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Full text of "Nihi hahoodzodóó, dííjíidi dóó adáádáá = Our community, today and yesterday"

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Nihil Hahoodzodoo -- 
Diij/jdi doo Ad^^d^^' 

Naaltsoos Naaki Gone' Yits'itigii 













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Our Community -- 
Today and Yesterday 



Book Two 



NIHIL HAHOODZODOO - 
DIIJllDI DOO AD A AD A A' 



Our Community -- 
Today and Yesterday 

Book Two 



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FOURTH — FIFTH GRADE NAVAJO BILINGUAL - BICULTURAL 
SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM 



Our Community - Todav and Yesterday 
Book Two 



Written, Illustrated and Produced by 
TITLE IV-B MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT* 

With the Assistance of Rough Rock Communitv Members 

Fred Bia, Materials Developer-Illustrator 

Regina Lynch. Editorial Assistant 

T.L. McCarty, Curriculum Specialist 

Marvin Yellownair, Linguistic Consultant 



Navajo Curriculum Center 

Rough Rock Demonstration Schoo! 

Rough Rock, Arizona 86503 

1 983 

'Soeciat thanks to Gene Johnson. Frank Isaac. Alfred Yazzie. Emerson Begay. and the members of the Title IV-B Parent 
Advisory Committee, whose contributions of linguistic and cultural content made this publication possible This book 
vas produced with funds from a Title IV-B federal gram 

Rough Rock School Board: Wade Hadlev, Teddy McCurtain, Thomas James, Billy Johnson, Simon Secody; 

Jimmie C. Begay, Executive Director 



Copyright c 1983 

NAVAJO CURRICULUM CENTER 

ROUGH ROCK DEMONSTRATION SCHOOL 

ROUGH ROCK, ARIZONA 86503 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY 
MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPYING, RECORDING OR BY AN 
INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM 
THE PUBLISHER, EXCEPT BY A REVIEWER WHO MAY QUOTE BRIEF PASSAGES IN A REVIEW. 




Iniernational Standard Book Number 936008-19-9 I 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number SS 83573 



FIRST EDITION 

Printed in the United States of America 

Printed by La Plata Color Printing. 
Cortez. Colorado 



CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS 

Carl Bahe 

Mary Bahe 

Agnes Begay 

David Begay 

Dorothy Begay 

Sally Benally 

Joe Bia 

Bit'ahnii Y^^ Be'esdz^§ 

Hasbah Charley 

Sam Charley 

John Dick 

Lois Ellis 

Vern Ellis 

Wade Had ley 

Asdz^^n Hon^gh^ahnil 

Thomas James 

Bob Jensen 

Donna Jensen 

Robert A. Roessel, Jr. 

Simon Secody 

Kit Sells 

Frank Todecheene 

Sam Tom 

Andy Tsinajinnie 

Benjamin Woody 

Sally Woody 

William Woody 

Hasbah Yazzie 



NAALTSOOS YEE HADIT'EHE 



T'aata's Gone' Dah Shijaa'ign 

Nihit Hahoodzodoo Baa Hane' 1 

Naakf Gone' Dah Shijaa'igii 

T'oc Bahadzoo Nidahast^§ doo Yidzaaz 5 

Taa' Gone' Dah Shijaa'ign 

Key ah Baa Hane' 11 

Dff Gone' Dah Shijaa'ign 

Dine Ak'inidaaldzii 27 

Ashdia' Gone' Dah Shijaa'ign 

Naalyehe Ba Hooghan Bif Ni'nina 37 

Hastp^ Gone' Dah Shijaa'igii 

Tah Nahd^^' Naat'aanii Y§§ 53 

Tsots'id Gone' Dah Shijaa'igiE 

6/ta'j, Ajighaahgc 6~ 

Tseebif Gone' Dah Shijaa'igif 

Diyin Bizaad Yaa Ha/ne'e Tsech'izhidi Nina 77 

Nahast'ei Gone' Dah Shijaa'igif 

Olta ' Aniidigii Anaatiooiyaa 85 

'Neeznaa Gone' Dah Shijaa'igif 

Att{'id§f Adahoodzaa Y^§ Baa Adahoniidzif' 95 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER ONE - The Story of Our Community 1 

CHAPTER TWO - It Rained and Snowed A Lot 5 

CHAPTER THREE - Stories About the Land 11 

[chapter four - How People /Viet Their Needs 27 

CHAPTER FIVE - Coming of the Trader 37 

IcHAPTER SIX - Early Leaders 53 

JCHAPTER SEVEN - Going To School 67 

pHAPTER EIGHT - Missionaries Come To Rough Rock 77 

pHAPTER NINE -A Demonstration School 85 

jCHAPTER TEN - Learning About Our Past 95 



T'AALA'f G6nE' DAH SHIJAA'IGli 

Nihit Hahoodzodoo Baa Hane' 



Nihit hahoodzodoo doo t'aa ahoot'ehigi ahoot'ee da nit'ee'. Lah doo 
olta' sinil da nit'ee. Chidi'da adaadin nit'ee'. Atiin da doo dahashdieezh da 
ni't'ee'. Naalyehe ba hooghan da adaadin nit'ee'. Bii' atahna'adleehe nidi 
adaadin nit'ee.' 




CHAPTER ONE 

The Story of Our Community 



Our community has not always been the way it is now. Once, there 
was no school here. There were no cars or pickup trucks. There were no 
paved roads. There was no trading post or store. There was no chapter 
house. 

1 



Nidi dine kpp keedahat'ij nit'ee'. T'aa bi bina'nitm daholppgo. Lii' yee 
bigaal nideilt'i'go, chidl bitiin doo daha'nii'goo. T'aa bi doo at'pp ana'i yit 
athaa nida'iilniihgo ch'iyaan doo ee' biniiye. 




And yet, people lived here. They had ways to teach without a school. 
They traveled on horseback, and did not need roads. They raised their own 
food. 



Di'i naaltsoos nihit hahoodzodoo baa hane'i'gii yaa halne'. Atk'id^^' kpp 
adahoot'ehgg yaa halne', t'ahdoo naalyehe ba hooghan doo chidi dooota' 
dahaleehd^^. 

Di'i hane naaltsoos biyi'igii hastoi doo saanii yaa nidahasne'. La' 
t'ahdoo naalyehe ba hooghan ahalneehdp^' nidabi'dilzhchj. La' ts'i'da attse 
Tsech'izhidi chidi yi'lwodigii dayiittsa. La' Dzit Yijiin bighp^ godei atiin 
ahalneehgo atah yinidaashnish. 

Dii hane' dayisiilts'pp doo dayini'ilta'go binahji' nihil hahoodzodoo 
hayit'eego shj'i diijiidi ahoot'ehigi ahoot'e hazlii', ei bee nihil beehodoozijl. 



This book tells the story of our community. It tells what our 
community was like many years ago. It tells about a time when there were 
no trading posts, cars or schools. 

The stories in this book were told by our elders. Some of the people 
who told stories were born before the trading post was built. Some saw the 
first car drive into Rough Rock. Some helped to build the first road to the 
top of Black Mesa. 

These stories teach usabout our community. They teach us how our 
community came to be what it is today. 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALIGlf (Vocabulary) 

Dineji (Navajo): Bilagaanaji (English! 

1. nakee' nahane' 1- history 

2. Dineji i'ool'jjl 2. culture 

3. ch'aa na'ada 3. travel 

4. hane' "^^ ^tory 

5. afahji' 5. always 



NAAKI GONE' DAH SHIJAA'IGII 

T'66 Bahadzoo Nidahast^^ doo Yidzaaz 

L^'i naahai y^pd^^' hahodineest^p doo yas yitsoh. T'aa nahattingo 
yi'daan — ni'tts^ bi'aad doo nittsp bikp' nida'ajootgo. Yas t'ahdii nitsaago 
ch'i'nidaan. 

Nahattingo dada'deestt'inee hada'dee'biid. Tseda'adziz goyaa da to 
hadeebjjd. To doo bi'din hoyee' da hazlii'. Dine doo to nizaadgp' nidayiiyeeh 
da hazlii'. To dah naazyinigii nidi doo baa ayodahoolnigoo ch'idao'i, dine 
deidl^p doo yee ch'iyaan adeit'i. 




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CHAPTER TWO 

It Rained and Snowed A/ot 



Many years ago, it rained and snowed a lot. Rain came down all 
through the spring months. There was plenty of female and male rain. In 
the winter, the ground was covered with snow until spring came again. 

The rain filled ponds and dams to the top. Puddles of rain water 
formed in holes in rocks. There was plenty of water for animals and people. 
People did not need to haul waterfrom far away. When they found water in 
a puddle, they did not worry if it was safe to drink. The people used it for 
cooking and drinking. 



Nidahastanee doo daadzaaz^^ ch'il bee nidahasdlii' doo tsin 
adaaz'ahigii naadahdi'neesp doo nanise' attah aat'eetii ninaadahasdlii'. 
Diwozhiilbai da deiyiTa silii'. Diwozhiitbai doo ts'ah adaat'ehigii tsin ii'ei 
nahalingo haadi shji dah dadiniisp. Asdzj bilaahdi adanitneez daazlij', 
Diwozhiitbai biyaadpp' ei tt'oh haajee', \\'\' bibid biigihahdi adanittso daazlif'. 



The rain and snow made the grass, trees and other plants growvery 
tall. The land was covered with grey bushes called chamisa. The chamisa 
grew in groves, like trees. They were taller than a person's head. Grass 
grew as high as a horse's belly. 





Diwozhii doo cha'ot dayilk'idgoo adahaas'a silji'. Aak'eego neeshch'ii' 
da nidahasdlii'. Azis bijiichii'i bii' hadadeelbiidgo naalyehe ba hooghangoo 
kiih daheesgi. 



Greasewood and pinyon trees covered the hills. In the fall, the 
pinyon trees were ripe with many nuts. 

The people used to sweep the nuts from under the trees. They filled 
big grain sacks with the pinyon nuts. They took them to the trading post. 



Nidi nanise' t'66 ahayoi nahasdlii'igii tahda doo ya'at'eeh da nit'ee'. 
Dine nida'nilkaadgo ma'ii akpp naaghaago doo dayoo'ii da nit'ee'. Ma'ii dibe 
yitah nalwo'go tt'oh yiyi' nanit'in teh. T'aa akpp dibe yini'iihgo neittseed teh. 
Ako dine doo yaa akodanizin da teh. 



But sonnetimes all the vegetation and green grass was not good. 
When the people were herding their sheep, they could not see coyote 
coming. Coyote sneaked into the herd, and hid in the tall grass. He stole the 
sheep and killed them right there. The people did not even see him. 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALIGII (Vocabulary) 
Dineji (Navajo): Bilagaanaji (English] 



1 . 


to naazyl 


2. 


naage 


3. 


tiba 


4. 


di'wozhiilbai 


5. 


dlwozhiishzhiin 


6. 


bikestr 


7. 


neest'a 


8. 


nidanit'in 



1. 


puddle 


2. 


haul 


3. 


grey 


4. 


chamisa 


5. 


greasewood 


6. 


cover 


7. 


ripe 


8. 


hide (hid) 



10 



TAA GONE' DAH SHIJAA'fGII 

Key ah Baa Hane' 

Tse Daadilkat 

Saanii doo hastof Tsechi'izhi binaagoo dahodiyingo nahaz'ppgoo yaa 
dahalne' teh. Dzit bilatahdi tse lei' daadilkat nahalin, Tse Daadilkat deitniigo 
yaa dahalne'. Tse Daadilkat ei Ts'ech'i'zhi bideijigo ahoolye. 



^r^'^'iiiihM^. 




CHAPTER THREE 

Stories About the Land 



The Doorway 

Our elders tell many stories of special places near Rough Rock. One 
story tells of a sacred doorway near the top of Black Mesa. This doorway is 
just above Rough Rock. 

11 



Tse Daadilkat bikaa'gi tse baa ahoodzp. Akwii naaldlooshii ahah 
aat'eetii nidabizkee' — shash doo nashdoitsoh adaat'ehigii nidabizkee'. 

Biyaagi ei tsenihoodzp, dine akone' ana'i yits'^p ninadadit'jjh nit'ee' 
atk'idpp'. Saanii doo hastoi adaani'i leh, t'ahdii ts'ilii nahat'in yits'a' teh 
akwii. T'ahdii leeshch'iih doo t'eesh kp'k'ehgoo naazhjaa'. 

Tse Daadilka* bikaa'gi K'os atts'isigo dah na'ajootgo ei ts'i'da Ip'i 
nahodoottijlgo yaa halne'go at'ji teh. Diijj'jdi t'ahdii t'aa akot'e. 

Dii binimaa Tse Daadllkatgi hodiyingo haz'p ha'ni. Ei bppgo hazho'o 
bich'^^h baa adahoty^ doo t'aadoo aaji' na'adahi adahwiinohsin danihi'di'ni. 



There is a hole above the doorway. There are many animal tracks 
there. There are tracks of bear and mountain lion. 

Below this is a hole. There, people once hid from enemies. Our 
elders say you can still hear chihuahua dogs barking there. You can find 
old ashes and coals of campfires built many, many years ago. 

When people saw a single cloud above the doorway, this meant 
there would be much rain. This is true even today. 

For all these reasons, the doorway is thought to be a sacred place. 
We are told to protect it, and not to go there. 



12 









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13 



T'iisbai Sikaad 

Tse Daadilkat bideijigo, Dzit Yijiin bighpp'di atdo' tahgo hodiyingo 
naahast'p. Akwii ei T'iisbai Sikaad hoolye. Akpp t'iisbai yiTahigii bmiinaa 
akohoolye. 

T'iisbai Sikaadi to haalinigii ei ts'ida doo adiih da. To haalinigii bee 
ni'goo hashzhoh. Tt'oh nitsxaago yil'aago ayosin, 

Atk'id^^' danihicheii ype doo danihimasani y0p yik'idaneeztpp'. T'aa 
ako dibe doo tt'izi ch'il yidootchoshigii la' doo bidin hoyee' da la daniizj!'. 
Ayoo hodoott'izh doo honeezk'azi. Naaldlooshii to ya'at'eehii deidl^^ 
dooleeligii atdo doo bidin hoyee' da la La' danihicheii y0p doo danihimasani 
ypp t'aa akpp nidahaazna doo bighan adahoolaa 

Lahda ayoo deesdoigo, Ts'ech'izhidi doo nahaltingoo ei doodago to 
adaadijhgo ni'goo attsxo nahaltsihgo teezh nikida'diijot. 

Diigi ahoot'jjhgo dine T'iisbai Sikaadgoo adahaneeh. Aadi dine doo 
bilii' to bahotoo teh. Naaldlooshi da tt'oh ba hoipp teh. 

Dine T'iisbai Sikaadi to haalinigi nidaakahgo nlttsg yika sodadilzin teh 
nit'ee. Akwii atdo' haataatii nits^ yika ninadahataah nit'ee'. 



Aspen Grove 

Above the doorway, on Black Mesa, there is another sacred place. 
This place is called Aspen Grove. It is called this because of the many 
aspen trees there. 

There is a spring at Aspen Grove that never runs dry. The spring 
waters the land. It makes grass grow tall and green. 

Long ago, our grandmothers and grandfathers saw this place. They 
knew it would be good grazing land for sheep and goats. The land was cool 
and green. There was plenty of fresh water and grass for livestock. Some 
of our grandparents made their homes there. 

Sometimes, when it was very hot, there was no rain or water at 
Rough Rock. The land became dry and dusty. 

At these times, the people moved to Aspen Grove There, they had 
water for their families and their livestock. The grass was green and lush 
for the livestock. 

It IS said that people went to Aspen Grove, where the spring always 
flowed. They went there to pray for rain. Medicine men held ceremonies 
there for rain. 



14 



Alkidpp Dine a\^? ana'i t'aadoo at'ehgoo yi* keedat'ii nit'ee' daaniigo 

hastoi doo saanii yaa dahalne'. 

Dine at'aa ana'i yit atch'odao'niigo. Atsi' doo naad^a doo t'aa ha'at'i'hii 

da athaa nidayiilniihgo. 

Nidi naas hodeeshzhiizhgo ta' at'aa ana'i Dine doo yit atch'odao'nii da 

daazllj'. AJhaatjjh nidaabahgo yee athaa nidiikai. 

Dine nidaabaahigii t'aa ta' yit dabighanigii doo bikeyah yich'^ah 
nidaabaahgo. Dibe doo tii' atdo' atheideinit'jjh biniiye. 

Ana'i ta', Nooda'i, natiookpsjigo keedahat'j'i nit'ee'. Lah tfj" yee dine 
yitah nina. Tsech'izhigi dine yaatjjh daazbaa'. 



Our elders tell another story about Aspen Grove. 

The Navajos have always lived in this country with many other 
Indian tribes. 

The people made friends with some tribes. They traded mutton for 
corn and other goods. 

But with some tribes, the people became enemies. They fought 
wars. 

They fought to protect their land and families. They fought to 
capture horses and sheep. 

One tribe is the Utes. The Utes live to the north. Long ago, Ute 
warriors rode to Navajoland on horseback. They attacked the people's 
camps at Rough Rock and other places. 



16 



Dine t'66 tsidadoolyiz. Doo nidi ana hodooleetigi'i yinilye hasht'e' 
adadolzin da nit'ee'. Hastoi doo saanii atchini doo saanii doo hastoi naas 
daazlji'igii tsxjilgo atha'adayiilaa. Aadoo T'iisbai Sikaadgoo dahdadiniichaa. 

Aadi tsinyi'di t'66 atseed bighan adahoolaa. Tsin bee doo daat iig66 
dabighan ni't'ee'. N66da'i' t'aadoo dine nidanit'ini'gii yik'i daneeztpp' da. Dine 
t'aadoo at'eheg66 dabighan nit'ee'. 

Aad66 N66da'i nahookosjigo dah nidii'na. 



The people were surprised. They were not ready to fight. Men and 
women gathered their children and elderly relatives. They fled to Aspen 
Grove. 

There, the people made small camps under the trees. The trees hid 
their camps. The Ute warriors could not see the people hiding. They were 
safe. 

After awhile, the warriors returned to the north. 






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Nihicheii doo nihimasani yee ana'i yik'ee nidanidzoodgoo T'iisbai 
Sikaadgoo anidahinicheeh ni't'ee'. Aadi to doo ch'il dine doo bil)j" ba holppgo 
keedahat'!! ni't'ee'. 

Dif biniinaa T'iisbai Sikaad t'aa sahdii ahoot'eego baa nitsiikees, 
di'i'jijdi nidi t'aa akot'e. Dzit Yijiin bitsiidoo T'iisbai Sikaadgoo Ki'iitiin. 



Aspen Grove gave our ancestors a place to hide from enemies. It 
gave grass and water so the people and their livestock survived and grew. 

For these reasons, we think of Aspen Grove as a special place, even 
today. There is still a trail below Black Mesa that goes to this place. 



19 



Hodeezhoozh 

Dzit Yijiin godei jideez'j'jgo Tsechi'izhi bideiji'go hodeezhoozhi'gii ayoo 
yit'i Saanii doo hastoi di'i hane' bidiit'i'igii atdo' yaa dahalne' teh. 

Neesnadiin doo bi'aan dikwiishj) naahai yppdpp' hodeezhoozh. Dine 
tahdii doo bilagaana ta' dayiittseh^pdp^'. Naalyehe ba hooghan doo 
naalyehe ya sidahi tahdoo nihitah haleehd^p'. 6tta' atdo' t'ahdoo 
dahaleehgoo. Dine t'aadaazaadi dabita'go keedaht'ij nit'ee'. Li)" t'elya yee 
attah nidadikah. Dine hootaadaakaigo ayoo bi* ya'adaat'eeh nit'ee' I'idpp'. 
Ayoo ahitka'anidaajah nit'ee atdo' iidpp'. 



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The Rock Slide 

If you look up at Black Mesa you will see a rock slide. The rock slide is 
just behind the school. Our elders tell a story about this place, too. 

Over one hundred years ago, the rocks began to slide. This was 
before the people had seen many white men. There were no traders. There 
were no schools. People lived in small camps. Their camps were far apart. 
The people traveled on horseback to visit each other. They liked to visit 
each other. They were always ready to help their neighbors and relatives. 



20 



Lah Dzit Yijiin godei dajideez'ij' nit'ee' Dzit Yi'jiin bikaa'doo teezh 
ha'iijool. Lid nahalingo ni'diijool. 

Wonaasdoo teezh ni'zaadgoo deigo da'i'jool. T'66 bahadziigi iits'a'go tse 
naatdaaz, doo deeghanigoo adahwisiists'pp'. Aadoo tse t'aa nahazhooshgo 
dj]' yiskp. 

Haalayit'eego akodzaa la danizingo dine yaa dabini' daazliii'. 



One day, some people looked up to the mesa. They saw a bit of dust 
rising from the top of the mesa. It looked like a smoke signal. 

The dust rose higher. A loud rumbling sound was heard for many 
miles. Rocks tumbled down the side of Black Mesa for four days. 

The people wondered and worried what this meant. 








21 



Djj yisk^p doo bikijj' doo iists'p'i da. Tse doo nahazhoosh da silij', nidi 
hodeezhoozhigii t'aa bik'eh silji' dzit bp^hdoo. Akohoodzaa doo bik'iji' hataalii 
t'aadoo hodina' doo ya'at'eehgoo hodidoogaat dadiiniid. 

Aadoo t'aadoo nizaad nihooizhi'ishi ni'dahizhdiniidzood. Dine 
Waashidoon bisiiaoUsooi yit da'ahobaahgo yaa nidiikai. Nilei nizaadgoo 
doohneet daaniigo siiaattsooi. Hweeldi hoolyeedi silaottsooi dah yineet, akpp 
doohneet dahatnidigo. Nihighan doo nihidada'ak'eh doo nihiliC ei bim'dii t'aa 
akppgo akpp doohneet daho'doo'niid. 

Dine t'66 daacha. Dah dadidooneetigii doo adeinizin da. 

Hweeldi hoolyeedi dii' bvee nidaahai. Dichin yik'ee keedahat'ij nit'ee' 
aadi. Ayoo ni'goo hazgango biniinaa nad^^' k'eedeididleeh nidi doo dinisee 
da. Dine t'66 ahayoi aadi biighahi yik'ee adaadin. 

Aad66 dine adeiniizj)', hodeezhoozh y0p t'aadoo le'e doo ya'at'eehii 
yaa halne' nit'ee' la. Lahgo ahodooniitgo dine be'iina' yeidindot'jitigii shii yaa 
halne'go at'L 



After the fourth day, there was silence again on the mountainside. 
The rocks stopped falling. But they left a V-shaped mark on the side of the 
mesa. When this happened, medicine men said there would soon be 
trouble. 

Soon, the people were told to leave their camps. Soldiers from the 
United States Army were at war with some Navajos. The soldiers said all 
Navajos must move far away. They must move to an army fort at Fort 
Sumner, New Mexico. 

The people were told to leave their homes, their farms, and their 
livestock. 

The people shed tears. They did not want to leave. 

They were told to stay at Fort Sumner for four years. They were 
hungry there. Corn would not grow in the dry soil. Many people became 
sick and died. 

Then the people knew that the rock slide had been a warning. It was 
a warning that something would happen to change their lives. 



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23 



Hoojooba'igo inda silaoldtsooi doo Dine naaltsoos bee ada 
nihodiit'aahii yee athada'deest'^. Naaltsoos sani deilni diijjjdi. Aadoo dine 
hweeldid^^' bee'ilnii'. 

La' dine Tsech'izhigi ninahaaskai. Bighan ninadayiis'nil. Nidi 
Hweedigoo tadadookai y^p t'ahdii yik'ee nidaachahgo hoolzhiizh. Bik'ei t'aa 
aadi adaadin y^p atdo' yaa a daachago. 

Hodeezhoozhgo kohodooniitigii t'aa bi'tseidi yaa hoolne'i'gii bit 
beedahozin. Ei bp^go akwii hodiyingo baa nitsahakees, diijjjdi t'ahdii t'aa 
akot'eego hoolzhish. 



Finally, the Navajos and soldiers made peace. They signed a treaty. 
The treaty said the Navajos and soldiers would not fight. 

The people were allowed to leave the army fort. Some people came 
back to Rough Rock. They built new homes here. But they still shed tears to 
think of their life at Fort Sumner. They cried for their relatives who died 
there. 

They knew the rock slide had been a warning of this. For this reason, 
people say the rock slide is a sacred place, even today. 




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24 



Hane' Bee'ihoo'aah 

Keyah bikaa' keehwiit'inigfi t'66 ahayoi hane' bidadiit'i'go at'e. 
Atk'idpp adahoot'jjd ypp bidadiit'i'go yaa dahalne'. Ei binahjj' aniit'ee doo 
nihikeyah at'ei baa akoniidzin diijj'idi. 

Hane' aldo' binahjj' haad^p' shjj hwisiidlji'igi'i nihil beehozin, doo 
haashij yit'eego nihicheii doo nihimasani y^p keedahat'ji ni't'ee', ei yee nihit 
dahalne'. Saanii doo hastoi adaaniigo ei dii hane' nihit beehozingo binahjj' 
nihidziil dooleel daani. 

Atk'idpp dahane'igii nihit beehozingo binahjj' nihit haahoodzodoo 
naasgoo adahwiit'aat dooleet. 



How Stories Help Us 

The land we live on has many stories. The stories tell us about 
things that happened long ago. These things make us, and our community, 
what we are today. 

The stories tell us where we came from, and how our ancestors 
lived on the land. Our elders tell us that by knowing these stories, we will 
have strength. 

The stories from the past help us solve problems today. They help us 
plan for the future. They help our community. 



25 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALIGII (Vocabulary) 



Din 


eji (Navajo): 


Bilagaanaji (English 


1. 


Tse Daadilkal 


1 . doorway 


2 


anaa' 


2. enemy 


3. 


ts'i'lii 


3. chihuahua dog 


4. 


t'aasahi 


4. single 


5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 


diyin, hodiyin 

t'listibai 

ana 

yisnaah 

naabaahii 


5. sacred 

6. aspen 

7. tribe 

8. war 

9. capture 


10. 


t'aa hoohani 


10. warning 


11. 


hodeezhoozh (beezhoozh) 


11. slide 


12. 


neeznadim 


12. hundred 


13. 


bee eehozinigii 


13. signal 


14. 


diists'pp 


14. rumbling 


15. 


silaottsooi 


15. soldier 


16. 


Hweeldi 


1 6. Fort Sumner 


17. 
18. 


naaltsoos sani 
naasdi 


17. treaty 

18. future 


19. 


dziil 


19. strength 



26 



D|r GONE' DAH SHIJAAIgII 

Dine Ak'inidaaldzil 

Dine Hweeldidp^' ninahaaskaigo, bighan ninadayiis'nil. Hwe'iina' 
tahgo at'eego haadajiist'i. 



Bt^ 





,i\t%¥ .^X. 



■m^tk^ 



j!^^^^smi 



■ —ih'D eft- 



CHAPTER FOUR 

How People Met Their Needs 



When the people came back from Fort Sumner, they had to build 
new homes. They had to start a new life. The people needed shelter, food 
and clothing. 



27 



Kot'eego El Dine Hooghan Adeileeh doo Keyah Choidaayoorif 
Nit'ee 

lidpp' k'eedazhdidleehgo doo nidajilzheehgo doo naaldlooshii 
nadazhnitt'^'go bits'ppdoo ch'iyaan nichidajiyoott'eeh ni't'ee'. T'aa ho 
hach'iy^' hadajit')] nit'ee', naalyehe ba hooghan ei adaadin iidpp'. 



How People Built Hogans and Used the Land 

The people's shelter was the forked stick hogan. Most families lived 
in one hogan. They did not stay in one hogan all year. They moved their 
sheep to better grass. Then they built a new hogan. There was grass 
everywhere. If the grazing grass went down in one place, the people 
moved. They went where there was more grass. People were allowed to 
usethelandthis way. No one said, "Your sheep cannot graze here. This is 
my land." Everyone shared the land. 



28 




29 



Dine El Kot'eego Ch'iyaan doo Ee' Bee Dahazllf 

Dine ei da'ak'eh doo nidaalzheeh doo bill)" daholppgo ei bich'iya' 
daniljj nitee'. T'aabi bichiya' hadeitala nit'ee'. Naalyehe ba hooghan ei 
adaadin nit'ee lidaa'. 

T'aadoo hodina'i t'aa attsxogo daa'ak'eh hazlJ!" — Tsech'izhi'gi doo 
Da'ak'ehalanigi doo t'aa nilei Bis Doott'izh Deez'ahijj' ninahoneel'apgo. 
Shiigo dine bidada'ak'ehgi nidahaneeh leh. Nanise' t'66 ahayoi attah 
aat'eetgo keedeididleeh — naad^a' doo naa'oti doonaayizi doo ch'eeh jiyaan 
doo ta'neesk'ani da adaat'ei. 

I'id^p dine chidi naa'na'i doo bee nihwiildlaadi bee adaadin. Gish t'eiya 
yee k'eeda'didleeh. T'66 bahadzoo naanish ak6t'eego. T'aa nizaadg66 gish 
yee hadahago' d66 ak6yaa nanise' bilastsii' adeijaahgo k'ida'dile' teh. 
Nidi'n6olypshigii el doo ay6o b^ah yini da, haala atahjj' nidahattingo biniinaa. 

Aak'ee haleehgo da'nit'jjh. Neest'a ahanidahajaahgo baa ni'diildah. 
Din6 naada^ d66 ch'eeh jiyaan 666 naayizi 666 naa'oti adaat'ei 
k'ideideezlahpp athanidayiijaah teh. 



How People Got Their Food and Clothing 

People got their food by farming, hunting, and raising livestock. 
They had to find their own food. There were no stores. 

Soon, there were farms all over the land. There were farms at 
Rough Rock, Many Farms, Chinle and Round Rock. Families moved to their 
farms in the summer. They planted many vegetables -- corn, beans, 
squash and melon. The people had no tractors or plows. They used sharp 
sticks to dig holes, and placed the corn seeds in the holes. It was hard work. 
They did not worry about watering their plants. There was plenty of rain for 
the crops. 

By the fall, the plants were big and tall. They were ready to be 
picked. 



30 



Saanii ei tsedaashjee' doo tsedaashch'fni yee naadp^' deik'aa teh. 
Naadpp ta' shp^ nii'nit doo nidaaltsih, di'ighaii chiidoo'iil biniiye hasht'e' 
nidahajih. La' ei nitsidigo'i adaal'jjh, naana la' ei ak'aan doo neeshjizhii doo 
tanaoshgiizh adaariih. Da'at'^^' nidi nat'oh bit deidis biniiye doo te'et'aahgo 
chiidoo'iit biniiye hasht'e' nidahajih. 

T'aa attsogo dine bich'iy^' di'igi adaat'ee leh. Hootahdi jighaahgo 
ch'iyaan t'aa akot'ehigii hoipp teh. 

Lahda haataatii dine bida'ak'ehgi naad^^' holonigif yeighaah tadidiin 
nayiit'niih biniiye. Tadi'dii'n ei hataatgo chiyoot'ij teh. 



The women ground the corn by hand, on grinding stones. Some 
corn was dried and put in clay pots. The dried corn was saved for the long 
winter. Some corn was made into kneeldown bread, blue corn, pesoli and 
corn mush. Even the husks were saved to make tobacco and bread. 

Everywhere, people had this kind of food. If a person went to 
another camp, he found they had the same food there, too. 

Sometimes a medicine man came to a family that had corn. The 
medicine man bought corn pollen to use in ceremonies. 




31 



Ch'iyaan t'66 boholniihgoo ni'dadleehigii atdo' doo bidin hoyee' da 
nit'ee'. Dine hashk'aan doo chiitchin doo tt'ohchin doo nimasii adaat'ei 
hadeinitaa teh. Yik'idahinitaahgo hooghandi ninadayiijaah, naadpph' doo 
naa'oti doo ch'eeh jiyaan yit deiy^ biniiye. 

Bikaa' adani doo bee da'adani ei adaadingo dine t'aa ni'goo nida'ad|]h 
nit'ee'. Bila' yee yadiizini yiyi'doo da'ayp^ teh. Da'ayiih doo bik'ijj' ei 
sodadilzin »eh. Ya'at'eehgo iina doo ch'iyaan yika sodadilzjjh. 



There were many wild plants to eat, too. The people found bananas, 
berries, onions, and potatoes. They took the wild foods home. They ate the 
wild food with their corn, beans and melons. 

There were no tables or silverware. People ate on the floor of the 
hogan. They used their hands and ate from tin cans. After they finished 
eating, they prayed. They prayed for a good life. They prayed to have more 
food. 




32 



Dine atdo' atsj' deiypp nit'ee'. Hastoi nidaalzheehgo bjih doo jadi bitsj' 
nidayiyeeh teh. 




The people also ate meat. Some men were hunters. They hunted 
deer and antelope. They brought the meat home to their families. 

33 



Nidi naaldlooshii nideinitt'^'igii I'iyisi'i beda'atsi' nit'ee'. Bitsihwiits'os 
ch'idzi'gaidoo t'66 bahadzii aneelp^' dibe adahees'aa ni't'ee'. Dine dibe doo 
trizf doo beegashii bitsj' beda'atsj' nit'ee'. 

Dibe doo ti'izi bikagi ei ee' doo beeldlei adaalne' nit'ee. Beegashii 
bikagi ei ke bee al'.ii nit'ee'. 

Dine bilii' yits'p^doo ada'alnah doo yits'p^doo bi'ee' nidahwiileeh 
nit'ee'. 



Most meat came from livestock. The people had many sheep, goats 
and cattle. Our elders say the whole valley near Cone Hill was covered 
with sheep. 

Sheep and goat hides were used to make clothing and blankets. The 
men used cowhides to make moccasins. 




34 



Dine t'aa attso naaldlooshii baa ahay^agi ani'daalwo' teh nit'ee'. 
Atchini t'66 hailkaahdaa' ch'eeda'a'nitgo hoolzhiizh. Ako doo dichin yik'ee 
nidaakai da ni't'ee'. Saanii doo hastoi yee adaanii teh nit'ee', "Hodibe 
holopgo ei doo dichin bik'ee nijighaa da teh." 

Azha at'eeke doo ashiike t'ahdii t'aa I'iyisii adaatts'isi nidi nida'nitkaad 
nit'ee'. At'eeke ei ha'nilchaad doo adiz doo att'6 binidabidi'niltin teh. Aadoo 
bima doo bizhe'e doo bimasani doo bicheii adabitnii teh nit'ee', "Ts ida 
t'aakahii la' nihilji' bidadoochiid naasdi, wotibee baah dahshoojee'." 



Everyone helped with the livestock. Children got up before sunrise 
to let out the sheep. They never went hungry. Their grandparents told 
them, "If you always have livestock, you will never be hungry." 

Even if they were very small, boys and girls learned to herd sheep. 
Girls also learned to spin and card wool to make a blanket. 

Their parents and grandparents toldthem, "Don't ever let goof your 
livestock." 



35 



SAAD BmWIIDOO'ALfGII (Vocabulary) 



Dir 


ejf (Navajo): 


1. 


hooghan 


2 


alch'i' adeez'a 


3. 


ch'il 


4. 


chidi naa'na'i 


5. 


bee nihwiidlaadi 


6. 


tsedaashjee' 


7. 


nitsidigo'i 


8. 


naada?' doott'izhi 


9. 


hanli'gai 


10. 


tanaoshgiizh 


11. 


tadidi'i'n 


12. 


beesh bee adani 


13. 


teeh 


14. 


jadi 


15. 


ha'ii"3 


16. 


adiz 


17. 


ha'nilchaad 


18. 


kelchi, ke 


19. 


beegashii bikagi 



Bilagaanaji (English): 

1 . shelter 

2. forked stick hogan 

3. vegetable 

4. tractor 

5. plow 

6. grinding stone 

7. kneeldown bread 

8. blue corn 

9. pesoli 

1 0. corn mush 

1 1 . corn pollen 

12. silverware 

13. valley 

14. antelope 

15. sunrise 

1 6. spin (wool) 

17. card (wool) 

18. moccasin 

19. cowhide 

20. depend 



36 



ASHDLA' GONE' DAH SHIJAA'IGlf 

Naalyehe Ba Hooghan Bit Ni'nina 

Tsech'i'zhfdoo ch'ini'lj'j'goo t'aa IjT \a' bee atiin. Atk'ida?' dine 
tsinaab39s atsi' yii' haadeiditbjjhgo akpo atnaada'atb^s nit'ee'. Ha'naa 
atnaada'atb9s nit'ee'. Tseyi'goo atnaadaakah nit'ee'. 

Tseyi' gone' dine keedahat'inigii didzetsoh ninadeinitt'jjh nit'ee'. Dine 
atsj' yee didzetsoh nidayiitniih teh. 




CHAPTER FIVE 

Coming of the Trader 

There is a horse trail that goes from Rough Rock to Chinle. Many 
years ago, the people loaded their wagons with mutton. They drove across 
this trail. They went to Canyon de Chelly. 

The people in the canyon grew peaches. The people from Rough 
Rock traded their mutton for the peaches. 



37 



La' ei dine Kiis'aanii bikeyahgoo atnaadaakah nit'ee'. Kiis'aanii ei 
naadaa doo didzetsoh doo tse'est'ei bee daholpQ teh. Kiis'aanii ei dii Dine 
atsi' yee yaa nidayiilniih teh. 

Diigi at'ee dine ch'iyaan attah aat'eetii nichidayiyoott'eeh nit'ee'. 



Some people went to the Hopi mesas. The Hopis had corn, peaches, 
and piki bread. The Hopis traded their food for the Navajos' mutton. 
This was the way people got different kinds of food. 







38 



Lah t'ah nit'ee' Bilagaana lei' dine yit alhaa nida'iilniih yiniiye niyaa 
la. Lorenzo Hubbell ei wolyeego. Dine binak'ee azhniligii yinahji' bi'zhi' ba 
adayiilaa. 

Tsehootsooidi naalyehe ba hooghan ahoolaa. Dine Hubbell binaalye' 
ba hooghandi nidaakah silj'j". Aadi ak'aan doo gohweeh doo ch'iyaan t'66 
ahayoi attah aat'eetgo nichidayiyooh'eeh teh. 

Dine aghaa' doo diyogi naalyehe ba hooghangi nidayiijaah ieh. Aghaa' 
doo diyogi yee ak'aan doo gohweeh doo ch'iyaan nidayiitniih teh. 

Dine naalyehe ba hooghan t'aa hazho'o bit ya'adaat'eeh nit'ee'. 
Aghaa' baa nidahaniihgo t'aadoo le'e t'66 ahay6i attah aat'eetii yee 
nidayiitniih teh. Ei baago Hubbell naalyehe ba hooghan Lok'aahniteelgi 666 
ch'iniljjgi la" anaahoodlaa. 

T'aadoo hodina'i naalyehe ya sidahi ta' dinetahjj' ninaahaaskai. Bis 
Doott'ish Deez'ahidi d66 Ooljee't6odi naalyehe ba hooghan anaadahoodlaa. 



One day, an Anglo came to trade with the Navajos. His name was 
Lorenzo HubbelL He came from New Mexico. Lorenzo Hubbell wore eye 
glasses. The Navajos named him after his glasses. 

He built a trading post at Fort Defiance. The people came to 
Hubbell's store. They found flour, coffee and many different foods there. 

The people brought their wool and rugs to the trading post. They 
traded the wool and rugs for flour, coffee and food. 

The people liked the trading posts. They sold their wool for many 
goods. So Hubbell opened more stores in Ganado and Chinle. 

Soon, other traders came to the Navajos. They built stores at Round 
Rock and Oljeto. 



39 



Dine naalyehe ba hooghangoo t'aa deii'kaahgo dikwi'i da ni'dablitkaah 
nit'ee'. Lii' doo tsinaabags yee ainaadaakah nit'ee'. Atiin ei nidahonitt'a teh. 

Lahda nidahattljhgo ei doodago yidzasgo atlin nidahachxpph nit'ee'. 
Dine naalyehe ba hooghangoo doo atnaadaakah da nit'ee'. 



It took many days for the people to travel to the trading posts. They 
went by horse and wagon. The trails were rough. 

Sometimes the trails were washed out by rain and snow. The 
people could not get to the trader. 



40 



Lah t'ah ni't'ee' nalitniihi tei. Tsech'i'zhidi niya. Naat'aanii danilinigi'i yit 
ahit nidahasne'. Naat'aaniii ta' Tsinaajinii Bil|j" Likizhii wolyee ni't'ee. Bilij" 
Likizhgo neiltih nft'ee', ei binahji' beeho'dilzin nit'ee. Bida'i ei Biwogiizhi 
wolyee nit'ee'. Ef atdo' naat'aanii nilij nft'ee'. 

Baa dahojilne'go Tsinaajinii Bilii' Likizhii doo bida'i na'iitniihi ii'tni jini", 
"Dii Kwe'e Tsech'ihigi naalyehe ba hooghan adin. Bis Doott'izh Deez'ahigoo 
ei doodago Tsehootsooigoo t'eiya atnaadeikah." 

"Lahda dine ni'lei Ooljee'toogoo aghaa' kiihnideigeeh," ni jini 
Tsinaajinii Bilij' Likizhii. 

Aadoo na'iitniihi doo naat'aanii Tsech'izhigi naalyehe ba hooghan ta' 
ahodoolnii't daaniigo yee athada'deest'^. Naalyehe ba hooghan ahodoolniligi 
yaa yanaadaatti'. 

"Tsech'i'zhi Bito'igi ei to haalj," daani hastoi. "To haalinigii na'iilniihi 
chiyoot'ii dooleet." 

Akoho'doo'niid doo akwii naalyehe ba hooghan ahodoolniit ha'niigo 
bee nihoot'p. 




Then a trader came to Rough Rock. He talked to the leaders there. 
One leader was Tsinajinnie With A Painted Horse. He was known by his 
pinto race horse. His uncle was Biwogizhii. Biwogizhii was also a leader. 

It issaid that Tsinajinnie With A Painted Horse and his uncle told the 
trader, "There is no trading post at Rough Rock. We must go all the way to 
Round Rock or Fort Defiance." 

"Sometimes people must go as far as Oljeto to sell their wool, ' said 
Tsinajinnie With A Painted Horse. 

The trader and the leaders decided that Rough Rock needed a store. 
They talked about where to build a trading post. 

"There is water at Rough Rock Springs," the men said. "The trader 
could get his water from the springs." 

So, it is said, they decided to put the store there. 



41 



Ts'i'da attse naalyehe ba hooghani'gi'i ei nibaal biyi' ni't'ee'. Naalyehe 
ya sidahi ak'aan doo gohweeh doo dikwii shii ch'iyaan attah at'eego baa 
nahaniih nit'ee'. 

Naiitniihi dine yich'j' haadzi'i". "Naalyehe ba hooghan t'aa nitsxaaigi'i 
alyaago ya'at'eeh dooleet," diiniid. 

Aadoo dine adaani, "Nika'adiijahgo naalyehe ba hooghan ta' 
adadiilniit." 

Hastoi Na'iitniihi yit nidaashnish. Naalyehe ba hooghan tse doo bis 
yee adayiilaa. 



The first store was only a tent. The trader sold flour, coffee and other 
food from his tent. 

The trader talked to the people. "We need a bigger store," he said. 

The people said, "We will help you build a real store." 

The men worked with the trader. They built a store of stone and 
adobe. 



42 



Naalyehe ba hooghan t'aa alts'fsigo alyaa. Ts'ida aghaadi bidin 
dahoyee'igi'f t'eiya holpo nit'ee'. Ak'aan doo ashjjh tikan doo ashiih 
adaat'ehigii. Gohweeh doo yik'ani'gii doo bighaji'gishi dahoipp nit'ee'. Nidi 
atk'esdisi doo to dilchxoshi ei adin. 

Iid39 atdo' t'aadoo le e doo da il)j da. Dine ak'aan naadiin ashdia' 
dahidedlo'igii hastaa doott'izh doo bi'aan nahast'ei sindao baah iiiigo 
nidayiitniih nit'ee'. Gofiweeh naaki dahidedlo'igii ei t'aata'i doott'izh bpgin 
iljjgo nidayiitniih nit'ee'. Ashiih tikan nitsaaigii ei titso b99h ilij nit'ee'. 

Nidi Dine doo aiahjj' bibeeso daholop da nit'ee'. Naalyehe ya sidahi 
baph hadaajilgo ba adayosin nit'ee'. Baah hadaajilgo ch'iyaan doo t'aadoo 
le'e nidayiilniih teh. Tanida'digishgo aghaa' kiih dayiiyeehgo yee 
ninada'iidlee leh. Aadoo aak'eego dibe yazhi dahidinihgo dibe yazhi k)ih 
dayiiyeehgo aldo' yee ninada'iidlee teh. 



This store was very small. It had only the most needed items. There 
was flour, sugar and salt. There were unground coffee beans and canned 
goods. But there was no candy or pop. 

Things cost less in those days. People bought 25 pounds of flourfor 
690. They bought two pounds of coffee for 1 00. A large bag of sugar cost 
50. 

But the Navajosdid notalways have money topayforthegoods. The 
trader gave them credit. He let the Navajos buy food and supplies on 
credit. When the lambing and wool seasons came, the people paid their 
bills. 



43 



Ts'ida attse naalyehe ya sidahigii ei Conn Schillingberg. Dine ei 
Diik'psh deitni'i nit'ee'. 

Diik'pshee ei dine ba nidaalnish teh naalyehe ba hooghangi. Naalyehe 
anadijhgo Na'nizhoozhigoo atnaada'atbas teh. Tsinaabaas ei yee nida'iiyeeh 
nit'ee. 

Dji' yitkaahgo inda Na'nizhoozhidi abas. Aad^p' hastoi tsinab^^s bitis 
da'deesk'idgo ninad'iitb^^s nit'ep'. Naakidi damoo aleehgo inda Tsech'izhidi 
tsinaanbaas yee nida'iiyeeh nit'ee'. 

Lahda hastt'ish yii' ninada'di'mtbas nit'ee'. Lahda ei tsinaabg^s atiin 
tsits'anidaatit teh. Adah goyaa adaadaatitgo. 

Diigi at'iihgo, hastoi nidishchii' t'aa bita'igi adanittsaazigii dayiitniih. Ef 
tsinaabaas yikeedoo yidayiittt'ooh. Diigi at'eego tsinaabaas doo naateet da 
teh. 

T'aa iiyisii hoyee'go atnaada'ab^s nit'ee'. 



One of the first traders was Conn Schillingberg. The Navajos called 
him Diik'psh. 

Diik'psh hired Navajos to work at the store. When the store ran out 
of supplies, he sent men to Gallup. They took a wagon to carry the supplies. 

It took four days to get to Gallup with an empty wagon. When the 
men returned, their wagon was full. It took two weeks to get the heavy 
wagon back to Rough Rock. 

Sometimes the wagon got stuck in the mud. Sometimes the wagon 
slid off the road. It rolled down the hillside. 

When this happened, the men cut medium-sized pine trees. They 
tied the tree logs to the back of the wagon. This kept the wagon from 
sliding. 

It was a hard trip. 



44 










45 




'/mmmsmi^m 


















^ 


/f 




^ 







f f 'I 



46 



Di'ik'psh^g ei dine naaldlooshii yaa nayiitniih teh. T'aata'igo naaki doo 
bi'aan dijyaal bp^h illjgo nayiilniih nit'ee'. Dibe bighan gone' yiyiishjee' teh. 
Nidi dibe bighan atts'isigo biniinaa naanatahgoo anaahinilkaad nit'ee'. 

Dii'k'oshgig dine ba nidaalnishi'gii naaldlooshii hidigeehgoo 
atnaadeinitka' nit'ee'. T'aa ayidigi naaldlooshii hidigeehi'di ei Ch'ilzhoo'di 
t'eiya. Dikwii shij yitkaahgo inda aadi aneelka'. 

Naaldlooshii noolkatgo ei ts'ida doo nahaldo da teh. Lahda beegashii 
yoo'ahekaah teh tt'ee'go. La' doola nidaaldzid nit'ee', la'atyoi naaldlooshii yit 
da'ahigpp teh. 

Lahda naaldlooshii to ba bidin hoyee' teh. Dine ta' to yaadanichj' 
nit'ee'. 

Ch'ilzhoo'di da'nitka'go naaldlooshii baa nidahanih. Aadoo kp' 
na'atbppsii biihnilka'. Naaldlooshii ypp Halgai Hoteelgoo doo ha'a'aah 
biyaajigo adahageeh nit'ee'. 



Diik'psh bougtnt livestock from the people. He paid $2.50 a head. He 
kept the livestock in a corral. But the corral was small. The livestock hadto 
be moved to a bigger place. 

Diik'psh hired men to move the livestock to shipping yards. The 
nearest shipping yard was at Chambers. It took many days to drive a herd 
to Chambers. 

The livestock drive was slow, and dirty. Sometimes the livestock 
wandered off at night. Some bulls were wild, and fought with other 
livestock. 

It was hard to find water for the animals. People didn't like the 
livestock to use their water holes. 

When they got to Chambers, the livestock were sold. They were 
loaded on a train. The livestock were shipped to Oklahoma and places in 
the east. 



47 



Naalyehe ba hooghangi aldo' dine ahihidiikaah teh. Dine t'aa at'p^ 
bita' danizaadgo dabighan ni't'ee'. T'aa ah^^h dibe ch'il dahoippgoo yit 
tadadineeh teh. Lahda bik'ei t'aadoo yit da'ahoot'ini d'ikwii da ninadadizi' 
nit'ee. 

Dine naalyehe ba hooghangi bik'ei doo yit atheedaholzinfgii yil 
ahi'ni'deikahgo yit ahit nidahalne' teh. Diigi a'eego hane' deiniih teh. 

Naalyehe ya sidahi ei dine k'ehji yatti' ni't'ee'. Nizaadi ni'da'anishigii 
dine yee yit halne' teh. Beesh nit'i'di ei naanish dahoipp teh. 

Naalyehe ya sidahi kp' na'atb^^sii dahidijeehgoo dine atnanei'ish 
ni't'ee'. Tsech'izhidoo nilei nizaadgoo beesh nit'i' b^^h na'anish biniiye 
atnaadaakah teh. Adahwiis'aagoo tadadookai. Kp' na'atb^^sn bitiin 
ya'at'eehigii anidayii'niitgo binidaanish nit'ee'. 

Attso nidaalnishgo kp' na'atb^psii yee Na'ni'zhoozhidi ninadahakaah 
ni't'ee'. Naalyehe ya sidahi kp' na'atb^psii dahidijeehidi biba' sidaa teh. 

Dine nidaalnishi'gii beeso bich'i' nidahalyeego ninadaalnish. Ei yee 
naalyehe ba hooghandi b^ph hadaaz'ahpp ninada'iidlee teh. Aadoo ch'iyaan 
doo ee' doo t'aadoo le'e beeso yik'e nidaashnishpp yee nidayiitniih teh. 



The trading post was a new meeting place for people. People lived 
far away from each other. They moved around a lot to find better grazing 
land. Sometimes they did not see their relatives for many months. 

The people came to the trading pest to talk to their relatives and 
friends. That was how they heard news. 

The trader spoke Navajo. He told people about jobs away from 
home. There were jobs on the railroad. 

The trader took men to the train station. The men went far from 
Rough Rock on the railroad. They traveled all over the country. Their job 
was to fix the old railroad tracks and lay new ones. 

When they finished, they came back to Gallup on a train. The trader 
was waiting for them at the station. 

The men were paid cash for their work. They used the money to pay 
their bill to the trader. They bought food, clothing and other items with the 
money they earned. 



49 



Naalyehe ya sidahi t'66 ahayoigoo dine yika'analwo' ni't'ee'. Dine da 
• naaltsoos ya aneil'ijgo. Bilagaana adaat'ehigii da yee yil halane'go. 
Adahwiis'aago adahooni'tigi'i da yee yit halne'go. 

Dine naalyehe ba hooghan bik'ei doo yit aheedaholzinigii yit 
ahihidiikaahgo yit ahit nidatiaine' teh. Adahwiis'aagoo dine yaa nidaakaii'gii 
yee atiit dahalne' teh. 

Dine naalyehe ya sidahi yits'^pdoo naanish daholppgoo bit 
nabeedahoyoozjjh teh. Dine ni'zaadgoo ch'aa atnaadaakah silii'. Bilagaana 
be'iina' t'aa yeego yaa akodaniizij'. Bilagaana doo at'pp ana'i atdo' t'aa yeego 
dine yaa akodaniizjj". 



The trader helped the people in many ways. He wrote letters for 
people. He told them about the Anglos. He told them about news from far 
away places. 

People met their friends and relatives at the store. They learned 
what other people were doing. 

People learned about new jobs from the trader. The people began to 
travel away from Navajoland. They began to learn more about the Anglo 
way of life. Anglos and other people learned more about the Navajos. 



50 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALIGII (Vocabulary) 



Dinejf (Navajo): Bilagaanaji (English): 

1. Tseyi' 1. Canyon de Chelly 

2. tse est'ei 2. piki bread 

3. Kiis'aanii 3 Hopis 

4. Tsehootsooi 4. Fort Defiance 

5. Bis Dootrizh Deez'ahi 5. Round Rock 

6. Ooljee'to 6. Oljeto 

7. na'iilniihi, naalyehe ya sidahi 7. trader 

8. bis 8. adobe 

9. beeso 9. income 

10. p^h hadaajil 10. credit 

11. pph haadaaz'ahigff 11- bill 

12. nidaalnishi nahadlaah 12. hire 

13. t'aadoo le'e 13. supplies 

14. na'nizhoozhi 14. Gallup 

15. dibe bighan 15. corral 

16. Ch'ilzho'o" 16. Chambers 

17. dah adiyiigeehdoo 17. shipping yard 

18. Halgaii Hoteel 18. Oklahoma 

19. beesh ni't'i', kp' na'atb^psii bitiin 19- railroad 

20. nizaadi 20. faraway 

21. Bilagaana 21. Anglo 

22. Tsinaajinii Bilii Likizhii 22. Tsinajmnie With A 

Painted Horse 

23. Biwogiizhi 23. Biwogizhii 

24. Diik'psh 24. Conn Schillingberg 

25. Lorenzo Hubbell 

26. medium 



51 



HAST4ig^ g6ne' DAH SHIJAA'IGIT 

T'ah Nahd^^ Naat'aanii Y^p 

Dine Hweeldid^p' ninahaaskaigo binanit'a'i adin nit'ee'. Beesh bpph 
dah si'ani nidi doo hasin da. Bii' atah na'adleehi atdo' adin nit'ee'. Beesh 
bpph dah si'ani ya dah nanidaahigii atdo' doo hasin da. Taa' naaznili atdo' 
adin ni't'ee'. 

Nidi t'aa attsogo hastoi bihoneedzaanii dahoipp nit'ee'. Dii hastoi ei 
bidibe doo bibeegashii t'66 adahayoi. Ya'at'eehgo atdo' yadaaiti'. La' hataatii 
dan ill. 




CHAPTER SIX 

Early Leaders 



When the people returned from Fort Sumner, they had no main 
leader. There was no tribal council. There were no chapter houses. There 
was no tribal chairman. There were no chapter officers. 

But in every place, there were men who were respected. These men 
had many cattle and sheep. They could speak well. Some were medicine 
men. 



53 



Dine tsistt'adaakahgo di'i hastoi yich'i' atnaadaakah nit'ee'. Di'i hastoi 
dine bich'i' anidahazt'i'goo yika'ani'daalwo' teh. 

Di'i hastoi ei naat'aanii daolyee ni't'ee'. Diijjjdi t'ahdii t'aa akodaolye. 
Dine bich'i' anidahazt'i'i'gii yika'anidaaiwo' teh ni't'ee'. 

Hastiin Nitt'aai Ype doo binaai, Bidaghaa' Nineezi Ypp, t'ahdii bii' 
atah na'adleehi adaadindaa' naat'aanii niliigo beeho'dilzin nit'ee'. 



The people went to these men for advice. The men helped the 
people solve problems. 

These early leaders were called naat'aanii. They are still called that 
today. If the people had a problem, the naat'aanii tried to help. 

Left-Handed and his older brother, Long Whiskers, were well 
known leaders before there was a chapter. 



54 



Tsinaajinii Bil)i' Likizhii Yg^ ei Tsinaajinii Naat'aanii wolyeego 
beeho'dilzin ni't'ee'. Hataatii nilfi nit'ee'. Dine t'66 ahayoi yik'i nihwiitaat 
nit'ee'. Bisodizin doo asohodoobeezhgoo bidziil nit'ee'. Dine dibe doo 
beegashii doo naalyehe da'i'liinii doo ts'aa' baa dayiini'i'l nit'ee'. K'ad olta'igi 
keehat'jj nit'ee'. 

Biwogiizhf Yg^ atdo' bibeegashii t'66 ahay6i nit'ee'. Tsech'izhi d66 
Da'ak'ehalani bita'gi keehat'jj nit'ee'. 



Tsinajinnie With A Painted Horse was also called Tsinajinnie 
Naat'aanii. He was a medicine man. He sang for many families. His 
prayers were very powerful. The families gave him sheep, cows, jewelry 
and baskets. His hogan was where the school is now. 

Biwogizhii also owned many cattle and sheep. He lived between 
Rough Rock and Many Farms. 



55 



Tsinaajinii hastoi djj'go t'aala' haajee'go naat'aanii danilj) ni't'ee'. 
Tsinaajinii Nezpp doo Tsinaajinii Hastiinee doo Tsinaajinii DIonizini Ypp 
doo Tsinaajinii Ypp t'aa dii'go hataatii danilj! nit'ee'. Bidibe t'66 adahayoi 
nit'ee'. Dine ayoo baadadzolji nit'ee'. 

Ta'neeszahnii Nezpp atdo' naat'aanii nil!]' nit'ee'. Bidibe t'66 ahay6i 
d66 keyah h6tsaago bee bih6lnifh nit'ee'. Bizhe'e ei Tl'aashchi'i wolyee 
nit'ee'. Tt'aashchi'i Ye^ ei atah ts'i'da attse kwii nininaa nit'ee'. 



There were four Tsinajinnie brothers who were leaders, too. 
Tsinajinnie Long, Mr. Tsinajinnie, Tsinajinnie Laughter and The Real 
Tsinajinnie were four singers. They had many sheep. The people looked up 
to them. 

Tall Tangled Person was an early leader. He had many sheep and 
much land. His father was Red Streak. Red Streak was one of the first 
settlers here. 



56 



Chaala Tsoh Ypp aldo's naat'aanii nilj'i nft'ee'. Baa dahojilne'go 
Chaala Tsoh Yep Tsehootsooigoo tadii'ya jini. Dine biwaashindoon la' 
naahodip ha'niigo yiyiinii' la jini. Atah na'adleehi wolyeego. 

Lahgoo adahwiis'aagoo diigi at'eego t'aa iidaa' yaa naakai la. Atah 
na'adleehidi dine atah nidaadleehgo bich'j' anidahazt'i'goo yaa yadaalti'go 
yaa naakai la. Ahitka'anajahgo atiin adahale' doo dada'dittl'in doo to 
hadayiiniitgo yaa naakai. 

Chaala Tso Yee atah na'adleehigii boh6needz93 doo ya'at'eeh la niizjj". 
Nidi Ts'ech'izhigi ei doo alah na'adleeh da. 

Chaala Tso YeP Tsehootsooidi bilagaana la yil ahi'i'aazhgo yil ahil 
nahasne'. "Haala yit'eego Tsech'izhi'di alah na'adleehgo adoolniil la?" nfigo 
Chaala Tsoh Yee na'ideelkid. 




Big Charlie was another leader. It is said that Big Charlie went to 
Fort Defiance. He heard about a new kind of government. It wascalledthe 
chapter. 

Some places had started chapters. At the chapter, people met to talk 
about problems. They worked together to build roads, dams and wells. 

Big Charlie thought the chapter was a good idea. But Rough Rock 
did not have a chapter. 

Big Charlie talked to an Anglo in Fort Defiance. "How can we start a 
chapter at Rough Rock?" Big Charlie asked. 



57 



Chaala Tsoh Yee doo bilagaana Ts'ech'izhidi ni'aazh. Dine naalyehe 
ba hooghandi atah doohteel yidimiid. 

T'66 ahayoi dine da'iid6otts'))t yiniiye niheeskai. 

"Tsech'i'zhi'gi afah na'adleehe ta' holppgo ya'at'eeh," niila Chaala Tsoh 
Y0p. 

"Haash yit'eego ta' hadabidiyiilwot?" yidimiid dine. 

"Ahse ei," niila Chaala Tso Yep, "Naat'aanii atkee' dah nahaaztanigi'i 
ta' nidahidiidlah. Dii atah na'adleehgo bidaholniih dooleet." 

Dii dine yaa yadaatti'. Ya'at'eeh doo bohoneedz^^ la ho'doo'niid. 
Atsidii Biye' Ypp aip^ji' sizinigii abi'diilyaa. Akee' gone' sizinigii ei Ashjjhi 
Bitsii' Litsooi Ypp. John Foley wolyeego ei iitta' doo otta' doo ak'e'elchi 
yeehosingo binimaa naaltsoos \i\"\r\i abidiilyaa. 

Dii hastoi aldo' naat'aanii daolyeego dayeeeji'. Dii tsida altse 
Tsech'izhigi taa' naaznili daazlii'. 



Big Charlie and the Anglo came to Rough Rock.They told the people 
to meet at the trading post. 

Many people came to listen. 

"We need a chapter at Rough Rock. The chapter can help us, " Big 
Charlie said. 

"How do we start a chapter?" the people asked. 

"First," Big Charlie said, "we have to elect officers. The officers will 
be the chapter leaders." 

The people talked about this. They decided it was a good idea. They 
elected Etsitty Biye' as chapter president. Ashjjhi Yellowhair was elected 
vice president. John Foley could write. He was elected secretary. 

The people called these men naat'aanii too. They were the first 
chapter officers at Rough Rock, 



58 



Bii' atah na'adleehi ei adin nit'ee'. Nidi Tsehootsooidi ei t'aa iidp^' 
beesh bpph dah si'ani atah nadleehgo adayiilaa la. Beesh bpph dah si'ani 
naakidi ei doodago taa'di da atah nadleeh la. Dine bikeyah bikaa'gi 
adahoonitigii yaa yanidaattih. Waashindoondi adahooniti'gii da yaa 
yani'daattih. 

Tsech'izhidoo naat'aanii beesh bpph dah si'ani atah nadleehgoo 
atnaadaakah teh. Lahgoo dine yaa nidaakaiigii yaa akodahiniizjjh. 
Waashindoondi adahoonitigii da yaa akodahiniizjjh. 



At Fort Defiance, some ottier leaders started a tribal council. The 
tribal council met two or three times a year. They talked about what was 
happening all over the reservation. They talked about the United States 
Government in Washington, D.C. 

The chapter leaders from Rough Rock went to the tribal council 
meetings. They learned what other Navajos in other places were doing. 
They learned about the government in Washington. 



59 



Aadoo naat'aanii Tsech'izhidi ninahakaah. Hootaadaakaigo 
Tsehootsooidi baadahwiinist'iidigii dine yee yit dahalne' teh, 

T'66 atseed ei dine t'aa ahini'deikahgoo atah ni'daadleeh ni't'ee'. 

Lahda shiigo danidaa'goo atah ni'da'adleeh teh, naalyehe ba hooghan 
bich'eed^p'goo da atah nidaadleeh teh. T'aa tsinyaagoo da dine ahit 
nidahalne' teh. Haigo ei naalyehe ya sidahi naalyehe ba hooghan gone' dine 
ya nahoot'aahgo akone' atahnadleeh teh. 

Dine bii' atah na'adleehi adoolnift daaniigo yaa ninadaat'iih, nidi 
beeso ba adin teh. 



The chapter leaders returned to Rough Rock. They went to people's 
hogans. They told the people to meet and hear what had been said in Fort 
Defiance. 

The first chapter meetings were held wherever people gathered 
together. There was no chapter house. Sometimes meetings were held at 
a ceremony. In the summer, meetings were held outside the trading post. 
The people talked under the trees. In the winter, thetrader gave the people 
a room inside the store to hold their meetings. 

The people talked about building a chapter house, but there was no 
money. 



60 



Ik rm 0^'.^^ 



-r^ 







^"<^fi^'^^ 











:^wi;^' 



\i^i 



61 










;>>^^. "i^^^^:^:s:|;^'^%^^^ 







62 



Baa dahojilne'go tah t'ah nit'ee' Tsehootsooidp^' ninaa'i'ldee'go beeso 
atiin aineehgi chiidoo'ijtigii bi'hoone'. Dzif Yijiin bigh^^' godei atiin 
ahaneehigi'i. 

Dine t'aa hazho'o yee bit dahozhp. Dzit Yi'jim Bighpp' godei ayoo 
nahonitt'ago ha'atiin nit'ee'. L'\\' t'eiya bee ada'atiin nit'ee'. Nidahonitt'a 
haleehgo ei dine Dzit Yijiin Bighp^' godei doo nidaakai da teh. Dzit Yijiin 
Bigh^^'dep' aldo' dine doo adaadaakah da leh. 

Dine ahitka'anajahgo atiin' adayiilaa. T'66 bahadzoo tsin doo ch'il bee 
hodi'tchi'ilgo hastoi tsenit yee hasht'edaahoolaa. 

Tse atdo' t'66 bahadzoo dahdeeshzhago hastoi bee atsidi tsoh d66 tse 
bee bit adildoni yee hast'edahoolaa. 

La' ei hast6i atts'^^'tsahi d66 teezh bee hahalkaadi yee atiin 
adahoolaa. 

T'aa iiyisii bina'azhnish. Nidi dine ahitka'anajahgo t'aa dikwii 
nideezidgo atiin attso adahoolaa. 



It is said that one day, chapter leaders came back from Fort 
Defiance. They told the people about the money for a new road. They were 
going to build a road to the top of Black Mesa. 

The people were happy. It was hard to travel up and down the mesa. 
There was only a horse trail. When the weather was bad, people could not 
go up Black Mesa. The people on top could not come down. 

The people worked together to build the road. There were many 
trees and bushes in the way. The men used axes to clear away the brush. 
There were rocks in the way. The men used dynamite and big hammersto 
clear away the rocks. 

Other men built the road with picks and shovels. 

It was a hard job. But because the people worked together, the road 
was built in a few months. 



63 



To'66 attse atiin alyaaigii ei atts'oozigo ada'atiingo alyaa ni't'ee'. 

Hastoi attso atiin adayiilaago Dzit Yi'jiin Bighpp'di ni'dishchi'i" 
naadayii'tseel Tsin dayiitselep ei tsinaabpps yee ch'idayiizyj 

Dine tsin nidayiizyinee ei Tsech'izhidi olta' bee alyaa. Bikaa'd^p' bik'i 
dah at'aahgo chooz'ijd. Woyahdoo ei tse doo bis bee nritfingo alyaa. 

Dii ts'ida attse olta nit'ee' Tsechi'izhigi. 



The first road was very narrow. Only one wagon fit on it at a time. 

When they finished building the road, the men cut timbers from the 
trees on the mesa. They loaded the timbers in a wagon. They brought the 
timbers to Rough Rock. 

The people used the timbers to build a school at Rough Rock. The 
timbers were used for the roof. The walls were made of stone and adobe. 

This was the first school at Rough Rock. 



64 




^ 






^Mk 



^' ^.^1 















h''- -j^^v 



'^'--/'./, •&, </-• 






• '^1 :^; 



I ^!! 







ijt t.' - -^ '-'^ 



_<^s^ 



.'(3? 



65 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALrGlT (Vocabulary) 



Dinejl (Navajo): 

1. beesh bp^h dah si'ani 



2. 


atah na'adleehi 


3. 


beesh bpph dah si'ani 




ya dah sidahi 


4. 


taa' naaznili 


5. 


naat'aanii 


6. 


naalyehe, yodi 


7. 


ninaanii 


8. 


Waashindoonshchiin 


9. 


Waashindoondi 


10. 


tsenit 


11 


tse bee bit adildoni 


12. 


bee atsidi 


13. 


teezh bee hahalkaadi 


14. 


alts'^p'tsahi 


15. 


atts'oozi 


16. 


Tseghahoodzani 


17. 


Hastiin Nitt'aai Yee 


18. 


Bidaghaa' Nineezi Ygg 


19. 


Tsinaajinii Naat'aanii 


20. 


Tsinaajinii Nezee 


21. 


Tsinaajinii Hastiinee 


22. 


Tsinaajinii DIonizini Y^p 


23. 


Tsinaajinii Y^^ 


24. 


Chaala Tsoh Yep 


25. 


Atsidii Biye' Ypp 


26. 


Ashijhi Bitsii' Litsooi Y0p 


27. 


John Foley 



Bilagaanaji (English): 

1 . tribal council 

2. chapter 

3. tribal chairman 

4. chapter officer 

5. leader 

6. jewelry 

7. settler 

8. government 

9. Washington, DC. 

10. axe 

1 1 . dynamite 

12. hammer 

13. shovel 

14. pick 

15. narrow 

1 6. Window Rock 

17. Left-Handed 

18. Long Whiskers 

19. Tsinajinnie Naat'aanii 

20. Tsinajinnie Long 

21 . Mr. Tsinajinnie 

22. Tsinajinnie Laughter 

23. The Real Tsinajinnie 

24. Big Charlie 

25. Etsitty Biye' 

26. Ashiihi Yellowhair 

27. John Foley 

28. president 

29. vice president 

30. secretary 



66 



TSOSTS'ID GONE' DAH SHIJAA'IGM 

Olta'ji' Ajighaahgo 

lid^^'atdo' atchi'ni doo t'66 ahayoi da'otta' da nit'ee'. Ts'ech'izhigi olta' 
alyaaigii ei atts'isigo alyaa. T'aa tadiin doo bi'aan ashdia'i otta'i bi'ighahgo 
alyaa. 

T'aa dii t'eiya olta' sinil nit'ee' Tsech'i'zhi nahos'a'gi. Otta'i nizaadgoo 
adahakaahgo aadi da'otta' teh. La' Ch'iniliidi doo Tsehootsooidi da'otta' 
nit'ee'. 



iH''-^ 






.-^^ 




CHAPTER SEVEN 

Going To School 

In those days, only a few children went to school. The new school at 
Rough Rock was small. It could hold only 35 children. 

There were no other schools near Rough Rock. Children had to go 
far away, to boarding schools. Some children went to school at Chinle or 
Fort Defiance. 

67 



La' ei silaoitsooi be'olta'di Dzitghp'i bikeyahdi. Fort Apache 
hoolyeedi. Tsech'izhi'doo otta i \a' aadi da'ii'lta'. 
T'aa di'i t'eiya da'olta' ni't'ee' I'l'd^p'. 

Dii da'olta'igii ayoo alchini yich'i' nidahwiitnaa nit'ee'. Lahda ch'iyaan 
bi'diin hoyee' teh. Da'otta'i t'66 bahadzoo nidaalnish feh. Abinigo ei 
nida'oltah. NIda'iihahgo ei ch'iyaan al'j) gone doo da'nijah gone' doo olta'gi 
da'ak'ehi'di nidaalnish teh. 

Dine da'otta'i atdo' t'aadoo dine k'ehji, taa bi dabizaadigii, yadaatti'i 
dabi'di'nii nit'ee'. Akodaat'i'igo ei biniinaa atidabi'dirj'i nit'ee'. 



There was another school in an old army fort on the Apache 
Reservation. This was called Fort Apache. Some children from Rough 
Rock went there. 

These were the only schools in those days. 

The schools did not always treat the Navajo children well. 
Sometimes there was not enough food. The children had to work hard at 
the schools. They went to class in the morning. After class, they worked in 
the kitchen, the dormitory, or on farms at the school. 

The Navajo children were not allowed to speak Navajo at school. 
They were punished if they did. 



68 



Olta'doo dine ta' atnaadaal'aahgo atchfni olta'goo adayii'eesh nit'ee'. 
Hastoi olta' ya nidaal'a'igi'i hootaadaakai teh. Lahda dii hastoi t'aadoo ama 
doo azhe'e danili'ni'gii yit dahalne'e atchini olta'goo adayii'eesh nit'ee'. 
Atchini t'aadoo hooghandi ninahakahi nahast'ei bee nidahidiziid teh. Lahda 
t'aado ninahal<ahi t^'i nibeedahahaah nit'ee'. Ama doo azhe'e danilinigii 
ba'atchini hadeidinootaah'gii doo bit beedahozin da. 

Ei b^pgo ta' ama doo azhe'e danilinigii t'aadoo ba'atchini olta'goo 
yida'iisnii' da. Hastoi olta' ya nidaal'a'igii ba'atchini yits'pp nideinitin teh. 
"Niha'atchini doo hoipp da," t'66 deitnii teh. 

Atchini olta'goo aheeskaigo shp' ei hai nida'nitkaad dooleet? Haish ei 
hook'ee sidaa dooleet? 



Ttne sctiools sent men to get the Navajo children. The men came to 
people's hogans. Sometimes the men did not tell the Navajo parents they 
were taking their children to school. The children did not come home for 
nine months. Sometimes they did not come home for many years. The 
parents did not know how to find their children. 

So, some parents did not send their children to school. They hid 
their children from the men. The parents told the men, "We have no 
children." 

If the children went to school, who would herd the sheep? Who 
would help care for the hogan? 



69 



La' atkidpp da iitta'ep nihil halne'go ani, "Lah t'ah ni't'ee' Hastiin Silao 
Yazhi dabijinii nit'ee' keehwiit'inidi nihaaniya. Nit'ee' shima doo shizhe'e dii 
lidoottahji' aniis^, ei b^pgo iidoohah. 

"Biiskani hastiin Tsmaajinii wolyee nit'ee' Ch'iniljidi olta'goo shit 
ni'aazh. Lij' bee niit'aazh, bikee' dah sedaago. Dii nahast'eits'aadah yihah 
Vppdp9', 

"lidpp' shitsii' nineezgo shitsiiyeel hoipp nit'ee'. rh'iniliidi niyaa 
nit'ee' shitsiiyeipp shits'^^' k'ideiizhgish." 



One of our elders tells this story about going to school: 

"One day a man named Little Policeman came to my family 'scamp. 
He came from Chi nie. He told my family I was of school age, and I needed to 
go to school." 

"So the next day a many called Tsinajinnie took me to school in 
Chinle. We rode double, on horseback. This was in 1919." 

"At that time my hair was long, and I hadabun.Theycutoffmybun 
when I got to school at Chinle." 



70 




m 1 







71 



Atchini ta' doo olta' bit ya'adaat'eeh da nit'ee'. Y66' anahajeeh leh. 

La' mint naatiaine'go am', "Al<ee'di Fort Apactie tioolyeed^e' atatn yoo' 
aninaanaastiwodgo I<'asd9p' dasiidii T'lis Yaal<in l<6t'eejigo. T'aa tioo'nitiee 
atio'niittp. Tt'ee' bi'igtiati natiattin. 

"Hadatioyeegeedgo akoyaa adatnsn'na'. Di'igi at'eego t'aa 
mtieedatioozilgo yisl<9. Astnkii ta' tt'ee' biigtiati yictia. T'aa nizaadgoo ba 
tiatnoyegeedgo akoyaa iitt.i doo doodloot da biniiye. 

"Biiskani t'66 batnadzoo dictnin dasiidljj'. Hojooba'igo dine bikeyati 
tnatioodzooiji' mmikai. T'aa akwil hoogtnan nimazi lei' bn' natnisiit^p ni't'ee'. 

"Naaki damoo mtneeda'azijj' t'aa m' Tsectii'i'zhigoo neikatigo. 

"T'ati nit'ee' tnostoi lei' Fort Apactie tiooiyeedee' yikai. Ei olta'goo 
nidamtniztn'eezti." 

Da'otta'i yoo' anatnajeetii'gi'i otta'di ninahakaatngo ayoo atidabi'dil'ii \eh. 
Latnda astnike at'eeke bi'ee' yee mdaakai teti. Ako doo yoo' aniaatiajeeti da 
bimiye. 



Some Navajo ctnildren did not like ttie sctnools. Ttiey ran away. 

Anottier elder tells this story: 

"The last time I ran off from Fort Apache, we almost froze this side of 
Holbrook. It began to rain. It rained all night. We dug a hole in the sand. 
This was how we stayed warm. One of the boys cried all night. I dug a 
deeper hole. I buried him deep in the sand to keep him alive. 

"We were starving the next day. We made it to the Navajo border. 
We stayed in a hogan there. It took us two weeks to walk back to Rough 
Rock 

"Then the men came from Fort Apache. They took us back to school 
the next week." 

When the runaways returned to school, they were punished. 
Sometimes the boys had to wear girls' skirts. This was to keep them from 
running away again. 



72 



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73 



Tsech'i'zhigi olta' ahooyaago tahgo ahoot'e hazliC. Alchini inda 
hada'iittaahigi'i da'olta'go alyaa. Atchi'ni t'aa dabighan dabit'aahgi da'olta' 
leh. T'aadoo bima doo bizhe'e doo bighan yits'p^dl danizaadi da'oUa'i atyaa. 
La' bima da, ei doodago bizhe'e da olta'gi nidaalnish ni't'ee'. 

Di'i ji'olta' dabijinii nit'ee'. Atchi'ni t'aa akwii'ji nida'iittaahgo hooghandi 
ninadahakaah leh. 

Olta'di ei atchi'ni Bilagaana bizaad yidahooraah teh. Bilagaanaji 
i'oorjjtigii yidahool'aah teh. 

Hooghandi ei bima doo bizhe'e dineji i'ool'jjtigii yee nidabinitin teh. 



When the school was built at Rough Rock, things began to change. 
It was a school for beginners. Little children went to school near their 
homes. They did not have to be away from their parents. Some of their 
parents worked at the school. 

The school was called a day school because children could go home 
every day. 

At school, the children learned English. They learned more about 
the Anglo way of life. 

At home, their parents taught them the Navajo way. 



74 



Aadoo naas hodeeshzhiizhgo dikwi'igo shji olta' anaadahoolyaa. Nidi 
olta' atchini t'aa bi'oh neel'^p nit'ee'. 

La' atchini dooda'otta' da nit'ee'. Hooghandi bidin dahoyee'go binimaa 
t'aa aadi bima doo bizhe'e yika'ani'daajah nit'ee'. 

Ama doo azhe'e danilinigii ei nida'nitini danilji nit'ee'. Ba' atchini 
t'aadoo le'e t'66 ahayoi yee nideineeztpp'. 

Naaldlooshii doo hooghan baa ahayp yee nideineezt^^'. Att'6 doo 
ch'iyaan ai'i yee yidahoot'p^'. Nahosdzaan doo keyah baa ahayppgi da yee 
nideineeztp^'. Dineji hane' nidaazt'i'igii da yee yit dahalne' teh. 

Diigi at'eego atchini nidabidi'neestpp'. 



Soon, other schools were built. But there were still not enough 
schools for all the Navajo children. 

Some children did not go to school. Their parents needed them at 
home. These children stayed home and helped their parents. 

Parents were the children's teachers. They taught many things. 

Parents taught how to care for livestock and the hogan. They taught 
how to weave and cook. They taught about Mother Earth, and caring for 
the land. They taught Navajo stories. 

This was the kind of education many children received. 



75 



SAAD BIHWilDOO'ALfGII (Vocabulary) 



Di 


neji (Navajo): 


1. 


Waashindoon be'olta' 


2. 


Dzitgh^'i bikeyah 


3 


otta'i danijahji 


4. 


ati'el'i 


5. 


T'lis Yaakin 


6. 


yoo' anahajeehi 


7. 


ji olta' 


8. 


na'nitin 


9. 


ihoo'aah 


10 


. Sil^o Yazhi 



Bil 


agaanaji (English) 


1. 


boarding school 


2. 


Apache Reservation 


3. 


dormitory 


4. 


punish 


5. 


Holbrook 


6. 


runaway 


7. 


day school 


8. 


teach 


9. 


education 


10. 


, Little Policeman 


11 


. Fort Apache 



76 



TSEEBII GONE DAH SHIJAA'fGff 

Diyin Bizaad Yaa Hal ne'e Tsech'izhidi Nina 

Lah t'ah nit ee' diyin bizaad yaa halne'e lei' Tsech'izhidi niya. Diyin 
bizaad yaa halne'e ei bi'ee' adaatts'isidoo oodlani nilijgo at'i) la. Tseyaatohi 
hahoodzod§§' niyaa la. Sodizin ba hooghan doo \a' si'p^goo yaa akoniizii'. 









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CHAPTER EIGHT 

Missionaries Come To Rougti Rock 

One day a missionary came to Rough Rock. The missionary was 
from a Christian church. He came from Colorado. He saw there was no 
Christian church at Rough Rock. 

77 



Diyin bizaad yaa halne'e dine sodizan ba hooghan daats'i ta' niha 
nidoot'aal danohsin yidiniid. 

"Sodizin ba hooghan ei yeego nihika'adootwot," di'miid. "Naaldlooshii 
da to ba bika ada'diilgoh Atiin da ya'at'eehgo adahodoolniit. Sodizin ba 
hooghan doo olta' ta adoolniit." 

Dine naaltsoos bizhi' yikaa' adayiilaa diyin bizaad yaa halne'e ta' 
Tsech'i'zhi dooneet doo sodizin ba hooghan ta nidoot'aat daaniigo. 

Aadoo diyin bizaad yaa halne'e ypp Tseyaatohi Haahoodzogoo hane' 
anayii'p. "Tsech'izhi hoolyeedi dine sodizin ba hooghan ta' deinizin la, niigo 
aadi hane' neini'p. 

Nit'ee' aadee' diyin bizaad yaa halne'e ta' Tsech'i'zhi'ji' deis'a'. Dii 
hastiin ei Vern Ellis wolyee la Hastoi atdo' t'aa aadpe' ta' yit yikai. Naalyehe 
ba hooghan t'aa ayidigi sodizin ba hooghan doo olta' adayiilaa. Dii bi'ee' 
adaatts'isi bisodizan ba hooghan. 

Reverend Ellis be'esdzpp hoipp (Lois) doo ashdia' ba'atchini. Ei atdo' 
Tsech'izhidi yikai. 

Ellis ba'atchini yit nibaal nideiz'p sodizin ba hooghan si'ani t'aa 
ayidigi. Wone' silei attso nibaal yiyi' gone' yah adayiizhjaa'. Bighan adeileeh 
bina nibaal biyi' gone' daBighan nit'ee'. 



The missionary asked the people if they wanted a church at Rough 
Rock. 

"The church can help you," he said. "We can build a well for 
livestock. We will make the roads better. We will have a church and a new 
school." 

The people signed a paper saying they wanted the missionary to live 
at Rough Rock and build a church here. 

The missionary went back to his church in Colorado. "The people 
need a mission at Rough Rock," he told the people in the church. 

The church sent another missionary to Rough Rock. This man was 
Vern Ellis. He came with other men from his church. They built a church 
near the trading post and day school. This was the Friends Mission. 

Reverend Ellis had a wife, Lois, and five children. They came to 
Rough Rock too. 

The Ellis family put a tent near the church. They unloaded all their 
furniture into the tent. They lived in the tent while they built their house. 



78 



Kwe'e nahalzhiishgo atdo' tahoniigaah dine bitah nitnii'. Dine t'66 
ahayoi tahoniigaah nitsaaigii dabi'i'ghp. 

Tsech'izhigi ei Bilagaana azee' I'ft'ini adin ni't'ee' iid^^'. Azee' ^p'arijgo 
bit haz'anigii nidi adin nit'ee'. Lok'ahniteeldi t'eiya t'aa ayi'digi azee'al'jj 
nit'ee'. Dine k'asd^p' t'aa attso bichidi adaadin nit'ee'. Lahda dine t'66 
bahadzoo bitah dahoneezgaigo Tsehootsooidi azee' al'iigo li'.i' ei doodago 
tsinaab^^s yee dadookahigii doo yidaaghah da teh. 

Diyin bizaad yaa dahalne'e ei bichidi d66 bichidi naat'a'i hoipp nit'ee'. 
Chidi naat'a'i ei bighan ya adayiilaa. T'aa akwii chidi bitoo' ba i'li'aago 
adaayiilaa. 

Dine bitah ni'dahoniigahgo diyin bizaad yaa halne'e azee' al'ii bit 
atnaada'att'ah leh. Lahda chidi bee kintahg66 atnaadabi'digeeh nit'ee'. 




During this time, there was much sickness among the Navajos. 
Many people died of the flu and other diseases. 

There were no Anglo doctors at Rough Rock. There was no clinic. 
The nearest hospital was in Ganado. Sometimes people were too sick to go 
by horse and wagon all the way to Ganado. 

The missionaries had a truck and an airplane. They built a plane to 
keep the airplane. This was called a hangar. They put a gasoline pump 
there. 

When people were sick, the missionaries flew them to the hospital. 
Sometimes they drove the people to town in their truck. 



79 



Lah too bahadzoo yidzaaz. Dine Dzil Yijiin bigh^^'di keedahat'inigi'i 
doo aadee' adadaokaah ahoodzaa da. T'66 ahayoi dine bitah dahoniigai. 
Chiyaan atdo' bidin dahooyee'. Diyin bizaad yaa halne e baa hodoot'ihigi'i 
nidi doo biighah da silii'. Ch'iyaan t'aadoo choot'eehi'dpp' da hazlij'. 

Dine Tsech'izhidoo ta' Ellis yit ahi'ikaigo yich'j' hadaasdzii". "Dzil Yijiin 
Bighp3'd0e hast'edahodiilniit'," dadiiniid. "Ako dine nidahonitt'a nidahadleeh 
nidi aadee' faa nidaakai dooleel." 

Diyin bizaad yaa halne'e Ip diiniid. Hastoi yil nidaashnish. Chidi 
naa'na'i chiyoost'e'. 

Bi doo hastoi chidi naa'na'i yee atiin hast'edahoolaa. Atiin t'aa 

hoteelgo adahoolaa. 

Deeskaaz doo nich'i'ilgo nidaashnish. Atiin hast'ehalneehgo t'aa iiyisii 
bina'azhnish. Nidi dine ahi ka'anajahgo doo nitdzilgoo t'aadoo hodina'i attso 
nida'azhnish. 



One year, there was a very bad snowstorm. The people on top of 
Black Mesa could not get down. Many people were sick. They needed food. 
they could not get to the missionary. They had no way to get food. 

Some people from Rough Rock talked to Reverend Ellis. "We need 
to make the road to Black Mesa better," they said. 'Then people can travel 
from the mesa even if the weather is bad." 

The missionary agreed. He worked with themen.Hegota bulldozer. 

The missionary and the men used the bulldozer to grade the road. 
They made the road wider. 

It was cold and snowy. Grading the road was hard work. But the 
people worked together. Soon the job was done. 



80 



:/ 




Diyin bizaad yaa dahalne'e Tsech'izhigi olta' adahoolaa. Atchini 
tseebi'ijj' dayotta'igii daotta'go ba ahoolyaa. 

Ako Tsech'izhigi naaki olta' nit'ee'. Dine ba'alchini ji'olta'ji da'otta' 
nit'ee'. Alchini t'aa danineezigii ei oodlani ba da'olta'ji da'olta' nit'ee'. 

Tseebi'igii attso nidayiittaahgo ei t'aa haagoo da Waashindoon 
beda'olta'goo adahakaah nit'ee'. 



The missionaries built a school at Rough Rock. The school was for 
grades 3 through 8. 

Then there were two schools at Rough Rock. People sent their little 
children to the day school. The older children went to school at the 
mission. 

After they got to the eighth grade, the children had to go away to 
boarding school. 




82 



SAAD BfHWIIDOO'ALIGfr (Vocabulary) 



Din^ji (Navajo): 

1. Diyin bizaad yaa halne'e, 
oodlani 

2. oodlani, Diyin Bizaad 
yoodlaanii 

3. Sodizin ba hooghan 

4. Tseyaatohi hahoodzoji 

5. Bi'ee' adaatts'isi bit haz'p^ji 

6. wone silei 

7. tahoniigaah or naatniih 

8. azee' pph al'j bit haz'^^ji 

9. azee' al'iidi 

10. Lok'ahniteel 

11. chid naat'a'i 

12. chidi naat'a'i bighan 

13. chidi bitoo' 

14. chidi naa'na'i 



Bilagaanaji (English): 

1. missionary 

2. Christian 

3. church 

4. Colorado 

5. Friends Mission 

6. furniture 

7. disease 

8. clinic 

9. hospital 

10. Ganado 

11. airplane 

12. hangar 

13. gasoline 

14. bulldozer 

15. Reverend Vern Ellis 

16. Lois Ellis 



83 



NAHAsT'EI' GONE' DAH SHIJAAfGlT 

Olta' Aniidigii Anaahoolyaa 

K'ad ei Tsech'izhigi naakigo olta'. Nidi atchini t'66 ahayoi t'ahdii doo 
da'otta' da. Alchini t'aa danineezigii ei dani'zaadi da'olta'goo 
anaadahakaahgo aadi da'otta' ni't'ee', Ch'i'nilj adahoot'eegoo da da'otta' teh 
ni't'ee'. 

Dine nizaadi ba'atctii'ni da'otta 'go doo bit ya'adaat'eetn da. Dine 
Tseghahoodzanidi doo Waastnindoondi naat'aanii danilinigii yit 
atnitnidatnasne'. Nit'ee naat'aanii adadiiniid, "Tsecti'iztiigi olta' aineehgo 
t'aabiighah. T'aa akwii otta'i danijahgo adoolniit. Waashindoondpe' doo 
Tseghahoodzanid^^' ei bik'i adeest'ij" dooleet." 




- . ^'".5^' 






CHAPTER NINE 

A Demonstration School 

Now people had two small schools at Rough Rock. Still, many 
children did not go to school. Older children had to go to school at Chinle 
and off the reservation. 

The people did not like to send their children so far away. They 
talked to leaders from Window Rock and Washington. These leaders said, 
"We can build a school at Rough Rock. It will be a boarding school. It will be 
run by the government in Washington and Window Rock." 

85 



Aadoo t'aadoo hodina'i olta' alyaa. Nitsaago olta' alyaa. Di'i olta' k'ad 
kpp siniligi'i ei at'e. 

Nidi dine ta' Tsech'i'zhigi olta' aineehi'gii Binahjj Eehodoozjjt biniiye 
adoolnii'l dadiiniid Lok'ajigaidi ta' akot'eego olta'. Olta' Binahji, Eehoozijhigi'i 
wolyeego beewojii nit'ee'. Lahgoo da'olta'goo t'aadoo le'e bee adaadinigi'i ei 
akwii daholppgo biniinaa. Dine bizaad bee ak'e'elchi doo wolta' yee 
nida'nitm. K'e nidaazt'i'igii atdo' yee nida'nitin. 

Olta' binanit'a'i tsiniheeshjii" bee wojihigii atdo' t'aa Dine danili. Di'i 
olta' ya daho'aati. Lahgoo da'olta'goo ei doo akot'eego ada'at'ii da. tatngoo 
da'ota'goo ei Dine bizaad bee ak'e'elchi doo wolta' doo Dineji i'oorijt 
bina'niltinigii doo yee nida'nitin da. Lahgoo da'olta'goo atdo' Dine t'aa bi 
olta' dayiyeetyeedigi'i doo ya nahas'p^ da. 



Soon, a new school was built. It was a big school. This is the 
elementary school we have today. 

But some people wanted Rough Rock to be a demonstration 
school. There was a demonstration school at Lukachukai. It was called a 
demonstration school because it had things that other schools did not. It 
taught Navajo language. It taught about Navajo clans. 

It had a Navajo school board. The school board members were the 
school's leaders. No other schools had Navajos on the school board. No 
other schools taught Navajo language and culture. Other schools did not 
allow Navajos to run the school. 



86 



Dine ta' Lok'ajigaidge' niheeskai. Tsech'izhigi alah aleehgo akwii 
niheeskai. 

Hastiin la' Bilagaana niljjgo Bob Roessel wolye. Ei ani, "Lokaajigaidi 
otta'i k'e nidaazt'i'igii bee nidaniitin. Dineji roorijtigi'i nihil danilj dabidii'niigo 
nidaniitin. T'aadoo niha'alchini ni'zaadgoo olta' yiniiye ahekahigo ya'at'eeh. 
Dineji dod Bilagaanaji nanitingo ya'at'eeh." 

Dii dine taa'di yiniiye alahnasdljj". Tsech'i'chigi olta'igii altso alyaa.Nidi 
t'ahdoo 93'alneeh da. Wonaasdoo k'ad^p alchini yah anajeeji' ahooizhiizh. 

Dine la' Tsech'izhidoo nidaakaiigii adakiiniid, "Olta, Binahji Eehoozjjh 
bee wojfhigii bidadiniitah." 




Some people came from Lukachukai. They came to a chapter 
meeting at Rough Rock. One man was an Anglo named Bob Roessel. He 
said, "At Lukachukai, we help Navajo students learn their clans. We teach 
them to respect their culture. It is better not to send children away. It is 
better to teach the Navajo way and the Anglo way." 

The people had three meetings about this. The school at Rough 
Rock was finished. But it had not been opened yet. It was almost time to 
open the school. 

Some people from Rough Rock spoke. "We want to try a 
demonstration school here," they said. 

Other people stood up in favor of this. "The new school building will 
be a demonstration school," they agreed. 



87 



Aadoo olta' binanit'a'i tsiniheeshjii" bee wojihi'gii nahaasdiaa'. Ts'ida 
attse nahaasdia igii ei Teddy McCurtain, John Dick, Yazzie Begay, Ashijhi 
Tsosie, Benjamin Woody, doo Ada Agnes Singer. 

Dii hastaa doo bi'aan hastppgoo yihah yeedpp'. 

Naataanii tsiniheeshjii" bee wojihii ei olta' ya daho'aahgo 
chihoolzhiizh T'aa bi olta' yilwoligii yidaho'aahgo. Ba'olta'i doo olta' ya dah 
sidahigii doo dine olta'gi deiyilniish dooligii nidayiilaahgo. ^ 

K'asdpp' t'aa attso Tsechizhidoo nidaakaiigii akwi dadeeshnish. Ei 
bpfjgo Tsech'izhigi dine bil hahoodzodoo be'olta' woosye' 



Then the people elected their first school board. The first board 
members were Teddy McCurtain, John Dick, Yazzie Begay, Ashjjhi 
Tsosie, Benjamin Woody and Ada Agnes Singer. 

This was m 1 966. 

The school board was in charge of the school. They decided how the 
school should run. They hired teachers, principals, and other people to 
work at the school. 

Most of these people came from the community. For that reason. 
Rough Rock was called a community school. 



88 



6lta' bitsiniheeshjii" Tsech'izhigi dine ada'at'inigii adahwiis'aagoo dine 
bit beedahodoozijt dadiiniid. Tseghahoodzanigoo tadookai Waashmdoongoo 
atdo' tadookai. Aadoo Hoozdogoo doo Bidaa' Ha'azt'i' doo adahwiis'aa go 
bitsi' yishttizhii keedahat'ijgoo yitah tadookai. 

Dine Tsech'izhigi olta'igii yee yii nidahalne'go yitah tadookai. 

T'aadoo hodina'i t'66 ahayoi dine dayiinn'. Adahwiis'aadee' olta' 
deiniri biniiye nihekaah siiii'. 

La' dine Tsech'izhigi olta'igii t'aa iiyisii bil ya'adaat'eeh. La't'aa akpp 
nidahaaznaa doo ba'ada'iiniilta'. 



The school board wanted other people to know what they were 
doing at Rough Rock. They traveled to Window Rock. They went to 
Washington D.C. They went to Phoenix, the Grand Canyon, and other 
places. They visited other tribes. 

The school board told the people in these places about the new 
school at Rough Rock. 

Soon, many people heard about the school. People came from 
faraway to see the school. 

Some people liked what Rough Rock was doing. They decided to 
stay here and teach. 



89 



Olta' ei nahonitt'ago baa honit'i nit'ee'. T'aa teeshtahgoo 
Da'ak'ehalani'dee' Tsech'izhi'ji' atiin nit'ee'. 

K'asdpp' t'aata'i ahee'elki'go inda Da'ak'ehalanidi jighaah. 

Nahatt.ijhgo ei doodago yidzasgo ei atiin t'66 bahadzoo hashtt'ish 
nahadleeh nit'ee'. Chidi bikeejj' adeez'ahi t'66 hastt'ish yn' adahideezii teh. 
Lahda dine Tsech'izhigi ninadadinikah nit'ee'. 

Olta' bitsiniheeshjii' doo taa' naaznili adadiiniid, "Atiin hashdieezhgo 
daniidzin Tsech'izhi doo Da'ak'ehalani bita'gi." Tseghahoodzanidi d66 
Waashindoondi naat'aanii danilinigii yit dahoolne'. Nidi naat'aanii adaanC 
"Beeso hashdieezhgo aineehgi bee bini'doonishigii adin." 

Nidi 6lta' bitsiniheeshjii' t'aadoo bik'ehodeesdlj'i' da. Atiin 
hashdieezhgo niha adahoteeh daaniigo yee nidaastee'. 



It was very hard to get to the school. There was only a dirt road 
between Rough Rock and Many Farms. It took almost an hour to drive to 
Many Farms on the dirt road. 

When it rained or snowed, the road turned to sticky mud. Pickups 
got stuck in the mud. Sometimes people could not leave Rough Rock. 

The school board and chapter people said, "We should have a paved 
road between Rough Rock and Many Farms." They talked to leaders in 
Window Rock and Washington. But the leaders told them, "There is no 
money for a paved road." 

But the school board did not give up. They kept asking for a paved 
road. 



90 



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; 




Ts'i'da hojooba'i'go inda Tseghahoodzanidep' beesh bp^h dah si'ani 
beeso \a' bi'aan dineezdee'igi'i atiin hodoodlish biniiye ba ch'ideideez'^. T'aa 
ako atiin yinidadoolnishigii ninina. Ei Tsech'i'zhi doo Da'ak'ehalani bita'gi 
atiin dahazhdieezh. 

Aadoo dine t'aadoo hodina'i Da'ak'ehalaniji' bitch'eeda'alwo' silii', t'aa 
ashdia'aadah ei doodago naadiin dah alzhini bee nida'adleehgo. Dine 
Tsech'izhigi dideesh'iit danizinigii atdo' t'aadoo nidabinittl'aai nidaakah siljj'. 
Adahwiis'aad^e' t'66 ahayoi dine Tsech'izhigi hada'asiid biniiye 
ninaahaaskai. Hada'asidi dineji i'ool'iitigii yaa akodaniizii'. Dine ei hada'asidi 
doo be'iina'igii yaa akodaniizj'j'. 



Finally, the government had enough nnoney to pave the road. A road 
crew came. They built a road between Rough Rock and Many Farms. 

After this, people drove to Many Farms in only 1 5 or 20 minutes. 
Other people were able to visit Rough Rock more easily. 

Many more people came to Rough Rock from faraway places. The 
visitors learned about the Navajo way of life. The Navajos learned about 
these visitors and their way of life. 




92 



SAAD BIHWMDOO'AUGII (Vocabulary) 



Dii 


ri6ji (Navajo): 




Bih 


agaanaji (English) 


1. 


binahji' eehooziih 




1. 


demonstration 


2. 


olta' bitsiniheeshjii" 




2. 


school board 


3. 


Lok'ajigai 




3. 


Lukachukai 


4. 


taa ako hwiinidzin 




4. 


favor 


5. 


baa hast'e' nitsihoni 


ikeez 


5. 


decide 


6. 


olta' ya dah sidahi 




6. 


principal 


7. 


Dine bit hahoodzodi 


66 beolta' 


7. 


community school 


8. 


Hoozdo 




8. 


Phoenix 


9. 


Bidaa' Ha'azt'i' 




9. 


Grand Canyon 


10. 


atiin yinidaalnishi 




10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 


road crew 
Bob Roessel 
Teddy McCurtain 
John Dick 
Yazzie Begay 
Ashjjhi Tsosie 
Benjamin Woody 
Ada Agnes Singer 



93 



NEEZNAA GONE' DAH SHIJAAIGlT 

Atk'id^^ Adahoodzaa Y^^ Baa Adahoniidzij' 

Atk'id^^' dahane'pp t'66 ahoyoi baa adahoniidzn". Dii la ha'at'ii yee 
nihit halne'? 




IP M 



J^ 



CHAPTER TEN 

Learning About Our Past 

We have learned many stories about the past. What do the stories 



tell us? 



95 



Nihil hahoodzodoo la haahoot'ee ni't'ee' t'ahdoo na'iitniihi nihitahji' 
iinppdp^'. T'aa haadi da naalyehe ba hooghan ahoolaago sh^' ei haayit'eego 
tahgo at'eego nihit haz'^p dooleet ni't'ee'. Tsinaajmii Bilii' Likizhil Yep doo 
Biwogiizhi Ypp t'aadoo na'iitniihi yit ahil nidahasne'goo shp' ei haahoodzaa 
ni't'ee' danohsin? 

Na'iitniihi shai' haayit'eego nihil hahoodzodoo tahgo at'eego nihit 
haz'^^go ayiilaa? Haash yit'eego Dine yika'eelwod? Haash yit'eego ei Dine 
naiitnilhi yika'iijee''' 

Haash yit'eego ei diyin bizaad yee nida'nitini nihit hahoodzodoo tahgo 
at'eego ahoolaa? Haash yit'eego ei Dine yika'iijee'. Haash yit'eego ei Dine 
diyin bizaad yee nida'nitini yika'iijee'. 



What was our connmunity like before tfne first trader? Would our 
community be different if he built his store somewhere else? What would 
have happened if Tsinajmnie With A Painted Horse and Biwogizhii did not 
talk to the trader? 

How did the trader change our community? How did he help the 
Navajos? How did the Navajos help the trader? 

How have the missionaries changed our community? How have 
they helped the people here? How have the Navajos helped them? 



96 



K'ad nabik'itsi'daatkeesgo nihit hahoodzodoo olta' adingo sh^' 
haahoot'ee ni't'ee' danohsin. Haadi shp' da'ii'notta' dooleet nit'ee'? 



Make a guessaboutwhatour community would be like if there were 
no schools. Where might you go to school? 




97 



Atk'idaa' dahane'pp binahji' haashji yiteego atk'idpp' dine keyah 
chidayoot'jjgo keedahat inee nihit beedahoozin Dii'sh diijiidi haayit'eego 
lahgo at'e? Dii dahane'i'gii sh^' haayit'eego naasdi keyah choo'ii dooleet 
niigo nihil halne'? 

Dii hane' yee nihil halne'igii ei haashii yit'eegodine ahilka'anajahgo 
t'aadoo le'e la deit'j.i nit'ee'. Aadoo haashii yit'eego keedahat'ii nit'ee', doo 
haashii yit'eego dine naanalahd^^' deiikaahii yit athihidiikaah nit'ee'. 



The stories from the past tell us how people used the land. How is 
this different than today? What do these stories tell us about using land in 
the future? 

The stories tell us how people worked togetherto make newthmgs. 
They tell us how people lived together, and met new people. 




98 



Nihahastoi doo nihizaanii adaani'igo ei dii hane' deiisinotts'^^', haala 
nihik'adoolwotgo at'e. Dii hane' yaa halne'i'gii aldo' haashij yit'eego dine 
bich'i' anidahazt'i'goo hast'eideidle' nit'ee'. Di'i nihil beehozingo ei naasdi 
ha'at'iishij bee nihich'i' anahoot'i'igii t'aadoo niha nanitt'aai hasht'eideilne' 
dooleel. 



Our elders say we should listen to these stories, because they help 
us. Stories tell us how people solved problems in the past. By knowing this, 
we will know better how to solve problems in the future. 



SAAD BIHWIIDOO'ALfGlf (Vocabulary) 

Dineji (Navajo): Bilagaanaji (English] 

1 . bee'deetjjh 1. guess 

2. hasht'enalneeh, hast'eelneeh 2. solve 

3. anahoot'j 3. problems 

4. together 

5. future 



99 



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