay 
for a completion of the defences at Harlem, being, 
well convinced that the zeal and activity of their 



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364 GENERAL LEWI8' FAREWELL ADDRESS. 

fellow-citizens will, in a few days, place those 
works in such a formidable situation as to afford an 
effectual resistance to any force which may be 
brought against the city. It is therefore earnestly 
recommended that the citizens immediately form 
themselves into associations as heretofore, to carry 
this very essential object into effect. 

**NiCH. Fish, Chairman. 

'' October 20th, 1814.'' 

The State Legislature at Albany adjourned on 
24th, and Governor Tompkins started at once for 
New York city and arrived on the 26th, and immedi- 
ately acquainted Major-General Lewis of the request 
of the President of the United States. 

General Lewis issued the following address and 
order on retiring : 

^^TmRD MlUTARY DlSTRICJT. 

'' New York, 27th Oct., 1814. 
''The commanding general by order o£ the Presi- 
dent of the United States this day transfers the com- 
mand of the Third Military District to his Excellency 
the Governor of the State of New York, who will 
to-morrow enter on his duties. In taking leave of 
the troops he has the honor to command he begs 
leave to assure them that the general tenor of their 
conduct has met his approbation; that their improve- 
ment in discipline, particularly some of the corps, 
affords an earnest of their future achievements 
when called on to defend their countiy's rights on 
the field of battle. He had hoped to have the 
honor of partaking with them in the glories of that 
day, and of leading them to victory, but those in 



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NEW JERSEY COMPLAINS. 365 

whose hands are placed the destinies of the country 
have determined otherwise. To the well-directed 
gallantry of his countrymen under the guidance of 
heaven, he fears not to commit the protection of his 
native city. 

'^By order of 
^'Maj. -General Lewis, Commanding. 

^'Thos. Christie, 
''Asst. Adj. -Gen." 

It • is apparent that Major-General Lewis was 
much disappointed at being relieved at that time, 
although it was believed that the great crisis of the 
threatened attack of the city by the enemy dur- 
ing that campaign was over, and the citizens were 
relieved of much fear of immediate danger.* 

The removal of Maj.-Gen. Morgan Lewis and the 
designation of Governor Tompkins to take com- 
mand in his place caused much discussion at the 
time, particularly among the governors of other 
States. Governor Pennington, of New Jersey, was 
particularly interested in this discussion and was 
constrained by popular f eeUng to address the Secre- 
tary of War on the subject at an early moment and 
to request a reply. The following letter was sent 
by him : 

'^ Trenton, N. J., October 29, 1814. 

^^SiR : — I am informed that Governor Tompkins, 
as governor of the State of New York, has taken 

* On 27th February, 1813, the President sent to the Senate, among 
others to be appoint^ to the rank of major-general in United States 
Army, that of Morgan Lewis. His nomination was confirmed on 2d 
March by a vote of twenty yeas to seven nays. The New York 
Senators were divided, Senator German voted nay and Senator 
^mith yea. 



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366 REPLY OF SECRBTART OF WAR: 

coramand of the third military district of the United 
States. This district comprehends the principal 
part of New Jersey, and between two and three 
thousand Jersey militia are now in actual ser- 
vice in this district at Sandy Hook, in the State of 
New Jersey. It might certainly appear, on first view, 
novel at least, that the governor of a State, as such, . 
should have the command of the militia of a neigh- 
boring State, within the actual territory of that 
State. I am far from entertaining a disposition, 
especially in the present state of our country, to 
throw the least obstruction in the way of the opera- 
tions of the general government in any measure of 
defence which it may think proper to adopt, but I 
conceive it my duty to enquire as to the fact, and 
the view of the war department on the subject. 

*' I have the honor, &c., 

'* William S. Penningiy)n, 
** Governor New Jersey. 
''Hon. Wm. Eustis, 
''Sec'y War." 

On the 22d November, 1814, the Secretary of War 
replied : *' That Governor Tompkins, of New York, 
was appointed commander of the Third Military 
District, by virtue of which his command extended 
to that part of New Jersey within the district and 
to such of her militia as had been called into the ser- 
vice of the United States within that limit. That it 
is a well established principle that when any portion 
of the militia are called into the service of the 
United States the officers commanding it ought to 
vetaiu their command and enter with it into that 



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HIS REPLY TO NEW JERSEY, 367 

service. On the same principle, when several divis- 
ions of the militia of any State are called into ser- 
vice of the United States the Governor of the State 
may be authorized to take the command of them, 
he being the highest officer of the militia in the 
State. In such case the Governor of a State is 
viewed in his military character only. He becomes, 
it is true, the military character by virtue of his 
office as Governor, but every other feature of that 
character is lost in the sei'vice of the United States. 
That the Constitution contemplates the exercise of 
the national authority in contradistinction to that 
of the State whenever the militia of a State are 
called into the service of the United States, but no 
such discrimination can be made to the exclusion of 
the Governor of a State commanding the militia of 
his State. Like other militia officers, he may march 
with the troops of his State into another State and 
retain there his appropriate command, either as 
commander of the district or acting under another 
Governor to whom the President has already given 
the command. That the objection to the command 
of the militia of a State by its Governor when called 
into the service of the United States does not apply 
except in cases in which the command of the niili- 
tary district of the United States is superseded." 

The labors and efforts of Governor Tompkins in 
behalf of the men and his services in obtaining 
means to pay them will be more fully detailed in a 
subsequent chapter. 



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CHAPTER XLV. 

Action of State Legislature — Governor Tompk^s in Command at 
New York — ^Military Orders — Governor Tompkins Inspects tlic 
Fortifications— Reviews the Soldiers— Privateers Sail — Grand 
Parade on Evacuation Day — Orders to Muster Out of Service — 
Major-General Stevens' Farewell Address — Common Council 
Thanks Citizens and Soldiers for Services, etc. 



HILE the Legislature was in session 
Governor Tompkins' zeal for the pro- 
tection of the State, and particularly 
the city of New York, was unabated. 
The important laws before the 
Legislature for the protection of the 
State and for the further prosecu- 
tion of the war, after long consideration, were en 
acted only a few days before the final adjournment, 
and are as follows : 

October llth. Appropriating $50,000 to complete 
fortifications on Staten Island. 

October 21st. To encourage privateering associa- 
tion. This was vetoed by the Council of Revision, 
but was amended and became a law, 

October 24th. To conipel Bank of America and 
City Bank (located in New York city) to advance to 



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IMPORTANT STATE LAW8. 369 

the State the amount they were bound to loan under 
their charters. 

To authorize twelve thousand troops for defence 
of the State for two years. 

To authorize twenty companies of Sea Fencibles 
for three years for defence of port and harbor of 
New York. 

To prevent intercourse and trade with the enemy. 

To compel private vessels in port of New York to 
be removed to any other place in this State or to the 
State of New Jersey when required by the corpora- 
tion of New York on twenty-four hours' notice. 

To repay money advanced by the city of New 
York to pay Sea Fencibles and to Richard Platt^ 
State commissary of military stores, for army pur- 
chases for the State. 

A law relating to court-martial of militia and 
who failed to report when ordered to rendezvous. 

There were two new militia laws passed, but they 
were vetoed by the Council of Revision and did 
not become laws. 

To pay tho militia in State service the same as 
those in the United States service. For amount see 
Vol. L, p. 170. 

On taking command at New York Governor 
Tompkins issued the following order : 

" New York, 2t:th Oct., 1814. 

''The President of the United States having com- 
mitted the charge of the 3d Military District to the 
Commander of the State of New York, he this day 
assumes the command. The troops' will be reviewed 
in the course of the ensuing we^k. In the meaa- 



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370 GOVERNOR TOMPKINS 

time ho enjoins upon them a perseverance in that 
attention to discipline and duty which has hitherto 
distinguished them. 

** Headquarters will be kept for the present at 
the City iiall, where officers having charge of de- 
partments in this district will forthwith report the 
state of their respective commands. 

" By order of His Excellency 

"Daniel D. Tompkins, 
**Thos. Christie, 
"Assist. Adj.-Gen." 
When Governor Tompkins became commander- 
in-chief of all the troops in the Third MiHtary District 
it became necessary to appoint aids-de-camp again, 
for those formerly appointed by him when he was 
only in command of the State militia would not 
now be respected or obeyed by those mustered into 
United States service and in the regular United States 
Army. The following order reappointing his for- 
mer aids was issued : 

"Division Orders. 
"New York, November 10, 1814. 

*'Col. Solomon Van Rensselaer, Lieut. -Col. An- 
thony Lamb, Robert McComb, John B. Yates and 
Washington Irving are acting as aids-de-camp to 
His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief of the 
district. They will accordingly be respected and 
obeyed as such. By order, 

"J. R. Fenwick, 
"Adj. Genl." 
Governor Tompkins' absence for many weeks in 



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TAKE8 COMMAND. 371 

Albany attending the Legislature, prevented his hav- 
ing personal knowledge of the progress that had 
been made, in building the defences about the city. 
Among the first matters he thought deserved his at- 
tention after his return to the city was to see per- 
sonally the condition of the defences. This he at 
once proceeded to do without pomp or ceremony, 
accompanied only by some of his aids, and with no 
notice of his intended visit to the various points 
which he inspected at his convenience. Hi& 
first visit was to see the fortifications at Har- 
lem Heights. Then he proceeded to Brooklyn 
and visited Fort Green and the extensive Unes 
and defences that extended to Gowanus Creek. 
After that he proceeded to visit the harbor de 
fences. 

On the 9th of November, when he was inspecting 
the defences in the harbor, he named the two forts^ 
one on Bedloe's Island, Fort Wood, and that on 
Ellis Island, Fort Gibson. They were then under 
command of Col. James House and Captain Swett, 
stationed at Governor's Island. 

The men had been promised a parade and inspec- 
tion by their new commander, and they were eager 
for it 

On 10th November Governor Tompkins r^iewed 
and inspected General Ciu1;enius' brigade at Green- 
wich, which then consisted of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Colden's artillery command and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Farrington's infantry. The review of General Mor- 
ton's brigade on same day was at Gates' Grounds, 
between Kipp's Bay Road and Bellevue Hospital^ 



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372 GRAND MILITARY RF:V1/CWS. 

and had Governor's Guards, the City Guards and 
Iron Greys attached. 

On the 11th Governor Tompkins reviewed General 
Hermance's hrigade at Harlem Heights. 

On the 12th, at Brooklyn, he reviewed General 
Haight's and General Johnson's brigades and Col- 
onel Warner s cavalry, and then proceeded to Kock- 
away to inspect the defences there. 

On Sunday, the 13th, General Boyd's brigade 
was reviewed at New Utrecht It then consisted of 
the Colonels Bogardus', Denniston's, Forbes' and 
Fotteral's regiments and Albany and Troy Riflemen 
and Sea Fencibles. The firing of salutes for the 
Governor were heard in the city and caused inquiry 
as to the cause. Several of the city newspapei-s de- 
nounced this Sunday parade in bitter terms. 

On the morning of the 15th the Governor started 
out for a day of grand reviews. He was accom- 
panied by his aids and was escorted by Captain 
Craig's cavalry troop of Hussars. They fii'st pro- 
ceeded to review General Mapes' brigade on Stuy- 
vesant field, near Waterbury's rope walk. Here 
the Governor was joined by Major-General Stevens 
and General Stecdiford and General Mapes and 
their respective suites. General Mapes' brigade 
consisted of the regiments of Colonel Dodge and 
Colonel Van Hook's city regiments and Col. J. R. 
Van Rensselaer's battalion from Columbia County, 
New York. This brigade had the reputation of 
being the best drilled and equipped body of militia in 
the service at that time. It was then 1,800 strong. 

After this review was over Governor Tompkins 



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COLONEL VAN RBN88KLAKR8 LETTER 373 

and his aides and escort, and the three generals and 
their suites proceeded to review General Steddi- 
ford's brigade on General Gates' ground, on the 
road between Bellevue Hospital and Kipp's Bay, 
near Thirtieth street, between Second and Third 
avenues. 

Gteneral Steddiford's brigade consisted of Colonel 
Wai-d's and Colonel Laight's city regiments, about 
1,200 strong. 

These reviews by the Governor we^e made in his 
military capacity of major general in command of 
the 1'hird Military District and were very satisfac- 
tory to the men and their commanders. 

The following letter from Col. Sol. Van Rens- 
selaer to his wife, written at the time, is a valuable 
contribution to the history of that time : 

'* New York, 14th November, 1814. 

*^My Dear Harriet: — The Governor is in his 
new quarters, with all his suite ; we have an elegant 
establishment ; live in perfect harmony, and in 
style ; much to do and attend strictly to all duties. 
* Poney,' as you call him, got down safe, but was 
eight days on board, in all that storm ; he is the 
finest horse here, and much admired, as well as his 
rider ! I wish our poor little Mag's broken arm was 
well ; kiss her for me. If there is no attack on this 
place this Fall — and none is expected — I shall be 
with you in a few weeks, when the Governor will 
return to Albany. 

** The mihtia are sickly and heartily tired of a mil- 
itary life ,• desertions are frequent and furloughs 
asked for by dozens every day. We have visited 



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374 COLONEL VAN RBNS8ELAEK8 LETTER. 

the fortifications at the Hook, Narrows, this Island ; 
and on the 3d, while on this duty on Long Island, 
the GTovernor's hoi-se fell with him in the ditch of 
Fort Green, a height of ten feet, without much in- 
jury. He dislocated his thumb and otherwise is a 
little bruised, but not so much as to prevent him 
from attending to duty, but he made a very narrow 
escape. He treats me very civilly and insisted that 
I should take up my quarters with him, which I did 
on the 5th, when he began to keep house. My horse 
too is to share with his, free of expense ; he is en- 
titled to keep sixteen, and intends to have only two ; 
so you see mine will be at the public expense and 
the forage I am entitled to. All my time is taken 
up in my profession. I act as aid and not as Adju- 
tant-General. All express their satisfaction at my 
being here, and much confidence is placed in me by 
the inhabitants. On the 6th I dined with Recorder 
Hoffman, with a large party. On the 5th with 
King, the son-in-law of Mr. Ray, and on the 7th 
with Colonel Golden (CaldwaUader D.); in short, 
calls and cards in abundance. I must see so much 
company that I have laid down certain rules, from 
which I shall not depart ; so fear nothing, my love. 
*'Gen. Giles, of this city, together with those I 
mentioned in my former letter to you, Charles 
King, son of my friend Rufus King, and many 
others of the first blood in the country wish for 
regiments on condition that I command their bri- 
gade. I have not asked for anything and I am 
determined not to do so. If it is offered and I can 
retain my office of Adjutant- general I shall accept. 



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COLONEL VAN RENS8ELAER8 LKTTER, 375 

The last, from the conduct of Democrats towards 
me, will be safe at all events. I am as civil as they 
are. Lewis has gone to Washington to beg to be 
retained. Last night we returned from again visit- 
ing the troops and foilifications on Long Island and 
the Narrows, a tour of three days I spent very 
pleasantly, in which time we reviewed three Bri- 
gades, and wei-e received at the different posts with 
a tremendous roar of cannon. The review of Gen- 
eral Boyd's Brigade of Regulars was very splendid, 
the troops performed well and looked like soldiers. 
On those occasions I am the right-hand man of the 
Governor, who, from my usefulness to him, grows 
daily more and more attached to me. I received a 
letter from General Wilkinson; he is again at Wash- 
ington, and insists on his trial, which will take 
place the ensuing winter at Utica, on account of the 
witnesses being at the North. Wilkinson is in favor 
at Washington, and he will disgrace Armstrong 
more than he already is. I receive letter.s very 
frequently from Lovett ; they are as much pleased 
there at my bein^ in service as they are here. Next 
week, on the 25th, will be a splendid day for New 
York, the celebration of the Evacuation of this city 
by the British in the last war. I intend to send for 
Rensselaer from school and gratify him with the 
sight ; his best clothes you can let John Berry bring 
down here. We are just now going out to review the 
troops. On the 9th we visited the forts in the Harbor ; 
a grand salute was fired from each (three in number). 
Our Horses are at tlie door. Adieu, my Harriet, kiss 
our children, and love to all. ^^ Yours truly, 

*' Sol. Van Rensselaer. 
''Mrs. Van Rensselaer, Albany." 



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376 OBNERAL MACOMira ARRIVAL, 

Major General Macomb came down the Hudson 
River on, the steamboat Fulton^ on the 15th, in 
eighteen houi^s from Albany and went to Bellville, 
N. J., to visit his family. 

General Macomb had attached to him an ex- 
cellent band of music, made up (like Commodore 
Decatur's) of natives of various countries enlisted, 
seduced and impressed into the Bntish naval service. 

An excursion by the steamboat i^Won -was adver- 
tised to take place down the bay to the Narrows on 
the 17th. Among the attractions it was advertised 
that General Macomb's band would be on board 
and furnish music for the occasion. The day set 
was stonily, and the boat did not run It was 
probably because there was lack of patronage, as 
it does not appear that it was attempted on 
another day. 

There were vaiious reasons that led to the change 
of regiments and battalions from one command to 
another. They were mostly trivial, but so long as 
it made the men more contented and relieved them 
somewhat of the monotony that remaining in one 
place might engender, it was quite frequent in the 
city posts. On the 5th November General Morton 
issued the order that **Captain Swartwout's company 
of Iron Greys is attached to Brigadier-General 
Morton's brigade of artillery — Major Dibblee's bat- 
talion is detached from General Morton's brigade 
and annexed to Lieut. -Col. C. D. Colden's regiment. 
The command of the garrison at Fort Gansevoort is 
transferred to Brigadier-General Curtenius. . . . 

'* The troops tvom Westchester County stationed 



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OENRRAL BOYD'S COMMAND, 377 

Bt Fort Qansevoort will continue at that post until 
further oi'ders." 

'^ First Brigade, N. Y. S. Artillery, 

New York, November 17, 1814. 
• • • . • 

*'* Agreeable to general and division orders of this 
date, the companies under command of Captain 
Hyatt and Lieutenant Scribner are detailed to relieve 
the Sea F^ncibles at Fort Green, under the command 
of Captain Robinson. By order, 

*'J. Vanderbilt, 
**Brig..Major.'' 

'* General Orders, 3d Military District, 
*'New York, November 1 , 1814. 

'* Gen. J. P. Boyd will command all troops from 
the East River to New Utrecht, including the garri- 
son at the Narrows. By order, 

^'J. R. Fen WICK, 
'* Adj. -Gen." 

The Common Council of the city passed compli- 
mentary resolutions of thanks to General Brown 
and General Macomb, and requested and ordered 
that portraits of each be procured and placed in the 
gallery of portraits in the City Hall. Commodore 
Macdonough received the most heartfelt thanks. 
The recital and resolution to him was as follows : 

'' WhereaSy The corporation of the city of New 
York feel that no exploit of the present war has 
more claims to the fullness and warmth of national 
gratitude than the victory of Commodore Macdon- 



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378 PRIVATEERS SAIL. 

ough over a superior force on Lake Champlain, 
either from pride in the achievement or benefit from 
its consequences, they, therefore, tender to that 
officer their admiration and thanks, and as a memo- 
rial of the new lustre added by him to the brightness 
of our naval renown, 

^^ Resolved J That the freedom of the city, in a 
gold box, be presented to Commodore Macdonough, 
and that his portrait be procured and set up in the 
gallery of portraits belonging to this city, and that 
the thanks of the corporation of this city be pre- 
sented to his brave officers and crews." 

The Peacock, in command of Captain Warrington, 
ran the blockade at Sandy Hook and came into 
port on October 30th. The Tom Bowline^ of twelve 
guns and ninty men, came in about the same tii»»e. 

Privateers had been dodging in and out of New 
York harbor from time to time. Their movements 
were not always reported in the newspapere, for 
obvious reasons. In the forepart of November there 
were three privateers that put to sea through the 
Narrows and eluded the enemy's cruisers : The 
new brig Warrior, built by A. & N. Brown, carry- 
ing a thirty- pounder pivot gun as *^long tom" and 
eighteen long twelve-pounders and three smaller 
guns, and 170 men, commanded by Capt. Guy R. 
Champlin, formerly of the General Armstrong; 
the ArroWy Capt. E. Conklin, sixteen guns and 
about two hundred men ; the Whig, of Baltimore, 
Captain Mix, eight guns and one hundred men. 
She arrived in New York in October with some 
goods and twenty-three prisoners. The sailing of 



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MUSTERING FOR PAT. 379 

these privateers was noticed in the newspapers 
several days after they were safely at sea. 

The enemy frequently appeared in the Sound in 
the vicinity of Pelham Bay, but were not formidable 
enough to cause any particular uneasiness. On the 
17th November they were reported in sight in that 
vicinity, but not near enough to lure Commodore 
Lewis and his gunboats from their station in the 
lower bay. 

The Homety Captain Biddle, left the port of New 
London in the early part of November, where she 
had been held by the enemy's blockading squadron 
since J\me, 1813, and reached the port of New York 
on November 18th through Hell Gate, without 
being disturbed by the enemy. 

On Friday evening, November 18th, a new play 
was presented at the theater, entitled ''The Glory 
of Columbia — Her Yeomanry, or What Wo Have 
Done We Can Do." To commence at 6:30 p.m. 

After the play the interlude was '* Champlain and 
Plattsburg, or the Army and ^avy," concluded by a 
farce. 

A large portion of the militia having been in ser- 
vice for three months, their term expired about 
December 1st. Preparatory to their discharge the 
following orders wore issued : 

**3d Military District, 
'^Adjutant-General's Office, 

''New YoRk, 21st Nov., 18U. 

"The Inspector-general will cause the following 
militia corps in service in this district to be immedi- 
ately mustered and inspected for pay : 



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380 EVACUATION DAT 

" Hermance's, liaight's, Van Orden's and C!olfax's. 
brigade, including the New Jersey troops at the 
Hook and New Utrecht, Brunswick and Newark,. 
Gten. Johnson's brigade, Gen. Curtenius' brigade, 
Gen. Swartwout's brigade, Gen. Stevens' division 
and the New York hussars. The paymaster will 
cause these troops to be paid without a moment's 
delay and report to headquarters as each corps shall 
be paid, to the end that the discharges may be 
granted by general orders. If practicable the whole 
will be relieved by the 2d of December in the order 
above mentioned. 

'* By order, J. R. Fenwick, Adj.-Gten. 
*' By order, Wm. Gracie, Vice- Aid-de-camp." 
On 22d November, Major-General Stevens' divi- 
sion paraded at Stuyvesant field and were inspected 
and marched to the City Hall park and were dis- 
missed. 

Evacuation Day was near at hand and must 
receive due attention. The following orders were 
issued : 

** Adjutant-General's Officr, 

^^New York, Nov. 23d, 1814. 
'* There will be a general parade on Friday next, 
the 2r)th inst., in the city of New York, of Gen. 
Stevens' division, Gen. Curtenius' brigade. New 
York Hussars, and such detachments from Gen. 
Boyd's command, from the islands in the harbor, 
and from Gen. Colfax's, Gen. Van Orden's and 
Lieut. -Col. Belknap's brigade, and from Lieut. -CoL 



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CELEBRATION. 381 



Warner's cavalry, as can be conveniently spared 
and transported. 

** The Adjutant-general of the district will be the 
officer of the day, and may call to his assistance 
such officers as he may think proper. 

'* By order, John R. Fenwick, 

^'Adj.-Gen." 
"General Orders. 
^^Nevst York, Nov. 24th, 18U. 

'* Extract from general orders of this day : 

'^The line will be formed to-monow precisely at 
eleven o'clock. The right will rest on Sugar Loaf 
street and will extend to the Arsenal on Twenty third 
Street. The order of formation will be two deep. 
Gen. Boyd's brigade on the right, on its left Gen. 
Stevens' division, on its left the volunteers uniform 
companies from Haight's, Johnson's and Colfax's 
brigades, which will be formed into one corps com- 
manded by Gen. Colfax. Gen. Curtenius' will form 
the left of the line." 

Gen. Stevens' Division was as follows : 
*' Division Orders. 

''New York, Nov. 24, 1814. 

** The line of this division will be formed on 
Broadway at 10 o'clock to-morrow morning ; the 
right, consisting of Gen. Morton's brigade, will 
rest on Northwest corner of Grand stieet ; Gen. 
Mapes' brigade will form on the left and Gen. Steddi- 
ford's on the left of Gen. Mapes'. The line of Gen. 
Mapes' brigf»de will be formed oil Broadway, its 
right opposite Bleecker street. Col. Van Rensselaer 



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382 KVACUATION DAT CELEBRATION, 

will form its right, Col. Van Hook the center and 
Col. Dodge the left." 

On the morning of the 25th the Governor presented 
an elegant stand of colors to the battalion of Gov- 
ernor's Guards, who paraded for that purpose in 
front of headquarters, City Hall. In handing the 
flag to Major Dunscomb the Governor briefly made 
a very patriotic and complimentary address. 

Major Dunscomb received it and delivered it in 
due form to the battalion, which had formed a 
hollow square, where a devotional exercise was after- 
wards performed in presence of the Governor by 
Rev. Dr. How, the chaplain to the corps, followed 
by three volleys and patriotic music by Captain 
Moffatt's band. The battalion afterwards escorted 
his excellency dmnng the march and review of the 
troops. 

The line extended from Sugar Loaf Street, now 
Franklin Street, up Broadway to Twenty-third 
Street. 

The military that took part in the parade was 
about ten thousand strong. It was remarked at the 
time that this showed the efficiency of the steam 
and horse boats to carry troops, for each boat could 
carry from five hundred to eight hundred men at 
each trip. 

The Mayor and Common Council had a dinner at 
City Hall, and among the invited guests was General 
MaComb. 

Tammany Society celebrated the day by a din- 
ner and toasts. There was nothing worthy of 
note in the sentiments of the regular toasts. They 



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COL. VAN REN88BLABR8 LETTER, 383 

were of the usual type which had preceded them 
during the year. The volunteer toast of the presi- 
dent of the society, Matthew L. Davis, Esq., was : 

^*Our country — execrated be the traitor who 
would surrender, as a ped,ce-offering to the foe, any 
I)ortion of those rights purchased by the blood of 
our fathers and hallowed by the tears of the widow 
and the long-suflfering of the orphan." 

The following letter gives some account of the 
celebration and of other matters of interest at that 
time : 

COLONEL VAN RENSSELAER TO ms WIFE. 

**JSew York, 30th November, 1814. 
^^Testerda]^, my dear Harriet, Rensselaer left in 
the steamboat for Poughkeepsie ; he took leave of 
the Gtovemor, etc., like a man, much satisfied with 
what he had seen, and left this determined to at- 
tend closely to his studies, and has already pro- 
gressed considerably in the French. The Governor 
and all in this house were much pleased with him ; 
he is a fine boy. Rensselaer arrived here on the 
24:th, and was delighted with the parade ; he staid 
with us at headquarters and on the 26th went down 
with the Governor and his son (who are very civil 
to him) to Staten Island to see the fortifications ; 
and I took him to see everything worth seeing on 
his return. On the 25th we had a splendid day ; 
ten thousand troops were under arms, marched 
through the city and were reviewed by the Governor, 
after which we dined in the City Hall by invitation 
from the corporation. I wrote you that in two or 
three weeks the militia would be discharged, all idea 



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384 COL. VAN REN88ELAERS LETTER, 

of an attack from the enemy bping given up ; after 
which Gtovemor Tompkins would return to Albany, 
and should be made once more happy in the bosom 
of my Harriet and our little ones. Tou know I 
delight in a military life, but never can I be at ease 
without you — my wife and my sword must go hand 
in hand. Tompkins is friendly and sociable as ever, 
and although our separation is painful, much good 
will come out of it, I am sure. As the militia are 
now all discharged, I asked permission last night 
of the Governor to return home on Saturday, on the 
ground that there was not much to do. He told 
me if I had business of importance to attend to, he 
had no objections, but he preferred*that 1 should 
stay until the following Saturday. He wished to 
consult as to future operations after his dinner par- 
ties (which are now thi'ee times a week) were over, 
and then we would go together. I, of course, ac- 
quiesced, as he is everything to me I could wish, and 
as the chain between him and Tyburn is broken, I 
am certain he will act a manly and independent part. 
Yesterday about twenty-two officers dined with us, 
Armstrong was one of the party. I designedly was 
the last in the room, and entered it after most of 
the company had taken their seats in miUtary order 
to see if my place at the head of the table was kept 
vacant. The moment I entered the Governor asked 
me to take the head of the table. X had liim and 
Armstrong on my right ; the latter old rascal and 
others stared, and all who knew how I had been 
treated by him were gratified. 

*' Our horses I fear will have a bad time of it in 



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COL. VAN RRN88KLABW8 LETTER. 385 

this storm ; let me know when they reach you ; and 
I will thank you to let someone ride my horse 
morning and evening about the hill in view of the 
house, for I fear he will be stiff. Let them lead him 
out of the back stable door, as he may get injured 
in front, as it is high from the ground. Give direc- 
tions that my horse is not brought out of the stable 
to water until my return ; as he is fond of play he 
may get hurt ;• let them carry water to him, and 
they must not give him too much grain. 

''This day J. R. V. Rensselaer and myself dined 
at Mr. Coles', and I have invitations for every day 
in the week, when the Governor has no company. 
All this would be pleasant if you were only with 
me. If I return in the Spring you must break up 
housekeeping, then you and the two girls accompany 
me, and the rest go to school. Tell Mag I have her 
Doll and other pretty things for her ; how happy 1 
am to find by your letter that her broken arm is 
mending : kiss the dear children for me. Adieu, 
for a few days longer. 

''Truly yours, 

" Sol. Van Rensselaer. 

*.' Mrs. Solomon Van Rensselaer, Mount Hope. 

On the 29th November the flags were placed at 
half-mast, and half-hour guns fired during the day 
in respect to the memory of the late Vice-President 
Elbridge Gerry. 

General Morton's brigade of artillery paraded for 
inspection by General Gray, of the United States 
Army, prepalratory to their being discharged from 
United States service. 



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386 GENERAL BTSVENff 

They consisted of Second, Third and Eleventh 
Regiments, Major Smith's battalion of Ninth B^ 
ment, and Major Dunscomb's battaUon of Gov- 
emor's Guards (horse and foot), Major Forbes' bat- 
taUon of City Guards, with the Veteran Corps and 
the Iron Grejs. The Third Regiment comprised 
the horse or fljning artiUery, and Captain Crocker^s 
and Lieutenant companies of cavalry. 

Major- General Stevens issued his farewell ad- 
dress as follows : 

** Division Orders. 

'^New York, Dec. 2d, 1814. 

** The tour of three months' duty expires to-day. 
The troops are committed to the generals of their 
respective brigades, who will be governed by pre- 
vious orders for their discharge. 

** The Major-fJeneral, upon this separation, ob- 
serves that the novel instance of five thousand citi- 
zens, called from the bosom of their f amiUes, trans- 
formed almost immediately into soldiers, who have 
entered the list of improvement with regular and 
veteran, and have lost no credit by the competition, 
is no less honorable to the skill of the officers and 
to the subordination of the men. 

'* After the various eloquent and well-deserved 
eulogiums upon the officers and troops of this di- 
vision from higher sources, it were needless to ex 
press more than a concurrence in the applause 
which has been bestowed, yet so dear to the gen- 
eral is the reputation of his troops that he wishes 
not to conceal that tributes of admir^ion to them 
have been sources of honor and feUcity to him. 



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FARKWELL ADDRESS. 387 

Duly impressed with a sense of their past services, 
the Major-Gteneral tenders to each, individually, an 
affectionate farewell^ in the full assurance that they 
will preserve and improve the military attainment 
so necessary to the safety and honor of their coun- 
try. 

** The officers of the division staff, from their con- 
fidential intercourse with the general, cannot have 
mistaken the high estimation in which he holds 
them, and for their services they are requested to 
accept the public acknowledgment of his thanks. 
** By order, 

" Major-Gkneral Stevens.* 
" James G. King, 

''Assnt. Adj.-(ien." 

General Colfax's brigade of New Jersey militia 
were paid by the Corporation of New York city 
and were discharged about the same time. The 
following letter from Colonel Frelinghuysen to 
Governor Tompkins shows the kind feeling that 
prevailed at that time : 

*'Camp Jersey City, Dec. 9th, 1814. 
**His Excellency, Gov. Tompkins: 

*^ About leaving the post which has been assigned 
me by my country, I cannot avoid, in behalf of the 
regiment under my command, testifying to your 
excellency the great satisfaction that has been ex- 
pressed by all, at the conduct of the State of New 
York, through the individual exertions of her com- 
mander-in-chief in her behalf, and through me as 

* See ante, p. 162, orders of July 20th, forming this division, 
and September 14th, p. 822. 



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388 NEW JBR8B7 MILITIA. 

their commander to return to your Excellency, for 
them and myself, our grateful acknowledgments 
for the favors conferred in visiting and comforting 
us, and in paying us our due ; and I do not hesitate 
to declare, in behalf of all, that under every calami- 
tous and dangerous situation in which your dty 
may be placed, we shall feel a readiness to be 
among the number who shall act. in her defence, 
and in the defence of o\ir common coimtry. 
*^I am, Sir, yours with esteem, 
^'J. W. Freunghuysen, 

** Late under your command." 

Although the militia were discharged from ser- 
vice for the defence of New York city, they were 
not regarded out of the service until they returned 
to their place of rendezvous when first called into 
the service; they were there ^* mustered out" of 
the service and were discharged. 

On the 6th of December, 1814, the Common 
Council passed a resolution of thanks to the citizens 
and soldiers for their faithful services in and about 
the safety and defence of the city of New York. 



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CHAPTER XLVI. 

Description of the Fortifications Around the City in 1814— 
Jamaica Bay — Brooklyn — Sandy Hook — Staten Island — Jer- 
sey City— Gen. Swift Reports— Safety of the City. 



^ARLY in November, about the time 
that Governor Tompkins made the 
inspections and reviews mentioned 
in a former chapter, the temporary 
fortifications were regarded as com- 
plete, although some work was from 
time to time being performed in 
alterations and repairs. 
The last volunteer working party 
on the defences at Harlem was on the 12th day of 
November. 

Some portions of the militia were detailed to 
work upon the defences from the time they first 
arrived in New York, 

On every working day from September 10th two 
companies of General Hermance's brigade were 
detailed to work on the fortifications at Brooklyn, 
and continued to do so until about the middle of 




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390 FORTIFICATIONS IN BROOKLYN 

November. They were allowed the extra pay pro- 
vided for by the regulations before mentioned. 

The line of entrenchments at Brooklyn was from 
Qowanus Creek to Wallabout Bay, extending east- 
ward as far as Nevins street and De Kalb avenue, 
and completely enclosing the peninsula on which 
the village of Brooklyn was situated. This line 
was for defence from land forces in the rear, from 
Jamaica and Flatbush roads. 

Fort Greene mounted twenty-three heavy can- 
non, and commanded the Navy Yard and the 
Wallabout. 

From Fort Greene to Qowanus Creek were re- 
doubts Cummings, Masonic, Washington Battery 
and Fort Fireman, upon which twelve-pounders 
were placed at intervals not exceeding half grape- 
shot distance, and also at the salient angles. On the 
right iSank of these lines was a little redoubt opan 
in the rear, calculated for three heavy guns to 
defend the mill dam and bridge at Wallabout Bay. 

The parapet of Fort Greene was more than half a 
mile in length. 

On a hill near the Wallabout was Fort Putnam 
of the revolution. Fort Swift was on a high 
conical hill called Ponkiesburg, and Cobble Hill 
occupied the space now bounded by Atlantic, 
Pacific, Court and Clinton streets, and was the site 
of Cork Screw Fort of the revolution. 

Washington Battery was across Fulton street, 
near Court street. 

Fort Fireman, on the site of Fort Box of the rev- 
olution, was on the slope of Boerum's Hill, west 



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FORTIFICATIONS OF THE HARBOR. 391 

of Smith street, not far from the termination of 
Hoyt and Carroll streets. 

Fort Masonic, on the site of Fort Greene of the 
revolution, was near the intersection of Nevins and 
Dean streets, and was near the Jamaica road. Fort 
Cunimings, an oblong redoubt, extended from Fort 
Masonic to Fort Greene, with a bastion on north- 
west corner of De Kalb avenue and Hudson street. 

Within the lines, on a commmanding conical hill 
forming a part of Brooklyn Heights and nearly on 
the site of Fort Stirling of the revolution, was 
a strong redoubt called Fort Swift, commanding the 
whole extent of lines. Another, called Fort La\t^- 
rence, was constructed at the southwest extremity of 
the heights and commanding Gowanus Bay and 
Governor's Island. 

Lieutenant Gadsden, of the United States Engi- 
neers, aid of General Swift, assisted by Messrs. Nich- 
oUs and Mercein, superintended the construction of 
these works. 

But before the enemy could advance to make an 
attack upon these works there were many others to 
be encountered. There were blockhouses and some 
strong forts to be met with in any attempt to land. 

Blockhouses and earthworks were scattered at 
many salient points far away, as we have seen in a 
former chapter. 

In the Summer of 1814 there was a blockhouse at 
the Highlands of Navesink, at Sandy Hook, and 
at Spermaceti Cove, at Rockaway and on Jamaica 
Bay, and two at the Narrows, on the east side, and 
one on Denyse's Heights. There were several othei*9 



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392 DBFBNCB8 OF BELL GATE. 

about these places and on Long Island Sound, but 
we now have no record of their location. 

Two blockhouses and an earthwork called Fort 
Lewis were at Bath Beach, on the site where Fort 
Hamilton now stands, that mounted thirty pieces of 
cannon and commanded the site of Fort Diamond 
(now known as Fort Lafayette). 

Fort Diamond was completed far enough in the 
Fall of 1814 to mount seventy- three guns in three 
tiers. It is built on Hendrix reef, five hundred feet 
from the Long Island shore, in the channel of the 
Narrows. It is completely surrounded by water. 
• There were a blockhouse and earthworks at Prin- 
cess' Bay to prevent a landing in the rear of the works 
on Staten Island. 

On the 17th October, 1814, the Legislature made 
an appropriation of $50,000 for the completion of 
the fortifications on Staten Island. 

In 1816 official I'eports show that in the fortifi- 
cations on Staten Island there were twenty-five 
thirty-two-pounders, forty- four twenty-fours, four 
eighteens, seven nine-pounders. Total, eighty- 
pieces, belonging to New York State. 

To continue the line of defence from the WaDa- 
bout to Hell Gate, the works were not so formi- 
dable.: 

Newtown Creek was bordered by a morass, run- 
ning eastward. On the south side of this, on the 
brink of East River, was a blockhouse with several 
cannon on top and loopholes for musketry in the 
lower portion to protect against an assault. 

Fort Stevens, erected in 1814, was on east side of 



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DEFENCES OF HELL GATE. 393 

East Eiver, at Hallet's Point, and was mounted 
with twelve heavy guns. 

On Lawrence Hill, to the southeast of Fort Ste- 
vens, and commanding it, was a strong stone tower, 
built with six sides and two stories of loopholes, 
and on the top were placed en barbette several heavy- 
cannon. This was called Castle Bogardus, in honor 
of Gen. Eobert Bogardus. General Swift called it 
a ^* devil tower" in his report. 

On Ward's Island were extensive earthworks 
mounted with cannon. 

On Mill Eock, in the middle of the East River, 
was a strong blockhouse, well mounted with can- 
non, and on the J^ew York side, near Ninetieth 
street, was a redoubt to cover Hell Gate. 

These works, in the aggregate, were of sufficient 
capacity to mount thirty large cannon, besides 
mortars so arranged that half of them might be 
concentrated at one time upon any object in the 
river. 

Gracie's Point had been fortified since the Spring 
of 1813 (ante, Vol. I., p. 217), and with the works 
on the east side and on Mill Rock was deemed suf- 
ficient to render the river impassable by the enemy. 

Rhinelander's Dock was at foot of Ninety-first 
street, and the point of land was known as Rhine- 
lander's Point, and also as Gracie's Point. 

In the revolutionary war, the works at foot of 
East Eighty- ninth street, then known as Horn's 
Hook, was called Thompson's Battery and mounted 
nine guns. 

Gracie's Point was on the East River, on the line 



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394 DEFBIfCBS AT HARLSM, 

of Eighty-ninth street, east of Avenue B. The 
family residence of Archibald Gracie was on the 
east line of Avenue B, between Eighty-seventh and 
Eighty-eighth streets. Henry Crugor's residence 
was nearer the river and was on middle of Eighty- 
fifth street. John Jacob Aster's residence was on 
Eighty -eighth street, between Avenues A and B. 
Robert Black well's was on north side of Eighty- 
ninth street, near the river and looking directly 
north up the river. 

Rbinelander's house was on line of Avenue A, 
north of Ninety-first street. 

Nathaniel Prince's house was between Eighty- 
ninth and Ninetieth streets, between First avenue 
and Avenue A. 

The line of the river bank was then about the 
same as at the present writing. 

Schermerhorn's residence was between Eighty- 
second and Eighty-third streets, east of Avenue B. 

Other residences on the bank of the river, near 
Seventy-sixth street, were — Asten, Marston and 
Gteneral Van Zandt. 

The line of defence at Harlem to Manhattanville 
and Hudson River was extensive. It commenced 
at Benson's Point and followed Harlem Heights 
westward. 

At Benson's Point, nearly on a line with Second 
avenue and 106th street, at the mouth of Harlem 
Creek, was a redoubt to guard a mill dam and 
fording place on the Harlem Creek, which emptied 
into the river nearby, and was a wide marsh from 
Harlem Mere, in Central Park, to its outlet. 



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DEFENCES AT HARLEM. 395 

The battery at Benson's Point, south of Harlem 
Creek and Benson's tide mill dam, near the foot of 
East 106th street, on the line of Second avenue, was 
on the grounds afterwards known as the Red House 
Eace Course. 

At the head of Harlem Creek commenced a 
parapet and ditch, running to Fort Clinton on a 
high rock between 106th and 107th streets, in 
Central Park, about 410 feet west of the line of 
Fifth avenue. 

Connected with Fort Clinton and extending wost- 
ward like a bridge over McGowan's Pass was a 
blockhouse, with cannon on top, and called Nut- 
ter's Battery. It was at ll'7th street, 572 feet west 
of Fifth avenue, on a branch of the Eastern post 
road, leading to Kingsbridge road. These two 
forts were joined to and conimanded by Fort Fish, 
which was between 105tli and 106th streets, three 
hundred feet west of Fifth avenue. 

Then a line of intrenchments, upon which were 
four blockhouses with first story of stone, with 
loopholes for musketry, and mounted on top 
were heavy cannon protected by timber breast- 
works. These towers were within supporting 
distance of each other. They were located as 
follows : 

No. 1, about fourteen yards south of 109th street 
and seven yards east of Seventh avenue ; the first 
story of which is still standing in Central Park in a 
good state of preservation. 

No. 2, between 113th and 114th streets, between 
Ninth and Tenth avenues. 



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396 DBF'RNCBS Al MANHATTANVILLR 

No. 3, on the south side of 121st street, about 330 
feet east of Tenth avenue. 

No. 4, on the south side of 123d street, about 162 
feet east of Tenth avenue. 

The Manhattanville pass in the Bloomingdale 
Road at J 23d street, about one hundred feet west 
of Eleventh avenue, had a barrier gate similar to the 
one at McGk)wan's Pass. It was commanded by 
Fort Laight, which was of stone and twenty yards 
north of 124th street and 120 yards east of Eleventh 
avenue, and commanded Manhattanville and over- 
looked Harlem Plains. 

From Fort Laight ran a line of intrenchments 
westwardly across Riverside Park, near the present 
tomb of General Grant, to the liigh, precipitous bank 
of the Hudson River. In this line bn the westerly 
side of Manhattan Pass was a bastion which com- 
manded it, called Fort Horn. 

The line of redoubts and forts from Bussing's 
Point road, commencing near Eighth avenue and 
145th street, extending to Kingsbridge, were built 
during the revolutionary war and consisted of em- 
bankments of earth. Some of them remained from 
six to eight feet in height, and could be used as a 
means of defence. 

Major Horn superintended those constructed in 
the vicinity of Harlem. 

The fortifications at Greenwich were in the vicin- 
ity of the yard and grounds of the then State Prison. 
The prison buildings and courts occupied about four 
acres of ground, having a front on west side of 
Washington street of two hundred and four feet, 



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FOUTTFWATlOya AT OREENWIGH. 397 

■ 

with wings extending back towards the river. 
Besides the cells there was a chapel, dining hall, 
workshops and apartments for the officers of the 
prison. One of the workshops was two hundred 
feet long, twenty feet wide and two stories high. 
Another was one hundred and six feet in length, 
twenty feet in breadth and one hundred feet in the 
middle ; part of it was three stories high. 

The grounds and buildings were surrounded by a 
stone wall twenty-three feet high on the river side, 
fourteen feet high in front, on one side extending 
five hundred feet and on the other extending two 
hundred and seventy-nine feet. There were then 
about eight hundred prisoners confined in it. 

It covered the grounds now lying between Chris- 
topher street on the south, and Henry street on the 
north, and Washington street on the east, extend- 
ing to West street. 

The fortifications and soldiers were back of the 
prison on the river side, where the wall, twenty- 
three feet high, was a very good protection, and 
could be quickly strengthened if need be against 
the attack of any war vessels in tlie river. 

In September, 1814, Brig. -Gen. Peter Curtenius 
was stationed there with a force of 1,750 men. 

In December, 1814, General Swift made a report 
for the inspection of the Committee of Defence, ac- 
companied with views and plans of such fortifica- 
tions as had been constructed for the defence of the 
city of New York. 

This did not include the fortified camp at Jer- 
sey City Heights that had lately been occupied by 



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398 QENBBAL 8WJFT REP0RT8. 

twenty-three companiee of New Jersey militia un- 
der Colonel Frelinghuysen. 

The surveys, maps and small views presented with 
the report of Greneral Swift were furnished by Cap- 
tain Renwick, of General Mapes' brigade, aided by 
Lieutenants Gadsden, Craig, Turner, DeRussy, 
Kemble and Oothout. The large views were drawn 
by Mr. Holland. 

General Swift remarked that in the Spring it 
would be necessary to complete such of the exterior 
faces of the works as were left in a rough state. 

General Swift's report, and the maps, plans and 
views accompanying it, are now in the library of 
the Ne^ York Historical Society in an excellent 
condition. (See Appendix.) 

At many of the places mentioned were what were 
then called guns of heavy calibre — they were thirty- 
two-pounders, made of common iron, and weighed 
one and a half tons each. The round shot were of 
uneven surface, as was the bore of the gun, so that 
the ball would sometimes stick and the gun would 
burst It took double the amount of powder for a 
gun of any calibre that is now required to give the 
same force to the ball. 

The Columbian of November 15, 1814, contained 
the following : 

' ^ The number of garrison and battering cannon 
and mortars now mounted for the military defence 
of this post and city amounts to 570 pieces. The 
largest we have seen is the Columbiad of one hun- 
dred pounds. A number of the same pieces of fifty 
pounds caUbre are mounted in Fort Greene. In 



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GREAT NUMBER OF CANNON. 399 

addition to these thirty more heavy carriages are 
nearly finished. And the handsome and formidable 
park of field artillery and battalion guns belonging 
to the brigades of militia are not included in the 
enumeration. We may count besides upon one or 
two hundred active and useful pieces on board the 
Presidenty gun boats, and vessels of war in port, 
without including the steam battery Fulton.*^ 

At that time the Peacock and Tom Bowline and 
some privateers were in port. A careful estimate 
shows that there were then about nine hundred 
pieces of cannon to defend New York city and harbor. 

There was only one gun in New York at any time 
during the war that carried a 110-pound round shot, 
and there is no record of its ever being mounted 
during the war. 

The final report of the Committee of Defence of 
the city of New York was not made to the Com- 
mon Council until after the peace. On November 
6, 1815, it was approved by the Common Council 
and ordered to be published. (See Appendix.) 

The enemy, we have every i-eason to believe, 
knew the military strength and determination of the 
inhabitants of New York city, and they proceeded 
to other places on the coast less guarded. Hence, 
a blow like that which fell on Baltimore, Washing- 
ton and Alexandria was undoubtedly intended for 
us, but the promptness and efficient action of our 
citizens and ofiicials saved the spilling of much 
blood on each side in any attempt to capture the city. 

In the diary and letters of Qouverneur Morris, 
lately published, he said, in October, 1814, in a letter 



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400 SAFETY OF THE CITY. 

to Rufus King: "I have never believed that the 
enemy intended to attack New York. If he should, 
he will, I think, cany it, and covering his flanks 
with his ships, the fortifications you have raised, 
and which he may avoid, will serve him much bet- 
ter than they can serve you. But cut bono? 
What will they gain by it i Or cui damno f What 
will we lose by it ? The expedition, unless con- 
nected with a strong party in the Eastern States, 
would be, if successful, useless ; if unsuccessful, 
pernicious to them ; in all events, of little conse- 
quence to us, and therefore a piece of folly on their 
part. I have always supposed that their main ef- 
fort would be in the Chesapeake, and not seriously 
commenced until the sickly season is over. 

*^ The conquest of Louisiana, which will doubtless 
form a part of their plan, cannot require so great a 
force as that under Lord Hill. Moreover, an in- 
vasion of Virginia will operate eflEectually on the 
fate of Louisiana. An army of twenty thousand 
men landed at AnnapoUs will march without seri- 
ous impediment to the Point of Florida, and oblige 
the country to maintain them." 

The safety of New York city was assured — ^the 
battles of Lake Champlain and Plattsburgh had 
been fought and won in September. The enemy 
had retired to Canada and given up all hopes of 
capturing New York city and withdrew to other 
less fortified places. The State of New York was 
not severed by the invading army, as intended. No 
Eastern Confederacy was possible ! The Union of 
States was preserved. 



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CHAPTER XLVII. 

National Financial Condition — Loans Obtained at Great Dis- 
count on United States Securities— More United States 
Treasury Notes Issued —Paper Money Abundant— High 
Prices — Banks Loan the Government — National Direct 
Taxes Increased— Quota for New York City. 



'he financial outlook for the continuance 
of the war was never more discourag- 
ing. The situation up to September, 
1814, has already been shown in a 
previous chapter (ante, pp. 269-277). 

The true financial situation was 
studiously kept from the people as- 
much as possible. This led the people and capital- 
ists to be all the more wary and cautious, and the 
Government had to pay dearly for it when loans 
were sought or its obligations offered. 

No offers were made to take any part of the six 
miUion loan previous to the capture of Washington^ 
as already stated in a previous chapter. 

A part of this six milUon loan was subsequently 
offered to be taken at eighty per cent a few days be- 
fore the suspension* of specie payment, and after- 
wards some of it was taken in the depreciated paper 




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402 LOCAL CURRENCY. 

•currency of the suspended banks, so that the GU>v- 
•emment realized much below eighty per cent in cur- 
»rency for the stock. 

Specie was oflEered for the loan below sixty-five 
per cent after suspension of specie payment, but 
was rejected by the Secretary of the Treasury. 

After the Cabinet ministers had returned to Wash- 
ington, in September, they opened a new negotia- 
tion for the six million loan, and it was made by 
accepting the depreciated bank bills and Treasury 
notes which had also greatly depreciated, and from 
that time all loans were offered or accepted by speci- 
fying the particular locality of the bank whose bills 
were offered. It was called local currency, and the 
discount varied according to the locality of the 
banks ; that is, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore 
and the Western banks had each a price.* The 

^Previous to the adoption of Federal money in 
1785, money accounts in the United States were 
kept in poimds, shillings, pence and farthings, En- 
glish currency. Local currency differed from it. 

At the time Federal currency was adopted the 
Colonial currency or bills of credits, issued by the 
colonies, had more or less depreciated in value: 
that is, a Colonial pound was worth less than a 
pound sterling ; a Colonial shilling than a shilling 
sterling, etc.; this depreciation being greater in 
some colonies than in others gave rise to the differ- 
ent values of the State curi'encies. 

A pound was nominally twenty shillings, but the 
shiUings were of much less value than an English 
shilling. The number of Colonial pence that made 
a Colonial shilling also ^eatly varied. It then took 
more (New) York shilUngs to make an American 



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LOCAL CURRENCY, 40 J 

' — ■ 

New England banks used exclusively the bills of 
the suspended banks and nrnde loans in that cur- 
rency only. 

Some of the banks of New York city continued 
to make loans to the United States Government 

dollar and more (New^ York pence to make a dollar 
than it did in many or the other colonies. Taking 
the Federal dollar as a standard it was as f oljows : 

In New York, North Carolina, Ohio and Michi- 
gan eight shillings made one dollar, and as twenty 
shillings made a pound it was then worth only 
$2.50; while in English currency a pound was 
worth about five dollars ($4.84). 

A Federal cent, or one-hundredth part of a dollar^ 
in New York currencv was called a penny or pence 
because it took twelve and one-half of them to 
make a Colonial York shilling. 

The fractional part of a shuling was called pence 
and penny as in English currency, while relatively 
it varied greatly in value from it and also in the 
different colonies. 

A pound of twenty shillings in New England cur- 
rency would be of more value than a (New) York 
pound because the shillings were of more value. 

All arithmetics taught in American schools prior 
to the civil war and the adoption of the national 
bank currency in 1863 contained a part called 
'• Keduction of Currencies," which specially treated 
of the differences of money. The following table is 
taken from Adams' Arithmetic, published in 1827 : 

In New England currency, Virginia, Kentuckjy 
Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Missis- 
sippi, 6d. make $1. 

In Pennsylvania currency. New Jersey, Delaware 
and Maryland, Is. 6d. make $1. 

In Georgia currency, and South Carolina, 45. id. 
make $1. 

In Canada currency and Nova Scotia, 5s. make $1. 



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404 LOANS BY JACOB BARKER, 

i ■ 

And to others as usual, but in paper currency, after 
their suspension of specie payment. 

It was on account of this six million loan that 
Mr. Jacob Barker subsequently claimed that he 
should be allowed a further discount, as a large part 
of that loan was afterwards taken at a much larger 
discount than he was allowed on the twenty-five 
million loan. 

The rate of the parts of the $25,000,000 loan called 
the ten million and the sixteen million loan under 
act of 24th March, 1814, was as follows : $15,366,- 
111.21, at 80 per cent ; $165,658.82, at 85 per cent ; 
$47,627.79, at 90f per cent, and $82,420.72, at 90i 
per cent. 

The following letter contained the proposal of 
Mr. Barker: 

*' Washington, 4th Mo., 30th, 1814. 

** Respected Friend: — I will loan to the Govern- 
ment of the United States five millions of dollars, 
receiving one hundred dollars six per cent stock for 
each eighty-eight dollars paid ; and will pay the 
money in the proportions and at the periods men- 
tioned in thy advertisement of the 4th April, to 
their credit in such banks in the United States as 
may be agreeable to thee. 

**0n the payment of each installment,. 3Jid satis- 
factory assurances for the payment of the others, 
funded stock to be issued. It being understood and 
agreed that if terms more favorable to the loaners 
be allowed for any part of the twenty-five millions 
authorized to be borrowed the present year, the 
same terms are to he extended to this contract. The 



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JACOB BARKERS CLAIM. 405 

commission of one-quarter of one per cent men- 
tioned in thy advertisement to be allowed me on 
the amount loaned. 

** With great respect and esteem, 

^*I am thy assured friend, 
*' Jacob Barker 
" To Hon. Gborgb W. Campbell, 
** Secretary of the Treasury." 

This offer of Mr. Barker was accepted in writing 
on 2d May, 1814. He had made several other offers 
and propositions, and had various schemes and 
plans that he thought would help the Government 
in obtaining the loan and be to its financial advan- 
tage, but he never neglected to look out for his own 
advantage and profit in them all. 

The sums offered for the ten millions loan 
amounted to $11,900,806, of which $2,671,750 were 
at rates less than eighty-eight per cent, and $1,183,- 
400 at rates less than eighty-five per cent. The 
market price of Government stock in New York at 
that time was eighty-five per cent. 

The following offers by residents of New York 
City were rejected as being too low : 

Henry Escher (at seventy-six), $150,000. 

Joseph Dederer (at eighty- five), $26,000. 

Whitehead Fish (at eighty), $25,000. 

The rate of interest in New York State at that 
time (May) was seven per cent. 

The whole subject of Mr. Barker's claim came 
up before Congress from time to time, and the last 
was not imtil February 25, 1855, when a report of 
the Judiciary Committee in favor of a bill for the 



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406 27. 8. TREASURY NOTES. 

relief of Jacob Barker's assignees, Messrs. R. R. 
Ward, Fitz-Green Halleck and Jacob Little, was 
authorized to be prepared, when a law was passed 
by Congress establishing the Court of Claims, under 
which this claim and many others before the House 
were transferred to it by resolution of the House. 

This claim was subsequently reported adversely, 
ten per cent having been given to Mr. Barker in 
1814.* 

The loan of May, 1814, having been made at the 
rate of one hundred dollars in stock for eighty-eight 
dollars in money, and the loan of August, 1814, hav- 
ing been made at the rate of one hundred dollars in 
stock for eighty dollars in money, the amount of 
additional stocks which the holders of the stock of 
the May loan were entitled to and did receive ten 
dollars in every hundred dollars of stock they held. 
This additional bore interest from the date of the 
original stock. 

The accounts of the Treasury Department showed 
that there was outstanding $10,649,800 Treasury 
notes on September 30, 1814, nearly one-half of 
which would become due before January 1, 1815, 
and the balance before July, 1815. 

These notes were all issued under the act of 24tb 
March for the twenty- five million loan.t 

*See Report on Claim of R« R. Ward et al. (Jacob Barker's claimX 
December 18tb. 1860. No. 858» 86Ui Congress, 2d Session, Vol. I, 
pp. 879, 877. 890, 414, 456. 

\ On Ist January, 1811, the banlcing operations within the 
States were as follows : 

CAPITAL. BILLS. 8PBCIB. 

Bank of United States. . .$10,000,000 $5,400,000 $5,800,000 
88 State Banks 42,610,601 22,700,000 9,600,000 



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PAPER CUBRENC7, 407 

Few banks at that time were obliged to make any 
report of their condition, and it is, therefore, ahnost 
impossible to ascertain the amount of bills in circu- 
lation at any given period. Many of the State 
banks, particularly in the Middle States, made large 
loans to the Government, and this was done princi- 
pally in bills of their own in exchange for United 
States stocks and Treasury notes. This greatly 
augmented the currency. The issues of these banks 
must have greatly increased from that cans?. 

Mr. Crawford, while Secretary of the Treasury in 
1820, estimated the paper circulation in 1813 at 
about $62,000,000, and the specie circulation at 
about $8,000,000, exclusive of United States Treas- 
ury notes. In 1816 the former at $90,000,000 and 
specie at $11,000,000. In November, 1813, Mn 
Jefferson estimated the circulation at $200,000,000. 

Mr. Gallatin gives the circulation of 208 State 
banks in 1815 at $45,600,000 inbiUs and $17,000,000 
in specie in bank vaults. 

The amount of Treasury notes in circulation in 
March, 1815, was $18,452,000. 

Many banks had refused from the first to receive, 
credit, re-issue or circulate the United States Treas- 
ury notes in deposits or in payments to and from 
the bank. Among them were the following named 
banks in New York city : Bank of New York, New 
York Manufacturing Co. (Phoenix Bank), Bank of 
America, Union Bank, Merchants' Bank. 

Bank bills were received for dues to the Govern- 
ment. 

On 15th June, 1815, the Treasury Department 



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408 NEW LOAJS OFFERED, 

issued a notice ^^ that on the 1st day of August next 
instructions would be issued forbidding the collect- 
ors of duties on imports and tonnage, the collectors 
of the internal duties and taxes, and the receivers of 
all public dues whatsoever, to receive in payment of 
such duties, taxes and dues the bank notes of any 
bank which does not on demand pay its own note® 
in gold and silver, and, at the same time, refuses to 
receive, credit, re-issue and circulate the Treasury 
notes emitted upon the faith and security of the 
United States in deposits or in payments to or from 
the bank in the same manner and with the like 
effect as cash or its own bank notes." 

The said banks in New York city refused to 
accede to the proposition of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and their notes were prohibited from being 
received for any dues to the United States. 

Instead of continuing to borrow under the twenty- 
five milUon law (not one-half of the loan had been 
taken) a new law was passed by Congress on 15th 
November, 1814, authorizing a loan of three million 
dollars, limiting it to the precise purposes of the 
twenty -five million loan, with authority to receive 
in payment Treasury notes or approved bank notes, 
and authorizing the banks' of the District of Colum- 
bia to lend any part of this sum. 

The law also required the Secretary of the Treasury 
to lay before Congress an account of all the moneys 
obtained by the sale of the United States stock, 
with the statement of the rate at which the same 
may have been sold. 

This was called temporary loans. 



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TEMPORARY LOANS, 



409 



Temporary loans in local Currency made to the 
United States Government under act of 15th Novem- 
ber, 1814, by New York banks : 

Manhattan Company $200,000, 7 per cent 

Mechanics' Bank 200,000, 7 *^ 

City Bank .' 200,000,7 '* 

City Bank 75,000,6 '' 

Mechanics' Bank 75,000, 6 ** 

Manhattan Company 75,000, 6 *' 

Bank of America 75,000, 6 '' 



Total $900,000 

On 26th December, 1814, an act was passed au- 
thorizing the issuing of $7,500,000 of Treasury notes 
in place of portions of the loans authorized on 24th 
March and 15th November of that year, not already 
placed, and $3,000,000 more for expenses of the 
War Department. These notes were similar to 
those under the act of 1813, and a portion were of 
denominations of twenties and fifties, and none for a 
less sum. Under this act $8,318,400 were issued. 

It had long been the custom of banks not to issue 
bills for less than five dollars. The withdrawal of 
specie for small change had induced the issuing of 
fractional parts of a dollar for convenience. In De- 
cember the banks in New York issued bills of $1, 
$1.12 1-2, $1.25, $1.50, etc., for convenience of 
trade, but had no bills for less than one dollar. 

One of the features of the times was the adver^ 
tisement of G. & R. Waite, booksellers and sta* 
tioners, at 64 Maiden lane, New York, that United 
States Treasury notes would be taken at par in ex- 



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410 EFFECT OF PAPER CURRENCY. 

change for lottery tickets. Lotteries were not 
illegal in New York State at that time. 

The great volume of paper currency caused high 
prices for all kinds of merchandise. In his " Recol- 
lections of a Lifetime/' Mr. S. G. Goodrich says : 

'* At this period all kinds of British merchandise 
had become very scarce, and many had entirely 
vanished from the market. There was a small sup- 
ply of certain articles, from time to time, furnished 
by the vessels captured by our ships and privateers, 
and some convenient and necessary goods were 
smuggled in from Canada. There was, in fact, a 
large amount of money, and this was all specie, sent 
to the British Provinces for pins, needles, jewelry, 
laces, muslins, cambrics, chintzes, silks, sewing 
silks, buttons, etc. These merchandises were so 
costly that a man would frequently carry the value 
of a thousand dollars in a pair of saddlebags, soine* 
times on his shoulder, sometimes on horseback. The 
life of the smuggler along the line at this period 
was one of danger and adventure. 

^'In some instances persons laid the foundations 
of future fortunes in this illicit traffic. I recollect 
very well the prices at which we sold some of these 
articles. Calico, now (1856) twelve and one-half 
cents, readily brought seventy-five cents the yard ; 
cotton cambrics, now twenty cents, then a dollar ; 
linen handkerchiefs, now fifty cents, then two dol- 
lars ; fine broadcloth, now five dollars, then twelve 
or fifteen dollars. The average prices of British 
goods at retail were about four times what they are 
now (1856). 



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EFFECT OF PAPER CURRENCY. 411 

" Domestic products were enormously dear ; flour 
at one time eighteen dollars a barrel in Boston. 

'*I remember perfectly well the universal state of 
anxiety and depression which prevailed in New 
England at this time. The acts of government, the 
movements of fleets and armies, furnish no idea of 
the condition of society in its daily life. Let me 
give you a few items as indications of the embar- 
rassments, vexations and privations which the war 
had brought unto every man's house and home. 
Such a thing as silver or gold money was almost un- 
known. The chief circulation consisted of bills of 
suspended banks or what were called * facilities,' 
that is, bank notes authorized by the Legislature of 
Connecticut, redeemable in three years after the 
war. These were at fifteen to twenty-five per cent 
discount compared with specie. Banks issued notes 
of fifty, twenty-five and twelve and a half cents. 
Barbers put out bills payable in shaving, and va- 
rious institutions adopted a similar course. The 
whole mass acquired the title of * rag money,' * shin- 
plasters,' etc. A large portion of it was notoriously 
worthless, either as being counterfeit or issued by 
irresponsible parties, yet it generally passed without 
scrutiny. I recollect a person at a tmnpike gate 
offered a five-dollar bank note and received in change 
a large greasy wad of bills of various names, hues 
and designs. He glanced at it, and said to the keeper : 
^Why, half of this is counterfeit!' *I know it,' 
was the reply, * but it passes just as well as any 
other.' 



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412 U, 6. DIRECT TAX, 

*^ A specie bank bill was almost an object of wor- 
ship. The New England banks continued to pay 
specie, but their notes were rare. The bills of sus- 
pended banks of the Middle States and ' facilities ' 
constituted the chief money in circulation. An 

anecdote will illustrate this. In our city of H 

there was a shrewd man and a greedy man, who 
had some dealings with each other about these days, 
when the following scene occurred : 

'* Shrewd Man — Do you recollect giving me a ten- 
dollar bill in change yesterday, Mr. C. ? 

^^ Greedy Man — No, I don't ; why do you ask ? 

' ^ S. M. — Well, I found a specie bill of ten dollars in 
my purse, and I thought perhaps I might have re- 
ceived it of you. You remember I was only en- 
titled to a facility and not to a specie bill ? 

''G. M. — Well, I dare say you had it of me — ^let 
me see it. 

**S. M.— There it is. 

^^ G. M.— Oh, yes ; I recollect it perfectly. I'll take 
it and give you a facihty. There 1 

^' S. M. — Are you sure, Mr. C, that you gave me 
that specie bill ? 

^'G. M. — Certainly, certainly 1 I recollect it dis- 
tinctly. 

'' S. M.— Well, I am glad you are sure, for they 
tell me the specie hill is counterfeit ! " 

On the 22d December, 1814, Congress passed an 
act laying a direct tax of six millions, apportioned 
among the States, upon the same property as that 
of 1813. The quota for New York State was $860,- 
282 ; of this, $177,410.68 was upon the city of New 
York. 



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ASSKSSMByrS IN NEW YORK CITY. 413 

By the valuation of lands, lots with their improve- 
ments, dwelling houses and slaves for the year 1815, 
as revised and settled by the State Board of United 
States Assessors, New York City and County was 
valued at $56,320,852, and the City quota of United 
States direct tax, viz., $177,410.68, was at the rate of 
$3.15 on each thousand dollars of valuation. The 
State quota under the law of 1813 was $420,141. 

The city quota for 1813 was $109,230 for the three 
million direct tax. 

Personal property was not taxed by the United 
States direct tax. This induced many rich men to 
invest in Government stocks and other personal 
j)roperty. The city tax, however, was upon real and 
personal property, and all stocks, etc., were taxable 
in the hands of the holders. The names of all per- 
sons in the city of New York, in 1815, that were 
assessed for $5,000 and over on personal property 
can be found in the appendix to this volume. 



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CHAPTER XLVm. 

State and City Financial Condition— Loan by tbe City to United 
States on Treasury Notes Guaranteed by Governor Tompkins— 
State Militia Paid Off —City Banks Loan to Pay New Jersey 
Militia— Governor Tompkins' Patriotic Action — Martin Van 
Buren on (Governor Tompkins— Government Suit Against Him 
— His Vindication by a Jury and by Congress — Repaid by tbe 
National Government — Wbnt New York city sbould do. 



State and city finances were in much 
Btter condition than were those of the 
ation. 

The State had obtained no loans for 
le purpose of defence, but only made 
ppropriations of specific sums for 
specific purposes. ^ 

On the 22d October, 1814, a State law was passed 
compelling the Bank of America and the City Bank 
in New York city to advance to the order of the 
State Comptroller the amount they were bound to 
loan under their charter. 

On the 24th October a State law was passed 

authorizing the State to repay the money advanced 

for purchase of arms for the defence of New York 

city. 

No appropriation had been made for the payment 



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PAYMENT OF MILITIA. 415- 

of the militia that served in the defence of New 
York city during the Summer and Fall of 1814. 
How was this to be done ? Their term of service 
had expired and they were in need of their pay. 

The corporation had obtained a loan of one million 
dollars for the defence of the city (Ante, p. 239), and 
placed it in the hands of the Committee of Defence, 
and it was in the hands of T. R. Mercein, treasurer 
of the committee. An appUcation was made ta 
obtain some of this money from the city for that 
purpose. It came up before the Common Council. 
On the 23d December a resolution to loan the 
United States $400,000 on United States Treasury 
potes for six months was passed by eleven yeas. 
There were seven nays and three members not vot- 
ing (absent). 

This loan was also guaranteed by the personal 
liability of Governor Tompkins. The sum of $400,- 
000 was advanced by the city. 

In a speech in the New York State Senate in 1820 
by Martin Van Buren (afterwards President of the 
United States) it appears that Governor Tompkins 
had obtained loans for the use of the State militia 
upon United States Treasury notes by making him- 
self expressly personally liable for the loans as fol- 
lows : 

Manhattan Company, Bank of America, New 
York State Bank, Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of 
Albany, City Bank of New York ; Corporation of 
New York, in 1814, one of $400,000, and another of 
$100,000, with a certificate of T. R. Smith, secretary 
of the Committee of Defence, that said loans were 



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416 GOV. TOMPKINff ACTION. 

made upon the promise and that Governor Tomp- 
kins had made himself personally responsible by 
indorsing the Treasury notes which were given for 
^aid loans. This last loan was for the pajrment of 
1;he New Jersey militia in service in the defence of 
New York. 

The Bank of America loaned in December, 1814, 
$160,000 to Governor Tompkins for public purposes, 
on $165,000 United States Treasury notes, which 
the bank was authorized to sell at par. The Treas- 
ury notes were sold in 1815 and the proceeds were 
•deposited to the credit of the United States Govern- 
ment. The bank received one-eighth per cent on 
the loan and other great advantages from the Gov- 
ernment. At least one third of the deposits of the 
United States were made there. 

In regard to the loans in New York city, Mr. Van 
Buren said : 

^' Look sir, at the state of the country and of the 
city of New York in particular, when the loans from 
the Bank of America and the other public bodies in 
that city were obtained, and reflect on the uses to 
which they were appropriated ! The capitol of the 
nation had been laid in ashes by a ruthless foe, and 
the heads of our government driven from their oc- 
-cupations by his victorious arms ; Baltimore had 
been saved by a providential interposition ; your 
ft-ontiers were threatened in all directions ; large 
hostile armaments were known to be on the ocean, 
and New York believed by every one to be the des- 
tined scene of their operations ; the invasion of that 
was hourly expected. To meet this perilous crisis, 



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MABTIN VAN BURBNS STATEMENT. 417 

(Jovemor Tompkins had declined the honor and the 
comparative ease of the 'Department of State, ten- 
dered to him by the President. He called from vari- 
ous and remote parts of the State its best blood and 
its noblest spirits for the defence of New York. He 
contributed the advantage of his well-deserved pop- 
ularity and favor with the militia, and took upon him- 
self the actual command. But to give the deepest 
shade to the gloomy aspect of our affairs, and add to 
the difficulty of their redemption, the National 
Ctovemment was Uterally penniless. Kept without 
pay and deprived even of the means to obtain sup- 
plies, discontent and murmurs pervaded the camp — 
discontents which even the warmth of their attach* 
ment to their chief could not subdue. At this 
critical moment he applied for these loans, and 
oflferod to deposit with these banks the most valu- 
able securities of the Government to amounts larger 
than the loans which were asked — securities which 
would only fail with the Gk>vemment itself, but 
^* tell it not in Oath, publish it not in the streets 
of Askalon," that under such circumstances like 
these, when the city of their fathers was threatened 
with destruction, and the ashes of these fathers 
exposed to indignity — when the venerable institu- 
tions, the monuments of the arts and the proud 
improvements of ages were exposed to the hand of 
violence and the torch of the incendiary — when the 
excesses of Hampton and of Havre de Grace were 
staring them in the face and their wives and 
daughters were to be protected from pollution, — 
at such a time, sir, so eminently calculated .to rouse 



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418 PA YMENT OF NEW JERSEY MILITIA, 

into action the strongest feelings of their nature, 
these loans were refused^ unless this individual, who 
was as it were a stranger in their city, would hind 
his body and his estaie for their payment f They 
would not trust the Government of their country 
unless he would give his bond for its solvency ! He 
did it, and the danger passed by." 

The money obtained from the two Albany banks 
was for the supplies of the army at Sackett's Har- 
bor. 

In referring to this loan to pay the New Jersey 
militia Mr, Van Buren said : 

^' At a moment when the city of New York was 
menaced with destruction, when the alarm for its 
safety was at its height, the attention of oiir breth- 
ren of New Jersey was directed to our protection, 
and notwithstanding the danger to which their 
own coast was exposed, she sent a gallant and 
patriotic band of her citizen soldiers for the defence 
of New York. In common with the militia of our 
State, they were kept out of their pay, and sub- 
jected to the greatest embarrassments in obtaining 
supplies, through the inability of the general Gov- 
ernment to furnish the means. To afford relief in 
the pressing emergency and guard against the dis- 
astrous consequences which might have resulted 
from it to the service. Governor Tompkins on his 
own responsibility raised these moneys and expended 
them as I have stated." 

The money obtained by Governor Tompkins giv- 
ing his own notes and depositing United States 
Treasury notes for a much larger sum as coUatera 



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THE CITY REPAID. 419 

security amounted -in the aggregate to more than 
one million dollars ($1,150,000). Imprisonment for 
debt was then in force, so that, in fact, Governor 
Tompkins pledged his liberty, his fortune and his 
sacred honor for the payment of that amount by the 
nation. 

The Government account to reimburse the city 
of New York for the million loan was settled on 
15th June, 1815. The account to the credit of the 
city was $1,028,183.75, for which it received : 

United States six per cent stock $1,100,009 87 

Interest 10,816 25 

Treasury notes 53,000 00 

Cash expended 9,173 85 

Total $1,172,999 97 

Balance gained by city, $162,000. 
In the early part of the year 1820 General Mor- 
ton went to Washington and succeeded in procur- 
ing the balance of $37,000 due the city on account 
of lands occupied for fortifications, damages, etc., 
during the war. 

Governor Tompkins was very watchful of the 
payment of the mihtia. He issued the following 
order : 

'^ State op New York. 
**Gteneral Orders. 
*^ Headquarters, Albany, January 14, 1815. 
** The paymasters of the militia and volunteers of 
the State of New York are strictly charged and re- 
quired to pay to every non-commissioned officer, 
musician and private, in person where it be practi- 



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420 GOV. TOMPKiyer TRIAL 

cable, the full amoimt of pay due him either from 
the United States or Stat^ of New York, and to use 
every precaution in their power to defeat specula- 
tion or imposition upon the volunteers or militia by 
purchases of their pay.. 

^* By oixler of the Commander-in-Chief, 
* ' Anthony Lamb, 

"Aid-de-Camp." 

Besides borrowing money for the Government, a 
large amount was entrusted to Gk>vemor Tompkins 
for disbursement in connection with the war. He 
disbursed $1,982,000 for the general Government. 
He also disbursed a large amount for the State in 
connection with the militia. 

In distributing this vast amount of money or trust- 
ing others to do so was the cause of the financial 
ruin of Governor Tompkins. The lack of vouchers 
for disbursements made it appear that he was a large 
defaulter to the Government, of which his poUtical 
opponents took every advantage. 

The last advances made by the Govemnient to 
Gk)v. Tompkins was by warrant for $400,000, dated 
February 3, 1816. 

The State made a claim against him which was 
subsequently abandoned. He was elected Vice- 
President of the United States in 1817 and again in 
1821. An action was commenced in behalf of the 
Government against him in the United States Circuit 
Court in Now York city to recover several hundred 
thousand dollars. Thomas Addis Emmet and Josiah 
Ogden Hoffman were counsel for the defendant, and 
Robert Tillotson was counsel for the Government 



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BT THE OOVBRNMBNT, 421 

The case was tried in June, 1822, before Judge 
William P. Van Ness and a juiy. The trial occupied 
four days. Governor Tompkins personally ad- 
dressed the jury. The verdict was for the defend- 
ant. The jury gave the following certificate : 

*'We, the jurors in this cause, having found a 
verdict for the defendant, do also find and certify 
that there is, moreover, now due from the United 
States of America to the defendant, Daniel D, 
Tompkins, the sum of $136,799.97. 

^' Dated June 6, 1822."* 

This statement on the part of the jury was of no- 
avail to Governor Tompkins, only as a vindication 
of his action. There was no United States Court 
of Claims at that time before which he could appear 
and urge an adjustment of his accounts. He 
claimed among other things that he should be al- 
lowed five per cent on the receiving, advancing and 
disbursing of money for the Government. The 
amount of money he received on Government stock 
was $287,500 less than the stock. 

His several demands against the Government, a 
part of which were opposed not because they were 
unjust, but because they were not considered as 
coming within' the rules of office, and could only be 
allowed under a law of Congress authorizing the 
departments to audit and settle them. 

* See : " Report of Proceedings in the District Court of the United 
States for the District of New York, in a suit brought bj the United 
States against Daniel D. Tompkins, June 8, 1823, containing the 
testimony at large, tlie speeches of the defendant and of the counsel on 
both sides, together with the judge's charge. By One of the Jury. 
Pp. 54, New York, Printed by C. S Van Winkle, 



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422 REPORT TO C0NQRB88. 

On February 8, 1823, the House committee ap- 
pointed to inquire whether any legislative provision 
is necessary for the settlement of the accounts of 
Oovernor Tompkins, reported, and among other 
things the report stated : 

*'The committee find from the exhibits, as ad- 
mitted on each side, that the Governor did disburse 
$1,982,000 for the Government in the course of the 
late war, for which he was held responsible and 
required to account at various bureaus of the 
Treasury and War departments 

^^The committee is satisfied] that he made ad- 
vances to the Government ; that he borrowed about 
$1,382,827 from various corporations to aid the 
national treasury and promote the public service. 
That those loans were procureil by him at the earn- 
est entreaties of the President and the Acting Secre- 
tary of War. That, to aid him in procuring loans 
immediately, the Government proposed to send him 
Treasury notes in thirty or forty days, which he was 
direct^ to pledge at $110,000 for $100,000. That 
between December 1, 1814, and January 17, 1815, 
he found means to borrow $1,098,500 (part of the 
foregoing sum) from several corporations, including 
a loan of $400,000 from the corporation of the city 
of New York : for all which appears that he had to 
make himself personally responsible by contracts, 
relying, on his part, upon the promise of the Gov- 
ernment to advance the Treasury notes and take up 
his obligations. That part only of the notes (say 
$850,000) were sent in proper time to relieve him. 
That the city corporation pressed him for the prom- 



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REPORT ON GOV. TOMPKINS. 423 

ised deposits and for repayment, and that he was 
held up as a defaulter. That th^ failure of the 
Government put it out of his power to sustain his 
credit in the banks for such large sums ; that his 
previous attention to public affairs had compelled 
him to n^lect his own, and that the heavy pressure 
of these loans produced a derangement in his pri- 
vate concerns, which brought upon him, as he con- 
tends, an actual and specific loss of sixty thousand 
dollars. 

" The peculiar and complicated duties which were 
devolved upon the Governor as civil and military 
chief of the State and district referred to, and the 
special circumstances under which he was called 
upon to raise and disburse fimds for the Federal 
Qt)vernment, entitle him to expect an exact and 
prompt performance of its promises and a speedy 
reimbursement to relieve him from his embaiTass- 
ment. 

^* It is admitted that public moneys sent to him 
or raised by him have been faithfully applied to the 
public service or^kept in deposits in banks, or with 
public agents, ready to be used at any moment. 
That he served his coimtry faithfully and effectually 
is known to all. That he ran imminent risks to 
serve it is beyond a doubt. That the Treasury /at7ed 
to fulfill its engagements with him is no less certain, 
and it is manifest that no citizen could sustain him- 
self without loss against the heavy pressure of such 
large sums. That he foresaw the perils which 
afterwards assailed him is proven by the Honorable 
Euf us King, who conversed with him in the Autumn 



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424 REPORT ON GOV. TOMPKINS. 

of 1814, about * the condition of the public treasury, 
the unprotected state of the city of New York, and 
the inabiUty of the general Government to protect 
it, and urged, from the peculiar situation in which 
Providence had placed him, that it was his solemn 
duty to make great exertions and to assume great 
responsibilities. That the State, in a great measure, 
looked to him for its protection, and that he must 
call out the militia and find resources to pay them. 
That the Governor had stated in reply, that he was 
already committed very deeply, and that if he should 
go further in pecuniary responsibilities he must do it 
at the risk of ruin, in which Mr. King solemnly 
urged him to go on and do his duty, and if ruin was 
the consequence, to consent to endure it and look 
to the honor and gratitude of his country.' 

^* He did so ; he performed all that was required 
and more than was promised or expected from him. 
This is known alike to the committee and the coun- 
try and is recorded in the annals of the day. 

^^ Your committee must repeat that the Governor 
foresaw the hazard he was running, that he took 
the hazard, fearlessly and generously as became a 
patriot, trusting to the honor and justice of his 
country. 

^^On an examination and consideration of the 
accounts and claims, with all the attending circum- 
stances, it appears to your committee : 

'* Mrst — That it is no more than an act of justice 
to allow interest on all moneys advanced by Mr. 
Tompkins on account of the public, from the time 



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GOV. TOMPKINS VINDICATED. 425 

of his making such advances to the time of his 
being reimbm^sed. 

^^ Second— Thsit it would be just and equitable to 
allow a reasonable commission on all moneys dis- 
bursed by him during the late war. 

^* Third—That he should be indemnified for losses 
sustained by him in consequence of any failure on 
the part of Government to fulfill its engagements 
to send him money and Treasury notes within the 
time specified, to be deposited in certain banks as 
collateral security for loans procured by him, at the 
request of and on the account of Government. 

^ * JFhurth — That he ought not to be held responsible 
for losses incurred by any frauds or failures of sub- 
agents, to whom moneys were advanced through 
his hands. 

^^ With this view of the subject a bill accompany- 
ing this report is respectfully submitted." 

The bill provided that the proper accovmting offi- 
cers of the United States Treasury be and are hereby 
authorized to adjust and settle the accounts and 
claims of Daniel D. Tompkins, late Governor of the 
State of New York, on principles of equity and jus- 
tice, subject to the revision and final decision of the 
President of the United States, and that the second 
section of the act of April 20, 1822, shall not be con- 
strued to extend to or apply to the said Daniel D. 
Tompkins. The bill was passed on 20th February, 
1823, with only two or three dissenting votes in the 
Senate. 

The matters were finally settled some months 



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426 STATUE OF GOV. TOMPKINS, 

afterwards by the Government paying Gk)vemor 
Tompkins fifty thousand dollars in full.* 

What further has been done by the Government 
and by the State, and by the City of New York, to 
commemorate the great services of Governor Tomp- 
kins in the war of 1812? Nothing! We know 
what the City of New York should do — erect an 
appropriate statue of him in Central Park. 

* Some newspapers stated that tbirty or forty thousand dollars 
only was paid. The writer was told by a man who saw the warrant 
or order that it was for fifty thousand dollars. 



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CHAPTER XLIX. 

Financial Standing of New York City— Annual Expenditures— City 
Debt — Revenue and Taxation— Valuation of Real and Personal 
Property— State Taxes— City Fractional Currency— Charitable 
Aid to Soldiers and to Sufferers on Niagara Frontier— Charter 
Election. 



I HEN doubt and mistrust were over all 
in 1814, the financial standing of the 
city was of the highest order. The 
city debt, represented by six per cent 
stock, was only $700,000. 

In June, 1812, by permission of the 
Legislature, $700,000 city stock was 
issued, although $1)00,000 was authorized, at six per 
cent, payable in 1826. This was the first permanent 
debt of New York city. 

In April, 1813, this was three per cent above par. 
It was then that the measure to establish a sinking 
fund for the redemption of the stock when it became 
due in 1826 was adopted. The ordinance of August 
9, 1813, set apart certain sources of the city revenue 
for that purpose ; it ttfen amounted to about thirty 
thousand dollars a year. 

The ordinary expenditures for canying on the 
city government were about $230,000 a year. In 




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428 CITY TAXES. 



coflrse of the year 1814 over $200,000 were expended 
for improvements of a permanent nature. The 
ordinary receipts from revenue were about $125,000 
for that year. The sale of corporate property and 
other sources of revenue greatly reduced the amount 
raised by taxation that year. 

The amount borrowed by the 'city for defence 
loan in 1814 does not enter into this account of city 
finances, as the matter was principally arranged by 
the State and the general Gk)vernment. 

The expenditures for the city and county govern- 
ment, for ordinary purposes, were : In 1814, $224,- 
871.89 ; 1815, $209,479,08; 1816, $199,884.28. 

This was mainly upon the following interests: 
Almshouse and Bridewell, city watch, county con- 
tingencies, fire department, lamps. 

The amount raised by taxation for city and county 
purposes was as follows: 1814, $214,225.09; 1815, 
$197,613.38; 1816, $180,653.94. 

There was no State tax in the city prior to 1815. 
The amount of State tax in the city was : In 1815, 
$163,372.08; 1816, $164,148.50. 

The valuation of real and personal property in 
the city and county of New York for city and 
State taxes, according to City Comptrollers' reports, 
was as follows: 1813, $27,650,230; 1814, $23,091,- 
487; 1815, $^,636,042; 1816, $82,074,200.* 

The state board of United States assessors for the 
apportionment of the United States direct tax val- 

* The names of each purson la New York city assessed ou per* 
sonal property to the value of five thousand dollars and over in 1815 
can be found in the appendix to this volume. 



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01T7 TAXES. 429 



ued the lands and lots with their improvements, 
dwelling houses and slaves in New York city and 
vicinity at $56, 820, 852. The city quota of this direct 
tax was $177,410.68, being at the rate of $3.15 in 
each thousand of valuation. 

The total amount of city and State tax in each 
year was as follows : 

RATE. 

1815 $361,285 45 $4 15 

1816 344,802 54 4 20 

The rate given is dollars and cents per thousand 
of valuation. 

It will be observed that the valuation of real and 
personal property, including United States Govern- 
ment stock, in January, 1815, was about three times 
what it was in the years 1813 and 1814 previous. 
The valuation in 1815 was at the rate of $833 per 
capita of population estimated at 9S,000.* 

On December 26, 1814, the City Comptroller, 
Thomas E. Mercein, Esq., reported on the city 

* la 1894 the valuation of real and personal property for taxa- 
tion in New York city was |2, 033, 882, 000. Tliis did not include 
United States Government bonds or the stocks of corporations 
(excepting bank stocks) held by residents, but it claimed to include 
the value of the capital of private corporations located in the city. 

The valuation per capita in 1894, based on an estimated popula- 
tion of 1,800,000. is about |1,100. 

In 1894 the tax in the city for State purposes was $4,112,260, 
The amount raised for city purposes was $84,551,991. The revenue 
from general fund was $8,600,000. The interest on the city debt 
and sinking fund for redemption of city debt, exclusive of the 
amount by law chargeable to the sinking fund and exclusive of 
amount provided for the sinking fund, wiis $7,000,200, included in 
above. 



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430 C1T7 PAPER MONET. 

fractional currency already issued, and proposed 
that a fund be created to redeem them, and that 
when said bills were 4ssued, the amount thereof 
should be paid for some kind of stock which might 
thereafter be disposed of to redeem the bills when 
called in. The plan v/as adopted. 

In May, 1815, $20,000 more of this fractional 
currency was authorized, and on July 3, 1815, 
$30,000 more. 

The various denominations were in cents, as fol- 
lows ; One, four, six, nine, twelve and one-half, 
twenty-five, fifty. 

The total amount issued was $245,356. 

This currency continued in general circulation 
until specie payment was resumed by the banks 
on July 1, 1817, on the establishment of the National 
Bank with a capital of $35,000,000, and then it was 
gradually withdrawn. 

The citizens of New York, in all their anxiety 
and danger, did not forget the sufferings and needs 
of their neighbors. Danger seemed to make them 
more sympathetic. The incursions of the enemy 
on the Niagara frontier had caused much suffering 
in families for the necessaries of life in the Autumn. 
In October, 1814, the Common Council of the city 
voted an appropriation of $3,000 for the Niagara 
sufferers, and the private subscriptions in the city 
were $3,023 more, and the donations from collec- 
tions in churches in the city were $1,286 more for 
the same purpose. 

A ladies' association, composed of many of the 
most prominent in social position in the city, was 



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CHARITABLE DONATIONS. 431 

formed in October, 1814. Their object was to assist 
the soldiers of the United States and those on military 
duty (particularly those on the lakes) with cloth 
hoods, moccasins, socks and mittens. The man- 
agers solicited contributions for that purpose. They 
were : Mrs. General Lewis, Headquartei-s ; ^Ir^. 
Wm. Few, Greenwich ; Mrs. David Gelston, Green- 
wich ; Mrs. Philip Livingston, Park place ; Mrs. 
Col. E. W. Laight, 340 Broadway ; Mrs. Thoma& 
Morris, 84: Chamber st.; Mrs. Marinus Willett, 
Corlear's Hook ; Mrs. Wm. Ross, 208 Broadway ; 
Mrs. Nathan Sanford, 25 Pine st.; Mrs. Daniel 
Smith, 62 Broad st. ; Mrs. L. Bradish> 9 Pearl st. ; 
Miss M. Bleecker, Broadway ; Miss H. Lewis, 
Whitehall st. ; Mrs. H. E. C. Bradish, secretary. 

Many donations were made for this benevolent 
object, and substantial benefits were derived from 
it by the distributions made by the officers of the 
army and navy on the Northern and Western bor- 
ders of the United States. 

The charter election commenced on third Tuesday 
of November and continued for three days. The 
result of the election was, however, less favorable 
to the Democrats than in the year previous, as the 
Federalists regained the Sixth Ward, which they 
lost in the previous election ; thus the Federalists 
had six wards to the Democrats' four. 

The aldermen in each ward were re-elected except- 
ing in Third Ward, A. H. Lawrence, Federalist, in 
place of Charles Dickenson, Federalist, and in 
Eighth Ward William Few in place of Peter H. 
Wendover, both Democrats. More personal changes^ 



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432 CHARTER ELECTION. 

were ipade in the assistant aldermen. See names in 
Vol. I., p. 425, appendix. The Committee of Defence, 
from December 13, 1814, until December, 1815, were 
the Bame aldermen as the previous year, but among 
the assistant aldermen Qeneral Mapes took the 
place of John Nitchie, and Tucker of Brackett, aU 
Federalists.* 

This Ck>mmittee of Defence did not make the final 
sreport to the Common Council until November 6tii, 
1815. See appendix to this volume. 

* A law was pa«8ed on April 11, 1815, requiriDg tbat the time of 
qibarter election should be on last Tuesday in April of each year, but 
that those already elected should remain in office during the period 
lor which they were elected, to wit, until January, 1816. 



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CHAPTEE L. 

Holiday Season of 1814-15— Numerous Dinners to Prominent Men- 
Arrival of Cartel Ship J^winy— Rigorous Blockade of the Atlantic 
Coast— Vigilance of Military Authorities— General Boyd Placed 
in Command at New York by Governor Tompkins— Commodore 
Decatur Runs the Blockade— Skirmish With the Enemy and is 
Captured— Other War Vessels Run the Blockade. 

I WE have before seen that there were 
numerous private dinners that were 
largely made up of notable men. 

The large number of prominent 
military and naval officers present 
in the city, together with the Gov- 
ernor and his staflf and some Fed- 
eral and State judges and other 
high officials, made the Winter season in the city 
more attractive for them than ever before. The 
invitations to the public men to attend private dinners 
so crowded them that they were compelled to decline 
many and choose from othei* more prominent and 
select gatherings. Probably not an afternoon passed 
from December 1st until the fore part of March 
without several prominent dinner parties being 
given, or a theatre party in the evening. The Lenten 
season was not regarded by society generally at that 
time so as to have any marked effect upon the 




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434 HARBOR BLOCKADED. 

social pursuits of the populace. New York city was 
then the social as well as the commercial metropohs 
of the United States. 

The notable dinners given during the entire season 
were marked by the prevalence of political feeling 
shown by those whe led on the occasion as well as 
the place of the entertainment. Those at Tammany 
Hall were Democrats and in favor of the war. 
Those at Washington Hall were Federalists and 
opposed to the war and the policy of the national 
administration. 

The port of New York and many others on the 
Atlantic Coast were now vigorously blockaded by a 
powerful and vigilant squadron of war vessels. 

Cai-tel ships were arriving from time to time in 
the harbor. The most notable one about this time 
was on 3d December, when the Jenny arrived in 
thirty-two days from Dartmouth, England, with 
twenty-six passengers on board, eight of whom 
were New Yorkers and the remainder belonged to 
Boston and Philadelphia. 

The Narrows was the course taken by all outgoing 
and incoming vessels of any size. This was care- 
fully guarded by the vigilance of the military 
authorities of both nations. 

Privateers were running the blockade to get into 
port and again running it to get to sea. 

The United States military authorities issued the 
following order : 

*^ New York, December 21st, 1814. 

''Privateers or armed vessels proceeding to sea 
will be permitted to pass Fort Gates without being 



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GENERAL BOYD IN COMMAND, 435 

brought to, but all vessels coming in and all un- 
armed private vessels going out will be brought to 
as usual. The commanding officer of the forts on 
Staten Island will bring to and examine all out- 
ward-bound privateers and armed vessels. 
*'By order 

^^ Thomas Christie, 
"Ast. Adj.-Gen." 
When Governor Tompkins left New York city to 
attend to his duties at Albany as Governor of the 
State he placed Q^n. J. P. Boyd as chief in command 
of the Third Military District of the United States. 

A letter of Governor Tompkins to the Mayor and 
read in Common Council December 26, 1814, is as 

follows : 

''New York, December 25, 1814. 

'' Sir — On Monday next the command of this dis- 
trict will devolve on Brig. -Gen. J. P. Boyd in conse- 
quence of my temporary absence. 

'' I cannot, sir, leave the city without expressing 
my acknowledgment of the liberality and patriotism 
of the corporation, of the Committee of Defence, and 
of the citizens of New York, as regards the defence 
of this important position, and of the attention, con- 
fidence and support with which I have been hon- 
ored during my command. 

'' I pray you, sir, to convey this acknowledgment 
to the respectable body over which you preside, and 
to accept for yourself the assurance of my consid- 
eration. Daniel D, Tompkins. 

*' The Hon. De Witt Clinton, 
** Mayor, etc." 



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436 COMMODORE DECATUR 8AILB. 

On the 27th December, 1814, the following order 
was issued : 

' * Brigadier-Qeneral Boyd has the honor of assum- 
ing by order of yesterday the command of Third 
Military District." 

Commodore Decatur was placed in command of 
a squadron consisting of the President^ the Peacock 
and the Hornet^ and the store ship Tom Bowliney of 
twelve guns and ninety men. The three latter had 
run the blockade a few weeks before and were in 
New York harbor (ante, pp. 378, 379). This squadron* 
was intended to ciniise in the East Indies. 

The blockading squadron off New York in Janu- 
ary then consisted of the fifty -six-gun razee Majes- 
tic, Captain Hayes ; twenty-four-pounder frigate 
Pdmona, 38 Captain Lumly, and eighteen-pounder 
frigate 38 TenedoSj Captain Parker. On 14:th a 
severe snow storm came on and blew the blockading 
squadron off the coast. This was considered a 
favorable opportunity to pass the blockade. 

Commodore Decatur had been very anxious to get 
to sea with his vessel, the Presidenty of forty-four 
gims. Many of the ofiBcers and jnen on board were 
from New York city. Many of them shipped 
mostly for the novelty and excitement of the naval 
warfare in prospect and for a share in the glory that 
had been won by the American vessels. If the 
blockade could be safely passed all after that 
seemed smooth and tranquil, and the sails of many 
British merchantmen that would appear in the hori- 
zon would soon be furled on demand with only the 
firing of a single gun, and the valuable prizes on board 



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BUNNIITQ THB BLOCKADE, 437 

would belong to the captors. The only way to run 
the blockade was to start out secretly at some 
opportune moment when wind and tide were favor- 
able and hope that the enemy would not see them. 
The President had about four hundred and twenty- 
five men on board. The time chosen was on Satur- 
day evening, January 14th, and they hoped to be 
out of sight of the enemy before daylight, or to be 
safely ahead of them. 

The following is an extract of a letter from Com- 
modore Decatur, published at that time, giving an 
account of the start and capture : 

'^The night we left the Hook, owing to some 
blunders of our pilots, we struck on the bar and 
there remained thumping for two hours until the 
tide rose. At dayUght we fell in with the British 
squadron, consisting of the MajestiCj Endymwriy. 
Pomona^ Tenedos and Despatch brig. My ship^ 
owing to her getting aground, lost her sailing* 
I lightened her as much as possible, but the enemy 
gained on us. The jEndyw/on, mounting 24- pound- 
ers on her gun deck, was the leading ship of the 
enemy <, She got close under my quai*ters and was 
cutting my rigging without my being able to bring 
a gun to bear upon her. To suffer this was making 
my capture certain, and that, too, without injury 
to my enemy. I therefore bore up for the Eady- 
mion and engaged her for two hours, when we 
silenced and beat her off. At this time the rest of the 
ships had got within two miles of us. We made all 
the sail we could from them, but it was in vain. In 
three hours the Pomona and Tenedos were along- 



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438 CAPTURE OF COMMODORE DECATUR, 

side, and the Majestic and Endymion close to us. 
All that was now left for me to do was to receive 
the fire of the nearest ship and surrender ; for it 
was in vain to contend with the whole squadron. 
My loss has been severe, the precise number I do 
not know, but I believe it to be between SO and 90 ; 
of this number 25 are killed. Babbitt, Hamilton 
and Howell are among the slain." 

The firing was distinctly heard at Stonington and 
Newport. 

The loss on the President was twenty-four killed 
and fifty-six wounded. That of the enemy was 
•eleven killed and fourteen wounded. 

The captured vessel and the prisoners were 
immediately taken to Bermuda. The prisoners 
were paroled and left to make their way to the 
United States or elsewhere, as they might choose. 

It was thought by many that traitorous informa- 
tion of the sailing of the President had been given 
within twelve hours after her sailing, which led to 
her capture. It appeared that before sunrise on 
Sunday morning the British ship Majestic, which 
lay near Plumb Island, got under way in great 
haste and proceeded to sea, leaving her water casks 
principally on shore. A remarkable circumstance, 
said the New York Commercial Advertiser, which 
leads to the suspicion that information had been 
given to the enemy of the sailing of the President. 

Among the young men on board from New York 
city who were captured and taken to Bermuda as 
prisoners was Ogden Hoflfman, son of Recorder 



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WAR VESSELS SAIL. 439 

Josiah Ogden Hoflfman, who afterwards became an 
eminent lawyer and member of Congress and 
United States District Attorney and Attorney Gen- 
eral of the State. At that time he was a midship- 
man. 

The remainder of the squadron sailed from New 
York and passed the blockade on January 22d and 
proceeded to the East Indies, and did not return to 
the United St^ites until after the termination of the 
war. 

The last battle at sea was by the Hornet , that cap- 
tured the Penquin on 23d March, 1815. The last 
hostile gun fired in the war was from the Peacock 
when the Nautilus surrendered to her on the 30th 
June, 1815. 



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CHAPTER LI. 

Prospects of the Campaign of 1815— Feeling in New York— Pros* 
pects of Peace — The Negotiations at Ghent — The Congress of 
Vienna — A National Day of Fasting and Prayer— Longing for 
Peace. 



OW the campaign of 1814 was over and 
it had been favorable to American 
arms, our national pride and feel" 
ing had been aroused for continued 
exertion. Although peace was desh^ed 
by all, yet there was a more united 
feeling for exertion and effort to repel invasion, and 
confidence in the conditions to do so. 

The prospects for the campaign of 1815 were more 
encouraging than that of 1814 at the beginning of the 
latter year. The thorough awakening of the nation 
to its danger from experiences of 1814, as well as of 
its victories and rallying of means of defence were 
encouraging, as well as a modification of the offer 
for terms of peace, which, for some months, had 
seemed almost certain of acceptance. 

The American people had more confidence in 
themselves and in their military leaders than they 
had at any previous time during the two preceding 



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FSEL1NQ8 ABOUT THE WAR. 441 

years of the war. This feeling showed itself among 
all classes, and now that all plans of the conquest 
of Canada were abandoned, and self-defence and 
self-respect were the common object, the discussions 
of the causes of the war were idle, and the invader 
must be bravely met, if need be, at the homes and 
firesides of the American people. 

During the winter of 1814-15 the Rev. Alexander 
McLeod, D.D., pastor of the Reformed Scotch Pres- 
byterian Church, located on the north side of Cham- 
ber street, back of City Hall Park, preached a series 
of sermons on '' A Scriptural View of the Character, 
Causes and Ends of the Present War." He was one 
of the most eminent and talented clergymen of that 
time, and T may add of modem times, of which we 
have any record. Among other remarks made in 
the closing sermon in 1816, before the treaty of 
peace was known, he said : 

" Fourth. As another effect of the contest, the 
American name, respected abroad, will communi- 
cate at home the impulse of patriotism. The love 
of coimtry, weakened by familiarity with its ene- 
mies, and destroyed by the love of wealth, shortly 
after the war which established the independence 
of America, will be revived by this second war of 
independence; and the several moneyed interests 
which are set in operation independently of British 
commerce, as well as the growing influence of 
domestic literature and arts, will serve to cherish 
that passion in the breasts of the rising generation." 

On the other hand. Great Britain was better pre- 
pared and more able to continue the war than in the 



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442 PROSPECTS OF PEACE. 

two previous years, particularly with the naval aid 
now available. 

From a report in March, 1815, the number of ves- 
sels in the British navy was 829 ; of these 523 were 
in commission, 270 subject to orders and 36 were 
building. 

Four of these of forty guns each and one of fifty 
guns were fitted out for the American service in the 
fore part of the year 1814. 

There was no fear of invasion by a winter cam- 
paign on land by the enemy on the northern border. 
The example of Napoleon's winter campaign in 
Russia settled the policy and probable result of such 
an undertaking. The northern seaboard also felt 
safe from any attack during the winter. Admirals 
Cochrane and Malcohn departed from the Atlantic 
coast in October, and went to Jamaica to await 
further reinforcements from Europe, probably for 
the purpose of a winter campaign against Louisiana 
and the Floridas. The arrival of Admiral Cochrane 
and his reinforcements, consisting of a total of more 
than fifty vessels and seven thousand land troops, 
on the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, in the 
fore part of December, left no doubt of the intention 
of the enemy to attempt the conquest of Louisiana. 
This was not known in New York until near the 
middle of January. 

General Jackson had command of the Southern 
department, but very Uttle was known of his forces 
and the facilities he had to resist an attack upon 
New Orleans. The news from that quarter was 
vague and scattered, but something more definite 



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thh: negotiations for peace. 443 

was anxiously looked for by many as days and 
weeks rolled on. The capture of New Orleans 
would mean the "conquest of the newly-acquired 
State and vast territory of Louisiana, while a vic- 
tory there would add to our national pride, and give 
further courage to all, and tend to a sooner termi- 
nation of the war. 

The prospects of peace were not encouraging from 
the action on the part of the enemy in the negotia- 
tions. 

About the middle of October intelhgence of the 
commencement and progress of the negotiations at 
Ghent had been published, and the offers of the 
new terms were well understood by the people at 
large. 

The British commissioners did not arrive at Ghent 
until 6th August, and a meeting was held on 8th, 
at which time the claims of Great Britain were fully 
presented. On the evening of that day the 
United States commissioners received the in- 
structions of June 25th and 27th. A meeting 
was held next day and the negotiations proceeded 
on the terms and demands offered by the United 
States. 

On the 19th August the British commissioners 
proposed another conference, and as prehminary 
thereto asked further concessions on the part of the 
United States. These documents from the commis- 
sioners were received at Washington on October 
10th, and in a few days were before the country. 
No citizens of the United States wished the Govern- 
ment to make any further concessions than the 



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444 CONDITIONS IN EUROPE. 

instructions already given and stated in a former 
chapter (ante, p. 290). 

Making public these negotiations caused much 
complaint on all sides, so much so that nothing 
further could be found out about their progress from 
that time, only from rumors and private sources and 
conjectures. 

About December 1, 1814, a Wilmington (Del.) 
newspaper published the substance of letters from 
Mr. Bayard, one of the negotiators, dated Ghent, 
October 26th, in which he stated that the negotia- 
tions on part of Great Britain wore exclusively to 
her own purpose, and not with any direct intention 
of making peace between the two countries, and 
Great Britain was disposed to wait the issues of the 
congress at Vienna before she would close the 
negotiation one way or the other. 

The congress at Vienna originated in the thirty- 
second article of the treaty of Paris, dated May 30, 
1814, the professed object of which was to restore 
European powers as nearly as possible to the condi- 
tion in which they stood previous to the French Re- 
volution in 1792. 

This treaty was well known in the United States, 
having been published in full in some of the New 
York newspapers and elsewhere in the summer of 
1814. 

The thirty-second article provided **In the space 
of two months, all the powers who have been en- 
gaged on one side or the other in the present war, 
shall send plenipotentiaries to Vienna to regu- 
late in general congress the arrangements which 



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POSITION OF THE UNITED STATES. 445 

are to complete the dispositions of the present 
treaty." 

It was claimed on the pai*t of the United States 
commissioners that under this the United States 
should have a formal representative. This the con- 
gress would not allow. But the exclusion of a 
formal representative could not prevent the consid- 
eration of the facts and existing conditions. It 
was seen that no better or abler advocate of Ameri- 
can interests could be had than M. Talleyrand, who 
represented France in the congress. He had always 
been, and still was the friend of America, and a 
skilled diplomat, as well as one of the most active 
and leading members of the congress of Vienna. 
Albert Gallatin, one of the American Commission- 
el's, was his friend and an old acquaintance. In 
this way American interests and desires could be 
considered in the action of the congress. 

Other influences in favor of France and America 
against undue British supremacy were the Russian 
representatives in the Congress of Vienna. 

It was published in the United States about Ist 
December that the congress had adjourned to No- 
vember Ist, and that M. Talleyrand had presented 
a memorial to the envoys of the congress of Vienna 
protesting against the aggrandizement of other 
powers, particularly Great Britain, and claiming 
that they should return to the possessions of 1792, 
the same as France under the treaty of Paris of 
April 23, 1814. 

It was apparent, if this condition was to be 
observed, that the negotiations at Ghent must fol- 



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446 POSITION OF ORBAT BRITAIN. 

, ■ 

low them as to America, because so many Euro- 
pean powers were interested in colonial possessions 
on the North American continent and the islands 
contiguous. 

We have before seen (ante, Vol. L, p. 397) that 
Great Britain had claimed with much authority 
that under the law of nations the United States 
was an ally of France. Upon the surrender of 
Napoleon and the treaty of Paris on 23d April, 1814, 
to suspend hostilities against France, a different 
view was taken of the position of the United States. 

On 6th May, 1814:, the prince regent, in the name 
of the king, issued a proclamation which, among 
other things, provided: **We do hereby strictly 
charge and command all his majesty's officers, both 
at sea and land, and all other of his majesty's sub- 
jects whatsoever, that they forbear all acts of hos- 
tility, either by sea or land, against the kingdom of 
France, her allies, her vessels or subjects, under the 
penalty of incurring his majesty's displeasure." 

It was apparent to all that if Great Britain now 
continued the war against the United States that it 
was for the purpose of her own aggrandizement 
and power, and the acquisition of more territory on 
the American continent, and this meant a maritime 
power which would be a menace to the peace and 
freedom of other European powers. 

Again, if Great Britain was allowed to retain the 
extensive territory of the United States already 
obtained by conquest in the war, the same condition 
would confront European nations. The thoughtful 
American people had this in view. It therefore 



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HARTFORD CONVENTION, 447 

remained for the congress at Vienna to say whether 
Great Britain must accept the terms of peace offered 
by the United States and surrender the conquered 
territory and cease hostilities and stop any fur- 
ther attempt to acquire any more tenitory or power 
over sea or land. 

Another confirmation of this view was that Lord 
Hill, who was to take command of the British 
forces against America in the latter part of 1814, 
still remained in England, and it was reported and 
fully understood there as well as elsewhere that he 
was awaiting the action of the congress at Vienna 
in regard to the terms of peace between European 
nations. 

Thus the American people were kept in hope of 
peace and in calm suspense and subdued determina- 
tion to bravely meet the worst if it should come. 

The Hartford convention commenced its session 
on the 15th December, composed of twenty-six 
delegates, representing the discontented portion of 
those in the New England States. It was regarded 
as a traitorous conclave opposed to the action of 
the Government in the conduct of the war. It sat 
with closed doors for three weeks, and caused 
much alarm at Washington. On the 4th January 
the convention adjourned, and a report and the 
resolutions adopted by them were announced. Their 
proceedings were still kept secret. It was all a 
source of groat apprehension of trouble to the general 
Government and to the inhabitants in New York, 
and more than anything else caused an earnest 
desire for peace. 



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448 HUMILIATION AND PBAYBRS 

The desire for peace was universal in America as 
well as in Europe. In November the two houses of 
Congress, by a joint resolution, expressed a desire 
'*that in the present time of public calamity and 
war a day be recommended to be observed by the 
people of the United States as a day of public 
humiliation and fasting, and of prayer to Almighty 
God for the safety and welfare of these States, His 
blessings on their arms, and a speedy restoration of 
peace.'- The President issued a proclamation, dated 
16th November, 1814, by which he recommended 
^Hhat Thursday, January 12, 1815, be set a] tart as 
a day on which all would have an opportunity of 
voluntarily offering at the same time, in their 
respective rehgious assemblies, their humble adora- 
tions to the Great Sovereign of the Universe, of 
confessing their sins and transgressions, and of 
strengthening their vows of repentance and amend- 
ment " The proclamation further continued : 
^' They will be invited by the same solemn occasion 
to call to mind the distinguished favors conferred 
on the American people in the general health which 
has been enjoyed ; in the abundant fruits of the 
season ; in the pi-ogress of the arts instrumental to 
their comforts ; their prosperity and their security, 
and in the victories which have so powerfully con- 
tributed to the defence and protection of our 
country ; a devout thankfulness for all which ought 
to be mingled with their supplications to the Be- 
neficent Parent of the human race, that He would be 
graciously pleased to pardon all their offences 
against Him ; to support and animate them in the 



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PRATINQ FOR PEACE. 449 

discharge of their respective duties ; to continue to 
them the previous advantages flowing from political 
institutions so auspicious to their safety against 
dangers from abroad, to their tranquiUty at home, 
and to their Uberties, civil and religious ; and that 
He would, in a special manner, preside over their 
nation in its public councils and constituted author- 
ities, giving wisdom to its measures and success to 
its arras, in maintaining its rights, and in over- 
coming all hostile designs and attempts against it ; 
and finally, that by inspiring the enemy with dis- 
positions favorable to a just and reasonable peace, 
its blessings may bo speedily and happily restored." 

This proclamation and request by the President 
was dated 16th November, and was given out long 
before the day appointed, for it then took three or 
four weeks to 'reach the most remote portions of the 
United States. 

The Common Council of New York officially ** re- 
commended that all citizens abstain on that day from 
all secular employments and devote themselves to 
those duties which the solenmity of the occasion 
dtniands." 

On the 12th January the day was universally ob- 
served by all persons in every class and condition 
by refraining from amusement, business and work 
as on a Sunday. No newspapers were issued on 
that day in the United States. 

In some parts of New England many stores and 
places of business were kept open, but the churches 
held the service. In some instances the clergy took 
occasion to denounce the war. 



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450 LOAGING FOR PEACE. 

The devotion, supplication and thankfulness ex- 
pressed on that day were wonderfully impressive, 
more so, perhaps, than on any other similar occasion 
before or since that time. The long fast was brok- 
en by a dinner at the close of the day, after sunset. 

There was an oppressive feeling and longing for 
peace that could not be thrown off. 



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CHAPTER LII. 

Colonel Bogardus iu CommaDd at New York — Presentation to 
General Brown by the City— Salutes for Victory at New Oilcans 
— Treaty of Peace Arrives — Demonstrations of Joy in New 
York— Salutes From the Forts— Action of the CommoD Conn- 
cil — Preparations for a Grand Celebration. 



I HEN Gen. J. P. Boyd took his depart- 
ure from New York on 24th Janu- 
ary to serve on court-martial of Gen- 
eral Wilkinson, at Utica, Governor 
Tompkins designated Col. Eobert 
Bogardus, of the Forty -first United 
States Infantry, to act as commander 
of Third Mihtary District of New York.* 

The news of the capture of the President an-ived 
in the city on the 28th January. A movement was 
at once set on foot to build another frigate for Com- 
modore Decatur. In a few days it was announced 
that the ship carpenters of the Brooklyn Navy Yard 

* Col. Robert Bogardus, of the Forty-flrst United States Infanlrv, 
and nearly all his regiment, were residents of New York city, fie 
afterwards became a general of militia and a prominent lawyer in 
New York city. He died September 12, 1841, from a cold contracted 
while he was attending the inauguration of Gen. William Henry 
Harrison as President or the United States. 




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452 PRESENTATION TO GENERAL BROWN. 

volunteered upwards of sixteen hundred days' work 
towards building a frigate for the Commodore. 

The following from the Gazette shows how well 
New York city was prepared for war at that time : 

* * We yesterday visited the arsenal near the Col- 
lect, and wish every citizen of this metropolis would 
embrace an early opportunity of inspecting this 
Tower of London in miniature. There we behold 
in perfect order, most fancifully displayed, from 
12,000 to 15,000 stands of arms which were used 
during the last campaign, together with every 
requisite appendage so admirably arranged that one 
thousand men can, without the least confusion, be 
completely equipped in an hour, and 15,000 men may 
be accoutred for the field of battle in fifteen 
hours." 

Gen. Jacob Brown, the hero of Fort Erie and of 
the battles on the Niagara frontier, had. been 
officially invited to visit the city of New York and 
sit for his portrait, and have a gold box and the 
freedom of the city presented to him. He arrived 
in the city on the 26th January, 1815. On the 4th 
February the ceremony of presentation took place 
in the City Hall, in the Common Council chamber. 
It was the same in manner and form as was usual 
in such cases, which have already been described 
(Vol. I., pp. 128, 131, 319, 371). 

His portrait was subsequently painted at the 
expense of the city and placed in the Governor's 
Room in the City Hall. 

This is notable as being the last presentation of 
the kind during the war. General Macomb and 



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VTCTORT AT NBW ORLKANti, 453 

Commodore Macdonough had each been similarly 
honored a few weeks previous.* 

On Monday, 6th February, in the forenoon, news 
from New Orleans was received that the enemy had 
been i-epulsed with great loss on the 8th January. 
The Commercial Advertiser issued a hand bill, as it 
was called, containing an account of the battle. 
The Gazette issued an extra containing some letters 
dated January 13th, with more detail of the battle. 

The Columbian published both of the above ac- 
counts, and added some more information from 
other sources. 

It was expected that the official account from 
General Jackson would arrive in a day or two. 

A national salute was immediately fired from 
the forts on Governor's Island in honor of the vic- 
tory at New Orleans, t In the evening Tammany 
Hall building and the front of the theater were 
brilliantly illuminated. 

The official account of the battle arrived about 
noon on the 7th, and was published in an extra by 
the New York Gazette. New Orleans was not then 
deemed safe from any further attack by the enemy. 



* The portraits of the heroes of the war of 1812-15 in the Gover- 
nor's Room in ilie City Hall were by the following-named painters : 
Commodore Perry, by Jarvis ; Commodore Bainbridge, by Jarvis ; 
Captain Hull, by Jarvis ; Commodore Macdonough, by Jarvis ; 
Commodore Decatur, by Sully ; General Williams, by Trumbull ; 
General Swift, by Jarvis ; General Morton, by Jarvis ; General 
Macomb, by Jarvis ; General Brown, by Jarvis, 

f A national salute was eighteen ^uns. The guns used at the 
forts and posts for s>ilutes were from six to twelve pounders, and of 
no higher calibre. Tiiis was prrscribed by the army regulations. 



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454 FI.AO OF TLtUCB. 



It was several days later before news arrived that 
New Orleans was safe from any further attack. 

The winter was very severe about this time. The 
Hudson was frozen across to Jersey City, and the 
Sound was frozen across from the mainland to 
Sands Point. For many days at a time no vessels 
arrived in the port of New York. 

On the afternoon of February 11th the British 
sloop of war Favorite spoke the Endymion and 
Tenedos of the blockading squadron off Sandy 
Hook, and informed them that she was the bearer 
of special messengers with the treaty of peace. She 
then learned of the capture of the President, She 
was permitted to approach Sandy Hook under a flag 
<>f truce. 

It was there ascertained that she desired to sail 
up to the city. In order to safely pass the forts a 
permit must be obtained from the military author- 
ities, whose headquarters were in the city. This 
was done as soon as circumstances would permit, 
which took several hours from the time of the 
arrival off Sandy Hook and the return from New 
York city with the permit to pass the forts. 

The military district headquarters were then at 
No. 16 Broadway, but the pass of this kind must 
be by authority of the Commander personally, and 
authenticated by the Adjutant-General. Colonel 
Bogardus was not at headquarters and had to be 
sought for elsewhere. He then resided at 5H Cherry 
street, and his law office was next door to his resi- 
dence. After some delay he was found, and signed 
the following permit : 



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treaty of peace aurives, 455 

^* Adjutant General's Office, 3d Military Dis- 
trict. 
''New York, 11th February 1815. 
^^ After Orders. 
' ''The commandants of the several forts within 
the harbor of New York will permit his Britannic 
Majesty's ship Favorite^ commanded by the honor- 
able James A. Maude, under a flag of tnice with 
Anthony St. John Baker, Esquire, bearer of a treaty 
of peace between Great Britain and the U. S., to 
pass up to the city to such anchorage as may be 
deemed desirable to the commander of said ship. 

"Mr. Baker and suite will be permitted to land at 
such place as he may deem proper, and pass to 
Washington city, the seat of government The 
honorable Captain Maude is requested to report his 
arrival in the harbor to the commanding officer of 
the district. 

"By command of Col. R. Bogardus, commanding 
3d Military District. 

"Signed Thos. Chrystie, 

" Assistant Adj. Gen." 

Mr. Baker had formerly been the secretary of the 
British legation at Washington before the war. 

The news that the Favorite had a treaty of peace 
on board was brought to the city by the persons 
who came for the military permit for her to come 
into the harbor. It was nearly eight o'clock in the 
evening when this news arrived. It was first an- 
nounced in the Gazette office. 

The editor of the New York Journal of Commerce, 



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456 DE}f0.\8THATI0m OF JOT 

in 1846, tells how the news was received in the Oa- 
zette office, as follows : 

** Years ago the office of the oW Oazette was in 
Hanover square, near the corner of Pearl street. It 
was a place of resort for news and conversation, 
especially in the evening. The evening of February 
11, 1815, was cold, and at a late hour only Alderman 
Cebra and another gentleman were left with father 
Lang, the genius of the place. The office was about 
being closed, when a pilot rushed in and stood for a 
moment, so entirely exhausted as to be unable to 
speak. ^ He has great news ! ' exclaimed Mr. Lang. 
Presently the pilot, gasping for breath, whispered 
intelligibly, ^ Peace! peace !^ The gentlemen lost 
their breath as fast as the pilot gained his. Directly 
the pilot was able to say : * An English sloop-of-war 
is below with news of a treaty of peace.' They say 
that Mr. Lang exclaimed in greater words than he 
ever used before or after. 

'^ AH hands rushed into Hanover square, crying — 
' Peace ! peace ! peace ! ' The windows flew up, 
for families lived there then. No sooner were the 
inmates sure of the sweet sound of peace than the 
windows began to glow with brilliant illuminations. 
The cry of * Peace ! peace! peace ! ' spread through 
the city at the top of all voices. No one stopped to 
inquire about * free trade and sailors' rights.' No 
one inquired whether even the national honor had 
been preserved. The matters by which politicians 
had irritated the nation into the war had lost all 
their importance. — It was enough that the ruinous 
war was over. An old man in Broadway, attracted 



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OVfCB THE PEACR. 457 

by the noise to his door, was seen to pull down a 
placard, * To let,' which had been long posted up. 
Never was there such joy in the city. A few even- 
ings after, there was a general illumination, and 
although the snow was a foot deep and soaked with 
rain, yet the streets were crowded with men and 
women, eager to see and partake of everything 
which had in it the sight or taste of peace." 

An extra was issued from the Gazette office Satiu"- 
day evening announcing the news of the treaty. 

On Monday the following appeared : 

'' The editors of this Gazette retiu'n their un- 
feigned thanks to Mr. David Mitchell, pilot in the 
boat Erie, for the announcing first at the Gazette 
office the most glorious news of peace. Mr. Mitch- 
ell brought up Mr. Carroll and the king's messenger 
from the Hook." 

A *' hand-bill" was issued from the Mercantile 
Advertiser^ printed on a slip of paper five by six 
inches in size, and was posted and distributed 
among the public places in the city. It read as fol- 
lows : 

" New York, Saturday evening, 9 o'clock, 
^'February 11, 1815. 
''Peacel 

'' The great and joyful news of PEACE between 
the United States and Great Britain reached the city 
this evening by the British sloop-of-war Favorite^ 
the Hon. J. N. Mo watt, Esq., commander, in forty- 
two days from Plymouth. Henry Carroll, Esq., 
secretary of the American Legation at Ghent, is 
the w^elcome bearer of the treaty, which was 



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458 DESCRIBED BY EYE WITNESSES. 

signed at Ghent on the 24th December by the re- 
spective commissioners, and ratified by the British 
Government on the 28th. December. Mr. Baker, 
late secretary to the British Legation at Washing- 
ton, has also arrived in the sloop-of- war with a copy 
of the treaty ratified by the British Government." 

In 1846 the venerable Francis Hall, of the Com- 
mercial Advertiser y tells how the news of peace was 
received by that journal, as' follows : 

''The news of peace was received on Saturday 
evening, the eleventh of February, 1815, and at an 
early hour on that evening. We distinctly recollect 
the events of that evening and of the night and 
day that followed. It had been our practice for 
some years to be at the office on Saturday evenings, 
for the purpose of sending off marine and other 
intelligence that might be received after the paper 
was put to press in the afternoon and previous 
to the closing of the mails for the next morning. On 
the evening in question we were at the office, with 
one of the clerks, and at about eight o'clock one t)f 
the Hook pilots came into the office in great haste, 
and almost breathless, saying : ' There is peace^ —I 
have brought up the messenger, who is now at the 
City Hotel.' 

"In a few minutes all the printers' candlesticks 
were put in requisition, and from the windows of 
our office, then No. 60 Wall street, we showed as 
good a blaze of light as, on the spur of the moment, 
our means would allow. The office was speedily 
crowded with visitors, who went forth proclaiming 
the welcome tidings, and the whole city soon par- 



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SUNDAY NEWSPAPER ISSUED. 459 

took of the general joy. We ascertained from the 
pilot that the only newspapers brought by the ship 
were in the possession of the messenger, and on him 
we waited. We learned that he had a file of papers, 
but that they were intended for Mr. Monroe, then 
Secretary of State, and it required a good deal of 
entreaty to obtain the loan of them. We finally 
prevailed and took them to the office, with strict 
injunctions that they were * not to be cut,' and 
must be returned by five o'clock the next morning. 
It was no small task to copy the several columns 
which were put in type that night — but it was done, 
and before the appointed hour we returned the 
papers." 
On Monday the Commercial Advertiser said : 
"In the course of an hour the heart-cheering 
intelligence was probably known to every individual 
in the city. A great portion of the houses were 
illuminated ; cannon were fired from the forts ; the 
bells of Trinity were chimed. The principal streets 
(notwithstanding the severity of the weather, ac- 
companied with a slight fall of snow) were thronged 
with citizens of both sexes, and huzzas for the 
return of peace were echoed and re-echoed through- 
out our city from eight o'clock until midnight." 

On Sunday forenoon, 12th, the Commercial 
Advertiser issued an extra on half sheet, printed 
only on one side, announcing the arrival of the 
treaty, and contained ailiicles from London news- 
papers up to December 31st, which were loaned to 
the Advertiser by some of those that arrived on the 



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460 '*PST/m PARLEY'S'* EXPERIENCE 

Favorite. The extra was republished in Monday's 
issue. 

The Columbian on Monday, 13th, said : 

'*0n Saturday evening the actual and sudden 
reception of a ratified treaty from England threw 
the city almost into an universal convulsion of joy ; 
and the ringing of bells, firing of guns, illumina- 
tions, music, and eveiy demonstration of gladness, 
welcomed the grateful information. All parties, 
classes and conditions joined in the joyful enthusi- 
asm, and greeted the harbinger of peace and pros- 
perity to the country." * 

Mr. S. G. Goodrich, in his '^ Recollections of a 
Lifetime," thus describes what he then saw and 
experienced : 

'*It was about eight o'clock on Saturday evening 
that the tidings circulated through the city. I had 
gone in the evening to a concert at the City Hotel. 
While listening to the music there was a murmur in 
the streets. Soon the door of the concert room was 
thown open, and in rushed a man all breathless with 
excitement. He mounted on a table, and, swing- 
ing a white handkerchief aloft, cried out, ' Peace ! 
Peace ! Peace ! ' The music ceased ; the hall was 
speedily vacated. I rushed into the street, and oh, 
what a scene I Broadway was one living sea of 

* There were then six dnily newspapers printed in tlie city. 
Tlie National Advocate, Henry Wlieaton. editor ; tlie Qaxette and 
General AdveriUer^ Jolin Lung, editor ; tbe Mercantile Advertiser, 
John Crookes. editor, wtre morning pjipei*8. TIk* evening pHpirs 
were : Evening Poet, William Oi^emHn, editor : Columbian^ Cliarlea 
Holt, editor ; Commercial Advtrtin^r, Zticlniriuli Lewis, editor. Ko 
Sunday papers were issued in tliese dny^. 



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AT THAT TIME. 461 



shouting, rejoicing people. Peace ! Peace ! Peace ! 
was the deep, harmonious, universal anthem. The 
whole spectacle was enlivened by a sudden inspira- 
tion. Somebody came with a torch ; the bright 
idea passed into a thousand brains. In a few min- 
utes thousands and tens of thousands of peo])]e 
were marching about with candles, lamps, torches, 
making the jubilant street appear like a gay and 
gorgeous procession. The whole night Broadway 
sang its song of peace. We were all Democrats, all 
Federalists ; old enemies rushed into each other's 
arms ; every house was in a revel; eveiy heart 
seemed melted by a joy which banished all evil 
thought and feeling. 

'^ Nobody asked, that happy night, what were the 
terms of the treaty ; we had got peace — that was 
enough ! I moved about for hours in the ebbing and 
flowing tide of people, not being aware that I had 
opened my lips. The next morning I found that I 
was hoarse from having joined in the exulting cry 
of Peace ! Peace ! The next day, Sunday, all the 
churches sent up hymns of thanksgiving for the 
joyous tidings." 

The concert alluded to by Mr. Goodrich was Miss 
Dellinger's concert and ball at the assembly rooms 
of the City Hotel. It was in progress when the 
news arrived. The leader of the orchestra was Mr. 
Gilfest. Mr. Biert was manager of the ball. The 
concert commenced at half-past six o'clock. The 
ball was to take place after the concert. 

Some of the songs were : '* Death of Lawrence," 



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462 EXPRESS TO QOVBRNOR TOMPKINS. 

'^ Columbia's Soil,'- ''With WeU-earned Laurels/' 
etc. Miss Dellinger was the chief singer. 

The ball was to *' take place after the concert was 
over." It is almost needless to add that it did not 
take place that night ; the news of peace and the out- 
side commotion and revelry prevented any inclina- 
tion in that direction. 

At that time all places of business were kept open 
until nine o'clock each evening, and all mechanics 
and indoor workmen worked evenings until nine 
o'clock, excepting Saturday evenings (ante, Vol. I., 
p. 35). On that evening they all proceeded to the 
streets to see and learn all about the good news. 

The following news item was at once dispatched 
to many of the large cities : 

''New York, February 11, 1815.— The British 
sloop-of - war Favorite^ James A. Maude, commander, 
arrived in New York this evening under flag of truce, 
and Mr. Henry Carroll, one of the secretaries to our 
ministers at Ghent, and Mr. A. St. J. Baker, sec- 
retary to the British legation to the United States. 
Mr. Carroll has the treaty of peace concluded and 
signed by the British commissioners at Ghent on the 
24th December, and the latter, with the same rati- 
fied by the Prince Regent, and which, when ap- 
proved by the President and United States Senate, 
will be effectual, and is to be immediately communi- 
cated by Mr. Baker to the British fleet and armies." 

A special express on horseback was at once dis- 
patched to inform Governor Tompkins at Albany of 
the news. The expenses of this express were paid 
by Mr. Jacob Barker. The Governor received the 



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ACTION OF THE COMMON COUNCIL, 463 

news on the 13th, but awaited the ratification of 
the treaty by the authorities at Washington before 
further action. 

A horseback express, carrying the news of the 
treaty, was sent to Boston at the ex|)en8e.of Mr. J. 
Goodhue, of New York, at a cost of $225, which 
was immediately repaid to Mr. Goodhue by sub- 
scription there. The express arrived in Boston on 
Tuesday morning, 14th. 

The Common Council met on the 13th and made 
the following official announcement : 

'*The Common Council, in common with their 
fellow citizens, appreciating the important bless- 
ings which will result to our country from the res- 
toration of peace, and sincerely congratulating them 
on the auspicious intelligence which has been re- 
ceived on that subject, inform them that arrange- 
ments have been made for suitable demonstrations 
of joy whenever intelligence of the ratification of 
the treaty shall be received, and particularly that 
due notice of a time for a general illumination of 
the city will be given. They also suggest that any 
partial exhibition of joy is incompatible with the 
solemnity of the occasion, and may produce irregu- 
larity and disorder. They further inform their fel- 
low citizens that a committee of the board have 
been appointed to superintend the requisite arrange- 
ments." 

Aldermen George Buckmaster, A. H. Lawrence 
and Peter Mesier were appointed such committee. 
The two latter were Federalists and were on the 



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464 PBEPARATI0N8 FOR A CBLEBRATION. 

Oommittee of Defence* Alderman Buckmaster was 
a Democrat. 

The Favorite came past Sandy Hook on Monday 
and anchored in the lower bay, and proceeded to 
make some n^essary repairs preparatory to her 
return to England. 

A movement was set on foot by many organiza- 
tions and associations to have a dinner in honor of 
the event. It was said by some of the newspapers 
that Tammany Society and the Washington Benev- 
olent Society and other organizations should do this. 

The following announcement was made by some 
of the most prominent FederaUsts : 

** Those gentlemen who are disposed to attend a 
public dinner in celebration of the return of Peace, to 
be given at Washington Hall on Wednesday, the 22d 
February, the birthday of Washington, the founder 
of the liberties of our country, are requested to call 
on either of the undersigned committee for tickets. 

'' Isaac Sebring, Fwup Hone, 

Aug. H. Lawrence, Dominick Lynch, Jr., 
John A. King, Geo. Brinkerhoff, 

Jonathan Goodhue, Wm. Neilson, Jr. 

''Dinner will be on the table at three o'clock.'' 

The 22d was the anniversary of the Washington 
Benevolent Society and the day for annually install- 
ing its oflScers. 

When General Boyd, at Utica, heard of the news 
of peace he at once hastened to New York, and 
arrived there oi the 16th and resumed command on 
the 17th. Colonel Bogardus then resumed his com- 
mand on Long Island. 



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yfESSAQE TO BLOCKADING SQUADRON. 465 

New York, February 18th, 1815. 

Yesterday Brigadier-General Boyd, the command- 
ing officer at New York, received a letter from James 
Monroe, the Secretary of War, announcing that the 
President had received and examined the treaty 
lately concluded at Ghent, and that there was no 
doubt i«. would be ratified, and directed him to give 
notice of the fact to the commander of the British 
squadron off New York. General Boyd immediately 
wrote to the British officer commanding, and en- 
closed a copy of Mr. Monroe's letter. These letters 
were taken down to the squadron off Sandy Hook 
by Major Spencer in the revenue cutter commanded 
by Captain Brewster. 

The following is a copy of the letter and the 
enclosure. 

*' Headquarters, 3d Military District, 

'^New York, Feb'y 17th, 1815. 
'*Sir: — I have the honor to transmit to you, by 
Major Spencer of the U. S. army, a copy of a letter 
I have this morning received from the honorable 
James Monroe, Secretary of War, to congratulate 
you on the return of peace between Great Britain 
and the U. S., and to offer you such refreshments 
as your ships may require. 

''I have the honor to be, with much respect, sir, 
your most obedient and humble servant, 

*'J. P, Boyd, 
'* Brig. -Gen. Commanding 3d Military Dist. 
'* Officer commanding his Britannic Majesty's ships 
of war off New York." 



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466 WAITING FOR TfffC TREATY. 

'* Department op War. 
'' Washington, Feb'y 14th, 1815. 

" Sir :— It is with great satisfaction that I have 
to inform you that a treaty of peace was concluded 
between the U. S. and Great Britain at Ghent on the 
24th December last. 

** A copy of this treaty was received to-day by Mr. 
Carroll. It has been examined by the President 
and will (I have no doubt) be ratified. 

" I give you this information that hostilities may 
cease immediately between our troops and those of 
Great Britain. 

*'It will be proper for you to notify this to the 
British commander in your vicinity. 

'^I have the honor to be respectfully, your most 
obedient servant, 

''James Monroe. 

*' To the Officer Commanding at New York." 

Major Spencer cruised outside Sandy Hook, look- 
ing for some British vessel to whom he could deliver 
the papers. His search proved fruitless, and he 
returned to the city without delivering his message. 

A few days after this Captain Brewster, of the 
United States revenue cutter Active^ went in search 
of the blockading squadron to offer them supplies, 
but returned on the 20th without seeing anything 
of them. 

The pubUc were still ignorant of the terms of the 
treaty, and must wait until it was placed beforo 
the world by the constituted authorities. 



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CHAPTER Lin. 

The Treaty and President's Froclamation Airives^Newspaper En- 
terprise—Common Council Designates 22d February for the 
Celebration— Political Prejudices Prevail— Washington Benevo- 
lent Society Dinner and Toasts — City Celebration Postponed— 
Celebration to the Suburbs— Military Cellsbration— Governor 
Tompkins' Announcement to the Militia-rrCommodore Decatur; 
is Paroled— Grand Celebration Expected. 

["T was desirable that the ratified treaty and its-, 
contents should be before the people as soon. 
as possible. Fonr of the city papers, the Com- 
mercial Advertiser y the Oazette, the Evening 
Post and the Mercantile Advertiser agreed \f> share, 
the expense of a special express from Washhigton 
with the treaty, and jointly put it in type, and to. 
issue it at sanie hour, by carriers from each office. 
It was not expected to arrive on a Sunday, how- 
ever. 

The treaty was laid before the United States Sen- 
ate by the President on the 16th, in the afternoon, 
in secret session. It was ratified and returned to. 
the President for his signature on Friday, 17th. 
The injunction of secrecy of its contents was re- 
moved about four o'clock on Saturday, and the 
treaty was published in the afternoon in the Na-' 



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468 TREATY PUBLiaUED. 

ifonal Intelligencer^ with the President's proclama- 
tion of that date announcing it. 

The special express for New York started at Wash- 
ington with the ratified treaty, and the President's 
proclamation announcing it, at twenty -one minutes 
past six o'clock on Saturday evening, 18th, and it 
was dolivei^d to the editor of the Commercial Ad- 
vertiserj in Broad street, New York, at 12:30 o'clock 
on Sunday afternoon. 

The news of the ratification and arriYal of the 
treaty was soon known all over the city. 

The city church bells were rung from half-past 
one until three o'clock by order of the Mayor, and 
flags were hoisted on the public buildings. 

The newspapers hastily summoned their men and 
set them at work to have the news issued as so<m 
as practicable. 

There were no steam printing preeees in those 
days. The hand press, printing off only one side of 
a newspaper at a time, seems alow to us, but the 
city circulation of each newspaper was small at that 
time ; probably none exceeded two thousand on the 
most extraordinary occaidon, but it would take four 
or five hours to ^^ work off " such a numb^ in that 
manner. 

The extras of the four newspapers containing the 
treaty and proclamation were issued Sunday even- 
ing by the four newspapers as agreed and was sold 
at twenty-five cents each. It was republished by 
all the papers on Monday. 

On Monday, the 20th, in the afternoon, the Com- 
mon Council met and the committee appointed to 



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ACTION OF THE COMMON COUNCIL. 469 

report suitable public demoustratious of joj at the 
restoration of peace reported the following, which 
was unaminou^y adopted : 

^^The Common Council, participating with the 
feeling of their foUow-citi^ns on the restoratioik of 
the blessings oipeoet to our coontrj ; and desirouA 
that the public expression of joy on this amapickm^ 
event should be uniform, recoimnexid timt in cele- 
bration thereof a geimral illumination of all in- 
habited dwellings take place on Wednesday next, 
the 32d instant. 

^^ The committee, o» the part of the Conomon 
Council, have directed the City HaU to be iUumi- 
oated, aiid have ordered several appropriate transpar- 
encies to be prepared for that building. They have 
also ordered a handsome display of fireworks to bo 
got up, and to be exhibited in f rooit of the Gk>vem- 
ment House at Bowhng Qreen. 

^'They further recommmid that the fls^s from 
the forts and from the vessels in the harbor be db- 
pla3red during the day. That a salute be fired at 
noon under the directimi of the commanding officer 
of artillery, and that the bells of the city be rung at 
that time for the space of one hour. 

^ ' That the illumination commence at seven o'clock 
in the evening, and continue until ten o'clock, 
when the lights are to be extinguished. The signal 
for the illumination to be three guns fired in suc- 
cession from the Batt«y and Arsenal, and the 
flight of three rockets. 

^^ That no horses or carriages appear in any part 
of the streets of the city south of the Hna of Cham- 



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470 RSQULATING THE CBLBBRATION. 

ber street between the hours of seven and ten 
o'clock of that evening. 

*' And, as many of our most worthy fellow citi- 
zens from religious scruples, from sickness and 
other causes cannot conveniently unite with thdr 
fellow citizens in testifying their joy on this occa- 
sion by illumination, the corporation earnestly rec- 
ommend that no violation of the rights of individ- 
uals take place in consequence of any omission to 
join in such illumination. And they further giv4 
notice that they have taken the most eflfic^cioUA 
measures to praiish :any violations of the public 
peslce. That the peacie oflficers and city watch be 
directed to assemble at the Hall at six o*clock, where 
they will receive instructions as to the duties re^ 
quired of theni. 

'^ And it having been suggested by a number of 
the reverend the clei^ of this city that this event 
is one- of thoisfe interpositions of Providence Avhich 
calls for national gratitude and thanksgiving, and 
that it would be highly agreeable to them that it 
should be recommended by the Common Council to 
the citizens to attend divine service on that day, it 
is, therefore, recommended that the citizens of this 
place assemble in their respective churches on that 
day at the usual hour of morning service, there to 
oflEer up to the Great Ruler of nations their sincere 
thanksgivings for the restoration (rf peace td our 
country, and humbly to implore His blessings upon 
it. 

^' To prevent jostling and confusion the commit- 
tee request that all persons passing through the 



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ABTILLEll T SAL UTE8. 471 

streets on the evening of the illumination will k^ep 
on their right-hand side of the way, and to prevent 
as much as possible every accident. They further 
notify that every trespass in throwing among the 
crowd or elsewhere on that evening any squibs, 
crackers or other combustibles, will be strictly no- 
ticed and severely punished." * 

Majot-Gteneral Stevens issued division orders that 
a Rational, salute be fired at the battery by the fiMd 
artillery on the 2ist. Gteiieral Morton issuecj the 
following order on the morning of that day : 

'/First Brigade New York State ARTiHiSRY.J 

*' Brigade Orders. 

'' New York^ Februaiy 21, 1815., ' 

./* In compliance, of division orders a.naiiong^l pa-, 

lute will be fired at the battery this^ day at twelve^ 

o'clock in celebration of the ttfeafcy ' Of pedce cons-* 

eluded between the United State^ ^pd Great Britain/ 

For this purpose the Third Regiment will furnish a 

detachment with eight pieces of cannon. They vdll 

be Under command of Major* Hunter. • ' 

** P. S.— Major Hunter will direct the firing of 

three cannon at seven o'clock p.m of that day (22d),. 

and the discharge of three rockets at the battery 

and State arsenal as signals for the commencement 

of the illumination. 

'* By order of 6rig.-Gen. 

'* Jacob Morton.". 

The first meeting held was that by the Hamilton 
Society, held at Washington Hall on the evening of 
the 21st to celebrate the peace. The exercises com • 



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472 HAMILTOS SOCIiCTT CKLRHBATKS. 

meoced at half -past eight o'clock. It conaiBted of 
mnsic; thea prajer by Rev. Mr. Clark; music; 
rmding of extract from Washington's Farewell Ad* 
dresa by Mr. Tobias U. Gkttes ; music ; oration by 
Jamas W. Gterard;* music. 
Memben of Washington Ben^rolent Society were 

* Jambs W. Gbbabd was gndvited i%t Cohimliift is claift of ISt U 
was adsUtted to lbs bar as aa attoriMiy ia 1S14, aiid at a coiiasf4l4>r. 
al-law in 1816. He read law in Gaorga Oifflo's office, an emiiieot 
lawyer at that time in New York. He served io tbe "Iron Greys *^ 
hi the Ml of 1814 ia diffenoe of New Tork elty, and was tlie kmifer 
of the call for tbe jott^et mtm beM of the bar toTolmteer work oa 
the defeooes in Brooklyn, in the aummer of 1814, and worked in tbe 
trendies with them. Was one of tbe most eminent and snccessful 
Jary lawyers for more than Af^ years. Was a local phllanihnipist 
for the young. Founded the House of Refuge, and had much to do 
with the public schools of the city. Since 1867 hsd given silver 
medals to tbe two boys and twv gh-Is in each of tbe highest grammar 
askoot eksses hi hia taspeeliaa disirkty wbtoh eomprised siventt of 
tbe largssl psUie sohooU in the eity. In his will he ma«ie these 
priaes a perpetuity. He retired from the practice at the bar in 1868. 
A pubHo dinner was given him by the bs^ in January, 1869. Died 
f^bmary 7, 1874. 

The fioaod of BdhMsttftn adopted resolutions of respecS aid reoona- 
mended that the day of his funeral^ between the houia of 10 and 
U A^u^ be observed by such memorial services and appro)>riaie 
exercises as the trustees and principals might provide. Tlie B«)ard 
of Bducation attended his funeral at Calvary Protestant Episcopnf 
Gkoreb in a body, and suuiy of the schools were represented by 
dhikken with floral ofCertags, that were afl!ectionately plaeed upon 
the coffin by them. 

At the memorial meeting of the bar William M. Evarts concluded 
his address as follows : ** From Homer*s times until now, cheers and 
feasts in a Rfor tears and funeral trains after their death, are all that 
human nature can furnish as testimony of iu regard. And tho>e 
who have attended the genial course of Mr. Gerard until death struck 
him at last, and tfien at tbe touching scene at tlie funeral, will see 
tkfll he hat mi as ad no form of popular affection aad regard." 



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POLITICAL FBELIN08 AB0U8ED, 473 

myited ta attend. The meeting was well atttended 
and was regarded with satisfaction. 

In the erening Handel's Oratorio of the Creation 
was giren in Dr. Romeyn's church, in Cedar street, 
hy the Handelian Society of New York, with the 
assistanjoe of the Eatecpean and St. Cecilia Societies. 
It was requested that all carriages and sleighs enter 
Cedar street from Broadway in going to the church, 
and aft^ the p^orraance to^ enter Cedar street 
from WiUiam s^:eet> and in leaving the church if^ 
drire towaard Broadway. 

When the terms of the treatT* were before the 
people the FederaUsts began to rejoice and boast 
that the war had been a failure and was now pt*OTed 
to have been meedlees ; that nothing had been ^uned 
by it ; that none of the objects for which it had been 
commenced had been obtained ; that the questions 
in dispute between the two countries had not been 
mentioned in tiae treaty ; that the only conceseion 
by Great Britain was to return to the United States 
the territory which she had taken possession of in 
the war. 

Much dissatisfaction was now expressed because 
the Common Council appomted the 22d February as 
the day for the celebration. It was on that anni- 
yersary that the Federalists always r^brated, and 
the Washington Benevolent Society had appointed, 
as usual, a dinner for that day without knowing 
the terms of the treaty. Many refused to honor 
that day in celebrating the peace. On the other 
hand, many were determined to celetoite it on that 
day. Popular feeling was so strong against the 



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474 CBLBDRATION P08TP0NKD. 

day that the Common Council was glad of an 
excuse for postponement. It had been designated 
by them as an appropriate day without any knowl- 
edge of the terms of the treaty or any thought of 
awakening partisan feeling. 

The fore part of the 22d was stormy. The com- 
mittee of arrangements issued a notice at ope o'clock 
on the 22d, which was published in some of the 
afternoon papers, **that in consequence of the 
severity of the storm it is impossible to exhibit the 
fireworks at the Bowling Qreen, or any of the» 
transparencies intended to be placed in front of the 
City Hall this evening without having them irame^' 
diately destroyed. They therefore, respectfully^ 
request that all illuminations intended for this even- 
ing be suspended, and inform them that the public 
exhibition will take place on Monday evening next,^ 
if the weather will permit, of which due notice will^ 
b6 given by the ringing of the bells at eight o'clock 
in the morning. '^ 

The Protestant Episcopal churches in the city 
held service at the usual hour of morning prayer in 
accordance with the recommendation of the Com- 
mon Council on the 22d. 

In consequence of the storm the Washington 
Benevolent Society dispensed with their usual street 
parade on that anniversary. Ihey assembled at 
Washington Hall at nine o'clock. The band played 
Washington's March. Prayer was offered by Rev. 
Mr. Rowan, and at ten o'clock the society proceeded 
in the usual manner to instal its officers. First Vice- 
President Zachariah Lewis delivered an extempora- 



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WA8HIN0T0N SOCIBTT DINJSEH. 475 

neous address to the audience. The oration was by- 
Henry S. Dodge, Esq. 

The reading of Washington's Farewell Address 
was omitted, because of the length of the proceed- 
ings. 

The music was by the Macedonian band. 

The members of the Hamilton Society were 
invited to attend. The wearing of their badge was 
sufficient to admit them to the hall. 

The officers installed were elected on February 
1st for the ensuing year, as follows : Isaac Sebring, 
president ; Zachariah Lewis, first vice-president ; 
David B. Ogden, second vice-president; Leonard 
Fisher, treasurer ; James B. Murray, secretary ; 
Anthony Woodward, assistant secretary ; John P. 
Groshon, John Baker, Charles Stewart and Lewis 
Hartman, standing committee ; Isaac M. Ely and 
Robert Sedgwick, counsellors ; William Stillwell 
and Casper W. Eddy, physicians. 

In the afternoon the storm cleared away and 
some Federalists issued a burlesque notice contra to 
that of the Common Council, that the storm had been 
postponed and the il'umination would take place. 

It was of great satisfaction to some that the storm 
was so severe that it prevented the usual street 
parade of the Washington Benevolent Society. 

The dinner took place at three o'clock and was 
well attended. Gten. Matthew Clarkson presided, 
supported by Amasa Jackson and William Hender- 
son, Esqs., as vice-presidents. 

The following toasts were drunk : 

1. Peace— In tlie enjoyment of its blessings may 



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476 WASniNOTON SOCIETY T0A8T8. 

the American people never £(»rgetthe sufferings and 
privations of war. 

2. The Memory of Washington — Revered by the 
just, honored by the brave and consecrated in the 
affections of every friend to liis country. 

3. The Navy — It has enlightened its opposers in 
the blaze of its glory. 

4. The Army — It has torn laurels from the brows 
of conqueroi's. 

5. The Memory of Hamilton — The gallant soldier, 
the profound statesman, the incorruptible patriot. 

♦;. The President of the United Staies. 

7. The Governor of the State of Netv York. 

8. Perry and Macdonough— The heroes of the 
lakes, by theii* gallantry they conquered, by their 
humanity they triumphed. 

9 The Treaty — The seal of peace, may its dura- 
tion be commensurate with its price. 

10. Commerce — We hail the return of the ** Oolden 
days of its prosperity." 

U. The People of America — Faithful to them- 
selves, formidable to invadei-s. 

12. The Nations of the World Relieved From An- 
archy and Tyranny — May they long enjoy the bless- 
ings of national liberty. 

13. General Jackson — The defender of the South, 
his wisdom in council and energy in action have 
erected to American valor an imperishable monu- 
ment of fame. 

VOLUNTEER TOASTS, 

By General Clarkson— The people of America and 
Great Britain, may they learn to know and to love 



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WASHINGTON SOCIETY TOASTS, 477 

each other and henceforth strive to multiply the 
blessings and not the miseries of mankind. 

By His Honor the Mayor — As Httle political con- 
nection and as much beneficial commerce as possible 
with foreign nations the true policy of America. 

By Rev. Dr. Mason — The two late belligerents ; 
no more family quarrels. 

By Amasa Jackson^ Esq. (after the Mayor had 
i^etired)— The Mayor of the City of New York. 

By William Henderson^ Esq. — The seamen of the 
United States, freed from the bonds of the restrict- 
ive system of visionary statesmen ; may they never 
be fettered again by non-intercourse, embargo, or 
enforcing laws. 

By Isaac Sebringy Esq. — Our Navy ;may the can- 
non of Independence soon proclaim to the barbari- 
ans of Algiei's the watchword of our Constitu- 
tion, *^ Millions for defence, not a cent for tribute." 

By Mr. Brinkerhoff (after the President had re- 
tired) — Our worthy President, General Clarkson, the 
distinguished merchant and the accomplished gen- 
tleman. 

The toasts were interspei-sed by music rendered 
by the band of the Macedonian. 

The Columbian of the 23d gives the following ac- 
count of that day and evening : 

'*The illumination intended for last evening was 
postponed until Monday next by the committee of 
arrangements on account of the snowstorm, which 
prevented the completion of the preparations for 
transparencies and fireworks making by order of the 
Common Council. At sunset, however, the storm 



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478 CITT CELEBRATION POSTPONED, 

(according to a handbill issued on the occasion) was 
postponed until Monday on account of the celebi-a- 
tion ; and a pleasant evening and the readiness and 
desire of the citizens generally to enjoy and finish 
the scene induced a commencement of the illumina- 
tion at seven o'clock, and the example was followed 
until nearly half the houses in the Second, Third, 
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Wards were brightened 
with a lustre that almost eclipsed the flood of light 
from the unclouded rays of the fuU-orbed moon. 
Much taste, labor and genius were displayed in dif- 
ferent streets, but we have not the means and will 
not attempt to give a particular account of all that 
attracted attention. 

"Transparencies, emblematic devices, inscrip 
tions and mottoes, pacific, sentimental, amicable, 
commercial and patriotic, were exhibited in differ- 
ent places, the most conspicuous of which were at 
the theatre, Washington Hall, Coleman's, Hodgkin- 
son's and Wells' taverns, at Parkhurst's, the den- 
tist, in Liberty street, whose front was covered with 
the eflfusions of genius; Crochran's, carver and gilder, 
in Maiden Lane ; Bloodgood & Lawrence's livery 
stable in John street ; Childs, the painter, in Water 
street, and perhaps some others not recollected. 
Turcot, the upholsterer, displayed the most elegance 
and taste of a private family. Some large and high 
buildings glittered both in front and rear, and sev- 
eral uniform ranges made a splendid and beautiful 
appearance. 

"The streets were thronged with people, a great, 
number from the country, and the evening closed 



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SUBURBS CELEBRATE. 479 

in general good humor without material accident or 
disturbance." 

The celebration in the outer suburbs had previ- 
ously taken place. 

Jersey City was splendidly illuminated on the 
evening of the 20th, and a federal salute fired from 
field pieces. 

Brooklyn was handsomely illuminated on the 
evening of the 21st, as also Governor's Island and 
around to Williamsburg. The houses on Brooklyn 
Heights exhibited a romantic and picturesque ap- 
pearance, and a row of bonfires on Governor's Isl- 
and, with music from the garrison and rockets from 
Castle Williams, had a pleasing effect. 

Hoboken was also handsomely illuminated on the 
21st. 

The Favorite sailed from New York for Ports- 
mouth, England, about one o'clock a.m. on the 23d 
with the ratified treaty. 

The news of the ratification of the treaty was 
conveyed to Governor Tompkins, which he received 
on 19th February, in the evening. He immediately 
directed that an order be issued to the men under 
his command, which was accordingly done on the 
morning of February 20th, as follows : 

*' Adjutant-General's Office, Military District, 
''New York, 20th Feby, 1815. 
" General Orders. 
''The commanding General has the honor to an- 
nounce to the troops of the 3d Military District that 
a treaty of Peace between the U. S. of America and 



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480 MILITARY CELEBRATION. 

Great Britain was ratified at Washington on the 
17th inst. 

*'In consequence of this important event the 
troops will parade on the 25th inst. at 11 o'clock, 
and a national salute will be fired, to commence at 
12 o'clock, from Governor's Island, and followed in 
succession from Bedlow's, the West Battery, Fort 
Richmond, Port Diamond, Port Green, Port Stevens, 
and the lines at Harlem. When the firing ceases 
at the Narrows the salute wiU commence at Port 
Gates, Sandy Hook. 

*'The salutes from the Ports will be followed by 
a/ew dejoie from the infantry under arms. An ex- 
tra ration of liquor will be issued to the troop to 
drink the glorious termination of an honorable war. 
**By command, 

*'Thos. Chrystie, 

^'Asnt. Adj.-Gen.^' 

Garrison orders were issued accordingly: The 
following is a copy of the order issued by the gar- 
rison on Governor's Island, which was regarded as 
the most important and leading military quarters 
of the regular United States army in the Third 
Military District : 

^^ Garrison Orders. 

*'PoRT Columbus, Peby 25, 1815. 

**This day being appointed by the commanding 
general of the Third Military District for the cele- 
bration of the glorious termination of the war, the 
day will be passed by the troops of this garrison 
who are not on duty in festivity and rejoicing, and 
in the evening an illumination of the oflScers' 



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QOVERNOR TOMPKINS' ADDRB88. 481 

quarters and barracks occupied by the troops and 
the guard house will take place, to commence at 
dusk and to continue until nine o'clock, when the 
lights will be extinguished. 

" The joy which every patriotic heart must feel 
on this occasion, it is hoped, will bef tempered with 
decorum and sobriety.^ The officer of the day will 
be particularly attentive in preventing any accident 
by fire in consequence of the illumination. 

*' At half past 7 o'clock in the evening 18 rockets 
will be discharged from the Castle under the direc- 
tion of the Artillery Quarter Master. 

''By order." 

Governor Tompkins issued the following order to 
the militia of the State : 

"State op New York. 
^^Oeneral Orders. 
'' Head Quarters, Albany, 22 February, 1815. 

'' The Commander in chief announces, with the 
most heartfelt satisfaction, to the militia of the State 
of New York, the ratification of a treaty of peace 
between the United States and Great Britain. In 
congratulating them on this auspicious event he 
cannot withold an expression of his praise and grati- 
tude, for the promptitude and fideUty with which 
they have on all occasions obeyed those various 
calls of service in defence of the State, which its 
safety compelled him to make. While he applauds 
their soldier-hke deportment in arms and their forti- 
tude, which they have evinced under the suffer- 
ings and privations of war, he cannot but hope 



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482 GREAT CELEBRATION EXPECTED. 

that the accomplishment of an honorable peace, the 
smiles of an approving conscience and the gratitude 
of a virtuous and patriotic people will be regarded by 
them as an ample reward for their many sacrifices. 

" The Commander in chief is especially charged 
by the PresideAt of the United States to convey to 
the Militia of this State his^ thanks for the patrio- 
tism, zeal and perseverance so eminently displayed 
by them in defence of the rights of their country. 

** By OixJer of the Commander in chief. 

*'SoLO. Van Rensselaer, 
*' Adjutant General." 

Commodore Decatur, at Bermuda, on February 
3d received a parole for his return to the United 
States. He arrived at New London on 22d Feb- 
ruary on British frigate Narcissus in fourteen days 
from Bermuda, and then learned of the treaty of 
peace. 

Robert Fulton's funeral took place in New York 
on February 25th. 

The enthusiasm for a great celebration had 
reached a very high degree, and it was claimed that 
it was much better to have the time extended so 
that individuals as well as the city authorities could 
show their feelings and make more extensive prepa- 
tions for it than could be possible in a few days. 
The postponement until the 27th was welcomed by 
all, and elaborate preparations were designed for the 
occasion. 



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CHAPTER LIV, 

City Celebration of Peace— Public and Private Illuminations — Grand 
Display of Fireworks — Statements of Eye Witnesses — Trans- 
parencies Emblematic, Allegorical and Patriotic—Tbose at City 
Hall— Fireworks at tbe Government House — Transparencies and 
Paintings Upon All Kinds of Buildings, Public and Private. 

ON Monday, the 27th, early in the morning, the 
weather prospects seeming favorable, the 
church bells rang the signal at eight o'clock 
to prepare for the celebration in the evening as had 
been announced. 

There was considerable snow on the ground, but 
the weather had so moderated by noon that it was 
not cold. A thaw had made the streets sloppy and 
wet, and they might be icy in the evening. * 

The Committee of Arrangements issued the fol- 
lowing order in the forenoon : 

"To render the walking as comfortable as possi- 
ble to the citizens who may be disposed to view the 
exhibition of the evening, it is requested that early 
and punctual jtttention be observed in clearing of 
the walks and gutters. And, also, to give as much 
brilliancy as possible to the fireworks, it is re- 
quested that the lights in the neighborhood of the 



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484 TRAN8PARBNCIE8 ON CITY HALL. 

Government House be extinguished about nine 
o'clock." 

The transparencies were placed in position during 
the afternoon, and preparations were completed for 
illuminating windows by wax candles. As the 
darkness of evening approached and seven o'clock 
drew near, the inhabitants stood ready with wax 
tapers in hand (there were no friction matches in 
those days) to begin the illumination when the signal 
was given. At seven o'clock precisely three guns 
were alternately fired at Battery Park and at the 
State arsenal, corner White and Elm streets, by a 
detachment from Second Regiment under Major 
Hunter, and three rockets were sent up, and the 
illumination commenced. 

The celebration was confined to illuminations and 
transparencies until nine o'clock. 

Those at City Hall^ from every point of view, 
were the most conspicuous. From Chatham sti^eet 
you saw a transparency of the American eagle 
proudly bearing in one talon the thunderbolts 
of war, in the other the olive branch of peace. A 
similar transparency was seen as you approached 
the building from Murray street. In the front each 
wing was adorned by a large transparency: one repre- 
senting Columbia and Britannia uniting their hands 
in friendship, behind them the colors of the two 
nations crossed in peace, and borne by the seamen 
of the respective countries, holding a scroll con- 
jointly, with the following inscription : '* Rejoice! 
Rejoice I ! Rejoice ! I ! Bury in oblivion all past ani- 
mosities^ and as citizens of the world at large let 



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TRANSPARENCIES ON CITY HALL, 485 

concord be the universal sentiment." Above was 
seen the dove descending with the olive branch 
from a bright sky, while clouds rolled away from 
the harbinger of peace. On the other wing was a 
representation of the Temple of Concord, at the 
portal of which stood Minerva, who received Litera- 
ture and the Arts, pointing to the Temple, in which 
stood the figure of Fame, in her hand a trumpet, 
from which was suspended a scroll with the motto : 
*' Peace ! Peace I ! Peace ! ! I With Commerce un- 
fettered. Industry encouraged, and the Arts revived 
— may both nations be ever prosperous.'* Behind 
was a sailor waving the flag of the United States 
over bales and barrels of merchandise. Each of 
these pictures was surmounted by smalls pictures, 
indicative of agriculture and art. 

The body of the building was adorned by a very 
large transparency, in the center of which appeared 
the genius of America crowned with laurels, seated 
on clouds and resting on the globe ; in her right 
hand she displayed the signal of peace, with her left 
she pointed to the words ** United States" on the 
globe ; behind her is thrown the trophies of war ; 
her sword, shield and helmet are b^ide her. At 
the lifting of the olive branch the god of commerce, 
Mercury, springs forward to visit foreign cUmes. 
The genius of Plenty pours from the cornucopia 
riches and abundance at the feet of America. On 
the highest part of the centre of the hall was an 
elegant transparency representing the city coat-of- 
arms. 

The whole of these paintings were executed by 



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480 FIRB WORKS AT 



Messrs. Holland, Smith, Robertson and Dunlap in 
five days, and were ready at noon on the 22d. 

The Columbian said of it : '' The City Hall pre- 
sented a complete fabric of paintings and illumina- 
tion, and appeared a perfect edifice of living light 
from the foundation to the roof of the cupolas, the 
revolving lamps having a beautiful effect, and the 
whole seeming more like the magical palace of an 
Eastern romance than the real production of the 
mechanical and fine arts. The figures and devices 
of the transparencies 'were classical, patriotic, sig- 
nificant and appropriate." 

There were no fireworks at City Hall. 

Oovernment Housej at foot of Broadway, opposite 
Bowling Green. In front was a stage one hundred 
feet long, the rear representing the Temple of 
Peace, on the cornices of which were seven trans- 
parencies, with mottoes : Union, Hope, Charity, Am- 
ity, Commerce, Peace, Huzza ! Huzza ! Huzza ! The 
temple was one hundred feet front and thirty feet 
high, representing a perspective view, in the centre 
of which was the Seat of Peace, composed of four 
large brilliant columns, entwined with garlands and 
gildings, on the top of which were four vases, hand- 
somely gilt, and full of garlands of flowers. In the 
centre of the Seat of Peace was seen the motto 
** Temple of Peace, '^ with two branches of olive 
fastened together. On the top was placed the figure 
of Fame, holding in one hand a trumpet, with the 
motto *' Peace," and bearing with the other a branch 
of olive, with the motto '^ Happy News ; " under its 
feet an eagle, holding a branch of olive encircled 



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QOVEUNMBNT HOWE. 487 

with a trophy in his beak, with two garlands o£ 
roses without thorns. 

The stage was surrounded by forty columns, four 
feet high, in which was placed a balustrade in fire- 
works, consisting of pieces, when set on fire, repre- 
sented the following : The first one set on fire was 
at nine o'clock, and showed the motto, ^' 17th Febru- 
ary — Peace — 1815," encircled with a glory in fire- 
works of twenty feet diameter. 

On the balustrade of the Temple, 120 feet in length 
and ten feet in height, appeared the following al- 
legorical representations, and were set oflE in turn : 

The Joy of the Two Nations. 

Two Caprices. 

Two stands of colors brilliantly illuminated. 

Ladies' Fancy. 

Drum of Peace ; or. The Recall of the Army. 

Caduceus of Mercury. 

Rose of Cincinnati. 

Wheel of Commerce. 

Two wheels meeting. 

Whirlwind over. 

The Two Nations. 

Blessings of Peace. 

A country mill-wheel moving. 

A cornet. 

A fixed sun. 

A screw revolving. 

Wishes Accomplished. 

Medal of merit. 

Horizontal sun. 

Brilliant sun. 



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488 • J1REW0RK8, 



Wheel representir^ letter A. 

The Hemisphere in Joy. 

Egyptian pyramid. 

Chinese umbrella. 

Joyful. 

The Staj-s of America. 

l>ouble sun. 

Death and Life. 

The EngUsh bouquet. 

The American bouquet. 

The Wheel of Fortune. 

The Strength of Amity. 

Feu de joie. 

The whole was concluded by the illumination of 
the Temple of Peace, composed of more than four 
thousand brilliant lights. 

Rockets were constantly flying during this ex- 
hibition. 

These works were got up under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Delacroix, of Vauxhall Garden, who, it 
was said, on that night exceeded all his former ex- 
hibitions. 

Sky rockets were sent up from Bowling Green at 
short intervals from seven o'clock until ten o'clock. 

There were no other fireworks in any other part of 
the city. 

The windows of the houses and buildings were 
illuminated by a lighted wax candle at each glass 
that could be seen from the street. 

It should be remembered that at that time Tam- 
many Hall was kept as a hotel by Martling & Coz- 
zens, and that Washington Hall was a h<^l kept 



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TAMMANY HALL, 489 



by P. Mclntyre. The name of each hotel was de- 
rived from the society that had its meetings in the 
assembly rooms of the hotel. 

Washington Hall was handsomely illuminated 
and adorned with the transparency annually ex- 
hil ited on front of the building on 22d February. 

This was a permanent transparent picture ex- 
hibited in front of Washington Hall on the 22d, and 
it was* left and used on the 27th. It had two side 
pieces : one on the north was a female figure with 
the olive branch and trumpet ; on the south Mercury 
returning to Columbia. 

Tammany Hall. Many large and beautiful ti*ans- 
parencies. The heroic figure of Columbia advanc- 
ing from between History and Fame, in the act of 
bidding farewell to Mars, who, having deposited at 
her feet the colors and shield of America, is just 
mounting his chariot, at which the goddess Bel- 
lona presides as charioteer, impatient to be gone 
where her services may be wanted. Two ciipids 
amusing themselves with the colors and shield, 
when the eagle ahghts and joins in their gambols. 
A genii surmounts Columbia, bearing the olive 
and a crown of laurels, indicative of peace and 
glory ; Neptune, leaving his element to survey the 
group, being pleased with the present order of 
things. The whole riding on the clouds in the face 
of the rising sun, as an emblem of the growing 
prosperity of our country. Over the large picture a 
small one, representing an angel giving to the 
American eagle the olive branch, and bearing a 
trumpet, upon which was a scix)ll with the motto : 



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490 OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 

*• Americ?!, it is enough! 
The iHureU thou hast gained 
riave immortulized tliy name." 

Park Theatre was decorated inside with the flags 
of various nations. The front of the building was 
brilliantly illuminated and an emblematic trans- 
parency descriptive of the meeting of Columbia 
and Britannia. 

One of the three plays on that evening was **The 
Festival of Peace ; or, Commerce Restored," writ- 
ten by a gentleman of this city. 

It was announced that, in consequence of the 
celebration, the performance would commence at 
eight o'clock. 

Naval Panorama was brilliantly illuminated and 
decorated in an appropriate manner. Two bands 
of music. 

Scudder's Museum was also illuminated and had 
two bands of music. 

New York Hospital was fully and very brilliantly 
illuminated on all sides, from the cupola to the 
ground windows. 

City Hotel. A beautiful figure representing 
Peace ; in her right hand an olive branch, in her 
left a scroll with the words, ''Glory to God on 
High ! on Earth Peace and Goodwill to Men ! " 

Some shown at other taverns and hotels sur- 
passed that in beauty and extensive design, but 
none surpassed it in sentiment. 

Shakespeare Tavern, kept by llodgkinson. Co- 
lumbia and Britannia shaking hands, with the words 
''Forgive and Forget," the oHve branch between. 



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NEWSPAPER OFFICES DISPLAY. 491 

The eagle partially covered by the United States 
shield, the lion by the shield of Great Britain. 
Above all the names of our commissioners, Adams, 
Bayard, Gelatin, Clay, Russell. On each side 
of Columbia and Britannia the flag of each nation 
— ^beneath all the ¥rord '^ Peace." 

The Shakespeare Tavern was on southwest comer 
of Fulton and Nassau streets and was quite famous 
at that time. The veteran corps of artillery usually • 
had their holiday dinners there. 

The newspaper offices, as well as the residences 
of the editors, were illuminated by candles at the 
windows, while some of them had also special trans- 
parencies. 

The banks and some of the most prominent insur- 
ance companies had special transparencies as well 
as candles at the windows. The many special trans- 
parencies that were shown at the private residences 
were numerous and costly. 

John Jacob Astofs house on Broadway was illu- 
minated with a variety of elegant transparencies 
emblematic of the happy return of Peace. The 
door represented the entrance of a temple ; right 
and left were two elegant marble pillars decorated 
with garlands of roses (painted) ; above, the word 
Peace in large letters (of roses), under which was 
eighteen stars, representing the States, forming an 
arch in the centre ; above the pillars two large lamps 
around which was entwined the United States flag. 
On each side of the door two oval wreaths of laurel, 
containing the names of American heroes. Imme- 
diately over the entrance was the American eagle 



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492 JOHN JACOB A8T0B*8 DISPLAY. 

letting fall the sword, viewing with exultation the 
word Peace which appears in the clouds. On one 
side the goddess of Peace holding the treaty in one 
hand, in the other a palm leaf. On the other side 
the goddess of Plenty. Over the eagle the Ameri- 
can shield, with the name of the President, *^ 17th 
February, 1815," the day the treaty was signed, 
encircled with branches of olive. On one side of 
this were the names of Bayard, Adams, Gallatin, 
Clay, Russell, the United States negotiators at 
Ghent ; on the other the names of many of the 
American heroes of the day. 

Each side of the house was decorated with trans- 
parencies of various colors. 

The whole presented the most brilliant and strik- 
ing appearance of any private residence in the city. 
It was designed and arranged by Mr. Alexander 
Gasselain. 

In the gunsmith shop of Mr. Finch, in Green- 
wich street, the inscriptions displayed by the rows 
of muskets with lighted candles in their muzzles 
was as follows : 

** At leDgth the clang of arms is o*er, 
War*s dread about is heard no more ; 
Our hopes, our fears, our sorrows cease, 
Each murmur hushed and all is peace I '' 

Immediately back of the muskets was the fol- 
lowing: 

*• Lo ! War with rage and fury burneil, 
Now Peace so mikl is conqueror turned, 
Her magic wand displays such trieks, 
£'en muskets changed to candlesticks." 



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ORB AT COST TO THE CITY. 493 

It was all over by half- past ten o'clock. 

An account of the manner of illummation at that 
time and the cost of it to the city is given in Vol. I. , 
p. 320, note. 

The fireworks and decorations of the Government 
House and the City Hall cost the city ten thousand 
dollars, said the Advocate reprovingly. 

It was stated that there were five thousand stran- 
gers present in the city to view the display. 

The windows of the almshouse and the Bridewell 
and the debtors' prison were illilminated by candles 
and showed that all joined in the feeling of glad- 
ness at the peace. 

The Evening lost said of the celebration : 

'^Last evening this city, in celebration of the 
long-desired peace, exhibited with uncommon splen- 
dor the joyful appearance of an almost general illu- 
mination. The streets, although extremely wet 
under foot, were thronged with countless multi- 
tudes of ladies and gentlemen and all sorts and 
classes of people, without distinction, to gratify a 
laudable curiosity to testify thfeir boundless joy at 
the occasion and join in exclamations of admiration 
and applause. 

^*We would fain attempt a description of the 
most striking emblematic devices which so splen- 
didly adorned our public buildings, and the more 
modest but not less beautiful embellishments which 
here and there were so tastefully displayed in pri- 
vate windows. But the means are not at hand to 
enable us to do justice to either, and memory can 
but supply a partial and imperfect recollection." 



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494 Il-L FEELING SHOWN, 

The celebration at Greenwich, that part of the 
city near Christopher street, which could then only 
be reached from the lower part of the city by cross- 
ing a bridge over Canal street at Broadway, took 
place on the evening of 28th. The Commercidl Ad- 
vertiser said of it : 

^'The illumination at Greenwich last night was 
splendid, though not general. Hammond street is 
considered to have displayed more iaste than any 
other. Several elegant transparencies were exhib- 
ited. The houses of Mr. Wilkes, Mr. Burral and 
the Messrs. Gilbert were conspicuous.'' 

It all passed off without giving oflEence to anyone 
excepting that by Dr. Mac Neven, who exhibited an 
elegant transparency in which a Tennessee volun- 
teer was introduced as a negotiator of peace. He 
was represented on the glacis of a field work in 
front of the camp near New Orleans, leaning on his 
rifle and casting a piercing view over the field, as if 
to be assured all was safe. At his feet lay two sol- 
diere in scarlet uniform, supposed to have died with 
the parole countersign, ^* Beauty and booty," upon 
their lips. This gave great offence to the English- 
men in New York, and they showed their f eeUng by 
their grumbling in the city newspapers. Several of 
the newspaper deprecated Dr. Mac Neven's action 
and excused it by saying that he was not a native- 
bom American. 

The prevaiUng desire in all was to forgive and forget. 

It was without doubt the grandest and most ex- 
tensive illumination and celebration that has ever 
occurred in America. 



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CHAPTER LV. 

'l>ftrms of the Treaty— Negotiations at Glient — Congress at Tienna — 
European Diplomacy — Effect of tlie Treaty in Europe and 
Ajnerioa-nOrigin of Monroe Doctrine— Last Hoetile Gun Fired 
in tlie War— Last Capture at Sea— President's Address on Dis- 
banding tbe Army— Dramatic Part by New Tork City in lUe 
War— Concluding Remarks. 



^HE treaty of peace and the further 
papers of the negotiation of the treaty- 
were laid before the Senate on Febru- 
ary 15th. Up to this time no other 
official papers relating to the subject 
had been received from the American 
commissioners since those that were 
announced on December Ist, and the contents of 
them had not yet been made public. The latest 
negotiations that had been made public were down 
to date of August 19th, and were publicly an- 
nounced on October 10th. 

The treaty and the negotiations that led to it were 
considered by the Senate in secret session. When 
it was ratified by the Senate and announced by the 
President it was decided that the negotiations that 
led to it should still be kept secret. They were not 
made public until several years afterwards. 

The terms of the treaty were agreed upon, and it 
was signed in triplicate by the respective commis- 




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496 TERMS OF THE TREATY. 

sioners of the two nations, at Ghent, on 24th De- 
cember, 1814, It was immediately forwarded to 
London in the hands of Mr. Baker, secretary to 
Lord Qambier, and Mr. Carroll, one of the seci'e- 
taries of the United States commissioners. It was 
ratified on the 28th December, in London, in the 
name of the king of England, by the Prince Begent. 
It was then taken by the same messengers to Ports- 
mouth, England, and they sailed for New York in 
the British sloop-of-war Favorite^ on the 2d Janu- 
ary, 1815, and after a passage of forty days arrived 
in New York, as before stated. 

After the publication of the treaty, the Columbian, 
the Evening Post and the Commercial Advertiser 
had a series of lengthy articles on the terms of the 
treaty and the results of the war. The subject was 
ably and thoroughly handled by them, and show 
that the causes and results of the war and the 
treaty were not considered at that time the same as 
is now usually historically stated and accepted with- 
out question by popular assent both in America and 
in Great Britain. 

In this connection should be read **An Exposition 
of the Causes and Character of the War," by A. J. 
Dallas, Acting Secretary of War, issued on Febru- 
ary 10, 1815, before any account had been received 
in the United States of the signing of the treaty of 
peace at Ghent. 

The Evening Post said it was a disgraceful peace. 
The Advocate observed and commented upon this 
remark. The editor of the Post replied that ** He 
never did say the peace was a disgraceful peace to 



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GREAT BRITAIN DISSATISFIED, 497 

the nation, but he did say it was so to the adminiS' 
tration. 

The reception of the treaty in each country at 
that time shows how the popular feehngs prevailed 
about its terms and effect. 

The ratified treaty from the United States arrived 
at London on 13th March. The king's proclama- 
mation announcing the peace was dated March 17th. 

The peace was announced in Canada by procla- 
mation by Governor Provost and a day of thanks- 
giving ordered. 

The Montreal ifera/d, in speaking of the rejoic- 
ings throughout the United States at the return of 
peace, observed, ** What a contrast is exhibited in 
this country ; you scarcely meet a cheerful counte- 
nance from one end of the province to the other 
when you speak of peace." 

Great Britain undoubtedly was very much disap- 
pointed that the treaty was not more favorable to 
them. As an example, this may be inferred from 
the manner in which the peace was officially an- 
nounced. The usual way the cessation of war was 
proclaimed, such as the Peace of Amiens and the 
Treaty at Paris of April 23, 1814-, was by heralds 
in costume starting from St. James' Palace and 
going into the city of London through the old gate- 
way, carrying a grand display of armorial ensigns 
and accompanied by a military escort in gay attire 
of scarlet, black and gold, and bands of music, stop- 
ping from time to time on the way at Whitehall, 
Westminster, Charing Cross, Temple Bar and Guild 
Hall, to read the king's proclamation of the peace. 



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498 RESULT IN THE UNITED STATES. 

After this there were firing of cannon and ringing 
of bells and grand illuminations of public buildings 
at night. 

Not so in announcing this peace witiii the United 
States. An that was done was the reading the* 
king's proclamation at the door of the War Office in 
Whitehall. Even this was noticed by only one 
newspaper, the Courier. The people scarcely knew 
of the peace. There was no other ceremony — no 
firing of cannon, no ringing of bells, no illumination 
at night or any other demonstration of joy which 
were shown when a British victory at sea or land 
occurred in the war. (See ante, Vol. I., p. 320, 
note.) 

It was in fact and effect a mere withdrawal of 
hostilities on the part of the United States, and 
Great Britain was to suri'ender all the conquered 
territory, and the contending nations were to be 
restored as near as possible to the condition they 
were in at the time of the declaration of war. 

The possessions and rights of the Indian tribes in 
America were to be restored by each party as they 
existed in 1811, prior to hostilities, and they were 
to cease hostilities. 

On the 22d July, 1814, a treaty of peace between 
the United States and the several tribes of Indians 
called the Wyandottes, Delawares, Shawanees, Fen- 
ecas and Miamis, and on the 9th August, 1814, 
another with the Creek nation of Indians had been 
made. These treaties wore not ratified by tho 
United States until after the ratification of the 
treaty of Ghent 



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RB8VLT IN AMERICA, 499 

It may be said here, in passing, that the terms 
of peace as to the restoration of all territory taken 
by either party during the war could only apply to 
the territory of the United States which was then 
in possession of the enemy. The United States did 
not then have possession of any British territory. 
No allusion was made in the treaty to maritime 
matters, hence they stood same as before the 
war. 

This part of the treaty of Ghent was the same 
rule that was applied to European nations by the 
settlement by the congress at Vienna. This action 
of the congress was principally due to the treaty by 
the allies at Paris, dated April 23, ISli, and the 
application of this rule to the American continent 
and to the war was undoubtedly due to Talleyrand 
in bringing it up, and was backed by Russia and 
other powers.. 

Lord Castlereagh, the British representative, could 
not do otherwise than accept it as to America. The 
financial condition of England at that time also had 
much to do with the desire for peace. 

The shipping laws of the United States that had 
been enacted during the war, particularly that of 
March 3, 1813, relating to the employment of citi- 
zens of the United States on board of the public or 
private vessels of the United States (ante, Vol. I., 
p. 411, 412), were now such, with the naturaliza- 
tion laws, that would prevent many of the ques- 
tions of right of search and nationality of a vessel 
of the United States, which caused so much trouble 
previous to the war. 



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500 EFFECT IN EUROPE. 

The commissioners said in regard to Talleyrand's 
movement, before referred to : 

" We think it does not promise an aspect of imme- 
diate tranquility to this continent, and that it will 
disconcert particularly the measures which Great 
Britain has been taking with regard to the future 
destination of this country among others, and to 
which she has attached apparently much impor- 
tance." 

There were many secret alliances, treaties and 
agreements made between some of the countries 
represented in the congress at Vienna. The most 
important one to the United States was that be- 
tween England, France and Austria to check Rus- 
sian aggressions and power. Prussia sided with 
Russia in the congress. 

Russia was the ifriend of the United States. Great 
Britain had refused to accept the offer of the United 
States to allow the Emperor of Russia to act as a 
mediator to settle the questions between the two 
countries (ante, p. 94). 

Some of the English newspapers gave as a reason 
for making a peace that as Russia and Prussia ap- 
peared at the congress at Vienna to be sticklers for 
maritime rights, it would be advisable and prudent 
to detach America from joining that contest. 

In a news item from London, dated October 28, 
1814, it appeared that a select committee was about 
to be moved for in the British Parliament to inves- 
tigate the British marine condition and prospects. 
The despatch stated : '* Particularly in the present 
political state of the world, when, in addition to the 



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SYMPATHY IN EUROPE, 501 

rising transatlantic navy, such marked and direct 
jealousy of our maritime ascendancy is evidently 
evincing itself in every cabinet of the continent of 
Eiiropey and when, under our very eyes, the various 
maritime powers of the globe are at this moment 
ardently straining every nerve to re-establish tlieir 
marine^ in order to dispute with us the trident of 
the ocean, and to force on us their own constiiiction 
of public maritime law." 

Maritime law as construed by Great Britain gave 
rise to the armed alliance of the Northern powers of 
Europe against Great Britain in 1780 and in 1800, 
and was the same as claimed by the United States 
against Great Britain as one of the causes of the 
war of 1812 (Wheaton's History Law of Nations, 
p. 585). 

Some of the smaller kingdoms in Europe, and the 
Swiss and Genoese Republics were not admitted to 
the conference in the congress at Vienna, but were in 
attendance at Vienna, and had their interests at- 
tended to by such of their more successful neighbors 
as were disposed to support them. 

The United States had the sympathy of every 
cabinet in Europe. While the congress at Vienna 
may have been mainly instrumental in the result of 
the war in America, the events in 1814 had much 
to do fn the matter. 

Mr. Carroll stated that the negotiations lagged 
until the news of the great victory of Macdonough, 
which gave a spur to the ministers of England. 
Mr. Carroll said that the destruction of Washington 
was a happy event for this country. It united the 



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502 AMERICAN BATTLES, 

whole continent in expressing their abhorrence of 
such savage warfare. A Paris newspaper went so 
far as to say that each of their capitals had been in 
turn in possession of an enemy, but all therein 
was respected ; that Paris was not burnt, because 
England had not the sole control. 

In a speech made by Henry Clay, at Lexington, 
Ky., on his return to his home, in regard to the 
treaty, he said : **Had it been made immediately* 
after the treaty of Paris, we should have retired 
from the contest, believing that we had escaped the 
severe chastisement with which we were threatened, 
and that we owed to the generosity and magnanim- 
ity of the enemy what we were incapable of com- 
manding by om* arms." 

When the news of the repulse of the British at 
Fort Krie and Plattsburg and at Baltimore arrived 
at Ghent, in October, it had considerable effect uj>on 
the negotiations. The British had possession of the 
district of Maine east of the Penobscot and offered 
to conclude the treaty on the uti possidetis. All the 
other demands on the part of the British commis- 
sioners had been waived, and all the claims on part 
of the United States had been waived. This was 
the last and only one upon which the negotiation 
hung. 

The United States commissioners at last stStted on 
24th October : 

'*The undersigned can now only repeat those dec- 
larations and decline treating upon the basis of tUi 
possidetis, or upon any other principle involving a 
cession of any part of the territory of the United 



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UmTBD STATES FIRM. 503 

States. As they have uniformly stated, they can 
only treat upon the principle of mutual restoration 
of whatever territory may have been taken by either 
party. Prom this principle they cannot recede, and 
the undersigned, after the repeated declarations of 
the British plenipotentiaries that Great Britain had 
no view to acquisition of territory in this negotia- 
tion, deem it necessary to add that the utiUty of its 
continuance depends on their adherence to this prin- 
ciple." 

On the 31st October the British commissioners 
replied, requesting that the commissioners of the 
United States submit those spe^fic propositions 
upon which they were empowered to sign a treaty 
of peace between the two countries. After a few 
weeks a proposed treaty was submitted and was 
formally signed. 

It was understood that in case this treaty of 
Ghent was not satisfactory to both parties, and the 
boundaries could not be agreed upon, that Austria 
was to be the umpire to decide upon any differences 
between the two nations. 

Much between the two countries was left open to 
be further negotiated by a treaty of commerce and 
navigation and our relations with Canada, which 
was agreed to be negotiated by the same commis- 
sioners at London. It commenced on April 16, 1S16. 
A detail of the negotiations are summarized by the 
report of the American commissioners accompany- 
ing the treaty which was completed and signed by 
the Prince R^ent in London on July 2, 1816, and 
transmitted to the United States for approval. It 



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504 EFFECT IN EUROPE. 

was ratified, and announced by the President's 
proclamation dated December 22, 1815. 

The articles of settlement of European nations 
was adopts by the congi^ess at Vienna, and is dated 
June 9, 18 1 i^. It was undoubtedly precipitated by 
the return of Napoleon to France. It was not nec- 
essary to allude to the American war in them, as it 
had terminated by the treaty at Ghent and settled 
the British possessions on the American continent. 
The British feeling on this subject prominently 
appears in their negotiations at Ghent, by note dated 
September 4, 1814, to the American commissioners. 

The proceedings in the congress at Vienna were 
secret, and have never yet been published in Eng- 
lish. It was the era of secret treaties and secret 
conclaves, in Europe as well as in America. Much 
diplomacy that effected its action was done outside 
of it. 

The ** balance of power'' was in Europe, but the 
European possessions in America were of enough 
weight to turn the scale for peace or war in Europe. 

Negotiations with Spain as to the disposition 
and relations of the territory of the Floridas to the 
United States had been in progress from time to 
time previous to the treaty of Ghent, and was not 
fully disposed of in favor of the United States until 
it was ceded by Spain several years afterwards. 
During the war Great Britain laid claim to some of 
it as against the United States, that claimed it under 
the Louisiana purchase from France. 

It was the treaty at Ghent and the congress at 
Vienna that firmly planted the roots from which 



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ROOTS OF " MONROB DOCTRJNEr 505 

grew the ** Monroe doctrine" as to the limitation of 
the possessions of European powers upon the Ameri- 
can continent. [Monroe's Message, December. 2, 
1823.] 

The Louisiana purchase had rendered such a 
stand by the United States a possibility. The con- 
gress at Vienna and the treaty of Ghent assured it. 

The question as to the boundary Une between 
Canada and the United States under the treaty can- 
not properly be considered in that connection. 

The international conferences at Vienna continued 
for more than a year, with hundreds of thousands of 
soldiers under arms, ready to march at command. 
Fortunate for Europe that it was so up to the agree- 
ment of the conference in June, 1815. A few days 
later they were called upon to fight the last great 
battle of the wars of the French revolution on the 
field of Waterloo to enforce the wisdom of that con- 
ference. The last hostile gun in those wars heard 
in Europe was on that battlefield. That battle 
was the result and the termination of the greatest 
political convulsion that the world has ever seen. 

The congress at Vienna, in the conferences of 
kingdoms, principalities and powers, will have an 
effect upon civilization that will endure as long as 
the world stands. 

After the treaty of Ghent had been ratified and 
proclamation made, there were ships at sea that had 
yet to fire the last hostile gun in the American war. 
The last battle at sea was by the Hornet y that cap- 
tured the British man-of-war Penguin on 23d March, 
1815, and the last hostile gun fired in the war was 



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506 LAST OUN FIRSD. 

from the Peacocky when the British vessel Nautilus 
surrendered to her on the SOth June, 1815. 

The Tom Boline was used by the Hornet as a 
cartel to take the prisoners captured on the Penguin 
into the neutral port of Kio de Janeiro. 

These three vessels sailed from New York m 
January on their last hostile cruise, as stated in a 
former chapter. 

Those who enlisted in United States service dur- 
ing the war were not formally discharged until 
June 15,. 1815, at which time the officers and men 
were disbanded under general orders dated May 17, 
1815, pursuant to act of Congress of 3d March, 1815, 
fixing the military peace establishment of the 
United States. The report of A. J. Dallas, the 
Acting Secretary of War, to the President of the 
United States is dated May 12, 1815, relating 
thereto. 

The address to the army by the President of the 
United States, through the Secretary of War, dated 
May 17th, concludes as follows : 

''The American army of the war of 1812 has 
hitherto successfully emulated the patriotism and 
the valor of the army of the war of 1776. The 
closing scene of the example remains alone to be 
performed. Having established the independence 
of their country, the revolutionary warriors cheer- 
fully returned to the walks of civil life ; many of 
them became the benefactors and ornaments of 
society in the prosecution of various arts and pro- 
fessions, and all of them, as well as the veteran 
few who survive the lapse of time, have teen the 



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DUAMATIO INCIDENTS. 507 

objects of grateful recollection and constant regard. 
It is for the American army, now dissolved, to pur- 
sue the same honorable course, in order to enjoy 
the same inestimable reward. The hope may be 
respectfully indulged, that the beneficence of the 
legislative authority will beam upon suffering 
merit ; an admiring nation will unite the civic with 
the martial honors which adorn its heroes ; and 
posterity, in its theme of gratitude, will indiscrim- 
inately praise the protectors and the founders of 
American independence.^^ 

Let us now recall the dramatic incidents that 
related to New York' city in the war. It was here 
that the first orders for the ships of war to sail 
against the enemy were promulgated. This was 
the first port from which they sailed and these dogs 
of war were let loose against the enemy. The first 
gun fired in that war was from the President, that 
then sailed from New York city, where she was 
built in Bergh's shipyard. 

The first private armed British vessel that was 
captured in the war was the brig Dolphin, captured 
by the Essex on the 9th of July, thai sailed from 
this port. 

The first war vessel captured by either side was 
the AJert^ captured by the Essex on August 10th. 

The first British flag captured was carried by the 
Alert, and was brought into this port and sent from 
Naw York to Washington, where it still remains. 

The last United States war vessel captured by the 
enemy was the President, in her attempt to run the 
enemy's blockade of the port of New York. 



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508 IN ^'SW TORE CITY. 

The Za5< American flag ih^^i was taken down at 
the demand of an enemy in that war was on the 
same occasion. 

The last battle at sea was by the Hornet y that cap- 
tured the Penguinj and the last hostile gun fired in 
the war was by the Peacock^ when the Naviilus 
surrendered to her on 30th June, 18i5. The Hornet 
and the Pea^cock sailed from New York on their last 
cruise in the war, as before stated. 

The British vessel, the Favorite, with the flag of 
truce bearing the British and American envoys, with 
the treaty of peace, first appeared oflE Sandy Hook, 
and was permitted to pass thd forts in Kew York 
Harbor by Gten. Robert Bogardus, a soldier and 
citizen of New York, and permitted to land in New 
York. 

The news of the treaty of peace first arrived in New 
York city, and was known here thirty hours before 
it was known in Washington. 

The Favorite, with the treaty ratified by the 
United States, sailed from New York with it for 
England. 

It became tlie home of Albert Gallatin, one of the 
negotiators of the treaty of Ghent. 

Mr. John L. Lawrence, a lawyer in New York 
city, was for a time one of the secretaries to the 
United States negotiators at Ghent. He was city 
comptroller in 1849. 

It was the home of many of the men that took 
prominent part in that war, the deeds of whom can 
never be forgotten. It is now consecrated by the 
graves of many of them. 



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CONCLUDING REMARKS, 509 

The narrative of the part taken by New York 
city in these great events shows that the city then 
was what she has always been since this continent 
became inhabited by white men — prominent in 
everything that pertains to national life and glory 
in the western hemisphere, with an individuality 
ever changing, yet ever the same, which custom 
cannot destroy, but will add lustre to her as time 
rolls on. 

The writer feejs a personal gratification in being 
able to accomplish the foregoing work with so much 
detail, commenced so long ago, and offers it as a 
devotional contribution to this attractive city, and 
the State and nation of which she is a portion. 



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APPENDIX TO VOLUME IL 

NOTE I. 

List of City Officers, 1814-1815. 

Mayor— Dq Witt Clinton, to March 20, 1815. 

Recorder— iosidh Ogden HoflEman, to April 3, 
1815. 

Clerk of Common Council — Jacob Morton. 

Aldermsn and Assistant Aldermen — Already- 
stated in Vol. I., ante, pp. 424, 425. 

Commxm Council Committee of Defence^ from De- 
cember 13, 1813, to December 13, 1814: 

Aldermen Fish, Smith, Mesier and Buckmaster. 

Assistant Aldermen Nitchie, Brackett and 
Tucker. 

From December 13, 1814, to December, 1815 : 

Aldermen, same as previous year. 

Assistant Alderman Mapes, Tucker and Douglass. 

(See ante, p. 432.) 

City Chamberlain^ from 1809 to 1816— Whitehead 
Fish. . 

City Comptroller, from 1813 to 1816— Thomas R. 
Mercein. 



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513 BANK OFFICERS. 



NOTE n. 

List of Banks and Bank Officers in New York 
City, 1812-1815. 

Bank of New York, July, 1812. Incorporated 
March, 1791. Renewed in 1811 until 1820. Capital, 
$950,000. Mathew Clarkson, president ; Herman 
Leroy, Joshua Waddington, John B. Coles, Wynant 
Van Zandt, Jr., George Turnbull, Robert Bowne, 
Isaac Lawrence, Rufus Bang, William Deming, 
James Lenox, Nehemiah Rogers, Peter P. Goelet, 
directors ; Charles Wilkes, cashier ; Gurdon S. Mum; 
ford and S. A. Lawrence, directors on part of the State. 

July, 1813 — Charles King, in place of Rufus King. 

July, 1814 — Wynant Van Zandt, Jr., out ; John* 
Mason, Peter Schermerhom, Jr., added. 

Manhattan Company, July, 1812. Incorporated 
1799. Capital, $2,000,000. Henry Remsen, presi- 
dent ; Henry Rutgers, William Edgar, De Witt 
Clinton, George Lewis, Walter Bowne, Isaac Cla- 
son, James Fairlie, William Few, Thomas Farmar, 
John G. Costar, David Gelston, Recorder of City of 
New York, ex-offlcio, directors ; Samuel Flewwel- 
ling, cashier. 

July, 1813— Same. 

July, 1814— De Witt Clintop out ; John Smith, 
Isaac Clason, Abram R. Lawrence, in. 

Merchants^ Bank, July, 1812. Incorporated 1805. 
Capital, $1,400,000. Richard Varick, president ; 
Peter Remsen, John Kane, John Hone, Henry T. 
Wyckoff, John Taylor, Henry A. Costar, David 
Lydig, Thomas Storm, Benj. G. Minturn, James 



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BANK OFFICERS, 513 



Roosevelt, Peter J. Munroe, the Treasurer of the 
State, ex-officio, directors ; Lynde Catlin, cashier. 

July, 1813— Same. 

July, 1814— Same. 

Mechanics* Bank, July, 1812. Incorporated 1810. 
Capital, $1,500,000 ; in 1811 increased to $2,000,000. 
John Slidel, president ; Anthony Steenback, Francis 
Cooper, Gabriel Furman, George Warner, Stephen 
Allen, Jacob Sherrid, John R. Murray, Jonathan 
Lawrence, Jr., Samuel Hicks, Jacob Lorillard, ex- 
officio John S. Roulet, Andrew Morris and Divie 
Bethune, directors ; Hector Craig and John Van 
Beuren,on part of the State; Whitehead Fish, cashier. 

July, 1813— Same. 

July, 1814— Same. 

Union Bantc, July, 1812. Incorporated 1811. 
Capital, $1,800,000. Amasa Jackson, president; 
Elias Kane, James Heard, John B. Murray, Corns. 
Dubois, Andrew Foster, Joseph Strong, Sylvester 
Robinson, Allen Shepherd, Jam^s Thomson, David 
Dunham, directors ; John Low, cashier. 

July, 1813— John B. Murray, Corns. Dubois, out ; 
William Osborn, Louis Lome, Nath. Richards, in 
their place. 

July, 1814— Same. 

New York Manufacturing Co. {Phoenix Bank), 
July, 1813. Incorporated 1812, Capital, $1,200,- 
000. Ebenezer Burrill, president ; David T. Green, 
cashier ; Abraham Bussing, Reuben Crump, Noyes 
Darling, George Fitch, David S. Jones, John King, 
Jr., Isaac Marquand, Silvanus Miller, Anthony 
Post, John L. Van Kleeck, Thaddeus B. Wakeman, 



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514 CITT TAXPAYERS. 

Samuel Whittemore, Eliphalet Williams, directors ; 
William Smith, on part of the State. 

July, 1814— Same. 

City Bank, July, 1813. Incorporated 1812. 
Capital, $2,000,000. Samuel Osgood, president ; 
G. B. Vroom, cashier ; Abraham Bloodgood, Will- 
iam Cutting, Benjamin BaQey, Isaac Pierson, Henry 
Fanning, William Furman, Samuel Tooker, Grove 
Wright, Ichabod Prall, John Swartwout, Peter 
Stagg, WiUiam Irving, John L. Norton, Jasper 
Ward, directors. 

July, 1814 — William Few, president ; G. B. 
Vroom, cashier ; directors, same. 

Bank of America. Incorporated 1812. Capital, 
nominal, $6,000,000 ; reduced to $4,000,000 March, 
1818. Oliver Wolcott, president ; Jonathan Burrall, 
cashier ; Theodorus Bailey, OUver Wolcott, Steven 
Whitney, W. Bayard, J. T. Lawrence, A. Giacie, 
A. Smith, J. T. ChampUn, P. G. Hildreth, G. Gris- 
wold, J. De Peyster, G. Newbold, Q. Buckley, P. 
Hone, John 0. Hoffman, A. Barker, P. Fish, H. 
Post, Jr., directors. 

July, 1814 — William Bayard, president. 



NOTE m. 
(Ante, p. 428.) 

List of Crrv Taxpayers upon Personal Prop- 
erty ON $5,000 AND Over in Value, in 1815 
AND IN 1820. 
The following are the names of the residents in 
New York city that were assessed on $5,000 and over 
for local taxation upon personal property, in Janu- 



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CIT7 TAXPAYERS. 



615 



ary, 1815, after deducting their debts. The property 
consisted of all State and Government stock and 
bonds and shares in private corporations, and were 
taxed accordingly (see ante, p. 429) : 





TALDATIOM. || 










1815. 


IWO. . 


A 


. 




Abbot, Robert 


$10,000 




Abeel. Garret B... . 


80,000 




Abrams. Jacob (Es- 






toteon 

Adams, John 




$19,000 


70,000 


80.000 


Adee, David 


SO.OOO 


25,000 


Adee, William 


14,000 


18,000 


Aniew, John 

Aurd, John 


6,000 


8.000 
10,000 


AUen, Capt. F 


Allen, Stephen. 


15,000 




Allen, Thomas 




5,000 


Allin, Moees 




10,000 
10,000 


AUey, Saul 




Ames. Charles. 


8,000 




Amos. Richard 


5600 




Anderson, Elbert.... 


20.000 




Andrews, David 




5,000 


Anthon, John 


8.000 


10 000 


Anthony, Widow.... 
Arcularius, George 




16.000 


8,000 


85.0U0 


Arcularlus, PhUip G. 


7000 


7,000 


Arden, James 


10,000 




Arden, Susan 




10,000 


Arden. Thomas 

Ashaeld,John 


10,000 




6,000 




Ashfield, Widow.... 




5,000 


Aspinwall, Gulian. . . 


80,00.) 




Aspin wall, John 


19,000 


18,000 


Aspinwall, John M. 
Asten, John 




6,000 


8.000 
160,000 


6.000 
400,000 


Astor, JohnJ^oob... 


Auchincloss, H 


6,000 


6.000 


AusUq, Archibald... 


10,000 




Austin, Daniel 




6,000 


Austin, David 


90,000 




Austin, George 

Avery, John 8 


80,000 




10,000 


18,000 


Backus. W. G 




10,000 


Baher,Davia 


6,000 




Bailey, Benjamin.... 


87,000 


25,000 


Bailey, Floyd 8 


8.000 


6,000 


Bailey, James 


11,000 


6,000 


BaUey, John (Estate 
of) 


80.000 


6.000 


Bailey, Theodorus. . . 


Bailey, Thomas 


10.000 




Bailey, William 

Baldwin, Charle<«.... 


16.000 




10,000 


10.000 1 



Baldwin, Jessie. . . 
Baneker. Widow.. 
Banks, George T. . . 
Bardin, Edward.... 

Barhen. James 

Barker. Benjamin G 

Barker, Jacob 

Barker, James 

Barker, Stephen.... 
Barker, William... 
Bar khome. WUliaai . 

Barton, E 

Bassett, Widow 

Bates, Frederick G. 

Bayard, Robert 

Bayard, William . . . 
Bayard, William, Jr. 
Bazen. Thomas. . 
Beekman, Henry... 
Beekman, James. . 

Beekman, John 

Beekman, Step'n D. 

Be'rs.J. D 

Bell, James L. 

Bell, William 

Belson, Richard. . . . 

Benedict, James 

Bennett, James. .... 
Benson, Lawrence. . 
Benson, hobert. .... 
Benson, Robert, Jr. 
Benson, Sampson . . 
Benson, Sampson, 

Jr 

Berger, Doctor 

Betts, Kamuel 

Bethune, Divie 

Bingham, John 

Bininger, Abraham 
Binlnger, Jacob. . . . 

Bishop. Eseklal 

Black, Richard.... 

Black, Mrs 

Blackwell. Joseph. 
Black well. Wm. D.. 
Blake, Robert... 
Bloodgood, Abra^m. 
Blondgocd, John 
Bloodgood, Thos 
Blossom, Benjamin, 
Board man, Daniel . . 
Boarrum. Henry... 



$10,000 
6,000 

10,000 

13,000 

5.000 

160,000 

6,000 
6,000 



8,700 
100,000 

86.000 

8,000 
80,000 



10,000 
6,000 
7.000 
8.500 
10,000 
16.000 

15,000 

45,000 



6,000 
10.000 

6,700 
80,000 

40,000 

10,000 
5,000 

10,000 
6,000 
5.000 
6,000 

15,000 
8.000 



$7,000 

12,000 
6,000 



50,000 
80.000 
70,000 
10.000 
6.000 
18,000 
10,000 

25 000 
10,000 
10,000 



10,000 

5,000 
18,000 

6.000 
17,000 



6,000 
6,500 
80,000 

10,000 
6.000 



8,000 
80,000 



9,000 
10,000 
10.000 

60.000 



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516 CITY TAXPAYERS. 



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CITY TAXPAYERS. 517 



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518 


CITT TAXPAYERS. 








VALUATIOlf. 


NAin. 


▼ALOATIOH. 


HAMX. 












1816. 


1880. 




1816. 


1820. 


Duffee, Hosea 


$8,000 




Furman, Richard... 


$6,000 




I>ummer,Qeom.... 
Dunham, Daria 


7,600 


$0 000 
60,000 


Furman, William J. 


8,000 




46,000 


O 






Dunlap, James 


16,000 








Durand, James B... 


80,000 




Gaillard, Joseph.... 


9,000 




Durand, John B 


»).000 




Gallagher, George.. 


10,000 




Davall, Joseph 

DuTall. William 

Duyckinok, Brert... 


10,000 


6.000 


Gamage, Amory.... 
GanUey, Daniel..... 


10,000 




10,000 


6,000 


20.000 


$86,000 


14,000 


16,000 


Gardner, David 


6.000 










Gardner, John 


46,000 




E 






Gardner, J. (execu- 










6,000 


tor) 




40,000 


.... 


10.000 


Gardner. Thomas... 


80.000 






80,000 


60,000 


Garner, Frederick. . . 


10,000 








8.000 


Garnisa, Thomas W. 




6,000 




900.000 


140.000 


Gassner, John 


10,000 


16,000 


^... 


20,000 


80,000 


Gebbard, Frederick. 


80,000 


80,000 






80,000 


Gedney, Samuel.... 


26,000 






10.000 




Gelston, Dard 


40.000 


40,000 


Ed- 






Gelston, Maltby 


10.000 


16,000 


mona 




6,000 
6,000 
6.000 


Gerardt, Mrs 

Glel. John O 


6,000 


6,000 


S!l8wor th Kra^iM 




Ely, Elisha 


16,000 


G Ibert, Garret 


6,000 




Emmett, Thomas A. 


6.000 


10,000 


Gilford, Samuel 


80,000 


16,000 


Engelbart, Qeorge.. 




6,000 


Gilford, Samuel Q... 


16 000 


16.000 


EnRlis. John........ 

ETorlngham, Gilbert 




10,000 
10,000 


Gill, Robert 


10,000 


7,000 


10,000 


Gillender, James.... 


6,000 










Gillespie, David 




8,000 


F 






Gillespie, George.... 


10.000 




Fairly, James 

Falls, Alexander.... 


aooo 




Gillies, D. G 


15,000 




18,000 




tiiraud, Jacob P 


80,000 


20,000 


Fardon, Abraham. . . 


6,000 




Glvin, Robert 




6,000 


Farmer, Thomas. . . . 


26,000 


1S,000 


Glass, Alexander 8.. 


6.000 




Farquar, James 

Farrier, Widow 




8,000 


Glover, John I 


160.000 




10,000 


7,000 


Qlover, John Q 




6.000 


Ferris, Benjamin.... 


6,000 




Goelet, Peter P 


60,000 


60,000 


Ferris, Samuel 


6,000 




Goelet, Robert R. . . . 


10 000 




Ferris, Mrs 




6.000 


Goelet, Stt'pben 


6.000 




Few, Col 


16,000 


18,000 


Goelet, Thomas B. . . 
Goodhue, Jonathan. 


7,000 
10,000 




Field, Moses 


19,000 


Fields. Hickson W.. 


6,000 




Goodman, John A... 




8,000 


Fi«ld8, Richard T... 


6,000 




Good win, Sauvin ... . 


SO.OOO 




Fillotc. WillUm 


15,U00 




Goodwin, Thomas... 


10.000 




Fish, Nicholas 


7,600 


7,600 


Gordon, Charles W.. 


6.000 




Fish, Preserve J 


10.000 


10.000 


Gottoberger, H. P. . . 


10,000 




Fish. Whitehead.... 
Flack. John 


6,000 




Gouvemeur, Mrs 




16,000 


6,000 


S6,000 
10.000 


Gouvemeur, Nicho 
las 


6,000 
16,000 




Flandin, P 




Floyd, Samuel 


Gouvemeur, William 




FoBt«>r, Andrew 


80,000 


80,000 


Goyon 


K'S22 




Foulkes, Joseph 




16,000 


Grade, Archibald... 


60.000 


20.000 


Fowler Theodore 


20,000 

80,000 
5,000 




Grade, J 


10,000 




Fox, Daniel 


12,000 
6,000 


Grade, William 

Graham. John 

('Jrant, John 


60,o:o 

8,000 
20.000 


6,000 


Fox. Gteorsre 


20.000 


Fox William W ... 




Frost, Leonard 


Graves, John B 


10.000 


Fulton, Harriet 


80.000 


6,000 


Graydon, Mrs. L.... 




6,000 




10,000 




QrPAn. Marir. 


10,000 




Furman, Howard... 


8.000 


6.000 liareenieaf.''Ann 




10,000 



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CITY TAXPAYERS. 



519 



Greenway. Edward. 
Greenwood, John... 

Griffin, Georjce 

Griffith, Nathaniel 0. 

Origg, John 

Grlm.DaTld 

Griscom, John 

Griswold, George... 

Griswold, John 

Griswold, Nathaniel 

L 

Gulon, John J 

H 

Hadden. David 

Haggertj, John 

Haight, aftH 

Haight, David L. . . . 

Haines, Edmund 

Hall, Daniel 

Hall, James 

Hallet, Abraham S. . 

Halliday, Robert.... 

Halstead, Ezekiel... 

Halsted. William.... 

Hamilton, James F. . 

Hamhnd, A. P 

Hammerfiley, An- 
drew 

Hammerslcy, L^^wis, 

Hammersley, Thorn 
as 

Hankerson, Andrew 
C 

Hardenbrook, A 

Hardenbrook, John 
W 

Hardenbrook, Will- 
iam 

Harmony, Peter 

Hamet, Jonathan. . . 

Harper, Samuel B.. 

Harral. G 

Harrison, Jabf'z 

Harrison. Bichard.. 

Hart, Eli 

Hart, Peter G 

Hartman. L^wis 

Harvev. Thomas.... 

Haskett, Joseph 

Hathaway, Stephen. 

Hathome, John 

Havens, G 

Havens, Henry 

Havens, Phileus 

Havens. R 

HavUand, John 

Hawes, Peter 

Hawkes. H. A. A.... 



$5,000 

SO 000 
7,000 
6,000 
6000 

40,000 
6,000 

60,000 
6,000 



10.000 
40.000 
40,000 
86,000 

6,000 
10,000 
10 000 
80,000 

10.000 
80,000 
10,000 

10.000 
16,000 

15.000 

6,000 

12,000 

5,'iOO 

80.000 

7.000 

10,000 

8,000 
80,000 

20.000 
8,000 

10,000 
8,000 

40,000 
5,000 

8.000 
16,000 

7.000 
10,000 
10,000 



$5,000 

6,000 
10.000 

6,000 

82.000 

10,000 



20,000 
25,000 
20,000 

10,000 



6,000 
8,000 



10,000 
15,000 

15,000 



5,000 
10,000 

65,000 

6.R00 
5,000 

80,000 
6.000 
80,000 



6,000 

6,000 
64K)0 



Haydock, William.. 

' ~IUiam.. 

mas.... 

8 

nelius. . 
Irian... 
ter 

miiam! 
erman. 
las 

%\\\\'.\\ 
lel 

er 

lam .... 

>race... 

Thorn- 

iA.W.W 
I u'viiucF-, «* luiam B. . 

,1 len 

I 

If ,Jr 

^ IP 

I F 'aleb 

F ichard... 

F riiiiam... 

|F Israel.... 

! uiiTs v«/u, ^^c»leD. ...... 

Horton. Thomas.... 
I Hoosack, Alexander. 
Hooeack, Alexander, 

Jr 

I Houseman. Jacob. . . 
Howard William... 
Howell, William.... 

Howland, G. G 

Howland, John H... 
Howland, Samuel. . . 

iHoyt, Gould 

I Hubbard, David G.. 
Hubbard. Henry.... 

I Hubbell, Anson 

I Hull, Wager 

Humphry. Elijah... 

Hunter, Robert 

I Hustan, Benjamin.. . 

Hutton. Timothy 

Hyde, James N 

Hvde,JohnE 

Hyer, Garret 

Hyslop, John 

Hyslop, Robert 



1816. 



$6,000 
15,000 

40,000 

6,600 
5,000 

10.000 

60,000 

5000 

86,000 

70,000 
8,000 

10,000 
80.000 
10,000 
6,000 

6,000 

20.00 • 

6.000 

6.000 

160,000 

60 000 
6,000 
5,000 
6.600 
6,000 

ao.oio 

5,000 
6,000 

5,000 
10,000 
16.000 
26.000 
l^.rOO 
16.000 



60,000 
8,000 
8.000 
6.000 
16,000 
10.000 
10.000 
6,000 
6,000 
5,000 
60.000 
7,000 



18-20. 



$80,000 

20,000 

6,000 
7.600 

80,000 
6,000 
80,000 
8,000 
60,000 
10.000 
10,000 



10 000 
6,010 



60.000 
10.000 
60,000 

6,000 
10,000 



5.000 

9,000 
85,000 

6.000 
80.000 
26.000 

5.000 
20.000 
20,000 



6,000 

6,000 
18,000 



6.000 
6,000 



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520 



CITY TAXPAYERS. 





▼▲LDATION. 


1 MAMS. 


VALUATION. 














1815. 


ISO li 


1815. 


1890. 


1 






King. John A 


$7,000 




Imlaj, William H. . . 
InKeJhart^G 


$10,000 




Klijg. William 


6,000 




5.000 




!Kitig& Mead 


10,000 




Inslie. Kobert 


16.000 




iKingsland. Richard. 


15,000 




Ireland, William H.. 


8,001) 


$5,000 


Kip. Isaac L 


10,000 


$10,000 


Irving, Ebenezer.... 


85,000 


15,000 


|Kip, Luke 




5.000 


Irvinff, John Y 


Ki'tsam, BeuJaminT 
Kissam, Dauiel 


6.000 


Irving, William 




8,000 




6,000 








Kissam, Richard 8. . 


9.000 


16,000 


J 






Kneeland, Henry.... 


40,000 




Jacobs, Hannah 


15,000 




Knox, Thomas 


7,500 


16,000 


Jacobs, Henry 


8,000 




Kopler, John 




8.000 


Jacobs, Henry 


5,000 




Kopman, Lewis 


6,000 




Jacobs, Philip 


10,000 










Jackdon, Alex. G. . . . 


8,000 


5.000 


L 






Jackson, Amasa.... 


80,000 


10,000 


La Count, John 


10,000 




Jackson, Henry 


6,000 


6.000 


Laight, Edward W.. 




.^SS5 


Jacques, John D.... 


5,000 




Laing, Hugh 

LaiHar, John 




10,000 


Jagger, Jehlel 


16,000 






8,000 


Jarvls, Jam«>s 


8.000 


8.000 
120.000 


fiam*>, liSm 


7,500 
80,000 




Jaunoey, William... 


f^mKAi^. riavl/l ft 


90,000 


Jenkins, Sylranus F. 
Jenkins, widow 


40,000 






5,000 






80,000 






6,000 


Johnson, Charles. . . . 


5,000 








6.000 


Johnson, John 


14,000 


10,000 




40,000 


86,000 


Johnson, John 




6,000 






6,000 


Johnston, David 


7,000 


9,000 






5,000 


Johnston, George... 


10,000 








6.000 


Johnston, John C... 


10,000 






60,090 


20,000 


Johnston, William M 




6,000 








Jones, Edward R. . . . 


10,000 


10.(K)0 




60,000 


80.000 


Jones, Eleanor 


lO.nOO 


10.000 






5.600 


Jones, Isaac 


».0J0 


20.000 
7.01)0 




18 000 


Est. of 


Jonm, Isaac, Jr 


8,000 


Joneo, James T 


8,000 


6,000 




80,000 


15,003 


Jones, John 


10.000 


6,000 




10,000 


5.000 


Jones, Joshua 


80,000 


6>.000 




10,000 


10 000 


Jones, Biargaret 


20.000 


80 000 






15,000 


Jones, Peter 


10,000 


10.000 




85,000 


96.000 


Jones, Samuel 


10,000 


5,000 




6,000 








Est. of 




80,000 


15.000 


Jones, William 


8,000 


5.000 


1 Lawrence, William. 


50,00J 


60,000 


Judah, Moses 


15,000 




Lawrence, William. 


6,000 




K 






Layer, John (Est. of) 




6,000 






Leake, John Q 


4n,oOo 


60,000 


Kade, John 


100,000 


10,000 


Leavenworth, Mrs.. 
Leavenworth, Na- 


10,000 


6,000 


Keese, John D 




Kelly, Robert 


10,000 
80,000 


10,000 
16,000 
10,000 


thaniel 


6,000 


10,000 


Kemp, John 


Le Briton, Widow... 
iLebrun. Widow 


6,000 


Kennedy, David 




Kennedy, Duncan. . . 




10,000 


ILee, Gideon 


20,000 


10,000 


Kenney, Patrick.... 


7,500 




'Leggett, Samuel.... 


60,000 


60,000 


Kermit, Henry 


6,000 


5,000 


iLeggett, Thomas H. 


80,000 


6,000 


Kermit,Mrs •. 




5,000 


Leggett. William.... 


10,000 




Kermit, WiUiam.... 


25,000 




Lenox, Robert 


800,000 


160,000 


Kibber, Isaac 


15,000 




Lenox, James 


60,000 




Kimberly, David.... 
King, Oharles 


.5,000 




Leonard, John 


8.000 


6,000 




5000 


Leroy. Herman 


6.000 


80,000 


King, Elisha W 




5.000 


Le Roy. Robert 


40,000 


40,000 



Digitized by 



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CITY TAXFATER8, 52 L 



Digitized by 



Google 



522 



CITY TAXPAYERS, 





TALUATI0.V. 1 




VALUATION. 


MAMS. 






MAIfB. 








1816. 1 


1880. 




1816. 


1820. 


Minard, Isaac 


$7,000 


$6,000 


Nichols, Edward H. . 


$91,000 


$40,000 


Hiccheli, Saraual L. . 


6.000 


5,000 


Nichols, FraDcUH.. 


26,000 


10,000 


Mitchell, W 




6,000 


Nichols, H.W 




6,000 






7,000 


Nichols, PerkiD 


7,000 




of) 


5,000 




NIzoD, R 


20,000 


10,000 
86,000 


MoUan, Stewart 


NIzon, Thomas 


Monroe, Peter Jay.. 


20 000 




Norton, John L 




6,000 


«»_ __ 


8.000 




Norsworthy, Famuel 
Norwood,! S 


15.000 






80,000 




80 000 






6,000 




No«trand, Timothy. 


14,000 








60,000 


Nuter, Volatine 


6,000 








17,000 


1 










10 000 


O 










6,000 


Oakey, James 


6,000 






6,000 




Oakey, Chiirles 




6000 




60,000 




Ogden, Abraham. . . . 


10.000 






6.000 




Offden, Abraham... . 


16,000 






45,000 




Ogdeo, Albert 


^000 








10,000 


Ofcdeo, Charles L... 


6,000 








10 000 


Ogdeo, DsTid B 


6.000 








18,000 


lOirden, Jonathan. . . . 


86,000 






7,500 




lOgflen, Jonathan.... 


25.000 


80,000 




5,000 


■~ 


6,000 






18,000 


10.000 




6.000 




7,000 






5,000 




18.000 


10,000 




85.000 




18,000 




44,000 








12,600 


40,000 


86,000 




9.000 






11,000 




5,000 






10,000 




6,000 




10,000 


6,000 




6.000 


6.000 




6,000 




60,000 


40.000 




70,000 




8,000 










10,000 


10.000 








60,000 




15,000 








5,000 


20,000 


8.000 




20.000 




6.000 


6,000 




26,000 




10 000 


8,000 




6,000 




6,000 
6.000 


6,000 




£0.000 


6,000 


6,000 


6,000 




7,000 


6,000 


83,500 




_„.^ . ^, ^ 


10,000 


6,000 




6,000 


Myer, GeorRe 


86,000 




8,000 




Myer, Peter 




6,000 


..nu.u.uK .- — viiirn-Tri 


10 000 


6,000 








'Paulding! William..' 


88.000 




N 






Pearsall, Robert.... 


10.000 




. William, Jr 


16,000 




iPearsall, Thomas... 


80,000 




Jamea 




6,000 




16,000 




Peter J 




7,000 


Perkins, John 


20,000 




Bufus L 


6,000 




Perkins, Mary M.... 




10,000 


RuBsel 


10.000 




Peters. Harry 


17,000 




J, George.... 


15,000 


10,000 


1 Peters, John 


6,000 




i. Mrs 




10,000 


Peters, John R 


6,000 


6,000 


Roberts.... 


5,000 




Phelps, Anson G.... 




6.000 


,Paul 


6,000 




Phelps, Thadeus.... 




6,000 


Q, Samuel S. 


6,000 




Phenix. J.P 


16,000 


10,000 



Digitized by 



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CITY TAXPAYERS. 



523 



1820. 



PhUepont. Francis.. 
Pierce, Theophilns.. 

lienoa, Isaac 

Pollock. Edward.... 

Post, Allison 

FoBt, Anthony 

Post, Oerardus 

Post, Jacob 

Post, Jotham N 

Post, Michael 

Post, wuiiam....... 

Post, Wright 

Pott, Qideon 

Potter, Rlias 

PraU, Ichabod 

Price, William 

Prime, Nathaniel.... 

Prince, Samuel 

Purdy, C 

Purdy, John O 

Q 

Qaackenbuah, John. 
Quirk, E 

R 

Radcliff, Peter W... 

Bandolph, Jeremiah 
F 

Rankin, Henry 

Rankin, Robert 

Rapelyes, Daniel.... 

Rath bone, John 

Rathbone 

Ray, Oomelius 

Read, Stephen 

Reed, John 

Reinecke, .John 

Remsen, Daniel 

Remsen, Henry 

Remsen, Peter 

Ren wick, James 

Ren wick, Mrs. Jane. 

Repper, Matthew... 

Resler, Frederick... 

Revier, Francis v.. . 

Reynolds. Thomas A 

Rhinelander, Jacob. 

Rhinelander, Mary. . 

Rhinelander, Will- 
iam 

Rhinelander, Will- 
iam 

Rhodes, Mrs 

Rich, Stephen 

Rich, Stephen A 

Richards, John 

Richards, John W.. 

Richards. Nathaniel. 



140.000 


$6,000 


7,000 


8,000 




90,000 




10,000 




15,000 


10,000 




40.000 


20,000 




15,000 


50,000 






6.000 


40.000 


25,000 


7,000 


5,000 


7.500 




10.000 


6,000 




6.000 




10.000 




76,000 


10,000 






5,000 


10.000 




8,000 


10,000 




6,000 


6.000 




20,000 


10000 


80.000 


25,000 


20,000 




16,000 


10.000 


60.000 


15,000 


6.000 




80,000 


60,000 


bO.OOO 




7.000 




20.000 




6.000 


25,000 


80,000 




60,000 


60,000 


80 000 




60,000 




5,600 




7.000 




30,000 




8,000 




40.000 




6.000 


6,000 


80.000 


80,000 




10,000 


10.000 


8,000 


7,000 




6,000 




40.000 




6,000 




86,000 





Richards, Stephen.. 
Richards, Thomas.. 
Richardson, John... 

RiffKS, Caleb S 

Rfker, John. 

Riker, Richard 

Riley. Isaac 

Robbing, John 

Roberts, Mrs 

Robertson, George.. 
Robertson, Henry. . . 
Robertson, John.... 
Robinson, Alexander 
Robinson, Gilbert... 

Robinson. John 

Robinson, Robert L. 

Roe, William 

Rogers, Benjamin W 

Rogers, Fitch 

Rogers, Gtoorge 

Rogers, Henry 

Rogers, Henry 

Rogers, H. F 

Rogers, John 

Rogers, John R. D.. 

Rogers, Moses 

Rogers, Nehemiah.. 
Rogers, Thomas M. . 

Rooke, John 

Roosevelt, James... 
Roosevelt, James O. 
Roosevelt, James J. 

Ross, William 

Ross, William M.... 
Rowland, Charles... 
Rutgers, Nicholas G. 

S 

Salles, Lawrence. . . . 

Saltus, Francis 

Saltus. Nicholas 

Saltus, Solomon 

Sands, A. L 

Sands, Joseph 

Sauford, Nathaniel. . 

Sanford, N. W 

Savree. John 

Schenck, David 

Schenck, Peter H... 

Schermerhom, Abra- 
ham 

Schermerhom, John 
S 

Schermerhom, Peter 

Schermerhom, Peter 

Schermerhom, Si- 
mon 

Schi«*ff elin , E fD n g- 
h»im 



$10,000 
8,000 
7.000 
10,000 



6,000 
80.000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 

60,000 
5,000 
10,000 

10,000 

8,000 

8,000 

80.000 

25,000 

8000 
10,000 
80.000 
80,000 

5,000 

5,000 
60,000 

6,000 
50.000 



5,000 
5,000 



60,000 
10,000 

7,000 
15,000 

6,000 
60,000 

6,000 

10.000 

20,000 

10,000 

40.000 

5,000 

40,000 

9000 



$10,000 



6.000 
10,000 

80,000 
5,000 



10,000 

6,000 

25,000 

6,000 

80,000 
10.000 
7,000 

60.000 
20,000 

5,000 
20,000 
10,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 



50.000 
10,000 

6,000 

6,000 
12,000 

5,000 
40.000 

5,000 

10.000 



96,000 
60.000 
16.000 



6.000 



Digitized by 



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524 QITY TAXPATBBS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CITY TAXPA7BRS. 



525 





VALOATIOIf. 1 


VAMB. 


TALUATION. 


NAVB. 


1815. 


1820. 


1815. 


1880. 


Snydam, Heniy 

Bujdam, L 


$5,000 

40,000 
7,000 

26,000 
5.000 

10,000 
7,000 

10 000 

10.000 

10.000 
80 000 
40,000 

10,000 
6,000 
6,000 
10.000 
10,000 
100.000 

i-<;o.ooo 

60,000 
9,000 

10.000 

10,000 
5.000 

15,000 

100,000 

160 000 

25,000 

6,000 
5,000 
5000 
10,000 
10.000 
80.000 

15,000 

10,000 

10,000 
9000 

60,000 
8000 

20.000 

10,000 

10,000 
5000 


$5,000 
16,000 

80,000 

5.000 

10,000 

86,000 
6,000 

15,000 

10,000 

15,000 
60,000 
85,000 
90.000 
80,000 

6,000 

86.000 
18,000 
10,000 
60,000 

5.000 
12,000 

5,000 

5,000 

10.000 
10,000 
10.000 


Townsend, Thos. B. . 
Townsend. William B 

Trafford, John 

Trappan, Anthony.. 
Tredwell, George. . . . 
TredweM, John B... 
Tredwell, Seabury.. 
Trinder. Charles.... 
Troop, John 


$88,000 
6.000 
7.000 
5,000 
20 000 
20,000 
17,600 
6,000 
6,000 

10,000 

25,000 
15,000 

80,000 
10,000 

6,000 
6,000 
12,000 
86,000 

15,000 
12.000 

80,000 
6,000 
5.000 
80.000 
60.000 
26.000 
15,000 

8,000 

82,000 

16,000 

8.V000 

100,000 

5,000 

20,000 
12.000 


$18,000 


Baydam, Richard... 
Swan, Benlamin L. . 

SwaD, William 

Bmiutwout, John .... 
Swartwout, Robert. 
Swords, Jamet 


8,000 

6,000 

17,600 
6,000 


Swords, Thomas I. . . 
T 


Trumbull, Col 

Tucker. Richard J. . 
TukeL. John 


86.000 
10,000 


Tslooit, Danlal 

Talcott,Noab 

Talmatre, Mathias B. 

Talroafce, Mrs 

Talmao, John 


Turabull, George... 

U 

UnderhiU, Anthony 


6,000 


Taylor, Charles W. . 

Taylor, Edward 

Taylor, Gad 


Underbill, Joshua... 
UnderhUl, Mrs 

V 
Valentine, Abraham 
Valentine, Mathias. . 
ValIleUe,John J.... 

Van Alen, CO 

Van Amringe, Wm. 


6,000 
10,000 


Taylor. James 

Taylor, John 

Taylor, Johe 

Tailor, Nslah 

Terhune, Richard... 
Thibeaa, Widow.... 
Thomas, Henry 


16,000 
6^000 


Thomas, Robert 

Thomas, William... 


Van Antwerp, Nich- 
olas. 


8,000 


Thompson, A b r a- 
hun O 


Van Blarcum, John. 

Van Buren, Court- 
landt 


(Est. of 

6,000 


Thompson, alexaa 
der 




Thompson, Francis. 
Thompson, G. L.... 
Thompnon, James.. 
Thompson. Jeremiab 
Thompson , J o n a- 
than 


Van Buren, John. . . . 

Van Cleef , Ooraelius 

VandsDhenvel, John 




6,000 
5,000 

110,000 


Vanderbeck, Isaac.. 
Vanderbllt, Jermlah. 
Vandervoort, Peter. 

VanGieson, M 

Van Home, Garret.. 
Van Home, James P 
Van Nest, Abraham. 
Van Schaick, Miud- 
ert 




Thompson, 3.& A.. 
Thompson, Robert.. 

Thome, Philip 

Thome, Samuel 

Thome, Stephen.... 
Thurston, William R 

Tibbetts, Elisha 

Tibbetts, Mrs 

Tlllitson. Robert.... 

Titus, Walter 

Titus. William D 


12.000 
16,000 
8.000 
15.000 
12,000 

8.000 


Van Solingen, Henry 
Van Wagenen, G. H. 
Van Wagenen, Hu- 
bert 


6.000 
10,000 


Tobias, Thomas 

ToddTwUliam W... 
Tom, Thomas. 


Van Wyok, Pierre C 

Van Wyck, Samuel 

H 


10,000 


Tonnell, John 

Tooker, Samuel 

Town, Charles 

Townsend A Melanc- 

thon 

Townsend, RicFard. 


Van Wyck, Stephen. 

Varick, Richard 

Vernon, WUlfam.... 
Verplanck, Johnson 
Venreelen, Jacobus. 
Vosburg, Herman.. 


85.000 
70.000 

6,000 

6,000 



Digitized by 



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526 CITY TATPATBSS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



PR1VATBBR3 FROM NEW YORK, 



527 



There was a pamphlet printed in 1815 by Jona- 
than Thompson, collector of the United States 
taxes in New York city (second collection district), 
showing the amount of tax assessed upon the real 
property and slaves of each person, excepting house 
hold furniture, watches and on stamps, for the year 
1815. The rate was $3.15 on each thousand of val- 
uation (ante, p. 428). This shows that the valua- 
tion was not lower than that by the city assessors. 
It was a total of $56,820,952, against the city valua- 
tion of $81,636,042 for real and personal property 
for that year (ante, p. 428) . 



NOTE jv. 



List of Prfvateers from the Port of New York 
AND THE Number of Men and Guns on Each 
AND THE Number of Captures Made by Each, 
Not Including Those Sunk or Destroyed 
During the War of 1812-15. 



Name. 

Anaconda 
Alert 
Arroio 
Antelope 

Benjamin Franklin 
Banqor 

Berlin and Milan De- 
crees 
Black Joke 
Blockade 
Boxer 
Bunkerhill 



Commander. 

Nat Shaler 
Guy Catlin 
E. Conklin 
E. Conklin 
Josiah IngersoU 
J. Bariy 



B. Breanow 

Samuel C. Reid 
J. Lewis 



No. 
No. No. Cnp- 
MenOunstures 

180 18 3 

7 10' 

200 16 

32 10 

120 8 9 

28 2 



60 5 2 

66 10 1 

35 6 

60 6.6 



Digitized by 



Google 



528 



PRIVATEERS FROM NEW YORK. 



Name. 

Bunkerhill, 2d 

Camelon 

Chinese 

Cannonierre 

Charlotte 

Chauncey 

Divided We Fall 

Erie 

Eagle 

Elbridge Qerry 

Fieri 

Flash 

Flash, 2d 

Flint 

Fox 

General Armstrong 

General Armstrong, 

2d, 1813 
General Armstrong, 

3d, August, 1814 
General Armstrong, 

4th 
General Armstrong 
Galloway 

Governor Tompkins 
Governor Tompkins 
Hazard 
Herald 
Herald, 2d 
Holkar 
Harpey 
Henry Guilder 
Hero 
Hussar 
Invincible 
Jonquil 

Jack's F*avorite 

James Monroe 

James Monroe, 2d 

Janet 

Jehu 

John and Mary 







No. 




No. 


No. Cap- 


CTommander. 


Men Guns lures 


J. Lewis 


140 


14 




W. Cochran 


30 


18 




W. Hazard 


28 


8 




J. Bowers 


8 


2 




T. Barnard 


25 


3 




Jasper Cropsey 
H. Kobinson 


50 
27 


3 
4 


16 


— Beaufon 


45 


1 


2 


S. Turner and others 


60 


5 




Francis J. Bartholomew 50 


3 




A. Mather and others 


20 


6 




A. Somers 


23 


3 




A. Green 


30 


7 


1 


H. Morquo 


20 


1 




Tim Barnard 


150 


19 


19 


J. Sinclair 


120 


16 




Guy R. Ohamplin 


120 


15 


2 


Samuel C. Reid 


100 


7 


3 


Joseph Skinner 


.143 


14 


1 
20 


Nat Shaler and others 


140 


15 




Le Chautier 






1 




50 


10 


3 


Geo. Miller. Aug., 1815. 


100 


17 




Jonathan Rowland 


150 


18 


5 


A. Grigg 


110 


10 




S. Newson 


21 


1 


1 


A. Burrows 


24 


5 


5 


F. Jenkins and others 


98 


10 


2 
4 


£. Carman 


23 


1 


\ J. Miller 
\ — Johnson 


. 80 


5 


5 


Joe Skinner 


50 


5/ 


5 


D. Williams 


50 


8f 


Z. Crowell 


20 


3 




S. Field 


80 


7 




0. Adams 


8 


2 





Digitized by 



Google 



PHIVATEERS FROM NEW YORK. 



529 



Name. 

Kinq of Rome 

Lark 

Leopard 

Littl Belt 

Little Charles 

Louisiana 

Marengo 

Mars 

Macdonough 

Mary 

Meteor 

Morgiana 

New York 

Orders in Council 

Pacific 

Patriot 

Paul Jones 

Paul Jones 

Paul Jones 

Prince de Neufchatel 

President 

Price 

Prompt 

Regent 

Revenge 

Rosamond 

Retaliation 

Right of Search 

Rover 

Saratoga 

Swallow 
Scourge 

Spark 

Spitfire 

Spartan 

Telegraph 

The Brothers 

Thistle 

Teazer 

Tickler 





No. 


No. 
No. Cao- 


Commander, 


MenQuDsturts- 


• 


24 


6 




J. Banker 


6 






P. Drinkwater 


22 


5 




D. ShefiSeld 


20 


1 




H. Hunstable 


14 


2 




E. Golden 


6 


2 




J. Bedois 


50 


6 


8: 


Josiah Ingersoll 


110 


15 


4 


James Gill 


30 


3 




J. Isaacs 


32 


5 




J. Selby 


29 


3 




G. Fellows 


100 


14 


5 


L. Kipp 


6 


2 




J. Howai'd 


120 


16 


5 


J. Welden 


5 






W. Merrihew 


50 


2 


9 


William B. Dobson 


120 


19 j 


1 


A. Taylor 
John Hazard 


120 


19 


•15 


100 


3^ 


1 


J. Ordronaux 


127 


17' 


18 


J. Boynton 


20 


2 




E. Staples 
H. DeKoven 


30 


6 




5 






B. Parker and others 


85 


5 




C J. Welden 


18 






J. Campen 


132 


12 


S 


Sam Newson 


100 


6 


1 




50 


1 




0. Ferris 


35 


2 


1 


Andrew Riker and Guy 






R. Champlin 


140 


16 


22 


J. Bowyer and others 


30 


6 




R. L. Perry and C. 






Wooeter and others 


110 


9 


27 


J. Boyer and others 


35 


3 


5 


Z Miller 


54* 


2 




George Gardiner 
W. Kipp 


56 


3 




40 


1 




J. Cropsey 
Z. Crowefl 


12 
12 


1 
1 




W. B. Dobson 

F. Johnson and others 


[50 


2 


14 


Charles Johnson 


31 


1 





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530 INSTRUCTIONS TO PRIVATEERS. 









No. 






No. 


No. Cap- 


Name. 


Oommander. 


Hen Guns tures 


Turn Over 


— Southmeade 


16 


1 


Tartar 


F. King 


80 


8 


Tartar 


E. Veazy and others 


86 


10 


United We Stand 


William Story 


20 


2 1 


Union 


0. Hicks 


20 


4 


Van Hollen 


H. Perry 


25 


6 


Vixen 


J. Rosbrough * 


35 


3 


Viper 


D. Detharbibe 


35 


6 3 


Warrior 
Wampoa 


Guy R. Champlin 
D. waterman 


170 
18 


22 6 
4 


Yankee Porter 


J. Welden 


36 


2 


Yorktotvn 


T. W. Story- 
Andrew Riker 


160 


18 6 


Yorktoum, 2d 


130 


16 


Young Teazer 


W. B. Dobson 


65 


5 6 


Young Teazer'a Ohoat 








Zebra 


L. Bourne 

Total men, 


38 


10 


Total, 120 vessels. 


5,852 





The official instructions for the private armed ves- 
sels (privateers) of the United States v^ere as fol- 
lows : 

^* To Captain : 

'* 1. The tenor of your commission under the act 
of Congress, entitled 'An Act concerning letters 
of marque, prizes, and prize goods,' a copy of which 
is hereto annexed, will be kept constantly in your 
view.* The high seas, referred to in your commis- 
sion, you will understand, generally, to extend to 
low- water mark ; but with the exception of the 
space within one league, or three miles, from the 
shore of countries at peace both with Great Britain 

* The laws of Ck>Dgre8S relating to that class of inarine service 
are those of June 26, 1812, February 18, 1818, August 2, 1818, 
aad March 4, 1814. 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO PRIVATEERS. 531 

and with the United States. You may, neverthe- 
less, execute your commission within that distance 
of the shore of a nation at war with Great Britain, 
and even on the waters within the jurisdiction of 
such nation, if permitted so to do. 

^*2. Yoii are to pay the strictest regard to the 
rights of neutral powers, and the usages of civilized 
nations ; and in all your proceedings towards neutral 
vessels, you are to give them as little molestation or 
interruption as will consist with the right of ascer- 
taining their neutral character, and of detaining 
and bringing them in for regular adjudication, in 
the proper cases. You are particularly to avoid 
even the appearance of using force or seduction » 
with a view to deprive such vessels of their crews, 
or of their passengers, other than persons in the 
military service of the enemy. 

^*3. Towards enemy vessels and their crews you 
are to proceed, in exercising the rights of war, with 
all the justice and humanity which characterize 
the nation of which you are members. 

'^4. The master and one or more of the principal 
persons belonging to captured vessels are to be sent, 
as soon after the capture^ as may be, to the judge or 
judges of the proper court in the United States, to 
be examined upon oath touching the interest or 
property of the captured vessel and her lading ; and 
at the same time are to be delivered to the judge or 
judges all passes, charter parties, bills of lading, in- 
voices, letters and other documents and writings 
found on board ; the said papers to be proved by the 
affidavit of the commander of the capturing vessel, 



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532 CAPTURED VESSELS. 

or some other person present at the capture, to be 
produced as they were received, without fraud, addi- 
tion, subrluction or embezzlement. 

^*By command of the President of the U. S. of 
America. 

*' James Monroe, 

'^ Secretary of State." 



NOTE V. 



List op Captured Vessels Brought to New York 
City and Adjudicated Upon There During 
THE War, 1812-15. 

Gypsey^ taken by the Paid Jones. 

Lady Slierbroke, taken by the Marengo. 

Harmony, taken by the Yankee. 

Industry, taken by the Benjamin Franklin. 

Eliza, taken by the Marengo. 

Brig, taken by the Bunker Hill. 

Lady Prevost, taken by the Marengo. 

Providence^ taken by the Wiley Reynard 

New Liverpool, taken by the Yankee. 

Alert, taken by the Essex. 

Ocean, taken by the Saratoga. 

Vemis, taken by the Saratoga. 

Quebec, taken by the Saratoga. 

Adelia, taken by the Rosamond. 

Lady Harriot, taken by the Orders in Council. 



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CAPTURED VESSELS. 533 

Macedonian, taken by the United States. 

Criterion, taken by the Highflyer. 

Schooner, taken by the Retaliation. 

Two Brothers, taken by the Benjamin Fiank- 
tin. 

Recovery, taken by the Argus. 

Rio Nouva, taken by the Rolla. 

Three Brothers, taken by the Dolphin. 

Earl Percy, taken by the Chesapeake. 

Brig, taken by the Teazer. 

Janus, taken by the Orders in Council. 

Brig, taken by the Holkar. 

Lady Clark, taken by the Bunker Hill. 

Sloop Eagle, taken by the gunboats. 

Fame, taken by the Saratoga. 

Nereid, taken by the Governor Tompkins. 

Mary, taken by the Diomede. 

Superb, taken by the Mary. 

Henry, taken by the Governor Tompkins. 

Adeline, taken by the Expedition. 

Young Farmer, taken by the Henry Guilder. 

Laudraile, taken by the Syren. 

Ketch Expedition, taken by the Grampus. 

Eclipse, taken by the Chasseur. 

Neptune, taken by the Amelia. 
. Nancy, taken by the Scourge. 

Limerick, taken by the Morgiana. 

Helen, taken by the Morgiana. 

Susannah, taken by the Constitution. 

Anne, taken by the Zebec Ultor. 

Cyane, taken by the Constitidion, 

William, taken by the Vixeri. 



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534 OFFICERS OF PHIZE COURT. 

Concordy taken by the Marengo, 
Caroliney taken by the Retaliaiion. 



The Prize Court in the city of New York had the 
following named officers : 

Judge, William P. Van Ness, from May 27, 1812, 
to 1826. 

Clerk, Charles A. Clinton, from prior to 1812 
until June 12, 1813; Philip Spencer, Jr., from June 
12, 1813, to after 1815. 

District Attorney, Nathan Sanford, from July 25, 
1803, to March 21, 1815. 

Marshal, Peter Curtenius, from May 5, 1806, to 
July 29, 1813. John Smith, from July 29, 1813, to 
June 19, 1815. 

Collector of Customs, David Gtelston. 

Naval Officer, Samuel Osgood (1812); John Fer- 
guson (1813-14-15). 

United States Commissioners to take testimony 
in prize causes, Matthew L. Davis and Ogden Ed- 
wards. 

For jurisdiction of Prize Court in New York city, 
see ante. Vol. I., p. 125. 

The ^' Rules of the United States District Court 
in Prize Causes " in New York State were prepared 
by the Court in July, 1812, and printed by Pelsue & 
Gould, No. 3 New street, in a pamphlet of sixteen 
pages. Some of the prominent lawyers had a copy 
signed by ^^ Charles A. Clinton, Clk.," ready to be 
produced at any time when necessary. The one 



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GE^ERAL SWIFTS REPORT. 535 

used by Aaron Burr is in New York Law Institute 
' Library, and has Burr's autograph upon it. 

C. A. Clinton was removed as clerk because of 
incompetency in June, 1813. 

Judge M. B. Tallraadge removed Theron Eudd as 
clerk of the United States District Court and ap- 
pointed Philip Spencer, Jr., brother of Judge 
Spencer. Judge Van Ness reappointed Mr. Rudd. 



NOTE VI. 

(Ante, p. 398.) 

Gen. J. G. Swift's Report on Fortifications of 
New York in December, 1814.* 

The said report and drawings are now in the 
library of the New York Historical Society. The 
following is a copy of the verbal portion of it : 

" For the inspection of the Committee of Defence, 
the accompanying views and plans of such Fortifica- 
tions as have been constructed for the protection of 
the City of New York, are submitted. 

'' As explanatory, a few introductory remarks ex- 
hibiting the exposed situations, and possible points of 
assault, cannot be deemed superfluous. 

^'The City of New York may be approached, by 
Sandy Hook, by the Sound, or by crossing Staten 
Island. By Sandy Hook, by taking possession of 
that post ; or passing its batteries with a leading 
breeze, carry the works on Staten Island, and ppen 

* TheCommoo Council Committee of Defence in their final report 
(Note VII.. post) refer to this report by General Swift and to the 
plans and drawing therein referred to, and order it to be filed as 
part of their report. 



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536 GENERAL SWIFTS REPORT. 

a passage for shipping into the upper harbor ; or by 
debarking troops at Gravesend Bay and march upon 
Brooklyn. By the Sound the enemy's forces may 
be landed on York Island in the vicinity of Haerlem 
River, and from thence force their way by the Haer- 
lem, Kingsbridge, and Bloomingdale roads to the 
City, or by effecting a debarkation on Long Island 
at Flushing bay, they may either threaten the works 
at Heilgate, and obtain an entrance for shipping 
into the harbor through that pass, or leaving that 
position on the right, move by the Newtown and 
Jamaica road to Brooklyn. In order to cross Long 
Island a landing may be effected at Jamaica bay, 
and thence the route is easy to Brooklyn. 

^' To guard against these contingences and be pre- 
pared at all points against an assault, additional 
strength has been given to some of the old perma- 
nent fortifications ; the commanding positions at 
Heilgate occupied with batteries covered by towers ; 
While the voluntary aid of the Patriotic Citizens has 
been applied to the construction of enclosed works 
and connecting lines of entrenchments, at Brooklyn 
and Harlem Heights. 

'* Within and near these works have been con- 
structed the necessary magazines, barracks &c. 
For the form, situation, and strength of these works, 
the Committee of Defence are respectfully referred 
to the accompanying plans, commencing with a 
skeleton map, exhibiting at one view all the de- 
fences of the City of New York, from Haerlem 
Heights to Sandy Hook ; the Scale too limited in 
dimension to admit of accuracy as to figure. 



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GENERAL 8W1FT8 REPORT. 537 

^' At Princes Bay, Staten Island, the only secure 
anchorage for shipping, and safe landing for troops 
on the South side of the Island, a stone tower is now 
constructing, which, it is contemplated to enclose 
with a redoubt mounting ordnance of a large 
caliber. 

*ln advance of Brooklyn, Works have been erected 
w^hich completely insulate it. Fort Green, (on an 
eminence overlooking the neighbourhood and mount- 
ing twenty-three pieces of ordnance, principally of 
heavy calibers,) and Redoubts, Cummings, Masonic, 
and Fireman, are united by lines of intrenchments 
resting their right on Go wan us Creek, which runs 
through a low swampy morass, and having the 
Wallabout Bay on their left. In each of redoubts, 
as well as at the salunt angles of the intrenchments, 
are planted twelve pounders ; the intervals between 
which do not exceed the half grape shot distance of 
guns of that capacity. On a small eminence on the 
east side of Gowanus Creek, is a battery open in the 
rear calculated for three heavy pieces to defend 
the mill-dam and bridge, and flanking the right of 
the lines. To assist, and for the support of this 
work on the right, stands Fort Lawrence, on a 
commanding height, within grape shot range. The 
occupation of which hill became more necessary, as 
its value would have been incalculable to an enimy 
succeeding in penetrating the right of the line. In 
the rear, but within striking distance of Redoubts, 
Fireman, and Masonic^ and the adjacent intrench- 
ments, is the site of Fort Swift ; on a conical and 
imposing eminence. The importance of which be- 



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538 GENERAL SWIFT'S REPORT. 

comes enhanced in as much as it completely over- 
looks the strong defences of Governor's Island. — 
On the right of the plan of the works at Haerlem, 
is exhibited Fort Stevens, devil tower, and bat- 
teries on the mill rock, those proposed at Rhine- 
lander's point &c. for the defence of Hell- Gate 
passage ; works of sufficient capacity to mount 
thirty pieces of cannon, besides mortars, one-half of 
which may be brought to bear upon an object at the 
same time. At Benson's is a redoubt to guard a 
fording place, or mill dam over Haerlem creek, with 
lines extending to a creek in the rear, to be flanked 
by a battery on the opposite shore. From the head 
of Haerlem creek commences a parapet and ditch 
running to Fort Clinton, on an elevated rock, con- 
nected with which, and over McGowan's pass, is a 
block house and Nutter's battery, the whole joined 
to, commanded and supported by Fort Fish, on an 
eminence in the rear, mounting five pieces of heavy 
caliber. Immediately at the foot of the Westside of 
these works is a deep vallej, rendered somewhat 
difficult of passage by a small stream intersecting 
it ; which, it is proposed to obstruct by a strong ab- 
batis, protected by the guns of Fort Fish. On the 
opposite side commences a chain of almost perpen- 
dicular rocks, and wooded heights, of difficult 
ascent, except in one place, and accessible only to 
the lightest troops On these heights have been 
erected block houses (numbered as in the plan) 
within supporting distance of each other, and near 
enough for the interchange of grape shot ; all of 
them to mount heavy cannon on their terrace. 



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GENERAL SWIFT' 8 REPORT,, 639 

'^ Between Block houses No. 1 and No. 2 the hills 
fall into a more gradual and gentle accUvity ; which 
it is contemplated to obstruct by an abbatis flanked 
by the works on the adjacent heights. At a bat- 
tery marked on the plan (called Fort Laight and 
situated on a perpendicular rock) commences a 
line of intrenchments with faces and flanks, cross- 
ing the Bloomindale road to a commanding height 
on Mark's grounds, and running along its summit 
to the banks of the North River, wTiich falls 
abruptly ani nearly perpendicularly to the water's 
edge. 

** The works comprehended in the foregoing 
description have been chiefly constructed by the 
labour of the Citizens of the City of New York, 
Long Island, and of the neighbouring Towns near 
the North River, and in New Jersey. All classes 
volunteering daily working Parties of from Five 
Hundred to Fifteen Hundred Men. The Fortifica- 
tions are testimonials of Patriotic zeal. Honorable 
to the Citizens and to the active and assiduous 
Committee of Defence. 

'* My Aid-de-camp, Lieut. Gadsden, of the U. S. 
Engineei^, conducted the Works at Brooklyn, 
assisted by Mr. R. Nicholls and Mr. A. Mercien ; 
while Major Horn conducted the Works at Haer- 
lem. 

^* The Surveys, Maps and Small views, were fur- 
nished by Capt. James Renwdck and Lieut. James 
Gadsden ; aided by Lieuts. Craig, Turner, De Russy, 
Kemble and Oothout. Mr. Holland furnished the 
large Views ; they are beautiful specimens of 



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540 FINDING OF SWIFT'S REPORT. 

talent. The large and elegantly finished Map of 
the Hearlem line, was drawn by Mr. William Proc- 
tor, from Capt. Ren wick's Survey.* 

'* Next Spring it will be requisite to complete such 
of the exterior Faces of the Works as have been 
left in a rough state. 

*' I have the honor to be, 
'^Gentlemen, 
"Your Respectful, 
'^ Humble Servent, 
'^J. G. Swift, Brig.-Genl., 

" Chf. Engr. U. S. 
"Brooklyn, L. L, 31st Dec, 1814." 

General Swift's report and the papers and draw- 
ing therein mentioned were lost sight of for more 
than thirty years. A copy of it is not in the pub- 
lished meraoii-s of Q^n. J. G. Swift. 

The writer learned of its existence by the final 
report of the Common Council Committee of De- 
fence, and after fruitless searching the records of 
the Common Council, took other means to discover 
what had become of it. It was found and restored 
to the city in the following manner : 



♦ Graduates of West Point scrviuc as officers iu dcfeoce of New 
York city, 1812-15 : Alexander Macomb, Jonathan Williams, 
William A. Barron, Joseph G. Swift, George Bornford, Joseph G. 
Totten, Justus Post, Samuel Babcock, Christopher Van De venter, 
Gustavus Loomis, William Cuttbush, George W. Gardiner, Charles 
4. Merchant, Lewis G. De Russy, Daniel Turner, Isaac £. Craig, 
Charles M. Thurston. 



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PRBSERVA2I0N OF OEN, SWIFT'S BBPORT. 541 

'*New York, January 31, 1889. 
*' Benson J. Lossing, Esq., ^The Ridge,' Dover 
Plains, Dutchess County, N. Y. 

"Dear Sir — I take the liberty of asking you 
where I can see a copy of General Swift's report 
relating to the fortifications about New York city 
in 1814. You have made an extract from it on 
page 973 of your ' Field Book of the War of 1812.', 
I am collecting matters and papers relating to Gen- 
eral Swift for publication. You will do me a great 
favor by informing me where I can see the report 
referred to. None of General Swift's relatives here 
have it or can tell me where it can be found. 
" Respectfully yours, 

''R. S. Guernsey. 

*^ 58 Cedar Street, New York City." 

*'The Ridge," Dover Plains, N. Y., 
February 8, 1889. 

'' Dear Sir— I have General Swift's Report of the 
Fortifications on Manhattan Island in 1812-15, ac- 
companied by many drawings of them, maps, etc., 
etc. 

'^ When I was preparing my ' History of the War 
of 1812-15," I found in the garret of the Hall of 
Records, in the City Hall Park, this report, covered 
thickly with dust and cobwebs and among papers 
mutilated by mice. I called the attention of Mr. 
Valentine, then Clerk of the Common Council, to 
the report, and asked for the privilege of taking it 
home with me for use. It was granted, with the 
additional privilege of keeping it as long as I 
please. * It will be safer in your hands than left 



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542 PRESERVATION OF OKN. SWIFT'S REPORT. 

to the careless custodians of it, as you see how they 
neglect such things,' said Mr. Valentine. 

^* I designed, when I should have leisure, to make 
careful copies of all the drawings for a historic 
purpose, but in all these years I have not found the 
leisure. Now there is a call for it for historic pur- 
poses, I will return the big volume to the Clerk of 
Jhe Common Council, who, of course, will gladly 
allow you the use of it. 

'^ I feel that I have by retaining the report in my 
hands so long saved it from possible destruction or 
mutilation. It is in the same condition as when I 
received it. I will send the volume down in a week 
or ten days. Yours very truly, 

^*R. S. Guernsey, Esq. Benson J. Lossing." 

***The Ridge,' Dover Plains P. 0., N. Y., 

February 11, 1889. 
** To the Clerk of the Common Council of the City 
of New York. 

^' Dear Sir — When I was in quest of materials 
for my * History of the War of 1812-15,' I found in 
the loft of the Hall of Records in the park the re- 
port of Chief Engineer J. G. Swift on the fortifi- 
cations erected around New York city in 1814, 
which contains numerous drawings and maps illus- 
trative of that report. The volume was thickly 
covered with dust and cobwebs, and lying among 
old papers already mutilated by mice. 

*^ I called the attention to the then Clerk of the 
Common Council, the late David T. Valentine, and 
asked permission to bring that report home with 



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PRESERVATION OF QEN. SWIFTS REPORT. 543 



me, for use in the preparation of my work. He 
procured the consent of the Common Council to do 
so, and when he delivered it to me he said : * Keep 
it as long as you like, for it will be better preserved 
in your hands than in that of such careless persons 
here, as you see they have been.' 

*' After I had completed my history, I designed 
to make a careful copy of the report and the draw- 
ings for historic purposes when I should have leis- 
ure to do so. That leisure I have never found, and 
now I have abandoned the project. I will return 
the precious volume to you in the course of a few 
days by express, with the wish and the hope that it 
may be carefully preserved among the choice papers 
in the archives of the city. 

*' I cordially thank the Coiporation for the privi- 
lege of making use of the valuable report. 
'* Yours, very respectfully, 

** Benson J. Lossing.'^ 

**No. 8 City Hall, New York, 
^^ February 12, 1889. 
*'To the Hon. the Common Council of the City of 
New York. 
^'Gentlemen — I have just received the accom- 
panying letter from Benson J. Lossing, Esq. It 
explains itself ; and in order that the valuable his- 
torical record therein referred to may be placed 
beyond any possible chance of loss or injury, I 
respectfully request that I may be permitted, when 
I receive the book, to deposit it with the New 
York Historical Society, there to remain for safe 



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544 FINAL RBPORT OF 

keeping until otherwise ordered by the Common 
Council. 

** Very respectfully, 

^'F. J. TwoM?Y, Clerk." 
On motion of the president, the i-equest of the 
Clerk was granted, and the book oi-dei-ed to be de- 
posited with the New York Historical Society. 



NOTE VII. 
(Ante, p. 390) 

Final Report of Common Council Committee of 
Defence During War 1812-15. 

The Committee of Defence having completed the 
duties assigned them by the Common Council in the 
summer of the last year, in relation to the defence 
of this city, beg leave now to lay before them a brief 
report of their proceedings. 

On being furnished by Brigadjer-General Swift, 
of the coips of engineers, with a plan for the defence 
of the city against the then expected attack, the 
committee immediately took the necessary steps to 
have it executed and completed. The plan em- 
braced — first, a line of defence on Long Island from 
the Wallabout to the Gowanus Creek, enclosing 
completely the peninsula on which the village of 
Brooklyn is situated ; next, a line of defence at Har- 
lem, from Benson's Point, at the mouth of Harlem 
Creek, across the island to the Hudson River, in the 
neighborhood of Manhattanville ; also works of de- 
fence at Hellgate and Sandy Hook, to defend those 
approaches to the city ; at Williamsburg, on the 



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COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE, 545 

liong Island shoi'e, to secure that position, between 
Brooklyn and Hellgate^ and at Princess Bay, to pre- 
vent a landing in the rear of the works on Staten 
Island. The principal works at Brooklyn were Forts 
<Ji*een, Cummings, Firemen, Masonic and Law- 
rence, connected together by lines of intrenchment, 
^nd Fort Swift, a strong detached position within 
the line, commanding its whole extent, and also 
xjovering the fortifications on Governor's Island. 
The principal works at Harlem were Forts Clinton 
and Fish, and Nutter's Battery, near M'Gowan's 
Pass, with a line of towers or block houses Nos. 1, 2, 
3 and 4 along the ridge ; and then Forts Laight and 
Horn, near the Bloomingdale Road, with an in- 
trenched line extending towards the North River. 
These works, including those at Benson's Point, on 
Millrock, and at Hallet's Point, seemed to form a 
complete noi-them line of defence against any but 
an overwhelming force. 

The accomplishment of a plan of defence so ex- 
tensive might easily be supposed te require im- 
mense labor and the expenditure of vast sums of 
money. 

The committee finding, from the embarrassed state 
of the finances of the general government, that 
little, or no assistance could be expected from that 
quarter, and that the extensive works, with the 
various other preparations of defence, must chiefly 
depend on the energies of the city, determined im- 
mediately to make an appeal to the patriotism of 
their fellow-citizens for that aid and co-operation, 
-and for those extraordinary efforts, which the alarm- 



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546 FINAL RSVORT OF 

ing crisis of affaii-s appeared to demand. They 
made the appeal, and, as they fondly anticipated, it 
was not made in vain. Their fellow-citizens of all 
ages and classes eagerly stepped forward to meet 
the crisis, and cheerfully afforded the requisite aid 
of pei-sonal labor and pecuniary contributions ; the 
spirit of party seemed to be banished for a season^ 
and the only rivalship among them was who should 
be foremost in the patriotic work. It is believed 
that more than one hundred thousand days' labor 
were voluntarily bestowed by our fellow citizens on 
the fortifications of the city. In addition to their 
efforts, much and veiy important aid was received 
from the inhabitants of Long Island and the other 
neighboring counties. The spirit which animated 
the citizens of New York spread to the State of New 
Jersey; large companies of the yeomanry of that 
sister State, from the distance of thirty or forty 
miles, offered their services, and frequently wrought 
with fidehty upon the fortifications of Brooklyn and 
Harlem, rendering veiy important aid to the pro- 
gress and completion of the works. The defences 
progressed with great rapidity, and the patriotism 
of our fellow-citizens in, contributing personal labor 
saved to the government immense sums of money, 
which the works would otherwise have cost. 

The committee soon found that the superintend- 
ance of the works, the arranging of the fatigue 
parties and the various other concerns incident to 
the defence of the city, which were daily multiply- 
ing on their hands, demanded the whole of their 
time and attention. They accordingly determined 



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COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE. 547 

to meet daily, for the transaction of the business 
committed to their charge. This they continued to 
do for several months until the completion of the 
works, and the increased improbability of an hostile 
attempt that season, in their opinion, justified a less 
strict attention on their part. 

While the danger of an invasion was imminent 
and increasing, the Commander in-Chief of this 
military district made requisitions on the States of 
New York and New Jersey, for large detachments of 
their militia for the defence and protection of this 
city, and the committee were informed by him that 
his whole dependence was upon the patriotism of 
t.he corporation for thf ir pay, subsistence and camp 
equipages, as he was entirely destitute of the means 
of providing even for their accommodation or sub- 
sistence. The paymaster's, the contractoi^'s, the 
quartermaster's, the ordinance departments were all, 
in fact, destitute of money ; tents, barracks and 
camp equipage were immediately wanted for the 
accommodation of the large detachments of militia 
thus called into service ; arms and cannon were to be 
procured, the deficiency of ammunition was to be 
supplied, gun carriages were to be made or repaired, 
and vessels were to be purchased to form obstruc- 
tions in the harbor. All these subjects, and many 
more (none of which could be neglected with safety 
to the city), required that immediate measures 
should be taken to raise a sufficient sum to meet 
these very gi-eat and unexpected calls for money. 

The committee accordingly recommended to the 
corporation to borrow one million of dollars for the 



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548 FINAL REPORT OF 

purposes of defence. This recommendation beinpf 
promptly acceded to, a loan was opened and the^ 
sum required speedily subscribed and placed at the^ 
disposal of the committee. Furnished with these 
means they were enabled not only to supply the 
wants of the several departments, to cause the 
works of defence to go on with rapidity, to procure 
whatever might be deemed necessary for defence^ 
but also to provide many things for the comfort and 
convenience of their fellow-citizens who had left 
their families and domestic comforts, and who were 
in arms for the defence of our city. 

Soon after the loan was filled an arrangement was 
made with the general government for their final 
assumption and payment of most of the advances- 
which the committ^ were required to make by the 
exigency of the times, and they have since happily^ 
effected a settlement with the Treasury Depart- 
ment, embracing all the principal expenditures and 
advances made by them. In virtue of this settle- 
ment the sum of $1,100,009.87 of the six per cent- 
stock of the United States has been received and 
placed to the credit of the corporation ; also the fur- 
ther sum of $53,000 in treasury notes. Some few^ 
items, however, not included in the settlement,, 
amounting to $9,265.22, though not yet received^ 
are admitted by the accounting officers of the treas- 
ury and will speedily be paid ; and certain others,, 
amounting to $36,422, being for damages awarded 
to the proprietors of grounds occupied by the forti- 
fications, will require legislative provision before 
they can be settled. These several sums, with the 



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COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE. 549 

sum of $4,629.15, being the balance of cash on hand, 
amount to $1,204,326.25, making a probable gain to 
the corporation of about $150,000. 

The teims upon which the arrangement with the 
government was made for the assumption of those 
advances from the dark and unpropitious appear- 
ance of our national affairs at that time, presented 
to the committee at first but a faint prospect of the 
corporation being fully indemnified for all the money 
they were called upon to expend, but the times were 
then portentous, the safety of the city was in 
jeopardy, and the honor of the country, which 
would have been deeply tarnished by the fall of New 
York, left no alternative. The risk was to be en- 
countered, though it should terminate in the loss of 
the whole, and the public feeling called for the 
sacrifice, if a sacrifice it should eventually prove to 
be. 

The committee have reason to believe that the 
vigorous efforts which were made in this city, to 
place it in a respectable state of defence, were the 
means, under providence, of preserving it from at- 
tack, pit)bably from the unhappy fate of the seat of 
our National Government. They think they will 
not be charged with vain boasting, when they as- 
sert their belief, that, from the strength of the 
works of defence and the high state of the discipline 
of our patriotic mihtia who had assembled to defend 
them, had the enemy, at the period of their 
completion, ventured an attack, they would have 
met with as gallant a repulse as they experienced at 
New Orleans. 



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550 FINAL REPORT OF 

The committee avail themselves of the present 
occasion, respectfully to recommend to the corpora- 
tion to press upon the General and State Govern- 
ments the propriety of adopting measures to main- 
tain and preserve the works of defence which now 
encircle the city, as, in their opinion, it would be an 
expensive and dangerous policy, a lavish of prop- 
erty and a reflection upon the nation, to suffer the 
forts, redoubts and batteries, so recently and so ef- 
fectually erected for our defence, and upon which 
so much patriotic exertion has been bestowed, so 
soon to fall into ruin and decay, and thus return to 
the defenceless state in which we were in the sum- 
mer of the last year. In the present state of the 
world no human eye can f orsee how soon this coun- 
try may (which God forbid) be again involved in a 
state of war; but every individual can perceive how 
much influence our being properly prepared to re- 
ceive and repulse an enemy would have in deterring 
him from such violations of our rights and national 
honors as might lead to so unhappy an event. 

The alacrity with which the citizens of New York 
when called upon, seconded the efforts of their 
municipal authorities, must be highly gratifying to 
the corporation, and will bo to them a sure pledge 
that their constituents, should any future occasion 
call for similar sacrifices, will not diminish the repu- 
tation which they have acquired by their great and 
imparalleled exertion. 

The committee subjoin a general statement of 
their expenditures and a copy of their minutes for 
the information of the common council, and sub- 



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COMMITTEE OF DEFENCE, 551 

mit to them the report of General Swift, which is 
accompanied by a portfolio of drawings of the works 
of defence, executed in an elegant and masterly 
style. They cannot close their report without ex- 
pressing the high opinion they entertain of the 
talents and sei*vices of that excellent officer. The 
judgment displayed by him in the formation of the 
plan of defence, his zeal and indefatigable personal 
attention to the execution of it, and his frank and 
amiable deportment in his communications with the 
committee, excited their high respect and warm es- 
teem, gained the confidence of their fellow-citizens, 
and will justify the corporation in enrolling the 
name of Brigadier- General Joseph G. Swift among 
the benefactors of the City of New York. 

They therefore recommend that his portrait have 
a place in the galleiy of paintings belonging to the 
corporation, that he be requested to sit for that pur- 
pose, and that the committee be authorized to em- 
ploy some suitable and skillful artist on the occas- 
ion. 

All which is respectfully subniitted. 
(Signed) NiCHS. Fish, 

Peter Mesier, 

G. BUCKMASTER, 

J, Mapes, 
Thos. R. Smith, 
Gideon Tucker, 
I. S. Douglass. 
In Common Council, November 6, 1815. 
Approved and ordered to be published, 

J. Morton, C. C. C. 



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552 MILITARY 0BDBB8. 

NOTE vra. 
Some Miutary Orders and Regulations. 

(See ante, pp. 162, 188-4.) 
^* Oeneral Orders. 

*^ State of New York Headquarters. 

**New York, August 4, 1814. 
^'The commander in chief having received a 
requisition made by authority of the President to 
call int9 service of the United States immediately, a 
portion of the militia of this State, to consist of 
three thousand men, for the defence of the Atlantic 
frontier of this state, and conceiving that the emer- 
gency requires him, pursuant to the power vested 
in him by the militia law of this state, to call into 
state sei'vice, for l^he defence of the same frontier, 
one regiment in addition to the aforesaid requisition, 
directs, that the following corps be immediately 
organized and ordered into actual service. The 
detached brigade to the command whereof brigadier 
general Martin Heermance is assigned, consisting 
of two regiments, the first whereof is to be formed 
by 540 men, including company oflBcers, to be de- 
tached from the 19th brigade of infantry, exclu- 
sive of the uniform companies of the brigade; 
and 540 men, exclusive of uniform corps, from 
the 30th brigade of infantry ; which regiment is 
to be commanded by lieut. cols. Isaac Belknap, 
jun., and Abraham Van Wyck ; and the second 
of which regiments is to be commanded by 
lieut. cols. A. Delamater and A. Wheeler, and to 



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MILITARY 0EDBR8. 553 

consist of 648 men from the 90th brigade of infan- 
try, and of 432 from the 34th brigade of infantry, 
exclusive of uniform companies. 

" One regiment to be commanded by lieut. co^s. 
John G. Van Dalfsen, Daniel Warner, and a lieu- 
tenant-colonel, to be assigned by major-general 
Perlee from the 23d brigade of infantry; which 
regiment will consist of three battalions, detached 
as follows : — from the 12th brigade of infantry 640 
men ; from the 23d brigade of infantry 432 men ; 
and from the 37th brigade of infantry 540 men. 
All the beforementioned corps will rendezvous by 
battalions, on the 18th day of Aug. inst. at ten 
o'clock in the forenoon, or in corps of not less than 
one full company, at such place or places as the 
commandant of the brigade from which the battal- 
ion may be detached shall direct. 

'* The battalion of artillery to be composed of the 
companies of artillery in the counties of Eockland, 
Orange, Putnam and Dutchess, will also rendezvous 
on the 18th day of August instant ; that part of 
the battalion which is in [Dutchess and Putnam 
counties, at such place or places as Lieut. -Col. 
Nathan Myers may direct ; and that part of Orange 
and Rockland at such places as Lieut. -Col. Selah 
Strong shall prescribe. One full company of the 
2nd regiment of riflemen will rendezvous at the 
capitol in the city of Albany, on Thursday the 18th 
day of August inst., at ten o'clock in the forenoon, 
and should a greater number than one company of 
said regiment volunteer their services the whole will 
rendezvous on the day and at the hour before men- 



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554 MILITARY ORDERS, 

tioned, at such place or places as Lieut. -Col. S. M. 
Lockwood shall direct, who will, in person, take 
command of them, if the number shall amount to 
three full companies. The commandants of such 
uniform corps in the counties of Delaware, Greene, 
Rensselaer, Albany, Schenectady and Ulster as may 
volunteer their services for the defence of the city of 
New York and its vicinity^ will report to the com- 
mander-in-chief immediately. The light infantry 
and i-ifle companies of Rockland, Orange, Dutchess 
and Putnam counties, organized into a detached 
regiment on the 20th of July last, will rendezvous 
on the 18th of August inst., at the hour aforesaid, 
as follows : — In Westchester county, at such place 
as Lieut. -Col. Jonathan Varian may designate, and 
in the other countieo" at such place or places as the 
commandants of the respective brigades to which 
they belong shall direct. 

**The commandants of artillery companies will 
take with them to the places of rendezvous the field 
pieces and equipments attached to the respective 
companies. All the artillery, light infantry and 
riflemen must appear at rendezvous with complete 
uniform, and the light infantry, riflemen and in- 
fantry must appear equipped with a musket and 
bayonet or a rifle with a cartridge box or rifle pouch 
and with a knapsack, blanket and canteen, and 
they are advised to provide themselves with a frock 
and trowsers, for fatigue dress to preserve their uni- 
form. Members of uniform companies ordered 
into service in 1813, under brigadier-general Hop^ 
kins, who shall have faithfully served and been 



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MILITARY ORDERS. 555 

honorably discharged, during or at the end of the 
tour of duty of General Hopkins' brigade, and also 
all the membei's of uniform companies, who served 
faithfully, in person or by substitute, on Staten 
Island, in 1812, may be discharged by the com- 
mandants of the respective rendezvous at which 
they may assemble ; but such commandants are 
cautioned to be particular in the exercise of this 
discretion. 

*^The principal and not the substitute, will have 
the benefit of former service, and the commandants 
of the companies heretofore on duty are required to 
detach and have at the proper rendezvous, by the 
18th inst., every member of the company who did 
not actually serve in person or by substitute in 1812 
or 1813. 

''Three thousand of the troops included in this 
order will rendezvous, under and pursuant to the 
act of Congress passed 28th February, 17^5, and the 
acts supplementary and in addition thereto. The 
original act prescribes three months from the time 
of arrival at the place of rendezvous as the period of 
service ; and the act in addition thereto provides 
that the militia called into service, pursuant to the 
act of 28th February, 1 793, may, if, in the opinion 
of the President of the United States the public in- 
terest requires it, be compelled to serve for a term 
not exceeding six months after their arrival at the 
place of rendezvous. The residue of the troops in- 
cluded in this order are called out under state au- 
thority, and will be liable to serve so long as the 
emergency which induced the call may exist, not 



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556 MILITARY ORDERS. 



exceeding three months. The destination of all the 
troops mentioned in this order is the City of New 
York and its Vicinity. 

** The discretion vested in commandants of de- 
tached companies to receive substitutes at the ren- 
dezvous requires theni not to receive substitutes in 
the artillery, rifle corps or light infantiy, unle?is 
such substitute be completely uniformed and 
equipped for the corps in which he is offered as a 
substitute, nor in the infantry, unless the substitute 
be amply supplied with clothing for three months' 
service, and equipped with a musket and bayonet, 
rifle, cartridge box or pouch, and with a knapsack, 
blanket and canteen, and the commandants of com- 
panies are expressly forbid receiving substitutes 
upon any other terms. Militia officei-s «are again re- 
minded that the certificates of surgeons are not to 
l)e received as conclusive evidence of inability to 
serve, but that commandants are bound to inquire 
into the grounds of such discharge and to decide 
upon all the information and evidence they can 
obtain ; and if any commandant of regiment, bat- 
talion, or other militia officer be notified that cer- 
tificates are given by surgeons, for reward, or with- 
out due examination, and upon slight grounds, and 
shall not report such surgeons for trial and punish- 
ment, the oflficei*s so neglecting will be reported to 
the council of appointment for dismissal. All offi- 
cers concerned in the execution of this order are re- 
quired to use their utmost exertions to carry it into 
prompt and complete effect, and are strictly charged 
to represent to the commander-in-chief every other 



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MILITARY ORDERS. 557 

officer under their respective commands who may 
be negligent, evasive, or disobedient in the discharge 
of his duty. 

"By order of the Commander-in-chief, 

** Robert Macomb, Aid-de-Camp." 

(Aiile, p. 252.) 

"Third Brigade of N. Y. Infantry, 
" Brigade Orders, 

"New York, Sept. 1st, 1814. 

" That part of this brigade in the city of New 
York is provisionally consoUdated in two regiments 
as follows: The first to be commanded by Lieut. - 
Col. Dodge, Ldeut.-Col. Say re. Major Thorn, Major 
Strong. 

Captains : 1 William S. Hick, 2 William Patter- 
son, 3 William T. McCoun, 4 Robert M. Russel, 5 
William H. Maxwell, 6 Ezra C. WoodhuU, 7 Janey 
Pink, 8 John J. Sickles, 9 Edward H. NicoU, 10 
Thomas J. Dolancey. 

* * Lieutenants : Jennings, Burdett, Macomb, 
Wheeler, Spicer, Dodge, Woodhull, Tylee, Duffice, 
James Russel, Allen, Burnett, Parsons, Dunscomb, 
Randall, NicoU, Post, Jones. 

^^ Ensigns: Banks, Phelps, Pell, Cheavens, Mc- 
Vicar, Townsend, Brown, Low, Irving, Smith, 
Holly, Dunlap, Watts, Hoflfman, Walworth, Ran- 
kin, Gale, Varick, Prince, Stewart, Hide. 

** The second Regiment commanded by Lieut. -Col. 
Van Hook, Lieut. -Col. Todd, Majors Gardner and 
Fay. 

^' Captains : 1 Daniel E. Tylee, 2 Solomon Seixas, 
3 Joseph Gerard, 4 G. H. Striker, 6 Zebedee Ring, 



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558 MILITARY ORDERS. 

Jr. , 6 Abner Stevens, 7 Robert Emmett, 8 William 
E. Dunscomb, 9 James Striker, 10 Homer Whitte- 
more, 

^^Lieutenants: Hyatt, McLaughlin, Ryer, Griffin, 
Morris, Morgan, Baker, Koss, McLaughlin, Sprong, 
Christie, McGregor, Fisher, Fleming, J. Renwick. 

^^ Ensigns: Long worth, Brower, Wheaton, Tol- 
man, Hewett, Ainslie, Warner (Brevets, Bool, Horn, 
bixon. Gales), G. Rogers, Gales, Coddington, R. 
Renwick, Barnesett, Nestell, Brown, Heyer, Tardy, 
Striker, Benjamin, Durry, J. Sheffelin, Robineau. 

** The commandants of the above detached regi- 
ments will appoint their staff. The brigadier-gen- 
eral wishes it to be distinctly understood that the 
above consolidation is provisional, liable to be altered 
or reduced as occasion may require. 

'* By order of the Brigadier-General, 

*'Chas. King, 
*^ Capt. and aid-de-camp." 

The Third Brigade of New York Infantry con- 
sisted of the 10th, 51st, 82d, 126th, 142d and 146th 
Regiments, under command of General Mapes, all 
from New York city excepting the last-named regi- 
ment, which was from Staten Island. 

On 1st September, 1814, General Mapes issued the 
above order of consolidation of the several companies 
and regiments, which is referred to ante, p. 252. 

This order of consoldiation excluded a large num- 
ber of officers from any command (ante, p. 252), be- 
cause the number of men in each company as con- 
solidated consisted of one hundred men, and there 



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MILITARY ORDERS. 55g 

were consequently not privates enough for all the 
officers. This caused much dissatisfaction to the 
officers who were not assigned to duty. The follow- 
ing order was issued : 

*^3d Brigade of Detached Infantry. 
^^ Brigade Orders. 

''New York, Sept. 4th. 1814. 
*' The Brigadier-General avails himself of the fii-st 
opportunity (permitted by the pressure of official 
business) to express to the officers of his brigade 
who were not detached his sincere regret that the 
consohdation of the brigade as made by the order of 
the 1st September inst. did not permit him to give 
employment to the whole of them, and he begs 
them to accept his thanks for their past good con- 
duct, and his hopes that an arrangement may soon 
be made to give them command, in the meantime 
he expects that they will pay every attention to im- 
prove themselves in discipline. 

''Commandants of regiments will communicate 
the above in extenso to the officers concerned. 
" By order of Gen. Mapes, 
" Chas. Kjng, 
" Capt. and Aid-de-camp."' 

(See ante, p. 188.) 

'' State of New Jersey, Adjutant-General's 

Office. 

"Trenton, August 11, 1814. 

'*Th0 Commander-in-Chief, having received a 

requisition from Maj.-Gen. Lewis, commanding the 

3d military district, for two hundred men, to en- 



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560 MILITARY ORDERS, 

camp on the Height of Navesink, near the Tel- 
egraph, and the general requisition not being yet 
complete, Orders the following Volunteer Com- 
panies into service, to march on Monday morning 
next for that encampment, viz. : 

"Captain James J. Wilson's company of Jersey 
Blues, of Trenton ; Captain Stephen D. Day's com- 
pany, of Orange ; Captain John J. Plume's Company 
of artillery, Newark ; Captain Moses F. Davis's rifle 
company, of Bloomfield; Captain William Ten 
Eycke's rifle company and Lieutenant James Ten 
Eycke's volunteers, of Monmouth. 

"Deputy Quarter- Master-Gteneral Abraham Rey- 
nolds will attend to delivering out camp equipage 
and the transportation of the same, with the bag- 
gage of the troops, to the camp. Such men as are 
not furnished with arms will be furnished by Col. 
Reynolds, who will apply for information to Col. 
Thomas T. Kinney, aide-de-camp to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. The senior Captain will command 
until field officers shall be appointed. These troops 
will continue in service for thirty days after arriv- 
ing at the place of rendezvous, or until relieved. 
*' By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 
** James J. Wilson, Adjutant-Gteneral." 

(See ante, pp. 189, 265.) 

*^ State of New Jersey. 
^^ General Orders. 
** Headquarters, Trenton, N. J., 
'^August 12, 1814. 
*^ The Commander-in-Chief announces his accept- 
ance of the offers of service made by the following 



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MILITARY ORDERS. 561 

Volunteer Corps, agreeably to his invitation of the 
14th of July last, in the order in which they were 
received, viz. : 

''Of Artillery. 

" Capt. Kilburn's Artillery, of Orange. 

" Capt. Golden's Artilleiy, of Hopewell. 

'' Capt. Plume's Independent Artillery, of New- 
ark. 

" Capt, Neilson's Artillery, of New Brunswick, 

**Capt. Vandycke's Horse Artillery, of New 
Brunswick. 

** Of Infantry and Riflemen. 

'' Capt. Wilson's Jersey Blues, of Trenton. 

** Capt. Day's Volunteers, of Orange. 

**Capt. Harrison's Riflemen, of Orange. 

'' Capt. Donlevy's Rangers, of Belvidere. 

**Capt. Lindsley's Riflemen, of Essex. 

''Capt. Ten Eycke's Riflemen, of Freehold. 

''Lieut. Ten Eycke's Riflemen, of Middletown- 
point. 

"Capt. Halliday's Rangers, of Morristown. 

" Capt. Mitchell's Rangers, of Paterson Landing. 

"Capt. Fair's Light Infantry, of Hackensack, 

"Capt. Garrison's Infantry, of Somerset. 

"Capt. Crane's Riflemen, of Caldwell. 

" Capt. Freas's Light Infantry, of Salem. 

" Capt. Garrison's Light Infantry, of Salem. 

"Capt. MacKay's Riflemen, of New Brunswick. 

"Capt. Brees' Light Infantry, of Baskingridge. 

"Capt. Scott's Light Infantry, of New Bruns- 
wick. 

" Capt. Fell's Light Infantry, of New Hampton. 



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562 MILITARY ORDKIiS. 

'* Capt. Brittia's Fusileers, of Chatham. 

'' Capt. Carter's Riflemen, of BottlehiU. 

*^Capt. McKissack's Riflemen, of Somerset. 

''Capt. Davis's Riflemen, of Bloomfield. 

'' Capt. Ball's Light Infantry, of Bloomfield. 

'' While accepting the patriotic offers of these Vol- 
unteer Conipanies, the Commander-in-Chief deems 
it his duty, in order that they may, should they be 
called into service, act their respective parts in a 
manner honorable to themselves and useful to their 
country, to enjoin it upon them one and all to equip 
themselves for the field as speedily as possible ; to 
perfect themselves in discipline by frequent meet- 
ings and strict attention to the instructions of their 
officers, and to hold themselves in readiness to 
march at a moment's warning whenever the exigen- 
cies of their country may require. 

''In order to complete the quota of 5,000 men, 
officers included, required from this state, the Com- 
mandants of the several Brigades of Infantry and of 
the Cape May Regiment, will immediately cause to 
be detached from their respective commands the 
officers and privates called for in the following 
detail : 

(Here follows the number and class of officers- 
and men, artillery and infantry, required from each 
county in the State (ante, p. 265). The total num- 
ber of privates required were 3,245 and of officers. 
605 and 116 drummers and fifers. Of the officers 224 
were corporals and the same number of sergeants.) 

"The Commanders of Brigades, Regiments, Bat- 
talions and Companies are expected to use all dili- 



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MILITARY 0UDER8. 563 

gence to have the officers and men called for by the 
foregoing detail detached as promptly as possible 
<in conformity to the 4th section to the last supple- 
ment of the miUtia act). The several Brigade 
Majors are required with all practicable expedition 
to muster the men within their respective bounds 
{as well the Volunteers as others), and cause con-ect 
inspection returns to be made of the. names, grades 
and corps of the officers and men thus detached to 
the Adjutant General's office in Trenton, from 
whence they will be transmitted to the commanders 
of the respective Brigades now organizing. Captain 
Jacob Butcher's and Captain Burden's Companies 
in the Monmouth Brigade and Captain Scull's Vol- 
unteers and Captain Robert Smith's Artillery Com- 
pany in the Gloucester Brigade will be exempt from 
this detail — those companies having volunteered to 
perform certain services under the Act of the t2th 
of February last, and have not been included in the 
aggregate of their respective Brigades. 

''The officers and privates thus detailed, together 
with the volunteer companies in the several coun- 
ties, will be organized into regiments as follows : 

*' Those of Bergen and Essex into one regiment. 

'' Those of Morris and Sussex, into one regiment. 

''Those of Somerset, Middlesex and Monmouth, 
into one regiment. 

'* These three regiments to compose one Brigade, 
to be commanded by Brigadier General Colfax. 

"Those of Hunterdon and Burlington to form 
one Regiment. 

"Those of Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, and 



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564 THE MmTEU ROLLS. 

Cape May, to form another Regiment. These two 
Regiments to form a Brigade, to be commanded by 
Brigadier General Elmer. The whole to be under 
the command of Major General Wm. N. Shinn. 

*^ Brigadier Generals Elmer and Colfax will at- 
tend to the formation of the Regiments composing 
their respective Brigades, disposing the Artillery 
and Volunteers in the best manner to make the 
Regiments serviceable. 

'* Deputy Adjutant General Israel Day, and Dep- 
uty Quarter Master Generals Reynolds and Brewster, 
are detailed for this service. 

" By order of the Commander in Chief, 

'* James J. Wilson, 
^' Adjutant General.'^ 



NOTE IX. 

The Muster Rolls of Soldiers that Served in 
Defence of New York City in 1814. 

It was intended that this volume would contain 
the Roster of officers in the miUtia that served in the 
defence of the city of New York in the summer of 
1814. After long deliberation the writer concluded 
that by pubUshing the list of officers (there being 
about thirteen hundred of them) would probably 
prevent the further publication of the Muster RoUs^ 
and thus the names of the privates that then served 
would ever remain in oblivion. 

The following letter will more fully explain the 
writer's plan and view of the steps which should be 
taken in the matter : 



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THK MUSTER ROLLS. 565 

*^New York December 6, 1893. 

''Henry Chauncey, Jr., Esq., Secretary of New 
York Society of War of 1812. 

'' Dear Sir : — I have received from you a copy of 
the resolution adopted by your society at the annual 
meeting on October 26, 1893, complimentary to my 
work (''History of New York City and Vicinity 
During the War of 1812 "). I appreciate the atten- 
tion thus shown to my work. The concluding 
volume is now in press, and will be issued in the 
spring. 

"Permit me to suggest to the Society that a 
good work for them to do is to take steps to have the 
muster roll of all men that served in the defence of 
New York city in the summer of 1S14 published. 
This roll was lost sight of for more than half a 
century until I found it about eight years ago in 
one of the departments at Washington. It is safe 
and sound as time will permit. It contains the 
names of more than twenty-five thousand officers 
and men that served at that time under Major- 
General Morgan Lewis, in the defence of the city of 
New York. 

" The publication of this roll will make two oc- 
tavo volumes of about four hundred pages each. 
The expense of copying the roll and the pubUcation 
should be paid by the State of New York, as more 
than half of those on the roll did not belong to New 
York city, and 2,500 belonged to the New Jersey 
Militia. My concluding volume shows where each 
regiment and command were in service in 1814, and 



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566 NEW YORK MU8TKR ROLLS. 

by this roll it can readily be ascertained where each 
person was in the service. 

^' I have endeavored to do my work in such man- 
ner .as to render it of permanent value (rather than 
popular), feeling confident that it will, as time goes 
on, take the place it deserves among local histories. 

'^Please express my thanks to the Society,* and 
oblige. Yours sincerely, 

*' 58 Cedar Street. R. S. Guernsey." 

Men from New York State in the War 
1812-15. 

Militia, 



CLASS. 


NO. 
OFFICBBS. 


NON-COM. 
OFFICERS. 


MEN. 


Cavalry, 

Artillery, 

Riflemen, 


214 
444 

82 


379 
927 
204 • 


1,822 

4,884 

918 


Sea Fencibles, 


66 


158 


1,065 


Infantry, 


4,663 


8,400 
10,068 


49,011 


Totals, 


6,469 


57,700 




Volunteers. 




Cavalry, 

Artillery, 

Biflemen, 


7 

110 

18 


17 

299 

45 


84 

2,170 

361 


Infantry, 


67 
202 


149 
510 


775 


Totals, 


3,380 



*The Society of the War of 1813 was iDstituted January 8, 1826, 
by some officers of the Armies and Navies of the United States in the 
war of 1812, and was consolidated January 8, 1848, with the Veteran 
Corps of Artillery in the State of New York, instituted on Novem- 
ber 25, 1790, by officers and soldiers of the war of the Revolution and 
who served in the defence of New York city in 1812 and 1814. All 



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^'EW JERSEY MUSTER ROLLS. 5C7 

Total Number in Service in War 1812-15 from 
New York State. 

Officers 5,710 

Non-Commissioned Officers 10,682 

Men 61,495 

Total 77,887 

The shortest period of service was one day, long- 
est twenty-nine months. 

N. B. — The above does not include those in the 
United States Navy or in the service as privateers. 

Men from New Jersey in War of 1812-15. 
Militia. 

^^^^^- officers. officers. ^^^• 

Cavalry, 11 20 103 

Artillery; 16 36 157 

Riflemen, 34 68 349 

Infantry, 334 684 4,199 

None mustered as volunteers, only as companies, 
under order dated August 12, 1814. 

New Jersey Militia Stationed at Paulus Hook 
AND Sandy Hook in War of 1812-15. 

(See ante, p. 266.) 

Brig. -Gen. William Colfax, commanding brigade. 
Capt. James C. Van Dyke, commanding company 
of artillery. 

these were incorporated under the laws of New York as a military 
institution on January 8, 1892, by tlie suryiving original veteran 
members. One of the objects of the incorporated society is to 
** collect and preserve the manuscript rolls, records and other docu- 
ments relating to that war.** This was the first society of that war 
that was formed in the United States. 



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568 2^EW JEHSBT MVSTER ROLLS, 

Capt. James J. Wilson, commanding company of 
artillery. 
Capt. Joseph W. Scott, light infantry. 
Lieut. -Col. John Seward, 14 companies. 
Col. John W. Frelinghuysen, 23 companies. 
Col. John Dodd, 13 companies. 
Lieut. -Col. Joseph Jackson, 6 companies. 
Lieut. -Col. James Abrahams, 6 companies. 
Maj. Isaac Andrus, 11 companies. 

New Jersey Militia in 1814 (from August 13th 
to December 10th). 



r*T AQQ 


NO. 


NON-COM. 


MEN. 


CLiAoo. 


OFFICERS. 


OFFICERS. 


Infantry, 


250 


520 


3,027 


Riflemen, 


32 


64 


300 


Artillery, 


15 


34 


141 


Cavalry, 


7 


12 


61 



Totals, 304 t530 3,52^ 

The longest period of service during that time 

was three months and twenty-six days ; the shortest 

was one month and four days. 

Total Number in Service in the War. 
The total number of soldiers in service in the war 
was 481,622, which does not include marine service 
or privateers. The United States pension rolls show 
527,654 entitled to pension, being 46,032 more than 
those in the land service. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME 11. 



American War Sliips — Essex, 
Presideiir, 23-25, 42, 77. 436, 
507; Hornut, 879, 436. 505. 
608; Peacock, 28, 42. 378, 
436. 506, 508 ; Tom Bowliue, 
378. 436 ; Macedonian. 77-78. 

American Museum, 123. 

American navy. 84. 

Amusements. 1814. 170. 

Antliouy. Charles, 245. 

Apathy of the people, 170. 

Appeal to Irishmen, 308. 

Arms, call for, 245. 

Armstrong. General, 884 ; priva- 
teer brig, officers, owner, 800; 
instructions to, 801 ; destruc- 
tion of. 302. 

Army forces of U. 8., 188. 

Arsenal. 8tate, near the Collect, 
452. 

Artillery. First Brigade, 165, 
182. 241; orders. September 
2.1814, 254; from Rockland, 
Orange, Putnam, Dutchess 
Counties, 184 ; veteran corps, 
Capt. G. W. Chapman, 1 11-306 ; 
Major Smith's 9th Regt., 306 ; 
Bogart's Flying, 806; War- 
ner's Horse An., 806; N. Y. 
Exempt No. 1, Capt. W. Ley- 
crafi, 306; First Ward Ex- 
empt, Capt. R. Hodge. 806; 
City. 810 ; First Brigade, 824. 

Artilleryists, 138. 

Asbridge, Capt. George, 306, 308. 

Aslor, John Jacob, 70, 72 ; 
loans cannon. 300 ; residence, 
894 ; illumination of house. 
491, 492. 



B. 

Baker, A. St. John, with trmty 

of peace, 455, 458. 462 ; John. 

475. 
Baltimore. 232. 816. 
Banks of New York, 270, 271. 

415; first savings bank, 1816, 

274 ; National. 67. 74; officers 

of, see Appendix. 
Barker, Jacob. 66. 67, 270. 404-6; 

paid express to Gov. Tompkins, 

462. 
Battle at sea, last by Hornet and 

Penguin, March 28. 1815, 489; 

last gun in the war, June 80, 

1815, by the Peacock, 489. 
Bayard, William, 287. 
Bedloe's Island, 371. 
Beekman, Lieut., 139. 
Bcrrian, inventor of torpedo 

boat, 139. 
Biddle. captain of the Hornet. 

arrives, 379. 
Blackwell, Robert. 394. 
Bladensburg battle. 231; Gen. 

Winder ai, 231. 
Blockade Vessels — Plantagenet, 

Capt. Lli>yd, 23 ; frigate 

Loire, 24. 78, 81-7. 91, 138. 

434 ; British at Sandy Hook. 

2*i0 ; squadron. January, 1815, 

436. 
Blockhouses. 46, 47. 
Bloomfleld, Maj..Gen.,264. 
Boerum, Colonel. 33. 
Bogardus, Col. Rol)ert, 188; in 

command Third Mil. Dist..451; 

order flag of truce. 455 ; re- 
turns to Long Island, 464» 

608. 



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ii 



INDEX. 



Bogart, Col. G. A., 806. 
** Capt. J. O.,810. 

Bounties, 89. 

Bourbons re8toratioD,98; oration, 
99. 

Boyi'l. Gen. John P., 189, 880, 
877. 485. 486, 464. 465. 

Breiirly, Col. David, 138. 

Bremoer, Capt. Andrew, 191, 
192 ; broke ground at Fort 
Green, 193, 216. 

Brewster, Capt., 466. 

Brigades— Steddiford*s. 160 ; 
Tliird, 88. 165; Tenth, 165; 
Fifteenth, 165; Twentv-second. 
165. 188; Twenty-niulli, 165; 
Tbirty-lbird of Sufifolk, 165. 
188 ; Gen. Hermauce's, 226 ; 
locations, 250; Gen. Uaigbt's, 
818; stations, 329-330. 

British army at Champlain, 288; 
attempt to land at Hempstead. 
221 ; on Long Island. 194. 

British Parliament prohibiting 
ransom for captured vessels, 
27; privateers, 78; Liverpool 
packet. 79 ; reinforcements, 
90. 198. 

British War Vessels — Superb. 
Capt. Paget. 79 ; Narcissus, 
82-84; Ramillies. Pactolus, 
Terror, Dispatch, 211, 436-7; 
Penguin, 505. 508; Nautilus, 
506, 508; Dolphin, 507; Favor- 
ite, Capt. J. A. Maude. 454; 
with treaty, 455, 508; Endym- 
ion. 436, 454; Teiiedos, 486. 
454; at Sandy Hook. 184; in 
the Sound, 845; Majestic, 
Pomona, 486. 

British naval force. 85. 88; ves- 
sels in Gardiner^s Bay. 212; 
threaten New York, 218; off 
Sandy Hook, 220; vessels in 
1815, 442; on the coast, Sep- 
tember 1, 1814. 282. 



Cadets from West Point, 186. 
Campaign of 1815, 440. 



Cannon, number of, in city. 899. 

Carroll, Henry, bearer of treaty 
of peace. 457, 462. 501. 

Cartel ships arrive, 484. 

Cartmen called in service. 821. 

Castle Williams, 119. 

Castlereagh. Lord, 499. 

Cavalry. Capt. Wilson's, of 
Kings County, 34; Third Bri- 
gade, 88; New York Hussars, 
808; Old Butcher Troops, 805. 

Cebra. Alderman. 456. 

Cedar Street Church,/ 478. 

Champlain frontier. 279. 

Chapman, Capt. Geo. W., 806. 

.Charitable donations, 480, 481. 

Cbauncey. Com.. Dinner to, 22. 

Chippewa victory, 144. 

Chittenden, Gov., withdraws 
Vermont troops, self-defence, 
279. 

Churches. Cliambers Street Pres- 
byterian, 441; Cedar Street, 
478. 

Chrystie. Thomas, 262, 485, 480. 

Cincinnati, Society of the, 122. 

Citizens' meeting. 144-145; ad- 
dress to exempts, 146. 

City Hall. New York. Governor's 
Koom established, 47; trans- 
parencies, 484-486; portraits 
of heroes in, 453. 

City Hotel, 458. 461; transpa- 
rencies. 490. 

City OfDcers of, see Appendix. 

Clay, Henry, 602. 

Clark, Col. Emmons. 349. 

Ciarkaon, Gen. Matthew, 475. 

Clergy of New York differ with 
Common Council on Fast Day. 
15-17. 

Clinton. Mayor De Witt, 180 ; 
charge to Grand Jury, a patri. 
otic appeal. 488-487. 

Cochran. Fife Maior, 849. 

Cochrane, Admiral Sir Alexander, 
proclamation. 80. 82; at Be- 
muda, his expedition, 184-135 ; 
letter to Secretary Monroe, 281, 
212, 442. 



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INDEX, 



iii 



Cockburn, Admiral, 218 ; aban- 
(loDs his plan on New York, 
222 ; sails south, 222. 

Coffin, Capt. Alexander, 808. 

Golden. Col. CadwaUder D., 
828 

Colfax, Brig. -Gen. William, of 
New Jersey, 189, 268, 818; 
discharged, 287. 

Columbia College, 115. 

Columbian Society at Brooklyn 
Heights, 298, 294 ; committee 
of. 294. 

Commanders, assigned, 822-824. 

Committee on enlistments, 145. 

Committee of Defence, final 
report of, see Appendix. 

Common Council, address to, 
174; action of, 185, 176; ad- 
dress to the people, 177-181 *, 
thanks, 888; on treaty of 
peace» 469 ; celebration, 470 ; 
postponed, 474 ; illuminations, 
etc., 478. 

Congress at Vienna, 444 ; position 
of United States. 445, 499. 501, 
604, 605. 

Coodyites, 62. 

Corlear's Hook, 90. 

Courts-martial. 385 ; order for, 
September 24, 1814, 886; at 
Tammany Hall, October 10th, 
25th, 1814. 850. 

Craig. Capt. William, 808. 

Crosby. W. B., 248, 811. 

Cruger, Henry, 894. 

Currency, paper, 410 ; effect of, 
410-11. 

Currency, New York city, 480. 

Curtenius, Gen. Peter, 824. 

D. 

Dallas, A. J., exposition on the 

war, 496 ; report, 606. 
Davis, Lieut-Col., 249. 
Davif), Ifatthew L., 294, 888. 
Day, Capt. S. D., Company from 

Orange, N. J., 188. 
Dearborn, Maj.-Gen. Henry, 21, 

87; relieved, 90. 



Decatur, Commodore, 152, 214, 
217 ; command at Fort Green,. 

296 ; runs blockade, 486 ; cap- 
tured. 488 ; paroled, 482. 

Detence, resolutions for, 194 ; 

measures, August, 1814, 284 ; 

report of committee to provide 

funds, 285 ; call for loan, 288. 
Defence committee's appeals, 

192, 288, 298 ; considerations, 

297 ; appeal for workers. 268» 
482; final report of, see 
Appendix. 

Defences of New York, 149 ; 
report on, 150, 214-217; con- 
tributions, 216 ; workers on, 
219 : harbor, 221 ; Hallet's 
Point, 152, 158; Mill Rock, 
152. 158 ; Jamaica Bay, 158 ; 
Brooklyn and Harlem Heights. 
156; Gen. Swift's report of, see 
Appendix. 

Democrats, then called Repub- 
licans, 60 ; candidates, 60-61 ; 
first time elected to Assembly 
from New York, 64. 

Dellinger, Miss, concert and ball, 
461-462. 

Denniston, Col. Alexander, 188. 

Denyse's Heights, 45. 

Depredations by soldiers, 211. 

Desertions, 142. 

Dibblee, Major, of Nyack Artll- 
lery. 257. 

Dinners to prominent men, 488. 

Dodge. Col. Henry S.. 475. 

Donations for defenders, 225. 

Dramatic incidents. 507-508. 

Drills and duties, 889; Capt. 
McEenna's report, 840; drilla 
and parades, 849. 

Dunscomb, Major D. E.. 806. 

E. 

Eagleson, Lieut.-Col. Charles, 

806. 
Eckford, Henry, shipbuilder,. 

80. 
Eddy, Casper W., M.D., 475. 
Ellis Island, 871. 



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iv 



INDEX, 



Elmer, Brig.-Gen. El»enezer, 
New Jersey, 189, 264-265. 

Ely, Isaac M., 475. 

Embargo laws, 49-58 ; coasters 
relieved, 52; PresidcDrH mes- 
sage ou, 58; repealed, 58. 64. 

Essex, dinner to survivors of the 
warship. 171. 

Europe, affairs in, 288, 289; 
conditions in 1814, 444. 

Evacuation Day, 880, 881; Col. 
Van Rensselaer's letter on, 
888-885. 

Evarts, William M.. 472. 

Execution of John lieid and 
lloger Wilson, 142-143. 

Exempts to he enlisted, 146. 

Extra pay, 815. 



Farewell addres8, 864, 886, 506. 

Farragut, Adinirul D. G., mid- 
shipman, 1814, 173. 

Farringtou, Brig.-Gen. Putnam, 
249. 

Fedfralipts, resolutions, April, 
1814, 57, 58 ; candidates, 59 ; 
meeting, 96; celehrution, 115. 

Fcnwick, Adj.-Gen. J. U., 870. 

Ferj^uson. John, Mayor New 
York, 808. 

Ferriage to Brooklyn, prices. 218. 

Ferries to Jersey City, 76 ; Brook- 
lyn, 76, 

Few. William, 273. 

Finances, 65; nutional, 401-412; 
• local currency, 402 ; different 
State values, 403 ; Treasury 
notes, 406; loans. 408, 409; 
condition of State and city, 
414. 

Financial situation. 269 ; failure 
of loans, 270: specie suspension, 
272; city banks* re;!ulations. 
275; city issues currency, 277, 
430. 

Finch, the gunsmith, 492. 

Fires, Portsmouth, N. H., 11. 
Niagara frontier. 12. 18; aid for 
sufferers by New York, 18. 



Fish, Nicholas, 226. 

Fisher. Leonard, 475. 

Flag of truce. February 11, 1815, 
454, 555. 

Floating batteries, 43; Fulton's 
model, 42-44. 

Florida, Spain and, 504. 

Forbes. Col., 221. 

Fortifications. Suten Island. 44, 
45, 892, 898; Deny se*s Heights, 
45. 190; on Long Island, Baih 
Beach. Utrecht and Jamaica 
Bay, 45; Long Island Sound, 
160-161, 892-897; Neversink. 
46; New York, 87, 89; Mill 
Rock, 100. 818; Hallefs Point. 
160; H«rlem Heights, 161, 208. 
896; Brooklyn, Fort Gieen. 
190, 208. 219 881. 889-891; 
Hell Gate. 892-898; Benson's 
Point, 894-895; Manhatranville, 
896; Greenwich, 896-397; Gov- 
ernor Tompkins on, 159; visits, 
871; aid to build, 175; Gen. 
Swift's plans, 190; workers, 
ladies work on Fort Green. 
219; Tammany Society at Fort 
Green, 227, 298, 294; Columbia 
College students on. 296; Iron 
Greys. 296: Free Masons, 294; 
Hamilton Society, 296; news- 
paper employes' 218: work- 
ing at night, 230; Juvenile 
Band, 383; committee's appeal - 
for workers, 368; Brooklyn 
ferries charge fare, 218; de- 
scriptions, 889-891; volunteer 
laborers at Brooklyn, 208-210, 
881; ••Patriotic Diggers."' a 
song by Samuel Wood worth, 
230. 

Forts— Tompkins, 88, 819, 820; 
Stevens, 160. 881; Clinton, 
220; Swift. 229; Fort Green 
ground broken. 198, 296, 
871; Columbus, 244: Masonic, 
295; North Battery (Red Fort), 
810: West Battery (Castle Clin- 
ton), 810; Gansevoort, 810; 
Fort Lnight, 838, 896, remains 



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INDEX. 



yet visible; Wood and GibsoD, 
871; Horn, 896. 

Potterall, Col. 8. E., 138. 

France, treaty of leace, 96; 
Bourbons on throne, 97. 

Fraser, Mrs. Frances W.. ad- 
dress presenting standard to 
Veteran Corps of Artillery, 111. 

Free Masons work on fortifica- 
tions, 294: Fort Iflasonic, 295; 
stanzas sunc, 295. 

Free trade and sailors* riglit8,224. 

Frelinghuysen. Col. J. W., 268, 
313; letter to Gov. Tompkins, 
887-388. 

French navy, 85; brig Olivier, 
119. 

Fuel association. 5, 6. 

Fulton, Robert, 42; floatin*? bat- 
tery. 43. 44; steam war frigate, 
89; torpedoes, 217; Jacks 
money for frigate, 351; peti- 
tion for help, 352-854; material, 
workmansliip, engines, etc., 
all American, 355; launching, 
855; descriptive, 357; funeral 
of, 482. 

G. 

Gadsden, Lieut. James, 160. 
Gallatin, Albert, 269; at Vienna, 

445. 
Gardiner's Bay, 212. 
Garrison duty, 348. 
Gasselain, Alexander, 492. 
Gjizette oflice, Hanover square, 

receives news of peace, 456; 

pilot David Mitchell first to 

announce it, 457. 
Gelston, David, collector 1801- 

1820, 50, 312. 
General Orders, Aug. 29, 1814, 

245. 246. 248-251; Sept. 2, 252; 

Feb. 20, 1815, 479-480; Feb. 

22. 1815, 481. 
Gerard, James W., sketch of, 472. 
Gerry, Elbridge, death of. 285. 
Giles, Brig.-Gen., 35; Maj.-Gen.. 

38. 
Gilfest, leader of orchestra, 461; 



Girard, Stephen, 71. 

Goodwin, Col. Abrm., of New 

Jersey, 219. 
Goodrich, 8. G., 410; on recep- 
tion of treaty of peace, 460- 

461. 
Governor's Guards, stand of 

colors, 882. 
Governor's Island, execution on, 

143; training on, 244. 
Government House, fireworks 

at, 486-488. 
Gracie, Archibald, and Gracie^s 

Point, 398. 394. 
Grand Jurv, DeWitt Clinton's 

appeal, 283-287; names of, 287- 

288. 
Grand Rounds, 444. 
Gray. Gen., 385. 
Great Britain declines Russia tis 

mediator. 2, 385; position of, 

446. 
Greenwich, celebration at, 494. 
Groshon, John P., 475. 
Guard duty, 340 ; olflcer of d«y, 

Oct. 7. 1814, 341; inspection, 

342; grand rounds, 444. 
Gtiion, Gen., James, Jr., 35, 87. 
Gunboats, 40-42. 84, 119, 307. 

H. 

Hall, Francis, 458. 

Halleck, Fitz Green, poem, 
" Iron Greys," 305, 406. 

Hallefs Point, 152. 158, 160. 

Hamilton, John C, 306. 

Hamilton Society, 115, 116, 227; 
at Harlem Heights, 296; cele- 
brates, 471,475. 

Hanham, Capt. J. R., 221. 

Harbor defences, orders, 221. 

Hardships, 186. 

Hardy, Commodore, 211. 

Harlem Heights, 156, 161, 208, 
296, 896. 

Harsen. Col., 191, 310. 

Hartford Convention, 447. 

Hartman, Lewis, 475. 

Hayes. Capt. (Eng.), 436. 

Hell Gate, 892. 393. 



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VI 



INDEX. 



Hempstead, L« I., British at- 
tempt to land, 221. 

HeDdersoD, Wm., 475. 

Hill, Lord, 447. 

Hill, Uria K., 117. 

Hillyer, Commodore (British) 
Mollos, 1812, 172. 

Hodge, R., 806. 

Hodgkinson, Tavern. 490. 

Hoffman, Josiah O^den, 18. 

Hoffman, Ogden, 4&. 

Holiday season, 1814. 488. 

Horse Artillery, 84, 85, 87; 1st 
and 2d Regiments, 88. 

Horseback express to Albany 
and Boston. 462, 463. 

House, Col. James, 188. 

Hudson River frozen to Jersey 
City. Feb., 1816, 464. 

Hull, Gen., 21. 

Hunter, Major, 471. 

I. 

Importations. 68, 64. 

Infantry regiments, United 
States, 14tli, 15th, 27th, 82d, 
41st, 42d, 46th, 188. 

Infantry from Orange. Sullivan, 
Ulster, Green. Albany. Colum- 
bia and Dutchess Counties, 
184. 

Infantry brigades, militia, 8d, 
10th, 22d, 88d, 824; 12Ui. 
15tli, 19th, 20th. 29th, 28d, 
84th, 87th. 826. 

Ingraham, Maj., 225. 

Invasion of N. Y. feared. 185. 

Irishmen, appeal to. 808. 

Irving, Washington, 89, 258, 870. 

Irving, Wm. Demorest, 6. 

Irvine. Col. W. N., 188. 

Izird, Gen., 278 ; marches to 
Jamestown, 278. 

J. 

Jackson, Amasa, 475. 
Jackson, Gen., at New Orleans. 

442. 
Jarvis, J. W., artist, 806. 
Jenkins and Havens loan cat 



non. 800 ; instructions to Capt. 

Reid, 801. 802. 
Jersey Blues, Trenton, N. J., 

88. 
Johnson, Gen. Jeremiah. 188. 
July 4tb, 1814, celebration, 110, 

112 to 182. 



Kent's Hotel. 119. 

King, James G., 806, 887. 

King, John A.. 808. 

King, Rufus, 72, 428 ; offered to 

subscribe his whole fortune, 

284. 

L. 

Laight. Col. E. W., 818, 888. 

Lake Champlain victory, 826. 

Lamb, Anthony 248, 245, 246, 
251,870. 

Last battle at sea and last gun 
fired, 489, 505. 

Lavaud, Armand, 806. 

Lawrence, Aug. H., 289; John 
L., 508 ; William, 287. 

Lecraft, Wm., 806. 

Legislature meet in N. Y., 47, 
48 ; action. 868 ; laws, 869. 

Leonard, James T., 808. 

Lewis. Commodore Jacob M., 
41, 78, 79, 87, 807, 812. 

Lewis, Maj.-Gen. Morgan. 90 ; 
letter on defence, 186. 187, 
142, 284, 252 ; age, 257 ; mili- 
tary rules, regulations, 258- 
262 ; genealogy of family, 268- 
266 ; removal. 862 ; farewell 
address. 864, 865; appoint- 
ment 865 ; wants to be re- 
tained. 875. 

Lewis, Zachariah, editor, 475. 

Little, .lacob, 406. 

Loans, 67 ; subscribers, 68, 69 ; 
Rufus King on. 72 ; by city to 
U. S. guaranteed by Gov. 
Tompkins personallj^, 415 ; 
banks, 415 ; city repaid, 419. 

Long Island, militia on. Third 
Military Dist., 85 ; British on, 



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INDEX. 



VII 



194; fortifications, 190; vi- 

dettes, 813. 
Lonje Island Sound. 77, 78 79, 

160, 161. 893-897. 
Lott, Abraham, 808. 
Lotteries, 410. 

Louisiana, conquest of. 400. 
Lumly, Capt. (Eng.). 436. 

M. 

McComb. Gen. Alex.. 225, 279, 
870; from Albany by boat in 
18 hours, 876; portrait for City 
Hall. 877. 

McGowan's Pass, 895. 

McKenna, Capt.. 840. 

McLeod, Rev. Alexander, ser- 
mons on the war, 441. 

Macdonough, Commodore, free- 
dom of city to, and portrait, 
878. 

MacNeven. Dr. Wm. James, ap- 
peal to Irishmen. 808, 494. 

Malcolm, Hear Admiral, 312, 
442. 

Mapes. Gen. Jonas, 192, 813. 

Marston, residence, 894. 

Maude, Capt. J. A , 455. 462. 

Maxwell. Hugh, Judge Advo- 
cate. 887. 

Mercein. P. and W., 276. 

Mercein, Thomas R, 225, 415, 
429. 

Merchandise, high prices, 2, 8. 4. 

Military orders — First Brigade. 
Sept. 2, 1814, 252; 8d, 10th. 
241 ; 22d. 29th. 248 ; Third 
Military District, 142, 188; 
Governor's Island, 143; Aug. 

28, 1814, 344; First Division, 
Aug. 27. 1814, 241; Aug. 29. 
1814. 248; general orders, Aug. 

29, 1814, 245; Sept. 2, 1814, 
252; Evacuation Day parade, 
Nov. 25. 1814, 882; muster-out 
orders, 886; mutinous conduct, 
182-814; see Appendix. 

Military organizations — Iron 
Greys. N. Y. Hussars, Nep- 
tune Corps Sea Fencibles, 803; 



Old Butcher Troops, 805; Gov- 
ernor's Guards, independent 
Greys. City Guards, Repuh 
Mean Greens, Lavaud's Horse 
Rangers, 806; Sea Fencibles, 
College Greens, 807. 

Militia, enrollment, 81; strength, 
82-88; called out, 140; ordered 
to serve at city, 188; arrive 
from up Hudson River, 220; in 
Brooklyn, 222; alacrity of, 
256; has to provide his cloth- 
ing, etc. 185, 251. 888; ex- 
penses of, 888; claims now on 
file, 888; First Division, 6.000 
on parade, Aug. 20, 1814, 251 ; 
mustered in, 252; arming, 268; 
dissatisfied, 860; Rockland Co. 
militia go home, harvest and 
return without orders, 860-861 ; 
payment of, 415; New Jersey 
paid, 418. 

Militia, Stations of. 221, 827-881. 

Mitchell, David, pilot, 457. 

Monopolies, 4. 

Monroe, James, 459 ; letter to 
Gen. Boyd, 466. 

Monroe doctrine, roots of, 504. 

Montauk Point, 194. 

Moores, Gen., 280. 

Morris, Capt. Lemuel. 188. 

Morris, Gouverneur, 98 ; Bour- 
bon oration, 99, 181, 899. 

Morton, Gen. Jacob, 182, 255, 
811, 471. 

Morton's brigade, 110, 885. 

Mott, Jacob £!., court martial of, 
887. 

Mulligan John W., 811. 

Murray, James B., Capt., 475. 

Muster-out orders. 886. 
'* rolls, see Appendix. 

Mutinous conduct, 818 ; order 
on, 812-814. 

Myers, Lieut. -Col. Nathan, 184. 

N. 

Napoleon's campaign, 1818, 18, 
19, 80; abdicated and exiled. 



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INDEX. 



96, 106; downfall. 288: abdi- 
catioD, 289. 

Naval force, 1814, 880. 

New Jersey on band, 165; Gov. 
Pennington's address, 165 ; 
volunteers, 188; called on for 
troops, 264 ; orders. 266 ; 
captains. 267; cniup nt Powles' 
Hook, 268; complains, 365 ; 
militia, 387, 888, 330, see 
Appendix. 

Neried, prize ship, 74. 

Neutral vessels, 86, 87. 

New Orleans victory, 458. 

Newspapers, request to, by de- 
fence committee, 332; enter- 
prise, 467. 

New Year's carrier's address, 
earliest known, 8. 

New York city, poor of, 9, 10; 
Typographical Society, 219; 
rendezvous, 249; great excite- 
ment in, 816; means of defence, 
817; safety, 400; assessment 
and lax, 418; financial stand- 
ing. 427; annual expenses 1813, 
427; taxes 1815 and 1894. 429; 
paper money, 430; charter 
election 1814. 431; Council's 
action on peace, 468; Hospital, 
490; dramatic incidents in, 
507. 508. 

Niagara frontier fires, 12, 13; 
aid, 18; frontier, 278; sufferB, 
430, 431. 

Non-intercourse law, 54, 55. 

North Battery, 310. 311. 

Nutter*ri battery, 395. 



O. 



85; 



Odell, Jacob, Lieut. -Col., 
Brig.-Qen., 249, 305. 

OfiScers detailed for service, 164. 

Ogden, David B., 47». 

Orders — Ad j .-General's, Aug. 14, 
1814, 186: Artillery Brigade, 
Oct. 27. 1814, 855; Gov. Tomp- 
kins on taking command, Oct. 
28, 1814, 369-870; also on Dec. 
25, 435; Division, Nov. 10, 



1814. 870; Nov. 24, Evacua- 
tion Day, 381; muster out. 386; 
First Division, detached mili- 
tia, Sept. 10, 1814, 810; Third 
Military District, Sept. 6, 1814, 
313-314; ••after orders," Feb. 
11, 1815, 455; Dec. 25, 1814, 
436; general, Nov. 1, 1814. 
377; muster for pay, 379: Evac- 
uation Day, 380. 381; general. 
Sept. 14, 1814. 322-324; SepU 
17. 326; Sept. 23, 330; Sept. 
26, 336; Jan. 14, 1815. 419; 
First Brigade, Nov. 17, 1814, 
377; Feb. 21, 1815, 471; garri- 
son. Fort Columbus. Feb. 25, 

1815, 480; see Appendix. 
Oscar, cartel schooner, 134. 

P. 

Parish, David, 71. 

Park Theatre decorated, 490. 

Parker. Capt. (Eng.), 436. 

Peace— negotiations, 94, 288, 289; 
oflPers of, 290; prospects of, 
443; public meeting and pray- 
ers, 448-449 ; treaty arrives, 455 ; 
demonstrations. 456; announce- 
ment, 457; Sunday newspapers 
issued. 459; celebration, 469- 
494; suburbs celebrate, 479; mi- 
litary celebration, 480; Feb. 27, 
1815. 483-494; cost to city, 498. 

Pennin*gton. Gov., of N. J., or- 
ders, Aug. 31,1814. 266; order. 
281; objection lo Gov. Tomp- 
kins, letter to. and reply of 
Sec. of War, 365-367. 

Perrin. John. 305. 

Philadelphia videttes, 326. 

Pinckney. Maj., 231. 

Pintard, John, 276. 

Piatt, Col, 288. 

Plume, Capt. John T., company 
artillery, Newark, 188. 

Political feelings, 473. 

Poor of New York. 9, 10. 

Porter, Capt. David, mottos. 
1812, 172; arrival, 1814, 178, 



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INDEX. 



Portraits of heroes ia City Hall, 
453. 

Portsmouth, N. H., great fire, 
Dec., 1818, 11; donations, 12. 

President, pardon to deserters, 
141 ; returns to Washington, 
proclamation, 281 ; address to 
army, 506. 

Prevost, Sir George. 212. 

Prices for merchandise, produce, 
etc., 2, 8, 4, 410. 

Prime, Nathaniel, 894. 

Prisoners. 142, 148, 144. 

Privateers — Mars. Capt. Inger- 
soll, 27 ; Bunlser Hill, 41 ; 
(Jen. Armstrong. 800 ; Britisli, 
78 ; Peacock, Tom Bowline, 
Warrior, Arrow, Whig, sail, 
878, 879; order on, Dec. 21, 
1814, 484 ; list of, see Appen- 
dix ; captures by, see Appen- 
dix. 

Punishments, 814, 815. 

Q. 

Quarantine, 812. 
R. 

Reid, John, executed, 142, 148. 

Reid, Capt. S. C, 800 ; instruc- 
tions to, 301 ; runs the block- 
ade, testimonial, 802. 

Regiments — Col, Boerum's, Sec- 
ond cavalry, 18th, old third, 
Col. Sitcher (now 8th N. Y., 
Col. Scott), 33; 4l8t V. S, 
90 ; Second, Ninth, Third of 
Kings, 182 ; Forty-second U. 
8., Col. Forbes, 32d, 221 ; 
Eleventh (now 7th, N. G. S. 
N. Y.), 182, 191 ; at North 
Battery, 811, 849; Montgom- 
ery Rangers, of Albany, Capt. 
Dole's Trojan Greens, 247 ; 
Third and 146th of Staten Isl- 
and, 252 ; 83d and 160th, 257 ; 
stations of, 827. 828; Col. 
Laight's85lh, 833 ; change of, 
876. 

Report of Committee's interview 
with Sec. of War, 167; 



schedule to, 168 ; final Com- 
niiilee of Defence, see Appen- 
dix ; Gen. Swift's report, see 
Appendix. 

Resolutions, 201-206. 

Rhinelander, Phillip, 306 ; resi- 
dence, 394. 

Richards, George, 62. 

Riker, Richard. 62. 

Riots, Washington Hull dinner, 
104 ; newspaper comments on, 
104-108. 

Rockland County populattnu 
1814, 257. 

Rodgcrs, Commodore, 23 ; din 
ner to, 25. 26. 77. 

Rolls, muster, see Appendix. 

Romevn, Rev. Dr., 473. 

Ross. 'Gen., 212. 

Roster, see Appendix. 

Rowan, Rev. Mr., 474. 

Rules and regulations in camp, 
1814, 258-262. 

Russell. Israel, guard duty, in- 
cidents, etc., 845-847. 

Rutgers, Col. Henry, 180, 195. 
855. 



Sackett's Harbor, 30. 
Sagg Harbor, 35, 36. 
Sampson. Wm.. 308. 
Sandy Hook, 46, 119, 133, 134, 

220. 
Schermerhorn's residence, 394. 
Scudder's Museum, 490. 
Sea Fencibles, Capt. Lemuel 

Morris, 138, 139. 222. 
Sebrin^, Isaac, 475. 
Sedgwick, Robert, 475. 
Shakespeare Tavern, 490, 491. 
Shinn, Maj.-Gen. W. N., 189. 
Shipping laws, 499. 
Shipyard at Corlear's Hook, 90. 
Situation. 292. 
Smith, Major, 306. 
Sons of Erin. 221, 227. 
Spain and Florida. 504. 
Specie, seized. 50; premium, 51; 

payments, 224; suspension in 



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JNDKX, 



.Philadelphia and New York, 

272; banks' action on, 275. 
Spencer, Major, 466. 
Stanaburv, Gen., 231. 
Staten Island, telegraph on, 134, 

812; forts, 819, 820. 
SteamboaU, 76, 77, 122: first 

excursion, 123; Fulton, 123. 
Steddiford's brigade, 160. 
Sterrv, Col., wounded, 231. 
Stevens, Ck)l H. O., sketch of, 

856. 
Stevens, Mai.-Oen. Ebenezer, 34. 

35, 160, 241, 243, 248, 252; 

genealogy of family, 258-256, 

811, 825; farewell address, 

.^6, 887, 471. 
Stewart, Charles. 475. 
Stillwell, William. M.D., 475. 
Stonington bombardment, 211. 
Strong, Caleb, 51 ; Lieut..Col. 

Selab, 184. 
Sunday newspapers issued, 459. 
Swanson, citizen, 129 
Swartwout, Samuel. 803. 
Swift, Gen. Joseph G.. 44, 45, 

87, 214 ; Inspector-Qeneral. 

268. 811. 819 ; report of, 397 ; 

see Appendix. 

T. 

Talleyrand, M., 445 

Tallmadge, Col. W. S., 188. 

Talman & Ward, 858. 

Tammany Hall, court-martial 
in, 850; dinner to survivors 
of the Essex, 171 ; transparen- 
cies, 484. 

Tammany 8ociety,ll, 21; dinner 
to Com. Rodgers, 25, 91-93; 
4tb July, 1814. 112; dinner and 
toasU, 119-122, 129; dress, 
officers, 1814. 130, 227; at 
Brooklyn Heights, 293-294. 

Tax, United Stotes direct, 452. 

Taxpayers on personal property, 
see Appendix. 

Theatres— Anthony Street, 124; 
Park, 124: Vauxhall Garden, 
125; plays, Nov., 1814, 379. f 



Tompkins, Grov. Daniel D., on 
peace, 20, 88, 110, 115; on 
fortifications, 159; military or- 
ders, 162-165; order U) Gen. 
Rose, 183, 213, 241, 247; 
Northern invasion, 280; letter 
to Gen. Mapes, 311, 812, 360; 
assumes command in place of 
Gen. Lewis, 862-364; not a 
MaJ.-Gen. in U. S. Army, 362; 
objected to by Gk>v. of N. 
J., 365-366; order on taking 
command, Oct. 28, 1814, 369- 
870; aide-de-camp, 870; visits 
fortifications, 371; reviews, 
371-372; liable for loans, 
415-419; Government suit 
against, 420; Jury acquit, and 
find GoYernment owes him, 
421; Congressional report on, 
422; vindicated, 425; repaid, 
426; orders Gen. Boyd to Third 
Mil. Dist., Dec 25, 1814, 435; 
informed of peace, 462; gen- 
eral onlers on treaty of peace, 
479-481; what New York 
should do for his services, 426. 

Tontine Coffee House, 122. 

Torpedo boat, 139. 

Torpedoes, 181. 

Treasury notes, 66, 71, 73. 

Treaty of peace arrives, 455; 
Henry Carroll bearer of, 457; 
reception and joy, 456; Fran- 
cis Hall and S. G. Goodrich 
(Peter Parley,) experience at 
the time, 458, 460,461; Gov. 
Tompkins informed by horse- 
back at expense of Jacob Bar- 
ker, 462; aiTives, 467; pub- 
lished, 468; action of Common 
Council. 463, 469; Governor's 
announcement to military, 479; 
terms of, 495; negotiations at 
Ghent, 496-505; England di^ 
satisfied, 497; result in U. S., 
498; between U. S. and In- 
dians, 498; effect in Europe, 
500-504; sympathy in Eu- 
rope, 501. 



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INDEX. 



XI 



U. 

Uniforms, 805, 306, 308, 309. 
UDited States direct tax, 413. 



Van Buren, Martin, 415 ; on 
Gov. Tompkins, 416-419. 

Vanderbilt, Maj. J., 255, 356. 

Van Ordea, Brig.-Gen. Peter S., 
248,256. 

Van Fell, Rev. Peter J., 213. 

Van Rensselaer, Col. Sol., 36, 38, 
188, 370; interesting letter to 
bis wife, Nov. 14, 1814, 373- 
375 ; another on Evacuation 
Day. etc., 383-385, 482. 

Van Zitudt. Gen., residence, 394. 

Varick, Theodore, 117. 

Vermont troops withdrawn, 279- 
280. 

Verplarfck, Gulian C, 61, 62. 

Veteran Corps Artillery, 111, 
306. 886, 491. 

Videttes, 812, 826. 

Visscher, Lieut.-Col., 249. 

Volunteers provide own uni- 
forms, 185, and not repaid, 
187-188; call for, and pay, 
246; claims, 338. 

W. 

Waite, G. and R., 409. 

War vessels, see American and 

British. 
Ward. R. R., 406. 
Warner, James, Mai., 34, 37 ; 

Col.. 249, 312. 
Warren, Sir J. B.. 80, 81, 82. 



Warrington, Commodore Lewis, 
42. 

Washington in danger, % 
captured, 232. 

Washington Benevolent Society, 
10, 21, 97, 98, 112, 115, 116, 
131 ; at Fort Greene, 227- 
228 ; parade, 229 ; dinner, 
464 ; dinner, officers, toasts, 
472-477. 

Washington Hall. 10, 21. 66, 62 
dinner, 99-104 ; riot, 104, 115, 
229 ; transparencies, 489. 

Washuigton Federalists, 61. 

West Point cadets, 186. 

Wheaton, Henry, 115 ; address, 
118. 

Wickham, Brig.-Gen. George 
D., 249. 

Wilkes, Charles, 273. 

Wilkinson, €kn., 375. 

Willetl, Col. Marinus, address, 
196; sketch of. 199-202. 

Williams. Gen. Jonathan, 819. 

Wilson, James J., 268 ; execu- 
tion of Roger Wilson, 142- 
148. 

Winder, Gen., 231. 

Wine, sale of, 74. 

Wolcott, Oliver, 175, 195. 

Wolfe, Christopher, of 11th Regi- 
ment, 349. 

Wood and coal, 4. 

Woodward, Anthony, 475. 

Wood worth, Samuel, 8 ; song 
** Patriotic Diggers," 230. 

Y. 
Yates, Col. John B., 278, 370. 



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