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Full text of "New York city guide; a comprehensive guide to the five boroughs of the metropolis: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond"

NEW YORK CITY GUIDE 




From the collection of the 



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NEW YORK CITY GUIDE 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



This volume is sponsored by 

THE GUILDS' COMMITTEE FOR 
FEDERAL WRITERS' PUBLICATIONS, INC. 

FRANKLIN P. ADAMS, President 

BRUCE BLIVEN, Vice-President 

MORRIS L. ERNST, Secretary and Treasurer 

HERSCHEL BRICKELL ROCKWELL KENT 

VAN WYCK BROOKS ALFRED KREYMBORG 

HENRY S. CANBY Louis KRONENBERGER 

MALCOLM COWLEY BURNS MANTLE 

JOHN ERSKINE BURTON RASCOE 

CLIFTON FADIMAN RALPH THOMPSON 

LEWIS GANNETT JOSEPH B. ULLMAN 

TRAVIS HOKE IRITA VAN DOREN 
MARK VAN DOREN 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



NEW YORK CITY GUIDE 

A Comprehensive Guide to the Five 
Boroughs of the Metropolis Manhat- 
tan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and 
Richmond Prepared by the Federal 
Writers' Project of the Works Prog- 
ress Administration in New York City 




RANDOM HOUSE - NEW YORK - PUBLISHERS 



COPYRIGHT 1939 BY THE GUILDS' 

COMMITTEE FOR FEDERAL 
WRITERS' PUBLICATIONS, INC. 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 

FRANCIS C. HARRINGTON, Administrator 

FLORENCE S. KERR, Assistant Administrator 

HENRY G. ALSBERG, Director of Federal Writers' Project 

HAROLD STRAUSS, Director of Federal Writers' Project in New 
York City 



Preface 



IHIS volume is a detailed description of the communities and points of 
interest in all the five boroughs of New York City. It attempts, also, to in- 
dicate the human character of the city, to point out the evidence of achieve- 
ments and shortcomings, urban glamor as well as urban sordidness. It is 
intended to give both the permanent resident and the visitor an intimate, 
accurate knowledge of the metropolis. 

The New York City Guide is the companion volume to New York 
Panorama and is sponsored and published under the same auspices. The 
two are planned to complement one another. New York Panorama draws 
a large-scale interpretation of the city's life and history; the New York 
City Guide describes the component portions of the city. 

The Guide represents a collective effort of employees of the Federal 
Writers' Project. They have been assisted by the suggestions and criticism 
of many distinguished authorities. The risk of error and omission always 
considerable in a work of this nature, despite every precaution is slightly 
increased by the fact that responsible authorities sometimes disagree. More 
serious is the problem of keeping pace, in print, with a dynamic metropo- 
lis that overnight replaces a century-old institution with a new triumph in 
modernity. 

Thanks must be given to the hundreds of consultants and experts who 
generously contributed their advice. We are especially indebted to the 
Weyhe Gallery and the individual artists for permission to reproduce many 
prints, and to the Federal Art Project for photographs, prints, and art 
work. We are grateful, also, for the editorial assistance of the national 
office of the Federal Writers' Project, and of Harry L. Shaw, Jr., former 
Director of the Federal Writers' Project in New York City. 

The opinions expressed in this book are the opinions of the writers and 
the editors and are not necessarily shared by the consultants, by the spon- 
sors of the volume, or by the Works Progress Administration. 



EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE 
NEW YORK CITY GUIDE 

Editor-in-Chief: Lou GODY 

Editors: CHESTER D. HARVEY, JAMES REED 

Editorial Assistants: JAMES BEN. ALLEN, JOHN CHEEVER, 

HENRY FAGIN, A. BENJAMIN KAUFMAN 

The production of this volume would not have been possible with- 
out the help of many other staff members of the Federal Writers' 
Project in New York City the writers, research workers, check- 
ers, cartographers, the clerical and technical assistants. Among 
them were Frances Adams, Eugene Burdock, Alexis Chern, Flor- 
ence Comeld, Samuel Cummings, Irving L. Fishman, Robert 
Friend, William Garber, Bip Hanson, John Harms, Lillian Krut- 
man, Anthony Netboy, Leba Presner, William S. Rollins, Fred 
Rothermell, Melvin Shelley, Percy Shostac, Herman Spector, Fred 
Vigman, Clarence Weinstock, Ruth Widen, Charlotte Wilder, 
Richard Wright, and Gabriel Zakin. 



Contents 



PREFACE V 
PLAN OF THE GUIDE X1X-XX 
GENERAL INFORMATION 

Introduction 3 

Free Information Facilities 4 

Streets 4 

Accommodations 8 

Transportation 1 1 

Traffic Rules 20 

Restaurants 2 1 

Shopping 29 

Amusements 29 

Sightseeing 35 

Museums 36 

Recreation 38 

Out-of-Town and Foreign Newspapers 41 

ANNUAL EVENTS 42 

Manhattan 

Introduction 49 

Facts About Manhattan 52 

LOWER MANHATTAN 

Introduction 57 

Battery and Whitehall District 60 

West Street and North (Hudson) River Water Front 68 

Lower West Side 73 

South Street 80 

Wall Street District 84 

City Hall District 94 

Chinatown 104 



viii CONTENTS 

Lower East Side 108 

Greenwich Village 124 

MIDDLE WEST SIDE 
Introduction 
Chelsea 

Hell's Kitchen and Vicinity 
Garment Center and Vicinity 
Times Square District 

MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
Introduction 
Gashouse District 
Stuyvesant Square District 
Gramercy Park District 
Union Square District 
Madison Square District 
Kip's Bay and Turtle Bay 
Murray Hill 

Fifth Avenue Shopping District 
Grand Central District 
Beekman Place and Sutton Place 

Central Park South, The Plaza, and Fifty-seventh Street 
Upper Fifth, Madison, and Park Avenues 
Yorkville 

THE HARLEMS 

Introduction 
Negro Harlem 
Spanish Harlem 
Italian Harlem 

UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

Introduction 

Central Park West District 

Riverside Drive 

Morningside Heights and Manhattanville 

Washington Heights 

Inwood 

Marble Hill 



CONTENTS IX 
MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

New York Aquarium 307 

Trinity Church 310 

Brooklyn Bridge 313 

Bellevue Hospital 316 

Empire State Building 319 

Metropolitan Opera House 322 

The New York Public Library: The Central Building 325 

Madison Square Garden 330 

Rockefeller Center 333 

New York Museum of Science and Industry 342 

St. Patrick's Cathedral 344 

Museum of Modern Art 347 

Central Park 350 

Temple Emanu-El 356 
The American Museum of Natural History: Hay den Planetarium 358 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 368 

Museum of the City of New York 377 

Cathedral of St. John the Divine 380 

Columbia University 383 

The Riverside Church 387 

Triborough Bridge 390 

Harlem River Houses 392 
Washington Heights Museum Group: Museum of the American 

Indian American Geographical Society Hispanic Society of 
America American Numismatic Society American Academy 

of Arts and Letters 395 

George Washington Bridge 399 

Subways and Els 4.01 

IT 

The Harbor, The Rivers, and Their Islands 

THE HARBOR AND ITS ISLANDS 

Introduction 409 

Staten Island Ferry Trip 410 



X CONTENTS 

Statue of Liberty and Bedloe Island 
Governors Island 
Ellis Island 

THE RIVERS AND THE RIVER ISLANDS 

Introduction 

Welfare Island 

Randall's Island 

Ward's Island 

Riker's Island, North Brother Island, and South Brother Island 

Brooklyn 
Introduction 
Downtown Brooklyn 
North Brooklyn 
West Brooklyn 
Middle Brooklyn 
East Brooklyn 

The Bronx 
Introduction 

West Bronx 
Middle Bronx 
East Bronx 

Queens 
Introduction 
North Queens 
Middle Queens 
South Queens 

Richmond 
Introduction 

East and South Richmond 
North and West Richmond 

NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 1939 
Books About New York 
Index 

Supplementary Index to New York World's Fair 1939 



Illustrations and Maps 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

All photographs and prints not otherwise credited were executed by 
the Federal Art Project in New York City; photographs whose titles are 
followed by asterisks (*) were taken by the Federal Writers' Project. 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 76 and 77 

Lower Manhattan Seen Beneath Brooklyn Bridge 

The Battery, 1679 

Courtesy New York Public Library 

The Battery, 1939 

Courtesy New York City Department of Parks 

Liner Nleuw Amsterdam in the Hudson 
Courtesy Acme News Pictures, Inc. 

East River Docks Below Brooklyn Bridge 

South Street Pier and Wall Street Towers * 

Front Street * 

Oldest House in Manhattan, 1 1 Peck Slip 

New York Stock Exchange, Broad and Wall Streets 

Number One Wall Street and Statue of John Watts 

Wall Street Canyon 

PRINTS between 124 and 125 

Lower Manhattan Louis Lozowick 

Courtesy Louis Lozowick 

Brooklyn Bridge Louis Lozowick 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 



xif ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

Hanover Square Louis Lozowick 

Courtesy Louis Lozowick 

Derelicts (East River Water Front) Mabel Dwight 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

Cherries 5$ Eli Jacobi 

Chatham Square El Eli Jacobi 

Salvation (A Bowery Mission) . Eli Jacobi 

Rain (The Bowery) Eli Jacobi 

St. Paul's Chapel Minetta Good 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 172 and 173 

South Street * 

Municipal Building from Chatham Square El Station 

City Hall * 

Holland Tunnel 

Courtesy Port of New York Authority 

Manhattan Bridge Entrance 
West Washington Poultry Market 
Radio Row, Cortlandt Street 
Patchin Place, Greenwich Village 
St. Mark's In-The-Bouwerie * 
Backyards, Lower East Side 
Police Headquarters * 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 252 and 253 

Times Square 

Midtown Manhattan 

Courtesy New York City Tunnel Authority and Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. 

May Day, Union Square 

Courtesy Acme News Pictures, Inc. 

Rutherford Place, Stuyvesant Square 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS xiii 

Little Church Around the Corner * 

Fifth Avenue Shops 

Fifth Avenue Homes * 

East Forty-first Street and the Park Avenue Ramp * 

Grand Central Terminal 

McGraw-Hill Building * 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 316 and 317 

St. Bartholomew's Church and General Electric Building 
Courtesy General Electric Company and Wurts Brothers 

St. Patrick's Cathedral 

Hotel Savoy-Plaza * 

Dead End Near Sutton Place 

Park Avenue and the Waldorf-Astoria Towers 
Courtesy Waldorf-Astoria 

Temple Emanu-El 

RCA Building, Rockefeller Center * 

New York Hospital Cornell University Medical College 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 364 and 365 

Cathedral of St. John the Divine 

Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart 
Courtesy the College 

Gorilla Group, American Museum of Natural History 
Courtesy the Museum 

Roosevelt Memorial, American Museum of Natural History 
Courtesy the Museum 

Fort Tryon Park 

Courtesy Chester D. Harvey 

Riverside Drive North of George Washington Bridge * 
The Cloisters, Fort Tryon Park 



xiv ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

Sugar Hill, Harlem 

Harlem Slum 

Lenox Avenue, Harlem 

Jumel Mansion, Washington Heights * 

PRINTS 

George Washington, Union Square 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

Columbus Circle 

Metropolis (Union Square) 
Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

Chelsea Shape-Up 

Ninth Avenue El 

Feeding the Ducks (Central Park) 

Central Park at Night 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

Clubhouse, Colonial Dames of America (Smith's 

Gas Plant (Fourteenth Street near East River) 
Courtesy Louis Lozowick 

Harlem River 

Hell Gate Bridge 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

The Social Graces 

Courtesy Frank K. M. Rehn Galleries 

Museum Guard 
Warming Up 

Abstract Thinking 

Courtesy Mabel Dwight 

Fashionable Auction 

Courtesy Mabel Dwight 

Sardi's 

Courtesy Weyhe Gallery 

Burlycue 



between 396 and 397 
Reginald Marsh 

Hugh Botts 
Emil Ganso 

Eli Jacobi 

Mabel Dwight 

Mabel Dwight 

Adolf Dehn 



Folly) 



Mabel Dwight 
Louis Lozowick 

Harold Faye 
Louis Lozowick 

Peggy Bacon 

Mabel Dwight 

Albert Webb 

Mabel Dwight 

Mabel Dwight 

Don Freeman 

Kyra Markham 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS XV 

June Bugs Albert Webb 

Outdoor Library (Bryant Park) Carlos Anderson 

Stampede Carlos Anderson 

A Nickel a Shine Raphael Soyer 

PHOTOGRAPHS between 492 and 493 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Arch, Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden * 

Brooklyn College * 

Lefferts Homestead, Prospect Park, Brooklyn * 

Plymouth Church, Brooklyn * 

Flatbush Reformed Protestant Church, Brooklyn * 

Wallabout Market, Brooklyn 

Borough Hall, Brooklyn 

Brooklyn Navy Yard * 

Erie Basin, Brooklyn 

Courtesy Todd Shipyards Corporation and Pairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. 

Coney Island, Brooklyn 

PRINTS between 540 and 541 

Below Columbia Heights, Brooklyn Minetta Good 

Coney Island Louis Lozowick 

Courtesy Louis Lozowick 

Snow on Eastern Parkway (Brooklyn) Ann Nooney 

Coney Island Mabel Dwight 

Courtesy Mabel Dwight 

Clam Shacks (Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn) David Burke 

At the Bronx Zoo Mildred E. Williams 

Houses on Stilts (Westchester Creek, the Bronx) Harry Leroy Taskey 

Astoria (Queens) Ann Nooney 



Xvi ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

Jamaica Bay Ann Nooney 

Staten Island Shore Mabel Dwight 

Courtesy Mabel Dwight 

Survivor (Staten Island) Mabel Dwight 

Courtesy Mabel Dwight 

Toyshop, Staten Island Mabel Dwight 



PHOTOGRAPHS between 588 and 

High Bridge Over the Harlem and Bronx Apartment Houses * 

Bronx County Building, Grand Concourse 

Fordham University, the Bronx * 

Museum Building, New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx * 

Hall of Fame, New York University, the Bronx 

Bronx Park * 

Hillside Homes, the Bronx 

City Island Boatyard, the Bronx 

King Mansion, Jamaica, Queens 

Bowne House, Flushing, Queens 

Homes in Queens 

Boulevard Gardens Apartments, Woodside, Queens 

Forest Hills, Queens 

Courtesy Samuel Epstein 

Cemetery, Queens 

Courtesy Samuel Epstein 

Broad Channel, Jamaica Bay, Queens 

Rockaway Beach, Queens 

Courtesy Rockaway Chamber of Commerce 

Newtown Creek, Queens-Brooklyn 

Old Dutch Reformed Church, Port Richmond, Staten Island * 
Stillwell-Perine House, Dongan Hills, Staten Island * 
Britton Cottage, New Dorp, Staten Island * 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS Xvii 

Church of St. Andrew, Richmond, Staten Island * 
Conference (Billopp) House, Tottenville, Staten Island 

Bayonne Bridge, Port Richmond, Staten Island 
Courtesy Port of New York Authority 

Garibaldi Memorial, Stapleton, Staten Island 
Vanderbilt Mausoleum, Dongan Hills, Staten Island * 
Staten Island Zoo, West New Brighton 
Clove Lakes Park, West New Brighton 



MAPS 

Street Map of Manhattan Back Pocket 

Subway and Elevated Lines Back Pocket 

Outline Map of the City of New York 6-7 

General Vicinity of the City of New York 17 

Shopping Sections of Manhattan 30 

Outline Map of Manhattan Sections and Localities 5 4" 5 5 

Battery and Whitehall District 63 

Lower West Side and West Street 75 
South Street, Wall Street District, City Hall District, and Chinatown 91 

Lower East Side in 

Greenwich Village 127 

Middle West Side 149 

Times Square Theater District 169 

Middle East Side 193 

Upper East Side 237 

The Harlems 255 

Upper Fifth Avenue, Central Park South, Central Park West Dis- 
trict, and Riverside Drive 277 

Northern Manhattan 293 



xviii ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 

Rockefeller Center 

Outline Map of Brooklyn 

Downtown Brooklyn 

North Brooklyn 

West Brooklyn 

Middle Brooklyn 

Prospect Park and Brooklyn Botanic Garden 

East Brooklyn 

Outline Map of the Bronx 

West Bronx 

Middle Bronx 

Bronx Park 

East Bronx 

Outline Map of Queens 

North Queens 

Middle Queens 

South Queens 

Outline Map of Richmond 

East and South Richmond 

North and West Richmond 

New York World's Fair 1939 



Plan of the Guide 



U NDER General Information is given practical information about the city 
and its services : transportation lines to and from New York ; motor routes ; 
traffic rules ; street arrangement ; transit lines ; hotel and rooming house ac- 
commodations ; restaurants; amusements; sightseeing; boat trips, etc. A 
map showing the principal shopping centers in Manhattan is included. 
A calendar of Annual Events follows. The subway and elevated systems 
are shown on a pocket map inside the back cover, and an outline map of 
the City of New York will be found on pages 6-7. 

Each of the five boroughs is treated individually. Manhattan has been 
divided into five Sections, starting at the Battery and working generally 
north : Lower Manhattan, Middle and Upper East Side, Middle West Side, 
The Harlems, Upper West Side and Northern Manhattan. Preceding the 
description of each Section are given the area of the Section and the sta- 
tions of transit lines that serve it. The Section introduction sketches the 
historical background and gives the contemporary description. The Sections 
are divided into Localities, which are described, under commonly used 
names, in a general south to north order. A map showing the outlines of 
Sections and Localities appears on pages 54-55. Transit facilities within 
each Locality may be readily found by reference to the directions preceding 
the Section introduction. In general, transit lines follow principal streets, 
and the names of the lines indicate their routes. Where contiguous Locali- 
ties merge so subtly that precise definition of them is impracticable, arbi- 
trary boundaries have been established. Points of special interest in each 
Locality are dealt with in order again south to north with the condi- 
tions under which they may be visited. 

A number of Major Points of Interest have been singled out for separate 
treatment. This list is not exhaustive; rather it is representative of the 
many widely known institutions and buildings in Manhattan. Cross refer- 
ence to these points is made in the stories of the Localities in which they 
are situated. 

Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond (Staten Island) boroughs 
are taken up in that order. An introductory essay considers each borough 



XX PLAN OF THE GUIDE 

as a whole and traces its history ; a map indicating all the communities and 
main highways within the borough is included. The borough is then split 
into large Sections for point-by-point description. Transportation direc- 
tions, boundaries, and a detailed map accompany each Sectional descrip- 
tion. Neighborhoods and points of interest follow an order generally 
away from Manhattan. Hours, fees, and other terms of admission are given 
for points of interest that are open to visitors. Many old houses in the out- 
lying neighborhoods are privately owned and occupied, but if such a home, 
or a factory, or an institution, is regularly open for inspection, that fact is 
noted. 

The harbor, the rivers, and their islands have been grouped in one Sec- 
tion. The islands at the western end of Long Island Sound, however, are 
described with the East Bronx. 

This book is completely indexed. 



NEW YORK CITY GUIDE 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 




General Information 



(All addresses in the General Information section are in Manhattan, unless 
otherwise indicated. See map on pages 6-7 for location of boroughs, water- 
ways, harbor, main thoroughfares, bridges, tunnels, and parks; also see 
map on page 17 for general vicinity of New York.) 

The city of New York is the largest in the Western Hemisphere and the 
second largest in the world, with a population in 1938 of 7,505,068 and 
an area of 322.83 square miles. It is exceeded in area and population only 
by London. The metropolis is situated on the Atlantic seaboard in the 
southeastern corner of New York State, at the mouth of the Hudson River. 
Its extreme length, north and south, is 36 miles; extreme breadth, i6l/ 2 
miles. 

New York City, chartered in 1898, consists of five boroughs, each also 
a county: Manhattan (New York County), the Bronx (Bronx County), 
Brooklyn (Kings County), Queens (Queens County), and Richmond, or 
Staten Island (Richmond County). Manhattan, the original New York 
City, founded 1626, is an island; population 1,684,543, area 22.20 square 
miles. Brooklyn (settled 1636), on Long Island, was formerly an inde- 
pendent city; population 2,798,093, area 80.95 square miles. The Bronx 
(settled 1641) is on the mainland north of Manhattan; population 1,499,- 
090, area 41.41 square miles. Queens (settled about 1635) is on Long 

3 



4 GENERAL INFORMATION 

Island; population 1,346,659, area 121.12 square miles. Richmond (set- 
tled about 1638) is in the southwest corner of New York Bay; population 
176,683, area 57.15 square miles. 

The metropolitan area of New York City is the district within a radius 
of approximately 40 miles of City Hall and includes parts of New Jersey, 
Westchester County (N.Y.), Connecticut, and Long Island (see map on 
page 17). The population of the area in 1930 was nearly 11,000,000. 

The city is governed by a mayor and a city council, the latter elected by 
a system of proportional representation. A president, with certain local 
duties and powers, heads each of the five boroughs. The county affairs of 
the various boroughs are conducted independently of the municipal gov- 
ernment. 

FREE INFORMATION FACILITIES 

NEW YORK CITY INFORMATION CENTER, Park Ave. and 42d St., op- 
posite Grand Central Terminal; POLICE DEPARTMENT INFORMATION 
BOOTH, Broadway and 43d St. (Times Square) ; DAILY NEWS INFORMA- 
TION BUREAU, 220 E. 42d St.; Esso AND SOCONY- VACUUM TRAVEL IN- 
FORMATION SERVICES, RCA Building, Rockefeller Center; AMERICAN 
AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION, Hotel Pennsylvania, 7th Ave. and 33d St.; 
HOTEL ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK CITY, 221 W. 57th St.; NEW 
YORK CONVENTION AND VISITORS BUREAU, 233 Broadway; U.S. TRAVEL 
BUREAU, 45 Broadway ; Y.M.C. A. HEADQUARTERS, 420 Lexington Ave. ; 
Y.W.C.A. CENTRAL BRANCH INFORMATION DESK, 610 Lexington Ave. ; 
TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY, Pennsylvania Station and Grand Central Ter- 
minal. 

STREETS 

Manhattan streets are laid out on the gridiron plan, with avenues run- 
ning north and south, and cross-town streets running east and west, from 
river to river. (See pocket map of Manhattan.) All cross-town streets are 
numbered, except those south of Houston Street and some in Greenwich 
Village, where the gridiron system was not applied. The avenues are also 
numbered, but include a few with names: Lexington, Park, and Madison 
Avenues, and Broadway. Fifth Avenue, which begins at Washington 
Square, divides the cross-town streets into east and west sections and is the 
starting point of house numbers on those streets. 

The designation "downtown" refers to a direction south of a given 
point; "uptown," north. These terms, together with "midtown," apply 
also to approximate sections of Manhattan: downtown, from the Battery 
to Fourteenth Street ; midtown, from Fourteenth to Fifty-ninth Street ; up- 
town, north of Fifty-ninth Street. 

HOUSE NUMBER KEY TO MANHATTAN. To find the numbered 
cross-town street nearest a given house number on a north-south avenue, 
cancel the last figure of the given number, divide the remainder by 2, and 
then add the key number given below. (Example: For 500 Fifth Avenue, 



GENERAL INFORMATION 5 

drop the last figure, leaving 50. Divide this by 2. To 25 add the key num- 
ber, 17. The result is 42 [Forty-second Street], the cross street at 500 
Fifth Avenue. ) Key numbers : 

Amsterdam Ave add 60 

Ave. A add 3 

Ave. B add 3 

Ave. C add 3 

Ave. D add 3 

Broadway subtract 31 

Central Park W divide the house number by 10 and 

add 60 

Columbus Ave add 60 

Eighth Ave add 9 

Eleventh Ave add 15 

Fifth Ave add 17: from Broadway to 57th Street; 

opposite Central Park: divide the 
house number by 10 and subtract 18 
add 45: from 110th Street to Mt. Mor- 
ris Park 

add 24: from Mt. Morris Park to 140th 
Street 

First Ave add 3 

Fourth Ave add 8 

Lenox Ave add 111 

Lexington Ave add 22 

Madison Ave add 26 

Manhattan Ave add 99 

Ninth Ave add 13 

Park Ave add 34 

Riverside Drive divide the house number by 10 and 

add 72 

Second Ave add 3 

Seventh Ave add 1 2 : from Greenwich Ave. to Cen- 
tral Park 
add 20: north of Central Park 

Sixth Ave add 4: from 3d Street to Central Park 

(old numbers) 

subtract 13: from 3d Street to Central 
Park (new numbers) 

St. Nicholas Ave add 110 

Tenth Ave add 13 

Third Ave add 9 

West End Ave add 59 

The street systems in the other boroughs follow no over-all plan. In the 
Bronx, Jerome Avenue is the dividing line between east and west sections 
of numbered cross-town streets, which are approximate continuations of 
those in Manhattan. In Brooklyn, to avoid confusion note the exact desig- 
nations of numbered streets, of which there are several groups (for exam- 



OUTLINE MAP 

OF THE 

CITY OF NEW YORK 



WER NEW YORK BAY 




8 GENERAL INFORMATION 

pie, there is a Thirty-seventh Street, an East Thirty-seventh Street, a West 
Thirty-seventh Street, a Bay Thirty-seventh Street, and a Beach Thirty- 
seventh Street). In Queens, most of the streets are numbered. House num- 
bers are based on the block system, in which the numbers on a block are 
preceded by the number of the intersecting street at the start of the block 
(for example, house numbers on Fifty-eighth Street between Thirty-first 
and Thirty-second Avenues run 3101, 3103, 3105, etc.). 

ACCOMMODATIONS 

HOTELS 

Prices below (subject to change) are minimum daily rates for a single 
room with private bath. Asterisk (*) indicates rooms without private bath 
are available at lower rates. 

DOWNTOWN (below 29th Street). $2.00: * ARLINGTON, 18 W. 
25th St.; *LEDONIA, 42 E. 28th St.; *MARLTON, 3 W. 8th St. $2.50: 
* ALBERT, 65 University PL; *BREVOORT, 5th Ave. and 8th St.; *HEL- 
SEA, 222 W. 23d St.; GEORGE WASHINGTON, Lexington Ave. and 
23d St.; HOLLEY, 36 Washington Sq.; *MADISON SQUARE, Madison 
Ave. and 25th St.; PRINCE GEORGE, 14 E. 28th St. $3.00: CORNISH 
ARMS, 311 W. 23d St.; *!RVING, 26 Gramercy Park S.; GRAMERCY PARK, 
52 Gramercy Park N. ; *PARKSIDE, 18 Gramercy Park S. $3.50: BRIT- 
TANY, Broadway and loth St.; * BROAD WAY CENTRAL, 673 Broadway; 
*ARLE, 103 Waverly PL; * LAFAYETTE, University PL and 9th St.; 
*SEVILLE, Madison Ave. and 29th St. $3.75: FIFTH AVENUE, 5th Ave. 
and 9th St. $4.00: GROSVENOR, 5th Ave. and loth St. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATION ZONE. $2.00: ^IMPERIAL, Broadway 
and 32d St.; *YoRK, yth Ave. and 36th St. $2.25: *BRESLIN, Broadway 
and 29th St. $2.50: *GRAND, Broadway and 3ist St. ; *HERALD SQUARE, 
116 W. 34th St.; * MARTINIQUE, Broadway and 32d St.; *WOLCOTT, 4 
W. 3ist St. $3.00: *McALPiN, Broadway and 34th St. $3.50: GOVER- 
NOR CLINTON, yth Ave. and 3ist St.; NEW YORKER, 8th Ave. and 34th 
St. ; PENNSYLVANIA, yth Ave. and 330! St. 

TIMES SQUARE ZONE. $2.00: *CADILLAC, Broadway and 43d St.; 
CENTURY, in W. 46th St.; *FLANDERS, 135 W. 4yth St.; FORTY- 
FOURTH STREET, 120 W. 44th St.; *REX, 106 W. 4yth St.; *ST. EDWARD, 
yo W. 46th St.; *ST. JAMES, 109 W. 45th St. $2 .50: ABBEY, 149 W. 
5ist St.; BELVEDERE, 319 W. 48th St.; * BRISTOL, 129 W. 48th St.; 
^CHESTERFIELD, 130 W. 49th St.; DIXIE, 241 W. 42d St.; GREAT 
NORTHERN, 118 W. 5yth St.; * KNICKERBOCKER, 120 W. 45th St.; 
LAURELTON, i4y W. 55th St.; PARAMOUNT, 235 W. 46th St.; PICCA- 
DILLY, 22y W. 45th St.; PRESIDENT, 234 W. 48th St.; *REMINGTON, 129 
W. 46th St. ; *TAFT, yth Ave. and 5oth St. ; *TIMES SQUARE, 8th Ave. 
and 43d St.; VICTORIA, yth Ave. and 5ist St.; WELLINGTON, yth Ave. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 9 

and 55th St.; *WENTWORTH, 59 W. 46th St.; *WOODSTOCK, 127 
W. 43d St.; WOODWARD, Broadway and 55th St. $3.00: ASTOR, Broad- 
way and 44th St. ; EDISON, 228 W. 47th St. ; LINCOLN, 8th Ave. and 44th 
St.; *MARYLAND, 104 W. 49th St.; SEVILLIA, 117 W. 58th St.; THIRTY- 
THREE WEST FIFTY-FIRST STREET, 33 W. 5ist St.; WEBSTER, 40 W. 45th 
St. $330: *CAPITOL, 8th Ave. and jist St.; GORHAM, 136 W. 55th St.; 
PARK CENTRAL, 7th Ave. and 55th St.; PARK CHAMBERS, 68 W. 58th 
St. ; PLYMOUTH, 143 W. 49th St. ; SALISBURY, 123 W. 57th St. ; SEYMOUR, 
50 W. 45th St.; WINDSOR, 6th Ave. and 58th St. $4.00: WYNDHAM, 42 
W. 58th St. $430: ALGONQUIN, 59 W. 44th St.; SHOREHAM, 33 W. 
55th St. $5.00: BUCKINGHAM, 6th Ave. and 57th St. 

GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL ZONE. $230: TUDOR, 304 E. 
42d St.; *MURRAY HILL, Park Ave. and 4ist St. $3.00; BEDFORD, 118 
E. 40th St.; BELMONT PLAZA, Lexington Ave. and 49th St. ; WINTHROP, 
Lexington Ave. and 47th St. $330: DUANE, 237 Madison Ave.; SAN 
CARLOS, 150 E. 50th St.; WHITE, Lexington Ave. and 37th St. $4.00: 
BEVERLY, Lexington Ave. and 5oth St. ; COMMODORE, Lexington Ave. and 
42d St. ; LEXINGTON, Lexington Ave. and 48th St. ; TUSCANY, 120 E. 39th 
St. $5.00: NEW WESTON, Madison Ave. and 5oth St.; VANDERBILT, 
Park Ave. and 34th St. $6.00: BARCLAY, Lexington Ave. and 48th St.; 
*BILTMORE, Madison Ave. and 43d St. ; CHATHAM, Vanderbilt Ave. and 
48th St. ; PARK LANE, Park Ave. and 48th St. ; ROOSEVELT, Madison Ave. 
and 45th St.; WALDORF-ASTORIA, Park Ave. and 5oth St. $7.00; RITZ- 
CARLTON, Madison Ave. and 46th St. 

CENTRAL PARK SOUTH. $3.00: BARBIZON-PLAZA, 6th Ave. and 
58th St. $330: ST. MORITZ, Central Park S. and 6th Ave. $4.00: 
NAVARRO, 112 Central Park S. $6.00: ESSEX HOUSE, 160 Central Park S. 
$7.00: PLAZA, Central Park S. and 5th Ave. $8.00: HAMPSHIRE HOUSE, 
150 Central Park S. 

MIDDLE EAST SIDE. $3 JO: ADAMS, 2 E. 86th St.; *BEEKMAN 
TOWER, ist Ave. and 49th St.; FOURTEEN EAST SIXTIETH STREET, 14 E. 
6oth St. $4.00: ALRAE, 37 E. 64th St.; BLACKSTONE, 50 E. 58th St.; 
GLADSTONE, 114 E. 52d St. ; LANGDON, 5th Ave. and 56th St. ; SULGRAVE, 
60 E. 67th St. $430: WEYLIN, 40 E. 54th St. $.5.00: BERKSHIRE, 21 
E. 52d St.; CROYDON, 12 E. 86th St.; ELYSEE, 60 E. 54th St.; LOWELL, 
28 E. 63d St.; WESTBURY, Madison Ave. and 69th St. $6.00: GOTHAM, 
5th Ave. and 55th St.; MAYFAIR HOUSE, 610 Park Ave.; RITZ TOWER, 
Park Ave. and 57th St. ; ST. REGIS, 5th Ave. and 55th St. $7.00: AMBAS- 
SADOR, Park Ave. and 5ist St.; PIERRE, 5th Ave. and 6ist St.; SAVOY- 
PLAZA, 5th Ave. and 59th St.; SHERRY-NETHERLAND, 5th Ave. and 
59th St. 

UPPER WEST SIDE. $2.00; EMBASSY, Broadway and 7Oth St.; 
*NDICOTT, Columbus Ave. and 8ist St.; *MIDTOWN, Broadway and 6ist 
St. $2JO: ALAMAC, Broadway and 7ist St.; BRETTON HALL, "2350 
Broadway; CLIFTON, 127 W. 79th St.; *MERSON, 166 W. 75th St.; 
FRANKLIN TOWERS, 333 W. 86th St.; GREYSTONE, Broadway and 9ist 
St. ; KIMBERLEY, Broadway and 74th St. ; *MANHATTAN TOWERS, Broad- 



10 GENERAL INFORMATION 

way and y6th St. ; * MARIE ANTOINETTE, Broadway and 66th St. ; *NAR- 
RAGANSETT, 2510 Broadway; OLIVER CROMWELL, 12 W. y2d St.; OR- 
LEANS, Columbus Ave. and 8oth St.; PARK CRESCENT, 150 Riverside 
Dr.; *PARK PLAZA, 50 W. yyth St.; ROBERT FULTON, 228 W. yist St.; 
RUXTON, 50 W. y2d St.; *SHERMAN SQUARE, Broadway and yist St.; 
WESTOVER, 253 W. y2d St.; WHITEHALL, Broadway and looth St. 
$3.00: ALEXANDRIA, 250 W. iO3d St.; BEACON, Broadway and 75th 
St.; *MPIRE, Broadway and 63d St.; MILBURN, 242 W. y6th St.; 
RALEIGH, 121 W. y2d St.; REGENT, Broadway and i04th St.; THERESA, 
yth Ave. and 12 5th St. $3 .50: BANCROFT, 40 W. y2d St. ; CAMERON, 41 
W. 86th St.; CHALFONTE, 200 W. yoth St.; *COLONIAL, Columbus Ave. 
and 8ist St. ; HAMILTON, 143 W. 73d St. $4.00: BROADMOOR, Broadway 
and io2d St.; ESPLANADE, West End Ave. and 74th St.; WINDERMERE, 
West End Ave. and 92d St. $5.00: MAYFLOWER, Central Park West and 
6ist St. 

THE BRONX. $3.00: CONCOURSE PLAZA, Grand Concourse and 
i6ist St. 

BROOKLYN. $2.00; MONTAGUE, 103 Montague St. $2 JO: Bos- 
SERT, Montague and Hicks Sts.; *ST. GEORGE, Clark and Hicks Sts.; 
STANDISH ARMS, 169 Columbia Heights. $3.00; *PIERREPONT, 55 
Pierrepont St.; TOWERS, 25 Clark St. $4.00: *HALF MOON, Boardwalk 
and W. 29th St., Coney Island; *MARGARET, 97 Columbia Heights; 
TOURAINE, 23 Clinton St. 

QUEENS. In addition to the following there are numerous summer ho- 
tels in the Rockaways (see summer resort sections of newspapers). $2.50: 
HOMESTEAD, 82-45 Grenfell Ave., Kew Gardens; *KEW GARDENS INN, 
80-02 Kew Gardens Road, Kew Gardens; SANFORD, 140-40 Sanford Ave., 
Flushing ; WHITMAN, 160-11 89th Ave., Jamaica. $4.00: *FOREST HILLS 
INN, i Station Square, Forest Hills. 

CLUB HOTELS 

These offer planned social activities and, in most cases, athletic facilities. 
ALLERTON HOUSE, 143 E. 39th St., $10.00 weekly and up; KENMORE 
HALL, 145 E. 23d St., $7.50 weekly and up; MIDSTON HOUSE, 22 E. 38th 
St., $10.50 weekly and up; PICKWICK ARMS, 230 E. 5ist St., $9.00 weekly 
and up. 

WOMEN'S HOTELS 

ALLERTON HOUSE FOR WOMEN (club hotel), 130 E. 57th St., $3.25 
daily and up with private bath, $2.25 and up without private bath; 
AMERICAN WOMAN'S CLUB (club hotel), 353 W. 57th St., $3.00 daily 
and up with private bath; BARBIZON (club hotel), Lexington Ave. and 
63d St., $3.00 daily and up with private bath, $2.50 and up without pri- 
vate bath; IRVIN, 308 W. 3Oth St., $2.00 daily and up without private 
bath; MARTHA WASHINGTON, 29 E. 29th St., $3.00 daily and up with 
private bath, $2.00 and up without private bath. 






GENERAL INFORMATION II 

Y's 



Y.M.G.A. : Executive headquarters and information center, 420 Lexing- 
ton Ave. Various dormitories throughout New York. Y.W.C.A.: Execu- 
tive headquarters and information center, 129 E. 52d St. Various dormi- 
tories throughout New York. Y.M.H. A. : Dormitory, Lexington Ave. and 
9 2d St. Y.W.H.A.: Dormitory, 31 W. noth St. 

FURNISHED ROOMS AND APARTMENTS 

For furnished rooms and apartments consult the classified sections of 
newspapers, especially the Herald Tribune, Journal and American, Times, 
and World-Telegram. The Y.M.C.A.,Y.W.CA.,Y.M.H.A.,andY.W.H.A. 
also have room listings. Types of service include rooms with and without 
board, or with kitchen privileges. Furnished apartments are available with 
and without maid service, some with hotel service. These accommodations 
are found chiefly in the following areas: GREENWICH VILLAGE, Houston 
to W. i4th St., west of Broadway; CHELSEA, i4th to 34th St., west of 
6th Ave. ; MURRAY HILL, 301)1 to 40th St., east of Madison Ave. ; TIMES 
SQUARE, 42d to 5yth St., 5th Ave. to 8th Ave. ; MIDDLE WEST SIDE, 30th 
to 40th St., 8th to loth Ave. ; UPPER WEST SIDE, y2d to noth St., west of 
Central Park; MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS, noth to 12 5th St., west of Morn- 
ingside Drive; BROOKLYN HEIGHTS, west of Fulton St., near Brooklyn 
Bridge. 

TRANSPORTATION 

There are four types of urban transit in New York City: subways, ele- 
vated railways (els), busses, and surface cars. The fare is 50 on all lines, 
except the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. (io0) and certain routes in outlying 
parts of the city. Subways link all the boroughs except Staten Island, which 
is accessible only by the municipal ferry (5$). Three el lines serve Man- 
hattan and the Bronx, and five serve Brooklyn and parts of Queens; all 
points in Queens are also reached by the Long Island Railroad. In Man- 
hattan, surface lines, mostly bus, are the chief means of cross-town travel. 
Staten Island has a bus system and a railway, the Staten Island Rapid 
Transit Co. (see map on page 599), both with terminals at the St. George 
Ferry. The Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (Hudson Tubes) is a rapid 
transit service between New York and Newark, N. J. 

SUBWAYS 

See pocket map of subway and el lines. 

The three subway systems the Interborough Rapid Transit Corp. 
(IRT), the 8th Ave. (Independent) Subway System (municipally owned 
and operated), and the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corp. (BMT) 
operate in Manhattan and have branches running into the Bronx, Brook- 
lyn, and Queens. Both the IRT and 8th Ave. subways run the full length 



12 GENERAL INFORMATION 

of Manhattan ; the BMT, which is primarily a Brooklyn system, runs only 
to 6oth St. The IRT has two main divisions, the West Side line (Broad- 
way-yth Ave.) and the East Side line (Lexington Ave.-4th Ave.). All sub- 
way systems operate 24 hours a day, with express service between 6 a.m. 
and i a.m. Subway travel is facilitated by maps which appear in all stations 
and cars; by car signs showing name of line and destination; and by 
numerous directional signs at entrances, in passageways, and on platforms 
of stations. In the following list of subway lines, the terminals of each are 
shown in parentheses after the name of the line. 

IRT SUBWAY. West Side: BROADWAY- T TH AVE. EXPRESS (New 
Lots Ave. 242<d St.-Van Cortlandt Park) serves East New York, Browns- 
ville, Crown Heights, Bedford, Park Slope, Downtown Brooklyn, Brook- 
lyn Heights, in Brooklyn; William St., Varick St., 7 th Ave., Broadway, 
St. Nicholas Ave., in Manhattan; Spuyten Duyvil, Riverdale, Van Cort- 
landt Park, in the Bronx. BROADWAY-yTH AVE. LOCAL (South Ferry 

1 37th St.) serves West Broadway, Varick St., yth Ave., Broadway, in 
Manhattan. yTH AVE. EXPRESS (Flatbush Ave. E. iSoth St.-Bronx Park) 
serves Eastern Flatbush, Bedford, Prospect Park, Downtown Brooklyn, 
Brooklyn Heights, in Brooklyn; William St., Varick St., yth Ave., Broad- 
way (to c)6th St.), Lenox Ave. (to 135^1 St.), in Manhattan; Mott Haven, 
Morrisania, Bronx Park S., in the Bronx. yTH AVE. LOCAL (South Ferry 
i45th St.-Lenox Ave.) serves West Broadway, Varick St., yth Ave., Broad- 
way (to 96th St.), Lenox Ave. (to 145^1 St.), in Manhattan. East Side: 
BRONX PARK EXPRESS (Atlantic Ave. E. iSoth St.) serves Downtown 
Brooklyn; Broadway (to Fulton St.), Lafayette St., 4th Ave., Lexington 
Ave., in Manhattan; Mott Haven, Morrisania, Crotona Park, Bronx Park 
S., in the Bronx. JEROME AVE. EXPRESS (Atlantic Ave. Jerome Ave.- 
Woodlawn) serves Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Broadway (to Ful- 
ton St.), Lafayette St., 4th Ave., Lexington Ave., in Manhattan; Mott 
Haven, University Heights, Fordham Heights, Jerome Park, Woodlawn, 
in the Bronx. WHITE PLAINS ROAD EXPRESS (Atlantic Ave. 24ist St- 
White Plains Road) serves Downtown Brooklyn; Broadway (to Fulton 
St.), Lafayette St., 4th Ave., Lexington Ave., in Manhattan; Mott Haven, 
Morrisania, Crotona Park, Bronx Park E., Williamsbridge, Woodlawn, 
Baychester, in the Bronx. PELHAM BAY PARK LOCAL (City Hall Pelham 
Bay Park) serves Lafayette St., 4th Ave., Lexington Ave. (to i25th St.), 
in Manhattan; St. Mary's Park, Hunt's Point, Unionport, Westchester 
Heights, Pelham Bay Park, in the Bronx. Forty-second Street Shuttle (Times 
Square Grand Central Terminal) connects West Side and East Side lines. 
Queens Lines: ASTORIA LINE (Times Square Astoria) serves 42 d St., in 
Manhattan; Long Island City, Astoria, in Queens. FLUSHING (CORONA) 
LINE (Times Square Flushing) serves 42d St., in Manhattan; Long 
Island City, Sunnyside, Woodside, Jackson Heights, Corona, Flushing, in 
Queens. 

8TH AVE. (INDEPENDENT) SUBWAY. WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 
EXPRESS (Fulton St.-Rockaway Ave. 2oyth St.) serves Stuyvesant 
Heights, Bedford, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Church St., 6th 



GENERAL INFORMATION 13 

Ave., 8th Ave., St. Nicholas Ave., Fort Washington Ave., in Manhattan. 
GRAND CONCOURSE EXPRESS (Hoyt St. 205th St.) serves Downtown 
Brooklyn; Church St., 6th Ave., 8th Ave., St. Nicholas Ave. (to i45th- 
St.), in Manhattan; University Heights, Fordham Heights, Jerome Park, 
in the Bronx. GRAND CONCOURSE LOCAL (City Hall 205th St.) serves 
same route in Manhattan and the Bronx as Grand Concourse Express. 
QUEENS-MANHATTAN EXPRESS (Church Ave. Jamaica) serves Prospect 
Park W., South Brooklyn, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Essex St., 
Houston St., 8th Ave., 53d St., in Manhattan; Long Island City, Sunny- 
side, Woodside, Jackson Heights, Elmhurst, Forest Hills, Kew Gardens, 
Jamaica, in Queens. QUEENS-BROOKLYN CROSS-TOWN LOCAL (Smith 
St. -9th St. yist Ave.-Forest Hills) serves South Brooklyn, Downtown 
Brooklyn, Bedford, North Stuyvesant Heights, Williamsburg, Greenpoint, 
in Brooklyn; Long Island City, Sunnyside, Woodside, Jackson Heights, 
Elmhurst, Forest Hills, in Queens. 

BMT SUBWAY. SEA BEACH EXPRESS (Coney Island Times Square) 
serves Coney Island, East Bensonhurst, South Boro Park, Bay Ridge, Bush 
Terminal, South Brooklyn, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Broadway, 
in Manhattan. WEST END EXPRESS (Coney Island Times Square) serves 
Coney Island, Bensonhurst, Boro Park, Bush Terminal, South Brooklyn, 
Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Broadway, in Manhattan. BRIGHTON 
BEACH EXPRESS (Coney Island Times Square) serves Coney Island, 
Brighton Beach, Manhattan Beach, Sheepshead Bay, Midwood, Flatbush, 
Prospect Park, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Broadway, in Manhat- 
tan. BRIGHTON BEACH LOCAL (Coney Island 57th St.) serves same 
route in Brooklyn as Brighton Beach Express; Whitehall St., Trinity PI., 
Broadway, Central Park S., in Manhattan. 4TH AVE. (Brooklyn) LOCAL 
(95th St. Queensboro Plaza) serves Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge, Bush 
Terminal, South Brooklyn, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Whitehall 
St., Trinity PL, Broadway, Central Park S., 6oth St., in Manhattan; Long 
Island City, in Queens. ASTORIA AND FLUSHING LINES (Queensboro Plaza 
Astoria and Flushing) serve same routes as IRT Queens Lines. I4TH 
ST.-CANARSIE LINE (Rockaway Parkway i4th St.-8th Ave.) serves Can- 
arsie, East New York, Ridgewood, North Williamsburg, Greenpoint, in 
Brooklyn; i4th St., in Manhattan. BROADWAY (Brooklyn) LINE (Rock- 
away Parkway Canal St.) serves Canarsie, East New York, Ridgewood, 
North Stuyvesant Heights, Williamsburg, in Brooklyn ; Delancey St., Cen- 
tre St., in Manhattan. JAMAICA LINE (Jamaica Broad St.-Wall St.) serves 
Jamaica, Richmond Hill, Woodhaven, in Queens; Cypress Hills, Bush- 
wick, North Stuyvesant Heights, Williamsburg, in Brooklyn; Delancey 
St., Centre St., Nassau St., in Manhattan. MYRTLE AVE.-CHAMBERS ST. 
LINE (Metropolitan Ave.-Maspeth Chambers St.) serves Maspeth, in 
Queens; Ridgewood, Williamsburg, in Brooklyn; Delancey St., Centre 
St., in Manhattan. CULVER LINE (Coney Island Chambers St.) serves 
Coney Island, West Midwood, West Flatbush, Boro Park, Bush Terminal, 
South Brooklyn, Downtown Brooklyn, in Brooklyn; Broad St., Nassau St., 
in Manhattan. 



14 GENERAL INFORMATION 

ELEVATED LINES 

See pocket map of subway and el lines. 

The Manhattan els are operated by the IRT ; they extend into the Bronx, 
with branches of the Second Ave. Line serving Astoria and Corona, 
Queens. The Brooklyn els are operated by the BMT. The els run 24 hours 
a day, except the Second Ave. Line which stops between midnight and 
4 a.m. 

MANHATTAN. SECOND AVENUE LINE (South Ferry Bronx Park) 
serves Pearl St., Allen St., ist Ave. (to 23d St.), 2d Ave., in Manhattan; 
Mott Haven, Morrisania, Crotona Park, Bronx Park E., in the Bronx. 
QUEENS LINES (57th St-2d Ave. Astoria and Corona) serve same 
routes as IRT Queens subway lines. THIRD AVE. LINE (South Ferry 
E. 24ist St.-White Plains Road) serves the Bowery, 3d Ave., in Manhat- 
tan ; Mott Haven, Morrisania, Crotona Park, East Fordham Heights, Bronx 
Park W., Woodlawn, Baychester, in the Bronx. NINTH AVE. LINE (South 
Ferry Jerome Ave. -Woodlawn) serves Greenwich St., 9th Ave., Colum- 
bus Ave. (to noth St.), 8th Ave., in Manhattan; University Heights, 
Fordham Heights, Jerome Park, Woodlawn, in the Bronx. 

BROOKLYN. FULTON STREET LINE (Park Row Lefferts Ave.) 
serves City Hall, in Manhattan ; Downtown Brooklyn, Bedford, Stuyvesant 
Heights, East New York, in Brooklyn; Ozone Park, Richmond Hill, in 
Queens. LEXINGTON AVE. LINE (Park Row Eastern Parkway) serves 
City Hall, in Manhattan; Downtown Brooklyn, Fort Greene Park, Bed- 
ford, Stuyvesant Heights, Bushwick, in Brooklyn. CULVER LINE (Sands 
St. Coney Island) serves Downtown Brooklyn, Park Slope, Bush Termi- 
nal, Borough Park, West Flatbush, West Midwood, Coney Island, in Brook- 
lyn. 5TH AVE. -BAY RIDGE LINE (Sands St. 65th St.) serves Downtown 
Brooklyn, South Brooklyn, Bush Terminal, Bay Ridge, in Brooklyn. 
MYRTLE AVE. LINE (Sands St. Metropolitan Ave.) serves Downtown 
Brooklyn, Fort Greene Park, Bedford, Stuyvesant Heights, Ridgewood, in 
Brooklyn; Ridgewood, Maspeth, in Queens. 

SURFACE LINES 

All the boroughs are served by surface lines, either busses or trolley 
cars, or both, which run on all the principal streets. There are no central 
terminals of these lines, except in Queens (i68th Street and Jamaica 
Avenue), and in Staten Island (St. George Ferry Terminal). In Manhat- 
tan, bus lines run on all north-south avenues and on many of the cross- 
town streets. 

FERRIES 

See pocket map of Manhattan. 

Fare: passengers 5$, pleasure vehicles 25$, unless otherwise indicated. 
Between South Ferry and St. George, Staten Island. Between South Ferry 
and 39th St., Brooklyn. Between Barclay St. and Hoboken, N. J. ; passen- 



GENERAL INFORMATION 15 

ger fare 40. Between Cortlandt St. and Weehawken, N. J. ; passenger fare 
60. Between Chambers St. and Jersey City, N. J. Between Cristopher 
St. and Hoboken, N. J.; passenger fare 40. Between W. 23d St. and 
Hoboken, N. J. Between W. 23d St. and Jersey City, N. J. Between W. 
2.3d St. and Weehawken, N. J. (vehicular traffic only). Between W. 42d 
St. and Weehawken, N. J. ; passenger fare 4$. Between W. 12 5th St. and 
Edgewater, N. J. Between Dyckman St. and Englewood Landing, N. J. Be- 
tween 39th and 69th Sts., Brooklyn, and St. George, Staten Island. Be- 
tween Howland's Hook, Staten Island, and Elizabeth, N. J. Between Port 
Richmond, Staten Island, and Bayonne, N. J. Between Tottenville, Staten 
Island, and Perth Amboy, N. J. Between Clason's Point, Bronx, and Col- 
lege Point, Queens; vehicle fare 40$. Between Yonkers, N. Y., and Al- 
pine, N. J. 

HUDSON AND MANHATTAN RAILROAD (HUDSON TUBES) 

See pocket map of Manhattan. 

Stations at Cortlandt and Church Sts., Christopher and Greenwich Sts., 
and on 6th Ave. at 9th, i4th, i9th, 23d, 28th, and 33d St. Serves 
Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark, N. J. Fare 80 from Cortlandt St. to 
Hoboken and Jersey City, 220 to Newark; io0 from 33d St. to Hoboken 
and Jersey City, 220 to Newark. 

TAXICABS 

The general rate is 2O0 for the first 1/4 -mile or any fraction thereof, and 
50 for each additional l/^-mile. Exceptions to this rate are the meterless 
cabs, which operate at higher tariffs, and those in outlying districts of 
Queens and Staten Island where flat zone rates are charged. An extra fee 
of 5O0 is charged for trunks. Taxicabs are not permitted to carry more 
than five passengers. To recover articles lost in taxicabs, or to make a com- 
plaint, apply at the Police Department Hack Bureau, 156 Greenwich St. 

AUTOMOBILES FOR HIRE 

Numerous agencies rent automobiles with or without uniformed chauf- 
feurs (see Classified Telephone Directory). Typical rates are: without 
chauffeur, from 120 per mile; with chauffeur, from $3 per hour. 

RAILROADS 

Terminals in Manhattan are Grand Central Terminal, 42 d St., between 
Vanderbilt and Lexington Aves., and Pennsylvania Station, yth Ave., be- 
tween 3ist and 33d Sts. Other terminals are in Hoboken, Jersey City, and 
Weehawken, N. J., reached by ferry or motor coach from Manhattan. Be- 
sides ticket offices at terminals, ticket service for all railroads is available at 
City Ticket Offices, 17 John St., 4 W. 33d St., and 3 W. 4yth St. 



l6 GENERAL INFORMATION 

ATLANTIC SEACOAST LINE, Pennsylvania Station. BALTIMORE & OHIO, 
Jersey City; motor coach service to terminal (included in fare) ; coach sta- 
tions at 35 W. 33d St., 122 E. 42 d St., 15 Columbus Circle, 15 Rocke- 
feller Plaza, and Brooklyn Eagle Building, Washington and Johnson Sts., 
Brooklyn. CENTRAL OF NEW JERSEY, Jersey City; ferry at Liberty St., 
Cedar St., and W. 42d St. CHESAPEAKE & OHIO, Pennsylvania Station. 
CHICAGO, CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI & ST. Louis, Grand Central Termi- 
nal. DELAWARE & HUDSON, Grand Central Terminal. DELAWARE, LACKA- 
WANNA & WESTERN, Hoboken; ferry at Barclay St., Christopher St., and 
W. 23d St. ERIE, Jersey City; ferry at Chambers St. and W. 23d St. FLOR- 
IDA EAST COAST, Pennsylvania- Station. LEHIGH VALLEY, Pennsylvania 
Station. LONG ISLAND, Pennsylvania Station; Brooklyn terminal at Flat- 
bush and Atlantic Aves. ; Queens terminal in Jamaica. MICHIGAN CEN- 
TRAL, Grand Central Terminal. NEW JERSEY & NEW YORK, Jersey City ; 
ferry at Chambers St. and W. 23d St. NEW YORK CENTRAL, Grand Cen- 
tral Terminal. NEW YORK & LONG BRANCH, Jersey City ; ferry at Liberty 
St. and W. 23d St.; in summer, ferry at Cedar St. and W. 42d St. NEW 
YORK, NEW HAVEN & HARTFORD, Grand Central Terminal; Pittsburgh 
and Washington Divisions, Pennsylvania Station. NEW YORK, ONTARIO 
& WESTERN, Weehawken; ferry at Cortlandt St. and W. 42d St. NEW 
YORK, SUSQUEHANNA & WESTERN, Jersey City; ferry at Chambers St. 
and W. 23d St. PENNSYLVANIA, Pennsylvania Station. RICHMOND, FRED- 
ERICKSBURG & POTOMAC, Pennsylvania Station. SEABOARD AIR LINE, 
Pennsylvania Station. WEST SHORE, Weehawken; ferry at Cortlandt St. 
and W. 42d St. 

Bus LINES 

The chief bus terminals in Manhattan are: All American Bus Depot, 
246 W. 42d St. ; Capitol Greyhound Terminal, 245 W. 5Oth St. ; Con- 
solidated Bus Terminal, 203 W. 4ist St.; Dixie Bus Center, 241 W. 
42 d St. ; Gray Line Terminal, 59 W, 36th St. ; Hotel Astor Bus Terminal, 
220 W. 45th St.; Midtown Bus Terminal, 143 W. 43d St.; Pennsylvania 
Motor Coach Terminal, 242 W. 34th St. 

ADIRONDACK TRANSIT LINES ; to Adirondack Mountains ; Dixie Termi- 
nal. ALL AMERICAN LINES; transcontinental and southern points; All 
American and Consolidated terminals. ALMA LINES; to Pennsylvania; 
Dixie terminal. ASBURY PARK-NEW YORK TRANSIT; to Asbury Park; 
Dixie and Pennsylvania terminals. BEE LINE BUSES ; to Jones Beach ; Capi- 
tol terminal. BERKSHIRE-VICTORIA LINES; to New England; Capitol, 
Hotel Astor, and Pennsylvania terminals. BLUE WAY LINES; to New Eng- 
land; Dixie and Midtown terminals. BOSTON AND WORCESTER LINES; 
Boston express; Consolidated terminal. CHAMPLAIN-FRONTIER COACH 
LINES; to Boston and Montreal; Capitol, Dixie, Gray Line, Hotel Astor, 
Midtown, and Pennsylvania terminals. DANBURY INTER-URBAN LINE ; to 
Connecticut; Dixie terminal. DeCamp Bus Lines; to New Jersey; Mid- 
town terminal. EAST COAST SYSTEM ; to Baltimore and Washington ; Dixie 




NEW 



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PENNSYLVANIA 



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CONNECTICUT 



18 GENERAL INFORMATION 

terminal. EDWARDS MOTOR TRANSIT; to Pennsylvania; Dixie terminal. 
GRAY LINE; to New York and New Jersey points; Gray Line terminal. 
GREYHOUND LINES; nation-wide; Capitol, Midtown, and Pennsylvania 
terminals. HUDSON TRANSIT ; to Sullivan County, N. Y. ; Dixie terminal. 
LINCOLN TRANSIT Co.; to Atlantic City; Consolidated and Dixie termi- 
nals. MARTZ LINES; to upstate New York; Dixie and Hotel Astor termi- 
nals. MOHAWK COACH LINES; to upstate New York; Consolidated and 
Dixie terminals. NEW ENGLAND LINES; to New England; Capitol, Hotel 
Astor, and Pennsylvania terminals. OLD COLONY COACH Co.; to Provi- 
dence, R.I. ; Dixie terminal. PAN- AMERICAN LINE; Miami express and 
southern points ; Dixie and Hotel Astor terminals. PUBLIC SERVICE BUSES ; 
to Atlantic City, N. J., and Philadelphia; Hotel Astor, Midtown, and 
Pennsylvania terminals. QUAKER CITY LINES; to Philadelphia; Dixie ter- 
minal. ROCKLAND LINE; to Spring Valley and Nyack, N. Y., and other 
suburban New York points; Gray Line terminal. SAFE-WAY LINES; to 
Chicago and western points; Dixie and Hotel Astor terminals. SULLIVAN 
COUNTY HIGHWAY LINES; to Sullivan County, N. Y.; Hotel Astor ter- 
minal. YELLOW WAY Bus LINES ; to Sullivan and Ulster Counties, N. Y. ; 
Capitol, Consolidated, and Midtown terminals. 

AIRLINES 

All major airlines have ticket offices in Manhattan. The Union Airways 
Terminal, Park Ave. and 42d St., opposite Grand Central Terminal, is cen- 
tral ticket office and information center for all lines (completion expected 
late in 1939). Airline terminals are at North Beach Airport, Queens; 
Newark Airport, Newark, N. J.; and Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn 
(American Airlines to Boston). Passengers are transported (at extra 
charge) in limousines between Manhattan ticket offices and airports. 

AIRLINE OFFICES. AIRLINE FEEDER SYSTEM, INC., 420 Lexington 
Ave.; AMERICAN AIRLINES, INC., 45 Vanderbilt Ave.; BRANIFF AIR- 
WAYS, INC., 41 E. 42d St.; BOSTON-MAINE AIRWAYS, INC., 60 E. 42d 
ST.; CANADIAN-COLONIAL AIRWAYS, INC., 630 Fifth Ave.; CENTRAL 
VERMONT AIRWAYS, INC., 60 E. 420! St.; NORTHWEST AIRLINES, INC., 
18 W. 49th St.; PAN AMERICAN AIRWAYS SYSTEM, 135 E. 42d St. and 
Pennsylvania Station ; TRANSCONTINENTAL AND WESTERN AIR, INC., 70 
E. 42d St.; UNITED AIR LINES, 58 E. 42d St.; WESTERN AIR EXPRESS, 41 
E. 42d St. 

STEAMSHIP LINES 

The U.S. Passport Agency maintains offices at the Subtreasury Bldg., 
Wall and Broad Sts., and International Bldg., Fifth Ave. and 5ist St. 
Passport information is also obtainable at travel agencies. See Shipping 
News section of newspapers for time of arrival and departure of ships. 
For visits to ocean liners see page 36. (Piers noted below are North 
\Hudsori\ River, Manhattan, unless otherwise indicated.) 



GENERAL INFORMATION 19 

AFRICA. AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, 25 Broadway; AMERICAN SOUTH- 
AFRICAN LINE, 26 Beaver St. 

AROUND-THE- WORLD. AMERICAN PRESIDENT LINE, 604 Fifth 
Ave.; BARBER LINE, 17 Battery Place; BLUE FUNNEL (BOOTH) LINE, 17 
Battery Place; KERR-SILVER LINE, 17 Battery Place. 

ASIA. AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, 25 Broadway; AMERICAN PIONEER 
LINE, i Broadway. 

ATLANTIC COASTAL. CLYDE-MALLORY LINES, Pier 34, Canal St. ; 
COLONIAL LINE, Pier n, Cedar St.; EASTERN S.S. LINES, Pier 19, Murray 
St.; PAN- ATLANTIC LINE, n Rockefeller Plaza; SAVANNAH LINE, Pier 
46, Charles St.; SOUTHERN PACIFIC Co. (MORGAN LINE), 531 Fifth 
Ave.; STANDARD FRUIT & S.S. Co., 21 West St. 

AUSTRALIA. AMERICAN PIONEER LINE, i Broadway. 

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. PORT LINE, 25 Broadway. 

BERMUDA. AMERICAN-CARIBBEAN LINE, 5 Broadway; FURNESS BER- 
MUDA LINE, 34 Whitehall St. 

CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND. EASTERN S.S. LINES, Pier 19, 
Murray St. ; FURNESS RED CROSS LINE, 34 Whitehall St. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. NEW YORK & CUBA MAIL S.S. Co., Pier 13, 
Wall St., East River; STANDARD FRUIT & S.S. Co., 21 West St.; UNITED 
FRUIT Co., Pier 3, Morris St. 

EUROPE. AMERICAN EXPORT LINES, 25 Broadway; AMERICAN SCAN- 
TIC LINE, 5 Broadway; ANCHOR LINE, n Rockefeller Plaza; BELGIAN 
LINE, 10 Pearl St. ; BLACK DIAMOND LINE, 39 Broadway ; CUNARD WHITE 
STAR LINE, 25 Broadway; FRENCH LINE, 610 Fifth Ave.; GDYNIA- 
AMERICAN LINE, 32 Pearl St.; HAMBURG- AMERICAN LINE-NORTH GER- 
MAN LLOYD, 57 Broadway; HOLLAND AMERICA LINE, 29 Broadway; 
ITALIAN LINE, 626 Fifth Ave.; NORWEGIAN-AMERICA LINE, 24 State 
St.; RED STAR (BERNSTEIN) LINE, 17 Battery Place; SWEDISH AMERICAN 
LINE, 636 Fifth Ave.; UNITED STATES (AMERICAN MERCHANT) LINES, 
i Broadway. 

FAR EAST. Same lines as Around-the- World ; KOKUSAI LINE, i Broad- 
way; MAERSK LINE, 26 Broadway. 

INTER-COASTAL. LUCKENBACH S.S. Co., 120 Wall St.; McCoR- 
MICK S.S. Co., 17 Battery Place; SHEPARD S.S. Co., Pier 52, Horatio St. 

SOUTH AMERICA. AMERICAN REPUBLICS LINE, 5 Broadway; CO- 
LOMBIAN S.S. Co., 17 Battery Place; Essco-BRODiN LINE, 17 Battery 
Place; FURNESS PRINCE LINE, 34 Whitehall St.; MOOREMACK S.S. Co., 
17 Battery Place; MUNSON LINES, 67 Wall St.; ROYAL NETHERLANDS 
S.S. Co., 25 Broadway; UNITED FRUIT Co., Pier 3, Morris St.; WIL- 
HELMSEN LINE, Pier 6, Middagh St., Brooklyn. 

WEST INDIES. AMERICAN CARIBBEAN LINE, 5 Broadway; FURNESS 
WEST INDIES LINE, 34 Whitehall St.; GRACE LINE, 10 Hanover Square; 
MUNARGO LINE Co., Pier 3, Morris St. ; NEW YORK & CUBA MAIL S.S. 
Co., Pier 13, Wall St., East River; PORTO Rico LINE, foot of Wall St., 
East River; STANDARD FRUIT & S.S. Co., 21 West St.; UNITED FRUIT 
Co., Pier 3, Morris St. 



20 GENERAL INFORMATION 

YACHT AND BOAT BASINS 

Anchorages, marinas, and landing stages are available for pleasure craft. 

ANCHORAGES. About 40 anchorages in port of New York. For per- 
mits and information apply to Captain of the Port, Barge Office, Battery 
Park. LANDING STAGES. PIER 9, foot of Wall St., East River; PIER A, 
Battery Park, Hudson River. For information apply to Department of 
Docks, New York City. MARINAS. 26TH ST., East River; j^rn ST., 
96TH ST., and ENGLEWOOD, N. J., Hudson River; JACKSON'S CREEK 
BOAT BASIN, Flushing Bay, Queens, Long Island Sound. For information 
apply to General Superintendent, Department of Parks, New York City; 
for New Jersey marinas apply to Palisades Interstate Park Commission, 80 
Centre St. 

TRAFFIC RULES 

See map on pages 6-7 for main thoroughfares and highways leading in 
and out of the city. 

A booklet containing all traffic regulations is available at Police Stations. 
Traffic signs, usually in the form of a white arrow with black lettering, 
appear on all streets throughout the city. They indicate prohibited turns, 
one-way streets, no-parking areas, play streets, etc. 

SIGNAL LIGHTS, (i) Green means "go." (2) Red means "stop." 
(3) Red with green arrow means traffic facing such signal may make the 
movement indicated by arrow. (4) During all red or dark period drivers 
shall not start. (5) When light turns red drivers shall stop at nearest inter- 
secting street (applies to most main thoroughfares). 

TURNS, (i) Complete ("U") turns are forbidden in many downtown 
and midtown streets (signs indicate these areas). (2) Right and left turns 
shall be made on a green light only. (3) No turns are permitted on a red 
light except when permitted by police officer or sign. 

SPEED LIMIT, (i) 25 miles per hour except where signs permit 
greater or lesser speed. (2) 10 miles per hour when turning corner. 

ONE-WAY STREETS. Most cross-town streets in Manhattan and some 
thoroughfares in other boroughs are for one-way traffic only; signs at in- 
tersections show direction of traffic. In Manhattan even-numbered streets 
are usually for eastbound traffic and odd-numbered streets for westbound. 

PLAY STREETS. These streets are set aside for children to play in ; no 
traffic is permitted except vehicles having business in such streets. Signs at 
either end of block indicate such areas. 

PASSING STREET CARS. Vehicles are prohibited from passing street 
cars on the left except when directed by police officer, or when on a one- 
way street, or when tracks are so located as to prevent driver from passing 
on right. 

EIGHT-FOOT LAW. Vehicles must stop at least eight feet behind rear 
of street car which has stopped to receive or discharge passengers ; if safety 
isle signs are in place where street car stops, vehicles may pass between 
signs and curb. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 21 

PARKING, (i) No parking is permitted in many streets; these areas 
are marked by signs. (2) Where parking is permitted signs indicate period 
allowed. (3) No parking is permitted within fifteen feet of a fire hydrant. 
(4) No parking is permitted for more than one hour in congested busi- 
ness or residential streets, for more than two hours in a designated parking 
space, for more than three hours between 12 midnight and 7 a.m. 

WHISTLE SIGNALS. One blast means moving traffic shall stop; two 
blasts means cross traffic shall move; three or more blasts (emergency) 
means all moving traffic shall immediately stop. 

HORNS. Horns must not be sounded except to warn a person or ani- 
mal of danger. 

RESTAURANTS 

The restaurants listed below are among New York's oldest and best 
known. The city's thousands of eating places also include self-service cafe- 
terias, lunchrooms, and sandwich shops, drugstore lunch counters and soda 
fountains, and soft-drink stands that serve light snacks. Almost all hotels 
have one or more dining rooms ; the larger ones offer cocktail, dinner, and 
supper dancing (see Hotel Restaurants, page 28). For further informa- 
tion consult amusement section of newspapers, or the magazines New 
Yorker, Stage, and Cue, or restaurant information bureaus of the Sun and 
Journal and American. 

Liquor served in all restaurants, unless otherwise noted. 

AMERICAN RESTAURANTS 

Many foreign restaurants may also be found in the districts named be- 
low (see Foreign Restaurants). 

FINANCIAL DISTRICT (Battery to Chambers St.). BUSTO'S, n 
Stone St.; Wall Street clientele; lunch 75$, dinner 85$. CAFE SAVARIN, 
120 Broadway; old and distinguished; lunch from $1.00, dinner from 
$1.00 (in main dining room). CARUSO (see Chain Restaurants). CHILDS 
(see Chain Restaurants). FARRISH'S CHOP HOUSE, 42 John St.; estab- 
lished 1856; specialties: game and Southdown mutton chops; lunch a la 
carte, dinner $1.00. FRAUNCES TAVERN, Broad and Pearl Sts.; historic 
structure, erected 1719; scene of Washington's Farewell Address; Colonial 
interior; open n a.m. to 4 p.m.; lunch from 85^. HOLTZ POSTKELLER, 
233 Broadway; frequented by businessmen; lunch from 65$, dinner $1.00. 
HUYLER'S (see Chain Restaurants). LONGCHAMPS (see Chain Restau- 
rants). ROLFE'S CHOP HOUSE, 90 Fulton St.; established 1848; lunch 
550, dinner from 750. SAZARAC, 112 Greenwich 'St. ; Creole cuisine; lunch 
from 500, dinner from $1.10. SCHRAFFT'S (see Chain Restaurants). 
SCHWARTZ'S, 183 Broadway and 54 Broad St. ; French and Hungarian spe- 
cialties.; lunch a la carte, dinner from 850. SWEETS, 2 Fulton St., opposite 
Fulton Fish Market; noted for sea food since 1845; a la carte. WHYTE'S, 
145 Fulton St.; frequented by executives; specialty: sea food; lunch a la 



22 GENERAL INFORMATION 

carte, dinner $1.25. YE OLDE CHOP HOUSE, 118 Cedar St.; relic of old 
New York; established 1800; closes 8 p.m.; a la carte. YE OLDE DUTCH 
TAVERN, 15 John St.; on site of historic John Street Theater (1767- 
1798) ; German specialties; lunch a la carte, dinner 95$. 

DOWNTOWN (Chambers to 28th St.). BILLY THE OYSTERMAN, 7 E. 
2oth St.; well known for sea food; lunch from 85$, dinner $2.00. CAVA- 
NAGH'S, 258 W. 23d St.; established 1876; specialties: steaks, chops, and 
sea food; a la carte. CHILDS (see Chain Restaurants). ELIZABETH 
FLYNN'S, 405 W. 23d St.; specialties: lobster and roast prime ribs of 
beef; sidewalk cafe; lunch from 450, dinner from 8o0. GUFFANTI, 274 
7th Ave. ; established 1892; Italian- American cuisine; lunch from 550, 
dinner $1.25. KARL'S OLD RAVEN, 17 W. 27th St. ; well established; closes 
9 p.m.; lunch from 650, dinner from 850. LUCHOW'S, no E. i4th St.; 
noted place; established 1882; German- American cuisine; dinner music; 
lunch $1.00, dinner from $1.50. SCHLEIFER'S, 2 Lafayette St.; patronized 
by lawyers and judges; lunch a la carte, dinner $1.25. 

GREENWICH VILLAGE. ALICE MCCOLLISTER, 43 W. 8th St. ; lunch 
from 450, dinner from 50$. BARNEY GALLANT, 86 University PL; in- 
formal entertainment; open to 4 a.m.; dinner from $1.50. HOTEL BRE- 
VOORT, 5th Ave. and 8th St.; old landmark; French cuisine; sidewalk 
cafe; lunch from 85$, dinner from $1.25. ROCHAMBEAU, 6th Ave. and 
nth St. ; lunch 650, dinner from 85$. CHARLES, 452 6th Ave. ; well estab- 
lished; French- American cuisine; lunch a la carte, dinner from $2.00. 
DICK THE OYST^ERMAN, 65 E. 8th St. ; well known for sea food ; steaks 
and chops; a la carte. JACK DELANEY'S, 72 Grove St.; specialty: steaks; 
lunch 50^, dinner a la carte. JUMBLE SHOP, 8th and MacDougal Sts. ; 
English specialties; lunch from 35$, dinner from 65$. HOTEL LAFAYETTE, 
University PI. and 9th St.; established 1883; noted French cuisine; lunch- 
eon $1.50, dinner $2.50. LEE CHUMLEY, 86 Bedford St.; resort of the 
literati; lunch from 550, dinner 85^. LONGCHAMPS (see Chain Restau- 
rants). RENGANESCHI'S OLD PLACE, 139 W. loth St.; Italian-French- 
American cuisine; established 1898; lunch and dinner 750. ROMANY 
MARIE, 5 5 Grove St. ; quaint, frequented by the literati ; specialty : Ruma- 
nian dishes; lunch and dinner from 50^. SCHRAFFT'S (see Chain Res- 
taurants). STONEWALL INN, 51 Christopher St.; lunch from 500, dinner 
from 750. WHITE TURKEY TOWN HOUSE, i University PL; southern 
cuisine; lunch $1.00, dinner $1.25. 

34TH ST. DISTRICT (28th to 36th St.). CAMPUS, 106 W. 32d St.; 
sea food specialties; lunch from 50$, dinner from 75^. CARUSO (see 
Chain Restaurants). CHILDS (see Chain Restaurants). HUYLER'S (see 
Chain Restaurants). LONGCHAMPS (see Chain Restaurants). RIGGS, 43 W. 
33d St.; well established; lunch from 550, dinner from 90^. SCHRAFFT'S 
(see Chain Restaurants). SHINE'S, 426 7th Ave.; well established; special- 
ties: steaks and chops; a la carte. SOLOWEY, 433 7th Ave.; lunch from 
450, dinner from $1.00. 

TIMES SQUARE. ALGONQUIN HOTEL, 59 W. 44th St.; fancied as 
literary and stage rendezvous; lunch from $1.00, dinner from $1.50. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 23 

ANCHOR CAFE, i2th Ave. and 49th St., opposite Transatlantic Terminal; 
patronized by crews of ocean liners; open all night when ships are in; 
a la carte. BLUE RIBBON, 145 W. 44th St.; well established; German 
specialties ; a la carte. BRASS RAIL, 745 yth Ave. ; known for sandwiches ; 
lunch from 65^, dinner from $1.25. CARUSO (see Chain Restaurants). 
CHILDS (see Chain Restaurants). DAVE'S BLUE ROOM, 791 7th Ave.; 
music publishers and song writers meet here; sidewalk cafe; lunch from 
60$, dinner a la carte. "DiNTY" MOORE'S, 216 W. 46th St.; old-time 
Broadway favorite; specialties: corned beef and cabbage, and man-sized 
steaks and chops; a la carte. GALLAGHER'S, 228 W. 52d St.; known for 
steaks; a la carte. HUYLER'S (see Chain Restaurants). JACK DEMPSEY'S, 
8th Ave. and 50th St., and 1619 Broadway; the ex-champion plays host; 
dinner music; lunch from 65$, dinner from $1.50 (at 8th Ave. and 5Oth 
St.); lunch from 55$, dinner from $1.00 (at 1619 Broadway). JACK 
LYONS CHOP HOUSE, 102 W. 50th St.; specialties: steaks and sea food; 
lunch from 6o0, dinner a la carte. LA HIFF'S TAVERN, 156 W. 48th St.; 
theatrical crowd; specialties: steaks, chops, and sea food; a la carte. 
LINDY'S, 1626 and 1655 Broadway; rendezvous of music and sporting 
fraternity; lunch from 55$, dinner a la carte. THE LOBSTER, 145 W. 45th 
St.; lunch from 55$, shore dinner $1.60. LONGCHAMPS (see Chain Res- 
taurants). MARESI-MAZZETTI, 103 W. 49th St.; American cuisine; spe- 
cialty: French-Italian pastries; no liquor; lunch from 45^, dinner from 
85^. OYSTER BAY, 8th Ave. and 43d St.; specialties: sea food, steaks and 
chops; lunch from 50$, dinner a la carte. PIROLLE-PILLET, in W. 45th 
St.; French- American cuisine; lunch from 55$, dinner from 8o0. 
ROSOFF'S, 147 W. 43d St.; plentiful portions; lunch from 50$, dinner 
from 750. SARDI'S, 234 W. 44th St.; popular with stage folk; lunch from 
90$, dinner from $1.25. SCHRAFFT'S (see Chain Restaurants). 

MIDTOWN EAST SIDE. BILLY THE OYSTERMAN, 10 W. 47 th St.; 
well known for sea food; lunch from 85$, dinner $2.00. CAFE CONTI- 
NENTAL, 10 E. 52d St.; French-Italian- American cuisine; dinner music; 
lunch $1.00, dinner $2.00. CAFE Louis XIV, 15 W. 49th St., Rockefeller 
Center; elegant and quiet; a la carte. CAFE LOYALE, 521 5th Ave.; danc- 
ing; lunch from 75^, dinner from $1.00. CARUSO (see Chain Restau- 
rants). CAVIAR, 18 E. 49th St.; known to gourmets; French and Russian 
specialties; lunch from 75$, dinner from $1.25. CHATHAM WALK, Van- 
derbilt Ave. and 48th St. ; smart outdoor spot ; open May to Oct. ; lunch 
from $1.00, dinner from $1.50. CHESAPEAKE HOUSE OF NEW YORK, 56 
E. 4ist St.; southern cuisine; sea food specialties; lunch from 55$, dinner 
from $1.00. CHILDS (see Chain Restaurants). COLONY, 667 Madison 
Ave. ; de luxe restaurant frequented by social registerites ; a la carte. 
ELIZABETH FLYNN'S, 143 E. 49th St.; specialties: lobster and roast prime 
ribs of beef; lunch from 45^, dinner from 80$. FIRENZE, 6 W. 46th St.; 
French-Italian cuisine; dancing and entertainment nightly; lunch from 
50$, dinner from $1.00. GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL RESTAURANT, 
Grand Central Terminal, 42 d St. and Park Ave.; noted for its oyster bar; 
lunch from 6o0, dinner from $1.00. HAPSBURG, 313 E. 55th St.; selective 



24' GENERAL INFORMATION 

continental menu; zither music; lunch $1.00, dinner $2.00. HUYLER'S 
(see Chain Restaurants). JANSSEN GRAYBAR HOFBRAU, Lexington Ave. 
and 44th St. ; tavern atmosphere ; international menu ; specialty : game ; 
lunch from 65^, dinner from $1.40. LONGCHAMPS (see Chain Restau- 
rants). MANNY WOLF'S CHOP HOUSE, 3d Ave. and 49th St.; for hearty 
eaters; dancing after 10 p.m.; a la carte. HOTEL MARGUERY, Park Ave. 
and 4yth St.; noted French cuisine; lunch $1.25, dinner $2.00. PRESIDENT 
TAVERN, Lexington Ave. and 4ist St.; specialties: steaks and sea food; 
lunch a la carte, dinner from 75$. REUBEN'S, 6 E. 58th St.; celebrities 
come here for famed sandwiches; open all night; lunch from 75$, dinner 
$1.50. ROSETTA GORDON, 359 "Lexington Ave.; no liquor; closes 8:30 
p.m.; lunch 50$, dinner from 65$. SCHRAFFT'S (see Chain Restaurants). 
STOUFFER'S, 540 5th Ave. and 100 E. 42d St.; known also in Cleveland, 
Philadelphia, Detroit, and Pittsburgh; lunch from 6o0, dinner from 80$. 
THERESE WORTHINGTON GRANT, 284 Park Ave. ; southern cuisine ; lunch 
85^, dinner from $1.00. TWENTY-ONE, 21 W. 52d St.; renowned gather- 
ing place of celebrities; a la carte. WOFFINGTON COFFEE HOUSE, 14 
E. 5Oth St. ; quiet tearoom; no liquor; lunch from 50$, dinner from 75$. 

ELSEWHERE IN MANHATTAN. CLAREMONT INN, Riverside Dr. 
and 1 2 4th St.; old landmark; open April to Oct.; outdoor terrace; danc- 
ing; lunch from $1.00, dinner from $1.50. TAVERN-ON-THE-GREEN, in 
Central Park, near W. 67th St. entrance; open April to Oct.; outdoor 
terrace; dancing; lunch from 85$, dinner from $1.35; minimum $1.00 
after 9 p.m. 

CHAIN RESTAURANTS. See phone book for addresses. CARUSO; 6 
branches in Manhattan; Italian- American cuisine; lunch from 50$, dinner 
from 85^-. CHILDS; 44 branches in Manhattan; dinner and supper danc- 
ing at 1501 Broadway, 12 E. 59th St., and 2689 Broadway; lunch from 
50$, dinner from 60$. HUYLER'S; established 1876; n branches in Man- 
hattan, all with soda fountain; liquor served at 9 E. 44th St., 170 Broad- 
way, and 60 Broad St.; lunch from 35$, dinner from 6o0. LONGCHAMPS; 
12 branches in Manhattan; smart atmosphere; specialty: charcoal broiled 
steaks; sidewalk cafes at 253 Broadway, and 5th Ave. and i2th St.; a la 
carte. SCHRAFFT'S; 38 branches in metropolitan area; American home 
food; liquor served at most branches; lunch from 55$, dinner $1.35. 

FOREIGN RESTAURANTS 
Native specialties are shown following name of nationality. 

ARMENIAN. Shish kebab (pieces of lamb grilled on skewers), pilaff 
(steamed rice), patlijan (egg plant), honey and rose water pastries. BABA 
NESHAN'S, 48 E. 29th St.; no liquor; entrees from 45$; a la carte. 
BALKAN, 129 E. 27th St.; no liquor; lunch 50$, dinner from 65^. OMAR 
KHAYYAM, 103 Lexington Ave.; no liquor; lunch 55$, dinner 85^. 
PALACE D'ORIENT, 108 Lexington Ave.; entrees from 30$; a la carte. 
Other Armenian restaurants on Lexington Ave. between 23d and 34th Sts. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 25 

AUSTRIAN. Wiener schnitzel (veal cutlet), veal goulash, paprika 
chicken. HUBER'S, 245 E. 82d St.; Viennese music; lunch 6o0, dinner 
from $1.00. JOHN STROBL'S, 1256 3d Ave. ; specialty: veal goulash; lunch 
from 50$, dinner from 65$. Other Austrian restaurants in vicinity of 3d 
Ave. and 86th St. 

CHINESE. Subgum chow mein (meat and Chinese vegetables with 
fried noodles), gat young yuen war (chicken bird's nest soup), egg rolls. 
BAMBOO FOREST, 115 Waverly PL; well established; North China cui- 
sine; no liquor; lunch from 35$, dinner from 6o0. CHIN, Broadway and 
44th St.; dancing and floor show; lunch from 35$, dinner from 75$. 
HANG FAR Low, 23 Pell St.; a la carte. LUM FONG, 220 Canal St. ; lunch 
from 40$, dinner from 75$. ORIENTAL, 4 Pell St.; lunch from 35$, dinner 
from 550. PORT ARTHUR, 7 Mott St.; old Chinatown place; no liquor; 
lunch from 35^, dinner from 55$. REPUBLIC, 1485 Broadway; no liquor; 
lunch from 30$, dinner from 45$. RUBY Foo's, 161 E. 54th St. and 240 
W. 52d St.; lunch from 65^, dinner from $1.25. YAT BUN SING, 16 Mott 
St. ; no liquor ; lunch from 30$, dinner from 50$. Other Chinese restau- 
rants on Pell, Mott, and Doyers Sts. 

EAST INDIAN. Curries, chutneys, copra (fried cocoanut), tamarind 
wine. BENGAL TIGER, 336 W. 58th St.; Hindu instrumental music; no 
liquor; lunch 6o0, dinner 75$. CEYLON INDIA INN, 148 W. 49th St.; 
no liquor; lunch 50^, dinner from 75^. EAST INDIA CURRY SHOP, 117 E. 
6oth St.; dishes of India and Burma; no liquor; lunch from 65$, dinner 
from $1.00. RAJAH, 237 W. 48th St.; no liquor; lunch from 6o0, dinner 
from 750. 

ENGLISH. Beef and kidney pies, mutton chops, puddings. ENGLISH 
TEA ROOM, 18 W. 48th St.; no liquor; lunch from 40$, dinner from 75$. 
KEEN'S ENGLISH CHOP HOUSE, 72 W. 36th St.; old-time theatrical 
atmosphere; specialty: English mutton chops; lunch from 65^, dinner 
from $1.25. 

FRENCH. Onion soup, frogs' legs, bouillabaisse (fish stew), crepes 
suzettes (light pancakes prepared with burning brandy), pastries. BONAT'S, 
330 W. 3ist St.; large and popular; lunch and dinner from 850 (includes 
glass of beer or wine, or a cocktail). CAFE CHAMBORD, 803 3d Ave.; 
Provincial specialties; dinner music; lunch from $1.00, dinner from $2.00. 
CAFE TROUVILLE, 112 E. 52d St.; informal entertainment; lunch $1.25, 
dinner $2.00. CRILLON, 277 Park Ave.; attractive surroundings; lunch 
from $1.00, dinner from $1.50. DIVAN PARISIEN, 17 E. 45th St.; many 
unusual dishes; a la carte. GASTON A LA BONNE SOUPE, 44 W. 55th St.; 
lunch from 50$, dinner from 75^. HENRI, 15 E. 52d St.; noted cuisine 
and wine cellar; lunch $1.50, dinner from $1.75. JANET OF FRANCE, 237 
W. 52d St.; intimate atmosphere; lunch 65$, dinner from $1.00. LE 
POISSONNIER, 121 E. 52d St.; specialties: sea food and game; entertain- 
ment after 10 p.m.; lunch $1.25, dinner $2.00. PETITPAS, 317 W. 29th 
St.; established 1895; lunch from 50$, dinner from 90$. VOISIN, 375 
Park Ave. ; distinguished and expensive ; a la carte. 



26 GENERAL INFORMATION 

FRENCH-HUNGARIAN. DUBONNET, 5 E. 45th St.; international 
cuisine; lunch a la carte, dinner $1.00. 

FRENCH-ITALIAN. GOLDEN EAGLE, 62 W. 9th St. ; old Greenwich 
Village place; lunch from 6o0, dinner from $1.00. 

GERMAN. Sauerbraten, kartofielkloesse (sweet-sour pot roast and 
potato dumplings), potato pancakes, apple cake, German beers. FRANZIS- 
KANER, 1591 2d Ave.; good selection; a la carte. HANS JAEGER'S, Lexing- 
ton Ave. and 85th St.; music; lunch from 65$, dinner from $1.00. IVAN 
FRANK'S HOFBRAU, 1680 Broadway; dancing and Bavarian entertain- 
ment; dinner from 85$, minimum 75$ week-nights. ORIGINAL MAXL'S, 
243 E. 86th St.; singing waiters"; opens 3 p.m.; dinner $1.00. RUDI AND 
MAXL'S BRAUHAUS, 239 E. 86th St.; dancing and entertainment nightly; 
a la carte. ZUM BRAUHAUS, 207 E. 54th St.; established 1890; lunch 45$, 
dinner $1.00. Other German restaurants in vicinity of 3d Ave. and 86th St. 

GREEK. Balkan cheeses, fried squid, boiled dandelions. APOLLO, 259 
W. 42 d St.; many native dishes; a la carte. 

HUNGARIAN. Goulash, roast goose, apple strudel, Magyar wines. 
BUDAPEST, 117 W. 48th St.; dancing and floor show nightly; lunch 6o0, 
dinner from $1.00. 

IRISH. Irish bacon, ham, beer. DUBLIN HOUSE, 225 W. 79th St.; a la 
carte. 

ITALIAN. Spaghetti in various styles, ravioli (small, meat-filled dump- 
lings), minestrone (thick vegetable soup), veal scallopine (veal cooked 
with wine). AMALFI, 115 W. 47th St.; Neapolitan specialties; lunch from 
50$, dinner from $1.00. BALILLA, 132 Bleecker St.; northern Italian 
cuisine; beer and wine; entrees from 25^; a la carte. BARBETTA, 321 W. 
46th St.; well established; a la carte. BAT, 138 MacDougal St.; wine and 
beer; lunch a la carte, dinner $1.00. CASA JOHNNY, 135 W. i5th St.; 
lunch from 65$, dinner from $1.00. DEL PEZZO, 100 W. 4Oth St. and 
33 W. 47th St.; specialty: sea food; a la carte. ENRICO AND PAGLIERI, 66 
W. nth St.; continental menu: lunch 8 50, dinner $1.25. GRAND TICINO, 
228 Thompson St. ; inexpensive Greenwich Village place ; a la carte. GROTTA 
AZZURRA INN, 387 Broome St.; in Little Italy; wine and beer; specialty: 
lobster and chicken; a la carte. LEONE'S, 239 W. 48th St.; patronized by 
celebrities; opens 5 p.m.; dinner from $1.75, minimum $2.00. MARTA, 75 
Washington PI. ; in Greenwich Village ; popular with artists and writers ; 
lunch from 75$, dinner $1.00. MONETA'S, 32 Mulberry St.; praised by 
gourmets; northern Italian cuisine; a la carte. PETER'S BACKYARD, 64 
W. loth St.; well-established Greenwich Village spot; lunch 75^, dinner 
$1.00. RED DEVIL, in W. 48th St.; specialty: shrimps alia Fra Diavolo; 
a la carte. RESTAURANT DEI LAVORATORI, 92 West Houston St. ; inexpen- 
sive Bohemian rendezvous; a la carte. VILLANOVA, 106 W. 46th St.; well 
established; a la carte. ZUCCA'S, 118 W. 49th St.; specialty: chicken cutlet 
Milanese; lunch from $1.00, dinner from $1.50. Other Italian restaurants 
on Bleecker and Mulberry Sts., and in vicinity of 1st Ave. and 116th St. 

JAPANESE. Suki-yaki (pan-cooked meat and vegetables), sake (rice 
wine). DARUMA, 1145 6th Ave.; well established; wine and beer; lunch 



GENERAL INFORMATION 2J 

6o0, dinner from $1.00. MIYAKO, 340 W. 58th St.; wine and beer; lunch 
from 750, dinner from $1.00. SUEHIRO, 35 E. 29th St.; no liquor; lunch 
65$, dinner 75$. 

JEWISH. Gejiilte fish (spiced fish cakes, served cold) ; sour cream 
mixed with fruit, vegetables, or pot cheese; chopped liver, usually mixed 
with fried onions and chicken fat; kiigel (potato or noodle pudding); 
noodles and cottage cheese. CAFE ROYAL, 2d Ave. and i2th St.; meeting 
place of Jewish actors, writers, and intellectuals; sidewalk cafe; Hungar- 
ian-American cuisine; lunch 65^, dinner from 75^. MOSKOWITZ AND 
LUPOWITZ, 40 2d Ave.; Rumanian cuisine; dancing and continental en- 
tertainment; lunch 550, dinner from 850. POLIACOFF'S, 121 W. 45th St.; 
kosher dishes; lunch from 6o0, dinner from 85$. RATNER'S, 138 Delancey 
St. ; dairy and fish dishes only ; beer ; a la carte. Other Jewish restaurants in 
vicinity of Delancey St., and on 2d Ave. north of Houston St. 

LATIN- AMERICAN. Sopa de camarones (shrimp chowder Peru), 
picadillo (chopped steak with capers Cuba), cazuela de ave (chicken 
stew Chile), as ado criollo (Gaucho beef roast Argentine). CAFE 
LATINO, 15 Barrow St.; Pan-American menu; tango and rhumba music; 
opens 5 p.m. ; dinner from 750. Other Latin-American restaurants in vicin- 
ity of 5th Ave. and 110th St. 

MEXICAN. Tortilla (corn pancake), tacos (rolled tortilla with meat), 
tamale (ground corn roll with meat), mole (gravy of ground pumpkin 
seeds, chocolate, chili, and native herbs and spices, served with chicken). 
EL CHARRO, 4 Charles St.; Mexican and Spanish dishes; opens 5 p.m.; 
no liquor; dinner 75^. MEXICAN GARDENS, 137 Waver ly PI. ; opens 5 p.m. ; 
no liquor; dinner from 65$. XOCHITL, 146 W. 46th St.; complete Mexi- 
can menu; lunch and dinner from 40$. Other Mexican restaurants in 
vicinity of 5th Ave. and 110th St. 

POLISH. Bigos (cabbage and meat), tripe, sausage. POLISH NATIONAL 
HOME RESTAURANT, 19 St. Marks PL; folk and dance music Sat. and 
Sun. ; lunch 40$, dinner 6o0. 

RUSSIAN. Shashlik (pieces of lamb roasted on spits), pirojok (small 
meat pie), borscht (beet soup), blln (rolled pancake, usually filled with 
cottage cheese and covered with sour cream). KAVKAZ, 332 E. i4th St.; 
no liquor; lunch from 30$, dinner a la carte. RUSSIAN TEA ROOM, 150 
W. 57th St.; specialties: mushrooms a la Russe, borscht, and vodka; lunch 
from 60$, dinner from 8o0. Other Russian restaurants in vicinity of 2d 
Ave. and 12th St. 

SPANISH. Arroz con polio (yellow rice with chicken), bacalao guisado 
(salt codfish), ameljas frescas (stewed clams). FORNOS, 236 W. 52d St.; 
specialty: par go al homo a la Habanera (baked red snapper) ; a la carte. 
JAI-ALAI, 82 Bank St.; native Spanish (Basque) and Latin-American 
dishes; lunch 50$, dinner 75$. Other Spanish restaurants in vicinity of 
Cherry and Roosevelt Sts. 

SWISS. CHALET SUISSE, 45 W. 52d St.; specialty: minced veal a la 
Suisse; lunch from 60$, dinner from 85$. 

SYRIAN. Yabrak (stuffed grapevine leaves), bamiah (okra and lamb). 



28 GENERAL INFORMATION 

SON OF THE SHEIK, 77 Washington St.; no liquor; lunch 55$, dinner 65$. 

SWEDISH. Smorgasbord (buffet appetizer assorted meat, fish, and 
cheese delicacies), biff och lok (broiled tenderloin), Swedish pancakes 
(dessert). CASTLEHOLM, 344 W. 57th St.; dancing; lunch from 6o0, din- 
ner from $1.25. GARBO, 148 E. 48th St.; dancing and floor show; opens 
5 p.m.; dinner from $1.25. GRIPSHOLM, 324 E. 57th St.; lunch from 75^, 
dinner from $1.25. STOCKHOLM, 27 W. 5ist St.; dinner music; lunch 
from 750, dinner $1.50. SWEDISH RATHSKELLER, 3d Ave. and 52d St.; 
lunch from 6o0, dinner $1.25. 

TURKISH. A jem pilav (rice with braised meat), fas soul? pzaz (white 
bean salad), Turkish coffee (black and thick). CONSTANTINOPLE, 9 
W. 52d St.; specialty: Turkish wine and liquor; lunch from 50$, dinner 
from 85$. 

HOTEL RESTAURANTS WITH DINNER AND SUPPER DANCING. 

Prices shown below are for weeknights; they are usually higher on 
Saturday and holidays. 

AMBASSADOR, Trianon Room, Park Ave. and 5ist St.; formal dress 
required; dinner from $3.00; minimum $2.00. ASTOR, Broadway Cocktail 
Lounge, Broadway and 45th St. ; dinner a la carte ; no cover or minimum. 
BELMONT PLAZA, Glass Hat, Lexington Ave. and 49th St.; dinner from 
$1.25; minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. Fri. ; $2.00 Sat. BILTMORE, Bow- 
man Room, Madison Ave. and 43d St.; dinner a la carte; cover $1.00 
after 10 p.m. BOSSERT, Marine Roof, 98 Montague St., Brooklyn; view 
of harbor; dinner from $1.25 ; no minimum Mon. to Thurs. COMMODORE, 
Palm Room, Lexington Ave. and 42d St.; dinner from $2.00; cover 75$ 
after 10 p.m. DELMONICO, Road to Mandalay, Park Ave. and 59th St.; 
dinner a la carte; minimum $1.50. EDISON, Green Room, 228 W. 47th 
St.; dinner from $1.50; minimum $1.50. ESSEX HOUSE, Casino-on-the- 
Park, 160 Central Park S. ; dinner from $1.75; minimum $1.50 after 10 
p.m. GOVERNOR CLINTON, The Grill, 7th Ave. and 3ist St.; dinner from 
$1.25; minimum $1.00 after 10 p.m. LEXINGTON, Hawaiian Room, Lex- 
ington Ave. and 48th St.; dinner from $1.75; cover 75$ after 10 p.m. 
LINCOLN, Blue Room, 8th Ave. and 44th St.; dinner from $1.00; cover 
50$. McALPiN, Marine Grill, Broadway and 34th St.; dinner from $1.50; 
no minimum Mon. to Thurs. NEW YORKER, Terrace Room, 8th Ave. and 
34th St.; dinner from $2.00; cover 75$ after 10 p.m. PARK CENTRAL, 
Cocoanut Grove, 7th Ave. and 55th St.; dinner from $1.50; cover 75$. 
PARK LANE, Queen Elizabeth Room, Park Ave. and 48th St. ; dinner from 
$2.50; minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. PENNSYLVANIA, Madhattan Room, 
7th Ave. and 33d St.; dinner from $2.00; cover 75$ after 10 p.m. PLAZA, 
Persian Room, 5th Ave. and 59th St.; formal dress required; dinner 
$3.50; cover $1.50 after 10 p.m. ROOSEVELT, The Grill, Madison Ave. 
and 45th St.; dinner $2.50; cover $1.00 after 9:30 p.m. ST. GEORGE, 
Bermuda Terrace, Clark and Hicks Sts., Brooklyn; dinner from $1.00; no 



GENERAL INFORMATION 29 

minimum Mon. to Thurs. ST. MORITZ, Restaurant de la Paix, 50 Central 
Park S. ; dinner $2.00; no minimum Mon. to Fri. ST. REGIS, 5th Ave. and 
55th St.; Iridium Room: formal dress required; dinner $3.50; cover 
$1.50 after 10 p.m.; La Maisonette Russe: dinner a la carte; cover $1.50 
after 10 p.m. SAVOY PLAZA, Cafe Lounge, 5th Ave. and 59th St.; cocktail 
and supper dancing only; a la carte; minimum $2.00. SHELTON, Shelton 
Corner, Lexington Ave. and 49th St.; dinner a la carte; minimum $1.00 
after 10 p.m. TAFT, The Grill, yth Ave. and 5oth St.; dinner from $1.00; 
no minimum. TOWERS, Penguin Room, 25 Clark St., Brooklyn; view of 
harbor; dinner from $1.00. WALDORF-ASTORIA, Empire Room, Park Ave. 
and 49th St.; dinner from $1.75; cover $1.50 after 10:30 p.m. WARWICK, 
Raleigh Room, 6th Ave. and 54th St.; cocktail and supper dancing only; 
a la carte; minimum $1.00 after 10:30 p.m. 

SHOPPING 

For Manhattan shopping areas and description see map on next page. 
The chief shopping areas in other boroughs are: Fulton St. from Flatbush 
Ave. to Borough Hall, Brooklyn; Jamaica Ave. in the vicinity of i68th St., 
Queens; i49th St. and 3d Ave., the Bronx. 

AMUSEMENTS 

For information and current attractions apply to individual theater or 
night club, or consult amusement section of newspapers or the magazines 
New Yorker, Stage, and Cue. Amusement places legitimate and motion 
picture theaters, night clubs, and concert halls are concentrated in the 
Times Square area, 42d St. to 59th St. between 5th and 8th Aves. (see 
map on page 169). 

LEGITIMATE THEATERS 

There is no fixed theatrical season, although most new plays open in 
the fall. The opera season begins in November with the opening of the 
Metropolitan Opera House. Theater tickets are available at many places 
other than box offices. Leading hotels have theater ticket agencies. Other 
agencies are located in the Times Square area, most of the well-established 
ones charging 75$ per ticket above the box-office price for their services. 
Telegraph companies will reserve and deliver tickets at a small charge. 
Traditional matinee days are Wednesday and Saturday; some matinees are 
held Thursday. The average price range for tickets is $1.00 to $3.00. 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE THEATERS. Since some of these theaters 
do not advertise their attractions, it is advisable to phone the individual 
theater for all information. Chinese: NEW CHINA THEATER, 75 East 
Broadway. French: FRENCH THEATER OF NEW YORK, Barbizon-Plaza, 
6th Ave. and 58th St. Italian: GIGLIO PARKWAY THEATER, 3d Ave. and 
i72d St., the Bronx; PEOPLES THEATER, 201 Bowery; Sun. only. Yiddish: 




SHOPPING SECTIONS 

OF 

MANHATTAN 

KEY 

1. Spanish and Latin American 

Shops and Market 

2. Italian Shops and Market 

3. German Shops 

4. Automobile Row 

5. Antiques, Interior Decora- 

tions, and Apparel 

6. Books, Antiques, and Curios 

7. Art Galleries, Antiques, and 

Pianos 

8. International Shops 

9. Fifth Avenue Fashion Center 

10. Men's Wear, Antiques, and 

Specialty Shops 

11. Foreign and High Priced Cars, 

Boats and Sea-Going Equip- 
ment 

12. Antiques and Curios, Office 

Furniture and Equipment 

13. Popular Price Specialty Shops 

14. Popular Price Department 

Stores 

15. Floor Coverings and Draperies 

16. Men's and Boys' Apparel 

17. Low Price Retail Center 

18. Auction Rooms 

19. Art Shops 

20. Secondhand Book Market and 

a Department Store 

21. Russian Shops 

22. 23, 24. Italian Pushcart 

Markets 

25. Hardware and Machinery 

26. Jewish and Italian Shopping 

Center 

27. Chinese Shops 

28. Washington Market, Imported 

Foods, Fireworks, Radios, 
Garden Supplies, Ecclesias- 
tical Goods, and Jewelry 

29. Syrian, Turkish, and Armenian 

Shops 



GENERAL INFORMATION 31 

NATIONAL, East Houston St. and 2d Ave. ; PUBLIC THEATER, 2d Ave. and 
4th St.; SECOND AVENUE THEATER, 35 ad Ave.; YIDDISH ART THEATER, 
yth Ave. and 59th St. 

MOTION-PICTURE THEATERS 

Admission prices to most Times Square theaters are lowest before i p.m. 
("early-bird" matinees) and are raised at i p.m. and again at 6 p.m. 
Many places regularly give midnight performances; almost all do on 
Saturday. A few remain open until 3:30 a.m. Brooklyn is the only other 
borough that has a large film theater center ; it is in the vicinity of Fulton 
St. and Flatbush Ave. 

MOTION-PICTURE HOUSES WITH STAGE SHOWS. PARA- 
MOUNT, yth Ave. and 43d St.; popular orchestra and specialty artists. 
RADIO CITY Music HALL, Rockefeller Center, 6th Ave. and 5oth St.; 
elaborate revue, symphony orchestra. ROXY, yth Ave. and 5Oth St. ; variety 
revue. STATE, Broadway and 45th St. ; vaudeville. STRAND, Broadway and 
4yth St. ; popular orchestra and specialty artists. 

NEWSREEL THEATERS. One-hour program of newsreels and short 
subjects. GRAND CENTRAL, Grand Central Terminal, Lexington Ave. and 
42d St.; EMBASSY, yth Ave. and 4yth St.; ROCKEFELLER CENTER, 33 W. 
5oth St.; SEVENTY-SECOND STREET, 2089 Broadway; TRANS-LUX, Broad- 
way and 49th St., and Madison Ave. and 6oth St. 

FOREIGN-LANGUAGE FILM THEATERS. Chinese: NEW CHAT- 
HAM SQUARE, 5 Chatham Square (after n p.m.). French: CINEMA 49, 
235 W. 49th St.; FIFTH AVENUE PLAYHOUSE, 66 5th Ave. near i2th St.; 
FILMARTE, 202 W. 58th St. German: EIGHTY-SIXTH STREET CASINO, 
210 E. 86th St. Hungarian: MODERN PLAYHOUSE, 3d Ave. and 8ist St. 
International: APOLLO, 223 W. 42d St.; FIFTY-FIFTH STREET PLAY- 
HOUSE, 154 W. 55th St.; LITTLE CARNEGIE PLAYHOUSE, 146 W. 5yth 
St.; WORLD, 153 W. 49th St. Russian: CAMEO, 138 W. 42d St. 
Spanish: TEATRO HISPANO, 5th Ave. and n6th St.; TEATRO LATINO, 
5th Ave. and noth St. Swedish: FORTY-EIGHTH STREET, 24y W. 48th 
St. Yiddish: CLINTON, 80 Clinton St. 

NIGHT CLUBS, 

Prices shown below are for weeknights; they are usually higher on 
Saturday and holidays. 

BAL TABARIN, 225 W. 46th St.; Montmarte atmosphere; dinner from 
$1.00. BEN MARDEN'S RIVIERA, Fort Lee, N. ]., across George Washing- 
ton Bridge; on Palisades overlooking the Hudson; summertime favorite; 
revue; minimum $3.50. BILL'S GAY NINETIES, 5y E. 54th St.; intimate 
old-time atmosphere and entertainment; a la carte; no minimum. CAFE 
LATINO, 15 Barrow St., Greenwich Village (see Latin- American Restau- 
rants). CASA MANANA, yth Ave. and 5Oth St.; lavish theater- restaurant ; 



32 GENERAL INFORMATION 

vaudeville show; minimum $2.50, including dinner; admission to mezza- 
nine for vaudeville and dancing, $1.00. CASINO RUSSE, 157 W. 56th St.; 
Gypsy music; Russian cuisine; dinner $1.50; minimum $1.50. CHEZ 
FIREHOUSE, 141 E. 55th St.; intimate doings; dinner $1.50; minimum 
$1.50 after n p.m. CLUB GAUCHO, SuMivan and W. 3d Sts., Greenwich 
Village; Argentine atmosphere; minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. COTTON 
CLUB, Broadway and 48th St.; Harlem on Times Square; dinner $1.50; 
minimum $2.00 after 10 p.m. DIAMOND HORSESHOE, 235 W. 46th St.; 
elaborate show; dinner from $1.50; minimum $1.00. DICKIE WELLS, 169 
W. i33d St., Harlem; early-morning revelry; minimum $1.50. EIGHTEEN 
CLUB, 20 W. 52d St.; intimate; minimum $2.50. EL CHICO, 80 Grove 
St., Greenwich Village; Spanish entertainment; dinner from $1.50; mini- 
mum $1.50. EL MOROCCO, 154 E. 54th St.; a cafe society resort; formal 
dress advisable; dinner $3.00; cover $2.00 after 10 p.m. FAMOUS DOOR, 
66 W. 52d St.; swing music; minimum $1.50. GLORIA PALAST, 210 E. 
86th St.; in German quarter; continental entertainment; minimum 50$. 
GREENWICH VILLAGE CASINO, 5 Sheridan Sq. ; well established ; dinner 
from $1.25; minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. HAVANA-MADRID, Broadway 
and 5ist St.; Cuban-Spanish revue; dinner from $1.00; minimum $1.50 
after 10 p.m. HICKORY HOUSE, 144 W. 52d St.; swing music; no danc- 
ing; menu features steaks and chops; a la carte; no minimum. JIMMY 
KELLY'S, 181 Sullivan St., Greenwich Village; vaudeville- style show; din- 
ner from $1.25; minimum $2.00 after 10 p.m. KIT KAT CLUB, 152 E. 
55th St.; Harlem-style show; dinner from $1.50; minimum $1.50 after 
10 p.m. LEON AND EDDIE'S, 33 W. 52d St.; madcap fun; dinner from 
$1.50; minimum $2.50; admission to show only, $1.00. MIDNIGHT SUN, 
Broadway and 5oth St.; show features girls; Swedish food; dinner $1.50; 
minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. MON PARIS, 142 E. 53d St.; smart set 
rendezvous; dinner $2.50. NICK'S, yth Ave. and zoth St., Greenwich 
Village; swing music; 'dinner from $1.00. NUT CLUB, yth Ave. and 
Grove St., Greenwich Village; zany entertainment; dinner $1.25; mini- 
mum $1.50 after 10 p.m. ONYX CLUB, 62 W. 52d St.; swing music; 
minimum $1.50. PARADISE, Broadway and 49th St.; extravagant girl- 
show; dinner $1.50; minimum $1.50. PEPPER POT INN, 146 W. 4th St., 
Greenwich Village; well established; dinner $1.00; minimum $1.00. 
PLANTATION, Lenox Ave. and i42d St., Harlem; lively music and en- 
tertainment; minimum $1.50 after 10 p.m. QUEEN MARY, 40 E. 58th 
St.; Swedish food; intimate revue; dinner from $1.50. RAINBOW GRILL, 
RCA Building, Rockefeller Center; on 65th floor; informal; dinner 
$2.00; cover 50^ after 10 p.m. RAINBOW ROOM, RCA Building, Rocke- 
feller Center; on 65th floor; fashionable following; formal dress re- 
quired; dinner $3.50; cover $1.50 after 10 p.m. RUSSIAN KRETCHMA, 
i4th St. and 2d Ave.; well-established, colorful place; dinner from $1.00; 
minimum $1.25 after 10 p.m. SMALL'S PARADISE, yth Ave. and i35th St.; 
pioneer Harlem spot; dinner $1.25. STORK CLUB, 3 E. 53d St.; a cafe 
society resort; dinner from $2.45; cover $2.00 after 10 p.m. VERSAILLES, 
151 E. 5th St.; features big-name stars; dinner a la carte; cover $1.50 



GENERAL INFORMATION 33 

after 10 p.m. VILLAGE BARN, 52 W. 8th St.; features rustic dances and 
games; dinner from $1.25; minimum $1.25. WIVEL, 254 W. 54th St.; 
Swedish food; floor show; dinner from $1.50. 

Music 

INDOOR CONCERTS AND RECITALS. BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF 
Music, Lafayette Ave. and Ashland PL, Brooklyn; solo, chamber, choral, 
symphonic music; Oct. to April. BROOKLYN MUSEUM, Eastern Parkway 
and Washington Ave., Brooklyn; solo, chamber, choral, symphonic music 
all year; admission free. CARNEGIE HALL, yth Ave. and 5yth St.; solo, 
chamber, choral, symphonic music; Oct. to May. McMiLLiN ACADEMIC 
THEATRE, Columbia University, Broadway and n6th St.; solo, chamber, 
choral music ; Oct. to April. METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, 5th Ave. 
and 82d St.; symphony concerts, Sat., Jan. and March; admission free. 
STEINWAY CONCERT HALL, 113 W. 5yth St.; solo and chamber music; 
Oct. to June. TOWN HALL, 123 W. 43d St.; solo, chamber, choral, sym- 
phonic music; Sept. to April; occasional evenings in May and June. 
WASHINGTON IRVING HIGH SCHOOL, Irving PI. and 1 6th St.; solo and 
chamber music; Oct. to April. 

OUTDOOR CONCERTS AND RECITALS. CENTRAL PARK, on the 
Mall ; Goldman Band concerts ; Sun., Mon., Wed., and Fri., June to Aug. ; 
admission free. LEWISOHN STADIUM, Amsterdam Ave. and i38th St.; 
New York Philharmonic Orchestra and soloists; June to Aug. PROSPECT 
PARK, Brooklyn ; Goldman Band concerts ; Tues., Thurs., and Sat., June to 
Aug. ; admission free. 

INDOOR OPERA. HIPPODROME, 6th Ave. and 43d St.; week-ends, 
Nov. to March. METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE, Broadway and 39th St. ; 
Nov. to March. 

OUTDOOR OPERA. JONES BEACH STADIUM, Jones Beach, Long 
Island ; July to Sept. TRIBOROUGH STADIUM, Randall's Island ; July to Sept. 

WPA MUSIC. Information may be obtained from Federal Music 
Project, 254 W. 54th St. Free Indoor Concerts: AMERICAN MUSEUM OF 
NATURAL HISTORY, Central Park W. and 79th St. ; BROOKLYN MUSEUM, 
Eastern Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn ; COLLEGE OF THE CITY 
OF NEW YORK, Amsterdam Ave. and i3yth St.; MUSEUM OF THE CITY 
OF NEW YORK, 5th Ave. and i03d St. Free Outdoor Concerts: CENTRAL 
PARK; FOREST PARK, Queens; PROSPECT PARK, Brooklyn; June to Sept. 
Operetta: Outdoor performances given in various neighborhood locations; 
information from Federal Theatre Project, 71 W. 23d St. 

SPORTS 

The chief center for indoor sports of all kinds is Madison Square 
Garden, 8th Ave. and 5oth St. There are a number of smaller places, 
mostly boxing and wrestling arenas, in Manhattan and the other bor- 
oughs. Various outdoor sports are held at Baker Field, Columbia Uni- 



34 GENERAL INFORMATION 

versity; Lewisohn Stadium, City College; Randall's Island Stadium; and 
at the baseball parks. 

BASEBALL PARKS. Season, April to Oct.; admission 55^ to $2.20. 
EBBETS FIELD (Brooklyn Dodgers), Bedford Ave. and Sullivan PL, 
Brooklyn; POLO GROUNDS (N. Y. Giants), 8th Ave. and 15 5th St.; 
YANKEE STADIUM (N. Y. Yankees), River Ave. and i6ist St., the Bronx. 

RACE TRACKS. General admission $2.50, women $1.75; clubhouse 
$5.00, women $3.50. AQUEDUCT (Queens County Jockey Club), Aque- 
duct, Queens; meetings June and Sept. BELMONT PARK (Westchester 
Racing Association), Belmont Park, Long Island; meetings May and Sept. 
EMPIRE CITY (Empire City Racing Association), Yonkers, N. Y. ; meet- 
ings July and Oct. JAMAICA (Metropolitan Jockey Club), Jamaica, 
Queens; meetings April and Oct. 

BOAT TRIPS 

Steamers operate in summer only. 

ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS AND NORTH JERSEY SHORE. SANDY 
HOOK STEAMERS from W. 42d St. and Cedar St.; four boats daily; fare 
May and June 91$ one way, $1.25 round trip (slightly higher July and 
Aug.). 

CONEY ISLAND. STEAMERS HOOK MOUNTAIN, DEEPWATER, and 
FAVORITE from Battery n a.m., i, 2:30, 4, 5:30, and 7 p.m. daily; for 
fare see newspapers. 

HUDSON RIVER. HUDSON RIVER DAY LINE to Yonkers, Indian 
Point, Bear Mountain, West Point, Newburgh, Poughkeepsie, Kingston 
Point, Catskills, Hudson, and Albany, from W. 42d St. and W. 12 5th St.; 
three to six boats daily; fare weekdays $1.00 round trip to Indian Point 
and Bear Mountain, and $1.25 to West Point (higher fare to other stops). 
STEAMER BEAR MOUNTAIN to Bear Mountain from Battery 9:15 a.m. 
weekdays, 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. Sun.; for fare see newspapers. STEAMERS 
SHOWBOAT and CLERMONT to Bear Mountain from Battery 8:15 p.m. 
daily ; dining, dancing, and floor show ; for fare see newspapers. 

LONG ISLAND SOUND. STEAMERS WAUKETA and WESTCHESTER 
to Playland, Rye Beach, from Battery 9:15 a.m., 10:15 a.m., 2:15 p.m., 
and 8:30 p.m. daily; fare, adults $1.00 round trip, children 50^. STEAMER 
MAYFLOWER to Pleasure Beach and Bridgeport, Conn., from Battery 10 a.m. 
daily; fare Mon. and Fri. $1.00 round trip, Tues., Wed., Thurs., and 
Sat. $1.25 round trip, Sun. $1.50 round trip. STEAMER BELLE ISLAND to 
Roton Point, Conn., from Battery 10 a.m. daily; fare Mon. to Fri. $1.00 
round trip, Sat., Sun., and holidays $1.25 round trip. 

AMUSEMENT PARKS 

All parks contain rides, roller coasters, etc. ; special features are noted 
below. Amusements are also available at all beach resorts ( see page 39)' 



GENERAL INFORMATION 35 

LUNA PARK, Coney Island, Brooklyn; largest in city; entertainment, 
dancing, pool bathing; general admission 10$, individual admission to 
most amusements. PALISADES AMUSEMENT PARK, Palisades, N. J. ; oppo- 
site W. 1 2 5th St.; entertainment, dancing, pool bathing; general admis- 
sion io0, individual admission to most amusements. PLAYLAND, Rye 
Beach (Long Island Sound), N. Y. ; leading Westchester County park; 
entertainment, dancing, pool and surf bathing; individual admission to 
each amusement. ROCKAWAYS' PLAYLAND, Rockaway Beach, Queens ; pool 
and ocean bathing; individual admission to each amusement. STEEPLE- 
CHASE PARK, Coney Island, Brooklyn; features many funny amusements; 
dancing, pool and ocean bathing; admission 50$ (includes all rides). 

SIGHTSEEING 

BUS AND LIMOUSINE TOURS. A number of companies providing 
such tours are located in the Times Square area (see Classified Telephone 
Directory under "Sightseeing" for addresses). Rates begin at 50$. The 
services vary from trips to specific points, such as Chinatown and Coney 
Island, to all-inclusive tours of the city. Private passenger cars with guide 
are also available at rates from $5 hourly per person. 

STUDY-GROUP TOURS. Among the study-group organizations which 
conduct combined sightseeing and educational trips are Reconciliation 
Trips, 503 W. i22d St., and Sloane House (Y.M.C.A.) Tours, 356 W. 
34th St. 

OBSERVATION TOWERS. BANK OF THE MANHATTAN Co. BLDG., 
40 Wall St., yist floor; open daily 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; admission free. 
CHANIN BLDG., 122 E. 42d St., 54th floor; open daily 9 a.m. to n p.m.; 
adults 550, children 25$. CHRYSLER BLDG., 405 Lexington Ave., yist floor; 
open daily 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; adults 55^, children under 15, 25$, under 8 
free. EMPIRE STATE BLDG., 350 5th Ave., 86th and io2d floors; open daily 
8 a.m. to i a.m.; adults $1.10, children under 16, 25$. RCA BLDG., 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, yoth floor; open daily 10 a.m. to midnight; adults 40$, 
children under 16, 200. SIXTY WALL TOWER, 70 Pine St., 66th floor; 
open weekdays n a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; Sat. n a.m. to 1:30 p.m.; adults 
40^, children under n, free. WOOLWORTH BLDG., 233 Broadway, 6oth 
floor; open daily 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; adults 55$, children 25^. 

AIRPLANE FLIGHTS. Sightseeing planes operate from Floyd Bennett 
Field, Brooklyn, and Roosevelt Field, Mineola, Long Island. Typical rates: 
$1.50 for 5 -minute trip; $3 for 15 -minute trip over the Harbor and Lower 
Manhattan; $5 for 3O-minute trip over Manhattan. Agents for airplane 
flights include: Airlines Ticket Agency, 41 E. 42d St.; Thomas Cook and 
Son Wagon-Lits, Inc., 587 5th Ave. 

SIGHTSEEING BOATS. Around Manhattan: YACHTS MARILDA, 
MARILDA II, and MANHATTAN from W. 42d St.; 10 a.m., 2 p.m., and 
7:30 p.m. daily, April to Nov.; fare $2. YACHT TOURIST from Battery 
10:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. daily, May to Oct.; fare $1.50. Harbor: 
GOVERNORS ISLAND; ferry from South Ferry Barge Office at frequent in- 



36 GENERAL INFORMATION 

tervals; fare free. STATUE OF LIBERTY (Bedloe Island) boat from Battery 
every hour; every half -hour in summer; fare 350; admission to statue io0. 
STATEN ISLAND FERRY; from South Ferry every 15 minutes; round-trip 
fare io0. 

OCEAN LINERS. All the large transatlantic liners may be visited when 
they are in port. Apply at the pier for pass. See Shipping News section of 
newspapers for time of arrival. The AQUITANIA and QUEEN MARY 
(Cunard White Star Line) dock at W. 5oth St. ; the ILE DE FRANCE and 
NORMANDIE (French Line), at W. 48th St.; the CONTE DI SAVOIA and 
REX (Italian Line), at W. 52d St.; the NIEUW AMSTERDAM (Holland- 
American Line), at 5th St. Pier, Hoboken, N. J. 

RADIO STUDIOS. Apply to sponsor in care of broadcasting company 
for admission to commercial broadcasts; apply to broadcasting company 
for admission to sustaining programs. COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM 
(WABC), 485 Madison Ave.; Radio Theater No. i, 242 W. 45th St.; 
Radio Theater No. 2, 251 W. 45th St.; Radio Theater No. 3, 1697 Broad- 
way. MUTUAL BROADCASTING SYSTEM (WOR), 1440 Broadway; radio 
theater: New Amsterdam Theater Roof, 214 W. 42d St. NATIONAL 
BROADCASTING Co. (WEAF and WJZ), 30 Rockefeller Plaza; studio tour 
(not including sponsored broadcasts) 5 50, television tour 55$, combina- 
tion 90^. 

MUSEUMS 

ART MUSEUMS. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS, 633 
W. i55th St.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. and holidays 2-5 
p.m., Nov. to May; admission free. BACHE COLLECTION, 814 5th Ave.: 
open Tues., Wed., Thurs., and Sat. n a.m. to 4 p.m.; closed July, Aug., 
and Sept. ; admission by card on application to the custodian. BROOKLYN 
CHILDREN'S MUSEUM, Brooklyn Ave. and Park PI., Brooklyn; open 
weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 2-5 p.m.; admission free. BROOKLYN 
MUSEUM, Eastern Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn; open week- 
days 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 2-6 p.m.; admission free, except Mon. and 
Fri. (adults 25$, children io0). CHILDREN'S ART CENTER OF UNIVERSITY 
SETTLEMENT, 184 Eldridge St.; open weekdays 3-5:30 p.m., 7:30-9 p.m., 
Oct. to June; admission free. THE CLOISTERS, branch of Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, Fort Tryon Park; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 
1-6 p.m., closed Christmas morning; admission free, except Mon. and 
Fri. (250). COOPER UNION MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION, 
Cooper Square and 7th St. ; open weekdays 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ; Oct. to May, 
6:30-9:30 p.m., except Sat. and Sun.; closed July and Aug.; admission 
free. FRICK COLLECTION, i E. 70th St.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
Sun. and holidays 1-5 p.m.; closed Mon., Decoration Day, July 4, month 
of August, and Christmas; admission free. HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMER- 
ICA, Broadway and 15 5th St.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Sun. 
and holidays 1-5 p.m.; closed Thanksgiving and Christmas; admission free. 
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, 5th Ave. at 82d St.; open weekdays 



GENERAL INFORMATION 37 

10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 1-6 p.m., legal holidays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
closed Christmas morning; admission free, except Mon. and Fri. (25$). 
MUSEUM OF LIVING ART, 100 Washington Sq. ; open Mon. to Fri. 9 a.m. 
to 8 p.m., Sat. 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; admission free. MUSEUM OF MODERN 
ART, ii W. 53d St.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., Sun. 12 m. to 6 
p.m., closed Decoration Day, July 4, Labor Day, Christmas; admission, 
adults 25$, children 10$, free on Mon. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 5th 
Ave. and 42d St.; open weekdays 9 a.m. to 10 p.m., Sun. i-io p.m.; 
admission free. PIERPONT MORGAN LIBRARY, 33 E. 36th St.; Main 
Building open Tues. and Thurs. 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., Sat. 10 a.m. to i p.m., 
Exhibition Room open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; closed July i to Sept. 
7; admission free. WHITNEY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART, 10 W. 8th 
St. ; open Tues. to Fri. 1-5 p.m., Sat. and Sun. 2-6 p.m., closed Mon. and 
midsummer months, reopens about Sept. 1 5 ; admission free. 

HISTORICAL MUSEUMS. CONFERENCE OR BILLOPP HOUSE, foot of 
Hylan Blvd., Tottenville, Staten Island; open daily, except Mon., 10 a.m. 
to 6 p.m. May to Oct.; 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Nov. to April; admission free. 
DYCKMAN HOME, Broadway and 204th St.; open 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 
and Mon. 1-5 p.m.; admission free. FRAUNCES TAVERN, Broad and Pearl 
Sts. ; open daily, except Sun., 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ; admission free. GRACIE 
MANSION, Carl Schurz Park, East End Ave. and E. 89th St. ; open daily, 
except Mon., n a.m. to 5 p.m.; admission free. HAMILTON GRANGE, 287 
Convent Ave. ; open Mon. to Fri. 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sat. 10 a.m. to i p.m., 
closed Sun. and holidays ; admission free. JUMEL MANSION, Jumel Terrace 
and W. i6oth St.; open daily, except Mon., 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.; admission 
free. KING MANSION, Jamaica Ave. and 15 3d St., Jamaica, Queens; open 
Mon., Wed., and Sat. 1-4:30 p.m.; admission free. LEFFERTS HOMESTEAD, 
Prospect Park, near entrance at Flatbush and Ocean Aves., Brooklyn; open 
Mon., Wed., and Fri. 1-5 p.m.; admission free. LONG ISLAND HIS- 
TORICAL SOCIETY, Pierrepont and Clinton Sts., Brooklyn; open weekdays 
9 a.m. to 6 p.m. ; closed Fri. and Sat., July i to Sept. 3 ; admission free. 
MASONIC MUSEUM, 71 W. 23d St.; open weekdays 9 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.; 
admission free. MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, HEYE FOUNDA- 
TION, Broadway at i55th St.; open weekdays 2-5 p.m., closed July and 
Aug.; admission free. MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCI- 
ETY, Broadway between 15 5th and i56th Sts.; open daily 2-5 p.m., closed 
during summer months; admission free. MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK, 5th Ave. at i04th St. ; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 
1-5 p.m., closed Tues.; admission free, except Mon. (25^). MUSEUM OF 
JEWISH CEREMONIAL AND HISTORICAL OBJECTS OF THE JEWISH 
SEMINARY OF AMERICA, Broadway and i22d St.; open daily 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m., except Fri. and Sat.; admission free. MUSEUM OF THE STATEN 
ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Court and Center Sts., Richmond, Staten 
Island; open Mon. to Fri. 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sat., Sun., and holidays 2-5 
p.m. ; admission free. NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Central Park W. 
between 76th and 77th Sts.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 1-5 
p.m., closed during Aug. and on holidays; admission free. OLD MER- 



38 GENERAL INFORMATION 

CHANT'S HOUSE, 29 E. 4th St.; open weekdays n a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 
and holidays 1-5 p.m.; admission 50$. POE COTTAGE, Grand Concourse 
and Kmgsbridge Rd., the Bronx; open weekdays, except Mon., 10 a.m. to 
i p.m. and 2-5 p.m., Sun. 1-5 p.m.; admission free. ROOSEVELT HOUSE, 
28 E. 20th St.; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. and holidays 
1-5 p.m., closed Mon., Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, New Year's; admis- 
sion free, except Wed. and Fri. (25$). VAN CORTLANDT HOUSE, Van 
Cortlandt Park, near Broadway and 242d St. entrance, the Bronx; open 
Tues., Wed., Fri., and Sat. 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Thurs. and Sun. 12 m. to 
5 p.m.; admission free, except Thurs. (25$). 

SCIENCE MUSEUMS. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, Broad- 
way at 1 56th St; open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., closed Sat., Sun. and 
holidays from June to Aug. ; admission free. AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NAT- 
URAL HISTORY, Central Park W. and 79th St. ; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 
5 p.m., Sun. 1-5 p.m.; admission free. HAYDEN PLANETARIUM, Central 
Park W. and 8ist St.; performances: Mon. to Fri., 2, 3:30, 8:30 p.m.; 
Sat, ii a.m., 1-5 p.m., 8:30 p.m., Sun. and holidays, 2-5 p.m., 8:30 p.m.; 
admission adults 25$ (evenings 35$), children 15$. NEW YORK MUSEUM 
OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY, RCA Bldg., Rockefeller Center; open daily 
10 a.m. to 10 p.m.; admission, adults 25$, children 10$. STATEN ISLAND 
INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Stuyvesant PI. and Wall St., St. 
George, S. I. ; open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. 2-5 p.m. ; admission 
free. 

BOTANICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUAR- 
IUM. BROOKLYN BOTANICAL GARDENS, 1000 Washington Ave., Brook- 
lyn; open weekdays 8 a.m. to dusk, Sun. and holidays, 10 a.m. to dusk; 
library open Mon. to Fri. 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sat. 9 a.m. to 12 m., closed 
Sat, July 15 to Sept. 15; admission free. NEW YORK AQUARIUM, Battery 
Park; open daily 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. (winter 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.) ; admission 
free. NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDENS, Bronx Park ; open daily, March i 
to Nov. i, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Nov. i to March i, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; 
admission free. NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK, Bronx Park; open daily 
10 a.m. to dusk; admission free, except Mon. and Thurs. (adults 25^, 
children 15$). PROSPECT PARK Zoo, Flatbush Ave. near Ocean Ave., 
Brooklyn; open weekdays 11 a.m. to 6 p.m., Sat., Sun., and holidays 10 
a.m. to 6 p.m. ; closes one hour earlier in winter ; admission free. STATEN 
ISLAND ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Barrett Park Zoo, West New Brighton, 
S. I.; open weekdays, summer, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sun. and holidays 10 
a.m. to 6 p.m.; winter, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Sat., Sun., and holidays 10 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. ; admission free. 

RECREATION 

For facilities other than those listed below see classified telephone di- 
rectory 

BADMINTON. Rates 50^ and up. COAST ARTILLERY BRIGADE AR- 
MORY, 120 W. 62d St.; yiST INFANTRY ARMORY, Park Ave. and 34th 



GENERAL INFORMATION 39 

St.; 930 INFANTRY BRIGADE ARMORY, 68 Lexington Ave. ; 165 REGI- 
MENT INFANTRY ARMORY, Lexington Ave. and 25th St. 

BEACHES. Rates given are for locker or dressing room. ATLANTIC 
BEACH, Long Island; varying rates. ASBURY PARK, N. J.; rates 50^ and 
up. BRIGHTON BEACH, Brooklyn; rates 50$ and up. CONEY ISLAND, 
Brooklyn; rates 15$ and up. JACOB Rus PARK, Queens; rates 25^ and up. 
JONES BEACH, Wantagh, Long Island; rates 35$ and up. LONG BEACH, 
Long Island; varying rates. LONG BRANCH, N. J. ; rates 50$ and up. MAN- 
HATTAN BEACH, Brooklyn; rates 50$ and up. MIDLAND BEACH, Staten 
Island; rates 50$ and up. ORCHARD BEACH, Pelham Bay Park, the Bronx; 
rates 25$ and up. ROCKAWAY BEACH, Queens; rates 25^ and up. RYE 
BEACH (Long Island Sound), N. Y. ; rates 15$ and up. SOUTH BEACH, 
Staten Island; rates 50$ and up. 

BICYCLING. Bicycle paths in Central Park; Ocean Parkway and Pros- 
pect Park, Brooklyn; Van Cortlandt and Bronx Parks, the Bronx; Forest 
and Kissena Parks, Queens ; Silver Lake Park, Staten Island. Bicycle agen- 
cies: Rates 25^ per hour and up. BICYCLE CLUB, 15 W. looth St.; BI- 
CYCLE CLUB OF AMERICA, 2 W. 6ist St. ; JACK'S CYCLING SCHOOL, 104 
W. 8ist St. For bicycle agencies in other boroughs see classified telephone 
directory. 

BILLIARDS. Rates 40$ per hour and up. CAPITOL HEALTH CENTER, 
1680 Broadway; DOYLE BILLIARD ROOMS, 1456 Broadway; PARK Row 
BOWLING ACADEMY, 31 Park Row; RADIO CITY BOWLING AND BILLIARDS, 
1267 6th Ave.; STRAND BILLIARD ACADEMY, 1579 Broadway; JOSEPH 
THUM, 1241 Broadway. 

BOATING. Motor Boats: SHEEPSHEAD BAY, Brooklyn; rates 25$ per 
ride and up. Rowboats: CENTRAL PARK; BRONX, PELHAM BAY, and VAN 
CORTLANDT PARKS, the Bronx; PROSPECT PARK, Brooklyn; KISSENA 
PARK, Queens; rates 25$ per hour. 

BOWLING. Rates 20$ per game and up. CAPITOL HEALTH CENTER, 
1680 Broadway; CHELSEA BOWLING CENTER, 244 W. i4th St.; GRAND 
CENTRAL BOWLING ALLEYS, 40 E. 40th St.; RADIO CITY BOWLING AL- 
LEYS, 1267 6th Ave.; JOSEPH THUM, 1241 Broadway; TUDOR CITY REC- 
REATION CENTER, 239 E. 42d St. 

CAMPING AND HIKING. For information apply to State Park Com- 
mission, 80 Centre St. The large city parks, such as Bronx Park, Central 
Park, Forest Park (Queens), La Tourette Park (Staten Island), and Pros- 
pect Park (Brooklyn), have long winding paths through attractive wooded 
areas; hiking trails are found in most state parkways on Long Island and 
in Westchester County. Camping: FIRE ISLAND, ferry from Babylon, L. L; 
HARRIMAN PARK, north of Bear Mountain Section; HECKSCHER PARK, 
Great South Bay, near East-Islip, L. I. ; POUNDRIDGE RESERVATION, Cross 
River, Westchester County. Hiking: HEMPSTEAD LAKE, Southern State 
Parkway, L. L; HUNTER'S ISLAND, along Long Island Sound, the Bronx; 
OLD CROTON AQUEDUCT, Van Cortlandt Park, the Bronx; PALISADES 
INTERSTATE PARK, Palisades, N. J. ; VALLEY STREAM STATE PARK, L. I. 

FISHING. Apply for information to the New York State Conservation 



40 GENERAL INFORMATION 

Department, Fish and Game Division, 80 Centre St. Consult the daily 
newspapers for latest information as to boat schedules and kinds of fish 
running. Deep sea fishing boats leave Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn, in season 
at 6, 7, and 8 a.m. daily; rates $2.50. Rowboats and outboard motors are 
rented at Sheepshead Bay; Broad Channel, Jamaica Bay, Queens; City 
Island, the Bronx; rates 25$ an hour and up. 

GOLF. Municipal courses: Rates, season permit, Mon. to Fri. inclusive, 
$5.00; single round permit, Mon. to Fri. inclusive, 75$; Sat., Sun., and 
holidays, $1.00. All the courses have 18 holes. DYKER BEACH PARK, 86th 
St. and 7th Ave., Brooklyn; FOREST PARK, Park Lane South and Forest 
Parkway, Queens; LA TOURETTE PARK, Forest Hill Road and London 
Road, Staten Island ; VAN CORTLANDT PARK, 242d St. and Broadway, the 
Bronx. Private courses (open to public) : BAYSIDE GOLF LINKS, Little Bay- 
side Road, Bayside, Queens; rates $1.50 and up. IDLEWILD BEACH GOLF 
CLUB, Idlewild St., Laurelton, Queens; rates 75$ and up. MOHANSIC 
GOLF COURSE, Westchester County Park; rates 75^ and up. TYSEN 
MANOR LINKS, New Dorp Lane and Hylan Blvd., New Dorp, Staten 
Island; rates 50$ and up. 

HORSEBACK RIDING. Bridle paths in Central Park; Prospect Park 
and Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn ; Pelham Bay and Van Cortlandt Parks and 
Pelham Parkway, the Bronx ; Forest and Kissena Parks, Queens. Other paths 
in state parks and parkways on Long Island and in Westchester County 
(further information from State Park Commission, 80 Centre St.). Riding 
Academies: Rates $1.00 per hour and up. AYLWARD RIDING ACADEMY, 32 
W. 67th St.; CENTRAL PARK RIDING SCHOOL, 924 7th Ave.; CORRIGAN 
RIDING ACADEMY, 56 W. 66th St.; EQUESTRIAN CLUB, 31 W. 98th St. 
For riding academies in other boroughs see classified telephone directory. 

HUNTING. For information regarding State hunting areas and game 
laws, apply to the New York State Conservation Department, Fish and 
Game Division, 80 Centre St. 

ICE SKATING. Indoor: Rates 3 50 and up. GAY BLADES ICE CASINO, 
239 W. 52d St.; ICE CLUB, 5oth St. and 8th Ave. Outdoor: CENTRAL 
PARK; BRONX, CROTONA, and VAN CORTLANDT PARKS, the Bronx; 
PROSPECT PARK, Brooklyn; KISSENA and NEW BROOKEVILLE PARKS, 
Queens; SILVER LAKE PARK, Staten Island; WOODLANDS LAKE, West- 
Chester County. For other indoor rinks see classified telephone directory. 

ROLLER SKATING. Rates 25^ and up. PARK AVENUE AUDITORIUM, 
101 E. i07th St.; SKATELAND, 53 W. 66th St. For rinks in other bor- 
oughs see classified telephone directory. 

SWIMMING POOLS. Indoor: Rates 40^ and up. PARK CENTRAL HO- 
TEL, 7th Ave. and 55th St.; ST. GEORGE HOTEL, 51 Clark St., Brooklyn; 
SHELTON HOTEL, 525 Lexington Ave.; WEST SIDE Y.M.C.A., 5 W. 63d 
St. Outdoor: Rates 50^ and up. CASCADES POOL, i34th St. and Broadway; 
JEROME CASCADES, Jerome Ave. and i68th St., the Bronx; LUNA PARK, 
Coney Island, Brooklyn; PALISADES AMUSEMENT PARK, Palisades, N. J.; 
STARLIGHT PARK, E. i77th St. and Devoe Ave., the Bronx; STEEPLE- 



GENERAL INFORMATION 41 

CHASE PARK, Coney Island, Brooklyn. For other swimming pools see clas- 
sified telephone directory. 

TABLE TENNIS. Rates 40^ an hour and up. BROADWAY TABLE TEN- 
NIS COURTS, 1721 Broadway; PLAZA TABLE TENNIS CENTER, 2542 
Broadway; STRAND BILLIARD ACADEMY, 1579 Broadway. 

TENNIS. Indoor: JACK BURNS TENNIS COURTS, 244th Coast Artillery 
Armory, 125 W. i4th St.; rates $1.00 and up. TUDOR CITY TENNIS CLUB, 
i65th Regiment Armory, 25th St. and Lexington Ave. ; rates 50$ and up. 
Outdoor, municipal: Rates $3.00 a season; apply to Department of Parks. 
CENTRAL PARK; BRONX, CROTONA, and VAN CORTLANDT PARKS, the 
Bronx; PROSPECT PARK, Brooklyn; FOREST and KISSENA PARKS, 
Queens; SILVER LAKE PARK, Staten Island; and numerous other parks. 
Outdoor, private: Rates 50$ an hour and up. RIPS TENNIS COURTS, 300 
W. 96th St.; TUDOR CITY TENNIS CLUB, 4ist St. and Prospect PI. For 
nonmunicipal tennis courts in other boroughs see classified telephone di- 
rectory. 

OUT-OF-TOWN AND FOREIGN 
NEWSPAPERS 

Available for reading at New York Public Library, 5th Ave. and 42 d 
St., and for sale at following newspaper stands: northeast corner 6th Ave. 
and 32d St.; northwest corner 6th Ave. and 33d St. (out-of-town papers 
only) ; southeast corner 6th Ave. and 42d St.; Times Building subway en- 
trance, 7th Ave. and 42 d St. (foreign papers only) ; north end of Times 
Building (out-of-town papers only) ; Broadway and 46th St., in the plaza; 
Union News Stand, lower concourse, International Building, 630 5th Ave. 




Annual Events 



Events listed here have been selected for their wide general interest. 
Obviously, the summary presents but a partial review of the city's social, 
civic, sports, and patriotic events. Specific details and exact dates may be 
obtained from newspapers or the organizations concerned. (Note: (t nfd" 
means no fixed date.) 

JANUARY nfd American Water Color Society Exhibition 

nfd Chinese New Year Celebration in Chinatown 
nfd Feast Day (Italian) of St. Francis de Sales in 

E. 1 2th St. between 2d and 3d Aves. 
nfd Firemen's Benevolent Association Ball, Madison 

Square Garden 

nfd Hollywood Ice Revue, Madison Square Garden 
nfd National Motor Boat Show, Grand Central Palace 
nfd National Poultry Show 

nfd Policemen's Benevolent Association Ball, Madi- 
son Square Garden 

FEBRUARY 5 Feast of St. Agatha Street Festival, Little Italy, 

between Baxter and Canal Sts. 
nfd Carnation Show, Rockefeller Center 
nfd Milrose A. A. Track Meet, Madison Square 

Garden 
nfd National A.A.U. Indoor Track Championship 

Meet, Madison Square Garden 

nfd National Sportsmen's Show, Grand Central Palace 
nfd New York Athletic Club Indoor Track Meet, 

Madison Square Garden 
nfd Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, Madison 

Square Garden 

MARCH 17 St. Patrick's Day Parade, 5th Ave. 

nfd Golden Gloves Amateur Boxing Tournament of 

Champions, Madison Square Garden 
nfd Intercollegiate A. A. A. A. Indoor Track Meet, 

Madison Square Garden 

nfd International Flower Show, Grand Central Palace 
42 



ANNUAL EVENTS 43 

nfd Knights of Columbus Track Meet, Madison 

Square Garden 
nfd Milk Fund Ice Carnival, Madison Square Garden 

6 Army Day Parade, 5th Ave. 

nfd Baseball Season opens at Polo Grounds, Yankee 
Stadium and Ebbets Field 

nfd Beaux Arts Ball 

nfd Father Divine's Peace Parade in Harlem 

nfd Fifth Avenue Easter Parade 

nfd General Grant Birthday Exercises at Tomb 

nfd Society of Independent Artists' Exhibition, Grand 
Central Palace 

nfd Jamaica Race Meet opens, 22 days 

nfd Lamb's Club Gambol 

nfd Pratt Institute (Brooklyn) Art Exhibition 

nfd Ringling Brothers, Barnum and Bailey Circus, 
Madison Square Garden 

nfd Westbury Horticultural Society Show 

nfd Women's National Exposition of Arts and In- 
dustries, Grand Central Palace 

i May Day Labor Parade 
10 Rumanians celebrate Independence Day 
15 Hungarian Independence Day Parade in honor of 

Kossuth, from E. 82d St. to Riverside Drive and 

98th St. 

nfd Belmont Park Race Meet opens, 24 days 
nfd Coney Island and other shore resorts open 
nfd Intercollegiate A.A.A.A. Outdoor Track and 

Field Meet, Randall's Island 
nfd Model Boat Races, Central Park 
nfd New York Athletic Club Spring Games, Travers 

Island 

nfd Outdoor Art Exhibition, Washington Sq. 
nfd Tulip Show, American Museum of Natural 

History 

5 Danes celebrate Constitution Day 

nfd Aqueduct Race Meet opens, 21 days 

nfd Lewisohn Stadium Symphonic Concerts, June to 

Aug., Amsterdam Ave. and i38th St. 

nfd Madonna delle Grazie Festival in Cherry St. 

nfd Outdoor Rose Show, Pelham Parkway, the Bronx 

nfd Summer Operetta Season opens at Jones Beach, 

nfd Swedish Festival and Folk Dances in Van Cort- 
landt and other parks 



44 ANNUAL EVENTS 

nfd Sweet Pea and Rose Show 



JULY I 5' I 7 Celebration in honor of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel 

in Italian Harlem 
nfd Empire City (Yonkers) Race Meet opens, 24 

days 
nfd Polo at Meadowbrook, L.I., and Governors 

Island 
nfd World Labor Committee's Track and Field Meet 

at Randall's Island Stadium 

AUGUST nfd Fete 'of San Rocco in all Italian Quarters 



SEPTEMBER 

ist Mon. 
J 9 

22 

nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 

nfd 



OCTOBER 



nfd 

nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 

nfd 
nfd 

nfd 
nfd 

nfd 

nfd 
nfd 



Labor Day Celebrations - 

Feast of San Gannaro in Little Italy, Mulberry St. 
Hungarian Grape and Folk Festival in National 
Bohemian Park near 69th St., Queens 
Aqueduct Race Meet opens, 1 5 days 
American Ballads Contest 
Belmont Park Race Meet opens, 15 days 
Camera Art Exhibit, Rockefeller Center 
Coney Island Mardi Gras 
Dahlia Show 

National Electrical and Radio Exposition 
National Graphic Arts Exposition, Grand Cen- 
tral Palace 

New York Athletic Club Fall Games, Travers 
Island 
Outdoor Art Exhibition, Washington Sq. 

American Indian Day Ceremonies 
Auto Races at Roosevelt (L.I.) Raceway 
Drug Trade Exposition 

Empire City (Yonkers) Race Meet opens, 12 
days 

Jamaica Race Meet opens, 12 days 
Model Yacht Regatta, Conservatory Lake, Cen- 
tral Park 

National Business Show 

National Funeral Directors' Exhibition, Grand 
Central Palace 

Philharmonic Symphony Society Concert Season 
opens, Carnegie Hall 

St. Francis of Assisi Festival in 38th St. between 
8th and 9th Aves. 

World's Championship R.odeo, Madison Square 
Garden 



NOVEMBER nfd 
nfd 

nfd 
nfd 

nfd 

nfd 

nfd 
nfd 
nfd 
nfd 



DECEMBER 



nfd 
nfd 

nfd 
nfd 
nfd 



ANNUAL EVENTS 45 

Chrysanthemum Show, New York Botanical Gar- 
den, Bronx Park 

Horticultural Society Exhibition, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History 
Ice Follies, Madison Square Garden 
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Balloon Parade, Broad- 
way, noth St. to 34th St. 

Metropolitan Grand Opera Season opens, Nov. 
to March 

National Academy of Arts and Letters Exhibit 
National Automobile Show, Grand Central Palace 
National Horse Show, Madison Square Garden 
National Hotel Exposition, Grand Central Palace 
Poultry Industries Show, Port Authority Building 

Chemical Industries Show, Grand Central Palace 
International Salon of Photography, Rockefeller 
Center 

International Ski Meet and Winter Sports Carni- 
val, Madison Square Garderi 
National Exposition of Power and Mechanical 
Engineering, Grand Central Palace 
Press Photographers' Exhibition 




Manhattan 




Manhattan 



J.HE liner steams through the Narrows (the Normandie, Queen Mary, 
Bremen; the dozen greatest ships of the world, sailing from Liverpool, 
Southampton, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Havre, Genoa, head for that narrow 
strip of water and steam dexterously through it, turn precisely toward the 
slender island toward the north). Out of an early morning fog come 
brooding, ghostly calls. A dark blotch appears, takes form an anchored 
tramp: coffee from Brazil, rubber from Sumatra, bananas from Costa 
Rica and slowly disappears; another liner is suddenly moving along- 
side, also steaming northward, and then dissolves into the white nothing. 
Invisible ferries scuttle, tooting, across the harbor. 

The Limited, bearing a sight-seeing family (there are 115,000 of them 
daily from Waco, Mobile, Los Angeles, Kansas City), the literary 
genius of Aurora High School, the prettiest actress in the Burlington 
dramatic club, a farm boy hoping to start for Wall Street, and a mechanic 
with an idea, pounds across the state of New Jersey. They cross the 
meadows, see far off the great wall of the city and dive into the darkness 
beneath Jersey City and the Hudson River. Or perhaps the train comes 
from Winnipeg, Gary, Erie, and follows the Hudson toward its mouth 
or crosses the Hell Gate from New England. 

In the city, night workers, their footsteps sharp, irregular on the quiet 
streets, return home. A water wagon rolls by. Bands are still playing in 
half a dozen night clubs. In the Upper East Side, in the Upper West 

49 



50 MANHATTAN 

Side, in the Gashouse and Hell's Kitchen, in Chelsea and Greenwich 
Village, the faint and broken ringing of alarm clocks comes to the empty 
street. Another day, another dollar. Don't forget to tell the laundryman 
not to starch my shirts! Slowly the air between the buildings fills with 
light. 

The crowd increases with the light, a black moving mass, workbound; 
a million pale faces; a clicking of heels that swells to one sustained roll 
of thunder. The roar of the city shoots up to encompass it. A rivet over- 
head pierces the sultry sky; another shakes the earth. He took me to the 
Paradise. He's been to college. We came home in a taxi. The voice is 
lost in the rumble of an elevated train jammed with work-going clerks 
gazing at a woman leaning out of the window at 124:!! Street, 12 3d, 

I22d, I2ISC, I2Oth . . . 

The morning sun picks out an apartment house, a cigar store, streams 
through the dusty windows of a loft. The racket swells with the light. 
These shoes are killing me, she said, taking the cover off the typewriter. 
Main Central is up to jorty-six. Did you read about the earthquake? 
Looms, shears, jackhammers, trolley cars, voices, add to the din. And in 
the quieter streets the hawker with the pushcart moves slowly by. 
Badabadabada O Gee! Hawkers of vegetables, plants, fruit. Badabadabada 
O Gee! 

In half a million rooming-house rooms the call penetrates ill-fitting 
windows. The boy who came to be a writer is waked in his mid-town 
room and dresses for his shift on the elevator. In Chelsea the girl who 
came to be an actress launders her stockings. The boy who was going to 
Wall Street sprawls on his bed, wincing as each cry cuts into his dream 
of the smell of fresh hay and warm milk. A deep blast rises, drowning 
the sound of hawkers, children, automobiles. The Conte di Savoia steams 
up the river; wine from Capri, olive oil from Spain, figs and dates from 
North Africa. 

Shouting screaming kids fill the streets, playing baseball, football, 
hopscotch, jump-rope, dodging swift-moving trucks and taxis. Down 
Fifth Avenue marches a May Day parade sixty thousand strong. Solidarity 
forever, solidarity forever, the portentous tramp, tramp of regimented 
feet; slogans called, banners flying. Up lower Broadway an open car 
moves slowly through the yelling throng and on its pulled-back hood, 
laughing, waving into the snowstorm that flutters thickly downward from 
high-up windows, sits a returned aviator, explorer, movie actor, champion 
chess player, the first man to walk the length of Manhattan backwards. 

The late afternoon sunshine glitters on windshields, chauffeurs' caps, 



INTRODUCTION 51 

on Parisian gowns, Chinese ivories, ebony from Africa, Mexican pottery, 
and furs from Siberia. Driving back from Southampton in the fall we 
used to sit up in front with the chauffeur. Aunt Helen had a staircase in 
her house that cost fifteen thousand dollars. He died right in the middle 
of the depression. Smells of cooking fill the corridors. The lights go on 
in a loft on a side street, in an office on the thirty-fourth floor of the 
Empire State Building, along the streets and the bridges. The tugs are 
riding with port and starboard lights. 

The sun leaves the highest of the city's buildings. There are no steam- 
ship blasts but loud now are the hoarse pipings of tugs, the yap of ferries 
with homeward-bound crowds. I've worked overtime three nights in a 
row. Two martinis. Did you see the way he looked at me when I put on 
my hat and walked out? The light burns out at the foot of 23d Street, 
22d Street, 2ist, 2Oth, ipth . . . 

The light leaves the flat roofs of the ghetto along the river. Here is 
the greatest city of the Jews. Here, all unconscious of exoticism, thousands 
of persons celebrate bar mitzvah, sit shiva for their dead. Streets littered 
with papers, bags of garbage shooting out of windows, lines of pushcarts 
selling food, neckties, pictures, bric-a-brac. 

East Side, West Side, all around the town, boys and girls together 
hanging around shop doors; whispering, giggling in tenement hallways, 
in courtyards smelling of backhouses. The world's most populous Italian 
city outside of Italy spends the sultry night on doorsteps, standing, sprawl- 
ing on sidewalks of broken cement. So with the world's third Irish city. 
The world's Negro metropolis is the most crowded of all. Home has 
scarcely room to hang one's hat, which instead is hung in churches, club 
rooms, rent parties. And in the Upper West Side fifty thousand families 
will be reading the newspaper by the sitting room table; fifty thousand 
Upper East Side families will be finishing a quiet game of bridge or sit- 
ting at the library table; and among the thousand already asleep on the 
Lower East Side will be a large number of old timers who have never seen 
Broadway. 

With final blast, quivering over the harbor, a liner moves out of its 
docks; southern cotton for Liverpool, northwestern wheat for Bordeaux, 
Kansas City hides for Brazil, Virginia tobacco, Massachusetts shoes, Chi- 
cago canned meats, lumber from the Pacific Coast. 

The ship moves along the path of a thousand living steamers, past the 
ghosts of ten thousand sailing vessels and steamships; vessels that 
brought the Dutch, the English and their goods, Negro slaves, West In- 
dian rum, British textiles, Australian wool, German machinery. 



52 MANHATTAN 

Night draws to a close. Bands are still playing behind the closed doors 
of half a dozen night clubs. The river wind lifts yesterday's paper the 
length of a block. A water wagon rolls by. A solitary taxi tracks the wet 
paving. Goodnight darling, goodnight, goodnight. 

A blast from the far-off Narrows whispers through the dead streets; 
spruce from Norway, asbestos from South Africa, German, Austrian, 
Polish, Italian refugees. 

FACTS ABOUT MANHATTAN 

It's a tight little island, i2l/ 2 miles at its longest, 2l/ 2 at its widest, 
covering 14,211 acres, rising from its surrounding rivers to a height of 
about 268 feet near Fort Tryon Park, and standing at about latitude 
40 N., longitude 73 W. 1,688,769 persons were listed as living here in 
1938. 217,976,370 commuters in 1936 traveled into and out of town by 
way of Manhattan's 20 bridges, 18 tunnels, and 17 ferries, while an aver- 
age of 115,000 noncommuting visitors are said to pour into town daily 
through the great railway terminals. For the accommodation of these 
visitors there are 326 hotels which have a total assessed valuation of 
$479>7935o- 

Transportation within Manhattan is furnished by rapid transit systems 
of subways and elevated lines (owned by the city but operated both 
municipally and privately), which in the year ending June 30, 1938, 
carried 1,038,499,269 passengers; by street surface railways, which in the 
same year carried 70,936,650 passengers; by busses carrying 312,426,522 
and by the 6,893 taxicabs licensed to operate in the borough in 1938. 

Two districts, the first lying between the Battery and City Hall, the 
second bounded by Twenty-third and Fiftieth Streets and lying approxi- 
mately between Ninth and Park Avenues, contain a high percentage of 
blocks in which a population of more than 5,000 work during the day. 
It was estimated in 1936 that 62.6 per cent of Manhattan's land was 
used for residential purposes and 22.9 per cent for nonresidential. Nearly 
all the remainder, 14.25 per cent, is given over to parks, of which there 
are 93 with a combined area of 2,303.897 acres. 

In 1937, 24,550 Manhattanites were born, 29,441 couples were mar- 
ried, and 25,228 died. The number of church members was estimated as 
853,972. The foreign-born white population was set at 641,618 in 1930. 
In 1927 there were 465,000 Jewish residents, or 25.71 per cent of the 
total population. Negroes in 1930 numbered 224,670; Italians, 117,740; 
Free State Irish, 86,548; Russians, 69,685; Germans, 69,111; Poles, 



FACTS ABOUT MANHATTAN 53 

59,120. These were the principal race and language groups in Manhattan. 
The borough lost 170,821 of its residents between 1930 and 1938, 
and this shifting of population represents a trend that is likely to con- 
tinue as a result of the development of cheap transportation to the 
suburbs. Though realtors have been shaking their heads, Manhattan land 
was assessed at $3,962,738,145 in 1938. The largest rental group of ten- 
ants, 36.5 per cent, paid from $30 to $59 a month in 1936, while 20.7 
per cent paid $19 a month or less and 18.6 per cent, $60 or more. In 
1937, 297 new buildings were erected at an estimated total cost of 
$60,775,^50. 

297,446,059 shares of stock, worth $1,859,525,825, changed hands at 
the New York Stock Exchange in the year 1938. Retail trade amounting 
to $1,462,499,000 was carried on in 41,233 stores in 1935. 18,694 manu- 
facturing establishments in 1935, employing throughout the year an 
average of 288,036 workers and paying them $359,893,432 in wages, 
added $1,322,533,066 to the worth of materials which had already cost 
them $1,110,223,156. Manhattan docks received a large percentage of 
the 3,547 vessels of a net tonnage of 20,291,204 which entered the port 
of New York in the year ending June 30, 19^8, while a proportionate 
share of the $650,252,600 in gold and silver and $1,160,726,960 in 
merchandise imported, and of the exports amounting to $50,780,694 in 
gold and silver and the $1,238,331,380 in merchandise was handled here. 

In 1937 there were 231 homicides in the borough. In 1936, 78 were 
convicted of homicide; 274, felonious assault; 485, burglary; 422, rob- 
bery; 493, grand larceny; 94, forgery; 8, arson, and 76, rape. Fire De- 
partment engines and trucks in 1937 went shrieking to 9,042 fires and 
kept the losses down to $2,647,970. Seventy-three hospitals looked after 
the islands' sick and incapacitated. The home relief case load as of 
October 22, 1938, was 68,121. 243,899 students were enrolled in various 
public institutions of learning, of whom 126,375 attended elementary 
school; 39,284, junior high school; 55,231, high school; and 23,009, 
vocational schools. 

Of the city's water supply gushing down from 22 reservoirs, Man- 
hattan and the Bronx consumed in 1937 545,400,000 gallons a day. 
2,794,445,326 kilowatt hours of electricity and 20,530,875,700 cubic 
feet of gas were used in Manhattan in 1937, and in 1938, 897,579 te ^ e ' 
phones were in active operation. 

The 40 to 50 legitimate theaters in Manhattan are patronized yearly by 
about 8,500,000. It is reported that 218 motion-picture houses were doing 
business as of April, 1937, and 1938 saw something like 300 night clubs 



OUTLINE MAP 

MANHATTAN 

LOCALITIES AND SECTIONS 

SECTION BOUNDARIES 

LOCALITY BOUNDARIES 



LOWER MANHATTAN 

Battery and Whitehall District 

West St. and North (Hudson) River Water Front 




Chinatown 
Lower East Side 
Greenwich Village 



Lower West Side 

South Street 

Wall Street District 

City Hall District 
MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

Chelsea 

Hell's Kitchen and Vicinity 

Garment Center and Vicinity 

Times Square District 
MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Gashouse District 

Stuyvesant Square District 

Gramercy Park District 

Union Square District 

Madison Square District 

Kip's Bay and Turtle Bay 

Murray Hill 

Fifth Avenue Shopping District 

Grand Central District 

Beekman Place and Sutton Place 

Central Park South, the Plaza, and Fifty- 
seventh Street 

Upper Fifth, Madison, and Park Avenues 

Yorkville 

THE HARLEMS 
Negro Harlem 
Spanish Harlem 
Italian Harlem 

UPPER WEST SIDE AND 
NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

Central Park West District 
Riverside Drive 
Morningside Heights and 

Manhattanville 
Washington Heights 
Inwood 
Marble Hill 




56 MANHATTAN 

in more or less continuous operation. Twenty-nine museums and a zoo- 
logical garden furnish educational recreation for the more serious-minded, 
and 73 art galleries were listed in December, 1938. 

"It is as beautiful a land as one can hope to tread upon," said Henry 
Hudson. 





Lower Manhattan 



BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 
WEST STREET AND NORTH (HUDSON) 
RIVER WATER FRONT LOWER WEST SIDE 
SOUTH STREET WALL STREET DISTRICT 
CITY HALL DISTRICT CHINATOWN 
LOWER EAST SIDE GREENWICH VILLAGE 

Area: Battery on the south to i4th St. on the north; Hudson River to East River. 
Map on pages 54-55- 

Principal north-south streets: Broadway, West St., Hudson St., Varick St. (and 
7th Ave.), 6th Ave., Chrystie St. (and 2d Ave.), Allen St. (and ist Ave.). 
Principal cross streets: Fulton St., Chambers St. (and New Chambers St.), Canal 
St., Broome St. (and Delancey St.), Houston St., and i4th St. 

Transportation: IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local), South Ferry to i4th St. 
stations; IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local), Bowling Green to i4th St. stations; 
BMT subway (local), Whitehall St. to Union Square stations; 8th Ave. (Inde- 
pendent) Grand Concourse or Washington Heights subway, Broadway-Nassau St. 
to 1 4th St. stations; 8th Ave. (Independent) Queens-Church Ave. subway, East 
Broadway to i4th St. stations; 2d, 3d, or 9th Ave. el, South Ferry to i4th St. 
stations; busses on all principal north-south and cross streets except West St., 
Fulton St., and Broome St. 

IHE FLAT lower end of Manhattan, between the Battery and Fourteenth 
Street, is the oldest section of the city and the richest in historical associa- 
tions. Today it has become a commercial, financial, and industrial center 

57 



58 LOWER MANHATTAN 

where steamship docks crowd one another, and ferries, subways, elevated 
lines, bridges, and traffic arteries converge and spread fanwise, distribut- 
ing people and merchandise to every section of the Nation. 

In the extreme south is the Battery and Whitehall district, in whose 
skyscrapers, overlooking the Goddess of Liberty and the ships that pass 
out to sea, are concentrated the executive offices of transatlantic lines, of 
exporters and importers, and of consular representatives of foreign na- 
tions. West Street, fronting the Hudson River, and edged with busy docks, 
is the main highway for the city's incoming and outgoing supplies. On the 
Lower West Side are the produce markets, the dark streets of Manhattan's 
Syrian colony, and numerous warehouses interspersed with tenements. 

Broadway, the nation's foremost thoroughfare, starts at the Battery and 
bisects lower Manhattan. Below Chambers Street it reflects the varied 
character of the downtown neighborhood ; then it becomes a street of bare 
lofts and garment factories, whose aspect has changed little in half a cen- 
tury. East of Broadway, above the Battery, the tall buildings of the finan- 
cial district surround Wall Street ; skirting them to the east is South Street, 
the city's maritime center in the days of sailing ships where now railroad 
and freight barges are warped into dock by puffing tugs, and the smell 
from anchored fishing boats drifts inland. 

City Hall Park and Foley Square, with their municipal, State, and Fed- 
eral buildings, lie to the north of Wall Street; and beyond is little, 
crowded Chinatown. The Bowery, sinister street of lurid fiction and 
drama, starts below the eastern edge of Chinatown and runs northward 
beneath the rumbling elevated. Stretching approximately from Broadway 
to the East River and north to Fourteenth Street is the Lower East Side, 
crowded slum area of many nationalities, but noted chiefly for its concen- 
trated Jewish population. Greenwich Village, with meandering streets, 
tenements, and charming old houses, marks the northwest terminus of 
lower Manhattan. 

Prior to the completion of the Erie Canal, the story of Lower Manhattan 
was largely that of the whole city. In contrast to Boston, Philadelphia, and 
other Colonial settlements, New Amsterdam, belonging to the Dutch 
West India Company, was founded in 1626 mainly for commercial rea- 
sons. As time passed, the little trading post became the market place and 
financial capital of the rapidly expanding colony. Almost from the first, 
commercial establishments began a ceaseless march northward, encroach- 
ing upon steadily retreating residential districts. The Wall Street stockade, 
built in 1653 by the Dutch at the town's northern limit, was removed by 
the British in 1699; by I 77 I tne c ity> w * tn 22,000 population, extended 



INTRODUCTION 59 

to Grand Street; and after the Revolution the movement northward 
reached Greenwich Village, accelerated by the yellow fever epidemics at 
the turn of the century. 

Under English rule, following New Amsterdam's surrender in 1664, 
two great steps toward freedom were taken here. A free press was assured 
in 1735 as a result of the trial of John Peter Zenger, editor of the New- 
York Weekly Journal, and liberty of worship was firmly established early 
in the eighteenth century. 

The history of New York during the Revolution is less notable than 
that of Boston and other large towns, since the British occupied Man- 
hattan for almost the entire duration of the war. Early in the conflict, 
however, liberty poles had been erected on the Common (now City Hall 
Park), and the lead statue of George III in Bowling Green had been 
melted into bullets for the Colonists' cause. After the Revolution, New 
York (the city still consisted of the lower part of the island) boasted of 
being the first capital of the United States of America. Though suffering 
temporary setbacks, New York, like several other major American cities, 
grew rapidly in the next fifty years. In 1792 an embryonic stock exchange 
was modestly inaugurated under a Wall Street tree. The opening of the 
Erie Canal in 1825 and the expansion of the West began the process 
which soon made New York the market place and banker of half a con- 
tinent, and the primary gateway to Europe. By 1830 the population was 
202,589; by 1860 the rising tide of immigration, which was to sweep the 
city in successive waves for another half-century, had helped to raise the 
total to 813,669. After the Civil War the Erie Canal lost much of its im- 
portance, but by this time New York, with its superb harbor formation, 
had already attracted a tremendous foreign commerce, and it now became 
also a railroad center, with many of its freight terminals located across 
the Hudson. 

The more spectacular side of nineteenth-century New York history is 
associated with lower Manhattan. As early as the i83o's Tammany Hall 
had discovered the advantages to be derived for itself from the vote of 
the unassimilated immigrant, and City Hall became the pawn of a group 
of men whose main object was to deplete the public treasury. The in- 
famous operations of the Tweed Ring in the i86o's and early 1 870*5, and 
of other early Tammany politicians, belongs to the past of this older part 
of the city. Following the Civil War, Wall Street, only a few short blocks 
south of City Hall, began its more ambitious career as financial controller 
of the nation. 

The history of Lower Manhattan has, however, another side. In the late 



60 LOWER MANHATTAN 

nineteenth and early twentieth centuries "Newspaper Row" was situated 
on Park Row. Here James Gordon Bennett, Joseph Pulitzer, and William 
Randolph Hearst fought their sensational battles. Lincoln Steffens dis- 
coursed on political corruption, and Richard Harding Davis and O. 
Henry spun their tales O. Henry finding in this exciting, chaotic, sordid 
section of the city much material for the stories of "Baghdad on the 
Subway." 

With increasing rapidity, the residential areas receded northward. 
About the 1850*5 aristocratic St. John's Park began to yield to commerce, 
and the well-to-do were to be found only in the purlieus of Lower Man- 
hattan, around Greenwich Village. By the time the World War was de- 
clared, only a small number of the city's more prosperous residents re- 
mained below Fourteenth Street, chiefly in mansions around Washington 
Square and lower Fifth Avenue. 

Beginning in the i88o's Greenwich Village was occupied by the Irish 
and Negroes, and later by Italians. At approximately the same time, the 
Germans and Irish of the Lower East Side were supplanted by Italians, 
Russians, Poles, and to an even greater extent by East European Jews, who, 
despite poverty, filth, and overcrowding retained their native gaiety and 
hope. Today, a change is appearing in the Lower East Side; though it is 
still a slum area, the old "lung" blocks are slowly giving way before 
widened avenues and new apartment houses. 

The settlement there of an increasing number of artists and painters in 
the 1910*5 gave Greenwich Village national prominence as an artistic and 
literary center. 

Except for the East Side and Greenwich Village, lower Manhattan is 
now almost entirely devoted to commerce and finance. In the Wall Street 
district skyscrapers multiplied rapidly after the turn of the century until 
building was halted by the stock market crash of 1929. Park Row is no 
longer Newspaper Row, but an adjunct to the commercial district. Old 
landmarks were erased by the postwar building boom ; and a solid wall of 
giant structures, almost unbroken from the Battery to Fourteenth Street, 
hides the busy traffic of the Hudson River. 

BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 

Area: South of Battery Place, Beaver St., and Old Slip. Map on page 63. 

The Battery, threshold of Manhattan, spreads in a decided arc along 
the North River shore at the southernmost extremity of the island, where 



BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 6l 

East and North rivers empty their sediment into the Upper Bay. West 
Street (see page 68), rumbling with the trucks that serve almost a hun- 
dred North River docks, extends northward from the Battery. Massive 
blocks of office buildings and the structure that carries the final stretch 
of the Ninth Avenue el fill the rest of the northward view until, at the 
northeast corner of the park, Bowling Green opens out in an irregular 
plaza; from here Broadway cuts a clean northbound way through the 
towering stonework of the lower island. Squared ponderously against 
Bowling Green, south, is the U.S. Custom House. North, nearest the river, is 
the Whitehall Building. The name "Battery" derives from a British fort 
built along the river in 1693. 

The curve of the present el on the park's east border and Pearl Street, 
extending east, mark the original shore line. The rest of the area is 
filled-in land. Beyond the el structure are State Street and the conglomerate 
skyscraper contours that mount toward Broad and Wall Streets. At the 
southeast corner of the park opens the great plaza of South Ferry, where 
all forms of Manhattan's transportation subway, el, ferry, bus, and taxi 
have a compact major terminus, and where the heavy traffic artery, South 
Street (see page 80), opens out opposite, bordering the docks to the east. 

The BATTERY is as attractive to water gazers now as when Herman 
Melville wrote of "Men fixed in ocean reveries. . . . Landsmen: of week 
days pent up in lathe and plaster tied to counters, nailed to benches, 
clinched to desks. Nothing will content them but the extremest limit of 
the land. They must get just as nigh the water as they possibly can with- 
out falling in. And there they stand. Inlanders all, they come from lanes 
and alleys, streets and avenues north, east, south, and west. Yet here 
they all unite." 

But the park is more than a Sunday and holiday attraction ; it is a wel- 
come breathing space in an area dominated by marine commerce. From 
the sea wall that bounds its twenty-one acres can be viewed the busy traffic 
of the North River liners, tugs with tows of barges and scows, low- 
riding Diesel cargo boats from the Barge Canal, passenger steamers of the 
Hudson lines, and ferries plying cross-river and cross-harbor from the 
row of terminal rail and marine docks on the Jersey shore. Only one rail- 
road has entry for its freight into Manhattan by land; the bulk of the 
railroad freight must be transshipped by tug and barge. 

Southwest appears the Statue of Liberty on Bedloe Island (see page 
411), and beyond it is Ellis Island and the great immigrant station (see 
page 415). Five miles down the bay rise the abrupt hills of Staten Island. 
South by southeast lies Governors Island (see page 413), military reserva- 



62 LOWER MANHATTAN 

tion, with Castle Williams, twin fort to Castle Clinton the present 
Aquarium standing grimed and grim on its highest headland. Between 
Staten Island and Brooklyn is the Narrows, the strait connecting the 
Upper Bay with the Lower Bay and the sea. Plans for a suspension 
bridge, between the Battery and Hamilton Avenue, Brooklyn, were ap- 
proved by the City Council early in 1939. The estimate of the cost was 
$41,200,000. 

Central in popular attraction as well as in prominence among the build- 
ings of Battery Park is the Aquarium (see page 307), set close beside the 
river. At one time it served as an immigration station. 

Some immigrants are still landed at the Battery after examination at 
Ellis Island. A Government (Department of Labor) ferry disembarks 
them at the BARGE OFFICE, at the southeast extremity of the park. A sec- 
ond ferry, operated by the Army, plies between the Barge Office and 
Governors Island. From Colonial times to the Civil War a barge served 
as transport between the office and the island, and it was this circumstance 
that gave the office its name. The original Barge Office was a charming 
Colonial structure surmounted by a tall cupola from which a beacon 
shone at night. The present building is an exceptionally interesting work 
in the style of the Venetian Renaissance, and it is one of the few build- 
ings in Manhattan with a street arcade. The Barge Office building contains 
branch offices of the Customs Service, Coast Guard, and Immigration Serv- 
ice. Here, too, ship-news reporters gather to meet incoming liners, for it 
is from the Barge Office that Customs cutters leave to meet those ships 
that heave to at Quarantine for sanitary inspection on entering the port. A 
TABLET at the western end of the building bears the names of radio 
operators lost at sea. 

Southeast of the Barge Office is the bow-roofed, painted building of the 
SOUTH FERRY TERMINAL, its upper deck invaded by the el structure. 
From here, powerful steam ferries carry trucks, pleasure cars, and passen- 
gers to St. George, Staten Island, in about twenty minutes (see page 410). 

At the north end of the park is PIER A, second oldest structure on the 
water front, occupied by the Department of Docks and the Police Depart- 
ment's Harbor Precinct. A clock tower at the edge of the pier is a memo- 
rial to soldiers and sailors killed in the World War. The clock sounds the 
signals for the watches kept on shipboard, and also shows the time by 
dial. Adjacent is a boat basin where police boats are tied beside pleasure 
craft. At the end of the sea wall is the two-story city FIREBOAT STATION, 
its tower overlooking the harbor. This is the headquarters for a fleet of ten 
fireboats protecting about 771 miles of New York and New Jersey water 



BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 63 

front. The i3O-foot Fire Fighter, powerful enough to throw a stream 
over George Washington Bridge, is berthed beside the building. 

Midway along the sea wall is a squat building used as a TICKET OFFICE 
for excursion boats. Craft bound for the Jersey side of the Lower Bay and 
steamboats fo/ Coney Island leave from this point. The Battery boatmaster, 
Peter (Buck) McNeill, who has his office here, keeps a sharp watch for 
would-be suicides to whom this is a favorite spot. 



wiyiuu 

\ \ \ \ \ \ * -*_?) 4<.\ *^ 



BATTERY 

AND 
WHITEHALL DISTRICT 




KEY TO BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT MAP 



1. Whitehall Building 
U.S. Weather Bureau 

2. Department of Docks 
Police Harbor Precinct 

3. Fireboat Station 

4. Aquarium 

5. Statue of Giovanni da Verrazano 

6. Statue of John Ericsson 

7. Flagpole (Evacuation Day) 

8. Oyster Pasty Battery Cannon 

9. Barge Office 

10. South Ferry Terminal 
Staten Island Ferry Slip 



11. South Ferry Building 

12. Mission of Our Lady of the 
Rosary 

13. U.S. Army Building 

14. U.S. Custom House 

15. Statue of Abraham de Peyster 

16. Cunard Building 

17. Standard Oil Building 

18. New York Produce Exchange 

19. Fraunces Tavern 

20. Site of First Tavern and City 

Hall in New York 

21. Site of the First Printing Press 



64 LOWER MANHATTAN 

It was on the original rocky finger of land that the first Dutch colonists 
built their huts and a simple breastwork later called Fort Amsterdam. 
In 1626 Peter Minuit, governor of the new settlement, "bought" the 
island from the Manhattoes for cloth and fripperies worth about twenty- 
four (gold standard) dollars. Administered by the Dutch West India 
Company, New Amsterdam was the scene of frequent disputes between 
its inhabitants and its governors. Englishmen, Jews, and other colonists, 
traders, and adventurers from many lands, had, however, settled there 
among the Dutch by 1664, when a British war fleet appeared to demand 
the surrender of the town to the Duke of York, who had received from 
his brother, Charles II, a grant embracing the present state of New York, 
the islands off the New England coast, and part of the present state of 
Maine. Despite the efforts of Director Peter Stuyvesant, the burghers re- 
fused to defend New Amsterdam, and the English flag was run up with- 
out opposition. It remained there until the Revolution, except for one year, 
during which the armed naval forces of the Dutch Republic retook it and 
undertook to carry on under Dutch rule; the settlement was returned to 
England under a treaty made in the Old World. 

Names, plaques, and statues in the park recall the early history of the 
Battery. A bronze STATUE OF GIOVANNI DA VERRAZANO, Florentine 
navigator who is said to have entered the harbor in 1524, stands in the 
park. On a granite FLAGSTAFF base, Minuit is shown making his deal 
with the natives. A CANNON believed to have been part of the armament 
of the Oyster Pasty Battery (1695-1783) has been preserved. A FLAG- 
POLE commemorates the one greased on Evacuation Day, November 25, 
1783, to prevent the hauling down of the British flag by the American 
troops. And a bronze FIGURE OF JOHN ERICCSON honors the memory 
of the designer of the Monitor, first turreted battleship, and the screw 
propeller. The street bordering the park on the north is Battery Place. 

From the Battery, streets wind their way in erratic angles. Colonial 
brick, nineteenth-century sandstone, and modern steel- skeletoned office 
buildings stand side by side. Clerks, maritime employees, Custom House 
officials, stenographers, sailors on shore leave, Army and Navy men, South 
Street lodging house indigents, commuters to Staten Island and Brooklyn, 
and tourists move along together. 

The sea dominates this virile neighborhood. Sou'westers, sea boots, pea 
jackets, and dungarees are displayed in the shop windows along the side 
streets. Model ocean liners and colorful posters advertise offices of the 
great STEAMSHIP AGENCIES along Broadway, while sandwich men mutely 
call attention to passport photo studios. 



BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 65 

State Street, bordering Battery Park on the east, was the town's most 
fashionable thoroughfare until the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
when the wealthy residents began moving uptown. Here were the homes 
of the merchant princes, known as the "Peep-o'-Day Boys," because they 
arose at dawn to peer across the harbor at Staten Island where signal staffs 
flashed news of ships sighted beyond the Narrows. One residence, No. 7, 
between Pearl and Whitehall Streets, survives, almost merged with the 
contemporary drabness of neighboring buildings under the winding el. 
Its tall white columns and delicate ironwork balcony still suggest the 
opulence of another day. The interior, with its fine old hand-carved 
mantelpieces, may be seen by permission of the Mission of Our Lady of 
the Rosary, which for many years has maintained the dwelling as a HOME 
FOR IMMIGRANT GIRLS. The house, it is believed, was built according to 
plans drawn by John McComb, one of the architects of the present City 
Hall. On the site of the South Ferry Building near by, at i State Street, 
once stood the homes of Peter Stuyvesant and Robert Fulton, the inventor. 
Opposite the main entrance of the South Ferry Building, is the U.S. 
ARMY BUILDING, 39 Whitehall Street. This red-brick structure with a 
two-story granite foundation, conservatively built in 1886 in the style of 
a generation earlier, houses many Army departments of the New York 
district, such as the recruiting, information, and pictorial services, and 
an engineers' unit. 

Facing Bowling Green, between State and Whitehall Streets, is the 
CUSTOM HOUSE, in which are the offices of the Collector of Customs of 
the Port of New York, and the headquarters of Custom Collection District 
No. 10 (which embraces the sub-ports of Albany, Newark, and Perth 
Amboy). Other offices in the building are those of the Comptroller of 
Customs, the Surveyor of Customs, the Collector of Internal Revenue for 
the Second New York District, the Coast Guard, the Tariff Commission, 
the U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, the Bureau of Statistics of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, and Station P of the New York Post Office. 

The building, somewhat ponderous in its neoclassic treatment, was 
designed by Cass Gilbert. It was completed in 1907 at a cost of more 
than seven million dollars, including the price of the land. Seven stories 
high, the masonry is Maine granite, heavily embellished with dolphins, 
tridents, and other nautical symbols. On pedestals advancing from the 
front of the building are four heroic sculptured groups by Daniel Chester 
French, representing Asia, America, Africa, and Europe. Across the sixth 
story are twelve statues dedicated to commercial centers of the world: 
Greece and Rome, by F. E. Elwell; Phoenicia, by F. W. Ruckstull; 



66 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Genoa, by Augustus Lukeman; Venice and Spain, by F. M. L. Tonetti; 
Holland and Portugal, by Augustus Saint-Gaudens ; Denmark, by Johan- 
nes Gellert ; Germany, by Albert Jaegers ; England and France, by Charles 
Grafly. A cartouche by Karl Bitter, on the seventh floor, depicts two 
winged figures bearing the shield of the United States. Ten paintings by 
Elmer E. Garnsey, representing world ports as they appeared in 1674 
when the Dutch flag last floated over Fort Amsterdam, are on the walls 
of the reception room in the main corridor. 

The Custom House occupies the site of Fort Amsterdam, whose four 
bastions, corresponding to the points of the compass, commanded both 
the North and East rivers. The fort, including a governor's house built for 
Peter Stuyvesant, was demolished in 1790. On its site a mansion, known 
as the Government House, was erected. At the time, ambitious New 
Yorkers, hoping their city would become the nation's capital, intended the 
mansion for the President's home. It was used by Governors Clinton and 
Jay, and later did service as a customhouse until destroyed by fire in 1815. 

In Colonial days Battery Place, which bounds Battery Park on the 
north, was a much wider street and was known by its Dutch name, 
Marcktveldt; later this was anglicized to Marketfield. This thoroughfare 
was the site of New Amsterdam's first cattle market. The WHITEHALL 
BUILDING at No. 17, which occupies the entire block between West and 
Washington Streets, comprises two buildings. The original twenty-story 
edifice, facing the park, was built in 1900; a thirty-two-story addition 
was completed in 1910. Many leading shipping companies and a number 
of consulates have their offices in this building. Above these is the office 
of the U.S. WEATHER BUREAU, with an instrument shed on the roof. 

Standing at the foot of the deep sunless canyon of lower Broadway is 
BOWLING GREEN, probably the city's oldest public park. Here, according 
to the legend, astute Peter Minuit made the bargain that gave Manhattan 
to the white man. In 1638-47 this oval spot was part of the hog and 
cattle market of Marcktveldt. Later, it served as a parade ground for the 
Dutch militia. The English fenced off the plot and in 1732 leased it to 
three citizens for use as a private bowling ground. The rent was set at 
one peppercorn a year. During the Revolution, the royal crowns orna- 
menting the fence pickets disappeared. A bronze STATUE OF ABRAHAM 
DE PEYSTER, merchant and one-time mayor of the city (1691-5), by 
George Bissell, has stood here since 1896. 

East of Bowling Green is the dark red-brick and terra-cotta building 
of the NEW YORK PRODUCE EXCHANGE erected in 1881-2 from plans by 
George B. Post. The design of the exterior bearing walls is derived from 



BATTERY AND WHITEHALL DISTRICT 67 

that of a Roman aqueduct: the arched openings, arranged in long or- 
derly lines, double in number as they rise. Inside, the produce brokers busy 
themselves trading and watching the quotation boards from the floor. 
The boards display Chicago, Winnipeg, Minneapolis, Duluth, St. Louis, 
and Kansas City grain prices, and New York and New Orleans cotton 
prices as well as those of foreign markets. The Produce Exchange is 
the oldest incorporated exchange in the country, having been chartered 
in 1862 by special act of the State Legislature. Its trading floor is the 
largest in the world, measuring 220 feet long, 144 feet wide, and 60 feet 
to the skylight. 

The STANDARD OIL BUILDING, 26 Broadway, incorporates two struc- 
tures of different age and height. It is surmounted by a massive pyramidal 
tower, once one of the most imposing of the New York sky line. A bust 
of the first John D. Rockefeller by Jo Davidson is on the left side of the 
corridor. Crowds swarming through the building and along the street in 
the daytime are in the main unaware of its existence, but at night the 
lighting of the marble gives the bust a strange appearance, and people 
passing through the now deserted region often stop before the entrance 
and gaze curiously inside. 

The CUNARD BUILDING, at 25 Broadway, is still one of the city's most 
luxurious structures. Its interior, with its vast domed hall, is decorated 
with murals by Ezra Winter, depicting the voyages of Leif Ericson, 
Sebastian Cabot, Christopher Columbus, and Sir Francis Drake. 

Beaver Street, east of Bowling Green, is lined with commercial and 
maritime houses, and restaurants. The original Delmonico's, which even- 
tually moved to Madison Square, is part of the neighborhood's tradition. 
At the end of Beaver Street is Pearl Street, so named because of the sea 
shells found there in the days when the East River almost reached this 
street. The inlet, filled in more than a hundred years ago, was known as 
Coenties Slip, a corruption of the Dutch nickname Coentje, a combina- 
tion of the given names of Conraet and Antje Ten Eyck, whose home 
was near by. At the head of the slip, on what is now the northwest 
corner of Pearl Street and Coenties Alley, Governer Kieft, tired of play- 
ing host to traders in his own home, built in 1641 the Stadt-Herberg, or 
City Tavern, a five-story stone structure with an unobstructed view of 
the East River. Twelve years later, when the community rose to the dignity 
of a municipality, New York's first hostelry was converted into the Stadt 
Huys, or City Hall. A TABLET high on the wall of 73 Pearl Street marks 
the site of the building, demolished in 1790. Near by at No. 81 
another TABLET marks the site where William Bradford established in 



68 LOWER MANHATTAN 

1693 the first printing press in New York, "At the sign of the Bible." 
A quaintly carved female figure is set above the street in the building at 
No. 88 over a TABLET commemorating the great fire of 1835 which 
destroyed most of the buildings of Coenties Slip. The blaze, which raged 
for nineteen hours, destroyed 650 buildings with a loss of twenty 
million dollars. Ten years later a fire in the same neighborhood destroyed 
345 buildings and caused property damage amounting to six million 
dollars. ' 

At the corner of Pearl and Broad Streets is FRAUNCES TAVERN, one of 
Manhattan's most cherished landmarks and a notable restoration of early 
Georgian Colonial work. The relatively square proportions, regular window 
spacing, brickwork, white portico, hipped roof with its light balustrade, 
and the interior paneling, are all characteristic of the style, but Dutch 
influence is echoed in the shape of the dormers, which differ from the 
gabled English type. It was erected in 1719 as a residence by Etienne de 
Lancey, a wealthy Huguenot. The merchant firm of his grandson Oliver 
(De Lancey, Robinson, and Company) turned it into a store and ware- 
house in 1757. The building was bought in 1762 by Samuel Fraunces, 
a West Indian of French and Negro blood, who opened it as the Queen's 
Head Tavern. Washington bade farewell to his officers in 1783, in the 
tavern's Long Room, faithfully restored in 1907 by the Sons of the Revo- 
lution (not to be confused with the Sons of the American Revolution). 
A museum, exhibiting Revolutionary relics, is 01 the third floor, and on 
the fourth is a small historical library with paintings by John Ward Duns- 
more. (Open daily except Sunday 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.; admission free.) Head- 
quarters of the Sons of the Revolution occupy much of the building; a 
restaurant patronized by Wall Street bankers and shipping and business 
men is on the ground floor. 

WEST STREET AND NORTH (HUDSON) RIVER 
WATER FRONT 

Area: Battery Place to y2d St. along North River. Maps on pages 75, 127, and 149. 

Although the western rim of Manhattan is but a small segment of New 
York's far-flung port, along it is concentrated the largest aggregate of 
marine enterprises in the world. Glaciers of freight and cargo move across 
this strip of North (Hudson) River water front. It is the domain of the 
super-liner, but it is shared also by the freighter, the river boat, the ferry, 






WEST STREET AND NORTH RIVER WATER FRONT 69 

and the soot-faced tug. Great trunk line railroads from the hinterland, 
barred from the city by the Hudson, transship their passengers to ferries 
at the Jersey railheads and their freight cars to scows. In consequence, 
the railroads use nearly as many North River piers as the steamship lines. 

The broad highway, West Street and its continuations, which skirts the 
North River from Battery Place to Fifty-ninth Street, is, during the day, 
a surging mass of back-firing, horn-blowing, gear-grinding trucks and 
taxis. All other water-front sounds are submerged in the cacophony of the 
daily avalanche of freight and passengers in transit. Ships and shipping 
are not visible along much of West Street. South of Twenty-third Street, 
the river is walled by an almost unbroken line of bulkhead sheds and 
dock structures. North of Twenty-third, an occasional open spot in the 
bulkhead permits a glimpse of the Hudson and the Jersey shore beyond. 
Opposite the piers, along the entire length of the highway, nearly every 
block houses its quota of cheap lunchrooms, tawdry saloons and water- 
front haberdasheries catering to the thousands of polyglot seamen who 
haunt the "front." Men "on the beach" (out of employment) usually 
make their headquarters in barrooms, which are frequented mainly by 
employees of lines leasing piers in their vicinity. 

In Revolutionary days what is now West Street was under water. About 
1811 the bank was extended and raised to allow the building of docks. 
A number of water grants, or permanent leases, were given at nominal 
rentals to individuals and corporations who later profited greatly when 
the city reclaimed the property. Not until 1870, however, did this western 
water front come into considerable use, and it was 1890 before West 
Street displaced South Street as the main gateway for water-borne traffic. 
Today it is worth $470,000 an acre, with a pier value of $1,500 per linear 
foot, and is the most lucrative water-front property in the world. 

Passenger lines use many North River terminals. Transatlantic, South 
American, West Indian, and intercoastal ships dock north of Fourteenth 
Street, while the terminals of the coastwise and Long Island Sound lines 
are scattered between this point and the Battery. The most notable excep- 
tion is the "Great White Fleet" of the United Fruit Company, whose 
steamers, engaged in the West Indian fruit and passenger trade, are 
berthed at the famous "banana docks," Piers 2, 3, 7, and 9, near the foot 
of West Street. 

In this section, water-front shipping operates literally in the shadow 
of Manhattan's downtown sky line. Opposite the United Fruit terminal, 
two red-brick structures, the thirty-seven-story DOWNTOWN ATHLETIC 
CLUB at 1 8 West Street and the thirty-one-story OFFICE BUILDING ad- 



70 LOWER MANHATTAN 

joining it at No. 21, both designed by Starrett and Van Vleck, contribute 
peaks to the architectural sierra. Their modern appearance is accentuated 
by the more conventional aspect of the near-by Whitehall Building (see 
page 66). Not far to the north, somewhat more modest heights are 
reached by the NEW YORK POST and WEST STREET BUILDINGS. The 
former, a seventeen-story structure of buff -colored brick at 75 West Street, 
houses the daily paper which was founded by Alexander Hamilton in 
1 80 1. The twenty-three-story West Street Building, at No. 90, was de- 
signed by Cass Gilbert and completed in 1905. Its elaborate pinnacles, 
decorative chimneys and gables disclose the late French Gothic influence. 

Just north of the West Street Building, a pedestrian footbridge pro- 
vides safe passage from the foot of Liberty Street to the ferry terminal 
of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. Between this point and Forty- 
second Street, the railroads maintain eleven ferry services to Jersey City, 
Hoboken, and Weehawken. These are used by more than sixty million 
passengers, and between ten and eleven million vehicles, annually. 

In the block between Liberty and Cortlandt Streets, at 107 West Street, 
is the WATCH MUSEUM of Fred W. Jensen and Son, managed by three 
generations of the Jensen family. Its collection contains timepieces of every 
known variety, the most intricate being a mechanism that splits seconds 
and records the passing minutes, hours, days of the week and month, 
and phases of the moon. 

In 1807, Robert Fulton's Clermont cast off from a pier at Cortlandt 
Street and steamed up the Hudson to Albany, demonstrating the prac- 
ticability of steamship transportation. 

The NEW YORK TELEPHONE COMPANY SKYSCRAPER at No. 140 is 
an unusually successful attempt to obtain the maximum spatial benefits 
under the restrictions of the zoning law. Designed in 1926 by Ralph 
Walker of the office of McKenzie, Voorhees, and Gmelin, it is the largest 
telephone building in the world, thirty-two stories high and covering an 
area of 52,000 square feet. Despite difficulties raised by its irregular- 
shaped site, the building masses are exceptionally well related, endowing 
the structure with a silhouette of great strength. The exterior, of buff brick 
and limestone with a granite base, is enriched by ornamental flowers and 
elephant heads. This building is the headquarters for the largest of the 
component companies of the Bell Telephone System, serving New York 
State and part of Connecticut. 

From the World-Telegram Building, between Barclay Street and Park 
Place, to the great Pennsylvania Railroad pier for perishable freight, 
between Hubert and Watts Streets, West Street bounds the Washington 



WEST STREET AND NORTH RIVER WATER FRONT JI 

Market (see page 74). At 260 West Street stood the Phoenix Foundry 
where Captain John Ericsson in the late 1830*5 constructed America's 
first iron sailing boats and steamships with screw propellers. Opposite 
Duane Street, the ramps of the newest extension of the WEST SIDE (Ele- 
vated) HIGHWAY slope into West Street. A 35O-foot parabolic bridge 
over the wide intersection at Canal Street links this segment with the four- 
and-one-half-mile elevated roadway that follows the water front to the 
Henry Hudson Parkway (see page 284) at Seventy-second Street. This 
magnificent express drive, which provides the motorist with an unexcelled 
view of the Jersey water front, the mid-town sky line, and the liners berthed 
along the North River, leads by means of Canal Street ramps directly to 
the Holland Tunnel (see page 19). Eventually the highway will be ex- 
tended south, curving around the Battery and South Street to the East 
River Drive. 

ST. JOHN'S PARK FREIGHT TERMINAL, a three-story structure covering 
three city blocks between Charlton and Clarkson Streets, marks the south- 
ern terminus of the New York Central's West Side line. The terminal, 
which was opened in 1934, is the principal delivery station for dairy 
freight in the city. 

In a group of buildings which occupy the block around 463 West 
Street and a portion of the adjoining block are consolidated the RESEARCH 
LABORATORIES OF THE BELL TELEPHONE SYSTEM. Here scientists have 
made many contributions to the telephone and to allied means of com- 
munication, such as sound films, picture transmitters, and public address 
systems. To visit these laboratories special permission must be obtained. 

GANSEVOORT MARKET, or "Farmers' Market," as it is generally known, 
occupies the block between Gansevoort and Little West Twelfth Streets. 
Farmers from Long Island, Staten Island, New Jersey, and Connecticut 
bring their produce here at night for sale under supervision of the De- 
partment of Public Markets. Activities begin at 4 A.M. Farmers in overalls 
and mud-caked shoes stand in trucks, shouting their wares. Commission 
merchants, pushcart vendors, and restaurant buyers trudge warily from one 
stand to another, digging arms into baskets of fruits or vegetables to 
ascertain quality. Trucks move continually in and out among the piled 
crates of tomatoes, beans, cabbages, lettuce, and other greens in the street. 
Hungry derelicts wander about in the hope of picking up a stray vegetable 
dropped from some truck, while patient nuns wait to receive leftover, un- 
salable goods for distribution among the destitute. The market closes at 
10 A.M. and is not open Sundays or holidays. 

In a wharf at the foot of Gansevoort Street, Herman Melville, the 



72 LOWER MANHATTAN 

author of Moby Dick, once served as customs inspector. Across West 
Street is the WEST WASHINGTON MARKET, comprising ten quaint red-brick 
buildings which house a live poultry market patronized mostly by kosher 
butchers. Since poultry requires ample heat in winter, every stall is 
equipped with a furnace, so that each roof adds more than a dozen 
chimneys to its picturesque architecture. 

From this point to Twenty-second Street, Eleventh Avenue (as the 
water-front street is here called) skirts the weather-beaten CHELSEA 
PIERS designed by Warren and Wetmore. These nine great docks, built 
by the city between 1902 arid 1907 for the transatlantic ships of that 
period, serve such lines as the United States, Grace, Cunard White Star, 
Panama Pacific, and American Merchant, and are among the busiest on 
the river. SEAMEN'S HOUSE, an eight-story Y.M.C.A. building at the 
corner of Twentieth Street and Eleventh Avenue, furnishes up-to-date 
living and recreational facilities for more than 250 sailors. 

Because of the heavy concentration of shipping at the Chelsea Piers, 
this area has been a strategic sector in the industrial conflicts that break 
out periodically between maritime labor and shipowners. During the 
1936-7 strike, when rank and file seamen tied up the ships in their 
struggle for a better agreement, Eleventh Avenue was the scene of fre- 
quent clashes between pickets and scabs, "goon squads" (thugs) and de- 
fense squads, strikers and police. The NATIONAL MARITIME UNION OF 
AMERICA, established after the termination of the strike, has its head- 
quarters at 126 Eleventh Avenue. 

Unlike their sea-going brothers, the port's "dock-wallopers" (long- 
shoremen), thousands of whom live in slum areas adjoining West 
Street, have been quiet in recent years, although they steadily oppose the 
hiring system, called the "shape-up," whereby the boss stevedore selects 
his working force several times daily from crowds of longshoremen 
massed before the dock gates. 

At Twenty-second Street the North River shore line bends sharply 
westward. The highway is called Thirteenth Avenue from this point to 
Thirtieth Street, whence it extends northward to Fifty-ninth Street as 
Twelfth Avenue. Not far beyond the great Twenty-third Street ferry ter- 
minal, in the block between Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Streets, the 
STARRETT LEHIGH BUILDING dominates the water front. The building, 
erected in 1931, represents an effort to solve the problem of freight dis- 
tribution in a congested metropolis. It comprises a huge railroad yard, 
loading platforms for trucks and trailers, and facilities for the storage, 
repacking, redistribution, manufacturing, and display of goods. Although 



LOWER WEST SIDE 73 

the first three floors and central portion are steel- frame in construction, 
the rest of the building follows a cantilevered concrete design. The great 
horizontal bands of concrete floor, brkk parapet, and continuous windows 
sweep majestically to meet the service portion, which rises, framed in 
steel, near the center of the block. The building has unusual power and 
constitutes an important step in the development of contemporary archi- 
tecture. The architects were Russell G. and Walter M. Cory. 

The railroads have burrowed deeply into the water front between 
Twenty-fifth and Seventy- second Streets, pre-empting most of the piers and 
nearly all the property opposite. The New York Central's THIRTIETH 
STREET YARD straddles ten city blocks, and its SIXTIETH STREET YARD, 
thirteen blocks, constituting two of the largest privately owned areas in 
the city. The latter is the main receiving, classification, and departure 
yard for the only all-rail freight line on Manhattan Island. Both yards 
were being arranged in 1939 to provide for building construction over 
the tracks (see page 157 ). 

Sandwiched among this welter of railroad sidings are the piers of the 
Hudson River lines and the terminals of many of the world's greatest 
liners. The new TRANSATLANTIC DOCKS of the Cunard White Star, 
French, Hapag Lloyd, Italian, Swedish American, and Furness Bermuda 
lines extend from Forty-fourth to Fifty-seventh Street, and were espe- 
cially designed to handle luxurious ships like the Queen Mary, Normandie, 
Europa, Rex, and other greyhounds of the Atlantic. Piers 88, 90, and 92, 
each of which is 1,100 feet long, make this terminal the largest in the 
world. 

LOWER WEST SIDE 

Area: Battery Place on the south to Spring St. on the north; from West St. east to 
Trinity Place, Church St., and Broadway (Franklin to Spring St.). Maps on pages 
75 and 127. 

Though this district has a few modern skyscrapers with impressive mar- 
ble fagades, the character of the neighborhood is derived from produce 
sheds, crates, smells of fruit and fish of Washington Market, and the 
amazing variety of retail shops selling radios, pets, garden seeds, fire- 
works, sporting goods, shoes, textiles, and church supplies. There is an 
endless flow of traffic through the streets, whose buildings, grimy with 
age, reveal their pre-Civil War glory in carved lintels, arched doorways, 
and ornate cornices. 

Five streets Washington, Greenwich, Hudson, West Broadway, and 



74 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Church form the main north and south thoroughfares, but the narrow, 
transverse streets leading to the Hudson River carry the burden of the 
traffic, much of which heads for New Jersey through the ferries at the 
end of Chambers, Barclay, Cortlandt, and Liberty Streets, or via the 
Holland Tunnel. Beneath the streets roar the subways and above them 
hurtles the Ninth Avenue el, which creates an atmosphere like Milton's 
"darkness made visible." 

Tunnels, railroads, ferryboats, subways, and road traffic have made this 
section one of the most important transit centers. Close to the river and 
harbor, it is also easily accessible to all parts of the city, making it a 
natural site for the largest fruit and produce market in the world. Loca- 
tion, too, accounts for the flourishing retail trade: New Jersey commuters 
returning home after a day's work in the city often find it practicable to 
buy their necessities here. 

The markets inject a rude vitality into the district. While most of the 
city sleeps, WASHINGTON MARKET, north of Fulton Street and spreading 
to many side streets between West and Greenwich Streets, reaches the 
peak of its activity. Perishable products must be distributed quickly; in 
this concentrated market they pass from jobbers to wholesalers and re- 
tailers. Streets free of daytime traffic are taken over by trucks of dealers 
and farmers. Freight cars discharge their burdens; produce is moved, 
stored, stacked, boxed, and crated. A weird spatter of lights provides 
illumination, and in the glow truck drivers, farmers, tally-keepers, and 
inspectors work at a swift pace. In winter the streets are lined with bon- 
fires around which the men warm themselves. 

The name Washington Market is used to designate the entire whole- 
sale produce section and the city-owned RETAIL MARKET, a block-square 
building between Washington, West, Fulton, and Vesey Streets. The Bear 
Market, established in 1812, was the predecessor of the original Washing- 
ton Market. The latter, built in 1833, was also known as Country Market, 
Fish Market, and Exterior Market. The present Retail Market building 
was reconstructed in 1914. Its interior is split into stalls that are leased. 
An entrancing array of food is offered including caviar from Siberia, 
Gorgonzola cheese from Italy, hams from Flanders, sardines from Nor- 
way, English partridge, native quail, squabs, wild ducks, and pheasants; 
also fresh swordfish, frogs' legs, brook trout, pompanos, red snappers, 
codfish tongues and cheeks, bluefish cheeks, and venison and bear steaks. 

In the vicinity of Cortlandt and Greenwich Streets, two blocks east and 
south of Washington Market, is the retail radio district. Seed and pet 
shops, largely patronized by suburban commuters, are south of Barclay 



LISPENARD 




LOWER WEST SIDE 
WEST STREET 



KEY 

(Also see maps on pages 127 
and 149) 

1. United Fruit Company Piers 

2. Syrian Quarter 

3. Downtown Athletic Club 

4. 21 West Street Office Building 

5. New York Post Building 

6. Recreation Training School 

7. Planters 

8. West Street Building 

9. Church of St. Nicholas 

10. Watch Museum 

11. Retail Radio District 

12. Hudson Terminal 

13. Washington Retail Market 

14. Washington Wholesale Produce 

Market 

15. New York Telephone Company 

Building 

16. Ecclesiastical Supply Stores 

17. Federal Office Building 

18. St. Peter's Church 

19. Fireworks Stores 

20. Sporting Goods Shops 

21. Seed and Pet Shops 

22. World-Telegram Building 

23. West Side Highway 

24. Cosmopolitan Hotel 

25. Western Union Telegraph 

Building 

26. New York Mercantile Exchange 

27. Long Distance Building 

28. Site of the Phoenix Foundry 



j6 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Street, on West Broadway and Greenwich Street. Barclay Street has a 
number of ecclesiastical supply stores, originally attracted there because 
of the presence in the neighborhood of old St. Peter's Church. 

Dealers in fireworks who also stage the pyrotechnic spectacles 
Niagara Falls, Flying Eagles, Pyramids of Fire, and the like for carnivals 
and celebrations throughout the country and in South America, have stores 
near Church Street and Park Place. Their factories are in New Jersey, and 
the proximity to the ferries has been a factor in the location of the busi- 
ness here since the i88o's. On the south side of Chambers Street between 
Broadway and West Broadway, are many sporting goods shops. Wholesale 
grocery houses line Greenwich Street near Beach Street. 

The trading center for the 7,500,000 cases of eggs and 3,500,000 tubs 
of butter which New Yorkers consume each year is the NEW YORK MER- 
CANTILE EXCHANGE at Hudson and Harrison Streets. Prices are based 
upon daily receipts and open market conditions. The dairy and poultry 
commission houses are near Reade Street and a little farther north are 
huge warehouses from which emanate a pungent aroma of coffee, tea, 
and spices. 

Not far away from the Exchange, in the vicinity of Church, Reade, and 
Duane Streets, is the shoe jobbing center, and east of West Broadway 
from Thomas to Franklin Streets, the wholesale textile market. 

In the market section, comprising a world of its own, is the SYRIAN 
QUARTER, established in the late i88o's at the foot of Washington Street 
from Battery Place to Rector Street. A sprinkling of Turks, Armenians, 
Arabs, and Greeks also live here. Although the fez has given way to the 
snap-brim, and the narghile has been abandoned for cigarettes, the coffee 
houses and the tobacco and confectionery shops of the Levantines still 
remain. 

Using the same methods and types of implements as native Syrian 
bakers, the confectioners make delicious sweets such as baclawa (chopped 
walnuts or pistachios, wrapped in forty layers of baked dough of gauze- 
like thinness flavored with goat's milk butter and drenched in honey), 
knafie (twisted hank of fried dough with a core of chopped pistachios 
flavored as baclawa), sweet-sour apricot paste sprinkled with pistachios, 
strings of walnuts dipped in grape syrup, and "Syrian delight" scented 
with attar of roses. Restaurants feature shish kebab (spit-broiled lamb) 
and rice cooked in salted vine leaves, and furnish narghiles upon request. 
Other neighborhood stores sell graceful earthen water jars; brass, silver, 
and pewter trays; tables inlaid with mother of pearl; brass lamp shades 
fringed with variegated beads, and Syrian silks of rainbow hues. 




LOWER MANHATTAN SEEN BENEATH BROOKLYN BRIDGE 




THE BATTERY, 1679 



THE BATTERY, 1939 





LINER NIEUW AMSTERDAM IN THE HUDSON 



EAST RIVER DOCKS BELOW BROOKLYN BRIDGE 




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SOUTH STREET PIER AND WALL STREET TOWERS 










FRONT STREET 





OLDEST HOUSE IN MANHATTAN, II PECK SLIP 



NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, BROAD AND WALL STREETS 



m! 









n 







, 

II II 
llil II 






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NUMBER ONE WALL STREET AND STATUE OF JOHN WATTS 







WALL STREET CANYON 



LOWER WEST SIDE 77 

The tiny CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS (Greek Orthodox), at 155 Cedar 
Street, between Washington and West Streets, was built in 1820. Each 
January 6, on the Day of Epiphany, the chapel observes the colorful cere- 
mony of the Rescue of the Cross but not as in the old days, when a small 
wooden crucifix was thrown into the harbor from the Battery landing to 
be rescued by the most agile Greek youth. The waters proving too cold, 
the custom was changed in 1937, and now the cross may be drawn ashore 
by a white ribbon attached to it. 

Near the Syrian Quarter stands the RECREATION TRAINING SCHOOL at 
107 Washington Street. Organized in 1936 under the direction of the 
WPA, it gives instruction in more than one hundred courses, and has an 
enrollment of about twelve hundred. 

Greenwich Street, as Greenwich Road, skirted the shore of the Hud- 
son until about the nineteenth century when the river was pushed back by 
dumping fill. Now heavily walled with merchandising warehouses, it is 
cast into shadow by the Ninth Avenue el, New York's first elevated rapid 
transit system. 

A relic of the old days, the PLANTERS, at Albany and Greenwich 
Streets, was established as a hotel in 1833. It closed when the Civil War 
broke out, but after being remodeled in 1922 was opened as a restaurant. 
In its heyday the hotel was patronized by Southern planters, its location 
I being convenient to the Perth Amboy ferry, and thus to the Washington 
Post Road and the railroads connecting with the South. Near by, at 113 
Greenwich Street, is the rear entrance to the New York Curb Exchange 
Building (see page 86). 

The twin twenty-two-story structures connected by a bridge at 30 and 
50 Church Street, were among the first skyscrapers. Designed by Clinton 
and Russell, these red tapestry-brick buildings were erected in 1908 at a 
cost of $12,000,000. Their name, the HUDSON TERMINAL, derives from 
the downtown station of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (the Hud- 
son Tubes) underneath the buildings. The station is connected by way of 
tunnels with BMT and IRT subways. A block north, on the east side of 
Church Street, is the graveyard of St. Paul's Chapel (see page 98), a sub- 
sidiary of Trinity Parish. 

The imposing FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING, a $7,697,000 structure of 
limestone, occupies the block from Church Street to West Broadway, and 
from Vesey to Barclay Street. Cross and Cross, and Pennington, Lewis, 
and Mills, associate architects, designed the heavy fifteen-story structure, 
a pretentious example of the "classic-without-columns" style of some re- 
cent public buildings. It houses branches of the New York Post Office, 



78 LOWER MANHATTAN 

the Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau of the Department of Com- 
merce, the Federal Housing Administration, and the Treasury Department. 

Hemmed in by modern business structures, ST. PETER'S, on the south- 
east corner of Barclay and Church Streets, is the oldest Roman Catholic 
church building in Manhattan. The edifice was erected in 1786, three 
years after the congregation was organized, and was rebuilt in 1838. Steps 
lead to the six massive columns supporting a pediment in whose center 
stands a figure of St. Peter holding the keys of heaven and hell. 

Old Columbia College, founded in 1754 as King's College (see page 
383), stood until 1857 between Barclay and Murray Streets, and West 
Broadway and Church Street. West Broadway, then Chapel Place, was a 
wandering lane which led from Canal Street to the college chapel. 

During the early eighteenth century, the vicinity of Greenwich and 
Warren Streets was the site of Vauxhall Garden. A reproduction of a 
contemporary London resort, it flourished about forty years, and was the 
rendezvous of most fashionable Colonials. 

The COSMOPOLITAN HOTEL, at Chambers Street and West Broadway, 
the oldest hotel in the city, was opened in 1850 as the Gerard House, 
drawing steady patronage from near-by steamship piers and the first 
Grand Central Terminal, then across the street. Among the patrons were 
bearded 'Frisco gold miners who staggered into the lobby after a trip 
around the Horn, dumped their gold-dust, went out to the barber, and 
came back "unrecognizably clean." The hotel survives, a ramshackle 
building, with stores crowding its entrance, and an incongruous neon 
sign flashing from its fagade. 

Many buildings on the block between Church Street and Broadway, 
and Thomas and Worth Streets represent the florid architectural style of 
the post-Civil War period when decorative feats, structurally impossible 
in stone, were accomplished in cast iron. These white buildings were 
erected by Griffith Thomas in 1869 for the flourishing textile trade, in 
which many of the town's wealthiest citizens were engaged. 

This block was the first site (17731870) of the New York Hospital 
(see page 246). One of the great riots in the city occurred here in 1788 
when a mob stormed the hospital to attack medical students and doctors 
who, it was claimed, had used for dissection the cadavers of "respectable 
people, even young women of whom they made an indecent exposure." 
The militia, summoned by the governor and mayor, removed the students 
to a near-by jail for safekeeping, and when the crowd gathered in front 
of the prison, the troops fired, killing five and wounding scores. 

The WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH BUILDING, at 60 Hudson Street, 






LOWER WEST SIDE 79 

rises twenty- four stories high in thirteen shades of brick, like a huge red 
rock projecting out of the city; Voorhees, Gmelin, and Walker were the 
architects. The LONG DISTANCE BUILDING of the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, 32 Sixth Avenue, near Walker Street, designed 
by the same firm, is the world's largest communication center and the 
junction point of many important telephone trunk routes. It has direct 
circuits to important cities and radio telephone circuits to points in every 
part of the world. All private wires from New York to other cities, 
whether telephone, telegraph, or teletypewriter, lead through the building, 
which is also the main control point for the great radio broadcast series. 
The land west of Broadway to the river, between Fulton and Chris- 
topher Streets, was once known as the Queen's Farm. In 1705 Queen 
Anne granted it to Trinity Church. Since 1731 descendants and alleged 
descendants of Annetje Jans, an early owner of the farm, have sued 
Trinity, either for the return of the land or for pecuniary compensation. 
William Rhinelander in 1794 obtained ninety-nine-year leases of a large 
part of Trinity land; the Common Council in 1797 augmented these 
holdings by granting him all rights to the water front adjoining his prop- 
erty. With the rapid northward expansion of the city in the nineteenth 
century, the area became the site of large commercial structures and 
yielded millions in rent annually to the Rhinelander family. 

For many years Trinity land was ignored by builders because of its 

leasehold status, and not until the Lower East Side of Manhattan had 

been built up did they turn to this section. In 1803 the streets from 

Warren to Canal were laid out. Four years later, St. John's Church, a 

chapel of Trinity parish, was erected on Varick Street near Beach, and 

St. John's Park, named for the chapel, was set up on the block bounded 

; by Varick, Hudson, Laight, and Beach Streets. The park was open only 

to residents of the houses facing it. From 182550 this district was the 

home of the city's wealthy aristocrats. When the plebeian population en- 

| croached upon it the wealthy moved northward. The park was razed in 

' 1869 to make way for the freight terminal of the Hudson River Railroad 

which later was merged with the New York Central Railroad; in 1936 

the terminal was moved to West Houston and West Streets. 

Canal Street, named for and following the course of a stream that 
ran from Collect Pond (the site of the present Foley Square district) to 
| the Hudson, is the main traffic artery connecting New Jersey and Long 
Island by way of the Holland Tunnel and the Manhattan Bridge. 

The HOLLAND TUNNEL, named for its chief engineer, Clifford M. 
Holland, begins at Watts Street, between Hudson and Varick Streets, a 



80 LOWER MANHATTAN 

block north of Canal, and bores underneath the Hudson River to Twelfth 
Street, Jersey City, New Jersey (toll: passenger cars 50$). A spacious and 
impressive plaza leads to a narrow tunnel entrance, whose dingy masonry 
lacks the exciting quality of the glistening interior. The tunnel is made 
of cast iron lined with concrete and the side walls are inset with white 
vitreous tiles, with markers at -quarter-mile points. East- and westbound 
tubes are separate, each two lanes wide, together carrying a traffic of 
12,000,000 cars a year. (The exit of the eastbound traffic tube is on Canal 
Street.) Catwalks in each tube are paced by guards who keep vehicles at 
the required speed of thirty miles an hour. The tunnel was constructed 
by the states of New York and New Jersey at a cost of fifty million dol- 
lars. Work was begun on October 12, 1920, and the tunnel opened on 
November 13, 1927. It is operated by the Port of New York Authority. 

Old SPRING STREET PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, founded in 1811, stands 
at Varick and Spring Streets. In 1834, a mob spurred by prominent poli- 
ticians, almost destroyed the original frame building because Dr. Henry 
G. Ludlow, the pastor, was a firm advocate of abolition. Two years later, 
the present brick structure was erected. 

The firearms firm of FRANCIS BANNERMAN AND SONS, still active at 
501 Broadway, near Broome Street, was founded in 1865 by a former 
naval officer in the Civil War. It has a remarkable collection of military 
arms and war relics. (Open Monday to Friday 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., Satur- 
day 8:30 a.m. to 12 m.; admission free.) Chronological arrangements of 
the exhibits lucidly indicate the stages in the development of modern 
lethal weapons. Prized possessions include such objects as the headquar- 
ters flag of Major General "Light Horse" Harry Lee, famous Revolu- 
tionary cavalry leader and father of General Robert E. Lee; a double- 
barreled flintlock shotgun that belonged to Napoleon I, and the guidon 
of the Seventh U. S. Cavalry used in the battle of Little Big Horn (Gen- 
eral Custer's last stand). 

SOUTH STREET 

Area: South Ferry to Corlears Hook along the East River. Map on page 91. 

The bowsprit of many a clipper Baltimore, California, McKay and 
Liverpool packet once jutted over South Street, now visited by ungainly 
scows, fishing smacks, lighters, and car floats from Long Island and Jersey 
City. This famous "street o' ships," a two-mile stretch of bumpy stones 
skirting the East River from the Battery to Corlears Hook, is historically 



SOUTH STREET 8l 

associated with New York's development as a great port; though today 
but few ocean-going craft breast the piers that once berthed whole fleets 
of gallant windjammers. The Lightnings and Comets and Flying Clouds 
of a later day, requiring deeper water, steam up the broad fairway of the 
North (Hudson) River, leaving South Street to the traffic of the ten-ton 
truck. Viewed, from the piers near the Battery end of South Street, the 
East River bridges Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Williamsburg form a 
superimposed pattern of steel and stone, like a photograph from a camera 
that was jarred during exposure. Across the river, on a bluff overlooking 
the plebeian harbor activities, are the staid residences of Brooklyn Heights, 
for more than a century the center of wealthy conservative society. 

The rumble of speeding trucks, the blasts from near-by steam shovels, 
and the intermittent whistles from passing river traffic join in crescendos 
of dissonance. Sailors in pea jackets and dungarees, workmen in overalls, 
neat office clerks and shabby drifters throng the highway. On mild sunny 
days the drifters sit along the docks with their "junk bags," share ciga- 
rette butts, and stare endlessly into the water. In winter they cluster in 
little groups about small bonfires; many sleep at night in doorways with 
newspapers for covering. Others join the homeless men who sleep in the 
MUNICIPAL LODGING HOUSE, ANNEX No. 2, in the old ferry shed at the 
foot of Whitehall Street, which can accommodate about 1,200 nightly. 

The majority of the piers along South Street are leased or owned by 
railroad companies. Pier 4, at the foot of Broad Street, marks approx- 
imately the site of the first dock built by the Dutch on Manhat- 
tan Island. What is now South Street was then under water, so the exact 
location is inland. The NEW YORK STATE BARGE CANAL TERMINAL oc- 
cupies Pier 6 where arklike, weather-beaten Erie Canal barges are moored. 
Many of the barge captains are married, and their families live on board 
the year round. In winter the boats sometimes lie for months along the 
river banks farther north. 

At 6 1 Whitehall Street is the old EASTERN HOTEL, now used as an 
office building. In 1822 the owner, Captain John B. Coles, remodeled the 
original structure, a warehouse, and named it the Eagle Hotel. It was re- 
named the Eastern in 1856. The frame of the building reputedly contains 
mahogany beams that were used as ballast in eighteenth-century merchant- 
men. Among the hotel's guests were Robert Fulton, Jenny Lind, P. T. 
Barnum, and many of the illustrious entertainers who appeared in Castle 
Garden, now the Aquarium (see page 307). 

The two blocks between Whitehall and Broad are typical of the lower 
length of South Street. Here, dilapidated brick and brownstone structures 



82 LOWER MANHATTAN 

crowd the sidewalks, upper floors forlornly vacant, street floors occupied 
by cut-rate "drink and food" stores, low-priced barber shops, secondhand 
clothes stores, sail lofts, and chandleries. 

Broad Coenties Slip, which was filled in about 1835, encloses JEANETTE 
PARK, a rendezvous popular with South Street's army of beached seamen 
and homeless unemployed. The, park was named for the ill-fated vessel of 
the Jeanette Polar Expedition, promoted in 1880 by the elder James Gor- 
don Bennett. The concrete and chromium structure within the park houses 
the famous OYSTER BAR, established in the neighborhood in 1849. ^ s 
founder, Robert Peach, opened up shop by the simple device of setting 
three planks across two barrels. In 1898, Patrick O'Connor, age twelve, 
became his assistant, and, five years later, his partner. Peach retired in 
1917, but O'Connor carried on. He now operates the park bar. 

The SEAMEN'S CHURCH INSTITUTE OF NEW YORK occupies a thirteen- 
story brick and stone-trimmed structure at 25 South Street (latitude 40 
42' 10" N, longitude 74 oo' 35" W). Surmounting the roof is a small 
lighthouse tower erected in 1913, by public subscription, as a memorial 
to the passengers, officers, and crew of the S.S. Titanic, luxury liner that 
sank April 15, 1912, after striking an iceberg on her maiden voyage to 
America. Standing guard over the main entrance of the building is a 
gilded figurehead of Sir Galahad, reminiscent of the carvings on the prows 
of the clipper ships which docked near by during the nineteenth century. 
Above the figurehead is a ship's bell rescued from the S.S. Atlantic which 
foundered off Fisher's Island on Thanksgiving Day, 1846, with a loss of 
seventy-eight lives. The bell, connected with a clock, rings ship's time 
every half -hour. The institute was founded in 1834, and in 1843 estab- 
lished churches on the water front. In 1854 activities were expanded to 
include provision for sailors' lodging and entertainment. Several missions, 
floating churches, and boarding houses were operated throughout the port 
until 1913 when the present building was opened as the institute's center. 
An annex with accommodations for a thousand guests making a total 
lodging capacity of about fifteen hundred at the institute was com- 
pleted in 1929. Seamen are charged moderate rates for lodging and meals; 
privileges include admission to moving pictures and other entertainment, 
and the use of libraries, club, game, and writing rooms. A merchant 
marine school, conducted by the institute, is the oldest surviving school 
of its kind in New York. It was founded in 1916. 

In the middle of Old Slip is the FIRST PRECINCT POLICE STATION, a 
grim, solid structure reminiscent of a fortified Florentine Renaissance 
palazzo. North, across the street, is the UNITED STATES ASSAY BUILDING, 



SOUTH STREET 83 

a five-story granite building with a massive chimney. The public is not 
admitted to this sanctuary where scrap gold and silver are melted into 
bullion. 

The thoroughfare's only skyscraper is at Wall and South Streets, 120 
WALL STREET. It is a huge, white, thirty-three-story building, uncom- 
promising in its literal conformance to the setback ordinance. Ely Jacques 
Kahn was the architect. A bronze PLAQUE identifies the site as that of 
Murray's Wharf, where George Washington landed April 23, 1789, on 
his way to Federal Hall for his inauguration as President. Private sea- 
planes of Wall Street commuters land at the MUNICIPAL DOWNTOWN 
SKYPORT between Piers n and 12. 

The squat fortress-like WAREHOUSE on the corner of De Peyster Street 
is one of the oldest buildings on the street. It was built of rough-hewn 
granite blocks more than one hundred years ago by the Griswold brothers, 
East India merchants. 

FULTON MARKET, largest wholesale fish mart on the Atlantic Coast, 
was established in 1821 as a retail market to "supply the common people 
with the necessities of life at a reasonable price." The market covers an 
area of six city blocks bounded by Fulton, Water, Dover, and South 
Streets, and includes two large markets on the South Street docks near 
Fulton. Before daybreak tons of fish are unloaded from the holds of 
stubby-sticked trawlers and draggers and from refrigerated trucks from 
New England and New Jersey. Six days a week, from 2 to 9 A.M., the sec- 
tion is a bedlam as rubber-booted men in the street and in narrow stalls 
clean, bone, ice, unpack, and repack approximately one hundred varieties 
of fish. After a section of the market structure collapsed in 1936, the city 
undertook the modernization of this landmark. Three new market build- 
ings have been planned (1939). 

SWEET'S, a restaurant established almost a century ago, is on the south- 
west corner of Fulton and South Streets. In old days it was especially 
popular among shipmasters and South Street merchants, and from 1850 
to 1860, when "blackbirders" flourished along the East River, many ne- 
farious slave-running deals were transacted in this South Street "Del- 
monico's." 

From a pier near the present Peck's Slip, the first licensed Brooklyn 
ferry began operations in 1654. Fares were three stivers for whites, and 
six stivers for Indians. Between Dover and Roosevelt Streets, South Street 
passes under the Brooklyn Bridge (see page 313). Near by, at 174 South 
Street is the BIRTHPLACE OF FORMER GOVERNOR ALFRED E. SMITH. 

Almost the entire block between Catharine Slip and Market Slip is oc- 



84 LOWER MANHATTAN 

cupied by the HEARST PUBLICATION PLANT which houses the editorial 
and press rooms of the New York Journal and American and the Sunday 
American. The American Weekly is also printed here. 

The stretch of shore from Catharine Slip to Corlears Hook was oc- 
cupied by the shipbuilding industry during the War of 1812 and in the 
decade preceding it. Many of New York's privateers that harassed British 
sea-traffic during the war were constructed in the local shipways. And 
from these yards was recruited Noah Brown's heroic band who fashioned 
Commodore Perry's fleet for the Battle of Lake Erie. 

South Street gradually assumes a quieter tempo at Market Slip as trucks 
and pedestrians become less frequent. Farther on, at Rutgers Slip, there 
is a pathetic little park more liberally supplied with benches than with 
shade. From Clinton Street to Corlears Hook Park the East River is walled 
from view by a continuous line of railroad pier sheds, and only an occa- 
sional blast from an unseen tug reminds one that water-borne traffic is 
passing. 

WALL STREET DISTRICT 

Area: Battery Place, Beaver St., and Old Slip on the south to Fulton St. on the 
north; from Trinity Place and Church St. east to South St. Map on page 91. 

Wall Street, financial heart of the nation, is itself but little more than a 
third of a mile long from its head at Broadway to its foot at the East 
River, although its name is applied to a small district lying to the north 
and south. Functionally, Wall Street is a complex mechanism developed 
to provide the centralized banking and credit facilities and the efficient 
securities market place that modern industry and commerce demand. 
Walled in by towering structures, the street, by historical coincidence, is 
well named. 

At this place in 1653, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Amsterdam, 
ordered a protective wall built across what was then the colony's northern- 
most limit. It was not long before the city had pushed past this barrier, 
and under British rule the district flourished as a center of government 
and fashion. Following the Revolution, Wall Street became for a year the 
seat of the Federal Government, and here were located the establishments 
of such statesmen and leaders of commerce as Alexander Hamilton and 
John Jay. 

The four buildings of the famous NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE 
cover the area between New, Wall, and Broad Streets and Exchange Place 
one block east of Broadway. The original building, designed by George 



WALL STREET DISTRICT 85 

B. Post, was finished in 1903, and the twenty-two-story addition, in 1923, 
from the plans of Trowbridge and Livingston. The adjoining BLAIR 
BUILDING and COMMERCIAL CABLE BUILDING were bought in 1928. The 
Exchange building proper, with its well-proportioned Corinthian order 
and sculptured pediment, shows an expressive use of the "temple" form 
of facade. The Exchange is owned and administered by 1,375 member 
brokers, each of whom possesses a "seat." In the boom year of 1929, seats 
sold for as much as $625,000; the top price in 1938 was $85,000. Dur- 
ing 1937, the Exchange had on its trading list some 1,200 stock issues, 
valued at almost sixty billion dollars, as well as 1,400 bond issues valued 
at more than forty-two billion dollars. 

The Exchange was established shortly after the formation of the United 
States. In 1790, the first Congress authorized the issue of eighty million 
dollars in bonds. Three large banking institutions were incorporated about 
this time, and for the public sale of their stock, a market was developed 
under a buttonwood tree at what is now 68 Wall Street. Here, in 1792, a 
group of twenty-four brokers drew up a trading agreement. Financing 
the next war, in 1812, gave the exchange a new importance and the New 
York Stock and Exchange Board was organized with offices at 40 Wall 
Street. It was as a result of financing the Civil War, however, that the 
board began to approach its full power. The organization was combined 
with the Open Board of Brokers and the Government Bond Department 
to form the present New York Stock Exchange early in 1863. 

There followed a half-century of unprecedented expansion. Money was 
needed for railroads, telegraph lines, factories, for building cities over 
night and exploiting the resources of the West. Financial titans arose: 
Jay Gould, Jim Fisk, Daniel Drew, Jim Hill, E. H. Harriman, and the 
elder J. P. Morgan. After Gould, Fisk, and Drew, with the help of bribed 
New York legislators, had succeeded in their struggle with Commodore 
Vanderbilt for the control of the Erie Railroad, Gould and Fisk conceived 
the plan of cornering the gold market, counting on the United States 
Treasury not to sell from its gold reserve. But when the price of gold 
reached 162 on Black Friday (September 24, 1869), President Grant 
ordered the Treasury to sell, breaking the corner. The panic of 1869 re- 
sulted, followed by a depression which lasted ten years. Banks, brokers, 
merchants suspended business; nearly one hundred railroads failed, and 
the Stock Exchange closed its doors. 

With the fall of men like Fisk came the rise of Morgan, Harriman, 
and others, unbridled expansion, larger fortunes, and further battles for 
personal financial dictatorship. It was in this period that Morgan's and 



86 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Harriman's struggle over the great Northern Pacific Railroad was followed 
by the collapse of the market and the nation-wide panic of 1901. Again, 
in 1907, Morgan's struggle with the Knickerbocker Trust Company 
brought about the failure of that and other institutions. 

The World War brought further prosperity to the Exchange and 
necessitated the erection of a twenty-two-story addition to its building. 
After the war, except for the depression of 192022, the market rose to 
new heights, and with it the expectations of an expanding nation. The 
panic of October, 1929, and another depression were the inevitable re- 
actions. 

One radical result of this depression was the creation of the Securities 
and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1934, which for the first time at- 
tempted governmental regulation of the influential Stock Exchange. 

The function of the Exchange is to provide a liquid market where se- 
curities can at all times be disposed of or acquired virtually without delay. 
Trading in America's greatest securities market is conducted on the floor 
of the Great Hall, one of the largest rooms in the world. Orders to buy 
or sell, telegraphed and telephoned from all over the world, are relayed 
through brokerage houses to their active members on the floor, who trans- 
act business orally with traders stationed at numerous horseshoe trading 
posts. Despite the informal nature of these transactions, they are quickly 
recorded in meticulous detail on the Exchange's ticker tape and are 
communicated by telegraph and cable to other markets. 

Trading operations may be viewed from the visitor's gallery. Admission 
was comparatively easy until 1933, when a visitor unkindly deposited a 
tear gas bomb in the ventilating system. Today admission is available only 
to guests of an Exchange member firm. 

The visitor, standing in front of Trinity Church (see page 310), Wall 
Street and Broadway, shortly before nine o'clock in the morning, will see 
the empty "street" fill suddenly with swift-moving clerks, tellers, stenog- 
raphers, and office boys pouring from subways, ferries, and elevated trains ; 
while bankers and brokers arrive almost as promptly in chauffeured auto- 
mobiles or by planes landing at a ramp near the foot of Wall Street. 

Directly behind Trinity Church, is the NEW YORK CURB EXCHANGE, 
78 Trinity Place, second largest securities market in the nation. Here cer- 
tain other securities not listed by the New York Stock Exchange are 
traded. The Curb Exchange's two buildings, designed by Starrett and Van 
Vleck, were opened in 1921 and 1931 respectively. The 550 regular and 
more than four hundred associate members include many members of the 
Stock Exchange. 



WALL STREET DISTRICT 87 

Before 1921, the Curb conducted transactions in the open street, from 
which comes its name. The brokers, known originally as "Curb brokers" 
in Wall Street, met at the northern end of Broad Street and communicated 
by violent gesticulations with their colleagues in the windows above. In 
1908 the New York Curb Agency was organized, and reorganized in 1911 
as the New York Curb Market, with fixed trading hours. The present 
name was adopted in 1929. The lowest price accepted in 1929 for a Curb 
seat was $150,000; the 1938 minimum was $8,000. 

At the entrance to Wall Street are two skyscrapers, the IRVING TRUST 
COMPANY, at No. i, and the FIRST NATIONAL BANK, at No. 2. The 
former, completed in 1931, from the plans of Voorhees, Gmelin, and 
Walker, is fifty stories high, and resembles a solid shaft of stone. Fluted 
walls and chamfered corners (an expensive device on land worth $520 a 
square foot) help create this illusion. The site is about 180 by no feet 
and is assessed at $10,250,000 without improvements. The twenty-one- 
story First National Bank, erected in 1933 from a design by Walker and 
Gillette, is marked by a flat, unimaginative use of classic precedent. At 
No. 14, is the entrance to the thirty-nine-story BANKERS TRUST COM- 
PANY, designed by Trowbridge and Livingston, and erected in 1911. The 
twenty-five-story addition, facing Pine Street, was completed in 1933. 
Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon designed the addition. 

Opposite the Stock Exchange at the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets 
is the SUBTREASURY BUILDING, a dignified structure designed in Greek- 
Revival style by Ithiel Town and A. J. Davis. Built in 1842 as a Custom 
House, it was remodeled in 1862 for use as a Subtreasury. The Federal 
Reserve Bank used it until 1925. Now the building houses the New York 
Passport Agency of the Department of State, several departments of the 
U.S. Public Health Service, and the Bureau of Accounts of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. It stands on the site of the Colonial City Hall, 
built in 1699 and torn down in 1812. Here, in 1735, John Peter Zenger, 
imprisoned editor of the New-York Weekly Journal, was. tried on charges 
of libeling the administration of the royal governor, William Cosby, and 
was acquitted after the country's first major battle for freedom of the 
press. The Stamp Act Congress met here in 1765, and the Continental 
Congress in 1785. In the expectation that New York would be the na- 
tional capital, Major L'Enfant, who later planned the city of Washington, 
was commissioned to remodel the building in 1788 as the Federal Hall, 
and here Washington took oath, April 30, 1789, as President of the 
United States. The place above the steps where it is claimed he stood on 
this occasion is marked by J. Q. A. Ward's STATUE OF WASHINGTON 



88 LOWER MANHATTAN 

erected in 1883. The actual stone on which Washington stood is preserved 
in a glass case within the building. 

Near the Subtreasury, in front of the adjoining old Assay Office, a 
horse-drawn wagon, loaded with explosives, blew up shortly before noon, 
September 16, 1920. Thirty of the noonday crowd were killed and one 
hundred wounded. Scars of the explosion are still visible on near-by build- 
ings. Occurring during a period of anti-radical hysteria, the disaster was 
said by some to have been a protest dynamiting of this important financial 
corner. Others held that the wagon had belonged to an explosives com- 
pany and had been using a prohibited route when its load of dynamite 
was accidentally discharged. Neither theory ever was proved. 

At 23 Wall Street, across from the Stock Exchange, is the diminutive 
MORGAN BUILDING, home of America's most powerful private banking 
firm. Erected in 1914, the gray five-story building is impersonal to an 
almost forbidding degree. It was designed by Trowbridge and Livingston. 

East, at 40 Wall, is the BANK OF THE MANHATTAN COMPANY, the 
city's second oldest bank. By-product of the feud between Aaron Burr and 
Alexander Hamilton, the Manhattan Company was organized by Burr in 
1799, and though chartered as a water company, the bank was opened al- 
most immediately. The water service ceased in 1842. The present building, 
called the Manhattan Company Building, was designed by H. Craig 
Severance in association with Yasuo Matsui. Seventy-one stories in height, 
it was intended to be the world's tallest structure when construction was 
begun in 1929, but the last-minute addition of a spire to the Chrysler 
Building (see page 224) defeated the plan. Within five years it had 
dropped to fifth place in height. The observation tower stands 830 feet 
above the street. (Open daily 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; admission free.) Solid 
glass automatic doors in the lobby are an unusual feature. 

Hamilton's bank, the BANK OF NEW YORK AND TRUST COMPANY, 
the city's oldest, is just east, at No. 48; it was organized in 1784. The 
present thirty-two-story structure was erected in 1928, from the plans of 
Benjamin Wistar Morris III. 

The NATIONAL CITY BANK, the second largest bank in the country, 
has offices at No. 55. The building's lower part, with its four-story colon- 
nade, was built in 1842, and served- as customhouse from 1862 until 1907, 
when it was taken over by the bank, and the second tier of four stories 
and another colonnade were added under the direction of McKim, Mead, 
and White, architects. The simple power of the composition of the north 
fagade is most effective. The bank, chartered in 1812, was an outgrowth of 
the First Bank of the United States, established in Philadelphia in 1791. 



WALL STREET DISTRICT 89 

A block to the north, at 18 Pine Street, is the CHASE NATIONAL BANK, 
the nation's largest bank since its merger with the Equitable Trust Com- 
pany in 1930. At its Cedar Street entrance is a free exhibit of more than 
forty thousand coins. (Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Saturday 9 a.m. to 
12 m.) 

The tallest building in lower Manhattan, and third highest in the city, 
is SIXTY WALL TOWER (the Cities Service Building), at 70 Pine Street. 
An underground passage and a bridge connect with older quarters at 
60 Wall Street. Sixty-seven stories (965 feet) high, it was designed by 
Clinton and Russell, and erected in 1932. A complicated play of over- 
lapping forms emphasizes long vertical lines that accentuate the height of 
the building. There is an observation room in the tower. (Open weekdays 
11 a.m. to 5 p.m.; admission 400, children under eight, free.) 

The TONTINE BUILDING, northwest corner of Wall and Water Streets, 
is on the site of the Tontine Coffee House, erected in 1794, a favorite 
meeting place for merchants and political groups. The Merchants' Coffee 
House, erected about 1737 on the southeast corner of Wall and Water 
Streets, was a rendezvous for Revolutionary plotters, and is memorialized 
by a bronze plaque on the present building. 

Hanover Square, where Hanover, Stone, Pearl, and William Streets 
converge on OM Slip, south of Wall Street, was a public Common as 
early as 1637. On the southwest side of the square is INDIA HOUSE, built 
in 1837 by Richard Carman, and headquarters since 1914 of a group of 
foreign traders. Ship models, prints, and other relics are housed here. 
Nicholas Bayard built a house on this site in 1673, while across the 
square (119-21 Pearl Street) in about 1691 lived his friend Captain 
William Kidd. The Bayard House, together with a greater part of the 
square, was destroyed in the great fire of 1835. 

The lower end of William Street has probably undergone more changes 
of name than any other street in the city. It has been known as: The 
Glass Makers' Street, The Smith Street, Smee Street, Smit Street, Suice 
Street, De Smee Street, Burghers Path, Burger Jorisens Path, King Street, 
Berger Joris Street, and Borisens Path. 

The NEW YORK COTTON EXCHANGE, at 60 Beaver Street, two blocks 
south of the Stock Exchange, is the most important cotton market in the 
world; it was organized in 1871. Its present building, designed by Donn 
Barber, was erected in 1923. Other exchanges in the vicinity include the 
MARITIME EXCHANGE at No. 80 and the COMMODITY EXCHANGE at 81 
Broad Street, three blocks south of the Stock Exchange; and the NEW 



90 LOWER MANHATTAN 

KEY TO MAP OF SOUTH STREET, WALL STREET DISTRICT, 
CITY HALL DISTRICT, AND CHINATOWN 

SOUTH STREET 

1. Hearst Publication Plant 9. First Precinct Police Station 

2. Birthplace of Alfred E. Smith 10. Seamen's Church Institute 

3. Fulton Market 11. Jeanette Park 

4. Sweet's 12. State Barge Canal Terminal 

5. The Old Griswold Warehouse 13. Site of the First Dock 

6. 120 Wall Street Building 14. Municipal Lodging House 

7. Municipal Downtown Skyport 15. Site of the Eastern Hotel 

8. U.S. Assay Building 

WALL STREET DISTRICT 

16. Maritime Exchange 32. New York Curb Exchange 

17. Commodity Exchange 33. New York's Oldest Restaurant 

18. India House 34. Trinity Church 

19. Cotton Exchange 35. First National Bank Building 

20. Coffee, and Sugar Exchange 36. Bankers Trust Company Building 

21. Site of Merchants' Coffee House 37. Chase National Bank Building 

22. Tontine Building 38. Equitable Building 

23. Sixty Wall Tower 39. New York Clearing House 

24. Bank of N.Y. and Trust Company 40. Mutual Life Insurance Company 

25. National City Bank Building 41. Federal Reserve Bank 

26. Manhattan Company Building 42. Chamber of Commerce 

27. U.S. Subtreasury Building 43. Singer Building 

28. Morgan Building 44. Site of John Street Theater 

29. New York Stock Exchange 45. Golden Hill 

30. Irving Trust Company Building 46. Old John Street Church 

31. Aldrich Court Building 47. Washington Irving's Birthplace 

CITY HALL DISTRICT 

48. St. Paul's Chapel 61. City Court Building 

49. Woolworth Building 62. Stewart Building (The Sun) 

50. Statue of Nathan Hale 63. Hall of Records 

51. Civic Virtue 64. Court Square Building 

52. Statue of Benjamin Franklin 65. St. Andrew's Church 

53. Newspaper Row 66. U.S. Court House 

54. Tribune Building 67. Site of Tea Water Pump 

55. Old Beekman (Tavern) 68. Supreme Court Building 

56. Pulitzer Building 69. State Office Building 

57. Brace Newsboys' House 70. Health Department Building 

58. Municipal Building 71. Tombs 

59. Statue of Horace Greeley 72. Criminal Courts Building 

60. City Hall 

CHINATOWN 

73. Chinese School 77. Tom Noonan's Rescue Society 

74. Wall Newspaper 78. Bloody Angle 

75. On Leong Tong 79. Hip Sing Tong 

76. Joss House 



LHH sU 8 

SH 5 



SOUTH STREET 

WALL STREET DISTRICT 

CITY HALL DISTRICT 

CHINATOWN 



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MURRAY Sr ; ' : 

PARK 

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BARCMY ST. 

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92 LOWER MANHATTAN 

YORK COFFEE AND SUGAR EXCHANGE at 1 1 3 Pearl Street. The New York 
Produce Exchange (see page 66) is at 2 Broadway. 

At 45 Broadway, between Morris Street and Exchange Alley, is the 
ALDRICH COURT BUILDING, housing the United States Shipping Commis- 
sion, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and other Federal 
agencies. A TABLET in the building's fagade marks what is said to be the 
site of the first residence of white men on Manhattan. In November, 1613, 
the ship Tyger burned offshore, and the captain and crew landed here and 
built four huts. 

Running north of the Stock Exchange, Nassau Street, known origi- 
nally as "the Street that Runs by the Pye Woman," a continuation of 
Broad Street, is the retail shopping center of the financial district. Here 
in low old buildings are shops and restaurants catering to the noonday 
crowd. 

At 77 Cedar Street, between Nassau and Broadway is the NEW YORK. 
CLEARING HOUSE, a five-story building with a marble front, erected in 
1896. R. W. Gibson was the architect. In this important institution many 
millions of dollars in checks and drafts drawn on member banks are 
cleared daily. Although constant mergers have reduced member banks 
from a maximum of sixty-seven to twenty, the volume of business has 
expanded enormously since it was organized in 1853. 

New York's oldest restaurant, YE OLDE CHOP HOUSE, is located at 118 
Cedar Street, and for more than 1 30 years has catered to men in the Wall 
Street area. At 120 Broadway, between Cedar and Liberty Streets is the 
EQUITABLE BUILDING, planned by E. R. Graham. Erected in 1914, before 
the setback law, it shoots up forty-one stories, unrelieved and formidable. 
Its total of 1,200,000 square feet of rentable floor space makes it the 
second largest building in floor area in the city. The MUTUAL LIFE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY of New York is at 34 Nassau Street, between Cedar and 
Liberty Streets. Chartered in 1842, it is the oldest organization of its kind 
in America. The insurance section of the financial district is now largely 
concentrated in the neighborhood of Fulton and William Streets. 

The FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF NEW YORK, 33 Liberty Street, occu- 
pies the block bounded by Maiden Lane, Nassau, Liberty, and William 
Streets. The fourteen- story building, completed in 1924 from plans by 
York and Sawyer, is constructed of heavy limestone blocks. It strongly sug- 
gests the fortified palaces of the Florentine Renaissance. The rusticated 
stone exterior is almost without ornament except for iron lanterns, and the 
iron grilles of the great arched windows complete the picture of a build- 
ing ready for a siege. Five stories are below street level. Subterranean 



WALL STREET DISTRICT 93 

vaults are barred by doors weighing as much as ninety tons. The NEW 
YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 65 Liberty Street, occupies a five-story 
building designed by James B. Baker and completed in 1902. This, the 
oldest commercial organization of its kind in the world, was founded in 
1768 in the Long Room of Fraunces Tavern (see page 68) and chartered 
by George III in 1770 with the aim of encouraging commerce and sup- 
porting industry. Its resident membership, limited to two thousand, in- 
cludes many of the city's prominent bankers and industrialists. 

Maiden Lane, one block north of Liberty Street, was so named when, 
as Maagde Paatje (the Dutch equivalent), it was a footpath used by lovers 
along a rippling brook. Once the city's noted retail jewelry center, the 
street is now given over to wholesale trade and manufacturing. A TABLET 
in the Jewelers' Building, 17 Maiden Lane, marks the location of the 
John Street Theater, built in 1767, and frequently attended by President 
Washington. 

One block north, John Street, center of insurance and jewelry busi- 
ness, was known before the Revolution as Golden Hill and was the scene 
of the "Battle" of Golden Hill where, in January, 1770, two men were 
wounded in a skirmish between citizens and British soldiers. A TABLET 
at the northwest corner of John and William Streets marks the site of this 
early encounter. The SINGER BUILDING, 149 Broadway, at the head of 
John Street, was built in 1908 and remained the city's tallest edifice for 
eighteen months ; forty-one stories (612 feet) high, today (1939) it ranks 
sixteenth. Ernest Flagg, the architect, gave it the first slender skyscraper 
tower. At 46 John Street is the OLD JOHN STREET METHODIST EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH, mother church of American Methodism. The present edifice, 
Federal in style, and erected in 1841, is the third on the site since 1768. 

In 1783, Washington Irving was born at 131 William Street, corner 
of Fulton an appropriate birthplace for the man who coined the phrase 
"the Almighty Dollar." One block east, at the corner of Pearl Street, 
Holt's Hotel, later known as the United States Hotel, was erected in 1833. 
It was considered "the pioneer of the 'great' hotels of New York City and 
of America." The roof contained a promenade and an observatory whence 
the city's traders could watch for incoming vessels. 



94 LOWER MANHATTAN 

CITY HALL DISTRICT 

Area: Fulton St. on the south to Franklin St. on the north; from Church St. east 
to Pearl St. Map on page 91. 

One mile north of Battery Landing, the imperfect triangle of CITY 
HALL PARK is wedged into Broadway's steep eastern wall. Here is the 
venerable seat of the municipal government, and the scene of important 
historical events. Broadway clips the park precisely on the west as does 
Chambers Street on the north and hems it in with a palisade of commer- 
cial buildings whose architectural distinction, except for the Woolworth 
Building, lies mainly in their renovated store fronts. The apex of the 
park's ten-and-one-half-acre triangle points to St. Paul's Chapel, the oldest 
church in the borough and probably the only building that presents its 
back to Broadway. The eastern boundary of the park is fixed by two 
streets: Park Row, which slants northeast from Broadway past old "News- 
paper Row," and Centre Street, which runs north from the end of Brook- 
lyn Bridge (see page 313) through the new civic center at Foley Square. 

Paved walks subdivide the park into small grassy areas set with trees. 
Rows of benches bordering the walks accommodate strollers and idlers 
who pause to rest, to read, to have their shoes shined, to feed the pigeons, 
or to enjoy the transient sunshine. This is a restless park: six days a week 
crowds of office workers stream to and from the IRT subway kiosks on 
both sides; elevated trains rattle and screech in a rambling shed at the 
approach to Brooklyn Bridge; well polished automobiles bearing low 
license numbers nudge into a parking space "For Official Cars Only"; 
policemen ceaselessly patrol the grounds; lunch-hour crowds, released 
from near-by office buildings, fill the paths at noontime. 

There are but two buildings in the park proper, although a third, the 
triangular post-office building that was called "Mullett's monstrosity," 
occupied the southern segment until 1938. In the north central section of 
the park is City Hall, and to the rear and fronting Chambers Street is the 
City Court Building, formerly known as the Old County Court House. 

CITY HALL houses the offices of the Mayor, chief executive and magis- 
.trate of the city, and his staff; the City Council, the municipal legislative 
body; the Board of Estimate, the general administrative body; and the 
Art Commission, the agency that passes on the designs for all public 
buildings and works of art. 

Architecturally, City Hall is an exceptionally well-executed design of 
the post-Colonial period showing clearly the fact, noteworthy in its day, 



CITY HALL DISTRICT 95 

that professional rather than amateur architects planned it. The design, a 
beautiful adaptation of French Renaissance and American Colonial influ- 
ences, was essentially the work of Joseph F. Mangin, a Frenchman, but his 
partner and co-winner of a competition for the commission, John Mc- 
Comb, a Scotsman, supervised the work in New York and received most 
of the contemporary credit. He was paid six dollars a day, a very good 
salary at the time. Construction was under way for nearly a decade; it 
took three years to settle on the plan alone. To save $15,000 the city 
fathers, tempering their recklessness in spending a half million dollars 
for the structure, insisted that brownstone be used for the rear. City Hall 
was completed in 1811. 

Reminiscent of the Hotel de Ville of the eighteenth century, the digni- 
fied marble structure, chastely embellished with Louis XVI pilasters be- 
tween arched windows, is noteworthy for its unusual grace and delicate 
scale. The two wings are balanced on either side of a central portico that 
is surmounted by a cupola. Its finial is a figure of Justice, said to have 
been executed by John Dixey. The interior is marked by McComb's fine 
attention to detail, especially in the rotunda, in the superb double curve of 
the self-supporting marble stairway with its delicate wrought-iron rail- 
ings, and in the slender columns of the upper gallery. 

Portraits of former governors crowd the walls of the corridors, and 
mayors' portraits are hung in the mayor's antechamber and reception room 
on the first floor. Over the mantelpiece in the mayor's office is a portrait of 
Lafayette, painted by Samuel F. B. Morse on the occasion of the general's 
visit to America in 1824. The Governors' Suite, on the second floor, was 
originally intended for the official use of the State's chief executive when 
in New York, but its three rooms have been converted into a museum. 
(Open Monday to Friday 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Saturday 9 a.m. to 12 m.) 
A mahogany writing table used by George Washington during the first 
days of his Presidency is exhibited along with other historic pieces of 
furniture. In the Governors' Room of the suite are Trumbull's portraits of 
such noted personages as John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and George 
Washington (valued at more than a quarter of a million dollars), and in 
the other two rooms are hung paintings by John Wesley Jarvis, Henry 
Inman, John Vanderlyn, Thomas Sully, George Catlin, and others. The 
portrait of Henry Hudson is the work of Paul van Somer, a seventeenth- 
century Flemish master; the identity of the subject is doubtful, however, 
for there is no authenticated portrait of the navigator. This valuable col- 
lection is under the care of the Art Commission. 

The mahogany- lined City Council chamber, once the aldermanic cham- 



96 LOWER MANHATTAN 

her, on the second floor, contains portraits of Henry Clay and George 
Washington, a statue of Thomas Jefferson by Pierre Jean David (d' Angers), 
and a pretentious ceiling mural, New York City Receiving the Tributes of 
the Nations, by Taber Sears, George W. Breck, and Frederic C. Martin. 
The adjoining committee room is decorated with portraits of General 
George B. McClellan, by William H. Powell, and of William Bainbridge, 
by John Wesley Jarvis. The former Common Council chamber, on the 
second floor, is now the meeting place of the Board of Estimate. Corinthian 
columns and pilasters give the room an atmosphere of dignity. A bust of 
John Jay, on the north side, is the work of John Frazee; that of John 
Marshall, on the south side, is by an unknown artist. 

The steps of City Hall are worn smooth by official public receptions 
and ceremonies. Here the mayor welcomes distinguished visitors, awards 
promotions to members of the fire, police, and sanitation departments, 
and makes contributions opening charity campaigns. 

The CITY COURT BUILDING is a white marble structure with Corinthian 
columns and pilasters. Built (1861-72) by the Tweed Ring at the cost 
of more than $12,000,000, it provided the opportunity for one of the 
most gigantic steals in the city's history. 

City Hall Park is New York's approximation of a courthouse square or 
village green. This little plot of land is all that survives of one of New 
York's earliest municipal gathering places. The site was once part of the 
common lands. Whenever the community peace was threatened or cause 
for celebration arose, the populace gathered there. An oak planted near 
City Hall in 1911 does honor to the memory of Jacob Leisler, who fought 
against the tyranny of English rule and was hanged for treason in 1691 
close to this spot. Near the front of the building the Sons of Liberty 
erected five successive "liberty poles" between 1766 and 1776. In 1776 
the Declaration of Independence, brought by courier from the Continental 
Congress in Philadelphia, was read here, for the first time in New York, 
in the presence of George Washington. 

On February 13, 1837, the "Flour" or "Bread Riot" took place during 
a financial panic then threatening the country. The price of flour had ad- 
vanced from six dollars to fifteen dollars a barrel amid widespread specu- 
lation. A placard was carried through the streets announcing a meeting at 
the park, and declaring: "All friends of Humanity, determined to resist 
Monopolists and Extortionists are invited to attend, rain or shine. Bread, 
Meat, Rent, Fuel the voice of the people shall be heard." The six thou- 
sand who attended vented their anger by breaking into the flour stores, 



CITY HALL DISTRICT 97 

dispersing only after the militia had been called out. The distressed 
gathered again in ominous protest during the lean days of the 1850'$. 

The park was the scene of a peculiar riot in 1857 when opposing bands 
of policemen cracked one another's heads. The Municipal Police, venal 
and inefficient, had been abolished by an act of the State Legislature and 
a new body, the Metropolitan Police, established under State control. The 
Municipals refused to disband, however, and when a large force of 
Metropolitans attempted to serve warrants for the arrest of Mayor Fer- 
nando Wood, the two groups clashed in a savage battle that stormed 
through the corridors of City Hall and was finally checked only by a 
show of bayonets by the Seventh Regiment of the National Guard. 

During the Civil War, food for the soldiers went out across the park 
from the supply base at City Hall. A ceremony held here on March 24, 
1900, marked the commencement of construction of the subway transit 
system. 

A STATUE OF NATHAN HALE, the work of Frederick MacMonnies, is 
on the west side of the park. The FIGURE OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, near 
the east side of the park, was sculptured by E. Plassman and was erected 
in 1872 as the gift of Albert de Groot to the press and printers of New 
York. Another journalist, Horace Greeley, is honored by a heroic STATUE 
in bronze by Henry Bonnard. But the MacMonnies statue, Chic Vir- 
tue, erected in 1922, is the one generally associated with City Hall Park. 
Said to be the largest piece carved from a single block of marble since 
Michelangelo's David, the central figure is a gigantic muscular youth, nude 
except for a dash of foam (or seaweed) encircling his middle: a sword 
over his right shoulder, he fixes his gaze forward, seemingly unaware 
that he is trampling on two sirens writhing at his feet. In summertime chil- 
dren splash in the basin of the monument. Protests against the unembar- 
rased nudity of the group and the conception it presents of virtuous man's 
chivalry have brought a promise of removal to Foley Square, where, pre- 
sumably, criticism is less stringent. 

The region north of City Hall Park is a district of wholesale commerce, 
where caps, pants, and woolens are manufactured and sold. 

For almost a score of years before 1930 the sixty-story WOOLWORTH 
BUILDING, erected in 1913 west of the park's apex, at Broadway and 
Park Place, was the world's tallest building; its architect was Cass Gil- 
bert. Intended as a huge "sky sign" to advertise Frank W. Woolworth's 
chain of five-and-ten-cent stores, it was acclaimed a masterpiece, the first 
"cathedal of commerce." Its tower rises without a setback from the center 
of the Broadway front to 792 feet above the curb. The lower and broader 



98 LOWER MANHATTAN 

section of the building mounts thirty stories to a height of about four 
hundred feet. This section has been criticized as being too high in com- 
parison with the tower, when seen from the west. All the horizontal ele- 
ments of the building are subdued in color to strengthen the soaring qual- 
ity of the vertical lines. 

The color is as delicately graded as the modeling. The chief effect is a 
glistening white, set off by the weathered green of the copper peak and 
copper roof; but as many as six different colors were used on a single 
terra-cotta ornamental detail. Pinnacles, carved canopies, and gargoyles 
soften the silhouette and impart an atmospheric lightness. 

Crisp and delicate terra-cotta surface ornament drops over the building 
like a veil. All the details are Gothic, even to the tourelles that surround 
the peak, the finial that surmounts it, and the flying buttresses. 

Despite its Gothic decorations, the Woolworth Building was a genuine 
contribution to the development of an American skyscraper style. It repre- 
sents one of the earliest attempts to express the steel- frame structure a 
departure from the "immobility of mass and weight of masonry" that char- 
acterized the classic type of building. 

Below the Woolworth Building, on Broadway between Vesey and Ful- 
ton Streets, is ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL OF TRINITY PARISH, the oldest church 
building in Manhattan. Its cornerstone was laid May 14, 1764, in a field 
sloping to the Hudson River. The architect, James McBean, a Scot, is said 
to have been a pupil of James Gibbs. Gibbs designed the Renaissance church 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, in London, which greatly influenced the de- 
sign of St. Paul's. 

The church was constructed of stone quarried from the site which is now 
the graveyard. Its original, lovely warm color has been greatly dulled by 
age. The church is surmounted by a tower at the west end, to which a 
wooden spire, more elaborate than the rest of the church but of excellent 
design, was added in 1794. At the east end, facing Broadway, is a carriage 
portico with a pediment and slender but well-proportioned Ionic columns. 
The light, spacious interior is handsomely decorated, with a barrel vault 
carried on slender columns, and a gallery on each side. On the north side 
of the interior a painting of the arms of the United States marks George 
Washington's pew; opposite, on the south, the arms of New York State 
mark Governor Clinton's pew. Immediately after Washington's inaugura- 
tion, April 30, 1789, both houses of Congress accompanied him to St. 
Paul's, where Bishop Samuel Provoost conducted a service. 

On the Broadway side is a monument to Major General Richard 
Montgomery, killed in the attack on Quebec, December 25, 1775. It 



CITY HALL DISTRICT 99 

was executed by J. J. Caffieri, French sculptor, on order from the Con- 
tinental Congress. Montgomery's grave is beneath the monument. Among 
the memorials on the west wall of the interior is a bust of John Wells 
(17701823) by John Frazee, the first known portrait bust by a native 
American sculptor. 

The graveyard, which flanks the church on three sides, is a favorite 
noonday retreat of office workers in the neighborhood. It contains the 
weatherbeaten tombs of many historic personalities. The churchyard gates 
are closed during the two days preceding the Feast of the Conversion of 
St. Paul, as they have been since the chapel's founding, to remind the pub- 
lic that the property belongs to Trinity Parish, and that it is open only 
by the courtesy of that body. 

Newspaper Row 

Across Park Row from City Hall Park, near the approach to the Brook- 
lyn Bridge, stands the brownstone PULITZER BUILDING, once the proud 
home of the World; its gilded dome makes it one of the section's most 
imposing buildings. George B. Post designed the structure in 1890; it was 
enlarged in 1908. This was an early example of buildings whose walls 
carry only their own weight; the floors are supported by columns. Never- 
theless, the exterior walls are, in places, more than nine feet thick. 

Today the World is dead, the dome in which Joseph Pulitzer had his 
office is deserted, and the structure has become merely another office build- 
ing a relic of New York's NEWSPAPER Row. In the late decades of 
the nineteenth century Park Row and northern Nassau Street constituted 
the publishing center for the great metropolitan dailies. Today only the 
Sun, housed in the Stewart Building, flanking City Hall Park on the 
northeast corner of Chambers Street and Broadway, remains in the vicinity. 

A little to the south of the Pulitzer Building, at Spruce and Nassau 
Streets, is the red-brick, clock-towered TRIBUNE BUILDING, former home 
of the Tribune and one of the earliest elevator buildings. Dana's Sun was 
once next to the Tribune in the same building, incidentally, which for a 
time housed Tammany. The modest building that housed the Times in the 
days of its humble beginnings occupies the site of the old Brick Presby- 
terian Church at Park Row and Nassau Street. The nonpartisan CITIZENS 
UNION, founded in 1897 for the purpose of obtaining honest, efficient 
municipal government, is now one of the tenants of the building. A little 
off the Row, on near-by William Street, were quartered Hearst's Evening 
Journal and American. The Evening Post, edited by William Cullen Bry- 
ant, had its home at Broadway and Fulton Street. James Gordon Bennett's 



100 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Herald had its workshop on the southeast corner of Ann Street and Broad- 
way, site of the old Barnum Museum. 

Long a familiar feature of the Row was the i2O-year-old building of 
the Roman Catholic CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, famed for its 2:30 A.M. 
Mass for night workers, most of them printers from the great dailies. In 
1938 a new church structure was erected on the original site at Duane Street 
and Cardinal Place, behind the Municipal Building. The site also includes 
15 Cardinal Place, birthplace of Patrick Cardinal Hayes. 

On New Chambers, corner of William Street, is the BRACE MEMORIAL 
NEWSBOYS' HOUSE, founded in 1853 by Charles Loring Brace and now 
one of five shelters maintained by the Children's Aid Society. It provides 
food and lodging at low cost for homeless boys. Horatio Alger is said to 
have found material for his rags-to-riches stories there. 

This section was New York's Rialto before it became the domain of 
the Fourth Estate. Its theaters presented the first American dramas as well 
as the most famous stars of the English and American stage. Through the 
Park Theatre's stage entrance the narrow lane still known as Theatre 
Alley, parallel to Park Row and connecting Ann and Beekman Streets 
passed such celebrated stars as Edwin Booth, Edmund Kean, Edwin For- 
rest, and Fanny and Charles Kemble. In 1825 the first formal opera pre- 
sented in America, Rossini's Elisabetta, was performed here. 

Other playhouses in this section were the Anthony Street Theatre, An- 
thony Street (now Worth Street) near Broadway, which presented Joseph 
Jefferson, the elder, and James Wallack; the Old Broadway Theatre at 
Broadway and Pearl Street, which opened in 1847 with Sheridan's School 
for Scandal; and Palmo's Opera House, 39 Chambers Street, renamed 
Burton's, which opened in 1844 and presented opera intermittently during 
two decades. 

South of the Brooklyn Bridge and east of Park Row is the "Swamp," 
center of the city's wholesale leather market since the late 1690'$. 
When the tanning industry was expelled from Broad Street, the mart fol- 
lowed it to Beekman Swamp the site bounded approximately by Frank- 
fort, William, Beekman, and Cliff Streets. During the nineteenth century, 
an encroaching population gradually drove the tanneries from the neigh- 
borhood, but the leather merchants remained. 

Beekman Street, southern boundary of the "Swamp," is the center of 
downtown New York's job printing industry, which took root in this sec- 
tion when most of New York's newspapers were published on near-by 
Newspaper Row. (The printing and publishing industry is the second 
largest in the city.) 



CITY HALL DISTRICT IOI 

On the northeast corner of Beekman and Gold Streets is THE OLD 
BEEKMAN, a tavern and coffee house where General Grant is said to have 
imbibed his favorite Peoria whisky. 

The Chic Center 

Despite the northward expansion of the city, the vicinity of the City 
Hall has remained the center of governmental activities in New York. 
This concentration of official business municipal, State and Federal 
occurs in an impressive group of buildings erected within the past decade 
in and around Foley Square, the neighborhood northeast of City Hall Park. 

On the two triangular blocks bounded by Park Row, Centre, and Duane 
Streets, and looking down on City Hall, is the forty-story MUNICIPAL 
BUILDING, designed by McKim, Mead, and White. It straddles Cham- 
bers Street, forming an arcade through which flows west-east vehicular 
traffic; this passageway has been called the "Gate of the City," the title 
of an oil painting of the scene by William Jean Beauley. The building 
has a flattened U-shaped plan, with its open side toward Centre Street. It 
gains dignity through the bold treatment of the intermediate stories, de- 
spite the poorly related tower and the disturbing character of the Corin- 
thian colonnade at the base. In themselves the elements are well designed, 
but their combination lacks unity. It is surmounted by a heroic figure of 
Civic Fame, by Adolph Alexander Weinman, who was also the sculptor 
of the relief on the lower part of the building. 

The building, opened in 1914, cost about twelve million dollars. De- 
spite its size (650,000 square feet of floor area), it has proved inadequate, 
and several departments have been housed in buildings on Foley Square 
proper. The municipally owned and operated RADIO STATION, WNYC, 
on the twenty-fifth floor, broadcasts no commercial programs; performers 
are supplied by government agencies and educational institutions. The 
MUNICIPAL REFERENCE LIBRARY, on the twenty-second floor, a branch 
of the New York Public Library, contains documents, pamphlets, maps, 
directories, and reports from all important cities. On the second floor, 
across the hall from the marriage license bureau, is the MARRIAGE CHAPEL, 
a sunny room decorated with flowered wallpaper and potted palms. 

The seven-story granite structure at Chambers and Centre Streets is the 
HALL OF RECORDS, repository for all legal records relating to deeds of 
Manhattan real estate and to court cases some of the documents were 
drawn as early as 1653. It contains offices of the New York County 
Register, Surrogates' Court, and Commissioner of Jurors. Designed by 
John R. Thomas and opened in 1911, it is New York's best example of 



102 LOWER MANHATTAN 

the eclectic baroque style used in French nineteenth-century municipal 
buildings. Heroic statues of distinguished New Yorkers on the ornate 
granite fagade and symbolic figures representing such conceptions as 
Philosophy, Poetry, and Industry are by Philip Martiny and Henry K. 
Bush-Brown. The interior is sumptuously decorated. 

Beyond the Municipal Building and the Hall of Records lies Foley 
Square proper, a plot of land' shaped somewhat like a hatchet head, 
around which several public buildings have been grouped to form a civic 
center. Unfortunately, this group lacks a unifying architectural design. 
Several city departments are housed in the COURT SQUARE BUILDING at 2 
Lafayette Street, a commercial office building. 

Across, on Centre Street between Duane and Pearl, is the new UNITED 
STATES COURT HOUSE, last architectural work of Cass Gilbert, and com- 
pleted in 1936 by his son, Cass Gilbert, Jr. The architects attempted the 
difficult task of harmonizing their work with the neoclassic structures on 
either side. The tower, thirty-two stories high, is crowned by a pyramidal 
roof covered with gold leaf. The offices of the United States Attorney for 
the Southern District of New York as well as the United States District 
Court and Circuit Court of Appeals are in the building. 

A block east, at Pearl Street and Park Row, was the famous Tea Water 
Pump, which was the chief source of water supply for the city until 1789. 
Its water, so housewives declared, was excellent for brewing tea. Carted 
about in casks, it was sold from door to door. 

North of the United States Court House on Centre Street is the eight- 
story, neoclassic SUPREME COURT BUILDING, designed after the drawings 
submitted in competition by Guy Lowell, of Boston, in 1912. Skillfully 
planned for a difficult site, the hexagonal building has a refreshing ro- 
bustness. Unlike the other columns of Foley Square, its great Corinthian 
order presents a real portico of convincing form and scale. It is ap- 
proached by a sweep of granite steps one hundred feet wide. The elab- 
orately decorated central rotunda is three stories high. The building houses 
one of the country's finest law libraries. 

Various New York State departments centered in Albany have offices 
in the granite-faced, nine-story STATE OFFICE BUILDING which stands on 
the northeast corner of the square (Worth and Centre Streets). Built 
(1928-30) under the supervision of W. E. Haugaard, State commis- 
sioner of architecture, it is of "chastened classic" design. Its walls are re- 
lieved by flat carving and at its four entrances are black granite lighting 
standards. The offices are grouped around two large courts. The main 
floor halls are finished in gray marble with green marble pilasters and 



CITY HALL DISTRICT 103 

bronze capitals, and plaster cornices and ceilings decorated with gold leaf. 

The building to the west, occupying an entire block and with its main 
entrance on Worth Street, contains offices, laboratories, and clinics of the 
CITY HEALTH, HOSPITAL, AND SANITATION DEPARTMENTS. It was de- 
signed by Charles B. Meyers to conform with the State Office Building, 
and was completed in 1935. It is ornamented with metal grilles and lan- 
terns, and a series of panels depicting medical subjects. 

Occupying the two blocks between Centre and Lafayette Streets, a few 
steps north of Foley Square, are the bleak structures of the TOMBS and the 
CRIMINAL COURTS BUILDING connected by the famous BRIDGE OF SIGHS. 
The Tombs, a prison for men awaiting trial, derives its funereal name from 
its predecessor on this site, which resembled an Egyptian tomb. The pres- 
ent huge gray pile, with its rounded ends and high pitched roof, is more 
suggestive, however, of a gloomy medieval fortress. Notorious criminals 
have been incarcerated within these somber walls before being led across 
the enclosed bridge for trial in the Criminal Courts. The long career of 
both structures neared an end in 1938, when the State Legislature au- 
thorized the expenditure of $15,000,000 for the erection of modern build- 
ings. The new site is directly across Centre Street from the old one. 

This entire area in the eighteenth century comprised marshland and a 
pond known as the Collect. It was on this pond that John Fitch, in 1796, 
conducted experiments with a steamboat. In the depression of 1808, munici- 
pal authorities established a work relief project to drain the section. It 
became a recreational center for holiday-making laborers, sailors, and 
oystermen. But when the land began to sink into the imperfectly drained 
swamp, the houses and taverns of the region were abandoned to freed 
slaves and hapless immigrants. 

Such was the origin of the historically infamous Five Points section. The 
territory derived its name from the intersection of five streets forming a 
triangular area, with Paradise Square, now the southwest corner of Colum- 
bus Park (opposite the State Office Building at Baxter and Worth Streets), 
in the center. It reached its peak in disorder and debauchery about the 
middle of the ninetenth century when the first gangs of New York made 
their appearance in the congested slum with such picturesque names as the 
"Forty Thieves," "Kerryonians," "Chichesters," "Plug Uglies," "Shirt 
Tails," and "Dead Rabbits." The most unsavory place was the "Old 
Brewery," a converted tenement swarming with thieves, prostitutes, and 
degenerates. In one room called the "Den of Thieves" more than seventy- 
five men and women made their home. This warren was vividly described 
by Charles Dickens in his American Notes. 



104 LOWER MANHATTAN 

CHINATOWN 

Area: Baxter St. east to Park Row and New Bowery; south of Bayard St. Map on 
page 91. 

New York's Chinatown is trying to live down a myth ; a myth kept alive 
by the sight-seeing companies that pile tourists into Chinatown busses, 
transport them to prepared points of interest, and frequently prime them 
with tales of mystery and crime. The truth is (and the policemen on the 
beat will verify it) that no safer district is to be found in New York City. 
Yet guides have been known to warn tourists to "hold hands while walking 
through the narrow streets." 

Tourist trade, which supplies a small part of its income, is but a sec- 
ondary concern of the Chinese quarter; for though its population is only 
4,000 the district serves as "home town" for the 18,000 Chinese of New 
York City and for the 30,000 in the metropolitan area. Laundrymen, res- 
taurant workers, servants, shopkeepers, and professionals come here, espe- 
cially on Sunday, to meet their friends, do their shopping, see a Chinese 
movie, eat a holiday dinner, play fan-tan, or arrange a marriage or burial. 

The first Chinese known to have visited New York was Pung-hua 
Wing Chong, who arrived in 1807, the year the embargo on foreign trade 
was established. Later he became known as John Jacob Astor's mandarin 
because Astor got permission from President Jefferson to send out a ship, 
despite the embargo, on the pretense of taking "this prominent man- 
darin" home. 

Historians differ as to the identity of the first Chinese resident of New 
York City. Some say it was Quimbo Appo, who came to San Francisco in 
1844 and arrived here a few years later; others state it was Ah Ken, a 
Cantonese merchant who made his home on Mott Street in 1858. Still 
others contend it was Lou Hoy Sing, a sailor who shook off his wanderlust 
and settled in New York in 1862. (He married an Irish lass who bore 
him two stalwart sons, one of whom became a policeman and the other 
a truck driver.) From 1875 until shortly after the Chinese Exclusion Act 
of 1882, Chinese migrated in large numbers to the city, displacing well- 
to-do families in the neighborhood of Mott and Pell Streets. The colony 
soon overflowed into Bayard and Canal Streets, and at its peak numbered 
6,000 residents. 

For many decades Chinatown kept intact the religious and cultural cus- 
toms of old China. The younger generation, however, like that of other 
immigrant groups, no longer adheres strictly to the traditional mores; 



CHINATOWN 105 

changes in China have been an added factor in the weakening. Though the 
joss houses, shrines of Buddhist worship, still exist, they are rarely attended 
by Chinese, certainly not by the youth. The Chinese New Year is still cele- 
brated in traditional paper-dragon-and-firecracker style but the more rigid 
ethical customs, such as suicide because of failure to pay debts, are being 
ignored or abandoned. No longer is American citizenship frowned 
upon ; and mixed marriages cause little comment. So far has the process of 
assimilation progressed that in the 1936 Democratic National Convention 
Wong Lee was seated as a New York delegate. 

The tongs, Chinese equivalent of American fraternal societies, which for 
so many years ruled the quarter with iron discipline and fought each other 
with hired gunmen, now share influence with newer groups. The Chinese 
Journal and the Vanguard, recently established liberal-progressive news- 
papers, are steadily gaining in circulation, and the Chinese Republic News 
and the Nationalist Daily reflect the new trend. 

Since the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, a new spirit of unity has 
developed in Chinatown which has eliminated social and political friction 
and discouraged tong wars. Old and young, conservatives and moderns, 
have joined in raising funds for the homeland and in promoting the boy- 
cott against Japanese goods. 

One custom, however, the devout Chinese still retains ; he arranges that 
when death comes his remains shall be sent to China for interment. This 
is accomplished with characteristic patience and thrift. The deceased is 
first buried in this country, an identification tag sealed in a bottle being 
placed in the casket. Ten years later the grave is opened and the remains, 
removed to a zinc-lined box two feet by one, are shipped to China for 
reburial. Freight charges are thus brought within the means of the dead 
man's family. 

A leisurely stroll at sundown through Chinatown's winding streets is 
an interesting experience. Throughout the neighborhood Chinese import- 
ing houses and groceries, like the New England "general stores," offer 
a wide variety of goods. Neatly stacked in the windows are Chinese vege- 
tables (grown on Long Island) tender green Chinese cabbage, blanched 
bean sprouts, fibrous brown lily roots, crinkly bitter melons, great squashes 
resembling watermelon covered with a white bloom, water chestnuts, young 
pods of peas with smoked squid, shark fin, blubber, roast ducks, and 
roast pork hanging from hooks. 

In these shops, patronized almost exclusively by Chinese, many articles 
for use and decoration may be purchased: hexagonal and fluted green 
bowls, native spoons of China, simple brown paper fans, packets of joss 



106 LOWER MANHATTAN 

sticks, sturdy black cotton slippers without backs, strangely shaped but un- 
usually durable toothbrushes, kites shaped like butterflies or dragons, 
wooden flutes, beautiful green-leaved Chinese lilies, wall pockets for 
flowers, long-handled wooden back-scratchers. 

Mott Street, entered from Worth Street, which extends west of Chatham 
Square, gives the first colorful view of the quarter. The large Chinese signs 
of a native temple at No. 5 emphasize the oriental style of the facade of 
the adjoining PORT ARTHUR RESTAURANT BUILDING (No. 7). The 
CHINATOWN EMPORIUM in the Port Arthur Building attracts souvenir 
buyers, and near by at No. 13 the Joss HOUSE presents for curious 
passers-by and the herded throngs from the "rubberneck wagons" an in- 
accurate but highly dramatic lecture on Chinese religious customs. At No. 
37 the oldest JEWELRY STORE in Chinatown offers gold objects hammered 
according to the design requested by the customer. The headquarters of 
the powerful ON LEONG TONG are at No. 41, and beyond is the LIQUOR 
STORE of Wing Lee Quon at No. 53, where authentic Chinese wines and 
cordials, medicated with snakeskin and tiger bone, are available. 

At No. 58, Wah Kue sells Chinese books, brushes, and writing ma- 
terial ; at No. 64 is the CHINESE SCHOOL where, after regular public-school 
hours, children are taught Chinese culture and language according to the 
traditional method. Just qprth of Pell Street on Mott hangs the WALL 
NEWSPAPER. Sheets of brilliant red and orange paper flecked with gold 
are covered with characters which inform knots of readers that a business is 
for sale or has been sold, that a job is available or is wanted, and of the 
latest war news from China. 

At 32 Pell Street, the MEE TUNG COMPANY announces "Ladies Dresses 
Made to Order in Chinese Styles." The ESTABLISHMENT OF MAN GAR 
CHUNG at No. 26 offers an assortment of Chinese drugs and ingredients 
for an assortment of love potions: dried sea horses, blanched snakes, pre- 
served bears' testicles, neat slices of deer's horn, and ginseng root. The 
last-named sells for as much as a hundred dollars an ounce. 

The headquarters of the HIP SING TONG are situated appropriately 
near the corner of Pell and Doyers Streets, for just beyond is the BLOODY 
ANGLE, the bend in Doyers Street where henchmen of this tong fought 
the On Leongs in the early i9oo's. The Hip Sings, led by Mock Duck, a 
gambler, battled the On Leongs, captained by Tom Lee, for control of the 
lucrative gambling and opium rackets. At this bend, occupying the quar- 
ters of the old Chinese theater, is Tom Noonan's famous RESCUE SO- 
CIETY. The ex-convict sponsored the mission for twenty-three years, until 
his death in 1935. Near by, at 6 Doyers Street, is a building once occupied 



CHINATOWN 107 

by the Chatham Club, where a young singing waiter, Isadore Baline (Irv- 
ing Berlin), 'occasionally performed. Here, too, Chuck Connors, whom the 
movies years later made king of Chinatown lobbygows, Bowery thespian 
and philosopher, served as bouncer. 

Each night the Chinese take over the ten-cent movie house on Chatham 
Square just north of Mott Street, and Chinese pictures made either in 
China or in San Francisco replace the customary Westerns. At 8 Chatham 
Square the old-fashioned TOBACCO EMPORIUM of Seckler Brothers is 
crowded with smokers' oddities. The next building houses the establish- 
ment of Rocks Grille, the artist who makes "black eyes" look normal. 
Two doors north is the studio of Charlie Wagner, "champion tattooing 
artist in the world." 

A visit to Chinatown should include dinner at one of the numerous 
restaurants, declared by the Board of Health to be among the cleanest in 
the city. Some of the less prominent places, many of which are on the sec- 
ond story or in unpretentious basements, are as good as the larger ones. 
The food in most of the quarter's restaurants is authentically Chinese and 
of a uniformly high quality, and most places specialize in one or more 
native dishes. 

Chop suey came into existence in Chicago in 1896 during the visit of 
Li Hung Chang, famous "ambassador of good will." Literally translated 
the name means "hodge-podge." As prepared by the restaurants in China- 
town the dish is far superior to that served in drug stores and cafeterias. 
A good Chinese meal consists of soup, fish, and of preparations of sea 
food, pork, or chicken, served with Chinese vegetables and sauces. When 
a group dines together it is advantageous to order "by the table," fixing 
a price beforehand with the waiter. 

The most delicious soups are won ton soup, made with little dumplings 
filled with duck ; water-cress soup, tart with quantities of fresh water cress ; 
chop suey soup, rich with chicken gizzards, livers, and oddments. Shrimp 
is usually fried and served with egg or lobster sauce or with steamed 
Chinese vegetables, or combined with chopped lobster and seasoning as 
the filling for the fried dough cakes known as egg rolls. Stuffed crab, 
served in deep-sea crab shells, is a pungent and exotic delicacy, and fish- 
balls covered with delectable sauce and with native vegetables is a favorite 
dish. Roast pork prepared by Chinese chefs is famous. Soft noodle chow 
mein, Canton style, and chicken diced with almonds and fresh peas with 
a Chinese white sauce, are two other appetizing dishes. A Chinese meal is 
not complete without one sweet and pungent dish, preferably spareribs 
prepared with a rich sauce of ginger, pineapple, and spices. 



108 LOWER MANHATTAN 

) 

LOWER EAST SIDE 

Area: Fulton St. (South St. to Pearl St.) and Franklin St. (Baxter St. to Broadway) 
on the south to i4th St. on the north; from the East River west to Pearl St. and 
Broadway; excluding Chinatown. Map on page in. 

The dramatic, intensely human story of the Lower East Side is a fa- 
miliar chapter in the epic of America; a host of writers some seeking 
out the Lower East Side and others originating there have described its 
people. Here have dwelt the people whose hands built the city's elevateds, 
subways, tubes, bridges, and skyscrapers. Its two square miles of tenements 
and crowded streets magnify all the problems and conflicts of big-city life. 
The inhuman conditions of its slums and sweatshops brought about the 
first organized social work in America. Crowded, noisy, squalid in many 
of its aspects, no other section of the city is more typical of New York. 

The district is best known as a slum, as a community of immigrants, 
and as a ghetto ; yet not all of the district is blighted, not all of its people 
are of foreign stock, and not all are Jewish. From its dark tenements, gen- 
erations of American workers of many different national origins and an 
amazing number of public figures have emerged ; politicians, artists, gang- 
sters, composers, prize fighters, labor leaders. 

One of the first New York tenements designed for multifamily use was 
erected in the Lower East Side in 1833, on Water Street near Corlears 
Hook. The most notorious "modern" slum, however, was Five Points 
centered at the intersection of Baxter, Worth, and Park Streets flourish- 
ing when Charles Dickens described it in 1842. The southern part of the 
Lower East Side soon shared the conditions if not the notoriety of Five 
Points and, thanks to potato rot, political oppression, and pogroms, the 
northern part took on the same character, as the last great waves of the 
"old immigration" and the first great waves of the "new immigration" 
surged in. The overwhelming majority of the tenements still standing are 
of the kind banned in 1901. Many antedate the Civil War, but most were 
built in the i88o's and 1890*5. 

Two million Irish, fleeing famine, migrated to America between 1846 
and 1860, and many of them settled, at least temporarily, in the Lower 
East Side. It was the Lower East Side that produced Alfred E. Smith, four- 
time Democratic governor of New York State, Democratic candidate for 
President in 1928, and a founder of the American Liberty League; and 
three of the best-known sachems of the originally anti-Irish Tammany 



LOWER EAST SIDE 109 

Hall: "Boss" Tweed, leading figure of the infamous Tweed Ring, "Honest 
John" Kelley, and Charlie Murphy. From 1811 to 1867 the Tammany 
Wigwam was located at Chatham and Frankfort Streets. Large numbers 
of Irish workers went into the shipping and building trades, and later 
into the police, fire, and other city departments. 

The first of thousands of Germans came to the Lower East Side at the 
middle of the nineteenth century. Many of them were skilled workers with 
a background of labor organization, and they played an important role 
in the trade union movement in New York: they formed the General 
German Workingmen's Union, which in 1867 affiliated with the Inter- 
national Workmen's Association (The First International) ; they founded 
the Free Workers' School (housed in Faulhaber's Hall on Second Av- 
enue), one of the first of its kind in the United States; they established 
labor and progressive newspapers. German Jews became traders, profes- 
sionals, clothing manufacturers, furriers, jewelers. By 1880 they were the 
dominant element in New York's Jewish community of eighty thousand. 

In 1 88 1 the great influx of Italians, Russians, Rumanians, Hungarians, 
Slovaks, Greeks, Poles, and Turks, into the Lower East Side began. Be- 
tween 1 88 1 and 1910, 1,562,000 Jews came to America. Many of these 
Jewish emigrants, chiefly from Russia, settled on the Lower East Side, 
forming the world's largest Jewish community. The Jews, like other peo- 
ples in the region, grouped themselves in more or less compact colonies 
determined by language, customs, country or province of origin. Little 
Rumania, for instance, centering around Allen Street, was one of the most 
distinct and interesting quarters during the 1890'$. 

Most of these new Jewish immigrants worked as peddlers or entered the 
expanding needle trades. Workshops, established in the tenements, en- 
slaved entire families, and the sweatshop era began, with its disease and 
degradation. Many of these workers succeeded after a time in improving 
their position, and a few became large-scale employers themselves. 
Through appalling sacrifice, some Jewish families realized their fondest 
aspiration: a son became a doctor, teacher, or lawyer. Those who rose 
above poverty moved to more desirable localities, but "greenhorns" -new 
and bewildered immigrants, Jew and Gentile continued to augment the 
population of the East Side until the third decade of this century, when 
quota laws severely restricted further immigration. During that decade 
the population remained between five and six hundred thousand. 

An East Side family was often divided against itself by the conflict of 
the old and the new. "Many of us were transient, impatient aliens in our 
parents' home," Samuel Ornitz records 'in Haunch, Paunch and Jowl 



110 LOWER MANHATTAN 

(1923), a semi-autobiographical novel of the Lower East Side. There 
were almost no play areas. Boys formed themselves into gangs, roamed 
the streets in search of mischief and money ; many became gangsters. One 
of the toughest thugs in the city's history, "Monk" Eastman, rose at the 
turn of the century, commanding hundreds of gunmen. From his head- 
quarters on Chrystie Street came in a later period, Johnny Torrio, "Legs" 
Diamond, and Jacob ("Little "Augie") Orgen. 

During the latter part of the nineteenth century the writings of Jacob 
Riis and others stimulated the housing reform movement and social- 
welfare work. The Neighborhood Guild, first of the many settlement 
houses established in the Lower East Side, was founded in 1886 at 147 
Forsythe Street. Two years later East Siders themselves took an important 
step toward combating their intolerable living conditions by forming the 
United Hebrew Trades, a trade union body. Today such centers as Christa- 
dora House, the Church of All Nations, the Educational Alliance, Grand 
Street Settlement, Henry Street Settlement, Stuyvesant Neighborhood 
House, and University Settlement are invaluable community agencies. 

Unionism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism, and communism have been 
thoroughly discussed in the streets and parks of the East Side. Yet Tam- 
many Hall has reigned almost uninterruptedly over the actual political 
life of the area. Anarchist and Socialist papers and periodicals, some short- 
lived, others continuing to appear for many years, have been issued in 

KEY TO LOWER EAST SIDE MAP 

1. Lavanburg Homes 16. Secondhand Clothing Market 

2. Bed Linens Market 17. Manhattan Bridge Plaza 

3. Orchard Street Pushcart Market 18. Bowery Outdoor Jewelry Market 

4. Henry Street Settlement Play- 19. Mott Street Pushcart Market 

house 20. Police Headquarters 

5. Amalgamated Dwellings 21. "Thieves' Market" 

6. Henry Street Settlement (Main 22. Salvation Army Hotel 

House) 23. Bowery Mission 

7. Educational Alliance 24. First Houses 

8. Jewish Daily Forward 25. Condict Building 

9. Division Street Shopping Center 26. Old Merchant's House 

10. Knickerbocker Village 27. Colonnade Row 

11. Oldest House in Manhattan 28. Statue of Peter Cooper 

12. Franklin Square 29. Cooper Union 

13. Spanish-Portuguese Cemetery 30. Secondhand Book Market 

14. Columbus Park 31. St. Mark's In-The-Bouwerie 
Mulberry Bend 32. Jewish Theater District 

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112 LOWER MANHATTAN 

many languages. Johann Most published Freiheit, and later (1906) Emma 
Goldman founded Mother Earth. Under the editorship of Abraham Ca- 
han, the Jewish Daily Forward, a labor paper in Jewish, has been most in- 
fluential, and still has a circulation of about 170,000. The Socialist Party's 
work was rewarded when Meyer London was elected to Congress in 1914, 
and again in 1918 when three Socialist assemblymen were elected. Morris 
Hillquit, leader of the Socialist Party for many years after the war, was 
from the locality. B. Charney Vladeck, of the Forward, was elected ma- 
jority leader of the City Council in 1937, the year the East Side assembly 
districts cast 14 per cent of their votes for the American Labor Party as 
against 8.5 per cent in the rest of Manhattan. 

The intellectuals among the immigrants brought with them their old- 
world avidity for culture, and their influence on the East Side provided 
thousands with their first contact with art and literature. A lunch hour at 
a garment factory would find many of the workers absorbed in Tolstoy, 
Kropotkin, or Heine. Maeterlinck, Hauptmann, Sudermann, Gorky, and 
other European dramatists had their American premiers in the ghetto. 
While Broadway was receiving Ibsen coldly, the East Side was enthusi- 
astically applauding Nazimova in Ghosts. The ghetto has produced a re- 
markable Jewish literature of its own, much of it mirroring the harsh life 
of sweatshop and slum. The Yiddish poet, with his relatively small pub- 
lic, ordinarily sells many more copies of his works than a poet who writes 
in English. Probably the two most widely read books in English about the 
East Side by East Siders are Abraham Cahan's novel, the Rise of David 
Levinsky (1917), and Michael Gold's autobiographical Jews Without 
Money (1930). Fannie Hurst, born in St. Louis, lived in the East Side 
while gathering material for her stories. "Humoresque," dealing with this 
locale, is perhaps the best known. 

Jo Davidson and Jacob Epstein, sculptors, and Max Weber, the painter, 
are from the East Side, as are scores of younger artists whose works have 
gained wide recognition. Jazz owes much to the district where George 
and Ira Gershwin and Irving Berlin started their careers. The wise-crack- 
ing brand of humor, and much language which has become part of popu- 
lar speech, have roots in the Lower East Side. Such expressions as gabfest, 
plunderbund, it listens well, bum, dumb (in the sense of stupid), come 
from the Germans; the Jews have given words like kibitzer, kosher, ma- 
zuma, p hooey; and the Irish, shillelagh, smithereens, ballyhoo, and she- 
bang. The district's environment has influenced Jimmy Durante, Al 
Jolson, Eddie Cantor, Fannie Brice, George Jessel, Lionel Stander, Milton 
Berle, and the Marx brothers. 



LOWER EAST SIDE 113 

Immigration quotas at the beginning of the 1920'$ brought a great 
change to the district. No longer maintained by new arrivals, the popula- 
tion dropped from well over a half million in 1920 to less than a quarter 
million in 1938. Land values have declined and many of the rookeries are 
no longer profitable. Some have been condemned and demolished, leaving 
vacant lots used as playgrounds. The building of the Williamsburg and 
Manhattan bridges (opened in 1903 and 1909) cut swaths through the 
close-packed dwellings; and recently Chrystie, Allen, and part of East 
Houston Streets have been widened, removing blocks of tenements. The 
East River Drive and its park have transformed the water front north of 
the Williamsburg Bridge. The Amalgamated Dwellings, built in the 
1920*5, and Knickerbocker Village, built in the 1930*5, replaced some of 
the worst houses. 

But throughout most of the section the smothering heat of summer still 
drives East Siders to the windows and fire escapes of their ill-ventilated 
dwellings, to the docks along the river or to the crowded smelly streets, 
where half -naked children cool themselves in streams from fire hydrants. 
In winter, basement merchants sell coal and kindling in minute portions 
for the stoves of unheated cold-water flats. 

In 1939 a $19,500,000 Federal-financed housing project was considered 
for the Lower East Side. Other changes are in prospect and even the push- 
carts may yet be housed in respectable markets. But the tenements that 
have been home to so many generations will probably be home to many 
more. Shored up with great beams against their sagging walls or vacant 
and crumbling, they still seem defiant. Great slums die hard. 

East Side Neighborhoods 

Several well-defined neighborhoods, with different backgrounds, dis- 
tinct populations, and varied street plans, make up the Lower East Side. 
Along the East River above Fulton Street, bounded on the north by Divi- 
sion and Grand Streets, and roughly corresponding to the outlines of the 
old Fourth Ward, lies the oldest of these neighborhoods. Between Divi- 
sion and Houston Streets, and from the Bowery to the East River is the 
Jewish quarter with its small shops and markets. The Little Italy district 
lies west of the Bowery as far as Broadway, bounded on the north by 
Houston, and on the south by Franklin and Bayard Streets. Its Italian 
population now occupies only those four streets closest to the Bowery, the 
rest being given over to prosaic small businesses. Northward, from Hous- 
ton to Fourteenth Street and between Broadway and Third Avenue, the 
Astor Place district retains, among second-rate commercial buildings, a few 



114 LOWER MANHATTAN 

relics of its aristocratic days in the early i88o's. Lastly, between Third 
Avenue and the river, and between Houston and Fourteenth Streets, lies a 
district populated by a mixture of many nationalities (which for conven- 
ience will be named for its large park, Tompkins Square). The Lower East 
Side is connected with Brooklyn by the Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Wil- 
liamsburg bridges. Automobiles bound for Holland Tunnel cross the 
neighborhood in great numbers by way of 'Canal and Delancey Streets. 

Old Fourth Ward District 

Four blocks east of City Hall, an abandoned building at n Peck Slip 
(near Pearl Street) is reputed to be the oldest house in Manhattan. It was 
built in 1725. Constructed of roughhewn stone and faced with plaster, the 
structure is still in good condition. At No. 7 is a tumbledown clapboard 
house, now serving as a junk shop, which was the farmhouse in which 
David Thomas Valentine, famous editor of Valentine's Manual, lived 
during his youth. 

In Revolutionary days the rich and influential built their mansions on 
fashionable Cherry Hill. The center of this section, Franklin Square, 
originally called St. George Square, at the junction of Pearl, Frankfort, 
Dover, and Cherry Streets, was named for Walter Franklin, a wealthy im- 
porter in whose home President Washington resided, from his inaugura- 
tion on April 30, 1789 to February 23, 1790. One of the piers of the 
Brooklyn Bridge covers the site of the house. 

Near by, at 326 Pearl Street, stood the Walton House, home of William 
Walton, one of the city's richest merchants. The display of wealth at Wal- 
ton House was cited in the British Parliament as incontestable proof of 
the Colonists' ability to pay higher taxes. The house was destroyed by fire 
in 1853, an d its site is now occupied by a warehouse. 

John Hancock lived at 5 Cherry Street, and Captain Samuel Chester 
Reid, a hero of the War of 1812, made his home at No. 27, now the site 
of a parking lot. Here Mrs. Reid is said to have sewed the first American 
flag in its present-day design, with a star for each state. The house was 
the first (1823) in America to have gas lighting. The old mansions, 
gradually abandoned by their owners, became tenements in the early iSoo's 
and the district degenerated into a slum area. 

At 36 Cherry Street, in 1850, was erected Gotham Court, hailed as a 
private venture in model housing. It covered an entire lot, with only two 
narrow alleys for sunshine and air, the wider of which the neighbors iron- 
ically nicknamed Paradise Alley. In cholera epidemics the death rate in 
this house was highest in the city. It was torn down in 1896, but the name 



LOWER EAST SIDE 115 

Paradise Alley lingers on in one of the sentimental songs of the period, 
the Sunshine of Paradise Alley, which, like the Sidewalks of New York, 
and Maggie Murphy's Home, was written about life among the Irish im- 
migrants in this district in the 1 890*5. Near by, at 25 Oliver Street, lived 
Alfred E. Smith. The population of this former Irish district is chiefly 
Italian and Russian; a Greek colony occupies the lower end of Madison 
Street, while a small group of Spaniards lives in the neighborhood of 
Roosevelt and Cherry Streets. Today Cherry Street itself for the most part 
is a dismal- looking quarter of lumberyards and many abandoned tene- 
ments. 

Among rancid tenements, at Cherry and Catharine Streets, stands the 
immense KNICKERBOCKER VILLAGE, a housing project completed in 1934 
by a limited-dividend corporation with assistance from the Federal Gov- 
ernment's Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Built on the site of a no- 
torious "lung" block, it rents 1,600 apartments for an average of $12.50 
a room a month to better-paid white-collar workers. The average rental 
elsewhere in the district is nearer five dollars and the former occupants of 
this site have moved to other slums. With a total of twelve floors, the 
buildings form an overcrowded group whose essential monotony is barely 
relieved by the sparse planting which differentiates it from hundreds of 
equally undistinguished apartments farther uptown. At the fourth floor 
level a projecting band of bricks hints at the parapet that should have 
marked the termination of the buildings. 

Four blocks north of Cherry Street, at 175 East Broadway, standing head 
and shoulders above its neighbors, is the building housing the liberal 
Jewish Daily Forward, founded in 1897. It is the largest Yiddish daily 
newspaper in the world. On the next corner, East Broadway at Jefferson 
Street, the EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE, a non-sectarian social settlement 
maintained by Jewish societies, organizes educational and recreational ac- 
tivities for the neighborhood. 

The famous HENRY STREET SETTLEMENT, at 265 Henry, a block south 
of East Broadway, still maintains its modest main house. Opened in 1893 by 
one of the great pioneers in social work, Lillian Wald, the settlement has 
attracted world-wide attention through its work in nursing the sick, aiding 
in the solution of domestic and social problems, and striving for better 
housing, recreation, and education facilities in the slums of the Lower East 
Side. Buildings at 301 Henry Street and 8 Pitt Street have been acquired 
and the settlement employs 265 nurses working from sixteen branches 
throughout the city. During the depression of the early 1930*5, before 
public relief was taken over by the Federal Government, the settlement 



Il6 LOWER MANHATTAN 

issued thousands of food tickets, gave aid, and directed relief. Lillian 
Wald retired in 1933 and the work is being carried on under the guidance 
of Helen Hall. 

Three blocks north, at 466 Grand Street, is the Henry Street Settle- 
ment's PLAYHOUSE, once famous as the Neighborhood Playhouse. Organ- 
ized in 1915 for the purpose of staging productions of the settlement's 
dramatic groups, it branched out into professional production under the 
leadership of Alice and Irene Lewisohn. The Playhouse saw the American 
premieres of The Dybbuk and of James Joyce's Exiles. Yvette Guilbert; 
Roshanara, the Hindu dancer ; Ratan Devi, the Hindu singer and musician ; 
Rabindranath Tagore, the Indian poet; and the Isadora Duncan dancers 
appeared here. A satiric revue, the Grand Street Follies, was such a suc- 
cess that in 1927 it moved uptown. The theater now serves its original 
function. 

Jewish Quarter 

Here tiny shops huddle between wide-fronted chain shoe stores and 
clothing establishments. Housewives carrying shopping bags walk to the 
dimly lighted food stores; shriveled old women sit on the steps before 
the tenements; an occasional elder in beard and yarmalka (skull cap) 
climbs the steps to a tiny synagogue maintained by some struggling con- 
gregation; a Jewish passerby may be solicited to come into the synagogue 
to make up a minyan (quorum of ten) so that the service may start. In this 
district may be found some of the marriage brokers who advertise "rich 
and professional connections" in the Jewish newspapers. 

At 504 Grand Street, between Columbia and Sheriff Streets, stands AMAL- 
GAMATED DWELLINGS, a co-operative apartment house sponsored by the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. The architecture diverts the 
eye with parabolic archways, and a surface patterning of brick designs and 
stucco inserts. An early development, it has a certain charm and human 
quality notably lacking in its more famous neighbor, Knickerbocker Vil- 
lage. Designed by Springsteen and Goldhammer, and completed in 1930, 
it was the first housing development built in Manhattan under the State 
Housing Law of 1926. Rents average $12.23 a room a month, and it is 
said that few clothing workers can afford to live there. Four blocks north 
at Goerck and Stanton Streets are LAVANBURG HOMES, a semi-philan- 
thropic venture, built in 1927 and administered by the Fred L. Lavanburg 
Foundation to furnish modern housing at reasonable cost to families with 
small children. 

Two blocks south of Stanton is Delancey Street, the district's main 



LOWER EAST SIDE Iiy 

traffic and shopping artery. The WILLIAMSBURG BRIDGE, a steel suspen- 
sion structure, runs through its center as far as Clinton Street. It was 
opened in 1903, the second to span the East River. Its designer was L. L. 
Buck. The bridge has a i,6oo-foot over-water span and cost $23,278,000, 
including land. With its two roadways, two sidewalks, and six tracks for 
surface and elevated cars, it carries more than fifty thousand vehicles a day. 

A number of interesting markets lie west of Clinton Street. In the fa- 
mous ORCHARD STREET PUSHCART MARKET, which stretches for several 
blocks above and below Delancey Street, fruits, vegetables, bread, hot 
knishes (boiled buckwheat groats or mashed potatoes, wrapped in a skin 
of dough and baked), bagel (doughnut-shaped rolls), and hot arbes 
(boiled chick-peas) are offered for sale; also tools, hardware, work clothes, 
and many odd types of merchandise. It may not be long before this and 
other open-air pushcart markets will disappear, for the Department of 
Markets, more interested in sanitation than in the picturesque, plans to 
house them all indoors. 

A block west, on Allen Street, under the elevated tracks, red, green, 
and purple quilts hanging on poles advertise a market for bed linens 
between Stanton and Grand Streets. A few Rumanian restaurants and night 
clubs contrast with these surroundings. South of Delancey on Allen Street, 
the little shops feature copper coffee urns, silver vases, and candlesticks, 
ornate Victorian lamps and mantel clocks, and an occasional porcelain 
shepherdess. Antique metalware is sold here as well as the shoddiest 
machine-made articles. The brass and copper market ends at Grand 
Street. The three blocks south on Division Street, from Eldridge Street to 
the Bowery, are occupied by an unbroken series of women's apparel 
shops with gleaming plate-glass windows. In the doorways schleppers 
(pullers-in, a recognized profession on the East Side) stand ready to draw 
prospective customers into the stores. Some nationally known clothing 
firms started here. 

One block west is Chatham Square, a jagged confluence of streets over 
which clatter two old elevated lines. South a block on New Bowery, be- 
tween James and Oliver Streets, is the oldest JEWISH CEMETERY in Man- 
hattan. The plot, once covering all of Chatham Square, was purchased in 
1682 by a band of Spanish and Portuguese Jews who had fled to New 
Amsterdam from the Inquisition. Gershom Mendez Seixas, one of the 
great rabbis of early America and a patriot during the Revolution, is 
buried here. The little triangle is owned today by the uptown Spanish- 
Portuguese congregation of Shearith Israel. 



Il8 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Little Italy and the Bowery 

According to a 1932 survey, 98 per cent of the heads of households in 
this area were of Italian birth or parentage, mainly from Sicily and the 
south of Italy. During church festivals the streets are festooned with 
colored electric lights, the sidewalks lined with booths selling souvenirs 
and delicacies, and there is music, along with dancing, and a parade in 
the streets. 

The old Mulberry Bend on Mulberry Street between Bayard and Park, 
two blocks west of the Bowery one of the worst slums in the city, was 
torn down in 1892 and replaced by Columbus Park, after drawing the 
fiery criticism of the reformer, Jacob Riis. However, many five-story tene- 
ments remain decked with cluttered fire escapes, washlines, and crowded 
stoops. The pushcarts on Mott Street from Canal to Broome, a block east 
of Mulberry Street, are relics of a thriving market that once embraced 
the four streets west of the Bowery. They sell ripe and green olives, 
artichokes, goats' cheeses, finochio (sweet fennel), and ready-to-eat pizza, 
an unsweetened pastry filled with tomatoes and cheese, meat, or fish. 

At 240 Centre Street, between Grand and Broome Streets, is NEW YORK 
POLICE HEADQUARTERS, a large stone building designed by architects Hop- 
pin and Koen in the French Baroque manner of the nineteenth century. A 
profusion of carved ornament gives it a somewhat pretentious aspect. 
Until thi$ building was completed in 1909, headquarters was at 300 Mul- 
berry Street. 

From offices on the second floor, the Police Commissioner and his 
deputies direct the activities of 19,346 police officers operating from 
eighty-three precinct houses scattered throughout the five boroughs. De- 
tectives, patrolmen, policewomen; a great fleet of radio cars, three motor- 
cycle divisions, twenty emergency squads, two mounted squads, thirteen 
traffic and two bridge traffic units, and a flotilla of launches are controlled 
from this building by means of an intricate system of telephone, telegraph, 
teletype, and radio communication. Three short-wave radio stations, 
WPEE, WPEF, and WPEG, provide almost instantaneous contact with 
all units. 

The daily "line-up" of arrested criminals takes place in a large, semi- 
darkened room on the fourth floor. Offenders parade across a brilliantly 
lighted stage to be questioned through a public address system, while 
detectives memorize their appearance and mannerisms. Criminologists 
from many countries come to witness the procedure. The building also 
houses the Traffic Division, the Surgical and Medical Bureau, the Traffic 



LOWER EAST SIDE 119 

Safety Bureau, the Legal "Bureau, the Missing Persons Bureau, the Head- 
quarters Detective Division, a law library, and a disciplinary trial room. 

In the Police Academy, directly across Broome Street, police specialists 
give elementary training to rookies and advanced instruction to veterans 
of the force. Also housed in this building are the Criminal Identification 
Bureau (fingerprints and photographs), the Technical Research Labora- 
tory, and the offices of a number of specialized detective squads. The 
Bureau of Equipment is maintained on the ground floor where members 
of the Department may buy all kinds of police equipment, from guns, 
nightsticks, and "nippers," to uniform caps, shirts, and shoes. 

THE BOWERY, dividing line between the Jewish Quarter on the east 
and Little Italy on the west, was once an Indian trail used by aborigines 
in their expeditions against New Amsterdam. In the days of the Dutch it 
became known as "the road to the bouwerij (farm)," Peter Stuyvesant's 
country estate. The street was later part of the highroad to Boston and fig- 
ured in many a Revolutionary incident as the only land entrance to New 
York City. 

From 1860 to 1875 the city's theatrical life centered here. At the Bowery 
Amphitheatre (37 Bowery), the first blackface minstrel group made its 
appearance. At the National Theatre (104 Bowery) Frank S. Chanfrau, 
actor-manager, appeared with his brother in a long series of plays about 
Mose, the Bowery Paul Bunyan, an epic slugger, eye-gouger, and hobnail- 
stamper in New York's rowdy history. The legendary Big Mose was eight 
feet tall, with hands as big as hams. In his belt was thrust a butcher's 
cleaver, and in summer a keg of beer hung there for his refreshment. He 
loved to lift a streetcar off its track and carry it on one hand as a waiter 
carries a tray, the horses dangling from their harnesses; and Big Mose 
laughing thunderously at the terrified passengers. Another of his favorite 
jests was to stand in the East River, and blow back approaching vessels 
with a few puffs from his mighty lungs. The first stage version of Uncle 
Tom's Cabin appeared at the National on August 23, 1852. 

Harrigan and Hart with their idealized pictures of East Side life, 
Weber and Fields, George M. Cohan, and Eddie Cantor are a few of 
the many actors who first succeeded in Bowery theaters. The Jewish 
theater in the United States had its beginnings here, and the well-known 
Eli, Eli by Jacob Sandier was first sung in a Yiddish play at the old 
Windsor Theatre in 1896. 

After 1870 came the period of the Bowery's celebrated degeneration. 
Fake auction rooms, saloons specializing in five-cent whisky and knockout 
drops, sensational dime museums, filthy and rat-ridden stale-beer dives, 



120 LOWER MANHATTAN 

together with Charles M. Hoyt's song, "The Bowery, the Bowery! . . . 
I'll never go there any more!" fixed it forever in the Nation's conscious- 
ness as a place of unspeakable corruption. 

The Bowery today is chiefly given over to pawnshops, restaurant equip- 
ment houses, beer saloons, and miscellaneous small retail shops. Here flop- 
houses offer a bug-infested bed in an unventilated pigeonhole for twenty- 
five cents a night, restaurants serve ham and eggs for ten cents, and stu- 
dents in barber "colleges" cut hair for fifteen cents. Thousands of the 
nation's unemployed drift to this section and may be seen sleeping in 
all-night restaurants, in doorways, and on loading platforms, furtively 
begging, or waiting with hopeless faces for some bread line or free lodging 
house to open. No agency, at present (1939), provides adequate food, 
shelter, and clothing for these wanderers. Missions furnish food and lodg- 
ing for a few, and try by sermon and song to touch the souls of the down- 
and-outers and the sympathies of generous tourists. 

The Bowery begins at Chatham Square, and at No. 6 stands the 
OLLIFFE PHARMACY, established before 1803 and reputed to be the oldest 
drugstore in America. At No. 15 is the twenty-five-cent lodging house 
where Stephen C. Foster, author of Swanee River and My Old Kentucky 
Home, lived in 1864. To the west of the Bowery is Chinatown (see page 
104). West for a block on Bayard Street to Elizabeth Street is a secondhand 
clothing market occupying the basements. A suit or overcoat hangs out on 
the street by way of a sign, and the proprietor stands halfway up the cellar 
steps, peering eagerly for customers. 

Two blocks north, at Canal Street, is the MANHATTAN BRIDGE, opened 
in 1909. The approach was designed by Carrere and Hastings, and the 
bridge proper, by Gustav Lindenthal, the engineer. The triumphal arch 
and curved colonnade are combined in a vigorous baroque composition, 
inspired by the Porte St. Denis, a gateway in Paris, and the Bernini colon- 
nade that forms the Piazza of St. Peter's in Rome. Beginning here, and for 
several blocks north, the Bowery is a row of jewelry stores displaying dia- 
monds. On the sidewalks, braving the weather, stand diamond dealers 
whose whole stock in trade may consist of one diamond, wrapped in tissue 
paper and carried in the vest pocket. 

-The stretch between Delancey and Houston Streets is jocularly known 
as the THIEVES' MARKET. Those who have any small objects to sell or 
exchange congregate here. At No. 227, between Rivington and Stanton 
Streets, stands the BOWERY MISSION, which has been in existence for more 
than fifty years. It is now guided by Dr. Charles St. Johns, who conducts 
a radio broadcast from his chapel every Sunday afternoon. Guest singers 



LOWER EAST SIDE 121 

perform and men from the audience appeal for jobs and testify to their 
conversion. At No. 225 is the SALVATION ARMY HOTEL, which runs a 
buttermilk bar where beef stew, oatmeal, and coffee sell for five cents. 

Astor Place District 

This was quite an aristocratic neighborhood in the early i88o's. Wil- 
liam Cullen Bryant lived here, as well as Isaac M. Singer, improver of the 
sewing machine. Five blocks north of the Salvation Army Hotel and west 
of the Bowery, at 29 East Fourth Street is one of the old mansions, a red- 
brick structure in late Federal style, known sometimes as OLD MER- 
CHANT'S HOUSE. Built about 1830 by the nephew of the Reverend Samuel 
Seabury, first Bishop of the Episcopal Church in America, it has a richly de- 
tailed interior that shows the dominant influence of the Greek Revival. The 
house was purchased in 1936 by the Historic Landmark Society and re- 
opened as a museum. (Open weekdays 11 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sunday 1 to 5 
p.m.; admission 500.) Bronze whale-oil mantel lamps, old gaslight fixtures, 
and Duncan Phyf e furniture are on view. 

On Lafayette Street, south of Astor Place, the Greek Revival style finds 
expression in COLONNADE Row, formerly La Grange Terrace. Only four 
out of the eight original houses remain, but they serve to give some idea 
of the handsome proportions of a fashionable residence of the 1830*8. 

The CONDICT BUILDING, 65 Bleecker Street (near Lafayette Street) is 
New York's sole example (1898) of the work of Louis H. Sullivan, 
whose buildings in Chicago and the Middle West counted among the 
leading structures in the development of modern architecture here and 
abroad. A minor example of his work, it displays some of Sullivan's clarity 
of expression and inimitable ornament. 

The department store of JOHN WANAMAKER (see page 136) consists 
of two buildings between Broadway and Lafayette Street, separated by 
Wanamaker Place (Ninth Street). Across Lafayette Street and slightly 
to the south, is COOPER UNION, founded in 1859 by Peter Cooper, philan- 
thropist, reformer, and inventor. His purpose was to establish a center 
where all public questions might be openly and freely discussed, and 
where young people might receive the technical education which he had 
been denied, and which was becoming increasingly important in that era 
of industrial expansion. Cooper Union Forum has often been the meeting 
hall of reformers gathering their forces against corrupt city administra- 
tions. Henry Ward Beecher, William Cullen Bryant, William Lloyd Gar- 
rison, and others thundered there against slavery and in defense of the 
Union, and Lincoln, in 1860, made the speech that is credited with win- 



122 LOWER MANHATTAN 

ning for him the nomination for the Presidency. Cooper Union today offers 
to students, irrespective of race, creed, or color, courses in engineering 
and other technical subjects, secretarial training, and art. It has about ten 
thousand applicants a year, of whom only 3,500 can be accommodated. 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Adolph A. Weinman, and Leo Friedlander are 
three illustrious graduates of the art school. The main library, open to the 
public, contains 67,000 books; the art library, 17,000. The MUSEUM FOR 
THE ARTS OF DECORATION includes textiles, drawings, and designs, and 
musical instruments. (Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., from the day fol- 
lowing Labor Day to June 30; 6:30 to 9- '30 p.m. from October 1 to May 
1 ; admission free.) The institution was supported entirely by the Cooper 
family until 1900; since then other philanthropists have helped. The in- 
novations used by Peter Cooper in the construction of the school were 
important developments in the history of building. To support the flooring, 
he used rolled, wrought-iron beams arranged in a light grid; and by 
replacing heavy stone arches with thinner piers, he increased the usable 
space. In the tiny green triangle south of the building is a STATUE OF 
PETER COOPER by Augustus Saint-Gaudens. 

Just east of Third Avenue, at 15 East Seventh Street, is McSor ley's Old 
Ale House, which was established in 1854. No women are served at 
McSorley's. Fourth Avenue, from Eighth to Thirteenth Streets, is faced 
with the longest row of secondhand bookstores in the city. The outside 
tables, displaying bargain items, attract browsers at all hours. 

Tompkins Square 

The population here is composed of Italians, Slavs, and East European 
Jews. Some of the Greek Orthodox churches are under the guidance of 
priests who wear long beards, according to the custom of the Slavic coun- 
tries. The grocers, merchants, and mechanics of the district are Russian; 
and their language is heard in a dozen basement cafes where men sit 
drinking tea. Politically, the colony is violently divided between pro- and 
anti-Soviet. 

On Avenue A and Third Street, three blocks east of the Bowery, rise 
the FIRST HOUSES, the first project of the New York City Housing Au- 
thority, opened in 1935. Of the old slum tenements which formerly occu- 
pied this space, some were torn down and others were completely rebuilt 
by WPA labor, using the old materials. Unfortunately the attempt to 
utilize old structures has forced the new ones into a dull scheme. Bath- 
rooms, sound-proofed partitions, gardens, and playgrounds promote the 



LOWER EAST SIDE 123 

health and comfort of the occupants, who pay five dollars to seven dollars 
a room a month. 

Four blocks north is TOMPKINS SQUARE PARK. Within the park, near 
the East Tenth Street side, a small MONUMENT depicting a boy and girl 
looking at a steamboat commemorates the tremendous loss sustained by 
this district, in the sinking of the excursion steamer, General Slocum, on 
June 15, 1904. Most of those who lost their lives, more than a thousand 
in number, came from this neighborhood, then predominantly German, 
and the disaster changed the character of the district. A large number of 
German families, overwhelmed by painful memories, moved to other 
parts of town. 

Second Avenue, from Houston to Fourteenth Street, is known as the 
JEWISH RIALTO. The theaters specialize in melodrama and musical com- 
edy, leaning heavily on success themes in which the immigrant makes good. 
Bertha Kalich, Jacob Adler, Molly Picon, David Kessler, Boris Thomashef- 
sky, Sigmond Mogulesco, Jenny Goldstein, Morris Moscovitch, and Lud- 
wig Satz are famous Jewish players who have performed here. Two of 
Adler's children, Luther and Stella, now famous on Broadway, had their 
start on Second Avenue. This Rialto is also famous for its foreign res- 
taurants. Just below Fourteenth Street several Russian eating places offer 
entertainment and dancing to balalaikas, and a menu including borscht, 
pirojski (pastry), and shashlik (chunks of roasted lamb). There are Pol- 
ish restaurants near St. Mark's Place that serve stuffed pig and bigos 
my si iw ski (cabbage and game). And there are many reasonably priced 
Hungarian-Jewish and Rumanian-Jewish restaurants where a meal includes 
chicken soup with mandlen (a kind of crouton) and stuffed kishkes (in- 
testines). 

In the incongruous setting of the theater and restaurant district is ST. 
MARK'S IN-THE-BOUWERIE, Second Avenue and Stuyvesant (East Tenth) 
Street. Erected in 1660, as a Dutch chapel, on the farm of Governor Peter 
Stuyvesant, it was rebuilt in 1799. The steeple and portico were added in 
1826 and in 1858. Pagan-looking frescoes fill the pediment above the porch. 
They recall the pastorate of Dr. William Norman Guthrie. In an effort to 
make the church attractive to progressive parishioners, Dr. Guthrie worked 
out a ritual based on the theory of the essential unity of all religions, which 
included Greek folk dancing, American Indian chants, and many other 
things which the conservative element in the diocese heatedly declared 
to have no place in an Episcopalian church. A Body and Soul Clinic was 
attached to the church with the aim of combining physical and spiritual 
treatment. 



124 LOWER MANHATTAN 

In the graveyard lie buried Governor Stuyvesant and Commodore Mat- 
thew C. Perry. A statue of the Dutch governor, presented by Queen Wil- 
helmina of Holland in 1915, stands near his grave. In 1878 the graveyard 
was the scene of a sensational body snatching when the remains of A. T. 
Stewart, well-known merchant and owner of a store which is now part 
of Wanamaker's, were stolen and held for $20,000 ransom. They were 
not returned till two years later. 

On Second Avenue at Twelfth Street is the CAFE ROYAL, forum and 
meeting place of the Jewish intelligentsia. Behind the box hedges that 
make it a sidewalk cafe in summer, or in the big inside room on Friday 
nights, vehement arguments are carried on for and against a new play, 
book, or art movement. Managers on the road telephone the cafe by long 
distance to fill some sudden need, and unemployed actors eat there in the 
hope of attracting the eye of some impresario. 

GREENWICH VILLAGE 

Area: Spring St. on the south to i4th St. on the north; from West St. east to 
Broadway. Map on page 127. 

A nation, coming into its own artistically after an era of ruthless indus- 
trial expansion, of materialism and strait-laced conventionality, seized upon 
Greenwich Village as a symbol of revolt in the ferment of postwar years. 
The "Village" was the center of the American Renaissance or of artiness, 
of political progress or of long-haired radical men and short-haired radical 
women, of sex freedom or of sex license dependent upon the point of 
view. 

Greenwich Village, actually, is a cross section of American urban life. 
Here are old families in their gracious mansions ; bankers and clerks in tall 
apartment buildings; and a foreign-born population of some twenty-five 
thousand, largely Irish and Italian, in tenements. If in 1939 there were 
more serious artists and writers, more "bohemians" in renovated old 
houses, more colorful tea rooms and wild night clubs than in other Ameri- 
can centers, the number each year was lessening. 

In the years just preceding and following the World War the political, 
artistic, and literary rebels who flocked to the Village gave it a character 
unique in this country. The literary history of Greenwich Village, however, 
begins much earlier. Here Tom Paine spent the last years of his life. Poe 
lived, drank, and worked at several Village addresses. Walt Whitman lived 
in the vicinity, Henry James was born near Washington Square (he named 




LOWER MANHATTAN 



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BROOKLYN BRIDGE 




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II II II 



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HANOVER SQUARE 




DERELICTS (East River Water Front) 



CHERRIES 5C 




CHATHAM SQUARE EL 



SALVATION (A Bowery Mission) 







RAIN (The Bowery) 




ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 125 

one of his books for the square), and Mark Twain adopted the neighbor- 
hood for his city home. In 1896 John Masefield, English poet laureate, 
made his living here by scrubbing the floors of a saloon. 

But the story of Greenwich Village is the rounded story of an old and 
lively American community, at once typical and individual. Here explor- 
ing parties were entertained by the natives of the hamlet of Sapokanican; 
and, in return, with the earliest settlement of lower Manhattan, the Dutch 
drove the Indians from this neighborhood. In 1633, while most of the 
island north of Wall Street was still a wilderness, Governor Van Twiller 
was cultivating here a large tobacco plantation Bos sen Bouwerie (Farm in 
the Woods) and built his home at the foot of the present Charlton 
Street. During the fall of 1679, the Labadist missionaries, Danckaerts and 
Sluyter, visited what had grown to be a small village, where they drank 
"some good beer." In 1740, Sir Peter Warren, vice admiral of the British 
Navy and at that time commander of the fleet in New York, chose the 
locality for his home. 

The Village grew throughout the Colonial period as a community of the 
wealthy. Here was the great Brevoort estate, sold in 1762 to one John 
Smith, a large slaveholder; the Bleecker farm; and the mansions of the 
Bayards, the Jauncys, and the De Lanceys. A popular drive for New York's 
fashionable reached the Village by way of Greenwich Street, which then ran 
along the river; when wet weather rendered this route impassable, the 
drive was made along the Bowery to an extension of what is now Green- 
wich Avenue, with a monument erected to General James Wolfe, hero of 
the French and Indian War, as its goal. 

A spurt was given to the growth of the community following the Revo- 
lution, particularly in the neighborhood of the State prison, erected at the 
foot of Tenth Street; that institution, like the Bedlam Madhouse of Eliza- 
bethan days, was considered a residential attraction. 

An epidemic of smallpox in 1739 in the Battery region gave impetus 
to the first hasty migration of the well-to-do to the healthier climate of 
the Village; scourges of yellow fever in 1797, 1799, 1803, and 1805 re- 
sulted in similar stampedes northward in crowded stages, and goods-piled 
carriages and pushcarts. Some drifted south again when conditions became 
normal, but others remained in their new homes. The greatest of all the 
yellow fever plagues, in 1822, brought such a rush of refugees that the 
Brooklyn ferry changed its course from New York to a point opposite the 
Village. Makeshift dwellings and business houses were thrown up al- 
most overnight; lanes and cowpaths winding haphazardly through the 
neighborhood became busy streets. One of these lanes, during the 1822 



126 LOWER MANHATTAN 

epidemic, quartered temporarily the counting houses of Wall Street, and 
still bears the name Bank Street. 

From 1825 to 1850, the population of Greenwich Village quadrupled, 
its inhabitants being largely of middle-class and well-to-do American 
stock. But for the next half-century, its growth, although steady, was 
slower than that of New York as a whole. While the city moved steadily 
northward, along Broadway, Fifth Avenue, and other great arteries, the 
Village, with its narrow erratic streets, remained a quiet backwater. As late 
as 1875, since only 32 per cent of its population was foreign-born 
unusual for Manhattan the section was known as the "American Ward." 

An area so central, however, could not escape the ever encroaching 
poorer classes. Already numbers of Irish immigrants had moved into the 
neighborhood, and later a Negro invasion, starting at the southeastern 
edge of the Village and moving north to Washington Square itself, 



KEY TO GREENWICH VILLAGE MAP 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 

24. 
25. 



Salmagundi Club 

First Presbyterian Church 

Church of the Ascension 

Grace Church School 

Grace Episcopal Church 

Hotel Lafayette 

Home of Mark Twain 

Hotel Brevoort 

One Fifth Avenue 

Clay Club 

Whitney Museum of Art 

A.C.A. Gallery 

MacDougal Alley 

The Row 

Rhinelander Mansion 

Washington Mews 

Wanamaker House 

Washington Arch 

Bust of Alexander Lyman Holley 

Judson Memorial Baptist Church 

World War Memorial Flagpole 

Statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi 

New York University 

Museum of Living Art 

Broadway Central Hotel 

Bannerman Museum 



26. Holland Tunnel 

27. Spring Street Presbyterian Church 

28. St. John's Park Freight Terminal 

29. Hudson Park Playground 

30. Little Red School House 

31. Narrowest House in New York 

32. Cherry Lane Theater 

33. St. Luke's Chapel 

34. Grove Court 

35. Greenwich House 

36. Site of Tom Paine House 

37. Statue of General Sheridan 

38. Northern Dispensary 

39. House of Detention for Women 

40. Jefferson Market Court 

41. Patchin Place 

42. Rhinelander Gardens 

43. Milligan Place 

44. Spanish-Portuguese Cemetery 

45. New School for Social Research 

46. St. Vincent's Hospital 

47. Downtown Gallery 

48. Bell Telephone Laboratory 

49. Gansevoort Market 

50. West Washington Market 



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GREENWICH 
VILLAGE 



128 LOWER MANHATTAN 

heralded the first major change in the district. Property values decreased. 
Save for the families in the aristocratic stronghold of Washington Square 
and north of it, and a few tenacious ones scattered throughout the south- 
west, the older and wealthier inhabitants joined the continual migration 
uptown. 

Then, in the 1890'$, came another invasion of Irish lower in the eco- 
nomic scale than the compatriots who preceded them. The Italians dis- 
placing the Negroes who left their last stronghold in Gay Street in the 
early 1920*5 moved up from the south in even greater numbers than the 
Irish, meeting them in the neighborhood of Sheridan Square. 

By 1910, the transformation of Greenwich Village had been completed. 
The American Ward had become Ward 9, a foreign ward, leading its life 
of pushcart, cafe, fiesta, and bar, its land values as cheap as in nearly any 
settled section of the city, its people faithful followers of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church and of Tammany. 

A second change of a different nature began in Greenwich Village 
shortly before 1910. It had a slow, quiet beginning, scarcely perceptible 
to the neighborhood itself; yet it was to make that dingy backwater cele- 
brated wherever the English language is spoken. At that period material- 
ism had assumed an unprecedented importance in American life. Ambition 
not directed toward the goal of a large bank account was almost alien to 
thought and education, and, like most things alien, was regarded with 
distrust and scorn. Above all was this attitude adopted toward the strug- 
gling artist seeking satisfaction from completion of a poem or picture. 

A natural result was the withdrawal of the rebel artist into protective 
groups. Many of these groups gravitated to the larger cities Kansas City 
to St. Louis, St. Louis to Chicago and finally, from all over the country to 
the metropolis. 

In Greenwich Village the earliest rebels found comparative quiet, wind- 
ing streets, houses with a flavor of the Old World and cheap rents. The 
local people existed largely to be traded with; otherwise they were passed 
unnoticed as the Villager moved from group meeting to group meeting. 

These meetings after a day of hard work or of grandiose planning 
at first took place in their homes, in a back room in Washington Square 
South, in an attic on West Fourth Street. The room was often sparsely 
furnished, partly for lack of funds to buy furniture, partly as a revolt 
from overfurnished, late- Victorian backgrounds. Often candles replaced 
electricity. A few pictures of their own or of their friends' painting and 
a batik hung on the walls. They talked of their work, of the arts, or of 
sex and Freud; and were secretly thrilled at doing so in mixed company. 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 129 

They discussed Socialism, the I.W.W., woman's suffrage, and the philis- 
tinism of the folks back home. The conversation ranged from brilliant to 
silly, but always, instinctively or consciously, it was unconventional. And 
throughout, they drank endless glasses of tea for these were the days 
before Prohibition and bath-tub gin. 

As their numbers grew, they found outside meeting places of their own, 
places more esoteric than the Italian restaurants they first frequented, such 
as Bertolloti's on West Third Street, Renganeschi's on West Tenth 
Street, Gallup's on Greenwich Avenue. The first of these new meeting 
places was Polly Holliday's, on the north side of Fourth Street, between 
MacDougal Street and Sixth Avenue. Here commercialism, even on the 
part of the proprietress, scarcely existed. Meals were written on the cuff, 
never to be erased; but all "true" Villagers were welcome so long as they 
kept the conversation flowing well into the night. The Mad Hatter was 
another such eating place; with Polly's it entertained many who were 
later to become noted in art, science, and politics. There was the Samovar, 
Sam Swartz's TNT, the Purple Pup, the Pirate's Den, and Romany 
Marie's, the last-named still in existence. For drinks, at the corner of 
Fourth Street and Sixth Avenue, there was the Golden Swan, popularly 
known as the "Hell Hole," frequented by Villagers and toughs alike, and 
on Greenwich Avenue, Luke O'Connor's bar, where John Masefield 
worked. Finally, as a degree of affluence came to many of the Villagers, 
the cafes of the Brevoort and Lafayette hotels continental in flavor and 
esteemed by cosmopolitans were invaded, for drinks, cards, chess, and 
for discussion. Always the line between groups was sharply drawn; there 
were as yet no big business neighbors, no white-collar workers, no respect- 
able well-to-do drawn here by the love or the glamor of the arts. There 
were only the Villager and Ward Niner, and the former walked from 
home to Polly's and from Polly's to the Brevoort through a little world 
of his own. 

In the theater, from modest beginnings, the Villagers all but revolu- 
tionized the American stage. A group, loosely organized at first, gave 
performances in a converted stable at 133 MacDougal Street. Its mem- 
bers, sometimes actors, sometimes playwrights, called themselves the 
Provincetown Players, after their so-titled wharf theater in Cape Cod's 
Provincetown, and included such people as George Cram Cook and his 
wife, Susan Glaspell, Eugene O'Neill, Edna St. Vincent Millay, her sister, 
Norma, and Robert Edmond Jones. And if this group gave the country 
modern playwrights, the group that preceded it for a short while at the 
same address the Washington Square Players with Helen Westley, 



130 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Philip Moeller, Lawrence Langner and others gave America an organiza- 
tion, which, moving uptown as the Theater Guild, taught the incredulous 
Broadway producers that living art could bring box-office receipts. A later 
venture, Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory, in the old Theatre Frangais, 
105 West Fourteenth Street, carried on the tradition of a "different" thea- 
ter until 1933, when it gave way to the Theater Union, which produced 
plays with a pronounced social theme. 

Literature, in group form, found expression in a number of papers and 
magazines of varying worth. They ranged from purely literary to pri- 
marily political, and lasted from one issue to several years. Two of them, 
the Seven Arts and the Masses, were forced to discontinue publication be- 
cause of their opposition to the World War. The former, edited by Louis 
Untermeyer and James Oppenheim, with a number of now noted con- 
tributors, was revolutionary in content. The Masses was radical politically; 
following its suppression in 1918, Max Eastman, Art Young, John Reed, 
and Floyd Dell, were placed on trial, charged with a conspiracy to obstruct 
recruiting and prevent enlistment. The trial was an event of nation-wide 
interest, the tension of which on the climactic day was disturbed only by 
the snoring of the defendant Young. The Masses reappeared in 1919 as 
the Liberator, and later, after another lapse, as the present New Masses. 

First, however, among organized groups expressing the revolt of the 
Villagers was the "A" Club, at One Fifth Avenue, with the writer, Mary 
Heaton Vorse, Rose O'Neill, creator of the Kewpies, and Frances Perkins, 
later Secretary of Labor under Franklin D. Roosevelt, among its leaders 
a group devoted to the advancement of woman's suffrage and social 
reforms. The Liberal Club, with a similar membership, followed, moving 
from East Seventeenth Street to 133 MacDougal Street, at which address 
it gave houseroom and financial aid to the Washington Square Players 
and, later, to the Provincetown Players. 

The liberals were beginning to exert an influence not only on New 
York but on American thinking, when the entrance of the United States 
into the World War altered radically the intellectual aspects of the Vil- 
lage. Repression of liberal and radical activities during and for several 
years following the war was, of course, the major cause of the change. 
Some Villagers had been ardent supporters of the war; the nebulous 
liberalism and radicalism of many others were dissipated. Meanwhile, 
however, fame had come to some of these early rebels, success to many 
others, maturity to all. Many of the successful moved, with their families, 
to Connecticut, Westchester County, and farther afield; the unsuccessful 
trekked back home to take up their old life where they had left off a 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 131 

decade earlier. A nucleus remained to greet the postwar rebels attracted 
to a now celebrated Bohemia. 

By 1939 there were more Greenwich Villagers than in the days preced- 
ing the war, but these young people were leading a life not greatly dis- 
similar to that of many of their contemporaries throughout the country. 
The Village tearooms and night clubs, for the most part no longer the 
haunts of the Bohemian, were patronized largely by out-of-town tourists 
and sensation seekers from outlying boroughs. Large apartment buildings 
and rents were rising as the well-to-do and white-collar workers, attracted 
by the central location, by vastly improved transportation facilities, and, 
perhaps, by the glamor associated with the address, moved in. 

And as the foreigner had for two decades retreated before the advance 
of the Villager, so already the Villager had begun to retreat to outlying 
districts before the wealthier newcomer. The passionate individualism of 
the Village was giving way to community singing and similar neighbor- 
hood activities. Bobby Edwards' erratic, "villagy" Quill was replaced by 
the highly successful commercial Villager, which exalted the conventional, 
small-town aspects of the district. If such institutions as the semiannual 
open-air art show in Washington Square where three-quarters of the 
exhibitors have been non-Villagers still exist, they are inspired by the 
legend rather than by the actuality of the community. 

Much of the old aspect, and many of the old people, such as Theodore 
Dreiser and Vilhjalmur Stefansson, returned, however. Papa Strunsky still 
rails at the tenant in arrears in his West Third Street building and at 
times lets the promising writer or painter stay on, the bill unpaid. Literary 
teas (with tea scarcely in evidence) are still popular. The easy uncon- 
ventionality, the charming old houses, comfortable as an old shoe, still 
invite the Villager, emerging from the subway after a visit to more formal 
neighborhoods, to drag off his or her hat and swing along home. 

Washington Square 

The district roughly known as Greenwich Village has two focal points: 
Washington Square and Sheridan Square, each the center of a neighbor- 
hood fairly distinct in architecture, in the character of its activities and 
in the type of its people. Sheridan Square can best be described as the 
"Times Square" of Greenwich Village. WASHINGTON SQUARE, on the 
other hand, is striking for its dignity, still undestroyed by the commercial 
and tenement advances that swept around it, while many of the streets 
to the north, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, have scarcely changed 
through the decades. Although some of the private homes have been con- 



132 LOWER MANHATTAN 

verted into rooming houses, large numbers of charming dwellings are 
still occupied by their owners. 

The site of the square served as the city's potter's field in 1789, and the 
use of its trees some still standing as the public gallows during that 
period was an attraction drawing large crowds of holiday makers on exe- 
cution days. In 1823, however, the potter's field was closed. Four years 
later a park was laid out and the first of the impressive mansions which 
give the square its present character was erected. 

The square today is well shaded by trees: pin oaks, oriental planes, yellow 
locusts, ash, and American elm. Benches line its paths, and here meet 
Italian workers, mothers and their broods from the south, apartment 
dwellers from the north, university students from the east, and young 
Villagers from the west. 

Dominating the park is the white marble WASHINGTON ARCH, eighty- 
six feet high, with a span thirty feet wide, designed by Stanford White. 
Rising at the foot of Fifth Avenue, it forms an imposing gateway to 
New York's most imposing thoroughfare. It was completed in 1895 at a 
cost of $128,000, and commemorates the first inauguration of George 
Washington. Two statues of the first President, one in the uniform of 
commander-in-chief, by Hermon A. MacNeil, the other in civilian garb, 
by A. Sterling Calder, face the north on bases projecting from the east 
and west piers, respectively. 

On the east side of the square is a bronze STATUE OF GARIBALDI by 
Giovanni Turini, erected in 1888 and presented by the Italians of New 
York. Directly south of the arch is a WORLD WAR MEMORIAL FLAGPOLE, 
forty-five feet high, and near by is a bronze BUST OF ALEXANDER LYMAN 
HOLLEY, Bessemer steel pioneer. It is the work of J. Q. A. Ward and 
was erected in 1890. 

Annual events in Washington Square include the folk festival and the 
open-air art and pottery exhibits. The first, an outdoor pageant of folk 
dancing and singing, is held on Labor Day. Art exhibits, inaugurated in 
1931, are held in May and September, with pictures lining the building 
walls on the blocks near the western half of the square Thompson, Sulli- 
van, and MacDougal Streets, and Washington and Waverly Places. Painters 
living within the confines of the city may exhibit their wares free, and re- 
ceipts from sales range from less than a dollar to several hundred dollars. 
In May, the Ravens tack their verses on a fence along Thompson Street 
the Fifth Avenue extension south and sell them for quarters and half 
dollars. 

Washington Square North, part of the old Warren estate, retains 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 133 

almost intact its line of fine early nineteenth-century Greek Revival homes 
of red brick with white limestone trim. Each mansion was built on a 
generous plot with a ninety-foot garden in the rear. One of the earliest of 
these was the RHINELANDER MANSION, designed by Richard Upjohn, archi- 
tect of Trinity Church, and built at the west corner of Fifth Avenue 
in 1839. 

Across Fifth Avenue is the WANAMAKER HOUSE, built in 1833-7 as 
two separate houses by James Boorman, a merchant, and purchased by 
Rodman Wanamaker, a merchant's son, in 1920. The twelve houses ex- 
tending between Fifth Avenue and University Place are known as THE 
Row, one of New York's most elegant residential areas, and occupy land 
owned by Sailors Snug Harbor, an organization to aid indigent seamen. 
Once part of the Minto farm of twenty-one acres, which included most 
of the land between Washington Square North and Tenth Street, from 
Fifth Avenue to the Bowery, the area was acquired by Captain T. Randall, 
a privateer, in 1790. His son, appropriately and sentimentally, gave it to 
men of the sea, and stipulated in his will that none of the land was ever 
to be sold. The sailors benefiting from the income live in a home on 
Staten Island (see page 618). These houses, among the most lavish of 
the 1830'$, with brick, ivy-covered walls, fine doorways, and quaint and 
carefully tended front yards, did not acquire their extraordinary harmony 
by accident. Though built by lessees, and with varying interior schemes, 
their exteriors were controlled by a master plan dictating the cornice and 
window heights. Some of the city's leading families and some of the coun- 
try's best-known writers and artists have occupied the houses. Among the 
latter were Henry James, Edith Wharton, William Dean Howells, and 
Francis Hopkinson Smith. In No. 3, a studio building, lives Frederick W. 
Stokes, the artist, who went to the North Pole with Peary; some of his 
paintings of the Arctic regions are in the Smithsonian Institution in Wash- 
ington, but many are in his studio, which, like others in the building, is 
still heated in winter by pot-bellied stoves. 

Waverly Place, running east and west of Washington Square North, 
honors through its name Sir Walter Scott. At No. 108 Richard Harding 
Davis lived during his early newspaper days. 

The beauty of the square is marred on its east side by the tall drab build- 
ings of NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. The Main Building, erected in 1894, 
replaced the original building of the university, which was founded in 
1830. Albert Gallatin, Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury, was one of 
the leaders in the move to establish this nonsectarian institution for the 
dissemination of practical as well as classical education among the middle 



134 LOWER MANHATTAN 

and poorer classes. The use of stone cut by Sing Sing convicts for the 
buildings precipitated one of New York's first labor demonstrations the 
Stone Cutters' Riot. Masons, parading in protest, were dispersed by the 
Seventh Regiment. At the school Morse conducted successful experiments 
with telegraphy, Draper made the first daguerreotype of the human face, 
and Colt perfected the revolver. The first two men were faculty mem- 
bers. Morse, a portrait and landscape painter, was professor of art ; George 
Inness was one of his pupils. Colt was one of the lodgers in the Gothic 
tower of the university. Others who had rooms there were Brander Mat- 
thews, Winslow Homer, and Walt Whitman. New York University has 
another campus in the Bronx (see page 521). 

On the ground floor, right, of 100 Washington Square East is the 
MUSEUM OF LIVING ART. (Open Monday to Friday 9 a.m. to 8 p.m., Sat- 
urday 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.) Founded in 1927, the gallery contains works of 
Man Ray, Lachaise, Cezanne, Brancusi, Matisse, Picasso, and Juan Gris, 
owned by Albert E. Gallatin, a descendant of the New York University's 
first council chairman. Three of the paintings are critically acclaimed as 
being among the most important of this century: The Three Musicians, by 
Picasso, The City, by Leger, and Composition in White and Red, by Mon- 
drian. The exhibits also include the work of American artists such as 
Marin, Demuth, Sheeler, Hartley, and Knaths. Near the university, at 22 
Washington Place, was the Triangle Waist Company, where in 1911 oc- 
curred a disastrous fire which took a toll of 150 lives. As a result of the 
investigation that followed, State laws were enacted to improve working 
conditions in the factories. 

Washington Square South, with its remodeled and newer studio build- 
ings, is far less elegant than the north side. Beginning shortly before 
the war, many Villagers who later became noted lived on this street. Ade- 
lina Patti, Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, Stephen Crane, Willa Cather, 
Gelett Burgess, John Dos Passes, James Oppenheim, Pierre Matisse, Guy 
Pene duBois, and Alan Seeger were tenants at No. 61, Madame Branch- 
ard's Rooming House. At the west corner of Thompson Street stands the 
$450,000 JUDSON MEMORIAL BAPTIST CHURCH, of amber-colored brick, 
with slender Lombardian campanile surmounted by a lighted cross. The 
church was designed by Stanford White ; its twelve stained-glass windows 
were executed by John La Farge. 

Tall, modern apartments pre-empt Washington Square West, a threat 
to the old open atmosphere that attracted them. In the court of the Holley 
Chambers spouts a fountain fed by the subterranean Minetta Brook. Its 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 135 

winding, erratic course beneath Greenwich Village has been a repeated 
cause of distress to apartment builders and subway constructors. 

MacDougal Street, bordering the west side of Washington Square, 
swarms with tearooms, night clubs, and Villager memories. The Liberal 
Club and the Provincetown Players occupied No. 133 a half block south 
of the park a building now used as a WPA training theater. 

Around Washington Square South and extending west to Sheridan 
Square are numerous Village night clubs, patronized mostly by outsiders. 
Many of them, such as the Black Cat, established in 1888, between the 
square and Third Street, were early meeting places of Village intellectuals. 

One-half block north of Washington Square, the blind MACDOUGAL 
ALLEY, a lane of century-old mews converted into studios, runs east from 
MacDougal Street. Privately owned, the Alley is lit by New York's only 
remaining gas street lamps. 

Fifth Avenue and University Place 

On Fifth Avenue, north to Twelfth Street, rise tall, modern apartment 
buildings and hotels, along with a few old renovated mansions. In the 
summer a number of sidewalk cafes give this quarter-mile the flavor of a 
South European boulevard. At Christmas time it is ablaze with lighted 
trees and decorations. 

ONE FIFTH AVENUE, built in 1927, is the twenty-seven-story apartment 
hotel by Helmle, Corbett, and Harrison in association with Sugarman and 
Berger. The structure is interesting for its cut corners and setback, a 
change from the rectangular massing of the period. An amusing attempt 
was made to simulate vertical piers by the use of "shadow brick." Below 
the skyscraper, running east, is WASHINGTON MEWS, a row of converted 
stables, now the homes of the well-to-do, resembling a secluded lane in 
the Chelsea district of London with cobblestones, door shrubbery, and 
green shutters. Half a block north is the HOTEL BREVOORT, at Eighth 
Street. Built in 1854, it is noted for its distinguished intellectual and cos- 
mopolitan clientele. New York's first marble house, at No. 8, was built 
in 1856 by John Taylor Johnston, first president of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. On the southeast corner of Ninth Street stands the house 
where Mark Twain lived during the early years of the twentieth century. 
This three-story brick house betrays the largely ecclesiastic practice of its 
architect, James Renwick. 

The CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION (Protestant Episcopal) is on the 
northwest corner of Tenth Street. Built in 1841 in English Gothic style 
after the design by Richard Upjohn, it was redecorated about 1888 from 



136 LOWER MANHATTAN 

the plans of Stanford White, the chancel being the work of well-known 
artists of the late nineteenth century. John La Farge's mural, The Ascen- 
sion (behind the altar), is considered his finest work. Here, on June 26, 
1844, President John Tyler was married to Julia Gardiner. Between West 
Eleventh and Twelfth Streets is the FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, an 
example of English Gothic architecture, built in 1845 from plans of 
Joseph C. Wells. 

The SALMAGUNDI CLUB, at 47 Fifth Avenue, was founded in 1871 as 
a sketch class. Its members are artists and sympathetic "amateurs of art." 
The name recalls the interest in the "Salmagundi Papers" published by 
Washington Irving. The club occupies the last surviving high-stooped 
brownstone (built in 1854) of the block. The gallery, just beyond the 
spacious entrance hall, exhibits work by Salmagundi members, and the 
library has a valuable collection of costume books. The club's auction ex- 
hibition the Mug Sale is held annually in January; a summer show is 
usually held from May to October. 

Paralleling Fifth Avenue to the east, University Place runs from Wash- 
ington Square to Fourteenth Street. The HOTEL LAFAYETTE, founded in 
1883, at the southeast corner of Ninth Street, is known for its French cui- 
sine, while its cafe, like that of the Brevoort, is a meeting place of intel- 
lectuals, American and foreign. The district to the north is given over 
largely to auction rooms for the sale of antique and modern furnishings. 

Broadway 

Broadway, a block east of University Place, is at its drabbest in this sec- 
tor. At Tenth Street and Broadway rises the lacelike GRACE EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH consecrated in 1846. It was designed by James Renwick, archi- 
tect of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Typically English are the square east end, 
the elaboration of the ribbing of the vaulting, and the arrangement of 
tracery in the windows. The carved ornament of the exterior is crisp and 
incisive. The adjoining GRACE CHURCH SCHOOL, organized in 1894, was 
New York's first institution for training choir boys. In 1934 a day school 
was also inaugurated which now offers a complete secondary school cur- 
riculum. 

The swerve of Broadway at this point attests to the stubbornness of 
Hendrick Brevoort, whose tavern stood on the present church site and 
who refused to allow the street to be cut through (1847) because it 
would mean the destruction of a favorite tree. One block south is JOHN 
WANAMAKER, one of the oldest and foremost department stores in New 
York. It passed into the hands of its present owners in 1896. The original 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 137 

(north) store, erected by A. T. Stewart in 1862, is believed to be the 
first building in the city with a cast-iron front. A skylighted "open well" 
in the center of the old store recalls the days before electricity made good 
illumination possible. Upon the completion of the new building in 1905, 
the two were joined by a bridge similar in design to the Bridge of Sighs 
in Venice. Attractions offered by the store include Christmas concerts by 
famous choirs, exhibits by the American Artists Congress in May, and 
marionette shows. 

At No. 673 stands the BROADWAY CENTRAL, built in the 1870*5 to be 
"America's most palatial hotel." The National Baseball League was or- 
ganized here in 1876. In this hotel Edward S. Stokes shot and killed James 
Fisk, president of the Erie Railroad, in January, 1872, in a quarrel over 
Josie Mansfield, actress. 

Little Italy 

South of Washington Square and stretching to Spring Street lies a 
section of LITTLE ITALY. Numerous Italian cafes and restaurants, some 
small and wholly native, several particularly on West Houston Street 
having city-wide fame, cater to the needs of the residents and visitors. 
Here are held minor fiestas, with streets strung with lights, with singing 
and dancing, and the sale of candies and ices. On Bleecker Street 
between Sixth and Seventh Avenues is a pushcart market displaying 
fruits and vegetables, many, such as finochio and zucchini, exotic to 
Americans. Fortunio, a proprietor of a restaurant on this street, is said to 
have imported the first broccoli in the country. The LITTLE RED SCHOOL 
HOUSE, an experimental school for children, is at 196 Bleecker Street. 

Eighth Street and the Art Galleries 

Eighth Street, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, with its bookshops, 
antique shops, food shops, tearooms, bars, and art galleries, has been 
called the "Main Street" of Greenwich Village. At No. 4 is the CLAY 
CLUB, working headquarters and gallery for a group of sculptors. The 
building, originally the stable belonging to the marble house on Fifth 
Avenue (see page 135), was remodeled by the owner, John Taylor Johns- 
ton, as an exhibition gallery for his private collection. Impressed by his 
success, a group of wealthy collectors organized the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art (see page 368) in 1870. At Nos. 8-12 is the WHITNEY MUSEUM 
OF AMERICAN ART, founded in 1931 "to help create rather than con- 
serve a tradition." (Open Tuesday to Friday 1 to 5 p.m., Saturday and Sun- 
day 2 to 6 p.m.; closed during August.) It exhibits the works of Whistler, 



138 LOWER MANHATTAN 

Ryder, Homer, Eakins, and La Farge, as well as the works of living 
American artists of greater and lesser fame, including the painters Sloan, 
Cropper, Davis, and Kuniyoshi, and the sculptors Davidson, Lachaise, 
Noguchi, Robus, and Zorach. Murals by Thomas Benton decorate the 
library. The museum was founded and endowed by the sculptor, Ger- 
trude Vanderbilt Whitney (Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney). The building, 
remodeled from three residence's, has a pink stucco facade. The A.C.A. 
GALLERY (American Contemporary Art), at No. 52, exhibits the work 
of contemporaries who have concerned themselves with present-day life. 
Among artists represented are Cropper, Evergood, Tromka, Joe Jones, and 
Harriton. 

Sixth Avenue 

Sixth Avenue, the dividing line between that part of Greenwich Village 
dominated by Washington Square and that dominated by Sheridan Square, 
is an uninspiring thoroughfare. The old Sixth Avenue elevated structure, 
which darkened the street, was removed in 1938-9; and with the com- 
pletion of the Sixth Avenue branch of the municipal Independent Subway, 
the character of the street may change. Running east, between Sixth Ave- 
nue and MacDougal Street, is Minetta Lane, with Minetta Street leading 
south from it. Considered in the latter part of the nineteenth century one 
of New York's most notorious slums, it has been improved through the 
renovation of some of its houses, which form an interesting group. 

In the triangle formed by West Tenth Street, Sixth Avenue, and Green- 
wich Avenue are the HOUSE OF DETENTION FOR WOMEN and JEFFER- 
SON MARKET COURT, which handles cases of women's delinquency. The 
jail, which in 1932 replaced the picturesque Jefferson Market, resembles a 
bleak apartment building. Modern in all its equipment, probably its most 
striking feature is the turntable altar in the chapel, one sector fitted for Prot- 
estant service, the second for Catholic, and the third for Jewish. The court 
itself was designed by Frederick C. Withers and Calvert Vaux, in 1876. 
The fantastic Victorian Gothic building with its array of weird turrets, 
traceried windows, and its patterns of brick and carved stone is an ex- 
ceptionally interesting work of its period. 

The oversized, odd-shaped block just north of the court, bounded by 
West Tenth Street, Sixth Avenue, West Eleventh Street, and Greenwich 
Avenue, is the result of the meeting at a slight angle of two gridiron sys- 
tems of streets. To utilize the interior of the property the owners de- 
veloped the land in an unusual way. From West Tenth Street and from 
Sixth Avenue blind alleys PATCHIN PLACE and MILLIGAN PLACE run 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 139 

into the block at right angles to the street, and give access to the houses 
which front on them. Patchin Place resembles a bystreet in Old London. In 
its modest little brick houses, only recently modernized, have lived Theo- 
dore Dreiser, John Masefield, Dudley Digges, John Reed, John Howard 
Lawson, and e. e. cummings. Milligan Place, whose houses were built in 
the 1850*5, was named for Samuel Milligan, who acquired the property, 
part of the Warren farm, in 1799. His granddaughter married Aaron 
Patchin, to whom was deeded what became Patchin Place in 1848. George 
Cram Cook and Susan Glaspell lived here, and Eugene O'Neill came fre- 
quently when the three worked on his play, The Emperor Jones. Here, as 
throughout the Village, grows the ailanthus the "back-yard" tree, indig- 
enous to India. It is a city tree, one that flourishes with little soil, water, 
and light. In the days of the pestilence it was believed that the tree ab- 
sorbed "bad" air. 

On Eleventh Street, a few doors east of Sixth Avenue, is the tiny 
second SPANISH-PORTUGUESE JEWISH CEMETERY OF NEW YORK, opened 
in 1805 and closed in 1829. West of the avenue, from 112 to 124 West 
Eleventh Street, is RHINELANDER GARDENS, part of the Rhinelander es- 
tate, which utilizes the deep lots on the north portion of the block by 
setting the buildings far back from the street line and thus getting a pleasant 
front garden. Built in the 1850'$, this distinctive line of houses with cast- 
iron balconies reminiscent of New Orleans is the only remaining example 
of its type in the city. 

The NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, founded in 1919 by James 
Harvey Robinson and Charles A. Beard, is at 66 West Twelfth Street, just 
east of Sixth Avenue. Thorstein Veblen was a faculty member. It is de- 
voted chiefly to adult education in political and social sciences and psy- 
chology, but advanced courses in the arts are also given. Here, in 1934, 
was organized the "University in Exile," its teachers being drawn from the 
brilliant political and racial exiles from Nazi Germany. The building, de- 
signed by Joseph Urban and erected in 1931, illustrates in striking fash- 
ion some of the characteristics of modern architecture. The central portion 
of the exterior is cantilevered out to form a shelter for the entrance doors 
below and is accented by continuous horizontal windows. An interesting 
feature is the progressive narrowing of the space between windows as the 
building rises and the inward inclination of the front wall; seen in per- 
spective these tend to give the building additional height. On the first 
floor of the interior is a small auditorium of skillful design. Murals by 
Thomas Benton and Camilo Egas, Ecuadorean artist, and the only frescoes 
in New York City by the Mexican, Orozco, decorate other parts of the 



140 LOWER MANHATTAN 

interior. Benton's work, the artist's first important mural decorations, 
are in the reception room on the third floor. The three on the west wall 
depict the old agricultural South, lumbering, and the growth of the West ; 
the three on the east, phases of the coal and iron industries ; the one facing 
the entrance, power; and those on either side of the entrance, phases of 
city life. Egas' work is in the Caroline Tilden Bacon Memorial Room on 
the mezzanine floor and in the foyer. Those in the foyer depict the harvest 
festivals of the Indians of Ecuador ; the two panels on the mezzanine floor, 
harvests in South America and Minnesota (Mrs. Bacon's native state). 
The Orozco Room is on the fifth floor. The fresco on the south wall is 
entitled The Table of Universal Brotherhood and embodies the theme of 
the group. Those on the west wall are concerned with attempts to achieve 
this brotherhood, one in the Soviet Union, the other in Mexico. A portrait 
of Lenin, leader of the Russian Revolution, is in the first, and in the sec- 
ond, one of Felipe Carillo Puerto, Yucatan hero. On the north wall is a 
representation of the Universal Family, the worker and his wife. Gandhi is 
portrayed in the painting on the east wall, which depicts the plight of 
India and its enslaved masses. 

The DOWNTOWN GALLERY, 113 West Thirteenth Street, always has 
examples of the work of six outstanding painters on view: Marin, O'Keeffe, 
Sheeler, Karfiol, Laurent, and Kuniyoshi. (Open weekdays 10 a.m. to 6 
p.m.; closed July and August.) An excellent collection of folk art is ex- 
hibited on the upper floors. 

Sheridan Square 

SHERIDAN SQUARE, at the intersection of Seventh Avenue and West 
Fourth Street, is reached from Washington Square by Waverly Place. This 
is the focal point for tourist night life in Greenwich Village; revelers 
from the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Queens arrive, as evening approaches, on 
the IRT subway, by bus, taxi, and private car to visit night clubs and bars 
that abound in the square itself, line West Fourth Street to Washington 
Square, and dot the neighborhood north and west. This, too, is a center 
for Villagers who frequent more modest establishments unpretentious 
saloons, lunch wagons, and cafeterias. A cafeteria, curiously enough, is 
one of the few obviously Bohemian spots in the Village, and evenings 
the more conventional occupy tables in one section of the room and watch 
the "show" of the eccentrics on the other side. 

The square, named for General Philip H. Sheridan, though a blaze of 
light by night, is, by day, an uninteresting hodgepodge of buildings of 
varying sizes and ages, suggesting little of the charm that lies beyond its 






GREENWICH VILLAGE 141 

limits. At the northeastern end is a small park, containing a bronze STATUE 
OF GENERAL SHERIDAN, sculptured by Joseph P. Pollia and erected in 
1936. Beyond the park is the NORTHERN DISPENSARY, a simple triangu- 
lar brick building, erected about 1830, and curious for the fact that two of 
its sides are on one street (Waver ly Place) and the third side on two 
streets (Christopher and Grove Streets). A block south of the square at 
27 Barrow Street is GREENWICH HOUSE, a seven-story structure of Geor- 
gian Colonial design, a settlement house. Its social and educational activi- 
ties and its powerful influence for civic improvement have given it a 
national reputation. Among its experiments in education and sociology is 
the Nursery School, founded in 1921 to provide a place for working 
mothers to leave their children. 

Wide Seventh Avenue, running north, offers little of interest. On the 
northeast corner of Eleventh Street is ST. VINCENT'S HOSPITAL, established 
1849, New York's first charity hospital depending on voluntary contribu- 
tions. Across the avenue a PLAQUE on the Sheridan Theater designates the 
site where Georges Clemenceau, who later became the wartime premier of 
France, lived in 1870 practicing and teaching medicine. At the juncture 
of West Twelfth Street and Eighth Avenue is ABINGDON SQUARE, named 
for a daughter of Vice-Admiral Warren, Charlotte, who married the Earl 
of Abingdon. This large, irregular square is surrounded by tall, modern 
apartment buildings and older warehouses and business establishments. 

At Sheridan Square Fourth Street turns northwest, and to the bewilder- 
ment of visitors, crosses all the westbound streets, from Tenth to Thir- 
teenth. In the late 1890'$ the region thus traversed was the domain of a 
notorious but colorful gang of thugs known as the Hudson Dusters. A high 
percentage of them were cocaine addicts and thus especially vicious and 
ferocious. Their exploits were favorite grist for the journalists' mill and 
the Dusters became one of the best-known gangs of the time. 

It is perhaps in the district southwest of Sheridan Square that one finds 
best the atmosphere of Greenwich Village. Along winding streets, inter- 
spersed with ugly tenements and occasional apartment buildings, are the 
age-worn dwellings of the burghers of the early nineteenth century who 
fled from the pestilence-ridden city houses with steep roofs, often of 
slate, with old chimney pots; old brass knobs on handsome doors; high- 
ceilinged rooms, small-paned windows; carved mantels over huge fire- 
places; "ship carpenter's" woodwork, and gates and area-fences with 
Georgian ironwork. Informal gardens in the rear are much in use, as are 
the Italian garden restaurants that thrive throughout the Village. 

On narrow Grove Street, just west of the square, at No. 59, a bronze 



142 LOWER MANHATTAN 

PLAQUE memorializes the site where Tom Paine, greatest literary force of 
the Revolution, died in 1809. It was then the home of Mme. Nicolas de 
Bonneville, whose husband had befriended Paine after his release from 
prison in France. When the De Bonnevilles came into disfavor with the 
Napoleonic government Paine invited them to America. He provided for 
them as best he could but, toward the end, impoverished himself, he lived 
in a rooming house on Herring Street (now Bleecker Street) until Madame 
de Bonneville brought him under her care. His last days were made miser- 
able with the importunings of religious fanatics who wanted the old deist 
to recant his "atheistic" teaching. His last request, that he be buried in a 
Quaker churchyard, was refused. 

GROVE COURT, entered from the bend in Grove Street, is used for access 
to the houses around it. Of charming scale and simplicity are the frame 
and brick houses of the 1830*5. At the corner where Grove Street inter- 
sects Bedford, there is a bizarre group a farmhouse remodeled with high 
twin gables, a stable converted into a small house, and a prosaic old three- 
story frame building. 

Facing the foot of Grove Street, on Hudson Street, on land that was 
part of Trinity Church farm, ST. LUKE'S CHAPEL was opened in 1822. It 
is a simple low building .of yellow brick with an effective square tower. 
Under the approach to the baptismal font, reminiscent of old England, is 
a wooden figure of Saint Christopher, brought from South America in the 
sixteenth or seventeenth century. The vicarage to the north is the oldest 
existing in the city. The Leake Dole of Bread, distributed every Saturday 
after ten o'clock service, was provided for in the will of John Leake, who, 
in 1792, bequeathed one thousand pounds for "sixpenny loaves of wheaten 
bread" to be distributed to "such poor as shall appear most deserving." 

Barrow Street, below Grove, was originally named Reason Street, in 
honor of Paine's famous Age of Reason. The street's name was cor- 
rupted to "Raisin Street," and some time later it became Barrow. 

Commerce Street, a block south, is a short, backwater street, hardly de- 
serving of its name. Near the bend of Commerce Street is the CHERRY 
LANE THEATER, a converted barn, which, in the postwar period, served 
the experimental New Playwrights group. A group of two-story-and- 
dormer houses, near Bedford and Commerce Streets, dates from the early 
nineteenth century. Said to be the narrowest house in New York, 751/2 
Bedford Street is nine and one-half feet wide, thirty feet long, and three 
stories high. Its stepped gable recalls the old Dutch architectural detail. 
Among the tenants of the building have been John Barrymore and Edna 
St. Vincent Millay. 



GREENWICH VILLAGE 143 

The HUDSON PARK PLAYGROUND, south of St. Luke's Place, was con- 
verted from a graveyard in the 1890*5. Here, it is claimed, was buried the 
oft-found lost Dauphin of France, above whose body was placed a stone 
bearing the simple description Leroy (The King). 

On Varick Street (continuation of Seventh Avenue) at the corner of 
Charlton Street, stood Mortier House, one of Washington's headquarters 
during the Revolution. While Washington was living here Thomas 
Hickey, one of his bodyguards, was hanged for his participation in a Tory 
plot that involved firing the city, inciting the troops to mutiny, and feed- 
ing the general a dish of poisoned peas. Aaron Burr later lived in the 
house and in 1831 it was opened as the Richmond Hill Theatre. It was 
razed in 1849 to make room for business, which today dominates this 
neighborhood with tall loft and office buildings. Only south of Charlton 
Street does an occasional dingy red-brick house now serving as a tenement 
remain as a vestige of the old village. 





Middle West Side 



CHELSEA HELL'S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 
GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY- 
TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 

Area: i4th St. on the south to 59th St. on the north; from the Hudson River east 
to 6th Ave. (i4th to 42d St.) and 5th Ave. (4zd to 59th St.) ; excluding area east 
of Broadway, between 57th and 59th Sts. Maps on pages 54-55 and 149. 
Principal north-south streets: Broadway, yth, 8th, 9th, loth, and nth Aves. 
Principal cross streets: i4th, 23d, 34th, 42d, and 57th Sts. 

Transportation: IRT Broadway-7th Ave. subway (local), i4th to 59th St. stations; 
8th Ave. (Independent) Grand Concourse or Washington Heights subway (local), 
i4th to 59th St. stations; 9th Ave. el, i4th to 59th St. stations; BMT subway, 34th 
to 57th St. stations; bus lines on all principal north-south and cross streets except 
on nth Ave. and 42d St.; 42d St. crosstown and Broadway surface cars. 



IHE HUDSON RIVER water front (see page 68) of the Middle West 
Side, an important sector of the New York port, includes the docks of the 
transatlantic luxury liners. In the adjoining localities, Chelsea on the south 
and the Hell's Kitchen district on the north, live the largest group of 
underprivileged families in the city. The Times Square area, east of upper 
Hell's Kitchen, contains the showrooms of cafe society and the auditoriums 
of night clubs as well as the famed congeries of legitimate theater houses 
and motion-picture palaces. Below the Rialto lies the Garment Center, the 
home of the cloak-and-suit, women's dress, and fur trades. The Thirty- 

144 



INTRODUCTION 145 

fourth Street zone houses some of the great department stores of the city 
Macy's, Gimbels, Saks and the eastern terminus of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Clustered around the station are skyscraper hotels which are fre- 
quently used by the garment industry for fashion shows and business trans- 
actions. 

The most characteristic feature of the Middle West Side section is the 
residential belt extending from the Twenties through the Fifties between 
Eighth and Tenth Avenues. Row after row of three-, four-, and five-story 
grimy brick tenement houses proclaim one of New York's worst slum areas. 
Significantly, the city health center district that includes the Middle West 
Side area has the highest general mortality rate in the city and ranks first in 
pneumonia and cancer, second in tuberculosis, and third in infant mor- 
tality. 

A large number of brownstones, originally built as private residences, 
have been converted into lodginghouses, particularly in Chelsea and in the 
eastern part of upper Hell's Kitchen. Many others have been extensively 
altered and remodeled into apartment homes for families of moderate 
means, and here and there, notably in the Times Square district, in Hell's 
Kitchen above Forty-second Street east of Tenth Avenue, and in Chelsea 
near Seventh Avenue between Fourteenth and Twenty-first Streets, modern 
apartment houses have been erected. These, however, serve to accentuate 
rather than relieve the surrounding drabness. 

Ethnically the section is a typical metropolitan melange. Since the late 
1840'$, the Irish have been the predominant group in Chelsea and Hell's 
Kitchen. Not so numerous perhaps, but constituting a sizable minority in 
each of these localities, are the Italians. The northern part of the Hell's 
Kitchen district also contains small French, German, and Negro groups, 
while Chelsea also houses Spanish, Puerto Rican, Greek, and Balkan colo- 
nies. On the whole, however, the long process of assimilation, accelerated 
by immigration restrictions, is rapidly transforming the Middle West Side 
into a native American community. According to the 1930 census, native- 
born residents of the district outnumbered the foreign born by nearly two 
to one. 

Eighth Avenue, in the throes of a minor boom that was stimulated by 
the construction of the Independent Subway system, may be termed the 
Middle West Side's "Main Street." Broadway, which enters the district at 
Herald Square, Thirty- fourth Street and Sixth Avenue, cuts northwesterly 
across the Garment Center and Times Square, and meets Eighth Avenue at 
Columbus Circle. 

In the days of the Dutch, what is now the Middle West Side comprised 



146 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

the southern section of Bloomingdale (the area between i4th and 12 5th 
Streets) fertile, rolling fields, for the most part free of crags or clumps 
of underbrush. For nearly two hundred years successive generations of 
Dutch farmers tilled the land and provided garden truck for the thriving 
town at the lower end of the island. 

In 1667, soon after English occupation, Governor Nicholls issued a 
patent to several citizens, among whom was Jans Vigne, probably the first 
white child born on Manhattan, granting them "a certain tract or parcel 
of land on the Island Manhattans lying and being to ye North of ye Great 
Creeke or Kill alongst ye River commonly known and called by ye name of 
Hudson's or ye North River." The Great Kill was a small stream that 
emptied into the Hudson at the foot of what is now Forty-second Street; 
the territory north of this stream was subsequently called the Great Kill 
region. By the end of the eighteenth century most of the upper Great Kill 
region had been acquired by the Hopper family and was known as Hopper - 
ville. The original Hopper farm in the lower Great Kill district was called 
the Hermitage; the name is perpetuated by a hotel at Forty-second Street 
and Seventh Avenue which occupies part of the site of the farm. The 
land between Forty-first and Thirty-second Streets in the second half of 
the eighteenth century belonged to the famous Glass House Farm it con- 
tained a glass bottle factory while most of the territory to the south, now 
Chelsea, was the property of Captain Thomas Clarke, veteran of the French 
and Indian wars. Within twenty-five years following the adoption of the 
City Plan in 1811, all these estates were subdivided into lots. 

Manhattan's early railroads and the natural Hudson River water-front 
facilities played major roles in the development of the Middle West Side. 
In 1851, when Broadway between Twenty-third and Forty- second Streets 
was but a winding road through pleasant countryside, the Hudson River 
Railroad was opened to traffic, with a station at Thirtieth Street and 
Eleventh Avenue. A year later, the Eighth Avenue Railroad announced the 
opening of a line between Fifty-first and Chambers Streets. 

When friends cautioned Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt against 
building the Hudson River Railroad through sparsely settled country, he 
curtly rebuked them, declaring, "Put the road there and people' 11 go there 
to live." Vanderbilt's assertion proved correct. In the 1850*8, lumberyards, 
brickyards, lime kilns, stables, warehouses, and distilleries moved into the 
old farm land north of Chelsea, crowding the malodorous slaughterhouses 
in the upper Thirties; and with the industrial plants came the workers, 
swarming into wooden shacks and shanties and, during the i86o's, into 



INTRODUCTION 147 

the jerry-built tenements of Chelsea and what is now Hell's Kitchen. As 
early as 1864 public indignation at these housing conditions resulted in a 
vigorous but ineffectual reform movement. 

Throughout the i86o's and 1 870*5 the industrial influx into the westerly 
half of the Middle West Side section continued, pushing northward. Gas- 
houses, swill-milk cow stables, glue manufactories, freight yards, stockyards, 
piano factories, new slaughterhouses, and dozens of other establishments 
employing unskilled labor took advantage of the cheap swampy land near 
the foot of Forty-second Street and the drier and even cheaper land be- 
yond. By 1850 a cotton factory had been established as far north as Fifty- 
first Street. In 1871 the Ninth Avenue el, the first rapid transit system in 
the city, began operating north to Thirtieth Street, destroying the charm 
and property values of Chelsea's most sedate avenue, but making possible 
additional profits for successful speculators engaged in building tenements. 
Five years later the system was extended northward. 

Shackled by low-wage industry to desperate poverty and barbarous living 
conditions, the early Hell's Kitchen residents resorted at times to violence 
and crime. Occasionally, the spirit of protest assumed mass proportions, as 
in the Draft Riots of 1863 when thousands of workers marched down 
Eleventh Avenue and destroyed property of the Hudson River Railroad. 
More generally this spirit found expression in such organizations as the 
Gophers, the Parlor Mob, and the other predatory West Side gangs. 

During the heyday of Mayor Fernando Wood and the Tweed Ring, 
organized vice had completely taken over the area between Twenty-fourth 
and Forty-second Streets and from Fifth to Seventh Avenue. The district, 
known later as the Tenderloin, became the scene of such wickedness that 
one crusading minister, the Reverend T. DeWitt Talmage, denounced the 
city that tolerated it as "the modern Gomorrah." So ineffectual were law 
enforcement agencies that in 1866 Bishop Simpson of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church complained that prostitutes were as numerous in the city as 
Methodists. The Tenderloin, however, continued to prosper. As late as 
1885 one-half of all the buildings in this district were reputed to cater to 
vice. 

Retail trade, rather than industry, started the development of the eastern 
half of the Middle West Side. During and following the Civil War, the 
northward march of the fashionable residential and trading district had 
reached Fourteenth Street and Union Square, and by 1875 these neighbor- 
hoods were well-established trading centers for prosperous contiguous East 
and West Side communities. When the aristocracy moved into the Madison 



148 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

Square section, the merchants followed. During this period Sixth Avenue, 
Chelsea's eastern border, replaced Broadway as the principal street for 
stores, mainly owing to its newly built elevated. Before the turn of the 
century, Twenty-third Street, which had already become famous as the 
city's theatrical center (Jim Fisk's Grand Opera House, Proctor's, etc.), 
was the retail shopping center as well. 

In the 1900'$ the Rialto began shifting to the Herald Square vicinity. 
Chelsea's great department stores soon followed, finding quarters hard by 
the newly constructed (1910) Pennsylvania Station. The converging rapid 
transit systems here rendered the stores accessible to an unlimited market, 
and the shopping center rapidly expanded to its present proportions. The 
theaters did not remain long in Herald Square and moved with the Ten- 
derloin to the "Roaring Forties" of the Times Square area. The original 
Tenderloin, abandoned by vice as well as commerce, stagnated forlornly 
for many years until the World War period, when the needle trades took 
possession of the Thirties. 



KEY TO MIDDLE WEST SIDE MAP 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 



1. Merchant's Gate 
Maine Memorial 

2. Statue of Christopher Columbus 

3. General Motors Building 

4. Broadway Tabernacle 

5. Park Central Hotel 

6. Mecca Temple 

7. Grand Street Boys' Club House 

8. Rockefeller Apartments 

9. Manhattan Storage Warehouse 

10. Fifty-second Street Night Clubs 

11. American Federation of Musi- 

cians, Local 802 

12. St. Malachy's Church 

13. Madison Square Garden 

14. Union M. E. Church 

15. Statue of Father Duffy 

16. American Federation of Actors 

17. Church of St. Mary the Virgin 

18. Variety Building 

19. Actors' Equity Association 



20. Harvard Club 

21. General Society of Mechanics 

and Tradesmen 

22. New York Yacht Club 

23. Twelfth Night Club 

24. New York Bar Association 

25. Hotel Algonquin 

26. City Club 

27. Criterion Theater Building 

28. Astor Hotel 

29. Ascension Memorial Chapel 

30. New York Times Annex 

31. Paramount Building 

32. Police Information Booth 

33. Lambs' Club 

34. Town Hall 

35. Times Building 

36. Bush Terminal Sales Building 

37. Herald Tribune Offices 

38. Metropolitan Opera House 

39. Site of the New York Casino 

Continued on Page 150 



150 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 



Continued from Page 148 

GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY 



40. Garment Center Capitol 

41. Hotel New Yorker 

42. New York General Post Office 

43. Pennsylvania Station 

44. Hotel Pennsylvania 

45. Herald Square Hotel 

46. Old Herald Building 



47. Statue of William E. Dodge 

48. McAlpin Hotel 

49. Statue of Horace Greeley 

50. Hotel Martinique 

51. Hotel Governor Clinton 

52. Wholesale Flower Market 



CHELSEA 



53. Church of St. Vincent De Paul 

54. Old Proctor's 23d Street Theater 

55. Spartacus Greek Workers Edu- 

cational Club 

56. Greek Quarter 

57. Old Grand Opera House 

58. Central High School of Needle 

Trades 

59. Y.M.C.A., 23d Street Branch 

60. Hotel Chelsea 

61. Spanish-Portuguese Cemetery 

62. Church of the Holy Communion 

63. International Ladies Garment 

Workers Union 

64. Spanish Church of Our Lady of 

Guadalupe 

65. Port Authority Building 

66. Spanish-American Workers Al- 

liance 



67. National Biscuit Company's 

Plant 

68. Catholic Youth Organization 

69. Straubenmuller High School 

70. Seamen's House (Y.M.CA.) 

71. National Maritime Union 

72. General Theological Seminary 

73. Church of the Guardian Angel 

74. Chrystie Street House 

75. Site of Birthplace of Clement C. 

Moore 

76. London Terrace 

ficole Maternelle Francaise 

77. Starrett-Lehigh Building 

78. Hudson Guild 

79. Chelsea Park 

80. Model Tenement House 

81. French Hospital 



HELL S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 



82. New York Central Railroad, 

Thirtieth Street Yard 

83. WPA Federal Theatre Project 

Workshop (Bethany Church) 

84. Lincoln Tunnel 

85. West Side Children's Center 

86. Schermerhorn Playground 
SI. McGraw-Hill Building 
88. Church of the Holy Cross 
S9. Troupers' Club Association 
90. Vitaphone Building 



91. Paramount Pictures Building 

92. Twentieth Century Fox Films 

93. Film Center 

94. 18th Precinct Police Station 

95. Polyclinic Hospital 

96. Church of St. Benedict the 

Moor 

97. 7th District Magistrates' Court 

98. Fox Movietone News 

99. American Women's Association 
100. Roosevelt Hospital 



CHELSEA 151 

CHELSEA 

Area: i4th St. (6th to nth Ave.) on the south to 25th St. (6th to 8th Ave.) and 
3oth St. (8th to 1 3th Ave.) on the north. Map on page 149. 

Chelsea is known as a conservative Irish Catholic community despite the 
presence of Spanish, French, Scottish, and other national groups. Although 
typical Manhattan tenements, small business establishments, and apart- 
ment houses make up most of the district, here and there an old theater 
or cafe reminds Chelsea of its past as an amusement center in the i88o's, 
and a relatively large number of local ancients helps give the neighborhood 
a "preserved" quality. 

In 1750 Captain Thomas Clarke established his home on what is now 
the block from Ninth to Tenth Avenue between Twenty- second and 
Twenty-third Streets and named it for a soldiers' hospital (near London) 
called Chelsea. The house, which was rebuilt by his widow, Mistress Molly 
Clarke, was the birthplace of his grandson, Clement C. Moore (1799- 
1863), compiler of the first Hebrew and Greek lexicons published in the 
United States, and author of the perennially favorite poem, A Visit from 
St. Nicholas. Moore broke up his patrimony, selling it in building lots, 
and on the site of the old estate the village of Chelsea grew. In 1831 streets 
were cut through. 

The English-village character of the neighborhood began to change in 
the middle of the nineteenth century. The Hudson River Railroad laid its 
tracks along Tenth and Eleventh Avenues in 1847. Industrial plants moved 
in. People of many nationalities settled here, including a large number of 
Irish, many of whom came here as a result of the potato famines of 1845-8 
in Ireland. The votes of these immigrants increased Tammany's strength 
and Chelsea gave the "Wigwam" a number of leaders including Rich- 
ard B. ("Slippery Dick") Connolly, of the Tweed Ring. The neighbor- 
hood is still a Tammany stronghold. 

Among the immigrants were Spaniards, who gathered in the vicinity of 
Fourteenth Street. Since 1920 the SPANISH COLONY has declined, but 
bodegas (grocery stores), carnicerias (butcher shops), Spanish benefit so- 
cieties, the SPANISH-AMERICAN WORKERS ALLIANCE at 349 West Four- 
teenth Street, and the SPANISH CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF GUADALUPE 
at 229 West Fourteenth Street still preserve the Iberian flavor. 

The NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY'S PLANT on Fourteenth Street near 
Tenth Avenue is the largest factory in the neighborhood. It has about 
forty-six acres of floor space and employs several thousand workers. 



152 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

The Port of New York Authority, which owns and operates the three 
bridges between Staten Island and New Jersey (Bayonne, Goethals, Outer- 
bridge Crossing), the George Washington Bridge, the Holland and Lin- 
coln tunnels, erected in 1933 the PORT AUTHORITY COMMERCE BUILDING, 
a fifteen-story, block-square structure between Eighth and Ninth Avenues, 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets. It was designed by Aymar Embury II. The 
ground floor and basement make up Union Inland Freight Station Num- 
ber i, the first of a projected series of strategically placed truck terminals 
for the collection and distribution of freight. Eight trunk railroads jointly 
operate the station. The upper fourteen floors are used for general com- 
mercial and manufacturing purposes ; Commerce Hall, on the second floor, 
is used for large exhibitions. Four great elevators carry loaded trucks 
weighing as much as forty thousand pounds to any upper floor. 

The MANHATTAN CENTER OF THE CATHOLIC YOUTH ORGANIZATION, 
353 West Seventeenth Street, also serves as a neighborhood settlement 
house for lower Chelsea. In 1890 Father John C. Drumgoole opened a 
boys' club on near-by West Fifteenth Street, which eventually led to the 
establishment in 1936 of the C.Y.O., an influential youth group. 

The STRAUBENMULLER TEXTILE HIGH SCHOOL at 351 West Eighteenth 
Street trains its students in modern industrial arts. The school's museum 
has extensive collections of wool, silk, rayon, cotton, and lace fabrics. A 
Federal Art Project mural in the library thirteen panels by Paul Lawler 
illustrates the history of the textile industry. Groups interested in visiting 
the museum may obtain permission from the school office. 

The GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY occupies the entire block be- 
tween Twentieth and Twenty-first Streets, Ninth and Tenth Avenues. 
When Clement C. Moore left his old apple orchard to the General Con- 
vention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1817, he did so on the 
condition that the church build a seminary on the site. Of the original 
group only the west building, erected in 1835, still stands. Most of the 
other existent structures were erected in the i88o's and were designed by 
Charles C. Haight. Of red brick with brownstone trim, they form a simple 
and charming Collegiate Gothic group. The seminary has in its possession 
one of the priceless Gutenburg Bibles. 

The CHURCH OF THE GUARDIAN ANGEL (Roman Catholic), 191 Tenth 
Avenue, is an interesting architectural adaptation based on the Romanesque 
style of churches in Lombardy. It was designed by John V. Van Pelt and 
built in 1930. This church is called the Seamen's Institute, and its pastor, 
the Reverend John J. O'Donnell, is the Port Chaplain of the Archdiocese. 

The little brownstone CHURCH OF THE HOLY COMMUNION (Protestant 



CHELSEA 153 

Episcopal), Sixth Avenue and Twentieth Street, was built in 1846 through 
the efforts of William Augustus Muhlenberg, who was its first pastor. The 
building shows a harmonious proportioning of its tower and wings, win- 
dows and doors. The pleasing stone interior contains finely carved church 
furniture and a sturdy timber ceiling, and is lighted by well-designed 
stained-glass windows. The first "boy choir" in America and the first Sis- 
terhood in the Anglican Communion were established here. 

On Twenty-first Street near Sixth Avenue is the third CEMETERY OF 
THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE SYNAGOGUE , Congregation Shearith- 
Israel (the oldest Jewish congregation in New York). 

Edwin Forrest, famous actor of the pre-Civil War period, who did much 
to stimulate interest in the development of native American drama, re- 
sided at 436 West Twenty-second Street. 

Along Twenty-third Street, the main cross-town street of Chelsea, and 
in the i88o's the Times Square of the city, are found hotels, movie houses, 
dignified apartment buildings, restaurants, and residence houses for young 
men, such as the CHRYSTIE STREET HOUSE at No. 456 and the Y.M.C.A. 
at No. 215. The HOTEL CHELSEA, at No. 222, has been a landmark since 
1882. Its boldly placed wrought-iron balconies are conspicuous among 
less venerable facades. 

Near Sixth Avenue Edwin Booth's theater was opened in 1869. Booth 
played Shakespearean roles to an admiring public there until 1873. PROC- 
TOR'S TWENTY-THIRD STREET THEATRE, now a motion-picture house, was 
also popular, first as a legitimate playhouse, and later for its vaudeville. 
Beautiful Lily Langtry, "the Jersey Lily" who was a friend of Edward VII, 
lived near by. Three restaurants, famous in the i88o's and 1890*5, are still 
operating in the neighborhood: CAVANAGH'S at 258 West Twenty-third 
Street, GUFFANTI'S at 274 Seventh Avenue, and PETITPAS at 317 West 
Twenty-ninth Street. 

The RKO theatre at Twenty-third Street and Eighth Avenue, built 
in 1868 at a cost of a million dollars, was known as Pike's Opera House. 
James Fisk and Jay Gould bought it in 1869 and changed the name to the 
Grand Opera House. Fisk extended the repertoire to include plays, light 
opera, and vehicles for his sweetheart, Josie Mansfield. Her neighboring 
mansion was connected to the theater by an underground tunnel. When the 
abortive attempt of Fisk and Gould to corner the gold market resulted in 
the panic of Black Friday in 1869, Fisk barricaded himself behind the 
doors of the opera house. Later when Fisk's partner, Edward S. Stokes, shot 
him in a quarrel over Mansfield's favors, "Jubilee Jim's" body lay in state in 
the opera house lobby. 



154 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

Several early cinema companies had studios in this part of Chelsea, and 
by the time of the World War the locality was considered a center of the 
industry. Some of Mary Pickford's first pictures, including Good Little 
Demi (1913) and Tess of the Storm Country (1914), were made on the 
two top floors of an old armory building at 221 West Twenty- sixth Street. 
In the World War period, the Reliance and Majestic studios of Adam and 
Charles Kessel and Charles Baumann occupied a building owned by Stan- 
ford White at 520 West Twenty-first Street, and such well-known players 
as Wallace Reid, Florence Hackett, and Henry Walthall worked there. 
Alice Joyce began her career with the Kalem Company at 235 West 
Twenty-third Street. 

The sixteenth-story LONDON TERRACE building, one of the largest 
apartment houses in the world, occupies the full block between Ninth and 
Tenth Avenues, Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Streets. Designed by 
Farrar and Watmough, and built in 1930, the project contains 1,670 apart- 
ments, a swimming pool, solarium, gymnasium, and a central garden. Its 
doormen are costumed as London "bobbies." This block was the site of the 
original London Terrace and Chelsea cottages, both groups of fashionable 
homes in the middle-nineteenth century. 

In London Terrace is the SCOLE MATERNELLE FRANCHISE, partly sup- 
ported by the French government, and directed for forty years by Mme. 
Anna Fregosi, whose original pedagogical methods have won the atten- 
tion of many educators. Other evidences of the once large French popula- 
tion of Chelsea are the CHURCH OF ST. VINCENT DE PAUL (Roman Cath- 
olic) at 127 West Twenty-third Street, the oldest French church in the 
city (founded in 1841), and the FRENCH HOSPITAL at 330 West Thirtieth 
Street. 

On Twenty-fourth Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues is the new 
CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL OF NEEDLE TRADES, being completed in 1939 
at an estimated cost of nearly three million dollars. It represents the re- 
newed interest of educators in skilled occupations and may indicate a trend 
away from the professions. 

The GREEK QUARTER centers about Twenty-fifth Street and Eighth 
Avenue. On the northeast corner is the SPARTACUS GREEK WORKERS 
EDUCATIONAL CLUB. The walls of its building bear bullet scars sustained 
in a riot in 1871 when a procession of Orangemen escorted by the Sixth, 
the Ninth, and the Eighty-fourth Regiments were sniped at as they marched 
down Eighth Avenue. A battle involving police, infantry, rioting Hiber- 
nians, and parading Orangemen resulted in fifty-four deaths. 

The best-known social agency in Chelsea is the HUDSON GUILD, at 436 



HELL'S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 155 

West Twenty-seventh Street since 1905. It was founded in 1895 by its 
present head, Dr. John L. Elliott, Senior Leader of the Society for Ethical 
Culture and a descendant of Elijah P. Lovejoy, the abolitionist. Its model 
tenement house, built in 1916 at 441 West Twenty-eighth Street, helped 
to focus attention upon the need for adequate low-rent housing. 

The MORGAN ANNEX, New York Post Office, with its huge parcel-post 
station, fills the block from Ninth to Tenth Avenue, between Twenty- 
ninth and Thirtieth Streets. A railroad spur enters the western end of the 
building at the third-floor level. 



HELL'S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 

Area: 30th St. (9th to i2th Ave.) and 4ist St. (8th to 9th Ave.) on the south to 
59th St. (8th to 1 2th Ave.) on the north; from i2th Ave. east to 9th Ave. (3otk 
to 4ist St.) and 8th Ave. (4ist to 59th St.). Map on page 149. 

Freight yards, factories, garages, warehouses, stock pens, and tenements 
today cover the area of Hell's Kitchen, a district that bears one of the most 
lurid reputations in America. The neighborhood's proximity to Manhat- 
tan's railroad and water terminals still fixes its industrial working-class char- 
acter. Indeed the only characteristic of the traditional Hell's Kitchen that 
has completely disappeared is the organized hoodlumism, which, according 
to one authority, made the locality "one of the most dangerous areas on 
the American continent." To the north is a drab region of tenements, 
churches, factories, and garages deriving a little color from near-by Times 
Square. Scattered throughout the district are modern apartment houses and 
renovated brownstone dwellings. 

Hell's Kitchen acquired its reputation as one of the toughest areas in 
the city shortly after the Civil War. According to Herbert Asbury, who 
recorded many exploits of Hell's Kitchen hoodlums in his book, The 
Gangs of New York, the section deserved its notoriety. Its name, orig- 
inally applied to a dive near Corlears Hook on the East Side, came from 
the Hell's Kitchen Gang, organized in about 1868 by Dutch Heinrichs. 
Although this gang specialized in raids on the Thirtieth Street yard of the 
Hudson River Railroad (now part of the New York Central), its reper- 
toire included extortion, breaking-and-entering, professional mayhem, and 
highway robbery. It merged with the Tenth Avenue Gang, which had held 
up and robbed a Hudson River Railroad express train, and for decades ter- 
rorized the neighborhood. From its ranks rose the desperadoes who organ- 
ized the Hudson Dusters and the Gophers. 



156 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

After the decline of the Hell's Kitchen Gang, the Gophers achieved 
hegemony in the Hell's Kitchen underworld. They made their headquarters 
in saloons such as one on "Battle Row" (Thirty-ninth Street between Tenth 
and Eleventh Avenues) operated by "Mallet" Murphy, who won his pseu- 
donym by bludgeoning disputatious customers with a mallet. Leaders of 
the Gophers included "Happy Jack" Mulraney, "Goo Goo" Knox, 
"Stumpy" Malarkey, and "One Lung" Curran. Besides the Gophers, whose 
membership numbered nearly five hundred men, several smaller affiliated 
gangs such as the Gorillas, the Rhodes Gang, and the Parlor Mob waged 
consistent warfare against what was left of law and order in the neighbor- 
hood. 

Gangster rule of Hell's Kitchen continued until 1910, when a special 
police force organized by the New York Central Railroad launched a 
counter-offensive. Clubbing, shooting, and arresting indiscriminately, they 
soon had most of the Gopher leadership in hospitals or behind the bars 
and a majority of the lesser lights in flight. Remnants of the mobs func- 
tioned throughout the Prohibition era, but the backbone of Hell's Kitchen 
gangsterdom had been effectively broken. 

Two developments, the Lincoln Tunnel and the New York Central Rail- 
road West Side Improvement, have altered the appearance of the Kitchen. 
In the construction of a seventy-five-foot wide approach to the tunnel 
Dyer Avenue buildings midway between Ninth and Tenth Avenues from 
Thirty-fourth to Forty-second Street were demolished; and in the execu- 
tion of the grade crossing elimination project of the railroad, structures 
midway between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues from the Thirtieth Street 
freight yard to the Sixtieth Street yard were razed. 

The LINCOLN TUNNEL, owned and operated by the Port of New York 
Authority, connects Thirty-ninth Street and Weehawken, New Jersey (pas- 
senger automobile toll 500). On the Manhattan side its approaches permit 
easy access to and from six transverse streets and the ramps of the West 
Side Highway (see page 71) that leads by way of the Henry Hudson 
Parkway to US 9 and the Westchester County Parkway system. A projected 
cross-town roadway underneath Manhattan will eventually link the Lin- 
coln Tunnel with the Queens Midtown Tunnel (see page 209) now un- 
der construction (1939). On the Weehawken side, an express highway 
joins the Lincoln Tunnel with US i and 9W and important New Jersey 
arteries. 

The south double-lane tube of the Lincoln Tunnel, 8,218 feet long, was 
opened to traffic in December, 1937, and now carries east- and westbound 
vehicles. When the north tube is completed, it will take over the westbound 



HELL'S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 157 

traffic. An approach lane to this tube will run between Thirty-seventh and 
Forty-second Streets over the depressed New York Central right of way 
previously mentioned. The cost of the project, including ventilation, build- 
ings, equipment, approaches, and real estate, is estimated at $75,000,000. 

For nearly ninety years the tone of the community has been determined 
by the New York Central Railroad's THIRTIETH STREET YARD, which in- 
cludes all the property between Eleventh and Twelfth Avenues from 
Thirtieth to Thirty-seventh Street and the two additional blocks bounded by 
Tenth and Eleventh Avenues, Thirtieth and Thirty-second Streets. Prior to 
the completion of the company's West Side Improvement Plan, the Thir- 
tieth Street yard was linked to the Sixtieth Street yard by means of surface 
trackage on Eleventh Avenue; a "cowboy" would ride in advance of the 
train to warn pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The endless movement of 
freight trains through the neighborhood added hazards, congestion, noise, 
and dust to surroundings that were already grim, and Eleventh Avenue 
became known as "Death Avenue." Now the tracks between the two rail- 
road yards have been dropped below street level, and south of Thirtieth 
Street the line has been elevated. Most of the New York Central's costly 
new right-of-way will be covered over eventually as the "air rights" are 
utilized for the construction of modern industrial plants. Several ware- 
houses already have risen over the tracks. 

SCHERMERHORN PLAYGROUND, on Thirty-eighth Street between Ninth 
and Tenth Avenues, is the only recreation center in the lower part of 
Hell's Kitchen. Although pathetically inadequate in equipment and open 
space, it provides children with a safe play area. Intelligent adult direc- 
tion is provided by the WEST SIDE CHILDREN'S CENTER, an affiliate of the 
Children's Aid Society, which occupies the four-story brick building at 419 
West Thirty-eighth Street. 

The vari-hued fagade of the BETHANY CHURCH, 455 Tenth Avenue, 
contributes a splash of color to the area. This building, formerly occupied 
by the Salvation Army, serves as the workshop of the WPA Federal 
Theatre Project. 

Thirty-ninth Street, west of Ninth Avenue, was popularly known as 
"Abattoir Place" when the slaughterhouse industry was concentrated here. 

For nearly fifty years a large pushcart market known as PADDY'S MAR- 
KET was maintained under the Ninth Avenue elevated between Thirty- 
ninth Street and Forty-second Streets. It supplied a variety of foodstuffs 
to the poor of the Middle West Side and became one of the best-known 
landmarks in the Kitchen. Then the Lincoln Tunnel was built, and it 
became necessary to clear and widen streets for the increased traffic. In 



158 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

1937 the Department of Public Markets, co-operating with the Port of 
New York Authority, ordered the pushcart merchants to move. They re- 
fused, and took their case to court, but in 1938 they were finally evicted. 
The disgruntled hucksters split into two groups; one group moved to 
West Thirty-ninth Street, the other to West Forty-first Street. Business 
slumped in the new locations, however, and early in 1939 the merchants 
petitioned the Commissioner of Public Markets for an enclosed market 
building. 

The thirty-three-story McGRAW-HiLL BUILDING, 330 West Forty-second 
Street, built in 1930 from Raymond Hood's design, is the Middle West 
Side's most imposing edifice. It is notable for an experimental use of ex- 
terior materials, for the simplicity of its main outlines, and especially for 
its alternation of horizontal bands of blue-green terra-cotta tile with bands 
of windows. The horizontal accent contrasts strongly with the vertical em- 
phasis of Hood's Daily News Building (see page 210) at the other end of 
Forty-second Street. 

The adjoining amusement district has influenced the character of many 
of the blocks north of Forty-second Street. The CHURCH OF THE HOLY 
CROSS, opposite the McGraw-Hill Building, arranges special services and 
masses for the theatrical people and entertainers in its congregation, as 
well as for workers in mid-town factories, offices, and shops. The church 
is popularly known as "Father Duffy's Church," in memory of the Rever- 
end Francis P. Duffy who was Roman Catholic chaplain of the "Fighting 
Sixty-ninth" during the World War, and pastor here until his death in 
June, 1932. Father Duffy's rehabilitation work among the survivors of the 
old gangs and their successors was a considerable factor in reforming the 
Kitchen's folkways. 

The TROUPERS' CLUB ASSOCIATION at 327 West Forty-third Street is 
run by stagehands "to foster and cultivate social relations and aid one an- 
other in sickness and distress, free of politics and religion." Unemployed 
members who live at the club pay nothing, but share in the housework and 
cook their own meals. 

Seventy-two motion-picture distributors occupy the FILM CENTER on 
Forty-fourth Street and Ninth Avenue. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corpo- 
ration has its sales and distribution offices at 345 West Forty-fourth Street, 
and on the same street, at No. 331, is the Paramount Pictures Building, 
and, at No. 315, Warner Brothers' ten-story Vitaphone Building. Farther 
uptown at 420 West Fifty-fourth Street are the headquarters of Fox Movie- 
tone News where newsreels are edited for release. Shots taken in the after- 
noon can be made ready for a Broadway showing on the same evening. 



HELL'S KITCHEN AND VICINITY 159 

The ugly, yellow-brick EIGHTEENTH PRECINCT POLICE STATION, 345 
West Forty-seventh Street, was put into service January i, 1862, in good 
time to play a part in the Draft Riots of 1863. The district was not densely 
settled then, and most of its crimes were unspectacular; the single blotter 
entry for the first day recorded the return of a lost child to her parents. By 
the early 1900*5, however, the gambling dives and the gangsters of the 
West Side had. made the station house one of the busiest in New York. 
Later, following occasional raids on theaters and night clubs, such names 
as Texas Guinan and Mae West would appear among hundreds of under- 
world aliases on the blotter. Before the advent of the police radio car, re- 
porters maintained headquarters in a basement across the street from the 
station. Among the newspapermen who worked this coveted "fly-beat" 
were David Graham Phillips, Charlie Somerville, Richard Harding Davis, 
and Louis Weitzenkorn. 

In 1939 the WPA was building a new station house for the precinct 
beside the Men's Night Court on West Fifty-fourth Street, and the old 
Forty-seventh Street building was destined to be abandoned at a time when 
its force of more than 500 men are issuing 30,000 summonses and making 
15,000 arrests a year. 

Whenever a heavyweight boxer in Madison Square Garden (see page 
330) takes too many right-hand punches, or a circus trapeze performer 
misses his safety net, or a rodeo rider falls under the hoofs of a steer, the 
victim is carried across the street to POLYCLINIC HOSPITAL, 345 West 
Fiftieth Street. The 346-bed hospital serves the ordinary people of the 
neighborhood, for the most part, but because of its location it receives an 
unusually large number of well-publicized patients. During the Prohibi- 
tion era the bullet wounds of such notorious figures as Arnold Rothstein 
and Jack "Legs" Diamond were treated here. 

One of the city's oldest Negro communities is concentrated on West 
Fifty-third Street near Ninth Avenue. It was first settled by Negroes who 
worked on the Croton Aqueduct (1840-42). The CHURCH OF ST. BENE- 
DICT THE MOOR, a small white-brick building, stands at 342 West Fifty- 
third Street, in the shadow of the Ninth Avenue el. The original church 
building, the first for Negro Catholics north of the Mason-Dixon Line, 
was erected on Bleecker Street in 1883. 

Although every block in this neighborhood contains a broad mixture of 
nationalities, in the West Forties and Fifties there is a French population 
large enough to form a true FRENCH QUARTER. Bastille Day and other 
French national holidays are celebrated here and many restaurants serve 
Gallic dishes. French cultural, professional, social, sporting, educational, 



160 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

and culinary organizations have their headquarters in the building at 349 

West Forty-fourth Street. 

The Seventh District Magistrates Court, better known as the MEN'S 
NIGHT COURT, occupies the gray stone building at 314 West Fifty- fourth 
Street. Petty offenders in Manhattan and the Bronx are brought before a 
magistrate who presides here from eight o'clock in the evening to one in 
the morning. Before rubbernecking was officially discouraged, Park Ave- 
nue in evening dress used to drop in to gape at the tragic parade of 
drunks, panhandlers, pickpockets, wife beaters, and brawlers. 

The clubhouse of the AMERICAN WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION, 353 West 
Fifty-seventh Street, was completed in 1929 from designs by Benjamin 
Wistar Morris at a cost of eight million dollars. This imposing twenty- 
seven-story structure is open to transients and non-members. Miss Anne 
Morgan heads the board of governors of the association, one of the most 
influential women's organizations in the country. 

ROOSEVELT HOSPITAL, which occupies a group of red-brick buildings 
along Ninth Avenue from Fifty-eighth to Fifty-ninth Street was founded 
in 1871. Nationally known for its surgical work, the hospital has 387 
beds, and treats in its clinics some fifty thousand patients a year. A monu- 
ment stands on the grounds, erected to the memory of James Henry Roose- 
velt (1800-1883), "the generous founder of the hospital." 

A Negro community, west of Columbus Circle, has been popularly 
known since the turn of the century as SAN JUAN HILL, a folk tribute to 
the exploits of Negro soldiers in the Spanish- American War. 

GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY 

Area: 25th St. (6th to 8th Ave.) and 3oth St. (8th to 9th Ave.) on the south to 
39th St. (6th to 7th Ave.) and 4ist St. (yth to 9th Ave.) on the north. Map on 
page 149. 

New York's garment center, housing the city's foremost industry, and 
America's fourth largest, crowds the middle of Manhattan between Sixth 
and Ninth Avenues, from Thirtieth to Forty-second Street. Here are pro- 
duced three out of four of the ready-made coats and dresses, and four out 
of five of the fur garments worn by American women. Immediately north 
of Twenty-fifth Street, between Sixth and Eighth Avenues, are the quarters 
of the fur industry. The wholesale flower market borders Sixth Avenue 
from Twenty-sixth to Twenty-eighth Street. In the mid-section of the dis- 
trict are the Pennsylvania Station, hotels, and the city's most concentrated 



GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY l6l 

shopping market, the hub of which, at Broadway and Thirty-fourth Street 
(Greeley and Herald Squares), is dominated by three famous department 
stores: Macy's, Gimbels, and Saks- 34th Street. 

The location of major industries fur and garment in the heart of 
Manhattan near the passenger terminals and the hotels is dictated to a con- 
siderable extent by their need for being easily accessible to both resident 
and out-of-town buyers. Moreover, the peculiar character of the garment 
industry, with its constant, intimate contact between selling and manufac- 
turing departments, apparently makes it difficult to move the workrooms 
to less congested districts. 

The garment industry, which concentrated on the Lower East Side late 
in the nineteenth century, followed the city's every move northward and 
westward until it reached its present location in the World War period. 

Garment Center 

Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Avenues, main routes for heavy-duty traffic, 
are packed with trucks and busses. The curbs of side streets are lined with 
trucks unloading bolts of materials and loading finished garments while 
other trucks wait for an opening. Through narrow traffic holes along the 
curbs, "push boys" guide handtrucks with garments swaying from racks 
made of metal pipes. Into these crowded streets at noon, thousands of 
workers, East and South European by origin, Italians and Jews mostly, de- 
scend for food, fresh air, and sun. (Few women workers appear in the 
noonday crowd, for most of them bring food from home and eat in the 
workrooms.) They pour from the buildings, congregate in groups, jam into 
lunchrooms and cafeterias, and gather around pitchmen. A few minutes 
before one they take a final puff at the cigarette, look fondly once more at 
the warming sun, throw away the butt, and crowd the doors to the build- 
ings. 

The garment trade, as represented in this area, may be divided into tv/o 
main parts: the cloak-and-suit business and the women's dress business. 
Cloak-and-suit firms are centered above Thirty-fourth Street and Seventh 
Avenue, while the dress houses, for the most part, are farther to the 
north, although the geographical division is general, not sharp. While 
other branches of the trade are represented in the district, they are con- 
centrated, in the main, in other parts of the city. 

Almost every building in the district is filled with shops, most of which 
employ no more than thirty workers. Three tall buildings at Nos. 498, 500, 
and 512 Seventh Avenue, from Thirty-sixth to Thirty-eighth Street, form 
the GARMENT CENTER CAPITOL. Constructed as a co-operative venture by 



162 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

leading manufacturers, the structures cover a ground area of 38,000 square 
feet and contain the most modern manufacturing facilities. Nos. 498 and 
500, built in 1921, were designed by Walter M. Mason; No. 512, tallest 
of the three and built in 1929, was designed by Sugarman and Berger. 

The average shop has two main sections: showroom and workroom. The 
former is generally long and ornately decorated, with one side partitioned 
into booths. In these, buyers for stores sit and appraise the latest fashions 
displayed by mannequins. 

Refinements of the showroom are totally lacking in the workroom. 
Walls and ceilings are whitewashed; floors are bare. Placed close to the 
many windows are long cutting tables where a motor-driven blade can cut 
through as many as four hundred thicknesses of some materials in a single 
operation; and rows of electric sewing machines can needle fabrics at the 
rate of three thousand stitches a minute. The workers are Negro and 
white, native and foreign-born ; women outnumber men three to one. 

The great number of independent shops in the garment center is illus- 
trative of the industry's peculiar make-up. The process of centralization and 
monopoly that shaped other large industries has not operated to any great 
extent in the garment trade, largely because the style factor makes it an 
extremely speculative business. Instead of the assembly-belt system that 
obtains, for example, in the automobile industry, garment production is 
relatively dependent on the skill of the operator, who in most cases sews 
the entire garment. The so-called manufacturer, or jobber, may do only a 
portion of the actual manufacturing. Contractors assume the responsibility 
for the sewing and finishing of whatever "cut work" the various manufac- 
turers send to them. This subdivision of the industry has increased compe- 
tition all along the line, among manufacturers, contractors, and workers. 
The result has been a chaotic system of production, reflected each year in 
the amazing rate of bankruptcy that has been as high as 20 per cent among 
"inside" manufacturers, and 331/3 per cent among contractors. 

A strong stabilizing force, admittedly, is the INTERNATIONAL LADIES 
GARMENT WORKERS UNION, whose union halls stud the district and whose 
main New York office is at 3 West Sixteenth Street. It has established 
wage levels tending to halt ruinous price competition at the expense of the 
workers. The union, founded in 1900, has a firm hold upon the affection and 
loyalty of its members. To it is attributed the eradication of the sweatshop 
conditions forced upon the immigrant workers during the rapid rise of 
the needle trades, which had their origins in the invention of the sewing 
machine in 1846 and of the cutting machine twenty years later. The union's 



GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY 163 

general strikes in 1909 and 1910 against sweatshop conditions was a mile- 
stone in the American labor movement. It has consistently fought for higher 
wages and better working conditions and has developed a remarkable edu- 
cational program economic, cultural, and political in nature. The social life 
of many garment workers also centers around the union. The ILGWU main- 
tains a million-dollar summer camp for its members; in the fall of 1937, 
the union produced a musical comedy success, Pins and Needles, with a 
cast of garment workers, in its own Labor Stage Theater on Thirty-ninth 
Street. Less spectacularly the union serves the workers daily through its 
business agents. Even more than manufacturers' groups, it functions as the 
"chamber of commerce" for the industry, maintaining research and statis- 
tical divisions. Highly respected by employer groups, it often initiates 
policies generally accepted as beneficial to the industry as a whole. 

Fur District 

Although the street scene of the fur district Twenty-fifth to Thirtieth 
Street, between Sixth and Eighth Avenues is less turbulent than that of 
the garment center, the neighborhoods are similar in many respects : trucks 
backed to the curb, loading and unloading ; scurrying delivery boys carry- 
ing pelts dangling from hangers ; salesmen, buyers, and union agents bent 
on business. Pelts are piled high behind dealers' windows, frequently re- 
inforced with iron grillwork. Sometimes a tiger skin is displayed among 
mink and ermine. 

The dealer acquires the furs directly from trappers or at the auctions 
held here quarterly, and he sells them in turn to the manufacturer for 
fabrication into wraps, scarves, trimmings, and accessories. Unlike the 
highly mechanized garment industry, fur manufacture consists, in large 
part, of work done by hand. Fur and fur products valued at $195,000,000 
were handled in New York City in 1936, retail prices ranging from about 
a dollar for an undyed rabbit "choker" to several thousand for a sable 
wrap. Of the ninety varieties of pelts used, muskrat is most common, with 
rabbit and fox next in commercial importance. 

There are approximately two thousand shops in the district, employing 
15,000 workers. The trade is a seasonal one: during June and July shops 
operate at top speed to meet the demand of the winter sales and in No- 
vember there is a short spurt to supply the needs of the Christmas trade. 
All in all the fur worker averages twenty weeks of employment a year. 
Eighty per cent of the workers are members of the powerful International 
Fur Workers Union (CIO). 



164 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

Flower Market 

Millions of flowers some of rare species are sold annually in 
the wholesale flower market in the vicinity of Sixth Avenue between 
Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth Streets. Seventy per cent of these flowers 
are grown within one hundred, miles of the city, although about thirty 
thousand tulips are imported annually from Holland, and from one-quar- 
ter to one-half million Easter lilies from Bermuda. 

The market had its origin before 1870, when Long Island growers 
gathered each morning at the foot of East Thirty-fourth Street to sell their 
blossoms to both retail and wholesale trade. In 1873 a commission business 
was started at Third Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street. Before long, whole- 
sale commission merchants had set up stores in the present location, chosen 
for its proximity to the retail flower market and to the center of business, 
then at about Fourteenth Street. 

In the i88o's and 1890'$ the area between Twenty- fourth and Fortieth 
Streets, from Fifth to Seventh Avenue, was notorious as the wickedest and 
gayest spot in the city. Reformers of the day referred to it as "Satan's Cir- 
cus." On the southeast corner of Sixth Avenue and Thirtieth Street flour- 
ished the Haymarket, a post-Civil War variety theater remodeled into a 
combined dance hall and cafe. Sisters' Row, near here, was run by seven 
sisters of reputedly great physical charm. On certain nights only gentle- 
men in evening dress were admitted, and all the proceeds taken in on 
Christmas Eve were donated to charity. This district was known as the 
"Tenderloin" after Captain (later Inspector) Alexander C. Williams, 
newly transferred there, was quoted as saying, "I've had nothing but chuck 
steak for a long time, and now I'm going to get a little of the tenderloin." 

Pennsylvania Station and Vicinity 

The large-scale production of the garment industry has its counterpart in 
the retail selling of department stores in the shopping sector around the 
intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, and Thirty-fourth Street. The 
amount of retail business transacted yearly in this neighborhood far ex- 
ceeds that of any comparable area in the city. 

MACY'S, founded in 1858 by a Nantucket whaling captain, describes it- 
self as the largest department store in the world. Its ten acres of selling 
space have a daily capacity of 137,000 customers, who may buy anything 
from diamonds to raspberries. Macy's, GIMBELS, and SAKS are giants in 
the midst of scores of small specialty shops devoted to women's or men's 



GARMENT CENTER AND VICINITY 165 

wear. Thirty- fourth Street is almost entirely a woman's precinct, while 
Broadway has the men's shops. 

The intersection of Broadway and Sixth Avenue at Thirty-fourth Street 
creates two triangles: GREELEY SQUARE on the south and HERALD SQUARE 
on the north. The former contains a STATUE OF HORACE GREELEY by 
Alexander Doyle ; the latter, named for James Gordon Bennett's New York 
Herald, contains a STATUE OF WILLIAM E. DODGE, noted New York mer- 
chant, by J. Q. A. Ward. In 1894 the publishing plant and offices of the 
Herald were moved into a handsome building a McKim, Mead, and 
White reproduction of an Italian palace on the irregular block directly 
north of Herald Square. The northern part of the structure has since been 
replaced by an office building ; the original southern portion is occupied by 
a men's clothing store. Plans for the renovation of the two squares, an- 
nounced in 1939 when the Sixth Avenue el was removed, include shifting 
the statues and surrounding them with trees. The great Bennett clock, whose 
two figures (nicknamed Stuff and Guff) had long struck the hours from the 
front of the Herald Building until they were exiled to New York Univer- 
sity, was to be returned to a place of honor. Until about 1910 Herald 
Square was the city's Rialto, and diners-out frequented hotels such as the 
MARTINIQUE, Broadway and Thirty-second Street, and the HERALD SQUARE, 
116 West Thirty- fourth Street, and ordered lobster in the neighborhood's 
sea-food restaurants. The McALPiN HOTEL, Thirty-fourth Street and Broad- 
way, carries on the tradition in the modern manner. 

At Herald and Greeley Squares a maze of transit lines subways, inter- 
state busses helps to feed this congested district. Latest addition to the 
underground tangle is the Sixth Avenue subway, under construction in 
1939, which lies fifty-two feet below the street, sandwiched between the 
BMT subway and the Pennsylvania Railroad tunnels. New Jersey crowds 
enter and leave the square by the Hudson Tubes. 

The south side of Thirty-second Street, between Sixth and Seventh 
Avenues, has become a center for dealers in cameras and photographic 
equipment. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATION, Seventh Avenue between Thirty-first and 
Thirty-third Streets, is one of the city's two great passenger transport cen- 
ters. It is the terminus of the Pennsylvania and Lehigh Valley railroads, 
which reach Manhattan by way of tunnels under the Hudson River, and of 
the Long Island Railroad, which enters through tubes under the East River. 
Both sets of river tunnels, a cross-town link sixty feet underground, and 
the station itself were completed in 1910. A connection with the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford, over the New York Connecting Rail- 



166 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

road (Hell Gate) Bridge, enables trains to run from Maine to Miami 

the only continuous direct rail route from New England to the South. 

The design of the station, by McKim, Mead, and White, was inspired 
by Roman Classical architecture. For the two-block fagade on Seventh Ave- 
nue the architects chose the most monumental of compositions a great 
central element flanked by colonnaded wings and end pavilions. The cen- 
tral portion is the main pedestrian entrance ; the end pavilions are used by 
passenger vehicles. 

The interior is a sequence of tremendous spaces. From a long, barrel- 
vaulted arcade, lined with shops, a marble stairway and escalators lead 
to the floor of the main hall. In this vast hall, which is a copy of the 
Tepidarium of a Roman bath, are ticket booths and the information desk. 
Six murals by Jules Guerin depict scenes of the area served by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. Along the west side are twin waiting rooms. Beyond 
them a great glass-roofed concourse gives access to the track platforms. 
The Long Island Railroad waiting room and ticket offices are on a lower 
level. 

The station yard, part of which is beneath the concourse floor, covers 
three hundred thousand square feet and accommodates a network of 
twenty-seven tracks. Six hundred and fifty steel foundation columns sup- 
port the building. 

Directly across Eighth Avenue from Pennsylvania Station, the NEW 
YORK GENERAL POST OFFICE, the largest in the country, rests on steel 
and concrete stilts above the railroad yard. It was designed by McKim, 
Mead, and White. The simplicity of the main outline is beautifully en- 
riched by the well-proportioned Corinthian colonnade above a two-block 
sweep of granite steps. Across the frieze a quotation from Herodotus is in- 
scribed: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these 
couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds." 

The main lobby ceiling, subtly arched to avoid the illusion of sagging, 
is decorated with the coats-of-arms of nations that belong to the postal 
union. 

Forty-five per cent of the city's mail is handled here. In the basement, 
belts, chutes, and other mechanical devices transfer mail to and from trains 
directly beneath. An intricate system of underground pneumatic tubes, the 
first units of which were installed in 1896, carries mail between the New 
York General Post Office and branches in Manhattan and the Brooklyn 
General Post Office. 

Around the Pennsylvania Station are grouped several large satellite 
hotels, to two of which, the Pennsylvania and the New Yorker, it is con- 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 167 

nected by underground passages. The huge HOTEL PENNSYLVANIA, facing 
Seventh Avenue between Thirty-second and Thirty-third Streets, is the scene 
of frequent fashion shows, for it is the New York headquarters of buyers 
for many out-of-town department stores. The architects were George B. 
Post and Sons. The HOTEL GOVERNOR CLINTON, two blocks south, was de- 
signed by Murgatroyd and Ogden. On Eighth Avenue between Thirty- 
fourth and Thirty-fifth Streets is the forty-three-story NEW YORKER, the 
second tallest hotel in the city. Completed in 1930 from plans by Sugar- 
man and Berger, the structure is a fine example of setback design, con- 
forming to the zoning law without loss of artistic effect. 

TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 

Area: 42d St. (5th to 6th Ave.), 39th St. (6th to jth Ave.), and 4ist St. (jth 
to 8th Ave.) on the south to 57th St. and Columbus Circle on the north; from 8th 
Ave. east to 5th Ave. Maps on pages 149 and 169. 

A belt of white electric bulbs girds the Times Building at Forty-second 
Street and Broadway, spelling out spot news in moving letters that can be 
read several blocks away. And to the north a wall of light and color, 
urging the onlooker to chew gum, drink beer, see the world's most beau- 
tiful girls, or attend the premiere of a Hollywood film, lights the clouds 
above Manhattan with a glow like that of a dry timber fire. 

This is the Great White Way, theatrical center of America and wonder 
of the out-of-towner. Here midnight streets are more brilliant than noon, 
their crowds on ordinary evenings exceeding those of large town carnivals. 
Scarcely a day passes that does not inaugurate some notable event, and in 
these theaters, cafes, and hotels, personages mentioned daily in the news- 
papers are everywhere at hand. It is the district of glorified dancing girls 
and millionaire playboys and, on a different plane, of dime-a-dance 
hostesses and pleasure-seeking clerks. Here, too, in a permanent moraliz- 
ing tableau, appear the extremes of success and failure characteristic of 
Broadway's spectacular professions: gangsters and racketeers, panhandlers 
and derelicts, youthful stage stars and aging burlesque comedians, world 
heavyweight champions and once- acclaimed beggars. An outer shell of 
bars and restaurants, electric signs, movie palaces, taxi dance halls, cab- 
arets, chop suey places, and side shows of every description covers the 
central streets. 

By day, Times Square is a jumble of skyscrapers, antiquated and re- 
modeled commercial structures, and shabby taxpayers topped by the huge 



l68 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 



KEY TO TIMES SQUARE 

(The following are theaters, 

1. Labor Stage 

2. Maxine Elliott 

3. Empire 

4. Metropolitan Opera House 

5. National 

6. Mercury 

7. Cameo 

8. New Amsterdam 

9. Sam H. Harris 

10. Liberty 

11. Eltinge 

12. Wallach 

13. Selwyn 

14. Apollo 

15. Times Square 

16. Lyric 

17. Republic 

18. Rialto 

19. Henry Miller 

20. Town Hall 

21. Hippodrome 

22. Belasco 

23. Hudson 

24. Loew's Criterion 

25. Paramount 

26. Forty-fourth Street 

27. Nora Bayes 

28. Little 

29. St. James 

30. Majestic 

31. Broadhurst 

32. Shubert 

33. Shubert Alley 

34. Booth 

35. Plymouth 

36. CBS Radio Theater No. 1 

37. John Golden 

38. Martin Beck 

39. CBS Radio Theater No. 2 

40. Imperial 

41. Music Box 

42. Morosco 

43. Bijou 

44. Astor 

45. Loew's State 

46. Lyceum 



THEATER DISTRICT MAP 

except Nos. 20, 33, and 89.) 

47. Gaiety 

48. Fulton 

49. Forty-sixth Street 

50. Mansfield 

51. Central 

52. Globe 

53. Embassy 

54. Palace 

55. Cort 

56. Vanderbilt 

57. Loew's Mayfair 

58. Strand 

59. Ethel Barrymore 

60. Biltmore 

61. Longacre 

62. Forty-eighth Street 

63. Ritz 

64. Rivoli 

65. Windsor 

66. Playhouse 

67. Belmont 

68. Center 

69. World 

70. Translux 

71. Forrest 

72. Cinema 49 

73. CBS Radio Theater No. 4 

74. Capitol 

75. Winter Garden 

76. Roxy 

77. Music Hall 

78. Continental 

79. Hollywood 

80. Alvin 

81. Guild 

82. Cine Roma 

83. Loew's Ziegfeld 

84. Adelphi 

85. CBS Radio Theater No. 3 

86. New Yorker 

87. Fifty-fifth Street Playhouse 

88. Little Carnegie Playhouse 

89. Carnegie Hall 

90. Filmarte 

91. Yiddish Art 



170 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

skeletons of electric signs. Without the beneficent flood of light descend- 
ing from above, the area exhibits greater variety and at the same time a 
certain drabness. Adjoining elaborate hotel and theater entrances and 
wide-windowed clothing shops are scores of typical midway enterprises: 
fruit juice stands garlanded with artificial palm leaves, theater ticket 
offices, cheap lunch counters, cut-rate haberdasheries, burlesque houses, 
and novelty concessions. Streams of shoppers, movie-goers, and tourists 
move across the sidewalks, and members of the theatrical professions con- 
gregate on favorite street corners. 

The name Times Square District designates the rectangle extending 
from Thirty-ninth Street to Fifty-seventh Street and from Fifth to Eighth 
Avenue. Below Forty-second Street the Metropolitan Opera House and a 
handful of theaters hold out against the intrusion of the mid-town busi- 
ness section. Times Square proper is the core of the neighborhood; it in- 
cludes the roughly triangular area bounded by Forty-second Street, Broad- 
way, Seventh Avenue, and Forty-seventh Street. The side streets east and 
west of Broadway between Forty-second and Fiftieth Streets are lined 
with hotels, theaters, restaurants, and boarding houses. In the upper 
Forties between Sixth and Seventh Avenues are many well-known eating 
places. Sixth Avenue, conditioned until 1939 by the el structure, was the 
dark border of the district. Eighth Avenue on the west takes its character 
from the sporting world attracted by Madison Square Garden. From 
Fiftieth to Fifty-seventh Streets between Fifth and Seventh Avenues are 
expensive night clubs, a number of substantial residential hotels, and a 
scattering of garages and parking lots. Northward from Fiftieth to Sixty- 
first Street west of Broadway, the area rapidly changes character. The 
theaters, restaurants, and crowds thin out, the hotels become smaller and 
shoddier, and the rooming houses multiply. The intersection of Fifty- 
seventh and Broadway is the focal point of a great cluster of automobile 
sales rooms. To the north is windy Columbus Circle. 

Since early in the nineteenth century when New York could count but 
five playhouses, the theatrical district has kept close to Broadway, follow- 
ing it uptown with the changing city. By 1902, the theater had begun to 
concentrate itself about Times Square. The district was then occupied 
chiefly by old brownstones, carriage and harness shops, and livery stables. 
The northern end of this quiet quarter was called Longacre Square after 
the street in London. 

The phrase, the Great White Way, is supposed to have been coined in 
1901 by O. J. Gude, an advertising man, who is said also to have been the 
first to see the tremendous possibilities of electric display. A modest sign at 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 171 

Broadway and Twenty-third Street advertising an ocean resort was New 
York's first experience with this phenomenon. The present show of light 
has never been dimmed in the evening, except for a brief period during the 
World War. 

Rapid transit reached Times Square in 1904 with the opening of the 
first IRT line to i45th Street, and since then the growth of the city's 
transportation has played a vital part in the development of the district. 
Every twenty-four hours, two hundred thousand passengers emerge from 
the IRT and BMT subways to the cement passageways of the under- 
ground stations extending from Fortieth to Forty-third Street. A shuttle 
connects the East Side IRT lines at Grand Central with Times Square, 
and the Eighth Avenue (Independent) subway has a station from For- 
tieth to Forty-fourth Street on Eighth Avenue. Forty-second Street surface 
cars carry riders from the New Jersey ferries; north- and southbound 
Manhattan busses cross the square; interstate busses arrive at many ter- 
minals in the Forties; Pennsylvania Station and Grand Central Terminal 
are near by all the city's boroughs, every state, and many foreign coun- 
tries contribute to the crowds that overflow the sidewalks and gape en- 
chantedly at the tall buildings, the shop windows, and the gyrating sky 
signs. 

Once a year sees the Times Square district as jammed as a rush-hour 
subway train. On New Year's eve crowds fill the bars, restaurants, and 
theaters of the square and block the streets and sidewalks. Prices in 
restaurants soar to premiums. A tremendous wave of joviality and good 
will, in which even the police participate, carries the crowds along. At 
midnight a lighted globe on the roof of the Times Building falls, and a 
shout goes up from the square. Boat whistles, tin horns, rattles, and 
klaxons swell the racket until it can be heard all over the island. 

Election night is a milder and less jubilant occasion. On other nights 
the lights and noise of the Rialto begin to dim at four o'clock (at three on 
Saturday), the official closing hour for bars. By six, in the gray light of 
morning, Broadway is momentarily empty of life. Soon the flow of 
workers begins; and at high noon the sun beats down upon the heads of 
the first matinee-goers. 

Times Square 

At the southeast corner of Broadway and Thirty-ninth Street a modern 
office building marks the SITE OF THE NEW YORK CASINO, the theater 
that introduced the "Florodora" girls to New York on November 10, 
1900. Occupying the entire block across the street behind a rather dingy 



172 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

front of dark buff brick is the Metropolitan Opera House (see page 322). 
On Broadway at Fortieth Street the old-fashioned lobby of the EMPIRE 
THEATRE, decorated with portraits of the many stars who played there 
under Charles Frohman, is a reminder of the years when this stretch of 
Broadway was the northern outpost of the amusement center. More re- 
cent is the building housing the PUBLISHING OFFICES OF THE NEW YORK 
HERALD TRIBUNE on Forty-first Street near Eighth Avenue. This paper 
was formed in 1924 by the combination under Ogden Reid of the New 
York Herald and the New York Tribune. The latter was founded by 
Horace Greeley in 1841 several years after he had rejected the offer of 
James Gordon Bennett to join the Herald staff. At Forty-second Street and 
Broadway is the KNICKERBOCKER BUILDING, formerly the Knickerbocker 
Hotel, where Enrico Caruso lived and entertained. 

The austere, white TIMES BUILDING, erected in 1903 at Forty-second 
Street and Broadway, now seems an intruder in the area that was named 
for it. The architects, Eidlitz and MacKenzie, surfaced the tall wedge with 
glazed terra cotta, designed in an eclectic combination of Gothic and Renais- 
sance details. A weather observatory surmounts the tower. The publishing 
offices of the paper have moved to Forty-third Street and the building is 
leased for offices. 

At the north end of the building is a newsstand where home-town 
newspapers may be purchased; and foreign papers are sold at a stand in 
the subway entrance on the Forty-second Street and Seventh Avenue cor- 
ner. The Police Department maintains an INFORMATION BOOTH north of 
the Times Building. Within Times Square proper a traffic fence runs 
north and south from the booth to Forty-sixth Street, discouraging jay- 
walkers. 

The west side of the square has undergone many changes in recent 
years. The RIALTO at Forty-second Street, a small movie house and the only 
one with a separate entrance in the subway, occupies the site of Ham- 
merstein's Victoria Theatre, the leading vaudeville house in the 1900'$. 

The PARAMOUNT BUILDING, which houses the palatial Paramount The- 
atre, extends from Forty-third to Forty-fourth Street on the west side of 
Broadway. Its thirty-five stories rise upon the site of the Putnam Building, in 
which was Shanley's, a famous restaurant in the early years of the century. 
The NEW CRITERION THEATER BUILDING between Forty-fourth and Forty- 
fifth on the east side of the street commands attention because of its showy 
fagade and the sign on its roof, the largest animated sign in the world. 

The ASTOR HOTEL, whose French Renaissance facade has been a New 
York landmark since 1904, occupies the block from Forty- fourth to 




SOUTH STREET 




MUNICIPAL BUILDING FROM CHATHAM SQUARE EL STATION 







CITY HALL 



11 



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HOLLAND TUNNEL 



MANHATTAN BRIDGE ENTRANCE 





WEST WASHINGTON POULTRY MARKET 



RADIO ROW, CORTLANDT STREET 







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Iff I If II ' 

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PATCHIN PLACE, GREENWICH VILLAGE 




ST. MARK'S IN-THE-BOUWERIE 



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BACKYARDS, LOWER EAST SIDE 



POLICE HEADQUARTERS 




TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 173 

Forty-fifth Street on the west side of the square. Headquarters and con- 
vention center of many organizations, from national political parties to 
beauticians' associations, it has been the scene of many picturesque and 
significant events. 

LOEW'S STATE, north of Forty-fifth Street, is now the only theater in 
the square regularly presenting vaudeville. The PALACE, at Broadway and 
Forty-seventh Street, was until recently the nation's leading vaudeville house 
and headliners like Pat Rooney, Eddie Leonard, Elsie Janis, and Sophie 
Tucker played two-a-day here. The theater now shows motion pictures. 
BILLBOARD, a publication devoted to the amusement world, has offices in the 
building, and the street corner is still a camping ground for minor members 
of the theatrical profession. Owners and managers of carnival shows also 
meet there. In the building at 1560 Broadway are the OFFICES OF THE 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ACTORS, a union of variety entertainers. 

At the base of a small triangle of pavement at Forty-seventh Street is 
the bronze STATUE OF THE REVEREND FATHER FRANCIS DUFFY, dressed 
in his uniform as chaplain of the 69th Regiment (now i65th Infantry). 
The figure, the work of Charles Keck, stands in front of a granite Celtic 
cross. Father Duffy, who died in June, 1932, was a familiar character on 
Broadway. His church was the Holy Cross on Forty-second Street between 
Eighth and Ninth Avenues. 

Broadway North of Forty-seventh Street 

North on Broadway a row of low drab buildings becomes at night, 
when the signs on the roofs light up, an extension of the Rialto. Seventh 
Avenue with the elaborate supper clubs and dine-and- dance palaces also 
stretches the white way northward; at Forty-seventh Street is the half- 
block marquee of LOEW'S MAYFAIR where until 1929 the Columbia 
"Wheel" (circuit) presented the great comedians of burlesque. 

LINDY'S RESTAURANT, a contemporary landmark of black and red, set off 
by yellow, is at 1626 Broadway. Like the PARADISE, a night club diagonally 
across the street at Forty-ninth Street, it has acquired a national reputation 
through the Broadway columnists Lindy's for the gossip and celebrities, 
the Paradise for the genuine blue-eyed blondes in the chorus line. JACK 
DEMPSEY'S BROADWAY BAR, near Forty-ninth Street, is the Churchill's of 
1939, a favorite with the sporting crowd. The old Churchill's was near the 
spot in 1900, as was also Rector's after it had moved out of the square 
proper. 

Built at a cost of more than a million dollars, the STRAND THEATRE, 
near Forty-eighth Street on the west side of Broadway, claimed the record 



174 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

for opulence when it opened in 1914 with a motion-picture version of 
Rex Beach's The Spoilers. The COTTON CLUB, the former Harlem night 
club made famous by Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway, is opposite the 
Strand between Broadway and Seventh Avenue. At about four o'clock 
every afternoon the swing musicians gather on the west side of Broadway 
near Forty-eighth Street to gossip and to exchange ideas for new varia- 
tions in hot music. 

The RIVOLI, north of Forty-ninth Street on the east side of Broadway, 
revolutionized theater architecture when it opened in 1917 with a cooling 
system and balconies without posts. "Roxy" (S. L. Rothafel), who initiated 
the lavish presentation of a motion picture, was managing director, a posi- 
tion he held at one time or another at the old Rialto, the Strand, the Capitol, 
the Roxy, and the Radio City Music Hall. 

The WINTER GARDEN, its long marquee still advertising the wares of 
legitimate show business, is near Forty-ninth Street. The leg-shows once 
presented here were as famous as any in burlesque. Al Jolson was in the 
show that opened this theater in 1911, and in 1913 New Yorkers had a 
foretaste of New Orleans music when the original Creole Band played here. 

One block east, at Fiftieth Street and Seventh Avenue, is the CASA 
MANANA, a lavish night club, directed by Billy Rose, creator of stage and 
outdoor spectacles. Prior to 1935, Earl Carroll's Vanities was located here, 
advertising that "Through These Portals [the stage door] Pass the Most 
Beautiful Girls in the World." The BRASS RAIL, 745 Seventh Avenue, was 
opened during Prohibition years as a counter sandwich shop. The restaurant 
has grown until it occupies four floors with a seating capacity of more than 
one thousand. The ROXY, Seventh Avenue and Fiftieth Street, is the most 
elaborate of the first-run motion-picture houses in the Broadway district. 
The huge oval lobby, highly ornate in its decorations, can accommodate three 
thousand patrons, about half as many as the auditorium itself. The Roxy 
opened in 1926, representing an investment of fifteen million dollars. 

The dome sign of the CAPITOL on Broadway at Fifty-first Street identifies 
the first-run house of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. On the opposite side of the 
street is the CONTINENTAL, formerly the Warner, where on October 6, 1927, 
the sound film was introduced by the Jazz Singer, with Al Jolson. At Fifty- 
first Street on the east side of Broadway is ROSE LAND, largest of the dance 
halls and since the 1920'$ the downtown headquarters for hot music and 
such urban dance steps as the cake and collegiate, the Lindy and the Shag. 

The BROADWAY TABERNACLE at Fifty-sixth Street was built in 1903. 
The Gothic structure of brick and terra cotta is dominated by the heavy 
tower at the rear of the building. A progressive factor in the church life 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 175 

of today, the congregation was an Abolitionist center when it was located 
downtown a century ago. Nor is this church's preference for a theatrical 
atmosphere a recent development: "It is but a few years," wrote Asa 
Greene in 1837 (A Glance At New York), describing its early Chatham 
Street chapel, "since it was captured from the Arch Enemy; and it still 
bears evidence of its profane origin: for the boxes, tier above tier, remain 
precisely as in the days of its theatrical glory; the pit and the stage only 
being changed into something more of a churchlike appearance." 

Side Streets, Forty-second to Fifty-sixth 

The depression emphasized the midway side of the Times Square dis- 
trict. Theaters closed one after the other, and contract bridge games, chess 
tournaments, and side shows occupied the vacant stores and restaurants. 
Long before, however, the decisive factor of popular support had shifted 
from dramas and musical plays to motion pictures. Hollywood had taken 
over the most desirable locations, relegating the legitimate theater busi- 
ness to the side streets. Only two legitimate houses remain on Broadway. 

On Forty-second Street west of Broadway, once the show place of the 
district, famous theaters have been converted into movie "grind" houses 
devoted to continuous double feature programs or burlesque shows. 
Among cut-rate haberdasheries, cafeterias, and bus stations are tokens of 
a not-so-distant past the photographs of the Ziegfeld Follies in the 
lobby of the New Amsterdam, the exterior of the Republic, and the names 
above the brightly lighted marquees: Eltinge, Wallack's, Sam H. Harris, 
Liberty, Times Square, the Selwyn, the Lyric. . . . 

Forty-second Street east of Broadway has only one theater, the CAMEO, 
now used as the American first-run house for Russian films. The hotels 
and bars of this block have been replaced by office buildings, retail stores, 
and restaurants. Impressive architecturally is the BUSH TERMINAL SALES 
BUILDING, designed by Helmle and Corbett in 1917. Thirty- two stories 
high and only fifty feet wide, the building gives an impression of greater 
height because of the sheer lines of its unbroken piers. The chamfering at 
the corners and the treatment at the top are notable as antedating the set- 
back laws. 

On Forty-third Street east of Sixth Avenue at No. 51 is the stage door 
of the HIPPODROME, the architectural pachyderm of the amusement world. 
It was built in 1905 by Frederick Thompson and Elmer S. Dundy, who 
also built Coney Island's Luna Park. For many years theatrical extrava- 
ganzas were produced there under the management of Charles B. Dilling- 
ham, among whose famous presentations were the diving girls who mys- 



176 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

tified thousands when they walked down a flight of stairs into a huge 
tank and slowly disappeared beneath the surface of the water. Tenanted 
by opera companies, prize fighters, elephants, and chorus girls, the theater 
has also served as a jai alai court where Cuban, Spanish, and Mexican cham- 
pions gave exhibitions of "the fastest game in the world." 

Restaurants and hotels crowd Forty-third Street between Sixth Avenue 
and Times Square. TOWN HALL, designed in the Georgian Colonial style, 
was opened in 1921 as a civic concert auditorium. Its weekly radio forums 
have achieved national importance. A large panel on the front of the build- 
ing bears the inscription: "You Shall Know the Truth and the Truth Shall 
Make You Free." 

In the quiet block of Forty-third Street west of Times Square the stage 
doors of the Lyric and other formerly legitimate theaters have a ghostly 
air. On the north side of the street is the NEW YORK TIMES ANNEX, a 
white terra-cotta office building where all the publishing activities of the 
newspaper are carried on. Under the management of Adolph S. Ochs, the 
dignified and encyclopedic Times grew from a daily circulation of 19,000 
to 490,000 and took its position as the foremost American newspaper. 
Distinguished for its foreign news coverage and its superior reliability, 
the Times today is as sedate and exhaustive as it was in the earlier years 
when Ochs described it as "the sort of paper which no one needs to be 
ashamed to be seen reading." Guides are provided on application to groups 
who wish to tour the building. 

ASCENSION MEMORIAL CHAPEL, a plain, steeple-less building of dark- 
red brick, lies in the shadow of modern office buildings on the north side 
of Forty-third Street near Eighth Avenue. In 1911 the late Reverend Dr. 
John Floyd Steen told the press: "I now have as regular churchgoers 
many chorus girls." The interior of the chapel, Colonial in design, may 
be seen only by special permission. 

At Forty- fourth Street the true "west of Broadway" theater area begins. 
It was to these side-street theaters that the legitimate shows retired when 
they were driven from Times Square itself by the movies. Here, sur- 
rounded by medium-price hotels, they seem to have found a more or less 
permanent sanctuary. The heart of the area is the famous SHUBERT ALLEY 
which splits the block between Eighth Avenue and Broadway from Forty- 
fourth to Forty-fifth Street. Here are the executive offices of J. J. and Lee 
Shubert, who together with their brother, the late Sam Shubert, broke the 
hold of the theatrical trust headed by Klaw and Erlanger which controlled 
legitimate theaters throughout the country in the decade 1900-1910. 
Actors and chorus boys and girls still throng the alley when shows are 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 177 

being cast. Across Forty-fourth Street at No. 234 is SARDI'S RESTAURANT, 
a favorite of stage stars, writers, and their agents. In the near-by building 
are the offices of the GROUP THEATRE, founded in 1931. J. Edward 
Bromberg, Frances Farmer, Clifford Odets, and Franchot Tone have been 
associated with this theater which represents both a vigorous social out- 
look and the acting traditions of Stanislavsky. 

On Forty- fourth Street east of Times Square a marquee with hanging 
lanterns extends across the front of the BELASCO THEATRE where David 
Warfield appeared in 1907 in A Grand Army Man. Belasco of the clerical 
collar and white hair lived in a magnificently furnished apartment above 
the theater. 

At 128 West Forty-fourth Street is the LAMBS CLUB, a select actors' 
club known widely for its private and public shows, the Gambols. 

The HOTEL ALGONQUIN, associated with the theatrical and literary life 
of the city, is east of Sixth Avenue on Forty-fourth Street. Under the 
management of Frank Case this French Renaissance structure has served 
as headquarters for the Round Table, the Thanatopsis and Literary Inside 
Straight Clubs, and the Forty- fourth Street Chowder and Marching Club. 
A tiny annex to the Hotel Iroquois, farther east in the same block, is 
maintained by the TWELFTH NIGHT CLUB, which admits visitors only by 
special permission. The parlor walls are crowded with signed photographs 
of such distinguished persons as Booth, Modjeska, John Drew, Daniel 
Frohman, and Lily Langtry. 

The block between Fifth and Sixth Avenues is crowded with land- 
marks. The CITY CLUB is at No. 57 ; at No. 42 the BAR ASSOCIATION OF 
THE CITY OF NEW YORK, with a law library of more than two hundred 
thousand volumes, occupies a heavy classical building. The facade of the 
NEW YORK YACHT CLUB at No. 37 is highly characteristic of the work 
of the Parisian Beaux Arts Academy at the turn of the century. The 
fagade, frankly treated as a piece of sculpture, is carved to symbolize 
yachting. Three curious bay windows represent the sterns of eighteenth- 
century sailing ships, complete with waves and dolphins. 

The HARVARD CLUB at No. 27 is in Colonial red brick, designed after 
the early American buildings of the college itself. But what is probably 
the oldest organization in the block is the GENERAL SOCIETY OF 
MECHANICS AND TRADESMEN OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK in an undis- 
tinguished building at No. 20. The society was founded in 1785. 

Forty-fifth Street west of Broadway has been called the "street of hits," 
because of the many long-run shows in its theaters. The MARTIN BECK 
THEATRE is the newest and most impressive of the numerous legitimate 



178 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

theaters on this street. Beck's business is the theater; his hobby, painting. 
Van Dyck's Samson et Delilah hangs in the lobby. The old-fashioned 
LYCEUM THEATRE east of Broadway was put up for Daniel Frohman. 
He maintains an apartment in the building, reached by an elevator which 
barely admits his tall spare body. 

The polished brass/ white paint, and evergreen shrubs of "DiNTY" 
MOORE'S, as famous for its Broadway celebrities as for its corned beef and 
cabbage, front on Forty-sixth Street west of Times Square. Farther up the 
street is the CHURCH OF ST. MARY THE VIRGIN where the rites of the Angli- 
can Communion are observed. At No. 154 are the offices of VARIETY, 
trade paper of show business, known to the public chiefly for its pe- 
culiar jargon. Typical of this writing is the headline, "Stix Nix Hick Fix," 
once used to designate a crisis in the film industry. 

The ACTORS EQUITY ASSOCIATION, affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, and the first union organization in the American legiti- 
mate theater, maintains headquarters at 45 West Forty-seventh Street, east 
of Sixth Avenue. In 1919 when Frank Bacon led his company out, during 
Equity's struggle for the Equity shop, the newspapers headlined it: 
"Lightnin' Has Struck!" It was at the BILTMORE THEATRE on Forty- 
seventh Street that the first living newspaper, Triple-A Plowed Under, 
had its premiere under the auspices of the WPA Federal Theatre Project. 

On Forty-eighth Street west of Times Square are three theaters. The 
UNION METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, midway in the block, dates from 
1894. Civic, social, and union meetings are frequently held here and the 
church has an attic theater. The name Actors' Church was given to it in 
1920-21 when the Professional Children's School had quarters in the build- 
ing. During the depression unemployed actors and actresses were fed in the 
basement restaurant. 

In the block west of Broadway on Forty-ninth Street is ST. MALACHY'S 
CHURCH (Roman Catholic), whose chapel was one of the first in the coun- 
try for actors. At Forty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue is the new Madison 
Square Garden (see page 330), which extends up to Fiftieth Street and 
midway to Ninth Avenue. Gymnasiums, managers' offices, and the bars and 
restaurants of the sporting crowd Jack Dempsey's, Mickey Walker's, Jack 
Sharkey's cluster around the Garden. 

On the northwest corner of Sixth Avenue and Fiftieth Street, a plain 
office building houses LOCAL 802, AMERICAN FEDERATION OF MUSICIANS, 
whose 25,000 members represent every phase of the city's musical life. 

Fifty-second Street gained some prominence in the 1920*5 when the 
THEATRE GUILD set up house near Eighth Avenue. The Theatre Guild, for- 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT 179 

merly the Washington Square Players, moved uptown under the present 
name in 1919 when Otto Kahn leased them the old Garrick on Thirty-fifth 
Street for a nominal rental. The present theater, Florentine in character, was 
built in 1925 from plans by C. Howard Crane, Kenneth Franzheim, and 
Charles H. Bettis in consultation with Norman Bel Geddes and Lee Simon- 
son, stage designers. An invigorating force, the Guild has produced plays by 
known and unknown dramatists, and some of the finest acting talent in 
the contemporary theater has appeared in them. 

The long block of Fifty-second Street lying in the shadow of 
Rockefeller Center (see page 333) between Fifth and Sixth Avenues has 
won recent renown for its night clubs. This block is the swingman's 
Rialto and the source of much of the gossip of columnists and radio 
commentators. At No. 72 is the LITTLE CLUB at the address of the 
original Onyx Club, already famous for its jam sessions during the Pro- 
hibition era. "I'd rather drink muddy water, Lord, sleep in a hollow log," 
Jack Teagarden sang here, "than be up here in New York treated like a 
dirty dog." The FAMOUS DOOR, with its glass brick vestibule, is at No. 
66. At No. 62 is the black and white of the ONYX. Out-of-towner's favor 
LEON AND EDDIE'S where Eddie packs them in with his shady ballads. 
The TWENTY-ONE CLUB, behind the grilled fence of the old Hockstader 
estate, and TONY'S, a once famous speakeasy, are culinary high spots where 
celebrities go to see and be seen. The HICKORY HOUSE, noted for swing 
music and steaks, is west of Sixth Avenue. 

The MANHATTAN STORAGE WAREHOUSE extends from Fifty-second to 
Fifty-third Street, fronting on Seventh Avenue. The plain brick building, 
designed by McKim, Mead, and White, is undecorated save for the fortress- 
like machicolations at the top. The new ROCKEFELLER APARTMENTS, built 
in 1936 from designs by Harrison and Fouilhoux, run through the block 
from Fifty-fourth to Fifty-fifth Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. 
For decoration the architects have relied upon the interesting shapes of 
circular dining-bays and upon the play of light on many surfaces of glass. 
Despite the juxtaposition of windows differing in height, the buildings are 
distinguished for their simplicity and clarity of design. 

At the corner of Sixth Avenue and Fifty-fourth Street is the ZIEGFELD 
THEATRE, the bulging limestone of its facade intended to suggest a prosce- 
nium arch. The theater was designed by Joseph Urban. Built for the Follies, 
it has been reduced to showing motion pictures. 

The GRAND STREET BOYS ASSOCIATION, on Fifty-fifth Street west of 
Sixth Avenue, sponsors many civic and philanthropic activities, and claims 
many famous New Yorkers in its membership. MECCA TEMPLE, the largest 



i8o MANHATTAN: MIDDLE WEST SIDE 

Masonic Shrine in the city, is at 135 West Fifty-fifth Street. The mosque- 
like facade is framed with shallow-arched recesses in blue, green, and 
orange mosaic. The hall itself, which seats 3,500, is crowned by a tiled 
dome surmounted by the Scimitar and Crescent. 

Columbus Circle 

Broadway enters Columbus Circle at Fifty-eighth Street, crossing it diag- 
onally. The GENERAL MOTORS BUILDING towers above the Circle taking up 
the entire block on the west side of Broadway between Fifty-seventh and 
Fifty-eighth Streets. It was designed by Shreve and Lamb and completed 
in 1928; it includes the original three-story Colonnade Building. The struc- 
ture, with its simple piers, has a directness of expression evident in few 
commercial buildings. 

The imitation Corinthian pillars above the dime store on Eighth Avenue, 
opposite the General Motors Building, recall Reisenweber's Restaurant, 
which brought the cover charge and the Original Dixieland Jazz Band to 
Broadway in 1916. 

At the center of the Circle is a seventy-seven foot granite column sup- 
porting a marble STATUE OF COLUMBUS, completed by Gaetano Russo in 
1894. Three bronze ships' prows, representing the ships in Columbus' 
fleet, ornament the shaft, and before the pedestal is the figure of a 
winged youth, studying a terrestrial globe. Until the United States entered 
the World War, Times Square was the scene of many outdoor forums. 
When the square became too crowded these activities shifted northward; 
now in the open space below the monument impromptu discussions are 
held and groups listen to oratory on every conceivable subject from 
Thomas Paine and the Age of Reason to the advantages of a vegetable 
diet. At night advertising signs on the near-by buildings light the scene. 

Columbus Circle gives an impression of monuments and space, the ex- 
panse of Central Park (see page 350) spreading north and east beyond the 
Merchant's Gate, with towering apartment hotels on Central Park West, and 
Broadway the old Bloomingdale Road stretching north. Boomed for a 
time as an outpost of Times Square, the Circle gradually took on a somewhat 
abandoned appearance. The western arc of the Circle is dominated by a huge 
old-fashioned theater, originally the Majestic, now called the Park and show- 
ing motion pictures. Beside this theater stood Pabst's Grand Circle, a prewar 
restaurant famed for its free lunch, orchestra, and oyster bar. 

The MERCHANT'S GATE to Central Park is an imposing pylon of mar- 
ble, set between two roadways flanked by smaller pylons. The center 
pylon serves as a background for the heroic bronze and marble of the 



TIMES SQUARE DISTRICT l8l 

MAINE MEMORIAL, unveiled in 1912 in honor of those who lost their 
lives on the battleship Maine. In the basin, where neighborhood children 
duck for pennies in summer, figures grouped on the prow of a wooden 
battleship symbolize Courage awaiting the Flight of Peace, the Feeble 
supported by Fortitude, and the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts. The whole 
is topped by a robed figure of Columbia Triumphant, riding in a shell drawn 
by three sea horses. Members of the City Art Commission were forced 
to come to the defense of Attilio Piccirilli's sculptural group when a high 
wind ripped the burlap off before the official unveiling and artists living 
near by questioned its artistic merit. 








Middle and Upper East Side 

GASHOUSE DISTRICT STUYVESANT SQUARE 
DISTRICT GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 
UNION SQUARE DISTRICT MADISON 
SQUARE DISTRICT KIP'S BAY AND TURTLE 
BAY MURRAY HILL FIFTH AVENUE 
SHOPPING DISTRICT GRAND CENTRAL DIS- 
TRICT BEEKMAN PLACE AND SUTTON 
PLACE CENTRAL PARK SOUTH, THE 
PLAZA, AND FIFTY-SEVENTH STREET UPPER 
FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 
YORKVILLE 

Area: i4th St. on the south to 96th St. on the north; from 6th Ave. (i4th to 420! 

St.) and 5th Ave. (420! to 96th St.) east to East River. Maps on pages 54-55, 193, 

and 237. 

Principal north-south streets: 5th, Madison, 4th, Park, Lexington, 3d, 2d, and 

ist Aves. 

Principal cross streets: i4th, 23d, 34th, 42d, 57th, 59th, 72d, 86th, and 96th Sts. 

Transportation: IRT Lexington Avenue subway (local), i4th to 96th St. stations; 

2d or 3d Ave. el, i4th to 96th St. stations; BMT Broadway subway (local), 

Union Square to 34th St. stations; bus lines on all principal north-south and cross 

streets. 

IN THE Middle and Upper East Side, virtually every facet of cosmopoli- 
tan life is represented in famous hotels, churches, clubs, department stores, 
shops, skyscrapers, apartment houses, and amusement centers. 

182 



INTRODUCTION 183 

Perhaps the contrast between wealth and poverty is more heightened 
in the Middle and Upper East Side than in other parts of the city. The 
Gashouse District on the East River front above Fourteenth Street, for 
example, has been a slum area since the 1840'$, while Stuyvesant Square, 
adjoining on the west, has maintained a middle-class calm which is accen- 
tuated by the presence of several hospitals. Slightly farther to the west, 
the children of exclusive Gramercy Park play behind a high fence that is 
locked against the public. South and west of this lies the popular low- 
price shopping center of Fourteenth Street, from Union Square to Sixth 
Avenue. Union Square itself is used as a rallying point by New York's 
labor and radical organizations. 

As in all Manhattan, the narrow cross streets of this district are cut by 
broad avenues. Broadway, coming in from the south, shoots north and 
west from Union Square, crossing Fifth Avenue at Twenty-third Street, 
where the Flatiron Building looks down upon the tangled traffic of Madi- 
son Square. Broadway leaves the district at Thirty-fourth Street, having 
contributed few reminders of its lurid past in the i88o's. 

Above Twenty-third Street the land begins to rise and reaches a summit 
between Thirty-second and Forty-second Streets, where Murray Hill, once 
a center of large private residences, now rears its sky line of expensive 
apartment buildings. 

The Fifth Avenue shopping district also begins in Murray Hill. It is 
paralleled on the east by Madison Avenue, lined with shops specializing 
in men's wear and interior decoration, and by wealthy Park Avenue, a 
continuation of Fourth Avenue. Impressive skyscraper hotels, Rockefeller 
Center, and a number of fashionable churches, such as St. Patrick's and 
St. Thomas, stand in this mid-town area. On and near Fifty-seventh Street 
are gathered many of the art galleries that make Manhattan the art center 
of the country. North of its intersection with Central Park South (Fifty- 
ninth Street) at Grand Army Plaza, Fifth Avenue still retains a few of 
the millionaires' villas and castles that faced the park before the apartment 
house boom. In fact, there are more single-family residences in the neigh- 
borhood of upper Fifth, Madison, and Park Avenues than remain in any 
other part of Manhattan. 

The eastern flank of this entire mid-town section is of less prepossess- 
ing character. Along the East River, north of the Gashouse District, the 
Kip's Bay-Turtle Bay neighborhood presents a welter of depressing tene- 
ments and small stores that follows the shore to Forty-eighth Street, breaks 
west around the low bluff of small, opulent Beekman Place and Sutton 
Place, and then turns north again to Fifty-ninth Street. Forty-second 



184 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Street, with its clean-lined News Building, injects almost the only distinc- 
tive element in this strip ; at the end of the street the tall apartment build- 
ings of Tudor City surround large gardens. 

The region east of Third Avenue between Sixtieth and Ninety- sixth 
Streets is known as Yorkville, a crowded section of tenements and brown- 
stone houses, invested with a diluted Old World flavor by people from 
Middle Europe. Also in Yorkville, beside the East River between Sixty- 
third and Seventy-first Streets, are the Rockefeller Institute for Medical 
Research and the New York Hospital and Cornell University Medical 
College. 

In the seventeenth century, the estate of Peter Stuyvesant extended into 
the southern part of this section, the region now known as Stuyvesant 
Square. Gramercy Park was a swamp. Along the East River shore the area 
that is now the East Thirties was the property of Jacob Kip, while the 
East Fifties was the Spring Valley Farm. 

In pre-Revolutionary days the Eastern (later called Boston) Post Road 
ran north from the Bowery past what is now Union Square, crossed the 
Madison Square region diagonally to Fourth Avenue and Twenty-eighth 
Street, and there branched into two roads. The east one, bound for Boston, 
followed irregular Indian trails, crossing the intersection of present-day 
Park Avenue at Eighty-second Street and continuing north to a junction 
with Kingsbridge Road near Ninety-first Street. The western branch, 
called Middle Road, in 1811 became Fifth Avenue. A road known only 
as Cross Road connected the two thoroughfares in the neighborhood of 
what is now Forty-second Street. There were two "kissing bridges" across 
Saw Mill Creek (or Saw Kill) at'Fifty-second and Seventy-seventh Streets, 
on which gentlemen were privileged to salute chastely the ladies in their 
company. 

The Quaker Robert Murray held title to almost all of Murray Hill. In 
1776, the fleeing Continentals streamed up this way after the British 
landed on Manhattan, and it was at the Murray mansion (Thirty-seventh 
Street and Park Avenue) that Mary Lindley Murray detained General 
Howe for tea while Putnam's army made good its escape. British frigates 
were stationed in near-by Kip's Bay for the duration of the war. After the 
evacuation of the British in 1783, the Common Council voted to have the 
Murray Hill region surveyed and divided into lots for sale by the acre, 
and as the nineteenth century began, this section took its place alongside 
Bloomingdale and Harlem as an area for summer homes and country 
estates. Jones' Wood, part of an estate that extended from Sixty-sixth to 



INTRODUCTION 185 

Seventy-fifth Street, was owned prior to 1803 by Samuel Provoost, the first 
Protestant Episcopal bishop of New York. 

In 1834 the village of Yorkville, which then occupied the territory 
on- the Boston Post Road in the middle Eighties, was brought within 
commuting distance of the city by the partial completion of the Harlem 
Railroad. Its engines chugged (or, when the boilers had blown up and 
demolished the engines, its horses galloped) from Prince Street, along the 
Bowery and what is now Park Avenue, to Yorkville and later to Harlem, 
through miles of rocky wasteland overrun by pigs and goats. There, after 
1850, unemployed Irish immigrants squatted in great numbers, picking 
up a hand-to-mouth existence in wretched hovels by milking the goats 
and salvaging coal out of the ashes dumped by the railway engines. 

When Commodore Vanderbilt erected the Grand Central Depot at 
Forty- second Street in 1871, it was considerably north of the center of 
the city. But Manhattan was growing rapidly if irregularly. Businesses 
requiring water transportation (brick, stone, and lumberyards; factories, 
and machine shops) were first established on the river front. Soon the 
adjacent streets inland were filled with tenements for workmen and their 
families. Then, the leading avenues on each side of town, such as Third 
and Eighth Avenues, became great marts, selling the necessities of life to 
the workmen. Lastly, in the center of town, shifting occasionally, but in 
general taking the same northward trend, came the four-story brown- 
stones of the well-to-do. 

The development of the mid-town came to a standstill during the Civil 
War. On Saturday, July n, 1863, the opening of the first conscription 
office on the corner of Forty-sixth Street and Third Avenue precipitated 
the famous Draft Riots among the impoverished residents of the neigh- 
borhood, who resented the ease with which more fortunate conscripts 
could buy exemption. 

Postwar prosperity set the stone masons to working again. The build- 
ings they created, though substantial enough, showed a singular lack of 
imagination. Mrs. Trollope in her Domestic Manners of the Americans, 
published in 1832, said, "The great defect in the houses [of New York] 
is their uniformity when you have seen one, you have seen all." This 
was equally true of subsequent decades. Builders were contractors, and 
journeymen were underpaid handymen. The brownstone fronts, which 
appeared by the hundred in the last half of the century, may still be seen 
on nearly all the side streets of mid-town Manhattan, but the cast-iron 
fronts which were greatly in vogue for the business buildings clustering 



186 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

around Union Square and its environs in the i86o's, 'yo's, and '8o's have 

now vanished almost entirely. 

Fifth Avenue during these decades saw building on a scale of elaborate 
' grandeur never before known in the city. In the early i88o's the brown- 
stone tradition was broken by a desire for French chateaux. The frenzied 
search for art works, for the epidermis and entrails of medieval castles 
and cathedrals, made it difficult to tell a fashionable mansion from a 
museum. By the 1900*5 commerce had crept up lower Fifth Avenue 
largely in stores disguised as baronial dwellings, country villas, and 
medieval castles. 

The Squatter Town where some five thousand people were said to have 
lived in the i88o's, extended up Park Avenue (so named in 1888) and 
upper Fifth Avenue as far as Mt. Morris Park (i2oth St.). The squatters 
yielded gradually to the steam shovel, a new tool which made it profitable 
to level the rocky terrain for building sites. The opening of the Third 
Avenue elevated in 1878 also effected a change. With the electrification 
and roofing over of the New York Central tracks, which ran along Park 
Avenue, in the first decade of the present century, the boulevard was ready 
to become the new home of the Fifth Avenue residents driven out by the 
intrusion of commerce. Land had become so valuable, however, and trans- 
portation between the city and the suburbs so swift owing in part to the 
development of the automobile that large town houses went out of favor. 
Many of the new Park Avenue buildings were luxurious apartment houses, 
whose managerial staffs assumed some of the responsibilities of house- 
keeping. 

The eastern fringe of this entire section will undergo drastic changes in 
the near future, when the Queens Midtown Tunnel, and the East River 
Drive are completed. By 1941 the water front will be beautified by the 
projected East River Drive, part of a continuous express highway around 
the edge of Manhattan, which will pick up traffic from the West Side 
Highway at the Battery and route it to South Street and through Corlears 
Hook Park and then along the river. By widening existing streets, cutting 
new ones, and building highways where necessary, the Drive will be ex- 
tended up the irregular water front to the Triborough Bridge, and beyond 
to the Harlem River Driveway, in order to connect by means of tunnels 
with the George Washington Bridge and the Henry Hudson Parkway. As 
on the West Side, this program includes an extensive parkway develop- 
ment, with appropriate landscaping and recreational facilities. With this 
development may come demolition of slum tenements and construction of 
riverside apartments similar to Tudor City and Beekman Place. 



GASHOUSE DISTRICT 187 

GASHOUSE DISTRICT 

Area: i4th St. on the south to 27th St. on the north; from ist Ave. (i4th to i8th 
St.), 3d Ave. (i8th to 23d St.), and 4th Ave. (23d to 2yth St.) east to East River. 
Map on page 193. 

The "gashouse district" today is largely a reminiscent term. Though 
four large tanks still rise near the East River, their domination of the 
neighborhood is passing, and the notorious gashouse gangs have gone. 
The area now is a drab extension of the Lower East Side, a district of 
"... powerful ugliness and devastation . . . with its wasteland rusts and 
rubbish, its slum-like streets of rickety tenement and shabby brick, its vast 
raw thrust of tank, glazed glass and factory building . . . lifted by a 
powerful rude exultancy of light and sky and sweep and water such as is 
found only in America." So Thomas Wolfe remembered this neighbor- 
hood, particularly that part near the East River. 

The first of these great gashouses was raised in 1842 at the foot of 
East Twenty-first Street ; and before long a cluster of giant structures, the 
skyscrapers of their day, overshadowed the landscape. "Their tracery of 
iron, against an occasional clear lemon-green sky at sunrise," writes Lewis 
Mumford, "was one of the most pleasant aesthetic elements in the new 
order." 

Another element in the new order, however, was its disregard for 
human comfort and health. Gas, leaking from the tanks, made the neigh- 
borhood a pesthole. Only the poorest families at first predominantly 
Irish, later joined by Germans and Jews could be drawn into the district, 
and flimsy tenements were built to accommodate them. The young men 
reared in this slum environment formed gangs that terrorized the Gas- 
house district for half a century. In their lighter moments they organized 
courageous volunteer fire companies and dallied with "the girls with the 
swinging handbags" who inspired the song, the Belle of Avenoo A. 

One of the original plants now called the O'CoNNELL PLANT in 
honor of an employee of seventy-two years service is still standing, 
though bigger units have been built in other parts of the city. Slovaks 
and other East Europeans have largely replaced the earlier settlers. Al- 
though old-law tenements are still in the majority and the public baths at 
Avenue A and Twenty-third Street are still the only bathing facilities 
available to many, an increasing number of modern apartment houses are 
being erected and many of the more substantial older buildings are being 
renovated. 

This district, like the adjoining Stuyvesant Square (see page 189), con- 



188 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

tains many important hospitals. WILLARD PARKER HOSPITAL for con- 
tagious diseases, at the foot of East Sixteenth Street, has made several 
contributions to medical science, including the now universally accepted 
suction treatment for diphtheria. COLUMBUS HOSPITAL, 227 East Nine- 
teenth Street, is patronized largely by Italians. At 303 East Twentieth 
Street is NEW YORK POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL SCHOOL AND HOSPITAL, 
affording study to physicians in the latest medical practices; its NEW 
YORK SKIN AND CANCER UNIT, 301 East Nineteenth Street, ranks among 
the foremost in the country. The hospital and shelter of the AMERICAN 
SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS has quarters 
at Avenue A and Twenty- fourth Street. 

Twenty-fourth Street, between Second and Lexington Avenues, is known 
as "OLD STABLE Row." Here, before the advent of the automobile, a 
horse mart flourished. The street was littered with straw, oats, and manure. 
On auction days, the strength of draft horses was demonstrated by 
hitching the animals to wagons with locked wheels and then whip- 
ping them up the block and back. Only two stables remain, along with 
H. KAUFFMAN AND SONS SADDLERY COMPANY, at No. 139, where the 
tiny coach of General Tom Thumb, P. T. Barnum's famous dwarf, is 
exhibited. 

At 432 East Twenty-fifth Street is the MUNICIPAL LODGING HOUSE, 
established in 1908 to accommodate homeless men. It has a capacity of 
2,500. The covered pier at the foot of East Twenty-fifth Street serves 
as an annex. Here are the dining room, where three free meals are served 
daily ; two recreation rooms ; and facilities for washing and drying clothes. 

The i65TH REGIMENT INFANTRY ARMORY, headquarters of the former 
"Fighting 69th," fronts on Lexington Avenue between Twenty-fifth and 
Twenty-sixth Streets. This regiment draws its recruits from the neighbor- 
hood. It carried through the World War a distinguished tradition begun 
in the Civil and Mexican wars. A statue to its noted World War chaplain, 
Father Duffy, stands in Times Square (see page 173). 

Since 1915 Butler Davenport has operated a small THEATER at 138 
East Twenty-seventh Street. Productions of Moliere, Racine, Maugham, 
and Galsworthy have been given. General admission is free, and only the 
few reserved seats are paid for. 

Many of Manhattan's ten thousand Armenians one of the largest 
groups in the country live in the upper Twenties, between First and 
Lexington Avenues. At 221 East Twenty-seventh Street is ST. ILLUMINA- 
TOR'S ARMENIAN APOSTOLIC CHURCH, American see for Armenian 
Gregorian Catholics. This section of Lexington Avenue has a number of 



STUYVESANT SQUARE DISTRICT 189 

Near Eastern restaurants, serving dishes such as shish kebab (skewered 
lamb), pilaff (steamed rice), stuffed grape leaves, and Armenian wines 
and spirits. 

STUYVESANT SQUARE DISTRICT 

Area: i4th St. on the south to i8th St. on the north; from ist Ave. west to 3d Ave. 
Map on page 193. 

Staid old Stuyvesant Square, although its neighborhood has changed 
drastically, is still the quiet park it was in its opulent days of the i86o's. 
It was originally part of the farm owned by "Pegleg" Peter Stuyvesant 
and the Dutch were most numerous in the section until 1700. The Ger- 
mans and Irish came during the last half of the nineteenth century, to be 
followed later by Italians, Jews, and Slavs. In the early 1900*5 it was the 
bailiwick of Charles F. Murphy, Tammany chieftain and overlord of the 
adjoining gashouse district. 

The pleasant four-acre park, bisected by Second Avenue, is landscaped 
with elms, catalpas, ginkgos, sycamores, hawthornes, and ailanthuses. Walks 
follow the pattern of two elongated ellipses. In the center of each half is 
a small flower-bordered pool. 

Bordering the park are several hospitals: the WILLIAM BOOTH MEMO- 
RIAL HOSPITAL of the Salvation Army, 314 East Fifteenth Street; BETH 
ISRAEL, Stuyvesant Park East; MANHATTAN GENERAL, 307 Second Ave- 
nue; ST. ANDREW'S CONVALESCENT HOSPITAL, 237 East Seventeenth 
Street; and NEW YORK INFIRMARY FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 321 
East Fifteenth Street. The infirmary, staffed entirely by women, was 
founded in the early 1850'$ by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, pioneer woman 
physician. At Second Avenue and Fifteenth Street is the CONVENT OF THE 
LITTLE SISTERS OF THE ASSUMPTION, a nursing order. From 1902 until 
1928 the Lying-in Hospital, now a part of New York Hospital (see page 
247), occupied a building on Second Avenue between Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Streets. Doctors occupy many of the brownstones facing the 
park. In early days unscrupulous midwives and medical quacks had their 
quarters in this vicinity, conducting a lucrative business among gullible 
immigrants. 

Wedged between weathered brownstones is the GERMAN MASONIC 
TEMPLE, 220 East Fifteenth Street, a building of blue-gray cast stone 
designed in neoclassical style. 

Rutherford Place, the west side of the square, long associated with the 



190 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
Society of Friends, retains its peaceful character. In the FRIENDS MEETING 
HOUSE, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth Streets, monthly meetings are 
held, and at Easter, large sectional and national gatherings; in the adjacent 
FRIENDS' SEMINARY, a private school, with courses from kindergarten 
through college preparatory, is conducted. To obtain quiet for their annual 
meetings, the Friends used to spread tanbark, six inches deep, in the streets 
to muffle the noise of horses' hoofs. A granite hitching post that once stood 
in front of William Penn's home in Philadelphia is at the southeast cor- 
ner of the house. 

The charmingly simple buildings, constructed in 1860, are reminiscent 
of the post-Colonial style. The two-story meeting house, at the south 
end, is of red brick, trimmed with gray sandstone lintels. The details the 
wide cornice of simple Greek profile, the broken pediment with louvred 
segmental openings in the tympanum, the high window frames, the 
wooden porch of slender Doric columns are painted white. The semi- 
nary, a two-story building with a three-story extension, is of similar 
design. 

At the northwest corner of Sixteenth Street is the ivy-covered ST. 
GEORGE'S CHURCH (Protestant Episcopal). It was erected in 1847. A 
fire gutted the structure in 1865, but it was rebuilt two years later accord- 
ing to the original plans of Blesch and Eidlitz. The pleasant brownstone 
building is highly eclectic in style, with its northern French Romanesque, 
two-towered facade, its heavy, unnecessary buttresses that belie the English 
timber roof within, its basilica-like plan with French Gothic chevet in 
place of the circular apse, and its Renaissance balconies. Dr. Tyng, the 
rector at the time the church was rebuilt, insisted that the effect of the 
interior should be evangelical, and this tradition has always been main- 
tained: in place of the usual altar and reredos there is a simple table; on 
the west wall of the vaulted chancel the Lord's Prayer is printed in 
large plain lettering. Adjoining the church on the north is the Centennial 
chapel, designed in a modified Byzantine Romanesque style by M. L. and 
H. G. Emery. To the west is the dignified and well-composed parish 
house, by Eidlitz. St. George's was originally a Chapel of Ease of Trinity 
Church, but in 1811 its connection with the latter was severed. When 
J. P. Morgan the elder was senior warden the church was sometimes 
known as "Morgan's Church." 

One door north of St. George's Chapel is ST. DUNSTAN'S HOUSE, a 
rest house and city headquarters of Old Catholics, a monastic sect. Its 
two-story porch in Italian Renaissance style has a frieze of garlands and 
Delia Robbia cupids. Among the sect's treasures are a fourteenth-century 



GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 191 

statue of St. Francis, an Italian Bible of 1477, and part of the original 
English Coverdale Bible. Chapel and reception walls contain tiles from 
Glastonbury Abbey in England. 

The UNITED HOMING PIGEON CONCOURSE, one of the largest racing 
pigeon organizations in the city, meets at Teutonia Restaurant, Third Ave- 
nue near Sixteenth Street, a block west of the square. A block north is 
the GERMAN-AMERICAN RATHSKELLER, known in riper days as Scheffel 
Hall and later as Allaire's. Many noted writers quaffed its foaming pilsener, 
among them James Huneker, H. C. Bunner, Bayard Taylor, and Brander 
Matthews. O. Henry called the place Rheinschlossen and wrote some of 
his best stories in the old taproom. Taylor and Oliver Herford lived near 
by on Eighteenth Street, while Bunner and Matthews had quarters with 
other writers at 330 East Seventeenth Street, an early apartment house. 

GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 

Area: i8th St. on the south to 23d St. on the north; from 3d Ave. west to 4th Ave. 
Map on page 193. 

The "golden keys" to Gramercy Park, symbol of the exclusiveness 
guaranteed by a real-estate operator about a century ago, are still required 
to open the gate to New York's most important privately owned park. 
A forbidding eight-foot iron fence encloses this oblong tract two blocks 
square that is "forever" locked to the public. 

The park's creator, Samuel B. Ruggles, was among the first of New 
York's early real-estate operators to offer for sale a development with 
building restrictions. He caught the fancy of the rich by guaranteeing to 
a selected group those who bought his property the exclusive use of a 
private park as a permanent privilege. Keys no longer golden to the 
iron gates are distributed to owners and tenants under the close scrutiny 
of the trustees of Gramercy Park. Residents in near-by streets who have 
been approved by the trustees are given keys for annual fees. All others 
must be satisfied with a glimpse through the gate. 

The Dutch named the locality Krom Moerasje, meaning "little crooked 
swamp," which also designated the brook that used to twist from Madison 
Square to the East River near Eighteenth Street. Later, in 1692, the section 
was called Crommashie Hill. By the usual process of corruption the name 
became Gramercy. 

Gramercy Park was a marsh in 1831 when Ruggles drained it, laid out 
the green and the streets on the model of an English square and offered 



192 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
KEY TO MIDDLE EAST SIDE MAP 

UNION SQUARE DISTRICT 

1. Lincoln Building 8. Statue of Lafayette 

2. Amalgamated Bank Building 9. Statue of George Washington 

3. Bank of Manhattan Company 10. Luchow's 

4. Union Building 11. Site of old Academy of Music 

5. Hartford Building Consolidated Edison Building 

6. Statue of Abraham Lincoln 12. Irving Place Theater 

7. Liberty Pole 13. Tammany Hall 

STUYVESANT SQUARE DISTRICT 

14. United Homing Pigeon Con- 21. Friends Meeting House 

course 22. German Masonic Temple 

15. Scheffel Hall 23. Convent of the Little Sisters of 

16. St. Andrew's Hospital the Assumption 

17. Manhattan General Hospital 24. William Booth Hospital 

18. St. Dunstan's House 25. New York Infirmary for Wom- 

19. St. George's Church en and Children 

20. Friends Seminary 26. Beth Israel Hospital 

GASHOUSE DISTRICT 

27. Willard Parker Hospital 32. Municipal Lodging House 

28. Columbus Hospital 33. St. Illuminator's Armenian 

29. New York Skin and Cancer Apostolic Church 

Unit 34. Davenport Theater 

30. New York Post-Graduate Med- 35. "Fighting Sixty-ninth" Armory 

ical School and Hospital (165th Regiment Infantry) 

31. American Society for the Pre- 36. Old Stable Row 

vention of Cruelty to Animals 
(Hospital and Shelter) 

GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 

37. City College (School of Civic 44. National Arts Club 

Administration and Business) 45. Netherland Club 

38. Children's Court 46. Calvary Episcopal Church 

39. Home of Peter Cooper 47. Russell Sage Foundation 

40. Statue of Edwin Booth New York School of Social Work 

41. Friends' Meeting House 48. Madison Square Station, New 

42. 112 East 19th Street Building York Post Office 

43. The Players 49. United Charities Building 

MADISON SQUARE DISTRICT 

50. Theodore Roosevelt House 53. Site of old Fifth Avenue Hotel, 

51. 900 Broadway Office Building Franconi's Hippodrome, and 

52. Flatiron Building Madison Cottage 

Continued on Page 194 



MIDDLE 
EAST SIDE 



i i i i r~i 



ffi'-nra=i a 







194 MANHATTAN! MIDDLE AND 
Continued from Page 192 

54. Memorial to General William 

Jenkins Worth 

55. Eternal Light 

5"6. Metropolitan Life Insurance 

Building 
57. Building of the Supreme Court 

Appellate Division 



UPPER EAST SIDE 



58. Statue of Admiral Farragut 

59. American Society for the Pre- 

vention of Cruelty to Ani- 
mals (Offices) 

60. New York Life Building 

Site of old Madison Square 
Garden 



MURRAY HILL AND GRAND CENTRAL DISTRICT 



61. Little Church Around the Cor- 

ner (Church of the Transfig- 
uration) 

62. Textile Building 

63. Two Park Avenue Building 

64. One Park Avenue Building 

65. Furniture Exchange Building 

66. Seventy-first Infantry Armory 

67. Vanderbilt Hotel 

68. Empire State Building 

69. Residence of Mrs. Robert Bacon 

70. Amherst Club 

71. Advertising Club 

72. Union League Club 

73. Dartmouth College Club 

74. Williams Club 

75. Morgan Library 

76. J. P. Morgan Home 

77. Midston House 

78. Princeton Club 

79. Engineering Societies Building 

80. National Republican Club 

81. Engineers' Club 

82. New York Public Library (Cen- 

tral Building) 



83. Lincoln Building 

84. Chemists' Club 

85. Murray Hill Hotel 

86. Architectural League 

87. New York City Information 

Center (Pershing Square) 

88. Bowery Savings Bank Building 

89. Chanin Building 

90. Chrysler Building 

91. Hotel Commodore 

92. Grand Central Terminal 

93. Graybar Building 

94. Grand Central Station, New 

York Post Office 

95. Lexington Hotel 

96. Shelton Hotel 

97. Belmont Plaza Hotel 

98. Barclay Hotel 

99. Grand Central Palace 

100. New York Central Building 

101. Hotel Roosevelt 

102. Yale Club 

103. Hotel Biltmore 



FIFTH AVENUE SHOPPING DISTRICT 



104. 500 Fifth Avenue Building 

105. Fifth Avenue Bank Building 

106. Ruppert Building 

107. Fred F. French Building 

108. Hotel Ritz-Carlton 

109. Finley J. Shepard Home 

110. Robert W. Goelet Home 

111. Collegiate Church of St. Nich- 

olas 



112. St. Patrick's Cathedral 

113. Grand Central Galleries 

114. Cornelius Vanderbilt III Home 

115. Museum of Modern Art 

116. St. Thomas Church 

117. University Club 

118. Hotel Gotham 

119. Hotel St. Regis 

120. Steuben Glass Co. Building 






GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 195 

sixty-six lots for sale. The privacy of Gramercy Park was violated only 
once, when troops encamped within this sacrosanct area during the Draft 
Riots in 1863. In 1890 the State Legislature passed a bill embodying plans 
for bisecting the square by the extension of a cable car line down Lexing- 
ton Avenue, but it was vetoed by Governor David B. Hill. Again in 1912 
the park was threatened by a proposal to extend Irving Place northward 
into Lexington Avenue ; the Gramercy Park Association, however, defeated 
the plan, as it has defeated many such threats to the neighborhood's quiet. 

While skyscrapers in adjacent streets and tall apartment houses, erected 
recently on the north and east sides of the park, cast shadows over the 
sunlit patch of greenery, a majority of the square's houses, built in the nine- 
teenth century, remain outwardly unchanged although remodeled into 
apartments. On Gramercy Park West is an old row of prim red-brick 
houses enlivened by some lacy wrought-iron entrance porches, and on the 
south, a group of staid brownstone and brick dwellings stands firmly 
against time. The rooms are spacious; windows often reach from floor to 
ceiling. In many of the cellars the silver and plate vaults felt-lined rooms 
with ponderous iron doors remain intact. 

Well-known families lived in Gramercy Park and they entertained 
notable visitors. At i Gramercy Park West, Dr. Valentine Mott, a distin- 
guished physician, played host to the Comte de Paris during the Civil War. 
(House numbers begin at Gramercy Park West and East Twenty-first 
Street and run from 1-61 in a counterclockwise direction.) Two houses of 



BEEKMAN PLACE AND SUTTON PLACE 

121. Riverview Terrace 125. One Beekman Place 

122. East Fifty-third Street Dock 126. Beekman Tower Hotel 

(Dead End) 127. Site of Beekman House (P.S. 

123. River House '135) 

124. Hale House 

KIP'S BAY AND TURTLE BAY 

128. Kip's Bay Boys Club 137. Tudor City 

129. New York Cancer Institute 138. Consolidated Edison Company 

Clinic Waterside Station 

130. Turtle Bay Music School 139. Daily News Building 

131. Morris Sanders' House 140. Queens Midtown Tunnel 

132. Michael Hare's House 141. Site of St. Gabriel's Church 

133. William Lescaze's House 142. St. Gabriel's Park 

134. Abattoir Center 143. New York Steam Corporation 

135. Nathan Hale Commemorative Station 

Tablet 144. Bellevue Hospital 

136. Beaux Arts Apartments 



196 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
Greek Revival style, No. 3 and 4, are joined architecturally by an exquisite 
cast-iron balcony that runs across both red-brick fronts. No. 3 is occupied 
by the NETHERLAND CLUB, whose members are descendants of the Dutch 
settlers. A pair of iron mounted lamps at the entrance of No. 4 was placed 
there by the city in honor of James Harper, the occupant who was mayor 
in 1844-5. (At the mayor's request such lamps are placed near the en- 
trance of his home. This custom arose because the early chief executives 
wished to be immediately available for nocturnal emergencies.) Mayor 
Harper was one of the founders of Harper and Brothers, publishers. 

Two distinguished clubs, the NATIONAL ARTS CLUB at 15 Gramercy 
Park South, and THE PLAYERS at No. 16 are on the south side. Samuel 
J. Tilden, who lived at No. 15, constructed an underground passageway to 
an exit on Nineteenth Street, so that he might escape boors and political 
enemies. The Players, an actors' club, was founded in 1888 by Edwin Booth 
who employed Stanford White to remodel the building. Booth lived here 
for many years ; the furnishings in his room remain intact, and his portrait 
by Sargent hangs over the fireplace in the main room. A bronze STATUE 
OF BOOTH in his role as "Hamlet" is in Gramercy Park. It was designed 
by Edmond T. Quinn and erected by the club. Each year, on the actor's 
birthday, November 13, a memorial wreath is placed on the statue by the 
members. 

Number 19 was the home of Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish in the 1890*5, when 
she ruled the "Four Hundred" and society watched the antics of Harry 
Lehr, its bad boy. David Lamar, the "Wolf of Wall Street," Edward Shel- 
don, the playwright, and William C. Bullitt, ambassador to France in 
1939, were later occupants. A descendant of Samuel Ruggles, Mrs. John 
A. Vanderpoel, lives at No. 22. Stanford White, Robert Ingersoll, and 
John Bigelow once had homes on the park. Cyrus Fields' old house stood 
on the northeast corner of Lexington Avenue and Gramercy Park North. 
Richard Watson Gilder died at No. 24. 

The FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE, Nos. 27-30 (144 East Twentieth 
Street), houses one of the oldest active Quaker groups. The simple one- 
story building was erected in 1859. ^ ts austere interior is still illuminated 
with gas lamps. A service for distressed travelers, established by the con- 
gregation, led to the formation of the Travelers' Aid Society in 1905. 

Two studio apartment buildings are on the east side of the park: No. 
34 AND No. 36 GRAMERCY PARK EAST. The design of No. 34 the ara- 
besque panels of foliated details, the bay windows, and the octagonal turret, 
roofed with a conical cap follows Richard M. Hunt's adaptation of the 
French Empire style. The facade of the adjoining building, No. 36, is a 



GRAMERCY PARK DISTRICT 197 

veritable gallery of decorative detail: terra cotta with elaborate Gothic 
motifs, bay windows, traceried heads, and balustrades. Cast stone figures 
of armored knights holding spears and flame lamps guard the entrance 
court of the building. 

In a group of remodeled houses in East Nineteenth Street, a block south 
of the park, lives a small colony of artists and writers, including Ida 
Tarbell, writer, Cecilia Beaux, painter, Clara Fargo Thomas, muralist, and 
George Julian Zolnay, sculptor. 

The office building at 112 East Nineteenth Street houses many liberal 
organizations; among them are the American Student Union, City Affairs 
Committee, International Labor Defense, League for Industrial Democ- 
racy, and American League for Peace and Democracy. 

At Fourth Avenue and Twenty-first Street, a block west of the park, is 
the CALVARY EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The congregation was organized in 
1836, and communicants have included members of the Roosevelt, Astor, 
and Vanderbilt families. The pastor, Dr. Samuel M. Shoemaker, is a prom- 
inent leader of the Oxford Group, and the nine-story Calvary House is 
accepted as Group headquarters in America. 

North of the park, at 9 Lexington Avenue, was the HOME OF PETER 
COOPER, founder of Cooper Union (see page 121), well-known engineer- 
ing and arts school. Like the Harper home, the residence has two lamps 
in front of the doorway, mementoes of the administration of Mayor 
Abram S. Hewitt, a son-in-law of Cooper. The building was occupied by 
Cooper's descendants until 1938. 

On the southwest corner of Lexington Avenue and Twenty-second Street 
is the BUILDING OF THE RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION, a dignified edifice sug- 
gesting a Florentine Renaissance palace, where the diversified sociological 
research and educational activities financed by the Sage bequests and en- 
dowments are administered. The Foundation has one of the largest social 
welfare libraries in the world. The NEW YORK SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK, 
a Foundation-sponsored group, has its quarters in the building. It is the 
oldest and one of the outstanding institutions of its kind in the country. 

The CHILDREN'S COURT, a part of the Domestic Relations Court, is at 
137 East Twenty-second Street. The work of the Court, and its adjunct, 
the Probation Bureau, is primarily with delinquent and neglected chil- 
dren and has effectively reduced the number of child offenders. A block 
west, at 105 East Twenty-second Street, is the UNITED CHARITIES BUILD- 
ING, the headquarters of more than forty-five social welfare agencies. 

The SCHOOL OF Civic ADMINISTRATION AND BUSINESS, a co-educa- 
tional division of City College (see page 294), occupies the seventeen-story 



198 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

building on the southeast corner of Twenty-third Street and Lexington 

Avenue, the original site of the college. 

The MADISON SQUARE STATION, NEW YORK POST OFFICE, 149 East 
Twenty-third Street, opposite the school, is a significant example of an 
evolving American style, a new classicism free of dependence on the works 
of antiquity. It was built in i93y-after plans by Lorimer Rich. 

UNION SQUARE DISTRICT 

Area: i4th St. on the south to i8th St. on the north; from 3d Ave. west to 6th 
Ave. Map on page 193. 

Union Square district belongs to the working people of New York. 
It is an amusement center, but its ornate moving-picture theaters, glitter- 
ing marquees, and gaily lighted buffets are fewer in number and less per- 
suasive than those of Times Square. It is a shopping mart, but few of its 
stores have the fine goods and appointments of the Fifth Avenue fashion 
center: instead, their bare floors may be filled with racks holding scores 
of garments, many models of a kind, and their show windows, in many 
cases, are packed with cheap merchandise. The movie houses, likewise, 
offer the most for the money double features and "screeno" ; the dining 
places are cafeterias and lunchrooms, where large portions of plain food 
are dispensed for nickels, dimes, and quarters. 

Before these cheap stores, cheap movies, cheap restaurants passes a 
ceaselessly moving crowd of men, women, and many children, of all na- 
tionalities. Hawkers and pitchmen find this street easy pickings among 
customers who can afford the little luxuries of Union Square pretzels, 
sliced cocoanut, gloves, scarves, neckties, and popular song sheets. They 
buy magic "roots" which sprout fullblown artificial gladiolas, peonies, or 
regal lilies ; prophecies from a turbaned seer ; risque cartoons ; or a dozen 
low-quality socks for fifty cents. Many beggars legless beggars on roller- 
skate platforms, footless, handless, or blind beggars; playing the saxo- 
phone, the guitar, singing move slower-paced through the crowd. The 
poor, they know, give to the poor. Passers-by stop at the busy newsstands 
for political literature, and along the curb newsboys hawk the Daily 
Worker and other radical newspapers of every shade. Youths and girls 
rattle collection boxes for the benefit of many causes the Chinese people, 
Jewish refugees, political prisoners, or workers on strike. 

Touched with a bit of Coney Island, democratic, with a robust and lo- 
quacious vitality, Union Square derives its peculiar identity from its in- 



UNION SQUARE DISTRICT 199 

ternational reputation as the center of America's radical movement. The 
tradition of Union Square as a forum for mass protest was not born until 
the first decade of the present century. The Flour Riots of 1837 centered 
about City Hall; in the iSyo's the battleground moved north to Tomp- 
kins Square. During the Civil War, Union Square took on significance 
when the Union cause was commemorated in meetings, reviews, and pa- 
rades of departing troops and in the torchlight processions of the pro- 
Lincoln "Wide Awakes," the Young Republicans of that day. In 1873 
unemployment protests were staged, but it was not until the numerous 
meetings of Anarchists, Socialists, and "Wobblies" (members of the In- 
dustrial Workers of the World) were held there during the years preced- 
ing the World War, that the square began to assume its importance as a 
gathering place. 

Meetings and occasional clashes with the police continued with increas- 
ing frequency. On August 22, 1927, the night set for the execution in 
Boston of the anarchists, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a shoe- 
maker and a fish peddler, machine guns were mounted on the roof of the 
six-story building now occupied by Klein's famous dress emporium, at 
28-30 Union Square East, and were trained on a compact mass of more than 
five thousand tense, silent men and women, part of the angry crowd that 
had packed the square throughout the day. A little after midnight a sign 
was thrust outside the Daily Worker windows: "Sacco Murdered." Some 
minutes later another sign appeared: "Vanzetti Murdered." A throaty wail 
of anguish arose. A small procession that immediately formed was dis- 
persed by police, and several marchers were injured. 

On May 18, 1929, the Communist Party led an "anti-police brutality" 
demonstration and again the police charged. Many heads were broken and 
twenty-seven demonstrators, including nine children, were arrested. 

With the mass unemployment that followed the financial crisis of Oc- 
tober, 1929, the square became the gathering place for the jobless. On 
March 6, 1930, the largest gathering ever held in Union Square occurred: 
more than thirty-five thousand unemployed workers and sympathizers 
crowded around a number of speakers' stands. When the demonstrators 
started to march toward City Hall, the police broke up the parade. A hun- 
dred persons were injured and thirteen arrested. 

This mass meeting ushered in a new period in the history of labor dem- 
onstrations in Union Square. Public reaction against police interference 
won the right of assembly in this park. It became accepted in New 
York City that the May Day Parade was privileged to be reviewed at the 
north end of the square. 



200 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Recent years have seen the development of many protest centers through- 
out the city, diminishing the former concentration of such activities in 
Union Square. The soapbox speaker's old stamping grounds, the traffic 
triangles at the corners of the square, are now islands of verdure. None- 
theless, Union Square is likely to continue as the heart of the city's radical 
activities, for in its neighborhood- are headquarters of many of New York's 
radical and progressive groups and labor organizations: the Socialist Party 
and its newspaper, the Socialist Call, the Communist Party and its news- 
paper, the Daily Worker, the Rand School of Social Science, the Interna- 
tional Workers Order, the International Labor Defense, the American Civil 
Liberties Union, the American League for Peace and Democracy, the 
League for Mutual Aid, the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and a host of others. 

It would seem that Union Square was appropriately named ; the aptness 
of the title, however, was accidental. The square was laid out in 1811 as 
Union Place, the name deriving from the connection of the extended 
Bloomingdale Road (now Broadway) and Bowery Road (now Fourth 
Avenue). Shortly after the neighborhood became one of New York's most 
sedate and exclusive suburbs, inhabited by the city's wealthiest citizens. 
Among its residents were James Roosevelt, Robert Goelet, and Daniel 
Drew. The small park was surrounded by a heavy iron fence, the gates 
of which were locked at sundown. The fence was not removed until the 
iSyo's when Union Place had become Union Square. 

Union Square as a theatrical district had its beginning in 1854, when 
the Academy of Music was audaciously opened as the home of grand 
opera on the north side of Fourteenth Street near Irving Place. The land 
between Second and Third Avenues on Fourteenth Street was at that time 
occupied by a truck farm. Seven years later, when James Wallack built 
his theater at Thirteenth Street and Broadway, his friends considered him 
a madman for moving so far uptown from the Bowery. Irving Hall, erected 
at Irving Place and Fifteenth Street in 1859, is now known as the IRVING 
PLACE THEATRE. Subsequently, the Union Square Theatre was built on 
Fourteenth Street and Broadway, and Tony Pastor's opened on Fourteenth 
Street near Third Avenue, next to the old headquarters of Tammany Hall. 

During the iSyo's theaters, hotels, and fine restaurants, reflecting the 
exuberance of the growing city, made this neighborhood the center of 
good living and gaiety. In the late i86o's Delmonico's restaurant moved 
from the City Hall section to Fourteenth Street and Fifth Avenue. Lu- 
CHOW'S, still one of the most famous eating places in New York, was 
established in 1882 in its present quarters on Fourteenth Street near Irving 



UNION SQUARE DISTRICT 2OI 

Place. Italian, French, Hungarian, and English restaurants were available 
to the gourmet. 

On the west side of Union Square, at Fifteenth Street, stood Tiffany's 
great jewelry shop in the building which now houses the AMALGAMATED 
BANK, the first labor bank in New York and the largest institution of its 
kind in the United States. Between Sixteenth and Seventeenth Streets 
Brentano's Literary Emporium sedately served the elite. Farther west and 
north toward Sixth Avenue, the shopping center included Hearn's, B. Alt- 
man's, Siegel-Cooper, and farther south on Broadway, Stewart's (now 
Wanamaker's), and Daniel's. 

By 1900, with the city's steady growth northward, the character of the 
district had definitely changed. Some of the restaurants and theaters had 
moved to Madison Square; the business center had shifted, or rather split, 
leaving a great gap between uptown and downtown New York, into 
which, during the next decade, the young needle trades rushed like a tide. 
Besides cheap rents real-estate values had fallen rapidly the neighbor- 
hood offered two great advantages to the industry: it was on the outskirts 
of the fashionable shopping center, and it was near a plentiful and cheap 
labor supply the immigrant families of the Lower East Side. The old 
Union Square homes were soon converted into tenements to house thou- 
sands of needle trade workers. 

Artists made studios of the great attic rooms in the few mansions still 
standing, and the south side of Fourteenth Street became virtually an ex- 
tension of Greenwich Village. Such men as Max Weber, Walt Kuhn, 
Reginald Marsh, Emil Ganzo, Joseph Stella, Ernest Fiene, Walter Pach, 
Alfred Dehn, and Art Young made their homes here. In the 1920*5 came 
Raphael Soyer, Morris Kantor, Louis Lozowick, and Yasuo Kuniyoshi; 
and in the 1930*5, William Gropper, Arnold Blanch, William Zorach, 
and Doris Lee. Ambrose Bierce wrote some of his famous short stories 
on Fourteenth Street. Later Michael Gold, Joseph Freeman, and Albert 
Halper, author of Union Square, came there to live and write. 

The years 1910 to 1921 saw this district at its most depressed level. It 
was an area of burlesque houses, shooting galleries, and shoddy businesses. 
Real-estate values sank to a new low and in 1921 many parcels of property 
were sold at foreclosure. S. Klein, operator of a dress establishment, bought 
three of these dilapidated buildings on the east side of the square and 
began a program of expansion. (The ground floor of the one at the Four- 
teenth Street corner had been occupied by Joe's, a saloon that was used 
by Hugh A. D'Arcy as the setting for his sentimental poem, The Face on 
the Barroom Floor. The verse first appeared in the New York Dispatch, 



202 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
August 7, 1887.) OHRBACH'S followed suit and these two establishments, 
dealing in women's apparel, gave the impetus from which developed 
today's substantial shopping center. 

As a retail district Union Square, more strictly Fourteenth Street, is 
perhaps the city's largest outlet for low-priced women's merchandise. 
KLEIN'S, doing a tremendous business in women's apparel, employs a 
minimum of sales people, and customers help themselves in cafeteria 
fashion. The presence of store detectives inhibits shoplifting. HEARN'S 
DEPARTMENT STORE, between Fifth and Sixth Avenues on Fourteenth 
Street, has shared in the general retail rejuvenation of the section. The 
stores of Fourteenth Street no longer draw their clientele exclusively from 
the East Side. Women from near-by cities, from the suburbs, and from 
every part of New York come bargain hunting here. In line with the 
district's labor character, most of its business houses are either unionized 
or in process of becoming so. The shoppers here are probably the most 
union-conscious consumers in the country. An everyday sight on Union 
Square is the picket line, whether it be in front of a restaurant, an orange- 
drink stand, or a shoe shop. 

UNION SQUARE PARK, after years of neglect, was landscaped in 1935-6. 
The level of the ground was raised several feet above the street in order 
to allow for the construction of an underground concourse connecting the 
various subway routes below. At the north end a colonnaded bandstand 
was constructed, overlooking a large plaza where automobiles are parked 
unless a mass meeting is scheduled. 

A number of monuments and pieces of sculpture of high merit are in 
the square. The most commanding of these is a bronze equestrian 
STATUE OF WASHINGTON near the southern end of the park facing Four- 
teenth Street. The work of Henry Kirke Brown, it was one of the earliest 
equestrian statues in America. J. Q. A. Ward designed the base. The 
statue, dedicated on July 4, 1856, was originally placed at the southeast 
corner of the square, where Washington was said to have been received 
by the citizens of New York following the evacuation of the city by the 
British on November 25, 1783. 

Other monuments include a heroic bronze STATUE OF LINCOLN, also 
by Brown, and a bronze FIGURE OF LAFAYETTE by Frederic Auguste 
Bartholdi, designer of the Statue of Liberty. From the center of the square 
rises an eighty-foot LIBERTY POLE, erected in 1924. It commemorates the 
Declaration of Independence and honors the Tammany leader, Charles 
Francis Murphy. In the sculptured, drum-shaped base, designed by An- 
thony de Fransisci, are engraved Jefferson's words: "How little my coun- 



UNION SQUARE DISTRICT 203 

trymen know what precious blessings they are in possession of and which 
no other people on earth enjoy." 

The diverse architecture of the buildings surrounding Union Square 
does not supply the unified feeling of enclosure implied by the word 
"square," but it does offer an interesting record of architectural styles that 
have been popular in past years. The LINCOLN BUILDING, erected at i 
Union Square in 1889, is an example adapted from Romanesque work; 
at No. 33 the Union Building, built in 1893, has richly framed windows 
inspired by Spanish Moorish design. The cast-iron front widely popular 
in the last quarter of the nineteenth century is exemplified by the AMAL- 
GAMATED BANK BUILDING at 11-15 Union Square, erected in 1870-71. 

Most of the recent buildings, however, are faced with stone. Three di- 
visions of each facade are clearly marked : a base ornamented with classical 
details, an intermediate portion of undecorated masonry pierced by regu- 
lar windows, and a crowning element at the top consisting of arched win- 
dows and an elaborate cornice. The BANK OF THE MANHATTAN COM- 
PANY at 31 Union Square and the HARTFORD BUILDING at No. 41 are 
typical. 

The decreased demand for industrial floor area and the increased num- 
ber of vacancies, in the years following the financial crisis of 1929, led to 
the popularity of a new type of structure the taxpayer. This was designed 
to yield rent that was sufficient to pay the real-estate taxes ; it could be re- 
placed by a larger building during a more prosperous period. Such an 
example is at 31 EAST SEVENTEENTH STREET, a two-story structure of light- 
cream brick and panels. 

In the northeast corner of the square Seventeenth Street and Fourth 
Avenue is TAMMANY HALL, the headquarters of the city- wide system of 
Democratic political clubs. Here the inner council of sachems meets to set 
Tammany's policies and to plan campaigns. When the organization wins 
at the polls, club leaders and district workers swarm to the Hall for a 
rousing election night celebration, but such joyful gatherings have been 
infrequent in recent years. The building, erected in 1929, has some re- 
semblance to the old Federal Hall that stood at Broad and Wall Streets. 

Although the CONSOLIDATED EDISON BUILDING is one block east of the 
square Fourteenth Street and Irving Place it is already part of the 
square's tradition. The building, completed in sections between 1915 and 
1929, occupies the site of the old Academy of Music. The mausoleum-like 
tower rises 531 feet above the square; its bright lights, visible for 
miles, and the illuminated dial of the great clock below, are welcome land- 
marks. 



204 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

MADISON SQUARE DISTRICT 

Area: i8th St. on the south to 27th St. on the north; from 6th Ave. east to 4th 
Ave. Map on page 193. 

The "Flatiron" Building, whose very name has to be explained to a 
younger generation, is the only tangible evidence that there ever was a 
Madison Square a glamorous Madison Square. Here Ward McAllister's 
"Four Hundred" dined and danced at Delmonico's, and the old aristoc- 
racy, including the Roosevelts, lived in brownstone mansions following 
a pattern of life preserved only in the pages of novels about "little old 
New York." 

Here, too, were some of Stanford White's most beautiful buildings : the 
Madison Square Presbyterian Church, with its pillared portico, columns of 
green granite, and Pantheon-like dome; old Madison Square Garden (see 
page 331), with its copy of the Giralda tower of Seville surmounted by 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens' statue of the glorious Diana. 

On the site of the old Garden, at Madison Avenue and 26th Street, 
rises the New York Life Insurance Building. Two blocks south, on the 
east side of the park, is the Metropolitan Life Insurance Building. The 
paths that crisscross the park seem to have been expressly laid out for 
the convenience of the thousands of office workers hurrying from subways 
and busses to these great skyscrapers. Lesser buildings flank the Broadway 
side. Factories and sales rooms of the toy, novelty, silk, woolen, and men's 
clothing industries and headquarters of benevolent and welfare organiza- 
tions are scrambled throughout the Madison Square district; on Fourth 
Avenue, a block east of the park, many of the nation's well-known pub- 
lishers have their offices. 

In the acute-angled triangle made by the scissors-like intersection of 
Broadway and Fifth Avenue, at Twenty-third Street, is the old twenty- 
one-story FLATIRON BUILDING, completed in 1902 from plans by D. H. 
Burnham and Company. Its exterior walls as well as floors are supported 
at each story by the steel frame. This was a logical advance over the struc- 
tural system used in the World Building on Park Row. Previously, the area 
of the base and the thickness of the exterior walls were the main technical 
factors in determining the height of a building; the development of the 
new principle made possible greater heights. 

It was christened the Fuller Building, but because of its shape became 
known as the "Flatiron." Pictured on postcards, stamped on souvenirs, its 
image was familiar to American minds, young and old. Standing on what 



MADISON SQUARE DISTRICT 205 

was traditionally the windiest corner of the city, it was facetiously con- 
sidered a good vantage point for the glimpse of a trim ankle, in the long- 
skirted, prewar era; policemen used to shoo loungers away from the 
Twenty-third Street corner, and the expression "twenty-three skidoo" is 
supposed to have originated from this association. 

Completion of the Fuller Building presaged the end of Madison Square 
as a social center. Within less than a decade (1908), "the skyscraper" was 
outclassed by a neighbor, the METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE BUILDING. 
Designed by Le Brun and Sons, it fronts the park on Madison Avenue, 
between Twenty-third and Twenty- fourth Streets and rises seven hundred 
feet (fifty stories) above street level. While the bold simplicity of the 
design gives the tower great strength, the faulty scale of the details make it 
look much smaller than it actually is. The tower clock has four faces 
each twenty-six and a half feet in diameter with minute hands weighing 
a thousand pounds each and hour hands seven hundred pounds. The four 
enormous chimes, the largest of which weighs seven thousand pounds, 
sound a measure by Handel every quarter-hour from seven in the morning 
until ten at night, when a beacon light takes over the watch, flashing red 
for the quarter-hours and white for the hours. The building is connected 
to a smaller annex by a covered bridge high above Twenty-fourth Street. 

In the shadow of the Metropolitan Life, at the north corner of Twenty- 
fifth Street and Madison Avenue, is the marble BUILDING OF THE AP- 
PELLATE DIVISION OF THE SUPREME COURT, a work of considerable 
harmony and delicacy. It was designed by James Brown Lord and erected 
in 1900. Above the roof balustrade is a galaxy of statuary, including alle- 
gorical representations of Justice and Peace, together with figures of 
famous lawgivers. Sculptors represented include Philip Martiny, Karl 
Bitter, Herbert Adams, and Edward C. Potter. The interior, profuse with 
veined yellow marble, gilt plaster relief, carved woodwork, and murals, 
recalls High Renaissance decoration. 

The NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE BUILDING occupies the block from 
Twenty-sixth to Twenty-seventh Street, from Madison to Fourth Avenue. 
This 6iy-foot structure was completed in 1928 from plans by Cass Gil- 
bert, designer of the Woolworth Building. Although the Gothic orna- 
ment is similar to that of the Woolworth Building, it lacks the powerful 
upward movement embodied in the latter. From the 1830*5 to the early 
iSyo's the site was occupied by the New York and Harlem (Railroad) 
Union Depot. 

At the northwest corner of Madison Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street is 
the home of the AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY 



206 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

TO ANIMALS, founded in 1866 by the humanitarian Henry Bergh. It also 
houses a dispensary and hospital. The MANHATTAN CLUB, at the southeast 
corner, was prominent in the late nineteenth century as headquarters of 
Democratic leaders. The Manhattan cocktail is said to have originated there. 

The Fifth Avenue Building, northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and 
Twenty-third Street, occupies the. SITE OF THE OLD FIFTH AVENUE HOTEL, 
a center of the city's social and political life in the Gilded Age. When it was 
completed in 1859, the Fifth Avenue Hotel was dubbed "Eno's Folly," 
because people doubted a hotel so far uptown could succeed. It prospered, 
however, and became a meeting place for Republican politicians. In one of 
the downstairs sitting rooms of the hotel was the "Amen Corner," so 
named because Senator Thomas Platt, Republican boss, there gave orders 
to his henchmen. Around the corner from the Fifth Avenue Building, at 
55 West Twenty-third Street, was the Eden Musee with its Chamber of 
Horrors, containing waxwork representations of notorious crimes. It re- 
mained here from 1884 until 1915, when the wax figures were sent to 
Coney Island. 

Delmonico's, one of New York's most famous restaurants, moved to 
Fifth Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street in 1876. It reached the peak of its 
glory at this location: the great dining salon was a favorite haunt of such 
notables as Berry Wall (King of the Dudes), John Drew, Richard Mans- 
field, Charles and Daniel Frohman, and a host of other prominent actors, 
sportsmen, financiers, and social leaders. Then O. Henry could say of this 
district, "Here is the fly-eye of New York. Spin it on a pivot and you 
would see the world." 

Fifty years later (1939) a new generation got an inkling of the district's 
former glory when one of its grimy buildings, an office BUILDING AT 900 
BROADWAY, emerged from a scrubbing as an architectural challenge to the 
modernists. The structure, which was built in 1887 after plans by Stanford 
White, was far ahead of its time in its subtle use of brick and terra-cotta 
color and in the originality of its structurally expressive design. Four 
stories have been added to the original six. 

Madison Square has changed with the growth of the city, but the six- 
acre park, the only break in the wall of Fifth Avenue blocks between 
Washington Square and Fortieth Street, has kept its shady walks and its 
statues. The FARRAGUT STATUE, in the park, was designed by Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens ; its base by White. It was unveiled in 1881 by John H. 
Knowles, the sailor who had lashed Farragut to the mast in the historic 
naval engagement of the Civil War in Mobile Bay. An obelisk-shaped 
monument west of the park is a MEMORIAL TO GENERAL WILLIAM JEN- 



MADISON SQUARE DISTRICT 2OJ 

KINS WORTH, Mexican War hero whose body lies under the shaft. The 
ETERNAL LIGHT, an ever burning star atop a lofty flagpole on the Fifth 
Avenue side, commemorates the valor of the American Expeditionary 
Forces in France during the World War. At Christmas a great evergreen, 
brilliant with colored lights probably the first community Christmas tree 
in the city sheds a glow over the park. Carols are sung and "good will 
toward men" rings out in the usually workaday atmosphere. The tree cele- 
bration, conceived by Orlando Rouland, artist, and his wife, has been held 
in the square every Christmas since 1911. 

The early days of this section are recalled by the ROOSEVELT HOUSE, 
28 East Twentieth Street, birthplace and boyhood home of Theodore 
Roosevelt. (Open weekdays, except Monday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday and 
holidays 1 to 5 p.m.; admission 25$ Wednesday and Friday, other days 
free.) It is furnished in the style of the 1870'$ and contains a collection of 
diaries, letters, manuscripts, cartoons, and other mementos of the President. 
The square was named, indirectly, for President Madison. Early in its 
history the park site was a pauper's burying ground. The area accommo- 
dated, successively, an arsenal and the House of Refuge. The latter, said 
to be the first such institution in the country, was opened in 1825 under 
the auspices of the Society for the Reformation of Youthful Delinquents. 
It was destroyed by fire in 1839. 

When the land around the arsenal was used as a parade ground in the 
first half of the nineteenth century, a Corporal Thompson operated a tav- 
ern here which was a rendezvous for the sporting crowd. The inn was 
known as both Corporal Thompson's Roadhouse and Madison Cottage. It 
was razed in 1852 and on its site was built Franconi's Hippodrome, a cir- 
cus, and later the Fifth Avenue Hotel. Madison Square Park was officially 
opened in 1847. It was here that baseball as a national sport was given its 
original impetus. In 1845, a group of "gentlemen who had been playing 
the game since 1842 as a means of exercise" organized the Knickerbocker 
Club and drew up the elementary rules of the game. The improved sport 
spread rapidly through the country, becoming known as the "New York 
Game." During the next decades, the sportsmen who gathered in the 
near-by inns were supplanted by the aristocrats who wined and dined at 
the many restaurants and hotels that were established around the square 
the Cafe Martin, the Holland House, the Albemarle, St. James, Victoria, 
Brunswick, Hoffman House, and others. (The bar in the Hoffman House 
was the most popular on Broadway, owing perhaps to the scandalous 
painting by Bouguereau of a nude nymph surrounded by satyrs.) These 
establishments flourished until comparatively recent times. 



208 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

KIP'S BAY AND TURTLE BAY 

Area: 27th St. on the south to 59th St. on the north; from 3d Ave. east to East River 
(excluding Beekman and Sutton Places). Map on page 193. 

Kip's Bay-Turtle Bay neighborhood, sometimes known as the mid-town 
East Side, is a riverside back yard for the more imposing mid-town section 
west of it. Huge industrial enterprises breweries, laundries, abattoirs, 
power plants along the water front face squalid tenements not far away 
from new apartment dwellings attracted to the section by its river view and 
its central position. The numerous plants shower this district with the 
heaviest sootfall in the city 150 tons to the square mile annually. 

The area near Second Avenue and East Thirty-fifth Street was the site of 
Jacobus Kip's farm, "a goodly estate, covering one hundred and fifty acres, 
and comprising meadow, woodland and stream." It extended eastward to 
a bay subsequently named for Kip. In 1655 he built a mansion of im- 
ported brick for his young bride, Marie de la Montagne; the house stood 
on the farm for almost two hundred years. A sixty- acre tract, one mile 
north, was settled in 1677 by the De Voors who called it the Spring Valley 
Farm. Through it ran the Saw Kill to a rocky indentation of the East 
River. Because of its shape, the indentation was called Turtle Bay. 

Important events of the American Revolution took place in this dis- 
trict. A British military storehouse at the foot of East Forty-fifth Street was 
stormed by the Liberty Boys in a midnight raid in 1773. It was in Kip's 
Bay that British men-of-war anchored September 15, 1776, to take over 
Manhattan Island. The Revolutionary army, wearied and disheartened after 
the disastrous defeat on Long Island, broke before broadsides from these 
vessels and fled toward Harlem Heights. George Washington tried to stem 
the rout. "It was said that he drew his sword and threatened to run the 
cowards through," wrote Rupert Hughes in his biography of Washington, 
"he used the cane whip he carried, and he beat his people over the shoul- 
ders in an insane hatred of their shameless cowardice. He flogged not only 
private soldiers but officers as well. He lashed colonels across the shoul- 
der blades ... He flailed a brigadier general." The next day Washington 
succeeded in rallying his troops and defeated the enemy at Harlem Heights. 
Before the Battle of Long Island the Americans had thrown up redoubts 
at Kip's and Turtle bays, which were subsequently captured, and for the 
duration of the war British frigates were stationed there. During the War 
of 1812 the shores were again fortified. 

Early in the nineteenth century this region was the site of the country 



KIP'S BAY AND TURTLE BAY 209 

estates of many prominent New Yorkers, among them Horace Greeley, the 
editor, and Francis Bayard Winthrop, bank director and poet. By the 
i88o's, however, the estates had been broken up into lots upon which 
rows of brownstones were built. Today much of the district is a slum. El 
trains of the Second and Third Avenue lines thunder by constantly, and 
First Avenue, an important commercial traffic artery, brings an endless, 
noisy procession of trucks. Kip's and Turtle bays have long been filled in, 
and their names have vanished from maps. A scrawny ledge of rock at the 
foot of Forty-fifth Street marks the approximate location of Turtle Bay, 
while of Kip's Bay nothing remains but the name, used by a few local 
organizations and business firms. For convenience, Forty-second Street may 
be taken as the dividing line between the two sections. 

Bellevue Hospital (see page 316), one of the oldest in the country, occu- 
pies the blocks between Twenty-sixth and Thirtieth Streets, east of First 
Avenue to the river. 

On the site of the old bay is the KIP'S BAY STATION OF THE NEW 
YORK STEAM CORPORATION, First Avenue and Thirty-fifth Street, which 
supplies steam to midtown skyscrapers, such as the New York Central, 
Chrysler, Lincoln, Chanin, and Empire State buildings. This service has 
made possible in large buildings the elimination of heating equipment and 
the utilization of additional rentable floor area. The steam is forced 
through underground conduits at a speed of two hundred miles an hour. 
The huge WATERSIDE STATION OF THE CONSOLIDATED EDISON COMPANY 
at Thirty-eighth Street and the East River, near the load center of the city, 
can generate 367,000 kilowatts of electricity. (Visitors admitted.) 

ST. GABRIEL'S PARK, on First Avenue, opposite the steam plant, is one 
of the few recreational areas in the neighborhood. The near-by St. Ga- 
briel's Church, at 310 East Thirty- seventh Street, is distinguished for hav- 
ing provided two of the seven American cardinals in the history of the 
Roman Catholic Church : the late Archbishop of New York, Patrick Cardi- 
nal Hayes, and his predecessor, James Cardinal Farley. 

The entire block on which the church stands is scheduled (1939) to be 
razed to make way for an approach to the QUEENS MIDTOWN TUNNEL, 
construction of which commenced in October, 1936. The vehicular tun- 
nel's twin tubes will extend 7,750 feet from Second Avenue at Thirty- 
seventh Street to Borden Avenue near Vernon Avenue in Long Island City. 
The tube for westbound traffic will be 7,785 feet long, and the one for 
eastbound traffic, 7,500 feet. These are being constructed by the New York 
City Tunnel Authority with the aid of a PWA loan and grant of more 
than $58,000,000. By the time the tunnel is completed in 1940, about two 



210 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
whole blocks of substandard dwellings and small parts of ten others will 
have been demolished, and more will go as the East River Drive is ex- 
tended through the neighborhood. Eventually, a passageway will be bur- 
rowed underneath Manhattan, connecting the Queens Midtown Tunnel 
with the Lincoln Tunnel (see page 156). 

Dominating the entire district from a high bluff over First Avenue is 
TUDOR CITY, a $25,000,000 group of apartment houses built in the 
1920'$. It stretches east of Second Avenue from Fortieth to Forty-fourth 
Street. Forty-second Street runs through a tunnel under the development. 
The twelve buildings, decorated with details of English Cottage design, 
vary in height from ten to thirty-two stories and contain some three thou- 
sand apartments. A private park, which the main buildings face, is 
reserved for the use of Tudor City residents. Part of this rocky site was 
known as Corcoran's Roost in the i88o's, when it was the lair of the Rag 
Gang and was ruled by Paddy Corcoran and his sons. 

A block west rises the thirty-six-story NEWS BUILDING, 220 East Forty- 
second Street, one of the city's most distinctive skyscrapers. The lucid ex- 
pression of its unbroken vertical stripes distinguishes the building from the 
surrounding humdrum architecture. The stripes, which begin as alternat- 
ing bands* of white piers, and dark window and spandrel, end abruptly at 
the top of a forty-foot blank wall. The parapet hides from view roof 
tanks, elevator bulkheads, and stair towers. The structure was designed by 
John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood and cost $10,700,000, including 
printing machinery. Since their completion in 1930, the building and the 
adjoining nine-story annex on Forty-first Street have housed the various 
departments of the New York Daily News, the tabloid that has a larger 
circulation than any other newspaper in the country. The News Informa- 
tion Bureau, a general service covering a great variety of subjects, served 
about 625,000 persons in 1938; the same year more than 81,000 visitors 
inspected the ultramodern printing plant. (Guide service daily at 2, 3, 4, 5, 
7 :45 and 8:45 p.m.) 

Another striking design by Raymond Hood is that of the near-by BEAUX 
ARTS APARTMENTS, two expensive residence buildings aj: 307 and 310 
East Forty-fourth Street. Built in 1929, the houses face each other and are 
slightly set back to suggest a court. To some critics the use of dark brick 
between windows achieves an effect of horizontality that appears forced. 

The NEW YORK MIRROR, a Hearst tabloid, is published at 235 East 
Forty-fifth Street. The ABATTOIR CENTER extends along First Avenue 
from Forty-second to Forty-sixth Street. In order to reach these east- 
ern plants of the large meat packers, cattle and sheep are detrained at 



KIP'S BAY AND TURTLE BAY 211 

New Jersey terminals on the Hudson River and transported in livestock 
barges to unloading piers on the East River. Here they are rested and fed 
for twenty-four hours before slaughter. The entire output of these plants 
is consumed by inhabitants in the metropolitan area. 

With the development of modern sanitation, many of the most objection- 
able aspects of the slaughterhouse neighborhood disappeared. To the past 
belong such features as dilapidated shacks, runaway livestock, and strong, 
unpleasant odors. Still employed, however, is the Judas bellwether, the 
sheep that leads a flock to slaughter. At the turn of the century the slaugh- 
terhouses played an important role in the life of the city's immigrants. 
They strongly believed in the medicinal value of blood, and when illness 
came they went to the abattoirs and bought blood for five cents a glass. 

On the wall of the Wilson meat-packing plant, on the southeast corner 
of First Avenue and Forty-sixth Street, is a TABLET commemorating the 
execution of Nathan Hale (September 22, 1776), which is supposed to 
have occurred near here. 

The combined residence-and-omce of three architects in Turtle Bay area 
represent interesting developments in building design. WILLIAM LES- 
CAZE'S HOUSE, 211 East Forty-eighth Street, is air-conditioned and in- 
sulated with glass brick to keep out noise of the street and near-by els. 
The exterior is designed so as to lead the client into the office and the 
social visitor into the home. The brownstone treatment of MICHAEL 
HARE'S HOUSE, 212 East Forty- ninth Street, agrees admirably with that 
of neighboring buildings. The facade is set back slightly between party 
walls. MORRIS SANDERS' HOUSE, 219 East Forty-ninth Street, excites in- 
terest because of its vertical alternation of windows and open porches. The 
interiors of the three buildings achieve striking effects through the im- 
aginative use of color, texture of materials, and the sequences of well- 
related spaces. 

Two of the many alert social agencies in the neighborhood maintain 
headquarters on Fifty-second Street. At No. 244, the TURTLE BAY Music 
SCHOOL, established in 1924, provides free music instruction for talented 
children of the poor, while at No. 301, the KIP'S BAY BOYS CLUB, founded 
in 1913, conducts organized educational and recreational activities. 

The northern part of the district, sandwiched between Park Avenue and 
Sutton Place, borrows a little of the character of those wealthy neighbor- 
hoods. Many better-class dwellings occupy the side streets, and on Third 
Avenue are a great many antique shops. 

Fifty-ninth Street, the northern boundary of this district, leads to the 
entrance of the QUEENSBORO BRIDGE at Second Avenue. The crossing, a 



212 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
balanced cantilever structure with a marked angular appearance, lacks the 
graceful continuity and flow of line of the East River suspension bridges. 
It was designed by the municipal department of bridges and completed in 
1909 at a cost of about $20,800,000, including land and construction. The 
bridge crosses Welfare Island (reached by elevators descending from the 
bridge's roadway) to Long Island City. About 7,450 feet long (including 
approaches), it has a west channel span of 1,182 feet, a Welfare Island 
span of 630 feet, and an east channel span of 984 feet. 

The New York Cancer Institute of Welfare Island (see page 423) 
maintains a clinic at 124 East Fifty-ninth Street. 

MURRAY HILL 

Area: 2jth St. on the south to 426. St. on the north; from 6th Ave. east to 3d Ave. 
(excluding 5th Ave.). Map on page 193. 

The district known as Murray Hill, now bordered by many of the 
world's tallest buildings, recalls to the sentimental New Yorker a vision 
of baroque brownstone mansions, crinoline and lavender, hoop skirts and 
trailing gowns, hansom cabs and four-in-hands. In the last decades of the 
nineteenth century Murray Hill harbored the ample dwellings of many of 
New York's "Four Hundred." A few of these remain and reinforce the 
contrast between the leisurely magnificence of Victorian days and the 
dynamic austerity of twentieth-century New York a contrast which, as 
time passes, will be found chiefly in old prints or such novels as those of 
Edith Wharton, who so scrupulously evoked the flavor of Murray Hill's 
opulent past. 

At the southern edge of this locality stands the PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH OF THE TRANSFIGURATION, i East Twenty-ninth Street, better 
known as the "Little Church Around the Corner." More marriage cere- 
monies are performed here, perhaps, than in any other church in the city. 
The edifice gained its more popular name in 1870 when the pastor of a 
fashionable Madison Avenue congregation refused burial services to 
George Holland, an actor, and suggested to Joseph Jefferson, a friend of 
the deceased, that he "try the little church around the corner." The ensuing 
publicity made the church a shrine for theater people. The EPISCOPAL 
ACTORS GUILD OF AMERICA, of which Otis Skinner is head, has head- 
quarters in the church building. 

The grouping of small stone buildings around a garden dominated by 
a magnificent English elm is exceedingly picturesque, and without doubt 






MURRAY HILL 213 

the church is one of the most painted and etched religious edifices in 
America. Among the notable features of the interior are the fine use of 
wood in vaulting, arches, and screens; the Bride's Altar, with carved oak 
reredos incorporating old Scottish panels ; the St. Faith window, partly of 
fourteenth-century Belgian glass; the old paintings used as stations of the 
cross ; and Saint Mary's Chapel. 

The area from Twenty-ninth to Thirty-fourth Street and Third to Fifth 
Avenue, with Lexington Avenue as the main artery, is devoted chiefly to 
the wholesale furniture and allied trades. At 206 Lexington Avenue is the 
FURNITURE EXCHANGE, erected in 1926, owned co-operatively by the 
tenants and operated for the trade. Performing a similar function for the 
rug and carpet industry is the TEXTILE BUILDING at 295 Fifth Avenue, 
erected in 1921. 

South of Thirty-second Street, Fourth Avenue is lined with large office 
buildings, many of which are occupied by publishing firms, notably 
those at Nos. 432 and 386. The design of the 2 PARK AVENUE BUILDING 
represents a considerable break with past styles. The ornamental detail 
consists of geometric patterns formed by variations in wall surfaces and 
by the colored terra cotta at the top of the building. The structure was 
designed by Ely Jacques Kahn and erected in 1927. 

On the southeast corner of Park Avenue and Thirty-fourth Street stands 
one of New York's most impressive armories, used as headquarters for 
three National Guard (New York) units: the 8yth Infantry Brigade, 
the yist Infantry Regiment, and the loist Signal Battalion. The build- 
ing was completed in 1904 from a design by Clinton and Russell. Its 
lofty tower was copied from that of the town hall in Siena, Italy. The 
main drill hall, 190 by 205 feet, is used for drills, reviews, social events, 
and exhibitions. 

Opposite the armory, on the southwest corner, is the VANDERBILT 
HOTEL, built in 1912 after plans by Warren and Wetmore. The structure 
is an example of the eclectic use of Italian Renaissance, Mexican, and 
Adam influences. The Caen stone walls of the main lobby bear sculptured 
panels by Beatrice Chandler ; the Delia Robbia Room in the basement has 
decorations by Smeraldi in the spirit of French eighteenth-century chinoi- 
series. 

The northeast corner of the same intersection, formerly known as One 
Park Avenue, is occupied by the mid- Victorian RESIDENCE OF MRS. ROB- 
ERT BACON, widow of an ambassador to France. When Park Avenue was 
extended two blocks south to Thirty- second Street, Mrs. Bacon sued the 
city, asking to retain the original address. Despite the fact that she lost the 



214 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
suit, and that the office building at the northeast corner of Park Avenue 
and Thirty-second Street is now known as One Park Avenue, her residence 
is listed in the telephone directory as "i Park Avenue." 

Business has almost completely usurped the once exclusive Murray Hill 
section of Madison Avenue. The last remaining residence of importance 
is the J. P. MORGAN HOME at 231 Madison Avenue, a large brownstone 
edifice bearing in its exterior details a slight suggestion of French Renais- 
sance influence. The two buildings of the MORGAN LIBRARY on East 
Thirty-sixth Street creation of J. P. Morgan the elder and his son, the 
present J. P. Morgan are among the most luxuriously appointed private 
museums in the world. The main building at 33 East Thirty-sixth Street, a 
fine example of early sixteenth-century Italian Renaissance style, was de- 
signed by McKim, Mead, "and White and erected in 1913, on principles 
associated with the Acropolis, the unpierced white marble walls being 
built without the use of mortar. The annex at No. 29, completed in 1928 
by the younger Morgan on the site of the elder's home, was intentionally 
subordinated to the main building by the architect, Benjamin W. Morris, 
and while the most expensive materials have been used throughout, the 
impression is one of simplicity and severity. Although both edifices are 
outstanding architectural monuments in themselves, they are hardly suited 
to the display of the treasures they house because of their basically poor 
lighting. 

The library, established in 1924, contains a valuable collection of sculp- 
ture, paintings, prints, objets d'art, and rare manuscripts and books. Among 
the most notable items in the art collection are the Infant Hercules, as- 
cribed to Michelangelo; a sixteenth-century Madonna and Saints of the 
school of Giovanni Bellini; a fifteenth-century mantel sculptured by the 
Florentine, Desiderio Settignano; a Donatello terra-cotta bas-relief of a 
Madonna and Child; a seventeenth-century Chinese vase once the posses- 
sion of Emperor K'ang Hsi; and the Morgan ruby. The collection of 
manuscripts and books includes the Mainz Psalter of 1465 and the Ash- 
burnham Gospels of the ninth century, two of the rarest volumes in the 
world, and the first printed editions of Caesar, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante, 
Cicero, Tasso, and many others. 

The buildings are open to sightseers (Main: Tuesday and Thursday 
11 a.m. to 4 p.m., Saturday 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Annex: weekdays 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m.; closed Sunday and legal holidays). To make use of the 
library one must have a card, obtained by writing to the director. 

Of the many professional, political, and social clubs in this section, 
the most famous is the UNION LEAGUE CLUB, which occupies spacious 



MURRAY HILL 215 

quarters in a modern building at 38 East Thirty-seventh Street. Stronghold 
of Republican conservatism, the club was organized in 1863 by Professor 
Wolcott Gibbs as the Union League of America to combat secession senti- 
ment then rife in the city; together with similar organizations in 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, it aided in recruiting and equipping a regi- 
ment of Negroes in 1864. During Theodore Roosevelt's Bull Moose 
insurgency the club signified its displeasure by banishing his portrait from 
the library, but after his defeat restored it to its original place. 

Business and professional associations in the vicinity include the ADVER- 
TISING CLUB at 23 Park Avenue; the AMHERST CLUB at 273 Lexington 
Avenue; the ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE OF NEW YORK at 115 East Fortieth 
Street; the ENGINEERS' CLUB, 32 West Fortieth Street; the CHEMISTS' 
CLUB, 52 East Forty-first Street; and the TECHNOLOGY CLUB, 22 East 
Thirty-eighth Street. Midston House, on Madison Avenue between Thirty- 
seventh and Thirty-eighth Streets, houses the UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA CLUB, MILLS COLLEGE CLUB, and the AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF 
UNIVERSITY WOMEN. The DARTMOUTH COLLEGE CLUB is at 30 East 
Thirty-seventh Street, the WILLIAMS CLUB at No. 24, and the PRINCETON 
CLUB at 39 East Thirty-ninth Street. 

Spreading northward from Thirty-sixth Street, Murray Hill encompasses 
a number of houses belonging to New York's aristocracy. Several of these 
brownstones with their elaborately carved detail, enormous bays, and 
impressive vestibules, date from the post-Civil War era. From 1870 
through the 1890'$, the Hill, restricted since about 1850 to residential 
purposes, attracted many of New York's leading families, among them the 
Belmonts, Rhinelanders, Tiffanys, and Havemeyers. Around the turn of 
the century the neighborhood gradually began to lose ground in its effort 
to restrict commercial establishments, and with the opening of Grand 
Central Terminal in 1913 it could no longer remain exclusively residential. 

From the 1830*5 to the 1890'$, what is now Park Avenue and its south- 
ern extension, Fourth Avenue, held the tracks of the New York and 
Harlem Railroad. After 1842 the use of steam-power was forbidden below 
Thirty-second Street, and horsecars of the New York and Harlem Railroad 
and later of the New York and New Haven, supplanted the downtown 
trains. As early as 1833 a cut was made through Murray Hill between 
Thirty-second and Forty-second Streets, and in 1846 the Common Council 
ordered the cut to be bridged; subsequently it was converted into an 
arched brick tunnel. A group of young hoodlums, known as the Fourth 
Avenue Tunnel Gang, made their headquarters here about the time of the 



216 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Civil War. Richard Croker, later Tammany chief, was said to have been 

one of the leaders. 

In 1854 an order of the Common Council further restricted the use of 
steam-power, and the horsecar lines were extended to Forty-second Street. 
Here, in 1871, the Harlem Railroad Company opened the Grand Central 
Depot. Horsecars were replaced in the late i88o's by cable cars and in 
1896 the Harlem road leased the lines below Forty-second Street to the 
Metropolitan Street Railroad Company. Streetcars were replaced by motor 
busses in 1933 and the use of the old Fourth Avenue tunnel was limited 
to private motor vehicles. At Fortieth Street the tunnel gives access to the 
ramp around the new Grand Central Terminal. 

The venerable MURRAY HILL HOTEL, crowning glory of the elegant 
1890*5, fronts Park Avenue between Fortieth and Forty-first Streets. This 
hostelry was patronized by such diverse celebrities as Mark Twain, Sena- 
tor George Hearst, Jay Gould, "Diamond Jim" Brady, and Presidents 
Cleveland and McKinley. Completed in 1884 after plans by Stephen 
Hatch, the hotel with its red and white marble floors, carmine plush, gilt- 
framed mirrors, and rococo walls and ceilings, has been little changed. It 
is eight stories in height, and has six hundred rooms, many of which 
retain the original furniture. The exterior is faced with a conglomeration 
of granite, brownstone, and red brick that was considered in its day the 
acme of architectural raiment. Fine circular fire escapes of wrought iron 
grace the bays of the Fortieth Street facade. The lobby, entered from Park 
Avenue by a double stairway, is decorated in red and gold in the best 
Victorian tradition. At the southwest corner of Forty-second Street and 
Park Avenue formerly stood the Hotel Belmont, famous for the magnifi- 
cence of its bar and the cuisine of its French chefs; and at the southeast 
corner the popular Grand Union Hotel, headquarters for visting officers 
during the Civil War. The latter 's host for many years was Simeon Ford, 
bon v'tvant and prince of after-dinner speakers. 

FIFTH AVENUE SHOPPING DISTRICT 

Area: 34th to 57th St. Map on page 193. 

At Thirty-fourth Street, Fifth Avenue abruptly emerges from a street 
of buildings housing wholesale clothing, textile, and bric-a-brac concerns 
to become the aristocrat of shopping thoroughfares. Some of New York's 
most exclusive hotels and clubs and fashionable churches as well as many 
nationally known retail establishments front its broad sidewalks. The top 



FIFTH AVENUE SHOPPING DISTRICT 2IJ 

of a Fifth Avenue bus provides one of the best views of the avenue, with 
its endless flow of well-dressed pedestrians and its conglomeration of 
architectural styles and signless show windows. 

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century Fifth Avenue was a street 
of fine residences. Its transformation into a retail center in the 1900'$ 
aroused such opposition that echoes of protest are still audible. One of those 
mainly responsible for the invasion of trade was Benjamin Altman, whose 
store stands on the northeast corner of Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fourth 
Street, diagonally opposite the Empire State Building (see page 319)- Like 
many merchant princes who elevated counter trade to a major business, Alt- 
man originally opened shop in modest quarters on Third Avenue near Tenth 
Street and moved on as the flood of population swept gradually northward ; 
in 1906 he came to the present address. Opposite stood the old Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel (the site of the Empire State Building) ; to the north marched 
a double file of baronial homes, citadels of the social peerage. 

In order to appease protesting residents, Altman erected a building 
whose mundane function was decorously hidden by a facade resembling 
a Florentine palace ; until recently not even the owner's name appeared on 
the exterior. As commerce having thus crept in disguise into the avenue 
appropriated most of the district, residents moved farther up the avenue. 

Within about a decade ALTMAN'S was joined by OPPENHEIM COLLINS 
(1907) and McCREERY's (1913), both on West Thirty-fourth Street, 
and BEST AND COMPANY (1910), Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fifth Street. 
Charles Tiffany commissioned McKim, Mead, and White to build his 
great jewelry store at 409 Fifth Avenue in the style of the Palazzo Ven- 
dramini in Venice, while opposite, at Thirty- sixth Street, rose another 
palatial shop designed by the same architects for the Gorham Company, 
silversmiths, jewelers, and stationers. The latter building is now occupied 
by RUSSEKS (women's apparel). The construction of LORD AND TAYLOR 
in 1914 at Thirty-eighth Street marked a break with tradition (Starrett and 
Van Vleck were the architects) ; the avenue now had a building that was 
frankly commercial as well as dignified. Many of the smaller stores, 
eclipsed as show places by the graceful candor of the Lord and Taylor 
edifice, hastily incorporated large display windows and arched entrances. 
When FRANKLIN SIMON'S (1922) arose at Thirty-eighth Street, a new 
trend in department store architecture, which was to exert considerable 
influence on American main streets, was definitely established. 

About the time of the World War, Fifth Avenue became the country's 
leading fashion center: the Fifth Avenue label represented the best in 



218 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
American taste. Real-estate values and rents on the avenue reached astro- 
nomical figures, and under merciless competition only the wealthiest and 
most firmly entrenched establishments survived. The avenue catered exclu- 
sively to the wealthy until the 1930'$, when medium- and low-price stores 
gradually appeared. The Fifth Avenue hallmark, however, has lost little 
of its aura. 

Symbolic of the newer trend is the granite-faced home (opened in 1935) 
of S. H. KRESS AND COMPANY, at the northwest corner of Thirty-ninth 
Street, which boldly faces the terra-cotta edifice of its competitor, 
F. W. WOOLWORTH AND COMPANY (1939). The simple lines of these 
buildings, two of the most sumptuous dime stores in America, undoubtedly 
will influence future fronts along the avenue. At the southeast corner of 
Fortieth Street is the store of ARNOLD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY, an 
organization founded in 1825. 

From Fortieth to Forty-second Street, on the west side of Fifth Avenue, 
where the Croton Reservoir was once located, is the Central Building of 
the New York Public Library (see page 325J. Behind it are the 9.603 
acres of BRYANT PARK, the site from 1822 to 1825 of Potter's Field, and 
of the 1853 World's Fair. The huge Crystal Palace (an inferior copy of 
the London structure), which dominated that fair, was gutted by fire in 
1856. In 1871 the land, which had been acquired by the city in 1822, was 
reserved for a park and called Reservoir Park. Thirteen years later it was 
renamed for the New York editor and poet, William Cullen Bryant, but 
not until 1933, after the park had been torn up many times, was the pres- 
ent landscape plan adopted. One of its interesting features is the library's 
outdoor "reading room," maintained in summer under the trees. 

Across West Fortieth Street, at No. 40, are the black and gold peaks of 
the AMERICAN RADIATOR BUILDING. The structure, designed by Raymond 
Hood and built in 1924, was an early attempt to clothe a skyscraper in 
bold colors. The unusual tower design of the building permits window 
light on all sides, the tall shaft merging at the top into a complexity of 
setback forms. The NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CLUB and the ENGINEERS' 
CLUB have quarters at 54 and 32 West Fortieth Street, respectively. 
Around the block, at i West Thirty-ninth Street, is the gown shop of 
LANE BRYANT, INC., noted for its maternity-clothing department; the 
ENGINEERING SOCIETIES BUILDING, with its library and auditorium, is 
at No. 29. 

At the intersection of Forty-second Street and Fifth Avenue stands the 
699-foot building known as 500 FIFTH AVENUE, designed by Shreve, 
Lamb, and Harmon, architects of the Empire State Building. The architec- 



FIFTH AVENUE SHOPPING DISTRICT 219 

ture of the RUPPERT BUILDING, 535 Fifth Avenue, was the cause of a 
publicized controversy. H. Craig Severance, its designer, sued the New 
Yorker for stating that "the central tower . . . has the grace of an over- 
grown grain elevator." The suit was settled by publication of a satisfactory 
retraction. Nevertheless for about a decade it put a damper on archi- 
tectural criticism. In retrospect the magazine's comments seem more 
unusual than the design of the building. The FIFTH AVENUE BANK on 
the northwest corner is an interesting landmark made of three brownstone 
residences. The bank has occupied the premises since 1890. 

The thirty-eight-story FRENCH BUILDING, 551 Fifth Avenue, was erected 
in 1927 by the Fred F. French Company, who were also the architects. 
The use of the maximum volume permitted by setback laws resulted in an 
awkward massing of the tower in comparison with the lower part of the 
building. An unusual element in the design is the somewhat questionable 
faience polychromy. 

The building at 575 Fifth Avenue is occupied by the firm of W. AND 
J. SLOANE, a furniture house of note. The FINLEY J. SHEPARD RESIDENCE 
at the northeast corner of Forty-seventh Street, and the HOME OF ROBERT 
W. GOELET at the southeast corner of Forty-eighth, brownstone houses 
typical of the old Fifth Avenue, are two of the very few remaining resi- 
dences on Fifth Avenue south of Sixtieth Street. Opposite the Goelet home 
is the nationally known jewelry establishment of BLACK, STARR, AND 

FROST-GORHAM, INC. 

The brownstone edifice on the northwest corner of Forty-eighth Street 
houses the COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS, the oldest congrega- 
tion in Manhattan, dating from 1628. Theodore Roosevelt was a member 
of this church, and his pew is marked by a tablet. The first Collegiate 
church to bear the name St. Nicholas was built in 1642 inside Fort Am- 
sterdam. The present building, erected in 1872, was designed by W. 
Wheeler Smith. The dark silhouette of its sharp spire is in dramatic 
contrast to the flat gray walls of the massive RCA Building in Rockefeller 
Center beyond. 

SAKS FIFTH AVENUE, Forty-ninth to Fiftieth Street, was the first of the 
larger stores to be built on the upper avenue. Saks, Bergdorf-Goodma^, 
Bonwit Teller, and a few other avenue shops are widely known for their 
striking window displays, mounted with the care of a Belasco stage-set. 
Rockefeller Center (see page 333), across the street, supplies an effect of 
rare architectural unity to this section of the avenue. In the RCA Building 
of the Center is the popular New York Museum of Science and Industry 
(see page 342). 



220 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Across the street, Fiftieth to Fifty-first Street, the needle-pointed Gothic 
towers of St. Patrick's Cathedral (see page 344) rise 330 feet above the 
surging traffic of the avenue. Two blocks away, on the northwest corner 
of Fifty-third Street, stands ST. THOMAS CHURCH (Protestant Episcopal), 
founded in 1823. The present edifice, the work of Cram, Goodhue, and 
Ferguson, was completed in 1913, and replaces one on the same site de- 
stroyed by fire in 1905. The symmetrical main portal appears to call for 
twin towers, although the building has but one. Consequently the structure 
lacks the sense of balance of a frankly unsymmetrical design. The interior, 
of soft yellow sandstone, has great distinction. The beautifully ordered 
mass of statuary in the great reredos over the altar is the work of Lee 
Lawrie ; and the delicate wood carvings on the pulpit, choir stalls, lectern, 
and organ case, representing both historical and contemporary subjects, 
were executed under the supervision of the late Bertram G. Goodhue. 

For several generations St. Thomas Church has been noted for its fash- 
ionable weddings, and in the ornamental work above the Bride's Door 
the entrance to the south of the main portal the sculptor chiseled a dol- 
lar sign next to a "true-lover's-knot," a comment that has been left un- 
molested. From St. Thomas, as from the other churches in the neighbor- 
hood, come the worshippers who form the Fifth Avenue Easter parade, 
an event that has attracted thousands of sight-seers since the days of bon- 
nets and bustles. Directly behind the church is the new home of the 
Museum of Modern Art (see page 347), n West Fifty-third Street. 

Another great city house of the i88o's surviving in this neighborhood 
is the brownstone RESIDENCE OF CORNELIUS VANDERBILT III, near the 
northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and Fifty-first Street. Adjoining it on 
the north was a more famous dwelling designed by Richard M. Hunt 
which was razed in 1926. Both were built by W. H. Vanderbilt, and were 
known as the "twin mansions." The former home of the patrician Union 
Club on the northeast corner of Fifty-first Street now houses the GRAND 
CENTRAL GALLERIES, sponsors of the more academic tradition in Ameri- 
can art. (Open weekdays 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.; admission free.) 

The building occupied by the UNIVERSITY CLUB, northwest corner of 
Fifty-fourth Street, was completed in 1900, the work of McKim, Mead, 
and White. Reminiscent of a fifteenth-century Italian palazzo, it is one of 
the handsomest structures on the avenue. Decorating the exterior are 
eighteen college shields carved in marble. The interior has colorful Renais- 
sance frescoes, and murals by H. Siddons Mowbray. 

The HOTEL ST. REGIS on the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 
Fifty-fifth Street, and the GOTHAM HOTEL on the southwest corner, are 



GRAND CENTRAL DISTRICT 221 

the first of the group of luxurious hotels clustering around the southern 
end of Central Park and the Grand Army Plaza (see page 229). Both were 
built at the beginning of the century. In the bar of the St. Regis is Max- 
field Parrish's well-known painting, Old King Cole. The Gotham has for 
years been popular with foreign (particularly English) visitors, and is 
notable for its cuisine. The press of the expanding Fifth Avenue shop- 
ping trade is evident in the installation of stores on its Fifth Avenue 
abutment, space formerly occupied by a large dining room. 

ELIZABETH ARDEN'S at No. 691 and HELENA RUBINSTEIN'S at No. 
715, are among the most luxurious beauty salons in the country. The 
facades exemplify the current trend toward simplicity in retail shop design. 

Two of America's best-known jewelry firms are CARTIER'S at the 
southeast corner of Fifty-second and MARCUS AND COMPANY at No. 68 1. 
These establishments, together with Black, Starr, and Frost-Gorham, carry 
on the avenue's luxury-trade tradition that was started by Tiffany. 

On the southwest corner of Fifty-sixth Street, fine crystal ware is dis- 
played in the five-story HOME OF THE STEUBEN GLASS COMPANY, a divi- 
sion of Corning Glass Works. The building, designed by John Gates, has 
walls chiefly built of glass bricks. The BONWIT TELLER store, dealing 
exclusively in women's apparel, on the northeast corner of Fifty-sixth 
Street, has the distinction of being headed by a woman, Mrs. Hortense 
Odium. Another fashionable store is Bergdorf-Goodman (see page 230), 
on the southwest corner of Fifty-eighth Street. 

GRAND CENTRAL DISTRICT 

Area: 42d St. on the south to 47th St. on the north; from 3d Ave. west to 5th Ave. 
Map on page 193. 

Huge GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL, set squarely athwart Park Avenue 
on the north side of Forty-second Street, is one of the great railway pas- 
senger terminals of the world. Around it, inevitably, have gathered sky- 
scraper office buildings, large hotels, clubs, stores, and restaurants, until the 
Grand Central zone has become one of those inner cities that characterize 
a metropolis. 

As the New York end of two important railroads the vast New York 
Central system, which reaches to the Mississippi, and the New York, New 
Haven, and Hartford, which serves Boston and New England the ter- 
minal is one of the city's two principal gateways, the other being Pennsyl- 
vania Station (see page 165). Not only long-distance travelers use the 



222 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

terminal ; many of the more than five hundred trains that enter and leave 
daily carry commuters who live north and northeast of the city, while on 
an average of every four seconds during the day three IRT subway lines 
(Lexington Avenue, the Times Square-Grand Central shuttle, and Queens) 
discharge and receive passengers in stations connected with the terminal. 
The number of people who pass through Grand Central in a year approxi- 
mates the total population of the United States. Considerable numbers of 
these, however, use the building as a "short cut," as a refuge from bad 
weather, or for other purposes not connected with travel. 

The terminal covers three blocks between Forty-second and Forty-fifth 
Streets, but the double-deck railroad yard extends under Park Avenue to a 
point near Fifty-ninth Street. There the forty-one tracks on the upper level 
and the twenty-six on the lower level finally narrow to the single-level, four- 
track line that stays underground until it reaches Ninety-sixth Street. 
Through trains use the upper level ; most suburban trains, the lower ; it is 
only by using two levels that the tremendous volume of traffic can be han- 
dled on the forty-eight acres of available land. Trains must be moved out, 
in most cases, almost as soon as they are unloaded, for Grand Central is a 
dead end with limited space. Deep under the thirty-four miles of yard track 
is a power plant. 

The monumental Forty-second Street front of the terminal is surmounted 
by Jules Coutan's massive statuary group, forty-eight feet high, in which 
figures representing Mercury, Hercules, and Minerva are arranged about a 
clock thirteen feet in diameter. Park Avenue, blocked by the building, 
mounts to the second-story level by a bridge over Forty-second Street, 
divides right and left near the heroic bronze figure of Commodore Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt, to encircle Grand Central, then tunnels through the 
New York Central Building immediately to the north, and returns to 
grade at Forty-sixth Street. This highway is an integral part of the ter- 
minal's structure. The space beneath it on the Forty-second Street and 
Vanderbilt Avenue sides is occupied by stores. The area beneath the high- 
way bridge over Forty-second Street is named Pershing Square in honor 
of General John J. Pershing. Free information about the city is provided 
by a municipal office in a building that runs from Forty-first to Forty-second 
Street beneath the viaduct. This steel and glass-brick structure was built by 
the city in 1939 to serve visitors to New York. 

Although the main entrance is the one directly facing Pershing Square, 
the corner entrance at Forty-second Street and Vanderbilt Avenue is prob- 
ably used by most people. Indoor ramps lead from both entrances to the 
impressive main concourse, 125 feet wide and 385 feet long, that is de- 



GRAND CENTRAL DISTRICT 223 

pressed more than a story below street level. Around the sides, great square 
piers rise 125 feet to support a vaulted blue ceiling in which illuminated 
constellations of the zodiac twinkle. The ecliptic of the zodiac, by an error 
in painting, runs the wrong way. The enormous size and lavish use of 
marble on floors as well as walls give the concourse an aspect of grandeur 
that is emphasized by shafts of sunlight pouring through the seventy-five- 
foot windows. The effect is heightened at Christmas and Easter by soft 
organ music from one of the surrounding balconies. 

Ticket windows line the south wall, while directly opposite are the 
gates to the track platforms. The circular information booth in the middle 
of the open floor is one of New York's most popular meeting places. 

During the nine o'clock and five o'clock rush hours, this great hall 
swarms with scurrying crowds in which the red caps of the porters 
there are 495 of them stand out. Shortly before the Twentieth Century 
Limited leaves for Chicago at six in the evening, a gray and red carpet 
is unrolled between the gate and the platform. 

The lower level concourse is similar to the upper in floor plan, but is 
prevented by its necessarily lower ceiling from achieving a like grandeur. 
The two are connected by stairways and broad ramps, and are surrounded 
on three sides by interconnected passages along which run rows of stores: 
food, liquor, flower, apparel, book-, and barbershops; restaurants; news- 
paper and magazine stands; telegraph and theater ticket agencies; lunch 
and milk bars. A newsreel theater, an art gallery, Travelers' Aid service, 
and recreational exhibits are available in the building. All these facilities, 
reached by underground corridors from adjacent hotels and office build- 
ings, make Grand Central also a neighborhood shopping center. 

The terminal was opened by the New York Central Railroad in 1913 
to replace the old depot on the same site. The architects, Warren and Wet- 
more, Reed and Stem, used the available space with such economy that 
Grand Central is rightly considered an engineering marvel. A plan con- 
sidered at one time provided for the addition of a third concourse, at 
street level, to accommodate casual pedestrian traffic; but this has never 
been built. 

The NEW YORK CENTRAL BUILDING, directly north between Forty-fifth 
and Forty-sixth Streets, houses offices of the railroads using the station. Its 
ornate dormer-studded peak, overlooking Park Avenue, is an architectural 
curiosity. Applied columns that support inverted brackets, and are them- 
selves supported by brackets a questionable use of architectural motifs 
as sculptural decoration appear below the roof. 

The din of motor and streetcar traffic on Forty-second Street, the shunt 



224 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
and shuffle of pedestrians, the upward thrust of the buff and yellow sky- 
scrapers around the terminal, produce an impact not easily forgotten. 
Among the towering buildings in this area is the thirty-story GRAYBAR, 
facing Lexington Avenue between Forty-third and Forty-fourth Streets, 
and connected with the terminal by a broad passageway. Designed by 
Sloan and Robertson, it contains more than a million square feet of rent- 
able floor space and when constructed in 1927 was rated as the largest 
office structure above ground in the world. It houses many nationally 
prominent advertising agencies. 

North of the Graybar is the GRAND CENTRAL POST OFFICE, which, 
except for the General Post Office and the Church Street Annex, handles 
a greater volume of mail than any station in the city. 

Most conspicuous of the Forty-second Street towers is the CHRYSLER 
BUILDING, completed in 1929 at the northeast corner of Lexington Ave- 
nue. This building's seventy-seven stories, terminating in a needle-like 
spire, make it the second tallest structure in the world. It was one of the 
first skyscrapers to use exposed metal as an integral part of its design. At 
the fourth setback the building corners flare outward, projecting great 
metal discs resembling 1929 Chrysler radiator caps. 

The building represents a "modernistic" movement in architecture to 
avoid historical precedent in an effort to achieve freshness, originality, and 
a striking effect. Sharp contrasts of color and line appear in the tower 
treatment. The lower portion of the wall is noteworthy for the basket 
pattern of the stone veneer. 

William Van Alen, architect of the Chrysler Building, and his former 
partner, H. Craig Severance, became rivals when each was commissioned 
to design the world's tallest building. When the Chrysler tower seemed 
likely to terminate at 925 feet, the builders of the Bank of the Man- 
hattan Company (see page 88) structure at 40 Wall Street (designed by 
Severance and Yasuo Matsui) decided to halt their operations at 927 feet. 
Meanwhile, steel workers were secretly assembling the rustless steel sec- 
tions of the Chrysler spire which, when lifted through the dome and 
bolted into place, brought the building to its triumphant height of 1,048 
feet. Subsequently the Empire State Building (see page 319) stole the 
laurels. 

The angular Chrysler lobby is finished in sumptuous African marble. 
On the ground floor, a revolving motorcar display can be seen from the 
street through reflectionless windows. In the building are located many 
advertising agencies, the eastern headquarters of the Chrysler Company, 
and the "Cloud Club," composed of advertising, aviation, steel, and rail- 



GRAND CENTRAL DISTRICT 225 

road executives. There is an Observation Room at the base of the metal 
spire. (Open daily 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; admission 550.) The view during 
clear visibility encompasses a fifty-mile radius. 

Diagonally opposite the Chrysler Building at 122 East Forty-second 
Street is the fifty-six-story CHANIN BUILDING, designed by Sloan and 
Robertson and built in 1929. A wide bronze band decorated with figures 
of birds and fishes runs along the entire front above the first story win- 
dows. On the fiftieth floor is a completely equipped little theater, designed 
by Jacques Delamarre. 

The largest of the Grand Central hotels is the COMMODORE, Forty- 
second Street and Lexington Avenue, with two thousand rooms. Although 
only twenty-eight stories high, the Commodore has five additional stories 
underground, through two of which run railway and subway tracks, in- 
sulated from the foundation columns to prevent vibration. 

The BOWERY SAVINGS BANK BUILDING, no East Forty-second Street, 
is well known for its cast-bronze doors, made by William H. Jackson and 
Company, and for its great banking hall, lavishly finished in mosaic and 
marble. Among the symbols represented in the rich architectural detail of 
the building are the bull and bear of Wall Street, the lion for power, 
rooster for punctuality, and the squirrel for thrift. The structure was com- 
pleted in 1923 and is considered the masterpiece of York and Sawyer, 
architects. 

The fifty-three-story LINCOLN BUILDING, 60 East Forty-second Street, 
with nine hundred thousand square feet of rentable area, was erected in 
1930. 

Within the immediate vicinity of Grand Central are the ticket offices of 
eleven air lines serving the entire country. Their sleek, elongated, black 
limousines convey passengers almost hourly from ticket offices to Long 
Island and New Jersey airports. 

Narrow Vanderbilt Avenue, extending along the west side of the ter- 
minal from Forty-second to Forty-seventh Street, is fronted by the YALE 
CLUB at Forty-fourth Street. Charles and Company, for ninety years dealers 
in fine domestic and exotic foods, occupied a store at 48 East Forty-third 
Street, near Vanderbilt Avenue, until 1938. 

Along Madison Avenue, the Bond Street of America, are many of the 
outstanding men's shops in the city. The avenue is also a street of hotels: 
the BILTMORE, at Forty-third Street, national headquarters of the Democratic 
Party; the ROOSEVELT at Forty-fifth Street, named for Theodore Roosevelt; 
and the RITZ-CARLTON at Forty-sixth Street, one of an international chain 
of hostelries whose name has become a slang term connoting exclusiveness. 



226 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

(The cost of the food and drink for an average debutante supper for some 
six hundred guests at the Ritz was about $4,750 in 1938.) 

To the east, on Lexington Avenue between Forty-sixth and Forty- 
seventh Streets, is somber GRAND CENTRAL PALACE, where annual auto- 
mobile, flower, and motorboat shows, and numerous industrial exhibitions 
are held. It was built in 1912 from designs by Warren and Wetmore. 

On the northeast fringe of the Grand Central area, along Lexington 
Avenue, is another group of hotels, including the LEXINGTON at No. 511, 
the SHELTON at No. 527, the BARCLAY at No. 530, and the BELMONT 
PLAZA at No. 541. 

The thirty-four-story Shelton, when completed in 1924, was one of the 
earliest setback structures in the city. The architect, Arthur Loomis Har- 
mon, sensed the great aesthetic possibilities inherent in a studied propor- 
tioning of the huge masses of the modern skyscraper, and created a com- 
position of forms which exerted a profound influence on later buildings. It 
is unique among tall buildings in that the walls slope in toward the top 
to avoid the optical illusion of overhanging. Italian Romanesque details 
are placed where they tend to accentuate the main forms. The structure 
was a favorite subject of Georgia O'Keeffe, noted New York artist, whose 
paintings helped make it one of the best-known buildings of the 1920'$. 
Both the Architectural League of New York and the American Institute 
of Architects awarded medals for its design. 

BEEKMAN PLACE AND SUTTON PLACE 

Area: 48th St. on south to 59th St. on north; from ist Ave. east to East River. Map 
on page 193. 

The small area centering around Beekman and Sutton Places offers an 
extreme example of New York's flair for making Mrs. O'Grady and the 
Colonel's Lady close if uncommunicative neighbors. Here drying winter 
flannels are within fishpole reach of a Wall Street tycoon's windows, and 
the society woman in her boudoir may be separated only by a wall from 
the family on relief in a cold-water flat. 

The neighborhood extends for eleven blocks along two East River 
bluffs grooved by dead-end streets. The narrow channel between Welfare 
Island and the bluff brings freighters within hailing distance. Millionaires' 
yachts dock close to gravel barges. Gulls skimming the surface mark the 
sewage outlets into the river; but from a penthouse window, at night, 



BEEKMAN PLACE AND SUTTON PLACE 227 

there is only the impressive stretch of dark water and the lights of the 
metropolis. 

Beekman Place, which runs for two blocks along the south bluff (from 
Mitchell Place, the north side of East Forty-ninth Street, to East Fifty- 
first Street), was named for a descendant of William Beekman, who came 
from Holland with Peter Stuyvesant. Sutton Place, which extends from 
East Fifty-seventh to Sixtieth Street along a similar high, rocky formation 
over the river, was named in 1880 for a family owning a line of clipper 
ships. In 1875, Effingham Sutton and James Stokes had purchased property 
in the vicinity for a real-estate development. Sutton Place South, a later 
extension, runs from Sutton Place to East Fifty-fourth Street, and is sepa- 
rated from the Beekman Place neighborhood by the blocks in the valley 
between East Fifty-fourth and Fifty-second Streets. 

In the brownstone decades of the last century the district was the home 
of the well-to-do, but as the slums moved northward, tenements were 
erected and most of the brownstones were abandoned to the poor, many 
of whom worked in the packing and slaughterhouses and coalyards along 
the river. The wealthy, drawn by the river setting, began to reclaim the 
neighborhood in the 1920*5, in large part through the initiative of the 
late Elisabeth Marbury, internationally famous literary agent, Miss Anne 
Morgan, and Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt. 

Mitchell Place climbs from First Avenue to Beekman Place on a cut- 
stone ramp. The twenty-six-story BEEKMAN TOWER HOTEL, at No. 3, 
formerly the Panhellenic Hotel, was built in 1928 as a residence and meet- 
ing place for women belonging to national Greek-letter college sororities ; 
it is now a hotel for men and women. The structure's distinction is attained 
through its purity of form. The tower walls are of tan brick and tan 
mortar. The four corners are beveled, and their deep- set windows accent the 
verticality inherent in the shaft. The architect was John Mead Howells. 

The docks at East Forty-ninth and East Fifty-third Streets offer a com- 
prehensive view of the rear of Beekman Place as well as the hospitals on 
Welfare Island. ONE BEEKMAN PLACE, a huge apartment building with 
a series of terrace gardens on its river side, is occupied by many families 
prominent in society and the theater. 

A plaque sundial is set in the house wall on the north side of the dead 
end of East Fiftieth Street. Since the sun strikes here only between seven 
and two, other hour markings are omitted ; but the time it marks is about 
two hours late because the gnomon is bent. Behind a terrace on East Fifty- 
first Street is a building called the HALE HOUSE. The East Fifty-first Street 
wall of this residence has two faded frescoes: one depicts the trial and 



228 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
execution of Nathan Hale; the other, a "kissing bridge" of old Manhat- 
tan. A stone wall, topped with broken, multicolored glass embedded in 
cement, encloses the terrace. 

On the northwest corner of East Fifty-first Street and First Avenue, 
Public School 135, erected more than fifty years ago but still in use, occu- 
pies the SITE OF BEEKMAN HOUSE (1763-1874), headquarters of General 
Charles Clinton and Sir William Howe during the Revolution. Major 
Andre slept there one night and the next morning "passed out to dis- 
honor" ; the drawing room was another of the numerous places where 
Nathan Hale is alleged to have been tried and sentenced. An original 
mantel of this room is in the galleries of the New York Historical Society, 
170 Central Park West. 

The dock off East Fifty-third Street is said to have inspired Sidney 
Kingsley's play, Dead End, which dramatizes the contrast of wealth and 
poverty in a single district. Rising sheer from the river shore between 
East Fifty-second and Fifty-third Streets is RIVER HOUSE, one of the most 
palatial structures in the city. It was designed by Bottomley, Wagner, and 
White as a co-operative dwelling. The building's towers and the general 
mass of its twenty-six stories impose a conspicuous design on the sky line 
of the Middle East Side. The RIVER CLUB occupies the lower floors. It 
has squash and tennis courts, a swimming pool, ballroom, and floating 
dock for pleasure craft. Vincent Astor's white Nourmahal frequently drops 
anchor off East Fifty-second Street. 

Near the shore at Fifty-third Street a man named Youle in 1821 built a 
tall shot tower that toppled during construction, but was replaced and 
served as a landmark until the Civil War. The rocky land that juts into the 
river at the end of East Fifty-fifth Street used to be known as Cannon 
Point. 

On the east side of Sutton Place South, between East Fifty-fifth and 
Fifty-sixth Streets, is a renovated apartment unit. Ten years ago it was 
known as the "Ark" and housed a colony of writers and artists paying 
minimum monthly rentals of eleven dollars. An enterprising real-estate 
firm acquired the property; the interiors were remodeled, the old brick 
exteriors were painted black, trimmed in white, with scarlet, green, and 
canary-yellow doors and rentals rose. Most of the block to the west is 
occupied by the abandoned red-brick buildings of the Peter Doelger 
Brewery. Attached to the old brewery is the more recently vacated Brewery 
Restaurant, well-known speak-easy during Prohibition. 

New apartment buildings line East Fifty-seventh Street, "front entrance" 
to Sutton Place. East Fifty-eighth Street ends at Sutton Square, so named 



CENTRAL PARK SOUTH 229 

in 1920 when the surrounding houses were remodeled. North of the 
square, facing the river, is RIVERVIEW TERRACE, a single row of brown- 
stones occupied by old residents of the neighborhood. An iron fence, 
fronted with shrubbery, flowers, and ten evenly spaced maple trees, extends 
along the edge of the bluff. The imperturbable atmosphere of this small 
court is unrivaled by the synthetic environment of larger, more carefully 
planned real-estate developments. On stormy days the waves breaking 
against the rocks on the river shore can be heard above the rumble of traffic 
crossing the great Queensboro Bridge overhead. 

The scene changes abruptly to the north. The huge smokestack of a 
New York Steam Corporation plant adjoins Riverview Terrace. At Sixtieth 
Street Sutton Place passes under the Queensboro Bridge and into the more 
plebeian world of York Avenue. 

CENTRAL PARK SOUTH, THE PLAZA, AND 
FIFTY-SEVENTH STREET 

Area: 57th St. on the south to Central Park South on the north; from Broadway 
east to Fifth Ave. Map on page 277. 

From Columbus Circle's whirlpool of noisy workaday confusion, pre- 
sided over by a statue of Isabella's adventuresome ambassador, Central 
Park South emerges as a resplendent thoroughfare. Terminating at Grand 
Army Plaza and Fifth Avenue, it traverses three long blocks from the 
Circle to Fifth Avenue, with smart hotels some of them more than forty 
stories high on one side, and the two-and-a-half-mile vista of the park 
on the other (see page 350). Central Park South's sister-street in impor- 
tance, Fifty- seventh, is one of opulent shops and stores, concert halls and 
schools of art, dancing, and music. Fifty-eighth Street is the comparatively 
poor relation. 

The plaza from Fifty-eighth to Sixtieth Street provides a formalized 
entrance to the park; it also serves as an impressive forecourt for the 
stately hotels surrounding it. The official name, seldom used, is Grand 
Army Plaza. In the northern half is the STATUE OF GENERAL WILLIAM 
TECUMSEH SHERMAN, and in the southern half, the PULITZER MEMORIAL 
FOUNTAIN. The Sherman statue, which brought fame to Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens when it was unveiled at the Paris exposition in 1900, was placed 
in the plaza in 1903. Modeled with fine precision, this bronze and gilt 
equestrian statue is one of the city's most impressive monuments. The 
Pulitzer Memorial, called the Fountain of Abundance, consists of two 



230 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
shallow pools and four basins rising in steps to a height of more than 
twenty feet. In the top basin is a pedestal that supports the bronze figure 
of a young woman holding a basket of fruit. The symbolism of abundance 
is further carried out by two marble cornucopias at the base. The sculptor 
was Karl Bitter, and the architects were Carrere and Hastings. Funds were 
provided by the will of Joseph Pulitzer. 

The buildings around and near the plaza display an extraordinary unity, 
growing out of a harmony of color, material, and scale. Their roofs are 
picturesque, some tiled, others copper, but nearly all in various shades of 
green. This harmony extends to architectural treatments. The PLAZA HOTEL 
(opened in 1907) on the west side was designed by Henry J. Harden- 
bergh in French Renaissance style, and the later buildings, east and south 
of the plaza, were carefully related to it: the HECKSCHER BUILDING (1921 ) 
by Warren and Wetmore; the SHERRY-NETHERLAND HOTEL (1927) by 
Schultze and Weaver; the SAVOY-PLAZA HOTEL (1928) by McKim, Mead, 
and White; the HOTEL PIERRE (1930) by Schultze and Weaver; the 
BERGDORF-GOODMAN and DOBBS BUILDINGS (1928) by Buchman and 
Kahn; the SQUIBB BUILDING (1930) by Ely Jacques Kahn; and the NEW 
YORK TRUST COMPANY BUILDING (1930) by Cross and Cross. 

All the hotels of the plaza group are alike in their luxurious appoint- 
ments, yet each attracts a special clientele. The Plaza Hotel is patronized 
by the well-established older groups of society, though to a war generation 
it was a rendezvous of youth, as recorded in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel, The 
Great Gatsby. The Hotel Pierre has become popular with the Park Avenue 
crowd for coming-out parties. The Savoy-Plaza and Sherry-Netherland are 
residential hotels. In the walls of the entrance of the latter are two sculp- 
tured panels from the W. H. Vanderbilt mansion. They were designed by 
Richard M. Hunt. 

At Sixtieth Street and Fifth Avenue, the METROPOLITAN CLUB, a 
stronghold of late nineteenth-century exclusiveness, occupies a dignified 
Florentine palazzo that was designed by McKim, Mead, and White and 
was completed in 1893. 

Central Park South, in character, is an extension of the plaza. Its sky- 
scraper hotels, seen from the park, have a magnificent quality as a group. 
The ST. MORITZ, at No. 50, is noted for its continental atmosphere, and its 
Cafe de la Paix, a sidewalk restaurant, is reminiscent of its Parisian proto- 
type. The BARBIZON PLAZA, on the northwest corner of Fifty-eighth Street 
and Sixth Avenue, extends to Central Park South. Another of the street's 
leading hotels, HAMPSHIRE HOUSE, at No. 150, was opened in 1937. When 
three-quarters finished, its construction was halted by the depression of the 



CENTRAL PARK SOUTH 231 

early 1930*8, and for six years the thirty-seven-story building was a derelict 
with boarded-up windows. ESSEX HOUSE, at No. 160, is an imposing struc- 
ture forty-three stories high. Like other hotels in this neighborhood, it is 
patronized by Hollywood stars. 

On the southeast corner of Central Park South and Seventh Avenue is 
the NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB. The building was completed in 1928 
from designs by York and Sawyer. Cold formality characterizes both the 
exterior and the public rooms of this twenty-one-story structure. Founded 
in 1868, the club has 4,700 members, including many prominent social 
and political figures. Its teams frequently have been the leading point- 
winners for the United States at the Olympic games. 

The GAINSBOROUGH STUDIOS, at No. 222, is one of the oldest studio 
apartment buildings in the city. A frieze, extending across the second 
story, represents a festival procession and in its center is a bust of Gains- 
borough. Along Fifty-eighth Street, one block south of the park, are small 
but exclusive hotels, studios in old brownstone houses, a theater, art shops, 
and garages. The rooming houses on this street are patronized by career- 
bent girls of genteel background and slender purses the type depicted in 
the play Stage Door, by Edna Ferber and George S. Kaufman. 

Fifty-seventh Street is America's Rue de la Paix. The names of some 
of the shops are in letters so small as to seem merely a grudging identifica- 
tion. Here, amid fashionable women's specialty shops, are some of the 
city's oldest galleries and probably the greatest concentration of art dealers 
in America. The Fifty-seventh Street establishments exhibit works of vir- 
tually every period and phase in the history of art as well as examples of 
all contemporary movements. 

CARNEGIE HALL, at Seventh Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street, extend- 
ing through to Fifty-sixth Street, is a six-story building, reminiscent of 
Italian Renaissance architecture, with a fifteen-story tower in which are 
studio apartments. The auditorium, with a seating capacity of 2,760, is 
unusually plain, the only relief being provided by the rose and gilt fur- 
nishings of the two tiers of boxes around three sides. Although it was 
constructed in the early days of acoustical engineering, few auditoriums 
have such excellent acoustics. It was designed by William B. Tuthill, 
assisted by several consultants, including Messrs. Hunt, Adler, and 
Sullivan. The hall was built as a new home for the Oratorio Society and 
was opened May 5, 1891, with a five-day music festival, at which Tchaikov- 
sky conducted several of his own works. That same season Paderewski 
gave his first American performance. Subsequently Joseph Lhevinne and 
Mischa Elman made their American debuts here, and Efrem Zimbalist his 



232 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

New York debut. The Philharmonic Orchestra made its first appearance 
in the Hall in 1892, with Anton Seidl as conductor. Toscanini came as 
guest conductor of the orchestra in 1926 and 1927, and as regular con- 
ductor thereafter until his farewell performance April 29, 1936. One eve- 
ning in 1938, "jitterbugs" crowded the auditorium to hear Benny Good- 
man's swing orchestra. Many notables in fields other than music have 
appeared on the Carnegie stage. 

When Andrew Carnegie was persuaded by Walter Damrosch to invest 
two million dollars in the enterprise, he did so in the belief that a patron 
of the arts could profit financially. Continuing operating deficits dispelled 
his hope of profit. Despite crowded houses, the hall never paid its way 
and had to depend upon private subsidization in order to survive until, in 
1925, a syndicate purchased the property and made extensive alterations. 
Among other changes, a banquet hall was converted into an art gallery for 
the use of the tenants of the 150 studios in the building. 

The completion of Carnegie Hall in 1891 established the district as 
the foremost musical center of the country. Manufacturers of musical 
instruments, especially pianos, opened impressive showrooms along Fifty- 
seventh Street. In 1925 STEINWAY HALL, No. 113, was built. Its lower 
stones are devoted to displays; the remainder house sales offices, head- 
quarters of musical organizations, shops of specialized instrument manu- 
facturers, studios, and a concert hall. The dignified sixteen-story structure 
with its limestone front was designed by Warren and Wetmore. 

Complementing the section's national importance as an art center are 
its influential art schools. Among these is the ART STUDENTS LEAGUE, in 
the FINE ARTS BUILDING, 215 West Fifty-seventh Street. Designed by 
Hardenbergh and built in 1898, it is an excellent imitation of the graceful 
style of architecture of Francis Fs reign. The annual shows of the National 
Academy are held here. Near by, at No. 225, the FEDERAL ART PROJECT 
GALLERY exhibits the mural and easel paintings and sculpture of WPA 
artists. 

One sentimental detail of this area is unique in New York. Near the 
plaza, along the north side of Central Park South, hansom cabs, gracious 
relics of a more leisurely epoch, wait for revelers who finish off the night 
with a ride around Central Park. 



UPPER FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 233 

UPPER FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 

Area: 47th St. on the south to noth St. on the north; from 5th Ave. east to Lex- 
ington Ave. (excluding area east of 5th Ave. between 96th and uoth Sts., and 
5th Ave. between 47th and 6oth Sts.). Maps on pages 237 and 277. 

Elegant bluebloods and solid burghers, tycoons and ne'er-do-wells, social 
arrivistes and just plain people (or New Yorkers a little more affluent 
than the average) these are the residents of this district. It is a quarter 
of old mansions, air-conditioned apartments, exclusive clubs, luxurious 
hotels, fabulous penthouses; of great churches and museums; of art gal- 
leries, antique shops, and specialty stores; of high-priced cafes, cocktail 
lounges, night clubs. 

In the face of an advancing business district the core of the city's fash- 
ionable residential section moved northward from Washington Square in 
the i86o's. It retreated steadily up Fifth Avenue until the startling de- 
velopment of Park Avenue in the 1920'$ deflected its course eastward. 
About ten years ago the exact geographical center of the addresses contained 
in the Social Register was determined painstakingly by realtors: it was near 
Sixty-eighth Street on Madison Avenue. It remains near the same spot to-day. 

By 1872 Fifth Avenue was lined with residences as far as Fifty-ninth 
Street. Edith Wharton in "A Little Girl's New York," a posthumous 
magazine article, recalls that "the little brownstone houses, all with Dutch 
'stoops' . . . and all not more than three stories high, marched Parkward 
in an orderly procession, like a young ladies' boarding school taking its 
daily exercise." She remembers when Fifty-seventh Street was a "desert" 
and new construction on Fifty-ninth Street was regarded as a "bold move 
which surprised and scandalized society." When Central Park was com- 
pleted (1876) the movement northward continued and the dwellings 
erected were pretentious and rococo, with limestone supplanting the brown- 
stone fronts. Not until the twentieth century, however, did the long stretch 
of the avenue facing the park achieve its fame as "Millionaires' Row." 

When, in 1905, Andrew Carnegie built his mansion at Ninety-first 
Street his nearest neighbors were inhabitants of a shanty. Soon one com- 
modity king after another in the company of the Astors, Vanderbilts, 
Whitneys, Belmonts, and Fishes erected sumptuous dwellings on the 
avenue. Among these industrialists were Henry Phipps (iron), Daniel 
G. Reid (tin plate), Charles T. Yerkes (rapid transit), James B. Duke 
(tobacco), O. H. Havemeyer (sugar), Edward S. Harkness (oil), Sir Rod- 
erick Cameron (ships), and F. W. Woolworth. Senator William A. Clark 



234 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
of Montana, a copper magnate, erected at Seventy- seventh Street one of 
the costliest private homes ever built in New York, with material brought 
from every country in the world. 

Charles A. Beard, in The Rise of American Civilization, described the 
dwellings of millionaires as "chateaux of French design, mansions of 
the Italian renaissance, English castles of authoritative mien a riot of 
periods and tastes with occasionally a noble monument to the derivative 
genius of some American architect trained in Europe and given freedom 
to create." This description of the architecture of the Gilded Age (the late 
nineteenth century) was equally true of the 1900*5. Today, as in the past, 
heavily curtained windows and drawn blinds contribute to the museumlike 
atmosphere of Millionaires' Row. 

Fifth Avenue, as well as the other streets on the upper East Side, has 
been affected greatly by the postwar trend toward apartments. Its doom as 
Manhattan's last stronghold of single-family homes seems certain. Some 
of the wealthiest families have closed or sold their homes and moved into 
apartments; many have their mansions on Long Island or elsewhere and 
maintain more modest quarters in the city. 

The growth of Madison Avenue and the cross streets followed that of 
Fifth Avenue. Park Avenue, as the railroad back yard to the sector, lagged 
far behind. Between 1890 and 1910 old twenty-foot flats were replaced 
by seven- and nine-story elevator apartments, but it was not until after the 
World War, when it was demonstrated that skyscraper apartments could 
be constructed on stilts free from the vibration of the New York Central 
Railroad yards hidden below, that Park Avenue became fashionable. To- 
day a double row of tall apartments, broken by an occasional church or 
single-family dwelling, stretches from the Grand Central Terminal at 
Forty-sixth Street to the uncovered railroad tracks at Ninety-sixth Street, 
where the avenue abruptly changes into a slum tenement area Spanish 
Harlem. 

One of the broadest of New York's thoroughfares, Park Avenue is 
divided by a fenced-in parking of well-tended grass, flower beds, and 
shrubbery. As the main artery of this locality, it is constantly filled with 
fast noncommercial traffic busses, drays, and trucks being banned. On 
the scrubbed sidewalks sedate housemen exercise dogs ; under the marquees 
uniformed doormen stand guard, ready to aid top-hatted men and be- 
gowned women in their journey from foyer to car, car to foyer. 

No other street in the world approaches Park Avenue in its residential 
concentration of wealth. Apartment rentals average as much as $1,500 per 
room annually, yet it has been termed a "super-slum" by authorities on 



UPPER FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 235 

modern housing and city planning. Its architecture is noteworthy for its 
lack of imagination, one building resembling another like peas in a pod. 
Although the apartments have all modern conveniences and luxuries, 
adequate provision for light and air and view was generally neglected. 

Madison Avenue is one of the world's most opulent marts. Its recent 
development as a smart shopping center is due largely to its situation be- 
tween wealthy Fifth and Park Avenues. Below Fifty-ninth Street, among 
the hotels and office buildings, the shops more intimate than those on 
Fifth Avenue feature one or two specialties, domestic or imported : period 
furniture, luggage, millinery, pets, flowers, paintings, perfumes. Lexington 
Avenue, while still serving the tenement district to the east, is becoming 
another street of fine shops. 

The HOTEL MARGUERY, a luxurious apartment hotel, occupies the west 
side of Park Avenue between Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth Streets. 

The WALDORF-ASTORIA, on the block between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth 
Streets, Park and Lexington Avenues, is successor to the old Waldorf- 
Astoria that stood on the site of the present Empire State Building (see 
page 319)' Opened in 1931, it continues the traditions of the old hotel: 
the celebrated Oscar is still host, and it still maintains the Peacock Alley, 
the Empire Room, and Astor Gallery. So many of the city's important 
social functions take place in the Waldorf-Astoria that it has been called 
New York's unofficial palace. Flags denoting the visit of foreign digni- 
taries are flown frequently. 

The massive building, designed by Schultze and Weaver, is of limestone 
and light-colored brick, with a granite base. Above the first eighteen 
stories, which rise sheer, a well-proportioned series of setbacks is sur- 
mounted by twin chrome-capped towers that bring the building's height to 
625 feet (forty- seven stories). The figure over the main entrance on Park 
Avenue, designed by Nina Saemundsson, represents the Spirit of Achieve- 
ment. 

In the interior, rare marbles, matched woods, selected stones, and nickel- 
bronzes are employed with exceptional skill. The furniture is eighteenth- 
century English and early American in design. Decorations were executed 
by noted artists: the murals in the Sert Room are by Jose Maria Sert; 
the rug (The Wheel of Life) and the paintings in the main foyer, by 
Louis Rigal; the murals in the Starlight Roof Garden, by Victor White. 
Tony Sarg decorated the Oasis, a popular rendezvous at the cocktail hour. 

There are more than 2,200 rooms in this hotel in which more than forty 
million dollars was invested. About two thousand people are on its staff. 
The towers are reserved for residential suites, some of which have garden 



236 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

terraces. Eighty per cent of the building is over the tracks of the New 
York Central, and private railroad cars may be shunted to a special en- 
trance. 

Just south of the Waklorf, at 299 Park Avenue, is the PARK LANE 
HOTEL, completed in 1924 from plans by Schultze and Weaver. Louis 
SHERRY'S at 300 Park Avenue, is one of the most select restaurants in the 
upper East Side. 

ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S CHURCH, on the east side of Park Avenue between 
Fiftieth and Fifty-first Streets, has had since its founding in 1835 one of 
the city's wealthiest congregations. The monumental mass of the Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel and the slender tower of the General Electric Building pro- 
vide an impressive setting for this elegant church. The present building, of 
Byzantine architecture, completed in 1930, cost $5,400,000 and is on a site 
valued at approximately $1,500,000. The original architect was Bertram G. 



KEY TO UPPER EAST SIDE MAP 

UPPER MADISON AND PARK AVENUES 

(For Upper Fifth Avenue see map on page 277.) 



1. Waldorf-Astoria Hotel 

2. Park Lane Hotel 

3. Hotel Marguery 

4. Louis Sherry's 

5. Villard House 

6. St. Bartholomew's Church 

7. Hotel Ambassador 
Dutch Treat Club 

8. Columbia Broadcasting System 

9. Racquet and Tennis Club 



10. Ritz Tower (Hotel) 

11. Grolier Club 

12. Home of Mrs. James Roosevelt 

13. Church of St. Vincent Ferrer 

14. Hunter College 

15. Union Club 

16. Residence of Former Senator Ar- 

thur Curtiss James 

17. Residence of George Blumenthal 

18. New York Society Library 



YORKVILLE 



19. New York Labor Temple 

20. Yorkville Casino 

21. Gracie Mansion 

22. Doctors' Hospital 

23. Welfare Island Ferry Slip 

24. New York Public Library, Web- 

ster Branch 

25. Parsonage of the Jan Hus Pres- 

byterian Church 

26. Bohemian National Hall 

27. Kip's Bay- Yorkville Health and 

Teaching Center 

28. Church of St. Catherine of Siena 

29. German Reformed Church 



30. St. Catherine's Park 

31. Memorial Hospital for the Treat- 

ment of Cancer 

32. New York Hospital and Cornell 

University Medical College 

33. Rockefeller Institute for Medical 

Research 

34. Model Tenements 

35. Smith's Folly 

36. L'E*glise Francaise du Saint-Esprit 
Sixty-first Street Methodist Epis- 
copal Church 

37. First Swedish Baptist Church 



_u'l hiil ILIJI iiiji in! 

E > > > > 



cm cm cm 



d I I I 



cm. cm ci 



cm czi cm cm 





I ^Q* i i*ue I 




238 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
Goodhue; his designs were later revised by Mayers, Murray, and Phillips, 
his associates, to include the terraced community house and the much- 
discussed dome. The whole group is built of salmon-colored brick and 
Indiana limestone, with tile and marble of various colors. 

Outstanding, on the exterior, is the famous portico by McKim, Mead, 
and White, an academic copy of Southern French Romanesque work. With 
its three bronze doors, it is a memorial gift of the family of Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, which was part of the earlier edifice at Madison Avenue and 
Forty-fourth Street. The doors are decorated with elaborate bas-reliefs by 
Andrew O'Connor, associated with Daniel C. French (main door), Philip 
Martiny (north door), and Herbert Adams (south door), depicting 
scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The interior of the entrance 
portico, rich in marbles and mosaic, sets the color tone for the church 
a golden brown. The unrelieved brilliance of the decor prevents it from 
achieving full effectiveness. 

St. Bartholomew's has always been famous for the dignity and beauty of 
its service, for its preaching and its music. Among its art treasures is the 
Angel Font by the Scandinavian sculptor, Thorwaldsen. 

The HOTEL AMBASSADOR, on the east side of Park Avenue between 
Fifty-first and Fifty-second Streets, was designed by Warren and Wetmore, 
and erected in 1921. A residential hotel, it is popular in diplomatic circles 
and has been called the "social embassy of two continents." The DUTCH 
TREAT CLUB, membership in which is limited to those prominent in the 
creative arts, holds its meetings here. 

The clubrooms and athletic facilities of the RACQUET AND TENNIS 
CLUB, 370 Park Avenue, are housed in a building erected in 1918, de- 
signed in the Italian Renaissance style by McKim, Mead, and White. The 
club, one of the most fashionable sports associations in the city, has two 
tennis courts built of a special composition on slate foundations, each cost- 
ing about $250,000. 

VILLARD HOUSE, a group of mansions surrounding a court, occupies the 
east side of Madison Avenue between Fiftieth and Fifty-first Streets. Built 
in 1885 McKim, Mead, and White, architects these houses were among 
the first American buildings to follow a style derived from the Italian 
Renaissance palaces. Their masonry is a mellow brown sandstone. Cor- 
nices, windows, court arcade, and general scale are reminiscent of Italian 
prototypes. One of the first owners was Henry Villard, German-American 
railroad magnate, whose wife was the daughter of William Lloyd Garri- 
son; a son, Oswald Garrison Villard, was formerly publisher and editor of 
the Nation. The largest house of the group, formerly occupied by the 



UPPER FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 239 

Villards, and later purchased by Whitelaw Reid, former ambassador to 
England, costs about $750,000. It contains works of Saint-Gaudens, La 
Farge, and Abbey. At present only two houses of the group are tenanted. 
The court, in recent years, has been dubbed New York's most exclusive 
parking space. The block to the south, where the New Weston Hotel now 
stands, was the site of Columbia University from 1857 to 1897. 

At 485 Madison Avenue are the HEADQUARTERS AND STUDIOS OF THE 
COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, the second leading national network. 

A belt of night clubs stretches across the upper East Side in the Fifties. 
Among the most noted are the STORK CLUB, 3 East Fifty-third Street, and 
EL MOROCCO, 154 East Fifty-fourth Street, where cafe society idles away 
the night and newspaper columnists gather much of their material. 

Fifty-seventh Street is celebrated for its women's style shops, as well as 
for shops dealing in art work of all kinds. The forty-two-story RITZ 
TOWER, Park Avenue and Fifty-seventh Street, was erected in 1925 as part 
of the Hearst apartment hotel chain from plans by Emery Roth, architect, 
Carrere and Hastings, associates. Arthur Brisbane, popular columnist for 
Hearst newspapers, had a duplex apartment in the tower. 

On congested, narrow East Fifty-ninth Street there are a few second- 
hand bookstores and -stalls. The GROLIER CLUB, 47 East Sixtieth Street, 
named for the sixteenth-century French bibliophile, Jean Grolier, was es- 
tablished in 1884 for the promotion of bibliophily and the bookmaking 
craft. (Visitors may examine its collection upon application to the li- 
brarian.) 

The small but very valuable BACHE COLLECTION, housed in the five- 
story former residence of Jules S. Bache, at 814 Fifth Avenue (Sixty-second 
Street), was opened to the public in 1937. (Open Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., closed from ]une through Sep- 
tember; admission by ticket, obtained by telephoning or writing the cus- 
todian.) The collection contains no American pieces and no works later 
than the eighteenth century. There are paintings by Rembrandt, Titian, 
Botticelli, Petrus Christus, Watteau, Goya, Velasquez, Raphael, Gains- 
borough, Romney, Reynolds, and Holbein. Also in the collection are reliefs 
by Luca della Robbia, sculpture by Donatello, Flemish and French tapes- 
tries, early Italian and English furniture. 

The entrance hall contains the works of Italian masters, while in the din- 
ing room are English paintings. French paneling in the salon at the front 
of the second floor provides a background for works of that country. In a 
richly decorated room in the rear are the Dutch masterpieces. Watteau's 
The French Comedians is historically one of the most interesting items of 



240 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
the Bache Collection. Voltaire presented this picture to Frederick the 
Great and it was claimed as personal property by the former Kaiser at the 
time of his abdication. Perhaps the painting that is best known to the pub- 
lic is Raphael's portrait of the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, the Duke 
of Nemours, once owned by the Grand Duchess Marie of Russia. 

Temple Emanu-El is at i East Sixty-fifth Street (see page 356). The 
COLONY CLUB, a rendezvous for women in the Social Register, is housed 
in a six-story Georgian building of red brick, at 564 Park Avenue (Sixty- 
second Street), designed by Delano and Aldrich, and erected about 1915. 
The RESIDENCE OF MRS. JAMES ROOSEVELT, 47 East Sixty-fifth Street, is 
used by the President on his visits to New York City. 

HUNTER COLLEGE, the women's branch of the College of the City of 
New York, occupies the block between Sixty-eighth and Sixty-ninth 
Streets, Park and Lexington Avenues. A new five-million-dollar building 
(under construction 1939), replacing one on Park Avenue burned in 
1936, will be of limestone and brick, sixteen stories in height. The architects 
are Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon, and Harrison and Fouilhoux. The build- 
ing will accommodate more than five thousand students. Meanwhile classes 
are held in the six-story stone building on Lexington Avenue. The college 
was established in 1870 as the Normal College of the City of New York, 
the name being changed in 1914 in honor of Thomas Hunter, the founder. 
The institution, which has annexes in other parts of the city, offers a four- 
year course leading to an A.B. degree. Since 1934, emphasis has been 
shifted from pedagogical training to a general liberal arts education. 

The old and fashionable UNION CLUB occupies a handsome building, 
completed in 1933, on the northeast corner of Park Avenue and Sixty- 
ninth Street. Across the avenue is the RESIDENCE OF FORMER SENATOR 
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES, copper and railroad magnate. On the southwest 
corner of Seventieth Street and Park Avenue is the RESIDENCE OF GEORGE 
BLUMENTHAL, financier and president of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art. 

The FRICK COLLECTION, consisting of fourteenth- to nineteenth-century 
paintings and other works of art housed in the former home of Henry C. 
Frick, at i East Seventieth Street, was opened as a museum in 1935. (Open 
weekdays, except Monday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.; Sunday and holidays 1 to 
5 p.m.; closed August; admission free.) The mansion, completed in 1914 
on the site of the Lenox Library, was designed by Carrere and Hastings 
in the Louis XVI manner. The sculptured lunettes over the front door and 
the Fifth Avenue portico are by Attilio Piccirilli. The steel industrialist 
left the house in trust, stipulating that his wife should enjoy the right of 



UPPER FIFTH, MADISON, AND PARK AVENUES 241 

residence for life. After Mrs. Prick's death in 1931 the house was re- 
modeled and enlarged under the architectural supervision of John Russell 
Pope. 

The lobby leads to a glass-roofed court of greenery and splashing water. 
The Oval Room (between two galleries on the north side of the house), 
entered from the court, contains Velasquez' magnificent Philip IV . In the 
new East Gallery where chairs of Beauvais tapestry stand against old-rose 
walls paintings by Piero della Francesca, Tintoretto, Vermeer, Ingres, 
and Cezanne constitute a harmonious group. The dull green velvet of the 
West Gallery forms an unobtrusive background for Renaissance furniture 
and bronzes as well as for pictures. The painters represented include 
Bronzino, Veronese, El Greco, Goya, Hals, and Rembrandt. The primitives 
of the collection are in the small room at the end of this long suite, with 
Limoges enamels and French Renaissance furniture. 

Not the least distinguished of the front rooms is the central one, where 
a vibrant El Greco and two Holbeins face a Giovanni Bellini and two 
Titians. The remainder exhibit largely eighteenth-century works. In the 
library and the dining room, together with French and Italian sculpture, 
Chinese porcelains, and some Georgian silver, are most of the English pic- 
tures of the collection. Two small rooms overlooking Seventieth Street con- 
tain a group of fanciful Bouchers. The Fragonard Room owes its name and 
its character to four panels painted for Madame Du Barry which she rejected 
but which are now considered masterpieces. Seven smaller panels by Frag- 
onard are there also, with a lovely marble by Houdon, and furniture by 
famous French cabinetmakers of the period. 

The neighboring halls contain several of the most notable pieces of 
furniture, a rare early portrait by Boucher of his wife, and nineteenth- 
century pictures by Corot, Daubigny, Turner, and Whistler. On the main 
stair landing is an organ designed by Eugene W. Mason. Chamber music 
concerts and frequent lectures by members of the staff and well-known 
critics of the fine arts are given in the circular music and lecture rooms which 
adjoin the court and are hung with Italian brocade. 

The remodeled residence at 53 East Seventy-ninth Street has been since 
1937 the home of the NEW YORK SOCIETY LIBRARY. Founded in 1754 
with 650 volumes many of them having been sent to New York by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts the library 
received a charter in 1772 from George III. For a time it occupied part of 
the old City Hall on Wall Street, and from 1856 to 1937 it was located 
at 109 University Place. Members have included Aaron Burr, Alexander 
Hamilton, Washington Irving, George Bancroft, and many figures famous 



242 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

in the arts. At present the library has more than 150,000 volumes and 
is rich in Americana and belles-lettres. The library is open to the public for 
serious research, but circulation of books is limited to members. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (see page 368) fronts Fifth Avenue 
between Eightieth and Eighty-fourth Streets, and just across the avenue, 
at 3 East Eighty-third Street, amid a row of mansions, is an incongruous, 
two-story frame house, with a horseshoe nailed above its door. The ANDREW 
CARNEGIE MANSION at Fifth Avenue and Ninety-first Street is a red-brick 
Georgian structure of four stories, with limestone base and trim and a cop- 
per mansard roof. Babb, Cook, and Willard were the architects. The 
HOME OF THE LATE FELIX N. WARBURG, banker, an ornate structure in 
French Renaissance style, occupies the northeast corner of the avenue and 
Ninety-second Street. 

A number of institutions cluster at the end of Millionaire's Row. 
MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL with its many buildings occupies the blocks be- 
tween 99th and loist Streets, Fifth and Madison Avenues. At the southeast 
corner of iO3d Street stands the imposing new building of the NEW 
YORK ACADEMY OF MEDICINE, which was organized in 1847 to raise the 
standards of the medical profession, and which has since admirably de- 
voted itself to the public weal. One block farther to the north is the pleas- 
ing Museum of the City of New York (see page 377). Between 104:!! 
and io5th Streets is the building which houses the HECKSCHER FOUNDA- 
TION FOR CHILDREN and the NEW YORK SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION 
OF CRUELTY TO CHILDREN ; the former is devoted to recreational work for 
underprivileged children, the latter to the care and education of abused 
and delinquent children. The NEW YORK MEDICAL COLLEGE, FLOWER, 
and FIFTH AVENUE HOSPITALS group occupies the block between io5th 
and io6th Streets. The hospital structures are built in the form of a St. 
Andrew's Cross. 

North of io6th Street the character of Fifth Avenue changes, but not as 
suddenly as does the rest of the upper East Side, which merges with Span- 
ish and Italian Harlems at 96th Street. In the top floor of the unpre- 
tentious apartment house at 1274 Fifth Avenue lives Fiorello H. La- 
Guardia, mayor of the city of New York. 



YORKVILLE 243 

YORKVILLE 

Area: 59th St. on the south to 96th St. on the north; from Lexington Ave. east 
to East River. Map on page 237. 

Popularly synonymous with the German quarter, Yorkville in reality is 
a much more inclusive section. The names on newsstands, shop windows, 
restaurants, bars, and many travel bureaus indicate that Czechs, Slovaks, 
Hungarians, and Irish also live in this locality. However, in the vicinity 
of East Eighty-sixth Street, Yorkville' s Broadway, Germans and Austrians 
overwhelmingly predominate. 

German families have settled in Yorkville since the original hamlet was 
established in the 1790'$. The village centered around the old Boston Post 
Road (Third Avenue) between what is now Eighty-third and Eighty-ninth 
Streets. In the vicinity were the river and country estates of Manhattan's 
early aristocrats the Astors, Primes, Rhinelanders. In 1834 the New York 
and Harlem Railroad was extended to the village ; a year later a stagecoach 
line was established. These two events signalized the breaking up of the old 
homesteads and accelerated the hamlet's development as a suburban com- 
munity. During the i88o's and 1890*5 solid blocks of stereotyped brown- 
stones were constructed as homes for the well-to-do ; but they were rapidly 
taken over by families who had moved away from the congested "Little 
Germany" in Tompkins Square. In the years following, the Germans, un- 
like many other foreign-born groups, adopted American mores, and York- 
ville began to lose its Germanic quality. During the 1920*5, however, the 
postwar poverty of Germany together with the comparatively high German 
immigration quota of the United States gave impetus to a new influx. The 
district again became the home of New York's German colony. 

First Avenue is the most central route through Yorkville. Marie Curie 
Avenue and its extension, East End Avenue, skirt the district's water front. 
Behind the Rockefeller Institute and the New York Hospital, Marie Curie 
Avenue has a pleasant park-promenade to Seventieth Street, furnishing 
a good view of the East River and Welfare Island. East End Avenue leads 
to the charming Carl Schurz Park on the river bank between Eighty-fourth 
and Eighty-ninth Streets. Beginning in the northern part of this district is 
the East River Drive, which also has a walk along the water's edge. 

The FIRST SWEDISH BAPTIST CHURCH, a block and a half west of First 
Avenue at 250 East Sixty-first Street, is an interesting modern building 
developed from Swedish architecture. Cornerstones of black granite con- 
trast with the light brick facade. Doors, set at an angle to the street line, 



244 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
are placed next to the cornerstones in an arrangement similar to that used 
in old churches in Sweden. The two steeples are reproductions of towers in 
Sweden. The warm interior represents an outstandingly successful integra- 
tion of decoration and architectural design. Martin Hedmark was the archi- 
tect. The church, which was built in 1930, is attended by Swedes from all 
parts of the city. 

Diagonally across East Sixty-first Street, at No. 229, L'EGLISE FRAN^AISE 
DU SAINT-ESPRIT, a Huguenot (French Protestant) church, shares its quar- 
ters with the SIXTY-FIRST STREET METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

A half-block east of First Avenue, at 421 East Sixty-first Street, is SMITH'S 
FOLLY, one of Yorkville's few remaining historic houses. This simple 
Colonial stone structure, enclosed by a white picket fence and with a well- 
kept lawn and garden, nestles close to a garage and three gas tanks in the 
shadow of the huge cantilever Queensboro Bridge. It was built in 1799 
by Colonel William S. Smith, son-in-law of President John Adams, and was 
originally the stable on his estate. He lost the property, allegedly through 
gambling, before his ambitious "Mount Vernon on the East River" was 
completed. The house burned down in 1826 and was not rebuilt. The stable 
later became a tavern. In 1830 it was sold to Jeremiah Towle, city surveyor, 
whose family occupied it until 1908. Since 1924 it has been the clubhouse 
of the Colonial Dames of America. The interior is furnished in typical 
Colonial style but has no museum pieces. (Permission to visit must be ob- 
tained -from the Colonial Dames of America.) 

The block between First and York Avenues, and Sixty-fourth and Sixty- 
fifth Streets, is occupied by MODEL TENEMENTS erected (1900-1915) by 
the City and Suburban Homes Company, a limited-dividend housing enter- 
prise organized in 1896 with the object of providing sanitary homes for 
wage earners. Thirteen of the buildings, on First Avenue and Sixty-fourth 
Street, constructed in 1900, constituted the second modern model tene- 
ments built in Manhattan. (The first was erected two years earlier on the 
West Side by the same firm.) The company still operates these and other 
tenements it built in Yorkville. The average rent is $6.50 a week for two 
rooms with bath. 

Annually on the first Sunday afternoon in October the CHURCH OF ST. 
VINCENT FERRER, 869 Lexington Avenue near Sixty-sixth Street, holds the 
Rosary Procession which ends with the blessing of roses and their distribu- 
tion among the congregation. Father Tom Burke, one of the greatest 
nineteenth-century Roman Catholic pulpit orators and one of the best- 
known members of the Order of Preachers, delivered sermons at this 
church. 



YORKVILLE 245 

The present building, erected in 1917, was designed by Bertram G. 
Goodhue. It reveals Goodhue's deep understanding of Gothic architecture, 
and in the handling of materials, the preciseness of proportions, and the 
religious feeling embodied, it ranks as a masterpiece. The church is the 
earliest example in New York City of the architect's characteristic treatment 
of molding and sculpture: they seem to grow directly out of the structural 
stone without the use of brackets and bases. Lee Lawrie, who did the 
sculpture, subsequently collaborated with Goodhue on many other buildings. 

The monumental, yellow and gray buildings overlooking the East River 
from a cliff between York and Marie Curie Avenues, Sixty- fourth and 
Sixty-eighth Streets, belong to the ROCKEFELLER INSTITUTE FOR MEDI- 
CAL RESEARCH. The principal structures, beginning with the powerhouse 
at the southern end of the row and proceeding north, are the sixty-bed 
hospital, the nine-bed isolation pavilion, Central Laboratory, Middle Lab- 
oratory, and North Laboratory. The smaller buildings are the library and 
animal houses. Service tunnels connect all these units. 

Well over a hundred scientists, including many with international repu- 
tations, devote their time to research. Two research divisions are housed 
here: the Department of Laboratories and the Department of the Hos- 
pital. The Department of Animal and Plant Pathology has its own estab- 
lishment near Princeton, New Jersey. Only patients suffering from diseases 
under investigation are accepted by the hospital; they are given treatment 
free. 

The institute was founded in 1901 by John D. Rockefeller. Three 
years later the first laboratory was opened in a small building at 127 East 
Fiftieth Street with a scientific staff consisting of Simon Flexner, patholo- 
gist and director; Hideyo Noguchi, Eugene L. Opie, and J. E. Sweet, 
pathologists ; Samuel J. Meltzer, physiologist and pharmacologist; and P. 
A. Levene, biological chemist. In 1906 the present Central Laboratory 
was opened. The hospital was completed in 1910, and in the same year 
Mr. Rockefeller provided an endowment. The institute also administers 
a legacy from Henry Rutherford for the promotion of cancer research. 

The value of the institute's research is indicated by the work of Dr. 
Noguchi, who obtained the first pure cultures of spirochete, established 
the syphilitic nature of general paralysis, and discovered the parasite of 
yellow fever. 

The Rockefeller Institute was built on ground belonging to the Schermer- 
horn family. Their imposing farmhouse, once the summer home of Gov- 
ernor George Clinton, was intact at the time the- Rockefellers purchased 
the property. The Schermerhorns' neighbors were the Joneses, Winthrops,. 



246 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
Dunscombs, Kings, and Hoffmans. Jones' Wood was north of Seventieth 
Street, part of a ninety-acre farm owned before 1803 by the Provoost 
family. Samuel Provoost was the first Protestant Episcopal bishop of New 
York, while his cousin, David, was a famous smuggler. Near his landing 
place, now occupied by the New York Hospital, David Provoost hid his 
contraband in what came to be known as Smugglers' Cave. Jones' Wood 
subsequently became a popular picnic resort; its purchase for a municipal 
park was considered in the 1850'$, but the site of Central Park was chosen 
instead. 

The MEMORIAL HOSPITAL FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER occupies 
the block bounded by Sixty-seventh and Sixty-eighth Streets, York and 
First Avenues. When completed, the hospital will be one of the finest 
cancer research centers in the world. The construction was partly financed 
by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. The twelve-story main structure, with a pent- 
house, facing Sixty-eighth Street, was designed by James Gamble Rogers 
and Henry C. Pelton. The ornamental treatment is based on the use of 
applied modern details: long horizontal lines suggest balconies; color 
designs imitate corner windows. 

Across Sixty-eighth Street is the CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA, 
erected in 1930-31, whose interior as well as the exterior is of brick. 
Wilfrid E. Anthony was the architect. On the same side of the street, just 
west of First Avenue, is the GERMAN REFORMED CHURCH, facing small 
St. Catherine's Park. A monument within the church honors an active 
member of the congregation, Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, the doughty 
baron who drilled the Continental Army. About 1800 John Jacob Astor 
was clerk and elder as well as treasurer of the church. The present edifice, 
a combination of Romanesque and early Gothic styles distinguished by its 
simplicity, was erected in 1897. Its bell was presented in 1908 by Kaiser 
Wilhelm II, in honor of the church's i5Oth anniversary. 

Just east of First Avenue, at 411 East Sixty-ninth Street, is the KIP'S 
BAY-YORKVILLE HEALTH AND TEACHING CENTER opened in 1938. The 
center, associated with the Cornell University Medical College, is used to 
train students in preventive medicine and public health administration. 
The building houses a number of public health services and clinics. 

New York Hospital and Cornell University Medical College 

Covering the three blocks (ten and a half acres) between Sixty-eighth 
and Seventy-first Streets, York and Marie Curie Avenues, the glazed white- 
brick buildings of the NEW YORK HOSPITAL AND THE CORNELL UNIVER- 



YORKVILLE 247 

SITY MEDICAL COLLEGE form one of Manhattan's most striking architec- 
tural groups. (Guide service available to visitors Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday 2 to 3:30 p.m.; Tuesday and Thursday to 3:15 p.m.) For the de- 
sign, the architects, Coolidge, Shepley, Bulfinch, and Abbott, of Boston, 
received the 1933 gold medal of the New York Architectural League. The 
fifteen buildings, which cost more than thirty million dollars, are so 
placed and subordinated to the main tower that they give the effect of a 
single vast structure. At first glance the mass of this powerful group is 
reminiscent of the Palace of the Popes at Avignon. Pointed arch windows 
that rise to the full height of the eight-story pavilions flanking the main 
entrance establish a Gothic motif ; yet actually the group is an outstanding 
example of modern architecture, for its beauty grows out of its functional 
organization and the aesthetic counterplay of its parts. In contrast to the 
Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, the windows here are skillfully 
used to express the function of each division of the hospital. The interior 
lacks the forbidding features associated with older hospitals and is, in- 
stead, filled with sunshine and decorated in color. 

The second to the ninth floors are given over to pavilions patterned after 
the wards in the Royal Hospital in Copenhagen. The largest pavilions have 
no more than sixteen beds and even these are divided into four-bed sections 
by glass partitions. Each pavilion has a spacious lounge overlooking the 
East River with Vitaglass windows on three sides. 

The adjoining buildings house the Women's Clinic (which includes the 
Lying-in Hospital), the Children's Clinic, the Psychiatric Clinic, the Out- 
Patient Building, Cornell University Medical College, staff quarters, a 
250-car garage, and a nurses' residence with a capacity of five hundred. 
The Lying-in Hospital, now the maternity division of the New York 
Hospital, was organized in 1789 following an epidemic of yellow fever 
that brought the plight of widowed expectant mothers to the public atten- 
tion. After many vicissitudes, in 1892 the hospital society joined forces 
with a Midwifery Dispensary serving the tenements. Through the interest 
of J. P. Morgan, the society acquired its own hospital in 1899 in the 
Stuyvesant Square neighborhood, which it occupied until the move up- 
town was made. 

This newest of Manhattan's medical centers (completed in 1932) shel- 
ters the city's oldest hospital. In 1769 Dr. Samuel Bard of King's College 
(now Columbia University) pleaded for "an hospital for the sick poor of 
the colony," which incidentally would serve as a medical training school. 
King George III granted the charter in 1771. While anatomical instruc- 



248 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 
tion was given during the early years and the building was used as an 
army hospital during the Revolution, the hospital was not opened for 
civilian service until 1791. 

Many prominent men have served as governors of the institution. 
Among them have been John Watts, John Jay, Robert Livingston, Philip 
Hone, Aaron Burr, Lindley Murray, John Jacob Astor, Joseph H. Choate, 
and Isaac Roosevelt. 

Cornell University Medical College, founded in 1898, first occupied a 
building at Twenty-eighth Street and First Avenue. After 1912 the college 
co-operated with the New York Hospital, and in 1927 the New York 
Hospital-Cornell Medical College Association was formed. At that time 
both institutions obtained additional funds, including a gift of more than 
twenty million dollars from Payne Whitney, two million dollars each 
from J. Pierpont Morgan and the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, 
and one million dollars each from George F. Baker and George F. Baker, 
Jr. The hospital, with eleven hundred beds, is one of the largest in the 
city; the college is one of the smallest in number of students. Both exem- 
plify the highest standards of the medical profession. 

The New York Hospital annually treats more than twenty thousand 
bed-patients and more than forty thousand out-patients, accepting, as it 
has since 1791, "patients who need its help, without regard to race, creed, 
or ability to pay." Sixty-five per cent are pavilion patients. Modern equip- 
ment and a distinguished medical staff have given the hospital one of the 
lowest surgical mortality rates in the country. 

Unlike many general hospitals, the New York Hospital has always 
treated mental disorders. As early as 1821 Bloomingdale Asylum was 
established by the hospital on the site of the present library of Columbia 
University. It moved to White Plains in 1894 and is now known as the 
New York Hospital Westchester Division. The Payne Whitney Clinic, an 
important unit of the center itself, treats only psychiatric cases. 

Public interest in the hospital found expression in an unusual way in 
1938 when more than one hundred anonymous donors of all denomina- 
tions contributed a total of one thousand dollars for the removal of swas- 
tika designs from the 325-foot chimney. The ancient symbol that had been 
given a new significance by Chancellor Hitler's rise to power in Germany 
was replaced by Greek crosses. 

"Little Bohemia" 

In addition to the great New York dailies, the newsstands along First 
Avenue in the lower Seventies carry the two dailies, New Yorkske Listy 



YORKVILLE 249 

(Czech), and New Yorksky Dennik (Slovak), for here between Seventy- 
first and Seventy-fifth Streets east of Second Avenue is New York's "Little 
Bohemia." After Czechoslovakia became an independent nation in 1918 
many Slovaks from downtown moved up into the Czech quarter, and the two 
groups have combined many of their interests. Pride in their languages 
and traditions, however, has prompted them to maintain separate sokols 
where after public-school hours the children can be taught their native 
speech and history. Their societies present native dramas, folk songs, and 
dances. On Decoration Day the Czechoslovaks parade in colorful native 
costume. The largest meeting place is BOHEMIAN NATIONAL HALL, be- 
tween First and Second Avenues at 319 East Seventy-fourth Street, where 
nearly a half hundred organizations, the oldest having been formed by 
the Czechs in 1863, meet regularly. In the PARSONAGE OF THE JAN Hus 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 351 East Seventy-fourth, are fourteen rooms ap- 
pointed in typical Czechoslovak peasant style. Excellent restaurants in the 
neighborhood serve tripe soup, stuffed cabbage (zeli or kapusta), and roast 
goose, Bohemian style. 

The Hungarians, in the upper Seventies, aid in giving Yorkville its 
Central European atmosphere. The Hungarian daily, Amerikai Magyar 
Nepszava, is found on the newsstands in this vicinity; Tokay wine is 
featured in the liquor stores; and in the delicatessens are sold goose livers 
and the famed Hercz, Pick, and Drossy salamis from Budapest. The Hun- 
garian cuisine is noted for its variety and savory sauces; in this neighbor- 
hood, particularly on East Seventy-ninth Street between First and Second 
Avenues, are many restaurants whose specialties are chicken paprikas, 
rostbraten, and strudel. On Hungarian Independence Day, March 15, the 
Hungarians hold a celebration; they usually parade to the statue of Louis 
Kossuth, hero of the 1848 revolution in Hungary, on Riverside Drive. 

The WEBSTER BRANCH OF THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 1465 York 
Avenue near Seventy- eighth Street, is popularly known as the "Czech 
Library" and has a Czechoslovak collection of about 15,000 volumes. A 
group of MODEL TENEMENTS erected by the City and Suburban Homes 
Company, between York and Marie Curie Avenues, Seventy-eighth and 
Seventy-ninth Streets, represents one of the most significant Manhattan 
housing developments prior to the building of the Amalgamated Dwell- 
ings on the Lower East Side. At the foot of East Seventy- eighth Street is a 
WELFARE ISLAND FERRY SLIP. Contributions from 180 of New York's 
richest families helped to finance the construction of the DOCTORS' HOSPI- 
TAL at Eighty-seventh Street and East End Avenue. Its elegant furnishings 
match those of a Park Avenue hotel. 



250 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Beautiful CARL SCHURZ PARK extends along the river from Gracie 
Square (East Eighty-fourth Street) to East Eighty-ninth Street. Adjoining 
it on the south and west is a fashionable residential section, with tall new 
apartment buildings and renovated old homes and tenements. Built on 
two hills and pleasingly landscaped, the park affords an excellent view of 
the river and its traffic. 

The white frame Colonial house on the northern and highest ground of 
the park is the GRACIE MANSION, built in 1799 by Archibald Gracie and 
carefully restored by the Park Department in 1927. The house is furnished 
in the style of the late eighteenth century with furniture lent by museums 
and private collectors. (Open daily, except Monday, from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
admission free.) 

This hook of land on the East River has played an important part in the 
social and political history of New York. The first known owner named 
it "Horn's (Room's) Hook" for his native Hoorn on the Zuyder Zee. 
The first house to occupy the site was built by Jacob Walton a few years 
before the Revolution. The house and grounds were appropriated by the 
American Army in 1776 and a fort mounting nine guns was set up. On 
September 15, 1776, a bombardment by the English battleships completely 
destroyed the house, and the Americans abandoned the fort. It was used 
by the English as an army camp until November, 1783. At the turn of 
the century Gracie, a wealthy merchant of Scottish birth, purchased the 
property, leveled the military works, and built his home and gardens. 
About 1811 he enlarged the house. 

Many famous men were guests at the Gracie Mansion, including Louis 
Phillipe, later King of France ; President John Quincy Adams, James Feni- 
more Cooper, and Washington Irving. Neighbors, as well as guests, were 
John Jacob Astor and Alexander Hamilton. The Gracies occupied the house 
until 1823, when Joseph Foulke purchased the estate. 

In 1891 the city acquired that part of the present park lying north of 
Eighty-sixth Street and added it to the southern part which had been a 
picnic ground. The easternmost block of Eighty-sixth Street was added 
recently to, the park. Formerly called the East End Park, it was renamed 
(1911) in honor of Carl Schurz (18291906), German revolutionary, 
who soon after his arrival in America in 1856 became a leader of the 
newly formed Republican Party. A close friend and adviser of Lincoln, he 
served during the Civil War first as Minister to Spain and then as major 
general in the Union Army. In later years he was a senator from Missouri, 
Secretary of Interior under President Hayes, editor of the New York 



YORKVILLE 251 

Evening Post and Harper's Weekly, and a leader in the civil service re- 
form movement. He lived in New York from 1881 until his death. 

West of the park is the German section of Yorkville. East Eighty-sixth 
Street is lined with restaurants, cabarets, theaters ; beer, meeting, and dance 
halls; and delicatessen and pastry shops. Adjacent streets and avenues 
have an unmistakable German character. 

Restaurants offer such favorite dishes as wiener schnitzel, a Viennese cut- 
let of veal, sauted, garnished with string beans, beets, tomatoes, and capers, 
and gehacktes hirsch-steaks. Some cafes are typically Viennese in appear- 
ance, quiet family resorts ; others feature singing waiters and Bavarian 
atmosphere. The doormen of several of the restaurants are barkers garbed 
in long socks, brief leather pants held by suspenders, and plumed Tyrolean 
hats. 

The pastry shops Konditoreien not only serve coffee and pastry and 
meals, but are rendezvous where guests transact business, discuss politics, 
play cards, further their romances or read the newspapers. The larger 
shops, on Eighty-sixth Street east of Third Avenue, have afternoon and 
evening concerts. At frequent intervals a vendor makes the round of the 
tables proffering the Nazi periodicals or the more conservative Staats- 
Zeitung und Herold. The delicatessen shops sell sausages that are as vari- 
ous as the spices in Levantine foods. There are plockwurst, cervelatwurst, 
mettwurst, streichwurst, bauernwurst, leber-, rot-, and knackwurst, and 
many others. 

The YORKVILLE CASINO, 210 East Eighty-sixth Street, is the meeting 
place of many German organizations. Here also is one of the several theaters 
in the neighborhood which show German motion pictures. 

Several Nazi propaganda agencies maintain headquarters in Yorkville. 
The GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND and its official paper, Deutscher Weck- 
ruf und Beobachter, which under the leadership of Fritz Kuhn direct 
Nazi work throughout the country, have their national offices at 178 East 
Eighty-fifth Street. The GERMAN-AMERICAN BUSINESS LEAGUE, in the 
same building, publishes directories of firms to be patronized by Nazi 
adherents. The Nazis occasionally parade through Yorkville in their uni- 
forms, which are of three kinds: black trousers, white shirts with swastika 
armbands, and black caps, for the rank and file members ; olive-drab mili- 
tary uniforms, for the guards ; and imported regulation German uniforms 
for the storm troops. In the spring of 1938 the Yorkville Casino was the 
arena of a bloody fight between Nazi sympathizers and a group of people 
who were members of the American Legion. 



252 MANHATTAN: MIDDLE AND UPPER EAST SIDE 

Anti-Nazi centers in Yorkville are the GERMAN WORKERS CLUB at 
1501 Third Avenue, and the GERMAN CENTRAL BOOK STORE, 218 East 
Eighty-fourth Street, which is stocked with German books banned by Hit- 
ler. At 243 East Eighty-fourth Street is the NEW YORK LABOR TEMPLE, 
erected by German workers in the early part of the century. It is a meeting 
place for numerous unions, singing groups, and lurnvereme (athletic 
associations). The temple is operated on a nonprofit basis by the Work- 
men's Educational Association. The German anti-Nazi newspaper, the 
Deutsches Volksecko, has a wide circulation in Yorkville. 




HOTEL 



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MIDTOWN MANHATTAN 



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RUTHERFORD PLACE, STUYVESANT SQUARE 



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LITTLE CHURCH AROUND THE CORNER 




FIFTH AVENUE SHOPS 



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EAST FORTY-FIRST STREET AND THE PARK AVENUE RAMP 




GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL 




MCGRAW-HILL BUILDING 




3. 



The Harlems 



NEGRO HARLEM SPANISH 
ITALIAN HARLEM 



HARLEM 



Area: E. 96th St. and W. noth St. on the south to W. i55th St. on the north; 
from 5th Ave. (96th to noth St.), Morningside Ave., and St. Nicholas Ave. (i25th 
to 1 5 5th St..) east to East and Harlem rivers. Maps on pages 54-55 and 255. 
Principal north-south streets: ist, 5th, Lenox, yth, St. Nicholas, and Edgecombe Aves. 
Principal cross streets: n6th, 12 5th, 13 5th, and I45th Sts. 

Transportation: IRT Lenox Ave. subway, noth to i45th St. stations; IRT Lexing- 
ton Ave. subway (local), 96th to 12 5th St. stations; 8th Ave. (Independent) 
Washington Heights or Grand Concourse subway (local), noth to i45th St. stations; 
9th Ave. el, noth to 15 5th St. stations; 3d Ave. el, 96th to i29th St. stations; 2d 
Ave. el, 92d to 12 5th St. stations; bus lines on all principal north-south streets. 

.HARLEM is blocked in by the high ridges of Morningside Heights and 
St. Nicholas Terrace, by the East and Harlem rivers, and by General Park. 
Along the East River is the Italian section ; north and east of Central Park, 
the Spanish; and farther north, the Negro district, its boundaries extend- 
ing into the Italian and Spanish neighborhoods and creeping northward 
into Washington Heights. 

Built up solidly with tenements, old apartment houses, brownstones 
converted into flats, and occasional small frame residences, Harlem is a 
poor man's land. Half a million persons are crowded into its three square 
miles the largest single slum area in New York. The nondescript drabness 
of the streets is relieved by a chain of three "ribbon parks" Morningside, 

253 



254 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

St. Nicholas, and Colonial along the ridge, two smaller parks within the 
district itself, and Harlem River Houses and the East River Drive. But the 
distinguishing features of the district are derived from its vivid population 
groups, with their national and racial cultures. 

Nieuw Haarlem was established in 1658 by Director Peter Stuyvesant 
in the lush bottomland between Harlem River and Morningside Heights. 
The village was named for the old Dutch city, in all probability by the 
director himself. A few Hollanders, French Huguenots, Danes, Swedes, 
and Germans developed rich farms there and gave them such idyllic names 
as Quiet Vale and Happy Valley. New Harlem was about ten miles from 
the little town of New Amsterdam on the island's southern tip, and was 
connected with it by a road built "by the [Dutch West India] Company's 
negroes" on an Indian trail, now part of Broadway. During the next two 
centuries it retained its pastoral charm and separateness the British even 

KEY TO MAP OF THE HARLEMS 

SPANISH HARLEM 

1. Church of St. Francis de Sales 5. Church of Our Lady of the Mi- 

2. Church of St. Cecilia raculous Medal 

3. Iglesia Metodista Episcopal 6. Teatro Hispano 

4. Teatro Latino 7. Public Market Place 

ITALIAN HARLEM 

8. Thomas Jefferson Park 10. Haarlem House 

9. Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Church 

NEGRO HARLEM 

11. Finnish Hall 23. National Association for the Ad- 

12. Harlem Community Art Center vancement of Colored People 

13. Kingdom of Father Divine 24. Y.M.C.A., Harlem Branch 

14. Apollo Theater 25. New York Public Library, 135th 

15. Metropolitan Baptist Church Street Branch 

16. Commandment Keepers' Congre- 26. Central Harlem Health Center 

gation 27. Harlem Hospital 

Order of Ethiopian Hebrews 28. Offices of the New York Urban 

17. Kings Chapel Assembly League 

18. Tree of Hope 29. Abyssinian Baptist Church 

19. Lafayette Theatre 30. Strivers' Row 

20. Offices of the Amsterdam News 31. Savoy Ballroom 

21. St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal 32. 369th Regiment Armory 

Church 33. Dunbar Apartments 

22. Offices of the New York Age 34. Harlem River Houses 



'HI HARl IMS 




256 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

permitted it to retain the name of New Harlem after capturing the city in 
1664 while the town below expanded northward and became the coun- 
try's most important commercial center. 

At the turn of the nineteenth century the western half of the region 
was occupied by country estates along the heights. The eastern part, be- 
tween present-day noth and i25th Streets (east of Fifth Avenue), was 
purchased by James Roosevelt, great-grandfather of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt, and cultivated by him as farm land. He sold the property about 
1825 for $25,000. In the 1830*5 the Harlem Railroad was built, and what 
had been a charming rural area became a rapidly growing suburb. The 
Third Avenue horse railroad was chartered in 1853. The journey from 
Manhattan still required, however, an hour and twenty minutes, provid- 
ing "no horse balked or fell dead across the tracks." The most efficient 
method of travel was by steamer of the Harlem Navigation Line on the 
Hudson River, which made the trip from Peck Slip to 12 5th Street in an 
hour and a half. 

With the extension of the elevated rapid transit lines to Harlem in 1880, 
the section took its place as a fashionable neighborhood of New York City. 
The blocks were filled with aristocratic apartment houses and the popular 
brownstones. Fine horses were shown off on Lenox and Eighth Avenues, 
and polo was played at the near-by Polo Grounds. The peak of this phase 
of Harlem's development was reached with the opening of the Harlem 
Opera House at 209 West 12 5th Street in 1889, an enterprise undertaken 
by Oscar Hammerstein. At that time, and for two succeeding decades, 
Germans were the dominant element in the well-populated community, 
with the Irish ranking second in number. During the great immigration 
waves of the i88o's and 1890'$ many Jews and Italians settled in Harlem. 
The white groups began to move out of middle Harlem in the early 1910*5 
when Negroes from lower Manhattan succeeded in renting apartments 
there. The great influx of Negroes from the South and the West Indies, 
however, started in the World War period while Puerto Ricans and other 
Latin- American groups flocked to Harlem after the war. 

Harlem's racial groups introduced their native flavors into the aging 
buildings of the district. The old-world customs which the Italians brought 
with them from Sicily and Italy have succeeded in varying degrees in resist- 
ing assimilation into the new ways of life. Negroes blended into their 
New York environment habits and qualities carried from the southern 
states, Africa, and the West Indies. The Spanish Harlemites reflect in 
their recreation, their public markets, and their changing social life, the 
traditions in which they were reared. Unfortunately, this native pictur- 



NEGRO HARLEM 257 

esqueness has in large part been preserved by extreme poverty, with its 
overcrowding, illiteracy, malnutrition, disease, and social dislocation. 

Several health centers have striven to alleviate the distress from disease. 
The Negro district's Central Harlem Health Center, the Puerto Rican 
Service Center, and Little Italy's East Harlem Health Center serve thousands 
of persons daily. The centers direct their work along the lines of preventive 
as well as therapeutic medicine. 

Crime and juvenile delinquency have germinated in the tenements de- 
spite periodic police cleanups. Especially during the Prohibition years, the 
Harlems became the headquarters of several notorious gang leaders, who 
gathered recruits among the youth of the slums. Harlem's church groups 
and settlement houses, such as the Haarlem House, have done their ut- 
most to improve the morale of the locality. 

The Works Progress Administration has made a significant contribution 
to the cultural life and social welfare of Harlem. It provides assistance to 
the health centers, operates the Lower Harlem Chest Clinic for tubercu- 
losis diagnoses, and assigns teachers and recreational directors to church 
community centers. The WPA Federal Arts Projects conduct varied cul- 
tural activities: the Music division maintains three schools (Central Man- 
hattan, Harlem, and Hamilton branches), the Art unit supervises the 
Harlem Community Art Center, the Negro Theater presents productions 
at the Lafayette Theater. 



NEGRO HARLEM 

Area: W. noth, i2oth, and E. 12 5th Sts. on the south to 15 5th St. on the north; 
from Morningside Ave. and St. Nicholas Ave. (i25th to i55th St.) east to Lenox 
Ave. (uoth to i2oth St.), Madison Ave. (i2Oth to i25th St.), and the Harlem 
River. Map on page 255. 

Negro Harlem, into which are crowded more than a quarter of a mil- 
lion Negroes from southern states, the West Indies, and Africa, has many 
different aspects. To whites seeking amusement, it is an exuberant, origi- 
nal, and unconventional entertainment center; to Negro college graduates 
it is an opportunity to practice a profession among their own people; to 
those aspiring to racial leadership it is a domain where they may advocate 
their theories unmolested; to artists, writers, and sociologists it is a mine 
of rich material ; to the mass of Negro people it is the spiritual capital of 
Black America. 

Negroes began to move into Harlem in 1901 as a result of a deflated 



258 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

boom in real estate there. Because of the lack of adequate transportation 
facilities, fine apartments erected by speculative real-estate promoters were 
left tenantless. A Negro agent, Philip A. Payton, persuaded landlords to 
accept Negro tenants, and hundreds of families soon deserted old tene- 
ments in the crowded West Fifty-third Street and San Juan Hill (west 
of Columbus Circle) sections and poured into Harlem. Their infiltration 
was at first bitterly resisted by white tenants, landlords, and bankers. 

During the World War Negroes from the South, from the British West 
Indies, and even from the neighboring Spanish- and French-speaking 
islands flocked to the North spurred by promises of highly paid industrial 
jobs. By 1919 the Negro population of Harlem had quadrupled. Race 
riots in southern cities in the postwar period caused a further large migra- 
tion to the North. Though they did not succeed in escaping economic in- 
security and race discrimination, the Negroes were able to build within 
the metropolis a city of their own, a cosmopolitan Negro capital which 
exerts an influence over Negroes everywhere. 

Although the community possesses fine residences and wealthy churches, 
wide boulevards, theaters, hotels, and cafes, its dreadful slums are among 
the most notorious in New York. Barred from most residential areas in 
the city, Negroes pay rents 50 per cent higher than those charged for com- 
parable living quarters elsewhere. 

Under these circumstances social and health conditions are, of course, 
extremely poor. In 1934 a survey of Negro Harlem showed that among 
twenty thousand persons chiefly from the relief rolls, 3 per cent suffered 
from pulmonary tuberculosis. One block in particular, from Lenox to Sev- 
enth Avenue between i^d and 14 3d Streets, was referred to because of its 
congestion as the "lung block," the rate of death from tuberculosis being 
twice that of white Manhattan. Maternal and infant mortality rates are 
more than double those of the city. A mayor's commission appointed to 
study the causes of a riot there in 1935 revealed that tuberculosis and other 
diseases were widespread, and that medical and clinical care were danger- 
ously inadequate. 

Those who live in Harlem know it as a number of little worlds, repre- 
sented by such titles as the "Valley," the "Golden Edge," "Sugar Hill," 
and the "Market." Each is descriptive of a different stratum of the com- 
munity. The Valley is the slum area, extending from i3oth to i4Oth 
Street, east of Seventh Avenue. Apartments along the Golden Edge, the 
part of the neighborhood facing Central Park, house the professional class. 
On Sugar Hill, the affluent live in dignity and comparative splendor. The 



NEGRO HARLEM 259 

Market is the name given with ironic accuracy to the stretch from noth 
to 1 1 5th Street on Seventh Avenue, which is frequented by streetwalkers. 
Sharp divisions exist between the dwellers in these various sections. 

Two main thoroughfares cut through the district. Seventh Avenue, 
Harlem's widest street, with islands in its center, runs from West noth 
to West 1 5 5th Street, and is one of the chief bus routes through Harlem 
and to Washington Heights. This avenue is lined with apartment houses, 
retail stores, beauty parlors, restaurants, and corner saloons. Lenox Ave- 
nue, a block to the east, is generally regarded as Harlem's principal 
boulevard. It is a wide, shabby avenue, flanked by cheap shops, bars, lunch- 
rooms, pool parlors, and "gin mills." Peculiar to the avenue are the mobile 
lunch-stands which appear in the afternoon and early evening. These are 
usually operated by elderly men and women, and serve popcorn, baked 
sweet potatoes, peanuts, jam, sausages, and other popular tidbits. Most of 
these carts are old and rickety and the food is heated over kerosene lamps. 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street, a key crosstown traffic artery lead- 
ing directly to the entrance of the Triborough Bridge (see page 390) at Sec- 
ond Avenue, is Harlem's chief business thoroughfare. Although Negroes live 
along the streets north and south of it, West 12 5th Street is not predom- 
inantly a Negro center ; white residents of Morningside Heights and Man- 
hattanville have used it as a shopping center for years. Two 12 5th Street 
hotels the THERESA, at Seventh Avenue, and the TRi-BoRO, at Fifth 
Avenue still have white managements and clienteles. From Third Ave- 
nue to St. Nicholas Avenue are many stores, movie houses, real-estate 
offices, banks, and eating places, the overwhelming majority being owned 
and operated by whites. That no Negroes were employed in these busi- 
nesses was always resented by Harlemites, who are the majority of cus- 
tomers. In 1935 an incident in one of these shops developed into a riot of 
alarming proportions. In recent years picketing and pressure by labor 
unions and citizens' groups have compelled the larger 12 5th Street stores 
to employ Negro help. 

At 253 West 1 2 5th Street, near Eighth Avenue, is the APOLLO THEATRE, 
known as Harlem's "opera house." Opened in 1913 as a burlesque house, 
it became in 1934 a vaudeville theater. Weekly all-Negro revues, with 
outstanding dance orchestras and musical comedy favorites, are presented 
to mixed audiences. The theater is owned and managed by whites, but 
the actors, actresses, and other employees are Negro. 

The HARLEM COMMUNITY ART CENTER, 290 Lenox Avenue, estab- 
lished in 1937, provides free instruction in the arts and crafts for adults 



260 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

and children. The quarters, equipment, and teaching staff are supplied by 
the WPA Federal Art Project, and the working materials are purchased 
from funds contributed by residents of the community. 

FINNISH HALL, 13 West i26th Street, is an important social, educa- 
tional, and recreational center for the large group of Finnish people living 
in the area east of Lenox Avenue between i2oth and 12 8th Streets. 

At 152 West 1 2 6th Street is the most important KINGDOM OF FATHER 
DIVINE in Harlem. Father Divine, Negro religious leader of the "Right- 
eous Government," has thousands of followers who call him "God" and 
who believe him to be God in the flesh. One of their chants holds: "He 
has the world in a jug and the stopper in his hand." His adherents are 
called "angels" and assume such names as Glorious Illumination, Heavenly 
Dove, and Pleasing Joy. Since Marcus Garvey's time no Negro has achieved 
a larger following among the masses of Harlem. Father Divine, a stocky bald- 
headed man with an intimate rhythmical style of Bible oratory, preaches 
a simple Christian theology emphasizing the principles of righteousness, 
truth, and justice. The slogan of his cult is "Peace," the word being used 
as a salutation and an interjection, sometimes coupled with "Thank you, 
Father." He exacts celibacy from his followers. Assistance from public 
relief agencies is prohibited. 

A kingdom serves as meeting hall, restaurant, and rooming house. No 
regular prayer meetings are held there but throughout the day hymns and 
songs praising Father Divine are spontaneously sung and music in dance 
tempo is played. Usually, Father Divine delivers an address at eleven 
o'clock in the evening at the i26th Street kingdom (open to the public). 
He also presides at private "banquets" for sect members only, at which 
he delivers "messages." A popular feature of the kingdoms are the low- 
cost meals served to all comers. Priced at fifteen cents, they consist of a 
meat dish veal, chicken, or turkey vegetables, bread and butter, and 
tea or coffee. Thousands of such meals are served daily in the various 
kingdoms, where lodgings are also available in dormitories at two dollars 
a week. Father Divine's followers have accumulated much city and coun- 
try property, including the "Krum Elbow" five-hundred-acre estate oppo- 
site President Roosevelt's family seat at Hyde Park on the Hudson River; 
they also maintain an undisclosed number of missions, farms, gasoline 
stations, grocery stores, and other enterprises, all under the immediate 
directorship of the evangelist. These holdings are in the names of 
"angels," but the actual financing of the purchases is shrouded in mys- 
tery. Thus far, all attempts to probe the finances of Father Divine and 
his sect have been unsuccessful. A former Divine kingdom at 20 West 



NEGRO HARLEM 261 

1 1 5th Street was bought in 1938 by Bishop "Daddy" Grace, evangelist, 
who aspires to the popularity achieved by Father Divine. 

The METROPOLITAN BAPTIST CHURCH, 151 West i28th Street, one of 
the larger and more influential Harlem churches, was founded in 1896 by 
a former slave, the Rev. Dr. Willis W. Brown, whose son is the present 
pastor. The church is the headquarters of the Negro Baptist Ministers 
Conference. 

One of the city's two synagogues for black Jews is the COMMANDMENT 
KEEPERS' CONGREGATION, 87 West i28th Street. Founded in 1919, it serves 
800 of Negro Harlem's 3,500 members of that faith. Eighty per cent of 
the congregation are Ethiopians, the others being American-born Negro 
converts. The synagogue is also the HEADQUARTERS OF THE ROYAL ORDER 
OF ETHIOPIAN HEBREWS, INC., a fraternal religious group dedicated to the 
study of the laws and culture of Israel. The congregation is orthodox; 
services are conducted in both Hebrew and English. Its members are not 
to be confused with the Falashas, Ethiopian Jews, a few of whom live in 
New York but keep themselves apart from both white and Negro Jews, 
maintaining that they are the only real Jews. The Falashas claim descent 
from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba ; the Ethiopians of the syna- 
gogue trace their descent from Judah and Benjamin. 

KINGS CHAPEL PENTECOSTAL ASSEMBLY, 2143 Fifth Avenue, is one 
of New York's few buildings in the "New International" style. A starkly 
simple structure, it was designed by Vertner W. Tandy and contains parts 
of two former dwellings on the site. 

On Seventh Avenue, near i3ist Street, is Harlem's LAFAYETTE THEA- 
TER in whose wings the Negro theater tradition in America has been 
made. On its stage have appeared in the last quarter of a century such 
famed Negro actors and actresses as Andrew Bishop, Frank Wilson, Rex 
Ingram, Inez Clough, Rose McClendon, Anita Bush, Laura Bowman, 
Leigh Whipper, "Black Patti' (Siseretta Jones), and many others. Since 
1935 the Lafayette has housed the WPA Federal Negro- Theater. In 1937 
it presented Orson Welles' unusual and notable version of Shakespeare's 
Macbeth, played with an all-Negro cast. 

On the sidewalk in front of the Lafayette stands the stump of the 
original TREE OF HOPE, a Harlem landmark for many years. Out-of- 
work Negro actors and actresses used to stand around the tree and ex- 
change information about jobs. When one of them got work he ascribed 
his good luck to the tree and would kiss it in gratitude. From this custom 
the tree acquired its name. When it had to be cut down because of age 
it was replaced by another that stands a few feet away. The new one was 



262 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

dedicated by Bill "Boj angles" Robinson, famed dancer and Harlem's 
leading stage luminary. One of the community's wealthiest and most 
active citizens, Robinson is also the locality mayor of Harlem. (A locality 
mayoralty is an unofficial position that is given to a popular citizen by 
other members of the community. ) 

Beale Street is the name applied to 13 3d Street, between Seventh and 
Lenox Avenues because of its similarity to the Memphis thoroughfare. In 
the 1920'$ the street was called "Jungle Alley" and was publicized as the 
primitive essence of Harlem life. Actually, however, Jungle Alley was 
a deliberately arranged show place for those willing to pay, and it suc- 
ceeded in drawing visitors from many parts of the world. The depression 
ended its popularity in the early 1930'$, and of the many gay spots that 
lined the street the Nest, Pod's and Jerry's, Mexico's only Dickie Wells' 
place remains. 

At 87 West 1 33d Street, Philip A. Payton, the Negro realtor instru- 
mental in bringing the Negro to Harlem, operated a real-estate office. The 
houses in this area were referred to in those days as "oatmeal flats," 
because the Negroes who lived in them, forced to pay disproportionately 
high rents, were left without sufficient money for food. 

ST. PHILIP'S P. E. CHURCH, 214 West i34th Street, is said to be the 
wealthiest Negro church in America. It owns a great deal of real estate, 
and by purchasing apartment buildings and renting them to Negroes the 
church was an important factor in the settlement of Harlem. The church 
structure, a plain edifice in red brick, completed in 1911, was designed by 
Vertner W. Tandy and George W. Foster, Negro architects, and cost 
$250,000. 

On or near 13 5th Street, especially where it crosses Seventh and Lenox 
Avenues, are many of the community's leading institutions: the HARLEM 
BRANCH OF THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION in a building 
at 1 80 West 1 3 5th Street (opened in 1933 at a cost of more than a 
million dollars), an important cultural and recreational center, and one 
of the few neighborhood places with hotel accommodations for Negroes; 
a BRANCH OF THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 103 West i35th Street, 
which houses the Schomburg Collection of four thousand books on the 
Negro; the local OFFICES OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, 224 West 13 5th Street, and the 
NEW YORK URBAN LEAGUE, 202 West i36th Street; two New York 
Negro newspapers: the Amsterdam News, 2271 Seventh Avenue, and the 
New York Age, 230 West i35th Street; and the many offices of Negro 
lawyers and doctors. 



NEGRO HARLEM 263 

In this vicinity numerous fraternal and political organizations parade 
and demonstrate, and here the Negroes gather when there is occasion for 
a celebration: a Joe Louis victory in the fight ring packs the streets. In 
summer the sidewalks are crowded with loiterers and strollers; the un- 
employed move chairs to the pavement and set up cracker boxes for 
checker games. On Lenox Avenue soapbox orators draw crowds nightly 
with lectures on everything from occultism to communism, one of the 
speakers being, inevitably, a disciple of Marcus Garvey, leader of the back- 
to- Africa movement, now an exile in England. 

SMALL'S PARADISE, 22941/2 Seventh Avenue, one of the three night 
clubs for which Harlem was famous in the 1920'$, still functions on 
Seventh Avenue; of the other two Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club 
the former went out of business and the latter is now in Times Square. 
Small's, under the name of the Black Venus, was described in Nigger 
Heaven^ a widely read novel by Carl Van Vechten, the first white novelist 
to discover "Hot Harlem." Within a few blocks of Small's are two other 
well-frequented night clubs with regular floor shows with Negro casts: 
the PLANTATION CLUB, 644 Lenox Avenue, and YEAH MAN, 2350 
Seventh Avenue; also, two of Harlem's best-known eating places, the 
MONTEREY, 2339 Seventh Avenue, and the LITTLE GRAY SHOP, 2465 
Seventh Avenue. 

The question of employment for Negroes in Negro-patronized institu- 
tions has been the subject of a long controversy at HARLEM HOSPITAL, 
1 36th Street and Lenox Avenue, a 365-bed municipal hospital. Though 
Negroes have been added to the medical staff from time to time, the 
majority of the staff are white; only one executive post, that of surgical 
director, is held by a Negro. The hospital, founded in 1887, has a train- 
ing school for Negro nurses. 

A block from the hospital, on Fifth Avenue between 1361!! and i3yth 
Streets, is the CENTRAL HARLEM HEALTH CENTER, a place of vital im- 
portance to this city-within-a-city. The center's chief work is preventive 
medicine, with emphasis on child care and on the checking of commu- 
nicable diseases. The center, the only place of its kind for the district's 
quarter-million population, is a three-story brick and stone building of 
Georgian Colonial design. It was opened in 1937, at a cose of $270,000 
and financed by Federal Government loans. 

The most popular religious denomination in Harlem is the Baptist, and 
Harlem has the world's largest church of that denomination, Negro or 
white the ABYSSINIAN BAPTIST CHURCH, 132 West i38th Street. 
Founded in 1808, it is the largest, oldest, and most influential Negro 



264 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

church in New York. It has a membership of more than 13,000, and more 
than thirty auxiliaries of the church are actively engaged in religious and 
community services, including a forum where Negro and white men and 
women of national prominence speak. Its pastor is the Reverend A. Clay- 
ton Powell, Jr., outstanding civic leader. The building, erected in 1923 at 
a cost of $334,000, is an imposing structure of New York blue stone. 
Of combined Gothic and Tudor styles, it was designed by a Negro archi- 
tect, Charles W. Bolton, and has served as a model for other churches in 
New York and elsewhere. 

In contrast with such imposing edifices as the Abyssinian Baptist Church, 
are the numerous "storefront" churches in almost every street. These are 
stores which have been converted into churches by installing rows of 
benches and a pulpit. They are usually bare of decoration, except for 
window curtains. 

West 1 38th and 139^1 Streets, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues, 
are known in Harlem as STRIVERS' Row because so many Negroes aspire 
to live in the attractive, tan-brick houses on these two tree-shaded streets. 
The residents are mostly of the better-paid, white-collar and professional 
class ; some rent furnished rooms in order to meet the comparatively high 
rental. The 130 dwellings were designed by Stanford White and erected 
shortly before the Negroes came to Harlem. The most interesting section 
of the row is the north side of 139^1 Street. Here dark brick and terra- 
cotta facades, enriched with wrought-iron balconies and delicate entry 
porch roofs, were designed with considerable artistry in the spirit of the 
Florentine Renaissance. 

Probably Harlem's best-known dance hall is the SAVOY BALLROOM, 
Lenox Avenue and i4Oth Street. Although patronized by many white per- 
sons it is the Negroes' own place. Many popular dances of the more ener- 
getic type have originated at the Savoy, including the Lindy Hop, Truckin', 
the Susie Q, and the Shag. The Negro orchestras that have played at the 
Savoy are among the leaders in the world of swing music and include 
those of Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Noble Sissle, 
Jimmie Lunceford, Chick Webb, Claude Hopkins, Willie Bryant, and 
Fletcher Henderson. 

A Negro unit of the New York State National Guard is housed at the 
369TH REGIMENT INFANTRY ARMORY, Fifth Avenue and 14 3d Street. 
During the World War, this regiment (then the Fifteenth) received from 
the French Government a collective citation for conspicuous valor and the 
Croix de Guerre was pinned to the regimental colors. The regiment is 



SPANISH HARLEM 265 

headed (1939) by Colonel Benjamin O. Davis; he and his son are the 
only Negro line officers in the United States Army. 

Sugar Hill, Harlem's finest residential section, is the neighborhood 
west of Eighth Avenue, from about i38th to 15 5th Street. Here, along 
Edgecombe, St. Nicholas, and Convent Avenues, are elaborately decorated 
apartment houses tenanted by Harlem's most successful citizens. Bill 
Robinson, Jack Johnson, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Harry Wills, 
George Schuyler, and Walter White are among those who live or have 
lived on Sugar Hill. One of the dwellings is the Florence Mills Apart- 
ments, Edgecombe Avenue and 15 3d Street, named in honor of the 
internationally famous Negro musical comedy star, who died in 1927. 

At the extreme northeastern end of Harlem, where Seventh Avenue 
and the Harlem River meet, are two of the locality's most important hous- 
ing developments. At Seventh Avenue and i5Oth Street are the PAUL 
LAURENCE DUNBAR APARTMENTS, occupying an entire city block. The 
six separate buildings, six stories high and of variegated red Holland 
brick, are grouped around a central garden, with a playground for the 
smaller children. The development, named for the noted Negro poet, was 
financed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and designed by Andrew J. Thomas. 
It was completed in 1928 and conducted on a co-operative basis until 
1936 when, as a result of many defaults in payment, Mr. Rockefeller 
foreclosed ; the Dunbar National Bank, in the building, the only bank in 
Harlem operated by Negroes, was subsequently liquidated. He reimbursed 
the former tenant-owners for their capital payments and operated the 
apartments on a rental basis, maintaining the same management and 
social activities. A block north, from i5istto i53d Street, are the Harlem 
River Houses (see page 392), the first example of large-scale public hous- 
ing in Manhattan. 

SPANISH HARLEM 

Area: E. 96th and W. noth Sts. on the south to E. u6th and i2oth Sts. on the 
north; from Lexington Ave. (96th to n6th St.) and Madison Ave. (n6th to i2oth 
St.) west to 5th Ave. (96th to noth St.) and Lenox Ave. (noth to i2oth St.). 
Map on page 255. 

Though called Spanish Harlem, this district is not the home of Span- 
iards but of Latin-Americans. European Spaniards have their own small 
colonies on West Fourteenth Street and in the vicinity of Cherry Street. 
Living in the Harlem quarter side by side are Puerto Ricans, Cubans, 



266 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

American Negroes, West Indian Negroes, South Americans, and Mexi- 
cans. Puerto Ricans are in the overwhelming majority, numbering about 
one hundred thousand persons, or 85 per cent of the area's population. 

Spanish Harlem first acquired its present character after the World 
War, when thousands of Puerto Ricans and Latin- Americans came to New 
York. Poverty, famine, or successive political upheavals in their native 
countries drove these people to the United States. They settled in Harlem 
because of the cheap rents and the sympathetic environment. Sixty per cent 
of the residents, however, have not been able to obtain regular employ- 
ment since their arrival. The section around the noth Street station of the 
Lexington Avenue subway, with its clutter of shops, tenements, and dime 
movie houses, is typical of the community. 

The neighborhood's more important business places are on Fifth and 
Madison Avenues, between noth and n6th Streets, and on n6th Street, 
east and west of Fifth Avenue. These range from small well-kept shops 
to fairly large and prosperous establishments. Numerous restaurants offer 
such typically Spanish food as arroz con polio (rice with chicken) and 
gazpacho (Andalusian stew). Much of their patronage is drawn from 
visitors, who have more money to spend than the local residents. Notice- 
able, too, is the number of music shops with large assortments of mando- 
lins, Spanish guitars, lutes, and bandurrias, phonograph records, and such 
sheet music as La Violetera (The Violet Seller), La Partida (The Part- 
ing), the universally popular La Paloma (The Dove), and other old 
favorites. 

The near-by side streets are crowded with lightly stocked drygoods 
stores, bodegas (grocery stores), and camcerias (meat stores) and with 
blocks of old, broken-down houses, their stoops alive with people. 

It is perhaps the PUBLIC MARKET PLACE that expresses most vividly 
the Latin-American character of the locality. The market, owned by the 
city, extends along Park Avenue under the New York Central viaduct, 
from i nth to n6th Street. Its block-long, steel-and-glass sheds, replace 
an old pushcart market. Besides little green limes, tangerines, oranges, 
bananas, and lemons, many tropical fruits grown in the various home- 
lands of the inhabitants of Spanish Harlem are in season displayed here. 
Piled high in the racks are avocados (sometimes called alligator pears), 
mangoes with their strong flavor of turpentine, guavas from Cuba, and 
melon-like papayas, the leaves of which the Puerto Rican wraps around 
tough meat to make it tender. Tamarinds are sold to make a lemonade- 
like drink called tamarindo; and the long brown roots of the tropical 
cassava swing overhead. 



SPANISH HARLEM 267 

Garbanzos (chick-peas), red kidney beans, dried peas, and lentils are 
in open sacks. Strings of fiery red peppers hang above their sweet-flavored 
kin, the pimientos. From the spice stalls women pick twenty or thirty 
different varieties which are mixed and stuffed into one bag. Fish of all 
kinds are on display, including huge tuna sold in slices. 

The women shoppers move about with dignity: fair-skinned Creoles 
with dark eyes, lean- faced, copper-complexioned Spanish Indians, sensitive- 
looking West Indian Negroes. Voices are musical, and bargaining is done 
in a friendly spirit. The first price asked is always more than the Puerto 
Rican vendor expects to receive: regatear (to bargain) is the custom in 
his country. 

To Spanish Harlemites bargaining is more than a tradition; to save a 
few pennies is a necessity. Those who succeed in finding employment work 
as poorly paid domestics or at menial occupations in hotels, laundries, 
cigar factories, or on Works Progress Administration projects; women 
and girls earn meager wages in local embroidery shops. Racial discrimi- 
nation and lack of opportunity to learn skilled trades have kept both 
sexes from better-paid jobs. 

Many Puerto Ricans suffer from malnutrition and are physically so 
underdeveloped that they are rejected for manual labor. Their diet in 
New York, except for the addition of a few vegetables, remains much the 
same as in their native land: a roll and black coffee for breakfast; for 
the other meals canned tomatoes, white rice, dried fish, and meat about 
twice a month. 

In Spanish Harlem, the death rate from tuberculosis is high compared 
to the 52 per 100,000 for white persons in New York as a whole: among 
white Puerto Ricans the rate is 200 per 100,000; for colored groups, 553 
per 100,000. The district's infant mortality rate is the highest in New York. 

With little money to spend, the residents of this neighborhood have 
few and simple amusements. They attend the cheap movie houses, and the 
TEATRO LATINO, at Fifth Avenue and noth Street, and the TEATRO 
HISPANO, at Fifth Avenue and n6th Street, which show Spanish-language 
films, many of them made in South America and Mexico. (The Hispano also 
presents Spanish vaudeville.) They gather in the evening at each other's 
homes to talk and entertain themselves over cups of black coffee. The dif- 
ferent national groups have their favorites among the inexpensive restau- 
rants and cabarets, where there is much music and festivity on Saturday 
nights. Several cafes and night clubs, featuring Cuban music, draw their 
patronage from the wealthier Spanish-speaking element and from visitors. 

Cock-fighting, a sport that is legal in Puerto Rico but illegal in New 



268 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

York, goes on now and then in Spanish Harlem. The place and time are 
carefully guarded; the audience gathers surreptitiously in a basement or 
empty room, where a small shallow wooden "ring" has been laid with 
dirt and sand. The cocks' steel-tipped talons are examined carefully by 
their sponsors. The birds are brushed, caressed, huskily exhorted, and then 
let loose amid excited betting and low-pitched cheering. Not till one of 
the cocks lies dead is the fight finished. Then the winner is embraced, 
washed, and hurried into hiding. 

Most of the Latin-Americans in Spanish Harlem are of peasant or peon 
stock. The majority are American citizens. (All Puerto Ricans are.) They 
have an intense love of their homelands, and despite an occasional flurry 
of nationalist jealousy, a warm sense of neighborhood solidarity. Almost 
all are propertyless working people. They have their own political clubs, 
and during the past few years some organizations that were once inter- 
ested primarily in the politics of the homelands, have become powerful 
pressure groups fighting for improved conditions in Spanish Harlem. As 
a result, their influence in city politics has increased. In 1937 this district 
elected O. Garcia-Rivera, a Puerto Rican lawyer, to the New York State 
Assembly. 

The majority of Spanish Harlemites are Roman Catholics. The neigh- 
borhood Catholic churches include ST. FRANCIS DE SALES, 137 East 96th 
Street; ST. CECILIA, 220 East io6th Street; and OUR LADY OF THE 
MIRACULOUS MEDAL, 77 St. Nicholas Avenue. The IGLESIA METODISTA 
EPISCOPAL, 1664 Madison Avenue, where services are held in Spanish, 
is an outgrowth of a Methodist mission among Puerto Ricans and other 
Spanish- speaking people in New York. 

The most important holiday observed in Spanish Harlem is Dia de la 
Raza (Day of the Spanish Race), celebrated on Columbus Day by all 
Spanish-speaking people. They hold a ceremony in front of the statue of 
Columbus a copy of the one in Madrid by Sunol, the Spanish sculptor- 
at the south end of the Central Park mall. 



ITALIAN HARLEM 

Area: 96th St. on the south to i2$th St. on the north; from Lexington Ave. (96th 
to 1 1 6th St.) and Madison Ave. (n6th to 12 5th St.) east to East River. Map 
on page 255. 

Italian Harlem comprises a district which borders on the East River and 
overlooks Ward's (see page 425) and Randall's Islands (see page 424) 



ITALIAN HARLEM 269 

and the Triborough Bridge (see page 390). The Second and Third Ave- 
nue els run through the neighborhood, adding their noise to the rumble 
of trucks that pass ceaselessly along First Avenue. Near the river are bulky 
gas tanks brown, massive, ugly, yet no more ugly than the houses hud- 
dled in their shadow. 

Of the present Harlem communities Italian Harlem was formed the 
earliest, drawing upon immigration from the i88o's through the i9io's. 
The Sicilian and southern Italians who crowded into Harlem's five-story 
tenements had left farm and village behind. Those from the same village 
clustered together, so that, like a jig-saw map, Italy fell town by town 
along the streets of Harlem. The new generation grew up in closely 
packed tenements, and its children now play about the dark cavernous 
doorways of these same buildings. By force of numbers the Italians 
stamped their imprint upon the neighborhood, although a score of nation- 
alities live in adjoining streets. The 150,000 persons in this area of one 
square mile make it the most densely populated section of Manhattan and 
the largest colony of Italian- Americans in the country. 

The traditionally carefree singing spirit of Italians pervades the 
crowded sidewalks of First Avenue, from loyth to n6th Streets. As in 
the market place of a Neapolitan village, the Italian housewives, and often 
the men themselves, haggle for greens, oils, and olives; cheese and maca- 
roni; sea urchins, devilfish, and razor clams which might have come 
directly from the Aegean Sea. The delicious and curiously shaped bread 
of Italy is displayed alongside children's underwear and men's work 
gloves. Finochio and pomegranates lie in bins next to those containing 
potatoes and the garlic-onions so relished by Sicilians. 

Along the market street are many cafes and restaurants small, modest 
places which preserve the air of their prototypes in Palermo, Naples, or 
Rome. The menu consists of native dishes spaghetti, minestrone, scallo- 
pine, chicken alia cacciatore, pizza. The coffee houses, neighborhood meet- 
ing places usually filled with sprightly conversation and cigar smoke, serve 
cafe espresso (Italian coffee made to order), and a wide variety of gaudy 
pastries. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON PARK, between First Avenue and the river, from 
i nth to 1 1 4th Street, is known as the Italian park. This is no vast land- 
scaped stretch of green, but its area of six square blocks is a retreat for 
the teeming section. It includes a swimming pool, a baseball diamond, 
handball and basketball courts, a children's playground, and alleys for 
boccie (the Italian version of bowling). In winter the bathhouse is used as 
a children's game room. 



270 MANHATTAN: THE HARLEMS 

The center of the religious life of the district is the CHURCH OF OUR 
LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL, 449 East ii5th Street. Overhead, from the 
rectory windows, two large Italian flags flap briskly. Inside the church is 
the shrine of Our Lady, enriched with precious jewels. The fiesta of Our 
Lady of Mount Carmel, the great religious and social event of the commu- 
nity, takes place on July 15, 16, and 17. It is suggestive of an old-world 
spectacle: the ritual procession, headed by a brass band and followed by 
clergy and the statue of the Virgin borne by the beneficiaries of "miracles," 
winds slowly through the bedecked streets. Donations, fluttering from the 
tenement windows, are caught and tossed into an outspread cloth or 
pinned to ornate banners. Many pilgrims walk barefooted. Occasionally 
the procession halts under the window of a particularly generous donor 
and the priest recites the Dispensorio while firecrackers explode and the 
throng stands with bowed heads. 

HAARLEM HOUSE, the oldest (1898) and most notable of Harlem's set- 
tlements, maintains headquarters at 311 East n6th Street. In addition to 
Americanization services and assistance to immigrants, the institution con- 
ducts a varied program of activities for the benefit of the poor classes 
in vocational and cultural subjects, clubs, games, debates, and forums 
and participates in progressive municipal campaigns. 

A radical change in the character of the district's river front was 
brought about by the construction of the East River Drive approach to 
the Triborough Bridge. The Drive borders the river from Ninety-second 
to 1 2 5th Streets, its clean wide sweep of roadway and adjoining land- 
scaped mall replacing the dumps, tenements, and shanties that had made 
an ugly stretch along the water front. Benches placed beneath trees on 
both sides of the Drive make it useful and attractive to residents of the 
neighborhood as well as to motorists. Because of the Drive the bordering 
avenue has become a likely place for real-estate development, and it is 
probable that luxurious apartment houses, like those on Sutton Place, 
Gracie Square, and East End Avenue, will soon rise here. 




Upper West Side and 
Northern Manhattan 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT RIVER- 
SIDE DRIVE MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS AND 
MANHATTANVILLE WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 
IN WOOD MARBLE HILL 



Area: 59th St. on the south to Harlem River Ship Canal (and Marble Hill) on the 

north; from the Hudson River east to Central Park, Morningside Ave., St. Nicholas 

Ave. (i25th to 1 5 5th St.), and the Harlem River. Maps on pages 54-55 and 293. 

Principal north-south streets: Broadway, Amsterdam Ave., Riverside Drive, and 

Henry Hudson Parkway. 

Principal cross streets: yzd, 86th, 96th, noth, I25th, I45th, I55th, iSist, and Dyck- 

man Sts. 

Transportation: IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local), 59th to 225th St. stations; 

8th Ave. (Independent) Washington Heights subway (local), 59th to 2oyth St. 

stations; 9th Ave. el, 59th to uoth St. stations; Fifth Ave. buses Nos. 4, 5, 8, and 

19; Broadway surface car. 

A ROCKY ridge rises gently on the west side of the city, between 59th 
Street and noth Street, and attains commanding elevations in the neigh- 
borhood of Washington Heights, where many fine residences and institu- 
tions have found an advantageous natural setting. Along the Hudson are 
Riverside, Fort Washington, Fort Tryon, and Inwood Hill parks. Above 

271 



272 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

1 1 oth Street, Morningside, St. Nicholas, Colonial, and High Bridge parks 
have been developed along the precipitous eastern edge of the ridge. 

The area west of Central Park is almost level except along the river ; but 
at 1 1 oth Street the terrain ascends abruptly to form Morningside Heights, 
on which stand the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Columbia Univer- 
sity, and other well-known institutions. At West 12 5th Street a broad and 
slanting ravine cuts across the ridge from Harlem Flats to the Hudson, 
forming the Manhattanville neighborhood. North of the ravine is St. 
Nicholas Heights, part of the eastern border of the Upper West Side. 
West and north, where the elevation is known as lower Washington 
Heights (or Hamilton Heights), the cross streets slope, often very steeply, 
toward the river, giving glimpses of the water and the wooded Jersey 
shore. Washington Heights proper extends from 15 5th to iy6th Street. 

The ridge forks at iy6th Street, one spur (Laurel Hill) bordering the 
Harlem River and the other (Long Hill) the Hudson, with Broadway 
descending the narrow valley between them to the Inwood plain. Across 
the Harlem and northeast of Inwood Hill Park is the Marble Hill section, 
a part of the borough of the Bronx geographically, but still under the 
jurisdiction of the borough of Manhattan. 

Broadway runs through this section, crossing 23Oth Street, Manhattan's 
northern boundary line. From Columbus Circle to iSist Street it is simply 
the main street of a large and prosperous residential district. Hundreds of 
thousands of shoppers, movie-goers, diners, and strollers, whose homes 
are in the phalanxed apartment buildings and hotels near by, crowd this 
wide thoroughfare. Yet the promenades and benches of the central parking 
retain for the street a suburban atmosphere of neighborliness and leisure. 

St. Nicholas Avenue cuts into the section at about 12 5th Street, and 
the Harlem River Driveway begins west of the Polo Grounds at 15 5th 
Street, below Coogan's Bluff. 

Riverside Drive, beginning at Seventy- second Street and ending at Dyck- 
man Street, precariously follows the western edge of the ridge. The River- 
side Church, Grant's Tomb, the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 
and the Cloisters are visible from the Drive. On the lowlands between the 
ridge and the Hudson River runs the Henry Hudson Parkway a through 
highway connecting with the Westchester County Parkway system and 
the newly built river terraces. 

The area between Broadway and the Hudson River from Fifty-ninth to 
Seventieth Street is a plebeian district. Above Fifty-ninth Street several 
avenues change their names : Eighth Avenue to Central Park West ; Ninth 



INTRODUCTION 273 

Avenue to Columbus Avenue, which ends at Cathedral Parkway (noth 
Street) ; Tenth Avenue to Amsterdam Avenue; Eleventh Avenue to West 
End Avenue. Despite its change of name, Columbus Avenue, burdened 
with the el, remains a shabby back street of Central Park West. 

The area from what is now 59th to 13 5th Street was part of the region 
called Bloemendael (vale of flowers) by the Dutch in patriotic remem- 
brance of a town near Haarlem in the old country. In the vicinity of looth 
Street was Bloomingdale Village; well into the last century the tract of 
farms and country estates on the Upper West Side was known as the 
Bloomingdale district. Washington Irving in his Knickerbocker's History 
of New York described this section as "a sweet rural valley, beautiful with 
many a bright flower, refreshed by many a pure streamlet, and enlivened 
here and there by a delectable little Dutch cottage, sheltered under some 
sloping hill; and almost buried in embowering trees." 

During the period of Dutch settlement a road led through the 12 5th 
Street ravine, called the Widow David's Meadow, to the Hudson River, 
where, as now, a ferry plied to Jersey. The tribes who occupied Manhattan 
north of the ravine were not parties to the Minuit purchase and treaty, 
and their resentment of Dutch encroachment upon their territory led to 
sporadic warfare. In the 1640*5 Governor Kieft added to the natives' 
indignation by apportioning their land to various grantees and finally in 
1655 the Indians raided and destroyed a village in the Marble Hill region, 
ending further Dutch settlement. Under English rule in the i68o's farmers 
began to develop the "Great Maize Land" the fertile Inwood valley 
through which an Indian trail ran. In 1693 Frederick Philipse built a 
bridge the King's Bridge over Spuyten Duyvil ("in spite of the Devil") 
Creek, near what is now the junction of West 2 3Oth. Street and Marble 
Hill Avenue. Later, the trail leading to the bridge became the Kingsbridge 
Road, which, across the Harlem, divides into the Boston and the Albany 
Post Roads. 

Bloomingdale Road was opened in 1703, running from what is now 
Twenty-third Street to ii4th Street; in 1795 it was extended to i47th 
Street where it joined Kingsbridge Road. Following the opening of the 
highway, more of the land on the Upper West Side was brought under 
cultivation, and the establishment of country estates there and farther 
north was begun in the pre-Revolutionary period. 

The development of the region was accelerated during the Federal 
period. Under the gridiron plan of 1811 the city was laid out in broad 
avenues and narrow cross streets as far north as i45th Street. In the first 
decade of the nineteenth century the village of Manhattanville grew up 



274 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

in the valley known in Revolutionary days as the Hollow Way ; the village 
occupied the area between West 12 5th and i35th Streets. 

In 1851 the Hudson River Railroad from New York to Albany was 
opened, with several local stations in upper Manhattan; but it was not 
until the opening of the Western Boulevard in 1869 that the rural charac- 
ter of the section began to change. This thoroughfare, known simply as 
the Boulevard and becoming a part of Broadway in 1899, started at Fifty- 
ninth Street and followed the general direction of the old Bloomingdale 
Road. During the 1890*5 it was a favorite route of bicycle riders. The 
Ninth Avenue el was extended through the Upper West Side in 1879; 
and in 1891 the first part of Riverside Drive was completed. Mansions, 
hotels, and apartments, many of them still standing, were built in the area 
west of Central Park. Trolley and subway services to the northern localities 
were established in the first years of the century, and with a building boom 
in the 1920*5 this part of the neighborhood acquired its present middle- 
class aspect. 

The entire region is rich in historic memorials. The house built by 
Roger Morris in 1765, now known as the Jumel Mansion, stands at Edge- 
combe Avenue and i6oth Street. During the Revolution the Morris home 
served as a headquarters for both American and British forces. The home 
of the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton Grange (on Convent Ave- 
nue north of 141 st Street), is typical of the country homes of the post- 
Revolutionary period. 

Two important battles, fought in 1776, are recalled by markers through- 
out this upper portion of Manhattan: the Battle of Harlem Heights and 
the Battle of Fort Washington. Following the defeat of the New York 
City defenders in the Battle of Long Island, August 27, the city itself was 
easily captured by the British on September 15, the defenders hastily re- 
treating to their fortified heights north of the 12 5th Street ravine to the 
Spuyten Duyvil. The Battle of Harlem Heights occurred September 16. A 
detachment of Americans, descending into the Hollow Way, succeeded in 
drawing a British advance force down into the valley and into an attack. 
The British retreated and entrenched themselves until, on being reinforced 
shortly afterward, they took a stand in a buckwheat field (now the site of 
Barnard College). The Americans, also receiving further support, drove 
the British back to the neighborhood of what is now io5th Street, where 
the fighting ceased on the appearance of more British and Hessian troops 
sent up by General Howe. Called an "affair of outposts" by General 
Howe, the Battle of Harlem Heights was important in that it raised the 
morale of Washington's hard pressed militia. 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 275 

In October General Howe, with the aid of the British fleet, attempted 
to attack the rear guard of Washington's army. To thwart the British plans, 
Washington led his divisions across King's Bridge and into Westchester, 
leaving behind a garrison at Fort Washington under Colonel Robert 
Magaw. The fort was a five-bastioned earthwork west of what is now 
Fort Washington Avenue and about in the line of i83d Street. 

On November 16 a battle took place. The Americans were completely 
surrounded: two columns of Hessians under General von Knyphausen 
assaulted the outworks on Long Hill, one scaling the hill from the north, 
the other from the east. Under a bombardment from the east bank of the 
Harlem (Fordham Heights), General Cornwallis crossed the river at 2oist 
Street. Lower down, the Forty-second Highlanders crossed the river at 
about High Bridge. British troops under Lord Percy advanced from the 
south, and warships fired from the Hudson. 

The defenders of the outworks were killed, captured, or driven within 
the untenable fort ; and Colonel Magaw surrendered. The defense of Fort 
Washington had been a mistake, and the loss of many of Washington's 
best-equipped men 54 killed and 2,634 captured was disastrous. Until 
the close of the war British and Hessian troops were encamped within the 
repaired fortifications of the heights. The outwork on Long Hill was 
renamed Fort Tryon, after William Tryon, last English civil governor of 
New York, and the present Fort Tryon Park includes the site. 

CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 

Area: 59th St. on the south to noth St. (Cathedral Parkway) on the north; from 
Central Park West to the West Side Highway and Riverside Drive. Map on 
page 277. 

This district, encroached upon by two run-down areas Middle West 
Side on the south and Harlem on the northeast is bordered by three of 
Manhattan's aristocratic thoroughfares, West End Avenue, Riverside Drive 
(see page 284), and Central Park West. The last-named street, a continua- 
tion of Eighth Avenue, has one of the most distinctive sky lines in the 
city, which can be seen to better advantage from various points in Central 
Park than from the street itself. Dominating the sky line are the towers of 
five apartment buildings, set between Sixty-second and Ninety-second 
Streets. 

The CENTURY APARTMENTS, designed by the office of Irwin S. Chanin, 
architects, and constructed in 1931, fronts Central Park West from Sixty- 



276 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 



KEY TO MAP OF UPPER FIFTH AVENUE, CENTRAL PARK SOUTH, 
CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT, AND RIVERSIDE DRIVE 

CENTRAL PARK SOUTH, THE PLAZA, AND FIFTY-SEVENTH % STREET 



1. Hotel Pierre 

2. Metropolitan Club 

3. Sherry-Netherland Hotel 

4. Savoy-Plaza Hotel 

5. Squibb Building 

6. Heckscher Building 

7. Dobbs Building 

8. Pulitzer Memorial Fountain 

9. Statue of General Sherman 

10. Hotel Plaza 

11. Hotel St. Moritz 



12. Barbizon Plaza Hotel 

13. Hampshire House 

14. Essex House Hotel 

15. New York Athletic Club 

16. Steinway Hall 

17. Carnegie Hall 

18. Gainsborough Studios 

19. Fine Arts Building 
Art Students League 

20. Federal Art Project Gallery 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 



21. Church of St. Paul the Apostle 

22. Columbus Circle Garage 

23. Twelfth Regiment Armory 

24. New York WPA Headquarters 

25. Statue of Dante 

26. Empire Hotel 

27. Site of the Century Theater 
Century Apartments 

28. Y.M.C.A., West Side Branch 

29. Society for Ethical Culture 
Ethical Culture School 

30. Free Synagogue 

31. Congregation Shearith Israel 

32. Majestic Apartments 
Explorers Club 

33. Dakota Apartments 

34. Sherman Square 

35. Verdi Square 

Statue of Giuseppe Verdi 

36. Ansonia Hotel 



37. West End Collegiate Church 

38. Collegiate School 

39. Apthorp Apartments 

40. First Baptist Church 

41. New York School of Fine and 

Applied Art 

42. New York Historical Society 

43. Museum of Natural History 

44. Roosevelt Memorial Building 

45. Hayden Planetarium 

46. Congregation B'nai Jeshurun 

47. Walden School 

48. Trinity School 

49. Pomander Walk 

50. First Church of Christ Scientist 

51. Straus Park 

Straus Memorial Fountain 

52. National Academy of Design 

53. Sixtieth Street Yards of the New 
York Central Railroad 



RIVERSIDE DRIVE 

(Also see map on page 293) 



54. Monument to Henry Hudson 

55. Charles M. Schwab Mansion 

56. Mount Tom 

57. Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument 



58. Statue of Joan of Arc 

59. Firemen's Memorial 

60. Bust of Orestes A. Brownson 

61. Master Institute of United Arts 

Continued on Page 278 



/NORTH MEADOW 
"LA^GROUND 



UPPER FIFTH AVENUE 



CENTRAL PARK SOUTH 



CENTRAL PARK WEST 
RIVERSIDE DRIVE 




278 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

second to Sixty-third Street. It occupies the site of New York's most spec- 
tacularly unsuccessful theater. The playhouse, which had been erected in 
1909 at a cost of three million dollars, was intended for a national theater 
free of commercialism. It had a prominent horseshoe of boxes for the use 
of its many wealthy backers. After two years of epic striving the New 
Theater, as it was called, had netted a deficit of $400,000 and the charge 
of being a "Shrine of Snobbery." It was rechristened the Century Theater 
in 1911; the Century Opera House in 1913; the Century again in 1915, 
with Ziegfeld presenting musical shows. But despite a magnificent inte- 
rior, no change in name, management, or type of performance seemed able 
to overcome the handicap of the out-of-the-way location. 

At 5 West Sixty-third Street is the West Side branch of the YOUNG 
MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. Besides a dormitory and a gymnasium, 
the West Side "Y" operates trade schools that enroll some two thousand 
students annually. The immense building, architecturally reminiscent of 
North Italian Romanesque brickwork, is the work of James Dwight Baum. 

The two buildings on Central Park West between Sixty-third and Sixty- 
fourth Streets house the SOCIETY FOR ETHICAL CULTURE and the mid- 
town ETHICAL CULTURE SCHOOL. Founded in 1876 by Dr. Felix Adler, 
the society emphasizes direct moral teachings without alliance to creed or 
sect. It is perhaps best known for its experiments in advanced educational 
methods among children, which are studied by educators from all parts 
of the world. The Ethical Culture School System developed from the first 
free kindergarten in New York, established by the society in 1878, and 
from the Working Man's School of the United Relief Works, opened 
by the society shortly thereafter. Classes in the Ethical Culture Schools 
range from the pre-kindergarten to the graduate school for women. 
Fieldston, a junior high and college preparatory school, is at River dale, 



Continued from Page 276 

UPPER FIFTH AVENUE 

62. Residence of Mayor La Guardia 67. New York Academy of Medicine 

63. Flower Hospital 68. Mount Sinai Hospital 
Fifth Avenue Hospital 69. Felix M. Warburg Home 
New York Medical College 70. Andrew Carnegie Mansion 

64. New York Society for Preven- 71. Metropolitan Museum of Art 

tion of Cruelty to Children 72. Frick (Mansion) Collection 

65. Heckscher Foundation 73. Temple Emanu-El 

66. Museum of City of New York 74. Bache (Mansion) Collection 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 279 

the Bronx. Robert D. Kohn, architect and president of the society, designed 
the society building, 2 West Sixty-fourth Street, in which the Sunday 
meetings are held. The building deviates considerably from the classic 
tradition and is characterized by originality in its details. The auditorium, 
well suited to the community character of the Sunday services, has fine 
wood carving and simple vaulting that are noteworthy. 

At 40 West Sixty-eighth Street is the FREE SYNAGOGUE. (Carnegie Hall 
is used by the congregation on major holidays and on Sunday mornings.) 
It was founded in 1907 by Rabbi Stephen S. Wise as a free pulpit that 
could be used not only to convey a religious message, but could serve 
also as a public forum. Rabbi Wise has been prominent in civic re- 
form movements and is an ardent Zionist and eloquent leader of Ameri- 
can Jewry. He is founder and president of the Jewish Institute of Religion, 
a rabbinical training school which is unusual in that preparation is offered 
for leadership in conservative, reformed, or orthodox synagogues. It has 
headquarters in the Free Synagogue building. 

CONGREGATION SHEARITH ISRAEL, Central Park West and Seventieth 
Street, is the oldest Jewish congregation in America. It was founded in 
1655 by Spanish and Portuguese Jews who had fled the Inquisition, first 
to Brazil and then to New Amsterdam. Their first synagogue was a mill 
loft; after several moves the congregation occupied the present quarters in 
1897. Designed by Bruner and Tryon, the synagogue is late Italian 
Renaissance in style. One of the rooms, used as a chapel, is furnished with 
fixtures and religious ornaments from the first synagogue built by the 
Congregation in 1730. Numerous photographs and paintings of historical 
interest are in other rooms. Commodore Uriah P. Levy, who was respon- 
sible for the abolition of corporal punishment in the United States Navy ; 
Emma Lazarus, one of whose poems is inscribed on the Statue of Liberty ; 
and U.S. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo were members of 
Congregation Shearith Israel. 

The twin-towered MAJESTIC APARTMENTS, 115 Central Park West, 
was, like the Century, built by Irwin S. Chanin. Within, are the quarters 
of the exclusively masculine EXPLORERS CLUB, founded in 1904. Dr. 
Vilhjalmur Stefansson is president, and the membership of about six hun- 
dred includes most of the noted American explorers. The quarters contain 
a Museum of Exploration (not open to the public) displaying materials 
used by famous explorers, among them Stefansson, Peary, and Bartlett; 
the club owns a number of manuscripts of historic value. 

The browned and mellowed yellow-brick building on Central Park West 
between Seventy-second and Seventy-third Streets is the DAKOTA APART- 



280 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

MENTS, whose gables, oriel windows, cupolas, and pinnacled dormers re- 
call the elegant i88o's. The entrance is through an arched gateway on 
Seventy-second Street (closed at midnight) which gives access to an inte- 
rior court, decorated by two fountains. The building, which dates from 
1 88 1, still uses its original elevators powered by steam pumps. 

The NEW YORK HISTORICAL -SOCIETY is on Central Park West between 
Seventy-sixth and Seventy- seventh Streets. The society, founded in 1804, 
is the second oldest of its kind in America. The central section of the pres- 
ent building was erected in 1908 from plans by York and Sawyer. In 
1937-8 two wings were added and alterations made from plans by Walker 
and Gillette. 

In addition to a library and art galleries, the building features a museum 
of Americana containing sleighs, waistcoats, war feathers, bows and ar- 
rows; souvenirs of the New York Volunteer Fire Department; and the 
lead remains of the Bowling Green statue of King George III that 
was torn down and used for bullets by the Liberty Boys during the Rev- 
olutionary War. (Museum open weekdays 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sunday and 
holidays 1 to 5 p.m.; library open daily except Sunday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.) 
Among the collections are the Schuyler and De Peyster family silver ; the 
sculptures of Charles Allen Munn and John Rogers ; 460 original Audubon 
water-color drawings for Birds of America; and a wealth of documents 
and maps pertaining to the port of New York. The American portrait gal- 
lery has works of such artists as Gilbert Stuart, John Trumbull, Benjamin 
West, and Daniel Huntington. Included among the European paintings are 
groups representing various schools of the Italian Renaissance. The soci- 
ety's collection of Egyptian Antiquities is now in the Brooklyn Museum 
(see page 488). 

. The American Museum of Natural History and the Hayden Planetarium 
(see page 358) are between Seventy- seventh and Eighty-first Streets, 
Columbus Avenue and Central Park West. At i West Eighty-eighth Street 
are the buildings of the WALDEN SCHOOL, established in 1914, a pioneer 
in progressive education. Classes run from nursery through high school. 
The building is decorated with friezes and murals by the children. 

TRINITY SCHOOL, a preparatory day school for boys, at 139 West 
Ninety-first Street, was established in 1709 by the English Venerable So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. For 125 years 
it gave virtually all the free instruction in the city; today it operates as a 
private school charging tuition fees. College preparatory courses are sup- 
plemented by instruction in the doctrines of the Episcopal Church. 

The FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST occupies the north corner 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 281 

at Ninety-sixth Street and Central Park West. The design of the building, 
by Carrere and Hastings, is eclectic. The granite exterior shows English 
Renaissance characteristics, while the handsome interior, with its rich 
marbles and gracefully curving stairways, recalls the style of the French 
Renaissance. The church was erected in 1903. 

Ninety-ninth Street between Central Park West and Columbus Avenue 
is occupied by a Negro colony, an outpost of Harlem. 

The Broadway Section 

On the southwest corner of Sixtieth Street and Columbus Avenue, a 
block west of Broadway, is the CHURCH OF ST. PAUL THE APOSTLE, home 
of the Paulist Fathers, an indigenous Catholic order, founded in 1858. 

A dozen of the most typically American artists of the i88o's con- 
tributed to the interior design of this church but the structure was largely 
planned by the Paulist Fathers themselves. The massive ruggedness of the 
sparsely ornamented granite exterior contrasts strongly with the richness 
of the interior, which contains work by the sculptors Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens, Bela Pratt, Frederick MacMonnies, and Philip Martiny; the 
painters John La Farge, William Laurel Harris, Marquis Wentworth, and 
Robert Reid; and Stanford White and Bertram Goodhue. The architect 
was Jeremiah O'Rourke. The original plans of the church were considera- 
bly modified by Father George Deshon, a West Point graduate, and this 
fact, together with the simplicity of the exterior, once gave the building 
the sobriquet of "Father Deshon's fort." Construction was begun in 1876. 

The TWELFTH REGIMENT ARMORY, the headquarters of the 21 2th 
Coast Artillery and the Coast Artillery Brigade, fronts Columbus Avenue 
from Sixty-first to Sixty-second Street. Built in 1887 by army engineers, 
it is a castellated structure of red brick with granite trim, which has served 
as a background for motion-picture shots representing medieval forts. 

A very different type of architectural achievement is the COLUMBUS 
CIRCLE AUTOMATIC GARAGE at Sixty-first Street and Columbus Avenue, 
whose almost windowless orange-colored walls rise simply and directly for 
twenty-seven stories. The design by Jardine, Hill, and Murdock suggests 
the simplicity and functionalism of an American grain elevator. 

At Sixty-fourth Street, Broadway intersects Columbus Avenue, forming 
LINCOLN SQUARE. Here, flanked on the south by the towering Empire Hotel 
(44 West Sixty-third Street) and the huge loft building (70 Columbus 
Avenue) that serves as headquarters for all New York City WPA proj- 
ects except the Arts group, is the small DANTE PARK with a bronze statue 
of the author of the Dtv'ma Commedia. The architects, Warren and Wet- 



282 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN " 

more, and the sculptor, Ettore Ximenes, have adhered to the traditional 
conception of Dante as a figure of quiet austerity. 

Where Broadway crosses Amsterdam Avenue at West Seventy- second 
Street, two blocks west of Central Park West, are VERDI SQUARE, to the 
north, and SHERMAN SQUARE, to the south, irregular spaces left over from 
the unfortunate intersection of -too many streets. Within the former, a 
heroic bronze STATUE OF GIUSEPPE VERDI stands on a fifteen-foot granite 
pedestal. Grouped around the pedestal are four life-size figures depicting 
characters in the composer's operas. The monument, sculptured by Pas- 
quale Civiletti, was erected in 1906 by the Italian community. 

The neighborhood was built up in the 1890*5 when brownstone, an 
easily worked stone available in the vicinity of New York, was adapted 
to prevailing architectural fashions. The rows of buildings that survive in 
the cross streets cut by Broadway present a picture of the changing tastes 
of the final years of the nineteenth century. Many of them, particularly 
those in the lower Seventies, were built for speculative purposes in block- 
long rows of identical houses. Others, particularly in the Eighties, were 
built singly, each house, though limited by a twenty- or twenty-five foot 
frontage, attempting to outdo architecturally its many neighbors. The 
result was frequently a brown "wedding cake" facade with overrich orna- 
mentations, cornices, gables, dormers, and bay windows. 

Many hotels are near the two squares. Those built in the early years 
of this century are recognizable by their rococo exteriors. In their day 
this excessive ornamentation was an admired importation, representing 
as it did the influence of the ficole des Beaux-Arts upon American archi- 
tects who studied in Paris. Perhaps the most distinguished survivor of the 
buildings of that time is the sixteen-story ANSONIA, 2107 Broadway, de- 
signed by H. J. Hardenbergh, and built in 1900. The interior has been 
modernized. Many celebrities have made their homes here, including 
Florenz Ziegfeld, Babe Ruth, Giovanni Martinelli, Mischa Elman, and 
Theodore Dreiser. 

At 241 West Seventy- seventh Street, near West End Avenue, is the 
COLLEGIATE SCHOOL, established by the Dutch in 1637, and in continu- 
ous operation since, except for a brief suspension during the British occu- 
pation. Adjoining the school is the WEST END COLLEGIATE CHURCH 
(Dutch Reformed). This group of buildings, designed by R. W. Gibson 
and erected in 1892, is an excellent example of Dutch architecture. The 
school building is a close copy of the Vleeschhuis the market building 
of Haarlem, Holland but the group as a whole shows a highly creative 
use of historic Flemish forms. Peculiarly Dutch are the stepped gables, 



CENTRAL PARK WEST DISTRICT 283 

the fine modeling of terra-cotta ornament, and the skillful handling of 
long bricks. 

Occupying the block between Seventy-eighth and Seventy-ninth Streets, 
Broadway and West End Avenue, is the massive APTHORP APARTMENTS, 
a twelve-story building surrounding a court. Large archways mark the 
entrances to the court, on both Broadway and West End Avenue. At 
Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street is the FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, referred 
to as the "Mother of Churches" by the Baptists for its role in founding 
other churches of this denomination in America. The congregation had 
its origin in 1728 in group meetings of the Baptists; their first church, on 
Gold Street, was not built until 1745. The present structure was erected 
during 1891-2. 

The NEW YORK SCHOOL OF FINE AND APPLIED ART, a block north 
at 2237 Broadway, was founded in 1896 by Frank A. Parsons and 
inaugurated in 1904 the first course in interior decoration taught in 
any American art school. Its reference library contains more than ten 
thousand photographic plates of interiors and other material on the decora- 
tive arts. The school has branches in Paris and Italy. 

At 257 West Eighty-eighth Street, west of Broadway, is the synagogue 
of CONGREGATION B'NAI JESHURUN (Conservative). The building was 
designed by Henry Beaumont Herts and Walker Schneider and was built 
in 1918. Its facade is a striking composition featuring a tall Romanesque 
portal ; the interior, which is pleasantly arranged, is decorated with intense 
polychrome ornament. 

Between Broadway and West End Avenue, and running from Ninety- 
fourth Street to Ninety-fifth Street, is POMANDER WALK, a double row of 
small English-style houses, built in 1921, intended for and first occupied 
by theatrical people. The houses took their name from a little street of 
the London suburb, Chiswick, publicized in 1911 in the play Pomander 
Walk, produced in New York and London. At io6th Street, where West 
End Avenue terminates in Broadway, is a triangular park containing a 
FOUNTAIN IN MEMORY OF ISIDOR AND IDA STRAUS, philanthropists 
who lost their lives in the Titanic disaster. The monument, designed by 
Evarts Tracy, is the work of the sculptor, Augustus Lukeman. 

The NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN, established in 1825 by a group 
of rebel students from the American Academy of the Fine Arts, is at 
io9th Street and Amsterdam Avenue. It offers free day and evening 
courses in nearly all branches of the fine arts. Samuel F. B. Morse, inven- 
tor and portrait painter, was its first president, and the present one, Jonas 
Lie, is well known as a painter of sea subjects. 



284 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

The respectable calm of this Central Park West District has been occa- 
sionally ruffled. In one block of West Seventies, for example, showgirl 
Dot King and Joseph P. Elwell were both murdered. In 1931, more than 
10,000 spectators lined West Ninetieth Street while 150 policemen be- 
sieged notorious "Two-gun" Crowley and captured him after a rattling 
small-arms battle. These events, however, are no more typical of the nor- 
mal life of the neighborhood than is the Explorers Club. 



RIVERSIDE DRIVE 

Area: j2d Street to Dyckman Street bordering the Hudson River. Maps on pages 277 
and 293. 

Riverside Drive, like Wall Street, is a national symbol of wealth, but 
unlike Wall Street it has never quite deserved its reputation. From the 
1890*5 until after the World War, to be sure, it was popular with the 
newly rich, whose ornate gray and brownstone battlemented houses bore 
witness to economic success; yet, lacking an old- family tradition, it never 
rivaled streets like Fifth Avenue in the esteem of fashionable society. In 
its location, however, with its fine parks, and impressive buildings and 
monuments, Riverside Drive is unsurpassed by any street in New York. 

The Drive rides the precipitous western escarpment of the island from 
Seventy-second Street to Dyckman Street, winding, rising, dipping, for 
almost seven miles, yet always maintaining an elevation that permits a 
spreading view of the Hudson River, the Palisades, and the George Wash- 
ington Bridge. The Drive is walled off on the east by apartment houses, 
old and new, a few mansions, some notable institutions, and occasional 
blocks of converted dwellings where a twenty-dollar-a-week clerk may rent 
a small room and write the folks back home that he is living on the Drive. 

Along the slope between the high roadway and the river, a narrow park 
borders the Drive for most of its length; this strip of greenery is named 
RIVERSIDE PARK up to 15 8th Street where it becomes FORT WASHINGTON 
PARK. At the very edge of the river, and superseding the Drive as a 
through automobile route, run the twin lanes of the new HENRY HUDSON 
PARKWAY, which connects with the West Side highway below Seventy- 
second Street and empties into the Saw Mill River Parkway at the West- 
chester County line. This road is intended eventually to form part of a 
continuous express route around Manhattan's rim. 

But the roadway is only one feature of a $24,000,000 development 



RIVERSIDE DRIVE 285 

planned for the area between the river and Riverside and Fort Washing- 
ton parks. An extensive system of public playgrounds, nearing completion 
in 1939, includes tennis, basketball, handball, and horseshoe courts, soft- 
ball and baseball diamonds, football and athletic fields, roller-skating 
rinks, cycle paths, playgrounds for small children, and additional facilities 
for shuffleboard, paddle tennis, and dancing. At Seventy-ninth Street, 
looking out over the river, is a handsome granite structure, the center of a 
recreation area that includes a wading pool and sports fields. In the techni- 
cal language of the Henry Hudson Parkway Authority, however, it is 
known as a grade elimination structure. The roadway on its roof is one 
petal of a cloverleaf which sorts traffic to and from the Drive. A circular 
opening in the center of the petal permits a passing view of a huge foun- 
tain far below. On the river side a colonnade and a porch esplanade over- 
look a small yacht basin. The basement is a two-hundred-car garage. 

That part of the park not devoted to playgrounds is being landscaped. 
First, the ugly New York Central Railroad tracks, whose presence here 
has been a point of controversy in the State Legislature, have been 
covered by a concrete roof as far as i24th Street. This roof, in turn, 
has been transformed into a wide pedestrian promenade with flower beds 
running down the center. One hundred and thirty-two acres have been 
added to the park by this improvement and by filling in and straightening 
the jagged edge of the foreshore. The parkway runs on parts of this made 
land. The landscaping scheme provides for the planting of large shade 
trees at the outskirts to furnish a towering green background for masses 
of colorful flowering shrubs. 

The terraces breaking the sharp slope leading down to the river wind 
along the water front, sometimes as a narrow strip of green and some- 
times jutting out surprisingly into a wide space of well-kept mall or 
wooded park. Auto parkway and pedestrian footways curl around and 
over hills and up and down the difficult ascent. Opposite Fort Washing- 
ton Park, changing sunlight plays against the reddish-ochre fluted cliffs 
of the Palisades on the New Jersey shore, reached by way of George 
Washington Bridge or Dyckman Street Ferry. 

When "the fleet's in," battleships line the Hudson from the Battery 
to Spuyten Duyvil. At night the crisscrossing beams of their searchlights 
fill the sky over the whole city with a strange and shifting brilliance, 
while sailors on leave and their friends congregate in the park. 

Early in the nineteenth century this western shore line was occupied 
principally by squatters and their goats. In 1872, after the introduction of 
a bill in the 1866 Legislature, the property was acquired by the city. De- 



286 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

signed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the landscape architect who revolu- 
tionized America's ideas on park planning, the Drive was completed from 
Seventy-second Street to i29th Street by 1885; the year 1902 saw the 
opening of the viaduct that crosses 96th Street. Not until the end of 1908 
was the next stretch built as far as i45th Street, and several years later 
another ten-block jump joined the Drive with another road, between 15 5th 
and Dyckman Streets, which had been in use since 1896. In its early days, 
the Drive was the favorite place to show off a fashionable equipage. 

Where the Drive begins at Seventy-second Street is a weather-beaten 
bronze MONUMENT TO HENRY HUDSON, erected in 1909 by the Colonial 
Dames of America to commemorate the tercentenary of Hudson's dis- 
covery of the river. For most visitors, however, the Drive begins at the 
CHARLES M. SCHWAB MANSION, which lords over the square block from 
Seventy-third to Seventy- fourth Street. It was designed by Maurice Ebert 
and is said to have cost more than $2,500,000. The central fagade is 
reminiscent of the chateau of Chenonceaux, and the sides, of the castles 
of Blois and Azay-le-Rideau. 

A rocky knob at Eighty-fourth Street and the Drive, its outline barely 
softened by trees and bushes, is known as MOUNT TOM. Here Edgar 
Allan Poe, living in the neighborhood in the summers of 1843 an d 1844, 
used to sit alone for hours gazing at the Hudson. 

At Eighty-ninth Street, on a magnificent site, the SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' 
MONUMENT, completed in 1902 at a cost of a quarter of a million dol- 
lars, honors the Union fighters in the Civil War. The monument, more 
sculpture than architecture to many, lacks the clarity of form and simplicity 
of some of the better American memorials. The architects were Charles W. 
and Arthur A. Stoughton and Paul E. Duboy. Near the monument, can- 
non have been mounted on rough-hewn granite boulders. 

At Ninety-third Street a bronze equestrian STATUE OF JOAN OF ARC, 
cast from a model by Anna Hyatt Huntington, is mounted on a base 
containing fragments from Rheims Cathedral, scene of the Maid's great- 
est triumph, and stones from the Tower of Rouen, where she awaited trial 
and death. The FIREMEN'S MEMORIAL at looth Street is a colossal tablet 
flanked on both sides by heroic figures representing Courage and Duty. 
The sculptor was Attilio Piccirilli. A bas-relief on the tablet depicts 
one of the colorful horse-drawn engines which constituted New York's 
fire-fighting equipment in 1913, when the memorial was erected. 

In Riverside Park, near io2d Street, is a BUST OF ORESTES AUGUSTUS 
BROWN SON (1803-1876), cast after a model by Samuel Kitson. Brownson 
was a dynamic if somewhat unstable element in the early American labor 



RIVERSIDE DRIVE 287 

movement. In religious belief he went from Presbyterianism to Univer- 
salism to Unitarianism, and finally joined the Roman Catholic Church. 
He was also a writer on social reforms, and his point of view was associ- 
ated with the transcendentalist movement of his time. 

At iO3d Street a twenty-eight-story apartment building houses the 
MASTER INSTITUTE OF UNITED ARTS, formerly the Roerich Museum, 
named for that extraordinary Russian painter, author, mystic, and ex- 
plorer, Nicholas Roerich. It was founded in 1922 for the purpose of 
promoting the unity of arts and cultures. The present building, erected 
in 1929 with the co-operation of the International Art Center and de- 
signed by Harvey Wiley Corbett and Sugarman and Berger, was the first 
in the locality to employ stepped setbacks affording a number of apart- 
ment terraces, corner windows that command the view, and other modern 
architectural features. The first three floors are occupied by an educational 
center, comprising a museum of modern art, with especial attention to 
living American artists (open daily, except Monday, I to 5 p.m.; admis- 
sion free); a school offering courses in music, art, literature, and related 
subjects; two libraries, one containing many rare Tibetan manuscripts; 
and an auditorium used for lectures, recitals, plays, and motion pictures. 
Apartments occupy the remainder of the building. The Master Institute's 
most ambitious move was the sponsoring of a treaty for the protection of 
cultural institutions in wartime, signed in 1935 in the presence of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt by the representatives of twenty-one American republics. 
The proposal, however, was not furthered by the League of Nations. 

A nine-foot STATUE OF SAMUEL J. TILDEN, governor of New York 
State and Democratic nominee for President in 1876, stands on a granite 
pedestal at ii2th Street. It is the work of William O. Partridge. A block 
north is John Horvay's STATUE OF Louis KOSSUTH, the Magyar patriot. 

INTERNATIONAL HOUSE, facing the Riverside Church (see page 387) 
across a formal little park, is a residential and cultural center. It was built 
in 1924; the land, building, and equipment were donated by John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr. Admission is limited to students 40 per cent of whom 
come from foreign countries taking at least eight points of work in local 
schools or devoting an equivalent amount of time to academic research. 
Murals in the main reception room, painted by Arthur B. Davies, present 
the conception of the unity of all peoples. 

The Drive forks here to form an oval enclosing the Claremont Inn and 
the famous GRANT'S TOMB. (Tomb open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. June 21 to 
Sept. 21, 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Sept. 21 to June 21; admission free.) It is 
said that few New Yorkers have ever visited the tomb, and no visitor has 



288 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

ever missed it. Set on a hill overlooking the river, the massive granite 
sepulcher, designed by J. H. Duncan, is imposing in scale. "A great 
democratic demonstration caught in the fact," Henry James called it, 
"unguarded and unenclosed ... as open as an hotel or a railway station to 
any coming and going." The high conical roof slopes downward to a 
circular colonnade atop the cube .of the main hall ; the difficult problem 
of uniting the three forms harmoniously remains unsolved. Between two 
carved allegorical figures on the parapet wall is inscribed Grant's well- 
known exclamation, "Let us have peace." Within the massive bronze 
doors the dim light of purple stained-glass windows, reflected on white 
marble, produces a feeling of solemnity. Sunk in the center of the floor is 
the round well of the crypt, holding twin sarcophagi that contain the 
remains of General and Mrs. Grant. 

The marble walls of the tomb's cruciform room rise in a dignified de- 
sign of arches to a rotunda. Four figures, carved in relief, represent the 
four epochs in the General's life Youth, Military, Civil Life, and Death. 
In the north end are two reliquary rooms containing Civil War battle 
flags and memorials. The tomb cost $600,000, raised through contribu- 
tions from ninety thousand subscribers; it was completed in 1897. From 
150,000 to 200,000 people visit the memorial annually. 

COMMEMORATION TREE, directly north and in the rear of the tomb, is 
a ginkgo tree. It and a Chinese cork tree nearby were planted in 1897 by 
Li Hung Chang, Grand Secretary of State, and Yang Yu, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, of China. 

At the north end of the oval is CLARE MONT INN, a green-trimmed, 
white frame manor house said to have been built in 1783 by George Pol- 
lock, a wealthy linen merchant. It was named, as was the hill on which 
it stands, for Claremont in Surrey, England. Among the manor's tenants 
were Joseph Alston, husband of Aaron Burr's daughter, Theodosia; 
Michael Hogan, British consul at Havana; and Joseph Bonaparte. The 
Claremont, established as a restaurant in the years preceding the Civil 
War, is attractive in summertime with dancing and outdoor service under 
colorful awnings. 

Down the slope toward the river, and a few steps south of the Inn, a 
stone urn "Erected to the Memory of an Amiable Child" and dated July 
15, 1797, marks the GRAVE OF ST. CLAIRE POLLOCK, aged five, who fell 
to his death on the rocks below the Claremont. When George Pollock, 
the child's uncle, sold the property he requested that this grave be kept 
inviolate. 

Two viaducts, one for the Drive, executed in the graceful, decorative 



RIVERSIDE DRIVE 289 

manner which marks the steel-work of the turn of the century, and a 
longer one for the Henry Hudson Parkway, cross the Manhattanville val- 
ley. A bronze TABLET at the south end of the Drive viaduct commemo- 
rates the Battle of Harlem Heights. 

The U.S.S. Illinois, a decommissioned battleship, is anchored at the 
foot of 1 3 6th Street. Dismantled and fitted with a wooden enclosure, it 
serves the U.S. Naval Militia and the U.S. Naval Reserve for recreation 
and drill. 

The charm of the Drive fades somewhat above 13 5th Street; not until 
1 5 3d Street, at Trinity Cemetery (see page 297), does it regain its beauty. 
Northward from 15 3d Street many small craft anchor at private boat-club 
landings. 

From 1 5 3d to i58th Street the Drive skirts the western end of what 
was the estate of John James Audubon, the painter-naturalist, who lived 
here from 1841 to 1851, when the district was still comparatively wild. 
Later the estate, "Minnie's land," passed into other hands, and Audubon's 
house, which stood at 156111 Street, was demolished in 1930. A PLAQUE on 
a large apartment house at 765 Riverside Drive designates the site and 
reminds the passerby that Samuel F. B. Morse, while a guest of the Audu- 
bons, conducted many of his experiments there, and received the first 
telegraphic message from Philadelphia. 

Between i65th and i68th Streets, the tall buildings of Columbia Pres- 
byterian Medical Center ( see page 298) are visible. The area between the 
Drive and the river for a considerable distance north of i65th Street is a 
very steep grade. Playgrounds are planned for the new land on the water 
front. 

The stretch between the George Washington Bridge (see page 399), 
1 79th Street, and Dyckman (2ooth) Street is perhaps the most satisfying to 
the eye. The Drive joins the northbound lane of the Parkway at the bridge. 
The southbound lane runs on a ledge below. A footpath at i92d Street 
leads to the rock gardens of Fort Tryon Park (see page 302) and the 
Cloisters (see page 303). Beyond the park, at Dyckman Street, Riverside 
Drive terminates, and Henry Hudson Parkway crosses a viaduct to enter 
Inwood Hill Park (see page 305). 



290 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS AND MANHATTANVILLE 

Area: noth St. on the south to i35th St. on the north; from Riverside Drive east 
to Morningside Ave. and St. Nicholas Ave. (i25th to i35th St.). Map on page 293. 

The neighborhood of Morningside Heights is distinguished by many 
beautiful buildings devoted to learning or to religious worship. Columbia 
University, with the affiliated Barnard College, is here; the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Juilliard School of 
Music, and several other noted institutions. To the west is the tower of the 
Riverside Church (see page 387), Riverside Drive and West i22d Street, 
and the elevation on the southeast is crowned by the Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine (see page 380), Amsterdam Avenue and West ii2th 
Street. 

North of the cathedral is the CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE LOURDES, 
Morningside Drive at ii4th Street, where sermons are delivered in French. 
Its services are attended regularly by language students from Columbia. 
The church building, French Renaissance in style, was dedicated in 1915. 
A striking feature of the interior is a beautifully lighted grotto, in the 
apse, so constructed that the grotto appears to have been hollowed from 
the rock of the Morningside cliff. Mrs. Geraldine Redmond, who donated 
the property, had the grotto built as an expression of faith, after her son's 
cure at the famous church in Lourdes, France. 

MORNINGSIDE PARK, extending from Cathedral Parkway (noth Street) 
to 1 2 3d Street, east of the cathedral, includes the narrow strip of ground 
formed by the rocky cliff that falls sharply from Morningside Drive, the 
eastern edge of the Heights proper, to Morningside Avenue, a block far- 
ther east on the plain below. Some of the exposed rocks in the park date 
from the pre-Cambrian period. Stone steps zigzag up the side of the rock 
at 1 1 6th Street. At its top, within a semicircle of polished stone benches, 
facing the Drive, is a bronze STATUE OF CARL SCHURZ (see page 250), by 
Karl Bitter, sculptor, and Henry Bacon, architect, erected in 1912. Con- 
tinuing west, 1 1 6th Street passes through the campus of Columbia Uni- 
versity (see page 383), whose buildings occupy the area from 114111 to 
I2ist Street, from Broadway to Amsterdam Avenue. The buildings of 
Barnard College for women, a part of Columbia University, are west of 
Broadway from n6th Street north to i2Oth Street. 

Directly north of Barnard College, the UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
occupies the blocks running from i2oth to i22d Street, and from Clare- 
mont Avenue east to Broadway. The intimate grouping of the seminary 



MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS AND M ANHATTANVILLE 291 

buildings recalls an English college quadrangle. Designed by Allen 
and Collens, and completed in 1910, the buildings include a library, dor- 
mitories, gymnasium, and refectory, residences for the president and 
faculty, as well as a fine chapel in English perpendicular style. 

Union Theological Seminary, founded in 1836, has graduated thou- 
sands of ministers, missionaries, and scholars of all Protestant denomi- 
nations. It has stood for freedom in inquiry and thinking, and its profes- 
sors have made many notable contributions to theological literature. The 
works of Arthur McGiffert, historian of the Christian Church, and James. 
Moffett, biblical scholar and translator, have been outstanding. Distin- 
guished alumni include Harry Emerson Fosdick, pastor of the Riverside 
Church; Ralph W. Sockman, minister of New York's Christ Church 
(Methodist Episcopal) ; and Norman Thomas, Socialist leader. On the 
present faculty are scholars from all the largest Protestant communions, 
and the student body of more than three hundred is drawn from all parts 
of the United States and from many foreign lands. Faculty members 
Harry F. Ward and Reinhold Neibuhr are widely known for their activity 
in liberal and progressive movements. The seminary is academically affili- 
ated with Columbia University, but is an independently administered 
institution. Its School of Sacred Music is one of the few of its kind in the 
country. The president of the seminary is Henry Sloane Coffin. 

Across Broadway, on the east side between i22d and 12 3d Streets, is 
the JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA, one of the nation's 
foremost institutions of Jewish education. It was designed by William 
Gehron and completed in 1930. An adaptation of Colonial Georgian 
architecture, it lacks the warmth and expressiveness of its prototype. The 
seminary houses a ii5,ooo-volume library that includes many rare books 
and manuscripts, and a museum that contains ancient Palestinian coins 
and amulets, fragments of the Hebrew original of Ecclesiasticus, and 
oil lamps used more than two thousand years ago by the Maccabees in 
Palestine. (Open daily 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., except Friday and Saturday; ad- 
mission free.) In addition to its graduate courses, open only to candidates 
for the rabbinate who possess collegiate degrees, the school has a teachers' 
institute and a college of Jewish studies, and conducts classes for young 
Jewish laymen. 

North of the Union Theological Seminary, at 120-130 Claremont Ave- 
nue, is the JUILLIARD SCHOOL OF Music, considered among the leading 
schools of its kind in the country. Of restrained classical-modern lines, the 
buildings include the Institute of Musical Art, the original structure, de- 
signed by Donn Barber and completed in 1910, and the contiguous, larger 



292 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

Graduate School and Auditorium, by Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon, com- 
pleted in 1931. The school is endowed by the Juilliard Musical Founda- 
tion, created in 1920 by the terms of the will of Augustus D. Juilliard, 
merchant and philanthropist. Operated as a nonprofit-making organiza- 
tion, it provides training in all branches of music to more than a thousand 
enrolled students annually. Ernest Hutcheson, pianist, is the president of 
the school, and Oscar Wagner, pianist, the dean. 

At i22d Street the Broadway subway emerges and becomes an elevated 
structure, swings out over the valley of West 12 5th Street and Manhattan- 
ville to a height of about fifty-two feet above street level, and then disap- 
pears underground again on meeting higher ground at 13 5th Street. 
The red-brick building of Manhattanville's ST. MARY'S CHURCH 
(Protestant Episcopal), West 12 6th Street between Old Broadway and 
Amsterdam Avenue, contains a plaque in memory of James Cook Rich- 
mond, who was one of its rectors and fought in Greece with Lord Byron 
in the cause of Greek independence. 

The most conspicuous landmark in the northeast section of the area is 
formed by the ten school buildings of the SOCIETY OF THE SACRED HEART, 
a Roman Catholic order, whose grounds extend from Convent Avenue to 
St. Nicholas Terrace, and from West 1301*1 to West 135^1 Street. The 
schools include the Annunciation Girls' School, the Father Young Memo- 
rial High School, and the Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart. 
The last-named, established in 1841, is a liberal arts college for women 
with an enrollment of some three hundred students (1939). The Pius X 
School of Liturgical Music of the college, organized in 1916, provides 
instruction for students and teachers of church music. The first of the ten 
buildings on the campus was erected in 1847. 

During Christmas week elaborately costumed productions of classical 
drama or mystery plays are staged in the upper auditorium of the CHURCH 
OF THE ANNUNCIATION, Convent Avenue and i3ist Street. The building 
was erected in 1906. Its predecessor, built in 1853, occupied a site two 
blocks to the west, on Old Broadway. 

From St. Nicholas Terrace, along the summit of St. Nicholas Heights, 
stone steps cut into the side of the rocky bluff lead down into the strip of 
park land below and thence east to St. Nicholas Avenue and the plain of 
Harlem. 




NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

KEY 
MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS AND MANHATTANVILLK 

Statue of Samuel J. Tilden 

Statue of Louis Kossuth 

Cathedral of St. John the Divine 

Church of Notre Dame de Lourdes 

Statue of Carl Schurz 

Columbia University 

Barnard College 

Site of Battle of Harlem Heights 

Union Theological Seminary 

Riverside Church 

Jewish Theological Seminary 

Juilliard School of Music 

Grant's Tomb 

Commemoration Tree 

International House 

Grave of St. Claire Pollock 

Claremont Inn 

St. Mary's Church 

Church of the Annunciation 

Society of the Sacred Heart 

Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart 

U.S.S. Illinois 

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 

21. Hebrew Orphan Asylum of the City of New York 

22. Lewisohn Stadium 

23. City College 

24. St. Luke's Church 

25. Hamilton Grange 

Statue of Alexander Hamilton 

26. St. Ann's Church for Deaf -Mutes 

27. Trinity Church Cemetery 

28. Chapel of the Intercession 

29. Museum of the American Indian 

30. Hispanic Society of America 

31. American Numismatic Society 

32. American Academy of Arts and Letters 

33. Church of Our Lady of Esperanza 

34. American Geographical Society 

35. Polo Grounds 

36. Roger Morris Park 

37. Jumel Mansion 

Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center 

38. Institute of Ophthalmology 

39. Babies Hospital of the City of New 

York 

40. College of Physicians and Surgeons 
School of Dental and Oral Surgery 

41. Presbyterian Hospital 

42. School of Nursing 

43. Neurological Institute 

44. New York State Psychiatric Institute 

and Hospital 

45. High Bridge Water Tower 

46. Bennett Park 

47. Yeshiva College 

48. George Washington High School 

49. Mother Cabrini High School 

INWOOD 

50. Site of Fort Tryon 

51. Jewish Memorial Hospital 

52. The Cloisters 

53. Dyckman House 

54. Baker Field 



294 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 

Area: i35th St. on the south to 1930! St., Hillside Ave., and Dyckman St. (to 
Harlem River) on the north; from Riverside Drive east to St. Nicholas Ave. (i35th 
to i55th St.) and Harlem River (i55th St. to Dyckman St.). Map on page 293. 

Hamilton Place runs diagonally from Broadway at i36th Street to a 
square at Amsterdam Avenue and 14 3d Street that also bears the name of 
the first Secretary of the Treasury and most distinguished resident of the 
region that became known as Washington Heights. This southern portion 
of Washington Heights is often called Hamilton Heights. On a bluff 
above Hamilton Place, between 1361!! and i38th Streets, is the bulky red- 
brick HEBREW ORPHAN ASYLUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. The 
buildings were erected in 1884. The stolid main structure at 1560 Am- 
sterdam Avenue has a tall tower and a steep-pitched dormered roof. The 
orphanage, one of the largest in the city, was established in 1832. 

The campus of the MAIN CENTER OF CITY COLLEGE extends along 
Amsterdam Avenue from i36th to i4Oth Street. Occupying the two 
blocks opposite the orphanage is LEWISOHN STADIUM, an athletic arena 
given to City College by Adolph Lewisohn in 1915. The stadium is 
known to the public less for its sports events than for the summer-night 
concerts given there since 1918 by the Philharmonic Symphony Society 
(concerts from the last week in June to the end of August; admission 
250 to $1.50). Low admission fees permitted a wide New York audience 
to enjoy symphonic music at the stadium long before this music was made 
available by radio. Willem van Hoogstraten, Jose Iturbi, Albert Coates, 
and Alexander Smallens are among those who have conducted these con- 
certs. Soloists and dancing and choral groups are featured. With the tem- 
porary chairs in the field or "orchestra," the stadium has a seating capacity 
of about fifteen thousand. Built of concrete on the grade sloping east 
from Amsterdam Avenue, with tiers of stepped seats and a Doric colon- 
nade, the structure, designed by Arnold W. Brunner, is a simplified ver- 
sion of the ancient Greek hillside amphitheater. Its classicism is in marked 
contrast to the medievalism of the college buildings proper, to the north. 

The group of City College buildings crowning the ridge between St. 
Nicholas Terrace and Amsterdam Avenue, i3fth and i4oth Streets, was 
built in 1903-7 at a cost of four million dollars from plans by George 
B. Post. Its units form an imperfect quadrangle split by Convent Avenue. 
The Library Building, erected in 1929 and designed by Crow, Lewis, and 
Wich, is on St. Nicholas Terrace at i4oth Street; a new wing is being 



WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 295 

constructed with the assistance of the WPA (1939). The massive Main 
Building the eastern side of the quadrangle follows closely the curve 
of the rocky bluff above St. Nicholas Park. The Gymnasium Building and 
the Townsend Harris Hall are on the south side, and the Chemistry, 
Mechanical Arts, and Technology buildings are on the north. The place- 
ment of these buildings around a court, gives an impression of spacious- 
ness despite the limited area. All the buildings are late English Gothic in 
style. They are built of Manhattan schist quarried from a near-by sub- 
way excavation a rock rarely used in construction, and are trimmed with 
an unusually white terra cotta. The schist has aged and blackened, but the 
terra cotta remains a pristine white. 

City College, one of the four units of the College of the City of New 
York, has an enrollment of some thirty thousand students. (Since 1917 
women have been admitted to evening sessions.) Its College of Liberal 
Arts and Sciences, School of Technology, and School of Education occupy 
the Washington Heights buildings; its School of Business and Civic Ad- 
ministration, a co-educational division, is housed at the original site of 
the college, Lexington Avenue and Twenty-third Street. Free to residents 
of the city, admission is competitive and the number of applicants far 
exceeds the classroom capacity. Its students have a reputation for an inter- 
est in economics and political science that extends beyond the curricula. 

The college was founded in 1849. A bill enacted by the State Legisla- 
ture two years before, despite strong opposition by the press, au- 
thorized the Board of Education for the city and county of New York 
to establish a "Free Academy" for pupils who had attended the common 
schools and could pass the entrance examinations. Fifty thousand dollars 
were allotted for the buildings and twenty thousand dollars annually for 
maintenance. The Free Academy's first class of 143 students entered on 
January 15, 1849, and the first faculty consisted of a principal Dr. Hor- 
ace Webster and five professors. In 1866 the institution was rechartered 
as a body corporate under the present name. 

North of i4ist Street, at 287 Convent Avenue, is the HAMILTON 
GRANGE. The two-story frame structure, built by Alexander Hamilton in 
1802 as a country home, was moved in 1899 from its original location, 
two blocks farther north, and is now wedged in between an apartment 
house and St. Luke's Church. The grange is a good example of late post- 
Colonial architecture common in the early years of the Republic, and is 
noted for its woodwork. The house was designed by McComb, the archi- 
tect who is better known for his work on City Hall. It is maintained as a 
museum by the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. (Open 



296 UP.PER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

Monday to Friday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Saturday 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., closed 
Sunday and holidays; admission free.) Displayed within are memorabilia 
of the Hamilton family and furniture of the post-Colonial period. Near 
the sidewalk is a STATUE OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON, sculptured by 
William Ordway Partridge, and erected by the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. ST. LUKE'S, erected in 1891, is a fine Richardson Roman- 
esque building. 

At 511 West i48th Street is ST. ANN'S CHURCH FOR DEAF-MUTES (a 
chapel of the Episcopal Church of St. Matthew and St. Timothy). The 
church, the first of its kind in the world, was founded in 1852 and the 
present building was erected in 1898. In a chapel flooded with light for 
those who must depend upon sight alone, the pastor delivers his sermons 
in sign language and the choir "sings" with its hands. 

The lower Washington Heights section overlooking Harlem, particu- 
larly between i45th and i55th Streets and Edgecombe and Amsterdam 
Avenues, has in recent years been populated largely by well-to-do Negroes, 
who live in costly private homes and in apartment buildings such as the 
thirteen-story Colonial Parkway Apartments at 409 Edgecombe Avenue, 
which has eighteen penthouses. 

In Washington Heights there are numerous MEMORIALS OF THE BATTLE 
OF FORT WASHINGTON. Three tablets along Broadway mark the succes- 
sive lines of entrenchments used by the American defenders. The first is 
on a boulder in the park area between i4yth and i48th Streets, the second 
on the northwest corner at 15 3d Street, and the third on the southeast 
corner at 15 9th Street. 

TRINITY CHURCH CEMETERY, now divided by Broadway, extends from 
Riverside Drive to Amsterdam Avenue between 15 3d and 15 5th Streets, 
with the beautiful CHAPEL OF THE INTERCESSION on the southeast corner of 
Broadway and 15 5th Street. Both the cemetery, laid out in 1843, an ^ tne 
chapel, completed in 1915, belong to Trinity Corporation, and the chapel's 
congregation is one of the eight in Trinity Parish. The distinctly Ameri- 
can Gothic buildings forming the church the chapel proper, bell tower, 
vicarage, and parish house are all constructed of vigorously designed 
random ashlar masonry with limestone trim and tracery. All may be 
entered from a square open court surrounded by a vaulted arcade. The 
group as a whole has a splendidly organized site plan. In the interior of 
the chapel, pleasing use has been made of carved and richly painted wood. 
An unusual timber ceiling in bright colors enlivens the dark-brown walls. 
The high altar is inlaid with 1,563 stones collected from the Holy Land 
and other places of early Christian worship. The chapel, with its chaste 



WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 297 

structural lines and the majestic height of its columns and ceiling, seems 
of cathedral stature. The architect of the buildings, Bertram Grosvenor 
Goodhue, whose ashes are contained in a memorial wall tomb of Champ- 
ville marble in the north transept of the chapel, was a master of the free, 
creative use of the Gothic style. 

The wooded, hummocky cemetery is much more isolated and tranquil 
much more like a graveyard, in short than the famous one attached to 
Trinity Church at Wall Street and Broadway (see page 310). It is the 
largest cemetery in Manhattan, and burials are still being made there. 
Tombstones bear names of historic New York families, including the 
Bleeckers, Remsens, Van Burens, Schermerhorns, and Astors. A vault 
bearing the name Monroe is sometimes mistakenly designated as the burial 
place of President James Monroe, who actually was buried first in the 
Marble Cemetery on East Second Street and later in Richmond, Virginia. 
Among the notable persons buried here are Alfred Tennyson Dickens, son 
of Charles Dickens; Philip Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence; Morgan Dix, rector of Trinity Church; Madame Jumel; 
Robert Chanler, the artist; and Clement C. Moore, author of the famous 
poem commencing, " 'Twas the night before Christmas." The tomb of 
John James Audubon, the naturalist, is marked by a sixteen-foot runic 
cross. An avenue and a theater in the neighborhood bear his name. 

Grouped about a court opening westward on Broadway between 15 5th 
and 1 56th Streets are five nationally known institutions (see page 395), 
the Museum of the American Indian, the Hispanic Society, the Numis- 
matic Society, the Geographical Society, and the American Academy of 
Arts and Letters. The CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF ESPERANZA, 624 West 
1 56th Street, is a mission for Spanish-speaking residents of the city. At 
1 57th Street, Broadway starts its climb through Washington Heights 
proper, and Fort Washington Avenue begins at i59th Street, extending to 
Fort Tryon Park at i9ist Street. 

North of 1 5 5th Street, near the Harlem River, is the POLO GROUNDS, 
home of the New York Giants, National League baseball team. This 
stadium, built in 1912, seats about sixty thousand spectators for baseball 
or football games. Immediately west of the Polo Grounds Edgecombe 
Avenue climbs the crest of Coogan's Bluff and affords a view, across the 
Harlem River, of Queens and the Bronx. The vista is most sweeping from 
ROGER MORRIS PARK, on a rise above Edgecombe Avenue between i6oth 
and i62d Streets. The entrance to the park is on Jumel Terrace near 
i6oth Street. 

The JUMEL MANSION in Roger Morris Park one of the most inter- 



298 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

esting Georgian Colonial houses in New York City, was built by Roger 
Morris, a Royalist sympathizer, about 1765, and occupied by him until 
1775, when he left for England. His wife's name, before her marriage, 
was linked romantically with that of Washington. The estate stretched 
from river to river with "Fishing, Oystering and Claming at either end." 
The house was used as headquarters successively by General Washington 
(September i4~October 18, 1776) and Colonel Magaw, and after the 
defeat of the American forces, by the British command. After 1783 the 
house passed through various hands, becoming a tavern in 1796. Stephen 
Jumel, a wealthy French merchant, purchased the property in 1810 and 
restored it. In 1832 Stephen Jumel died and in the following year Aaron 
Burr, then almost eighty, came to live in the mansion as the husband 
of Madame Jumel. The marriage lasted but a year; Burr died in 1836, 
Madame Jumel in 1865. The city acquired the property in 1903, and in 
1907 the house was opened as a museum under the auspices of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution and the Washington Headquarters 
Association. (Open daily, except Monday, from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.; ad- 
mission free.) 

The mansion is a Georgian Colonial wood structure with some details, 
such as corner quoins, in imitation of stone construction. A two-story 
portico is a feature that is rare in New York. The slim columns and the 
fineness of execution of the iron balcony and of the railing atop the hipped 
roof give an effect of unusual elegance. An example of the economy em- 
ployed by Colonial builders is revealed on the northeast side of the house, 
the side that was least likely to be seen by important visitors; the wall 
here was built of shingles, less expensive than boards. The interior is 
thoroughly Georgian Colonial in character. The moldings are strong and 
simple in treatment, and the hallways are decorated with semielliptical 
archways. The furnishings preserved by Madame Jumel during her long 
lifetime, as well as such pieces as Aaron Burr's desk, are on display. 

Sylvan Terrace, a short private street that approaches the Jumel Man- 
sion from the west, is still lined with old frame houses. 

The COLUMBIA PRESBYTERIAN MEDICAL CENTER, along Broadway 
from 1 65th to i68th Street, one of the largest, most comprehensive and 
fully equipped in America, occupies a twenty-acre site directly overlook- 
ing Riverside Drive and the Hudson River and facing the Fort Lee cliffs 
of the Palisades. The magnificence of its commanding site is best appre- 
ciated from Riverside Drive or Henry Hudson Parkway. The massive tan 
structures rise in an impressive, quasi-pyramidal pile to a height of 496 



WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 299 

feet above the river. The architecture is simple, and to many, rather un- 
inspired. 

Several affiliated hospitals, a medical school, clinics, and research labora- 
tories all pool their resources to provide the Center's wealth of medical 
facilities. It comprises four major corporate units: the Columbia Univer- 
sity medical and dental group, namely, the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons and the School of Dental and Oral Surgery; the Presbyterian 
Hospital group, including the Squier Urological Clinic, the Sloane Hos- 
pital for Women, the School of Nursing, the Harkness Pavilion for pri- 
vate patients, and the Institute of Ophthalmology, or the eye hospital ; the 
Babies Hospital of the City of New York ; and the Neurological Institute. 
Not affiliated but adjoining the group is the NEW YORK STATE PSYCHIAT- 
RIC INSTITUTE AND HOSPITAL. Construction of the Center began in 
1925, and cost thirty million dollars; most of the present buildings were 
opened at a public dedication on October 12, 1928. A few, notably the 
Institute of Ophthalmology, have been added since. 

Architecturally, the Center takes its place among the pioneering struc- 
tures of the late 1920*5 when traditional styles were being abandoned in 
favor of a utilitarian approach. The buildings are strikingly free of exter- 
nal ornament. Walls, piers, and spandrels are sheer; wings and setbacks 
have no cornices; chimneys are treated as pylons, and the large windows 
are in flat reveal to admit a maximum of light. The entire group was 
designed by James Gamble Rogers, Inc., architects, except for the Psychiat- 
ric Institute, which was the work of Sullivan W. Jones, State architect. 

The main building of the Presbyterian Hospital (twenty-two stories, 
three below street level) forms the nucleus of a group of buildings south 
of i6yth Street. It adjoins the College of Physicians and Surgeons, an 
eighteen-story building, the center of a group on West i68th Street near 
Broadway. The two institutions have been associated since 1911, when 
the hospital became the training school for the college, a relationship that 
eventually led to the formation of the Center. The college was founded in 
1807; the hospital in 1868. Noted for its medical research activities, the 
school pursues such representative lines of inquiry as the study of the 
structure and functions of the reproductive system and endocrine glands 
and of tissues grafting techniques. (Late in 1938 the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital took possession of seven and a half acres of land and eight old brick 
buildings, formerly occupied by the New York School for the Deaf, at 
Riverside Drive and 1651!! Street.) 

The nine-story Institute of Ophthalmology, or the eye hospital, built 



300 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

in 1933, is the first of a projected series of buildings along the 
Street frontage. In 1931 a member of the staff removed a cataract from 
the eye of the King of Siam, who had traveled to New York to obtain 
his services. South of the Presbyterian Hospital, on Broadway, is the 
twelve-story Babies Hospital, which has, as an unusual feature, a special- 
temperatures ward for the benefit of premature "incubator" babies. The 
thirteen-story Neurological Institute, on the west side of Fort Washington 
Avenue at i68th Street, is noted especially for its studies of conditioned 
reflexes of children. An experiment of international interest in human 
behavior is being conducted with the "scientific" twins, Jimmy and Johnny, 
whose social development is being charted by the hospital staff. One of 
the boys is being "conditioned," that is, his behavior is guided by spe- 
cialists ; the other is allowed to mature without interference. 

Near by, at Amsterdam Avenue and 17 3d Street, is the entrance to 
HIGH BRIDGE, the oldest of New York's great bridges. It was built 
(1837-48) as part of the Croton Aqueduct System. About 24,000,000 
gallons of water a day flow across the bridge to Manhattan. A pedestrian 
walk affords a fine view of the Harlem. Edgar Allan Poe frequently came 
here when he lived in near-by Fordham, the Bronx (18469). Built long 
before modern bridge-building principles were practiced, the original 
High Bridge was Roman in architectural conception, and its procession of 
massive stone arches over both the land and water areas was a favorite 
subject for artists. In the early 1920*5 a single span of steel replaced the 
stone piers in the bed of the river because they interfered with naviga- 
tion. Though it is not now the "old High Bridge" of song and story, of 
art students and of lovers, much of the bridge's charm remains, along 
with a few of the old arches. The HIGH BRIDGE WATER TOWER, standing 
at the Manhattan side of the bridge and resembling a medieval watch- 
tower, is a landmark. 

The HARLEM BRIDGE at iSist Street and Amsterdam Avenue, formerly 
the Washington Bridge, was opened to traffic in 1888; its construction is 
similar to the present High Bridge. It is part of the US i highway system 
that fringes, in most part, the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Key West; 
highway traffic flows across the bridge to and from the George Washing- 
ton Bridge (see page 399), another link of the system, at i79th Street and 
Fort Washington Avenue. The Harlem, too, has been sketched frequently 
by artists; its great span is strikingly silhouetted against the Manhattan 
bluffs. Both the Harlem and High bridges are excellent "grandstands" 
for viewing the water sports on the river, which from about Dyckman 
Street to the Polo Grounds is the scene of intercollegiate rowing contests 



WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 301 

and regattas. Columbia University and Manhattan College maintain boat- 
houses on the river banks. 

The highest natural elevation in Manhattan (267.75 feet) is attained 
at a point near the intersection of Fort Washington Avenue and i83d 
Street. 

The RABBI ISAAC ELCHANAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AND YESHIVA 
COLLEGE, i87th Street and Amsterdam Avenue, was founded in 1887, the 
first Jewish parochial school in North America. The present five-story 
building was opened in 1929. Besides regular high school and college 
courses, the institution provides Hebrew training and prepares students 
for the Orthodox Rabbinate. In 1938 there were 578 students. 

The GEORGE WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL, Audubon Avenue and i92d 
Street, is one of the largest and best-equipped schools in the city. The 
building and grounds are on the site of the outpost held by Colonel Bax- 
ter and his several hundred Pennsylvanians during the Battle of Fort 
Washington. By 1863 all trace of the exact location of the fortifications 
erected by the Americans had been lost, but investigations in 1935 by the 
History Department of the high school identified one of the redoubts by 
the mortared wall of boulders between Fort George Avenue and the school 
grounds. The wall is more than two hundred feet long and in some places 
ten feet high. 

Half of the land on which Fort Washington was located is now BENNETT 
PARK, Fort Washington Avenue and i83d Street. Within the park is a 
wall three to six feet in height, a reproduction of part of the fort. The 
site was part of the estate of James Gordon Bennett, Jr., who presented it 
to the city in 1903 in memory of his father, founder of the New York 
Herald. 

MOTHER CABRINI HIGH SCHOOL, a modern four-story brick building at 
701 Fort Washington Avenue, is named for Mother Francesca Saverio 
Cabrini, the first United States citizen to attain beatification by the Roman 
Catholic Church. When her beatification was proclaimed in November, 
1938, her body was removed from the anteroom and entombed beneath the 
altar in the school's chapel, which is maintained by the order Mother 
Cabrini founded, the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. The name 
of the thoroughfare one block west of Fort Washington Avenue was 
changed in 1939 from Northern Avenue to Cabrini Boulevard. 



302 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

INWOOD 

Area: i93<d St., Hillside Ave. and Dyckman St. (east to Harlem River) on the 
south to Harlem River Ship Canal on the north; from the Hudson River east to the 
Harlem River. Map on page 293. 

In 1876 Frederick Law Olmsted who with Calvert Vaux had designed 
Central Park nineteen years earlier and J. James R. Croes suggested to 
the Department of Parks that the Inwood section be developed as a resi- 
dential area and submitted a tracing proposing "what the English call a 
terrace . . . the crescent-shaped intermediate space being either a quiet slope 
of turf, a parterre of flowers, a playground, a picturesque rocky declivity 
treated perhaps as a fernery or alpine garden." While the Olmsted-Croes 
plan was not carried out in detail, it did prompt the city government and 
private citizens to co-operate in preserving the beauty of Inwood' s topogra- 
phy, and it greatly influenced the present character of the district. 

About two-fifths of Inwood, virtually all the western portion, is park 
land. Exquisite Fort Tryon Park, a cliff-sided plateau, intrudes its rocky 
bulk between Broadway and Riverside Drive from 192$. Street to Dyckman 
Street, then Inwood Hill Park rises somewhat less abruptly and, together 
with the low-lying Isham Park, fills the nub of land that separates the 
Hudson from the Harlem River. 

These rivers and wooded hills insulate a suburban community that is as 
separate an entity as any in Manhattan. Its inhabitants, most of whom 
have moderate incomes and can afford thirty to fifty dollars a month for 
rent, do most of their shopping along Broadway and St. Nicholas Avenue, 
the two principal north-south streets, and Dyckman Street, which slants 
transversely across the island. 

FORT TRYON PARK is one of the most beautiful public parks of America 
landscaped with trees, lawns, terraces, rock gardens, paved walks, and 
many benches, all cleverly ordered in harmonious composition. The preci- 
sion of its design is explicitly urban. The views from its heights are per- 
haps the finest Manhattan offers, for they sweep mile after mile of the 
Hudson and the Palisades, and, to the east, range across the lowlands of 
Inwood. At the southern entrance to the park, near Fort Washington Ave- 
nue, a large sloping rock garden forms an approach to the stone ramparts 
marking the site of old Fort Tryon, built in the summer of 1776 and taken 
in the fall of the same year by the Hessians. The landscaping was done, 
appropriately, by Frederick Law Olmsted, son of the proposer of the park 
plan for Inwood. 



INWOOD 303 

The park's sixty-two acres include the grounds of the former C. K. G. 
Billings estate. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., bought the property in 1909 for 
$1,700,000, gave it to the city in 1930, and spent $3,600,000 improving 
it. The gift was in accordance with an agreement between Mr. Rockefeller 
and the city whereby the eastern ends of Sixty- fourth and Sixty-eighth 
Streets were closed and conveyed to Rockefeller Institute (see page 245). 

Automobiles enter Fort Tryon Park from Riverside Drive through a cut 
in the solid rock that leads circuitously to parking spaces and to an observa- 
tion terrace overlooking the Hudson. An unconsciously metropolitan touch 
is added by the sign, "Park here only while enjoying view from car." 
Another motor road enters from the end of Fort Washington Avenue. 
The Eighth Avenue (Independent) subway station at i9oth Street is carved 
out of the side of the east cliff; from it passengers are delivered by ele- 
vator to the promenade at the southern entrance. East of the station a play- 
ground for adults will be constructed. 

The colored granite, tile-roofed building that stands in impressive isola- 
tion on the northern crest of the park is the CLOISTERS, branch of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art (see page 368), sheltering a collection of 
medieval art. (Open daily 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Sunday 1 to 6 p.m., Christ- 
mas 1 to 5 p.m.; admission 250 Monday and Friday, other days free.) The 
building includes four cloisters and an arcade of a fifth, a chapel incor- 
porating the remains of a Romanesque twelfth-century church, an original 
chapter house, and nine other exhibition areas, all chronologically arranged 
and so constructed as to include original structural or decorative members. 
A simple square tower surmounts the entrance. The central and largest 
cloister is that of St. Michel de Cuxa. Open to the sun, and surrounded by 
pink marble arches and columns, it dates from the twelfth century. Other 
cloisters are those of St. Guilhem-le-Desert (late twelfth to early thirteenth 
century), Bonnefont-en-Comminges (thirteenth to fourteenth century), 
and Trie (second half of the fifteenth century). The latter two overlook 
the park to the south and the Hudson River. 

The halls and chapels contain such notable sculptures as the tomb effigy 
of Jean d'Alluye, who died about 1248, a Romanesque torso of Christ, 
a fourteenth-century sainted deacon, and many superb statues of the Vir- 
gin, particularly from the He de France and Lorraine. A set of six hand- 
woven, fifteenth-century tapestries depicting the Hunt of the Unicorn was 
given by Mr. Rockefeller in 1935 ; they are displayed in a special room. 
These textiles, on which is portrayed an allegory of the Incarnation, with 
Christ represented by the fabulous unicorn, symbol of purity, are remark- 
able for their beauty of color and design and the intensity and vitality of 



304 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

their pictorial realism. While these tapestries have many Flemish charac- 
teristics, it has not been possible to establish their origin. 

The Cloisters collection was started by the late George Grey Barnard, 
the sculptor, who spent many years in France gathering examples of medie- 
val art; a few of them were found in barns and pigsties near ruined 
churches and monasteries. In December, 1914, the artist placed the collec- 
tion on display in a building specially built for it on Fort Washington 
Avenue. The Metropolitan Museum bought the collection in 1925 with 
funds provided by Mr. Rockefeller. When the Fort Tryon property was 
given to the city by Mr. Rockefeller in 1930, four and a half acres were 
reserved as a site for a museum building to be devoted exclusively to the 
collection. Land along the Palisades on the opposite side of the Hudson 
was acquired by the patron to insure the view. 

Plans were drawn by Charles Collens of the Boston firm of architects, 
Allen, Collens, and Willis, in collaboration with officials of the Metropoli- 
tan Museum. The building was opened in the spring of 1938. 

The ten-story JEWISH MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, at Broadway and i96th 
Street near the southeast corner of Fort Tryon Park, is a modern design in 
dull red brick and stone. A nonsectarian institution, it was organized in 
1905. The present structure, dedicated to Jewish soldiers, sailors, and 
marines who died in the World War, was completed in October, 1937. 

Dyckman Street runs along the bottom of the valley that separates Fort 
Tryon Park from Inwood Hill Park. Week-end hikers on their way to 
Palisades Interstate Park cross the Hudson on the ferries that work be- 
tween the western end of Dyckman Street and Englewood, New Jersey. 
Immediately south of the ferry slips the river shore is fringed with yacht 
and canoe club landings. 

The only eighteenth-century farmhouse in Manhattan is the DYCKMAN 
HOUSE at 204th Street and Broadway. It is a two-story white building 
with an older small south wing; the lower walls are of fieldstone, brick, 
and wood, and the upper story of clapboard. Typically Dutch Colonial 
are the high basement, and the low-pitched gambrel roof, curved to swing 
over a full-length porch. William Dyckman, who inherited the estate 
from his grandfather, built the first house here in 1748. During the Revo- 
lution the contesting armies ravaged the district and the British burned 
the house, but after the war, in 1783, Dyckman rebuilt it. Descendants 
purchased and reconditioned the building and in 1915 presented it to the 
city as a museum of Dutch and English Colonial furniture and curios. 
The household wares are authentic, although they were not used in this 
house. (Open daily 11 a.m. to 5 p.m., closed Monday; admission free.) 



INWOOD 305 

Two blocks west of the Dyckman House, at Payson Avenue, is an entrance 
to INWOOD HILL PARK. Until 1938, save for dirt paths, drinking foun- 
tains, and open-air fireplaces, little had been added to the pristine woods. 
Shrubs such as lilac, hackberry, and blueberry, and countless trees, includ- 
ing many varieties of maple, Chinese white ash, and oriental pine, are 
spread through the park. With the extensive reclamation of the Hudson 
River water-front area from Seventy-second Street to Spuyten Duyvil, the 
Department of Parks announced plans for landscaping the 167 wildest 
acres in Manhattan. 

This was once an Algonquin Indian settlement, Shora-Kap-Kok, mean- 
ing "in between the hills." (The Spuyten Duyvil section, across the Har- 
lem River, has a Kappock Street.) Algonquin weapons and utensils have 
been found on the site of the village in the park's eastern valley. The 
gaunt stump of a huge tulip tree that stands near an indentation of the 
Harlem River Ship Canal marks, according to legend, the site of a meet- 
ing between Henry Hudson and the Indians, and is said to have been 
planted by the 'Indians to commemorate that occasion. Army equipment 
left by British and American Revolutionary forces has also been uncovered 
in the park. 

In the western section of the park, the Henry Hudson Parkway, on its 
way to the Westchester County Parkway System, ascends a steep grade to 
the HENRY HUDSON BRIDGE. Forming a graceful gateway to the Harlem 
River Ship Canal, the daring single arch of the handsome steel bridge 
bears the unusual double-deck roadway above. The bridge has an over-all 
length of 2,000 feet and a clearance, at its center, of 142.5 feet above high 
water. It was completed in 1938 and cost more than two million dollars. 
Emil H. Praeger, chief engineer, and Clinton F. Loyd, chief architect, of 
the firm of Madigan-Hyland, designed the structure, which is owned 
and operated by the Henry Hudson Parkway Authority. 

Adjoining Inwood Hill Park on the east and also fronting on the Har- 
lem, is little twenty-acre ISHAM PARK, presented by the descendants of 
William B. Isham. Its Cooper Street entrance is guarded by World War 
cannon. Rough-hewn stone steps ascend to a semicircular terrace where 
one of several stone benches bears an inscription attesting to the hospitality 
of the old Isham homestead. The mansion stands at the summit of the hill. 
In 1938 the Harlem River Ship Canal here was straightened by cutting a 
channel through the Spuyten Duyvil peninsula, and the Department of 
Parks began the improvement of Inwood Hill and Isham parks. Part of 
the old course of the canal will be filled in and, together with the southerly 
tip of the peninsula, will form a strip of man-made land paralleling the 



306 UPPER WEST SIDE AND NORTHERN MANHATTAN 

canal to the eastern shore of the park. A boat basin and large playfield will 
be constructed and the entire park landscaped. 

To the west, between 21 8th Street, Broadway, and the Harlem River, 
lies Columbia University's BAKER FIELD. It has baseball and football 
fields, a stadium, a cinder track, and boathouses. 

For all Inwood's considerable age, there is a newness to much of the 
district. The apartment houses and the spectacular improvements in parks, 
bridges, and highways are, for the most part, recent achievements. These 
late changes have only helped Inwood to become very nearly what Olm- 
sted and Croes envisioned in 1876 a residential neighborhood "for fairly 
comfortable people." 

MARBLE HILL 

Area: Harlem River Ship Canal on the south to 23oth St. on the north; from 
Ewen St. east to Exterior St. Map on page 293. 

Marble Hill, Inwood's little neighbor to the northeast, is tied to 
Manhattan Island by the bridge over which Broadway crosses the Har- 
lem. The hill was called Papirinemen by the Indians, meaning "a place 
parcelled out." Old marble quarries gave it the name most commonly 
used, but occasionally it is referred to as Kingsbridge, a name derived 
from a bridge, the first across the river, that Frederick Philipse built in 
1693. Indignant farmers resented paying toll to Philipse, a wealthy Dutch 
Colonial, and erected the free Farmers' Bridge. General Washington's 
troops used both crossings in their retreat to White Plains after the battle 
on Harlem Heights. 

Like Inwood, Marble Hill is a relatively quiet neighborhood. Modest 
apartment houses look out across the New York Central tracks and the 
Harlem River, but many of the residences along its hilly streets are two- 
story frame cottages. 





Major Points of Interest 



NEW YORK AQUARIUM 

Battery Park. IRT Broadway-vth Ave. subway (local) to South Ferry; or IRT Lex- 
ington Ave. subway to Bowling Green; or 9th Ave. el to Battery Place; or 
2d or 3d Ave. el to South Ferry; or Broadway bus to South Ferry. Hours: daily 
9 A.M. to 5 P.M. from April to Sept., 9 A.M. to 4 P.M. from Oct. to March. Admis- 
sion free. 

JLHE New York Aquarium is set in the marine atmosphere of Battery 
Park. Housed in a circular three-story building, a converted fort, in the 
northwest section of the park, it is second in size among the world's forty 
or more great public aquaria, but first in variety and number of specimens. 
In the thirty-six years ending December, 1938, more than seventy-six 
million visitors passed under the two gilded figures of sea horses carved 
above the main doorway. The average attendance is about seven thousand 
a day. On certain days, however, when the fleet has been anchored in the 
harbor, sailors on shore leave have brought the daily attendance to more 
than fifty thousand. 

According to a recent census the exhibition comprises some 8,877 
fishes, 872 invertebrates, 198 reptiles, 65 amphibians, and 12 birds. The 

307 



308 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
stock, subject to frequent change and replacement, is housed in 7 large 
floor pools, 88 large glass-fronted wall tanks, 83 small tanks, and 29 large 
reserve tanks containing specimens not on exhibition. 

A casual inspection of the aquarium building is sufficient to recognize its 
original military character and its resemblance to Castle Williams on Gov- 
ernors Island to the south of Battery Park. Built by the Federal Govern- 
ment about 1807, it was known at first as the West Battery and stood on 
the Capske, a cluster of rocks a short distance from the shore line of that 
time. It was renamed Castle Clinton after the War of 1812. When it be- 
came evident that its worth as a harbor fort was dubious, it was ceded to 
the city of New York. As Castle Garden it was the scene of notable public 
and social events. Lafayette was welcomed here in 1824, Louis Kossuth in 
1851, and Edward VII then Prince of Wales in 1860. Here Professor 
Morse demonstrated the telegraph in 1835, and in 1850, under the spon- 
sorship of P. T. Barnum, Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale," made 
her American debut. An undistinguished bust to the right of the entrance 
commemorates her success. 

In 1855 Castle Garden became the country's chief immigrant station. 
Here raw Irish were recruited to fill the ranks of Meagher's brigade during 
the Civil War, and here landed the Italians who swarmed into Mulberry 
Bend and the Jews who supplied labor power for the garment and cigar 
lofts of the East Side. From 1855 to 1890, 7,690,606 aliens entered the 
United States through the Castle Garden station. In the latter year an in- 
vestigation under Governor Cleveland resulted in the transfer of immi- 
grant reception and care to a commissioner at Ellis Island, and Castle Gar- 
den was closed, to be opened six years later as the Aquarium of the City 
of New York. 

In 1902, the operation of the aquarium was assigned to the New York 
Zoological Society, with the city supplying the funds. Although plans for 
remodeling were drawn that same year by the famous firm of architects, 
McKim, Mead, and White, the changes recommended were not made until 
the 1920*5. 

The original eight-foot-thick walls, massive bolt-studded doors, and gun 
embrasures of Castle Clinton remain. The chief change in the exterior has 
been the addition of a white square-fronted administration and laboratory 
annex, with an ornamented main entrance, which forms the east facade. 
The interior of the building has been converted into a gay and pleasant 
exhibition hall. The rotunda, aisle, and two-level ring of tanks, which 
follow the old circular walls, unite to form an interesting play of spaces 
and shapes. Even the radiators have been used decoratively as bases for the 



NEW YORK AQUARIUM 309 

columns. The walls are decorated with Charlotte Anne Case's bright ma- 
rine murals. 

For thirty-five years Dr. Charles Haskins Townsend served as director 
of the aquarium. He was succeeded upon his retirement in November, 
1937, by Charles M. Breder, Jr., an ichthyologist of note who had served 
for fourteen years as assistant director and aquarist. Breder introduced im- 
portant improvements in the complex system of water circulation, aeration, 
and temperature maintenance necessary to the well-being of the aquarium's 
ten thousand-odd specimens. Behind the tanks a system of catwalks en- 
ables attendants to patrol the building, unseen by the visitor. Three circu- 
latory systems carry 300,000 gallons daily of pure sea water, harbor water, 
or New York City water to the creatures, according to their various needs. 
Certain rare tropical varieties are brought to the aquarium in their native 
water, which is carefully guarded, filtered, and maintained at the tempera- 
ture to which the fish are accustomed. Temperatures range from 40 F. to 
90 F., the brook trout taking the coldest and the lungfish the warmest. 

School children, inquiring laymen, and amateur and professional scien- 
tists come in throngs to see varieties of fish ranging from the common 
fresh-water specimens to strange deep-sea monsters, from delicate minnows 
to frighteningly ugly 3OO-pound groupers. The electric eels, which generate 
enough current to light a bulb above the tank, are first in popular acclaim ; 
runners-up are the lacy Siamese fighting fish, hideous green and spotted 
morays, and grotesque toadfish. In the large pools on the ground floor 
graceful California sea lions bark and disport themselves before a gallery 
of enthusiasts. Here also are the enormous sea turtles, penguins from South 
Africa, seals, turtles, alligators, and crabs. In the many smaller tanks 
around the balcony perpetual submarine ballets are staged by minute and 
delicately colored tropical fishes silvery moonfish, blue or green parrot 
fish, fringe-tailed goldfish, and angel and butterfly fish. 

The aquarium operates a fish hatchery that produces millions of tiny 
food and game fishes, which are deposited in the various waters of the 
State to grow and breed. Research is carried on in the laboratory and the 
thousand-volume library. The aquarium is the first stop of visiting ichthyol- 
ogists from such distant points as London, Paris, and Goteborg, the marine 
institute at Tel Aviv, and the Australian Museum at Sydney. Director 
Breder is always on the alert for an advantageous swap, trading, for ex- 
ample, a batch of common horseshoe crabs for some exotic specimens. 

The aquarium operates on an annual budget of about eighty-seven thou- 
sand dollars, with approximately sixty-seven thousand dollars provided by 
the city of New York and the balance by the New York Zoological So- 



310 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

riety. After the salaries of a staff of thirty-eight, and maintenance, heat- 
ing, and repairing costs have been deducted, there is nothing left for the 
purchase of new specimens. The only funds available for this purpose come 
from the sale of booklets, post cards, and souvenirs something less than 
two thousand dollars a year. Wireless operators on ocean freighters oblig- 
ingly carry to far-off corners of the world castoff clothes, whisky, and other 
goods given them by the aquarium, and barter them for rare fish to add 
to the aquarium's collection. 



TRINITY CHURCH 

Broadway and Wall St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway to Wall St.; or BMT subway 
(local) to Rector St.; or 9th Ave. el to Rector St.; or Broadway bus to Rector St. 

The good Queen Anne, in 1705, gave to the young parish of Trinity 
Church a grant of land to be used "for the benefit of said Church and 
other pious uses." The yearly rent stipulated was thirty pounds, "a reason- 
able request." The farm lay west of Broadway, extending from Fulton to 
Christopher Street. 

Thus Trinity, the first Protestant Episcopal church established in New 
York, came into ownership of a good section of lower Manhattan and, 
as a consequence, became possibly the world's wealthiest parish of that 
denomination. 

Compared to the great cathedrals subsequently erected in New York, 
there is little about the century-old structure, fronting on Broadway and 
facing into Wall Street, that in any way suggests this great wealth. Yet, 
for its day it was completed in 1846 the church, designed by Richard 
Upjohn, one of the famous architects of the period and sponsor of the 
Gothic Revival mode, doubtless was considered duly impressive. The church 
is constructed of dark brownstone in a free rendering of perpendicular 
English Gothic. Although only 79 feet wide and 166 feet long, the build- 
ing is so beautifully proportioned that it holds the attention, even in its 
present setting, enclosed as it is by high office buildings that would dwarf 
any less inspired structure. Graceful porches project beyond its side en- 
trances. The main entrance, at the foot of Wall Street, is in the base of 
the rectangular tower fronting the nave. The tower is surmounted by an 
octagonal spire with a cross at the top. For years, the spire, attaining a 
height of 280 feet above the steps, served as a landmark. Both the tower 
and the spire are of brownstone ashlar, and are exceptionally fine in work* 



TRINITY CHURCH 311 

manship. The first "Ring of Bells," a gift from London, was received 
in 1797, and is the oldest in the city. Others were added and today the 
chimes of Trinity include ten bells. They were originally intended to be 
swung, but the difficulty of obtaining competent ringers, and the fact that 
the public preferred tunes to changes, resulted in their being made sta- 
tionary. The clappers are connected to a ringing case in the room below 
the belfry. 

Three pairs of bronze doors, at the base of the tower, to the east, north, 
and south, designed by Richard M. Hunt, the architect, are the gift of 
William Waldorf Astor as a memorial to his father, the second John 
Jacob Astor. They are designed with bas-relief decorations in the manner 
of Ghiberti's doors for the Baptistery in Florence. The main entrance 
panels were executed in bas-relief by Karl Bitter, and represent symbolic 
scenes from the Bible, as do the north doors, the work of J. Massey Rhind. 
The panels in the south door, designed by G. M. Niehaus, depict Dr. 
Henry Barclay, second rector of the church, preaching to the Indians in 
1739, the consecration of Trinity Church in 1846, and George Washing- 
ton in St. Paul's Chapel following his inauguration in 1789. 

Double rows of carved columns support the groined nave vaulting. 
Seven white marble panels above the high altar depict scenes from the 
life of Christ, particularly associated with the Last Supper. The reredos 
of Caen stone, perpendicular Gothic in style, is divided by buttress forms 
into three bays, in which are figures of the Twelve Apostles. The stone 
floor, walls, pillars, pews, and even the glass of the windows almost com- 
pletely filling both walls, are, uniformly, of an even and mellow tone of 
soft yellow-brown. They have the worn, but unsoiled tint of a well-kept 
ancient vellum manuscript. In striking contrast to this color scheme, yet 
not garish, is the brilliant stained-glass window (above and behind the 
reredos) of burning blue and ruby. Blending harmoniously with these 
two effects is the warm ivory of the marble in the altar. 

All Saint's Chapel, at the west end of the north aisle, is a fine example 
of the English Gothic style that flourished during the latter half of the 
fourteenth century. It was designed by Thomas Nash, who also designed 
the baptistery (near the northeast corner of the chancel). In the latter is 
a fourteenth-century altarpiece. 

The parish came into existence during the reign of King William III, 
when on May 6, 1697, the charter was signed by Governor Fletcher. 
Episcopalians in the colony, however, had been holding religious services 
since the English acquisition of New Amsterdam in 1664, worshiping in 
a chapel of the fort that stood near the Battery. 



312 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

The first church, opened in 1698, was destroyed in the fire of 1776. 
It lay in ruins until 1787, when the church was reconstructed. More than 
a half century later it was replaced. 

From the beginning Trinity numbered among its parishioners the city's 
most distinguished personages, some of whose descendants still worship 
there. Many of those early parishioners lie buried in the churchyard which 
surrounds the building on the north, west, and south sides. Carved in the 
weathered slabs are inscriptions naming such honored dead as Alexander 
Hamilton, Robert Fulton, Captain James ("Don't Give Up The Ship") 
Laurence, Albert Gallatin, William Bradford, founder of the city's first 
newspaper, the Gazette, and earliest champion of the freedom of the press, 
and John Watts. The Martyr's Monument, a tall memorial to American 
patriots who died while imprisoned by the British in New York, stands 
near the Broadway-Thames Street corner. 

Near the iron railing along Broadway on a sunken granite stone is 
carved the name, Charlotte Temple. Charlotte, said to have been the 
granddaughter of the Earl of Derby, eloped with an English officer, who 
brought her to America and abandoned her after the birth of her child. 
A popular novelist of the day (1790), Sarah Haswell Rowsan, used her 
story in Charlotte Temple, one of the most widely read novels in the 
English language. 

At noon the cemetery is a retreat for workers from the office buildings 
of the financial district. During their lunch hour, they sun themselves on 
the benches along the paths, or on the steps and railings of the porticos. 

Trinity is the parent of seven subsidiary chapels: these are not small 
annexes of the mother church, but rather they include some of the largest 
and most beautiful church structures in New York. One is old St. Paul's 
Chapel (see page 98), north of Trinity on Broadway; and another, the 
one most recently built, is the Chapel of the Intercession, in Trinity Ceme- 
tery (see page 296). 

The controlling corporation still owns about one-fifth of the original 
grant, estimated to be worth about ten million dollars. The remainder was 
given to church and educational institutions. The acquisition of these vast 
holdings has furnished a classic example, for reformists and economists, 
of the social evil of land speculation. As recently as 1938, in the Federal 
Theater production, ft . . . one third of a nation . . .," a play dealing with 
housing conditions, the church's history was recalled, from the granting 
of land to the young parish in 1705 to the municipal investigation of 
1894. In the latter year it was revealed that tenement property acquired 
by the church corporation at the expiration of long term leases comprised 



BROOKLYN BRIDGE 313 

a portion of the city's worst slums. The church has since divested itself of 
its tenement holdings. 

BROOKLYN BRIDGE 

Park Row east of City Hall Park, Manhattan, across East River to Sands and Wash- 
ington Sts., Brooklyn. IRT Lexington Ave. subway to Brooklyn Bridge; or BMT 
subway (local) to City Hall; or zd or 3d Ave. el to City Hall; or Broadway or 
4th Ave. bus to City Hall Park. 

Brooklyn Bridge, soaring over the East River, is the subject of more 
paintings, etchings, photographs, writings, and conversations than any 
other suspension bridge in the world. Uniting the maze of the nineteenth- 
century brick and frame residences, factories, and warehouses of the Brook- 
lyn shore and the modern skyscraper district of lower Manhattan, the 
majestic highway has supplied an extravagant theme to romantic and sym- 
bolic fancies. Native artists, including the noted water-colorist John Marin 
and the abstractionist Joseph Stella, have played many variations upon its 
graceful catenaries, suspenders, and granite towers; while the poet Hart 
Crane conceived it in his The Bridge as the dynamic emblem of America's 
westward march. 

During more than half a century of continuous use, the bridge has 
retained its place as the most picturesque of the sixty-one spans that bind 
Greater New York into a world metropolis. It was designed in 1867 by 
John A. Roebling, who had built the bridge at Niagara Falls and the 
more remarkable one over the Ohio River at Cincinnati. While engaged 
in drawing the plans for Brooklyn Bridge, Roebling sustained an injury 
which resulted in his death from tetanus a year before construction began. 
His son, Washington A. Roebling, became construction engineer, but he 
too was injured. From a window of a Brooklyn Heights residence he super- 
vised the construction of the bridge, watching its progress through a 
telescope. 

The bridge was opened to traffic on May 24, 1883, pedestrians being 
charged a toll of one cent. Six days later a tragedy occurred on the crowded 
walk. A woman fell down the wooden steps at the Manhattan approach 
to the promenade, and her screams resulted in a panic in which twelve 
persons lost their lives and scores were injured. 

Unlike the steel towers of the East River bridges that followed, the 
buttressed towers of this bridge, rising 272 feet above mean high water, 
are constructed entirely of granite. Expressing the increasing load, they 



314 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
become thicker as they extend downward; and the segmental arches that 
tie the piers together are buttressed against lateral thrust. The whole design 
is a superbly clear statement of the contrast between the ponderous com- 
pression in the towers and the tight-strung tension of the steel members. 

The roadway platform, eighty-six feet in width, is hung on two-inch 
diameter steel suspenders strung, from two pairs of cables the catenaries 
sixteen inches in diameter. Each cable is composed of 5,296 galvanized 
steel wires. (The total length of wire used is 14,357 miles, a distance more 
than half the circumference of the earth. ) Each is capable of sustaining a 
live load of 12,000 tons, or a total live load equal to 48,000 tons, the 
weight of the structural steel in the Empire State Building. 

The bridge has an over-all length of 6,0 1 6 feet, and the center of the 
i, 595. 5-foot channel span is 133 feet above the river at mean high water. 
Until the Williamsburg Bridge was completed in 1903, with an over-all 
length of 7,308 feet, Brooklyn Bridge was the world's longest suspension 
span. 

Among the ingenious methods introduced by the younger Roebling in 
the construction of the bridge methods which have since exerted con- 
siderable influence on engineering technic were the pulley-and-reel sys- 
tem for spinning the cables of the catenaries, the use of semi-flexible 
saddles as cable rests to provide for expansion and contraction owing to 
temperature changes, the employment of chains of eyebars in the anchor- 
ages and wire wrapping as protective covering for the finished cables, and 
the cross-lacing of suspenders with stay cables that act as bracers. 

The center promenade, a board footwalk twelve feet above the floor of 
the bridge, is flanked on each side by elevated tracks and one-way, double- 
lane driveways, which accommodate both trolley and vehicular traffic. The 
Manhattan approach to the footwalk slopes upward from the damp, 
gloomy Park Row floor of the BMT terminal opposite City Hall Park. 
In this dark and rather vague spread, where the streetcar lines crossing 
the bridge curve into their terminals, are news venders, frankfurter stands, 
and iron gates, usually closed, leading to the elevated lines overhead. This 
almost subterranean atmosphere is also characteristic of the Brooklyn ap- 
proach, which is graded to the Sands Street level of the sprawling BMT 
terminal structure. 

In the Manhattan abutment are wine vaults, suggestive of Roman cata- 
combs. Built in 1876, seven years before the bridge was opened, they were 
used until recently by a New York department store as a storage place for 
European liquors. The cellars, entered from 209 William Street, were 
sealed during Prohibition. 



BROOKLYN BRIDGE 315 

The bridge quickly became popular as a Sunday promenade. Here 
strolled women in Sunday ruffles, hourglass stays, bustles fringed with 
everything but bells, and shoes laced up to the kneecap ; gentlemen trussed 
in broadcloth to the Adam's apple, inquisition collars to the ears, and 
trousers to the toes. Foot traffic gradually waned, however, with the in- 
stallation of surface cars on the bridge and with the building of the larger 
Williamsburg, Manhattan, and Queensboro bridges. The elevated line 
began operating over the bridge in September, 1883, the surface cars in 
1898. The present workday traffic averages about twenty- six thousand ve- 
hicles. 

The bridge affords a magnificent view of the East River, the harbor, 
and downtown Manhattan the buildings of the financial district chang- 
ing their hues during the different hours of the day. Down below, seen 
from the Manhattan grade, lies the darkness of the old city markets and 
gloomy warehouses to the south; and on the north, slums, elevated lines, 
and crooked streets, where one notices horse-drawn vehicles and an old 
mission with JESUS SAVES painted on the walls in large white block- 
lettering. Knickerbocker Village, a housing development (see page 115), 
is set among these slums spreading north from the foot of the bridge. 

The apocrypha of Steve Brodie belong among the bridge's more dis- 
tinctive legends. There are men living who claim they saw Brodie's leap 
from the bridge in July, 1886, the rescue skiff tossing on the East River, 
the hero-worshipers who cheered as he climbed to the dock; on the other 
hand, mention of his name causes many old-time barkeepers to put their 
tongues in their cheeks. In any event, Brodie has entered the American 
idiom: to "pull" or "do a Brodie" has come to serve as a synonym for 
taking a high dive, whether on the stock market, in a love affair, or in 
the prize ring. 

The promenade still draws its visitors, lyrical, noisy, or inarticulate. In 
the famous "view" of the bay and sky line, tourists encounter the original 
of a long-familiar picture post-card panorama; while the high arched 
towers and vast curving cables of the bridge itself are rediscovered daily 
by amateur camera artists. On summer days old ladies, invalids, Sunday 
morning strollers, unemployed men, and wandering boys and girls absorb 
here the indolence of space, sun, and water. Employees of downtown 
office buildings seek at the bridge during lunch time and after work a 
session with the outer world. At twilight, the conventional beauty of the 
setting attains such intensity that even the wisecracks of up-to-date lovers 
are sublimated. And in the wastes of night, so passionate is the contrast 
between the deserted and melancholy bridge entrances and the moonlit 



316 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

altitude of the passage itself, that the solitary pedestrian feels himself 
drawn into association with all the extravagances of the poets. 

BELLEVUE HOSPITAL 

ist Ave. to East River, 26th to 3oth St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to 
28th St.; or 3d Ave. el to 28th St.; or 2d Ave. el to 23d St.; or ist Ave. bus to 
26th St. 

One of the twenty-six municipal institutions under the supervision of 
the Department of Hospitals, Bellevue is the oldest general hospital on 
the North American continent. Probably no other hospital in the world 
admits so many patients and treats such a diversity of ailments. Contagious 
cases, however, are transferred to the near-by Willard Parker Hospital. The 
number of cases for 1938 totaled more than the population of San Fran- 
cisco: 65,352 admissions and births, 634,242 outpatient visits, and 28,253 
ambulance calls. 

A city complete in itself, Bellevue covers approximately twelve square 
city blocks. Its twenty-five buildings contain 102 wards and cost more than 
twenty-three million dollars. The massive eight-story Psychiatric Hospital 
at the northwest corner, of clean red brick trimmed with natural gray 
stone, exemplifies the hospital's program of modernization. A new Ad- 
ministration Building with three chapels is under construction (1939). 

Bellevue serves a heavily populated area of the East Side between East 
Houston and Forty-second Streets, east of Sixth Avenue. Hospitalization, 
medical care, and clinical treatment are provided without cost to anyone 
who is unable to pay for them, investigation as to ability to pay being 
made after, and not before, admission is granted and treatment begun. 
Bellevue is a free, not a charity, hospital, and according to a city law, it 
must accept any applicant who resides in its district and requires medical 
treatment. 

The ambulance service operates on a twenty-four-hour basis, and an am- 
bulance and doctor can be dispatched within thirty seconds after a call for 
aid has been received. Bellevue' s morgue, the official mortuary for New 
York County, is in the Pathological Building on Twenty-ninth Street. The 
same building also houses the Medical Examiner's office, where New 
York's official autopsies are performed, and the headquarters of the Mortu- 
ary Division of the city Department of Hospitals. About twenty thousand 
bodies pass each year through Bellevue's morgue, eighty-five hundred of 
which are never claimed. All unclaimed bodies are photographed and de- 




tftl 



I 



i I 



1 1 






ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S CHURCH AND GENERAL ELECTRIC BUILDING 



11 



l**l 4 S - 

til 







ST. PATRICK S CATHEDRAL 







HOTEL SAVOY-PLAZA 




DEAD END NEAR SUTTON PLACE 



PARK AVENUE AND THE WALDORF-ASTORIA TOWERS 



I 







TEMPLE EMANU-EL 




RCA BUILDING, ROCKEFELLER CENTER 



i 





NEW YORK HOSPITAL CORNELL UNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE 



BELLEVUE HOSPITAL 317 

scribed, and a docket entered for them at the Police Department's Bureau 
of Missing Persons. After reposing for two weeks or more in refrigerated 
vaults of the morgue, some of the cadavers are given to private embalming 
schools whose students practice in a room adjoining the vaults, and a cer- 
tain number are allotted to medical schools for dissection. The remainder, 
about 170 a week, are placed in plain, wooden coffins and carried on a 
barge, up the East River to Potter's Field on Hart's Island (see page 551). 

In the new Psychiatric Hospital, the alcoholics, the sexually unbalanced, 
the hysterical, and the alleged insane are under care. The Psychiatric Divi- 
sion of Bellevue has become a laboratory for the medical and social-service 
professions in the United States. The "disturbed," or violent, wards utilize 
none of the old-fashioned, inhumane methods that some hospitals still em- 
ploy for pacifying psychotics. Though overcrowding detracts from the de- 
sired effect, the new building, with its pleasant murals, minimizes the sense 
of confinement. The Psychiatric Hospital, originally planned to care for 
630 patients, was pathetically overcrowded only six months after it was 
opened in 1936. 

The medical departments of three outstanding universities are affiliated 
with Bellevue: Columbia, Cornell, and New York. A fourth group of doc- 
tors and internes not connected with these particular schools is included in 
an open division. Bellevue's 550 staff doctors, 200 internes, and 400 clinic 
physicians are, for the most part, either faculty members of these schools 
or regular hospital employees who are selected by the schools. New York 
Training School for Nursing, established in 1873 by Bellevue, was the first 
of its kind in the United States. Its standards have since served as a norm 
for other schools. The hospital also maintains the Mills Training School 
for Male Nurses. 

Bellevue's list of contributions to medicine is a long and notable one. Its 
ambulance service, inaugurated on a horse-and-buggy basis in 1869, was 
the first in the world. Doctors Valentine Mott, James R. Wood, William 
H. Van Buren and F. H. Hamilton brought the hospital fame through 
their medical and surgical discoveries. At Bellevue, Dr. Herman Biggs 
founded the first bacteriological laboratory in the United States, Dr. Lewis 
A. Sayre pioneered in orthopedics, and Dr. William H. Welch established 
America's first pathological laboratory. Noted graduates include Dr. Wil- 
liam S. Halstead, who first used cocaine as an anesthetic; Dr. Frank Har- 
ley, inventor of the electrical surgical saw ; Dr. William H. Gorgas and Dr. 
Jesse W. Lazear who, with Dr. Walter Reed and others, discovered how 
yellow fever was transmitted, and eradicated the disease from Cuba and 
Panama. 



318 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Bellevue's history goes back to British New York in 1736, when the city 
corporation ordered the construction of a "Publick Workhouse and House 
of Correction" on the site of the present City Hall Park. Infirmary activities 
were confined to a single room with six beds. To accommodate ever in- 
creasing numbers of the needy, new buildings were erected, until by 1811 
the hospital section of the workhouse had become its largest department. 
When further expansion became imperative, Belle Vue Farm, the present 
site of the hospital, was purchased (1816), and the new group of build- 
ings became known as Bellevue Establishment. Constant increase in popu- 
lation and resultant clinical demands on the hospital during the nineteenth 
century necessitated frequent additions to and renovations of the plant. 
Modern Bellevue began in 1908, when it became a part of the "Bellevue 
and Allied Hospitals." In 1929 the Department of Hospitals of the City 
of New York was created, with Bellevue as one of its units. 

Under the spur of PWA and WPA grants, added to city appropriations, 
the old Bellevue, with its maze of mid-Victorian buildings of ominous 
gray, has given place to the group of eight-story structures of brick and 
stone with granite foundations. The firm of McKim, Mead, and White 
designed these new buildings with the exception of the Psychiatric Hos- 
pital; the architects of the latter were C. B. Meyers and Thompson, 
Holmes, and Converse. In February, 1938, the C & D Building was 
opened as a model unit for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. When 
the new Administration Building is erected, it will complete the group of 
seven great units making up the new Bellevue. 

Architecturally, there is a deliberate suppression, on the exterior, of the 
functional differences between the various elements and parts of the build- 
ings. The interiors, in contrast, are designed as frank expressions of their 
uses and of the materials employed, with reliance for effect placed upon 
tasteful proportioning and choice of color. The walls of the buildings have 
been decorated with the murals executed under the auspices of the WPA 
Federal Art Project. 

Bellevue, like all large municipal hospitals, is still to some extent the ob- 
ject of fear and rumor, for in handling vast numbers of humanity's under- 
privileged it naturally has a high death rate. Almost vanished, however, 
are such once popular superstitions among the poor as that of the "Black 
Bottle," used to do away with troublesome patients. In the past, charges 
of unsanitary conditions, a depleted commissary, political graft, and in- 
adequate care by nurses and orderlies had considerable basis in fact. Scan- 
dalous conditions at the hospital lack of supplies and often food, vicious 
surroundings, and untrained female prisoners acting as nurses contributed 



EMPIRE STATE BUILDING 319 

to a frightful mortality during the cholera plague of 1832, when more 
than thirty-five hundred New Yorkers died of the disease and a very few 
who entered Bellevue recovered. Again, the Civil War all but demoralized 
the work of the hospital. The school for nurses was established after an 
investigation by public-spirited women disclosed that the nurses "were 
nearly without exception to the last degree incompetent. ..." 

The pesthouse and prison atmosphere of Bellevue' s past has been oblit- 
erated. Through the years the hospital has steadily improved, and today 
it ranks as one of the best medical centers in the world. To the average 
New Yorker, Bellevue Hospital is a reassuring symbol of man's humanity 
to man. To the poor of the East Side, admission to the hospital often rep- 
resents a dividing line between illness and good health, life and death. 
Overcrowding and understanding continue to be the chief difficulties. The 
new buildings have done much to remedy crowding, but it remains a vital 
problem to the hospital, which must receive all comers even though it is 
forced to put up cots in the corridors. Understating has been mitigated 
by substantial additions to the staff in 1938, bringing the total to 3,200 
employees nurses, orderlies, attendants, and others; at the same time, 
the old twelve-hour shift was cut to eight. Some six hundred WPA 
workers are assisting in the children's, clerical, and other departments. 



EMPIRE STATE BUILDING 

5th Ave., 33d to 34th St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to 33d St.; or IRT 
Broadway-yth Ave. subway to Pennsylvania Station (34th St.); or BMT subway to 
34th St.; or 5th Ave. bus to 34th St. Observatories on 86th and io2d floors; hours, 
8 A.M. to i A.M.; admission: adults $1.10, children 25^. 

The Empire State Building, 1,250 feet high, is the tallest structure in 
the world. Seen from a distance it emerges above New York like a great 
inland lighthouse. The Chrysler Building, second in height, measures 
1,046 feet to the tip of the lance; the Woolworth Building, for many 
years the tallest tower of Manhattan, is only 792 feet. The Eiffel Tower 
in Paris is 1,0241/2 feet to the top of the flagpole. 

The great limestone and steel structure has been called a monument to 
an epoch the boom years from 1924 to 1929. The building became, as 
those who envisioned it promised, an internationally known address. 

The superb main shaft of the Empire State rises in an almost unbroken 
line out of the broad five-story base that covers approximately two acres 
adjoining Fifth Avenue. Atop the shaft, at the eighty-sixth floor level, is 



320 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

the 2oo-foot observation tower a sixteen-story glass and metal extension 
shaped like an inverted test tube buttressed by great flaring corner piers. 
Though the design of the tower is pleasing in itself, it has been widely 
criticized for a lack of unity in its relation to the shaft. 

Its architectural importance far transcends the matter of height alone. 
The design, for which Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon won the gold medal of 
the Architectural League in 1931, is essentially modern. The great tower 
walls are composed almost entirely of standardized machine-made parts. 
Not only the windows but the cast aluminum panels or "spandrels" under 
them, even the stone column facings and the steel strips that enclose them, 
are standardized units. The pattern window, spandrel, window, spandrel 
is repeated without a break for 725 feet. Such a wall treatment is the 
direct opposite in conception of such early skyscraper buildings as the 
Flatiron, where each story is adorned with a minor horizontal terra-cotta 
cornice. 

A peculiarity of the Empire State Building is that the windows, instead 
of being set back into the wall, appear to be flush so that the effect is one 
of a continuous wall. By this expedient the architects not only avoided 
gouging the wall into something resembling an immense waffle iron, they 
also eliminated the need to trim the stone around the openings, thus 
saving much time and money in construction. 

The color scheme of the building, though losing its remarkable first 
"blond" tone through weathering, is spectacular in early and late sunlight. 
The aluminum spandrels and the soft-textured limestone are tinged with 
gray and lavender, and the silvery sheen of metal on the walls creates 
an effect of airy lightness. 

On Fifth Avenue a monumental but somewhat dull entrance, flanked 
by heavy stone pylons the full height of the five-story base, opens into a 
long hall, three stories high and lined with Rellante and Rose Famosa 
marbles. The high silver-leaf ceiling is painted in metallic colors with 
geometric patterns suggesting stars, sunbursts, and snowflakes. On the wall 
opposite the Fifth Avenue entrance is a great brass and aluminum plaque 
depicting the Empire State under a blazing sun. Subsidiary entrances give 
access to the building from both Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Streets. 

The entire building is planned around a central core roughly pyramid- 
shaped, containing the utilities and the sixty-seven elevators. Though run 
at a lesser speed, the self- leveling elevators can rise 1,200 feet a minute. 
Because of its height, nearly one-third of the whole must be devoted to 
elevators and utilities. In rentable floor space, the Empire State, with 
2,158,000 square feet, ranks among the three largest office buildings in 



EMPIRE STATE BUILDING 321 

the United States, the others being the Merchandise Mart in Chicago and 
the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center. 

The speed with which the Empire State was built set a new mark in 
construction efficiency. On October i, 1929, the first truck rolled into the 
former Waldorf-Astoria Hotel to begin demolition; May i, 1931, the 
completed Empire State Building was formally opened by Alfred E. 
Smith, its president. When construction (by Starrett Brothers anfl Eken) 
was in full swing, an average of four and a half stories were erected every 
week, and at top speed, fourteen and a half stories in ten working days. 
Because of lack of sidewalk storage space, the supplying of building 
materials had to be synchronized exactly with construction speed. The land 
cost sixteen million dollars, the purchase including the magnificent old 
Waldorf, which had occupied the site some thirty-five years and had itself 
cost thirteen million dollars. 

In the first five years of its existence, more than four million visited 
the building's observatories on the 86th and iO2d floors, whence, on 
clear days, a fifty-mile panorama is visible. The city, with its waterways 
and suburbs, spreads like a relief map a quarter of a mile below; and 
directions for identifying the various points are marked on the observa- 
tion terrace. To the south, near the tip of Manhattan, is the Wall Street 
district. To the southeast lies Brooklyn, and crossing the East River are 
the Williamsburg, Manhattan, and Brooklyn bridges, from north to south. 
In the southwest, the Statue of Liberty is outlined, and beyond it lies 
Staten Island. 

To the west are the docks of the Hudson (North) River where ocean 
liners are berthed ; on the other side of the water is the ridge of the Pali- 
sades; and beyond, the flatlands of New Jersey. In the northwest the 
Orange Mountains dim the horizon far beyond the Palisades ; in the imme- 
diate foreground is Broadway, cutting diagonally through the Garment 
Center and Times Square, and then swerving west and continuing north 
to Yonkers. The sheer white wall of the RCA Building of Rockefeller 
Center dominates the foreground directly north ; beyond it lies rectangular 
Central Park. In the vague distance across the snake-like Harlem River, 
extends the Bronx. 

To the northeast, Fifth Avenue cuts straight through the vista that 
comprises the skyscrapers of the mid-town section: the view moves clock- 
wise from the hotels of Central Park South and the Plaza to the twin 
towers of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, then to the gold-leafed tower of 
the New York Central Building. The Chanin, Chrysler, Daily News build- 
ings and the mass of Tudor City mark the Forty-second Street line to the 



322 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

East River. Welfare Island, with its hospitals, lies under Queensboro 
Bridge to the northeast, and past the river stretches the borough of Queens, 
the World's Fair Grounds lying near the north shore. Directly east, the 
most conspicuous landmark is Bellevue Hospital on the west bank of the 
river. Initiates visit the tower in the late afternoon, dine in the cafe on 
the eighty-sixth floor, and stay until the lights of the city come on. 

METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE 

Broadway, 39th to 4oth St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway to Times Square; 
or 8th Ave. (Independent) subway to 42d St.; or BMT subway to Times Square; 
or Broadway bus to 4oth St. Season: November to March. Admission: $i to $7. 

Efforts to provide a new building for the Metropolitan Opera House are 
made perennially indeed, Rockefeller Center is a by-product of this move- 
ment. Yet, the warehouse-like yellow-brick structure that occupies an entire 
block on the edge of the garment district, remains the home of the world's 
foremost opera company: and within its original domicile the opera con- 
tinues to expand its activities and enlarge its functions. 

The opening of the Metropolitan Opera House in 1883 was part of the 
great wave of artistic endeavor which arose in America in post-Civil War 
days. The new moneyed aristocracy, assuming in the last decades of the 
nineteenth century the role of art patron, depended for its aesthetic tute- 
lage on the taste of contemporary European capitals. Immense numbers of 
paintings, sculptures, and architectural models, both good and bad, were 
imported. New museums appeared in American cities, and great private 
collections were initiated. 

With all this grandiose expansion of artistic enterprise, there were, how- 
ever, certain misgivings when the ambitious plans for opera in America 
were announced. The New York Times wrote that the auditorium en- 
visioned for the presentation of Italian opera was "on a scale of possibly 
too great magnitude." Its interior would "dazzle the eyes" of an assem- 
blage accustomed to "the primitive surroundings" of the old Academy of 
Music, its predecessor on Fourteenth Street. 

The opera house was designed by J. C. Cady, a prominent architect of 
the day. That Mr. Cady was without experience in theater construction 
seemed to matter little ; audiences ever since have paid for his mistakes, as 
but half the stage can be seen from the side seats of the balcony and fam- 
ily circle. What did matter at the time, especially to the press and to readers 
of its society columns, was that the opera house had a "Golden Horse- 



METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE 323 

shoe" two tiers of boxes and a row of baignoires occupied by the sev- 
enty original stockholders, among them the Vanderbilts, the Morgans, and 
the Goulds. 

Henry E. Abbey directed the opera during the first season. At the open- 
ing performance Vianesi conducted and Christine Nilsson sang the role 
of Marguerite in Faust. The Horseshoe was crowded with patrons whose 
total wealth was estimated at more than five hundred million dollars. So- 
cially the first season was successful, but financially it showed an estimated 
loss of six hundred thousand dollars, a deficit underwritten by patrons who 
thus established a precedent. 

The following year Dr. Leopold Damrosch, German- American musician 
(1832-85), became the director. He suggested the introduction of the 
music of Wagner, then hardly known in New York and considered ex- 
tremely radical. Wagner's works filled the house with delighted audiences, 
and incidentally reduced the deficit. 

Fire gutted the supposedly fireproof structure in August, 1892. It was 
quickly rebuilt, and reopened in November, 1893. Ten years later, it was 
redesigned by Carrere and Hastings, who eliminated the baignoires of the 
Golden Horseshoe and retained the two tiers of boxes which came to be 
known as the Diamond Horseshoe. Because of limited funds, the architects 
chose to treat the entrances and corridors simply and to splurge in the audi- 
torium itself, which was fashioned into a magnificent, spacious hall. The 
tiers sweep around in great horizontal arcs from the proscenium. Vigorous 
carved decorations impart a sense of richness to the generous and hand- 
some proportions of the auditorium. 

Opera continued to appeal to a large number of opera goers as a spec- 
tacle rather than as music. Audiences demanded familiar works Atda, II 
Trovatore, Faust and, because this exotic business was associated with 
foreigners in the popular mind, native singers often masqueraded under 
alien names. (Precedent for this custom was set the first season, when Al- 
wina Valleria [Schoening] sang the role of Leonora in // Trovatore.) 
Meanwhile the star system, abandoned to some extent through the Wag- 
nerian period, was resumed in 1898 under the directorship of Maurice 
Grau. During the "golden age of song," names, world-famous then, and 
still well-remembered, headed the bills: the De Reszkes, Nordica, Scotti, 
Sembrich, Lehmann, Eames, Calve, Schumann-Heink. Caruso, under the 
directorship of Heinrich Conried, made a nervous debut in Rigoletto, No- 
vember 23, 1903. The next year he opened the season in Atda, the first of 
sixteen consecutive "Caruso opening nights." His last appearance was in 



324 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Elisir d'Amore; although he suffered from a hemorrhage he insisted on 
singing and was able to finish an entire act. He died in 1921. 

Arturo Toscanini during his tenure as conductor, from 1908 until 1915, 
established the highest musical standards the Metropolitan has known, and 
his departure, after disagreements with the management, was a severe loss 
to American opera. But the man who probably influenced the Metropolitan 
more than any other was Gatti-Casazza, who became director in 1908 and 
remained in charge until 1935. He widened the Opera's repertory to in- 
clude new and varied works: Pelleas et Melisande by Debussy; Boris Go- 
dounoff by Moussorgsky (the title role played by Chaliapin) ; the neg- 
lected classics of Gluck and Mozart; and recent compositions, including 
Walter Damrosch's Cyrano de Bergerac, and Deems Taylor's Peter Ibbet- 
son and The King's Henchman for which Edna St. Vincent Millay wrote 
the libretto. He introduced to Metropolitan audiences such singers as Gio- 
vanni Martinelli, Amelia Galli-Curci, and Kirsten Flagstad. Salome was 
first produced by the Metropolitan, January 22, 1907, with Olive Frem- 
stad in the leading role, but the Dance of the Seven Veils aroused protest, 
and the management did not offer the opera again until January 13, 1934. 
Two outstanding events of the Gatti-Casazza tenure were the world pre- 
mieres of Puccini's Girl of 'the Golden West and Humperdinck's Goose 
Girl. 

From 1910 to 1929, the management not only succeeded in operating 
the Metropolitan on a sound financial basis but also accumulated a surplus. 
With the depression, however, the contributions of stockholders fell off, 
and although crowds might stand in line for seats in the family circle or 
for standing room, the balconies might be packed by the time the late ar- 
rivals reached their places in box and orchestra, bravos might thunder 
from under the roof, there was always a deficit at the end of the season. 
The Metropolitan faced ruin. 

Then, in 1935, a reorganization was effected. The Metropolitan Opera 
Association was formed, with a management committee that included John 
Erskine as chairman, Lucrezia Bori, Cornelius Bliss, and Allen Wardwell. 
Public contributions were solicited, and a subsidy was obtained from the 
Juilliard Musical Foundation. The association sold radio rights for Satur- 
day matinee broadcasts, receiving as much as ninety thousand dollars a sea- 
son. Edward Johnson, for many years a Metropolitan tenor, was made direc- 
tor. Thus the Metropolitan was saved, and as a result of the radio broad- 
casts it had achieved a great popular audience. Appreciative letters were 
received from farmers, filling-station attendants, cowpunchers. The insti- 
tution had definitely altered its relation to society. 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 325 

In other directions as well, it was on its way toward becoming a na- 
tional institution. American ballets were presented during three successive 
seasons (1935-8). To encourage American singers several hundred young 
voices from all parts of the Nation are heard each season by a committee 
of musicians ; the best are given an opportunity to sing on radio programs, 
and some are selected for the spring opera season. Those who distinguish 
themselves participate in the regular winter performances. Together with 
regular broadcasts of the best symphony music, the free concerts given in 
museums and other public buildings, and the Federal music theaters, the 
Metropolitan Opera of today is a significant part of a tendency toward the 
broad dissemination of musical culture. 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY: THE CENTRAL 

BUILDING 

5th Ave. and 42d St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway to Grand Central (E. 42d St.), 
or IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway to Times Square (W. 42d St.), then Queens 
line to Fifth Ave.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) subway to 42d St.; or BMT subway 
to Times Square; or 5th Ave. bus to 42d St. Hours: weekdays 9 A.M. to 10 P.M., 
Sunday i to 10 P.M. 

Eleven thousand readers and visitors, on an average day, enter the Fifth 
Avenue building of the New York Public Library. Here is the center of 
a library system which, exclusive of separate systems in Brooklyn and 
Queens, is second in size in America only to the Library of Congress. In 
the reference department, which occupies the greater part of this building, 
eighty miles of shelves are crowded with more than two and one-half mil- 
lion books. Approximately a million and one-half books more are available 
through the Circulation Department, which comprises fifty-one branches 
and eleven subbranches in Manhattan, Richmond, and the Bronx. The li- 
brary's collections are strong in history and biography, especially in relation 
to America; supplementing tens of thousands of books in the Americana 
collections are thousands of prints and etchings, and scores of valuable 
documents and maps dealing with the nation's history. 

The building, which occupies the site of the old Croton Reservoir, was 
designed by the firm of Carrere and Hastings, architects, and completed in 
1911. It cost $9,000,000. Architecturally, it is an outstanding example of 
the eclectic neoclassic style that was popular following the Chicago Co- 
lumbian Exposition of 1893. The building has been much criticized for 



326 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

lack of functional expression, overabundant detail, and the sacrifice of utili- 
tarian values for the sake of appearance. Nonetheless, it fully justifies the 
pride of its generation, for it was and still is a magnificent civic monu- 
ment. Its huge substantial bulk of white Vermont marble, ornately deco- 
rated, darkened by the weathering of time and thereby made to seem more 
massive, commands attention even on Fifth Avenue, bordered as it now is 
with new, spectacular architecture. 

Thomas Hastings, of the firm of Carrere and Hastings, was never com- 
pletely satisfied with the Fifth Avenue front, and made numerous studies 
for its alteration. His widow provided in her will a sum of money which 
might be applied to the cost of alterations. The west, or rear, elevation is 
artistically beyond criticism even from the functionalist standpoint; tall 
narrow windows, lighting the seven floors of stacks within, extend all the 
way to the large windows of the reading rooms in the. attic story, forming 
a facade that is truthfully and skillfully handled. 

A long forecourt, extending the full length of the Fifth Avenue side, 
has become familiar throughout the nation as a meeting place for all 
classes. A few broad steps flanked by E. C. Potter's famous couchant lions 
lead to a raised, pigeon-inhabited walk, separated from the street by a stone 
parapet. For more than a generation this place has attracted tourists, eccen- 
trics, lovers, visiting celebrities, and itinerant intellectuals from the farthest 
corners of the country. 

The facade is dominated by a central pavilion with a triple-arched deep- 
set portico and coupled Corinthian columns. Surmounting the colonnade 
is an attic parapet embellished with six vigorously modeled figures, by 
Paul W. Bartlett, representing History, Drama, Poetry, Religion, Ro- 
mance, and Philosophy. The fountain figures in wall niches on either side 
of the portico, by Frederick MacMonnies, represent Truth and Beauty. The 
grotesque sculptural groups in the pedimented end pavilions, by George 
Gray Barnard, represent History and Art. 

The entrance from Fifth Avenue leads into a two-story vestibule with a 
vaulted ceiling of veined white Vermont marble and wide stairways on 
opposite sides of the hall. The effect is impressive and cold, but the scene 
is humanized by the busy information desk facing the entrance, and by the 
activities of those who use the hall (with its four marble benches) as a 
meeting place. 

The immense size of the entrance hall, the elaborate series of stairways, 
the wide corridors, the vistas of columns and vaulting, may seem improvi- 
dent in view of a relative shortage of actual library space. But the library 
is more than a place for the study of books ; in effect it is a center of the 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 327 

city's intellectual life, and the monumental character of its design is, there- 
fore, appropriate. 

An elaborate classification and shelving system, by which any book in 
the Forty-second Street collection can be brought to the delivery desk in 
six and one-half minutes, is entirely modern in character. Delivery centers 
about Room 315, which houses three units: the Public Catalogue Room and 
the adjoining North and South Main Reading Rooms. The reading rooms 
constitute, in effect, a single hall of vast scale with an elaborately decorated 
ceiling. Every item of the immense reference collection is indexed and 
cross-indexed in the catalogue six million entries in all. 

In the American History Room (300) are books from the libraries of 
George Bancroft, James Lenox, Gordon Lester Ford, Thomas Addis Em- 
met, and Theodore Bailey Myers; and dictionaries and grammars of the 
Indian languages. The Economics Division (Room 228) possesses the 
Dugdale Collection of books on pauperism and criminology, the Henry 
George Collection on single tax, and a comprehensive collection of mid- 
nineteenth-century works on socialism. More than 3,000 languages and 
dialects are represented in the library's collection. Of these, more than 
50,000 volumes, some of them purchased with the Jacob H. Schiff Fund, 
are to be found in the Jewish Division (Room 216). Mr. Schiff also gave 
the library 317 water-color paintings, by James Tissot, illustrating the 
Old Testament. Other separate language collections are the Slavonic, in 
Room 216, and the Oriental, in Room 219. In the Music Room (324) are 
more than 75,000 catalogued items: books, pamphlets, orchestra scores, 
sheet music, and phonograph recordings. 

The Rare Book Room (303), entered only by special permission, con- 
tains 50,000 treasures, including the Lenox copy of the Gutenberg Bible, 
in two volumes ; the only known existing copy of the original folio edition 
in Spanish (printed in Barcelona in April, 1493) of Christopher Colum- 
bus' letter concerning his discoveries in America; the full first folio edi- 
tion of Shakespeare (1623) ; and the Bay Psalm Book, printed in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, in 1640, the first English book published in 
America. The final draft of Washington's "Farewell Address," in his own 
handwriting, and other American and British documents of historical im- 
portance are in the Manuscript Room (319). Here, and in the Spencer 
Collection (Room 322), are more than 100 illuminated manuscripts pro- 
duced in Europe from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries. In the Spencer 
Room rare illuminated manuscripts from the Spencer Collection and su- 
perbly illustrated and finely bound books are displayed. Among the note- 
worthy items is the early fourteenth-century Tickhill Psalter. 



328 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

The Newspaper Room, near the Forty-second Street entrance, attracts a 
cosmopolitan group of readers. It has current newspapers from all parts of 
the world, and files of New York City newspapers of the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. Some papers are now available on rolls of motion-pic- 
ture film, a single one reproducing, by means of microphotography, an en- 
tire month's output of a metropolitan daily. 

Special art or bibliographic exhibitions are generally on view in Rooms 
112, 113, 316, 321, and 322. Along the walls of the third-floor corridors 
are old Dutch, English, French, and Italian maps of the New World, as 
well as early American prints of both documentary and artistic value. These 
are part of the Phelps Stokes Collection of American Historical Prints, 
presented to the library in 1930. Among them is Paul Revere's engraving 
of the British landing in Boston in 1768. 

In the Lenox Gallery (Room 318) are three portraits of Washington: 
two by Gilbert Stuart, and a copy by Rembrandt Peale of Stuart's first por- 
trait. Munkacsy's Blind Milton Dictating to His Daughters typifies the nar- 
rative painting popular in the last century. There are portraits by Gains- 
borough and Reynolds, landscapes by Landseer and Morland, and Copley's 
distinguished Lady Frances Wentworth. 

The Stuart Gallery, opposite the Main Catalogue Room, contains addi- 
tional examples of the anecdotal painting of the middle-nineteenth cen- 
tury, when works entitled Hope and Faith and Pilgrims Going to Church 
were admired. It has some fine examples of the Hudson River school. Sun- 
day visitors will find this collection closed, as its donor, Mrs. Robert L. 
Stuart, stipulated. 

The Print Room (308) contains more than 100,000 items, includ- 
ing full sets of Whistler and Haden, an excellent selection of English 
engravings and Japanese prints, and innumerable American historical 
prints. Diirer is well represented, and there are 800 prints by Daumier, 
including the only etching he ever made, 900 lithographs by Joseph Pen- 
nell, and a complete set of Mielatz's views of New York City. Another 
group comprises eighty engravings of Turner's work, etched by the painter 
himself. The library possesses one of the best contemporary collections in 
the city, purchased with moneys from the Samuel P. A very Fund. 

Operating expenses of the central building are paid from the interest of 
the nearly $44,000,000 principal fund of the library. The branches and 
the Circulation Department are maintained through municipal appropria- 
tions. The library is administered by the staff officers and a board of trus- 
tees, including the mayor, the comptroller, and the president of the City 
Council as ex-ofncio members. 



THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 329 

The library developed from the consolidation of the Astor and Lenox li- 
braries and the Tilden Trust, effected in 1895. This great institution was 
built as much by the devotion of the people who fought for free libraries 
in the face of general indifference as by generous gifts. James Green Cogs- 
well, a teacher, persuaded the first John Jacob Astor that a "fitting testi- 
monial to his adopted country by its richest citizen" should be a library. (A 
huge monument to Washington had been favored for a time.) In 1848 the 
schoolmaster who "had stayed at the old gentleman's elbow to push him 
on" had his reward. Astor, in his will, gave $400,000 and a plot of land 
to the city for a library, and accordingly a reference library was opened in 
1854 on Lafayette Place. Together with books and bequests by members of 
the Astor family, it represents a total of $1,000,000. The Lenox Library, 
opened in 1875, was founded by James Lenox, book lover and scholar; at 
the time of consolidation, it contained 85,000 volumes and had an endow- 
ment fund of $505,000. Samuel J. Tilden, governor of New York in 1874 
and Democratic candidate for President in 1876, died in 1886 and left his 
money for a free library and reading room. The Tildren Trust brought an 
endowment of $2,000,000, after the original bequest of about $4,000,000 
had been reduced by a successful contesting of the Tilden will. 

The Lenox Library had been intended for scholars rather than for popu- 
lar use. In the i88o's the experience of the Astor and Lenox libraries made 
it seem foolhardy to expect that public libraries would be supported, and 
with the establishment of the Tilden Fund a consolidation with the Astor 
and Lenox libraries was sought. Meanwhile, women of the Grace Episcopal 
Church, adopting a different approach, had collected 500 books and ob- 
tained a room on Thirteenth Street for a popular library. Readers, no 
longer overawed by the magnificence of the earlier institutions the Astor 
Library, for instance, had liveried doormen came in such numbers that 
the sidewalks were blocked during the two hours once a week when the 
library was open. Such libraries soon were established in other neighbor- 
hoods, and in 1887 they were united as the New York Free Circulating Li- 
brary, and financial help was given by the city. In order to benefit from a 
$5,200,000 gift made by Andrew Carnegie to the city for library build- 
ings, the New York Free Circulating Library with eleven branches joined 
the Astor-Lenox-Tilden consolidation in 1900, and still later, nine other 
independent libraries were united with it. Thus began the New York Pub- 
lic Library's Circulation Department. 

Today, the offices of the Circulation Department, the Department's 
Union Catalogue, the Picture Collection, Central Children's Room, and the 
Central Circulation Branch are in the Central Building. 



330 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Notable among the branches are the Music Library, 121 East Fifty-eighth 
Street, the Municipal Reference Library, Municipal Building, and the Li- 
brary for the Blind, 137 West Twenty-fifth Street. More than 10,000,000 
books are lent to readers annually by the Circulation Department, and the 
Picture Collection, with a classified stock of more than 800,000, makes 
nearly 900,000 loans a year. 

MADISON SQUARE GARDEN 

8th Ave., 49th to 5oth St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local) to 5oth St.; or 
8th Ave. (Independent) subway (local) to 5oth St.; or BMT subway (local) to 
49th St.; or 9th Ave. el to 5Oth St.; or 8th Ave., 9th Ave., Broadway or yth Ave. 
bus to joth St. 

New Yorkers think only of what happens inside of Madison Square 
Garden. The rare individual who wanders down Forty-ninth or Fiftieth 
Street for a view of the building itself sees nothing but blank brick walls 
and fire escapes. The main entrance opens on Eighth Avenue through an 
arcade, but the Garden proper is concealed behind a smaller structure and 
runs back toward Ninth Avenue. 

This plain building is, however, already famous as America's chief in- 
door arena. Charity benefits, national political conventions, championship 
prize fights, cowboy rodeos all draw throngs to Madison Square Garden. 
The composition of the crowd on one night contrasts sharply with that of 
another. From the vantage of a $315 box, the aristocracy, in evening attire, 
politely applauds the horse show. Twenty-five cents is the price of admis- 
sion to a Communist rally at which 20,000 people rock the Garden with 
cheers. Politicians, sportsmen, and socially prominent personalities occupy 
$16.50 ringside seats to watch a pair of heavyweights in action for an hour 
or less, while hoi polloi sit in cheap seats under the roof. On a good night 
patrons eat 12,000 hot dogs, washed down with 1,000 gallons of beer and 
soda pop, while sixty private policemen, unarmed, are stationed there to 
prevent disorder. 

From the top balcony at the Ninth Avenue end, an Olympic ski jumper 
darts down a slide, hangs momentarily in the air, lands on a snow mound, 
and stops near the Eighth Avenue end of the arena. Children crowd under 
the big top for circus matinees. For seventy-five cents a sleepless night is 
spent at the six-day bicycle races. Three thousand carefully reared and 
pedigreed pets compete in a dog show. The President makes a speech at a 
political meeting. A world champion figure skater dances the tango under 



MADISON SQUARE GARDEN 331 

a spotlight. A professional hockey game is halted by a brawl while fans 
add to the racket with cowbells and jeers. Tennis matches, basketball 
games, track meets, and trade exhibitions are among the events staged reg- 
ularly in the arena. A $34,000 mineral- wool ceiling was especially pro- 
vided to improve the acoustics when Paderewski played for charity. 

Madison Square Garden is a successor to two earlier Gardens that were 
actually on Madison Square, at Madison Avenue and East Twenty-sixth 
Street. The first of these occupied the abandoned New York and Harlem 
(Railroad) Union Depot that had housed Barnum's Hippodrome and then 
Gilmore's Garden before acquiring the name Madison Square Garden in 
1879. It was replaced in 1890 by the building later known as the "old 
Garden." P. T. Barnum, J. P. Morgan, and Darius Mills were among its 
directors. Stanford White designed the structure one of the most im- 
pressive of its day. Its beautiful tower, copied from the Giralda in Seville, 
was surmounted by Augustus Saint-Gaudens' statue of Diana. In the roof 
garden White was killed in 1906 by Harry K. Thaw, and the murder de- 
veloped into one of the outstanding scandals of the era. 

Saint-Gaudens had clothed Diana in a drapery but this was soon torn 
away by the winds. The graceful figure was a welcome and familiar sight 
for many years. It was only when the building was demolished that those 
who concerned themselves with the fate of the lovely lady discovered that 
she was put together with rivets as large as those in a battleship. Saint- 
Gaudens' Diana is today a New York legend. The Pennsylvania Museum 
of Art owns her in what might be called the flesh. A working model stands 
in a niche in the Museum of the City of New York. 

The old Garden became a national show place, scene of a bewildering 
variety of events. There William Jennings Bryan accepted the Democratic 
nomination for President, Adelina Patti sang, and Jack Dempsey knocked 
out Bill Brennan in defense of the heavyweight title. Six-day go-as-you- 
please (walk, run, or crawl) races, the Wild West Show, aquatic exhibi- 
tions in the mammoth pool, the first American automobile shows, and mass 
meetings of the Christian Endeavor Society drew large audiences. 

Two master showmen Tex Rickard, gambler, promoter, and cattleman, 
and John Ringling, circus magnate were responsible for the success of 
the old Garden. Rickard's first local enterprise, the Willard-Moran fight, 
grossed $250,000. His spectacular methods were so effective that, when 
the Garden was razed to make room for the New York Life Insurance 
Company Building, he was able to interest a group of financiers in the con- 
struction of a new and greater Garden, a project he directed until his death 
in 1929. 



332 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

The present Garden was designed by Thomas W. Lamb, theater archi- 
tect, and constructed in 1925. It has a seating capacity of 18,903 for box- 
ing bouts, 15,500 for hockey games, and 14,500 for bicycle races. The 
building can be emptied of a capacity crowd in five minutes. The roof of 
the structure is carried by steel trusses that make columns largely unnec- 
essary, thus permitting a clear view of the arena from almost any seat. The 
main seating section, comprising whorls of seats on an incline, rims the 
elliptical arena floor. Two balconies, similar to the main section, are canti- 
levered from the walls. When only part of the arena floor is used for stag- 
ing events, the remainder is filled with rows of seats. The land and build- 
ing cost $5,600,000. 

The different uses to which the arena is put requires flexibility in its 
plant operation and extraordinary efficiency on the part of the Garden staff. 
Within three or four hours after a hockey game, for instance, two tractors 
clear the rink of ice and a gang of thirty men cleans house and prepares 
the arena with a ring and 4,200 additional seats for a championship boxing 
bout the next evening. Brine flowing through thirteen miles of pipe under 
the concrete floor freezes the rink for hockey again in eight hours. In six 
or seven hours two pulverizers driven by internal combustion motors 
change 500 tons of ice into snow for the annual Winter Sports Show. Since 
no satisfactory sectional track has as yet been designed, 300 men build a 
new track for each six-day bicycle race, completing it in eight hours at a 
cost of about five thousand dollars. During the horse show, the circus, and 
the rodeo, the animals are quartered in the basement: a contractor, on such 
occasions, "rents" 690 tons of earth to the Garden for $2,500. 

The Garden is operated by the Madison Square Garden Corporation, 
of which Colonel John Reed Kilpatrick is president. Its income is de- 
rived from the promotion of sports events and from rentals. Among the 
annual spectacles are the Six-Day Bicycle Race, the Winter Sports Show, 
the Skating Carnival, and the New York Police and Firemen's Shows. The 
arena has been rented to the Ringling Brothers-Barnum and Bailey Circus 
for twenty-seven days each spring at the flat rate of $100,000; the price for 
most public meetings is $3,500 a night on weekdays and $5,000 a night on 
Saturdays and Sundays. Professional hockey, which the Garden controls in 
New York, is perhaps the most consistently profitable venture, with the 
gate running well over $700,000 a year. The Garden owns the New York 
Rangers, and receives 40 per cent of the receipts from the games of the 
New York Americans. The amateur Rovers, who play Sunday afternoons, 
provide a "farm" for the Rangers. 

With the economic depression and the passing of the million-dollar gate, 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 333 

the Garden's income dwindled. But in 1932, despite the adverse business 
situation, the Garden spent $160,000 to build the Madison Square Garden 
Bowl, seating 80,000 people, in Long Island City. Though the Bowl 
proved of little or no profit (having been used only for an occasional 
prize fight and in 1936 for midget auto racing on a specially constructed 
asphalt track), the Garden has recovered from the lean days of the early 
1930'$. 

The Garden is still said to be "the largest and most prosperous sports 
organization in the world." From early October until late May the arena 
is rarely empty. But when the thirty-six circus elephants lumber from the 
building, signaling the close of the season, the Garden goes dark. Then, 
for four months, New York is quieter and less colorful. 

ROCKEFELLER CENTER 

5th Ave. to 6th Ave., 48th to 5ist St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local) to 
50th St.; or IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to 5ist St.; or 8th Ave. (Inde- 
pendent) Queens subway to 5th Ave. (53d St.) ; or BMT subway (local) to 49th 
St.; or 5th or 6th Ave. bus to 5oth St. 

Guided Tours. Rockefeller Center: adults $1.00, children 5O0; 10 A.M. to 9 P.M. 
National Broadcasting Company Studios: studio tour 550, television tour 55^, com- 
bination 900; 9 A.M. to ii P.M. (does not include sponsored broadcasts). Sky 
Gardens: 5O0, 10 A.M. to 5 P.M. from May i to November i. 

Single Admissions. Radio City Music Hall: 4O0 to $1.65, performances begin about 
11:30 A.M. Observatory (RCA Building, 7Oth floor): adults 4O0, children 2O0; 10 
A.M. to midnight. 

The twelve buildings of Rockefeller Center constitute not only a vast 
skyscraper group but an organized city. The group, said to be the largest 
ever undertaken by private enterprise, represents the belated culmination 
of the boom of the 1920*5. 

Covering twelve land acres in the fashionable mid-town shopping dis- 
trict, the project includes a vast skyscraper office center, a shopping center, 
an exhibition center, and a radio and amusement center. The western front, 
along Sixth Avenue, is made up of buildings devoted primarily to enter- 
tainment: the RKO Building and the adjoining Radio City Music Hall, the 
National Broadcasting Company's extension of the seventy-story RCA 
Building, and the Center Theater. The name "Radio City," which is often 
incorrectly applied to all of Rockefeller Center, properly designates only 
this western portion. 

Sharing the eastern exposure, four lesser buildings serve as Fifth Avenue 
showcases for foreign nations: the British Empire Building, La Maison 



334 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Francaise, the Palazzo d' Italia, and the International Building East. Slightly 
behind the latter two rises the forty-one-story International Building. The 
Time and Life Building, the Associated Press Building, and 30 Rockefeller 
Plaza (RCA Building) tower about the plaza, as will Holland House, 
one of the two new buildings still to be constructed (1939). 

In its architecture Rockefeller Center stands as distinctively for New 
York as the Louvre stands for Paris. Composed of the essential elements 
of New York skyscrapers steel framing and curtain walls, encasing ele- 
vators and offices the group relies for exterior decoration almost exclu- 
sively on the pattern of its windows, piers, spandrels, and wall surfaces. Its 
beauty derives from a significant play of forms, and light and shadow. Its 
character abrupt, stark, jagged, and powerful arises fundamentally from 
the spacing of the buildings, from their direct functionalism, their mass, 
their silhouette, and their grayish-tan color; not (as in the case of the 
buildings surrounding the nearby Grand Army Plaza) from ornamental 
roofs, reminiscent styles, or elaborate setbacks. The color tone of the Cen- 
ter is given by the warm tan limestone walls, the slate-gray cast aluminum 
spandrels under the windows, and especially by the light-blue window 
shades inside ; the gray of the whole, blending into the surrounding atmos- 
phere, adds to the apparent height of the group. 

Noteworthy is the integration of architecture with such "allied arts" as 
mural painting, sculpture, metal work, mosaic, wood veneering, and the 
like. Where individual skyscrapers in the past have boasted of employing 
a single painter and sculptor in addition to the architect to direct the work, 
Rockefeller Center gave employment to painters, sculptors, and decorators 
by whole groups and schools. The three architectural firms sharing equally 
the credit are Reinhard and Hofmeister ; Corbett, Harrison, and MacMur- 
ray ; and Hood and Fouilhoux. 

In terms of site planning, Rockefeller Center represents a complete de- 
parture from similar developments in New York and other large cities. 
It is the first group of tall buildings that does not simply face on the existing 
streets. Instead, the three blocks were freshly considered as a unit. The 
RCA Building, as the tallest, was placed close to the center of the plot. To 
reach it, a new private street, "Rockefeller Plaza," was established, run- 
ning north and south between Forty-eight and Fifty-first Streets, and a 
pedestrian walk was cut through to Fifth Avenue. All the other chief 
buildings are staggered both as to height and location, in order to shade 
one another as little as possible and to build an interesting composition of 
forms. Two of the twelve acres of the Center's site are open areas. The 
tower-like shapes of such structures as the Empire State Building result 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 335 

from the application of setback regulations to buildings on relatively 
small plots; the large scope of the site planning of the Center, on the 
other hand, made possible the characteristically slab-like main buildings 
with long, narrow, and efficient floor areas, easily penetrated by sunlight 
and fresh air. 

The most impressive entrance to the Center is from Fifth Avenue 
through the Channel, a pedestrian passage 60 feet wide and 200 feet long 



W. 51ST 



ST, 





W. 5OTH 



TRUCK RAMP TO UNDERGROUND AREA 



ST. 





W. 49TH 



ST. 





W. 48TH 



ST 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 



that separates the British Empire Building from La Maison Franchise. Six 
shallow pools bordered with yew hedges, in the center of this esplanade, 
are fed by bronze fountainheads designed by Rene P. Chambellan to repre- 
sent rollicking tritons and nereids. The Channel slopes from Fifth Avenue 
down to a flight of stone steps that lead to the lower plaza, eighteen feet 
below street level. The plaza, 125 feet long and 95 feet wide, may be 
flooded for winter ice skating, or embellished with hedges and flower 
beds for summer use as an outdoor cafe. Against its west wall, Paul Man- 



336 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

ship's huge bronze figure of Prometheus rises above spouting streams of 
water. Prometheus has been the target of caustic criticism; his detractors 
have nicknamed him "Leaping Looie." From the top of the stairway, 
walks diverge, following the rim of the lower plaza past a series of 
fountains set in greenery to Rockefeller Plaza. Across this street is the en- 
trance to the RCA Building. 

Several doorways leading from the lower plaza to an underground con- 
course hint at Rockefeller Center's subterranean activity. A great under- 
ground shipping center and three-quarters of a mile of passages are entered 
through a 4OO-foot truck ramp just east of the Music Hall. A branch ramp 
turns off to a shipping room beneath the International Building, then en- 
ters the main truck area at a point directly beneath the lower plaza. This 
system handles all freight deliveries except those to the theaters and the 
RKO Building. 

The 850-foot RCA (Radio Corporation of America) Building, the cen- 
tral member of the group, is one of New York's tallest structures and, in 
gross area, the largest office building in the world (1939). Its huge, broad, 
flat north and south facades, its almost unbroken mass, and its thinness are 
the features that impelled observers to nickname it the "Slab." The en- 
trance is presided over by a rather astonishing bearded giant floating over 
a compass, in token of "the genius which interprets the laws and cycles of 
the cosmic forces of the universe to mankind." The side panels represent 
two of the "cosmic forces": Light and Sound. The whole was sculp- 
tured by Lee Lawrie. The screen below, with the appearance of crumpled 
cellophane, is made of square blocks of pyrex glass. 

The walls of the elevator banks in the middle of the two-story lobby are 
covered by large murals. Those on the south wall are by Jose Maria Sert 
and represent "man's intellectual mastery of the material universe" ; they 
deal with the evolution of machinery, the eradication of disease, the aboli- 
tion of slavery, and the suppression of war. Those on the north, by Frank 
Brangwyn, depict "man's conquest of the physical world," portraying re- 
spectively the cultivation of the soil, the development of machinery, and 
the hope of mankind's salvation the lessons of the Sermon on the Mount. 
A mural, painted by Diego Rivera and originally in this lobby, caused an 
international controversy when the management first screened it and finally 
destroyed it, contending that the artist had departed from the approved 
preliminary sketch. Others held that the mural was destroyed because it 
included a likeness of Lenin. The case became a classic conflict between the 
artistic rights of a creator and the property rights of a purchaser. The space 
is now occupied by a Sert mural depicting the triumph of man's accom- 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 337 

plishments through the union of physical and mental labor. The Museum 
of Science and Industry (see page 342) is entered from the lobby. 

The Sixth Avenue entrance to the RCA Building is surmounted by a 
glass mosaic by Barry Faulkner. Industriously assembled of about a million 
pieces of glass in 250 shades of color, it represents "thought enlightening 
the world." About thirty feet above the mosaic, in the spaces between win- 
dows, are four sculptured panels by Gaston Lachaise, American sculptor of 
the modern school. They are titled Genius Receiving the Light of the Sun, 
Conquest of Space, Gifts of Earth to Mankind, and Spirit of Progress. 

The most widely known tenants of the RCA Building are the National 
Broadcasting Company and its parent, the Radio Corporation of America. 
NBC's twenty-seven broadcasting studios, offices and other facilities occupy 
about four hundred thousand square feet of space on ten floors. These 
quarters, air-conditioned, sound-proofed, and equipped for television, are 
the home of WEAF and WJZ, the key stations of NBC's Red and Blue 
networks, respectively, and form the largest broadcasting establishment in 
the world. 

In the eastern end of the sixty-fifth floor is the Rainbow Room, a night 
club, where a color organ throws shifting patterns on a reflecting dome and 
a crystal chandelier over a revolving dance floor. The Rainbow Grill, at the 
western end of the same floor, is less formal in decoration and atmosphere. 

The seventieth-floor observatory promenade, 200 feet long and 20 feet 
wide, affords one of the finest views of New York. At the eleventh-floor 
level, directly over the NBC studios, is the largest of the seven roof gardens 
in the development. Visitors enter directly upon the International Rock 
Garden, where specimens from all over the world are arranged along a 
stream that cascades, winds, and twists for a distance of 1 2 5 feet along the 
terrace. There are a native American garden, with its old rail fence and 
shaded pool; typical Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Dutch, and aquatic gar- 
dens; and, perhaps the most successful of all, an English garden with a 
sundial from Donnington Castle and fine examples of yew planting. 

Offices of many motion-picture producers and distributors are in the 
thirty-one story RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum) Building which faces Sixth 
Avenue above Fiftieth Street. Three large panels, carved by Robert Garri- 
son, extend across the Sixth Avenue facade; their subject is "Radio Spread- 
ing the Inspiration of the Past and Present." A mural by Boardman Robin- 
son hangs in the lobby. Its subject matter is concerned with the spiritual 
challenge of modern civilization. 

Immediately adjoining the RKO Building is the largest indoor theater 
in the world, Radio City Music Hall. The Music Hall was opened in 



338 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

December, 1932, as a variety house under the direction of Samuel L. 
("Roxy") Rothafel. It proved to be an unprofitable white elephant. Soon 
after, Roxy's mammoth variety shows were abandoned and the present 
type of show motion picture and variety was instituted under the 
management of Rockefeller Center, Inc. 

The majestic foyer, fifty feet high, sweeps to a grand stairway leading 
to three mezzanines. Brocatelle wall covering repeats the rich henna of 
Ezra Winter's large mural above the stairway. Gold wall mirrors extend 
from the floor to the gold-leaf ceiling. 

The spectacular modern auditorium contracts in a series of narrowing 
arches to the proscenium. Lights, hidden in the telescoped joints of these 
arches, can suffuse the great curved interior with glowing colors. The un- 
usual excellence of the planning affords a pleasing and efficient arrange- 
ment of the seats. 

The smoking- and powder-rooms are decorated with the work of Yasuo 
Kuniyoshi, Henry Billings, Stuart Davis, Witold Gordon, Buk Ulreich, and 
other artists. In the main lounge is William Zorach's sculptured Dancing 
Figure and the black walls carry vignettes by Louis Bouche. Robert Lau- 
rent's Goose Girl is placed on the first mezzanine. Gwen Lux's sculpture, 
Eve, stands in the main foyer. 

Three circular metal and enamel plaques, representing the Theater, 
Dance, and Song, designed by Hildreth Meiere and executed by Oscar 
Bach, are the only decorations on the long Fiftieth Street exterior wall of 
the Music Hall. 

Nearly everything about the Music Hall is tremendous. It seats 6,200 
patrons, the staff of 600 employees is paid some $35,000 weekly. The 300- 
ton steel truss that supports the immense golden proscenium arch, sixty 
feet high, is the heaviest yet used in theater construction. The orchestra 
is the world's largest theater orchestra, and the screen, seventy by forty 
feet, is the world's largest. The stage, which cost more than $400,000 
to build, has three seventy- foot sections that can be raised forty feet from 
the subbasement to a position fourteen feet above normal stage level. 
Another Music Hall superlative concerns the troupe of "Rockettes," whose 
claim to the title of "world's finest precision dancers" has never been 
challenged. 

The Center Theater, also facing Sixth Avenue, is smaller than the Music 
Hall and is very different in decor. Its foyer, lighted by five large windows, 
etched in relief, has Bubinga mahogany walls whose soft tones are accented 
by vermilion doors leading to the auditorium. The auditorium, seating 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 339 

3,700 people, has walls of mahogany, and from its decorative ceiling hangs 
a six- ton chandelier, twenty-five feet in diameter, that is reputed to be the 
largest in the world. A special ventilating system carries off the heat pro- 
duced by the four hundred bulbs in the chandelier. 

Arthur Crisp, Maurice Heaton, and Edward Steichen were among the 
artists who decorated the mezzanines and lounges. The Forty-ninth Street 
exterior wall bears another metal plaque, said to be the largest ever made. 
Designed by Hildreth Meiere and executed by Oscar Bach, it represents the 
transmission of electric energy by radio and television. 

The Center Theater has been used for motion pictures, for musical spec- 
tacles and for popular-priced opera, but it has never established itself as a 
profitable enterprise. Reduction of its seating capacity has been proposed 
as a remedy. 

The entire western facade of Rockefeller Center could not be seen prop- 
erly as long as it was partly hidden by the disfiguring Sixth Avenue elevated. 
Such optimistic expedients as brightening the el structure with aluminum 
paint were of little help. Now the el is gone. 

The Time and Life Building and the Center Theater were the only build- 
ings completed by 1938 in the block between Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth 
Streets. The former opens on Rockefeller Plaza from the east and is named 
for the two Luce publications having offices there. It was the temporary 
home of the Museum of Modern Art (see page 347) in 1938, while a 
new museum building was being erected. Holland House, a new sixteen- 
story structure in this block, west of Rockefeller Plaza, was under con- 
struction early in 1939. 

Because Rockefeller Center, Inc., does not control the Fifth Avenue end 
of the Forty-eighth to Forty- ninth Street block, the Center presents only 
a two-block frontage on the east which consists of La Maison Franchise and 
the British Empire Building, between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Streets, and 
the twin six-story extensions of the International Building, called Palazzo 
d' Italia and International Building East, between Fiftieth and Fifty-first 
Streets. Architecturally, these four buildings are restrained in design and 
very similar, even in their formal roof gardens. 

The main entrance of the seven-story structure named La Maison Fran- 
c.aise carries a sculptured panel designed by Alfred Janniot in gold-leafed 
bronze. It greatly flatters its host city by representing Paris and New York 
joining hands over the figures of Poetry, Beauty, and Elegance. Three 
sculptured panels by Carl Paul Jennewein decorate the Fifth Avenue en- 
trance of the virtually identical British Empire Building across the prom- 



340 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
enade, while above them is the British coat-of-arms. In the panels nine fig- 
ures in gold leaf represent the major industries of the Empire. The north 
and south entrances bear panels designed by Lee Lawrie. The fagades of 
both La Maison Franchise and the British Empire Building are topped 
by carved limestone insets by Rene P. Chambellan. Those on the former 
building symbolize four epochal" events in French history the sword, the 
rise of Charlemagne's Empire; the clustered spears, the united effort of new 
France; the shield, the absolute monarchy under Louis XIV; the fasces, 
Phrygian cap and laurel, the birth of the Republic. Similarly, those on the 
British Empire Building are of historical significance, their motifs being 
the crests of the kingdoms: Wales, England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

These two structures are "dedicated to the commerce, industry and art" 
of their respective nations. Similarly, the Palazzo d'ltalia is dedicated to 
Italy. The treatment of its facade includes a panel in cast glass by Attilio 
Piccirilli. The motto "Arte E Lavoro . . . Lavoro E Arte" means "Art is 
Labor; Labor is Art." The other motto "Sempre Avanti Eterna Giovinezza" 
means, "Advance Forever, Eternal Youth." Piccirilli designed a similar 
panel for the International Building East. Between these two northern 
structures a court, forty-five feet deep, leads to four huge stone piers that 
connect the two low buildings and form the entrance to the splendid Great 
Hall of the forty-one-story International Building proper. For decoration, 
a clever use is made of the reflection, in the plate glass of the lobby, of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral (located across the street). From the three-sided court, 
Lee Lawrie's forty-five-foot bronze figure of Atlas beetles down on Fifth 
Avenue. 

The general proportions and treatment of the International Building are 
like those of the RCA Building. The spaciousness of the lobby, four stories 
high, sixty feet wide and eighty feet long, is remarkable in a purely com- 
mercial building. The design is considered by many to be the best in the 
Center. The effect of restrained modernism is heightened by the brilliant 
choice of contrasting materials and the imaginative use of four wide esca- 
lators in place of monumental stairways. It houses a United States passport 
office and many travel agencies, and is particularly well equipped for ex- 
hibitions and large displays. The corridors leading from the lobby are 
notable for the way lighting has been used as decoration. 

In 1929 the Rockefeller Center site, most of which was owned by Co- 
lumbia University, was covered by two-hundred-odd buildings, many of 
them housing speakeasies. The leases to the land were about to expire and 
the tract was proposed as a suitable setting for a magnificent new opera 



ROCKEFELLER CENTER 341 

house. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., was approached as the most likely backer; 
when his support was assured the Metropolitan Square Corporation was 
formed and a lease was negotiated at ten times the sum the university had 
been deriving from the property. The agreement ceded tenancy to the cor- 
poration for twenty-four years, with three renewal options extending to the 
year 2015, at an annual rental beginning at $3,000,000 and gradually in- 
creasing to $3,600,000 by 1952. 

The opera house project was abandoned after the Wall Street crash of 
1929. Rockefeller was left holding three blocks of non-paying property 
and staggering rent and tax bills. It was then that the plan was conceived 
of using the land for a co-ordinated building group as "an example of 
urban planning for the future." 

Under Rockefeller Center, Inc., successor to the Metropolitan Square 
Corporation, the engineering firms of Todd, Robertson, and Todd, and 
Todd and Brown commenced work in 1930. One and a quarter million 
tons of debris were hauled away in wreckage of the old buildings and ex- 
cavation for the new. Between 1932 and 1938, 88,000 tons of Portland 
cement and 39,000,000 bricks were joined to structural steel to complete 
eleven buildings. With the completion of the Associated Press Building in 
1938 only two buildings remained to be constructed. Holland House was 
to go up behind the Center Theater at once, and an office structure is 
planned for the southwest corner of the project. 

Long before a shovelful of dirt was turned, Rockefeller Center was se- 
verely criticized. The project was called "wasteful and useless," "undis- 
tinguished," and "inartistic" as the first buildings rose. Disagreements with 
artists added to the confusion. Yet, out of the clamor of disparaging voices, 
the development grew: Rockefeller Center's position among the city's insti- 
tutions is now secure. Reproach has given way to respect. New York began 
to be proud of these strong new towers. Approximately 80,000 visitors 
appear every day as well as 20,000 permanent tenants. The NBC studios 
alone draw about 700,000 sightseers annually, while about 900,000 people 
attend broadcasts. 

Not the least of the many Rockefeller Center features that merit the title, 
"world's largest" is the mortgage, which is held by the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company. It amounts to $44,300,000. 



342 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

NEW YORK MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY 

RCA Building, Rockefeller Center, 30 Rockefeller Plaza. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. 
subway (local) to 5oth St.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) Queens subway to 5th Ave. 
(53d St.) ; or BMT subway (local) to 49th St.; or 6th or 5th Ave. bus to 5oth St. 
Hours: daily 10 A.M. to 10 P.M. Admission: adults 250; children io0. Frequent 
lectures and motion pictures. 

Housed appropriately in a setting typical of twentieth-century ingenuity 
and accomplishment, the museum is a focal point of interest for scientifi- 
cally curious adults and a wonderland for children. It is known also as 
the Hall of Motion because its thousands of models, replicas, dioramas, 
working demonstrations, and visitor-operated machines dramatize the scien- 
tific achievements and industrial developments of the machine age ; motion 
pictures, lectures, and conducted tours supplement these graphic illustra- 
tions of simple and complex mechanisms of the past and the present. The 
museum is visited annually by half a million people. 

Approximately twenty-five hundred permanent displays and a constantly 
changing series of exhibitions lent by notable research laboratories, gov- 
ernment agencies, and industrial organizations inform the visitor of the 
latest inventions, discoveries, and scientific developments. Included in the 
series of temporary exhibits have been zoning models and unified city 
planning designs of the New York City Housing Authority, graphic sur- 
veys of the work of the Rural Electrification Administration and the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority, a collection of X-ray plates and photographs indi- 
cating the progressive steps in a brain operation, "Better Things for Better 
Living Through Chemistry," "Modern Plastics," "Steels of Today and To- 
morrow," and "The Story of Man." 

Permanent exhibits are grouped under the general classifications of tex- 
tiles, shelter, food industries, power, aviation, communication, machine 
tools, highway, railroad and marine transportation, and electro-technology. 
Several hundred machines both in model form and actual size are either in 
continuous operation or may be put in motion at will ; the visitor may op- 
.erate an electric generator, a telautograph, a model locomotive, a power 
plant, an ocean depth finder, or a radio direction finder. Especially attrac- 
tive is the experience of handling the controls of an actual airplane. 

The 112 examples of sectional machine parts, mounted on the semicircu- 
lar wall of the main rotunda, are popular features of the museum, for they 
afford thrilling discovery of machine operations usually hidden from view. 
Put in operation by means of push buttons, the gears, pulleys, levers, cogs, 
shafts, pinions, and other parts, brightly colored in red, blue, or green, 



MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY 343 

spin, mesh, revolve, bend, or twist. In a rear section on the same floor, 
models of an ancient windmill, steam and hydroelectric plants and turbines, 
and a generating station illustrate the modes of power production. One 
model reproduces a cross section of the plant of the Brooklyn Edison Com- 
pany. 

Operating demonstrations of epoch-making inventions and discoveries in 
the story of electrical science are on exhibit in the division devoted to 
electro-technology ; other demonstrations make clear the fundamental prin- 
ciples involved. Here also are modern business-office machines, such as the 
punching, sorting, and tabulating devices, that "think like a man." 

A collection of ship models arranged in historical sequence begins with 
an Egyptian boat of 3500 B.C. and features famous ships of different pe- 
riods, including the liner Normandie. Near by a group of marine engines 
illustrates the various types that have been developed through the years. 
The push of a button operates a large model of a floating dock with a ship. 

A genuine covered wagon, a sleigh of Colonial days, an Egyptian oxcart 
of a date prior to 200 B.C. and still in a fine state of preservation, and a 
Model T Ford (presented by the inventor) are favorites among the vehi- 
cles in the highway transportation exhibit. 

A comprehensive series of model locomotives, most of which may be 
operated by button, show progress in railroad transportation, from the Sal- 
amanca engine of 1812, the De Witt Clinton, and other famous "charac- 
ters" of early railroading days up to the electric locomotive of the present. 
Examples of coupling and air-brake systems, signaling devices, and switch 
sections illustrate technical developments. 

Scale-model dwellings in appropriate historical settings depict the his- 
tory of housing from the neolithic lake dweller's shelter to the ultra- 
modern residence of structural glass and stainless steel. Plowing imple- 
ments, a working demonstration of milk pasteurization, gas and electric 
refrigerators, models of a sugar refinery, and a modern cold storage plant 
are features of the food industries division. 

The story of the textile industry is graphically told by spinning and 
weaving machines from the Colonial spinning wheel to the modern head- 
stock, and from hand to power loom and in the samples of fabrics pro- 
duced by the various processes. An exhibit of interest to many visitors dis- 
plays several types of modern looms suitable for school or home and fin- 
ished articles from these looms. Another popular exhibit is a demonstration 
of the manufacture of rayon from wood chips to finished product. 

The museum, established in 1927 by a bequest of Henry Robinson 
Towne, was known originally as the Museum of Peaceful Arts and was 



344 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
housed in the Scientific American Building. Within three years, however, 
its rapid growth made larger quarters necessary, and in 1930 the museum 
moved to the Daily News Building. It was installed in its present quarters 
in Rockefeller Center in 1936. 



ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL 

5th Ave., 5oth to 5ist St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to 5ist St.; or IRT 
Broadway-yth Ave. (local) to 5oth St.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) Queens subway 
to 5th Ave. (53d St.) ; or BMT subway (local) to 49th St.; or 5th or Madison Ave. 
bus to 50th St. 

St. Patrick's, America's first major cathedral built in the Gothic Revival 
style, is the seat of the Archdiocese of the Ecclesiastical Province of New 
York, which includes the dioceses of Brooklyn, Buffalo, Albany, Rochester, 
Syracuse, and Ogdenburg. Begun in 1858, the nave was opened November 
29, 1877, and the cathedral dedicated May 25, 1879. With the exception 
of the Lady Chapel and two smaller chapels the entire project was de- 
signed by James Renwick (1818-1895). 

The cathedral with its dependencies occupies an entire block. Although 
its twin spires are dwarfed by the skyscrapers of Rockefeller Center and 
other near-by buildings, its granite 'and marble mass is still impressive. 

The design is based upon that of the Cathedral of Cologne; the Fifth 
Avenue facade is composed of a steep central gable flanked by towers and 
traceried spires. Above the canopied central portal is a rose window, 
twenty-six feet in diameter. The exterior is constructed of granite. Owing 
to the nature of this material much of the delicacy and grace characteristic 
of Gothic architecture is lost in the detail of the tracery, molded profiles, 
and carved ornament of the exterior. A purist would be disturbed by the 
lack of flying buttresses where he would expect to find them ; the pinnacles 
of the missing buttresses are present, however, though their function is a 
bit puzzling in view of the lack of stone vaulting inside the church. 

The plan of the cathedral is cruciform, with nave, transepts, and choir. The 
interior is reminiscent of Amiens with a forest of magnificent clustered 
piers of white marble separating the central aisle from the two side aisles. 
The unusual height of the side aisles suggests St. Ouen at Rouen, while 
the clustered columns, with their richly ornamented capitals, and the elab- 
orately vaulted ceiling follow such English examples as York, Exeter, and 
Westminster Abbey. The triforium above the side aisles affords a contin- 
uous passage fifty-six feet above the floor, around the interior, broken only 



ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL 345 

by the walls of the transepts. The entire architectural composition is un- 
usually open and delicate, partly due to the slenderness of the nave piers, 
which are only five feet in diameter above the base. The interior has dig- 
nity and spaciousness, combined with religious somberness. 

Forty-five of the seventy stained-glass windows are from the studios of 
Nicholas Lorin at Chartres, and of Henry Ely at Nantes. Rich in tone 
some dark, some of pastel lightness and combined with elaborate tracery, 
they glow in the sunshine, but unfortunately, much of the detail in them 
is too delicate to be legible at a distance. They become simply patterns 
of red, yellow, green, blue, and purple against the framework of the stone 
walls which, in the dusky light, takes on a tone of deepest gray. 

The nave extends east from the main portal on Fifth Avenue ; at its east- 
ern end is the glimmering High Altar. Shallow aisle chapels, on both sides 
of the nave, contain altars dedicated to the worship of various saints. Be- 
low the first window of the north wall is the baptistery. Its beautiful font, 
carved of dark wood, rests on a marble base. The adjoining chapel is dedi- 
cated to St. Bernard and St. Bridget. Its richly decorated background, a re- 
production, in ecru-colored marble, of the doorway of St. Bernard's chapel 
in Mellefont, Ireland, is flanked by clustered green columns. 

The fourteen Stations of the Cross, around the transept walls, were de- 
signed by Peter J. H. Cuypers and carved in Holland. On the west side 
of the south transept is a small window dedicated to St. Patrick, the cartoon 
for which was drawn by Renwick. In the lower panel the architect is shown 
discussing the plans of the cathedral with Archbishop Hughes. 

The statue of St. Francis, in the north ambulatory, is a reproduction of 
one by Giovanni Dupre in the Church of St. Francis at Assisi. In the south 
ambulatory is a Pieta, by William Ordway Partridge. It resembles the fa- 
mous work of Michelangelo, although differing in composition and pose. 
The Chapel of the Little Flower, adjoining, contains a statue of St. The- 
resa by Mario Korbel. 

In the choir itself, the High Altar, designed by Renwick, has a reredos 
adorned with statues of St. Patrick and other saints. Its treatment lacks the 
imagination of the work of later neo-Gothic architects such as Cram and 
Goodhue; and the white marble of which it is constructed contrasts too 
sharply with the mellow texture of the semicircular apse. The Archbishop's 
throne, on the north side of the choir, is of carved French oak, overhung 
by a delicate Gothic canopy, supported by columns, and crowned by a 
richly ornamented octagonal lantern. The white marble pulpit, on the 
south side, is another work of art from the hand of Renwick ; from a stem 
of short, clustered columns, it expands cupshape and hexagonal in form, 



346 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

and is overhung by a petal-like canopy of chastely decorated translucent 
marble. 

Behind the apse is the Lady Chapel of white Vermont marble more 
pleasing than the granite of the cathedral proper and adjoining it are two 
smaller chapels. These were designed by Charles T. Mathews. The first 
mass in Lady Chapel was said on Christmas Day, 1906. 

The residences of the archbishop and rector are, respectively, at the 
northwest and southwest corners of Madison Avenue and Fiftieth Street. 
On the block north of the cathedral, on Madison Avenue, is a building 
housing Cathedral College, and other Catholic societies. On the northeast 
corner of Fifty-first Street and Madison Avenue is the chancery, a large 
stone structure. 

The present church is an outgrowth of the first St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
founded in 1809. Rebuilt after a fire in 1866, the latter still stands at Mott 
and Prince Streets. Its founder, the Very Reverend Anthony Kohlmann, 
Vicar General of the New York See, was the head of the New York Lit- 
erary Institute, a Jesuit establishment on the present site of the cathedral, 
where later, in 1842, was erected the little Church of St. John the Evan- 
gelist. In 1852, however, the trustees of St. Patrick's Cathedral acquired 
the property; and razing of the smaller building was soon begun to make 
way for the great edifice. 

Once an outpost of the town, St. Patrick's is today in the crowded heart 
of the city; once a landmark visible for miles, its spires now are sur- 
rounded by the loftier towers of secular buildings. Nevertheless, through 
the years, the cathedral takes on greater significance for the large Catholic 
population of the metropolis. During the regularly scheduled services, the 
rich formality of historic Catholic ritual fills the dim spaces with music and 
intoned prayer, but on such occasions as the celebration of Mass on Christ- 
mas Eve and Easter, and the great parade on March 17, in honor of St. 
Patrick himself, the ceremonial splendor of a pageant is invoked. On other 
days societies organized under the cathedral's direct supervision Catholic 
organizations of every sort, many of them groups organized within secular 
institutions of business and the professions meet in tribute to the patron 
saint or day especially sacred to them. To grasp the magnitude of the ca- 
thedral's influence in the city, it needs only to be realized that the Roman 
Catholics of the archdiocese number one million. 



MUSEUM OF MODERN ART 347 

MUSEUM OF MODERN ART 

ii W. 53d St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local) to joth St.; or 8th Ave. 
(Independent) Queens subway to 5th Ave. (53d St.) ; or 5th Ave. bus to 52d St. 
Hours: weekdays 10 A.M. to 6 P.M., Sunday 12 to 6 P.M. Admission 250; free on 
Monday. 

The Museum of Modern Art is New York's permanent meeting place 
for the contemporary artistic energies of Europe and America. About a % 
mile and a half uptown, the Metropolitan Museum of Art sedately displays 
its accumulated masterpieces of the past, but here, amid brownstone fronts 
and small sidewalk trees, the strikingly modern building of the Museum of 
Modern Art has become a symbol of those technical and imaginative in- 
novations that have transformed the character of art during the past seventy 
years. 

Before the establishment of the museum the more advanced forms of 
modern art had made their appearance in the famous "Armory Show" of 
1913, in Alfred Stieglitz' "291 Fifth Avenue" and in the exhibitions of 
the Societe Anonyme. These showings, with occasional purchases, infre- 
quent exhibitions, and such private collections as that of John Quinn, had 
given New Yorkers a hint of the strange aesthetic events taking place here 
and across the Atlantic. 

Today the Museum of Modern Art sponsors the more important forms 
of aesthetic experiment. As a consequence New York has been treated for 
the first time in its history to the spectacle of long lines of people waiting 
on the street for a chance to look at paintings. The great Van Gogh exhi- 
bition of 1935 caused New York journalists suddenly to note that art can 
attract as many people as a prize fight. 

Founded in 1929 under the sponsorship of a group of prominent col- 
lectors, the museum set out to encourage the study and appreciation of 
modern art. At that time it still remained to be seen whether there existed 
enough public interest in the newer art to justify the eventual establishment 
of a permanent institution of exhibition and education. 

To carry out its purpose more effectively, the museum decided at the 
start to renounce the conventional policy of a single permanent exhibition 
occasionally increased by acquisitions or loans. Contact with new aesthetic 
movements could be maintained only if works were kept constantly pass- 
ing through the museum. Modern art also had to be presented in such a 
way that its implications and antecedents would be clarified. 

The manner in which this program has been accomplished may be illus- 



348 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INT-EREST 

trated by the retrospective exhibition of abstract and cubist art. Three hun- 
dred and eighty-three pieces were assembled from all available sources. 
Together with abstract art of the last twenty-five years, examples of primi- 
tive sculpture (which served as a source for modernist treatment) as well 
as such European antecedents as Cezanne, Rousseau, and Seurat were also 
shown. To complete the setting, the exhibition indicated certain social uses 
and influences of abstract art by including reproductions of architectural 
designs, interior decoration, typography, commercial art, films, and other 
practical applications of the style. Thus, one exhibition became virtually 
a study course in one of the principal phases of modern art. 

In the course of its ten years' history (1939) the museum has shown 
eighty-five exhibitions in New York to more than one and a half mil- 
lion visitors. Some, such as the exhibition of Cubism and Abstract Art just 
described, or The American Film 18951937, have been carefully histori- 
cal; others have presented a particular problem, such as book illustration, 
mural painting, design for college architecture, or art for subways ; and still 
others have included large groups of paintings by important masters of the 
recent past, among them the French painters Cezanne, Corot, and Daumier, 
and the Americans, Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, Albert P. Ryder. 
One-man shows of living artists have included paintings by Henri Matisse, 
Diego Rivera, Edward Hopper, and John Marin; sculpture by Lachaise, 
prints by Rouault, architecture by Le Corbusier and Aalto, photographs 
by Walker Evans. Other exhibitions have emphasized national achieve- 
ment, for instance, German Painting and Sculpture (1931), Modern Eng- 
lish Architecture, Murals by American Painters and Photographers, New 
Horizons in American Art (the WPA Federal Art Project). 

Sources that have stimulated the modern imagination, such as Paleolithic 
cave paintings, African Negro sculpture, Aztec, Incan, and Mayan art, and 
even the art of children and the psychopathic have also been placed on 
view. American folk art, for example, produced between 1750 and 1900 
by artists unheralded and unsung in fine art circles, was set before the 
modern eye because this nai've and serious work bears a stylistic affiliation 
with certain phases of living contemporary art. 

About half the museum's exhibitions have been sent on tour to more 
than three hundred different institutions. The Van Gogh show for instance 
was seen not only by 142,000 New Yorkers but also by 800,000 other 
Americans in museums as far west as San Francisco and as far north as 
Toronto. It is chiefly because of its circulating exhibitions and its excellent 
publications that the museum may be considered a national institution. 

Many of the museum's exhibitions are fed from the permanent collec- 



MUSEUM OF MODERN ART 349 

tion as well as by loans from all parts of the world. Because of lack of 
space prior to the erection of the present building the permanent collec- 
tion has never been shown in its entirety; the museum, however, plans to 
exhibit the most important objects in this collection. Its nucleus is the 
Lillie P. Bliss Bequest of 235 works, together with the gift of 181 items 
from Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. These are constantly augmented by ac- 
quisitions of European and American paintings and sculpture. The collec- 
tion already possesses excellent examples of work by the best of the mod- 
erns and their immediate forerunners. Cezanne, Degas, Gauguin, Redon, 
Henri Rousseau, Seurat, and Daumier are represented by a rich collection 
containing several acknowledged masterpieces. More recent painters and 
sculptors include the Europeans, Picasso, Derain, Matisse, Braque, Modig- 
liani, Segonzac, Maillol, Despiau, Brancusi, Dufy, and Dali, and the Amer- 
icans, Hopper, Karfiol, Walkowitz, Cropper, Burchfield, Marin, Benton, 
Epstein, Lachaise, and Calder. 

It has been a policy of the museum not to confine its interest to paint- 
ing and sculpture but to include in its program almost all the living visual 
arts. Photography and the theater arts have been presented in large exhibi- 
tions and will probably be established as integral divisions of the museum's 
work. Already there are permanent museum departments devoted to archi- 
tecture, industrial design, and motion pictures. 

The Department of Architecture and Industrial Art was founded in 
1932, following the controversial exhibition of modern architecture, which 
helped to popularize the International Style developed by Walter Gropius, 
Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and J. J. P. Oud. The department has 
also emphasized the pioneer work of the Americans, Henry Hobson Richard- 
son, Louis Sullivan, and Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1934 the Machine Art 
Exhibition inaugurated the department's work in industrial and commer- 
cial design, which now includes furniture and utensils, typography and 
posters. The department works through competitions as well as publica- 
tions and exhibitions. 

The Museum of Modern Art Film Library, founded in 1935 principally 
with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, comprises a collection of 
motion picture films marking distinct stages in the development of the 
cinema. Its scope includes the earliest motion picture, such historic Ameri- 
can productions as Griffith's Intolerance and Cruze's Covered Wagon, the 
Keystone comedies, the early Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin pictures, 
together with such German experiments as the Last Laugh, the work of the 
Russians Eisenstein and Pudovkin and of the surrealist jantatshtes. Film 
programs, to which members of the museum are admitted free of charge, 



350 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

are presented each season and have been distributed to scores of educa- 
tional institutions throughout the country. The film library maintains active 
research and information services and presents each year in conjunction 
with Columbia University a course in the history and technique of the 
motion picture. 

The museum regularly conducts a number of other activities. Modern 
art committees have been established in thirty cities. Museum publications, 
issued at reasonable prices, supplement and perpetuate the current exhibi- 
tions. A bulletin is issued six times yearly. The museum also houses a fine 
working library of more than three thousand volumes on modern art, pe- 
riodicals, and photographs ; and a lending collection of slides, photographs, 
and half-tone cuts for printing service. Lectures on a variety of subjects are 
also included in the museum's service. 

The museum building, five stories above ground with a theater below, 
is constructed of reinforced concrete and steel with contrasting surfaces of 
veined marble, glass brick, blue glazed tile, and plate glass. Its inte- 
rior affords rich but simple settings for the display of art. The museum 
is planned as part of a design that includes the Rockefeller Apartments to 
the north, and Rockefeller Center (see page 333} to the south. Eventually, 
the southern facade with its strong horizontal lines will terminate a plaza 
leading from the Center. The rear facade forms one side of a garden court 
of the apartment house; its setbacks were designed to allow sunlight to 
enter the garden. 

CENTRAL PARK 

Boundaries: 5th Ave. to Central Park West; Central Park South (59th St.) to 
Cathedral Parkway (noth St.). IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local) to Colum- 
bus Circle (59th St.); or 8th Ave. (Independent) Washington Heights or Grand 
Concourse subway (local), 59th to noth St. stations; or BMT subway (local) to 
5th Ave. (59th St.); or 9th Ave. el, 66th to noth St. stations; or 5th or 
8th Ave. bus, 59th to noth St. Map on page 277. 

From the upper floors of an apartment hotel on its southern border 
Central Park appears as a vast irregular terrain marked by outcropping 
rock formations, wooded areas, and many bodies of water. Deep green 
marks it, summer and spring, and fall brings to it a variety of color that 
changes day by day. The park is enclosed by stone walls, with entrance 
gates at frequent intervals. It has two longitudinal boulevards, East Drive 
and West Drive, and four transverses depressed below the park's level 
East Sixty-fifth to West Sixty-sixth, East Seventy-ninth to West Eighty- 



CENTRAL PARK 351 

first, East Eighty-fifth to West Eighty-sixth, and Ninety-seventh Street east 
to west. Intersecting roads for motor traffic, thirty-two miles of winding 
footpaths, and a four-mile bridle path make up an informal pattern. An 
84O-acre tract, two and one-half miles long and a half mile wide, Central 
Park extends from the solid border of hotels and apartment buildings of 
West Fifty-ninth Street to Harlem at noth. 

The park's setting is the result of more than eighty years of planning 
and effort. The purchase of the land in 1856 was preceded by ten years' 
agitation by the press and by such public-minded citizens as Washington 
Irving, George Bancroft, and William Cullen Bryant, who became mem- 
bers of the first Park Board. The section was then on the outskirts of the 
city, and scrubby trees and outcropping rock formations marked the land 
which barely afforded pasturage for the gaunt pigs and goats of impover- 
ished squatters. Egbert L. Viele was commissioned to make a topographi- 
cal survey. His difficulties consisted not only in problems arising from the 
irregularity of the terrain, but in the opposition of the squatters, who saw 
in his visit the threat of eviction; it is believed that Viele's first attempt 
was abruptly terminated when the squatters ejected him bodily. 

The park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, 
and their general plan has since been followed. Construction began as a 
relief project under the stress of the panic and depression of 1857. Changes 
and improvement have been made in the design through the years ; yet it 
may safely be claimed that under Park Commissioner Moses, of the La- 
Guardia municipal administration, the park achieved the appearance of a 
place more carefully tended than at any time in its history. Besides wide- 
spread renovation there has been an unprecedented development of new 
facilities, most of this the work of such agencies as the Civil Works Admin- 
istration and the Works Progress Administration. 

There are entrances to the park convenient to subways, to residential 
neighborhoods, and to the museums that were originally part of the park 
plan. The Merchant's Gate at Columbus Circle is often used by visitors 
who wish easy access to the Heckscher playground a venture in which 
philanthropy and the Works Progress Administration have combined to 
provide for the recreational needs of children. The playground's facilities 
include a wading pool and a drinking fountain, with sculpture by F. G. 
Roth showing "Alice in Wonderland" and the "Duchess." From a hill- 
side just beyond comes the familiar music of the Carousel. A round stone 
terrace on a hilltop is all that is left of the Kinderberg an arbor where 
children played before such recreational developments as the Heckscher 
playground existed. 



352 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

The Green, also accessible from the Merchant's Gate, holds the Tavern- 
on-the-Green, erected in 1870 to house a flock of Southdown sheep. The 
building was converted into a restaurant in 1934. A flagstone terrace, 
dotted in summer with gaily colored umbrellas, looks out upon West Drive. 

Since 1903 Augustus Saint-Gaudens' equestrian statue of General Wil- 
liam T. Sherman has marked the Plaza entrance (Fifth Avenue and Fifty- 
ninth Street) to Central Park, although horse-drawn hacks and Karl Bit- 
ter's Abundance, a nude female figure whose gold leaf has been recently 
renewed, are also identified with this corner. The surrounding architec- 
ture has been photographed so often that few visitors fail to recognize the 
dignified mansard of the Plaza Hotel and the terraced setbacks of the 
new apartment hotels, towering above the formal arrangement of the 
Plaza entrance itself, and reflected in the Pond at the park's southeastern 
corner. 

At the entrance to the first walk is Gustave Blaeser's bust of the scien- 
tist, F. H. Alexander von Humboldt. It was unveiled in 1869, the park's 
second sculpture acquisition, the first having been the bronze Tigress and 
Cubs which stands near the colored umbrellas of the Zoo cafeteria. 

The Plaza entrance, the one most often used, offers a direct course to 
the Mall, following East Drive, and a visit to the Pond where wild fowl, 
pelicans, and swans decorate the natural lagoons. A third and popular 
route is a path, between East Drive and the Fifth Avenue wall, that leads 
to the Zoo, past the dirt track where children may ride on Shetland 
ponies. Zoo buildings line the approach to the neat brick structures of the 
quadrangle designed by Aymar Embury II, architect for the Triborough 
Bridge and the Henry Hudson Bridge. (Zoo open daily 11 a.m. to 5 p.m.; 
admission free.) Outdoor cages and the sea lion pool occupy the inner 
court. Zoo buildings surround it on three sides ; the cafeteria and pavilion 
take up the west side of the court. The new Zoo is in striking contrast to 
the former grimy buildings, where the iron bars of the cages were so rusted 
that the keepers carried guns for self protection. The Arsenal, at the Fifth 
Avenue side of the quadrangle, is an example of Gothic Revival architec- 
ture striving with its octagonal turrets for a medieval effect. It was built as 
a state arsenal in 1848 and has since served as the first home of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, a weather bureau, and a police precinct ; 
today it is the headquarters for the city Park Department. 

An underpass next to the Primates house veers leftward to the Mall. 
At an intersection close to East Drive is the bronze figure by F. G. Roth 
of the Alaskan dog, Balto, and a bas-relief of Balto as the lead dog of a 
team of seven "huskies." The sculpture bears the inscription, "Dedicated 



CENTRAL PARK 353 

to the spirit of the sled dogs that relayed antitoxin over six hundred miles 
of rough ice, across treacherous waters, through Arctic blizzards, from 
Nenana to the relief of stricken Nome in the winter of 1925." 

The Mall cuts a diagonal line across the park's rectangle, pointing due 
north across the Lake towards the Belvedere Tower, purposely kept small 
in order to increase, by forced perspective, the illusion of distance. The 
Mall was intended by Olmsted and Vaux as a grand promenade. At the 
entrance to the wide walk lined with trees are bronze sculptures of Colum- 
bus, Shakespeare, Robert Burns, and Sir Walter Scott. In the gas-light era 
this was a playground for children ; for a dime they could ride the length 
of the Mall in barouches drawn by teams of goats. 

At the north end of the Mall is the Concert Ground where popular 
programs of classical music are given by Edwin Franko Goldman's band 
and by WPA orchestras. Across the ground from the orchestra shell Henry 
Baerer's huge bust of Ludwig van Beethoven broods over a female figure, 
representing the spirit of music, that rises from the foot of the pedestal. 
On summer evenings dances are held here against the background of 
lights and electric signs along the park's southern border. 

During the day parts of the near-by roadways are roped off for cycling 
and roller skating, while east from the orchestra shell, on the site of the 
Casino, whose high prices were something of a scandal a few years back, 
is the Rumsey playground for children. On the concert ground itself per- 
formances of folk dancing and similar exhibitions are held. 

The northern end of the Mall terminates in a balustrade. Broad steps 
lead through an arched underpass down to a brick terrace that extends to 
the Lake. In the center of the Terrace is Bethesda Fountain, the only piece 
of statuary arranged for in the original plans. Like the ornamented pilas- 
ters and balustrades of the stairways and the arcade, the bronze Bethesda, 
wings outspread, was executed by Emma Stebbins after the design by 
architect J. Wrey Mould. Worn stone, gurgling fountain, and the wooded 
hillside of the Ramble across the Lake succeed more than any other spot 
in the park in fulfilling the intent of Olmsted to take the city dweller 
out of his urban surroundings. The sound of oars in their locks, the flap- 
ping wings of waterfowl blend with the cries of children across the Lake 
and the Ramble, the latter deep with autumn, heavy with winter's snow, or 
yellow-green with another spring. 

Left from the terrace a path explores the hilly area of the Ramble 
through deep gorges and past banks of rhododendrons and azaleas. An- 
other path leads right, to the house, where flatbottom boats are for rent 
at a moderate fee. Conservatory Pond, a pool of formal design where toy 



354 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

yacht regattas are held, may be reached by an underpass near the boat- 
house. 

Continuing northwestward by the Lake and the Ramble a country 
sense of direction is of value in a large park with few signs a rocky 
ledge and a series of stone steps lead to the Belvedere, where a U.S. 
Government Weather Bureau is maintained. The building resembles a 
miniature old castle, but its tower contains the modern scientific instru- 
ments used in predicting the weather; in winter it extends its field of 
applied science, flying a banner with a red ball when the ice on New 
Lake, just to the north, is safe for skating. A bronze tablet to Dr. Daniel 
W. Draper, who established the first Meteorological Observatory in Cen- 
tral Park in 1868, is fixed to the wall of the tower. 

Belvedere Terrace, cut from Vista rock, looks out upon the area between 
the Belvedere and the Receiving Reservoir. In the immediate foreground 
is New Lake, and beyond it the oval expanse of the Great Lawn. The 
pages of Robert Nathan's novel, One More Spring, recall one of the most 
bitter years of the park's history, when the bowl of the drained reservoir 
was used as a refuge by victims of the depression. After the hovels had 
been removed the area was landscaped and the reservoir basin filled in. 

To the left is the Shakespeare Garden, with an oak from Stratford on 
Avon and flowers and small shrubs mentioned in the work of the poet; 
and, close by, the replica of a nineteenth-century Swedish schoolhouse, 
brought to the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876. Northwestward also is 
Summit Rock, crowned by Mrs. Sally Farnum's equestrian statue of Simon 
Bolivar, Venezuelan liberator. A network of paths on the left leads to 
these points and to the Lower Reservoir playground, the central Prome- 
nade between the Great Lawn and the Receiving Reservoir, and the play 
area to the right which includes a roller-skating rink. 

To the right from the terrace across the green oval of the Lawn are 
the buildings of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (see page 368), and 
the Obelisk, quarried by Thothmes III in 1600 B.C. and brought to this 
country in 1880 with much difficulty: unloaded at Staten Island it was 
towed on pontoons up the Hudson to Ninety-sixth Street and then in a 
great cradle it was rolled on cannon balls to the "worst place within the 
city for getting an obelisk to." The path that leads over billowing land- 
scape to the neighborhood of the museum is the best approach to the 
Obelisk's two hundred tons of granite, whose hieroglyphics tell of Thoth- 
mes III, Rameses II, and Osarkon I. In 500 B.C. Cambyses, the Persian, 
overturned the monument, and in 12 B.C. Romans brought the shaft to 
Alexandria, and placed it before a temple. Although it is widely known as 



CENTRAL PARK 355 

Cleopatra's Needle, the obelisk has no known historical connection with 
Cleopatra. 

The original wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, red brick and 
steep mansard, forms a background for the Obelisk and is surrounded on 
three sides by the classical stone structures of the later additions. North- 
west of the museum grounds is a granite statue of youthful Alexander 
Hamilton, completed by Carl Conrads in 1880. 

The Receiving Reservoir, raised above the general level of the park, 
extends from Fifth Avenue to Central Park West, is encircled by a cinder 
path and a bridle path, and is flanked east and west by motor roadways 
and asphalt walks. The many recreational facilities located north of the 
reservoir include the South Meadow tennis courts, the North Meadow 
baseball diamonds, and toward the northwest corner beyond the Pool and 
the Loch, a play area similar to the one immediately below the reservoir. 
More open than the neighborhood of the Lake and the Ramble, the north 
section boasts small rugged sections and rolling landscapes. 

Between Conservatory Garden, with its beds of hardy American flowers 
and rows of crab apple trees, and Harlem Mere, where rowboats are also 
available, is a Memorial Bench honoring Andrew Haswell Green, "direct- 
ing genius of Central Park in its formative period." The bench also marks 
the site of "Widow McGown's Tavern," built 1746 in McGown's Pass. 
The site was for some time referred to as Mount St. Vincent after the 
Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, whose convent was located here 
in the middle of the last century. Soldiers of the Colonial Army retreated 
through McGown's Pass September 15, 1776. Subsequently the British 
occupied and built breastworks along the northern ridge of the present 
park, evacuating them November 21, 1783. 

Other relics in this section date from the War of 1812. Fort Clinton, 
named for Mayor DeWitt Clinton, is commemorated by a mortar, cannon, 
and tablet. It formed a series of defenses with Fort Fish, named for 
Nicholas Fish; Nutter's Battery; and Blockhouse No. i, the only building 
still standing. The Blockhouse is located on the rugged crest of a hill, 
south of the entrance to the park at Seventh Avenue and Cathedral Park- 
way. 

The visitor to Central Park will find about him innumerable features 
that elude detailed description: the bird sanctuaries near the Plaza en- 
trance, the Ramble, the Harlem Mere, the arbors shaded with wistaria, 
and the sloping paths and sudden corners where the noise of the city has 
been put away for the casual gurgle of a brook. Besides the statues already 
.mentioned there are Karl Illava's World War Memorial to the Seventh 



356 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Regiment at the east wall north of the Arsenal; J. Q. A. Ward's Civil 
War Monument to the Seventh Regiment, north of the Tavern-on-the- 
Green and facing West Drive ; the statues to Schiller, Webster, Morse, Maz- 
zini, and Thomas Moore; the Indian Hunter; the Eagles; the Falconer; 
and the Romanesque statue of Commerce that since 1864 has lingered near 
the Merchant's Gate for which it was originally intended. Sight and 
sound mingle in the inventory of a day in the park, gulls wheeling above 
the reservoir, the whir of motors on the Drive and the backs of couples 
walking arm in arm toward the subway. 

Lakes and roadways today follow much the pattern laid out for them 
in the Greensward plan. Except for the substitution of the oval curve of 
the Great Lawn for the rectangle of the old reservoir, the significant 
changes in the park have come about through the addition of recreational 
areas, varying from the children's playgrounds bordering the park to 
roller-skating tracks and horseshoe pitching courts used for championship 
matches. This adaptation of the park to planned recreation emphasizes its 
traditional purpose, to serve the needs of an urban population. Such acts 
of political vandalism as that practiced by the Tweed Ring which allowed 
park trees to be cut down because they impeded the view from Fifth 
Avenue mansions have kept in the public consciousness the importance 
of protecting its original function, which Olmsted emphasized in his 
pamphlet, Spoils of the Park. 

There is one tablet that might well be added to the sculptural inventory, 
a bronze replica of the Greensward plan with a quotation from Frederick 
Law Olmsted. It should be placed near the Plaza entrance, where it 
could rub elbows with Humboldt. Before going to the Zoo or taking the 
sloping walk to the Pond to photograph the most photographed pelicans 
of Manhattan the visitor should read: 

"It is of great importance as the first real park made in this country 
a democratic development of the highest significance and on the success of 
which, in my opinion, much of the progress of art and aesthetic culture in 
this country is dependent." 

TEMPLE EMANU-L 

5th Ave. and 65th St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to 68th St.; or 5th, Madi- 
son, or Lexington Ave. bus to 64th St. Guide service available at i East 65th St. 

Congregation Emanu-El, the oldest Reformed synagogue in New York 
City, was founded in 1845 by German Jews who had rejected many of the 



TEMPLE EMANU-EL 357 

traditional forms and tenets of Orthodox Judaism. In 1927 the congrega- 
tion merged with Congregation Beth-El, a Reformed group established 
in 1874, and two years later moved from its house of worship at Seventy- 
sixth Street and Fifth Avenue to the present temple. It has at present 
(1939) i, 600 members, among whom are many of the leading Jewish 
families in America. 

Temple Emanu-El, one of the most impressive houses of worship in 
New York, is reputed to be the largest synagogue built in modern times. It 
is a group of three buildings: the temple proper, facing Fifth Avenue, 
Beth-El Chapel adjoining the temple on the north, and the community 
house with its 185 -foot tower rising inconspicuously on Sixty-fifth Street 
behind these. In the temple facade, the keynote of the entire design is ap- 
parent : large, plain surfaces offset by areas of rich, concentrated decoration. 
Recessed within a high arch is a great rose window, with a row of lancets 
above and below. Beneath these are three bronze doors ornamented with 
Hebrew symbols and rosettes. The exterior of the little chapel is note- 
worthy for the fineness of its proportions. The Sixty-fifth Street fagade, 
owing to the imperfect correlation of the temple, the community house, 
and tower, is not as satisfying as the Fifth Avenue front. The group, com- 
pleted in 1929 at a cost of more than three million dollars, is a modern 
adaptation of early Romanesque architecture as it was used in Syria and 
the East. The exterior walls, of limestone, are self-supporting; only the 
roof is supported by a steel skeleton frame. The decoration of the beauti- 
fully colored interior shows a strong Byzantine influence. Robert D. Kohn, 
Charles Butler, and Clarence Stein were the architects for the entire group ; 
the firm of Mayers, Murray and Phillip, the consultants. 

The auditorium, which consists of a single nave, is 77 feet wide, 150 
feet long, and 103 feet high, and can seat more than two thousand wor- 
shipers. The great arch of the facade is duplicated in the interior over 
the west gallery and again over the sanctuary. Along the north and south 
galleries it is recalled by five smaller arches over which are groups of clere- 
story windows in brilliant, well-chosen colors. The plain walls are covered 
with buff acoustic tile that shades to darker tones toward the dimly lighted 
ceiling where the exposed roof trusses and the plaster are decorated in reds, 
greens, blues, and gold. The lighting is from concealed sources, so arranged 
that, while adequate light illuminates the floor, the strongest is on the 
sanctuary. 

The sanctuary is raised three feet above the temple floor, under a splayed 
arch of colored glass mosaic designed by Hildreth Meiere. The stained- 
glass windows of the main nave, west rose window, and chapels are the 



358 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

work of Montague Castle, Nicolo d'Ascenzo, Owen Bonaurt, Powell of 
London, J. Gordon Guthrie, and Oliver Smith. The marble columns of the 
Ark vary in color from deep purple to orange, and through the pierced 
bronze Ark doors can be seen the red velvet coverings of the Scrolls of the 
Law. The lamp for the perpetual light, hanging from the top of the Ark, 
is bronze, as are the Menorah candlesticks. 

On high holidays, when the attendance is approximately tripled, loud 
speakers enable worshipers in the chapel, basement banquet hall, and com- 
munity house assembly room to participate in the temple services, which 
are in English. The temple occupies a leading place in Reformed Judaism. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: 
HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 

Central Park West, jjth to 8ist St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway (local) to 

79th St.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) Grand Concourse or Washington Heights 

subway (local) to 8ist St.; or 9th Ave. el to 8ist St.; or 8th Ave. bus to 79th or 

8ist St. 

Museum. Main entrance on Central Park West and 79th St. Hours: weekdays 

10 A.M. to 5 P.M., Sunday and holidays i to 5 P.M. Admission free. Restaurant on 

second floor, cafeteria in basement; closed Sunday. 

Planetarium. Main entrance on 8ist St. Performances: Monday to Friday at 2, 

3:30, and 8:30 P.M.; Saturday at n A.M. and i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8:30 P.M.; Sunday 

and holidays at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8:30 P.M. Admission: adults 25^ and 50^ matinees, 

350 and 6o0 evenings; children 150 at all times. 

Besides being one of the world's largest institutions devoted to natural 
science exhibits, the American Museum of Natural History is also a re- 
search laboratory, a school for advanced study, a publishing house for 
scientific manuscripts, and a sponsoring agency of field exploration expe- 
ditions. 

The incorporation of the museum in 1869 was an expression of the 
surge of interest in natural science stimulated by great advances, such as the 
use of the spectroscope, Mendel's law of heredity, Darwin's theory of evo- 
lution, the law of the conservation of energy, and the identification of light 
as an electromagnetic phenomenon. Its first collections were housed in the 
old Arsenal building in Central Park. The cornerstone of the first among 
the present structures was laid in 1874 by President Grant, and the museum 
was formally opened by President Hayes in 1877. Since then, new build- 
ings for exhibition and study have been added, including the Theodore 
Roosevelt Memorial and the Hayden Planetarium ; the occupation of the 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 359 

whole area of Manhattan Square, between Seventy-seventh and Eighty-first 
Streets, from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue, is projected. 

From the beginning noted scientists, educators, and civic leaders have 
been associated with the museum. Among them are Professor Albert S. 
Bickmore, who in 1880 was largely responsible for the inauguration of a 
system of popular education in conjunction with the schools of the city; 
Morris K. Jesup, philanthropist, who was president of the institution for 
more than a quarter of a century; Henry Fairfield Osborn, paleontologist 
and geologist, who was also its president for many years ; and the present 
director, Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews, naturalist and explorer. 

Founded by subscriptions from private individuals, the museum has been 
supported by additional bequests, income from endowments, sale of corpo- 
rate stock, and a membership fund, as well as by contributions from the city. 
It is governed by a self-perpetuating board of thirty-five trustees, with the 
mayor, comptroller, and park commissioner as ex-ofncio members. It em- 
ploys a staff of 554. In 1936, more than 250 WPA workers were added to 
various departments, indicating the scope of the museum's work and its 
needs. 

The museum's architecture is unhappily marred by a gross disparity of 
styles. The first building, facing Seventy- seventh Street, designed by J. C. 
Cady and Company, is a good example of the robust use of stone as struc- 
tural material, a use developed by Richardson and his followers in the years 
before the Chicago Fair of 1893. The entrance on this side is vigorously 
indicated by the expressive massing of the dark salmon granite masonry 
and by a great monumental carriage-way. It leads directly into the older 
Memorial Hall with its busts of early American scientists and temporary 
exhibits. Later wing additions by Trowbridge and Livingston are in general 
conformity with the older part, but flatter and less positive in treatment. 

The Roosevelt Memorial building facing Central Park West, completed 
in 1936 from designs by John Russell Pope, has, however, occasioned much 
adverse comment for its lack of relation to the adjoining structure and its 
pretentious Roman style. Nor have the murals in the high-ceilinged Me- 
morial Hall on the second floor, by William A. Mackay, been too well re- 
ceived, the general impression being that their design is weak, and that 
the depiction of incidents from the life of Theodore Roosevelt lacks im- 
agination. 

On the other hand, the Hayden Planetarium, which is connected by a 
corridor with the Roosevelt Memorial, is among the most interesting ex- 
amples of modern functional architecture. The architects were Trowbridge 
and Livingston. Particularly notable is the imaginative design of the Hall 



360 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

of the Sun, on the first floor, where form, light, and color have been ably 

handled. 

Akeley Memorial Hall 

The most spectacular exhibit, perhaps, is that in the Akeley Memorial 
Hall of African Mammals, entered from Roosevelt Memorial Hall. It 
illustrates an interesting exhibition technique the use of life-like habitat 
groups in place of mounted single figures. Few exhibits match the wild- 
life drama presented in this hall. 

Animals, settings plains, jungles, and mountains the weather, the day 
and night of Africa are recreated not only with objective accuracy but with 
imaginative insight. The lion, gorilla, antelope, buffalo, giraffe, rhinoceros, 
wild dog, boar, and many other creatures are represented in characteristi 
actions that give an amazing impression of vitality and reveal something 
of their mental nature. The vegetation is excellently simulated; in some 
cases actual rocks and bushes have been brought from the place repre- 
sented. Paintings in perspective and curved skies give the illusion that the 
landscape extends into the far distance. Large-scale maps of Africa may 
also be studied here; and there are sculptures, by Malvina Hoffman, of 
native human types. 

Mammals 

South Asiatic mammals, chiefly from the Indian peninsula, are exhibited 
in Vernay-Faunthorpe Hall, second floor, east wing, to the left of Roose- 
velt Hall. Two large elephants stand in the center of the hall. Large and 
small game, tigers, deer, leopard, and gibbon are shown amid their native 
fields and forests. A new hall of North Asiatic mammals, featuring the 
Siberian tiger, the Marco Polo sheep, and the giant panda will adjoin this 
exhibit (1939). 

North American mammals are at present displayed in Allen Hall, second 
floor, southeast wing. Many of these have been given naturalistic settings 
as in Akeley Hall, notably a group of timber wolves on the trail of deer, 
and a scene showing beavers at work. On the first floor of the African 
wing, a new hall is at present under construction (1939), which may be 
entered from New York Hall, the first floor of the Roosevelt Memorial 
building. In the New York Hall are four large habitat groups, the Dutch- 
Indian, Roosevelt Ranch, Conservation of Wild Life in the Adirondacks, 
and Bird Sanctuary. 

The phylogenetic interrelationship of the highest order of mammals is 
presented in the Hall of Primates, third floor, south pavilion. Here are 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 361 

shown all the types from lemur to man in characteristic surroundings, pos- 
ture, and activities. A series of skeletons permits a comparative study of 
structural changes in the process of man's evolution. There is also an ex- 
cellent collection of wild animal photographs. 

The presentation of the synoptic series of mammals, which adjoins the 
Hall of Primates, leads still deeper into the background of the evolutionary 
process. Here mammals have been arranged in the order of their develop- 
ment from the egg-laying platypus (the duckbill) to man. Especially em- 
phasized is the fact that the internal structure, not the external appearance 
determines the position of an animal in the line of evolution. A family 
tree of the orders of animal life from which mammals stem is also shown. 
A life-size model of a sulphur-bottom whale, the world's largest mammal, 
hangs from the ceiling (this particular one is seventy-six feet long). There 
is also the skeleton of Jumbo, the largest elephant ever brought to this 
country, presented to the museum by Phineas T. Barnum, the circus pro- 
moter. 

Darwin Hall of Evolution 

A basic exhibit of evolutionary processes is in the Darwin Hall of Evo- 
lution, first floor, south pavilion. Devoted chiefly to the orders of inverte- 
brates, animals without backbone, it is arranged to illustrate developments 
in structure and function from the lowest form of animal life, the single- 
celled protozoa, through the plant-like sponges and polyps; flatworms and 
roundworms; exquisite rotifers; sea mats and lamp shells; the sea stars; 
the ringed worms ; arthropods, crustaceans, and insects ; mollusks, to the first 
chordates, or animals with a central nervous system. There are synoptic 
charts, family trees, and wax and glass models many times magnified, of 
the inhabitants of the invisible society so vital to our existence. Even more 
picturesque are reproductions of animal and plant groups, one enlarged 
one hundred diameters, or cubically a million times, in their characteristic 
rocky sea cave, wharf pile, tide pool, bay bottom, and pond homes. 

Other exhibits in the hall illustrate laws of natural science discovered by 
Darwin and other biologists Specimens of dogs, pigeons, and fowl show 
the variation under domestication ; a collection of mollusks illustrates color 
variation ; while the coat-color of a family of rats presents the simpler fea- 
tures of Mendel's law of heredity. 

Aquatic Life 

The Hall of Fishes on the first floor, east wing, with its models and 
mounted specimens, is a chart of evolution undersea. Lowly "cartilage 



362 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

fishes" such as sharks and rays are succeeded by those of a higher, verte- 
brate structure. Here also are the terrible hags and blood-sucking lam- 
preys, skates and electric rays, fishes with lungs and flappers, and a multi- 
tude of finned creatures whose brilliant colors rival those of birds. In a 
darkened inner room is a startling reproduction of a habitat, where deep- 
sea fishes gleam with their own- light under tons of water. The hall also 
exhibits fresh-water fish. 

Big game fishes, tuna, tarpon, sailfish, swordfish, and devilfish victims 
of hook or harpoon adorn the walls. Some are posed in mid-air, as if 
leaping out of the water as they try desperately to tear the fatal hook out 
of their mouths. 

Near by, in the southwest court, is the Hall of Ocean Life. Skeletons and 
models of dolphins, porpoises, and other marine animals are displayed, 
among them the giant squid, right whale and blackfish, the narwhal and 
the terrible killer whale, which causes even the great sperm whale to flee 
in terror. There are habitat groups of seals, manatee, sea lions, and walrus, 
and a reproduction of a Bahama coral reef, showing sky, land, sea surface, 
and multitudinous undersea life. The Lindberghs' exploration plane, 
Tmgmhsartoq, and Dr. Beebe's bathysphere, collections of shells, and 
large paintings of sperm whaling and undersea life are other temporary 
features of the hall. 

Birds 

A hall in the south pavilion on the second floor is devoted to a num- 
ber of habitat groups showing the birds of the major faunal areas of the 
world. Scenes of bird life in the American tropics, the Antarctic, the An- 
dean zone, North Temperate and Palaearctic Alpine zone, the Gobi Desert, 
and other regions are presented with the same dramatic beauty that dis- 
tinguishes the collections of African and Asiatic mammals. 

The general collection of birds is in the near-by Hall of Birds of the 
World in the south central wing. Suspended overhead is an exhibit of 
birds in flight: condor, eagle, brown pelicans, asprey, albatross, and ducks 
and geese in formation. Several cases contain a synoptic arrangement of 
birds, the 13,000 known species being represented by examples from the 
principal groups, according to their structural relationships. The other ex- 
hibits are grouped in relation to their geographic origin. Specimens of now 
extinct birds may be seen, such as the passenger pigeon, once bred in North 
America by the millions, and the dodo, represented by a skeleton and a 
life-size reproduction copied from an old Dutch painting. There are also 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 363 

collections of birds' eggs and plumage, as well as exhibits dealing with 
structural adaptation. 

North American birds are housed on the third floor, south central wing. 
The habitat groups were prepared under the immediate direction of Dr. 
Frank M. Chapman, curator of ornithology, and are masterly evocations of 
the landscape, flora, and fauna of every region of the continent. Eagles, 
herons, pelicans, swans, flamingos, grouse, and duck hawks are only a 
few of the magnificent birds seen in habitat groups either perched on in- 
accessible icy heights, standing on river banks by the thousands, feeding 
their young, or sweeping down from the Palisades of the Hudson River to 
pounce on living prey. 

Specimens of local birds, resident and migrant, found within fifty miles 
of New York City, are in the first floor corridor of the Roosevelt Me- 
morial. 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

The Hall of Reptile Life is on the third floor, east wing. Habitat groups, 
including those of Gila monsters, iguanas, giant salamanders, and the com- 
mon bullfrog, are displayed. Cases contain specimens of alligators, croco- 
diles, king cobras, and turtles. Various educational exhibits accompany 
these, dealing with the evolution and habits of amphibians and reptiles, as 
well as the treatment of snakebite. 

Near by, in the southeast pavilion, is the Hall of Insect Life. The biology 
of these small but powerful creatures, and their benefit and danger to man, 
are presented by live specimens in habitat groups and in detailed charts 
and diagrams. A live beehive, made of glass, enables the spectator to ob- 
serve the activities of domestic honeybees. 

Problems relating to insects are further treated in the Hall of Biological 
Principles and Applied Biology, first floor, west central wing. Exhibits in 
this hall deal with general questions of food and water supply, sewage dis- 
posal, and the relation of insects, rats, and parasites to public health. Mod- 
els of disease carriers, showing the characteristic conditions for the spread 
of epidemics, with methods of cure and prevention, form part of this edu- 
cational display. 

On the first floor, southeast wing, is the Hall of the Woods and Forests 
of North America, containing an almost complete collection of native trees 
presented by Morris K. Jesup. The numerous members of great tree fam- 
ilies such as beech, oak, pine, and palm, are represented by cross sections 
of the trunk. The accompanying reproductions of the leaf and flower or 
fruit of each tree were prepared in the museum laboratories. 



364 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

In the center of the hall is a forty-five- foot remainder of a fossil tree 
trunk, several million years old. Another exhibit is a cross section of one of 
the California Big Trees, sixteen feet in diameter, whose seed was planted 
in 597 A.D. 

The Morgan Memorial Hall of Minerals and Gems, fourth floor, south- 
west wing, contains collections rivaling those of the British Museum and 
the Jardin des Plantes. The minerals are arranged according to species, and 
their qualities and use to man are described. The subject of crystallization 
is introduced by series of structural models. Notable gems are included 
here, such as the "Star of India," the largest cut sapphire in the world, the 
De Long star ruby, the Morgenthau blue topaz, and the Vatican cameo, a 
carved garnet. 

In the southwest tower is the Drummond collection of carved Chinese 
jade and amber, and Japanese ivory, and sword guards. 

Anthropological Exhibits 

The museum is also noted for the quantity and quality of its ethnologi- 
cal material, particularly that pertaining to the North American Indians. 
The Indian exhibits are in the south central wing, the north corridor, and 
in the southwest and western pavilions and wings on the first floor. The 
nine great Indian culture areas are represented, each with extensive dis- 
plays of craft work, charts of cultural and tribal distribution and social and 
political organization, as well as models showing home life in tents, houses, 
and villages, physical environment, labor, and ceremonies. Exhibits pertain- 
ing to the Central and South American Indians are on the second floor, 
west wing. 

From the North Pacific Coast came the many wonderfully carved totem 
poles, house posts, grave monuments, and masks, works of the highest 
aesthetic quality, which excite the admiration of modern artists. A great 
war canoe occupies the center of the hall. 

Eskimo life is represented by implements, clothing, decorative carved ob- 
jects, and a model of a characteristic ice fishing scene. 

The Hall of the Indians of the Woodlands is filled with examples of the 
dome-shaped huts of Long Island, long rectangular Iroquois bark houses, 
and the conical wigwams of the Ojibways, together with beautiful bead, 
quill, and textile work. 

The Plains Indians, most of whom depended upon hunting for their 
existence, had implements and decorative motifs closely related to this pur- 
suit. Interesting examples of their picture writing on skins are to be seen. 




Ill 



$.-i*4 f -4 



CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 



I 



MANHATTANVILLE COLLEGE OF THE SACRED HEART 




GORILLA GROUP, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




S IP' : " 






FORT TRYON PARK 

RIVERSIDE DRIVE NORTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 




THE CLOISTERS, FORT TRYON PARK 




SUGAR HILL, HARLEM 



HARLEM SLUM 










LENOX AVENUE, HARLEM 



V / 




JUMEL MANSION, WASHINGTON HEIGHTS 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 365 

The organization of the religious Dance Societies, the famous Sun Dance 
and other activities and rituals of the plains are dealt with in detail. 

The Southwest Indians are represented by collections of the craft work 
of their three main divisions, the village inhabitants of the Pueblos and 
the nomad Apache and Navajo. Silver and turquoise work, pottery, woven 
blankets and baskets, ceremonial costumes, masks, and images are the chief 
exhibits. Recesses have been built into the walls for group exhibits show- 
ing the daily life of the natives. A special exhibit with models of caves 
and objects fashioned by the Basket Makers is devoted to the prehistoric 
culture of the Southwest. 

The ancient cultures of Mexico and Central America are depicted in the 
southwest wing, second floor. Examples are displayed of superb sculpture, 
jewelry, pottery, ideographic writing, and scientific achievements, notably 
in astronomy. 

In the west wing, South American Indian culture is summarized mainly 
by exhibits from the culture center, Peru, although craft work from Ecua- 
dor, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil is also displayed. The Peruvians ex- 
celled in pottery, metal work, and textiles. Their belief in immortality is 
manifested in the "mummy bundles," or fabric wrappings around the 
dead, and in hundreds of beautiful and useful objects placed in graves for 
the use of the deceased. 

Similar anthropological collections in the western sections of the third 
and fourth floors are devoted to an exposition, with characteristic objects 
and models of common and ceremonial life, of the cultures of Africa, Asia, 
the Pacific Islands, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Malaysia. Ivory, 
bronze, and ironwork of Africa, costumes and implements of the Siberian 
tribes, Chinese and Japanese handicraft, a cast of one of the huge mono- 
lithic images of Easter Island, and masks and weapons of the Malay Pen- 
insula are only a few of the displays which reveal the high development 
of these peoples. 

In the southwest pavilion on the second floor are exhibits of prehistoric 
arts and industries as developed by European cave and lake dwellers and 
North American shellmound dwellers and mound builders. Models of 
caves, reproductions of cave drawings, and objects illustrating the evolu- 
tion of domestic and hunting implements predominate. 

The Hall of the Natural History of Man in the southwest wing, third 
floor, deals with human anatomy, showing the physical characteristics, de- 
velopment and growth of the races of mankind. The mechanics, anatomical 
history, genealogy, embryology, and evolution of the skeletal structure, 
muscular system, nervous system, and brain of man are the subjects of this 



366 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

exhibit. Another section of this hall, not yet completed (1939), will con- 
tain material on individual growth and development, racial classification, 
human genetics, population problems, and the techniques of physical 
anthropology. 

Fossils 

Most prized, perhaps, of all the museum's exhibits are the collections 
of fossil vertebrates in the eastern and southern sections of the fourth 
floor. Here, taken out of bogs, swamps, long-closed caves, and ancient 
geologic strata, or released from thousands of years' imprisonment in 
frozen ground or stone, are the skeletons of animals that lived from 30,000 
to 200,000,000 years ago. Their petrified remains help scientists to recon- 
struct their lives and times. 

First come the great Jurassic and Cretaceous reptiles, the dinosaurs, or 
"terrible lizards," some vegetarian, but the greatest of them, Tyranno- 
saurus, a beast of prey, swift and fierce. The Brontosaurus weighed be- 
tween twenty-five and thirty tons, while Ankylosaurus is called "the most 
ponderous animated citadel the world has ever seen," its head and body 
being protected by thick plates of bone. 

The Hall of Mongolian Vertebrates exhibits fossils obtained by the 
Central Asiatic expeditions of the museum, among them the dinosaur 
eggs that created an international sensation when they were found, and a 
low relief model of the largest of the baluchitheres, ancient cousins of the 
rhinoceros this one, seventeen feet nine inches high at the shoulder. 

A chart in the Bashford Dean Memorial Exhibit of Fossil Fishes illus- 
trates the development of 500,000,000 years of ocean life. Sharks used to 
be much larger than they are now, as the nine-foot model of the jaw of 
the modern man-eater's ancestor demonstrates. 

The evolution of the horse is featured in the Osborn Hall of the Age 
of Mammals. Among other animals of the Tertiary Period are, surprisingly 
enough, the camels and rhinoceroses of Nebraska. There are also remains 
of the first mammals as they began to emerge in the preceding period, the 
Age of Reptiles. 

Early man and his contemporaries, mammoths from France and Siberia, 
mastodons, one from Newburgh, N. Y., and giant South American sloths, 
are in the Osborn Hall of the Age of Man. Here, too, is a group of skele- 
tons dramatically posed about a model of the renowned Rancho La Brea, 
a California asphalt pit where so many animals of antiquity met their 
death. Among them an entrapped saber-toothed tiger is shown about to be 



HAYDEN PLANETARIUM 367 

attacked by a wolf, who thus involuntarily contributed his share to a knowl- 
edge of the principles of evolution. 

A hall devoted to geology and invertebrate paleontology contains mod- 
els of caves and mines and of the structural and historical geology of 
fifteen selected areas within the United States. 

Finally, a corridor is devoted to the modern domesticated horse. Skele- 
tons of Shetland ponies and race and draft horses are compared for 
structural modifications through breeding. 

Hayden Planetarium 

The Hayden Planetarium, whose equipment was a gift of the philan- 
thropist, Charles Hayden, has an entrance on Eighty-first Street, and forms 
a separate architectural unit in the group of museum buildings. 

In this fine domed building, science and art are brought together. In the 
Hall of the Sun on the first floor, an overhead Copernican Planetarium, 
more than forty feet in diameter, shows the relative sizes and speeds of the 
planets and their satellites by means of globes revolving around a central 
sun. 

The second floor holds the Theater of the Sky where stars of all seasons 
and of past, present, and future time appear projected on a great hemi- 
spherical screen overhead. The performance is preceded by music, and a lec- 
turer operates a control board for the Zeiss projector, a complex instrument 
for reproducing the light images of all visible stars. During 1935, the first 
year of the planetarium's existence, more than 700,000 persons came to see 
their favorite constellations, the heavens as they appeared over Bethlehem 
at the birth of Christ, or as they will look to future citizens of the world. 
Monthly programs treat different aspects of astronomy. 

In the corridors throughout the building are photographic transparencies 
showing heavenly phenomena, a number of famous meteors among them 
the 361/2'ton mass brought by Robert E. Peary from Cape York, Greenland 
a reproduction of the Aztec calendar stone, and the chronometers used 
by renowned aviators. 

A course in celestial navigation is given at the planetarium to aviators 
and navigators in co-operation with New York University and the Weems 
System of Navigation in Annapolis. 

Museum Activities 

As someone has observed, a museum is like an iceberg: only one-eighth 
of it is visible on the surface. This museum is no exception. Neither the 
vast amount of research and educational work performed by its explorers, 



368 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

technicians, artists, and teachers, nor its influence throughout the world can 
be estimated by a casual observer. Behind its exhibition halls are hundreds 
of classrooms, laboratories, editorial offices, libraries, lecture halls, studios, 
study collections, and files of vital data. And from the museum go ex- 
plorers, educators, astronomers, and geologists to increase man's knowledge 
of the external world and to help him win victories over his environment. 

The fifth floor of the museum is given over to the administrative offices, 
the scientific departments, and the library. The workrooms are used for 
the preparation of fossils, models, and other exhibits. The main library 
contains more than 117,000 volumes. A second library, founded by Henry 
Fairfield Osborn, is devoted to vertebrate paleontology. 

The museum issues technical publications on its researches and expedi- 
tions, and on timely discoveries and theoretical questions. Its popular pub- 
lications include the general guide, school service series, the journals Nat- 
ural History and Junior Natural History, guide leaflets on the collections, 
and a number of handbooks which may be used as textbooks on subjects 
illustrated by collections in the museum. 

Enormous study collections of hundreds of thousands of specimens in 
all branches of the natural sciences are available to students and research 
workers. An idea of their extent may be had from the fact that the insect 
collection alone consists of more than one million specimens ; that of fishes, 
10,000; of birds, 750,000, the largest in the world; of fossil mammals, 
30,000 catalogued, and of fossil invertebrates, 700,000 specimens cata- 
logued. A fully equipped printing plant is constantly employed. 

Lastly, and of tremendous importance, are the educational services of the 
museum in the form of lectures to children in the public and high schools 
and to students in colleges and universities, classes and guide services, 
sponsorship of scientific societies, motion-picture and lantern slide services, 
circulating collections, radio broadcasts, and nature hikes. The number of 
people affected by these activities reaches in one year the almost incredible 
number of 43,000,000. 

METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 

5th Ave. and 82d St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway to 86th St.; or 5th or Madison 
Ave. bus to 82d St. Hours: weekdays 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., Sunday i to 6 P.M., legal 
holidays 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., except Christmas (i to 5 P.M.). Admission: 250 Mon- 
day and Friday (free if these days are legal holidays) ; other days free. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, one of the great museums of the 
world, contains the most comprehensive collection of art in America. With 



METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 369 

the introduction of a policy of active popular education, which has super- 
seded the old lifeless method of exhibiting art objects without plan or ex- 
planation, its cultural influence has been strengthened in recent years. It 
aims to relate its art collections, from pre-history to the present time, to the 
civilization of the peoples who produced them. Exhibits and lectures are 
arranged so as to show art as a familiar activity of men, arising from their 
daily life, and reflecting their ways of eating, drinking, money-making, 
fighting, and praying. 

The museum was incorporated April 15, 1870, as the result of a move- 
ment among leading New York citizens for the foundation of a "national 
gallery and museum ... for the benefit of the people at large." A modest 
purchase of 174 Dutch and Flemish paintings, and of the Cesnola group 
of Cypriote antiquities, started the collection, which grew rapidly by be- 
quest, gift, and purchase. A permanent building to house the exhibits was 
erected by the city of New York in Central Park and opened to the public 
on March 30, 1880. Though far from distinguished for architectural unity, 
it has come to constitute an interesting record of American adaptation of 
classical and contemporary styles. The first architects were Calvert Vaux 
and J. Wrey Mould ; the only visible remainder of their work is the arcaded 
center of the west fagade. In 1888, Theodore Weston added the southwest 
wing, designed in the neo-Greek manner. 

The central Fifth Avenue section was opened in 1902 ; it was designed 
by Richard Morris Hunt and his son, Richard Rowland Hunt, in the "Ro- 
man" style made popular by the Chicago Fair of 1893. There is a certain 
robust quality in this earlier work that is lacking in subsequent additions 
by McKim, Mead, and White. 

Incorporated in the buildings are remnants of two old New York land- 
marks. A part of the old Assay Office (built in 1823) is used as a facade 
of the American wing, and the delicate terra-cotta pediment of the old 
Madison Square Presbyterian Church, by McKim, Mead, and White 
(1906), is incorporated in a fagade of the museum library. 

The city leases the building to the museum, provides equipment and 
makes contributions to its maintenance. Enlargement of the collections, 
however, is dependent mainly upon individual bequests and gifts from 
philanthropic citizens. 

Restrictions of space have prevented a more logical arrangement of the 
museum's possessions. The objects in the spacious entrance hall symbolize 
the varied character of the collections. At the foot of the central staircase 
leading to the galleries of paintings, George Gray Barnard's massive white 
marble Struggle of the Two Natures of Man represents the heroic-romantic 



370 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
tradition in American sculpture. At either end of the hall, in strong con- 
trast to this figure, are highly formalized classical sculptures from Egypt 
and Mesopotamia. The walls are hung with seventeenth-century tapestries, 
which tell the Biblical story of Judith and Holofernes. 

The Egyptian Collection 

The fifteen rooms housing the Egyptian collection, on the first floor of 
the north wing, contain a documentary as well as an artistic record of the 
ancient culture of the Nile valley from prehistoric times to the introduc- 
tion of Christianity. Tombs of nobles and the figures of gods, in which the 
religion and metaphysics of Egypt find expression, are surrounded by 
painted bas-reliefs, wooden funerary models, household and farm imple- 
ments, and murals illustrating the life of the common people, their tasks, 
trades, hardships, and pleasures. Outstanding among these is the Mastaba 
Tomb, erected about 2460 B.C. for Per-neb, an Egyptian dignitary; the 
funerary models of Meket-Re, part of a most important discovery of the 
museum's excavations in Egypt; and the Carnarvon Collection of gold, 
alabaster, glass, and faience objects. The art of Egypt, from its hieratical 
statuary, whose symbolism is permeated with death-ritual, to the delicate 
jewelry of its princesses, is shown in its dual character as the closed do- 
main of a priestly ruling class, and as endowed with intimate human 
knowledge and love of natural things. 

At the south end of the main entrance hall, a Winged Bull and Winged 
Lion from the gateways of the palace of the King Ashur-nasir-apal II in- 
troduce the Mesopotamian collection. These, as well as the bas-reliefs of 
mythological figures, warriors Cavalrymen Leading Their Horses Through 
the Mountains and of the martial king himself, the famous Ashur-nasir- 
apal and His Cupbearer, characterize the culture of the Assyrians, dom- 
inated by tyrannical government and continual warfare. Two Lions are in 
glazed brick, a medium developed to offset the lack of stone on the plains 
surrounding Babylon. Early Sumerian art is represented by jewelry from 
the royal tombs at Ur. 

In a room in the north wing on the first floor will eventually be shown 
early Christian, Byzantine, and early Iranian art. 

Greek and Roman Art 

The Greek and Roman collection, in a series of rooms and a court on 
the first floor of the south wing, is arranged chronologically, beginning 
with the culture of Crete (about 3500 B.C.). Besides the sculpture to be 
found in the long sculpture hall, including an archaic Apollo statue, an 



METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 371 

Amazon, probably a Roman copy of a work by the renowned Polykleitos, 
and a figure of Peace, there are painted ceremonial and household cups 
and vases, bronze and terra-cotta statuettes, bas-reliefs and wall paintings, 
showing scenes from the mythology and daily life of the ancients. The per- 
sonal art of the Tanagra terra-cotta figurines and the Greco-Roman frescoes 
is also unequaled for grace and the acute perception of details of everyday 
life. 

In the same collection are interesting examples of the art and craft of 
the Etruscans, a hill people of central Italy, who added their own rugged 
decorative style to the Greek tradition. Among the exhibits are a colossal 
terra-cotta Warrior, a bronze chariot of the sixth century B.C., remarkably 
preserved, and a huge terra-cotta Helmeted Head. A court in the south 
wing is built in the manner of a Roman peristyle, with a shallow fish pond 
in the center, surrounded by green lawns and decorated with Roman and 
late Greek sculptures. 

The Cesnola Collection 

In the adjoining room, the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Antiquities, 
largest in the world, comprises stone sculpture, bronzes, pottery, and mis- 
cellaneous objects unearthed in Cyprus during 18651871 by the American 
consul, General Louis P. di Cesnola. It presents with unusual continuity 
historic phases of this important center of the ancient world during its long 
development from 3000 B.C. to Roman times. In the course of time, this 
island off the coast of Asia Minor was visited, settled, or invaded by Egyp- 
tians, Assyrians, Persians, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans, and its indige- 
nous culture gave way to that of its conquerors. Particularly remarkable 
are the carved Sarcophagus, the Male Statue, and Head of a Woman. The 
Roman glassware, whose iridescent coloring, the result of exposure to damp 
and oxidation in graves, is so fascinating to connoisseurs, is exhibited in 
an adjoining room. In a gallery devoted to gold objects are a collection of 
jewelry, including a tomb group with earrings in the form of Ganymede, 
a plate from a Scythian sword sheath, and a series of Imperial Roman 
coins. 

China, Japan, India, and the Near East 

An impression of the inexhaustible variety of Far Eastern art is conveyed 
by exhibits of Chinese and Japanese painting, sculpture, and pottery, in a 
series of rooms in the north wing of the second floor and in the balcony 
above the entrance hall. The examples of Chinese art range from the great 
bronzes of the Chou dynasty (1122-256 B.C.) through the T'ang period 



372 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

(618906 A.D.), renowned for sculpture, the Sung (960-1279), for paint- 
ing, and the Ming (1368-1644), for pottery. Chinese art results from the 
representation not so much of nature itself as of a philosophical or re- 
ligious idea of nature. This is translated with infinite technical patience 
into the forms of great ceremonial vessels, contemplative stone Buddhas, 
unsurpassed porcelain ware in which the Altman Collection, in the south 
wing, is also extremely rich and those paintings in which the artist strives 
to capture the essence even more than the external appearance of moun- 
tains, skies, rivers, and animals. The more intimate aspects of Chinese and 
Japanese art are also shown, from snuff bottles and carved jades, including 
the Heber R. Bishop Collection, to rugs, textiles, and costumes, as well as 
the more recent Japanese color prints, whose charm has won for them al- 
most as much popularity in the western world as at home. A small but var- 
ied Indian collection in this section includes early Buddhistic stone sculp- 
ture and figures showing the influence of Greece. 

In the same wing with the Japanese, Chinese, and Indian collections, the 
decorative genius of the Mohammedan countries is represented by master- 
pieces from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkey, Moorish Africa, 
and Spain, from the seventh century to the nineteenth century. Superb rugs 
and textiles from Persia, including the gift of James F. Ballard, Turkish 
ceramics, Syrian lamps and cups, metalwork and woodwork reveal Islam's 
preoccupation with design above all other elements. In the Cochran Col- 
lection there are excellent examples of Persian miniature painting, which, 
by its drawings, calligraphy, and novel perspective, has been a source of 
inspiration to many modern painters, chiefly Henri Matisse. 

Included with the Near Eastern collections are the domed room from a 
Jain temple, and jewelry, jade, and textiles from India and Tibet. The 
Moore Collection of Near and Far Eastern pottery, metalwork, and glass 
is of special note. 

A large collection of casts of outstanding Greek and Roman sculptures 
is arranged chronologically for the benefit of students. Also included in 
galleries at the west end of the first floor is a collection of casts of Renais- 
sance sculpture. 

European Arms and Armor 

The collection of European arms and armor, in the central hall at the 
west on the first floor and the large hall in the north wing, traces the de- 
velopment of the armorer's craft from the fourteenth century to its decline 
in the middle of the seventeenth century. The manner in which the com- 
plicated engineering problems of weight, balance, flexibility, and tension 



METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 373 

of materials were met by master craftsmen is an absorbing study. Horse 
armor is also shown, as well as axes, maces, swords, and, finally, pistols and 
small cannon, whose offensive strength, exceeding the resistance of the 
heaviest body armor, brought to a close the armorer's craft. The William 
H. Riggs and Bashford Dean Collections rank with the great European 
groups, and together with the Dino and Morosini Collections, present an 
impressive source of study in this field. Near Eastern items include 
helmets, chain mail and plate armor, jeweled swords, and firearms. A corre- 
sponding Japanese collection, an outstanding feature of which is its decora- 
tive quality, covers the feudal era from the twelfth to the nineteenth 
century. 

In the northwest section of the west wing, first floor, the Crosby Brown 
Collection of Musical Instruments, consisting of more than 3,600 primitive 
and modern specimens among them a piano by Bartolomeo di Francesco 
Cristofori, inventor of the pianoforte presents the technical evolution and 
construction of many of our familiar string, reed, brass, and percussion in- 
struments, and provides an introduction to the musical culture of civilized 
and primitive peoples throughout the world. 

The Morgan Collection 

The Pierpont Morgan Collection in a two-story extension, north of the 
west wing, is a priceless accumulation of European decorative arts from 
the Gallo-Roman and Merovingian periods to the early nineteenth century. 
Byzantine and medieval goldsmiths, enamelers, and ivory carvers contribute 
the most precious section of the collection. The work brought together by 
Georges Hoentschel of Paris is the most comprehensive group, and con- 
sists of sculpture, furniture, textiles, woodwork, ivories, and architectural 
fragments of the Gothic period, and of French decorative arts of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries furniture, decorative paintings, and or- 
molu fittings. Five Gothic tapestries representing the Sacraments, an En- 
tombment, and a Pieta, the woodwork of a Louis XV room, and a shop 
front from the Quai Bourbon in Paris, snuff boxes, watches, vanities, scent 
bottles, and dance programs are also in the Morgan Collection. 

Outstanding examples of medieval art in rooms near the Morgan Col- 
lection include a tapestry representing King Arthur, and three others of 
ladies and courtiers in a rose garden, holy figures in stone, stained-glass 
windows, and an embroidered chasuble of fourteenth-century England. 

Modern European and American Sculpture 

Rodin's assault on the academic tradition of his time is recorded in the 



374 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
section devoted to modern European sculpture, fronting the south entrance. 
More than twenty of his pieces are shown, including portrait heads and 
bronze and marble figures, as well as some of Rodin's original models in 
terra cotta. His return to Grecian and Renaissance models is carried further 
by Bourdelle and Maillol, whose exhibited work shows great vigor and 
plastic solidity. There is an interesting ballet figure by the painter Degas. 
The modern American sculpture group, in the corridors flanking the 
main staircase on the first and second floors, is somewhat small. It expresses 
mainly the two trends of academic sculpture, the neoclassical (symbolic) 
and the romantic. Contrasting with the work of such sculptors as Manship, 
MacMonnies, and French are those of William Zorach and of the expa- 
triate, Jacob Epstein, whose heroic figures exercised a powerful influence in 
making the British public aware of the modern movement in art. 

Painting 

The collection of European and American painting, on the second floor, 
embraces more than 2,300 oils, tempera panels, pastels, and water colors. 
It includes important private collections bequeathed to the museum as well 
as contemporary American works bought with income from funds given 
by George A. Hearn. 

The Marquand Gallery, at the head of the main staircase, serves as an 
entrance hall to the painting exhibits. It contains selected masterpieces by 
Florentine, Venetian, Dutch, and Flemish masters, among them Raphael, 
Veronese, Titian, Hals, Van Dyck, and Metsu. 

The paintings in other rooms on the second floor are grouped more or 
less chronologically beginning with Italian, French, and North European 
primitives. There are examples, including two Giottesque panels, of the 
early Florentine school which broke with the rigid Byzantine tradition 
and developed the bases of the later traditions of European and American 
painting: perspective, spatial composition, atmospheric sense, and freedom 
of color. There are also works by the softer, lyrical Sienese painters, in- 
cluding Segna di Bonaventura and Pietro Lorenzetti. Among the most in- 
teresting Flemish painters are Bosch and Peter Brueghel, the Elder, whose 
fantasy, masterly drawing, and use of rhythmic patterns influence many 
artists today in the representation of mass scenes and social symbols. Cruci- 
fixion and Last Judgment, attributed to Hubert van Eyck, show the appli- 
cation of the new oil technique said to have been developed by this artist 
and his brother to supersede tempera painting. Other important painters 
in this group are Roger van der Weyden, Hugo van der Goes, Gerard 
David, and the German, Lucas Cranach. In Botticelli, Mantegna, and Pol- 






METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART 375 

laiuolo, the influence of antique sculpture and painting emphasizes line as 
the chief element in composition. 

Venetian painting is introduced by Giovanni Bellini and Carpaccio, 
whose structural and atmospheric use of color was the starting point of 
truly modern painting. Works of Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese show 
different developments of this original use of color in producing richer and 
more dramatic effects. A change in Venetian tradition is indicated in Tie- 
polo's eighteenth-century rococo ceiling painting, which may be compared 
with Pinturicchio's decoration for the ceiling of the reception hall of a 
Sienese palace. One of the small adjoining rooms contains drawings by 
Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Blake, Daumier, and others, and a collection of 
miniatures featuring the younger Holbein's portrait of Thomas Wriothes- 
ley. 

Two painters are outstanding in the Spanish collection: El Greco, 
painter of the famous View of Toledo and other renowned masterpieces, 
who, as a pupil of Tintoretto, developed his teacher's use of strong color 
and swirling line to produce the structural distortions so forceful in design 
and emotional intensity, and anticipating the planned distortions of mod- 
ern art; and Goya, whose portraits and landscapes evidence his genius for 
psychological characterization as well as for fantasy and allegory with pro- 
found social meaning. 

Among seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish painters, Rubens com- 
bines the realism of northern art with his robust personal interpretation of 
Venetian color tradition. Dutch genre, or intimate scene-painting, is repre- 
sented by Peter de Hooch and Vermeer, the latter renowned for his skillful 
application of light to textures. Hals' amazing skill in the rendering of tex- 
tures and his flair for character study are seen in such portraits as that of 
Malle Babbe, a fishwife. There are numerous Rembrandts, in which may 
be studied the master's method of composing by means of light and shadow 
in order to express the interior animation of his figures. Other paintings by 
Rembrandt and Hals are in the Altman Collection in a separate wing, 
which contains also several Italian and North European primitives, in- 
cluding works by Hans Memling, a Fra Angelico Crucifixion, two Holbein 
portraits, Dutch landscapes, and the Velasquez, Philip IV. 

The next group comprises French painting of the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries. The structural Renaissance painting of Poussin and of the 
father of landscape painting, Claude Lorraine, is succeeded by the skillful 
rococo art of Boucher and by David's "classical" imitations of Republican 
Rome, spiritual model of the intellectuals of the French Revolution. 

English paintings of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries include 



376 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
those by the conventional portraitists descended from Van Dyck, Reynolds, 
and Gainsborough; and by Turner, once exaggeratedly hailed by Ruskin 
as one of the greatest artists of all time. 

Beginning with Ingres, Delacroix, Courbet, Corot, and Daumier, the 
collection of modern French art, enriched by the Havemeyer bequest, in- 
cludes most of the great masters of Impressionism and those who adopted 
its use of pure color and diffused light. There are fine examples of Manet, 
inspirer of the movement; Monet, its purest exponent; Degas, painter of 
occupations and casual day-to-day existence ; and finally Renoir and Cezanne, 
who, for their color and monumental form, rank with the world's fore- 
most painters. Recent painting is represented by the work of such diverse 
artists as Picasso, Matisse, Van Gogh, Rousseau, Pascin, and Derain placed 
face to face with Rosa Bonheur's Horse Fair, perhaps to contrast their 
paramount interest in design with the earlier romantic devotion to dra- 
matic subjects. A group of miscellaneous small oils runs the gamut from 
Constable, one of the few important English painters and an ancestor of 
Impressionism, to the pointillist Seurat, renowned for his spatial composi- 
tions. 

The water color collection includes mainly the work of American and 
French artists. 

The large collection of early American painting is historically interesting 
for the subjects of its portraits and its historical tableaux. These are fol- 
lowed by the landscapes of the Hudson River school and by works of 
George Inness, Winslow Homer, the mystic-ascetic Ryder, the realist Eak- 
ins, Whistler, and the flashy Sargent. Contemporary American painting, as 
seen in the Hearn Fund room, indicates the influence of modern European 
traditions, either academized or modified creatively in relation with the 
life and environment of the artists. 

The American Wing 

The American Wing, a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. de Forest, is 
devoted to the decorative arts of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and early 
Republican periods. On the three floors of the wing, rooms have been re- 
constructed to convey an accurate sense of the use of the various articles 
of furniture, metalwork, glass- and silverware, and of their place in the 
decorative scheme of parlors, dining-rooms, bedrooms, and tavern rooms. 
Interesting and historically significant are the great hall of the eighteenth- 
century Van Rensselaer manor house, presented by Mrs. William Bayard 
Van Rensselaer, and the assembly room from Gadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, 
Virginia, where Washington attended his last birthday ball. Most striking 



MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 377 

is the functional character of early American craftsmanship, its careful ad- 
herence to the nature of the materials used and the simple severity of its 
design. American Colonial art is one of the most original of all decorative 
styles based on classical motifs. 

Other galleries throughout the museum contain large exhibits of European 
decorative arts from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, and of glass- 
ware, sundials, clocks, and watches, as well as costumes, textiles, and laces. 

Prints 

The works of great printmakers are arranged in temporary exhibits on 
the second floor of the north wing. The museum's large collection of prints 
is in the Print Study Room, where it may be examined by visitors. Most of 
the famous graphic artists are represented, including exceptional groups of 
Rembrandt etchings, Diirer engravings and woodcuts, and examples of 
Holbein, Goya, Daumier, Blake, Meryon, and Whistler. Historic and tech- 
nical material on etching, wood block and lithographic processes is in the 
Print Study Room. The recent revival of interest in the graphic arts makes 
these collections especially valuable to both artists and students. 

To enhance the active use of its treasures, the museum offers lectures, 
gallery talks, appointments with its instructors, and other educational serv- 
ices. Copying and photographing of exhibits are permitted. Members of 
the museum may attend special courses; courses for teachers and talks for 
pupils in public schools, and story hours for children are also given. An 
auditorium seating 450 persons and five classrooms are in use. An exten- 
sive library contains books for reference and photographs, and lantern 
slides and other material may be obtained for study at a nominal rental 
through the Extension Division of the museum. 

Eight Saturday evening concerts are usually given each year during Jan- 
uary and March by a symphony orchestra under the direction of David 
Mannes, although in 1939 only the four January concerts were given. 

MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 

5th Ave., io3d to io4th St. IRT Lexington Ave. subway (local) to io3d St.; or 
5th, Madison or Lexington Ave. bus to io4th St. Hours: weekdays 10 A.M. to 5 P.M. 
(closed Tuesday), Sunday i to 5 P.M. Admission: 250 Monday, other days free. 
Sunday lectures, November to March at 4 P.M. 

This is New York's Family Album. With painstaking candor, it reveals 
the city's past in both its raw and decorous aspects. New Yorkers are 



378 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
fond of this place ; they come in large numbers and pass through it slowly, 
impressed and often amused, as if they were thumbing the pages of their 
own plush-covered book. 

The museum opened in 1923 in the old Gracie Mansion overlooking the 
East River at East Eighty-eighth Street. Its present home, built in 1931-2 
on land provided by the city, faces Central Park at Fifth Avenue between 
1 03d and iO4th Streets. Funds for construction were raised by private sub- 
scription. Income for maintenance is derived from four sources: city ap- 
propriations, endowments, admission fees, and contributions. 

The five-story building, designed by Joseph H. Friedlander, the prize- 
winning architect, is a good example of the modern adaptation of Georgian 
Colonial architecture. The central section, set back from the building line 
and flanked by two wings, is executed in red brick, trimmed with white 
marble. An approach of veined white marble leads to the marble-faced main 
entrance, above which are four Ionic columns supporting a pediment. To 
the right and left of the entrance walk are small gardens backed by loggias 
along the projecting wings. The building's chaste interior, with its exqui- 
sitely designed rooms, in cream or light gray tones, and floors for the most 
part of marble, inset with medallion shapes and borders of contrasting 
black stone, is characteristic of a mansion of the Federal period. The semi- 
circular entrance hall has a handsome marble floor, a brilliant chandelier, 
and a curved flying staircase of unusual grace, with marble steps and 
wrought-iron railings. 

The first floor is mainly devoted to historical galleries. The J. Clarence 
Davies Gallery in the north wing traces the growth of the city from an In- 
dian village to a fair-sized town at the close of the Revolutionary War; 
while the Altman Foundation Gallery in the south wing continues the ac- 
count of the city's development from the Federal period to the present. 
Miniature groups picture events and scenes of the past, including the pur- 
chase of Manhattan Island, 1626 ; Stone Street, 1659 ; the surrender of New 
Amsterdam, 1664; the inauguration of Washington, 1789 ; Bowling Green, 
1831 reaching, dramatically, to the construction of the Empire State Build- 
ing in 1930. Both galleries have many rare and interesting prints and docu- 
ments of bygone New York; and objects reminiscent of its history, such as 
a Dutch sleigh, a horse-drawn streetcar, and the tallyho coach. 

Dutch furniture and portraits and miniatures of early New Yorkers are 
displayed in the corridor of the first floor. Here is also a collection illus- 
trating the history of fires and fire fighting; it includes a mid-nineteenth- 
century fire engine and hose carriage, and a series of models displaying the 
evolution of the fire engine. On a rear terrace of the south wing, under a 



MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 379 

loggia overlooking the pleasant garden court, is a copy of the bronze Rom- 
ulus and Remus (at the Capitoline Museum), which was presented in 
1928 by the governor of Rome. 

On the second floor a room is devoted to memorabilia of George Wash- 
ington and Alexander Hamilton. In the north wing are costumes that rep- 
resent the changing fashions from the Dutch period to the end of the 
nineteenth century. In the south wing is a comprehensive collection of sail- 
boat and steamboat models, engravings of packets and merchantmen, fig- 
ureheads from old clipper ships the figurehead of the U.S.S. Constitution 
dominates the east end and a number of ships' fixtures and nautical in- 
struments ; through this collection may be traced the history of the port of 
New York. Display cases in the platform room at the head of the stairs 
show a collection of silver by New York craftsmen. Here, and throughout 
the corridors and smaller rooms, the domestic and commercial details of 
early American life are abundantly illustrated by furniture, lace, personal 
ornament, and deeds of sale. Adjoining the silver collection is a small gal- 
lery devoted to the history of the New York Stock Exchange. Photo- 
murals, documents, and models show the development of the exchange 
from 1792 to the present. 

A series of models in the Communication Gallery third floor, north 
wing illustrates the rise of communication, from the inauguration of the 
New York-Boston Post route in 1672, through the mast-and-yard method 
of barrel signals, to the development of an intricate radio system. One ex- 
hibit depicts the great blizzard of 1888, showing the wreckage sustained by 
sleet-burdened telegraph and telephone lines. Another series of models 
traces the growth of retail merchandising from the Weigh House Pier of 
1660 to early and modern examples of five-and-ten-cent stores. In the south 
wing on the same floor is recorded the architectural development of the 
city. Another room is devoted to theatrical and musical history. 

On the fourth floor are administration offices and study rooms that con- 
tain departments of costume, furniture, and silver ; prints, theater, and mu- 
sic. The material in these departments is kept in the custody of curators and 
may be examined only by appointment. The reference library has a number 
of rare manuscripts. 

On the fifth floor are a bedroom and a dressing room, typical of the 
i88o's, from the New York residence of the late John D. Rockefeller. 

Galleries in the museum, including an auditorium on the ground floor, 
are used for special exhibitions, held monthly from October to June, and 
devoted to different phases of the city's past. An important service of the 
museum is offered through the facilities of its educational department, which 



380 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

supplies guides to public and private school children as well as to adult 
groups. This department also presents a semiweekly series of motion pic- 
tures of New York; midweek illustrated lectures primarily designed for 
schoolteachers ; Saturday afternoon gallery tours for adults and story hours 
for children; and Sunday afternoon lectures by guest speakers. Member- 
ship in the junior museum club is open to any child in New York. A course 
is offered in museum educational methods in co-operation with the Board 
of Higher Education, and lecturers are supplied to schools, women's clubs, 
and other organizations. Schools may avail themselves of series of portable 
history sets, comprised of cardboard models illustrating various phases in 
New York history. 



CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 

Cathedral Parkway (uoth St.) to ii3th St., Amsterdam Ave. to Morningside 
Drive; main entrance on Amsterdam. Ave. and ii2th St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. 
subway to Cathedral Parkway (noth St.) ; or 8th Ave. (Independent) Washington 
Heights or Grand Concourse subway (local) to Cathedral Parkway (uoth St.); 
or 9th Ave. el to uoth St.; or 5th Ave. bus No. 4 to Amsterdam Ave. and uoth 
St. Guide service: Sunday after 11 A.M. and 4 P.M. services. 

St. John's has been rising, stone on stone, for almost half a century 
a pure masonry structure. Dominating Morningside Heights plateau the 
cathedral appears to grow out of the masses of jagged gneiss of which 
Manhattan Island is made. Out from the cliff emerge the seven clustered 
apsidal chapels, crowned with peaked verdigris roofs, that emphasize the 
vertical motif of the whole cathedral. From the apex of the roof a figure 
of Gabriel with his trumpet salutes the East. Eventually when the cathe- 
dral assumes its final form, the crossing tower will dominate the whole 
mass. 

The church grounds comprise eleven and a half acres. South of the 
cathedral are the synod house, St. Faith's House, the bishop's house, the 
deanery and the choir school, and the old synod house. These French and 
English Gothic buildings and the cathedral form a harmonious group. 

The ambitious plans proposed by the Right Reverend Horatio Potter in 
1872 to erect the largest church in America, began to be realized in 1892 
when his nephew and successor, Bishop Henry Codman Potter, purchased 
the present site part of the battlefield of Harlem Heights. The corner- 
stone was laid on St. John's Day, December 27, 1892. 

More than twenty million dollars has been expended in the construe- 



CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE 381 

tion (1939). Two-thirds of this was raised in a nation-wide campaign for 
funds in 1924, when contributions were solicited from all races and re- 
ligious creeds for a "place of worship for all people." John D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., a Baptist, gave five hundred thousand dollars. 

Construction has advanced in a manner comparable to that of the medie- 
val churches of northern France, with some changes in design and style, 
occasional years of idleness,, and a lack of adequate funds. The first serv- 
ice, in the crypt (beneath the choir), was held in 1899. Twelve years 
later, in 1911, the choir and the crossing were opened. The foundation 
stone of the great nave was laid in 1925, the west front was commenced 
in 1925, and the north transept in 1927. 

When completed this cathedral will be the largest church building in 
America and the largest Gothic cathedral in the world, 60 1 feet long 
and 146 feet wide at the nave and 320 feet wide at the transept. It was 
begun after plans by Heins and La Farge who envisioned a beautiful and 
.harmonious combination of elements inspired by Byzantine and early 
French and English Gothic architecture. Theirs was the general concep- 
tion of the church: a great cruciform, with a crossing (surmounted by a 
lofty tower) broad enough to seat the entire congregation. 

In 1911, both the original architects having died, the trustees decided 
to abandon the "Romanesque" design in favor of "pure Gothic," and the 
architectural firm of Cram and Ferguson was engaged. An obvious con- 
trast in styles was the result. Eventually, it is planned to alter the earlier 
parts of the cathedral so that they will conform with the later ones; and 
the finished edifice, save for certain parts of the apse and the seven 
apsidal chapels, thus will be essentially the design of one architect, Ralph 
Adams Cram. The edifice is no mere copy of any existing structure; the 
architects sought rather to create a cathedral such as might have been 
fashioned in France in the thirteenth century. 

The west front, seen from Amsterdam Avenue at ii2th Street, has 
two towers: St. Peter's (left) and St. Paul's (right) ; these will be 266.5 
feet high when completed. Its five recessed portals are adorned with figures 
of saints and prophets, martyrs and preachers that were modeled by Lee 
Lawrie and John Angel. The elaborate carving on the gold-plated bronze 
doors of the central portal, modeled by John Angel, depicts events from 
the Old and New Testaments. The doors of the other four portals are 
of teakwood from Burma. 

In the nave the alternation of great lofty clustered piers with lesser ones 
produces a singular effect of verticality and openness. These piers divide 
the nave from the spacious side aisles. The vault of the nave, 124 feet 



382 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
high, is in six parts the first of its kind in America. At the time the 
cathedral was planned, steel had not yet been proved a lasting construc- 
tion material; the architects, therefore, chose to build in stone. In the 
finished church only the framework of the roof above the stone vaulting 
will be of steel. The use of flying buttresses was also avoided because the 
architects believed that such exposed masonry would crack in the rigorous 
climate of New York. Instead, high side aisles that reached to the full 
height of the nave were employed, thus supplying the necessary buttress- 
ing for the nave vaulting and adding greatly to the general impression of 
spaciousness. 

The seven aisle bays for chapels on each side of the nave are dedicated 
to diverse subjects such as Sports, the Arts, the Labors of Man, the Medi- 
cal Profession, and the Legal Profession. Above them, where their roofs 
abut the aisle walls, runs the delicate tracery of the triforium gallery sur- 
mounted by stained-glass clerestory windows. A temporary wall now 
blocks the nave from the crossing, the choir, and high altar. 

The north and south transepts, when completed, will each be 
as wide as the nave itself. The north one, begun in 1927, will be dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the other to John the Evangelist. 

The choir, enclosed by semicircular arches, may best be seen from the 
east side of the crossing. The finials of the oak choir stalls are carved in 
the form of figures of musicians and composers of church music; these 
were modeled by Otto Jahnsen. In the presbytery is the bishop's throne, a 
lofty seat of carved oak. The pulpit, of Tennessee marble, has five princi- 
pal niches, containing scenes, in relief, from the life of Christ. Behind 
the high altar of Vermont marble is the richly carved reredos. Its central 
figure is a seven-foot representation of Christ, its size indicative of the 
scale of the cathedral. Four characters from the Old Testament are on the 
left, and four from the New Testament are on the right. 

Supporting the apse vaulting and roof, eight powerful columns of 
light-gray granite, fifty-five feet high, form a semicircle behind the sanc- 
tuary; each is a memorial. Eventually, the half -dome of the apse, which 
lacks the mosaics planned for it, will be replaced by Gothic vaulting, and 
a row of clerestory windows will extend around the upper chancel wall. 

The ambulatory separates the choir and sanctuary from the seven apsidal 
chapels, the baptistery, and the vestry room. In order, from the south side 
of the choir, the chapels are : St. James, English Gothic, by Henry Vaughn ; 
St. Ambrose, modified Renaissance, by Carrere and Hastings; St. Martin 
of Tours, early thirteenth-century Gothic, by Cram and Ferguson; St. 
Saviour, English decorated Gothic, by Heins and La Farge; St. Columba, 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 383 

Norman, by Heins and La Farge; St. Boniface, English Gothic, by Henry 
Vaughn ; and St. Ansgarius, fourteenth-century Gothic, by Henry Vaughn. 

St. Ambrose's is particularly light and graceful the one Renaissance 
feature of the cathedral. In St. Boniface's the glass is very fine, as is the 
vaulting of St. Martin's, where stands a marble figure of Joan of Arc, by 
Anna Hyatt Huntington. 

The baptistery, designed by Cram and Ferguson, is octagonal in plan, 
and is a masterly accomplishment in workmanship, detail, and symbolism. 
The font itself, fifteen feet high is of Champville marble, and its panels 
commemorate the life of John the Baptist. 

Among the many gifts to the cathedral are the twelve- foot Menorah 
lights in the sanctuary on either side of the high altar. They follow the 
design of those that stood in Solomon's Temple and are the first of their 
kind used in a Christian cathedral. A pair of teak and gold chests, in the 
Chapel of St. Saviour, were presented by the King of Siam. 

The cathedral serves the Protestant Episcopal diocese of New York 
which has in its territory 280 parishes and missions, and whose bishop is 
the Right Reverend William T. Manning. 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

n6th St. and Broadway. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway to n6th St. 

Sixty-nine buildings grouped on Morningside Heights constitute the 
main body of Columbia University, one of the oldest, largest, and best- 
known educational institutions in the country. Established "for the in- 
struction and education of youth in the learned languages, and in the 
liberal arts and sciences," Columbia has stretched the word "youth" to 
include persons of all ages, and its curriculum to embrace almost every 
field of learning. Each year some thirty thousand students come here to 
study under a faculty of about three thousand; twelve thousand students 
attend the summer session. 

Columbia College, original nucleus of the university, is still a liberal 
arts college, but around it have grown schools devoted to the study of 
medicine, law, dentistry, optometry, engineering, business, architecture, 
library service, journalism, political- science, and philosophy. Teachers Col- 
lege, Barnard College, the College of Pharmacy, 115 West Sixty-eighth 
Street, the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Columbia-Presbyterian 
Medical Center (see page 298), the New York Post-Graduate Medical 



384 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
School, 303 East Twentieth Street, and Bard College at Annandale-on- 
Hudson are independent corporations within the university. Close asso- 
ciation with Union Theological Seminary (see page 290) provides Colum- 
bia with what is virtually a theological department. 

The university is widely known for the range of its scholarship and 
scientific research, and for its liberal policy in education. The Law School 
and the Faculty of Political Science, for example, have contributed several 
professors to the "Brain Trust" of the New Deal Rexford G. Tugwell, 
Raymond Moley, A. A. Berle, Jr., and Roswell Magill as well as Joseph 
McGoldrick to the comptrollership of New York. The brown Victorian 
structures of Teachers College are in the "valley," on the block between 
Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue and i2Oth and i2ist Streets. Since 
its founding in 1886 as the College for the Training of Teachers, Teach- 
ers College has profoundly affected the development of educational tech- 
nique, and its faculty has acquired unrivaled prestige among educators. It 
was "T.C.'s" John Dewey whose instrumentalist philosophy led to the 
abandonment of authoritarian educational methods in favor of learning 
through experiment and practice. William H. Kilpatrick, a leading inter- 
preter of Dewey 's philosophy and a major influence in the progressive- 
education movement, has taught thousands of teachers from every part of 
the world. George S. Counts has stressed the relation between economics 
and education. Edward L. Thorndike, America's leading researcher in apti- 
tudes and intelligence, stimulated the adult-education movement with his 
discovery that learning capacity does not greatly diminish with age. Many 
other leaders, such as Rugg, Strayer, Mort, Engelhardt, Patty Hill, and 
Goodwin Watson, have contributed to T.C.'s pre-eminence. Many younger 
institutions are staffed with T.C. graduates. 

As laboratories for experimental high school and elementary work, 
Teachers College operates Lincoln School, 425 West 12 3d Street; Horace 
Mann School, Broadway at i2oth Street; and Horace Mann School for 
Boys, Riverdale Avenue and 252d Street, the Bronx. 

Many great minds have served the Columbia Faculties of Science and 
Philosophy. Famous in recent generations is the historical school of James 
Harvey Robinson, Charles A. Beard, James T. Shotwell, Carlton Hayes, 
Lynn Thorndike, and David S. Muzzey. Robinson and Beard resigned 
during the war and established the New School for Social Research (see 
page 139) downtown. Beard's resignation was in protest against the ex- 
pulsion of a colleague for his pacifism. Columbia faculty members have 
made numerous contributions in chemistry and physics, among them Pro- 
fessor Harold C. Urey's discovery of "heavy water" (the heavy atom or 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 385 

hydrogen isotope in water), which was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1934. 
Michael Pupin, one of America's outstanding inventors in the field of 
electricity, was at the university for many years. Franz Boas founded a 
school of anthropology at Columbia and is a leading authority on the sub- 
ject. Edward MacDowell, widely known for his songs and symphonic tone 
poems, taught at Columbia at the turn of the century. Criticism of Ameri- 
can drama has been considerably enriched by the work of Professor 
Brander Matthews, long a faculty member. Many of Matthews' students 
became playrights, critics, and novelists. The sprightly John Erskine, nov- 
elist and one of the directors of the Metropolitan Opera, was for many 
years a member of the English Department. 

Of significance are the Columbia School of Journalism, the only grad- 
uate school of its kind in the world, the School of Library Service, oldest 
and largest in the country, and the Department of Extension. The last- 
named offers an amazing variety of afternoon, evening, and Saturday morn- 
ing courses. At the Law School have been educated such men as President 
Theodore Roosevelt, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Chief Justice Charles 
Evans Hughes, and Justices Harlan Fiske Stone and Benjamin N. Cardozo 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Columbia's library, housed largely in new South Hall, is the third larg- 
est university library in the United States. It contains 1,615,000 volumes. 
Some 40,000 volumes in Avery Hall make up the largest single collection 
of books on architecture in America, and the fourth largest law library 
in the world, 200,000 volumes, is in the Law Building. 

Barnard College, named for one of the outstanding presidents of Co- 
lumbia University, Frederick A. P. Barnard, was established in 1889. At 
that time higher education for women was still considered generally to be 
unnecessary and inappropriate. Despite opposition on the part of trustees, 
faculty, and students, in 1883 Barnard succeeded in establishing at Co- 
lumbia a course for women equivalent to that offered male students, al- 
though graduates received only a specially invented degree, Bachelor of 
Humane Letters. It was not until 1889, when a separate college was estab- 
lished for them, that women were granted academic equality with men. 

Columbia was chartered as King's College October 31, 1754, although 
instruction had begun July 17, with a faculty of one preceptor, the Rev- 
erand Samuel Johnson, and a student body of eight. It was the sixth col- 
lege established in the Colonies. Classes were first held in the schoolhouse 
of Trinity Church, and Trinity provided the first campus, between Church, 
Barclay, and Murray Streets to the Hudson River (Greenwich Street), 
from the church farm. A public lottery supplied funds. From the begin- 



386 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
ning, the college was notable for its charter which established religious 
freedom for both faculty and students. Among early graduates were Alex- 
ander Hamilton (1778), Gouverneur Morris (1768), John Jay (1764), 
Robert R. Livingston (1765), and De Witt Clinton (1786). 

After the Revolutionary War, King's College was rechristened Colum- 
bia. Its progress was slow. Although the city was passing through a pros- 
perous phase, it was more fashionable to endow out-of-town colleges than 
an obscure and struggling local institution. Its position improved, how- 
ever, in 1814 when the Legislature, in response to an appeal by the trus- 
tees, granted to the college the Elgin Botanical Gardens, a tract of land 
between Forty-seventh and Fifty-first Streets, extending from Fifth Ave- 
nue to within a hundred feet of Sixth Avenue. The grant was made be- 
cause Columbia had not shared in the proceeds of a lottery the State had 
conducted for the benefit of educational institutions. The college never 
moved there as planned, but retained ownership of the property, which 
includes most of the site of Rockefeller Center (see page 340). 

So gradual was the growth of Columbia that ninety years after its found- 
ing it had but 107 students. In 1857 the college moved uptown to the 
renovated buildings of a home for the deaf and dumb on Madison Ave- 
nue between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Streets. There, by 1890, it began 
to assume some of the characteristics of a university. A steady increase in 
donations accelerated expansion to such an extent that by 1892 the insti- 
tution had i, 600 students and eighty instructors. The Morningside campus 
was occupied in 1897, and the title of the college, officially changed in 
1896 to Columbia University in the City of New York, was so approved 
by the State Legislature in 1912. 

When the present campus plan was adopted in the 1890'$, the archi- 
tects, McKim, Mead, and White, envisioned a series of small closed courts, 
formally related to one another and dominated by a great domed central 
building, Low Memorial Library. Because not all the contemplated units 
have been built, a certain diffuseness characterizes many of the present 
views. The one completed quadrangle, between Avery, Schermerhorn, and 
Fayerweather Halls and St. Paul's Chapel, does achieve the intimate, 
cloistered effect the architects intended. Little St. Paul's Chapel, built in 
1903 by Howells and Stokes, derives an altogether pleasing dignity from 
beautiful proportions and charming details. 

The Low Memorial Library, facing n6th Street, combines some of the 
grandeur of Roman structure with Greek refinement in a classic building 
that has been widely praised, although it long ago failed as a usable li- 
brary. Especial emphasis is given to the stone library by the fact that the 



THE RIVERSIDE CHURCH 387 

surrounding academic buildings are of red brick. In the older structures, 
limestone trim was wisely limited, but unrestrained use of trim in the 
more recent work detracts from the serenity of the general effect. 

The most recent buildings were not happily designed. Sixteen-story John 
Jay Hall, at the south end of the college quadrangle, is so disturbingly 
high that it destroys the harmony of the whole lower end of the campus. 
South Hall, the new library, fits badly into the group, largely because it 
clashes in scale with the near-by buildings. 

Columbia has not escaped the accusation of applying mass production 
methods to higher education, and has been called "a factory of education." 
Certainly a corporation that has six thousand employees, thirty thousand 
customers, an annual budget of more than ten million dollars, and is one 
of the largest landowners in the city, cannot avoid the appearance of an 
industry. The likeness is enhanced by the fact that a large part of the 
university's capital resources of more than $150,000,000 is invested in real 
estate and securities of railroads and large industrial corporations, and is 
supervised by directors and trustees whose names are associated with big 
business. Harvard is the only wealthier university in the country. 

It was during the presidency of Nicholas Murray Butler, who took office 
in 1902, that the university achieved its present physical and cultural di- 
mensions. Under Dr. Butler's guidance, the growth of Columbia was re- 
markable even in a period of nation-wide educational expansion. Many 
institutions, both foreign and domestic, have called him a "great liberal" 
in granting him academic honors. Some detractors have charged him with 
being a "devout servant of vested wealth." There is general agreement, 
however, that he was largely responsible for broadening the appeal of 
higher education. One of the innovations credited to him is the use of 
modern publicity methods in the field of learning. For every student en- 
rolled in Columbia when Dr. Butler became president, today there are 
seven. 



THE RIVERSIDE CHURCH 

Riverside Drive and i22d St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway to i25th St.; or 5th 
Ave. bus No. 4 to I22d St.; or Broadway surface car to i22d St. Hours: daily, 
church 9 A.M. to 5 P.M.; observation tower 10 A.M. to 5 P.M., admission 250. 

The Riverside Church, set on a commanding eminence overlooking the 
Hudson, is associated with the names of Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick, pas- 
tor since its beginning, and a member, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., whose fi- 



388 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
nancial assistance was largely responsible for the building's construction. 
Its site is the crest of a hill with a sharp drop to the east, a steep slope to 
the river on the west, and a descent into the valley crossed by West 12 5th 
Street on the north. 

Nominally a Baptist organization, the church is characterized by a lib- 
eral denominational appeal indicated, for example, in the fact that the 
Society of Friends holds services in one of its tower rooms. The Gothic- 
clothed structure houses the service and recreational units of a complex so- 
cial enterprise, with clubrooms, classrooms, nurseries, bowling alleys, a li- 
brary, a theater and gymnasium. In less than a decade since its construction 
(1929-30) it has become a community center, with some ten thousand 
people involved in its activities weekly. A full-time staff of 70, along with 
143 part-time workers, is required to assist the pastor. 

The church, designed by the firm of Allen, Pelton, and Collens, clearly 
reflects in its details the famous thirteenth-century Cathedral of Chartres, 
in northwestern France. Its completion in 1929, after a delay caused by 
a spectacular fire in the tower, was followed by violent critical debate: to 
some the architecture of the cathedral seemed "a late example of bewil- 
dered eclecticism, of cultural servitude to Europe, a travesty on thirteenth- 
century Gothic," while to others the Gothic style used was considered the 
one most appropriate for a place of worship. 

A basic criticism is that, in using modern steel construction, Gothic 
architecture is reduced to a mere shell covering the structural members. 
Thus the exterior buttresses of this church are functionally unnecessary and 
would be hopelessly inadequate if they alone supported a solid masonry 
vault. Their smallness has the effect of making the building itself seem 
smaller than it is, so that its scale is scarcely impressive, even when seen at 
close range. 

No pains were spared in the workmanship of the carving, the stained 
glass, the metalwork, and the miscellaneous details. In themselves, the dec- 
orations constitute a pictorial textbook of Biblical history. 

The building appears to be composed of two units ; the northern section, 
which houses the nave, although more than ten stories in height, is like an 
appendage attached to the tower. The latter rises from a base 100 feet 
square to a height of 392 feet, and with the belfry is approximately thirty 
stories high. The nave exterior, boldly designed with pointed buttresses and 
deeply recessed Gothic-arched rose windows, is faced with Indiana lime- 
stone. 

The design of the main entrance, or west portal, in the base of the 
tower, is based upon that of the Porte Royale at Chartres. A seated figure 



THE RIVERSIDE CHURCH 389 

of Christ, surrounded by the four symbols of the Evangelists, is carved in 
relief in the tympanum. In the concentric arches of the recessed opening are 
statues of forty-two leading personalities of science, philosophy, and re- 
ligion. South of the west portal is the chapel doorway, which, like all of 
the exterior iconography, embodies in carved stone the symbolism of the 
Nativity and the eternity of life. To the north, Angels of the Apocalypse 
are ensconsed in niches in the upper part of the apse, while the Resurrec- 
tion Angel with a trumpet is stationed on the ridge, to mark the position 
of the cross in the chancel below. At the "cloister" entrance on Claremont 
Avenue three figures above the door represent Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

The well-proportioned limestone nave is 215 feet in length, 89 feet in 
width, and 100 feet in height. The omission of many features of the usual 
Gothic plan, which ordinarily tend to make the choir appear distant, per- 
mits a large number of people to feel that they are close to the chancel. 
Suppression of a transept, and small chapels, narrow side aisles, and excep- 
tional nave width all contribute to the effect. In addition to the dark oak 
pews in the nave proper, seating is provided in the triforium gallery and in 
two galleries at the south end, accommodating 2,500 persons in all. 

The bays of the nave are designed with great simplicity, subordinating 
stonework to the sparkle of stained glass. The apse also is restrained in 
character. It consists of a decorative background of seven radiating bays 
with an ascending carved screenwork of white Caen stone. The windows, 
mosaics of colored light, grow richer toward the apse ; here delicate tracery 
enhances their graceful jambs. 

The stained-glass windows, with the possible exception of recent ones 
installed in the Cathedral of St. John the Divine (see page 380), are among 
the finest in the city. In all there are fifty-one including the two great rose 
windows above the second gallery which recount the story of the Ten Com- 
mandments and the Parables. 

The tower's twenty-two stories contain church offices, ministerial studies, 
Sunday School and club rooms and a late French Romanesque chapel, 
with a simple vault in eleventh-century style. The Laura Spelman Rocke- 
feller Memorial carillon, the largest in the world, is composed of seventy- 
two bells. Above the bells is the observation gallery, surmounted by a red 
beacon that shines at night for the guidance of airmen. 

Riverside's history dates back to the small congregation of the Stanton 
Street Church. In 1841 several hundred of its members acquired a large 
building not far from its original home and there organized a new body 
called the Norfolk Street Baptist Church. During the following seventy 



39 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

years the church moved successively to Fifth Avenue, Park Avenue, and, in 
1930, to its present site on Riverside Drive. 

TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE 

Entrances: i25th St. and 2d Ave., i22d St. and East River Drive, Manhattan; South- 
ern Blvd. and Cypress Ave., Bronx; 29th St. and 25th Ave., Astoria, Queens. IRT 
Lexington Ave. subway to i25th St. (bridge bus at Lexington Ave. and i26th St.) ; 
or IRT Pelham subway to Cypress Ave., Bronx; or IRT or BMT Astoria subway 
to 25th Ave. Toll: passenger automobiles 2 50. 

With Randall's and Ward's islands as stepping-stones, the Triborough 
Bridge strides into three boroughs Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx. 
The bridge proper, near the confluence of the Harlem and East Rivers, is 
a Y-shaped structure comprising four overwater bridges and twelve grade 
separations (or bridges over land). Its over-all elevated length of 17,710 
feet is exceeded only by that of the San Francisco-Oakland Bridge. 

Linked with fourteen miles of highway connections, it speeds traffic by 
shunting through-vehicles away from congested areas and carrying them 
swiftly across the boroughs. 

From Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, where it taps the Westchester 
County parkway system, the northern connecting route follows Eastern 
Boulevard and Whitlock Avenue for six and a quarter miles to a rein- 
forced concrete viaduct between East i32d and East i34th Streets. At that 
point an overland and overwater bridge, seven truss spans with a total 
length of i, 600 feet, crosses the Bronx Kills to Randall's Island. The cen- 
ter span, which carries two four-lane roadways and sidewalks, may be 
converted into a vertical-lift bridge if the Kills should be made navigable. 

On Randall's Island this Bronx arm of the bridge meets, at a right angle, 
the Manhattan arm in the circular swirl of under- and overpasses of what 
is probably the most ingenious traffic- sorter ever constructed. From there 
the bridge marches in a single long reach of stilted viaduct and trestle 
across Little Hell Gate and Ward's Island to turn eastward on suspension 
cables over Hell Gate (East River) to Astoria, Queens. 

No sooner does the roadway come back to earth in Astoria than it drops 
into an eight-lane depressed thoroughfare to avoid Queens cross traffic. 
Then, rising again, it follows Astoria Boulevard and Grand Central Park- 
way, skirting Flushing Bay and the World's Fair site, and more than six 
miles out in Queens, it leads into the network of Long Island State park- 
ways. 



TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE 391 

The Manhattan connecting thoroughfare starts at the foot of East 
Ninety-second Street, runs a mile and a half up the East River shore, and 
crosses the Harlem River at 12 5th Street to Randall's Island. This crossing 
consists of three truss spans, with a total length of 772 feet, and a 3io-foot 
vertical-lift bridge, the largest in the country. Electric motors in two 210- 
foot steel towers raise the lift span, with its two triple-lane roadways and 
its sidewalks, eighty feet in the air to permit the passage of large vessels. 
When it is locked, the span is fifty-five feet above the water. 

The East River suspension bridge is the largest overwater unit of the 
Triborough system. A pair of twenty-and-three-quarter-inch cables passing 
over two 31 5-foot steel towers carry eight traffic lanes to a height of 135 
feet above the river. The main span is 1,380 feet long, while the two land 
spans are each 705 feet long. Although it lacks the startling beauty of 
George Washington Bridge (see page 399), this structure has consider- 
able grace. Its twin steel towers are lighter and simpler than those of the 
George Washington (which were intended to be covered by stonework) ; 
and its mighty concrete abutments that anchor the cables clearly indicate 
their function. A striking contrast is furnished by the neighboring Hell 
Gate span of the New York Connecting Railroad Bridge ; its bold arc ex- 
presses a triumph over gravity perhaps even more forcefully than the dip- 
ping, passive catenaries of the suspension bridge. 

Triborough Bridge was begun by the Department of Plant and Struc- 
tures October 25, 1929, but work was discontinued for lack of funds in 
the spring of 1932. The Triborough Bridge Authority, which resumed 
construction in November, 1933, would have preferred to place the Man- 
hattan end at about looth Street, with the junction on Ward's Island, but 
it was then too late to shift. The Authority, however, did build part of the 
East River Drive as an approach, and so reclaimed a mile and a half of 
blighted water-front area. 

To prevent the customary degeneration of underbridge land into un- 
sightly catchalls, these parts of the Triborough right of way were land- 
scaped as parks and playgrounds. At the Astoria end a large riverside park 
includes a mammoth outdoor swimming pool as well as shady walks and 
play spaces. On Randall's Island two old institutions, the Children's Hos- 
pital and the House of Refuge, were razed and the whole island was trans- 
formed into a recreation park around a great municipal stadium. These 
were made accessible from the bridge. Under the Manhattan ramps at 
1 2 4th Street another large recreation field was built. When the Manhattan 
State Hospital is removed, Ward's Island will also become park area. 

The bridge was opened for traffic July n, 1936. Of the total cost of 



392 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
$60,300,000, New York City appropriated $16,100,000, while the Fed- 
eral Public Works Administration made a grant of $9,200,000 and bought 
$35,000,000 of bonds. In 1937 these bonds were bought back from the 
Government and were refinanced by direct sale to the public. 

To the motorist, the Triborough Bridge brings an exhilarating freedom 
from congestion and stop lights that is worth much more than the toll 
charge. He must pass but one toll point, and he never crosses the path of 
another vehicle at grade. 

To the pedestrian, the bridge offers one of the most spectacular high- 
level walks in the country. In recommending that walkers start from the 
Astoria end, Lewis Mumford wrote: "Here is one of the few places . . . 
where one can see New York across a foreground of verdure and water 
and it must be counted one of the most dazzling urban views in the 
world." 

HARLEM RIVER HOUSES 

I5ist to 1 5 3d St., Macomb's Place to Harlem River. IRT Lenox Ave. subway to 
I45th St.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) Grand Concourse subway (local) to i55th 
St.-8th Ave.; or 9th Ave. el to ijist St.; or $th Ave. bus No. 2 to i52d St. 

In New York City's most overcrowded community, Harlem where Ne- 
groes pay as much as 50 per cent of their incomes for rent, where the rent 
party is an institution, and where the "hot bed" serves three shifts of 
sleepers a day are the Harlem River Houses, a group of apartment build- 
ings that provide more sunlight, fresh air, and certain other advantages 
of good housing than the residences of fashionable Park Avenue. 

Built in 1937 by the Federal Administration of Public Works, Housing 
Division, the project is a recognition in brick and mortar of the special 
and urgent needs of Harlem, and the first large-scale modern housing com- 
munity made available for low-income Manhattan residents at rents they 
can afford. The houses, a $4,500,000 development, are occupied by 574 
Negro families paying rents ranging from $19.28 to $31.42 a month. This 
development of nine acres (.014 square mile) indicates what may be the 
solution for 4.4 square miles of Manhattan housing condemned as unfit for 
human habitation. As a first effort of the present national housing pro- 
gram it has exerted a great influence on the future of that program; and 
it is significant not only as a step toward solving the problem of the "ill- 
housed one-third," but also toward raising the housing standards of high- 
income groups. Indicative of the wide influence of the Federal Govern- 



HARLEM RIVER HOUSES 393 

meat's housing program is the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's 
proposed large-scale apartment house development in the Bronx. 

The layout of the Harlem River Houses is a testimonial to the designers' 
ingenuity in mastering a difficult site. With i5ist Street as the base, the 
plot is the shape of a trapezoid split a little to the east of center by Sev- 
enth Avenue. One Hundred and Fifty-second Street, closed to traffic, di- 
vides the western portion. The architects Archibald Manning Brown in 
association with Charles F. Fuller, Horace Ginsbern, Frank J. Forster, Will 
Rice Amon, Richard W. Buckley, and John Louis Wilson contrived a 
pleasing, harmonious arrangement that retains a maximum of useful open 
area. There are three separate groups of buildings each group composed 
of Z-, T-, and L-shaped sections two west of Seventh Avenue and one 
east. The east group, designed in relation to the Harlem River, has a more 
rambling plan than the other two, which are separated by the 15 ad Street 
axis and fall into a graciously formal pattern. The western buildings are 
arranged in a quiet manner around a large rectangular plaza that forms 
a center for the development and makes it seem more spacious. 

The details of the general plan are equally fortunate. A wide playground 
and park border the Harlem River ; while for the use of the younger chil- 
dren there is an ingenious sunken playground in each half of the plaza. 
The landscaping, supervised by Michael Rapuano, and the sculptures, by 
Heinz Warnecke, with the assistance of T. Barbarossa, R. Barthe, and F. 
Steinberger, are excellent. Minor courts are liberally planted, but the well- 
trodden areas, save for the through paved paths, are laid with cobble- 
stones. The landscaped sloping eastern court, leading first to an amphi- 
theater, and then to the playgrounds, presents an especially pleasing aspect. 
The Seventh Avenue court of this eastern group has a statue of two play- 
ful bear cubs, carved of black basalt. A sunken fountain area in the center 
of the large plaza has a group of four black basalt penguins, each digging 
under a wing with its nib. At the southern end of the plaza is a statue of 
a Negro laborer, while at the opposite end is a group depicting domes- 
ticity: mother and child with a dog. These pieces of statuary, ideally suited 
for their setting, are carved of pink and black marble. 

The site of the Harlem River Houses was purchased from the Rocke- 
feller estate for one million dollars. Made of a pleasant red brick, most of 
the buildings have four stories and basement. All are equal in height, for 
those on lower levels of the terrain have an additional story. The glass en- 
closed stairshafts rising above the entrance doors accent the simple pattern 
formed by wide and ample room windows. There is very little trim and 
the impression of the whole is one of charming simplicity. A certain care- 



394 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
lessness, however, is evident in the material and design of the surface de- 
tail. In the words of T. F. Hamlin's enthusiastic article in Pencil Points, 
"The whole, in detailing, looks tired as if the creative drive and the 
creator's pleasure, which had sailed so triumphantly through the period of 
general planning and design, had suddenly failed when it came to the last, 
completing touches. Harlem River Homes is so generally beautiful that 
one longs for it to be perfect. What might have been great architecture is 
merely very good." 

Sixty of the 574 apartments have two rooms with kitchenette; 259 have 
three rooms, 232 have four rooms, and 23 have five rooms. Each apart- 
ment has electric refrigeration and lighting, steam heat, ample closet space, 
steel casement windows, and a tiled bath; each has cross ventilation. The 
structural division of the buildings, with no more than four apartments 
opening on any hallway, insures privacy and quiet. Lewis Mumford has 
declared that "in essentials of plan and arrangement, these quarters are su- 
perior to any comparable area of residential apartments in the city." 

A share in a community life is made possible for each tenant by such 
facilities as four social halls for adult use, a nursery school for children of 
working mothers, a health clinic operated by the New York City Depart- 
ment of Health, community laundries, and rooms for indoor play. A resi- 
dents' association promotes group social and cultural activities. 

Only Negroes from substandard dwellings are accepted as tenants, and 
no family is admitted that has an income amounting to more than five 
times the rent. Another rule requires reasonable proof of an applicant's 
continuing ability to pay his rent. Thus relatively few Harlem families are 
eligible. The average income per family derived from the work of more 
than one wage earner in Harlem River Houses is about $1,350. Sixty per 
cent of the working tenants are unskilled, while n.6 per cent are semi- 
skilled. 

Forty-five per cent of the development's cost was granted outright by the 
Federal Government; 55 per cent is to be repaid over a period of sixty 
years. The houses are operated by the New York City Housing Authority 
which leases the project from the United States Housing Authority. 

Transcending the physical aspects of the development are the social, and 
one item in the first year's record spoke eloquently: not a single case of 
delinquency or crime or social disorder was reported for Harlem River 
Houses. Apartments and courts were maintained with scrupulous care by 
young and old. A compact, progressive community had emerged, and its 
very success made the plight of the less fortunate residents of Harlem 
seem by contrast more bitter than ever. 



WASHINGTON HEIGHTS MUSEUM GROUP 395 

WASHINGTON HEIGHTS MUSEUM GROUP: MUSEUM 
OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN AMERICAN GEOGRAPH- 
ICAL SOCIETY HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA 
AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY AMERICAN ACAD- 
EMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS 

Broadway, 15 5th to i56th St. IRT Broadway-yth Ave. subway to ijyth St.; or 8th 
Ave. (Independent) Washington Heights subway to 15 5th St. 
Museum of the American Indian. Hours: weekdays 2 to 5 P.M., closed Sunday and 
holidays; also closed during July and August. Admission free. 

American Geographical Society. Reference library only. Hours: weekdays 9 A. M. to 
4:45 P.M., closed Sunday, holidays, and Saturday from June to August. Admission 
free. 

Hispanic Society of America. Hours: weekdays 10 A.M. to 4:30 P.M., Sunday and 
holidays i to 5 P.M., closed Thanksgiving and Christmas. Admission free. 
American Numismatic Society. Hours: daily 2 to 5 P.M., closed holidays. Admis- 
sion free. 

American Academy of Arts and Letters. Hours (November to May) : weekdays 
10 A.M. to 5 P.M., Sunday and holidays 2 to 5 P.M. Admission free. 

Occupying land that in the nineteenth century was part of John James 
Audubon's estate are buildings housing five of the nation's most distin- 
guished museums and learned societies. This cultural center on Washington 
Heights came into being through the liberality of Archer M. Huntington, 
who inherited the fortune amassed by his father, Collis P. Huntington, 
railroad magnate and developer of the Newport News Shipbuilding Com- 
pany. The son, a poet and scholar, founded thirteen museums. The first 
of the Washington Heights group, the Hispanic Society of America, was 
founded in 1904. The building program extended over the next two decades. 

The buildings face a court opening on Broadway. The entrance is 
flanked by twin buildings the Museum of the American Indian to the 
south, and the home of the American Geographical Society to the north. 
Adjacent to the latter is the north building of the Hispanic Society of 
America, while directly opposite, adjoining the former, is the south build- 
ing of the Hispanic Society ; and farther to the west is the headquarters of 
the American Numismatic Society. The architect was Charles Pratt Hunt- 
ington, a nephew of Archer M. Huntington. He died in 1919, having 
completed all the buildings except the two housing the American Academy 
of Arts and Letters at the western end of the court. These were designed 
by Cass Gilbert (north building) and McKim, Mead, and White (south). 
Huntington evidently planned a monumental composition symmetrically 
balanced on the axis of the Hispanic Society buildings, and while the court 



396 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
and central plaza are good, the buildings are so poorly related to each other 
that the effect is sadly weakened. Particularly awkward is the intrusion of 
the Church of Our Lady of Esperanza, also designed by Huntington. 
The original conception was further disrupted by the addition of the 
American Academy buildings, which tend to lengthen the already 
narrow court and which do not appropriately close the court. The main 
f agades of the buildings face the court, and their rear elevations seen 'from 
the side streets are unimpressive and dull. 

On the other hand, several of the individual buildings are quite fine, 
notably the south building of the Hispanic Society, whose well accented 
doorway and lovely interior arcade are free adaptations from Spanish 
Renaissance architecture. All the buildings are of Indiana limestone with 
the exception of the one housing the Numismatic Society. It was made 
entirely of concrete embodying a design for which the architect was 
knighted by King Alfonso XIII. 

The Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation 

The Foundation is the only organization in the world devoted solely to 
the collection and preservation of cultural material relating to the aborig- 
ines of the Western Hemisphere. The museum's nucleus was a collection 
from New Mexico brought to New York in 1903 and installed in the 
home of George C. Heye, the institution's founder. 

Although the museum attracts a great number of nonprofessional visi- 
tors, its exhibits are arranged chiefly for students of anthropology, archae- 
ology and ethnology. Displays on the first floor are devoted to North 
American Indians and Eskimo tribes. Material relating to the former is 
also found on the second floor which features the culture of the Northwest 
Coast, California, and the Southwest desert. The third floor is occupied by 
exhibits from Mexico, the West Indies, and Central and South America. 

The collections present evidence of the close relation between material 
and spiritual culture in primitive life. Practical implements for achieving 
certain ends are placed beside magical and symbolic devices presumed to 
assist or to be equally effective in bringing them about. Ingenious hunting 
and fishing weapons, decoys, and traps are shown next to the bead, stone, 
and feather charms, and talismans whose power is not questioned so long 
as the fish bite and the deer fall. 

Outstanding events in the life of nature and mankind the change of 
seasons, sowing and harvest, birth, marriage, and death are emphasized 
in the hundreds of religious objects and symbols employed in celebration 
or memorial rites. These include costumes for corn and antelope dances, 




GEORGE WASHINGTON, UNION SQUARE 




COLUMBUS CIRCLE 



METROPOLIS (Union Square 



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FEEDING THE DUCKS (Central Park] 



CENTRAL PARK AT NIGHT 




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CLUBHOUSE, COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA (Smith's Folly) 




GAS PLANT (Fourteenth Street near East River) 




HARLEM RIVER 



HELL GATE BRIDGE 





THE SOCIAL GRACES 




MUSEUM GUARD 




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OUTDOOR LIBRARY (Bryant Park) 



STAMPEDE 



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WASHINGTON HEIGHTS MUSEUM GROUP 397 
thunderbird jewelry, holiday and funeral masks, Kachina dolls, and images 
of the dead with feathers on their shoulders to insure their flight to heaven. 

Particularly interesting are evidences of the great cultures of Mexico, 
Guatemala, and Peru, which, in some respects, paralleled the early city- 
states of the Near East and the Mediterranean. Examples of sculpture, mo- 
saic, and metal work, including gold and silver, are especially fine. The 
preoccupation of the Aztecs with death ritual is evident in sacrificial altars 
and figures of gods whom human blood might appease. Other interesting 
and beautiful objects are: a mammoth canoe of the Northwest Coast used 
for whale hunting ; totem and house posts from Alaska ; buffalo-hide shields 
of the Plains Indians; woven costumes from Central America, and native 
water colors of the hunt and ceremonials. Among the models of typical In- 
dian villages and settlements is one of the Manhattan Indians. 

A curious feature is a collection of human heads that have been shrunk 
to the size of oranges by the Jivaro Indians of Ecuador. This treatment is 
reserved for enemies. According to M. W. Stirling, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, "the reduced heads, when skillfully made, are exact miniatures 
of their former selves." 

The museum's display collection is supplemented by material at its study 
and storage annex, Eastern Boulevard and Middletown Road (see page 
547 ), the Bronx, where all the specimens are available for closer study to 
properly accredited students. Its extensive library is maintained on deposit 
at Huntington Free Library and Reading Room, 9 Westchester Square, the 
Bronx. 

The American Geographical Society 

This society, founded in 1852 and the oldest geographical society in the 
United States, is devoted to research in geography and the maintenance of 
a library and map collection open to public use. Its library of more than 
one hundred thousand volumes and its collection of nearly an equal num- 
ber of maps and atlases are the largest of their kind in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. 

The society publishes books, maps, and a quarterly periodical, the Geo- 
graphical Review. Included in its program of research in the geography of 
Hispanic America is the production of a great map (to be completed in 
107 sheets) on which a large staff has been working for the past eighteen 
years. The department of mathematical geography is engaged in research 
into methods of geographical survey, particularly in mapping by aerial 
photography. The society has also engaged in studies of problems of pio- 
neer settlement throughout the world, and of the geography of the polar 



398 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
regions. It has sponsored a number of recent arctic and antarctic expedi- 
tions, and has aided them in planning their work, and through the loan of 
instruments. The society is interested in the geographical aspects of inter- 
national relations, and has contributed notably to negotiations leading to 
the settlement of a number of boundary controversies in Hispanic America, 
including the Guatemala-Honduras, Bolivia-Paraguay, and Chile-Peru dis- 
putes. 

The Hispanic Society 

This society, an educational institution devoted to advancement of the 
study of Spanish and Portuguese culture, has, in addition to its large li- 
brary, containing many original manuscripts and first editions, an extensive 
collection of documentary and artistic material of the highest quality. 

The influence of the various conquerors on the culture of the Iberian 
Peninsula is clearly indicated in the exhibits: that of the Romans, in sculp- 
ture and pottery; of the Moors, in textiles and metal work; and of the 
Christians, in Gothic and Renaissance art. Conversely, the story of Spain 
as conqueror is told in numerous documents, maps, charts, and globes re- 
lating to the voyages and triumphs of its explorers. 

The main collection of paintings is chiefly housed in a gallery encircling 
the principal hall. Velasquez, whose realism lifted him far above contem- 
porary court painters of the seventeenth century, is well represented. Mas- 
terpieces by El Greco, together with the work of members of his school, 
are exhibited. Among other Renaissance painters shown are Moro, Morales, 
and Ribera. Intimate and official portraits by Goya illustrate his capacity 
for profound observation and biting description. A prized possession is an 
excellent study in oil, made for his great painting, Third of May, which 
depicts the massacre of Madrilenos by Napoleon's troops under Mu- 
rat. In one of the smaller rooms on the second floor, along with numerous 
modern water colors, are examples of his Caprices, graphic works in which 
Goya makes use of allegory and fantasy to satirize the society of his time. 

A separate gallery on the ground floor is devoted to large, mural-size 
canvases by Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, depicting life in the various prov- 
inces of Spain. A collection of modern Spanish painting is on the second 
floor in the north building. The equestrian statue of the Spanish hero, El 
Cid, in the court, is the work of Anna Hyatt Huntington, wife of Archer 
M. Huntington. 

The American Numismatic Society 

This society, a membership and museum organization, was founded in 



GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 399 

1858, for those interested in the art and history of coins, medals, and dec- 
orations. Its library and exhibits are, however, open to the public. 

Among the objects on display, many were executed by the most skilled 
metal craftsmen and artists of their time and their beauty is impressive. 
The coinage of the United States is emphasized. Historical exhibits include 
pieces struck in the eastern provinces of Rome to finance the war of Brutus 
against Anthony, emergency currency employed during the siege of Nether- 
lands cities, and coins of large denomination issued in California during 
the great gold rush. In the large hall are military and civil medals and 
decorations of all nations, and memorial plaques issued by the society it- 
self. 

The American Academy of Arts and Letters 

The nation's closest approximation of I'Academie jran$aise is the Amer- 
ican Academy of Arts and Letters, founded in 1904 by the National Insti- 
tute of Arts and Letters. The institute, which also has its headquarters 
in the same buildings, was organized in 1898 by the American Social 
Science Association to further art, music, and literature in America. 

The academy's members, limited to fifty, are elected for notable achieve- 
ment in the arts. William Dean Howells, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Ed- 
mund Clarence Stedman, John La Farge, Samuel L. Clemens, John Hay 
and Edward MacDowell were the first chosen. The museum contains a 
permanent display of sculpture, paintings, manuscripts, and other memora- 
bilia of members of both the academy and the institute. 

The academy possesses one of the finest small auditoriums in the city, 
entered from 15 6th Street. Designed by Cass Gilbert, it excels in general 
arrangement and in the treatment of its detail. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 

Fort Washington Ave. and 179th St., Manhattan, across Hudson River to Fort Lee, 
N. J. IRT Broadway-7th Ave. subway to iSist St.; or 8th Ave. (Independent) 
Washington Heights subway to iSist St.; or 5th Ave. bus No. 4 to iy8th St. 
Toll: passenger automobiles 5O0, pedestrians 50. 

From a distance, George Washington Bridge, most splendid of all 
Manhattan bridges, is a silver arc above the broad steely plane of the 
Hudson. Up close the mighty span, linking upper Manhattan and Fort 
Lee, N. J., dominates the whole setting: the Palisades, the new brick and 
stone walls of the Riverside cliff dwellers, the wide flood of the river. 



400 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 

Its two great towers, cables, and roadway combine in a form that is 
graceful, simple, and extraordinarily effective. The design, a superb engi- 
neering concept, is based upon function in all its parts, with the excep- 
tion of the steel arches of the towers arched openings are expressions 
of masonry rather than of steel construction. As a matter of fact, the 
towers were originally intended to be encased in stone, but it is more than 
probable that this will never be done. Until completion of the San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Bay and Golden Gate bridges the George Washington was 
the longest suspension structure in the world, with a channel span length 
of 3,500 feet and a total over-all length of 4,760 feet between anchorages. 
The deck of the bridge, about 115 feet in width and about 250 feet above 
mean high water, is suspended from four cables. It has two separate road- 
ways (each with three lanes) for east- and westbound traffic, and space in 
the center for three additional lanes to meet future traffic demands. Pro- 
vision has been made for a deck twenty-nine feet below the present one 
either for additional motor traffic, especially busses, or for interstate rail- 
way rapid transit service. 

The four steel cables, each composed of 26,474 parallel wires, are three 
feet in diameter and are arranged in pairs on each side of the roadway. 
Cable sag at the center of the channel span with the present single deck is 
316 feet. 

The cables are carried by saddles on top of two steel towers, some 600 
feet above the river (about twice the height of the Palisades at the Fort Lee 
end). Each saddle rests on a bed of forty-one eight-inch diameter steel 
rollers, bolted to the flanges of steel grillage girders that keep the cables 
clear of the tops of the towers and help to distribute the load to the tower 
columns. 

The New York anchorage is a U-shaped concrete block. The maximum 
pull of each cable is 62,000,000 pounds. The anchorage is to have a gran- 
ite facing, similar to that used in the Henry Hudson Parkway structures. 

Built, owned, and operated by the Port of New York Authority, the 
bridge is a part of the complex system of transport routes by which the 
nation's busiest island seeks to solve its traffic problems. Completed in 
1931, it is linked with Manhattan's marginal highway by a series of ex- 
tensive approaches which also provide a passage to Long Island by way of 
the Triborough Bridge. It also connects with US i, 46, and 9W at the Jer- 
sey end and with US i and 9 at the Manhattan end. During 1937 approx- 
imately 8,000,000 vehicles paid toll to cross the bridge, and for the same 
period the gross income amounted to about $4,700,000. The total cost of 
the bridge, including rights-of-way, was about $60,000,000. O. H. Am- 



SUBWAYS AND ELS 401 

mann of the Authority was the chief engineer and designer ; Cass Gilbert, 
the architect, served in an advisory capacity. 

On clear days the view eastward from the bridge includes a good part of 
Manhattan. Riverside Drive and the Henry Hudson Parkway, with their 
constant stream of cars, are directly below; Fort Washington and Fort 
Tryon parks skirt the drives. To the south the ribbons of Manhattan's 
highways are lost in the thickening cluster of roofs. The funnels of great 
ocean-going liners in the Hudson River docks, the smoking chimneys of 
New Jersey industrial towns, the play of the sun about the Himalayan 
towers of Manhattan are easily discernible. 

At night the clear outline of the bridge fades into a fantasy of moving 
and twinkling lights above the Hudson, while atop the eastern tower the 
million-candlepower Rogers-Post Memorial Beacon sweeps its reassuring 
light across fifty miles of darkened sky. 



SUBWAYS AND ELS 

New York's subway and elevated lines carry about two billion passen- 
gers a year over a 281 -mile network of main and branch lines in Manhat- 
tan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx (see subway and el map in pocket). 
The gaunt trestle-work of the els brings twilight to miles of streets, the 
tunnels of the subways honeycomb rocks and rivers and skyscrapers. Their 
trains are the first things a good many New Yorkers observe in the morn- 
ing and the last things a good many more remember at night. 

Subways 

About 5,500,000 passengers are carried daily by the three subway sys- 
tems. Tens of thousands more ride the Hudson Tubes (Hudson and Man- 
hattan Railroad) connecting New Jersey and Manhattan. The bulk of this 
traffic is borne between eight and nine in the morning and five and six in 
the evening when the crowd of workers moves to and from the business 
centers of Manhattan. 

Typical of mid-town and lower Manhattan's rush-hour is the morning 
crush at IRT's station at Grand Central. While a crowd of commuters just 
arrived from the suburbs over New York Central and New Haven trains is 
storming the turnstiles on its way to downtown offices, a greater crowd from 
the city is pushing the stiles in the other direction, bound for work in the 
Grand Central district. These intent and humorless hordes cover uptown 
and downtown platforms, choke narrow stairways, swamp change-booths, 



402 MANHATTAN: MAJOR POINTS OF INTEREST 
wrestle with closing train doors. Crowds well up from the Queens trains 
on the lower subway level by way of elevators, escalators, stairways, and 
graded corridors. Nickels jingle, signal bells clang, turnstiles bang until 
the faint thunder of footsteps on the wooden passageway connecting 
the Lexington Avenue lines with the Times Square-Grand Central 
shuttle sounds human and restful. And through it all trains arrive and 
depart, delivering and removing crowds, lifting gum-papers and clouds 
of dust, and jarring the sidewalks, buildings, and windows of the city 
above. 

Beneath the sidewalks of New York the subways have created a second 
city. Some of the thoroughfares between the turnstiles and the streets have 
lunch counters, barbershops, shoeshine stands, florist shops, phone booths. 
Through the use of these facilities the New Yorker could live a rather 
rounded life without once venturing into the street. He could, for ex- 
ample, stay at the Commodore Hotel, transact business in the Chrysler 
Building, dine at the Cafe Savarin, shop at Bloomingdale's, swim in the 
indoor pool at the Hotel St. George in Brooklyn, see a movie at the 
Rialto Theatre and, if romance came his way, marry at the Municipal 
Building. A few of the homeless use the subway as a flophouse and dur- 
ing the worst winters of the 1930'$ large numbers of unemployed lived 
here for days. 

The three subway systems represent a total investment of $1,650,- 
000,000, more than half of which has come from the city treasury. These 
systems are the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT), Brooklyn-Manhattan 
Transit (BMT), and Eighth Avenue (Independent). The IRT (station 
entrances marked by blue lamps) has two major trunk lines: Broadway- 
Seventh Avenue line, which runs under Manhattan's West Side; Lexing- 
ton Avenue line, which runs under the East Side. These lines are 
connected in the mid-town area by a shuttle service under Forty-second 
Street between Times Square and Grand Central Terminal. Another main 
trunk line known as the Queens line originates at Times Square and runs 
east under Forty-second Street and the East River to Long Island City 
where it forks one branch extending north through Astoria and another 
northeast to Flushing. Branches of the two major trunks also serve Brook- 
lyn and the Bronx. The BMT (green and white lamps) was originally 
built to connect distant parts of Brooklyn with lower Manhattan, but now 
runs as far north as Sixtieth Street and the East River in Manhattan, and 
also extends into Queens. The Eighth Avenue (Independent) subway sys- 
tem (green lamps), the most modern of the subways, serves the West 



SUBWAYS AND ELS 403 

Side and Lower East Side of Manhattan and runs into Brooklyn, Queens, 
and the West Bronx. Owned and operated by the city of New York, and 
one of the largest ventures in public ownership and control in the world, 
the Independent cost more than seven hundred million dollars. 

London witnessed the operation of an underground railway in 1853. 
Seventeen years later, in New York, a pneumatic-driven railroad car made 
a trial run in a one-block tunnel extending under Broadway from Warren 
to Murray Street. With this demonstration as proof of the practicability of 
subways, E. A. Beach, the promoter, sought permission from the city to 
construct a line from lower Broadway to the Bronx. While the citizens 
were solidly behind the plan, petitioning public officials and even march- 
ing in a torchlight parade to emphasize their support, Beach had to con- 
tend with the skepticism of Broadway property owners, and the venture 
failed. When plans for the first IRT line (from City Hall to West 1451*1 
Street) were announced in 1900, Russell Sage remarked: "New York 
people will never go into a hole in the ground to ride . . . Preposterous!" 

In 1904 the first line was opened running from Brooklyn Bridge north 
to Grand Central Station, then west under Forty-second Street to Times 
Square