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GIFT or 

GIFT or 





Isstwd under the Authority of the Hon. JAMES UcGOWAH, 
Minister of Mines. 

Kdited by p. GALVIN, Secrktary Mining Burkau, 

Editor of " Th$ Handbook of New Zealand Mines, IftST." 

i«v authority: JOH:f mackay, oovkknmw^t printkk. 



■■ f- 




Private Secretary : C. E. Matthews. 

Under-Secretary for Mines : T. H. Hamek. 
Inspecting Engineer : Frank Bbed, M.I.M.E. 
Government Geologist : A. McKay, F.G.S. 
Chief Clerk : H. E. Badcliffb. 
Secretary Mining Bareau : P. Galvin. 


Northern Mining District : Jambs Coutts, Thames ; Assist- 
ant, Boyd Bbnnib, Waihi. 

Marlborough, Nelson, and West Coast: B. Tennbnt, 
Westpon ; Assistant, A. H. Bichabds. 

Southern Mining District : E. B. Green, Dunedin ; Assist- 
ant, B. McIntosh. 

Managing Agent : A. MacDouoall, Wellington. 
Chief Depot Agent : W. C. Gasquoine. 
Manager Point Elizabeth State Colliery : J. Bishop, 

Manager Seddonville State Coal-mine: T. Murray. 
Consulting Engineer: H. A. Gordon, A.M.I.C.E. 

Colonial Analyst: J. S. Maclaurin, D.Sc, F.C.S. 

Director: J. Mackintosh Brll, M.A., Ph.D., F.B.G.S. 


Some twenty years having elapsed since the pub- 
lication of "The Handbook of New Zealand 
Mines," it has been deemed fitting at the present 
time, when New Zealand is embarking on the 
largest Exhibition of her industries in the history 
of the colony, to give a review of its metalliferous 
and mineral resources. 

The writers who have contributed to this 
Handbook are principally men who have had a 
long and intimate association with the mining 
industry, and whose sole aim is to present a 
truthful picture of what has been accomplished 
in the past, and to denote where combinations of 
capital, labour, professional skill, and business 
capacity may secure the rewards of enterprise 
in the future. 

There is no desire to create what is generally 
termed a "mining boom," for nothing has been 
more disastrous to mining as an industrial under- 
taking than the undue inflation of shares in 
limited and no-liability companies on the Stock 
Exchanges. But as long as gold-mining is car- 
ried out on the same lines as coal or iron mining, 
woollen or cotton manufacturing, it is just as 


legitimate an enterprise, and far more likely than 
most other undertakings to give an adequate re- 
turn on the capital expended. 

It is often asserted that every ounce of gold 
extracted from alluvial or river workings, or 
quartz-mines, while intrinsically worth about £4, 
costs at least double that amount. That, however, 
is a very superficial way of looking at the matter, 
and is far from being borne out by actual facts. 
It is the manipulation of the share-market, at 
periods of undue excitement and inflation, that 
adds to the cost of the ounce of gold; the extra 
cost, where it does occur, is due to " mining " on 
the kerbstone or on an office-stool, not to the miner 
who works underground, or to the millman or 
cyanide-worker on the surface. 

A perusal of this work will, I feel assured, 
tend to dissipate the idea that the extraction of 
gold means a loss, instead of a gain, to the colony. 
Four companies in the Hauraki Mining District 
paid upwards of £400,000 in dividends during the 
past year, and one company (the Waihi) has dis- 
bursed upwards of £2,000,000 in dividends. The 
group of mines worked under the management of 
the Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand, at 
Reef ton, have paid £125,487 in dividends, as 
against a subscribed capital of £242,378; while 
the Progress Mines of New Zealand — an offshoot 
of the Consolidated Goldfields — has disbursed in 
dividends £226,875, against a working-capital of 
£50,000. The Keep-it-Dark Mine, Reefton, has 


paid £145,666 in dividends, or at the rate of 
£7 5s. 8d. per share, while only £6,208, or at the 
rate of 6s. 2id. per share, has been called up. 
These results have been attained by skilful min- 
ing, combined with the highest metallurgical and 
mechanical skill in the treatment of the ore and 

Gold-dredging has suffered much in public 
estimation owing to the undue inflation of shares; 
yet during the past year the companies listed on 
the Dunedin Stock Exchange paid £102,446 in 
dividends, and some of the companies have re- 
turned to their shareholders phenomenal divi- 
dends as compared with the capital invested. 
The Electric Company paid £116,350, against 
a paid - up capital of £26,000 ; the Hartley 
and Riley Company, £79,625, against £6,300 in 
calls; the Manuherikia, £26,700, against £6,000; 
the Golden Gate, £23,250, against £2,500; the 
Moa, £22,700, against £6,000; the Pactolus, 
£20,937, against £8,125; the Matau, £15,225, 
against £6,200; the Perseverance, £13,500, 
against £1,500; the Otago, £11,875, against 
£2,000. Altogether, sixty-eight gold-dredging 
companies and parties which furnished infor- 
mation for the Mining Handbook paid in divi- 
dends £528,322, against a called-up capital of 
£332,490. But many of the most prosperous 
dredges are privately owned, and the proprietors 
in some instances preferred not to supply the 
desired information as to dividends, whilst not 


generally objecting to state the amount of capital 
expended on dredging plant and claim. 

Turning to the early days of gold-mining, it 
reads more like a romance than an actual state- 
ment of facts. The Thames was the first field on 
which limited-liability companies operated, and 
therefore some of the dividends paid are avail- 
able. Hunt's Shotover Claim gave £40,000 apiece 
to the four original discoverers, and afterwards 
paid £15,120 to the shareholders in the company 
that purchased it; the Long Drive Company dis- 
bursed £82,000 in a few years ; the Golden Crown 
Company paid £141,904, irrespective of a large 
amount divided by the original shareholders; the 
Caledonian Company paid £553,440 during the 
first year of its existence; the Cambria Company 
paid in one year £48,825; the Moanataiari Com- 
pany disbursed £117,993; the Nonpareil Com- 
pany, £14,670; the Kuranui Company, £41,277; 
the All Nations Company, £41,445; the Cure Com- 
pany, £17,000; the Manukau Company, £15,750; 
the Old Whau Company, £11,650. In later years 
the New Prince Imperial Company paid £60,750 
in dividends in three years from a mine that 
was sold for £800. Even as late as last year the 
Waiotahi Company, which has been a consistent 
dividend-paying company during the past thirty 
years, disbursed £51,000 in dividends. 

In Otago it is currently stated that the Bendigo 
Mine, near Cromwell, paid £70,000 apiece to the 
five original owners; and a perusal of the papers 


devoted to quartz-mining in that portion of the 
colony tends to show that this branch of mining 
is deserving of more attention than has been 
bestowed upon it of late years. 

In the Inangahua District, the records of 
which have been admirably kept at the Warden's 
Office, the dividends paid by quartz-mining com- 
panies from 1881 to 1905, inclusive, amounted to 
£734,200, as against £486,220 capital called up. 

Statistics as to alluvial mines are not so readily 
available, the bulk of the claims being in private 
hands; but from the returns furnished to the 
Department by eighteen companies or parties it 
has been shown that £134,329 was paid in divi- 
dends, against £175,069 actually called up. Some 
of these companies or parties own valuable plants 
and water-races, and their claims will last for a 
very considerable time. 

One fact stands out prominently in connection 
with this branch of mining — namely, the abnor- 
mally low value of auriferous gravels that can be 
made to pay. The same remarks will apply to 
quartz-mining in the Ohinemuri and Reefton 

I have dealt at some length with this branch 
of the mining industry, because of its stimulating 
effect on coal and lignite mining, and its indirect 
results to the farmer, the carrier, the artisan, and 
the business man. 

Coal-mining has developed to a great extent 
during the past twenty years. In 1885 the coal 

raised in the colony was 511,063 tons; in 1895, 
726,654 tons; and in 1905, 1,585,756 tons; so 
that within a comparatively short period the 
coal-output has trebled. The wide distribution 
of coal and lignite is a material aid to other 
industries, and, if the experiments now going on 
with regard to the utilisation of lignite for 
producer-gas plants and for the generation of 
electricity should turn out as successful as anti- 
cipated. New Zealand is destined to become the 
great manufacturing centre of the Pacific. An- 
thracite coal, which is at present principally used 
for gas-producer plants, is likely, at no very dis- 
tant date, to be a marketable commodity in this 

The papers on the auriferous ironsands show 
their great importance as an undeveloped asset 
to the colony. These sands still await the intro- 
duction of a machine for their economic treat- 
ment, and when that is forthcoming the annual 
yield of gold will receive a material addition, and 
hundreds of men should find profitable employment 
on the West Coast. I might here call attention ^ 
to the vast undeveloped resources of that part of 
the colony, and would refer the reader to the 
various papers on the subject. 

The deposits of haematite iron at Parapara, in 
the Nelson District, and the close proximity of 
coal and limestone, have attracted much attention 
of late years, and the people of New Zealand may 
look forward to seeing iron-manufacture included 


amongst the leading industries of the colony 
within the next few years. The manufacture of 
the magnetic ironsands which abound on the west 
coast of the North and South Islands into the 
best tool-steel, for which it has been shown by- 
analysis to be peculiarly well suited, is also 
amongst the possibilities of the near future. 

There are other minerals awaiting capital for 
their development, such as copper, antimony, 
cinnabar, manganese, mica, and asbestos; while 
limestone is distributed over a wide area, and 
lithographic limestone occurs in the Auckland 
District and on the West Coast. Scheelite is now 
regularly exported from Otago, and lately from 
Marlborough; fullers' earth and haematite paint 
from the Thames; hsematite paint and powder 
from Parapara; while there is a variety of 
grinding and polishing materials in Otago and 
different parts of the colony. 

There are many other points that might well 
be touched upon, but the reader will find the in- 
formation he requires in a compact form under 
the various headings into which the Mining Hand- 
book is divided. I can with every confidence refer 
him to that branch of mining in which he is 
most interested. Where the matter has not been 
written by gentlemen specially cognisant with the 
industry, it has been compiled from information 
supplied by those intrusted with the legal or 
mining management of the numerous under- 
takings that are chronicled in its pages. These 


would have been considerably added to had all 

the other mining companies and parties re 

sponded to the invitation sent to them to furnish 


The aim has been to give the general reader a 

bird's-eye view of the mining industry as carried 

on over a very long and wide stretch of country, 

from the Great Barrier Island in the north to 

Stewart Island in the south; and I think it will 

be admitted that the Editor and his various 

coadjutors have admirably succeeded, though at 

short notice, in carrying out the duties intrusted 

to them. 


Minister of Mines, 
Mines Department, 

Wellington, New Zealand, 

31st October, 1906. 


A Sketch of the Economic Geology of New Zealand 

The RiBe and Progress of the Gold-niinmg Industry 

Hauraki Mining District 

The Coroniandel Goldfield .. 

Hanraki Warden's District . . 

Tauranga Warden's District 

The Mokau District^ Taranaki 

^[arlborough Mining District 

The Nelson Goldfields 

Nelson, Karamea, and West Coast 

Greymouth Warden's District 

Westland Warden's District 

Black-sand Beaches on the West Coast 

Gold-mining in South Westland 

Wataroa River, South Westland 

Mining PossiMHties in South Westland 

South Westland as a Grold and Mineral Country 

The Gold and Mineral Wealth of the West Coast 

Waitaha River to Big Bay : Metals and Minerals occurring in 

Gold-dredging on the West Coast 

Otago and Southland : Quartz- mining Operations 

Mount Ida Warden's District 

Naseby Distiict . . 

Mining at lifctle Kyebum . . 

Gold and Scheelite Mining at Macrae's Fist 

The Livingstone Goldfield . . 

Iifining at Waikaia 

Gold-dredging in the Waikaka Valley 

Otago as a Mining District . . 

Hydraulic Mining from its Inception to the Present Day 

Hydraulic Sluicing and Alluvial Mining in Otago 

Metals and Minerals found in Sluicing Claims 

The Gold-dredging Industry in Otago and Southland 

The Utilisation of Dredged and Sluiced Ground for Agricultural, 
Pastoral, and other Purposes 





































Minerals occurring in Otago 324-331, 415 

The Auriferous Ironsands of New Zealand . . 332-335 

Auriferous Ironsands on the West Coast . . 33o-344 

Treatment of Auriferous Black Sands 345 

Quartz- mining in New Zealand . . 346-377 

Fineness and Value of New Zealand Gold . . 377-378 

Coal-deposits of New Zealand . . 379-382 

Coal-mining in New Zealand .. 383-396 

Nelson and West Coast Coal-miiieti . . . . 39()-4a8 

Canterbury Coal-mines ..408-410 

Otago and Southland Coal- mineH .. 411-414 

The State Coal-mines .. 415-433 

A Few Leading Coal-mines (West port. Blackball, Kaitangata, and 

Nightcaps) .. 434-451 

Analyses of New Zealand Coals . . 451-452 

Timber for Mining Purposes . . 453-454 

Coal-miners' Relief Fund . . 454-457 

Coal Harbours of the West Coast . . 458-460 

Manufacture of Portland Cement in New Zealand . . 461-465 

Iron Ores and Sands of New Zealand . . 466-472 

The Parapara Haematite Deposits . . 471-485 

Taranaki Ironsand, Mokau Coal, Clay, &c. . . . . 486-496 

Copper-deposits of New Zealand . . 497^99 

Minerals of New Zealand . . 500-519 

Petroleum in New Zealand and America . . 520-525 

Petroleum in Taranaki . . . . 525-536 

Petroleum in Western North America . . 536-546 

Limestones in New Zealand . . . . 547-548 

Lithographic Limestones, Hokianga and Bay of Islands . . 549-55! 

Schools of Mines . . . . . . . . 552-573 

Otago University School of Mines . . 554-559 

Thames School of Mines . . 560-563 

Waihi School of Mines . . 564-566 

Coromandel School of Mines . . 566-568 

Nelson School of Mines . . 569-571 

Westport School of Mines .. .. 572-573 




By James Magkimtosh Bbll, M.A., Ph.D., Director of the New Zealand 
Geological Survey. 

1. Jntrodaciion. 

2. RisunU of the stratigraphical geology of New Zealand. 

3. The principal geological fields of present economic interest :— 

(a.) The distribution of coal. 

(6.) The great Hauraki goldfields. 

\c,) The Kaipara Copper-belt. 

{d.\ The quartz veiDS of Otago. 

(«.) The possibilities of Stewart Island. 

(/.) The Collingwood area. 

{g,) The Nelson area. 

(K) The Westland i 

1. IntrcMlootion. 

Ik travelling about New Zealand one frequently hears the 
statement that, since the strata oomposing our Islands have 
in general undergone so much faulting, due to seismic ac- 
tivity, continued through long ages, large deposits of minerals 
of commercial importance need be expected only under unusual 
circumstances. A somewhat hasty consideration of the mineral 
resources of New Zealand, as compared with those of other 
countries formerly more familar to me, has given the con- 
viction that this sweeping assertion, made about a land-area 
as large as the British Isles, is partly incorrect. As far as 
metalliferous veins are concerned, the converse of the state- 
ment is more exact, and, in fact, in no part of the world are 
deposits of this nature certainly known to exist, excepting- 
where Assuring of the earth's crust has allowed the exit of 
mineral-bearing solutions issuing from profound depths be- 
neath the surface. Dislocation of the strata subsequent to the 
formation of the metalliferous veins may have a detrimental 

1— Mining Handbook. 

/^. - ■ • " '• -.^BW JBVALiNO MINING HANDBOOK. 

-effect by breaking the continuity of the lode, or a beneficial 
one by bringing new mineral-bearing solutions which give 
-enrichment of the lode along the line of fault. Faulting of 
vbedded deposits, such as coal-seams, must be considered 
-always an objectionable feature. 

Another statement often made regarding ore-deposits in 
New Zealand is that they are generally very small and patchy. 
-In this respect New Zealand is not unlike any other country 
■in which mineral deposits are found — ^the small ore-body is 
the rule; the large deposit the exception. 

I shall endeavour in a brief paper to show the wide dis- 
tribution and varied mineralogical range of the mineral 
deposits of New Zealand. 

"2. Resume of the Stratigraphioal Geology of New 

The oldest rocks in the North Island are stratified Palseo- 
aoic sediments, which compose the main massif of the mountain 
chains. Overlying these in places are Mesozoic and Tertiary 
sediments — in the western part of the Wellington Province, 
in the Wairarapa, near Auckland, around Whangarei, and 
elsewhere. Much of the northern and central parts of the 
Island is composed of volcanic rocks — lavas and tufa— of 
Tertiary and possibly Pleistocene age. 

In the South Island, the heart of the Alps exhibits ancient 
crystalline schists, which are flanked by younger PalsBOzoic 
and Mesozoic strata. Much of the country bordering the 
coast on either side is underlain by Tertiary strata, sur- 
mounted by gravel dSbris of varied origin. Relatively, only 
a small portion of the rocks of the South Island consists of 
igneous rocks, which are prominent, however, near Dunedin, 
in Banks Peninsula, in the granitic buttress of the south- 
western corner of the Island, and in the granitic ridge extend- 
ing northward from this area through Westland into Nelson. 

The geological phenomena which are exhibited in New 
Zealand are many, and of unique interest. In the South 
Island the rugged chain of the Alps rivals in beauty and charm 
the other great mountain chains of the world. Amid the Alps 


are spacious permanent snowfields, from which emanate great 
glaciers, one of which is longer and wider than any single 
glacier in that famed glacial area, Switzerland. In addition, 
there are the wonderful fiords, the numerous lakes, and many 
other features. 

In the North Island, the hot-lakes district exhibits a great 
variety of hydrothermal phenomena — hot springs, geysers, 
fumaroles, and other evidences of expiring vulcanism which 
give it a very remarkable interest. One feature discovered in 
connection with some of the hot springs near Rotorua has an 
especial bearing on this paper: this is the occurrence of 
gold and silver in solution and in the sinter deposited from 
the springs. Thus may be seen the unique phenomena of gold 
and silver lodes actually forming. 

8. The Prinoipal Geological Fields of Present Boonomio 


The Distribution of Coal. 

Perhaps in no country in the world is coal more generally 
distributed than it is in this colony, as it occurs in almost 
every part — a fact which makes up for the narrowness of the 
ooal-seams and the inextensiveness of the basins in which they 
lie as compared with coal-deposits in other parts of the world. 
The coal varies considerably in quality, both in regard to the 
amount of ash and in the state of carbonation. 

The coals of Eaitangata, Shag Point, and Nightcaps, used 
in Dunedin and Invercargill, are lignites, often of high 
quality. The coal-seams which are so widely distributed on 
the Canterbury Plains are all lignites, but not generally so 
highly carbonised as are the southern coals. The coals of 
Greymouth, Brunnerton, Westport, and Puponga are bitu- 
minous coals of varying degrees of purity. The northern 
coals, in the Waikato, near Whangarei, and elsewhere are in 
general intermediate in state of carbonation between the bitu> 
minous coals and lignites. 

No extensive seams of true anthracite have as yet been ex- 
ploited in New Zealand. Small deposits occur near Cabbage 


Bay in the North Island, and near White Cliila in the South 
Island, produced in both cases bj the heat of intrusion of 
igneous rocks. Anthracite has been reported from Fox's 
Riyer, near Charleston, on the West Coast, and from a pro- 
perty recently taken up on the Paparoa Range. 

Thb Grbat Haubaju Goldfiblds. 

The goldfields of the Hauraki Peninsula have yielded large 
quantities of the precious metal in the past, and are still 
yery productive owing to the immense output of the great 
Waihi Mine. Mining in the Thames has recently been re- 
juyenated by the deyelopment of the rich pay-streak dis- 
•ooyered in tiie deep levels of the Waiotahi Mine. At 
Thames enormous bonanzas were worked in the past, and 
there seems eyerj reason to hope, from the evidence given 
^y the Waiotahi, that others will be discovered in the future. 
In Coromandel, also, new discoveries may naturally be antici- 
pated, the area having given very rich bonanzas in the past. 

The goldfields at Waihi, Thames, Coromandel, and else- 
where in the Hauraki Peninsula occur for the most part in 
andesites, often much decomposed. This gold-bearing horizon 
16 of extensive distribution, and so there is great reason to 
hope for the discovery of lodes in parts of the district other 
than near the present centres of mining activity. In fact, 
detailed prospecting may be said to have been limited up to 
the present to the mining centres. Elsewhere the surface has 
been, examined in a very cursory manner, and investigation 
is in many parts of the district precluded by the dense growth 
of luxuriant vegetation which clothes the hills and lowlands. 

Thb Eaipara Coppbr-bblt. 
Recently considerable excitement has been aroused by the 
discovery of a mineralised horizon containing native copper, 
malachite, and other ores of copper in the Eaipara district. 
The present high price of copper makes the discovery a very 
important one. The horizon is said to extend for many miles 
in longitudinal direction across country from the Eaipara 
Harbour towards Wbangarei. Since much of this northern 


^ining ffandhooh^ 


country is but little explored, new derelopments may be ex- 
peeted in the future. 

The Quartz Vbins of Otaqo. 
In Central Otago the alluvial goldfields which gave such 
wealth in the " sixties " are still rerj important, though 
naturally the returns are not nearly so great as in the early 
<iays of the gold " rush." Reefing is being carried on at a 
number of places — Barewood, Skipper's, &c. Careful pro- 
specting may bring to light new reefs, since much of the 
wilderness of western Otago is still but little known. 

The Possibilities of Stewart Island. 

The occurrence of ores of tin in Stewart Island has long 
been known, and desultory attempts hare been made to work 
the deposits. The island, covered for the most part with a 
dense forest, is difficult of exploration, but much may be done 
in this line when it is opened up. 

The Colling wood Area. 

No part of New Zealand is more interesting from an 
economic mineral standpoint than the peninsula lying west 
of Golden Bay, and on which is situated the Township of 
Collingwood. There are the auriferous reefs of Taitapu, the 
great iron-deposit of Parapara, and the coalfields of Puponga. 

The Parapara iron-deposit, which is composed of hydrous 
haematites, is a most remarkable one, and bears a striking 
resemblance, both in its large proportions and its mode of 
origin, to the great " soft-ore " deposits of the Lake Superior 
region in America. It is rare, howeyer, in that part of the 
world to find deposits of such size actually occurring on the 

A mineral-bearing country is said to stretch southward 
from the much-mineralised area around Paparoa to and 
beyond the Karamea River. Most of the country has been 
explored only in a very rough manner, but it is thought that 
much mineral wealth may lie concealed in that rugged part of 
the colony. 

b nbw zealand mining handbook. 

The Nelson Area. 

Near Nelson, in the Aniseed Valley, and north-eastward 
towards D'Urville Island, are a number of small deposits of 
oopper-ores, which have been exploited to some slight degree. 
The ores consist generally of cupriferous iron -sulphides, locally 
oxidized to native copper cuprite and the carbonates of copper^ 
and lie in small, disconnected, and generally parallel lenses, 
disposed along the planes of stratification of the argillites 
which contain them. 

The discovery of a quartz vein carrying gold in bonanza 
richness at Black water, about twenty miles from Reef ton, haa 
given an impetus to prospecting in that relatively old mining 
locality, and has shown that there may be many rich veins aa 
yet undiscovered even near the centres of mining activity. 

The Westland Asba. 

The recent explorations of a detailed character carried out 
in the Hokitika sheet of North Westland — an area of about 
five hundred square miles, stretching from the Town of 
Hokitika to the Alpine divide— has shown the advantage* 
which may be expected to result from a detailed geological 
investigation. In the Hokitika sheet have been discovered, 
among other features, considerable deposits of the valuable 
greenstone, and both auriferous and platiniferous veins. The 
Westland Reefs area, situated near Browning's Pass, shows 
several very promising prospects. 

Much of the mountainous hinterland of Westland is un- 
explored, and the southern portion of this interesting pro- 
vince is in great part still a wild terra incognita. The dis- 
coveries which have been already made during the conduction 
of investigations in North Westland seem to warrant the 
expectation that much mineral wealth may yet be brought to- 
light in this rugged belt of country lying to the south. In 
fact, the casual investigations conducted by the few prospectors 
who have penetrated into the interior have shown the occur- 
rence of many minerals of economic value — ores of copper, 
antimony, iron, and manganese. It yet remains to be seeD 
whether or not these occur in suflRcient quantities to be put 
to commercial use. 


^7 H. A. GoBDON, F.G.S., ConBulting Mining Engineer, Auckland; late 
Inspecting Engineer, Mines Department, N.Z. 


In everj country where mining is carried on great strides 
have been made in its progress and prosperity. In regard 
to lode- and coal-mining, which are the permanent classes 
of mining in any country, they are generally carried on in 
a rough, hilly, or mountainous part of the country, where the 
«oil is not suitable for cultivation; and, even where mining 
is carried on in the plains, the surface of the ground is very 
little affected by the operations. Mining also gives an im- 
petus to other industries, and is a great factor in settling 
people in the back country on the land. In this respect the 
mining industry has been one of the principal factors in the 
development of this country. When gold was first discovered 
ia the Collingwood district in 1857 the European population 
in the North and South Islands was only about 50,000; in 
1861, when the Otago goldfields were first discovered, the 
population rose to 99,000 — an increase of 49,000 in four years. 
In 1864, when mining was in full swing at Tuapeka, Wether- 
stone's, Waitahuna, Waipori, Dunstan, and Shotover, the 
population increased to 172,000 — an increase of 73,000 in 
three years. During the next three periods of. three years 
the average increase was close on 42,000 for each of the three 
periods. In 1901 the population was, in round numbers, 
773,000, and at the present time we may calculate on a popu- 
lation of about 880,000, exclusive of Maoris and half-castes. 

Mining has been the means of greatly facilitating the 
settlement of the people on the land in New Zealand. Be- 
fore the goldfields were discovered there was very little culti- 
Tation carried on; the country was held in large holdings 


for purely pastoral pursuits, the revenue from which was very 
small. There was no inducement for industries to be esta- 
blished, nor for small holdings to be taken up for cultivation, 
unless in the vicinity of the largest centres of population. 
Now what a change has come I There is a demand on all sides 
for more land for settlement, and the supply is not equal to the 
demand. Large estates were acquired in the early days for 
comparatively little, the governing bodies being glad to part 
with the heritage of future generations for what money they 
could obtain in order to open up the interior of the country. 
These estates are now being rapidly acquired, and as soon as 
they are cut up into small sections they are readily applied 
for and taken up. 

It may be asked. What has this to do with mining? The 
answer is : it was mining that brought the majority of the 
yeoman class into this country. Had it not been for mining 
New Zealand would, in all probability, at the present day 
be a pastoral country, and this industry could not give em- 
ployment to a large labouring population. Mining is a bigger 
industry than many suppose. It is the means at the present 
day of supporting one-tenth of the European population of 
the colony ; therefore it forms a great element in the progress 
of this country. 

Mining also had a great effect on the settlement of Aus- 
tralia. When gold was discovered in New South Wales and 
Victoria the progress in these colonies proceeded by leaps and 
bounds. No other industry but mining could have caused 
such an influx of people from every part of the world. 

. Otatfo. 

The progress made in mining, and the system of conducting 
mining operations, has also made great strides. In the early 
days of the CM;ago goldfields mining operations were almost con- 
fined to shallow alluvial drifts, which required very little 
capital to procure an outfit to carry on mining operations with 
success. The great factor in separating the gold from the 
auriferous drifts is a good supply of water to enable the drifts 
to be box-sluiced, or, when sufficient water was not available, 
the use of a tom (or rocker) had to be resorted to. Although 


GoUingwood was the first field in the Middle Island where gold 
was discoTered, the area was not of any great extent where 
gold could be readily obtained from shallow drifts. It was 
not until after the discovery of gold at Gabriel's Gully, near 
the present Town of Lawrence, in Otago, that the large influx 
of population set in. This gully contained very rich auri- 
ferous deposits. The whole of the ground was soon taken 
up in ordinary claims, and as the population increased other 
gullies and creeks in the neighbourhood got prospected, with 
satisfactory results. Munro's, Wetherstone's, and Waitahuna 
Gullies yielded up sufficient of the precious metal to give 
several holders of claims, if not a competency, a good start 
in life. Waipori field, although not so rich in gold as the 
former gullies, afforded profitable employment to a consider- 
able population. Men of every calling and profession, fellows 
of universities, doctors, and even clergymen, could not resist 
the temptation, the novelty, and the desire to acquire wealth 
by manual labour. 

In 1862 the news of a fresh discovery of gold by Messrs. 
Hartley and Riley, on the Clutha River, caused a large rush to 
that locality. Men left rich claims in Gabriel's and elsewhere 
to try their fortunes at this new El Dorado. Horses, drays, 
wagons, and all conveyances were in great demand; fabulous 
prices were paid by those who wished to leave quickly; car- 
riage of goods went up to £120 a ton from Dunedin to the 
Dunstan. The first wagon-load of flour that went up was 
stopped at what was known as Sheehan's station and quickly 
emptied, the miners paying 2s. 6d. for every pint-pannikinful 
of flour. There was no grumbling at the price; the difficulty 
was to get a sufficient quantity of it at that rate. Empty 
gin-cases sold at £5 each, and some of the first drays that 
reached Dunstan Flat were stripped of every piece of board 
used in their construction. The country in this locality being 
destitute of timber, it had to be brought from Dunedin, and 
fabulous prices were paid for it; wagon-loads of timber sold 
at 15s. per superficial foot, and in some instances at a much 
higher rate. The beaches of the river in places were literally 
strewn with golden sands. Every one who possessed a rocker, 
shovel, and tin dish was getting more gold than ever he 


Anticipated. It was looked on as the richest field that had 
been discovered. 

By this time a large population had gathered to the place; 
townships, at what are now known as Clyde and Alexandra, 
were formed; large stores were being erected, all of canvas 
covering ; hotels were being built, and an extensive assortment 
of goods of every class was in transit between Dunedin and the 
new El Dorado. 

This was, however, of short duration. The melting snow 
from the mountains caused the water in the river to rise very 
rapidly and cover the whole of the beaches where the gold was 
found. The Budden rising of the river threw nearly every one 
out of their previous employment. Merchants were bewailing 
their fate at having large consignments of goods in transit, the 
lowest rate for carriage being £100 per ton. The mining 
population then began to scatter about through the country, 
prospecting the different creeks and gullies in the locality. 
Conroy's, Bannockburn, Dunstan Creek, Hogburn, Hamilton, 
and Hyde all gave good results. Townships sprang up at all 
those places, most of the new arrivals being satisfied that the 
goldfields of Otago were of a large extent. Attention was 
directed to the different streams that were capable of supply- 
ing water for sluicing purposes. Small water-races were 
constructed, and before long all the available water was 
applied for that could command the ground to be worked. 
Prospecting was still being carried on. Fox's (now known as 
Arrowtown), the Shotover River, Moke Creek, and the Twelve- 
mile, on the side of Lake Wakatipu, were opened up. The 
Township of Queenstown also sprang into existence, and is now 
one of the most delightful spots in New Zealand. The beds of 
the Shotover and Arrow Rivers yielded large quantities of 
gold ; and, although over forty years have gone by since these 
gold-bearing rivers were first opened up, there are still num- 
bers of men who obtain a livelihood by washing the auriferous 
alluvial drifts. 

* As time went on attention was given to auriferous-quartz 
lodes. The Achilles reef, at Skipper's; the O.P.Q., at Wai- 
pori ; and the Cromwell reef, at Bendigo, were opened up and 
found to contain highly payable ore. This class of mining 


required far more capital to be invested than was neoessarj in 
tlie allurial workings, and for many years only a few persons 
persevered in the development of lode-mining. 

West Coast. 

In 1865 gold was found at Greenstone Creek, and this led 
to the west coast of the Middle Island being prospected. 
Eanieri, Ross, Donoghue's, Waimea, and the different fields 
in the Grey Valley were opened up. Extensive water-races 
were constructed, and the ground principally worked by 
hydraulic sluicing. Amongst the latest fields opened up on 
the West Coast was Eumara, from which gold to the value of 
over J&l, 000,000 has been extracted, all by hydraulic sluicing. 
There are two large water-races on this field — one constructed 
by Government, having a carrying-capacity of 1 20 sluice-heads, 
the other constructed by the late Hon. Mr. Holmes. These 
races have been the means of the whole of the gold being 
obtained from this field, with the exception of a small quan- 
tity obtained in shallow ground on the face of the terrace. 
There is still a considerable number of men employed on 
this field, but the ground is not nearly so rich as formerly. 
It is only by using a large supply of water and washing away 
huge quantities of material that men are now able to earn a 
sufficient livelihood. Eumara is a field where hydraulic 
sluicing is conducted on a larger scale than anywhere else 
in the colony. There are five long tail-races extending back 
into the flat from the Teremakau River at various points. 
These £ail-races are from 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. wide, paved with 
wooden blocks to a depth, in some cases, of 12 in. The tailings 
from the different claims in the vicinity of these tail-races 
are discharged into them, the maintenance and repairs to 
the main tail-race being borne conjointly by all those using it. 
The ground in the Eumara field contains a very large per- 
centage of big stones; the removal of these stones occupies 
about one-half of the workmen's time each shift, so that if 
hydraulic sluicing is carried on for four hours it takes another 
four hours to remove the stones before the water can be used 


The expense of hydraulic-sluicing ground, where there is 
a considerable overburden containing large stones, is very 
considerable. Before a claim is equipped with pipes, tail- 
races, boxes, blocks, water-wheels for hauling up the stones, and 
all appliances, it would cost fully, on such a field as Eumara, 
from £2,000 to £3,000. This does not include head-races or 
dams, as the water on this field is supplied from the water-race 
constructed by the Government, which charges 10s. per sluice- 
head per week of eight hours per day. As the tail-races are 
now constructed on low gradients, it requires ten to twelve 
sluice-heads of water to work the ground. 

The general method of working the alluvial auriferous 
drifts in New Zealand is by hydraulic sluicing and by the 
employment of dredges. The only place where the alluvial 
drifts have been worked from deep shafts is Ross. The 
ground has been worked at this place to a depth of over 
300 ft. without reaching the rock bottom. In this depth there 
are eight separate layers or beds of auriferous gravel, some 
of which were very rich in the precious metal. These deep 
workings have been suspended for many years, not on account 
of the lack of gold, but through the water that flows into the 
old workings from Jones's Creek. Before work in the deep 
ground can ever be resumed, Jones's Creek will have to be 
diverted and the water prevented from getting on to the 
surface of the flat where the deep auriferous drifts lie. In 
the early days of this field the shallow auriferous beds of 
gravel were worked; also other beds down to such a depth 
as could be drained by a tail-race constructed from near the 
mouth of the Totara River to what was then known as Jones's 
Flat. A timber flume was constructed to convey the water 
in Jones's Creek from the head of the flat to Donnelly's Creek, 
but this flume was not of sufficient capacity to take the whole 
of the water in flood-time. The claim-holders on the flat, to- 
gether with the residents, subscribed sufficient capital to place 
a drainage-engine on the flat, which worked two pumps 14 in. 
in diameter, but these were not of sufficient capacity to con- 
tend with the influx of water percolating through the ground. 
An effort was then made to get more capital, but this proved 
a failure; the claim - holders got disheartened, abandoned 


tiieir claims, and disposed of all their plants. After a lapse 
of about four years Mr. Patrick Commisky induced London 
gentlemen to embark in the venture; sufficient capital was 
subscribed; a water-race which belonged to the Jones's Creek 
Company was purchased; a tail-race from near the ocean- 
beach was constructed to drain the water to a depth of nearly 
100ft. below the surface; a hydraulic pumping-engine waa 
erected, which worked four draw-lift pumps of 14 in. diameter 
to a depth of 200 ft. below the level of the tail-race. This 
plant was capable of contending with the water so long as 
there was a solid barrier left between the old workings and 
the shaft, but as soon as the old workings were broken into 
the mine was flooded to such an extent that it was hopeless to 
attempt working it again before a further expenditure waa 
incurred in entirely diverting all streams from getting inta 
the old workings. The company's capital being at this time 
expended, all operations were suspended. 

Several attempts have been made to form a company to 
work this flat since its abandonment, but without sucoess. 
Reports have been obtained from mining engineers, who have 
favourably reported upon it as an investment. They recom- 
mended that an electrical installation plant should be erected 
near the Mikonui River, where a plentiful supply of water 
could be had, and from that place to convey the current to 
Ross Flat — a distance of three miles — by cable, and by 
this means use electricity as a motive power to work the 
pumping and winding plants. This scheme was so favour- 
ably considered that the Government offered, or agreed to> 
give, a subsidy of £15,000 to any company with sufficient 
capital to erect machinery, sink shafts, and make all pro- 
vision to work the ground in a systematic manner. No- 
company, however, has so far been found to undertake the 
work. The ground still remains as waste lands of the Crown, 
but there is little doubt that the time will come when this 
area will be opened up and its hidden treasure extracted. 
Gold to the value of about £300,000 has been taken out of 
the shallowest portions of Ross Flat ; but in carrying on the 
workings towards the ocean the auriferous layers or beds of 
gravel dipped on an inclination in that direction, until the 


water could not be overcome with the machinery then em- 

Geologically, this portion of the Middle Island is most 
interesting. The auriferous beds have been worked down to 
a depth of 200 ft. below sea-level without any indication of 
a rock bottom being reached. The upper gravels belong to 
the Pliocene and Pleistocene periods, but the lower graveb 
belong to the Miocene. These lower gravels are found for 
about ten miles to the south of Ross, where they disappear, or 
are overlain by the gravels of the more recent periods. The 
Miocene gravels can be traced over the top of Mount Green- 
land, 3,000 ft. above sea-level, through Ross, where they are 
covered with more recent drifts. They are again seen at 
Rimu, the Blue Spur, Waimea, Callaghan's, Maori Creek, 
Maori Gully, No Town, Nelson Creek, Ahaura, and thence 
on to Soldier's Creek, near Reef ton. The line of these gravels 
passes at the back of Reef ton on to Coal Creek, where it comes 
against a granite intrusion. These gravels are not seen again 
until near the Hope Saddle, but from there they can be traced 
on the surface into Golden Bay, near Nelson. The course of 
these gravels indicates that at some prior period a large river 
from the West Coast flowed across what is now the backbone 
of the country and discharged its waters into the ocean at 
Crolden Bay. It also indicates that the land at one time was, 
in all probability, fully seventy miles further to the westward 
than Bold Head, and perhaps considerably further. A great 
convulsion must have taken place, causing a submersion of the 
land. This is referred to by Dr. Ferdinand von Hochstetter 
in his work on ** New Zealand : its Physical Geography, 
Geology, and Natural History." He states, in regard to the 
absence of passes in the central chain of mountains, " The 
clue to this system of ravines and ridges is to be found in the 
fact that the Palaeozoic rocks forming the main range have been 
at a very early period subjected to intensive pressure, the ef- 
fect of which has been to crumple them up into huge folds." 
He shows by a map on page 484 that the grinding or folding 
radiated from one common centre, situated about fifty miles 
north of Mount Darwin in the sea near Cliffy Head. Mr. 
McKay, F.G.S., Government Geologist, in his report in 1890, 


made an examination of the different earthquake rents in the 
oolony, and states that " one of these rents runs out on the sea- 
coast near the mouth of the Flags Riyer, and is traceable across 
the south-east spur of Benmore into the lower course of the Ben- 
more Stream. The same rent is clearly traceable from the 
western end of Hanmer Plains along the Waiau-ua and Hope 
Valleys, and the trend line runs out on the West Coast a little 
to the south of Hokitika.'' He also shows by map an earth- 
quake rent from Castle Point, on the east coast of the North 
Island, crossing Cook Strait and running out into the ocean 
a little to the southward of Hokitika. There are shown on 
his map no less than seven earthquake rents across the Island, 
converging in a somewhat similar direction to that indicated 
by Dr. Hochstetter.* 

The auriferous gravel-beds worked at Ross under the sea- 
level, dipping towards the ocean, indicate the existence of high 
land at one time a long distance out of what is now the ocean. 
It clearly shows that a great submersion of the land has taken 
place, and that other portions have been folded up and raised 
above the water. About 60 chains inland from Ross Flat, 
at an elevation of about 200 ft. above sea-level, the skeleton of 
a whale was discovered, and it is now in the Colonial Museum, 
Wellington. Great changes are taking place in the crust of 
the earth from time to time^ and the earth is most unstable in 
its movements. Nevertheless, we go on from day to day, 
fancying that we are perfectly secure so long as we are on 
terra firma. 


A great deal of gold has been got on the ocean-beaches and 
in sea-beach leads now inland. The richest portions of these 
beach leads lie between Earamea, on the west coast of the 
Middle Island, and Jackson's Bay. In regard to the ocean- 
beaches, at times they are covered with loose shingle, while at 
other times the shingle is removed and carried onward by the 
currents of the ocean, leaving the beach bare of all shingle and 
covered with black sand (magnetite) thickly diffused with jQno 

* See Geological Transaotions, 1890, p. 1. 


particles of gold. Some claims hare been constantly worked 
— ^when not ooTered with shingle — for upwards of twenty-five 
years, and are still giving the shareholders a livelihood for 
working them. The Shetlanders' Beach, about a mile and a 
half north of Charleston, may be instanced as an example. 
The plant required to work these beaches is yery simple and 
inexpensive. The whole appliances are fixed on a barrow, 
which is wheeled back and forward on the beach as the tide 
ebbs and flows. It consists of a hopper to separate the rough 
from the fine particles of sand. The fine sand is washed over 
a system of inclined copper plates coated with quicksilver; 
in some instances it is run over inclined tables covered with 
plush or cocoanut matting; while the water for washing is 
either supplied by a hand-pump or taken by a flexible hose 
from a flume placed above high- water mark. The sand is 
skimmed ofl the top of the beach and filled into the hopper; 
the latter, being set on an inclination, is self-discharging. 

Some of the richest of these ocean-beaches in the early days 
were south of Okarito. The Three-mile and Five-mile beaches 
were exceptionally rich when they were first discovered. Quite 
recently gold to the value of £2,500 was stated to have been 
taken from a small area near Okarito in the course of a few 
months. At low tides they presented the appearance of a cloth 
of gold. Gillespie's, Hunt's, and different beaches along the 
ooast-line afforded profitable employment for many years to 
those who were working on them. Prospecting was carried on 
a little inland from high-water mark, where deeper auriferous 
beds of sand were met with. Water-wheels were constructed 
to work Californian pumps wherever water was available for 
power to drain the ground. By this means these deep leads 
were worked, and gave in many instances famous returns to 
those engaged in the pursuit of the precious metal. 

These beach leads in places show a sinking of the land, 
while in other places they indicate that the land has been raised 
considerably. Near the mouth of the Totara River, between 
Charleston and Westport, workings are carried on below sea- 
level, or at least below high- water mark; while two miles 
inland sea-beach leads are worked at a considerable elevation 
at Charleston, Brighton, Cronanville, and Addison's Flat. 


in these localities there are large quantities of cemented 
Auriferous sand, which have been for many years, and are 
«till, worked by crushing the sand in a stamp-battery; the 
^Id is recovered by being run over cocoanut matting with a 
stream of water. 

At Addison's Flat there is a considerable number of men 
employed working the beach leads, where a large expenditure 
is in many instances incurred in procuring plants, construct- 
ing head and tail races, and opening out claims, the under- 
ground tail-races being in some instances a mile in length. 
The ground is worked by hydraulic-sluicing the whole of the 
•overburden; the material is carried by water on to a hopper, 
which separates the stones and large shingle from the fine 
-stuff; the latter passes down the tail-races, whilst the stones 
are hauled up on an inclined tramway by a water-balance 
and deposited on the worked-out ground. Some of these 
•claims have yielded large returns to their shareholders, and 
atill give handsome profits for working them. 



The quartc-mining centres are Ooromandel, Thames, Eara- 
Qgahake, Waihi, and Te Aroha, in the North Island; and 
Beef ton, on the west coast of the Middle Island. Ooromandel 
was the first field opened for working auriferous quartz. 
Cvold-speoimens were found in creek-beds, and in tracing up 
these creeks it led to the discovery of rich auriferous lodes at 
Kapanga, Tokatea, Tiki, and other localities. The richest 
portions of the lodes are in the stringers and veins running 
-through both lodes and the country rock, the latter being 
•of an altered volcanic formation. In some of these narrow 
stringers — as, for instance, in the Success Claim — the gold 
iras found in a thin sheet. The lodes in this field vary greatly 
in regard to value; the lodes may continue, but the gold will 
disappear ; a thin clay-vein across the lode will cut it ofi as 
-though it had been completely severed with a knife, and the 
gold will make again quite as suddenly as it cut out. The 
lodes are what the miner terms '* very patchy," and in general 


very small, but often extremely rich. A few years ago a rich 
shoot of gold was found in the Hauraki Claim, where shattered 
quartz was literally held together with strings of gold, and a 
somewhat similar discovery was made in the Kapanga Mine. 
A commencement was made to work the auriferous-quartz lodes 
in this district in the latter part of 1858. 


The Thames field was opened in 1867. A rich auriferous 
lode was found at Shellback Creek by Messrs. Hunt, Copley, 
and others. When the lode was opened out it showed amazing 
richness, and this led to a rush of miners from different parts 
of the colony to the field, and claims were taken up in every 
direction, but very little gold was found to the north of 
Shellback Creek, while to the southward every claim con- 
tained rich auriferous stone between Shellback and Earaka 
Creeks. The claims known as the Euranui, Long Tunnel, 
Moanataiari, Caledonian, Cambria, Waitotahi, Prince Im* 
perial, Saxon, and Queen of Beauty all proved good invest- 
ments for the shareholders. In the Caledonian Claim the 
quantity of gold in the lode was astounding, and in some 
instances the gold had to be cut out of the lode with a chisel. 
Within twelve months dividends amounting to over £550,000 
were paid to the shareholders. Shares went up to fabulous 
prices, as no one expected that the gold would cut out of the 
lode as soon as it did. This claim was looked on as a safe, 
permanent investment, but these hopes were doomed to dis- 
appointment. The shoot of rich stone proved only a patch; 
at the same time, it was a large one. 

The Moanataiari, Prince Imperial, and Queen of Beauty 
Claims contained rich shoots of ore, which gave the share- 
holders good returns for their investments. Recently a dis- 
covery of rich ore in the Waiotahi Claim, in which mining 
operations have been carried on for the last thirty years, has 
caused renewed interest to be taken in mining ventures at 
the Thames. Before the discovery of this rich shoot of ore 
there were 6,000 shares in the company, some of which were 
selling at 7s. 6d. per share, making the value of the property 
about £2,250; but after this late discovery of rich ere, or 


stringers, the stock was watered; every shareholder got ten 
shares for each share previously held, making 60,000 shares, 
having a present value of about £7 per share. Taking the 
share- value as a basis, within twelve months the value of this 
property, on which mining operations have been steadily 
carried on for at least thirty years, jumped up in a short time 
from £2,250 to over £420,000. Quartz, or lode, mining is 
entirely different from alluvial. In dealing with auriferous- 
gravel deposits, we know when the claim is worked down to the 
rock the whole of the deposit has been taken out; but no one 
can tell in lode-mining when the whole of the gold has been 
taken out. There is a certain fascination and attractiveness 
in connection with auriferous-quartz mining that induces men 
to invest their money in this industry. There is always a 
chance of a rich shoot of ore being discovered which will repay 
tenfold the money invested. No mining engineer, whatever 
his experience or ability may be, can tell with certainty what 
lies hidden in the bowels of the earth. He may deduce from 
observations of the nature of the lode, and the formation in 
which the lode is enclosed, that there is a fair prospect of 
good ore being obtained, or that the continuity of the lode has 
to a certain extent been ascertained ; but beyond this the ques- 
tion of value at depths not penetrated, or in places below the 
surface where the eye of man cannot behold it, is still a blank. 


Quartz-mining has been carried on here for about thirty- 
four years, but no rich deposits of ore have ever been found, 
such as was the case at Thames and Coromandel. The ore in 
this field is far more refractory, and requires a different 
method of treatment from that on the other fields mentioned. 

It was on this field that cyanide of potassium was first used 
for the extraction of fine gold from the pulverised ore; it was 
here that experiments were made to perfect the process ; it was 
to this place that the MacArthur-Forrest Company sent Mr. 
John McConnell to treat the first ore with cyanide-solutions. 
The appliances and plant sent out from Glasgow proved that 
the question of successful treatment was one in which only a 


crude knowledge had been obtained. It was left to those- 
engaged in quartz-mining in this colony to perfect the prooea,. 
which has been the means of claims being succetssfuUy worked 
that were, before this process was introduced, perfectlj value- 
less. A large number of claims have been taken up on this- 
field, worked for a short period, and abandoned; still the- 
New Zealand Crown Mines and the Talisman Consolidated 
continue to carry on. mining operations with success. Botk- 
these companies have erected expensive plants of the most 
modern design, and have expert workmen employed in aD' 
branches. Nothing is done, as in former days, by ruIe-<^- 
thumb. The ore, when it comes out of the mine, is carefulljr 
assayed, and the percentage of metals extracted is accuratelj 
ascertained. The ore at Earangahak'e contains a large per- 
centage of silver, and in some instances copper, which makes- 
the value of the bullion extracted only a little more than J£l 
per ounce. All the ore treated is calculated on the value or 
the bullion it contains, and not on the weight of the gold ii^ 
the ore, as was originally the case. 


This is one of the greatest quartz-mining districts there is- 

in the colony. The lodes are of enormous width, in 
places fully 200 ft. from wall to wall ; and over 50 ft. of this 
width is taken out and put through the different processes of' 
treatment. Quartz - mining has been carried on here since 
1882. The Martha Company took up a large claim on the 
Martha Lode, erected a crushing-battery with the ordinary 
quicksilver-tables and a plant of berdans — ^the only applianees 
used at that time for the treatment of ore. Portions of the 
lode were quarried from the top of the Martha Hill and put 
through the battery. This went on for several years, but, 
although it was supposed that only the richest portion of the 
lode was taken, it could not be made to return a value to do- 
more than cover the actual expenses of working. An adjoining^ 
claim was taken up by the Waihi Company, which commenced 
operations on a different lode from the Martha. Shafts were 
sunk, levels constructed. Globe mills erected, with amal- 
gamating machinery; but as these mills proved a failvve thej 











were remoyed, and sixty heads of stamps used instead. Kilns 
were constructed for roasting the ore as it came from the mine 
before putting it through the battery, but the lode the com- 
pany was working did not give returns for the large outlay 
the company had made — indeed, it seemed at one time that 
liquidation was not far distant. 

The whole credit for the existence and success of this 
company is due to Mr. Henry Russell, who came out from 
England with no experience in mining, but on his arrival here 
he spent some time in gaining a little knowledge of assaying. 
He went to Waihi and watched the method used in the treat- 
ment of the ore; he was so bent on obtaining a knowledge of 
the different processes of working that he almost lived in the 
battery while it was at work. At that time a system of dry- 
crushing had been established, which caused the building to 
be full of fine dry dust, highly injurious to those employed in 
it. This began to impair Mr. Russell's health, but he still 
continued to watch the experiments that were being made, not 
only with the view of reducing the cost of treatment, but also to 
obtain a larger percentage of the bullion contents. The lode 
the company was then working was a comparatively small 
one, and there was little hope at that time of the opera- 
tions being extensively carried on with much success. The 
system of treatment — namely, pan-amalgamation — did not 
extract a large percentage of the gold in the ore, and less than 
50 per cent, of the silver. The cyanide process was then in its 
infancy; Messrs. McConnell and Napier were making experi- 
ments with it at the New Zealand Crown Mines at Karanga- 
hake, while the Waihi Company was stacking the tailings, 
awaiting the results of that process. Mr. Russell, in the 
meantime, had been occasionally visiting the Martha Com- 
pany's workings, with the view of seeing the nature of the 
lode and the manner of working it, and took samples of the 
ore for analysis, until he was satisfied that it was a valuable 
property. The shareholders in the Martha Company were so 
disheartened at working the mine for years and not meeting 
with success that they sold it to Mr. Russell for a very small 
amount. After the purchase was completed a sample of 
the ore was sent to the Crown Company's works to be treated 



by the cyanide process, aud it gave results far exceeding 
expectations. It is from this period onwards that success 
attended the Waihi Company's operations. 

The Waihi Company now possesses one of the finest mining 
properties in the world. It is the premier gold-mining com- 
pany in New Zealand, and indeed in Australasia, at the 
present time. There are very few mining companies in the 
world equal to it when the number of lodes and dimensions 
come to be considered. The company holds several mining 
claims, all contiguous to each other, on lease from the Crown. 
In these claims there are no fewer than sixteen distinct lodes 
passing through them, and six of them are big lodes carrying 
highly payable ore. The largest of these is the Martha Lode, 
which on some of the levels is 200 ft. in width from wall to 
wall; but the whole of this width is not broken out and sent 
to the mill. The width of pay-ore varies in this lode from 
25 ft. to 70 ft. In order to give an idea of the enormous 
ore-body in this mine, the returns for the year 1904 are 
herewith given, showing the quantity of ore taken from each 
lode, with its value : — 

Name of Lode. 


Name of Lode. 


Martha ... 

... 98,339 



Empire ... 

... 50,161 



Welcome ... 

... 41,746 


... 3,682 

R^ina ... 

... 13,684 

No. 2 ... 


Royal ... 

... 12,125 



Albert^ ... 

... 11,652 

Surprise ... 



... 6,753 



Princess ... 

... 6,731 



From this quantity of ore bullion was produced to the 
value of £683,882 3s. lOd., equal to an average yield of £2 
4s. lid. per ton; while dividends for that year, amounting 
to 10s. per share, were paid, and also a bonus of 2s. per share, 
making a total of £297,554 48. The comparative proportions 
of the value of the gold and silver in the bullion, as valued at 
the mine, were: Gold, £594,243 3s. 4d. ; silver, £78,858 5s.; 
making the value at the mine £673,101 8s. 4d. This how- 
ever, realised in London £683,882. 3s. lOd. The total value 
of bullion taken from this mine during a period of sixteen 


years amounted to £4,649,334, out of which £1,877,896 has 
been paid in dividends to the shareholders. During the year 
1905 298,531 tons of ore was crushed for 1,192,046 oz. of 
bullion, yalued at £751,233 (including value of concentrates 
and slags tailings shipped for treatment), and dividends were 
paid amounting to £322,339 lis. 

To show the magnitude of this company's operations, it 

may be stated that six shafts are sunk to considerable depths, 

one of which is the pumping and drainage shaft, intended to 

drain a large area of the field. One of the largest pumping 

condensing engines in Australasia is erected at this shaft. 

The low-pressure cylinder is 11 ft. in diameter and 12 ft. in 

length, having a weight of about 21 tons. This engine and 

all its connections are of beautiful workmanship, every joint 

being accurately fitted as though it were a piece of mechanism 

belonging to a chronometer. This huge machine is placed on 

a concrete foundation, which had to be carried down to a 

great depth before a solid rock-bed was reached. No one 

except a wealthy individual or corporation could have gone to 

the expense of providing for the drainage of so large an area 

of this field as the Waihi Company is now capable of draining. 

The number of steam-engines this company has at work for 

winding, driving air-compressing machinery, haulage, and 

working electric plants, and in various capacities, together 

with the buildings, poppet-heads, workshops, laboratories, 

&c., gives the place the appearance of an immense factory, 

covering over 100 acres of ground. Mining stores, tools, 

implements, and modern appliances of every description are 

handy on the ground when required. To the workshops a 

foundry has recently been added, so that all repairs, and even 

a great deal of new work, can now be undertaken by the 

company's workmen. 

The ore from the mine is treated at three distinct crushing- 
batteries — the Union Mill, alongside the Ohinemuri River, 
with forty heads of stamps; the Waihi Mill, near the mine, 
with ninety heads; and the Waikino Mill, about six miles 
from the mine, with 200 heads; making a total of 330 heads 
of stamps, which are worked continuously day and night, 
Sundays excepted. The machinery is all driven by water- 


power when water is available, but Hteam-power is prorided 
if the water runs short. There is an immense number of 
cjanide-rats, sumps, solution-tanks, zinc extractors, montejua, 
filter-presses, tube mills, concentrators, and a railway with 
locomotive engines to bring the ore from the mine to the 
Waikino Mill. Mark the prosperity this company has hither- 
to enjoyed and the ore-reserves in sight in its mine. Not- 
withstanding the large tonnage daily treated, it will take 
years to exhaust the ore, while there is no diminution in the 
size and value of the ore, as far as can be seen, underfoot. 

What a difference this place now presents from that which 
it presented at the time of my first visit. In 1884 it appeared 
to be a barren desert plain, with a bare knoll, and one public- 
house; bleak and uninviting, a traveller was glad to reach 
that solitary habitation. No formed road, nothing but wheel- 
ruts to indicate the direction of the house and show one that 
this was the only highway leading from Ohinemuri through 
Mr. Vesey Stewart's celebrated settlement (Eatikati) to Tau- 
ranga. On the top of this bald hill was to be seen a large 
lode of quartz, which was taken up as a claim by the Martha 
Company, the late Mr. Adam Porter, of Auckland, being 
-one of that company's promoters and afterwards one of 
the directors. A few huts began to be built at this locality, 
and a battery of forty heads of stamps was erected, which was 
driven by water-power from the Ohinemuri River. For years 
this company kept struggling on, hoping that better ore would 
be met with, until it got disheartened at not seeing any signs 
of meeting with success, and it finally disposed of the property. 
Tears have gone by since then; the property was developed, 
and far exceeded in value the most sanguine expectations. 
The share-value — ^that is, what shares were being disposed of 
in open market— at the time of purchasing the Martha Com- 
pany's property was not over £22,500, and to-day it is about 
£4,500,000. Several hundred thousands of pounds have 
been expended in machinery and development- work. About 
fourteen hundred men are employed by this company. A 
flourishing town has sprung into existence; good roads and 
streets have been constructed; large, commodious buildings 
have been erected; orchards and gardens give a cheerful as- 


pect to the place, where now resides over 5,000 of a population. 
Compare that with a solitary publichouse in the year 1884, 
and note the gigantic strides due to the mining industry. 

The success attending the efforts of the Waihi Company has 
induced other mining companies to take up claims in this 
locality, but so far none of them has met with great success. 
The Waihi Grand Junction Company has been for the last 
ten years prospecting for the Martha Lode, but owing to the 
large influx of water met with it was unable for a long time 
to get down a sufficient depth to strike the lode. The diffi- 
culties encountered have now been overcome; the lode has been 
cut, lerels are being opened out, and there is every prospect 
of this company reaping a rich reward for its labours. The 
Waihi Extended Company has also done a considerable amount 
of dead- work. It haa cut lodes in its claim, but the present 
machinery and appliances belonging to this company are in- 
adequate to carry on mining operations successfully at such 
depths. The Waihi field has a great future before it. The 
enormous auriferous lodes which exist, as far as have been yet 
tested, are not likely to cut out until a great depth is reached. 
Gold has been found in lodes on the Bendigo field, in Aus- 
tralia, to a depth of over 4,000 ft., but these lodes were only 
o(»nparatively small in comparison with the Martha Lode 
at Waihi. One of the pleasing features in connection with 
the Martha Lode is that its value continues as it goes down, 
which in a measure indicates that the lode, with its bullion 
contents, is likely to go down to a great depth. Mining on 
this field is still only in its infancy. Yery little work has yet 
been done, beyond scratching the surface, by other companies, 
irrespective of those already mentioned ; and even in the Waihi 
Company's mine, where the most work has been done, it is 
comparatively little compared with what will yet be done 
before it is exhausted. Another century may pass away, and 
still see lode-mining an important industry in this locality. 

Te Aroha. 

Te Aroha was opened in 1882, but no ore was crushed until 
November, 1883. Several mining companies were formed to 
work claims on this field, amongst which were the New Find, 


Colonist, Premier, Werahiko, and Waitoko ; in all, there were 
about thirty roistered companies haring claims. These claims 
were situated from one to nearly three miles up Waiorongomai 
Creek, from the place where it debouched into the Thames 
Valley. Messrs. Firth and Clark erected a crushing-battery, 
consisting of forty heads of stamps, and a plant of berdans 
on the flat, at the entrance of the gorge of the Waiorongomai 
Creek, to crush the ore from the different claims. The County 
Council constructed a tramway, a subsidy being obtained from 
the Gorernment, to connect the different mines with the 
crushing-battery, at a cost of about £18,000. A monster lode 
traverses the country for a long distance, and rich specimens 
of ore were obtained. From this lode several smaller lodes 
branch off, as well as cross-lodes, which have no apparent con- 
nection with the main lode. 

When the claims referred to were first opened and the lodes 
cut they showed a good class of ore. Veins containing rich 
specimens were found traversing the lodes, showing gold in 
extremely fine particles disseminated through the quartz. The 
results from the crushing of the oxidized ore near the outcrop 
of the lodes were highly satisfactory, but on sinking the ore 
became refractory, and the process of treatment at the battery 
was not of such a nature that the bullion could be recovered. 
The ore in many instances, although containing a high value, 
was so complex that by the recognised method of treatment — 
crushing and amalgamation — very little of its valuable con- 
tents could be recovered. The ore contained in some instances 
gold, silver, copper, zinc, arsenic, and antimony, principally 
as sulphides. The result was that the valuable plant, which 
was said at that time to have cost £20,000, was found to be 
of little service, and company after company abandoned their 
claims. One of the proprietors of the crushing-battery (Mr. 
J. C. Firth) took his battery-manager to America to visit 
some of the mining centres there, to see if there was any 
system adopted in that country for the treatment of similar 
ores to that found at Te Aroha. On returning to this colony 
they chanced to be fellow-passengers with the late Mr. W. R. 
Wilson, who was connected with the Broken Hill Mines, in 
New South Wales. Mr. Wilson visited the Te Aroha field. 


and from what he observed, and from the reports that he 
obtained, purchased the crushing-battery and took up some of 
the abandoned claims. A mining engineer and metallurgist 
of considerable experience came from America to take charge 
of the undertaking. A smelting and also a roasting furnace 
was erected, and the ore crushed and concentrated. The con- 
centrates were first roasted, made into briquettes, and smelted > 
but this process did not give good results. It was far too 
costly a process to deal with any ore unless it was of an ex- 
ceptionally high grade. Mr. Wilson abandoned the under- 
taking, and sold the plant and claims to Messrs. Adams and 

About this time the cyanide process was being experimented 
with by Messrs. John McConnell and James Napier at the 
Crown Company's mine, Karangahake. Mr. Adams, after 
again experimenting with the ore by the amalgamation pro- 
cess, erected a cyanide plant, and employed Mr. James Napier 
to work it. It was found, however, that the percentage of 
oopper-sulphides in the ore was too great to permit it to be 
treated eOonomically by the cyanide process, and the consump- 
tion of cyanide was too great. Possibly, the cyanide process 
of treatment was not then sufficiently understood to apply it in 
the proper manner. The outcome was that the claims were 
again abandoned, the plant sold in parts, and the field once 
more deserted for a time. 

There are large lodes of complex ores on this field, which 
on assay show a high value; but some cheap method of treat- 
ment is required to deal with refractory ore of this class. 
Improvements in mining machinery, appliances, and chemical 
methods of treating these complex ores will, no doubt, from 
time to time be made. Lower-grade ores will then be worked 
than at present, and when that time comes Te Aroha will be a 
field capable of supporting a large mining population. 


The auriferous lodes in the Reefton district were first 
opened in 1870. Amongst the claims then taken up were the 
Ajax and Golden Fleece. In both claims rich ore was obtained. 
They were situated on a steep hill, about 1,400 ft. above the 


lerel of the flat. Machinery had to be erected before the 
claims could be worked. There were no formed roads, and 
even the pack-tracks were in their native state. The share- 
holders of the Ajax Mine had to get steam machinery before 
they could get any return from their mine. Any portion 
which could be conveyed on pack-horses was a simple matter, 
but a steam-boiler was required of sufficient capacity to supply 
steam for an engine to drive ten heads of stamps, with ber- 
dans, and also supply steam for a winding-engine. To get 
this boiler on the ground was a herculean undertaking. It 
was conveyed up the BuUer River on a punt, and up the 
Inangahua River to the place where the Township of Black's 
Point is now situated. From there it was taken up the face 
of a steep hill by constructing capstans at different points and 
parbuckling the boiler to the top of the range; thence along 
the top for one mile to its destination. Miners in those days 
had difficulties to surmount that almost seemed incredible, 
and hardships to undergo which the rising generation have 
little conception of. In this portion of the colony men had to 
carry all their belongings on their backs for a considerable 
time after gold was discovered; they had to climb steep 
ranges, cross flooded rivers, and in many instances pass the 
night in front of a fire in wet clothes, with no other covering 
from the inclemency of the weather than the canopy of heaven. 
Other claims were rapidly taken up — the Wealth of Na- 
tions, Energetic, Eeep-it-Dark, Inkerman, and many otters 
which have been abandoned years ago. Quartz lodes were 
prospected in every direction. Specimen Hill and the Wel- 
come, at Boatman's, were opened up. The Globe, Progress, 
and Big River Claims have yielded a large quantity of gold, 
whilst their shareholders have received handsome dividends. 
Up to the end of 1904 there were 1,083,575 tons of quarts 
treated, from which 603,169 oz. of gold was obtained, repre- 
senting a value of £2,382,208, and out of this amount 
£694,356 was paid in dividends to the shareholders, while 
the calls amounted to £482,340. In the early days of this 
field claims were taken up, and companies were floated which 
expended all their capital without getting scarcely any gold, 
and it was considered ruinous by a great number of people 













3 ^ 


'to inyest mone7 in mining property in this district. This 
led me in 1887 to prepare a table of all the quartz-mining 
-companies which had up to that time been carrying on opera- 
tions in the Reefton district, which showed that the actual 
-cash paid in calls into mining companies was £163,015 5s. Td., 
while the dividends paid to the shareholders amounted to 
£210,306 88. 2d., thus showing a balance of £47,291 3s. Id. 
to the credit of profits. No doubt, a large sum was lost in 
purchasing shares far above their nominal value, but, to take 
the industry on the whole, it gave a handsome profit. 

About eleven years ago Mr. David Ziman came to this 
oolony and purchased the Globe, Progress, Wealth of Nations, 
and Golden Fleece Mines, and formed a company in London 
which is known as the Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand. 
Since then that company has purchased the Welcome and 
other mines at Boatman's. It also formed the Globe and 
Progress Mines into a separate company, which has been 
carrying on mining operations successfully since its forma- 
tion. The workings of the Globe and Progress Mines are 
now down to a depth of over 1,300 ft., where good ore is still 
lieing met with. This company has a crushing plant of sixty- 
five heads of stamps, -which are kept running continuously, 
unless stopped for repairs; large concentrating, cyanide, and 
-ehlorination plants are erected; also a long series of slime- 
tables, covered with light canvas, which saves very fine con- 
•oeatrates. This product is roasted in a reverberatory furnace 
and chlorinated. 

Operations are steadily carried on at the Golden Fleece, 
Wealth of Nations, and the Energetic Mines, belonging to the 
-Consolidated Goldfields Company, with satisfactory results. 
The workings in the Golden Fleece are down to a depth of 
over 1,300 ft. below the surface, but the ore at this depth is 
said to be decreasing in value. The workings in the Ener- 
getic Mine are down to a depth of over 1,500 ft. below the 
surface, but so far the results have been disappointing. 

The Keep-it-Dark Mine has been constantly worked for 

ihe last thirty years. It has given the best return of any mine 

in the district for the capital expended in opening it out. Up 

'to the end of 1905 the actual paid-up capital was £G,208. 


The value of the gold won was £380,430, out of which £145,667 
was paid in diyidends to shareholders, while there was paid in 
wages and other expenses £251,293. The only other mine in 
this district that returned large dividends to shareholders is 
the Welcome, which now belongs to the Consolidated Goldfields 
Company. The actual paid-up capital of this company was 
£8,609 17s. 6d., while the dividends paid to its original 
shareholders amounted to £110,250. The Big River Com- 
pany has returned £47,366 in dividends to its shareholders^ 
whilst the paid-up capital of the company is only £11,475. 

An interesting discovery in recent years was made, in 
1898, on the Victoria Range by Mr. Kirwan, at an ele- 
vation of 4,000 ft. above sea - level. The surface of the 
range for a considerable distance was strewn with quarts 
containing gold, and some remarkably rich specimens were 
obtained. The character of the quartz which contained the 
gold was of a pure-white sugary appearance and of a very 
friable nature. Wherever this class of quartz was found it 
contained gold. A great deal of prospecting was done with 
the view of finding a lode, and several tunnels were driven into* 
the range without success. A shaft was sunk in Saw-pit Gully, 
which revealed about 4 ft. of rich auriferous stone, but all of 
a loose character. The surface material, wherever the quartr 
containing gold lay on the surface, gave good prospects. The 
company erected a crushing-battery near the Waitahu River, 
and an aerial tramway connecting the claim with the battery,, 
and has since been putting all the surface material down to s 
great depth through the battery, with the result that it has 
returned over £14,700 in dividends to its shareholders, while 
the actual paid-up capital was only £3,092. 

Reefton is a very extensive district for auriferous lodes. 
The gold is of a high value, and the ore free-milling. Ne 
complex ore is mined here of the same character as that found 
in the Auckland goldfields. The lodes, although not so rich 
as at Coromandel and Thames, are more regular in value, but 
it is difficult to get machinery and plant on the ground on 
account of the rough, rugged nature of the country, full of 
deep ravines and steep declivities. It is a district that will 
take years to properly prospect. Only recently a rich dis- 


ooTerj of an auriferous lode has been made at Blackwater, the 
extent of which is not yet known. The whole of the country 
being covered with timber and dense undergrowth makes pro- 
specting a difiScult undertaking; trenches have to be cut 
before one can tell whether a lode exists or not, and unless the 
prospecting operations are in the locality of a known lode, 
it is only by mere chance that a surface outcrop is seen. If 
the line of a lode is once ascertained, trenches can be cut 
across that line with some prospect of finding it; but when 
prospecting is carried on a long distance from the line of 
known lodes it is only by the merest chance that an outcrop 
is found. 


Quartz-mining in Otago has not yielded the quantity of 
gold that has been obtained in other quartz-mining districts. 
The lodes at Skipper's Creek were opened in the early days of 
the goldfields, and, although there was rich ore near the out- 
<irop of the reef, the value of the ore decreased rapidly as the 
lode went down. Messrs. 6. and F. BuUen carried on opera- 
tions on this lode for a number of years with comparatively 
little success; indeed, up to the time that they sold the mine 
to an English company the total value of the gold won did not 
•exceed the amount paid in dividends to the shareholders in 
the Eeep-it-Dark Mine, in the Reefton district, and since then 
the returns have not given any interest on the capital invested. 
Rich lodes may be found in the mountains, but they are diffi- 
<:ult of access, and it is only during a few months in summer 
that prospecting can be carried on. There are several lodes in 
this district and in the vicinity of Macetown, where rich auri- 
ferous ore has been found at comparatively shallow depths 
below the surface which gave good returns ; but, generally, in 
all the mines opened up in the same rock formation as there 
is in this district the value of the ore decreased in depth. 

The most successful quartz-mining company in the Otago 
District was the Cromwell Company, at Bendigo. It got 
-exceedingly rich ore down to a depth of 200 ft., but below this 
depth the ore rapidly decreased in value. A new shaft was 
sunk to a depth of 400 ft. a little to the northward of the old 
workings; it cut the lode, which had a width of from 9 in. to 



12 in., but did not contain gold of a value to work. Thig i* 
a part of the country and a lode worthy of being prospected. 
The lode is well defined, and there is a great probability of 
a shoot of rich ore being discovered along the line of lode, 
both in northerly and southerly directions. The dividends 
paid by the Cromwell Company cannot be accurately ascer- 
tained, but from my knowledge of what was paid to some of 
the shareholders they must have amounted in the aggregate t» 
something like £100,000. Small lodes have been opened up 
in other parts of Otago — as, for instance, the Carrick Range 
and Waipori — but the same characteristics prevailed : the ore 
did not carry down its value to any great depth, althongb 
very rich quartz was obtained near the surface. 

Qaartx-minintf at Great Depths. 

It may be asked. Do the lodes retain their value as- 
the lodes go downt or what reason can be given for suggest- 
ing the probability of rich lodes not being found in great 
depths in Otago t It is difficult to answer this satisfae- 
torily. No one can tell what lies hidden from the eyes d 
man below the surface; one can only deduce from what 
can be seen and the character of the country rock. The- 
Otago rocks are of a very old quartzose schist; probably 
it may be classed as Archaean schist, older than Silurian, 
a^ no fossils have been obtained in it, so that its age- 
cannot be determined. The mountains in Otago have at 
some period been at a much greater height above the see 
than at present. These rocks at high elevation, owing to- 
intense frost and atmospheric action, have been greatly de- 
nuded, and time after time disintegrated and decomposed. 
The material has been washed down these steep slopes by 
heavy rains, and the mineral contents concentrated by flowing 
streams. The large deposits of quartz-gravel drifts in dif- 
ferent parts of Otago are due to erosion and the ravages of 
time. The disintegrated materials have been carried inte 
lakes and still water; the heavy particles have settled on tlie 
bottom, and the fine sediment has gradually settled down and 
formed into a sedimentary- rock substance, as can be woenr 














in recent hydraulic workings at Vinegar Hill, in the valley 
of the Manuherikia. It is, however, worthy of note that in 
none of this quartz drift has any gold been discovered in the 
solid stoae, but gold has been found in the schist rock in tha 
Achilles Mine, at Skipper's. 

As to the depth at which gold is likely to be found in lodes 
in any formation, that is a question not yet determined. It is 
known to exist in the Garden Gully Lode on Bendigo, in 
Victoria, to a depth of over 4,000 ft., but even in this lode the 
value of the ore decreased in depth, and probably will be 
found to do so in the New Zealand lodes in whatever for- 
mation they may occur. The circumstances connected with 
the New Chum Railway Mine, Bendigo, call for special notice. 
In a recent report on this mine Mr. Dunn, F.G.S., the Vic- 
torian Geological Director, writes as follows : "A develop- 
ment fraught with importance is that at a depth of 4,15G ft. 
in this mine, and 800 ft. below the last body of quartz of a 
payable nature, excellent-looking quartz of great size and in 
centre country (the anticline) has been sunk through in the 
winze. The slate and sandstone are highly mineralised. The 
quartz also carries sulphides and, what is more important, 
gold. In no part of the mine have the appearances for gold 
been more favourable than in the bottom of the winze. The 
quartz resembles a broken saddle reef, and is in centre country, 
and the winze passed through over 20 ft. of quartz, and what 
appeared to be a spurry country leg occurs in the western side. 
Further work is necessary to definitely settle the nature of the 
quartz-body, and also to prospect it so as to determine whether 
there is sufficient gold present to be payable ; even at this great 
depth 7 dwt. of gold per ton is considered worth working. 
Should this body of quartz prove pay ably auriferous, it adds 
enormously to the proved resources in gold of this State, and 
it is certain to exert a powerful influence in the further de- 
velopment of the Bendigo Goldfield. Then, as to the possibility 
of working at such depths, it is to be noted that in the bottom 
of the winze, 4,156 ft. from the surface, the rocks are cool and 
the water cool, while the supply of air is excellent. The rocks 
and the water are cooler at the bottom of the winze than at the 
bottom of the shaft, 3,900 ft. deep. There appears to be no 

8— Mining H&ndbook. 


reason why the shaft should not be continued to 5,000 ft., or 
more, in depth, and the conditions there, as r^ards tem- 
perature, should be such that mining can be carried on satis- 
factorily and without undue distress to the miner. With the 
cheapened methods of producing ice the air might be cooled 
and filtered that would be sent below." 


The use and employment of dredges in connection with 
working alluvial drifts has reyolutionised the system of ob- 
taining gold out of the beds of rivers. Spoon>dredges were 
used in this and other countries for many years, but the 
employment of bucket- dredges to work the auriferous gravels 
in the beds of rivers was first introduced in New Zealand. 
The introduction of these bucket-dredges was due to the rich 
auriferous gravel that was known to exist in the bed of the 
Olutha River. Gold was first discovered on the beaches in 
1862 by Messrs. Hartley and Riley. The water in the river 
at that time being very low, some of these beaches were literally 
strewn with golden sands. The melting of snow on the moun- 
tains soon after this discovery was made known caused the 
water in the river-bed to rise in a few hours to a vertical 
height of about 16 ft., carrying away rockers and tools that 
had been left on the beaches. After using spoon-dredges, 
which proved successful in lifting the gravel from the river- 
bed and showing that it was rich in gold, current-wheel bucket- 
dredges were constructed and placed on the river. These were 
found to give far better results than spoon-dredges, but they 
had the disadvantage of not being able to work the beaches 
where there was not a swift current; also, in eddies they 
were of no service. 

Several years passed on, and steam bucket-dredges were 
introduced. The first of these was constructed by Messrs. 
Kincaid and McQueen, of Dunedin. This dredge lifted a 
very large quantity of gravel, but sufficient washing appliances 
were not provided. Experiments were made from time to 
time with the view of arriving at the best class of dredge to 
deal successfully and most economically with the auriferous 
drifts from river-beds. Mr. Welman constructed a suction 


dredge, which was expected to supersede the bucket, as it 
would suck up the sand from the bed-rock much cleaner than 
could possibly be done by the bucket- dredge. This dredge was 
only of small proportions, and after it was launched into 
the Clutha River it was capsized in a flood; but before being* 
submerged its trial proved that it was not capable of dealing 
with the large stones met with in the gravel-drift. It was far 
too small for the work it was intended to perform on such a 
swift-flowing stream as the Clutha. As dredging appliances 
progressed, some of the dredges gave phenomenal returns, 
which led to a boom taking place in this class of mining. 
Claims were taken up in every flat and river where there was 
any prospect of gold being obtained ; companies were formed, 
and dredges were constructed that in many instances were 
incapable of working the ground; the ladders were in many 
eases too short to dredge to the rock-bottom, or the washing 
appliances were defective. From one cause and another many 
of the dredging companies went into liquidation. The share- 
holders lost their money — not, in many instances, owing to 
the claims taken up being valueless, but rather on account of 
the incompetency of those who had charge of directing the 
affairs and operations of the company. Contracts were let 
for dredges whose ladders were not sufiiciently long to reach 
the bottom; any description of a dredge was deemed good 
enough, so long as it did not cost more than £3,500 or £4,000. 
The most of the dredges first placed on the Clutha, between 
the Beaumont River and the Township of Clyde, proved suc> 
oessful in their operations, and as time went on dredges were 
placed on the Kawarau and Shotover Rivers. A company 
known as Sew Hoy's had three dredges constructed, and for 
some years, in dredging the place known as the Big Beach, 
on the Shotover River, a large quantity of gold was obtained 
by these dredges; but their washing appliances were very 
defective. Some of the ground was dredged over three times, 
and there was as much gold got the third time as there was 
at the first working. 

Dredges were placed on the Shotover, at its junction with 
the Kawarau, but the ladders of these dredges were not 
nearly sufiiciently long to reach the bottom of the gravel-drift. 


So confident were some of the shareholders as to the success 
of the dredges in this iocalitj that they put in all the little 
earnings they had saved, and lost the whole of them. 

Claims were taken up in the Kawarau River, between the 
mouth of the gorge and Cromwell. Dredges were placed on 
these claims, but the first of them failed to reach the bottom. 
Several attempts were made to successfully dredge this portion 
of the river before it was accomplished, and yet very rich 
auriferous wash-drift was found when it could be dredged to 
the rock bottom. The Electric Company's dredge, which gave 
phenomenal returns, obtained the gold by working in this 
portion of the river. 

A claim was taken up in the Clutha River, including the 
Hartley and Riley Beach, where such rich returns were ob- 
tained in the early days; but the river at this place was full 
of rocks and of so uninviting an appearance that a con- 
siderable time elapsed before a company could be formed to 
find sufficient capital to construct a dredge. After this dredge 
commenced to work as much as 1,100 oz. of gold was obtained 
in one week, and shares of a face value of £1 changed hands 
freely at £20 to £25 each. One of the shareholders in this 
dredge who held a good appointment in a Government De- 
partment was, it is said, so satisfied with the prospects of this 
company and his chance of obtaining a competency for life 
that he threw up his appointment, and blossomed forth as a 
mining expert with no other experience than being one of 
the fortunate shareholders in the Hartley and Riley Company ! 
The success of this company gave a great impetus to the 
dredging industry. Claims were taken up in all rivers where 
prospects of gold were obtained on the beaches. Flats and 
shallow alluvial ground, where water was available, were 
taken up in claims to be worked by dredges, and the dredging 
industry still continues to be carried on successfully in Otago. 
It has been the means of a large quantity of gold being ob- 
tained in that part of New Zealand which could not have been 
got by any other known system. The quantity of gold obtained 
by dredging operations for the past seven years has been 
533,CG8oz., representing £2,134,674. Taking the quantity 
of gold obtained by fifty of the dividend-paying dredging 


companies in Otago, for four years ending 1904 it amounted 
to £920,019, out of which £319,268 was paid in diridends. 
The capital of these companies amounted in the aggregate to 
£393,272, which shows that gold-dredging is a fairly profit- 
able industry. 

West Ooast. 

Dredging on the West Coast has not been carried on so 
eztensirely as in Otago, nor have dredges been used for the 
same period. The nature of the river-beds on the West Coast 
is different from that of the river-beds in Otago. The rivers 
flow through a densely timbered country, and in their beds 
are large quantities of submerged timber; in addition to 
this, there are huge stones among the gravel-drift. This 
necessitates much stronger dredges than were at first em- 
ployed. When dredging commenced on the West Coast some 
of the small dredges from Otago were purchased, and for a 
considerable time only small dredges were constructed, which 
resulted in many failures. These dredges were practically use- 
less for the operations they were intended to perform, but the 
dredges latterly constructed have worked with considerable 

Taking the three years ending the Slst December, 1905, 
twelve dredges obtained gold to the value of £314,054. The 
total value of gold obtained by dredges on the West Coast is 
approximately about £650,000, out of which about £80,000 
has been paid in dividends. 


The dredging industry in the colony has given employ- 
ment to a large population, and has been the means of gold 
to the value of £2,784,674 being obtained which otherwise 
could not have been got. It has given fresh impetus also to 
mining in parts of the colony where the population was 
turning its attention to the finding of employment in other 
channels. Dredges applied to mining are machines which can 
be profitably employed in working the beds of rivers and 
flwamps, which they drain and render cultivable ; but in work- 
ing flats and alluvial ground, where water is available or 


can be brought on for hydraulic elevating and sluicing, their 
use is not commendable. The reason of this is apparent. In 
working ground bj hydraulic elevating the bottom is laid bare 
on the bed-rock; the crevices can be completely cleaned out, 
and all the gold obtained. This cannot be done by dredging, 
especially if the rock bottom is hard and jointy; dredges 
cannot avoid leaving a deal of gold on the bottom. Stationary 
washing and gold>saving appliances, where the inclination of 
boxes and tables is completely steady, are far more effective for 
saving gold than when they are subjected to the vibrations of 
a dredge. Dredges are capable of lifting large quantities of 
gravel-drift, but they are very defective in appliances for 
saving the gold. Many improvements have already been made 
in the gold-saving appliances on dredges; the difficulty lies in 
the character of the gold found in river-beds, being in many 
instances in very finely divided particles, requiring a much 
greater width of tables to save a large percentage of it than 
can be constructed on a dredge. The fine material requires 
to be carried by water in a thin film over the tables, and this 
cannot be done on dredges raising a large quantity of auri- 
ferous drift. 


By Jamss Coutts, Inspector of Mines. 

Thb Hauraki Goldfields extend from the Great Barrier Island, 
north of Auckland, to Te Puke, twenty-five miles south of 
Tauranga, a distance of two hundred miles. The discovery of 
gold was first made in 1852 by a settler named Charles Ring, 
who asserted that he had found gold upon Cape Colville 
Peninsula, forty miles east of Auckland, in the vicinity of 
Coromandel Harbour, and in the Kapanga Stream (now known 
as the Driving Creek). The specimens produced by Mr. Ring 
were pieces of auriferous quartz and some fine gold obtained 
by washings from the gravel in the creek. A reward com- 
mittee having been formed in Auckland, a reward of £500 
was promised to the discoverer of a payable goldfield in the 
northern district of New Zealand, and as Mr. Ring put in a 
claim for the reward, commissioners were sent to investigate 
the matter, and confirmed the existence of gold, but left it 
doubtful as to whether there was a goldfield extensive and rich 
enough to pay for working. The excitement in Auckland at 
this time was intense, and nearly all work was suspended, the 
general conversation being about the rich discovery of gold, 
all being eager to make a bid for fortune. The greater 
number of the male population, including three thousand 
miners, flocked to the scene of the discovery; but, as at all 
new finds, most of them were greatly disappointed in not 
getting gold without much labour. The land upon which the 
gold was found belonged to the Natives; therefore an agree- 
ment had to be made with them, resulting in an exemp- 
tion being given for the first two months, £1 10s. to be then 
paid by each for a digger's license. The diggers obtained good 
prospects in the Kapanga Stream and Matawai Creek, but as 


nothing of a payable or permanent character was met with, 
and difficulties again arose with the Natives, the place was 
practically abandoned within six months. The general verdict 
was that'the field was too poor, and the promised reward of 
£500 was withheld from the discoverer. The whole produce 
of the goldfield was about £11,000. The largest nugget found 
was a round piece of quartz about li in. in diameter, which 
contained gold to the value of £10. In October, 1861, Coro- 
mandel again attracted attention, and in April of the follow- 
ing year about two hundred and fifty diggers assembled on 
the field. Owing probably to a better knowledge of sluicing 
for gold than the diggers had at the previous rush, better 
results were obtained. On the 28th June, 1862, Coromandel 
was proclaimed a goldfield, and Mr. H. H. Turton was ap- 
pointed Commissioner. On the Matawai and Tiki Creeks 
pieces of quartz weighing from 30 oz. to 40 oz. and one piece of 
11 lb. in weight were found, containing, it was supposed, 50 
to 60 per cent, of gold. A party who began to work a quartz 
reef on the Eapanga is said to have obtained from one ton of 
quartz, by crushing and washing, 2^ oz. of gold. From this 
time the development of the quartz lodes commenced in this 
locality, and from 1864 to 1867 (the year the Thames Goldfield 
was opened) the Eapanga Mine was worked in a systematic 
manner under the able management of Mr. Reeves, and a large 
quantity of gold was produced, some of the specimens obtained 
yielding from 1 oz. to 6 oz. of gold to the pound of stone. 
Witli the rush to the Thames at this time Coromandel was again 
almost deserted. Then rich gold was found on the Tokatea 
Hill, when a reaction took place, and, as new finds were dis- 
covered from time to time, mining has been carried on con- 
tinuously ever since, although there have been depressions at 
times, as is the case at present. There are still great pro- 
babilities of the prospects of Coromandel improving, more 
especially as there is a large block of country unprospected, 
extending from the Manaia to the Mata Stream, and from the 
Thames-Coromandel Main Road, on the western side of the 
range, to the foot of the hills on the eastern side. This 
portion of the district seems to have been neglected in the 


past, no doubt on account of it being heavily covered with 
bush, and owing to the rough, broken nature of the country. 

In 1865 it was rumoured that gold had been discovered at 
the Thames, two men having reported the circumstance to a 
gentleman connected with the Herald (Auckland), and several 
specimens were exhibited which were said to have been found 
in the Earaka Creek. The find was reported to the Super- 
intendent of the Auckland Province (Mr. Robert Graham), but, 
owing to troubles and disagreements with the Natives, the 
matter stood in abeyance until the dispute was partially 
settled. In 1867, through the influence of the Hon. Dr. Pollen, 
aided by Mr. James Mackay's thorough knowledge of the Maori 
language and manners, the Natives consented to open up that 
block of land between the Kuranui and Karaka Creeks for 
gold-mining, on condition that the miners would give to the 
Natives £1 for each miner's right issued for the block and 
£1 5s. for each kauri-tree used by them. The first batch of 
diggers that arrived on the field directed their attention to 
finding alluvial gold in and at the lower end of the Earaka 
Creek. Shafts were sunk to a depth of over 100 ft. through 
gravel and boulders, but without finding a bottom, the water 
being heavy to contend with, necessitating constant baling; 
and, although gold was found in washing the gravel, it was 
not in sufficient quantities to pay. On the 10th August, Huiit, 
White, Clarkson, and Cobley discovered a gold-bearing leader 
in the Euranui Creek under a small stream of water that was 
running over a waterfall about 12 ft. in height. Owing to the 
gold being of a light colour, due to a fair percentage of silver, 
a number of the miners who had been on the diggings on the 
west coast of New Zealand and Australia had doubts as to 
whether it was gold or not, but this was soon proved by a 
parcel of the ore that was treated in Auckland. A rush im- 
mediately set in, and claims were pegged off in every direction, 
and in a number of them, especially in the Euranui Hill, gold 
was found in the leaders cropping out on the surface. The 
-country being a soft tufaccous rock, requiring little timbering, 
mining was carried on without much danger, even by those 
unaccustomed to this kind of work; and, as specimens could 


be treated at small expense, in a very short time after the 
field was opened it was as good as an allurial diggings for 
a number of miners. The importance of the discovery and 
opeuing-up of the Thames Goldfield can be gathered from the 
fact that, between August, 1867, and 30th June, 1869, duty 
was paid in Auckland on 129,211 oz. of gold, the value of 
which was estimated at £264,425. 

When it was found that the Thames was so rich there was 
a great clamour for the opening-up of the Ohinemuri district, 
but on account of the opposition shown by the Natives it was 
not until the early part of 1875 that this portion of the 
country was declared a goldfield. In April of that year gold 
in payable quantities was found at Tairua. In August, 1880, 
traces of gold were again found at Te Aroha, and three months 
later the district was thrown open for prospecting and for the 
location of claims. 

The gold in the Thames portion of the district is more or 
less patchy as a rule, and the subsequent annual production 
of the Thames Goldfield has fluctuated considerably. The 
highest point was reached in 1871, when the value of gold 
entered for export amounted to £1,188,708. This was due 
principally to the rich shoot of ore discovered in the Golden 
Crown Company's property and followed into the old Cale- 
donian Company's mine, which enabled the latter to pay in 
dividends £553,440 within twelve months. After this the pro- 
duction greatly diminished, and for the year ending the 31st 
March, 1895, only 22,810 oz. were returned from what is 
termed the Thames Goldfield — the lowest production since the 
field was first opened. The claims overlooking Grahamstown, 
with few exceptions, have been continuously worked since 1867, 
although some of theui have changed their names. Every 
claim from the Kuranui to the Earaka Creek has produced 
large quantities of gold and paid handsome dividends to the 
shareholders; and not later than eighteen months ago a rich 
shoot of ore was discovered in the Waiotahi Company's mine 
at the No. 4 level, in what is termed the " Big Reef," from 
which the magnificent sum of £51,000 was paid in dividends 
to the shareholders during last year. There are 60,000 shares 
in the company, and it is fully expected sufficient gold will be 


obtained to enable the directors to declare a dividend of 58. 
per share every month during the present year. This has 
given great encouragement to the other companies holding the 
adjacent mines, and, although nothing of importance has been 
discovered in any of the other mines for some time past, yet 
some shareholders are still sanguine that rich finds may be 
got at any time. 

There is a large tract of country unprospected between the 
mines worked at the Thames and the east coast, where gold 
may yet be found in payable quantities. Tairua Broken Hills 
Mine continues to employ a number of men, and the Golden 
Belt Company's battery at Neavesville, comprising forty heads 
•of stamps, with all the necessary amalgamating and cyanide 
appliances, is to be started at an early *date, when it is ex- 
pected payable returns will be obtained from the company's 
.ground, which includes several of the mines that were worked 
in the early days and which produced a large quantity of gold. 
The Auckland (late Mananu) and the Waimangu mines, at 
Whangamata, are employing a number of men, the former 
producing gold in payable quantities from the upper levels. 

The Ohinemuri district, when it was opened, proved very 
disappointing. The Earangahake Gorge was rushed, and. the 
ground pegged out for miles around, but as the gold-bearing 
quartz was different from that found in Thames and Coro- 
mandel, and as no quartz could be treated for some time, a 
number of the claims were soon abandoned. A small battery 
was erected, and, although some of the quartz treated con- 
tained gold in payable quantities, the mode of treatment being 
'by amalgamation, a large percentage of the gold was not 
recovered, and in consequence the claims did not pay. This 
was some time prior to the cyanide process being discovered, 
and little systematic mining was carried out in this locality 
for some years afterwards. 

At Waitekauri mining for a time was more successful, as 
rich gold was found in the Waitekauri Claim, in which Messrs. 
Bleazard and Brown had an interest. They erected a forty- 
stamp mill, a large water-wheel to drive the machinery, and 
a ground tramway over a mile in length connecting the mine 
with the battery, costing several thousands of pounds. After 


working the mine for something like two years, the rich shoot 
of ore not continuing down and the ore from the other parts 
of the mine not paying working-expenses, the mine was closed 
down. After this little was done in that locality for several 
years. The same may be said about this as Earangahake : 
a large percentage of gold was lost in the treatment at the 

There were very few left in Waitekauri after this, as 
there was no employment for labour, but Mr. John McCombie 
and Mr. Robert Lee, who were prospecting in the district, de- 
cided, in the month of February, 1878, on trying the country 
eastward ; this led them in the direction of what is now knowD 
as the Waihi Mine, and before reaching the place they could see 
the outcrop of the lode on a rounded spur rising above the 
plain. They then made for the place, and no time was lost in 
breaking out samples of the quartz and crushing it with the 
head of their picks and then washing it off, with the result that 
fair dish prospects were obtained, and on examining the lode 
they found it to be about 20 ft. in width, running in a 
northerly direction, and dipping towards the east. As the 
ore appeared to be richest at the northern end of the outcrop, 
they determined to test the lode there at a depth of 60 ft. 
below the surface by driving a crosscut from the western side of 
the spur. The crosscut required to be driven 200 ft. to inter- 
sect the lode. This was accomplished in about four months, 
when the footwall branch of the lode was cut through and 
found to be 17 ft. in width, good prospects of gold and silver 
being obtained from any part of it. A trial lot of 2 tona 
was conveyed to Owharoa, where it was treated in the Smile 
of Fortune battery for a return of 1 oz. 3 dwt. of bullion, 
value £2 178. 6d. per ounce. But previous to this samples 
were assayed at the Bank of New Zealand, Thames, that gave 
assay values as high as £4 6s. per ton, which showed that a 
large percentage of the bullion was lost in the treatment of the 
2 tons by the usual amalgamation process then in general use. 
The prospectors tried their best to induce others to find money 
to develop this property, and several mining experts examined 
the lode from time to time, but in every case it was unfavour- 
ably reported upon. 



2 H 
O T 



CO g 
^ g 

< s 




While waiting for something to turn up, gold was dis- 
covered by Hone Werahiko at Te Aroha, and Messrs. McCombie 
and Lee left for the new find. During their absence a pro- 
spector from Coromandel, named W. NichoU, inspected the 
workings, and was so well pleased with the prospects he 
obtained from the lode that he induced some of his friends 
to peg out and apply for several claims on the strike of what 
18 now known as the " Martha Lode." As there was no person 
on the claim at the time NichoU went there, he had no difficulty 
in getting it forfeited, and was put in possession of the 
ground. Through the influence of Mr. Adam Porter he 
succeeded in forming a company in Auckland, and soon got 
two batteries erected. One of these was kept going for a 
nunaber of years, and something like 18,000 tons of ore was 
treated for about an average of 4dwt. to the ton. As the 
Waihi Company has since worked out the blocks of ground on 
the lode that were left both above and below the old workings 
for returns varying from £2 to £3 per ton, it shows that the 
loss of gold by the mode of treatment in use at that time was 
something incredible. As the mine was not paying operations 
were suspended, and it was let on tribute to Mr. Hollis and 
party. Mr. J. W. Walker and others, holders of the Union and 
Rosemont Mines, induced Mr. Thomas Russell to form a com- 
pany in London to work those claims, which are situated in 
the lower ground and nearer the river than the Martha Mine. 
The Waihi Company was registered in 1887, but in 1895 it 
was again known as the Union-Waihi Gold-mining Company 
(Limited). There were two reefs in this ground — the Union 
reef and the Amaranth reef — both of considerable size, be* 
sides several smaller reefs, and upwards of £33,000 was 
obtained from the Union lode in the earlier years of the 
company. This did not prove a payable concern, although 
the company had expended a large amount of money in 
erecting machinery. In 1890 the company purchased the 
Martha Special Claim, and from 1891 the Martha ore and 
that won from the Union ground was all crushed together up 
to 1893. The quantity of ore treated that year was 19,805 
tons, for £61,900 lOs. lid. From this time on the returns 
have steadily increased, till in 1905 no less than 298,531 tons 
of ore was crushed and treated for 1,192,046 oz. of bullion. 


▼alue £751,233 Ss. 4d.,* and diyidends amounting to 
£322,339 lls.f were paid to the shareholders during the year. 
To enable this large quantity of ore to be treated the ma- 
chinery and appliances, both at the mine and batteries, had 
to be increased proportionately at considerable cost, and great 
credit is due to the management for the substantial and satis- 
factory manner in which eYer3^hing has been carried out. 
The Martha Mine, being situated on rising ground, gave an 
opportunity of constructing the tramways on an easy grade for 
conveying the ore from the mine to the three crushing-mills, 
which consist of 330 stamps, tube mills, kc, which are aU 
erected as low and near the river as possible, so as to take 
advantage of the available water in the river and streams to 
be used as motive power. In the mine there are also great 
natural advantages. The lodes in most cases have only a 
slight underlie, being sometimes nearly vertical, and on this 
account the pressure on the timber in the workings is com- 
paratively light. The surface of the hill being of a soft, 
friable nature, and easily broken, is sent down the passes for 
filling into the stopes, where the ore is broken out at com- 
paratively little cost. There are numerous lodes opened up 
and worked in the mine, varying in places from 3 ft. to 87 ft. 
in width, to a depth of 700 ft. The prospects at the lowest 
level are promising and exceedingly encouraging, as is borne 
out by the recent large monthly returns. 

The Grand Junction Company's mine, which adjoins the 
Waihi Company's mine on the eastern side of the Martha 
Hill, continues to be vigorously exploited by sinking, driving, 
and opening up blocks of ground on the lode between Nos. 1 
and 2 levels preparatory to commencing crushing. The pro- 
spects met with at No. 2 level are said to be very satisfactory. 
The company being evidently well satisfied, a large crushing 
plant, consisting of forty stamps, together with all up-to-date 
machinery and appliances for the treatment of the ore, is in 
course of erection and completion. 

The Waihi Extended Company, Waihi Consolidated, and 
others are carrying on prospecting operations, but beyond 

* Including values of ooncentrates and tailings dags shipped; also 
treated at Waikina 

t Also bonus ; making total of £346,228 10b. 3d for year. 


assays there has been very little ore treated outside of the 
Waihi Company's mine for some time past. 

During the last ten years a number of men have been 
constantly employed at Earaugahake in the New Zealand 
Crown and the Talisman Consolidated Mines. Although the 
Crown Mine has not been as successful for the last two years 
as formerly, the prospects are again more encouraging, 
and it is expected that better returns will soon be forth- 
coming. 17,541 tons of ore was treated during the year 1905 
for £36,516 8s. lOd. On the other hand, a great improvement 
has taken place in the Talisman Consolidated Mine, 44,725 
tons of ore being treated for the splendid return of £129,088 
Ss. lOd., which, after all expenses were paid, left a profit en- 
abling the directors to pay dividends amounting to £30,000. 

The Eomata Reefs Mine has been steadily worked, and, 
although no rich runs of ore have been met with to cause any 
excitement, the returns of gold have been maintained. 16,820 
tons of ore was treated last year for a value of £42,432 17s. 
8d. Through careful and economical management, dividends 
amounting to £13,333 68. 8d. were paid to the shareholders. 

The Golden Cross Mine, which was discovered by Lowrie 
brothers in the latter end of 1893, and afterwards purchased 
by Mr. T. H. Russell, and called the Waitekauri Company, 
has been closed down for the last two years. This mine at 
first bade fair to be better than even the Waihi Mine, as the 
first crushing of 600 tons of ore treated yielded 7,600 pounds' 
worth of bullion. A large quantity of valuable ore was 
extracted from the mine, but the gold did not go down, and 
prospecting at the deepest level, as well as boring, failed to 
give the company any encouragement to do further work. 

The Te Aroha and Waiorongomai mines, which gave pro- 
mise at times of turning out successfully, have proved very 
disappointing, as Hardy's company has stopped all opera- 
tions, owing to the mine not paying, and pending the con- 
struction of a new company. This is the most southerly mine 
in which gold has been obtained in this district in payable 
quantities; but gold has been found on the eastern side of 
the range, in the Eliza Claim near Eatikati, and also on what 
is termed Fleming's Freehold, at Te Puke, twenty-five miles 
south of Tauranga. 


To the north of Auckland, on the Great Barrier Island, 
there are two mines working — the Barrier Reefs and the 
Sunbeam Gold-mining Companies. The Barrier Reefs Com- 
pany, although in liquidation, have seven men employed in 
the mine and two men at the battery treating tailings, which 
contain gold in payable quantities. The Sunbeam Company, 
which has been prospecting its mine for some considerable 
time, is well satisfied with the results obtained, and haa 
erected a fiye-stamp battery, with the necessary gold-saving 
appliances, and intends to commence crushing operations at 
an early date. 

Copper, Antimony, Manganese, and Oalena Lodee. 

Something like forty years ago a copper-mine was worked 
on Great Barrier Island, which gave employment to a number 
of men, under the management of Captain Higgins; but, as 
the ore was all shipped to England for treatment and the 
freight at that time was something like £1 per ton, and 
high wages had to be paid to the miners, these factors had 
a good deal to do with the mine not paying and with its 

A copper- mine was worked on the Kawau Island nearly 
fifty years ago. Here tl^y had a suielting-furnace, &c., but 
for similar reasons to those given iu connection with the Great 
Barrier Mine the venture did not pay. 

Antimony, manganese, and galena lodes have also been 
found on Kawau, varying from 1 ft. to 5 ft. in width, but 
little work has been done on them to prove their value. 

Prospectors have lately discovered copper-ore near Eaeo 
and Whangaroa, which is said to contain from 15 to 90 per 
cent, of copper, and, as further developments are proceeding, 
a discovery of importance may be heard of here at any time. 

The Pubipuhi district, north of Wliangarci, was first 
opened in 1875. A number of people rushed to the place 
in anticipation that a new El Dorado had been discovered, 
as the ore resembled Earangahake quartz; but as it was 
argentiferous oro containing little gold, and as it got into 
the hands of people who had little knowledge of the treatment 
of this kind of ore, and who formed companies and erected 










machinery unsuitable for the work it had to perform, it 
turned out a failure. Still, the Puhipuhi ilange, which ex- 
tends a distance of twenty miles in a northerly direction, is 
unexplored, and an important discovery may yet be made in 
this locality. 

Manganese was worked for a number of years. It was 
found at the following places : Bay of Islands, Purua Bay, 
Ma.ngapai, Otonga, and Waiheke. The Waiheke Island is 
distant about twelve miles in an easterly direction from Auck- 
land. Dr. John Storer, who reported on the manganese lodes 
on what is known as the Ardrossan Estate, consisting of about 
6,000 acres, says, " From the northern end of the island there 
is trcuK^able for a distance of some seven miles an intrusive 
belt of rock giving abundant indications of manganese on the 
surface. At two points during the past years manganese has 
been worked, and some thousands of tons mined and shipped." 
Mr. Dunn, the Victorian expert, said of the same estate, '* On 
the south side of the property water-access is furnished by 
Man-of-War Bay, and a substantial jetty has been built. 
From this point ore could be shipped from the southern half 
of the estate. On the west side there is a small bay where 
scows, &c., can be conveniently loaded, and which commands 
the northerly portion of the property." Of the manganese- 
deposit he says, '' Manganese-ore occurs in a more massive 
form than I have ever met with elsewhere, and its excellent 
quality is shown by the results of two assays made by Mr. 
Pond of two quantities of 30 tons each taken from different 
portions of the estate. No. 1, metallic manganese, 56*63 per 
cent.; No. 2, metallic manganese, 5634 per cent." Ten tons 
of ore was shipped from this estate about seven years ago, but 
nothing has been done on it since. The lodes Ix^ing bunchy 
(opening out and contracting suddenly), and as the price of 
manganese fell in the market, this, doubtless, had something 
to do with this property not having been more vigorously 

Oold-mining a Profitable Industry. 

Referring to gold-mining again, it not unfrcqucntly hap< 
pens that people are heard to say gold-mining is a hazardous 


thing to have anything to do with; but this is not so with 
careful speculation. It has, no doubt, paid handsomely in 
this district. Speculation in the rise or fall of shares in 
the market, where unlucky persons buy in at a high price 
and sell at a low price, or vice versa, is not mining; it is 
simply gambling. But when it is considered that the sum 
of £416,972 17s. 8d. has been paid in dividends from four 
mines in this district during the year 1905, it will convince 
most people that mining as an industry does pay. What 
other industry can show such a profit as this has done to the 
original shareholders of those companies? Should no unfore- 
seen accident happen, the value of the output of bullion from 
the mines in the Hauraki Mining District for 1906 will sur- 
pass the record return for 1871, which is the largest up to the 
present, being £1,188,708. 


The coal-mining industry in the North Island is increas- 
ing, but the coal is entirely used for house-consumption, local 
industries, and the coastal steamers. The coal-seams north of 
Auckland are semi-bituminous, but the coal is not adapted 
for exportation, and not equal to the West Coast coal of the 
Middle Island. There are only three mines working in the 
Whangarei district. The Kiripaka Mine ships its coal from 
Ngunguru in small coasting - boats. The Hikurangi Coal 
Company and the Northern Company's mines are both at 
Hikurangi. The coal is carried on the railway a distance of 
fourteen miles and shipped at Whangarei. The seams of coal 
in all these mines are opening up exceedingly well, and there 
is no difficulty in getting sufficient coal to supply the demand. 
The seams generally vary from 5 ft. to 8 ft. in thickness. 
There appears to be a large tract of coal country between 
Whangarei and Eawakawa (Bay of Islands), but in all pro- 
bability it will be found at a depth, and, as Mr. Moody has 
started boring operations with the diamond drill to the north 
along the railway-line from the present mines, an important 
discovery may be made at any time. 

In the Waikato district, south of Auckland, brown coal is 
mined. The Taupiri Coal-mines (Limited) owns the principal 


mine, which includes what was formerly known as the Taupiri 
Reserve, Taupiri Extended, and Ralph's Taupiri; and these 
are still worked in three distinct sections, no connection 
haying jet been made underground from one mine to the 
other. The seam varies from 30 ft. to 50 ft. in thickness, 
and in places is worked to a height of 24 ft. A large area 
of coal has been opened up. At the Union Collieries, near 
Mercer, as the mine is opened up the seam is proving to be 
much better than at first anticipated. The bulk of the coal 
from this mine is purchased by the Waihi Company. The 
mine is at a disadvantage compared with the other mines in 
the district, as the coal has to be taken down the Maramarua 
River in barges, where it has again to be loaded into the 
railway - trucks, the distance by the river being something 
like ten miles. The Taupiri South continues prospecting and 
working a small area on the outcrop near Ralph's old mine, 
ou the eastern side of the railway at Huntly, but the quanfity 
of coal in sight is very limited. The Drury Coal-mine has 
not turned out as well as anticipated, and the company is now 
directing its attention to making pipes, bricks, &c. 

The Mokau Coal-mine appears to be only able to dispose 
of coal for the small coastal steamers and the local consump- 
tion round Waitara. The output does not exceed 4,000 tons 
a year. There is evidently a large area of coal extending 
from the Mokau to the Wairoa River, south of Auckland, a 
distance of a hundred miles, as the outcrop has been found 
at various places. 

The following is a comparison of the output of coal in the 
Northern District during the past year and what it was ten 

years ago: — 

Total output for the year 1905 ... 259,876 

Total output for the year 1895 ... 135,738 

Showing an increase of ... 124,138 



By D. V. Allkn, B.8c., A.O.S.M., Director Coromandel School of Mwh^ 

The Coromandel Goldfield is picturesquely situated on the 
western side of Cape Colville Peninsula, some forty-fire mile» 
east of the City of Auckland, from which it is separated by 
the Hauraki Gulf. It has the honour of being the oldest 
goldfield in New Zealand, the first authenticated discorery 
of gold being made in 1852 by Mr. Charles Ring, an ex- 
perienced Californian digger. A rush set in, and thousands 
of diggers were soon at work, but results proved disappoint- 
ing, and in less than a year mining operations were discon- 
tinued. Prospecting was still carried on to a limited extent, 
but the work was attended with no small risk owing to the 
hostility of the Natives. The field remained in a languishing 
state till 1861, when it received a fresh impetus, and mining 
was carried on with great activity in the Eapanga area. The 
Kapanga Mine, which was the centre of operations, proved 
very remunerative, and was the first to attract English capital. 
From 18G4 to 1869 it produced gold to the value of £100,000. 
It was then thought that the gold had been worked out, but 
subsequent discoveries proved this conclusion to be incorrect;, 
the run of gold was again picked up, and the mine once more 
successfully worked. The history of this mine is but a re 
capitulation of the history of most of the Coromandel mines, 
for it is a characteristic feature of the field generally that 
the gold occurs in shoots or patches, often of phenomenal rich- 
ness. It is therefore no criterion that, because a mine is 
apparently worked out, further developments may not prove 
it to be a veritable bonanza; and for this reason, if for none 
other, the field will always be a home to the tributer and an 
attraction to the speculator. None better exemplifies the 
glorious uncertainty and romance of mining — a single blow of 
the pick may unearth a fortune. Suffice it to say that this 


mine has been in operation off and on till the year 1900, the 
total value of gold won from it being approximately £175,000. 
Two years ago it was acquired by Messrs. Comes and HoUis^ 
who have confined operations to the locating of a reputed rich 
leader. Their efforts have recently been rewarded by the un- 
earthing of rich specimens in the bottom of a winze. Twenty 
pounds of selected specimens, some of them being half gold^ 
have been valued at £250. About the year 1870 gold was 
first discovered on the Tokatea Range, and soon after a com- 
pany that was formed worked the Tokatea reef and the No. 1 
Tribute leader for about eighteen years, obtaining 55,273 oa. 
of gold, valued at £159,535, and paying in dividends 
£63,625. All this gold was obtained above the No. 7 level. 
For Eeveral years following very little work was done. The 
property then passed into the hands of an English company^ 
was amalgamated with an adjoining property, and subse- 
quently known as tho Royal Oak of Hauraki. It gave good 
returns for some years, but these falling off the property was 
eventually sold to an Auckland syndicate, who, after obtain- 
ing some fair crushings, let it on tribute. 

In 1872 the Green Harp shoot of gold was discovered, and 
yielded over 40,000 pounds' worth of gold. It is comprised 
in what is now known as the Union Beach section of the 
Hauraki Mine. After this period the yield of gold gradually 
decreased, but in 1885 a further fillip was given to mining by 
the discovery of gold on the Tiki. In spite of vigorous pro- 
specting the returns were rather poor. 

It was left for the famous Hauraki Mine to give the 
desired impetus to the field, and it may be said that the 
phenomenally rich gold discovered in this mine was the im- 
mediate forerunner of the biggest mining boom that has 
occurred in connection with the Auckland Goldfields within 
recent times. Under the name of the *' Coromandel Gold 
Company/' this mine first came into existence in 1886. The 
returns, however, were not very large, the quantity of ore 
being little, but exceedingly rich. The commencement of the 
aforesaid boom, which lasted for three years, was coincident 
with the discovery of extremely rich ore in this mine in 1895 


by a tributer named Legge, who with his mates took out 
some thousands of ounces of gold in the course of a few months. 
The excitement was of the wildest description, and very soon 
the whole field became a scene of great activity. In four 
years 250,000 pounds' worth of gold was raised from this 

Such is a brief account of some of the leading mines. In 
indicating the possibilities of future operations we must bear 
in mind that the surface portions of the reefs have, for the 
most part, been worked out, and that work at greater depths 
can only be carried on at considerable expense. Adequate 
winding machinery and powerful pumping plants would be 
required. With the exception of the Kapanga, very little was 
done in the way of development- work, which should have been 
actively prosecuted when the mines were getting good returns. 
What is now wanted is the formation of a strong company that 
would undertake to unwater the mines and further sink the 
present shafts. The deepest workings in the Hauraki Mine 
are only 400 ft. below the surface. From a shaft sunk below 
the No. 7 adit level in the Royal Oak trial crushings of over 
4oz. to the ton have been taken out, clearly indicating that 
the gold is living down. In the Kapanga shaft good gold was 
got at the 940 ft. level, also in a 200 ft. bore put down from 
the bottom of the shaft, which is 1,000 ft. in depth. 

The value of the gold varies for different localities from 
£2 12s. to £3 5s. per ounce, but is fairly constant for any 
given locality. It occurs mostly in shoots in small quartz 
reefs traversing decomposed andesite; where the latter is 
hard and undecomposed the reefs are generally barren. As 
in most goldfields, certain local indications in the country 
often precede the discovery of rich quartz — e.g., at the inter- 
section of cross-reefs carrying sulphides, the presence of native 
arsenic, &c. The andesite rocks are underlain by the older 
Palaeozoic slates and shales, which are mostly non -auriferous. 
These sedimentary rocks have been met with in the lower levels 
of the Royal Oak, but from their dip they are not likely to be 
encountered in the other mines — at least, not until great 
depth has been attained. Thus, in the Kapanga Mine there 
is no sign of them at 1,200 ft. in depth. 


Probably no reefs could be more variable in course, dip, 
and gold-content than those of the Coromandel Goldfield. 
Thoee in the Hauraki Mine are so disturbed by repeated 
faults and slides that their economical working demands 
great care and experience. They ramify in all directions, 
and it is almost impossible to state their general trend. The 
Kapanga reef is probably the most defined. It runs north 
and south, dipping to the west at 45^, and was cut in the 
shaft at 600 ft. Parallel to it, 100 ft. away, is Scotty's reef, 
which has yielded a lot of gold. The Big Tokatea reef, or 
blow, is a mass of quartz outcropping at an elevation of over 
1,000 ft., striking north and south and dipping west at 50^. 
It contains gold to the extent of about 2 dwt. per ton, and is 
therefore unpayable to work under present methods. The 
croes-reefs running east and west on the foot-wall side of the 
Big reef are the most important, and from these has been de- 
rived nearly uU the gold from the Tokatea. The cross-reefs 
on the hanging-wall side have proved profitless. 

The Success Mine is further to the south, but still on the 
foot- wall side of the Big reef. Its reefs are patchy in nature, 
and have yielded good returns. 

The New Four-in-Hand, in the Waikoromiko district, is 
a mine of considerable promise, and has yielded a good deal 
of gold in the past. This district presents great possibilities 
for future prospecting. 

From the foregoing it will be admitted, even by the most 
sceptical, that the possibilities of the field are great, and there 
is no reason to doubt but that the abandoned mine of to-day 
is the dividend-paying mine of the future. 



By Warden Bush. 

Gold-mining in the Hauraki district is really in its infancy, 
very little mining below 500 ft. to 600 ft. having been done. 
Many portions of the goldfields have not even been prospected, 
although taken up as mining claims at times when rushes are 
on, to be dropped again shortly afterwards, as the holders 
could not work the ground for want of capital. Large areas 
were taken up and held for purely speculative purposes, in 
the hope that some one might be induced to put money into 
them. There are many abandoned claims about in which more 
or less gold has been obtained, but as the run of gold ran out 
the owners, not having means to carry on development-works, 
had to abandon the claims. These, no doubt, will again be 
sought after in course of time, and may then become fairly 
good properties. 

Minerals other than Gold and Silver. 

On the Hauraki goldfields other minerals besides gold and 
silver have from time to time been discovered, but none have 
been handled on a sufficiently large-enough scale to prove 
whether they will recompense extensive development. The 
want of means is mainly the cause of this, very little beyond 
proving their existence having been so far undertaken. The 
minerals referred to are cinnabar, manganese, copper, fullers' 
earth, and haematite. The latter is the only one that has 
been worked to any extent. Opals have also been found, but 
the want of means on the part of the discoverers has prevented 
the value of the find being ascertained. No doubt, in the 
no-distant future persons will be found to provide capital to 
thoroughly test these areas where these minerals are known to 
exist. Should this Ije done it is possible some of the ventures 
may prove profitable. 











r '^ 

u §. 


Opals, — Two mineral licenses to search for opals were 
issued, both on Block III, Tairua Survey District, but nothing 
beyond the fact of eliciting that opals existed was done on the 
areas taken up. 

Manganese and Copper. — ^A mineral license to search for 
manganese and copper was taken out for a piece of ground in 
the parish of Otau, Block XIV, Wairoa Survey District. 
This area is still being worked, but with what result is not 
ascertainable. The ground has never been protected since it 
was taken up in the year 1900, and as the rents have been 
paid up at fairly regular intervals it may be presumed that 
the owners have some inducement, from indications known, for 
retaining possession of the ground. 

Hcematite. — Some thirty years ago a miner found crude 
hsematite-ore in seams of various thickness at Thames, and 
started roasting it in a very primitive fashion, but for want of 
means he eventually gave up the task of trying to do something 
with it. Later on others made an attempt to work it, which 
led to its being taken up by a party, and a company was 
subsequently formed- to work it. The haematite has for some 
years been worked by the New Zealand Varnish and Paint 
Manufacturing Company (Limited), Thames. This company 
employs about ten hands, and manufactures about 2 tons of 
hjtmatite weekly. At the present time the crude hsDmatite is 
obtained from the 250 ft. and 400 ft. levels of the Kuranui- 
Caledonian Mine; the ore, however, is obtainable in many 
other mines at the Thames. This is an industry well worthy 
the attention of investors, as very large quantities of oxide of 
iron are procurable in the mines here. The Varnish and 
Paint Company does not confine its operations to the produc- 
tion of haematite alone, as it also manufactures some 50 
gallons of varnish weekly. 

Fullers' Earth. — A mineral license for 30 acres has recently 
been taken up at Tararu for the purpose of mining for cimo- 
lite. Several lodes, varying from 1ft. Gin. to 16ft., con- 
taining about 80 per cent, of mineral, have been found. The 
crude ore, it is claimed, is worth from £5 lOs. to £11 per ton, 
and when refined and boxed it fetches 6d. per pound. The 


proprietors intend refining and boxing it here in 2 oz. and 
8oz. boxes. The big lode, 16 ft. thick, has been traced for 
300 ft. Six hundredweight of this earth was sent to Lever 
Bros., soap-manufacturers, Sydney, who have requested to 
be supplied with more. This bids fair to become a thriving 
industry in the no-distant future, as the refined commodity 
is much in use all over the world. Probably there are other 
deposits in the vicinity, which only require to be searched for 
to be discovered. 

Quicksilver. — At or near Ohaeawai, in the Bay of Islands, 
an attempt was made some years ago to work the quicksilver- 
deposits by an English syndicate, but the large volumes of 
sulphuretted-hydrogen gas and the intense heat of the ground, 
coupled with the limited extent of the deposits, led to the 
abandonment of operations. The hot springs, better known 
as Tuwhakino and Ngawha, around which the various quick- 
silver-deposits are clustered, lie about two miles to the south- 
east of Lake Omapere, which is situate at the foot of Putahi, 
an extinct volcano. (See paper by A. P. Griffiths, who con- 
ducted the prospecting operations and retorting of the quick- 
silver for the syndicate, in New Zealand Mines Record, Vol. ii, 
16th March, 1899.) 

Cinnabar. — Ninety-four acres up the Kauaeranga Valley 
are held under license to search for cinnabar, which is known 
to exist there. The area is on Block V, Thames Survey Dis- 
trict. This ground has been continuously held by various 
parties since 1898, but the want of capital to develop it has 
prevented the extent of the deposit being ascertained. Cin- 
nabar appears to be distributed over this area in several 
places, but no well-defined lode has yet been discovered out- 
cropping near the surface. There are, however, very good 
indications for the finding of a lode or an occurrence of 
cinnabar here sufficient to warrant systematic prospecting. 
Could a well-defined lode or an occurrence be found which 
would yield from 1 to 2 per cent, of mercury it would pay 



By Warden Roberts. 

The Te Puke Goldfield has received a good deal of attention in 
the way of prospecting during the last ten or twelve years. It 
is situate in the main range running through the country from 
Waihi, and offers great inducements for capitalists and mining 
men to exploit it. 

In the Mines Reports for 1898 there is an exhaustive re- 
port on Te Puke Goldfield from the Government Geologist, Mr. 
Alexander McKay, F.G.S., who, accompanied by Mr. James 
Coutts, Inspector of Mines, paid a visit of inspection to the 
district. In his report Mr. McKay states that the stone 
generally resembles that of the Waihi Mine. 

In 1901 the Thames School of Mines reported on some Te 
Puke ore sent for treatment, that 560 lb. of soft, flaky, white 
quartz averaged by pan- amalgamation £26 9s. lOd. per ton, 
the percentage saved being 75' 6; by the cyanide process a 
parcel of 4,6401b. of the same class of quartz was treated, 
returning an average value of £42 9s., the percentage saved 
being 96*3. Another parcel of similar stone, 6,800 lb. weight, 
yielded at the rate of £29 4s. 8d. per ton, the percentage saved 
being 97*7. These, of course, were picked lots of stone, but 
they prove beyond doubt that the ore-body is a highly auri- 
ferous one. 

The Te Puke Mine is a freehold of 1,100 acres, and to the 
north there is a large area of auriferous country, also freehold. 
To the west and south there is a considerable stretch of Crown 
land that seems equally promising if properly prospected. Mr. 
E. J. Dunn, Government Geologist, Victoria, reporting on the 
Te Puke Mine in 1902, states, *' The enormous reef at Te Puke 
has a marked resemblance, both in the character of the stone 
and the manner in which it projects above the general sur- 
face, to the Martha Reef at Waihi.'' At Te Puke Mine ex- 
ceptionally favourable conditions exist for mining on a large 


«cale and at a cheap rate. Mr. Dtinn winds up by stating, 
" In the whole course of my experience I have not met with a 
gold property offering greater inducements than this does for 
rigorous and extensive development/' Mr. John Hicks, 
mine-manager, who inspected the Te Puke Mine for Home 
^capitalists, states, " The reef on the top level is over 60 ft. 
across, and averages £2 17s. 6d. per ton. The ore could be 
mined and treated for 15s. per ton, and the ore-reserves can 
be worked by adit for a depth of 450 ft.," and adds, " As soon 
as a battery is erected crushing operations with payable results 
oould be carried out." Mr. Andrew Gordon French, mining 
engineer and metallurgist, reporting on the Te Puke Mine in 
1901, fully confirms both the above reports, and adds, " There 
are striking features of similarity to the great Mount Morgan, 
in Queensland." Mr. French made exhaustive tests of the 
value of Te Puke ore, and fully confirms Mr. Hicks's estimate. 
Several attempts have been made without avail to get the 
introduction of the necessary capital to work this reef. So far 
success has not attended these efforts, owing to unforeseen and 
fortuitous circumstances, and the field is at present lying idle 
and languishing for the want of capital. Judging by the 
favourable reports referred to, there is no doubt that, should 
the necessary capital be forthcoming to prospect this portion 
of the Hauraki Mining District, there is every likelihood of it 
eventually developing into a profitable goldfield. 








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By A. WiLLSK, Journaliat, New Plymouth. 

Taranaki is often called ''the Garden of New Zealand/' 
and, presuming that the chief characteristics of a garden are 
its beauty and productiveness, Mokau is certainly deserving 
of premier position in this favoured province. By sea it is 
thirty-five miles northwards from New Plymouth and twenty 
miles from Waitara. The river, which gives its name to the 
district, flows into the Tasman Sea between Waitara and Ka- 
whia, and has at its mouth a bar, which is covered at spring 
tides by 13 ft. of water, and, except in exceptionally rough 
weather, vessels of 80 to 90 tons can easily negotiate the 
•entrance to the port, the rise and fall of the tide being about 
10 ft. On the south head (which is a high cliff) is a signal- 
station with lights; a new wharf has lately been erected on 
the north side of the river adjacent to the township, which 
stands on high ground, and contains the usual accommoda- 
tion-houses, stores, &c., a Maori settlement occupying the 
lower ground near the river, which in its tortuous course flows 
mostly between high perpendicular cliffs covered with dense 
vegetation, presenting scenes of majestic grandeur and sur- 
passing beauty. For twenty-four miles the river is tidal ; 
heyond this, for thirty or forty miles, it is navigable by 
•canoes; then the Waireri Falls present an obstacle to further 
progress. It was a recommendation of the Scenery Preserva- 
tion Commission that the rougher portions of the river- 
frontages, as well as the exceptionally fine reaches, should be 
reserved for all time, and, though this has not yet been done, 
there is little doubt that ere long the necessary steps will be 
taken to prevent the hand of the destroyer from ruthlessly 
effacing some of the grandest river and forest scenery in the 


Mokau is accessible both by land and sea. The two^ 
vessels trading there at present use Waitara as a port of de- 
parture, and there is a fairly regular weekly service between 
the two ports. By road the distance from New Plymouth to 
the ferry is 58^ miles. In the summer months, when the 
roads are dry, it is a very pleasant trip by land, and some 
exceptionally fine scenery en route well repays the time spent 
on the journey, accommodation -houses being met with at con- 
venient stages of the route. During the wet weather of 
winter visitors to Mokau would do better to proceed thither 
by sea — a short and safe journey for which the steamers are 
suitably equipped, and passengers well catered for. 

In addition to its utility as a means of transport and ita 
charm for scenic beauty, the river possesses enormous poten- 
tialities for the generation of electricity. Possibly the time 
may come when this force may be turned to good account as 
the motive power for a light railway that is greatly needed to 
develop the district. At all events, this valuable asset exists, 
and is only waiting for orders to carry out its destiny. 


It is estimated that the Mokau Valley contains at least 
5,700 acres of good milling- timber, or about 17,000,000 ft., 
the Mohakatino Block alone containing about one-half of the 
quantity mentioned. 

The Land. 

The best soil is naturally found on the river flats, where 
some of the richest land in Taranaki exists. The district as 
a whole is all fit for settlement, either agricultural or pastoral, 
though some of the rougher portions would require to be cut 
up into large holdings, and, above the mines, roading would 
be a matter of difficulty. The undulating and flat portions 
of this country are well adapted for dairying, the climate being 
particularly favourable for stock. 

On the southern side of the river is to be found the Mokau- 
Mohakatino Block, of 56,000 acres, the subject of so much 
litigation by Mr. Joshua Jones. As a strong effort is being 
made to induce the Crown to acquire this land for closer 


aettlement, a brief description of the block may be interesting. 
One-fourth of this land is very rough, though available for 
sheep. A similar quantity is considered suitable for sub- 
division into sections of 200 to 600 acres for farming or dairy- 
ing (worth, when roaded, from 12s. 6d. to £1 ISs. per acre), 
the remaining half being only fit for large areas up to 
2,000 acres, at a minimum price of 10s. an acre. The 
highest point (1,740 ft.) is to be found at the south-east 
corner. The block is well sheltered, and contains large coal- 
deposits. _^ 

On the north side of the river, stretching as far as Totoro, 
there are about 36,000 acres, making altogether in the Mokau 
district some 100,000 acres of land. Probably another 
100,000 acres are contained in the Awakino country, which 
lies to the north, and uses Mokau as its port of shipment for 
wool and other produce. As a whole, the land may be Be- 
Bcribed as good, though there is a considerable quantity of 
broken country. The soil is largely of limestone formation — 
a very great point in stock-rearing — some fireclay, and what 
appears to be either white marble or a quartz outcrop, being" 
met with. 


On both sides of the river coal is to be found in abund- 
ance. That on the south side has, up to the present, only 
been the subject of very primitive operations. There are, 
however, plenty of outcrops, the seams being from 3 ft. to 
5 ft. thick in the Mokau-Mohakatino Block, where the coal 
has a dip from the river of 1 in 20 to 1 in 30, but in all 
probability cannot be worked as profitably as on the northern 

Thirteen miles and a half from the bar, on the north bank 
of the river, is the Manga- Awakino Block No. 1, of 4,700 
acres, which has been acquired by the Taranaki Iron Syndi- 
cate for the coal and limestone it contains. There are seven 
largs seams of coal outcropping at a short distance from the 
river, which at this part is deep and easily worked by 
steamers. As an integral part of the scheme for developing 


the ironsand industry this block is extremely valuable^ 
especially as there is a good quantity of red and white pine- 
and matai, while the land is excellently adapted for stock-raia- 
ing as well as dairying. 

The only sustained effort in colliery-work in this district 
h at the Mangapapa Mine, the area of this holding, which ia 
on the north side of the river, being 13,000 acres. This mine, 
which is now held on a long lease by Mr. George H. Stubbs, 
of Waitara, has its entrance only 50 yards from the rirer- 
bank at a point twenty-three miles from the heads. At th& 
wharf the depth of water suffices for vessels drawing 8 ft. Ap- 
parently the coal underlies the whole area of the property, 
and far beyond. The seam now being worked has proved to- 
be far superior to any previous output from the mine. It is 
about 7 ft. 8 in. thick, separated in the middle by impure 
beds of fireclay, and has an easy gradient (thus keeping the 
mine dry), enabling the coal to be run out by gravitation,, 
while the sandstone roof reduces the usual timbering to » 
minimum. The output can either be discharged direct into- 
the hold of steamers or tipped into the bunkers erected on the 
bank of the river,, thus enabling vessels to be loaded with great 
despatch. For the last few years the output has been small 
owing to difficulties of transport, but latterly these have been 
overcome, satisfactory arrangements having been made for 
the carriage and distribution of the coal. Two steamers^ 
carrying 40 and 80 tons respectively, are now regularly en- 
gaged in the work. This service, however, only suffices for 
local requirements, but it is anticipated that in the near 
future, when the bar at the entrance to the river has been 
improved and the river itself cleared of snags, larger steamera 
will be employed and the business greatly increased. The 
coal is very popular for household use, also for steam pur- 
poses where large boilers are used. 

In describing this coal Dr. Robertson, M.E., F.G.S., the 
well-known mining engineer of Sydney, classes the upper seam 
as superior lignite, and the lower as bright bituminous ooal 
of superior quality, both igniting easily, giving off little gas, 
burning with a bright flame, and leaving a very small amount 











of white pulverulent ash. He oonsiders that the quantity is 
practically inexhaustible, and that the conditions are probably 
more favourable for easy and profitable working than in any 
ooUiery he had seen in the Australasian Colonies. Other ex- 
perts, such as Messrs. 6. J. Snellus, F.R.S., R. Price 
Williams, and Professor Stevenson MacAdam (Edinburgh), 
have reported favourably of this coal, and classed it with the 
better English and Scotch coals. 

As to the mine itself, the Mining Commission, when re- 
porting in 1900, regarded it as being the safest, and its 
natural conditions more favourable for working, than any 
mine they had seen. 

The Mokau as a Tourist Rbsort. 

The surpassing beauty of the virgin forest which covers 
the surface of the land in this district should make it a 
favourite resort for tourists. With a good soil, supplemented 
by an abundant rainfall, its settlement should add materially 
to the welfare of the colony, while beneath the surface there lies 
a wealth of mineral fuel which has yet to be thoroughly ex- 
ploited. Mokau is unique in possessing these manifold attrac- 
tions, and has a future that may well be envied by any less 
favoured district. It is rare, indeed, that there is to be found 
in one area such a combination of valuable assets as those 
mentioned above. 

8-M ining Handbook 


Gold was first discovered in Marlborough in 1860, but the 
goldfield was not proclaimed for three or four years after- 
wards. Iron was found in 1870, antimony in 1876, and coal 
in 1880. There are also indications of lead, silver, and 
copper. The Wakamarina was, for its size, one of the richest 
goldfields in the colony. Miners were attracted to it from 
all parts of New Zealand, and many came from the Australian 
Colonies. In June, 1864, the '* City of Hobart," *' Otago/' 
and ''Albion " shipped from Picton 3,393 oz. of gold; in July 
the ** Auckland" took away 2,256 oz.; and in September the 
'• Claud Hamilton " shipped 961 oz. These shipments do not 
by any means represent the quantity of gold which was got 
during that short period, as many of the miners went to Wel- 
lington and other places, taking their gold with them. In 
1864 the total export was stated at 24,838 oz., valued at nearlv 
£100,000; and in 1865 about 8,000 oz., valued at over 
£30,000. As the alluvial ground got worked out, the miners 
gradually drifted away to the West Coast and other fields ; but 
some enterprising men remained in the district. The Ravens- 
cliff Company, which started work in 1883 with a 12-hor8e 
power portable engine, a set of water-elevators, an under- 
shot water-wheel, and two Californian pumps, constructed 
a flood-race 500 ft. in length, and a dam 65 ft. in length 
by 12 ft. in depth, with the view of controlling the 
waters of the Wakamarina, in order to work the river-bed 
below it. Mr. M. Leahy spent three years in cutting a tail- 
race 550 ft. in length, on which he expended £400, his yield 
of gold during that time being only 1 2 oz. Other parties have 
also expended capital and labour in endeavouring to get at 
the deeper ground. There is a large area of rough, bush- 
covered mountains and gullies, showing fair indications 


of auriferous reefs and alluvial country ; but it cannot be 
properly prospected until tracks are opened up. Gold-bearing 
quartz-specimens hare been picked up in several watercourses, 
and alluvial gold has been found in nearly every gully on both 
sides of the high ranges which divide the Wakamarina from 
the Waixau Valley. 

There are indications of lead, silver, copper, and scheelite 
in different parts of Marlborough, and some residents have 
looked forward to the possible discovery of precious stones. 

Auriferous quartz was found some years ago at Top Valley ; 
several claims were pegged off, and reduction-works were 
erected by the Jubilee Company. So far the results have not 
justified anticipations. During the year 1903, 1,704 tons of 
quartz gave a yield of 548 oz., and 1,100 tons of tailings 
treated by the cyanide process produced 72 oz. of gold, the 
total value being <£2,118 178. 3d. It was then estimated that 
a tunnel would require to be driven a distance of 1,200 ft. 
in order to render available 500 ft. to 600 ft. of backs. TEis 
mine has been let on tribute for some time past. Scheelite is 
found in association with portions of the auriferous lode, and 
some of it is stated to be of high quality. Recently the 
tributers sent 3 tons of this mineral to Wellington, where it 
was disposed of at a rather low rate, considering the prices 
ruling in London and Hamburg. Scheelite is valuable for 
the tungstic acid it contains, and is used in hardening the 
metal for large guns. 

Tlie King Solomon Mine, Cullensville, is owned by a pri- 
vate syndicate, Messrs. R. Cragg, A. Jonson, and E. Enutson 
(secretary), who hold a freehold lease from W. J. Cullen, of 
Cullensville. Comprised in this lease are the Golden Gate, 
King Solomon, Alice Fell, and Hibernian Claims, which ex- 
tend in a continuous line along the Cullensville Creek for a 
distance of 3,600 ft. The two latter claims were worked to 
very considerable profit previous to flooding. With the object 
of following the continuation of the rich auriferous drifts, 
which form a river-bed deposit of prehistoric age, the King 
Solomon shaft was sunk and equipped with pumps to a depth 
of 90 ft. Havinc: thus completed sinking operations, driving 


was oommenoed dipwards on a rich lead, which yielded £750 
from the ground taken out from the last set, of timber previous 
to the collapse of the shaft. Stimulated by this rich find, the 
Golden Gate shaft was sunk and equipped with pumps to a 
depth of 120 ft. On commencing operations from the bottom 
of this shaft driring was extended riseward with varied suc- 
cess, but before a holing was effected with the King Sok>zxK>n 
shaft the pumps were replaced and the workings unwatered. 
This connection led to a still greater inflow of water, which the 
pumps in use were not able to cope with. 

Dredging has been tried at Wakamarina, but the results 
obtained were not commensurate with the outlay. 

About twenty-five years ago the Endeavour Inlet Antimony 
Company secured a lease of 500 acres of ground for a period 
of thirty years, between the head of Endeavour Inlet and Port 
Gore, with the view of working the antimony-lodes that were 
known to exist in that locality. The antimony was first dis- 
covered in loose, detached blocks on the side of the range 
facing Queen Charlotte Sound, and also in the beds of the 
creeks and watercourses coming out of the range ; and a lode 
was afterwards discovered running in a northerly and 
southerly direction across the range from the head of the Inlet 
towards Port Gore. This lode has been worked near the top 
of the range, which is 1,600 ft. above sea-level. About 3,000 
tons of ore was taken from this lode, some of the best of which 
was sent to England, and realised in its raw state £10 per 
ton. A tunnel was constructed through the range 275 ft. 
below the level of the crown, and the lode from this to the sur- 
face was nearly all stoped out. The ore near the crown of 
the range, and also for a certain distance in from the side, 
occurred in the form of valentinite ; but towards the centre of 
the range, and for about 100 ft. above the level of the tunnel, 
the ore was in the form of stibnite. This tunnel carried the lode 
right through the hill, and by continuing further along the 
range the lode was proved along its lateral course, or strike, 
for over 1,000 ft. At this level, where the lode was left under- 
foot, it was found to be getting into settled country, and the 
valentinite in the lode was to a great extent replaced by 
rich stibnite ore. The company opened a drive 175 ft. 


















lower down the range, and reached the lode which, at 
the point of intersection, showed very rich ore. Reduc- 
tion-works were erected at Endeavour Inlet, trained men 
were brought from England, and star antimony of ex- 
cellent quality was produced for some time; but there was a 
considerable fall in the price of antimony afterwards, and 
that, coupled with the broken character of the lodes, led to the 
abandonment of the mine. 

At Jackson's Head, close to the company's workings, a reef 
was found containing gold and antimony, and gold to the 
Talue of j£8,000 was said to have been taken from it, though 
there was very little work of a systematic character done. A 
tramway was constructed by the company from the tunnel 
down the side of the range to the flat near the head of 
Endeavour Inlet, where the dressing machinery and smelting- 
works were erected. In bringing this tramway down the 
range, which is very steep, there were three separate inclines, 
each of which was worked by a brake constructed with two 
pulleys working vertically and one horizontally. The full 
truck going down brought up the empty one, the speed of the 
trucks being regulated by a double-hand brake, which was 
worked with a long lever. 

Cement- works have been started near Picton, and the 
quality of the cement is said to be equal to Portland and other 
imported cements. Recently an order was received for 1,000 
tons for shipment to San Francisco, and it is believed that 
other large orders will follow. 




By Warden Eye b- Kenny. 

TffE Warden's District of Nelson, which includes the Counties 
of Waimea, Takaka, and Colliugwood, furnishes an apt illus- 
tration of the surprising vicissitudes attending gold-mining, 
and indeed mining in general. Gold was first found in the 
Nelson District at the Moutere and along the shores of Mas- 
sacre Bay (now called Golden Bay) almost simultaneously 
witb the discoveries at Coromandel in 1853, but it was not 
till 1856 that the discovery of gold at the Aorere gave mining 
a start in the Nelson Provincial District. Mr. John Ellis and 
Mr. John James claimed to have been the first to find a 
payable goldfield, but their pretensions were disputed, and 
it was some time before the merits of the discovery were set 
at rest. The Gold - bonus Conmiittee of Nelson, which had 
offered a bonus for the discovery of a payable goldfield, 
appointed referees, who after taking evidence decided that 
>[e8srs. Ellis and James were the discoverers, but that the 
credit of developing the goldfields belonged to Mr. G. W. 
Light band. Many persons were, however, satisfied that Mr. 
Hough's services deserved equal recognition, and they pre 
Minted him with a substantial testimonial. 

Although far and away the most important mining opera- 
tions have been, and are, carried on in Grolden Bay, the 
Wangapeka portion of the Nelson District — which comprised 
the valleys drained by the Wangapeka and its tributaries, 
the Rolling River and Sherry, and the Tadmor and Baton 
Valleys lying on either side of the Wangapeka River — was of 
note in its day. This locality is now mainly occupied by 
small farmers, some of whom occasionally put in their spare 
time at mining. The more easily worked parts of the field 


hare been exhausted, and long water-races and tail-races are 
DOW necessary. Some six or seven miners only are at present 
working here, and none of them are earning more than a 
liying-wage, while the dredge on the Wangapeka is idle. 
But the country is known to be auriferous, and energetic 
explorations would doubtless lead to satisfactory results. 
The construction of the Midland Railway, however, which 
passes through this subdistrict, by attracting surplus labour 
at good wages, has had the effect of keeping some men from 
prospecting who might otherwise have engaged in that enter- 
prise. In the years 1857 to 1859 there were at times over a 
thousand men mining in Golden Bay — mainly on the Aorere 
and in its vicinity. These men were all making good wages, 
whilst some won small fortunes. According to the Nelson 
Examiner^ from April, 1857, to May, 1858, no less a sum 
than £70,000 was obtained in the Nelson goldfields, mainly in 
Golden Bay, and new houses, stores, and tents were to be 
seen in all directions. Diggers were constantly coming and 
going, and Collingwood especially looked very busy. But a 
change came in 1859. The population and yield of gold 
steadily dwindled down, and up to the present Grolden Bay 
has not regained its former prosperity. The Statement of 
the Minister of Mines, made in the House of Representatives 
in 1905, showed that twenty miners only were employed in 
the County of Takaka and 149 in the County of Collingwood, 
apart from those engaged in collieries. Nevertheless, there 
are still large tracts of auriferous country which have scarcely 
been tested, and in the opinion of expert miners quite as rich 
patches yet remain to be worked as those which gave employ- 
meot to such a large number of men in 1857, 1858, and 1859. 
It is greatly to be desired that prospecting parties should be 
organized to prospect the Quartz Ranges, the Gouland Downs, 
the Heaphy, and other likely localities. This need is now 
being supplied in Takaka, where the Anatoki Prospecting 
Syndicate has engaged the services of Mr. C. E. Storie, a 
mining engineer and geologist of considerable experience. I 
am indebted to this gentleman for a report of his operations, 
which so far have been confined to that portion from the 
Takaka Valley on the one hand to Snow's River and Boulder 
Lake on the other. 


The impressionB gleaned from the structure of the Takaka 
Valley as far south as Mount Hoary Head were not of a 
character to justify further operations in that quarter. The 
rock-structure consists of limestone, granite, schists, and sand- 
stone rocks. What was represented as being a large quartz - 
body turned out to be, on inspection, a coarsely crystalline 
metamorphic rock, which is referred to locally as " marble." 

The Waituhi Mountains were next investigated, but with 
unsatisfactory results. The Waingaro River and Devil's River 
were not examined. Mr. Storie then proceeded through the 
Anatoki Valley as far as the ** Forks," and from there up Dry 
Creek to the saddle overlooking Snowdon. The country passed 
through in this section wtvs much more promising, and several 
reefs occur, some of which are auriferous. Above the '* Forks *' 
a fair amount of gold is being won from the river-bed. Mr. 
Storie saw about 26 oz. taken at one clean-up. 

Mr. Storie made a further careful examination of the area 
from Snow's River to the Boulder Lake, and found values in 
this portion which induced him to apply for a prospecting 

The head- waters of the Anatoki, Slate, Snow, Rocky, and 
Boulder Rivers were examined, and there is satisfactory evi- 
dence of value in both quartz and alluvial in these places. 

The Aorere watershed on the western side, beyond Mount 
Olympus and Lead Hill, was casually examined, but not suf- 
ficiently in detail to justify a report. 

The principal difficulty in this district is the want of 
suitable tracks, and whilst this drawback remains very little 
legitimate prospecting can be done. The local miners con- 
sider that the Anatoki River, at the head, would probably 
support two hundred men if a horse-track was made so that 
the miners could get their food by pack-horses. At present 
it takes two days to get supplies on the ground from Takaka, 
as the men have to carry their food several miles through the 
bush and up the mountain on their backs. It is understood 
that the local body will soon be in a position to expend a 
Government grant for this purpose. Mr. Langridge, store- 
keeper, had a short time ago some really splendid samples of 
gold from the Upper Anatoki. 







But it must not be supposed that gold-mining is dead in 
the region of Golden Bay. The value of gold entered for 
exportation for the year ending the 31st December, 1905, 
reacheu the substantial figure of £25,862. This includes a 
small quantity of gold from the County of Waimea. The 
price of gold per ounce in the Nelson District is as follows: 
Collingwood, £3 138. 6d. to £4 Is.; Takaka, £3 Us. 6d. 

This appears to be a convenient place to refer in detail to 
some of the more prominent mining privileges which are still 
in existence in Golden Bay. 

At Bubu, in Takaka County, the Takaka Hydraulic and 
Elevating Company is getting payable gold. For the year 
ending December, 1905, three dividends were paid to the 
shareholders of Is. per scrip in each instance. The part of 
the ground the company is now working is only 8 ft. deep, 
showing gold freely. On the 29th March, 1901, this company 
applied for, and was granted, a right to divert fifty heads of 
water from the Anatoki River, above the big bend of the 
Bubu, to sluice the territory between the Anatoki and Bubu 
Rivers. Tliere are the best reasons for supposing that the 
ground which this water commands is payable. The company 
was fortunate in obtaining the services of a capable man, Mr. 
Charles Campbell, as manager, and by the judicious utilisa-' 
tion of water this property, which had been worked for years 
by hand-labour, making small wages only, has become a 
really satisfactory concern. The claim is a very inexpensive 
one, employing only ten men all told. The men work three 
shifts of eight hours each. In the refuse, after washing-u|>, a 
considerable quantity of garnets and rubies is found, too 
small, however, to be of commercial value. 

The West Wanganui portion of the goldfield is about 
twenty - eight miles north - west by road from Collingwood. 
There is also communication by sea, and vessels drawing 12 ft. 
of water may enter the inlet with safety at high-water spring 
tides. Grold was found here in 1868; the quality was good, 
and there were some alluvial workings. Extensive operations 
were ultimately undertaken by the Taitapu Gold Estates Com- 
pany. The area of land held by this company is 79,000 acres. 
A large amount of development-work has been done by the 


parent company and by the present company, and when quartz 
is found, as a rule, values are good ; but the lode has been so 
much distributed that it makes it very hard for the manage- 
ment to keep the quartz clean. 

The Golden Blocks (Taitapu), held by a subsidiary com- 
pany in this locality, is the most consistent claim as regards 
the gold-yield of any concern in the district, and during the 
year 1905 no less than 2,320 oz. 10 dwt. of gold has been ob- 
tained from 1,950 tons of stone treated. The reef, however, 
is more or less patchy, and during the last few months the 
returns have been below the average, but the company's 
manager, Mr. Giles, is confident that the next clean-up will 
show a considerable improvement.* 

Leaving West Wanganui and coming to Collingwood pro- 
per, a considerable amount of prospecting- work has been 
done during the last six months at the old Johnston's United 
Gold-mining Company's mine at Bedstead Gully, which is held 
under application by Mr. Charles Y. Fell pending completion 
of survey, and hopes are entertained that the rich reef will 
again be struck. 

The Parapara Hydraulic Sluicing and Mining Company ia 
the holder of several special alluvial claims, but of late labour 
has been concentrated on sluicing operations at the Hit-or-Miss 
Saddle, and the returns have been fairly encouraging. The 
ground is heavy and rough; the gold-bearing wash underlies 
hills of considerable height, so that as the wash is removed 
enormous slips from the hillsides occur, bringing down large 
quantities of shattered rock, which has to be broken up and 
stacked or sluiced away. The gold-bearing wash at this face 
is now, however, almost exhausted, and the company is pro- 
ceeding to work its freehold property, known as Appo's Flat 
(so termed after a Cingalese who first got gold there). A 
contract has been let to drive a tunnel 620 ft. long through 
rock. This tunnel is only being driven from one end, and 
will therefore take some months to complete. When finished 
it will serve as a tail-race, through which the whole of the 
surface or upper portion of Appo's Flat will be sluiced down 

* Clean-up on 23rd July, 1906, gave 188 oz. of gold' from 155 tone of 
quarts orashea. 


to a depth of 25 ft., below which depth eleyating will have to 
be resorted to. The grouiid on Appo's Flat is very deep, and 
it should be the means of providing years of profitable work. 
This company's claim is generally regarded as a promising 
property. About an acre at the upper end of this flat was 
worked in the early days of the goldfield by the primitive 
methods then in use, and it gave good returns. The quantity 
of gold won by this company for the year 1905 was 769 oz. 
2dwt. 19 gr., valued at £2,985, making a total of 8,087 oz., 
value £31,088. 

The Slate River Sluicing Company's operations have been 
for gome time considerably hampered by shortness of water, 
and steps have now been taken to augment the supply, passing 
it into the company's big dam at Toi-toi Flat for storage 
purposes. A license for a dam in Bedstead Gully has been 
obtained, and also a license for a water-race commencing at 
the dam in Bedstead Gully and conveying the water to the big 
dam in Toi-toi Flat. With the increased water-supply avail- 
able when the dam and water-race mentioned are completed 
the company should be able to carry on sluicing operations 
with much less broken time than hitherto. It is the manager's 
intention to cease work at the old face and to open up a fresh 
face at the claim formerly known as Nicholas's, where good 
prospects have been obtained. During the year 1905, 313 oz. 
of gold, valued at £1,179 10s., was won. 

At the Quartz Ranges sluicing operations are being carried 
on by a party of tributers on the special claim held by Mr. 
C. Y. Fell, lately the property of the Collingwood Goldfields 
Company. This tribute party has command of a splendid 
water-supply, enabling operations to be carried on throughout 
the whole year. The quantity of gold actually taken from 
this claim during 1905 was 194 oz., valued at £769. This 
however, does not represent more than seven or eight months' 
working. It is confidently expected that the next run will 
prove highly payable, as the ground to be attacked is known 
to be rich. 

The Slate River Gold-dredging Company is defunct. On 
the 12th January, 1906, the shareholders passed an extra- 
ordinary resolution to wind np the company voluntarily. The 


dredge produced 459 02. of gold, valued at £1,659 15s., during 
its last year's workinp^, the cost of carrying on the operations 
of the company for that period being £1,804. 

The river at the point at which this company's dredge has 
been engaged is narrow and confined between high banks. 
The dredge was therefore subjected to considerable danger of 
being carried away in times of flood, and it was on two 
occasions actually left stranded on heaps of tailings over which 
it had floated during flood. The working of the dredge was 
also rendered difficult by the rocky nature of the bed of the 
river. It is important to note that owing to these and similar 
causes the failure of no less than four dredging companies 
has been brought about in this portion of the district. 

Before quitting finally the subject of gold-mining, it may 
be interesting to state that an aggregate area of 680 acres of 
land is held under gold-mining license in various parts of 
Golden Bay, over some of which alluvial mining is carried on, 
and from which, taking it as a whole, fairly good returns are 
being obtained. 

Plumbago and Cement. 

There is every indication of the existence of plumbago in 
considerable quantities on the Pakawau side of the Aorere 
River. Samples that have been obtained are undoubtedly of 
high value. 

At the present time Mr. French is working cement-ma- 
chinery at Motupipi, near Takaka. The machinery was 
started in the latter part of the month of April, 1906. Mr. 
French is well satisfied that cement can be profitably manu- 
factured from the materials at Motupipi, and he has put a 
large amount of capital into the venture. 

Silver-lead Ores. 
Silver-lead ores are found in the Mount Owen district, 
and they presumably extend into the Rolling River, on the 
northern fall of Mount Owen, as numerous boulders of silver- 
lead ores have been found by sluicers in the Rolling River, 
and their contents have been assayed to over 300 oz. of silver 
to the ton. Very little, however, is known of these deposits^ 

■5^ii,--' ^ 







Id k 

c/: : 


but the opening-up of the railway and roads in this direction 
will render the country more accessible and facilitate pro- 
specting in this locality. 

We now come to the all-important subject of coal. A 
ooal of excellent quality for domestic and steaming purposes 
is found in the CoUingwood subdistrict. The Puponga Coal- 
and Gold-mining Company of New Zealand (Limited) is the 
holder of a valuable coal-mining property, containing 1,017 
acres, situated in the Onetaua Survey District, from which 
the output of coal for the year ending the 3l8t December, 
1905, was 20,155 tons; but the difficulty occasioned by the 
shallowness of the water at the company's wharf in getting 
the coal shipped adds seriously to the cost, and prevents the 
coal from taking a still better place in the markets of the 
colony. This, however, is a matter that the company intends 
to remedy. When better facilities for shipping are obtained, 
and vessels of larger tonnage can be safely employed, the 
average freight will be greatly reduced and access to the best 
markets in the colony obtained. The mine- workings at the 
Puponga Mine steadily progressed during the year 1905 to the 
north, or dip, of the coalfield, and are opening up well towards 
the east. On the west side a band of fireclay in the centre of 
the field until lately gave some trouble, but the thickening of 
the lower seam of excellent coal, together with the thinning of 
the band of stone between the two which formed the floor of the 
main seam, will enable the two to be worked together, and 
puts a very promising aspect on that part of the field, where 
otherwise some considerable driving in stone could hardly have 
been avoided. A larger pump than that now in use is being 
obtaijied, and another ^O-horse-power boiler has been ordered. 
When these have been installed the main dip road will again 
be pushed ahead and further bands broken off, where, in view 
of recent developments, there is promise of an excellent field 
of coal. A Hayes fan has been fitted up, and is working 
smoothly and well, providing an ample current of air through- 
out all the workings. The screens have lately been improved, 
80 that a rounder class of house-coal is now procured ; and a 


considerable extension of the nut-washing plant and new nut- 
bins are now on the point of completion. The nut-waahing 
plant not only provides for the exclusion of small pieces of 
stone and brasses, but also runs off the fine coalj mud, and a 
larger size of nuts is insured. Altogether, the developments 
of this coalfield, particularly in view of the recent thickening 
of good coal in the bottom seam, have been very satisfactory. 

Great hardship and inconvenience having been occasioned 
to the miners working on this property, owing to the difficulty 
experienced by them in securing ground for residence-sites, 
the Government has set apart a portion of the surface of the 
company's lease for business and residence sites respectively. 
The land has been surveyed and laid out into suitable allot- 
ments, reserves, and streets, so as to meet the public conveni- 
ence, and the settlement, which has been named by the Survey 
Department the Village of Puponga, will be the means of pro- 
viding the colliers with homes, instead of holding their resi- 
dences on mere sufferance. The Survey Department has also 
laid out another small township near the wharf. 

A good deal of prospecting for coal has been done lately in 
the vicinity of the West Wanganui Inlet, where the most 
cursory examination reveals seams of varying dimensions. 

Coal-mining operations have been commenced at West 
Wanganui by Mr. G. B. Watson, of Dunedin, who during 
the last few months has acquired valuable leases and options 
over coal-bearing land, and, with the natural facilities that 
exist at West Wanganui for the shipping of coal from the 
property now being developed by him, large quantities of coal 
should soon be upon the market from this region. 

The Pakawau Colliery (Section 7 of Block XII, Pakawau 
Survey District), lately purchased by Mr. E. G. Pilcher, of 
Wellington, representative in New Zealand of the Greymouth- 
Point Elizabeth Coal Company, is attracting the attention of 
the people in the district. Already a considerable amount 
of work has been done in developing the mine and preparing 
for a large output of coal. 

Besides the valuable coal-bearing properties just men- 
♦ioned, this district contains other coalfields, which, in the 


opinion of experts, will in time proride a means for the 
profitable in vestment of a large amount of capital and for 
the emplojrment of many hundreds of workers. 

Copper-mining in the Mineral Belt. 

The Mineral Belt Copper-mining Company holds 1,200 
acres of what is known as the *' Mountain Mineral Belt.'' 
The Mineral Belt is a serpentinous formation, from half a 
mile to a mile in width, extending in an unbroken line from 
D'Urville Island, in the north - east, to Tophouse, in the 
south-west, over a length of ninety miles, and possibly, with 
breaks, to Big Bay, at the south - west end of the Middle 
Island. The Mineral Belt Copper-mining Company's pro- 
perty lies about four miles easterly in a direct line from the 
City of Nelson, but twenty-six miles distant by rail and road. 
The ore-deposits, so far as is known at present, occur chiefly 
along the western edge of the belt and not far from its contact 
with the rocks of the Maitai series. The company has opened 
out and extended old levels on the United Creek, and driven 
a new level on the ore-channel for several hundred feet. The 
ore found is a sulphide of copper, and it occurs in lens-shaped 
bodies within a definite channel. These bodies are of no great 
individual size, but they are numerous and of good grade. 
A level has been driven on ore for 80 ft., and it is in one 
place 12 ft. wide. 

Further north of the United Creek other ore-deposits of a 
rich character exist. The Saddle Lode there is stated to carry, 
besicles 5 per cent, of copper, from 4 dwt. to 8 dwt. of gold. 
Little work has, however, been done at this end of the pro- 
perty. At the south end the old Champion Copper Company 
mined rich native copper and sub-sulphide ores. 

Mr. Thomas A. Turnbull, M.A.LM.E., directed operations 
for the company from November, 1903, till December, 1905, 
and expended some £6,000 in prospecting and development- 
work. The present company has just sold its interest in the 
leases to a new company for £16,000, and from date (JuBe. 
1906) development- work is to be pushed on rapidly. 

bo new ssaland miking handbook. 


In close proximity to the coalfields are the extensive de- 
posits of the rich iron-ore of the Parapara, the whole being 
surrounded by an abundant supply of the finest limestone. A 
lease of 920 acres at the Parapara has been secured by the 
Public Trustee, as trustee and executor of the estate of the late 
Sir Alfred Jerome Cadman, and the formation of a company in 
England with a view to working the iron-deposits is stated to 
be practically assured. This lease does not by any means 
exhaust the iron-deposits of the Parapara, and in the event of 
the Cadman Company being successful no doubt other leases 
will be taken up and worked, to the great advantage of 
the Township of Collingwood in particular and of the colony 
in general. 

There is probably no richer district in New Zealand than 
the Counties of Takaka and Collingwood. A large amount 
of valuable timber is exported from both counties. Consider- 
able portions of the County of Takaka are limestone country, 
eminently suitable for sheep-farming. At Clifton, near Wai- 
tapu, a most picturesque spot, bearing in many respects a 
curious resemblance to the beautiful surroundings of Wha- 
ngarei, in the Far North, Mr. Ellis, who has a large sawmill, 
fitted with the very latest appliances, also keeps a large flock 
of Angora goats, which he finds a profitable investment. This 
enterprising settler manufactures New Zealand wine on a 
large scale, his cellars rarely containing less than over a 
thousand barrels and hogsheads. This wine, unlike some of 
the New Zealand - made wines, though possessing a fair al- 
coholic strength, is unfortified by the addition of spirits of 

The Township of Takaka is about fifty-three miles from 
Nelson by steamer, but it can be reached overland by a coach 
that runs twice a week, connecting with Newman Bros.' coach, 
which runs daily between Nelson and Motueka. The Town of 
Takaka, which is about three miles from its seaport, Waitapu, 
is a flourishing little place, containing several places of wor- 
ship, a commodious Town Hall, and two good hotelp. There 
IS another excellent hotel at Waitapu. 








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The distance from Collingwood to Takaka by road is 
twenty miles; to Pakawau, eight miles; to Bedstead Gully, 
ten miles; to Rocky River, eighteen miles; to the Quartz 
Ranges, twenty miles; and to West Wanganui, twenty-eight 
miles. Collingwood itself is most picturesquely situated at 
the mouth of the Aorere River. In November, 1904, the 
township was abnost entirely destroyed by fire, but it has been 
rebuilt with great improvements, and from a public point of 
view, as occasionally happens, the fire has proved a blessing 
in disguise. Two excellent new hotels have been erected since 
the fire, and a new post-office has just been opened. Like 
Takaka, Collingwood boasts of a weekly newspaper. 

Collingwood is distant from Nelson by road about seventy- 
five miles; by sea the distance is greater, the voyage taking 
from eight to ten, or even twelve hours, according to the 
weather. The steamers "Lady Barkly '* and '* Wairoa " 
make on the average two trips each per week between Nelson 
and Collingwood, calling at Takaka on the way, and those who 
encounter rough weather on the voyage are able to realise 
what '' going down to the sea " in little ships means. Having 
regard to the large passenger traffic between these places and 
Nelson, the time has certainly arrived when these obsolete 
steamers should be replaced by boats of a better class. 


By BoBKBT TKirNfifT, Ii]spect<» of Mines, and Abthub H. Rigkabds^ 
Aflfiistant Inspector, for Marlborough, Nelson, and West Coast. 


In 1856 John James and John Ellis claimed the Government 
bonus for the first gold-discoverj in this district, and were 
also awarded the same hj the Gold-bonus Committee. 

Judge Kenny, of Nelson, is Warden for the Collingwood 
district, and Mr. Nalder is Receiver of Goldfields Revenue and 
Mining Registrar. The Warden's Court is held monthly. 

Between Nelson and Collingwood there is a weekly over- 
land mail-service, calling at all intermediate post-offices, and 
a daily service by steamer. 

Now that the Ferntown and Rockville roads are bridged 
over the Aorere River, and the Salisbury Creek bridged on the 
road to the Quartz Ranges, connection between Collingwood 
and the coal and gold fields is practically assured under all 
conditions of weather. 

On leaving Collingwood the road to West Wanganui t^ 
Ferntown is eight miles to Pakawau, thence westward through 
the Pakawau Bush and six miles up the Miid Flat to Munga- 
rakau, near the head of the inlet, which was recently bridged 
and connection made with the partly formed tracks leading to 
the Golden Ridge. The West Wanganui goldfields, owned 
by the Taitapu Gold Estates (Limited), comprise 79,000 acres, 
and are situated some twenty-eight miles from Collingwood. 
Mr. N. L. Buchanan is resident attorney on the Patarau 

In 1868, and for several years following, lucrative em- 
ployment was found in the various streams which discharge 
into Lake Otuhie, and also into a branch of the sea between 


the sandhills and the Anatori Kiver. At Malone'B and In- 
dependent Creeks the alluvial was rich, resulting in some very 
large finds, but, the ground being limited, it was soon worked 

In 1874, whilst the miners were working the auriferous 
cement underlying the coal-seam at Bedstead Gully, on the 
Slaty Creek, specimen gold in the alluvial drift led to the dis- 
covery of a quartz reef on Friday Creek. After a few months' 
operations with a five-stamp mill of most primitive design 
gold to the value of £3,000 was obtained, but what was at 
first taken to be a reef proved only a slip, and work was 
accordingly suspended for a time. Meantime, the Golden 
Blocks Company is carrying out an effective system of pro- 
specting, with the view of proving the geological features of 
the auriferous belt at depth. 

The ParapCMra Hydraulic Sluicing and Mining Company 
was registered on the 18th June, 1902, and in July of same 
year commenced work on an alluvial area containing 1 73 acres 
1 rood 17 perches, situated on the Parapara River, CoUing- 
wood. The called-up capital amounts to £26,210. The mine is 
worked by thirteen men, covering three shift*. The material 
operated on consists of crushed quartz, mixed with gravels and 
large boulders, underlying a decomposed schist and clay for- 
mation, the whole face being sluiced to a total depth of 50 ft. 
to 150 ft. on a strongly cemented conglomerate (false) bottom. 
During 1905, of 3 acres of ground exhausted, 150,000 cubic 
yards of washdirt was sluiced and treated, at the rate of 3^d. 
per cubic yard, for a yield of 1,118 oz., valued at £4,341 
12r. lid., and from a total of 35 acres worked the yield was 
7,813 oz. 12dwt., valued at £30,342 16s. 5d. (at the rate of 
£3 17s. 8d. per ounce). Water is supplied direct from the 
Parapara River over three miles of races, and from the pen- 
stock a mile and a half from the face. Two miles of pipe- 
line are employed (diameters 30 in., 27 in., 24 in., and 
18 in.), from which forty heads are delivered in wet weather 
through 13 in. -diameter service lines on three operative 
nozzles, under a head pressure of 300 ft. The gold is a fairly 
coarse sample, saved in tail-race boxes, laid with iron rails 


iu longitudinal lengths, and laoed in cross-seotionB with iron 
ripples. The tailings are deposited in the riyer-bed mud- 
flats. Mine-manager, James Bassett; secretary, Thomas 
J. C. Warren, Wellington. 

Attention is now being directed to developing the deeper 
deposits of West's Freehold Flat, and with this end in view a 
drainage-tunnel is in progress, which, when completed, is 
calculated to effect drainage to a depth of 25 ft. The present 
proposal is to firstly exhau$)C the drained area, and finally 
instal eleyators capable of lifting the auriferous deposits fr<»n 
a further depth of 60 ft. In carrying out this scheme on a 
comprehensive scale the management anticipate that the deeper 
gravels can be profitably worked to a depth of 80 ft., this 
depth being estimated to clear the marine bottom. 

The Slatt River Sluicing Company was registered in July» 
1900, and in June, 1901, work commenced on an auriferous 
area of 100 acres, situated on the south bank of the Aorere 
River, near the confluence of the Slate River, in the C<^ing- 
wood district. The wash operated on is a strongly cemented 
deposit, varying in depth fiom 3 ft. to 20 ft., overlying a 
schist formation. During the year 1905 ih^ quantity 
of gold obtained amounted to 313 oz. 17 dwt., valued at 
£1,179 lOs. 3d., and since the company first commenced 
operations 1,152 oz. 1 dwt. 10 gr., valued at £4,431 3s. 3d. 
(an average value of £3 17s. lOd. per ounce). Since registra- 
tion the capital actually called up has amounted to £14,723 58. 
From date, the probable life of the claim is considered about 
thirty years, but previous to the tenure of the present company 
the property was a sluicing concern for over thirty years. 
In connection with the water-supply the company's dams 
occupy 49 acres, from which the water is conveyed over two 
miles of water-race, including about 5 chains of fluming and 
some 20 chains of 15 in., 11 in., and 9 in. pipe-lines, which 
connect with three nozzles under a head pressure of about 
400 ft. The gold is of a coarse character, and saved over 
370 ft. of rippled boxes, the total length of tail-race being 
700 ft. Owing to shortage of water-supply one shift only is 
worked, which gives emplojTnent to six men. The approxi- 





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mate value of the plant, races, dams, dec, is computed at 
£14,500. Mine-manager, Gilbert O'Hara; secretary, W. E. 
Pearson, Wellington. 


The Takaka River draias the auriferous areas between the 
Uaupiri and Pikinina Ranges. In 1854-65 the Duncan 
brothers discovered gold on their Onakaka property, which, 
however, led to nothing of importance, and not until gold was 
discovered by a party of Natives in January, 1857, was the 
district declared a gold£eld. This discovery naturally led to 
K constant iudux of diggers, including two hundred and fifty 
Europeans and a hundred Maoris, who found profitable em- 
ployment in the neighbourhood of the Anatoki River; and, 
again, in 1858 gold of a very heavy character was found in the 
Upper Anatoki. This state of affairs continued while the 
gold was easily won, but in the event of fresh rushes breaking 
out the diggers drifted elsewhere for fresh fields, the want of 
proper roads being a serious drawback to the district. After 
a lapse of several years the Takaka Miners' Association 
equipped a prospecting party about two years ago to explore 
the upper reaches of this favourable field, and after three 
months' encampment they returned with a very fine sample 
of gold, and reported that the discovery comprised an exten- 
sive auriferous area, which would pay handsomely, provided 
tracks were made so that the diggers could get back supplies. 
Happily, attention has been directed to the construction of 
reads, and the Government has already voted considerable 
sums of money in this direction. It is reasonably anticipated 
that when more favourable access is available to this goldfield 
the association will avail themselves of every opportunity to 
extend development in the Upper Anatoki. During the late 
autumn the upper reaches of the Anatoki and Boulder 
Streams have been further explored with satisfactory results. 

The Takaka Sluicing Company was registered on the 28th 
January, 1901 ; initiatory work commenced in May, and 
sluicing in November of same year. In small ways the field 
had been worked during the last fifty years, and it is notable 


that the present compauy is the first in the district to sluice 
and elevate the auriferous drifts to a height of 40 ft. by 
hydraulic power. The mining-area is a freehold of 200 acres, 
locally known as the Whelliam's, which forms the valley of 
the Waikoromumu, a tributary of the Takaka River, and 
drains the large natural springs known as the Bubu, situated 
about four miles from the port of Waitapu. The wash 
operated on is a heavy river deposit, mixed with large granite 
boulders, varying in depth from 4 ft. to 10 ft., overlying the 
true and false bottoms. In 1905 there were 199,251 cubic 
yards raised and treated, at 2d. per cubic yard, from 6 acres 
ot' ground, for a yield of 805 oz., valued at £3,032; and from 
a total of 30 acres worked 3,283 oz. realised £12,328. The 
capital called up has amounted to £9,120, and the dividends 
declared to £4,104. The water-races are two miles and a half 
in length, and there is 1,222 ft. of box fluming, together with 
4,680 ft. of pipe-lines, varying in diameter from 30 in. to 
9 in. ; and from the penstock, at a distance of 3,000 ft. from 
the face, fifteen heads are available on two nozzles, at a head 
pressure of 360 ft. The gold won is a fairly coarse sample, 
and is readily saved over 102 ft. of specially made ripple- 
boxes, the wash showing very small traces of platinum. The 
approximate value of the plant, races, dams, &c., is esti- 
mated at £3,588. A useful addition to the plant is a very 
•complete sawmill. The original surface of the land worked 
is simply a pakihi, but around the old homestead the land 
for many acres is more valuable, and is yet intact. Ten men 
-employed. Mine - manager, Charles Campbell ; secretary, 
J. M. Butt, Wellington. 


Aorangi Mine. — This claim, having an area of 100 acres, 
is situated at Taitapu, in Collingwood County, and is owned 
by the Golden Blocks (Taitapu), Limited, an English company 
having a called-up capital of £84,207. During the past year 
the battery crushed 2,387 tons of ore, which yielded 2,796 oz. 
of gold, value £11,108 38. 6d., making a total of 16,352oz., 
value £62,827. Dividends were paid during 1905 amounting 


to ^4,210, bringing the total up to £18,945. The reefs 
worked are of a varying character, from as low as 3 in. up to 
2ft., but the average returns are satisfactory. Thirty men 
are employed in mine, and four on surface. Mine-manager^ 
G. F. Giles; battery superintendent, C. Gapper; attorney, 
C. Y. Fell, Nelson. 

Golden Ridge Mine (Taitapu Gold Estates). — A continued 
series of successful prospecting was effected on the Ant- 
hill and Golden Ridge sections of the property, which resulted 
in suspension of operations towards the end of August, 1904. 
Again, in No. 4 Block east, and south of the Golden Blocks 
mining-area, prospecting was further continued with eight 
men, but after driving a distance of 270 ft. only bunches of 
quartz were found. Mine-manager, James Carroll ; attorney^ 
N. L. Buchanan. 


In the year 1865 Mr. James Mackay, (roldfields Warden » 
was the first to explore the Heaphy and Karamea. At various 
times prospectors have made periodical excursions through 
the Heaphy River district, and although alluvial gold has 
been reported, it is nevertheless a fact that gold in payable 
quantity has not yet been found. The inconvenience of 
getting food-supplies and mining requisites has all along been 
the chief source of complaint. However, it may be fair to 
anticipate that, when road communication is established from 
Karamea up through the Heaphy and on to Collingwood, there 
will be more favourable access for the supply of mining re- 


Since 1865 alluvial gold has been found in the varioua 
streams, but, although the different terraces have been operated 
on by hydraulic sluicing, values have failed to maintain pro- 
fitable operations. To want of capital and roads may be attri- 
buted the chief causes of non-success. 

Coal is fairly abundant, and has been worked for local 
consumption, but until the settlement affords more favourable 
facilities expansion of a coal trade must await future possi* 


MokiUnui RiT«r. 

Alluvial mining i>u this river is now confined to a few 
old miners. Inquiry for quartz reefs is receiving more care- 
ful attention, as the returns from quartz recently crushed at 
the Red Queen Mine has stimulated the prospectors to make 
renewed search, and as a consequence several mining-areas 
have been pegged off. The local opinion is that the reef will 
increase in width northward, and on this understanding pro- 
spectors are actively engaged, especially between the head- 
waters of the Mokihinui and Lyell Rivers. 

On the Rough- and -Tumble all work is abandoned. 

Casoade Greak. 

Cascade Creek is a tributary of the Buller River, and iu 
the earlier years was a favourite resort of the gold-miner, as 
coarse gold in considerable quantity had been recovered. 
Whilst the miners were thus engaged some nice quartz-speci- 
mens were picked up, which led to the discovery of an out- 
crop showing gold. This line of reef was driven on for about 
200 ft., but, owing to the great difficulty in obtaining food 
and mining supplies, work was abandoned. Since then, the 
Buller County Council having meantime received several 
grants of money from the Mines Department, a saddle-track 
has been well advanced, and as a matter of fact the district will 
receive renewed attention. 

Waimangaroa River. 

There are still a few old resident miners who make a living 
by tunnelling and treating the wash in long-toms in the bed 
of the river, otherwise there is nothing of importance to note. 
Some years ago a small company was floated with the object 
of developing the reef system on the upper side of Conn's 
Creek, but after a battery was erected and other preliminary 
works carried out the stone crushed was proved to be prac- 
tically valueless; consequently all work was abandoned, and 
still continues so. Prospectors are still, however, sanguine 
that reefs of considerable value must exist in the upper 
reaches of the river ; otherwise, they naturally inquire. Where 


has the coarse specimen gold, which was so profitably worked 
ill the bed and along the bunks of the Waimangaroa River^ 
originated f 

Giles, Roohfort, and Christmas Terraoss. 

In the Giles, Rochfort, and Christmas Terraces prospect- 
ing is now more sought after, and, aided by Government sub- 
sidy, three low-level tunnels are in active progress, which 
offer fair promise of payable results. Valuable services have 
been rendered to the prospectors by Mr. Sidney Fry, Director 
of the School of Mines at West port. 

Addison's Flat. 

In comparing the mining operations of to-day with those 
of 1867, when about eight thousand people were actively 
engaged in the pursuit of gold, we are almost brought to the 
conclusion that alluvial mining belongs to past history. The 
absolute failure of the General Exploration and the Virgin 
Flat companies has not tended to improve the position, while 
the old Shamrock has been abandoned and flooded for several 

Mining on St. John's Terrace has been cariied on more or 
less for the last thirty years, a scarcity of water and suitable 
means of conveying mining material up to the terrace having 
been the chief drawbacks; but a suitable road is now con- 
structed, and, with the increased water-supply from Back 
Creek, sluicing is maintained the whole year, whilst with the 
natural facilities afforded for the discharge of tailings into 
the vicinity of Dirty Mary's Creek dumping ground is prac- 
tically assured for all time. The gold-returns give a fair re- 
muneration against the capital and labour expended by Brady 
and party. 

Halligan and party opened an extensive clayn between the 
Westport-Charleston Road and the terraces, but it is now 
abandoned. Carmody and party (eight men) continue to work 
with profitable results. The Long Tunnel Company (four 
men), who hold an area of 19 acres and 20 perches, continue 
to show favourable promise. Milligan and party have sus- 
pended cement- working, and recently commenced sluicing an 


alluvial section of the property. The Venture Gold-mining 
Company formerly worked a cement claim with a ten-8tamp 
battery, but for reasons of their own have recently ceased 
work and opened a sluicing claim on the flat. 


With the exception of a few aged miners who fossick 
around the shallow ground, mining is confined to a company 
known as the Charleston Beach Gold-mining Company. This 
enterprising company, after carrying out an extensive system 
of prospecting by shafts, has now completed a water scheme 
which permits of hydraulic - sluicing operations on a large 


On what is locally known as the Shetland Beach quite a 
number of miners find lucrative employment by treating the 
black sands over movable copper-plate tables as favourable 
opportunities occur with the tides. On the northern section 
of the beach Messrs. Powell and Sons have incurred consider- 
able expenditure to maintain an efficient water-supply to sluice 
and elevate the sands by hydraulic power, the sands being 
afterwards treated over a considerable surface of copper and 
plush-laid tables. In addition to the works stated, this enter- 
prising syndicate now carries on similar operations further 
north on a property recently purchased from the Charleston 
Beach Gold-mining Company. 

To the south of the district mining is almost restricted to 
a limited number, who utilise the water from the Argyle 
Water-race. South, as far as Deadman's Creek, alluvial 
mining is much hampered, owing largely to the imperfect 
system of road communication ; but, as a matter of fact, 
mining will assume a more hopeful aspect, both for gold and 
other minerals, which are known to exist in the district, on 
the completion of the Charleston-Barrytown Road. 


Messrs. A. McKay and White, of Greymouth, have ex- 
pended liberally to command efficient water-supplies suitable 


for sluicing and elevating the deep sand deposits so favourably 
situated in the Mawhero and Barrytown Flats. With the ex- 
ception of these two large concerns, alluvial mining is prac- 
tically confined to some old residents and a few beachcombers. 
Improved road communication will tend much to stimulato 
mining matters in this direction, as the geographical situation 
of Barrytown has long been like that of some distant place 
which one has read about in ''Gulliver's Travels," notwith- 
standing the hidden wealth which the district commands. 

Mttw CrMk, Lyttll. 

Prospecting operations were carried on in this isolated 
region for several months on a slide formation, but as solid 
country was not easily accessible work was suspended. 

Prospeotinif in the Upper Blaokwater. 

For many years past quantities of specimen quartz have 
been found amongst the alluvial deposits of this district, and, 
with a view of prospecting the back ranges from which this 
quartz has been detached, the re^dent miners formed a pro- 
specting association, the Mines Department granting a subsidy 
of £1 for £1 up to £200, the association finding the equiva- 
lent in labour. On the 10th October, 1905, four men — 
William Mates, Ernest Bannetz, David Ross, and James Martin 
— were sent out, and after prospecting for eight weeks they 
reported that a quartz reef, varying in width from 3 ft. 6 in. 
to 5 ft., had been cut at various points for a distance of 
12 chains, and carrying good prospects of loose gold ; also 
by pestle-and-mortar test the stone so crushed showed payable 
prospects. These tests were verified by the Assistant In- 
spector of Mines, who, on the 5th November, 1905, broke off 
several samples, which were assayed by Dr. Maclaurin at the 
Mines Department Laboratory, and also by Mr. Anderson at 
the School of Mines, Reef ton. The following shows the assay 
values of the stone thus treated : — j^^^ pe,. Tq^j 

Oz. awt. gr. 
No. 1 sample reef, 4 ft. 6 in. wide . . 14 4 

No. 2 „ 4ft. „ ..108 

No. 3 „ 3ft. 6in. „ ..108 

No. 4 „ 3ft. 6in. „ ..300 


This last sample was cut in a shaft 8 ft. deep under a 
deep cover of alluvial, the reef having an eastern underlie. 
On this discovery the prospectors made application for a 
special claim of 100 acres, which was granted. Mr. P. N. 
Eingswell, of Reef ton, having satisfied himself as to the pro- 
bable values of the property, entered into an agreement with 
the prospectors to expend £500 during three months, and at 
the end of that period either to purchase the property for 
£2,000 or forfeit the deposit. At the expiration of the three 
months Mr. Kingswell paid over the £2,000, and continued 
driving and sinking at various points with ten men, the reef 
so far developed giving favourable promise of opening up a 
valuable quartz-field. Conservation of the water-supply in 
the Snowy Creek has already engaged attention, and the con- 
struction of roads suitable for wheel traffic has been under- 
taken by the Inangahua County Council, under a vote from 
the Mines Department. The Consolidated Goldfields of New 
Zealand (Limited), which has the property now under option, 
is carrying out extensive developments. 

Some Partioalars of QaartB-mines. 

Alpine Extended Gold-mining Company, formed in 1897, 
is an ama^amation of the United Alpine and the Lyell Creek 
Extended Gold-mining Companies. As the outcome of this 
amalgamation operations speedily attained fresh vitality, and 
with the timely addition of the cyanide installation the ac- 
counts of the company were once more transferred to the credit 
side of the ledger. Exhaustion, however, of the ore above 
No. 10 level unhappily changed events, which necessitated 
sinking from the in-bye end of No. 10, or the Lyell Creek low- 
level, tunnel to No. 11. This venture fully maintained anti- 
cipations, and hope was entertained that values would improve 
at depth. On this assumption sinking was further continued 
to a depth of 250 ft., but as exploitations were extended north 
and south on No. 12 anticipation looked more doubtful, as the 
lode showed a marked tendency to thin and become patchy, with 
naturally reduced values. At this juncture mining matters 

Golden Fleece Mine, Reefton : General View of Battery, Bridge, 
Cyanide Tanks, etc. 
Mining Handbook. 


had almost attained a crisis, payable stone being a thing of the 
past. At the oommencement of 1905 the company decided to 
carry out an extensive system of prospecting, but the results 
obtained proved fruitless. The funds being exhausted opera- 
tioos were suspended, and in May, 1906, the property and 
plant were sold by auction for £600. The reduction-works 
include twenty head of stamps, actuated by water-power, and 
equipped with the ordinary gold-saving appliances by amal- 
gamation on copper - plate tables. During the year 1905 
444 tons were crushed for a yield of 54 oz. 6dwt., valued at 
£207 88., and from the 6th September, 1897, to the Slst 
January, 1906, the total gold produced was valued at £43,219 
lis. 3d. (at an average of £3 16s. 5d. per ounce). The total 
expenditure in connection with mining operations amounted 
to £58,086 86. 6d., and the capital called up to £13,229 
3s. 4d. Previous to amalgamation the United Alpine called 
up ^31,333 68. 8d., and paid in dividends £74,266 13s. 4'd. 
A deep shaft on this property may, in course of time, prove 
that the gold-bearing reefs on the Lyell carry payable values 
at greater depths, as has been demonstrated at Reefton by 
the Consolidated Goldfields and Progress Mines. 

Waimangaroa and Mokihinui. 
Britannia Mine, owned by the Britannia Gold-mining 
Company, has a quartz-bearing area of 99 acres, at the 
head of Stony Creek, near Waimangaroa. The property is 
opened by four tunnels, which comprise an aggregate driven 
distance of 3,241 ft., and operate on the continuation of one 
reef 3 ft. in width, while crosscutting and winze-sinking has 
been effected for respective distances of 130 ft. and 330 ft. 
There is a four-stamp mill, driven by water-power, giving an 
aggregate duty of 2 tons per stamp per diem, the gold being 
saved on the ordinary amalgam-tables. Reduction is further 
effected by a recent installation of i^ree tailings- vats, 17 ft. 
6 in. in diameter by 4 ft. in depth, whereby 390 tons of sands 
were treated by canide for 66 oz. of melted gold. During the 
year 1905, 887 tons of ore yielded 848 oz., valued at £12,286. 
The total dividends paid amount to £3,341 13s. 4d., and 


during 1905 shareholders received £750, while the total capital 
actually called up is £1,933, and the total expenditure up to 
December, 1905, was £11,131. Twelve miners and two sur- 
face hands are employed. 

Red Queen Qtmrts-minr has a mining-area of 25 acres, 
situate at Seatonville, Mokihinui. The reef operated on is 
6 in. in width, opened by five tunnels, which give an aggre- 
gate length of 600 ft. The stone is crushed by a two-stamp 
mill, driven by water-power, each stamp giving an average 
duty of 2 tons per day, while the gold is saved on copper 
plates. In 1905, 118 tons of ore yielded 281 oz. of gold, valued 
at £1,099. Approximate value of mining plant, reduction- 
works, Ac, estimated at £1,000. Worked by a party »-f 
tributers. Secretary, A. W. Mills, Westport. 

Keep-it -Dark Mine.— The area held by the Keep-it-Dark 
Quartz-mining Company comprises 118 acres and 6 perches, 
situate at Crushington, about three miles east of the Town of 
Reefton. The winding-shaft, 10 ft. by 4 ft., divided into 
three compartments, is 1,100 ft. in depth and 245 ft. below 
sea-level, the mine-water being baled in same shaft. Regard- 
ing the future prospects of the mine, development has received 
special and careful attention, both with respect to the surface 
and underground workings, and it is eatisfactory to note tBat 
the efficiency of plant, &c., gives the property very excep- 
tional promise. So far as explorations have been extended, 
two payable reefs are exploited, which vary in width from 
2 ft. to 12 ft., while the stone in sight is computed at 30,000 
tons. For several years the whole output of ore has been ex- 
tracted from a recent find of stone located between the shaft 
and the Inangahua River, the reef continuing to show a 
favourable increase in value at depth. The reduction-works 
are fitted with twenty stamps, capable of maintaining an 
average duty of 2 tons per stamp per day of twenty-four 
hours. Gold-saving is effected by amalgamation on outside 
copper plates, concentration by Frue vanners, and cyanidation 
of the coarse sands, the fine pyritic slimes being treated over 


canvas tables. These concentrates are afterwards sold to the 
smelters. The cyanide plant comprises six leaching-yats, 
60 ft. in diameter by 5 ft. deep, fitted with aut<Hnatic distri- 
buters, ice. The ore crushed during the year 1905 was 
12,730 tons, yielding 3,391 oz. of gold, valued at £13,653; 
and during the whole period of operations 206,431 tons of ore 
has been crushed and 58,099 tons of sands treated by cyanide, 
giving a gross value of £380,429, at an average of £4 Os. 6d. 
for battery and £3 lis. per ounce for cyanide. The dividends 
paid for 1905 were £6,750, and the total dividends paid to 
shareholders have amounted to £145,666 13s. 4d., or £7 5s. 8d. 
per share. The capital called up to date amounts to £6,208 
6s. 8d., or 6s. 2^d. per share; and in connection with mining 
operations the total expenditure up to the 31st December, 1905, 
was £251,236. Average number of men employed in the mine, 
thirfy; reduction -works, ten; surface hands, six. Water- 
power is used in all departments of the reduction -works, but 
for several years past a pair of double-cylinder steam-engines 
{British manufacture) has taken the place of the old winding 
water-wheel, which is now a thing of the past in mining. The 
approximate value of mining plant, reduction -works, kc, is 
estimated at £20,000. Mine-manager, B. Sutherland ; metal- 
lurgist, R. Aitken ; legal manager, W. Hindmarsh, Reefton. 

Italian Creek. — This old abandoned property, in the Caple- 
ston district, was recently opened by John Knight and party, 
who have effected considerable development in crosscutting 
and driving. Of the work done 369 ft. has been driven on a 
line of reef 8 in. wide, from which 74 tons were crushed, yield- 
ing 36 oz. of gold, valued at £130. 

Murray Creek. 

Ingle wood-Victoria Mines. — The mining-areas held under 
lease comprise 100 acres, situate on the Murray Creek, near 
Reefton. The property is opened by three tunnels, which are 
driven a total distance of 4,850 ft., and intersect three lines 
of reef varying in width from 1 ft. to 5 ft., while the quantity 


of ore in sight is computed at 3,000 tons. Developments com- 
prise 2,050ft. of crosscuts; rising and sinking, 440ft.; and 
3,250 ft. driven on course of lodes. In connection with the 
reduction-works a ten-head stamp mill (steam-driven) is em- 
ployed, the average duty per stamp per day of twenty-four 
hours being 1} tons. The gold is saved by amalgamation and 
cyanidation of the coarse sands, for which purpose three tail- 
ings-vats, 22 ft. 6 in. inside diameter by 5 ft. in depth, are 
in use. The average number of men employed underground 
is thirty-three, and on surface works nine. Since mining 
operations were commenced the gross expenditure incurred up 
to the 3l8t December, 1905, was about £16,000. Approxi- 
mate value of the mining plant, reduction -works, Stc, £5,000. 
Owner, P. N. Kingswell. 

Painkilleb District. 

Ulster Mine has an area of 100 acres, situate in the Pain- 
killer district, Section 13, Block X, Reef ton Survey District, 
and is owned by the Ulster Gold-mining Company. Works 
are simply confined to prospecting, there being no permanent 
buildings erected on the property. Exploitations comprise 
two tunnels with an aggregate driven distance of 600 ft. , 
winzes 205 ft., together with 150 ft. driven on one lode, which 
maintains an average width of 1 ft., while the ore in sight is 
estimated at 350 tons. Up to the 31st December, 1905, the 
total expenditure incurred has amounted to £1,963 19s. 7d.» 
and the capital called up to £1,948 19s. 4d. Mine-manager, 
Alexander McCloy ; legal manager, T. Hubert Lee, Reefton. 


New Inkerman Mines (Limited). — On the 1st August, 1896, 
the New Inkerman Mines (Limited) commenced work on a 
mining-area of 406 acres 2 roods 5 perches, situate between 
the Rainy Creek and Merrijigs, and, after very considerable 
expenditure in fruitless development, operations were sus- 
pended in May, 1905. Nothing further was done on the pro- 
perty until July of same year, when the Consolidated Gold- 
fields of New Zealand (Limited) purchased all mining privi- 


legee and plant for the sum of £760. On this ohange of 
ownership several test crushings were taken from various parts 
of the property, but the values thus obtained proved absolute 
failures, consequently abandonment was declared, and the 
plant is being withdrawn as required at the Consolidated pro* 
perties. The reducfion-works (steam-driven) comprise twenty 
stamps of 9501b. each; three Joshua Hendy (San Francisco) 
C.J. mortar-boxes, 7,0001b. each; and one C.J. mortar-box 
made by J. Anderson, Christchurch ; while one 14 in. by 18 in» 
Blake rock-breaker was employed. Gold-saving by amalga- 
mation was effected on outside copper plates, concentration by 
Frue vanners, and cyanidation of the coarse sands, while the 
fine pyritic sands were treated over a series of canvas tables. 
The cyanide plant comprised four white-pine leaching-vats, 
18 in. inside diameter by 6 ft. deep, fitted with automatic dis- 
tributers, slime-gates, and overflow launders, cocoanut-matting 
filters, and bottom-discharge doors, 12 in. diameter. The ap- 
proximate drivings amounted to 6,252 ft., and sinkings and 
risings 1,313 ft. Regarding the prospects of the property, the 
late mine-manager states that, taking the whole of the stone 
from the " Big Blow " to the low-level tunnel on the Rainy 
Creek, and assuming that all the gold contained in the stone 
was saved, it would not pay, as a large percentage of the stone 
only gives an assay value of 1 J dwt. and 3 J dwt. to the ton. 
He further states that there is a speculative chance of success 
by sinking a shaft to a greater depth west of the bottom work- 
ings. The tonnage crushed during the year 1905 was 3,455 
tons, yielding 549*32 oz., valued at £2,290 7s. 4d., and 1,132 
tons of sands were treated by cyanide for 136 oz. 1 dwt. 18 gr., 
valued at £405 14s. lOd. ; and for the whole period of opera- 
tions 18,837 tons yielded 5,633 oz. 15 dwt. 16 gr., valued at 
£21,418. The London office accounts in the company's booka 
at Reefton show the gross expenditure by the New Inkerman 
Mines (Limited) to be £80,419, including £19,960 as cost of 
flotation from the Inkerman Combined to the New Inkerman 
Mines Company; and debenture - holders received £1,827. 
Whilst the mine was in full work there were forty to fifty 
underground hands employed ; five on the surface, including 

4— Mining Handbook. 


^contractors for getting coal and timber ; and nine in the reduc- 

New Seoiia Mine^ covering a mining-area of 100 acres, 
situate in the Merrijigs district, about ten miles by road from 
the Town of Reefton, was originally opened and operated by 
the Sir Francis Drake and Gallant Grold-mining Companies. 
In connection with the development of the separate properties, 
the Sir Francis Drake was opened by a vertical shaft, 10 ft. 
hy 4 ft., to a total depth of 400 ft., divided into two winding 
«nd one ladder-way compartment, the winding being actuated 
hj coupled horizontal steam-engines; and the Gallant, which 
•comprised the lower levels of the field, was opened by level 
adits. The New Scotia Gold-mining Company, on acquiring 
possession, carried out extensive exploitations on No. 1 level 
•eastward, off the Sir Francis Drake shaft, which was after- 
wards connected by rising on line of reef from the Gallant 
adits; but, so far as these exploratory works were efiEected, 
they proved the auriferous values unremunerative. At this 
period of operations the winding plant was removed from the 
Sir Francis Drake shaft and rebuilt at No. 1 Gallant, to sink 
a shaft, 7 ft. by 4 ft., on the underlie of a reef 3 ft. in width, 
which was continued to a total depth of 150ft., from whence 
driving was extended north and south on the lode for 100 ft. 
Probably the most lucrative proposition in connection with 
the venture was the cyanidation of an old tailings-heap, which 
contained 5,350 tons of rich auriferous sands, and yielded 
1,107 oz., valued at £3,470. The cyanide plant comprised 
three leaching-vats, 22 ft. 6 in. diameter by 4 ft. 6 in. deep, and 
two sumps, 12 ft. diameter by 4 ft. deep. In 1905, 250 tons of 
ore yielded by amalgamation 36 oz. 5dwt., valued at £137 
98. 6d., while 150 tons of sands treated by cyanide yielded 
11 oz. lOdwt., valued at £39 138. 6d. : and the total ore 
crushed amounted to 1,424 tons for a yield of 303 oz., valued 
at £1,164, and by cyanide 972 tons of sands yielded 113 oz., 
valued at £303. In connection with mining operations up to 
the 3l8t December, 1905, the total expenditure amounted to 
£1,406 28. 2d., and capital called up £1,150. The property 
has been abandoned, and all mining plant and reduction -works 


were sold for £600. Late mine-manAger, John McMasters; 
kgal manager, T. Hubert Lee, Reef ton. 

Big River. 
Big Eiver Mine^ owned by the Big River Gold-mining Com- 
pany, covers an area of 54 acres 1 rood 6 perches, and the seat 
of operations is located on the Big River, about nineteen miles 
by road from the Town of Reef ton. The property is opened 
by a vertical shaft 1,200 ft. in depth, with a capacity of 10 ft. 
by 4 ft., divided into two winding and one ladder-way com- 
partment. Winding is actuated by steam-engines, having 
coupled horizontal cylinders. The reefs worked vary from 
2 ft. to 12 ft. in width, and according to present development 
800 tons of ore is in sight. Exploitation includes 2,000 ft. 
of crosscutting, 150 ft. driven on course of lodes, and winzes 
120 ft. The reduction-works comprise ten head of stamps, 
capable of giving an average duty per stamp per diem of 
1} tons, while the gold is saved by amalgamation on the 
ordinary copper plates. During 1905, 920 tons of ore yielded 
879 oz., valued at £3,514 8s. 3d., the total yield being 
25,854 oz., valued at £103,940 4s. 2d., an average rate of 
£4 48. 4f<l. per ounce. In connection with mining operations, 
the total expenditure up to the 31st December, 1906, 
amounted to £69,904 lis. 4d. ; dividends paid to share- 
holders, £47,366 5s. ; and the capital actually called up, 
£11,475 2s. 6d. On an average, there are twenty men em- 
ployed in the mine, four in the battery, and eight in various 
surface works. Winding at the mine is actuated by steam- 
power. The approximate value of mining plant, reduction- 
works, &c., is computed at £3,000. Mine-manager, John H. 
McMahon; battery superintendent, P. N. Rodden ; legal 
manager, T. Hubert Lee, Reef ton. 

Victoria Range. 

Kirwan*s Reward Gold-mining Company has an area of 

93 acres 2 roods 4 perches on the Victoria Range, near Caple- 

Blon, in the Reefton district. During 1905 the company's 

fifteen-stamp mill, which is worked by water-power, crushed 


7,584 tons for 1,683 ob. 18 dwt. 6gr. of gold, value £6,699 
13s. lid., the average duty per stamp being about 1^ tons. 
The total quantity crushed has been 25,956 tons, which yielded 
12,171 oz. 13 dwt. of gold, valued at £48,500 18s. 2d. (at the 
rate of £3 19s. 9d. per ounce for melled gold). The total ex- 
penditure up to the 31st December, 1905, amounted to £32,692 
lis. 6d. ; total dividends paid, £18,900, including £2,100 
disbursed last year; capital actually called up, £3,091 
13s. 4d. Twenty-two men employed. The peculiarity of this 
property is that no true reef has yet been found. The crushed 
ore is picked from a large body of loose stone lying on the sur- 

Paparoa Range and Ten-mile Creek. 

Paparoa Range Mine was originally equipped with an 
aerial tram-line and a ten-stamp mill, but, after considerable 
expenditure, operations were finally abandoned, and the plant 
sold two years ago. 

Taffy Gold-mining Syndicate, with a called-up capital of 
£100, holds an open-face auriferous area of 2 acres, situate on 
the Ten-mile Creek. The formation worked is a broken irre- 
gular slate, intermixed with quartz stringers, which are 
crushed by a five-stamp mill, and the sands treated over the 
ordinary amalgam-tables. For the year 1905 the gold won 
amounted to 31 oz., valued at £120. 

Some Particulars of Hydraulic Sluicing Clainia. 

Addison's Long Tunnel Gold-mining Company was regis- 
tered and work commenced on the 24th September, 1898, in a 
claim of 19 acres and 20 perches, the wash being a marine 
deposit 10 ft. in thickness. The company's dams, covering an 
area of 50 acres, maintain an average water-supply of eight 
heads over four miles of water-races, 300 ft. of fluming, and 
10 in. pipe-line, at an average head pressure of 20 ft. The 
gold, being fine, is treated over a series of plush-laid tables, 
80 ft. by 12 ft., whilst the tailings are discharged through a 
tail-race a mile and a half in length. For the year 1905 the 
gold won was 326 oz., valued at £1,289, and since registration 
1,824 oz., valued at £7,204 (average value £3 19s. per ounce). 

• •••_•• • 


Capital has been called up to the amount of £1,500, and 
£723 lis. paid in dividends. Four men employed. Mine- 
manager, P. Sullivan; secretary, A. W. Mills, Westport. 

Barry toum Sluicing and Elevating Claim has an area of 
65 acres, situate on the Barrytown Flat, which was formerly 
owned and worked by the Barrytown Company, but about 
seven years ago the plant and property were purchased by 
Mr. A. McKay, of Greymoutli. The wash consists of sand 
and gravels, which are sluiced from a false bottom to a depth 
of 12ft. and elevated 65 ft., thence distributed and treated 
over a table-surface 212 ft. in length by 12 ft. in breadth. 
During 1905 the yield of gold was 700 oz., valued at £2,730, 
and since work first commenced 3,000 oz. has been obtained, 
valued at ^11,700. The capital expended on development 
has amounted to £20,000 ; dividends, 6 per cent, on capital ; 
value of property, including plant, water-races, Ac, computed 
at £20,000. The claim includes three miles and a half of 
water-races, together with four miles of pipe-line, varying in 
diameter from 7 in. to 20 in., which discharge from twelve 
to twenty heads of water on two nozzles at a head pressure of 
615 ft. From sixteen to twenty men are employed. Mine- 
manager, W. White. 

Bell Hill Sluicing Claim. — This party commenced work 
in the year 1900 on an auriferous area of 50 acres, of which 
4 acres have been since worked, the wash operated on consisting 
of 130 ft. of heavy alluvial gravel and pug. In connection 
with the water-supply the company's dams occupy 5 acres, 
from which the water is passed through four miles of water- 
races, three-quarters of a mile of fluraing, and 100 yards of 
18 in. pipes, which maintain an average supply of 100 
heads on three nozzles, under a head pressure of 150 ft. The 
sample of gold is coarse, medium, and fine, and is therefore 
treated over a series of twenty gold-saving tables comprising 
an area of 968 square yards, together with 400 yards of tail- 
race blocks. The plant, races, dams, Ac, have an approxi- 
mate value of £10,000. During the year 1905 the gold won 
was 250 oz., valued at £968 158., and since commencement of 
operations the total gold obtained amounts to 1,000 oz., valued 


at £3,875 (an average value of £3 17b. 6d. per ounce). The 
amount of called-up capital is £6,000, and up to date all 
profits have been absorbed in extending the water-supply. 
Owners, William J. Mcllroy and party; secretary, T. R. 
Byrne, Eumara. 

Charleston Beach Sluicing Company holds an auriferous 
area of 16 acres at Charleston. The gravels, 7 ft. in depth, 
consist of sand and stony wash overlying the true bottom. In 
May, 1905, the company commenced to open up the claim, and 
was registered on the 13th June, 1905. The dams owned by 
the company cover an area of 3 acres, from which the water is 
conveyed through five miles of water-races and 600 ft. of 8 in. 
and 10 in. pipes, which maintain a supply of eight heads on 
one nozzle, at an average pressure of 50 ft. The gold is fine, 
and saved over baize-covered tables, 57 ft. by 18 ft., and the 
tailings carried over 400 ft. of tail-races, including 200 ft. of 
tunnel. The capital actually called up is £445 10s. 6d., and 
the approximate value of plant, races, dams, &c., £650. Five 
men are employed. Mine-manager, Thomas Radford, jun. ; 
secretary, Reginald A. Aickin, Auckland. 

Grey River Sluicing Claim, — This claim has an alluvial 
area of 30 acres, of which 4 acres have been worked since 
operations were commenced. The depth of wash in the 
face is about 16 ft. Water is supplied from the company's 
dam (2 acres in area) by a water-race four miles in length, 
together with 25 chains of fluming and 20 chains of 13 in. and 
18 in. pipe-line, and the face operated on by two nozzles, under 
an average supply of twenty heads, at a head pressure of 60 ft. 
The gold is medium-sized, and saved on 30 chains of tail-races 
paved with wooden blocks. During the year 1905 the gold 
won amounted to 235 oz. 17 dwt. 20 gr., valued at £931 
15s. 5d. (an average value of £3 19s. per ounce). Four men 
employed. Owner and manager, Joseph Shrives, sen. 

Horse Terrace Sluicing Company was registered on the 
2nd August, 1904, and owns an alluvial area of 40 acres on 
the Horse Terrace, near Murchison, employing eight men. In 
1905 the yield of gold was 331 oz. 2 dwt., valued at £1,290. 
The capital called up has amounted to £5,000, and the ap- 


proximate value of plant, races, dams, Ac, is £4,000. Mine- 
manager, C. S. Beilby; secretary, H. GilfiUan, jun., Auck- 

Ktri Montana Claim. — The Walker-Maruia Gold-sluicing 
Company was registered on the 31st May, 1905, and ac- 
quired the mining and water rights to work the Kiri Momona 
Claim, situate at Maruia, in the Burnett Survey District. 
The auriferous areas now held under lease, for a period of 
forty years, comprise 172 acres of crushed quartz and slate 
formation, intermixed with sandstone and granite boulders, 
resting on the " Old-man bottom," the wash varying in depth 
from 40 ft. to 120 ft. The company having originally deter- 
mined to carry out operations on systematic and profitable 
lines, construction of a water-race is now in active progress, 
the completed length of which will be seven miles, and will 
comprise 60 chains of fluming and 100 ft. of 18 in. and 19 in. 
pipes, with a capacity of sixty heads, under a head pressure 
of 70 ft. Meantime, the ordinary sluice-box and plush-table 
will be erected, with an operative surface of 150 ft. by 9 ft. 
The approximate value of the works, ko., when completed, is 
computed at £6,000. The called-up capital to date amounts 
to £2,300. The works employ twenty men, and, according 
to contract, the water-race should be finished on the 31st 
August, 1906. A sawmilling plant, driven by the original 
water-supply, is erected to meet the requirements of the 
works. Secretary, M. M. Webster, Nelson. 

MaeLeod*8 Terrace Sluicing and Water-distributing Com- 
pany (registered on the 4th April, 1902) owns and works an 
alluvial area of 100 acres, situated on the Mikonui River, 
Westland, and employs four men. The wash consists of a 
glacial sandstone deposit, overlain by a sandstone loam, 
which is sluiced to a depth of 120 ft. from a false bottom, 
and the gold saved over 208 ft. of tail-races, paved with 
wooden blocks. Since work first commenced the total gravels 
sluiced comprise an area of i acre, for a yield of 26 oz., 
valued at £101 3s. The dams have an area of IJ acres, 
connected by three miles of water-races, including 8 chains 
of fluming and 15 in. -diameter pipe-line, which discharge 


twenty heads on one nozzle, under a head pressure of 120 ft. 
The approximate value of plant, water-races, Ac, is esti- 
mated at £10,000, that being the amount of money expended. 
Mine-manager, Fergus Mael^eod; secretary, William Bell, 

Minerals {Limited) commenced sluicing operations on the 
13th June, 1903, on an alluvial area of 200 acres, situated 
on the Blue Spur, Arahura. The wash is an auriferous 
gravel, varying in depth from 1 ft. to 4ft., and operated on 
the true bottom. During the year 1905 the materials raised 
and treated cost Ss. per yard, yielding 393 oz. 15 dwt. of 
gold, valued at £1,535 13s. 3d., and since work first com- 
menced 10 acres of wash yielded 493 oz. 15 dwt., valued at 
£1,926 48. lid. The capital called up has amounted to 
£4,917 5s.; approximate value of plant, races, dams, Ac, 
£2,000. There are eight miles of water-races, 3 chains of 
tail-races, and ^ acre of dam, from which 6 chains of 18 in. 
pipe convey one head of water on to the face. Five men 
employed. Mine - manager, R. R. Morrison ; secretary, 
E. HoUoway, Auckland. 

Mont d*Or Gold-mining and Water-race Company com- 
menced work in June, 1878, on an alluvial area of 163 acres, 
situate on Sailor's Gully, Ross, and was registered in July, 
1882. The ground operated on is an auriferous sandstone- 
drift deposit, mixed with black manganese stones, and having 
a varied depth from 180 ft. to 300 ft. During 1905 the area 
worked (IJ acres) yielded 789 oz. 17 dwt. 4gr., valued at 
£3,080 88. 9d., and since the claim was first taken up 
28 acres worked has yielded 40,672 oz. 11 dwt. 18 gr., valued 
at £158,623 6s. lOd. (a rate of £3 18s. per ounce). The 
called-up capital has amounted to £10,800, and the dividends 
declared to £41,400. As computed by the company, the pro- 
bable life of the mine will bo twenty-five years, and from its 
earliest history fifty-two years. The water-supply is con- 
served in dams with an aggregate area of 7 acres, thence over 
sixteen miles of races, including 1,600 ft. of 22 in. and 
1,500 ft. of 15 in. pipe-lines; and the tail-races, which com- 
prise a total length of one mile and a half, are paved with 
blocks and stones for the purpose of saving the gold (tables 


are not in use). There are three giant nozzles, operated on 
hj twenty heads of water, under a head pressure of 180 ft. 
For maintenance of water-races the yearly cost is £416. Ap- 
proximate value of plant, &c., £12,135 Hs. lOd. Fourteen 
men are employed. With the object of working the deeper 
deposits to the true bottom, which have been proved to con- 
tain high auriferous values, a low-level tail-race is now in 
course of construction. Mine-manager, John McKay; secre- 
tary, T. W. Bruce, Ross. 

Nine-mile Sluicing Company was registered on the 16th 
May, 1904, and conmienced work in August of the same year. 
The seat of operations comprises an alluvial area of 69^ acres, 
situate on a spur 350 ft. from the Ten-mile Creek, at an 
altitude of 250 ft. above sea-level. The auriferous drift is 
a sea deposit 60 ft. in depth, overlying the papa-rock forma- 
tion. In 1905 i acre of gravels was sluiced for 8,000 cubic 
yards at ^d. per yard, yielding 7 oz. 11 dwt., valued at £30 
4s. 9d. The water-supply of ten heads in wet weather and 
two heads in dry is taken from the company's dam, 200 ft. 
l)y 80 ft., over a flume three-quarters of a mile in length, and 
delivered from the penstock by 12 in. -diameter pipes, at a 
head pressure of 110 ft. The approximate cost of plant, 
races, dams, &c., is £3,000; incidental expenses for the year 
1905, £150; and called-up capital, £566 15s. Mr. Lemuel 
McNair, the late manager of the claim, states, " The nature 
of the country worked was entirely of a prospecting character. 
The bottom kept rising equal to the surface for 400 ft. up 
the hill, when it began to dip into the hill, and dipped 13 ft. 
"towards the Ten-mile Creek. The dip proved very poor, and 
operations had to be abandoned on the 30th December, 1905, 
for want of funds. There is no reason to doubt that payable 
gold might be found between the front and back reef, as the 
hack reef was never found. The gutter runs round the hill 
over three-quarters of a mile, and can be traced by the break- 
away of the wash all round the hill and faces standing in the 
gullies and wateroourjses. It would have taken six months 
more to have given the hill a fair trial." 

Eepuhlie Sluicing Company. — Alluvial mining was com- 
menced in Healey's Gully in 1878, but not until June, 1898, 


was the Republic Sluicing Company registered as a mining 
concern, the called-up capital amounting to J&3,500. The 
auriferous areas held under lease comprise 40 acres of 
hard-cemented gravels, worked to a depth of 70 ft. from the 
true marine bottom. In 1905, 224,000 cubic yards of grave! 
were raised and treated from 1 acre of ground, at a cost of 
l^d. per cubic yard, yielding 600 oz., valued at £2,400 (<£4 
per ounce), and since work was first commenced 12 acres have 
been exhausted for a total yield of 5,000 oz., valued at 
£20,000. The water-supply of twenty heads is taken from 
the Roaring Meg, and conveyed to the penstock over two 
miles of water-race, including 500 yards of flume and 19 in. 
pipe-line, which maintain two operating nozzles with a pres- 
sure of 260 ft. The gold won is of a coarse character, and 
saved by ordinary ripples, arranged in the tail-race boxes, 
one mile in length. There are six men employed, and the in- 
cidental expenses amount to £300 yearly. The claim has been 
worked on tribute since February last, and the whole water- 
supply is sold at Government rates to private claims, and 
also to the tributers. It is considered that part of the pro- 
perty can be utilised after working for pastoral purposes. 

Ross United Claim. — Since the year 1865 the Ross United 
Claim, an alluvial area of 44 acres, situated in Jones's Flat, 
had been worked continuously until the year 1905, when the 
Mont d'Or Gold-raining and Water-race Company purchased 
all mining privileges and plant. The dams cover an area of 
2 acres, connected bv five miles of races, including 4,000 ft. 
of fluming and pipe-line, which varies in diameter from 11 in. 
to 18 in., and carries eight heads of water at a head pressure 
of 200 ft. Approximate value of plant and property esti- 
mated at £10,000; yearly cost of maintenance, £350. The 
old company had a capital of £150,000, of which £37,000 was 
called up. The deposits, which comprise eight layers of 
highly auriferous wash, were formerly proved to a depth of 
392 ft. by sinkings on the Ross Flat; but, in order to develop 
these deep-level deposits, drainage can only be effected by 
heavy and expensive pumping plant, at a probable cost of 
£50,000. Mine-manager, John McKay; secretary, T. W. 
Bruce, Ross. 




By Warden Kbmbick. 

Thb Grey, Buller, and Inangahua districts, which were worked 
as separate districts for over twenty years after the first gold- 
discoveries on the West Coast, are now administered by one 
Warden. In dealing with this wide area of auriferous country 
I shall first deal with 

The Grey Subdivision. 

The first discovery of gold took place at the Greenstone in 
1864, and towards the close of that year at Red Jack's. Then 
followed the discoveries on the sea-beaches north and south of 
the Grey River at Marsden, Maori Creek, Arnold, Greymouth, 
and Moonlight, the most valuable quality of gold being found 
at the latter diggings. During the first fifteen to twenty 
years the miners expended about £100,000 in the construction 
of water-races, tail-races, and dams in different parts of the 
district. This was supplemented by an outlay of £90,000 
on the part of the Government in the construction of the 
Nelson Creek Water-race. The almost universal method of 
mining being hydraulic and ground sluicing, a good water- 
supply was indispensable. 

Paroa and Rutherqlen. 
These mining townships, situate a few miles from Grey- 
mouth, are rather quiet, a very small amount of alluvial 
workings being now carried on. A cement lead runs in a 
northerly direction from the New River through Rutherglen 
parallel to the coast-line as far as Nelson Creek. It is about 
150 ft. above sea-level, and consists of cemented black sand, 
which requires to be crushed in order to extract the gold. If 
worked on a large scale payable returns might be obtained. 

108 new zealand mining handbook. 

Marsden and Dunganville. 

This district, not many miles from Grejmouth, with a 
good road to it, takes in the New River Valley, and in the 
early days produced very rich yields of gold. The left-hand 
branch of New River and all its tributaries are worked out 
towards their sources to an elevation of about 400 ft. above 

The Eight-mile Range rises to a height of 1,200 ft., and 
there is believed to be payable ground to the very summit. 
This, however, cannot be worked for the want of water at such 
a level. A number of miners are still working in this locality, 
and those who own water- rights do fairly well. 

Dredging has been tried in this district, but without any 
degree of success. Notwithstanding its failure, it is the 
opinion of some residents that there is payable dredging- 
ground in the locality which only requires to be prospected 

It is believed, if a high-level race could be brought to the 
Eight-mile Terrace from the Eastern Hohonu River, a dis- 
tance of twelve miles, a considerable area of payable ground 
could be worked by sluicing. 

Maori Gully and Arnold Creek. 

Rich gold was formerly obtained from Maori Gully and 
the surrounding streams, but at present only a few parties 
are working with catchwater dams and races. 

Payable sluicing-ground has been reported on the Arnold 
banks, Stillwater Creek, and Maori Gully, but it cannot be 
worked until a high-level water-race is brought in, and it 
would require considerable expenditure to do this. 

Moonlight and District. 

This locality, situate on the north bank of the Grey River, 
and nearly opposite the Township of Ahaura, was noted for 
its rich gold in early days, and quite recently a 68 oz. nugget 
was found, with several smaller ones. 

The Moonlight Company has let its dredge on tribute, 
and it is yielding payable returns. 





The Shetland Terrace Sluicing Company, in the same lo- 
cality, has ceased operations for want of sufficient capital to 
complete its water-race. 

The Moonlight district will again undoubtedly be a large 
gold-producer, but to work its quartz lodes and to bring in 
water for sluicing the large areas of auriferous ground re- 
quires a considerable expenditure of capital. 

Most of the nuggets found in this district have quartz 
attached, and it is firmly believed by all who know the locality 
that rich reefs do exist. The ranges are high and rough, 
making prospecting difficult. 


This is another district which, with the expenditure of 
capital in bringing in water at higher levels, will again become 
a highly payable alluvial field. Alluvial gold has been found 
for .miles, and large areas in the form of high terraces have 
been tested and proved to be highly payable. An attempt is 
now being made by a local syndicate to bring in a water-race 
from Lake Hochstetter, a distance of six miles, to work the 
higher terraces. 

Two dredges were constructed and worked on Ahaura 
River some years ago. Both did well, one getting as much as 
50 oz. of gold a week; but they were not strong enough, and 
could not touch the bottom, which in some places is of more 
than ordinary depth. An up-to-date powerful dredge should 
pay well, judging by the results obtained by the one which 
was working. It, however, only worked a small area of 

Want of capital in this district, as in nearly all others, 
is the only drawback to the development of a large gold- 
producing area. 

Reefton Distriot. 

Both alluvial and quartz gold has been found for a con- 
siderable area around the mining township of Reefton. At 
the present time very little alluvial work is being done, al- 
though rich auriferous ground was worked in the early days. 
The value of the gold obtained in this district would not be less 
than £3,000,000. 


Quarts claims were taken up first near Beefton in 1870, 
and since then large diyidends have been paid by various 
companies, notably the Ajax, Golden Fleece, Wealth of Na* 
tions, Progress, Eeep-it-Dark, and many others. Mining is 
fairly quiet in Reefton just now, although several mines are 
still paying good dividends, such as the Eeep-it-Dark and 
Progress Mines and the Consolidated Goldfields. The ore is 
now successfully treated by battery and cyanide process. 
~ Nearly all the ranges around Reefton are auriferous. 
What is urgently needed in this district is more prospecting. 
It has been noticeable that wherever a little prospecting is 
going on some new finds are made. Quite recently two or 
three miners, after a few mouths' prospecting*, have discovered 
a payable, and what appears likely to turn out a rich, quartz 
reef at Snowy River, about a day's journey from Reefton. 
Considerable pegging-out has been the result, and in conse- 
quence vigorous prospecting has been going on. Other reefs 
have been found, but it is premature to express an opinion as 
to their values. This find is about four miles from the Upper 
Blackwater, where good gold has been obtained, and where 
Alluvial mining still continues. 

£bbp-it-Dabk Quabte-minino Company, Crushington. 

This company's property is situated at Crushington, two 
miles and a half from the Town of Reefton, in the County of 
Inangahua. The company now holds licensed holdings con- 
taining 118 acres and 6 perches. The original claim, from 
which the company derives its name, was pegged out as eight 
men's ground under miners' rights in 1873, the company 
being registered the following year. The extent of ground 
which each man could hold at that time was 60 ft. along the 
line of reef, with a width of 150 ft. on each side of the line. 
The original size of the first claim held by the company was 
480 ft. long by 300 ft. wide. The company has since acquired 
five or six of the original claims which were pegged out on 
the same line of reef in the vicinity. 

The company has now been steadily working the claim 
tor the last thirty-two years. The present depth of the main 
winding-shaft is 1,100 ft., being about 400 ft. below sea-level. 


Two levels of about 150 ft. each were worked from tunnels 
driven into the hill before any sinking was required. Alto-' 
gether the company has mined 212,923 tons of quarts up to 
the 1st June, 1906, which has yielded 101,046 oz. 18 dwt. 
11 gr. of melted gold, valued at £389,689 18s. Id. Divi- 
dends amounting to j£150,666 13s. 4d. have been distributed, 
equal to £7 10s. 8d. per share, and £158,672 7s. 3d. paid in 
miners' wages and contracts. 

The output of quartz for a few years was small, as the 
company was not in possession of a crushing plant for some 
years after operations were commenced. The plant now con- 
sists of a twenty-head stamper-battery ; two Wilfley improved 
concentrators; cyanide plant, consisting of six leaching- vats, 
each holding 60 tons, two solution-sumps, and two settling- 
tanks; winding plant, one 25-horse-power double-cylinder 
engine (makers. Fowler and Son, Leeds). The battery is 
driven by water-power (Pelton wheel). The water is taken 
from the Inangahua River, the water-race being a mile and a 
quarter in length, and the supply never-failing. Water-power 
was also used for winding by an overshot reversible wheel. 
It was very economical, and answered admirably until the 
shaft got down below the 500 ft. level. It was then found to 
be too slow, and for the past eight years ,the winding has been 
by steam-power. 

The company's equipment and plant at the present time, 
including the main shaft, has cost over £20,000, the greatest 
part of which has been paid out of profits, as the capital 
called up in cash is only £6,208 6s. 8d., equal to 6s. 2j^d. 
per share, the most of which was expended in prospecting 

From small beginnings and by careful management the 
company has been one of the most successful in the Inangahua 
district, and the future of the company for a long time to 
come is also assured, for, in addition to the lode which is 
now being worked and on which the company has been 
operating for the last eight years, there are several places 
within the boundary of .the company's holdings where reefs 
have been profitably worked by other companies from the 
surface down to 500 ft. in depth. These claims having been 


purchased, the company is now in a position to prospect these 
lodes at much deeper levels, and it is anticipated that payable 
results will be obtained. 

I^yell District. 

Very little work is being done here at present. The Al- 
pine Mine, which did so well for a considerable time, paying 
upwards of £70,000 in dividends, has been sold, together 
with the battery and plant, and it is understood that a syn- 
dicate has been formed with the object of giving the mine a 
further trial. 

Many quartz lodes are known to exist near Lyell, but 
without large capital they cannot be developed. The sur- 
rounding country is very mountainous, rough, and heavily 
timbered. What this district must have before the quartz- 
mining industry can flourish is large capital; it is, from its 
roughness and its heavily timbered mountains, difficult to 

There are a number of miners scattered about doing a little 
alluvial mining. 


Murchison (sometimes called Hampden) is a rising town- 
ship in the Hampden Riding of the luangahua County. A 
considerable amount of sluicing has been done on the Mataki- 
taki River banks and terraces, and the operations still con- 
tinue. Some of the claims have done fairly well, but the 
want of capital to bring in large races at high levels has 
prevented wide areas of ground from being worked success- 

Thompson and party are working a claim on the east side 
of the Maruia River with a good deal of success, and they 
are now constructing a f our - mile race to work the high 

There is a considerable area of alluvial wash on the banks 
of the Maruia and Matakitaki Rivers; some of it is rich, but 
very rough for working. 

The dredges in the district have not been a success. There 
are payable patches, but generally the wash is too heavy and 
too shallow to be profitably worked. 









A quartz reef was discovered thirty or forty miles from 
Murchison at Upper Matakitaki, carrying a little gold. There 
are other indications of the existence of quartz lodes, but 
further prospecting is required in this district. 

Glenrot River. 

Alluvial gold has been obtained in this river, but the 
payable wash is apparently exhausted. The terraces contain 
payable gold, and only await the judicious expenditure of 
money in bringing in a race at a high level, when good re- 
turns should be obtained. 

Westport Distriot. 

Westport is a seaport town on the BuUer River. To the 
north and south of it there are many fields which have yielded 
very rich alluvial gold. In 1886 it was calculated that the 
value of the gold obtained in the Buller district was about one- 
twelfth that of the whole colony, or approximately £3,600,000; 
so that at a moderate computation it may be set down at not 
less than £4,000,000 to date. Some difficulty was experienced 
in arriving at anything like exact figures, for, while the bulk of 
the gold was exported by way of Hokitika, some of it found 
an outlet from Greymouth, and other parcels went by way of 
Nelson. The beaches and banks of the Buller River were very 
rich in deposits of the precious metal, which was for the most 
part of a fiaky description, requiring little apparatus and 
preliminary labour in winning it. 

Charleston and Brighton, to the south of Westport, were 
perhaps the largest gold-producers in the early days of the 
Buller district, many thousands of miners doing well for 
years in these places. 

There are several good sluicing claims about Charleston 
paying well; also one or two cement claims, which are yield- 
ing fair profits. Although all the richer ground appears to 
have been worked out, there is still a considerable area of 
payable sluicing-ground to be operated on. 

The sea-beaches continue to pay fair wages, although they 
have been worked for forty years. The gold is very fine and 
the sand heavy ; therefore only a small percentage of the gold 


ifi saved with the present crude methods. When a prooeas U 
introduced by which the fine gold can be saved these beachea 
will yield excellent returns. 

Brighton, some miles south of Charleston, has still a con- 
siderable area of payable slu icing-ground, which, howerer, 
cannot be worked for want of water, and to get this water it 
will be necessary to expend a large sum of money. 

Going north of Westport, much alluvial gold has been se- 
cured in the past, and there are now many small claims 
working profitably. The district about Westport, and weU 
to the north as far as Earamea, should be well worth pro- 
specting for quartz lodes, and in the future quartz-mining wiU 
undoubtedly play an important part in Westport's mining 
industry. Within the last few weeks a large quartz lode, 
carrying gold, has been discovered in very rough country 
between Earamea and Little Wanganui. Quartz reefs have 
been found in Rough - and - Tumble Creek, near Mokihinui. 
There are several quartz claims being worked near Mokihinui^ 
and also at Birchfield. At the last-named place the Britannia 
Company, since 1901, has won a fair amount of gold; a 
cyanide plant has been erected, and it is anticipated very 
much better returns will be obtained than formerly with the 
battery only. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Westport has splendid prospects before it in regard to its 
coalfields. Up to the present several large coal-mines have 
been working successfully, the output for each week varying 
up to 13,000 tons from them. This industry is only in its 
infancy. Several large coal-areas have been taken up within 
the last year, and already many splendid seams of coal have 
been found. Companies have been formed with ample capital 
to develop these areas, and in a very short time it is expected 
that the output of coal for this district will be more than 

The coal prospects of Greymouth are also very good, and 
the output of coal is rapidly increasing. Several new areas 
have been taken up, and development-work is now progressing. 

The West Coast is, indeed, rich in minerals, the develop- 
ment of which is only as yet in its infancy. Coal can be 


iound outcropping almost all over the Coast, and much of it 
is of the highest quality. There are many other minerals and 
valuable stones known to exist, but no attempt has been made 
to prospect for them so far. 

Dredging generally has not been a success on the West 
Coast, but in many instances fair returns would have been 
obtained if suitable dredges had been put on. On the Buller 
River a number of dredges obtained' very good returns 
for short periods. A few dredges have done exceedingly well 
in the Grey district, and several are now paying large divi- 
•dends, but the greater number have ceased to work. 


By Warden Achsson. 

•Kamara District. 

All the dredging in the Eumara district is confined to 
the Greenstone Creek, and in the year 1905 four dredges 
worked in that locality. The Greenstone Junction dredge 
averaged 11 oz. per week. During the big flood in June this 
dredge sank, and a great deal of time was lost in refloating 
her. She is at present being worked by tributers. The New 
Greenstone Gold Syndicate's dredge averaged about 18 oz. 
per week. Messrs. Cowie and Bice, who have the old Bun 
Tuck dredge, have worked to the Blackwater Creek, and 
averaged 40 oz. per week. The Three-mile dredge, which is 
^nmed by a Dunedin company, obtained on an average 20 oz. 
a week during the same period. Extensive prospecting opera- 
tions are now being carried on, which when successful — and 
the results so far are encouraging — will give a fresh impetus 
to mining in this locality, where there is a magnificent water- 
supply for hydraulic sluicing. The extensive terraces lying 
north of the Teremakau will undoubtedly command the atten- 
iion of prospectors as soon as the roads now in course of con- 
struction are completed. 


Alluvial. — Three prospecting shafts were sunk at Larri- 
kin's during the year by a private association without any 
result. At Dillmanstown three claims are working with suc- 
cess — viz., McGrath's, the Long Tunnel G<4d-mining Com- 
pany, and Cullen and party's. The Long Tunnel Company 
paid two dividends of 3d. per share. Yocasivich and party 
worked at Tramway Terrace, but the ground did not turn out 
to be very rich. At Cape Terrace about five sluicing claims 
are working with varying success. In some cases a scarcity 
of water considerably affects the returns. At Hayes's Terrace 
four claims have been worked by Gilbert and Tomasi, Mcllroy 
and party, Evenden and A'Court, and some Chinese, with fair 
average results. At the Greenstone, Chinamen have been 
sluicing along Qu inn's Terrace, near the Three-mile, and up 
Fuchsia Creek with average success, and the same applies to 
the five claims which are being worked in the same neighbour- 

Stafford and Goldaboroagh Districts. 

Dredging, — A new company was formed in the place of 
the Stafford - Waimea Gold - dredging Company, which went 
into liquidation in 1904. The new company was registered 
on the 17th May, 1905. It commenced operations imme- 
diately after that date, and worked continuously to the end 
of the year for a return of 511 oz. lOdwt. of gold, value 
£1,969 48. 6d., divisible after paying expenses among seven 

Alluvial. — At the beginning of the year 1905 there were 
377 acres held under license. During that year 48 acres were 
taken up and 133 acres surrendered. From this it might 
appear that the area over which operations are being con- 
ducted has decreased, but I am quite certain that more work 
has been done and a greater quantity of gold obtained than 
during the previous year. The want of water prevents larger 
and more successful operations being carried on. At Middle 
Branch Flat, where there is a Government supply of water, 
most of the claims have been working continuously, and with 
excellent results, and the locality is regarded as a field for 
mining operations for some considerable time to come, 

Bucket Elevator, Wheel of Fortune Claim, Stafford 
(KuMARA District). 

Mining Handbook. 


especiallj when the holdings, several of which are at pre- 
sent locked ap owing to want of connection with the Waimea 
Main Tail-race, become connected with the sludge-channel. 
At Callaghan's the miners are now getting a supply of water 
from the Grovernment race, and are in consequence working 
continuously, and with much better results than hitherto. 
The Wheel of Fortune Hydraulic Sluicing Claim, which was 
purchased early in the year by a local syndicate, has been 
working very steadily, and the new owners are quite satisfied 
with the result of the year's operations. In other parts of 
the district miners have to depend to a large extent on the 
rainfall, and this results in disaster when a ^ry season 
occurs. German Gully, Fourth and Fifth Terraces, and 
Lamplough would, I am confident, with a better supply of 
water, pay handsomely, and provide employment for a large 
number of men. 

Hokitika District. 

Dredging. — There have been only two dredges working in 
this locality — the Montezimia and the Woodstock. The former 
has been greatly hampered by the sea breaking into the dam, 
and either sinking or silting her up. This last disaster 
happened towards the end of the year, and caused operations 
to be discontinued. (I may say that since then she has been 
dismantled.) The Woodstock is working continuously, but, 
being owned privately, it is impossible to ascertain with wEat 
result. Certainly, the fact of constant working would lead 
to the conclusion that the dredge must be paying the owners 

Alluvial. — The returns from this source during 1905 have 
been up to the average of recent years. At Humphrey's 
Gully the Consolidated Claim is being worked by tributers, 
and the results, although not great, have been satisfactory. 
At Blue Spur there are many small claims which appear to 
provide their owners with a good living, while Minerals 
(Limited), towards the end of the year, struck a good patch, 
which realised £1,113, and enabled the company to pay off 
all liabilities and place £558 to its credit at the bank. About 


Kanieri ForkB, Woodstock, Arthurstown, and Craig's Free- 
hold small parties appear to be doing fairlj well, but the 
main alluvial field at Woodstock sufers considerably from 
want of water, which, if obtainable, would doubtless result in 
far larger and more remunerative mining operations. The 
various mining privileges at Back Creek, or Seddon's Terrace, 
now being worked are giving good results for the monej in- 
vested. The subsidised tunnel of Johnson and party has 
paid good wages to the workmen since completion. At pre- 
sent two layers of gravel are being turned out, known respec- 
tively as the " blue wash '' and the " Brighton bottom." 

Westland Beefs.— The Westland Reefs, on the Wilberforoe 
River, are about 5,000 ft. above sea-level, and in the range 
dividing Canterbury and Westland. During the past year 
several of the prospecting claims have been worked, with a 
view to defining the quartz reefs which have been proved to 
exist on all the claims excepting one. In the Wilson's Re- 
ward a tunnel has been driven 100 ft. below the surface where 
the outcrop appears, and the reef has been found at that 
depth to be over 20 ft. wide, and greater in width than at 
the outcrop. Tests made have proved the stone to be highly 
payable. No work has been done on Grey's, Hyndman's, 
Billett's, Mcintosh's, Hutchison's, and McClay's claims, as 
most of them were only taken up at the end of the year. On 
Fiddes's Reward, which contains three distinct lines of gold- 
bearing reefs, a very good lode has been traced to a length 
of fully 30 chains. Eleven chains of this has been carefully 
prospected, and the reef proved to be of an average width of 
over 2 ft. In the 11 chains the reef is exposed in sixteen 
places, and yields prospects equal to 2oz. to the ton. 
Baucke's claim has been well prospected. The reef in Fiddes's 
Reward continues in this claim, but in addition there are two 
other outcrops. Samples taken from two of these reefs have 
yielded from 1 oz. to 2 oz. per ton, but the ore in the other 
is of lower grade. Considerable prospecting has been done 
on Pfahlert and party's claim. The reef has been traced a 
distance of 10 chains, and proved to be of an average thick- 
ness of 3 J ft., and highly payable. 


Ross Distriot. 

There is not much to report as having occurred in this 
district during the year. In dredging matters the Prince of 
Wales and the Eohinoor went into liquidation. The former 
was hought by several persons previously interested in her, 
and under their management there has been a considerable 
increase in the returns of gold. The Eohinoor was sold and 

In sluicing matters, the evergreen Mont d'Or Claim has 
continued to declare legular dividends to the fortunate share- 
holders, and is likely to continue doing so. The MacLeod's 
Terrace Company has not been so fortunate: the want of 
an adequate supply of water has been a considerable handicap 
to mining operations, and the blue clay, or pug, in the claim 
a great obstacle. 

The Possibilitibs of Rosb Flat. 

At Ross, where the Mont d'Or Sluicing Company has won 
from *' mother earth " 40,700 oz. of gold, and divided in pro- 
fits £52,200, there exists a large flat known as the Ross Flat. 
One man named Cassius obtained from this flat over 
22,000 oz. of gold in two years, and at the top end, known as 
Jones's Flat, over 5 tons of gold has been obtained. The old 
Ross United Company, which worked the Ross Flat until 
operations were stopped by water, obtained 2,500 oz., and its 
big shaft (which was sunk to a depth of 392 ft.) passed 
through eight distinct layers of gold-bearing wash without 
finding the bottom. How many more layers or levels of pay- 
able wash there are below this shaft no one can tell. That 
such a marvellous deposit is not being exploited to-day is 
more than remarkable, since the Government is offering the 
whole of this area (100 acres) and a subsidy of £15,000 to 
any person or company whose proposed method of working 
is approved by the Government Engineer. That this flat 
can be drained to a depth of 500 ft., if necessary, is proved 
by the Beaconsfield Mine, in Tasmania, where 5,000 gallons 
of water are lifted per minute from a shaft 2,000 ft. deep 
in four lifts with plunger pumps, at a cost of £10 per annum 


per horse-power. The old company failed because it tried 
to drain this flat with water-power. With the completion of 
the railway to Ross in about a year's time, coal could be 
landed at the boilers on this claim for 15s. per ton, and the 
flat easily drained with an outlay of £50,000. 

Okarito District. 

Dredging, — During the early part of the year a dredge 
was worked on tribute on the Saltwater Lagoon, but as suffi- 
cient gold was not obtained to pay expenses operations ceased. 
The Five-mile Company attempted to place a dredge on the 
Fiye-mile, but owing to the difficulty of landing the machinery 
the attempt was abandoned. 

Alluvial, — ^Very little work has been done. The Westland 
Company and Batson, at the Waiho, have opened up a large 
block of country on the south side of the Waiho River, but 
it is impossible to say with what result. The company em- 
ploys nine men. 

Beach Gold, — In the early part of the year a great deal 
of beach gold was obtained. A Mr. Gibb and his family are 
credited with getting between eight hundred and a thousand 
pounds' worth in a few weeks. It was reported at the end of 
the year that good coarse gold, carrying quartz, had been 
got at the Omoerua River. A prospecting party of two men 
are working on Cook's River, but with what result is un- 

Other Minerals. 

Large blocks of greenstone, or jade, are constantly being 
unearthed at Kumara during sluicing operations. This stone 
is now very much in demand in Europe, having lately be- 
come very fashionable. It is known to exist in many other 
localities on this coast, but it is not as yet found in any other 
part of the colony, and as a consequence must in time com- 
mand a high price. 

The existence of coal of a very good quality has been 
proved at Touchier's Gully, close to Lake Kanieri ; at Koite- 
rangi, only fifteen miles from Hokitika ; in the Lower Paringa 








Valley; at Bullocky Creek, ten miles north of the Haast 
River; and close to Jackson's Bay. 

Copper has been discovered in the Upper Hokitika Valley ; 
the Upper Wanganui Valley; at Copper Creek, in the Mata- 
kitaki Range; and near Maori River, South Westland. 

Iron has been found close to the terminal of the Fox 
Glacier; in the Lower Paringa Valley; in the Lower Smooth- 
water Valley, near Jackson's Bay; and in tlie Upper Cas- 
cade Valley, below Jackson's Bay. 

Granite exists in large quantities in the Teremakau 
Valley; the Island Hill, at the head of the Kawhaka Valley; 
Mount Tuhua (Lake Eanieri) ; and in the upper valley of the 
Hokitika River. 

Freestone is abundant in the Otira Valley-; at Eoiterangi ; 
at Abbey Rocks, six miles south of the Paringa River ; and in 
Smoothwater Valley, near Jackson's Bay. 

Silver has been found at Mount Rangitoto. 

Westland as a Mining-field. 

In addition to the Westland Reefs, now in process of 
development, gold-bearing quartz has been found at Kelly's 
Range, and at the Cedar Creek Reefs, at the head of the 
Totara Valley, near Ross. 

Although dredging for gold has not been so successful in 
this district as in other parts of the colony, I am convinced 
that the failure to equal the records elsewhere has been caused 
not by the non-existence of the gold, but because the dredges 
used have not been suflBciently strong to overcome the obstacles 
met with in the shape of sunken timber and large boulders, 
nor been capable of dredging deep enough to obtain the pre- 
cious metal, which I have no doubt exists almost everywhere 
on this golden coast. 

On the sea-shore, extending for hundreds of miles, are 
sands laden with fine gold, and being constantly renewed. 
A fortune awaits the inventor who will discover a process of 
washing this sand or extracting the gold therefrom so that 
none may be lost. 




By RoBXBT TsKNBHT Aiid Abthub H. Richards, Inspecton of Minee^ 

In 1864 a party, oonsisting of Messrs. Alphonso Barring- 
ton, Antonio Laurie, and James Farrell, made several pro- 
specting trips from Queenstown towards Jackson's Bay, and 
during their travels endured great privations, so much so 
that when the party arrived at Constable Winter's quarters, 
at the head of Lake Wakatipu, they presented the appearance 
of living skeletons. Barrington stated, after their arrival 
in Queenstown, that he had found some quartz reefs, and in 
consequence a small vessel was built and fitted to take the 
party to Jackson's Bay ; but, although the Arawata (or Jack- 
son's Bay) River was prospected for a distance of forty-five 
miles, nothing of importance was found ; and on their return 
they washed some prospects on the beach at Jackson's Bav. 
which they considered would only give an average return of 
78. 6d. to 10s. per day to each man. In the vicinity of the 
Teremakau a man named Albert Hunt averaged £2 per "day 
for some time, and was awarded a bonus of £200 by the Can- 
terbury Provincial Government, and in December of the same 
year about fifty men took up claims on the Saltwater, about 
sixteen miles from Okarito, where they did remarkably well 
for a time. At present there are small parties who earn a 
good average living by what is known as '*' blacksanding," 
and between Jackson's Bay and Earamea the most favoured 
beaches are Bruce Bay, Gillespie's Beach, Sandfly Beach, 
Five- and Three-mile Beaches, Okarito, Saltwater, Paroa, 
Barrytown, Brighton, Charleston, and Mormontown. On 
the Three- and Five-mile and Sandfly Beaches, within a 
radius of sixteen miles of Okarito, all available labour in the 
locality has found remunerative employment during the 
month of May, 1906, the tide being favourable. Probably 
the most lucrative black-sand claim on the coast is Powell and 
Sons' sluicing and elevating claim on the Charleston Beach, 


the sands being treated over a series of outside copper tables. 
Some years ago the Hon. the Minister of Mines offered a 
bonus of £2,000 towards the discovery of a process whereby 
these black-sand deposit^ could be profitably treated in large 
quantities, but, notwithstanding that test samples of rich 
auriferous black sands have been forwarded to Australia and 
the Continent of Europe for scientific treatment, the solution 
of the problem still demands further research. 


By Wm. M. Hitghin, Bobs, Westland. 

Beaoh Auriferous-sajidl I>epo8its. 

Hating had a long experience of black-sand workings, I 
have been requested to give my impressions regarding the de- 
posits and industry as far as my knowledge of the subject 
goes. It is right, however, in the first instance, to state 
broadly that the conditions vary very materially in different 
localities. For instance, north of the Grey River, from the 
Twelve-mile Creek to Razorback, the gold is made at neap 
tides, which gently reduce the deposit of gold-bearing sand 
washed by the spring tides among the boulders forming the 
rim of the beach, while south of Ross it is the high spring 
tides during iiortherly weather which comb down the beaches 
and deposit tbe black auriferous sands. 

From Hokitika northwards old beach deposits gradually 
rise from the sea-level, and have been worked in many places 
to great profit by sluicing. The terraces oh which payable 
gold exists increase in height at an apparently uniform grade 
from Hokitika to Charleston, where sea-sand is said to be 
found 500 ft. or 600 ft. above high-water mark. The majority 
of gold-bearing terraces run from 40 ft. to 150 ft. above the 
flea, but some that have proved very remunerative are at a 
still greater altitude above the present ocean-beaches. From 
Hokitika southward all the ancient deposits (if there were any) 


dip at the same angle as they rise to the north — a fact which 
unmistakably shows that at some remote period in the past the 
Westland beach-line was uplifted to the north and corre- 
spondingly depressed to the south. Thus, south of Hokitika 
there are no marine deposits on higher levels beyond the exist- 
ing rim of the beaches; the "terrace bottom" (, grayel 
wash) abuts on the lagoons. Some thirty-odd years ago the 
beach proper averaged from 5 to 7 chains in width from the 
lagoon on the Waitaha South Beach (now known as H itch in 's 
Beach). Since then the sea has gradually encroached, making 
from time to time sand in places worth washing, until the 
whole of the old beach was cut away as far back as the lagoons. 
While this was progressing the ' * blacksanders " reaped their 
harvest, which ih unlikely ever to recur, for the sea very soon 
fills up the vacancy made with barren sand or shingle. What 
old leads there were then were washed out in detail, and most 
of the gold secured by the busy "blacksanders" in the process. 

Further south different conditions exist, the beaches vary- 
ing much in width and depth, while many of them are still 
intact, and when the process of denudation by the sea takes 
place in these localities there will be a rich harvest for the 
*' blacksanders " of that day. 

The accepted theory is that the gold obtained has come 
down the rivers along with the heavy sand in which it is 
found, and has been gradually deposited on the beaches by 
the action of the tides and currents during past ages. Con- 
sequently, where what is called the " maiden beach " has all 
been cut away, it is hopeless to expect a repetition of the 
*'good old times," as the travelling deposits are too scanty 
and poor to deserve attention. Such is the conclusion I have 
arrived at with respect to those beaches that have been de- 
nuded by the sea and re-formed with fresh dSbri$, which, for 
the most part, is practically barren. 

Ross Flat and its Possibilities. 

The auriferous alluvial deposits of the Ross Flat are per- 
haps the most remarkably situated gold-bearing gravels in 
New Zealand or Australasia. Consecutive layers of false 
bottoms, upon which the more or less rich gravels rest, occur 


one after the other eight times to a depth of 390 ft., which 
i.i as far as the Ross United Company's shaft was sunk, and 
eren at that depth there appeared no indication of a real 
bottom. Of course, it is apparent that this vast deposit of 
alluvium must have been formed at a vastly higher level. It 
seems as if the adjacent mountains had been forced upwards 
by subterranean causes, and that the normal creeks and 
terraces of ancient watersheds were sunk in successive stages 
at different periods, as indicated by the many false bottoms, 
to the present site, some of which have been found over 300 ft. 
below sea-level. (I may say, parenthetically, that the fullest 
information as to the value of the respective layers of wash 
gone through by the Ross United Company's shaft are avail- 
able from the books of the company.) The great cost of fuel 
Hnd the inadequacy of engine-power were the reasons that 
the work so courageously undertaken by the company had to 
be abandoned. Old miners who worked in the shaft say it 
was sunk in the wrong place, and that further down the flat 
there would be very much less trouble with water. However 
that may be, there seems to be no insuperable difficulty in 
working these great deposits, as many mines at Ballarat and 
ebewhere, under greater difficulties, and at an equal depth, 
have been successfully explored and made to yield up tlieir 
riches to the enterprising miners, to the advantage of the 
country in which they occur. The use of steam-power for 
haulage purposes, as generally adopted in the past, will, how- 
ever, always be a source of very great expense, even when 
railway communication reduces the cost of fuel to less than 
one-half of what the company had to pay for firewood ; while 
the cost of bringing in sufficient water-power seems impos- 
sible, and would, at any rate, be prohibitive; besides, the 
expense of maintenance of races is always very considerable. 
It seems, therefore, feasible that, in the case of the Ross Flat, 
the dynamo should be put in requisition to secure the power 
running to waste in so many localities in South Westland, 
and transmit it by cable to where it can be utilised to the 
great and permanent advantage of the district and the colony 
at large. I need scarcely point out how electricity is becom- 
ing more and more a factor in the world's industries every 

126 NBW ££ala:nd mining handbook. 

year — so much so that it seems destined to supersede steam-^ 
power altogether. Associated with the late Mr. T. Perham, 
Water-conservation Engineer , when he was in Ross some yeara 
ago, was an electrical expert, who it was reported at the 
time was well satisfied with the facilities for erecting a power- 
ful djnamo at the gorge of the Mikonui River. It was tEen 
said to be his opinion that a head-race, some 15 or 20 chains 
in length, might be easily constructed to convey thirty-five 
to forty heads of water to an almost vertical fall of 120 ft., 
sufficient, as was asserted, to generate 300-hor8e power, which 
might be conveyed by cable along rhe wide river-bed, and 
along the Main South Road to the point required, a distance 
of only seven or eight miles. I have been informed by a well- 
known electrical firm at Dunedin that the initial expense of 
erecting the dynamo plant and cable is practically all the out- 
lay required, as the upkeep of the plant is comparatively nil. 
Given the lifting-power, many claims would speedily be taken 
up on the flat on the old basis of ten to twelve working-men, 
who would most willingly pay interest on the cost on the same 
lines as the Eumara miners do for their water-power. How 
far the deep auriferous gravels of Ross Flat extend is not 
known ; the deep ground, however, is known to continue 
south as far as Donoghue's, while to the north in all proba- 
bility it extends beyond the Totara River — a rich gold-bear- 
ing stream which must have contributed largely to enrich the 
deeply buried gravels. Beside the Ross United, there were 
two other shafts sunk in the Ross Flat — viz.. No. 2 shaft, 
which utilised a horse-whim as far as such limited energy 
permitted; and the celebrated Cassius Claim, whose pro- 
sperous career, before it was cut short by the inrush of water 
from the older and shallower workings, has become a matter 
of history in the annals of the district. 

DnfiTer'a Greek and Mount Bonar. 

Duffer's Creek is situated about twenty miles south of 
Ross, and is the watershed from Mount Bonar, which spreads 
its broad base from the Waitaha River to Evans Creek, a 
distance of some fourteen miles. This beautiful mount rears 


its lofty wooded cone direct from the shore of Lake lanthe, 
and greatly enhances the attractions of that picturesque sheet 
of water. The steep sides of this mount, so plainly visible 
to the excursionist afloat upon the lake, are practically a 
Urra incognita^ although so near to the Main South Road, 
and in close proximity to the oft- frequented lake; the foot 
of man has seldom, if ever, climbed its bush-entangled sides — 
the breeding-place, and hitherto the safe retreat, of the wild 
pigeon, kaka, weka, kiwi, and many other kinds of native 
birds. About 300 ft. above the road, and clinging to the side 
of the mount, are the remains of a terrace, that extends all 
round as far as Evans Creek, a distance of four or five miles, 
which in all probability is gold-bearing, for during the con- 
struction of the road gold was found by the employees in the 
dihris beneath it, and a half-ounce specimen was got from the 
wash of a small creek which is spanned by a bridge at the top 
of the zigzag that leads down to the shore of the lake. 

Duffer's Creek, the subject of this sketch, takes its source 
from the heart of the mountain, and crosses the Main South 
Road several miles to the north of the lake. Its name is a 
misnomer, given in the early days of the Coast by some dis- 
appointed miners, who, after a hasty inspection, departed 
without giving it a fair trial. Since then considerable gold 
has been obtained from the upper portion, commencing a mile 
or so below the road and up the stream and its tributaries 
and terraces as far as the narrow rock-bound gorge of the 
mount. Europeans and Chinese in turn more or less success- 
fully worked the gold-deposits of the creek, and nine or ten 
of the latter, on leaving, went direct home to their "flowery 
land," the possessors of 101b. to 141b. of the precious metal 
per man, which meant, as they stated, a moderate competence 
in their own country. The district is now practically de- 
serted, but while it was in work many beautiful quartz-speci- 
mens were obtained, leading to the general conclusion that a 
gold-bearing reef permeating the mount was the source of the 
more or less rich deposits found. Personally, I am able to 
confirm in some measure that opinion, as on one occasion, 
while climbing the spur that divides the left branch from 


the Waitaha Valley, 1 found a specimen of much-honey- 
combed gold, weighing 1 dwt., in a small hole of the bare reef 
nearly at the top of the spur. I mention the matter for the 
information of any party who may think it worth their wEile 
to give the locality a trial, which can easily be done, as the 
spur at that place is very narrow, and a short tunnel mig^l 
disclose a very important find. 

The country to the south of Duffer's Creek, between the 
lake and the ocean, I always considered to be well worth pro- 
specting. While seeking straying stock one day I ascended 
a hill some 500 ft. to 600 ft. high on the south side, and found 
what seemed 2>ayable gold in a small creek running south into 
an extensive fiat country. The result was that some half- 
dozen parties of Ross miners obtained about 200 oz. of gold 
by box-sluicing in rainy weather. The flat into which the 
above creek empties is extensive, and with occasional ridges 
and terraces continues as far as the Wanganui River, gold- 
colours being obtainable from every little creek that from 
time to time I have tried. Within sight from the top of 
'* Hitchin's Hill," as the miners called it, is to be seen the 
terrace about half a mile distant, bordering Lake lanthe, 
where the late Mr. John Allen had a sluicing claim. There 
are also many other indications that the untried country ex- 
tending southward from the places named must contain more 
or less rich leads of gold, which, if discovered, would open 
up a very large mining district. The probability is, how- 
ever, that the promising country I have attempted to describe 
will l>e left in abeyance until Westland becomes much more 
populous, and easy access is available by means of a West 
Coast railway connecting with Otago. 


By Alexandbb Gukn, Wataroa, South Westland. 

So far as gold-mining is concerned, the Wataroa River 
has been a very poor one, compared with some of the others 













on the West Coast. The best patches I have known seldom 
gave more than good wages. The gold that has been got has 
been technically called ** drift " — i.e., simply thrown up on 
sheltered beaches below a shaip bend. There were over forty 
men on the river the first winter it was opened, and nearly 
ever since there has been one or more fossicking on it, and 
occasionally striking a good- wages patch after a big flood. 
The main bottom has never been touched, so far as I know, 
except on one occasion by two mates and myself, about ten 
miles from here, up the Perth branch. We got colours of 
gold in a saddle above the snow-level on the main range; it 
was very fine gold, but the sample varies very much in both 
branches from fairly coarse to the fineness of flour, mostly 
the latter kind. 

Tin, Antimony, Copper, Soheelite, and Silvep. 

There are traces of tin, antimony, copper, and scheelite, 
as well as gold, but whether in payable quantities remains to 
be proven. I know of a big reef containing copper, but not 
in payable quantity — at least, not at present; I had some of 
it tested. The reef also contains traces of gold. There is a 
small silver leader about 6 in. in width, but I have seen no 
trace of a golden reef anjTwhere, and have only heard of two 
quartz-specimens being found. One I picked up myself in the 
claim where we worked on the main bottom, weighing over 
^ dwt. ; the other specimen was picked up lower down the 
same branch, and it weighed just over a pennyweight. 


By W. H. Habris, Pakorari, South Westland. 

Possibly a brief sketch of the past history of mining affairs 
in the far south, with a prospect of what is likely to come if 

5— Mining Handbook. 

130 NEW zeala:nd mining handbook. 

followed up with energy and perseyerance, may not be out of 
place. In the early part of the mining rush to the Coast a 
number of the hardy old sort of diggers — men who would 
risk their lives and go to strange places for gold — ^were pro- 
specting and exploring the southern part of the Coast from 
Riverton to Okarito, principally in search of gold. A num- 
ber of them came round in surf -boats and small craft prospect- 
ing the sounds, beaches, and rivers along the coast-line. They 
found gold almost everywhere on the sea-coast and in places 
inland for about two or three miles. Some of this gold was 
worked with good results — more of it patchy, and known to 
the digger as " stringing " gold; but, still, the gold was there, 
as well as other valuable metals, though not in sufficient quan- 
tity to pay the ordinary gold-digger. This is left for the pre- 
sent or future generations to exploit, and I have no doubt that 
it will eventually be well worth it. Through the energy and 
pluck of these men, this rough and rugged southern coast-line 
was transformed into busy places. 

South of Okarito, the Three-mile, Five-mile, Gillespie's, 
Hunt's, Bruce Bay, and Haast Beaches, with many small 
places between, were all rushed and worked, and some of 
these beaches gave many a digger a fortune. They were 
all black-sand leads made by the sea, and truly a "golden 
coast." One may ask, ** Where did all this gold come fromt " 
The only Jiolution to this question is that, in the first place, it 
was washed out by the rivers from the interior, then cast up 
on the sea-beaches, mixed with tons upon tons of sand and 
gravel, then combed down by certain winds and ocean currents, 
till a seam of black sand and gold remained. These, in the 
course of time, would be covered up with wind-blown sand bv 
the action of the sea and other causes, until some of these leads 
were deep from the surface, requiring pumps and, in some 
places, water-wheels to drive them, and then only a portion of 
the lead — perhaps the best part — was got. The rest — the 
deeper part — was left, and in some cases is there still, being 
too deep to work by these means; and there it is likely to 
remain, as well as other deep and little-known leads, which are 
waiting for an up-to-date dredge or some other mechanical 


meaDB to make them pay. Does all this not go to prove that 
the country inland contains gold somewhere 7 All the gold in 
these leads was very fine — as fine as flour ; therefore, the only 
thing to infer is that the coarse gold has been left behind — 
perhaps deep in the river-beds and gullies, or buried in the 
sidelings and terraces, and there it has to remain until some 
fortunate prospector is lucky enough to discover it. 

The inland country in the far south is very little known to 
the prospector. The bulk of the diggers have worked the re- 
mains of the beach leads — that is all they could work owing 
to want of water — and some have worked on the coarser known 
deposits inland, but very little prospecting has been done in 
a systematic way. The old-time school of digger has long since 
left for other golden countries; others have "crossed the 
border," never to return, and the few that remain are too old 
and used-up to tackle rough work of this sort. The present 
generation do not seem inclined to prospect this inland 
country. To begin with, they do not know how, and they lack 
ihe funds. It takes money to prospect deep and difficult 
country, and that they have not got. They are generally more 
disposed to take up land, make farms, and raise stock. This 
will give them bread and butter, and so this inland country is 
left for speculative men with means at their back to prospect 
the interior, where, doubtless, there is a good field awaiting 
them for their pluck and outlay. 

In 1873 gold was found in a block, known since as 
** Bullock Creek country." Here was a splendid sample of 
coarse gold — some of it up to 5 oz. pieces. I myself had 
about 50 oz. in one parcel, and, with the exception of about 
2 oz. of small gold, the whole lot weighed from ^ dwt. to 4 oz. 
A rush set in here, but was of little consequence, for the gold 
was found only in a small area of country. Many of the 
men who came to this rush had left good claims and homes 
elsewhere, and when they found the best ground taken up they 
were eager to return ; therefore the surrounding country got 
very little fu'^ther prospecting. It was a very rough country, 
without roads or tracks, and dangerous to travel on account 
of bad bluffs and rivers. Most of the men came by steamer 



icto the Haast River, and went back the same way. Since 
then a number of men have been fossicking in the old work- 
ings, but they were not exactly the sort to further explore the 
surrounding country. 

Coal was also found in this block, and copper and mica in 
the range at the back, but these minerals have never been tried 
or prospected much, owing to the old story — lack of funds. 

Later, when the dredging-boom was on throughout New 
Zealand, a number of areas were taken up here, but they fell 
through before a trial was made in this direction. Possibly 
the claimholders had no knowledge at that time how to deal 
with fine gold on a large scale. They, doubtless, will sur- 
mount this difficulty as time rolls on, and then the southern 
beaches and rivers will be valuable property. 

Further south coarse and fine gold has been found, and 
worked nearly to Milford Sound. This, with a few exceptions, 
has been entirely along the sea-coast line, and in this block 
it is still the same old story — very little known of the inland 

Metals and minerals of value have been found in the Red 
Hills on the Cascade River, in and on the Gorge River, Big 
Bay, and many other places that would pay the prospector to 
look into. It is of little use looking along the coast-line. 
These places have all been worked, and until a means of saving 
fine gold on a large scale is discovered there is little there worth 
attention ; but there is room for energetic men with some 
capital who would systematically prospect the inland country 
of far South Westland. 

These notes, from a man who has spent more than half a 
lifetime on the South-west Coast, principally in mining, may 
be of some little assistance to the future prospector in these 
promising regions. 



Notes desoFibintf the Auriferous and Mineral Country 
between Waiho and Ckx>k*s Rivers and further South. 

By J. RrroHiE, Bruce Bay, South Westland. 

Omobroa Creek is situated within about two miles of the Waiho 
River at its effluence. Running parallel with the coast-line, 
three miles inland, is an alluvial lead of cement wash. 
Fifteen years ago a party of three men obtained gold which 
gave them £500 each for twelve months' work. The modus 
operandi was by burning the cement. Gold is obtainable in 
almost any part of this cement lead, and the probabilities are 
that similar rich patches to the one mentioned exist. The 
surroundings are rough and heavily timbered, but, neverthe- 
less, are well worthy the attention of persevering and intelli- 
gent prospectors. 

Concerning the creek, a strange feature exists — viz., at 
its extreme hefed no gold is to be obtained. This will be from 
the south-western slopes of Mount Cook. The stream is about 
ten miles in length, and flows direct to the ocean. At three 
miles from the entrance the bed of the stream was worked in 
the early days at a profit, and gold with quartz attached was 
often found — in fact, the Omoeroa Creek was a byword for 
specimen gold. This augurs well as an indication of auri- 
ferous-quartz reefs in the near locality, and should also com- 
mand the attention of prospectors in search of quartz reefs. 

The "Waikukupa River is two miles south of the Omoeroa 
Oreek, and is similar in character in every respect to the 
description given above. It may be termed a sister stream. 
At the extreme mouth payable gold can be obtained, even at 
the present day, apparently brought down by diluvial action. 

Cook's River is a hundred miles from Hokitika. Eight 
miles from the Main South Road, and up stream, the right- 
hand branch heading from Mount Cook was worked profitably 
for some years by wing-danmiing and other methods. It is 


rather roagh with boulders, but to enterprising men these are 
to be managed. There is any amount of uu worked and arail- 
able ground to be obtained. These flats would require heavy 
tail-races and water-wheeb. As an instance, twenty years 
ago a party, from a paddock 40 ft. square and 20 ft. in depth 
(unbottomed), got 70 oz. of gold. The great difficulty the}- had 
to contend with was the water. There was easier ground to 
work in those days, and the party disbanded ; but rich grarels 
are there in those river flats to reward strong, active, and 
robust men ; or perhaps dredging would be the better plan to 
deal with these gravels. Wages also can be made in the 
terraces. The gold is from fine to shotty. 

Referring again to the Waikukupa, the country south and 
towards Cook's River, about four miles inland, is a succession 
of terraces, worthy also of the attention of prospectors. A 
little gold was found in the early days, but the difficulties of 
the dense, impenetrable forests retarded any exploitation, 
or of such a kind that the locality warrants. If it had been 
in some more central place, probably something would have 
been discovered long ago. The country described above ap- 
pears to be the end, southerly, of the auriferous zone from 
Ross and the various districts northerly. 

Gillespie's and Karanoarua River. 

The rock formation traversing south from these localities 
to Oinemaka (or Black) River, five miles south of Bruce Bay, 
is quartzose schist. In the left-hand branch of the Karangarua 
River great outcrops of haematite are to be seen. These and 
the quartzo«e-schiKt rocks denote the strong probability of 
cupriferous or other mineral ores. No prospecting has been 
done by an expert to ascertain the nature of these indications. 
These haematites are useful in the manufacture of paints. 

At the Oinemaka River the formation changes to granitic. 
Here, again, no prospecting has been accomplished. It is on 
the cards that the granitic country may be stanniferous, and 
the very high price for tin ought to offer an inducement to 
the expert tin-prospector to overhaul this country to determine 
if the oxides exist or not. 


Between the Oinemaka and Paringa Rivers the country ia 
elevated, and on the falls south another change in the forma- 
tion occurs, and you are in a coal-measure; an outcrop of 
bituminous coal occurs on the surface, but its width and other 
dimensions are unknown, for, apart from an occasional bag 
or so being rooted out by one or another, no development has 
taken place. This coal is pronounced to be of excellent 

At Paringa River, ten miles south of Bruce Bay, twenty 
years ago, a local syndicate found a complex ore containing 
silver, antimony, and a small percentage of gold. This also 
has not had sufficient attention devoted to it, and the extent 
of the deposit, or lode, is undetermined. Being isolated, the 
affair dropped out of sight. 

Abbey Rocks are on the shore five miles south of the Paringa. 
On a hill facing the ocean the country rock is a calcareous, 
or limestone, formation, and the indurated portions of it are 
adaptable for lithographic purposes. At a depth away from 
the disturbances effected on the surface the stone ought to 
prove more solid and defined, and proving the stone at depth 
should have been the procedure of a company who thirty 
years ago expended £1,000 on the venture. Similar rocks 
are obtainable in more accessible parts of the world, and the 
utility of the Abbey Rocks lithogra))hic stone may be recog- 
nised in due time. 

South of the Abbey Rocks to the Blue River another auri- 
ferous belt traverses the country. Twenty years ago, and sub- 
sequently, several parties of diggers averaged wages, and some- 
times smaller returns. Odd parties at times have even done 
better; for instance, a party of three men made £1,000 be- 
tween them in a comparatively short time in working a ter- 
race, and two others got 80 oz. of gold in working a small creek 
running into the river. Gold can be found all over the sur- 
rounding country, but it was, and is still, very rough, and 
difficult to obtain supplies; hence this part of the West Coast 
has not had sufficient attention paid to it by prospectors. 

Eight miles further south of the Bluo River there is a sue- 
oession of terraces and gullies, similar to Omoeroa Creek, de- 


scribed above. Twentj-five years ago a rush set in at a place 
called Bullock Creek, and some thousands arrived there. 
Although several hundred ounces of gold was obtained, there 
was not inducement enough for a large population in such an 
isolated locality. The ground worked was shallow, and the 
gold was of a coarse character. 

Immediately near the coast is a cement wash, at what ia 
called the Sardine Terrace. Gold is known to exist in this 
formation, and is pronounced to be payable. Six years ago 
a syndicate secured the ground, and partially constructed a 
water-race. The isolated position, again, similar to other 
worthy mining projects in far South Westland, deterred them 
from further operations ; but the locality will have its day in 
the near future. 

Copper Creek is five miles further south. For years past 
cupriferous ores have been known to exist in this locality, 
but no systematic search or development has ever been under- 
taken by an expert in mineral ores to test the dimensions, 
conditions, and value of such deposits as to whether they are 
good, bad, or indifferent, or whether they occur in veins, 
lodes, or deposits. The high prices ruling at present for 
copper and tin will, no doubt, stimulate prospecting around 
this district. 

The Aariferons Blaok-sand Industry. 

Apart from other mining pursuits and their future pro- 
spects, and the probabilities of new discoveries in gold and 
ipineral ores, is the black-sand industry. All along the coast- 
line described from the Waiho to the Haast Rivers this mode 
of gold-winning has been a source of considerable profit for 
many years. Of course, the first working would be the accu- 
mulated deposits of gold-dust from time immemorial by the 
ravages of tempests, but, nevertheless, even at the present 
day scattered parties here and there along the coast beaches, 
after heavy surf beatings, get nice patches of the precious 
metal. Some maintain that the gold-dust is due to marine 
agencies, ground from the ocean bottom, while others contend 
that the heavy surfs beating on the beach-washes inland is 


'-4 W 





p 1 

^4 1 




the cause. Both theories are, apparently, feasible, and per- 
haps both actions are independently responsible for the black- 
sand deposits. 

When the dredging boom was on, these auriferous beaches 
were all taken up, and at Gillespie's Beach a suction dredga 
was erected, but this proved a failure, owing to its inability 
to profitably raise sufficient wash. Bucket dredges must bo 
the mode of working. This industry will last for many years, 
and if proper appliances are adopted there is no fear of the 
result. At times dredges would have to cope with stones and 
timber, but these would not prove such a drawback as in many 
other places. 

Every heavy storm adds its ounces of gold to reward the 
beachcomber, and the heavier the surf the better for him. 

In conclusion, I desire to acknowledge Mr. A. McPherson's 
valuable aid in the compilation of this short paper, which I 
trust will be the means of attracting public attention to a part 
of New Zealand that is too little known to the general public. 


By J. Be VAN, Merchant, Hokitika. 

In a paper read at the Town Hall, Hokitika, on the 27th 
August, 1895, by Mr. J. Bevan, formerly member of the 
House of Representatives, reference was made to the fact that 
from Cape Farewell to the confines of Otago there is a stretch 
of mineral country, hundreds of miles in extent, with indica- 
tions of immense wealth, extending from the sea-coast to the 
dividing-range. Nearly every river and its tributaries bears 
evidence of this fact — apart from the gold-deposits existing 
on the ocean -beaches, held in the black sand in a finely divided 
state — and is always suggestive of the great main sources from 
whence it is derived. This West Coast forms one of the most 


interesting and extensive fields for research. It is rich in the 
possession of untold wealth, as evidenced from its discoveries 
and its steady output of gold. It is figuratively, and in aome 
places quite, an unexplored portion of New Zealand, capaUe 
of absorbing an enormous population, and with salubrious 
climatic advantages. 

After referring to the marvellous results obtained fr<Mn 
fissure-lodes in the granite formation in Montana, where the 
Great Granite Mountain Mine paid £3,000,000 in dividends 
in ten years, and to the Alaska-Treadwell Mine, which paid 
£80,000 annually in dividends from low-grade ore only worth 
138. 9d. per ton, Mr. Bevan referred to the discoveries of 
quartz veins in the main belt of granite at Mount Wills, Vic- 
toria, embracing an area of forty square miles, and pointed 
out that similar granite formations are the leading features 
observable for hundreds of miles in the great auriferous belts 
of the West Coast ; gold had been proved to exist in these for- 
mations, {scattered over an immense area, and was obtainable 
in any of the granitic formations. 

Amongst other discoveries on the West Coast, Mr. Bevan re- 
ferred to that at Langdou's, in the Grey district, the ore from 
which had given phenomenal assay returns ; to the surface 
reefs at the Taipo, rich in the precious metal; to the coal- 
deposits at Gentle Annie and Camelback ; to the rich and pro- 
mising reefs at Cedar Creek; to the auriferous and argenti- 
ferous lodes at Mount Rangitoto ; to the argentiferous galenas 
found in the Totara and in the neighbourhood of Mount 
Bonar; to the splendid coal and rich carbonates of coppier 
found at the Haast River: and to many other discoveries of 
tin, nickel, &c., all object-lessons of great value and import- 
ance. Unhappily, development had not succeeded discovery 
— not on account of the want of enterprise on the part of in- 
dividuals, but to want of necessary capital and lack of the 
scientific and technical skill to cope with such undertakings. 

As to deep sinking, nothing of importance had yet been 
accomplished, beyond what was done in Reefton in quartz- 
mining, and at Ross in alluvial workings. In the latter 
place, the Cassius Claim was an example of what might be 


expected if deep sinking was proceeded with on systenuiuc 

The operations of the late Mr. Cassius, who was one of the 
most enterprising men in Westland (commercial and other- 
wise), solved, in his mining venture at Ross, a most interest- 
ing problem in the development of the rich auriferous deposits 
of the Ross Flat. He proved the existence of gold at deeper 
levels tlian were ever worked before, the wash being much 
richer than in the upper workings, which were all on false 
bottoms, even to the bottom worked in the Cassius Claim, 
which was also a false bottom ; nevertheless, in eleven months' 
working on that bottom gold was obtained to the value of 
£18,726. It was no unusual circumstance to get from 30 oz. 
to 50 oz. per day. The work was carried on under exceptional 
difficulties, having to combat a heavy body of water with in- 
adequate machinery at a period when everything was of a 
costly nature and wages abnormally high. The Ross Flat ban 
always been looked upon as a basin of gold, and, should a 
proper and efficient system of drainage be adopted, no finer 
field for mining enterprise exists in the colony. The Ross Flat 
is surrounded by gold-bearing belts of country, indicating 
great possibilities when work is scientifically and economically 


By G. J. RoBSBTS, Commissioner of Crown Lands, Westland. 

The following notes as to metals, minerals, kc, occurring 
between the Waitaha River an<l Big Bay may be of Bome 
value to prospectors and investors: — 

Gold-bearing Gravels, <kc, — These occur on banks and bars 
of nearly every river, and also fringing the terraces and 
plateaux between the foothills and the sea. If water were 
brought in, undoubtedly remunerative sluicing would ensue. 
Best localities: Omoeroa, Cook River, Paringa, Abbey Rocks, 


Bald Hill, Bullock Creek, Sardine Terrace, Stafford River, 
Gorge River, kc. 

Surface prospecting has overtaken the greater portion of 
the country, but there are still many square miles of virgin 
areas; and it must be especially emphasized that none of the 
deeper ground has been tested at all, because the water has 
always prevented the ordinarily equipped digger from sinking 
any moderately deep shafts. 

Auriferous Sands occur all along the sea-beaches, not only 
on the open shore, but also in " leads " more or less parallel 
with the present seaboard. These '' leads " are ancient sea- 
deposits, and indicate former shore-lines. Despite the con- 
tinuous workings for forty years, many of these beaches still 
yield small wages to the individual miner, and after heavy 
weather really good returns are made, owing to the sea cutting 
down the beaches and concentrating the gold which occurs 
throughout the immense sand-dunes. Much fine gold is also 
thrown up on the beaches by the surf, and this induces the 
belief that payable gold may exist on the outside bank whic'i 
everywhere runs parallel with the shore. This sea-covered 
bank could only be worked by dredges. Many ancient beaches 
also occur in the swamps along the seaboard, and as these are 
in waterlogged country they can only be worked by dredges. 
1 consider these would be found very rich in several localities. 
'* Raised " beaches also occur all along the seaward slopes; 
these are gold-bearing cements, and though their continuity 
is much broken by the erosioti of the rivers and streams, yet 
many strips of these rich deposits remain undisturbed. 

Auriferous Quartz has been found at Evans Creek, and in 
the valleys of the Wanganui, Callary, Cook, Pariuga, Jackson, 
Cascade, and Gorge Valleys, but as yet no payable reefs have 
been exploited. 

Silver-ores. — Galena has been found at Evans Creek, Cook 
River, Mount Argentine, Blue River, and Jackson Valley. 

Copper occurs at Wanganui River, Paringa, Matakitaki 
Range, and on the Red Hills behind Big Bay. 

Iron-ore (Chrome). — This occurs at Fox River, and on the 
Red Hills in large quantities. 


1^ '^H 










Coal occurs in patches, more or less extensive, from Paringa 
to Smoothwater — close to the coast. 

Limestone accompanies the above coal-measures. 

Millstone Grits occur at Smoothwater Bay ; also good free- 
stone around Jackson's Bay. 

Building- granite is found at Mount Bonar, &c. 

Asbestos is found on the Red Hill country near the Cascade 

Note. — ^Westland is just about dead for want of pro- 


By Robert Tennent, Inspector of Mines, and Abthub H. Richards, 
Assistant Inspector of Mine.', for Marlborough, Nelson, and the West 

Although gold-dredging on the West Ck>ast has not of late 
years favoured the anticipations so strongly announced by 
the original promoters in the early history of the industry, 
the fact remains that, where care and ordinary skill were 
exercised in the selection of dredging-areas, and the affairs 
of the company were directed under the auspices of honest 
and judicious management towards the interests of the share- 
holders, the claims still continue to give satisfaction, and 
even on areas which, according to public opinion, were the 
reverse of favourable, success has seldom failed to reward 
honest effort when combined with common-sense methods. 

It would serve no useful purpose now to enumerate the 
advantages and disadvantages as related to the probable 
success and failure of the industry, since we must be more 
concerned with the future, and take profit from the disap- 
pointing experiences of the past. It must be admitted that 
when the boom was pushed to fever-height there was extra- 
ordinary pressure on the physical capacity of the consulting 
engineer, while there was excessive employment of unskilled 


labour. These factors of rashness had not only a tendency to 
increase the ruinous breakdowns of machinery, but also re- 
sulted in an extravagant loss of time in effecting repairs. In 
fact, the cry was, '* Get the dredge on the water, whether 
suitable or otherwise "; and, as a consequence, success was a 
financial virtue sure to be fettered with the inevitable break- 

In reviewing the general operations so far effected through- 
out the different auriferous areas operated on, it is notice- 
able that the beds of the BuUer, Grey, Teremakau, and 
Hokitika Rivers, which drain the more important alluvial 
watersheds of Westland, and the Aorere River in Colling- 
wood, have practically failed to maintain profitable invest- 
ment ; whilst, on the other hand, the tributaries have given, 
and continue to give, lucrative and payable returns — viz., 
the Nelson, No Town, Callaghan's, Blackwater, and Slab 
Hut Creeks, on the Grey River; Greenstone Creek, on the 
Teremakau River ; and Boatman's Creek, on the Inangahua 
River (a tributary of the Buller River). In short, with the 
exception of the Old Diggings, New Buller Junction, and the 
old Premier (Three-channel Flat), now operating on the 
Lower Buller, dredging is practically confined to the tribu- 
taries above mentioned. 

Some Particulars of J^redging Operations. 

Blackwater River Dredge^ Grey Valley. — The Black- 
water River Gold - dredging Company was registered in 
April, 1900, with an area of 106 acres and 36 perches. The 
nature of the material operated upon consists of free wasii 
without boulders: depth, 13 ft. from water-level; quarititv 
raised per hour, 100 yards. During 1905 an area of 7i acres 
was worked, the quantity treated being 516,000 cubic yards, 
and the yield of gold 2,030 oz. 16 dwt. 22 gr., value £8,058 
168. 3d. The total quantity of gold obtained since the dredge 
first commenced work has been 5,065 oz. 1 dwt. 18 gr., value 
£20.229 Is. Dividends paid amount to £6,395 12s. 6d, 
Cost of dredge, £5,060 13s. 2d.; property, £3,157 12s. 3d.: 
other plant, £351 17s. 6d The capital actually called up 


amounts to £8,891 ISs. Average weekly cost of working, 
£75 to £80; average weekly cost of repairs, about £600. 
Length of pontoons, 90 ft. 6 in. ; depth, 6 ft. ; beam, 24 ft. ; 
ladders capable of dredging 32 ft. ; capacity of bucketg 
(thirty-five), 4 ft. ; rate of discharge per minute, twelve 
buckets. Length of elevator, 45 ft. Average number of 
weeks worked, thirty-three. Average number of men em- 
ployed, eleven. Dredgemaster, M. C. Cuff; secretary, A. J. C. 
firowii, Duiie^in. 

Callaghan^H Creek Gold-dredging Company has an area 
of 39 acres 3 roods 2 perches at Callaghan's Creek, about five 
miles from Ahaura. The company was registered on the 
25th May, 1900, and commenced work on the 12th March, 
1902. During the year 1905 the dredge won 1,324 oz. 3 dwt. 
of gold, value £5,264 Os. lOd., making a total of 4,296 oz. 
13 dwt., value £17,097 198. 9d., from which dividends were 
disbursed amounting to £5,750, while the total capital 
actually called up was £5,750, and the dredge cost £5,394. 
The pontoons are 60 ft. in length, 6} ft. deep, 25 ft. beam ; 
and elevator 36 ft. in length. There are thirty-six buckets, 
each with a capacity of 4 cubic feet, and capable of dis- 
charging at the rate of ten to twelve per minute from a depth 
of 22 ft. to 30 ft., the average quantity raised per hour being 
about 2,200 cubic feet of wash. The weekly cost of working 
(including fuel, &c.) was £110, and the yearly cost of re- 
pairs £300. The number of hours worked during the year 
was 6,406. Seven men employed. Dredgemaster, David 
Clark; secretary, Bernard P. McMahon, Reef ton. 

Gref/moufh Sovth Beach Dredging Company (not regis- 
tered), with a called-up capital of £1,287, commenced work 
on the 15th May, 1905, on a black-sand auriferous area of 
70 acres, situated about three miles south from the Township 
of Greymouth. During the year 1905 there were 4i acres 
of ground operated on, which yielded 170 oz. of gold, valued 
at £656. This dredge was orip:inally named the *' Stony 
Mosquito," and was repurchased, with other plant, water- 
races, dams, &c., for £1,550. The time worked during ten 
months and a half was thirty weeks, the average yearly oast 


for repairs being £800, wLIle the working-cost per week was 
£38. The pontoons are 96 ft. in length, 8 ft. in depth, and 
beam 24 ft., equipped with a ladder, carrying thirty-eight 
buckets of 5 ft. capacity each, capable of discharging eight 
per minute from a depth of 26 ft. The sands, comprising 
one-fifth of the material lifted, are treated over plush-laid 
tables, 36 ft. by 8 ft., and the washed gravels elevated and 
discharged 55 ft. Average number of men employed, seven. 
Dredgemaster, George Vick; secretary, G. Perotti, Grey- 

Al Gold-dredging Company was registered in 1899, and 
the dredge commenced work in June, 1901, on a creek-bed 
area of 68 acres, situated on the Redman's Creek, Cronadon, 
and adjoining the areas dredged and owned by the Reeves 
Proprietary. The material dredged is an ordinary wash 
13 ft. in depth. In 1905 9 acres of ground were worked and 
treated for a yield of 931 oz., valued at £3,440, and since 
work first commenced 3,800 oz. of gold won gave a cash value 
of £l'i,981. The capital called up has amounted to £8,500; 
diviomds, £2,125; cost of dredge, £8,887; other plant, 
water-races, dams, &c., £1,659. Average weekly cost of work, 
including fuel, water, &c., £46; yearly cost of repairs, £l98; 
cost of coal per year, £292 ; number of weeks worked per 
year, forty-seven, or 5,680 hours. Length of pontoons (wood) 
95 ft., depth 6 ft., beam 30 ft.; fitted with ladders carrying 
thirty-five buckets of 4J ft. capacity, of which nine to ten 
buckets are discharged per minute, and the sands dis- 
tributed over a table-surface 12 ft. by 12 ft., while the gravels 
can be elevated to a distance of 70 ft. Seven men employed. 
Dredgemaster, Alfred Thomson ; secretary, E. Walker, Christ- 

Belle Vue Gold-dredging Company was registered on the 
17th October, 1902, and dredging was first commenced on an 
area of 75 acres, situate on the ^latakitaki River, near 
Murchison, in August of 1904. The wash operated on is 
sand and ordinary gravels, <>ccasionaily mixed with clay, the 
depth varying from 6 ft. to 23 ft., and the quantity of gravels 
raised and treated per hour gives an average of 90 to 140 


cubic yards. In 1905 29,040 cubic yards was raised from 
13^ acres, and treated over a table-surface 18 ft. by 4 ft. 6 in., 
and ten tables 9 ft. by 2ft., for a yield of 489 oz., valued 
at £1,924. Since dredging first commenced, 851 oz. 13 dwt., 
ralued at £3,339, has been won, while the capital called 
up has amounted to £3,400, and the cost of dredge was 
£3,586 98. lid. Including fuel, water, &c., the average 
weekly cost of working is £51 ; yearly cost of repairs, £273 ; 
and yearly cost of fuel, water, light, &c., £480. In 1905 the 
dredge worked twenty- four weeks, at the rate of 120 hours 
per week, and during the year 2,561 hours, with seven men 
employed. The pontoons are 110 ft. in length, depth 7ft., 
and beam 30 ft. ; fitted with forty-two buckets having a 
capacity of 6 cubic feet each, able to discharge 60 cubic feet 
per minute and elevate 28 ft. The depth of auriferous 
gravels below water-line is 18 ft., with an overburden of 2 ft. 
above water-line. Dredgemaster, C. G. Morel ; secretary, 
E. MacRae, Christchurch. 

Jamieson^s Reward Gold-dredging Company was registered 
in 1901, and commenced work in August, 1902, on an alluvial 
dredging-area of 112 acres, situate in Nelson Creek. The 
material operated on comprises one-fourth sand and three- 
fourths gravels, about 1,500 cubic yards per hour being 
treated at an average cost of l^d. per yard. In 1905 11 acres 
of ground operated upon yielded 2,322 oz. of gold, valued 
at £8,625, and since dredging commenced 3,312 oz., valued 
at £12,782. Capital actually called up, £6,500; total 
dividends declared, 16s. per share; and cost of dredge, 
£3,500. The pontoons (wood), built to a total length of 
90 ft., depth 6 ft., and beam 29 ft., are fitted with ladders 
carrying thirty-three buckets of 4 J cubic feet capacity, of 
which nine buckets arc discharged per minute, and the sands 
distributed over a table-surface 12 ft. in length by 14 ft. in 
width. The average weekly cost of working is £80, and per 
year of forty-eight weeks worked, £466 14s. 9d. ; during same 
period general repairs cost £1,500. Seven men are employed. 
Dredgemaster, A. Dalzell; secretary, E. A. Wicks, Grey- 


New FeddcTitn Gold-dredging Company commeDced work 
on the 2nd June, 1^04 (registered Ist August, 1904), on an 
alluTial river-bed area of 10 acres, situate in the Buller 
River, near Lyell. The material operated on includes fine 
sand and gravels, with about 15 per cent, of large stones, 
some 1,800 cubic yards per hour being lifted from a depth 
of 35 ft. In 1905 the gravels raised and treated from 3 acres 
yielded 742 oz. 16dwt. of gold, valued at £2,899 lOs. Ifd., 
and since work first commenced 1,654 oz., valued at £6,472 
16s. 5d. The first cost of dredge was £10,400, the repur- 
chase price being £2,000. The capital actually called up has 
amounted to £2,312 lOs., and the total dividends declared to 
£1,271 176. 6d. The pontoons (wood) are built to a length 
of 90 ft., depth 8ft., and beam 30 ft., fitted with ladders 
carrying twenty-seven buckets of 6 cubic feet capacity, and 
discharging at the rate of nine per minute, while the sands 
are distributed over a table-surface of 12 ft. by 12 ft. The 
average weekly cost of working was £63 ; for the year of 
forty -one weeks, £590 9s. 9d. ; and during the same period 
repairs cost £600. Eight men employed. Dredgemaster, 
Andrew Carnegie; secretary, Joseph Steele, Reef ton. 

Old Diggings Dredge, Buller River. — Hansen and party, 
having repurchased the Old Diggings dredge for £400, com- 
menced work on a river-bed claim of 4^ acres, near Berlin's, 
on the 9th February, 1903. The gold won in 1905 was 
368 oz. 17dwt. 22 gr., valued at £1,467 6s. 8d., and the totol 
yield 1,101 oz. 8dwt. 22 gr., valued at £4,479 2s. Id. Two 
sets of ordinary tables are in use, with respective areas of 
16 ft. by 12 ft. and 15 ft. by 7 ft. The pontoons are built 
of steel plate to a total length of 101 ft., depth 5 ft., and beam 
20 ft. 6 ifi. ; equipped with ladders which carry thirty-two 
buckets of 4 ft. capacity, and dischc^rge nine buckets per 
minute from a depth of 25 ft. The elevator, 49 ft. in length, 
is set with trays at 6 in. centres. For wages and coal only 
the average weekly cost is £32 ; cost of fuel for year, £218 
68. 9d. ; and repairs for same period, £450. Five men cm- 
ployed. Dredgemaster, A. Gillstrom. 

Paetolus Gdd'dredging Company has an area of 168 


1 rood 9 perches at Nelson Creek, situate about nineteen 
miles from the Town of Greymouth, on which two dredges are 
It work, both being capable of raising 6,750 cubic feet of 
wash per hour. The company was registered on the 30th 
August, 1899; No. 1 dredge commenced to work on the 14th 
March, 1901, and the No. 2 on the 10th September, 1902. 
Their united yields amount to 14,678 oz. 2 dwt. 3gr., value 
£57,985 198. 2d., and shareholders have received dividends 
amounting to £20,937 10s.; while No. 1 dredge cost £7,122 
178. 7d. and No. 2 £8,342 Is. 9d., the capital actually called 
up being only £8,125. During the year 1905 the two dredges 
won 5,863 oz. 3 dwt., value £23,179 12s. 9d. There are 
seventy-six buckets working on both dredges, with a capacity 
of 4^ cubic feet on one and 5^ cubic feet on the other, the 
rate of discharge from a depth of 25 ft. to 30 ft. being ten to 
twelve buckets per minute. The weekly cost of working both 
dredges, on which there are eighteen men employed, is 
£131 58., and the yearly cost of repairs £1,500, the aggregate 
number of hours worked during the year on both dredges 
being 11,781. It is estimated that the claim will last five 
to six years, or about ten years from the date of commencing 
work. Dredgemaster, James Cowan ; secretary, Bernard P. 
McMahon, Reef ton. 

Prince of Wales Dredge is operating on an area of 9 acres 
at Robinson's Creek, Donoghue's, near Ross, where work was 
first begun on the 13th October, 1905, the owners being a 
private syndicate. The wash operated on consists of auri- 
ferous sandstone intermixed with black manganese stones, and 
is dredged from a depth of about 30 ft. Since then the dredge 
has worked 2 acres of ground for a yield of 2,735 oz. 15 dwt. 
4gr. of gold, valued at £10,670, including 669 oz. 17 dwt. 
18 gr., valued at £2,610, tlie result of dredging for the year 
1905. The cost of the dredge has been £10,155 14s. 8?!. : 
weekly cost of working, £50; fuel annually cost £1,098, and 
repairs £1,480. It is surmised that the claim will last twelve 
years, or fifteen years from date of commencing work, and 
that the land can afterwards be utilised for grazing pur- 
poses. Dredgemaster, David Graham; secretary, T. W. 
Bruce, Ross. 


Stafford Gold-dredging Company (formerly St&fford- 
Waimea) was registered on tJie 17th May, 1905, and on the 
5th June oommenoed dredging operations on an alluvial 
creek-bed area of 60 acres 1 rood 26 perches, situate on the 
Waimea Creek, Stafford, Westland. The gravels operated on, 
25 ft. in depth, are heavily intermijced with submerged 
timber; the bucket-ladder can lift from a total depth of 
32 ft. From the 5th June, 1905, to the 31st May, 1906, the 
gravels raised and treated from 5 J acres yielded 933 oz. 9 dwt. 
of gold, valued at £3,608 138. Id., and during operations h\ 
the Stafford- Waimea Dredging Company on the same creek the 
gold won amounted to 1,379 oz. 9 di^-t. 23 gr., valued at 
£5,326 5s. 3d. The repurchase cost of the dredge, includ- 
ing claim and freehold land, was £1,734. Since registration 
the capital actually called up was £1 on 289 contributing 
shares, and the dividends £202 6s., being 2s. per share on 
1,734 vendors and 289 contributing shares. The pontoons 
are built to a length of 110 ft., depth 6^ ft., and beam 31 ft., 
fitted with ladders carrying twenty-seven buckets of 4| cubic 
feet capacity, capable of discharging 1,710 cubic yards per 
hour, at the t-ate of twelve buckets a minute, while the sands 
are distributed over a table-surface 21 ft. by 21 ft. Includ 
ing fuel, <fec., the average weekly working-cost is £57, the cost 
of fuel alone for forty-four woi*king- weeks being £535. It I>i 
considered probable that the ground can be afterwards used 
for fruit-culture. Oredgemaster, George Wilson; secretary. 
C. E. Richards, Alexandra, Otago. 














By RoBBBT McIntosh, A.O.S.M., Ac^ietant Inspector of Mines for the 
Southern Mining District. 

Head of Lake Wakatipu.) 

It is recorded in the "Handbook of New Zealand Mines, 
1887," that the Invincible Mine, Rees Valley, was opened out 
in November, 1882, and from that month until December, 
1885, 7,755 tons of quartz yielded 3,828 oz. of gold, or an 
average of 9dwt. 21 gr. per ton. To this must be added 
108i oz. recovered from 11 tons of pyrites ground in a berdan. 
For the twelve months ending March, 1886, 2,682 tons of 
quartz yielded 1,100 oz. 13 dwt. of gold, and the tailings 
'yielded an additional 108 oz. 10 dwt., making a total of 
1,209 oz. for that period. Again, during 1896 the company 
crushed a total of 2,167 tons of quartz for a yield of 1,617 oz. 
of retorted gold, equal to 14 dwt. per ton. The mine was 
profitably worked until August, 1887, when it was found, 
after careful prospecting, that the quartz had run out. The 
mine was then let on tribute in February, 1888, and in March 
the tributers were reported to be on payable gold. During 
1^587 the tributers crushed 1,361 tons of quartz for a yield of 
500 oz. of gold. The payable stone was again lost in 1888, 
and the company went into liquidation. The mine was then 
sold to the Rees Valley Quartz-mining Company, which pro- 
spected it thoroughly until 1892, but without success, the 
license being eventually cancelled. 

In 1904 a Greymouth syndicate sent two prospectors to 
prospect a reef at Mopoke Creek, Lake Wakatipu; but the 
assays of the quartz did not come up to expectations. 

Mr. Georgfe Reid, of Queenstown, acquired a prospecting 
license in 1904 over a large area in Caples' Valley, Greenstone, 
Wakatipu district. 


ShotoYer Distriot. 

The Phoenix Mine was originally prospected about tho 
year 1862, when it was purchased by Messrs. Bullen Bros., 
who are said to have expended £50,000 in developing the pro- 
perty. During the early stages ot development some good 
returns were obtained, but the work undertaken was mainly 
of a prospecting and opening-up nature, and the mine did 
not become a paying concern until about the year 1884. It 
was recorded that from February, 1884, to November, 1885. 
6,400 oz. of gold was taken from the mine, the total yield up 
to 1887 being about 15,500 oz. In 1888 a poor block of stone 
was being worked, the yield being as low as 3 dwt. per ton, 
and this continued during 1889, when the owners purchased 
the Phoenix Extended. In 1891, 4,835 tons of quartz was 
crushed for a return of 3,197 oz. of gold. The property was 
floated on the London market in 1892, and the new proprie- 
tary took possession on the 31st March, 1893. During 1892, 
5,457 tons yielded 1,920 oz. of gold; all the quartz was taken 
from the Phoenix Extended section. Operations were con- 
tinued by the new company, called the ** Achilles Gold-mining 
Company," and good returns were obtained from time to time. 
In 1896 the quartz in the lode then being worked averaged 
l^oz. to the ton, and since the date of registration, in 1893, 
7,181 oz. of gold has been produced, valued at £27,500. The 
mine continued to be worked until 1901, but not with the 
success attending its former operations. Owing to the capital 
of the company being then exhausted, and no payable stone 
in sight, the mine was permanently closed down in May, 1901 
The property was purchased in 1903 by the Mount Aurum 
Gold-mining Company, and operations were resumed in 1904 
on the British- American line of reef. An aerial tramway con- 
nects the mine with the battery. The deep workings have not 
been un watered. 

The Gallant Tipper ary Mine was first opened about 
1867, but without success until 1884, during which year it 
was worked on tribute. In the early years of its existence 
this mine was known as the Nugget. Some of the stone worked 
in 1888 averaged from II dwt. to 18 dwt. per ton. 1,500 tons 


wag crushed in 1889 for a yield of 961 oz. of gold. From 
1885 to 1895, 11,490 tons of stone was cruslied, yielding 
4,392 OK. 11 dwt. of gold. In 1897 this company went into 
liquidation, and the property was purchased by the Shotover 
Quartz-mining Company. A low level was driven, which was 
completed in 1900, and stoping operations were commenced 
The stone mined of late years has not been rich, and calls have 
been made on the shareholders from time to time for capital 
to enable operations to be carried on. It is the intention of 
the company to spend a considerable sum during 1906 in de- 
relopmen t- work . 

This district abounds in reefs, many of which have been 
worked from time to time; but none of these mines can bd 
said to have been developed to a paying stage. In common 
with other districts, many of these leases have been held, ap- 
parently, with a view to disposing of them should an impetus 
be given to quartz-mining; thus development is retarded 
Other reefs known to be payable only await the capital to pro- 
vide the necessary machinery. Among those which have been 
worked at various times may be mentioned the Maori Point, 
Leviathan, Crystal, Cornubia, Chorazin (or Reefton United),^ 
AKpinall's, and Alpine Reefs. 


Warden Stratford Btates that reefs were first practically 
tested here about the year 1876. Three lines of reef were first 
worked — (1) the Homeward Bound line, (2) the Maryborough 
line, (3) the Advance Peak line. The Homeward Bound line 
was opened in 1876 by Messrs. Raven and Barclay, who won 
551 oz. of gold from 542 tons of stone while opening up. On 
the same line, to the north-west, were situated the Lady Fayre, 
Gladstone, Mackay's, and Premier Claims. The Defiance line 
runs parallel to the Homeward Bound, and on the east side. 
The Maryborough was opened up in February, 1876, by the 
Maryborough Company, and from 5 tons of stone crushed from 
a footwall leader 23^ oz. of gold was obtained. On this line 
were situated the leases of the Garibaldi Company, Duke of 


Wellington No. 2 South, Victor Emmanuel No. 3 South, and 
Finn's lease. No. 4. The All Nations line is parallel to the 
Maryborough, about 5 chains to the southward. From a 
leader between these two lines 345 tons of quartz yielded 39 oz. 
of gold. The Tipperary, Geraldine, and Caledonian leases 
were continuations of the All Nations line, while the Canton 
and Ancient Briton claiais were branches trending south. 
AVith regard to the Adyanco Peak, or Main Lode line, there 
appears to be three parallel lodes here trending north-west. 
Several rich leaders radiate from these lodes, as high as 5<b. 
of gold per ton having been obtained from them. The Kathe- 
rine was a rich leader from the north-east lode of this parallel. 
Development-work was carried on, and in 1878 a public 
crushing plant was erected and quartz crushed from various 
reefs. Some of these parcels, which were said to be well re- 
presentative of the quartz in the mines, gave rich yields. 
Eighty tons of quartz from the Gladstone Mine yielded 304 oz. 
of retorted gold; 50 tons from the Tipperary yielded 127 oz 
For some time the stone from the Tipperary Mine yielded 
nearly 1 oz. 8 dwt. of gold per ton. It would be impossible 
in this short sketch to detail the history of this district during 
the next few years. Numerous leases were taken up, but 
operations were not successful in all cases. Capital was re- 
quired, as the district for some years was only provided witii 
a pack- track. In 1884 the main road from Arrow town was 
opened for traffic. Warden Hawkins, reporting in 1886, says, 
'* Of all the numerous gold-mining companies that were called 
into existence on the discovery of payable quartz at Macetown 
only two remain, of which the Premier Mine has been the most 
successful." During 1886 the Sunrise Lease Gold-mining 
Company struck good stone, and was the only mine at work 
during 1888 and 1880. In the latter year an endeavour was 
made to float a company on the London market to work the 
Premier and Tipperary mines. This flotation was completed, 
and British capital was introduced into the district in 1890 
About this time prospects became brighter. The Sunrise 
struck good stone, and erected a new battery. Unfortunately, 
in 1891, expectations were not realised. Poor results were 











obtained from the Sunrise and Premier mines, while opera- 
tions were^ot commenced at the Tipperary Mine. During 
1892 the Sunrise Company sold its plant and claim to the Pre- 
mier Consolidated Company, which carried on continuous 
operations during the year for a return of 945 oz. of gold 
from 957 tons of quartz crushed. The Tipperary Company 
was re-formed in London in 1892 with an available capital of 
£10,000, so that in this mine, as also in the Premier, deve- 
lopment-work was carried on during 1893. In that year the 
Premier Company crushed 3,163 tons of quartz for a yield of 
1,985 oz. The Glcnrock Consolidated Company purchased the 
Premier and Sunrise mines in 1895, and preparations were 
made to work these properties on a more extensive scale. The 
Tipperary Gold-mines Company was reconstructed in 1896, 
and a new company called the Westralia and New Zealand 
Gold Explorers (Limited) took possession of the property. 
Work was continued along the usual lines for the next few 
years. In 1898 several well-known mines — the Victor 
Emmanuel, Morning Star, Black Angel, Garibaldi, Mary- 
borough, Homeward Bound, .Lady Fayre, and Golden Trea- 
sure — ^were consolidated into one holding as " FarrelPs Con- 
solidated Mines." The intention was to place these proper- 
ties on the London market. Operations in the Tipperary and 
Sunrise mines were not very successful, and the mines were 
closed down in 1899, but the Premier continued to be worked, 
2,825 tons of quartz being treated for a yield of 1,661 oz. of 
gold during the year 1899. The Indian Glenrock (Wynaad) 
Company continued operations in the Premier Mine during 
1902, in which year 2,178 tons of quartz yielded 1,752 oz. of 
gold. In 1903 the Premier-Sunrise (New Zealand) Gold- 
Riining Company purchased the Premier Mine from the Indian 
Clenrock Company. The mine was worked continuously 
during the year with fair results. Work was resumed in the 
Tipperary Mine in 1903, but, as the further development of 
t^e mine included the installation of expensive machinery, 
operations have since been at a standstill. The Premier-Sun- 
rise Company continued operations during 1904 and 1905. 
Id the latter year the available stone was stoped out, and con- 


Biderable prospecting-work failed to open up a new ore-body 
In consequence instructiona were received from th^ home office 
to suspend operations earlj in 1906. 

Some attention was given to prospecting in 1904, and reefs 
were opened up in Caledonian Gully by Richard Balch, Ander 
son and party, and Beale and party; 25 tons crushed from 
Balch's lease yielded 52 oz. of retorted gold. Information was 
received in 1904 that the dotation of the New Zealand Con- 
solidated Gold-mines was completed, and a few weeks' work 
was done on the property. Owing, it is stated, to some hitch 
in financial arrangements, the transfer was not completed, and 
operations were discontinued. No work has been done on that 
property since. 

The reefs in Caledonian Gully were worked during 1905 
with more or less success, the quartz being crushed in the Tip- 
perary battery, purchased by McKay and party, who hold the 
lease adjoining Balch's. The closing-down of the Premier 
Mine was due to the lack of capital to further develop the pro- 
perty. The fortunes of this mine were involved with others in 
India, and further capital was not available for the New Zea- 
land property. It is confidently asserted by those who have 
the best knowledge of the district that the mines will prove 
their value in the future, when the necessary capital becomes 
available for their development. 

Mount Pisa. 

There is a line of reef on the face of Mount Pisa, opposite 
Oibbston, which has received some attention from time to 
time, but no development-work has been done on it. Quarti 
reefs have also been found at the head of the Gentle Annie and 
Roaring Meg Creeks. There is an extensive field on Mount 
Pisa practically unprospected for quartz reefs or miners] 
lodes. Further on a large quantity of gold has been found on 
the slopes of the Crown Range, and a quartz-mine is now 
being opened out on the Crown Terrace. 

Native silver has been found on the western slopes of the 
Crown Range, in the Matatapu Valley. 


Carriok R«uige. 

The Star of the East Cotnpauy commenced operations in 
1870, and for a few years there was considerable activity in 
qaartz-mining in this district. During 1877 quartz-mining 
took a retrograde movement, due to the absence of new finds. 
Warden Simpson drew attention to the necessity for prospect- 
ing for main reefs on the tops of the ranges instead of the 
dopes and spurs, and expressed his confidence that the quarti 
reefs in the district, which are very numerous, would excite 
considerable attention at no very distant date. Warden 
Eeddell, reporting in 1881, indicated ^hat an important dis- 
covery had taken place in the Carrick Range, but recorded 
in 1882 that after a trial crushing from one or two of the 
pioneer claims, which resulted in a yield not worth recording, 
the new quartz claims on the Carrick were abandoned. It ap- 
I>ears that the character of the quartz reefs here is entirely 
different from those found in any other district. They are 
mixed with a red-clay jsubstance, and the stone is of a loose, 
broken nature, and can easily be taken out. About this time 
an antimony-lode was opened out by Messrs. Buchanan and 
Watson, of Dunedin, but the ore, although of good quality, 
was not found then in quantity. Mr. H. A. Gordon, Inspect- 
ing Engineer, Mines Department, writing in 1885, states of 
this locality: ** Very rich quartz lodes have been worked on 
the surface, one of the companies (the Royal Oak) having paid 
about £14,000 in dividends to the shareholders, but after 
going down about 70 ft. in the lode it commenced to get of 
too poor a nature to work. On the Royal Oak line of reefs 
ahafts have beefi put down 150 ft., but at this depth the lodo 
seemed to run out.'* The ground was abandoned for several 
jears, when a company again took it up, and was in 1885 
driving a tunnel from the face of the hill at the head of 
Smith's Gully to try and find the reef at a greater depth. 
This tunnel is now in ne'arly 1,100 ft., but the present com- 
pany has not yet been successful in finding any stone of a 
payable nature. There are several lines of reef on this range, 
but none of them are being worked to any extent. The Star 
of the East Company has driven a tunnel at a low level for 


over 500 ft. to prospect the ground. All the work being done 
in 1885 was of a prospecting nature. During the next four 
years operations were mainly of a prospecting nature. In 
1889 Warden Hickson reported: "Very little activity is 
noticeable. A special claim, embracing the ground formerly 
held by the Star of the East Company and the Elizabeth Com- 
pany, has been granted, and prospecting is being carried on, 
but the result is not ascertainable. Lawrence and party are 
getting good payable stone from the line of reef formerly 
held by the Caledonian Company, and on the same line Watson 
and Ridland are getting good prospects, and have erected a 
small crushing plant." In 1890 Lawrence and party, work- 
ing on a lease on the old Caledonian Reef, were said to Bare 
a very valuable property. They succeeded in tracing the reef 
for a considerable distance, with a body of stone 2 ft. to 4 ft. 
in width, carrying very payable gold. The Star of the East 
Company abandoned its claim, and the license was cancelled; 
but several parties set in to further prospect the ground. In 
1891 there was little quartz-mining in the district. Some 
rich stone was got in the early days, but the Carrick Range 
was at this period nearly deserted, with the exception of about 
two parties. Eighty tons were taken from the ground formerly 
held by the Elizabeth Company, which was said to have yielded I 
about 1 oz. of gold per ton. E. Lawrence was carrying on 
constant operations in his mine, but the quartz, being low- 
grade, required a cheap method of crushing to make it pay 
Very little mining was done for the next four years. In 1^95 
Messrs. Lawrence Bros., in the Day Dawn Mine, were work- 
ing on a lode about 14 in. wide. The reef averaged this widt- 
for a distance of 280 ft., and was enclosed between well-defined 
solid walls. During the year 1895 some 350 tons of quartz 
was crushed, yielding 230 oz. of gold, an average yield of 
13*31 dwt. per ton. Evan Jones and party and McCabe and 
party also had good prospects. DuriYig 1896 Messrs. Lawrence 
Bros, crushed 876 tons of stone for a return of 346 oz. of gold, 
valued at £3 17s. per ounce. In the same year McCabe and 
Sons drove a tunnel 600 ft. in length to cut the Young Aus- 
tralia Reef, which yielded good returns about the year 1876, 


but which was then abandoDcd through a large influx of water. 
During 1897 the Golden Gate Quartz-mining Company held 
a claim of 100 acres, upon which an adit was opened out from 
Pipeclay Gully. The quartz was partly oxidized and partly 
of a more refractory character, the average width being about 
16 in. From a trial crushing the yield was 12^ dwt. of gold 
per ton. McCabe and Sons continued to work the Young Aus- 
tralia Mine. James Lawrence crushed 782 tons from the Day 
Dawn Mine for a yield of 143 oz. of gold. Lawrence Bros. 
crushed 170 tons of quartz from the Star of the East Mine for 
a return of 57 oz. of gold. In 1898 there was little alteration 
to note. Four hundred and fifty tons of quartz was crushed 
from the Star of the East, yielding 107 oz. of gold. Prospect- 
ing operations were carried on by J. Holliday for the extension 
of the Star of the East Reef, known as the Go-by. During 
1899 Lawrence Bros, took out small blocks of stone from the 
Gjmpie, Heart of Oak, Star of the East, and Day Dawn 
reefs. HoUiday's prospecting-tunnel on the Go-by Claim waa 
in 440 ft. 

Renewed interest was taken in the Carrick Range reefs in 
1902, as it was expected that the application of the cyanide 
process would render the refractory ore payable. Unfortu- 
nately the parcels of ore sent for treatment to the School 
of Mines, Dunedin, were too poor to pay for treatment either 
by amalgamation or cyanide process; but it was considered 
that the samples were not representative of the quartz in the 
district. In 1904 a battery was erected on Watson and HoUi- 
<lay*8 claim, as the owners were confident that the large body 
^f quartz available would be payable if efficiently treated. 
Unfortunately, the battery results were poor. Exhaustive 
^ests of the stone made at the Colonial Laboratory, Wellington, 
Proved that the values could not be saved by plate amalgama- 
tion or the chlorination process; but the cyanide treatment, 
followed by amalgamation, gave excellent results.* As an 
^^ternative method, the suggestion was made that the concen- 
trates could be saved and shipped to Dapto, New South Wales. 

* See New Zealand Mines Record of the 16th April, 1906, pages 378 
*nd 379, for recent analyses. 


Mining in the past has been devoted entirely to the oxidised 
stone, and very rich yields have been obtained from time to 
time. It was not possible to deal with the refractory ores, 
and consequently these portions of the lodes lie undisturbed. 
Hence there is a large field here which only awaits the outlay 
of capital in the necessary appliances and works to render it 

Beadigo, near Cromwell. 

The Bendigo Reef was first opened out in 1865 by Logan 
and party, and worked by them until 1876, when the Cromwell 
Company was formed to work the mine. The ** New Zealand 
Handbook of Mines, 1887,'* records that gold to the value of 
£500,000 was obtained by Logfin and party, and, from 1876 
to the end of 1883, 26,000 oz. of gold was obtained. In 1884 
the company was wound up, and the mine and plant were pur- 
chased by the New Cromwell Gold-mining Company (Limited). 
During 1886 this company erected expensive winding, air- 
compressing, and pumping machinery. In 1887 the com- 
pany's property was purchased by a London syndicate, and 
a new proprietary formed with a capital of £100,000. It was 
intended to sink the shaft to a depth of 600 ft. In March, 
1889, the shaft had been sunk 330 ft. Previous to the old 
company suspending operations a winze was sunk for 27 ft. 
below the 420 ft. level, and at 20 ft. down the winze stone was 
struck which yielded nearly 3 oz. to the ton, the reef being 
from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. wide, following an east-and-west 
course, with underlie to north. On the 31st May, 1890, the 
shaft was down 430 ft. In the same year McLoughlin and 
party erected a five-head battery on the Eureka Reef. The 
Cromwell Company's shaft reached a depth of 520 ft. in 1891, 
and a level was driven westward to command good stone said 
to be left underfoot in the 420 ft. level, but the search was not 
successful. The number of hands employed about the mine 
was diminished in 1892, and proposals were made to the Eng- 
lish shareholders to raise sufficient capital to sink the main 
shaft GOO ft. The only other work in the neighbourhood was 
at the Rise-and-Shine (Old Eureka), where crushing was being 


carried on. In 1893 the Cromwell Company succeeded in 
raising £12,500 in England, and intended to use £500 in pro- 
Hpecting the old workings : the shoot of gold formerly worked 
pinched out in depth. There were several claims worked on 
fiiis line of reef to the westward of the Cromwell Company's 
ground, and some fair auriferous stone was found.* During 
1895 the Cromwell Mine was let on tribute to a party of 
miners, and excellent results were obtained from above the 
150 ft. level. The battery returns for 1894 show that 542 tons 
of quartz was crushed, which yielded 451 oz. of gold, valued 
at £1,759. The tributers continued to obtain such good re- 
sults that during 1896 the company was reorganized, and 
arrangements were made to spend a very considerable sum in 
further developing the ground. During 1895, 532 tons was 
crushed, yielding at the rate of 19 dwt. of gold per ton. 
Operations were resumed by the company during 1896, nearly 
all the work done being of a prospecting nature ; 650 tons of 
stone was crushed, yielding 262 oz. of gold. In 1898 the mine 
was again let on tribute. The tributers worked on the northern 
division of the reef where it splits between the winding and 
the pumping shafts; the average yield from this block was 
2i oz. to the ton. It was considered that an adit driven from 
the valley would crosscut the whole system of reefs, and obviate 
the necessity for pumping and haulage. Early in 1899 the 
Cromwell Proprietary Company resumed operations in the 
mine. Work done included the sinking of a shaft in the 
eastern section of the mine. During the year 1,264 tons of 
stone was treated for a yield of 827 oz. 5 dwt. The mine was 
closed down the whole of the year 1900, but in 1901 it was 
anticipated that the necessary capital to drive the low-level 
tunnel would be forthcoming. Operations were conducted 
during 1902, but not in the direction intended, work being 
mainly confined to taking out stone from surface workings. 
The company carrying on operations at this period was known 
as the Bendigo Gold-mining Company (Limited), which worked 
the mine on tribute from the Cromwell Proprietary. The 
proposal to drive the low-level adit received consideration 
from the London board of directors, but the capital was not 


fortlicoming. During 1903 the property was sold to liesars. 
Waters and Talboys, trustees for a* purchasing cc»up&nj. 
Operations have not been continued since, but endeayoura are 
being made to raise the necessary capital to further develop 
the mine. The Alta Reef has also received attention from time 
to time, •and there are several reefs in the locality worthy of 
attention. Search for the extension of the Bendigo Reef east 
and west should be conducted, while there is also a large Held 
for prospecting over the Leaning Rock Range. 

Scheelite has also been found on this range in the quartz 
lode at the Alta Mine. 

Obelisk (or Old-man Range). 

Warden Keddell, in 1883, intimated that new discoveries 
of quartz claims had been made on the Obelisk Range. These 
were found by a miner named White, while sluicing operations 
were in progress on the hill-slopes. In 1883 a company was 
formed to work White's Reef, and sixteen other leases were 
granted. Work was continued during 1884, and stone of good 
quality was taken out. About 600 tons of quartz was taken 
out in 1886, yielding 520 oz. of retorted gold — an average of 
slightly under 18 dwt. to the ton. During 1888, 820 tons 
of stone yielded 829 oz. 17 dwt. of gold, valued at £3 ITs. lOd. 
per ounce. Two other claims were also working, but no 
machinery was erected thereon. From one claim three crush- 
ings averaged over 3 oz. to the ton. An old miner said of the 
Obelisk Range, " A rabbit cannot burrow without disclosing 
payable stone.'' The range is a network of quartz reefs. 
White's Reef changed hands during 1890, the purchaser being 
Robert Symes, who has continued to profitably work the mine. 
Crossan and party and Baker and others were also doing well 
about this time. Symes Bros, continued to work during 1892, 
and Crossan and Gray developed a rich reef on Coal Creek 
spur. During the year they netted 880 oz. of gold — 114oz. 
b/ sluicing, and 766 oz. from 315 tons of quartz crushed. 
Messrs. Symes only crushed 57 tons during 1893 for a yield 
of 40 oz. of gold, while Crossan and Gray crushed 279 tons 
of quartz from the Excelsior Reef for a yield of 589 os. of 


goldy valued at £2,360. Operations were carried on at both 
these mines during 1894, but results were not so good. The 
▼ork done during 1895 was, however, attended with more suc- 
cess, 270 oz. being obtained from 236 tons from Symes's 
mine in a few months. About this time the Conroy's Gully 
reefs commanded some attention ; these reefs were successfully 
worked many years ago. In 1898, 40 tons of stone from the 
Excelsior Reef yielded 52 oz. 18 dwt. of gold. During the 
past few years these two mines have been worked as formerly, 
but, unfortunately, not with the same amount of success. 
Both parties, however, continue in the expectation of again 
striking payable stone. This face of the range is much dis- 
turbed, and prospecting is best carried on by surface sluicing. 
As all the water is now held for sluicing on the Bald Hill Plat, 
prospecting has been practically at a standstill for many years. 
There are many known reefs in the Obelisk Range, which can, 
however, only be worked by companies having the necessary 
capital. Several reefs abound at the head of Fraser basin 
and Campbell's Gully, but as the season in this locality is short 
Y&rj little prospecting is ever done. There are several lines 
of reef crossing the foothills of the Obelisk Range. Among 
those worked in former times may be mentioned the Conroy's 
Gnlly and Day Dawn reefs. Want of capital to provide the 
necessary pumping and binding machinery is said to have 
caused discontinuance of operations on these reefs. Recently 
a reef in Conroy*B Gully was taken up, but the owners 
could not procure the capital to sink the shaft and erect 
the plant necessary to develop the mine. A battery was 
erected, and stone carrying payable gold was taken out 
above water-level, but a slide was met with, and operations 
were discontinued. 

Nevis and Nokomai. 

Beyond the Carrick Range, in the Nevis district, quartz- 
mining has never been prosecuted, although specimen-stone 
has been found in the' alluvial claims. Hitherto alluvial work- 
ings have teen paramount in this district, but with the decline 
IP- that industry more attention will, no doubt, be paid to 

6— Mining Handbook. 


prospecting for quartz reefs and mineral lodes in this exten- 
sive tract of mountainous oountrv. 

Cinnabar is known to exist, but little prospecting has been 
done to locate the lode. 

A quartz reef exists in Victoria Gully, Nokomai, but it- 
has not been prospected to any extent. 

A large auriferous-lode formation is known to traverse the 
Garvie Mountain, but owing to its general inaccessibility very 
little endeavour has been made to locate the value and per- 
manency of this reef, or to prospect for other reefs in this 


In 1882 the Gabriel's Gully Quartz-mining Company drove 
a tunnel 380 ft. into the spur lying between GabriePs Gully 
and Weatherstone's. A fine body of quartz was met with, but 
it was not sufficiently payable for working. The Gabriel's 
Gully Prospecting Association resumed operations on this reef 
in 1897. Some years before a reef, varying from 2 ft. to 9 ft. 
in width, was worked, but it pinched out in depth. Opera- 
tions were continued during 1898, when a considerable amount 
of prospecting was undertaken, but the work was not success- 
ful, and was abandoned during the following year. 

Some specimens of quartz containing gold were found in 
Grey's Gully, above Evans Flat, and search was made in 1901 
for the reef. A level was driven and crosscuts put in without 
meeting with success, and the mine was abandoned. 

A reef outcrops on the Weatherstone's Commonage, near 
O'Brien's Hill, upon which a limited amount of surface pro 
specting has been done. This locality is well worthy of sys- 
tematic prospecting. 


Quartz-mining is confined to the range known as the Waita- 
huna Heights, and lying between Waitahuna and Waipori 
The Waitahuna Quartz Company was in operation in 1890, but 
the results were not payable, and in 1892 this company ceaae<l 
operations. Arnold Sturm continued to prospect about this 


old mine during 1895 in the hopes of striking a good reef, but 
these hopes were not realised, and of late years nothing has 
been done around this district. 


Situated in the Tuapeka district, this goldfeld was opened 
up in 1862, and quartz reefs were discovered in 1864. The 
oldest quartz workings in Otago were opened on the Shetland 
Reef, which was worked by the Pioneer Company. Several 
quartz reefs were taken up in these early days, but owing to 
the lack of capital, in most cases, the mines were not developed 
in depth, operations ceasing while the workings were yet com- 
paratively shallow. Among the early claims were the Pioneer, 
Maori and Maud, Devil's Creek, Cosmopolitan, and Canton. 
The majority of the reefs prospected well, and during their 
period of working prior to 1873 there was a fair yield of gold 
in the aggregate. During the next ten years the progress of 
the industry was slow, and in 1882 Warden Wood expressed 
the opinion that no reef in the district could be called 
thoroughly opened out with the exception of the O.P.Q. Reef. 
This remark equally applies in 1906. In 1882 slightly more 
attention was given to the quartz reefs. Prospecting was 
carried on at the Nil Desperandum — a continuation of the 
O.P.Q. line of reef ; also at Cox's, Lammerlaw Reef, and Esson 
and party's Nuggety Reef. In 1883 there were three batteries 
at work — namely, the Victory, 10 stamps; the Undaunted, 
10 stamps ; and the Modern Maori, 5 stamps. About fifty men 
were engaged working for the above companies. Several new 
areas were taken up in 1883, and the industry went along 
quietly for a few years. Reporting in 1886, Warden Revell 
stated, ** At Waipori eight old quartz gold-mining leases were 
cancelled either for abandonment or non-payment of rent. 
Two quartz leases and two ordinary quartz claims are now 
being worked in this part of the district, the quartz being 
estimated to yield from 18 dwt. to 1 oz. 4 dwt. per ton." 
Forty miners were engaged in quartz-mining in 1887, in which 
year Long and party reopened the Canton Claim, and Porter 
and party took up the O.P.Q. Claim again. This latter party 


crushed 700 to 800 tons, yielding from 3 dwt. to 14 dwt. per 
ton. It was estimated that 1,000 tons of quartz was crushed 
during 1887, yielding 350 oz. of gold. In 1889 Gare and 
party (Bella Keef), Lawson and party, Robertson and party, 
and Knight and party were granted licensed holdings. Uare 
and party '8 reef, on the Lammerlaw, averaged 5 ft. to 6 ft. in 
width, and gare a steady icturn of half an ounce of gold to the 
ton. The Maori, or Cox*s Reef, was reopened in 1890. This 
reef was only 6 in. in width, bur yielded at the rate of 1 oz. to 
the ton. Care and party's leef was the only one in operation 
during 1^91. A large body of stone was opened out, and was 
expected to give an average yield of 1 5 dwt. per ton. Ritchie 
and party started work on the O.P.Q. line in 1891, and con 
tinned until 1893. 

In 1894 Warden Hawkins said of the Waipori district, 
'* Although high hopes were entertained for some time as to 
the prospects of quartz reefs here, and the existence of reefs 
has been amply (kinonst rated, yet at present quartz-mining 
is in complete abeyance. F. W. Knight intends to further pro- 
spect the Bella Quartz-mine, which he purchased, as he believes 
that good stone will be found to remunerate him amply for his 

The Canton Reef was t.gain taken up in 1896 by several 
parties, by whom it was to be thoroughly prospected. In this 
year also the O.P.Q. Reef was in the hands of a party who 
were endeavouring to float it on the London market. The 
endeavour was successful ard the flotation completed. Warden 
Hawkins states, ** The New Zealand Minerals Company have 
purchased several claims and water-races, the O.P.Q. and 
Canton reefing claims, and a right to take eighty heads of 
water from the Chrystall Falls, on the Waipori River, being 
among the principal purchases. W^ith the Chrystall Falls 
vater it is the intention of the company to generate electrical 
power for the purpose of working the two reefing claims 
Charles Todd took up three special claims on the Bella Reef 
in 1896, with the intention of floating a company on the 
English market." The O.P.Q. Gold-mines Company (Li- 
mited) was floated on the London market in 1897. This com- 



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pany took over the O.P.Q. reefing claim from the New Zea- 
land Minerals Company. About thirty men were employed 
during the year in sinking a shaft, erecting a battery, and 
opening up the reef. By the end of the year there were about 
400 tons of stone at grass, giving an assay value of 14 dwt. 
Speaking of this company's operations during 1899, Warden 
Stratford says, **The O.P.Q. Gold-mines Company (Limited) 
employed a large number of men, and had done a good deal 
ill opening up the reef during the last twelve months. The 
company has completed and erected a good deal of expensive 
machinery, and the mine has lieen yielding good returns; 
851 oz. were won for 1899." 

The Bella Reef was reopened in 1899 by Robert McKeitch* 
and party, of Lawrence. There is a percentage of scheelite 
in the atone, which was not saved, llie gold-saving appliances 
consisted of quicksilvered plates without blanket strakes. The 
quartz in this reef has been proved to be rich, but the ore re- 
quires chemical treatment in addition to amalgamation. The 
nrine was closed down in 1000, and a parcel of concentrates 
forwarded to New South Wales for treatment. Unfortunately, 
the parcel was lost in transit, so that no results are available. 

During 1900 development and stoping operations were 
carried on at the O.P.Q. Mine. Gold to the value of £9,000 
was obtained for twelve months, and concentrates were on 
hand for shipment to New South Wales for treatment. The 
average yield of gold is given as 8|dwt. to the ton. The best 
crushing the company, had realised 190 oz. 11 dwt. of gold from 
193 tons of quartz. Occasional patches assayed as high as 5 oz. 
to the ton. 

Reporting for 1901, Warden Cruickshank says, '* The 
O.P.Q. reefing claim is owned by a London syndicate, and they 
hnve spent an enormous amount of money in developing the 
mine and procuring very costly machinery, and in doing ho 
have just about exhausted their capital; but, of course, tEey 
expected the returns from the mine would be sufficient to carry 

•McKeitch was the last man killed by the Boers during the late 
war, or rather after the war, as he was knocked over after the pro- 
claination of peace. 


on, as the claim was in working-order and yielding good re- 
turns, with about seventy hands employed. Unfortunately, 
very severe winter weather set in with heavy falls of snow, said 
to be the severest winter experienced in the district for twenty- 
four years, and it continued several months, entirely stopping 
all work at the mine, and all hands were thrown out of em- 
ployment. As good yields were obtained while the mine was 
being worked, it is to be hoped that satisfactory financial 
arrangements will be made to carry on the work again." 

For several monthb after closing down, the mine was kept 
unwatered, and the levels were kept open in anticipation of 
instructions to resume operations. As these instructions were 
not received the mine was closed down permanently, and since 
then the machinery has been partially dismantled. In sym- 
pathy with the non-working of the O.P.Q. Mine, all quartz- 
mining is at a standstill in the Waipori district. It is un- 
fortunate that this should be so, as a great number of reefs 
occur in the district, many of which are known to be valuable. 
The drawback is the want of capital to properly prospect and 
develop them. The district is an outlying one, and the 
carriage of fuel, timber, and mining requisites is costly, so 
that private parties are prevented from developing the reefs 
to that degree upon which the permanency of the mines de- 
pends. It cannot be denied that the district abounds in quartz 
reefs, and that the many reefs now lying unproductive in the 
Lammerlaw Ranges and adjoining foothills are worthy of the 
attention of the investing capitalist. That the country is 
rich in minerals is proved by the existence of copper, anti- 
mony, and scheelite lodes, while cinnabar and manganese have 
also been found. 

Canada Reef, near Milton. 

Work was carried on here prior to 1875. A shaft was 
sunk 80 ft. in depth, and the reef was driven on east and west. 
The average yield in these days from the quartz crushed wa^ 
about 5 dwt. per ton. It is recorded in Hutton and Ulrich's 
*•' Geology of Otago " that in an adit from a steep slope facing 
the Tokomairiro River a patch of stone was found yielding 


5o«. of gold per ton. The Table Hill Company also worked 
a reef running parallel to the Canada Reef, the top stone 
from which averaged 5 dwt. to 6 dwt. of gold per ton. After 
a depth of 150 ft. had been passed the yield became poorer. 

Renewed attention was given to this district in 1887, when 
several quarts claims were taken up. Gillon and Murphy 
obtained prospects of from 5 dwt. to 6 dwt. per ton. McLean 
and Kerr re-erected a battery which had been idle for about 
twelve years. Murphy, Gillon, and Thompson worked the 
quartz claim for some time during 1888, but closed down, as 
it did not turn out payable, and the battery was removed to 
Nenthorn. Very little work was done on Kerr and McLean's 

Two quartz claims were taken up at Table Hill in 1889, 
and fair prospects obtained. A little excitement was caused 
in this district about 1891, but it died away, and in that 
year Kerr and party abandoned their enterprise. Nothing 
more was done until 1897, when John Lawson and party, of 
Berwick, took up a claim at Table Hill, and erected a ten- 
head battery. Lawson, Ritchie, and Andrew's mine was let 
on tribute to W. G. Mouatt in 1898. There were three lines 
of reef, known as Ocean View, Canada, and Lawson 's. Eight 
hundred and thirty tons crushed in 1898 yielded 103 oz. of 
gold; 1,297 tons of quartz was crushed during 1898 from the 
Burnt Creek Company's mine for a total yield of 95 oz. 
lliree lines of reef were prospected, but the quartz presented 
a glassy appearance, and was very poor. The company went 
into liquidation in 1899. Work was continued during 1899 
on the lines of reef known as Lawson's and the Canada. Two 
hundred tons was crushed from the Canada line for a yield 
of 5 dwt. per ton. Several crushings from Lawson 's reef 
yielded from 8 dwt. to 21 dwt. per ton. 

During 1901 the Table Hill Quartz-mining Company re- 
opened the old workings of the Burnt Creek Company, and 
in the same year Mr. Lawson was engaged in opening out on 
the Canada Reef, to reach the solid reef beyond the old work- 
ings, but he died in 1901, and no further development took 
place at the Canada Reef in that year. The Table Hill 


Quartz-mining Company also ceased operations in that year 
Sutherland and party did some prospecting on the Burnt 
Creek line of reef in 1902. Thomas Park and party, known 
as the Last Chance Quartz-mining Company, reopened the 
Canada Reef in 1903. Thirty-iiye tons of quartz was taken 
out and crushed for a return of 16 dwt. per ton. The work- 
ings were about a mile to the east of those formerly worked 
by Mr. Lawson. During 1904, 226 tons was crushed for gold 
▼alued at J&1,097. The mine continued to be profitably 
worked during 1905, in which year 1,967 tons was crushed 
for a yield of 876 oz. of gold. In this year also prospecting 
was carried on in various places in the district. The Ocean 
View Reef was opened up in proximity to Park's workings, 
and several parcels of stone were crushed at Park's battery. 

The Last Chance Company continues to work in 1906, but 
there is little development in the other mines. Park's 
battery, being the only one in the district, is working full 
time when water is available, and thus is unable to crush fo^ 
other parties. 

Saddle Hill Reef, Green Isliind, near I>iuiedin. 

According to Button and Ulrich's "Geology of Otago," 
this is a true reef. It strikes £. Ii9 S. and dips northward 
at an angle of about 55^. The mine was worked prior to 
1875. Two shafts were put down 49 ft. and 125 ft. in depth, 
and the reef widened out to 12 ft. in places in the lower work- 
ings. About 2,000 tons of stone was taken out and crushed 
for a yield of 5 dwt. per ton. The auriferous stone would 
average 14 dwt. if selected. Three other well-defined reefs 
occur between the first reef and the main road. Work was 
resumed about 1884, but was again stopped; the yield per ton 
was not sufficient to pay expenses as work was then being 
carried on. During tho time of working 5 tons of stone was 
forwarded to Ballarat, and from two trial crushings the yields 
were 14i dwt. and 16 dwt. per ton. The return from similar 
stone crushed at the company's battery was only 3^ dwt., 
showing a big loss somewhere. In 1896 about 2h tons was 
sent to the Dunedin School of Mines battery, but nothing 














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further was done in connection with the lode. The reef is 
favourably situated as regards coal-supplies and railway 

In 1899 Adani Harris prospected the locality for some 
scheelite which he knew to exist, but the results were not satis- 
factory, and the work was discontinued. The reefs have been 
idle ever since. 

Hyde and Maorae*a. 

Three prospectors discovered a reef in the Mareburn Creek 
in June» 1887. The outcrop was traced nearly two miles on 
the surface, and two trial crushings yielded nearly 2 oz. of 
gold per ton. The reef is 5 ft. between the hanging and foot 
walls, and auriferous from wall to wall. A company was 
floated in 1888 to develop the Mareburn, or Mount Highlay 
Reef. A ten -head battery was erected, and the quartz de- 
livered to it by an aerial tramway from the mine. Opera- 
tions during 1889 proved the reef to be about 7 ft. wide at 
the 150ft. level, and to average lOdwt. to the ton; but 
shortage of water hindered the company's progress, and this 
was also the case during 1890; the average yield from stone 
crushed during that year was 5 dwt. The Bonanza Mine was 
opened out in 1890 in a small creek running into the Stone- 
burn, about twelve miles from Macrae's; 600 tons of stone 
treated yielded 638 oz. of gold. The Golden Point Mine, 
situated in Deepdell Creek, near Macrae's, was the property 
of the Golden Point Gold-mining Company ; but the company 
went into liquidation in 1890, and the property was sold to 
Uessrs. Donaldson Bros. During 1801 operations were 
carried on at the Bonanza, Mount Highlay, and Golden Point 
mines. From this latter mine 6} tons of scheelite was sent 
as a trial shipment to London, and the result showed a small 
profit. The Highlay Company ceased operations in 1892, but 
the Bonanza and Golden Point mines worked profitably during 
that year, and were likewise engaged in 1894. In that year 
the Mount Highlay Reef was reopened. The Bonanza and 
Golden Point were stated to have had a good year during 
1895. Owing to the interest taken in quartz-mining on the 


West Coast and Auckland, increased attention was paid to 
the reefs of this district, and there was a likelihood of capital 
being invested. Messrs. Donaldson Bros.' mine and the 
Bonanza Mine continued to get satisfactory returns during 
1896. A number of holdings was granted in the district and 
near Dunback. 

The Donaldsons erected an aerial tramway in 1897, but 
scarcity of water retarded crushing operations. Sutherland 
and Glover took 250 tons out of the Dunback Reef. From 
Cunningham and party's claim trial crushings gave an 
average of 1 oz. to the ton. In 1898 Mills and Sons removed 
their five-head battery from Nenthorn and erected it on 
Macrae's Flat. That year they crushed stone from the Golden 
Bar Reef, yielding 5 dwt. per ton. Cunningham Bros, and 
Ross erected a five-head battery. Fifteen men were employed 
about the Bonanza Mine during 1898. The low-level adit had 
been driven 1,550 ft. in length, and the quartz was conveyed 
to the battery by an aerial tramway. 

Messrs. Donaldson had a successful year during 1899. 
Their scheelite workings were said to have been highly re- 
munerative. The scheelite occurs associated with the quartz 
in the Golden Point Reef. Mills and party crushed a lot of 
stone averaging 7 dwt. per ton. Other reefs at work in the 
district were the Ounce Reef, Mareburn Reef (quartz and 
scheelite), Mount Highlay, and Bonanza mines. Cockerell and 
party reopened the Mount Highlay Mine in 1899. C. Nunn 
was in charge of this mine the following year, and stone was 
stoped out from the 100 ft. level to the surface. Donaldson 
Bros, worked- their reef by the opencast system, obtaining a 
considerable percentage of high-grade scheelite. Mills and 
Sons continued to crush stone from the Mount Highlay line 
of reef. From sixteen to twenty men were employed about 
the Mount Highlay Mine in 1900. During that year the 
Golden Bell battery (H. Mills and Sons) crushed 2,290 toas 
of stone for a yield of 431 oz. of gold, and Cimningham, 
Griffin, and Spears crushed 447 tons for a yield of 188i oz. 
of gold from the Ounce Mine. In 1900 the Golden Bar Mine 
was taken up by a party of working shareholders. This reef 


was tried from time to time and pronounced unpayable, but 
several crushings taken out that year yielded from 5 dwt. to 
15 dwt. per ton. 

During the year 1900 the Bonanza Mine was continuously 
worked, the approximate yield being 15 dwt. per ton. During 
1901 Mills and Sons crushed 2,000 tons of stone for a yield of 
327 oz., and Donaldson Bros, obtained good returns of gold 
and scheelite, while the Bonanza and Ounce mines were said 
to have done well. The (Jolden Bar Company crushed 
900 tons of stone during 1901 for a yield of 5 J dwt. per ton. 
This company in 1902 secured some good returns, yielding 
from XIO to £14 per man per week above working-expenses. 
The Ounce Reef was let on tribute to Lidstone and party, but 
the Bonanza Mine did not do much during 1902. C. McGill 
opened the Maritana Mine, in Deepdell Creek, during the 
year, and erected a battery. Donaldson Bros, erected a new 
ten-head battery and a Woodbury shaking-table for saving 
scheelite. At Mount Highlay a little was being done in con- 
nection with quartz-mining. The same number of mines con- 
tinued to be worked during 1903 with more or less success, 
but there were no fresh developments to record. 

During 1904 quartz-mining progressed steadily around the 
Macrae's district. This progressive movement was assisted 
to a great degree by the high price ruling for scheelite. This 
mineral is associated in payable quantity with the quartz at 
various points on this line of reef. Attention was also given 
in a few instances to saving the tailings for future treatment 
by cyanide, and during 1905 a cyanide plant treated a quan- 
tity of tailings at the Golden Bar Mine. This plant has now 
been removed to the Golden Point Mine, where several thousand 
tons of tailings await treatment. 

Donaldson Bros, opened up a large reef near Mount High- 
lay in 1906, and erected a Huntingdon mill and concentrating 
appliances. There is a percentage of scheelite in the stone. 
The Golden Bar and Ounce mines closed down in 1906. A 
large quantity of gold has been taken out of these mines ; but, 
principally owing to lack of capital to carry on further de- 
velopment-work, these mines have been closed down. In order 


to establish the permanency of a reef, capital must be ex- 
pended in opening it up, and in keeping deyelopment-work 
in advance of stoping. 


McMillan and partj discovered a reef at the head of Nen- 
thorn Creek in November, 1888, and prospecting revealed the 
existence of other reefs. Sixteen licensed holdings were 
granted in 1889. The richest reef was the Croesus, which was 
2 ft. in width. The Victoria Company's reef was said to be 
a valuable one, as from 2| tons of stone nearly 3 oz. of gold 
was obtained ; at a depth of 30 ft. the reef was 2 ft. in thick- 
ness. McMillan and party sent a test crushing to McQueen's 
battery, Dunedin, and obtained a yield of 3 oz. to the ton. 
The Nenthorn Consolidated Company sent several tons to the 
Footscray Works, near Melbourne, which resulted in a yield 
of from 2 oz. to 3 oz. per ton . 

A fresh reef was discovered in 1889, two miles south of the 
Croesus, and on which the Eureka was the richest claim. 
Warden Dalgliesh, in 1890, stated, "This last acquisition in 
the way of a quartz<mining field, about which such very ex- 
travagant hopes were entertained last year, has not realised 
those hopes. At the outset the management of many of the 
claims fell into inexperienced hands, and the work was carried 
on without system, and in a very costly manner." The 
operations of the various companies on this field have been 
minutely described by Warden Dalgliesh in his report for the 
year 1890. The collapse of mining at Nenthorn had a de- 
pressing influence on mining generally. Only the Croesus, 
Eureka, and Surprise Claims were worked on a small scale 
during 1891. Sheppard and party were working on the field 
in 1892, and they crushed 100 tons of quartz for a yield of 
12dwt. per ton, but the other mines were idle. The Croesus, 
Surprise, Eureka, Jacob, and Daddy Reefs were also worked 
a little during the year 1893, but the results were not worth 
recording. There were a few men employed in a desultory 
manner during 1894. The Croesus battery crushed small 
parcels of quartz, amounting to 200 tons, for a return of about 


130 oz. During 1895 the Surprise, Victoria, and Eureka 
Claims were at work, about twenty men being employed. The 
stone raised was found to run about 15 dwt. to the ton, but 
this was not sufficiently payable. Negotiations were going on 
during 1896 with a London company, with a view to working 
some of the claims on a large scale. A few of the claims were 
worked in a small way that year. Nenthorn remained quiet 
during 1897. Messrs. Mills continued working on the Sur- 
prise Reef, and succeeded in getting two crushings valued at 
2oz. per ton. Messrs. Sligo Bros, were working the Blue 
Slate Reef and crushing in the Croesus battery. The Consoli- 
dated Claim was worked by Eggers and Peddie, and 70 tons 
is said to have yielded 80 oz. McConnell and Wright at- 
tempted to work the Jacob Reef, but owing to the smallness of 
the lode gave it up; the return for 8 tons is stated to have 
been 20 oz. From Kitchener's Fortune, Callery and McConnell 
crushed 63 tons for a yield of 70 oz. Scarcity of water re- 
tarded continuous working on these reefs. Messrs. Sligo Bros, 
had a good crushing in 1898, and were said to have struck a 
block of stone supposed to yield 5 oz. to 6oz. per ton. They 
crushed 500 tons for themselves for a yield of 339 oz., and for 
small parties they crushed 169 tons for a total yield of 263 oz. 
Callery and Son and Connell and party also had good crush- 

Nenthorn was pretty well deserted in 1900, and very little 
work has been done since that year. A few leases are still 
held by those who know the value of the field, in anticipation 
of a revival of interest in this locality. As at Hindon, the 
best results would be procured from this field by a company 
holding an extensive area, and having sufficient capital to 
develop the reefs and to provide the plant necessary to treat 
the stone in a scientific manner. Good yields were obtained 
by the old-fashioned plate amalgamation, but the mineralised 
nature of the stone prevented any possibility of a high ex- 


Some well-defined reefs were prospected in 1877 in Mul- 
locky Gully, Hindon, and there was reason to believe that 


the reef would be payably auriferous. Warden Maitland 
reported that the New Caledonia Quartz-mining Company, 
operating at the Game Hen Reef, Hindon, erected machinery 
in 1878; Meaars. W. and A. T. Kenny were also erecting 
machinery. As there are numerous outcrops of quartz reefs, 
more or less auriferous, throughout the district, it was con- 
fidently expected that they would turn out satisfactorily. 
During 1879 the expectations regarding these reefs were not 
realised; the failure is attributed not only to the want of 
capital, but also to the scarcity of water in the summer 
months. Two companies erected machinery — namely, the New 
Caledonia Company and the Hindon Company (late Kenny and 
party). About 1,000 tons was crushed, yielding at the rate of 
15dwt. per ton. There was no improvement in the district 
during 1880, the absence of water and cheap fuel proving too 
great a drawback to success; the stone crushed during the 
year yielded from 5 dwt. to 17dwt. per ton. An abundant 
supply of water would have been beneficial both for quartz and 
alluvial mining. The Just-in-Time Quartz-mining Company 
erected a battery during that year. With the exception of 
50 tons, chiefly test crushings by the Just-in-Time Company, 
no stone had been crushed during 1881 ; the stone crushed by 
the Just-in-Time yielded 10 dwt. per ton. In the Zealandia 
Company's lease the reef had been traced to a considerable 
depth, while Harrison and Marriott had a well-defined reef 
in the lease^nown as the Gladstone. The Gladstone Company 
crushed 100 tons during 1882, which yielded 15 dwt. to the 
ton. The Game Hen and Zealandia properties also received 
further prospecting. No stone was crushed in 1883. About 
730 tons of quartz was crushed in 1884 by the Don Quartz- 
mining Company, the yield being a little over 5 dwt. per ton. 
Lyders and party, who owned the crushing plant of the Don 
Company, crushed several hundred tons of stone, which 
yielded from 4 dwt. to 15 dwt. per ton. 

Warden Carew predicted a prospect of renewed enterprise 
in this district in 1888. Lyders and party crushed at their 
battery during 1887 the following parcels of stone: Lyders 
and Hilgendorf, 350 tons, yielding 6 dwt. per ton; P. A 


Lyders, 150 tons, yielding 5 dwt. per ton; A. T. Eenny, 
70 tons, yielding 4 dwt. per ton ; A S. F. Parker, 30 tons, 
yielding 7 dwt. per toni A Melbourne company was formed 
during 1888 to provide capital to develop these reefs, and 
machinery was being erected in 1889. Lyders and party put 
through 200 tons, which yielded an average of 8 dwt. per ton. 
The Mount Hyde Company, mentioned as erecting machinery 
in 1889, was unfortunate, and the property fell into the hands 
of Begg and Co. At a small battery in Machine Creek about 
200 tons of stone was critshed, yielding an average of 7^ dwt. 
per ton. Begg and Co. crushed 250 tons of stone in 1890 for 
a yield of 7 dwt. per ton; Kenny and party crushed 30 'tons 
from the Zealandia Reef and obtained 1 oz. per ton. Begg 
and party's operations were a failure in 1891, chiefly owing 
to The stone requiring special treatment. The quartz was 
found to be highly pyritiferous. Sheppard and party crushed 
a quantity of stone from the Gladstone Reef, and this yielded 
from 6 dwt. to 11 dwt. per ton. They continued to work for 
a few years, as they were able to make small wages. 

Very little was done here during 1895, and the district has 
been practically deserted ever since. The reefs in this locality 
would be best worked by a powerful company holding an exten- 
sive area, and having large crushing plant and reduction- 
works, in order to gain as high an extraction of gold as pos- 

This district is reached by way of the Otago Central Rail- 
way from Dunedin. 


On Barewood Run, the property of the Otago University 
Council, several promising reefs were opened up in 1890, and 
satisfactory trial crushings obtained. Portion of this endow- 
ment was brought under the operation of the Mining Act in 
1890. Six hundred and fifty tons of stone was conveyed to 
the Saddle Hill battery during that year, and yielded at the 
rate of 14 dwt. per ton. A number of the holdings were aban- 
('oned in 1891, but Porter and Hocking and Wolters and 
party carried on active o])€rations during that year. The 


former party had sunk to a depth of 100ft., and crushed 
500 tons for a yield of 280 oz. of gold. Wolters and party 
erected a five-head battery, and crushed 540 tons for an 
average yield of 10 dwt. Quartz crushed by Wolters and party 
in 1892 yielded from 10 dwt. to 17 dwt. per ton; while Porter 
and Hocking (tributers to the Barewood Company) crushed 
250 tons for a yield of 115 oz. Porter and party abandoned 
the Barewix>d Company's mine in 1893, but the company pre- 
pared to further develop the property. On the foot-wall side 
the lode intermixed with scheelite, which was to be saved. 
In Donald Reid's mine the shaft was sunk to a depth of 150ft., 
and '1,447 tons of stone crushed for a yield of 549 oz. of gold. 
Wolters and party and the Barewood Company worked 
throughout the year 1894, and in the same year P. A. Lyders 
opened up a reef on the opposite side of the Taieri, on the 
Otago Museum Endowment Reserve, where he erected a battery 
and crushed 90 tons of stone for a yield of 7 dwt. per ton. 
During 1895 interest was renewed in this field. The party 
known as Wolters and party was formed into a registered com- 
pany, known as the Barewood Quartz-mitiing Company, and 
this company, from 380 tons of stone, obtained 330 oz. of 
gold. As the result of prospecting by Lyders and party, 
several licensed holdings were taken up on the Museum Endow- 

In 1896 two companies, with large capital, completed 
arraijgements for further prospecting and opening out the 
reefs, preliminary to erecting powerful machinery. During 
1897 Lyders and party, of the Golden Burn Company, con- 
tinued to work; the stone was found to be charged with 
arsenical pyrites. In the same year prospecting operations were 
being conducted in the Barewood Mine by the Anglo-Continental 
Gold Syndicate and the London and New Zealand Explora- 
tion Company, who were jointly interested in the venture 
Three shafts were sunk. Warden Carew, reporting for 1898, 
stated that quartz-reefing was at a standstill, the Barewood 
reefs being apparently too low-grade to be profitably worked 
under existing circumstances. Owing to litigation the Bare- 
wood Company did no work during 1899. In 1900 Alexander 








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Gibson's claim employed eleven men; the yield of gold for 
the twelve months was valued at £885. There was nothing else 
done during 1900. 

During 1901 the water was pumped out of the Anglo-Con- 
tinental Company's No. 3 shaft, and the west level was con- 
tinued. This was done by Mr. Wolters, acting for the Bare- 
wood Gvold-mining Company. The stone on the foot-wall was 
found to be payable, thus giving the mine a new lease of life. 

James Hunter sunk a shaft on a reef 4 ft. wide at Sutton. 
Stone tested at the Dunedin School of Mines returned at the 
rate of 13 dwt. to 18 dwt. per ton. 

During 1902 the Barewood Gold-mining Company ex- 
tended the 1 25 ft. level and stoped out to the rise ; the stone 
yielded about 12 dwt. in the crushing. The tunnel on the 
Sutton Reef was in a total distance of 350 ft. to the face. 
Operations in the Barewood Mine were extended to the 188 ft. 
level during 1903, and stoping was conducted to the rise; 
2,083 tons of stone was crushed for a return of 1,691 oz. re- 
torted gold, and 100 oz. additional was obtained by treating 
the tailings with cyanide. 

Operations were continued during 1904. 2,209 tons of 
quartz yielded gold to the value of £3,370. The mine con- 
tinued to be worked during 1905, and a large battery was 
erected, driven by an oil-engine. Two cyanide plants were also 
erected to treat the large amount of tailings saved. The con- 
centrates were shipped to Australia for treatment. The mine 
still continues in operation in 1906. 

The Sutton Reef was further developed in 1905, and pre- 
parations were made to develop it on a large scale, but the 
quartz did not turn out according to expectations. The mine 
is still being prospected in 1906. 

This district is reached by the Otago Central Railway from 


Prior to 1876 quartz veins were prospected in this locality, 
but with no particular success. Some promising discoveries 


were made in 1877, and a company erected machinery, other 
leases being taken up in the locality. The Serpentine Com- 
pany obtained good prospects in 1878 from the German Jack's 
Keef , but the intrusion of a large mass of mullock in the reef 
baffled their efforts. Other reefs were discovered in Scandi- 
n Avian Gully and Golden Gully, which showed fair prospects. 
The Serpentine Quartz-mining Company ceased working 
during 1879; but, in spite of this fact, several new leases 
were applied for in 1880. Warden Robinson reported in 1882 
that the industry was developing into importance here, and 
some very encouraging trial crushings were made. Several 
fresh leases were granted in 1883, but operations were at a 
standstill at the end of that year, sufficient capital not being 
available to develop the reefs. A company was formed in 
1886, called the Golden Gully Quartz-mining Company, to 
work Turnbull's old reef, which gave good results a few years 
previously. The Golden Gully's crushings were a disappoint- 
ment, as a lot of casing and mullock, which it was thought 
would pay more than expenses, was crushed. The reef was 
fair-sized, and showed gold. The Golden Gully continued to 
carry on operations during 1889. A main adit was driven 
1,354 ft., and connected with the surface by a pass 230 ft. 
One hundred and thirty tons of stone was crushed, yielding 
221 oz. of gold, being at the rate of 1 oz. 15 dwt. per ton. 
Work was carried on at the Golden Gully Mine for some time 
during 1890, that being the only work carried on in the 

All work ceased in this district in 1891, and very little 
was done on these reefs until 1899, when J. Cogan opened up 
a quartz reef estimated to yield from 10 dwt. to 15 dwt. i>er 
ton. This venture was not, however, a success, and mining 
has latterly been confined to alluvial workings. Cogan'** 
battery is still on the ground, and there is here an extensive 
field for prospecting. There can be little doubt but that up-to- 
date methods of mining and scientific treatment of the quartz 
will enable many of the reefs in the Serpentine district, as 
well as at Rough Ridge and elsewhere, to be worked profit- 


Entrance to this district is by way of the Otago Central 
Railway to Waipiata; thence about thirty miles inland. 

Otago Central: Rou^h Ridge and Ophir (or Black's). 

Quartz-mining was first started at Rough Ridge about 1868, 
and carried on for some time. The Ida Valley Quartz-mining 
Company and the Great Eastern Company were in operation 
about 1872. The mines at Rough Ridge ceased working in 
1879, and very little more was done until 1884, in which year 
a small company, named the Otago Central Gold-mining Com- 
pany, was formed for the purpose of working quartz reefs at 
Rough Ridge. For the last twenty years attempts had been 
made to work these reefs, as high as 3 oz. per ton having been 
obtained in some cases. The Ridge is described by Warden 
Hawkins as a perfect network of reefs, leaders, and lodes^ 
ranging in size from 10 in. to 5 ft. The yields averaged from 
10 dwt. to 3 oz. per ton. A large quantity of sulphide mineral 
was found in the stone; this had a considerable effect on the 
saving of the gold. The Otago Central Company, formed in 
1884, was not successful, and went into liquidation in 1887. 
The Progress Gold-mining Company was registered in 1886. 
The Great Eastern Company was very successful, and for eight 
months, prior to May, 1888, produced 820 oz. of gold from 
400 tons of quartz. The company was working in the 420 ft. 
level. There were several different lodes on the property, and 
the one then being worked was heavily impregnated with iron- 
pyrites and zinc-blende, both of which minerals were auri- 
ferous. Chemical tests made of the tailings proved that the 
Great Eastern Company lost nearly 2 oz. of gold for every 
ounce saved by the battery, and it was proposed to erect 
chlorination works on the mine. The Progress Company did 
a good deal of development- work during the year 1888. The 
Great Eastern obtained fair returns during that year, but the 
mine was handed over to a London syndicate, which purchased 
that and other mines on the Ridge, and machinery of the most 
approved type was to be erected. Unfortunately, the negotia- 
tions with the London syndicate fell through in 1890. An 
expert inspected the properties during 1890 on behalf of the 


• London syndicate, but the negotiations were not Bucoesaful, 
and the mines were closed down. Perrj and party did some 
work on these reefs, with good results, in 1892, and pur- 
chased the Progpress and Great Eastern mines the folloving 
year, and continued to work upon them. They crushed 
200 to 300 tons of stone during 1894, but the yield was only 
equal to 8 dwt. per ton. Latterly their attention had been 
devoted to the Otago Central Reef, from which the quartz was 
expected to yield 15 dwt. per ton. In 1895 some special claims 
were taken up, including those known as the Progress, Central, 
Great Eastern, kc. It was proposed to form a company, with 
a large capital, to be floated on the London market. The yield 
in 1888 and 1889 showed an average of over I oz. to the ton; 
but samples sent Home for treatment gave returns up to 9 os. 
per ton. Nothing practical came of the long-pending negotia- 
tions between the local company and the London company 
in 1896; no progress was made in 1897, and very little has 
been done during the past nine years. Perry had a few crush- 
ings from time to time of stone taken out from surface work- 
ings. With the advance in the scientific treatment of complex 
ores, such as exist here and elsewhere, it may be confidently 
expected that these reefs will be profitably worked at some 
future date, should sufficient capital be expended in reopening 
the mines and equipping them with the most improved appli- 
ances. The locality is reached by the Otago Central Railwar 
from Dunedin. 

During 1887 a company, calling itself ** Green's Reef ani 
Seam Workings Company," was floated to work the holding 
of a miner named Green, who in 1885 found gold in an ex- 
tensive seam of decomposed schist on a spur above Black's 
Township. The seam was very rich in places, but the opera- 
tions of the company were not successfiil ; it had a little over 
a year of existence, and was wound up in 1889. The companv 
treated the material at iirst by Wall rolls, but this machine 
was not suitable. Then a puddling-machine was erected, but 
200 tons of stuff only yielded at the rate of 3 gr. of gold per 
ton. Next, a line of sluice-boxes was laid down, and 597 tons 
was treated by sluicing for a total return of 2oz. 1 dwt. In 1889 


Mr. Green, ike disooyerer of the aboye seam, found a new 
reef to the north of the reef called Corrigairs. On this latter 
reef he erected a battery of eight heads to crush the materials, 
vbich could not be classed as quartz, being more of a ferru- 
ginous quartz conglomerate, without defined walls. A miner 
named Burren was also sluicing similar material, and sayed 
the quartz which contained gold. The prospects on these pro- 
perties were not yery encouraging, and but little work was 
done during the next few years. In 1891 a reef called 
Ryan's, at Black's, was prospected, and a shaft 45 ft. in depth 
was sunk, but the yenture was not successful. Seyeral claims 
were heFd in 1892 in the yicinity of Green's seam workings, 
but no work was done owing to the absence of crushing-power. 
Id 1895 Mr. Green returned and took up his original claim; 
he did a lot of preparatory work, and was sanguine of the re- 
sults, but no good results were achieyed. Considerable excite- 
nrtent was caused in 1896 by the discoyery of what promised 
to be a highly payable quartz reef some two miles and a half 
from Ophir, in a south-easterly direction on the range diyid- 
ing the Manuherikia Valley and Ida Valley. Gold showed 
freely in the stone. The discoyerer, Mr. Green, sent a small 
quantity to the School of Mines, Dunedin, and the return was 
at the rate of 7oz. per ton. A further lot of 30cwt. yielded 
on rough treatment a return equal to 2 oz. per ton. The reef 
was acquired by a small local syndicate, but for yarious reasons 
the yenture was not a success, although a considerable amount 
of money was expended in prospecting it. In 1900 this quartz 
claim was again taken up. In 1901 the Clyde Enterprise 
Quartz Prospecting Company took up 50 acres under a pro- 
specting license oyer the area formerly held by the Green's 
Reef and Seam Workings Company. Tho old shaft was- put 
in repair and a leyel started off at the 70 ft. leyel to search for 
a quartz reef, but payable results were not obtained, and the 
venture was abandoned. Since 1901 quartz-mining in this 
district has* been practically at a standstill, although the 
opinion is held that payable reefs will yet be found on the 
Raggedy Range and Blackstone Hill. Very rich alluyiaS 
diggings haye been worked on these ranges. 


Southland : Iion^wood and Waian. 

Warden Wood reported that in 1887 prospecting for quartz 
reefs was being prosecuted on the eastern side of the Longwoo'i 
Range, Southland. A well-defined reef, running north-west 
and south-east, was discovered, and found to be rich to a depth 
of 30 ft., at which depth it was 2 ft. in width. Owing to a 
partnership dispute this reef was not worked during 1878, but 
operations were continued in 1879, when an adit level was 
driven. At that time the want of capital to develop these reefs 
was felt, and the thickly timbered and broken nature of the 
country rendered prospecting a slow process. There was a de- 
pressing lull in this district for some time, but renewed 
activity was displayed during 1879. In several of the claims 
leaders were found carrying gold, but large reefs had not been 
found. The Longwood Reefing Company was crushing in 
1880 ; the stone was said to be of good quality. The Longwood 
Reefing Company and the Geelong Company suspended opera- 
tions in 1884, as the stone was then too poor to pay for ex- 
traction and treatment. Further to the east, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Specimen Gully, good samples of stone were taken 
from the Arethusa and Pioneer Claims; the latter, frcwa a 
sample of 19 cwt. of stone sent to the Ballarat School of Mines, 
obtained a return of 19 dwt. of gold to the ton. A battery was 
erected at Riverton about this period for testing parcels of 
stone. Warden McCulloch, reporting in 1882, described the 
industry in this district as being in a state of stagnation: 
none of the mines was worked during that year. Nothing 
was done here in connection with the reefs until 1895, when 
the Riverton Mining Association sent out two parties of pro- 
spectors in February, and within two months two reefs were 
reported to have been discovered. The long-Iooked-for reefs 
were not, however, found in 1896, but prospecting operation*? 
were still being carried on. In 1897 a subsidised prospecting- 
tunnel was driven 950 ft. by the Longwood Quartz-mining Com 
pany, bnt the reef was not struck at that distance. 

A trial shaft was put down 32 ft. at South Riverton to prove 
a reef found on the surface. The work was undertaken bv 
the Riverton Prospecting Association. 


The LoDgwood prospecting-tunnel cut a reef in 1898, at a 
distance of 994 ft. The reef was 2 ft. wide. Some work wa» 
done upon it, but unfortunately nothing payable was found. 
Operations were suspended in 1899, and very little attention 
has been paid to the quartz reefs since. 

Reports have been made from time to time of the discovery 
of quartz reefs in the den^ bush country across the Waiau 
River, but no definite information has so far been received of 
any finds. 

PreaeFvation Inlet. 

The discovery in 1892 of a rich auriferous lode, crossing 
the bed of Wilson's River, gave an impetus to prospecting 
for reefs at the Inlet. The first claim was called the Pro- 
spectors', and four other holdings were taken up on the 
northern extension; three were granted on the southern end 
Another quartz reef was found near Cuttle Cove, on the oppo- 
site side of Preservation Inlet. Other prospecting was being 
carried on in 1892, but the country was rough and covered 
with dense, swampy moss and forest. Very little development 
took place during 1893. The Golden Site Company acquired 
the Prospectors' Claim, and sunk a shaft and constructed an 
adit. Arrangements were made to erect a battery to be driven 
bv water-power. The Hesperides, Surprise, Lucky Shot, and 
Rata Claims were prospected with little or no success during 
that year. Very rich gold-bearing lumps of quartz were found 
in Cuttle Cove, but the solid lode was not discovered. 

During 1894 the Golden Site Company erected a battery, 
and between August and October crushed 640 tons of quartz 
for a yield of 666 oz. of gold. This quartz was all taken from 
the south side of Wilson's River, where the reef averaged 
fift. in width. The battery returns for 1894 showed that 
1,155 tons of stone was crushed for a total yield of 875 oz. of 
gold, but only the- Hesperides and Triangle Extended mines, 
on the south side of the Golden Site, were developed, very little 
being done towards working the quarts lodes in the district, 
and operations were suspended in the holding on the north 


The Morning Star Company was formed in 1894, with % 
capital of £12,000, to work a mine on the mainland, facing 
Ijongbeach. A ton of stone sent from this mine to Messrs. 
Wylie and Scott's battery at Invercargill yielded 9 oz. 14 dwt. 
A rich auriferous lode was found on Crayfish Island, in the 
Nugget Claim, where 95 oz. of gold was broken out by hand. 
A trial crushing from the St. George and Crown Claims, at 
Cuttle Coyc, is said to have yielded 1 oz. 7 dwt. per ton. 

" Rocks of the Lower Silurian formation abound in thia 
locality, and three distinct lines of reef -bearing rock are trace- 
able within the bounds of this formation: (1.) That of the 
Golden Site, in the middle of Wilson's River Gorge, and ex- 
tending south to the coast-line at the mouth of Kiwi Stream. 
(2.) That beginning at Cuttle Cove, and extending through 
Steep- to Island (Crayfish) to the Longbeach and Morning Star 
line of reef. This line extends south across Sealers' Creek to 
Wilson's River, two miles below the Golden Site Claim, and 
has been cut in the road formed to that claim. (3.) This line 
of reef -bearing country begins between Cuttle Cove and South- 
port, and forms a very considerable display of reefs and 
leaders on Cavern Head, and thence extends through Coal 
Island to Observation Point, on the mainland opposite. Below 
Sealers' Creek this line is lost in the disappearance of the 
Silurian rocks below the ooal-bearing rocks of the coast-line." 
The foregoing description is by Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S., 
Government Geologist, who visited the district in 1895. Quarts 
lodes are rare in the granite formation to the eastward of the 
Silurian rocks. 

One lode was being prospected in Isthmus Sound in 1895. 
The ore was a strange admixture of iron, copper, lead, zinc, 
gold, and silver. When comparatively pure or dressed to a 
high percentage the galena was said to yield 100 oz. to 120 oz. 
of silver to the ton, and as much as 7 dwt. of gold. 

The Golden Site Mine made little progress during 1895, 
and was closed down towards the end of that year, pending the 
raising of further capital to develop the lodes; 111 os. of gold 
was obtained from 454 tons of stone. The Morning Star Mine 
continued to work with vigour, and the battery-power was 

t Tmp. lowm iNthixK, Den>'xston (Wbstfort Coal Compaijt, Umite©). 


doubled during that year ; 1,335 tons of quartz yielded 728 oa. 
of gold. 

Several reefs were found at Sealers' Creek, but they were 
Dot opened out. A good deal of prospecting was done on 
Steep'to (or Crayfish) Island for a rich reef supposed to exist, 
but this had proved a vain endeavour. Sufficient prospect- 
ing had not been done to prove the value of the reef at Cuttle 
CoTO, near Cavern Head. Mr. McKay examined several out- 
crops in Cuttle Cove, but pronounced them to be too thin for 
printable working, unless very rich. Samples yielded only 
traces of gold. At Cavern Head there is a regular network of 
reefs and quartz leaders. 

The Morning Star Mine continued to work duriog 1896 
The total yield of gold since commencement of operations was 
valued at ^20,000. The returns for the year ending the Slst 
March, 1897, showed that 3,140 tons of stone was crushed for 
a yield of 3,420 oz. 14 dwt. of gold, valued at £4 2s. per ounce. 
The Alpha Gold-mining Company was formed in 1896 to work 
Longney's Claim, Sealers' Creek, but very little work had been 
done. A well-defined reef was traced in the Golden Site Ex- 
tended Company's claim, and a trial crushing gave favourable 
results. All the claims were held under protection in 1896. 
At Isthmus Sound the stone taken from Bradshaw's Reef was 
highly mineralised, and it was proposed to ship a parcel of 
ore to England for treatment. 

The Morning Star was the only mine producing gold in 
1B97, in which year 139 oz. of gold was obtained. The Alpha 
Mine was Iteing developed, awaiting the erection of the battery. 
The Golden Site Mine was being further developed, but no 
crushing was done. Other mines in the district were doing 
▼ery little, except the Golden Site Extended, at which mine a 
shaft 210 ft. in depth was sunk and levels driven. 

In 1898, 3,733 tons of quartz was crushed in the Morning 
Star battery for a yield of 2,060 oz. of gold, valued at over 
^B,000, and a further yield of 93 oz. was obtained by amalga- 
niation of the tailings. The Golden Site Extended also started 
crushing, and obtained 301 oz. of gold from 1,107 tons of 
quartz; while the Alpha Ccmpany crushed 338 tons of quarts 


for a yield of 93 oz. The Sunrise Companv started driring 
tunnels on property adjoining the Morning Star, and a reef 
6 ft. in width was cut in No. 1 tunnel. 

During 1899 the Morning Star Company crushed 1,033 tons 
for a yield of 432 oz. of gold, valued at £1,770. The resources 
of the mine were approaching exhaustion at the end of that 
year, in consequence of the little development-work that was 
carried out. A good deal of work was done on the Alpha Mine, 
but only 22 oz. of gold was obtained from 446 tons of quartz 
The stone was low-grade, as the best crushing only returned 
6 dwt. per ton. The Golden Site Extended Company's holding 
comprised five claims — viz.. Break of Day, 30 acres; Heather 
Bell, 30 acres; Golden Site, 30 acres; Christmas Eve, 30 
acres; Hesperides, 24 acres. A lot of work was done on 
the property, but only 274 tons of stone was crushed, yielding 
55 02. 

A shaft 80 ft. deep was sunk on the Tarawera Gold-mining 
Company's property, Isthmus Sound, but the stone would re- 
quire to be shipped to a reduction -works for treatment. 
While prospecting by surface trenching Messrs. Robinson and 
Williams unearthed a reef L6 in. wide, and showing gold 
freely. A trial crushing from a reef at Cuttle Cove yielded 
1 oz. of gold per ton. 

The returns from the Inlet mines were not very large 
during 1900. The Morning Star crushed 776 tons for 365 oz. 
of gold, valued at £1,496. The Golden Site Extended crushed 
5 tons for 1 oz. 18 dwt., and the Alpha Quartz-mining Com- 
pany secured 264 oz. 17 dwt. from 1,364 tons of quartz. There 
were no developments to record during that year, but in the 
year 1901 the New Star Company's tributers, operating on the 
Morning Star Claim, crushed 15 tons for 11 oz. of gold. The 
Golden Site Extended recovered 9 oz. from 42J tons, and the 
Alpha Mining Company crushed 770 tons of quartz for a yield 
of over 163 oz. Three tons of stone was taken from the Venus 
Claim (late Mavourneen), Crayfish Island, and crushed at the 
Morning Star battery, for a return at the rate of 16 dwt. per 
ton. In June, 1901, the Cuttle Cove Gold-mining Company's 
mine was let on tribute to two miners, who took out a trial 


crushing of 15^ tons of stone; this was crushed at the Morn- 
ing Star battery for a yield of 11 oz. 13 dwt. retorted gold. 
McQueen and party extended an adit through hard country 
to intercept the main reef in the New Venus (or Monte 
Christo) Claim in 1902, but without success. 

In the year 1902 the New Star Company secured 113 oz. 
15 dwt. retorted gold from 178 tons of quartz, and from the 
Alpha Mine 306 tons were crushed for a yield of 25 oz. re- 
torted gold. Matters were very quiet on the Preservation 
field during 1903. The New Star Company had an unfortu- 
nate year, and was compelled to go into liquidation ; 99 tons 
of quartz was crushed for a return of 26 oz. of gold. The 
mine was worked on tribute during that year by Hawkins, 
Juncker, and party. 

All work in connection with quartz-mining was stationary 
throughout 1904, although efforts were made to resume work 
in the Morning Star Mine. This state of inactivity continued 
throughout 1905, but in 1906 some prospecting was under- 
taken, and rich stone was reported to have been found, taken, 
it was said, from the newly discovered extension of the Morn - 
ing Star Reef. There is an extensive field here yet unpro- 
spected owing to the difficult nature of the country. 

Access may be had by steamer from Invercargill, or by 

several difficult overland routes. 

[The early information in these notes is mainly culled from reports 
by Wardens and officials published in the annual reports issued by the 
Mines Department. — Authob.] 


By Warden McEnnis. 

Gold was discovered in the Hogburn Gully, on the present 
Bite of the Town of Naseby, in June, 1863, by a miner named 
William Parker and his mates. The Hogburn is a small stream 
which takes its rise in Mount Ida, and joins the Taieri River 


above the lake. Soon after gold was found at Hamilton's, 
followed bj fresh discoveries at Hyde, Sowburn, Kyeburn, and 
FuUerton's. The following vear gold was discovered at Black- 
stone Hill and Dunstan Creek (or St. Bathan's), and shortly 
after at Cambrian's. The Mount Ida Goldfield embraces 
within its area a large number of streams, all of which have 
been proved to be auriferous. A few months after the first 
discovery, when it was estimated there were five thousand 
people on the field, the escort brought to Dunedin 4,320 ok. 
of gold. The field has been continuously worked since then, 
and sluicing has been very extensively carried on.* 

The operations at some of the principal mines in the dis- 
trict during the past year may be briefly summarised as 
follows: — 

Maorae'a Flat. 

Gold and Scheelite. 

The usual amount of mining has been carried on during the 
year ended the 31st December, 1905. There has been more 
activity than usual in quartz-mining, and several fresh areas 
have been taken up, but in most cases not much has been done, 
as a want of capital hinders efficient work. 

The Golden Bar Mine has been very successful during the 
year, and has paid handsome dividends to the owners. To- 
wards the end of the year the good stone gave out, but a fresh 
make was discovered. 

The Ounce Claim has been worked by W. Lidstone, and a 
small quantity of stone treated, which, it is stated, has left 
very little margin of profit. 

The Maritana Claim, owned by C. McGill, has done a ood- 
sidcrable amount of work, and produced a small quantity of 
scheelite, but the gold-returns are rather small. The mine has 
been connected with the battery by a three-rail tramway, and 
an oil-engine put in to augment the water-power. 

The Golden Point Mine, owned and worked by W. and G. 
Donaldson, has been in regular operation during the year, and 
employed an average of twenty-five men at mine and battery. 

• "Handbook of New Zealand Mines, 1887," p. 68. 


The low level has been extended, and is now following the reef 
to the dip, which contains very good gold-bearing stone. The 
yield of gold has been satisfactory, and 60 to 70 tons of scheelite 
has been produced during 1905, of an average value of about. 
£80 per ton. 

The Mount Highlay Mine changed hands during the year, 
and the purchasers have done a considerable amount of work. 
They put in a concentrator and saved some scheelite with it. 
Four or five men are employed, but the battery has not been 
kept constantly going, although there is a prospect of more 
vigorous work being undertaken. 

The Gold and Tungsten Mine, near Mount Highlay, is one 
of the most recently taken up properties, and, although it at 
first consisted of six parties, it is now entirely in the hands 
of Messrs. W. and 6. Donaldson, who have spent £1,500 on 
a plant, which is situated on a branch of the Marcburn Creek, 
and within 500 yards of the mine. The plant consists of a 
receiving bin and screen, a coarse rock-breaker, a fine crusher 
(Blake and Marsden), ore-feeder (Challenge), a 5 ft. Huntington 
roller mill, copper plates, and a Wilfley concentrator (latest 
pattern). An oil-engine will be used to actuate the plant till a 
large steam boiler and engine are put in. The engine will 
have ample power to drive an enlarged plant. The reefs con- 
tain very fair gold, and one has a good percentage of scheelite 
in it. Messrs. Donaldson believe in the Huntington mill for 
crushing scheelite-ore, as their experience has shown them that 
there is nothing like the loss in slimes (and scheelite is very apt 
to slime) with the mill as with modern stamps. The plant 
will employ ten or twelve men. 

The Burster Sluicing Claim, situate on Mount Burster, 
Mount Ida Range, was a notable claim, considering it was at 
an elevation of 4,000 ft. above sea-level. This, I understand, 
was at the highest elevation (save Mount Criffel workings) of 
any gold-sluicing in New Zealand. The water was obtained 
by several races, circling round the mountains, catching the 
snow-water. The claim is now practically worked out, but the 
owners have men on tribute clearing up small patches and 



The Undaunted Gold-mining C>>mpany has paid in divi- 
dends £1,125 for the year 1905, and won 618 oz. of gold, the 
number of men employed on an average being nine. This 
company has the electric light installed. The face operated 
upon is 43 ft. deep. The water-supply was very slack from 
March to end of August, 1905, the autumn being the driest 
ever experienced, and the winter the mildest, with scarcely any 
snow or frost; but fair rain fell during the last four noonths 
of the year. The company holds 114 acres, hydraulic elevat- 
ing being the method employed in working the claim. This 
o(mipany has paid £11,250 in dividends, and expended 
£16,953, its paid-up capital amounting to £15,000. 

The Tinker's Gold-mining Company paid in dividends 
during the year £1,687 (making a total of £5,438), and won 
739 oz. of gold. The company is elevating from a depth of 
60 ft. Claim, 87 acres. 

The Matakanui Gold-mining Company paid in dividends 
in 1905 £1,049, and won 538 oz. of gold. It is now working 
a rich run of gold, and elevating 65 ft. Claim, 45 acres. 

8t. Bathan*a. 

The scarcity of water during the past year retarded mining 
operations considerably, but the returns, nevertheless, were 
satisfactory, and have given hopes of future permanence. 

The United M. and £. Company obtained about 850 oz. for 
a little more than four months' work. The dry weather and 
heavy frosts caused the water-supply to be very intermittent 
and small. This company has struck a good run of gold. 

The Scandinavian Company has done but little work on 
the claim in St. Bathan's basin, owing to protracted litiga- 
tion. This company intends to erect an up-to-date and power- 
ful plant to elevate from the lowest level — about 160 ft. On 
its Surface Hill Claim this company is elevating from a depth 
of 120 ft. The company has the best water-supply in the dis- 



By R. Murray, Manager Goyernment Water-races. 

Within a radius of four miles of the Township of Naseby 
the principal gold-mining operations in the County of Manio- 
toto have been carried on during the last forty-two years. 
Until recent times the method of working was by ground- 
sluicing. The water supplied from private races in the early 
days being very inadequate and intermittent, the Government 
had by 1887 constructed the Mount Ida Water-race, thus allow- 
ing a large amount of ground, wherever fall could be got, to 
be sluiced away. This became limited within recent years, 
and, in order to get at the flat beds of the creeks, a different 
method of working had to be adopted — that of hydraulic 
elevating — for which the ground is very suitable, it being 
principally a quartz wash, and free from any large quantities 
of boulders. The average depth is about 16 ft., but to get a 
dump for the tailings the washdirt has to be elevated to a 
height of about 26 ft., the number of claims at present at 
work using all the water available. During the dredging boom 
a good -deal of this country was taken up for dredging, but 
from the consistent nature of the auriferous washdirt this 
method proved a failure. By the hydraulic-elevating system 
the wash is completely pulverised, letting the gold free. 

In the Kyeburn, Patearoa, and Blackstone Hill districts, 
with the exception of one elevating claim at Patearoa, gold- 
raining is carried on by ground-sluicing, all the water being 
in the hands of private parties. At Patearoa a private party 
of four, about two years ago, started to construct four miles 
of a race at a high level to carry ten heads out of the Sow- 
burn Creek, to work ground in Caledonian Gully, but it is 
not yet completed ; they have had a good deal of rock-cutting 
to contend with, but evidently have faith in the venture. 

The length of the Government main race is 66 miles 
65 chains. Besides this, there are about twenty-four miles 
of distributing races from it. The Blackstone Hill Race, 


owned by the Goyernment, is sixteen miles in length, making 
Ik total length of races of. 106 miles. Only twelve miles of tiie 
Blackstone Hill Race is in use, supplying R. Johnston and 
Sons, who are ground-sluicing. 

Besides the lignite-beds that are at present being worked 
in the district, there is a yerv large area of this coal not 
generally known at the East Marionburn, a tributary of the 
Manuherikia River. It is traceable for a distance along the 
foot of the Hawkdun Range upwards for about twenty miles, 
where the East Marionburn cuts through it. It is of a much 
better heating and lasting quality than that of any lignite 
now being used in the district. It is about seven miles in- 
wards towards the range from Hill's Creek Township. 

In connection with mining in this district the principal 
drawback is the want of water. 


By WnxiAM Smith, Dttle Kyebam. 

LiTTLH Eteburn, properly speaking, is the right-hand 
branch of Kyeburn Creek, and at no period of its history has 
it ever been noted for its large finds of gold, although gold- 
mining has been carried on in the locality for upwards of 
forty years. There is a large area of auriferous ground, but 
most of it is much too poor to pay with present known ap- 
pliances, and, with the exception of two or three parties of 
Chinamen fossicking in the bed of the creek, there are only 
three parties at present carrying on mining operations in the 
locality. The first and most important of these parties is 
W. II. George and his two sons, who obtain their supply of 
water from the Undaunted Creek, a tributary of the Little 
Kyeburn. The water is conveyed in a water-race about two 
miles in length to their claim, which is situated on the bank of 
Deep Creek, about half a mile above its junction with the 












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Little Kjeburn. The ground is all river-gravel, and very 
stony, and is operated on with about 800 ft. of pipes, varying 
from 15 in. to 7 in., with a 2^ in. jet. Owing to the stony 
nature of the ground, it just about pays working-expenses. 

Philip Brown and W. Smith's claims are about a mile and 
a half distant from that of W. H. George and Sons, and on a 
higher elevation. The water-rights of these respective parties 
are not so good as that of the Georges', but the ground being 
of a lighter nature, and generally very hard, they can work 
with a smaller head of water with just about the same results 
—namely, pays working-expenses. 

Some few years ago a dredge was put oii to work the bed 
of the Little Kyeburn, but it turned out a failure, and after 
wards a sluicing company tried hydraulic elevating ; but, 
owing to the ground being too stony, and also too shallow, 
causing too much shifting of elevator, that venture also was 
a failure. 


The Golden Point Mine has an area of Si acres, and is 
owned by Messrs. W. and G. Donaldson. This property is 
opened by five tunnels, which are driven a total distance of 
3,000 ft., and intersect two lines of reef varying in wi3th 
from 3 ft. to 8ft., the quantity of ore available being esti- 
mated at 200,000 tons. Developments comprise 600 ft. of 
crosscuts, a total length of 5,000 ft. having been driven on 
the course of various lodes. In connection with the reduction- 
works a ten -head stamp-battery, driven by steam and water, 
is employed^ the average duty per stamp per diem ranging 
from 3 to 3J tons. The gold is saved by amalgamation on 
plates and mortar-boxes, concentration, and treatment of tail- 
ings by cyanide, a little of which is used in the mortar-lxjxes. 
During the year 1905, 3,100 tons of ore yielded 782 oz. of 
gold, value £3,120. The total quantity of ore crushed was 
7— Mining Handbook. 


about 18,000 tons, yielding 5,000 oz. of gold, ralued at 
^20,000, the average value of the gold being £3 19d. per 
ounce. About 400 ton& of scheelite was also produced, valued 
at £24,000. The total expenditure in wages to 31st December, 
1905, amounted to £22,000. On an average twenty-five men 
are employed in the mine, and five in the reduction-works. 
Value of plant, Ac, £10,500. 

Until recently the Golden Point has been the only mine 
in New Zealand that has been a regular producer of scheelite 
HK well as gold. Scheelite has been mined during the past 
eight years, concentrated, and shipped to Europe, where it 
is manufactured into tungstic acid, and used in the manu- 
facture of high-grade steels. These steels are put on the 
market as "tungsten nickel steel," "high-speed steel,'* 
" self-hardening steel," Ac. Tungsten steel is principally 
used for tool-steel or engineers' steel. It is also used for the 
inner tubes of big guns, its properties being great density, 
hardness, and toughness ; it may be glowing hot, yet not lose 
its temper, and is therefore an ideal tool-steel — so much so 
that engineers' lathes can now turn out double their former 
quantity of work. 

Tungstic acid is also made into some fine grades of paint: 
it is used as a mordant (fixing the colours in calico-printing, 
^c), and renders cloth non-inflammable. 

Scheelite is used as a cheap fluorescent screen for X-rays. 

The occurrence of scheelite has been known in the Macrae's 
Flat district for the last fifteen to twenty years, but nctiii ' - 
was done till Messrs. Kitchener and Donaldson sent a ship- 
ment of hand-picked ore to Ijondon about fifteen years ago. 
The ore then shipped was of poor quality, only yielding about 
40 per cent., and the returns did not leave a large margin of 
profit. Nothing further was done till about eight years ago. 
when Messrs. Donaldson, in working their reef f%r gold, dh- 
covered some extremely rich deposits of scheelite underlying 
the reef. These deposits were sufficiently pure to be hand- 
picked; they assayed 68 per cent, of tungstic acid, and 
realised £58 per ton. The quartz also contained a large per- 
centage of scheelite, which could only be treated by concentrat- 


ing appliances after going through the battery. A Frue 
manner was put in, which gave complete satisfaction, the 
scheelite concentrates assaying 72 per cent, in tungstic acid. 
The first year after the vanner was put in scheelite concen- 
trates were saved to the value of £6,000. Since then scheelite 
has been regularly produced, and, although the price Has 
varied very considerably, the value produced to date (25th 
June, 1906), is about £24,000. It has been sold as low an 
£20, and as high as £120, per ton. 

The tailings are being saved for treatment. They assay 
10 dwt. of gold, and a small sample treated with cyanide 
yielded 7 dwt. per ton. 

The stone is found to be richer in gold the deeper the work- 
ings are carried. 

Scheelite sometimes carries specimen gold, but as a rule 
this is not general, and the purer the scheelite the less gold 
there is in it. Mine-manager, William Donaldson; general 
managers, W. and 6. Donaldson, Macrae's Flat, Otago. 

The New Zealand Gold and Tungsten Mine, Mount 
Highlay, has an area of 90 acres, and is owned by Messrs. 
William and George Donaldson. On6 tunnel has been driven 
a distance of 50 ft. Two reefs are now being worked, which 
maintain an average width of from 6 ft. to 10 ft., the ore 
available being estimated at 60,000 tons. The plant in use 
is valued at £2,000, and consists of one 5 ft. Huntington roller 
mill, with a capacity equal to ten head of stamps, the average 
duty of th-? mill per diem being 20 tons. There are two rock- 
breakers jmployeu — one ordinary and one very fine crusher. 
The gold is saved by means of amalgamation in mill and 
copper plates. Total expenditure in connection with the mine 
up to the 31st December, 1905, £2,600. 

This mine has only recently been started, but the return so 
far is satisfactory. There are immense bodies of stone very 
easily mined, and containing a fair percentage of scheelite, 
which is saved by a Wilfley concentrator. The mine is being 
connected with the mill by a three-rail incline tramway, with 
steel sleepers and one-ton trucks; the whole of the material 



is being obtained from England. A large boiler and engine 
are in course of erection, and tke plant is to be increased. 

Lignite suitable for steam purposes is found within three- 
quarters of a mile of the plant. 

Although this mine is six miles distant from the Golden 
Point Mine, at Macrae's Flat, it is apparently on the same 
line of reef, and has many of the same characteristics. Mine- 
Djanager, Greorge Donaldson. 


By John Christian, Livingstone. 

Livingstone is that portion of the Maerewhenua Goldfield 
lying east of the river of that name. It is about twenty miles 
west of Oamaru, and lying from 800 ft. to 1,200 ft. above 
sea-level. Tliere was a small rush here about the end of 1863, 
but, as there was practically no water on the field, work wa« 
confined to a few small gullies, with not very satisfactory re- 
sults. Later on, what is known as the ** green-sand deposit" 
was discovered in all the spurs, and the work of race-construc- 
tion was commenced. This green sand is a marine deposit, as 
is evidenced by the countless shells, sharks' teeth, &c., contained 
therein. It lies on a false bottom, composed of quartz gravel, 
and is overlain by sand, both free and cemented, and clay. 
The water-supply is brought from the Maerewhenua River 
and two small creeks nearer the field. The gold is pretty 
evenly deposited, but in no case very rich, though highly satis- 
factory returns have been obtained in most places. The 
ground was shallow all round the edges of the spurs, but as 
the workings went back the overburden became too heavy for 
profitable working, and for the last ten years very little of 
this deposit has been worked. About that time it was found 
that the false bottom carried payable gold, and since then 
nearly the whole of the workings have been in the false bottom, 
the returns in nK>8t cases being fairly payable, and in some 


instances very good. The gold on this field is very fine and 
difficult to save. It is found that about one-half will pass 
oTer a string of ripples. The stuff is then passed through a 
sluice paved, or rather thatched, with tussocks, but even then 
it is found that a considerable percentage is lost. The water 
is supplied by the following races: — 

Yeomans's race: Seventeen miles long; capacity, two 
heads. Water — only in the spring. 

Lory Brothers' race: Fourteen miles; capacity, tnree 
heads. Supply depends on rain. Works two claims when 
water available. 

Cook's race: Twenty-five miles; capacity, three heads. 
Full supply about half the year — always a little. Two claims 
worked when water available. 

Christian's race: Twenty-seven miles; capacity, twelve 
heads. Full supply most of the year. Works two claims, 
and supplies water to others. 


By R. T. Stewabt. 

Many attempts have been made to work the bed of the 
Waikaia River in its upper reaches, but all unsuccessfully 
except one, where the conditions were more favourable than 
in general, owing to the bed of the stream being wider, and 
very rich returns were secured and fortunes mad>e. The 
narrowness of the river-bed — not more than 70 ft. in places — 
precludes the possibility of working, except at great outlay, 
to secure temporary diversion of the stream, through overhead 
flumes, while the gold was being cleaned off the rock bottom. 

About twelve miles in a south-easterly direction from 
Waikaia a volcanic formation exists, carrying gold, silver, 
and copper, assays of which gave 4 dwt. gold, 3 dwt. silver, 
and 2 per cent, copper per ton. This would seem to warrant 
the expenditure of capital in making further tests, as there 
is a very large body of stone, which, as far as appearance goes, 
is all the same. 


At Nokomai, about twenty-four miles west of Waikaia, a 
quartz reef, some 14 ft. in width, and in places yielding assay 
returns of an ounce of gold per ton, the average being about 
12dwt., has received attention from prospectors at different 
times, but the necessity for an extensive crushing plant places 
this reef beyond the reach of any but capitalists. It is, how- 
ever, worthy of attention in the direction of development. 

In the Waikaia district there is a large area of auriferous 
terrace formation, favourably situated for ground-sluicing, 
which will no doubt receive attention when the richer alluvial 
flats have been worked out by dredging. Eleven dredges arc 
now at, work in the district, which, with two exceptions, arc 
securing highly satisfactory returns. 

There is also a large deposit of high-grade shale in the dis- 
tiict, and another of marl, both being easily accessible by a 
good road. 


By MoGsoBOS Bbos., Waikaka. 

As far as can be ascertained, most of the dredging-arearin 
the Waikaka Valley are now being successfully worked. The 
non-success of one or two ventures is attributable to the area 
of the claims being too small — about 70 acres to 90 acres; at 
least 200 acres per dredge is required to insure success. 

There is an excellent opening in the vicinity of the Little 
Waikaka, which would probably pay handsomely for hydraulic 
sluicing if the necessary capital could be found. 

At present, with other private companies, we are having 
a quantity of our concentrates tested by an analytical chemist 
to prove if gold is being lost by present methods of saving 
other minerals that exist in payable quantity. 

By means of a separating-box soil and sand are distributed 
over the tailings, which are left perfectly level, and when sown 
with clover and grass yield excellent grazing, as may be seen 
on Waikaka United and other claims in the district. 



By L. 0. BxAL, M.A.I. M.E., Dunedin. 

Rbpltinq to Mr. Warden Cruickshank's inquiry as to aban- 
doned properties in the district whose failure may be attri- 
buted to lack of inauagement or capital, and to other inquiries 
bearing on the preoent and future prospects of the mining in- 
dustry, Mr. Beal writes as follows: — 

To my knowledge a great many of the failures have been 
owing to lack of management. Take as an instance the large 
number of failures in the district in quartz-mining. No 
record is kept at any place of the amount of quicksilver used 
for ripples and copper plates in amalgamating the gold, and 
very little is done in the way of cleaning the silver by retorting 
or cleaning it with sodium. A large quantity is lost by flouring 
owing to there being a considerable amount of arsenical pyrites 
in many of the reefs. Antimony and galena also some- 
iip!:cs occur. It is only a 'few companies that concentrate 
their tailings and have them treated, and many companies 
and mines could have paid dividends out of what they 
have wasted. At one mine at which I acted as advising engi- 
neer (the Premier, or, later, the Glenrock Company, at Mace- 
town), by saving the concentrates and cyaniding them a profit 
of from 7s. to 158. per ton was made over and above the ordinary 
returns by amalgamation. A considerable loss is often in- 
curred by not crushing the material fine enough. I have seen 
as much as 80 pounds' worth of gold obtained by grinding 
the tailings from 120 tons of quartz after it has run over 
plates kept in excellent order. The 120 tons were crushed to 
a punched-mesh screen of 280 holes per square inch, and then 
the tailings were afterwards ground and amalgamated, a little 
cyanide being used in the grinding plant to keep the silver 
in good order, and the result was gold to the value of £80, 
obtained by grinding and amalgamation of 120 tons of quartz. 

I find by examination of quartz tailings under the micro- 
scope that sometimes in lodes there is a large quantity of fine 


gold imbedded in the pjrites. This can be recovered by oon 
centrating and grinding or cjaniding, and sometimes there 
is a large quantity of fine gold in the quartz (not in pyrites) ; 
this will be mostly lost in concentrating, and only saved bj 
grinding and amalgamating. 

Where grinding and amalgamating is done the silver 
should be first thoroughly cleaned by retorting, or by sodium 
and some cyanide, and, say, a small quantity of caustic soda 
added at times to keep the silver in good order. Silver should 
also be weighed when being 'put in, and again on cleaning up 
the grinding and amalgamating plant, also that obtained 
from squeezing the amalgam and retorting, so that no silver 
is lost by flouring or other causes. 

I am satisfied a large loss takes place owing to insufficient 
training and careful watching in battery-work. 

A large loss in quartz-mining often occurs in not properly 
opening up first, so as to obtain good ventilation and cheap 
filling of the stopes. Very few mines keep a record of the 
longitudinal sections of the workings. I think there -can be 
now no question as to the gold occurring in shoots, and owing 
to no records being kept the run of gold in the lodes is oflen 
lost, and failure ensues. 

There can be no doubt that in many cases loss occurs owing 
to want of capital in putting on efficient plants and doing 
necessary development- work. Mount Aurum, Advance Peak, 
the Lammerlaw Range above Waipori, the Old Man Range be- 
tween Roxburgh and the Nevis, Mount Highlay, Dunback Hill, 
Garvie Mountains, Rough Ridge, Waitahuna, Mount Stoker, 
Rock and Pillar, Hummock and Little Hummock, Dunstan 
Range, Umbrella Mountains, and Mount Pisa Ranges, 
all contain large numbers of auriferous lodes, and I am 
of opinion that many quartz-mines would pay under good 
management, although they have been failures in the past. 
The number of lodes in the Otago goldfields is very great, but 
want of capital, and consequent want of proper plant and 
opening-up and development work, together with some of the 
causes already indicated, is more to blame than the mines 
themselves for the failures in the past. The following are 







names of some of the mines that I consider should pay if pro- 
perly capitalised and thoroughly well managed: O.P.Q. Reef, 
Canton Reef, and Gear's reef, at Waipori ; Ocean View and 
Johnson and Gillan's reefs; Canada Reef; the Waitahuna 
Quartz-mine. The Game Hen Reef, at Hindon, I think, should 
also pay ; also a continuation of the Barewood Reef, south-east- 
ward, where worked a little north-west of Christmas Creek, 
between there and the Taieri Ri^er; also Barewood Reef, to- 
wards Matarae, across the river. 

I also think the Nenthorn field of reefs would pay if a 
r^ord of the workings had been kept, as I found after the 
field had been abandoned, from inquiries I made when pre- 
paring a geological section of the field, that the shoots of gold 
had been almost horizontal. This peculiar fact was not ap- 
parently found out; the companies looked for the shoots of 
gold going down almost perpendicularly, and hence I think 
the failure of that field. 

There must be some more good reefs in the Waipori and 
Nokomai districts as yet undiscovered and worth prospect- 
ing. This I know from the large number of quartz-specimens 
I have seen among the gold when dredging and sluicing com- 
panies are washing up. 

There are also some reefs, such as Bradshaw's reef, in 
Long Sound, Preservation Inlet Goldfield, which would well 
repay prospecting, and continuation of Morning Star Reef 
above Cuttle Cove, and I have seen good specimens of copper- 
ore from that district. Stewart Island is a locality that 
would well repay a prospecting party; also Mount Aurum 
and the Longwood Range. 

What is badly wanted, in my opinion, is a good strong 
prospecting party, consisting of, say, two capable hydraulic 
miners, two good quartz- reefing miners, a person with a good 
knowledge of mining geology and metallurgy, and a survey 
hand capable of fixing positions, &c. I think a really efficient 
prospecting party would be well repaid, as very little pro- 
specting of a systematic nature is done nowadays. I have 
been over almost every part of Otago and Southland mining 
districts, and can speak for the localities and ranges I have 


I find cinnabar and scheelite ores are Tery little known 
among miners. I think the Waitahuna Hills would pay to 
prospect for cinnabar ; and Mount Highlay, Dunback Hill, and 
Lanunerlaw Ranges would pay to prospect for scheelite. 

I consider a better appreciation of water-power and trans- 
mission by wire-rope and the system of self-acting aerial tram- 
ways could, with great advantage, be more generally used. 

Regarding the dredging industry, it has suffered a good 
deal from not having dredges quite strong enough or deep 
enough to do the work, and I think dredge-ladders should be 
made telescopic so as to be able to be let out 10ft. to 20 ft. 
and clamped. 

There is, in my opinion, excellent scope for capital in the 
idea of diverting, say, portions of the Shotover and Eawaraa 
Rivers by means of tunnelling, and I think such a scheme 
would repay capital spent upon it. 

There is probably a good field for alluvial prospecting at 
Cardrona, as that river must have a higher level of ancient 
bed like the Shotover and Arrow Rivers, and also like the 
small portion of the old high bed of the Nokomai River ad- 
joining the Nokomai Sluicing Company. 

In conclusion, I may state that, in my opinion, mining in 
the past has suffered from a general supposition that gold 
comes where it is apparently by chance, and I am firmly of 
opinion that such is not the case. Take alluvial gold-deposits : 
such a thing as the angle and manner of the way the stones 
are laid down in the wash seems to have been so far unnoticed. 
When the long flat stones travelled along in the alluvial de- 
posits they must have moved with their greatest length at right 
angles to the direction of the movement, and canted back to- 
wards the direction in which they came. If a face of gold- 
bearing wash is opened up its direction can be traced, and pjo- 
bably much more good wash found, as the present contour of 
the country is very different from what it was at previous 

As regards reef gold, no study seems to have been made as 
to the particular character of the country rock in which the 
reefs are found, and a careful investigation of the exact 


character of the various countrj rocks, or particular class of 
schist rock, should be made, as I find I can often tell the 
character of a lode by examining the character of the country 
rock it is in, and there are much greater changes in the 
various schist rocks than appear at first to the eye. Some 
scliist is very soft, some Yery hard, other very slaty, and other 
Tery clayey or micaceous; some a great deal laminated, and 
some very dense and black. A slaty, clean schist usually 
carries coarse reef gold, and a clayey micaceous schist very 
fine gold. I have found three or four classes of quartz contain- 
ing a good deal of fine gold, although apparently barren to the 


A Short Review of this Important Industry from its 
Inception to the Present Day. 

By John Ewinq, Hydraulic Minirg Engineer, Central Otcgo. 

In hydraulic mining we imitate nature. Through countless 
ages sun, wind, and rain; frost and snow; tiny rivulet, creek, 
and river were disintegrating the high country and forming 
the alluvium with which the valleys are filled, the terraces 
fringing them formed, and the foothills of the mountains 

Over a great part of the South Island of New Zealand the 
alluvium has gold — usually in minute specks or grains — dis- 
ti*ibuted through it. This auriferous alluvium is of two classes 
— first, the old drift; second, the more recent alluvial de- 
posits. The chief of the first class is what is called the *' white 
drifts " — the primary alluvial deposit over the whole island — 
and, overlying it, other drifts of the tige that succeeded the 
laiying-down of the white drifts; these were in part formed 
from the disintegration of the white drifts themselves. These 
drifts are described by Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S., Govern- 
ment Geologist, in his able work on ^' The Auriferous Drifti 


of Central Otago." He examined their outcrops in over 
seventy places — from opposite Stewart's Island to Cook Strait 
— and he found them everywhere gold-bearing. I should like 
to place on record some surmises as to the origin of those 
drifts; to make some attempt to imagine — 

What did befall 
Far away in time, when o'er this lifeless ball 
Himg idle stars and sims ; 

but that is not within the scope of this paper. Those drifts 
were formed when the Middle Island was flat — ^before the 
mountain chains arose — when an entirely different river-sys- 
tem from the present existed. They are to be found hundreds 
of feet beneath the more recent alluvium of the larger valleys; 
they are to be found fringing the mountains and hills that 
have been thrust up through them; they are to be found in 
patches on the sides, and even on the tops, of the mountains 
themselves in positions where they have been preserved 
from denudation. These drifts are but poorly auriferous, 
except in places where during their own age there was concen- 
tration in the rivers and streams of the period. The beds of 
old drift are of all thicknesses, from a few feet to hundreds 
of feet, and rest at all angles from vertical to perpendicular, 
but at angles always similar to the dip of the rock bottom they 
rest upon. 

The second class — the more recent drifts— were formed by 
the streams from the present mountains. These streams cut 
down their own rock formation, and with it the old drifts 
resting upon or against it in vast quantity after the upheaval. 
The result has been a mixture and a concentrate. These de- 
posits are much richer in gold than the other; in them the 
early discoveries of gold in the Middle Island were made, and 
from them, with primitive appliances, the early miners in a 
few weeks or months made small fortunes. In the recent de- 
posits, no matter what the depth of the alluvium, the few feet 
of it resting on the bottom — whether that bottom be rock or 
old drift — carry the most, and sometimes nearly all, of the 
gold. This bottom stratum only was treated by the early 
miners, and was called **the washdirt." The washdirt was 


" paddocked '*' or " driven " out, and carried or carted to 
where there was water. By water the deposits were laid down, 
and by water the gold they contain is extracted. 

The first appliances used for extraction were the tub and*' 
cradle. The washdirt was first puddled, by means of a spade 
or 'shovel and a small quantity of water, in a tub to dissolve 
the clayey part by which many of the specks of gold adhere 
to the gravel. The cradle is shaped like that in which a 
child is rocked to sleep, with a hopper or sieve set where 
top of hood is. The puddled washdirt — a shovelful at 
a time — is put into the hopper, and water ladled on 
to it with a dipper, the cradle being rocked the while, 
until all the gold has been washed out of the gravel 
and through the holes in the hopper ; the washed gravel is 
then thrown out, and another shovelful operated upon. The 
finer materials — sand and small gravel — and gold that have 
passed through tlie sieve are simultaneously carried by the 
water over a series of slides, set at a grade sufficient, with the 
rocking motion, to make the sand and gravel travel. The slides 
and bottom of cradle are covered with some fabric — plush, 
baize, blanket, or sacking — with a hairy surface, in which the 
specks of gold, through their superior specific gravity, are 
caught; while the lighter material is still, by the action of 
the water, carried onwards out of the open foot or end of the 
cradle. The gold is easily taken off the arresting surface by 
dipping it in a miner's *' panning-off '* dish filled with water. 

The writer has been led to give this detailed description 
of the earliest method of gold-extraction from the fact that 
he has never in any book on gold-mining seen any descrip- 
tion a layman could understand. 

Next to the tub and cradle came the sluice-box, or series 
of boxes. These were wooden troughs, open at both ends, and 
set at a grade of half an inch to an inch to the foot. Besides 
its own bottom the sluice-box has a removable or false bottom, 
1 J in. in thickness. It is formed of lattice-work, or some- 
times of a solid board with auger -holes bored through it, as 
close as they can be put without too much reducing the 
strength of the board. The false bottom is laid on the real 


bottom of the sluice-box and lightly fastened .doi^p ; a Btream 
of water is then made to flow through the box, and some of 
the miners are set to shovel the auriferous gravel into the box, 
down which the water carries it, leaving the gold in the 
cavities of the fabe t>ottom. One man stands over the box 
with a " sluice-fork " to throw out, when washed,, any stones 
too large to be carried down by Ihe water, and other men 
shovel away the material after it has run through the box or 
aeries of boxes. 

Both of those methods of gold-extraction involved con- 
siderable manual labour. By the tub and cradle not more 
than half a yard per day for each member of a party could, 
under average conditions, be treated; by box-sluicing, from 
three to six yards for each man might be got through. 

A speedier and more effective method was soon evolved — 
ground-sluicing; but, as a rule, it can only be employed on 
auriferous deposits situated on terraces and hills, where the 
"bottom" on which the washdirt rests is at sufficient elevation 
to permit of a ground-ditch or channel being constructed with 
a grade sufficient to run the auriferous alluvium through it 
into some not-too-far-off hollow or river. Such conditions 
being fulfilled, the nearest stream that can be conducted on 
to the top of the auriferous alluvium is diverted and em- 
ployed to carry the alluvium down the ground - ditch into 
the hollow. The ground- ditch is roughly paved with stones 
set against each other in such a way as to resist the action 
of the flowing water and gravel. In the interstices between 
the stones the gold is caught. The ground-sluice is cleaned 
up periodically, when some thousands, or it may be tens of 
thousands, of yards of alluvium have been run through. The 
cleaning-up process is simple. The water is first allowed tc 
run clear for a while until the rough paving-stones are bare of 
sand and gravel. It is then turned off, all except a little in 
which the rough stones are washed, and then stacked on the 
sides of the ditch. The small quantity of sand and gravel 
that occupied with the gold the interstices between the stones 
IS then removed from the ground-ditch, and treated in »i 
aluice-box — ^the residuum not being more than 10 yards per 


100 yards of ditch. At first, in ground-sluicing, the water 
was allowed to run down over the alluvium operated upon, 
and the miners broke up the material with picks; but soon 
canvas hose was called into requisition, and used to bring down 
and break up the clays, sands, and gravels of the deposit. 
But canvas soon rotted, and at its best stood but little pres- 
sure — 100 ft. being the maximum — and for the disintegration 
of many of the deposits that pressure was inadequate. Some 
of the deposits were also far distant from the higher ground 
whence pressure could be obtained, and this led to iron piping 
being introduced — but not until canvas had for years been 
universally employed. The first pipes used were flanged 
wrought iron of but 7 in. diameter (the diameter of the hosing 
they displaced), but after their introduction the scale of opera- 
tions rapidly got larger, and the diameter of the pipes used 
as rapidly increased. As has been said, to work a deposit of 
auriferous alluvium by ground-sluicing, it had to be so 
situated as that a grade for a ground-ditch to discharge into 
some hollow could be found. But wherever deposits existed 
it was found, as they were opened up, that vast quantities — 
sometimes of the richest of them — had to be left under foot. 
At first the difficulty was got over by using larger streams of 
water, enabling the material to be sluiced through lower- 
graded ground-ditches, but such ditches were expensive to 
construct, and still (in many localities) left extensive deposits 
under foot. 

In 1878 the system of hydraulic elevating was invented, 
and none too soon, for on most of the Otago slu icing-fields the 
deposits that could be profitably worked by open-face ground- 
sluicing were all but exhausted. By this system the under- 
foot deposits became workable to depths proportioned to the 
quantity and elevation of the streams of water that oould be 
brought to bear upon them. Under this system the water is 
conducted from the water-race — terminating on the nearest 
hill that gives the requisite pressure — to the ground to be 
operated upon in pipes of such diameter as is necessary to 
carry the quantity of water to be used without undue loss by 
friction. By means of a suction- jet elevator, provided with 


8wiyel joints, a large paddock, or hole, is then sluiced and 
elevated until the level it is desired to operate at is reacbed» 
when the permanent elevator — of greater capacity and power 
than the suction or "sinking" elevator — is set up. It is 
very simple, and although but a small percentage of the power 
that might by other mechanical means be obtained fr<Hn the 
water, if used to drive a Pelton or turbine wheel, is got, its 
simplicity, and the expedition with which it can be shiftei 
from place to place, makes it the cheapest and best machine 
yet devised for working underfoot alluvial depo6it«. 

The elevator consists of an upright iron tube, its lower 
end resting some feet under the *' bottom '' of the ground to 
be operated upon in a pit excavated for the purpose of re- 
ceiving it. The tube is of a diameter proportioned to the 
height it is intended to shoot, or elevate, the auriferous 
alluvium, and the quantity of water to be employed ; it may 
be but 7 in., and it may be 24 in. or over. The upper end >f 
the* tube is on a level with the ground-ditch or sluice-box that 
the elevated material is to be discharged into. The tube is 
of wrought iron or steel, save at upper and lower ends, where 
" hard iron castings are used — at the top, for deflecting the 
debris'C&rrying stream into the sluice; and at the bottom, 
to take the wear of the ascending alluvium, which is greatest 
where it first impinges on entering the tube and for a little 
distance up. The tube is supported on stanchions, and 
narrows from about 8 ft. above its lower end to about 2 ft. 
from said lower end, where the contraction ends in a 
"throat," about 9 in. in length, of a section one-fifth to one- 
third of that of the tube itself, from which it again expands 
to form a bell-mouth on lower end. A jet of water is so fixed 
as to play straight up the tube through the throat, this jet 
being connected by pipes of suitable diameter with the main 
pipe-line above described. To do the best work there must 
be certain ratios between the diameter of the elevating- jet, the 
diameter of the throat, and the diameter <rf the uptake pipe; 
and these again vary with the pressure. Such adjustments 
having been made, the jet elevator will lift to a height of 
12 per cent, of the pressure on the elevating- jet (in addition 


to' its own water — that is, the water of the eleyating-jet) 
a similar quantity of water used in breaking down and 
bringing debris forward to the lower end of the tube. There ^*s 
sufficient space left by the bell-mouth between the throat and 
jet for the water and sluiced material to get in to where they 
are caught and whirled up by the ascending jet. By a proper 
arrangement of parts, water and sluiced material may be 
lifted to a height equal to 30 or even 40 per cent, of the pres- 
sure on the elevating-jet, but the proportion of water that 
can be raised will vary in inverse proportion to the height 
elevated. The variation in the amount of solid material that 
can be elevated is inconsiderable. 

Hydraulic elevating — as it is called — was first introduced 
about twenty-eight years ago, and now nearly all the alluvial 
mining that is done in Otago is by means of it, as is much of 
what is carried on in Nelson and on the West Coast. By it 
deposits have been raised and their gold extracted from a 
depth of 170 ft. But for its invention alluvial mining in 
Otago would be almost a thing of the past. 

The three things wanted for a successful hydraulic sluicing 
and elevating concern are — a large and constant supply of 
water, the delivery of that water at a sufficient elevation above 
the deposits to be operated upon, and the command of ex- 
tensive deposits of auriferous alluvium. The expenditure 
necessary to construct water-races and reservoirs, and provide 
plant to work on a large scale, is usually so great that unless 
the deposits are extensive they are worked out before the 
capital expenditure is recouped. If the scale of operations fs 
extensive, very poor ground can by this system be made to 
pay. It may be laid down as a general rule that one-half the 
gold that must be in the ground to make dredging pay will 
give equally payable returns by sluicing and elevating ; while 
pround that, from the nature of the " bottom " the deposit 
rests upon, cannot be dredged at all may give enormous re- 
turns where it can be operated upon by sluicing and elevating. 
It cannot be used to work the beds of running rivers, but 
many of them have in the ages past changed their course, and 
where they ran in the gold-depositing age is now dry land. 


By sluicing and eleyating those old beds can be worked, and 
every speck of their gold extracted. Their ancient beds can 
be laid bare and rendered as dry as a summer road. 

I have said there were three things wanted for a sucoeBsfol 
hydraulic sluicing and elevating concern ; but there is a fourth, 
even more important, without which, where all three exist, 
there may be disastrous failure — the knowledge how to apph 
them to proper advantage, how to make the most of them. 
Some of our best enterprises have failed from the lack of this. 

Many of the most extensive, and probably the richest, areas 
of auriferous alluvium have yet to be worked ; but to 
make success great and certain they must l)e operated upon 
on a large scale. They are not regular in their yields: the 
conditions under which they were laid down prevented that: 
but, worked on a sufficiently large scale, their poorest parts 
would pay good interest on invested capital, and their best — 
now and again come upon — might give the whole capital back 
in a month. The day of the small company and the <Ad 
methods is done; there is little left rich enough to pay them. 
The concern that can only treat 100,000 cubic yards per 
annum may strike a poor area for a whole twelvemonth's 
work, may for that time not get its expenses, and suspend 
work ; where the concern that treats 500,000 cubic yards geU 
quickly over the poor " patch," and secures a good average 
for the year. Again, the cost per cubic yard of treatment br 
the small concern may be twice, or even three times, what ^t 
is by the large. 

Closely connected with the future of hydraulic mining* 
and the need for larger enterprises in working our remaining 
alluvial deposits, is the need for a new departure in mining 
law, under which greater security would be given for the in- 
vestment of capital, as also for the suppression and punish- 
ment of the swindling promoter ; but this subject is too 
large to be handled in the tail of this paper, and is somewhat 
beyond its scope. There is more gold to be got in the South 
Island from alluvial deposits than ever has been taken out, 
and to be got at a profit by properly designed means on a 
large scale ; but one almost dreads the advent of the first 


highlj successful coacern of the kind — it will be the means of 
foisting on the public so many swindling imitations that the 
public can only lose its money over them. It has been so in 
quartz-mining in the North, in dredging in the South and 
West, and assuredly history will repeat itself whenever the 
successful inventor appears on the scene in hydraulic mining. 


By RoBSBT MoIntosh, A.O.S.M., Assistant Inspector of Mines for the 
Southern Mining District. 

It is recorded that alluvial gold was discovered in 1851 in 
Otago, but owing to the difficulties attendant on prospect- 
ing it was not until 1861 that the first important discovery, 
by Gabriel Read, took place.. This was in the locality now 
known as Gabriel's Gully, Tuapeka. Other portions of the 
district were found to be gold-bearing, as at Waipori, Waita- 
huna, and Woolbhed Creek, or Glenore. From this base pro- 
spectors extended their operations further inland, and in the 
year 1862 Hartley and Reilly discovered gold in the Dunstan, 
and Fox discovered auriferous gravels in the Aarrow River, 
llie year 1862 was remarkable for the opening-up of the Dun- 
stun, Nokomai, Cardrona, Waikaia, and Wakatipu goldlields. 
Other auriferous tracts were located from time to time until 
tJie existence of extensive auriferous areas *in Otago and South- 
land became an established fact. The chief alluvial districts 
lie in the valleys of the Taieri, Kyeburn, Manuherikia, Wai- 
tahuna, Waipori, Tuapeka, Clutha (known locally as the 
Molyneux), Pomahaka, Mat aura, Waikaka, Waikaia, Nevis, 
and Maerewhenua Rivers. Extensive deposits are found along 
the coast'line. The most enormous alluvial deposits may be 
said to lie within the valleys of the Clutha (or Molyneux) 
river-system. In the early days of gold-mining very prim ^ 


tive appliances were required to collect sufficient of the pre- 
cious metal to enable the miners to earn a livelihood. The 
gold was then found in shallow deposits, especially in the 
valleys of the Clutha, Shotover, and Arrow Rivers, where the 
beaches in many places were literally lined with golden sand. 
But great changes took place in a few years, as the easily 
worked ground became exhausted. Attention was then given 
to labour-saving appliances. Water was brought on with or 
without pressure, and the terraces ground-sluiced, until 
further disposal of the tailings was rendered impossible. Tlii^ 
left much ground still un worked, and large areas which could 
not be touched at all. Shaft-sinking and tunnelling were re- 
sorted to in some places, but in the former case this meant the 
installation of costly winding and pumping machinery. 

Fortunately, the system now known as hydraulic sluicing 
and elevating was introduced in 1880 by J. R. Perry at Ga- 
briel's Gully, Tuapeka. This system had been in use in Cali- 
fornia for some years, but Perry's adaptation was a decided 
improvement on Californian practice, inasmuch as the latter 
depended to a great extent on suction, whereas direct pres- 
sure was the main feature of Perry's application. The 
success of this appliance was assured, and a new era arose in 
Otago mining. As the years went on this system was exten- 
sively applied. Water-races were cut in at elevations calcu- 
lated to afford the necessary power to work deposits of 
auriferous ground. Claims are now being worked in which 
the perpendicular height to which tht material is elevated 
ranges from less than 20 ft. to 112 ft. The largest claims 
worked by this principle are the Bluespur and Gabriel's Gullv 
Consolidated Gold-raining Company, near Lawrence; Rox- 
burgh Amalgamates!, Roxburgh; Champion, at Beaumont; 
United M. and E. and Scandinavian claims, St. Bathan's; 
Nokomai Hydraulic Sluicing Claim, Nokomai ; and Bakery 
Flat Claim, Waipori. Hydraulic sluicing and elevating is 
carried on at Waipori, Waitahuna, Tuapeka, Deep Stream, 
Naseby, Serpentine, St. Bathan's, Matakanui, Queenstown, 
Cardrona, Nokomai, Waikaia, Round Hill, Bald Hill Flat, 
Roxburgh, Island Block, Beaumont, and some outlying places. 


In many localities hydraulic sluicing is adopted, but the 
material is discharged down a ground-sluice. ' This is only 
where sufficient fall for tailings is available. 

Snaith's jet-pump system, worked on the principle of suc- 
tion, has enabled long stretches of the Shotover River to be 
worked profitably during the season when the river is low. 
This appliance was fully described in Mines Reports, 1899. 

The deep leads of Otago have commanded much attention, 
and extensive work l^as been done on them. The quartz grits 
worked by hydraulic sluicing and elevating at St. Bathan's 
and Matakanui may be teriied deep leads, and extensions of 
these deposits have been worked from time to time by shafts 
and drives. The Criffel lead, which strikes across the face of 
Mount Criffel above Cardrona Valley for a proved distance of 
twelve miles, has hitherto been worked chiefly by sinking and 
driving. Recently a company was formed to bring in water 
in order to conduct extensive sluicing operations. The pre- 
paratory works have now been acconiplished, and sluicing will 
be started this year (1906). The main deep lead traversing 
the Waipori Valley for a distance of twelve miles with its tribu- 
tary leads — viz., the Lamiuerlaw lead and the Post Office Creek 
lead — is one of the most extensive in the Otago District. The 
tributary leads have been worked for many years by hydraulic 
sluicing and elevating, but no progressive works were done 
on the main lead until 1903. In that year J. T. Johnson, of 
Waipori, designed a hydraulic dredge (locally known as the 
submerged- jet dredge) in order to work this deep lead. De- 
scription of this dredge will be found under '* Gold- dredging 
in Otago and Southland," page 272. This lead is now 
being tested by hydraulic sluicing and elevating. Bottom 
was reached at a depth of over 60 ft., the gravels passed 
through being piaiyably auriferous throughout. 

Water-oonaepvation and Future Prospeots. 

Alluvial mining still maintains a high place among the 
revenue-producing industries of the colony. There are very 
extensive areas of highly auriferous country unworked 


throughout Otago and Southland. These are either awaiting 
the bringing-in of water or the liberation of water now wsed 
on other areas. Throughout Central Otago this is especially 
the case, and the preservation of the first rights of all water 
in mining districts to the mining community will enable these 
deposits to be worked, and prolong the life of this important 
industry indefinitely. The extent and richness of the lead 
which extends through St. Bathan's, Ida Valley, and Manu- 
herikia Valley cannot yet be appreciated. , The remarks of the 
Hon. the Minister of Mines in 1895 are worthy of note: '* The 
immense areas of ground covered with auriferous gravels, both 
on the West Coast and Otago, show that the largest percentage 
of gold produced will be derived from the alluvial workings 
for many years to come. The extent to which these workings 
can be carried on is only limited by the quantity of water 
that can be obtained to command the ground. It is only in a 
few localities where the washdrift is sufficiently rich to pay 
for mining in the strict sense of the term— that is, by working 
from shafts and adit levels. . . . The great factor for 
carrying on alluvial mining operations of any description is 
water. . . . The mining districts of Otago being prin- 
cipally in the interior, where the rainfall is considerably less 
than elsewhere in the colony, extensive water-races and reser- 
voirs, although they may cost a considerable sum to construct 
in the first instance, will b^ a valuable asset, as, when they are 
not required for mining purposes, they can be fully utilisc'l 
for irrigation.*' Now, this is exactly the position of affairs 
in Central and other parts^ of Otago at the present day. 
The alluvial-mining industry is yet an important and per- 
manent one. There are extensive tracts of auriferous country, 
but there is not at present sufficient water available for the in 
dustry to expand over these areas. The question of the alien^i- 
tion of water-rights from the mining community, and the 
acquisition of these rights by the agricultural settlers, is one 
of grave moment. It is yet too early to speak of the decline 
of the mining industry; judged from its past and present re- 
cords, and its high promise for a prosperous future, it should 
be fostered in- every legitimate way. 


Alleged D«strttotion of A^ioultural Lands by Alluvial 


Throughout the length and breadth of Otago and South- 
land alluYial mining, by sluicing, is carried on in sixty sub- 
districts or localities, in which about one hundred and forty 
fair-sized claims are at work, as well as numerous smaller 
ones. But only in two cases can the assertion so often made 
regarding tlie destruction of agricultural land be supported. 
This refers to the operations of the Island Block Sluicing 
Claim and the past operations of the Golden Run Hydraulic 
Sluicing and Dredging Company. Both these properties are 
situated within seven miles of Miller's Flat, and the land is 
certainly of exceptional quality. In a few cases the disposal 
of tailings and dirty water has been the source of litigation^ 
but suitable arrangements have generally been arrived at 
between the interested parties. 

Some Partioulars of Hydraulic BleYatin£ and Sluicintf 

Claim e. 

Big Beach, Arthur's Point, Shotover River. — Area, 20 
awes. This property is owned by James P. Phelan and party, 
and 5 acres has been worked since operations were commenced 
Water is supplied from the company's dam (200 ft. by 40 ft.) 
by a water-race fourteen miles in length, together with 
2,220 ft. of fluming and pipes, and the face is operated on 
by one nozzle, under an average supply of four heads, at n 
head-pressure of 330 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved on 
60 ft. of tail-race. During the ' year 1905 the gold won 
amounted to 150 oz., valued at £577 lOs. The capital actually 
called up is £1,651 15s. Id. ; approximate value of plant, &c., 
.£250. Secretary, James McMullan, jun., Arthur's Point, 

Blue Jacket, opposite Deep Creek, Maori Point. — Area, 
28 acres (hydraulic river claim, 20 acres; sluicing claim, 
8 acres). Work was first commenced by the owners (Timothy 
and J. S. Collins) in March, 1892, on the sluicing portion of 
the property, and in April, 1898, in the river. The material* 


are lifted 12 ft. by a suction pump, and water is oonvejed 
over races five miles and a half in length. The face is operated 
on by two nozzles, an average supply of nine heads being avail- 
able in spring, when water is plentiful, and five heads in 
summer, at a head-pressure of 150 ft. in sluicing claim, and 
350 ft. vertical in river claim. The gold, which is coarse and 
fine, is saved with longitudinal bars and perforated steel 
plates, with cocoanut matting underneath plates, and scrub 
and matting under the ripples. During the year 1905 the 
ground operated on was as follows : River, 300 ft. in length 
by 70 ft. in width, material raised, 3,888 cubic yards ; oa 
sluicing claim, 150 ft. by 100ft., and 130 ft. in depth. Yield 
of gold, 155 oz. lOdwt.; value, £b9S 13s. 6d. Four acres 
have been worked since the claims were opened up, the total 
yield of gold obtained from this area being 976 oz., value 
£3,758. Approximate value of plant, £7,500. 

Blue Spur and GahrieVs Gully Consolidated y Blue Spur. — 
Gold was discovered in Gabriel' s Gully by Gabriel Read in the 
year 1861, when operations were conducted in the alluvial 
deposits lying in gullies and on the neighbouring terraces 
In 1862 the miners commenced to extract gold from the 
breccia - conglomerate deposit forming the divide between 
Gabriel's Gully and Munro's Gully. For many years the 
richest parts of the deposit were driven out and the material 
crushed in stamper-batteries. In 1881 the Blue Spur an«l 
Gabriel's Gully Sluicing Company (Limited) started opera- 
tions in the bed of Gabriel's Gully, where there was an 
accumulation of tailings deposited from the cement- workings 
In order to treat these tailings profitably, the late Mr. J. R. 
Perry introduced from California, and afterwards improved, 
the system of hydraulic sluicing and elevating which became 
general in use on the Otago goldfields. This claim continued 
operations until 1888, when, as the result of the amalgamation 
of all the claims on the Gabriers Gully side of the cement-de- 
posit, the Blue Spur and Gabriel's Gully Consolidated Com- 
pany was formed, having its headquarters in London. The 
company was registered on the 1st February, 1888; its sub- 
scribed capital is stated at £91,266, and scrip to the value of 









£48,268 was given to the holders of the various claims con- 
solidated in the company's holding. Since registration 
44,618 oz. of gold, value £169,334, was obtained; the total 
expenditure in connection with mining operations, since 
registration up to date of last balance-sheet, being £38,532. 
Hydraulic sluicing was commenced in 1888, and has been 
carried on continuously ever since. All the available area of 
tailings was first worked, so as to carry up an underground 
drainage channel, and also to have worked-out ground on 
which to dump tailings from the cement-workings. The com- 
pany acquired valuable water-rights from Beaumont and Wai- 
pori watersheds, and was thus enabled to concentrate a large 
body of water under effective pressure upon the deposit, with 
the result that part of the spur has been almost completely 
broken down and sluiced away, while the historic Gabriel's 
Gully itself has been filled with tailings from the claim to a 
depth of from 90 ft. to 100 ft. Work in the claims continue^! 
to be carried on in the usual safe manner, the mine having 
been practically free from accident during recent years. The 
solid cement is shattered by heavy charges of roburite, being 
subsequently sluiced away from the face and further broken 
by the workmen with spalling hammers, thence conducted by 
lengthy paved races to the elevators, where final runaof boxes are 
in use with gold-saving appliances for recovery of the balance 
o! fine gold which had not been retained by the paved sluic- 
ing- runs. Twenty -eight men employed in and about claims. 

The following interesting extracts are from the last 
annual repK>rt of the general manager to the London board 
of directors: "The mean value of the gold per cubic yard 
of cement works out this year at 3*7 gr., a slight improvement 
on last year, and, I believe, a world's record for low-grade 
dirt worked without loss. The 1,722 oz. of gold saved would 
form 4-644 cubic inches, and y n^^?UTjn of the volume of 
cement handled in getting it. The above reads unconmionly 
like a newspaper snippet, but it illustrates in a way the pro- 
portion of things at Blue Spur. The dirt is most undeniably 
low-grade, and requires cautious handling to be made to yield 
even the meagre* margin of profit actually secured. Subjoined 


are details of the year's work and results: Total gold won, 
1904-5, l,524-8oz., value £6,062 68. 2d.; total gold won, 
1905-6, 1,721-9 oz., value £6,836 5s. 5d. : an increase of 
1971 oz., and £773 19s. 3d. Total expenditure, 1904^5, 
£4,558 10s. Id.; 1905-6, £4,895 10s. 2d.: an increase of 
£337 Os. Id. The mean value of the gold-con tenta of 
the cement t^'^^ted for the year 1904—5 was 3;603gr-, 
or 711d. per cubic yard; for 1905-6, 3*717 gr., or 
7*435d. per cubic yard: an increase of 0"114gr., or 0*324d 
per cubic yard — a very slight difference of under Jd. per cubic 
yard. No. 1 division was worth 3*331 gr., or 7*1 Id. per cubic 
yard; No. 2 division was worth 3*717 gr., or 7*434d. per 
cubic yard. One requires to be very familiar with low-grade 
dirt to be able to view these figures without a shudder, when 
the amount of heavy work necessary to save 1,722 oz. of gold 
from 333,500 tons of hard>cemented breccia, all of which lies 
below sluicing-level, is intelligently considered. The value ot 
the cement worked last year was 16s. 8d. per hour (4 dwt 
5 gr.) ; this year the value is 17s. 9d. per hour (4 dwt. 1 1 gr.) * 
an improvement of 6gr., or Is. Id. per hour. The cost M 
winning the gold has been £2 16s. 6Jd. per ounce, or 71*61 per 
cent.; last year the cost was £2 19s. 9jd. por ounce, or 
75*19 per cent. : a decrease of 3*58 per cent. Thirty hours' 
less pumping were necessary this year than last, the cost of 
which has been, on the basis of what the water used for the pur- 
pose would have earned had it been possible to use it for sluic- 
ing: Pumping, 525 hours at 17s. 9d. per hour, £465 88. 9d. ; 
less 71*61 per cent., £333 6s. : cost of pumping, £132 28. 9d. 
Cost last year, £115 168. 6d. : an increase of £16 6s. 3d. The 
total quantity of water used for all purposes during 1904-5 
was 626,321,300 cubic feet in 7,228 hours sluicing and 555 
hours pumping— 7,783 hours; during 1905-6, 613,879,000 
cubic feet in 7,653*5 hours sluicing and 525 hours pumping — 
8,178*5 hours: being 12,442,300 cubic feet less, 425*5 hours 
more for sluicing, 30 hours less for pumping, and 395*5 hours 
more altogether ; which exhibits a less water-supply more ad- 
vantageously applied. In other words, the efficiency of both 
elevators and pump has been increased by remodelling them 


in such a manner as to allow the use of smaller jets, with the 
result as shown above, that with 12^ millions of cubic feet less 
Tolume of water 395*5 hours more work has been done. The 
pump has worked very well and has given no trouble; it has 
maintained its previous efficiency. The ratio of sluicing and 
pumping water is shown by the following figures: Sluicing- 
water — No. 1 division 317,520,000 cubic feet, No. 2 division 
275,569,000 cubic feet, total 593,089,000 cubic feet; pump- 
ing, 20,790,000 cubic feet: total, 613,879,000 cubic feet, or 
3'3866 per cent. Last year the percentage was 3' 39 10, a barely 
perceptible difference of 0*0044 per cent. The head-races fur- 
nished a water-supply for skiicing during 1904-5 of 903*5 
eight-hour days; 1905-6, 956*8 eight-hour days: an increase 
of 53*3 days. And this water was subdivided and applied as 
under:— 1904:-5— No. 1, 565*6 days; No. 2, 338 days; total, 
903*6 days. 1905-6— No. 1, 490 days; No. 2, 466*8 days; 
total, 956*8 days : an increase of 53*3 days. The working and 
up-keep of the head-races for the year has cost — Ordinary 
wages, J&605 1 6s. ; timber-cartage and wages extra, £38 
16s. 5d. : total, £644 12s. 5d. Rather more roburite has 
been used this year than last, more hours have been worked, 
and consequently more blasting has been necessary. Explo- 
sives in 1904-5 cost £426 4s. 8d. ; in 1905-6, £597 3s.: 
au increase of £170 18s. 4d. Blast fired in No. 1 face, 
24th February, £90; the cost of this blast should really be 
debited to the current year, as no gold has been won from 
the cement dislodged by it. Wages paid in 1904-5 amounted 
to £3,001 Is. 2d.; in 1905-6, £3,175 9s. 2d.: an increase, 
due to extra hours worked, of £174 8s. The following is a 
statement of work and values for the year 1905-6: — Sluicing: 
No. 1 division, 3,919*5 boms; No. 2 division, 3,734 hours: 
total, 7,653*5 hours. Cement: No. 1 division, 97,987*5 cubic 
yards; No. 2 division, 124,342*2 cubic yards: total, 222,329*7 
cubic yards. Gold: No. 1 division, 680*15 oz.; No. 2 divi- 
sion, 1,041*74 oz.: total, 1,721*89 oz. Value per cubic yard: 
No. 1 division, 3*332 gr., 6 66d. ; No. 2 division, 4021 gr., 
8*04d. : mean value, 3*7175 gr., 7*435d." General manager, 
J. Howard Jackson ; mine-manager, J. Uren. 


Butterfly Sluicing Claim, Teviot Survey District. — ^This 
claim has an area of 3 acres, and is owned by Weather&ll 
Bros., who commenced to open up the ground in May, 1903. 
The gravels, 12 ft. in depth, consist of rough yellow wash, 
carrying large stones. The dam covers an area of half an acre, 
from which water is conveyed through two miles of water-race 
and 160 ft. of fluming and 18 in. and 9 in. pipes, which main- 
tain a supply of five heads on one nozzle, at an average pre- 
sure of 20 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with perforated 
plates and oocoanut matting, the tailings being carried oyer 
160 ft. of tail-race. From an acre operated on 52 os. of gold 
was obtained, valued at £194.'^ Value of plant, Ac, £100. 
Mine-manager, Henry WeatheralJ. 

Carroll and Lynch's Claim, Bald Hill Flat. — This claim, 
which was partly worked by the Last Chance Company, but 
abandoned owing to poorness of returns, has an area of 
8 acres, of which 2f acres have been worked since operations 
were commenced in November, 1904. Water is conveyed over 
races about seven miles in length and 2,000 ft. of fluming and 
pipes. Two nozzles are in use — one at the face and one at the 
tail — an average supply of six heads being available, when 
water is plentiful, at a head-pressure of 280 ft. The gold is 
medium-sized, and is saved with bojes and ripples. In the 
year 1905 the yield was 110 oz. 3 dwt. 18 gr., valued at £424 
48. 4d. Total yield of gold, 162 oz. 3 dwt. 18 gr., valued at 
£624 8s. 4d. Value of plant, £600. Mine-manager, Patrick 
Carroll ; secretary, Pierce Carroll, BalH Hill Flat. 

Christian^ s Claim, Livingstone. — Area, 8 acres. The wash 
operated on consists of quartz gravel lying under greensand, 
and is got at a depth of 2 ft. The dam covers an area of 
4 acres, from which water is conveyed over twenty-seven miles 
of water-races and 82 chains of fluming and pipes, which 
maintains a supply of eight heads on one nozzle, at an average 
pressure of 190 ft. The gold is very fine, and is saved with 
ripples and tussocks, the tailings being carried over 36 chains 
of tail-race. During the year 1905 an area of half an acre was 
worked. Value of plant, races, &c., £7,000. Mine-manager 
and owner, John Christian. 


Commissioner's Flat Sluicing Claim, Roxburgh. — Area, 
25 acres. The present owners oommenoed operations in 
December, 1901, but the claim was first opened up by Haugh- 
ton and party about twelve years previously. There is one 
elevator employed, and the materials are lifted 28 ft. Water 
is conveyed over races about six miles in length and a quarter 
of a mile of fluming. The face is operated on by one nozzle, 
an average supply of ten heads being available, and» when 
elevating, twenty heads can be got from water stored in the 
dam, at a head-pressure of 100 ft. The gold is mostly fine, 
and is saved with 2} in. by fin. flat-iron bars made into 
ripples, the tailings being carried over 640 ft. of tail-race. 
During the year 1905 an acre was worked, yielding 322 oz. 
lOdwt. 23 gr. gold, valued at £1,239 Us. 3d. During the 
past three years between 3 and 4 acres have been operated 
upon, yielding 940 oz. 16 dwt. 12 gr. gold, valued at £3,640 
18s. 6d. Approximate value of plant, &c., £1,500. Four 
men are employed. Owners, W. Coulter and party ; secretary, 
R. George, Roxburgh. 

Cooper and Party's Claim, Horseshoe Bend. — Area, 7 acres. 
The claim was first worked in 1863 by Mr. Stewart; the pre- 
sent owners (Cooper and party) commenced operations in Octo- 
ber, 1905. The dam covers an area of 4 acres, from which 
water is conveyed over four miles of water-race, 2,000 ft. of 
fluming, and 17 in. and 10 in. pipes, which maintain a supply 
of three heads on one nozzle, at an average pressure of 50 ft. 
The gold is mixed, and is saved with longitudinal ripples and 
perforated plates, the tailings being carried over 10 chains 
of tail-race. A total area of 5 acres has been operated upon, 
and it is stated that gold to the value of £10,000 was taken 
out by previous owners. Value of plant, races, &c., £300. 
Mine-manager, J. Cooper. 

Criffel Lead Sluicing Company , Cardrona. — Area, 100 
acres. This company was registered on the 30th September, 
1906, and has a called-up capital of £4,054 8s. The cutting 
of a tail-race up to the lead was commenced in April, 1906, 
^ith the view of working an alluvial lead or wash in the hill- 
side. The lead apparently consists of an old river-bed, the 


oyerlying strata being composed of dSbris or slips from the 
mountain-side. The tail-race will be 300 ft. to 400 ft. in 
length, and about 3,000 ft. of fluming and pipes (22 in. to 
9 in.) will be required, the distance of the penstock from the 
claim being about 1,000 ft. With a full supply of water there 
should be thirty heads available, giving a pressure of about 
500 ft. at the face. * Twenty men will be generally employed. 
Approximate value of claim, race, &c,, X4,000. Mine- 
manager, Dugald Macgregor; secretary, Edward Trythall. 

Eagle and Gray's Claim, St. Bathan's. — Area, 3 acres. 
Work was commenced on this claim in 1867. Water is con- 
veyed over races six miles in length and 900 ft. of fluming and 
pipes, the dimensions of the latter varying from 22 in. to 9 in. 
The face is operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of 
two heads being available at a head-pressure of 120 ft. The 
gold is fine, and is saved itith iron ripples and matting, the 
tailings being carried over 1,500 ft. of tail-race. For a perio-i 
of four years the claim was worked by tub and cradle, and 
sinking and driving was carried on, but eventually ground- 
sluicing was resorted to as being the most favourable way of 
working the claim. Value of plant, A^c, £700. Estimated 
life of claim, twenty years, or sixty years from date of com- 
mencement. Mine-manager, R. Wade. 

Edinburgh Spur, Waikaia. — Area, 40 acres. This claim 
started work in May, 1904. Five acres have been worked ♦© 
date, the depth of the auriferous gravel being 30 ft., and 
180 oz. of gold was obtained, valued at £697 lOs. A tail-race 
132 ft. in length has been constructed, and the dam coven 
au acre of ground. There is 1,000 ft. of fluming and pipes; 
dimensions, 15 in. to 9 in. One nozzle is in use, and there 
is a pressure of 170 ft. at the face. Value of plant, Ac, £600. 
Mine-manager, James Mutch. 

Fordham and Gay*8 Claim, Cambrian's. — ^Area, 5 acres. 
Work was commenced in December, 1904. Water is conveyed 
over two and a half miles of water-race and 800 yards of 
fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by one nozzle, an 
average supply of three heads being available, at a head-pres- 


^uro of 70 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with a paved race, 
the tailings being carried over a quarter of a mile of tail-race. 
During the year 1906 an area of 900 square yards was operated 
on, yielding 13 oz. 4 dwt. 13 gr. of gold, valued at £60 
188. 7d. Value of plant, races, Ac, £1,000. 

Golden Crescent Sluicing Company , Weatherstone's. — Area, 
90 acres. This company was registered in November, 1898, 
and commenced work in March, 1900. There is one elevator 
employed, and the materials are lifted 20 ft. to 30 ft. Water 
is conveyed over races eighteen miles in lengtli and 4,000 ft. 
of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by two nozzles, 
au average supply of eight heads being available, at a head- 
pressure of 260 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with per- 
forated plates, coir matting, and angle-iron bottoms, the tail- 
ings being carried over 40 chains of tail-race. During the 
year 1905 an area of about 4 acres was worked, yielding 
480 oz. of gold, valued at £1,868 9s. 9<i. Thirty-six acres have 
been worked during the past five years, the yield of gold being 
3,769 oz., value £14,676 3s. Dividends have been disbursed 
&moxinting to £6,300. Amount of called-up capital, £3,500. 
Value of plant, races, Ac, £4,000. Mine-manager, J. A. 
McNeilly; secretary, J. C. Browne, Lawrence. 

Golden Padlock, Mitchell's Flat, Waipori. — Area, 4 acres. 
The nature of the material operated on consists of rotten reef 
and quartz wash, taken from a depth of 6 ft. There is one 
elevator employed, and the materials are lifted 12 ft. Tho 
dam covers an area of about 4 acres, and water is conveyed 
through twelve miles of water-race and 60 ft. of fluming and 
pipes, which maintains a supply of four heads on one nozzle, 
at an average pressure of 60 ft. During the year 1905, 136 oz. 
9dwt. 15 gr. of gold, valued at £545 8s. 7d., was obtained. 
Value of plant, Ac, £300. Owners, Gare and Sons. 

Golden Eise, Weather stone's. — Area, 40 acres. This claim 
is owned by Messrs. Smytli, Donlan, and Adams. Work was 
first conunenced in the early part of 1895. There is one ele- 
vator employed, and the materials are lifted 30 ft. Water is 
conveyed over races eighteen miles in length and 3,600 ft. of 
fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by one nozzle, an 


average supply of four and a half heads being available, at 
a head-pressure of 280 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved in 
angle-iron bottoms, perforated plates, and cocoanut matting, 
the tailings being carried over one mile of tail-race. During 
the year 1905 an area of 10 acres was worked, the quantity 
treated being 242,000 cubic yards, at a cost of 1tS<^- P®'" y*rd, 
yielding 946 oz. of gold, valued at £3,686. Since the be- 
ginning of operations about 80 acres has been worked. Capi- 
tal called up, £2,500; approximate value of plant, races^ 
&c., £3,000. Seven men employed. Mine-manager and secre- 
tary, William R. Smyth, Lawrence. 

Island Block Gold-dredging and Sluicing Company , Island 
Block, near Miller's Flat. — Area, 600 acres. This company 
was registered in February, 1900, and conunenced work in 
October of the same year. There are two elevators employed, 
and the materials are lifted 70 ft. The dam covers an area of 
85 acres. Water is conveyed over races four and a half miles 
in length and three miles of fiuming and pipes, the dimensiona 
of the latter varying from 22 in. to 9 in. The face is operated 
on by two nozzles, an average supply of twenty-six heads being 
available, at a head-pressure of 710 ft. The gold is fine, and 
is saved with longitudinal iron ripples, cross angle-iron 
ripples, with cocoanut matting underneath, the tailings being 
carried over a mile and a half of tail-race. During the year 
1905 an area of 4 acres was operated on, yielding 1,459 oz. of 
gold, valued at £5,715. Thirty acres has been worked during' 
the past five years ; the yield of gold obtained from this area 
was 6,231 oz., valued at £24,290. Dividends have been dis- 
bursed amounting to £2,403 ; capital called up, £24,030. It 
is stated that the ground could be levelled after working, and 
top-dressed with silt from the elevator, and so rendered avail- 
able for fruft-culture or pastoral purposes. Approximate Taloe 
of plant, races, &c., £20,000. Fourteen men employed. Mine- 
manager, David Weir; secretary, James Brown, Dunedin. 

JeweWs Gully, Round Hill, Colac Bay, Southland. — Area, 
42 acres 3 roods 22 perches. The Jewett's Gully Gold-mining 
Company was registered in May, 1905, and commenced work 
six months later. There is one elevator employed, and the 

ALv Elevator op Champion Htdraulio Company's Claim, Beaumont, Otaoo. 
Mining Handbook. 


materials are lifted 38 ft. Water is conveyed over water-races 
two miles in length and 103 chains of fluming and pipes. The 
face is operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of five 
heads being available, at a head-pressure of 240 ft. The gold 
is fine, and is saved by ripples and mats, the tailings being 
conveyed over 80 ft. of tail-race. During the year 1905, 30 oz. 
13dwt. 2gr. of gold, valued at £121 2s. lOd., was obtained 
Capital called up is £1,800; approximate value of plant, 
races, dams, kc, £1,700. Four men employed. Mine- 
manager, J. Thurgood; secretary, L. "W. Petchell, Riverton. 

Johnstone^s Sluicing Claim, Blackstone Hill.— Water is ob- 
tained from the Government water-race, and conveyed through 
600 ft. of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by ona 
flozzle, an average supply of four heads being available, at a 
head-pressure of 150 ft. During the year 1905 prospecting was 
chiefly carried on, 30 oz. of gold, value £115 10s., being ob- 
tained. Owner, R. Johnstone. 

Kitto and Party's Sluicing Claim y Blue Spur, Tuapeka. — 
Area, 21 acres. Work was commenced on this claim in 1870. 
There is one elevator employed, and the materials are lifted 
75 ft. Water is conveyed over races about forty miles in 
length and 40 chains of fluming and pipes. The face is 
operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of eighteen 
heads being available, at a head-pressure of 450 ft . The gold 
is fine, and is saved with angle-iron ripples and perforated 
plates, the tailings being carried over 12 chains of tail-race. 
During the year 1905, 441 oz. 15dwt. 10 gr. of gold, valued 
at £1,701 10s. 6d., was obtained. Approximate value of 
plant, &c., £5,000. 

Ladysmith Gold -dredging Company, Roxburgh East. — 
Area, 55 acres 2 roods 18 perches. This company was re- 
gistered in April, 1900, and commenced work in Decem- 
ber following. There is one elevator employed, and the 
materials are lifted from 20 ft. to 45 ft. Water is con- 
veyed over races three and a half miles in length and 
35 chains of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on 
by one nozzle, an average supply of twenty heads being 
available, at a head-pressure of 150 ft. The gold is fine, 
S— Mining Handbook. 


and is saved with irou ripples, the tailings being carried oyer 
a quarter of a mile of tail-race. During the year 1905 an 
area of 6 acres was worked, yielding 1,003 oz. 11 dwt. 6gr. of 
gold, valued at £3,863 13s. 9d. About 15 acres has been 
operated on during the past five years ; the yield of gold from 
this area was 3,292 oz. 6 dwt. 12 gr., valued at £12,675 as. 
Dividends have been paid amounting to £3,473 15s. ; caUed- 
u[j capital, £3,964 Is. 9d. Value of plant, races, Ac, 
£6,400. Mine-manager, William Donnelly; secretary, Jabez 
Burton, Roxburgh. 

Jjnmmerlaw Flat Hydraulic Mining Company , Waipori. — 
Area, 30 acres. This company conmienced work in July, 1899. 
There is one elevator employed, and the materials are lifted 
26 ft. Water is conveyed over races thirty miles in length and 
52 chains of pipes (dimensions 13 in. and 9 in.). The face is 
operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of ten heads 
being available, at a head-pressure of 240 ft. The gold is 
coarse and fine, and is saved with Venetian ripples, perforated 
plates, and matting. During the year 1905 an area of 3 acres 
was operated on, yielding 147 oz. 13 dwt. 23 gr. of gold, 
valued at £568 128. 5d. Forty-five acres has been worked 
during the past six years ; the yield of gold obtained from this 
area was 1,857 oz. 14 dwt. 21 gr., valued at £7,156 13s. 3d. 
Dividends have been disbursed amounting to £1,408; capital 
called up is £1,500. Value of plant, races, dams, Ac, £3,100. 
Mine-manager, Henry Blackmore; secretary, F. W. Knight, 

Mamiel Bros.' Claim, Coal Creek Flat.— Area, 12 acres. 
The overlying strata is composed of gravel, stones, and sand 
from surface to a depth of 60 ft. There is one elevator em- 
ployed, and the materials are lifted 18 ft. to 20 ft. Water is 
conveyed over races three miles in length and 200 ft. of fluming 
and pipes. The face is operated on by one nozzle, an average 
supply of twelve heads being available, at a head-pressure of 
75 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with iron ripple-bars, 
the tailings being carried over 600 ft. of tail-race. During the 
year 1905 a quarter of an acre was worked, yielding 203 os. of 
gold, valued at £781 lis. Value of plant, races, Ac, £600. 


Estimated life of claim ten years, or forty years from date of 
oommencing work. There is a scarcity of water at times, which 
prevents the claim being worked constantly, but the owners 
contemplate constructing a race higher up the i ange. 

Maiakanut Gold -mining Company, Matakanui. — Area, 
45 acres. This company was registered in January, 1902, and 
commenced work the same month. One elevator is employed, 
and the materials are lifted 64 ft. Water is conveyed over 
races fourteen miles in length and a mile and a half of fluming 
and pipes. The face is operated on oy two nozzles, an average 
supply of twelve heads being available, at a head-pressure of 
200 ft. The gold is fine, and is haved with ripple-plates, 
matting, and boxes, the tailings being carried over three- 
quarters of a mile of tail-race. During the year 1905 about 
half an acre was worked, yielding 538 oz. 18dwt. 14 gr. of 
gold, valued at £2,074 16s. Total yield of gold, 2,315 oz. 
1 dwt. 16 gr., valued at £8,870 9s. 5d., out of which dividends 
have been disbursed amounting to £1,924 3s. 6d. ; capital 
called up, £7,000. Value of plant, races, Ac, £6,000. Mine- 
manager and secretary, W. Norman, Matakanui. 

Mount Morgan Sluicing Com>pany, Matakanui. — Area, 
60 acres. This company commenced work in October, 1903. 
There is one elevator employed, and the materials are lifted 
25 ft. Water is conveyed over races ten miles in length and 
one mile of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by two 
noEzles, an average supply of ten heads being available, at a 
head-pressure of 120 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved by 
means of gold-boxes 40 ft. in length and 3 ft. in width, the tail- 
ings being carried over 60 ft. of tail-race. During the year 
1905 an area of 2 acres was worked, yielding 188 oz. 8 dwt. 
2gr. of gold, valued at £725 68. lOd. Eight acres has been 
worked during the past two years ; the yield of gold from this 
area was 537 oz. 4 dwt. 4gr., valued at £2,067 9s: Capital 
called up, £1,010. Value of plant, races, iVc, £3,404. Four 
men employed. Mine-manager, James Percy; secretary, J. D. 
Nicolson, Matakanui. 

Munro ajnd Party's Claim, Post-office Creek, Waipori. — 
Area, 27 acres. One elevator is employed, and the materials. 


which consist of fine hard gravel, are lifted to a height of 50 ft. 
Water is conveyed over races fourteen miles in length and 
2,400 ft. of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on by 
one nozzle, an average supply of four heads being available, at 
a head-prcs&ure of 230 ft. The gold is fine, and saved with 
ripples and perforated plates, the tailings being carried over 
5 chains of tail-race. During the year 1905 half an acre was 
operated on, yielding 367 oz. 4 dwt. of gold, valued at £1,413 
14s. 5d. Value of plant, £2,000. Mine-manager, A. Munro; 
secretary, H. S. George, Berwick. 

Murray aiid Gair^s Claim, Adams Gully, Bannockburn. — 
Area, 3 acres. The wash consists of rough gravel 20 ft. in 
depth. Water is conveyed over a race one mile in length and 
900 ft. of fiuming and 9 in. and 7 in. pipes. The face is 
operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of five heads 
being available, at a head-pressure of 50 ft. The gold is fine, 
and is saved with tail-race and box, the tailings being carried 
over 100 yards of tail-race. During the year 1905 a quarter of 
an aero wae worked, yielding 22 oz. of gold, valued at £84 14s. 
Value of plant, races, d:c., £150. Mine-manager, Henry 

New Skipper's Sluicing Company, Skipper's. — Area, 
82 acres. This company was registered in September, 1902, 
and commenced operations the same month. The gravels, 
160 ft. in depth, consist of mica schist with quartz and iron- 
stone boulders, some of which are several tons in weight, over- 
lying the true bottom. The dams owned by the company cover 
an area of 1 J acres, from which the water is conveyed over seven 
and one-eighlh miles of water-races and 7,060 ft. of fluming 
and pipes (30 in. to 11 in. diameter), which maintain a supply 
of fifteen heads of water on two nozzles, at an average pres- 
sure of 160 ft. The gold is coarse, and is saved with iron rails, 
with brush underneath, the tailings Toeing carried over 
3,400 ft. of tail-races. During 1905, H acres was operate! 
on, yielding 163 oz. of gold, valued at £622. About 12 acres 
has been worked during the past three years; the yield of 
gold obtained from this area was 658 oz., valued at £2,504. 
Capital called up, £3,414. Value of plant, races, dams, d:c.. 


estimated at £10,000. Mine-manager, John Corbett; eecre- 
tery, H. E. Wilson, Dunedin. 

Nokomai Hydraulic Sluiein^g Company, Nokomai Creek, 
Southland. — Area, 211 acres (embracing two claims). This 
company was registered in March, 1898, and commenced work 
the following month. There are two elevators employed, and 
the materials are lifted 75 ft. by No. 1 and 50 ft. by No. 2 
lift. Water is conveyed over races forty-eight miles in length 
(twenty-seven miles Nos. 1 and 2, and twenty-one miles of race 
for Lion Claim) and 6,700 ft. of fluming and pipes. The face 
is operated on by three nozzles, an average supply of eighteen 
heads being available at No. 1 and twenty-four heads at No. 2 
claim, at a head-pressure of 650 ft. and 250 ft. respectively. 
The gold is coarse and fine, and is saved with Venetian ripples 
and cocoanut matting, the tailings being carried over a mile 
of tail-races. Electric light is installed in both claims, the 
annual cost for wages, materials, repairs, &c., being £500. 
During the year 1905 an area of 2^ acres was operated on in 
each claim, yielding 2,619 oz. 6 dwt. of gold, valued at £9,925 
2s. 4d. Fifty acres has been worked during the past eight 
years; the yield of gold obtained from this area was 13,166 oz. 
12 dwt., valued at £50,243 4s. 8d. Dividends have been dis- 
bursed amounting to £17,783 lis., and £2,351 expended over 
and above the called-up capital (£24,000) in developing the 
property. Approximate value of plant, races, &c., £26,351. 
Thirty-six men employed. Mine-managers, William Robinson 
and Charles Atkinson ; secretary, Kum Poy, Dunedin. 

Norwegian Sluicing Claim, Waitahuna Gully. — Area, 
29 acres 3 roods. The nature of the wash operated on is hard 
gravel, locally known as ** Maori bottom," also a breccia con- 
glomerate similar to the Blue Spur formation, having a depth 
of 20 ft. to 60 ft. The overlying strata is composed of yellow 
clay. One elevator is at work, the height of lift being 43 ft. 
Tlie total length of water-races in connection with the claim is 
forty miles ; area of dams, about 3 acres ; dimensions of pipes, 
18 in. to 7 in. Eight heads of water are available, and one 
nozzle is in use, the pressure of the elevator- jet at the face 
being 250 ft. Gold has been won to the extent of 452 oz. 


9 dwt., valued at i:i,741 ITs. lOd. The gold is fine; the ap- 
pliances for saving it consist of angle-iron ripples and per- 
forated plates over oocoanut matting, with boxes 100 ft. hy 
3 ft. in width. Five men employed. Value of plant, Ac, 
£3,000. Mine-manager and secretary, Charles Thomson, Wai- 
tahuna Gully. 

Ouratvera Gold-mining Companyy Round Hill, Southland. 
— ^Area, 40 acreM. This company was registered in May, 1895, 
and commenced work in December of the same year. One 
elevator is employed, and the materials are lifted 67 ft. Water 
is supplied from the company's dam (an acre in area, depth 
7 ft.) by a wator-race eighteen miles in length, together with 
143 chains of fluming and pipes, tlie latter being 13 in. 
diameter. The face is operated on by one breaking-down and 
one tail nozzle, under an average supply of ten heads, at a head- 
pressure of 446 ft. and 300 ft. respectively. The gold is fine, 
and is saved with steel ripples and cocoanut matting. During 
1905, IJ acres was operated on, yielding 881 oz. 12 dwt. 22 gr. 
of gold, valued at X3,557 178. Twelve acres has been worked 
during the past six years ; the yield of gold obtained from this 
area was 7,842 oz. 6 dwt. 12 gr., valued at £31,101 4s. 4d. 
Dividends have been disbursed amounting to £10,915 ; capital 
called up, £3,000. Value of plant, races, &c., £3,000. Eleven 
men employed. Mine-man agor, James Couling; secretary, 
John Erskiue, Invercargill. 

(hir Mutual Friend^ Galvin's Terrace, Nevis. — Area, 20 
acres. This claim, taken up in 1894, is owned by W. Masters 
and party. One elevator is employed in the main ground, and 
occasionally two in the deepest ground, the materials being 
lifted 36 ft. Water is conveyed over races twelve miles in 
length, together with 100 ft. of fluming and half a mile of 7 in. 
and 9 in. pipe-line. The face is operated on by four nooles, 
an average supply of twenty-five heads being available, at a 
head-pressure of 300 ft. The gold is of a rough description, 
and is saved with ordinary cobble-stones, the tailings being 
carried over a quarter of a mile of tail-race. During the year 
1905 a quarter of an acre was operated on, yielding 210 oz. of 
gold, valued at £803 10s. Value of plant, races, Ac., £5,000. 


Paiearoa Sluicirig Claim, Patearoa» Maniototo County. — 
Area, 56 acres. Work was comiuenoed in February, 1900. 
One elevator is employed, and the materials are lifted 30 ft. 
Water is conveyed over races tlixoe and a half miles in length 
and a mile and three-quarters of fluming and pipes. The 
face is operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of eight 
heads being available, at a head-pressure of 202 ft. (hydro- 
static) and 192 ft. (hydraulic). The gold is medium-sized, 
resembling bran, and is saved with angle-iron ripples and per- 
forated plates. During the year 1905 an area of 3^ acres was 
operated on, yielding 709 oz. 6 dwt. 22 gr. of gold, valued at 
£2,776 16s. lid. Twelve acres has been worked during the 
past five years ; the yield of gold obtained from this area was 
2,306 oz. 13 dwt. 6gr., valued at £9,043 4s. 7d., and divi- 
dends have been paid amounting to £2,750. The gold is ob- 
tained principally off the bottom, from which prospects up 
to as much as 16 oz. to the dish have been obtained. Some 
parts of the bottom are covered with a film of gold-particles. 
There is no recognised lead of gold, but most of the ground 
worked has paid well since operations were begun in the creek- 
bed, which is about 6 chains in width. A peculiar feature 
of this claim is that it is right in the heart of the Patearoa 
Township, which has been in existence for forty years, and 
the rich gold has lain there undiscovered until five or six years 
ago. Value of plant, races, &c., £1,600. Nine men em- 
ployed. Mine-manager, Douglas C. Stewart ; secretary, R. T. 
Stewart, Waikaia. 

Pleasant Valley Hydraulic Glaim^ Coal Creek. — Area, 
10 acres. There is one elevator employed on this claim, which 
is owned by McPherson Bros., and the materials are lifted 
20 ft. Water is conveyed over races a mile and three-quarters 
in length and 15 chains of fluming and pipes. The face is 
operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of eight heads 
being available, at a head-pressure of 300 ft. The gold is 
fine, and is saved with boxes and ripples, the tailings being 
carried over 900 ft. of tail-race. An area of a quarter of an 
acre has been worked since September, 1906, yielding 37 oz. 
of gold, valued at £142 9s. Approximate value of plant, race, 


kc, £400. Mine-manager, F. Swanwick; secretarj, Robert 
McPherson, Coal Creek Flat. 

Private Enterprise, Cardrona Valley. — Area, 10 acres. 
The wash consists of clean gravels, which is taken from a 
depth of 21 ft. One elevator is employed, and the materials 
arc lifted 36 ft. Water is conveyed over races seventeen and 
a half miles in length and 33 yards of fluming and pipes, 
the dimensions of the latter varying from 24 in. to 9 in. The 
face is operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of 
twelve heads being available, at a head-pressure of 320 ft. 
The gold is fine dust, and is saved with ripples and hopper- 
plates, the tailings being carried over 27 yards of boxes. 
During the year 1905 three-quarters of an acre was worked, 
yielding 129 oz. of gold, valued at £504. Value of plant, 
races, &c., £1,600. Owner, Walter Little. 

Rogers and Johnston's Claim, Upper Shotover. — Area, 
14 acres. Work was first commenced on this claim in Decem- 
ber, 1897. One elevator is employed, and the materials are 
lifted 27 ft. Water is conveyed over races a mile in length 
and 4,000 ft. of fluming and pipes. The face is operated on 
by two nozzles, an average supply of fifteen heads being avail- 
able, at a head -pressure of 300 ft. The gold is coarse and 
fine, and is saved with angle- iron ripples, the tailings being 
carried over 300 ft. of tail-race. During the year 1905 an 
area of a quarter of an acre was worked, yielding 100 oz. of 
gold, valued at £385. Three acres has been operated on 
during the past eight years; yield of gold, 1,000 oz., value*! 
at £3,850. Approximate value of plant, races, &c., £1,200. 

Round Hill Mining Company, Round Hill. — ^Area, 
140 acres. This company was registered in 1891, and com- 
menced work the same year. Thero are sometimes four els- 
vators employed, the height of the present lift varying from 
64 ft. to 68 ft. (vertical). Water is conveyed over races fifty- 
six miles in length and ICO chains of fluming and pipes. 
The face is operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of 
twenty heads being available, at a head-pressure of 300 ft. 
(1301b.). The gold is fine, and is saved with angle-iron 
ripples and cocoanut matting, the tailings being carried over 













5 '^ 

< o 

s g 


10 chains of tail-raoe. Duriog 1905 an area of 10 acred was 
operated on, yielding 2,536 oz. 5 dwt. IGgr. of gold, valued at 
£10,210 13s. 8d. Since work first commenced the total gravels 
sluiced comprise an area of 70 acres, for a yield of 22,306 ob. 
18 dwt. 5 gr., valued at £88,988 6s. 8d. Dividends have been 
disbursed amounting to £1,972 3s.; called-up capital, 
£28,245. About 12 oz. of platinum per year is saved on this 
claim, which is the only one in the colony that has system- 
atically looked after tlie saving of this valuable metal. Ap- 
proximate value of plant, races, dams, &c., £50,000. Min^ 
manager, Frederick Hart; secretary, Alfred Reynolds, Round 
Hill, Colac Bay. 

Sailors* Gully, Waitahuna Gully. — Area, 71 acres 3 roods 
39 perches. The Sailors' Gully Gold-mining Company was 
registered in June, 1896, and commenced wprk the same 
month. One elevator is employed, and the materials are lifted 
20 ft. Water is conveyed over races seventeen and a half miles 
in length and 20 chains of fluming and pipes. The face is 
operated on by two nozzles, an average supply of eight heads 
being available, at a head-pressure of 220 ft. The gold is 
fine, and is saved with angle-iron ripples, the tailings being 
carried over 106 ft. of tail-race. During the year 1905 an 
area of 5 acres was worked, yielding 345 oz. 18 dwt. 14 gr. 
of gold, valued at £1,339 13s. Id. Twenty-five acres has been 
operated on during the past ten years ; the yield of gold from 
this area was 2,270 oz. 12 dwt. 13 gr., valued at £8,448 
Ids. 2d. Dividends have been disbursed amounting to 
£2,150; called-up capital, £1,900. Approximate value of 
plant, races, &c., £1,500. Mine-manager, Andrew Barr; 
secretary, Alfred Crooke, Lawrence. 

Scandinavian Water-race Claims ^ St. Bathan's. — Area, 
140 acres (in several claims). The Scandinavian Water-race 
Company was registered in 1868, and conunenced work the 
same year. Two elevators are employed, and the materials 
are lifted 140 ft. Water is conveyed over races (from which 
several claims are supplied) ninety-six miles in length and 
two and a half miles of fluming and pipes. The face is 
operated on by two nozzles, an averaqre supply of twenty-five 


heads being available, at a head-pressure of 380 ft. The g(dd 
is fine, and is saved with ordinary angle-iron ripples, but the 
tail-raoe is chiefly depended upon, the tailings being carried 
over five miles of tail-race. During the year 1905 an are* 
of three-quarters of an acre was operated on, yielding 1,029 os. 
of gold, valued at £4,014. Dividends have been disbune^i 
amounting to £15,666; capital called up, £12,000. Mine- 
manager and secretary, Neil Nicolson, St. Bathan's. 

Smith Gold-mining Company, Round Hill. — Area, 39 acre* 
1 rood 29 perches. The company was registered in October, 
1898, and commenced work in 1899. One elevator is em- 
ployed, and the materials are lifted 35 ft. Water is conveyed 
over races two and a quarter miles in length and 60 chains 
of fiuming and pipes. The face is operated on by one noczle, 
an average supply of five heads being available, at a head- 
pressure of 190 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with ripples 
and mats, the tailings being carried over 70 ft. of tail-race. 
During the year 1905 the yield of gold was 195 oz. 19dwt. 
10 gr., valued at £774 Is.; total yield, 1,093 oz., valued at 
£4,317. Called-up capital, £1,700. Value of plant, races, 
Ac, £1,720. Mine-manager, David Smith; secretary, L. W 
Petchell, Riverton. 

Spring Vale Sltticing Claim y Spring Vale. — ^Water is con- 
veyed over a race twelve miles in length and 4,000 ft. of 
fluming and 13 in. to 9 in. pipe. The face is operated on by 
one nozzle, an average supply of fourteen heads being avail- 
able. During the year 1905, 65 oz. of gold, value £252, was 
obtained. Value of races, &c., £3,000. Owner, James Gartly. 

Surface Hill Sluicing Claim, Livingstone. — Area, 5 acres. 
Work was commenced on this claim in November, 1901 
Water is supplied from the dam, 2 acres in area, by a water- 
race four miles in length, together with 651 ft. of fluming and 
pipes, and the face is operated on by one nozzle, an average 
supply of four heads being available, under a head-pressure 
of 70 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved with perforated iroo 
plates and matting, the tailings being carried over 440 yards 
of tail-race. During the year 1905 half an acre was worked, 
yielding 37 oz. of gold, valued at £142 17s. During the pa^^t 


four years 2 acres has been operated on, yielding 148 oz. of 
gold, valued at £571 16b. Value of plant, Arc, £500. Owner, 
James Meikle. 

Another claim of 5 acres is held at Surface Hill, at the 
foot of Ben Ledi, Livingstone, by George Meikle, who worked 
a quarter of an acre last year and turned over 3,000 cubic 
yards, at a cost of 4d. per cubic yard, for 30 oz. of gold, 
valued at £115 lOs. Since commencing operations in Decem- 
ber, 1901, an area of 1^ acres was worked, yielding 112 oz. 
of gold, valued at £426 4s., the depth of the auriferous wash 
taken from the true bottom varying from 10 ft. to 40 ft. 
Four heads of water are available, at a pressure of 40 ft. ; 
and the gold, which is of fine quality, and worth £3 ITs. per 
ounce, is saved by means of perforated plates and matting. 

Tallahum Hydraulic Sluicing Claim, Miller's Flat. — Area, 
85 acres. Work was commenced in November, 1904. Water 
is conveyed over five miles of races and two miles of fluming 
and pipes, giving an average supply of twenty heads to two 
nozzles, under a head-pressure of 400 ft. One elevator is 
employed, the height of lift being 26 ft. The gold is fine, and 
is saved by ripples, hopper-plates, and matting. Value of 
races, plant, Ac, £1,500. Mine-manager, John Whelan; 
secretary, Barbara Ben net. Miller's Flat. 

Tinkers Gold - mining Company, Matakanui. — Area, 
87 acres. This company commenced work in March, 1902, 
and was registered in June the same year. One elevator is 
employed, and the materials are lifted 60 ft. Water is con- 
veyed over races six miles in length and tlixee-quarters of a 
mile of £uming and pipes. The face is operated on by two 
nozasles, an average supply of twenty heads being available, 
under a head-pressure of 600 ft. The gold is fine, and is saved 
with boxes, ripple - plates, and matting, the tailings being 
carried over three-quarters of a mile of tail-race. During the 
year 1905 half an acre was operated on, yielding 739 oz. 3 dwt. 
16 gr. of gold, valued at £2,845 15s. lOd. Ten acres has been 
worked during the past three years, the yield obtained from 
this area being 2,823 oz. 19 dwt. 2 gr. of gold., valued at 
£10,872 '2s. 5d. Dividends have been paid amounting to 


£5,437 10s.; called-up capital, £15,000. Value of plant, 
races, dams, &c., £20,000. Seven men employed. Mine- 
manager, Joseph Naylor; secretary, T. Duggan, Matakanui. 

Twelve-mile Sluicing Claim, Glenorchy. — Area, 2 acres. 
The material worked consists of heavy wash and huge boulders. 
During the year 1905 about 5,000 yards was treated, giving 
a return of 54 oz. 14 dwt. of gold, valued at £210 13s. ; total 
value of gold won since vrork first commenced, £400. There 
is one elevator employed, the height of the present lift being 
30 ft. Total length of tail-races, 132 ft. ; length of fluming 
and pipes, 500 ft., the dimensions of the latter being from 
13 in. to 9 in. There are eight heads of water available, and 
one nozzle is in use, the pressure of the elevator- jet at face 
being 40 ft. Value of plant, £110. Owners, Valpy Bros. 

Undaunted Gold-mining Company^ Matakanui. — Area, 
114 acres. This company i^as registered in March, 1898, and 
commenced work the same month. Two elevators are some- 
times employed, the materials being lifted from 45 ft. to 60 ft. 
Water is conveyed over thirty miles of races and 2,150 yards 
of fluming and pipes, the dimensions of the latter varying 
from 22 in. to 7 in. The face is operated on by three nozzles^ 
an average supply of thirty-five heads being available, when 
there is sufficient water, at a head-pressure of 420 ft. and 
320 ft. from two lines of pipes. The gold is fine, and is saved 
with bags and oocoanut matting, the tailings being carried 
over eight miles of tail-xace and one channel. During the 
year 1905, 1^ acres was operated on, yielding 618 oz. 
2 dwt. 14 gr. of gold, valued at £2,449 6s. 8d. Since the 
claim first commenced work until the 31st March, 1906, 
11 acres has been worked, yielding 7,870 oz. of gold, valued at 
£30,628 2s. 3d. The called-up capital has amounted io 
£15,000, and the dividends declared to £12,000. Value of 
plant, races, dams, <fec., £17,000. 

The mine-manager and secretary of the Undaunted Com- 
pany (Mr. Thomas C. Donnelly), in a note covering the above 
details, furnishes the following interesting information: 
** Matakanui was better known amongst the early diggers ad 
'Tinkers,' and is so called by many persons to t^^e present 


day. It 18 computed that 100,000 oz. of gold has been won 
by private parties and companies on this rich field. At pre- 
seDt there are four limited-liability companies carrying on 
sluicing operations — viz., Undaunted, £20,000 capital; 
Tinkers, £15,000; Matakanui, £7,000; Mount Morgan, 
£2,800. These four companies hold unworked ground to the 
extent of about 300 acres, and it is estimated that there is a 
further area of 1,000 acres of auriferous ground in the 
locality. The 100,000 oz. of gold already won has been got 
from a comparatively small area." 

United M. and E. Water-race Company, St. Bathan's. — 
Area of claim, 24 acres. This company was registered in 1872 
for the purpose of supplying water to various claims at St. 
Bathan's. Hydraulic elevating was not commenced till fifteen 
years ago. The top materials have been stripped off 15 acres. 
An acre of ground was treated during the past year for 
951 oz. 7dwt. 18 gr. of gold, valued at £3,662 168. 7d. The 
materials operated on consist of water-worn quartz gravels, 
lying at an angle of 45^ on a slaty reef, the true bottom not 
having been yet found, though a depth of 200 ft. has been 
reached; the overlying strata is composed principally of 
water-worn gravel to the suiface. One elevator is employed, 
the height of present lift being 60 ft. Fifteen heads of water 
are conveyed from the company's dam, covering an area of 

2 acres, over twenty-five miles of water-races and 3,000 ft. of 
fluming and pipes (diameters varying from 22 in. to 7 in.) to 
three nozzles, the pressure at the elevator-jet being 400 ft. 
The gold is fine, and three tail-boxes, each 14 ft. in length and 

3 ft. in width, are placed at the end of the tail-races to save 
it. The company has a called-up capital of £7,600, and 
£3,078 has been paid in dividends. The estimated life of the 
claim is twenty-five years, or forty years from date of com- 
mencing operations. When worked the ground can, it is 
stated, be utilised for grazing or tree-growing. Value of 
races, plant, claim, &c., £6,000. Mine-manager, Patrick 
O'Regan; legal manager, William Pyle, St. Bathan's. 

Upper Waikaia Gold-mining Syndicate, Upper Waikaia 
River. — Area, 4 acres 2 roods. Work was commenced on the 


claim in March, 1905, 36 oz. 5 dwt. beiug obtained to end of 
year. One elevator is employed, and the materials are lifted 
30 ft. Water is conveyed over races two miles in length and 
1,000 ft. of flaming and pipes. The face is operated on by 
one nozzle, an average supply of twelve heads being available, 
under a head-pressure of 300 ft. The gold is coarse and fine, 
and is saved with angle-iron ripples, the tables being 80 ft. 
in length and 2 ft. 6 in. in width. Approximate value of 
plant, Ac, £500. Four men employed. Mine-manager, J. S. 
Phillips ; secretary, H. A. Tamblyn, Coal Creek Flat. 

Upper German Flat Company, Lawrence. — Area, 14 acres. 
Work was commenced by the owners (S. Johnston and party) 
in May, 1904. One elevator is employed, and the materials 
are lifted 22 ft. Water is conveyed over races four miles in 
length and 32 chains of fluming and pipes. The face u 
operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of eight heads 
being available. • The gold is coarse, and is saved with angle- 
iron and matting, the tailings being carried over 60 ft. of 
tail-race. During the year 1905 the yield of gold was 112 ok., 
valued at £431 4r., the total won since conmiencing opera- 
tions being 215 oz., valued at £827 15s. Mine-manager and 
secretary, F. Bell, Lawrence. 

Vinegar Hill Hydraulic Sluicing Company^ Vinegar Hill. 
— Area, 62 acres. This company was registered in September, 
1900, and conunenced operations the same month. One ele- 
vator is employed, and the materials are lifted 82 ft. Water 
is conveyed over races twenty miles in length and one mile of 
fliiniing and pipes. The face is operated on by two nozzles, 
an average supply of from twelve to fifteen heads being avail- 
able, with a head-pressure of about 500 ft. The gold is fine, 
and is saved with boxes 60 ft. in length and 3 ft. in width, 
the tailings being carried over two miles of tail-race. During 
the vear 1905 about 2 acres was worked, yielding 360 oz. of 
gold, valued at £1,387. The total amount of gold won since 
work first commenced is 1,568 oz., value £6,075 lis. 7d. 
Dividends have been disbursed amounting to £600 ; capital 
called up, £6,500. Value of plant, races, dams, Jrc, £6,500. 
Seven men employed. Mine-manager, Thomas Morgan ; secre 
tarv, Edward Morgan, Cambrian's. 


Winding Creek Sluicing Claim, Winding Creek, Waikaia. 
— Area, 80 acres. This property is held by the Round Hill 
Mining Company, which commenced work in October, 1904. 
One elevator is employed, and the materials are lifted 11 ft. 
and 58 ft. Water is conveyed over races nineteen miles in 
length and 60 chains of fluming and pipes. The face is 
operated on by one nozzle, an average supply of ten heads 
being available, at a head-pressure of 280 ft. The gold is 
coarse and fine, and is saved with angle-iron ripples and cocoa- 
nut matting, the tailings being carried over 12 chains of tail- 
race. Since the claim was first opened up 3 square chains has 
been worked, yielding 354 oz. of gold, valued at £1,397 4s. 6d. 
Cinnabar is found in the wash, but none is saved. Value of 
plant, races, dams, &c., £10,000. Mine-manager, John Ram- 
say ; secretary, Alfred Reynolds, Round Hill, Colac Bay. 

Zola's Sluicing Claim, Cardrona Valley. — Area, 4 acres 
Work was first commenced on this claim in August, 1901. 
During the year 1905 a quarter of an acre was worked, yield- 
ing 34 oz. of gold, valued at £129 4s. 4d. There is one nozzle 
in use, the pressure of the elevator- jet at the face being 60 ft. 
The tail-race is 2,100 ft. in length. 


In forms sent to the various managers of sluicing claims in 
Nelson, West Coast, Otago, and Southland information wa« 
sought by the Editor of the Mining Handbook as to traces 
of platinum or other metals or minerals found in the course 
of mining operations. Tht; following affirmative replies have 
been received: — 

Nelson District. 

Parapara, Collingwood. — Some native lead is found in tbe 

Takakny Pnpu, Waitapu, Gelden Bay. — Platinum in very 
small quantity is present. 

West Coast. 

Kiri Momona, Maruia, Burnett Survey District. — Iron- 

Mont d^Or, Sailors' Gully, Boss, WesUand. — No platinum; 
only ironsand. 

New Nine-mile Creek, near Ten-mile Creek, Grey Valley. — 
No trace of platinum. Ironsand and a little ruby tin in small 

Otago and Soutiilakd. 

Blue Jacket, opposite Deep Creek, Maori Point, Shotover 
River. — Small particles of silver occur in the wash. 

Butterfly (Weatherall Bros.), Teviot Survey District. — k 
few small rubies. 

JewetVs Gully (J. Thurgood), Round 11 ill, Colae Bay. — 

Ladysmith, Roxburgh East. — Only ironsand. 








Lammtrlaw Flat (F, W, and W, E. S. Knight), Waipori. — 
Scheelite and cinnabar. 

Munro and Party, Post-office Creek, Wat'port, — Cinnabar, 
fine; not saved. 

Nokomai, Nokomai Creek, Southland. — Silver and gun- 

Ourawera, Round Hill, Colac Bay. — Platinum and silver. 

Our Mutual Friend, Galvin^s Terrace, iV^ci;i«.— ^Black sand 

BouJid Hill, Round Hill, Colac Bay. — Platinum; about 
12 oz. per year saved. 

Sailors* Gully, Waitahuna, Tuapeka County. — Ironsand. 

Smith, Round Hill, Colac Bay. — Platinum. 

Undaunted, Matakanui. — There is a lot of ironsand in the 
auriferous wash. 

United M. and E. Water -race, St. Bathan's. — None other 
than iron-pyrites. 

Winding Creek, Winding Creek, Waikaia. — Cinnabar; 
none saved 


By RoBKBT McIktosh, A.O.S.M., Asastant Inspector of Mines for the 
Southern Mining District. 

A GOOD deal of informatiou has been recorded from time to 
time regarding the rise and development of the dredging in- 
dustry in New Zealand. The information hereafter detailed 
has been chiefly culled from the official annual reports of In- 
spectors of Mines, Wardens, and other goldfields officials. 

The earliest gold-discoveries by Europeans in Otago and 
Southland are accredited to the year 1851. From that year 
small discoveries of gold-bearing gravels took place in different 
localities, until in the year 1861 payable gold was found iu 
the Waitahuna and Tuapeka River watersheds. Prospectors 
extended their operations further afield, and in the year 1862 
the Dunstan, Nokomai, Waikaia, and Wakatipu goldfields 
were opened out. Other auriferous tracts were located from 
time to time, until the existence of extensive areas of gold- 
bearing country in Otago and Southland became an esta- 
blished fact. The chief alluvial districts lie in the valleys of 
the Taieri, Waitahuna, W^aipori, Tuapeka, Molyneux (or 
Clutha), Kawarau, Arrow, Shotover, Mataura, Waikaia, Wai- 
kaka, Nevis, and Maerewheuua Rivers. On each of these gold- 
fields the first gold was won by the primitive methods of the 
prospector, consisting of tin dish, cradle, long-tom, and other 
simple appliances. As the claims became more difficult to 
work, ground-sluicing was adopted where sufficient water for 
sluicing and plenty of room for disposal of tailings were 
available. Shaft-sinking and tunnelling were also adopted 
to work deep ground. To deal more effectively with deep wet 
ground and low-grade deposits, hydraulic sluicing and elevat- 
ing was the next system brought into use; but even this pro- 


oess had its limitations. In many cases water was not pro- 
curable, while in others the cost of race-cutting was prohibi- 
tive. The necessity arose for an efficient method of winning 
gold from the beds of rivers and streams, and from deep wet 
ground. The first appliances used in this connection were 
very primitive, but one improvement followed another until 
the present dredge was evolved. This system was first tried 
on the Molyneux (or Clutha) River. Although gold was found 
ill the lower reaches of the river in the year 1852, the earliest 
reference to the production of a quantity of gold from this 
river, as recorded in the *' Handbook of New Zealand Mines, 
1887," states that two Californian miners, Hartley and 
Reilly*, lodged at the office of the Gold Receiver at Dunedin 
1,047 oz. of gold. The locality proved to be that portion of 
the river lying between the confluence of the Eawarau and 
Manuherikia Rivers with the Molyneux, a distance of about 
twenty miles. It was not long before a large population 
was located in the diggings known as the Dunstan, and 
other parts of the river were found to be gold-bearing 
also. Tho gold' was first obtained from the shallow bars and 
beaches, and followed from there into the deeper river and 
into the terraces on the river-banks. The river gold not being 
procurable by the then existing appliances, the miners turned 
their attention to sluicing away the terraces, material being 
sluiced into the river. The natural result was that this 
enormous quantity of debris, and, in addition, the vast 
amount of material washed in by climatic influences, in time 
raised the bed of the river and smothered the auriferous 
gravels. Previous to this, when the rivers were low, it is 
recorded that men would wade into such rivers as the Shot- 
over, Eawarau, and Arrow, and with a shovel dig up the 
auriferous wash. This was known as ** blind stabbing." 

The next step ahead of this method was the spoon dredge. 

• Generally spelt Riley in these dayR, as in the " Hartley and Riley 
Dredging Company." But in Mr. Vincent Pyke's report, published in the 
"Appendix to the Journals of the Hou«e of Representatives, 1863," and 
included amongst the despatches pnntod by the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, the name is spelt several times ''Reilly." — Editor, Minino 


worked by hand-labour, and a very primitive means at first, 
but gradually improved. This was, however, a very slow 
method, and could only be used in shallow, calm water, as 
currents and travelling drift militated against efficiency. 
Several spoon dredges were in operation for a few years, work- 
ing with varying success, so far as can be learned, but, at 
any rate, proving the existence of gold-bearing wash in various 
parts of the river. 

The increasing amount of travelling drift in the river was 
gradually bringing to an end the spoon dredge, and it was 
a natural step forward to the adoption of the cur rent- whetd 
dredge in 1868, which, deriving its power from the current, 
was enabled to work in midstream. This type of dredge con- 
sisted of two parallel wooden pontoons, braced apart, with a 
clear waterway or well-hoie running between them. The 
current- wheels were set on the outside of each pontoon, and 
the power was transmitted through a horizontal shaft to the 
top tumbler, which imparted motion to an endless chain of 
buckets working in the well-hole. Hand-winches were placed 
on deck to work the mooring-Iines, and to rais^e and lower the 
buckets. The material brought up in the buckets was washed 
in a sluice-box, the water being obtained by a water-wheel, 
which raised it to the level of the sluice-box. This type of 
dredge was improved upon from time to time, and a con- 
siderable number was at work for some years on various 
parts of the river. In 1901 a modern dredge was equipped 
with current-wheels to operate in the gorge below Alexandra, 
where the current is very strong. When the dredge had been 
working some time a diminution of current was experienced, 
due, no doubt, to the stacking of tailings behind the dredge, 
and it was found necessary to procure additional power by 
the installation of an oil-engine to drive the centrifugal 

It was early recognised that the most effective power was 
not derived from current- wheels. These only acted in mid- 
stream, so that it was impossible to follows leads or runs of 
gold into still water or into the beaches. It was then resoWed 
to adopt the use of steam-power. The earliest record of the 


application of steam-power to bucket dredges is attributed 
to the case of the Dunedin dredge, which was designed and 
erected in 1881 by the late Charles McQueen, of Kincaid and 
McQueen's Foundry, Dunedin, to work on the Clutha River, 
near Alexandra, although it is recorded that a steam spoon 
dredge was in operation in 1870. The Dunedin was the first 
dredge to be built on an elaborate scale, having due regard 
to the amount of material to be lifted, and to the efficiency of 
the appliances for washing the material and saving the gold. 
Although many improvements have taken place since 1881 in 
the construction of dredge machinery, still the chief features 
of the Dunedin dredge have been retained on all dredges to 
the present day. As a result of the successful construction 
and working of this dredge, more attention was given to the 
possibility of raising larger quantities of gravel, and thus 
treating profitably low-grade gravels. The increasing amount 
of drift brought down by the river made it imperative that 
large, powerful machines should be employed, and during the 
ueit^few years more dredges were built. 

In the year 1887 a Welmatf, or suction, dredge was erected 
at Alexandra, and several others were afterwards erected on 
the West Coast ocean -beaches. Although proved capable of 
dealing with fine sand and shingle, these dredges were not 
suitable for working where large stones and coarse gravel 
existed. In consequence they did not come into permanent 

4niong other systems tried during this period on the West 
Coast may be mentioned Taylor's dredge, worked on a dry- 
land principle — a combination of a Priestman grab and a 
cataract pump; and Brown's dredge, which consisted of an 
American type of pump, known as the Cataract pump. 

All these years the industry was progressing quietly, and 
it was not until 1889 that a decided advance took place. In 
that year Sew Hoy, a Chinese merchant in Dunedin, took up 
a claim on the Big Beach, Shotover River, and erected a 
dredge thereon. This enterprise was attended with great suc- 
cess, and something in the nature of a dredging boom took 
place. Many more dredges were placed on the Shotover 


River and the upper reaches of the Kawarau Rirer ; some of 
these were successful, while others were not. Several of these 
early dredges are still in operation, having been shifted to 
and re-erected on claims on the Clutha, Manuherikia, and 
Waikaka Rivers. 

In 1890 the first application of electric motive power to a 
dredge was undertaken at the Sandhills dredge, Upper Shot- 
over River. The installation proved successful, and the plant 
worked well. About this time several dredges on the Wehnan 
principle were working on the ocean-beaches of the south-east 
coast. These dredges were considerably improved on the 
original type, but failed owing to the difficulty of saving the 
extremely fine gold with the ordinary gold-saving appliances. 
It was in this year that the possibility of working by dredges 
wet, flat land with small streams of water running through it 
was first demonstrated. The Upper Waipori alluvial dredge 
was built to work a flat claim at Waipori, and the success 
attendant on this venture proved that ground could be worked 
in which dredges would have to depend to a great extent on 
the drainage of the surrounding country. This brought 
within the scope of dredged large areas of auriferous ground 
of this nature in Waikaka, Waikaia, Waipori, Tuapeka, Wai- 
tahuna, Nevis, and other districts. At first these flat-land 
dredges were constructed on the sluice-box principle, and this 
principle is adopted to the present day wherever practicable. 
In the case of deep ground and high faces above water-level, 
the question of the disposal of tailings arose. This was satis- 
factorily solved in 1894 by the invention of Cutten's elevaU)r, 
which, fitted at the stern of the dredge, received the washed 
material from the revolving screen and stacked it to the de- 
sired height. Elevators, differing in construction, have been 
since designed by other dredge engineers, the most recent and 
successful patent being ** Payne and Peck's Centrifugal Ele- 
vator." As showing what the application of the elevator 
meant to the dredging industry, claims are now being worked 
in which the face of gravel is 26 ft. below and 45 ft. above 
water-level, the material being stacked 60 ft. above water- 


From 1894 the industry continued to expand, and the 
profitable working of many of the dredges on the Clutha River 
made this branch of mining at that time one of the most im- 
portant in Otago. A great many claims were pegged out in 
1895 on the Clutha and Eawarau Kivers, and several addi- 
tional dredges were in course of construction. It was about 
this time that the No. 1 Electric dredge — a private concern — 
iras reported to be dredging rich wash, and, in consequence, 
considerable activity in securing claims was displayed all 
through the district. In 1897 two dredges (Perry's and 
McGiirs) started operations on the Waikaka field, and the 
Golden Crown dredge at Waikaia. There are now (in 1906) 
twenty-six dredges on the Waikaka field, and sixteen on the 
Waikaia field. 

At the end of March, 1899, the number of working dredges 
in Otago and Southland was seventy. Four were undergoing 
removal, nine were standing for various reasons, and about 
thirty were in course of construction. These dredges were not 
confined to the Clutha River, but were spread oyer Waimumu, 
Gold Creek, Waikaka, Waikaia, Shag River, Macrae's, Chatto 
Creek, Ophir, Glenore, Waipori, and Tuapeka. About this 
time there was a decided tendency on all sides to build dredges 
of a larger and more efficient type. It was hardly to be ex- 
pected that every venture would be attended with success, and 
this want of success was due in some cases to lack of gold suffi- 
cient to pay expenses, and in other cases to inefficient manage- 
ment, or to the class of dredge not being suitable for the claim. 
Many concerns which went into liquidation passed into other 
hands, and became successes in later years, while several pri- 
vate parties acquired expensive and up-to-date dredges very 
cheaply and worked them with success. However, as time 
went on weaknesses in machinery were detected and overcome, 
new methods were evolved, and many improvements were ap- 
plied. A large number of men were gaining experience in the 
working of dredges, and thus capable men were available to 
command the different dredges. 

Writing now in 1906, it can be safely said that the dredg- 
ing industry is conducted on a sound basis, and has proved 



itself to be a legitimate branch of the mining industry. In the 
accompanying notes reliable data will be found regarding the 
dredging industry from the time of the spoon dredge ap to 
the present day. Descriptions are given of improvements in 
all matters of interest appertaining to the industry. It is 
impossible to enter fully into details, the desire being to afford 
a general idea of the localities where dredging is being 
carried on^ the rise or fall of the industry in each place, and 
the present and future prospects of the fields. 

The following table shows the numerical strength of thiB 
dredging fleet from 1877 to the 3l8t December, 1905. Prior 
to the year 1877 there were a number of spoon dredges and 
current-wheel dredges at work on various parts of the Glntha 
(or Molyneux) River : — 




Chief Improvemento. 













































Dredges driven by current- wheel. 

Introduction of steam-power on Dunedin 
dredge by Charles McQueen. 

Introduction of Welman suction dredge at 

Introduction of Welman suction dredge at 

Extension of use of dredges to work flat 
land at Waipori. 

Application of electro-motive power, Sand- 
hills dredge, Shotover. 

A large number of current-wheel dredges 
converted to steam. 

Cutten Bros, designed tailings-elevator, thus 
widening scope of application of dredges. 














Chief ImprovementB. 
















Tendency to build larger and more powerful 




Application of electro- motive power, Earns* 
cleugh No. 3 dredge, Alexandra. 




Adaptation of O'Biien's system of water- 
power to work dredges. 




Payne and Peck's cenirifugal elevator de- 




Johnson's submerged-jet dredge started. 







Introduction of shaking - table to replace 


CI at ha (or Molyneuz). 

In dealing with the dredging industry in the Clutha 
Valley, the whole district will be divided into sections, and 
each section separately dealt with. 

TuAPEKA Mouth, Beaumont, Miller's Flat, Dumbarton, 
Roxburgh, and Coal Creek — a distance op about Forty 

The earliest attempt to win gold from the deeper portions 
of the river was by means of the spoon dredge, operated by 
hand-labour. These were first used prior to 1868, in which 
year it is recorded that a man named Ward introduced the 
current-wheel dredge at Miller's Flat. This dredge had a 
string of buckets, as in the modern dredge, the power being 
derived from the current by means of the current-wheels. 
This was soon a popular method of dredging, and several 
more were built. In 1870 Seideberg applied the use of steam 
on a spoon dredge, but the cur rent- wheel system continued to 
be used for many years. In the year 1880 Warden Carew 
reported, ** Two steamboats, the * Ino ' and the 'Jane,' each 


of about 30 tons and 10-horse power, are now in the Clutha 
River, a few miles above Tuapeka Mouth, and are being filled 
up for dredging the river -bottom. This enterpri$ing under- 
taking is well thought of, as vessels working with steam- 
power will have great advantage over the current-wheel 
dredges. They can be moved about and their positions 
changed with greater ease, work in eddies where current-wheel 
dredges would be useless, and put through a much larger 
quantity of drift. It is generally admitted that, even with 
the ordinary boats, dredging would yield highly payable re- 
sults but for one great impediment — ^that the smallest flood 
in the river now brings down by the force of the current im- 
mense quantities of tailings and other dSbris, which fills up 
the dredging-buckets to the exclusion of the gravel from the 
older deposits that contain gold in quantity." There were 
four current-wheel dredges at Roxburgh during 1881, all 
doing well; but several dredges placed on the river betweea 
Beaumont and Tuapeka Mouth could not work successfully- 
At this time the Pride of Dunkeld, at Beaumont, was getting 
good returns. About the same number of dredges continued 
here and there on the river until 1886. In that year Gibson's 
suction dredge, at Alexandra, was being erected, and several 
claims were pegged out in anticipation of it turning out a 
success. During 1887 there were five cur rent- wheel dredges 
upon the river between Roxburgh and Horseshoe Bend, while 
four special claims were granted on the river above Beaumont. 
These were, however, awaiting the results from the suction 
dredge at Alexandra. Cowan and party's dredge, at the 
Beaumont, continued to work during 1887. Owing to the 
non -satisfactory results of the suction dredge, the four claims 
held at Beaumont by the Austral Company, Mr. Brown, Mr. 
Woods, and Mr. Tockel were abandoned in the year 1888. 

During the same year there were six dredges at work be- 
tween Beaumont and Coal Creek, while the Dunedin dredge 
was being re-€rected at Coal Creek. Warden Revell states, 
"From reports 1 believe that this class of mining still con- 
tinues to give satisfactory results for the capital and labour 
expended." The six dredges at work belonged to Brazil and 


party, Bennet and party, Pringle and party, Macdonald and 
party, Valentine and party, and Crookston and party. The 
Dunedin steam dredge, the Dunedin current-wheel, Telford 
and party, all between Dumbarton Rock and Coal Creek Flat, 
continued to work until 1890. The Ettrick gold steam dredge 
was erected during the year, as was also the Miller's Creek 
steam dredge. Other dredges were Aitken and party's cur- 
rent-wheel, Brazil and party's steam dredge (formerly current- 
wheel), Pringle and party's purrent-wheel, Bennet and party's 
steam dredge (formerly cur rent- wheel). Adams and company 
also built a dredge below Steele's farm. The lowest dredge 
was the small steam dredge of the Clutha Dredging Company. 
Cowan and party's dredge was removed from Beaumont to 
Pomahaka River. 

In 1892 there were ten tstcam and on© .current- wheel 
dredges at work on the river between Horseshoe Bend and Coal 
Creek, representing a plant-value of £25,000, and employing 
continuously sixty-five men. Six of these dredges were owned 
by registered companies, and the remainder by private 
parties. It would appear that about this time the majority 
of the dredges were getting handsome returns. The conver- 
sion of several of the current-wheel dredges to steam was ren- 
dered imperative by the necessity of working independent of 
the current, current-wheel dredges being only suitable for 
working in places where the current is strong, and not 
adapted for working near the beaches or in eddies. 

During the period 1893-96 the industry continued to 
expand, and good returns were obtained. Many new dredges 
were built, among them being the Golden Treasure, Edina, 
and Golden Gate. The industry progressed smoothly until 
1899. During that year every available portion of the river, 
from Tuapeka Mouth to Coal Creek, was pegged for dredging. 
On the same stretch of river there were about ten dredges at 
work and twenty-one in the building stages. All the work- 
ing dredges, with the exception of one current- wheeler, were 
driven by steam-power, the only electrically driven dredge, 
formerly at work on the Upper Shotover, being in course of 
re-erection for the Timmaburn Electric Gold-dredging Com- 
pany at Miller's Flat. 



During 1901 several up-to-date dredges were completed 
to work on yarious portions of the river, while others were 
in the building stages. At the end of 1901 there were twentj- 
one dredges working in this district, and a number building. 
By the end of 1902 several additional dredges were got to 
work, and the number of working dredges was thirty. Dur- 
ing the year the Paul's Beach, Golden Gravel, Britannia, and 
Teviot companies went into liquidation and were recon- 
structed; the dredges started work again on the original 
claims. Around the Beaumont the gold-returns were small 
but all the dredges around Roxburgh averaged good returns, 
while at Miller's Flat the industry was prosperous. Warden 
McCarthy furnishes the following particulars of four diyi- 
dend-paying dredges: — 


Golden Gate . . 
Molyneuz Eohi- 

New Roxburgh 




Qold won. 



Oj5. dwt. gr. 
1,706 3 0' 
1,0S8 7 Ol 

10,5001 619 17 111 
7,60oll,450 13 17 













Cent| £ s. 

35 14 114,825 103 

27 4 41,587 10 26 

23 16 171 481 5 4} 

76 7 01,125 


As regards the dredging industry around Roxburgh 
during 1903, Warden Burgess remarked, ** Although a few 
dredging companies in this portion of the district have 
perished for want of the necessary capital, and fewer dredges 
are now in operation, I think the industry is in a sounder 
condition at present than at any time during or since the 
boom. There are sixteen dredges at work in the river be- 
tween Coal Creek and the Island Block, and with the excep- 
tion of the Teviot (idle at present) all are working steadih* 
and with very satisfactory results. The Endeavour dredge 
and the Gold King dredge fell into the hands of Mr. Joseph 
Sparrow, who lost no time in getting them to work. The re- 
turns are not published, but I am credibly informed that both 



are getting above 40 oz. per week. The Goiden Gate, during 
the jear, paid in dividends ^2,125 — an amount closely ap- 
proximating to the total capital of the company. The Goiden 
Run, Golden Bed, Ettrick, Golden Treasure, and the Island 
Block are all obtaining satisfactory returns, and most of them 
are paying dividends. At Iloxburgh the Jubilee is a very per- 
sistent gold-getter, and has paid steadily since commencing 
work, while the Lady Roxburgh and the Molyneux Eohinoor 
are obtaining returns which leave a handsome margin of pro- 
fit/' At the end of 1903 there were seventeen dredges at 
work from Coal Creek to Beaumont, but during that year 
seven ceased operations, five of these being removed to other 
claims, one going to Victoria. 

In his report for 1904 Warden Burgess indicates that 
dredging in the Roxburgh and Miller's Flat district has im- 
proved very much. 



Name of Company. 


Amount of 
Gold won. 







Ob. dwt. gr. 

£ 8. 


Roxburgh Jubilee . . 


2,254 4 




Oo'den Bed 


1,809 8 


1,270 6 


Lady Roxburgh 


l,7r)4 10 7 




Otago No. 2 1 
Ot4Ro No. 1 ; 


1,643 10 
763 7 

40 \ 
42 i 


J 41 

Eitrick .. 


1,098 6 




Golaen Gate 


797 1 




At the end of 1904 there were eighteen dredges at work on 
this portion of the river. The Golden Treasure and Otago 
companies discarded their old dredges and purchased up-to- 
date machines. Eighteen dredges were at work at the end of 
1905; eight of this number were under private ownership, 
some being owned by parties of working shareholders. A 
regrettable accident was the loss of the Roxburgh Jubilee, 
which unaccountably sank at her moorings on Sunday, the 
18th February, 1906. 

It may safely be said that the dredging industry will be 
represented in this district by many dredges for years to come. 


There are still stretchea of the riyer which will paj nudl 
parties well to work with modern dredges. Around Miller's 
Flat also it has been ascertained that the river-banks are 
payablj auriferous, and it is reasonable to expect that the 
areas will be found to be extensive. The question of the 
disposal of tlie bilt in working these bank claims has been 
successfully answered by the application of the 8ilt-elevat>r 
wheel, which lifts the silt from the sump and discharges it 
into the main elevator. With the exception of several dredges 
around Miller's Flat, the machines are mainly operating on the 
river itself. Several dredges at MiUer's Flat are working the 
river-banks, and, being of the elevator type, the restoration 
of the land to its former state is next to impossible with the 
present appliances. 

Including Coal Creek to Alexandra Gorge, Alexandra, 
Clyde, Cromwell, Lowburn, Kawarau, Mandhbrikia, Ayo 

Prior to 1880 the dredging industry went through the 
stages of spoon and current-wheel bucket dredges. In 1880, 
at Alexandra, two large areas of river-bed were applied for, 
and steam dredging plants were to be erected on new prin- 
ciples. These two dredges were got to work in 1881 . One of 
these was the Dunedin dredge, designed and erected by Mr. 
Charles McQueen, of Dunedin.* After working on the river 
near Alexandra for some years this dredge was shifted to a 
claim on the Clutha River near Coal Creek. An impetus was 
given to the industry in 1886, when all the available portions 
of the Clutha River from Alexandra to Cromwell were pegged 
off. This was on account of the erection of one of Welman's 
dredges at Alexandra. During 1887 there were one steam and 
three current-wheel dredges at work between Clyde and Alex- 
andra. No dredges were erected on the special claims taken 
up in 1886, on account of the non-working of the Welmaa 
dredge at Alexandra: the first dredge was too small, and 

* The late Mr. McQueen's interesting account of the start of the 
steam dredge will be found in the Xew Zealand Mines Record of the 
16th June, 1906, pages 469-460. 


larger parts were being Bubstituted. During 1888 the Dun- 
edin steam dredge was remoyed to Coal Creek, leaving only 
two current- wheel dredges at work near Alexandra. It was 
unfortunate, at this time, that the Welman dredge sank before 
it had a fair trial. No advance was made in the district 
around Alexandra and Clyde during 1889, but Coote and 
Horn floated a company to work claims on the Eawarau River. 
Kloogh and party were also working a current-wheel dredge 
at Lowburn, on the Clutha River. It was in 1889 that Sew 
Hoy and Co. placed the first dredge on the Big Beach, Shot- 
over River. Its operations were successful, and led to claims 
being taken up on the Eawarau, Shotover, Arrow, and Car- 
drona Rivers ; also on the Dart River, Tweuty-five-mile Creek, 
Twelve-mile Creek, and Bucklerburn. It was during the year 
1890 that the industry made a decided advance. Apart from 
the pegging-out of claims, new dredges were built. Three 
were built for the Sew Hoy Company, one for the Talisman 
Company, and one for the Frankton Beach Company. Two 
others were at work below the Shotover River on the Kawarau 
River. The Sandhills Company also constructed a dredge to 
bo worked by electro - motive force : the claim was situated 
on the Upper Shotover. In the same year the only advance 
made around Alexandra, Clyde, and Cromwell was the grant- 
ing of several special claims in these districts. 

The only item of interest in the lower part of the district 
during 1891 was the construction of a pneumatic dredge to 
work in the gorge of the Clutha River below Alexandra: this 
was the property of a Melbourne syndicate. No new dredges 
were added to this district during that year, either in the 
lower or upper portions of it. If the wholesale cancellation 
of the claims in various parts of the district can be accepted 
as a criterion, then the industry received a decided set-back 
in 1891. It is claimed, however, that the bursting of the 
"boom " in the upper portion of the district was an import- 
ant factor in promoting the permanency of the industry, be- 
cause many of the dredges were purchased and removed to 
claims between Alexandra and Clyde in 1892. Here they 
became successful gold-producers. Spencer and party pur- 


chased the Eawarau Big Beach dredge, Hyde and party pur- 
chased the Frankton Beach, and other dredges were remored 
from time to time. The pneumatic dredge preyiouslj men- 
tioned did not fulfil expectations. From this year the in- 
dustry began to expand slowly, the extension of the applica- 
tion of dredges to auriferous gravels being assisted by the 
tailings-elevator designed by Cutten Bros., consulting engi- 
neers, Dunedin, and first erected on the Enterprise dredge 
at Alexandra in 1S94. Dredges fitted with the tailings- 
elevator were enabled to work deeper ground, and also banks 
above water-level, as this application enabled them to disposa 
of their tailings to better advantage. 

The late Mr. John Gow, Inspector of Mines, reporting in 
1895, states, ** The addition to the fleet of dredges on the 
Clutha River has been going on apace." New dredges were 
erected at Alexandra, Manuherikia, and Lowburn. The pro- 
fitable working of many of the dredges on the Clutha River 
during 1895 made this branch of gold-mining for the time 
being the most important in Otago. It was in the year 1895 
that the first Electric dredge was built and started to work, 
but it was not until 1896 that gold was struck on Cornish 
Beach. An interesting account of the history of this famous 
stretch of river will be found in Mr. James Horn's communi- 
cation on the subject to the writer of this paper. It will bo 
suflScient here to say that the apparently successful working 
of this dredge led to another period of claim-pegging. Tli3 
Kawarau River was pegged out from Cromwell to the gorge, 
and the Clutha River from Cromwell to Rocky Point. The 
claims on the Clutha stretch of river were held awaiting re- 
sults from Crookston and party's new dredge, which was about 
to start work. 

Rapid strides were made in the industry in 1896, as it 
was found that there was practically no limit to the ground 
which could be worked by dredges. Beaches, banks, and flats 
could now be operated on with the greatest ease. The Manor- 
burn Company's dredge got to work on the Manuherikia 
River, and at the end of the year there were twelve dredges 
in active operation on the river around Alexandra and Clyda. 

i - 


It was said at the end of 1897 that the prospects of the dredg- 
ing industry had never been so good as at that time. Thir- 
teen dredges were at work around Clyde and Alexandra, three 
on the Manuherikia, and an additional five were being con- 
Ktmcted on the Clutha at Alexandra, and three on the Manu- 
herikia. All those working were doing remarkably well. On 
the other hand, a great measure of sucoess had not attended 
operations on the Clutha at Lowburn, due, doubtless, to the 
depth of the ground and the smallness of the dredges. Below 
Cromwell the Hartley and Riley dredge was ready to receiye 
machinery at the end of 1897. The Electric Nos. 1 and 2 
were working, and No. 3 was nearly completed. The Golden 
Terrace Nos. 1 and 2 (formerly the Sew Hoy Big Beach) con- 
tinued to work on the Lower Shotover, near Queenstown. 

During 1898 there was a general tendency to build larger 
and more powerful dredges, and as examples may be taken 
the Magnetic and Electric No. 3 dredges, at Cromwell; the 
Earnscleugh No. 2 and the Golden Point dredges, at Alex- 
andra. In later years still more powerful dredges were built 
— y\z., the Dunstan Lead, Alexandra Lead, Earnscleugh No. 3 
(electric), Rise-and-Shine, Rising Sun, ^c. 

During the year 1900 the phenomenal yields of the Hartlev 
and Riley dredge and the dredges of the Electric Company 
caused a decided rush for dredging claims on all parts of the 
Clutha, Eawarau, ShotoTer, and other rivers and streams in 
Otago. At the end of 1900 there were fifty-one dredges at 
work in the Alexandra, Clyde, Cromwell, and Queenstown dis- 

During the six years which have followed the year 1900 
numerous changes have taken place. While some companies 
met with success from the start, and became dividend-paying 
concerns, it is to be regretted that very many were failures. 
The causes contributing towards this were many, chief among 
these being inefficient management, and in some cases still 
more inefficient machinery. However, as time went on, the 
weaker concerns became weeded out, as it was impossible for 
them to survive. The failures were most noticeable in the 
gorges of the various rivers. Experience has proved that the 

9— UiDing Handbook. 


machine to work these claims successfully must be of a superior 
olass to any that have yet been tried on these daims. In the 
gorges many things have to be contended with, such as hard 
bottom^ tight wash, travelling drift, and short seasons. Judg- 
ing from a hard crust broken through in the Alpine Consdb 
Claim below Cromwell, and in the M^ and Annie Claim at 
Waitiri, below which good gold was found, it is possible that 
the operations of the gorge dredges have been carried on over 
this false bottom. There are long stretches of the river in 
the Alexandra Gorge, in the Cromwell Gorge, and in the Ka- 
warau River, which, in spite of several dredges having been 
tried on them, are practically untried. The dredge to work 
these stretches must be large, powerful, and costly. 

The most successful and permanent locality has been the 
krge basin between Clyde and Alexandra, and here powerful 
dredges have been built to work the Dunstan and Earnsclengfa 
Flats. By the adoption of machinery suitable to deal with 
deep, heavy ground, the life of dredging has been indefinitelv 
prolonged in this district. The same remarks apply to the 
Clutha Basin around Lowburn. Here, again, powerful 
dredges have been working with success, and many noore are 
being started. Beside these huge dredges the original vessels 
on the field are mere toys. There is an extensive field here 
lor dredging should prospecting reveal the existence of pay- 
Able auriferous wash. 

With regard to improvements in methods of working, then 
are several worthy of note. Electricity has been successfully 
applied to drive the Fourteen-mile Beach and Earnscleugh 
No. 3 dredges; Payne and Peck's centrifugal elevator has 
been fitted on a large number of dredges, and has been proved 
to do satisfactory work, while at the same time minimising 
wear-and-tear. The latest idea is the substitution of the shak- 
ing-box in place of the revolving screen. As applied to the 
Rising Sun dredge, this appliance has been found to deal 
effectively with the material, while at the same time lessening 
the enormous wear-and-tear associated with the revolving 

Mr. James Horn, of Bannockburn, near Cromwell, wHo is 


the Electric Gold-dredging Company's local director, and who 
was one of the original promoters, has supplied the following 
graphic and interesting information respecting this company's 
claims and two dredges : " Electric Claim, containing 76 acres 
3 roods 32 perches, and about one mile and three-quarters of 
the Kawarau River, starting near the rocky outlet of the Kawa- 
rau Gorge and extending down to near the Macandrew Bridge 
at Bannockburn, is one of two claims originally taken up by 
Messrs. Coote and Horn in January, 1890, under section 114 
of 'The Mining Act, 1886.' It was held by the original 
owners for fiye years, and, although several attempts were 
made to float a company to work the ground, it was not till 
January of 1895 that final arrangements were concluded for 
the working of this now famous property. The failure of the 
fleet of dredges in the upper reaches of the Kawarau in 1888 
and 1889 had given this river a bad name, and it was only 
by the faith and determination of the owners that Messrs. 
Horn Bros, and William Roy, of Bannockburn; Mr. Henry 
Young, of Cromwell; Messrs. Stewart Bros., of Scotland; 
and Messrs. McGeorge Bros., P. Duncan, B. Thorp, Barr,. 
and Crow, of Dunedin, were induced to form a private part- 
nership of thirteen shares in order to build a prospecting 
dredge. This dredge, known as No. 1, was built at the cost 
of £3,000, and started to work on the lower claim, known as 
the original Magnetic (now the New Cromwell) ground in 
August, 1895, but no gold was got till January of 1896, five 
months after the dredge started, when gold was got at the 
Cornish Beach in the present Electric Company's claim. 
No. 1 dredge worked on this claim from January, 1896, to 
November, 1897, and won 2,763 oz. of gold, valued at 
£10,657. This enabled the partnership to take up a third 
claim at Cromwell and build No. 2 dredge, which was placed 
on No. 3 claim, at the junction of the Kawarau and Clutha 
Rivers; also No. 3 dredge, which was launched by Lord Ran- 
furly, and named by him the * Lady Ranfurly,' in 1898. This 
dredge started work in October, 1898, and won 755 oz. of gold 
for the first four weeks' work. In September, 1899, the part- 
nership was formed into a registered company, or rather two 



companies — the Electric Gold-dredging Company and the 
Junction Electric Gold- dredging Company — ^the two lower 
claims, with No.s. 1 and 2 dredges, being the Junction Electric 
Company, and the top claim, with the ' Lady Ran! urlj ' 
<lredge, the Electric Gold-dredging Company. Meanwhile — 
from October, 1898, to the date of registration of the com- 
panies (September, 1899) — the ' Lady Ranfurly,' for a period 
of eleven months, had won for the partnership 3,467 oc. of 
gold, valued at £13,317 19s. ; this, added to the gold won b/ 
the No. 1 dredge, £10,637, gives a total of 6,250 oc., valued 
at £23,954 198. Working for the company in July, 1900. 
the * Lady Ranfurly ' broke all previous dredging records fof 
a week's work with 1,234 oz. In July, 1902, the Electric 
Company purchased the Magnetic Grold-dredging Company'^ 
dredge (sister ship to the * Lady Ranfurly '), and since that datt 
there have been two dredges working on the claim. In Feb- 
ruary, 1904, the newly acquired dredge lowered the " Lady 
Ranfurly's ' record with a return of 1,265J(M5. This dredge's 
return for a period of four weeks also established a new re- 
cord for a month's work — viz., 30th January, 1904, 620 oe.; 
5th February, 1,265^ oz.; 15th February, 611 oz. 15dwt.; 
20th February, 530 oz. : grand total for four weeks, 3,027 of. 
5dwt., valued at £23,204 18s. 3d. In November, 1904, the 
* Lady Ranfurly ' again topped her sister ship with a return 
of 1,273 oz. for one week's work, but she failed to break the 
four weeks' record, her return being— 15th October, 367 oz.; 
22nd October, 529 oz. ; 29th October, 606 oz. ; and 5th No- 
vember, 1,273 oz.: total for four weeks, 2,775 oz., being 
252 oz. short of No. 2 dredge's record. The total gold woo 
out of this claim from January, 1896, to date of last yearly 
balance (31st August, 1905) is as follows: — 

£ B. d 

Amount won for partnership . . 23,954 19 
Amount won for Electric (Jold- 

dredging Company . . . . 149,960 8 11 

Total.. .. .. 173,915 7 11 

No. 1 dredge was the first steam dredge to work in the Crom- 
well district, and the ' Lady Ranfurly,' when built, was by 


far the largest dredge in the colony, and at the present day is 
among the best-equipped on the river." 

Very little information has been recorded regarding the 
rise and progress of the dredging industry in the Nevis, but 
an intimate knowledge of the district enables the following 
narrative to be given : — 

A considerable amount of gold was obtained by hand- 
labour and by hydraulic sluicing, until the advent of dredg- 
ing in 1896. In that year nearly every available dredgable 
area of the Nevis River was taken up, but the erection of 
<lredges proceeded slowly until the maximum number of six 
was reached. The ground has never been very rich, although 
fair returns have been obtained from time to time. The richer 
parts of the flatt had been worked by hand-labour, and when 
tlie dredge came along this worked ground was reworked along 
^vith the poorer solid ground left by the early miners. • Nature 
lias provided this treeless tract of country with several seams 
of coal of good quality and thickness. These seams are all 
«emi-vertical. The Lower Nevis dredges receive their coal- 
supply for about 12s. per ton delivered. Tlie foregoing ap- 
plies to that portion of the Nevis lying below the gorge which 
separates it from the Upper Nevis. At the Upper Nevis there 
is an extensive tract of flat and terrace land, covering several 
thousand acres. There are four sluicing claims working suc- 
cessfully at the Upper Nevis on the line of drift, skirting the 
foothills of the Remarkables Range ; but what little dredging 
has been done there, as far as can be gathered, has been tt 
failure up to the present. The line of drift alluded to is in 
close proximity to a fault-line, which is said to traverse the 
country, and the Upper Nevis apparently has geological con- 
ditions which are at present little understood. However, 
(luring the summer season of 1906-7 this extensive tract of 
country is to receive thorough prospecting on behalf of com- 
panies holding claims thereon. Prospecting hitherto has been 
* retarded chiefly owing to the necessity for pumping-appliances, 


as the flat is yery wet. Should payable ground be found, 
there will be an extensive field on the Upper Neyis, but every 
portion will require to be well prospected, as in the case of 

Warden McCarthy reports that in 1896, at the Nevis Riyer, 
the Nevis Gold-dredging Company put up a lO-horse-power 
dredge, which, for the short time it worked before the frost set 
in, got fairly good returns. Two other dredges were being 
built on the Nevis, and were expected to be ready to start in 
the early spring of 1897. The first machine placed on the 
Nevis River was the Nevis dredge, owned by the Nevis Gold- 
dredging Company. Formerly at the Eyeburn River, it was 
renK>ved to Nevis, and started work in 1897. Unfortunately, 
the boiler and engine were too small for the work to be done 
at the Nevis. The ground was not rich enough for a dredge 
of this class, but with a powerful dredge would have yielded 
fair returns. Area of claim, 98 acres. 

The New Nevis Gold-dredging Company was roistered in 
November, 1901, to take over the assets of the Nevis CcMnpany 
(in liquidation). The working-expenses were about 8o«. 
weekly. The dredge continued in operation until April, 1903, 
when the company sold the dredge to the New Era Gold-dredg- 
ing Company, consisting chiefly of working shareholders. The 
dredge is still in operation in 1906, and has three years' work 
ahead yet. The results obtained are now satisfactory to the 
shareholders. The ground averages 8 ft. to 15 ft. in depth. 
Weekly cost of running, £39. 296,000 cubic yards turned 
over in 1905. Being a private company, the returns are not 

The Ngapara No. 2 dredge, owned principally by the pro- 
prietors of the Ngapara dredge at Alexandra, started work on 
Nevis Flat about 1897, and has continued to operate with suc- 
cess ever since. There are still some years' work ahead of this 

The Carrick dredge, owned by a registered company, waa 
built to work a claim on the river at the Upper Nevis. The 
dredge did not make a success of the claim, and was trans- 
ferred to a new claim about four miles below Nevis Township, 


where operations were resumed until 1903, when the dredge 
was purchased by the Crewe Gold-dredging Company, and 
shifted back to a claim higher up on the Nevis River. The 
dredge was fitted with a screen and elevator, and, as deep 
ground was struck, but little success was met with. During 
the summer of 1905 the screen and elevator were discarded, 
and the dredge was transformed into the sluice-box type. 

The Success (Nevis) dredge started work in March, 1899, 
on a claim adjoining the Carrick. Operations were continued 
until 1902, when the company went into liquidation, and the 
dredge and claim were bought by the Crewe Gold-dredging 
Company. Since then the dredge has worked continuously 
during the dredging seasons with fair success, and is still in 
operation in 1906. As before stated, the Crewe Company hold 
the Crewe No. 2 dredge, on the Upper Nevis. 

The Ngapara No. 3, owned by a registered company, 
started work early in 1900, and worked along without success 
until the summer of 1905-6, when the dredge was closed down 

The Kemarkables Gold-dredging Company purchased the 
Golden Spec dredge, Naseby, and transferred it in 1900 to a 
claim on the Nevis River, opposite the township. After a short 
period of work the dredge was unable to prove the claim pay- 
able, and was closed down. In 1903 the dredge was purchased 
by James Horn and party, and transferred to a claim at the 
Lower Nevis, owned by the Nevis Crossing Company. The 
dredge has been at work during the past three seasons with 
moderate success, and has several years' work ahead yet. 

Mr. John Hayes, Inspecting Engineer, reporting for 1898, 
records that Allen and Aitken's claim of 22 acres at the mouth 
of the Nevis, where it junctions with the Kawarau River, was 
prospected by the Victoria Bridge dredge in 1898. Although 
coarse gold was obtained, the prospects did not warrant the 
expenditure on a new dredge. The Grand Junction No. 1 
dredge also entered the Nevis-mouth in 1904 from the Kawa- 
rau River, but the ground was not found payable. 

The Nevis district is about 1,800 ft. above sea-level, and 
the winters are very rigorous. Dredging operations generally 


oease about May or June, and are not resumed until Aogott 
or September — ^that is, the dredges only work about thirty-two 
weeks in the year. 

The ground operated upon is totally unfit for anything bat 
grazing purposes, and therefore tho question of the restoratioQ 
of the surface is not considered ; the dredges, being proTided 
with elevators, leave the heavy open material on t(^. 

The cost of working in this district runs about Id. per 
cubic yard dredged. 

There is now a sufficient number of dredges and hydraulic 
plants on the Lower Nevis Flat; but, as before stated, sys- 
tematic boring, such as has been carried on at Waikaia with 
reliable results, would prove the existence or otherwise of ao 
extensive dredging-field on the Upper Nevis. 


As a dredgi tig-field Cardrona was first brought under public 
notice in 1890, when, in sympathy with the Sew Hoy Big 
Beach *'boom," 1,190 acres were taken up in twelve special 
claims for dredging purposes. Some prospecting was done 
with boring-rods during that year. No dredges were, however, 
erected in this locality, and the holders abandoned their claims 
in 1891. In 1899 dredging claims were again taken up, and 
the Rolling Stone dredge started to work below Branch Creek. 
The whole valley was then pegged out for dredging, and in 
1900 the White Star dredge was erected, and started to work 
with a fair show of success. The operations of the Rolling 
Stone did not meet with success, and the dredge was closed 
down after a few months* work. Several other dredges were 
erected during 1901, but only two were working at the end 
of the year. The Cardrona field, so far, had proved a disap- 
pointment, but it was reasonably believed that the dredges 
were not suitable for the class of ground. The only represen- 
tatives of the industry in the district in 1906 are the Lone 
Star and Tuohy's Creek. The latter dredge is worked fay 
O'Brien's system of applying water-power to dredges, and the 
former is now being converted from steam to the same power. 

■ > •■• ^^ ^-^ / \ r -: ( 

^ V5 

' f .' •■ T • . ^i ■ ' •• 


I . . •* 


4' ;< 


The opinion is stiU held by thoee who know the district that 
the whole length of the vallej — a distance of over twenty milee 
—will pay for working, provided that the extent of auriferous 
wash is located by boring-rods, and suitable machines with 
large engine-power and bucket-capacity put on to work. 

There is no agricultural land in this valley being dredged, 
as the ground is only suited for rough grazing purposes. 

llaa«by, Ophir, Matakanui, Talari, and Oambriaa's. 

Spoon dredging was first tried on the Taieri River, near 
Hyde, by a Dunedin syndicate in 1889, and a number of dredg- 
ing claims were taken up in the vicinity. The industry made 
slow progress until 1895, when a small bucket dredge was work- 
ing at Hyde. Operations were, however, unsuccessful, and the 
dredge was removed to Kyeburn. In 1897 dredges were at 
work at Ophir and Naseby, and from that year the industry 
began to expand, dredges being built at Naseby, Kyeburn, 
Cambrian's, Matakanui, and Ophir. Warden Dalgleish re- 
ported in 1899 as follows: ''A great deal of attention has 
been paid to dredging, leading to very noticeable activity iti 
many portions of the district, but I regret very much that I am 
not in a position to report favourably on the results so far. 
Several of the companies which have been inaugurated for that 
class of mining have been compelled to cease operations. 
Whether this has been caused by an actual scarcity of gold in 
the wash treated, or that defective dredges were built and 
placed on the claims, I cannot say with certainty, but I incirne 
to the latter opinion. So far as I am informed, undoubtedly 
good prospects were obtained in every case before dredges 
were built and placed on the claims, but the issue in several 
cases has not been by any means equal to the prospects. I 
am of opinion that the preliminary prospecting carried out 
was not sufficiently exhaustive in many oases, and too hasty 
conclusions as to the payable nature of large areas were 
arrived at when only small portions of the whole were ex- 
ploited. Many more dredging claims have been and still are 
being taken up, and there appears to be little or no doubt 


that most of them will be given a good trial. I may say that 
the whole district seems, in a mining sense, to be in a state of 
transition from a sluicing and elevating system to dredging." 
The state of the industry at the end of the year 1900 may 
be gathered from the following report by Warden McEnnis: 
'* It must be admitted that dredging has so far not been a 
success, such ventures having up to the present proved 
failures. The Naumai dredge, which has just commenced to 
work on the Main Kyeburn Creek, alone remains, and it is 
premature yet to say what its results will be. All other 
dredges in the vicinity have been dismantled, and removed 
-from the district. On the Kyeburn Diggings s<Hne dredging 
claims have been taken up, and, no doubt, if the Naumai 
dredge should pay, dredges will be put on these claims. At 
Matakanui, dredging, as a method of extracting the precious 
metal, has not been successful. Great hopes were entertained 
from the operations of the Klondike dredge, but, unfortu- 
nately, either the gold was not in the ground or the saving ap- 
pliances were not efficient. From the many reports as to the 
payable prospects obtained from the claim before the dredge 
commenced to work, I should be inclined to think that our 
present method of treating the wash obtained in dry-land 
dredging is not sufficiently advanced. The Blue Duck dredg* 
has also made a start in Thompson's Creek, but so far its re- 
turns do not warrant great expectations. Several claims have 
been taken up in Ida Valley for the purpose of dredging. 
One company has been formed, but so far the directors have 
not thought it advisable to place a dredge on the claim. It 
is understood that the prospects were good, but the ground 
generally is shallow, and water not plentiful. At Ophir 
(Black*s) the field is now left to a few fossickers. At the Ser- 
pentine the Pile-up Company, it is said, intends to place a 
dredge on ground in this locality. A number of dredging 
claims have been taken up on the Taieri River near Middle- 
march, and a dredge (the First Taieri) was placed on a claim, 
but after working some time turned out a failure, chiefly, 1 
think, because the dredge was too small and not powerfal 


There are now, in 1906, only two dredges at work in the 
above districts — one at Poolburn, and one at Black's. The 
chief cause of failure of so many dredges may be set down to 
all or any of the following reasons: Hard, rough bottom; 
tight wash; scarcity of water; inefficient machinery and gold- 
saving appliances; or non-auriferous character of the ground. 
The district is essentially suited for sluicing, and this class 
of mining, assisted by the Government water-conservation 
scheme, has been successfully carried on for many years. 
There are still extensive tracts of auriferous ground which 
only require water to make them productive. 

Macrae** and Shag Valley. 

Dredging operations were first started in these districts 
in 1898. In the former district one dredge was started in 
1898, and another in 1902. Neither of these dredges was 
successful. The chief causes of failure may be attributed to 
the presence of very stiff clay, and to the absence of a stream 
of running water. Under these conditions, it was impossible 
to properly treat the material and save the gold. In 1899 
there were f<>ur dredges at work ip. the Shag Valley, above 
Palmerston; two of these continued to work until 1904, ob- 
taining moderate returns. In the Shag Valley the depth of 
the ground worked by the dredges averaged 20 ft. The gold 
is found at that depth on a false bottom, consisting of pipe- 
clays and sands. 

The land being dredged is fit for agricultural purposes, 
but no steps have been taken to restore the soil or loam to the 
surface. The dredges were fitted with elevators, and the 
material is piled up, with the larger material on top. The 
finer material is washed over the gold-saving tables, and 
finally escapes at water-level, the larger material covering it 
as the dredge advances. With the sluice-box dredge all the 
material is discharged together, and the ground has some like- 
lihood of reverting to its original state in time. 

At Macrae's a large area of auriferous ground, partly 
worked and partly unworked, is lying idle, awaiting a suit- 
able appliance being designed for its efficient operation. 


North Otago: Mattrewhenoa. 

The following is an extract from Warden Keddell's report 
in 1901 : '* The Pioneer Company, holding a claim on the 
Maerewhenua River, on the Duntroon Road, purdiased tba 
Macrae's Flat dredge in 1900, and removed it to the claim, 
where work was started early in 1901. After working three 
or four months the ladder was found to be insufficiently long 
to bottom the ground, and the result was a failure. This wai 
disheartening, not only on account of want of success in finding 
the gold which the company's former prospecting efforts had 
shown to exist, but because its failure will discourage other 
owners of dredging- areas to put on machines. In fact, the 
Maerewhenua Claim has never been properly tested yet. The 
Premier No. 1, a claim on the Awamoko, also started a dredge 
in 1901, and it was confidently expected it would be a sucoeBS. 
The chief drawback to its success was the opposition to ita 
being worked on any large scale, the Awamoko and its water- 
shed generally passing through private lands, whose riparian 
rights would be affected. This venture was not successful." 
These dredges were removed from the district, and the in- 
dustry has been at a stan({still. Rich alluvial ground has been 
worked for many years on the Maerewhenua and Livingstone 
diggings, and it is reasonable to expect payably auriferous 
ground to exist in the valley of the Maerewhenua River. 


It is recorded that gold was first discovered in Tuapeka in 
1856, on what is now known as Evans Flat Stream, but it was 
not until 1861, when Gabriel Read found gold in Gabriel's 
Gully, that the real auriferous character of the district be- 
came known. During the j-ears that followed the flats were all 
turned over by hand-labour. When the ground became too 
poor to pay by this method, hydraulic sluicing and elevating 
was adopted. Dredging was first started in 1896, when Uren 
and party's dredge was constructed to work on Tuapeka Flat 
In the same year James Robertson took up a special claim oo 


Weatherstone's Flat,* and started to re-erect a dredge pur- 
chased from McKenzie and party at Coal Creek. In 1898 
there were five dredges working throughout the year — namely, 
the Record Reign, Harris and party's, Evans Flat, Tuapeka, 
and Balclutha dredges; while Smythe and party's dredge (late 
Robertson's) was working on Weatherstone's Flat. During 
1900 the Record Reign was removed to Berwick, and the Re- 
liance dredge was built. These dredges continued to work, the 
number being increased in 1901 by the erection of the Happy 
Valley dredge at Weatherstone's. Several of the dredges 
changed hands from time to time, and were dismantled when 
their claims were worked out. 

During 1906 tlie Taniwha (formerly tlie Balclutha) dredge 
eume to the end of its career on Labes's Flat, where the heavy 
clay and poor returns forced it to cease operations. The 
dredge was bought by the Labes Bros., who are dismantling 
her and selling the machinery, &c., as purchasers are found. 
The Reliance dredge (Harris and party) is now the only repre- 
sentative of an industry once represented by seven dredges. 

The greater part of the ground turned over by these 
dredges consisted of old ground, 10 ft. to 14ft. in depth, 
worked by hand-labour, assisted by Californian and Spear 
pumps. Much of it had been turned over several times by 
Europeans and Chinese. The dredges were thus enabled to 
put through a lai'ger amount of material than would have been 
the case had solid ground been worked. This applies to a 

* WeathersUme*s is variously spelt in different publications. Mr. 
James McEerrow, F.O.8., late Survey er- General, on being asked by the 
Editor of the Mininq Handbook as to the correct orthography, cour- 
teouflly replied as follows : ** In reply to your letter as to the proper spelling 
of WeathersUme, the name of a small ncttlement on a flat two miles from 
Lawrence on the road to Waipori, I have to state that a family of that 
name, in the early sixties, lived in a house on the line of the mountain- 
track, halfway between Dunedin and Port Chalmers. I did not know 
them, but I believe I am correct in stating that it was one of them who 
was the first to discover and o|>en out a claim on the flat which now bears 
the name of Weatherstone's, just as in a similar manner the gaily where 
Gabriel Bead discovered gold was, and is, known as Gabriel's, situated 
close to, and partly in, Lawrence. The place where the Weatherstones 
had their hou8<), on the track between Dunedin and Port Chalmers, is 
also known as Weathentone's. In the late Professor Button's 'Geology 
of Otago,' publit-hed in 3879, he refers to WeathersUme and Weathergtane^s 
In his explanation of the geology of the Tuapeka district. The other 
spellings which yon give are evidently corruptions of WeeUheratone." 


great extent to the Waipori, Waitahuna, and Glenore dredg- 
ing-fields also. The dredges were all of the sluioe-box type, 
and bj their operations transformed areas of mounds and 
hollows into level areas fit for cultivation, grass-growing, or 
tree-planting. As an instanoe of a typical dredge for this 
class of claim may be given the case of the Tuapeka Flat 
dredge. The pontoons were 60 ft. long and 24 ft. wide over-alU 
and were 4ft. Gin. deep. The buckets were of 3^ cubic feet 
capacity, and the ladder was 36 ft. long, and could dredge 
to a depth of 20 ft. The average depth of the ground was 
12 ft. ; the weekly expense of running about 6^08. ; the gold- 
saving appliances consisted of a long sluice-box, 60 ft. in 
length by 4 ft. in width, and fitted with ripples and perforated 
steel plates on top of ooooanut matting and calico. The future 
working of the deposits in this district must be mainly on the 
extensive terraces which lie in the valley of the Tuapeka 
River. Powerful pumping plants are required in order to 
raise the necessary sluicing-water. 


The Waipori Goldfield was discovered in December, 1861, 
when gold was found on the Yerterburn, afterwards named the 
Post Office Creek. It developed int«> a rich and important 
alluvial field. The Waipori Valley is about twelve miles in 
length, and has an average width of half a mile. The Wai- 
pori River is a stream of considerable dimensions, and the flat 
is very wet; this prevented systematic working of the flat by 
hand-labour. Dredging was first introduced into this district 
in 1889, and solved the problem of the efficient working of wet 
auriferous ground. The industry was hampered considerably 
in 1893 by litigation regarding the alleged pollution of the 
stream, but ten years after there were" thirteen dredges in the 
district. Waipori is the birthplace of two notable adapta- 
tions of water-power to dredges — namely, O'Brien's and John- 
son's systems, each of which is detailed hereafter. Now, In 
1906, with the exception of the holdings of the Consolidated an<l 
Perseverance companies, all the other claims are either worked 
out or only the poorer fringes left, and the dredges are passing 


into the hands of semi-private companies or parties of work- 
ing shareholders. There are at present seven dredges in the 
district, onlv six of which are working. As regards the future- 
prospects of the Waipori alluvial goldfield, there still remain 
possibilities for the investing capitalist. A deep, tortuoua- 
ravine, filled with gravel, traverses the entire length of the 
valley, proved to a depth of at least 80 ft by Charles McQueez^ 
in 1889. This may not have been the bottom, but it was. 
proved that the whole distance passed through was more or 
less auriferous. During the present year J. T. Johnson ha» 
been operating the Bakery Flat water-power to bottom this- 
deep lead with the hydraulic sluicing plant. A depth of over 
60 ft. has been reached, and the material passed through is- 
payably auriferous. It was to work this deep lead that J<^n- 
son's submerged- jet dredge was designed and constructed. It 
it certain that the dredging industry will be represented by 
one or more dredges for some years yet. Local people con- 
fidently look forward to the day when a cheaply worked plant 
of large dimensions, capable of raising and treating efficiently^ 
a very large amount of material, will be set to work to tura 
over the old worked ground in a wholesale manner. The 
power would require to be procured cheaply, and partake of 
the form of electricity, O'Brien's, Johnson's, or any other 
improved system. 

The adaptation of water-pressure to the work of driving- 
dredge machinery was applied by W. O'Brien, of Waipori,. 
with considerable success in 1901. The patentee supplies the 
following particulars: ** The pressure is obtained as in any 
ordinary hydraulic claim — viz., the water being conveyed in 
pipes down the slope of a hill. The water is conveyed on to 
the dredge from the bottom of the hill or edge of the paddock, 
by means of a floating column of pipes, coupled with revolving 
joints, each joint to be fixed and supported by means of float- 
ing pontoons. The water-pressure, when conveyed on boardi 
tbe dredge, will work the turbine, Pelton wheel, or any other 
▼ater-motor to drive the dredging machinery. The length of 
pipes and position, of pontoons of floating column will be s<v 
tirranged as to take up the smallest space up and down the 


hull of the dredge when close to the bank. The pontoons will 
be worked from the dredge, and can be so manipulated as to 
permit of the dredge being moved from side to side of the 
run or face with ease by the ordinary gear on board tiic 
dredge. A dredge can be built to work by the above method 
at a considerably less cost than those which are worked fay 
steam-power, as there will be no expensive engines and boilers 
to provide for. The turbine or Peltou wheel will be placed 
at the same elevation as the sluice-boxes. The water dis- 
charged from the turbine or Pelton wheel, after working the 
madiinery, will wash the stuff discharged from the buckets 
The water -pressure provides a power which can be turned on 
at any moment. Water-power, where available, is the cheapest 
power known, and when used direct very poor ground can 
be made to pay. Advantages claimed : No fuel will be re- 
quired ; no engine and boiler to keep in repair; less oil and 
wear-and-tear ; less labour required, as when the water-motor 
is once set to work it does not require attendants — therefore 
the second man on the dredge can attend to the lines, slaice- 
lK>xes, Ac, and give any assistance which may be required." 

In 1903 a new departure in dredge mining — applicable, 
however, to those places only at which hydraulic power is 
available — was made by J. T. Johnson, of Waipori, who sup- 
plies the following particulars: ''The principle of the sub- 
merged-jet dredge is simply that of the hydraulic elevator 
adapted to the requirements of a dredge, and consists of 
ordinary dredge-pontoons, divested of boiler, engine, and 
bucket-ladder, these being replaced by an hydrauUcally driven 
Pelton wheel to work the winches, an hydraulic elevator in 
place of a bucket-ladder to raise the material to the shoots, 
and a breaking-down nozzle working on the submerged face 
to disintegrate the .material. The power-supply is conveyed in 
a main pipe-line, as in ordinary sluicing, to the level line, sup- 
ported by floats. The idea of submerging the, line is to relieve 
the floats of the weight of the water in the pipes, and to enable 
a longer span of pipes to be carried from float to float» thus ex- 
tending the length of the face reached by the flexible pipe- 
line. By carrying the last span underneath the dredge, the 



< . 


machine is enabled to pass the flexible line to work first on one 
side of it and then on the other, thus doubling the length of 
face that can be reached when the flexible line works only on 
one side of the dredge. The flexible line connects on deck 
with a deck-pipe supplied with valves, by which the water is 
deflected as required to the elevating- jet, breaking-down 
nozzle, and Pelton nozzle. The first dredge of this type waA 
worked at Waipori for seven weeks, the available quantity of 
water being fifteen heads. To utilise this, a f in. tip was used 
on the Pelton-wheel nozzle, a J in. tip on the breaking-down 
nozzle, and a 4 in. jet for elevating. The throat was 12 in. in 
diameter, and 15 in. outside diameter, with 15 in. disc for 
elevating-pipes. A right-angle bend on top deflected the dis- 
charge on to a drop-plate, 4 ft. by 6 ft., from whence it spreatl 
over a sp reading-table 12 ft. by 12 ft., and from thence into 
three shoots, totalling 600 ft. of gold-saving area. The tables 
and shoots were fitted with perforated plates and angle-bar 
ripples. On starting, the liftiiig-power of the dredge proved 
too great for even the large shoots provided, and a regulator 
had to be provided at the intake to lessen the inrush of gravel, 
while, to break the force of the stream of water and material 
on the shoots, a hood was so placed as to moderate the current 
before it left the spreading- tables. I estimate the lifting- 
power of the dredge elevator at 1,000 tons per hour, while the 
capacity of the tables was 250 tons per hour, and no difficulty 
was experienced in gravel formation in keeping the tables 
going at their maximum treating-capacity. The same water 
used in hydraulic elevating to advantage lifted less than one- 
fifth of the material per week in the ordinary way.'' 

The greater part of the Waipori Flat had been turned over 
by hand-labour, and before the advent of dredging hollows 
and hummocks covered the surface. The sluice-box type of 
dredge restored the ground to its former level surface, and 
vegetation is now springing up. Owing to the severity of the 
climate the district is only of use for grazing purposes. 

It is now well recognised that future mining operations 
on Waipori Flat and the neighbouring gullies and terraces 
must be oondueted on a large and cheap scale, in order to 


make low-grade ground pay for working. The improTement 
of some water-rights, and probablj the amalgamation of 
others, is now oocupjing the attention of water-race owners. 
To this end also Messrs. W. and F. Knight are constructing a 
large storage-reserroir in Nardoo Creek, at a cost of £1,000. 
This water will be employed either for hydraulic sluicing and 
derating or for driving dredges by water-power. 


During the early part of the year 1893 Mr. Perry had a 
dredging plant on the Waitahuna River, opposite the Town of 
Havelock. This, however, dealt only with the more superficial 
deposits. Clays, lignites, and quartz drifts underlie the 
modern river-gravels over Waitahuna Flat, but the lower beds 
of these have never been prospected. In the lower grounds 
this would be a work of some difficulty, on account of the pre- 
sence of water in greater quantity than could easily be dealt 
with, but towards the margin of the basin it might be possible 
to reach bottom. In the meantime nothing is being done to- 
wards prospecting these beds. This dredge continued to work 
under different ownerships until 1897, when a new and more 
powerful dredge was erected. Other dredges were also erected, 
and in 1902 there were five at work. 

A notable example of the inefficiency of the bucket dredge 
to recover gold from rocky bottoms is the case of the Waita- 
huna Gully dredge. Since the closing-down of this dredge the 
claim has been worked by hydraulic elevating and sluicing, 
and is said to be paying well. 

During the present year (1906) the Havelock and Imperial 
dredges still continue operations on their respective claims 
The results of the hydraulic plant's operations on the Waita- 
huna Gully claim are quite satisfactory, and prove again the 
decided advantage sluicing has over dredging on hard and 
uneven bottom. 

Before dredges were put on this ground the surface was 
just as the diggers and Chinese had left it. Now that the 
sluice-box dredges have passed through it, the surface is com- 
paratively even, and were it not for the severe floods which 


risit this river the dredged area would be capable of growing 
good grass and clover. It is the intention of the Forestry De- 
partment to procure an area of the worked ground for tree- 
planting purposes. 

Regarding future prospects of this district, as far as can 
be learned, apart from the present sluicing claims, which will 
last for many years to come, the lower beds of the valley below 
the false bottom may be worthy of prospecting by boring or 


Gleuore is situated on the branch railway-line from Milton 
to Lawrence. Gold is said to have been discovered here by 
Edward Peters ("Black Peter") about 1858. In 1894 
Warden Hawkins reported that Messrs. Nelson and party were 
busily engaged with their dredge at Glenore in working the old 
bed of the river, with most satisfactory results. This dredge 
worked up-stream from the Glenore Bridge. The depth of 
the ground operated on runs from 20 ft. to 35 ft., but 
no solid bottom has yet been touched. The lowest depth 
reached consists of a very stiff yellow clay, in which it is 
thought a small quantity of gold exists, and, of course, is 
being left behind at present. It is, however, intended at an 
early date to sink a prospecting shaft to the rock bottom a 
short distance below the bridge, in order to arrive at the value 
of the subsoil and yellow clay to the rock, and with the view 
also of opening another claim in that locality. The present 
dredge is said to be lifting about 12 yards per hour. The 
Gold Bank dredge was erected in 1896, and in 1897 Robert- 
son and party's dredge was erected. These three dredges were 
very successful in their operations, some of the weekly returns 
from the Stirling and Woolshed dredges being as high as 
40 OS. 

The Riverbank and Adams Flat dredges were erected 
during 1899, but about this time the industry was consider- 
ably hampered by th6 opposition of the farmers and land- 
holders on the Tokotnairiro Plain. It was alleged that the 
dredging operations caused pollution of the stream. By the 
end of 1900 there were two dredges at work — namely, the Gold 


Bank and the Stirling — and these continued to work up to 
1905, when the Stirling Rank. The Gold Bank, now working 
under priyate ownership, continueR to work with moderate 

Several of the dredges in this district were of^rating on 
agricultural land, but, owing to the fact that thej were fitted 
with elevators, no attempt was made to restore the surface of 
the land to its former condition. As is the case with all dredg- 
ing operations where elevators are used, the fine silt and loam 
is buried under the loose, clean tailings. Where silt-elevators 
are used, discharging into the main elevator, the material be- 
comes more intermixed, but the surface is not levelled, as is 
the case with sluice-box dredges. 

' Tapanni. 

Dredging operations have been carried on from time to 
time on the Pomahaka River, Tapanui district. In 1887 
Gannon and party had a small dredge on the river, but it did 
not pay. One or two other dredges were started later on, and 
in 1896 there were three dredges, with buckets of 1 cubic foot 
capacity, at work above Conical Hills ; but these dredges were 
all too small to be successful. In 1900 the Ardmore dredge, 
n privately owned concern, started work. This was also » 
rather small dredge, but it proved the ground to be payable, 
so that in 1904 the owners dismantled it and erected a power- 
ful up-to-date dredge, which is still at work. This district has 
lately attracted renewed attention as a dredging-field, and 
several claims have been pegged out. A new dredge was 
started during 1906, and more will follow should its operation-^ 
be attended with success. Each claim should, however, be 
thoroughly prospected to ascertain the value and extent of 
the auriferous wash before a dredge is put on. 

The Ardmore dredge has been operating mainly on private 
lands which are used for agricultural purposes. A hinged ex- 
tension of the sluice-box is used sometimes for top-stripping 
to restore the soil to the surface. Dredging operations in this 
district should be so conducted that agricultural areas would 
be restored to their former state as far as possible. 



This is a raliey about niDeteen miles in length, and con- 
taining oyer 5,000 acres of dredgable land. The main Wai- 
kaka Stream traverses the valley the greater part of the length, 
but at the Forks the Big Waikaka and Little Waikaka Streams 
join together. It was in 1896 that the late J. R. Perry took 
up a special claim and erected a dredge thereon. About the 
same time William McGill also applied for a special claim and 
prepared to place a dredge upon it. These two dredges con- 
tinued to work with satisfactory results in 1897 and 1898, and 
during the latter year J Marr and party and W. Little and 
party were engaged building dredges for their claims. Other 
claims were also taken up, as it was recognised that a very 
large portion of the land was suitable for dredging. During 
1899 much interest was taken in dredging operations, and a 
good deal has been done in tlie development of that industry, 
particularly in the valley of the Waikaka, where five dredges 
were at work and six were in course of construction. Dredg- 
ing operations were considerably hampered by the opposition 
of the settlers and Messrs. Wallis Bros., fellmongers, to the 
application which was made to have the Waikaka River de- 
clared a sludge-channel. At the end of 1900 there were eleven 
dredges at work in the Waikaka Valley, and two in course of 
construction. Thirteen dredges were in operation at the end 
of 1901, and one in course of erection; three of these were 
privately owned. During 1902 there was every indication 
that the industry was in a prosperous condition and likely to 
expand. There were nineteen dredges at work at the end of 
that year, six of these being privately owned. Several dredges 
were built in the lower portion of the valley, the earlier 
dredges being situated on the Big or the Little Waikaka, or 
at the Forks. The number of dredges increased during 1903 
from sixteen to twenty, twelve of these being owned by parties 
of a private or semi-private nature. Messrs. McGeorge Bros, 
acquired large areas of land on the Big Waikaka, and erected 
dredges with large power and bucket-capacity. The ground 


requires to be turned over rapidly to secure good retunu. 
The number of dredges continued to increase during 1904, 
and on the 31st December there were twenty-eight dredges in 
this field; but this number dropped to twenty-seven during 
1905. Although there are large areas of laztd in the lower 
valley which have not yet been dredged, it is safe to assume 
that the number of dredges on this field will never be much 
larger. New dredges may yet be brought into the district, but 
several of the older ones are fast working out their claims. 
Perry's dredge, the pioneer of the field, ceased operations 
recently, and has been dismantled. This district has been for- 
tunate in possessing large deposits of lignite, which can be 
mined and conveyed to the dredges at a reasonable cost. The 
ground averages 12 ft. to 14 ft. in depth, and consists mainly 
of a heavy layer of clay overlying a few feet of auriferous 
gravel. Large areas of the land are low-lying and swampy, 
and practically useless even for grazing purposes. 

The advent of the sluioe-box dredge may be looked upon as 
a blessing in this locality. The actual result of dredging is 
that these areas are drained, the gravels and clays become in- 
termixed, and the surface is raised several feet higher than the 
original surface. This ground is fit to grow root-crops, grass, 
clover, or trees. Extensive tree-planting has been done in 
the lower part of the valley. Several dredges on the Big Wai- 
kaka are probably dredging the best agricultural land in the 
district, but Messrs. McGeorge Bros, have taken steps to re- 
turn the finer material to the surface of the dredged tailings 
by means of a silt-distributor. This appliance has been 
adopted on several dredges with apparently satisfactory re- 


In 1890 Gow's Creek was the scene of dredging operations, 
but the ground was too poor to pay working-expenses, and ihe 
several claims taken up were abandoned on that account. In 
1894 Messrs. Munro and party placed a dredge on the Dome 
Creek, where good prospects were said to have been ob- 
tained. This venture was also a failure, and the dredge 


was remoTed from the district. The next dredge to be 
built belonged to the Golden Crown Gold - dredging Com- 
pany, and cost £3,500. This dredge was erected in 
1897, but failed to make a success of the claim, and 
was closed down, being subsequently removed to Shag Valley. 
In 1898 renewed attention was paid to this district, and claims 
were taken up at denary and Growler's Flat, Upper Wa;- 
kaia. The Nugget Company's dredge, Growler's Flat, started 
to work in 1899, and continued to work until 1900, during 
which year the Dome Creek dredge was also built. Neither of 
these dredges turned out a success, and both were closed down 
during the year. In spite of these failures the Garvey Burn, 
Day Dawn, and Switzers dredges were in the building stages 
during that year. Warden Cruickshank reported for the year 
1901 : '' Dredging, so far, has been a failure in this district. 
For the nine months ending tha «51st December, 1901, no less 
than twenty-seven special-claim licenses were surrendered and 
the claims given up. The Mystery Flat Dredging Company's 
dredge has recently started, and gives promise of turning out 
a success, having obtained 72 oz. of gold for one week's work. 
The above dredge is the only one at work in the district." 
For the year 1902 Warden Cruickshank reports: "Mining 
in this locality has maintained a fairly even tenor throughout 
the year. The dredges at work — viz., the Mystery Flat and 
the Muddy Creek — ^have yielded very consistent payable re- 
turns for some time past, and in consequence of these returns 
a lot of prospecting has been done, and the results having 
proved satisfactory four new dredges are being built, one for 
each of the following companies: Fairdown Dredging Com- 
pany, Garryowen Company, Nugent Wood Company, and 
Hessey Dredging Company. I have ascertained on reliable 
authority that about 2,600 oz. of gold has been won in this dis- 
trict for the year." 

The result of prospecting by means of boring was to prove 
extensive and rich gold-bearing leads traversing the valley 
through freehold propertiies. These lands were sold to the 
dredging companies on cash and royalty terms, and the erec- 
tion of dredges was proceeded with during 1903. When these 


dredges got to work they obtained good returns, and the sae- 
oess of the district as a dredging-field began to be assured. In 
1904 Warden Cruickshank stated in his annual report: " The 
dredging industry in this subdistrict, I am pleased to report, 
has gone on improving, and there are now ten dredges work- 
ing in the locality, all on payable gold, some of them getting 
▼ery handsome returns, and paying the owners and share- 
holders large diridends. The revenue collected by the Re- 
ceiver of Gold Revenue for rents, &c., amounted to £300 for 
the year. I am informed on good authority that the local bank 
at Waikaia purchased 5,200 oe. of gold during the year, and 
it is estimated that at least 1,600 oz. have been disposed of 
outside the bank, making a total of 6,800 ok., valued at about 
£27,000, which, I think, must be considered very good indeed. 
Of course, the hydraulic elevating and sluicing claims in the 
district have assisted in the above production." 

At the end of 1905 the dredges in this district were the 
Argyle, Hessey*s, Mystery Flat, Masterton, Duke of Gordon, 
New Fairdown, Te Aroha, Waikaia, Waikaia Kia Ora, Lad? 
Annie, Lady Gordon, Muddy Creek (Limited), Nugent Wood. 
Garryowen, and Magnum Bonum. 

During the year 1906 the Argyle Hydraulic Sluicing Com- 
pany's dredge, driven by water-power, was erected, and dredg- 
ing was commenced. The system of applying the motive power 
is an improvement on the practices in other districts. In 
O'Brien's application small wooden pontoons are introduced 
to support the pipes and swivel connections. In the system 
adopted on the Argyle dredge these pontoons are discarded. 
The main presaure-Iine is 11 in. in diameter. At the 11 in. 
terminal a swivel joint is placed. Thence tho water is con- 
veyed through a span of 9 in. piping, 66 ft. in length. 
Another swivel joint is placed at the end of this span, and un- 
derneath the swivel a wheel is placed which travels on a singls 
rail curved to a 66 ft. radius. The wator is finally convqred 
on board the dredge in 9 in . piping. The main machinery Ii 
driven by a 4 ft. Pelton wheel, placed upon the deck, with belt 
c(HinectionB. Water for tiio sluice-box is procured by meaai 
of an ordinary jet elevator, thus doing away with the wear- 

Prospecting at Waikaia, Southland : Glossop's 

Mining Handbook. 


A Riffle foh saving Platinium Sand. 
Mining Hand hook-. 


and-tear attached to centrifugal pumps. A small 22 in. 
Pelton wheel drives the dynamo for the electric lights. This 
claim was worked for several years by hydraulic sluicing and 
elevating, but since dredging has been commenced the company 
is convinced that the present system is the better method, both 
with r^ard to cost and treatment of the ground. The method 
has since been applied to the Golden Beach dredge, Alexandra 
South, with success. 

Prospecting by means of boring is still being carried on, 
and dredges are being erected as the gold-bearing runs are 
located. There is still an extensive field here for prospecting 
both above and below Waikaia Township. The district has 
lieen provided with good deposits of coal, and the dredges are 
Hupplied with fuel at a reasonable cost. 

When the dredges jBrst started on this field their operations 
were confined to the river-bed and low-lying parts adjacent 
thereto, and the question of restoring the soil to the surface did 
not crop up ; but since the extension of dredging operations 
away from the river on freehold agricultural lands this ques- 
tion has arisen. In two cases,, where the dredges are fitted with 
elevators, the ground is apparently being destroyed for all 
time. The majority of the dredges are of the sluice-box t3rpe, 
and at least leave the surface level behind them. The soil in 
this district is light; hence it will be a long time before the 
surface of the tailings becomes covered with soil. The use of 
a silt-distributor, as used on Waikaka, would, by throwing the 
pill on the tailings, assist in the restoration of the surface. 

Ohaplton Creek, Oore. 

The Charlton Creek Company's dredge started work about 
the beginning of 1900, and yielded satisfactory returns from 
the commencement. The Central Charlton was being erected 
daring the year. The Lady Charlton was erected in 1901, and 
these three dredges were in operation at the end of that year. 
The number of dredges was increased by the addition of the 
MacCharlton and Charlton Valley dredges, which were at work 
during 1902. In 1903 the Lady Charlton and the Charlton 
Valley' companies went into liquidation, and their dredges 


ceased operations. In 1904 the Lady Charlton was removed 
from the valley, but the Mill Creek Freehold dredge w« 
erected and put to work, and the Charlton Valley dredge re- 
sumed operations under private ownership. The other three 
machines continued to operate successfully, and there are still, 
in 1906, five dredges at work in the Charlton Valley. 

The ground operated on is for the greater part low-lying, 
and only suited for grazing purposes. As in other parts of 
Southland, the sluice-box dredge has considerably improved 
this land by draining it and raising the surface in height. 
The ground is now fit for growing good grass or trees. 


The Waimumu Gold-dredging Company's dredge oom- 
menced to work in 1899. This was the first dredge to start, 
but others followed in quick succession until, in 1901, there 
were seven dredges at work in the valley. Several of these 
were very successful in their operations, while others were not. 
At first these dredges were all owned by public companies 
Now, in 1906, there are five dredges at work in the district, 
three of which are privately owned. There is a good supply ^ 
lignite in the neighbourhood, and this fuel is delivered at the 
dredges at a cheap rate. 

With regard to the restoration of the land after dredging, 
much can be said in favour of the dredging operations in this 
valley. Before dredging commenced the valley was low-lying 
and swampy, and totally unfit for agricultural purposes. 
Owing to its swampy nature it was also a menace to catde. 
Since the advent of the dredges the ground has been turned 
over, raised in height, and drained, and is now capable of 
being converted into pasture lands. 

Mataura Riwer. 

In 1889 a dredge was placed on the Mataura River, aboat 
three miles and a half above the Township of Fortrose, by so 
Invercargill syndicate. They leased the bucket dredge from 
the Invercargill Harbour Board, and fitted it up with appli- 
ances for gold-saving. The operations were mostly of a pro- 


specting character, and sufficient gold was not obtained to pay 
working-expenses. In 1900 Crookston's Mountaineer dredge 
was at work on the Eureka Claim, Mataura. The Otama 
dredge was also working on the Mataura Riyer, and the Mile- 
stone dredge started work at the junction of the Nokomai 
Creek with the Mataura Riyer. Messrs. Graham Bros, built 
a dredge in 1899 to work a claim about a mile aboye Gore, 
but being priyately owned the returns were not made public. 
During 1900 the Mataura Riyer, from Mataura Township to 
Riversdale, a distance of about thirty miles, was taken up 
under special dredging claims or prospecting licenses. In the 
same year the Central Mataura Gold-dredging Company pur- 
chased the dredge and claims of Graham Bros., and erected a 
second dredge. There was also £he Mataura Consolidated (late 
Eureka) dredge, working at Mataura Island. During •I 901 
the industry receiyed a decided set-back on this riyer ; most of 
the claims granted were surrendered, and the only dredges at 
work were the Central Mataura No. 2 and the Mataura Con- 
solidated. None of the aboye-mentioned dredges were suc- 
cessful in their operations, and all ceased work and were re- 
moved from the riyer, with the exception of the Central 
Mataura No. 2. This dredge changed ownership seyeral times, 
and is now held by a priyate party, who are said to be working 
with moderate success. 

It is quite apparent that the yalley is payably auriferous 
in places, but it is wide, and the runs of gold are too far apart 
to make it possible to work the claims to adyantage with the 
present appliances. There is an enormous area of dredgable 
ground in the Mataura Valley, but only by systematic boring 
can the payable areas be located. Suitable dredges to work 
this ground would require to haye large power and bucket- 
capacity. An up-to-date dredge is being erected this year 
(1906) about two miles below Gore Township. 

Vaipapa: Waiau. 

Two special claims, haying frontages of half a mile, were 
taken up in 1887 at Bushy Point, with the intention of work- 
ing them with Wel»an dredges. The Waipapa Creek Gold- 


mining Company got a Welman suction dredge to work satis- 
factorily in 1888, but the dredge started in old worked ground 
near the Waipapa Creek. There were six special claims held 
on the Waipapa Beach at that time, for some of whidi 
machines were ordered. The Waipapa Creek Company con- 
tinued dredging operations during 1889 on poor ground. 
ITiis was the only beach claim using a Welman dredge, but 
four of these machines were on iheir way from England. 
The Lake Brunton Dredging Company, on Waipapa Beach, 
expected to commence operations in June, 1890. Steps were 
also being taken about this time to get other claims worked at 
the mouth of the Waiau River, as it was believed that the Wel- 
man dredge would inaugurate a new and prosperous era in 
gold-mining. Warden Rawson reported in 1891 that the Wai- 
papa -Creek Gold-mining Company mid been wound up and re- 
formed under ihe name of the Waipapa Dredging Company. 
The yield of gold for the year ending the 31st March, 1891, 
was 190 oz. 14dwt. The Lake Brunton Gold-dredging Com- 
pany commenced work in February, 1891, as a beach-dredg- 
ing company, and the Six-mile Beach Dredging Company in 
March, 1891, while the machinery for the Otara Gold-dredg- 
ing Company arrived from England in May, 1891. Towards 
the end of 1891 the Waipapa Company installed a larger Wel- 
man pump. It was stated that for the year ending September, 
1890, this dredge obtained about 1,000 oz. of gold. The Lake 
Brunton Company continued to work until early in 1892, 
when operations were suspended. Two dredges were erected 
during 1891 — one for the Otara Company and one for the 
Bushy Point Company. These dredges were fitted with 
Gwynne's centrifugal pump. The Six-mile Beach Company 
carried on operations very successfully during 1891 on it« 
claim, five miles north of Waipapa Point. It was found, how- 
ever, that while these dredges could lift the neoessary amount 
of material they could not effectively treat it with the gold- 
saving appliances then in use; Ihe gold, being very fine, re- 
quired special care in the saving process. These dredges were 
consequently forced to cease operations. In 1895 the agents 
of a wealthy South African syndicate seoured special claims 


on the Six-mile and Waipapa Beaches. It was then stated that 
the syndicate was prepared to spend .£25,000 to test these 
beaches by the cyanide process; but the proposal fell through. 
In 1898 a number of dredging claims were taken up on the 
Upper Waiau River, also on Lake George, near Round Hill, 
and at Colac, and a suction dredge was erected on the Waiau 
River. This principle was not a success, and the dredge was 
converted to a bucket dredge in 1899. This dredge (the Bel- 
mont) continued to work, of! and on, on various portions of 
the river with indifferent results, and was sold in 1902 to Mr. 
Francis Jack, of Winton. The dredge was shifted to the mouth 
of the Waiau River, and was unfortunately wrecked there in 
1903. Owing to the want of success attending the operations 
of this machine no other dredges were put on this river. 

Since the wreck of the Belmont there have been no dredges 
in the Wyndham, Orepuki, and Waiau districts, but it is pro- 
posed to erect a dredge at Lake George this year (1906). As 
a dredging-field this portion of the district has great possibili- 
ties, provided suitable appliances are available for saving the 
£ne gold. 

Some Particulars of Dredtfin^ Operations. 

Alexandra-Eureka, Molyneux (or Clutha) River, Alex- 
andra. — Area, 60 acres. The Alexandra-Eureka Gold-dredg- 
ing Company was registered in November, 1899, and com- 
menced work the same month. The material, which is dredged 
from a depth of 22 ft. to 23 ft., consists of three-fifths of sand 
and gravel and two-fifths of stones. During the year 1905 
the yield of gold was 1,440 oz. 5dwt., valued at £6,873 
lis. lid.; total yield of gold since dredge first commenced 
work, 8,807 oz. 8 dwt., valued at £33,981 2s. 9d., out of which 
dividends have been disbursed amounting to £14,250. Cost 
of dredge, £6,000 ; average weekly cost of work, £40 ; average 
yearly cost of repairs, £300. Length of pontoons 95 ft., 
depth 5 ft. 10} in., beam 25 ft. 10 in.; ladders capable of 
dredging 31 ft. ; capacity of buckets (34), 4} cubic feet ; rate 
of discharge per minute, 11. Length of gold-zaving tables, 
loft.; breadth, 12ft. Peck and Payne's centrifugal elevator 


iu use. Height of unworked face aboTe water-line, 7 ft. to 
12ft. Average number of weeks worked, 47; average num- 
ber of men employed, 6. Dredgemaster, Charles Corno; 
secretary, Andrew Hamilton, Dunedin. 

Alexandra Lead, Alexandra. — ^Area, 82 acres. The Aki- 
andra Lead Gold-dredging Company was registered in July, 
1899, and oonmienoed work in February, 1902. The claim 
embraced a part of the Molyneuz (or Clutha) River, abutting 
on the Township of Alexandra, which is now worked out. The 
dredge, whilst working in the river, won some handsome re- 
turns, viz. : — 

Week or period ending — 

Ot. dwt. 





June 25, 

1902 . 

.. 165 





July 2, 

.. 253 



„ 5, 

.. 348 





.. 16. 

.. 366 



., 23, 

.. 216 




„ 30, 

.. 148 





Aug. 6, 

.. 413 



,. 13. 

.. 190 





., 20, 

.. 160 





.. 27, 

.. 166 



Sept. 3, 

.. 204 





.. 10, 

.. 220 





„ 17, 

.. 213 





,. 22, 

.. 302 





For the six months ending the 28th February, 1903, the 
dredge won 2,101 oz. of gold,, valued at £8,221 ; but since 
the bank was dredged the returns have dropped down to an 
average of about 22 oz. per week. The dredge is one of the 
largest operating on the Molyneux River, and is now working 
a face of 45 ft. above water-level and 23 ft. (on soft rock bot- 
tom) below water-level. Eventually the top stuff will have 
to be sluiced off, and arrangements can be made for the lease 
of water for that purpose. The Molyneux Hydraulic Com- 
pany's dredge is working the adjoining ground, and n 


getting fair returns. During the year 1905 the Alexandra 
Lead dredge won 647 oz. of gold, valued at £2,506, making 
a total of 7,064 oz., valued at £27,355. Dividends have been 
paid amounting to £14,033, as against a called-up capital r^f 
£17,521. The dredge cost £13,734, the average weekly cost 
of working being £78 10s. The ladders are capable of dredg- 
ing to a depth of 40 ft., and there are 34 buckets, ear.h having 
a capacity of 7 cubic feet, with an average discharge of 12 
per minute. The materials now operated on are dredged 
from a depth of about 23 ft., the average quantity raised per 
hour being 130 tons. The pontoons are 125 ft. in length, 
with a depth of 10 ft. and a beam of 46 ft. The average 
number of weeks worked is 40, and 9 men are employed. 
Dredgemaster, Charles Simonsen; secretary, R. T. Wheeler, 

Ardnwre^ Scrubby Flat, near Eelso. — Area, 100 acres. 
The dredge, which is privately owned, commenced work in 
February, 1900, at Scrubby Flat, near Eelso, in Tuapeka 
County. The material, dredged from a depth of 14 ft. to 24 ft., 
consists of heavy wash, but without clay; average quantity 
raised per hour, 65 cubic yards. During the year 1905 an 
area of 5 acres was worked, the quantity treated being 343,200 
cubic yards; yield of gold, 641 oz. 7 dwt., valued at £2,469 6s. 
Total quantity of gold obtained since dredge first began work, 
2,616 oz. Odwt. 18 gr.; value, £10,073 58.; out of which 
dividends were disbursed up to the 3l8t December, 1905, 
amounting to £1,650. Capital called up, £2,800. Cost of 
dredge, £1,500; average weekly cost of working, £48; average 
yearly cost of repairs, £300; yearly cost of fuel, £750. 
Length of pontoons 95 ft., depth 7ft., beam 29 ft.; ladders 
capable of dredging 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets (32), 4J cubic 
feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11. Average number of 
weeks worked, 48; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster, Thomas Gillespie; secretary and part owner, 
J. F. Herbert, Eelso. 

Argyle, Waikaka Valley. — Area, 130 acres. The Argyle 
Gold-dredging Company was registered in December, 1902. 
The material is dredged from a depth of about 14 ft. ; average 


quantity raised per hour, 76 cubic yards. During 1905 an 
area of about 18 acres was worked, the quantity treated being 
480,293 cubic yards; yield of gold, 1,090 ob. ; Talue, £4,43). 
Total quantity of gold obtained since dredge first oommeneed 
work, 3,385 oz.; value, £13,517 168. 2d. Capital actually 
called up, £6,000; dividends declared, £3,600. Cost of 
dredge (including cost of erecting), about £3,900; average 
weekly cost of working, £50. Length of pontoons 80 ft., 
depth 6 ft. 10 in., beam 27 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 
about 14 ft.; capacity of buckets (30), 4} cubic feet; rate 
of discharge per minute, about 12. Length of gold-saving 
tables, 70 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. 9 in. Average number of weeks 
worked, 49 ; average number of men employed, lO. Dredge- 
master, David Caithress; secretary, Alexander Mutch, Wai- 
kaka Valley. 

Argyle, Winding Creek, Waikaia. — Area, 69 acres. This 
dredge is owned by the Argyle Hydraulic Sluicing Company, 
which carries on hydraulic sluicing and dredging at Winding 
Creek, Waikaia, in Southland. Rough gravel wash is ope- 
rated on from surface to bottom, the depth dredged being from 
16 ft. to 29 ft.; average quantity raised per hour, 80 cubic 
yards. During the year 1905 an area of 5 acres was worked : 
yield of gold, 41 602., valued at £1,622 88. Amount of capital 
called up, £1,200. Cost of dredge, £1,600; cost of other 
plant, £2,640. Average weekly cost of working, £30; average 
yearly cost of repairs, £150, and of water-power, &c., £125. 
Length of pontoons 74 ft., depth 5jft., beam 29 ft.; ladders 
capable of dredging 28 ft. : capacity of buckets (38), 4i^ cubic 
feet ; rate of discharge per minute, 12. Size of gold-saving 
tables, 280 square feet. Number of weeks worked, 48 ; average 
number of men employed, 7. Dredgemaster, J. W. Stewart; 
secretary, R. T. Stewart, Waikaia. 

Central Charlton, Charlton Creek, near Gore. — ^Area, 100 
acres. The Central Charlton Dredging Company was regis- 
tered in December, 1899. Hard gravel is operated on to a 
depth of about 15 ft. ; average quantity raised per hour, 22J 
cubic yards, or 30^ yards including clay. For the financial 
year October, 1904, to October, 1905, an area of 8 acres was 


worked; quantity treated, 193,600 cubic yards; yield of 
gold, 1,133 oz. 12dwt. 6gr., valued at £4,378 38. 9d. Total 
quantity of gold won since dredge first commenced work in 
October, 1900, 4,767 oz. 5 dwt. 6gr. ; value, £18,553 8s. Id 
Fifteen dividends of Is. per share have been declared, amount- 
ing to £5,250; capital called up, £5,300. Cost of dredge, 
£5,000; average weekly cost of working, £50; cost of dredg- 
ing for the year — ^wagcs £1,200, ooal £500, repairs £550, 
making a total of £2,250, Length of pontoons 57 ft., depth 
5 ft., beam 25 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 15 ft.; capa- 
city of buckets (28), 3 J cubic feet ; rate of discharge per minute, 
11. Length of gold-saving tables, 40 ft. by 3]^ ft. and 4} ft. 
Average number of weeks worked, 47; average number of 
men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, James McCorkindale ; 
secretary, H. F. M. Mercer, Dunedin. 

Crewe No. i, Nevis. — Area, lOO acres. The Crewe Gold- 
dredging Company was registered in September, 1902, and 
commenced work the same month. Ordinary river - wash 
is operated on to a depth of 20 ft. to 25 ft. ; average 
quantity raised per hour, 50 to 60 tons. During the 
twelve months an ar^a of 10 acres was worked, the 
yield of gold being 543 oz. 10 dwt., valued at £2,081 
Ss. 9d. Total quantity of gold produced since dredge 
first commenced work, 1,697 oz. 13 dwt. 7 gr., valued at 
£G,494 9s. lOd. ; capital called up, £3,000. Cost of dredge, 
£2,081 ; average weekly cost of working, £50 ; yearly cost 
of repairs, £500. length of pontoons 06 ft., depth 5ft., 
beam 26 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 15 ft. ; capacity 
of buckets (29), 4^ cubic feet ; rate of discharge per minute, 
12J, Length of elevator, 40 ft. ; height of unworked face, 
2 ft. to 10 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 40; average 
number of men employed, 7. Dredgemaster, J. Williamson; 
secretary, W. S. Laidlaw, Alexandra. 

Crewe No. 2, Upper Nevis. — Area, 100 acres. This 
<lredge is owned by the Crewe Gold-dredging Company. Or- 
dinary river-wash is operated on to a depth of 25 ft. ; quantity 
raised per hour, 50 tOns. During the twelve months an area 
of about 3 acres was worked, yielding 43 oz. of gold, valued 

lO—Mining Handbook. 


at £168. Cost of dredge, £2,078; average weekly coat of 
working, £50; average yearly cost of repairs, £500. Lad- 
ders capable of dredging about 35 ft. ; capacity of buckets 
(30), 4J cubic feet. Average number of weeks worked, 37; 
average number of men employed, 7. Dredgcmaster, J. 
Bardsley; secretary, W. S. Laidlaw, Alexandra. 

Charltou Creek, Charlton Valley. — ^Area, 100 acres. TIm? 
Charlton Creek Gold-dredging Company was registered in 
May, 1899, and commenced work in January, 1900. Quartz 
j^ravels and boulders are dredged from a depth of 18 ft. : 
average quantity raised per hour, 30 yards of gravel, and 30 
yards of stripping done. During the year 1905 an area of 
8J acres was worked, the quantity treated being 403,200 cubic 
yards; yield of gold, 866 oz. 10 dwt., valued at £3,365 Os. 8d. 
Total quantity of gold obtained since dredge first commenced 
work, 5,378 oz. 7 dwt., valued at £20,846 88., out of which 
flividends amounting to £4,875 have been disbursed ; capital 
called up, £4,000. Cost of dredge, £3,256 lis. Id.; average 
weekly cost of working, £35 ; average yearly cost of repairs, 
€500; yearly cost of fuel, £515. Length of pontoons 66 ft.. 
depth 5ft., beam 21 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 22ft.: 
• <:apacity of buckets (30), 3f cubic feet ; rate of discharge per 
minute, 11. Ijength of gold-saving tables, 60 ft.; breadth, 
4 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 49; average number 
of men employed, 9. Dredgemaster, Charles Bennett; secre- 
tary, Andrew Hamilton, Dunedin. 

Electric No, 1 (Lady Ranfurly), Cromwell. — Area, 75 acres 
3 roods 32 perches. The Electric Gold-dredging Company wa* 
registered on the 2nd September, 1899, but the syndicate that 
Kold to the company began work in October, 1898. Quarteose 
gravel and schist, with hard wash, stones, and ironsand are 
dredged from depths varying from 30 ft. to 50 ft., the average 
quantity raised per hour being 75 cubic yards. During the 
year 1905, 4 acres of ground was worked, and 380,250 cubic 
yards treated by the two dredges, for 4,704 oz. of gold, valued 
at £18,241 12s. 3d., making a total of 41,196 ok., valued at 
£160,092, for the two dredges; and dividends were disbursed 
amounting to £116,350. The capital called up is set down at 


£26,000, which represents on the company's books the value 
of claim and two dredges. The ladder is capable of dredging 
to a depth of 4:4 ft., and the eleyator has a length of 35 ft. 
Thirty-six buckets, aided by three grabs, discharge at the 
rate of 10 per minute over gold-saving tables 17 ft. by 18 ft., 
each bucket having a capacity of 5 cubic feet. The pontoons 
are 108 ft. long, with a depth of 7 ft., and a beam of 25 J ft. 
The materials treated are about equal portions of fine sand, 
fine gravel, and heavy stones, the depth from which they are 
dredged varying from 25ft. to 50ft. below water-line. 
Dredgemaster, William M. Orr; secretary R. T. Wheeler, 

Electric No, 2, Cromwell.— The Electric No. 2, originally 
the Magnetic dredge, and sister ship to the Electric No. 1 
(Lady Ranfurly), was built in 1898, and commenced work in 
February, 1899, on the Magnetic Claim, immediately above the 
Electric Claim, and gave very good results for the first year 
or so; but the returns gradually got poorer as the dredge 
worked ahead. -Eventually the Magnetic Company went into 
liquidation, and the dredge was purchased for £2,750 by the 
Electric Company in 1902, and worked for some months on 
the old claim with indifferent results. She was then shifted 
down to the Electric Claim, and commenced work there in 
March, 1903, winning 2,126 oz. of gold for the season's dredg- 
ing. Right at the start of the following season the dredge 
struck very rich gold, and on the 5th February, 1904, broke 
the record for the best week's return with 1,265 oz. ; also esta- 
blishing the following other records: — 

Oz. dwt. gr. 
Fortnight ending 5th February, 1904 ... 1,885 15 
Month ending 19th February, 1904 ... 3,025 17 

Twelve months ending 31st December, 1904 7,366 18 

The week's record was lost to the sister ship (Lady Ranfurly) 
on the 4th November, 1904, with 1,273 oz., but the other re- 
cords still remain unbroken. The later operations of the 
Electric No. 2 dredge have not been so successful. The season 
of 1905 only yielded 1,037 oz., while the results for the 1906 



season have so far been only moderate. Dredgemaster, An- 
drew Hedley. 

Endeavour, Roxburgh. — ^Area, 80 acres. The Endearonr 
Gold-dredging Company was registered in May, 1906. The 
material operated on is very hard and tight, and is dredged 
from a depth of 40 ft. During 1905 only fourteen weeks were 
worked, the value of gold obtained being £1,793 15s. Cost 
of dredge, £1,300; cost of coal, £60 per month. Length of 
pontoons 110 ft., depth 7 ft., beam 30 ft.; ladders capable of 
dredging 45 ft.; capacity of buckets (40), 6 cubic feet; rate 
of discharge per minute, 11. Length of elevator, 80 ft. 
Number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, August Magniu; 
Fccretary, P. R. Parker, Roxburgh. 

Ettrick, Ettrick. — Area, 99 acres. The Ettrick Gold Steam 
Dredging Company was registered in August, 1890, and com- 
menced work in September, 1891. Fine gravel wash is dredged 
from a depth of about 25 ft. ; average quantity raised per hour, 
150 yards. During the year 1905, 750,000 cubic yards wis 
treated, yielding 865 oz. 18 dwt. 7 gr. of gold, valued at 
£3,333 14.S. Total quantity of gold since dredge first com- 
menced work, 8,868 oz. 16 dwt. 11 gr., valued at £34,137 
15s. 7d., out of which dividends have been paid amounting 
to £5,240; capital called up, £8,366 5s. Cost of dredge, 
£8,259 9s. 5d. ; average weekly cost of working, £54 lOs. 
average yearly cost of repairs, £435 ; yearly cost of fnel 
£687. Length of pontoons 100 ft., depth 7ft., beam 31ft. 
ladders capable of dredging 35 ft. ; capacity of buckets (40) 
4J cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 12; length of 
elevator, 75 ft. There are five gold-saving tables, each 16 ft. 
in length and 3 ft. in width. Average number of weeb 
worked, 40 \ average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, Arthur P. Burton; secretary, Jabez Burton, Rox- 

First Chance, near Alexandra. — Area, 21 acres. The First 
Chance Gold-dredging Company was registered in June, 1902. 
River-gravels are dredged from depths varying from 10 ft. to 
48 ft. : average quantity raii?ed per hour, 120 cubic yards. 
Yield of gold during 1905, 559 oz. 12 dwt. 9gr. ; value, 


£2yl6b. Total quantity of gold since dredge first omnmenoed 
work, 2,825 oz.; value, £9,944. Total dividends declared, 
£3,150; capital called up, £7,006. Cost of dredge, £7,000; 
average weekly cost of working, £115; yearly cost of repairs, 
£1,158; yearly cost of ooal, £445. Length of pontoons 
104 ft., depth 6 ft., beam lift. 10 in. ; ladders capable of 
dredging 42 ft. ; capacity of buckets (40), 4f cubic feet; rate 
of discharge per minute, 11. Length of gold-saving tables, 
14 ft. by 17 fti Average number of weeks worked, 22 ; average 
number of men employed, 9. Dredgemaster, Samuel Hoy; 
secretary, C. S. Reeves, Dunedin. 

Golden Bedy Miller's Flat. — ^Area, 98 acres 3 roods. The 
Golden Bed Dredging Company was registered in May, 1899. 
Alluvial and river wash was operated on to a depth of 50 ft. 
to 60ft., 50 per cent, passing through § in. holes; average 
quantity raised per hour, 3,000 cubic feet. During the twelve 
months an area of 5^ acres was worked ; quantity treated, 
16,743,000 cubic yards; yield of gold from the 1st June, 

1905, to the 3l8t May, 1906, 2,682 oz. 17 dwt. 16 gr., valued 
at £10,440 8s. 4d. Total quantity of gold since dredge first 
commenced work on 21st December, 1900, to the 3l8t May, 

1906, 7,854 oz. 6 dwt. 21 gr., valued at £30,656 48. 5d. ; divi- 
dends declared to that date, £7,004 166., equal to lis. per 
share on the capital, the amount actually called up being 
£12,736. Cost of dredge, £9,126 138. lid.; cost of other 
plant and claim, £3,195 16s. 5d. Average weekly cost of 
working, £88; average yearly cost of repairs, £1,300; yearly 
cost of coal, £890. Length of pontoons 102 ft., depth 6ft., 
beam 27 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 45 ft. ; length of 
elevators, 110ft. (centres); capacity of buckets (42), 5 J cubic 
feet; rate of discharge per minute, 13; height of unworked 
face above water-line, about 25 ft. Length of gold-saving 
tables, 12 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft. Average number of weeka 
worked, 40; average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, A. E. Maitland; secretary, Edward Trythall, Dun- 

Golden Gate, Miller's Plat. — ^Area, 45 acres. The Golden 
Cate Dredging Company, which was registered in March, 1895, 


ecMnmenoed work in November of tho same year. The wash u 
dredged from a depth of 25 ft. ; average quantity raised per 
hour, about 100 cubic yards. During the year 1905 an area 
of 6 acres was worked, the quantity treated being aboat 
500»000 cubic yards, yielding 732 oz. 17 dwt. 17 gr. of gold. 
valued at £2,821 10s. lOd. Total quantity of gold since 
dredge first commenced work, 13,049 oz. dwt. 11 gr., valued 
at X50,250 Is. 3d., out of which dividends have been disbursed 
amounting to £23,250, while the called-up capital has only 
been £2,500. Cost of dredge, £2,986 138. 6d. ; average 
weekly cost of working, £44 ; average yearly cost of repairs, 
£250; yearly cost of fuel, £462 lis. 3d. Length of pontoons 
90 ft., depth 5ft., beam 9 ft. each; ladders capable of dredg- 
ing 30 ft. ; capacity of buckets (39), 4^ cubic feet ; rate of dis- 
charge per minute, 12. Length of elevator, 30 ft.; height of 
unworked face above water-line, 30 ft. Average number of 
weeks worked,. 50; average number of men employed, 7. 
Dredgemaster, David Ballintyne; secretary, Jabez Burton, 

Golden Bun, Miller's Flat. — Area, 80 acres 2 roods 
35 perches. The Golden Run Dredging Company was rois- 
tered in June, 1891, and commenced work in 1892. The 
materials operated on, dredged from a depth of about 33 ft., 
consist of fine gravel with heavy body of sand, the ridiest 
ground carrying red wash on a soft yellow bottom; average 
quantity raised per hour, 400 cubic yards. During the year 
1905, 2,128,000 cubic yards was treated, yielding 2,740 os. 
16 dwt. 13 gr. of gold, valued at £10,552 28. 7d. Total yield 
since dredge first commenced work, 16,983 oz. 2 dwt. 3 gr. of 
gold, valued at £65,383 128. 3d., out of which dividends have 
been disbursed amounting to £13,718 15s. ; capital called up, 
£9,414. Cost of dredge, £10,528 168. 4d. ; cost of dam, £664 
6s. 7d. ; water-race and dam, £182 Is. lid.; cost of electric 
plant, £400. Average weekly cost of working, £88 ; average 
yearly cost of repairs, £1,284; yearly cost of fuel, £1,017. 
Length of pontoons 112 ft., depth 8 ft., beam 35^ ft. ; ladders 
capable of dredging 35 ft. ; capacity of buckets (39), 6^ cubic 
feet; rate of discharge per minute, 12. Length of elevator. 


90 ft.; height of unworked face above water-line, 30 ft. 
Average number of weeks worked, 37 ; average number of men 
employed, 10. Dredgemaster, Charles H. Monson; secretary, 
Jabez Burton, Roxburgh. 

Golden Treasure, Miller's Flat. — Area, 90 acres 3 roods 
6 perches. The Golden Treasure Dredging Company was re- 
gistered in July, 1893, and commenced work in June, 1894. 
Cement, loose gravel, and clay are the materials operated on, 
and are dredged from a depth of 34 ft. below water-line and 
20ft. above; average quantity treated per hour, 70 tons. 
During the year 1905 an area of 5 acres was worked; quantity 
treated, 435,600 cubic yards; yield of gold, 1,732 oz. 13dwt. 
20 gr., valued at .€6,670 los. 6d. Total quantity of gold ob- 
tained since the dredge first commenced work, 12,615 oz. 
17dwt. 19 gr., valued at £48,570 Is. 2d., out of which divi- 
dends have been disbursed amounting to £17,831 4s., while the 
called-up capital has only reached £1,384 5s. 4d. Cost of 
dredge, £2,231 98. 7d. ; cost of other plant, £147 7s. 3d. 
Average weekly cost of working, £45 ; average yearly cost of 
repairs, £600; yearly cost of fuel, £717. I^ength of pontoons 
100 ft., depth 6 ft., beam 28 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 
40 ft. ; capacity of buckets (40), 5 cubic feet ; rate of discharge 
per minute, 12; length of elevator, 75 ft. Average number 
of weeks worked, 45; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster, John C. Cornish ; secretary, Jabez Burton, Rox- 

Gold King, Dumbarton, Tuapeka County. — Area, 87 acres. 
This dredge is owned by the Gold King dredging party, who 
commenced work on a bank claim in August, 1905. River- 
wash is dredged from a depth of 50 ft. ; average quantity 
raised per hour, 120 tons. During the year 1905 an area of 
half an acre was worked, yielding 386 oz. of gold, valued at 
£1,491. Total yield of gold since dredge began operations, 
854 oz., valued at £3,291. Capital actually called up (fully 
paid), £10,500. Cost of dredge, £2,000 ; average weekly cost 
of working, £50. Length of pontoons 113 ft., depth 7 J ft., 
beam 33 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 52 ft. ; capacity of 
buckets (50), 6 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 12. 


Length of elevator, 105 ft. ; height of un worked face above 
water-line, 40 ft. ; depth of auriferous gravel or wash below 
water-line, 35 ft. Dredgemaster, David Mitchell ; chairman, 
Edward Hart, Roxburgh. 

Graham atid Party, Waikaka Valley. — ^Area, 90 acres. 
Work was comiTienced by the owners in July, 1903. White- 
quartz wash is operated on to a depth of 10 ft. to 18 ft.; 
average quantity raised per hour, 80 yards. Yield of gold 
during 1905, 602 oz.; value, £2,408. Total yield of gold, 
1,758 oz.; value, .£7,032. Cost of dredge, £3,000; cost of 
land, £1,000. Average weekly cost of working, £35; average 
yearly cost of repairs, £500; yearly cost of fuel, £360. 
Lengtli of pontoons 80 ft., depth 6 ft., beam 27 ft. ; capacity 
of buckets (34), 4J cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 
10. Length of gold-saving tables, 64 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. 
Average number of weeks worked, 46; average number of 
men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, John Bradbury. 

Grogan and Party, Miller's Flat. — ^Area, 66 acres. This 
dredge commenced work in June, 1904. The material ope- 
rated on consists of drift wash, dredged from a depth of 30 ft. 
During the year 1905 an area of 6 acres was worked, the quan- 
tity treated being 5,806,080 cubic yards. The dredge, which 
was purchased second -hand, cost £200; average weekly cost 
of working, £34 ; average yearly cosfc of repairs, £514; yearly 
cost of fuel, £368. Length of pontoons 90 ft., depth 5 ft., 
beam 10 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 45 ft. ; capacity of 
buckets (40), 4 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 13; 
length of elevator, 40 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 
42 ; average number of men employed, 6. Dredgemaster and 
secretary, E. T. Kitto, Miller's Flat. 

Harris and Party, Tuapeka Flat. — ^Area, 25 acres. Blue 
gravels and clay are dredged from a depth of 10 ft. to 14 ft.; 
average quantity raised per hour, about 120 cubic yards. 
During the year 1905 an area of 17 acres was worked; yield 
of gold, 274 oz., valued at £1,059. Cost of dredge, £450: 
average weekly cost of working, £27 ; average yearly cost of 
repairs, £90 ; yearly cost of fuel, £260. Length of pontoons 
70 ft., depth 5ft., beam 25 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 


20ft. to 25 ft.; capacity of buckets (29), 3f cubic feet; rato 
of discharge per minute, 12. Average number of weeka 
worked, 44; average number of men employed, 7« Dredge- 
master, John Harris. 

Hartley and Riley * Cromwell. — Area, 32 acres. The 
Hartley and Riley Beach Dredging Company was registered 
in July, 1897. The nature of the material operated on varies, 
and is obtained at an average depth of 35 ft., the quantity 
raised per hour being about 100 yards. During 1905 an area 
of 2 acres was worked, yielding 674 oz. 13 dwt. 18 gr. of gold, 
valued at £2,608 Os. 6d. Total quantity of gold since dredge 
started up to the 31st December, 1905, 27,564 oz.; value, 
£106,625. Dividends were paid amounting to £79,625, equal 
to £12 5s. per share; while the <^apital called up was only 
£6,30U. Two of the most successful week's returns from this 
dredge were in March, 1900, 1,187 oz. 14 dwt., and in October, 
1903, 1,158 oz. 19 dwt. 11 gr. Cost of dredge, £6,300; cost 
of other plant and claim, £200. Average weekly cost of work- 
ing, £65 ; yearly cost of repairs, £665 ; yearly cost of coal, 
£589 2s. Length of pontoons 96 ft., depth 6 ft. 3 in., beam 
2G| ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 36 ft. ; capacity 'of 
buckets (42), 4 J cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11 
(about 100 yards). Length of elevator, 40 ft. ; height of un- 
worked face above water-li/ie, 20 ft. The dredge works about 
nine months out of the year, and gives emplo3'nient to nine 
men. Dredgemaster, George McLay; secretary, D. Crawford, 

Uessey*8 Waikaia, Waikaia. — Area, 100 acres. Hessey's 
Gold-dredging Company was registered in July, 1902. During 
the year 1905 an area of 12 acres was operated on, yielding 
1,222 oz. 7 dwt. 10 gr. of gold, valued at £4,810 15s. 6d. 
Total yield since the dredge first commenced work in July, 
1903, 3,134 oz. 13 dwt., valued at £12,346 17s. 3d., out of 
which dividends have been disbursed amounting to £4,000; 
capital called up, £3,700. Cost of dredge, £3,700; average 

* Spelt Reilly in Blue-book at the period of early gold discoveries 
in Otago. 


weekly cost of working (including fuel, repairs, maintenanoe, 
&c.), J£59 88. ; average yearly cost of repairs, £378 28. 5d. ; 
yearly cost of coal, £675 17s. lOd. Length of pontoons 81 ft., 
depth 5 ft., beam 25 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 23 ft.; 
capacity of buckets (37), 3| cubic feet ; rate of discharge per 
minute, 13. Average number of weeks dredge worked, 49; 
average number of men employed, 10. Dredgemaster, George 
Pettigrew; secretary, W. E. C. Reid, Dunedin. 

Hydraulic Motor Dredge^ Waipori, Tuapeka County.— 
Area, 54 acres. The Hydraulic Motor Gold-dredging Company 
was registered in February, 1904, and during the following 
year an area of 8 acres worked gave 357 oz. 10 dwt. of gold, 
valued at £1,376 8s. lOd. ; but as the ground did not prove 
suitable for dredging the company changed to hydraulic ele- 

IbbotHon and Party, Little Waikaka. — Area, 64 acres. 
This party commenced dredging in September, 1903. The 
material is very difficult to work, as the greater portion is 
heavy clay, only a small quantity of wash being available. 
During the year 1905 an area of 7 acres was worked, the quan- 
tity treated being 33,000 cubic yards, yielding 622 oz. 19 dwt. 
of gold, valued at £2,491 16s. Total quantity of gold pro- 
duced, 1,300 oz. 16 dwt. ; value, £5,203. No dividends haye 
been paid, profits being devoted towards building two new 
dredges. The first dredge owned by the party was purchased 
for £500 ; its original cost was £2,500. Average weekly cost 
of working, £33; yearly cost of repairs, £354 lis. 2d.; 
yearly cost of fuel, £374 13s. Length of pontoons 66 ft., 
depth 3 ft. 5 in., beam 24 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 
22 ft. ; capacity of buckets (30), 3 cubic feet ; rate of discharge 
per minute, 10. Length of gold-saving tables, 60ft. ; breadth, 
3 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 50 ; average number 
of men employed, 7. Dredgemaster and secretary, Donald 
McKenzie, Little Waikaka. 

Junction-Elect riCy Cromwell. — ^Area, 31 acres. The Junc- 
tion-Electric Gold-dredging Company was registered on the 
2nd September, 1899, but work was commenced on this claim 
in June, 1897. The company had three dredges working up 


to Christmas, 1905; but in March, 1906, one of the dredges 
was lost through foundering in the riyer, and another dredge 
was sold a month preyiouslv. The dredge at present owned bj 
the company is working the No. 2 claim; the dredge that was 
lost was working on No; 1 claim. Total quantity of gold 
obtained by the three dredges, 16,469 oz., valued at £63,753; 
the yield for the year 1905 being 2,650 oz. 10 dwt., valued at 
£10,277, Dividends have been disbursed amounting to 
£22,750, as against a called-up capital of £26,000. The ma- 
terials operated on are very rough, consisting of two parts of 
gravel, one part of fine sand, and one part of heavy stones, and 
arc dredged from depths varying from 15 ft. to 35 ft., the quan- 
tity raised per hour by one dredge being 100 cubic yards; and 
for the year 1905 about 100,800 cubic yards was treated. The 
present dredge (formerly known as the Cromwell Company's 
No. 2 dredge) was purchased for £750. The ladder is capable 
of dredging to a depth of 51 ft. ; the buckets have a capacity 
of 5 cubic feet, and discharge at the rate of 12 per minute. 
The elevator is 33 ft. in length, and the pontoons 100ft., with a 
depth of 7 ft. and a beam of 26 ft. At the highest point the 
unworked face is 25 ft. above water-line, the depth of the wash 
below water-line varying from 8 ft. to 20 ft. Average cost of 
working, £75; number of weeks worked during year, 42; 
number of men employed, 9. Dredgemaster, Alexander Ross ; 
secretary, R. T. Wheeler, Dunedin. 

Kelso, near Eelso, Tuapeka County. — Area, 32 acres. The 
Kelso Dredging Syndicate was registered in August, 1905, but 
did not commence work until the following March. Heavy 
gravel wash is operated on, the material being dredged from 
a depth of 18 ft. Cost of dredge, £1,275; average weekly 
cost of working, £40; average yearly cost of repairs, £200. 
Length of pontoons 85 ft., depth 6 J ft., beam 25 ft.; ladders 
capable of dredging 16 ft. ; capacity of buckets (33), 3 J cubic 
feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11. Dredgemaster, George 
Linklater ; secretary, Charles Todd, Heriot. 

Lady Annie, Waikaia. — Area, 55 acres. The Lady Annie 
Oold-<iredging Company was registered in November, 1904, 
and commenced work a few days after registration. Quarti 


grayelfl are dredged from a depth of 25 ft., the average qaan- 
titj raised per hour being 2,100 cubic feet. During the year 
1905 an area of 12 acres was worked, the quantity treated 
being about 640,000 cubic yards, yielding 1,539 oz. 11 dwt. 
11 gr. of gold, valued at £6,127 17s. lOd. Total yield of gold 
since dredge first commenced work, 1,682 oz. 10 dwt. 3gr., 
valued at £6,681 15s. Id., out of which dividends have been 
disbursed amounting to £2,520. The company's nominal and 
subscribed capital is £4,200, but only £14 was actually called 
up in cash. Cost of dredge, &c., £4,200; average weekly cost 
of working (including fuel, repairs, and maintenance), £75 
2s. lOd. ; average yearly cost of repairs, £727 168. 7d. ; yearly 
cost of fuel, £615 Os. Id. Length of pontoons 76 ft., depth 
5 ft., beam 25 ft. ; ladder's capable of dredging 21 ft. ; capacity 
of buckets (32), 3^ cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 
12^; length of elevators, 42 ft. (centres). Average number ot 
weeks worked, 49; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster, W. A. Johnston; secretary, W. E. C. Reid, 

Lee and Party, Waikaka Valley. — Area, 100 acres. Work 
was commenced in August, 1902. The wash consists of fine 
gravel drift, dredged from a depth of 9 ft. to 11 ft.; average 
quantity raised per hour, 65 yards. During the year 1905, 
266,000 cubic yards was treated, yielding 788 oz. of gold, 
valued at £3,224. Total quantity of gold since dredge first 
commenced work, 2,295 oz., valued at £9,166, out of which 
dividends have been paid amounting to £518. Cost of dredge, 
£3,000 ; average weekly cost of working, £50 ; average yearly 
cost of repairs, £700; yearly cost of fuel, £500. Length of 
pontoons 89 ft., depth 7 ft., beam 18 ft. ; ladders capable of 
dredging 18 ft. ; capacity of buckets (38), 3} cubic feet; rate 
of discharge per minute, 10}. Average number of weeks 
worked, 45; average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, S. W. Wilson ; secretary. Miss C. Burns, Dunedin. 

Lilliesleafy Waikaka Valley. — ^Area, 166 acres. The Lillies- 
leaf Gold-dredging Syndicate commenced work in April, 1901, 
the material operated on consisting of loose wash dredged from 
an average depth of 11 ft. During the year 1^905 an aren of 


about 15 acres was worked. Cost of dredge, £3,450; dost of 
other plant, £90. Average weekly cost of working, £44; 
nverage yearly cost of repairs, £540; yearly cost of fuel, 
£720, Length of pontoons 72 ft., depth 6ft., beam 24 ft.; 
ladders capable of dredging 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets (32)> 
3| cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11. Dredge- 
master, R. S. White; secretary, W. Crawford, Waikaka 

Loch Lomojid. — Area, about 20 acres on the Fraser River. 
The Loch Lomond Gold-dredging Company was registered on 
the 20th February, 1903. Ordinary river-wash is operated 
on from an average depth of 10 ft. or 12 ft., the deepest 
giound dredged being about 16 ft. Six acres was worked 
during the year 1905 for 609 oz. 17 dwt. 5 gr. of gold, valued 
at £2,350 78. 5d., making a total to the 31st December, 1905, 
of l,001oz., value £3,860 3s. 3d. ; whilst the called-up capital 
amounts to £1,975, and paid-up shares have been issued to the 
value of £500. The dredge, which was originally known a^ 
the Shepherd's Creek dredge, at Banuockburn, was purchased 
for £500, and was taken to pieces and rebuilt on the claim, 
lying back in the hills between Bannockburn and Clyde, on 
the Fraser River. The dredge is rather small for the claim 
she has to work, as the river is full of heavy stones; but if 
the machine can manage to drop back from where she is now 
working, near the head of the claim, there is a piece of 
ground, lately bought by the company from a private party, 
which is expected to turn out well; the difficulty in the way 
is the tailings that have been stacked up along the course of 
working, which may prevent the dredge getting down. The 
ladder is capable of dredging to a depth of 20 ft., and there 
are 26 buckets and two grabs, the buckets having each a 
capacity of 3} cubic feet, and discharging at the rate of 
ICL per ininute. The elevator is 45 ft. in length ; pontoons, 
70 ft., with a depth of 5 ft. and a beam 26 ft. Average num- 
ber of weeks worked during year, 34; number of men em- 
ployed, 7. Average weekly cost of working, about £60; 
yearly cost of repairs, £300. Dredgemaster, Alexander 
McT^an; secretary, James Goodger, Cromwell. 


Lone Start Cardrona. — ^Area, 100 acres. The Lone Star 
Dredging Company commenced work in February, 1902, and 
registered the following month. Rough, heavy wash and 
gravels are dredged from a depth of 8 ft. to 30 ft. ; average 
quantity raised per hour, 45 cubic yards. The yield of gold 
up to the end of the financial year (30th April, 1906) was 
829 oz., valued at £3,269 16s. 6d. Total yield up to same 
date, 2,746 oz. 2 dwt. 6gr., valued at £10,772 18s. 8d., out 
of which dividends were paid amounting to £540; capital 
called up, £600. Cost of dredge, £4,260; cost of other plant, 
£189 14s. 9d. Average weekly cost of working; £44 ITs. 9d. ; 
yearly cost of repairs, £386 88. 6d. ; yearly cost of coal, £766 
2s. lOd. Length of pontoons 70 ft., depth 5 ft., beam 24 ft.; 
ladders capable of dredging 24 ft. ; capacity of buckets (33), 
3J cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 10, Average 
number of weeks worked, 40; average number of men em- 
ployed, 10. Dredgemaster, John Williamson; secretary, 
W. T. Monkman, Dunedin. 

McGeorge Bros.^ Firrhohl No, i, Waikaka River. — ^Area, 
198 acres. This dredge commenced work in November, 1902. 
Fine quartz gravel is dredged from a depth of 12 ft., and 
during the year 1905 an area of 20 acres was worked- Cost 
of dredge, £5,000; average weekly cost of working, £50: 
average yearly cost of repairs, £500; yearly cost of coal, 
£(500. length of pontoons 80 ft., depth 6 ft., beam 27 ft.: 
ladders capable of dredging 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets (30), 
6 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 10. Average num- 
ber of weeks worked, 48 ; average number of men employed, 
8. Dredgemaster, J. B. C. Watt; secretary, Joseph 
McGeorge, Dunedin. 

McGeorge Bros.^ Freehold No. 2, Waikaka River. — ^Area, 
400 acres. This dredge commenced work in May, 1904. Fine 
quartz gravel is dredged from a depth of 12 ft. to 14 ft., aa-J 
during the year 1905 an area of 20 acres was worked. Cost 
of dredge, £5,000; average weekly cost of working, £50: 
average yearly cost of repairs, £500; yearly cost of coal, 
£600. I^ength of pontoons 80 ft., depth 7ift., beam 27 ft.: 
ladders capable of dredging 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets (28). 


6 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 10. Average num- 
ber of weeks worked, 48; average number of men em- 
ployed, 8. Dredgemaster, George McVicker. 

Manuherikia, Coal Creek, Alexandra Grorge. — Area, 
27 acres 2 roods. The Manuherikia Gold-dredging Company 
was registered in November, 1899, and commenced work in 
October, 1900. River-wash is dredged from a depth of 45 ft. 
to 50 ft. ; average quantity raised per hour, 40 tons. During 
the year 1905 an area of IJ acres was worked, yielding 778 oz. 
17 dwt. of gold, valued at £2,924 6s. 4d. Total yield of gold 
since dredi^e first commenced work, 14,939 oz. 2 dwt., valued 
at £45,568 2s. 6d., out of which dividends have been disbursed 
amounting to £26,700; capital called up, £6,000. Cost of 
dredge, £9,487 5s. 8d. ; average weekly cost of working, £50; 
average yearly cost of repairs, £450; yearly cost of fuel, 
£366. Length of pontoons 105 ft., depth 6^ ft., beam 27 ft. ; 
ladders capable of dredging 54 ft. ; capacity of buckets (44), 
5 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 13; length of ele- 
vator, 46 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 15; average 
number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, Louis Anderson ; 
secretary, Andrew Hamilton, Dunedin. 

MarshalVs Freehold, Waimumu, near Mataura. — ^Area, 
134 acres. Work was commenced in June, 1903. River-wash 
and clay are dredged from depths varying from 4 ft. to 20 ft., 
heavy timber being sometimes met with during operations. 
About 12 acres was worked during the year 1905, yielding 
787 oz. of gold, valued at £2,939 13s. 6d. Total yield of gold 
since dredge commenced work, 1,682 oz., valued at £6,376, 
out of which dividends have been disbursed amounting to 
£1,575 up to the 31st December, 1905, and £700 since that 
date; capital called up, £3,500. Cost of dredge (purchased 
second-hand) and erection, £1,950; cost of other plant, £70. 
Average weekly cost of working, £34; average yearly cost 
of repairs, £400; yearly cost of fuel, £421 7s. Length of 
pontoons 66 ft., depth 5ft., beam 25 ft.; ladders capable of 
dredging 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets (30), Z\ cubic feet ; rate 
of discharge per minute, 12. Average number of weeks 
worked, 49; average number of men employed, 9. Owners, 
Marshall Bros., Waimumu. 



Masttrtony Waikaia. — ^Area, 97 acres 2 roods. The Mas- 
terton Gold-dredging Company was registered in January, 
1904. The materials operated on are marine, lake, an»l 
alluvial river-wash, the depth varying from 14 ft. to 24 ft. 
During the year 1905 an area of about 22 acres was worked, 
yielding 2,112 oz. 4 dwt. 23 gr. of gold, valued at £8,295 
8s. lOd. ; and since first commencing work in September, 
1904, 2,810 oz. 4 dwt. 4gr., valued at £11,014 128. 2d., out 
of which dividends have been disbursed amounting to £6,500 : 
capital called up, £3,500. Cost of dredge, £3,100; average 
weekly cost of working (including fuel, repairs, mainten- 
ance, &c.), £60 6s. 3d. ; yearly cost of repairs, £646 4s. 8d. ; 
yearly cost of fuel, £726 128. 4d. Length of pontoons 81 ft., 
depth 7 ft., beam 30 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 26 ft. ; 
capacity of buckets (30), 4 J cubic feet; rate. of discharge per 
minute, 1 3. Average number of weeks worked, 45; average 
number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, Edward Lawson : 
secretary, W. E. C. Reid, Dunedin. 

Matau, Molyneux River, below Clyde. — Area, 99 acres 
and 33 perches. The Matau Dredging .Company was regis- 
tered in October, 1897. The gravels operated on are dredged 
from various depths, and about 100 tons per hour are raised. 
During the year 1905, 864 oz. of gold, valued at £3,311 
7s. 9d., was obtained, making a total of 9,460 oz., valued a* 
£36,438 5s. lid. Dividends disbursed amounted to £15,225. 
being at the rate of £2 3s. 6d. per share, while the capital 
actually called up in cash amounted to £6,200. Cost of 
dredge, £6,450 6s. 3d.; cost of electric-light plant, £220. 
About 15 oz. of gold pays all weekly expenses; average yearly 
cost of repairs, £479 ; yearly cost of fuel, £629. Length of 
pontoons 100ft., depth 6ft., beam 29 ft.; ladders capable 
of dredging to a depth of 40 ft. below water-level ; capacitj- 
of buckets (38), 4 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 
12; length of elevator, 48 ft. Average number of weeks 
worked, 35 ; average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, John Sanders; secretary, E. R. Smith, Dunedin. 

Mill Creek, Charlton.— Area, 100 acres. The Mill Creek 
Freehold was registered in November, 1903, Quartz wash. 

-• ^\ 


mixed with grey and black sand, is dredged from depths 
ranging from 10 ft. to 32 ft., the average quantity raised per 
hour being 1,350 cubic feet. During 1905 an area of about 
10 acres was worked, the number of cubic yards treated being 
290,822, yielding 715 oz. of gold, valued at £2,849 16s. 
Total quantity of gold produced since dredge first commenced 
work, 1,121 oz. 9 dwt. ; value, £4,175 12s. Capital called up, 
£4,000. Cost of dredge, £2,747 13s.; cost of other plant, 
£43 6s. The average weekly cost of working is set down at 
£59 28. 4d. j average yearly cost of repairs, £671 17s. 5d. ; 
and the yearly cost of coal at £677 lis. lid. The length of 
pontoons is 85 ft., and the depth 6^ ft., beam 24 ft.; ladders 
capable of dredging 25 ft. ; capacity of buckets (37), 4^ cubic 
feet; rate of discharge per minute, 10. Average number of 
weeks worked, 46; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster and secretary, James Brownlie, Gore. 

Moa No, S, Alexandra. — Area, 54 acres 2 roods 16 perches 
This dredge is owned by the Clyde Dredging Company, which 
was registered in May, 1895. Ordinary river-gravel, inter- 
mixed with rough boulders, is dredged from various depths. 
The yield of gold for 1905 was 1,307 oz., valued at £5,053 
148. 8d., making a total of 13,504 oz., valued at £52,012 
5s. Id. ; out of which dividends were disbursed amounting 
to £22,700, being at the rate of £4 Os. 6d. on 4,000 shares, 
and £1 2s. on 6,000 shares, as against a called-up capital •>£ 
£6,000. About 15 oz. of gold covers all weekly working ex- 
penditure, including rent and office expenses. Cost of dredge, 
£5,160 17s.; yearly cost of repairs, £543; yearly cost of 
coal, £619. Length of pontoons 108ft., depth 7ft., beam 
30 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 45 ft. ; capacity of 
buckets (46), 4i cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11 
Length of gold-saving tables, 15 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; save-all, 
14 ft. by 2 ft. ; length of elevator, 77J ft. Average number 
of weeks worked, 30; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster, W. ^C. Nicholson ; secretary, E. R. Smith, 


,: Molyneux Hj/dranliet Alexandra. — Area, 63 acres 1 rood 

25 perches. The Molyneux Hydraulic Dredging Company wot 


registered in May, 1900. Siver-wash is operated from a depth 
of 30 ft., the dredge being capable of raising 90 tons per 
hour. During the year 1905 an area of 1} acres was worked, 
yielding 839 oz. 3 dwt. 6 gr. of gold, valued at X3,246 lis. 8d. 
Total quantity of gold since dredge first conunenced work in 
May, 1897, 5,899 oz., ralued at £22,599 12s. 9d., out of 
which dividends amounting to £2,800 12s. have been dis- 
bursed, as against a called-up capital of £5,896. Cost of 
dredge, £5,000 ; average weekly cost of working, £51 7s. 6d. ; 
average yearly cost of repairs, £605 58. 3d. ; yearly cost of 
fuel, £509 19s. 6d. Length of pontoons 85 ft., depth 6 ft., 
beam 10 ft. and 12 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 32 ft.; 
capacity of buckets (40), 4} cubic feet ; rate of discharge per 
minute, 12. Length of elevator, 80 ft. ; height of unworked 
face above water-line, 30 ft. Average number of weeks 
worked, 44; average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, Samuel Cameron ; secretary, Lawrence Ryan, Alex- 

Molyneux Kohinoor, Coal Creek Flat, near Roxburgh. — 
Area, 59 acres 2 roods 30 perches. The Molyneux Kohinoor 
Dredging Company was registered in January, 1900, and 
commenced work in March, 1902. The material operated oo 
consists of river-bed formation, dredged from an average 
depth of 30 ft., the quantity raised per hour being 75 cubic 
yards. During the year 1 905 an area of 3^ acres was worked ; 
quantity treated, 200,000 cubic yards, yielding 314 oz. 3 dwt. 
6gr. of gold, valued at £1,207 8s. 7d. Total yield of gold, 
3,358 oz. 7 dwt. 22 gr., valued at £12,976 3s. 3d. Dividends 
disbursed, £4,571 17s. 6d. ; capital called up, £6,523 158. 
Cost of dredge, £3,000; average weekly cost of working, 
£45; average yearly cost of repairs, £350; yearly cost of 
coal, £560. Length of pontoons 60 ft., depth 8ft., beam 
20 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 25 ft. ; capacity of buckets 
(37), 4J cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11; length 
of elevator, 25 ft. The average number of weeks worked 
was 42 ; and the average number of men employed, 7. 
Dredgemaster, David Hepburn ; secretary, Harry Shrimpton, 


Muddy Creek, near Riversdale, Southland. — Area, 65 
acres. The Muddy Creek Dredging Company was regis- 
tered in NoTember, 1902, and commenced work in April, 
1903. The material dredged consists principally of mica 
schist, and is taken from an average depth of 22 ft., at the 
rate of 2,000 ft. per hour. During the year 1905 an area of 
6 acres was worked, yielding 1,51 2 oz. 18 dwt. of gold, valued 
at J&5,946 58. 7d., making a total of 4,638 oz. 19 dwt. and 
<£24,059 Is. ; out of which dividends were disbursed amount- 
ing to £2,767 lOs., as against a called-up capital of £1,845. 
Coat of dredge, £2,277 ; cost of other plant, £250. Average 
weekly cost of working, £50; yearly cost of repairs, £500; 
yearly cost of fuel, £1,000. Length of pontoons 80 ft., depth 
4^ ft., beam 28 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 22 ft. ; 
capacity of buckets (33), 4 cubic feet; rate of discharge per 
minute, 11; length of elevator, 50 ft. Length of gold-saving 
tables, 40 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. Average number of weeks 
worked, 48; average number of ipen employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, F. Hamer; secretary, H. G. Horn, Gore. 

Mystery Flat, Waikaia. — Area, 98 acres 3 roods. The 
Mystery Flat Gold-dredging Company was registered in July, 
1900, and work was commenced in January, 1902. The 
material is dredged from a depth of 16 ft., the quantity raised 
per hour being 2,700 cubic feet. During the year 1905 an 
area of 10 acres was operated upon, the quantity treated being 
807,300 cubic feet, yielding 1,874 oz. 9 dwt. 19 gr. of gold, 
valued at £7,406 8s. 4d. Total amount of gold obtained Kince 
dredge first began work, 4,862 oz. 10 dwt. 14 gr., valued at 
£19,100 6s. ; out of which dividends amounting to £5,787 128. 
have been disbursed^ as against a called-up capital of £4,512. 
Cost of dredge, £4,512; average weekly cost of working, £62 
58. 5d. ; average yearly cost of repairs, £420 19s. 6d. ; yearly 
cost of coal, £787 9s. 7d. Length of pontoons 75 ft., depth 
6 ft., beam 24 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 24 ft. ; 
capacity of buckets (36), 4+ cubic feet. Average number of 
weeks worked, 48; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster, W. J, F. Ayson ; secretary, W. E. C. Reid, 


Nevis Crossing, Lower Neyis. — Area, 100 acres. This 
dredge is owned by James Horn and Co. The nature of tiie 
material operated on is quartz and echist-grayel, taken from 
a depth of 15 ft. to 20 ft. During the twelve months an area 
of 5 acres was worked, the quantity treated being 216,000 
cubic yards; yield of gold, 424 oz.; value, £1,633 14s. lOd. 
Total quantity of gold produced since dredge first c(»nmeneed 
work, 1,139 oz.; value, £1,386. Cost of dredge, £1,200; coat 
of other plant, £300; average yearly cost of repairs, £150. 
Length of pontoons 66 ft., depth 5ft., beam 10 ft. ; ladders 
capable of dredging to a depth of 20 ft. ; capacity of buckets 
(26, and one grab), 3^ cubic feet; rate of di^arge per 
minute, 1 1 ; length of elevator, 45 ft. Average number of 
weeks worked, 32; average number of men employed, 7. 
Dredgemaster, Archibald Ritchie; secretary, James Horn. 

New Alpine Consols, near Cromwell. — Area, 84 acres. 
The New Alpine Consols Gold- dredging Company was regis- 
tered in July, 1902, and conmienced work the same month 
River-wash is dredged from a depth of 50 ft. During the 
year 1905 an area of 6 acres was worked; quantity treated, 
300,000 cubic yards, yielding 1,046 oz. of gold, valued at 
£4,050. Total quantity of gold obtained since dredge first 
commenced work, 2,422oz. ; value, £9,400. Capital called up, 
£3,750. Cost of dredge, £3,378; average -yearly cost of re- 
pairs, £450; yearly cost of fuel, £372. Length of pontoons 
96 ft., depth 6ft., beam 22 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 
50 ft. ; capacity of buckets (40), 4^ cubic feet ; rate of dis- 
charge per minute, 12. Average number of weeks worked, 
18; average number of men employed, 9. Dredgemaster, 
George Goodger; secretary, C, S. Reeves, Dunedin. 

New Cromwell, Eawarau River, between Cromwell and 
Bannockburn. — Area, 30 acres. A private company was 
formed to work the claim formerly held by the Cromwell 
Dredging Company, and purchased the Junction-Electric 
dredge for £600 at the beginning of March, 1906. The dredge 
was taken up from Cromwell to the claim, but the high river 
has prevented much work being done this season. The ladders 
are capable of dredging 38 ft., and there are 36 buckets, each 


haying a capacity of 4 cubic feet, and an average discharge 
of 12 per minute. Dredgemaster, William Wood; secretary, 
James Goodger, Cromwell. 

New Eray Nevis. — Area, 94 acres. The present owners 
commenced dredging operations in April, 1903, the early 
miners having previously worked the claim by hand-labour. 
The materials operated on consist of alluvial wash, dredged 
from a depth of 8 ft. to 15 ft. ; average quantity raised per 
hour, 2,000 cubic feet. During the year 1905 an area of 
12 acres was worked, the quantity treated being 296,000 cubic 
yards, yielding 483 oz. 10 dwt. of gold, valued at £1,865 
28. 9d. Dividends declared, £1,074; capital called up, £540. 
Cost of dredge and claim, £500 (original cost, £5,000); 
average weekly cost of working, £39; yearly cost of coal, 
^222 lis. Length of pontoons 66 ft., depth 5 ft., beam 20 ft. ; 
ladders capable of dredging 18 ft. ; capacity of buckets (25), 
3| cubic feet ; rate of discharge per minute, 1 1 ; length of 
elevator, 30 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 32; 
average number of men employed, 7. Dredgemaster, Thomas 
Omond; secretary, A. P. Bremner, Coal Creek Flat. 

New Fourteen-mile, Molyneux River. — Area, 47 acres 
2 roods, situated between Alexandra and Roxburgh. The New 
Fourteen-mile Beach Gold-dredging Company was registered in 
March, 1904. The materials operated on are a soft and hard 
reef, dredged from a depth of 40 ft. to 46 ft. ; average quan- 
tity raised per hour, about 85 tons. During the year 1905, 
700 yards of the river was dredged, and yielded 1,335 oz. 
6 dwt. of gold, valued at £5,196 10s. 5d. Total quantity of 
gold obtained since dredge first commenced work on the 28th 
April, 1904, 3,110 oz. 18 dwt. 16 gr., valued at £12,060 8s.; 
out of which dividends have been disbursed amounting to 
^5,991 5s., as against a called-up capital of £4,193 17s. 6d. 
Original cost of dredge, about £9,000; average weekly cost 
of working, £85; yearly cost of repairs, £400; yearly cost 
of coal, £745 128. Length of pontoons 110 ft., depth 6ift., 
^m 30 ft. 6 in. ; ladders capable of dredging 35 ft. to 36 ft. ; 
capacity of buckets (42), 3J cubic feet; rate of discharge per 
inix^ute, 11. Length of gold-saving tables, 16 ft.; breadth^; 


16 ft. 4 in. Average number of weeks worked, 26; ayer^e 
number of men employed, 8. • Dredgemaster, George Poulter; 
secretary, David Crawford, Dunedin. 

New Monte ChrUto, Molyneux River, near Clyde. — ^Area, 
32 acres. The New Monte Christo Dredging Company 
was registered on the 2l8t July, 1904, to work the Monte 
Christo Claim, situate at the mouth of the Clyde-Cromwell 
Gorge. This claim has been worked for the past five or nz 
years, but with little or no success; during the two years the 
present company has been working the quantity of gold ob- 
tained has been 470 oz. 8 dwt. 16 gr., valued at £1,545 
16s. Id., the capital called up amounting to £1,500. Three- 
quarters of the claim is shallow, with patches of gold, but no 
lead has yet been met with, and all attempts so far made to 
bottom it have failed. The ladder has just been extended bj 
Sft., and every effort will be made this season to get at the 
bottom. The depth of the wash operated on is 30 ft. to 40 ft, 
122 cubic yards being raised per hour, and the ladder is now 
capable of dredging to a depth of 50 ft. There are 45 buckets, 
each having a capacity of 5^ cubic feet, and a rate of dis- 
charge of 10 per minute, fhe gold being saved on tables 18^ ft. 
by 13 ft. The dredge was purchased by the present company 
for £1,500, but the original cost was £6,000. The average 
weekly cost of working is £42; yearly cost of repairs, £600: 
yearly cost of fuel, £325. Average number of weeks worked, 
35; average number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, 
Hans Olsen ; secretary, George Fache, Clyde. 

Otago No. 1 and No. 2, Miller's Flat.— Area, 99 acres and 
100 acres. The Otago Gold-dredging Company was rois- 
tered in May, 1895, and the first dredge commenced work 
that month. Ordinary river-wash is dredged from a deptli 
of 30 ft. to 35 ft. ; overburden, 25 ft. During the year 1905 
the two dredges worked 19 acres, and treated 1,100,000 cubic 
yards for gold to the value of £11,086. The total quantity 
of gold won by both dredges since commencing operations 
was 12,533 oz., valued at £48,357; out of which dividends 
were disbursed amounting to £11,875, as against a called-up 
capital of £2,000. No. 1 dredge cost £8,000, and No. 3 


£8,500. The average weekly cost of working both dredges is 
30 oz. of gold, or about £112; yearly cost of repairs, £1,200; 
yearly cost of coal, £1,829. Both dredges work about 45 
weeks in the year, and employ sixteen men. The two dredges 
are fitted with 78 buckets, those in No. 1 having a capacity 
of 5 cubic feet and those m No. 2 6 cubic feet, with a rate of 
discharge per minute of 60 ft. and 72 ft. No. 1 elevator is 
75 ft. and No. 2 elevator 80 ft. in length. No. 1 pontoons 
105 ft, and No. 2 pontoons 108 ft. in length. Gold-saving 
tables in No. 1 are I7i ft. by 16 ft., in No. 2 30 ft. by 12 ft. 
Dredgemasters : No. 1, E. Reiderer; No. 2, E. L. Westcombe. 
Secretary, A. G. Fenwick, Dunedin. 

Perseverance, Waipori. — Area, 66 acres. This dredge is 
owned by McNeil and party, who commenced work in January, 
1897. During the year 1905 an area of 11 acres was worked 
and 212,960 cubic yards treated, yielding 1,129 oz. of gold, 
valued at £4,347 lis. Total quantity of gold obtained since 
dredge first commenced work to the 31 st December, 1905, 
8,645 oz., valued at £33,285 lOs. ; out of which dividends have 
been disbursed amounting to £13,500, as against a called-up 
capital of £1,500. Cost of dredge, £3,500; average weekly 
cost of working, £40 ; average yearly cost of repairs, £420 ; 
yearly cost of coal, £700. Length of pontoons 75 ft., depth 
•'ift., beam 22 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 20 ft.; 
capacity of buckets (32), 3i cubic feet; rate of discharge per 
minute, 11. Average number of weeks worked during year, 
45; average number of men employed, 6. Dredgemaster, 
Thomas Aiken ; secretary, N. O. Potts, Lawrence. 

Phcenix, Waikaka. — Area, 78 acres. The Phoenix Dredg- 
ing Company was registered in September, 1902, and com- 
menced work the following month. Clay and fine gravel, in 
the proportion of three to one, are dredged from a depth of 
1 i ft. to 16 ft. About 9 acres has been worked during the year 
1905 to an average depth of 15 ft., yielding 453 oz. 15dwt. 
of gold, valued at £1,888 3s. 8d., making a total since dredge 
first commenced work of 2,376 oz. and £9,500; out of whicli 
<Hvidends were disbursed amounting to £3,300, as against a 
called-up capital of £1,600. Cost of dredge, £1,500; average 


weekly cost of working, about £40; yearly cost of repairs, 
£1 j621 ; yearly cost of coal, £459. Length of pontoons 70 ft., 
depth 5ft., beam 24 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 24 ft.; 
capacity of buckets (34), 3f cubic feet ; rate of discharge per 
minute, 11. Length of . gold-saving tables^ 70 ft. by 3|ft. 
Average number of weeks worked, 46; average number of 
men employed, 7. Dredgemaster and secretary, Malcolm 

Pioneer. — First commenced work in April, 1905, on an 
area of 40 acres, situate on the Waikaka River, the dredge be- 
ing owned by Mrs. M. H. Grey. The material operated on is 
a white-quartz gravel, and is dredged from a depth of 12 ft., 
the quantity raised per hour giving an average of 60 yards. In 
1905, 5 acres of ground was treated, yielding 168oz. 13dwt., 
valued at £655. The original cost of the dredge was £1,500. 
Average weekly cost of working, £120; yearly cost of repairs, 
£200 ; yearly cost of fuel, £300. Length of pontoons 78 ft., 
depth 5 ft., beam 24 ft.; ladders 18 ft., which carry 33 
buckets of the capacity of 3 cubic feet; rate of discharge, 13. 
Dredgemaster and secretary, Hugh Rankin, Waikaka. 

Pride of the Clutha, Miller's Flat. — ^Area, 31 acres. This 
dredge is owned by Pringle and party, who conmienced work 
in October, 1903. River shingle and gravel are dredged from 
an average depth of 30 ft., the quantity raised per hour being 
100 cubic yards. During the year 1905 the yield of gold 
was 1,019 oz., valued at £3,926, making a total of 4,727 os. 
Sdwt. 9gr. and £18,700 10s.; out of which dividends have 
been paid amounting to £6,000, as against a called-up capital 
of £4,000. Cost of dredge, £3,000; average weekly cost of 
working, £50; yearly cost of repairs, £50; yearly cost of 
coal, £625. Length of pontoons 100 ft., depth 5 ft. 7 in., 
beam 31 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 48 ft. ; capacity of 
buckets (40), 5 cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11. 
Length of elevator, 77 ft. ; height of unworked face above 
water-line, 6 ft. to 12 ft. Length of gold-saving tables, 16 ft. ; 
breadth, 16 ft. Average number of weekff worked, 40; average 
number of men employed, 7. Dredgemaster, Thomas B. 
Jones; secretary, John Priii|rle, Crookston 


Quilter and Party y Waipori. — ^Area, 20 acres. Quarti 
gravel and clay are dredged from a depth of 9 ft., the yield 
of gold during 1905 being 70 oz., valued at ^270. Cost of 
dredge, £500; cost of otiier plant, £100. Average weekly 
cost of working, £14; yearly cost of repairs, £20. Length 
of pontoons 51 ft., depth 3 ft., beam 21 ft. ; ladders capable 
of dredging 15 ft.; capacity of buckets (26), 2^ cubic feet; 
rate of discharge per minute, 9. Average number of weeks 
worked, 44; average number of men employed, 2. Dredge- 
master and secretary, W. Oarr, Waipori. [In a note it is 
stated tliat the claim is worked out and the dredge dis- 

Sevivaly Lowburn, near Cromwell, Upper Clutha River. — 
Area, 67 acres 3 roods. The Revival Gold-dredging Company 
was registered in August, 1903, and commenced work in Oc- 
tober of the same year. The wash operated on consists of 
20 per cent, of sand, 55 per cent, of gravel, and 25 per cent. 
of stones, the materials being dredged from a depth of 35 ft. 
During the year 1905 an area of 2 acres was worked, the 
quantity treated being 265,700 cubic yards, yielding 568 oz. 
ISdwt. of gold, valued at £2,220 3s. 9d. Total yield of 
gold since dredge first commenced work, 1,615 oz., valued at 
£6,283 lOs., out of which dividends were disbursed amount- 
ing to £650; while the capital called up has amounted to 
£1,800. Cost of dredge, £1,000; average weekly cost of 
working, £40 ; yearly cost of repairs, £550 j yearly cost of 
fuel, £600. Length of pontoons 84 ft., depth 6ft., beam 
24 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 35 ft. ; capacity of buckets 
(30), ^ cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 11 ; length 
of elevator, 30 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 41 j 
average number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, Frank 
Kitto; secretary, Andrew Hamilton, Dunedin. 

Bise-and-Shins No, 1, Lowburn, near Cromwell. — Area, 
100 acres. The Rise-and-Shine Gold-dredging Compaiiy was 
registered in February, 1900, and commenced work in Janu- 
ary, 1902. The material operated on contains a considei'- 
able amount of stones, and an average quantity of 73 cubio 
yards is dredged per hour from a depth of 50 ft. The yield 


of gold for the financial year ending the 3l8t March, 1906, 
was 1,376 oz. 18 dwt. 12 gr., vj>lued at £5,323 Is. 4d., makinjr 
a total of 7,102oz. 18 dwt. 11 gr. and £27,369 58. 5iV 
Dividends have been disbursed from the proceeds of boi i 
dredges amounting to £2,400; capital called up, £10,000. 
Cost of dredge, £9,410; average weekly cost of working, 
£85; average yearly cost of repairs, £1,100; yearly cost of 
fuel, £917. Length of pontoons 114 ft., depth 5} ft., beam 
30 ft. 8 in.; ladders capable of dredging 52 ft.; capacity of 
buckets (39, and 3 grab-hooks), 6 cubic feet ; rate of discharge 
per minute, 1 1 ; length of elevator, 66 ft. (centres). Average 
number of weeks worked, 40; average number of men em- 
ployed, 10. Dredgemaster, C. D. Brent; secretary, W. T. 
Monkman, Dunedin. 

Rise-and-Shine No. 2, Lowburn, Clutha River, near Crom- 
well. — ^Area, 42 acres. This dredge, which is owned by the sam- 
company as the No. 1, commenced work in January, 1904. 
The materials operated on consist of ordinary fine sand, river- 
gravel, and heavy stones in equal proportions, dredged from 
a depth of 36 ft. to 46 ft. ; average quantity raised per hour. 
2,500 cubic feet. The yield of gold for the financial year 
ending the 31st March, 1906, was 1,342 oz. 11 dwt., valued 
at £5,190 48. 3d., making a total of 2,459 oz. 11 dwt. 2gr. 
and £9,468 7s. 7d. Cost of dredge, £5,269 ; average weekl.v 
cost of working, £85; average yearly cost of repairs, £960: 
yearly cost of fuel, £879. Length of pontoons 100 ft., depth 
7 ft., beam 27^ ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 44 ft. ; capa- 
city of buckets (41), 5 cubic feet; rate of discharge per 
minute, 11; length of elevator, 65 ft. Average number of 
weeks worked, 40; average number of men employed, 10. 
Dredgemaster, N. P. Eloogh; secretary, W. T. Monkman. 

Biverview (late Sheddan Rex), Mataura River. — ^Area. 
100 acres. The Riverview Dredging Company, with a called- 
up capital of £1,537 10s., has been formed for the purpose 
of dredging a claim of 100 acres on the Mataura River. The 
pontoons have a length of 80 ft., a depth of 5 ft., and a beam 
of 24 ft., fitted with ladders capable of dredging to a depth 


of 24 ft., and there are tbirty-tivo buckets, each having a 
capacity of 4J cubic feet. Secretary, John Latham, Gore. 

Rosedale, Waikaka Valley. — Area, 100 acres. This dredge, 
which is owned by the Rosedale Syndicate, numbering ten 
shareholders, commenced operations in March, 1906. Cost 
of dredge, £2,500; cost of other plant, £130. Average 
weekly cost of working, £44. Length of pontoons 78 ft. , 
depth 6ft., beam 25 ft.; ladders capable of dredging 20 ft.; 
capacity of buckets (32), 4^ cubic feet ; rate of discharge per 
minute, 9. Average number of men employed, 8. Dredge- 
master, Thomas Falconer ; secretary, William Crawford, Wai- 
kaka Valley. 

Sailor Bend, Alexandra Gorge. — ^Area, 1 mile. The Sailor 
Bend Dredging Company was registered in September, 1899, 
to work a gorge claim situate betwixt the Manuherikia and the 
Last Chance Claims, both of which have given good returns 
and paid dividends. Under favourable circumstances, the 
Sailor Bend Claim gives a yield of from 80 oz. to 100 oz. for 
a week's dredging ; but coaling is a heavy item, as the distance 
from the pit is over three miles, and the coal has to be boated 
down the river to the dredge by a special crew for a mile and 
a quarter. The Sailor Bend is known to contain payable de- 
posits right through the claim, having been tested by the 
dredge in several parts of the property. Unfortunately, the 
Sailor Bend, in common with a number of dredges whose 
claim is in the Alexandra Gorge, has for the past four winters 
only worked on an average on the bottom about four to six 
weeks, which has crippled the finances and placed the com- 
pany's dredges in the power of the mortgagee or the debenture- 
lM)lder. When the dredging boom was in full swing some 
years ago, it was thought that the gorge dredges would be 
able to work for at least six months ; but during the past four 
seasons the average has only been eight weeks, and of these 
two or three weeks have been taken up with opening a paddock 
or dredging at a loss on a rising river, and it was not ex- 
P^ted that dredging would commence this season before the 
second week in July. Provided there are no heavy rains or 
warm winds to melt the snow on the ranges, causing the river 


to rise, the dredging season goes on to the last week in Sep- 
tember or the first week in October ; and if the frost does not 
set in the latter end of February a short dredging season may 
be expected. For the year 1905 the Sailor Bend dredge won 
380 oz. lOdwt. of gold, valued at £1,468, making a total 
since work commenced of 2,908 oz., valued at £11,239; oat 
of which £2,800 was paid in dividends; while the capit;*! 
called up amounted to £8,000. The dredge cost £6,674 
98. lid., and the average weekly cost of working has been £70. 
In dredging, rocks and large stones are met with, the graveU 
being taken from a depth of 25 ft. to 30 ft. ; the ladders are 
capable of dredging to a depth of 35 ft. There are 41 backets, 
eadi having a capacity of 4} cubic feet, discharging at the 
rate of 12 per minute, the gold being saved over tables 14 ft. 
by 17 ft. The pontoons are 105^ ft. in length, with a depth 
of 6 ft. 7 in., and a beam of 25 ft. 10 in. Average number of 
men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, Dugald McGregor; secre- 
tary, R. T. Wheeler, Dunedin. 

Star, Waikaka Valley. — Area, 100 acres. This dredge ii 
owned by the Star Gold-dredging Syndicate, which commenced 
work in February, 1904. The material operated on consists 
of gravel wash and white and grey stones (40 per cent, of fine 
sand, 40 per cent, of fine gravel, and 20 per cent, of heaTj 
stones), dredged from a depth of 13 ft., the quantity raised 
per hour being 60 cubic yards. An area of 18 acres wa^ 
worked during the year 1905, the quantity treated being 
377,520 cubic yards, which yielded 1,691 oz. of gold, valued at 
£6,610. Total quantity of gold produced since dredge first 
commenced work in February, 1904, 4,046 oz. 3 dwt. ; value. 
£15,952 16s. Dividends paid, £9,192; capital called up. 
£2,208. Cost of dredge, £2,500; average weekly cost of 
working, £40 ; yearly cost of repairs, £400 ; yearly cost of 
lignite, £450. Length of pontoons 82 ft., depth 5ft., beam 
25 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 22 ft. ; capacity of bueketi 
(37), 3} cubic feet ; rate of discharge per minute, 9|. Length 
of gold-saving tables, 66 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. Average num- 
ber of weeks worked, 50; average number of men employed, 
Z, Dredgemaster, John A. S. Aitken; secretary, F. R. Blue, 
Knapdale, Gore. 


Success, Waipori. — ^Area, 18 acres. This dredge, which Is 
owned by Wilson and party, commenced work in May, 1905. 
Gravel, clay, and soil are dredged from a depth of 12 ft.; 
average quantity raised per hour, 75 yards. Yield of gold 
during 1905, 273 oz. 6dwt. 19 gr., valued at £1,052 7s. 2d. 
Total quantity of gold produced since dredge first commenced 
work, 677 oz. 2 dwt. 6 gr. ; value, £2,607 13s. Cost of dredge, 
£160; cost of plant, &c., £30. Average weekly cost of work- 
ing, £33; yearly cost of coal, about £450. Length of pon- 
toons 90 ft., depth 5ft., beam 24 ft.; ladders capable of 
dredging 20ft.; capacity of buckets (31), 3^ cubic feet; 
rate of discharge per minute, 12. Plain box, 50 ft. long and 
4 ft. wide, used for saving gold. Average number of weeks 
worked, 29; average number of men employed, 6. Secre- 
tary, G. McCluskey. 

Teviot, Roxburgh. — Area, 50 acres. Work was commenced 
in August, 1904, by Mr. Joseph Sparrow, the present owner. 
The material operated on consists of river-wash (stones and 
cement) taken from a depth of 18 ft., the average quantitv 
raised per hour being 60 tons. During 1905 an area of 4 
acres was worked; quantity treated, 11,520,000 cubic yards; 
yield of gold, 830 oz., valued at £3,202. Total quantity of 
gold produced since dredge first commenced work for pre- 
sent owner, 2,004 oz. ; value, £7,572. Original cost of dredge, 
£7,800; bought by present 6wner at £2,030. Average weekly 
cost of working, £50 ; average cost of repairs, £800 ; yearly 
cost of fuel, £576. Length of pontoons 103 ft., depth 6 ft. 
9 in., beam 31 ft. ; ladders capable of dredging 40 ft. ; capa- 
city of buckets, 4| cubic feet; rate of discharge per minute, 
11. Length of elevator, 60 ft. ; height of unworked face above 
water - line, 20 ft. Length of gold-saving tables, 16 ft. ; 
breadth, 15 ft. Average number of weeks worked, 40; average 
number of men employed, 8. Dredgemaster, James Rich- 

Waikaia Venture, Wendon District, near Waikaia. — Area, 
100 acres. The Waikaia Venture Gold-dredging Syndicate 
has not yet commenced operations, the dredge being in course 
of erection. The pontoons will have a length of 82 ft., n 


depth of 7^ ft., and a beam of 31 ft., fitted with ladders 
capable of dredging a depth of about 18 ft. ; each bucket will 
have a capacity of 5 cubic feet. Dredgemaster, Junes 
McErleanj secretary, Alexander Mutch, Waikaka Valley. 

Waikaka No, 1 and No. 2, Waikaka Valley.— The Wai- 
kaka Syndicate was registered in December, 1901 ; the first 
dredge conmienced work in February, 1903, and the second 
ill July, 1905. No. 1 dredge worked 10 acres during the year 
1905, and No. 2 turned over a similar area for the six months, 
this yield of gold won by both dredges being 1,654 oz. 8dwt., 
valued at £6,484 188. 7d., making a total (both dredges) to 
the 31st December, 1905, of 3,755 oz. 13 dwt., valued at 
£14,800 3s. 8d. The called-up capital is £3,000, and £2,800 
has been paid in dividends. The profits are now devoted to 
purchase of second dredge. In the No. 1 claim the material, 
dredged from a depth of 11 ft., consists of 6 ft. of yellow day 
and 5 ft. of light wash, and in No. 2 the material consists of 
one-quarter fine sand, one-half fine gravel, and one-quarter 
heavy stones. The No. 1 dredge cost £3,360 2s. Id.; the 
No. 2, purchased from the Sheddan Company for £1,100, 
originally cost about £4,000. The average weekly cost of work- 
ing both dredges (including repairs, maintenance, kc.) is £126 
188. 9d. ; repairs on No. 1 cost for the twelve months £496 
148. 4d., and on No. 2 for six months £558 4s. 3d.; cost of 
fuel on No. 1 for twelve months £590 ISs. 8d., and on No. 3 
for six months £328 188. 3d. Both dredges are fitted with 
ladders capable of dredging to a deptfi of 20 ft., fitted with 32 
buckets, having a capacity of 4J and 4J cubic feet each, and 
discharging at the rate of 9 and 11 buckets per minute. 
Each pontoon has a length of 80 ft., a depth of 5ft., and a 
beam of 25 ft. For saving the gold No. 1 has a sluice-box 
50 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in., and No. 2 has tables 28 ft. by 3 ft. 9 in. 
and 38 ft. by 6 ft. Average number of men employed, 18 ; 
the number of weeks worked during year 1905 on No. 1 was 
49. Dredgemasters : No. 1, R. Henderson; No. 2, Thomas 
Stevenson. Secretary, W. E. C. Reid, Dunedin. 

Waimumu Venture, Waimumu. — Area, 52 acres. This 
dredge is owned by the Waimumu Venture Syndicate, which 


commenced work in March, 1905; and up to the end of the 
year an area of 13 acres was operated on, 209,729 cubic yards 
being treated at a cost of 2^d. per cubic yard, for 800 oz. of 
gold, valued at £3,207 178., out of which dividends were dis- 
bursed amounting to £504; capital called up, £1,325. The 
pontoons are 80 ft. in length, 5 ft. in depth, with a beam of 
26 ft. ; ladder capable of dredging to a depth of 11 ft. ; capa- 
city of buckets (29), 3^ cubic feet; rate of discharge per 
minute, 9. Length of gold-saving tables, 60 ft. ; breadth, 
4 ft. 3 in. Cost of dredge, about £1,800; average weekly 
cost of working, £44; average number of men employed, 8. 
Dredgemaster and acting-secretary, James Currie. 

Nons.— Id statements as to cost of fael, repairs, and nnmber of weeks 
worked, the averat^e cost is generally meant. Forms, Foliciting informa- 
tion, were seni out to all secretaries and dredgemasters in Otago and 
Sonihland. The above detailed parcicolars have been compiled from* the 
information courteously furnished by secretaries and dredgemasters. In 
some instances the forms have not been returned, and in others the 
information was of too meagre a character. Tabulated returns will be 
foond in the larger edition of present work, entitled *'New Zealand 
Mines and ^linerals." Space does not permit of the tables being given 
in this edition.— Editor, Mining Handbook. 


For Agricultural, Pastoral, or Other Purposes. 

In connection with the publication of the Muyino Hakd- 
BOOE, forms were sent coit to dredgemasters and secretaries 
of companies, asking for information, and amongst the ques- 
tions submitted were the following: — 

(1.) How much of surface soil is put by and placed tm this 
tailings after ff round is dredged? 

(2.) Can the ground be utilised afterwards for fruit or 
vegetable culture, or for agrictdtural or pastoral 

Where answers have been given in the affirmative to either 
question, they are herewith appended. 

Otago and Southland. 

Ardmore, Scrubby Flat, near Kelso, Tuapeka County,^ 
(2.) Yes; trees would do well. 

Argyle, Waikaka Valley,— (2.) Yes. 

Central Charlton, near Gore.— (2.) Either. 

Charlton Creek, near Gore. — (1.) Mixed with gravel. (2.) 
Good for pasture and forestry. 

Graham and Party, Waikaka Valley. — (1.) Mixed. (2.) 
For forest trees or pastoral purposes. 

Ilessey's Waikaia. — (2.) Pastoral. 

Ibbotson and Party, No, 2, Little Waikaka,— {I ,) Most of 
the surface remains on the top. (2.) Yes; good pastoral, 
and with a little labour can be made good agricultural land. 

Lady Annie, Waikaia. — (1.) Not any; all is mixed to- 
gether. (2.) Yes; the stones are for the most part rotten, 
and will break up in time. 


Lee and Party ^ Waikaka Valley. — (1.) Very little, unless 
we ftre in clay. (2.) Pastoral purposes and tree-growing. 

Lilliesleaf, Waikaka Valley.— (I.) Three inches. (2.) 

McGeorge Bros,, Waikaka Valley. — (1.) Surface soil and 
wash was treated together; but, by means of a sand-shoot, 
about 6 in. to 1 ft. of soil and sand is distributed over the 
surface. (2.) Yes; when sown, is good grazing. 

Marshall Bros.* Freehold , Waimumu. — (1.) Depends on 
various circumstances; average perhaps one-half. (2.) Fair 
feed, although uncultivated ; should do well for flax. 

Masterton, Waikaia. — (1.) All mixed. (2.) Yes; fruit 
and pastoral purposes. 

MUl C reeky Charlton. — (2.) Could be used for pastoral 
purposes; grows clover and grasses. 

Muddy C reeky Wendonsidey ten miles from Biversdale, 
Southland. —{2.) Pastoral. 

Mystery Flat, Waikaia. — (2.) Fruit and forest trees. 

Nevis Crossing, Lower Nevis. — (2.) Not for a long period ; 
country only fit for pasture. 

Otago, Miller's Flat. — (2.) Yes, portions of it. 

Phcenix, Waikaka. — (2.) Yes; in this part the grass does 
very well on the tailings, as there is very heavy clay. 

Pioneer, Waikaka. — (2.) For pastoral purposes. 

Pride of the Clutha, Miller's Flat.— (2.) Portion of bank 
claim may be utilised after working. 

Bosedale, Waikaka Valley. — (2.) Yes. 

Star, Waikaka Valley. — (1.) Not much surface soil is left 
on top, but we leave 4 in. or 5 in. of silt, which grows good 
clover, *c. (2.) Good for pastoral purposes. 

Success, Waipori. — (2.) Pastoral purposes. 

Waikaka Syndicate No. 1, Waikaka Valley. — (1) and (2). 
Varies according to circumstances. Would grow good grass, 
timber or fruit trees. 

Waikaka Syndicate No. 2, Waikaka. — (1.) None; it is all 
mixed up. (2.) Yes. 

Waimumu Venture Syndicate, Waimumu, near Mataura, 
—(2.) For agricultural purposes. 

U-^Mining Handbook. 

822 nbw zealand minii"> handbook. 

Wbst Coast. 

North Beaeht near Greymouth. — (2.) Yes; grows grass in 

Prince of Wales, Robinson* a Creek, Donoghue's, near Bou. 
— (2.) Yes, for grazing purposes. 

Stafford, Waimea Creek, Stafford, We8tland.—(2.) Fruit- 

Answers front Hydraalio BleYating and Sloicijig Claims 
to Quaation Mo. 2 only. 

Otaoo and Southland. 

George Guilford^ Carrick Range. — For pastoral purposes 

Golden Rise, Weatherstone*s, Tuapeka. — Not for some 
years, on account of its gravelly nature, unless by digging 
holes and filling same with soil, when fruit or other trees migbt 
be grown. 

Island Block, Beaumont Riding, Tuapeka. — Ground could 
be levelled and top-dressed with silt from elevators. 

Jewett's Gully, Round Hill, Colae Bay, Southland.— YeSy 
to a moderate extent. 

Matakanui, Uatakanui (or Tinkers). — Parts of it would 
grow trees. 

New Skipper's Sluicing Company, Skipper's, — Pastoral. 

Norwegian Sluicing Claim, Waitahuna Gully, Tuapeka.— 

Ourawera, Round Hill, Colac Bay. — It might at a future 
date be suitable for pastoral purposes, but not for a long time. 

Private Enterprise, Cardrona Valley, Ixike County. — Pas- 

Round Hill, Round Hill, Colae Bay. — Yes. 

Tallahum, Currie's Flat, near Beaumont, Tuapeka 
County. — Part fit for pastoral purposes. 

Undaunted, Matakanui. — Yes. 

United M. and E. Water-race, St. Bathan*s. — ^When worked 
out, ground could be used for grazing or tree-growing. 

new zealand mining handbook. 323 

West Coast. 

Barrytovm, Barrytawn Flat, Grey Valley, — Yea. 

Maeleod's Terrace ^ Mokihinui River, Westland, — Grasses 
will grow^on tailing».- - > . ^ • ^.' t » . 

Minerals (Limited), Arahura, Blue Spur, Weitland.— 

Mont d'Or, Sailors' Gully, Ross, Westland.— Yes; 160 
acres tailings-site, used for grazing cattle, carries 50 head 
all year round. 

New Nine-mile Creek, near Ten-mile Creek, Grey Valley. — 
Tailings-site greatly improves the land. 

Republic, Healey*s Gully, Moonlight, Grey Valley, — Part 
of it. 

Ross United, Jones's Flat, Ross, — Yes; for fruit-growing 
and grazing. 



By E. R. Gkbkn, Inspector of Minee for the Southern MUung Bisirict 


Samples of cinnabar were found in the early alluTial 
diggings in Nevis, Nokomai, Waipori, and Waitahuna. A 
sample assayed in 1875 fiom the Carrick Range contained 
82 per cent, of the metal, while samples from Waipori and 
Waitahuna were found to contain 70 to 75 per cent, of mer- 
cury. Some promising samples were discovered at the Upper 
Nevis in 1883. It is here found associated with gold in the 
alluvial washings. When tested the samples yielded 84 per 
cent, of quicksilver. Some prospecting was done for the k)d? 
at Nevis, but it was never found. A discovery of this mineral 
was made in the year 1899 between Waipori and Waita- 
huna, in Tuapeka County. Systematic prospecting wa^ 
undertaken, and a low-level tunnel was being driven 
in 1900. This level met the lode in 1901 at a dis- 
tance of 231 ft., but as the capital of the company was 
exhausted the mine was locked up pending company recon- 
struction. A contract was let in 1901 to drive 300 ft. along 
the lode. This was done, but no ore was met with in the lode- 
formation. The mine was closed down during 1903. * As there 
were 190 ft. of backs available, it would have proved the pro- 
perty better had a rise been put through to the surface. The 
mine has not been reopened since 1903. 


According to Hutton and Ulrich's ** Geology of Otago,'* 
samples sent from the Carrick Range prior to 1875 yielded 
50 to 54 per cent, of antimony, while a sample assayed frcMn 
Miller's Flat, Tuapeka, contained 58 per cent, metallic 
antimony. A specimen sent from Arrowtowu contained only 


34 per ctent. In October, 1875, about 60 tons of antimony 
was shipped to England from the mine at Waipori. In 1879 
a new lease was applied for, as the trial shipment to England 
gave a satisfactory return of gold. A company was formed, 
but after raising and exporting some ore the work was sus- 
pended in 1880. The drawback was the general inaccessibility 
of the mine. During the summer of 1881 work was resumed, 
twenty-eight men being employed; machinery was erected, 
and a payable lode proved. In 1882 operations were again 
at a standstill. In 1883 a bonus of £500 was offered 
by the New Zealand Government for the production of 
the first 250 tons of antimony regulus to be sold in 
a foreign market at a fair market price, but no applica- 
tion was made for it, and it lapsed. In 1886 two licenses were 
granted to search for antimony in the Silver Peak and Mount 
Hyde Survey Districts respectively. Two additional licenses 
were granted in 1887 — one in each of these districts. In 1888 
Johnson and party took up the Waipori lode, on the Lammer- 
law Ranges, and proved the extension of the lode from the 
original shaft. Two tons and a half of ore was sent to Lon- 
don for assay, with a view to floating a company in that 
market. There is a good supply of water and peat on the 
ground. Nothing further was done to prospect the antimony- 
lode at Hindon during 1889, but in that year the Lammerlaw 
Antimony Company took up an area of 59 acres on the 
original claim. James Campbell was granted a mineral 
license over 320 acres adjoining the company's licensed hold- 

The Antimony Company, Waipori, was registered in 1891, 
and contracts were let for sinking a new shaft and cutting a 
water-race. In the early part of 1890 a parcel of 3 J tons, 
which yielded 47 per cent, of antimony, was sent to the Dun- 
edin Exhibition ; this was afterwards shipped to England for 
•ale. Some of the ore will go as high as 80 per cent. In 1891 
a lode, 2 ft. to 5 ft., was struck at a depth of 60 ft. in the com- 
pany's area, the yield from which was from 70 to 80 per cent. 
of antimony. The company carried on continuous operations 
during 1892. 


Antimony was also found on the Carrick Range. 

The existence of an antimony lode on the west bank of the 
Moljneux River, at Alexandra, was known years ago, but 
very little attention was paid to it. In 1900 the shaft was 
cleaned out, and a few tons taken out and sent to Melbourne 
for assay. Some samples taken from the lode were assayed at 
the Otago and Thames Schools of Mines, and by the Government 
Analyst. According to the latter, these contained 73*5 per 
cent, sulphide of antimony, equal to 52*8 per cent, metallic 
antimony. The Thames School of Mines reported the ore 
equivalent to 50 per cent, of metallic antimony, and the Otago 
School of Mines foun^d that the sample sent there contained 
65 per cent, metallic antimony. The Antimony Exploration 
Syndicate continued to prospect the lode by shafts and 
ttunDelling during 1901. Several trial shipments were made 
to Melboume during that year. However, it was found that 
the cost of production and the heavy freights in conveying the 
mineral to a seaport town had absorbed the profits, and the 
mine was closed down. 

Although lodes occur at Alexandra, Waipori, Mount Stoker, 
and the Carrick Range, none of them has been worked since 
1901. These lodes are in out-of-the-way localities, and the 
cost of production and transit, together with the fluctuating 
nature of the antimony market, has so far prohibited the pro- 
fitable working of the ore. 


Prior to 1875 copper-ore containing 13'5 per cent, of 
metallic copper was found on the Carrick Range. Samples 
from the Arrowtown district yielded 11 per cent, of metallic 
copper. Copper-ore containing 24 per cent, metallic copper 
was discovered at Moke Creek, while gold was found in 
samples sent from Moke Creek, Wakatipu, and Waipori 
(Hutton and Ulrich's '* Geology of Otago.") 

Copper was discovered at Reedy Creek, near Waipori, in 
1866. This lode was prospected during 1880 by a shaft 50 ft 
in depth and by tunnels. A parcel of undressed ore sent to 
New South Wales was reported to have yielded 11 per cent, of 


copper. Machinery was erected in 1881, and thirteen men em- 
ployed to thoroughly test the lode. The drainage was heavy, 
and for various causes the work was discontinued in 1882. 
A discovery of a copper-lode was made in 1882 in the Waka- 
iipu district. An attempt was made to float a company rn 
Australia, but, although the lode was proved, the expense of 
placing it on the market in a proper state was then too great, 
and the lode was allowed to lie idle. Some further prospecting 
was done on this lode during 1900; but no copper was mined 
in Otago during 1901. 

Several licenses were granted to prospect for copper on the 
Malvern Hills, Canterbury, during 1902, but nothing even- 

In 1904 a quantity of ore was taken from the Wakatipu 
lode, and parcels sent to Dunedin and Thames for valuation 
of the ore; but development was not continued. None of 
the lodes at Carrick, Wakatipu, or Waipori is now being 


This metal is associated with the auriferous deposits at 
Round Hill, Southland, and is found on the black-sand beaches 
south-west of the Waiau River. About 20 oz. of platinum waff 
sold by the Round Hill Gold-mining Company during 1903; 
8oz. 11 dwt. 10 gr. was recovered from the above claim in 
1904; and during 1905, 14 02. 6 dwt. 12 gr. was saved. This 
is a metal that should be looked for in other places, as it has 
a high value at the present time. 


It is recorded that a sample of native silver was found at 
the Matatapu, Lake Wanaka, many years ago; also in the 
Wakatipu district and Eawarau Gorge. 

» Manganese. 

Manganese was found in Waipori in 1864, but the samples 
tested did not yield more than 8 per cent. Rich samples were 
found near the mouth of the Taieri River, Otago, in 1873. 


Owing to the low and yariable price ruling for this minenl 
the search for deposits has never been carried on for any length 
of time. The mineral at Taieri Beach contains 90 per cent 
dioxide of manganese. 


Coarse pieces of scheelite were found in the alluvial work- 
ings in Waipori in 1865. A lode was discovered in Nardoo 
Creek in 1887. A sample sent to London gave an assay ralae 
jf 77 per cent, tungstic acid. Some attention was given to- 
wards prospecting during 1«:$99, as London firms were offering 
£22 per ton, delivered in Dunedin. This mineral also ocean 
at Macrae's in the quartz reefs, and in 1891 Messrs. Kitchener 
and Donaldson sent Home a trial shipment of 6| tons. The 
mineral was also found on the Lammerlaw Heights, at tiie 
Antimony Mine, and at the head of Burnt Creek. A large lode 
was discovered at the head of Lake Wakatipu. 

Messrs. Donaldson Bros., of Macrae's, have been consistent 
producers of this mineral during the past few years^ and 
several hundred tons have been exported from this mine, the 
total value aggregating to about £24,000. Special concen- 
trating appliances are installed at this mine. 

Scheelite also exists in tlie Alta Mine, Bendigo, but none 
has been produced for export. 

The lode at Glenorchy, Lake Wakatipu, was reopened in 
1906, and scheelite is now being produced. 


Reports had been circulated from time to time that tin had 
been discovered in the colony, but it was not until 1888 that 
tin-stone (cassiterite) was discovered in the RemarkaUes. 
Stewart Island. The country rock is a granitoid gneiss. 
The ore was found in bands of quartz running through 
a micaceous rock. Wolfram was found in connectiop with the 
cassiterite. Both these minerals were found associated in tha 
stream deposits in Pegasus Greek. About 7,000 acres were held 
in 1889. Many claims were worked in that year, both on the 


lode-formation and in tko alluYial drifts. It was, however, 
found that the deposits were not large, and the supposed rich 
discoYeries were not verified. Only small areas of drift 
ground could be found, and there was a scarcity of water for 
sluicing purposes. Very little ore was produced, and opera- 
tions have never risen above the prospecting stage. 


Graphite, in various stages of purity, is found at Malvern 
Hillfl, Canterbury, and Gibbston, Otago, where it is of fair 
average quality. 

Ck»mplez Ores. 

A oomplez ore occurs at Tarawera Mine, Isthmus Sound, 
Preservation Inlet. It is an admixture of iron, copper, lead, 
zinc, gold, and silver. When dressed to a high percentage this 
ore yields 100 oz. to 120 oz. of silver to the ton, and as much 
as 7 dwt. of gold. Refractory ores occur in the deep levels of 
the mines on the Carrick, Bendigo, Nenthorn, and Hindon ; 
the foreign mineral present may be iron, antimony, or arsenic. 
Some of the quartz in the Rough Ridge Reef is heavily charged 
with iron-pyrites and zinc-blende. 

Aariferous Ironsands. 

Auriferous ironsands (chiefly magnetic oxide) are, for the 
most part, confined to the west, south, and south-east coasts 
of the Middle Island of Ne^ Zealand. These beach sands have 
afforded profitable employment for very many years, and con- 
tinue to do so. Not only gold, but platinum, iridium, and 
other valuable minerals occur in these sands. There is a vast 
field here for research as to the most suitable means of treating 
these sands to recover a maximum percentage of their values at 
a minimum cost. A bonus of £2,000 was offered by the New 
Zealand Government in November, 1901, and the offer was 
continued up to January, 1904, for a suitable machine or ap- 
pliances to treat these sands, but was unclaimed, although 
many inquiries were received by the Mines Department from 
various parts of the world. 



The deposit of marmolitc, or iangiwai, in iode-formatioD, 
long known to occur at Anita Bay, Milford Sound, was ex- 
ploited in 190d. A quantity of the stone has been brought to 
Dunedin for lapidary treatment, and is now being prepared 
for the market. The demand for this class of stone ornament 
in a manufactured state is said to be fairly large, especially 
among the Natives of the North Island ; also amongst tourists, 
and others outside the colony. 


Mica occurs at an altitude of 12,000 ft. above sea-lerel 
in the mountains at the head of George Sound, Western 
Otago. Samples were produced, and a company was formed 
for the exploitation of the deposit, but full developments were 
not proceeded with. 


A license was granted in 1886 to search for this mineral in 
th-i vicinity of Milford Sound. The deposit was discovered, 
but apparently its position was too inaccessible for economic 
working. This mineral has also been found on Mount Cairn- 
muir and Mount Pisa, in Otago Central, but none has ever 
been produced. 


A very pretty grey marble, streaked with white, is found 
in abundance ut Blue Mountain, in the Horse Range, where 
it is burnt for lime. Although much jointed at the surface, 
it may improve as the quarry is develope<I, and I think that 
blocks of sufficient size to make chimney-pieces, pillars, &c., 
could be obtained —Hutt on and Ulrich's *' Geology of Otago.*' 
It is recorded in the *' Handbook of New Zealand Mines, 
1887," that a marble whk found outcropping on the Nokomai. 


The occurrence of this fossil resin in abundance in some 
of the liijnites of Otapo and Southland was indicated in Button 


and Ulrich's "Geology of Otago." It was suggested that it 
would probably pay to collect it for the manufacture of 

' rinding and Polishih^ Materials. 

According to Bhittonttfidiririch's'* Geology of Otago," 
good sharp sandstone, or gritstone, suitable for grindstones, 
iH found in the Horse Range, while whetstones and scythe- 
stones could probably be supplied from some of the more 
arenaceous mica-schists, as at Mount Alta. Hone-slate and 
Lydian stone are not uncommon in the Eakanui and Eai- 
koura formations, and pollshing-powder (diatomaceous earth) 
is found in Strath Taieri, and probably in some of the other 
old lake-basins. 



By Alexandbb McKay, F.G.S:, Government G^ologut 

AUBIFRR0U3 iroDsands (chiefly magnetic oxide) are for the 
most part coDfined to the west, south, and south-east coasti 
of the Middle Island of New Zealand, conmionly known and 
hereafter to be spoken of as the South Island. 

The titanic ironsands of the west coast of the North Island^ 
though mixed with magnetite, are not usually gold-bearing, 
and south of Auckland hare not been ascertained to contaia 
gold in sufficient quantity to pay for working such deposits. 
For the most part these sands have been derived from volcanie 
rocks of younger Tertiary date, associated with which, except 
on the western flanks of Mount Egmont, there are no lodes 
carrying gold. 

On the east coast of Cape Colville Peninsula, at Mercoij 
Bay, there are deposits of black sand that contain gold, and 
which it has been proposed to work for the precious metal. 
Possibly, also, there are other similar deposits on the west shoze 
of the Bay of Plenty, where such sands have been derived from 
auriferous rocks. The magnetic and titanic ironsands of the 
North Island are, however, not usually regarded as a reposi- 
tory of gold in paying quantities. 

On the west coast of the South Island, from near Cape 
Farewell to Preservation Inlet, the sea-beaches, formed <^ 
material of moderate fineness of grain for the most part, show 
the presence of magnetic ironsands, and often such sands form 
a considerable part of the total material of the beach between 

* These notes on the aaiiferoos ironsands of New Zealand wan 
written a few years a«o in reply to a reouest for information by s 
resident of Victoria, British Columbia, who stated that he was the 
inventor of a process for extracting gold from black sand and otfaar 
oarthy bodies. 


high- and low-water mark. Such sands are at almost all places 
auriferous, and for the past thirty years have been worked for 
gold. At first these deposits were extremely rich, and were 
worked again and again, as often as the material was acted 
upon by a heavy surf during storms, or rearranged more slowly 
by the ordinary action of the tides. Often the auriferous 
sands would be covered by a variable depth of grey -quart;; 
sand, which, if not too deep, would be removed to reach the 
auriferous layer; but as frequently the auriferous sands 
would appear at the surface, varying from a few inches or a 
mere skimming to a foot or more in thickness. Such de* 
posits, when formed, were treated as rapidly as possible, or, 
at all events, removed beyond the action of the tide, as they 
are apt to be suddenly swept away by a change in the direc- 
tion of the wind or by a varying force or direction of the 
tide and sea-currents. Gradually, in the course of years, 
these beach deposits became less auriferous; but they still 
yield, on all the more important beaches, a profitable return 
to miners expert at this form of mining. 

Beach- workings of this description are carried on from 
thirty miles north of the mouth of the Duller River to the 
southern extremity of the Island, and east along the northern 
shore of Foveaux Strait and the south coast of Otago to the 
mouth of the Molyneux River, and along the east coast in a 
northerly direction to the boundary of the Otago Provincial 

Usually, where magnetic ironsands are found on the beach, 
deposits of the same kind, now no longer acted upon by the 
tide, are present on the higher grounds inland, or lie buried 
under grey sands between tide-mark and the foot of the first 
terrace. These beach leads have been a great source of gold at 
many parts on the west coast of the South Island. At many 
places, near the mouths of rivers and large creeks, the ground 
is wet, and by dredging or other means it is that considerable 
areas have yet to be worked. This first horizon above or in- 
land of tide-mark has deposits of ironsand in all favourable 
situations along the west and south coasts of the Island, and 
these are notably developed near the mouths of the larger 


rivers. Usually they have proved very rich in gold, and but 
for difficulties such as have been alluded to most of them had 
adready been worked out. At many places they are covered 
by flood deposits from rivers or by ffK>lian sands drifted back 
fiom the beach, and thus it is that discoveries are likely yet 
to be made. 

At higher levels successive terraces of auriferous ironsands 
are met with, principally between the mouths of the Buller 
and Hokitika Rivers, and M>me of tlie larger rivers in South 
Westland. These have been more particularly described in 
the "Geological Reports*' for 1892-3 and 1895-6, and the 
descriptions of the blocks reserved for mining purposes, for 
which see joint report by Messrs. Gordon and McKay. Here 
it will suffice to mention Addison's Flat, Charleston, and 
Brighton ; Darkie's Terrace and Rutherglen, near Greymouth; 
Ballarat Hill, in the Waimea Valley: and the Houhou Lead, 
near Hokitika. 

On Addison's Flat and at Charleston the ironsand deposit'^ 
are developed on a most e.xtensive scale, and have yielded, and 
still yield, great quantities of gold. At both places further 
oxidation of the magnetite has taken place, and rusty-coloured 
ironsan-d cements are the results. This ^act has entailed air 
enormous loss of gold to the claim-holders working the cement, 
as the goid coated with iron-oxide escapes being caught by the 
means employed for that purpose, and, finding its way into 
the tailings-channels and streams, a part of such escaped gold 
is again recovered by various contrivances placed so as to in- 
tercept it, and a part carried to the seaboard tends to enrich 
the black-sand deposits within tide-mark. Between Charles- 
ton and Biighton these deposits rise to a height of 600 ft. above 
the sea; more to the south they gradually attain to lesser ele- 
vations, and south of Hokitika are but little above sea-level. 

On the shores of Foveaux Strait, it is only at Orepuki and 
near the mouth of the Waiau River that these deposits reach 
any distance inland, or more than a very moderate height 
above the level of high- water mark. East of the Bluff, and 
from the vicinity of Dunedin to the northern boundary of the 
Otago Provincial District, the auriferous black-sand deposits 


are confined to the limits between high- and low- water maric, 
or to less than 25 ft. above that. 

Along the east coast^ within the Canterbury Provincial 
District, it is only between Lake Ellesmere and the mouth of 
the Rakaia River that auriferous sands payable to work are 
found. These, however, do not contain notable quantities of 
magnetic ironsand, but for the most part they are grey or 
garnetiferous. North of Christchurch, while at places it is 
evident that great elevation (in modern times) of the land has 
taken place, and old beaches can be traced up to at least 400 ft. 
above the sea, only traces of gold have been found, and black 
sand does not abound. 

The great richness in gold of these sands enabled them to 
be worked with profit when the ' means employed were both 
costly and of a rude description. At many places the yield 
was phenomenal, and thus there has been impressed on the New 
Zealand miner the full importance of the deposits, and black- 
sand claims are still in favour. Many deposits are rich only 
in particular parts, or are poor generally, and any means that 
tended to lessen the cost of extraction of the gold would be a 
boon to the black-sand miner, and should be hailed accor'l- 



By Alexander McKay, F.G.S., Government Geologist. 

North Westland.— Littoral Deposits.* 

Thbse comprise the black-sand beaches at low levels alon^ 
the present coast-line. Generally they are limited by a terrace 
escarpment of the more elevated lands on the inward side, 
which runs nearly parallel to the coast-line, but near the 
mouths of the larger rivers they recede inland, and become 

*" Geological Explorations of the Northern Parts of Westland," 
Mines ReporU, 1893, C. ^, p. 161. 


less marked, and here the deposits of the littoral lone bkn^ 
with those brought down by the rivers. 

These littoral deposits have been a great source of gold 
on the West Coast. From the mouth of the Grey River to tlie 
Mikonui the active living beaches at all* places yield gold, and 
at many localities have proved extremely rich. By the con- 
tinued action of the surf the heavier materials — gold and black 
sand — are associated together, and there, between high- and 
low- water mark, accumulate to what appears as a stratum of 
black sand, which, varying in thickness, may be either ex- 
posed at the surface or buried under a variable thickness of 
ordinary grey sand. The gold usually is very fine, and special 
means for saving and collecting the same had to be devised. 
At one time a large population of miners were remuneratively 
employed on this and the other inland beaches between the 
tide-mark and the terrace escarpment marking the limits of 
Pleistocene erosion and the last elevation of the land. This 
elevation has been but slight, and the strip of low land between 
the terrace escarpment and the sea indicates rather a cessation 
of erosion than an elevation of more than a few feet. As a 
consequence — the rivers supplying the material — ^the beadies 
were built out from the foot of the cliffs, and the auriferous 
black-sand beds, whether at the surface or covered to a vari- 
able depth as above described, were further covered up by de- 
posits of drift sand carried inland from the beach within tide- 
mark by the westerly winds. There has thus been formed a 
line, and often a double line, of low sandhills between the pre* 
sent beach and the higher grounds. These seolian depoaita are 
underlain by old black-sand beaches, not differing from and 
often continuous with that formed and exposed by the action 
of the sea at the present time. Where the sandhills form a 
double line the depression between is sometimes bared of drift 
sands by subsequent action of the winds, or swamps and 
shallow lagoons may be present. Between the sandhills and 
foot of the terrace escarpment, where present, there is usually 
a swampy depression, on the inland edge of which, so far as U 
could be worked seawards, gold under similar conditions to 
that on the beach and under the sandhills has occurred, but 






9 -^ 


the water at present prevents this being further worked with- 
out the application of special dredging and pumping appli- 
ances. It is not the function of this report to point out how 
the remaining gold is to be won; but, being well satisfied 
that a large amount of gold is yet to be obtained from these 
deposits, the appliances in use will have to be perfected so 
far as to oope with the difficulty of its extraction in a satisfac- 
tory manner. 

Along the different lines that have been worked these 
deposits are usually spoken of as ** black-sand leads," but 
to me the term is misleading, as I am well satisfied that a 
more or less continuous stratum of gold-bearing sand will be 
found from the foot of the cliffs to the present beach, or, where 
these are absent, from the point where the fluviatile deposits 
of the rivers give place to tho deposits of the littoral zone. 

The source of the black-sand gold within high-water mark, 
and the lower black-sand leads parallel thereto, is supposed 
to be mainly the fine gold carried along the beds of the larger 
rivers and distributed to the different beaches by the action 
of the sea. That gold in this manner does reach the coast- 
line, and is so distributed, is not to be doubted; and as an 
instance in illustration the Arahura River may be cited, the 
beaches of which for the first ten miles lip the valley were rich 
in gold. The New River also is proof of the same thing. 
However, in the one case — -to wit, the Arahura — the gold may 
have been directly derived from the rocks in situ; in the other 
case, that of the New River, it has been derived from pre- 
existing auriferous gravels. But, apart from such considera- 
tions, to refer the whole of the beach gold to the golden sands 
carried along the beds of the rivers to the sea implies a greater 
richness of these than seems to be borne out by the facts which 
have already been cited, and such rivers as the Teremakau 
and the Hokitika, apparently, do not play an important part 
in the accumulation of gold upon the beaches — that is, if we 
judge of them by the comparative barrenness of their gravels 
along the greater part of their courses. It is more probable 
that no inconsiderable part of the gold found on the beaches 
must be referred to the action of the sea in cutting away and 


reac»orting the older deposits of the nM>re eleyated black-sand 
leads, and the auriferous gravels of older Pliocene or Miocene 
date, where these latter have been or are exposed to its action 
Where the high-level marine gravels are absent, as, for in- 
stance, between the mouths of the Hokitika and Totara Rivers, 
and glacier deposits are present, to these latter must be re- 
ferred no inconsiderable part of the gold found on the black- 
sand beaches. 

Nelson- Westland.- Littoral.* 

These deposits consist of the moving sands and shingle 
of the tide- way between high- and low- water mark, and the 
series of but slightly raised beaches that generally lie at the 
foot of a higher terrace or bold rocky land, and which do not 
exceed 25 ft. above sea-level. Such deposits are found along 
the coast-line from the mouth of the Mikonui to the Hokitikfi 
River, and along this part the gold is generally obtained from 
within, at, or near high-water mark; but towards the mouth 
of the Hokitika black-sand deposits, rich in gold, lie at a con- 
siderable distance inland from the coast-line; those on Craig's 
Freehold, on the south side of the river, have yielded during 
the last three years (1892-95) a large amount of gold. On the 
north beach, arid thence to the mouth of the Arahura, the same 
character of deposit generally prevails — viz., layers of black 
sand, containing gold, overlain or underlain by grey sand, 
the overlying grey sands being often drifted on to the black- 
sand layer by the action of the winds, which drives inland 
from the tideway the lighter sand grains. Of such character 
are the deposits along the coast-line between the Three-mile, 
north of Hokitika, and the mouth of the Arahura. North of 
the Arahura the back leads usually rest on or are contained in 
shingle, as may be seen in the ground worked along the foot 
of the higher terrace between the Kumara Railway-station 
and the beach opposite that place. 

North of the Teremakau to the mouth of the Grey River 
this is also the general character of the deposits inMnediatel/ 

••'Geology of the South-west Part of Nelson and the Northern 
Part of the Westland District/' Mines Reports, 1895, G.-13, pp. 17, 18, 
21, 22, 23. 


inland of the. tideway. South of Grcymouth, as far as the 
Ekouth of the New RireF, these workings are very eztetisive, 
and sometimes the amount of gravel remoTed to reaeh the 
gold-bearing stratum has been considerable. Like conditions 
prevail north of the Grey River to Point Elizabeth^ and on 
the Seven-mile and Nine-mile Beaches. Away from the 
vicinity of the mouths of the larger rivers^' and from* an 
abrupt coast-line, the shingle passes into samls on the low 
Bloping beaches, and the bluck-sand auriferoUs deposit under 
the action of the tide separates into distinct beds. This is 
the condition of the ^luxiferpus deposits on the. Seven teen -mile 
Beach abreast of Barrytown, and of all the beaches up to the 
Fox River. Nor is it greatly different between the Fox River 
and Cape Foulwind. North of the BuUer the shingly type of 
beach again makes its appearance, -and Cbntinues to the Wai- 
mangaroa, beyond which for the present it is not necessary 
to trace this series of deposits. 

Tlie amount of gold raised from these littoral deposits 
has been very great, and though " beach-combing '' must 
gradually • become less and less remunerative and the. black- 
sand leads not so easy to work, and possibly atso, what are 
left of them, not so rich in gold, yet frbm these deposits there 
has yet to be won, perhaps, more gold than lias hitherto be^. 
obtained from them. Dredging of the back leads, betweiua the 
beach and the high ground at the back thereof, has not been 
attended hitherto with a very marked degree of success ; but 
it is not to be thought of that the ground will remain un- 
worked when the proper machinery for, and the correct 
methods of, working the ground has been ascertained. At 
some places these back leads should prove very rich, gene- 
rally where the accumulation has taken place on the side ^f a 
bluff or projecting point of land. 

Marine Gravels containing. Blaok-eand Lieadft. 

Like the littoral deposits already described, these beds ar^ 
developed pax'allel, or approximately parallel, to the coast- 
line. They are not clearly indicated as present in the district 
south-west of the Hokitika River.. They iare first distinctly 


met with at the eastern edge of the Big Paddock in the Hoa- 
hou Lead, at the bottom of the series of gravels forming ths 
terrace-flat to the westward. 

The Houhou Lead yielded a very great amount of gold, but 
was lost at the southern edge of the Blue Spur Flat, being, ifi 
fact, cut awaj bj the action of the Three-mile Creek. 

On the opposite side of the valley it was traced in Scotty's 
Terrace, but not by the miners recognised as a continuation 
of the Houhou Lead, from the fact liiat the original deposii 
was much disturbed, or destroyed altogether; and the gold 
in and under a thin deposit of gravel was left clinging to 
the steep slope of Tertiary clays that form Blue Spur. A little 
further west, where the blue-reef bottom dips rapidly to the 
seaward, the line of lead remains intact; and in Simpson's 
claim, opposite the Blue Spur Township, the nature of the 
material forming the wash can be studied to advantage, there 
lieing here heavy beds of black sand mixed with fiat beach- 
stones, and overlain by gravels evidently of marine origin. 
In Simpson's claim the golden bands were not remarkably 
rich; and, for this reason again, it was not generally sup- 
posed that this was a continuation of the Houhou Lead, whidi, 
nevertheless, undoubtedly it is. The lead was therefore, de- 
Kpite these evidences, considered to stop short on the southern 
side of the Blue Spur Flat ; but within the past few years it 
has been traced to the Arahura slope of the Blue Spur, and 
recent developments in that quarter show that it was here very 
rich in gold, probably richer than at any other point of the 
line to the southward. 

There is little doubt that the lead extends east to or be- 
yond the Black Bridge, and thence dips to the westward, ani 
in this direction is covered up by the more modern gravek of 
the Arahura Valley. Over the low grounds of the Arahura 
Valley the lead has been carried away by the river, and it is 
not likely to be again met with till passing to the north-east 
of Flowery Creek, where it should again tie present in, and 
for some distance into, the flat west of Ballarat Hill, which 


is the line of its ooixtinuation to thd north-east^ at or near the 
level of the Houhou and Blue Spur portions of the lead. 

On Ballarat Hill the lead was fully developed, but the 
richer part of this area has now been worked. North-east of 
this the Waimea has broken through and destroyed the lead» 
and it is not met with till Scandinavian Hill is reached, 
although the terraces at the back of Staffordtown should afford 
some indication of it, as being formed of the same marine 
gravels, which are gold-bearing on the south-west side of the 
Waimea. As far back as workings have been carried to the 
eastward, on Ballarat Hill, beds of black sand, partly oxidized 
and cemented, are found interbedded with the coarser gravels* 
thus indicating the marine character of the beds. 

On the continuation north-east of the line of this old raised 
beach, between German Gully and Sandy Creeks there are a 
series of terraces, denominated second, third, fourth, and 
fifth terraces. These appear to be the line of lead, cut down 
to various levels by the action of the different streams that 
are tributaries of German Gully Creek or Sandy Creek. 

The Lamplough Lead, within the Eapitea watershed, lies 
on the same line, and is distinctly on a continuation of the 
Houhou Lead thus far. 

Further to the north-east, between the Kapitea Creek and 
the Teremakau River, the line of black-sand old beach deposit 
has at one time been continuous, but in times more recent the 
action of the Teremakau has either destroyed or covered up 
the marine beds. Workings along the high terrace banks of 
the river, and in Drake's Terrace and Hughes's Creek, indi- 
cate that here portions of the lead yet remain. 

Between the Teremakau and Rutherglen, in the watershed 
of Saltwater Creek, there seems to be two lines of black-sand 
leads, either of which may be considered as the direct con- 
tinuation of the Houliou Lead. Practically, both are con- 
tinuations of the Houhou Lead, which may be said to be of 
greater breadth here than farther to the south. New River 
asd Saltwater Creek hare broken through and almost de- 
stroyed the lead, scattering its gold in the more recent gravels 
now occupying the low grounds of their valleys. 


*' Towards Grejmouth Ihxs line of black-saDd deposits li 
not so well marked, possibly through the aetion *of the Gr^ 
ttiver; but towards . Point Elizabeth it ir again distinctly 
and characteristically present on Darkies' Terrace, 
t On the northern side of Point Elizabeth the action of the 
Seven-mile Creek has destroyed the continuity of the lead, 
but between the Seven- and Nine-mile Creeks it is present as 
a high terrace of marine gravels, which are known to be gdd- 
bearing, and which would ere this have been extensively 
worked had there been facilities for bringing water on to tbe 
ground at a moderate cost. 

• The coast-line is now abrupt and high; consequently the 
200 ft. to 300 ft. line is much nearer the tideway than farther 
to the south; hence this lead approaches the coast as it is 
followed towards the north. Between 'the Ten-mile and the 
twelve-mile Cre^s (north of Grejrmouth) it simply rests on 
the brow of the^ cliffs overlooking the sea, or stretches as ft 
ft arrow terrace at the foot of the steeply rising hills. 

Between the TWelve-mile Creek and tbe Fourteen-mile 
Bluff, since its deposit,- this line of black^sand leads has been 
Completely destroyed by the action of the sea in cutting back 
the coast-line. 

At Barrytown the lead runs along the lower slopes of the 
slate ranges, between the coast-line and the Grey Valley, 
and from Baker's Creek to the northern slopes of Hawera 
Mountain, to the north-east of Barrytown, it has been cut 
through by numerous small streams, so that the auri- 
ferous-gravels are found only on the pK>int8 of the spurs in- 
termediate between the different creeks and larger gullies. 
The average height of the l^ad at Barrjrtown is a little 'over 
feOOft. above the sea. It appears to be thoroughly broken— 
in fact, destroyed altogether — between the Piinakaiki River 
and the mouth of the Fox River. This has been owing' to the 
action of the numerous small streams that find their way from 
the higher part of the Paparoa Range to the ooast-line.' Where 
the rivers are larger, as in the case of'tiie'Fox, Nile, and 
Totara, a greater distanob lies between the streanis, and thil« 
there is a greater chance of the marine beds being pres^ved 


on the bluffs and high lands intervening. There is even thus a 
probability of areas being between the Punakaiki and the 
Fox Rivers where these deposits are preserved. One such U 
Baid to be on the high ground near Razorback. 

North of Briglrton and St. Eilda the elevation above the 
sea of the black-sand leads rapidly increases, till before reach- 
ing the Four-mile (from Charleston) Creek these deposits reach 
to between 500 ft. and. 600 ft, above the sea. Between the Four- 
mile and Candlelight the highest point reached by the blacks 
sand deposits is somewhat less, some 450 ft., and this height 
is practically maintained to Bald Hill, overlooking the Lower 
BuUer Valley. 

In the neighbourhood of Charleston these deposits are of 
great extent, and occur at all levels up to that stated, and 
from them an enormous quantity of gold has been obtained. 
The '' Back Lead " at Charleston lies along the foot of the 
limestone range between the Nile River and the Four- mile 
Creek. Along this line the ironsands have oxidized to some 
extent, and cements have thus formed, necessitating the use 
of crushing machinery to again liberate the gold. But the 
gold is not thus completely set free, and a considerable per-* 
centage finds its way with the tailings into the creeks, where, 
as it progresses along the different tail-channels, it is gradu- 
ally liberated from contact with the ironsands, and, as free 
gold, is caught on tables called ''fly-catchers'* placed in the 
channel to intercept the gold. 

There are large areas of black-sand and gravel deposits in 
the Charleston district that are as yet untouched, but all of 
them lie to the west of the limestone range. 

East of the limestone range, between that and the foot of 
the Paparoa Mountains, lies a depression lower than the 
country to the west, yet over this there are no black-sand de- 
posits. This fact may be explained by supposing that the 
marine sands have been removed by the more energetic denu- 
dation of the eastern low-lying lands, or by the inequality of 
elevation affecting the areas east and west of the limestone. 
The first of these suggestions, from the evidence met with 
north of the Totara River, would seem to be the correct one, 


linoe on the high terrace at the baek (east) of Addiao&'s Flal 
the black-sand deposits are jet preserved. To the north nl 
the Buller the highetr level of the terraces between the granite 
range and the coastal plain is also to be considered a continua- 
tion of the high-level black-sand lead. This series ot old 
raised-beach deposits in the beginning has been spoken <ii ss 
the Houhou Lead : but it will now be evident that such local 
designation fails entirely to indicate the true character and 
the great importance of the deposit, and in future it will be 
best to speak of this as ^' marine beds of Pliocene age/' the 
different auriferous parts of which might still retain their 
local designation, as ''Houhou Lead," " I^mplough Lead/* 
" Darkies' Terrace," Ac. 

So far as this report is concerned, the deposits under con- 
sideration may be said to terminate at Fairdown, on the lower 
slopes of Mount Rochfort, where extensive works are at pre- 
sent being carried on for the proper development of their de 
posits, the success of which will probably lead to future and 
even more extensive undertakings. 

Note. — For more detailed information the reader is referred to 
** Mines Beporte," 189S and 1895, to be obtained from the QovemmeDt 
Printer, Wellington ; price, 58. 



Bcuiiis of fia,000 offeved by the Mew Zealand Oovenunent. 

It has been frequently asserted that, whilst the Mines De- 
partment has done a great deal for the encouragement and 
development of quartz-mining and hydraulic elevating and 
sluicing, it has ignored the dredging industry, and particu- 
larly that branch of it relating to the saying of the fine gold 
lobX in the tailings. To show how groundless these assertions 
are, it may be stated that an ofier of a bonus of £2,000 was 
made for an invention to save the gold from black sands, and 
a notification to that effect was published for a period of two 
years in the New Zealand Gazette and New Zealand Mines 
Beeord, and this notification was widely copied by mining 
and technical journals in Australia, the United States, 
Canada, Great Britain, and the Continent of Europe. The 
first notice was published in the Gazette of the 14th November, 
and the New Zealand Mines Record of the 16th November, 
1901, and the bonus was made payable up to the Ist January, 
1904. Although a very large number of inquiries were re- 
oeired from many different parts of the world, the bonus was 
never claimed. It is clear, therefore, that those who charge 
the Department with negligence in this matter must either 
not be aware of the facts or else totally ignore them. It 
may also be stated that in the annual reports of the officers 
of the Mines Department, laid before Parliament and widely 
circulated, attention was called year after year to tha loss of 
fine gold that occurred in connection with dredging opera- 
tions, and it is probably due to the efforts of the Department 
that more attention is now being paid to this important 


QuARTZ-MiNiNQ has for some years past been gradually assum- 
ing the position of a steady industry, and the yields from 
the principal mines have been increasing, and are likdy to 
still further increase in the future. Some interesting detaib 
are appended of the operations and yields of the varioiu 
mines, and other particulars are given in the earlier portiona 
of the Handbook by the Inspectors of Mines and Wardens. 

Haaraki Goldflelds. 

Auckland, Whangamata. — Area, 349 acres. The mine w 
opened by four tunnels driven a total distance of 2,080 ft., 
and crosscuts have been driven 450 ft. There is a lO-stamp 
mill and one rock-breaker. The gold is saved by amalgama- 
tion and cyanide, three tailings-vats, 20 ft. by 4 ft., being in 
use. During the year 1905 about 1,000 tons was crushedt 
yielding 2,186 oz. of bullion; value, £4,368 8s. 2d. ToUl 
capital actually called up, £1,875; total expenditure to 31st 
December, 1905, £3,140 lis. lOd. Forty-seven men employed 
in the mine, battery, and surface works. Value of mining 
plant, Ac, £1,500. Owners, Auckland Gold-mining Com- 
pany; mine-manager, D. Sheehan ; battery-superintendent 
and metallurgist, G. S. Orbell ; secretary, H. Gil£llan, jun., 

Day Dawn and Norfolk, Tararu. — Area, 159 acres. The 
reef operated on is from 3 ft. to 4 ft. in width, opened by 
tunnels driven a distance of 1,000 ft.; old levels and adita 
were driven 5,000 ft. The battery consists of 30 stamps, 
1 ,000 lb. each, with an average duty per stamp of 2 tons per 
diem. The gold is saved by amalgamation and cyanide ; there 
are four 100-ton vats and three 40-ton agitators. During the 
year 1905 the yield of gold from 865 tons was 441 oz. 17dwt., 
value £1,257 17s. 6d. Total amount of expenditure by pre- 
sent holders, £12,500; value of plant, Ac, £6,000. Twelve 


men employed. Owners, Agnea Graham Trower; super in- 
tepdent, R. W. Powell; mine-manager, £. Cartwright; secre- 
tary, W. Barton, 34 Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, Lpn- 
don, E.G. 

Golden Drop, Funga. Flat, Thames. -^Area, 8 acres. The 
reef operated on is opened by two tunnels, driven a distance 
of 500 ft. During the year 1905, 3 tons of ore yielded 22 oz. 
of gold, value £57 10s. Id. Total yield, 247 oz. 16dwt; value, 
£622 13s. 3d. Owner, George Fisher. 

Golden Pah, Kauri Block, Coromandel. — Area, 22 acres. 
There is a three-compartment shaft, 11 ft. by 7 ft., sunk to s), 
depth of 200 ft. During the year 1905 about 16j^ tons was 
crushed for a yield of 132 oz. of gold, value £368. The mine 
has been worked by six iributers. Value of plant, £1,200. 
Mine-manager, A. N. Jamieson; secretary, H. Gilfillan, jun., 
Auckland; owned by syndicate. 

Great Barrier, Great Barrier Island. — ^Area, 188 acres. 
One reef, about 18 in. in width, is being operated on. There 
is a 5-stamp mill in use with an average duty per stamp of 
2-8 tons per diem, and one rock-breaker. There are nine tail- 
ings- vats— four 22 ft. by 7ft., three 14ft. by 7ft., and two 
20 ft. by 4 ft. Total expenditure to 3l8t December, 1905, 
£30,000. Thirteen men employed. In the year 1901 the 
Barrier Reefs Company, which held this property, went into 
liquidation. Since then the mine has been privately owned, 
and early this year work was restarted. Mine-manager, J. G. 
Vivian; secretary, H. Gilfillan, Auckland. 

Kapowai, Gumtown, Mercury Bay. — Area, 35 acres. 
Three reefs are operated on, varying in size from 6 in. to 
16 ft. in width, and are"^ened by three tunnels driven a dis-. 
tance of 200 ft., and crosscuts 200 ft. The battery consists 
of 8 heads, the average duty per stamp being 2 tons per day. 
During the yeajt 1905, 1,190 tons wa^ crushed, yielding 969 oz. 
6dwt. 20 gr. of gold; value, £2,469 17s. 7d. Total quantity 
of ore crushed 2,819 tons, yielding 2,333 oz. of gold; value, 
£5,599 4s. Total expenditure to 31st December, 1905, about 
£5,000. Value of plant, Ac, £2,000. Thirteen men em- 
ployed. Mine -manager, John Carroll; owner, Michael 


Kfnnata Rttf%y Eomata, Ohinemuri Couutj. — ^Area, 144 
acres — 64 acree, Te-Ao-Marama ; and 80 acres, Komata Recf« 
Special Claim. The mine is opened by one tliree-compaxt- 
ment shaft 800 ft. in depth. Five reefs are being operated 
upon, varying in width from a few feet to 20 ft., the distance 
driven on the course of the lodes being : Te-Ao-Marama No. 1 
reef, 2,460 ft. ; No. 2 reef, 3,460 ft. ; Wilson's Lode, 4,920 ft. ; 
Hartridge's Lode, 840 ft.; Lavin^^on's Lode, 410 ft.; Ko- 
mata Lode, 320 ft. The total length of crosscuts driveo 
through country is 6,250 ft. The battery consists of 20 
stamps, each weighing 1,0001b., the average duty per stamp 
being 3^ short tons (2,000 lb.) per diem ; two rock-crushers : 
and one tube mill: the capacity being 72 tons per day. 
Fourteen tailings-vats, 22 ft. in diameter and 8 ft. deep, an; 
in use, seven of which are fitted with agitating gear for slimes, 
and there are two vacuum filters. The gold is saved by 
amalgamation over copper tables, and cyaniding of sands and 
slimes. During the year 1905, 16,820 tons (2,240 lb.) yielded 
8,870 oz. 4dwt- of gold and 39,629 oz. of silver, value 
£42,336 10s. lOd. ; out of which dividends amounting to 
£13,333 68. 8d. have been disbursed, making a total of 
£26,666 13s. 4d. The total quantity of ore crushed i.H 
90,400 tons; total sands treated, 52,590 tons; slimes, 37,000 
tons; yield, 37,831 oz. of gold and 181,257 oz. of silver: 
total value, £180,357. Expenditure to 31st December, 1905, 
£197,479 7s. lOd. Capital called up, £200,000. The first 
claim operated on by this company was the Ecnnata Reefs, 
upon which active work was commenced in 1897. A 20-8tamp 
dry-crushing battery was erected (driven by water-power), 
and this began running in September 1897. 

The manager of this property (Mr. F. C. Brown) 
furnishes the following further particulars: In March 

1898, the process was changed to wet crushing. During the 
years 1898 and 1899 a low-level tunnel, 3,000 ft. in length, 
was driven to open up 400 ft. of new ground in the Komata 
Reefs Claim, and for a portion of the time that this tunnd 
was being driven the battery was closed down (from October, 

1899, to March, 1901). Early in 1902 the company acquired 
the Te-Ao-Marama Claim, lying to the north of the Komata 


Keefs Claim, and during the last three years most of the work 
has been confined to opening up this ground. The most im- 
portant work done has been the extension of the Eomata Reef 
low level to the Te-Ao-Marama shaft, and the connecting of 
this level with the bottom of the shaft. This has made avail- 
able 400 ft. (vertical) of untouched ground. There are two 
reefs being worked in the Te-Ao-Marama ground, called 
Nos. 1 and 2. The chief levels at present are Nos. 3 and i. 
At No. 3 level both reefs are being driven on northwards, and 
the outlook is very encouraging, as No. 1 reef is 7 ft. wide, 
and No. 2 reef 20 ft. wide, both reefs carrying payable ore. 
At No. 4 level the No. 2 reef is being driven on, and is carry- 
ing payable ore 6 ft. wide. Most of the ore now sent to the 
battery is at present being stoped from the No. 3 level. During 
the four months ending 26th June, 1906, a small electric rock- 
drilling plant (two rock-drills) has been in operation, and the 
results are so satisfactory that it is the intention to instal ii 
complete drilling plant of this class. All the ore broken in the 
Te-Ao-Marama Claim is trucked out of the No. 8 level tunnel, 
and tipped over a *' grizzly*' into two storage-hoppers — one 
for the coarse and one for the fines. From these hoppers it is 
trammed to the battery, a distance of three-quarters of a mile. 
The tram-line is down grade (3 per cent.) to the foot of an 
incline at the battery, and the trucks are hauled up this in- 
cline by means of a friction -hoist operated by the battery ma- 
chinery ; each truck holds 4 tons. The battery consists of 20 
stamps of 1,0001b. each, two rock-crushers, and one tube mill. 
The capacity is 72 tons per day. The treatment is — (1) rock- 
crushers, (2) stampers, (3) tube-mill grinding, (4) amalgama- 
tion over copper tables, (5) separation of sands from slimes, 
{6) cyaniding of sands in percolation-vats, (7) filter-pressing 
{vacuum system) of the slimes before cyanide treatment, 
cyanide treatment by agitation method, and filter-pressing of 
slimes after treatment. The cyanide-solutions are precipi- 
tated in the usual way by zinc shavings. The clean-up is by 
the sulphuric-acid method, the bullion-slimes being melted in 
benzine furnaces. Power is supplied by a Marshall and Son 
horizontal steam-engine and by a 6 ft. Pelton wheel working 


under 175 ft. head. Arrangements are being made to increase 
t&e capacity of the battery by the addition of a suction-gas 
plant of lOO-horse power and a second tube miU and extra 
treatment plant. Benzine is ezciu§i?ely used for fuel at the 
assay office, and thiere is a benzine-furnace of special desigi! 
at the mine for tool-sharpening, and is found to be highly 
satisfactory, as it is economical, and there is no danger of 
overheating the steel. One hundred and sixty men are em- 
ployed in mine, reduction- works, and surface. Approximate 
value of plant, £20,000. General manager, F. C. Brown; 
mine-manager, James H. Benney; battery-superintendent, 
Samuel D. McMiken. 

Kuranui, Shotover Creek, Thames. — Area, 73 acres 
3 roods 5 perches. The reef operated on is 1 ft. to 5 ft. wide, 
opened by three tunnels, driven a total distance of 2,626 ft., 
and crosscuts 2,300 ft. There is a 20-stamp mill and ten 
berdans in connection with this mine, but the battery has not 
been worked for some years. Capital called up, £9,612 128. : 
total expenditure to 3l8t December, 1905, £9,580 Is. 5d. 
Value of plant, £882. Mine-manager, G. W. Horn; secre- 
tary, J. W. Nichol, Auckland; owners, Kuranui Gold-mining 

Kuranui-Caledoniun, Thames. — ^Area, 29 acres 3 roods 30 
perches. The mine is opened by one three-compartment shaft 
474 ft. in depth. Three reefs— 18 ft., 2 ft., and 1 ft. 6 in. in 
width — are being operated upon, and very extensive drives 
and crosscuts have been carried out. During the year 1905, 
196 tons yielded 396 oz. 14dwt. of gold; value, £764 ISs. 
Capital called up, £30,000. Eighteen men are employed in 
the mine. Value of plant, £1,000. Mine-manager, Matthew 
Paul; secretary, H. Gilfillan, jun., Auckland; owners, Kura- 
nui-Caledonian (Limited). 

Mahara-Royal, Waipotukahu, Tapu Creek. — ^^The reef 
operated on is 6 ft, in width, opened by three tunnels, the dis- 
tance driven on the course of the lodes being about 3,000 ft.; 
length of crosscuts through country, 2,500 ft. There is a 
20-stamp mill and one rock-breaker. During the year 1905, 
1,400 tons was crushed, yielding gold to the value of £1,364 


Nine men are employed in the mine and reduction -works. 
Value of plant, £1,000. Mine-manager, W. G. Martin; secre- 
tary, J; B. Sheath, Auckland; owners, Mahara-Royal Gold- 
mining Company. 

Miner's Right, Puriri, Thames County .-^Area, 60 acres. 
Total length driven on course of leaders, 350 ft. ; crosscuts, 
540 ft. During the year 1905, 12 tons of ore yielded 31 oz. 
of gold, value £85. Total quantity of ore crushed, 629 tons; 
yield, 589 oz. of gold; value, £1,619 158. There is a 
€-head battery. Mine-manager and battery-euperintendent, 
John Mclnnes; owners, George Greenaway and John Mclnnes. 

New Bunker* » Hilly Coromandel. — Area, 3 acres and 12 
perches. The mine is opened by a tunnel driven a distance 
of 540 ft., and 93 ft. has been driven on a reef formation. 
There is a three-compartment shaft, 10 ft. by 4 ft., sunk to a 
depth of 280 ft. Mine-manager, Samuel Carlyon ; acting- 
secretary, A. J. Denniston, Auckland ; owners, New Bunker's 
Hill Gold-mining Company. 

New Four-in-Hand, Kennedy's Bay, Coromandel County. 
— ^Area, 89 acres 3 roods 20 perches. The reef operated on is 
from 1 ft. to 5 ft. in width, opened by a tunnel carried a dis- 
tance of 700 ft. During the year 1905 the battery (7 stamps) 
crushed 95 tons of ore, yielding 86 oz. of gold. Value of plant, 
A^c, £2,000. Mine-manager, W. Moorcraft; secretary, R. A. 
Aicken, Auckland; owners. New Four-in-Hand Gold-mining 

New May Queen, Waiokaraka, Thames. — Area, 93 acres. 
This property is opened by a three-compartment shaft (12 ft. 
by 4^ ft.), which is sunk to a depth of 520 ft. During the year 
1905, 69J tons of ore yielded 237 oz. of gold; value, £679 88. 
Total expenditure to 31 st December, 1905, £2,770. Value of 
plant, £500. Ten men employed. Mine-manager, W. Baker ; 
secretary, J. W. Nichol, Auckland; owners. New May Queen 
Gold-mining Company. 

New Moanataiari, Moanataiari and Waiotahi Creeks, 
Thames. — Area, 77 acres 2 roods 20 perches. A three-com- 
partment shaft, 12 ft. by 5i ft., has been sunk on this property 
to A depth of 500 ft. The reef now being worked has a width 


of 20 ft. Total length of drives on course of lodes, 10,000 ft. ; 
length of crosscuts, 4,000 ft, ; estimated quantity of ore in 
sight, 20,000 tons. During the year 1905, 160 tons of ore 
yielded 106 oz. of gold; value, £280 2s. 7d. Average number 
of men employed, 16. Total expenditure to 3l8t December, 
1905, £4,000. Value of plant, £1,300. Mine-manager, G. S. 
Clark; secretary, H. GilfiUan, jun., Auckland; owners, New 
Moanataiari Gold-mining Company. 

New Saxon, — Area, 62 acres and 30 perches. A three-com- 
partment shaft has been sunk to a depth of 452 ft. One reef, 
varying from 2 in. to 6 in. in width, is being operated upon; 
distance driven on course of lodes, 15,040 ft.; total lengtii of 
crosscuts, 5,940 ft.; winzes sunk 1,400 ft. During the year 
1905, 213 tons yielded 294 oz. of gold; value, £846 Ss. 4d. 
Capital called up, £2,916 13s. 4d. Value of mining plant, 
£3,000. Mine-manager, J. Rickard; secretary, J. B. Sheath» 
Auckland ; owners. New Saxon Gold-mining Company. 

New Una, Earaka Creek, Thames. — ^Area, 54 acres. Three 
reefs are being operated on — No. 2, 15 in. ; No. 3, IBin. ; 
No. 4, 2 ft. in width. The mine is opened by several tanneb, 
driven a distance varying from 300 ft. to 1,500 ft. Hie 
battery consists of 15 heads, with an average duty per stamp 
of 2 tons per diem. Tables, blankets, and berdans are used 
to save the gold. During the year 1905, 200 tons of ore yidded 
163 oz. 6dwt. of gold; value, £458 13s. 6d. Capital caDei 
up, £2,400. Total expenditure to 31st December, IMS* 
£3,082 16s. Mine-manager, James Thomas; secretary, H« 
GilfiUan, jun., Auckland; owners. New Una Gold - mini^ 

New Zealand Grown Mines, Earangahake. — Area, 4jM 
acres. Two reefs, 4 ft. and 3 ft. in width, are being operated 
upon. Nineteen main tunnels have been driven, the total 
drivages on course of lodes being 24,910 ft. ; while driww 
and crosscuts total 3,844 ft. The pump-shaft is down %g^ 
a depth of 506 ft., and the pumps have a capacity of 
36,000 gallons per hour. At the reduction-works there 
is a 60-stamp mill, each stamp having a daily capacHrr 
of 1 ton 18cwt. when fully employed; two rock-breakers; 


nouND Hill GoLD-MmiKG uompaj^tt Aoazusts akd Hydraulic Elevator, 
Mining Handbook, 


thirty-four tailings- vats, 22 ft. 6 in. diameter; and three 
filter-presses. The ore is crushed wet, a small percentage 
of cjanide of potassium being used in the mortar-boxes. 
During the year 1905, 19,069 tons (2,2401b.) yielded 
8,906 oz. of gold and 6,679 oz. of silver; value, £38,662, 
The total quantity of ore crushe^J since 1891 was 274,559 
tons, for a value of £625,434, and of this amount £532,380 
was obtained since the year 1896, while dividends have 
been paid to the extent of £70,000 since 1896. Capital 
called up, £200,000, in 200,000 shares (principally held 
in Scotland and England) of £1 each fully paid, of which 
j&50,000 was provided for working - capital. Total ex- 
penditure in connection with mining ojerations from Janu- 
ary, 1896, to 31st December, 1905, £504,260. Approximate 
value of mining plant, reduction -works, &c., £77,000. One 
hundred and seventy men are employed in connection with 
the mine, reduction -works, and surface. General manager, 
F. R. W. Daw; mine-manager, George N. McGruer; battery- 
siiperintendent, James J. Barrett. 

Old Alburnia, Thames. — Area, 191 acres and 2 perches. 
The mine is opened by a three-compartment shaft 400 ft. in 
depth. During the year 1905, 375 J tons was crushed, yield- 
ing 686 oz. of gold; value, £1,828 15s. 8d. Total capital 
called up, £8,250; total expenditure to 31st December, 1905, 
.iB8,368 58. lid. 'The mine is worked by twenty-eight tri- 
buters, and twelve men on wages. Value of plant, £3,000. 
Mine-manager, H. Kendall: secretary, J. B. Sheath, Auck- 
land: owners. Old Alburnia Gold-mining Company. 

Old Hauraki, Coromandcl. — This mine, which had pheno- 
menal yields in the past, and paid large dividends, is opened 
by a three-compartment shaft, 11 ft. by 7 ft., sunk to a depth of 
400 ft. During the year 1905, 59^ tons yielded 258 oz. 6 dwt. 
of gold; value, £775 lis. 9d. The mine is being worked by 
nineteen tributers, who have confined their operations to the 
surface portion of the mine, where the leads are very small, 
and so far few of the tributers have made more than ordinary 
wages. The company has assisted some of them by paying 
half wages and taking half shares in their tributes : in other 

12- Mining Handbook. 


cases the company has taken one-third interest and paid one- 
third wages and other expenses. Until the mine is unwatered 
and mining operations are resumed at some depth, it is un- 
likely that anything of much importance will be discovered. 
Approximate value of plant, £4,000. Mine-manager, John 
Goldswortby ; secretary, H. Gilfillan, Auckland; owners. Old 
Hauraki Gold-mining Company. 

Rising Sun, Owharoa, Ohinemuri County. — Area, 58 acres 
1 rood 21 perches. The reefs operated on are from 18 in. to 
3 ft. in width, opened by two drives, the top level crosscat 
being 200 ft. and the lower level 940 ft. Total length driveji 
on course of various lodes: Main reef — top level 160ft., low 
level 95 ft.; footwall reef — low level, 360 ft. Seven men em- 
ployed. Mine-manager, Thomas Goldsworthy ; secretary, J. H. 
Jackson, Auckland ; owners, Rising Sun Gold-mining Company. 

Royal Oak of Hauraki, Tokatea, Coromandel. — Area, 
114 acres 3 roods 11 perches. During the year 1905 the 
company's 10-stamp mill crushed 219 tons of ore and 1,2571b. 
of picked stone for a yield of 801 oz. lOdwt. of gold, value 
£1,656. Total expenditure by present company to 3l8t 
December, 1905, £1,529 17s. Value of plant, £500. Twenty- 
eight tributers were at work during the last six months of 
the year 1905, and twenty wages-men for the previous six 
months. Mine-manager, George McNeil; secretary, H. Gil- 
fillan, jun., Auckland; owners. Royal Oak Gold-mining Com- 
pany (Limited), Auckland. 

Sunbeam, Blind Bay, Great Barrier Island. — Area, 
100 acres. The mine is opened by two tunnels. No. 1 being 
550 ft. and No. 2 100 ft. on reef. The total distance driven 
on course of lode, which is 2 ft. 6 in. wide, is about 650 ft., 
and crosscuts driven through country 1,000 ft. There is a 
5-stamp mill, one rock-breaker, three agitation-vats, and 
three sand-vats, each having a diameter of 16 ft. Amount of 
capital called up, £11,486 5s. Value of plant, £4,000. Mine- 
manager, James A. Gordon ; secretary, J. H. Jackson, Auck- 
land ; owners. Sunbeam Gold and Silver Mining Company. 

TaliHman Consolidated, Karangahake. — Area, 507 acres. 
The mine is opened by tunnels and a four-compartment shaft* 
which is now 445 ft. below river-level. The reef at present 


operated on varies in width from 4 ft. to 20 ft., the distance 
driven by tunnels and crosscuts being 5,076 ft., while the rises 
and winzes total 1,953 ft. There is a 50-8tamp mill, each 
stamp having an average duty of 3-17 tons per diem, four 
rock-breakers, and sixteen tailings-vats (diameter 22 ft.). The 
gold is saved by amalgamation, cyaniding, and concentration. 
During the year 1905, 44,725 tons yielded 290,786 oz. of 
bullion, value £129,088. Total quantity of bullion obtained, 
993,055 oz.j value, £446,875. Dividends amounting to 
£30,000 were disbursed in 1905, the total dividends nov 
paid amounting to £45,000. Amount of called-up capital, 
£270,000. Value of mining plant, &c., £50,000. Two hun- 
dred and thirty-five men employed in mine, reduction-works, 
and surface. Greneral manager, H. Stansfield ; mine-manager, 
J. McCombie; battery - superintendent, G. A. Chappell ; 
metallurgist, H. E. Phillips; owners. Talisman Consolidated 
(Limited), composed of colonial and English shareholders. 

ToJcatea Consolidated, Tokatea, Coromandel. — Area, 40 
acres. The mine is opened by five tunnels, driven a total 
distance of 1,200 ft. Three reefs about 6 in. in width are 
operated upon, the various lodes being driven on for a dis- 
tance of 600 ft. During the year 1905, 35 tons yielded 225 oz. 
lOdwt. of gold, value £639 19s. There are 3 stamps and two 
berdans in connection with this mine, the value of plant being 
estimated at £350. Mine-manager and battery - superin- 
tendent, R. H. Harrison; secretary, C. R. Walker, Auck- 
land; owners, Tokatea Consolidated Gold-mining Company. 

Victoria, Thames. — Area, 41 acres 3 roods 10 perches 
The mine is opened by two shafts — Imperial, 600 ft., and 
Tookey, 400 ft. in depth. Two reefs are being operated on, 
varying in width from 1 ft. to 3 ft. ; estimated length of 
crosscuts through country, 4,000 ft. During the year 1905, 
162 tons was crushed, yielding 250 oz. of gold; value, £684 
4s. 3d. Total quantity of ore crushed, 4,200 tons, yielding 
5,150 oz. of gold; value, £14,075. Total expenditure to 31 4t 
December, 1905, £29,713 4s. 2d. Capital called up, £18,775 
Value of plant, &c., £500. Eight men employed. Mine- 
manager, Thomas Moyle; secretary, J. J. Macky, Auckland; 
owners, Victoria Gold-mining Company. 



Vulcan Extended and Bdipse, Tararu, Thames. — Az«a, 
200 acres. This mine is now let on tribute. Gold obtained 
iluring the year 1905, 1,123 oz.; value, £3,154 98. 9d, 
Total quantity of gold obtained, 1,423 oz.; value, £4,021 
198. 9d. Dividends paid, £1,250. Total capital called up, 
£10,000: total expenditure to Slat December, 1905, £6,792 
l8. Ud. Value of plant, £2,000. Secretary, H. Gilfillan, 
jun., Auckland; owners. New Eclipse Gold-mining Com- 

Waihi. — ^Area, 874 acres. Six shafts have been sunk on 
this property — No. 1 (winding), 708 J ft. in depth ; No. 2 
(pumping and winding), 732 ft. ; No. 3 (winding, not in use), 
348 ft. ; No. 4 (winding), 703 J ft. ; No. 5 (main pumping- 
shaft), 863 ft. ; and No. 6 (winding), 553J ft. in depth. The 
pumps have a capacity of 135,000 gallons per hour. Fourteen 
reefs are operated on, varying in width from 2 ft. up to 98 ft 
During the year 1905 drives, crosscuts through country, and 
winzes sunk totalled 18,678 ft., equal to 3*537 miles; the total 
drivage in mine to end of 1905 on reefs and main crosscuts 
(excluding crosscuts through reefs) being 18J miles. There 
is a 90-8tamp mill at Waihi, 200 stamps at Victoria Mill, 
and 40 stamps at the Union Mill, the average duty per stamp 
being 3* 124 tons per diem. There are eight rock-breakers 
(five at the Victoria Mill, two at Waihi, and one at the Union 
Mill), fifty-six tailings-vats at the Waihi Mill, seventy at Vic- 
toria Mill, and thirty-one at the Union Mill, and eighteen 
filter-presses. During the year 1905, 298,531 tons (2,0001b.) 
was crushed, yielding 1,192,046 oz. of bullion: value, £728,521 
lOs. 2d., or an average of 12s. 6d. per ounce. Dividends 
were disbursed during the year amounting to £346,228 
10s. 3d., making a total to 1st June, 1906, of £2,122,981. 
The value of gold and silver obtained from this mine to end 
of 1905 was £4,573,701 ; and during the year 1906 up to 
19th May, £301,711. Amount of capital called up, £495,907. 
Total number of men employed in mine, reduction -works, 
tramways, and water-races, 1,396. The following table, com- 
piled from the last annual report of the directors, gives a 
concise summary of the company's operations: — 










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The amount of income-tax is added to the total diTidendB, u 
it is virtually a Raving of that amount to the shareholders 
Secretary, Charles Rhodes, Auckland; attorney, Berkeley H. 
Stafford, Auckland; superintendent, H. P. Barry, Waihi; 
mine-superintendent, R. E. Williams; mine-manager, J. L. 
Gilmour; battery-engineers, S. E. Fraser (Victoria Mill), and 
W. M. Russell (Waihi and Union Mills); noetallurgist, E. 6. 
Banks; owners, Waihi Gold-mining Company, shares being 
principally held in England. 

Waihi Beach . — ^Area, 216 acres. The mine is opened bj a 
shaft, 4 ft. by 3 ft. 10 in., sunk to a depth of 365 ft. The reef, 
which has been driven on a distance of 465 ft., averages 36 ft. 
in width. Total expenditure to 31st December, 1905, £2,303 
ITs. 6d. Twelve men employed. Mine-manager, H. W. 
Moore; secretary, Henry J. Lee, Auckland; owners, Waihi 
Beach Gold-mining Company (No Liability), Auckland. 

Waihi Consolidated, — Area, 300 acres. The Waihi C<m- 
solidated (Limited) holds three claims (the Favona, BriHiant, 
and Key West), each containing 100 acres. The shaft is a 
three-compartment one, 11 ft. by 6 ft., and is down a depth 
of 350 ft. Total amount of capital actually called ap, 
£16,875; total expenditure up to 31st December, 1895, in 
connection with mining operations, £3,531 13s. 2d. Twenty 
men are employed, nine being engaged in sinking shaft 
Mine-manager, J. H. Evans; secretary, J. H. Jackson, Auck- 

Waihi Extended, — Area, 100 acres. The mine is opened 
by a three-compartment shaft 650 ft. in depth. One reef, 
6 ft. in width, is being operated on, the distance driven on 
course of lodes being 285 ft., while crosscuts total 700 ft. The 
underground work carried on during the past twelve monthi 
has been the driving of two crosscuts and driving on the ore- 
bodies. The crosscut known as the No. 2 was driven in a 
south-westerly direction. When a distance of 300 ft. had been 
driven an ore-body was intersected. At the point where thii 
ore-body was touched it was found to be passing underfoot 
on its easterly trend. The reef was driven on for a length of 
176 ft., the width averaging about 5 ft., and the ore being 


heavily mineralised. At this distance another lode was pierced 
at an angle, and was followed for a length of 109 ft. The 
ore showed highly mineralised contents, and looked remark- 
ably well, the full width of the drive being in ore. The 
general appearance of the ore-bodies is considered very en- 
couraging by the management. Total expenditure to 31st 
December, 1905, £20,052 5s. 3d. ; called-up capital, £27,181 
lOs. 4d. Value of plant, £1,473 Hs. Twelve men employed. 
Mine-manager, Thomas Johns; secretary, J. W. Nichol, Auck- 
land ; owners, Waihi Extended Gold-mining Company. 

Waimangu, Whangamata, Thames County. — Area, 100 
acres. Four tunnels and crosscuts have been driven a distance 
of 280 ft., 200 ft. being on the course of the lode, which varies 
from 1 ft. to 7 ft. in width, and a winze has been sunk 50 ft. 
Capital called up, £6,800. Six men employed since February, 
1906.. Mine-manager, H. P. Hornibrook; battery-superin- 
tendent, H. H. Adams; secretary, J. H. Jackson, Auckland; 
owners, Waimangu Gold-mining Company. 

Waiotahi, Thames. — Area, 23 acres. This mine, which 
has been on the dividend-list for a long period, is opened by 
two three-compartment shafts, the main one being 428 ft. 
and Mary Ann 390 ft. in depth. Two reefs, 12 ft. and 2 ft. 
in width, are worked, the distance driven on the course of 
lodes being 1,055 ft., while drives and crosscuts total 1,377 ft. 
and depth of winzes sunk 495 ft. There is a 60-stamp mill, 
each stamp having an average capacity per diem of 1'37 
tons, and two rock-breakers. During the year 1905, 4,986 
tons, and 54cwt. and 401b. of picked specimen-stone, yielded 
27,148 oz. 6dwt. of gold; value, £73,884 98. 7d. ; out of 
which dividends amounting to £51,300 have been disbursed, 
making a total of £91,800. The value of the gold obtained 
from this mine up to 31st December, 1905, was £266,997 
15s. 9d. ; while the total expenditure was £173,513. 12s. 4d. 
The called-up capital amounts to only £15,000. During the 
year 1905 fifty-two men were employed in mine, reduction- 
works, and surface. Mine-manager, George Warne; battery- 
superintendent, Frederick Challis; secretary, G. S. Kissling, 
Auckland; owners, Waiotahi Gold-mining Company. 


Waitaia and h'aitaia Extended, Euaotuziu, Coramandel 
County. — ^Area, 106 acres 3 roods 16 perches. Fourteen 
tunnels have been driren on this property for a total distance 
of 7,750 ft., while the various lodes have been driven on 
6,220 ft., and crosscuts through country 1,500 ft. The reef 
at present operated on varies considerably, from 3 in. to 7 ft. 
During the past year .71 S tons was milled for a yield of 
991 oz. 12 dwt. of bullion, valued at £2,941 lis. 6d. The 
total quantity of ore crushed up to 31st December, 1905, was 
5,130 tons, which, together with 3,122 tons of sands cyanided, 
yielded 7,872 oz. 12 dwt., valued at £22,867 12a. 6d. The 
value of the cyanide bullion varies from £1 178. 8d. to £S 
14b. 3d. per ounce, and the battery bullion from £3 Is. 5d. 
to £3 5s. 6d. per ounce. Before the present company bought 
the Waitaia Claim the old company and tributers took out, 
between the years 1891 and 1898, 483 tons of ore, yielding 
859oz. 19 dwt. of bullion, valued at £2,437 153. 2d. The com- 
pany has a 10-stamp mill: also one tailings- vat, 17ft. in 
diameter and 3 ft. 9 in. deep. The total expenditure up to 
Slst December, 1905, was £27,394. During the past four 
years nineteen men have been constantly employed. Mine- 
manager, C. H. Bennett; battery-superintendent and metal- 
lurgist, Eugene Draffin; secretary, W. H. Churton; owners, 
Waitaia Gold-mines (Limited). 

Wailangi, Wiseman's Gully, Thames. — ^Area, 63 acres. 
The mine is opened by a tunnel driven a distance of 700 ft. 
Two reefs, about 3 ft. in width, are at present operated on. 
Mine-manager, Robert Wilson; secretary, H. J. Lee, Auck- 
land; owners, Waitangi Gold-mining Company. 

Note. — These mines do not by any means cover the ground ; they 
merely represent those whose managers had the conrtesy to forward 
information asked for. In addition to the mines enumerated, -then 
is a further area of 6,249 a. Ir. 17 p. held under special claims, 
17 a. 1 r. 20 p. under licensed holdings, and 62 a. 2 r. 7 p. as special 
sites, &c. 

Pkogkkss Mines of New Zealand, Reefton: Siphon of Water-raci 
... ■ Ti n 1 AT Hut Crbse. 

Mining Handbook. 






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Marlborough Goldfloldo. 

Quartz reefs are abundant in the country lying north of 
the Wairau River, and a great many carry gold. They are 
for the most part found at considerable altitudes above sea- 
levely and owing to the expense of working them have not so 
far been proved to any depth. Claims have been taken up 
at various times, but want of adequate capital has led to 
their abandonment. The following are some of the reefs 
known to exist: — At Top Valley: The Baden PoweU Reef, 
averaging 6 in. to 1 ft., and estimated to yield 6 dwt. to the 
ton; the Albion Reef, 3ft., gold-bearing; the Just-for-Luck 
Reef, 2 ft. in the face, gold and scheelite, gold said to average 
8 dwt. to the ton. At Jackson's Creek: The Shotover Reef, 
averaging 1 ft. ; gold, patchy. At Arm-chair Creek : The 
Duke of York Reef, 18 in. wide, gold and scheelite, gold 7 dwt. 
to 8 dwt. per ton ; right-hand branch of Arm-chair Creek, a 
gold-bearing reef. 

The only claims at present being worked are those owned 
by the Wairau Valley Gold-mining Company, whose property 
consists of the Jubilee Mine and Ix)rd Hopetoun Claim, 180 
acres in extent. The property has been worked at intervals 
during the past six years, want of capital having, however, 
greatly retarded its systematic development. Some 950 os. 
of gold, of the value of £3,548 Is. 8d., has been won. Dur- 
ing the past two years a low-level tunnel has been in oourre 
of construction, small contracts having been let as funds per- 
mitted, the object being to open up the reef and secure at 
least 400 ft. of backs. The estimated length of the tunnel 
required is 1,200 ft., and of this about 470 ft. has been driven, 
leaving 729 ft. to drive before reaching the point at which it 
i3 expected the reef will be reached. The estimated cost of 
completing the tunnel is £2 per foot, or £1,458. A winie 
sunk on the reef showed very rich gold, its estimated value 
being upwards of several ounces to the ton. A portion of the 
mine is let on tribute, and is being worked by the tributers 
for both gold and scheelite; their first return was 2 tons 6cwt. 
of scheelite and.l2oz. of gold from 40 tons of stone. The 
company possesses a 10-stamp battery, aerial tram, cyaniie 


plant, and all necessary adjuncts. It has also a lO-stamp 
battery on the Wellington Claim, and plenty of water supplied 
by water-races. For the purpose of pushing on operations 
in the low-level tunnel a rock-drill has been imported. 

The Wakamarina, Waikakaho, and Jackson's Head may 
also be mentioned as likely fields for the capitalist interested 
in quartz-mining, the Wakamarina, where the Golden Bar 
Claim is situated, being considered especially worthy of ex- 
amination. Waikakaho and Jackson's Head have been the 
scene of previous mining ventures of an unsuccessful nature; 
but with adequate capital to thoroughly test tkese localities, 
and the application of modern methods of treatment, the re- 
sult might possibly be different. 


Owing to the high price now obtainable for antimony, a 
good deal of attention is being devoted to the deposits at 
Endeavour Inlet. These were worked by different companies 
some years ago, and a very extensive crushing and concentrat- 
ing plant was erected. Principally owing to depreciation in the 
price of antimony, success did not attend the operations of 
these companies, which then dropped out of existence, the 
machinery being for the most part removed. There is but 
little doubt that valuable lodes exist in this locality, but a 
good deal of capital is necessary for their development. To 
place the mine in the same order as before and supply the 
necessary mining plant and appurtenances would, in the view 
of one authority, entail an expenditure of over £20,000, and 
efforts are now being made to induce outside capitalists to 
embark on this venture. 

Inan^ahua Goldlleld. 

Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand (Limited). 

This company, whose shares are principally held in Great 
Britain, hold the following properties: — 

Wealth of Nations Mine, 118 acres 1 rood 13 perches, near 
Reef ton. 


Golden Fleece Mine, 238 acres 1 rood 20 perches. Black's 
Point, near Reef ton. 

Welcome Mine, 69 acres 3 roods 5 perches, Specimen Hill, 
near Capleston, Reef ton. 

Inkeruiau Mine, Merrijigs (not now working). 

Humphrey's Gully Hydraulic Sluicing Claim, 344 acres 
2 roods 12 perches, near Hokitika. 

In addition to these holdings, the Consolidated Company 'a 
largely interested in the Progress Mine, at Devil's Creek, near 
Reef ton, this being a separate company floated some years 
*go by the parent company. The following summary of re- 
sults of the company's operations does not include the Pro- 
gress: — 

Total quantity of gold obtained up to 31st December, 1905, 
64,767 oz. 2 dwt. 7gr., valued at £267,594 7s. 2d. 

Total amount of dividends paid to shareholders up to 3l8t 
December, 1905, £126,487 5s. 

Amount of dividends paid during year 1905, £12,118 ITs. 

Total amount of subscribed capital, £242,378. 

Total expenditure in connection with mining operatioas 
up to 31st December, 1905, £425,530 ISs. Id. 

Wealth of Nations. — Quartz was discovered on the outcrop 
of this lease, at an altitude of 600 ft. above the Inangahua 
River, a few months after the discovery of the Ajax and 
€tolden Fleece Reefs. Stimulated by the values exposed, the 
original shareholders continued to exploit the lodes by adits 
and otherwise, and in February, 1872, the Wealth of Nations 
Company was registered as a mining concern. Having thus 
obtained sufficient subscribed capital, water-race construction 
and other important works were soon in active progress, and 
in November of the same year crushing was commenced with 
a 15-staiiip battery, the mill being further increased to 
20 heads within the succeeding twelve months. By this time 
surface prospecting had exposed two separate lodes, 130 ft 
r-part east and west. The west reef having a northerly strike 
towards the north boundary adjoining the Energetic lease, it 
was eventually intersected by the Energetic shaft at a depth 
of 150 ft. From this point of intersection the lode was con- 


tinued, and worked by the Energetic Company on an unbroken 
line of underlie to a depth of 540 ft. At this depth the strike 
changed southward, and finally pinched out on a main fault- 
line, and the lode has not yet been intersected on any of the 
deeper levels. The east lode was practically vertical, and 
maintained an average width of 6 ft. for a length of 200 ft., 
but also pinched out within the boundary of the Wealth of 
Nations lease at a depth of 350 ft. below the outcrop. During 
the extraction of these ore-bodies the 20-stamp mill was con- 
stantly employed, yielding lucrative results for a period of 
five years. At this juncture prospecting was again vigor- 
ously maintained, absorbing about £25,000, of which £17,000 
was called-up capital. Amongst the principal works done was 
the driving of the battery level for a distance of 1,600 ft. 
The proceeds of this development resulted in cutting a small 
block of quartz and some small leaders on line of adit. Sink- 
ing was then commenced on the reef-track at a distance of 
800 ft. from the mouth of tunnel, and at a depth of 200 ft. 
the east lode was intersected at a driven distance of 700 ft. 
from the shaft, thus proving a vertical faulting of 450 ft. At 
this depth the width and grade of the lode showed a falling-off 
as compared with the surface values, but again indicated a 
decided improvement as depth was attained. The strike also 
turned southward, which is a very unusual occurrence in the 
district, and just below the 350 ft. level the strike changed 
north, leaving a vertical fault of 30 ft. and considerable dis- 
turbance in the underlie. In 1896, while working the lode 
on the 500 ft. level, the property was purchased by the Con- 
solidated Goldfields of New Zealand. Future development 
was afterwards directed to the Murray Creek side of the field, 
and the Energetic shaft was sunk to a total depth of 1,600 ft. 
from the surface and 1,175 ft. below the battery level. The 
surface plant comprises powerful double-cylinder hoisting- 
engines of the Tangye type, air-compressors for actuating 
rock-drill machines, and complete electric-light plant, the 
light being chiefly used in the mine-chambers and surface 
works. It may be noted that, although the lode has been some- 
what erratic at depth, and the strike has changed twice west- 


ward, the ore-body at a depth of 1,600 ft. maintains a higher- 
grade value than at a depth of 200 ft. from the surface, but 
not quite equal to the first blocks directly below the surface. 
During the year 1905, 11,970 tons of stone was milled for 
3,304 oz. 12dwt. 17 gr. of melted gold, valued at £13,662 
198. 6d., or at the rate of 5 dwt. 12jgr. per ton; while the 
concentrates and slimes shipped to the smelter realised £761 
lis. lOd. At the cyanide- works 8,320 tons of sands (repre- 
senting 69J per cent, of the tonnage crushed) were treated 
for 1,397 oz. 10 dwt. 9 gr. of precipitate, valued at £5,420 
16s. Id., or at the rate of 138. OJd. per ton, the cost of treat- 
ment being about 2s. 6^d., leaving a profit of 10s. 7Jd. per 
ton. The total quantity of stone crushed since the present 
company took over the mine is 66,592 tons, and 41,719 tons 
of sands were cyanided, for 27,301 oz. dwt. 14 gr., value 
£109,553 18s., the value of the gold being £4 Is. 2d. per 
ounce. Sixty-five men were employed during the year 1905 — 
forty-four in mine, ten in reduction- works, and eleven on 
surface. Approximate estimate of the ore in sight, 24,000 
tons; total length driven on course of lodes, 10,860 ft. ; cross- 
cuts through country, 11,600 ft.; depth of winzes sunk; 
1,600ft. (vertical); depth of shaft, 1,606ft.; number of 
stamps employed at battery, 20, averaging nearly 2^ tons 
(2,240 lb.) per diem. Mine - manager, Thomas Watson: 
battery-superintendent, Andrew P. Watson. 

Golden Fleece Mine, — Operations were commenced in this 
aiine by the Golden Fleece Company on the 1st December, 
1871, and gold to the value of £121,542 was won up to 31st 
March, 1886, whilst dividends amounting to £55,000 were 
paid, as against a called-up capital of £6,773. Development 
on a large scale has gone on since the mine became the pro- 
perty of the Consolidated Goldfields. The shaft has been sunk 
to a depth of 1,700 ft. ; the battery level has been extended to 
a distance of 8,500 ft. ; crosscuts driven through country 
total 19,060 ft.; drivages on course of lodes total 11,060 ft.; 
and winzes sunk a total vertical depth of 3,350 ft. During 
the year 1905 the 20-stamp mill crushed 13,985 tons of stone 
for 5,670 oz. 5 dwt. 12 gr. of melted gold, valued at £23,165 


lis. 8d., while the sulphurets and slimes shipped to smelter 
realised j£l,955 Ss. 8d. At the cyanide- works 9,475 tons of 
coarse sands (representing 67} per cent, of the tonnage milled) 
were cyanided^ yielding precipitate to the value of £3,342 
Is. Id., or at the rate of 7s. Ofd. per ton, the cost of treat- 
ment being nearly 28. 3d. per ton, leaving a profit of a frac- 
tion over 4s. 9jd. per ton. The total quantity of ore crushed 
has been 71,517 tons, and of sands cyanided 50,045 tons, for 
35,889 oa. 6 dwt. 6gr., value £142,145 58. 7d., the average 
value of the gold being £4 Is. O^d. per ounce. Since com- 
mencing operations the present company employed an average 
of about ninety men, but only twenty men were employed last 
year. Mine-manager, P. H. Woods; battery-superintendent, 
Andrew P. Watspn. 

Welcome Mine, — Operations were first commenced in this 
mine on the 17th September, 1873, and up to the 30th Sep- 
tember, 1886, gold to the value of £226,424 was obtained, 
enabling the old Welcome Company to pay £103,500 in divi- 
dends, as against a called-up capital of £3,750. The follow- 
ing is a summary of the work carried out by the Consoli- 
(lated Goldfields of New Zealand (Limited): Depth of shafts 
sank, 645 ft. and 285 ft. ; total distance driven on course 
of lodes (varying from 1 ft. to 12 ft.), 10,650 ft. ; crosscuts 
through country, 12,950ft.; winzes sunk, 1,800ft. (vertical); 
total quantity of stone crushed, 3,886 tons, and of sands 
cyanided, 2,593 tons, for 3,179oz. 16dwt. 7gr., value £12,177 
188. 7d.— including 621 oz. Idwt. 3gr., value £2,335 Os. Id., 
won by tributers (F. McKenzie and party), who pay to the com- 
pany a minimum of 10 per cent. There is a 5-stamp mill ou 
this property, the average duty per stamp being Ij tons per 
diem; two tailings- vats, 20ft. by 6ft., and one sump, 20 ft. 
by 6 ft. 

Humphrei/s Gvlly Hydraulic Sluicing Claim. — This pro- 
perty was taken over by the Consolidated Goldfields in 1896, 
but work was first started on the claim in 1883. During the 
year 1905 the gravels sluiced yielded 827 oz. 6 dwt. 4gr. of 
gold, valued at £3,226 9s. 9d., making a total, since the pre- 
sent company began operations, of 12,966 oz. 15 dwt. 7gr., 


Talue £50,171 138. 2d., the gold being worth £3 18s. per 
ounce. The auriferous grarels ybtj in depth from 10 ft. to 
200 ft., and are known under the designation of the " Hum 
phrey's Gully gravels." The dam covers an area of 6 acres, 
and there are eighteen miles of water-races in use, 16 chains 
of fiuming, and 10,000 ft. of pipes (including siphons), forty 
heads of water being available, giving a pressure at the face 
of 125 lb. Two and sometimes three nozzles are employed, the 
distance of the penstock from the claim being 1,200 ft. There 
are thirty-six gold-saving tables, each 8 ft. by 7 ft., covered 
with oocoanut matting, and 5,400 ft. of tail-races. The daim. 
which is estimated to last twenty to thirty years, is let on tri- 
bute to Messrs. Harris, Mills, and McCabe, and sixteen men 
are employed. Mine-manager, W. Greenbank. 

The Progress Mines of New Zealand (Limited). 
This company carries on operations at Devil's Creek, about 
four and a half miles from Reef ton. The property includes 
the Globe, Progress, Progressive, Rose, Wedge, Ballance, Lar- 
nach, Carroll, and Deep Special Claims, the total area bein^: 
810 acres and 15 perches. The Globe Mine paid £40,000 in 
dividends, and the Progress £17,400, prior to being taken 
over by the present company. The Progress Company was 
floated in December, 1896, with a nominal capital of 
£276,000, in 275,000 shares of £1 each, of which £50,000 
was provided for working-capital. The amount paid in divi- 
dends by the present company is £226,875, including 
£34,375 disbursed during the year 1905, when the company'* 
65-stamp mill crushed 60,000 tons (2,2401b.) for 18.147 o«. 
lldwt., value £75,408 9s. 5d., and 37,000 tons of sands 
were cyanided for 4,032 oz. 17 dwt., value £10,204 14s. 7d.. 
making a total for the year of £96,851 8s. 6d. The total 
quantity of ore crushed since the commencement of opera- 
tions by the Progress Mines Company was 130,121 tons, which 
yielded 184,129 oz. 17 dwt. 14 gr. of gold, value £742.631 
15s., or an average value of £4 38. IJd. per ounce; while 
130,121 tons of sands were cyanided for 24,897 oz. 13 dwt. 
15 gr. The following summary shows the working-cost of 


milliDg 60,000 tons, cyaniding 37,000 tons, and chlorinating 
1,105 tons during the year 1905: — 

Total working-cost, £53,977 188. 9d. ; or Us. ll-911d. 
per ton. 

Profit, £44,325 lis. 6d. ; or Us. 9-303d. per ton. 

Total, £98,303 lOs. 3d.; or £1 128. 9-214d. per ton. 

The gold is saved by amalgamation, concentration, cyani* 
dation, and chlorination. There are 232 men employed in 
the mine, thirty-six at the reduction -works, and twenty-five 
on surface, making a total of 293. Three rock-breakers are 
worked in connection with the G'O-stamp mill, the average 
• duty of each stamp being 2*86 tons per diem. In the cyanide 
department there are fifteen tailings-vats, 25 ft. by 6 ft. ; two 
sumps, 25 ft. by 6 ft. ; and one sump, 20 ft. by 6 ft. Steam 
is used for hoisting, and water-power at the reduction-works. 
The total depth of shafts sunk is 3,102 ft.— viz.. A, 836 ft.; 
B, 1,436 ft.; C, 230 ft.; Old Progress, 600 ft. The total 
length driven on course of various lodes is 26,520 ft. ; cross- 
cuts through country, 34,270 ft. ; and winzes sunk, 5,830 ft. 
(vertical). The ore in sight is approximately estimated at 
96,310 long tons. General manager, Ernest W. Spencer, Reef- 
ton ; mine-manager, James Martin; battery-superintendent^ 
John E. Lovelock; metallurgist, Henry A. B. Leipner. 


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Otago Goldflalds. 

Barewoody Barewood, Nenthorn District. — Area, 57 acres 

3 roods 2 perches. The mine is opened by a three-compart- 
ment shaft 250 ft. in depth One reef, varying in width from 

4 ft. to 10 ft., is operated upon, the distance driven on the 
course of the lode being 1,280 ft. in the three levels. There 
in a 5-stamp mill, each stamp having an average duty of 
2| tons per diem. The cyanide process is used to save the 
goW, four tailings-vats, two rectangular vats each 12 ft. by 
9 ft. by 6 ft., and two round vats 6 ft. by 6 ft., being in use. 
During 1905, 2,653 tons was crushed, yielding 1,112 oz. of 
gold; value, £4,213 98. 5d. Total yield from 7,706 tons, 
4,603 oz. of gold; value, £17,872 4s. 5d. Total dividends 
paid, £2,800; total expenditure to 31st December, 1905, 
£16,071 5s. 5d. The foregoing information refers to the pre- 
sent owners of this property — the Barewood Gold-mining 
Company, which started operations in August, 1902. Seven- 
teen men employed in the mine, battery, and surface works. 
Value of plant, £2,200. Mine-manager, Herbert S. Moli- 
neaux; secretary, S. E. Brent, Dunedin. 

Bendigo, near Cromwell. — Area, 71 acres. The mine 's 
opened by a three-compartment shaft 500 ft. in depth, and 
there is a 20-stamp mill on the claim. During the year 1905 
42 tons was crushed, yielding 32 oz. 12 dwt. 10 gr. of gold; 
value, £111 28. This mine yielded very rich returns in the 
early seventies. It was at that period one of the best gold-pro- 
ducers in the colony, and some of the shareholders were re- 
ported to have received in dividends amounts variously stated 
at from £50,000 to £80,000 each. Secretary, C. S. Reeves, 

Hamilton and Party , Caledonia Gully, near Macetown. — 
Area, 20 acres. The reef, which is 15 in. in width, is opened 
by a tunnel driven a distance of 300 ft. During the year 
1905, 103 tons yielded 81 oz. of gold; value, £303 ISs. 8d. 
Total quantity of ore crushed, 439 tons; yield, 188 oz. of 
gold; value, £719 14s. Id. There is a 10-stamp battery, the 
average duty per stamp being 2 tons per diem. Approximate 
value of plant, &c., £500. Secretary, D. McKay, Macetown. 


Last Chance Mine, Table Hill, near Milton. — This mine ba« 
an area of 51 acres, and is owned by Messrs. Park and party. 
The property is opened by two shafts, 100 ft. and 40 ft., oadi 
shaft being 8 ft. by 4 ft. The reef worked is 6 ft. in widliu 
and a lO-stamp mill crushes the ore. During 1905, 1,992 tans 
of ore yielded 1,088 os., valued at £3,808. The total qaantiitj 
of ore crushed was 2,774 tons, yielding 1,378 oas. of gold, 
▼alued at £4,823. The total expenditure up to 31st Decemfacr, 
1905, amounted to £3,923: dividends paid to shareholders, 
£600. Five men are employed in the mine, three in the re- 
duction-works, and seven on surface. Value of mining plant, 
^c, £600. Mine-manager, J. L. Hawkins; secretary, John 
Park, Table Hill. 

Mount Highlay, Hyde. — Area, 20 acres. This mine is 
owned by Messrs. Gilmour and Matheson. The reef operated 
on varies from 1 ft. to 4 ft. in width, and is opened I^ a 
tunnel driven a distance of 200 ft., the quantity of ore arail- 
able being estimated at 400 to 500 tons. The battery (driTen 
by steam) consists of 10 stamps, 5 of which are in use. The 
gold is saved by amalgamation on the ordinary copper plata. 
During 1905, 200 tons of ore yielded 33 oz. 6 dwt. 19gr. of 
gold; value, £126 48. Total expenditure to 3l6t December, 
1905, £400. Value of plant, &c., £1,000. Mine-manager and 
secretary, J. O. Gilmour. 


By E. R. Green, Inspector of Mines for the Southern Mining District. 

-Quartz -MINING in Canterbury has practically been confined to 
that region of the Southern Alps in the neighbourhood of 
Browning's Pass, Upper Rakaia district, where some pro- 
specting and driving had been done in bygone days. After 
a period of abeyance closer attention has latterly been paid 
to the reef-systems there, but, being among the higher alti 
tndes, continuous work in winter is impossible owing to the 

Mr. Rivers's Dam at Spearorasb Creek, near Alexandra, Otago. 
Inner Face op Wall and Accumulating Water shown. 
Mining Handbook, 


inclement weather-conditions, frost and snow. In "Tho 
Geology of Canterbury and Weslland," page 260, Haast de- 
scribes the finding of a piece of auriferous quartz in the 
Opawa River in the year 1862, but search for other specimens 
was unsuccessful. Recently an Albury resident claimed to 
have discovered gold - bearing stone which, after careful 
analysis at the School of Mines, Duuedin, was found to con- 
tain gold to the value of Is. to Is. 3d. per ton of rock en 
t/iasse. It was proved, however, that the gold occurred asso- 
ciated with thin films of iron -pyrites in the joints of the rock, 
but there was no gold in the rock itself — a kind of slate — in 
which no trace of lode- format ion could be seen. Similar stone 
has also been sent for analysis from Waimate district, so that 
it appears this class of rock covers a considerable area. Gold- 
bearing quartz has also been reported from the Mount White 
district, but although inquiries were being made as to methods 
of acquiring prospecting licenses and mining leases, no parcels 
of stone from this locality have been forwarded for analysis, 
so far as is known, to the Mines Department. 

Note. — The reader is referred for further information re quartz- 
mining to the papers contributed by the Inspectors of Mines, Wardens 
for the Gold fields, &c. 


Sous years ago, in consequence of complaints made to the 
New Zealand Government that a fair price was not given by the 
banks for gold, five samples of about 12 oz. each were obtained 
from Reef ton and Kumara, on the west coast of the South Is- 
land ; from the Island Block Company's claim, Clutha Valley, 
Otago; from Mr. Leijon's dredging claim, Alexandra; and 
from St. Bathan's, Otago, and were forwarded to the Sydney 
Mint. The returns furnished by the Deputy Master of the 



Mint showed that the go]d from Reef ton was worth J&i 
2s. lOfd. per ounce; from Eumara, ^4 Is. 4|d. per ounoe; 
from Island Block, £4 Is. 7fd. per ounce; from Alexandrm, 
£4 Os. 11 Jd. per ounce; and from St. Bathan's, £4 2s. 7Jd. 
per ounce. The whole of the samples were above tlie standard 
value, the Reef ton gold being highest with 1*424 carata, and 
Alexandra lowest with 0*860 carats, over the standard of 
22 carats. The expense of forwarding the gold to Sydney, in- 
cluding Mint charges, amounted to Is. 6d. per ounce. The 
freight on the small quantity sent across, which was the 
heaviest item in the expense incurred, would have been no 
more had the quantity been 500 oz. ; and as each parcel had 
to be assayed separately in order to ascertain its value, there- 
fore the expense in connection with forwarding the gold to the 
Sydney Mint was far in excess of what it would be if large 
parcels were sent. In the following statement laid on the table 
of the House of Representatives in 1891 by the Hon. the Minis- 
ter of Mines full particulars are given : — 

Place from where Gold 
was sent. 

Eumara . . 
Island Block 
St. Bathan'B 
Reef ton 


Weiifbt of 

Gold as 

taken at 



Weight of 
Qol t re- 
ceived at 

of Gold 






Assay Report: 

Decimal. pLnene^ 
1 oiGoU.- 
Gold. 1 SilYer. 

Oz. dwt. Rr. 

11 19 21 

12 14 

11 19 21 

12 6 
12 20 

Oz. Os. 
1199 11-84 
12-04 11-50 
11-99 ; 11-72 
1201 1 1179 
1204 1 11-77 


1 o. 

1 015 
i 0-54 
1 0-27 
1 22 


0035 22 96S 
0030 i S^-aiS 
0020 23-332 
040 Sifiw 
0015 23424 

60 1 9 






Place from where 


Mint Value 

Value at 


Net Value 
after deduct- 


Gold was seut. 


per Ounce. 


ing Mint 




£ 8. d. 

£ 8. d. 

£ 8. 


£ 8. d. 

* 3. i 

Kumara . . 


4 1 4, 

48 3. 2 



47 18 

46 17 

Island Block 


4 1 78 

46 18 10 


46 13 10 

46 8 6 

St. Bathan's 


4 2 7J 
4 llj 

48 8 9 



48 8 7 

48 «) 


12 251 

47 14 11 



47 9 10 

46 4 

R?elton .. 

12 532 

4 2 10} 

48 15 1 



48 9 10 i 

47 6 9 


61-634 1' .. 

240 9 

1 5 


238 15 1 ' 


234 16 3 

NoTB.— Expenses: Frei^t, £2 2b.; insurance, 18b. 3d.; incidental, fli.; 
£234 168. 3d. ; total, £297 Ids. 6d. 


All the formations in New Zealand which contain workable 
seams of coal maj be said to belong to the Secondary or 
Mesozoic and to the Tertiary or Cenozoic epochs. The quality 
of the coal of the same class found in this colony is extremely 
varied, some of it being for all practical purposes equal, if 
not superior, to much of the coal used in other parts of the 
world ; while, on the other hand, a great deal is of a compara- 
tively inferior description, though it still has a great local 
value as a fuel in the districts where it occurs. The coals 
found in New Zealand have been divided into two groups, 
under the terms hydrous and anhydrous coals, or those which 
contain a large percentage of water chemically combined witli 
them, and those which may be assumed to have been deprived 
of that water by a chemical change. 

I. Hydrous Coals. 

The hydrous ooals may be conveniently distinguished as 
lignites, pitch-coals, and glance-coals. A point worthy of re- 
mark is that whereas in Europe the deposits of brown ooal (or 
lignite, as it is usually termed) occur in beds of immense 
thickness, and are generally confined to limited areas, those of 
New Zealand form regular seams of moderate thickness, and 
associated with them are alternating beds of clay, shale, and 
sandstone, as is the case with the older ooal formation of Car- 
boniferous age elsewhere. As a rule, the hydrous coal- 
measures lie on the eastern slopes of the axial rocks in the 
South Island, and to the west of the main axis in the North 
Island; whereas the anhydrous coals are confined chiefly to 
the west coast of the South Island. The hydrous coal is of a 
brown colour, but hard and glossy, and frequently contains 
a quantity of fossil resin, this being due to the remains of an 
Arauearia somewhat allied to the kauri of the North Island. 


The principal defect of the hydrous coal is its weight in 
proportion to bulk, and its tendency to crack and break into 
small fragments by desiccation and exposure to the atmo- 
sphere. The different varieties of hydrous coals, however, 
are not all equally subject to this defect, and some of the 
better qualities of glance-coal are scarcely affected in this way. 
Partly on this account the hydrous ooals may be divided into 
three sub-groups: — 

1. Lignite, or common brown coal, containing a high per- 
centage of water, and in which a woody structure is very ap- 

2. Pitch-coal, in which there is still a high percentage of 
water, and frequently a woody structure to be seen. Its aspect 
is glossy, dark-brown, or black, and it does not soil the fingers. 
Usually this coal desiccates freely on exposure to the atmo- 

3. Glance-coal is hard and semi -laminated with bright and 
dull laminae, as in the case of bituminous coals; contains a 
smaller percentage of water generally than the other two sub- 
groups, and does not desiccate by exposure to the atmo- 
sphere; seldom shows woody structure; and constitutes ao 
excellent steam-coal for stationary engines and railway pur- 
poses, but is inferior in this respect for ocean-going steamers 
to the anhydrous coals. 

The hydrous coals are extensively developed throughout 
the coastal and interior regions of southern and eastern Otago, 
while an inferior but useful quality of lignite is abundant in 
Central Otago. The better-known fields are: Nightcaps, in 
Southland; Kaitangata, in Bruce County; Green Island, 
near Dunedin; Shag Point, in Waihemo County; in the 
Oamaru district, north-eastern part of Otago, at Big Hill: 
the Waiau Valley, in Southern Canterbury; the Ashbur- 
ton district and Malvern Hills, in Central Canterbury ; and, 
on the west coast of the South Island, the higher seams in 
the Brunner field. In the Inangahua Valley most of the seams 
must be regarded as pitch and glance coals ; while the coals of 
Puponga and West Wanganui belong to these subdivisions, 
those of Puponga being a high-class glance-ooal, or, according 
to some authorities, a bituminous coal. 


On the west ooast of the North Island the coals of the 
Mokau Valley are glanoe-ooals : the field extends east to t]ie 
Wanganui River, in which part the coals are not of quite 
equal value. Pitch-coals are found in the district of Eawhia, 
on the north-west side of the range from the Mokau Valley. 
In the Lower Waikato Valley there are extensive deposits of 
both glance and pitch coals, of which Taupiri exemplifies one 
form (glance-coal) and Miranda and Surrey Redoubt the other 
{pitch-coal). These coal-measures extend along the west coast 
of Auckland, between Kawhia Harbour and the Waikato 
Heads. Glance-coals are found abundantly in the neighbour- 
hood of Whangarei, and from thence to Hikurangi, where, 
and also at Ngunguru, glance-coal of a superior description 
is found, and is sometimes classed as semi-bituminous. 
Lastly, the well-known coal of Kawakawa, which is semi- 
bituminous, is the most northerly of the hydrous coalfields 
of New Zealand. 

II. Anhydrous Coals. 

Under this group have been classed all the coals found in 
New Zealand which resemble in quality the coals imported 
from England and Australia. The composition of the coals 
comprised in this group is very varied, but is not more so 
than is usually found in different coal-seams in other countries. 
The only point in which as a class they are deficient in any 
of the characferistics which iire laid down as requisite for a 
perfect steam-fuel is in the solidity and toughness which 
enables the coal to withstan-1 the constant attrition it must 
experience from frequent handling. This defect is, how- 
ever, comparatively insignificant, and is more than com- 
pensated for (except in a few instances) by the purity of the 
coal, its tendency to cake, nnd the facility with which com- 
plete combustion can be effected ; so that the loss by the for- 
mation of cinders will be much below the average. 

The most important development of the coal-seams in this 
olass is on the west coast of the South Island, where the for- 
mation occurs resting on a surface generally of metamorphic 
and crystalline rock. Beginning in the south, the first deve- 


lopment of this coal is between the Haast and Paringa ftiTen ; 
next, the Grej Valley coaifields, consisting of the Bnmiisr 
area. Coal Creek, and Blackball, and an as yet unexplored 
area on the west side of Paparoa Range, near the source 
of Bullock Creek; then the Mount Rochfort, Ngakawau, and 
Mokihinui coal areas, lying between the lower parts of the 
Buller and the Mokihinui Rivers. The Wallsend and PaLi- 
wau Mines, in the Collingwood district, also contain bitu- 
minous coals, but the actual extent of the area has not yet beeD 

111. Anthracitb Coals. 
In connection with both the hydrous and anhydrous cosLn 
there are developments of anthracite. Associated with the 
hydrous coals there are the anthracite coals of the Acheron 
River, within the Rakaia Valley, in Canterbury, and of the 
Broken River, in the Waimakariri basin ; these are, howerer, 
local and unimportant. In connection with the bituminous 
coals there is a 6 ft. seam of anthracite in the valley of the 
Fox River, ten miles south-west of Charleston ; and it is re- 
ported that at Mount Davy, in the Paparoa Range, there i^ 
a considerable deposit of anthracitic coal. 



By John Hates, F.S.Sc., late Inspecting Engineer, Mines Department, 
New Zealand. 

On hia first introduction to the coalfields of New Zealand, 
the mining engineer whose experience has been confined to 
the coalfields of Great Britain or other countries where the 
coal-bearing strata are found in rocks of the Carboniferous 
era, is at once confronted with vastly different geological con- 
ditions, and also very varying characteristics and qualities of 
the coals themselves. It may at once be stated that in New 
Zealand no coal is so far known to exist in the deposits of the 
Carboniferous period. Thin seams of bituminous coal, having 
a very large percentage of ash, have been discovered in the 
Jurassic (secondary) rocks, which, forming an irregular 
triangle, cross a portion of the South (or Middle) Island from 
near Mount Hamilton, on the western side of the Island, to 
the east coast, the coast-line from a few miles south of the 
mouth of the Mataura River to the mouth of Catlin's River 
(northward) forming the perpendicular of the triangle. 
Nothing of commercial importance has yet been found in this 
belt of country. 

The bulk of New Zealand coals is found in strata which 
have been classed by the late Director of the Geological Survey 
(Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.) as belonging to the 
Cretaceo- Tertiary period. Large deposits of lignite of more 
recent date are also found in many localities. 

The coals vary in quality from a dull-burning brown coal 
of low evaporative power- -suited only for use in the locality in 
which it is obtained — to a splendid coal equal to many of the 
best British coals for steaming, gas, and coking purposes. 
They may be divided into two groups — viz., hydrous and 


anJiydrous. By the first of these terms is meant thoee coala 
which contain a large percentage of water in chemical com- 
bination, and by the latter term the coals which have been de 
prived of a considerable portion of their water by chemical 

Hydrous coals include glance-coal, pitch-coal, brown coaL 
and lignite, and are principally found on the eastern side of 
the mountain chain which traverses the Middle or South I^ 
land, and to the west of a line drawn from Cape Palliser, near 
Wellington, through Cape Colville (the head of the Hauraki 
Peninsula) in the North Island. Lignites and brown coak 
are light in proportion to their bulk, and, on account of Aft 
water contained, desiccate somewhat rapidly on expoaure t» 
sun and wind. Some of the pitch and glance coals stand th» 
weather very well, and are comparatively little affected by ex- 
posure. These varieties are sometimes classed as " K9tt» 
bituminous," and are very useful for domestic purposes, Im^ 
motives, and land boilers generally, as well as for oom^ai 
marine work, but are not used to any extent on steamer* 
making long voyages. 

Anhydrous coals are those which may be said to compart 
with the coals of Great Britain. The deposits are chiefly con- 
fined to the west coast of the SoutE Island, Westport and 
Greymouth being the ports of shipment. Ocean-going steamers 
obtain their supplies from these ports, and coals from this dis- 
trict are in demand for the use of the British Squadron in 
Eastern waters. 

In explanation of the fact that both anhydrous and hydrous 
coals (recent lignites, of course, excepted) belong to the same 
geological era, it may be remarked that many parts of New 
Zealand have undoubtedly been subjected to great changes 
by volcanic and other forces, and it is not improbable that 
the varying characteristics and qualities of the coal-seams 
themselves are due, in some measure at least, to their being 
subjected to these influences. As an illustration of this, the 
conditions which exist in the Malvern Hills, Rakaia Gorge, 
and near Lake Coleridge, in Canterbury, may be mentioned. 
In those localities a brown-coal deposit of very ordinary 



quality has been tilted by yolcanic action, and the coals sub- 
jected to distillation by the molten lava ejected (which would 
retain its heat for a considerable time), and now overlies the 
coal-measures in the form of a thick sheet of dolerite. The 
resultant effect of this distillation has been to evaporate the 
hydrous constituents, and also the hydrocarbons, contained 
in the coal, leaving very little besides fixed carbon and ash. 
In this manner a brown coal has become altered into an 
anthracite, the roof strata immediately above the coal is- 
found changed into a somewhat coarse plumbago (suitable, 
at all events, for foundry use), and the clay below the ooal 
baked like pottery- ware. This is, perhaps, an extreme case 
of metamorphism, but serves to show very clearly how the 
quality of coal may be changed by mechanical and chemical 
processes. The comparative analyses given will further eluci- 
date this point. 

Average of Four 

Samples of Ordinary 

Brown Coal. 

Anthracite from 

Lake Coleridge, 


Fixed carbons 

... 43-28 per cent. 

84-12 per cent. 


... 38-35 

1-96 „ 

Water ... 

... 15-68 

1-80 „ 


... 2-69 „ 




At Malvern Hills four seams of ooal were cut in a tunnel 
which was driven for the greater part through a deposit of 
dolerite. The first seam cut (which was the highest in the 
series, and naturally the most recent of the four) was found 
altered into anthracite, as already described; the other three 
seams, being further from the molten lava deposited by the 
eruption, were altered to a lesser extent, but sufficiently so to 
show that the heat from the lava had a far-reaching effect, as 
these " altered brown coals " gave on analysis as high a per- 
centage as 68*5 of fixed carbon and an evaporative power equal 
to that of a good average bituminous coal. 

The coal-mining industry of New Zealand has, during the 

13— Mining Handbook. 


past few years, made rapid strides, the following figures 
showing the expansion at intervals of five years: — 

Output for 1885... ... ... 511,063 

1890... ... ... 637,397 

1895... ... ... 726,654 

1900... ... ... 1,093,990 

1905... ... ... 1,585,756 

Notwithstanding the production of coal within the colony, 
a considerable tonnage is imported from New South Wales, the 
imports for last year (1905) being 168,757 tons from that 

From the official statistics for last year it is found that em- 
ployment was given to 3,269 persons at the various coal and 
lignite mines of the colony. These number 177 in the aggre- 
gate, but many are mere quarries — worked on a very small 
scale — for the supply of lignite for purely local requiremente 
The number of mines employing more than twenty persona 
was twenty-eight, and these require to be under the supervision 
of a manager holding a first-class certificate. Twenty-six mines 
employed over six but not more than twenty persons. At such 
mines a person holding a second-class certificate may act m 
manager, whilst at mines employing six persons and under 
the person in charge, if not the holder of a certificate of either 
class, must have an authority or permit from the Inspector of 
Mines for the district. Thus some reasonable guarantee is 
afforded that the persons upon whom the charge of mining 
operations devolves are qualified for the responsible nature 
of their work, and their supervision, together with careful 
examination by Government Inspectors of Mines, has resulted 
in the working operations of New Zealand collieries being con- 
ducted and maintained on very safe lines. Within the past 
^Ye or six years more general attention has been paid to the 
better ventilation of underground workings, and, taken as a 
whole, the atmosphere of the mines more than favourably com- 
pares with that of the general run of workshops, mills, 
factories, <fec. Explosions in the collieries of New Zealan<l 


have fortunately been few in number, and it is a significant 
fact that explosive gases are not met with at most of the pits 
in the colony. Still, the coal-mines of New Zealand are not by 
any means immune from the presence of inflanmiable gases in 
the coal or adjacent strata, and at a few collieries these are 
given off more or less ; but, taken in comparison with what are 
admittedly " fiery " mines in Great Britain, the experience 
so far gained of New Zealand colliery workings is (with the 
single exception of a colliery not now in work) that the in- 
dustry in this colony is not seriously troubled by reason of 
inflammable gases in large quantities. Two serious explosions 
have occurred in the colony — viz., at Kaitangata (Otago), in 
February, 1879, and at Brunner (West Coast), in March, 1896. 
The former is said to have been due to the ignition of an ex- 
plosive mixture of inflammable gas and air, and the latter 
(which the writer very exhaustively investigated by instruc- 
tions from the then Premier, the late Right Hon. R. J. Seddon) 
was undoubtedly caused by a blown-out shot, and carried on 
by ooaldust. 

The largest and most important collieries in the colony are 
those of the Westport Coal Company (Limited), situated at 
Denniston and at Millerton, near Westport, on the west coast 
of the South (or Middle) Island. Last year these collieries 
produced 500,231 tons. The conditions under which both 
collieries are worked are most interesting. Although situated 
near the sea, the workings are from 1,500 ft. to 2,000 ft. 
above the sea-level ; consequently, instead of the coal having 
to be raised up deep shafts by powerful winding-engines, it 
is lowered down steep inclines to the main line of railway, 
which, connects the collieries with the port. At Denniston 
Colliery the incline is constructed so that the railway-wagons 
go right up the hill, the loading-bins being at an elevation of 
1,700 ft. above the railway-level at the foot of the incline, 
which is about a mile in length. This incline is in two divi- 
sions, the upper one being 33 chains long (horizontal m'^asure- 
ment), with a vertical fall of 830 ft. The lower portion is 
50 chains long, vertical fall 864 ft., and maximum gradient 
1 in 2' 2. The average grade throughout is 1 in 3*23. Fifteen 



wagons per hour are delivered at Uie foot of the incline, a 
single wagon being run at a time, the descending full wagoD 
pulling the empty one up. For such steep grades special 
brake-power is necessary, and the lowering plant used ap- 
pears, at first glance, not unlike an ordinary pair of hori- 
zontal winding-engines, with the drum in the usual position. 
The action, however, is quite different, water being used to 
check the motion of the pistons instead of steam to move them. 
These hydraulic brakes have proved most successful in use. 

From the top of the upper incline communication with 
the adits which open into various sections of the colliery is 
by the ordinary mine-tubs hauled by endless rope, driven by 
steam-power, the main haulage-road being about two miles in 
length. There are also two branch roads leading to the two 
main sections of the colliery, and the '' under-rope " system 
. is adopted, the tubs being attached to the rope with lashing- 

The seam being worked is of excellent quality, and is 
from 15 ft. to 20 ft. thick as a general rule. Occasionally it 
has been found of much greater thickness, 35 ft. and upwards 
not being unknown. In mining, the bord-and-pillar system 
is adopted, holing being done by percussive coal -cutting 
machines actuated by compressed air. Electrically driven 
machines have been tried, and also coal-cutters on the chain 
principle, but these have been discarded in favour of percus- 
sive or '' pick " machines and compressed air. Ventilation 
is maintained by fans. 

At the company's Milierton Colliery the seam is thick, and 
the general mining arrangements are much the same as at 
Denniston Colliery,* percussive machines actuated by com- 
pressed air being largely used for " holing." The mine is 
entered by adits, and divided into two distinct sections far 
the purposes of ventilation, fans of modern types being used 
lor exhausting. The railway-wagons do not run up to tiie 
colliery (as in the case at Denniston), but the coal is conveyed 
to the bins and screens — 1,600 ft. below the brake-head — ^ad- 
joining Granity Railway-station, by means of a self-acting end- 
less-rope tramway, hydraulic brakes being used. The storage- 


bins have a capacity of about 3,000 tons. The sidings, work- 
shops, and offices are also situated at the foot of the in- 
cline. Hydraulic power is used for actuating the workshops 
machinery, hoists, rams for working the slides for loading 
wagons from the bins, the electric-light plant, &c., .pressure 
being obtained from a reservoir several hundreds of fe^t 
higher up the hill. 

The Westport Coal Company's collieries produce coal of 
excellent quality for gas-making and steam-raising purposes 
especially. The compaoy hold a large area under lease from 
the Crown, and the mines have many years' working-life 

In point of output, the collieries next in order are thonc 
ef the New Zealand Government, at Seddonville, near West- 
port, and Point Elizabeth, near Greymouth. These form the 
subject of a separate article, to which the reader is referred. 

The other principal collieries in the West Coast coalfields 
are those at Brunnerton and Blackball. At the former place, 
which is situated some seven or eight miles from the Port of 
Oreymouth on the banks of the Mawhera (now known as the 
-Grey) River, coal-mining operations have been conducted for 
upwards of forty years. Formerly, several companies were 
actively engaged in the industry — the Brunner, Coal-pit 
Heath, Tyneside, and Wallsend Mines — but eventually these 
all came under a general proprietary. The Tyneside and 
Wallsend Mines were closed down and their plants dismantled, 
the Coal-pit Heath Colliery — which adjoined the Brunner 
Colliery — being worked in conjunction with the latter. Coal- 
pit Heath Mine was practically worked out some years ago, 
and at the present time the same remark holds good in respect 
to the Brunner Mine so far as the known seam is concerned. 
At this colliery an important trade has been done in coke for 
smelting purposes and in high-grade fireclay goods. As 
already mentioned, Brunner Colliery was some ten years ago 
the scene of a disastrous explosion by which sixty-five persons 
lost their lives. 

The Tyneside Colliery has been reopened within a com- 
paratively recent date by a new proprietary, who have erected 


winding, pumping, screening, ami ventilating plant. The 
seam, which is generally considered aa being identical with 
that worked at the other collieries adjoining, is aboat 12ft. 
thick, and the output last year was 44,047 tons. Generally 
speaking, the coal has practically the same characteristics as 
that of the Brunner Colliery, which has had an excellent repu- 
tation for steam, gas, and smithy purposes. 

Blackball Colliery, situated on the eastern side of the 
Paparoa Range, is some eighteen miles from Greyniouth. The 
coal is generally in two divisions aggregating something like 
17 ft. in thickness, and is worked on the bord-and-pillar sys- 
tem — a method general on the West Coast coalfields. Its prin- 
cipal use is for steam purposes, large quantities being used 
on the ocean-steamers of the New Zealand Shipping Company 
(Limited). Pending the construction of a branch railway from 
Ngahere up the Blackball Valley, connection is made with the 
railway at Ngahere by means of an aerial tramway of ahout 
three miles in length. Drainage is effected by a water adit 
lately driven from the bed of Ford's Creek; this has rendered 
the use of pumps unnecessary. Ventilation is by fan. Last 
year's output was 64,713 tons. 

The ports of Westport and Greymouth are, and must con- 
tinue to be, the chief centres of shipment, as, in addition to 
the collieries at present working, new collieries on an extensive 
scale will shortly be opened up in the vicinities of both ports. 
At one of these, coal of a quality which corresponds with 
that of the celebrated South Wales coal will probably be won. 

There are several small pits, worked purely for local re- 
quirements, in the neighbourhood of Reefton, at some of which 
a most excellent house-coal is obtained. A new colliery (which 
is included in the West Coast district) is situated at Puponga, 
near Cape Farewell, the most northern point of the Middle (or 
South) Island, and upwards of a hundred miles nearer than 
Westport to the City of Wellington and other northern ports. 
One seam of coal is at present being worked. This averages 
about 7 ft. in thickness, and in quality is pre-eminent aa 
a domestic fuel, for which it is in extensive demand. 
Mechanical screening is practised, and the small coal washed 


and graded into " nuts " for house and steam purposes. Fan 
ventilation has been adopted, and the plant generally is being 
augmented to meet trade requirements. The coal is shipped 
at the company's own wharf, which connects with the colliery 
by a light railway of less than two miles in length. Harbour 
improvements of an extensive character are being prepared 
for, and these, when completed, will admit of the employment 
of much larger steamers than those at present engaged. 

On the eastern side of the dividing-range of the Middle 
Island — known as the Southern Alps — brown coal, pitch-coal, 
and lignite are worked over a very large area, but the mines 
are, with few exceptions, on a limited scale. In Canterbury, 
the Homebush Colliery, at Glentunnel, is the principal mine 
row at work. A brown coal is obtained, the output last year 
being 15,415 tons. There are a few other small mines which 
produce coal for purely local requirements. At Mount Somers 
there is a very thick seam of brown coal which yielded 7,688 
tons during 1905. At some future time this deposit may be 
more extensively operated upon. 

In north Otago, the Shag Point Colliery was for many 
years the chief producer, the coal being a pitch -coal of excellent 
quality. In all, seven distinct seams have been discovered 
in this coalfield, most of .which may be classed as thin. To 
some extent the workings of the Shag Point Colliery were sub- 
marine, and the large flow of water met with some six years 
ago led to the abandonment of the under-sea workings and 
subsequent dismantling of the colliery. The Allandale 
Colliery, a property which adjoins the Shag Point area, is 
now the scene of active mining operations, three seams, vary- 
ing from 4 ft. to 6 ft. in thickness, being operated upon. In 
quality the coal is very similar to that which was mined at 
Shag Point. Mechanical ventilation is in vogue, and electrical 
transmission of power for underground haulage and pumping 
has been adopted. In the latter connection it is worthy of 
note that the first installation in this colony of high-lift cen- 
trifugal pumps for mining purposes was made at Allandale 
Colliery, the venture being reported eminently satisfactory. 
Last year's output was 19,533 tons. 


South of Dunedin the first coalfield is that of Green Island, 
where oollierj operations have been conducted for many yean. 
Several mines formerly worked are exhausted or closed dovB 
for other reasons, but quite a number are now working, 
the principal properties with their respective productions for 
the year 1905 being enumerated as follows: Saddle Hill 
Colliery, Saddle Hill, 27,594 tons; Freeman's Colliery, 
Abbotsford, 21,285 tons; Jubilee Colliery, Walton Park. 
16,928 tons. 

The coal of this locality is an ordinary brown ooal, and 
the deposits are, generally speaking, of considerable siae, 
seams 20 ft. thick being operated upon at a few of the 

Some fairly extensive deposits of a similar class of coal 
occur in the Tokomairiro district, between the Town of Milton 
and the sea-coast. These are also of considerable thi<^ne8B, 
and have been worked on a small scale for many years. A 
branch line of railway, privately owned, now connects the 
mines with the main line of Government railways at Milton, 
and it is expected that by this improved means of outlet tiie 
production of the mines will be increased. 

The next coalfield is that of Tuakitoto and Kaitangata. 
where the Taratu-Kaitangata Railway and Coal Company 
(Limited) and the New Zealand Coal and Oil Company 
(Limited) have collieries. The former is a recent undertaking, 
and, at the present time, a seam of good brown ooal some 
20 ft. in thickness is being opened up, last year's output being 
18,189 tons. The New Zealand Coal and Oil Company 
(Limited) own the collieries formerly operated by the Kai- 
tangata Railway and Coal Company (Limited) and the Castle 
Hill Coal Company (Limited) at Kaitangata, as well as the 
shale-mine and oilworks at Orepuki, Southland. This com- 
pany's collieries are the largest in this part of the colony, the 
output for 1905 being 119,744 tons. The seams generally 
are of considerable thickness, a maximum of something like 
40 ft. having been attained in some places. Extensive plant 
of modern type has been installed, the endless-rope system of 
haulage and also for the transmission of power for pumping 














being adopted in addition to other methods of work. Com- 
pressed air is also largely used as a secondary power for 
operating winches used in the workings. A superior brown 
coal is produced which is in considerable demand for domestic 
purposes as well as steam-production, and the screening plaat 
at the Castle Hill Colliery (a working model of which is to be 
seen at the Mines Department exhibit of colliery workings at 
the International Exhibition, Christchurch) is pr^.babl^ lae 
most perfect plant of its class to be found iu the colony. 
Mechanical ventilation is adopted at the Kaitangata Colliery^ 
and furnace ventilation at Castle Hill. In February, 1879, 
Kaitangata Colliery was the scene of a disastrous explosion, 
by which thirty-four persons lost their lives. 

Central Otago contains numerous deposits of lignite and 
brown coal, some of which are being worked for the supply 
of purely local demands. In many instances the mines are 
merely open quarries operated on a very small scale; others 
are worked by the ordinary methods of underground mining. 
Some of the lignite- deposits are of great thickness, that at 
Coal Creek, near Roxburgh, being fully 80 ft. at two opencast 
mines, whilst at an adjoining mine (where the deposit is 
practically vertical) the horizontal distance across the seam 
is approximately 100 ft. Several instances occur where the 
seams are from 30 ft. to 40 ft. in thickness. The lignites of 
the interior of Otago provide a cheap, if low-grade, fuel in 
a district which would otherwise be destitute of firing- 
material, and are correspondingly valued. Of late years the 
gold-dredging industry in Central Otago has given an impetus 
to coal and lignite mining, and during the year 1905 the out- 
put (from underground workings) of the three principal pro- 
prietaries was as follows: Cromwell and Bannockburn Col- 
lieries Company, Bannockburn, 11,142 tons; Mathias Bros. 
and Hunter, Alexandra, 9,553 tons; Alexandra Coal Com- 
pany, Alexandra, 8,959 tons. 

In Southland there are also a large number of small lignite- 
pits for the supply of local requirements pure and simple. 
The mines having the largest output are in the vicinity of 
<jore and Mataura, the principal producers being Green's 


mine, at Gore, which had an output of 11,314 tons during lut 
year, and Sleeman's mine, at Mataura, which produced 9,419 
tons. Several other mines put out from 2,000 to nearly 6,000 
tons during the same period, the gold-dredges in the Gore, 
Waikaka, and Waikaia localities being fairly large consumers. 
The principal colliery in Southland is that of the Nightcaps 
Coal Company (Limited), at Nightcaps, which had an output 
of 45,500 tons of good-quality brown ooal during the year 
1905. This property is freehold. The seam is divided into 
three sections, having an aggregate thickness of 36 ft., of 
which 24 ft. is ordinarily worked. The mine is worked level- 
free (drainage being efTected by a low-level tunnel), and venti- 
lation maintained by a fan of modern design. 

Turning to the North Island, it may be remarked that 
some years ago fairly extensive operations were conducted at 
Kawakawa, Bay of Islands, but the area leased is now prac- 
tically exhausted, and no prospecting of any moment appears 
to have been done to prove the continuation or otherwise of 
the coal-bearing measures. The Maoris have reported the 
existence of coal on Native lands between Kawakawa and 
Hokianga, but nothing has yet been done to prove or develop 
the field. The coal worked at Kawakawa was friable, but of 
excellent quality for steaming purposes. 

The principal coal-producing centres in the North Island 
are those of Whangarei and Taupiri. The former district is 
approximately thirty miles south of Kawakawa, and ninety 
miles north of the City of Auckland. Excellent coal of semi- 
bituminous character is mined at Hikurangi and Kiripaka, 
townships situated some few miles from the Town of 
Whangarei. Two collieries are at work at Hikurangi, the 
oldest being that of the Hikurangi Coal Company (Limited), 
which last year had an output of 50,410 tons. The seam is 
from 7 ft. to 10 ft. in thickness, and is reached by a short 
incline having a very moderate grade, the workings being 
under rough moorlands of no particular value. This feature 
admits of the total extraction of the seam without any ques- 
tion of surface-damage arising. A colliery which has been 
more recently opened out is that of the Northern Collieries 


Company (Limited). This is situated on hill country north 
of the Hikurangi Coal Company's mine, and last year pro- 
duced 37,733 tons from a seam about 6^ ft. in thickness. Jt 
is worked level-free, and the coal conveyed from the mine to 
the railway by tramway, worked partly by locomotive-power 
and partly by gravitation. 

At Eiripaka, two small mines (the Ngunguru and the 
Panipo) have been worked for some years; the former is now 
exhausted, and, as its owners held property in close proximity 
to the latter, an amalgamation of the two proprietaries (and 
also that of the Northern Collieries at Hikurangi) has been 
effected and operations commenced for the purpose of develop- 
ing the Panipo Colliery on a much larger scale than that 
hitherto attained. The seam is variable in thickness, with an 
average of approximately 10 ft. A tramway connects the mine 
with the shipping staiths on the Ngunguru River. Last year' 8 
output at EiripakH was 19,591 tons. 

South of Auckland the Taupiri Coalfield at present holds 
first place. Three collieries belonging to the Taupiri Coal- 
mines (Limited) are worked in the neighbourhood of Huntly, 
the combined output for last year being 118,612 tons. The 
•coal is a superior class of brown coal of great thickness, a 
maximum of 70 ft. being attained in places. There are very 
few faults, and the inclination of the seam is very moderate. 
The method of working is by bord-and-pillar, but no pillars 
are extracted, as the coal underlies water-logged strata, and 
portions of the workings are under the Waikato River and 
adjacent lakes. A large thickness of roof-coal is also left for 
the protection of the mine-workings. At two of the pits th'? 
ooal is raised through vertical shafts, and at the third an 
incline tunnel connects the workings with the surface. 
Mechanical screening is adopted in the preparation of the 
coal for market, and the mines are ventilated by fans. 

Operations for the opening of a new colliery have recently 
been commenced near Lake Waahi. There are also large tracts 
of undeveloped brown -coal areas between Huntly, Raglan, and 


The Mokau Coalfield has not as yet been developed to any 
extent. One small mine is at work several miles up the 
Mokau River, but the difficulties of transport due to the 
shallowness of the river are such that only boats of small 
tonnage can be employed for the conveyance of coal from the 

The coal-mining industry of New Zealand is steadily 
growing year by year, and has already become a very im- 
portant factor in the progress and welfare of the colony. 


By Robert Tbkment, Inspector of Mines. 

Takaka and Colliii^wo<»dl 

CoAL-MiNiNG may be regarded as an institution founded in 
the early history of CoUingwood. In the first working, coal 
for local purposes was mined for several years on the elevated 
terraces behind the Township of Ferntown, but owing to 
local conditions operations were finally abandoned some years 
previous to 1897. To meet the requirements of Collingwood 
and suburban districts, Mr. Caldwell opened a new coalfield 
at Pakawau, the seam here maintaining an average thick- 
ness of 3 ft., parted with a middle band of stone 10 in. in 
thickness. Hampered, however, by the thinness of the seam, 
and the very primitive system of transit and shipping, 
mining here was suspended as being non-paying. In 1900, 
and under the ownership of young Mr. Caldwell, a new mine 
was opened, and fitted with t^creening and washing appliances, 
while transit and shipping facilities rtrceived more approved 
attention. Again, in 1903, Mr. Pilcher, of Wellington, 
having acquired the mining titles, reopened the mine, and 
continues to carry on operations on a small scale. 

The Golden Bay Coal Company has reopened its pro- 
perty for the purpose of cojil-mining and the manufacture of 


Portland oement. In connection with the development of the 
property, a ooal-seam 5 ft. in thickness has been opened by a 
dip heading, and lime-kilns constructed, the limestones in 
this region being abundant, and possessing superior quali> 
ties for building purposes. 

Tht Pupanga Coalfield^ situated near the head of Goldea 
Bay, was leased and registered in 1903, under the title of 
*'The Puponga Coal and Gold Mining Company (Limited)/* 
Mr. Sydney George Hayward, of Nelson, being resident 
attorney for the company. The coalfield is opened from the 
outcrop by a dip inclined heading, on an average gradient of* 
1 in 4, to a total distance o£ 20 chains, the seam maintaining* 
an average quality and thickness, especially as operations pro- 
ceed eastward. The underground haulage is actuated by 
steam-power, while the screening and washing installations 
consist of modern and approved appliances. Mine- ventila- 
tion is also controlled by a steam-driven fan of the colonial 
type. To connect the colliery with the shipping-basin a mile 
and a half of 2 ft. gauge tramway was constructed suitable 
for light locomotive traffic, while the jetty extension on same 
line of rail gives an additional 39 chains of haulage. Since 
the initiation of the company a gross tonnage of 37,979 tons 
of marketable coal has been produced for conmiercial pur- 
poses. The coal-seam is highly bituminous, and commands a 
ready market for household and steaming purposes. Shallow- 
ness of water in the loading-basin is a chief drawback. 

West Wanganui. 

In the West Wanganui mining district two seams of browD 
coal occur on the Patarau River, holding a thickness of 12 ft. 
and 6 ft. respectively. These seams are of average qualfty,. 
but beyond exposing the outcrops nothing further has been* 
done. At Pa Point, on the western entrance to the inlet, a 
ccal-seam, 4 ft. in thickness, was worked by a Wellington 
syndicate about twenty years ago, but owing to shipping and 
other incidental difficulties the company surrendered it& 
rights to the Taitapu Gold Estates (Limited). Extending^ 
south of the Patarau the coal becomes more or less patchy,. 


especially on the low-bill country located between the Patarau 
flats and Lake Otuhie. In the locality of the Golden Ridge the 
miners use a 3 ft. seam as a household fuel, and on Malone's 
Creek the Golden Blocks Gold-mining Company mine a 4 ft. 
seam for steaming purposes at its crushing plant. Coming 
to the eastern bank of the inlet, coal of average quality has 
been examined and reported on on behalf of an Otago syndi- 

VMtport District. 
Denniston Mines. — The Westport Coal C<Niipany was regis- 
tered in 1881, with a capital of 80,000 shares at £b eadi, 
to acquire for a term of ninety-one years all mining rights, 
titles, and interests of two Crown leases, named Coalbrookdale 
and Granity Creek respectively. The Coalbrookdale lease, 
eomprising 2,480 acres, extends from the head of the Wharea- 
tea Creek to some distance north of the Waimangaroa River, 
and is exploited by the Coalbrookdale and Ironbridge Mines, 
^hich produce an average output of 1,050 tons per day of 
eight hours, whilst the gross tonnage raised during the history 
of the mines is approximately 4,167,605 tons. In the matter 
of natural conditions, coal-mining on the Buller Coalfield h 
somewhat unique compared with ma ay parts of the world, as 
the mining and general operations connected therewith are 
conducted at altitudes ranging between 1,800 ft. and 2,000 ft, 
above sea- level. Hence, as a natural bequence of the field, the 
continuity of these elevated t-eams is much broken and inter- 
sected by deep ravines, while uniformity of inclination is 
varied by the influences effected by Nature's potent agency 
i»i bygone ages. Consequently, to maintain production at a 
Batisfnctory commercial standard, the exploitation of these 
ooal-seams demands development of an expensive and excep- 
tional character, and, as a leading factor in the working 
economics, considerable engineering skill. But this enter- 
prise and skill have had their reward, as shown by the fact 
that these highly bituminous seams of superior-quality coal 
eivsily command a sleady and reliable market. Speaking 
generally, the coal-seams vary in thickness from a few feet 
to 40 ft., and are economically worked on the bord-and-piUar 


system, the working and natural conditions being favourable 
to win the coal either by hand - labour or coal - cutting 
machinery. Compressed aid being the power applied to 
actuate coal-cutting machines and all other underground 
mechanical appliances, each mine has a separate installation, 
suitably erected on the surface. 

Drainage of the mines is effected by deep-level adits, 
specially determined, and driven from daylight points in the 
deep gorges to the lowest main levels in the mine-workings. 
Thus heavy and expensive pumping is set aside for the more 
favourable advantages of free drainage by adits. To effect 
free drainage in the Ironbridge Mine an adit was driven 
30 chains in length, of which 28 chains are rock-driven ; area, 
6 ft. by 6 ft. Tliis system of drainage is positively essential 
during the extraction of pillars, as the thin overlying strata, 
which is much intersected by deep gullies and creeks, freely 
admits considerable quantities of water through the broken 
ground during heavy rainfalls; but, as these water-drives 
have ample capacity to drain off immense volumes of water, 
the total exhaustion of large pillar areas is effected without 
obstruction or loss of coal, which would otherwise be im- 
practicable to win. 

These mines are classed as non-gassy; but, the importance 
of ventilation having been duly considered, efficiency is amply 
maintained by three steam-driven exhaust-fans, capable of 
inducing continuous air-currents at an aggregate measure- 
ment of 200,000 cubic feet per minute. 

Haulage and other machinery are largely and economically 
employed, while the steam-boiler equipment connected there- 
with has an aggregate total of l,300-hor8e power. It may be 
worth noting that the total length o! steel-wire rope in daily 
operation, including that used on jigs, direct and endless rope 
haulage, inclines, &c., is 12J miles, as follows: 70 chains of 
4 in., 808 chains of 3^ in., and 142 chains of 2 in. rope. 

To connect the mines with the screening and loading plant 
at Denniston, the main surface tram-line, equipped with end- 
less-rope haulage, extends from the brake-head terminal to 
the junction known as "AVooden Bridge," a distance of a 


mile and a half. At this junction the subsidiary endless- 
rope haulage delivers the ooal from the respective mines — that 
of Coalbrookdale Mine a mile and three-quarters in lengdi, 
and that of Ironbridge 1 mile 14 chains. The roads are laid 
with steel rails, 30 lb. to the vard, to a gauge of 2 ft., and tlie 
mine-tubs, with a capacity of 12cwt., are attached by chain 
clips to the rope running underneath the tube. The main 
haulage-rope referred to can readily deliver loaded tuba at the 
screens at the rate of eighteen score per hour, on gradients 
varying in parts from 1 in 5'75, 1 in 8, and 1 in 10, with 
over half a mile practically level. 

The ooal is loaded at the screens into Crovernment wagons, 
which are brought from the sidings at Conn's Creek Station, 
and thereto returned by an inclined railway laid down the 
mountain-spurs. This inclined mining railway is doubtless 
one of the steepest in the world, having a maximum grade of 
1 in r34, and a ruling grade of 1 in 2*25, with a total length 
of 85 chains. The incline is operated on in two sections, 
known as the upper incline, 35 chains in length, and the lower 
or second section, 50 chains, each section having distinct con- 
trolling-power. The motive power is obtained by the weight 
of the full wagon against the empty one. These wagons have 
A carrying-capacity of 8 tons, with an approximate tare of 
4 J tons. Patent plough-steel wire ropes of 4 in. are used on 
the upper and steeper incline, and 3 J in. ropes of a similar 
quality on the lower incline. The lowering and raising of the 
wagons is controlled by hydraulic-brake power, a separate 
plant being at the brow of each section. The cylinders of the 
hydraulic brakes are 12 in. diameter and 4 ft. stroke, wfth 
suitable by-pass valves, &c. The rope-drums are 9 ft. and 
10 ft. diameter respectively. Both sections run concurrently; 
therefore, when an empty wagon is being delivered at Dennis- 
ton a full wagon is arriving at Conn's Creek, at which 
terminal the requisite trains of coal are made up for haulage 
by Government locomotives to the port of shipment. This 
system works very effectively, as an average of 120 tons of 
coal per hour can be lowered to Conn's Creek terminal. 

At Denniston bin storage-capacity is provided for some 


2,800 tons of coal. These bins are fitted with shaker screens, 
which operate in connection with steel-plate travelling picking- 
belts that run longitudinally with the bin. These belts are 
fitted with automatic tippers, and can thereby be regulated 
to deliver the coal into any desired part. Steel-plate con- 
veyers, running the whole length of the bin, underneath each 
row of openings, are operated to load the coal into the railway- 
wagons. The doors of these openings are opened and shut 
by hydraulic power. The necessary engineering, black- 
smithing, and carpentering workshops are established. 

The whole of the works are lighted by electricity, as also the 
inclines, which are often in operation before and after daylight. 
An up-to-date workmen's club-house at Denniston, erected 
and subsidised by the company, embodies a splendid library, 
lecture-room, billiard-room, games-room, &c. This building 
is well equipped to meet requirements. 

The Millerion CoUieries, owned by the Westport Coal Com- 
pany (Limited), are situated on an elevated plateau, eighteen 
miles north from the town and port of Westport, and about 
seven miles north, as the crow flies, from the Denniston 
collieries. The area held under Crown lease for coal-mining 
purposes (known as Granity Creek) comprises 3,026 acres, 
whilst the gross tonnage raised to date is 1,878,000 tons. Re- 
ferring to geological data of the Duller Coalfield, the coal-seam 
worked in the Granity Creek, or Millerton, lease is scientific- 
ally confirmed to be the continuation of the Coalbrookdale 
area, extending northward in one unbroken series from the 
southern boundary at the head of the Whareatea Creek. With 
respect to quality and heating properties of these highly bitu- 
minous coal-seams, comment shall noit form part of tjiis 
paper, as their calorific values for conmiercial and maritime 
purposes are facts in their economy too widely known over the 
Australasian Colonies. The following gives the average 
naly tical test : — p^r Cent. 

Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . 7483 

Volatile matter .. .. 20*50 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. 3-51 

Moisture . . : . 1*16 



In compaviug the altitudinal position of the coal-seam 
above Bea-level, and the rugged and deeply intersected surface- 
characteristics of the Millerton lease with Coalbrookdale, it 
may be stated that development has entailed exceptional ex- 
penditure in the construction of heavily inclined tramways, 
efficiently equipped for endless-rope haulage. This system of 
haulage is universally installed over the field, with carrying- 
capacities capable of maintaining an average output of 
1,000 tons per day of eight hours, on gradients which vary 
from 1 in 2*7 to 1 in 3 and 1 in 15. The tram-lines, covering 
an aggregate total length of two miles and a half, comprise 
52 chains of rock-tunnelling, and employ five miles of patent 
plough-steel rope 4^ in. and 3^ in. circumference. Hydraulic 
brakes are separately installed to control the motion. 

In connection with the haulage and mining operations, 
one of the chief economics of this property lies in the fact 
that the coal is filled by the miner at the working-face, is 
conveyed over the various i^iyKteins of haulage to the screening 
plant, and loads direct into the Government railway-wagons 
on the siding at Granity Station, Granity being the acknow- 
ledged headquarters of the colliery offices and general work- 
shops for fitting and effecting repairs to the mining plant. 

The leasehold so far developed is divided into three main 
working districts, known as the " East Dip," " Mine Creek," 
and ** New Tunnel " areas. The latter, or western, division 
of the coalfield was recently opened by an inclined tramway, 
equipped with endless-rope haulage, branching on a southerl? 
course from the intersection of Nos. 1 and 2 inclines, con- 
struction of which comprised 18 chains of rock-tunnelling, 
11 ft. by 7 ft., on a gradient of 1 in 5. Strike and thickness 
of coal-seam are somewhat variable — thickness 6 ft. to 35 ft., 
lying on a natural trend of 1 in 8 north-easterly, this ratio 
of inclination being considered a favourable working-condi- 
tion both for coal-hewing by hand-labour and coal-cutting 
machinery. Computing the extent of seam operated on, both 
by solid and exhausted pillars, the total does not exceed 
222 acres, of which the greater part is yet standing on pillars; 
therefore, the life of the mine is a consideration worth noting. 


Bord-and-pillar is the system worked, but, in order to pro- 
vide more effective and improved precautions against the possi- 
bilities of spontaneous combustion, the panel system was lately 
introduced into the Mine Creek area. The principle claimed 
for this system is that affected districts are more easily cut off 
with a minimum of danger. Holing and cutting machinery, 
actuated by compressed air, are largely and successfully em- 
ployed in the solid work, round coal maintaining an average 
percentage equivalent to that produced by hand-labour. The 
holing-machines in use are of the percussive type (made by 
Leyner, of Denver, Colorado), and the shearing-machines, 
Siskol (late Champion). Free drainage is amply provided 
by rock adit, 1,260 ft. in length, and ventilation is efficiently 
maintained by two steam-driven exhaust-fans, which induce 
an aggregate air-current of 150,000 cubic feet per minute. 
The power-stations, ftted for generating steam, compressed 
air^ and electricity, are separately and suitably installed on 
the surface, electricity being freely used in lighting the more 
important centres of underground haulage traffic. 

The tjtorage-bins, of 3,000 tons capacity, are fitted with 
the latest screening and sorting appliances, including jiggers 
and picking-belts; and the slide doors in use for freeing the 
coal into the railway-wagons are controlled by hydraulic rams, 
operated under a head pressure of 600 ft., hydraulic power 
being used to operate all screening-appliances, workshop tools, 
electrical plant, Ac. 

The Westport'Stoekton Coal Company (Limited), (G. H. 
Broome, mining manager), was incorporated under " The 
Companies Act, 1903," on the 3rd August, 1905, with a 
capital of £150,000, in 300,000 shares of 10s. each, to acquire 
and work a Crown lease of 1,577 acres, situated in the Nga- 
kawau Basin of the BuUer Coalfields Reserve, Westport, and 
adjoining the Granity Creek lease, owned by the Westport 
Coal Company. The area is conveniently situated for con- 
nection with the Government railway (Westport-Mokihinui), 
with which the company proposes to connect the workings bv 
a series of inclined tram-lines suitable for endless-rope and 
electrical-motor haulage. Development is now in active pro- 


gress, and the manager is sanguine that, with the adyauUge 
gained by his previous knowledge of the coalfield, ererj efioit 
necessary to command and maintain a commercial and 
economical system of working will be advanced. Meantime, 
drivings are being extended on several outcrops to develop and 
improve the field, and it is pleasing to note that thickness, 
quality of seam, and general working-coaditions give decided 
promise of a successful venture. Ventilation is very efficient!} 
maintained in the various drives by exhaust-fans, actuateti 
by means of oil-engines. 

Reafton Coal-mines. 

Coal-mining in the Reefton district seems to attain no 
higher sphere in coumiercial circles than ordinary household 
consumption, while the small coal is utilised for steaming 
purposes at the Golden Fleece crushing-battery and the Keep 
it-Dark winding-engine. The seams worked at the Murray 
Creek, Phoenix, and Lankey's Gully mines maintain a thick 
ness of 10 ft. to 20 ft., and their highly bituminous qualitie5 
not only procure a ready sale for local use, but considerable 
consignments find their way by rail to Eumara and Hokitika. 
The total output raised from these mines to the 31st Decem- 
ber, 1905, was 49,121 tons, and for the whole district 98,585 
tons. The coal is sold in the town at £1 2s. per ton, and the 
same price is obtained for consignments on the railway- 
wagons at Reefton Station. A small mine was recently openel 
ill the township reserve, but development so far is not im- 

Boatman's and Bourke's Creek Mines, near Beefton.— 
Coal-mining at Boatman's is confined to two smaU mines 
owned and worked by Mr. F. W. Archer and Mr. John 
Coghlan on their freeholds. The seam, having a similar 
quality and thickness to the Murray Creek mines, is cartd 
and sold in Reefton at local rates, the smaU coal being largely 
used for steaming on the Boatman's Creek dredges. Needkss 
to say, these dredges have been a considerable boon to the dis 
trict. Bourke's Creek Mine (owned by Messrs. Cairns and 
McLiver) has been worked at a very low ebb during the last 


two years, but on the opposit^e side of the terrace Mr. Locking- 
ton (sawmiller) has recently opened and fitted a very complete 
mining plant. On the north bank of the Waitahu River Mr. 
James Scarlett, of Reef ton, has opened a mine, the coal being 
freely sold in town. 

Progress Mines take their coal-supplies for steaming pur- 
poses at the Globe quartz-mine from their own leasehold on the 
Merrijigs Road. The coal is carted to a shoot, thence trucked 
to the main shaft, and hoisted to the surface. On the adjoin- 
ing leasehold about 300 tons a year is mined by Mr. Stephen 
Loughnan, and delivered for household fuel in R^fton. 

Bnller Road Coal-mines. 

During the dredging boom Mr. George Walker, of Rock- 
lands House, reopened the old Coal Creek Mine, but suspended 
operations owing to the failure of dredging on the Buller 

Mr. Job Lines, of White Cliffs, continues to take coal from 
his lease on the Buller Road for the supply of the Old Diggings 
and Buller Junction dredges. 

Mr. Stefano de Filippi, Three-channel Flat, has been 
somewhat successful with his mine in the supply of steam-coal 
to the Mokoia and New Feddersen dredges. The coal is soft^ 
but very useful for steaming. 

Coal-mining in Paparoa Range. 

The Paparoa Coal-mining Company (Limited) was filed 
with the Registrar of Joint-stock Companies, Wellington, on 
the 22nd December, 1905, with a capital of 100,000 shares of 
£1 each, to acquire for a term of sixty-six years a Crown 
leasehold of 1,000 acres, situated on Mount Davy, Paparoa 
Range, at an altitude of 1,500 ft. above sea-level, and about 
two miles and a half north from the Township of Blackball. 
The field comprises six seams, with average thicknesses of 5 ft., 
10 ft., and 10 ft. 6 in., making a total of 63 ft. of coal. The 
quality of the coal is somewhat remarkable, and, according to 
the following analysis by the Government Analyst, Nos. 1 
and 2 seams may be classed amongst the anthracite coals,. 


whilst the other seams compare equally with the West Coast 
coalfiefds: — 

Seam Seam Seam Seam Seam 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 5. No. ft. 

Per Geat. Per Cent. Per Gent. Per Gent. Per Gent 

Fixed carboa 
Water ... 



























100 00 



Total solphur 






adopted ia 

Ditto in New 
Wales ... 






The coals of the lower seams (Nos. 1, 2, and 3) are 
practically smokeless, and should be eminently suitable for 
use in ocean-going steamers generally. The area can be 
opened level-free, and the coal conveyed by means of a self- 
acting haulage-road, about two miles in length (at a fairly 
easy gradient), to the new branch of the Government railway 
now under construction from Ngahere to Blackball. 

Brunnerton Coal-mines. 

Although the history of coal-mining in the West Coast 
Mining District may reasonably be said to have taken its 
origin in the Brunner Coalfield about the year 1870, it is 
nevertheless a fact that, although the Tyneside Colliery is still 
in active and successful operation, Wallsend, Coalpit Heath, 
and Brunner Mines are now institutions which belong to the 
past. The approximate tonnage raised from the Brunnerton 
district gives an aggregate total of 3,070,516 tons. 

The Brunner Mine, situated about eight miles north- 
easterly from the Port of Greymouth, was originally opened 
by Matthew Batty and party in 1870, on the outcrop first dis- 
covered by Mr. Brunner, on the north side of the Grey River. 


This party having failed to develop and work the mine to pro- 
fitable advantage, it was afterwards taken over by a Ballarat 
syndicate, who also failed to comply with the conditions of 
the lease, when, after a series of varied and unsuccessful 
operations under the Provincial Government, Messrs. Kennedy 
Bros., then of Greymouth, acquired possession of the pro- 
perty. On this change of ownership the commercial and pro- 
ductive capacities of the mine soon attained a more hopeful 
aspect, and on the appointment of Mr. James Bishop as 
general manager the output acquired a first place in the 
colony. Wliilst this flow of prosperity continued the whole 
of the properties were amalgamated, under the title of the 
'* Grey Valley Coal Company," in 1890, in which year Walls- 
end Mine was declared abandoned, and all movable plant was 
withdrawn during the maritime strike. On resuming opera- 
tions after this ruinous strike free labour was largely em- 
ployed, and it was a noticeable feature, as regards the welfare 
and prosperity of the district, that the former vitality was 
fast ebbing out. Ownership was again changed, the title of 
the new lessees being the " Greymouth- Point Elizabeth Rail- 
way and Coal Company," who purchased and acquired posses- 
sion of the mining, coke, and brickmaking plants in the year 
previous to the memorable accident in March, 1896, this com- 
pany still continuing in full possession of the property. 

Tynende Colliery, which now stands directly behind the 
Brunner Railway-station, was opened by a Greymouth syndi- 
cate in the year 1873 by a winding-shaft 98 ft. in depth, with 
a finished diameter of 10 ft., suitable for two single-decked 
winding-cages, whilst the adit on the south bank of the Grey 
River provides a suitable travelling-way for the workmen and 
an efl&cient intake for ventilation. During the early history 
of the mine it would appear that success had not favoured 
the efforts of the original promoters, as operations were finally 
abandoned. About 1888 Mr. Joseph Kilgour, of Greymouth, 
reopened the mine, but after a short season of favourable pro- 
mise he entered into a purchase agreement with the Grey 
Valley Coal Company, who shortly afterwards abandoned the 
property and withdrew all movable plant. Nothing furtEer 


was done on the property until the Tynesido Coal Company 
(a local concern) opened and unwatered the mine in June, 
1902. This advent was followed by a short season of soooess, 
when the mine was again taken over by the Tyneside Pro- 
prietary in 1903. During the history of this proprietary 
mining operations have been very successful, and in 1905 the 
gross tonnage raised was 44,047 tons. The surface arrange- 
ments are well equipped with modern appliances for cleaning 
and sorting the coal. Ventilation is efficiently maintained by 
exhaust-fan, and the underground workings are safely and well 
regulated throughout, while the highly bituminous character 
of the seam, from 10 ft. to 12ft. in thickness, commands a 
ready market for general commercial and steaming purposes. 

Fleming's Lease, Stillwater, — In 1904 a coal lease was 
issued in favour of Mr. Malcolm Fleming over 232 acres 
3 roods 15 perches in the Arnold Survey District for a term 
of sixty-six years, on the terms that the sum of ^500 be lodged 
with the Public Trustee as a guarantee that the conditions of 
the lease be complied with. The lease is now opened by a rock 
tunnel, 6 ft. by 5 ft., which intersects tho coal-seam at a driven 
distance of 600 ft. The seam is soft, thickness variable, and 
the dip has a steep angle of inclination. 


By £. R. Green, Inspector of Mines. 

The principal mine in the province is the H<»nebu8h Mine, 
in the estate of the late Mr. John Deans, at Glentunnel, South 
Malvern district. These mines were started in the year 1873, 
and have been worked continuously since that date, prin- 
cipally in winning coal to rise of main levels, which were 
extended 42 chains west, all in coal; headings and bords 
driven, and pillars brought back successfully. It is estimated 




o . 

9 H 







that over 85 per cent, of coal available has been mm from the 
pillared area. Extensive development to the dip of main 
levels has proved continuation of the seam in that direction. 
Steam plant for dip haulage has been erected, and, the lower 
workings being comparatively dry, pumping plant is not yet 
required. Main seam, 6ft. to 7ft. in thickness; furnace 
ventilation. A seam of fireclay occurs on the property, and 
is mined for manufacture into bricks, sanitary glazed pipes, 
and other ware at the extensive pottery- works in connection 
with the mine. Mr. Deans having sent a working-sample of 
•the clay to a firm of manufacturers in Liverpool, received a 
report that '' for taking salt glaze the clay was as good as any 
of its class they had seen, and they only wished that they had a 
similar clay on their own premises.'' 

Other mines in the Malvern district are those at White 
Cliffs and Springfield, the latter being chiefly worked in 
conjunction with the fireclay-deposits underlying the coal- 
seams, the clay being sent by rail to Christchurch for manu- 
facture there. At Springfield, and at Sheffield, too, the coal- 
seams are now practically exhausted in regard to coal to rise 
or outcrop, and the same may be said of other coal-bearing 
localities, as at White Cliffs, ^c, and expenditure upon 
haulage and pumping plants will require to be undertaken 
if coal at depth is to be won. The mines at Woolshed Creek 
and Mount Somers work "tteadily with a limited number of 
men, but are heavily handicapped by lack of branch railway 
communication ; the Selwyn County narrow-gauge horse-tram- 
way, nine miles in length, as laid from Mount Somers Rail- 
way-station to the mines termini, provides slow traction, and 
an extra handling of coal by crane at the station adds to cost 
on railway-trucks. 

At Waiho several small mines are conducted with more or 
less vigour, mainly in accordance with local requirements, the 
mine on Chamberlain Settlement, Albury, being somewhat 
similarly situated. 

In addition to the mines mentioned, a number of other 
deposits are known to occur; some of them, being far back, 
are worked as required for local use. 


Coal io Canterbury is principally found in the Tertiary 
deposits of the foothills lying between the plains and the 
eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, in area extending from 
Waimakariri River on the north to Waitaki Riyer on the 
south, quality ranging from superior to medium brown coal. 
At Acheron, Rakaia Gorge, and at Brockley, South Malvern, 
are seams of anthracite coal, altered by proximity of dolerite- 
flows. Tiiese seams are not being worked on account of inac- 
cessibility and distance from nearest point of railway — the 
terminus of the Christchurch - White Cliffs Branch, at White 
Cliffs. A considerable amount of prospecting for coal in con-' 
venient localities has from time to time been undertaken, 
notably at Springfield, by the Springfield Coal Company and 
others, also at Hartley and South Malvern, Makikihi, Stavely, 
Springburn, and at Mount Winterslow, where an Ashburton 
resident recently spent a considerable sum of money in search- 
ing for a seam of bituminous coal supposed to exist there. 

Complete statistics and detailed reports on all the mines 
are published annually by the Mines Department in ** Papers 
and Reports relating to Minerals and Mining,*' according to 
which 25,638 tons of coal were raised during the year 1905, 
making a total of 458,132 tons produced in the province. 

The valuable deposits of fireclay at Homebush and Spring- 
field Mines also occur in the coal-measures, and are being 
worked at Sheffield, whence the clay is being taken to Christ- 
church for use, and at White Cliffs, where it is being converted 
in the extensive local pottery- works. 617 tons of fireclay were 
raised for use in Canterbury during the year 1905. 

A deposit of kaolin, at Eakahu, is said to have been favour- 
ably reported on by expert pottery-makers. 

Lime-burning is carried on at Selwyn Gorge, Mount 
Somers, and at Springburn, Stavely, at which latter place coal 
is mined exclusively for this purpose. 



By £. B. Gaeen, Inspector of Mines. 

These proyincial districts are fortunate in the number of 
existing local coal-deposits, varying in extent or area, and 
ranging in value from lignite to brown-ooal and pitch-coal of 
superior quality. From an economic point of view, in rela- 
tion to the various centres of population, also outlying dis- 
tricts, the value of the proximity of these extensive beds cannot 
be overestimated. They may also be expected to become im- 
portant factors in the event of their being found suitable for 
use in connection with producer-gas power plants. 

Peat-beds occur occasionally, as in Waipahi Valley and 
other places, also on tops of high mountain-ranges, many of 
which carry large areas of peat-bog. 

Lignite occurs plentifully as fluviatile or lacustrine de- 
posits, mainly following the valleys and terrace formations of 
the Clutha and Mataura River systems and tributaries thereto. 
One of the most extensive deposits is that at Gore and sur- 
rounding districts, extending to Mataura and Wyndham, 
thence by way of Seaward Forest to Clifton, at South Inver- 
cargill, a distance of about fifty miles in length by one mile 
ftnd over in breadth. Generally, the lignites occur near the 
surface, and are overlaid by gravels and clays 5 ft. to 10 ft. in 
depth. Seams vary from 6 ft. and upwards to 20 ft. and 
over in thickness. At Alexandra the seam is 28 ft. ; at Clyde, 
two seams aggregate 80 ft. ; and at Coal Creek, Roxburgh, 
one seam as exposed is 100 ft. or more in thickness. In or 
near river-courses and in low-lying situations the lignite-beds 
are usually found horizontal in deposition, and in terrace 
formations with a slight dip from the outcrop. 

Large deposits of pitch and brown coals occur at SKag 
Point, Eaitangata, Nightcaps, Green Island, Tokomairiro, 
Taratu, and Orepuki, and in lesser degree at Lovell's Flat, 
Papakaio, Gibbston, Nevis, Cardrona, Bannockburn, and 
other places. 


Shales of low specific gravity, found associated with lignite- 
deposits at Idabarn and Waikaia, are used as fuel. At Ore- 
puki a seam of oil-shale, 4 ft. in thickness, immediately OTer- 
lies the coal-seam there. Extensire works erected for reduc- 
tion of this mineral hare been closed down for some time. 

Clvtha Coalfield* 

Kaitangata and Castle liill Mines. — The principal mines 
in the southern district, not only by reason of the extent of 
this coalfield, but also on account of their being the largest in 
operation, are tho Kaitangata and Castle Hill Mines, the pro- 
perty of the New Zealand Coal and Oil Company (Limited). 
About 120,000 tons of coal are raised annually; seams worked 
are main seam, 35 ft., and 18 ft., the latter occasionally 
** split " into 12 ft. and 6 ft. seams, having partings between 
of variable thickness. Main cross-measures drive east is at 
3,300ft. from surface to working-face; main lines of fault, 
having a general north and south strike, downthrow east, have 
been successfully encountered. The measures, which formerly 
had a heavy westerly dip, are found flattening gradually to the 
anticline of the seaward range of hills forming the central 
axis of the field. The mines are equipped with efficient 
haulage and pumping plants, air-compressors, loading-banks, 
and screens (electrically lighted), and suitable machinery for 
conducting the works. Kaitangata Mine is ventilated by an 
electrically driven fan and Castle Hill Mine by furnace, while 
main haulage-roads of latter mine are lighted electrically, and 
furnished with telephonic connection from the surface. 
Both mines are reticulated with systems of compressed-air and 
water pipes, the former for transmission of power to dip- 
haulage winches and pumps, while water is laid on for sup- 
pression of spontaneous fires, to which the coal is particularly 
liable under certain well-known conditions, as pillar-crush, 
accumulations of dross, falls of coal and stone with clay, kc. 
Recent improvements at Kaitangata Mine include a new up- 
cast air-shaft, which is being sunk abreast of the main body 
of advancing workings. The collieries are connected by pri- 
vate branch lines with the Main Trunk Railway at Stirling 


Shatf Point Coalfield. 

Under-aea and foreshore workings having been abandoned, 
the Allandale Colliery has beoomo the principal producer of 
coal from this field. Development- work to the dip of the 
measures having resulted favourably, the management in- 
stalled an electric plant for dip haulage and pumping, also for 
main-level haulage underground, while the ventilating-fan is 
also electrically driven. A new motor, 100-horse power, is on 
order to provide for additional power as required for advanc- 
ing workings. Coal is conveyed from the colliery on the 
company's private branch line, which connects with the main 
line of railway at Bushey Station. 

Green Island Ck>alfield. 

This coalfield includes Abbotsford, Saddle Hill, &c. 
About 70,000 tons per annum continue to be raised from {his 
field for consumption in Dunedin City and surrounding dis- 
tricts, and from indications there should be no diminution of 
the rate of output for some years to come. The several 
collieries forming the group are being vigorously conducted. 
Coal-seams vary from 12 ft. to 20ft. in thickness; method of 
working, bord and pillar, with subsequent robbing of pillars 
and head coal. Two branch lines of railway afford communi- 
cation with the main line at Abbotsford and Burnside Railway- 
stations respectively. 

Nightcaps Coalfield. 

The Nightcaps Coal Company's mine is the principal one 
on this field, having an annual output of about 43,000 tons. 
Three seams are being wdrked, aggregating 36 ft. of good 
ooal,- separated by two partings of hard clay or "bat." On 
the outcrop of the seams coal is stripped and worked opencast. 
Underground, levels and dips driven to the boundaries are 
being brought back on pillars and head ooal, with a high per- 
centage of coal won in pillared areas. EfBcient haulage plant 
and appliances, loading-bank, and screens are provided. An 
acetylene-gas plant has been installed for lighting the surface 


works, railway-station, and yard. Coal is conyeyed on the 
company's private line, some two miles and a half, to Wairio 

Other Coalfields. 

Other mines in Otago having considerable outputs are the 
Taratu Coal Company, Lovell's Flat, Bruce Railway and Coal 
Company, and Real Mackay, Milton, each having private 
branch lines of railway from collieries to main lines. 

In Central Otago the chief mining centres are Alexandra, 
Clyde, Bannockburn, and Roxburgh; while in Southland, in 
addition to Nightcaps, the principal workings are at Gore, 
Mataura, Waikaka, and Waikaia. 

Output from Goal -mines, Sonthem Mining Diatrlot. 

The following table shows the output of coal from the prin- 
cipal mines in the southern district for the year 1905 and 
to the end of that year ; also total output from all the mines 
in the district to end of year 1905 : — 




Tota Oufpntto 
Slat Dec, 1904. 

Total Output to 
Slat Dec., 1905. 




Eaitangata collieries 
Shag Point collieries 
Green Island collieries 
Nightcaps collieries 










The following is the output from all mines, 
above : — 

including the 




Total Output to 
Slat D*o., 1904. 

Total Oucpiit to 
Slat Dee., 1905. 














* Includes 14,422 tons of oil-ahale raised at Orepuki. 


Other Mineral8-1905. 

Fireclay. — At Benhar and Lovell's Flat, 1,800 tons of fire- 
clay was raised, and converted into sanitary pipes and other 
glazed ware during the year 1905. 

Building-sand, — 14,4.84 tons of sand was produced at 
Green Island Coalfield for use in Duncdin and district. 

Marl (Burnside). — Eight hundred tons was utilised by the 
Milburn Lime and Cement Company at its cement-works, 

Lime (Canterbury and Otago). — 12,260 Ions has been re- 
turned as having been disposed of during the year. (Output 
from one or two small kilns not included.) 

Phosphate Rock, — Five thousand tons of rock was re- 
covered from the field at Clarendon, and after being calcined 
on the ground was forwarded to the chemical works for treat- 
ment and conversion into artificial manures. 

Ilcematite. — Fifty-six tons was raised at Mataura for use 
by the paper-mills at their works at Mataura Falls, South- 


Point Elizabeth State Colliery. 

By J. Bishop, M.I.M.E., Manager Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine. 


The history of State mining within the colony dates from the 
passing of the State Coal-mines Act in tho parliamentary 
session of 1901, whereby the Government was authorised to 
embark in coal-mining under the direct control of the Minis- 
ter of Mines, who by the Act is empowered to open and work 
ooaUmines, and generally to carry on the business of coal- 
mining in all its branches; and under the Act the Govern- 
ment has power to make reserves of such land as may be found 
necessary for State ooal-mining purposes. 


The west coast of the Middle Island being, so far as is 
known, the only part of the colony capable of producing eoai 
of a quality suitable for the varying requirements of the 
colony's manufactures, the propulsion of steamships, and for 
use as locomotive-fuel, the first mines under the State owner- 
ship and control have been opened in that region. 

The colliery, of which the following notes give a brief out- 
line, is situated five miles north from the town and port of 
Greymouth, and approximately two miles east from that point 
of the sea-coast known as Point Elizabeth. Hence the name 
given to the colliery. 

Area of Rbservbb. 

The area of land at present reserved for the purposes of 
this or any other State mine which it may be found desirable 
to open in the same region is approximately 8,000 acres, being 
a portion of what is designated the Grey Coalfield. The ares 
may be said to be divided into three blocks — viz., £be North, 
Central, and South Blocks. 

Geology and Topographical Features. — The coal-seams of 
the region are probably of Eocene age. The strata over- 
lying and otherwise associated with the coal-seams are shelly 
limestones, marls, soft sandstones, coaly shales, and grit. 
The surface of the country is strikingly uneven, and varies 
in elevation from a few feet to as much as 2,000 ft. above ses- 
level. The lower elevations are covered by a dense forest of 
valuable timber, suitable for use in the construction of per- 
manent surface works necessary in connection with coal- 
mines. There is also abundance of suitable timber for use iu 
the underground workings of the colliery. The country is 
traversed by a number of important creeks, some of which — 
notably the Waematuku or Seven - mile Creek — have, bv 
erosion, cut their channels through practically the whole of 
the coal-measures, thus exposing the coal-seams in a splendid 
natural section, and enabling the position and character of 
most of them to be ascertained with comparative ease. The 
section just referred to shows the existence of at least twenty- 
one distinct layers or seams of coal, totalling a thickness of 


44 ft. Of the twenty-one seams at least four are workable, 
these varying in thickness from 2 ft. 6 in. to 10 ft. 

Lines of Faulting,— ^Denudation and erosion have not only 
exposed the coal-seams, but have enabled the lines of faults — 
of which there are several traversing the district — to be ascer- 
tained with a very close approximation to correctness prior 
to mining being started, thus preventing the disappointments 
which often arise from the laying-out of works that after- 
wards prove unsuitable in consequence of a fault or faults 
which could not be located by surface exploration. 

Inclination of the Seams, — The coal-measures here are, 
like most of the other portions of the Grey Coalfield, found 
to have an angle of inclination varying from 1 in 3 to 1 in 5, 
or approximately 12^^^ the dip being to the south-west. 

Colliery 'develojmient. — The necessary works for the deve- 
lopment of the colliery were commenced in September, 1902, 
and were tso far completed as to enable coal to be shipped in 
June, 1904. In consequence of the existence and effect pro- 
duced by faults, the lines of which had been traced on tho 
surface, it was deemed advisable to open the colliery by 
driving two main tunnels for haulage. The site chosen was 
iu the valley of the Camp Creek. The tunnels are numbered 
1 and 2. No. 1 is on the rise side of the largest of the faults, 
and No. 2 is on the dip side of the same, but on the rise side 
of the second fault. The line chosen for the tunnels enabled 
them to be driven almost directly against the rise of the 
measures, and was in stone overlying the 10 ft. seam for a 
distance of 11^ chains before striking the coal. Seeing that 
the main tunnels were driven to intersect coal separated by a 
fault or displacement of considerable magnitude, the working 
of the coal is being carried on as two distinct collieries in so 
far as the underground operations are concerned. 

SyHem of Work, — The system of work adopted is mainly 
by bord and pillar, a small portion only of this coal having 
been worked by the longwalh method. In the bord-and-pillar 
system the bords are 18 ft. wide, and pillars 14 yards thick. 
The pillars are left intact until the boundary of a section is 
reached, when they are worked back. The roof has in the 
14— Mining Handbook. 


main proved good, enabling a large percentage of the pillar- 
coal to be won. 

Colliery Equipment. — The plant already installed consists 
of two ventilating-fans ; endless-rope haulage system, with 
engine and boiler, also six hundred coal-tubs; temporary 
engines for dip haulage; coal-storage bin and appliances, 
including picking-belts and screens; workshops, machine 
tools, and sawmill. 

Ventilation, — Ventilation is produced by two exhaast- 
fans, one for each section of the colliery, for, as has been 
explained, the underground work is carried on as two distinct 

Haulage, — The conveyance of the coal from the miners* 
vrorking-place in the rise workings is done by self-acting or 
gravity inclines, by which the tubs are lowered to the main 
level to be attached to the endless rope. Coal from the dip is 
raised by an auxiliary haulage-engine to the main level, also 
for attachment to the endless rope, which is in all 160 chains 
long, and is actuated by a steam-engine located near the 
storajxe-bins on delivery end. The coal-tubs, of which there 
are six hundred in use, are attached to the rope by clip chains 
at irregular intervals apart — five, ten, or more yards may be 
found necessary. The rope is carried on rollers placed be- 
tween the rails, and it runs under the tubs. The rope from 
the engine direct to No. 1 tunnel is passed round a terminal 
or return wheel, then back to No. 2 tunnel, having the loaded 
tubs from No. 1 attached. Arriving at the junction with 
No. 2, the tubs from No. 1 are undipped from rope and 
passed over the junction. The rope is passed into No. 2 
round the terminal wheel there, and returns with loaded tubs 
attached, passing the junction with the main line. The out- 
put of coal (750 tons daily) from both sections is conveyed to 
the storage-bins or to screens as may be necessary. 

Tipping-platform. — Arrived at the tipping-platform, the 
tubs are detached from the rope by boys, who pass them over 
the weighbridge, when the weight is taken and booked to the 
credit of the miners whose number or tally is attached to the 
tubs. In charge of the weighbridge are two men, represent- 


ing the State and the Miners' Union respectively. Leaving 
the weighbridge, the tuba are run forward to the men in 
charge at the tipping-cradle. Here the coal is tipped on to 
endless steel belts, 115 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, of which there 
are two in use. These belts extend over the whole length of 
the storage-bins, into which the coal is delivered, the removal 
from the belt being effected by means of a plough pushing the 
coal into sliding shoots placed on each side of the belt. If 
required for screening, the coal is transferred from the main 
steel belt to an auxiliary belt travelling in the reverse direc- 
tion ; this delivers the coal on to a vibrating screen. Passing 
the coal over belts as just described enables the stone or other 
impurity sent out with the coal to be removed before the coal 
is stored or screened. The work of picking is done by boys 
placed at intervals alongside the belt. The introduction of 
the belts and allied appliances not only enables the coal to be 
freed from impurity, but also enables the bin to be filled to 
its maximum holding-capacity (2,000 tons) with the minimum 
of manual labour. 

It may be mentioned that the tubs, in going to the 
tipping-machines, never leave the rails; the full tub pushes 
the empty from the machine, and by releasing the brake the 
loaded tub causes the machine to revolve one-third revolution, 
empties the coal from the tub, bumping another empty into 
line. The empties leaving the machine run on a down grade 
to the point where they are again attached to the rope for 
return to the miner. 

The advisability of using a storage-bin for coal may be 
questioned, as it has doubtless an injurious effect on the size 
of the coal, for however carefully it may be handled breakage 
must result. On the other hand, having such storage assists 
in the regulation of the work at the colliery when ships are 
prevented arriving in consequence of storms at sea or floods 
in the river. It is under such conditions that the benefit of 
storage is felt, for not only are the miners kept better em- 
ployed, but having the stock enables vessels after a block in 
the harbour to be dispatched sooner than would otherwise be 

14 • 


Railway Sidings, — The general arrangement of the railway 
sidings or station^jard provides for four linea of raila 
running under the bin, the floor of which is provided with 
fifty-two doors (sliding), all workable by steam-power, so that 
railway-trucks can be loaded from storage at the rate of from 
300 to 350 tons per hour. 

Workshops. — These comprise smithy and carpenter's shops. 
The former is commodious, and well equipped with the follow- 
ing new and useful machine tools : One 5 cwt. steam-hammer, 
one radial drill, screw ing-machine and punching and shear- 
ing machine. All forges are fitted with fan-blast, actuated 
by a small steam-engine. The carpenter's shop (not so large 
as the smithy) has located in it a first-class lathe. The tools 
referred to have proved most useful, enabling much of the 
lighter class of plant an-d appliances for the colliery to be 
made on the works. 

Sawmill. — The sawmill, established at the outset in con- 
nection with the opening of the colliery, is- equipped with 'i 
steam-engine and boiler, planing-mill, and other accessories, 
and from it is obtained all sawn timber required for the erec- 
tion of permanent structures on the surface, as well as sawn 
timber for underground use ; and workmen are supplied with 
timber for building cottages at prices much less than are 
charged for timber obtainable from outside sources. 

Railway. — The railway connecting the colliery with the 
port, although constructed from the vote for '* Colliery-deve- 
lopment," is now part of the railway system of the colony, 
having been taken over by the Department of Working Rail- 
ways. The distance between the colliery and the wharf at 
Greymouth is, approximately, five miles. The traffic it 
handled under the railway tariff, and provided for a minimum 
distance of ten miles — viz.. Is. lOd. a ton — which includes 
shipping. The system of shipping coal is by hydraulic cranes 
stationed on the wharf. The coal-trucks— or, as they are 
called, " hoppers," from the fact that the body is hopper- 
shaped — carry mainly 8 tons. When run alongside a vessel 
the crane is attached, and the hoppers are lifted from the 
frames and swung over the vessel's hatch, when the bottom 


doors are opened and the coal is dropped into the hold. In 
vessels haying large hatches the hoppers are lowered into the 
bold before the doors are opened, thus saving the coal from 

Harbour Conditions. — ^The entrance to the harbour being 
an open roadstead, absolutely without shelter, there are fre- 
quent blocks of shipping, due to heavy seas on the bar ; and 
floods in the river, in which the ships must remain until 
loaded, are also a cause of hindrance. The first-named cause 
cannot be remedied, but the hindrances from floods can be 
much minimised by improved portable cranes. These would 
also lessen the periods of detention often caused by inability 
to handle inward and outward cargo with despatch. It is 
understood that improvements are to be introduced in the 
direction of improved cranes and other facilities. 

Classes of Labour employtd, and System of Payment. — 
Persons having no practical acquaintance with coal-mining 
are apt to fall into the error that the cost of labour in pro- 
ducing coal is covered by the amount paid for its hewing, 
whereas there are a number of other items of cost, which may 
be realised by a glance at the complete list here following, 
which shows the various kinds of labour employed: — 

Underground Labour: Hewing (contract work), timber- 
ing, trucking and hauling, brushing, baling water and pump- 
ing, overmen and deputies, maintenance- work, ventilation, 
lamp-trimming, mine-manager. 

Overground Labour: Tipping, loading, and screening, 
weighing, blacksmith and fitter, carpenter, enginemen and 
stokers, general labour, tub-cleaning, engine-wright. 

And to the above, to complete the cost at the mine, must 
be added stores of all kinds, including timber, rails, general 
ironwork, ropes, nails, oils, i^c. 

Referring to the above list of labour, the coal-hewer only 
is paid by contract; this explains the need for weighing the 
coal as it arrives from the niine. The hewing-rate in connec- 
tion with this colliery is a standard of 2s. 4d. per ton for all 
coal 5 ft. in thickness and over. For coal under that thick- 


nes8 tho rate is increased, and in some cases as much as Ss. 6d. 
per ton is paid for hewing, exclusiye of payments for atone 
and yardage. 

The workers are registered as an industrial union, and 
work is carried on under a mutual agreement entered into 
between the manager and the employees. By this agreement 
all rates of pay are fixed, and matters which might lead to 
dispute, if not prorided for, are clearly set out, and in the 
event of any dispute arising during the term for which the 
agreement is made there is a proviso which practically pre- 
vents any friction between the two parties. In the drawing- 
up of an agreement, where there are so many items giving 
rise to discussion, much time and consideration has to be 
given to it, and it is found that the more thoroughly the 
various points are dealt with the more satisfactory the work- 
ing will be. At present the greatest good feeling exists be- 
tween the management and the employees, and so long aa 
matters in dispute are approached in the same spirit as in the 
past there need be but little difficulty in arriving at mutually 
Batisfactory agreements. 

Future Development. — In order to keep abreast of the de- 
mand, and to efficiently develop the coal lying to the dip of 
the present workings, powerful new haulage-engines, also 
air-compressing engines, have been designed, and are now on 
order. The haulage plant will be capable of drawing 1,000 
tons per shift from the dip field, the tubs to be conveyed by 
endless rope. The air-compressors are to be used for the 
driving of pumps, rock-drills, and auxiliary haulage-engines, 
all of which will be driven by compressed air. In no case will 
Bteam be taken underground. 

As mentioned at the outset of these notes, in order to de- 
fine the position of the lower seams, a bore is being put down 
near the site of the present colliery. In addition, steps are 
being taken to exploit the seams of bituminous and anthra- 
citous coal exposed on the northern block. These seams 
range from 2 ft. to 20 ft. thick, and are existing under con- 
ditions favourable to economical exploitation; this being so, 
it is not unreasonable to anticipate that within a compara- 


lively short period the production of coal from the State- 
owned colliery in this region will be from 8,000 to 12,000 tons 

Township, — To facilitate the settlement of the workmen 
employed at the colliery, the Government has laid out a town- 
ship called Runanga. The location is sheltered and attrac- 
tive, being within easy distance of the colliery, about four 
miles from Greymouth, and two miles from the sea-shore at 
Point Elizabeth, which is the pleasure resort of the people in 
the district during the summer months. Extensive reading 
has already been done, and is still being carried on in the 
township. The railway passes through it, and the railway- 
station (where the post, telegraph, and money-order oflSces are 
to be housed) is conveniently situated. Many of the em- 
ployees have already erected comfortable homes; others are 
in course of doing so, and it is pleasing to note that in most 
cases the style of architecture is neat. Outside of workmen's 
homes, the Medical Association has erected a very good resi- 
dence for their medical oflScer. There are several general 
stores, and the Grey Education Board has built a commodious 
Kchool, which was opened by the late Right Hon. R. J. 
Seddon in January last, and as indicating the progress of the 
settlement it may be mentioned that there are already a hun- 
dred children on the roll. 

With the object of meeting the demand for homes, or assist- 
ing their erection more expeditiously than would otherwise 
be possible, it is proposed to set aside a portion of the town- 
ship for the erection of cottages by the Government on such 
terms as will, no doubt, prove acceptable and beneficial to 
the workers, while adding to the general progress of the place. 
There is also to be erected a building suitable for a library, 
and in which games of a recreative character may be indulged 
in. Before leaving this subject, it may be mentioned that 
most of the timber required for the building of the work- 
men's homes is obtained from the clearing of the township. 
The logs are taken to the colliery sc^wmill, cut into scantlings, 
boards, &c., and supplied to the users at prices and under 
conditions favourable to them. 


General. — It may be said, in conclusion, that the aim of 
the Mines Department and the management has been to so 
develop the colliery as to enable its working to be carried on 
under conditions favourable to the worker, and at the aaiiie 
time with due regard to economy in first cost, consistent with 
providing plant suitable and efficient for the economical 
handling of tlie output; for it is now well understood thai 
unless coal is handled with economy, and the product of the 
mine placed on the market in good condition, the prospec ts 
of profitable working will be much reduced. In the general 
arrangement of the plant for dealing with the output, effi- 
ciency, with due regard to economy, has been the principal 
consideration, and iu procuring the plant — as far as it can 
possibly be done — the manufacturers within the colony have 
the first consideration, the object being to give the engineer- 
ing firms and others carrying on business in New Zealand 
tlie first chance of undertaking such work as may from time 
to time be required in connection with the development of the 

Coal Raised, — Since the date when coal was first shipped — 
namely, June, 1904 — up to the 31st March, 1906, tEere has 
been raised 227,590 tons, all worked from the No. 2 or 10 ft 
seam. It has been disposed of mainly to the Department of 
Working Railways, to steamers for bunker-coal, and Uxt 
domestic use. The coal is remarkable for its freedom from 
sulphur and ash, and is therefore much favoured for steam- 
raising and for household purposes. 

The Restdt of Working Commercially Considered. — From 
the economical aspect the result of the venture — in so far at 
this colliery is concerned — ^may be pronounced satisfactory, 
the returns obtained having enabled provision to be made for 
interest on and redemption of capital, depreciation, and 
future developments. 











SeddonTllle State Coal-mine. 

By Hbnby a. Gordon, F.G.S., Consulting Engineer. 

The coal-mines that are at present being developed and 
worked by the State are situated in the districts of Mokihinui 
and Grey. In both of these districts coal-mining operations 
have been carried on for a number of years. 

Coal was discoyered in the Mokihinui district about thirty 
years ago. Prospecting operations were. carried on by Mr. 
E. B. Gareen and others on the side of the Mokihinui River, 
about two miles up from its mouth. Coal was found of ex- 
cellent quality as regards its calorific properties, but at that 
time, there being no roads or means of transit, the parlies 
interested abandoned the enterprise. The coal from these 
prospecting operations lay on the surface for some years, and 
showed very little deterioration by atmospheric action. 

Nothing further was done in prospecting for coal in this 
district for several years, until Mr. Eugene O'Connor and 
others discovered a large outcrop of coal on the western side 
of Coal Creek, a tributary of the Mokihinui River. This out- 
crop showed a thickness of about 30 ft., and from its outside 
appearance it led its discoverers to believe that a large field 
of excellent coal, whose calorific value was equal to any coal 
found in the Westport district, had been found. A lease of 
640 acres was applied for and granted. Experts were em- 
ployed to report on the potentialities of the field, with the 
view of making certain that if mining operations were com- 
menced they would prove a success. But, as the poet Burns 
remarks, ** The best laid schemes o' mice and men gang aft 
a-gley." The experts employed spoke highly of the probabili- 
ties of the field, A corporation of influential shareholaers 
was formed, and capital was provided not only to open up the 
mine, but also to construct a railway from the mine to near 
the mouth of the Mokihinui River, where small vessels could 
come up to load. A bin was constructed at this place with a 
holding-capacity sufficient for loading small steamers. There 
is a large volume of water in the Mokihinui River, and at 
high water in ordinary tides there is from 10 ft. to 14 ft. on 
the bar at the entrance : after getting over the bar there is a 


considerable depth of water in the rirer up to the place where 
the bin was constructed. Large bins were also erected about 
20 chains from the mouth of the mine, and every proTisioo 
made for an output of from 40,000 to 60,000 tons of coal per 
annum. For some time the coal was taken away by small 
steamers. The company also had one of its own, but it got 
wrecked in crossing the bar, after, however, running for a con- 
siderable time. The company then made arrangements to send 
the coal to Westport for shipment, the railway at that time 
being completed up to the terminus of the company's railway 
After carrying on operations in a southward direction for some 
years, the company did not find a profitable market for the 
class of coal that ,was generally found in the mine. The 
quality of the coal was all that could be desired in regard to 
its calorific properties, but its soft, friable character, with 
handling and transit to ports where it was delivered, proTed 
a great drawback, and there was not sufficient demand for it 
at a marketable rate to leave a profit to the shareholders for 
working the mine. The company therefore finally abandoned 
the workings. 

A syndicate of co-operative miners took up the mine, and 
carried on operations for some time, but one portion of the 
workings was found to be on fire, and could not be extin- 
guished. That fire has now spread over a large area, and is 
still burning. Several co-operative parties of miners have 
taken up a portion of the original lease, and developed the 
field on the northernmost side of Coal Creek, which is opposite 
to that of the burning seam, but a little lower down the 
stream. Success, however, did not attend their efforts. In- 
deed, it would only be by mere chance that any co-operative 
company of workmen, who have not a considerable amount of 
capital at their back, could convert an abandoned mine into 
ft remunerative investment. Any company giving up a coal 
property would naturally work it so that very little available 
coal of a good description could be procured unless at a con- 
siderable expense. The best portion of the mine being on fire 
has rendered the possibility of reopening the southern portion 
of the field from Coal Creek almost hopeless. 


The first output from this mine was in 1887, when 200 
tons were taken out, and up to the time the last co-operative 
party carried on mining operations in 1905 the total output 
was 84,313 tons. 

About the year 1892 a coal lease was granted to Mr. A. D. 
Bajfeild and others, adjoining the place where coal was first 
discovered in the Mokihinui district, and a company, termed 
the Westport-Cardiff Coal Company (Limited), was formed to 
work it. This company expended a considerable sum of 
money in opening out a portion of the coalfield in a southern 
direction to a large fault or dislocation which crosses the 
country from Coal Creek to the ocean. Railway sidings were 
constructed ; bins were erected at tJie foot of the terrace on the 
Mokihinui Flat; an endless-rope haulage-road from the mine 
to the bins, a distance of about 40 chains, was constructed ; 
and a valuable steam-haulage plant erected, with all appli- 
ances for providing for a considerable output. The bins had 
a holding-capacity of about 900 tons. All necessary buildings 
were erected for carrying on mining operations for a long 
period. The company had a capital of £10,000; this was 
expended in opening up the nearest section of the property, 
which, when first opened out, contained a good class of coal, 
but as the workings were extended the coal became more soft 
and friable, having only a block of hard coal here and there. 
As far as can be ascertained, about £40,000 was expended in 
developing this section, and what is known as the Bridge Sec- 
tion, the latter section being on the west side of Chasm Creek. 
Some £30,000 of this capital came from the profits of work- 
ing the mine; the shareholders did not receive any of the 
money they originally subscribed. All the hard coal was 
taken out of the first section of the property; a bridge was 
constructed across Chasm Creek, and a considerable amount 
of development-work done* in this section ; but, with the ex- 
ception of the face of the outcrops in the Bridge Section, no 
hard coal was met with, and the price obtained for the soft 
small coal did not cover the cost of putting it on board ship 
at Weatport. 

A considerable amount of prospecting- work was done on 
the adjoining section, known as the Cave area, which is 


separated from the first section opened out by a major fault 
that traverses the country for a considerable distance. Mr. 
G. H. Broome, the company's managing engineer, and Mr. 
Denniston examined this area, and had a number of bore- 
holes put down, when coal was found of an average thickness 
of about 13 ft. Only one of the bores showed a want of coal, 
and this bore was considered to be on the eastern side of the 
coal area. In addition to these boreholes there are various out- 
crops on the side of the terrace facing Chasm Creek; some 
of those outcrops show a face of excellent coal, especially the 
one known as Grant's face. Mr. Broome recommended his 
company to open up this area, which he estimated would con- 
tain about 1,400,000 tons of coal, and that the section on the 
west side of Chasm Creek, directly opposite the Cave area, 
would probably contain about 700,000 tons. 

The whole of the marketable coal had been exhausted in 
the first section of the property, and the Bridge Section, so 
far as development had been extended, contained nothing but 
very small soft coal. The shareholders got so disheartened 
tlirough not getting any of their original capital returned 
that they decided to abandon the enterprise. A few months 
after mining operations were suspended a fire broke out in 
the first section opened out. How this fire originated, whether 
bv spontaneous combustion or through carelessness of some 
one with a light going through the old workings, was never 
known. From the analysis of the coal one would not expect 
it to be liable to spontaneous combustion ; still, such mig^t 
take place where the coal is soft and mushy, and especially if 
it is in close proximity to a fault. The fire got too much of 
a hold before any real attempt was made to put it out, and 
although strong efforts were made eventually to extinguish it 
they were unavailing. This portion of the field is still on fire, 
but it is circumscribed in every direction by faults or dis- 
locations in the country and by the deep gorge of Chasm 
Creek, the bed of which is below the level of the burning seam. 
The fire cannot reach any other portion of the field, and will 
in time extinguish itself by a total collapse of the surface, 
which will eventually settle down and exclude the air. 


The Westport-Cardiff Company commenced mining opera- 
tions about 1893, and suspended working the property in 
1899. During the six or seven years the mine was worked 
the output of coal was 227,441 tons. After a lapse of about 
two years it finally abandoned the property, and sold to the 
Government the whole of the plant and buildings, which con- 
sisted of a powerful steam-engine and hauling-gear, steam 
winches and pumps, a large assortment of steel rails, chains, 
tubs, mining tools, mining stores, bins, blacksmith's and car- 
penter's shops, office, and store. 

After the abandonment of this mine there was very little 
traffic on that portion of the railway from Ngakawau to 
Mokihinui, and, as this railway was specially constructed to 
open up the coalfield, the Government employed experts to 
e?:amine this field, and more especially the Cave area, which 
hud been favourably reported on by the Westport-CardiS 
Company's engineer two years previously. These experts care- 
fully examined all the outcrops facing Chasm Creek, on whicli 
some prospecting- work had been done by the late company. 
Cuts had been put in the face of the terrace, and exposed the 
coal in various places along the side of Chasm Creek, thy 
seam showing a thickness of from 8 ft. to fully 16 ft. In one 
of these cuts, at the place known as Grant's face, it showed 
excellent hard coal. Some blocks of this coal, which had been 
broken two years previously when the face was exposed, were 
lying on the ground, and showed no sign of deterioration. 
In making this examination, the Cave area appeared to be 
divided into two sections by a fault, the extent of which could 
not be determined until further prospecting-work had been 
done. The locality of the different boreholes, and formatiou 
of the country to the eastward of the Cave area, were also 
carefully examined. These experts recommended further pro- 
specting operations to be carried on, with the view of deter- 
mining the area of coal in the Grant's face section of the Cave 
area. Their recommendations were approved by Government, 
and a tunnel was driven in from Grant's face for a distance 
of 15 chains through coal. Those in charge of the prospect- 
ing operations gave a favourable report, and this induced the 
Government to open up the Cave area. 


A line of tramway was surveyed from the top of tlie first 
terrace above the bins, which went in a straight line to Grant's 
face, and a tunnel was commenced in the face of a steep 
granite sideling, the mouth of which was 90 chains from the 
bin, and at an elevation of about 450 ft. above the flat where 
the bins were erected. This tunnel was driven through rock 
for a distance of 25 chains before it struck the coal in the 
Cave area. Levels were opened up to work the coal, but it was 
found that this portion of the Cave area contained a very 
large percentage of soft coal. The coal-seam continued to dip 
in the direction of Grant's face, and it was deemed desirable 
to extend the tunnel, which was constructed through 13^ chains 
of granitoid rock before the coal was cut in the Grant's sec- 
tion of the property. Afterwards the tunnel was carried 
through coal to Grant's face. 

The Grant's face section of the Cave area contained a much 
better class of coal than in the northern section, but, as its 
area was circumscribed within narrow limits, prospecting 
operations were commenced on the western side of Chasm 
Creek. Two prospecting-tunnels were driven in this section 
from the terrace facing the creek, about 16 chains apart, 
which showed the character of the coal to be similar to that 
in the Grant's face section. A bridge was constructed across 
Chasm Creek, and an endless-rope haulage-road laid down 
from the western side of the creek to the bins, a distance of 
about 150 chains. 

The haulage-road here is of a very permanent character, 
as it is laid with 40 lb. rails from the bins to the place where 
the coal was first cut in the tunnel, and with 25 lb. rails for 
the remaining distance. The area of the western portion of 
the property has not yet been determined; but as coal-out- 
crops are found in Patten's Creek, about 40 chains across the 
table-land, it is expected that a considerable area of coal will 
be opened up in the western section of the property. 

No one at the present time can tell the limits of the 
Mokihinui Coalfield. There are several granitic intrusions 
and belts, but beyond these the ooal is again found, and in 
all probability will form a connection with the Denniston field, 


also with the seams of coal found on the eastern side of Mount 
William, where large outcrops exist. There are extensive areas 
of coal in this district, but a great percentage of it is of a 
soft character; nevertheless, the analysis shows the softest 
portions to contain a high calorific value. There is a diffi- 
culty, however, in getting a fair remuneration for soft coal, 
as, in order to utilise it and get the greatest benefit as 
a fuel, it requires in using it somewhat different conditions 
from ordinary fuel. For marine purposes the fire-bars re- 
quire to be set very close together, and the firing requires to 
be light and often. If a heavy fire of small soft coal is put 
on, the steam will go down ; but if it is used properly in light 
firing, and frequently, no better fuel can be obtained. 

Since the Government has opened up the Cave area it 
has found it difficult to dispose of the small coal at such 
a rate as would recoup the expense of making it a market- 
able commodity. Recently screens have been erected at the 
mine, whereby about 35 per cent, of the coal brought from tho 
mine passes over the screens as suitable for household coal, 
while that portion which passes through the screens falls into 
a pit, from which it is lifted by elevators and again screened. 
The portion which cannot pass through this second screen is 
termed " nuts,'* and is distributed into the bins, while that 
portion which passes through the second screen is carried 
away by a stream of water in a sluice-box, and passed over a 
hopper, with i in. holes, and saved as *' peas," while the 
residue which passes through the hopper is washed away as 
refuse. The washed peas have been tried for blacksmith 
work, and are said to be the best sample of coal which can be 
got for that purpose. As it is only recently that these ap- 
pliances have been erected, no one outside the district has 
had an opportunity of testing the properties of the washed pro- 
duct, but when it becomes generally known there will no doubt 
be plenty of demand for it from foundry-owners and others. 

To deal with the large percentage of soft coal there is in 
the Mokihinui district, the Government has imported a 
briquette-making plant to utilise tho soft coal. This plant 
is represented by the manufacturers to have a capacity 


of 200 tons of briquettes in eight hours, or about 3,600 
tons per week, if worked continuously. This plant is 
now in course of erection at West port, on a site close ti> 
the wharf and shipping. The reason of having it at the 
shipping port is that the cost of erection is much less in 
the first instance, as no railway carriage is required, and the 
binding material, which forms from 5 to 6 per cent, of the 
manufactured briquettes, can be landed at the works, instead of 
being carried forward and back to West port as would have been 
the case if the briquette plant had been erected at the mine. 

In regard to the facilities for working the Mokihinui Coal- 
field — the situation of the bins and the railway sidings in 
close proximity to the railway — ^the arrangements made at 
Seddonville could scarcely be improved on. Seddonville is 
an ideal mining-camp. There is a considerable area of flat 
ground having splendid soil suitable for cultivation in any 
form; plenty of room to lay out a township, with large sec- 
tions where the miners can build comfortable homes and have 
sufficient ground around their cottages for growing vegetables 
and fruit. The trouble in the past has been the difficulty in 
getting a market for the soft coal, and consequently the 
miners could not obtain constant employment; but with the 
present arrangements, and with the future prospects of the 
whole of the soft coal beinii^ utilised in making briquettes, 
which are said to have on the Continent of Europe 20 per 
cent, higher calorific value than the best screened coal, there 
is every prospect of steady employment for a limited number 
of miners in this locality for a number of years. Indeed, in 
very few mining localities could such an ideal site for a town- 
ship be found. The climate cannot be surpassed; the land 
when cleared is exceedingly fruitful ; the dense fogs and mist 
met with at Millerton and Denniston are unknown in tho 
Mokihinui Valley. The Government, in opening up the mines 
in this locality, has conferred a great benefit not only on 
those who reside in the district, but also on those who wish to 
make comfortable homes for themselves. With constant em- 
ployment men with good vegetable-gardens can live cheaply, 
and will be in a position to lay aside a little of their earn- 


ings to provide for old age. If the Government can make the 
mine pay all the expenses of working it, the enterprise will 
benefit a large community by providing remunerative employ- 
ment for those who earn their livelihood by the sweat of their 
brow, and it ^ill be the means of establishing many a happy 
home, and of maintaining a thriving township. 

The success of this undertaking would be greatly enhanced 
if the Government would treat the carriage of produce from 
the mines on the railways according to its value, as, for in- 
stance: Seddonville is nearly thirty miles from Westport, 
where all the product of tho mine has to be delivered; and, 
although the railway belongs to the State, the same as the coal- 
mine, the one Department insists on having full tariff rates 
from the other Department, even if the enterprise is not prov- 
ing a remunerative investment. Concessions may be given by 
the Railway Department to private persons and corporations, 
but if one Department of the service requires a concession 
from the other, it is met with cast-iron regulations that can- 
not be changed. It reminds one of the history of the ancient 
Medes and Persians, whose laws were supposed to be unalter- 
able. Here, at Seddonville, the coal being taken to a port of 
shipment, has to pay an increased rate of haulage compared 
with any other mine in the Westport district, not only on the 
best screened coal, but also on any waste product that comes 
from the mine, whose market value may be only one-sixth of the 
other. This gives no inducement to utilise the waste product 
from the mine; it is financially better to dump it on the 
waste-heap, while at the same time the wealth of the colony is 
being reduced daily. Seeing that there is so large a per- 
centage of soft coal in the Mokihinui district, every induce- 
ment should be given to utilise it, and make such an enter- 
prise self-supporting. The railway is constructed, and the 
cost of actual«haulage is very little, so that concessions might 
be readily given at reduced rates for the haulage of highly in- 
ferior ooal or waste products from a mine to be manufactured 
into a marketable commodity. 

Since the Government took over the Seddonville Mine the 
output in two years has been 82,030 tofts. 




For many jears the coal resources of the Buller Coalfield were 
known onlj to a few, but amongst them were some enterpris- 
ing men who clearly foresa%7 what a vast field of wealth these 
would be for the colony if they could be opened up. The 
efforts of the Hon. R. Oliver, M.L.C., Messrs. B. C. Haggitt, 
E. B. Cargill, R. Gillies, Fisher, Cable, Drummond, and manj 
others were eventually successful in forming a company — the 
Westport Colliery Company, with a capital of £100,000 — and 
operations were started ; but this company's capital was ex- 
hausted before the coal was placed on the market, and in 1882 
the present company — the Westport Coal Company — was 
formed, with a capital of £400,000. Three colliers were 
specially built for the trade, and the work was carried on 
vigorously. The company very soon found, however, that If 
any extent of trade was to be done the harbour must be im- 
proved, and after great effort they were successful in carrying 
through Parliament the Westport Harbour Board Act of 1884 
By this Act all the profits of the local railway-line, the royalty 
on the coal from the Buller Coalfield, and the rents of certain 
sections in Westport were created an endowment for the 
Board. The harbour -works, as recommended by Sir John 
Coode, were carried out under the able supervision of the 
late Mr. Napier Bell, C.E., with the result that Westport is 
now by far the best harbour on the West Coast, with 24 ft. 
draught of water on the bar, and about 21 ft. in the river 
The Westport Company's property comprises the Coalbrook- 
dale lease of 2,480 acres, lying between the heifd-waters of the 
Wareatea Creek and the Waimangaroa River, and the Miller- 
ton lease of 2,950 acres, situated about ten miles north-east 
of that area. These leases, situated some 2,000 ft. above sea- 
level, are traversed throughout by the celebrated Coalbrook- 
dale seam of coal, which varies in thickness from 8 ft. to 


39 ft. The Ream is worked at different sections of the leases* 
and the coal is conveyed from the underground workings to 
the tip or brake-heads by endless-rope haulage for many miles ; 
thence it is lowered to the railway-lines by special inclines. 

The company's worlds are situated amid the most wild and 
romantic scenery imaginable, and the coal is lowered over the 
inclines by powerful hydraulic brakes, the grading being so 
steep that in places it is like going over the roof of a house. 
It was a bold and enterprising company that would undertake 
such a great engineering work, and a bold engineer who 
ventured to recommend the carrying of it out, but their efforts 
have been crowned with success. The visitor to the works is 
simply amazed that any one should ever attempt to bring 
coal over such rugged spurs and across such seemingly im- 
passable ravines, and when he rides up the bridle-path, sur- 
rounded by the most lovely ferns and overhanging forest- 
trees, he is no less startled to find such well-arranged works 
at the top. Here he will see, miles away over the plateau, 
endless trains of steel wagODs, numbered by thousands, slowly 
travelling from the workings underground to the brake-head, 
and endless trains of empty ones returning to be refilled. 

Power-stations, fitted with batteries of Bahoock and Wil- 
cox water-tube boilers and rows of Leyner air -compressors, 
convey the power underground throughout the mines to work 
the pick-machines, pumps, and haulage-engines, and onSe 
wonders how a company which had to face all these gigantic 
works and overcome such enormous difficulties could ever pay 
any dividend at all. It had, indeed, to struggle for many 
years before the shareholders got any return for their plucky 
enterprise; but by dint of patience, perseverance, and a 
large expenditure of money they were at last successful. 

The company's mines are laid out on the most improved 
system ; they have been supplied with the newest and most 
up-to-date plant and machinery, and they are now equipped 
for an output of 900,000 tons per annum. The first incline 
at Denniston was designed by Messrs. Young Bros., of West- 
port. The late Mr. Thomas Brown, to whose fertile brain, 
untiring energy, and thorough practical knowledge so much 


of the company's success is due, rose in its serrioe fr<Hn an 
ordinary miner to be district manager. He originated most 
of the mining appliances, opened out the Millerton Mine, and 
greatly improved the Denniston property. He was ably sup- 
ported by Mr. Thomas J. Waters, C.E., and subsequently bj 
Mr. Ashley Hunter, C.E., Mr. J. P. Maxwell, C.E.,- acting 
as consulting engineer for some time. The works are now 
under the management of Mr. J. Dixon at Denniston, Mr. 
George Fletcher at Millerton, with Mr. E. GiUow as engi- 
neer, who are ably maintaining the traditions of former 
managers and engineers, and under whom some most im- 
portant works and improyements have been carried out with 
conspicuous ability. 

It was satisfactory to find, when all these difficulties were 
overcome, that the company was able to place on the market 
a coal unrivalled in the world for its excellence. This has 
been proved by the high stand it has taken — (1) as a household 
coal, producing a clean bright fire, burning economically, and 
being largely consumed in the colony; (2) as a steam-coal it 
ranks equally with the best Welsh coal, as will be seen by ths 
saving of H.M.S. '* Calliope '' at Samoa, and the successful 
tests which have been made by the Admiralty and the mercan- 
tile marine, whereby the coal is being used in H.M. war- 
ships on the China, Australian, and New Zealand Stations, 
and by most of the home and intercolonial lines of steamers; 
(3) the principal gas, freezing, and manufacturing works 
throughout the colony use it almost exclusively, and even ia 
the antarctic regions it gave such satisfaction that the " Dis- 
covery " and the "Morning" were delighted to use it in 
preference to their Welsh coal, which they brought back to 

Some idea of the magnitude of the undertaking may be 
gatliered from tlie following statistics. The company has 
spent from its commencement in 1882 — £ 

Inwa^os .. .. .. .. 1,603,285 

In freights to local carriers . . . . 1,220.550 

On plant and new works . . 428.325 

On stores, &c. . . . . 184,942 

It has paid to the Government for royalty, 

haulage rates, and taxes . . 913,638 


And at the end of 1905 it had placed on the market 5,786»983 
tons of coal. 

Its present output exceeds half a million tons per annum, 
and it employs upwards of a thousand men and boys, besides 
indirectly giving great support to labour by freights and other 
expenditure for handling coal. Some idea of the importance 
of an industry like this may be formed by the estimate, which 
is accurately calculated, that every ton of coal pays in labour, 
before it reaches the consumer, at least 9s. Nor are the com- 
pany only mindful of the shareholders and their diyidends: 
every possible care is taken of their employees. They con- 
tribute largely to the medical associations, pay largely to the 
Accident Fund over and above what they are liable for under 
the Workers' Compensation Act; they subsidise liberally the 
libraries, reading-rooms, bands, and recreation-grounds; 
they have built a large club, with reading, lecture, and 
billiard rooms, furnished it well throughout, and pay for a 
caretaker; it is managed by a committee of the employees, 
without any interference from the company. 

A laboratory and gas-testing house has recently been built 
at Westport, where daily tests and analyses are made of coal 
from all parts of the mines by Mr. Bradley, the company's 
analyst, in order to supply the required description of coal 
for each class of customers. 


The Blackball Coal Company's leases at Ngahere are distant 
ei«rhteen miles from Greymouth by rail in a north-easterly 

These leases were orginally the property of the Midland 
Railway Company, but some five years ago were acquired 
bv the late Sir Edwin Dawes, whose estate holds the free- 
hold right at the present time. Royalty is paid by the com- 
pany for the mineral rights. 


The coal leases consist of three rectangular blocks of 650 
acres each. The surface is rugged, and contains numerous 
high spurs with valleys between. Practically the whole sur- 
face is covered with timber, comprising rimu, rata, silver 
and white pines, and totara. A large portion of this timber is 
used for mining and building purposes. Four permanent 
streams are on the property — viz., Blackball, B'ord's, Coal, and 
Soldiers' Creeks, all having their sources in the Paparoa 

Rising in a north-easterly direction, and dipping towards 
the south-west, the whole lease is in a hard sandstone country, 
and contains two seams of coal, lying regularly and uniformly, 
and which outcrop along the cliff overlooking the Blackball 
and Coal Creeks. The coal in these seams has generally been 
described as bituminous, although in reality it belongs to the 
cannel class. It is compact, with little or no lustre, and has 
a slaty appearance, without suggestion of a banded structure. 
It breaks with a conchoidal fracture and smooth surfaces, 
while the colour is dull or greyish-black. The coal is an ex- 
cellent steam coal, and is valuable as a gas-producer and for 
household purposes, being easily ignited and giving off intense 
beat until entirely consumed. The bottom seam has an average 
thickness of 12 ft., the coal generally being bright and hard, 
and as a steam coal possessing high evaporative power. 
According to analysis it contains 49*15 per cent, fixed carboD, 
46* 75 per cent, hydrocarbon, 32 per cent, water, and 0*9 per 
cent. ash. Evaporative power by Thompson's calorimeter, 
14*25 lb. The top seam averages 5 ft. in thickness, and is 
separated from the bottom seam by from 2 ft. to 8 ft. of stone, 
shale, and fireclay. This coal is bright and very hard, and, 
according to analysis, contains 47*35 per cent, fixed carbon, 
44*95 per cent, hydrocarbon, 4*8 per cent, water, and 2*9 per 
cent. ash. Evaporative power, 12*47 lb. The seams are liable 
to spontaneous combustion. 

The mine is situated at the north-west end of the towo- 
ship, and is 312 ft. above sea-level. The surface buildinfes 


are built on a semicircular piece of ground between two high 
spurs, and consist of engine and boiler houses, offices, black- 
smith and carpenter's shops, store-rooms, and aerial-tram 

Some fifteen years ago a tunnel, 9 ft. by 6 ft., with a rising 
grade of 1 in 300, was driven into the hillside. The stratum 
driven through was a very hard sandstone. A distance of 
1,260 ft. was covered before the coal was met with. From this 
point a heading was driven to the full rise of the seam, and 
continued until the outcrop was reached — a distance of 21 
chains. At this part of the outcrop the No. 1 furnace was 
orected for ventilation purposes, while a larger, or No. 2 fur- 
nace, was erected later on half a mile to the westward. No. 1 
furnace circulated 13,000 and No. 2 30,000 cubic feet of air 
per minute. 

Levels were driven eastward and westward from this main 
outcrop heading for the purpose of developing the upper sec- 
tion, which contained an area of 80 acres. The east side con- 
tributed very little towards the output, which was principally 
derived from the west side. The coal was extracted by the 
bord-and-pillar method. Levels were first driven and head- 
ings turned off the levels to the full rise of the seam (1 in 6) 
at intervals of 100 yards. Bords, 6 yards wide, were turned 
off the headings with 22-yard centres, and driven parallel to 
the levels. The bords are driven from each side of the pillars 
until a meeting is effected, the result of these excavations being 
that a solid block or pillar, 100 yards long by 16 yards wide, 
is left to support the ropf . Subsequently these pillars are also 
removed, and the roof allowed to fall at will. 

On account of the tender nature of the roof throughout the 
mine, timber is an expensive item, and in the extraction of 
the pillars great care has to be taken to prevent serious acci- 
dent. The danger is reduced to a minimum by a systematio 
method of timbering. Although the roof is of such a soft, 
friable nature, a very small percentage of accidents met with 
are due to falls. 

Outbursts of fire were of frequent occurrence in the upper 
section. One outburst could not be controlled, and rendered 


it necessary to flood the mine. For some time afterwards the 
difficulty was overcome by a plentiful supply of water, carried 
in pipes and fluming from Coal Creek, and distributed 
throughout the mine. Three years ago the pipe-line had to bo 
withdrawn, owing to the upper end having been damaged for 
a considerable distance by falls from the roof and upheaval 
of the floor. After losing the pipe-line sealing off was resorted 
to, and has successfully overcome the difficulty until the pre- 
sent time. The whole upper section — from which 800,000 tons 
of coal has been obtained — was sealed off in Mardi of the pre- 
sent year. Three brick and cement stoppings 3 ft. 2 in. thick 
were erected in the openings communicating with the work- 
ings, for the dual purpose of cutting off all air and raising 
the water to a height of 50 ft. above the pillar separating the 
lower from the upper section. A fire in the upper section will 
be unable to reach the lower (or present) workings. 

To develop the dip (or lower) section, a tunnel dipping 
1 in 6 was driven three years ago. This No. 2 tunnel (or 
adit) is 10 ft. by 7 ft., and is parallel to No. 1 tunnel. A dis- 
tance of half a chain separates openings of the two tunnels. 
No. 2 tunnel was driven a distance of 600 ft. before reaching 
the coal. This section is developed by levels driven east and 
west on the level course of the seam. As was the case in the 
upper section, the bulk of the output will be derived from the 
west side, the east side being interrupted by minor disturb- 
ances — rolls, &c. — as also in the west side, but in a lesser 

A drainage adit, 1,300 ft. long, 5 ft. wide, and 4 ft. higb. 
was driven in sandstone from Ford's Creek to the foot of No. 2 
tunnel. By this means all the water met with is conducted to 
Ford's Creek, which means a considerable saving to the com- 
pany in pumps, pipes, &c. This water is very acidiferous. 
and when coming in contact with rails, ropes, &c., destroys 
them in a remarkably short space of time. Two parallel levels 
are driven 12 yards apart, rising 1 in 130, to allow the water 
to gravitate towards the drainage adit. One level (the lower) 
is purely a water level, but is also necessary for ventilati<» 

mt ' m 

1 * 

1 , <^l 









The upper, or main, level deals with the whole output. 
Endless-rope haulage is installed in this level. Headings are 
driven to liie full rise off the main level. Places are then 
turned away every 22 yards left and right of these headings, 
but, instead of the bord-aud-pillar system of the upper sec- 
tion, it was deemed necessary to alter the method of working, 
and the panel system was adopted. In this method the mine 
is laid out in panels, 150 yards by 200 yards. When once 
work is commenced on a panel the coal is extracted as rapidly 
as possible, and the openings to the panel scaled off imme- 
diately all the coal is extracted. The advantage claimed for 
this method is readily seen. Should a fire break out in a 
panel it is confined to that panel, and does not delay the whole 
mine, as it did at times in the upper section. 

After being filled at the working-face, the trucks are 
brought out and lowered by means of self-acting inclines to 
the bottom level, where they are attached to the endless rope 
and conveyed to the surface. A large Robey engine of 
300 i.h.p. (suitable also for main and tail haulage) works the 
endless rope. After being detached from the endless rope at 
the mouth of the adit, the coal is passed over the weighbridge, 
and the trucks are then attached to the aerial tramway. 

The aerial tramway is three miles long, and was erected at 
a cost of £29,000. It consists of two sets of ropes — bearing 
and haulage. The bearing-rope on the full, or loaded, side 
is 38 millimeters diameter and 28 millimeters diameter on the 
empty side, while the hauling-rope is £ in. diameter. The 
bearing-rope is stationary, and is supported by steel standards, 
varying in height from 8 ft. to 85 ft. To keep the bearing- 
rope . taut the line is divided into four sections, straining 
stations being erected for each section, but this division does 
not affect the haulage, which is continuous. Travellers with 
trucks attached run along the bearing-rope. These travellers 
consist of a pair of grooved wheels, to which are attached two 
long arms, which grip the trucks by a knob on each end, and 
convey them bodily along the line. The travellers are at- 
tached to the hauling-rope by means of patent grippers. On 
the engine being set in motion the full or loaded trucks are 


drawn towards the storage-bins, and the empties towards the 
mine to be filled again. ' The full trucks on reaching the 
storage-bins are automatically detached from the hauling-rope, 
and at the point of detachment also leave the bearing-rope 
and run on to a steel rail which traverses the whole length of 
the storage-bins. Thus the full trucks are detached on one 
side, taken and emptied into wagons or the storage-bins, and 
attached to the hauling-rope on the opposite side of the line 
and returned to the mine. The travellers are thus working 
continuously in a circle. An engine of 30 i.h.p. supplies the 
necessary power to work the aerial tramway. Three hundred 
and fifty tons per day of eight hours is the maximum capacity 
of the tramway. In all, twelve miles of rope are in use on the 

Ventilation of the mine is produced by a Capell fan, worked 
by a Piercy engine. This fan is capable of circulating 
100,000 cubic feet of air per minute. The air enters No. "I 
tunnel, passes round the working-faces into No. 1 tunnel 
(which acts as main return), and along this tunnel to the fan. 

A direct-connected engine and dynamo supplies the power 
for pumping and surface-lighting. The whole steam-power i^ 
generated by three large boilers — two Cornish and one Lan- 

A branch railway-line is now being constructed to connect 
the mine with the main Reefton line. The traffic-bridge over 
the Grey River is completed, at a cost of £25,000, and has 
been open to vehicle traffic some time. On completion of the 
branch line the aerial tramway as a means of transit will be 

Mr. James Leitch, the present mining manager, has been 
associated with the Blackball Coal Company for a period of 
twelve years, the past four and a half of which he has had fuU 
charge of mining operations. 


The Blackball Township is distant from the mine abo*it 
three-quarters of a mile in an easterly direction, and has a 


population of about eight hundred. The township is prin- 
cipally dependent upon the mine for its existence. The Black- 
ball Company distributes £16,000 annually in the district 
for wages. 


The Kaitangata Collieries are owned by the New Zealand 
Coal and Oil Company (Limited), and are situated near the 
Township of Kaitangata, about fifty-five miles south-west of 
Dunedin. There are two mines — viz., the Kaitangata Colliery, 
formerly owned by the Kaitangata Railway and Coal Com- 
pany (Limited), and the Castle Hill, formerly owned by the 
Castle Hill Coal Company (Limited). Both collieries were 
acquired by the present owners in 1898. The coal worked is 
a lignite of a superior quality, and burns with a long clear 
flame. It is chiefly used for household purposes, although a 
small proportion of the output is sold to the Government Rail- 
way Department for use on their locomotives. The following 
18 a general analysis of the coal : — 

Per Cent 
Fixed carbon ... ... ... ... 44'60 

Hydrocarbons ... ... ... ... 2893 

Water ... ... ... ... ... 2006 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... 6-41 


The seams worked vary in thickness from 6 ft. up to 25 ft. 
They are generally highly inclined, the pitch varying from 
1 in 4 to 1 in 1}, or more. The measures rise to the east, the 
strike of the seams being nearly due north and south. Faults, 
rolls, and washout^ are numerous, and prove very troublesomd 
in the working of the mines. disturbances add very 
greatly to the cost of getting the coal. The principal faults 


have a general direction north and south. They are all down- 
throws to the east, and usually have a displacement of 100 ft. 

The total output from both mines for the year ending the 
31st December, 1905, was 119,743 tons. 

The total number of men and boys employed at the two 
collieries on the surface and underground in the winter-time 
is about fiye hundred. 

The coal worked is very liable to spontaneous combustion, 
and great care has to be exercised to avoid accidents from thii 
cause. The method adopted for working the coal is that known 
as bord-and'pillar. Generally, the seam is worked in small 
sections, each 300 ft. long, and a solid pillar about 50 ft. wide 
ii left between each section to prevent the fire from spreading 
from one section to the one adjoining it. 

Eaitai^gata Colliery. 

The coal is won by means of a cross-measures inclined 
plane 1,000 ft. long, which dips into the hills to the eastward 
at a gradient of 1 in 5. At the foot of this drive the main 
scam was struck. This seam was about 30 ft. thick, and was 
a good hard coal, with a splendid conglomerate roof. The 
seam at this part has been exhausted, and the drive was con- 
tinued to the eastward with a slight rise for a distance of 
3,000 ft., cutting various seams during the course of its 
length. The workings are now situated about 5,000 ft. from 
tho mine-mouth, and the main seam is at present worked ex- 
clusively. Of late, the company has acquired the lease of 
extensive properties owned by Messrs. Aitcheson and James. 
Tho main seam has been proved in each property, the ooal 
being of a first-class quality. 

The ooal is hauled out of the mine by a steam-engine work- 
ing two loose-end ropes. One train of ten boxes descends the 
incline, whilst another similar train is being hauled up. Hie 
coal is passed over a shaker screen, where it is divided into 
four sizes — viz., large coal, nuts, peas, and fine small. Tho 
large coal goes on to a travelling picking-belt, where all the 
dirt and stone is picked out. This belt is fitted with a lower- 
ing-arm, which enables the ooal to be lowered gently down into 


the bottom of the wagons, and thus insures the coal being 
loaded with a minimum of breakage. The fine small, which 
is unsaleable, is blown away by means of a large Root's blower, 
and is deposited on top of a hill about 150 ft. high and 900 ft. 
from the screens. 

The underground pumps and winches are driven by means 
of compressed air. The air-compressor, built by Messrs 
Walker Bros., of Wigan, has steam and air cylinders (two of 
each), 2 ft. 2 in. diameter by 4 ft. stroke. 

The surface works, screens, workshops, engine - houses, 
lamp-room, Ac, are lighted by electricity. 

The colliery is ventilated by a Hayes fan, 9 ft. in diameter, 
which is capable of giving an average volume of air of 36,000 
cubic feet per minute with 1*6 in. water-gauge. The fan can 
be driven either by a steam-engine or by an electric motor 
as circumstances may direct. The electric motor is generally 
used, and the steam-engine is kept in reserve as an alterna- 
tive power. The electric generator is situated in the air- 
compressor house, and the power is conveyed from there to the 
motor at the upcast shaft, a distance of about 700 yards. 
Both the generator and the motor are of 30 brake-horse-power, 
and capable of working up to 1,250 volts. 

Considerable quantities of firedamp are given off in the 
workings, and the mine is therefore worked entirely by safety- 
lamps, no naked lights being allowed inside the lamp-station, 
which is situated close to the bottom of the drive. 

A new air-shaft, 7 ft. 6 in. by 5 ft., is being put down to 
connect with the present workings. This will considerably 
reduce the length of the airways, the maintenance of which 
is very expensive at present. 

Castle Hill Colliery. 

Here the coal is won by means of an inclined cross-measures 
drive 2,700 ft. long. The gradient of the drive is 1 in 4J. 
At 2,100 ft. a seam of coal, about 20 ft. thick, was struck. 
This was worked for a time, and the drive was continued at 
the same gradient for another 600 ft., and intersecting the 
11 ft. seam at about 200 ft., and the 25 ft. seam near to the 


bottom of the drive. The drive was continued with a slight 
rise in an easterly direction, and what is known as " Green's 
seam/' which is 20 ft. thick, was struck at a distance of 
2,900 ft. from the surface, and the 6 ft. seam at 3,210 ft. from 
the surface. All the seams vary in thickness, and are badly 
cut up with faults, rolls, washouts, &c. These are rather 
troublesome, and render it very difficult to lay out the work- 
ings in a systematic manner. On an average 100 men are em- 
ployed underground, and 100 safety-lamps of the Marsant 
deflector type are in use. 

The surface works, engine-houses, and the landings at 
the various seams underground are all lighted by elec- 

The endless-rope system of haulage is in use. An endless 
rope also drives the main pump at the bottom of the drive. 
The rope for hauling the coal travels at the rate of one mile 
per hour, and the pump rope runs at about five miles per 
hour. The tubs are attached to the hauling-rope in pairs by 
a clip-chain attached to the front tub. Each tub carries about 
6} cwt. of coal. The engine for working the endless ropes has 
a pair of cylinders, 20 in. diameter by 5 ft. stroke, geared 
5 to 1 on to the hauling-rope-drum shaft. 

The pump, which is fixed 2,000 ft. down the drive, has 
three rams, each 10 in. in diameter by 20 in. stroke, and is 
capable of delivering 35,000 gallons of water per hour a 
vertical height of 500 ft. 

The coal is passed over a LyelFs patent shaker screen, where 
it is divided into four sizes — viz., large, nuts, peas, and fine 
small. The large coal afterwards passes over a picking-belt, 
where all stone and inferior coal is picked out, so that only 
the very best household coal is sent to market. 

Compressed air is used underground for driving, haulage- 
engines, and pumps, which are used in connection with dip 
workings. The dip water is all pumped into a large lodg- 
ment, from which it is raised by the three-throw pump, which 
delivers it to the surface. A pair of two-stage Leyner air- 
compressors, fixed on the surface, are used for supplying air 
to the winches and pumps underground. 


The colliery is ventilated by a good air-furnace, which is 
capable of producing a sufficient quantity of air for all pre- 
sent requirements. 

There is ample siding accommodation at both collieries for 
the present output. A private line, about five miles in length, 
connects the collieries with the Government railway at 


Somewhere between the years 1870 and 1880, if not earlier, 
ooal was discovered in the vicinity of the Wairio and Morley 
Creeks, in the Wairio and Wairaki districts of Southland — 
some say by the late Mr. James Mackintosh, M.H.R. for 
Wallace, and others by the late Mr. William Johnston, of 
Wrey's Bush, or by their employees, when crossing these creeks 
in their wagons on what is now the main high road between 
the Winton and Waiau districts. There may be other 
claimants who deserve the honour as well. However, it was 
not until the winter of 1880 that these discoveries took a con- 
crete form. Towards the end of 1879 Mr. William Handyside, 
the present managing director of the company, having been 
driven out of Ceylon by repeated attacks of fever in the course 
of several years' coffee-planting there, came to New Zealand 
on a visit to relatives engaged in sheep-farming, and the in- 
vigorating climate had such a beneficial effect that he decided 
to remain, and naturally began to look about for something 
to do. Hearing that coal was said to exist in what is now 
known as the Nightcaps district, and that something might ba 
made of it, he determined to have a look round, first of ail 
visiting the Shag Point Colliery, then in full swing, the Green 
Island pits, also the Eaitangata Mine, which was then recover- 
ing from the effects of the fearful explosion and loss of life 
that occurred shortly before. Coming to Invercargill later 


on, and being introduced to the late Mr. William Johnston, of 
Wrey's Bush, on whose land the coal was found, Mr. Handy- 
side spent some time in prospecting, and also had a look at 
Orepuki, where a similar kind of coal was said to exist ; but, 
preferring the open country and indications at Nightcaps as 
more likely, coupled with the prospects of the railway being 
shortly extended beyond Otautau in the direction of the new 
coal-find, he returned to Dunedin, and there making the ac- 
quaintance of Mr. Charles Edward Twining, mining engineer 
to the Kaitangata Colliery, and shortly previous to that 
manager of the Bold Colliery, in Lancashire, England, thd 
two decided to make a trip to Nightcaps and test the field 
further, and also haye analyses made of the coal, with the 
view of forming a small company to develop the same. This 
was carried out later on under the name of the '' Nig^htcaps 
Coal Company," but not until the Goyernment of the day de- 
cided to extend the railway to within three miles of the ooal- 
outcrop, and also promised to use the coal on the railways, 
provided the quality and price was suitable. About Septem- 
ber, 1880, the company was formed, with Mr. Handyside as 
managing director and Mr. Twining as mining engineer, and 
boring operations were begun near what is the present site of 
the post and telephone office, under the direction of Mr. Robert 
Sharp, a miner from the Kaitangata Colliery. These opera- 
tions occupied some months, costing about ^600, but with no 
very satisfactory results, as the diamond drill was not then in 
general use ; however, the Iwrehole (over 300 ft. deep) indi- 
cations were good enough to warrant driving into the coal 
from the outcrop at the Wairio Creek, which was acoordingiy 
done with the usual winding-engine, drum, wire rope, Ac, 
the coal dipping towards the east at an angle of about 1 ft. io 
5 ft. or 6 ft. Being now assured that there was a oonsiderablo 
body of coal of fair quality for steam and house use, and after 
several practical tests on the railways and elsewhere, the com- 
pany urged upon the Government the extension of the railway 
from Otautau, some thirteen miles, promising that if this was 
done efforts would be made to bring the coal to market. 
Whether they were not certain of the nearest outcrop of coal. 

i4 S 


^ ^ 

i-ZJ o 


or whether they thought the railway oould best be extended 
up the Aparima Valley at some future date by way of what is 
now Wairio, ten miles from Otantau (with then hardly a fenoe 
between or any roads or cultivation), the Government decided 
to take the railway no further than Wairio, leaving private 
enterprise to do the rest. To reach the coal the company re- 
solved to continue the railway to Nightcaps (which takes its 
name from the hill aboVe the township, with two tops, some- 
times covered with sno^, and resembling a nightcap), some 
two or three miles further; but the line had to be passed by 
the Government, with whom the company arranged to work 
the traffic, as at the present time. Meanwhile work was pro- 
gressing at the mine, the services of the present mine-manager, 
Mr. John Lloyd, being procured through Mr. Twining, with 
whom he was working at the Eaitangata Coal-mine, the two 
having known each other in the coal districts of England and 
Wales, and having only then recently arrived in the colony. 
This was in May, 1881, and shortly after work was begun in 
earnest. There were many difficulties to contend wilii — no 
metalled roads to transport material, faults and breaks in 
the coal-seams, water to pump out, and other troubles inci- 
dental to making a settlement out of the wilderness, the miners 
and others having to live in tents and huts for a year or two; 
tramways to lay, coal-stage screens to erect, and the railway- 
station and yard, with its many coal and public sidings, to 
put down, &c. As it was necessary to lay out a township for 
the miners, storekeepers, and others, this was done by the 
company, and the township was sold at auction in Invercar- 
gill about Christmas, 1881, the proceeds from it coming in 
handy to meet the heavy outlay going on. 

On the 3rd March, 1882, the railway was opened by a 
special train from Invercargill, bringing some four or five 
hundred people. From that day to this coal has rolled out of 
Nightcaps, day in and day out (Sundays as a rule excepted), 
with varying success. At the start three trains per week were 
supposed to suffice; now there are fifteen. The Govern- 
ment began using the coal on the railways, and the public for 
threshing and household purposes, not to mention other in- 

15— Mining Handbook. 


dustries requiring fuel, and, finally, the Lake Wakatipu 
steamers. Shortly after opening, Mr. Lloyd, the mine-man- 
ager, in the course of further prospecting for the company, 
found another and much thicker seam of coal, and of better 
quality for steaming purposes; this has been worked erer 
since. From time to time he has found other seams in con- 
nection with it, and these are the seams that are being worked 
at the present time. About 1884 or 1885 the Orepuki Coal- 
field began to be opened out, and for a short time the Night- 
caps Company experienced severe competition. In consequence 
the output increased but slowly, owing to the coal not being 
used for marine purposes when seaborne coal from Newcastle, 
as well as Greymouth and Westport coal, could be got at the 
Bluff— Southland's seaport. But during the great coal strike 
at these places in 1890 the Nightcaps Mine kept the Unioo 
Company's steamers running weekly between Port Chalmers 
and Melbourne, and vice verui, for about four months, nnti] 
early in 1891, when the strike was declared off. Nightcaps 
coal was also supplied to the direct steamers for Home and to 
some of the local boats at that time, also to Dunedin for both 
gas and household use. 

During the last eight or ten years, owing to the promotion 
of closer settlement and increased grain-growing, also flax- 
milling, the output has increased considerably; it is now 
about 47,000 tons per annum, and the total output has readied 
505,000 tons. But it is not to be supposed that the pre- 
sent position has been attained without a considerable in- 
crease of the original capital to develop the mine and pat 
down improved machinery and plant to keep pace with the 
demand, and the company has always to look ahead a year or 
two for this purpose. The paid-up capital is now J&30,000. 

On the 28th March, 1903, between 7 and 8 p.m., a sudden 
and terrible fire broke out in the main mine-working, 
evidently caused by sparks from the winding-engine lodging 
in the roof and timbers, and the smoke belching out of the 
principal entrance was so dense that it prevented the em- 
ployees from getting in to quench the fire, so the only thing 
to be done was to pump water down the various shafts and 



then dofle them and every other crevice up, with the view of 
smothering the fire» which was done by Mr. Lloyd» the mine- 
manager, backed up by the company's employees, who with 
many of the public worked most heroically, and accomplished 
the feat within forty-eight hours without a moment's relaxa- 
tion. It was at first thought that the mine would have to close 
down, as there was not a man in Nightcaps, except the mine- 
manager, that believed the fire would ever be extinguished; 
but Mr. Lloyd stood alone, confident that he could do it, and 
he did it most effectually in the course of eight months, the 
work never ceasing night or day, and the output of coal going 
on all the same as if nothing had happened. 

Altogether, the company has been fortunate in its em- 
ployees, many of whom, with the mine-manager, have been 
with it since the start, which is an evidence of fair treatment 
on both sides. It is worthy of remark that of the original 
shareholders in 1880 only two remain, Messrs. William 
Handyside and John Roberts, CM. 6., of Murray, Roberts, 
and Co., Dunedin. 


The following table, compiled from the '' Laboratory Reports 
of the Greological Survey of New Zealand," shows the analyses 
of samples of New Zealand coals freshly taken from the 
principal mines in the colony : — 



Analysis by Skey. 







Anthracite . . 

Acheron, Canter- 







Bituminous . . 







m • • 

» • • 















Altered brown 

Malvern Hills . . 







Bituminous .. 








Glanoe-ooal .. 

Bakaia Gorge 








Amaltsbs of Nbw ZbaIiAND Coals — continued. 



Analysia by Skey. 





. ii 






Bituminons . . 







• • • 

Grey BiTor 




6-20 8-01 


Pitoh.ooal .. 





8-33 7-95 


Bituminous . . 

Preservation Inlet 




619 7-91 


Pitoh-ooal .. 

Black Greek, Qrey 




1-82 7-88 


BituminouB .. 





4-14 ' 7 76 



Coalpit Heath 




119 1 7 64 





3-18 7-50 


Brunner Mine 




611 7-36 





1-60 j 

4-66 7-36 






4-22 \ 7-98 





2-39 7-30 






7-49 7-04 


Altered brown 

Malvern Hills 




202 J 6-92 


Bituminous .. 

OUmataora Creek 




8-29 ' 6-90 







1002 . 6-90 



Near Cape Farewell 



2-18 1 

6*06 631 


Pitoh-ooal . . 

Sbag Point 



15-82 \ 10^ , 5-61 


m • • 








Glance-ooal . 








Pitoh-coal . . 

Kamo . . 







Brown coal .. 

Malvern Hills . . 



11-79 1 















6-02 615 









Shag Point 











3-25 5-88 





16-50 1 

100 5-75 





15-44 ' 

2-13 5-74 





18-33 1 

4-37 . 5-67 






5-01 1 5-55 





14-44 i 

6-66 i 5-54 


Pitoh-coal \\ 

Walton's, Wha- 




12-80 4-96 


Brown coal . . 




17-50 1 11-78 ! 3-87 



Shag Point 




20-16 . 4-64 







4 86 : 4-51 



Grey River 




2-60 4-51 

Name of Coal. 

Approximate Total Ontpat 

of CoalnptotbeSlst 

Deeember. 190& 

Pitch . . 
Brown .. 
Lignite . . 









By Robert Tennbnt, Inspector of Mines for Marlborough, Nelson, 
and West Coast. 

Timber suitable for mining purposes is generally classified as 
props, caps, and laths; but, in addition to these, there are 
large quantities of sawn timber which may be profitably used 
in underground working and be reasonably termed mining- 
timber. In fact, description is merely a mining phrase, ap- 
plicable to timber where used under the circumstances. In 
timbering main levels, tunnels, &c., use black-birch, of which 
there are five useful qualities — namely, Fagus fusca^ Fagus 
solandriy Fagus coUnsoi, Fagus obsoleta, and Fagus Fdubia. 
Rimu {Dacrydium cupressinum) is also a useful timber, but 
for blocking-out, where timber is not exposed to heavy strains 
or required for long standing, white-pine (Fodocarpus dacry- 
dioides) may be use^J. White or silver birch {Fagus mtnziesii) 
is equally good for general work. Again, where heavy strains 
are expected timber should either be split or sawn out of large 
trees bearing a straight grain ; caps should be barked and free 
from knots, and, if possible, cut in the months of June and 
July; but for ordinary round props the time of falling is 
of no consequence, on account of the high percentage of sap- 
wood contained. In tunnels, where sound birch timbers are 
exposed to free intake air-currents, indications of a white 
flossy substance is rapidly exuded, and after exposure for 
about two years the sap-wood of birch shows marked signs of 
decomposition — more rapidly than rimu of the same dimen- 
sioiiH. Kamai is a .strong UHeful timber, but subject to dry- 
rot. Black-pine (Matai, Podocarpus sjncata) is excellent tim- 
ber for props if cut out of large trees, but brittle and unsuit- 
able for caps subjected to heavy strains. The same remarks 
apply to totara and kawhaka. Miro (Fodocarpus ferrugtnea) 


is strong when green, but its lasting properties are much less 
than either birch or rimu. The heart of rimu or black-birdi, 
when fallen in the proper season, is a really useful timber for 
general use, but its lasting properties compare unfaTouraUj 
with mountain-pine, siWer-pine, yellow-pine, totara, or 
kawhaka. Ironwood is a strong, durable timber, and when 
placed in certain positions will last for a considerable 
period, but if sunk into the ground decay sets in rapidly. 
It gets ver}' brittle with age, and when manufactured into 
pick-handles has a peculiarity of resembling a diagonal 
crosscut with a knife. Hinau has the appearance of 
wood that would be useful for building purposes, but when 
subject to wind and water near the ground rimu or black- 
birch is preferable. The heart of rimu is used for artistic 
turnery. In the North Island, split or sawn kauri is generally 
used for mining-timber, but round timber of rewarewa, white- 
pine, tawa, mungao, and kukarea are ut^ed where procurable 
at a cheaper rate than kauri. In connection with New Zea- 
land timbers, onje peculiarity is noticeable — ^namely, that 
whereyer they are wholly submerged under water their lasting 
properties are much increased. The most suitable timbers 
for beams or caps are kauri, black-birch, and rimu. 


This is a fund provided by section 69 of " The Coal-mines 
Act, 1891," for the relief of coal-miners who may be injured 
whilst working in coaUmines, and for the relief of families 
of coal-miners who may be killed or injured whilst so work- 
ing. In all districts where there is no Miners' Association 
the Act provides that every coal-mine, whether situate on 


priyate lands or on Crown lands, in addition to the con- 
dition for the payment of any royalty, shall contribute, in the 
months of January, April, July, and October in every year, 
a sum equiyalent to Jd. per ton on the output of the bitu- 
minous coal, and Jd. per ton on lignite, sold during the pre- 
ceding three months respectively ending on the last day of 
the previous months of December, March, June, and Septem- 
ber, such payments to be made at the Post-Ofl&ce Savings-bank 
nearest to the mine to the credit of the Minister of Mines and 
the Public Trustee. These moneys, when received, are duly 
remitted for credit of the fund, which is kept at the Public 
Trust Office, Wellington, and which can be operated on only 
by the Minister of Mines and Public Trustee. 

All Inspectors of Mines are by legislation authorised and 
empowered, at any reasonable time, to examine from time to 
time the books of any owner of a coal-mine for the purpose 
of ascertaining the quantity of coal raised during any period 
or periods, and also to ascertain from the proper officer at 
any Post-Office Savinga-fcank the amount paid to the credit 
of the fund by any owner of a coal-mine from time to time, 
and to compare the amounts so paid by any such owner in re- 
spect of any quarter of a year with the quantity of coal sold 
during such quarter as appearing in the books of the mine. 
If on such comparison it shall appear that the mine-owner has 
not paid into the Relief Fund any amount as thereby pre- 
scribed, or only a part thereof, such owner shall be deemed 
guilty of an offence against the Act, and shall be liable to a 
penalty of £2 in respect of each pound or fraction of a pound 
which he should have paid into the fund. All penalties re- 
covered under the Act, less incidental expenses, shall be paid 
into the Relief Fund. The Act also provides that every owner 
of a coal-mine who refuses, obstructs, or prevents, or causes 
the refusal, obstruction, or prevention of the production of 
books of the mine and the free examination of such books by 
any Inspector of Mines, shall be deemed guilty of an offence, 
and shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £50 for every 
day during which such refusal, obstruction, or prevention con- 


The regttlatioDB iaaued under the Act proTida that the 
Minister of Mines and the Public Trustee shall apply the 
moneys deposited, on receipt of a certificate from a duly quali- 
fied medical officer, and also on the certificate from an In- 
spector of Mines, for any of the objects hereinafter set forth, 
namely: — 

(a.) When any workman has been off work through an 
accident for one week or more, he shall receiTe the 
sum of 128. 6d. per week, or at the rate of 28. Id. 
for every working-day from the date of the accident, 
which shall continue so k>ng as such medical officer 
and Inspector of Mines shall certify that such work- 
man is unable to work ; but when an accident occors 
in any mine situate in a locality remote from settle- 
ment, where the services of a medical officer are not 
procurable, payment at the prescribed rate may be 
made for any period not exceeding thirty days from 
the date of the accident on the certificate of the In- 
spector of Mines alone. Or, in cases where any 
workman is permanently disabled, he may be 
granted a fixed sum, not exceeding ^50, in satisfac- 
tion of all claims; but in the latter case the certi- 
ficate of a duly qualified medical officer and an In- 
spector of Mines will be required. No workman 
shall be entitled to any payment unless he shall have 
been so disabled by accident as to prevent him work- 
ing for a period of not less than one week. 
(b.) If any workman meeJs with an accident which proves 
fatal, the nearest relative of such workman may be 
granted a sum not exceeding £10 towards defraying 
the funeral expenses of the deceased workman ; and 
an additional sum, not exceeding £15, may be 
' granted to the widow or other near relative of such 
deceased workman in full satisfaction of all claims. 
(c.) Any workman who meets with an accident which dis- 
ables him from work shall send, or cause to be sent, 
within seven days of such accident occurring, a 
notice in writing to the Inspector of Mines ; and all 

















applications for relief must be made within four- 
teen days from the date of the accident, or the 
claim cannot be entertained. 
(d,) No workman shall be entitled to relief from the Coal- 
miners' Relief Fund for any accident caused by 
drinking intoxicating liquors, fighting, or any kind 
of athletic sports or game of amusement, or for any 
accident caused by the misconduct of such workman. 
All post-offices throughout the colony which are also money- 
order offices act for the Public Trustee in making payments and 
receiving lodgments in respect of business conducted by the 
Public Trust Office, which has proved a great convenience to 
the miners, as it enables them to receive payments from the 
fund without being required to travel long distances to obtain 

Appended hereto is a tabulated statement showing the 
workings of the fund since it was first instituted in 1891 up 
to the 31st March, 1906:— 

added by 

o • 



Office at 

Bate of 






Amount paid 
into the 
1. Fund. 



Oflice at 

Kate of 8ft 

and 4 per 



and Com- 

Balance at 
Credit of 
Fund on 
iBt April. 

£ 8. 


£ B. d. 

£ 8. 


£ 8. d. £ 8. d. 


, , 

, . 

1892 .. 

45 6 


, , 

45 6 1 

1893 .. 

388 4 


, , 

4 13 3 

428 17 3 


182 19 

6 12 16 2 


124 8 


3 15 

496 9 7 

1895 . . 

452 6 10; 28 10 1 


137 13 


4 10 3 

805 2 11 

1896 . . 

456 1 

7 87 5 11 


374 12 


952 10 5 

1897 . . 

390 2 

3 40 13 10 


251 3 

41 3 18 1 

1,128 5 1 


563 9 

5. 45 18 6 


427 1 


5 12 5 

1,304 18 8 

1899 .. 

531 6 

5 55 14 9 


I 231 5 


5 6 

1,655 8 


551 8 

1, 70 3 3 


302 5 

5 8 11 

1.969 5 6 

1901 .. 

564 19 

ll 84 15 8 



5 12 4'2,398 7 10 

1902 .. 

616 8 

41 96 8 8 


578 3 


6 2 5 2,526 19 

1908 .. 

648 9 

9 104 11 7 


445 9 


6 9 8-2,828 1 

1904 ,. 

654 4 

8,116 9 5 


566 6 


6 9 8,3,025 19 3 

1905 .. 

. 893 15 

6123 6 11 


725 5 


8 18 6|3,308 17 5 


1,230 7 

41137 7 4 



1,052 6 


12 4 1,3,612 1 8 


j8,169 9 

21954 2 1 


5,431 1 


80 8 6; .. 


Westport Harbo