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JEbe athenaeum 





In offering this small volume to those who may read it 
the author wishes to express her own indebtedness, not alone 
to the men and to the women whose books have supplied 
her with facts and with inspiration, but also to relatives 
and personal friends who have shared in her work as coun- 
selors, and to authorities of distinguished attainment who 
have given the manuscript careful reading. Among these 
should be mentioned Professor Irving Fisher of Yale Uni- 
versity, Professor W. L. Tower and Professor G. H. Mead of 
The University of Chicago, Professor Thomas M. Balliet 
of New York University, Dr. Luther H. Gulick of New 
York City, and Professor Adolf Meyer of the Johns Hopkins 

Acknowledgment is also made to authors and to publishers 
through whose kindness many of the illustrations of this book 
have become possible ; also to Mr. Victor David Brenner for 
permission to represent on the cover his medallion, " The 
Successors to the Fates." Having been designed for the 
Fifteenth International Congress of Hygiene and Demog- 
raphy, this emblem most appropriately shows that " the distaff 
from which is spun the thread of life is held to-day by the 
forces of modern hygiene." 

































AGO AND Now 189 





INDEX 231 


In the days of myths in ancient Greece men talked about 
three Fates who were sisters. And in Rome an artist 1 
painted these sis- 
ters as they were 
supposed to be 
three old women 
in a group, con- 
trolling the des- 
tiny of every 
human being. 

As they stand 
together in the pic- 
ture they neither 
weep nor smile ; 
they show neither 
joy nor sorrow, 
neither hope nor 
despair. Each is 
working, watch- 
ing, waiting. 

Clotho is the 

youngest sister. THE THREE FATES 

She holds the 

distaff which carries the thread of life. This thread begins to 

lengthen when the baby is born. Lachesis, the second sister, 

1 Supposed to have been Michelangelo. 


spins out the thread as the years go by ; and Atropos, the 
third sister Fate, stands by with huge shears. She is the 
oldest, the most haggard, the most cruel of them all, and she 
threatens the thread from the moment the spinning begins 
until she decides to cut it. 

Sometimes she clips her shears together and cuts when 
the thread has lengthened no more than a hand's breadth. 
This means that the baby dies very young. Sometimes the 
thread grows longer and longer, until yards of it have been 
spun off by Lachesis. This means that, although Atropos 
continued to threaten with her shears, she did not actually 
bring them together until years had passed and the baby had 
grown to be a man. 

The teaching of the picture of the myth is that human 
beings of every age, in every generation, are but the play- 
things of the Fates that life is longer or shorter as the 
Fates decide, and that no act of man can change either his 
own destiny or that of his descendants. 

Here, then, is the difference between ancient myth and 
modern science. Nowadays science declares that man is by 
no means altogether helpless concerning his own future that 
only the fool believes he cannot help himself. And, laden 
with facts to prove each point, science goes on to show how 
man may shorten his life or lengthen it, how he may bless 
his life or curse it, how he may make his life or mar it, by 
what he knows and by the way he puts his knowledge to use. 

Science does not stop even here, but, with proofs in hand, 
shows that the destiny of future generations lies in the hands 
of the men and the women, the boys and the girls, who are 
alive to-day. 

This book deals with the same absorbing topic. It tries to 
show how it is that science has crippled those ancient Fates, 


and why it is that a man who understands the laws of growth 
and of inheritance may, in a very real way, drive the crippled 
Fates from the field and help shape the future of the race. 

Some one has suggested that the three Fates of modern 
life are 

1 . Heredity what we receive from our ancestors by the 
road of inheritance. 

2. Environment all that surrounds us and influences us 
from the cradle to the grave. 

3 . Personal development what we make of ourselves 
during life. 

The analogy is not altogether perfect, but the following 
pages take each of these modern Fates into account. 

To understand inheritance we must follow life from pre- 
historic ages until now. From small beginnings we must trace 
large results must learn how it is and why it is that all life 
on the earth is joined as a unit, and must know how life is 
passed on from generation to generation. 

We must even study 'life cells in their development, and 
watch them as they grow from stage to stage, until at last 
they become well-developed beings. 

In other words, we must learn so many facts about life itself 
and about what controls it, that we shall be better prepared to 
face our own lives and the lives of future generations. 

Science says human beings will be safer when people 
know the facts and are influenced by them. Teachers say, 
" Give us the facts and we will pass them on to the boys 
and the girls whom we teach." Both scientist and teacher 
agree that the human race will be better able to escape 
certain kinds of peril if we let young people know what the 
perils are and how to avoid them. 

Such is the purpose of this book. 

Hitherto the development of our race has been uncon- 
scious, and we have been allowed no responsibility for its 
right course. Now, in the fullness of time, we are treated 
as children no more, and the conscious fashioning of the 
human race is given into our hands. Let us put away childish 
things, stand up with open eyes, and face our responsibilities. 




At our county fair recently the animal that drew the 
crowd and won the prize was a huge Poland-China pig. 
He weighed twelve hundred pounds, measured seven full feet 
in length, was coal black with white feet and a white face, 
and had ears that flapped low. He had a turned-up nose, a 
curled-up tail, legs barely long enough to hold his body from 
the ground, and he cost exactly three thousand dollars. 

" But why did you pay so much ? " we asked the owner. 

" For three reasons," he said. 

1. " The pig has a fine line of ancestors. 

2. " He shows it in every part of his body. 

3. "His descendants are sure to be like him and to bring 
fancy prices." 

From this man's point of view it was indeed clear that for 
the sake of the next generation even pigs must have the 
right sort of ancestors. 

And what about human beings, we wondered the people 
next door, and the rest of us ? Does the law apply to us all ? 
We thought them over, one by one, neighbors to the north 
and to the south, to the east and to the west of us, men, 
women, and children who are set apart in families, with each 
family quite different from all the others. 


Yet we knew that if a student of the laws of inheritance 
should come to town, and if he should hear certain definite 
facts about the ancestors of these neighbors, even without a 
glance at the men and the women themselves, or at their 
children, he would be able to go from door to door and nail 
on most of them a few definite statements about the children 

in the house. 

One label might read : 
" Every child here has 
light hair and blue 
eyes." Another : " Every 
child in this family has 
dark hair and dark 
eyes." Another : " Most 
of the children unusually 
bright." Still another : 
" Children dark-skinned 
with curly hair." 

And then if the same 
student should go to the 
small house around the 
corner, and should know 
what the parents and the grandparents of the children have 
been, the paper nailed to the door would read : " Every child 
in this family is either idiotic or feeble-minded." 

It is true that in many cases even the closest students of 
inheritance would not be able to make definite statements 
about color of hair, eyes, etc. Nevertheless, when all the doors 
had been labeled, those who read the statements would see 
that most of them told the truth about the children. 

Later chapters will show how it comes about that men are 
able to speak so positively about persons whom they have 



never seen. We know this is done. Perhaps, however, we 
hardly appreciate the tremendous power of the laws which 
tie the generations together. 

Take, for example, the record of the family of Jonathan 
Edwards. He himself was born in 1703. He was noted for 
his strength of character, for his mental power, and for his 
fearless loyalty to duty. 

Such was the character stamp which he had when he began 
to be an ancestor. As to whether or not his own character 
made any difference with the character of his descendants, 
nothing but facts will show, and here are some of them. 1 In 
1900, of the descendants of Jonathan Edwards, 1 394 had been 
located, and the occupations of many were ascertained. The 
following facts are quoted. 

College presidents 13 

College professors 65 

Doctors 60 

Clergymen, missionaries, etc. . . 100 

Officers in the army and navy 75 

Eminent authors and writers 60 

Lawyers over 100 

Judges 30 

Holders of public offices, one being Vice President of 

the United States 80 

United States senators 3 

Managers of railroads, banks, insurance companies, etc. 1 5 

College graduates 295 

Several were governors and holders of important state 


The claim is also made that " almost if not every depart- 
ment of social progress and of public weal has felt 
the impulse of this healthy and long-lived family." 

1 Taken from Mr. Winship's account of the descendants of Jonathan 


The following statement touches another point. "It is not 
known that any one of them was ever convicted of crime." 

Such, then, is the well-authenticated record of a single 
family, living in the United States of America. Clearly 
enough, the world is better off because Jonathan Edwards 
became an ancestor. 

Take another American family, with another kind of fame. 
The "Jukes family" 1 it is called. The first discovered an- 
cestor of this group was a shiftless fisherman born in New 
York state in 1720. He had five daughters, and in the five 
generations since then the family has numbered 1200 per- 
sons. This includes 200 outsiders who have married into the 
family. Follow the occupations of some of these people. 
The facts are quoted from the printed record. 

Convicted criminals 130 

Habitual thieves 60 

Murderers 7 

Wrecked by diseased wickedness 440 

Immoral women fully one half 

Professional paupers 310 

Trades learned by twenty. Ten of these learned the 
trade in prison. 

Think also of this other fact which the report brings out : 
During the years of their lives not paupers alone but also 
those who had committed robbery and murder and broken 
every law of decency had to be supported at public expense. 
That is to say, law-abiding and efficient citizens those who 
stayed out of prison and out of the workhouse, those who 
worked hard with honest purpose to support themselves 
had to pay taxes for the support of these lawless and in- 
efficient people who spent their days in prison and in the 

1 Not the real family name. 




H 70 



fc 55 






00 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 191 




70 g 

as' 3 



50 g 


45 3 










f s' 










f s' 



















' $* 

~~ s'^ 







-*- W* 



















^ -- 












!00 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 19 

(From Statistical Atlas," Twelfth Census of the United States) 


It is estimated that already this single family of Jukes 
has cost the state of New York over $1,250,000; and the 
expense still goes on, for each generation of descendants 
continues to be what its ancestors were. 

In the United States as a whole those of us who are able- 
bodied, clear-headed, and diligent are taxed over $100,000,- 
ooo each year for the support of criminals, paupers, the 
insane, the feeble-minded, and the diseased. This does not 
include the enormous sums paid out by ourselves in private 
charities. More serious still, thousands of those who were 
cursed from birth by the quality of their ancestors and by the 
surroundings in which they grew up are themselves now a 
curse to their descendants and to the communities in which 
they live. 

No wonder, then, that the relation of cause to effect in life 
is being studied now as never before in the history of the 
world. The truth is that there was never such an array of 
facts to show what the trouble is and how to escape it. 

Examine the chart which shows the rate of increase in 
national populations. Notice what is happening in the dif- 
ferent countries of the world. See how the millions of the 
inhabitants piled themselves up between the years 1800 and 
1900. Imagine this rate of increase as it goes on for the 
next hundred years ; then think of the difference it will make 
in the outcome of things whether one kind of family or the 
other kind multiplies faster on the earth. 

The next few chapters give facts which show what the laws 
of inheritance are laws which apply not only to poultry and 
to guinea pigs but to all living creatures, including man. 



Selected eggs were in the incubator, and the men who 
owned them waited to see what the chicks would look like. 
It seems there are two distinct kinds of Andalusian fowls, 
one pure-bred black, the 
other pure-bred white with 
dashes of black here and 
there, and the owners had 
selected one bird from each 
group to be parents of the 
next generation of chicks. 

The question was whether 
these chicks would be black 
like one parent or white like 
the other parent, or whether 
they would show a mixture 
of the two colors. BLUE ANDALUSIAN PuLLET 

The chickens come in three colors : blue, 

black, and white ; the larger number 

being blue 

The answer came after the 
little creatures were hatched. 
Not a black one or a white 
one appeared among them ; each was a queer mixture of 
black and white which is technically called blue. 

Was this an accident, the breeders wondered, or would the 
same thing happen over again if other Andalusian parents 
were chosen ? So they made another test. In the first ex- 
periment the father was black, the mother white. Now they 




changed the order. They chose a pure-bred white father and 
a pure-bred black mother. Again they waited for results, 
and again the chicks told the same story. Not a black one 
or a white one was among them ; all were as blue as the 
first group. 

From then until now the same experiment has always 
produced the same result. Whenever a black Andalusian 

fowl and a white Anda- 
lusian fowl have become 
parents, their chicks in the 
first generation have always 
grown up to be blue Anda- 
lusian fowls. They are a 
mixture and not pure-bred 
like their parents. Such a 
mixture is always called 
hybrid. Remember this 
word and its meaning. It 
is the opposite of pure-bred. 
All animals are hybrid un- 
less both parents are pure- 
bred of the same kind. 

The next step in this 
investigation was to gather 
facts about the descendants of the hybrids. Would they be 
blue like their parents or black like one grandparent or white 
like the other grandparent ? 

In making this experiment two blue ones were chosen as 

The illustration shows what happened in the next genera- 
tion. One chick was white like one grandparent ; one was black 
like the other grandparent; two were blue like their parents. 



Follow the illustration on the next page and see what came 
to pass when the different members of that mixed group of 
chicks became ancestors. 

The black one was mated with a black one from another 
family not shown in the picture. Eggs were laid. These 
hatched out in proper fashion, and behold, every chick of the 
next generation was as black as its parents ; not one was blue 
like its grandparents. 

The white one was also mated with another white one from 
another family, and here the chicks in the next generation 
were all as white as their parents, with not a blue one among 
them to remind themselves of their blue grandparents. 

But when the blue ones were mated with others like them- 
selves, their children turned out precisely as did the children 
of the hybrids of the previous generation. That is, out of 
every four, one chick was black, one was white, and two 
were blue. 

These experiments have been repeated over and over 
again in different parts of the world, and the results are 
always the same. Stated concisely, they are as follows : 

1 . When a pure-bred black Andalusian fowl is mated with 
a pure-bred black, all the descendants are pure-bred black ; 
and so long as black is mated with black, no white one and 
no blue one will ever appear in any generation of the family. 

2. When a pure-bred white Andalusian fowl is mated with 
a pure-bred white, all the descendants are white ; and if white 
continues to be mated with white, no black one and no blue 
one will ever appear in later generations of the family. 

3. When a pure-bred white is mated with a pure-bred black, 
not a member of the next generation will be pure-bred ; not 
one will be either black or white ; each will be a hybrid and 
each will be blue. 



4. When a blue Andalusian fowl is mated with another blue 
hybrid like itself, one quarter of the offspring will be white, 
another quarter will be black, while the remaining half will 
be hybrid and will show it by being blue. 1 


Follow the descendants of the first two and notice what occurs in successive genera- 
tions when a pure-bred black Andalusian fowl and a pure-bred white Andalusian fowl 
become ancestors. In studying the illustration remember that, in the second genera- 
tion of offspring, the black one and the white one are mated with pure-breds like 
themselves, which are not shown in the drawing 

With Andalusian fowls these laws of color inheritance 
never vary. They can always be depended upon. They con- 
tinue from generation to generation, and by knowing who the 

1 The number of individuals in the diagram for each generation does not 
mean that there are always just so many chicks in each family. Instead, the 
number is chosen for no other purpose than to show the proportion of 
black and white and blue that comes in each generation of descendants 
when a black Andalusian fowl is mated with a white Andalusian fowl. 
Moreover, it is not meant that every family of four has one white, one 
black, and two blue chicks, but only that this is true on the average. 
There is just one chance in four that an egg will hatch out a white chick, 
one chance in four that the chick will be black, and one chance in two 
that it will be blue. 


Andalusian ancestors are one can always tell what the color 
of the descendants will be. 

But inheritance is not always such an easy affair to follow. 
On the contrary, Andalusian fowls simply help us by showing 
what the laws are in their simplest form. We shall soon see 
that these same laws are in control even when inheritance 
seems nothing more than a tangled skein of chances. Take 
the guinea pig, for example. Here combinations occur which 
would be pretty hard to understand if it were not for Andalusian 
fowls. The next chapter deals with these guinea pigs. 



Between 1900 and 1905 about three thousand guinea pigs 
and several hundred rabbits were reared and housed and 
studied in the Zoological Laboratory of Harvard University. 
Professor Castle kept them in this laboratory of living crea- 
tures for the sake of seeing what he could do for descendants 
when he himself chose ancestors for them. 

His main work was with guinea pigs, and he chose them 
because they are small, because they do not eat much, do not 
take up much room, are easily cared for, and multiply fast. 

Perhaps the last reason was really the most important of 
all. The truth is, small animals have so short a time from one 
generation to the next that is, from parent to child that 
it is easy to trace resemblances between far-away ancestors 
and present-day descendants. 2 

Rabbits have a new generation every eight months, and 
guinea pigs multiply at the rate of four generations a year. 
This means that guinea pigs can have children, grandchildren, 
great-grandchildren, and great-great-grandchildren all within 
the same year. Thus guinea pigs are particularly well fitted 
to serve as helpers in answering questions about inheritance, 
for within a very few years the descendants show just what 
their long lines of ancestors have done for them. 

In size these animals are about as large as well-developed 
rats. But instead of being all of one color, as are rats, the 

1 As used in books of this kind the word character means " characteristic." 

2 All children of the same parent belong to the same generation. 



coats of guinea pigs show black, white, chocolate, yellow, or 
a mixture of certain shades of these different colors. For 
instance, spots of yellow-red and of blue-black, also dashes 
of black and of white, often occur in different combinations. 
But no combination of colors taught Dr. Castle plainer lessons 


A dark, smooth mother and a rough albino father are at the top. Below is their son. 
He is black because, in guinea-pig inheritance, black is dominant over white; he is 
rough because rough coat is dominant over smooth coat. At the bottom is a smooth, 
white grandchild of the black and the white grandparents. (After Castle, 1905.) 
Publication 23, Carnegie Institution 

of inheritance than those which he learned from guinea pigs 
that were plain black and plain white. Still, even these were 
more or less interesting according to another character of 
the coat that covered them. For some the coat was rough as 
a rug, with spots here and there that looked like " cowlicks " 


or rosettes ; others, both the long-haired and the short-haired, 
had coats smooth like silk. Some had fur so short that each 
separate hair stayed in place without being brushed ; others 
had hair so long that it could be combed and parted and 
brushed from side to side. Indeed, the length of hair for a 
full-grown guinea pig runs all the way from less than two 
inches on some to over six inches on others. 

But whatever the character of the fur, whether long or 
short, black or white, rough or smooth, Dr. Castle found that 
each one of these characters was transmitted from ancestor 
to descendant in accordance with definite laws, and that 
the laws themselves are quite like those which control the 
descendants of Andalusian fowls. 

At first sight this seems to be hardly true. Take, for exam- 
ple, his black guinea pigs mated with white albino 1 guinea 
pigs. Judging by Andalusian fowls, we should expect to see 
a row of small blue guinea pigs in the next generation. But 
study the diagram and see what actually happened. One 
parent was pure-bred black, the other was pure-bred albino 
white, yet every child of theirs was as black as its black 
parent. Not a blue one or a white one was found anywhere 
among them. It looked as if each had inherited from its 
black parent alone as if the white parent had not been 
taken into account at all. Still we know that every guinea 
pig in the row was bound to be hybrid ; we know there was 
no escape for them, because, one and all, they were the 
children of two different kinds of pure-bred parents. 

2 "An albino is an animal with unpigmented eyes and with little or no 
pigment in its coat." Castle. The eyes of an albino are pink because there 
is no pigment in the iris. The color of the blood vessels therefore shines 
through it. Albino guinea pigs always have pink eyes. There are white 
guinea pigs with black eyes. These are not albino. In this chapter it is 
the albino white that are mentioned. The other white ones are not pure-bred. 


Why, then, were these hybrids black and not blue ? Simply 
because, with guinea pigs, black is the so-called dominant 
color. This means that when one parent is black and the 
other parent white, and when the two colors are therefore 



Although pure-bred black guinea pigs and hybrid black guinea pigs look alike, they 
are really different, and this difference appears in the color of their children. When 
a pair of black guinea pigs have only black children, we know the parents are pure- 
bred ; but when a pair of black guinea pigs have white children as well as black ones, 
we know their parents are hybrids. Study the illustration upwards from children to 
parents and decide which ancestors are pure, which hybrid. In doing this remember 
that in the second generation of offspring the black one and the white one are mated 
with pure-breds like themselves, which are not shown in the drawing. As you study 
the illustration keep the following facts in mind : i . Pure-bred black mated with 
white gives black in every member of the next generation. Still each is as distinctly 
hybrid as are the Andalusian fowls. 2. All are black and not blue, because, with 
guinea pigs, black is the dominant, white the recessive character. 3. Whenever a 
white guinea pig appears as the offspring of two black guinea pigs, we know that the 
parents were hybrids. (Find them in the illustration.) For this reason we can never 
tell whether a black guinea pig is pure or hybrid until we have seen its offspring. 
4. Whenever all the children of two black guinea pigs are black, we know that at 
least one of the parents was pure. (Find them in the drawing.) 5. Whenever a white 
guinea pig mates with a white one, all the offspring are sure to be white. Compare 
this illustration with that of the Andalusian fowls. Note the differences 

to be passed on by inheritance to later generations of guinea 
pigs, the black dominates in the immediate next generation. 
The white color, on the other hand, is recessive ; that is, 
it recedes from sight and does not appear in any member 


of that next generation. These two words, dominant and 
recessive, are to be remembered, because, as we shall see 
later, they help us understand why one character and not 
another makes its appearance in succeeding generations. 

As we already know, with Andalusian fowls neither black 
nor white is either dominant or recessive. As a result, when 
the two are mated, the color of the next generation is neither 
black nor white, but a mixture of the two, and ever} 7 member 
of the young family is blue. 

With guinea pigs, however, black dominates in such high- 
handed fashion that white is crowded entirely out of sight in 
the next family of descendants. White is therefore called the 
recessive color. Even hybrids among them are black. Study 
the illustration to see what occurs in each successive generation. 
Notice that the children of black hybrid guinea pigs are 
of three sorts, even as are the children of blue hybrid Anda- 
lusian fowls. 

{One is pure-bred white, like its white grandparent. 
r\ u j ui i ri <. ui i j 

One is pure-bred black, like its black grandparent. 
Two are hybrid black, like the parents. 

It is evident, then, that nature does not always label children 
so clearly as Andalusian fowls are labeled. Nevertheless, in 
both cases the same great laws hold true for ancestors and 
descendants alike. 

Now go a step further. Dr. Castle tells us that color is 
not the only character which moves along in definite fashion, 
by definite laws. He says that when he mates a rough- 
coated guinea pig with one that has a smooth coat, all the 
little guinea pigs of the next generation, whether they are 
white or black, brown or yellow, have rough coats ; not one 
among them is smooth-coated. This means that rough coat is 
the dominant character and smooth coat the recessive character. 


Again, when he takes a pure-bred guinea pig with short 
hair and gives it a mate with long hair, each small guinea 
pig in the next generation, whatever its color may be, has 
short hair. This means that short hair is dominant, long 
hair recessive. Thus it turns out that, with guinea pigs, as 


The first row shows a white, smooth-coated father, a black, smooth-coated mother, 
and their children. Each one of these is black and has a smooth coat. The second 
row shows a pair of these black hybrid children. The third row shows grandchildren 
who were children of the hybrids. Notice the white one among them. It resem- 
bles its grandfather. (From photographs furnished by Professor W. E. Castle of 
Harvard University) 

he says, " black is dominant over white, rough coat over 
smooth coat, short coat over long coat." 

By knowing these facts Dr. Castle is able to mate his 
guinea pigs in such wise as to secure precisely the kind of 
descendants he wishes them to have. They will be black or 
white, with long coat or with short coat, with rough coat or 


with smooth coat, with spots or bands or dashes of color, 
in exact accord with the ancestors he chooses for them. 1 

In all this discussion, remember that there are many hybrid 
mixtures of every kind of guinea pig, that hybrids are always 
more abundant than pure-breds, and that when men hunt for 
laws of inheritance, they are as careful as possible to start 
with pure-bred ancestors. 

And because these laws of inheritance also affect human 
beings, we are interested in them.* Science is teaching that 
each one of us is a bundle of combined characters. Shape 
of head, of hands, and feet ; length of arm, of leg, and 
backbone ; color of skin, of hair, of eyes ; turn of nose 
and of jaw; quality of brain-stuff; type of temperament 
all these are combined in different ways in each generation, 
and some of the characters may be clearly traced back through 
generation after generation of our ancestors. 

Speaking of this matter, Dr. Forel says : " In my own face 
the two halves are distinctly different, one resembling my 
maternal ancestor, and the other, in a lesser degree, my 
paternal ancestor ; these points being seen distinctly in 
photographs taken in profile." 2 He adds: "A person may 
have his father's nose and his mother's eyes ; his paternal 
grandmother's humor, and the maternal grandfather's intelli- 
gence, and all with infinite degrees of variation, for it is only 
a matter of more or less accentuated variations." 

Much less is known of mental than of physical inheri- 
tance, nevertheless Dr. Forel shows how it may explain the 
children of many a distinguished man. He says that "a 
common woman will lower the level of the offspring of a 

1 All this is called " breeding for points." Nothing of the kind has been 
done for human beings. 

2 Doubtless an unusual case. 


distinguished husband, and inversely. . . . Moreover," as he 
adds, " the most deceptive point is the contrast of a man of 
genius with his children who do not rise to his standard 
because they represent a combination of ancestral energies 
with their other parent." 

We shall return to this subject later in the book. 

The next chapter goes back to the man who first dis- 
covered that color, shape, etc. are inherited through the 
working of definite laws. No name to-day ranks higher 
among students of biology than that of Gregor Mendel, 
the man who studied flowers for the sake of understanding 



Those who watched the man must have wondered what 
possessed him. Every day they saw him in the gardens of the 

cloister there in Briinn, 
Austria, and every day 
they noticed that, al- 
though he was a teacher 
of science, he worked like 
a trained gardener over 
his growing pea vines. 
Moreover, strange to say, 
he did not seem to care 
so much about the flowers 
on the vines as about the 
shape and the color of the 
seeds and the seed pods. 
In the course of time 
the neighbors learned that 
the teacher's name was 
Mendel, 1 and that alto- 
gether he had twenty-two 

different kinds of peas under cultivation. Probably they did 
not know that he was searching day and night for laws of 

1 Gregor Johann Mendel was born in Heinzendorf, Austria, in 1822. 
He was always a faithful student, and became a priest in Briinn, Austria, 
in 1847. 1 J 868 he was appointed abbot of the Konigskloster, where he 
had been priest. 





inheritance, and that he expected to find these laws just as 
surely by studying peas and their descendants as by studying 
animals and their 

For the sake of 
getting clear results 
he studied characters 
in pairs or groups, 
as it were. 

1. The form of the 
ripe seed whether 
round and smooth or 
angular and deeply 

2. The color of the 
cotyledon whether 
yellow or green. 

3. The color of the 
seed coat whether 
white, gray, or brown. 

4. The form of 
the ripe seed pod 
whether inflated and 
smooth or constricted 
between the peas and 

5. The color of 
the unripe pod 
whether green or 
bright yellow. 

6. The way the flowers grew whether they were bunched 
together at the top or scattered along on the stem. 


A, pod of yellow peas ; B, pod of green peas ; C, 
offspring of A and B ; Z>, offspring of C. Notice 
that in C yellow is dominant and green recessive, 
and that green appears again in D, just as white 
guinea pigs appear among the offspring of hybrid 
black guinea pigs. (From " Mendel's Principles of 
Heredity," by W. Bateson) 


7. The height of the plant. One kind had a stem seven 
feet long, while the stem of another was but a foot long. 

Mendel kept each kind absolutely separate from all the 
others ; that is, he never let the pollen of one kind reach 
the stamens of another kind unless he himself put it there. 

By being so careful he knew precisely which parents 
headed the list of each set of descendants. He could also 
tell which characters crowded the others out in the next 
generation. Those that dominated he called dominant; 
those that receded out of sight he called recessive. In fact, 
Mendel was the first man who ever used these words in this 
way, but they explain the case so well that nowadays we all 
use them. Here are some of the dominant and recessive 
characters of Mendel's peas in two separate columns. 


Tallness. Dwarfness. 

Round seeds. Wrinkled seeds. 

Colored seed coats. White seed coats. 

Yellow albumen in cotyledon. Green albumen in cotyledon. 

Purple flowers. White flowers. 

Sometimes characters were neither dominant nor recessive, 
so that the next generation was of necessity a mixture. 

Mendel kept on with his work of crossing pollen, watching 
results, and writing records until eight full years had passed. 
Then at last, in 1865 and again in 1869, he reviewed what 
he had done, put his statistics together, came to his conclu- 
sions, and wrote them down for the benefit of other people. 
In these papers he told how he had developed new kinds of 
peas, why he had done it, and what laws of inheritance he 
believed he had discovered. 

When he read his papers to the scientific society at Briinn, 
he himself was excited and enthusiastic, but he saw plainly 


enough that those who listened were neither excited nor 
enthusiastic. Indeed, they hardly seemed even interested, 
and when the reading was over, Mendel's own excitement 
was gone. His heart was heavy with disappointment. He 
had expected so much, yet nothing came of it. After that 






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Y, yellow ; G, green ; W, wrinkled ; R, round. Notice that when green round peas are 
fertilized by pollen from yellow wrinkled peas, the offspring (only one is shown) in 
the first filial generation (F^) are all yellow and round. This means that yellow and 
round are dominant, while green and wrinkled are recessive. Also notice that in the 
second filial generation (F%) the recessive green and wrinkled appear again in differ- 
ent combinations with the dominant characters. (From " Mendel's Principles of 
Heredity," by W. Bateson) 

his papers were simply printed and packed away to gather 
dust in the Briinn library. And there they stayed, out of 
sight and out of mind, unheard-of and undreamed-of, for 
thirty-four years. Fortunately, however, during all these 
years the library had them in safe keeping. 


Mendel himself died in 1884, and it is reported that many 
times before he died he was heard to say, " Meine Zeit wird 
schon kommen " (" My time will yet come "). Then at last 
it did come for in 1900, sixteen years after he had been 
buried and apparently forgotten, his priceless papers were 
discovered by younger scientists, and news of the discovery 
was telegraphed to all parts of the world. 

To-day every book that discusses inheritance takes Mendel 
and his laws into account. Every breeder who studies in- 
heritance in rats, rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, and men builds 
on foundations which Mendel laid over fifty years ago in his 
Austrian gardens. Every intelligent man who raises plants 
and animals for the market improves his stock according to 
laws which Mendel discovered. 

Indeed, in these days the whole subject of inheritance is 
stamped with his name. We speak of " Mendel's laws of 
inheritance" and of " Mendelism," which means the same 
thing. The truth is, the laws given in the last two chapters 
are nothing but Mendel's laws as we see them working 
through families of fowls and guinea pigs. 

Study the following statements carefully. Compare them 
with the diagram of Andalusian fowls, and see how well they 
go together. 


1 . When pure-breds are mated with other pure-breds like 
themselves, every one of their offspring will be pure-bred. 
Moreover, so long as pure-bred continues to mate with pure- 
bred, the descendants of every generation will continue to 
be pure-bred. 

2. When a pure-bred of one kind is mated with a pure-bred 
of another kind, every member of the next generation is hybrid. 


3. When hybrids are mated with each other, half of their 
offspring will be hybrid, one quarter will be pure-bred like 
the father, the other quarter will be pure-bred like the mother. 

These, then, are Mendel's great laws of inheritance. He 
discovered them by studying averages taken for multitudes 
of cases. They apply equally well to plants and to animals 
of every kind in every land. 1 

Mendel discovered his laws through the help of garden 
peas. Other scientists have proved them through the help 
of rats, rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, and other small animals. 
We ourselves should make use of them for the advantage of 
our own descendants. 

1 In 1900, just before Mendel's work had been discovered, these same 
laws of inheritance were rediscovered by three different students, who inves- 
tigated independently in three different countries De Vries in Holland, 
Correns in Germany, and Tschermak in Austria. 


During the year 1900 the National Association of British 
and Irish Millers decided that the wheat yield of Great Britain 
was far too small that a better grade must be grown, and 


The upper row shows two parents with their offspring between them. The second 
row shows six types that belong to the next generation of descendants. (Photo- 
graphed from specimens supplied by Professor Biffen.) (From " Mendel's Principles 
of Heredity," by W. Bateson) 

that they themselves must have the benefit of this new wheat 
as promptly as possible. Accordingly they raised money and 
asked certain scientists to do what they could to produce the 
wheat for them. 



Professor R. H . Biff en, of Cambridge, England, was chosen 
as chief investigator. His first act was to get samples of wheat, 
each one of which had some especially fine quality. One bore 
grain on a stout stalk, another had a full head of wheat, another 
was beardless, another yielded a great amount of grain to the 
acre, still another could not be injured by the wheat disease 
called rust that is, it was immune to this particular disease. 

These and other varieties reached Dr. Biffen from different 
countries, and he kept them strictly apart except as he himself 
planted and paired them according to the descendants which 
he wished them to have. He did no guessing about his work ; 
neither did he wait for haphazard results. He had studied 
the laws of inheritance, and he knew perfectly well that by 
selecting ancestors carefully enough, and by keeping cause 
and effect ever in mind, he could travel a straight road toward 
his desired end. 

After a fashion he was really forcing a new variety of wheat 
into existence, and he was so successful that in the course of 
time he presented the National Association of Millers with 
precisely what they wished. This new wheat had a strong 
stalk and a full head of grain kernels. It was rich in gluten 
and beardless. It could resist all attacks of the dreaded rust, 
and it yielded large quantities of grain to the acre. Science 
had helped nature evolve a wheat which satisfied even the 
clamor of the millers. They pronounced it a great success. 

And what of corn, that other food stand-by ? 

In the state of Washington, in 1912, two fields of corn 
grew side by side. Each covered ten acres ; each grew in 
the same kind of soil ; but, strange to say, one of these fields 
yielded about half as much again as the other. I asked what 
made the difference, and the farmer who owned the rich 
field gave a broad smile. 



" Well," he said, " I simply took corn ancestors into account, 
and my neighbor over there did n't pay any attention to them." 

" In what way ? " I asked. 

" The only possible way," came the answer. " I was care- 
ful where the seed came from. Last year most of my corn 
had one ear to the stalk, just 
as his has now ; but I noticed 
that some of my stalks had 
two ears to the stalk. So 
you see, that was my clue. 
Those were the ones I saved 
for seed corn." How he 
smiled ! 

" Besides that," he went 
on, " even when there were 
two ears to the stalk, I never 
kept seed that grew on weak 
stalks. All that corn of 
mine"- and he waved his 
hand triumphantly toward 
his ten acres -"came from 
seed that grew on strong 
stalks ; each one of those 
stalks bore two ears apiece. 
And look at it now. More 
than half that corn has two 
ears to the stalk. Some of 
it carries three ears. Good investment, wasn't it ? " And he 
smiled again. 

Had this farmer owned Luther Burbank's seed corn, he 
might have done better yet, for Mr. Burbank has raised corn 
that grows sixteen feet into the air and bears thirty-two ears 



to the stalk. He has also grown a potato so fine that the 
United States Department of Agriculture says it is " adding 
seventeen and a half million dollars a year to the farm incomes 
of America alone." 

There is no question about wheat and corn and potatoes ; 
man has changed them all for the better. And the list might 
be made many times longer, for nowadays the same laws of in- 
heritance are being used to improve tomatoes, watermelons, 
apples, grapes, beans, peaches, and other edible things. 

Then, too, there is the case of cotton to be rescued from 
the weevil. 

In the southern states of America the boll weevil is the 
pest of the cotton crop. It is a flying insect that punctures 
the flower buds and the bolls of cotton and lays its eggs 
within. Here these eggs hatch out into small worms which 
feed on the heart of the bud. This so damages the growing 
flower that it loses its vitality and falls to the ground before 
the cotton is formed. At last, however, a variety of cotton 
plant has been developed which not only bears cotton that is 
long and silky, but which flowers so early in the season that 
the cotton itself is ready to be picked before the boll weevil 
has harmed it. This single discovery will save thousands of 
bajes of cotton every year. 

Laws of inheritance have certainly been pressed into prac- 
tical use in all sorts of directions. And now steps in Luther 
Burbank to show what can be done in securing beauty. 

He took the plant amaryllis, with its slender stem and its 
blossom two or three inches across, and from this he helped 
nature evolve a new amaryllis with low, sturdy trunk about 
eighteen inches high, and a blossom nearly a foot in diameter. 
He took the common, everyday poppy, multiplied its hybrids 
by tens of thousands, made careful selection of ancestors, kept 


close watch of descendants, continued the selecting, the re- 
jecting, and the multiplying for several years, and to-day it 
is as if the flower had been glorified. Each blossom is from 
eight to ten inches in diameter. When one is placed above 
another in a column, seven of them will stand as high as a 
man. With a dozen of these blossoms in front of him, even 


Out of two thousand plants no two were alike. (From " New Creations in Plant 
Life," by W. S. Harwood. Published by The Macmillan Company) 

a large man would be hidden out of sight. Mr. Burbank 
is even able to take " a single one of these new poppy-seed 
capsules, divide it into four sections, and, by pollinating each 
section, produce from one section an annual plant, from an- 
other a perennial, from the third quarter crimson poppies, 
from the fourth, white ones." He has also produced a blue 
poppy, unknown to the world before, and has changed the 
color of the native poppy of California from gold to crimson. 


In addition he has transformed the plum and has made a 
combined fruit from the plum and the apricot. He has taken 
the old-fashioned wild daisy of New England, has combined 
it with daisies from Japan and England, and has secured the 
lovely Shasta daisy, which has no rival. He has taken the 
thorn-covered cactus of the deserts of the West, has removed 
the thorns for future generations, and has made the plant 


The two larger ones are seedlings of the other two. (From " New Creations in 
Plant Life," by W. S. Harwood. Published by The Macmillan Company) 

useful to man and beast alike. No limit can be set to the 
value of this single transformation. 

The list of what Mr. Burbank has helped nature to do 
might be made much longer. In each case, however, he 
merely did the guiding ; nature did the work according to 
laws of its own. The same is true of changes brought about 
in animal life. 

Take sheep, for example. Some are liked because they 
are hornless, some for the quality of mutton they supply, 
some for the long, soft wool they grow. Knowing what was 


desired, and knowing how to secure results through inheri- 
tance, certain breeders in England claim to have produced 
a final and best variety of sheep. Here all the wished-for 
characters have been so happily brought together that to-day 
breeders proudly show the result a sheep which bears fine 

wool, is hornless, and 
yields the sort of mut- 
ton that meat-eaters 
like the best. Practical 
breeders have secured 
its evolution by con- 
trolling its ancestors. 
We may take cattle 
for another example. 
Shorthorns have been 
developed in England 
during the past hun- 
dred and fifty years. 
They are profitable for 
their beef and some- 
times for their milking 
qualities. Then there 
is the Jersey, famous 
for its rich cream. In 
1904, at the World's 
Fair in St. Louis, a 
Jersey cow took the 
prize. And no wonder, for within seven and a half months 
her cream yielded over 547 pounds of butter. Holstein cattle 
are bred for the quantity of milk they give ; Hereford for the 
quality of their beef. Some are chosen for color, for shape, 
or for size ; others for their combination of characters. 


In the foreground is the ordinary thorny kind ; 
those in the rear are the thornless ones of the 
same species, secured by Mr. Burbank. (From 
" New Creations in Plant Life," by W. S. Harwood. 
Published by The Macmillan Company) 


Horses are bred not for quality of meat, not for texture 
of wool, but for the work they can do, for the speed they 
can make in running, for their shape, their color, and their 
general good looks. 

But all this is about modern changes in plants and animals. 
It is an account of forced evolution, as it were. It shows 
what takes place when man uses the laws of inheritance in this 


Property of C. I. Hood & Company, Lowell, Massachusetts. Champion and Grand 

Champion, World's Fair, St. Louis, 1904. Made 547 pounds 6 ounces of butter in 

seven and a half months. Such a cow is worth perhaps a dozen of the ordinary kind 

that make 125 pounds in a year 

direction or that, as he wishes to get something different in the 
next generation, and in the next, for indefinite periods of time. 
As we know, the whole era of this modern experiment lies 
within the memory of the human race. There were, however, 
other eras and generations unnumbered, in ages before man 
began his reckoning, when evolution made the same resistless 
headway, yet moved at slower pace and without the aid of man. 
The horse best illustrates this prehistoric, slower evolution. 



Hieroglyphics on ancient tombs show that, even so long 
as thirty-five hundred years ago, royal Egyptians went to war 
in chariots drawn by horses. Other records tell us that wher- 
ever man has gone since then in the development of civili- 
zation, he has taken the horse with him. To-day, therefore, 
we find this animal in all lands where man lives and can use 
him. And this use takes different forms. Horses are bred 
for strength, for speed, for gait, for looks, for size, for the 
ability to perform tricks, and for several other special pur- 
poses ; but no development of any sort changes them beyond 
recognition. By their looks, their acts, and their anatomy we 
decide without question that all modern horses are related to 
each other. 

Bear these facts in mind as you go to the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York City, and think 
about them as you visit what is called the Department of 
Vertebrate Paleontology. This is where many fossil bones 1 
are kept. 

1 A fossil bone is one that has been gradually turned into stone during 
past ages. Little by little, through chemical action, mineral matter takes 
the place of the bone, and when the exchange is fully made, the bone it- 
self has really become rock. Thousands of years are needed for the change, 
but, once made, the fossilized bone is brittle and heavy and able to en- 
dure as long as the rocks themselves shall last. It is to this bone petri- 
faction that scientists owe their knowledge of animals whose skeletons 
have been preserved unchanged for millions of years. 



When you reach the place, hunt for the horse bones. 
You will find them grouped together skull bones here, 
leg bones there, jaw bones in a row by themselves. Each 
set is in its own glass case ; each is carefully mounted and 
labeled ; each is protected from meddlesome hands and 
from fire. Notice that all are arranged according to size, 
and that they show progress from smaller to larger. 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 


The larger skeleton is of a horse of modern times. The smaller one (set in plaster) 
is of a primitive horse that lived three million years or more ago. (After Osborn) 

Give special attention to the skeletons one sixteen inches 
high and about as large as a good-sized cat, another a giant 
that towers as high as the largest dray horse in a modern city. 

If both these skeletons were wrapped in flesh again, if they 
were alive and could move about and meet each other to-day, 
neither creature would whinny to the other, for neither would 
recognize the other as a flesh-and-blood relation. 


Nevertheless, science tells us that thousands of other bones 
have been found, that these are graded all the way between 
the smaller and the larger skeleton, and that they prove the 
following remarkable fact : The huge dray horse is as truly 
related to the small, catlike creature as we ourselves are 
related to our own distant ancestors of prehistoric times. 

To be sure, the smaller animal lived as much as three mil- 
lion years before his big relative was born, and it was during 
this time that legs and jaw and skull bones went through 
their tremendous transformations. The diagram shows what 
these transformations were. 

Follow the foot as it changes into a hoof. Notice the 
middle toe. See it grow larger and larger, until the side toes 
are entirely crowded out of service. They do not so much as 
touch the ground. They hang in mid-air as the animal walks. 

It took lengthened ages for nature to bring this change 
about. Then, in course of time, all but the middle toe had 
vanished from sight. Gradually also the toenail part of the 
middle toe had turned itself into a pounding hoof. And 
to-day, as Dr. Matthew 1 says, "the horse may be said to 
be an animal that walks on its middle finger nail, all the 
other fingers having disappeared." 

The nail itself has indeed become a hoof so broad and 
so strong that it is able to support the entire weight of the 
animal that travels through life upon it. 

Examine the legs of any modern horse and you may find 
traces of two earlier toes. These so-called splint bones are 
four or five inches above the hoof, and they are so far out of 
sight and out of the way that they do not hinder the animal 
either in walking or in running. Neither do they in any wise 
help the horse as he walks and runs. 

i Author of " Evolution of the Horse." 

2 x 



See by the diagram that while toe bones were changing in 
this way, jaw bones and teeth were changing, too. Notice that 
the small jaw of the smallest horse had teeth close together 
all the way from back to front. Now trace the change. See 
the jaws stretch out in front little by little from generation 
to generation. 

Notice that even though the jaws grew longer, the num- 
ber of the teeth stayed the same. Not a new one arrived to 
fill up the gap. The front teeth stayed in front, the rest 
stayed on the back of the jaw, a growing gap separated the 
two sets, and that gap grew wider and wider, until our own 
kind of horse appeared. And it is because this modern horse 
has several inches of stretched-out jaw which carry no teeth 
whatever, that a twentieth-century man can guide a twentieth- 
century horse with bit and bridle. 

When you find a friendly horse some day, examine his 
mouth and make discoveries for yourself. At the same time 
think of his ancestors and try to imagine what men thought 
when they first found fossil bones of that most ancient, 
smallest horse. 

Dr. Matthew says that when its bones first came to light 
years ago, even students of such subjects did not so much as 
suspect that the little creature was a horse. Instead they 
called him Hyracotherium, meaning " the coneylike beast." 
But afterwards so many other bones were found in Nebraska, 
Arizona, Oregon, and elsewhere, that these same students 
were able to construct the bone pedigree of our modern 
horse. At the same time they named the different types, 
as the chart shows. 

They traced connections from smaller horse to larger, from 
four toes to one toe, from foot to hoof, from short jaw to 
long jaw, and as they did all this they saw that every bone, 



every tooth, and every part of the skeleton had been changed 
by slow degrees during unmeasured periods of past time. 

Moreover, with this knowledge as their basis, they knew 
they had in hand a key which would help unlock the mys- 
tery of all change in all animals, both ancient and modern. 


Fore Foot 




Splints of 

2nd and 4th 



Splints of 

2nd and 4th 






Side toes 

not touching 

the ground 


Side toes 

not touching 

the ground 


J ThreeToes 
Side toes 
touching the 
Splint of 5thdigit 

Three Toes 

Side toes 

touching the 


Four Toes 

Short - 



Splint of 
1st digit 

Splint of 
5th digit 


They show the development of the horse by evolution. (Reproduced, by permission, 
from " Origin and History of the Horse," by. H. F. Osborn) 

As might be supposed, it takes two sets of scientists to 
make out the truth about buried bones. 

i . There Js the geologist. He studies the earth itself, 
knows which parts of it were formed first, which later, and 
by knowing just where the bones came from, he tells us which 


animals lived earlier, which later. He assures us that the 
smallest horse bones are the oldest horse bones ever found. 

2. The paleontologist comes next. He puts fossil bones 
together and tells us what kind of creature each animal was. 
It is the paleontologist who describes horse bones in the 
museum. He lets us see for ourselves that they are linked 
together from generation to generation, and that they make 
up an unbroken chain of ancestors and descendants. 

Other fossil bones tell tales of monster creatures that 
lived and changed- and vanished from the earth long before 
man appeared. Each separate one yields its own separate 
story, but no set of bones is easier to study, none gives quite 
such a straight-ahead history, as the bones of the horse. 

These have been found in North and South America, in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa. Of all these places, however, 
Dr. Matthew says the best series comes from what is called 
the Tertiary Bad Lands of the Western United States. 

As you bear these bones in mind, turn to the finest horse 
you know and think of his pedigree. Also observe his present 
size and shape, his powerful muscles, his long and slender 
legs, his neck just long enough to carry his mouth to the 
ground for grazing. Look at his strong, broad hoof (he 
is the only single-hoofed animal in the world) and try to 
realize that it was the ancestors of this horse that made him 
what he is to-day. 

Many a man points proudly back to an ancestry more noble 
than himself. The horse might point backwards, too, not to 
show that once upon a time he had ancestors bigger, braver, 
more glorious than he himself is now, but simply to show 
that from small beginnings big results have come to make 
it plain that, quite without conscious purpose, his early an- 
cestors improved their opportunities, adjusted themselves to 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 


The upper figure shows the skull of a large modern horse. The lower figure shows 
a prehistoric five-toed horse restored and placed here for comparison. (After Osborn) 



circumstances, and thereby so influenced their descendants 
that each generation passed a better inheritance on to the next. 

To-day if horses had the brain power of man, if they could 
study the past and talk about it as man is apt to do, each 
would have the right to say, " Through the struggle of my 
ancestors I am what I am." 

Since the laws of inheritance do not affect the horse alone, 
since they mold all other animals (including man), since they 
cover generations of time that sweep back beyond the reach 
of our reckoning, we understand why it is that scientists study 
the subject from year to year with an interest that never flags. 
They are determined to find out all they can about the laws 
which control and gradually change living beings as the 
ages go by. 

No one has spoken more clearly on this subject than 
Charles Darwin. For this reason the next chapter will give 
some of his facts. 



Night after night Charles Darwin, already an aged man 
and famous, watched the actions of his angleworms. He 
kept them in his study in flowerpots, for he wished to find 
out for himself how 
much mental power 
they had. He knew 
they could not see, 
for they had no eyes ; 
that they could not 
hear, for they had no 
ears ; that they could 
feel, for he had seen 
them shrink from the 
touch of any sharp 
thing. But the ques- 
tion was, Did they 
think as well as feel ? 
Did they guide their 
actions consciously ? 
This Charles Darwin 
wished to know. 

It happens that 

angleworms can only be studied at night, because by daylight 
they hide themselves underground, out of sight, but at night 
they stretch themselves out of their burrows and face the 





world and run the risk of being captured. By night, there- 
fore, Darwin not only watched their operation in his flower- 
pots, but he also took his lantern and went into the fields to 
find them. Sometimes they raised themselves on their taper- 
ing, bent-over ends and seemed to be giving strict attention ; 
sometimes they shrank back into their burrows as if the light 
on their bodies gave unpleasant sensations. Darwin watched 
them as they seized leaves and drew them down to stop up 
the mouths of their burrows. He saw how 
they saved their lives and lost them ; how 
they did their burrowing ; how they gathered 
food and used it ; how they survived the winter 
rolled up in balls underground. 

For years the study went on, and no doubt 
it had really begun years earlier, when Darwin 
went a-fishing as a boy, for he writes : " I had 
a strong taste for angling, and would sit for 
any number of hours on the bank of a river or 
pond watching the float. I was told that I 
could kill worms with salt and water, and from 
that day I never spitted a live worm, though at the expense, 
probably, of some loss of success." 

This, then, is our introduction to the boy who was to become 
one of the world's most famous naturalists the man who was 
to change certain beliefs of men for all future generations. No 
student of inheritance consents to be ignorant about Darwin. 
The work of his life lies between the time when, as a boy, 
he salted angleworms to save them from pain on his fish- 
hook by day, and when, as an aged man, he studied angle- 
worms by night for knowledge of their habits. It also appears 
that from the beginning of his life until it ended, Darwin's 
work knit itself together as two parts. 



1. He gathered facts. 

2. He drew conclusions from his facts. 

Even before he was eight years old he collected shells and 
compared them with each other. Next he began beetle col- 
lecting. He was now a university student in Cambridge, 
England, and wherever he went in his walks, he was ready to 
see beetles and to seize them. This brought him to grief one 
day, for, as he says, " on tearing off some old bark, I saw two 
rare beetles, and seized one in each hand ; then I saw a third 
and new kind, which I could not bear to lose, so I popped 
the one which I held in my right hand into my mouth. Alas, 
it ejected some intensely acrid fluid, which burnt my tongue- 
so that I was forced to spit the beetle out, which was lost, as 
was the third one." 

And this is but a sample of Darwin's enthusiasm from 
youth to old age ; he never lost it. On every side he gathered 
facts, and when he had facts enough, he began to draw con- 
clusions. No doubt his largest field for facts was South 
America. When he was twenty-two years old, he was asked 
to go as naturalist on board the Beagled He accepted the 
invitation ; spent five years in sailing from one country to 
another ; made collections everywhere ; and when he reached 
home again in 1836, he was laden with treasures and with 
the memory of his experiences. 

While in South America he came upon unnumbered fossil 
bones of buried monsters creatures that had lived there and 

1 The Beagle was a sailing craft that weighed 235 tons. It was sent out 
on a voyage of scientific investigation by the English government, and 
Darwin went as naturalist for the expedition. As he himself states it, " The 
real object of the expedition was to complete the survey of Patagonia and 
Tierra del Fuego, to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and some islands 
of the Pacific, and to carry a chain of chronometrical measurements around 
the world." 

4 6 


had died there before man had so much as appeared on the 
scene. He found head bones of some, leg bones of others, 
numberless huge teeth, and a few skeletons that were com- 
plete in every detail. 

Darwin named one of these the toxodon. He said it was 
as large as an elephant, and one of the strangest animals ever 
discovered. By its teeth he knew it had gnawed its food, 
just as rats and rabbits also gnaw when they eat ; and from 


the position of its eyes and ears and nose he knew it was 
an animal that lived in the water. In one place he came 
upon what he calls " a perfect catacomb of monsters of 
extinct races." 

Keep the giants themselves in mind, then note theseother 
facts : Within the memory of man no such creatures have 
been alive in South America ; all were extinct and turned to 
fossils when man first found himself in the land which had 
belonged to those earlier huge inhabitants. So true is this that 
in South America to-day the only wild living creatures are 


comparatively small the tapir, the deer, the monkey, etc. 
Darwin says that ten specimens of the largest kinds weigh 
an average of but 250 pounds apiece. It is interesting to 
compare the size of these animals with the size of those in 
South Africa. There the elephant, the hippopotamus, the 
giraffe, eland, rhinoceros, and others are so large that ten 
members of the large kinds of animals weigh an average 
of 6040 pounds apiece. 

The strange fact about all this is that ages ago South 
American animals were quite as large as the present-day 
monsters of South Africa. Darwin says that at the very time 
when the animals of South America were becoming extinct, 
those of South Africa stayed alive through their descendants. 

Another set of Darwin's facts had to do with the horse. 
History tells us that when Columbus and his Spaniards came 
to America, not a horse was to be found in the land. They 
were, in fact, so unknown and unheard-of that when, years 
afterwards, a few were brought over from Europe, the native 
Indians looked at them with curiosity and fright. Im- 
agine, then, the surprise of Darwin and other naturalists when 
they found fossil horse bones in different places from the 
northern extremity of North America to the southern ex- 
tremity of South America. Clearly enough, horses were 
among the oldest inhabitants of the land ; yet, quite as clearly, 
not one had survived to receive Columbus. All had died and 
vanished from sight long before man arrived in modern times. 

Now it is interesting to know that while the largest early 
animals were dying off in South America they were also 
meeting the same fate everywhere else in the world except 
in Africa. The following statements bear on this point. 

i . Fossil remains which have been found in Europe, Asia, 
North America, and South America prove that ages ago 


animals of the same general kinds were alive in all three 
continents during the same era of the world's history. 

2. The theory which explains this is that in early times 
there was land connection between Siberia and North America, 
and that the joining place was where Bering's Strait now 
separates the two continents. 

It is supposed that in those days this land connection was a 
well-traveled road, across which animals of every sort and size 
came as immigrants from the Old World to the New. " It 
seems most probable," writes Darwin, " that the North Ameri- 
can elephants, mastodons, horses, and the hollow-horned rumi- 
nants migrated on land since submerged near Behring's Straits, 
from Siberia into North America, and thence on land since 
submerged in the West Indies, into South America, where 
for a time they mingled with the forms characteristic of that 
southern continent, and have since become extinct." 

From first to last, Darwin was searching for facts which 
might connect one set of living creatures with all others. He 
wished, if possible, to relate the life of the past even its 
monsters to the life of the present. More than this, he 
wished to relate the life of the present to the life of the fu- 
ture. He hoped to find laws which would make it easier to 
understand why there are such countless varieties of living 
creatures on the earth to-day, and what their exact relation 
to each other is. In other words, the reason why Darwin 
gathered facts was because he was determined to find out as 
much as possible about the progress of life on the earth from 
generation to generation, through the ages of the past. 

This was the burden of his ambition, and facts were pil- 
ing up as the Beagle continued its voyage to the Galapagos 



The Galapagos Islands lie on the equator, six hundred 
miles from the western coast of South America. 

There are ten islands in the group, and here Darwin found 
animals unheard-of elsewhere in the world tortoises by the 

Culpepper I. 


Naorborouah I. V5 
Albermarle I. 

60 Miles 

QzAbinqdon I. 

Bindloes I. 

Tower I. 

Indefatiadble 1. 

% Jjjj* 
Barnnytonl. Chatham I. 

Charles I. Hood's 1. 


thousand, that weighed one hundred pounds apiece and over. 
" I frequently got on their backs," he writes, " and then giv- 
ing a few raps on the hinder part of their shells, they would 
rise up and walk away ; but I found it very difficult to keep 



my balance." Here were lizards two and three feet long, 
one "terrestrial," the other "aquatic" "the latter," says 
Darwin, " a hideous looking creature of a dirty black color, 
stupid and sluggish in its movements." Sometimes these 
lizards weighed twenty pounds apiece or more. They went 
off on swimming parties a hundred yards from shore. As a 
certain sea captain said, " They go to sea in herds a-fishing, 
and sun themselves on the rocks, and may be called alliga- 
tors in miniature." 

In this surprising place Darwin found and named new 
species l of plants and animals by the dozen and the hundred. 
On every side he saw new birds, new reptiles, new shells, 
new insects ; and yet, as he himself says, " by innumerable 
trifling details of structure, and even by the tones of voice 
and plumage of the birds," these various creatures reminded 
him of those other creatures, similar yet so different, that 
had lived on the " temperate plains of Patagonia or the hot, 
dry deserts of northern Chile. . . . What is the explana- 
tion?" he asks. "Why were they created on American types 
of organization ? " 

1 A species is a group of plants or animals in which the individuals are 
very much alike.. For example, one species of violet has white blossoms, 
another has blue blossoms ; one has round leaves, another has leaves of 
lancet shape. Each is a different species, but all are violets. Then there 
are the humming birds. One species is almost as large as an English spar- 
row, other species are no larger than huge butterflies. One species has 
bright feathers on its neck that give it the name rubythroat, another 
has half a dozen stiff red -feathers that stand 'above the others on its 
throat. All these are humming birds, but each is a different species. All 
other animals and plants are divided into species in the same way. Scien- 
tists do this for the sake of studying the life of the earth. They also put 
different species together to make a larger group, called a genus. They 
put genera together to make a family, and families together to make an 
order. Then come classes, divisions, and finally the animal and vegetable 


He had gone no farther than this with his questions when 
the Beagle returned to England in I836. 1 And now began 
a new epoch in his life. He had his collection of fossils 
from South America. He also had his collection of modern 
skeletons from the same country, from the Galapagos Islands, 
from England itself ; and he wished to find some laws of 
life which would explain the differences between them, and 
which would, at the same time, show that all forms of life 
are connected. / 

He asked himself whether or not the earlier kinds became 
extinct before the later ones were created ; why they became 
extinct ; why present-day creatures on the Galapagos Islands 
are more like the buried giants of South America than like 
modern animals in Africa ; why there are so many species 
of different plants and animals in the world, etc. The list 
of his questions was very long when he reached England, 
and he saw that he must have still more facts before he could 
even try to draw conclusions. 

To get these facts he turned his attention to pigeons, com- 
paring them with each other. Among them he found the 
Carrier pigeon, with its large nostrils, its wide mouth, its 
lengthened eyelids, its long, steady flight over land and 
water ; also the Tumbler, with its way of flying high up 
and tumbling down, heels over head, at unexpected moments. 
Then there was the Pouter, with its stretched-out body, wings, 
and legs, and its enormous crop, which it proudly inflates 
to prodigious size; the Jacobin, with feathers that grow 

1 During this voyage the Beagle visited the following places, in the order 
in which they are -mentioned : Cape de Verde Islands, St. Paul's Rocks, 
Fernando, Noronha, South America, Galapagos Islands, Falkland Islands, 
Tierra del Fuego, Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia, Tasmania, Helena, As- 
cension. The Beagle did not go around the world, as at first intended. 


backward down the back of the neck and stand up like a 
hood ; and, as conspicuous as any, the Fantail, with so many 
feathers in its tail (thirty or forty instead of twelve or fourteen) 
that it hardly looks like a pigeon at all. 

Darwin studied each kind, and he came to the conclusion 
that each had been secured through man's careful selection 

of pigeon ancestors that 
not one had been created pre- 
cisely as he himself found it. 
He even went so far as to say 
he was sure " that the com- 
mon opinion of naturalists is 
correct, namely, that all have 
descended from the Rock 
pigeon. ... At least a score 
of pigeons might be chosen," 
he said, " which, if shown to 
an ornithologist and he was 
told that they were wild birds, 
would certainly, I think, be 
ranked by him as well-defined 

He talked the matter over 
with every intelligent bird 
breeder whom he met, and 

each assured him that the one essential thing was to select 
ancestors according to what was wanted in the next genera- 
tion. All acknowledged that the process took time. One told 
Darwin that " he could produce any given feather in three 
years, but that it would take six years to produce head and 
neck." In every case this selecting was done by the breeder 
himself. He knew precisely what he wanted. 




(From " Domesticated Animals and 
Plants," by E. Davenport) 



The same was true of sheep breeders, and Darwin talked 
with them too. " In Saxony," he says, "the importance of 


i, Jacobins; 2, English Carrier ; 3, Duchess ; 4, Fantails ; 5, Birmingham Tumblers ; 
6, English Pouter. (From " Domesticated Animals and Plants," by E. Davenport) 

the principle of selection in regard to merino sheep is so 
fully recognized that men follow it as a trade ; the sheep are 
placed on the table and are studied like a picture by the 


connoisseur ; this is done three times, at intervals of months, 
and the sheep are each time marked and classed, so that the 
very best may ultimately be selected for breeding. . . . And," 
he continues, " not one man in a thousand has accuracy of 
eye and judgment sufficient to become a good breeder." Lord 
Sommerville speaks of their success : "It would seem as if 
they had marked out upon a wall a form perfect in itself, 
and then had given it existence." 

Do not forget that all this was before even the best breeders 
had heard of Mendel's laws and before Darwin himself had 
come to any conclusion about the power that controls the 
changing forms of life. Remember that even before Mendel 
and Darwin lived, breeders knew the following facts : 

1. By choosing ancestors they could get the desired type 
of descendants. 

2. Only by preventing cross mating could these new types 
be preserved. 

Darwin saw how easy it is to explain the beginning of any 
species when man is behind, controlling ancestors. But he 
wished to know how it comes about that wild animals have 
changed, too. He wondered if there might not be other laws 
which control descendants even when man has nothing to 
do with choosing ancestors for them. He believed there are 
such laws, and he hoped to find them. 

Darwin puzzled himself with this problem for twenty-three 
years, and at last he did what he could to answer it, in his 
book " On the Origin of Species by means of Natural 

The volume itself was published in 1859. Twelve hundred 
and fifty copies were printed for the first edition, and every 
one was sold on the day of publication. Three thousand more 
were printed. These went fast, too, and by 1876 sixteen 


thousand copies of the book had been printed and sold. It 
was translated into every European language and was dis- 
cussed by scientific papers in every scientific center of the 
world. It was a topic of talk for individual scientists as they 
met on the street, in the lecture hall, in the drawing-room, 
and everywhere else. Indeed, the excitement was so great 
that college students talked about the book in club and class- 
room. They sat up late at night in mighty discussion over 
Darwin's problem and over his solution of it. Certain mer- 
chants and preachers took up the subject and waxed eloquent 
about it over the counter and from the pulpit. And, as might 
have been expected, in every case those who knew most about 
the facts of life were usually most inclined to accept Darwin's 
theory about the origin of species. At the same time also, then 
as now, numberless persons lived in ignorance of Darwin's 
book and of what it taught. 

Until he died, in 1882, Darwin continued to gather facts, 
to draw conclusions, and to write about them for the benefit 
of those who were younger and more ignorant than he was. 
When he died he was seventy-five years old, honored and 
loved by thinkers the world over. His fame came through 
the success he had in studying certain problems of life, for 
his theory of evolution had turned upside down some of the 
cherished beliefs of the centuries. It was he who joined 
facts together in what we shall call the " five-linked chain." 



At ten o'clock this morning I sat on the veranda and 
watched flying objects that traveled through the air ready for 
planting and for growing. Dandelion seeds, by scores and by 

hundreds, sailed across my 
vision like small parachutes 
bearing a precious burden. 
Maple seeds, thousands upon 
thousands of them, whirred 
by in zigzag fashion, steered 
without hands, guided by 
their delicate paddle rudders. 
They too bore their treasure 
of life and were ready for 
growing. Elm-tree seeds 
by the hundred thousand 
showered down like brown 
snowflakes in the sunshine, 
and rolled over each other as if in a panic of haste to find 
a lodging place for the elm trees of the next generation. 1 

As I watched all this I thought about the wasteful extrava- 
gance of nature. At the same time I stepped out to do some 
counting. Within one square inch of space I found twenty-five 

1 These different kinds of seeds are not all in their prime at the same 
time, but in Ohio their seasons overlap each other. 






elm seeds crowded together in a heap. Near by, in another 
heap, on another inch of ground, were fifteen maple seeds 
piled upon each other, and there were many square yards 

of surface almost as thickly 
covered. One dainty dandelion 
stalk carried one hundred and 
fifty-four tiny parachutes in full 
sail, ready to fly off when the next 
carrier breeze came that way. 

All this was on my own lawn 
one bright spring morning. I 
then thought of the wooded 
groves just outside of town. I remembered the trees, the 
shrubs, the weeds, and the wild flowers some in full bloom, 
others already gone to seed. I knew that millions of seeds 
were under the trees and on the shrubs in every forest during 
every spring season. I also knew that no more than tens or 
hundreds of these seeds ever take root and grow. 

I thought of the rivers too, and of the lakes, the ponds, 
and the ocean, with their millions of fish eggs laid in every 
breeding spot multitudes never to be hatched, 
other multitudes to be devoured by bigger fish 
as soon as hatched, and very few to live long 
enough to pass life on to the next generation. 
" Prodigality, prodigality, on every side ! " was 
my exclamation. 

Next I turned to printed records and looked 
for added facts of the same sort. 

Dr. Thompson says that a cod is reported to have two. 
million eggs, and that " if these all developed into cods, there 
would soon be no more fishing." This means that the ocean 
would be so full of swarming, struggling, dying cod, that 



immigrants and emigrants alike would be able to walk across 
a slippery cod pathway between Europe and America. 

Dr. Thompson also says that " if all the progeny of one 
oyster survived and multiplied, its great-great-grandchildren 
would number sixty-six with thirty-three noughts after it 
(66,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000), and the 
heap of shells would be eight times the size of the world." 

No human mind can grasp such figures as these. They 
are indeed extreme examples of the first law of Darwin's 
famous five-linked chain. 


The second law follows as a matter of course. Indeed, 
there is no escaping it, for with creatures of every kind 
multiplying at this rate, with each of them obliged to 
find food or die, the competition grows terrific. It becomes 
a struggle merely to keep alive. This, then, is the second 
link of Darwin's chain. 

It seems a peaceful world as I glance out of my window 
at the present moment. But, without seeing it done, I know 
that all forms of life are struggling not merely for food but 
for very existence too. Large insects are living on those that 
are smaller ; small birds are living on large insects ; birds are 
killing worms ; cats are killing birds ; dogs are killing rabbits ; 
man is killing and eating birds and beasts of many different 
kinds ; microbes are killing millions of creatures both large 
and small ; and man is killing microbes. 

The slaughter is universal ; the conflict is colossal. It con- 
tinues on every side every day, and it is inevitable. For if the 
supply of plants and animals were not limited in some way, 
if all eggs were allowed to hatch and if all young animals 
lived on to good old age, there would soon be such a battle 


on the earth as has never been dreamed of heretofore. Swarm- 
ing millions of creatures would, within a few days, crowd out 
of sight even the standing space of the earth. Soon after- 
ward the food supply of the world would be used up, and 
starvation would face all save those who found it possible 
to support their own lives by taking other lives. 

This is no fancy picture. It would be the inevitable state 
of things if the prodigality of nature were not checked some- 
how. Fortunately there are checks on every side. Wind and 
weather, flood and fire, take part in limiting the numbers of 
those that are to survive for a next generation. For the 
struggle is not simply between the individuals themselves 
but also between each individual and its surroundings. Clearly 
enough, then, the maimed, the weak, and the inefficient gen- 
erally have the poorest chance to live and become ancestors. 
And it is just because they do not live long enough to be- 
come ancestors that the race escapes deterioration. On every 
side they are crowded out in the struggle. 


This fact brings us face to face with the third link in Dar- 
win's chain. He noticed that while some animals of a species 
are large, others of the same species are small ; where some 
are strong, others are weak ; where some have keen intelli- 
gence, others are slow of understanding. He saw that always 
and everywhere, among all kinds of plants and animals, there 
are contrasts, differences, and variations. On this fact he 
based what he called the law of variation. It is the third 
link in Darwin's chain. Follow it now somewhat in detail. 

When rain was withheld for some months in South Amer- 
ica, Darwin saw thousands of animals die for lack of water ; 
yet there is such variety in the power of animals to endure 


thirst, that some did not die. When food failed for birds in 
snow-covered Ohio during the winter of 1913, farmers found 
many of them dead in the frozen fields ; yet there is such 
difference in the power of birds to endure hunger for longer 
or shorter periods, and such variety in their ability to hunt for 
food, that many of them did not die. 

In 1885, when typhoid microbes found their way into the 
water supply of Plymouth, Pennsylvania, noo men, women, 
and children had the fever and were threatened with death ; 
but there is such a difference in the power of individuals to 
resist disease that, although 1 1 4 persons . died, 986 of those 
who were ill did not die, and hundreds of others who had used 
the same contaminated water were not even affected by it. 1 

When seven men offered themselves for the yellow-fever 
tests in Cuba in 1900, all were bitten by mosquitoes loaded 
with blood from yellow-fever victims. But even against this 
disease there is a difference in the power of the body to pro- 
tect itself. One man escaped with no touch of the fever 
whatever, six were ill with it, and one man died. 2 

Many other cases might be cited of persons who, overtaken 
by calamity, have escaped death because they had some power 
of endurance which those who died lacked. 


We are now within sight of the fourth link of Darwin's 
chain. He says that, because of the universal law of variation, 

1 Described in "Town and City," of the Gulick Hygiene Series, p. 107. 

2 Described in " Town and City," pp. 234235. 

3 Darwin first called this the law of natural selection, meaning that the 
selecting was done without man's help ; but some people misunderstood 
his meaning, so he adopted the phrase survival of the fittest, which Herbert 
Spencer used. It means precisely the same thing as natural selection, is 
easy to understand, and is the term in common use to-day. 


some members of each species are different enough from the 
others to survive in spite of threatened destruction. In other 
words, he tells us that it is the fit who survive. This, then, is 
the fourth link to the growing chain. 

See how this law works itself out. Some creatures have 
longer legs and are therefore better fitted than their mates to 
run away when danger threatens. Some have stronger claws 
with which to kill the foe before being killed themselves. 
Some have keener eyesight with which to discover danger 
or to sight it from a distance and to escape it. Some have 
keener scent with which to trace both food and danger. Some 
can live longer than others when deprived of water. Some can 
survive a famine where others die in the midst of it. 

Thus, in one way and another, in every group of animals, 
when the critical moment comes, certain individuals are better 
fitted to survive than are their neighbors. This does on no 
account mean that the fittest are always the largest, the 
tallest, the keenest-eyed, the bravest, the strongest, or the 
longest-legged. Certainly not. The huge animals of South 
America were bigger than any of those that crowded them 
out ; English sparrows of the United States are smaller than 
bluebirds, swallows, robins, the purple martin, and other birds 
that please us ; but the smaller sparrow attacks the larger 
birds, takes up their nesting places, destroys their eggs, and 
finally succeeds in driving them from our villages. 

During heavy storms it is the birds with small bodies and 
strong legs and wings that survive, while birds with large 
bodies and small wings die in greatest numbers. 

Judging by appearance, certain animals the donkey, for 
example were better fitted to survive when their ears were 
large. It was different with moles. Living and working 
underground as they did, ears were a nuisance ; they got in 


the way. For this reason those with the smallest ears were 
best fitted to survive, and now we have the modern mole 
with ears so small that they are not worthy of mention. The 
change has come about gradually, step by step, through the 
laws of variation, the struggle for existence, and the survival 
of the fittest. Nevertheless, none of these laws would be of 
the slightest value from one generation to the next without 
that supreme law which forms the fifth and final link to 
Darwin's chain. 


The mere mention of this word carries us back to the first 
chapters of the book. It calls to mind Andalusian fowls and 
guinea pigs. It reminds us of all that inheritance does for 
the next generation and the next, when man selects ancestors 
and decides to bring about definite changes in animal de- 
scendants. But remember that Darwin was searching for 
laws which control the destiny of all descendants, whether 
their ancestors are selected by man or not. 

No human power ever chose the ancestors of the wild 
animals of to-day. Nevertheless, Darwin believed that these 
same ancestors were selected relentlessly by the five laws 
which controlled their fate prodigality, the struggle for 
existence, variation, survival of the fittest, heredity. He be- 
lieved that all creatures that live to-day are what they are 
because the laws of nature chose their ancestors for them. 

Now connect the five links and apply the chain to last 
year's codfish. By the law of prodigality, thousands upon 
thousands of eggs were laid. Most of these were destroyed 
before hatching time came. After hatching, the struggle for 
existence began. By the law of variation these young cod- 
fish differed from one another as they continued the struggle. 
By the law of survival of the fittest only those who were 


most fit to survive were able to hold to life long enough to 
become ancestors. By the law of heredity the characters 
of those that did survive were passed on to their codfish 

Scientists are still discussing Darwin's chain. Some put 
trfe emphasis on this link, some on that, but all agree in 
his claim that, even as all kinds of pigeons are descended 
from the same original ancestor, so too are all kinds of fish 
descended from their original ancestor, all kinds of birds 
from theirs, all mammals from theirs, and so on through the 
entire list. 

With one accord, indeed, scientists of to-day accept Dar- 
win's conclusion that, from the beginning of time until now, 
laws of nature have controlled the changing forms of life ; 
that each living creature of to-day is joined by close connec- 
tion to its ancestors of the past ; that living creatures both 
of the past and of the present move through the ages as a 
procession marching in lock step, and that every form of life 
is linked to distant ancestors by an endless chain of cause 
and effect. 

Through Darwin's discoveries we see that creative power 
has raised a structure of life on the earth which is welded 
together from foundation to summit. The evidences of this 
evolution are about us on every hand, and the next chapter 
points out a few of them. 


Watch swimming fish in any pond or aquarium ; even 
goldfish in a glass jar will answer the purpose. Notice those 
two small flaps, one on each side of the head. See them open 
and shut, and open and shut again, with never-failing regu- 
larity. They cover what are known as the gill-slits. These 


slits open out from the gills, and gills are the breathing 
apparatus of the fish. 1 

Notice also that the mouth of the fish is open, too, and that, 
although he seems to be swallowing mouthful after mouthful 
of water, he really gets nothing to eat. The truth is, he is 
simply breathing with his mouth open. If he should shut his 
mouth and keep it shut, he would die of suffocation. To keep 
alive he needs oxygen as much as we do, and the only way 
he can get it is by taking water into his mouth and sending 

1 Blood which circulates in the membranes of the gills takes oxygen from 
water which passes over them, just as blood which circulates in the mem- 
branes of lung cells takes oxygen from the air which enters the lungs. 



it out again through his gills within his gill-slits. As the 
water passes along, the red-blood corpuscles in the gills take 
out all the oxygen they need. 

When fish are drawn out of water and left on land, they die 
because they cannot get oxygen from the water in their usual 
way, through their gills. When we are held under water, we 
die because we cannot get oxygen from the air in our usual 
way, through the lungs. 

Since this is the case, zoologists 1 expected to find gill- 
slits in embryo 2 fish, and lungs in the embryos of animals 
that take their oxygen directly from the air. Imagine, then, 
the surprise of these men when they found gill-slits and 
lungs too in the embryo of all vertebrates, whether they were 
fish or not. 

Birds that are to live in trees and never swim, mice and 
men, monkeys and elephants, snakes and bats and vertebrate 
beasts of every sort all these have gill-slits in the neck 
during the embryo stage. At the same time those that are 
to breathe air after birth have embryo lungs too. 

And this is not all. Even in Darwin's day the bodies of 
animals held other mysteries which no man could explain. 
It was well known that full-grown whales have rudiments 3 of 
hind legs concealed under the flesh ; that embryo whales 
have rudimentary teeth, although no grown whale has ever 
been known to have a tooth in his head ; that the python and 
the boa have rudiments of legs never used, never desired ; 
that calves before they are born have beginnings of front teeth 
in the upper jaw which never cut through the gums after 
birth. Notice that no cow has front teeth on the upper jaw. 

1 A zoologist is a student of animal life. 

2 Before birth a creature is called an embryo. 

8 A rudiment is the beginning or foundation of any part or organ. 


The list might be made still longer. But no one explained 
these rudiments of legs, teeth, gill-slits, etc. until Darwin 
came with his five-linked chain and his proofs. He said that 
through millions of years unused parts of the body become 
more and more inefficient, until, in course of time, they have 
no power left. 

To prove this, think of the ancestral horse and his useless 
toes. Think of the fish in the dark recesses of Mammoth 
Cave, Kentucky. They are blind, but they have rudiments 
of eyes. 

Parasites in particular show the same degeneration from 
lack of use. One of the most extraordinary among these is 
the sacculina, as described by Dr. David Starr Jordan. 

It begins life by looking very much like a young crab. 
Both creatures have feelers, swimming apparatus, eyes, 
heart, brain, etc. But soon a change sets in. The crab, on 
the one hand, goes on developing. Feelers grow longer, 
brain grows bigger, eyes continue active, the heart never 
stops beating. In other words, the crab keeps active in every 
part and grows as it should. Not so with the sacculina. 
Soon after birth it fastens itself to the body of any conven- 
ient crab and stays there the rest of its life. It first sends a 
slender feeler down into the blood stream of the crab. This 
feeler lengthens each day like a ramifying root. At the same 
time branches of the root grow in this direction and that until 
they have entered the entire system of crab blood vessels. 
And as they ramify, they draw up from the blood of the crab 
all the nourishment the sacculina needs. Feelers have there- 
fore no work to do in hunting for food. Eyes are needed 
no longer. Heart and brain cease to serve. As a result they 
disappear, one after the other, until the sacculina finds itself 
nothing but a sac fastened to the body of the crab a sac 



with root processes and reproductive organs. Everything else 
is gone, and, as the illustration shows, the parasite finally 
looks more like a growth of the crab itself than like a sepa- 
rate creature. The sacculina lives as long as the crab lives, 
and when the crab dies, it must die too. 

Now this record is simply an illustration of the result of 
disuse. Somewhat the same thing happens in other animals. 


Notice how the root processes of this parasite ramify through the legs and 
the body of the crab. (Adapted from Parker and Haswell) 

In many cases, however, unused parts remain as mere rudi- 
ments through later generations. Darwin makes three state- 
ments concerning this whole matter, which may be condensed 
as follows : 

1 . All organs degenerate by disuse. 

2. As any race of animals grows more and more success- 
ful in the struggle for existence, it develops new organs and 


may stop using old ones. If it stops using any part of its 
body, that part may be inherited as a rudiment. 

3. The embryo of many vertebrates tells by its different 
parts what the history of the evolution of its ancestors has , 

For example, when we find rudimentary teeth in the front 
upper jaw of an embryo calf, we know that once upon a time 
the ancestors of this calf had well-developed upper front teeth 
and used them for chewing. When we find rudimentary 
legs hidden under the flesh of full-grown whales, we know 
that, in the ages of the past, whale ancestors used legs instead 
of fins for locomotion. 

So, too, with gill-slits. When we find rudiments of these in 
any embryo, we know that somewhere back in bygone ages 
the ancestors of this particular embryo lived in water and 
breathed through gill-slits. 

Evidently, then, each rudiment is nothing less than a 
signboard a reminder of the road by which developing 
creatures have traveled from the past to the present. Each 
is a so-called ancestral reminiscence. Each declares that 
in the struggle for existence this organ or that had to be 
given up, and that other organs were developed instead. 

Our modern whale tells the story of a double change. To- 
day he is a queer combination a mammal that lives in 
water and uses lungs for breathing. But his rudimentary 
legs and his rudimentary teeth prove that at some time in 
the past his ancestors were out-and-out land animals that 
roamed the fields on sturdy legs and used good-sized teeth 
for chewing. 

Also, by his embryonic gill-slits the same whale tells us 
that even before he was a land animal his ancestors were 
water animals with gill-slits for their breathing apparatus. 



At the present time every whale in every ocean uses 
lungs and not gills when he breathes. Nevertheless, as a 
reminder of the ancient road which their ancestors traveled, 
every embryo of every whale has the double outfit lungs 
and gill-slits too. 

Thus it is that rudiments repeat over and over again the 
long-drawn history of whale life. They show how the struggle 
for existence drove some early ancestors first from water to 
land, then back again from land to water. Scientists say that 


One of these whales, captured on the British coast, measured 95 feet in length 
and weighed 249 tons 

by learning how to live in one environment after another, as 
they did, whales have shown that they were better fitted to 
survive than many of their fellow monsters who perished 
in the struggle. And all this lends a glow of romance to our 
modern whale, yet he himself is as indifferent as if no line 
of struggling ancestors had made him what he is. 

For the sake of studying the evidences of evolution in 
close relation to each other, they are now summarized in five 
separate statements. 


1 . Structural evidence derived from the form and general 
make-up of animals. It is often found in rudimentary bones 
and organs leg bones of the whale, for example, toe bones 
of the horse, etc. Darwin himself was thinking of structural 
evidence when he wrote, ' ' What can be more curious than that 
the hand of man, formed for grasping, the leg of the horse, 
the paddle of the porcupine, and the wing of the bat, should 
all be constructed on the same pattern, and should include 
the same bones in the same relative position." 

2. Embryological evidence. This includes such rudiments 
as are found in the embryo alone gill-slits, for example. 
Without this important embryological evidence we should 
not so much as suspect that in early ages all vertebrates 
lived in the water. 

3. Geological evidence gathered from fossil bones etc. 
This gives us the pedigree of the horse back to his five-toed 
ancestors, and shows what kind of creatures lived on the earth 
before man himself arrived. 

4. Geographical evidence. This shows that creatures which 
are most alike are found nearest together. 

5. Experimental evidence. Man gets this for himself 
when he chooses different varieties and breeds new species 
of animals. 

Taken all together, these five kinds of evidence prove that 
at some time in the past all vertebrates were very much more 
alike than their descendants are to-day ; and, as we have seen, 
these present differences are the result of the combined action 
of environment and heredity 1 . The two, working together, 
have caused such specialization along different lines that we 
now have many different types of vertebrates. Some of these 

1 " By heredity we mean organic resemblance based on descent." 


live in the air, some live in the water, and some, as ourselves, 
live on land. 

And throughout the history of it all we see that in every 
case it was the fittest ancestors that were able to change their 
habits of life, able to save themselves from extinction when the 


In 1913 this fish was sent alive from the Gambia region of Africa to the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York City. It came "coiled up in a kind of 
cocoon, deeply sunken in a large clod of earth which months before had been the 
bottom of a stream." There was an opening through the clod so that air reached 
the fish. This kind of fish " breathes by means of gills when in the water, but with 
a lung during the summer drought, inhaling and exhaling air as if it were a land- 
living animal." In its degree of development it belongs with fossil fish that lived 
millions of years ago, because it is a transitional type a water animal that is be- 
coming a land animal. The fish died soon after reaching New York, and its body 
is preserved in the Museum 

struggle was on, and able to pass certain kinds of characters 
on to the next generation. 

Thus it is that each generation takes its part in changing 
the history of later generations. But this is not all. The next 
chapter introduces another side of the subject. It shows what 
the difference is between characters that can be passed on and 
characters which can never be passed on by inheritance. 


A young mother expressed the greatest disappointment 
over the fact that her daughter was not musical. 

" I simply cannot understand it," she exclaimed. " Before 
the child was born I spent hours every day practicing the 
piano, because I was determined to have at least one musical 
person in the family. Does n't science say that we can stamp 
our children this way or that before they are born ? I have 
proved that we can't." 

" Has she no musical ability whatever ? " I asked. 

" None at all," was the answer ; " neither have I ; neither 
has her father. That's precisely why I practiced so. I was 
trying to help the family out. I wanted to put musical power 
into it." 

"And you failed ? " I asked. 

" Absolutely," was the answer. 

" The trouble was with your own lack of information," I 
continued. She looked surprised, but I gave her no time to 
speak. "The process of evolution proves that we stamp our 
children according to what we are in ourselves, not accord- 
ing to what we make ourselves do. The doing is n't going to 
stamp children before they are born ; it is the being that does 
it. Is n't your daughter rather persistent ? " 

"Indeed she is," said the woman, looking at me in^as- 
tonishment. " She's the most persistent thing you ever saw. 
But what gave you the idea ? You have n't even seen her." 



" No," I answered,' " but from your story I see that you 
yourself are persistent, not musical. Where was her musical 
taste to come from if neither you nor her father had it ? 
You mustn't blame her. Laws of nature are responsible." 

This true story shows how it is 
that uninformed people often expect 
to secure what they desire without 
any reference to the laws of nature. 

For three hundred years and over, 
Chinese mothers bound the feet of 


The one on the left has been worn ; the one on the right shows how the foot was 
bandaged and cramped above the shoe 

their young daughters, and from generation to generation 
those feet were cramped from girlhood to middle age, old age, 
and death. -Surely, if ever an acquired character 1 was to be 

1 An acquired character is secured by an individual during his own life, 
not by inheritance. Professor Weismann was the first scientist to give the 
words acquired character their present meaning. He says, " Acquired char- 
acters are those which result from external influence upon the organism, in 
contrast to such as spring from the constitution of the germ." 


inherited by oncoming generations of girls, this was the one. 
Mothers and grandmothers, great-grandmothers and great- 
great-grandmothers, back in direct line through all these 
generations, had done what they could to compel Chinese 
women to have small feet. And what success did they have ? 
Each baby born in each generation had as perfect feet as 
if no ancestral bones had ever been deformed. Moreover, 
when those feet were allowed to grow, they became as large 
and well shaped as if there never had been any foot-binding 
in China. 

This illustrates the fate of acquired characters. Facts show 
that they are not passed on. A woman may crimp her hair 
from the cradle to the grave, but unless she marries a man 
with curly hair, or unless there has been curly hair some- 
where back in the ancestry of the father or the mother, she 
will not succeed in giving curly hair to her children or to her 
children's children. 

Other characters are acquired, too. Eyes that have been 
weakened through overstrain ; hands calloused through rough 
work ; faces tanned through exposure ; firm or flabby muscles ; 
bent or straight backs ; stiff or limber joints these and many 
others are acquired characters. They can never reach the next 
generation through inheritance. 

In the flower gardens of Japan there are trees so dwarfed 
by human art that orange, pine, and plum are in full bloom 
and bearing fruit when they are no more than a foot high. 
Judging from appearances, these trees are a race by them- 
selves, and one would expect to find nothing but dwarfs 
among their descendants. But, strange to say, no seed of a 
tree that was dwarfed ever grows into a dwarfed descendant. 
Each successive generation has to be crippled and deformed 
and compelled to stay small by the aid of man. 


Dogs and sheep and horses in England have had their 
tails cut off for very many generations. Yet each pup, colt, 
and lamb born of these tail-docked ancestors has as normal 
a tail as if its ancestors had never endured any amputation. 
The acquired character of short tail has never been passed 
on and never will be. 

With such facts in mind we naturally ask how short-tailed 
cats came into existence, and how it is that such cats are able 
to pass on the short-tailed character. A series of rather star- 
tling facts points the 
way to a probable 
answer. They deal 
with what are called 
mutations. In more 
ordinary language a 
mutation is referred 
to as a sport, and a 
sport might be de- 
scribed as a living 
novelty which cannot 
be explained by its 

To illustrate this : 
In Paraguay, in the 

midst of an ordinary herd of long-horned cattle there appeared 
one day a young bull born without horns. This was in 1 770. 
Not an ancestor of that small animal had been hornless, yet 
until he died he remained as hornless as when he was born. 
He was a mutation a sport. 

An animal without horns is so easy to manage that this 
one pleased his owners, and they wished to have others like 
him. But as he was the only one of his kind, his pairing had 

Dwarfed by human skill 


to be done with ordinary horned mates. The results were 
unexpected certainly, and the owners were astonished. So 
many of his descendants had no horns that in the course 
of time there was established a race of hornless cattle from 

horned ancestors. 

Darwin tells us that 
short-legged Ancon sheep 
started in the same way 
that in a herd of long- 
legged sheep there ap- 
peared one day this one 
little lamb with short legs ; 
that it lived to grow up 
and become an ancestor ; 
that among its own de- 
scendants there were sev- 
eral short-legged sheep. 
These could not jump 
fences and escape from 
the fold ; therefore sheep 
raisers selected them as 
ancestors of succeeding 
generations. As a result, 
short-legged sheep are 
now the chosen type. 
They are found the world over, and appreciated everywhere. 
Mr. Poulton describes a family of cats with an extra toe. 
The first one came as a mutation. After this, for seven gen- 
erations of that family, the feet of all the kittens and cats were 
faithfully examined, and, by actual count, the majority of them 
were found to be supplied with one or two extra toes, making 
six or seven toes on each foot. 


The boy's father had twelve fingers and twelve 
toes, but the fin-gers were boneless. (Photo- 
graph by Professor Scott.) (From " Heredity in 
Relation to Eugenics," by C.B. Davenport) 


From one point of view this is a calamity even for cats. 
Think, then, of the misfortune it is for human beings ! Yet 
such cases are on record. Professor Scott gives the photo- 
graph of a boy who began life with six fingers on each hand 
and six toes on each foot. His father had had the same num- 
ber. One of his brothers had extra toes, another brother had 
extra toes with one extra finger on his left hand, a sister had 


Notice that one ha 

(Photograph by Drinkwater.) (F 

.nd has three joints to each finger, while the other has but two. 
Drinkwater.) (From " Mendel's Principles of Heredity," by 
W. Bateson) 

extra toes only, while five brothers and sisters had perfectly 
natural hands and feet. The condition of having too many 
fingers is called polydactylism. 

Besides this there is brachydactylism. The word itself means 
" short-fingeredness." All we know about the following case is 
that the woman had two joints instead of three joints to each 
finger. She married a man with perfectly normal, three- 
jointed fingers. They had eleven children, and facts are known 


about eight of them. Among these, as the diagram shows, 
four had short fingers and four had normal fingers. 

Study the diagram and see that in the next generation there 
were seven short-fingered persons and five that were normal. 

? ? 

9 t 9 cf 

7 9 f ? <? ? 

^9 9? 



The family lived in Pennsylvania, and, as Dr. Castle states, " in no case was an ab- 
normal member of the family known to have married any but an unrelated normal 
individual." Notice, however, that about half of the descendants were afflicted with 
brachydactylism. (From " Heredity," by W. E. Castle) 

/--, Male and female respectively, not possessing the trait under 

A Male and female possessing the trait. 

Unknown sex, normal or affected. 

Neither presence nor absence of trait can be affirmed. 

(A) Indicates number of children. 


(As adopted by the Galton Eugenics Laboratory) 


The printed record of the family stops with the fifth gen- 
eration, but out in the world, where the descendants of those 
people continue to live and to multiply, the misfortune of 
their fingers still goes on, and the number of those who 
have this misfortune increases with each generation 

(From the " Treasury of Human Inheritance ") 

We see, then, that a character which begins as a mutation l 
marches on through the generations without any regard to 

1 In 1885 Professor Hugo de Vries of Holland came upon an astonish- 
ing primrose plant. It grew in a deserted potato field near Amsterdam, 
and it had many unexpected descendants. Among these " some had few 
branches instead of many ; some had small flowers instead of large ; some 
had quite different leaves, and so on." Every now and then, also, a prim- 
rose hybrid would have descendants quite like itself, and the new charac- 
ters would go on from one generation to the next without change. A new 
species had come unannounced into the field, and it was able to stay there 
because it had descendants like itself. De Vries found many such cases 
among his primrose plants, and it was he who first called them mutations. 
The word is now used by all who study the laws of evolution. 


the wishes of those who suffer from it or of those who are 
blessed by it. And this points the difference between a 
mutation and an acquired character. 

An acquired character cannot be inherited ; a mutation is 
inherited. The difference between the two is striking. And 
this explains why mutations have done so much for past gen- 
erations of living creatures, for if a mutation gave its owner 
any advantage in the struggle for existence, if it made the 
creature in the least degree more fit to survive,. through 
the law of inheritance it was sure to play an important part 
in changing succeeding generations of descendants. 

No mutations have taught plainer lessons than do those 
which Dr. Tower brought about among his American potato 
bugs. These are discussed in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
chapters. Just now, however, we turn to the law of isolation 
as it is illustrated by snail shells on the Hawaiian Islands. 


Imagine yourself on the Hawaiian Islands, 1 in 1852. You 
are on horseback, on the island of Oahu, riding from valley 


to valley, hunting for land shells. Your guide is an en- 
thusiastic young American student. 

1 The Hawaiian Islands take their name from the largest island of the 
group. They are of volcanic origin, lie just within the tropics, and are 
2500 miles from San Francisco. Because of their great beauty they are 
called The Paradise of the Pacific. 



Look under the trees as he does ; examine the trunks, the 
branches, the leaves. You will find snail shells clinging in 
each place. Notice their variety, their shape, their location. 
Some are almost an inch long ; others are so small that it 
takes five to measure one inch. Some are fragile as the frailest 
china ; others are stout enough to endure rough handling. 

In color they run all the way from bright green and yel- 
low to the softest shades of brown, with touches of blue and 
pink and white. Indeed, in coloring, no gems could be more 

The island of Oahu is forty-six miles long and twenty- 
five miles wide. A mountain range stretches through it 
from northwest to southeast. Wooded valleys trail downward 
from this central mountain range. These valleys are very 
narrow, very deep, and close together.' Here it was that, in 
1852, John Gulick gathered his snail shells and found that 
on Oahu alone there are between two and three hundred 
species of the same family of snails. 

Some lived on the ground ; some were on the under side 
of the leaves of low shrubs ; some on the broad branches of 
the kukui tree. Others lived in sunlight on the ridges be- 
tween the higher parts of the valleys, while still others always 
stayed in the damp, shaded forests of the valleys. And the 
special point to bear in mind is, that from generation to gen- 
eration each species stayed where it started. It never left 
its special tree, shrub, or rock unless it was carried away by 
windstorm or by birds. 

At the very time that John Gulick gathered his shells, he 
did the one thing which made his whole collection priceless 
afterwards. He not only found old shells and labeled them, 
found new shells and gave them names, but he also made 
careful note of the exact place where each separate shell had 


been found whether in this valley or that ; whether on 
this kind of tree, on that variety of 'shrub, or under leaves 
on the ground. He was indeed doing what scientists now 
insist must always be done to make a collection of any value 
from the scientific point of view. In those days, however, 
and in that distant land, John Gulick was the only person 
who so much as dreamed of doing this careful work. 



i, yellow-white with a tinge of green and dark stripes ; 2, soft yellow with white 
lining ; 3, red-brown with white stripes and white lining ; 4, shaded pink with white 
bands and white lip ; 5, dark brown, light brown, and white ; 6, dark green shaded 
light, with bands of dark brown and yellow ; 7, white inside and outside, with touch 
of yellow on the lip ; 8, dark red-brown, shaded, with darker bands and white lining 

" I was so much interested in the location," he says, " that 
I kept the name of every valley. I went around the island 
on horseback, starting at Koko Head and visiting all the 
valleys in turn. The shells were actually found by the Ha- 
waiian boys. I would ride into a valley and tell the boys that 
I would come in a few days and pay them for the land shells 
they found, but I knew the valley where they came from." 


He also saw that in the same valley, on separate trees, 
there were often several varieties of the same species. In 
one case he even found fifteen different species of the same 
genus in five neighboring valleys ; and these valleys were so 
small that, altogether, the ground they covered was less than 
five miles long by two miles wide. 

All this perplexed him. And although he bought and 
read Darwin's "Voyage of the Beagle," it gave him no 
help. 1 

As he continued to gather his shells, to study them, and 
to label them, he constantly looked for points that were alike 
and for points that were unlike. And in doing this he no- 
ticed that species which lived closest together, on the same 
trees or in the same valley, were very much alike. 

He then arranged his shells according to the exact spot 
they came from. And now he saw that the nearer together 
they were, the more alike ; the farther apart, the more unlike. 
These various facts led him to ask himself two questions : 

1 . Why should so many species have been created so near 
to each other ? 2 

2. Why should there be such an extraordinary number of 
short steps between the different species ? 

While he asked these questions and puzzled his wits for 
answers, John Gulick little thought that those treasured shells 
of his were destined to travel back and forth to America and 
round the world with him ; that he was to talk with Darwin 
himself about them ; and that, in the end, his own answer 
to his own questions was to help solve the great problem of 
evolution. Yet all this came to pass. 

1 The " Origin of Species " was not written until years later. 

2 In those days men believed _that each species was created independ- 
ently of all the others. 


In 1872, twenty years after his shells were gathered, 
Dr. Gulick wrote out the answers to his questions. 

He said that on the Hawaiian Islands nature had acted 
like a careful breeder. It had kept certain groups from mating 
with other groups, even when they lived very near together. 
And he shows how this was managed, step by step, from 
the beginning. 

1. After these volcanic islands had been formed, a few 
snails drifted to them from elsewhere. 

2. These first snails multiplied where they were and, since 
they were wretched travelers, they stayed in the same place 
for numberless generations. 

3. In the course of time a few were carried off by birds, 
or by wind or flood, or on a broken branch, and left in 
another part of the same valley, or perhaps on the top of a 
neighboring tree. 

4. These snails stayed where they were dropped ; they 
multiplied in their new home and had no chance whatever to 
mate with the parent stock or with any other snails in any 
other place. For this reason each new group of descendants 
became slightly different from its own immediate ancestors, 
and more different yet from all the other ancestors farther 
back. It became different because it started with a different 

To make this last statement plain, imagine seven birds 
with beaks as long as shown in the illustration on the next 
page. Also imagine that two of the birds flew off to a new 
locality. Now notice the difference in the average length of 
the beaks in the two groups. 

The same law of average holds true with snails. When a 
few of these are swept away from the original group, the 
average size or shape of this new, smaller group is sure to 



be different from the average size and shape of the first 
group, and in general it is the average that shows itself in 
the descendants of each new colony. 

2 in. 

Average length of beaks in this group is two inches * 

3 m. 

Average length of beaks in this group is two and one half inches 1 

This, then, explains the short steps that sprang up, one 
from the other, among the snails of Hawaii. There is an 
extraordinary number of varieties and species, for two 
reasons : 

1 The average is found by adding all the lengths together and dividing 
the sum by the number of beaks. 


1. Because the snails were blown along or moved along 
in short stages. 

2. Because each colony was permanently separated from 
all the other colonies, and because each had its own 

Let colony after colony be started in this way, let time go 
on for unnumbered snail generations, and we should expect 
to find precisely what we do find a series of colonies sepa- 
rated from each other by short steps of difference. Then, 
too, we should expect to find that the nearer they are to 
each other, the more alike they will be ; the farther apart, the 
more unlike. This also is what has happened to snail shells 
on Hawaii. 

Dr. Gulick brings these facts out and says that any sepa- 
ration which prevents one colony from mating with another 
colony is rightly called isolation. He speaks of geographic 
isolation, when snails in one valley or on one tree have no 
chance to mate with snails in another valley or on another 
tree, or when snails that live under stones never meet those 
that live on tree tops. He speaks of food isolation, when dif- 
ferent groups live on different kinds of food ; and he assures 
us that anything which keeps colonies permanently apart, so 
that mating is impossible, means isolation for them. He 
also says that genuine isolation of this sort results at last in 
a new species. 

This was Dr. Gulick's discovery. By means of it he added 
the law of isolation to Darwin's five-linked chain, and by 
doing this he made the chain itself so much the stronger. 

Human beings as well as snails, plants as well as animals, 
are controlled by the same law of isolation. The next chap- 
ter will show that colonies which mix freely with each other 
have the smallest number of species. 



Kansas will never forget the year 1862. Potato bugs had 
arrived. They were crossing the state, destroying the crops 
and driving the farmers to despair. One afflicted man wrote 

to the editor of the Val- 
ley Farmer about it : 

" I cultivate about ten 
acres of land," he says, 
" for the purpose of rais- 
ing potatoes for my 
hotel ; it is situated on 
the prairie land. Last 
August, soon after a 
heavy shower of rain, 
these bugs suddenly 
made th'eir appearance 
in large numbers on the 
potato vines. They were 
so numerous that in 
many instances they 
would almost cover the 
whole vine. It is no ex- 
aggeration when I tell 

you that we have often, in a very short time, gathered as many 
as two bushels of them. When cold weather set in, they 
disappeared. Early this spring I was setting out some apple 



Color, yellow with black stripes ; length, about 
one third of an inch 


trees, and away down in the hard, yellow clay I found these 
bugs, apparently dead, but put them in the sun and they im- 
mediately came to life. They have again made their appear- 
ance in my garden in large numbers. Last year they ate up 
everything green on the potato vines, then commenced on 
the tomatoes, and so on, eating up everything green." 

It seems that the ancestors of these beetles had moved up 
by short stages from Mexico to Nebraska ; that on the way 
they ate certain plants that pleased them, but that they knew 
nothing about potatoes until they reached Omaha City in 
1859. And here it was that they had their first taste of what 
seemed to them a delicious new food. 

They crawled over the potato leaves, nibbled at them, and 
liked them so well that, ever after, wherever the farmer went, 
planting his potatoes, there too went the potato-bug beetle 
to enjoy them. Everywhere the beetle destroyed the crops, 
and everywhere the farmer did what he could to destroy 
the beetle. 

It was a hand-to-hand fight, and the record of it is given 
by Dr. Tower in what he calls " The Chronological His- 
tory of the Dispersal of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, 1859 
to 1904." * 

This record shows how the beetles worked their way from 
west to east, how long they took for the journey, and how 
they earned for themselves the nickname of potato bug. 
Their real name their scientific name is Leptinotarsa 
decemlineata, a name too long for everyday use but quite 
important to the scientist. 

Here are a few extracts quoted from the record of the 
travels of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. 

1 This is one division of Dr. Tower's book entitled " Evolution in 
Chrysomelid Beetles." 


1864. " The beetle has. crossed the Mississippi River into 
Illinois at several points. ... It is committing the most destruc- 
tive ravages on the potato crop in the vicinity of Warsaw, 
Illinois, but it has not yet reached a point lying thirty miles 
east of us in such numbers as to be noticed by the farmers." 

1865. If reports are correct, "the insect has traveled 
three hundred and sixty miles in six years. At this rate it 
will reach the Atlantic in fourteen years (i.e. 1879)." 

1868. A few advance agents of the moving army appeared 
in Ohio. The army itself was still one hundred miles to the 
rear but coming steadily on. Dr. Tower says that this advance 
guard, no doubt, traveled by accident on the coal barges which 
passed up and down the Ohio River. They were blown onto 
these barges while on the wing. 

l8jl. " The chief event of the history of this year's 
spread is the invasion of Canada." A man describing the 
way they travel writes : "In the spring the Detroit River 
was swarming with the beetles, and they were crossing Lake 
Erie on ships, chips, staves, and any floating object." 

1874. " The center of the interest was along the Atlantic 
coast, where in many places the beetle was abundant and 
did much damage." 

/c?75. " At the beginning of this year the beetle was dis- 
tributed along the seacoast from New York to Chesapeake 
Bay, and by the end it had overrun most of the remaining 
territory of the coast states. It reached Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in the autumn. It penetrated farther into Vermont 
and was reported from New Hampshire and Maine." 

l8j6. "It is related that they were washed ashore in 
such numbers as to poison the air with the ' noxious vapors ' 
arising from their decaying bodies." The captain of a New 
London vessel relates that while at sea (Long Island Sound) 


they " boarded him in such numbers that the hatches had to 
be closed. . . . They were abundant everywhere and by the 
end of the year had overrun the entire northern and eastern 
part of the United States, excepting Maine." 

Sometimes the masses moved faster, sometimes slower, 
but always they went forward. Like the Israelites of old, 
they lived and journeyed and died as they traveled. 


This shows the chief trends of migration of Leptinotarsa decemlineata between 
1859 and 1904. (After W. L. Tower) 

It took sixteen years for them to go from Omaha to Boston. 
Meanwhile every European nation watched the progress of 
the army and grew anxious. If beetles could cross the 
Mississippi River, if they could span Lake Erie and 
reach Canada, what was to hinder them from taking ship 
for Europe ? What was to save that side of the ocean 
from the beetle raids of this side, and what should be done 
as preparation for the possibility of such an invasion ? 


Different governments asked themselves these questions 
as they watched the steady advance of the tireless travelers. 
Fortunately Europe knew how to save herself. Her weapon 
was scientific information about the beetle itself, about its 
power to eat all sorts of green and growing things, and about 
the way it travels. Full directions were given as to what 
must be done at once if any beetle showed itself in Europe. 

In Germany schoolmasters taught the facts to the chil- 
dren in the schools and gave public lectures to older people. 
France printed an elaborate bulletin for everybody to read. 

Then, in 1876, came the expected test. Beetles had ar- 
rived. They had crossed the Atlantic by ship from America. 
They were found in England, Sweden, and Norway. But, 
thanks to the bulletins, the school-teachers, and the children, 
people recognized them at once, captured them, and killed 
them. Science saved the country then and will keep on saving 
it so long as the people are vigilant. But what if vigilance 
should let go ? 

Dr. Tower says that " when this happens, the beetle will 
spread as it did in this country, until it is found in all the 
countries of Europe in which it is possible to live." 

Such is the meager outline of the history of the migration 
of the potato bug from Omaha in the west to Europe in the 
east ; and it points the lesson of environment. By what they 
did these beetles proved that they could live in any surround- 
ings where they could find food enough. 

It mattered ftot whether the place was hot or cold, damp 
or dry, covered by shadows or exposed to sunshine ; whether 
it were on a mountain top, on a wide plain, or in a valley. 
Nothing mattered to the beetles except their food. Wherever 
there was food enough, there they multiplied fastest; and 
where they multiplied fastest, there they provided the largest 


numbers to be moved onward or to be blown forward as 
accident might dictate. 

Still they were neither eating nor traveling all the time. 
Dr. Tower says that most beetles spend from three to five 
months a year underground in a state of torpor, taking no 
part in life's activities. But when spring comes and the 
days are warm, then new life drives them aboveground 
again. They now creep and fly about and fall to eating 
spring leaves that are beginning to grow. It is at this time 
that the farmer is in despair. He cries, "The bugs are upon 
us!" He arms himself to defeat them. He picks them from 
the vines by the peckful and the bushel. He puts Paris 
green on the vines to kill the marauders. He digs long 
trenches across their pathway, waits until hundreds of thou- 
sands of them have fallen into these trenches, pours kero- 
sene oil in after them, touches a match to it, and in a flash of 
light the beetles have been conquered. No beetle can survive 
an environment of P 5 aris green or of fire. Man must therefore 
meet him with these weapons if he wishes to save his crops. 

Now compare the snails of Hawaii with the potato bugs of 
America, and keep in sight the following facts : 

1. On Oahu, an island forty-six miles long and twenty- 
five miles wide, there are between two and three hundred 
species of one great family of snails. In North America, in 
all the area of the Northern states and of Canada, there is 
but one species of potato bug. 

2. On Oahu each species of snail must have its own kind 
of food, else it will die. In America potato bugs live on 
fifteen or twenty different kinds of plants. 

3. Hawaiian snails move by creeping, and they do this 
slowly. American potato bugs not only creep but also walk 
and fly and are blown forward by the wind. 


4. The region covered by a single species of Hawaiian 
snail is often not over two or three square miles. The region 
covered by a single species of potato bug is as wide and as 
long as the continent of North America. 

These facts, put together in this way, show that the power 
to migrate and to live in different kinds of environment has 
much to do with the number of species in this region or that. 
If potato bugs had been, kept in narrow sections of the coun- 
try, if they had been able to live on but one kind of food, 


The dark one is bright red ; the light one is bright yellow. Both are decorated 

with black spots, both help destroy the crops, and both will be changed into flying 

beetles. (From W. L. Tower) 

if colonies had gone out from them rarely and at long inter- 
vals, if there had been no chance for different colonies to mix 
with each other, the potato bug would have ended by being 
divided into many species, as are the snails of Hawaii. 

Instead, this potato bug lives in any environment. Neither 
soil nor climate daunts him. Storms and blizzards simply 
drive him on his way and improve his chances. In spite of 
all this, however, there are certain kinds of beetle environ- 
ment which make all the difference in the world with his 
descendants of succeeding generations. The next chapter 
takes up this part of the subject. 


One of the interesting points about Leptinotarsa decem- 
lineata is that they multiply at the rate of two generations 
a year. This means that a beetle has both children and 
grandchildren within twelve months. Dr. Tower describes 
the egg-laying process. It begins in the spring, soon after 
the beetles crawl out of their underground burrows. 

A convenient leaf is chosen, and the beetle, well laden 
with her eggs, begins the serious work of laying from thirty 
to seventy-five of them in close succession. First " she al- 
lows a drop of yellow, oily fluid to escape " from her body. 
Upon this the egg is carefully dropped. ' The fluid now 
hardens rapidly and cements the egg in place. One egg hav- 
ing been deposited, the female moves along a slight distance, 
and there places another by the side of the first, and so on 
until there is a row of from five to ten eggs in a nearly straight 
line across the leaf. A second, third, fourth, and often as 
many as ten rows are thus laid, each of which is more or less 
closely placed to the previously laid row, and forms therewith 
a compact bunch." 

Sometimes, instead of putting all her eggs on the same 
leaf, the beetle moves from place to place, leaving a few here 
and a few there, until she has deposited the thirty or seventy- 
five that are ready to be laid in close succession. Her entire 
number is about three hundred and seventy-five, but, as we 
have seen, they have to be laid in separate sets during the 



same season, because they are not all ready to leave the body 
at the same time. There are from four to ten days between 
the layings of two successive sets of eggs. 

After the laying comes the hatching ; and after the hatch- 
ing, those young larvae of the next generation eat green things 
in abundance and develop so fast that, within thirty-five days 
from the time they were eggs, they have not only been 
changed into crawling larvae but also have become full-grown 
beetles with wings, ready to lay eggs on their own account. 

Dr. Tower learned these facts while he studied beetles 
and carried on experiments with them in connection with The 
University of Chicago. He knew that every kind of beetle 
starts from a germ cell, 1 and he proposed to do what he could 
to find out whether or not the power of germ cells can be 
influenced in this direction or that by any change in the 
surroundings of the parents before the next generation makes 
its appearance. 

See how it was in the matter of color, for example. 
Dr. Tower first secured forty thousand beetles. These were 
sent to him from the potato fields of Massachusetts and Long 
Island, also from Ohio and Illinois, and when they reached 
Chicago he put them into glass cages and glass breeding 
tanks prepared for the purpose. 

Each breeding place had its own special degree of heat or 
of cold, and each was kept at the same temperature through 
summer and through winter from 1893 to 1904. During these 
years many generations of beetles lived and died, and all the 
time Dr. Tower saw what was happening to the spots and 
the stripes that give the creatures their color. 

When the eleven years were over, when both heat tests 
and cold tests were ended, he found that up to a certain 
1 All life starts from germ cells. The next chapter tells of this. 


point of heat or of cold the color of each next generation of 
beetles grew darker and richer, but that when either the heat 
or the cold was greater, the color grew lighter from one 
generation to the next, until it had quite faded out. 

These experiments proved that the temperature of the sur- 
roundings in which beetles live and multiply influences the 
power of their germ cells to pass on shades of color to the 
next generation. 

Dr. Tower was in the midst of these experiments when a 
serious calamity brought them abruptly to an end. Beetles' 
eggs with long pedigrees behind them were in the green- 
house waiting to be hatched. Young beetles with pedigrees 
quite as long were feeding and growing. Full-grown beetles 
were in fine condition. It was one of the hottest days in the 
summer of 1904. Workmen were repairing the heating ap- 
paratus of the university, and, not knowing what might hap- 
pen, they turned the heat on at full pressure. Soon every 
beetle was killed ; every egg was put beyond the power of 
hatching. The record of these studies had to be closed. 
Dr. Tower had to make a new start with his investigations, 
and then .it was that he printed his book and reported results 
up to the date of the overheating. 

Still, even before the heat killed the beetles, another set 
of experiments had been going on which were of vast im- 
portance to biologists. Dr. Tower wished to know whether 
or not it makes any difference to the next generation if beetle 
parents are put into an unusual environment just before they 
lay their eggs, and at no other time. 

He suspected that germ cells might be influenced by their 
environment while the body was getting them ready to be 
laid. If this were so, he knew that one set of eggs would be 
affected at a time. 


He could tell by the looks of any beetle whether she was 
about to lay her eggs or whether she had already done so. 
Accordingly, in 1902, just before egg-laying time came, he 
chose six pairs of beetles, put them into a very warm, damp 
breeding place, and kept them there until they had laid 492 
eggs. He called this set Lot A. He next put both the beetles 
and the eggs in normal conditions again. Here the beetles 
laid the rest of their eggs. There were 509 of them. They 
were labeled Lot B. The larvae of both sets grew up together. 
As it happened, many of the eggs in both Lot A and Lot B 
did not hatch. Many larvae did not live. But we may im- 
agine how carefully Dr. Tower watched those that did live 
to become ancestors. 1 And he had his reward. 

He tells us that the parents of these particular beetles 
were of the species Leptinotarsa multitaenita, and that they 
had been brought from Mexico. Now it seems that when 
beetles of this species are frightened, they " feign death," as 
it is called, by falling to the ground with their legs folded 
close, up against the body, and they lie there motionless until 
they consider it safe to unfold and be alive again. 

But there is still another species of these same beetles in 
Mexico, called Leptinotarsa melanothorax. When these are 
frightened, they feign death and fall to the ground with their 
legs stiffened and stretched out in a straight line from the 
body. What, then, was Dr. Tower's surprise to find that all 
but ten of Lot A beetles, creatures that were direct descend- 
ants of multitaenita, were feigning death in quite correct 
melanothorax fashion. The damp-heat environment had so 
affected them through their parents that now, when the mo- 
ment of fright came, they did not fold their legs up against 
their bodies as their ancestors had done, but stiffened them 

1 Lot A produced 59 and Lot B 82 full-grown beetles. 


out and fell to the ground like bristling small porcupines. 
Moreover, their children and their children's children showed 
fright in the same way. Dr. Tower saw that his damp-heat en- 
vironment had changed the leg habits of multitaenita beetles. 
It had made melanothorax beetles out of them, and they con- 
tinued to be melanothorax beetles for succeeding generations. 
A wonder of this sort throws a flood of light on the laws of 
inheritance and on one of the methods of evolution. 


Leptinotarsa multitaenita (2) and two of its offspring that were mutations rubi- 

cunda (i) and melanothorax (3). In their coloring 2 shows black stripes and marks 

on a yellow background ; i has similar stripes and head markings on a red background ; 

3 is red with black stripes and a black neck. (After W. L. Tower) 

The most notable part of Dr. Tower's work was the proof 
that, by giving beetles an unusual environment during the 
time that the eggs were maturing, before they are laid, germ 
cells may be influenced and a new species secured. 

Now it matters little whether beetles feign death in one way 
or in another. But suppose there were some sort of environ- 
ment which could change cells in such away that the individuals 
of the next generation would be hopelessly damaged after birth. 
This subject will be studied later. Just now we turn our atten- 
tion to the very beginnings of life for the next generation. 



Professor Loeb in the United States and Professor Batail- 
lon in France have accomplished a marvel with frogs' eggs. 

One thousand of these eggs were 
taken from the body of the mother 
before they were fertilized. They 
were put into a small dish and were 
pricked one after the other with the 
finest possible platinum needle. 
Water of the right warmth was 
poured over them to keep them 
moist, and the dish with its water 
and eggs was set aside while Pro- 
fessor Bataillon waited for results. 1 

Within four hours these hoped- 
for results began to appear. The 
eggs were evidently developing, 
and before long most of them were 
changed somewhat. Still only one 
fifth kept on developing as normal 
eggs of the normal frog are ac- 
customed to do. 

Moreover, as days passed, so 
many of them stopped growing that 
only 1 20 turned themselves into 
tadpoles. This is the first great 


This tadpole developed from an 
unfertilized frog's egg that had 
been pricked with a platinum 
needle by Professor Loeb. It 
lived five months and passed 
almost beyond the tadpole stage. 
When it died it had all four legs 
and only the remnant of a tail. 
(Courtesy of Professor Loeb) 

1 Reported in A r ature (London), June 22, 1911. 


transformation of frog life. Of this 120, three lived long 
enough to become real frogs, while one hundred and seven- 
teen died by accident or because 
they could not get the right sort 
of food after their legs appeared. 

The oldest of the three lived 
three months. He had all four legs, 
and everything was complete about 
him except that his tadpole tail did 
not fully disappear. Then he too 
died. But the surprise was that 
any lived at all. 

A record of this kind startles 
every biologist, because nothing of 
the sort is found anywhere in the 
ordinary history of vertebrates. 
What we learn from biological 
history is that every descendant of 
every vertebrate begins its indi- 
vidual existence by the union of 
two germ cells, each of which is 
derived from a separate individual 
of different sex. We learn that 
unless this union takes place there 
can by no possibility be a second 

Aside from vertebrates, however, 
there are other living creatures to 
whom this law of two starting cells 
does not apply. The amoeba, for example, shows quite another 
method. Here we have a one-celled creature that multi- 
plies by pulling itself in two. i'o-day each amoeba that lives 


This also grew from an unferti- 
lized egg that had been pricked 
with a platinum needle. It died 
after six months with rudimen- 
tary legs only. (Courtesy of 
Professor Loeb) 


i, tadpole just hatched; 2, 3, successively older tadpoles seen from one side; 4, a 
slightly older tadpole seen from the dorsal side ; 5, a still older specimen from be- 
low ; 6, tadpole with the gills covered, leaving only a small opening on the left side ; 
7, indications of hind legs ; 8 and 10, successively older stages ; 9, specimen with the 
ventral body wall removed, showing the coiled intestine and gills ; n, both pairs of 
legs free; 12, 13, 14, successive stages in the resorption of the tail; 15, adult frog. 
(After Leuckart and Nitsche.) (From " Synoptic Text Book of Zoology," by Weyss) 



and eats and moves about and divides is merely half of 
another amoeba precisely like itself. 1 

But with fish and fowl and with all other vertebrates, in- 
cluding man, a new order steps in. Instead of having but 
one cell of protoplasm apiece, like the amoeba, all complex 
animals are great bundles of millions of cells, and a separate 
set takes charge 
of each separate 
function of the 

Through our 
brain cells we 
do our thinking 
and our decid- 
ing ; nerve cells 
do the tele- 
graphing for 
us ; muscle cells 
do the pulling; 
cells of liver, 
spleen, bone, 
and kidney de- 
vote themselves 

its own special 

field ; while germ cells (also called gametes) are set apart for 
absolutely no other purpose than to carry on the life of the 
race. In fact they are the only bits of protoplasm in the 
universe that are able to pass life along from one generation 
to the next. They join the generations together. 

1 For description of amoeba see " Control of Body and Mind," 
of the Gulick Hygiene Series, chap. vi. 


In a certain town in Ohio, on a certain day, there were 
born a colt, a lamb, a puppy, and a human baby. Each one of 
these young animals looked and acted as all its ancestors had 
looked and acted when they were of the same age. We are 
so accustomed to marvels of this sort that we accept them as 
a matter of course. 

Perhaps we forget that germ cells of various kinds look so 
much alike that no one but the keenest scientist with his 
strongest magnifying glass could have told beforehand which 
pairs of those cells were to develop into colt, lamb, puppy, 
and baby. Nevertheless, lodged within the cells themselves, 
before they began to develop, were all the different characters 
that were to belong to each one of the four small creatures. 
And these different characters represented different ancestors 
all the way back to the beginning of things. Size and shape, 
color and character, texture of wool and of hair, brain power 
and muscle power, keenness of vision and of scent, structure 
of body and type of disposition each quality of each animal 
was stored up for use and packed into the small compass of 
its own particular pair of germ cells. 

All this, then, is what germ cells do as their share of the 
work of life. They help on the cause of the next generation. 

Other cells multiply within the body and serve the body 
itself without reference to the next generation. Not so with 
germ cells ; it is true that they live within the body, but it 
is equally true that they exist there without any reference 
whatever to the welfare of the body to which they belong. 
In no wise do they exert themselves for the maintenance 
of its activities. On the contrary, they are set apart ; they 
remain in organs of their own. The sole purpose of their 
existence is to help construct a new member of the next 


In scientific books germ cells, in quantity, are often re- 
ferred to as germ plasm, and those who study the subject 
often speak of germ plasm as a stream of life. They say that 
" the individual is only the result of the unfolding of the 
potential powers of a bit of germ plasm," and that, "once 
developed, the person carries the rest of the precious mate- 
rial around with him to hand down to his own offspring." l 
According to this theory the present generation is the direct 
outcome of all the generations that have gone before. The 
claim, therefore, is that germ plasm is the only part of our 
bodies which will live as long as the race itself continues to 
multiply on the earth. 2 

In studying cells and their development it is important to 
remember that neither amoeba nor germ cell can live after 
it becomes dry, and that every dry amoeba ever found was 
a dead amoeba. So it is with germ cells \ the mere fact of 
dryness kills them. No germ cell can live and pass on the 
life of the race if it stays in dry surroundings. This is true 
of every kind of animal life, and it is interesting to see how 
nature manages to keep these cells moist and useful even 
when they belong to different kinds of creatures. 

It is easy to keep fish cells from drying up, because the 
fish themselves live in water and lay their eggs there. But 
even fish have trouble in getting the next generation safely 

1 As Weismann puts it, " In each development a portion bf the specific 
germinal plasm which the parental ovum contains is not used up in the 
formation of the offspring, but is reserved unchanged for the formation of 
the germinal cells of the following generations." 

2 In this discussion about evolution and about the laws of inheritance 
there is often great disagreement of opinion among investigators. All 
believe in evolution itself, but some put emphasis on one side of the sub- 
ject, some on another side. Without exception, however, they are study- 
ing facts, and the wisest among them are more anxious to arrive at the 
truth than to establish their own individual point of view. 



launched into life. This trouble comes from the fact that 
every generation of germ cells for every kind of animal has 
to meet three conditions : 

1. Two separate cells one each from two separate 
animals must unite to form each member of the next 

2. To live, they must be prevented from getting dry. 

3. They must be so 
placed that they will be 
sure to find each other. 
Fish meet these con- 
ditions as follows : 

The female fish, as it 
swims about, first de- 
posits a mass of germ 
cells, each one of which 
is an egg an ovum. 
Later the male fish, also 
swimming that way, de- 
posits on the eggs a clear-looking substance which seems to 
resemble nothing so much as the white of an egg. This sub- 
stance really contains millions of germ cells. Each one is 
called a sperm, and each is capable of fertilizing one of 
the eggs. 1 

It is a fairly easy matter to discover separate eggs in the 
vast numbers>-which a fish lays at one time, for they float 
about, looking like bits of jelly bunched together. It is 
otherwise with the sperm cells. All that the eye sees is a 
thickish liquid, but under the microscope, in the liquid it- 
self, we see numberless darting objects that are in constant 

1 2 


i and 2, immature and mature spermatozoa of 
snail; 3, of bird ; 4, of man ; 5, of salamander; 
6, of Ascaris ; 7, of crayfish. (Enormously mag- 
nified. Not drawn on scale.) (From Thomson) 

1 A mature germ cell is often called a gamete. When two germ cells, 
or gametes, unite they form a fertilized cell called a zygote. 


motion. Each is a single cell a sperm. Each seems to 
have both head and tail, like a stretched-out tadpole. All are 
so small that it takes six thousand sperm heads placed side 
by side to measure one inch. When they have the chance 
for it, each is ready to join an egg, and together they start 
life for a new fish. This is called fertilization. 

Now in a general way this history of fish beginnings is 
really the history of the beginning of every vertebrate, man 
included. There is never any confusion in results. The indi- 
vidual started by fish parents becomes a fish, while birds and 
beasts and each separate kind of human being have children 
according to their kind. This law of life does not vary. It 
is immutable. 

It is of course true that the first two cells do not always 
come upon one another by the same road. With fish they 
are deposited side by side in water. This is all that is neces- 
sary. They reach each other, and young fish begin to develop. 

With birds and other animals there is another arrange- 
ment. Since the environment of creatures that do not live 
in water is always dry, and since germ cells must not be al- 
lowed to get dry even if they do belong to dry land animals, 
nature provides for this. The germ cells of these animals 
pass directly from one individual to another. 

A further point is that germ cells which are to carry on the 
life of the race whether of fish or of any other creature 
must stay in damp surroundings from the time they meet 
until the individual is formed. Nature brings this about in 
three different ways : 

1. With fish and frogs the eggs stay in the water and 
develop there. 

2. With birds and reptiles a stout shell is supplied. This 
shell grows about the germ cell within the body of the mother, 



and as it thickens, nature packs into the shell a mass of albu- 
men the white of the egg. This albumen does two things : 

a. It supplies moisture for the developing cell. 

b. It provides nourishment for the growing individual. 
Moreover, the shell itself does two things : 

a. It is of such a texture that it keeps the moisture of the 
albumen from evaporating even after the egg has been laid. 

b. It is so porous 

.J. V.1 

sh m 




that air gets into it for 
the occupant to use 
while it develops. 1 

With these facts in 
mind, the natural ques- 
tion is, Why are not 
all animals ourselves 
among the rest sup- 
plied with eggshells 
and then hatched out 
when the time comes ? 
The answer is that 
when the growing ani- 
mal is to be small, it is comparatively easy for nature to 
arrange to have it spend its first stage of growing within an 
eggshell, but when an animal is to be so large that it must 
develop for months instead of weeks before it is ready for 
the outside world, then nature has to make some other ar- 
rangement ; that is, no egg can be planned for big enough 

yk, yolk ; bl, germ disk ; alb, white, or albumen ; ch, 

thickened albumen which holds yolk in position ; 

a, air space ; sh. m, two shell membranes ; sh, shell. 

(From Parker and Haswell) 

1 After an egg has been fertilized and laid, it must be kept at a definite 
temperature for a definite length of time. Hens and birds keep their eggs 
warm enough by sitting on them. Incubators have to supply the same 
temperature, else the eggs will not hatch. Each kind of egg has its own 
time limit for hatching. 


to hold all the nourishment that will be needed for months 
of growth within a shell. For such cases nature has its 
third device. 

3. Instead of surrounding the germ cell with the white of 
an egg for moisture and food, instead of supplying a shell 
to keep the moisture in and to protect the whole from harm, 
instead of sending the germ cell away from the body to develop 
by outside heat, nature sees to it that the fertilized cell stays 
within the body in a soft covering of its own. Here it is both 
warm and moist. Here it develops until it is able to continue 
its growth in the outside world. And while it develops, the 
wonders of life and of growth reveal themselves. 

Dr. Minot's facts about growth read like a fairy tale. A 
few of these facts are given in the next chapter. 



Dr. Minot studied chicks from the time they began to 
develop within the eggshell until the last bit of down was 
laid in place, until the shell was packed to its utmost limit 
with a living chick, until hatching time had come. To do 
this he took eggs that were set for hatching, broke one on 
each successive day, and examined the contents both with 
the microscope and with the naked eye. 

He also took frequent photographs of the progress of these 
developing chicks. In this way he followed them step by step 
as the bundles of the cells grew bigger, and we have the 
printed record of what he found. 

First day, " A mere gathering of cells." 

Second day, " The chick has distinctly a head and a little 

Third day, " The eye has developed, the heart has become 
large, the tail is projecting, the dorsal curve of the future 
neck is distinguishable." 

Fourth day, "It is a strange-looking beast, with a wing 
here and a leg there, a little tail at this point, an enormous 
eye, almost monstrous in proportion, and, finally, a great 
bulge caused by the middle division of the brain." 

Fifth day, " We now have a chick the brain of which is 
swelling, causing the head to be of so queer a shape, with 
the eye that seems all out of proportion to the rest of the 
body, that it imparts an uncanny look to the embryo. The 



wing is showing itself somewhat, and the ends of the leg, 
we can see, will by expansion -form the foot." 

After ten full days of growing we have a chick with 
feathers beginning to grow over the entire body. Within 
those ten days the two germ cells which joined to form the 
beginnings of the chick have multiplied themselves into this 


From a photograph of a set of models, showing each cell enormously magnified. 
The last three models are of cross sections and indicate how the layers are 

being formed 

astonishing result. Never again in later life does any chick 
increase in size with such surprising speed as is shown by 
the growing embryo of this oviparous l animal. 

The special point to bear in mind is that, from start to 
finish, this whole process of growing is nothing more nor 
less than the dividing and the subdividing of the two germ 
cells which were joined as one. This first combination cell 

1 Animals developed from an egg are called oviparous. 


became two ; the two became four ; the four, eight. Then 
there were sixteen, thirty-two, sixty-four the total number 
doubling about once every hour. And this is the way every 
embryo begins to grow. 

But, strange to say, although, when born, each different 
kind of animal is to look so different from all others, this 
difference does not show itself in the earliest stages of the 
different embryos. On the contrary, among Vertebrates, dif- 
ferent embryos in their earliest stages look so much alike 
that often even an experienced biologist is hardly able to dis- 
tinguish fish from salamander or rabbit from man. 

For days and weeks, however, the multiplication of cells 
goes on steadily, never ceasing, and even before birth the 
time comes at last when each creature declares what it is by 
its shape of body, legs, and head. 

In the meantime the animal must have nourishment if it 
is to grow, and nature supplies it. Animals in eggshells get 
their first food from the yolk and then from the white of 
egg that surrounds the yolk. But when the yolk supply is ex- 
hausted, and when the white part is consumed by the cells as 
they multiply, then it is that the expanding chick has to strike 
for freedom and for a new environment. The time has come 
when he must have more food and more room to grow in. 
He finds neither the one nor the other within his eggshell. 

Twenty-one days after the hen begins to sit on her eggs, 
or an incubator begins to warm them, some instinct within the 
chick tells it to peck at its shell and make its way out into the 
world. The instinct is obeyed, and out steps a damp little 
creature, as perfect as a chick can ever be. Those three 
weeks have been long enough for multiplying cells to turn 
themselves into head and feet and claws, down and muscle, 
brain and nervous system, and every other minutest part of 


the marvelous structure that toddles about on its two feet and 
begins to peck at bits of straw and kernels of grain. 

Other animals also have their rate for rapid growing. 
But before going farther, four or five statements must be made. 

1 . Vertebrates are either oviparous, that is, developed from 
an egg and hatched outside the body of the parent, or vivip- 
arous, developed within the body of the parent and born alive. 

2. All mammals, except the duckbills of Australia, are 

3. Whether it is oviparous or viviparous, any developing 
creature is called an embryo until it is hatched or born, as 
the case may be. 

4. Before birth oviparous animals receive their nourish- 
ment from food which is stored within the eggshell, while 
viviparous animals receive their prenatal nourishment from 
the mother herself. It reaches them through a tubelike cord 
which joins the embryo to its parent. At the outset this cord 
is a mere thread, but it grows stronger and stouter as the cells 
of the embryo multiply and as the developing creature grows 
heavier and larger from day to day. 

5. It takes twenty-one days for a chick to develop in its 
shell. A duck develops in four weeks, a guinea pig in twenty- 
one days, rabbits and squirrels in thirty days, while for cats 
it is sixty-five days, for dogs sixty-two, for a lion three months, 
for a pig four months, for sheep and goats five months, for 
a bear six months, for a cow nine months, for a human baby 
nine months, for a whale ten months, for a giraffe fourteen 
months, and for an elephant twenty-one months. 

Notice that in general the time needed for development 
is in proportion to the size which the developing creature is 
to attain in the end. Yet in every case the starting point is 
always the same no more than two germ cells for either 



the whale or the elephant, and no less than two cells for either 

the mouse or the mosquito. 

In this connection remember that never in the life of any 

animal do cells multiply so fast as before the creature is born. 

And this applies equally well to viviparous and to oviparous 

animals. But after 
birth, what a differ- 

f . {^,- ^ ence ! Compare, for 

I jrifer-'-y ^ t * example, the chick 

&if' and the rabbit. The 

former is spry from 
the start. He has 
keen, round eyes. He 
spies food at once, 
seizes it, feeds him- 
self, and scurries 
about on sturdy little 
legs, apparently hav- 
ing a mind of his 
own from the first. 
Fluffy down covers 




The four animals are all of the same age (three days). 

They were raised from the same batch of eggs but 

have been kept at different temperatures. (After 

Oskar Hertwig) 

his body, and in sum- 
mer, when chicks are 
young, the warmth of 
a sheltering mother 
often seems alto- 
gether superfluous. 
It is otherwise with the viviparous small rabbit. He 
arrives in the world blind, almost naked of hair, unable to 
move in this direction or that, unable to hunt for food, able 
indeed to do nothing more than take food from his mother 
according as he needs it. 


These two creatures, the chick and the rabbit, are good 
illustrations of the difference between some oviparous and 
many viviparous animals. But, for both alike, surroundings 
make all the difference in the world in their after life. If 
they have too little food or unfit food, if their environment 
is too hot or too cold, too wet or too dry, they will not grow 
as they should. 

For example, Dr. Minot reports the effect of temperature 
on the development of tadpoles. Four were taken from the 
same set of eggs, and each was kept in water of a different 
temperature. The illustration shows the result. The one 
marked D was kept so warm and comfortable that the mul- 
tiplying cells did their best. After three days he was a lusty 
young fellow of goodly size and shape. A was kept so cold 
that he barely lived. The result is evident. His cells were so 
chilled that they could not multiply normally. 

These and other experiments prove that, from the begin- 
ning, the condition of the environment vitally affects the 
development of the individual. When this environment is 
right, the development is rapid and normal ; when it is wrong, 
the development is sure to be abnormal. 

Dr. Minot tells us that in the first year of its life a normal 
seven-pound baby gains 200 per cent, and will weigh 2 1 pounds 
by the end of the year. In the second year he will gain 20 per 
cent, and after that about 10 per cent each year until he is 
fourteen years old. Dr. Minot also pictures the growing baby 
and shows that never afterwards does any human being learn 
so much or grow so fast as during its first eventful year 
after birth. Two things it can do from the start : it can take 
nourishment, and it can thrash its arms and legs about aim- 
lessly. Comparatively soon, also, it gains the powers of touch, 
hearing, sight, taste, and smell. Through these five roads 


information pours in upon the baby, and by the end of one 
month he has learned that certain sensations are pleasant 
and certain other sensations unpleasant. He fastens his eyes 
on this or that and stares without winking. How babies stare ! 

After two months he has learned to expect definite things 
at definite times. Three months, and the baby has learned 
that he can so guide his muscles as to accomplish definite 
movements. This is a very great discovery. He seizes his 
own toes. He clutches other things and pulls them. At the 
fourth month he finds he can really do things. He shows 
purpose. " His movements are no longer purely accidental. 
... At four months he discovers that the face and the back 
of the head belong to the same object. He has acquired the 
idea of objects existing in the world around him. He has no 
instructor. He is finding out these things by his own unaided 
efforts. Then, at five months, begins the age of handling, 
when the baby feels of everything." The first five months, 
as Dr. Minot says, " constitute the first period of the baby's 
development. Its powers are formed and the foundations of 
knowledge have been laid. The second period is a period of 
amazing research, constant, uninterrupted, untiring, renewed 
the instant the baby wakes up, and kept up until sleep over- 
takes it. In the six-months baby we find already the notion 
of cause and effect." 

Dr. Minot's description grows more and more vivid. " By 
eight months the baby is upon the full career of experiment 
and observation. Everything with which he comes in con- 
tact interests him. He looks at it, he seizes hold of it, tries 
to pull it to pieces, studies its texture, its tensile strength, 
and every other quality it possesses. Not satisfied with this, 
he will turn and apply his tongue to it, putting it in his 
mouth for the purpose of finding out if it has a taste. At 


the same time he is making further experiments with his 
own body. He begins to tumble about, perhaps learns that 
it is possible to get from one place to another by rolling 
or creeping, and slowly he discovers the possibility of loco- 
motion, which you know by the end of the year will have so 
far perfected itself that usually at twelve months the baby 
can walk." 

Dr. Minot goes on to say that if conditions are favorable 
during these early months, the later development of the child 
will be greatly advanced. " In brief," he says, " I find myself 
led to the hypothesis that the better health of the mothers 
secures improved nourishment in the early stages of the off- 
spring, and that the maternal vigor is at least one important 
cause of the physical betterment of the children." 

This chapter on growth and the preceding chapter on 
germ cells make it plain that the welfare of the cell itself is 
of utmost importance to the individual that develops from 
the cell. Imagine, then, what the result might be if some- 
thing in the blood could reach germ cells and damage them 
before they begin to multiply in growing. 

The next chapter gives facts instead of imaginings con- 
cerning this very subject. 


On the fifth of December, 1911, there appeared an article 
in a German paper, written by Dr. Forel. 1 This article dis- 
cusses germ cells and gives an interesting account of certain 
hens' eggs and their hatching. 

It seems that 160 eggs were in an incubator in a shed, 
ready to be hatched. All were due to hatch the same day, 
but when they appeared, instead of straight-legged, well- 
shaped little creatures, every third chick that pecked its way 
into the world had either crooked legs, useless wings, a 
twisted back, or some other deformity. Moreover, instead 
of 1 60 chicks, only 78 were hatched, and this included every 
deformed one. The rest died in their shells, not having 
vigor enough to make their way out. Worse yet, instead of 
keeping alive after they were fairly hatched, 40 of the chicks 
died within four days. 

Such a record as this has to be explained somehow, and 
those who studied the case searched surrounding conditions. 
Dr. Forel reports results. He says the investigators found 
that the shed where the incubator was kept had a cellar to 
it, that the owner of the eggs used this cellar as a distillery, 
and that while the chicks were developing in their shells the 
man had kept his distillery busy making brandy. 

1 Printed in the Munchener. medizinische Wochenschrift, December 5, 



By putting two and two together the men came to this 
conclusion : " The distillery and its alcohol in the cellar killed 
some of the chicks before they were hatched, killed others 
after they were hatched, and deformed all the misshapen 
ones that we see about us." Dr. Forel's conclusion was that 
even the fumes of alcohol have power to damage germ cells 
while they are turning into living creatures. No one ques- 
tioned the statement for a moment. It is indeed quite in 
line with what Dr. Fer6 discovered between the years 1894 
and 1903. 

He carried on two sets of tests with hens' eggs. All the 
eggs were hatched in incubators. On one set he put vaporized 
alcohol ; the other set was left alone. He repeated this ex- 
periment many times, and the results were always the same. 
Eggs that were not reached by alcoholic vapor hatched out 
into the usual number of healthy chicks with minds ready for 
active service. Eggs treated with the alcoholic vapor produced 
many deformed chicks that had no minds whatever. They 
ranked among chicks as idiots rank among men. They had 
no mental power to guide their lives by. 

Guinea pigs also add a proof or two in this direction. 
Dr. Stockard was the investigator. 1 He says that at first he 
gave the guinea pigs alcohol with their food, but they disliked 
it and ate less food. Next he put alcohol into the stomach 
through a tube, but this distressed the animals, and he was 
afraid it might do them harm. 

Then came his final device. He made air-tight copper tanks 
that were a yard long, a foot high, and eighteen inches wide. 
The tanks had wire-screen floors, and under the floors he put 
cotton soaked in alcohol. The alcohol evaporated up into the 

1 See Archives of 'Internal Medicine, October, 1912, "Experimental Study of 
Racial Degeneration in Mammals treated with Alcohol." 



tank until " the atmosphere was saturated with the alcoholic 
fumes." The place was then ready for the expected occupants. 
After this, as he says, " the guinea pigs, three or four at a 
time, are placed on the wire screen above the evaporating 
alcohol, the tank is closed and the animals are allowed to 
remain until they begin to show signs of intoxication, though 

they are never com- 
pletely intoxicated. 
They usually inhale 
the fumes about an 

During all the rest 
of the time, day and 
night, the guinea pigs 
breathed air entirely 
unmixed with alcohol. 
This was the treat- 
ment they received 
for six days in every 
week, and it was 
kept up for nineteen 
months with what 
results, we wonder. 

At first the fumes troubled them. It made their "eyes 
water until tears ran over their faces." Dr. Stockard says : 
" The majority of them sit quite motionless and sniff their 
noses for a time and then become somewhat drowsy." A few, 
however, "are excited by the treatment, and run about the 
tank, and many often fight other animals savagely." 

But in the course of several weeks they were not even un- 
comfortable in the tanks. They seemed to take the fumes as 
a matter of course, appeared healthy, and even gained flesh. 


Notice the light-colored sponges under the wire 

netting of the floor. Alcohol evaporated from the 

sponges into the tank 


But what about the next generation during those nineteen 
months ? Certain classified results answer this question. 
There were four kinds of tests : 

1 . The paternal test when the father was alcoholic, the 
mother normal. 

2. The maternal test when the mother was alcoholic, 
the father normal. 

3. The double test when both parents were alcoholic. 

4. The normal test when neither parent had endured 
alcoholic fumes. 

The table shows what happened to the next generation in 
each of these cases. 
















Paternal test . . 






Maternal test . . 






Double test . . . 






Normal test . . . 






Here we see, by the last column, that when neither of the guinea-pig 
parents was subjected to the influence of alcohol, all seventeen children 
lived ; and that when both parents were affected by alcohol (see the 
double test), ten children were born before they were fully formed, six 
died at birth and one after birth, while none lived. 

These experiments leave no question as to the effect of 
alcohol on the descendants of chickens and guinea pigs. But 
our special interest is with human beings. In Philadelphia, 
Dr. Gordon studied 1 1 8 families where both father and mother 
used alcohol. In these families there were 200 children. 
Of these children 150 were epileptics. He also studied 20 


families where the grandfather as well as the parents used 
alcohol. Here he found 26 imbecile children and 38 who 
were lunatics, while every one of the others was defective 
in one way or another. 

In Bern, Switzerland, Dr. Demme looked up the history 
of ten families that drank and ten families that did not drink. 
Study the record and see what happened to the next genera- 
tion of those that drank. 








Drinking families 





Abstaining families 





With facts piling up in this way, investigators have kept 
asking themselves just when and how the alcohol of the 
fathers most affects the children. 

When Dr. Bezzola tried to answer this question he was 
house physician in an institution for weak-minded children 
in Switzerland. Here he noticed that almost always, when 
weak-minded children were brought in to be cared for, some 
one would say, "His father was a notorious drinker." To 
see how much truth there was in this, Dr. Bezzola determined 
to learn what the facts really were. 1 

He took the latest census report available (1880-1890) and 
found that during those ten years 934,631 babies had been 
born in Switzerland. He also found what the average number 
of births was for each month of the year, and discovered 

1 See publication by Dr. D. Bezzola, printed in German : " Statistische 
Untersuchungen iiber die Rolle des Alkohols bei der Entstehung des 
originaren Schwachsinns." 


that in some months the proportion of idiots born was much 
larger than in other months. This was quite a clue. 

Next he looked up the life history of 8196 feeble-minded 
persons who lived in Swiss asylums, and made note of the 
birthday of each one of them. He wished to know when the 
children were born, so that he could count backwards forty 
weeks * and find out just when the babies began to develop 
from germ cells. He thought this might show him what the 
condition of the parents was at the time. 

He tells us that in Switzerland there are certain definite 
seasons each year when what he calls " drink-festivities " are 
most abundant New Year's and carnival, the vintage and 
the harvest seasons. Dr. Bezzola speaks of these as alcohol- 
rich periods. 

From July to September, however, wealthy people and poor 
people alike are drinking less. They are busy with summer 
travelers and summer occupations ; they keep regular hours 
with fewer festivities. These are the alcohol-poor months. 
, With his facts in mind Dr. Bezzola turned to the birthdays 
again. His chart of results is given on the next page. 

Follow the lines from left to right. Notice how they 
move up during certain months and down during other 
months. By understanding this chart we are able to under- 
stand the substance of the report which Dr. Bezzola made. 

1 . When alcohol festivities are most abundant in Switzer- 
land, the largest proportion of weak-minded children receive 
the gift of life. What is true of Switzerland is no doubt 
equally true everywhere else in the world. 

2. In large numbers of cases alcohol and weak-minded- 
ness stand together as cause and effect. 

1 Time needed for a baby to develop from two germ cells. See last 

Sept. Oct. Nov. Apr. May Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. June July Aug. 




1. The dark line through the center represents the daily average number of births 
for the year as a whole. 

2. The black points in the squares below the name of each month indicate the 
daily average of births for that particular month. 

3. The black points on the dotted line indicate the average number of normal 
persons born during each month. 

4. The black points on the solid black line indicate the average number of feeble- 
minded persons born during each month. 

5. Count backward nine months from each point to discover the month of con- 
ception for both sets of persons. 

6. Studied in connection with each other, the dotted and the solid lines show 
that there are certain months of the year when the (daily) average of births is high, 
both for normal and'for feeble-minded persons. In addition, the solid line shows 
that the average for feeble-minded persons rises unusually high and falls unusually 
low according as the months in which the individuals started to grow are alcohol- 
rich 6r alcohol-poor. For example, notice that the average number of feeble-minded 
persons born in January, February, and March is very high, and remember that the 
alcohol-rich period of April, May, and June came nine months earlier. Also notice 
that the average number of feeble-minded persons born in May and June is very low, 
and remember that the alcohol-poor months of August and September came nine 
months before. (From Dr. Bezzola's Chart) 



It is true that many drinkers have intelligent children, but, 
as Dr. Bezzola says again, " These people were free from 
too much alcohol at the time the new life was started." 

No one can ever tell just how much alcohol a person may 
take without damaging a future child, but Dr. Bezzola declares 
that " the time may come when we shall see that every drop 
of alcohol taken by the parent means a drop of stupidity for 
the child." 

From other studies which he made Dr. Bezzola came to the 
conclusion that germ cells themselves may be damaged when 
alcohol enters the blood stream, and that human beings who 
develop from such damaged cells are doomed from the start. 

Future investigations will show whether or not alcohol is 
entirely to blame. In the meantime we are interested in such 
studies because they show that alcohol which ancestors use, 
seems to curse numberless descendants in body or mind, or 
in both. The worst of it is that the curse is liable to be 
passed on even though these descendants do not themselves 
use alcohol. 

Never blame any weak-minded person. Remember that he 
cannot help himself, and remember that probably his parents 
injured him through ignorance. Be thankful that your ances- 
tors stamped you aright. Be thankful also that you have grown 
up as a normal human being, and that you are able to under- 
stand something about the marvel of growth which changes 
vigorous germ cells into well-developed chicks and children. 

After the earliest years of growing are over, the next 
most important era of life lies between the ages of fourteen 
and twenty. This period is the borderland between childhood 
and maturity. 



In 1897, for the sake of gathering facts, Dr. Luther H. 
Gulick wrote a letter in which he asked a large group of men 










5 1 











Ages 6 




Number5 7 20 13 45 14 69 46 66 50 44 45 31 23 13 11 

certain definite questions. Among these questions were the, 
following : 

1. At what age were you first deeply affected by religious 
influences ? 

2. At what age did you become a Christian ? 




3. At what age did you unite with the Church ? 

A copy of his letter was sent to the general secretary of 
each Young Men's Christian Association in the United States 
and in Canada. 

Five hundred and ninety answers came back. Dr. Gulick 
studied these carefully, put all answers of the same kind to- 














Number 9 4 9 12 37 32 52 46 59 47 60 48 47 34 15 11 4 

gether, made out tables of classified figures, and printed 
them for the benefit of other investigators. He was as sur- 
prised as any one at what he found. 

The tables showed that in the vast majority of cases the 
one special choice which turned the lives of the men up- 
ward instead of downward was made between the ages of 
fourteen and twenty. Since such tables are even more inter- 
esting to young people than to their elders, they are given 
here in full. 



Other tables illustrate the same point. Mr. Starbuck gath- 
ered material and made out charts both for men and for women. 
These show the same general facts which Dr. Gulick brought 
out. They also show that in general girls made decisions at 
an earlier age than boys did. This is because young girls are 
usually more mature than boys of. the same age. 







9 20 ' f 







23 ^^ 






Number? 5 8 12 37 32 51 54 66 49 57 44 43 45 17 11 12 13 3 

There are also tables of choices of another sort. Dr. Gulick 
studied the report on crime and pauperism, given in the 
Eleventh Census of the United States. From this report 
he made another set of statistical tables. 

These show that the average age of those who were in 
prison at the time the reports were made out was twenty- 
three years. Now this is so much older than the period of 
conversion given in the previous tables, that we wonder if 


decisions for evil are made later in life than those for good. 
Dr. Gulick says the reports do not show when the men were 
put in prison, but that the " average length of a man's sen- 
tence to prison in America is 4.07 years," and that we may 
assume that, on the average, half of the sentence of these 
men had expired. This " would make the average on enter- 
ing prison, of the maximum, group, twenty-one instead of 
twenty-three years." Then he adds, " If now we could find 
the age at which these individuals were committed to prison 
for their first crime, it would be much younger yet, but this 
is impossible and must be left to conjecture." He closes by 
saying, " The tremendous fact remains that more individ- 
uals take to criminal life at twenty or under than at any or 
all other periods of life combined." His claim indeed is that 
first decisions, both for good and for evil, fall within the 
adolescent period. What is this period ? we ask. What are 
the signs and symptoms of it ? Since knowledge leads to 
self-control, the following facts are important. 

In all forms of life the time is sure to come when a great 
change transforms the outlook of things for each individual. 
Up to this point the body has been growing continuously. It 
has taken nourishment, has developed after the fashion of 
its ancestors, has been influenced by its environment, and 
has become vigorous or frail according as the conditions of 
food and of health have favored or hindered its development. 

Each step of this process goes on for a definite length of 
time. But it is all mere preparation, for at the end of it 
every creature that survives childhood enters on what proves 
to be the most significant era in its history. 

Until the dawn of this new era, mature germ cells are not 
found in the growing body. Now, however, the special ma- 
terial which has been there since birth, becomes active, and 




o ^ 


Scale, 1000 to the inch. This table shows the total number of criminals for each 
year who were between the ages of ten and forty-five years. Both prisoners and 
inmates of reformatory institutions were included. The upright lines indicate the 
ages. The figures at the bottom, between the lines, indicate the number of persons 
of the given age; that is, there were 506 who were ten years old, 511 who were 
eleven years old, etc. 

the body, as it develops in new directions, accommodates its 
growing to the demands which germ cells place upon it. 

For human beings no period of life is more full of fateful 
import than the years between fourteen and twenty. When 


the era opens, the person is a simple child with childish 
thoughts, childish interests and ambitions. When the era 
ends, the person has become a man with his greatest de- 
cisions of life already made, with the destiny of the rest 
of his life practically settled. And this spiritual development 
goes parallel with a development of the body. 

Each organ, bone, and muscle now speeds its growing. 
Arms and legs stretch out so far that sometimes they seem 
altogether too long. For boys the shoulders broaden, the 
back grows stronger, the jaw is firmer, the biceps and 
other muscles grow bigger. In every physical direction of 
height, weight, and strength, the body clearly indicates that 
it is preparing for maturity. 

All these changes are, in point of fact, the physical gate- 
way to manhood. Nature is developing a man, the highest 
product of evolution, one who will become the ancestor of 
others like himself. 

The transformation is just as real for a girl. Her form 
grows rounder ; her voice becomes sweeter and richer. Every- 
thing points to maturity. Her cells too are preparing them- 
selves for a next generation. 

In the meantime, for boys and girls alike, the emotional 
nature keeps step with the physical. Every sense grows more 
keen, more alert. New sensations are at hand, new ambi- 
tions, new hopes, new fears. Some are so intense that the 
youth hardly knows himself, while imagination seems to lead 
the way with a flaming torch. Nothing is beyond its reach. 

Boys now read tales of great adventure and count them- 
selves the equal of the heroes. They study science with 
enthusiasm. Machinery of every sort fascinates them wire- 
less telegraphy and the telephone, steam engines, and the 
aeroplane. They wish to know where life comes from, what 


it really is, and what relation the generations of the past bear 
to those of the future. It is just now that passions become 
strong. It is during these years that boys meet some of the 
great temptations of life. If they can keep their craft steady 
as it whirls through the adolescent years, they may be trusted 
to guide it safely thereafter. 

On every side great subjects appeal to the imagination 
and spread themselves before the eager gaze of boys who 
first really begin to grasp the splendor of life during their 
years of rapid change. At the same time these boys grow 
so fast that hands and feet seem to be in the way. They 
are awkward in the presence of older people and of girls. 
They begin to shave and to think more about their per- 
sonal appearance. They wish to do such things as seem 
most manly. 

It is during this period that many boys, if they are igno- 
rant of scientific facts about tobacco, begin to smoke. They 
do this innocently, not knowing about the harm which may 
follow. They take to smoking not because the odor or the 
taste or the sight of tobacco pleases them, but simply be- 
cause just now smoking seems to them a great and manly 
deed. The mere fact that a boy begins to smoke in his teens 
shows that he is passing through the period of life when he 
wishes to be counted manly. Almost unconsciously he aims 
for the admiration of his fellows. Sometimes he is even 
lawless for the same reason. 

Friends who watch the changing boy wait anxiously for the 
outcome. Sometimes he himself is perplexed. He should be 
told that, whether he wills it so or not, he himself is the 
prophet of his own future. He must know that while imag- 
ination and ambition have their hold on the rudder of his 
craft, self-control and will power stand there, too. He must 


not forget that, for good or for evil, character develops as 
fast as cells multiply, and that, by his own choosing, he him- 
self decides what the nature of his character development 
shall be. 

During this adolescent period girls find themselves more 
self-conscious than formerly, more subject to the blues, more 
given to reverie, more critical of themselves and others. 
Often they are shy and awkward, while at the same time 
some of them giggle at everything and at nothing. In fact 
giggling is one of the symptoms of their shyness. They begin 
to think more about their clothes, their looks, and their man- 
ners, and about boys and what will please them. Some girls 
become unexpectedly forward ; others find themselves sensi- 
tive and tearful so much so that their parents and friends 
sigh and exclaim, " What in the world is the matter with 
her ? She does n't seem at all like herself lately." 

Let no one worry, least of all the girl herself. The period 
of change will come to an end ; and after a while she will 
lose whatever she may now have of unusual boldness or of 
awkwardness, of shyness, of giggles, or of tears. For, despite 
them all, even now she grows constantly more attractive in 
appearance and more winsome in manner. She is becoming 
more womanly and gracious day by day. She cares more for 
the welfare of others, feels more sympathy for those who 
suffer, grows ambitious to excel in all lines of endeavor, some- 
times takes the highest rank in her classes, is in danger of 
living under high nervous pressure, and must be protected 
against herself by those to whom she is dearest. 

It is during these same years that girls dream daydreams 
and are tempted to overdo the reading of fiction. Much read- 
ing of this kind is harmful, because it abnormally stimulates 
the imagination and the emotions. Girls as well as boys meet 


strong temptations during these years ; girls as well as boys 
make or mar their future by the decisions made just now. 

Indeed, no transformation of chrysalis into butterfly is 
ever more wonderful than this change of human beings from 
childhood to manhood and womanhood. It is therefore es- 
sential that those who pass through the transformation should 
have no false notions about it. For some the change comes 
earlier, for some later ; for some one kind of temptation is 
strongest, for others another kind of temptation. But, whether 
one experience comes or another, whether life turns this way 
or that, the adolescent era and all that goes with it is part of 
the universal life of humanity, and it is during this era that 
decisions count for most. 

At the close of this chapter come two quoted conclusions : 

1. "The period of special instability of the moral life is 
the adolescent period." 

2. " This is the period in which the moral surroundings of 
the individual should be most carefully guarded. It is the 
storm-and-stress period. It is the period during which life's 
moral fiber is usually formed." 

For these reasons, then, those who find themselves within 
the zone of the adolescent years are wise when they attend 
to everything that strengthens body, mind, and will power. 1 
Habits both good and bad, habits of health and of character, 
or the reverse, formed now will, in all likelihood, hold until 
death. Thus it is that the destiny of man's life does not de- 
pend upon the Fates, as the ancients thought, but upon his 
own choices during the adolescent years. 

He may send his future prospects upward or downward 
according to the decisions of his unhindered will. And, more 

1 For facts about will power see " Control of Body and Mind," chaps, xxv 
and xxvii. 


serious than anything else, whether he wills it so or not, in 
deciding his own fate, in forming his own habits, he often 
decides the habits and settles the fate of his descendants for 
generations yet to come. 

The next chapter deals with one of these habits a habit 
which is able to affect the welfare of future generations, and 
for this reason cannot be ignored by such a book as this. 



At a certain banquet in Chicago last year most of the men 
were smoking. But my friend did not smoke. Neither did 
the man at his right. Instead, this man said in a low voice : 
" The truth is, I have two growing boys, and I 've made a 
bargain with them not to smoke if they would n't. I knew if 
I smoked, they probably would, whether I wanted them to 
or not ; that if they smoke, their sons probably will some 
day, and I don't want to be responsible for damaging the 
whole set of my descendants. That 's why we 've bargained 
not to smoke." 

As appeared afterwards, both the man and his sons knew 
about Dr. McKeever's smoking experiments. It also ap- 
peared that, in what he was studying out, Dr. McKeever 
had enlisted the help of over one hundred boys, that their ages 
ranged from twelve to twenty years, and that they all smoked. 
Indeed, it was just because they smoked that Dr. McKeever 
was making his tests. 

He wished to see for himself what tobacco does for the 
boys. If it helps them either in body or in mind, he intended 
to pass the fact on^for the benefit of other boys. 

In carrying on his- investigations, Dr. McKeever used 
the sphygmograph. This machine has a clockwork contri- 
vance which moves a strip of smoked paper, on which a 
needle records the heartbeat. It is fastened to the wrist 
directly over the artery which passes that way, and as the 



artery throbs with the beating of the heart, the needle of the 
sphygmograph traces its way across the smoked paper and 
leaves its scientifically exact record there in black and white. 

The boys were interested in the way the machine worked, 
and in what it told about their heart action before and after 

The records were taken at different times during the year, 
and each was slightly different from all the others, just as 
the handwriting of one person always differs from that of 
another. On the whole, however, the various reports of the 


The young woman does not smoke. (From Dr. McKeever) 

sphygmograph explained two apparently contradictory facts, 
both of which are perfectly well known : 

1 . The smoker says he feels better, is able to think faster 
and to work harder, just after smoking than before the 
smoking began. 

2. Athletic coaches say tobacco prevents success. They 
therefore prohibit its use by their men. 

It is as if one honest man said, " Smoking does me good," 
while another man, equally honest, says positively, " Smoking 
does you harm." 

To reconcile these differences, we turn to the diagrams 
borrowed from Dr. McKeever's record. Notice that one of 
these shows the heartbeat of a tired young woma/i. She did 
not smoke, but she was on the verge of nervous prostration. 
Compare this with the heartbeat record of the vigorous young 



fellow of nineteen who did not smoke. It shows the kind of 
work a healthy boy's healthy heart should do for him. 

Compare both these records with the wave lines in the 
third diagram the one on the next page. See that first 
flattened-out report ( i ), taken before the smoking began. It is 


i, tracing for a vigorous fellow of nineteen : does not smoke. 2, healthy heartbeat; 

a calm temperament ; does not smoke. 3, heart tracing for a healthy young woman ; 

does not smoke. (From Dr. McKeever) 

quite like the heartbeat of the worn-out young woman 
flabby, weak, lifeless. No wonder the fellow felt dull ! 

Study the next report from the same person. .See the beat 
bound upward when the smoking begins stronger, faster, 
more vigorous. Fresh blood is being sent to every part of 
the body. The brain feels it first, and every thinking cell 
becomes more active. The smoker says he " feels good." 
And no wonder. Not brain cells alone, but muscles and liver, 
stomach and lungs and spleen, all these are getting better 
blood faster and in larger quantity. Even the farthest-off, 
smallest capillary is stretched out a little larger, and more 
blood than usual hurries through it for a few minutes. 1 

1 For description of the circulation of the blood, see " The Body at 
Work," of the Gulick Hygiene Series, chap. ix. 



But this inspiring flush-time is soon over. Fifteen minutes 
have passed. Even yet the sphygmograph has not been taken 
from the wrist. It is still making records. And now see what 
has happened. All the splendid vigor has faded out. Once 


1,2, 3, tracings made by the heart of a young man of nineteen : i, before smoking ; 
2, while smoking ; 3, after smoking. He began to smoke cigarettes at fifteen. 4, 5, 6, 
tracings made by the heart of a young man of twenty : 4, before smoking; 5, while 
smoking ; 6, after smoking. Began smoking at thirteen ; now uses a strong pipe. 
(From Dr. McKeever) 

again that heart beats almost at dead level. Brain cells lose 
their courage. Muscle and liver, stomach, lungs, and spleen 
have to do the best they can with the slow-moving blood. It 
brings short rations of food to cells that cry out for nourish- 
ment. But, sad to say, the slow-pumping heart will stay in 


charge of the slow-moving blood until the next cigarette is 
smoked. Then it will jump into quick action again for a 
few minutes. 

And this is why a smoker must often use fifty and sixty 
cigarettes a day to keep his heart up to the mark. This is 
why a healthy heart gets turned into a tobacco heart. This is 
why the steady smoker often fails where he wishes to succeed. 
And the fundamental reason for all this is the double charac- 
ter of tobacco ; it is a stimulant and it is also a poison. The 
smoker craves the stimulation ; in addition he receives the 
poison of nicotine. 

To show the power of this poison, take the case of Dr. 
Kellogg's frogs. He bought a cigarette, extracted the nico- 
tine from it, and injected part of this harmless-looking, 
colorless liquid into a full-grown frog. The small creature 
died promptly. He took another good-sized, perfectly healthy 
frog, injected the rest of the nicotine into it, and it too died 
at once. 

Dr. Kellogg goes on to say that " one fourteenth of a drop 
of nicotine will kill a frog in ten seconds, while one sixth of 
a drop will kill a cat in fourteen seconds." 

Homer Leslie was eight months old. He was playing out 
of doors, as Dr. Kellogg says, when he found a half-smoked 
cigarette. He put it into his mouth, chewed it awhile, was 
taken violently ill, and died within a few hours. The doctor 
said it was the nicotine of the tobacco that killed him. 

If tobacco leaves could be robbed of their nicotine, smoking 
would be a fairly harmless habit. But the two are inseparable. 
When a man sets fire to his cigarette, the tobacco turns itself 
to smoke and ashes, and while this happens the nicotine 
turns into vapor. If, now, the man draws the smoke into his 
lungs, the vaporized nicotine goes with it. But after reaching 


the lungs, they separate. The smoke stays on all the deli- 
cate tissues of the lung cells, which is bad enough. But 
volatilized nicotine is not hindered by any tissues. Instead, it 
passes directly through the tissue of the lung cells, enters the 
blood stream, and is whirled to the heart by the straightest 
road possible. 

At the moment it arrives, the sphygmograph shows what 
the poisoned whip has done. It has lashed the heart to 
vigorous action not to last long, however, for soon the 
same sphygmograph shows that the vigor has gone and that 
the permanent condition grows worse rather than better. 

The United States army gives proof of this. At an ex- 
amination for the military school at West Point one quarter 
of the young men had to be refused admittance because they 
had what is called " tobacco heart " from cigarette smoking. 

At another time a set of 412 boys wished to enter the 
naval school at Annapolis. They were examined by an officer 
in Peoria, Illinois, and all but 14 were turned away. As was 
said by the examiner, " Of the 398 rejections, the greater 
number were on account of weak hearts, and in the majority 
of cases this was caused by cigarette smoking." 

So the list of those who have harmed themselves through 
ignorance might be lengthened. 

With these facts in mind we understand why it is that, in 
every school and college where the subject has been looked 
into, people find that, on the average, smoking students rank 
lower and are slightly older than those who do not smoke. 

In 1897, at Yale University, when Dr. Seaver made his 
thorough study of the matter, he found that out of every 
100 students who ranked highest, 5 were smokers, 95 non- 
smokers. Among the rest of the students at that time, 60 out 
of every too smoked. He also found that, on the average, 


those who did not smoke gained more in height and weight 
and girth of chest than those who smoked. 

Remember that these Yale students were still in the grow- 
ing time of life. Recall the facts of the last chapter ; then 
imagine what it means to have a young and growing heart 
attacked over and over again, day in and day out, for weeks 
and months and years, by a poison that does its worst work 
with the heart itself. 1 

In 1910 Dr. Meylan studied the same subject with students 
in Columbia University, and among his final conclusions he 
made the two following statements : 

1. "All scientists are agreed that the use of tobacco by 
adolescents is injurious ; parents, teachers, and physicians 
should strive earnestly to warn youths against its use." 

2. "It has been shown conclusively by this study that the 
use of tobacco by college students is closely associated with 
idleness, lack of ambition, lack of application, and low 

Various ignorant people are ready to protest against this 
conclusion about the students. We must therefore let them 
choose for themselves between two horns of the dilemma. I 
give them. Either the smoker is naturally sWpid and we 
should pity not blame him when he ranks low in his class, 
or he is naturally bright but by his own hand has dulled 
his brain with nicotine and made it impossible for that brain 
to do its best work in the classroom. Perhaps the latter case 
needs more pity than the former. 

Thus far this chapter says nothing about grown men who 
smoke, because all agree that it is the adolescent person who 
suffers most. Let a man begin to smoke after he is twenty-five, 
and as a rule he will do himself less harm than if he began in 

1 For full particulars see " Town and City," chap, xviii. 


his teens. Nevertheless, thousands upon thousands of middle- 
aged men are bound hand and foot by the tobacco habit. 

Fortunately, some of them are able to break the habit, as 
did Senator Depew, president of the New York Central 
Railroad. I give part of his story in his own words : 

" I used to smoke some twenty cigars a day, and continued 
it till I became worn out. I did not know what was the matter 
with me, and physicians that I applied to did not mention 
tobacco. I used to go to bed at two o'clock in the morning 
and wake at five or six. I had no appetite and was a dys- 
peptic. One day I bought a cigar and was puffing it with 
the feeling of pleasure which is only possible to the devotee. 
I smoked on only a few moments, and then took it out of my 
mouth and looked at it. I said to it, ' My friend and bosom 
companion, you have always been far dearer to me than gold. 
To you I have been ever devoted, yet you are the cause of 
all my ills. The time has come when we must part.' I gazed 
sadly and longingly at the cigar, then threw it into the street. 
I had been convinced that tobacco was ruining me. I have 
never smoked from that day to this." 

In all such care of ourselves we must not forget the bear- 
ing of the tobacco habit on the next generation. It is true 
that tobacco has not yet been shown to directly affect germ 
cells, but it is perfectly clear that it harmfully affects the 
smoker himself, especially if he begins to smoke before 
maturity. And if a man smokes, his son is almost sure to do 
so. In this case, therefore, the harm which passes from one 
generation to the next travels by what is known as social in- 
heritance, not by that which is biological. The damage of 
such an inheritance is none the less real, however, for in 
character and habits children are apt to become what their 
parents have been. 


It also seems clear that the tobacco habit is a broad stepping- 
stone to the alcohol habit. The man who never smokes rarely 
ever drinks, and we have seen the direct effect of alcohol on 
the next generation. 

Since this is true, it is well to understand how the alcohol 
habit harms a man and when it is most apt to fasten itself 
upon him, threatening future generations of his descendants. 
We turn to this subject at once. 



' Students in the medical department of Johns Hopkins 
University were very quiet as they listened to what the doctor 
said. He told them that Charlie was dangerously ill, that he 
was ten years old, and that his only chance for life was to 
have his spleen taken out. He said the boy's father was 
dead, that his mother had come from India with her son, 
and that the operation would be sure to kill him unless, while 
it was going on, blood could be put into his body from some 
one else by transfusion, as it is called. 

The doctor then asked for volunteers, and four of the 
medical students stepped forward at once. 

A sample of blood was drawn from each person. This 
was tested, and the choice fell on a healthy young fellow of 

Next day came the operation. The surgeon opened an 
artery in the student's arm, and a vein in the arm of the 
small boy. He then put the two openings opposite each other 
and joined them together. After that, whenever the heart 
of the young man beat, it sent a strong current of rich blood 
into the feeble body of the small boy. From being very pale, 
the lad gradually grew pink. Even his ringer tips changed 
color slightly. 

The transfer of blood went on for about two hours ; and 
during this time Charlie received between one and two quarts 
of blood. 



Before the operation began, the doctor said there was but 
one chance in a thousand that the boy would live. After it was 
over, he said it was those quarts of splendid blood that saved 
the lad that the new blood had given feeble cells a new 
environment and made it possible for them to do what was 
necessary to keep the body alive. 

Now suppose both Charlie and the student had been 
drinkers. 1 What about the outlook then ? Sir Frederick 
Treves says : " Having spent the greater part of my life in 
operating, I can assure you that there are some patients that 
I don't mind operating on and some that I do ; but the person 
of all others that I dread to see entering the operating theater 
is the drinker. He is a most dangerous feature in connection 
with the surgical life." 

The fact is that alcohol gets into the blood more easily 
than does any food, that it is carried by the blood directly 
to all the cells of the body, and that it seriously poisons 
every cell it reaches. It does this whether the cell is part 
of brain, nerve, or muscle. 

Now cells reached by alcohol-bearing blood suffer in two 
ways : ( I ) they are slower in getting nourishment from the 
blood ; (2) they are slower in getting rid of their waste. This 
is why the surgeon dreads an alcoholic person. As a rule, his 
wounds are slower in healing and his heart is not so reliable 
during the operation. 

Every cell is affected, but no cells suffer more promptly 
than those in the brain. 

Last summer, on a steamboat between Seattle and Van- 
couver, I myself saw what happens when alcohol is in the 
environment of brain cells. 

1 The student had never used either alcohol or tobacco ; neither had his 
ancestors for three generations. 


The fellow was young. He talked loud and fast, with a 
thick voice. He said he knew he was getting drunk and that 
he did n't care. He still had the power of choice, and he 
called for more drink. He asked everybody to drink with 
him ; he said he had plenty of money and that when he 
reached Vancouver he could get more. 

Those of us who saw him and heard him knew that, even 
while he talked, tainted blood was washing its way over his 
most sensitive brain cells. We knew that already those cells 
which gave best aid to his wit those which controlled his 
judgment were dulled. 

Later the fellow went off with his friends. Later still he 
was staggering across the deck. His friends were with him, 
one on each side to keep him steady. They looked shame- 
faced as they held him up. To the rest of us the sight of it 
all was exceedingly sad not because the fellow could n't talk 
straight, not because he staggered, but because of what we 
knew had happened to his brain cells. 1 We knew that by the 
power of his own hand, by the choice of his own brain, he had 
thrown uncounted millions of these brain cells out of service. 

Study the diagram (p. 148). It shows the order in which 
brain cells always develop in the human embryo. First come 
cells that control the heart, and last of all those that control 
judgment and will power the inhibitory centers of the brain, 
we call them. By this chart of his Dr. Chappie shows that 
alcohol damages brain cells in the reverse order of their 
development that cells which control judgment and will 
power are cut out first, those that control the heart last. 

Now we understand what the alcohol habit means, and 
why certain anti-alcohol people were troubled when they found 
a peculiar little bottle in the hands of school boys in Ohio. 

1 See " Control of Body and Mind," chap. xxvi. 


4 ,- ' 


A, cells from a healthy brain ; 5, cells from the brain of a victim of alcohol. Notice 

the changed shapes, smaller size, and diminished number of the cells in B. Their 

altered condition explains the inefficiency of an alcoholic brain. (After Horsley) 




The bottle itself is three inches high and an inch and a 
quarter across. It has a cork stopper, and the stopper has a 
bone top to it. A glass tube goes through the stopper, down 
into the contents of the bottle. A 
rubber tube stretches up from 'the top 
of the stopper. On the end of the 
tube is a bone mouthpiece through 
which the liquid in the bottle may 
be sucked up. 

The whole combination was packed 
in a small box which it fitted exactly, 
and on the box was a card which gave 
the name and address of the saloon 
from which it came. 

This bottle had passed from hand 
to hand and from mouth to mouth 
until the teacher found it. At that 
time it was half full of whisky. And 
what was the object of the bottle 
and its whisky ? The following bit 
of history answers the question. 

Several years ago the State Liquor 
Dealers of Ohio were gathered in 
Wirthwein Hall, Columbus, and one 
of the speakers had for his subject 
" How to Build up the Saloon Busi- 
ness." Among other things he said : 
" The success of our business is de- 
pendent largely upon the creation of appetite for drink. Men 
who drink liquor, like others, will die, and if there is no appe- 
tite created, our counters will be empty, as will be our coffers. 
Our children will go hungry, or we must change our business 


i, heart centers ; 2, lung cen- 
ters ; 3, locomotion centers ; 
4, knowledge centers ; 5, in- 
hibitory centers. (From 
W. A. Chappie) 


to that of some other more remunerative. The open field for 
the creation of appetite is among the boys. After men are 
grown and their habits formed, they rarely ever change in this 
regard. It will be needful, therefore, that missionary work 

be done among the boys, and I 

\make the suggestion, gentlemen, 
that nickels expended in treats 
to the boys now will return in 
dollars to your tills after the 
appetite has been formed." 

It was as if the man had 
said : " My friends, unless we 
can help ruin the boys by creat- 
ing in them an appetite for alco- 
hol, we ourselves must go out 
of business. We must destroy 

' ^3 them for the sake of our indi- 

vidual pocket-books." 

The man supposed he was 
talking to liquor dealers alone. 
He did not know that an anti- 
alcohol man was in the meeting, 
and that he was taking down short- 
hand notes of everything said. 

From his own point of view the speaking delegate was quite 
right. Unless boys can be secured, unless they will con- 
sent to damage their own brains, the liquor business of the 
world is doomed. Dr. Alexander Lambert shows this in a 
table of figures which he made out. The inspiring motive of 
his search was the number of people ruined by alcohol whom 
he met in Bellevue Hospital, New York City. There were so 
many of them that he decided to find out how old they were 


(From the Anti-Saloon League) 


when they began to drink. He received full answers from 
258 persons. The table itself tells the rest of .the story. 


Before the age of 6 4 persons 

Between the ages of 6 and 12 . . 13 persons 

Between the ages of 1 2 and 1 6 . 60 persons 

Between the ages of 16 and 21 . . 102 persons 

Between the ages of 21 and 30 .. 71 persons 

After the age of 30 8 persons 

By this table we see that 69 per cent of those who had the 
alcohol habit, began to acquire it before they were twenty-one 
years old, and that only 8 persons out of 258 began to use alco- 
hol after they were thirty ; that is, after they were fully mature. 

It is evident, then, that if a boy can keep free from the 
habit during the wonderful years between fourteen and twenty, 
he has a good chance of escaping altogether. 

Those who sell alcohol are bright enough to know this. 
They know that if they wish to continue their own particular 
kind of business, they must make sure of the boys. Their 
motto, therefore, seems to be " Gather in the boys and ruin 
them." But certain boys are long-headed enough to decide 
not to be gathered in. They say the environment of their 
own brain cells and the welfare of their own descendants 
mean too much to them to be sacrificed in this way. 

Not individuals alone, but nations also, are coming to the 
same conclusion. In 1914 Secretary Daniels of the United 
States Navy issued the following order : 

"The use or introduction for drinking purposes of alcoholic 
liquors on board any naval vessel, or within any navy yard or 
station, is strictly prohibited, and commanding officers will be 
held directly responsible for the enforcement of this order." 


The power which man has to recognize danger, to control 
his habits, to decide his own destiny, and to guide the future 
of the race, turns our thoughts to early evolution times again, 
and shows how it has come to pass that man is now able to 
choose either safety or damage for body and brain alike, and 
how he succeeds in either strengthening or weakening his own 
character through the highest power that evolution has given 
him his brain. The next chapter dwells on this point. 



When monsters lived and ruled the earth, it was bulk of bone 
muscle, not size of brain 1 or keenness of wit, that counted. 

The creatures had eyes and ears and all five senses, but 
not one among the number carried a brain so efficient as the 
smallest normal man-brain that guides the life of the smallest 
man to-day. 

Think, then, of the change that has come about. To-day it 
is brain, not bone or muscle, that rules the world. The ele- 
phant and the rhinoceros still live, but it is small man with 
his active brain that masters them when he meets them. 

To understand how this has come to pass, recall the five- 
linked chain of evolution, discussed in Chapter IX. Go back 
far enough in history and apply the chain to the evolution of 
brain in vertebrate animals. Recall the fact that in every 
family of every generation there has been endless variation. 
Also ask this question : Other things being equal, which 
animals have the better chance to survive, those with quick 
wit or those with slow wit ; those with an efficient or those 
with an inefficient brain ? 

The question answers itself. As a rule, quicker wit means 
better chance to find food and to keep it, to scent danger and 
to escape it, to succeed in competition and to survive in the 
struggle for existence. 

1 For description of the human brain and the work it does see " Control 
of Body and Mind." 




Take special note of the contrast in brain capacity of the two. Also trace resemblances 

in general structure : leg bones, ribs, and vertebrae that correspond ; brains, faces, and 

feet that are different developments from a common plan. (From the American 

Museum of Natural History) 



More than this, in the case of man, while brain developed, 
hand and fingers developed too, until at last the human ani- 
mal, man, found himself the' owner of a brain able to plan 
great things, and of hands able to carry out great plans. 

Thus man stood at the beginning of his new era, and it 
was at this point that a different kind of inheritance stepped 
in and helped take charge of human affairs ; for after the 
brain was well developed, each generation began to make 
improvements of its own, and to inherit other improvements 
which previous generations had made. 

To understand the situation, forget the present for a 
moment ; sweep away all thought of our modern civilization, 
all memory of our towns and of our cities, of our homes, our 
schools, our shops, our libraries, our banks, and our churches ; 
forget our waving fields of corn and grain, our orchards, 
our mines, our railroads, our steamers crossing the ocean, our 
wireless stations and our aeroplanes. 

Then go back in thought to our earliest ancestors. They 
were men and women with bodies, brains, and hands like ours, 
but nowhere in those prehistoric times do we find a sign of 
the comforts and the inventions which surround us to-day. 

Without fire, living in caves, with leaves and skins for 
covering, eating raw food as they could get it, our remote 
ancestors lived and died in the midst of discomforts which 
would appal us, their descendants. 

Even language was but getting its start. One by one, how- 
ever, new sounds and new words were invented for this thing 
and that, until, in course of time, men and women were talk- 
ing. They could now counsel with each other. This was a 
priceless advantage which could be passed on from one gen- 
eration to the next. It was a giant stride upward ; not a 
longer one, however, than was taken by the first fire-maker. 



He had seen lightning in the skies, perhaps had even 
watched molten lava as it boiled and bubbled, perhaps had 
struck sparks from flint stones as he knocked them together ; 
but never yet on the earth had there been a blazing fire 
lighted by human 
hands, guided by 
the human brain. 

At last, however, 
the discovery came. 
Some person some- 
where may have used 
his brains and his 
hands, may have 
rubbed two sticks 
together hard and 
fast, as some primi- 
tive peoples now do, 
and may thus have 
started the first fire 
ever kindled by man. 

No one knows the 
date of that first 
lighting nor the pre- 
cise method em- 

Courtesy of Mrs. I.. H. Gulick 


This Guardian of the Camp Fire Girls has secured 
a spark from rubbing sticks together. She is now 
^ blowing that spark into a flame 

ployed. All we know 
is that such fire- 
making was as truly 
the result of mental action as was the invention of the steam 
engine by James Watt in 1736. He who made the fire dis- 
covery has blessed all generations from that day to this, for 
each generation has inherited the advantage of the discovery, 
and has passed the advantage on to the next generation. 


So, too, when man found he could gather grains from cer- 
tain grasses, plant them together in the same field, and raise 
wheat and corn for human use. This was another milestone 
in the journey toward civilization another blessing to be 
handed on to later generations. 

One after the other also came the inventions. 

Man left his cave and built himself a hut the beginnings 
of architecture. He made bow and arrow, tools and traps, 
rafts and canoes. And each separate invention was the result 
of brain activity. Memory, curiosity, imagination, reason, 
will power, choice all these he pressed into service. 

Moreover, by using fingers and toes as numbers he began 
to count, and all our present-day higher mathematics come 
from that early start. The decimal system itself is but a 
reminder of the ten toes and the ten fingers of those early 

In some such way, through the ages, discovery and inven- 
tion followed each other up the road toward our modern 
civilization. Each generation inherited what had gone before; 
each made new inventions, new discoveries ; each in turn 
passed on to the next generation what it had received and 
cared to keep. 

We of to-day have our occupations and our recreations, 
our comforts of life, our requirements and our luxuries, as a 
rolled-up inheritance from past generations of men, and no 
form of inheritance is more valuable to us. 

We see, then, that in addition to the physical inheritance 
which each of us has received, there is this other form of 
influence, this accumulated knowledge, these gathered-up ex- 
periences, which reach us as a social inheritance from our 
ancestors, and which we, just as necessarily, pass on to the 
next generation. 



In both lines of inheritance the present generation picks 
up the threads of life where the last generation stopped its 
spinning. The next generation will begin where the present 
generation leaves off ; and from these threads the warp and 
woof of human his- 
tory is being woven. 

Nor is this all. 
Side by side with in- 
ventions and dis- 
coveries walked the 
spiritual part of man. 
It lifted him above 
the sordid life about 
him. It set him on a 
pinnacle high above 
all other creatures. 
It made him con- 
scious of time and 
space, of past and 
future. It gave him 
knowledge of right 


Charles the Second of Spain inherited it from an 
Austrian princess in 1661. The present king of Spain 
has it from the same source. In this illustration the 
young king's face is so turned that the distinction is 
not emphasized. (After Stoddard Goodhue, in the 
Cosmopolitan Magazine for July, 1913) 

and wrong, a feel- 
ing of responsibility 
for other men. 

Before man arrived, no creature had ever studied the past 
for the sake of understanding the future. Man does this. 
He learns the laws of development by studying the past, 
and he applies these laws in shaping the future. Because of 
this he now walks the earth with conscious power. He 
knows that by using knowledge, judgment, and will power 
he may alter his own destiny almost at will. He also knows 
that by his personal decisions in this generation he may 


decide the fate of future generations. He has hopes, ambi- 
tions, longings, and he loves his fellow men. When the need 
comes, he even dies to save them. He throws his thought 
into future years and believes in life beyond the grave. 

Besides all else he has studied the laws of modern life so 
well has learned so much about health and the way to 
secure it, about happiness and the way to attain it that 
he is now able to lengthen human life or to shorten it, 
to bless the human race or to curse it, by what he knows 
and by what he does in carrying out the commands of his 
unhindered will. 

There has been both advantage and disadvantage in this 
turn of evolution which gave man his crown his brain. 

The advantage is that there is hardly any limit to what 
man may now do for himself and for his descendants, pro- 
vided he has a normal, healthy, well-trained brain, and 
provided it decides to serve him according to its own best 

The disadvantage is that even when his brain is not 
normal and healthy, even when it has been badly trained 
and is ignorant, even when its desires are for such things 
as will harm itself hopelessly, it can still make choices ; it 
can still choose a road to its own destruction and force the 
consequences on the children of the next generation. 

We therefore meet this strange fact of evolution, that 
through his highest gift, the brain, man is now able to do 
himself and his descendants more harm than can be done to 
themselves by any other creatures, however large or small 
their brains may be. 

In point of fact, from the beginnings of brain power until 
now, man has made decisions both wise and unwise ; he has 
been guided by choices both good and bad. 


As a rule, however, best choices have prevailed. These 
have drawn men ever closer together. From being scattered 
savages, fighting each other for life, human beings have 
gradually gathered in larger and more friendly groups, until 
to-day we have cities where thousands, even millions, of 
people live together and depend upon each other. 1 

Moreover, as groups grew larger during the ages the notion 
of family life also grew ; and now, in all civilized countries, 
the family is recognized as the fundamental unit of society. 
To form it we have a man, his wife, and their children. 

1 For description of the way in which country towns are turned into 
crowded cities, see the first three chapters of " Town and City." 



Thus far the pages of this book have made it plain that 
throughout life there runs the great fact of sex, and that, 
because of sex, life on the earth is able to go on from one 
generation to another. 

In human evolution, however, man has crowned all indi- 
vidual relations with the family relation. He has made this 
smallest group of human beings parents and their children, 
with their home life the center of his civilization. With- 
out the family we should have no government, no commerce, 
no art of any sort. 

More than this, the environment supplied by each family 
in each home shapes and changes, for better or for worse, 
all who live in that home. 

And because the family is so important to the human race, 
because it concerns each one of us so vitally, also because, to 
a large extent, we individually determine what kind of homes 
we shall have, therefore such a book as this must take the 
laws of family health into serious account. 

Let us not forget that any disease which travels from per- 
son to person moves surest and swiftest among the members 
of the family circle. 

When scarlet fever or smallpox, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, 
whooping cough, diphtheria, or measles breaks out in any 
home, the members of the family itself are in more danger 
than other people, because they live closest together. 



And what are towns and cities but groups of families 
crowded together, ever influencing each other for better or 
for worse ? No wonder, then, that in every land the future 

Great Grandparents 



Notice how the ancestors of each one of us (that is, Everyman) double with each 
generation that reaches back through parents, grandparents, great-grandparentsTefc. 
It is from this unnumbered host of ancestors that we receive both our physical and 
our social inheritance. An old Shinto maxim of Japan is " Let men know by your 
deeds who your ancestors were " 

of the nation depends on the health of the bodies and the 
health of the minds of its families. 

This is so true that, for nations and cities as well as for 
the families themselves, the motto of modern life is," Protect 
yourselves and the next generation by obeying the laws of 
family health." 


Man has indeed learned at last that, for the sake of this 
generation and the next, he must know not simply the laws 
of individual health and of inheritance, but also the laws of 
family health. 

We shall soon see that these three sets of laws travel 
hand in hand, and that ignorance about any one of them is 
dangerous to all concerned. 

In former times the watchword of a nation was : " Be a 
patriot Be ready to die for your country." 

In modern times the command is : " Be a patriot. Live 
right, and live for your descendants." Put in other words, 
this means : Don't die needlessly. Keep yourself vigorous 
and healthy, and so conduct your life that you will be a 
wortliy ancestor of coming generations. 

This modern patriotism is indeed the nobler kind, for if 
it is held to and carried out by successive generations of men, 
far-away descendants of those who live to-day are sure to be 
a blessing to their country, whether they live for it or die for it. 

Through a knowledge of cause and effect and through 
the choice of his own mind and the power of his own will, 
a man may prove that he is worthy of the crown which 
evolution has placed upon him. 

No test of manhood or of womanhood is greater than that 
which has to do with the welfare of family life. 

The following chapters give facts about health, and about 
its relation to inheritance, concerning which no thoughtful 
person can afford to be ignorant. 



In the Journal of the American Medical Association for 
September 2, 1911, Dr. Schamberg describes what he calls 
" An Epidemic of Chancres of the Lip from Kissing." 

It appears that on the fourth of March, 191 1, a group of 
young men and women ranging in ages from sixteen to twenty- 
two gave a minstrel performance, had a banquet afterwards, 
and closed the evening with what were called kissing games. 

No one suspected any danger, for all were light-hearted 
and thoughtless. A certain young man was especially attrac- 
tive and evidently quite popular. His one blemish, so far as 
appearances were concerned, seems to have been a sore on 
the lip, which led one girl to say that she let him kiss her 
" with reluctance and wiped her own lips afterwards with a 
handkerchief." As it happened, however, it was a plague 
spot of the worst kind. Any man or woman who knows about 
different kinds of contagious disease would choose smallpox 
or scarlet fever or both together rather than the disease rep- 
resented by the small sore which showed itself on the lip of 
the young man. 

Any intelligent doctor would have told the fellow that the 
sore itself was swarming with contagious microbes, that it 
was not safe for him to mingle with healthy people, and 
that it was a wrong of great cruelty for him to press that 
sore, with its millions of microbes, against the lips of any 
other human being. 



The evening came to an end, but the laws of cause and 
effect did not go out of service. On the twenty-fifth of 
March one of the girls he had kissed found a sore on the 
right side of the lower lip, and it became as large as a pea. 
A second girl discovered her sore early in April. In fact, in 
her case there were two sores, one on the upper, the other 
on the lower lip a double proof that microbes had entered 
her body and were doing damage there. On the thirteenth 
of April a sixteen-year-old girl noticed that she too had the 
dreaded sore. Six cases followed each other through the 
months of March and April, and each victim was one of 
the number that had been kissed by the young man at the 

Dr. Schamberg goes on to say that " this most unfortunate 
epidemic should teach a lesson which cannot be too strongly 
impressed on the public, that is, the danger of promiscuous 

Perhaps some one may answer: "But a little sore isn't 
anything. I 'm not afraid of sores." No, an ordinary sore is 
nothing, but this particular kind of sore is a signed declara- 
tion that the body has been invaded by a foe more cruel than 
death itself, that the foe has already increased its forces 
beyond the power of human reckoning, that these forces 
have entered the blood stream, that the entire body in all its 
parts is threatened, and that even the children of the next 
generation are in danger. 

Whether the disease is passed on by kissing or by some 
other contact of the body, the microbes always pass from one 
person to another under stated conditions : 

1 . The disease must reveal itself in a sore. 

2. This sore must come in contact, either directly or in- 
directly, with a surface of the skin through which there is an 


opening. A crack, a scratch, a wound of one kind or another, 
is all that is needed. Into this opening the microbes make 
their way. They may go either from the sore itself or from 
something that has touched the sore and become contaminated 
by the microbes. Once in, these microbes travel about in the 
blood stream and establish themselves in fresh tissues, where 
they multiply fast. 

3. A cracked, moist mucous membrane is an ideal place 
of entrance for the microbes. Lips, therefore, are often very 
vulnerable, for they are easily chapped and parched and 

When a cracked mucous membrane comes in contact with 
one of the sores, it is like the offer of a new home to over- 
crowded microbe residents. They accept the offer at once 
and establish themselves in the new place with extraordinary 
rapidity. Twelve hours after the first contact is made, even a 
surgical operation will not avail to cut them out. They are 
intrenched beyond recall. And yet and here is the most 
alarming factor in the case no symptom of the disease, no 
sign of sore, will show itself until several weeks after the 
first contact was made. 

Notice the date of the banquet, March fourth ; notice the 
dates scattered along afterwards when sores made their 
appearance. It is true that if the trouble is discovered at 
once, if it is reported to the doctor without delay, and if 
special treatment is persisted in for three or four years after- 
wards, a person may hope to be entirely cured. It is also 
possible that a remedy which has recently been discovered 
may cure more rapidly. Nevertheless, the appalling fact re- 
mains that the disease itself is one of the most terrible of 
the contagious maladies which man is fighting, and unfortu- 
nately it is seldom reported when it first appears. 


It is well to know that the first sore always shows itself on 
the identical spot where the cracked membrane and the dis- 
eased surface met. No wonder it is called " the mark of the 
devil," for it shows just where the microbes entered. 

Once established, they multiply, and as they multiply they 
manufacture a poison. This poison is poured into the blood 
stream, and wherever the blood goes after that, there also 
goes the poison of the plague. 

" At the end of a few weeks," writes Dr. Forel, " eruptions 
appear on the body and face, and then commences a series 
of disasters the cause of which may be suspended over the 
victim for his whole life like the sword of Damocles, even 
when he believes himself cured, for the cure is often un- 
certain. This disease may remain latent for months and 
years, to reappear later in different organs. It causes ulcers 
of the skin and mucous membranes ; it sometimes causes 
decay of the bones ; it affects the walls of the blood vessels, 
causing them to become hard and brittle ; it causes diseases 
of the eye (especially of the iris and retina), tumors in the 
brain, paralysis, etc. In fact, it spares none of the organs of 
the body." 

Speaking of this disease, which is called syphilis, Dr. Morrow 
says : " It plays the r61e of sapper and miner among diseases ; 
it undermines the constitution, weakens the organic defenses, 
diminishes the capacity of resistance, and thus renders the 
system an easy prey to other forces of disease." 

Dr. Osier speaks of it as " the worm that dieth not and 
the fire that is not quenched." Miss Lavinia Dock, who has 
cared for patients in all their degrees of suffering, says that 
" mucous patches may appear in all or in any part of the 
mouth and gums, tongue, tonsils, and pharynx. They may 
also appear at the corners of the lips or in the nasal lining." 



Now it is because of these patches in the mouth, on the 
tongue, and on the lips each one a center of infection 
that people everywhere are not only anxious to avoid personal 
contact with those who are thus diseased, but are also getting 
rid of the public drinking cup which diseased persons may 
have used, and in 
its place we now 
have the sanitary 
drinking fountain. 
Here nothing but 
water touches the 
lips. Whether a 
person has scarlet 
fever, tuberculosis, 
smallpox, whoop- 
ing cough, measles, 
or mucous patches 
on his lips, no one 
can by any chance 
pass on his disease 
by means of a sani- 
tary fountain. But 
with the public 
drinking cup, how 

different ! When you have the opportunity some day, watch 
one of these in a crowded city. I myself have done this. 

First came a healthy, vigorous-looking carpenter. He 
emptied the cup, seemed to enjoy it, wiped his mouth, and 
went away. "Quite a healthy man," I said to myself as he 
passed on. " Probably no danger from him." 

Next followed two giggling girls. Each took a sip and hur- 
ried off, still giggling. "Silly," I thought, "but not diseased." 



A newsboy seized the cup as they dropped it, and was gone 

with a rush to sell his papers. " Fine boy," was my comment. 

Then came a sight that frightened me a man with every 

mark of disease upon him. His walk betrayed him ; his eyes 

betrayed him ; and, worst of all, he had visible sores on his 

lips. He too drank 
from that cup, and 
my frightened query 
was, ' ' What microbes 
have you left there, 
unfortunate man ? " 
Next stepped up 
a woman and a little 
girl. The child may 
have been five years 
old, and she was evi- 
dently thirsty. I saw 
that her lips were 
slightly parched and 
cracked. My heart 
stood still with fear. 
Were the cracked 
lips of the sweet child 
to touch the cup the 

man had used ? I could not reach her in time to warn her. 
Then came relief. I saw what the woman did. She rinsed 
the cup carefully, filled it to overflowing, held it to the 
child's mouth, and told her to suck the water up from the 
middle of the cup, not to touch her lips to its edge. 

This worked well. Some of the water was spilled, but they 
both laughed and went their way. I saw that the lips of the 
child had touched nothing but water. She was safe. 



If all were as wise as this woman, even public drinking 
cups might be used ; but many are ignorant, and as I watched 
the cup I knew that day after day there was danger for the 
city through that single cup alone. For over and over again, 
whether a man betrayed his condition or not, there were sure to 
be many who used the cup and left dangerous microbes on it. 

Fortunately for the race, the particular microbes discussed 
in this chapter do not live long when they are on surfaces 
outside the body. 

It is well to bear in mind and to act upon the following rules : 


1. Never use knife, fork, spoon, cup, or any other article 
after another person until it has been washed. 

2. Never put into the mouth pins, pencils, money, whistles, 
chewing gum, or any other article that may have been in the 
mouth of another person. 

3. Never let the diseased surface of any diseased person 
touch the delicate membranes of any part of your body. Older 
people sometimes kiss children on the lips. This should never 
be done. Let old and young alike kiss each other on the 
cheek, not on the lips, for the thick, unbroken skin of the 
cheek is a protection against the invasion of microbes. 

Since these laws of prevention are easy to follow, we wonder 
why cities and citizens have been careless so long. The answer 
is that most of us are both ignorant and thoughtless. Few 
realize that, of all the diseases that come to man, this is the 
only one which is able to travel the road of direct inheritance 
from one generation to the next the only microbe disease 
which seems to affect germ cells themselves, and which stays 
with the cells as they multiply and become a baby. 


When this occurs, as Dr. Morrow says, " instead of the 
rosy, healthy, well-formed child, there may survive a puny, 
frail being, feeble in mind and body, an object of disgust and 
horror, doomed, if not to early death, to bear through life the 
stigmata of degeneration and disease." 

The baby does not always look ill at birth, however. In- 
deed, the signs of its inherited disease may not come until 
weeks or months or years afterwards. 

Many pages of many books are crowded with cases in which 
this curse has appeared in the next generation, but they are 
too sad to be recounted here. He who is armed against the 
danger is able to save himself and his descendants. His fate 
no less than their fate rests with himself. 

The disease studied in this chapter arose long ago in con- 
nection with the immoral lives of men and women, and it is 
now largely so transmitted. Indeed, very few of those who 
live the immoral life are free from one or the other of the 
two diseases mentioned in this and in the next chapter. 
Nevertheless, the fact of contamination does not necessarily 
prove immorality, although the resulting suffering is not les- 
sened. The only way to safety is along the lines of protection 
already stated. 



The doctor knew that certain microbes had entered his 
right eye, that they were multiplying there with astonishing 
rapidity, and that but one thing in the world could save his 
sight. He was on the night boat going from Boston to New 
York and had none of the needed medicine with him. Neither 
was there any of it on board, and the boat was too far from 
port to put back to Boston for it. 

The results were inevitable. When they reached New York 
the next day all hope of saving the eye was gone. The other 
eye had to do double duty for the man ever afterwards. 

The doctor knew perfectly well that this was a definite effect 
from a definite cause. He could point to the place and to the 
hour of the day when he had cared for a newborn baby. He 
knew he had used medicine on the baby's eyes, because they 
were threatened by microbes that bring blindness. But he did 
not know how other microbes of the same kind, in the same 
room, could have entered his own eyes. 

Usually it is the babies and ignorant people who suffer, not 
the doctors. 

Dr. Howard reports the case of a woman whose eyesight 
he tried to save. She worked in a hotel, was vigorous and 
healthy, with perfect eyesight, and she had a daughter five 
years old. In this hotel the woman handled towels, linen, 
sheets, and all such things as are used by others soiled 
articles on which disease microbes are often left. 



" One day," writes Dr. Howard, " I was called to see her, 
stretched on a bed, with pus-swollen eyes, crying from lacer- 
ating pains, feverish, and frightened. There was no pos- 
sible help for her ; it was too late ; her eyes had already been 
destroyed. Two days before I had been called in to see her, 
she had felt a little inflammation and, not having the slightest 
idea what the trouble was, kept wiping the pus away with a 
handkerchief. Of course the child slept with its mother. It 
is a simple matter of unknown detail just how the pus was 
transferred to the child's eyes, but it was, because on this 
day the pus was penetrating the tissues, and the lenses could 
not be saved. Mother and child blind for life ! And this 
mother," as Dr. Howard exclaims, " had been sent out into 
the world with a high-school diploma ! Educated ! Oh, it is 
pitiable, pitiable ; it makes the physician's blood boil to write 
or think of these thousands of cases that could have been 
saved had our parents, teachers, ministers, done their duty." 

The woman herself did not know that from sheets, towels, 
etc. disease microbes might reach her hands, and that those 
hands should have been washed before they so much as 
touched her eyes. 

Every blind asylum in every state and city bears testimony 
to the power of this microbe. In 1890 there were over 50,000 
persons in the United States who were totally blind, with 
about as many more who were partially blind, and it is esti- 
mated that over one quarter of the number were made blind 
because these gonococcus microbes entered their eyes at birth 
and so scarred the conjunctiva and the cornea that light could 
not pass through to the retina. In every such case the result 
is blindness. 

Dr. Neisser says that in Germany 30,000 people are 
blind through this disease alone. It is also shown that fully 



Art Fabric Shop, Massachusetts Commission for the Blind 

one quarter of those who are blind, in Europe as well as in 
America, owe their blindness to the same cause, and that, had 
they received treatment when they were born, their sight 
would have been saved. 

1 7 6 


"Blind from birth," we say; yet in point of fact they 
were not blind when they were born. They came into the 
world with eyes as sound as yours or mine. Blindness came 
shortly afterwards. It came because, at birth, the microbes 
were present as a disease on the tissues of the mother. From 
the mother they found their way into the eyes of the child. 


Designed for the Massachusetts Building, Jamestown Exposition, 1907. Hand-woven 
by blind women in the Art Fabric Shop of the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind 

Even then the eyes might have been saved if the right 
germicide had been used. 

At last, however, knowledge about this disease is spread- 
ing so fast that different states are making laws for the 
protection of the babies. 

Connecticut, Michigan, Massachusetts, Maryland, Ohio, 
and other states have special state commissions for the 


blind, and each of these commissions exists for the sake of 
doing three things : 

1 . To educate the public for the saving of sight. 

2. To start and carry on enterprises that will give work to 
those who cannot see : broom-making, basket-making, chair- 
caning, weaving, typewriting, mattress-making and pillow- 
making, upholstering, massage, etc. 

3. To provide home teachers for those who become blind 
after they are full-grown, and in this way to lighten their 

The state commission of Ohio also gives definite advice 
for the benefit of every baby born. 


" As soon as the baby is born, the midwife must carefully 
clean the eyelids with water that has been boiled, using a 
separate soft linen cloth or clean absorbent cotton for each 
eye. 1 She should wipe the lids from the nose outward, with- 
out opening the lids. Then the eyelids should be separated, 
and two drops of one per cent solution of silver nitrate dropped 
in each eye. A dropper must be used which is employed for 
no other purpose. Nothing that is not perfectly clean should 
touch the baby's eyes. If the baby's eyes get red, if a drop 
of matter appears between the eyelids or in the corner of the 
eye, a physician should be called. Do not delay in procuring 
treatment, as the eyes can only be saved by applying proper 
remedies at once" 

The germicide needed kills the microbes if they chance 
to be in the eyes, while at the same time it does no harm 
to the eye if the microbes are not there. Nevertheless, it 

1 That one eye may not infect the other. 


is such a powerful remedy that it should only be used on 
a doctor's prescription. 

Warnings from doctors and scientists are producing results ; 
education is doing its work ; and more care is now taken of the 
eyes of our babies than ever before since eyes began to suffer. 

In the meantime, while knowledge is spreading, let us not 
forget that microbes which bring this particular kind of blind- 
ness do not injure eyesight alone. They -destroy eyes for the 
simple reason that when they get into the tender tissues of 
the eye, they find themselves in a place where they can mul- 
tiply fast ; and as they multiply they work their way along, 
scarring and destroying tissue as they go. 

Fortunately these microbes make no impression whatever on 
the thick outside skin of the body ; neither do they enter a 
cracked place in the skin ; neither do they travel in the blood 
stream here and there. Instead, their one power of doing 
harm is after they have been lodged on any delicate, moist 
membrane. There they destroy as fast as they multiply. 

From the starting point they spread from membrane to 
membrane of the organs of the body, and as they travel we 
say : " The disease is making headway. The inflammation 
is spreading." It does indeed make headway, for the advanc- 
ing hosts scar all the tissues within reach, then move on to 
other regions for fresh supply/ They move as a blight from 
one tissue to any other which may be directly connected with 
it, and wherever they go the doctor's remark is, "I find 
serious inflammation." He speaks of inflammation of the 
heart, inflammation of the kidneys, inflammation of the joints, 
inflammation of this part and that, and over and over again 
the cause is the same gonococcus microbes have reached 
the place and are scarring it. 

Dr. Morehead speaks of the " snakiness " of the disease. He 


says it often lies in wait for years, then unexpectedly brings 
destruction to a man or perchance to his dearest friend. 

One such case was supposed to be thoroughly healed ; not 
a sign of the trouble had shown itself for six years. The man 
supposed he was perfectly well, when, without warning, he 
infected his own eyes with those microbes that bring blind- 
ness. "At the same time all his joints became involved, as 
well as the tendon sheaths of one foot. The microbes were 
obtained from the discharges of the eye, proving the real 
nature of the infection." 

It is such cases as these that led Dr. Wilson, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, to answer his students as he did. 
They asked, " Can this disease be cured, and can a patient 
be sure that he is cured ? " His answer was, " To the first 
question, ' yes,' and to the second, certainly, ' no '." 

This disease has the same source as syphilis immoral 
living. It is not the same disease, however, and, as we have 
seen, it manifests itself in different ways. We understand, 
then, the need of prevention through right living. We also 
understand why city after city is forbidding the use of the 
public roller towel, and we are not surprised that traveling 
men who spend so much time in public places are learning 
to carry their own towels with them. They were frightened 
into this in one place by the true report that " at least three 
traveling men had to give up their positions recently on 
account of infection from this source." 


1 . Never use a towel or handkerchief that others have used. 

2. Never put your fingers to your eyes unless you have 
just washed your hands; use a clean handkerchief or a bit 
of clean cloth to wipe out the corners of your eyes. 


3. Never use a public bathtub until it has been washed 
out thoroughly. Do not let the skin of your body touch the 
seat in a public toilet ; cover it first with cloth or paper. 

4. Never let the moist membrane of any diseased person 
touch you. There may be death in the touch. 

5 . Never sleep between sheets or on pillow slips that have 
not been washed after being used by others. 

6. When sleeping away from home, in steamboat, car, or 
hotel, never let the blankets touch the body. These blankets 
are not washed after each use, as are the sheets. Always 
keep the fresh sheets against the face. 

Already society tries to protect itself against smallpox and 
leprosy, against whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, tuber- 
culosis, typhoid fever, yellow fever, and other communicable 
diseases. And the modern movement aims to save family 
life from the two diseases mentioned in the last chapter and 
in this one. Students of the present situation tell us that the 
prevention of these two diseases is, in fact, the most important 
hygienic duty which faces the present generation, and that 
the safety of the nation rests on the ability of the young to 
understand the danger and to save themselves and their 
descendants through the power of right living and through 
their knowledge of facts. 

The rules just given have to do with the risk of passing 
disease from person to person through the power of disease 
microbes. In addition, there is another risk which intelligence 
and will power must control a risk which faces humanity 
through the power of inheritance and through the curse of 

In reading the next chapter, recall Dr. Bezzola's statistics 
about alcohol, germ cells, and feeble-mindedness as given in 
Chapter XVII. 


For the sake of studying the matter of feeble-mindedness 
at first hand, Dr. David Starr Jordan visited the Valley of 
Aosta, Italy, four times in 1881, 1883, 1900, and 1910. 

After the first visit he wrote : " Cretins : were seen on the 
streets everywhere and on the roads which lead to Aosta. 
Everywhere were these feeble little people, with silly faces 
and sickening smiles, incapable of taking care of themselves, 
and all disfigured by the goiter at the neck. Not every person 
with the goiter is an idiot, but every idiot has the goiter." . . . 
"In fair weather the roads about the city are lined with these 
awful human beings human beings with less intelligence 
than the goose, with less decency than the pig. The asylum 
for cretins in Aosta is a veritable chamber of horrors." 2 

In his book, Dr. Jordan emphasizes the following facts 
about cretinism : 

1 . It is found nowhere save in mountainous districts. 

2. It is connected with disease of the thyroid gland, as 
also is goiter. No person with healthy thyroid glands ever 
has goiter or is ever a cretin. 

3. It may be passed on from ancestor to descendant, ac- 
cording to the laws of inheritance. 

Now it was because certain inhabitants of Aosta appreciated 
the point about inheritance that the tide turned at last and 

1 See " The Heredity of Richard Roe," by David Starr Jordan. 

2 A cretin is a special kind of idiot, found chiefly in the Alps and having 
special bodily deformities. 



cretins began to slip out of sight at Aosta. Dr. Jordan dis- 
covered this fact in 1910. He had gone to the place expect- 
ing to find conditions about as they were when he was there 
before. But, "to my surprise," he says, " I was unable for 
some time to find a single cretin or even anybody who knew 
the meaning of the word.". 

By asking questions, however, he soon learned that, about 
twenty years before, Aosta had put all its old poor people 
into asylums. It also appeared that gradually all the cretins 
had been put there too the men in one part of the estab- 
lishment, the women in the other. The two groups were 
kept absolutely separate no mixing and mating ever being 
allowed. As a result, in no case was there any second gen- 
eration. Those cretins and goitrous persons had no descend- 
ants to inherit their woe. They were the last of their kind. 
So true was this that, as Dr. Jordan writes, "there is but one 
cretin left an old woman four feet high, who has the in- 
telligence and, for that matter, the manners of a lap dog, very 
affectionate but without any mental capacity." He goes on 
to say that he visited the orphan asylum of Aosta and found 
" every child bright and alert, without a touch of goiter or of 
cretinism " ; that he " inspected beggars standing in rows at 
the railway station, weak, inconsequential, useless, most of 
them, but not a cretin among them." The truth of course re- 
mains, that if healthy people live in conditions which bring 
disease to the thyroid gland, they will suffer accordingly ; but 
this is a different matter from beginning life as an idiot who 
is a cretin. 

But to come nearer home. Turn from cretins in Italy and 
Switzerland to the feeble-minded in other lands. Dr. Hurty did 
this one day in Indiana. He was visiting an institution which 
admits only those who have feeble brains of one sort or another. 


As he sat in the gallery with the superintendent, he 
" watched the inmates solemnly walk through square dances." 
Writing about it afterwards, he said : "A young man at the 
piano attracted my attention on account of his firm touch 
and excellent execution. ' He is an inmate,' said the superin- 
tendent. ' He can play the music of the great composers quite 
well and has composed several good waltzes. He is a graduate 
of one of our minor colleges, yet he is an imbecile and suffers 
from emotional insanity. A strong attendant sits by his side, 
ever watchful to restrain him.' ' What is his heredity ? ' I 
asked. ' That is the point, ' answered the superintendent. ' His 
mother is feeble-minded, and his father died in the Central 
Insane Hospital. He had a sister in the idiot asylum.' " 
Then Dr. Hurty adds : " Defective people curse the day 
they were born, and this man curses his parents. Almost 
every man you find with an hereditary infirmity curses the 
day of his birth." 

In the United States alone we have 1 50,000 feeble-minded 
persons. Some have intelligence enough to know they are 
blighted, to know whence the blight comes, and to fling out 
hatred and curses against their ancestors who doomed them. 
These are called the feeble-minded. They have some intelli- 
gence, some ability to think and to reason. But below them 
in mental rank, unable either to think or to reason, unable so 
much as to curse their fate and their ancestors, are the hopeless 
ranks of imbeciles and idiots. 

Feeble-mindedness, imbecility, and idiocy these are the 
descending grades, although, in speaking, people do not always 
keep them apart. And between the grades there is every 
shade of mental weakness. 

In Vineland, New Jersey, 400 defective persons are 
gathered in what is called " a great human laboratory." 


Their ages run all the way from five to sixty years. Bodies 
young and bodies old are there, bodies large and bodies 
small, bodies strong and bodies weak. But among the 
entire 400 not a single brain is either keen enough or 
strong enough or mature enough to meet the requirements 
of everyday life. Each is so far below the normal human 
standard that it cannot be trusted to care for the body to 
which it belongs incurably weak-minded, every one of them. 

These people are divided into groups, each group with its 
caretaker. They are lodged in twenty-five different buildings. 
A schoolhouse is here, a merry-go-round there ; barns in this 
place, broad fields under cultivation yonder ; shops and a 
zoological garden, groves, and playgrounds everything is 
provided for the comfort of these 400 mentally weak chil- 
dren. Moreover, each is trained to do something for the 
welfare of the institution itself. Some can do more, some less, 
according to the different grades of feeble-mindedness. And 
it is with these defective people that scientists are just now 
doing some of their most notable work. 

Years ago, as they looked into the dull and stupid faces of 
feeble-minded people, they began to ask, " Has this dull 
child any dull ancestors ? " And merely to ask the question 
was enough. Over and over again the prompt answer came 
back, " Yes indeed, this dull child has several dull ancestors." 

This was the beginning of the modern movement. Since 
that time family records have been made out in the shape of 
charts. Facts about parents, grandparents, and great-grand- 
parents have been put in proper order ; brothers, sisters, 
uncles, cousins, and aunts have supplied other facts ; and 
from the midst of these ancestors and descendants the old 
story of cause and effect has been told again and again. In 
each family, ancestors who were feeble-minded or alcoholic or 



diseased through immorality have seemed to raise their heads 
and say : " Here we are. We had tainted blood. We passed 
our curse on." 

Study these charts. They were made up from records kept 
in the Vineland institution. Some of them carry the family 
line back from son to father for five generations, while each 


Squares represent males ; circles, females. Black means feeble-minded ; white with 
N in it means normal ; without N it means no data. When striated they indicate 
some condition worthy of note. A added means alcoholic ; T means tuberculous. 
The hand points to the individual whose ancestry is studied. In this case notice that 
both parents were feeble-minded and that the man had three feeble-minded brothers 
and one feeble-minded sister. Notice also that the grandfather on the father's side 
was feeble-minded. (From " Heredity as a Factor in the Problem of the Feeble- 
minded Child," by H. H. Goddard) 

one shows what fathers and mothers and grandparents have 
done for their descendants. Surely no disaster is greater than 
that of being the descendant of feeble-minded ancestors. 1 

1 Dr. Ellis says : " Feeble-mindedness is an absolute dead weight on the 
race ; it is an evil that is unmitigated. The unquestionable fact that in all 
degrees it is highly inheritable renders it a deteriorating poison to the 
race ; it depreciates the whole quality of a people." Also, " it is useless 
to work for the coming of a better race if we impose upon it the task of 
breaking the fetters its fathers have forged." 

1 86 


Dr. Goddard proves this in his history of the Kallikak 
family. 1 Here we find two distinct kinds of mental inheri- 
tance. They run side by side from generation to generation 
for one hundred fifty years. And, strange to say, the same 
man stands at the head of both lines. He was a healthy young 
soldier who fought in the American Revolution. 


Locate the alcoholic man. Notice that his wife was feeble-minded, that she was the 

daughter of feeble-minded parents, that she had six feeble-minded sons and five 

brothers and sisters who were feeble-minded. (From " Heredity as a Factor in the 

Problem of the Feeble-minded Child," by H. H. Goddard) 

Before the fighting began, he had one son. But, sad to 
say, the boy's mother was feeble-minded. So also was* the 
boy himself. He inherited the calamity from his mother. 
Still he grew to manhood, was married, became the ancestor 
of children and of children's children, until, up to the present 
time, that feeble-minded son of the feeble-minded mother has 

1 Out of kindness to the living members of the family, the true name is 
not given. Kallikak is a name made up for the occasion. It is believed that 
no other human beings are known by the same combination of letters. 


had altogether 480 descendants. Of these, 47 grew up to be 
normal, healthy people, while 143 have been or now are feeble- 
minded. Facts are lacking about the rest of the descendants. 

This is the established record of one line of the Kallikak 
family. It brings out the fact that a feeble-minded mother 
may stamp successive generations of human beings with the 
misfortune of her own mental likeness. 

The second line of inheritance in the same Kallikak family 
shows an entirely different record. And here again the expla- 
nation lies with the mother who, with the selfsame father, 
stands at the head of her line. 

It seems that after the war was over, the soldier married 
a healthy, clear-headed woman of stock as fine as his own. 
They had children and children's children, until the total 
number of their descendants has now increased to 496. 

Among these none have been feeble-minded. All have 
been normal, vigorous, worth-while people, honored and 
beloved and useful in all parts of the country. 

In view of this double record it is easy to believe the 
statement that feeble-mindedness stands in line with every- 
thing else that is inherited. We are now told that if feeble- 
minded people become parents, their . affliction may reach 
their own descendants in remote generations. In an average 
number of cases the inheritance will move along as follows : 

1. If both parents are feeble-minded, all the children will 
be feeble-minded. This law never fails to work itself out. 

2. If both parents are normal, and if neither of them has 
had any feeble-minded ancestors, all the children will be 
normal, and not one of them will be able to pass feeble- 
mindedness on to the next generation. 

3. If one of the parents is feeble-minded and the other is 
normal with no feeble-minded ancestor, their children will 


not be feeble-minded, but they will be able to pass feeble- 
mindedness on to their descendants. 1 

In Vineland these facts of inheritance guide the men and 
women who are in charge. The result is that the feeble-minded 
persons of the place are kept as separate as are the cretins 
of Aosta. Elsewhere in the world they are not always sepa- 
rated. Often they receive some training and then are sent 
out into the world to shift for themselves. 

It is at this point that danger threatens the next genera- 
tion, for these half-trained, feeble-minded people are feeble- 
minded still. As such they are able to pass their affliction 
on to later generations. This must be prevented. 

If the Vineland plan were carried out everywhere, and if 
alcohol and germ diseases were not allowed to work havoc 
with germ cells, feeble-minded people would soon be as un- 
known in the United States and elsewhere as are the cretins 
in Aosta. 

This is the gospel of prevention which modern science 

As we know, however, we cannot altogether separate phys- 
ical inheritance from the power of environment. The two 
have joined hands, and they travel together. Together also 
they help or harm both the body and the brain. 

The next chapter gives a bit of history about the effect of 
environment on the physical well-being of generations of 

1 In the Kallikak family the feeble-minded mother was responsible for 
all those feeble-minded descendants ; but, since she was feeble-minded, and 
therefore irresponsible, the weight of the responsibility rests with the father, 
who chose her as the mother of his first-born son. 



In England one hundred years ago certain groups of 
children were living under appalling conditions. Cotton mills 
had been established, and the small fingers of little children 
were large enough to move this rod here, that rod there ; to 
tie broken threads ; to attend to the looms and the flying 
shuttles. They could indeed do part of the work quite as 
well as older people with stiffer ringers. So the children 
were in the mills, not because they liked it, not because their 
parents wished it, but because there was so little money in the 
family that even the youngest member of it had to earn what 
he could. Hunger and misery had joined hands. They had 
forced the children into the factories and the mills. 

The ages of these children ranged from five to fifteen years, 
and even in the best of the places the youngest workers 
were kept busy from six in the morning until seven at night. 
They were supposed to do their studying (if they did any) in 
the evening after working hours were over. No one gave 
attention to the fact that minds cannot work when bodies 
are overtired. 

But this was not the worst. There were still pauper chil- 
dren from the workhouse. Mill owners wished all the cheap 
service they could get. At the same time the managers of 
the poorhouse were only too glad to rid themselves of depend- 
ent children, regardless of consequences. So it came about 



that when mill owners needed more helpers, they went to 
the poorhouse for them. And when the order came, the 
caretakers of the place packed the children into wagons or 
canal boats and sent them off to be inspected. Having 
arrived, these children were put into cellars, dark, damp, 
unwholesome, and there the mill men came with lighted 
lanterns to examine them. Height, weight, size, and shape 
were taken into account, " and the bargain was struck." It 
was really a purchase of children by the wagon load from 
their poorhouse guardians. Very little money was paid for 
these loads of small workers, but at least, henceforth, the 
poorhouse itself would not have to support them. As for 
wages, they received none whatever. They worked " sixteen 
hours at a stretch by day and by night. They slept by turns 
and relays in beds that were never allowed to cool, one set 
being sent to bed as soon as the others had gone to 
their toil." 

Robert Blincoe describes his own experiences. He says 
he was sent to the place when he was seven years old, and 
that children and pigs shared the same food, the pigs being 
fed first, because they grunted so loud that they had to be 
quieted. When fattening time came for the pigs, they received 
" meat balls and dumplings " with their other food. The 
children never had any fattening time. They were always 
hungry, and they wanted dumplings, too. To get them they 
" used to slip away and slyly steal as many as possible, has- 
tening away with them to a hiding place where they were 
eagerly devoured." 

But it seems the pigs learned to keep " a sharp lookout, 
and the moment they ascertained the approach of the half- 
famished children, they set up so loud a chorus of snorts and 
grunts that it was heard in the kitchen, when out rushed the 


swineherd armed with a whip." Children were scattered, 
pigs were protected, and the contest came to an end. 

No wonder those children tried to run away. " To pre- 
vent this, all who were suspected of such a tendency had 
irons riveted on their ankles with long links reaching up to 
the hips. In these chains they were compelled to work and 
sleep, young women and girls as well as boys." l Although 
this cruelty was carried on under cover, as it were, still facts 
leaked out by degrees. People began to get excited and to 
demand that something be done to save the children. One 
by one, earnest men and women took the matter up. They 
said children must not "be used up as the cheapest raw 
material in the market." 

In 1799 and 1800, as if to help the movement along, there 
came a sweeping epidemic. It traveled from factory to fac- 
tory in Manchester and throughout the regions about the 
city. Everywhere it was the children who suffered most and 
died in largest numbers. Doctors looked for causes and said 
that " overwork, scant and poor food, wretched clothing, 
bad ventilation, and overcrowding, especially among the 
children," explained it all. 

The result of the agitation was that even the British gov- 
ernment bestirred itself. It passed a law that these children 
should not work over twelve hours a day, and that they should 
be clothed and sent to school and also have religious teaching. 

After this, conditions were somewhat better ; nevertheless, 
from then until now, in every country, certain groups of chil- 
dren have been overworked, underfed, and wretchedly housed. 
Take for example what is happening even in America, and 
even in the twentieth century. 

1 For full description see " The Bitter Cry of the Children," by 
John Spargo. 


In 1912 Mr. Claxton wrote : " I have seen children under 
ten years of age working their lives away in the mills. Their 
pale faces haunt me still. I saw little boys eight years old 
drinking black coffee at midnight to keep awake until the 
end of their shift at four or five o'clock the next morning. 
Then they went out of the hot, steaming, noisy mill into the 


They work in this position for nine hours a day, at an average wage of $4.50 a week. 

Their work is to pick out pieces of slate and stone from the coal as it moves through 

a chute over which they sit. (From H. M. Todd) 

cold air of the morning to their homes, probably for a little 
fitful sleep and a joyless day, only to come back at night and 
grind again through the long dark hours." 

Mrs. Florence Kelley describes the work of small boys 
" in the greatest canning factory in this country, just out of 
Chicago." They sit for " fourteen hours a day on a shelf in 
mid-air, every boy crooking his back and compressing his 


lungs " because " the bright eyes of these boys must see any 
defect in the lids of tomato cans and milk cans coming down 
in a procession. ' ' She says ' ' they were constantly cutting them- 
selves, crippling their hands, and cutting off the tops of their 
fingers in this work, because they had to seize these sharp- 
edged things and take them out of the procession of cans if 
there was any defect in the lid. At the end of the fourteen 
hours of crouching on this wretched shelf the boys were so 
tired that they often could not drag themselves home, but 
slept in the fields near by and went back to their work the 
next day without ever having gone home, because they were 
too weary at the end of the work." 

Mr. Potter says that in another place he himself " has seen 
children five, six, and seven years old working as laborers in 
American canneries fourteen hours a day." His investigators 
have also reported 45 children under twelve in one place, 50 
in another ("including many small tots hardly able to walk"), 
20 in another, working from eleven in the morning to half 
past ten at night, etc. 

And child labor is not confined to the canneries. There are 
thousands of child workers who spend twelve and more hours 
a day in crowded city tenements making artificial flowers and 
willow plumes and tips to shoe strings. Others work in glass 
factories, coal mines, silk mills, cotton mills, cigarette factories, 
and similar places where each day's labor exhausts them. 1 

Just now, in the United States, there are about two million 
of these workers under sixteen years of age. They work while 
other children sleep and play. They do not know what it is 
to feel well rested, well fed, and joyous. And what about the 
children afterwards ? people are asking. Does overwork do 
any real harm ? 

1 Even now laws are being made which will prevent all this. 



Miss Goldmark says that between 1830 and 1840 there 
was such a change in the appearance of factory people who 

had been overworking in 
England for two generations 
that eyewitnesses were horri- 
fied. 1 They saw " a race of 
pale, stunted, and emaciated 
creatures, irregular in their 
lives and dissolute in their 
habits " a race " whose 
only hope seems to be that 
the race will die out in two 
or three generations." 

Dr. Ellis speaks of the 
London weavers and draws 
our attention to a medical 
report which states that 
" though not originally a 
large race, it formerly con- 
tained healthy and well-made 
men." But, as the report 
gives it, " the whole race of 
them is rapidly descending 
to the size of Lilliputians ; 
you could not raise a grena- 
dier company amongst them . ' ' 
To a country that wishes to 
be ready for war at any time 
this decrease in size is a 
serious matter. And the same working and living conditions 
are producing the same result in other European countries. 

1 See " Fatigue and Efficiency," by Josephine Goldmark. 


She "shucks oysters" for twenty-five 
cents a day 


Miss Goldmark quotes from the report of a military ex- 
amining physician in Germany on a certain factory district in 
1891. "In the factory villages, where every one works from 
youth up in the factories, almost all recruits were unfit for 
service, and I believe that, if this goes on, it will be useless to 
send recruiting commissions to these communities." 

In the United States evil conditions have not existed long 
enough in any one place to prove much. In all lands, how- 
ever, nations are beginning to act on the general belief that 
overworked and underfed children grow up to be inferior 
men and women, and that inferior men and women make 
inferior ancestors. The next chapter will show that steps 
toward race improvement began to be taken over a hundred 
years ago. 




Try to understand why the children were overworked and 
what their home surroundings were. 

Machinery had been invented during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century ; manufactures had increased ; factories 
were built. It began to look as if great prosperity were at 
hand. Men, women, and children who formerly lived in the 
country came to town to get work in the factories. Here they 
were crowded together in small houses on narrow streets. In 
these places neither parents nor children knew what was 
meant by clean streets, clean air, clean houses, clean water, 
or clean food. 

Naturally, therefore, the masses of the people lived in the 
midst of what we should call unspeakable surroundings. One 
such place was Bethnal Green, England. A report of con- 
ditions there was printed in 1848, and on the basis of this 
report Dr. Ellis tells us that " many of the houses were huts, 
summerhouses, and sheds, never intended for use as houses"; 
that " there were thirty-three miles of streets and at least one 
hundred miles of byways," but that "only a few miles were 
sewered " ; that " dust bins were unknown, slops thrown 
from the windows," and that " the streets were the common 
reservoirs for refuse of all kinds, sometimes accumulated in 
mountainous and evil-smelling heaps." 

He also says that " the task of scavenging Bethnal Green, 



with its hundred and thirty-three miles of dwellings, was 
intrusted to thirteen decrepit old men," and that it took these 
men about three months to go over the ground each time. 

Since disease microbes had not been discovered in those 
days, and since prevention was unknown, it is not strange that 
the people in Bethnal Green were attacked by these disease 
microbes and swept away by devastating epidemics. Ignorance 
explained it all ; yet ignorance does not weaken the power of 
the microbe nor interfere with the 'relation of cause and effect. 

At last, knowledge about the need of cleanliness took the 
place of ignorance. Cities' began to clean up. They paved 
their streets, cleared the rubbish away, built sewers, tried to 
get clean water, thought about getting clean air, and, in one 
way and another, took what was really the first step 1 in the 
modern movement toward race improvement. 

Nowadays this step has become a giant stride. London, 
New York, Chicago, Boston, and all other large cities are 
doing more or less in pulling down old tenements and putting 
up new ones that can be kept clean. They widen their streets 
and keep them not only swept but washed. For the sake of 
health and cleanliness some of them filter their drinking 
water, others bring it from distant lakes in the mountains. 
At the same time each city demands clean food as well as 
clean air, clean citizens as well as clean houses. Cleanliness 
has indeed become a modern health motto, although from 
the looks of some of our cities it is hard to believe this. 


But even from the start those who strove for race improve- 
ment saw that cleanliness could not do everything. They saw 

1 Dr. Ellis writes of these steps in his book " The Problem of Race- 


that factory managers and mill owners still overworked and 
underpaid their fellow human beings, and they concluded 
that nothing could loosen the grasp of greed and of cruelty 
but laws stern enough to force mercy from the merciless. 
This, then, was the second step in race improvement. 

Promptly a new order began. One law after another was 
passed, until now, in every civilized land, these laws grow 
more important every year. They decide how many hours 
each day one man may work for another, what protection he 
must have against dangerous machinery, what shall be paid 
in case of accident, how many holidays he must be granted, 
etc. Other laws in different places control the age at which 
children may begin to work by the day, the hours of their 
work, the amount of their wages, the kind of occupations 
they may or may not go into, their education while at work, 
and so on. 


Each state is passing such laws every year, but even while 
the earliest ones were being enforced, those who watched 
results saw that laws against overwork were not enough 
thfet for the sake of real race improvement children must be 
supplied with right surroundings of every kind from the time 
they are born until they are grown. .This was the third step. 

It was precisely in this connection that the government of 
the United States, in 1911, took a great step toward serving 
the children better. It then established what is known as the 
Children's Bureau. This bureau proposes to crush the forces 
that are ready to crush the children. In order to do this it 
intends to look up present conditions and report them to the 
public, to educate the same public, and to enforce more laws. 


And it is time all this was done. For years thoughtful people 
have noticed that, as a rule, children are good or bad, that 
they live or die, according to conditions about them that 
they are cursed or blessed by their environment. 1 

Dr. Ellis says that seventy years ago, out of every thousand 
babies born in such cities as Manchester and Leeds, England, 
six hundred died before they were five years old. Their en- 
vironment helped them to die. Dr. Ashby says : "In healthy 
children, among the well-to-do class, the mortality from measles 
is practically nil ; in the tubercular and wasted children to be 
found in workhouses, hospitals, and among the lower classes, 
the mortality is enormous, no disease being attended with 
more fatal results." Dr. Spargo gives a table of figures to 
show what effect environment has on the death-rate of babies. 














Consumption .... 


1 4, 540 


1 0,900 




4, goo 

Debility and atrophy 
Cholera infantum . . . 

2 5'563 



Cholera morbus . . . 





1 Deep poverty is one of the worst of environments, because it is so 
inclusive in the harm it does. 


Make no effort to remember the figures in the two columns ; 
they are merely an estimate. They do not claim to be exact, 
but they do point a great truth. They draw attention to the 
fact that when young children are surrounded by evil condi- 
tions, by deep poverty and by the kind of environment which 
goes with such poverty, they die of diseases from which they 
should have recovered. 

In 1892 almost 1000 babies and children under the age 
of five died in Rochester, New York. At that time babies 
and grown folks too used whatever milk was brought to them 
by the dealers, for in those days no special attention was paid 
either to the quality of the milk or to its cleanness. 

In 1904, however, there was a different death rate for the 
babies. Instead of 1000, only 500 died that year; and yet 
since 1892 the population of the city had increased by 
30,000 people. The explanation was at hand. It rested with 
the milk supply. Somewhere between 1892 and 1904 the 
Health Department of Rochester decided that the babies of 
Rochester should have clean milk for their everyday diet. 
Thereafter they had it, and everybody acknowledged that clean 
milk did more than any other one thing to cut the death rate 
in two. They said that no part of the environment is more 
important for babies than nourishment. 1 

Students of living conditions are saying more and more 
positively that, for. the good of the race, every kind of environ- 
ment for the children must be properly looked after. They 
are also saying that even environment will not do everything. 
It is for this reason that they have taken their final step in 
race improvement, to the study of which we now turn. 

1 For full description of the clean-milk crusade in Rochester see " Town 
and City," chap. xx. 


In 1910 the state of Ohio had a population of about 
4,700,000, and at the same time it was supporting at public 
expense an army of 22,000 defective persons. Insane, feeble- 
minded, epileptic, deaf and dumb and blind, criminal, imma- 
ture, those ruined by alcohol all these were counted in. 

In 1908 the English Royal Commission estimated that 
there were about 1 50,000 notably defective persons in Eng- 
land and Wales. Now neither Great Britain nor Ohio is 
counted as in worse condition than other places. They sim- 
ply point the fact that to-day every civilized state and country 
in the world is supporting handicapped people. More serious 
yet, statistics prove that the number of these handicapped 
persons is increasing by leaps and bounds each year. This 
last fact proves two points : 

1. We are kind to the present generation, and we show it 
by taking good care of those who are defective among us. 

2. We are outrageously unkind and carelessly cruel to the 
next generation, because, in thousands upon thousands of 
cases, we let the defects of one generation go on to the next 
by means of inheritance. 

In view of this condition many of those who love their 
fellow men are now saying that every inheritable curse should 
die with the man or the woman who has it. They say that, 
in addition to the three steps given in the last chapter, a final 


step must be taken. It is stated as a command. It is the 
fourth great step in the race-improvement series. Protect the 
children before they are born. 


This step leads humanity into a new road, and the road 
itself leads to race regeneration. 

Heretofore men and women have traveled the only road 
they knew. They have lived and multiplied and passed on the 
stream of life in ignorance of conditions affecting the welfare 
of their descendants. By the laws of the struggle for exist- 
ence and the survival of the fit, the most unfit died in child- 
hood. The rest lived to become ancestors. As a result, until 
lately each generation contained about the same proportion 
of healthy and efficient people. 

This course of events continued for many ages. But a 
change came. Machines were invented. Men and women 
trooped in from the country to the factories and the mills of 
the cities. There they were overworked and underfed. For 
generations children and their children's children did the 
same kind of work, lived in the same deadly environment, 
endured the same cruelties. And each generation had less 
vigor than the generation that went before. Because their 
ancestors had become inferior, whole villages suffered. 

Among these people disease microbes now made havoc. 
They killed thousands who should have been vigorous enough 
to escape. And, worst of all, no one knew either the cause 
of the death rate or the means of its prevention. 

When matters were at this point, in 1865, while Pasteur 
studied silkworms in France, he discovered microscopic 
creatures that carried disease from worm to worm. 1 

1 For full description see " Town and City," chap. xxi. 


Since his time other men have not only discovered other 
disease microbes, but have shown us how to escape them, 
and it is this set of microbe discoveries that has brought 
us at last to the parting of the ways. 

In studying records of the past we find that during recent 
years there has been an enormous increase in the numbers 
of feeble-minded, insane, epileptic, criminal, deaf and dumb 
and blind, and those ruined by alcohol, by overwork, and by 
unyielding chronic disease. 

When we ask for an explanation of this, and when we 
study statistics, we see that because we have kind hearts, and 
because, in these days, we know how to save people from 
disease microbes, we have for years, innocently enough, 
been helping on the misfortunes of the race. In the struggle 
for existence we who are the fit have spent time and strength 
and money in keeping the unfit alive. We have lengthened 
the lives of our degenerates and maintained them in comfort. 1 
This we should have done. At the same time, however, we 
have allowed these same degenerate people to become ances- 
tors of others like themselves. This we should not have done. 
To-day our asylums, our prisons, and our hospitals are caring 
for multitudes of defective descendants of those who should 
have been as carefully guarded as were the cretins of Aosta. 

It is this situation which compels us to study the old road 
as we have just been doing, and helps us to understand why 
we must travel the new road a road dedicated not alone to 
this generation but also to the next generation. 

Common sense tells us that if we step across from the old 
road to the new, that is, if, from now on, we heed the 

1 Dr. Morrow has said that during the past twenty years " the life of the 
insane has been increased eight years, while that of the general population 
has been increased but four and a half years." He says " this is doubtless 
true of other defectives." 


command of reason and protect children before they are 
born, we shall be able to change the entire outlook for the 
race within two or three generations. 

If we succeed in doing this, those who live in the future 
will have the chance to be as surprised as Dr. Jordan was 
when he went to Aosta. They will read about the defectives 
of the twentieth century, will look hither and thither for their 
descendants, and when they ask what has become of them, 
answer will be made, " They have ceased to be ; practical 
application of the laws of race regeneration saved them." 

If now we ask what race regeneration really means, we shall 
be told that children have the right to be well born, and that 
men and woman who are so defective as to be unfit must not 
be allowed to become ancestors. And this is the meaning of 
race regeneration. 

It is a matter of securing better descendants by taking the 
laws of inheritance into account. It is an obligation which 
commands each generation to pass on to future generations 
the best it has received, and to let its worst inheritance die 
with itself. 

The history of the human race does indeed make it plain 
that a worthy line of ancestors is more to be desired than 
gold or lands or worldly position of any sort. It proves that 
right parentage is the noblest gift which one generation 
may offer to another. 

Each of us carries his own ancestral standard through life. 
Each received this standard from men and women who are 
ranged back of us in endless rows. If the standard was high 
when it came to us, let us pass it on just as high to those who 
are to come after. If it tottered when we received it, let us 
so conduct our lives that it may be straightened up a little and 
be carried higher rather than lower by the next generation. 



Give three reasons why a careful breeder is willing to pay high 
for his animals. Describe what a scientist might do if he knew 
certain definite facts about the ancestors of your neighbors. Mention 
some of the labels which he might nail to the doors. When was 
Jonathan Edwards born ? What were his noted characteristics ? In 
1900 how many of his descendants had been located? Mention 
the occupations of some of them. Taken as a whole, what influence 
has the family of Jonathan Edwards had upon the world ? What 
was the occupation of the first-recorded ancestor of the Jukes family ? 
When and where was he born ? What was his character ? How 
many descendants have been traced ? Mention some of their occu- 
pations. Who were obliged to support those members of the family 
who spent their time in prison and in the workhouse ? How much 
has the Jukes family already cost the people of New York state ? 
In what two ways are people cursed from birth ? What does the 
chart show ? In the United States what was the increase in popu- 
lation between 1800 and 1900? What difference will it make in 
the outcome of things whether one kind of family or the other kind 
multiplies faster on the earth ? 


Mention two distinct kinds of pure-bred Andalusian fowls. When 
a black and a white Andalusian fowl were chosen to be ancestors 
of the next generation, what was the question about their descend- 
ants ? What was the color of the chicks ? Did it make any difference 
which parent was black, which white ? Were the children hybrid or 
pure-bred ? When both parents are pure-bred of the same kind, 
will their children be hybrid or pure-bred ? Explain the illustration 



which shows color inheritance. Tell. which individuals in the illus- 
tration are pure-bred, which hybrid. If we krfow the color of 
Andalusian fowls, what can we always tell about their descendants ? 


During the years from 1900 to 1905 what small animals were 
receiving special study in the Zoological Laboratory of Harvard 
University ? Why did Professor Castle keep them in this labora- 
tory ? Why did he do his main work with guinea pigs ? In the case 
of small animals why is it easy to trace resemblances between far- 
away ancestors and present-day descendants ? How many genera- 
tions do guinea pigs have each year ? Why does this give guinea 
pigs an advantage as helpers in answering questions about inher- 
itance ? Describe the guinea pig its size, color, coat, etc. What 
did Dr. Castle learn about the way these characters are handed 
on from ancestor to descendant ? Are the laws of inheritance the 
same with guinea pigs as with Andalusian fowls ? At first sight, do 
they seem to be the same or different ? When black guinea pigs 
were mated with albino white, what was the color of their children ? 
How do we know that all the black guinea-pig children were hybrid 
and not pure-bred ? Why were these hybrids black and not blue ? 
Describe the illustration. What do we mean when we say that 
black is dominant and white recessive ? Which color is dominant 
with Andalusian fowls ? Besides color, what other characters move 
along by definite laws ? With guinea pigs, which is dominant, rough 
coat or smooth coat ? long hair or short hair ? By knowing the laws, 
how can one secure the desired kinds of descendants ? Why are 
human beings interested in the laws of life ? In what way is each 
person a bundle of combined characters ? What did Dr. Forel dis- 
cover about his own face ? How does he explain the children of 
many a distinguished man? 


Who was Mendel ? What did he do in the gardens of the cloister 
at Briinn ? How many different kinds of peas did he raise ? For 
what was he searching ? Mention some of the characters which he 


studied in pairs. What did he do about keeping the pollen of 
different plants separate ? Why was he so careful ? Which char- 
acters were dominant ? Which were recessive ? Was every character 
either dominant or recessive ? For how many years did Mendel 
carry on his investigations ? When did he write his important 
papers ? What did these papers tell ? What effect did the reading 
of his papers have on his audience ? What happened to the papers 
afterwards ? How long did they stay in the Briinn library ? When 
did Mendel die ? What was he heard to say many times before he 
died ? What happened sixteen years after his death ? What do 
modern scientists think about Mendel and his work ? Which books 
take Mendel and his laws into account ? In what way has his name 
stamped the whole subject of inheritance ? State three of Mendel's 
laws as given. Compare these laws with those given in the two pre- 
vious chapters. How did Mendel discover his laws ? Do they apply 
best to animals or to plants ? 


In 1900 what did the National Association of British and Irish 
Millers decide to do ? Who was chosen chief investigator ? Mention 
some of the qualities of the different kinds of wheat he used. 
Describe Professor Biffen's work with these varieties. What success 
did he have? Describe the two fields of corn that grew side by 
side. What was it that made the difference in the yield of the two 
fields ? What has Mr. Burbank done in corn raising ? What about 
the value of his potatoes ? Mention other vegetables and fruit that 
have been improved by using the laws of inheritance. W^hat is the 
boll weevil ? How does it damage the cotton crop ? What has been 
done to save the cotton from this weevil ? Describe the difference 
between the amaryllis of former times and the new one produced 
by Mr. Burbank. Describe his work with the poppy. How large 
a poppy blossom has he secured ? What can he do with poppy-seed 
capsules ? How did he change the daisy ? What has he done to the 
thorn-covered cactus ? What have breeders done in changing sheep ? 
For what is the Jersey cow famous ? Mention other kinds of cattle 
and the special quality for which they are bred. What does all this 
show about the modern evolution of plants and animals ? 



Where are horses found ? What can be said about their resem- 
blance and relation to each other ? What is a fossil (see footnote) ? 
In what special museum in New York City do we find large num- 
bers of fossil bones ? How are the horse bones grouped in the 
museum ? So far as size is concerned, how do they progress ? 
Speak of the difference between the largest horse skeleton and the 
smallest. If these were alive to-day, would they treat each other 
as friends or as strangers ? What remarkable fact do the graded 
horse bones prove ? How long did the small horse live before the 
large one ? During that time, what changes took place in legs 
and jaw and skull bones ? Describe the foot as it changed into 
a hoof. What part of the middle toe finally became the hoof ? 
What became of the other toes ? What sign of toe is there on 
the legs of a modern horse ? Where are these splint bones ? While 
the toe bones were changing, what happened to the jaw bones 
and the teeth of the horse ? What explains the gap between the 
front teeth and the back teeth of a modern horse ? When the 
smallest and earliest horse bones first came to light, what name 
was given to the little creature ? Where have many fossil horse 
bones been found ? What connections have been traced ? How 
many sets of scientists are needed to explain buried bones ? What 
does the geologist do ? What does the paleontologist do ? What do 
we learn from fossil bones ? 

Which set of bones gives the most straight-ahead, complete his- 
tory of the animal ? In what countries have fossil horse bones been 
found ? Where does this best series come from ? If a horse could 
think and talk, what might he say about his ancestors ? 


Where did Darwin keep his angleworms ? What did he know 
about their different senses ? What questions did he ask himself 
about them ? Why are angleworms studied at night ? Describe 
their actions as Darwin saw them. When did Darwin's interest in 
angleworms begin ? What does Darwin say about the matter ? 


What are the two parts of the work of Darwin's life? How old 
was he when he began his shell collection ? Describe his experience 
in collecting beetles in Cambridge. How old was he when he went 
to South America ? What was his position on the Beagle ? Describe 
the Beagle (see footnote). How long was Darwin away from 
England ? What fossil discoveries did he make in South America ? 
What difference was there between the size of the fossil bones and 
the size of the living creatures which Darwin found in South 
America ? What is the general contrast in size between animals 
now living in South America and those in Africa ? How do we know 
that South American animals were once as large as those now alive 
in Africa ? What does history tell us about the horse in America 
when Columbus arrived ? How do we know that horses were 
among the oldest inhabitants of America ? What is proved by fossil 
remains found in Europe, Asia, and America ? What theory explains 
the fact that animals of the same kind were living during the same 
era in all three continents ; that is, how did they travel from con- 
tinent to continent ? In his study of animals and fossils, for what 
was Darwin constantly searching ? Why did he gather facts so 
persistently ? 


Give the location of the Galapagos Islands. Describe the tortoise 
which Darwin found there. Describe the lizards. Of what kinds 
of animals did he find new species ? Define species (see footnote). 
Where had Darwin seen other creatures of which these reminded 
him ? What question did Darwin ask himself about these new spe- 
cies ? When did the Beagle return to England ? W'hat collections 
did Darwin now have in hand ? By the use of his collections what 
laws did he wish to find ? What were some of the questions which he 
asked himself about both the earlier and the later kinds of animals ? 
In order to get more facts, what birds did he study, comparing them 
with each other ? Describe some of the different kinds of pigeons. 
After studying each kind, what conclusion did Darwin come to? 
What is the common opinion of naturalists about pigeon ancestors ? 
What did every intelligent bird breeder assure him ? How long did 
one breeder say it would take to produce any given feather ? How 


long for head and neck ? What does Darwin say about the work 
of sheep breeders in Saxony ? What does Lord Sommerville say 
about the success of the breeders ? Even before Mendel and Darwin 
lived, what two facts did breeders know about the relation of an- 
cestors to descendants ? When Darwin saw how man gets results 
by controlling ancestors, what did he wish to know about wild ani- 
mals ? What did he ask himself about other laws ? How long 
did Darwin study this problem ? What is the name of the book in 
which he tried to answer it ? When was the book published ? 
Describe the way it was received and the excitement it produced. 
Of those who read the book, who were most inclined to accept 
Darwin's theory ? When did Darwin die ? 


Describe what you yourself have seen in springtime, or else 
give the description in the first paragraph. How many elm seeds 
were there in one small heap ? How many maple seeds in another ? 
How many seeds with their parachutes were counted on one dan- 
delion stalk ? What is the condition of the woods in springtime ? 
What can you say of the fate of fish eggs in every breeding spot ? 
What proportion survive long enough to become fish and to pass 
life on to the next generation ? What does Dr. Thompson say 
about the multiplication of the cod ? So far as the ocean is con- 
cerned, what would be the result ? Give Dr. Thompson's figures 
about the oyster. What is the first law of Darwin's five-linked 
chain ? When there is such prodigality on every side, when all 
must find food or die, what kind of competition follows ? Give 
Darwin's second great law. Even though it looks like a peaceful 
world, give some facts about the struggle for food and for existence 
that goes on constantly. If all eggs were allowed to hatch and if all 
young animals lived to old age, what would the result be ? Mention 
some of the checks to the prodigality of nature. In the struggle 
for existence, which plants and animals have the poorest chance 
to live and become ancestors ? What did Darwin notice about the 
size and strength of different animals in the same species ? What is 
the third law in Darwin's chain ? Show how this law worked when 


rain was withheld in South America. Speak of the birds in snow- 
covered Ohio one winter. Why did some live and others die ? What 
happened in Plymouth, Pennsylvania, in 1885 ? Describe the result 
of the yellow-fever tests in Cuba in 1900. What did Darwin say 
is sure to follow because of the law of variation ? Which creatures 
will survive ? Give the fourth law in the linked chain. Show how 
this law works itself out. What about long legs ? strong claws ? 
keen eyesight ? What about power to go without water and to 
survive famine ? How do we know that those who are best fitted to 
survive are not always the largest, tallest, strongest, etc. ? Give an 
illustration from the huge animals of South America. What about 
the English sparrow ? Which birds best survive a storm ? How can 
you explain the ears of the mole ? Give the final, supreme law of 
Darwin's chain. What did Darwin believe about the ancestors of all 
the wild animals that live to-day ; that is, how did he think they were 
selected ? Apply the five-linked chain to last-year's codfish. Men- 
tion some of the points on which all scientists agree. Which of 
Darwin's statements do scientists accept with one accord ? What 
did Darwin show about creative power ? 


Describe the gill-slits of a fish (see footnote). Why does a fish 
swim with its mouth open ? If it should keep its mouth shut, what 
would result ? How does a fish get its needed supply of oxygen ? 
Why does a fish die when it is drawn from the water ? Why do we 
die when we are held under water ? In which embryos did scientists 
expect to find gill-slits ? In which embryo do they always find gill- 
slits ? What is an embryo ? Mention the different kinds of creatures 
that have gill-slits when they are in the embryo stage. When ani- 
mals are to live out of water after birth, what additional apparatus 
does the embryo have ? Mention the rudiments of different animals. 
What is a rudiment? How did Darwin explain a rudiment? De- 
scribe the sacculina. How long does a sacculina live ? Give Darwin's 
three statements about rudiments. When we find teeth in the 
upper jaw of an embryo calf, what do we know about its ancestors ? 
When we find rudimentary legs under the flesh of a full-grown 


whale, what do we know about its ancestors ? When we find gill- 
slits in the embryo of any animal, what does this prove about its 
ancestors ? Why is a rudiment called an " ancestral reminiscence "? 
Describe the modern whale. What do its rudimentary legs and 
its rudimentary teeth prove ? What do its embryo gill-slits prove ? 
Taken altogether, what do we learn about the history of ancestral 
whale life ? What is structural evidence ? Give Darwin's illustration. 
What is embryological evidence ? Where do we find our geological 
evidence ? What evidence does geography bring ? What evidence 
comes from modern experiments ? Taken altogether, what do the 
five kinds of evidence prove ? 


How did a certain woman try to make sure that her child should 
be musical ? Are children stamped by what the parents are in 
themselves or by what the parents compel themselves to do ? How 
did the friend know that the daughter would be persistent and not 
musical? For how long a time did women in China continue to 
bind the feet of their daughters ? During what part of life were the 
feet kept cramped ? What effect did the binding have on the feet of 
the children of succeeding generations ? What is an acquired char- 
acter? (Fordefinition see footnote.) If a woman crimps her hair, what 
effect will this have on the hair of her children or of her children's 
children ? In what way can curly hair be secured for one's de- 
scendants ? Mention certain characters which may be acquired and 
which are not passed on by inheritance. Describe trees that 
are dwarfed in the gardens of Japan. How did they become so 
dwarfed ? Judging by the appearance of the trees, what would one 
expect their descendants to be ? In point of fact, is the condition 
of being dwarfed passed on by inheritance ? When dogs, sheep, and 
horses have their tails cut off for successive generations, what effect 
does this have on the tails of their descendants ? W 7 hat is a mutation ? 
Speak of the mutation that appeared in a herd of well-horned cattle 
in Paraguay in 1770. Why were the owners pleased with this 
hornless animal ? What kind of descendants did it have ? Why 
were the owners astonished at results ? What does Darwin tell us 


about the origin of short-legged Ancon sheep ? Why are these 
sheep particularly liked by sheep raisers ? Where are they now 
found ? Describe Mr. Poulton's family of cats. Describe the dif- 
ferent members of the family of the six-fingered boy. What is 
meant by polydadylism ? What does brachydactylism mean ? De- 
scribe the case of the short-fingered family shown in the diagram. 
What do all these facts prove about any character which begins as 
a mutation ? What is the difference between an acquired character 
and a mutation ? If this mutation should give its owner any ad- 
vantage in the struggle for existence, what would be the effect on 
succeeding generations ? 


Give a few facts about the Hawaiian Islands (see footnote). 
Describe the different kinds of land shells that were found on these 
islands in 1852 their color, size, etc. How long and how wide is 
the island of Oahu ? What can you say about its mountain range 
and its valleys ? How many species of the same family of shells 
did John Gulick find on Oahu alone ? Just where did the different 
species live ? What can you say about the traveling habits of these 
snails ? What did John Gulick do that made his collection priceless 
afterwards ? What does he say about his interest in the location of 
each shell? What did he discover about the numbers of species 
that were close together ? As he gathered his shells and studied, com- 
pared, and labeled them, what did he notice about those that lived 
closest together? When he had arranged his shells according to 
the exact spot they came from, what further did he notice? What 
was the first question which he asked himself? What was the 
second question ? How long afterwards did Dr. Gulick answer his 
own questions ? How was it that nature acted like a careful breeder 
on Oahu ? Give the first step in this process ; the second step ; the 
third step ; the fourth step. Just why did. each new group of 
descendants become slightly different from its own immediate 
ancestors ? To make this plain, give the case of seven birds with 
beaks of different length. How is the average found (see footnote) ? 
What can be said about this law of average in connection with snails ? 


Give two reasons why there was such an extraordinary number 
of species of snails on Hawaii. When colony after colony had 
been started in this way, what should we expect to find in regard 
to their descendants ? What does Dr. Gulick call any separation 
which prevents one colony from mating with another colony ? 
What is geographic isolation ? What is food isolation ? What does 
genuine isolation of this sort result in? What sets of living crea- 
tures are controlled by the law of isolation ? 


In Kansas what special event marked the year 1862 ? What 
did one afflicted man write about his experience with potato bugs ? 
Where did the ancestors of these beetles come from ? When and 
where did they get their first taste of potatoes ? What years are 
covered by Dr. Tower's history of the dispersal of Leptinotarsa 
decemlineata ? What does this record show ? What road did the 
beetles take in traveling from Illinois to Boston ? Give the records 
for 1864, 1865, 1868, 1871, 1874, 1875, and 1876. How fast did 
the beetles travel ? How long did it take them to make the journey ? 
Why were the European nations anxious ? What weapon did Europe 
use to save herself ? What was done in Germany and in France ? 
Describe what happened in 1876. In this journey what did the 
beetles prove about their own environment ? What one thing did 
they require ? How much time do most potato bugs spend under- 
ground ? What happens to them in the spring ? Why does the farmer 
feel discouraged ? What does he do ? Compare the snails of Hawaii 
with the potato bugs of America : first, the number of species ; 
second, the kinds of food ; third, the methods of travel ; fourth, 
the region covered by a single species of snails on Hawaii and by 
a single species of potato bugs in America. Put together in this 
way, what do these facts show ? Tell what conditions would have 
been necessary in order to make many species instead of one 
species out of the potato bugs of America. 



How fast do Leptinotarsa decemlineata multiply ? When does 
the egg-laying time come ? Describe the process. How many eggs 
are laid in close succession ? What is the entire number laid by one 
beetle ? Why do the eggs have to be laid in separate sets ? How 
many days are there between the laying of two successive sets ? 
When do the larvae begin to eat green things ? How many days are 
required to turn a newly hatched larva into a full-grown beetle ready 
to lay eggs of its own ? Where did Dr. Tower carry on his experi- 
ments ? What did he already know about the starting point of every 
kind of beetle ? What did he propose to find out about germ 
cells ? In studying the matter of color, how many beetles did 
Dr. Tower secure ? Where did they come from ? When they 
reached Chicago, where did he put them ? What about the tem- 
perature of each breeding place ? During what years did Dr. Tower 
carry on his investigations ? After eleven years what had he found 
out about the effect of heat and of cold on the color of the spots 
and stripes of the beetles ? What did these experiments prove ? 
What calamity overtook the beetles ? Before they had been killed 
by the heat, what other experiments did Dr. Tower carry on ? 
What did he suspect about germ cells being influenced by their 
environment ? How many pairs of beetles did he choose in 1902 ? 
What did he do with them ? How many eggs did they lay ? What 
did he call this set ? What did he do with those six beetles and all 
their eggs after that? How many additional eggs did these same 
beetles lay ? What was this set called ? What happened to many 
of the eggs and many of the larvae of both Lot A and Lot B ? 
How many full-grown beetles were produced by lots A and B? 
(See footnote.) What was the scientific name of the parents of 
these beetles ? Where had they been brought from in the first 
place ? When beetles of this species are frightened, what do they do? 
When another pecies, called Leptinotarsa melanothorax, is frightened, 
what does it do ? What was it that surprised Dr. Tower about this 
lot of beetles ? What had the damp-heat environment done to them 
even before they had been laid as eggs ? From the scientific point 
of view, what was the most notable part of Dr. Tower's work ? 



How many unfertilized frogs' eggs did Professor Bataillon use for 
the experiment described ? What did he do with them ? How soon 
did results begin to appear ? How many of the eggs developed in 
normal fashion ? How many of them finally turned themselves into 
tadpoles ? Of these, how many lived to become real frogs ? Describe 
the oldest of the three. How many cells has the amoeba ? How 
does it multiply ? What can you say about the number of cells in 
all complex animals ? Mention a few of the different kinds of cells 
and the kinds of work they do. Which cells are able to pass life 
along from one generation to the next ? How much alike do the 
germ cells of different kinds of animals look ? Mention some of the 
characters that are stored up for use and packed into their own 
particular germ cell. What is the great difference between germ 
cells and all other cells of the body ? How much do they do for 
the welfare of the body to which they belong? What is the sole 
purpose of their existence ? What happens to both the amoeba and 
the germ cell if they become dry ? Why is it easy to keep fish cells 
from drying up ? What does a mass of fish eggs look like ? For 
the benefit of the next generation, how long must germ cells stay in 
damp surroundings ? In this respect what special advantage have 
fish and frogs ? What is nature's arrangement for keeping embryo 
birds and reptiles moist while they develop ? What two things 
is the albumen of the egg good for? What two things does the 
shell do ? Why are not all animals (ourselves included) supplied 
with eggshells, then hatched out when the time comes ? 


During what period of their lives did Dr. Minot study develop- 
ing chicks ? How did he do this ? At the end of the first day what 
change did he find ? at the end of the second day ? the third day ? 
the fourth day ? the fifth day ? What was the condition of the 
chick after ten days of growing? From start to finish, in what 
does the whole process of growth consist? Mention the figures 
that follow each other after the first combined germ cell begins to 


divide. What can you say about the resemblance of different em- 
bryos in their earliest stages ? As it grows, how does an animal in 
its eggshell get nourishment ? When does an expanding chick 
make its way out of its shell ? How long is it from the time when 
a hen begins' to sit on her eggs to the time when the chick is hatched ? 
When is an animal said to be oviparous ? When an animal is born 
alive, what is it called ? Before birth what supplies nourishment to 
the developing oviparous animal ? Describe the difference between 
the chick and the rabbit after birth. Mention the time it takes for 
various animals to develop. \Vhen do cells multiply fastest, before 
or after birth ? What have surroundings to do with the welfare of 
young and growing creatures ? What was it that made the differ- 
ence in the size of the four young tadpoles ? How much does a 
normal seven-pound baby gain during the first year of his life ? How 
much does he gain during the second year ? After that, how much 
until he is fourteen years old ? What two things can a baby do from 
the start ? What about the use of all five senses ? Give a brief sketch 
of the progress of the baby from stage to stage. What does Dr. 
Minot call the first period of a baby's development ? What has 
happened during this period ? What does a baby do during its 
second period ? Give what you can of Dr. Minot's description of 
an eight-months-old baby. When is a baby usually able to walk ? 
What does Dr. Minot say about the importance of the health of 
the mothers ? 


How many eggs were in the incubator ? Describe the appear- 
ance of the chicks when they were hatched. Altogether, how many 
chicks came from the eggs ? What happened to the rest of them ? 
How many chicks died within four days after the hatching ? When 
investigators looked for an explanation of all this, what did they 
find ? What conclusion did they come to about the effect of alcohol 
on chicks in their shells ? What was Dr. Forel's own conclusion ? 
Describe the two sets of tests carried on by Dr. Fere between the 
years 1894 and 1903. How often was the same experiment re- 
peated ? What did the tests always show about the minds of the 
chicks ? What seemed to be the matter with those that had endured 


the vapor of the alcohol ? How did Dr. Stockard first give alcohol 
to his guinea pigs ? What was his second attempt ? Why did he 
stop giving it to them through a tube ? Describe his copper tank. 
What does Dr. Stockard say about the guinea pigs in the copper 
tanks ? How long did they usually stay in the tank ?' During the 
rest of the time what kind of air did the guinea pigs breathe ? For 
how many days in a week, and for how many months, was this 
treatment kept up ? What effect did the fumes have on the guinea 
pigs at first ? In the course of a few weeks how did they behave ? 
So far as the next generation was concerned, what were the four 
kinds of tests ? When neither of the parents was treated with alco- 
hol, how many of their children lived? When both parents were 
treated with alcohol, what was the fate of all their children ? How 
many families did Dr. Gordon study in which both father and 
mother used alcohol ? How many children were there in these 
families ? How many of these were epileptics ? In twenty other 
families where the grandfather as well as both parents used alco- 
hol, what was the condition of the offspring ? How many family 
records did Dr. Demme investigate in Switzerland ? Give the 
record of the children of the ten drinking families. Give the record 
of the ten abstaining families. What was Dr. Bezzola's occupa- 
tion ? When children were brought to the institution, what did he 
often hear about the parents ? What census reports did he study ? 
Why did he look up the birthdays of those 8196 feeble-minded 
persons ? Which did Dr. Bezzola call the alcohol-rich periods in 
Switzerland ? which the alcohol-poor months ? Give the first point 
made by Dr. Bezzola's report ; the second point. How much alco- 
hol may a person take without running the risk of damaging a 
future child ? What does Dr. Bezzola declare about this particular 
matter ? What was his conclusion from the studies he made ? Why 
should we refrain from blaming a feeble-minded person ? 


What three questions did Dr. Gulick ask in 1897 ? Who received 
these questions ? How many answers came back ? What did Dr. 
Gulick do with these answers ? What did the tables show about 


the age when special choices were made ? What report did Dr. 
Gulick study in the Eleventh Census of the United States ? What 
did he do next ? What do the tables show about the average age 
of prisoners ? What is the average duration of sentence of the 
American male prisoner ? What, then, is the average age at which 
he enters prison ? In closing, what does Dr. Gulick say about the 
age at which individuals take to criminal life ? Which period of 
human life is most full of fateful import ? 'When the era opens, what 
is the condition of the individual ? When it ends, what has the 
child become ? What kind of reading and study do 'boys most enjoy 
between the ages of fourteen and twenty ? \Vhy do many boys begin 
to smoke during this era ? During which years does a girl grow more 
attractive more womanly and gracious ? What is the period of 
special instability ? Why is it called the storm-and-stress period ? 
What should receive special attention during the adolescent years ? 
During what years is a man deciding his destiny ? While he de- 
cides his own fate and forms his own habits, what is he doing for 
his descendants ? 


How many boys helped Dr. McKeever in his experiments ? 
What were their ages ? Why did Dr. McKeever need the help of 
these particular boys ? What was he trying to decide about the use 
of tobacco ? What machine did he use ? What records does the 
sphygmograph keep ? Where is it fastened to the body ? On what 
does its needle make a record ? When were the records taken ? 
What did they explain ? Give the first statement ; the second state- 
ment. What does the first diagram show ? the second diagram ? 
Compare these, line by line, with the third diagram. What does the 
heartbeat indicate about the changing feelings of the boy ? What 
parts of the body are benefited when the heart makes its best record ? 
Why are they benefited ? What was done with the sphygmograph 
while the different records were being taken on the same boy ? 
How long did this unusual vigor last ? Then what happened ? What 
. is the objection to slow-moving blood and a low heart record ? 
What parts of the body suffer? How long will the slow-pumping 
heart stay in charge of the slow-moving blood of the smoker ? What 


will happen when he takes his next cigarette ? How many ciga- 
rettes does the habitual smoker sometimes use a day ? What can 
you say about the double character of tobacco ? Describe the case 
of Dr. Kellogg's frogs. How much nicotine does it take to kill a 
frog ? What was the fate of Homer Leslie ? What is the one most 
injurious thing in tobacco ? Describe what takes place when a man 
sets fire to his cigarette and smokes it. At what point do the nico- 
tine and the smoke part company ? What becomes of the smoke ? 
Follow the journey of the nicotine. What occurs as soon as the 
nicotine in the blood stream reaches the heart ? When Dr. Seaver 
studied the records of smokers and nonsmokers among the students 
at Yale, what did he learn about them ? Give Dr. Meylan's con- 
clusions. When ignorant people protest against these conclusions, 
what are the two horns of the dilemma which they have to choose 
between ? Why does this chapter say so little about grown men who 
smoke ? When does the smoking habit do a person most harm, 
before or after he is twenty-five years old ? Tell what you can of 
Mr. Depew's story of his own smoking habit and how he broke it. 
In what way does the smoking habit of one generation harm the 
next generation ? In what particular ways are sons apt to become 
like their fathers ? What connection is there between the tobacco 
habit and the alcohol habit ? 


Describe the case of the boy from India. What kind of help did 
the doctor say he must have during the operation ? How was the 
blood sent across from the student to the small boy ? How much 
blood did Charlie receive? What was the result? What does Sir 
Frederick Treves say about operating on drinkers ? Describe the 
drinker mentioned in this chapter, or any other case which you your- 
self have seen. Describe the diagram. What is the order in which 
brain cells develop in the human embryo ? Which cells are developed 
first ? which last ? which part of the brain does alcohol damage 
first ? which part last ? Describe the bottle that found its way into 
the schoolroom. What was in the bottle ? Why was it in the 
schoolroom ? On what does the success of the saloon business de- 
pend ? In whom must the appetite for drink be created ? Mention 


ways in which this kind of " missionary work " is done. What ad- 
vantage is there in giving free treats to boys ? If boys cannot be 
secured as drinkers, what will happen to the liquor business of the 
world ? Where did Dr. Lambert go for his facts about all this ? 
What made him decide to find out how old people generally are 
before they begin to drink ? How many persons answered his 
questions ? How many of the two hundred and fifty-nine persons 
began to use alcohol before the age of four? between the ages 
of six and twelve ? between twelve and sixteen ? between sixteen 
and twenty-one ? between twenty-one and thirty ? After thirty how 
many were there ? What per cent of those who have the alcohol 
habit began to drink before they were twenty -one years old ? If a boy 
is free from the habit until he is twenty-one, what are his chances ? 


Point out the vital difference between man and the huge animals 
of former times. How did the brain of the largest animals compare 
in size with the brain of the smallest man that lives to-day ? Ex- 
plain the size of man's brain by the five-linked chain of evolution. 
While the brain developed, what other useful part of man was also 
developing ? In what ways did man now begin to help himself and 
his descendants ? In order to understand man in his early condition, 
what part of modern civilization must we sweep away ? Describe the 
conditions in which our earliest human ancestors lived. Mention 
one or two of the greatest early inventions. How is man supposed 
to have made his first fire ? How important to the race was this 
discovery ? What constituted the beginnings of architecture ? What 
faculties of the mind did early man press into service ? What was 
the beginning of our higher mathematics ? In all this what did each 
generation gain from the generation that went before ? What do 
we mean by " social inheritance " ? In addition to his physical in- 
heritance and his social inheritance, in addition to his inventions and 
his discoveries, what did the spiritual part of man do for him ? So 
far as his past and his future are concerned, in what way is man 
superior to all other living creatures ? What is it that gives man 
conscious power as he walks the earth ? What does he know about 


the power of his own will ? What is man willing to do for his fellow 
men ? What is man's crown of evolution ? What advantage is it 
to man to have a normal, well-trained brain ? In what way may a 
man's brain be a disadvantage to him ? How does it happen that 
man is able to do himself more harm than can be done to itself 
by any other creature ? Speak of the changes that have come 
about since men were scattered savages fighting each other. As 
groups grew larger, what notion also grew stronger ? Who are the 
members of a family ? 


Why must such a book as this take the laws of family health into 
account ? Why are people who live together in more danger from 
certain diseases than are those who live apart ? Mention a few of the 
diseases that threaten those, who live closest together. Of what are 
towns and cities made up? On what does the future of every 
nation depend ? What is an important motto of modern life ? 
For the sake of this generation and the next, what two sets of 
laws must one know about ? In former times what was a nation's 
watchword ? What is the modern command ? Why is the modern 
form of patriotism the nobler kind ? How does a man prove that 
he is worthy of the crown which evolution has placed upon him ? 


In what periodical was the account of the epidemic described 
by Dr. Schamberg ? What happened on March 4, 1911? What 
blemish did one of the young men have ? If an intelligent doctor 
had seen the sore, what would he have said about it ? What occurred 
on March 25? How large did the sore become? When did the 
second girl discover her two sores ? Where were they located ? 
How many cases of the same kind followed each other through 
the months of March and April ? In each case what was the cause 
of the sore ? What lesson did Dr. Schamberg say this epidemic 
should teach ? Why was this special kind of sore worse than any 
other ? What did it prove about the condition of the entire body ? 
Under what conditions do the microbes of this sore go from person 


to person ? When a cracked mucous membrane comes in contact 
with one of the sores, what happens at once ? What is the condition 
of things after twelve hours ? How long after the contact will the 
first sign of sore show itself ? Why is this sore called the " mark of 
the devil " ? As microbes multiply in the new place, what do they 
manufacture? What becomes of this poison? What does Dr. Forel 
say about the progress of this disease ? How long may the disease 
stay latent in the body ? Where may it appear later ? What does 
it cause ? What does Dr. Morrow say about this disease ? What 
does Dr. Osier say ? Where may mucous patches of the disease 
appear ? Why is there so much agitation nowadays against the use 
of the public drinking cup ? What is now used instead ? In 
watching those who use a public drinking cup, what have you 
seen ? If a public drinking cup must be used, what is the one 
safe way to drink from it ? Mention some of the laws of protection. 
Of all the diseases which come to man, why is this the worst ? 


Describe the case of the doctor on the night boat going from 
Boston to New York. What did the man know about the cause 
of his calamity ? Describe Dr. Howard's case of the mother and 
the daughter who lost their eyesight. If the woman had known the 
facts, by what simple means might she have handled the sheets 
and the towels and yet have prevented the microbes from entering 
her eyes ? About how many totally blind persons are there in the 
United States ? About how many partially blind'persons ? About how 
many of them all have been made blind through the gonococcus 
microbes ? When did these microbes enter their eyes and cause 
blindness ? What does Dr. Neisser say about the conditions of this 
blindness in Germany ? How true is the expression " blind from 
birth " ? In almost all cases, what is the condition of eyes at birth ? 
When does the blindness come ? If the right medicine were used 
at once, what would be the result ? What three things does every 
state commission for the blind propose to do ? In treating the eyes 
of a newborn baby, what should be done first ? Why is a separate 
cloth used for each eye ? How is the medicine put into the eye ? 


What is the medicine and how much of it is used ? Why should 
everything be perfectly clean that touches the baby's eyes ? Why 
should the dropper be used for no other purpose ? (Lest microbes 
from a diseased eye get to the dropper and be passed on to some 
other person.) Mention some symptom which shows that the 
eyes of the baby are needing the care of a doctor. Why 
should the doctor be called at once ? What does this particular 
medicine do to any gonococcus microbes that may be in the eye ? 
If the eyes are free from these microbes, what objection is there to 
using the medicine ? Why should the medicine be used only by 
the doctor's order? What progress is being made in the care of 
the eyes of babies ? When these microbes reach the tender tissues 
of the eye, what do they do as they multiply ? What impression 
do these microbes make on the thick skin of the body ? Do they 
travel about in the blood stream of the body ? When and where 
do they exercise their one power to do harm ? How fast do they 
destroy any delicate, moist membrane ? From the starting point 
where do they go ? What does the doctor say as they travel from 
membrane to membrane ? What do the advancing hosts of microbes 
do to the tissues ? Name some of the organs of the body that are 
inflamed and scarred by these microbes. What reason has Dr. 
Morehead to speak of the " snakiness " of the disease ? What two 
questions did students in the University of Pennsylvania ask Dr. 
Wilson ? What was his answer ? One after the other, mention all 
the rules of prevention you can think of. After each rule give the 
reason for it. 


When did Dr. Jordan visit Aosta ? In your own words describe 
what he found in Aosta in 1881. Where is cretinism found ? Which 
gland is diseased in every cretin ? By what laws is cretinism passed 
on from ancestor to descendant ? Why was Dr. Jordan surprised 
when he visited Aosta in 1910? What had Aosta done with its 
cretins about twenty years before ? So far as the next generation 
was concerned, what was the result of putting the cretins into asy- 
lums and keeping them separate ? What does Dr. Jordan say about 
his search for cretins and his failure to find them ? In closing his 


description what final fact does Dr. Jordan bring out ? What did 
he say was the only way to get rid of a next generation of cretins ? 
Describe the young man at the piano, whom Dr. Hurty watched. 
From what kind of insanity did the superintendent say he suffered ? 
Repeat the question which Dr. Hurty asked about the young 
man. What did the superintendent answer? How many feeble- 
minded persons are there in the United States alone ? What are 
the three terms which are applied to feeble-minded persons ? Are 
there clearly marked distinctions between different kinds of feeble- 
minded persons or do they grade into each other ? How old are 
some patients in the Vineland institution ? What is the condition of 
their bodies ? What is the condition of their minds ? Tejl a little 
of what is done for these mentally weak children. Years ago, when 
scientists looked into the stupid faces of feeble-minded persons, what 
question did they naturally ask themselves ? When they looked up 
family records, what kind of ancestors did they find in each family ? 
How far back does the history of the Kallikak family go ? Why 
is the real name of the family not given to the public ? Who 
was the first Kallikak described ? In what war was he a sol- 
dier ? What sort of woman, mentally, was the mother of his 
first son ? What was the mental condition of that son ? When this 
boy had grown to manhood, what kind of descendants did he 
himself have ? Up to the present time how many descendants has 
he had ? Of these how many have been normal, healthy people ? 
How many have been or are now feeble-minded? Describe the 
woman whom the first Kallikak married after the war of the Revolu- 
tion was over. What is the total number of their descendants ? Men- 
tion some of the noble characteristics of these descendants. How 
many of them have been feeble-minded ? In view of the double 
record of the descendants of the same man and the two different 
women, what do we learn about feeble-mindedness and inheritance ? 
Give the laws that govern the inheritance of feeble-mindedness. 
How careful are the Vineland people to keep their feeble-minded 
men and women separated from each other ? When a feeble- 
minded person has received some training, why is it unwise to send 
him out into the world to shift for himself ? If the Vineland plan 
were carried out all over the world, what would be the result ? 



Why were children working in the cotton mills of England one 
hundred years ago ? What were the ages of the children ? When 
were they supposed to do their studying ? Give facts about the 
pauper children who became workers at the mills. How long at a 
stretch did they work ? What wages did they receive ? What does 
Robert Blincoe say about his own experiences ? How were children 
prevented from running away from the mills ? What did earnest 
men and woman finally say about saving the children ? What 
occurred in 1799 and 1800 to help the new movement along? 
Where did the epidemic spread ? Who suffered most ? What did 
doctors say was the cause of the high death rate of the children ? 
In response to the agitation, what did the British government do ? 
What effect did the law have on conditions of life for children ? 
What does Mr. Claxton say about the condition of certain child 
workers in 1912 ? Give in your own words what Mrs. Kelley de- 
scribes. What does Mr. Potter say he has seen ? Mention some 
of the things which overworked children are known to make in 
crowded city tenements. What does Miss Goldmark say about the 
change in appearance 'of overworked people ? What does Dr. Ellis 
say about the physical condition of overworked London weavers ? 
What did a military examining physician find in Germany in 1891 ? 
What is the general belief about overwork which all nations are 
beginning to act upon ? 


When was machinery invented ? Why did it look as if great 
prosperity were at hand ? Why did men, women, and children move 
into town ? In what kind of surroundings did they often live ? 
Describe the condition of Bethnal Green as given in 1848. How 
many miles of dwellings did the town have ? Who were the city 
scavengers ? How long did it take the men to go over the ground 
once ? Why were the inhabitants of Bethnal Green attacked by dis- 
ease microbes ? What did people know about disease microbes in 
those days ? When knowledge began to take the place of ignorance, 
what did cities themselves begin to do ? What was the first great 


step towards race improvement ? In these days what are some 
cities doing in order to be clean ? What is your own city doing in 
the line of keeping clean ? When race-improvement people saw 
that cleanliness would not do everything, what did they also see 
was being done by factory managers and others ? What was their 
conclusion about the need of laws to help the oppressed ? What, 
then, was the second step taken in the direction of race improvement? 
Since protection by law is part of the new order, tell what some of 
these laws do to protect people. In addition to cleanliness and 
protection by law, what did people say must also be done in the 
matter of right surroundings for children? What, then, was the 
third step in race improvement called ? In 191 1 what did the United 
States government do to help the children ? What does the Chil- 
dren's Bureau propose to do ? What have thoughtful people been 
noticing about the effect of environment on children ? In Man- 
chester, England, over seventy years ago, how many children out 
of every thousand died under five years of age ? What helped them 
to die so young ? What does Dr. Ashby say about the effect of 
measles on healthy children of well-to-do people ; that is, did many 
or few of their children die of measles? What about the result 
when children in the workhouses and such places had measles ? 
Mention some of the diseases given in the table in which poverty 
had much to do with the death rate. To what fact do the figures 
of the table draw our attention ? Describe the difference between 
the condition of the milk supply in Rochester in 1892 and that in 
1904. What improvement in the death rate was there in 1904? 
What was the explanation of the changed death rate ? 


How large an army of defective persons was Ohio supporting 
in 1910? Mention some of the kinds of defects included in the 
number. How does the condition in Ohio compare with that to be 
found elsewhere in the world ? How do we prove that we are kind 
to the present generation ? How do we know that we are unkind 
to the next generation ? In view of this condition, what con- 
clusion has been reached by those who love their fellow men ? 


What, then, is the fourth great step in the race-improvement series ? 
In past ages how much thought did people give to the welfare of 
their descendants ? By what laws did those who were least fitted 
to survive die in their childhood ? What effect did this have on the 
number of healthy and efficient people in each generation ? Describe 
the change in living conditions which took place after many ages. 
What effect did inferior ancestors have on whole villages of descend- 
ants ? Why were disease microbes now able to make havoc among 
these descendants ? In those days how much did people know 
about prevention and the cause of the havoc ? What great dis- 
covery did Pasteur make in 1865 ? What was he studying when 
he came upon disease microbes in the silkworm ? Since his time 
what have other men discovered in the same direction ? What, then, 
is it that has brought us to the parting of the ways ? When we 
glance over past records, what do we learn about the numbers of 
defectives in former times and their numbers now ? Describe how 
it is that through our kindness we have been helping on the mis- 
fortunes of the race. What have the fit been doing for the unfit ? 
Was it right for us to lengthen the lives of our degenerates and 
maintain them in comfort ? What was it that we should not have 
done ? To a large extent, whose descendants are now multiplied in 
our asylums, our prisons, and our hospitals ? To whom must the 
new road which humanity travels be dedicated ? What does com- 
mon sense tell us will be the result if we protect children before 
they are born ? If we should do this, what would be the result in 
the future ? What does race regeneration really mean ? How can 
race regeneration come ? What does race regeneration command 
each generation to do for the next generation ? What is the noblest 
gift which one generation may offer to another ? From whom has 
each of us received his standards of life ? 


BATESON, W. Mendel's Principles of Heredity. 1913. 

BEZZOLA, Dr. D. Statistische Untersuchungen iiber die Rolle des Alcohols 

bei der Entstehung des originaren Schwachsinns. 1902. 
BUNGE, G. Alcoholic Poisoning and Degeneration. Journal of Inebriety. 


CASTLE, W. E. Heredity in Relation to Evolution and Animal Breeding. 

191 1. 
CASTLE, W. E. Heredity of Coat-Characters in Guinea-Pigs and Rabbits. 


CONN, W. H. The Method of Evolution. 1900. 
DARWIN, C. The Origin of Species. 1864. 

DARWIN, C. Naturalist's Voyage round the World. Third edition, 1860. 
DARWIN, FRANCIS. Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. 1887. 
DAVENPORT, C. B. Eugenics. 1910. 

DAVENPORT, C. B. Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. 1911. 
DOCK, L. L. Hygiene and Morality. 1910. 
ELLIS, HAVELOCK. The Problem of Race-Regeneration. 1911. 
FISHER, IRVING. National Vitality. 1908. 
GALTON, F., and SCHUSTER, E. Noteworthy Families. 1906. 
GODDARD, H. H. Heredity of Feeble-mindedness. 1911. 
GODDARD, H. H. Elimination of Feeble-mindedness. 1911. 
GODDARD, H. H. The Menace of the Feeble-minded. 1911. 
GODDARD, H. H. The Kallikak Family. 1912. 
GOLDMARK, JOSEPHINE. Fatigue and Efficiency. 1912. 
GULICK, J. T. Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal. 1905. 
HALL, G. S. Adolescence. 1905. 
HARWOOD, W. S. New Creations in Plant Life. 1906. 
HORSLEY, SIR VICTOR, and STURGE, MARY D. Alcohol and the Human 

Body. 1908. 

HOWARD, W. L. Plain Facts on Sex Hygiene. 1910. 
JORDAN, DAVID STARR. The Heredity of Richard Roe. 1911. 
KELLICOTT, W. B. The Social Direction of Human Evolution. 1911. 



METCHNIKOFF, LIE. The Nature of Man. 1903. 

MORROW, PRINCE A. Social Diseases and Marriage. 1904. 

PEARSON, KARL. Nature and Nurture. 1910. 

STOCKARD, C. R. An Experimental Study of Racial Degeneration in 

Mammals treated with Alcohol. Article in Archives of Internal Medicine. 

October, 1912. 

THOMSON, J. A. Darwinism and Human Life. 1911. 
THOMSON, J. A. Heredity. 1908. 

TOWER, W. L. Evolution in Chrysomelid Beetles. 1908. 
TREASURY OF HUMAN INHERITANCE. Publications of the Francis Gallon 

Laboratory for National Eugenics, 1909-1912. 
TYLOR, E. B. Primitive Culture. 1874. 


Key to pronunciation : fate, senate, fat, arm, ask ; mete, event, met, her ; 
ice, it ; old, obey, not ; unite, up ; obscure sounds : a, u. 

Acquired characters, definition of, 
73, n. ; illustrations of, 73, 74, 75; 
contrasted with mutations, 80 

Adolescent era, 129-135 

Alcohol, effect of, on chicks, 118, 
119; effect of, on guinea pigs, 1 19 ; 
effect of, on descendants, 122- 
125; relation of, to feeble-minded- 
ness, 122, 125, 186; as a bever- 
age, 145-1 52 ; effect of, in surgery, 
146; effect of, on brain cells, 

Amaryllis, new variety of, 29 

American Museum of Natural 
History, horse bones shown in 

Amoeba (a me'ba), multiplication of, 

101, 103 

Ancestral reminiscence, 68 
Andalusian fowls,. 7-11; results of 

mating, 9 ; color inheritance of, 

Angleworms studied by Darwin, 

43. 44 
Annapolis, entrance examinations 

for, showing weak heart, 141 
Aosta, the cretins of, 181, 182 
Arizona, horse bones found in, 38 
Ashby, Dr., 199 
Austria, 27 

Babies, growth of, described by Dr. 

Minot, 115; health of, 117; eye 

treatment of, 177 
Bataillon, Professor, 100 
Beagle, 45, 46, 48, 51 
Beetles, effect of damp heat upon, 


Bern, families studied in, 122 
Bering's Strait, 48 
BethnalGreen,condition of, in 1848, 

196, 197 

Bezzola, Dr., 122, 123, 125 
Biffen, Professor R. H., 27 
Birds, survival of, in winter, 60 ; 

beaks of, in illustration, 85, 86 
Blincoe, Robert, 190 
Blindness, case of, in hotel, 174; 

cause of, 174, 175; prevention 

of, 177, 180 

Blood, transfusion of, 145, 146 
Boll weevil, harm done by, 29 
Boston reached by potato bugs, 90 
Brachydactylism (brak T dak'ti lizm), 

definition of, 77 ; studied through 

five generations, 79 
Brain, effect of alcohol on, 146-148 ; 

inhibition centers of, 147; order 

of development of, 147 ; advantage 

and disadvantage of, 160; the 

crown of evolution, 160 
Brontosaurus, i 54 
Briinn, 20 
Burbank, Luther, 28, 30, 31 

Cactus, with thorns and without, 

3 1 
Canada invaded by the potato bug, 

Canneries, children at work in, 

Castle, Professor W. E., 12, 13, 14, 

1 6, 17 

Cats, short-tailed, 75 
Chappie, Dr., 147 
Characters defined, 12 



Chicks, study of, by Dr. Minot, no, 
in; comparison of, with rabbits, 
114; influence of alcohol upon, 
1 1 8, 119 

Children, description of overworked, 
189-195; effect of overworked, 
on community, 195 ; protection 
of, before birth, 202-204 

Civilization, modern and ancient 
contrasted, 156 

Claxton, Mr., 192 

Cleanliness, modern movement to- 
ward, 197 

Coal mine, boys at work in, 192 

Codfish, illustrating prodigality of 
nature, 57 ; in illustration of the 
five-linked chain, 63 

Columbus, 47 

Commissions for the blind, work 
of, 176, 177 

Conversion, age of, 127 

Corn, fields of, compared, 27, 28 

Correns, 25 

Cotton mills, work of children in, 189 

Crab, 68 

Cretins (kre'tinz), description of, by 
Dr. Jordan, 181, 182 

Cuba, yellow fever in, 60 

Dandelion seeds, 56, 57 
Daniels, Secretary, 151 
Darwin, Charles, 42, 43, 47, 48, 49, 

5'. 5 2 . 53- 55.62, 63, 65, 67 
Demm, Dr., 122 
Depew, Senator, 143 
De Vries, Professor, 25 
Dock, Miss Lavinia, 168 
Dogfish showing gill-slits, 64 
Dominant defined, 1 5 
Drinking cup, public, why discarded, 


Edwards, Jonathan, 2, 3 

Eggs, of fish, 105-107 ; of birds, 107 ; 
importance of, 108, 109; subjected 
to alcoholic fumes, 118, 119 

Ellis, Dr., 134, 185, 199 

Elm tree seeds, 56, 57 

Embryo, definition of, 65 ; gill-slits 
in, 65 ; resemblances of different 
ones in early stages, 112; develop- 
ment of, 113 

Environment, adaptation of potato 
bugs to, 92-94 ; effect of, in 
producing species, 95-99 ; for 
children, 199; milk as part of, 
200 ; effect of, on descendants, 

Evolution, of the horse, 34-42 ; 
shown on hind foot of the horse, 
37 ; evidences of, 64-70 ; crown 
of, 153, 160 

Family, as unit of society, 161 ; po- 
sition of, in civilization, 1 62 ; health 
of, 162, 164 

Feeble-mindedness, 181 ; numbers 
suffering from, 183 ; inheritability 
of, 185, 188; prevention of, 188 

Feet, as bound in China, 73, 74 

Fire, making of first, 1 57 

Fish, method of their multiplication, 
105, 106 

Forel, Dr., 118, 119, 168 

Fossil bones, definition of, 34 ; reve- 
lations made by, 40 ; in South 
America, 45, 47 

Frogs, eggs of, under treatment, 
100; metamorphosis of, 102; ef- 
fect of nicotine on, 140 

Galapagos Islands, 48, 49, 51 

Games, kissing, 165 

Gamete (gam'et), 103, 106 

Geologist, study of bones by, 39 

Germ cells, influence of environ- 
ment on, 96, 97 ; union of, 101 ; 
purpose of, 103, 104 ; similarities 
of, 104; life conditions of, 107, 
1 08; multiplication of, in, 112; 
damaged by alcohol, 118-125 

Germ plasm, significance of, 105 

Gill-slits shown in dogfish, 64 

Goddard, Dr. H. H., 186 

Goiter (goi'ter), 181, 182 

Goldmark, Miss, 194 

Gonococcus (gon 6 kok'us), 174 

Gordon, Dr., 121 

Guinea pigs, why used, 12; color 
of, 13; length of hair, 14; albino 
defined, 14; color inheritance in, 
15, 16; combined inheritance in, 
17, 18; effect of alcohol upon, 



Gulick, Dr. J.T., 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87 
Gulick, Dr. L. H., 126, 127, 128 

Hapsburg jaw, 159 

Hawaiian Islands, description of, 

81, n. 

Heinzendorf, 20 
Heredity, Darwin's law of, 62 
Hereford cattle, 32 
Holstein cattle, 33 
Horse, the evolution of, 34-42 ; 

ancient and modern compared, 41 
Howard, Dr., 173, 174 
Hurty, Dr., 182, 183 
Hybrid (hi'brid), definition of, 8 
Hyracotherium (hi ra ko the'ri um), 


Imprisonment, age of, 130 

Inheritance, study of, withneighbors, 
2 ; study of, through descendants 
of Jonathan Edwards, 3 ; study of, 
through the Jukes family, 4 ; in 
Andalusian fowls, 7-1 1 ; in guinea 
pigs, 12-19; m garden peas, 20- 
25 ; laws of, put to use, 26; studied 
through rudiments, 65-70 ; social, 
143, 158; relation of, to feeble- 
mindedness, 184-188 ; relation of, 
to race regeneration, 201-204 

Isolation, as a factor in evolution, 
81-87 ; different kinds of, sum- 
marized, 87 

Japan, dwarfed trees in, 74, 75 
Jersey cow, 32, 33 
Jordan, Dr. David Starr, 68 
Journal of the American Medical 

Association, 165 
Jukes, the family of, 4 ; expense of, 

to New York State, 6 

Kallikak family, history of, 186-187 
Kansas, invasion of, by the potato 

bug, 88 

Kelley, Mrs. Florence, 192 
Kellogg, Dr., 140 
Koko Head, 83 
Kukui (koo koo'e) tree, 82 

Lambert, Dr. Alexander, 190 
Language, beginnings of, 1 56 

Loeb, Professor, 100, 101 

Leptinotarsa (lep'ti no tar'sa) decem- 
lineata (de sem lin e a'ta), environ- 
ment for, 88, 94 ; time of, spent 
underground, 93 

Leptinotarsa melanothorax (mel a no- 
tho'rax), as it feigns death, 98, 99 

Leptinotarsa multitcenita (mul ti te'- 
n! ta), as it feigns death, 98, 99 

Lungfish, description of, 71 

McKeever, Dr., 136, 137 

Manchester, epidemic in, 191 

Maple seeds, abundance of, 56, 57 

Matthew, Dr., 36, 38, 40 

Mendel, Gregor Johann, 20, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 54; laws of, stated, 24 

Mendelism, 24 

Meylan, Dr., 142 

Microbes, and kissing, 165, 166; and 
blindness, 173, 174, 176; of gono- 
coccus, methods of travel of, 178 ; 
of disease, discovery of, 202 

Minot, Dr., no, 115, 116, 117 

Mississippi River crossed by the 
potato bug, 90 

Morehead, Dr., 179 

Morrow, Dr., 168, 172 

Mutations, definition of, 75; as 
studied by Hugo de Vries, 78 ; 
as contrasted with acquired char- 
acters, 80 ; varieties of, 99 

National Association of British and 

Irish Millers, 26, 27 
Nebraska, horse bones found in, 38 
Neisser, Dr., 174 
Nicotine, and adolescence, 136, 144 ; 

course taken by, to reach heart, 

North America, 48 

Oahu, island of, 81, 82, 93 

Ohio, effect of winter in, on birds, 60 

Omaha, potato bug starts eastward 

from, 89, 91, 92 

Oregon, horse bones found in, 38 
" Origin of Species," publication of, 


Osborn, H. F., 39 
Osier, Dr., 168 
Oviparous (6 vip'a rus), 115 



Oxygen, how secured by fish and 

by land animals, 64, 65 
Oysters, illustrating prodigality of 

nature, 58 

Paleontologist (pa le on tol'o jist), 
work of, 40 

Paraguay, 75 

Pasteur, Louis, 202 

Patriotism, modern type of, 164 

Peas, color inheritance in, 21 ; domi- 
nant and recessive characters of, 
22 ; inheritance of seed characters 
in, 23 

Pig, Poland China, i 

Pigeons, different kinds of, 51, 52 

Plum, development of, 31 

Plymouth, typhoid epidemic in, 60 

Polydactylism (pol i dak'ti lizm), il- 
lustration of, 76 ; definition of, 77 

Poppy, improvement of, 30 

Potato, increased value of, 29 

Potato bugs, migrations of, 88-94 ; 
comparison of, with Hawaiian 
snails, 93, 94 

Potter, Mr., 193 

Poulton, Mr., 76 

Prodigality, Darwin's law of, 58 

Pure-bred, definition of, 18 

Rabbit, generations of, each year, 12 ; 
condition of, at birth, 114 

Race improvement, three steps in, 

Race regeneration, 201, 204 

Recessive character defined, 1 5 

Rochester, clean milk in, 200 

Rorqual, giant whale, 69 

Rudiments, definition of, 65 ; in 
calves, 65 ; in the whale, 65; Dar- 
win's statements about, 67 ; prov- 
ing history of whale, 67 

Sacculina (sak u H'na), description 
of, 66, 67 

Schamberg, Dr., 165, 166 

Scott, Professor, 77 

Seaver, Dr., 141 

Sex, significance of, 162 

Sheep, varieties of, 31, 32; short- 
legged, 76 

Shoes, Chinese, 73 

Snail shells, studied by Dr. Gulick, 
81-87; reasons for so -many 
species of, 87 

Social inheritance, 143 

Sommerville, Lord, on sheep breed- 
ing. 54 

South America, 45, 48, 49, 51 ; size 
of animals in, 47 ; death of ani- 
mals in, for lack of water, 60 

Spargo, Dr., 199 

Species, description of, 50, n.; in- 
fluence of environment on, 95, 99 

Spencer, Herbert, reference to, 
61, n. 

Sperm cells, 106, 107 

Sphygmograph (sfig'mo graf), tests 
with, on tobacco users, 136-139 

State Liquor Dealers of Ohio, 149 

Stockard, Dr., 119, 121 

Struggle for existence, the law of, 


Survival of the fittest, the law of, 61 
Switzerland, studies of feeble- 
mindedness made in, 122, 123 
Syphilis (sif i ITs), methods of com- 
munication of, 166-168; protec- 
tion from, 171 

Tadpole, from unfertilized egg, 100, 
101 ; as influenced by environ- 
ment, 114 

Tertiary Bad Lands, mention of, 40 
Thompson, Dr., 57, 58 
Thyroid (thi'roid) gland, 181 
Tobacco, why used by boys, 132; 
effect of, on heart action, 136, 
139; double nature of, 140; ef- 
fect of, on Yale students, 141-; 
use of, studied by Dr. Meylan, 142 
Tower, Dr., 80, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96, 

97 > 98, 99 
Toxodon (tok'so don), description 

of, 46 
Treves, Sir Frederick, 146 

University of Chicago, The, 96 

Variation, Darwin's law of, 60 
Vertebrates, evidences of similarity 
in, 70 ; individual life of, how 
started, 101 ; four statements in 
regard to, 113 



Vineland, as " a great human labora- 
tory," 183-185 ; methods adopted 
by, 183, 184, 188 

Viviparous (vl vip'arus), 115 

Watt, James, 1 57 
Weismann, Professor, 73, 105 
West Point, failure in entrance ex- 
aminations to, 141 

Whale, its double change, 68 
Wheat, variety in heads, 26 ; Pro- 
fessor Biffen's work with, 27 
Wilson, Dr., 179 
Wirthwein Hall, 149 

Zoological Laboratory of Harvard 

University, 12 
Zoologist, definition of, 65 
Zygote (zl'got), definition of, io6n. 



By EUGENE DAVENPORT, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Director of the 
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" Principles of Breeding " is a pioneer in the worthy endeavor 
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It is therefore a book for both the student of agriculture in 
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By EUGENE DAVENPORT, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Director of the 
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8vo, cloth, 321 pages, illustrated, $1.25 

THE aim of this work is to stimulate a widespread interest 
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By THEODORE HOUGH, Professor of Physiology in the University of Virginia, 

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Volume I 1.25 

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Recently a series of thirteen questions was sent to the college Young 
Men's Christian Associations of the United States. It was desired to 
know whether or not our college students are being taught about such 
laws of right living as pertain to personal morality and to race health. 

Answers came from sixty-three prominent colleges and universities, 
located in all parts of the country. Dr. Exner's report l says : " The 
replies show that every one of the sixty-three institutions from which 
replies were received make some provision for educating students in 
these matters." The report also shows that this education is of great 
advantage to the universities, although, as stated, " only one of these 
gives the result in figures. This is a large eastern institution which one 
of our strongest lecturers has visited regularly for four years, and where 
the college Association has done effective work with the use of literature. 
From this institution the report is that venereal disease has decreased 
80 per cent, . . . that the attitude of coarseness and vulgarity toward 
the subject of sex has given place to serious respect, and that the whole 
moral tone of the institution has been changed. This report comes from 
reliable and conservative sources, and the figures are obtained through 
the university physician." 

Other quotations from other institutions combine to prove that when 
young people know the facts they are usually ready to respond with 
right living. It is evident, then, that ignorance and thoughtlessness 
are largely responsible for the present widespread dispersion of such 
diseases as peculiarly imperil the future of the race. 

" The Next Generation " was written to help remove this ignorance, 
and this Supplement to the book is presented separately because the 
facts given here are not for classroom use or for public discussion. It 
is important, however, that they should be read by all who are prepared 

1 " Facts Relating to Sex Education in Colleges and Universities." 
Compiled by M. J. Exner, M.D., Secretary Student Department of the 
International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations. 

t iii 


for them through acquaintance with such material as is given in " The 
Next Generation." It is preferable that the reading of these facts should 
come after and not before the book itself is studied. 

Chapters XXIII and XXIV of "The Next Generation" give infor- 
mation about the contagious nature of two diseases, syphilis and gonor- 
rhea, which, at the present time, are more destructive to the race than 
any other forms of disease from which humanity suffers. 

Syphilis is caused by a microbe called Spirochaeta pallida. This 
microbe may be transmitted from person to person through abrasions 
of the skin, as shown in Chapter XXIII, and it is likely to be found 
in the bodies of those who live immoral lives. Syphilis may ruin not 
only the diseased man, but also his wife, his children, and his children's 
children. This is the one disease of man that travels by inheritance from 
one generation to the next. 

Dr. Morrow says : " Fully one third of all syphilitic children born alive 
die within the first six months," or, " escaping early death, they may 
yet suffer from the disease in their twentieth or thirtieth year, or even 

Dr. Hodge writes : " The cough spray of a syphilitic may be more 
dangerous than the discharge of a gun into a person's face." 

No one knows whence the disease first came, but all know that at 
present fallen women give it to men who visit them ; that these men 
pass the disease on to healthy women whom they marry ; that, once it 
has entered the stream of family life, no power of man can keep it from 
doing its work of devastation. All know that wives thus diseased become 
permanent invalids ; that they endure surgical operations and are not 
cured ; that their babies die needlessly, and that other little ones live 
to suffer. 

In such cases a mother often blames herself for the endless chain of 
woe that has encircled herself and her babies. She does not know that 
generally the cause of it all is the disease caught in his ignorant youth 
by the man she married a man who thought he was cured before the 
wedding day came. 

Until recently young men and women have been allowed to pass 
through the adolescent era and to enter the life of maturity utterly igno- 
rant of their temptations and their dangers. For the safety of the race 
and for their own safety these guardians of the stream of life should 
know how to protect themselves. 


Many women learn the lesson too late. It was of such a woman that 
my friend spoke. She said : " I knew her as a girl, healthy and vig- 
orous, and I knew her when she died, a wreck. She was married at 
nineteen. He was a handsome, dashing fellow. They had two children. 
In course of lime she began to be ailing. She grew worse, suffered 
terribly, and at last the end came. We were all in the room her 
mother, her sister, and I. She was lying back on her pillow, barely 
breathing, when her husband came in. An expression of horror swept 
across her face. She half raised herself on her elbow, pointed her finger 
toward him, and in a husky whisper said : " You did it, and you know 
it. You 'ye killed me." Then she fell back dead. 

It is because of cases like this one (and they might be multiplied by 
the tens of thousands) that state after state of the United States is passing 
the law that any person about to be married shall first secure a medical 
certificate stating that the bearer of it has no contagious disease. 

As soon as women realize the need, they themselves will insist on 
this. Even now some intelligent fathers require such a certificate of the 
men who wish to marry their daughters. And every healthy man is 
glad and proud to be able to give it. In course of time the demand will 
be universal. In the meantime let a girl refuse the intimate companion- 
ship of any man who is morally weak. Let her refuse to marry him. 
The chances are that such men are also physically diseased. 

Practically all women who lead immoral lives are diseased some of the 
time, and some of them all the time. They are centers of infection. On 
the average, such women live about six years after beginning to lead this life. 

The following is a true family history. It was .told to me by one who 
knew the persons. 

The father of the family had committed two sins one against him- 
self, the other against his family. I state them side by side for the sake 
of comparison. In his early manhood he had been immoral and con- 
tracted syphilis ; he was treated by the doctors and counted himself well. 
After this he married. Thirty years later he began to lose control of 
his judgment. In business, where he had been keen-sighted before, 
he now made strange mistakes slight at first but increasingly serious. 
Months passed and his mind grew constantly less efficient, until at last 
he could be trusted with no business whatever. 

Finally, he lost his mind so completely that he was put into an insane 
asylum. The cause of it was the disease taken when he sowed wild oats 



in his youth, and which he harbored in his system until, as old age 
approached, his body lost its power of resistance. The lurking disease 
then gained the upper hand and conquered him. Thus it was that the 
man's own sin defeated him. 

In addition he dragged others down with him. The beautiful woman 
whom he married was ignorant of his past history and entirely ignorant 
of the laws of family health. They had several children. The first two 
were syphilitic and died at birth. The diseased germ cells of the father 
explained this. 

The third baby seemed normal until he was four years old, when he 
showed syphilitic symptoms and mercifully died shortly afterwards. 

The fourth child is still living with his mother in New England. He 
is thirteen years old. Until a year ago he was unusually bright. He at- 
tended school and did remarkably well for a while. Then a cloud began 
to show itself. Little by little it is spreading over his whole mind. He 
still gets out his geography with pride and tells you facts he once learned. 
He tries to learn more facts, but the power is gone. He has had to stop 
going to school, and each day his mind becomes more vacant. 

His mother watches the change in agony, but she is helpless. Her 
only son is being swept beyond her reach, and she knows it. At last also 
she knows the cause. She knows what it is that doomed him. She 
knows why all her children have suffered such ruin. She knows that 
in each case destruction came through the father. 

This, then, was the greatest sin of the man not that he destroyed 
himself, although this was sad enough, but that he crushed the lives of 
his innocent wife and his helpless children. And the reason he did it 
was that he did not know the danger and that he did not control him- 
self in his youth. He was ignorant. 

This is but a single instance where thousands might be given. 

No right-minded woman would, with her own hands, prepare herself 
for cruel suffering; neither would she willfully kill her baby. Yet any 
woman who, knowing the danger, allows herself to marry a man who is 
not morally upright and physically pure invites the tragedy and the 
suffering which lies in wait for her and for her children. 

No right-minded man would, willfully and with his own hands, kill his 
helpless baby, yet any man who, knowing the facts, dares to run the 
risk of contracting this dread disease is as guilty as if he had killed his 
own children with his own hands. 


The second of these terrible diseases the one which may produce 
blindness at birth is named gonorrhea. It is caused by the gonococcus 
microbe, and it starts in the same general way as syphilis. The great 
source of both is with those who live immoral lives. Very often the 
same person has both diseases. 

The gonococcus microbe needs no broken surface through which 
to travel; neither does it produce a visible sore, as does syphilis. 
When a moist membrane, diseased with gonococcus microbes, touches a 
healthy, moist membrane, the microbes go across and begin their work 
of destruction. From their starting point they creep upward in the 
body, traveling over the lining membrane of one slender tube after 
another, carrying disease to each, until at last they reach the vital organs. 
In tens of thousands of cases the inflammation within the tubes is so 
extreme that they become hopelessly scarred, and because they are 
scarred they contract and at last close entirely. After this no germ cell 
is able to pass through them from the body, and all chance for the 
beginning of another generation is cut off. In other words, the person 
becomes sterile. 

In one important respect this disease differs from certain other con- 
tagious diseases. Persons who have had smallpox are considered safe 
from another attack. So also are those who have had measles and 
mumps and scarlet fever. But with this disease the mere fact that a 
person has had it once increases the chance of his having it again if he 
is again exposed to it. And then, as Dr. Forel says, " When this disease 
becomes chronic, relapses of the acute stage often occur without fresh 
infection." He adds : " In women the results of gonorrhea are, if pos- 
sible, still worse than in men. Women affected with chronic gonorrhea 
generally become sterile." 

Already society is trying to protect itself against smallpox and leprosy, 
against whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, typhoid 
fever, yellow fever, and other communicable diseases. And yet there 
still remain these other two diseases which at present hold more suffering 
for this generation and the next than all the other diseases combined. 
In view of this situation, we now know that the prevention of these two 
diseases is the most important hygienic duty which faces the present 
generation. We know that, as a whole, the rising generation is clear- 
headed and sane, and that when it learns the facts, it will protect itself 
by prevention. It is evident, then, that the health and safety of the nation 


depend on what the young people of the land know and do not know 
concerning certain diseases which are so closely connected with evil 
that, until recently, their names have not been so much as mentioned 
except by scientists, doctors, and nurses. 


The following was written about girls in England and for their special 
use, but it applies equally well to girls everywhere else. I quote the 
words as given. 

" No girl can afford to accept attentions from any unknown man, how- 
ever well dressed or well mannered he may be. This is especially true 
when girls are traveling from city to city, or from one part of a city to 
another part of the same city. 

" Many girls have been entrapped into white slavery in England 
during the past months through the most diabolical methods. A woman 
dressed as a professional nurse has trapped a number. Men white slavers 
with drugged handkerchiefs or drugged flowers have trapped many. 
One large telephone company has issued warnings to all young women 
operators, telling them to pay no attention to messages received over 
the wires calling them to certain places on account of the illness of a 
relative or friend, etc." 

One society has sent out printed warnings. Every girl in every 
country should give heed to them. The following are the warnings : 

" Never speak to strangers, either men or women, in the street, in 
shops, in stations, in trains, in lonely country roads, or in places of 

" Never ask the way of any but officials on duty, such as policemen, 
railway officials, or postmen. 

" Never loiter or stand about alone in the streets, and if accosted by 
a stranger (whether man or woman), walk as quickly as possible to the 
nearest policeman. 

" Never stay to help a woman who apparently faints in the street, 
but call a policeman at once. 

" Never accept an invitation to join a Sunday School or Bible class, 
given by strangers, even if they are wearing a clerical dress. 

" Never accept a ride offered by a stranger in a motor, a taxicab, or 
a vehicle of any description. 


" Never enter any house,, restaurant, or place of amusement on the 
invitation of a stranger. 

" Never go with a stranger (even if dressed as a hospital nurse) or 
believe stories of relatives having suffered from an accident or being 
suddenly taken ill. This is a common device to kidnap girls. 

" Never accept sweets, food, or a glass of water or smell flowers offered 
by a stranger. So many things can contain drugs. 

" Never take a situation through advertisements either in England or 
abroad without first finding out about it through responsible people. 

" Never go to London or any large town for even one night without 
knowing of some safe lodging." 

In all parts of the world to-day loyal-hearted men and women are 
doing what they can to help the girls save themselves.