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Adams, president 64; letter to 

the editor 337 

Address of the N. Y. society on 

Domestic manafactures 366 
Aerostation 64 

A1rica» a Dutch settlement pro- 

jected in 120 

Adams* tour into 179 

^ oT the Caffrees 254 

Alexandria, arrivals at 353 

Algebra, of the Hindoos 192 
Algiers, reported strength of 9, 

58, 61,92, 124^ a descent on 

Saidinia 43 

—notice of U.S. treaty with 47 

remarks on war with 77 

attacks a Bi itish vessel 78 

— — reported to be attacked 

by the Americans 94 

proceedings 173 221 361 

lord Exmouth Hi 95; bis 

victory 139, 153, 237 
a description of 165 

■ plan of the harbor 182; 

the dey's speech to his people 

221; his character 347 

- Dutch official account 225 

notea 95; directors 156 176 
336 351; organization of 175 
191 223 238 259 399 
Bankt and banknotes. Treasu- 
ry circular 56 
■ ■■ ■ a law case 91 
remarks on 385 

All Pacha, an account of him 102 
Alien law, British 26o 

Alston, gov. his death '64 

Amboyna, dreadful storm at 428 
American stocks, at London 58, 
104, 20'>; at Charleston S. C. 
275 Csee exchange J at Am- 
sterdam 361 
■ literature 66 

r- riflemen . 332 

— — press, British remarks 

respectinjg 27^ 

Andre, m»j. his, case mention- 
ed 198; colonel Tallmadge's 
stRtement 350; remarks 386 
' ' ■ a print of his capture 431 
Anecdote, of George II. 12; ori- 
ginal of a Briiiiih officer 36; 
naval 71; of Certain Ameri- 
can seiimen 298 
Animals extinct, remains of 143 

progressive motiop of, in 

opposition to gravity 320 

Appalachicola lort, blown up 

14; interesting account of 37 
Army of the U. S. return of its 
strength 361; stations &c. 376 

contracts 1816 376 

cost of 390 

promotions and appoint- 
ments 48 
Athens, Ohio 78 
Auburn, N. T. 94 
Auttria, state of 44; army 76, 
188; fla|f respected by the 
Turks 188; marriage of the 

Bcmke, resolutions of a conven< 
tion from, in Pennsylvania 5Z; 
do. of those in Ohio $7; of 
those of N. York, Philadel- 

, phia and Baltimore 57; of En* 

fland 99; of Ohio^ list of 
28; on the multitude of &c. 
130; of PbilMlelphia, robbed 
144; of Virginia, state of 196; 
new, proposed in Virginia 
223 336 401; capital of Mas- 
sachusetts 260; of Pennsyl- 
vania 388; of Kentucky 432 
Barbary piracies 10 

states, sketches of 72 

89 119 121 135 
Barney, com. in Kentucky 352 
Barbadoes, insurrection at 189 
Bartling's discovery 298 

Batavia 173 207 

Bates, Benj. his memorial &ci 

S. brig 



to the legislature of Virginia 
211 248 
Bayard, J. A. Mr. Rodney's cu^ 

logiumonbim 281 297 

Bernard, gen. 




Babylon, the rums of 333 

Bagot, Mr. at New York 108 
Balloon, descent of a 14 

Baltimore, inspections 14'3} elec- 
tion . 175 
" ' ■ ■ ■ assessed value of 305 
■ hospital 351; arrivals 253 
Bank of the U. S. 16; of the * 
stock, kc. 31 208; of the 

Berkshire agricultural 80ciei> 405 
Bequest, curious 62 

Bible, a part of the version 
changed 92 

society of Russia 10; in 

England 92; bibles printed at 
Cambridge, Eng. 12 

Biron admiral 173 189 

Bissel gen. court martial for the 

trial of 255 

Bland, judge the case of 377 
Black rivtr, N. Y. 95 

BUkely, cspt. 336; resolutions 

of N. C. respecting 357 

Blind children, print a book 156 
Blue laws 48 

Boardman, capt.caseof 299 
Boat, propelled by weights 64 
Bolivar, gen. 380 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, on the 
expence of keeping him IC; 
report of his escape 30; re- 
marks on his confinement 45; 
reports about his conduct, 
8tc. 105, 180, 307, 379, 428; 
Cobbett's address to him 121; 
at Waterloo, remarks on 130; 
remarks on him 196 

Joseph, 44 60 77 

l^uis, 58 77 

Jerome 58 77 172 307 

Maria Louisa 58, 206 

— — Lucien 77 

Bordeaux, commerce of 220 
Boston, improvement of 336; 
interest on the U. S. debt, 
paid at 352; arrivals at 353 

' hospital subscriptions 
400; sales of British goods 
at 432 

Boundaries, commissioners for 
settling the 80 142 

Boxer, the U. 

Brazil, 92^ 

Briggs, Isaac 79; his speech C 
Brissies British sloop of war ^9 

British colonial policy— review- 
ed 5 38; war with Algiers, (the 
sailing of the fleet) 9 11 32 44 58; 
of the expedition 92 93; account 
of lord Exmouth's visit 95— his 
victory 139; official details, &c. 
153 169 187 206; riots 10 44 58 
253 305; at Glasgow 77\ at Pres- 
ton 92; at Duwnbam 104; Lud- 
dites 138; in Lincoln 138; Not- 
tingham 205; at London 306 361 
376; at Walsal 306; toleration 10; 
revenue 10 29 44; remarks upon 
53; deflciency of 60 187; seamen^ 
&c. for the lakes of Canada 10 30 
46 60 77 105; memorial of the cot- 
ton manufacturers 10;stock8 11 30 
32 60 61 77 78 92 138 140 172 
187 205 253 305 405; fterv^nts out 
of pUce 11; king's uealth 11 17U 
cost of maintaining him 171; cases 
of distress 11 30 77 153 205 330 
405: princess Charlotte 9 10 59 
92 360; haymakers 37; meetiikgs 
for relief 48 61; duke of Berri's 
subscription 78; commerce, on the 
state or 11 95; co^naf^f 13 30 58 
208 296 336! 187; West Indies 16 220 222 228; 

debt 29; of reducing the interest 
105 139; illiistruted 156 234; act 
respecting the commercial con^ 
veniion with the U. States 29 93; 
prince regent, his supper 30; sick 
92; presents of the pope to him 
220, expences 360: princess of 
Wales 32 59 76 153 206 221; her 
arrival at Tunis 190; princess Ma- 
ry 43; despatches from India, three 
tone of 44; education, the state of 
44; loans 45; navy 45 153 171 187 
305. emigration 46 76 105 330U 
banks, failure of 58; bankruptcies 
58; enlistment of boys 58; "hosti- 
lity" to 59; trade and commerce 
61; lord Arden 61 78; military 
force' 61; state of the land, culti* 
vated and uncultivated 63; courts 
of law, defended by the military 
77\ cotton yam 77\ landliolders 
and fundholders 77\ sinecures 7T 
239 358; goods sacrificed at New« 
York 80; lord Cochrane 92; gun- 
powder, &c. export prohibited 92; 
Dr. Prettyman against Bible so- 
cieties 92; massacre in Ireland 96 
124; importation of wool 99; coals, 
the price of reduced 105; i*emark8 
on the state of England 115; taxes 
in Ireland 124; revenue in do, 236; 
commerce of London 128; of the 
crops, p^in, &c. 205 220 290 306 
376; distresses, remarks on th« 
causes, &c. of 209 282; Carlton 
house defended 253; singular reli-* 
gious prosecution 290; manufac- 
tures 45 305 306; beef and pork, 
price of 306; Manchester mee tin j^ 
306; Glasgow do. 330; London do. 
347; bishop of Durham 330; lord 
mayor's day dSf; Welsh genesis- 



Hr 339; house burning in Ireland 
3^; pensions and places 358; bi- 
shopricki 359; lord Castlereagh's 
bouse attacked 379; mayor of Lon- 
don and lord Sid|noath 4^8; re- 
turn ofa captive fiH>m AViers 428; 
progress of complaint 99; bank of 
Bi^iand 10^^ 172; Scirpentine river 
101; dake of Kent 105; uncertain, 
ty of the law 105; sinking fund 
105; earl of Lonsdale 105; boiist- 
ing 107; trials at Newgate 138; 
t&a bill 138; alien law 260; 
wholesale perjury 138; sale of a 
wife 153; Swiss govrmment pro- 
perty 171; Tavistock canal 171; 
aKOciation of attornies 171; act 
rdative to brewing of beer 172; 
British goocla shipped from the 
United Sutes 176; subsidies paid 
176; ai'my in France 17^; Irish 
lioen manufacttire 187< black re- 
ffiment 187; representation in par* 
EsfDent 191 224 306; Mediterra- 
nean passes 205 305; £zmouth 
lord 205 206 220; loss in several 
sea-fights stated 226; Kean» the 
actor 236; cattle fair at Ballinas- 
loe 236; People f Mtrvr, contain 
ing a list of the house commons 
and bow chosen^ magna charta, 
bill of rightSf act of settlement, 
pulsions. Sec. act of habeas cor- 
pus, 8ce. &c. 339 358i tythes, on 
the abolition of 334; red book ex- 
traordlnary 360; secret service 
Money 360; bread, the price of 
360; poor rates 405. 
Brown general 351 

admiral 109 189 334 

Brougham Mr. 297 

Buenos Ayres, 11, 16; details 

of proceedings 46 80 96 141 

207, 254 334; decWation of 

inrlependence 80 150 222 

■ Spanish blockade of 

188; Spanish ezpedttioQ for 361 
Burke, Mr. hiseulogium on the 
American enterprize 51 

CalcutU, trade of to the U. S. 
176; exporu of indigo 227; a 
valuable arrival from 432 

Cane, sugar, on the cultivation 

Canal, Merrimack 13; Gennea- 
•ee* 108; from Senaca lake to 
the Susquehannah 352: round 
the falls of the Ohio 365 410 
432; between the lakes and 
the Hudson 366; Dismal 
swamp 400 

Canada, of the crops in 15 380; 
military settlements lot; re- 
gulations at fort George 109; 
trade of 227 

Candy, the king of, 147 

Cannonsburg, Pa. 78 

Capitals of the U. S. 390 

Caracas 16 156 173 174 222 254 
291 292 334 380 
■ ■ Bolivar's ezpedit ion ' 32 

Curthagenian fleet 32 

Carson Mrs. 47 191 

Caulhtt Mad^m ^ 103 236 

Caucuses, on the subject of 178|Beaumarchais case 427; both 
Chamount de la Kay 95) houses pieet 237; compensation 

Champlain lake, 259 336 law 237 238 256 274; rrport 285 

Chandler general and the affair 351 362 363 364 381 397; Indiana 
at Stoney creek 116 3091 237 256 257; bank of the United 

Charleston, S. C. arrivals at 353; States 237 273 294 334 335 343 

Chauncey commodore 366 
Chesapeake naval depot, 385 
report of the commis- 
sioners 411 
Cherokee Indians 31 63 
Chickasaw notice 46 
Chili, state of 189 
Chimney sweepers 143 
China, robberies of the Ladrone 
isUiKlers 173; christians in 
207 361; disturbed sute of 
347 361; religious persecu- 
tion in 361^ British embassy 
to 380 
China, method of mending it 1 44 
Chippewa brig wrecked ^ 366 
ChocUws 191; treaty w^tb 239 
Christonhe, king of Hayti, 103 

his agent at Hamburg 156 

Chronological account of the 
battles, Sec. of the French re- 
volution 110 
Cincinnati, prices at 410 
Circular from the commission 
er of the revenue . 8 
' of tlic secretary of the 
treasury respectiQg bank 
notes, &c 56 326 

of the P. M general 75 

Claims for militia services 337 
Cleopatra's barge 141 410 

Clopton Mr. his death 63 

Cobbett W. his address to Na- 
poleon 121 
Cochrane ad* v«. Mackenrot 227 
CoflTee, on the raising of in the 
U. Sutes 127 

the clarification of 298 

Cold, state of the thermomeU*r 
at several places 431; effect 
of at cape May 432 

Colonization of the free blacks, 
proposed in New-Jersey 260; 
in Virginia 275; meeting at 
Washington city 296; memo- 
rial 355 
Columbia, S. C. 128 

the district, assessed 

value of 128 

Commissioner's of the revenue 

notice to collectors 8 

Commerce, the empire of 71 
Commissariat, gen. Games' re 

marks on the subject 324 

Compensation law — see •on- 

gress and 239 


Proceedings on the resolve re- 
s|>ecting a register of the officers 
of ttie U. Slates 128; elections in 
the eastern states. Sec 223; presi- 
dent's message, on opening the 
session 229; about suspending tlie 
*<cUini8 law" 256; on tlie unlawful 
eqMipment of vessels. Sec. 295; 
communicating documents about 
ihe "claims law" 327; respect- 
ing British discriminating duties 
398; on Georgia claims 408; on 

V c\ r^ r. *> 

350 365 381 ; reference of the presi- 
dent's message 237 258; sUnding 
committees 238 273; chaplsins 
238 256 273; "claims hw" 238 
^57 259 273 294 312; (documents) 
327 335 349 362 397 407 4^ 9; im- 
ports and tonnage 238,273 294 
334 430; roads and canaln 255 257 

258 274 335 349 408 431; r< port 
423; public accounts 256 397; 
conatitutumal amendmenta, propos- 
ed by Mr. Barbour 256; by Mr. 
Pickens 258 273 274 275 293 398; 
by Mr« Athorton 259; bankii»g 
companies in the district of Co- 
lumbia 256 293 312 398 430; re- 
lief of officers and soldiers 25^; 
commissioners of loann 409; inva- 
lids t56 258 274; A. Buck's case 
409: flag of the United States 257 

259 273; report 332; presidenliul 
election 409 430; founderies of 
brass and iron cannon 257; militia 
eicpences 257; services 334; orga- 
nisation of 363 398; (report) 392: 
fines 430; clahns 430 431; widows 
of soldiers 257; widows and or- 
phrins 259; bounty land 257 269 
274 311 312 334, (report respect- 
ing) 345348397; Canadian volun- 
teers 257 349; promulgation of 
the laws 408 431; R. Easton and J. 
Scott, contested election, 258 334 
349; duly on salt 408; death of the 
speaker's child and the house ad- 
journs 258; brig Argus 295 312; 
national tmiversity 258 259 273, 
(report) 276 294; T. 1. Allen's pe- 
tit ion 295; case of Mr. Sergeant 
258; public debt 303 350; roiutai7 
academies 259 295; sinking fund 
304, (report) 35S; seamen's wages 
and for the relief of seamen 259 
273 348 382; Paulding John 349; 
duties on retailers 259; direct 
tax 409; district tonnage 363; 
tax on carriages 259 362 409; eun- 
tingent fund 363; treasury reports^ 
on the sources of revenue, Sec 26 1< 
annual 299; secretary of war's re- 
ports, on the militia 270; new ex- 
ecutive department 273; report of 
the secretaries 277 334 348; judi- 
ciary 273 275 293 311 334; circuit 
judges 294; Louisiana land claims 
363; commodore Patterson and 
colonel Hoss 397; Beaumarch ,;^' 
claim 397 427; duty on forv]^\\ 
spirits 398; brevet officers 399; 
ex|K)rt of corn 273; system of 
bankruptcy 273; licenses to dm- 
tillers 273 407; internal improvr- 
meni 273; Mr. Callioun's bill le- 
speciing 294 398 399 408; stamp 
duty 27>; pursers an.l niidsbip- 
men 409; Epervi-r 274 311 36 J: 
Export! of the CJ. Slates 402; offi- 
cers of artillery 274; paintings cA' 

colonel IVumbuU U» 36^^^ ^ 

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$83; Itnd oflloes 2r4f public 9ft- 
linen 274; regiroenul paymaster 
S48; of contracU 349 376, trade 
with the Indians 275 398; military 
appropriations 349; public lands 
293 312, (report) 339j '^neutrality 
bill" 350 381 382 383 397; suffer- 
ers on the Niagara frontier 293 
380 400; Mr: Forsyth's resolutions 
respecting the U. 8. bank 350f na- 
vigation act 294 364 384 397 398 
431; New* York memorial on com- 
merce 362^ 374; vaccination 294 
349; Tennessee river 335; General 
Armstrong privateer 363; trans^ 
fersof speci^e appropriations 295 
3J4; Mr. Jefferson's report on the 
privileges and restrictions on com- 
fnerce 362; West Point military 
academy 295 381 4S0; treaty with 
8wed^ 407; 38th regiment 431; 
Cincimiati, Ohio, 295; Jl^iBsi'sippi 
territory 311 412 348 362 381 
898; Georgia claims 311 362; ex- 
change of territory with the In- 
dian tribes 311 339,348 362 380; 
maritime jurisdictitMi 311; D. W. 
Soudett 311; muscle shoals 312; 
bills of exchange 311; judge Toul- 
min 312; respecting the British 
convention 311 381 407; officers 
of congress 334; smull arms 311 
550; patents 335; Yir|^ia land 
reservations 311; mint establish' 
inent 340; post-office do. 341; pe 
titions of manufacturers '312; 
i^ewburyport petition 312; library 
838 430; #dditioniil accountants 
334; aUorn^^y general 348; charts, 
((C. of the CiiQsapetke 334; depot 
431; Cttesapeake and Delaware 
canal 334; memorial 341; lots in 
Washmgton city 348 430; Mr. 
Lloyd's letter 348; "^bite river 
and Wabash expeditions 335; ar- 
my of the U. S. 349 361 376 430; 
remission of duties, a petition for 
and report upon 342 364 383; Ar 
mv of the U. 8. 349 361 376 430; 
military estimates for 1817, 343 
349; expenditures 1816, 345; ap- 
propriations for the navy 345; for 
the army 362 430 431; marine bos 
pital establishment 345; banknotes 
In the treusury 365; Mr. H^iidolpli 
381; respecting offices 381 408 
431; soldiers* orphans, Mr. Ro- 
bertson's remirks on the ed^ca 
tion of 346; French spoliations 
S82; col. Tallmadg;e's statement 
respecting the captors of Andre 
350; Indian treaties t^ 397; free 
blackt;, memorial respecting 355 
^9; captives by the Indians 383 
398 409; general Harrison's case 
380 396; copper mines 383; North 
Carolina land grants 383; Creek 
Indians 384; state instructions 407; 
expenditures of the navy depot 
381; Hanfonl memorial 4^0; north 
western army 407; felatixins M'iici 
Spain 430; internal duties 430 431; 
importation of plaster of paris 431. 
Congr^a*^ frigate 175 223 352 
fyfi^t^, election 80 95 141; 

yemor^ speech 132; claims 

'or militia services 191 

Congo river 15% fate of the ex 

ploring party 
Conyngkami the counless of 
Coote sir Byre 
Copper mines 96| cement 
Com, imported from Hayti I 
Cotton trade, British 

speedy product of 

exported from th^ East- 
Indies ^ 124 176 428 

Crawford W. H. 141 

Creek Indians 14 142; a deputa- 
tion Irom at Waahin^^ 239 
Crime, progress of 95 275 

Crocodile in France 138 

Crops, rotation in 148 

Crowninsbield's brig .^41 410 
Cuba, sUte of 2^7 

Cumana 16; i|sage of a lady at 36 
Cunningham lieut. of tbe fire- 
brand 255 

Mlas, Mr. 8Q, 87; his daatk 365 
:eeding8 thereon by the 
of the supreme court 400 
Dartpnoor, Journal of a yoimg 
man confined there 107 

— — «ia«aacre, a remark re- 
specting 138 
David, king of Israel's tinning 

hamm^l 254 

Deaf and dumb, relief of 191 
education of 298 

Decatur, com. his toast noticed 60 
Decimal money, 95 

Jhlaware election, 16, 107, 127, 

209, 432; of the state tax 351 
Denmark, cessions to Sweden 46 

army of 221 

Detroit^ of thie curf^ency at 351 
Biplomatic curiosity 169 

Diess, articles of, at Rome 172 
Drought in S. Carolina 64 

Duel between a Swedish and 

Danish nobleman 254 

-^-^fatal, in New Jersey 296 
Duelling, law of New York 

against 208, 336 

Duplesis, Mr. case of 14 

DwMi, at Baltimore 336 

Dwight president, diesj 351 

fiagle, grey, shot ^ 3 j|2 

Earth, a phenomenon 124 

Earthquake 47 .62 95 173 175 222 
Bust Indies, war in 9; Napaul 
reduced 59; the treaty 106; 
r. jth of Japoor 173 379; Bhow 
Beffum 173; Bunlieer 173f the 
Mahrattas 188 221; Calcutta 221 
East pott, a British fleet at 107 
Editorial artielea. 
Address on commencing the 
volume I; France and the Bour- 
bons o3; On the population ot the 
United States^; Spanish royalty 
at Cumana 36; on^^he British hay- 
makers 37; review of British co- 
lonial policy 5 38; on the progress 
of the United States 49; on the 
British revenue 53; on the 12 :h 
of September 1814> 65j tl^ oa(i^ 

vity circular 74i specie payment 
81 385^ the Ionian islands 81; chro- 
nological account of battles, &c. 
110; home market and internal 
wealth 115 297; reformation and 
retrenchment 129; review of a vi&it 
to the^eldofWateiloo 130; Bri^ 
tish views relative to New Or- 
leans 145^ on the capture of the 
king of Candy 147; on the Spa- 
nish patriots 210; Description of 
Algiers 165; change of habits 177; 
right and power of suflFirage 178; 
remarks on Bonaparte 196; on the 
distresses of England 209, 282; 
claims for militia services 337; 
domestic manufactiu«s 385; note 
on the end of the volupne 432. 
Education, a new system of 144 
fii^pt, state of 380 

Elliott, lieut. 259 

Immigration, remarks on IS 

— — the current of 15 
127 175 20i 

. table of 32 45 

. . British remarks 43 

— — attempts to turn 
the tide of 61 

of the Swiss 105 

^-« westward ^3 336 

' reverse 330 

Engheim, the duke of 198 

Eppes, Mr. 259 

Erie lake, improvements on the 
shores of 13; disaster in 
launching a vessel 95; rise& 
fall of the lake 238; hurricane 
on do. 239 

— - fort, the anniversary of the 
battle of celebrated 80; ora- 
tion on the occasion 15(1 
Erving, Mr at Madrid 44 
Europe, storms and inundations 

in various parts of 43 221 

— deficiency of crops 45 
188 221 2^ 
J ■ of the season in 379 

Exchange, sUte of 80 107 127 

Ul 239 275 365 410 
Executive responsibility 4 

Exmouth lord, see Algiers, and 
Br. expedition to Algiers, &c. 
Expenditures of the U. S. de- 

Uilsof 338 

Exports and imports of the U S. 
tables of 50 51 

detailed statements 402 

Payette, gen. toasted at Paris 80 
Fayetteville, exports of 192 

Pecuvdity extraordinary 30 

Figures, of errors in 65 

Finances of t^e U. S. 87 

Fire at Salem 15; at New York 
31; in the woods 108, 191; 
at New Orleans 141 175; at 
Halifax 18; at Constantinople 
207; at Portsmouth N. H. 366 
Firebrand the V. S. schooner, 
fired upon 108; the case stat- 
ed 125; resolutions at New- 
Orleiins thereon 126; remarks 
127 142i court martial on It. 
Cunningham 255 

Fishhig extiAOidxnarv 1^' 

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i^iihenaen. Am. a fray of wUb 
the British re|M)rted 144 ; de- 
niea 156 

FUnttd, Irish imports of 29 U35 
■ I ' proposed lor cattle 296 
FkHur, price of at Charleston 
1^ at BuCilo 31( at Gibral- 
iir 30; at New Orleans 192 
— rise of the price of 189; 
St Cadiz 239; at llf vana 336f 
St Bordeaux 3 A at Lisbon 
fbdcfae's letter to Wellington 

— — m^TDoira of 184 

Aascb, the ^ullotine used 9; 
ilikfof Berri 10 61; the duchess 
77 236; Angouleme 10; distur- 
hofUM, reported 10; at Nancy 9i; 
ttMeatzandStrattburg 104 138; 
atPQboeur334; at Toulouse 379; 
sev airshab 11; oatli of the mar- 
tiakkc.44i monks 11; the crops 
33; editorial essay on '^France & 
the Bosrbons," 33; executions 58 
253 291; mad. Moreau 76 78; mi- 
fiur) preparations 43 45 61; ex- 
iles 60; coU Brun; ^2; Ouvernet 
44 220; Savary and Lallem.uyi 44 
58 105 172 175 296 347; gen. 
MecUa 1&4; manuf'.ctures 44 92; 
Uf^lette 6a; Simon, Mr. N. 105; 
public pmyers 93; icen. Clausel 
153; funds 5 a 77 92 236 379; 
aev system of education 144; gen. 
Bernard 191; money paid to the 
•Uicf 61; proscription* 206 220; 
Poache*fl letter 157; cotton manu- 
hctopes 360; Bcauharnoui 173; co- 
hnirf regiments 76; court mpum- 
H ^ Chateaubriand 187; ndw 
"ttwah ! 76; budget 379 405; gcn. 
fcjrtt208 254; religious proces- 
iioo78;^r ctmtumac^ 22(Xi king's 
fater to the vicars general 93; of 
Seating 220; c/iff^n^Rcy 291; mar- 
dal Grouchy 236; dispute with 
■ Am. consul about the ea^ltt 93; 
^an general 306; Austriaiis and 
Boisians at Mentz 105; Carnot 
^; Swiss soldiers 104 253; re- 
ntntion, chronology of the bat- 
^ 8tc. 110; new election order* 
d 159; protest against 172; new 
•embers 187 220; king's speech 
|i^ concordat with the pope 205; 
AoQDpoly of tobacco 236; stamp 
4rty 347} finance, report upon, 
^, sn attempt to blow up the 
^tfBttks 291 ; grain imported at 
Bm^csux 360; Bri.good& 44 92. 
FpiBiain, Dr. his letter on reli- 

fioos subjects 140 

— — anecdoU of 375 

• '74, 296 352 

ffinkfort, the d ict at 77 

Pitaoh settlement in the U. S. 

208 296 
PreeUaeks— soe coiomzatUn — 
f r^atesy on the diroeasions of 41 
Prink, cok hta death 336 

f*^ lA Loaiaiana 400 

fi«t io BngUnd 330 

Oaines gen. 31 192 239 351 365; 

report of his trial 216; on the 

commissariat 324 

Gallatin, Mrs. presented to the 

French court 90 

Guilipolis, Ohio 54 

Gass lights, at Cincinnati 31; 

in Baltimore 127 

General ticket 178 

'Genius of the lakes^ extract 

from 75 

Geographical exemplification 

65 70 
Georgia, election 107 175 223 

— governor's message 223 
' ' ■ nnanoes 295 

— resolutions about the 
boundary line of the sUte 336 

George, fort 109 

God^e/s quadrants 15 

Gold mine, on the bhio, 9aid to 

be discovered 156 

Gordon Murphey & O'Farrel 57 

capt. of the navy, his 

death ' 336 

Gravity, progressive motion of 

animals in opposition to 320 
Grouchy, marshal 191, 296 

Guadaloupe, 80 127 222 

Gueriere U. S. frigate^ anec- 
dotes of /her crew 298 
Gunpowder, aUrining deposit 352 

Hail 47 62 

Hale, capt. case of 199 

Hamburg, the bank of 205 

scarcity of money at 25; 

Harper, Mr. 259 

Hartford convention, cost of 

191; noticed 337 

Harpooner, the ship, wrecked 292 
Harvests, general remarks upon 

127 351 
Havana, commerce of 222; a 
valuable fleet sails from 239; 
arrivals at 353 

iJoy^^— klngChristophe 103 292; 
his grand entry into Cape Hen- 
ry 315; his court 317; the dig- 
nitaries of hi& kingdom 168; 
Petion declared president for 
life 174; his salary 292; ne- 
gociatioiw of the French with 
him 174; patriot privateers 
fitted at 207; the ports of Aus- 
tria opened to Haytian vessels 
292; Potion's negociation and 
p'ruceedings with the agents 
of Louis 308 332— a change 
of religion cuulcmplated by 
Christoplie 34:7 ; reported 
quan-el between ihe king and 
the pi-esident 380 

Henly, capt. honored 05 

"Holy alliance," 32 50 205 220 

vessel 6o 

Home murket 115 

sir E*& memoir 320 

Horse, a carlmau fined for beat- 
ing a 223 
Horry P. 191 
Hudson bay comp. 6296 23!;^ 428 

hughes, Mr. complimented 

105; his miasioQ noticed 13^ 
Hull, capt. 31 

Hungary 173 

Hurricane, at St. Croix 102$^ on 
lake Erie 239 

Ice, island of 128 

Mill the Hudson 296 

niinou T, election 107 

Imports and exports of the U. S. 

Ubles of 50 51 

Incledon Mr. 108 

Indian lands in Indiana 400 

IndUma election 31; organiza- 
tion of the government of the 
state 208; governor's speech 
212; proceedings respecting 
people of color 336; pay of 
the governor, &c. 352^ 

Indian treatiea. 373 

Indigo, CalcutU exports 227 
Infants exposed 95 

Ionian Mlanda — Maitland's prpe^ 
lamation at 59; geopraphical 
' account of 81; British Ubcrty 

96; British forces at 139 

foquisition in Spain 76; abolish- 
ed in Poitugul 77i in Italy 92 
Iron bridges in Russia 221 

Italy, extent and population of 
the autes of 221 

Jackson ^en, in treaty with cer- 
tain indians 107 143; anecdote 
of 143; his order about set- 
tlers on Indian Unds 223 400; 
: presented with boots 336 

Jamaica . 62 205 

James' river* a freshet in 176 
Japan , 105 

Java 334 

JeflTerson Mr. account of a visit 
paid to him 317; his letter oiv 
manufactures 401 

Jews, appeal to tlie pope 61; 
or the gathering of the 168 
188; conversion of 260 

Jew, a rich one, 221; Jews in 

Sardinia 405 

Jupiter privateer, 3 12 352 380 


-K?7i/McA?y— elections 31 175 260 
296; legislature meets 275 
It.governor's message 391; re- 
solutions respecting the com- 
pensation law 406; in com- 
memoration of the victory of 
New Oilcans 407; on the »r- 
rivul of cum. Barney 407; 
state of the bank 432: 

Knight, J. his remarks on 
springs of water 40 

Kotzebue ^ 206 

Kusloff, the Russian consul, 
the care of 190 19i 207 

Labor, product of la raanu- 

facturf^s 86 

Ladroiie inlands 170 

Lakes, sec Ontario, Eiie, ^c. 
and 5^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Lapaps, improvem^t of 143 
l^ndf of the U. S. sales at JeP- 
fenonville 107; state of those 
m the Mbsissippi ter. 142 
]Uncaster« Joseph 227 

Lascarsythe 59 

l4uienbur|py the duchy of 61 
JLaw catet, at PhiUdelphia Re- 
specting a neg^ child 28; re- 
marks on the preceding 46; 
respecting a bank note 91;. 
British jurisdiction at sea 
108; on a promise of mar^ 
riage 224; on seduction 224; 
of the schooner Romp 289; 
of capt Boardman 299 

Iaw, public, as applicable to a 
British seaman, at Philadel- 
phia $S; uneertainty of the 105 
Lear, cot his death 144 

^'Legitimacy," British 104 


From the paymaster-general to 

gov M'MjUm 5 

Mr. Dallas to Mr, Baker, on 

ftes and charges on British 

vessels, 8 

Qen. Wayne tog^. Washing* 

ton 12 

Col. Clinch to gov. Mitchell 15 
an officer of the Washington 

74, 15 

col. Brown, respecting the 

killing of certain Indians 63 
— — - respecting the attack on 

the Firebrand 125 
Fouche to Wellington 157 
respecting Dr. Valli*s 

experiments with the yek 

low fever 185 

Mr. Monroe to the governor 

of Massachusetts 201 

the president of the U. S. to 

the gov. of Virginia 204 
lord £xmouth to the pope 206 

to Mr. Sbaler 206 

^e president of the U. S. to 

the gov. of N. Carolina 260 
8. Williams to S. W. Young 321 
Mr. Monroe to the com. on 

fore^ affairs, respecting 

the fitting out of armed 

vessels in the U. S. 382 

the sec of the navy to a com. 

of the senate 422 

To th» e<ft'r«r...respecting the de- 
struction of the fort Appala- 
cbicola 37; from Athens 78; 
from Cannonsburg 78; on the 
defence of the Chesapeake 
193; respecting Mr. Schulta 
193; revolutionary speeches, 
tec. 194; on the health of the 
soldiery 195; from Mr. Jef- 
ferson, gov. Plumer, C. S. 
Todd, esq. and others, chief- 
ly complimentary 195; from 
president AdaQis 337 

r^ewis, maj. gen. 309 

Lightning, (rods) 69; singular 

caae of 95 

Literature, progress in ^6 

Logan, the Indian chief 32 

}/)ngcvity, cases of 176 

Loumana elections 31 296 432 

's speech 256 

Lowe, cadet, killed 351 

Mac Mahon, B. his death, 64 
Mac Gregory sir Gregor, 96 ; at 
Barcelona, 156, 237 ; at Cu- 
mana, 222; his general or- 
der, 254; proclamation to 
^e Barcdonese, 291 ; at St. 
Thomas, 334, 380 ; arrives at 
Baltunore, 428 

Machesney, major, death of 191 
Macedonian frieate 105 

Madison, gov. dies 144 208 

Maine, separation of 47 62; pro- 
ceedings of the convention 
122; protest against 133; ad- 
dress of the convention 181; 
resolves in the legislature of 
Massachusetts 260 

Malta, the order of abolished 92 
Manufitctures, Am. early Brl 
tish jealousy of 49 

the necessity of 59 79 

177 297 

product of labor in 86 

famUy, 8ic. 177 

address of the N. York 

society respecting 367 

Mr. Jefllerson on 401 

Manufactory, floating , 107 

Manufacturers* memorials 428 
Margarett^ the island of 188 
Maryland, electors 31 47 62 

Mint establishmeHi 340 

Miranda, gen. his death 153 
Miser, female 191 

JiSmtaippi ter. the militia call- 
ed out 223; population of 38t 
MUwuri, a tour through a part 
of 96; election 107; progress 

107 127 192 259 260 296; the 
state of repreMcraation in 147 
192; governor's message 292; 
fiminces of the state 293; re- 
solutions about the scarcity 
of grain 296; resolves about 
the election of president, &c. 
314 347; bill about religious 
tests 346; case of judge 
Bland 377 

Marine hospital estab. 345 

Mattachuteitif elections, 192 
208 296 410; governor's 
speech 199; amendment to 
the constitution of the U. 
S. 259; claims lor militia ser- 
vices 337 
MaUgorda, the fleet at 32 
Meade, the U. S. consul 172 432 
Medusa frigate, shipwrecked 320 
Mellish's map of the y. S. 164 
Meteor, remarkable 307 
Mexico, 16 64 96; coinage for 
1815, 96; the mines of 188; 
details of evenU 108 141 207 
380; confess 108 
Miami Indians 141 
Military estimates for 1817 343 
Militia fines, B. Bates* letter 
respecting 211 

a bout the classing and 
arming of 270 392; claims of 
Massachusetts and Connec- 
ticut 337; of Maryland 365 
Miller, gen. presented with a 

sword 144 

Milo, antiquities at 104 

Mina, gen. 173 334 428; an at- 
tempt to assassinate him 348 

of population 12t^ 

Monticello, an account of 317 
Moore, N. R. his death 106 

Morris, Goveu|eur, death of 191 

knecd(4Pof 375 | 

Morocco 76 

Mortar, g^eat 128 

Moscow, improvements at 254 
Mummy, the Indian 128 

Murat, madam 61 

Joachim 172 

Musical instrument, new 353 

JVb^ffft, liberty 44; a robber 78; 
anecdote of the king 99; in- 
dulgencies 105; the harvest 
172; reports about the Ame- 
rican negoda^n with 138 
139 140 172 188 206 291 307 
329 348; differs with the 
pope 188; quarrels between 
the Americans and Engl'ish 
at Palermo 307 

Nashville, proceedings at, on 
the non-pajrment of the mili- 
tia 5 
Nativity circular 74; the re- 
solve requiring the same 128 
Naturalization, British debate 

on 175 

Neuville, M. his complaint a- 

bout Mr. Skinner's toast 169 
^^avyQf the U. S, of the squad- 
ron in the Mediterranean 15; 
336 352; a reported atuck 
upon Algiers 94 

——British report about the 

increase of 140 

-.—contracu, 1816 376 

-——expenditures 391 

—pension fund 427 

timber for 432 

Naval depot in the Chesapeake 
127; report of the commis- 
sioners, &c. 411 
report 42S 
Negro convicts, sent to Louisi- 
ana 400 
^ethetlandt, the fleet of» in the 

Mediterranean 15 29 229 
robberies in 43; Uberty 
of the press in 206; 
dispute about certain 
teas 29 

in 306; United 
Sutes stocks 361 

J^^ew'Jertey, election 61 141 
192 400 432; grovemor's mes- 
sage 174 
^ew'Orleani, British views in 

attempting tlie capture of 145 
New Granada 182 

Newspapers, the state of 3; a 

law decision respecting 22G 
JVew-TorA? legislature 62; com- 
merce 80; British g^oods at 
&c. 80 107; sketches of the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



veit«n p9.H of the vtalte 94i 
cantl 95; elections 95 192; 
firittth mercbant kills bitn* 
fdf at 1^; goTemor's 
ipccch 180$ (city) arrivals 
It aSQ; society for encourag- 
ing American manufac- 
tures, address 336; memori- 
lion navigation 374; finan- 
ces SS9; roremor's message 
on the ^lition of slavery 
^h (city) certain proceed- 
ings respecting gov. Tomp- 
kuis expunged 427; proposed 
redaction of salaries 432; 
vealth of the sUte 432; sUte 
}inm at Auburn 432 

^<«-fiM^««sre, election 205 259 
— governor's speech 248 
)^ev4lollaiid 428 

%^^^^fb^t 169 

^^.B-fr^te 95 

"— ^British honors respect- 
ing 205 
'*»<4.C«r*fiiia, the governor's 
■««age 232; reply of the 
prc»dentto the gov. 260; 
ititne of Wasliington 336; 
Rspecting the relicts of 
captBlakely 336 357 
5*«^West company— see 

Bndaoa^B bay and 96 

5«wif, 173; of the dkt 173 


^W«n, abundance of com at 206 
^1 electioiis 175; meeting of 
^legislature 275: geogfra- 
itol account of the nor- 
*^ paru of the sUte 313; 
Gttnces 314 

^ Branch, a new edition 168 
Jjw lake, the British fleet 47 
^"^kn, on the anniversary of 
^e sortie froiB fort Brie 150 
^">gc Indians, disputes with 

tie Cherokees settled 352 
^^yfcee, commerce, &c. of 188 

'^provisions consumed in 16 
^ioo commodore 372 

^^^Baffter general, his state- 
Bttt respecting the Tennes- 
see jiilitia 5 
meeolooel 141 
ndestrians, exploits of 143 
^fttthfoma elections 62 107 
Ul 192 223 259; govemor'a 
MiMlge 250; Mr. L.eib's pro- 
fititSooa about a oonvention 
962$li Mr. Lowrie's reso- 
MoM about a l€^l curren- 
. Q^te'SST; munificence 352; 
kifar 388; finances 388 
64 106 
of MaryUnd 12 
of Ohio 144 314 
oTBiaasachusetts 228 
^— proceeding 
)>r^K>sals 25 
idiieovered at 

PbiJadeTphia— exports 1816— 

109; trade of 143; arrivals 353 
Pin making machine 13 
Piracies in the West Indies 223 
Plattsburg» the schooner 191 223 
Plague, at Cyprus, &c. 58; at 
Cephalonia 61; at Guada- 
loupe 64 
Players at Charleston 176 
Poland 173; regeneration of 334 
Population of the U. States, es- 
say on 32; exemplifieation 65 
70; correction 129 
Pwtugal^ the princesses of 61 92 
139 172 
Beresfbrd's estate 188 

■ ■■ present to Wellington 188 

■ fire at Lisbon 307 
Porter general 239 
Post-omce ' regulation about 

newspapers 193; progress of 

the mails 341 

Potosi, patriot privateer 312 
Powder mills, eikplosion of 191 
Presidential election 260 

Pregnant princesses 205 

Princeton college 399 

Printers, shackled at Rome 76 
Progress of the U. Sutes, es< 

say on the 49 66 

Provisions arrive at N. York 

firom Ireland 400 

Prussia^ to have a constitution 30 


Public kw 55 

bnds, of settlers in 400 


Quakers' epistle 27 218 

Ramsay's history 84 

Reed making machine 13 

Held citpt. of the C^eneral ArA- 

- strong privateer 239 
Reformation and retrenchment 

Rensselao* general, his death 79 
CF^r congrestional reports see 

Report of the seorelary^ of the 
treasury 266 

of war, on the militia 270 

- on the national univer 
sity 276 

■ joint of the secretaries 

of the departments 277 

on the compensation 

law 285 

of the secretary of war 

about the "claims law" 327 

«• of the navy 422 

Revenue of the U. Slates 52 

Review of the ^'colonial policy 

of G. Britain," 5 39 

RevoluHoTiary — Colonel White's 
achievement 12; a letter from 
general Wayne to general 
Washington 1:^; speeches, 
&c the publication of pro- 
posed, &c. 194 297 313; no- 
tice of the proposition 396; 
anecdotes of Pr. Franklin and 
G. Morris 375 

J7Ao(/(?-/Wanc^— elections 31 223 
Rice swamps near Savannah 400 

Richmond, commerce 80 

Riflemen, American 332 

Ripley general 62 351 

Robinson W. D. 292 

Rolette Mr. enteKained at Que- 
bec 95 
Romayne's oration 150 
Romet beggars at 44j Borghese 

palace 254 

Romp, the schooner, cttse of 289 
Rotation in crops 148 

Royalty, remarks on the sub- 
ject of 2; Christophe's 1 68 
Royal captives 147 

i?M«<ia— navy 43 173^206 2S6: 
army in France 105; revenue, 
expenditures, state of reli- 
gion, &c. 221; relations of tlie 
U. sutes with 207; military 
force 221 291; duties, &c. 
253; "conscription" 254; a 
frigate from Odessa 291; re- 
ported disturbances in 307; 
liberty of the press 307; count 
Rostopchin 360 

Rush Dr. extract from one of 

his orations > 53 

Russel Mr. 208 276 333 

Sac Indians, insolence of ' 353 
Sackett's harbor, real tragedy 
at 108; case of a British de- 
serter at 155; barracks 410 
Sailor's wish 85 

St John's, Canada, seizures at 361 
Newfbimdland, 347 
St Lawrence, river 292 

St Paul, a letter from, fabri- 
cated 44 
St Stephens, Miss. ter. 30 191 
St. Louis, the fete of 62 
St. Helena , 207 
Salem, execution of Harrisoii 


Salt mountains in Kubal 

in Tennessee 

Sardinia — navy 
Santa Fe 
Saranac, the brig 
Scanando, John, an Indian 
Rcott, gen. 239 296 365 

Scorpion in a cabbage 62 

Sea fights, British loss m se- 
veral 2^6 
Selkirk, lord proceedings of 
80 361; see Hudson's bay— 
September the 12th, remarks 

upon 6s 
Serpents in Greece 61 
Serpentine river 101 
Sheep-stealer, escape of a 156 
Shelby, gov. honored at retir- 
ing from office . 110 
Sheridan, Mr. his death, &c. 
9 lOi sketch of his life and 
character 23\ busts of him 
105; a serious joke of him 124 
Sierra Leone, a law case at 107 
Skinner, Mr. 169 
Skulls of tlie 11,000 virgms! 254 
Slave trade, at Havana, 15 15p 
— on the coast of Afrr- 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



the gRcct of its abd- 

lition on certain British ma- 
nufactures ' 60 

at Amelia island 108 

checked in South 

Carolina 336; do. in Georgia 
&c. 399 

Sleighing*, in October 155 

Smoilet't travels, extract from 

Smuggling ' 259 

Snow (storm in June) 51 64 

Snuff, thefts cotmnitted by the 

use of 275 296 

South CavUna — elections 141 
192 275; resolutions appro- 
batory of president Madison. 
327; gov. Pickens* address 
327: law respecting slaves 
336} governor's message ^77 
Soult, marshal 9 29 

iSJ^'n— dispute with Algiers 9; 
commerce vexed by the patriot 
privateers 32 44 172 292 380; 
**conscription,'*44 61; ni.vy, state 
of 176; Ferdinand's illness, ^. 
45; a good act of his 76i tyranny 
92 25^ monuments of the arts 
restored 61; British messeng^ 
assassinated 61; state of Navarre 
189; commercial regidations 61; 
expedition for South America 105; 
mutiny at Malaga 172; Cevallos 
307; members ofthe cortes, usage 
of 172 205; remarks thereon 210; 
state of the country 189; present 
/to the queen 205; dialogue be- 
f tween a priest and a lady 226; 
1 mpudence of Spanish cruisers 
9 parky sloop of war 47 399 

Si lecie, arrivals of 15 47 80 127 
144 175 351 

— ■■- under par! 15 

— *— - payments, remarks on 81 
— exported to Canada 359 

— ^— payments in Virginia 260 

— — remarks on the resump- 
tion of 385 

Sp«2ech of John Scanando IQl 
^?ncer, John C. esq. 75 
SpinniDg machine 13 
Spring&\ of water, remarks on 40 
.SpQts oa the sun 42 
Squirrel V emigration of 110 
Sute jealouses 3 
Stael, m.%dam de 172 
Steam— s.%w mill 12 
boat*i 15 29 106; accident 

94; "Olirer Evans," 106; for 

the ocean 127; on Ontario 128 
— — coal used for 47 

— — interrupted on the Missis* 

3ippi 208 

—-still, Gillespie's 182 

Stckes, gen. M. 259 

;Bu>ney creek, the affair at 116; 

•opposing statement 308 

Sitft'rage, the right and power 

of 178 

Swj^ar cane, facts and remarks 

i )n the cultivation of 7 

Sttn, spots on tlie 42 

S4i}preme «ourt of tb0 tr. 8. 4fK) 

Surrinam 32 141 

Sweden^ SUte of 46; Danish 
concessions to^ 46; of tlie ex 
king 92 291; ^'conscription" 
Switzerland, population 69 

Swords, presentation of in ^N. 
York 239 


Tay, the Br. sloop of war, 292 428 
Team boats, 13 

Tennessee (militia) 5 64 

Thermometer, state of, at teve* 

rai places 431 

Three;-fingeredJack 347 

Tide tables— Elford^s 79 

Tight inexpressibles" 172 

Tinre-piece, improved 224 

Toasts—drank at Paris 3l 

Tobacco, monopoly in Vnxitt 236 
Toledo, gen. deserts the patri- 
ots, 238; remarks about him 291 , 
Tom Bowline, the t?. S. brig 176 
Tombucto, the city of 179 

Tompkins, gov. 437 

Trade, state of, in Europe 9 
Treaty between U. S. & Russia 

11 17 49\ 
Algiers 47 
England and Kapaul 106 
with the Chocuws 239 
Treaties with several tribes of 

Indians 373 

Treamrjf department — 
notice of the sec. respecting 

treasury notes 8 223 

letter from the sec. to Mr. 
Baker about fees and char- 
ges on British vessels 8 
notice respecting bank notes 56 
statement of the operations 
of^ durinp^ Mr. Dallas' ad- 
ministration 87 
report on the sourcea of reve- 
nue, &c. 261 
annual report 299 
estimate for 1816 338 
Trimble, col. 216 
Trumbull, col. 387 
TruxtoBy com. 141 
Tunis, a revolution at 09; mas- 
sacre at 58; impalement at» 
105; piracies 307 
7\irib^y--punishment of aCreek 
58; DardanaUeS58; presents . 
to the French ambassador 
at Constantinople 139; ofthe 
grand sultan's barber! 207; 
asylum refused to the French 
refugees— gov. of Smyrna be- 
headed 254; a Russian frigate 
arrives from Odessa 291; the 
seraglio burnt 307; etiquette 
thereon S47 
Turin, imjust edict at 334 
Turnips, product of 64 

Vaccination of Am. seamen 96; 

blessing^ of 171; in India 173 
VaUi, D. the case of 185 

Valuations of the U. 8. 390 

Ventriloquist 105 

Vtmunu election 141 155 192; 

Vevay, Indiana '^5 

Virginia^ a meeting or th6 le- 
gislature called 96 192; gov- 
ernor's message 201; docu- 
ments accompanying it 203; 
Staunton convention 15 17 
274 399; elections 223 259; 
colonization of the free 
blacks 275; motion about u- 
sury 275 352? literary fund 
275; 6nances 3X4 389; board 
ofworlis Z^5 

Virgin Mail's gown ! 254 


Wales, New Soutbi Of the mis- 
sionaries there 9 
War department, estimates for 
1817, 345 
— - expenditures 1816, 345 
tVarrinjfton, capt. (court of 
enquiry on) 62; (at Rich- 
mofid) 296; at Norfolk 432 
Washington 74, . 62 80 
Watson, bp. of Landaffy dies 10 
' Mr. addresses the Berk- 
jriiire society 405 
Waterioo, review <)f a visit to 

the field of 130 

Water-spout 171 

Wayne^ gen. his^ letter on tlie 

capture of Stony-Point 13 

Wellington, the duke of 61 138 
West-Indies, commerce of 16 22^ 
Westenf rivers of the U. S. 14€ 
—country, geopaphical 
information respecting 31^ 

governor's speech 


West-Point, military academy 40C 
Whale, flying! 64 

a, killed 64 

White, col. rallant achievment IS 
William and Mary college 4d 
Williams, Samuel S2i 

Wilson, Bruce & Hutchinson 4^ 
Wine, American, XA 

Wines, respecting 
—experiment! on 31 

Woods on fire IC 

mrtembur^, the affairs of 93 | 

JTeas and nayt, in the senate oif j 
the U. States— on the com^ 
pensation law 256 397; re« 
specting an exchange of Undv 
with the Indians 362; on tbtf 
. resohition for certain paint* 
ings 362; on the bill respect* 
ing treaties with the Indian* 
397; on the "cUims law^ 40C 
408 4 
Teat and noyt, in the house cl 
representatives — on the conu 
pensation law 363 364 36|j 
381; on the "neutrality bilV 
384; atk the postponemeirt d 
the bill respecting bankinj 
companies in the district c 
Colombia 398; on the bil 
pledging the bonus, &c. t 
the U. S. bank for internal iia 
provements 4 

Yellow fever, Dr VaUi's ejcper 

ments respeaiing 

ii 111 


No. I OF Vol. XL] 


[wi2oi.K SO. 26L 

Hmc oHm memimtfe jtmabit. — ^ViBoii.. 

Faiimro ato fubuwimi by e. HitB», at tmk hbau op chkap sihb, at $5 fbb aukwm. 

This period Af the W^bklt Rbowtbb, tlie first 
uuraber of a nev year,, is entirely fitted to dis- 
charge caTearfp$» and make euhancea on a6count of iU 

To itf:coroplish an object of great importance to 
the editor, each subscriber will be furnished with 
a statement of bis account to include the preteni 
year ; Mrith a reliance that UberaHly and jutHce will 
enable him immediately to effect it. 

If the work deserves half the praise that its par- 
tial friends, in all parts o/ the United SUtes, are 
pleased to heap up6n it,— it deserves, at least, 
^unctoali^ and promptitude in those who receive 
it to pay wr it. The ability to do sp is ever-present 
to ninety-nine hundreds of the gentlemen on odr 
Gsts, but tbo many *<put off till to-morrow whftt 
they might as easily do to-day^ — and ''the amount 
2i so small and any other time will do as well.*' — 
'hit if a grand mUtake! and I hope it vtU be recti- 
Md bjf all wAtfm ii cuncerru. 

The t|itlc and in^ci For the Isitit voluWe will ac- 
oompany the next number. 

The price of this paper \sjtx>e d»Bar» a year, pay* 
obU in adv^tim. The terms on which tlie. complete 
JSkt may b^ obtained, can be seen in several places 
in Ae body of t^ work, or in the prospectus. 

perhaps, excepted — And ^et, how small is the* 
room allowed to these things! The reason is, 
because we put in nothing merely to Jill up 
our pases, j&ver^ ai'ticle is examined and 
wei«im. Hence it is, prcAwibly, that we have 
partially deserved the compliment which a very 
respectable old gentleman in Mainland paid 
us, when he said in one of his letters — ^''that 
severail of the members of his &mily and others 
of the neigldx>rhood, were accustomed to meet 
at his house once a week to read the Weekly 
Begisfer, and thereby ascertaiA how much of 
what they had seen in the newspapers was 
true**' 1 have to complidn, however, that not 
less than SO or 40 country priutem make no 
ceremony in filling their papers from the few 
pages I allow to foreign articles, as the product 
pf their own industry. 

Our statistical collections seem to be very 
satisfactory. There is no way, perhaps, in 
which more solid information can be conveyed 
in the same compass, than by that we have ibl-' 
lowed in this respect It is particularly rc^ 
quested that any copying our statistics will be 
careful to avoici errors in iheji^res^ in which 
we have 'observed many ridiculous blunders. 
As to my political essayd and i^emarks, a few 
observations maybe useml, thou^ I shall pro^ 
bably have to repeat tilings tliat I have said 
before. Some have considered me as unneceS" 
sarily hocrtile to crowned heads and to the go-* 
vemment of G^^eat-Britain. I disavow that I 
am so to either, further than naturally grows 
out of a defensive stat6. I may be mistaken in 
this. The serious opposition that I feel to 
every establishment (A government or religion^ 
not buift upon the free will and supported by 
the sober reason of the people, may deceive me. 
I would not, however, set up for a reformer of 
^ttropean systems hrEiiropean countries; and 
think thit I only endeator to prevent their 
growth in my own. 

But — ^it may be asked, how do those crown- 
ed heads and established priests, with die Bri^ 
tiA government, place you on the defensiva^ 
What are Icings and priests, tlian panders, to 
tte peq)le of the United States? I will endea- 
vor to answer these reasonable questions, ad 
well by shewing the nature of the warfare 
against tlie republic j as in describing its effects* 
The principle of monarchy has been so copi- 
ously dwelt upon in this work, that we will pass 
it over very briefly. Ifi governments thus con- 

Editorial Address. 

On commencing the present new eiditorial 
jear, we liave not much to say. The object 
ind manner of the Weekly Register is so 
broadly spread before the people aild so hi^ly 
Improved, that it is only necessary to say we 
saall jriot makfe any chan^ in either. 

The ^forei^ ardcles'' inserted in this paper 
are made up With thr^ times as i^uch labor as it 
^M cost to fill up the space they occupy with 
what i^ dignified by beingcalled ori^wu mat- 
ter. It is easy for a man that holds a free pen 
to dash off eight or ten pages of a commotr sized 
volume, OB tiie familiar subjects of the day — 
and with a very small exertion 6f mind, for 
the subject treated of naturally opens itself as 
he proceeds with it : but to attempt to cull ^the 
tvheat frdm the chaft''' of the muUitudinoud re- 
i^ortsy surmises and conjectures; to glean the 
substance of the ten tiiousand columns of what 
is callexi news; to retain all the useful and ne 
ceseary facts, and reject the vast body of mat- 
w which appears to hate been made for no 
oHier purpose tbto tofiU up ihe newspapers—^ 
iaequires much patietice, perseveiuice and care. 
I am perfectly sen^ble, that as a vehicle (or 
newsy a weekly paper cannot come into com- 
petition with a daily one; but this I think I 

9«T say— ^at the KEGis-rER cointains a more ,, ^ _^ „ 

mi and perfect history of foreign and domes- stituted, it ifesmongst the most important coA 

tic events, things interesting t6v the present or 
useful to refer to in future, than any daily 
newspaper in the United Shites, two or three, 

Vol. XL 

cems of the state, to make the people believe 
that God is always on the side of the king; and 
priests are hired continually to tell the peoplo * 

Digitized by 



^o. No one dares to contradict tlieiuj and fhe , But how is this effortand operation manifesi- 
t'ahehood is so often repeated, tliat many who ,ed to the people? — h will appear internally t© 
lau4ijied at it at first, ax*e inclined to suppose every man tliat shall for one moment examine 
there may be some truth in it, or at least to con- , his own heart, to see if there be not in it some 
clmle, as tlie thing is so generally admitted, lurkihg idea of a natural superiority in kings, 
tliat there is no use in opposing its current, jit appears extemaUy in the conduct and lan- 
Thiis, when Jlejrcmder of Macedon chose first guage of men. 1 could, from the papers I have 
to have himself given out for a g-od, the son of; on my files, select fifty pages, in as many mi- 
Jupiter Ammon, making a strumpet of his mo- nutes, from the sermons, orations and essays, 
ther, tliey who associated with nim from his ! and other writings of leading men amongst us, 

as would put imvudence itself to shame, if it 
were to declare tne non-existence of such false 
principles in the United States. They do exist 
eodewmelf/. I shall briefly allude but to a few 
cases at^present: 

A man who is President of one of the most 
respectable seminaiies of learning in the United 
States, has declared to his pQpils, Hhat the de- 
claration of independence was a wicked thin^ 
^le thought so when it was first promulgatea^ 
and he thjDU^ht so stilU^ 

A second, a leading literary character, who 
seemed to be at the head of the taste and learn- 
ing of our country, said, ^Hhat republicanism 
was the asp and cockatrice that Iiad bewitched 

A third, who, by way of eminence, was called 
tlie "field-marshal" of the edit^s of a certain 
political party, recommended, tftat the anni- 
versary of our nation^ s birth-day shotdd cease 
to be regarded, as tending only to excite old 

A fourth, an orator of the highest standings 
who had filled some of the most respectable of- 
fices in the republic, called upon the people to 
rejoice because legitimate pinnces (as he curi- 
ously called them) Iiad been restored to their 
thrones by foreign bayonets. Thus infamously 
denying tjfe ri^t of mankind to self-govern- 
ment, and libelling the memory of our revolu- 
tionary heroes, who took up the sword and 
ejected the same sort of "legitimate" rulerb 
Irom our country. 

A fifth, then a senator of the United States^ 
declared in my presence, and at many other 
times in tlie presence of others, that the govern- 
nient could never be properly administered until 
the laboring classes were reduced to a liveli- 
hood on herrings and potatoes. 

These are mere samples, picked up just as 
they occurred to memory. It would take a 
week, perhaps, to write clown all such things 
that I have on my recollection: but a couple of 
octavo volumes' would hardly contain the insur- 
rection and royal sermons, the ^^l§gitinuUe^- 

youth, though dazzled by the splendor of his 
«!cpds and fascinated by his magnificence, were 
all (Hsposed to ridicule him out of such an ab 
surdity; — ^but the murder of some of them for 
doubting his divinity, soon silenced the rest, 
fud its eflect was such, that even after his 
death, the chiefs carried the mockery so far as 
to raise a tJironc in their council chamber, and 
addi'ess it as though he were present at their 
deliberations! But this vulgar pi-ejudice in favors 
of kings is chiefly supported by tlie charge that 
goverunittit takes ol the education of the 
YOU TH5 well knowing that first impressions are 
ihe most lasting,* Tne schools are, directly or 
indirectly, managed by persons deeply inte- 
i^sted ill keeping up this pi-ejudice; and they 
regulate also the hooks which are read by adults. 
This is the fact inextenso in every king-coun- 
try except ih'eat Britain^ where almost the 
s »me effect is really produce<l by means less 
inmcdiate. Hence, oy tlie operation of the 
same rules that make one man of this religious 
persuasion and another of that, zealots grow up 
forparticulartiogmas, and will "give scripture" 
for thin*^ as opposite as the antipodes. The 
literary works resul tin*; from the labors of such, 
11 eopssarily partake of them; and in every tiling, 
froiJi the "primer to a folio volume, from the 
nio.^t abominable thish in a novel to profound 
researches in history, we find something about 
the divine rights of princes and nobles^ and of 
thQ almost, i}v complete, infallibiUty of the es- 
tablished church. These nooks embrace die 
great hi^lj of the learning and talents of the 
world; and we cannot deny ourselves the use 
ofthem: Ijut, while we profit by the information 
th'y ccmt^in, we, in tm United States, may 
h^^ily combat and expose the delusive theo- 
is(>sWd Wse principles that they would alsoim- 
]»Ve*s upon the mind. I have made the remark 
Iv^forc — ^but monarchical iilitus^ like tlie plague 
(»f the fro^s, inflicted upon the Es^yptiann for 
ihe, lumlneas of the heart of th«»ir "liiiigj in to be 
fonnd every where— in our *'*bed chambers'' 
;ind on oHr "beds," in our "ovens" a!ul in our 

*k invading troughs," woi-king their way into orations, anii-re^?/6Zican speeches, essays, &c J 
Iho HMiBt secret and retired places, silently and ' that are preserved among ray collection of pa- 
imp-: it eptibly. i pei-s. 
— " ' ;: —- -* 1 If, then, this monarchical principle be so dlf- 

^Thc L/nmvuiti of Cjermuny, of whom wa havcjfused (hrough society— if it be hostile tt) the reJ 
,r."a s«» ii'Hcli, were duly scihi:)jc <»f tjns- niul, to ut aix i* *^ rii it -j. i oa j. • 

, o rao.c it'mostearnestfvena.avorcd log'otth^mJP^^^*-*'^ constitution of tl.e United States~do 
r'M^ ai the dhection of seminaries of IcimiMs-. ' '? m c:qu>sing its absurdity, and in exciting a 
'^.ivc wf ne%'C'r lieard of a cci u-n society in Ojc; 7'eairorKt»]f-govermvient,actollensivelyr There 

i.;u a ^' rxxen doing ifjc same Uunjr ^ ' ' \3 no connt! v ia Europe where the divine rig^h i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


of kings Qfui be broadly called iiito question. 
Tb€y will not tolerate wliat tiiey ^ect to be- 
liere 13 an error iji tins respect, for they know 
that the whole lyysiness o(lcing<raft and oriest- 
crt^ is an imposition and mummery. We are 
not afraid of such errors — we desire only that 
**reason may be leftfree to combat them.'' And 
1 have the vanity to believe that I have done a 
litfle good in this way; 

Now, for the second part — an apparent hosti- 
litrto the government of Great-Britain : Here 
we are clearly on the defensive. What is it 
that we do, prosperondy^ which fails to excite 
the envy and malevolence of the king-party? 

bottomd:|| we r^ret it, most certainly — but say 
it is lair, and submit to it without grumbling. 
JFe do not feel ready to declare war becattse 
ships of the line called frigates are launched in 
England, though it is openly said they are 
intended as a match for our **cock-boats." JVe 
do not charge Endand with ^'designs^^ on the 
Thames^ because London has become the great- 
est, the most populous city in Europe, and the 
wealthiest in tlie world, tre do not consider it 
enmity to us that 500,000 of her people make 
their aaily bread by spinning and weaving our 
cotton; but think that we ourselves may also 
^ ^ spin and weave it if we please. We do not deal 

HTien our commerce flourished — it was siud ! in Jeremiads if a Halifax fisherman comes in. 

Alt we *'spre^d too much canvass;" and, to 
tessen it, fAe^ themselves supplied France and 
^ continent (their enemies), with the very 
l«&les which they declared it illegal for us 
(ffl amity with all) to carry there! Do we 
WW a vessel of war — ^it shews an "aspiring 
<Ii^ition tfiat must be checked." Do we lay 
<mt a new state upon our rivers— we are 
cliarged with "designs on the J^ississippi and 
.Uissotfrf." Do we establish nianufactories— 
thej ^ow <*a hostile spirit towards England.^" 
Are our fisheries pi^perous — it is conclusive 
evidence that our fishermen use unfair means 
» sacceed in their adventurous emplojrment. 
Bo emigraiit^ flock to our shores — ^it is an 
■^ahoning fact, calculated to distui-b the re- 
pose of the world." Does the census ^ew 
nst increase of inhabitants — we must, in the 
language of admiral Cochrane^ be "crippled." 
Can we love those who are ever thus abusing 
and threatening us* We do not complain that 
jhrgepartof the trade which naturally he- 
««^ to ourselves, is carried on by English 

7% readers will always bear in mind that when 
I s?e»k of pri(r»/cra/> it Jias entire relation to the 
***"mgs of priests of established churches — nor 
»»el referfente to any pai-ticular churcli. 
^This boweveri is a common case. Tbe late 
**w»ai tariff prohibits the introduction of ** no less 
ta 191 desci-iptions of goods such as the British 
^wler has been accustomed to supply the northern 
jartioCEurope with." On which it is said that the 
'"eorttinental system of Bonaparte is extended to 
CToy port in Uussia," Then follow, in the Txmdon 
P^per before us, a string- of severe reflections on 
Aleiaodcr because he wishes his own people to 
Qttke certain articles for themselvels. 

Another paper of July 10, speaks of the kinj? of 
J^'s **g^t/ul iniltttffence" of British commerce, 
IwiWte he has " restored" the old st-uiding of 
«iHptliat€xisted before the revohition in Spain, 
and Be^ires that two thirds of 4he cloths shipped 
toS^tsh America should be of Spanish manuf;.c. 
gPB-jttS^^i ^^'"ff supplied the whole during 
geCrtarbcct siatt of the kingdbm, which they 
J*ktiiey»till JiaTe a right to do. They call this 
N*Aircof Spjkin an *^tmderniinhig of tJieir com- 
•fiWlj** Thato, the desig^n 6f Ferdinand to sup- 
'''jS*,<>wn manufactures ishoatiUtyio G. Britain, 
^liatte^ of fact is—that every nation is re- 
*W^ tnemy of Great Britain that pretends 
l%jkwlf in t^ctfit aiid vuinnfctc!nr'\^. 

with a full cargo of fish. We do not consider it 
calculated to disturb the repdse of the world, if 
any persons choose to make England theit* 
dortiicil. We only wish that England, pursuing 
her own interest as she pleases, conformably to 
tlie public laW, would let us pursue our's on the 
same condition. We have sent no emissaries 
into her country, t£;e have distributed no secret 
service money among her people— iff? have not 
forged her shipping papers, and sanctioned the 
forgery in convoying tne vessels sailing under 
thein, Dv national ships — hut have in all casea 
so acteatliat she has never preferred one com- 
plaint against as, ejccept in the grumblings of 
her statesmen and writers because of our pros- 
perity. Turn to the review of a late woi-lc in- 
serted in the following pages. It is a mere type 
of the never-ceasing jealousy of Englishmei/. 
Yet we could laugh at all these things, whilst 
we guarded against them^ if we had not been 
tolain parliament of the "Briti.^h party in Ame- 
rica^' — ^if we did not know that thei-e was Such 
a party, rich and jpowerfiil ahd extensive in its 
means to do Inischief-— of which, however, it is 
needless to say more at this time;— except that 
it commands, (more or less,) three-fourths of 
the presses in our sea-port towns*-^lirectly, 
through a common feeling with the proprietors, 
or indirectly by t!ie influence of their opinions 
on society at lai^e, or by a love of the profits to 
be derived from their advertising btisiness. 

We close this firticle with an Extract fVom a 
memorable revolutionary paper,1f a little al- 
tered to make it apply immediately to our casfe: 

**Iri our own native land, in defence of the ^ 
freedom that is ourbirth-right — against violence * 
actually offered, we have taken uptmfns. Wfe 
shall lay them down when hostilities shall cease 
on the part of tlie aggressor and all danger of 
their being renewed shall be removed, and not 
before." We '"imploi-e" that otrr adversaries 
may be disposed 'Ho reconciliation on r^asouof- 
ble tei-ms, and thereby relieve" us of the neces- 
sity of standing upon the defensive. 

II Eighty one British vessels, most of them heavy 
ships, arrived at New-York, from the first of Jaly 
to the 20tli August, inst. 

tUeclaration of congress setting fbtlhJTtc neltjfs- 
.^ity of taking't^p arms. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

4j NILES^ weekly register— SATURDAY, AUGUSff 31, I8l6. 

Executive Responsibility. 

The noQ-pajment of the gallant militia of 
Tennessee for weir hardy, adventurous and in- 
valuable services during the late war, has ex- 
cited much animadversion in that state, as well 
as generally surprised the people. It has also 
been puUicly stated, that the regular troops 
posted on the north-western frontier, have not 
teemed a dollar for the last fifteen months. 
Why these things, or either of them, are so, is 
a very natural as well as an interesting enqiuryj 
for the public interest is deeply concerned m 
tiie fidelity of the public agents, in a matter so 
delicately afibctin^ the public reputation. Want 
of means, it is behevea, cannot be plead in ex- 
cuse for it— the finances are represented to be 
in the most prosperous condition^ and the re- 
venue, in general, seems greatly to have ex- 
ceeded the estimates made of its product And, 
besides, if mone]r were wanted, the presump- 
tion is, that it might be easily raised, to any 
amount required by the wants of the govern- 
ment. iF/iy, then, liave the militia of Tennes- 
see not been piud? 

Certain proceedings at Nashville have caus- 
ed the paymaster-general to spread before the 
public a statement of the monies remitted by 
him to satisfy the claims of the Tennesseeans. 
He has done this, he says, "in justice to the 
public service and to himself as a public agent." 
It Would appear that Mr. Brent lost no time in 
forwarding on the funds, and tiiat these funds 
\vei'e ample and adequate to their object. — 
Mci-^in the paymaster-general seems to appre- 
hend that he has satisfied the ve^onsihUity at- 
tached to ttie government and to himseli ; to 
which, however, we cannot assent, and must 
still ask^ wlty the militia have not been paid? 
T'li've is a fault somewhere — ^the republic has 
suHered a cktrinAent and individuals nave been 
unjustly dealt with. We cannot acquit Mr. 
Brent until we get the answer to our why? He 
loads us to believe that the deptty or district 
paymasters have not done their duty — but he 
Siiys nothing of any measures being resorted to 
t« coerce them t&i^ to expose their offence and 
punish its comuiisaioiw We, tiierefore, lay the 
blame on I\lr. BrenVs own shoulders for the 
^ present, aad it ouglit to be shifled to those of 
' the pi-esident, if the injustice, now notorious, 
is not speedily redressed, and the perpetrator* 

brought to answer it before the proper tribu- 

reached their destination. If his deputies hav^ 
speculated upon the wants of those whose mo-^ 
ney they detained, they ought to be held up to' 
infamjr and punishment; if tiiey have any thing 
to say in their defence or justification, it ^ould 
be stated that the public mind may be satisfied.^ 
The people have a right, and it is their bounden 
duty, to enquire into these things. They are 
not to look to Tom, Dick and Imry, unknowii 
any bodies^ for tiie due administration of their 
concerns: they must look to the principals of 
the several departments, and to the president,*- 
as beinff over the whole. Tliey will admit of 
nothing like the doctrine Hhat the king can do 
no fJbrong.^^ In public, as well as in private 
life, every man who suffers wrong to be com- 
mitted by his agent does wrong of himself; and 
reason and justice say that he should be resp^m- 
sible for it. No one expects that every public 
agent will be an honest one; but every man cal- 
culates that those who are dishonest willbe 
punished, dismissed and exposed. It is, there- 
fore, in my estimation, a very lame excuse for . 
Mr. Brent that he has forwarded tiie money to 
pay the militia of Tennessee, "until he tells us. 
whv they have not been paid . 

Thesereraarks are intended to shew our ideas 
of responsiHliiies in general; and we believe 
they may apply to the meridian of other histh 
offices with quite as much force as to that of Mr. , 
Brent---^ sinjject on which we are strangely 
tempted to say something — ^but the plan ofthis 
work forbids it. As to me paymaster-general, 
we would not breathe a suspicion against hi» 
public or private character: we have never heard 
any thing of him but what was most respectful 
to him as a public agent and an honorable man; 
and, indeea, we should suppose him far more 
capable of paying the gallant defenders of their 
country in the late war, too easily and too pro- 
fusely, than of throwing obstructions in the way 
of their just claims, or of higgling in doubts to 
keep them out of their just dues-^e universal 
testimony is in his favor as a patriot and a sen- 
tleman. But he cannot relieve himself oithe 
responsibility that belongs to tiie non-payment 
of the Tennesseeans, by simply telling us tha^ 
the fiinds were forwarded to pay them — he is, 
at leasts eqnalltf bound to shew us why they were, 
not paid. This is the natural relation of things 
in every walk of life; and, as a republican, I 
never can consent to release any man from its 
operation, however high and honorable his 

nal, according to the rules laid jdown for such . 

malversation. Yet there may be circumstances standi^ may be, 

to be plead in extenuation, and, periiaps, to I We seldom ftel the necessity to intit)duce 

wipe off the offence— the delay may nave arisen i the name of an individual to make out a general 

from the neglect or inattention of the Tennes-| case. The dKtor of the Register, ever con 

seeans themselves, to furnish the proper vouch- 

ei-8 for their claims. But we know nothing ex- 
cept that these claims are unsatisfied, or were 
6M a little while since, and it is impossible that 
Mr. Bi*eHt should not be held i-esponsible for it 
lentil he tells the reasmi why tlie funds he fur- 
^iHhod to those mibord^oate to him have not 

tending for broad principles, leaves the appli- 
cation of them to his i-caders. It is needless to 
add, timt nothing -personal orpStuliar is meant 
in the precedinsr* after the voluntary tribute we 
have oficred to the just praise of tne respecta- 
ble gentlrm«nn introducea; but we meant to say 
to Mr. Brenty and all others in authority, tfaa 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


it is qoke immaterial to the people where ne- 
£|ect qr dishonesty exists, It that neglect or 
dishonesty is suffered to pass unreprdiended 
aid unpunished. 

The following b the article which gave rise 
to the precedingremarks: 


Washington city, July 16/A, I8I6. 

8tb— I obserre from tlie proceeding of a public 
meetings, held at Nashrille on the Slst ultimo, by 
citizens of that vicinity, that sharp animadversions 
took place xspon certain measures of the government 
of the United Slates, and amon^t others upon those 
of fte pay department. Justice to that branch of 
the public service, which has been committed to my 
^Mtfgne, and to mvself va a public agent, rduler it 
proper for nieto address yon on the sntpji^ct. 

Early in the month of February last, I bad the 
honor to communicate wi^b you relativtf^to the ap- 
pointment of a paymaster for West Tennessee, and 
of H(|U]dating the outstanding claims for military 
sen^s in the state. My instructions to that pay- 
fflistcr, if i mistake not, were^ submittied to your 
penisal^they can, however, be resorted to in his 
possession if necessary, a^ well those of the pajF- 
JMiter of East Tennessee. 

The enclosed statement will disclose to you the 
ftndf placed by me at the disposal of the gentle- 
men, actingas pa\-masters, in the state of Tennessee, 
fincethe lOlh of April, 1815. The supply of these 
ftndt has been graduated with a view to bear as 
lightly on the public treasury as circumstances 
would permit, and to the actual demands on the 
' paymasters. The law making appropriations to 
l&ebarge the arrears of pay, fitc. that accrued dur- 
ing the late war, vou will observe passed on the 21st 
ofDecember, 1815. 

I am, with sentiments of much respect, sir, your 
most obedient, ROBERT BRENT, 

St excAney Jotebh M*JHinn, 

Then comes the statement, of which the an- 
nexed is &e paymaster-general's own recapitu- 

Recapitulation of the foregoing. 

At the diipotal of Mr. Coleman, 
do. Mr. Searcy, 

do. Mr. Windle, 


Deducted by w«y of estimate for bills 
that may not have been drawn, and for 
Amds that ma} not have beeu acttial)y 




Beview. - , 

^'^Xmnal peiUg •/ Great- Bntain,'' or the mean^ tf 
k^tping d^wn ^America — by a British traveller. 
The meftsores dictated bjr envy are always s^lf- 
dcstcttdive^ and seldom injurious to others^ To 
«fcw chagrin at the prosperity of neighbors— ramong 
n«lions as amom llidiv^^uals^ \fi tp give the st^ong- 
ttt DToo^ not only of depfavitjTa biit i^lso of decline. 
»ttch a proof is the wori^ before us, and though only 
Me instance of a th^ou^d, it is. one of the strongest 
we have met. Thopgk full of misrepresentation 
ttd written in a ^irtt of blind, inveterate hositilityi 
»» we shall shew, we 'strongly recommend the peru- 
<•! of it; because, in the first place, we feel no slight 

gratification at the involuntary acknowledgettient 
of our national prowess and prosperity; but princi- 
pally because we wish the people of tliis country to 
be fiilly apprised of the mean, pitiable, self -deluding 
schemes that are proposed, and acted upon, to check 
oar irresistable advHncerocnt. We have here an 
open avowal of the endeavor of tlie British to dig a 
pit for us to fall into. We feel not the least concern 
about it, except regret at the belief that tliey will 
inevitably fall into it themselves. Nothing is further 
flfem the mind of an American repiiblican than the 
idea that the welfare of other nations shmild be 
injurious to us. 

What is the picture that presents itself now? 
Here is the genius of Britain, like a "fusty, canting:, 
s'.iff-rump'd, old maid,** beginning to find herself 
deserted and despised by her former admirers. She 
imputes all to the malice of others. She redoubles 
her eflTorts to counteract what rfie conceives to be 
plotting against her — becomes every day more fret- 
ful, envious, slanderous, unprincipled, and hjpo- 
critical; until at last her condition must be really 
shodcing. But here is Columbia, a blooming, bliihe 
young nymph, "as happy as the live long day" — 
admirers flocking to her from every quarter. She 
cannot think how to use them as well as she wishes, 
but somehow they are all delighted with her. How 
could she be stupid enough to feel jealous of others? 
Her forbearance under the infliction of the most 
mortifying injuries, cQuld only be equalled by tlie 
firmness and dignity of character she exhibited 
when she rose to resist them. 

The British writers and statesmen exhibit at pre- 
sent a Tnisanthropic despondency, too pitiful and 
mean to render the spectacle a melancholy one — it 
is only amusing; and truly it is very flattermg to us. 
"If on a review," says this British projector, "of the 
various nations of the world, one should be discov- 
ered more qualified to become a dangerous enemy, 
and successfiil rival, possessing superior means of 
disuniting her defenders," &c. — ^'America, indepen- 
dent, is precisely this nation, more insidious than 
any other," &c. **Conceived to be too insignificant 
for notice, encouragements were given to her trade; 
and during the period she enjoyed internal tran- 
quility, she grew up to a gigantic stature." "Two 
trees, says he again "growing near each other in the 
forest, will rarely stop at the same point of statu re< 
one will overgrow, shade, and render the other un- 
healthy," &c. "America then is the aspiring tree : 
she has reared her hea4 and extended her branches, 
threatening to cover the aged and venerable oak of 
British power an^ grandeur from the aolar rays of 
iqanufacturea and commerce." 

^•Nothing," says he in another plaee, **nothing 
amounting to a national feeling has yet swayed us 
in the contemplation of this formidable opposition,^ 
so new, so dangerous above comparison," &c. He 
then su|n^eat8 measures to provide against the 
"TV>vel asKl alarming situation in which tl)e nation 
has b^en placed." 

W& are accused of national vanity— I would fain 
know where the Americans have made a higher es- 
timate of their importance than that which this 
work eshibits. Well, because we must hereafter be 
of some consequence, we shall stand in Britain's 
way; and without assigning any other reasons, l^e 
says they must consider us as ''aliens^ enenuet, natu* 
ral bom foetf^ and in spe^Ucing of the United States, 
repeatedly designates them by the epithet "the 
enemy** at a time of profound peace— ^lA« enemy/**' 
This is malevolence to a degree for which I cuu re-* 
collect no parallel. 

«Hn surveying the Ameps«a people,." eays ht. 



"Ihey appear to be of all i alions the most active, 
enterprising, laborious, fruj^al, persevering, cu- 
tious, and not clcfioient in ingjenuity. Konc excel 
them in t\\f: conduct of lucruiive commerce, or in 
daring feats of seamanship: tliey possess personal 
courage and ai-e expert in the use of fire arms," &c, 
Now there arc some exceptions to be taken to^ this 
Rtuteracnt, and I believe they mig^itbe sulsiantiated 
upon the authority of his own book. The Americaus 
are neither patient, laborious, nor frugal. Even in 
t*ie eastern states Uiey are not in those respepis^ lo 
be compared with the English and miich less with 
the Germans. Error is always liable to self-contra- 
diction; this writer in another part of his work 
gives indolence as the characteristic of tlie citizens 
of the southern states, and with regard to the rest, 
he says, "they have not so much in view to enrich 
themselves as to be barely raised above a state of 
dependeiVBe. Indeed were any so Inclined, unless 
great exportations were going on, it \\ ould be use- 
less. They therefore quictjy repose on tlieir own 
freeholds, feeling no want, acquiring little mo- 
ney," &c. 

There i^ the advantage, that amidst tliis contra- 
licty of accounts, he will "hit the truth, either on 
one'side or the other.'* But the matter is perfectly 
understood here — tJie people in America ai-e not 
goaded on to labor by the bayonet of frightful ne- 
Cessity as they :^re in England. 
' But the Anjericans arc charged with want of ho- 
nesty. It is worth while to stop here, and enquire 
J»ow the sober^ quiet, contented citizens of this 
country happen to be accused .of immorality by a 
nation, whose chief city contains 18 prisons, 5,204 
ale-houses, has annually about 2,500 offenders com- 
mitted for trial, and sustains an annual average da- 
mage, by robberies, of ^2,000,0€)0 sterling,^ and up- 
wards. At lea^t so says their own famous sUtist, 

The tharge of immorality, made against the Yan- 
kte», must ref^r only to their disposition to take 
the advantage in bargains; and let it be understood, 
that it is applicable only to the Yankees — to the 
people of the New-England states, who bear no re- 
semblance, particularly in tliis respect, to the inha- 
bitants of tJje other sutes. Untbrtunately, they 
follow the English, in customs, in opinions, and in 
])rinciples, as naturally they should, because tliey 
are, almost all, of piu-eUhgl ish origin, lliey difler 
from them chiefly by having become more knowing, 
brave and enterprizing. Certainly no people in the 
world have, in pi-opoKion to tiieir knowledge, leas 
of "Yankee trick'* among them than the people of 
tke western and southern states, because no peoj^le 
have so little occasion to use it. ' 

But there is Something more in tluj^chargc. When 
a Yankee commits a fvaud, there is so much humor 
and ingenuity in it, that it passes into the collection 
of good stories; it circulates, perhaps, in tlic news- 
papers from MissouH to the Ganges. An incident of 
this kind, occiu-ing once in several montlis, keeps 
alive the reputation of Ydnkee trick; and jt U the 
celebrity, not the frequency, of their frauds tliat 
has givetV' them a character. 

Does any one think worth while to notice the 
instances of stupid Knglish depravit}*, tliat occur 
every day andVvery iiouf. AV6 may look at tliem 
in tlie mass— at tlie thousands, not only of men but 
of children, that \\c hy felony. We contemplate, 
with horror and pity, (he numerous and immense 
^uisons filled with misely and criminality. We, at 
!ast, become as callous to the frightful catalogue of 
, transportations and executions as they themselves 
are. JBut when a case oecurs here, as for J^stance, 

the late oneof SmitJ), at Philadel|>hia, acaseof dc 
pravity that no one attempts to exciise, it is pub- 
lished in every paper, and excites tJie sympathies 
and horror of every ])erson, from one end of the 
union to tlie other. The governor of Pennsylvanin^ 
after having held his seat six years, congratulated 
himself and the commonwealth, that during tl^t 
whole period, not one death warrant had been pre- 
sented to him for signature. I could give a thou- 
sand proofs of the p-eat contentment and sober mo- 
rality of tlie Amencan nation, but I thiiiktlicre can 
be no better propf than this one. 

But qnder the British government— ^propo* — an 
acquaintance of mine, when in England, asked u 
girl tltat he one day met, where she had been — 
"At the gallows hill," she replied, "Was any one" 
said he, "hanged there to-day?" "Oh! not manv; 
there was only my fatlier and Jack— and another 

The Yankees are charged, by our author, witli 
smuggling and commercial perjuries. Let it be so 
— we do not care how heavily the clwge fails on 
the few that it attaches to; but, as to the country, 
so far from enqoiiraging such baseness, gs the. Bri- 
tish government did, it met from them the unani- 
mous reprobation that it merited. While the re 
collection of British licenpes is yet upon our memo- 
ry, let no man of that countrj- impute to us, or to 
any other n^t jon, the guilt of commercial frauds and 

|*The British," says he, '^scrupulously regard the 
point of honor, while the Americans l>ojd whatever 
is expedient to be also lawful; imitating, in'Oiis re- 
.spect, ^he J-Yench." "Ambition being the most pro- 
minent feature in the American character, in no re. 
spect qualified by any principle of morality, or re- 
gard for the law of nations." After all this impu- 
dent talk, the only grounds that he can sliew fop tlie 
accusation, are the measures "which are basely act* 
ed upon" to injure Qreat Britain by the duties, pro- 
hibitions, premiums, &c. ado|jted to excliide British 
manufactures and encourage pur oven In what 
country was theright of encouraging manufactures 
ever questioned before.' England the accujier — Kng- 
lai^d, who carries this course pf policy to the tidost 
rigorous extent — but that is nothing — we even do 
not care about the malignant jealoutty she shews In 
preventing artizans and maplimeiy fh)m being con- 
veyed to this country; because, in truth, tliere -fe 
not that need for them here that she imagines, and 
that many of our own counti-ymen seem to imag-inc 

But from whom comes the stupid nonsense that 
we have unnecessarily troubled ourselves to eor- 
rcct ; from one who recommends tlie very btiBieness 
that he would vainly attempt to 'fix ujton the chu- 
^acter of our nation. Speaking of the treaty of 
Ghent, he says, that on tlie British part "a scru- 
pulous reg^dtbrthe hrvvsof natigjns was very ill 
timed." " If the attack pii Copenliagen is vindica- 
ted on the plea of iiect^fHty, sui-ely a depai*tureiix>m 
the precepts of the civilian would have been justi- 
fiable." Grant me patience, good heaven — the it>ost 
abominable outrages arjj to be justified in Great 
Britain upon tlie plea o^iieccsJit/, the fiilse absul-d 
exeusc or banditti; and a set of odious acts conv- 
mitted by themselves are to be, not only a pretext, 
but tl jnatifeotion for adopting a system of conchict 
so unprincipled, that hfi is afraid or ashamed to 
state the extent of it. What fnean those dark ma- 
licious innuendoes? "a departure from the pre- 
cepts of the civilian would have been jusdfeiP* — by 
what ?■ by the attack upon Copenhagen. As much 
as lo say after having acted tbtis, we may yenttirc 

iized by 



to do rrny thing base and barbarous. But Britain is 
the nation that "regurdg the point of honor** ; and 
AiQ/erica is the one that disregards the law of na- 
tions byl^asely endeavoring- to supplant the British^ 
in commerce and manufactures. 

Infamous^ insolent, defamer— I challenge you to 
shew a single instance, even of the most trifling 
import, in which the United States ever diepaHed, 
or attempted to depart, from the principles of the 
law.of nations. And well I trust that the man who 
sat down to write a book, with the avowed object 
•f persuading his country to consider us as enemiet^ 
in peace, ** natural bm*n foes** and treat us as such ; 
would not have omitted to give facts, if any could 
be foimd, to countenance his hard-faced assertions : 
because those charges form the essence and founda- 
tion of his reasoning and the pretext for his wretch- 
ed system whose bearing we intend to discuss pre- 

" The British regard the point of lionpr" — I must 
pass by this part of tlie subject at present, because 
it would be impossible to give here the whole his- 
tory of the late war— and luckily it is in better 
hands. [to be contutited.] 

The cultivation of the Cane. 

A West-India paper republishes tlie interesting ar- 
ticle which appeared in the Weekly IIeoister of the 
10th of February last. Vol. IX. page 405» on the cul- 
tivation and prcMduct of the sugar cane in Geor^a, 
and annexes thereto the following essay: 

To the editor of 'the St. Chnttopher^s Advertiser. 

Sir — Upon reading in an American paper the 
above statement of facts, and the reflections upon 
them, 1 have been led to consider how they may af- 
fect us, and what measures we ought, in duty to 
ourselves, to adopt to counteract the efiect the rais- 
ing of sugar in tlie United States and elsewhere, 
may have upon us. First, as to the quantity raised 
per acr^: I find the Georgian accounts stand con- 
siderably higher than an average of our crops. I 
have not perhaps the most accurate data to direct 
me as regards ourselves, but such as it is, and tak- 
ing the Georgian statement to he correct^ the com- 
parison would run thus — 

This islana, by the almanac, is sitid to a. a. p. 
contain, 43i797 6 3 

As this is, I presume, the total surface, 
let us deduct 2-4^s for non-arable, 
and l-4th for arable, not in crop, 32,795 I 2 

And there will remain in canes for one 

crop, 10,931 3 1 

The average product of the last five 
years appears from the same source 
to be (taking 2 trs. or 8 bbls. to a 
hhd.) . 7719 hhds. 

Addingpto this, for the consumption of 
in tlie island, ^ 300 

It would be, , 8019 hhds. 

of, say, 1800 lbs. each, or 14,434,200 lbs. or 
l^Oi lbs. per acre. 

By the Georgi^^^ account, in the first case, we 
hare 1647 lbs. per acre, and in the other, 2488 or 
an average of 2065 per acre. 

Next, as to die number of hands: in the Georgian 
statement we have^S acres cultivated by 23 hands, 
and they raise 904ribs. eacji. Here an estate, which 
would plant 103 acres of canes, would, I presume, 
to be well handed, have 250 negroes, young and 
old, jrhich may all, except infante and the very 
aecft, be said to contribute less or more to tlie cul- 

tivation of the cane; but deducting 100 for inf .ntri» 
nursesvand other ineffecUve hands, we have, for the 
remaining 150, 906 lbs each. 

A vast disproportion tins, botli in the products 
and number of hands; and cannot fail to eHVct the 
West-Indian planter considerably — for, adraittiic; 
that the Georgians are only able to supply the I.'. 
States it will most materially influence the pric^- 
of siigiiT; and, as they look forward to it, if ihey 
export they can bring their's into market, and con- 
siderably lower than we can bring ours; for, besides 
their greater produce per acre, (which it may !:e 
said will fall off, though I do not think it will, or at 
least so much as our crops have) theirs cannot cost 
them near so much expence in cultivation, as tht y 
raise all the food, and I believe most of the cloth- 
ing necessary, and they do not rc<|uire near so many 

Sugar is also raised to a considerable f'xtcnt in 
the East -Indies, and possibly will soon be in Africa. 

From all these consiJerations, therefore, I think 
it becomes our duty, as it evidently will be oiu- in- 
terest, to consider and adopt those measures by 
which we may increase the pixKluce of our lundJ, 
and cultivate them with less expence and le-s 
manual labor; all which appear to mc to be practic- 
able in some degree; though local circumstances 
may prevent our attaining them in an equal propor- 
tion with the Georgians. 

A society, formed for that purpose throughout 
the islands, upon one general plan, having a branch 
in each island, and communicating regularly wiUi 
each other, whibh would encourage rational expe- 
riments, similar to the society for the improvcmenJL 
of agriculture in the mother countiy, would, per- . 
haps, be the' most effectual way to accomplisli t!i<' 
first of those great and important objects; and to 
contribute to the second, I presume Indian corn, 
sufficient to feed the negroes, may, if judiciously 
managed, be raised on each estate, without reduc- 
ing the sugar crop, but rather the contrary, b} w hicli 
means they may always have a fresli meal. The im 
proveraent of those machines and instruments now 
in use, and the adoption of such others as are ap- 
plicable, would contribute to the List; for I bclie\ e 
that it will not be contended that we are arrive;! at 
perfection in either — surely 103 acres could not he 
cultivated by 23 hands with the hoes. 

The principal objection to such a society would 
he the non-residence of the proprietors in tins court- 
try; but to this I would say, few as they are, they 
might do a great deal if they would jointly consi- 
der the maltei' seriously, and set about it licartily; 
for surely something seems to be wanting to meet 
the recent circumstances and appearances. 

Not pretending to any depili of erudiiion; I have ; 
ventured these remarks for their coi>siderution, not • 
for tlie critic's lash, as 1 conceive it tlie duty ot* ! 
every one, >YhQ wishes the good of the communiiy he , 
lives in, to contribute his mite, howevor small, to i 
that end, to which, if mine in the least conduces, ' 
I shall be fully recompensed and highly gratifitvl; ' 
and I hope some abler hand will be induced to take ' 
up the subject. 1 am, sir, j 

A -iveU'Wisher to tlw publig. j 


QCyThe probability is — that large plantations olj 
cane would not produce an average result S9 favors 
able as in the easels stated by us. But still, the culj 
tivation of it must be exceedingly profitable. 

In tlie account given in the Rkgistkr, as referrci 
to above, it h stated that "major Uuilcr, on 85 acres 
worked by 17 hands, raised 140,U00 lbs. of sugii; 
and had 74 hhds molasses— and that John M'Qucc^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



esa. on IS acres, raise;! 44,784 lbs. of sugar and ;and the interest thereon, as became due at the loan 
had 23 hhds molasses: but the last was a natter of office in the city of NeW-York in the state of Newi 

calailation only (romthe product of a certain quar- 
ter of an acre of his cane field— the entire result 
not beingf ascertained when We received the account! 
The facts respectingr maj. Butlef's crop came to 
us in an imposing and decisive shape, and must be 
acc^ted as a full representation nf the case; and 
his held was sufficiently extensive (85 acres) to 
affisrd tolerable data for the general product of 
lands in hid neighborhood, ami possessing advan. 
tages of climate and conditio]! like his. If the cal 
dilations of the West Indiati ai*e to be relied on, 
these truths appear: 

In the tVest Indies, they can raise 1,320^ lbs. to 
the acre, and as it reciuires a stock of "250 negh)ea 
to mana^^ 103 acres,'* the whole product of which 
will be |36,011 lbs. the average product for ewpry 
pertton on the farm, being only 564 lbs. of sugar. 

While in Georgia, according to the product of 
maj. Butler's field, we can raise 1,647 lbs. to the 
acre-— and manage 103 acres with about 69 negroes, 
allowing thi ee persons to one **hand,"' giving- us 
^69,641 lbs. of sugar, and an Average product for 
every person on the farm, of 2,459 lbs. 

The djiftrence is so great as to make me con- 
clude there is & great error somewhere. But eve-, 
ry one, from the facts ^iveii, will draw conclusions 
from them for himself. The general fact, however, 
may be assumed, lilat ive can raise sugar f»»cA 
cheaper than it can be raised in the West Indies; 
thereby confirming what 1 have frequently* express- 
ed a belief in,— that the day was not distant, when 
the United ^tat,e# '#ould become the great market 
for supplying the world with sugar, as it is now for 
cotton. ' . . ' 

The following, from a late Charleston paper, pre- 
sents^ itsplf rertr happily at the moment. We 'are 
told also, IhaCtJie cane will succeed in Korth CarT- 
Una. As the plants become naturalized to the cii^ 
mate, they will do better; and their cultivation, 
perhaps, be extended along tlie coast nearly as high 
us Cape Henry. • *^ 

'•A plant^r,'just returned from a visit to his estate 
OB Cooper river, where he has experimented on 
the cultivation of the siigar plant, has, from his ob- 
servation, every yeuson to believe that th« soil from 
the swamps of that river is well> adapted to the 
cultivation of that plant, and great crops of sugar 
might be made on the swamp lands^ with very Ijltlc 
trouble, in the driest season. He had under one 
view, fine crops of rice, cotton, and sugar plants, 
notwithstanding tlie aridity of tlie summer, and 
gait river." i * 

United States' '^'reasury Affairs. 


Treasury Department, 
Revenue Office, Aug. 24, 1816. 
Sitt—To g^iard against misapprehensions tfiat 
niay arise, in regard to the descriptions of money 
demandable for tlie internal duties and direct tax, 
it is considered proper to advice you that the re- 
venue will not be collected in coin on the first of 
October next, unless an arrangement shall be ef- 
fected with the state banks to supply the commu- 
nity with the necessary medium, and that due notice 
%vill be given of such an arrangement, if made. 
Commissioner of t/ie Revenue, 
TDSASirnr dkpartnewt, 4^9. 22, 1816. 

York, at the timea hereinafter specified : that is to 
»ay, ' 

t. The treasury notes, which become ^^e as a- 
foresaid at any time during the year 1814; to 
he]^hiA f>n the 1st of J\/ovembernext 
2. The treasury notes, which become due as a- 
fbresaid, in the months of January, February, 
Marcli, April, May, .nnd J^une 1815, to ht paid 
on tile 1st day of JVohember next. 
And the said treasury notefi* respectively will ac- 
cordingly be pslid upon the aplplicatibn pf the hold- 
ens thereof respecUvely, at the iaid loin office in 
the Wty of New-York, on the dajra re^ectively a- 
bove' specified ; After which days respectively,' in- 
tei^st will cettse to be payable on the said treasury 
notes respectivtiy. 

AvD NOTicK 18 hereby further given a«rfrej&«ilt//, 
that fimc^s have been assigned for the payment of 
such treasury notes, and the interest thereon, as 
have become due, or shall become due at tlie loan 
office in' the city of Philad^phia, in the state of 
Pennsylvania, as follows : that is to say, 

1. The treasury notes which have heretofore be- 
c5)me due, a$ last aforesaid, to be paid forth^ 
witli ; interest on the said notes having ceased 
to'be payable. ' ■ ''■ ' 

2. The treasiuy notes, which shall hereafter be- 
com« due as last aforesaid, to be paid on the 
day and days, when they sha^ respectively be- 
come due ; after Wluch dav'd ■ rcspectivelv, in- 
terest will cease to be payable on the said' trea- 
sury notes respectively.' 

And Qie si^d treasury notes due and becoming 
due at Philadelpliia as aforesaid, will accordingly 
be paid; upon the application of the holders there- 
of respectively, at the said loan office, in the city 
of Philadelphu^ at the times aforesaid. 

The comrtiissioners of loans in the several states 
are requested to make this notice generally known 
by all the means in their power ; and the printers 
authorized to publish the laws of the United Sutes, 
will be pleased to insert it in their respective pa- 
pero. A. J. DALLAS, 

♦ Seeretafy of the treasury, 

Treasitry Department, 29th July, 1816. 

Sitt — Ihave the honor to acknowledge the receipt, 
«fyour letter, dated the 16th inst. stating that you^ 
have been informed by his Rritannic Majesty's con- 
st d at New- York, " that a discrimination between 
Uritish and American vessels disadvantageous to 
Uie former, exists at that port, in the charges for 
pilotage, and the fees demanded by the wardens, 
and at the health Office, which appears expressly^ 
contrary to the stipulations contained in a clause 
pf the second article of the late commercial con- 
vention." ». r . 

The convention to regelate the commerce be- 
tween the territories^ M" the United States and of 
his BritjitimcMajes^,tknd tlie actof dong^ss con- 
ceminif the COhvention, cong^tute the law of th^ 
United States upon the subjects to which they re- 
late ; and you are, aware, that instructions have 
been issued from this departmpit, to the collec- 
tors of the customs, to insure a faithful execution 
of Uie law in favor of British vessels aciving inthc 
porU of the United States. 

It m^ay happen, however, thi^ under the acts o(" 
the legislature of the state of New-York, a discri- 
mination, fur local purposM, such as you represent, 
may have been introduced) prior to the ratification 
of tlie commercial conventiQ|i,''and may not have 

NoTici 18 HKRisBr GivRiT, that funds have been 
^lijgT^ed ^r the payment, of «uch -i^nr.kuvtiY vj)TEs^lbeen since directlx annulled orrep^leti by the aa- 


by Google 


ihority vkkh introduced It. But in a f^eneral view 
ofptt^ system of jurispmdence, it has fidlen within 
your olMervatSon that the provisions of the state 
laws are rirt^ially suspended whenever tJiey be- 
come inconstftent with the constitutioi^^ laws and 
treatiet of the United States, and that ev^ state 
court as wdl as every federal court, and mag^istrate 
must, in every litigated case, decide accordingly. 
Uis«ndevstood, indeed, that in relation to the ve- 
r> subject of the discrimination tar which you ai- 
iade, and since the ratification of the commercial 
conrention, a judicial decision h&s been prongimced 
i« thf city of New- York, upon the principle which 
V» just httn stated. 

You will perceive, therefore, sir, tliat if there 
liaH at any time be an attempt to enforce a dis* 
criminfition between British and Amecican vessels, 
disadvantageoiis to the former, and contrary to 
tbeBtipnlaflbnsof the commercial convention, the 
party tggrieved will have an adequate remedy in 
tlittcsse, as in every other case of an injury in- 
flicted by a breach if our laws, upon an appeal to 
the jodicial authority of the country. But however 
desirable it always must be to facilitate a faith f\]l 
execotion of the convention, I must add (a(\cr hav- 
Ti^ submitted your communication to the presi- 
dent,) tbat it does not lie witliin the duties or 
powers of thb department to regulate or control 
the condnct of the state authorities. I have tlie 
honor to be, &c. A. J. DALLAS. 

T* JM'y St. John Baker^ Etg, H. B, M. consul gen. 

j Foreign Articks. 

I (C^A rep«rt has been received at New York, via 
1 lladrid and Cadiz, that Russia had declared war 
I Jiiait Prussia. There cannot be any trutli in it 
Tetve iomettmes think the repo9e of Burope will 
|>edistiirbed— the British papera talk much about 
^e mbithn of Aut^'a-^because, we suppose, her 
operor has resolved to encourage the manufgc- 
iJwsofhisown people! 

^1 is fitting out a squadron against Algiers. 

I •Ve» expedsHinL Ui Mgiert. The British govern- 

noit teems completely roused at tlie conduct of 

I Al|ier8,and determined to quiet tlie piratical bar- 

! tarians. We wish her the glor}' of t!>is— it will be 

»Hapwr exercise of the vast power she has attain- 

ed; and probably, save m the trouble and expence 

«f btttemg down their cities. 

Arery heavy squadi^ of sevqi sail of the line, 

»i4 many smalter vessels, bomb ships, &c. were 

«>«tts leave Engird under lord Bxmouth, at our 

*»t lecoonts. mt (lag ship is the Queen CharlotU 

'UIO guns. . One of the gun vessels is called the 

I *Je6«ft— her greatest mortar* is 4 feet long, 13 

»es calibre, with an extreme breadth at the 

^le of 2 feet 11 'tt\. and requires 24 lbs. of pow- 

I ^y for a charge. Th* expedition was fitting out 

^the iiiof^ eoinpiete manner, for the peculiar ser- 

I ^<e lib desiped for, and tan Jiardly f4l of suc- 

I ^- It is satd the Dutch fleet is to co-operate. 

"this force shall ^nd the piracies of Algiers— 

^ credit of it will in part belong to the United 

^tttjwho first humbled the barbarians and pav- 

"f ™5 ^yfi>P it, by exciting a spirit in Europe to 

J^ wjem down. 

^^f ^c. The British papers say that Algiers 

ojfaided by 1000 pieces of cannon, 300 of which 

?f «»•; and 15,000 men. A Londonpaper of tlie 

^jjoly, has the following paragraphs; 

/llrn roortar is q>oken of as something extraor- 
■^^y-but somchundredi of IS-inch bombs were 
^^^^^ at rortM'Menry. 

On lord ExmoQth's visit to the fleet, he harangued 
the crews of the ships' for a long time, holding out 
to them two months additional pay, and their im- 
mediate discharge after they had punished the Al- 
serines. Not a volunteer was found in the whole 
fleet, and one of the sailors of the Boyne observed 
to his lordship, "that if the Algerines were to be 
punished, it might hayebeen done during the seven 
days the fleet lay before it" It is melancholy to 
observe such a general disgust aipon^t our brave 
sailors, and nothing can be so vitally uiteresting to 
this country as a parliamentary enquiry into the 
general management of qur navy. 

A private letter relates the following aneedote: 
On lord Bxmouth's return from the piUace of the 
dey of Algiers, when he had concluded the treaty 
which stipulated the emancipation of the christian 
slaves and the abolition of the system, and had 
nearly reacfhed the beach on his return on board 
ship, the Turkish Jannissary g^uard, among whom 
his way lay, incensed at the prospect of not being 
permitted to indulge fiirther in their aecustomed 
and inhuman atrocities, conferred with each other 
whether they should take summary vengeance on 
our gfallant chief; one party decided on his being 
immediately scimitared; another, more moderate, 
siiffST^ted that such conduct would undoubtedly 
bring down the just vengeance of entire Europe on 
their devoted heads. Lord Exmouth was, however, 
happily able to ttrke leave of this sanguinary coun- 
cil with his head in iu right place! 

Trade and commerce. From all parts of Emrope 
wc hear the most grievous complaints of thedim- 
cultics and stagfnation of trade and commerce. 

B. B. Sheridan^ esq. well known in the literary 
and political world, died at London on the 7th of 

Some condemnations and executions for treason 
still occur in France; but the countr)' in general 
seems settled into a toUtitfk. 

Marshal SoiiU was at Breshm^his property is 
said to be worth 12,000,000 francs— a great deal too 

Savai^ and Lallemand were at SmjTna, under the 
protection of the Turks. 

An extensive war is expected in India. The Bri- 
tish want more spoils. "The captive (rotai.) fami- 
ly of Candy, has landed at Madrat, and been sent 
te Vellore.** This is no matter— a mere tiling of 
information; but when the royal family of Spain 
was ileported, what an oUlcry we had! /low immense 
is th/B fufpoerittf of 'legitimacy.** 

Alexander of Russia is said to have ordered his 
ambassador at Constantinople to deliver a note to 
thedivan^ expressive of his pacific wishes — he had 
no desire but to see i^urope at peace, after her vio- 
lent agitations. 

The London papers have a dashing account 
of a dinner given by the princess Charlotte to the 
duke of ffelUngton and his suite. On the $ame day^ 
three millions of people vho cotUributed to the cost 
of t fas elinner, scantily dined on cold potatoes/ 

By letters from New South Wales, it appears that 
the missionaries have lately met with extraordina- 
ry success in Eimeo, an island adjacent to Otabeite. 
The majority of the people have renounced idola* 
try; tlie priests have oumed theii* gods; the chiefs 
destroyed the Morals, demolished the altars, and 
cooked their dinners with the materials. More 
than 600 persons, chiefly adults, attend the schools 
of the missionaries for instruction. 

**E«8TomATioK!»* Tiie persons lately executed 
at Paris, were royally mangled before they were 
killed. Tht gidUotine h used to finisli then^. 

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Several vessels have recently been met with in 
the Mediterranean without any persons on board — 
supposed to have been captured by the Barbary pi- 

Riots, with riotous proceed in jjs, of a greater or 
less extent, abound inBngland far want of employ- 
ment for the people. 

The king of the Netherlands lias joined the 'ho- 
ly league." 

British toleration seems among their articles for 
exportation. They raise up and support catholic 
kings in/or«j^countries,and call upon the people to 
rally roimd their "holy religion/* being the catho- 
lic—which they condemn at home as inimical to God 
and g-ood government/ 

The French police has directed the journalists of 
Paris "to compose an article on the great tranquil- 
ity of Europe, and the unrivalled prosperity in 
which Fradfce is placed." 

The emperor Alexander has made the Russian 
bible society association a present of a large house, 
four stories' high, solidly built of stone, and lying 
in one of the finest parts of Petersburg, near the 
imperial summer-garden. The society has also re- 
ceived from his majesty a present of 15,000 roubles 

The king of France has granted pardon to all 
deserters from the navy, as & further mark of grace 
and favor; in honor of tlie marriage of the duke and 
duchess of Berri. 

A London paper of the lOtli of July gives a re- 
port tliat the duke of Angouleme had gone to the 
south to receive a Spanish army of 30,000 men, "to 
facilitate seme measures in contemplation, not 
clearly defined." The same paper says— ** Fresh 
troops have also been *marclied to Lyons, where 
great disturbances are said lo have been excited by 
the arbitrary measures adopted to levy troops for 
the royal cause." 

The English papers tell us that tlieir revenue 
fallen much short of its expected proceeds, from the 
general stagnation of every thing; and seem to ap- 
prehend quite as much difficulty in getting over tl»c 
present "fearful calm," as ever was presented in 
«*weathermg a ttorm." 

The king of France appears very desirous of in- 
creasing his -army. Ills late attention to some of 
the distinguished officers of tlie revolution, do not 
appear to please some of the British, who talk of 
"new schemes of ambition." 

Dr. Waf««rt, bishop of Landaif, died on the 4t!i 
of July, in the 79th year of his age. He was a ve- 
ry learned, liberal and good prelate. 

Mr. Sheridan was so exceedingly poor, l!iat tljc 
London papers are puffing tlic prince regent to the 
skies for sending to his old friend and most inti- 
mate companion, the vast sum oi—ttco hundixd 

The London papers say if Bonaparte liad delivered 
himself to the Russians, he would have been kept 
safe in some castle for 2 or 3000 pounds a year; and 
that it is a shame it should cost the British 1UJ,000 
or more. 

"Joy to tu^ wohi.p!^* The foUowi.ig is from Uie 
J^ndon S7tn of tlie llUi of July. We much admire 
its delicacy and point: 

"The frequent indispositions of the princess 
Chjulottk naturally occasion surmises that tliey 
proceed fj om a cause more agreeable than ot/iem-ise 
to tlie feelings of a nation deeply interested in tl»e 
hap])iness of her royul highness. It may pcriiaps 
expose us to a charge cf want of etiquette, to sa} 
any tiling on this svibject, but knowing liow much 
j^rutificd the country will be by the information, 
• V cuPiict refrr/iu from stnting, thnt authority, more 

grave than gossips' stories, gives us leave to la- 
ment her illness as aligluly aaposuble, and to indulfre 
our warmest hopes and utter our best wishes on the 
aunpkiout mairied condition of one to dear to the 
British people. 

The Couriet* of the 13th, sa}'s— the answer to tlic 
enquiries yesterday, as to the state of the princess 
Charlotte's health, was, her royal highness is bet- 
ter; is going on well; but is still ordered to be 
kept quiet / ! • 

Bless us!— what a matter is it that the Dntchman 
has done the very natural thing that he was im- 
ported expressly to do! The British people pay 
him about ^00,000 dollars a year fur his perform, 
ances in this way. That is «*paying dear (or the 
whistle." But it would bewortii talking about, if 
he should beat old David Wilson, of Kentucky 
(see vol. X. page 427) who had Jive children by one 
wife in 1 1 months. 

Mi's. Jordan was thought not to be dead — ^"as h'» 
royal highness the duke of Clarence (says a London 
p.iper) bus not received any account of her de- 
cease." But she is dead. 

Seam bn ron the lares. J^ndon^ Jidy 13. — It was 
noticed some days ago that an applicatimi had been 
made from a committee of sh.ip owfiers for the port 
of London to the lords of the admiralty, for an in- 
demnification for the losses sustaiued in Canad.i, 
by the seamen deserting the merchant ships in that 
rpiarter, to serve on board his majesty's ships ori 
tlie hikes, which they had been tempted to do hj 
an exu-avagant bounty being held out to them.-^ 
The following is a copy of the answer retunied b) 
l\\fi admiralty: 

**. Admiralty office, July 6, 1816. 
Sir — Having laid before my lords commission 
ers of the admiralty, your letter of the 3d instant 
written by desire of a committee of ship owners ot 
the port of London, relative to the disastrous consc 
quenccs arising ta the shipping interest from tb^ 
circumstance t)f men volunteering from merchai* 
ships into his majesty's ships on tlie lakes of Cans 
(1.1. -I am cominaoded to acquaint you, that iheii 
h>i'dshi])s had not originally sanctioned the pro 
ceedings of which the committee complain; th^ 
they havo called on licut. lingo to account for h^ 
conduct on the occasion; that ihey have taken mei 
siires to prevent a recurrence of the practice, on| 
are endeavoring to enter volunteers far tfte service ^ 
Canatla, but that their lordships cannot by an 
means feel themselves called on to comply wit' 
tjie furUier proposilions made in your letter. 
I am, sir, &c 
(Signed) "JOHN BABROW. 

"To .Tohn William Buckle, esq. 

deputy chairman of the committee." 

J'^rom J^mhn paper of July 3. 
As a stril;ing exemplification of the \\x\\*v\ 
ccdenled distresses of the manufacturing classej 
we prf-sent our readers with the following mem< 
rial, which has obtained upwartb of minkteen tho^ 
HANii sigr.atures in Bolton, Chowbent, Leigh, ai^ 
the neiglibourhood : 

To his royal higlmess Georjrt Prince regent of /• 
united kingdom of Great Britain aiul Irela^td, vri" 
their Dependencies. 


Of the undersigned, being master manufacture 
of COTTON oooDS, and workmen who have be< 
employed in liie \'arious brandies of that orH 
extensive and important mauufaclui^, 

That yo'T i ny..l li'-rhnesB' humble memorialist 

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who tre true and faithful subjects to his majesty, 
Tinder whose royal banners many of them have 
ibugfat and bled/ but now they are returned home, 
fiomtai oUain food^ are brought to dire distress, 
which is every day becoming more poignant, and 
unless some means of relief be speedily devised, one 
cwnmon ruin must involve mastei*s and workmen. 

That this general and iocreasing evil majr be 
ascribed to several causes, as, first, to a prevailing 
system of reducing wages. This system must at 
ail times decrease the value of the stock on hand, 
which is sometimes immense, and hath often proved 
ruinous to the best houses. Second, the exportation 
of the half-WTQUght material, as twist and weft. By 
this traffic, one part of his majesty's subjects work 
to enable foreigners to do without the other part, 
and hence the restrictive measures adopted by 
foreign governments against the finished manufac- 
tures of tlie memorialists. And also, a third evil, 
growing out of tlie former two, viz. the most able 
of the masters have, either altogether or pirtly 
declined the manufacture; whilst others, by re- 
peated sacrifices of tlieir depreciated stocks, have 
become bankrupts. Hence, many thousands are 
oat of employ, while those who have any, cannot, 
on a ftur average one with another, earn more than 
fmtrahUHngB and three pence per -week, and two years 
since they could earn hoehie shiUings, and vine pence 
|n the same time. 

The cotton manufacture has given employment 
to m^y hundred thousands of persons in the United 
Kmpire. Shall these and trade perish together ?— 
No !— Your princely breast will feel for yoiir future 
people— our present ward; all of whom love, and 
many have fought for your royal house and the liber- 
ty of their dear native land. 

Your royal highness is the memorialists* only 
hope under heftven; they therefore humbly pray, that 
youp royal highness would be graciously pleased to 
take into your royal highness' most serious consid- 
eration, thelf di3tre$a; and without dictating, or 
presuming to pbjnt out what should be done in 
this arduous case, the memorialists pray for speedy 

London, July 1. The funds have recovered a lit- 
tic since Tuesday. A sum of nearly 600,000-? out 
of the unclaimed dividends being put at the dispo- 
isal of the commissioners who purchase stock on 
government account, they brought into market yes- 
terday an instalment at the rate which they mean 
to pursue regidarly, namely, about thirty -two thou- 
sand pounds for every transfer day. This is as- 
signed as the cause of the improvement in the 

11th. It is positively asserted that the king of 
Portugal has promised to support the royal cause 
at Buenos. Ayr es and Monte Video with an army of 
15 or 16,000 men, which will, it is added, be very 
useful to these provinces, though not wanted in 
Mexico or Peru. 

Four new marshals of France have been created. 
The/duke de Coigny, the count de Viomeuil, the 
the duke de Felti'e and general Boumonville; an 
equal division between the emigrants and those 
who have been concerned in the revolution. 

13th. It is stated in a letter from the IMediter- 
ranean, that a captain of one of his majesty's fri- 
gates had, by going on shore, fallen into the hands 
of the Algcrine.s, who with the most refined cruel- 
ty, nailed him to a cross, making him suffer the 
most excruciating tortures. Some Turks, who 
were present, moved to pity by lus sufferings, at- 
tempted to release him, but were shot dead for 
their humane interference. The captain's namely 

given in the letter which communicates the intelli- 
gence; but we forbear to mention it, without fur- 
ther corrobation of the fact. 

Upwards of 10,000 livery servants are said to be 
now out of place in difrerent parts of England, ow- 
ing to tlie^«/»^« state of tlie times, and the nu- 
merous emigrations to foreign parts. 

July 8. The king's health.— The following bul- 
letin was issued and shown yesterday at St. James* 

"fVindior Castle, July 6. 

**Hi8 majesty has enjoyed good bodily health, and 
has in general been tranquil tliroughout the last 
month; but his majesty's disorder is not abated.'* 

Jjondon, Jidy 12. The distress for want of labot 
in the manufacturing towns of Devonshire, exceeds 
all former precedent, at least within the memory of 
its oldest inhabitants. We ai^ounce, with great 
concern, that the banking-house* of Messrs. Benja- 
min and Joshua Ingham, of Huddersfield, suspend- 
ed their payment* on Thursday last, at 11 o'clock 
in the mommg. — Leeds Mer. 

Tlie distresses which have for some time prevail- 
ed in Northumberland, have been this week much 
aggravated, by the stoppage of the banking estab- 
lishment of Messrs. John and Thomas Cook & Co. 
at Siunderland and Wearmouth. This is another of 
the numerous country banking houses that drew 
upon Messrs. Bruce 8; Co. — ih. 

Paris, July 2. The duke d'Angouleme is about 
to make another tour of the southern departments. 

Among the persons presented to his m.ijesty on 
Sunday, were marshals Macdonald, Oudinot, Vic- 
tor, Moncey, Marmont, Suchet and Kellerman. 

Some Carthusians, who have survived the revo- 
lution, have recently entered the Grande Chartreuse 
near Grenoble. 

St. Petersburg, Jidy 15. We are assured that our 
court has concluded a treaty of alliance With the 
United States, An article in this treaty, it is said, 
gitarantees to us the possession of ttvo ports in the Pa- 
cijic ocean. 

State of British Commerce. 

From Marioade*s lAi>erpool trade listf July 1, 1816. 

In relating the state of tr.ide, we cannot con- 
sistently overlook the commercial difficulties of 
the country, which present an appearance of em- 
barrassment and disorder unparalleled; and how- 
ever reluctant the task so frequently to advert to 
such a subject, it is imposed on those who report 
on the state of the markets, as an act of publio , 
duty, and becomes no less a duty by being more i 
painful. Many and various are the suggestions 
which have assumed the place of remedies, and 
dictated a better order of things, but to devise the \ 
means of a radical and permanent good is no easy 
matter. The most populai* seems the most rational; 
Herid economy in the state, and a consequent iHminuHon 
of taxation. 

The disease pervades every class^the landlord 
complains of his tenant, that he does not pay his 
rent — the tenant that he cannot sell his produce at 
any thing like a fair price — the merchant that the 
manufacturers charge their goods too high — tho^ > 

•It may be matter of information to some to say, 
that the banking houses in Kngland are, to all in- 
tents and purposes, the same as the state banks of ^ 
the United States, — receiving deposits, issuing 
note.s, discounting jiaper, £tc. or exactly like Mr 
Uirard's bank at Fhiladclpliia, or Mr. Barker's a' 
New York. 

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manufacttirer tlial he first sells his eoods to a 
loss, and then loses the remainder of his claim 
by insolvency— the mechanic that he has only 
half work, for which he is only half p^id, and that 
provisions of all kinds are too dear. 

Manchester is represented as suffering severely 
from want of demand for her manufactures: the 
lower orders from the ji^tmost industry, scarcely 
earning eight shillings a week. 

In Wigan, Bolton, aod that neigliborhood, tlie 
heat weavers do not e.>iti it\ore than/it^ tfdlUiiffs a 
toeek, and maity not four tfiiniiifft; besides some 
thousands entii*ely unemployed ; the like observa- 
tions eqi/ally apply to Nottingham and Yorkshire. 
Sttch is our internal poiuUtion. 

Whilst if we contrast it with the neighboring 
nations of Europe, we find, that in relation to 
ourselves, rent is reasonable, food cheap, and 
consequently wages low, but fully adequate; no 
doubt can exist, that as they are less encumber- 
ed with debt and texes, ancl are attaining to ex- 
cellence equal with ourselves in arts and nnanu- 
factures, it becomes an jmper^itive duty, as in- 
volving an essentially political meature of $nfetift 
to adopt every possible syste^ of economy and 
retrenchment; and tliis is perhaps the onl^ means 
J>y which we can obtain the most substantial relief 
from those difficulties by which we are surrounded. 
A system tending to avert and 4i'nini^h individual 
"evil, is adopted almost universally ft-om necessity; 
but whilst It may be admitted to be botli .neccssai7 
|ind universal, yet by counteracting consumptive 
demand, it augments rather than alleviates, the 
pressure of difficulties attendant on internal trade; 
Toldch compared with collective trade, foreign and 
domestic, becomes a matter of the first and most 
weighty oonsideration. 

As respects foreign commerce, every step towards 
extension is a matter of infinite importance to 
civilized society; but where, at the present mo- 
jnent, can a prudent man enter freely on the field of 
speculation ? Scarcely to any part of the continent 
of Europe; for where markets are partially im- 
provmg for colonial produce, they are by no means 
encouraging for manufactures; and generally speak- 
ing, it will be found tliat our merchandize is nqt 
tvanted, and that edicts of an unfrieiKlly uaturc arc 
enforced against our manufactures. 

If we direct our attention toward the new world, 
we discover that the markets t^JImeHca are not only 
overstocked vith British ^oods, but that nn/ortmiatelff, 
there prevails amoiig- the people of America feelings 
-jrvliick militate against liberal and extensive deafings 
vdth usf anil a desire is evidently manifested to make 
themselves independent of all nations, by establisldng 
manufactures in all their branches. 

Amid the troubles which agitate South America, 
•we have every thing to hope; the present state of its 
colonies, we may conjecture, will ere long be 
flisunited, and would be better for both pai^ties, 
especially for this country (England) if it were the 
rase. It is in this quarter of the world tliat the 
prospect is exhilirating— it is here, tliat commerce 
roiglit flourish and diffuse itself, being a country of 
great extent, and whose population have wants that 
must be supplied by European productions, and in 
exchange for which there is a variety of wealth and 
natural pro<luce to barter. 

But one of tlie principal objects deserving of 
weighty and deliberate attention, and embracing 
the prosperity of these kingdoms, is tlie state of 
insubordmation among t]>e black population of our 
colonies in tlie West Indies; we cannot contemplate 
xhc acttxal state of tlicse possessions, but with the 

most fearful apprehension «nd alarm— f<» when ihfi 
mind takes a wrong bias, and power is on the side 
of the disaffected, the danger is with difficulty 
counteracted — amore general diffusion of knowleg* 
has taken place throughout the world; and as men 
become more prefectJy acquainted with personal 
rights .and privileges, they will aspire to situations 
in society of comparatively greater dignity and 
consequence, thJm those enjoyed under the darknetf^ 
of intellect. 

Statistical Articles. 

MARTLAKn PiixiTE!fTf A»T. We havc the annun 
al report of the visitors of this excellent institu- 
tion. The whole number of persons confined is 342; 
of whom 177 are mules and 65 females. They arc 
all, except 8 sick, and 1 in solitary confinement, aQ- 
tively en^ployed in weaving, spinning, shoe-making, 
brush -making, heading nails, &c. 

Fair nsALiifo. When George II. on stopping at 
an iim, was changed 20 guineas for a couple of eggs^ 
he .observed, *fae egfg mush be ver scarce.** *»No,** 
replied the hQSt, "eggs, please your majesty, are 
not ftcarce, but kings are" — the publican might have 
added, "and dear too.** 

RiBLVB &c.-rThc number of bibles testaments 
and prayer books, printed at Cambridge, England, 
durni<the Ust seven years, was 1,009,000, at Oxfoixl, 
including also Catechisms and Psalters, 1,446,000. 
The value of the whole was 945,3^ dollars. 

American Acldevement, — While the sieg^e of Sa- 
vannah was pending, a remarkable enterprise wa« 
effected by colonel John White of the Georgia line. 
Previous to tlie arrival of lyEstaing •n the coast of 
Georgia, a captain of Delancey's first battalipn had 
taken post with about 100 American royal regulars 
near the river Ogeechee, about 25 miles from 
Savannah. There were als^ at the same place five 
British vessels, four of which were armed, the 
largest witJi 14 guns, tlie smallest with 4, and the 
whole manned with about 40 sailors. Colonel White, 
with six voli|nteers, including his own servant, made 
them all nrisoners. On September the 30tb, at 
eleven o'clock i^ night, he kindled a number of 
fires in different places, adopted the parade of a 
large encampment, practised a variety of other 
stratagems, and summoned the captain to surren- 
der; who was so fully impressed with an opinion, 
that nothing but an instant compliance could save 
his men from being cut in pieces by a superior foree, 
that he made no defence. The deception was car- 
r|e4 on with such i^ddress, that all the prisoners, 
amounting to 141, were secured.— The col. being 
now very much embarn^ed, was at his wit's end to 
know what to do with so many prisoners, concluding 
tlut if they discovered liis weakness, they wocdd 
rise and captgre him and his party in turn, 'hit upon 
the followinp^ expedient : He siiggested to the com- 
manding[ officer of the captured troops the dilemma 
he was in to fulfil the articles of the capitulation 
with good faith, as his men were so enraged at the 
cruelties that had been practised by the British, 
that they were determined to put them all to instant 
death. Upon this representation the British officer 
suggested the propriety of his keeping his regiment 
in the rear of them, while three of his men should 
conduct the prisoners to the nearest American post, 
which was 23 miles distant, which they accordingly 
did, and delivered tlieni safely to the commanduig 

Gjisf. Watse. From tlte Norfolk Le/lger.-^Tht 
communications of our naval heroes, during the 
late \^ar, have gerjerally been remarkable for their 

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ii^tys bat we do not feedtect to have seen any 
•f them that is more in that way than a letter from 
fen. Wa^fte to gtH. WiuMngtm^ idikh is in these 

«5)NMy Pmri^ My 16, 1779u-3 fftloek A. M. 

*<Dear Geaa«l-*The fort and garrison, with col. 
Mnsoo, are oars« our officers and men behaved 
Ike men determined to be, free. 
Tours most^inee»ely, 

€eB. Washington. 

Tai TXAX-BOAT at Newburg, N. York, has cross- 
ed the Hudaon with the following load: one coach 
Ind horses, a wagon and horse, 17 chairs and horses, 
aae horse and 50 passengers. 

It is thus that we may have safe, cheap and expe- 
ditious ferriet in places where the building of bridg- 
es is inexpedient or impracticable. 

AVw CanaL Messrs. Parrar and Baldwin, fVon^ 
Hassachusetts, acting under a resolve of our legis- 
Isture, and Mr. Chase, a commissioner from New- 
Hsmpshire, are prosecuting their survey of the 
Amte firom the waters of the Connecticut river to 
those of the Merrtmac,to ascertain the practicabil- 
ity of cutting a canal which shaQ connect them to- 
gtther. The calculation was, that including the 
waters of 9unapee lake, So^, Contoocook and 
Waner riwers, the distance re<[uired to be cut 
ttold not be greater than 20 miles, of whiah the 
towns of Windsor in Vermont, and New Concord 
h K. Hampshire, would be the extremities. But we 
have lately undmtood, that upon actual survey, 
the waters of Sunapee are discovered to be about 
€00 feet above the level of Connecticut riven which 
difference is observable within the distance of 19 
n&es.— Ssw. Gar. 

BUTisn coi9A«x« The total British coinage^ 
during the reign of George HI. amounts to the gfeat 
sum of between U3ety-$even and tixtifeiffkt millions 
of pounds sterling. 

SnoBATiov. The bushiess of emigration Is so 
great, that it threatens to introduce a new era in 
the manners of mankind. Every family, like thai 
<ii Abraham, will tahi a view at its settlement of 
the habitable globe, to find the place where the 
kwB are moat mild, the economy of government is 
hest observed, and the habits most congenial. Po- 
pttUtion will be like the market where life is of 
OMMt value, mfl^t safe, and most prolonged: It will 
then be indupensible for good g^ernors, not barely 
to contemplate the lingering death of sUte consti- 
tutions, but the immedkte choice of their subjects, 
md the majori^ will learn to respect the minority, 
ithich, wheneveroppressed will instantly withdraw. 
Wo shall then manage our legislative as we do qur 
commercial regulations. — Eetcx Ret^. 

Cotton ir«ci9-4n 1765, cotton, us an article of 
commerce, was scarcely known in th'is countiy. — 
Cartwrigbt obuined his patent a few years after. 
hi 1782, the whole produce of the cotton trade did 
not exceed two million sterling. In 1801, the im- 
port of cotton to G. Britain was 42 millions of lbs. 
and the value of that manufectiired was 15,000,0001 
b 1803 the inq>orts was 54 millions of ibs. the raw- 
»*ierial cost 4,000,000/. It employs 30,000 tons of 
«*upping and 2000 seamen. The capital vested in 
the niMnufacture, is 9,000,000/. an employ is given 

to 800,000 individuals, to whom is puid for wages 

i3,«W0,O00/. Limdm paper, 
l^HruitsmNT. — As many mechanics (natives and 

wvigrants) are in want of imployment in our cities 

-•they wiU find no difficuly in being advantag^e- 

•Mly employed in the country, especially in tiie 

aew cotmtries where cities and villages are rising 

up as it were by magic. There wages are higliy 
and there is a great want of mechamcs, especially 
carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, cabinet makers, 
&c. — Perhaps there is no place in Aif erica which 
holds out such strong inducements to mechanics 
and farmers as at the city and vicinity of Detroit, in 
the territory of Michigan. Although a new coun* 
try it is an old settlement at tlie head of Lake Erie, 
and the grand emporium of the fur trade, and a ve- 
ry respectable Biilitary post It is without ezcep- 
tion the pleaaantest country in America, abounding 
with the finest fruits, fish and wild game in the 
greatest profusion. Nothing can exceed the beau- 
^ of the country sailing up the straits of Detroit, 18 
miles to the city. The population is now rapidly 
increasing, and a great road, is making by the 
troops into the ttete of Ohio, which wiU be a con- 
tinued turnpike to Pittsburg. Transportation from 
Albany by land or by water to BulSaloe, and from 
thence m vessels direct to Detroit, can be had con- 
stantly in the summer season.— wV. T. Ennu PoH. 

OCj* There is hardly any part of the western coun- 
try that does not abound with employment for me* 
chanics and laborers. Among the parts peculiarly 
favorable ibr persons seeking it, we may mention 
the southern side of lake Erie — a wilderness at the 
close of the war, but now most rapidly settling 
with an industrious people. A colony from Con- 
necticut of about 40 families, have fixed themselves 
on Sandusky Bay, and the little town they have 
already built wUl soon become a place of a consi- 
derable commerce. One person there wishes to 
employ 20 or 30 laborers to whom he will give 100 
dollars a year, with boarding. Rsob. 

juuBiGAir nrvsHTioir. 
Mr, WUknmn^t r^ed making machine. ^TWn piece' 
of American mechanism, ^^ which deserves to be 
placed on a ^ with that for cutting wire and 
making cards, is capable of completing two weaver^ 
reeds at a single operation. As this involves the 
prtparatijon of the wood, the use of the twine, to 
bind the steel wire, &c. the reader may judge of 
the ingenuity of the contrivance. It is a combmation 
of various meclianical powers in play at the same 
time. Governor Tompkint, much to his credit, has 
used every exertion to bring it into use; but, where 
manufactures languish, there was no demand for 
reeds. The society of useful arts also gave their 
unanimous testimony in its favour : and, one of its 
members, who was not present at tlie meeting, but 
who examined \t since, pronounces it **a rare piece 
of mechanism — admu^ly fitted to the purpose 
intended, with an uncommon excellency of finish 
in all its parts.** *The reeds produced are certainly 
superior in regularity and firmness to any I have 
ever seen, and equal to any / can suppose to be 
made any where or in any manner." Mr W. how- 
ever, after offering the macliine. to his countiy, and 
seeking patronage in vain, has this day shipped it 
for Europe. There it will add to tlie perfection 
and expedition of English and Irish manufactures, 
and wc trust, make the inventor's fortune. 

Other InventionSf^^And of great importance aret 

1. A very improved machine for spinning woo^ 
and cotton, so superior to the common spinning^' 
jenny, as to supersetle it (we have no doubt) in a 
littletime : [we would state many particulars of the- 
peculiar excellence of tliis invention, but are not 
authorised at present to do so.] 

2. The pin-making machine, which completes ihr^ 
pin at one operation, making the head of the .saints 
piece of wire with the body. 

3 The new steam saw-mill> which siirpasaes aW 

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otiiers, for the simplicity of its construction and the 
quantity of work it performs. 

These, with the cotton-gin and patent card-mkking 
machine, are the inventions of Americans, the great- 
•er number of them, of New-Eng-landers. JV. T. [Col 

The Balloov that ascended fh)m the College 
at Georgetown on tlie 31st ultimo, descended at 
Cove Point, on the Chesapeake, a few miles a- 
hove tlie mouth of I'atuxent river and about twenty 
yards from the water of the bay, in five hours from 
the time of ascent. The distance is about fifty 
miles in a straight line. The direction in which the 
Balloon fell was nearly opposite to that in which it 
ascended. The wonder of the laboring people at 
the descent of thjs heavenly visitor 'among them, 
may be well imagined. We believe, however, 
th^ did not shoot at it till they thought the xrial 
monster dead, as once happened in Bngland in a 
similar case, in a part of the country where but 
few of the people had ever before heard of a Bal- 
loon. — JS'at. Int. 

Case of Mr. Duplessis; 

[From the Lotdsiana Courier of July 26.] 
Mr. De St. Homes, 

You will oblige me by giving a place in your 
gazette, to tlie following account of the captivity 
which I suffered in the island of St. Domingo. 1 
have no other view in giving publicity to tlie cir- 
eumstances, than to testify my gratitude to the 
magistrates and officers of our excellent govern- 
ment, whose anxiety for the welfare of its citizens 
is unceasing, in whatever clime they placed. 

In the pursuit of a lawful commeixje I left New- 
Orleans in the month of February last for cape 
Henry, in the island of St. Domingo, as supercargo 
ofthe schooner Rebecck, belonging to messrs. F Du- 
plessis, jun. and Jolin K. Wcbt, merchants of this 
city. The captain of the schooner had, imknown 
to me, received on board despatches for tlie govern- 
ment of St. Domingo from a certain C. Laroche, 
who had lately arrived at New Orleans from France. 
These despatches were delivered to an ofKcer at 
tlie cape on the 28tli of February, the day of our 
an-ival. On the 5th of March I was arrested and 
conducted before thegoroernor of the cape for exami- 
nation, who questioned me at great length in relation 
to Lai-oche's despatches, of which I had not the 
slightest knowledge. But nothing 1 could say 
could remove his suspicions that I was formerly an 
inhabitant of the island, and liad come hither as a 
spy in the pay and service of France. From the 
governor an officer conducted me to pri^n. The 
jroom in which I was confined, was sufficiently spa- 
clous, and 1 was permitted to receive through the 
grating the clothes and provisions, which the mer- 
chant (Mr. Beasly) to whom 1 had confided the 
consignment of the vessel, had the goodness to 
send me from time to time. On tlie 2ttth of May, 
I was transferred to a dungeon, seven feet long by 
five in width, into which the air and light were 
admitted through an iron grate about eight inciies 
in circumference ; they had deprived me of every 
thing but a miserable matrass, a shirt, and a pair of 
pantaloons. As to my food, it consisted of a bottle 
of water and a cake <^cassave : tliis allowance was 
brou^t to me every mommg except tlie two last 
weeks of my imprisonment, during whicii 1 was 
sometimes two or three days witltout receiving my 
misei*p.hle ration. 

A consciousness of my innocence, and a hope tliat 
a mtrcifid Providence had not abandoned me, aione 
Huppoi'tcd nw imder the weight of n»y misfortynes 

I was often soothed with tlie idea that news.of m^f 
captivity would reach, my country and friends,' anil 
that the best of governments would extend its arm 
to relieve me from the distant and gloomy do^igeon 
in which fate seemed to have condemned me to 
end my days : in this hope I was not disappointed. 

On the 25th of June the doors of mv dungeon 
were opened, and an officer^ accompanied by a guard, 
ordered me to come out and follow him. The mo- 
ment of my deliverance I thought was come — the 
period of my sufferings would soon terminate : , 1 
imagined tliey were. leading me to execution. But 
when I was brought before the governor of the capc^ 
I learnt that the government to which I have tlie 
happmess to belongs had furnished the necessary 
proofii of my ionoti^nce, and that the king of Hayti 
had ordered that I should be immediately set at 
liberty. I also learnt that the United States s<;hr. 
Firebrand, commanded by captain Cimningham, 
was in the harbor, ready to receive roe. I repaired 
on board innnediately, and was welcomed in the 
most friendly manner. 

I owe the most sincere. a^rknowledgements to his 
extellenc; governor Claiborne, for having prepared 
and attested tlie proofs of my innocence. I beseech 
commodore Patterson, that brave and valuable of- 
ficer, to accept the expression of my gratitude for 
the promptitude and eagerness with which he acted 
on my behalf. I also beg captain Cunningham, his of- 
ficers and crew, to believe that I will foi^ever retain 
the recollection of their generous and brotherly 
U'eatment towards me. Restored by their exertions 
to my country and my family, what more can I wisli 
for than an opportunity to convince my generous 
deliverers that they have obliged a fellow citizen^ 
who feels for them the highest esteem and th6 
smcerest gratitude ? E. A. DUPLESSIS. 


shreh of tbk lite was; 

fVasfdngtoit, Geo, Jhigwtt 16. — Our readers n6 
doubt recollect, that a few weeks back. Major 
M<lntosh, a chief of the Ci^ek nation marched at 
the head of 500 Indians, for the purpose of destroy- 
ing a fort on the bay of Appalachicola^ where «n 
abominable host of Indians and uegroes had collect- 
ed, who were in the habit of plundering and com- 
mitting depredations on all that camjS in their way. 
In this fort, it is believed, nearly 1000 negi'oes hud 
taken refuge from their nmsters. M*lntosh has 
succeeded in destroying them, after 2 or 3 days 
hard fighting. Our informant, a gentleman imme- 
diately from Mobile, observes, that the negn^s 
made a sortie on the Indians under M'Intosh, on the 
second morning of theh' besieging the fort, when 
a direfid conflict ensued — the tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife (so close was the engagement) were the 
only weapons used, the negroes however, were 
driven into the. fort, and on tlie following day, co- 
operating with M*Intosh, an American gun-boat get- 
ting a favorable position, succeeded in throwing^ a 
hot ball into the fort, which blew it up, when it 
was taken with little difficulty. A quantity of arms, 
&c. not injured by the explosion, rewards* M*Into8l\ 
and his intrepid followers, for their bravery. 

MUledgeviUe, Jiv^. 14. — It will be seen by the fol- 
lowing letter from col. Clinch to the executive of 
this state, tliat the fort on Appalachicola bay in 
East Florida, where tlie ruffiun Nicoils Command- 
ed a motley force of British^ Indian^ and Negroes 
during the late war^ and which has since been oc- 
cupiecl by runaway negroes and hostile Indians, 
w<iH completelv detrtroyed by our troops on Cht* 

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rthttlt Mr. Hashes, tlie bearer of col. Clinch a 
later to gov. ^ntchcU, and who acconipaiiiwl the 
detachm&t of our troops on that expedition, states, 
that the cdebrated chief M'lntosh with a conside- 
nbic miinber of indians, had reached the fort and 
comaicnccdan alt.ick upon it, (which had contmu- 
edstveraldays) before the arrival of col. Clinch s 
cctachracnt. The fire was returned by tt»o»« »^^*^ 
Ion, bat no injury sustained on either side. While 
cslCUnchwas erectlhff a battery to play on the 
fort, S of the gun-boats from New-Orleans arrived 
Wow it In ascending the bay, 7 men who had 
bndfdfrom one of these boats were attacked by the 
icpoes and 6 of them killed ; the 7th made his 
rtcape by swimming.— The gtm-boats having been 
brwwht up (bv order of col. Clinch) opposite the 
fcrt, tommenced firing on it with heavy ordnance. 
Mter the proper elevation of the gun had been as- 
«rt*Sned by three or four discharges, a hot shot 
tafircd, which penetrating one of the three ma- 
fiiines, containing 10<) barrels of powder, created 
a todful explosion, which our informant supposes 
nwthavc killed more than 100— the others were 
uken prisoners without further resistance. 
r^ Qfalelterfrtnn lisut. col Duncan L. CHwh, to 
kuexceaenofs^yoemor Mitchell, dated Camp Craw- 
fi^4ihAu^, 1816. 

•Sill— I have the honor to inform you, that on 
tieaWiult. the fort on the Apalachidola in East 
Florida, defended by 100 negroes and ChocUws, 
49d containing 200 women and children, wascom- 
plrtely destroyed, I have the honor to enclose you 
th< «BDC8 of tiicneg^es taken and at present in 
e-jnlaement at this post, who say they belong to 
citiieasof the state oi" Georgia. I have given the 
diiefe directions, to have every negro that eomes 
iito the nation taken and delivered up to the com- 
aading officer at tliis post, or at Fort Gaines." 

Extn«tof a letter from a lieutenant of the Ampri- 

en navy, attached to the Mediterranean squad- 

roD; ta his friend in Vurginia. 

" UtS ship Washington, 

Gibraltar Bay, July 6, 1816. 

«I wrote you on the morning of our arrival, 
«tea I supposed we should not remam here more 
AaitweWe hours— some days, however, have elaps- 
ed, md we are still in GibralUr. The Java arrived 
y«Mttday, and we are momently expecting to see 
tkConatcllation and Eric ; this I presume accounts 
Rroar delay. 

"ffcir minister Mr. Pinkney, is treated with much 
attention by tlic governor, &c. and lias dined on 
iUm ThcEnglish officers seem disposed, on all 
ocenions, to be very attentive : and I hope there 
if m desire on our part not to r^iprocate tlie feel 

^tte ttutch fleet, under admiral Van Capell, 
€dhiiiti»g 4 frigates and 1 sloop of war, is laying 
istleluLy; he has been off* Algiers, but failed in 
tSbefmciation, and is now wailing the arrival of a 
tdHncement from Holland, when he contemplates 
i iWOBd visit. The Duich officers have also been 

^«lvii;' itid profess great friendship for the U. 

.•I iris this morning introduced to the above axl 
* *iirfio Appeared to be well acquainted wiOi 
"'- — r, as he said, from linglish accounts. 
I much suiprizx to find me so young a 
JIttiDg, '* it was no for the Aniericar.s to 
I'wtOMftfiiTQ tl;eir piofcasion, for it appear- 

£■ tlteirb^Ui-righL*' 
did infer, from all I can leam, that a war, 
<^4rithilpai:i Or fauin.- iA' Uiv lJ.irh:»4-y powers, 

is by no means an improbable event : and that tod 
at no far distant period." 

Specie. — Sundry considerable lots of specie have 
latel} aiclvcd from Engiand. We presume they be- 
long to persons who have emigrated hither. The^ 
ship Robert Wain, fashore on tlie Hook, near New-* 
York) brought out g 14,000, and perhaps more. 

A larg^ quantity of specie has been received at 
the branch of the Faimer's Bank of Virginia, at 
Lynchburg, from Richmond; and it is said arrange- 
ments are making for tlie commencement of specie 

Specie under par/^-Tlie balance of trade being 
mucli against Canada, tlie bank notes of the state of 
New- York are from IJ to 2 per cent above specie at 
St. John's, on accouQt of its exportation beuig pro- 
hibited. This will not last— the ingenuity thaf 
drained us of the precious metals wiU work them 
back again. 

Many steam boats are preparing to ply along tlie 
eastern coast of the United SUtes. In a little whRe 
we shall have a chain of them from Maine to Geor- 
gia. We have them already, partially assisted by 
lines of stages, from Washington city to Quebec — 
from Pittsburg to N. Orleans; and we shall soon liave 
them on the great lakes.* One is building for Boston 
as a daily packet to Hingham— another to ply be- 
tween Boston and Salem, and another from Boston 
to Portland, Maine. These boats are also rapidly 
coming into use on the continent of Europe — to the 
honor of our cowitvy. We trust we shall not be filch- 
ed out of the credit of tliis invention as we were out 
of that of the qnadrant; whicli American navigators, 
at least, ought to call Godfrey's, instead of Hadley's., 
Negociatioins are about to be opened with the 
Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians. The object, 
with respect to the former, we are told, is to quiet 
their claims to lands north of the Tennessee river. 
A grand convention of chiefs of the four souUiem 
tribes of Indians is to be held in the present month 
at the Chickasaw Agency- 

Kineteen buildings were destroyed by. fire at Sa- 
lem, Mass. on tlie morning of the 22d inst 

Flour has been selling at Cliarleston, S. C. fofr 
20g per bbl. rice at 5j5 per 100 lbs. and corn at 
Jgl 12i per bushel. 

The new governor of Uavanna is Don -Hundred 
fVre«— and {las already made himself unpopular by 
his oppressive aeministration. 

Vessels frequently aiTive at Havanna fVom the 
coast of Africa with full cargoes of slaves— and 
sixteen sailed from tlience, in a fleet, to prosecute 
the tr.ide. They are mostly fast-sailing brigs, well 
manned aud armed. 

Canada. — A Kingston paper, of the 10th instant,, 
givfts a flattering account of the prospect of the 
crops, "which are likely to do away all apprehen- 
sions of a scarcity of provisions." 

EmioratiOk. We have several arrivals during 
the week with passengers from Ireland, England, 
&c. The stream is constant, though 'die number has 
not been so great as it was for the two or three pre- 
ceding w^eks. 

Staunton cwwtfn/*<m.— Sixty-five gentlemen, dele- 
gates from 33 of the counties of (Western) ^^^gi. 
nia have met iit Staunton, to confer upon the best 
means of calling a general conventioa for the state^ 
for the purpose of amending the constitution. The 
proceedings of this body shall be duly noticed wlien 
ihcy reach us. It is represented to be composed 
of persons of the greatest respectability. — Amortg 

•Two will run bciw^ca Buflalo and Detroit tK<? 
cr.suing" spring. 

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tiiem are aiz members of congre^St General Breck< 
ienridge is chairman. 

DxiAWUiB zutcnOTf.^-'F^deral nomnoHona — For 
rovemor, John Clark; represenutives to congress, 
Louis M'Lane and Caleb Rodney. BepubUcan no- 
minatimt^^Mtai^en Bull, for governor; repreteHta< 
tives, C. A. Rodney and Willard Hall. 
, The federal caucus rejected their old members 
because they voted in favor of the compensation law. 
Mr. CUufton, in an address to the federa) electors of 
the state, dated at Dover on the 12th ult. appeals 
from the decision, and solicits the votes of his fel- 
low citizens. He says, at the earnest solicitation of 
his l>arty, he was induced to abandon a lucittive 
profession to serve it; and that he had been «rudeb^ 
rejected*' from the place he made so gi*eat sacri- 
fices to himself and his fiunily to accept of. 


JBueno9 Ayres. We have received some ifuenos- 
Ayrean newspapers. Their contents do not iippear 
very important, except as to the umunciation of 
of the meeting of congress at Tucuman, the latter 
end of April, with some rather indistinct notices 
of the proceedings of the patriot troops in Peru 
and Chill. In the latter, the royalists appear alarmed. 
We are also mformed that a large force is 
prepared to welcome the Portuguese. Dissention 
seems quieted under the apprehension of a fireign 
invasion, and the people vie with each other to serve 
the republic. "What a reproof is tiiis to certain 
men of North America, who higgled about abstract 
notions of right while their state was polluted by 
foreignera inarms! 

The papers may be noticed further in our next 
From various sources we collect the following^ 

That Brown't (Buenos Ayrean) fleet off Peru had 
done a great business in capturing the vessels of 
the royal party. 

That the royalits, when they re-conquered CfdH 
(which we have reason to believe they are dispos- 
sessed of before this time) considered as sacred 
the property of British subjects there, but made 
lawful prize of whatever belonged to citizens of the 
United Stages. 

That a strong Carthaffenian fleet, said to be in 
all 17 sail of vessels, including prizes, we presume, 
was off the Balize, (mouth of tlie Mississippi) the 
28th of last month, and it was said, designed to 
attack Pensacola and make it a rendezvous. 

That BoHvay*8 force has been cut to pieces and 
destroyed at Ocumarety 15 miles from Porto Cavel- 
lo, by gen. Mondes, after a very hard battle. The 
general escaped on board the fleet. We believe 
this is literally true; but trust it will not affect the 
general canse. 

Santa Fc (Granada) still appears to be in posses- 
sion of the royalists, but the country does not seem 

From Mexico we look for good news. The re- 
«um of the late governor of Cuba (appointed vice- 
roy of Mexico) to the Havanna, is supposed to be 
in consequence of the intelligence he met with on 
his passage— perhaps the capture of Vera Cruz by 
the patriots. But he may have been chased by the 
Carthagenian fleet. The real cause of his r^um 
was kept secret at Ilavanna. 

(Ijr*It is extremely difficult to learn the truth 
from South America; the papers are much filled 
with reports p;^ and con that have no other founda- 
tion than in the loUhei of those wlio prepare Uiem 
far publication, it is worthy of remark, and of re- 
membrance too, that the newspapers which were 
the most decidedly in favor of the "patriots** of 
^d Spain, fighting for Ferdinand aad the inqui^i- 1 

tion, abound with reports and statements prcjadi- 
cial to the patriots of Spanish ApAerica, ^hting" for 
liberty and independence. This, however, is con- 

From Cumawa. The schooner Mermaid, ca|!)tain 
Handy, has arrived at Boston from Cumana in 40 
days, after being embai|^d there 69 days cm ac- 
count of an expedition fitting out agfainst the patri^ 
ots. The captain gives a shocking account of the 
barbarous proceedings of the royalists towards ail 
persons suspected w entertaining liberal ideas— 
shooting them daily, and leaving the bodies on the 
ground for the crows to feed up6n. The people, 
under the tyranny of the royaBsts and fearful of 
the patriots, were very anxious to leave t!ie placer 
50 persons of the first respectability applied to cap- 
tain U. for a passage to FV>rto Rico, but the go* 
vemment would not permit them to go. 

The BriiUh WcMt-Iudiet afford an annual revenue 
of five millions to the moUier country; consume four 
millions in manufactures— and the total value re- 
ceived in England for West-India produce is seven- 
teen Tnillions. The sliips employed in the trade ar6 
manned by 25,000 men. 

UiHTED States B ahk. 

From a Philadelphia paj^r of JiugUBt 27, 

Accurate return of subscriptions to the Bank of the 

United States, horn all the states. 

IPjriladelphia, #5,833,600 

2 Baltimore, 4,014,100 

3 Boston, includih'g Portland, 3,605,900 

4 Charleston, 2,598,600 

5 New-Yoric, 2,001,200 

6 Ridunond, 1,698,700 

7 Washington city, 1,270,000 
SLexmgton, 958,700 
9 Augusta, 826,300 

10 Providence, 741 ,900 

1 1 Middletown, (Con.) 587,300 

12 Wilmington, (Dd.) 470,600 

13 Cincinnati, 470,000 

14 New-Orleans,^ 315,000 

15 Raleigh, 258,300 

16 Trenton, 130,300 

17 Portsmouth, 120,600 

18 Nashville, 53,600 

19 Vermont, 6,300 

Total, 24,961,700 

Remain to be subscribed fbr 3,038,300 

[Stephen Girard^ esq. yesterday subscribed for the 
above sum of three ndlHone thirty^eight thousand Und 
three hundred doUart, which thus completes the ca- 
pital stock authorial.] 

VkKU.^From the Democratic Press. The price of 
bread advanced one sous a loaf at Paris on tst April, 
and a like advance took place about the 20th. The 
cause of these advances was a subject of conside/a- 
Ue speculation, if not irritation, with the multitude/ 

In America where so little attention is paid to 
regulate the price and quality of bread, even in the 
largest cities, such an augmentation mig^t ti^e 
place without exciting a clamor: not so in France, 
where the poor in a measure subsist on it. The 
present population of Paris is' estimated at 580,000. 
Its annual consumption supposed to be 206 mil- 
lions loaves of bread; 21,000 quarters wheat; 8,500 
quarters barley; 15,000 neat cattle; 75,000 oxen; 
10,000 calves; 220,000 sheep; 550,000 hogs; 100,000 
quintals (100 Ibk. each) sea fish; 1,300,000 francs 
worth fresh water fish; 6,0004ihds. cider; three 
millions gallons brandy; thirty-tlurcc uullion^ gal- 
lons win«. 

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r I n 1 I f III 

■ jijiii 


No. 2 Of Vol. XI.] B^VLTIMOHE, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1816. [wholk va '6Z 

Jfetc 0lim mendnisse jitvalnt, — Viroil. 


UncontroUble events hasrc entirely defeated the* 
jJans vc had laid for mftking up this number; ex- 
cluding sereral original articles prepared for it, 
and compelling us to take otliers that happened to 
be in type — but it is not on this account^ perhaps, 
less itseful or less interesting than it. otherwise 
xvould have been, and the omitted articles shall be 
inserted next week. By tliese events^ also, the 
transmission of the paper will be a little delayed to 
a few that receive it by mail. 

Treaty with Russia. 

. We have reports froiii St Petersburg and 
fiom PariSf that a commercial treaty has been 
s%ped between the United States and Russia; 
and some have thought that the late hasty de- 
parture of the U. S. brig Ph>metheu9, with 
despatches for tlie latter, may have had a con- 
nection with such arrangements betwefen the 
two nations; about which, however, we do not 
profess to know any thing. 

Tlie Petersburg account says that, by this 
treaty, "two ports on the Paciiic are guaran- 
teed to Russia" — ^if aught had been done in 
this respect, tlie whole probably is a mere 
establishment of boundanes oh the N. W. 
coast, to prevent future and remote collisions. 

We are pleased with these reports; they are 
such as we hope may be realized. It is every 
way the interest of the United States to be on 
ifehe" best terms with Russia; and to the interest 
of Russia, also, to have a liberal intercourse 
wi^ the United States. 

But mark the ever-watchful jealousy of Eng- 
fiuidi — ^Though nothing more than the rumor 
if a treaty had reached London— though the 
alitor of the Courier did not affect an acquaiti- 
iance witli any of its terms — ^he thus spoker of it: 

••The American charge d'affaires speaks loudly 
of a commercial treaty between his country and 
Ktissia^ -which cannot but he detrimeiUal to Vie mer' 
€tai/ile -world in England.'** 

\Vretched, indeed, must be tlie state ofEng- 
hmdy if the United States and Rtissioy two such 
distant nations, cannot enter into regulations 
about their own commet'cial afiairs without do- 
ing something^detiimental" to England;— -and 
wean and grovelling must the mind be that 
yottld confess it, it it were so, as the editor of 
<^e Courier has done 

Staunton Convention. 

-^futmal of the proceedings of a convention^ begun ami 
•M^ at Stautiton on the I9lh day of Angutt, in the 
9far 1816. 
• ^Mtitdtty, Jlugiut 19i/i.— At a meeting of delegates 
^am •ondry counties in tlie commonwealth of Vir- 
^jt^ oonveued at Staunton, in pursuance of a re- 
^dl^eiidatioii^ contained in an ajWross to tl^e peo- 

pie, dated at Winch ^ter, on the 1st day of June 
last, and signed by deputies fi*om the couniies off 
Berkcly, Frederick, Harrison, Woodj Monongnlia, 
Fauquier, Fairfax, Loudoun, Hampshire, Jefiersoii 
and Brooke, for the purpose of devisingand adopting 
measures to effect a convention ef the people of thm 
commonwealth, to reform defects in the constitution 
of the state. 

There were |*resent the following memtjers, v\f* 

^/6emar/<^— William Woods, Wm. F. Gordon. 

wf?*§T«ia— Robert Porterfield, Ch. Johnson. 

^arA— Charles Cameron, Saml. Blackburn. 

Bedford — Jabez Leftwich. 

/?ei*Arefey— Elisha Boyd, Joel Ward. 

JBotet6nrt-^vA. Breckenridge, Allen Taylor 

Jiroohe — Jesse Eddington, James Marshall. 

/V«)/ajp— Thomas Moss, Wm. H. Fit zh ugh. 

Frederick^H. St Geo. Tucker, Jd. Williams^ 

/•of/^iaVr— George B. Picket, Fred. Cha])man. 

/WwiArtfw—Wm. A Burwell, Benjamin Cook. 

Greenbrier — James J. Mayers; B;d lard Smith. 

0»/^»— David French, Jqhn Chapman. 

Uampohir^r^cltiw Jack, Wm, Armstrong, ji'. 

Hardy — Edwd. Williams Abel Seamer. 

Harrison — James Pindell, John G. Jackson. 

//«fnry~John Redd, Nicholas P. flairsion. 

JJ^i-«wi-^Henry S. Turner, Wm. P. Flomh 

At';jf^w//a— ^Andrew 13onnetly, Henry W'hius. 

Jjoudowi — Wm. Nolatid, Joshua Osborn. 

Jfonongalitt^ohn Staley^ Thos. Wilson. 

JWoitroe— Isaac Bstill, James Woodville. 

Montgomery-^Hcnvy Edmundson, E. Rawing. 

AV&on— Landon Ca'bell, Wm. C* Uives. 

0/ito— Isaac Hoffler, Moses Chspman. 

J^endleton—\Vm. M*Co} , Zebulon Dyer. 

Pitt^flvania-^Gco. Tucker, Geo. Tiiwnes. 

Prince WV/Z/rtw— John Love^ Edm. Brooke. 

Randolph — Edward S. Dtmcan, Geo. AidersoA. 

liockbridge^JMnea M«Dowell, John Leyburft. ^ 

iiockinghant'^Wtn* Bryan, Peachy Harrison. 

Shenandoah — Isjtac Samuels* Ch. M. LovelL \ 

lf'(pp</— Alexander H* Creel^ Jacob Beeson; 

Honorable general James Breckeni^dge was ufl^- * 
nimously elected president of the conTeutioii; aAd .\ 

Erasmus Stribling, secretary. 

John CUrke was appointed door keeper. 

On motion of Mr. Noland, * 

"Resolved, That a committee of elections be «{>. 
pointekl, to consist of three members." ' 

And the said committee was accordingly appoint^ ^ 
ed, to consist of the following members, viz.-^ ' 
.Messrs. Koland, Ley bum and Tewues. I 

On motion of Mr. Johnson, " 

"Resolved, that tlie rules of proceeding adopted ^ 
for the government of tlie house of delegates of Vir- % 
ginia, so far a.s applicable, be adopted tor the go- 
vernment of this convention." , . Z 

On motion of Mr. Jackson, ^ 

•♦Resolved, tliat when this bon#6 adjourn, it will ^y 
adjourn to meet to-morrow merittfig at 9 o'oloQk." Ve 

On motion of Air. Johnson, 

"Resolved that the convention w^U on to<morrow 
r«»olve Itself into a committee of the whole, to take 
into consideration the objects of their meeting. 

Mr. Jackson thenoffcred the foUowjngresolution: ,„, 

••Re-'rtlved, th\t it i* expedient at this thne ^ji^Wk 



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adopt measures for a general convention of the peo- 
ple of this commonwealth to amend the constitution 
of i!ic state; which convention shall meet during 
the present year," 

Antl the said rcsoltition was, on motion, ordered 
to be referred to a committee of the whole. 

On motion tlien, 

Mesolved that this convention now adjourn. 

Tufsilavy Jugvst 20/A.— The following additioeal 
meml>crs appeared and took their seats, .to wit^ 

From the county «/ CM//»fjber*— Elijah Arnold. 

PiUnck — Greenville Peim and Abraham Staples. 

Oij motion. 

Ordered, that Henry Crease and MiohAd Forbes 
be jippointed assistant door keepers. 

On motion of Mr. Tucker, of Frederick, 

The rule of the house which requires the order 
of til e day to be taken up at 12 o'clock, was sus- 
pended for the present, in order to enable the house 
now to resolve iuelf uito a committee of the whole. 


On tlie motion of the same gentleman, 

'J 'he house resolved itself mt» a committee of 
the wljole, to take into consideration the objecls 
of !i.t ir meeting. 

Mr. Noland in the chair. 

And ufler some time spent therein, 

Tiie committee rose, reported progress, and 
a'iked leave to sit again. 

Which leave wns granted them. 

Oil motion of Mr. Tucker, of Hittsylranhi, 

Resolved that this convention now adjourn. 

M'e€in€9day, Jhtg^ut 21*^.— On motion of Mr. 

llesolved tiiat a committee of three be appointed 
to draft a plan for defraying the expences of this 

And the said committee was accordingly ap- 
pointed to consist of Messrs. Fitzhugh, Tucker, 
(of Pittsylvania,) and Turner. " 

Mr. Noland, from the committee of elections, 
presented a report, which was. received and read 
as follows*- 

The committee of elections hare, according to 
order, ezammed tlie certificates of the delegates 
returned to this convention fVom the counties of 
Albemarle, Augusta, Bath, Bedford, Berkeley, Bo- 
tetourt, Bi-ooke, Culpeper, Fairfax, Frederick, 
Fauquier, Franklin, Greenbrier, Giles, Hampshire, 
Hardy, Harrison, Henry, Jefferson, Kenhawa, Lou 
donn, Monongalia, Monroe, Montgometpr* Nelsonj 
Ohio, Pendleton, Pittsylvania, Prince William, Pa- 
trick, Randolph, Rockbridge, Rockingham, She- 
nandoah and Wood, and find the elections to have 
been regular and pursuant previous to notice. 

Resolved, as the opuiion of this committee, that 
the delegates from the counties of Albemarle, Au- 
gusta, Bath, Bedford, Berkeley, Botetourt, Brooke, 
Culpeper, Fairfax, Fauquier, Frederick, Franklin, 
6fc<mbrier, Giles, Hampsliire, Hardy, Harrison, 
Henry, Jefleison, Kenhawa, Loudoun, l^onongalia, 
Monroe, Moiitgomery, Nelson, Ohio, Pendleton, 
Pittsylvania, mnee William, Patrick, Randolph, 
Rockbridge, Rockingham, Shenandoali and Wood, 
are entitled to seats in this conven'.ion. 

And the said resolution being twice read, was, 
on the question put thertupon, agreed to by the 

A letter from Andrew Russell and David Camp- 
brtl, deleg;.tes chosen to this convention from the 
c'lnr.ty of Washington, to the chairman of this con- 
vention, was presented; and, on motion, 

Ordered to be read and lie on the table. 
' %i niovi?5U»f.A*r Twck^r, 9f FjCf^rio^ 

The house, according to the order of the dayi re- 
soh-ed iuelf into a committae of the whole to take 
again into consideration the subjects to l^em re- 
ferred, Mr. Noland in tlie chair; 

And af^er some time spent therein, the president 
resumed the chair, and Mr. Noland reported that 
the committee of the whole hotue had, according 
to order, had under consideration, the subjects to^ 
them referred, and hud made some further progress 
therein, but not having time to go ^u*ough the 
same, had requested him to ask leave to sit again. 

Resolved ihat this hoitse will again, en to-roorfow 
resolve itself into a committee of the whole house 
to take into coiTiideration the subjects to them re* 

On motion of Mr.'Bhckbum— 

Resolved, that the house do now adjoivn. 

Thurtday, ^ug. 22. J«cob T. Fisbback, a dde- 
gate from the county of Wyeth, appeared and took 
his seat. 

On motion of Mr. Tucker, of Frederick— 

The house, according to tlie order of the day, 
resolved itself into a -committee of the whole, to 
take again into consideration tbe subjects to them 

Mr. Noland in the chair; 

And after some time spent therein, the president 
resumed the chair, and Mr. Noland reported that 
the committee of the whole house had, acconling 
to order, had under cousideratio*', the resolution 
to them referred^ and bad agreed to sundry amend- 
ments thereto, which be delivered in at the secre- 
tary's table, together with the said resolution. 

The house then proceeded to consider the said 
resolution, with tlie amendments reported by the 
committee, which amendments were in the follow- 
ing words- 
Resolved, That this convention do consider the 
existing inequality in the representation in the two 
houses of the general assembly of Virg^nta, as a 
grievance, and as derogating from the rights of a 
large portion of the good people of .the common- 

Reso!ved, that a committee of 
members be appointed to prepare, on the part of 
this convention, a memorial to the legislature of 
the state, to be presented at their next session, re- 
questing them to recommend to the people of the 
state, the formation, on fair and eaual principles^ af 
a general convention, empowered to amend tlie 
constitution on every point on which it shall be - 
found to be defective." * "' 

Qn motion of Mr. Jackson, the word "unanimous- 
ly,** was inserted after the word resolved, in the 
first resolution; which resolution as amended, was 
again agreed to by the house. 

A motion was made by Mr. Johnson to amend 
the amendment proposed by tlie committee, by 
striking out the second resolution, and inserting ia 
lieu thereof the following words, viz. 

Resolved, that a memorial be presented to the le- 
gislature of this state, at their next session, on the 
part of this convention, praying that a general con- 
vention may be assembled for the ptupose of 
amending the constitution, so as to give a fair and 
equal representation to every part of the state, in 
both branches of the legislature, and so as to pro- 
vide for subsequent amendments from time to time 
as the good people of this commonwealth may tbifd: 

Resolved, that this convention will recommend 
to the people of this common we^ltli, the adoption 
of a similar memoriHl to be preteatedtOrthe legSs- 
lat^e aV i^^ xytiA f essim^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



And the question being put 6n agreeing to tiie 
laid amendment, was determined in the negative-^ 
ayes 28, noes 40. 

' On motion of Mr. Johnson, seconded by M^. No- 

Ordered, that the ayes and noes on the said ques- 
tion be inserted in. the journal. 

The names of the gentlemen who voted in the 
AfiinoatiTe are, Messrs. Breckenridge, (president) 
Woods, Porterfield, Johnson, Cameron, Blackburn, 
Itoyd, Ward, Taylor, Edgington, Marshall, Tuck- 
er, (Frederick) Williams, Mayers, Seymour, Tur- 
ner, Flood, NoLmd, Osbuni, I^imindson, Rawlings, 
Cabell, Rceres, BrooiLe, McDowell, Leybum, Lo- 
reU and Flshback— 3S. 

And the names of the gcntlemeh who voted in 
the negative are, Messrs. Gordon, Leflwich, Ar- 
nold, Moss, Fitdiugh, Picket, Chapman, Bui'well, 
Cook, SmiUi, Fi-ench, Chapman, Jack, Armstrong, 
t^iiidaU, Jackson, lledd, Hairston, Donnelly, White, 
Sulcy, Wilson, Estill, Woodville, LefRer, Chap- 
man, McCoy, S^er, Tucker, (Pittsylvania) Townes, 
Love, Penn, Staples, Duncan, Alderson, Bryan, 
Harrison, Samuels, Creel and Bee8on-^-40. 

A motion was made by Mr. Fjtzhugh to amend 
the 2d resolution with the words **seven,*' which 
was agr^d to by tlie house. 

A motion was made by Mr. Johnson further to 
amend the 2d resolution by striking out at the end 
of the said resolution the words <'on every point on 
which it shall be found to be defective,** which 
amendment was agreed to by the house. 

The question Avas then put, will the house concur 
with the committee in the said amendment, as 
amended? and determined in the affirmative«--ayes 
. S7, fioes 11. 

4)n motion of Mr. Johnson, seconded by Mr. No- 

Ordered, that the ayes and noes on the said ques. 
lion be inserted in the journal « 

The names of the gentlemen who voted in the 
affirmative are, Messrs. Breckenridge (president) 
Woods, Gordon, Porterfield, ilohnson, Cameron, 
Blackburn, Leftwich, Boyd, Ward, Taylor, Mar- 
shall, Arnold, Moss, Fitzhugh, Tucker (Frederick) 
Williams» Picket, Chapman (Fauquier) Burwell, 
Cook, Mayer, French, Chapman (Giles) Jack, Arm- 
strong, Seymour, Bedd, Hairston, Turner, Flood, 
DonneHy, Wlute, Noland, Osbum, Staley, Estill, 
Woodville, Bdinundaon, Rawlings, Cabell, Reeves, 
MoCoy/Dyer, Tucker (Pittsylvania) Townes, bsve, 
Brooke, Penn, Staples, McDowell, Leybum, Bryan, 
Harrison, Samueis^ Lovell and Fishback. — 57. 

The names of tlie gentlemen who voted in the 
negative, are, Messrs. Edgington, Smithy Pindall, 
^Jackson, Wilton, Leffler, Chaplin^ DunCan, Alder- 
son. Creel and Beesun — 11. 

The main qtiestion Was then put, will the house 
adopt the amendments reported by the commit- 
tee as amended by the house, and determined in 
the affirmative, ayes 59, noes 9. 

On motion of Air* Jackson, seconded by Mr. John- 
son, f ordered, that the, ayes and noes on tlie said 
question be inserted in tlie jouraal. 

The names of the gentlemen who voted in the 
affirmative are, Messrs. Woods, Gordon^ Porterfield, 
Cameron, l«el\wich, Boyd, Wdrd, Marshall, /Vmold, 
Moss, Fitzhugb, Tucker [Frederick,] Williams, 
Vicket, Chapman, Burwell, Cook, Mayers, Smitli, 
yr«ocb. Chapman, Jadt, Armstrong, Jr. Seymour, 
Jackson, Read, Hairston, Turner^ Flood, l>onnellv, 
Wliite, Noland, Osburn, Staley, Wilson, Estill, 
"Woodville, Rawlings, Cabell^ .Reeves, LefEer, Cha- 
^pi», -Vfc0tty,nyer,trtick«r [Of Pittsylvania,] Townes, 

Love, Brooke, Penn, Staples, Dimcan, AldersoH^ 
Bryan, Harrison, Samuels, Lovell, Creel, Beeson^ 
and Fishback — 59. 

The names of the gentleiheifi who voted '-n tti'e 
negative are, Messrs. Breckenridge (President,) 
Johnson, Bkckbum, Taylor, Edgington, Plndall, 
Gdmundson, McDowell, 'Leybum— 9. 
On motion of Mr. Jackson^ 
Resolved, that this convention do fecOmmend to 
the people of thU commonwealth, the adoption of 
a memorial on similar principles, to be presenteil 
also to the legislature at their next session, and 
that the committee created by the 2d resolution 
just adopted by the house do prepare the draft of 
such memorial. 

And a committee was appointed under the said 
2d resolution, to Consist of the following members, 
viz. Messrs. Fitzhugh, JackSon, Tucker [of Pitt- 
sylvania,] BUrwell, Love, Tucker [of Frederick, j. 
and Boyd. 

Mt, Boyd, presentedra communication from a (Com- 
mitted appointed by sundry eitizens In thfe town of* 
Petersburg, which was oi-dered to lie on the table. 
On motion of Mf . Blackburn, 
Resolved, that lliis house do now adjounl. 
Friday, Jlugittt 23. Mr. N;oland, from the Com- 
mittee of elections, presented a report, which Wad 
read, as follows : 

The committee of election have, according to or- 
der, examined the certificate of a delegate returned 
from the county of Wythe to thi* convention, antl 
find the election was regular and pursuant to ptO 
tvious notice. 

Besolved, As the of^inion of this committee, thai 
the delegate from the county of WytUe is entitled 
to a seat m tliis house. 

The said resolution being twice read^ was cm tlid 
question put thereiipon, agreed to by the house. 
On motion of Mr. Nolant!^ 
Ordered, That, the communication from tl\ie 
Petersburg committee, with Its enclosure, yester-* 
day laid on the table, be read, which ai-e in the fol^ 
lowing words : 

PeTKBSBORn^ 12 August, 18l6. 
To the chairman of the Staunhn cdftTjention. 
A letter directed to Mr. Francis G. Yancey antlr^ 
Mr. John S. Barbour of this town, requesting an 
association of otlier individuals with them .'or th6 
purposed therein mentioned, was duly received and 
has been attended to — A committee Composed of 
Robert Birchetti Christopher T. Jones, Samuel 
Crawford, John H. Brown, Thomas Shore, F^rands 
G. Yancey, John S. Barbour and Alder B, Spooner^ 
having consulted together, concluded to request li 
meeting of the citizens of Petersburg at the coinrt- 
house, by a public notice in the newspapers. Notice 
was given, and at the appointed hour, a large nuitj- 
l)er of citizens assembled — An adjournment toolt 
place for tKe purpose of circulating more extert- 
sively among the people an address, ft)rwar<led by a 
delegation froi^ several counties in the western 
section of the t^tate, and on accOunt of a general 
wish, that the subject might be maturely con- 
sidered.— Oh Thursday last, another meeting took 
place, but was thinly attended, in consequence of 
tlie court having sat until a late hour. On Friday 
last, in the evening, according to adjournment, the 
ciiizens again assembled at the court house — T\\e. 
meeting was well attended — A larger number in 
fact, were present than is usual at our town meetings 
— A motion was made to adjourn indefinitely, but 
after fnucb Rebate it failed.— The enclosed resohi.- 
tions were then adopted ah :'os* uhoiilmoUsly by ill* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ss6 Wles' weekly register-^atubday, SEPTEirisftiRr, mi 

With sentiments of partkular respect tnd con 
sMeration, &c. &c. 



Fop and in behalf of the committee. 

[The following are the resolutions of the citizens 

of Felersburg alluded to in the preceding commu 

nication — they were introduced by an eloquent pre- 

amh e, which not being given in the copy of the 

jwimid we have before us, is reluctantly omitted.*] 

Ed. Rso. 
Resolved, by this meeting, that it is inexpedient 
to send delegates to Staunton to aid in a plan, by 
winch a call of a convention Is to be effected. 

Resolved, That however willing we may be to 
aid in a call of contention, by which the constitution 
of this state may be amended, we cannot fer the 
present consent to adopt any other means than such 
as shall be approved by the legislature of our state, 
ftesolved. That we so hr accord in opinion with 
the Wincli ester committee, as to the necesirity of a 
call of convention, that we iHll instruct our dele 
gutes in the next assembly, to vote for and support 
a proposition to the people at theh* next elections, 
to know whether they will consent to call of conven- 
tion or noL 

Resolved, That the committee calling this meet- 
irfg be requested to forward our proceedings and 
resolutions to the Winchester committee, as the 
result of our wishes and opinions upon the subject 
of a call of convention, presented to us fbr consid- 

On motion of Mr. Spooner, 
Ordered, TJiat the foregoing preamble and r^solu 
tionSf be inserted in the different newspapers of tliis 

Signed by order and in behalf of tlie meeting. 

Vn%. G. Yajtcbt, Secretary, 
AVhcreupon, resolved, on motion of Mr. Noland, 
that tJie said letter and enclosure be laid on the ta- 

On motion of Mr. Noland,^ 
Resolved that the Oommittee appointed to draft 
a plan for deft^vingthe expenses of this convention, 
be diifected to contract for the printing of seven 
hundred copies of the journals of tliis convention. 

Mr Fitzhugh from the committee appointed un. 
dcr two resfarlutions yesterday adopted by the house 
to draft memorials, reported a resolution and me- 
Hiorial as follows. 

Resolved that the following memoriul, to be 
signed by the president, and attested by the se- 
cietaiy be presented to the legislature of Virginia, 
as expressive of the sense of tliis convention on the 
subjects therein contained. 

Jilhiiorial of the Staunton convention , to ttie legultOure 
of the 8tai£ of Virginiii. 
The convention of delegates lield at Staunton in 
the month of August 1816, for the puri)ose of devis- 
ing tlic best and surest means of obtaining such 
:uneiidments to tlie Constitution of the common- 
wealth as will secure to the good people thereof, 
all the rights and privileges to which they are by 
nature entitled, and of which they have been de- 
pi^ved by the early ad(»ption of principles, which if 
not originally and mdically wrong, have become 
»o by the subseqiient "operation of natural and 

•We copy from the Entimver^vi\\\c\x havmg be- 
tore in>'( rted the proceedijigs at Petersburg, merely 
^•^ftrs to Oi<wi. *=* . ^ 

accidental causes,** beg leaTc to lay before thc^ 
le^lature of tlie state, siteh an exposition of their 
grievances as will establisli at once the certainty 
of their existence, the extent of their operation^, 
and the necessity of their removal. Passing over 
many lesser evils, connected with, and inseparabU 
from the existing constitution, they are satisfied on 
the present occasion, to confine their attention 
exclusively to one; not doubting that the same 
remedy which will be applied to it, will at the 
same time be extended to every principle in the 
constitution, inimical to the rtgfits and happiness 
of an independent people. No doctrine has re- 
ceived a more universal assent, than that in a re- 
publican government the will of the majority should 
be the law of the land. And yet In a state boasting 
of the pure republican diaracter of its institutions, 
this first and fundamental principle of republicanisnn^ 
does not exist; for (to borrow thelang^uage of a late' 
eloquent appeal to the people of Virginia) "the 
government of the commonwealth is actually in 
Uie hands of a minority; and v^hat is still more 
pernicious to the p'enenil interests, in the hands of 
a minority, inhabiting a particular section of the 
state. Forty-nine counties, adjacent to each other 
in the eastern and southern sections of the state, 
including three of the borotighs situated in those 
counties, have a majority of the whole number ©f 
representatives in tlie most numerous branch of the 
le^^islature. And these counties and boroughs con- 
tained in 1810, only 204,766 white mhabitants, lesA 
than one half the population of the state, by 72,136 

In the other brancli of the legislature, the ine- 
quality is still more apparent. Incredible as it may 
seem, it is nevertheless a fact, that while the coun* 
try west of tlie blue Ridge, constituting three fifths 
of the territory of the state, and containing accord- 
ing to the census of 1810, a wliite population of 
212,036 souls, has bat four Instead of nine senators, 
to which it is entitled; thirteen senatorial districta 
on tide wafer dontaining, according to the same 
census, a white poptilation of only 162,717, have' 
thirteen, instead of seven senators, which would be 
their just proportion. 

These facts are respectfully submitted to the se- 
nate and house of delegates of the state of Virgi- 
nia, with the hope that they cannot fail to produce 
an impression, favorable to the cause of republican- 
ism, and the just rights of so decided a majority of 
the white population of the state. This done,- the 
convention look with confidence to the legislature 
for such aid as they have the means to grant. — 
They know that tlie power of extending to them 
imnvediate relief are not within the power of the 
legislature. They therefore do not ask it They 
know that the seteral counties are entitled to two 
representatives on the floor of the house of dele- 
gates, and tliat a mere legislative act carthot f>re- 
vent them from exercising an acknowledged rigehrt. 
Bach senatorial district too, has a constitutional 
claim to one representative in the senate; and it 
may well be questioned whether ther^ be a power 
in the legislature to alter or abridge this claim.''-* 
llut what cannot be done directly, what cannot be 
done by law, may be indirectly accomplished thro* 
the medium of a legislative recommendation. And 
uUhough the people cannot be commanded to act, 
facilities lor acting may be afforded them to a very- 
great extent. 

The generrd assembly then are respectfully re- 
quested to rccommeml' to tljc people of the com- 
monwealth tite election of a convention to alt^r and 
amend tlic defects of the consiitu'ion.. AmTlb' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




^ping: tbk, is k confidently hoped ti».>i 6ucn pun- 1 jfeneral interests, in the hands of a minoritv inhabit- 
iCiples of represenution will be adopted and 8ucb[ing^ a particular section of the state. Portynina 

nodes of election prescribed, as will insure to ^e 
tjf part of the state, a weiolit in the convention to, 
be assembled, proportioned to its white population. 
Thos and thus only can the excitements existin? in 
the state be allayed, the great ends of republican 
government be attained, and the constitution be 
pUced on a basis to insure its own durability,* as 
well as the peace and happiness of those for whom 
it has been framed. 

Mr. jGJinson moved that the said resolution and 
memorial lie on the table, which was overruled by 
ikt hoose^ 

The question was then put'^will the house adopt 
the said resolution and memorial," and decided in 
^ affirmative; ayes 61, noes 7. 

On motion of Mr. Johnson, seconded by Mr. No- 

Ordered that tbe ayes and noes on the said ques- 
^be entered in the journal. 

The names of those who voted in tbe affirmative 
are, Messrs. Woods, Gordon, Forterfield, Cameron, 
ief iwich, Boyd) Ward,Edgington« Marshall, .\mold, 
Moss, Fitzhugb, Tucker, (Frederick,) Williams, 
Pickett, Chapman, Burwell, Cook, Makers, Smith, 
French, Chapman, Juck, Armstrong, Williams, Se/- 
mour, PincUll, Jackson, Eedd, liairston Turner, 
Ftood» Donnelly, White, Noland, Osbum, Staley, 
WikoB, Estill, Woodville, Rawlings, Cabell, Reeves, 
Leffler, Chaplin, McCoy, Dyer, Tucker, (Pittsyl- 
fania,) Townes, Love, Brooke, Penn, Staples, Dun- 
can, Alderson, Bryan, Harnson, Samuels, Loveil, 
Creel, Beeson, Fishback — ul. 

Tbe names of the gentlemen who voted in tlie 
negative are, Messrs. Breckenridge (President,) 
Johnson, Blackburn, Taylor, Edmonton, MoDoweli« 
Leybuni— 7. 

Mr. Fit^ugh from the same committee, also re- 
ported a memorial to be recommended to the peo- 
ple of this commonwealth as follows : 


The Memorial of the citizens of county* 

Tbe undersigned, inliabitants of county^ 

luiting for the purpose of obtaining such amend- 
ments to the constitution of this commonwealth, as 
will secure to the good people thereof, all the rights 
and privilera, to which they are by nature enti- 
tled; and of which they have been deprived by the 
early adoptloo of principles, which if nqtorigoudly 
and radically wrong, have become so by the subse- 
quent <^peration of natural and accidental causes," 
beg leave to lay before the legislature of the state, 
such an exposition of their grievances, as will estab- 
lish at once the certainty of their existence, tlie 
extent of their operation, and the necessity of their 
removal. Passing over many lesser evils, connected 
with and inseparable from the existing constitu- 
tioa, they are satj^iied^ on the present occasion, 
to confine their attention exclusively to one; not 
doubting that the same remedy which will be 
ipplied to it, will at the same time be extended 
to trery principle in the constitution, inimical to 
the rights and happiness of an independent people. 
No doctrine ba< received a more universal assent, 
than that in a republican government,, the will of 
th^ majority should be the law of the land. And 
yet in a state, boasting of the pure republican 
diaracter of its institutions, this first and funda- 
nental principle of republicanism, does not exist; 
fpr (to borrow the language of a late eloquent 
•PP^ to the people of Virginia,) •«the government 
^ the commonwealth is actually in tJie hands of a 
Ql^ityi i|Ad what 19 still more pernicious to tli^ 

counties, adjacent to each other in the eastern arid 
southern sections of the state, including three of 
the boroughs situated in these counties, have a 
majority of the whole number of representatives 
in the most numerous branch of the legislature. — 
And these counties and boroughs contained, in 1810, 
only 204,766 white inhabitants; less than one half 
the population of the state by 72,138 souls." 

In the other branch of the legislature the ineqtia- 
lity is still more apparent. Incredible as it may 
seem, it is nevertheless a fact, that while t]\e cotitv. 
try west of the Blue Ridge, const itutmg three-fifths 
of the territory of the sute, and containing, ac- 
cording to the census of 1810, a white population 
of 212,036 souls, lias but four, instead of nine sena- 
tors, to which it is entitled; thirteen senatorial dis- 
tricts on tide water, containing, according to the 
same census, a white- population of only 162,717, have 
thirteen, instead of seven senators, which would be 
their just proportion. These facts are respectfully 
submitted to the senate and house of delegates of 
the state of Virginia, with the hope that they can- 
not fail to produce an impression, favorable to the 
cause of republicanism, and Hue just rights of so 
decided a majority of the white population of ihe 
state. This done, tlie undersigned look with con- 
fidence to the legislature for such aid as they have 
the power to grant. They know that the means of 
extending to them immediate relief are not wiHiin 
the power of the legislature. They, therefore, do 
not ask it. They know that the several counties 
are* entitled to two representatives on the floor of 
the house of delegates; and that a mere legislative 
act cannot prevent them fi*om exercising an acknow- 
ledged right. 

Each senatorial district too, has a constitutional 
claim to one representative in tlie senate; and it 
may well be questioned, whether there be a power 
in the legislature to abridge this claim. But what 
cannot be done directly, what cannot be done by 
law, may be indirectly accomplished tlirough tlie 
medium of a legislative recommendation. And al- 
though the people cannot be commanded to :ict, 
facilities for actmg may be afforded them to a vei*> 
great extent. 

The legislature then are respectfiiUy requested 
to recommend to the people of the commonwealth, 
the election of a convention to alfer and amend the 
defects of the constitution. And in doing this it is 
confidently hpped that such principles of repre- 
senution will be adopted, and such modes of elec- 
tion prescribed, as will ensure to every part of the 
state, a weirlit in ^bc convention to be assembled, 
proportioned to to its white population. Thus and 
thus only can the excitements existing in the state 
be allayed, the great ei\ds of republican goven^ 
ment be attained, and the con^iitutiun be placed 
on a basis to insure its own durability, as well as 
the peace and happiness of those for whom it ha& 
been framed. 
On motion of Mr. Fitzhugh, 
Resolved, that tlie said memprial be i^dopted as. 
the sense of the house, and tiiat the secretary have 
printed 500 copies thereof 

Mr. Burwell then offered for the consideration 
of the house the following resolutions: 

Resolved, that with a view to the attainment of 
the end specified in the resolutions yesterday adopt- 
ed, if the legislature of the state should be indis- 
posed, or feel itself incompetent to act on the suh^ 
ject, it be recommended to the people at their elecf. 
tions in April next^ to expr«M \Mw opJOAons, » t^. 

Digitized by 



the expediency of recommending a general con- 
vention for tlie purpose of amending the conatitulion. 
Resolved, lh«X a standing comrarHtee, consisting 
of seven members, be appointed, with power to 
choose a select committee in each county of the 
commonwealth, friendly to the obiects of this meet- 
ings and that in case it shall appear that a majori- 
ty of those wlio vote in ^ state are m favor of a 
general convention, tlie standing committee shall 
reconmicnd to the people a plan to procure a con- 
vention c/f delegates at Staunton, to fix on the mode 
of electing representatives to a general convention. 
Resolved, that the standing committee op a ma- 
^jority of them, be requested to meet together as 
soon after tlie spring elections aj$ may fieem expe- 
dient, for the purpose of carrying Into effect the ob- 
jccU of the latter part of the foregoing resolution. 
A motion was made by ^r. Fitzhugh to substi- 
tute for the said resolutions, the following: 

Resolved, that with « view to the certain attain- 
ment of the ultimate object of this convention, a 
central committee of such of its members as being 
favorable lo its views are also membersi of the pcne- 
'ral assembly, be appointed to meet in Richmond 
during the next winter; and that in case the gene- 
ral assembly shoul4 either be indisposed or feel it- 
self incompetent to take any part m the call of a 
convention, tliey be requested to organize commit- 
tees in the different congressional districts in the 
sute, for the purpose of procuring an etection by 
the freeholders in each of the said distripts, of six 
delegates to represent them in a conrentjon to meet 
in " on the day pf 

for the purpose of adopting such ulterior measures, 
^ to them may seem necessary. 

Whereupon, the question was put on the adop- 
tion of the said substitute, and decided in the ne< 

The main qiieation was then put, 
AVill the hQuse adopt the resolutions proposed by 
>tr. Burwell, and decided in the aifirmativc-^Hiycs 
61, noes 7- 

On motion of Mr. Johnson, seconded bv Mr. No- 

Ordered, tliat the ayes and noes on said question 
be inserted in the journal. 

The uitmes of the gentlemen who voted in the 
alTirmative are, Messrs. Woods, Gor4on, Porter- 
iickl, Cameron, Lefiwicli, Boyd, Ward, Eilgington, 
JVfaishall, Arnold, Moss, Fitzhugli, Tucxcr (of 
Frederick,) Williams (of Frederick,) Pickett, 
Chapman (of Fanqt^er,) Burwell, Cook, Mayers, 
Smith, French, Chapman (of (iiles,) Jack, Arm- 
strong, Williams (of Ifanly,) Seymour, Piiidall, 
Jackson, RedcL Hairston, Turner, Flood, Donnelly, 
White, Nolaiid, Osbum, Staley, Wilson, Estill, 
Woodville, Uawlings, Cabell, Ree^*cs, Li^ifler, Chap- 
lin (of Ohio,) McCoy. Dy^r, Tucker (Pittsylvania,) 
Townes, Love, Brooke, Penn, Staples, Duncan, 
Alderson, Bryan, Harrison, Samuels, Lovel, Beeson, 
fishback — 61. 

The names of the gentlemen who voted in the 
negative are, Messrs. Breckcnridge (president,) 
Johnson, Blackburn, Taylor,Edmun<]bon, McDowell, 
ILeyburn— T. 

Ordered th^t Messrs. Burwell, Boyd, Tucker (of 
Frederick,) Tucker (of Pittsylvania), Jackson, 
Gordon and L^ve, be appointed a sunding com 
Biittee in pursuance of the said resolutions: 

Mr. Johnson tlien presented for the considera- 
lion of the house the ibllowinr resolution. 
. 'Resolved, as the opinion of this convention, that 
the constitution of tliis commonwealUi ought to be 
SQ «faendie4 M to provkl^ as :fo as j>racticable, tl^^t 

every part of the coimnonwealth shdl bear its just * 
share, only, of the public taxes.** 

Op motion of Mr. Tucker, (of Frederick*) 
Ordered, that the said resolutioMie on the table. 
On motion of Mr. Williams (of Firedcrick,) 
Resolved, that tliis house do now adjourn. 
Saturday, Atigmt 24fA.— A member from hi» 
place announced to the house, that a delegation Uy ' 
this convention was elected from the county of 
Tyler, which has from accidental ctoses b«en una- 
ble to attend. 
On motjon of Mr. Johnson, 
Ottlered that the house now proceed to consider 
the resolution offered by him yesterday, and which 
was ordered to lie on the Uble. 

A motion was made by Mr. Fitihugh to Atftr the 
further consideration of the said resolution Inde- 
finitely! and the question being taken thereupon. 
Was decided in the negatiyei ayes 48, noei 21. 

On motion of Bfr. BlaokbOm, seconded by Mr. 

Ottiered that the ayes and noes on the said 
question be inserted in the journal. 

The names of the g^tlemen who voted in the 
aiRrmative are, Messrs. Cameron, Blackburn, Left- 
wich, Boyd, Arnold, Fitzhugh, Burwell, Cook, 
Smith, French, Seymour, Jadkson, Redd, Hatrstou^ 
M'Coy, Tucker (Pittsylvania,) Love, Staples, Bry- 
%n, Harrison, Creel— 21. 

The names of the gentlemen who voted In the 
negative are, Messrs. Breckenridge (president,) 
Wood^, Gordon, Porterfield, Johnson, Ward, Edg- 
ington, Marshall, Moss, Tucker fof Frederick,) 
Williams (of Frederick,) Pickett, Chapman, May- 
ers, Chapman, Jack, Armstrong, Williams, Pindall^ 
Turner, flood, Donnelly, White, Nolaml, Osbumi 
Staley, Wilson, Bsti)^, Woodville, Bdmundson, 
Rawlings, Cabell, Reeves, Leffler^ Chaplin, Dyer, 
Townes, Brooke, Penn, ptuican, Alderaon, McDow- 
ell, L«eybum, Samuels, Liovell, Beeaon, Fifthback*-48. 
Mr. Jackson moved an amendment to the reso- 
lution under consideration as follows: 

Resolved, as the opinion of this convention, that 
the constitution of this commonwetlth ought to be. 
so amended a* to provide safe and defined barriers 
between the legislative, executive and judicial de.. 
paftments of the government, and to maintain and 
preserve tike independence of the judipiary. 

Resolved also, as the opinion of this convention^ 
that the constitution ought further to be amended, 
so as to define therein the right of suffrage and es«. 
tablish it upon a just and ecjuitable basis. 

A motion vras then made by Mr. Fitidiilgh to 
adopt a substitute to the said resolution and amende 
mentB, a* follows: 

Resolved, That the declaration in our meraoriadL 
to the general assembly, that ^passing over mxny 
lesser evils, connected with and inseparable from 
the existing constitution, they are satisfied on th^ 
present occasion to confine their attention exclu* 
sively to one, not doubting that the same remedy 
which will be applied to it, will at tlie satme time be 
extended to every principle in the constitution ini- 
mical to the rights and happiness of an independcnx 
people," supercedes the necessity of any declaratiot\ 
of their views as to any particular prindjjles proper 
to be engrafted on a new conslitutioii. 
The question was then put. 
Shall the said substitute be adopted, and decidecl 
in the affirmative; so the resolution and amendments 
were lost. 

Mr. Tucker, [of Pittsylvania] from the coromitteo 
appointed to prepare a plan foe defraying the expeix* 
(jcs of thV» convention, made a report j& fiiliows^ 

.,yu,..uuy Google 



The committee who were required to* prepare a 
l^n for defra/tnf^ the expences of this convention, 
be^ leave to report: 

Ttiat the citizens of St^anton, partikkinff of the 
interest felt by « large portion of the good people 
cf thi^ commonwealth, in the objects of this con- 
reQtion^and that disinterested tpirit — without which 
those oljecta cannot be effected, have anticipated 
^piffposes for which lhis<^mniittee was appoint- 
ed, and have deposited in the hands of the secretary 
fl^the convention, 'a sirai sufHcient to cover the con- 
tingent expences that have been or will be incurred. 
And while ywsr committee would have preferred 
that the citi;tens of Staunton had not 8uper;idded 
this to the many other instances of courtesy which 
1h^ have mantfested toward the members of this 
convention, y«t having ascertained that the sum can- 
JK>t be borthensome to the citizens of Staunton, they 
think th«r offer should be met in the same liberal 
•pirit in which it was made, and should be accepted 
Of this convention. 

Besolved, therefore, unanimously, that in the opi- 
nioa of tfai3 convention, the citizens of SUunton, in 
defraying the contingent expences of this meeting, 
lieserve well of the friends of political reform in tliis 

Resolved, tmanimously, that the thanks of tins 
convention 9ifi due to Erasmus Stribbling, esq. for 
the assiduity, ability and disinterestedness with 
^ich he has discharged the duties of secretary to 
thb convention. 

The question being pat en the said resolutions 
jeparatcly, they were tmanimously adopted by the 

On motion of Mr. Tucker, (of Frederick,} 

Retolved, unanimously, that the members of this 
comrention in continuing to pursue the great object 
ef necessary reform, wul never cease to cherish a 
desire to affect that important end, by temperate 
md peaceful measures; and that they will cultivate 
mong their feliow-citizens, a spirit of moderation 
and forbearance, and a disposition to preserve im- 
inipaired the peace, good order, harmony and hap- 
(iiiess of our beloved and common country. 

On motion of Mr. Johnson, 

Eesotved, unanimously, that the protest of the 
innority in this convention, signed by James Breck- 
cnridge, Allen Taylor, John Leyburn, James Mc- 
Boweil, Henry Edinundson and Chapman Johnson, 
Wspreid upon the journals of this convention. 

The undersigned members of tlie Staunton con- 
vention, having had the mi^fbrtune to dissent frojn 
« majority of their associates, in the means which 
j»gy have^ adopted to secure the jp-eat object of re- 
imv which ail have in view, feel bound to avail 
thensclvea of the privilege of the minority, to spread 
Vpoi the journals of the house, along wiilk thatdis- 
•■fct, a brief statement of the reasons for it. 

IPhey mean not to censure — Indeed, they cannot 
vfiU^ldtheb approbation of the calmness, temper 
•■4 ^gni^ which have characterised the conduct 
if tftetnajorky. But lest it sliould not be distinctly 
^Bdcrsloody from the votes already recorded, wliat 
• y ti fce real aentiments and wishes of the under- 
Jlged, upon the subject of reforming the consti- 
Wioo of the state, they here solemnly record tliem, 
jy^ of protest, against the measures which have 
■Mi adopted by the convention. 
^Thcy liey tate not to give their decided assent to 
y pttponition, that the inequality of represents* 
'P Mnhpt h branches of the legislature, is a politi- 
nd a practical evil which ought to be 

They hesitate not to acknowledge, in its fullest 
latitude, the right of a majorily cf the people, to 
alter, reform, or abolish their poliilcal institution^ 
whenever they may think fit. 

But tjiey believe it to be a maxim orpoliticnl wis- 
dom, equally sanctioned by reason, and vc i ified by 
experience, that the constitutional laws nf cvei-y 
free government, should be contemplated \iith ha- 
bitual reverence, should be approached with the 
mc^t prudent eaiition, andtouclied with trcmbrm? 
timidity. They think, therefore, that the people ot 
this commonwealth would not e.xpress an unwise 
distrust of themselres, by saying that they would 
never consent to any alteration in tljeir constitution, 
which was not required by some palpable necessi' \ , 
and the propriety of whicli did not challenge the ab- 
sent of every unprejudiced,candid,inteHi^ent niind. 
Reform in the representation, they deem n mer,- 
sure of such palpable propriety, tlint'they would not 
hesitate to recommend it. Connected with this re- 
form, they think it essential also, that a constitu- 
tional provision should be made, secanng every pon- 
tion of the state from the imposition of an undue 
proportion of the public taxes. They would think it 
wise, too, to introduce into the constitution a pro- 
vision, well guarded with prudent limitations, 
whereby, in all future time, other defects in our 
constitution, which may have already developed 
themselves, or which experience may here.ifter im- 
fold, may be correctetl, withont unnecessarily np^i- 
tating the public mind, or endangering the public 

Thus far, for tlie present, are they willing to gn, 
and no further. They are willing to rccomme:ul 
the call of a general convention, with powers limitrd 
to those specified objects. But they areunwiUing- 
to commit the whole constitution, with all its con- 
secrated principles, to untried hands — they are un- 
willing to resign that charter of their country's 
riglits, which is identiHed with the revolution, 
around which the best feelings of the heart are inti- 
mately entwined; and under which the good pcojile 
of this commonwealth have enjoyed, for fjrty vears, 
a share of political prosperity, and perstmal \i\ess- 
ings, which iiave rarely fallen to the lot of man. 

It is, tlierefore, tliatthey protest — They pi-otcst 
against the call of an unlimited convemio:). 'i'iiey 
will, nevertlVelcss, unite their best efforts, witlj 
those of the majority, in securing the great object 
for whicli this convention was assemble.!, by inosf.' 
means which appear to them, best suited to tiie t:\\l. 
— by means of a limited convention. 

J. LEY BIT It \, 
On motion of Mr. Jackson, 
Resolved, unanimousl}', that the tlianks of thl; 
convention be presented to the hon. Jame? iireck 
enridge, for the ability and impaitiality with wiiich 
he haaperformed the arduous duties of prcsi.lcni of 
this convention. 

Resolved, that this convention, do now adjourn^ 
sine die. 

Mr. Sheridan. 

LovBox, July 8. It is with deep regret we an 
nounce to our' readers, the death of the rl>^l.t lr» 
norable Richard Bmnley Sheridan^ who, ;ifier a se- 
vere and protracted iUness, expired yesterday :.-, 
noon, in the 66tJiyear of his age. 

Digitized by 



The Various sensations, under wliich we, vrtfh the 
rest of the world, contemplated the course of this 
extraordinaiy man, while living, have been s6 far 
recalled to us by the recent event of his decease, 
that we cannot dismiss the account pf it like a com- 
mon-place article of the obitnai^y.— ^— We do ndt 
strive to qheck the pangs of grief and pity which 
jningle withoiu" admiration fbralost son of genius. 
It is always interesting, whether gi-atifying oi* pain- 
ful, to meditate the history of a distinguished man; 
and more especially of a man, frorti the materials of. 
whose character even more of warning than ^xaiik- 
pie may be collected. F^pm the mixture and coun- 
teraction of high endowments w^tb vulgar infirmi- 
ties and u.ifortunate habits, ordinar}' men deriye 
lessons of candor and contentment. \Ve cease tp 
jnurmilr at any seeming partiality in the distribu- 
tion of intellectual gifis among mankind, when we 
see the most useful qiialitie:^ withheld from, ot dis- 
dained by those upon whom the most splendid pnes 
have been munificently lavishe4. It exte^ii^ our 
charity and abates our pride, t(i reflect with calm- 
nese on the fs^te of one who wad equally the delight 
of society, and the' gprace of literature— whom it 
has been for inany years the fashion to quote, as a 
bold reprover of the selfish spirit 6f party; and 
throughout a period fruitful of able men and try- 
ing cii'cumstances, as tiie most popular specimen 
in the British senate of political consistency, intre- 
pidity and honor. * 

Panegyric becomes worthless when it is no long- 
er true— and we do not mean to eulogize Mr. Slieri- 
dan in unqualified 'terms.' Neither tact nor princi- 
plie will bear out tlie'siUy ac^c^ration with wMch, 
^r some days past, he has been worshipped by the 
most furious of his old detractors— by. tiwsn who 
seem inclined to pay their debts to his character 
"With usurious interest, as if they were discharging 
^ pQst-^t bowd. 

It is needtess to say much on those mtellectual 
powers whose living Memorials are formed to com- 
mand the (idfniration'of evei-y ftiture age. The 
astonishing talent for observation, and knowledge 
of character, di&played by IVfr. Sheridan in his dra- 
matic writings^, wiU. surpri^^us more when we re- 
collect that Ike composed the RivaU whilst yet a 
boy; and that his *Sch66lfor Samdal was written at 
four-and-twenty.^ Those who are best acquainted 
vrith the history of the stage for an hundi^ed years 
preceding their appearance, can best appreciate the 
obligations of the public to an author, whose dia- 
logue has the spirit of reality without its coarse- 
ness — who neither wearies nor offends his auclience 
— ^but whose ^entimcnt ia animated^ and his wit 
refined. His opera is another specimen of various 
power, which has eclipsed all but one of those 
which went before it, and all, without exception, 
of those wliich have followed. The Duenna hal3 but 
a single rival on the stage: and if the broad licen- 
tiousness of the BeffgarU Opera has given its au- 
thor the means of indulging a nei*vou8 and pregnant 
vein of satire, to be found in no other English work, 
i^heridan has combined in the plot and language of 
his Duemta, the charms of delicacy, elegance and 
ingenuity; and in his songs has diicovered a taste 
and pathos ef high poetical beauty. ' 

If we pursue Mr. Sheridan into political life, we 
shall have ecjual cause to admire the vigor and ver- 
satility of his i^enius. The field on ever}' side of 
him was occupied by the ablest men who had ap- 
pear e<l in parliament for more than half a centmy. 
iUu*ke, whose mature mind was richly furnished 
A'omlhe intellectual stores of all ages and idl na*- 


-gitt wd Fox, not left, like Sheridan, 

chance, but trained and moulded into orators nrnl 
statesmen; these were formidable checks to tlm 
rise of an adventurer, recommended by character 
nor connexion.— never educated for public life — be- 
set by a thoMsancJ mischievous habits— crusted ovdr 
with indolence <Uid depressed by fbrturte. Som* 
wondrous internal po,wer buoyed him up, and a tern* 
pef invulnerable to ordinary 'attacks, left him at n\\ 
times in possession of his unshaken faculties. In 
co-opei*ation, therefore, or rival n% or hostility, with 
the first men of his day, be distinguished himself 
amongst them by wielding witli sitecess the variouH 
weapons for which they were respectively celebra- 
ted, In flow of diction, he yielded not even to Mr. 
Pitt— in force and acuteness he might justly be^ 
contpared to the great opposition leader— while in 
splendor of imagination he equalled Burke, and in 
its use and management, far excelled him. His sar- 
casms were finer, but less severe, than those by 
which Mr. Pitt indulged his anger; and the wit 
displayed by Sheridan in parliament was, perhaps, 
from the suavity of his temper, much less sharp 
than brilliant. - * ' 

But the quality which prcdomijiated over all its 
companions in the mind of Mr. ^heridan, was his' 
exquisite and highly finished taste. In this rar(? 
talent he had tu> competitori and this it was whicli 
gaVe sudh inimitable grace to his expressions^ and 
which, in arguinrr or declaiming, in eulogy or in-' 
vective, disposed his thoughts M-ith an effect so full 
and admirable.' We cannot expatiate further oa 
his rhciorical qualifications than by observing, tliat 
he joined to the higher attributes above spoken of> 
the natural advantages of a clear and melodiouy 
voice, a distinct, empiialic and unaffected utterance 
—and a manly and unaflected action. As Mr. S. 
has produced a comedy which may be described as 
nearly the best in our language, so did he by a cu- 
rious felicity of genius put forth, in his speech on 
the trial of Hastings; the finest specimen of Eng- 
lish senatorial eloquence of which modem times 
can boast. Of tiiis divine oi'atipn,. although none 
but those wlio hea^d it can adequately jtidge, 
enough remains to Justify our pi-aisesin the frag^ 
menu hitnded down to us by the publications of 
that period, and, in the recorded sentiments of the 
leaders of all parties. Who hung in rapttire and . 
amazement on his wonls, Mr. Sheridan then readi- 
ed the pinnacle of his fame. No length of days 
could add to tlie celebrity at that moment poured 
around him, as an oi"ator and statesman of compre- 
hensive and transceniiint powers— *no human for- 
tune coidd have surpassed tiie expectations then 
formect of his future eminence. Why they have not 
been realized, is a question which posterity will not 
foiltoaslc. . ' * 

We pass by tlic details of liis parliamentary pro- 
gress, from the discussions on the regency in 1789 
to those on the same subject in 1811, Many im- 
portant questions, many dangerous criiis, which 
arose in the long interval between tho§e perioda,* 
gave Mr, Sheridan the means to establish for him- 
self an occasional interest with the people of Eng- 
land, distinqt from any that could have been deriv- 
ed from mei^ proofs of talent, or influence of par, 
ty. On the mutiny at the Nore, he enjoyed thc^ 
credit of essentially contributing to save tlie state. 
Whenever the liberty of tlie press was attacked, 
that bulwark of the 'constitution foiuid in him ita'^ 
most zealous and consistent defender; and when 
the early burst of Spanish patriotism l»ad raised a 
strong sympatljy throughout this country, it wa^ 
Mr. S. who first gave form and expression to th^ 
to| feelings v/hi^ft swelled every English heait, ai^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



wli» tiM^in pwikment the natural relation be 
twee% we tnpport of Spain and the deliverance of 
JUtiropt, Witnout instituting a too severe or invi< 
dkius scratiny into the justice of those high encom- 
iums whkh have been passed on Mr. S.'s patriotic 
spiirit^, ve shall roerely observe, that one object of 
tfuradiiurstkm is theexc|uisite judgment—- the dex- 
teri^ vt tact — with which he at all times seized 
^fiUi tide of public sentiment, and turned it in- 
to the proper channel. Out it must be acknowledg- 
ed, thai the longer he remained in the liouse of 
coounoBS) t)ke more his personal consequence de- 
dned*. B€r. 8. liad never in his happiest days ef- 
fected any thing by steady applicaton. He was ca- 
pdble of intense, bi^t not of regular study. When 
pabUB; duty or private difHculty urged him, he en- 
duted'the burdea- as if asleep- under its pressure. 
Aikngtby ^l^en the pain could be no longer borne, 
jie routed h^nself with one n(iighty etTort, and burst 
l&e a lion through the tqils. There are reasor\s for 
bellrving that his constitutional indolence began 
' its operation upon ^is habits at an early age. His 
vav first dramatic scenes wcra written by snatches, 
with considerable intervals between them. Convi^ 
vial pleasures ha4 lively char^ms fur one whose wit 
wastb^ soul of tlie uble: and the sparkling glass 
—the medium of social intercourse— had no small 
shM« of bis afiectiou. Ti;ese were joys to he \n> 
du]|geci without effort; as such they were too well 
raiculatfd to absorb the time of Mr. Sheridan, and 
sooner or later to make lai'ge encroachments on his 
clMVfecter. His attendance in parliament became 
ermnr year more languid — the vit inertia more in- 
eiinkplc*-the plunges by which his genius had 
MV ttid then extricated him in forn^er tio^s, less 
mqoent and more feeble. We never witiiessed 
a contrast much more melancholy than between 
the bnUiant and commanding talents of Mr. $he. 
ridan througliout the first regency discussions, 
and the low scale of nerve, activity and ' capacity 
to which he seemed reduced, when tlu^t subject 
vas more recently agitated in parliament. Qut ih- 
doknce and intemperance must banish reflection, 
if not corrected by it: since nc^ man poidd support 
the torture of perpetual self-reproach. 
L AggTftTated, we fear, b^ some such causes^ the 
' JUKt^ral careless teipper of Mr. Sheridan became ru- 
imms td all his better hopes and prospects. With- 
out afreet appetite f<^ spending money,he thought 
not of checking its expenditure. The econon)y of 
tine was as much disregarded as that of money .-^ 
aA the anraugemcnts, puncti^alities, and minor ob- 
lin^BS of life we^e forg^tl^n, and tlie household 
«rlfr. Sheridan i^as always in a state of nature. His 
domestic feelings wer^ originally kind, and his 
pnaaners gentle: hut ^b(ne bad habits seduced him 
from the house of commons and from home: and 
equally injured him as an agent of the public good, 
and as a dispenser of private happiness. It is pain- 
fol, it is mortifying, but it is our sacred dutv to 
pWBue this history to the epd. Pecuniary embar- 
rwm'rntn often lead men to shifU and expedients 
^-these exhausted, to others of a less doubtful co« 
)fK, Blunted senlibilily, renewed excesses, loss 
ofeastinsqciet^, follow each other in melancholy 
«lpo<saoii, until solitude and daiiuiess close the 

h \i93 been made a reproach by some persons, in 
faqwaithig Mr. Sheridan's ctliel destiny, that «his 
fiends** nad not done more for him. We freely 
and GOBScientiously declare it is our opinion, that 
IbhI Jl(r. Sheridao enjoyed ten receiverships of CorU' 
•itl inttead of one, he would not have died in af&u* 
l|i^ lie ferer would, have att^ed to comfort or 

independence in his fortune. A tain man may be<^ 
come rich, because his vanity may thirst for only a 
single mode of gratification. An ambitious n\an, 9^ 
ban vivtmti a sportsman, may severally control their 
expences; but a man who is mveterately thoughtless 
of consequences and callous to reproof— who knows^ 
not when he squanders money, because he feels not 
those obligations which constitute or direct its 
uses — such a man it is impossible to rescue from 
destruction. We go further — we profess not to 
conjecture to what iiidividiuils the above reproach 
qf forgotten friendships has been applied. If 
agauist persons of illustrious rank, there was never a 
more unfounded accusatbn. Mr. S. throughout his 
whole life, stood as high as he oug^t to have done 
ii> the quarters alluded to. He received the most 
substantial proofs of kind and anxious attachment 
from tli^^e personas^es: and it is tp his credit that 
he was not insensible to their regard. If the mis- 
taken advocates of Mr. Sheridan were so much his 
enemies as tp wish that he had been raised to some 
elevated office, are they not aware that O'en on© 
month's active attendance out of twelve he was at 
all times utterly incapable of giving? But what 
friends are blamed for neglecting Mr. Sheridan? 
What fjiendtfdp did he ever form? We more than 
doubt whether he could fairly claim the rights of 
frien4sliip with any leader of the whig administra- 
tioh. We kuQw that he has publicly asserted .Mr. 
Pox to be his fViend, and that he has dwelt with 
much eloquence on the sweets and enjoyments of 
that connection: but it has never beeii our fortune 
to find that Mr. Foi^ had on any public or private 
occasion bound himself by reciprocal pledges. Evi- 
dence against the admission of such ties on his part 
may be drawn from the well known anecdotes o( 
what occiured within a few days of that states- 
man's death. The fact is, that a life of conviviali- 
ty ai^4 intemperance seldom favors the cultivation 
of those better tastes and affections which are ne- 
cessary to the existence of intimate friendship. — 
that Mr. Sheridan had as many admirers as ac- 
quaintances there is no room to doubt: but they 
adnoiired ordy bis astonish htg powers; there nevet;^ 
was' a second opinion or feelings as to the unfortu- 
nate use which hemadeof Uiem. 

We have now performed an honest duty, and in 
many particulars an hun)bling and most distress- 
ing one we have found it. Never were such gifts as 
those which ^ovidence showered upon Mr. She- 
ridan so abused; never were talents so miserably 
perverted. The term "greatness** has been most 
ri4iculously, and, iu a moral sense, most perni- 
ciously applied to one who, to speak chai-ilabiy of 
him^ was the weakest of meit. Had he employed 
his matchless endowments with but ordinary judg- 
ment, nothing in England, hardly any thing iu Eu- 
rope, could have eclipsed his name, or obstjructed 
his process. It is the peculiar pmise and ^lory of 
our political constitution, that great abilities may 
emerge from the meanest station and seize the first 
honors of the community. It is the noble praise and 
purer hap|)iness of our moral system, that great vi- 
ces throw obstacles before tlie march of ambition^ 
which no force nor superiority of intellect can re- . 
move.— 5^aie«ffla/t. 

Perpetual Motion ! 


To ifi^ PubUc. — In order to satisfy their fellow-ci v 
tizens as far as it might be in their power, upon % 
question of ^eat public interest, tlie andersigned 
accq}ted an lAvitation made b^ Mr. Charles lledhet^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


fer. In the pubMc Ytetrspapere of this cl^ m the fol- 
lowinj^ terms.— After complaining- of the governor 
for declining to "nominate as many honorable men 
as he might think proper, in order to set at rest a 
question, which had, at different times, b^n ag^ted 
amongst ingenious men of all nations, whether it 
Was possible to construct a machine on self-moving 
principles,'* Mr Redheffer goes on— "I have, there- 
* fbre, selected the following ffentlemen, to make a 
fuU,fair and strict examination of my macltine; to 
whom, I am ready and willing, to explain the prind' 
files tn wMch ii it eonstructed, and to state Aow, and 
in which vay it is put in motion, ^and in what manner 
that motion is maintained, and may be perpetuated ad 
ivjinihtm.** Mr. Redheffer then requjpsts his fellow 
citizens to suspehd their opinions concerning bim, 
unlil the report of the committee, Uius appointed 
by himself, should be made and published; g^ves 
the names of the gentlemen selected, and requests 
til em to meet him at Peter Evans' tavern on Wed- 
nesday, morning the 17th of July, at 10 o'clock. — 
They accordingly attended at the tavern of Peter 
fevans, when the following proceedings took place. 

In pursuance of tlie public notice given by Mr. 
Cliarles Redheffer, the following gentlemen met at 
Peter Evans' tavern in the city of Philadelphia on 
Wednesday, the irth day of July, A. D. 1816 to 
wit :— William Tilghman, Esq. chief justice of the 
supreme court of Pennsylvania ; Robert Wharton, 
Esq. Mayor of the city of Philadelphia; JosepJi 
' Hopkinson, Benjamin Chew, Charles J. Ingcrsoll, 
]&iyes Newcomb, Robert Patterson, George Cly- 
mer, Nathan Sellers, Samuel Richards, William 
Garrjgues, Moses Lancaster, Jacob Holgate, Rev. 
Dr. Beasly, Dr. Adam Seybert, J. Colder, C. D. 
Corfield, John Livezey, Joseph Mather, Charles 
Budd, Robert Brooke, Dr. Alexander Knight, and 
Johnson Taylor. 

William' Ttlommas^, E«q. was appointed chair- 
Oaan of the meeting, or committee—and, 

Joseph Hopkinso^t, secretary. 

Mr. Patterson stated, that it is Mr. Redheffer's 
request (Mr. Redheffer being then present) that 
this committee shall attend on Saturday, the STth 
instant at 10 o'clock,, A. M. at such place as tlie 
Mayor shall procure and appoint, to see Mr. Redhef- 
fer's machine ptit up; and to direct tlie further 
proceedings of the committee for tlie object of their 

Ordered, That the minutes of this meeting be 

Adjourned to meet as above directed. 

The undersigned, again met on Saturday, 27th 
July, when the following proceedings took place :— 
Saturday, July ^th, 1816. 

At a room in the west wing of the state house, 
procured ai^d appointed by the Mayor for this meet- 
mg, the chief justice being engaged in holding the 
supivme court, Robekt Pattbbsos was appointed 
chairman4n his place. 

The following gentlemen of the committee, who 
did not attend at the last meeting, were now 
present, to wit: — General Thomas Cadwallader, 
James Whitehead, James Ray, Thomas Bamet, 
George Knorr, James H. Cole, and W. Moulder, 
Eaqrs. Also, the following persons invited to attend 
by certain members of the co mmit t ee, according to 
Mr. RedhcfFer's request :— Joseph Livetey, Rev. 
Dr. Jacob Broadhead» William Meredith, Joseph 
Reed, Maskel Carl, Richard Peters, junior. Dr. 
Jolm Clopper, Joseph Cloud, Adam Erckfeldt, Rev. 
Burgess Allison, William Steel, Thomas AUibone, 
David Mandeville, captain William Jones, major 
WiVltam Jftclison, i^d John Sergeant^ 

Mr. Redheffer attended with his MicbiM.*-ltfr, 

Colder (declaring that he attended as the cotmsel 
of Mr. Redheffer) stated, ^at Mr. Redhefi^r was 
ready and willing to put the machine up, and put 
it in motion, but declined to explain his principles 
to the whole committee, which he desired io da 
to a select number, to be appointed out of tl)e com- 

The question was put— Whether Mr. Redheffer 
should now proceed to put up his machyie, and 
set it in motion — and carried in tlie affirmative. 

Mr Redheffer, accordingly commenced hn cmera^ 
tions, and at two o'clock, havii^ made little or 
no progress in putting the machme together, he 
withdrew from the room, taking with him the 
mayor. On tlieir return, the maj^r stated, that 
Mr. Redheffer had informed him the wheels of 
his machine had been put out of rear, or injured, 
in removing them to this place; msx it would re- 
<][uire some time to repair the injury, and accord- 
in^y desired an adjournment of tlie meeting might 
take place for that purpose — After some observt* 
tions on this proposition, Mr. Redheffer was desivcd 
to state, what time it would take him to repair ihe 
alleged injury, and enable him to proceed to the 
performance of his undertaking. He replied^ about 
a day, or perhaps less.— Whereupon it was agreed, 
that Mr. Redheffer should be allowed until tlie fbl- 
lowing Saturday, for the purposes he had mentionetl 
— And then the committee adjourned, to meet at 
the same place, on Satu(*dsy next, at 10 o'clock, 
A. M 

On Saturday the 3d of Augrut, .^. 

The following proceeding took place : 

A majority of tlie committee met, according ^ 
adjournment Moved and carried in the affirmative^ 
that Mr. Redheffer be desired to proceed in putting 
up his machine, and setting it in motion. 

Mr. Colder, on bebalf of Mr. Redheffer, stated 
that Mr. Redheffer was willin|^ to put his machine 
in motion, but wished to do it with safety to his 
own interest — and submitted the following pro- 
position to wit : — 

Charles Redheffer respectfully submits to the 
gentlemen who have done him the honour of their 
attendance to inspect his machine, that he is desirous 
of proceeding in such a way, as to obviate evciy 
dtifi<5ulty and satisfy their wishes; and for this pur- 
pose, proposes, that two or three persons, ^y 
Nathan Sellers and George Cl5rmer, persons of 
known probity and experience in mechanics, shall 
be authorized as a sub-committee to receive tbe 
explanations and charge of the machine; tliat he 
will, to these citizens, so explain the principles 
and operation, that they shall be able, and without 
any agency, or without the attendance of Charles 
Redheffer, to put the machiiie in motion, and ex- 
plain the principles clearly and satisfactorily. I'hat 
this sub-committee shall, when they think fit, and 
for such a reasonable period as the mujority of tlie 
committee may think fit, have the sole charge, and 
the invitation of the members of the committee, 
until they shall be perfectly satisfied. 

Moved and seconded, tliat the consideration of 
Mr. Redheffer's propositbn be postponed, and car- 
ried unanimously. 

The chairman then, in compliance with the first 
resolution,^desired that Mr. Redheffer should pro- 
ceed to put up his machine, and set it in motion. 

Mr. Redheffer, having retired from the room, Mr. 
Cress was requested to call bim in, aud went out 
for that purpose. 

Mr. Redheffer returned to the room, when the 
chsUn^Mi stated to him the desire of the commits 

Digitized- by LjOOQ iC 



ndbfrsetpt^ssed. live diairroan further sUied to 
Mr. ttdheff^, that the committee desired to have 
none ^ his arrets, but only required of him to 
put bk iMehi«e in motion. Mr. RedhefTer, replied, 
dtttfceeould not with aafely— but refuaed to give 
reaiins or explanations. 

lbs imdersigned, having^ thus attended on the 
c^l of Mr. Redbeffer, with an intenjtion and dis- 
y(Mm to gt> into the examinatioa of his machine, 
accMivr to bis own invitation and proposition, 
nd^ his own terms, think they own it to thero- 
sdMs ttd to th€ public, expressly to declare : — 
Thrt Mr. Redhefier has declineKl, without any 
fttMnbie apology or excuse, known to them, to 
m^ fty^ with his promise, as made in his said 
invt^Eliim and proposkton. The undersigned, tliere- 
ibrk withdraw from any further attendance on Mr. 
RsMfet^ with sUt>ng sentiments of disapprobation 
ifUs^nduct. Of the feasibility of his project, no 
f4tece hds b^en given by him; and what inference 
ihodkl be drawn of his own belief in it may be 
«(mby tbe public from his whole conduct on this 

Robert Wiarton, 
< John Livezey, 
Adam Seybert, 
Rob. Brooke, 
James II. Cole, 
Ch. Caldwell, 
C. J. IngersoU, 
Frederick Eeasley, 
K. Sellers, 
Jos. Cloud, 
B. Newcomb, jun, 
Jno. Clopper, 

Mtfrt Patterapn, 

Benjamin Chew, 

Jacob Holgate, 

Jtk. Whitehead, 
^loseph Mather, 

Charles Budd, 

Joseph Hopkinson, 

W. Meredith, 

Samuel Richards^ 
? Adam Eckfeldt, 

Th. Allibone, 
f Kichsrd Peters, jun. 

Josiah White 
The fiicts above mentioned, are accurately stated, 
so fur as they fall within my knowledge, which is 
Cddfaled to the first meeting. As ta the rest, hav. 
iag perfeet confidence in the gentlemen who have 
Mmcrtbed the statement, I agree with them in 
4isappn>ving Bfr. RedhefTer's conduct, and witii- 
i|nwing from any further attendance on him. 


Society of Friends. 

The following are exti^scts from the epistle of 
Us yearly rfieet ing held in London, by adjournments, 
Horn the 23d of the 5tli month to the 31st of the 
M|e, mclusive, 1816, 

Tq the gtmrterljf and mnnihhf meeting ofJUetida^ in 
Great Britain, Ireland, and elsewhere, 
^fVe observe with pleasure the increasing desire 
rOlittfested by Friends, to obtain a guarded and use- 
fal education for their children. The reports on 
the schools* under the notice of this meeting, indi- 
cate relvious care and good order prevailing in 
t^em, and have yielded us great satisfaction. The 
iitprovement of tlie understanding, and tlie commu- 
MQalion of that knowledge, by which it m.iy ' be 
wmt extensively preparea for the service of Uim 
to whom Ave miist all render our accounts, are du> 
tits not to be neglected. We desire, however, to 
ingress upon all, whether parents, or those to whom 
thigr entrust their tender offsprings, tlie euprewe 
ii^iertance of inculcating the first of duties— the 
krrt and fear of God. 

*A watchful parent will, at no time, be more alive 
tithe welfare of his children, than when they are 
patting ftom the age to which we have just advertr 
fft to the succeedmg stage of life^ The situations 
JD which th^ are then placed, and the companions 
9t^wfeipiD they ass^i^te, ffiay have a decided in- 

fluence on tlieir future chai*acter. We would, there- 
tore, encourage botli pai*ents and masters not to re- 
lax at th'is critical period, either in care or counsel, 
or in pi-oper restraint tempered wiih kindness. 
Here we would advert to the importance of good 
example, and to the great blessing whicli will at- 
tend the labors of tliose whom we are addressingi 
as they seek to become preachers of light eousness,. 
in life and conduct, to those around them. How 
inviting, how instructiye, it is, to behold such as, 
by the purity of their lives, by the meekness of 
their spu*its« and by the benevolence of their chv 
racter, are adorning their profession! 'I'his is a duty 
which is enjoined by the liighest authority— Matt; 
V. 16; and we earnestly press upon, all to consider, 
whether their moderation, tiieir self-denial, tlieir 
habits of life, are such as become the christian re- 

'*Our solicitude has at this time been awakened 
for our young men employed as travellers in busi- 
ness. The exposure of these to the temptations to 
which they are often unavoidably subjected, has 
tended to draw aside some from that simplicity, 
that purity of heart and thouglit, tliat strict morali- 
ty, wldch oiu" chri9ti:in principles require. We 
wotdd submit to the serious consideration of their 
parents and employers, the extreme danger of send- 
ing forth into such service, any voung persons 
whose religious principles are not fixed, nor their 
habits formed; and we would encourage Friends in 
different places where those in this line of employ- 
ment may travel, to continue and extend that kind 
of hospitable notice which has been already mani- 
fested. The situation of some of our young Friends 
in other occupations may deprive them of tlie ad,- 
vantage ofvirtuous and instructive associates; these 
also, we Uppe, will not be overlooked by those to 
whom they are known. 

"We lament tliat reproach shotild l\ave been 
brought on our society, by the failure of any of our 
members in discharging tlieir just debts. We con* 
sider it to be the duty of all, but especially of every 
person under pecuniary difficulties, to inspect nar- 
rowly into the state of their affairs; and this we con- 
ceive might often prevent such an issue. Let* all 
Friends be careful to live within their incomes, re*»« 
trenching, if nccessax^, their expences; and we de- 
sire that it may be tlieir uniform endeavor to con«- 
duct their business in such a way oj may subject 
them to the least risk or danger. For those who, 
possessuig integrity, yet from the pressiu-e of the 
times, ai*e, witli honest and upright intentions, 
strugglmg under may difticulties, we feel great 
sympalliy. Let tliese be encoui*aged; tliey will not 
fail, wc trust, if tliey seek it, to obtain Uic kind ad- 
yice of their friends. Let it be their earnest concern 
under tliese trials, to hold fast tJieii* confidence in 
our all wise and gracious Helper; as likewise their 
love to their brethren. This love, we believe, is 
peculiarly endangered, whenever the mind is dis- 
turbed by lier perplexing care arising from, em- 
barrassed circumstances. 

"The amount of sufTeringa reported tliis year, 
occasioned by claims for titlies, and other demands 
of an ecclesiastical nature, with a few for military 
purposes, is upwards of 15,000^. Our bretijren of 
all the yearly meetings on the American continent 
have again ^iven proofs of their love, by uiiLten 
communications.. The interesting work of Indian 
civilization still occupies their attention. In some 
of the tribes, the improvements which, noCwitl** 
standing the late commotions, have been gradual!} 
gouig forward, are truly encouraging. In others, 
thpse who are concerned in tliis good work haiK; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


pt^bftbly already renewed their exertions where 
the ravages of war had desolated many of the set- 
tlements. The persevering labors of Friends in 
Yirginia and some other parts, to procure the free- 
dom of many negroes illegally as well as unjustly 
held in slavery, have in several instances been 
crowned with success; and it is very ^ratifying to 
observe, tiiat the riglits of this injured people are 
still dear to our American brethren. We hope that 
in this country. Friends w^l continue tti feel a deep 
interest in the welftore of the African race; and not 
dismiss the subject from their thoughts until such 
wise and prudent measures may be adopted as shall 
promote and finally seci^e universal emancipation/' 

Interesting Law iQtelligencet 


Sttp'-eme Court ofPenruyhnma, July 6, 1816. 
The ComiBonwctfck, (n rd. Eliz% a aegro <MitXT\ 

v». ytUhtm Cornu* 

4aeobHsllowi^, keeper of the priion ofPlulid. J 

The facts in this case ai^e few and undisputed.. 
The mother of Eliza was a slave, the property of 
James Cone, of .Maryland. "She abscoitded from her 
m&ffter and came to this state, in which, after a re 
sidence of two years, her child Eliza was born. The 
question, therefore, is, whether birth in Penwryhn 
nia gives freedom to the child of a slave, who had 
abscosded from another state beft^e she becdmr firt^ 
nant. This Question depends upon Ui e law of Penn- 
sylvania, ana the constitution of the United States. 
On the first of March, 1780, the sUte of Pennsyl- 
vania passed an act "for the gradual abolition of 
slavery," by the third section of which it is enacted, 
*»that all servitude for life, or slavery of children, 
in consequence of the slavery of their mother, in 
the case of all children bom within thys state, from 
and after the passinp^ of this act, shall be uttcrlv 
taken away, extinguished and foreyer abolished .*• 
^The fifdi section directs the manner in whicli tfic 
owners of slaves should enter them in a public re- 
gister; and the tenth section declares, ''tliat no man 
or woman of any nation, except the negi-oes or mu- 
lattos who shall be registered as aforesaid, shall 
at any time hereafter, be deemed, adjudged or hold- 
•en within the territories of this commonwealth, as 
slaves or servants for life, but as free men and free 
\vomen, except the domestic slaves attending upon 
delegates in congress from the other American 
states, foreign ministers and consuls,** and with 
certain other exceptions, not afiecting the presciil 
•case. Thus far, tlie act is too clear and too posi- 
tive to admit of a doubt, nor can it be denied that 
the state of Pennsylvania had a right to give fret^ 
dom to every person within her territory, however 
unjust or impolitic the extreme exercise of that 
right might have been, considering the situation of should be bom within the state after that day:- 

some of her sister sUtes. But the situation of those 
states was neither unthou^t of nor neglected. Ac- 
cordingly, we find it provided by the eleventh sec- 
tion, "that the said act, or any thing contained it, 
should not give any relief or shelter to any abscond- 
ing or runavray negro or mulatto slave or servant, 
who had absented himself or sliould absent himself 
ftom his or her owner, master or mistress, residmg 
in any other state or country; but such owner, mas* 
fer or mistress, should Imve like riglit and aid to 
demand, claim and take away his slave or servant, 
as he miglit have had, in case the said act had not 
been made. The terms of tliis proviso, do not ex- 
tend to the i»»ite of the absconding slave, nor in 
v^here any necessary implication by which it must 
fc ;:xtended to tkejurci^C bej9ttcnix^ bom in Penn- 

sylvania. It appears to me, therefore, that, midet , 
the act of assembly this child is entitled to fi-ef dom, 
I desire it, however, to be understood, that it is not 
intended to intimate any opinion on the case, of 
children of domestic slaves, attending upon mem- 
bers of congress, foreign ministers or consuls; not 
in the case of a child, with which a slave, abscond- 
ing from another state, should be pregnant, at the 
time when she came into this state. All that need 
be said at present is, that those cases are distio- 
guishable from the new one now decided, and may 
perhaps be fi»imd to turn on difierent principles. < 
But the constitution of the United SUtes has been 
acted on in opposition to the act of assembly; and 
if there be a repugnancy, there is no doubt but the 
act of assembly must give way. The constitution 
was formed upwards of seven years after the pass- ! 
ing of the act of assembly. By that time the ope- j 
ration of the act had been ftilly experienced by the 
slave holding states. It was a subject on which 
their feelings bad been excited, and therefore we 
must presume, that their representatives in the ge- 
neral convention of 1787 regarded this important i 
object with vigilant attention. Neither can it be 
supposed, that Pennsylvania and tlie eastern states ! 
were inattentive t» what had always been deemed 
by them a matter of importance: So that it is a 
case in which there are peculiar reasons for adher- 
ing to tlie words of the constitution. The subject 
is introduced, in tlie second section of the fourth j 
article, which is expressed as follows, **no person 
held to labor or service in one state, under the laws 
thereof, etcaping' mto another^ shall, in consequence 
of any law or regulation thereof, be discharged from 
such sei'vice or labor, but shg)l be delivered up oo 
claim of the party, to .which such service or latxtf" 
may be due." This is in conformity with the law of 
Peansvlvania. The case of the absconding slave is' 
provided for, without mention of the issue — 1 sec 
not upon what ground the constitution can be ex- 
tended beyond the act of assembly, nor does it ^vi 
pear that in the opinion of congress, it can be ex^l 
tended further. For in the "act respecting ftigitivet 
from justice, and persons escaping from the service 
of their masters,'* (passed the 12th of February, 
1793) tliere is no provision, except in case of per* 
SODS held to labor in one of the United States, wAs, 
shall escape into another of the said states. I am, 
therefore, of opinion, that, under tlie act of sssen»> 
bly of this state, and the constitution of the United 
States, the child Eliza was bom free. 


Betpubliea, -^ 

Keeper of the priwrn oftbe city and county of Philadelphia. 3 | 

The words of. tlie 3d section of tlie act of 1st 

March, 1780, are general and comprehensive, and 

include tlie cases of all cliildren of slaves wba 

"They shall not be deemed and considered as ser- 
vants for life or slaves." The expressions are strong 
and imperative and cannot be ffot over. Where 
the meaning of tlie terms used by the legislature 
is plain, we are bound to adhere to it, ana not to 
transpose th«ir words, or insert others, unless the 
result would involve us in palpable absurdity^ or 
gross injustice. Whatever may be our ideas of tlie 
rights of slaveholders in otir sister states, we can- 
not deny that it wns competent to the l^islature, 
to enact a law ascertaining the freedom ofthe issue 
of slaves, bom slier the passage of the act withJb] 
this state. 

The only question left to be considered, is— 
whether there is any thing in the constitution of the 
ytiitediStates^ or any act of congre58 passed ia pxm:- 

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ttin^e Ikercof, which controls orabritlifes the ope- 
ntim^tmr atate Uiw, in its plain and literal sense. 
The ttlhtwrtjon who formed the federal compact, 
ba^ "ftc whole subject of slavery befoi'e them;— 
aid ire w<ai know the prejudices and jealousies of 
fte i|<|d>egn parts of the union as to their propert>' 
in ^e«^. It was no easy task to reconcile the local 
tit^iits. and disfcordant prepossessions of the dif- 
lh«^ae6t]0fia of the United States— but the biisi- 
6om^*s accomplished by acts of concession and 
mtftW <itwdesccSnsion. The constitution of the 
Cttfii States, in art. 4, sec. 2, goes no further than 
tofiivld«, that persons held to service or labor m 
otfl^t^ under the laws thereof, escaping into 
jMCMr «t»te, shall not be discharged from such 
sevm or labor, but shall be delivd^d up. And 
Mmei congress of the 12th of February. 1793, 
* ' ' the inode by which fugitive slaves shall 
,^J to their former masters, in another state. 
tht supposed for a moment, that the child 
*Dii,^io was not in existence when her mo 
aw^y, had escaped, or \<^as a fugitive. Her 
refbre, is not embraced, either by the con- 
^Vf the United States or by the act of con- 
iP,, ft 'irresistibly follows, that negro Eliza is 
not V&ve, At the same time, it is to be ftilly un- 
daWbil* that my opmion goes no further than the 
castf^v before us. The children of the female 
si^tjftt Ibreign ministers, or of the members of 
. #. — r of other states, which may be bom amongst 
■' ■ inchtded therein. It will be time enough 
those particular cases, when they shall 
<^mie before us for our determination. 

f HabeaftGflV 
q. keeper of the priwa of Uie city r pui. 

_^ /of Ptataddi^ia. J 

i;M of the reiaier is embraced by the letter 
*4iird section, and certainly does not fkll 
il^of the exceptions of the tenth section of 
E-of March 1, 1780. By the provisions of ei- 
le 18 indisputably free. It is not foir us to 
what provision would have been made, 
;att case had presented itself to the con- 
ofthe legislature. An attempt to sup* 
^^ _ this court might consider deficient, would 
Sw ttsitmpiion of legislative authority. But the 
j O^ > Tl i |C tion effectually {^ards against all construc- 
tintfMiQ^&yorAble' to the class of persons intended 
tetth^efiited. If, even an equitable construction 
julLi tjf (III master were not precluded, 1 am far 
fi^ll^Mfcing , satisfied, that the present Case would 
, b» JjftHf^ for its exercise. The support of the re- 
tel|^)^ caused him neither trouble nor expense. 
Ite Wftf H is true, deprived of the service of tl>e 
■" "***' from tlie time she absconded. But this did 
in consequence of any act of the relater, 
him no claim on her, Wliether his case 
considered a luird one or not, will depend 
the temper with which the mind may 
,e the positive, and artificial rights of the 
er the mother qn the one hand, and, on 

"tiie ^TATTBAL B10HTS OP UCtt 6IIIU1. 

Foreign Articles. 

'an gazettiss, as well as our own newspa- 

with letters and accoimts of thedegrad- 

of lord Exm9iUh at Algiers, and of 

ict of the Dutch. The ktter had a 

cannonade with the batteries of the 

lUUe camion shot distance. No harm was 

Jtiber side, except hi wasting their pow- 

Bni^ ficet pctircd fs-om the cnnt^t wlien 

they discovered a parcel of gun-boats getting under 
way to come out to them. K. part of our squadron 
was off the port at the same time, looking on--an<§ 
was received very respectfoUv by the Algerines. 
Our officers speak of tlie barbarians with perfect 

There was a complete revolution m TunU early 
in June, which ended in the death of the bey, and 
themassaere of 600 christians. Whether the Ame- 
rican consul was respected by the insunfents, or 
made his escape from them, we are not mformcd» 
but are satisfied with knowing that he was safe oti 
board the Java. 

Algiers^ fccp— England has no way left to regain 
the good opinion of continental Europe, lost by her 
temporizing Witli Algiers, but in destroving the 
power of the pirates— and happily, this she stemlt' 
determined to do. 

The Bann, of 20 guns, has returned to England,, 
from the coast qf Africa — she was there only fouv' 
months, and captured the American schooner Rosa,, 
formerly the Peny, of 6 guns and 19 men, witli 276 
slaves; Portuguese ship Temeracio, l^guns and 80 
men, after an obstinate battle — this ship was fitted 
for carrying 600 slaves^ but had only 40 embarked; 
the Portuguese brig Antonio, with 600 slaves. A 
Spanish schooner, with 400 on board, sprung a leak, 
and was taken as she was going into Sierra Leone. 

The quantity of flaxseed imported into Ireland 
from July 5, 1814 to July 5, 1815> was 49,233 hogs- 
heads; of which 28534 was American. There was 
imported at Belfast only, from January 1816 to 
April 13, 1816, 12,000 hogsheads. The number of 
hogsheads sown in Ireland in 1815 was 52,255 \ 

An English letten from Parb, July 10, says, *^SouH 
appears on the horizon with a militar}' renown which 
far eclipses all competitors." 

The French government have appropriated 
24,000 francs for the education of vice-consuls. — 
They are to be lodged witli the consuls. They are 
to be received between the ag^es of twenty and 
twenty-five; and admitted to the office of foreign 
consuls after four years service at home. 

The amount of tlie national debt of England pur- 
chased by the commissioners of the sinking Rmd 
since its esUblishment is 308,300,000^. and the 
interest is 9,300,000^. which is appropriated to the 
further purchase of stock. All the debt contracted 
prior to 1796 is redeemed. 

A Mr. Bair<l -has a steam-boat which plies daily 
between St. Petersburg and Cronstadt, Russia. 

The crops in Prance are said to be good; but hy 
Spain they are very discouraging, as to com and oil. 

The British revenue, for the last qiuirter, is said 
to be two millions one hundred and nine^-sevea 
thousand pounds less than the corresponding quar- 
ter btt year: and another account estimates it at 
somewhat less than 2,000,0004. 

An act passed the British parliament on the 20th 
of June, amendhig the act of April 11th, for carry- 
ing into eflect a convention of commerce concluded 
between his Briuonic majesty and the United 
States of America; which gives permission to Ame- 
rican vessels to clear gut from any port in the 
united kingdom for Calcutta, Madras, Bombay and 
Priiu:e of Wales* Island, with any goods, wares or 
merchandise which may be l^ly exported from 
the united kingdom to the said settlements in Bri- 
tish built vessels, subject to the like rules and re- 
gulations as are now by law imposed upon the ex- 
porution of such goods to the said settlements in 
Britiifh built ships; and that this act shall continue 
in force so long as %bc convcnti-sn to which it is 
mi amendment. 

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aspect to another rencontre between the nations, rf 
tliis it is tliat G. Britain has an eye to—their thorcsj 
tlien mere forests, now teem with little villRg«s^ 
and aie most rapidly fillinj? with inhabitants.) 

Fnrthei* of the state of England. A late London^ 
paper sa^vs— "It is really now become a melancholy* 
duty which the journalist has to perform, in record- 
ing the daily failure of some great liouse, upon! 
which so many respectable persons must be depcn-, 
dent. Hie casual reader passes over in one shmt, 
paragraph, tJie information which is to entail miM^ 
ry on tiiousands. Let him pause for a moment;! 
wlien congratulating hims«lf, as escaped from tlie 
wreck, to reflect on tlie agony which the sainoi^* 
formation may ciarry to many worthy families, who, 
in a single moment, are precipitated from all theic 
vii luous enjoyments, to absolute ruinj without com- 
fort and without hope! Yet there are men lianlyj 
enough to condemn and to ridicule every appcd' ] 
for retrenchment! Is it not idle to suppose that 
the purchase of a few articles for a fete can effcc< 1 
tually relieve our gr«it and pressing wants, with an 
expenditure of seventeen millions beyond our re- 
venue? No, no— we n&ust still call for, nay, we will 
entreat and beg for ret -enchraent. \Vc hear a 
thoughtless clamor about taxing the rich, tliat is, 
the superior orders of the middle class, whiare 
now so heavily taxed, they have no opportunity of \ 
encouniging trade. ' Wherever we direct an enqui- 
ry, the same answer is given, "the gentry have no 
money to spend, we take five shillings now, where 
formerly we took five pounds." The consequence 
will be, this superior class of the community must 
shortly disappeiu*, and we shall have no other dis- 
tinction than rich and poor, I 

- — *You haw fed upon my rignorirf, 

Disp«kk*d kuy parks. And t'eiPd my forNt wood*, 
FrDiii miiie own windowi torn ny hotuehold coiit^ 
Kb^M out my iiuprtin, leavinff me no $\en, 
aHVi' mrii't opiiiiont aud my hTing htiKja, 
Vo lUtrm tluj wvrid 1 am a geiitkmui.** 
\Vc :iu\e only room to add— we must hope for 

" r re* 

A bill lias also passed authorising the exportation 
of machinery for the erection of a mint, in the Uni- 
ted States of America. The bill was introduced by 
Mr. Vansittart, the chancellor of the exchequer. 

Gen. Rigand, condemned for contumacy at Paris, 

has been arrested by the Prutmm government at 

6aurebnick, and, we suppose, will be "delivered." 

Slock9.^ London^ JuJy 15 — 2 per cent. cons. 63 3-4. 

French do. — Paris, July 12—5 per cents. 58 7-10. 

A young man, at Paris, lately shot a young lady, 
\lrho rejected his addresses, and tlien stabbed him- 
self But it was said the lady might recover. 

It is intimated that tlie Turks will not view the 
\^r against Algiers with indifference. But it can 
hardly be supposed that they will luivc the temerity 
to assist the pirates. 

The Permin ambassador at Paris, is said to be an 
American, "and of th£ Christian, not the Mahometan 
persuasion" — a man of ci'editabl« talents and of un- 
blemished private character. 

Various parts of Holland have su^redmiich by 
^n overflow of the dykes. 

A Neapolitan squadron is said to have had a bat- 
tle wiUi a squadron of pii*ates before Barletta, m 
which the latter wfcre defeated, with the loss of one 

JJonaparte. We have a roimd-abouV West India 
account that Bonaparte has escaped from St. Hele- 
na, on the 22d of June. Particulars are not given, 
but the report is said to have been believed at Bar- 
badoes! We have pretty late intelligence direct 
from the prison-island, which informs us that he. 
was employed in writing his life. That he had been 
tick, but was then in gofnl health. 

The new British coinage of silver goes on rapid- 
Ty— 150,000 pieces are finished daily, and the quan- 
tity was expected to be doubled in about a week. 
iVorthy of imitation. — Tlie prince regent of Eng. 
land hitely gave a gr.ind ball and supper — above 700 
persons were present. With tlic cards of invitaiion 

was a request tliat all the guests would appear inlbetier days, and a fi-ugid managcmenrQf'oui i 
British m; nufactures. This was even extended to JsQUpces!! 

Auotlier paper says — "We are sorry to learn, 
that the applications for i)a8Sports to visit Fraftce, 
rather increase than diminish. There is an abso- ' 

the foreign ministers and their ladies. The princess 
tjharlotte has interdicted the use of any otlier in 
her household. 

^rtiasia. — It is with g^eat pleasure we see it stated 
in a London paper that vassalage is declared to be 
at an end throughout the Prussian dominions. Arc 
tlic people to have a conatitutiou^ We are anxious to 
iear more of this. 

The lakes. — I»ondon, Jidtf 8 — Several arrrange- 
ments are in the course of progress, witli a view to 
^tablish a respectaHle naval force upon the lakes 
•f Canada. Sir Robert Hall, an officer of distinguish- 
«<1 merit, who was lately commissioner of the naval 
yard of Quebec, is appointt-d to the cominMid of 
tbe vessels upon the lakes. Their prcient force, con- 
sists of Tecumseh schr. licut, H. Kent; Tag^rs schr. 
lieut. Hambly; Star, capt. Herbert, acting; Newasii 
sclir. capt. W. Bourchier, acting; Nctley, 10, licul. 
H. F. Spencer;, Montreal, capt. Kdwml (Jollier; 
Kingston, 24, capt. W. P. W. Owen, and Huron schr. 
lieut. J. Juckson. The St. Lawrence, 98; Builing- 
lingion, 74; Chanvell, 24, and Chubb cutter, are at 
present in ordinai^y. Several ojjicers^ mul a number 
of .'Stamen t -will proceed shortly to tiuU statioiu 

[What can be the meaning — what tlie object of 
these excrlioiiii to place the British ships o.i the 
lakes on a "respecuibie".establisiunent.^ li becomes 
tliose in authority to look to it, and see, at least, 
that our ships are kept in a tolerable state for ac- 
tual service, if requii tcL TJie stJite of tilings adja- 
cent to lliese lakes lias, however,con8iderabiy cliung- 
e<i since the war, And woidd give <^uite h difi'ex'cai 

iu^e mob of applicants at the French ambassador's 
house.^ We hear that constables have beeii some- 
times necessary to preserve decorum. It is some- 
times thi'ee ilays before passports cln be had, so 
threat is the number of applicants. Our Dover let- 
ter states, that eight families of fortune, with their 
own carriages, embarked at that place on Friday.** 
[ What a drain of money must this emigration cause'. 
England will feel in it, some part of the" evils tlia» 
ti*eland has suffered by the non-residence of h^ 
great landholders.] 

J-l;vtvinrdinary dvcitmstance.-^A young womail whor 
keci>s the turnpike near Henley, upon Thames, 
Oxfordshire, and who has been married four years, 
has now nine children who are all living and welL 
At her first lying-in she had three children; at her 
second, tliret; at her third, two; and at her fourth 
ajKl, one. Tbe circumstance has astonished the 
wiut}': neighborhood, and is supposed to be witlioyt 
a parallel in any age or kingdom. [JUn. ptip.' 


Mr. Holmes, on tne part of the United Stat^ tad 
Mr. Barclay on tJie part of Great Britdn, are aboiif 
to proceed eastward to decide to which power the 
islands in the bay of Passamaquoddy belongs, Etc.. 

.ticudcmjf at ^. Stephens /-^Wq aie dt^tted <« 

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Qkeif* tnm n St, SfepkcTu* newspaper, printed on 
(b6-i^ that was but as yesterday the seat of sarage 
baiteri^i an account of an examination and exhibi- 1 
tioa at tlie academy there, at which there are 70' 
sdMdiM! St. Stephens is on the Tombigby, and all 
the eowitry adjacent to it, lately a wilderness, was 
threoiir four years ago, as we feared, almost deso- 
hctttf b]f the Anglo-savage tomahawk in the hands of 

tlr C5l«r©*««.— We learn from Huntsville, M. T. 
thit» settlement near Melton's BluflT, south of the 
T o ii tJU ee river, was attacked by a party of Chero- 
kee SnSlaBt on the 11th ult. but they were beat off 
vidt|ke loss of three killed and one badly wound- 
(dflU kft on tlie ground. They were pursued by 
iffa^nndercapt. Biu-lesson, but the result is not 
yetJeaiown to us. We have not heard that this peo- 
ri^ltore any thing to complain of, and suppose thb 
0te.act only of a few silly individuals — for the 
HMIJI too weak and too completely within the 
raMr of the whites to hope to redress their wrongs 
ovIiKe, if any they have to prefer against our peo- 

HMr, at Buffato, Aug. 20—158 per barrel. The 

te tills quarter have been later tlian was ex- 

But new flour kid not yet got into the 

iL/tew-Orleant pajier of July 31st, says, that the 
fimitr haa been extremely warm since the middle 
^VtBt but that the city remains healthy. It is 
fS^tMhig to find expectation so far disappointed 
»1ii.8 k effects of the recent inundation on the sa- 
li4%of that patriotic city, 

'fmlea Slaes* Bank. Notice is given that an 
•itction for directors of this institiuiou will be held 
at MbdeJphia on Monday, the 28th of October 

Tbe court-maTtial for the trial of gen. Gaihcs 

It is said that the conqueror of the Guerriere, 
^l Hull, has volunteered his services to assist in 
t^ fiaviitation of the steam-boat proposed to sail 
*« Hew York to Russia. 

'A Ifliter frojnri Detroit says that the report that the 
iSdA are buUding «x vessels of war at Maiden is 

■%. WtUiam Green, of Cincinnati, has introduced 
g<}p»light into a mill near tiiat town, and it is 
MpM to light the streets with it. 

JJb. Eighteen houses, principally of wood, were 

jWXyed by fire at New York on Saturday morning 

*fc ;Ab our cities improve, we shall become less 

'Jjip^ to this calamity, from building houses of 

""^^tand stone, as is the law in most of them. 

J tl» m^kmond Enquirer says — In Octobei* Mr. Dal- 

^ \t»ft% the treasury, and Mr. Lowndes probably 


''%9ti9n tkeAth of July, at Paris. /The Ameri 
L fiH^T* w^hlch can reply in the same manner to the 
' TWIind the English." 

f Jf^lMoMrr. In I'eacham, Vt. on the 7 th of June, 
Wallace, ajped 88, lost himself in a wood 
— % and his feet were frozen so that it 

to amputate his toes. 

T VOTS9. The notice respecting treasu- 

inserted in our last, page 8, was copied 

erthat had been inaccurately printed. — 

named time for payment of said notes 

been Oc^6«-, instead of **November.*' 

BLBCTioir The federalists have com- 

ed is obtaining a large majority of 

this state^ whereby tJie eleciion of a 

for five years, is seci^ed. Particu- 


Elections, Col. Geo, JSfatUson is elected gorftmor 
of Kentucky without opposition. G. Slaughter had 
26,888, U. Hickman 11,733 and Jas. Garrard 7,723 
votes for lieut. governor. The members of con- 
gress elected for this state, are Heni7 Clay; R. M; 
Johnson; Joseph Desha; Anthony New, in the pUice 
of Mr. McLean resigned; David Walker in tJie 
place of Mr. Sharp; George Robinson, in the place 
of Mr. McKee resigned; R. C. Anderson in the place 
of Mr. Ormsby; T. Quarles, in the place of Mr. 
Taul, resigned; Thomas Speed, in the place of Mr. 
Harden resigned; David Trimble, m the place of 
Mr. Clark resigned — Thomas Fletcher being elect- 
ed to serve the ensuing session in the room of Mr. 
Clark. Gen. ViUere is elected governor of Louisi' 
ana over judge Lewis — but the legislature, by the 
constitution, has a right to elect either of the two 
highest on the retiu-n. It is presumed, however, 
they will hardly reject a person having tlie majori- 
ty. Jonathan Jenmngw is elected governor of the 
state of Indiana — his opponent was gen. Posey; Wm. 
Hendricks is elected to congress from Indiana. Pe- 
ter Little is elected to congress from Baltimore, to 
supply the place of Mr. Pmkney. 

All of the above named, successful or unsuccess-' 
ful, are republicans. 

Messrs. Mason and Boss aire re-elected to con- 
gress from Rhode Island, without «*systemasic op- 
position." They are federalists. 

UxiTXD Statss Baitk. 

From a Philadelphia Paper, 
The following statement contains the amount sub- 
scribed to the sidd bank, and tlie number of shartr- 
holders, in each of the places designated bylaw: 

p^gjg Number of Amount 
8hai*e-holder8. subscribed. 

Philadelphia, 3,566 #8^r8,400 

Baltimore, 15,610 4,014^100 

Boston, 36^ 2,402,300 

Portland, 22 203,600 

Charieston, 1,588 2,598,600 

Ne>v-York, 2,641 2,001,200 

Richmond, 1,287 1,698,700 

Washington 618 1,270,8J0 

Lexington, 710 953,700 

Augusta, 102 826,300 

Providence, 144 741,900 

Middletown, (Con.) 2,474 587,300 

Wilmington, (Del.) 1,C78 470,600 

Cincinnati, 707 470.000 

New-Orleans, 43 380,500 

^^ei^K 266 258,300 

New-Brunswick, 84 13U,20O 

Portsmoutli, 14 120,600 

Nashville, 14 53,600 

Burlington, Ver. 2 6,300 




The whole ntunber of share-hold- 

Those residing ia Maryland a* 
mount to 


The share holders ifx all otlier 
phices 15,724 

In Baltimore 15,610 share-holders 
subscribed 4,014,1^0 

In all other places 15,724 share- 
holders subacribcd 23,985,900 


'51,334 28,006,000 
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QC^This is a curious cirbumstanc^. Baltimore, in 

fact, may probably elect the directors of the bank. 
But many of the share-holders in other place^ have 
several votes, some as hij^h as tMrt^, whereas in this 
city the most have only one. The custom has been 
in Baltimore to take bank stocks on prox^Us, as well 
io secure the amount of the stock desired by indi 
yiduils, as to pve them a greater influence at elec 
tions — ^^and there is nothing peculiar in thb case; we 
supposed it was done every where— yet it is ipade 
a subject of abuse ajs^ainst "Mob Town," by a BbhxU 
printer at Phifadtlpfa'a. 

Great quantities of pretended bank note* have 
lately been seized, with their makers, in various 
parts of the United States'. 

A putrid fever is making ierriblc ravages at Sur- 
rinam — the gfovemor and about lialf of the troops 
stationed there had been swept crff with it. 


In our paper of the week before last, we g^ve a 
list of tl)e vessels with the number of their pas- 
sengers, accounts of whose arrival at the ports of 
the United States had reached us for the week just 
tlien past— the amount was 1474 persons l^ast 
week they ammmted (we believe) to about 800. 
The week, ending yesterday morning, furnished us 
with the following list, which takes in, perhaps, 
about three-fourths, or four-fiflhs of the whole num- 
ber; a§ we have probably overlooked some, not re- 
ceiving papers from every port, and at others, if 
the passengers be not numerous, they are not no- 
ticed at all. 

Nmnet, Whci^frmn Arrived at 

SUp Intiegnty, IxiiMloa, Mew- York 

Cyrut, Dublin, — 

tfirited Statet, Hargt- dt - eia ee, — 

Aoiliy Ltverpool, — 

Minerva, — — 

Luira, HsO, — 

Alexandria, DuMin, — 

Roekiueiiaini lirerpool; — 

Howard, — — 

Jane, I^ondonderrjr, 

Vnitf, Atnsierdam, 

Nancy, Bflfktt, . 

firif Concord, Dundi*c, 

Swallow, Watrrfbrd, 

Recovery, Londonderry, 

Prince oi' Waterloo, Betfaft 

Aurora. Aberdeen, 

Elizabeth, DubKn, 

JtangdonCheeres, Greenock, 

Elizabeth, I>nblin, 

Venuf, Sbro, 

Philippa, Galway 

Trareller, Letth, 

Hope, Newry, 












^dd for ihB Prince of Watcrkio and Phinf^ which were 
regular paatengerTeMclt, 05 each, • 


BoUvar*9 expedition. — \V^ have details of the de- 
feat of Bolivar. He appeara to bane lost 400 men 
killed, and 350 wounded and taken prisoners. His 
whole ft)rce was'only 800 men! — Jbut he himself with 
About 50 officers and soldiers escaped. It is said, 
however, that he is not discouraged, but is prepar- 
ing for new exploits, by raising new 'roops, &c. 

The Carthageniam, — There was a rtport at Ha- 
yanna, about the 2Uth of August, tliat the Cartha- 
genians had captured Pcnaacolon^ut the following 
accounts from New-Orleans are more to be relied on. 

J^ev'OrleanSf Auff, 5. — We have been en'^bled to 
procure authentic and accurate information in rela- 
tion td the squadron which has appeared off the 
Balize. We can assure the public* that it was not 
only a part of the Carthagenian fleet from* Aux 
Cayes, but that the whole of the force under com- 
modore Aury has actually arrived at Matagorda, 
»ftd that he litis rn the nume and under tHe anthority 

of tlie Mexican republic, taken possession Qf Ih^ 
port. The command of the expedition was assumed 
at Aux Cayes by commodore Aury in consequence 
of instructions directly from tlie Mexican govern- 
ment, and it consisted of 18 vessels; and upwards 
df 1000 miii, well armed, and equipped. Little 
doubt can be entertained; that with such a naval 
co-operation, the whole (boast will be in possessi^ 
of thfe patriots b efore November next. So far from 
intending to resume the smuggling business we are 
permitted to state, that any attempt to violate the 
revenue, or any other laws of the United States, is 
expressly prohibited by the commander of tlie ex- 
pedition, under pain of death. We are pfomised a 
copy of their proclamation and general orders as 
soon as they are received. Those documents, and 
any others that may have a tendency td iftOstrate 
their views and promote their glorious cause, will 
be most cheerfully published in this paper.— Goz. 
Auk^ut 9,— There appears to be no doubt but 
that the small fleet under the ^texican flag 'which 
were last month at^^e Balize, are now at the bay 
of Matagordy, on the Spanish Main to the S. W. of 
the Balize, about 150 leagues : that the Mexican 
congress have tlie utmost confidence in their ulti- 
mate suecess; that the royal cause droops, and that 
next fall or Whiter will place the 6ity of Mexico in 
the hands of the republicans. 

John and WiUiam Perrt;, two Shawanese c1uef:», 
and the son of the gallant LogaUi who lost bis life 
in our service during the war, have arrived in thtft 
place, on a visit to their army acquaintance, and to 
seethe country. These Indians accompanied ofw 
troops as friends in most of the campaigns in the 
north-west, and always conducted themselves with 
faith fulness and g.nllantry . They will, doubtless, be 
well received and treated with hospitality. The 
celebrated chief Blackhoof, long distinguished by 
his attachnient to our government, and three others 
we understand, are on a visit in Bourbon county. 
LexingtotL Reporier. 


London dateo of the 22d July. 

It is reported that the sovereigns who signed the 
"Holy Alliance** are to have a meeting, for purpos- 
es not stated. Direct accounts from St. Helena ta 
the 6th of June hare been received in England; and 
the contents of the despatches brought from thence 
were thouglit of such importance as to be sent to all 
the cabinet mmisters — Bonaparte was well and In 

good spirits. Four Spanish vessels captured 

off Cadiz by the BUenoS-Ayrean privatcei-s had 
400,00055 in specie on board. The princess of Wale« 
has wandered to Constantinople. The matclies be- . 
tween Ferdinand of Spain and his brotlier with tli« 
Portuguese princesses, hav6 been broken ofiT— thie 

causes not stated. A large part of Germany b 

tlireatened with almost a famine — the crops of win- 
ter ciom having entirely failed. Lord Exmoudi has 
sailed for Algiers— his fleet is equipped in tlie best 
manner, and consists of one ship of 100 guns, one 
of 98, 3 of 74, lof50, 2 of 40, 2 of 36, 5 sloops of 
^ar, and 4 bomb-vessels — he expects also to be 
joined by several ships in the Mediterranean, as 
well as by the Dutch squadron! Mr. Gallatin h^,fL 
been presented to the king of F^rance. 'Xlie French 
pricsu are exposing the Holy Sacrament to ask of 
God a more favorable season for the products of the 
land— [we thought it had been excellent.] The 
inundations of the Rhine and the Neckar have done 
inc.ilcuUble injury in desti-oyiug the crops. 

British stocks, JivJv 22—^3 per cT?nt, coiisols 63/ 
3-4 7-8* 

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II 1^ I 


N'». 3 0? Vol. XI.] BALTIMORE, SATURDAY, SKPTEMBEH 14, 1816. [wiLULu >o 263, 

H<8C oUm mmnifuite JwvaMt. — Vi»«il, 


France and the Bourbons. 

Pflfii, Jufy 5.— Yesterday the Americans now in 
hrismetto celebrate the anniversary of American 
-OKkpendeDce. The banquet waa very brilUant. Mr. 
J•ck8<n^ the Afiiencah citarge d'aft'aires, presided, 
.iono^ Utt toasts drank was the following^— 'To 
JONK^mir •ideat aUy; all ouY vdihes are for her hap* 

'Snattia no reflecting friend of the United 

9(1^ tiiat will not subiciibe to the sentiment 

tsftmed in4ki8 toast. Our best wishes are 

k ibe ^happiness and prosperity of France.'* 

We n^ not of those who calculate much upon 

^ehieks and iMilances'' ibnoiig nations; aniat- 

I tnr exploded by the great congress of Vienna^ 

St wkch die haman race was put upon a level 

vitkcatde, eaunted and disposed of according 

^ tbeir capacities, ^4n lots to suit the piircha- 

^* without the least regard to their conve- 

ueaee or wishes. Nor do we build upon the 

fnmUip of nations^ especially df those go^- 

^«iHft by kings, whose general political inte- 

'Mare&)stile to ours: yet there are occasions 

^^the interests eien of such may coincide 

•wi~|»M8, Against a third party — as, in our re- 

•^BtaialMUT war, when Fianee, to reduce the 

|^^«f findand, took part with us, and 

■iW » wi& men and monty. Nor are .. _ 

fcjwfed to **se«k protection under the cannon" 

■ «qr foreign power, as a governor of Massa:^ 

*»rfto; in a speech to the legislature of that 

J*!>>dvised, it of (rr^ JBritoin. 

j^Jl ia manifesJy ito our advantage, a sort of 

PMiIk for ouf own peace and qiiietoes^, 

^^ itstless nation snould have a counter- 

pwni ano&er. France seems the natural 

for it, H liberal constitution, and doing their ut-'' 
most to midce France independent, as she ought 
to be — ^you will find that all of us will become 
Bourbottitesf more true and trusty than any 
\Engli8hman whatever.'* The Frenchman, on 
this, cast his eyes on the ground, and then turn" 
ed them towards heaven; folded his hands aiid' 
sighed. He was eloquently silent — ^lie felt that 
his country was debased; yet he feared almost 
to trust himself with a knowle^l^e of it, situa" 
ted as thin^ are, lest be might oe iiti|^ched 
of disaffection to his king! 

To France— ^we repeat it — ^we wish '*happl- 
ness and prosperity*" If the return of the Bour- 
bons, borne on the spears of Cassocks and Cal- 
muchsy conduces to these — we sincerely rejoice 
that they are, even so^ "restol-ed." For tlie man 
that lately possessed tlie throne w^ have no re- 
grets, except that he did not use his splendid 
talents and mighty power t6 liberate rather thaU 
to enslave £ur(^; a work tiutt we thought he. 
was designed by Providence to accomplish, and 
which nmjf yet result from hiin, though he never 
escapes frwnrfie rock of St.HeleTuUf whete he ^ 
illegally held a prisoner of war. He aped the 
royal^ he should have cast down, and his af- 
fectetf dynasty has met the fate Chat we wish 
may attend every other in tlie world. Lot him, 
in solitude, feap the harvest of foil v and crimen 
unless it be for the "happiness andf prosperity • 
of Franbe,4nd of iluuiKmd, generally, that he 
should a^n appear Upon 3ie theatre. But 
without him, or some great master-spirit likt? 
him, it is to be feared that France will not easily 
return to her raqk among nations. Her enetnie,<i' 
dre upon her; they have got her down, and wiH 
keep ner debased^ for their own advancement, 
if they can* But whosoever shall release her 

fclMl^}^, 1 believe, arid holding an office 
I "ilgfaiiiiB tne eighteenth, observed to one of 
PVVttii sometime dgo, that he felt surprised 
WitHtearent hostility of republican Ameri- 
y t »lae Bourbons. ♦*! never did believe you 
^f^lblmparte^ as the English reported of 
f^y^ ^but why hate Louis?^^ «We 
^ to Louis," said my friend, "as well 
believe that he was imposed on the 
le for their king, as because we do 
tiiai he i$ king. We think the 
4 weak and imbecile race, entirely 
attract the destinies of a j^reat nation 
better calculated for me cowl than 
Ix in these we are deceived— if 
out from under ike foreign bay- 
t themselves upon the love and 
itfwJK geo^e^ §?^A ^^^^^9 i-n return 

^-—r — ^ of England; and we heartfly wish 

W^l^imtum "to nappiness and prosperity. ''\ ^j .,.. « . .^.^.^v. ..^ 

w^iHinuuiMhed French gentleman, one of from this abject condition; — shall chase away 

the/or^tgii^rs that dictate the law to th^king, 
and give her the sovereignty that they now ^ocL 
her with appearances oE— whether he be a Bour- 
bon or a Bonaparte^ will entitle himself to our 
gratitude and respect. 

There is sometlung very melancholy in the. 
present condition of Fi-ance. Her king^— her 
"lawful king," as they call him, though an alien 
to the present generati(m of Frenchmen, sittit 
under toreign bayonets, and gives for^, as his 
ordinances, matters resolved upon, for thego-» 
vemment of his country, at London or St. Pe- 
tersburg. What a situation is this foi- "a cfe- 
scendmit of Henry thefourthJ-- 

By the latest dates from Europe, we are in- 
formed that tlie French government has avowed 
tlie impossibility of its continuing to support, 
the alked a^nies in tlieijc country — (.see page 

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45'^ Jinil it is stated that Russia has recommend- 
ed that thej should be withdrawn, if England 
will not pay them. Is England wflling--is she 
able to jjay them? How is Louis to dispense 
with their services? He is making great exer- 
tions to raise an army for lu mselt—iuttiie peo- 
ple enter it reluctantly, and are not to be con- 
fided in. If these tilings be true, we may look 
cut for gieat events — possibly a war between 
Eiigiaiui and Russia, and the return of Napo- 
leon to counterpoise the vast power of tiie lat- 
ter, of whicli tlife tWnner i« exceedingly jealous. 

Population in the United States. 

!t was one ot* the leading do<!triries of lord 
Siieflieki's celebitited and absurd book, 'that at 
the conclusion "df the revolutionary war, flie 
United Jttiites had became stationary In popula- 
tion, if not in wealth. But Dr. Franklin, whose 
v/i&dom we every day see more reason to admire 
predicted tiiat our number would be ^(n»b- 
ted every twenty years, and that this increase 
would continue loir at k^.st a century to come. 
Our actual progress* has, in an astcni^iiug man- 
lier, coinciaed with this calcxilation; andas im- 
monse fertile regions have since been added to 
onr teriitory, it is probable that the saihe geo- 
metrical progression may continue half a cen- 
tury beyond his estimate. It is impossible to 
ima^ne the changes that may take place in the 
world beft>re that period aifives, so. that any 
views taken of Our propable piolitical import 
ance at that time ifnight ^eem visionary. But 
if tlie union x)f the tftaUs ^hoixid continue, it 
seems to us very reasonable to suppose, tliai 
there are many now living, who may see this 
nation become" ^ most powerful one in the 
world: not, perhaps, in pointt)f actual enume- 
ration of heads, but in real strength. Power 
must still consist in numbers, union, wisdom 
and wealth: and certainly^ no nation seems 
more likely than this one to attain all these- 
Great Bricain, with her sixty millions in the 
East Indies, would find herself stronger, could 
she exchange tliem for one million upon a suita- 
ble territory, appended to her soil at home. 

Itia veiy true that these states commenced 
tlieir national career under very unfavorable 
circumstances. The want of a proper circulat- 
ing medium, and above all, the want of a regu- 
lar ffovemment. There were many wants and 

dates of our progress in population. Towards 
tlie conclusion ..of the year 1789, and in 1790, 
it was rerceived tliat we had besan to move 
fonvard. Since tliat time the tide has set in 
with an irresistible current, augmented by the 
wars of Europe, the revolutions of France and 
St. Domingo; until our j. . osperit;^ became fixed 
on so firm a basis that, even dunng the embar- 
rassments of the late war, we were actually in- 
creasing, both in nuiubers and wealth, as will 
be hereafter sliewn. 

We have no regular account of the p^^uk- 
fion of the United States during the reydu- 
6onaiy war, but it is estimated at about two 
million and a half; and tlie census of 1790 will 
shew, with tolerabU accuracy, how it was di- 
vided among tJie states. There is a table of 
the .colonial population for 1753, (^ren m Mar- 
shad's life of Washington*) winch estimates 
the thirteen states at one million and forty six 
tliousand: and a table for 1749, (giten by Pit- 
kin in his "Statistical View^') lias the same sam 
total,* and each item the same. Returns were 

made for the years 1783 and 1784, -which ap- 
pear to have^en only estimates made in the? 
mfierenttotirnships, &c..froro the muster-rolls, 
tax-iists and similar data; andif they are toler- 
ably correct, the population dtirino; the urar 
mustliave been generally overrated. There 
was an actual enumeration made of tthode-Isl- 
and in 1783, und of New Jersey i» 1784, as 
w'd) appear by the following tdi>le. ' 

lar government. 

few means to supply them. A depreciated pa- 
per currency, a total deficiency of manufac- 
tures, and an agriculture hardly more than ade- 
quate to their own supply. After tliree years 
of perilous experiment, the country ^ve some 
gymptoins of decline. It was like ttie condi- 
tion of a young man attempting to set up for 
himself in tlie world, without capital, pr credit, 
or friends, or plan of procedure, or even set- 
tled habits. A new government, being estab- 
lished after much difficulty and delay — but it 
is not our object to notice politlc^il, nor even 
comiificrcial cnange3 her«^— except t^ mark tlie 

What will be tiie consequences, sonUdp^^nR 
quire, of that great national gro^vth which Wcj 
anticipate? W ill these ties uiat have kept us 
together during our weakness be sufficieirt to 
bind together foi-ty or fifty powerful stated^ 

Sea lieifi8tci% vol. I, page234. 

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If these estimates are to be relied on— the 
' pmde of states^ as to gross pc^latiom will 
' stand thus: — ^New-York, Virginm, Pennsylva- 
nia, Kentucky, North-Carolina, Ohio, Massa^ 
chusetts, South-Carolina^ Tennessee, Mary- 
land, GeOTgia, Mrdne^ New-Jersey, Connecti- 
cut, Vermont, New-Hampshire, Louisiana, In- 
viliana, Missouri^ Mississippi^ Rhode-Island, 
Delaware, Illinois. 

On a careful review of the preceding, and 
upon casting up, as it were, in our mind, all 
we have heard or understood on tlie subject, 
Ve see nothing that we are able to amend. The 
oen«us may shew, us some great entwrs, as in- 
deed, there must be in estimates of this kind — 
Ae results depending so much on events that 
•cannot; be anticipated. '^The current of emigra- 
tion often makes new stopping places. 

NoTE.^^The present itate of LouisiAn* compre* 
hefidn Orleans territoiy, with a popiiUtion of 76,556, 
to which have been added some parishes from Lon- 
.isinna a»d Mississippi territories, containing 10,480 
souls, making in all 87,0o6, and leaving to these 
'territories a joint population of 50,687, by the cen- 
sus of 1310. Therefore, Louisiana state would, at 
theVttte of iiKreaae. allowedf contain 200,000 inha- 
bitants in 182U; we have estimated it as though its 
limits had r^nvtined imaltered. Misso\ni territory 
was, at tlie last census, called <*Louisiaha.*' 

In proportion as a countrj' T>ecomes settle^ Jts 
pate /ierc«7K. of increase diminishes. Ohio, for in- 
stance, had: an increase at 400 percent", fbt the ten 

af^er wassaid to have died of tlie disgrace ai^pftti 
she suifered! 

We are really at a loss for language to ex- 
press our ideas of this monstroua transactioD. 
Had she deserved death for what exp&tittjpd^ 
sitors could construe into treason^ wj imght, 
in mercy, have inflicted it! But to serve a cfeH- 
cate young woman thus, is a refinement in har^ 
barism that the dlgennes would rqect, and the 
merer polished' 3\mm<ms blush to be .t|ioug^ 
capable of committing. To bring the case home 
to ourselves, we must enquire what our ieel- 
ings would have been to have seen a punish^ 
meot, so outrageous!, inflicted on one of our 
own young wcunen for wishipg fFosfctfu^toit suc- 
cess in owr revolutionaiy strugj^e. Nay^ evea 
this will not carry theimagination far enou^ 
for the causes that we had io revolt, great^ mi 
manifold as they were, were as trifles, compjuv 
ed with those that the people of Sovth Americtf 
have to shatie off* the yoke of a vilUdfl-kkig and 
his accursed p£iest8.-r-^ — ^May heaven nerve the 
patriot's arm with strength to punish this ac- 
gr)»i6n; and by a ^chosen thunder blist t& 
wretches,** laboring to perpetoate the davery 
of the new world, by crimes as horrible ms 
those by which the possession was first obtained! 

Weihaye not seen this foul execution msor 
tioned, except as a mere iirticle of intelligence 
m any pne <» the newspapers thatutied to teH 

years IVoB^ 1800 to 1810, aikl the growfh of other ^ .BO muqh about JBolwrparfe's munfcre; tluft 

states vaa proportionately greater than M'tf have »l- 
loived them now, by emigration. This will instantly 
explain tlie principle on which the estimates are 
jDsde. • 

Spanish Royalty. 

«Rgoice Spain-^the Bourbons are restored*" 

Moaais's oAATioH. 

The following is a statement of a case (from' 

respectable eye witnesses) which occurred at 

.Cumana,in South America, on the 12th of June 

last past— - 

A yoiing fady, of one of the first famUies m the 
place, made use of some expressions favorable to 
the cause of th'e patriots-r-for this offence she was 
. brought into the public ?qiisre, and placed astride 
on a jack^ips, her feet were tied under the belly of 
. tho beast, and her bands under the animal's neck, 
while her body was almost entirely naked; and in 
this shameful -posture was she paraded through the 
. streets, and at certain corners and public places of 
the city, this delicate young vjoman received fi'om 
the arm of a stout negco man ten severe lathes^ in 
the whole tw# nriroaED. When her long and beau- 
tiful hair, in some xlegree, defended her delicate 
skin, the black removed it with one hand, and in- 
flicted the lashes with other! Ten armed soldiers 
and an officer marched beside the aninml, Ihe ladv 
and the negro, to see .that the fatter did his duty 
/a thfiilly. Captain Handy said he could not bear to 
aee more than ten stripes inflicted, but that some of 
bis people saw the whole tragedy. Towards the 
close of this torture, the poor 'young dreature was 
ptig t i^'ceping; for it seemed as if the negro had 
neaiTiy whipped the soul out of her body. The poor 
girl, on being released from these infernal Hcoun- 
4f eU» refused si«^cal aid and food, aad a few d«^ 

daily shouted in our ears the glories, cfT ooromn- 
secate4 thedistresses of the^Spani^^atriots.^ 
They are **like fishes frot&en up^ in a pond^** 
cold and torpid, when roya&y wars apfaitt km* 
mamty*, . But let royalty snftet, tmA IfsgUhMt/ctf 
be opposed, arid they are aH ^re andlow** lor 
'^ret^ion,libertyamiawP^ How many gallafat 
of ink ba^ve they shed to rouse our feeanrs for 
the J^^of Engheinij destn^ed i>T Napoteen* 
for plotting i^^inst liis throne! jitmrea and 
were cmled upon to ana^emi^ze and 
punish the bloody deed; yet the kdy^^ CinoEia- 
na, so qiuch niore barinrousty dealt ^rith^ ex* 
cites not th^ir pity! But the duke was of the 
blood toyal and the Virgin martyr wa^ notr be- 
sides, he wi^ active for the Bouroons, of Brboia 
he was one, and lier XDishes were i^nst that 
branch of his house that oppresses and deso- 
lates her country. These are essentM disHnc- 
ttcms/-— shame on my country that it contatind 
one man base enough t6 make them. 

But ffood may grow out of this evil. May ihk&\ 
woman^s blood cement the patriots of Sou^ 
America into one firm bond of union, and fir^ 
their souls to fall upon and drive outtfaeb^rfaa^ 

Original Anecdote. 

A very respectable young ^ntleman oT Sa!^ 
timore, who was a considerable time a prison^ 
on board a 74 gun ship of tiie eneAy, the* ]>ra 
gon^ relates the following anecdote: 

He wa&invited one day to dine with tho l^etj 


Amnts of the ship-rin the afternoon one of 
Ibem retorned from visiting a vessel which had 
keenlHooght-to by the Dn^n, and there was, 
^ jaidsiial^ an easer enquiry tor news. ^^It's bad 
enough,'' saad me boarding ofl5cei>— ^*The Con- 
gdtobds has captured the Java, after tearing 
li^ ia pieces.'^ After a short pause, an old 
^tenant juii]^inenp,exclaimea, ^^Thavk God 
Pm ma 9eventy'four^ and they^ve got none of 

^<Tll^ Poor Haymakers,^' 
The folfowinff is copied from a London pa- 
per ^rf' Ae S2d 1^ JNily: 

'*TkeP99r JBaymaktr$^^To ibis subject we would 

caH the attention of landholders and parish yestries. 

' ft is impossible to conceive the distress in which 

these poor people (a majoritv of them itinerant 

ftnpgtn) have Seen reduced iiy the late inoessant 

.j;ains. At Bametp on Thursday, a gentleman hap- 

• " peoin^ to ro into the market-plaee, round about 140 

poor people UteraUy starviogii he ordered them to 

M supplied with half a quartern loaf each, and to 

^me bfeck tlie next morning^ for another. On Pri^ 

' " tls]^ the ^ranxber that applied for relief was 338, 

idie^ they got the same bounty. On Saturday mom*- 

jq^ these Ull strangers) who applied were 779, who 

/ .fiieh deceived one third of a quartern loaf— and 

.t^:^e parish, the vestry having been roused to 

pound of 
p in your 


e in this 
iptive is 

ters, col- 
bo a state 

Ld and a 
Who is 
[^t idea of i 
Biter, for 
ted .^eir 
lese peo- 
3, had of 
en ibthe 


been made the same use of This unexpected visF- 
tation from Heaven, added to the se\erc distress to 
which the coui^ othenvise reduced, h:i9 infused 
into the minds of the people generally ^he greatest 
apprehensions and alarm. It is now to be feared, 
that not only the clover and hay will experience 
the ill dfects of the weather, but that the corn \yill 
also be seriously injured by the heaxy rains which 
have fallen. Should the present wdt weather con- 
tinue, the com will inevitably be laid, and the ef- 
fects of such a calamity, and at such a time, cannot 
be otherwise than ruinous to the farmei-s, and even 
to the people at large. The weather, it would seem, 
is not unseasonable in this coimtry only; for we find 
that in Sweden, and many other parts, it has been 
equally unfavorable. In different parts of -Swedefe 
prayers are offered up in the churches daily to the 
Deity, for a favorable change. We may add, that 
the weather continues bad all over the continent. 
The situation of America is also . extraordinary in 
this respect. . . . 

Iipw is it 
to throw 
ration of 
i theidss 
duces an 

le present 
nded with 
rthe coun 
ly remem- 
I or Its en- 
unties has 
rains that 
■ is to con< 
T likewise 


The following is an extract of a letter from a gen- 
tlemanof me first re)*pecUbility at New-Orleans 
to the editor of Weekly Register, and detail* » 
very interesting event; with a request that I would 
use the facts to "make out a narrative in my own 
language,** knowing" how zealous 1 am *'foi' tlie 
glory of our gallantlittle navy,** But I. have pr^ 
ferred io give it in hi^ own words; lest, in at- 
tempting to amend, I might injure the «*un¥amishj» 
edUle,'^ .. ^ 

The gentleman well observes, •had this thing hap- 
pened during the war, it would have resounded 
from one end of the continent to the other, to the 
honor of those concerned in it? for it yields in 
gallant daring and complete success to no inci- 
dent that happened in the late contest." 
••Ever since tlie declaration of war^ in 1^12, the 
disaffected negi-oes have been running awav to a 
placed called JlppatacMcota.^l believe* even before 
the event alluded to took place, a col. A'kJtoU, of 
infamous memory, (no doubt you recollect him) met 
a number of them in the neighboriiood of Pensa- 
cola, having, with a capt. IVjoilbittf, of equal cele- 
brity, afier surveying the country, fixed upon a spot 
on the river jtistmentioned, as a proper place for a. 
fortification; and to which, from its contiguity to 
Georgia, the Carolinas, Louisiana and the Missis- 
sippi territory, theycoaldrcndeisvous without much 
inconvenience. The place was, in consequence, for- 
tified with all due care, and according to the most 
approved modem method; and the batteries mount- 
ed with four long 24 pounders, six long 6*8, a four 
pounder field-piece and a 5^ inch howiizer, well 
siored with all the munitions of war, and considered 
as almost impregnable ft-om the difficulty of get- 
ting battering artiUery to bear upon it. After the 
peace it was given- up by the British to the negroes 
and Indians, as it stood, with all its stores of artil- 
lery, arrts and ammunition: col. Nichols only de- 
manding an oath, that they would never permit a 
wliite man, except an ^nj^MAwafi, to approach it, or 
leave it alive. Smce wiien it had become a great* 
nuisance, not only as aharhor for Uie hostile Indians, 
but for all the discontented negroes in the country, 
whose desertions were frequent. In consequence 
of the hostile attitude lately assumed by some or 
'the Indians, it was found necessary to fo ward pro- 
visions and munitions of war to our -rnw on the 
head Waters of tlus river, aud luis could only be 
done by passmg the fort whxh, it was .mderst(>od,. 

„ aod has^the negroes would uot^suffer anjf Ywel to dt.i^ 

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Appliqation was mudc to the commandant at Pen- 
eacol J for permission to ascend the river, it being 
virhin the Spanish territory: this was grranted, and 
two of our gunvc-jtels, under command of sailing- 
• masters Loomis und Basset, reached the mouth of 
the river on the lOth of July, with their convoy, two 
•mall schooners. On nearing the fort, a boat and a 
watering party, witii a midshipman, Mr. Lofbo- 
xougli, of i;et»rg«town, and four men, were cut off 
and all murdeied but one, wbo e^^caped by swim- 
ming. Til hi was an act tl»at could not be passed 
over, and it was determined to destroy the fort, if 
possible. Our tessels were ordered to co-operate 
with the army. I am sorry to say they received no 
support whatever, and iKat, pn the contrary, they 
were dissuaded from attempting to pa?s or destroy 
the fort, as being inipractjcable from the size of 
thf ir guns, only 12 pounders and but two of them. 
Xoi disfieartened, however, our gallant little band, 
less ilian fifty in nuniber, alltoUt, began to warp up, 
every now jind then throwing a shot to ascertain 
their distance correctly — the negroes firing their 
large guns, but evidaUly. without skill. As soon 
as tliey found their shot reached t|ic viUage in tiie 
retir of tlie foi-t, they determined, aa- they say, to 
see if Ihey could not make a bon-fire, having previ- 
ously cleared away their coppers to heat the shot, 
neither of them having a furnace^ It seems soinc- 
wfiat cxiraonlinary, and almost miraculous, but the 
very first hoi shpl fired by Mr, Batten, a -judicious, 
cool and vtrj promisii^ ofiicer, who commanded 
gu.M-vessel No. 154, entered Uiejr principal magazine 
and blew up the fort! The concussion was fslt at 
PensacoLi, a distance of sixty miles, The fort con- 
tained about 300 ne|;Tocs and 20 disaffected Indian 
warriors wi^Ii their fumilies-s-^O were killed, and 
the rcnnainder, npai'Iy all mortally woundedt only 
tliree escaped unhurt. Both tiie principal leaders 

only double their oi^.i^ "^^* ^^ absolutely 
twice their calibre; with cig^t umcs their rorce in 
men; and destroying a fort, that had cost the En]^- 
Ush ao much time and more money to erect, in (lie 
space of 15 or 10 minutes ft^ the first shot, with* 
out any otbep-aid tb#n tbeii* own resources affbrded j 
and without the loai of a single raan, the unfortu- 
nate capture of the boat bemre mentioned bemg 
excepted. _ w . •• 

♦•It will, >«nong other of its cflfects, sbike terror 
into the Indiana* It was tb^ir denier resort in all 
desperate cases. From the noantity of arms left in 
the fijrt, I am clearly of opinion that they were de- 
signed as u continual aoppiy fiJT the ptdlans, or as a 
secure depot by the British in any future transac- 
tions agamt u^ in this quarter. 

"They are, however, happily fhlstrateid, ind I 
thmk, if they should ever have thetemtrity to vTsit 
us agam, they will ihcet with a repulse similar to 
that of the ^h of Januafy." 


Cf tlie ^ (Colonial PoHcy of Gred$ Britain,** •« the 
meant rf keeping daram America, "-fijr o Britith. 

We made some remarks, in a formicr number of th^ 
Register, upon this work, and we cannot dismissjl 
without malting Some inore. The autlior has the 
bardHiooA to place in comparison the cpnduct of the 
British ^vemment and that of the United States 
irt regard to the surrounding tribes of Indians — He 
h Quiie shocked at our treatment of tliem, but un^ 
luckily has not a single fkcl to allege against m oft 
the subj ect. However under this deficiency he con- 
trii^a cottple of stories, most vtup^ly and palpa- 

bly absurd-^alTaira pc^rfectly notorious, but whida 
of the negroes and Indians wefe made prisonert— 'ialf the pAlj of British calumnv never tboughVA^ 

on exikmining them, it appeai*ed that one of the un 
foitunate sailor^ was mude a prisoner,, but only to 
experience a more dreadful death-— he was tarred 
and hurnt alive! When this was knovm, the two 
chiefs ^vere seizs*d upon by the friendly Indians, 
who scalped iliem and executed them on the spot 
— a terrible, bu t just actof retributive justice They 
fought unclear tJ»e Hridth Jack, with the red or bloo- 
dy fi^.^. In the ibrt ihere were nearly 3000 stand of 
Btitisfi arms, in 'fine order^ never used pr opened; 
aboiit Sou carbinea, between 800 and lOOO pairs of 
pisuls, 500 6ieel scabbard swords, and an immense 
qn.Kiiity of Dntish uniform clothing, amounting in 
tiic whole, to about g300,000 worth of propert;^— 
there was ulso 500 kegs of powder secured, which 
hud been btored in the village outside the fort. You 
"Will have guthered, probably, from the foregoing, 
' that the two giui-ves!ieU were simply to convoy the 
prorisions, Sec. to the army, and co-operate, if ne- 
cessary — You will also have perceived that they re- 
ceived no aid whatever from the land troops, otlier 
than that they confined the negroes in the fort, dur- 
ing their getting up with the gunrl>oats. Colonel 
Clmch, who, it seems, commanded the troops, had 
)nade an agreement with the Indians to give them 
all the plunder, except the cannon and ballSt that 
tliey miffht capture^ but 8\irely hc had no right to 
l^ve awa^ tliat taken by the gallantry of a separate 
and difitmct corps. Yet sucn is the fiict, that the 
'3Indiuns have borne oflT nearly the whole; a remnant 
only is left. 

*• The merits of this transaction, as it regards the 
Havy, in a fiew words, are these: — surmounting the 
^imculties of a navigation to whi^h they were entire 
9tran^ers-f*£pproachiiig a fiurt, whose gum were ifot 

before. Uc supposes the burial of Tecums^ to be 
Uttle known by his credulous countrymen, and t^ti 
them that this braire chtof, afler being Killed, **waa 
Ibundby the Americans, who, after Buying the b^>- 
dy, stuft^ the Bfkin with straw and'dii^pkyed it as a 
trophy ! If tlds instance of barbaqatt "he not mtf^- 
cient to appsl the admirer's of republicaf\^ Amer»c«« 
it might be furtlier observed, U^t ^bout the same 
time, some advantage having been obtsuned over tlija 
western Indians, iht nation was compelled to deU- 
rer up their chief, whom the victors condemned tQ 
be burnt alive!" 

What a pity &r us neWB-^ealers that fwt one #f 
us ever before heard, not xnerely of thi^ barbscwev 
I do not talk of It important as it is, but of the In- 
dian nation over >vhich we gained any advantage at 
the lame time of the battle of tl»e Thames ; or of 
any Indian chief that Was ever delivered and punish- 
ed kt any time. At that time, a peice with the north- 
ern and western Indians took place, and tlie roasted 
chief was, we presnime^ qnly intended as a feu d^ 
/m of conciliation upon the occasion. 

)t is not worth while to answer this ridiculotis 69^. 
tioh by aity mention of tlje facts perpetrated at 
Frenchtown or Dartmoor or elsewhere, matters tin, 
denied ahd undeniable — tlie outrages on hiimapity 
in the east aAd in the west; infinite and infitrhous 
violations of national and individual right, wherever 
they possessed the power of perpeU-ating tlieih, 
from tlie days of Clive, down io Pix)Ctor and Cocki 
bum hi their little day. 

"Partial attempts to improve the condition of tb^ 

Indians" oUr wiiter says "have been made both by 

the British and American governments, notwiUi- 

^gtanding tbe prevailiny sanguinary views of the l^V 

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Iff," &c. With the benevolent measures of the 
UhilecJ States towards those tribes, and with the 
many thousands annually expended in attemptii to 
jnehorate their condition, every pei*8on b acquaint- 
ed ; but we are yet to learn the good that has been 
done for them by the British. We really have never 
heard that.tiiey received any thing firom that go- 
verwnent, except in pay for American. scalps, and 
subsidies to eng^ige them in hostility against us ;, 
unless in the case of Sir William Johnston's treaty, 
which indemnified them for certain damages done 
to them. The buying of their lands is an American 
idea— the BritisK have a slighter way of comine at 
things. Oar author is coropeUed to acknowle^lge that 
they do not attempt to make farmers of t^ie -savages, 
but indulge them in their bad habits. Their policy 
IB this is very evident — they wish to keep their mi- 
serable, drunken, allies at the skin-catching and 
m-trapping business.' But it is the noble disinte- 
Tttted policy of this government to convert them 
into mdependent peasantry-U-not tf sapply them 
with arms, like th^ British, but to make them for- 
get the implements of savage life, — to give i;liem 
pboghs in place of gtms, axes in place of toina- 
iiawfcs, and sickles in place of scalping knives. . 

It appears that in one instance the British suc- 
eeedcd in persiuding the Buck Indians, or Arrowk- 
was, on the nver dorantain, in Berhice, to clear a 
ton of two thousand acrte, P&^iog them for tlieir. 
labor with two pieces of lalampor^s and a punchteon 
ef rdni r but thev deserted the farm and resnuied 
tkeir bad old habits, as soon as they had used up 
iht ptmcbeon of XtU D^l^ as they called it. 

We passed the name of Tecumseh without -giving, 
any testimony of the respect that we feeljfor the 
memory of that great man. We are very confident 
tfcat ftone of our compatriots felt disposed to offer 
outrage to udead warrior, as they a.U consideresd 
him, while iiving, possessed, not only of more he- 
robm, but also of more humanity than any of tliose 
with whom he bad the misfortune to act. It was 
lamented that he had not been to command at 
Frenchtown, tliat his generous spirit mizht havC| 
held in che^k the savage disposition of the allies 
which there broke forth uncontrouled. 

Tbe^feat object of our author's work is to serve 
the GaiMdians. We believe be a native of 
one of theB^ritish North American colonics, and no 
traveller at all; for he appears pretty well acquaint- 
ed wffh Canada, and quite ignorant of this country 
and Ute Werft Indies, through A^liichhc professes to 
have IHiretl •d. He seems to h^ve been in the New 
Boglafld states, about as fit? south as Boston ; and 
tberebe^ns and ends his view of American politics 
andpco^erity. He recommends to the British go- 
remment to exclude the people of the United States 
from the fisheries, and to ejiclude pijr lumber and 
llofirfirom the market in the West indies, and from 
Great Britain* when there may be a market there : 
Iherelbreto oseisvery means to eiioble Canada to 
sapply those articles. ' 

We would not notice his system did not tlie Bi*i 
tish iqpt>€ar dlziposed to adopt it. From this it de- 
rives all its impoi'tance, for we should not have 
ioMgined that ftreat Britain would wilfully throw 
htr pcosperity into the lap of Canada. The plan 
has been animadvtjrted upon by several of our news- 
papers, but among all the remarks we have seen, 
the tj*a« bearing of this colonial policy seems to 
have been passed over. The evident effect of the 
nensores he urges would be to make us a manu 
fiicturing nation, *and dissolve toaip^etely our con 
nection with Britain— ^thutf enabling us to establish 
•uriodepeo^ence for ages. If we be not permitted 

to find a- market for our raw procluce, wc can have 
no means of puixhaslng- Hrirish goods: v.c must 
therefore manufncture fov ourselves. Is not litis 
country already sufferinij umlcT u sciiicil} (»f ^jjecic ? 
If we were ftilly supplied with it, wouM we iit>t 
again be suddenly chMined, UTiless (ir( .it iMv: itv 
and her colonies would r.ccej>t our natuialpKir'MCts 
in return for her goods.? How soon wouM i* str.irn^i-. 
tion take plnce again at the point wlicre tl.iujjs i.. vij 
now stopt? England is writhing with envy ami f tr. 
at OUT manufictiirinpr progress wlil'.e she is u^^l j.;^ 
every effort to force us into tl»i?! <^ K it not 
plainly the intei'est of Eng-Iand io hold a '^colvLit 
policy" towards us — to op.*n as extcn>ive a ir.iufvct 
as possible for our raw'anicles, and thus jn:<ke us 
supply ourselves with her i-nanuftcttired u)e*t. — 
They once held mic^hty exultatmn at o-ir dcj>*'n 
dence upon them; tellin:;' each o'her lha\ t'.ie Vv'al 
colonial bonds in which they ht^d U5 we;e ivpt bro- 
ken by the -revolution, nnel could not he broken for 
ages; and that in the mean ti-ne our iridcpcuileucc 
must be merely nominal. Wns not this, my fellow 
citizens, too true > Rid not Great Britain wield over 
us apoweH\ll infl\ience. In the fjily of her pov er, 
and in the desperation of her difficalties, she hurst 
asunder almost all the tics that held us to her : she 
mitrnged and revolted our f«elinirs, and repelled 
our mterests. She has \iolently compelled us to 
rely on ouf own resources*. She has thrust ua from 
her — and hardened her heart ag-aiiist us; .she has 
driven us into the wiMemesr— sue has pursued us 
through the Red iea, and her mightA' n>en hAve hcen 
overwhelmed in its waves. Now when we ure Ionis- 
ing to twn back from the land of milk and hone;, 
to which we were journeying, and go again to yiot 
on her ftesh pots, she will not sutTer us to reiurn— 
she will not suffer us to go on. Ah ! how Uitle con- 
trol has England, jus*'r.ow, over the desthiies of 
the world. 

The non-intercoursepolicy. proposed by our nu^ 
thor would only deepen the distresses oftlie IJriii-ih, 
That country is not now in .i condition to make etl'iris 
of this kind— to enter a course of selfileiu^l, tliat 
must press so heavily tipun the maniif;cturiug class, 
so numeroits there, so important, and so niiseriible. 
But what would bfe the condition of the Weil-In- 
dies, if compelled to look to Canad;i fir supplies — 
Canada, tbut cannot supply he!*self wiUi tho:ie vc»iy 
articles which s!ie is to have the monopoly of, for 
Uie support of tl)e numerous, hixuriou^^ iuhalntants 
of tlioee islands-^are not the West-Tudies :i!re:u!y 
disburbed and disilffected? Such policy would for a 
while check us in the accumnlation or wealth, hut 
not in the increase of our numbers. It would estiih- 
Ibh our national prosperity upon the surest baiis; 
by compellijig the present generaii(»n to live chiefly 
for tike benefit of the next one. It is a pro;jos:d ill- 
rect. to carry fi^m Great Britain the most vahuh e 
of her people; to trHns])lant them to the ble;ik bM- 
cen woods of Canada. From that they would in- 
evitably emigrate to US; for they could fuul no in- 
ducements to retain them there,* unless the ttiiiish 
government should find it conveuieni to pension 
them. Is it not plain tl:en, :*t every point, tliai it 
will he less iujurj' to uJi to do withoui 1" i«;!ir.d, tii^n 
it will be to her to do without this counuy ^ \W ilo 
not wish this disjunction to take place, but iJ* tlieir 
hostility causes such a chun^e, -it o Can sub mil Co it* 
and-possibly without any injut-y at lH. 

Columbia was murc.uing forth to indepen.l.nce, 
but John Ihdl bound- I'ovuut hei' feet the cord.'i i.' 
•'colonial poiicy," and s'.ie »too<l s' ill ajid ^rc.v big. 
TlienJohubecame alarmed at her fo.mi! ble foolrs 
and wishes to unbind those cordj*, aud tie them to 

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her hands, lest haply she should at any lime j<iv< 
hjm a blow. Pray ^ood master Bnll let their, alone, 
if yoq loosen ihem you will never be able to tind 
them a^in any where, and in the mean time mayhap 
she may kick ypti down Mtairs. 

Spt a^inpT of the treatj' of Ghent our author says 
l^e • aes i.ot scn»pie to **na»ert that such a peace has 
hcen proclaimed as may prove the death warrant of 
tlie Briiish nation •* The \roericans, he says agjun, 
*'liave even triumphed more by their neg:()ciaiions 
than by their ai*ms.'< What says the Araciican Bri- 
tish par»y to this ? Are these really ilic results of 
the war by which we were lotting every tlung-, and 
pf the peace by which we were g-aining noil^ing ? 
It ! ^ n# trifliHg" gain U> nee the politiciJ. qF *'Botitojt 
#?rtm/>" losing grptihd daily. "fNo «loubl," says oiir 
author, "lord Gambier, and hitf worthy cokdjutars, 
aciedftom-the dictates of honor and bei>evd&vce.'' 
Bmi were they competent to the tusk qf uegociaiing 
^r\\■^ s!\ch shrewd, not to say s«b4e men^ as U>yjird 
an I r: Hntia ? In what respect doe:/ he mean that 
tfli'^ Biifish comrnissioncTS acved fi om the dictates 
of h.^aor ? Was i\ in dictating iheir alisurd wie qva 
nonif or Hi abandoning tliem? Foi* -ois i8,ina word,^ 
the hisiory of their diplomacy at Ghent. 

~ We find a very curious idea perpetualiy i^ciuring 
among the British, mttHeiy, that they could have 
conducted the Uie war with a vigor that they did 
not choose to exert ; and thgt they could have ob- 
tuined advantages at tJie treaty which tliey did not 
choose to claim. Now is it worth whjle to remind 
tfiem that we did virtua^y ^ictatp the treaty of 
Ghciit; as the United States' commissioners made 
no pretension during the negociation which was 
n6t finally adnr)itteU, and that the British made none 
but whut was finuUy rejected, except the stipidation 
relative to the Indians, which was so raodifi!(sd as to 
be perfectly compatible witli oqr views ? 

In one ptnce pqr author bays that "the United 
States declared war for the real, though concealed, 
purpose of^v^esting Canada from Great Britaia alto, 
gether. tt was this circumstance ato7ie that produc 
cd tliis war Vote in congitss." Again he says, that 
f'the democratic 'goyerniijent is noiorcously iniiu- 
enced by Bonapnruf}^ politics, and as it has for t^i^ 
fw^f purpose of serving bun declared one war, under 
every symptom of rushnQ;»s and presiunption, un^ 
provided with funds, With a Rubious, defective, and 
untried force,*' &c. This is something like British 
Consistency. At one time it was positively one way, 
and in a few pages it is notoriously an opposj'e way. 
How I pity tliose who have to weave sophistry, and 
invent ilieir ikcts. In one place he imputes al( to 
the "confirmed and rancorous nmlice*' of the demo- 
crats, or the **ruling faction** as lie terms tliem ; 
though he allows the federalists to be the worst ene- 
mies of Britain. In other places iie charges Qvtry 
thing to the administration, who wUhed to "inurp 
the people to tajfation — feeling an interest ac/^oriue 
from that of the natiqn.** Half a dozeii words would 
have saved hioi from all tJieae absurdities and splf- 
conu-adictions. '*Fref trade und tiutors vigfU9.** 

Canada |s reiprcsented as being more fertile than 
the United States, whose lands, he says, are bare 
and exhausted. And to jjoakeit more tempting be 
isays, even in the depth of whiter "it affords recrea- 
tions of which tlie Btntish know nothing :" b*jt 
when it suita his. purpose to insert a story abueit 
American soldiers turning their wdmen and chil- 
dren out of door^, he c^m then talk very prettily 
about the horrors of a Canadian winter. He main- 
tauis that "had America continued a British pro- 
vince, she would have derived advantages in that 
iX9X9i vastly supcrioar to any she now p{«;»es3cii i|i 

'.cr independent form." To what then is theT«pidL 
Tlie 'fgigantic growth" of the United States sino«^ 
the revohitibn to be attributed? To the weak • 
rtud wielded jrovernment we possess, or to our ex- 
h nsUtj soil? Or why have the extensive BritiaH. 
pi;ovinces of the north, with $uperior fertility, And . 
with all tlie boasted advantages of a colonial go- ' 
veminent, renfaine^ in their original insignificaMcef 
It is very questionable whether those inhospitai • 
ble regions be susceptible of much iraproveroent. 
Their fisheries and their fiir trade seem to cortsti- 
tute their principal value, and the latter cnu b^ . 
prei^erved only by keeping the country hi its sa- 
vage condition. Settlements such as are proposed • 
would exliiiguish it altogetl^er, uk faras ever they 
w:oiiid exteiuV And wiUi respect to the fisheries, it- 
will hot bp possible for them to hmder the United 
Suites from a participation. We want none of the. 
stipulations of the old treaty, about our fisfaemtfln 
drying nets on their shores, ^his was not ne- 
ces^sary in carrying on that business, and a privi- 
lege not used by the regular fishing vessels, oor 
in fact by any, except for the purpose of smuggling'. 
A right to the use of the main ocean is all we want 
for the business, and that we will be very apt to 
maintain. Our author admits that if they cannot 
guard Us from tlie fishing banks, it will he in vain . 
to think of exclading tis fi'om the market in the 
West Indies and elsewhere. As to flour, it appears 
that Canadii, so fur from supplying the Islands at any 
prices, will not be able to supplv itself; and an nt- 
Ct*ea«e of population would be c-ilculated only to hi- 
cre:ise the demand. Tlie Ufmber trade is what wft ^ 
care nothing about. The United Statea will need all 
their <iwn lumber. Then let the northern provincei^ » 
furnish timber and horses, and let us furnish' th^ 
rest of the "notions," olr else the West*idies roigr 
take a notion to dissolve the partnership if they^oan* 
As to tlie "sanguinary character" of the people 
of these sUies, we do not know, nor do we mucU 
care about' it; for we always thouglit that the hiat 
war was caused by the peaceful chapActer that w^ 
had sustiiined. The British thought that we could 
not be kicked into resentment. I remembefa story 
related bj judge Brackenridgc In his modem ohi--. 
valj7, i^^QUt a medical man of his acquaintance wHo 
professed himself disposed to settle .nil his quarrels 
with ^e sword. The judge says he became ahiHttad 
and endeavored to withdraw fix>m the society tjf 
this rcdqubtahle duellist, but the doctor, to retain 
his friendship, apprised him of the secret policy of 
his professions. I am, said he, a very weak niait^ 
and a vei-y great coward withal;^ and if I did Hot- 
announce a terrific detennination, I could not pre- 
serve nrjyself from ijjsult. Thus the British 6pinioi^ 
of our fei-ocity mUy ser^'e a similar purpoec. 

Respectii^g Springs of Water. 

From the FenwylvduUi Correspondent. 

It is well known, that water in its natural state 
will nqt rise above its Ipvel without the agency oF 
some mechanical force. We^ however, see water 
in ap aeriform state, rising up in steam and vapor.-* 
Let water be put in a state of ebullition by heat, 
and it w^l send forth steam which, as is well known 
to the cliymi9t, may be brought back again to the 
s'^tc uf water by condensation. 

1^1 » fturfice of water be exposed to the actk>a 
of the natip*al agents, air, light, heat, electricity. Sec. 
and it will ascend in vapor, form clouds, condense, 
and descend in rain. 

These are phenomena wilfc which we are inthnate- 
1/ iicqu^t^: in4 by the quantity of w»tqr evs^*. 

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flffUfd 4kom ft R-iven surface in a given time, by the is evident that a spring may ab» exist near the 
q«i8iititj of wsLier produced from steam, by a steam | crown of that hill : and on no other admbsibl« 
iwine condenser, and by the quantity of rain that i hypothesis, it is presumed, can we account for 
falU, we are led to consider the power of those na. «u<5h 8pring»--save only their partial supply hv 
tuaad ligmU s^breaaid, to be indefinitely great; and, rain* and melting snows, which are themselves the 
th«rtfore» amply commensurate with the effects hew- consequence of ascending vapors. 
^«r attmbuted to them. We may, indeed, suppose two neighboring hills ot 

In tbose agents therefore, we find sufficient cause | tmequal altituds, and that aqueous vapors condense 
fixr the origin and continuation of springs of water, i "€*f ^« top of the higher, and run into a water-tight 

explained in the following manner: From reservoirs 
of water in the bowels of the earth, vapors by the 
action <xf th<Me a^tiU, rbe up through the internal 
carjema and cavities of the earth, until they come in 
oontafit with the surface of a rock, or other stratum 
of Wur temperature,, or within the sphere of a coun- 
ter-actioQ of one or more of the natural agents, and 
imm6<itately condense into drops of water: these 
gravitate, and by the Um^s of hydraulicd, collect and 

An fiPtifioyJ spring may be formed in the follow 
ill|^znanoer^^-Let the boiler of a steam eng^e be 
sitwited at the foot of a hill, and let the steam be 
conveyed by a pipe of proper temperature to the 
condenser, just beneath the surface of the top of 
the hill: it is evident that the steam thus condensed 
wottld« in co^ormity with the hydraulic principles, 
flow out and form an artificial spring. If, then, fbr 
tikis steam boiler we .substitute tne aforesaid natural 
agents acting on a quantity of water in the earth; 
for the pipe the vacuities; and for the artificiiil con- 
denser* a oatural one, subU ss the (ace of a rock, a 
cold atratum, or a di^creiit action of the same agents 
ttA proper time and pUce, 9cc. we shall then have 
a natural spring, which will continue to flow so long 
li» the. aforesaid process continues.^ In this way, 
thciefore, can we account for the origin and Conti- 
mianceof springs^ But how is tliis reservoir of water 
is the earth to be supplied by subterranean connec- 
iftOBs with other eolU^tions of water — such as rivers, 
laiccs, seas, rains, or subterraneous canals, &c. (for 
tJKre is a connection in the wliole aqueous system.) 
Tfaesejre sufficient, to account for all tlie vapors 
necessary for the supply of springs. 

. We see that nature acts in a circle. The fluid 
l^ailicles which oontrSnite to the formation of a 
plant, (and which in fact compose a considerable por- 
tion of it,) when the plant dies and decomposes, 
evaporate, condense and flour as formerly. 

'It is by means of vapor, formed by the afore-men- 
tipped agents, that plants, directly or indirectly, 
nceivetlieir moisture; and it is by means of tlie same 
aifeats that they are decomposed and their moisture' 
csUuctedlWnn them in vapor. It is by vapors that 
waters, despising as it were the confines of the seas, 
^uid in defience of the action of terrestrial gravity, 
'ascends and forms clouds; and which, after conden* 
cation, descends and irrigates the surface of the 

' We have already observed) thai water wiU not 
aacend in any other from flian iff vapor unless, bv 
tlie application of mechanical forces. For the truth 
of thiJ, we may appeal to tlie uniform testimony 
of our senses. Some cause, therefore, for the 
phenomena of springs must be assigned, that shall 
neither violate this uniform unequivoc:al testimony, 
nor any known law of nature. Sucli a cause, 4t is 
presumed, may be found in tlie hypothesis of va- 
jjors and their condensation above delivered.' 

,To suppose springs' to originate and eohtinue up- 
on the hydraulic and hydrostatic principles of fluids 
alone, as some liaye' supposed, would be absurd: 
for water will not rise above its head, nor will it 
flow without fall. If this head be produced b^ the 
c^ndeasatioo of yapor iie4* tb^ crown of a hdl, it 

cavity of the rocks, which extends like an elbow 
under the vale, and thence to the top of the lower 
hill; now, in this case, the hydrostatic pre8surc> 
would from a spring on the very apex of the lower 
hill; But it is easy to see,, that such a case doea 
very rarely, if ever occur. 

Ram's may give to springs considerable supplieH> 
but there are many which the rains nor the drought 
do not apparently change, and which, it is evident 
from their locality, cannot be supplied by a head of 
\vaterori^nating any other way than by condensed 
vapor. Some springs indeed may be the mere 
filtrations of bogs and morasses; supplied them- 
selves by vapors, by rains, and by snows. Bnt bog» 
are generally nothing Toore than aconfosed assem- 
blage of spring, which the nature of the situation 
does not perm it to-discharge ^eely . 

But a little reflection will convince us, that it is 
only a part of the water thatf*»Us in rain, and which, 
penetrates the earth, and of the condensed vapors 
in- tlie earth, that, contribute to the supply of 
springs: There are very many fissures and chasma 
m the rocks, tliat lead these watert too low to 
.ssue forth in springs, without re-exhalation. There 
IS little doubt, but that partial condensation taken 
place at every rocky obstruction and elbow, in the 
progress of tlie ascendiog vapors up through the 
fissures of the earth. ,' 

The fluid particles thus condensed, unite per- 
haps, to some produoftd by Tain, collect in channels, 
and wander through the chasms of rooks, making 
every angle with the meridian^ and every, angle- 
with the horizon, not exceeding 90 degrees. These, 
in the devious progress unite with others, and 
thereby from -considerable subterranean streams, 
so pf^en found in digging of wells; and which do 
sometimes, under peculiar cii*cumstances issue forth 
on the top of some fock, in a great spring, such ac 
Ingham's spring^-or in some pond, such as the 
head of Muskonetcong Creek, &c. &C' or, finally 
lose themselves in reservoirs in tlie interior of the 
earth, until their particles, by tlie action of the 
natural Agents, are again brotight forth to go ano- 
ther round. 


Waahingtoji county. Pa. 4^A sus. 6M, 1816. 


From thcPfdladelphia True American.-^ln looking 
over the Asiatic Annual Register, I stumbled over 
the particulars of the action at the mouth of the 
Ganges, between the Sybille, capt. Cook, and the 
La Forte^ capt. Beaulieu, whicii terminated in the 
capture of the latter with terrible slaughter. It 
is the only instance I have met with m British 
official statements, previous to their late war with, 
uc, of a distinct statement of the respective force 
of the contending ships; and as sucli well deserves 
to be made known to the American public 

The La Porte was 170 f5»et long on the gim deck, 
and 45 feet beam; carried 30 24 pounders on the 
mahi deck— 14 12 pounders on the quarter deck 
and fofrecastle— 8 36 pounder carronades on do.— 
total 53 gunS| besides bmss swivels mounted be. > 

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twBcn K«r gftms orf tlie qusater cleck, and biui on 
boatd wbcn the ■ction commenced, about 470 iftcn. 

The SybiUe was 157 feet on the g«n deck and 
40 feet beam : mounted 38 18 pounden on the gxm 
deck— 10 la'i on the qr. deck aitd forecastle— 10 
32 pounder carronades on do.— total 48 — and went 
into ftctkm with 340 men incjuding a company of 
land troops. It is to be observed that both ships 
went into action in the h iciest state of preparation 
and witli uncommoniy fine cretvg. The engagement 
lasted an liotir and fbirty mintxteiSy when the La Forte 
struck, having lost 150 men kilted and 80 wounded; 
tke Sybaie bad 4 killed and 19 wotn^ded. 

This stjitement appears to me very corioas^ dhd 
proves, the following facts — 

1st, That the Frewoh frigate was fully equal to o«ir 
44 gun frigates in size ana strength. She had about 
two guns lesi, bnt her weight of metal (which is ex- 
prcjssly stated t^ be Pretich calibre) was superior. 
-rit is therefore a felse assertioh on the part of tbe 
Britii^^ that our sbipe are 74^8 in disgntse. 

2d. That the British frigate was the size, (but 
rather less wcight-6f metal) of the Mace<lonlv[i, and 
that s1>e captured with sndl immense dispropor- 
tion of loss,tDO, A ship Mfy e(][oal to ouf victorioos 

It apfiear» therefore clear that'the excuses made 
by th6 British for the loss orthe Gtierriere, .Mace- 
donian and Java, werfe unfounded. And on the 
other hand, that tfwne of our Ultra Americans, who 
in nay. 'optmon- very Injudiciously, have attempted 
to throv doubt and discredit On the reality of the 
former superiority of tke British at sea, were equally 
in the wraiw. 

Another foatorv in this statement, which is too 
long tQ be inserted here^ struck me; i( is its 
xnodes^ imd brevity, so very difRirtnt from tbe 
inflated and bh»tertng statements of Dacres, 
Garden, 9m. Tbe British at that period f^lt their 
strengi;!^ and were well aware that it required not 
the support of fiction. ' H. P. 


Spots on the Suiw 

From ifte Et9ex JSeiptler^''*Mnch has been said 
about t)iiB spots on the sun, but principally with a 
view to quiet the groundless fears of weak minds, 
who view the thing through the superstition incident 
to ignorance. Another class of speculators, rising a 
little higher in tbe scule of intellect, have attributed 
the coldness of tbe season to the influence of tl>e 
spots. This latter class of philosopheT« have 
concluded to wait for Dr. Hersciiel's observations 
and speculations^ and then tlie matter will be put 
to rest with them. Very little however has yet 
been done to give a history of these phenomena, 
which I have long expected and wished to see, as 
I have neither the means nor leisure to do it But 
bad I t!ie stores of historloal record before me, I 
would take some time and pains to collect all die 
observations respecting the appearances of the tun, 
in order to know something of the history of this 
principal instrument of the econojt|y bf nature. 

One class of philosophers cidl every extraor< 
diiiary appearance a judgment,. or a sign; another 
class — view every thing as the working of matter 
and motion. These two sects are aX war with each- 
other; the one denounces the other as superstitious 
v)r atheistical. Whatever truth there may be in 
^Hk^t allegations, it gives us no correct view of 
Acts. They arc distorted for pai'ty puilposes. To 
me it is quite immaterial what changes take place 
in nature.-^AVhether new stars start into existeiiyce, 
or the planets assume ne"^ orbits, ©r the sun be- 

comes black as daolodoth, I Would not be di9qui^e4^^ 
but would consider theip as the movements of nature* 
on a largje scale; and why should not I contempUte 
these things with the same pl^ilosophical curiosity, 
as I would tbe eruption of iEtna, the extinction of a 
race of animals, the finding of marine shdls orv the 
tops of high moimtains, and the various iporu vf 
no/MTs ^— ^pou, however, do afipear on the sod, 
and so they do on an apple. One set of pliilospphevs 
account for them thus : They say that the sun i« a 
globe of melted matter, kept burning by fuel, and 
that comets are this Aiel to feed the flam^. Wh«ii' 
the melted matter gets low tlie tops of mountains 
in tlie sun appear above the surface and thuacxhibit 
the phei}omena of spots. This is all contradicted 
by a more enlightened class of philosophers, who 
insist on it, that the sun is as cold as ice, or a^y 
thing else you please, and that the sens.atu>n of 
heat isonly peculiar to certain hliSdies which com« 
in contact with the matter excited by the siiny^* 
This was Dr. Franklin's opbiop. There is no reason 
therefore wliy the sun is not inh^ted. Thus ti)cy 
go on flp«c«dating, and finally convince us that they- 
know no mo^e about the matter, than they do of the 
man in the moon. 

I>r. Herschel however has spent the greater part 
of a Ions' and useful life in observing the pbenomeiva 
of the heavens, and had we a record of aU the 
appearances of the heavenly bodies for two or 
tliree thousand years^ we should proltaMy be better 
able to speak of these things; FlitkMophy b of 
bte date, and all we can expect fttnn history 
duimg the dark ages, is a record* of the most 
extraordinary appearances; and these wttt l>e ac- 
counted for, as bigotry, ignorsNce and craft woiild 
choose todicu^te. It is vain to. expect j^st astrotnv*** 
my from astrologers, trae divinity firom th« old me- 
taphysicians, or cliemistryirom the aloheiittsti. It-is 
of no use to fl|)peal to loi^ Bacon and MrV Boyle for 
these truths, they speak for themselves. 

Tliat the. stars are sons, sayaDr. Hersoh^ hahUy * 
admits of a doubt. Their immense: distance wouui ' 
perfectly exclude then from ma view, if the liglit 
they send us . were not of the solar kind. Besides, 
their analogy may be traced mndi farther. ' The 
SUIT turns on its axis; so does tlie star Alg^l. So 
do the stars heta Lyne, deita C^hci, nil Aritinoi, 
omicron Ceti, and many more, most probably alt. 
Again, our stinhas spots on its surface; so has the 
star Algol, and so have the stars already ^attred, 
and probably every star i» the heavens. On thJ^ 
sun these spots are changeable; so they are in the 
star omUrwt Ceti, as (evidently appears from the 
irregularity of its changeable lustre, which Is often 
broken in updn by accidental- changes, while the 
general penod continues unaltered. The same 
little deviations have been observed in any other 
periodical stars, and ought to be ascribed to tbe.. 
same cause, llutf if stars are sdns and sun;, are 
inhabitants, ivhat field fur animation opens itself to 
our views. 

Phil. Trofuactlont fw 1795. 

**Miny of the principal fixed stars are observed 
to chitfige their position with respect to the adjacent 
stars, and this change of place is called the proper 
motion of the stars. Dr. Herschel from this infers 
the nootien of the whole solar system in absolute 

BHt what shall we say ta still greater changes 
tlian these i Several' of the stars have been known 
to disappear, as the stars beta and ^amtna, in the 
consteUatioa .aboo. Dr. Maskelyne sa^», vol. iii. 
pa|^ 148 of his ob^ervatioits, that the 55th' of 
liercultf has disappeared. Again, others called 

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Foreign Article«. 

the Enp;lts)i ap*^ ear to have d^kmi npi^ 
that tlic overthrow of Aa/^Anto, ma)" 
>verthrow of En^and-'*«nd, sfftArtin^ 
essure of the tihtes, some of thctti iirake 
in in expressing- tlieir wishes that he 
estored'^ to the tlirone of Franee. Thi» 
tain, that no year ol* war eifcr hore so 
I people as tlve present year of pe»ee: 
(lilion of society Itfts, byiio menn*, rp< 
most distressed slate. Ifor, with diihiA^ 
less in every respect and to a tfiost 
:tent» the demands of the goverfiment 
e lessened; nor can tliev be reduced a 
except by strikijip at the narionai debt. 
Landing the extteme wimt of erap4oy« 
land, very great difficulty ia^expterienccid 
he few men requured for the navy, and 
so ever since the peace. It raay^ pro* 
tributed to the reluctance -of tlie 2»eameii 
e in a sei*vice in which they have auf- 
ny and such tedious privations. A late 
per says — "In furtl\er corrobomtio* of 
seen stated re&tive to Hit ^fRcuky of 
for the navy> we lean^ that in tke coiurae 
k, ten young seamen from Scotland left 
n the river and emigrated to America.'^ 
le^ely to keq> up an escitenieiit. 8'ome 
nen may emigrate to Ainenca, bu4 iht 
such must be very smalK We have wA 
,t for one half of fnir own, which are al- 
rfed. Nor ate they a cWiB*t)f peo]ite 
sh for. 

iplaints of the British prints al»flRit the ^ 
of the people to Firaiice,.&c. dMrc lu£^- 
;ed. One of tlicm estimates vadrmtk ^f 
to ien fidUitm* a year in cqUBiequdnce cMf • 
possiblvy imder the made, 
icess Mary Guelph*9 weddings &r9m m 
wholly of Bntish manufjftutre^. Thi.«» is 
►f in England, and we suy it is Tight. — • 
d the British make it a^ complaint that 
ve endeavored to encourage our matm- 
Yet really so it is, that tiiiirls<f»poken of 
Brom a **hoMfHe ^piriti" 
irts of Europe have been viaited by tei- 
storms, destroying the hai-vests, See. — 
lationa by the rising of rvr^YSi 8bC. have 
cidable injury. The Seine rose eight ft»et 
lays. The Hliine and the Ne^lBar have 
icularly desolating, by bursting their 
e damages suffered are immense, 
^rlnea lately made a descent on S^di- 
ty of the peasants collected and. by good 
int made them pnsoneni, coptufing se- 
jsaels — small ones, we suppose. The sittf- 
»een celebrated in the church of St. Peter. 

est London papers say tJiat the proposed 
of tlie Bourbonn of Spain to the princesses 
al are not broken oft", as has been staled. 
myal of tlie women has been sti*angcly 

ated that in tlje Netherlands within sLx 

churclies have been robbed ai>d 37 tiui- 

\h better from P:j*i4, July 13, says, "mililn- 
ations are still carrying on with secrecy 
ity. 13 Lt. Gens, and ^ Marclieaux de 

1 a proportionate number of other oilicers, 
1 called huo service." 

,the French funds w.rc at 57. 

p's, a frigate, and a sloop of w^ai*, haw been 

iiUncUed ill Russia. 

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The Ijbiid<M» *«1W»" of July 23, gives ft sombre 
picture of -^ situation of England. ' It ai^peara 
that a defalcation in M^e revenuie is among the new 
subjects of regrtU 

The fleet destined sffiinst Algierfi»&c. will include 
three English Admirals. 

By one packet ^m India, tlie Britivh government 
received thtte fiu of detpatchei. 

The number of befcgars, and othei* poor, sup 
ported by alms in the Roman statfss, and particularly 
at Rome, is staled to amount to 37,048 natives, and 
!r,7S0 fbreilfneta. 

Wilson, Bnice and Hutchifison have been re- 
leased, tbeif term of impritonment having expired. 

Some say that in case of tiie demise of the pre- 
sent khig of Sweden, the succession of Bernadotte 
to the throne will be contested by Gustavus Adol* 
phus, who is the *<le|^itimate^ heir. 

The pretoit of Paisley contradicts a report that 
m mob had paraded through the town with flags 
inscribed ^bread or blood.'? But says that the 
Ifreatest tranquiUty and good order has' been ob- 
'served there. 

Salary and Lallemsad are now said to have left 
€myms 'for Persia. 

Gen. Montou Duvemet was shot at Lyons on the 
36th of July. 

Two very rich American merchants and bankers 
mt€anitantiBople have had their wealth confiscated 
for m9nopothi^g^ monejf. 

The priests of Mavceratahave been arrested and 
csfiied t» Rome, chargpad with publishing a fiibri- 
cated letter from Sl Paul to the Romang^ with dan- 
gerous comments. . . 

Tiie wife of Joseph Bonaparte, preparing to leave 
VrsMce for the United States, has offered for sale 
the besutifiil estate Monfontaine ; but proposes to 
liftve a bailee inserted in the article of sale t6 re- , . ^ 

•serve the right to repurchase th^ same, in ccufroftjrjtNMise to live in good order, justice end dtisciplme 
tkang^ whmdd takt place / 

llie Persian Ambassador at Paris is an Armenian 
•—in some publications this word had got changed 
into American. 

By a deoree of Louis, y«rsi^ manujhchtred goods 
of cotton and wool^ are rigidly prohibited from being. 
imported into France. 

We have every day distressing accounts of die 
ravages caused by tlie sudden risings of several 
rivers of Germany. 

A letter hom Madrid says, that *'an ancient 
French general, followed by forty or fifty ofRcers 
of the same nation, and by one hundred deserters, 
'have joined the independents of Mexico from New- 
Orleans, and were received with great joy." The 
consequences of this aid are vtry Seriously de- 

^/)MpoHUm UbeHy.^^k Paris ps4>er of July 17, 
says, the kin^ of Naples has proiiibited the intn>* 
duction of Sicilian journals into his continental ter- 
ritories. The liberty of the press is established by 
the constitution of Sicily. 

State of education in England. — Mr. Brougham 
stated in parliament (after mentioning many parti- 
culars) that there. were in London, only, one kun* 
dred and ninety thouoand children wholly destitute 
of education ai>d the means of obtaining any— -and 
that at Manchester, in tlie coarse of a few years, 
there were 9,576 marriages and the parties were 
unable to subscribe their own names. 

An article from Vienna, of the 14th July states 
the following >- 

The confidence Which people here have in the 
general peace; the financial operations of the gov- 
ernment^ ttif eomiqjSTwL speculations of the mer- 

chants, which every day acqiiu'e thore activity; tbe 
decreed of the government paper, the total disband- 
ment of the miUtia; the leave of absence grantfcd 
every day to^ officers ^d soldiers of everv grades 
the sale of military horses and wagons, >vhich daih 
takes place; the dispersion of the different rep- 
ments to their separate contonments; and in Act, 
all in the Austria^ monarchv shows tranquility, luq>- 
piness, and the stability of the government. The 
emperor of Austria, whose good fidth and fidelity 
to accomplish all his engagements, is decided to 
grant to his people a long peace, and begiiu to 
gather the benefits of it." 

In the Austrian dominions, ten millions floriio of 
paper many have been withdrawn from circulation, 
and destroyed. 

Twenty-one beautiful horses from England, W 
arrived at Ostend^ being a present from the pdnce 
regent, tQthe prince royal of Orange. 

French marshaU. -^Tht fiiUowing marshals, gird 
with their swords^ took, the oath of allegpance in 
prevence of t)ie king on the 14th of July, after 
which their truncheons were delivered to them: 
Mohcey, Jourdan, Mortier, Macdonald^ Oudinot, 
S^chet, St. C>T, Clark, Perignon, Kellerman, Bour- 
no'ivillc. and the duke of Cigiiy. The fbllowing were 
absent from various . causes : Massena, Davoust, 
Victor, Serrurier, I^febp*e and ViomeniL 

Oath of the French marohah.^^^^Tht folkxw^ is the 
oath taken by th§ marshals of Prance:-* 

"I swear before God, my Creator, mi (he f^tfi and 
law I hpld from him, and ou my Isofior, wdl aid 
loyally, to serve the king, here present and ia theo^ 
^e of marshal of France, with whkh the iaid lord 
has invested me; tliat 1 will have no imderstandiiig 
or privacy witli any person whatsoevertotlMtprejtt- 
dicteofhimSc his kingdom; andthatif f hMtrof mit 
thing prejudicial to him, I will reveal it* that I wiU 

the military who now areor may be in pi^ •rtfervice, j 
that X will prevent them from injuring th^rpcople 
and subjects of the said lord, and will eause the* 
.to observe the ordinances issued for the said mffita* 
ry; that I will cause punishment, justice u^ correc* 
tion, to be inflicted upon them, such as jmmy be aa 
example for all others; that I i^ill provide^ .or cause 
to be provided} and give ordera that ibe- militarv 
live in conformity with the ordttdmces of- the sati 
lord; thst I will proceed at aH times thsct^at may be 
commanded to every part of the Wnadom, to ob- 
serve and examine haw these noUtary liircflmd pre- 
vent, as far as lies in my power, any opps^ssSon ec 
molestation to the people; and I swear &At on m) 
part I will obset<ve the said brdinanees in «t^ry thing 
that is possible, an<) shall fiilfll every thing that nun 
be ordered ii) tliem,and perform in all, am* tbrougn 
all, every thing tluit conoerhs the iaid ofHce of mat 
shid of France, such as a good and wsorthy per 
son, who \a invented as 1 am witli that stmte, should 
and is bound to do« in every thing oonceming tha 

"In siro whereof, and Ibr the better ftdfiUm] 
what is jiiboTe, the said lord the king now gives th' 
truncheon of marshal, as he has been accustomed t 
do, to ail my predecessors. 

From Spain.^FTom Cadiz, under date of July 24 
we have the following artieles:— ^ 

Mr. Erving, the American ministof, has arrived t 
Madrid, but lias had no interview with the king, a 
his majesty has gone to the baths, about tweni 
miles distant from Madrid, for the benefit of h 

On Monday 2,000 troops entered the city, and o 
that night began to im^so for the artny. They gi 

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^IJblfML Tke troop* arrived itndet waled order9, to 
jbe fpencdas 12 o'clock on Mor^dtof. It is supposed 
-ttdit aimilAr orders hare been forwiu^ed to all other 
Wu ef the kingdom. There are msny comectures 
»r what purpose these troops are raising. It io iaid 
;Aa$ the e mp e r or of Austria hao declare in favor of 
Ckariat the JVth. ami that he io determined to put kirn 
m^thethirone of Spain. 

There was an impreomnent for sailors 10 or 15 days 
tigo, m which th^ took from 300 to 500 men. 

[We expect to hear dolefbl accounts of this eon 
jxript i o n t hSa '^bubiublx trkhch coKscKimoir.'* — 
4iow Biiist it flhoclc die nerves of our '^ei^itimates.'' 
We suppose they will make orationo and preaefa mt* 
mtono MKmt it« But, may-be, fi>o^ Ferdinand cannot 
"do WToni^, and are not the peopla his propert^r? Fy 

on the bypocriteiA ^It is dius that Britam sup. 

fliea ber nwcwy, and every c«atlnexital king> ni»c8 an 

' l^e 'Restoration'' alluded to would |;it« us plea*: 

Wgrr any exchange ibr such a wretch as fills the 

Hinme must beadvantag*eous to the people of Spain. 

• "Many jokes are macfe about FerdinantTo ttlness. 

We all^reoc^lect Uiat the most famous thing he ever 

did was to embroider a petticoat {br the FSrjrtit Mary. 

This was a sUly business to be sure, and gives rise 

%rtroad wittieism-^or it seems that his malady 

belongs to hisdevotions to Venw, It is advised that 

•4te '<BDaton folks," who g<ot ^ tifeotivai on account 

«f his restoration to the throne; should held ayfaaf, 

that he migfat be cured of his complaint.} 

' nm^9m€t of Cadiz is Ailty blockade by five or 

wx-Buenoa Ayrean privateers, though the Spaniards 

.say thejF hxvt one 74, two frigAtes and a brig cruis- 

^atTaiid on« to protect the trade. One of these^jtbe 

somiaaBded by JUmeda, as they say, is reported to 

iMre Aade 34 prizes, variously Valued at from 

"ftttfOOO doUarf to three miBiom/ They'tnumeraU 

"satey-flC the vesseb he has taken and give an a»> 

^onntof ^ehr cargoes, amongwhich there appeafs 

% have been tai^fe quantities of specie. Another of 

- Hwsep^riot vessels attacked a ship withht sight of 

4be ei^y and killed 3 and wounded 6 of her crew 

■^nd passengers— among the former was a Keut. col. 

^ artillery;^ but on receiving a broadside -sheered 

'•^ Besides the vessels mentioned wi captured, 

«i^t ships of the Uaviana fieet Were iftissiriq^. 

• l|watf>flr#g.— There is veiy general suspicion that 

-Ba^aad holds jyapoleon Bonaparte #ith the expec- 

*^ 'Nation oC finding it^ convenient one day to release 

idi&--and many, viewing the present condition of 

'fiogUnd^ cut up so much in her commerce and 

'ivanufa^tares by a peace with the continent, sup- 

psetbat the time Ibr It is not fitf* dbtsnt. We be 

mre it will happen if the eontinental powers, pur- 

■iuing the policy of Russia, dhall exclude British 

»ttimfiu;Cures to encourage their own. Never did 

IK year of war pinch £ngIaAd half so much as this 

year of peace. 

. X«aau.*-The loans negociated by the British go< 
vemment since tJie French revolution amount to 
442,50O,00ae. equal to ^196^,812,000. 

•British navy. — The British navy estimates for 
1816^ exceed by 1^4^000 sterling, those of 18l4-Hl>le 
the country was tlien at wa^, and now is at peace. 
The seamen and marines voted fn 18X6, were 
140,000 fijr six months and 90,000 ibr the resc of 
the yesTf in 1816, they only amounted to 33,000, 
This is considered very "extraordina^/' 


The Montreal Gazette, in notiung the last ac- 
cottnts from England, which reprellntthe sufterings 
«f the mai}ufacturei*s and farmers, observes. — 

" To the impovlerished state of the continent -of 
Europe, the diminished resources of the UaiJed 

States of America, snd the eagerness and specult- 
tive enterprize of a large proportl^ of the manu- 
facturing and mercantile community of Great Bri- 
tain, (particularly in their intereoarse with Ame- 
rica) may be attributed Che principal pauses of those 
melancholy results which are daily ^closed in the 
English papers— a peace lof twelve months with 
America appears to have been productive of more 
real injury to Great Britain^ than would probably 
have been ezperieticed by a war of twiee three years 

Paris July 16.— All the accotmts frmn Germany, 
the Netherlands and Switserland, agree in statingy 
that so deolorable a season was nerer known in the 
inemory of man: while the letters from Pe|ersburglv, 
Stockholm^ and Copenhagen asfnounoe tligt a very 
warm and very dry season prevails in the North. 

Faritf July 34w— The Algerines are sendmg int^ 
the interior all thtb riches, bdng fearftil of % boa^ 

A Biissian squadron was ezpeeted In the aum^ 
which' squadron has on boaid troops to replace 
those that are on the frontiers of France. Thr 
flag ship has on boai^ bridal presents firom ^ 
Emperor of Russia to his sister, the princess of 

I^mdim, July 20.— The Handers mail contains ^ 
letter from Lisle, in which 'the prefect of the de« 
partment, in a circular to the sub-prelects, calls 
upon all soldiers, having unlimited furlou^^s, to 
serve in the legions of the north; It denies the in- 
tention of government to carry Wars into distant' 
countries, but stated 'Uhat France is in loam of ait 
army, which may be the shield of the monafch and 
glory of the nation!**— ^France is in want of an 
army.** Tniel^thc assertion is beyond doubt An 
army vould be the shield of the monarch and the 
glory of the nation; but as we have heretolbre ob- 
served, Ib this the precise moment §» creating an 
army — snd must she not delay her thhrst 0xr glory 
till some fairer, opportunity. 

July 29.— We received this morning the Paris 
papers of Friday last, and mails arrired last night 
from Holland, Flanders and Germany. The Dutch 
and Flemish journals cbntinue to iVimish details of 
military preparations nuking in France; and there 
is probably some foundattcm for those sentiments, 
notwithstanding the profbusd silence observed by 
the French papers on the subject. In these arma* 
meats, however, we cah discover no cause of anx- 
iety or alarm respecting the pacific relations sub- 
sisting between France and other cotmtries, and 
they are probably made merely widi a view of pro* 
tectisg the government of that country from the 
effects of any change in the councils of the neigh- 
boring sUtes. The policy of France must, for a 
considerable time to come, vary with every fluctu- 
ation tliat may take place in our own country; and' 
we are inclined to believe that the causes now 
operating in England, if duly weighed, would ftir-f 
nish a key to the recent conduct of the French 

It is very generally understood, that a considera- 

e difficulty has arisen among the allies, m conse^ 
qucnce of the exhausted state of the French trea- 
sury. It is said that the French jg^vemment has 
givA\ in a formal declaration, stating the impossi- 
bility of France to continue in foture to support 
the allied armies, owing to the immense failure in 
tlie direct contributions, and the impoverished state 
of the countries. Russia is said to have answered, 
that there are only two ways of remedying this di- 
lemma, vi?- t ii e iroopb should be withdra Alitor 
else that Englund shotUd piyr for them. It ia cot{' 

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.fJ4£ntly fiappQ§^ th*t th« 4i4cf ^ Wellington's 
visit is pwiiy coniiected with this pomt, wbicn ha« 
pro4uce(l no litUe dUm^y #( tl^» tpeasury. 

I'Vhli report l» (Ut\y poRtradioted in another 
paper, wUicbsaya that WeUipi^n's Tiait t<» Bug- 
lai^d was entirely personal.] 

/txly 19. The liaoiburg letters re|»pe«ent tbe 9tate 
of Sw^n ai)d Norway as §^^ from tran<|uiL The 
Diet at Christiana had beoo proroffued 8ixK>r seren 
times, and was hnally dissolved ; but the remit of 
its deliberations is siu4lQii«)^ 1|9ept secret. The kin^ 
Q^ Swedisn ifi seriously indiaposed* and tlie physl- 
Plans haye reported he caiMK>t.«vrvire m»iBY veeks. 

Juae 2P. The emigrations from ^igAaad io Frmet^ 
(»j)iiniie to bvC i^itod alaraiing. A« the produce, 
df the tax^:i onxlomestic conauniptlon fsUs off, the 
ct>Qsujner» diminish ; aad thus tb/e deicieiioy in- 
creases in m accelerated ratio. Hn almost every 
town in France the cry is still they come.'* In Pa- 
ifi ther^ were, by tlu.- jUst ^^cooimts, 39/^00 Ei^Hsh: 
10,000 had Ijgft that c^ty for S.witzerl«j>4. Geneva 
was so full, that tho?e who p/ished to «end tlicir 
cbiI4r^ thither fb^* ed^uc^tton could no^tfind a fuiai- 
ly to pUce tli^m in wliere M^ere were npt other 
Eiiglish boarders. Boulogne had 1200 English, atid 
lodging could not be pi^ecured for more. Be it re- 
membered theacare people of the middling aiul 
hjigher classes, prijiclpally stocjdioldjefs. or great 
jandliolders. Let us st^^te them at 50,000; 'a«id this 
we are well assured, is below tlie mark. Then, at 
what shall we estimate their annual expenditures P 
An average pf 100/. wyuld^ive on Uie whole jCvtf 
mllioTU. Put call tiie uverqge beao ^was lOQ V^ 
Is pot the ^uro ^f 200/. raiich more likefy to be cor- 
rect } If so, we may any wjC are paying^ tf ibvitc 6f 
pen tiifjIjUo)^ ye4ily to foreigner^ ; for the selfishness 
of these emigL^aqits Uaj» made tbem aJUefts to their 
pQOntry. . 

July ^. Captains Pr^ng, Montressor and l^kyer, 
are appointed to commai'd on the lukes of Canada^ 
imdar ^jr Rob^t Hall; They will take their passage 
whh ih^s cQrtjimodore in Uie Dee,. 34, captain Oiani- 
bers. ^ Robert .arrived At. jPortsraouth pn Sa^iir- 
4ay mornmg. 

CupeTihfigen^ JvJtf p.---Ey % convention concluded 
between the JDanishffiarine' commissary Rathe and 
the Swedish admiral FabrictuSy Denmark gives to 
the crown of Sweden its ships of war that remain 
in the l^ai-bors of Noaway, for tiie sum of 95,000 
dollars specie, (nearly 26/)00if sterling.) 

Law Q^uestion. 

J^w^ ttffi jy<ji^ipnal fiiteMiffencer.'^ Extract of a letter 
£rom,a ^ciijt^xnanin Virginia. — A young female slave 
abscoilde^ from hei' m^ter an Vu-gmia, residing 
•near the line, and remained in the state of Pennsyl- 
vapia two years. Notwithstanding the diligent 
sc^xh of the m^tater, the place of her concealment 
was not discovered until lately, when she was found 
in Pennsylvania, at the house of a white man, with 
whom she had cohabited upwards of eicht months 
and was pregnant by him, at the time she was re- 
claimed by her ma^iter^ who took her home to Vir 
rinia. She remained a veiy short time with her 
master, when shcagain abscondedi and, arrived at 
the place whence she had been taken, (after hav- 
ing been absent there^'pm about three weeks,) and 
a few days after her arrival was delivered of a mu- 
Utto bastard child. 

The question is wheither thia child be free or a 

The coimsel for those who intescsted themselves 
on behalf of the child, it is said, contended that it 

it fvee, being ^jotun imd ^m in Fwmfylrania* JUMt 
the counsel on the other side in^st the V'u^lmm 
master was lawfuUy poss^ed, in VivgjnUy <^ ^ 
pregnant negro ^la^e, ^^'h(h «« a atate of pregn^nc^^ 
^conded ii>d went into Penn^lvania: atidth»t he 
is equally eotitled U> reclaim the slave and ker oflT- 

What m?y Bccm st^l mora Migular, both pwctieai 
rely on a Jate deciiuon of tbe supreme court of 
Pennsylvji^ii^,— (Sec l^iat No, of 4lie H^iitcr.] 

Bi)t for ]Uie late deci&ion,it could not pe coocciv^eil* 
that the jLava of Penntfylvfttia afforded ajjy protec- 
tion to runaway negitoeas iNithe oontrary, the nbo- 
lition law dcclarjes, tJ^H tiiit master vnigbt have 
the like right and aid to demand, cl$im md take 
awav his sli^ve «fas be; might have had, in case thU 
act had not been |M«»ed." No% to ^pply the pror . 
visions of a law to cases explicitly excepted out of 
it, as h^ b(?en lately don^ may be a correct modA 
of expounding ^t^tutes in Pei^nsylvaiMa, but is tkotmm 
understood aijy wliere else. 

If til e exposit^ given bf tlie judges of the sa- 
preine covit of P^nps^Wwiaof the act of 1780 be- 
correct, tp the Utle of " an actfer the cradoal abo- 
lition of slavery,** might very appropriate be ad- 
ded ** and uUo to induce negeoes in the neighbor- 
ing statues to runaway from their masters.** But 
such was nottheintitioo of the Pennsylvania Ic* 
gislature, whaXc>rcr thtir judges may say about the^ 
mutter. * 

"^e judg^ observe th«t tiioy mnst be underttood 
as not including ia^eir decision, the chiMren pT 
female sl^e^ of ^noigii ministeraor of members of 
congress from otber statcst an^ ihp chief justice 
adds, nor to tl^e cliiidreii of runaway negroes beg^o^ 
tea ont of the stat^. As the act, however, upos 
)vbich hje foimd^hi^ opiiMon, liaaiio reference to thM . 
place wjicre tlie child may have beea begolHn^ Ham' 
may well be c,Q$^idered as a make -meight^ and la 
not noticed by the other judges. How the judg«s 
can exc^iide cases pasemtA by the same principle, 
with a case decided, and only distinguiahsble by 
some immaterial cmuinataocet, is not easily un- 
derstood. Jkt vUves of ioreign ministers, aiid. . 
ipembers of ,congress,and runaway slaves are equal- 
ly excepted ou^ .of ti^ act. Aiid if freedom is to 
extend to the offsfMnngoC those who enter thc^ state 
as runaways, shall it be withheld from the olfsprin|^ 
of tho^e who enUrit witii the consent oi their mas- 

The holders of alayes ,who reikle near the borders 
of Pennsylvania wiU be seriotialy mjtir^di, if their 
female slaves, by 8tq>ping across 4be line, and de- 
positing their burtliens in PennsyWania, may deprive 
tiie .masters of all claim to their offspring so born. 
Indeed the townships in- Pennsylvania near the line 
might greatly suffer from an influx of tbfese infant 
paupers, were it not that iliey will geaendly perish^ 
in consequence of being deprived' of their mothers 
shortly after their birth. Thus the exposing of in- 
fants IS legaUxed, however contrary to homanity. 


South Amxaica. 
We have been politely favored with paptrs fh)m 
South America — the Gasiita and el Cemor of Bue- 
nos A>res, and the La Fren$a Ar^entinar a general 
notice of their cftiients must suihce all usenil pur- 
poses. One contains a proclamation of don FVsn- 
Cisco Casimiro del Paut^ Angel, Diaz y Mciidez 
Cabellcro, witli a Ibt of twenty titles, governor and 
captain-general of Chili to the people, lie iiflt^cs 

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ihe s^jnt^finfurrection^ich he says pervades 
the tonus and the country ; the attempts which are 
made to wiUidmw tlie soldiers from the royal ser- 
vicfj Slid tlie communications held with those ini- 
mical to their policy, and announces that even le- 
gal testimony will not be required to convict those 
who may be implicated in such charges. He ad- 
vertisesthat on a ceKaio day all persons possessii^g 
arms, (of which b« enumerates the kinds, includ- 
ing not ooly pistols and dirks but even clubsW 
must repair to Santiago to deliver tliem up: tjiat 
officers aye appointed to receive them there, in or- 
der that tliey may be marked and registered,, so 
fliat the owners at some ftilure period may receive 
tliem again. All persons apprised of the conceal- 
ment of arms, or who have aJiy knowledge of mu- 
tinous proceedings arc required to g^ve information 
—even tromen are include, $x\d the severest pun- 
ishments are threatened. Anj^ one who withholds 
arms, or is otherwise fowid opposed to the measures 
of eovemment must suffer death together v^'ith con- 
fisntjou of property. 

Upon this proclamation the editor of the Buenos 
Ayres Gazette, fbakes s^me spirited o^bservations. 
Tht precautions taken here, saVs he, to hinder de- 
pressed patrioliam from bursting forth, shew the 
foolish system that b pursued to keep these pro- 
vinces m clegradatxMH and '^ obsure dependence 
upon the ancient dominion. It is impossible but that 
the .Europeans must now be convinced of the inef^ 
ficacyof tjie attempts to restrain the torrent of so' 
many powers, tuiited for the attainment of the sajne 
<ibject. Tiie history of tlie dismemberments suf* 
ilfed by imperial Spain, must sheAV, that inevitably 
twse other Americans will maintain the same* claims 
and est . blish the same cliaracter with those who 
have preceded them in the glorious enterprise/ 

But tliat tyranical power is like a great merchant 
who sees lii2ns«;lf about to be ruined by accumulat- 
hig losses, and plunges into more hazardous specu- 
knonin the hope of retrieving his desperate for- 

Speaking of the military reputation that the roy 
alists were endeavoring to gain by statements of e< 
veiits that had never h^ippened, he observes in the 
vords of another Spanish writer, that the incredi- 
ble labors which I'izarro underwent In his travels 
and triuniphs, were compensated by the right which 
be tiierehj' acquired of telling ten times more than 
what was true. 

The ^*PrmsQ JirgettHna^* contains an anonymous 
letter fronn a pati'iot commander at Jujiij. He says 
he was one of tlie inunttiae umnber tliat had gather- 
ed to that place after the triumph of Fefliuela. I am 
some, add« be, to destroy him. On account Cf my 
grt&t age i cannot join the forces armed with clubs 
and stones, as the mas^ of the country i?, conceiv- 
ing It their duty t» take every means to defend 
their children, tlwrir property, and their rights, t 
should be afraid, to relate llie scenes that have hap- 
pened, bad 1 not been an eye witness to them. Af- 
ter a month and a halfof hangings and robberies that 
ve held with the enemy, we won from them about 
800 guns including those sent us by the natives, 
baring been thrown away by the scattered royalists. 
Of these PadfUa has 6^0, occupying Yamporaes, 
and making war on Chuquitfaoa. Betansos occupies 
from Cbayanta to I'una. Me has about 800 guns, 
and thus cut off the communication between Potosi 
ud Chuquisiica, fighting against the former. Gen- 
darillas is At Toton* with 3uO, Ganzoles at Poria 
with 500, Zuores in Agguite with 100, lx>pez in 
Pombamba witli 100. 1m Madred had 400 mtv^t and 
Ardialo hud 800, all ai-tted. The marquis of Vav^; 


had 1500, of whom COO had guns and 600 pSkes. 
Arms seems'to be the great desiderattun, and it is 
stated tliat the people of Santa-Cruz were about 
joiuing them with 1500 f\isees. 

A Nantucket whale ship, just arrived from the 
$outh sea, was several times boarded by vessels at- 
tached to the sauadron of the liuenon .kyrean admi- 
ral JBravm, o« the coast of Peru, and always treated 
with the greatest kindness and respect, being fur- 
nished with refreshments, &c It is pleasant to ob- 
serve^ that it is thus tlie patriots of South Am|a|^ 
^nerallv treat our vessels — we boast the bS^V^ 
derstapding with them. The adailral was blockading 
CalLao, (the port of Lima) with 2 ships, 3 brigs and 
2 schooners, and was daily ejcpectii^g a patriot land 
army, when a joint attack would be made on thA 

For an interesting ami original account of the 
destruction of tiie fori tiX ^Ippaltuhicala, see page 37m 

The U. S. sloop of war SfiArk, cipt. Nicholson, 
sailed from New- York for the Mediterranean, on 
the 5th inst. She is supposed to carry out despatches 
that will compel the dey of Algiers to ratify his 
treaty, or try the chance of getting anotlier by war.- 

Mrs. (Larson and associates have been tranSf 
ferred to Philadelphia from Harrisburg, for trial. 
The men had nearly cffecCed their escape by cutting 
through their irons. 

liaiL Hail stones or masses of ice, from three to 
twelve inches in circumference, fell about tlie SOvli 
ult. near Chiciunati, Ohio. 

Earthquake, Two considerable shakes of an earth- 
quake were recently felt at New-Madrid, Missouri. 

Specie contimies frequently to^arrive — 66,000 dol- 
lars ruached New*. York a few days ago fi'om Amster- 
dam. It is only 2 per cent, ad: in New-York, and 
the use of small sUver coin is aboiit to be resumed. 
We hope this will become general. The people of 
Halifax eomplain of a drain of it, to be invested hi . 
our stocks. 

Martulxd KLScnos. — Thc electoriat college to 
elect a senate for Maryland, will consist of 28 fede- 
ralists aud 12 republrcans— ms{oiity 16. Yet in thc 
state there is a majority of at least 5000 voters oh 
the side of those who form this small minority in 
tlie college. The constitution virtually disfranchiso^ 
tJ\o body of the people. 

Separation of Maine. — We have returns from S^ 
towns— tlioy give 5,729 for and 4,203 against sepa- 
ration. The act of the legislature requires 5-96iS 
of the votes* to be in favor of it. The result is un- 
certain, tlioiigh in the preceding there ai*e 216 

Breail stuffa.-^^ seeir.i higWy probable that there 
may be a great demand for bread stuffs, which will 
do much to restore our trade towards a balance, if 
we can supply it. The European harvests have been 
very bad. 

Coat has been successfully usied in the New- York 
and Albany steam-boats — it appears to do quite as. 
well as wood, and will be a great saving to tlie p»c- 

The lakes. The British slUp Montreal of 60 guns, 
anchored off the mouth of thu Gennessce river 
some 15 or 20 years ago. The views of the British 
in equipping their vessels oi\ the lakes, will soon 
developc theiMsehes. Is the ri£;-ht of search \o be 
exercised on OtUario^ as well as on Erie ? Wc shall 
see, ' . 

Alciehs. We have a very interesting article on 
the subject of our relation** witli ^il^iera in the. 
Georgetown, (Col.) Messenger of We<hic.sday last. 
Wc regret tl«it at Uic late hour we observed it, nel- 

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was to Demaa 

^ayriM to be pure 


ther time nor room was allowed to insert it entire. 
Its substance is as follows : 

That tlie ori^nal treaty, dictated by com. DecatOr, 
heing lost in the Epervier, the ratification of the 
president was affixed to ah authenticated copy 
which had been taken with a view to such a eontin- 
^ncy. Wlien this was presented to the dey, he said 
that /us copy contained a stipulation fbt the resto- 
ration of the vessels captured, after which a treaty 
was to be mud,e on the usual terms — that is, a peace 
I to be purchased by an annual tribute. It is per- 
■* "* I that com. Decqtitr would not listen to 

■_t^M..i.„ ^t;fepugh he agreed to g^ive the vessels 
^mjm cou.'t wjr * *t hat the latter was notmintion- 
ed at all In this state the business was referred 
back to the president, to whom, it is said, the dey 
wrote a letter in Arabic — ^the reply is 8U{4>08ed to 
have been carried out in the Spark, which sailed a 
few days since from Ne#-Ydrk — and it is expected 
that his highness' has simply the choice of abiding 
by the treaty or of renewing" the wkr. Happily the 
force we have in the Htfediterranean is competent for 
^le latter, if such is the Choice of "his highness." 

Though the gpreat force sent out by lord Exmouth 
%as for Its avowed object to reduce the Algerines 
V) an observance of the ndes adopted by Christian 
nations, tpe expect to be excluded from his treaty, 
if he makes one. We have a precedent for this. 

TRB4TT Wrril 1I1788TA. 

The English letter writers at Paris still continue 
to write about the arrangement by which Russia is 
<o sustain the iiitlependcnce of Mhxics,' and about 
a treaty o? alhance between -Russia, and the United 
Stales, which they even say was published at Paris 
on the 12th of July. 

• (C/*Thistn^y with ftussia appears to haunt John 
Bull most fearfully. He may rest ensv, however, 
as to treaty of alliance,- I feel assured there is no 
Midi thing. But his fertile imagmation may easily, 
construe a treaty of commerce between the United 
Stages and Russia, to promote their reciprocal in- 
. terests, into a treaty otiUiiwice against him: as 
-^tlM wtedand hM «r« Brittinli «Me domain, 
And noc a 9«il wldb9U( permiaiiMi sprauto!'* 
Mjutara aud iit^ector general* s office^ 

September 4, 1816. 

Gkicehait omnKS. — Promotions and appointments 
lo fiik vacancies in the army of the United States, 
^ich have occured since the first of August, 1816i 
Corps of ArtiUeiTf. 

2d lieut. Francis O. Byrd,.to be 1st lieut. 30A 
August, 1816^ vice Vandevaiter appointed major in 
(he staff. 

2d lieut. George D. Snyder, 1st lieut. 30th Aug/ 
1816, viqe Robeson, appointed captain in the staff. 

3d lieut. Thomas I. Baird, to be 2d lieut. 1st. Au- 
gust, 1816, vice Mitchell, declined. 

3d Ueut. Jabez Parkhunt, to be 2d lieut. 30th 
August 1816, vice Byrd, promoted.. 

3d lieut. Robert L. Armstrong, to be 2d lieut. 
SOth Atigust, 1816, vice Snyder, promoted. ' 

Captain Wm. L. Robeson, appointed assistant de- 
puty quarter master general, 30th August, 1816. 

Post surgeon Walter V. Wheaton, appointed sur- 
geon of the 2d infantry, 4th September, 1816, vice 
Bache, resigned. , 

Hospital surgeon's mate, William H. Buckner, 
appohited surgeon 4th infantry, 4th September, 
1816, vice Buck, resigned. 

Charles Davies, appointed 2d lieut. corps of en« 
gineers, 31 Sv August, 1816. 

. Brittoa Evans, appointed 2d lieut. 9d regiment 
of infantry, SOtli August, 1816. 

William Downey, appointed 2d lieut. 5th regi- 
9sent of infufitry, 3d September, 1816. 

WiUium Elgin, appointed 2d lieut 8Ui regiment 
of infimtry, 3d September, 1816. 

First lieut Saokett and second lieUt Strothei'. 
of the 4th infantry, never havmg reported and jom- 
ed their regiment, since the consolidation 6t the. 
lurmy, are considered out of s<<rvice. 

fey order of the secretwy of war, 

D. PARKER, Adj. anJinsp.ger 

Blue LawsCr 

THOX ms HKWBtniTFORl^ herjuld. 

Mr. fols9m — ^Much has been said within a few 
years of the blue ZaiMof Comiecticut; and pains have 
been taken to ransack the prcliives of that state, and 
to publish extracts from lav^s, tliat were in force 
when they were finrt organized, but it is apparent 
that in many instanees Uiey took tlie laws of Mas- 
sachusetts for a model, which were equally rigid, 
linjttst, trifling and absurd. I have made a ^ev e*- 
tractsirom the code of laws established by tbis 
state^ io which, t have added some instances, of 
their judicl&l l^oceedings in eertain cases. B. 

iow 1m— PRIDB m wearh^ long hftw, like wo- 
men's hair, others wearing borders of luiir, snd cut- 
ting and curling and ImnRKlest laying out of hair: 
grand jurors to present and tiie court ta punish by 
fine or correction. 

Zow 2d— Excess ki apparel, strange new fash' 
Ions, naked breasts and arms, and pinioned supper' 
fiuous ribbons on baik*, Sic. the court to punish at 

Zflw 3<f— Profaneness in persons, turning ^eif 
backs upon public worship before the blessing is 
proftocmced, the select men are to appoint officers 
to jihutthe meeting l^ouse doors <^ take any othei' 
measures to attain Um end. 

Law Uk ' A loose and sinflll custom of riding 
from town to town, men and women together, under 
pretence of going to lecture, tending to debaucherj' 
and unchastity, all single persons bemg offenders to 
be boufrd to their good behavior with sureties, or 
suffer imprisonment. 

JL€StQ i/A— Tobacco takers and <jomihon swearers^ 
the constable directed to present to the next ma- 
gistrate to be punished at discretion. 

Latif 6/4— For drunkenness, tlie oflTendet ' topay 
ten shiliinj^, excessive drinking three and foiu- 
pence, tipling about half an hour a crown. 

Judgments of court as they stand tean^d for the fol- 
lovdng crino* 

1st Joslas Plaistowe for stealm^ fi>ur baskets ^ 
com, to return eight basketa^ to be faned five pounds 
and hereafter to be called Josias, and not Mr. as he 
used to be. , 

2d. Capt. Stone for abusing Mr. Ludlow, by cal- 
ling himjustass, is fined an hundred, pounds and 
prohibited coming within the patent. 

3d. Sergeant Perluns ordered ta cany ftrty 
turft to the fort fbr beinr dnuUc* 

4th. fidward Palmer, for his extortion in iricinjf 
two pounds thirteen and four pence for the wood 
work of the stocks, is fined five pounds, and order- 
ed to set in the stocks one hour. 

5th. Thomas Petit, for suspicion of slander, idld- 
ness and stubbornness, is censured to be 8everdl|r 
whipt, and to be kept in hold. 

6th, Catherine, the wife of Richard Cbroish, was 
found suspicious of inconstancy and seriously admo- 
nished to take heed^ 

7th. John Wed^ewoed, forl>^g in compai^ of 
drunkards, to set m the stocks. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Nu. 4 Of Vol. XI.] BALJLMOlu:, SATUUUAY, SEPTEMBKIl 21. 1816. [w.xolk jfo. ^gL 

J/ac Oil ill mrnmnisae juvaOit, — Vihoh. 

piu>Tlfen kyn mtusHBD Br M. jjilks, at thk head op ciiKAi'sun:, at %5 pku an-.num. 

Progress of the United States. 

It would go to the exclusion of much valua- 
hJc matter n-om this volume of the Regbter, 
were we to give detailed tables of the progress 
and extent of American commerce; and, for- 
. tunately, it is unnecessary, as Mr. Pitkin's va- 
iuatrfe ^'^ Statistical View^^ can easily be pro- 
cured by all who may wish to examine tlie 
' subject. The readers of that work miglit, per- 
haps, suppose it deficient in its account ot the 
early condition and process of manufactures; 
but, after a good deal of research, we convinc- 
ed ourselves that better accounts are not to be 
found. Before Mr. Coxe wrote his view of tlie 
United »State8, people had not bestowed any 
attention upon the subject, so that he had few 
regular data to found his estimates upon 

As a geneml view of this subject is neces- 
sary to our purpose^ we shall give such brief 
sketches, and sums total, as may shew our na- 
tional prepress, and refer those who wish for 
&e items to more voluminous statements. 

In 1660 it was first found expedient to check 
the prosperity of the colonies. The famous 
navigation act was then passed, entitled "an 
act for the encoura^ng and increasing of ship 
jHng and navigation," which restncted the 
trade of the colonies to the mother country. 
In 1663 another act prohibited the colonies 
from obtaining any European goods, except 
**in English built shipping, and through Eng- 
lish ports;" where they were subject to duty, 
and several without drawback. In the year 
1766, the colonial trade was confined to the 
mother country, and that part of Europe that 
Ties south of Cape Finisterre; and to certain 
ports of Africa, for tiiepurchase of slaves, and 
i» the West-Indies. To the articles that were 
confined to the English market, by the naviga- 
tion act, such as sugars, tobacco, cotton, dye- 
woods, others were at different periods added, 
such as molasses, tar, pitch, turpentine, hemp, 
lQji8t9,&c. copper-ore, iron, pot and pearl ashes, 
fiurs, hides, nee, lumber, &c. but the two latter 

"with respect to laws, manufacturf s set up, or 
trade carried on by tlie colonies, detiimental 
to the ti-ade, navi^atioli or manufactures of 
Great Britain." As their report contains the 
best account, that is to be found, of the condi- 
tion of American manufactures. *5it tliat period, 
we shall take some of its statements, it first 
complains, that in "Ma.ssachu setts bay, an act 
was made to encourage the manufacture of pa^ 
per." Hn New-England," adds the report, 
sylvania, and in the county of Somei^et in 
Maryland, they have fallen mto the matfufnl- 
ture of woolen cloth, and linen cloth, for tjb 
use of their own families only." 

"Flax and hemp, being likewise easily rais- 
ed, the inhabitants manufacture (heminto coarse 
sort of cloth, bags, traces, and halters for their 
horses, which they found did more service than 
tliose they had from any part of Europe." "It 
were to be wished, fliat some expedient ^)i^«^ht 
be fallen upon to direct their thoughts from 
undertakings of this nature," &c. It was stated 
that in New-Hampshire, "there were no settled 
manufactures, and that tlieir trade principally 
consisted in lumber and fish." In Massachu* 
setts they only worked up their "wopl and flax 
for their o^vn use, and did not export any. 
That the greatest part of the woolen and lineo 
clothing worn in the province was importedf 
from Great Britain, and sometimes from Ire- 
land." "That there was also a few hat makers 
in the maritime* towns, and tliat the greater 
part of the leather used in that country, was 
manufactured among themselves. That tliere 
had been, for nfianj years, some iron works in 
that province, which ha^i afforded the people 
iron for some of their necessary occasions; but 
that they were not able to supply the twenti- 
eth part of what was necessary for the use of 
the country." 

"They had no manufactures in New-York: 
that deserve mentioning. Their trade consist- 
ed cliiefly in furs, whale-bone, <m1, pitch, tar 
and provisions. No manufactures in New-Jer- 
sey." "The chief trade of Pennsylvania lay 

irticleg wesre afterwards placed lunong the rum in provisions and lumber; no manufactures be- 
tutmneratei commodities* in^ established." "By further advices from 

New-Hampshire, the woolen manu&cture. ap- 
pears to have decreased." "The manufacture 
of flax into linens, some coarse, some fine, daily 
increased, by the great resort of people from 
Ireland, who are well skilled in that business.'^ 
"By lat« accounts from Massachusetts Bay, 
the assembly have voted a bounty of thirty shil- 
lings for eveqr piece of duck, or canvass^ immR^ 

Towards the year 1730 it appears, that the 
Colonists began to attempt some rude manufiic- 
ipres of linen and woolen cfotbs, iron, pi^>er, 
fcits, &c for their own use; but the British mer- 
chants and manu&cturers began to complain; 
«id, in consequence of their repr^ntations, 
4e house of commons, in 1731, directed the 
board of trade and pUntatioos to make rep«rt[] 

Vat. Xt 

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silk and sasaaparilla. 

Lord Sheffield gives the trade between Ch*eat 
Britain and these colonies^ that arc now the 
United States, as follows: 

Imports from Bzports to 
the colonies. 

Average from 
1700 to 1710 
1710 to 1720 
1720 to 1730 
1730 to 1740 
1740 to 1750 
1750 to 1760 
1760 to 1770 
1770 to 1780 

£ a. 
3§2>653 17 
578,830 16 
670,128 16 
708,943 9 
802,691 6 
1,044^1 ir 





743,560 10 10 

267^05 3 4 

365,645 6.11} 

471^42 12 10^ 

660,136 11 l! 

812,647 13 (is- 

1,577.419 14 2*: 

1,763,409 10 3 * 

1,331,206 1 5 

Imports from the United States to England,: 
and exports from England to the United Stated: 




in the province. Some other manufactures are the importation of cochineal, sturgeon, raw^ 
carriea on there; such as brown Holland, for nlk, scammonj, opium; persiman gum, siUc- 
women*8 wear, which lessens the importation grass, salt-petre, pot and pearl ashesj and om 
of calicoes, and some other East-India goods.'' the culture of log-wood, olive trees, vines iir 
^% apaper^ill, set up three years ago, they raisins, vines for >*ines, cinnamon, aloesyhcmp, 

(in Massachusetts) make to the value of jfSOO -="- --^ *" 

sterling, yearly." "In New-England they have 
six furnaces, and nineteen forges, for making 
iron, one slitting mill, and a manufacture for 
nails. That many ships are built for the French 
and- Spaniards, m return for rum, molasses, 
wines and s'dl^, which they truck there by con- 
nivance.'' In Pennsylvania **were built many 
brigantines and small sloops, which they sell 
to the West-Indies." It was further observed, 
that '*Uie trades and manufactures setup, pre 
judicial, &c. were to the northward of Vu^ 
uia." * 

Macpherson, in his ^Annals of Commerce," 
Vol. 111.' says of the colonists, "I am now to 
write of a people, whose frugality, industiy and 
temperance, and the happiness of whose laws 
and institutions promise to them long life, with 
a v>'onderful increase of riches and powei^ and 
alt!\ough no men ought to envy that virtue and 
wisiUom in otljers, which they either can or will 
not practise, &€. — ^yet as old England suffers 
dimmmtion by the growth of these colonies," 
&c. — he proceeds to shew how their prosperity 
ought to De restrained. His accounts of their 
productions and condition are similar to those 
given in the report above referred to. 
^ In 1733 au act was passed, layin"^ a duty of 
nine pence sterling on every gallon or rum, and 
six pence on every gallon of molasses, import- 
ed into the northern colonies, and it was called 
an act "for the better securing and encouitie- 
ing the trade of his majesty's sugar colonies?^ 
It was muc\i complained of, and was afterwards 
reduced to six pence on rum, and three pence 
on molasses. Another act was passed (5 Geo. 
1732) prohibiting the trade in American ports, 
making it even unlawful to have them "loaden 
upon any horse, cart, or other carriage, to (he 
intent, or purpose to be exported ," &c . By the 
same act, no person in the colonies could make 
hats unless he had served an apprenticeship 
of seven years; nor could he employ more than 
two apprentices at any one time. 

In 1750, an act was passed prohibiting, un- 
der severe penalties, the erection of any slitting 
mill, plating forge, or furnace for makmg steel. 
By die same act, pig iron was admitted, duty 
free, into Englaml, and bar iron, duty free, in- 
to tiie port of London . Bou nties had been given 
(by 3 and 4 Ann c. 10) upon tlie importation of 
tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine, masts, yards and 
bowsprits, from the colonies; and sublsequently 
upon indigo, hemp, flax, timber, raw silk, and 
staves: and tlie London society, ^*for the en- 
couragement of arts, manufactures and com- 
merce," offered premiums, in 1753, upon tlie 
* production and cirfture of certain articles in 
1^ colonies. And in 1 76% gave premi urns on 

In the year 1784 










In the year 1795 






Total imports paying ad valorem duties: 


In year 1801 



1802 37,546,051 


1804 43,481,363 


1806 54,832,8961 

55,569,255 In year 1807 




1808 21,216,935 


1812t 24,729,282 

Exports to GreatBritain and Ireland, in 1 M2« 
1803 and 1804, were at the following Minual 


Domestic produce^ 
Foreign merchandise. 


Aver»|^ impwrtt for the same years |S7,400,0OO 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



>- . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


TTnited States revenue, &c. 



liom 4lh .March, 1789, 



lollie.JlstofDcc. 1791 









; 1794 





















































Tolhc30UiofSept. 1812 





•Cents are omiltctl but taken in thes 

ums total. 

lUccipts from the customs, g 


^ Ihlernal revenue. 


Direct tax, , 




Sale of public lands. 





For tlie present condition of American ma- 
nufactures, we refer our readers to the tables 
on that subject in VoL VI. page 323, et scq.j 
besides numerous facts, estimates and remarks, 
elsewhere in this work, Vol, 1. p. 45 and 292 — 
Vol- III. p. 173 and 329— Vol. VI. p. 172 and 
217— Vol. VILp. 280— VoL VIII. p. 132, 151 
TOd 291— Vol. IX. p. 94, 298, 189, 194, 329, 
389, 447 and 451— Vol. X. p. 49, 82, 98, 219, 
200, 231, 269, 322, 382 and 431. 

Of the extent of manufactures, in the colo- 
nies, previous to the revolution, we can make 
no estimate; nor would it be important, if it 
were practicable; but it would be desirable as a 
curiosity. It was not then considered a busi- 
ness worth the trouble; to pass through the cot- 
tages of the poor— to count their webs and their 
fltockinff&— to mark the humble, yet great ef- 
forts, which were silently, but securely, work- 
ing tiie independence of a future mi^tr na- 
tion. It IS not necessary to repeat the tales of 
the well known difficulties with which they had 
to^ struggle; nor of the astonishing in^nuity 
and perseverance which their necessities cal- 
led fortii; and which has since became our first 
national characteristic — a spirit, that after re- 
moving the miseries of penury from the huts, 
which rash adventure had scattered along the 
savagea^ foreat^p-T^spiredto minister to the in- 

finitely more numerous wants of luxury and 
pifitte; nor stopt there — tait marched , daA and 
dangerous, into the fields of battle, and step! 
out upon the great deep, swe^ing with te«* 
tliousaud hands, the straggling commerce of the 
foe fi-om every sea. 

Before our revolutionary disputes commenc- 
ed, the people had begun to feel that they 
would be compelled to render themselves less 
dependent upon Britain, and companies were 
formed for the encouragement of domestic arts 
and manufactures. In Philadelphia a board 
was established for the distribtktion of premi- 
ums to tliose who should produce certain quan- 
tities of silk cocoons; and several persons be- 
gan to cultivate the Italian, or white mtdberry 
tree. Besides, theyopened a regular market, ana 
a settied, liberal price was offered for tlie silk iii ' 
cocoons. The revolutionary troubles that fol- 
lowed, and other causes, occasioned the plan 
to fall into neglect, and since that hardly any 
premiss has oeen made in that curious and 
useml branch of manufactures. It is certain-' 
ly not to tlie disadvantage of this country that 
silk is becoming supplanted by cotton. 

But the great object haa> all along, been the 
raising of wool. ITie first business of the 
Pennsylvania assembly, in the session of 17T4, 
was tiie passing of resolutions to prevent butch-^ 
ers from killing of sh^ep; recommending fru- 
gality and attention to domestic^manufactures; 
and announcing their determination, as indi^Hi- 
duals, to have no dealings with those who, in 
consequence of the scarcity (which appeared 
approaching) should raise the prices of their 
goods. The congress then sitting, did also 
strongly recommend those objects to the cokh- 
nies ^among otiier resolves for the preserva^ 
tion of American liberties,'' as it was stated. 
Meetings of private persons likewise took 
place, and measures were entered into for ef- 
fecting the same purposes. On the 29th of 
January 1775, a ^GmvenHon^^ met at Philadel- 
phia, to consider the state of manufactures and 
trade, having been elected from the city and 
different counties of Pennsylvania for that ob- 
ject Their first proceeding in that business 
was, a resolve to use their endeavors to pro- 
cure a law pr^ibiting the importation of 
slaves. The making of saltpetre was tiien 
considered of tibe greatest importance, tiiongh 
since, ^ere has been no attention paid to it, on 
account of the immense quantities found crude 
in the caves of Kentucky and elsewhere. It "" 
was then thou^t advisable to establish a ma- 
nuG&ctory of ttn-platey but it seems not to have 
been practicable under better circumstances* 
In Pennsylvania there was then no manufac- 
tory of wool combs or wool cards, tiioug^ it is 
stated that ^^some had been made in some of 
the neighboring provinces." No good steel 
had been made in America, and very little of 
any kind. Printing types were manufacture* 
at one small foundry in Germantown^ near 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Philadelphia, and it was recommended to the 
priflters to use no imported types. Many otlier 
resolutions were entered into at the samcitime, 
tnd such was the public spirit that prevailed 
then, that all their plans of economy and pre- 
caution were voluntarily and ^nerally adopt- 
ed, almost to the utmost practicable point. 

In the city of Philadelphia done, the nuih- 
ber of sheep used in 1775, was 20,000 less 
than had been used the preceding year; which 
was said to be altogetliar owing to those patri- 
otic resolutions. 

At Savannah, Georgia, there was an "•Asso- 
mtion entered intoT>y the deputies of the 
provincial congress,^' ^Ho encourage frugality, 
econon^y and mdustryy and to promote a^- 
culture, ttie art and manufacture of Amenca, 
especially that of wool; and to discountenance 
and discourage every species of extravagance 
and dissipation, especially horse-racing and 
all kinds of gaming," &c. and measures were 
taken for that purpose. ITie frugality of the 
people of these states in early times, is hardly 
credible at this day; and it is for tiiis reason 
that we said, that notwithstanding the wonder- 
ful progress of arts and manufactures among 
us, it is not quite certain that we are becoming 
more independent of other countries, for we 
have become incomparably more luxurious. — 
In 1774, it was recommended amonc the peo- 
ple of Philadelphia, to set up the fishion of 
wearing ^'leather doublets'^l How would such 
a proposition sound now? I suppose most 
people recollect the Peiinsylvania law made 

llvered by Dn Rush, in 1774: — ^''Nations, liki; 
individuals, never rise higher than When they 
are ignorant whither they are tending;. It is 
impossible to tell, from history, what will be 
the effects of industry, temperance and com- 
merce, urged on by the competition of colonies, 
united in the same general pursuits, and in a 
country which, for extent— variety of soil — 
climate and number of navigable rivers, has 
never beeneaualledin any quarter of theglol)e. 
America is trie theatre, where human nature 
will, probably, receive her last and principal 
literary, civil and military honors." 

British Revenue, &c. 

The revenue of Great Britain for the year endinjf 
July 6, 1816, was as follows : 


- 9,821,998 



Stamps - 

- 6,223,843 

Post office. 


Assessed taxes 

- 6,020,302 

Property tax 

- 14,226,442 

Land taxes • 

. 1,087.266 

Miscellaneous' - 


" T^ revenue of Great Britain in the quart e*" 
ending July 5, 1815, was 1 5,703,5 I9--In the quarte^ 
ending July 5, 1816, 13,982,917. Which latte^ 
amount is equal to tlie same quarters in 1813 and 

l^\e revenue of the year ending the 5th July, 

1816, upon a comparison with the same period in 

1815, is lessened about 2,800,000^ but exceeds the 

produce of the year 1813 by 5,599;669/. and that of 

t by 1,611,436/. 

ovdiiwry, or permanent icr^nue in 1805, 
VM S#,314,T58 

raordinarief and war taxes 15,847,519 


produetof thelouufortbe year bdtts added gare 

irand total of 76,76Q,48« 

he above. 64,567,533 includes the ordinaries and 
raordinaries— a continuance of the "war taxes" 
a time of peace, and shews an increase of taxa- 

in eleven years of 13,395,866, or at the rate of 
per cent for tiiat period. Bat in the year 1805 

"proper^ tax" produced only 4,377,583^— 
ch we see m 1816 amounted to more than 14 mi'- 
18. Whether this great difference resulted from 
increase of the per ceniwfl or of the valuation, 
ras in part made up. by additional taxes under 

same n^ad, we do not recollect to have heard, 
'he **property tax" only, of all the extraordina- 
\ or war taxes, has been repealed. The other 
IT taxis'* in 1805 produced nearly 9 millions; and 
Y may now be considered as permanent. They 
sist of extra duties on customs and excise. The 
enue for a peace establishment, deducting the 
operty tax" which leaves 50,341,091, for 1816, 
early equal to the vfor requisitions of 1805, then 
ug^t so Durtliensome ^ , 

["he depreciation of the value of money has b<^cH 
auently relied upon by British writers to shew the 
lity of the people to pay the increased amounti» 
led upon them. But if we take the stocks for a 
terlon of the value of money, this will not avail 
;m ; for the stocks in ISfiiS, when the nation wa« 
pensively at war, and carrying on 'what appeared 
t»e a hopeless and interminable contest, were fi-om 
8 per cent. beUer than they are now, in peace/ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


crease, and jointly amount to l4roiUK)ns. 
The entile expeoce to the people of Orwrt Britain U m 


r nrctBBcfit. .... LnfiOOfiOO 

fif er the »*rforioU9 battle of Waterloo/* and Us im- by non-comumption, vglrtdnctihmstlyeB. Mean, 
porTanrco,^^^^^ , wfcle the tytli« •« collected and poor rates Uw 

The deficiency of the la»t quarter of the year 
1816, as sUted above, has excited some alami. The 
deficiency for ilie next quarter will be greater, and 
it must necessarily inciea^e as the necessity of 
economy presses upon the people, IVentywc 
niillions is raised by ea-c/t*— the want of a consum]^ 
tion for the articles taxed is loudly complained of, 
and naturally will become more and more to be ap- 
prehended, as povei-ty grinds down the |)00r 9iid 
middling classes. 

But the '"property tax," about one-fourth of the 
whole, is loiit to the government. The repealing 
'act was passed in opposition to the ministry, who 
had included it in the waytf^and means. A retrench- 
jnent of expencoi is out of tlie question^ while a 
majority of parliajnent is interested in the disburse- 
men ts— but much more than the amount of the pro- 
ccec^s of that tax will be required to meet the eX; 

The total expences of the British government m 
1814, were given at 118,872,813/.— se^ vol. IX. p. 
U33. But in tliis amount was included the great 
subsidies' to foreign powers, nearly 16 millions, and 
V'hat ^Vere' called "miscellaneous services at home 
and abroad," chiefly for tecret purposes, whicl^cost 
more than 4 millions- 

The present year's expenditure will be about as 
Aimium of the iniww of the necipnfti debt, ej^ciutive of ,, /^ ^^ 

wliatomybtfiirodaeedbf theuhkiugfuml , I^W/wVWO 

Civil !i«i, eourt* of justice, roy^l taoiiTy, sensioiu, tivij 

r.stuiScoUaiid,&c . MO<S'00 

Am>y-^-9iiinaiiMl at 1 50,000 iD«n, at ap cxpeoee of 

89;)98^oo;.~But uithcftr 30,000 arv to be uiMatatiurd 

by Frt. ce ; dtiluct one-AAh %3,'iiSjW> 

|«ii\ f-«ti . . euil at ouly 3-,00O mm; but from tome eaitt- 

es unex) *VP<mn (b« tbt etliimite ot'iu cost 

tins yca'tx<N;«.-d$by*OfcOLct»ertliinate«ror 18 1 4, when 

fi*r ail avi-i'age 1I5',000 nu-n were vot«fd, and the e* 

pciiw wai 21,990,024— suppose tbt/tal/of tbil X9,008,3lS 

Qnlbauce K,000,000 

Miscellaneous, perhapi 4 niiUibiu>^^ 2,000,000 


Irelniurs pi-oporticm of this being deducted, will 
leave ubout the ro\md sum of seventy millions to be 
p: i I by Oteat Mniaitt, sliewing a deficiency of five 
ji. •. I ;o:j8 Supposing the property tax were estinuited, 
;.iKi iic other brandies of revenue were not to fall 
o:r' tor the rest of the year. A gentleman in Eng- 
la)ul, in a letter to h»s friend at New- York, says 
tlie deficiency is at the rate of $evetUeefi millions a 
year— and pretty well agrees wiili our estimate, 
which, without regard to ilie property tax,48 at the 
rate of 19 millions* and a half. 

IL tl\en results, that a peace establishment costs 
thtt people of Kngland 70 millions of pouttds, or 
31j,800,000 dollars a year— and that the revenue, 
inchuling some of the -war taxes, is al>out 50 millions, 
Iesi\ing a d^fici^ncy in peace of about 20 millions. 

Wuat we asserted several years ago is realized. 
We said tHat Great Brttain would find it more dif- 
ficult to support a peace establishment than she 
did to caUTv on tliewar. With the former state, a vast 
quuniity of her people have been thrown oat of em- 
ployment, and, instead of bearing a pal^t of the bur- 
thens as tliey did while their labor was produc- 
tive, now aild to then) by their pasuperiam, without 
any material dimmutiqn of the' expences of govern- 
matt, in wbicii, indeed, no effiifetual retrendiment, 
that we can discover, can be made, unless by ap< 
plying the sponge to th« debt— a reinedy s^ dreftd' 
tul as the disease. 

If tlie present state of England is faitlifliUy de 
scribed, and we caimot but believe timt the*,condl 
tion of Uie people is wretched bej^d all prece- 
d nt, the yct_remai]iing taxes must be nbatcd; or, 


besides other county rates and taxes. 

Exclusive of the army and navy, paupers, 8cc- Mm 
other exempted persons, thfere ar» about 8 milliona 
of peopil/B in England tha^ may be called Ux-con- 
tributing individuals, whicJi is at the rate of 1 1/. S». 
per headr-^T, for a family of eight souls, in all, ex- 
actly 90i: or 399 dollars 60 cts. per annum. 

How are we to imagine a state of things like 
this? The United States' ijevenue, estimated at 20 
mUlions, all told, whicli is m*re Uiai\ we want for 
a peace establishment, reducing our debt, pdmaps, 
quite as fast as it may be deemed expedient, givw 
an amount for each tax-contributing individual of 
about 25P cents, or for a family of 8 persons, 2© 
dollars a year. 

Gallipolis, Ohio. 

The editor of the Weekly negitter has been rccjiiest- 
ed by many of his friends at OalHpolie, to give a 
place for the followmg— andhe does it with plea- 
sure, as well to gratify his very numerous sub- . 
scribei-s there,afl to expose the malignity and false- 
hood of the British ^wmtwenf-writers. He had 
already done this pretty fully in regard to some of 
them In the second v^tone of this work, see pages 
94, 114,141, 162, shewing an utter disregard to 
truih in Smytli, Ashe, 8ic. The latter appears to 
have strangely marched-in company with hircltnjj 
^Att//r— forhe, very moderately, fci7fe</<5f all but 
"nxteen persw"^ of tRe **Jive hufutred famhe* 
who settled at Gallipolis, and ScfmUt has done 
the rest by sweeping away the place whereon the 
settlement was!--«Parno6«fc/rd<rtitfm, See vol. U- 
page 143. The probability U that neither of tliese 
fellows ever were with'm many bfundred miles of 
Gallipolis— But tliey were paid fir making a book. 
Several chaps have \dXe\y travelled to the Uniteil . 
States for the same purpose. Four of tlien\ 
landed at New-York two or three weeks ago on 
a Monday, and left it for Eng^nd agam on the 
Thursday following, «*di»gusted with tlie^coun- 
try,** whose books oftravieU vrem^y expect wiUi 
the spring importations of new goods and wares. 
From the Aoieincm Stwdard, printed at OsWpoUi, Ohio. 

7\t Chfutian SchtUtz **Jtm*r Ei^V 
Sir,— I never had the pleasure of perusing your 
*«TraveU on an inland voyage" 8ic. ho. in 1807 and 
1808 till a few weeks ago; which work I have read 
with particular attention, as it was said to be 
generally correct : but when 1 came to your descnjj*? 
tion of the town of Gallipolis, in the state of Ohio, 
I could not but feel indignant at the imposition 
pracUsed upon you by your informant or historian 
(as I am pertuaded yoit htrve never eeen the placej 
and by you upon the public, by giving a statement . 
so widely dift'erent and foreign from fact 

You say "Gallipolis was first settled by a num- 
•«ber of French families, and is said to have once 
" contained near one hundred houses. At present 
" it is fast dcclmmg, ttiost of the inliabitanls having^ 
" removed in consequence of the tickUnen of the 
"place. The land immediately back of th^town 
" IS low, having several stagnant ponds and marih€e, 
" which no doubt are the cause of its unheal - 
« thiness. This evil, 1 am of opinion, might ejusiiy 
"be remcdio*^ ut a very Irifiing expcnce, consider^ 


«• ■ # ■ 



>!< jn^ the mftgDitude of the object. When thei^bout fifteen miles in length, and is neArly one mile 
' '*rirer is high, and 9t)erfiim% itt bankt^ti considera-l wide. 

"Ue current sets through these ponds, this is 
«illdent from the quantity of drift-vfood lying up- 
"on their m^rgin^i which could have got there 
«bv no othar^means. Taking advantage of this 
"circumstance when the water is low, a canal or 
''sluice might be opened to the river both above 
«* mA below the tom-n, which, passing through these 
«»p4|as, would thus efrectuidly free them from the 
•ililpunt matter which they contain. The com- 
<* pact part of the town at present consists of about 
" twenty jh)e houses, and the land on which it stands 
♦*hM evidently been formed by accumulaiiom from 
" each mcceMwxm Jlood. At present, by some change 
"in the course of the current, it is fast washing 
"away again? so that in all probability, in fifty 
"years to come, even the adte of GaUipoHi -will be 
^fif^Uteu, Trees which were buried for ages are 
** now seen exposed in every part of the bank, as it 
"dttly tumbles into the river.*' 

•'The buid on the Virginia shore is much more 
» elevated thui that on the Ohio side, and along the 
** river is said to be equally good; but the greatest 

* proportion of bottom land is evidently on the Ohio 

Now sir, to follow you through the aboice maze 
of errors, and make necessary comments and deduc- 
tions-tad convince those who are strangers to our 
tountry, that you have done this place injustice, 
vmild require a work almost as volu^nous as your 
CMrated Ti-aveh-^l shall therefore content my- 
lelf, at this time, by barely sUting the teal facts, 
on the several points which you have so grossly 

In the first instance, the town, at the time you 
^ft«eii(f to have vitited it, contained as many houses 
as at any previous date— and owing to the remarka- 
ble health'mess of the place, and other very flatter- 
if^ natural advantages, has ever since been rapidly 
MNasing. <'The land immediately back of thQ 
town is" as high and dry as any other part of tlie 
towoi neither is there a pond or marsh, within 
sewBd mUes of the town, into which a aingle drop 
o^ittter from the Ohio river, or any other stream, 
was ^er deposited. The toiyn is built on an ex- 
tensive pifadn^ foitrteen and a fuilf feet above /affh 
leater mark, I am at a loss to conjecture where 
jou found your •'drift twod"— the charms of the 
•swn must be imcommonly coaxing to attract a 
part of the Ohio river up a solid bank, fourteen 
snd a half feet higher than any otlier person has 
ever seen it, &r tlic simple puipose of decorating 
your journal with a little *'drifi -wood/" I am ac 
quainted with the situation of almost every town 
00 tips banks of the Ohio; and shall be warranted 
iD si^g, that the streets of Gallipolis will be dry, 
i^ eveiy other town will be entirely destroyed 
W swept away by the water. 

GalUpolis at this time consists of about one 
handred bouses, built on a solid foundation, which 
his certainW never been washed by any iiood since 
the days oTNoah : and will remain till ages after 
At •O'ravels of Christian Scbultz, jun. esq." are 
fixgotten. The course of the cun-ent of tlie river, 
j^ to all appearance the same as it was a thousand 
ytars ago; ind if we have a rig^U to judge from t)ie 
ptsent prospect, we may rationally conclude, that 

* ^Jlfi^jfsar/* this town will equal in magnitude 
fl^ Ott^r tpwn on the Oliio (Cincinnati and Louis- 
wMy extet>ted.) 

Should you happen to travel this way, you will 
find, on a review of Gallipolis, that my statement 
is correct : and when, as a genileman, you will be 
willing to correct vouV own. A CITIZEN. 

GalUpoHt^ Augwt 29, 1816. 


Public Law, 

From the Aurora, — We have been favored with 
the following, as being an opinion delivered l)y a 
magistrate of this city, with respect to a Bpiii>h 
sraman, who is said to have deserted fi-ora a Briiish 
merchant vessel, in a port of the United States, and 
against whom process of airest was desired. 

Sir — The application which has been made to 
me, fijr process against a British sean\aji, who is 
represented as having entered into ai'ticles of ship- 
ment in the port of Londondeny, for the perform 
ance of the voyage from thence to the Uni'ed 
States, and back to the said port; and who it is 
alleged, absented himself from on board tlie British 
vessel in a port of the United States, has been 
attentively considered. 

My opinion is, that no alderman^ orjitxtrce of the 
peace, has a right tp compel the foreign British 
seaman, to render himself on board the vessel; or 
in otlier words, to compel his departure from the Unit* 
ed States, 

Cases have occurred, in which process of this 
nature have been issued; but as far as my research 
has gone, that process has been exclusively fountU 
ed upon the conventiotuU law of nations; or in other 
terms, upon express stiptdutions by treaty. 

In examining the late treaty with Great Britain, ■ 
(made at Ghent) no provision of the nature alluded 
to is to be found; and, of course, t^hc general law 
of nations only can be applied. — Under our for- 
mer treaty with France, an express |)rovision was 
introduced; whether it has been since continue<l 
by a later compact, I cannot asceruvi, not having 
the public documents under my inspection.* 

What then is the general tavf of nations? A 
recourse Mill not be had to quotations from Vattel, 
Grotius, Puffendorf, or other eminent writers; but 
I will be satisfied with drawing your attention to 
the requisition made by Afr. Genet, the French 
minister here, in 1793, a compliance with which 
was refused by the government of tae United States, 
during the administration of president Washington. 

The silence of Mr. Genet upon the receipt of 
Mr. Jefferson's answer, leads to the conclusion, 
that the former acquiesced in the position assume 
ed by the latter. The following is tlie substance 
of Mr. Genet's letter: 

Galbaud, Tangu>', and others, hud been on bo.nrd 
some French vessels in the waters of the Unite<l 
States, and had been actors in a mutiny, and had 
escaped from on board the Prencii ship Jupiter, ia 
the sute of New York; the application of Mr. Genet 
was, that the UnUedStates' government would Cause 
them to be arrested. 

To this application, Mr. Jefferson, who was then 
secretary of state, made reply— ««'i%tf lavs of this 
**CQuntry take «• notice of crimes committed out of 
*^their jwist&ction. The most atrocious offender 
"coming within tlicir pule, is received by them ftt 
**an innocent 9naJt, and they have uiiihorised no one to 
I ''seize or deliver hitnV 
\ I am aware of the practices prevalent in some 

on the Virginia shore, is about sixteenl nations of Europe; and have no doubt but Uiat an 
than that oji the Ohio side. Opposite! American seamen deserting in some of the fl^reitrn 
is a very rich bottom which extend /ports, would be ordered to return to his vtssti tor 

jiiized by 



06 NtLES' WEEKLY JlEGIS'l'EIl-.SATmiDAY, SEPT?5lBgE2l, 1816. 

the perform&Hoe of the vepg/s. ^ut cases hayc oc- 
ciiiTcd, «ven ih Eng^land, where interference was 
refused. DiHcrent states have adopted different 
reg'ul aliens. In wmtf, redress must he ftonj^lit fur 
tlirougli tlic admiruity; — in othei'9, lh£ municipal re- 
gtdalions of tlie country, founded upon statutiiry 
provisions, may suffice. But in those nations \yhere 
til ere are no .est^JlH^hcd laws, the will of t!ie ma- 
pistrule operate$ti1kW, and this can forni np rule, 
bee .Mse the «Bts Tjif the ipan are not binding on his 


Ai, however, it is resolved into what \s 
termed the comity of nations. Its introduction 
aniong m is a matter of </letf»r, not of retrret. — 
Strong, however, as that desire may be, reHection 
vi!l hesitate in giving an assent to the exercise of 
ju! isdiction, in cases of this kind, to ininop ipo^t- 
iruifSy in hastily <;enditig emigrants from s^y cpun- 
tr'-, under the protection pf whos^ laws Uiey ?ee^ 

The act of congress, which maybe emphaticaUy 
thfledA pjirt of our navigation system, beai's no ope- 
ration upon tliis subject. It refers to a^m en em- 
ployed i|l ovr arunj. ve^tels, and vnder our oion Icews. 
It docs not cmhrace the case of foreign seamen. 

The reasons for the refusal to grant the writ, are 
tl)us thi'own hastily together. I may be wrong; but 
under .preseiU. impressions, all pix)cess in cases 
analogous to }ours, will be refused. 
With sentiments of respect, 

I am, dear sir, yours, &.c. M. K. 

To Ht. ■ ■ , Merchant. 

Chickasaw Notice. 

Fbox the HisHViLLt WHIG. — Brethren of the 
wkiiea — It is with the most unfeigned pleasure that 
we contemplate the lon|^ and steady fi*ieiuUhip sub- 
sisting between our nation and our American white 
brethren, and the late hospitable and generous 
xnaghanimity manifested towards ourselves and our 
nation, as well by the goveniment as by the citi- 
aens of the United Stales, ^Ives ^s an additional 
proof, that when we renounced the friendship of 
all other nations, for yours, on that day we ob- 
tained tiie stpest gusirantee for our happiness and 
<uir interest— the friendshin of a nation too gene- 
rous to do wroiig, and too bravie to oppress. \Ve 
avail ourselves of the present opportunity to de- 
clare, on the part of our nation, that every friendly 
and hospitable attention so strongly manifested on 
the part of the whites, 19 as strongly recipix)cated 
on the part of ourselves and our nation. Feeling 
ouriMelves perfectly secure in the enjoyment of all 
our rights, so far as they depend on the friendship 
and the justice of the American people, we consider 
it our greatest interest (as we know it to be our 
greatest pleasure) to cement by the most sincere 
interchange of friendly and hospitable attention, 
that friendship that so happily subsists between 
Qur respective nations, as well by promoting tlie 
interest as by administering to the wants of those 
whose chance and destiny may afford us the oppor- 
tunity of manifesting by our practice what we now 
declare to be our profession. 

Impressed with these sentiments, we feel it a 
duty incumbent on us to make known, that at a 
late council held by the Chickasaw nation, it has 
been unanimously decided^ that the horde of strag- 
gling- pedhirs that have so long infested our nation 
(and who, we presume, are uMoown to any regu- 
lation of their own government and unauthorised by 
)aw) is dangerous to the good understanding that 

HOW substfto b^twec;^ our mtUon mi ^e citizois of 

the United States. Was apy argument necei*sary'to 
enforce this idea, it will be found in the histoiT of 
tlie late traiis:iction that has taken place in the Che- , • 
rokee nation. The igncjrant and unwary qf our |Mr* 
tion are continually imposed on by those peculators. ^ 
wlio bear no more resemblance to merchants thaii **' 
**^c\v brokers** do to bankers. And this js too often 
followjid by violence on the p.-^rt of our people, 
whose minds have not as yet un<lcrgone so radical 
a change, nor the early habits of their educatsonjfc 
sufficiently eradicated, as to feel themselves conten^ff 
M^ith that redress which Js drawn fifim Uie lardy 
(though certain) process of the law. We tlierefore 
caution, in the sti-ongest terms, all such persons 
fi-om entering our nation, for the purpose of car- 
rying on their (heretofore) coursa of tr.iflic, as the, 
nation will not feel themselves responsible for the 
chances springing from their transactions. 

Being now about to enter the limits of our owr\ 
nation, we avail ourselves of this opportunity to 
acknowledge our sincere gratitude- for the many ' 
kind and hospitable attentions tl^t we have expe- 
rienced from the people of Nashville, and all other 
parts of the union that we have visited, and we 
W\mld be Irnppy of tlic opportunity of returning 
those friendly civilities at anv time in our nation, * 
Brig', gen. of the Cluchasaxos. 
U. & interpreter to the Chickcuanot ^ 

August r, 1816. 

Banks and Bank Notes. 

Treasurt; Department, Sept. 12th, 1816. 

The propositions made by this department for 
commencing the pnyment of small sums in coin, on 
the first day of October, 1816, has been generally, 
declined by the state bankf, whicli have hereto- 
fore suspended their specie payments. — Aud as an 
arrangjpment for supplying tlie people with the 
requisite medium to pay their duties and taxes, 
independently of the state banks, cannot be con- 
veniently made until the bank of tlie United States 
shall be in operation, no further measures will be 
pursued with a view to the collection of the re- 
venue in coin, on the said first day of October, 1816. 

But jn pursuance of the resolution of congress^ 
passed pn the 29th day of April, 1816, 
JVotice is hereby given. 

That from and after the 20th day of February, 
1817, all duties, taxes, debts, or sums of money, 
£«cruing or becoming payable to the United Sutes, 
must be paid and collected in the legal currency 
of the United States, or treasury notes or notes 
of the bank of the United Statgs, or in notes of 
banks which are payable and paid on demand in 
the leg^ cturency of the United States, and not 

And all collectors and receivers of public money ' 
are recjuired to pay due attention to the notice 
hereby given, and to govern themselves in the col- 
lection and receipt of the public dues, duties, and 
taxes, accordingly. 

The collectors of the customs, and of the direct ^ 
tax and internal duties are requested to make this V^* 
notice generally known, by all the means in their 
power. And the printers authorized to publish the 
laws of the United States will be pleased to insert 
it in their respective newspapers. 

A. J. DALLAS, Seci^y of the tretutfy. 


At a convention of repreq^tatxves horn twen^^ 

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iiicorporat.ed by act of |next, that each of <he banks forlUwith pa«? a resoltu 

held ut Hairisburi^h on 



it. 1816, in pursuance of Circulars 
all the country banks, by Hie officers 

_^ G^GG^ Esq. nrcsidenl of the Centre 

baak^«f Peiyisyl^iMa, being appointed chair- 
man, jmd 
.l49£s DiorcAV^ Esq. president of the Carlisle 
■ *iBretary. 
koiiiHng^ resolutions vere proposed, and 
aB2xaasmy adSj^d, viz. 

Res^ecL^^lit the country banks of Pennsyl- 

piiA, repramied at this meeting, in compliance 

All tbe pume wishes and fiscal arrangements of 

the. treasury department, will resume th£ payment 

cf specie on tke ^aroe 4?^ on which the banks of 

Xew.Tork, I^Da^elphia, and Baltimore shall have 

adopted a iiroilar measure; and that in order to a 

f iimultaneo^ movement in the resumption of specie 

' piyoiefit, a comjnittee of this convention be directed 

to coomitinlcmte with the city banks and endeavor, 

to HUSct an arnmgement on thi< important subject. 

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing- proceed 

L jngs of this minting, signed by th|5 chairman and 

^ec^4|Q^ he forwarded to the secretary of the 

tmsu^f the United States, and b^ published in 
fl« Mwq)apers. ' 

ANDREW GREGG, cjxairmaii. 
Attest— JixKsDvii CAN, secretary. 
Bam'tbw^h, I3th Sept 1816. 

Dehgates from nearly all the chartered bt^ks 
of Ohio, convened at Chillicothe on the 6th inst. 
tfortheporpoivc of agreeing on some general course 
' fW|»ctin^ thie resumption of specie payments. — 
Their deUberations resulted in the following reso- 
I JUiohed, That it would not be safe or prudent 
ibr th^iAnks of Ohio to resume th^ payment of 
t^ir DQtis in specie until th^ payment of specie 
^ become general s^t the banks of the Atlantic 
ci^ ' ' 

aenhtiglio. That as j^oon as it /shall be ascertain, 
dthat dbl^yment of specie lias become general at 
tbe banks of the Attotic cities, the banks of Ohio, 
l^e represented, are ready, and pledge themselyes. 
to pay spepie for their notes. 

^^etohfed. That these proceedings be sigmed 
by the president vA secretary of tms convention, 
M that the presioent communicate a copy there- 
of to the secretary of the treasury of the United 
Sutes as their answer to his circular letter of th^ 
^84^ July last. 

1 1^'^ ^•'*» ^^P^' ^^' — ^* * convention of delegates 
I from t^e banks of New York, Philadelpliia, and 

Wtimjic, held in Philadelphia, on the 6th of Aug. 

1816, t&e ibUowing resolution and preamble were 

paned .imanimously. 

tion to that <i(fe^ and communicate tlie sajne to 
the secretary of flfc treasury : Provided, ho waver. 
That this resoltrfJKMi is not to be so construed as to 
prevent any bank from resuming specie payments 
;it aTi earlier peri<^, if it shall be thought proper. 

The general committee representing the bank of , 
New York, Merchants' bank, Mechanics*, ha^k, 
bank of America, City bank, and ^e b^k of the 
New York Mamifacturing' Company, gWe notice. 
That the boards of directors of tJ)ese institutions,, 
have severally passed resohitions to resume their 
payments in specie on the first Monday of July nest. 

This i'esolution has been adopted in eonforinity 
with the recommendation of the convention of banks 
in Philadelphia; and tlie banks in Philadelphia and 
Baltimore, have also agreed to recommence specie 
payments on the same day. 

The general committee are aware that an earlier 
day would have been desirable on many accounts, 
and especially to meet the views of the government 
to obtain payment of the revenue in legal money 
after the 20th February next; but they have no 
doubt that the con^derations which influenced the 
convention of delegates to recommend a day so 
distant, and the several boards of directors to con- 
firm it, will be duly appreciated. 

To fix a definite period when the banks m' Plii* 
Iftdelphia, Baltimore and New*York, should simul. 
taneously resume tlieir specie payments, and that 
the period named sliould be such as to preclude 
the possibility of disappointment, appeared to ^ 
the most essential objects. 

To make the reduction of mercantile accommo- 
dation uiiich the resumption of specie payments 
would render necessary, as gradual as possible, 
when the merchants were suffering nnd^ the sevei*- 
est pressure from the state of our commerce, was 
jilso a desirable object. It was believed tliat the 
bank of the United States ai>d its branches, would, 
at that time, be so fur in operation, as not only pow- 
erfully to aid thp merchants in their payments to 
the custom house, but to apply, in part, at least, 
that accommodation which tlie state banks would 
be obliged to abridge. 

When the circumstances of the times rendered 
it absolutely necessary, in the opinion of the- gene- 
ral committee, to suspend payments in specie, they 
relied on the support of their fellow citizens, if 
such step9 were taken by tlic banlts as were likely 
to diminish the dangers incident to a paper circula-> 
tion, when unchecked by the only effectual re- 
straint, the payment of specie. For this purpose, 
they pledged themselves to each other, and to the 
public, to prevent an improper increase of paper, 
and th^y limited, very strictly, their loans and is- 
sues. When their conduct is reviewed with a due 
allowance for the difficulties of the situation, the 
general committee rely with confidence, that th^' 
will be justified in the opinion of tlieir fellow citi- 
zens, and that it will be admitted they have re- 

I'nited States ^d the branches thereof, will not 
otn complete^operation at an earlier period than 
^'^^^ and it being considered as important 
to ^ safe return of the state banks to the pay- 
^ of specie for all demands \ipon them, that 
y^Qeamre should be nearly as practicable, simul- 
7^ on the part of the sUte banks, and the bank 
^J^ Vnited 6Utes in PMiadelphia, and of iu 
"»cWii|Kew York and Baltimore— therefore, 

*«ifan4 "lliat it be recommended to the banks in 
tl!!.^!^ Fhilsdelphiay and Baltimore, to resume 

*~ ' in sp^ci^ on th^ first Monday in July 

Wioois, it is believed. That the bank of the f<ieemed their pledge. By order of the general com- . 

mittee. (Signed) 

WM. FEW, chairman, 
ClIAS. WILKES, sed'r^' 

Foreign Articles. 

The great banking nouse of Gordon, Murphy, 
O'Farrei and co. of Madrid and London, has stop* 
ped payment. This was one of tlie most extensive 
concerns of its kind ifi the world — in their various 
establishments they employed 360 cleiiLS. They 
estimated their profits at 237,000£ and returns atf 
7 ipillioDS st^Hng. Mr. Gordon is a member of 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


parliftment, and Marphey and O'Farrell are consi- 
dered as Qoblemen in Spain. The fiither of Mur« 
ph'ey some years a^o purchased an estate in Ireland 
for which he p^id 4^370,000 steiling. A London 
paper of the SOtli of July notices the failure of ^e 
Chipping' Norton and Tnnwflrth bajiks. These in- 
stitutions appear daily failing. 

A second dreadful massacre has taken place at 
Tunis-^in which many Christians were cut off— En§^- 
Ush, French and Spanish. 

The French fimds decline: 5 pe» cents only 57 
1-2. A few executions still take place; the usage 
is to cut off the right band and then gullotine the 
condemned. The harrest in Spain is now said to 
be very abundant. A Russian minister has arrived 
at Vienna wiU) very important despatches. Sir R. 
Wilson and his companions on being released, were 
or<lered immediately to quit France. Smyrna is 
represented as in a very distressed state by the 
<* venerable" government of the Turks. The plague 
has ceased its ravages. The ex-kmg of Holland, 
JLouit Boiiaparie, is living retired and apparently 
<x>ntented at the baths of Lucca. Jsrotnef ex-king 
of Westpbaha, is to reside at Brann, Moravia, by 
permission of Austria. The ex-empress Maria 
Louisa was e^^kected at Lucca. British stocks, Aug. 
3 — ^ JH'* ^^"^' co^ols 6^ 1-4* Bennftark b said to 
have'lKeded to the "Holy alliance." 

The deficiency of the French revenue is stjited 
At' 200,000,000 francs— about one fourth of the es- 
timated expences of the year. If this be so, the 
report that France declared her inability to pay the 
allied armies is probably true. 

Meetings were daily held throughout BAgland 
to take into consideration the distresses of the poor 
and to provide the most effectual means of relief 

A very large and respectable mating of the no- 
bility and gentry, was held at the London tavern, 
on tlic 29th of jiily, to take into consideration the 
distressed state of tlie lower classes, and the most 
^ectnal means of extending n^ef.^ The proceed- 
ings fill the Courier of the 30th. A subscription 
was immediately opened, and a considerable sum 
was deposited. 

The countries on the Black sea have had most 
luxurant harvests. Many vessels filled with grain 
have arrived at Malta, seeking a market. 

The plague rages in Cyprus and at Alexandria. 
I€ has ceased in Cprfu and Calabria. 

While they were chopping oft' the hands and cut 
tingoff the beads of some persons lately executed 
for treason at Paris, it is exultingly said that the 
people most lustily slwuted vive le rot/ vivcpt les 

Messi-s. Savary and Lallemand bad been some 
time at Sm>T;ia. The latter had left that place, it 
was supposed, for England. Savarv remained, and 
was preparing a narrative of the late events ; he 
states that Napoleon was received by captain Mait- 
land ( n condition that he should remain in England. 

)fad. /Mvaiietie is said to have joined her husband 
tt J^fumch. 

jimerican Stocki at l^ndon, Aug. 4. 3 per cents. 
51; 6 per cents. 8L 

In consequence of the great silver coinage now 
going on in England, they who had hoarded up 
small cliange have tliroAvn it into circulation, and 
it is said that the retailer and banker is absolutely 

launched at Venice, and a ahifl of the line and a fij 
g^te are on the stocks. He has some cruising vei 
seU in the Adriatic. 

A party of 12 dragoons, headed by a Sffrve^for 
the excise, proceeded on the 20th of July Ism. ti 
a place near Inniskean, Ireland^ to seize an uiiiaa'-^ 
ful still, which thev got possession of. But tlxi 
people collected, a nard fi^t ensued, in which the 
dragoons expended all their ammunition, three o 
them were left for dead on the field, and.Jli^ still 
was recovered and carried off in triumph. SoBl Ut 
tie battles are by no maans unfi*eqnent Farce i 
the law of the government and people of Ireland. 

Bankruptcies are still numerous in Great Brilail 
and Ireland. Some of them fi>r very great amount! 

In May last a young Greek, only 18 years old| 
was induced to abandon his religion and turn Mi 
hometan; he soon repented, and returned to th 
Greek church. This being reported to the gram 
vizier he was brought before him, and, alter n 
preaches, was directed again to receive instruction 
preparatory to his second joining with the Malmet 
tans. But he reftised to be instructed, and ad^ei! 
the judge to turn Christian. Upon this he was bej 

The ennstment of boyt as drummers and fife 
for the recruiting service in England, is ordered « 
be discontinued, ^except in the case of corps sta 
tioned in India and the cape of Good.Hope.** Bu 
the bojrs at present enlisted are to be retained. 

The Ionian hlet. By what is said of the repubU 
of the Ionian Isles, in the proclamation iii»ert< 
below, it will appear they are as mere fUmUt c 
Great Bakain. 

Lord Exmouth*$ expedition occupies a large shar 
of the public attention. We have accounts of hi 
arrival at Gibraltar, where it is said he was coueci 
ing transportato carry the troops to Algiers. 'Shi 
lleet consists of 18 saiil, and besides has been j^ 
cd by the Dutch squadron and some other vessel 
in the Mediterranean. We are very impatient t 
learn the resMlt of these vast preparations; but hav 
our apprehensions that.. th« hope of the civiUz< 
world will be disappdfiited. 

Some accounts saf that the dey has made ^ 
preparations to receive the British, being asaiste 
by many* French enrineers — others again inform \ 
that the most valuable effects had been removed ' 
to the interior, and that the resistance^ if ig 
would be weak and ineffective. There has ali 
been a report that a squadron of 7Wki*h ships h 
arrived at Alg^iers; and it is said that the Capta 
Pacha, with 25 sail, is cruising in the Archipela] 

The British frigate with the Algerine ami 
dor to the Sublime Porte remained at the isl, 
Tenedos, the grand seignior refusing to allow 
to pass the Dardanellea. The ambassador wish 
to be landed at the island ; bul^the commander 
the frigate declared he woidd carry him back 
Algiers, unless he was allowtd to land him at Gc 

7%tf Lakee. — A London paper of July 20, ob^ 
serves— The Americans lose no time in adding tc 
their navy, and accumulating hands. Ab<H|t thi 
middle of June, tlie schooner Erie, of about eS|^ 
tons, was launched at Black Hock. 

FTIiis schooner Erie is a merchant vessel. The Bri 
tish must build many ships on the lake belbre wt 

specie detained in the hands of individuals in the 
United States, which,, if .liberally brought forth, 
woukl be fully competent to every ncedM purpose. 
The emperor of Atistria appears determined to 
*»avc a small navy— fivf liglit ress^a have ben 

oppressed with it. QCj^Tbere » a vast quantity of shall find it necessary to increase our fierce there 

The editor who made this paragraph, no doubt 
was ignorant of i*erry*t victory on hdce Brie, Ir 
which we possessed all the vessels on it. The Bn 
ttsh are exceedingly jealous about these lake», aiM 
seem bent upon sometiimg we do not vndexvland 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



to Uie fiiLCts ^ely spread before our 
( ORt^ subject, W^e Landon heid under 
ke tee ofAugust 1, inserted belew.] 
' Ife ^Mitaiv.— 'A letter from Calcuttn says^ 
Tbreefiimtiy ships have been burnt by the Las- 
an wi£u a month, and two more partially de- 
ftj^edi one fX Java and three attempted at Cal- 
uttL Some discontents among the Lascars occa- 
«gei these acts of villainy." 

which he travelled, having come in a chaise and 
four, which is a novel sfght in time of peace. 

DscENGT \-^Londim, JiUy 30.— We rej^ret to hear, 
that in the conti^iued indisposition of otir amiable 
and beloved princess, her illtistrious lord and the 
nation are alike disappointed in the hopes to which 
the fii*8t symptoms so fondly and so universaUy gave 
rise. In plain langiiage,,hpr royal highness has ex- 
perienced a miscafriag^ ! ! V* 

Another paper, however, denies the report, and 
rejoices to let the world loiow that Charlotte car- 
ries a Dutchman'^ child! What wretched stnfF. 
It reminds me of a fact which occurred shortly after 
the dauphin, son of Louis XVI. was born: the ladiet 
got up a color for new dresses, wluch they delicately 
named after the excrements of tlie baby, ami «o 
publicly called it. This is a leg'iUmate hct. The Lon- 
doners appear in a fair way to rival the Pajisians 
of the "old school." 


Jl Proclamatioru By H. B. the right honorable sir 
Thomas Maitlaitd, G. C. B. of U. B. M. most ho- 
norable privy council. It, general, and commander in 
chief of H. M. forces in the Mediterranean, govern- 
or of Malta audits dependencies, and H. M. lord 
high commissioner in the United States of the Io- 
nian islands. 

Prom the moment of his excellency's landing in 
these states, it has been his most earnest wish :ind 
constant endeavor to husli the contest of the pas- 
sions wliich hitherto agitated the public mind, and 
to comf>ose the unhappy differences to which had 
given rise the uncertainty of former political rela- 

In adopting this principle, his excellency was 
solely actuated by the desire of burying in ol^livioii 
the memory of the p^st, and CMrying into full ef- 
fect his ^cious sovereign's beneficial intention to- 
wards this nation, which the treaty of Paris has 
placed under his exclusive protection. 

But, while his excellency wished to draw a veil 
over all past occurrences, it was tioi to be suppus- 
ed that he could view with ipdifference in any quai^- ' 
ter, and subsequent to his arrival, any attempt to 
revive former jealousies, or to create new grounds 
of differences and qiuirrels. 

Animated with tliese principles, his excellency 
on tlie one hand, saw witli great satisfaction, the 
generally exemplary condu^ct of tlie natives of thes^ 
states; but on the other, perceived with the utmost 
I egret, that a few insulated individuals of quite a 
different temper, showed an inclination to cherish 
ancient feuds and to raise new ones, to propogate 
dissensions under false and imaginary pretences, 
and lastly to consolidate tJieir improper and usurp- 
ed authority, by endeavoring to establish a diversi- 
ty of interests betwcea the prutceling sovereign Bn4 
the protected states. 

But every sense of moderation must yield to the 
sense of his excellency's duty to his sovereign and 
to the people of these states.' 

The time is come at last, when tlje nature of Bri- 
tish forbearance should be explained, and tlie 
grounds of British moderation made known. 

The lord high commissioner, acting upon these 
principles, has tliis day, reluctantly tr«insmitteil, 
to the most illustrious president of the senate of 
Corfu, the documents aniuixed, for the information 
of the public, to the present procUimatlon, And, 
however painful it may be for his excellency at any 
tijne to adopt measures of this description, lie will 
shew, whenever the case shall require it, that ihe 
British- government has the necessary authority to 
carry into effect its just and moderate views, and 

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that his majest)r's representative-will know how lo 
resist every pretension that mi^ht s^oreily or open- 
ly compromise that imity of action and interests be- 
tween the protectiug" sovereig-n and the protected 
state, M^hich was tiic essential basis of the Paris 

TJie present proclamation shall be printed in 
Greek and Italian, and pub iislied for tlie informa- 
tion of all. 

Puluce, Corfu, May 23, 1816. 

By )u» excellency's command, 

WM. MEYER, sca^y to governmsvt. 

[By the above mentioned documents, four scna- 
tors and the secretary of the senate arc deprived of 
their situations. Very **modei'ate,"] 

JParii^ July 27. The foUowing is 911 accurate ac- 
- count of the present place of abode of Ihe 38 per- 
sons mentioned in the second article of the ordi- 
nance of tli^"25th of July, 1815, and dHvcn from 
Prance by theUw of the 12th of Januiirj', 1816 — 

Felix i^p«lletier, Excelmans, Frcssinel, Lamar- 
que, Harel, Barrcre, Arnud, Pommereul Gorrau, 
Merlin (of Douay,) Defermont, Bury, S:iint Vincent, 
Gamier (of Saintes,) Mellinet, UuUin, Courtin, and 
Tandamme, are at Brussels, or its envirous; Soult 
is at Dusseldorf; Alix, at the property of his wife, 
near Hesse Cassel; Bassajio, at Gratz, in Austria; 
Marbos, at Frankfort; Bouisy (d» la Meurlhe) at 
Coblentzj Mphee de la Touche, at Constance; Thi- 
badeauy atT»rague; Carnot, at Warsaw; Lobau, at 
Aiz laChapellc; Fi^, in Russia; Kegnault (de St. 
Jean d'Angely,) at Philadelphia; Arrigjhi (of Pa- 
dua,) Derjean, the son, and Durbach, m Austria; 
Real has embarkied at Antwerpt, iTor the U. States; 
Bouvier 4e Moulard is at Sarrebruch, where he 
possesses 'pi*operty; Dirat, at Philadelphia; Felix, 
Desportes, at Mayence; Cluys, in the United States; 
Porbin Janson, at Rome; Le Lorgue d'Ideville, in 
England; Gilly, Grouchy, Clausel, and one of tlie 
brothers Lellemand, comprised in the first article of 
the same Ordinimce, are in America; Ameilh, after 
having been arrested in the kingdom of Hanover, 
bas embarked for America; Lallemand, the elder, 
and Savary, have left Smyrna, on their yr^y to Persia. 

LonJoHf July 19. — ^Tliere is a falling off in one 
branch of iron works in Staffordshire, which the 
fHends of humanity have no reason to regret. It is 
that whicli consisted in making neck yokes, chains, 
thumb scrervs, &c. for the negco slaves in the West 

Juh/ 24. — Some additional papershave to day been 
received from the U. States, and private communi- 
cations advefting to a situation of affairs of conside- 
rable importance. It is said that the unambitious 
character of Joseph, ex-king of Spain and the In- 
dies, has been powerfully worked upou, by a nu- 
merous body of generals, who reg^ned their fame 
under Bonaparte, and who having fled to America 
ibr refuge, are uneasy at the state of inaction to 
which they have been reduced. These persons, we 
are told, have urged Joseph to resume his preten- 
sions as king of the Indies, and have offered to 
unite their means with those of the Insurgents of 
Mexico, to drive the Spaniards from their colonies, 
and to establish a mighty empire on the shores of 
the Pacific. We are further informed, that noth- 
ing hits prevented the immediate engagement in 
this enterprise, but the refusal, on the part of the 
government of the United States, to undertake any 
ostensible co-operation. [Manufactured.] 

An article from Nuremberg of t!ie 3d inst. says 
— **rhe celebrated Sacro Catino, or the holy ves- 
sel which Christ is said to have used at the last sup- 
per, and whkh vtm brought to Genoa in 101, is 

come back/rom France to Genoa, with other pi^ 
riosities. 'pie king designed to give it iMpk to ^ 
church of St. I.nrenza, where it was at^ys kept 
On the 15th of June, the case in which it waspacl^ 
ed was opened in thcpifcsence of the maj^trates 
and tlie clerg)'; when, to the gciefof all the per- 
sons present, the vessel was found to .be broken 
On this occasion Genoa has recdvereo'ijt^'eral valu- 
able MSS. and the celebrated painting by Julio 
RonMino, representing the martrydom of St. Stc- 
phei:." - .' 'K^: 

Tlie application of the nobles of Pomerania to 
the king of Prussia to re-introduce the fQ|§al sys- 
tern has been rejected by a royal cabinet' opdeK, 
vrhich tli^ chancellor, prince Hai'denberg, ^has ac- 
companied by a severe reprimand. — [Good.] 

iSVocit"*— Without any ap||arent cause, stocks hart 
decUnetl this morning, and the market clos^ as 
follows : — 

Red Ann. 63 7-8— Consols 65 1-2— Do. for acct. 
6-1 3-4. 

As a proof of the defalcation jn tlie revenue, in 
the article of wine, we understand that the orpl^n 
tax alone ^received by the corporation of the city 
of London) on that article, for the^bst halfyesr, 
which used to average 2,200^ did not exceed 7001- 

JlvyuKt 1. A considerable sensation was produc- 
ed in the city tliis morning by the fbWowingjttex- 
pected notipje from the transport hoai*d: 

**'rranspovi Office, %l9t July, 1816. 

*f Wanted conveyance 01 the undermentioned 
stores, via.— 5,200 tons of ordinance stores, to Ca- 
nada. Tenders to be received on Satqrday tlie 3d 
of August. 

This notice was immediately considered as a bos- 
tile symptom. We believe we can remove any ap 
Erehensions of this kind. Several fortifications wefV 
egun upon the lakes immediately after peao<( waa 
made. Some vessels also were laid down— 4)0tii 
require guns and stores. It is known also that the 
barracks at Quebec were b^mt, and a considei«bk 
quantity of stores destroyed. These must be re- 
placed, and gt>vemment are sending them out at ^ 
proper time of the year. 

A Sicilian frigate had been at Gibraltar, and tak- 
en on board about 400,000 dollars. She^was ex|)«:t- 
edto wait in the Mediterranean for the British 

Jidy 30.— We received this morning AmericW 
papers to the 6th insU a very late indeed. 

Xjavalette is ^d to have arrived in Philadelphia 
— we disbelieve it. But the report affords the editor 
of a Boston paper an opportunity to pay the most 
fulsome compliment to Messrs. Wilson, Hutchinson 
and Bruce, and to lament that the gallant Ney and 
the accomplished Labedoyre had not been equalh 
fortunate. The editor characterises the treason 
of which Lavalette was convicted, as merely *'« 
difference of opinion from his oppressors." Thl 
he says was the only cause! Robbery he migh 
as justly describe as a mere chancre of property 
And yet the American editor would be offended 
perhaps, if any one was to call his patriotism anc 
love of fbeedom into question. There seems to b< 
a strange want of correct ideas upon almost ever^ 
subject in America. Thus one of the most esu 
mable officera in the American service, a brave anc 
humane man, commodore Decatur^ gave as a pub 
lie toast lately, "Our country ; in her intcrcoursj 
with other nations, may she be always ri^t, an^ 
always successful right or wrong.** And this toasi 
the official paper of the American government calls 
"a just sentiment never better expressed — a nobl 
patriotism never more b^utifuUy illustrated." 

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Tnit i*i dull and distress great in all parts of 
trie Cnited Statics — That the same complaint sliould 
^egendfU?** ^^^ same time both in tlie old world 
iad new, is not one of the least extftiordinarv 
circumytaxiccs of tliesc most extraordinary times. 


l^nd^n dates of the I2th of Aiu^mt. 

Business was extremely dull in London, Ang^ist 
i, and no fheights to hehad. The best of ships 
c>'ild be chartered, ^?ith crews, &c. for 450/. to any 
pirt of the Unii ed States. 

The duke of Wellington was e;tpected to le;ive 
E-?}rlan4. on the 13th of August. 

The i&ig of France is making the greatest efforts 
tftj^et an army. He is resorting to "conscription," 
i%iha^t|kfcen into hi employ officers of all nuiks, 
»fco servTO upder Bonaparte, not mailed as <decid- 
tS* eflcinieftiDr the Bourbons. The government is 
■37- Vigtlast in preventing the introduction of Bri- 
tish goiids. 

It is aga^ stated that the princesses of Portugal :%fased a]]^|Uliance with fool Ferdinand and his 
Hiher. Th is is probably tni^ 

A (British) kingfs messenger appears to have 
kfn assassinated at Madrid. The cause is not stat- 
d. He was biu'icd in a garden. "Legitimacy" here 
allo\r$ no public burial place to the protestants. 

Th ^Htiihjkfior. — Subscriptions are raising for 
tV; rdfef of tfi£^ poor manufacturers and laborers. 
Nothing efiectuHl will be done — can be done. A raan 
tbtf caU lord Arden, who eojoys sinecurea to the 
mownt of 30,000^ (gl33.200y per annum, has most 
paeraisly retunsfed to the p,\)ple he leeches, one 
^hndred pounds. Among tlie contributors is the 
iuke of Herri f \rho h<is ^ven 200/. Some of &e 
l^ndon papers arc very mdignaht that one^f the 
Bourbons, so lately a British pauper himself should 
^ivebeen called upon for assistance. 

Some parts of Europe have been deluged by con- 
imual rainSy and others are parched up by a long 
*eriefofdry weather — to the great injury of tlie 
crops in both cases. 

The articles, monuments of the arts, carried off 
^iKe Ftendi from Madrid, have been restored. 

His said that the Jewt have appealed to the Pope 
tf amedktor between them and some of the Chris- 
toi sovereigns! — and that the pontiff, seeing the 
ci^oiitioQ to the Jesuits, repents their re-estab- 

The Neapolitans talk of getting their supplies of 
cloths from France. 

There is a report that the emperor of Austiia has 

&llett deeply in love with the widow Murat! 

Tht British are making great exertions to turn 

ieciMtent of emigration to their own N. American 

I ^Ipnies. Free passages to Halifax, &c would be 

I ^CQQveniait to many. A number have arrived 

wan thence in the United States. 

, hosidon papers say that the police and the Inquisi- 

'no have filled Spain with spies, where a person 

tiardlv dares think on j)olitical affairs. They com- 

|pUinioadly of the interdiction of their manufac- 

turtsbvso many of the continental powers, which 

f "^ fcr to produce equally as great effects as the 

Berlin and Milan decrees, or the late confederation 

^the Rhine, about which our ministers made so 

swch noise." 

"A congress of sovereigns" is aeon to be held at 

I^ is stated, that Alex^der, of Russia, has inti- 
mated his dture to the Turks that the Algerines 
J^d cease their piracies. Hence, probably, it is 
Jf t ve have a report that wac between thcro is 
^dy to break tut 

There Is a rumor that the dey of Algiers hmV 
been assasiinatcd, and that Ins successor ar- 
rested all the Knglish there. Biit another account 
says lie had 6000 slaves at work on Ms fortifications^ 
which were to be mounted with 1500 pieces of can- 

An article from Cag1iari,of t?ie 22d of July, says, 
that the American squadron was met steeripg for, 
Algiers, which they were to attack before lord Ex- 
mouth's arrival. [Improbable — our thips must at, 
this datejiave been at jiapfes.} 

LoTtdony ./fii^.'S. The Duchy of Lauenburg has 
at length been delivered up to the Danish govern- 

*^uff. 7, Price of stocks this day at twelve <f clock. 
Reduced 65 1-2 5-8— cons. 63 1-3 1-4— for ace. 65 
3-8 1-2— 4 per cent. 79 3-8 1-2—5 per cent 93 1-2 
5-8 — bonds 83. 98. prem ; bank long anns. 16 5-I6ths 
3-4— exchequer bills, 3s. 6s. prem. 

•August 9. The stocks experienced a considera* 
ble decline this nv>mtng — 3 per cents 62 1-8 for 
money; 62 3-8 for account Five per cents 92 7-8. 

Some letters from France, via Holland, speak of 
a conscription f'a "French conscription," J of 60,000 
men being ahnout to be raised in September to be 
incorporated witli old troops. 

Aiiffust 3. Recent letters from Madrid state tha* 
an order had been issued by the government for a 
levy by ballot of 60,000 men, f be emhtodied as a 
militia. In the opiniqn of some persons this mea- 
sure is adopted with the view of leaving the regu- 
lar troops at the disposal of government,' for the 
purpose 9f sending them to South America and to 
Mexico, where their services are much wanted. 
Others talk of an expedition beinj^Jntended for W. 
Florida, in the contemplation ofa war with the U. 

^ An American frigate is said to have arrived in 
Sicily, having been dismasted in a gale. 

We understand tlie transport Board have not 
succeeded in obtaining ships which they deem 
sea-worthy, for the transport of ordnance stores 
to Canada. Those tendered have beca in most 
in«»tances, detected as unfit for service, and even 
the freight demanded for them, was double what 
excellent ships could have been procured for a 
month ago. 

It is said that orders have been issued at the 
war office for difl1>anding the following regiments, 
viz. the 7th and 8th West India regiments; 4th royal 
Veteran Battalion; Newfoundlanc^ Nova Scotia, 
Canadian, and Glengary Fencibles, the Brun^vick 
Hussars, and Rolle*s regiment 

Extract ofa letter from the agents to Lloyd's at 
Naples, dated July 15 :— •'By this day's letter from 
Corfu, we have the disagreeable tidjoigs that the 
plague has broken out in Cephalonia,'and that 35 
persons fell victims to it in three days." 

A German paper says — ^"According to a pamphlet 
published in defenqe of the late French mjinister of 
Finance, Mr. Louis, is seems that the allies by a pri- 
vate engagement, received money, viz. 250,000,000 
of francs, from France, in the year 1815.** 

Paris Miff. 4. — An English traveller informs ua 
that there is at present in the plain of Cerea, in 
Greece, a monstrous serpent^ which ravages the 
whole country. 


J>Cev*Jersey election. The election for electors of 
president and members of congress, takes place in 
New Jersey on the first Tuesday in Kovonber next 
There ia no federal opposition. 

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** Vermont election. Gov. Ga1u«hit'(rep.) ift re.elect- 
ed governor of the state, and there is an Increased 
republican majority in the leg-ialature. Rctuma 
lAvet received. The representation in congress is 
elKngfed from fedmlists to republicans. 

Pmmyhwtnia e^cU0U. A. J. Dallas (present se- 
cretary of the treasury) A. Sejbert, W. Anderson, 
add J. Somme r, are nominatea by the republicans 
to represent in conj^cw the district composed of 
the city and county of Philadelphia and the coun- 
ty of Delaware. 

MBHYLANn KLVcnoir. On Monday last, the gen- 
tlemen composing the electoral college, met at An- 
napolis to elect a senate of Maryland for 5 years— 
when the follov^lkL^ were cliosen: ' 

For^he Western Shore. 
John E. Howard, Baltimore county 
George Winchester, city 

John Leigh, St Mary's cotmty 
' Clement Dorsey, Charles 
Peter Emmerson, Calvert 
Robert P. Magruder, Montgomery 
Archibald Van Horn, Prince George's 
R. B. Taney, Frederick 
. Roger Perry, Allegany 

For the Easteiyi Shore. 
Levin Gale, Ccecil 
William Spencer, Kent 
Henry Hoiliday, Talbot 
Joseph E. Muse, Dorchester 
wllliam Hughlett, Caroline ^ 

George W. Jackson, Somerset 
The unsuccessful (republican) ticket was com- 
posed of— 

,Tohn T. Mason, Washingfton county 
Thomas Hawkins, Frederick 
Thomas B. D&rsey, Anne Arundel 
John Stephen, Annapolis 
Isaa6 M*Kim, 1 »,u;,^,^ ^'^„ 
K^thl. Williams, | Baltimore city 

N. R. Moore, Baltimore coimty 

.Aen. Rob^t Bowie, Prince George's 

iltn. Joseph Wilkinson, Calvert 

T. W. Veaay, Cacil 

Unit Angler, Kent 

James Brown, Queen llnno's 

Frederick Holbrook, Carolkie 

Lemuel Pumell, Jr. Worcester 

Edward Lloyd, Talbot 
The state of parties in JVew T©rJb.— The whole 
i^resentation in the legislature of New- York is 
ststed to be 157, of which 115 are republicans^ and 
42 federalists— or thus >- 

JiefnibUcofh Tederal Total 
Senate : 25 7 35 

Assembly : 90 ZS 125 

Separatisn ofJjfasne, AVhether the proposed se- 
paration will trfce place or not, is v^' doubtful. 
It i^.thoug^t the question will npt be ascertained 
untH the votes are counted by authority, the re- 
turns given in the papers being supposed very inac- 
curttle. The general opinion, however, seems to 
be, that 5-Oths of the votes are in favor of separa- 
tion-^4he proportion required. The returns, as 
^iv«n in the fortland Argus, stand thus— 

/pr separation 11,640 against it 9,330 
valuable Mineral Spring has been 4^scovered 
about 18 vmAts from Baton Rouge — and within a 
month a viUageof 80 «>r 30 houses has sprung up 
near the spot — and invfilids flock there from a con' 
siderable distance. 

TJie corporation of thfe city of New York, as a 
tribute to the memory of the celebrated Robkrt 
!^yiX03r, hay* Changed the mojrie of Bcekmaaslip, 

Pair-street and Partition-street to Wat of txi^ 
street, which consequently extends from^the fll 
son to East river. 

GsirskAL RiF£XT. The people ofhis ^fee toi 
Hanover, N. H. have presented an «ieH| 8w« 
with an apj)fopriate address to the brav^En. Ri 

'The U. S. ship Washington, r4;^frigate Java, j 
sloop Erie, arrived at Naples thoxA uie middle 
July. It4vas thought Mr. Pinkney would effe^ 
object orw mission to that court. The rest w< 
squadron in the Mediterranean was expected the 
Tire Washington was only five da>s &om Gihralt 
to Naples. 

The master of a vessel arrived at Briton, si; 
that Mr. Gibbs, American consul a^ iSjIerm* 
in consequence of his embarrksse^^iiicunei 
put an end to his existence, abouf |h^ 1^ 
It was said lie had failed for 500,000pouQ<b iter] 

There appears to be a sort of a war aiAoof tf 
British settlers in the north westt^ A Montr^ 
per of Sept. 7, says— «'we were thi& morning inl 
ed, by good authority, of the arrival last evening 
a gentleman ftom the north west, bringijM tbe i 
telligence of fort Williams having fsdlen mto t 
hands of lord Selkirk's party, Wm. M<GUlJvfl 
Esq. is said to be taken prisoner." 

UoiL Hail stones, or masses of ict^ftfm tlir 
to twelve inches in circumfer^ce, fell amt i 
20th ult near Cincinnatti, O. 

Earthquake. Two considerable shocks of 
eartliquake were recently felt at New Madrid, 3C 

Jamaica. Letters from the West Indies stJ 
that they are collecting tiroops at Jamaica from i 
the islands, to prevent an insurrection of the sUtei 

A curipus circumstance is said td have happen 
in the county of Cumberland, Va, — A whole firi 
ly, with the exception of one person^ had died 
eating a part of a cabbage, which was boiled «U 
On opening it a scoifpion was fotmd in the eeotN 


Curious £egug0i.^The will of an English I 
man, which some time since became the subl 
litigation, contained the bequest following—' 

to my son , who is at Eaton, and intend 

holy orders, my five years old Belzebub mare. 

Slave 7>fld<f.—One of the last British app« 
tion laws developes the following important MP 
That 300,000/. sterling (nearly a million and a th 
of dollars^ has been voted to discharge judgtwl 
obtained oy the Portuguese o-aners ofvesietsin^ 
ed in tlte slave trade, against British commanderrii 
have captured them. Jktton 0* 

Court of Inquiry. A court of inquiry was ^ 
vened at the request of capL Lewis J^ai i iq|Ml 
the navy, on board the U. S. ship tn4epW^ 
on Tuesday the 3d inst. to ascertain the (acts of t 
rencontre between the U. States sloop Peacock a^ 
and the E. 1. co's cniiser Nautilus^ which took PJJ 
in the Straits of Sunda, on the 30lh of June* ^ 
The Courtis composed of com. Bainbridgc, m 
dent; capts. Jones and Morris, members, and Gfl 
Blake, Judg^ advocate. — Bost. Gas. j 

Philadelphia^ Sept. 6.^Fete of St.Xevds.''-9m^ 
the 25th of August, being tlie fete ofhis most Clrj 
tian majesty the king M France, on Mondi»y» ^ 
26tb, it was celebrated on tho banks of the Banti 
at the country seat of Mr. Hyde de Keu»jli 
(French mini9ter.) 

The dumer, to which many ctUiens of th^ ^^^'^ 
States were -invited, was splendid and the at^ 
dance was numerous. ^ 

After the appropriate totist of the i^ "^^ 

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iiA tnajestT^ was given, the minister 
ave the folfowii>g: 

nasi Wtm 

arose ind ^ „. 

*'Tb the preatdent and congresa and to the pros- 

va4Bt w 

the United States of America."— His cx^ 
added, "that hi4 majesty Louis the 18th 
woiUd continue tlie fnend to the American 
govenfment his unfortunate brother Louis the 16tb 
bid ivmerly proved.^ 

tht gr^ttt^t cordiality presided at the repaal, 
n^ die tows evidently manifested how strong^ is 
ibe desire of all honest men for a perfect union 
between the two nations. 

Msny toasts were given during the day among 
7^h we remarked tlie following: 

eenei»l G. Washin^on and Louis the XYL— To 
&e tAmory of the first president of the United 

te^S^Mo ^^ memory of Louis the 16th— the 
4nd ally of America. 

«foth# clergy of the United States.* 

This ^ve occaidon to the last toast by the mi- 
iStfr, which we notice witli much pleasure. 

Tolerance &nd union between men of different 
religfcns— To my fellow Protestants of the south 
and^er parts of France.'* His excellency added, 
"Tlil^e the children of my sovereign; they enjoy 
m coaunon with the rest of my French brethren the 
full fruits of the paternal government of his majes- 
tv, Louis the 18th. They are not persecuted for 
their religious opinions, except in certain foreign 
jaiimals^iphicff have had the hardihood and base- 
ncA to fiibric^te and cli'culate an odious calumny. 
Yes sir, continued the minister, (addressing him- 
self to a reverend bishop of Jersey, present at the 
fete,) J declMse on my honor this is an atrocious ca- 
lumny; no individiud is persecuted on account t)f 
bis religion; all kinds of worship are tolerated by 
Uw and in Ibct all places are open to all; the favors 
andkiaAiless of tlie king my master are shewn to 
1 Protestant and CatlioUc without regard to other 
^rtinction than that of merit, fidelity and honesty." 

The day concluded in the utmost harmony and 
ti^^apoarent satisfaction of the minister and his 
Rs^tabie guests. 

IhtnittdUe, (M. T.J JSug. \7* It is with regret 
*e noHoe the occurrence of an unfortunate tiffair 
itt the Cherokee nation, between some of the whites 
Md^e indians. It is almost impossible, perhaps 
toaicertain at this time, a correel statement of the 
6cts, as the representation of the whites, differs 
attttialljr from that of the Indians. The statement 
of the whites, is substantially as (bllows: That a 
istti called Taylor,' had rented from a member of 
the'nation, called the Black Fox, a field— that se- 
ver^ Indians came to his house, a few <lays before 
the accident alluded to, insulted his wife, and, as 

»lie WIS apj^Hsed by tlie Black Fox, determined on 
^liagthni. Taylor and his wifie escaped by flight; 
went toilie^use of captaui James Burlesson, (the 
Either of Mrs. Taylor) and commtmicated what had 
occurred. Burleson, Taylor and six oUiers, went 
to the place beibre named, in the nation, found a 
naid>er of indians collected, and, through the Black 
I'ox, re^sted an explanation of their late con- 
*ttt The Indians m reply* n^sed a ycU and said^A^. 
I Aaattentetw^is then made hy the whites to cut 
^ thoBoff ftiho tlteir arms, as it is said, for the sake 
, ^ftteresecurity. This produced a conflict, which 
^J^Btted in the death of two Indians. 
'^ ^ a letter from colonel Richard JBrovint f"a 
Cherqkeejto agwitletnan in lids place^ datedf 
k Creek Psth, Cherokee Nation, Aug. IS. 

ai>^ wish yott to infi>rm the comraandiiig ofli- 
^9 of your country, that tliere were two indians 
^ Killed by the vites on the 12th inst. about 8 miles 


below the head of the Muscle Shoals. They were 
drinkirtg, and went to the house of a negro who 
kept whiskey to sclUnd told hiih they wanted some 
-—he started off— they called him, but he woitldnot 
return; they then agreed to drink, and pay for the 
whiskey. About stm-set, while tliey were drink- 
ing, there came ten or twelve whites, together 
with the negro, on horseback, fired four guns, kil- 
led two indians, and missed tlie other two. I have 
informed my men that they must not kill any white 
man, for all we want is satisfaction, and the way we 
want it is, by the laws of Uie l\ ited Slates—there^ 
fore, we wish the men whocomnutted the murder, 
should be apprehended and kept, until the law can 
have its course on them. 

^ew Orleans, Aug, 12,— Joseph Vitlal, esq. of 
Concordia, opposite the city of Natchez, has picked 
and ginned cotton of this year's growth. 0iiptain 
Gale, of the steam boat New-Orleans, arrived yestet'- 
day meting, brought down one bale 360 pounds 
of this cotton. It is a superior quality, 36 cents 
per pound has been offered for it. This is a very 
extraordinary production of the esurth, but a4cw 
days more than four months from the time the seed » 
is put into the ground until tlie cotton is picked, 
ghmed, haled and in market ! 

Kingston, (Canada) Aug, 24. In the course of 
tl\e week, the 99th regiment, (formerly the 100th). 
much distinguished for their gallantry at Fort Nia- 
gara, arrived in towa. 


From the Aurora. 


Gardens and nurseries, 20,000 70i per acre. 

Highly cultivated ne^ towns, 500,000 50 

Hop grounds, 100,000 40 

Cultivated lands . superior 

quality 12,000,000 30 

Do: inferior quality, 18,000,000 20 

Total cultivated in Eng- 
land and Wales, 30,620,000-at 24t av. val . 
•Lands not Cultivated 
Waste and common, but capable of culti* 

y*^"» 5,500.000 

Ummprovable .... 673,000 

lloads and waters, ..... 540,000 

Uncultivatable, , . . 6,714,000 
Cultivatable, . . 30,620,000 

Thiw the cultivated laiul of Englandjs about the • 
same number of acres as is Qontaiued in the state of 
New York altogether; and the uncultivated equal 
to about the suttee of Maryland or Yeimont. 

Ireland contains 12,001,26o Irish acres, or in acres 
of English measure 19,439,960— or equal to the sur- 
face of South Cardlina, of which about 1,000,000 is 
irreclaimable, and 3,500,000 susceptible of culiivft< 

Newnham's estimate of land in b-eland is as •hove, 
thus described .- 

J English dtres 

Irreclaimable land, taxes, &c. . . 1,000,000 
Waste but reclaimablc, . , 3,500,000 

Employed to fiu-nish esiports, . . 1,000,000 

One year witli uuotlier unproductive, X,500/)00 

Cultivatable land, . . . 12,439,960^ 

Acres, 19,439,960 

Died, on the 11th inst. in Virginia, Johw Cr.vrroit* 
esq. for more than 2d years a representative hi con' 
gress fi^om that state. 

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J^\, on the l(Hh ^sf. at jCharleston, gen. •/? /«fo«, 
late ifovemor of South-CArolma, ag-ed 38. 

Die J, at Philailelphta, fieroard M'Mahon, the fam 
cus Qiif scry and seedsman. * 

l||UAle ;jresident ftdams, at upwards ctf 60 ye-aris 
of a^lf 13 Iiale and hearty — rejoicing in the happi- 
ness of Ins countrj*. 

A letter to the editor of the Register from Pen 
dleton S. C. says — "oh account of the drought, the 
state of things here is gloomy and di^rtressing. Half 
crops will be great crops, except on tlie b<)ttom 

^Mexico. We liave a 'variety of vague nimors 
lending to make us believe that the patriot cause 
makes goofl progi-ess in Mexico. The war carried 
on is a war of exiermmation. Tbe patriots, it is 
said, hare lately forwarded severalfsums of money 
to procure materials for war. The royalists have 
closed ^ the ports except Campeachy against fo 
reign vessels, aiid that would be shut as soon as 
troops could amve there for the purpose. But 
lIuasaHuales, on the south side of Vera Cruz, is 
possessed by the patriots — it is said to be one of 
the best ports on the shore. The Mexican patriot 
fleet, of 18 sail, well manned, have taken Punta 
Ciorda, In the bay of St Bernard, where they were 
about to organize a cuurt for the trial of prize 
causes. It is also expected they have captured 
Tampico, another port. It seems the opinion of 
some well informed men that the cities of Mexico 
and Vera Cruz will soon fall before the patriots. 

There is a report tliat thfe Carthagenian fleet has 
captured Pensacola. It is said also that the people 
of Vera Cruz have refused to receive the new vice- 
roy of Mexico, who lately arrived there, via Havan- 
na, and have made prisoners of him and his suit 
We lAve no news from Caradtf, except that the 
royalists have very cooly shot and murdered all 
Uie prisoners they took, late of Bolivar's army. — 
There are various naaors that the people of Cuba 
are ripe for revolution. Uow important mig^t this 
delightful and extensive island become under a libe- 
ral government. 

Snoip, About the.l2th inst. there was a conside- 
rable fall of snow at Springfield, Mass. The Ver- 
mont mountains are said to have been covered with 
it for several days. 

The Tennettee militia. A Knozville paper says 
that the fbnds of the district paymaster in East 
Tennessee are again exhausted, and ^at many of 
the mititia are yet unpaid. 

Plagve ap Cfuadalanpe. , 9y & vessel arrived at 
Boston we have a report^ that the plague was 

ing at Point Petre*Guadaloupe, aad "had swept oi 
nearly all the inhmtants.** 

Extract of a latter from a geiulenum lately arrived 
in Baifynartifrmk Parit, to hit friend in Aew York, 
** Dear Sir4-I am once more in your happ^ coun- 
try, and hope you have likewbe safely arrived in 
ihit bosom of your family. As I know the lively 
interest you take in my discovery, I thgbk you will 
not be sorry to know how it goes iu>— had you 
i^emained some days longer in Parb, 1 could have 
shown fou a Whale 15 teet long, swimming in the 
air \ ! and carrying in its mouth, to a distance of 150 
paces, a wreath of ftmirers to my wife !— You should 
have seen it ascen^Rg sod descending through the 
«therial plain, or crossing it in an horizontal or 
circular Ime, by the mere impulse of its own 
mechanism !—— 'Henceforward, man may, at lus 
wiU» hoirer in a calm day, over the surface of the 
earth, or, in tempeetuoiii weather^ ,rise to ^e 

middle region of the air, where reignj^ aitjetflwia 
calmi It is useless to add, that wS^ the wim 
is favorable, it may fly as quick ia tlte wind itsell 
anrl at any distance from the gTound! 

** Such is till now the fruit I have gatheetd fror 
15 years mcditationii. T saw at first, lljpf^inc 
man had found the means of making heavy- bodie 
float in the air, it was only necessary to apply will 
intelligence to these bodies, a power to propyl fti« 
direct tliem. I thouglit that the means till noi 
invented to obtain timt end, hod been badly cdq 
trived and calculatedj I ima#ned, tliat a bfx^ 
floating in the air could be compared to* a fish 
which being supported by tl^ element in which i 
lives, wants but a feeble power to advance, ver 
different in that from a bird, which being a thoD 
sand times heavier tlian air, has need of large wing 
and an horizontal tail to support itsettL S tartly 
from that principle, elated by the grandeur of ^ 
a discovery, by the glory it will reflect on its autlior 
and still more, by the persuasion of the itnmoik 
advantages wiucli will result from it to the bumki 
species, I abandoned myself with enthusiasm to m] 
ideas on the subject — In fine, after 13 years of re 
flection, and 2 years of labor, I made, on t#>^,l'^ 
of January, 1815, at the Cfiateani de Berc^^ an ex 

periment, in the presence of my friend G — \rit] 

what violence did my heart throb" wheh t touche( 
tlie spring ! — ^the animal starts, tlie animal flies !- 

" From that time I have not ces.^^d to woilt wit! 
ardor to reach perfection — ^now it rises n^thoat tli 
necessity of throwing out any part of the balbsl 
and can descend without letting out any poKifl 
of the gas — flies with the facility and velocity rfi 
bird — add to this, that, if executed ottfi larg^ scale 
the mechanism would cost but a trifle, and be easie 
to manage than a small boat. 

" I see fix)m here a crowd of incredulous, persons 
smiling out of pity; but I will imitate Diogenes, who 
when asked by the Persian ambassadors bow bi 
would prove the existence of moiien, wi|lk^ i 
their presence—I will make my aei'ial aninSId J^H 
If on the formidable element which encircle th 
globe, no danger can appal your intrepid countiy 
men, they will not, I presume, be afraid of trustiflj 
themselves to the one of which I am speaking ^ 

« Do not laufi^ at my hobby horse, for, I am oon 
vinced, that, like its predecessor Pegasus, ^ wil 
one day carry man across the sctherhd regions.*^ 

The age of invention.-^A correspondent infonn 
us that a Mr. Martin* of Rahaway, of N. J. has ifi 
vented a boat which is propelled by weights mit 
great velocity, and he conceives that it will even 
tually save much fuel and horseflesh. [L, L Stat 

Whale, Shark and Porpoite, A whale was a Un 
days since harpooned in Prospect Harbor. He hau 
been chased into shoal water by a shark, who wa 
likewise taken. The shark was 16 feet in lengtl 
and had five rows of teeth; a small porpoise wa 
taken out of his belly; and a barrel of oil extractei 
(hnn hid liver. — Portomouih, JV*. ff. pa. 

Prodmetive turnip yard. Mr. Brastus Ware, wh 
manages Mr. Gardiner's farm in South Salem, ha 
sold uiis present season, from a pie4£ of ground q 
only one- quarter of an acre, tum^ to an amoun 
exceeding two hundred dollars; besides having .o 
httnd between 50 and 60 bushels. [Salem C^at, 

(|Cjr>An article from the ^Genius of the Lakes» 
with letters flrom Athens, O. and Cannonsburg, Ti 
are intended to be noticied in our next pap^. 

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Xo, 5 Of Voju XL] BALTIMORE, 6ATUUUA\, SEPITSMBEU 28, 1816. ' [w .out x«. Q65. 

JJac iilim mentinSssc jutnilfit. — Yiroil. 


TesGEooBAJPHiCAHEXBMPtiPicATioif, which 18 in- 
teptcd in page 70, was recei\ ed from a gentkmar 
•f distinction^ with tlie following letter i— 

'«! hare read with pleasure th* article ^*Probable 
>«^a/«m— 1820," (see page 35, present volume) 
and inclose vou a ^^GcQgraplucal exemplijt cation.^ 

««If this tfifle shall serve to nmusc you for a few 
minutes my object will be obtained.*' 

We thought it might also serve to "amuse" our 
readers — so we reduced it lo d sdale for the size of 
our pages and marked the periods 1790 and 1310, 
kc. Much labor and pains have been bestowed on 
this curious article, to make it absolutely correct. 
It must be regarded, however, by the scale of inclies 
marked 6n tl>€ margin, though tliey may not be 
exactly what they ought, in consequence of the 
fhrinlung of the paper in drying. 

FitfvRcs. — The hasty and sometimes careless 
manner in which printers too often read their proof 
sheets, permits many eirors — but these should 
be especially g\iarded against when ihingfs are re- 
)iresented by Jit^tres. A very neat newspaper, co- 
pying our article on Louisianai (see last volume, 
page 353, et et-q.J made it out that there were only 
25 acre* of land in that state SuitHblo for the cul- 
ture of cotton, 25 tor sugar, &c. instead of 250,000, 
Ice. — and we, copying from other papers, raised 
the income of the college at Athens, Ohid^ from 
5,000 to 30,000 dollars; and tlie money said to have 
been received by the allies froitl France in 1815, by 
a private engagement^ from 25 millions lo 250 mil- 
liooa of francs. Another paper told uft that the 
Bifesb stocks hvuA fallen to 65^— they have not been 
so high for a long time : it should have been 60^. 
B«it, m our table, page 34, shewing the pi pulation 
*f the United States at different periods, we left 
•ttt that of OAio— which should have been, for Uie 
N. W; territory, (a part of which now is the 8tat6 
•f Ohio) in I »00, 43,5655 in 1810, 230,760. 

The ISth of September, 1814. 
Tbe calling out of the Baltimore brigade of 
militia on the 12th instant, to honor tlie 
anniverdarj o{ the battle at J^Torth Pointy 
tiear this city (which^ however, was pre- 
vented by the inclemency of the weather^ 
gave rise to the following remarks, intendea 
for last week's paper, but of necessity 

The 13th of September^ 1814^ was^ perhaps, 
iic most remarkable day that occurred in the 
penod of the late war; and^ certiinly, among 
♦hemost meidorable in the annals of the new 

On tkh day^ the most powerful and best 
appointed army ever ga^iered togotlier on tlse 
American continent, consisting of not less 
than 14,000 men, in the higliest state of disci- 
pline, and honored with t\\e appellation of 
^^fVellinston's invincibles^ — ^inured to all tlie 
toils and versed in all the fttnctagems of war — 
Vol. XI. 

drilled to the business of the battle by nume' 
rous combats with those who had been consi* 
dered the best troop? in the world, and com- 
manded by officers of experience and renown^ 
^d like "stricken deer^ from PLA'n*sBUR<>, 
before a handful of raw militia iust from the 
plgudi, rude and unskilled in the science of 
attaoc 6t defence. But — ^tlioy had witnessed 
the capture of their whole fleet on the lake by 
the gallant Macdonou^h^ and h^d found that 
their mighty force, with all its vast sup|)lies of 
ordnance, Bombs and rockets, was incompe- 
tent to drive the brave and accompHsheil 
Macomb from his hastily-raised batteries, man- 
ned and supported by less tlmn 1 500 regular 
troops, a pai^ of whom were invalids. 

On this day J having landed 8 or 9000 men 
at North Point, near Baltimore, their leader, 

feneral Jloss^ to be known to posterity as tlni 
urner of the Cavitol^ received a just reward 
in a sudden and inglorious death, being killed 
in a petty skirmi h, which was followed by tli« 
batttie, and that by the bombardment of fort 
M' Henry on the 13th, ilnd a precipitate and 
dismceful retreat to their ships on- the 14t]h 

On this day, a larjje fleet, having on board 
several thousand land troops under command 
of sir John Sherbrooke, after re<iucing the 
country east of the Penobscot, Was thrcateninK 
the coast of New-Hampshire, &c. and preparcU 
to take instant advantage of expected successes 
in the north and middle of the United States. 

On this day, the British eflected the landui^ 
of a considerable force — a niotley collection oT 
whitemen^ negroes and indians, at Jlobibi 
Paint, and ontt^ ISHk attacked fort Bowyer 
with their ships^— but were completely defeated 
witli the loss of the commodore's ship and many 
men, with otlier gi-eat damage, by nu^or^ now 
coUnel, Jjatorence^^ 

At this tiirie also, a sqiladron of ships, with 
great supplies of arms and a considerable force 
in men, was off tlie southern coast, to scrxe 
upon any fortunate drcurastance and prevent 
the march of tile militia from the sea-boaixi (o 
the relief of their brethren on the Indian fron- 
tier. At this time also, the remains of a gal- 
lant array, driven by the weight of nujrAers t.) 
fort Erie^ vyas cooped up tliere by a far superior 
force, and its total capture or annihilation wa.^ 
expected by the enemy. 

In all these expedhions fhertf mtist have 
been employed nearljf 50,000 men, viz. in the 
land and water ser\-ice at Plattsburx 15,000; 
at Baltimore 12,000; on the coasts of Maine, 
New-Hampshire, &c., not less than 8,000; at 
Mobile am the part9 acyacent 2,000^ on the 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


southern coast 5,000; on the Niagara frontier 
8,000, &c. We have not counted file heavy 
squadron which, just rtf the inoment^ was ready 
to sweep lake Ontario and destroy our fleet at 

Sackett^s Harbor^ nortliat-whicjj was oSJ^ew 
LonAan^ &c, 

The coincidence of date unquestionably 
proves to us that all these movements and ex 
^editions were simultaneous. An attack was 
at once made upon the flanks and rear and 
centre of tiie United States ! 

The design and hope of these mighty pre- 
parations were— 

1. That sir George Prevost, after the fleet 
on lake Champlain had beaten Macdonough^ 
and he himself had captured Macomb^ expect- 
ing also to be joined by thousands of the Aui^- 
rican people, would have made a trhiinphant 
ixiarcli to Mbany aiid JWir-For/c, whidh places 
were to have been his winter quarters. 

2. General Ross, after having burnt BaUU 
morej was to have re-embarked nis troops and 
made a landing at the head of the Chesapeake, 
from which, by a rapid movement, he was to 
have advanced upon Philadelphia, and, having 
sacked it, proceeded to join the commander 
in chief at JVleiv-Vork — or to act as circum- 
stances might jqfttify, 

3. Sir Jimn SherorookA,, after reducing the 
counti;y east of the Penobscot (which he did), 
w as prepared to land his force at any point in 
the eastern states that might be weakened by 
detachments to assist in repelling sir George 
Prevost But he was soon relieved of a pros- 
pect of duty in tliis respect, for he found that 
Massachtisetts would not defend even herself, 
much less send assistance to her sister states. 

4. The force at Mobile, after capturing fort 
Boivyer, was to have collected a vast b<3v of 
negroes and indians (to arm which they nad 
abundant supplies) ana have let them loose to 
ravage and destroy the frontiers of the south 
and soath-western states; and, by exciting 
insurrections of the black population, entirely 
prevent them from attending to transactions 
in the centre of the unioji. 

d. The force on the east of Georgia ^as to 
co-operate with that at Mobile, as events 
should jugtif3r. 

6. The annihilation of our army on the JVTa- 
gara was to preserve sir Geor^ Prevost from 
an attack on his rear— to whicn also tlie €eet 
(m the lake, threatening Sackett^s Harbor, 
was to be subservient 

These were, indecd,greal schemes, wndyJiad 
they succeeded, might have done much to ^^c rip- 
ple us for fifty year s^^^ as was fiiirly proposed. 
But, instead of ruinmg the republic—instead 
of puttiofT down "our dangerous example of 
successful rebellion," they resulted in the se- 
curity of our country — for all of them failed, 
except the partial success that attllided "sir 
John Sherbrooke in capturing a part of Mas- 

The pa^nic and retreat of themain body front 
Plattsburg has apneared ridiculous for its pre- 
cipitancy, the weakness of the force opposed to * 
it nein^ considered^ but it was tlits only that 
saved it, if not from total capture at least 
from immense loss. Sir George Prevost waa 
well aware of the effect that Mtcdonoughj9 
victory and Macomb^s defence would have m 
rousing the whole people to arms; and that, \w 
two or three davs, retreat would be difficult, if 
not impracticable, through a country like that 
from Plattsburg to Canada; and he was alsa' 
perfectly convmccd that his army would be 
much weakened by desertions, which the na- 
ture of the warfare to be made upon hire was 
eminently calculated to facilitate. He would 
have been Bwrgoyned if he had staid before ^ 
Plattsburg five days, and he acted wisely ta 
run away as fast as he could. The abandoiv- ^- 
ment of the expedition against Baltimore wag 
a necessary consequence of the repulse they 
had met with, combined with the failure of the 
attack on fort JH^Henry.* The movements in 
the south amounted to nothing, and, besides 4, 
Jackson was ready to annihilate the enemy if 
he had ventured into the country; and the force 
on the Moffara was most compietelf thrashed 
by general Brown, whose sortie fiwn fort EriCt 
was, perfaiq>s,the most splendi|| feat in the war. 

Progress of the United States* 


^Whcn we come again to speak of the depressed 
literature of our country— when we begin to sigpiili 
its **9hort and simple annatt,'* we arc at a kmtm 
imagine what language patriotism should holdOfioii 
the subjectttin the mingled fcelingfs of humiliation 
and hope, we Ibrget the high national destinies we 
had predicted. In this desolate department th«rc 
is nothing to be setn of our **giganH9 growtk^ 
that has astonished ^he nations of Europe. After 
passing^ by the glories of our arms, and the prosperi- 
ty of our artaj when we come to look for the "march 
of mind" — for the roonumenU of genius; for the 
power to consecrate to the love and reneratifi* of 
posterity, what the spirit of our country's chivalric 
age has won— itself object of a better pride; the 
attainment of a higher ambition ; the ornament, as 
it ought to be the offspring of freedom and civjUva- 
tion — we see ourselves in the poverty of oiirnAono 
al outset, arid feel again the subjugation of a "colo- 
nial policy.'* 

It is not for the pride of learning, it is not ft>r the 
mere honors of a national ^terature, that we feel 
any zeal 5 it is becatise we think it Ihdispensibleas 
the preserviitive of our liberties that a taste for 
study should be generally difPused. Our wisest and 
best men have made learning- the business of||beir 
lives, not for themselves, but for the beflfSt of their 
^untry : not ta an idle embellishment, but as the 

•We are lost in admiration when we reflect on 
the failure of tlie attack on this then "ef^g shell" 
fort, as tlie admiral called it They threw at it 
from 15 to 1800 of their huge bombs, at distances 
to please themselves, out*of cannon shot— it had no 
works whatever calculated to resist them, and was 
saved !— "The case is altered" now. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


pifladittm of onr freedom ; as the only antidote that 
tm be Ibond ag^nst the meanness and selfishness 
tX ararice and ambition. The strongest and most 
dtfgracefbl trait in our national character, saj fi> 
r^gners, is an inordinate love of gain. This per- 
^l|^ is the only charge thi^ make that cannot be 
rqpefled. It is tpo true — tre see this foal spirit eve- 
fy where ; mretehite, restless, resistless, and uni- 
wial. Among the poor we see it frugal, industrious, 
Imbley and ttseful— but sinking in spirit as it rises 
ia its views ; becoming of consequence oiilv as it 
becomes corrupt ; here minglhig in war, and there 
ramg Ibr peace; here villainously filling public 
office, and there violently inflaming party opposi- 
t?on--<arrying patriotism to the market and princi 
^to the devil. 
Dr.Beatie say^ofliterary taste, that he who has it not 

*UiM. del«« for Jktt in MamrnonH £rty ibIiml 

twMk witlithe seoondnl lbs, or gram with gMnoBlwiae. 

We have sometimes, in the public journals, heard 

* cfsSiical learning mentioiied with contempt. We 

ire very sure that those who wrote thus, were not 

^ttf ignorant of their subject, but also profi>undly 

igAcffant of human life. In the fine arts, and in what 

is termed - fine literatuce (the department least 

. Hf^fid in die common employments of the world) 

^mere are various obvious and incalculable uses ; 

not merely as they present an honorable mode for 

the rich to dispose of their superfluous wealth ; nor 

tecanse th^ afford the best occupation to those in 

w higher circles who have no regular business, 

|lhe employmenti^ whose time is nevtjlheless of 

ie greatest importance to society) nor as they fill 

'itfttlly the vacant spaces that must sometimes 

in the lives of ^e most busy ; and by all these 

I, furnish a preservative against dangerous 

and disgraceful habits ; but chiefly, from the <<high 

so^** cenmus sentiments tliey inspire, and the 

f]|fc«na ardor they give to the mind. WiUiout 

lifenkiurej there is no civilization — Few are aware 

bpvKetitioQs the sentiments of the world are; how 

mKoally different they have been in diflftrent na- 

tbns: Animal instinct points out our few natural 

Wits, and if we live for nothing further, our souls 

4* unnecessary to u»— but all beyond is within the 

ptovi^ of genius; and eloquence, poetry, painting, 

fo. wrt the means which she uses to give to our 

minds the only distinctions that they can claim over 

the rest of the animal creation. Several instances 

lodias the savage of Aveyroa, prove, that without 

tbdke excitements the soul would lie dormant, and 

^fe no tokens of rationality. It is not our object 

hctt to meddle with the jarring doctrines of meta- 

M||ians, except to reject for ourselves tlie scep- 

tMbiras, by referring to reveUtion as the first light 

■id »e of the mind; as the system of fundamental 

JNiaeiples by which the cultivation of intellectual 

Kwersis to be directed j but wht^di should always 

be«ecompan^^by a knowledge of nature — by the 

«ta^ of whaliVer moves the feelings, and moulds 

the noftivea of tlie human heart. Helijgion, among 

»peO(^e without 8uch*cultivation, is only the engine 

« mrcssion in the hands of the unprincipled. If 

Wbe thfji ej b rg^ the child of education, it becomes 

BO ooe to despise that to which he owes (albeit in a 

^degfw) the power he possesses of reasoning 

<ti|L The worst individual among us, is somewliai 

^jW py the ennobling feelings that learning has 

«»fattl: the Inost ignorant is enliglitened by the 

**f works he has never The vilest scribbler, 

*w<«an h^ly g^ve a selltence of *»commoii sense 

^tlhoiMnmoa nonsense,*' has nevertheless, had his 

'ttte in some sort purified, by those classic streams 

'J^BoseibcTitains he todahls to apprjucli. 

" Promote as an object oT primary importance, in- 
stitutions for the general diffusion of knowledge"— 
sa3rs Washington in his farewell address. Washington 
was no literary man, and for thft reason we give his 
opinions in prefSereace to those of the Franklins 
and the Jefienons of the age; because people 
are less to be credited in the subject of tlieir rulmg 
passion than elsewhere. Washington advised as a 
cool politician — ISut we forget the history of litera- 
ture in the discussbn of its importance. 

It is thought that there are too many seminaries 
of learning m the United States; or at least that 
there are too manv of the higher order. There are 
about thirty colleges, seventeen of whicli were 
founded between the years 1783 and 1800. One 
hundred years ago there were only three. It were 
much to be desired, that the money expended on so 
many had been appropriated to a few. Academics 
are so numerous that, as there has been no actual 
enumeration, it is impossible fbr us to state the num- 
ber. Even common schools abound, perhaps suf- 
ficiently—at least in the towns. But in erery kind 
of schools the want of gfood teachers is the great 
defect; which is evidentliy owing to the smaU in- 
ducement that there b f(^ men of learning to de- 
vote themselves to the busfiiess of teachmg aad 
not to the w^ant of persons qualified. 

In almost every department of education the K"ew- 
England states have taken the lead, though in some 
branches of learning thev have, of late years been 
surpassed by some of their sister states. Harvard 
college, the first in America, was instituted in Mas- 
sachusetts in 1638— since called tJie Umverilty of 
Cambridge. It first received its name from Mr. 
John Harvard, who, at bis death, bequeatlied to it 
the greater part of liis estate. It has an excellent 
library at present, consisting of 18,000 or 19,000 
volumes. In 1693 IVilUam and Mary college was 
incorporated at Williamsburg in Virginia. This 
establishment was obtained by the exertions of Mr. 
James Blair, who CJune to the province in the capa- 
city of a missionaiy. After soliciting money from 
the people of this country for that purpose, he 
made a voyage to Europe to accomplish it. This 
college, though endowed with extensive funds, 
was 111 attended for a long thne, on account of the 
habit that southern plantm had of sending their 
sons to Great Britain for education. It is said that 
political science is studied here with more attention 
and success than at any other college in the Unit- 
ed Sutes. The library contains between 3,000 and 
4,000 volumes. 

In irOI a college was erected nt Saybrook, (Con- 
necticut) wliich was afterwards called Yak coUeffe, 
in honor of governor Thomas Yale, (formerly gov- 
ernor in India,) on Account of his repeated acts of 
generosity, to the institution. The philosophical 
apparatuses thought to be tc[\\ai to any in tlt^ 
country and the library contains above 5,000 vo- 
lumes. It is attended by a great number of stu- 
dents, and the funds,are said to be larpe. 

In 1746 a college was founded at EUsabeUitowi^ 
(New Jersey,) called Xassau-Uall. The next yea^ 
it was removed to Xew-Ark, and in 1757 to Prince- 
ton its present situation, lit 1803 it was burnt, but 
wis imifediately rebuilt in a stiperior style. It hafr, 
we believe, tlic' best reputation of any college in 
America, particularly for clustical le^u'ning and po- 
lite literature. The phik)sop!ucal apparatus i^ cx« 
ceHent ai|^ the library is becoming respectable. 

In 1753 was foHudedihecollei^e of PhiUdulphia^ 
through the iaflueuce and efibrta of Ilr. Franklin. 
The rapid extension of learning in Pennsylvania, 
can easily be traced to- t^e impulse gircf to tlie 


public mind by the d!soo^eiie3 and exertions of ; 
that valuable man. It is impossible to do justice' 
hereto the zealous, miweori'jd assiduity with which 
lie devoted himsJFto the establishment of useful 
i.iRUUUious — to tlie duty of awakening in the coun- 
try u taste fc* science, literature and useful arts. 
In 1791 the Philadelphia Cv)llej^e was placed under 
new arrangements, and eniitled the University of 
Pennsylvania. Ts medical school has been, for a 
1 mj^ time, incompanthly the best in America; but 
of lute, an uccouni of tlie death of doctors Rush and 
B:<rton, and tiirough the g^reat reputation of doctor 
Mitciiell and some othe^ professors at New York, 
great numbers of students have bceu drawn to the 
univerdily there. 

'I hr> college of Columbia in the city of New- York 
was founded in 1754, and was called Kin^^s Col- 
le^re, until the time of the revolution. Its chief di- 
siinciion is the valuable botanic garden that has 
lately been added to it. Its philosophical appara- 
tus is thought by some to be the best in the Uniied 
States. Ihe college of Rhode Island was charter- 
ed in 1764, but the edifice was not erected until 
1770. This institution ^ not in a good condition, 
as its funds are ingdtqunte, and the state itself is 
Wanting m regard idliterary taste. 

Having briefly described the principal colleges 
in ihe several slates, we sha^l just give tlie names 
of as manv of d^te remaining ones as we can find at 
present. Two remain to be mentioned belonging 
to M.-issachuseUs; ti'iUiam** College in Williams- 
town, Beiksliire, founded in 1793; and Bonodnn 
College Ai Brunswick in Maine, founded in 1794. — 
JJartmotUh College in New Hampshire, was founded 
in 1769 Maryland contains five, St Mary's Col- 
lege and Baltimore College in the city of Baltimore, 
6V. Julm't at Annapolis, foimded in 1784, Washington 
College at Chest ertown, founded in 1782, and Cokea 
bury, or the Methodist College at Abingdon, found- 
ed i.i 1785. Pennsylvania contains four besides the 
University. IHcfcinson CoU&ge, founded in 1783; 
Jt\'ankUn 'College founded in 1787; Jejersan College, 
founded i^i 1801, and f Fashing ton College (ounded in 
1S02. South Carolina has four, Winnesborough Col- 
lege, founded in 1795, and Charleston, Cambridge 
and Beaufort Collegea, all founded about the same 
time. Tlje college oT Charleston having been dis- 
continued, Columbia College has been instituted in 
its stead. In Virginia there. wSb a college estab- 
lishcd in Prince Edward courtty, about 1774, named 
Hampden Sydney College. The Catholic College at 
Georgetown, District of Cohunbia, was founded in 
1782; tlie University of Georgia in 1785; the Uni- 
versity of »V©rfA CaroUna at Chapel Hill, incorpo- 
rated in 1789; Union College at Schenectady, New 
•York, iti 1795; Greenville CtMpge in Tennessee, in 
1794; Tranaylvaida College %i l.exington, Ky. in 
1798; ^ddklntry College in Vermont in 1800. A 
college has existed at New Orleans for a long pe- 
riod, but we do not know the date of its establish- 
ment. In Louisiaua state tliere is great attention 
paid to education; parish schools, dimiUir to those 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut, bei.ig sm>poned 
from the stale treasury; for each pariih 40ug per 
unniin? are appropriated to maintain a teacher. A 
fciinil* arrangement iias taken place in ^cnneasee, 
which at present has two colleges and several aca- 
♦'.emies. We do not know the in^ber of colleges in 
Kentucky or Ohio, bUT we are assured that learning 
in much attenddl to there, and that u|||^ the whole, 
the new sUtcs have, for several yearrfTshewn more 
zeal for its encouragement than the old sUtcs liave 
lately done, in Peimsyivunia each county has an 
a«ademv, except those' tbai have colleges; but tke 

establishment of township schools, enjoined by thair 
constitution, and repeatedly recommended by their 
present governor, has, notwithstanding, been hitJi- 
erto neglected. 

The LancasterianschooU, idiich must form a new 
era in the history of learning all over the world, 
will probably be adopted throdgh the Unrtfed 
States in a short time ; but old systems (pet^aps 
ibrtunately for mankind) are not eaiily abolished, 
there is one school conducted upon Lancaster's plan 
at Georgetown, Columbia; one in Philadelphia » 
two in Baltimore ; one in Cincinnati ; and one was 
establbhcd in Pittsburg, but we do not Ipiow whe- 
ther it has been continued; and an edifice for one is 
erecting at Richmond- We do not at present recvd- 
lect to have seen any notice of the existence of any 
otliers, but believe there is one in JN"cw-York. 

The next most strlkmg feature in the history of 
American literature seems to be the progress ofs 
their literary journals. The first newspaper printetf - 
in America was the JBoaton JSTevft^Letter, established 
in April 1704, in the town of Huston, by one Mr. 
Green. The next was the Boaum GazeUe, commenc* 
ed in 1720. The third was the JVewEngiand Cm- 
rant, about 1721, by James Pranklio, brother of 
Benjamin Franklin. This was also in Boston. The 
first newspaper printed in Pennsylvania was TW 
American IVeekly Mercury, commenced in Dec. 1719, 
by A. Bradford. The first in New-York was tJie 
JVevf'York Gazette, commenced in Oct. 1725, by 
Wm. Bradford. The first in Rhode Island waar the 
Uhode Islatid Gazette, by James Franklin, mentioned 
before. This was in 1732. The first in Connectkttt 
^^ta in 1755, by a Mr. Parker. ^ 

Ader this the increase has been extremely rfWd : 
in 1771 the number in the United SUtes was tWaity 
five; in 1801 it amounted to one hundred and ekiity; 
and in 1810 it had increased to tliree bundr^^and 
sixty-four. The amount of the newspiqsera J^.that 
period, in this country and in England, is' to be 
foimd in the Register vol. £. p. 116. 

There does not appear to have been that pro^'cS' 
sive attention paid to literary societies which might 
have been expected : we are ratheivdisposed to be* 
lievethat those now established are in companttke 
decline. The first institution of this kind in the 
United States, Was the American Pldioaophical Socie- 
ty, formed by the exertions of Dr. Frimklin, Dr. 
Bond, Mr. Ewing, Dr. Smith, and Mr. David Ritten- 
house, at Philadelphia in the year 1743. In 1766 
another whs established there, called the Jtmericau 
Society for the promoting andpropogatmg uoeful knva- 
leilge in Philadelphia. In 1769 both were united and 
have suice remain^ so. The American ^cadf^y of 
Arts and Sciences, was esUblished at Boston in 1780; 
aiul the Connecticut Academy of Arts aiid Sciences 
at New-Haven in 1799. Tlie Historical Society in 
.Massacliusetts, was formed in 1791. There ia als« 
an historical society in New-York. Medical so- 
cieties are very numerous, and thafc'icience of medi- 
cine appears to be better attended to at present 
than it has been at any former period in this coun^ 
try. A few years ago there was instituted in Phi- 
ladelphia, pcii^ipalLy by the exertions of Br. Bar^ 
ton, a society^r the cultivation M natural history, 
and entitled the Lhmean Society ; an/^imilap tones 
have been formed in other places ; but we under- 
stand they have have not been, even tolerably, 6uo4 
cessful. In almost every state there is an Agricul- 
tural Society. Of this class the chief ones are those 
in Massachusetts, N c^jp^ork, and Philadelphia. 

It may be well to take a brief ijew'bf the Ameri- 
can^iteraii of early times, in order to shew the rreat 
comparative deficiency of the present period. To- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


I ttkt condqidon of the seventeenth century we 
notice two Ama^an writers^Gotton Mather, author 
of 0i« Ma^ah'a Americana, and Mr. J. Blair, author 
«f sereral sertnona and religious tracts. Of the sue- 
oeedbi^ period is Mr. Logan, the bottanist, from 
Lur|!pui in Ireland, donor of the Loganian library 
now contained in the city libranr of Philadelphia, 
Wjjfor^ of the Experimenta ei Jtmetemaia tie Planta- 
fK OeneratUne, a desertation upon light, a trans 
ktioa of C^^ de Senectute, &c. The next of con. 
sequence piil>r. Benjamin Franklin, so well known 
wi a politidtih, a philosopher, and as the *<first in 
America who cultivated an easy, unaifected, poHsh- 
ed^tylc of writing." He began'his career as a writer 
m 2732» In 1752 he made bis grand discoveries in 
tltetricjty, and since that has had a more general 
repttation than any literary roan of his country, not- 
wnlistanding the high merit of some of hb rivals. 
Tbe Rev. Mr. Jonathan Edwards, the theologian and 
liMaphysician, was bom about the same time with 
nbiklin, but died in 1758. His **IngtUry inU the 

. I^itedom of the hitman Wilt** has, by European wri- 
ien, b«en pronotinced <*one of tlie greatest efforts 
€i,the human mind." Dr. Berkeley, the author of 
1S$^ Minute Phiiotopher, can hardly be numbered 
a*6ng' AmericaMuthors, though his generosity to 
te cause of litmture during his residence here, 
|iTCs him a strong claim upon American gratitude. 

' Br. Wm. Smith, formerly president of the college 
^ Philadelphia, and who died in 1803, was an able 


' King's 
lor of a 
Iso of a 
.5 Cl&p, 
rti Win- 
;holard ; 
I excel- 
: author 
n 1753, 
r. Ch-il 
f Suvth 
^8ay oil 
It of the 

of the 
hed Uie 
was at 
n medi- 
hat age 
that in- 
in 1701. 
ilive of 
)on the 
ngs ire 

i.un au* 
1 clear- 
bom in 
the au- 

known as a man of acutencss in mathematics, and 
ingenuity in mechanics. l")r. Ezra Stiles, latepresi 
dent of Yale college, is hardly numbered amom^ 
American authors, but cliiefly celebrated as t!ie 
most learned man this country has ever produced. 
He was also one of the most aciive promoters of 
literature. He was f ducated in Yale, And died Uiere 
in 1795. 

There have been several able writers 
who rose about the period of the revolution. We 
need nut repeat in this class the names of mariy that 
are mentioned above. John Dickinson, of Del ivvare, 
author of The Fanners Letters, displnyod in that, 
and other wi'itings, great reading, to,ijethcp \vi;h 
still greater acuteness, eloquence, and taste. It 
will be suflicient in this place to nrfention the names 
of Thos. Paine, James Otis, Samuel Adams, Jo!ia 
Adams, governor Hutchinson, Richard Bland, Ar- 
thur Lee, il C. Nicholas, Wm. H. Drayton, llumil- 
ton, Madison, Jay, and JefTcrson. Tins bi-ing-b; us 
near to our own period, but we must llrst name tl\e 
remaining writers of the last century. " 

Dr. B. Rush, and Dr. Barton, properly bclonr^ to 
that era, and governor llowdoin of Massachusets 
decidedly does, as he died in 1780. but he is liard- 
ly ranked among the number of authors ; ha i>ov'- 
ever wrote much that has been publi.'^hed i-i the 
Memoirs of the American Academy/ of Arts and Sci- 
ences. Of historical writers we have already ifwn- 
tioned govcnior Golden, autlior of a History of the 
Jive nations of Indians, Wm. Smith, author of u His- 
tory of the Province of Ncw-York, and gf)vAfnor 
Hutchinson, autlior of a History of Mussnchv.a^tfs. 
Besides these were Samuel Smith, who wrote rlie 
History of Wew-Jersey, Dr. Jeremy Bfdknap, who 
wrote the History nf ,Yero Hampshire, Dr. Simuel Wil- 
liams author of tbe History of Vermont, T. SnUivan 
author a History of the District of Maine, nnd Dr. Ben- 
jamin Trumbiill author of the Civil and Kcclcsiisti- 
cal History of Connecticut. Mr. Robert Pio'ur?* 
History of Pennsylvania is a correct and valuable 
coliection, buL possesses no literary merit. Ceo. 
R. Minot author of the Continuation of ihs Hiatory 
of Massachusetts is said to have been a writer of 
rare talents, and h& early Uws was much lam<^.nted. 
But the first in this department is Dr. Dtvid Ram- 
say, author a History of the American Revohition, 
a History of the Revolution in South Carolina, a 
History of the Life of Washington, he. on 
the subject, but much inferior, is Marshall. 

Of the poets of the last cent\d-y we shall not 
here stop to speak, as America claim bnt'liitle 
in this way, either of past or present merit. The 
n;rtnes of BuiIbw, Trumbull, Dwiglit, Humphreys, 
Freneau, R. T. Paine, jkc. have not those high 
claims upon which to bmlda mitioiHl clmrccter. — 
Of late we li|pre scku some very fi?ie specimens of 
poetic tUenf circulating ihroujli thannpers, but 
we do not thirJt the present period fltely to pro- 
duce any great effort w<u-thy of tlie sr.tilimity of 
American genius. A review of ttie ^Heratnro <if 
tl»e last eight or ten years wa.s iatcnde.t lobe ;<ix-c!\ 
^ere, but in order to rendc^* it more complete, ac 
have detee^inedto defer itio a future number of 
the Register, v.* 

Infatuation. — The inhabiiants of Zurlcli in ^Wlt- 
serland, have rec^itly destroy i^vl the !::;hUniit^--vQ'tis 
on many houses; on the account, as i!\cy*.ive been 
taught by a w|iik pamphleteer, thul the c jKI and 
wet weather is occ.isionci^ by their extractioLi;' too 
great a mumtity of c arolU: K^OiW the air. 

The total population of SwitzcrUad, by a lat§ 
enumeration, is 1,687;000. 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


f^ ' 


Geographical Exemplification . '' ^ 

or the sappoted popuUtlon of the United SUtes in the year 1830, (see Vot XI. page 35) on the proportion 

of 100,000 to half m inch. 

^prr — ■ 


j: 8. i 
1 g ^• 


r S :^ 2? 

s ? ? s« ^ 
''' a. a r» » 

4 4 



^ ^ '^ 

i ^ I 

NoTi— Tke flingle Unc denotes the popuktion in 17$0— the double Uq6 
'3i$X in ISlOwtbe vJ^le tttent^ the prebable pojmlation in 1820. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



be one of their own vessels, imd the expected stwm 
passed over. 

As the writer considers this statement siihst-vn. 
tially true, it exhibits some pleasing traits in the 
character of man. The humanity of the captains of 
the frigates in aiding the superca'^o to escape, ui^d 
their courage in trusting themselves ashore in an 
enemy's country: — on the otlier hand, it exposes 
the treason of tlie Americans in supplying tl»c Bri- 
tish ships, and in providing accommodations and 
sa&t^- for the officers when ashore. 

Karal Anecdote. 

llie facts in the following have reached us through 
a channel that commands an entire reliance on 
their verity. 

"A yoimg American, k citizen of Philadelphia, 
sailed from New- York as supercargo of a vessel 
daring the time the British ships blockaded New- 

|<The blockading squadron then consisted of a 
^Ap of the line and the Acasta and Endymion fri- 
gates. The American vessel was taken soon after 
she left her port, and the supercargo brought as a 
prisoner on board the Endymion; being a young 
man of pleasing manners and easy address, who 
ftunff* good song and told a merry tale, he soon be- 
came ^uniliar with the commander and an inmate 
of the cabin. When advariced pretty well in the 
captain's good graces, he begged to be set on shore, 
bemg a non-combatant, h&ving a dread of going to 

Bermuda, and was anjuous to see his friends. The happiness, those nations in their several ages obtaii 
^pt:iin told him it was not in his power to comply! ed the highest degree of distinction. But the fuie 
%ith his wishes, but he would apply to the com- oCtU tliose who have preceded England, appears to 
mander of the squadron to give him his liberty : he 
did so, but met with a refiual. The capt&in, howe- 
ver, willing to obl^e him, proposed sending him 
on board the other frigate, the commanding officer 
of which was his superior, with a view of aiding his 
escape — and thiis was done aifter some preparatory 
arrtingementB between the captajns, on the ground 
that his transfer to the other ship was necessary on 
account of there being so many prisoners on board. 
Ilavmg a good introduction, he soon became ftuni- 
4iar tJiere, and some days after the two commanders 
dined toother, and ou^ hero was invited to table : 
but previous to setting down he begged the captain 
•f the Endymion to plead his suit with his superior 
officer, and he promised to do it; instructing the 
young citizen, that when the meats were removed 
and before the glasses were set on tlie table, to 
step out for a few minutes- while he arranged his 
business. He did so— nothing was said at table after 
his return in relation to bis affairs until they were 
fising from dinner, where the captain of the Acasta, 

addressing him, said — ** fT , if you do not take 

care of tfourself you viU be droivned to niglu** Not 
understanding what this meant he applied to tlie 
captain of the End^nfnion, when by themselves, for 
an enlanation and was told that a provision-boat 
would be alongside at midnightr-that his trunk 
would be put on board, and that he must take care 
to slip in and would be landed at • • * *, and 
they would return him as a drowned prisoner— he 
did so, and was put ashore at a public house, where 
he went to bed. 

Jn the morning, on entering the breakfast room, 
'vAait was his surprise to see the captains of tlie t^o 
frigates at table. They made him a ceremonious 
bow on his entry, as much as to say, you must not 
kiMiw us while any company is present. After the 

stnmgers retired, they invited him to ^ on board 

the next Evening, as they were to have a ball; Wt 
he declined, on the plea of his anxiety to get home. 

"What ' W— «f, you are not afraid to trust us, are 

you, after i^iat we have done for you?" "No sir, 

but I am exceedingly anxious to get home;" thus 

theyparted, he to his IHends and ^^ ^o ^^^ ships. 
While be was on i>oard one St tliose frigates and 

lying sound asleep, an officer came and roused him 

in haste, and begged him to hurry M^w — ««Dou't 

stay to put on your clothes— here is 4^ e President 

frigate*^lo«e on boanl of us, and wc shall have hard 

work presently* V-and sure enough tli' re was-'a pro- 
digious bustle <j(fl board the ship— but it proved to 

The Empire of Commerce. 

PROM THE AUBOWA. — Tyrc, Rhodes, Carthsige, Ve- 
nice, Genoa, HoUaiid and England have, in succes- 
sive ages, obtained an empire more potent in 
their several periods, than any of their conte»tt;iora- 
ry nations. — u the possession of wealth, and u para- 
mount influence over states, constituted humnn 

cast a cloud over the glare which surrounds their 
history, and to give to tlieir power and renown the 
common character of mortaljtj', which belongs to 
every thing human. We see in their history pnly 
an' enlarg^ view of human vanity and desire; the 
passion of avarice, and the effbrts for indulgence, 
Ittiury, extravagance, and, last of all, disease pre- 
ceding death. Periods more limited or extended 
mark their career, but the moment when their pow- 
er has reached its highest flight, appears but the 
prelude to their*h<imiliation or destruction. 

The war which has lately terminated, presents, to 
the discerning observer, the success of a system of 
polk^ formed through many centuries, moving with 
a steady and almost unperceived pace. There is 
not, in the history of mankind, any example of such 
an extraopdinary accumulation of power, throujHi the 
influence of the commercial system, as that of Eng- 
land from the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, to the 
treaty of Ghent in 1814. Heside tliat, within the 
san^ period, she expelled I'rance from the Ameri- 
can continent, and lost herself the territory and 
wealth which constitutes the American union. 

It is in the writings of CAiW, JJavcnant, PhUUp9 
and Po9tlethwttyt, that we may, discover the pro- 
gress of that commwcial ambiti<m and jealotisy, 
which, by contemplating in Uie prosperity of France 
the ruin of England, laid the foumiation of tliat 
energetic l^irlt of circumvention, which, after 
expelling l-VancQ from Canada and Hindoitan, has 
succeeded by courses the most extraordinary, and 
expenditures of mo^t exorbitant, and thrown France 
back in the career of arts and commei-ce, to the 
point at which she stood two centuries before. 

Ajpolitcal agent of one of the parties which has 
alternately opposed- tho cftVctive government atul 
tlie' opposition in England; col. J. M*l.ean, the friend 
and adherent of the late lord Shelbume, thus wrote 
to his principal from the cape of Good Hope, in the 
yeai* 1769-;-"Prance possesses gi*eater advttntag'cs 
than Ei]gUld, arising oat of local situation, sail und 
climate; she is bending all her efTorts, not only lo 
seetire the means of manufactui-ing for her *o\vn 
wants and luxurite, but also of pariiciptting largely 
in the commerce and navig^ition of the oilier na- 
tions. If Kngliftd cannot maintain her pre-cniinencc^ 
she must full.'^ 

Quotations of this kind could be made from 
idmost every English author who h:is treated of 
commerce and manufactures from the tJie days of 
i Elizabeth to the present time. In modern x'smes. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


tlie jealousy has not been so explicit^ 
been more aclii'e, and because conce^b from 
.'ivowal by the rc6nements of diplomatic forms, has 
been more effective. 

It cannot he uninteresting to present to tlie eye of 
curiosity a concise sketch of the policy which she 
is now piirsuini^, for their vaj-jety and extent are 
very well adapted to amuse as well as to astonish; 
and to furnish to tlie calm observer of human af- 
fuirs a piciu^e fruitful of reflect ion and interesting 

The desjpTis of this government are more mag- 
nificent in their extent at thjs moryient than •t.^ny 
former time. Tlie commercial fioHcy of En(r|j|iid 
aspires to command the commerce of the univeVsc. 
Ij» every section of the civilized and uncivilized 
earth, with slow but inflexible persevewnce, she 
carries her policy to tlie extremes, and llie centre 
of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. 

In Europe she has secured Sp.tin for all that its 
commerce is worth; and directs all the operations 
of tlie government. The Metlmen treaty destroyed 
the industry of Portugfal, to make room for tjiat 
of England, and from an industrious mai|ufa^ir- 
ing nation, Portugal became a nation of lazy and 
unprofitable agriculturists. Now it is proposetl 
to transfer it to Spain in exchange for the teniiory 
comprehended between the sources and the debouch- 
es of the river Paragiuiy, and the river Madeira, 
which flows into ^le Amazon. 

The union of Portugal and Sp.iin, is with the 
condition that Lisbon and Oporto shall he ft^e ports 
or 7awi» towiif, which is not to be lafcundersiood. 
So that possessing Gif>ralfar, JifbfOiTn, McUta and 
the /o;uanw/tf«, the Mediten-anewT and Adriatic are 
at her commercial discretionj an^sh^liolds the com- 
merce of Spain, on botli seas. '|'he coasUof Air 
biinia and Barbarj- are under the same surifBknce; 
luid the trade of the 1-evaa^ must find dtfflots in 
lier possession. Of the north of Europe we shall 
say notUhig, as it is re^ttfuing rapidly to its old 
system of dependence. 

In Africa, the occupancy of thp Cap« of Good 
Hope lays thp foundation of an immense and po- 

Sulous colonial empire, which at no very nAinote 
me, will be united by inland intercourse with the 
Atlantic, Mediterranean and eastern seas; while, on 
the side of Egypt, a complete footing for commerce 
has been obtained with Abyssiniaj which promises 
to extend the commercial markets of England fi om 
the southcrp extreme of the Mozambique, for the 
commerce of which the island of Attiiritlus is the 
grand entrepot and there will boffPpejved the 
tribute of the coasts, which lead from the Mozam* 
bique, south to the great Afri^n-^ape. 

In Asia hCr military power, subservient to her 
commercial policy, is penetrating to tho Tear of 
China, by Napaul and tlie spurs of Caucas^vsj rcMjions 
heretofore untrodden by European feet, aiidWored 
with Uie products of nature and art w^hich- liave 
never passed the limits of China, nor entered into 
the general market of tlie world: Eighty millions 
6f Hindos pay to England the tribute of their 
jich products and unrivalled industry|g%rsia idld 
Arabia and Cashimere, ai-e comprehBKtl in Imr 
■ •conunercial and political chart. 

In America, her eyes are fixed on the so^crn 
division. Mexico is an object upon which tlie com* 
mercial desires of England have been fixed more 
tJian a century. Her European system, in relation 
to Spain and ^Portugal, at present interferes with 
her widics and controls her desires in relation to 
Mexico, towards which lier movements are cautious 
V4t not enough concealed to dude the discovery 

it has of tlie miniitfe obser«<r. While she has publicly 
repelled the overtures of Mexican agents in l-.ondQfu 
she favors them at Jamaica; on tlie Mosquito shqtr 
slie courts the confidence of the Aborigines by «" 
splendid, coronation of a native king; tlie bay of 
Hondnns'she'liqlds; and meditates the esUblish- 
ment of depots there and on the Carribean shoresj^ 
and on the Pacific, at Guatimala and Panama-^xit 
these are only slow preparatory measures. 

It is in tlie tjransfer of tlie house of Bragpui^sa 
finally to Brazil, that her calculations on SodC|i " 
America will be principally established. Whil^ 
England proclaims tlie abolition of the slave trade, 
with an imposing piety to the whole world, Brazil\ 
is exempted under the protection of England from 
Uie exercise of the same benevolence; as an ally, 
Portii^al has been no more than a colony of Enjf- 
land smce 1704: as an ally Brazil will be necessarily* 
dependent in a still greater measure, because she 
will stand alone a monarchical power, amidst aneifp^ 
galaxy of republics — ^touched by them on the soutk 
and the north an4 the whole of tlie eastern base qf 
the Andes. ^j . 

What she meditates in New Holland and (ne' 
Fiiendly Isles is not sufficiently matured to'be ^t 
the present moment important; but the time is 
not remote, when they will be important in the 
policy of commerce; it is by the dexterous manage- 
ment of the court of Brazil, her ships wijV find 
ample harbors and ample magjisines; the ]iolicy 
which has successively protected and destroyed, 
supported and subjugated every power, and con- Jjf 
qtiered all Hindostan with its 100,000,000; and ' 
which has moved and paid a million of men in 
Europe to arrest the progress of society antl 
freedom in Prance, cannot find vety great difficQlty 
in arraying the new republics against each ojl>er, 
lis they have already arrayed the capital ag^nst 
the country of Buenos Ayres* — and may possibly 
obtain, by successive ascendancy and, occasion|p 
destruction, the command of the richei and po\t«» 
of that vast and only half explored region which 
garnishes the sides and terraces of the Cordeleipasj 
and the magnificent pinnacles which crown tlie 
summits, and those sublime floods which wash the 
valleys and the feet of tlie Andes, and pour their 
streams into the Grea( Pacific and South Atlantic • ^ 
The extent and evident operation of such vast. 

designs, make the head giddy with contcmplatl 
— when we look for a moment on the little sp 
where such projects are formed, and audi prodigi 
as it hi^ already accomplished. 


Skeighea of the Barbary states. 

No. I. ^ 


The states in- Barbary have lately become'^e- 
culiarly interesting to this country. The war witH 
Tripoli, commenced and prosecuted at a p^ 
when our naval resources were not clearly dd 
or perfecdly regulated, and when the 8kilr''|(ii«^ 
gallantry of our officers and seamen gave earl^ 
promwe of tliat distinguished merit wfilch at 
maturity gave a Jiigh rank to their countrv, cv^ 
then Silr exceed^ the expectations which wcar^ ^ 
indulfj^ for a successful issue, and laid at thattf. 
time the foundaion foriNie establishment of <il 
maratime fbixe which has Imce been mMrcmarka.^ 
ble forjkifligcda than for ito «ize or d|tfftr, mor« 
j^W the b] ight tiSi^ples itSuB set ai^^ 

pClimiite of things appears to have chi 
ot^lasi accoimts from Buenos Mliftt^ 

angfd, Hy 


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tndr to 

dittttlers it bas producecl, tbM any naval power 
of equal extent in the world, iffc war with Tripoli 
vfaB m%ht tmly be called tlie era of our naval 
jjid^QcIence, was succecde<l by a contest of a 
inote serious nature; this was followed by our late 
hoa^Blies with the Alperines, whose quick sight- 
edpolify wrested the projrress of.jour measures 
aindttpked the operation of our arms by a perfect 
hmlmon. Aware boi|DCver of their character, 
iTing studied their views, experienced in our 
itions on their faith and morality;, we do not 
Treaties alone, but have continued our 
naval force*ln those seas, «nd have ordered our 
to hover over their coasts to appeal constantly 
ir fears, and be over prepared, if necessary, to 
make a durable impression on those fears. The Bar- 
barjr powers are likely therefore to acquire new 
iiteestfrom past as well as present operations, ai.d 
a iitipn view of their cliaraciers and customs as well 
aadbrief history of their jjovernments, will we trust 
belot wholly uruicccptable. 

tht Barbary *p6wers, under thf head of which 
weigmnerate Morocco, Alg;iers Tunis and Tripoli, 
atedl independent of ca<^ other, and arc severally 
gofwied by Moors and Tarks. Those of Morocco, 
Tmit and Tripoli arc hereditary, and that of Al- 
|iert which also ii^cludes the tributary province of 
Coastantine is elective. Morocco is governed by 
an emperor, and is the most extensive, rich anil 
powerfiilof all tlie#tates. Algiers elects its dev 
fron the Turkish Wdiw, the meanest of which 
is eligible for the office, •runia is g-ovemed by beys 
*ho arc hereditary, and who are partly of Moorish 
and partly of Tiu'kish orijjin, and Tripoli the weakest 
of the three powers is an hereditary Pachalik. The 
inh^taots of Mgnocco have dcg^euerated from a 
f*«Wf manly and liberal men wlio once rendered 
their names famous for science and wisdom, who 
established schodi of philosophy in Conlova and 
oi^^e smiling plains of Grenada, and who were 
nwe enligii||ned, more tolerant and more gallant 
whim possessed of Spain than the present race who 
call themselves the legitimate proprietors of that 
ra3d and fruitful country. 

Since the ejipulsion of the Moors from Spain, 
spirit, emulation, and character have deserted 
Ahem, and the descendants of the AfHncerrages 
Axre passed from a state of perfect civiliiation to 
t|£ extremes of savage barbarity. 
fl^or several centuries past, the continued pil 
pnnage offdUie Mussulmen of Barbary to Mecca 
and Medina, and the consequent interchange of 
c^^ment and opinion with milli^s of theii 
CiJpHigeonavefl iito piously assemble there at 
stated periotis, have prtWuced a constant emigm- 
tioo to tlie Barbary states from the interior of Asia 
aitiMie borders of the Persian Gulf, and the con- 
fm«^ the Caspian sea — from titis mixed popula- 
tioiilt miffht be considered difficult to discnniinate 
between 3ie natives and the emigrants. This how- 
not the case, the natives principally reside 
interior of the country, and form that Ijgdy 
1 who are called Bedouins or Arali«|^]ic enii- 
Or the descendants of emigrants dwell prin- 
^pdlyin the cities and maritime towns, and are 
KjQptranv engaged in commerce and manufactories. 
9lltBedoaiqt diQer materially from the Moori and 
^t«U in their manners and appearance, they are 
f^9j tall and slender^^eir complexion is a light 
im^f thM^^ve a mild and placid look, and their 
tanres l^kll the characteristic form a^ traits 
,C|jf UMS^NuttHOians. Their dress is a tliiii woolen 

r taiL and 

*^" --j^Nuttilfia] 

RMwblanket which is tljrown loosely m\d notlingsucceedctl in rai^iing the Arabs in the mountains, 

^teWkiUy ^vQund them ix\ several tbld^ ^vi| came down and retook the city, and drove his rival 

==, ^ 

secured at the shotdder by a pin or broach; this 
together with sandals, gives to them the air and 
appearance- of antiquity, and when tliey assemble 
hi groupes the gravity of their manners and the 
sober reflection impressed on their cotmtenance, 
we tliink for Uie moment that the companions of 
S}'phax and Masanissa nre before us — Tl»e Hedonins 
shave their heads acwariUng to the Mahomet.-m 
custom, around whlchi^licy bind fillets of brown 
serge q^ cloth wIhc!) is wound in several folds and 
secures a part oC, their robe which is called Btmr- 
novue or hood. Their diet is principally dates, 
milk and brcf»d of an excellent quality, the sin^«- 
plicitj^ of which joined to moderate exercise and 
contiiWial bathing keeps them in perfect health. 

The Moors who reside in tlie sea ports are of a 
different character, their confined situation, the heat 
of the atmosphere on their towns tnd cities, their 
natund indolence Joined to the immoderate u«;e of 
coffee, tobacco and sherbet, combine to render them 
corpulent, inactive and unwieldy, nothwithstanding 
w!iich they are more shrewd and nW)re capable of 
managing public affairs than the Bedouins, who 
form tlie greatest portion of the population, and 
may be considered as the yeomanry of the coun- 
try—they have by a scries ofefrevolutions been com- 
pelled to surrender their authority into the hands 
of the Moors and Turks, and the simplicity of their 
habits and manners* renders them unequal to the 
task of ruling, 

.As there is no niatcrial difference in the character 
and policy of the*tates in Barbary, we sludl make 
a few observations on the kingdom of Tunis, partly 
in consequence of its high rank in antiqtiity, but 
principally ils being the most civilized of the three 
powers and aflt>rdiiy the most authentic sources 
of history. The resolutions in Tunis have been 
constantly attended by scenes of tyrannj', perfidy, 
and assassinations. Originally they were governed 
by deys, appointed a^metimes by the Ottoman 
Porte, but generally by the Algerines, to whom 
they were tributary. The Arabs ai^d Moors, how- 
ever, found the power of the Algerines to be ex- 
tremely opvesive, andtliey made' various attempts 
to shake otT their dependence^ and to make choice 
of their own beys or sovereigns. It was not, how- 
ever, until abo.ut the year 1684 that the Tunisians 
succeeded fn choosing their own beys. The revolu- 
tion was eff*ectedby the zeal and activity of Mahmed 
and Ali Bey, two brothers^ who defeated the Turk- 
ish soldiery and drove into exile the reigning dey 
Malmied Ichelcby. The conquerers assembled the 
divan and the shikmedicn or municipal chief of 
Tunis, and proposed an hereditary monarchy, which 
final Iv waa determined tipon, and Mahmed the chief 
of the revolution was chosen the first sovereign. — 
Tliis sudden chan{|0 however, did not last long, the 
fffeoplc once immersed in the chnos and confusion of 
a revoluti(|D, felt disposed to r:vive those (urbufent 
feelings among the Turks, which ha<l only been 
smothered; they felt it also to be difficult to re 
concile ihemsclvcs to the new order of things; snd 
accorcUngly a party of the disafflcted succeeded 
in promoting a rupture with Algiers, — an army waa 
assembled on the frontiers, at a place called Keft, 
\li»ic!i was commanded by the dey of Algiers and 
the bey of Constantine, who succecdc(l, after a 
vigorous attack, in obtaining possession of Tunis. 
The bey fled into the motmtaians, and the dey 
named as hi^ successor a Turk called Mahme<l Ben 
(jouques. The Algerine forces hu^ no sooner 
retired from the kingdom, when Mahmefl Key hav- 

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hack tQ Algiers. The Algerines were not disposed 
to incur the expence of another campaign^ merely 
for the purpose of placing Ben Couques once more 
on the throne. They permitted Mahmed Bey to hold 
his possessions quietiy,^ which he did until he died. 
The regular succession then became confirmed as he 
was tranquilly succeeded by his brother Ramadan 
Bey. This new chief was represented to be a man of 
imcomm^m mildness, and as his administratioh want- 
ed energy and vigilance, he was deposed and put to 
death by his nephew Murat Bey whose despotism 
and cruelty were marked by so many aggravating 
circumstances as to arouse tlie fury of the people, 
and h« in his turn was assassinated bv I9aham 
CherifT wlio was elected bey in his place : But 
Ibrabam being taken prisoner in battle by the Al- 
gerines, the soldiers elected a new chief called 
Hassan Ben Ali. This man was descended from a 
Greek, and from him the beys of l\mi&, until the 
present time, are descended in regpilar succession. 

Hassan BeiT-Ali though popular with thcpeople^ 
still felt that his throhe was inseciu*e, while Ibraham 
bis predecessor was alive at Algiersj he therefore 
a^Pp^cc^ every means to obtain possession of his per- 
son, which for a tim^were defeated by Ibraham.— 
At length he caused U to be circulated, that he only 
held his power in trust for Ibraham Chcriff, which 
he would surrender, the roomest he returned. Ibra- 
ham deceived at length with these promises ventur- 
cd to return with a small suite to a town near the 
ruins of Utica called Porto F^a, where on the 
instant of his arrival, liis head was struck of by Has- 
san Ben Ali. All claims to the throne then ceased, 
and Ben Ali reigned tranquilly. He had no children 
by his several wives, and therefore, had nomiaatQd 
as his successor his nephew X\i Bey, who comman- 
ded his fdrces and was represented as a brave and 
active chief. 

An event, howev^, occurred sometime after, 
which destroyed the hopca of Ali Bey in obtauiing 
possession of the tlironc. A cruiser had captured a 
Genoese vessel, on board of which was a woman of 
imcommon beauty and in conformity to the establish- 
ed custom she was placed in the bareiSl anAthe bey 
conceived a great attachment for her— and on her re- 
nouncing her fiiith and embracing the Mahometan 
religion he married her. By tliis wife he had a son 
whom he called Mahmed Bey and afterwards two 
others who were named Malimoud and Ali Bey. — 
Being now provided with an heir he aimounced to 
his nephew Ali Bey the necessity of revokioff the 
declaration which guaranteed to him the possession 
of the tlirone, but as a proof of liis confidence and 
affection he purchased for him from the grand seig- 
neur the title of pacha, which he accepted with ap- 
parent content. Dissappointed however in the hopes 
he I»ad indulged of wielding th'e sceptre, his ambi- 
tion could not rest satisfied with an empty title, and 
no power or command: te wai|;ed for a favorable 
occasion and fled to the mountains, where he had 
formed a party, and with which he had attacked 
his uncle Hassan Ben Ali, who several times de- 
feated him. — Finding his resources inadequate, he 
prevailed on the Algerines to Insist liim, who sent 
a powerful army befi>re Tunis, took the city, drove 
Hassan Ben Ali to Suza, and established Ali^ey. 
Hassan Ben Ali remained along time in exile, when 
having formed the determination of requiring as- 
sutance from the Algerines to re-establish hun and 
protect liis (children, he left Suza for Algiers, but 
ahor^ titer' was overtaken by Younes Bey the 
eldest soii'of All Pacha, whp put him to death — 
the children escaped. All Pacha having removed 
the principal claimant t« the throne, was led to 

expect a peaceab||L reign, but was disapointed bf 
the turbulent aiiir factious spirit of his child^ 
His second son Mahmed Bey formed the jjjfign 
of excluding his elder brother Younncs front the 
succession, by creatmg disaffection towards him. 
in the minds of the father and tlie people, tliis he 
succeeded in doing. Younes Bey finding himselt 
superceded by his brother, fled from the i&ceat 
Bardo, took possession of a strong fortress in the 
city of Tunis, built by Charles the fiflh, caUejkthe 
Gbspe, which commanded the town. FroiiRliis | 
citadel, however, he was driven and fled to Algiers, 
to claim^ assistance as usual. Mahmed then re- 
moved his younger brother, hs causing him i»bt 
ijoisoned, and flattered hims«f with tlie hope of 
filling the throne on the death of his father Ali Pv 
cha. At this period a revolution occurred at Al- 
giers, which terminated in electing a dey, who was 
an^ivowed enemy to Younes Bey and all bis fkmilf 
— lie determined to espouse the cause of the two 
children of Hassan Ben Ali, wl^^ad been killed 
by Younes Bey<^and accordingly marched before | 
Tunis, took possession of the city, caused Ali Pa- 
cha, the reigning bey, to be strangled, uid placed 
Mahmed Bey, the eldest son of EUasan Bea Ali, 
on the throne. Tranquility was once more restored 
—the bey however died shortly after leaving twa 
children yet in infancy, who were caUed Mahmwd i 
and Ishmael — ^both of^whom are now alive, and the j 
eldest is at present bey of Tii^s. These children 
being too young to reij(4 Ali Bey, tlie brother of 
Mahmed, took possession in trust for Ms nephew, 
but having a son who gave early indications of a 
great mind, he used his eflTorts to make him p^- 
lar with the people, which he succeeded in doing, 
and on his death Hamuda P^chi^ one of theifreat- 
est men that ever governed in that kingdom ww 
created bey. This place hclfcldAr upwards of thir^ 
years, and was succeeded by Ins brother Attomsn 
— to the exclusion of Mahmand an^shmael ^ho 
were the legitimate claimants-»-th^ ifl^ever caused 
him to be assassinated, and in 1815, Mahmand Bey, 
the grandson of Hassan Ben Ali and the descendiit 
of tlie Genoese lady was chosen bey. Thus for 150 
years, the kingdom of Tunis has been convulsed 
by revoligipns, and these revolutions have not been 
without their eflTect in corrupting the minds of the 
people, in rendering them insensible to the princi- 
ples of honor and ^ood faith, and in perpetuiyte 
a system of despotism and cold blotfied cruHf 
and amidst all these scenes of confmon and &- 
order, it wiUbe seen tliat the Algerines have played 
no inconsidoable pait — they have ever been^jce* 
pared to afibrd co-oporation tdlbiat pHtty who we 
the most dissaffected and the most fikely to pro- 
mote tumult and disorder, and in addition to these 
internal commotions, it will be recollected Uiat all 
tlie states in Jl^ary were prosecuting a continued 
warfare against all Christendom, and have until 
this moment swelled tlicir catalogue of unfortunate 
slaves, and would have continued to be a terw to 
the ne^boring states, had not an example bagn 
set byTlie American people, which has fijr ©e 
present checked their system of piracy and slarm^i 
and which there ia every reason to believe will 
ultimately destroy it. ^ 

TJ|*natiA% Circular, 

The frllowing is ex^acted from a^|iicwspaptf 
puSfcshed at KfHI'Pa. entitled, "'iliPfcnatf of the 
Lam," and h inserted to shew a diff^^^pce Of 
opllbn betyi;^en its avthor an<l the c^^g^ ^ 

IVc^kli/ Rcffister, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC , 

nhjbs' wseklt begisteb^thb NATrvrnr^dntlAi^ ^5 

iV the GMtft 0/ Me Lakes. 

Iftu CliMJf I h«ve%» dajipread an essay in 
Mh^Aw^^ of the Sd inst. beaded *«Tlie people 
tifaBaB^'' I greatfy admire the principles, the 
spirit and ability evinced generally in the Register, 
ndi^llect no article in that excellent paper of 
more merit than tlie one in qnestion. But th e high 
ettiai||iOo in which I hold it, forces me, in a corres- 
IxmraR degree, to rq^et finding one digression in 

Jter a most pointed and able exposure of the 
eoriJMIen of Ireland, with a complete and clear 
TitKUeation of the Irish, and an avowal of sentiments 
M the s^^ject of emigration to this country, ef^uaX- 
lyhracnble l|K tholiead and heart of tlie writer, 
he ttl^ in mf opKon, unfortunately, to expreA 
his mortification on meeting an article in the Na- 
tioQll Intelligencer, introductory to an official cir- 
cular by th^oft-flaaster general, thougli he after- 
wtfds states th^ the essay was first sketched on 
ofaierfing a bri^ notice of a speech of Mr. Peel, 
chief secretwy Mrlr eland, in the British parliament. 
The inide is as follows *. 

**aenerai Pott Ct/lci, My 10, 1816. 

<^a— To enable me to comply with a resolution 
of ewgress, 1 have to trouble you for an answer to 
thelbSowing questions : In what sute or country 
wcreyou boni f If any clerks are employed in your 
pott^efflee, whi|t are their names and salaries^ and 
ift whal o s i to tfy were they bom I 
<nroiirs respectmlly, 

••RETUllN J. MtIGS, P, M. G. 
'<Pott4iiaster wX 

tion as to foreign birth — it is **Tn tokat tfaie or eomi« 
try," tea. I am strongly inclined to the opialou 
that the first branch of this question, in -whai 
ttate? was tlie main, if not the sole objfict of tlie 
mover. If indeed the enquiry had been confined 
to residence, I would dislike it less— bu^ it is 
known that such resolutions when moved are fre- 
quently modified and hastily passed so as not to 
be precisely in the form intended j>y tlie mover. — 
A late hour, as Mr. Niles remarks, may account 
for this, and I hope he does not jest when he reck- 
ons dinner an important subject; — at five or six 
o'clock, P. M. — ft is not unimportant. But there 
is certainly reason in the supposition that the mo- 
ver chiefly intended the mquiry to be in teJmt state? 
For might not some of the representatives reasonu- 
bly desire to know in what manner oHices are dis- 
trHnited among the several states. Some doubtless 
did desire the information, and to others it has 
appeared at least liarmless — they accordingly did 
not refuse it. There have been some murmuringi 
on this subject and it is probably best tliat the real 
state of the facts should be known to the people. 
Nat with a view to remoye men already in office, 
bul in order that a true state of facts in relation to 
the distribution of offices at preseqt, may have all 
the weight it ought to have, whatever tliat may be 
m future. 

That such was the intended object of the resolu- 
tion, appears reasonable from this: that in all cases 
a majority in both houses of congress, as well as 
the executive, hitherto, have uniformly extended 
the same protection to the natui'aiized, as {b the 

Mr. RHes appears to have startled at this as if native citizen^nor has there been any disposition 

^_i..^-_ ^* ii^.j^j ^^ v.-i I indicated in the maiority to relax in this course, 

so far as relates to U^ose heretofore naturalized, or 
in progress towards becoming naturalized under 
existing laws. 

I do, in fine, sincerely hope, that mature examl. 
nation and reflection, will justify Mr'. Niles in ex- 
plaining away tliis part of his excellent essay, so 
that it may not be calculated to damp the emigi-ant 
whom he laudably encourages in all his other re- 
marks, by implanting in the mind of the emigrant 
adoubt whether the government is not becoming 
hostile to him. A doubt which would be ungrate* 
ful to his feeling^, and unjust, I hope, to those of 
the government and people of this country, who 
cherish and applaud the same sentiments with Mr. 
Niles, and which might spread very far through the 
influence of a paper so deservedly celebrated as 
the Register. Afiiend U emigrants. 

The following, fi-om the Ontario J^festeneer, of the 
17th instant, supercedes tlie necessity of any 
remarks from me, at present, on tlie foregoing 
articlcj but the subject shall not be lost siglit of. 
We are pleased with the stand that Mr. Spencer 
has takeu, and his reasons for it we think are 
conclusive. It is well that Mr. S. happened first 
to step forward in this case; for he is a gentleman 
of the highest respecUbility and a representa- 
tive, elect, in the congress of tlie United States,, 
from New-Yori^ of which state he is a native. 

from rte Ontmno Me88engei\ 
The editor of the Messenger has perceived in 
the public papers a notice from the department of 
state, rcquu*ing those holding appomtments under 
it %o inform the secretary of state where they were 
bom, in order to enable him to comply with a resolu- 
tion of congress. As a printer of tlie Uws4of the 
United States, the editor supposes he is iiiclud^ 
in the notice. He lias determined not to comply' 
with it, and he does not know that he can better 

th6^ resolution of congress alluded to, had been 
9eHtM$ ^med witjli some hostile mtent, and ex- 
elusiitly at Irishm'ai and others of foreign birtli.— 
If these were eertaml^e iHcts, or if it was actual- 
ly intended to mike «le circumstance of foreign 
birth a disqualification, operative upon any citizen 
vib has cowlied with the conditions upon which 
he is invited by mir laws to become bona fide an 
^perican, I would perfectlv agree with Mr. Niles 
iAtcry remaric he has made upon it. But it will 
he perceived af once, that such intention, or effects, 
ire not ascertained firom the resolution ; whilst 1 
thiak it demonstrable that no such objeat was pro- 
halll^ in the intention of the government, of the 
wm of the resolution, or of the majt)rity who 
|i»ed it I therefore much regret the pecipitancy 
Clo able^ %^^^ ^^ infiuential an editor, (for he 
sdmite tha^le did not know the mover, and never 
heard of the resolution before, and qf coUHe had 
B^lponsolted the journals) in making such a deci- 
tittat thefoliowing^: "If," says he, "I were a mem 
ber of congress, I would move, on tlie first day of 
thetestioo, that'this resolution should be expunged 
finm ike joumids, as vnconstihttiot^ — and, if I were 
i& oAee, I would not answer the Wxestions propos- 
ed» m n^ official character, and let the thing take 
its coarse.** ICow, certamlj^ in all we see of the 
niqibttiQiip there is nothing unconstitutional^ how. 
WRTttideas or unnecessary it may be codiidered ; 
Ittd lllft decision that it is so, is at least hasty, when 
mUMDCcd wliKout ever having seen it, or heard of 
ttbejbn— aqiS k seems still more so, without any 
eti^ deciak# or examination, to advise officers to 
iJbo a o Apliani^ What harm or trouble can there 
W ifjpdiended msnk au|Krering J||^ question pro* 
: tJ^Rnformation rer 

n<^ W 

t^l O^is it impossible that 
TtrtitijPyT can be useful^} 

llMfflDt'seen the resoluKn more than Mr. 
kAfrait the first miestion proposed, seems clear. 
^td^llkitoat ifi objfect oth^ ^utn the ioforma- 

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76 NItBS* 



txpvesn his reasons for the refusal, than by publish- 
Injir ^e answer of J. C. Spihckr, Esq. post-master 
of this place, to a similar inquiry; which answer has 
been obtained at the request of the editor, for the 
purpose oflaying^ before the people of this quarter. 
ft is understood that a similar refusal has been made 
by a number of persons holding offices under the 
U. S. government, 


Hon. RsTURK J. Mxios, Pott master general. 

Sir— Your letter of the 10th July last in which 
you request mc lo inform you in what state or coun- 
try I was born, and in whit country the clerks em- 
ployed in this post-office were born, has been but 
recently received; and I have delayed a reply to it, 
in order to reflect upon the propriety of answering 
the questions it contains. I am far from wishing to 
exhibit any disrespect to you, Sir, as an individual, 
or as the head of the post-office department, and if 
the inquiries made by you were merely for your 
(»wn personal gratification, I should answer them 
with pleasure. 

But, upon mature reflection, I am satisfied, that 
cong^e^s had no right to require tlie information 
sought by your questions; and that if their resolu- 
tion be complied with in this respect, a principle 
will be sanctioned which is abhorrent to the spirit 
of pur government, which Would combine in one 
bo<Iy the distinct powers of the legislative and 
executive departments, which would authorise in- 
quisitorial visits into all the details of private life, 
and which would establish distinctions between 
fative and nnturaiized citizens, and between the 
citizens of different states, unfounded in realit} and 
productive only of dissention and miscliief. 

While I caeerfiiUy admit tlie legitimate |fower 
of congress to impeach and try every officer of the 
government, I yet deny their right to exercise the 
cxecuiive functions in deciding or expressing any 
opinion upon tjje qualifications of persons to hold 
executive appointments. If tlie resolution in ques- 
tion be not intended as a foundation for such a deci- 
sion, it is worse than useless. 

If I should inform congress through you, sir, 
where 1 and my clerks were bom, I do not perceive 
why I may not with equal propriety be required to 
state the amount of my property, the number of 
jny children, my political sentiments, or any other 
object of inquiry in which the wisdom or the curiosi- 
ty of congress may wish to be gratified. — But tlic 
most important objection in my mind to the resolu- 
tion of congress, i:*, that it is a fire-brand of discoi*d 
between the native and the naturalized citizen. — 
Our constitution recognizes no difference between 
them, except in the solitary case of the office of 
prcsidtnt. And yet the resolution of congress 
would make that distinction, and would present 
it to tlie public in the worst and most unfair point 
of view — that of foreigners enjoying theemoUnnent 
of our offices. If it be not intended as a reflection 
upon naturalized citizens, it certainly betrays a 
jealousy of their importance unworthy of Ame- 
ricans, and disreputable to our representatives. 

I beg youf indulgence for the length of this let- 
ter, which dbntains only the oAlinea of my reasons 
for declining to answer your questions. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

Poit-tna$ter, Canandaigufi. 

September 7, 1816. 

Foreign Articles. 

France appears tranquil— but some arre$ts still- 

take place and many penV copspimcies are spoken 
of Mad. Moreau is <<cuttiag% great dai^" at Paris; 
see London-head — ^the brother of tlie general has 
been appointed Post-master general by king Louis. 

Emigration to France from England is still rapid 
—a letter from Dover, of Aug. 11, published in the» i 
London papers says — "the earl of Pembroke, sir 
Dennis Pack, and several families of disUnction, 
making upwards of 200 persons, sailed yraterday 
morning in six packets and passage vessels for Ca- 
lais. ' ** 

'This morning four vessels sailed with two fami- 
lies, and about 60 passengers." 

Grain is permitted to be imported into France, 
duly free. ■*•, 

The emperor of Morocco has i-sstted a proclama- 
tion prohibiting, underpain of death, his Mahome- 
tan subjects fh>m visiting Europe. 

One of the emperors minister's ifttelv had an 
evening audience to his majej^ty, and die<i the next 
morning, and his large property came to the public 

An expedition to St. Domingo is said to have been 
recommended in France. ' 

Regiments are raising in France expressly to 
serve in Martinique and Guadaloupe. 

The population of the Swiss roanu&cturing can- 
tons, continues to suffer by the obstacles which 
the neighbonng countries throw in the way of 
tlieir industry. Their losses are estimated at a vast 

The London Gazette announces the appointment 
<>f lieutenant-general Dalhouse, G. C. B. as lieuten- 
ant governor of the province of Nova Scotia. 

Caorroa Ukiaclb, esq. is appoimed judge of the 
vice admhralty court in Nova SccJUa, in the room 
of the honorable A. Croke, resigned. 

It is understood that a divorce of the prince re- 
gent from his wife being opposed by her daugh- 
ter, has caused a relinquishment of the project 
She has been treated with g^reat respect at Conttan- 
tioople, by the g^and Turk, and is to visit JcruA- 

We find sometiihig to approve in tlie condu<#of 
Ferdinand of Spain. On the day of St. Ferdinand 
he pardoned upwards of 70 persons who had been i 
condemned to the gallies, &c. The conscriptiw, 
has been carried on to great extent. The jJUr ant 
appears lately to have distrusted his guai^^P-he 
has reduced and clianged them. 

There are frequent quarrels between tlie French 
people and the British troops stationed amongst 

The French, with all the test of the world, have 
laughed at the interest that Joanna SoMcoat, <«rho 
was to bring forth a a new Messiah, excited in Eng- 
land. But the Flinch tliemselves have got up a 
long story about an an^el appearing to a peasant, 
who, by divine ||immand, at length got admittance 
to th.e king and told him some wonderful things, 
not yet reveakd to the vulgar. 

The ^ustrian army is about to be reduced to 
150,000 effective men, which presages a long peace. 

In the absence of the king from Madrid, by in- 
disposition, his brother Charles plays the reg^ent. 
He is a dear ftiend of the mquisition, and has^>in- 
menced a reign of terror. * «K 

The pope ^ impoaeA the stfferest sh^left cti i 
bboksellers k^printerl; lest tney may bring into 
disrepute the *<dogmas of faith, the ceremoniifi* mf 
religion and the Ms of sovereign authority." It tt 
worthy of remark, that though England has done 
QO nlncb fQr the sovereigns of f ranee, Spain amd 

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tMM) <iiMif£tA tmrl^tcpeT is not admitted into 
Qitber coun^. 

A Glasgow pmpet of August 5, congratiiUtes its 
readeHt'^d the public, because "every symptom of 
I ik^BOg disappeared last Friday." There seems ^ 
to knm been a good cause for this; for horse and 
lbot» IB considerable numbers, had arrived to rein- 
hnm vie garrison of that place. There had bewi 
some ^^disgraceful proceedings J| in which one per- 
son vas killed. 

R it stated that the British are shipping nine 
kamdred pieces of cannon to Canada, with other 
stores. Are these to supply the places of the great 
guns ''bumti^t Quebec? 

We are happy to learn that the inquisition has no 
power in Portugal. This infernal tribunal appears 
in great disrepute with the Portuguese; and this is 
-extraordinary. The writer who states the fact, says 
tiitt they are far superior in morality and patriotism 
la the SpaiAirds. 

"^ The courts of law, in many parts of England, are 
' opened alter military processions, with soldiers in 
anqi placed round them. The taxes are-coUected 

unload the furniture brought to hishouse ,to a person 
who said something about sending for other hands^ 
he said **No«— every body worked here." "We men- 
tioned Loidt and Jerome in our last Lucien, with 
the^motlierandher three daughter* are at Rome or 
in its vicinity, apparently living at their ease. Eu- 
gene leads a private life in Bavaria. 

Sir Eyre Coote has been entirely removed from 
the British army, and his insignia of the Bath has 
been kicked from its stall in Westminster Abbey in 
the most contemptuous manner. lie appears guilty 
of some black crime, whicli, it is said, "should ever 
be nameless.*' 

The duke of Wellington left England for Brus- 
sels on the 15th of August. 

It is again said there is a deficiency in the French 
rftirenue of 3 millions sterling ; and that when the 
legislative body meets addresses will be moved to 
the king to intercede with tlie allies to withdraw 
their troops j or defer the payment of the tribute for 

" Thejast private accounts from Paris represent 
the duchess of Berri to be in a state that gives 

in the same way, and the soldiers also help the tevery hope of a perpetuation of the elder branch of 

constables in many of their duties. Tliis is a blessed 
state! Fresh troops are daily sent to Ireland. 

The project of preventing the export of cotton 
yorm from En^nnd (see London head, August 3,) 
would open a grand market for the United States. 
We hope the measure may be adopted. 

The greatest — ^perhaps, the most desperate and 
lUeHive battle ever fouglit in England, is soon f^- 
pectol to take place between tlie {andholtiera «m 
iJ^fimdholtkm. One or the other must go. 

The diet at Frankfort opened on the 5th of Aug. 
We have yet no accounu of their proceedings. . 

The British stocks are exceedingly low. The 
necessity of a large loan is assigned as one of the 
causes. There is also s<upe talk of a difficulty with 
.'Fruice, an^ some apprehension of a reduction of 
the interest on the debt. August 14, 3 per cents. 

Peace is said ib have been made in Africa between 
the Ashantea and Fantea nations. 

Mad. Moreau has ' paid a visit to the king of 

^|»ain, Naples and the pope have fitted out, or 
are fitting vessels to act against the barbarians. — 
ITie ftandard of the prophet^ the battl^ banner of 
the Mahometans, had been paraded at Tunis and 

Srip6li. What a fuss is maje of these contempii- 
e wretches ! — Muph apprehension i*» entertained 
4iat thg|)iitle squadron of the United S^tes, in the 
Mediterranean, may attack Algiers aim reap the 
harvest before the greatest squadron that England 
has fitted out for mu*»y years, assisted by the Dutch, 
Keapolitans, Spaniards and Uomans, &c. can arrive 
there !^ "We can easily conceive this," says one of 
the many.reports on theyubject, "from the adven- 
turous chiipacter of the Americans — their success 
Wild be more annoying to the English^han to the 
'Moots themselves." The probability, is that com* 
tftauncc^ will not feel authorized to commence hos- 
lOMet until tlie arrival of the Spark, sloop of war, 

«^ sailed from New-York on iik 6ch iiist. A late 
don paper, however, says — "The ti-uce between 
#hited Stipes and the Barbary powers has ex- 
fivfedy and notice lias l^n given to marinera that it 
fT^ably may not be renewed." 

. .Joatpk Bonaparte appears to be making arrange- 
•Mats for a fired residence at his seat in New Jcr- 
Hf. He seems determined to conform to^the man- 
aers of oar countr}'. When assisting personally to 

the race of the Bourbons.** — London paper. 

SniBCDBKs. In a return made to parliament, the 
following appear axxmag the pldces in tlie West In- 
dian or other colonies held by persons not resident 

Secretrary and clerk of enrolments in Jamaica^ 
emolument 2,500/. ; deputy, 2,000/. ; naval officer, 
do. 1,500/. ; deputy, 455/. 7«. 2d. ; provost marshal, 
do. 2,100/. i deputy, 1,544/. 13«. lOJ.; register ih 
chancery, do. 1,470/. ; deputy, 4,694/. 10». lU. ^ % 
chirf clerk of the supreme court, do. 2,500/. depu* 
ty, do. 1,382/. ; secretary, register, and receiver, in 
Demerara, 1,800/.; deputy, 3,444/. 11«.; vendue 
masters, do. 1,400/1 ; depln^, 1,700/. ; sccretarj-, re- 
gister, and receiver, in Berbice, 1000/. ; deputy, 
1,688/. 6#. 2d. 

It b curious to observe that even "deputies** as 
well as the principals arc non-residents. 

The JVtfw.rorJb Columbian^ speaking of England, 
says — Some of the people are petitioning govern- 
mant for the privil^e of being sent to Botany Bay. 
British suiaks falling, and American rising in Lon- 
don. . 

Tumults and distress, so alarming to the minis- 
trj', that an exti-a call of parliament was expected. 

London, Jlus^. 3. A petition has been addressed 
to his royal highness the prince regent, entitled, 
"the humble memorial of the manufacturers of cot- 
ton goods, and workmen of Stockport, who have 
been employed in vwious brandies of tliat once ex- 
tensive and^jmportant manufacture; and its object 
is to obtain a pi'ohibitioii of tiie exportation of cot» 
ton yarn wliich they weave into cloth, without wliich 
they would be obliged to buy tlie cloth from us. 
Aus^. 13. Most mel;uiclmly and distressing accounts 
are received of the situation of the laboring class- 
es in^Slalfordshire, thrown out of employ by the 
decline of the coal and ii-on trades — 717 families 
in the township of Rilston alone, without food, ex- 
cepting what IS given by ihe hand' of ch.irity!— in 
five purislies alone, 15,000 out of emplpyment! — 
HiougU reduced to starvation, they are yet patient 
and honest hi the midst of their sufVerings. 

Considerable disturbances are said to exist in 
inany of the manufacturing towns, and in some in- 
stances, attended with blowl siied — they are, how- 
ever, not the efl'ect of disloyalty, but arise, alto- 
gether from the distresses occ.-iioned by a tptal 
stagflation of business, and the consequent want of 
employ among th.^ laboring poor. To reKeve this 

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class of people, associations have been formed, and 
considerable sums sut>scribed. 

Stocks have experienced this morning (13th) 
another fall neatly one per cent. At half past 12, 
tiie 3 per cents were at 60 S-T, and the reduced 60 
3-4. Many of the greatest brokers sold largely. 

Aiijjr- 9* The list of subscriptions to^Iay for tlie 
relief of the manufacturing and laboring poor exhi- 
bits a donation which ve have considerable saUs- 
faction in witnessing. We notice it because it is, 
indeed, remai^ble, and suggests various reflec- 
tions. The duke of Berri, a prince of the house 
of Bourbon, -appears with a subscription for the 
support of tlie British people to the amount of 200 
pounds, with an intimation to subscribe 50 pounds 
monthly till tine sprlnjr* Ag^ we say, we are glad 
to see this consideration on the part of, at l«tst 
one member of, a family who have cost this country 
so much, and who so long and largely shared in its. 
generous hospitality.— —*One good turn deserves 
another. But, gracious Heaven ! to what a pitch of 
misery and degradation are the British people re- 
■ duced, when we see them standing in need, and 
thankfully receiving the alms of a Bourbon — becoitf 
ing the paupers of a French prince ! 

Lord Arden, too, is announced for a hundred 
pounds. Lord Arden enjoys a sinecure which yields 
above thirty t/iousatul pounds per annum. Do we not 
live in generous days ! 

.^tiff, 5. The Kent, an English ship, was lately 
attacked by two Algerine corsairs, one of whom 
was commanded by the nephew of the dey of Al- 
giers. The British vessel, a merchantman only, re- 
sisted most gallantly till she was in a sinking state; 
she tlien struck. The British captain reproached 
tlie dey's nephew in terms of great severity, which 
so enraged the pirate, tliat he said, "he hated the 
English worse than the tigers of the desert ; and he 
sliould be as glad (o bmy their island in the sea, as he 
was to sink the veisel now taken from them.** Two 
of the British crew were put to Aeath, others were 
compelled to do the duty of the ship, and the rest 
beaten and thrown into the hold. One only of the 
crew, a Frenchman, was sent on shore and set at 

London^ July 25.— The most fushiondble woman in 
the circle of th« French court is said to be madame 
' Moreaijs she spends whole days at the Thuilleries, 
laughing, dancing and singing. Her gi*eat wealUi, 
high, fhvor at court, and personal charms, have 
drawn roimd her a multitude of admirers; she is 
said to have rejected marshal Macdonald, because 
he was too steady. Those who have seen her in 
England, wt>uld scarcely recd|fnize her in Paris. 

»d:ufust 13. — It is painful to sec w^ what indus-' 
try the Bourbons are reviving old superstitious 
rites. A procession of 80 young ladies paraded 
the streets of Paris, with ligliled tapers in tlieir 
hands, on Thursday,to propitiate St. Genevieve, the 
jVitroneSB of Paris, for an improvement in the wea- 

J^eopoiitan Robber. — Accounts from the Calabrias, 
state tranquility to be daily establishing there. — 
The civic guard are every where on foot, and dis- 
play indefatigable zeal in pursuing the br!ga\)ds. 
The most terrible of tliese monsters who liad hither- 
to found an asylum in tlie mountains, has just been 
arrested in the neighborhood of Monteleone. He is 
called Becamorto. The force of his body is prodi 
giousj and the people regpard him as an Anthropo 
phag^is. The fact is, that he always has wiih him 
some human bones, in the form of St. Andrew's cross. 
Ii is said that he drinks the blood of the animals he 
kills. The wretch began his c»rctr in Sicily. He 

was tfler wards taken by the Barbaift^inrt^, and 
engaged to serve them in their expeditions. He 
hild been for eight months since hk retunx^b the 
island of Lepari, where he lay All the country un- 
der contribution without havm^ beta arrestol^— 
His very name causes terror. Five of his accompli* 
mi were taken with him, and ihe law will Mxm de- 
i^er society from these monsters* 

Miscellaneous Articleg. 

Ci.inroir8Bi7R{} Pa. Extract of a letter to the etBtor sf 

the Weekly Register, ,' 

You will be happy to hear of the advancement of 
literature in the western country. We are now 
erecting a new college in this village. The build- 
ing, when completed, will be three stories ; and 180 
feet in front ; the wings, each, 70 in front by 40 in 
width, and the centre 40 in front by 60 baclL 

An academy was created here in '92. It was chtfs 
tered a college in '98. As the-country was the* 
compars^ely new, it was doomed to stru^e with 
innumenPlie difficulties. Many of these it nas sur- « 
mounted, and is advancing by firm and regular 
steps in strength, utility and name, and bids fak- 
to be the Oxford of the Western countnr. 

A combination of local advantages—^ Mate of 
religion and morals, the abundanoe and cheap- 
ness of provisions in a fertile counlryy inexhaustible 
miives of coal at handijmd the quietness and salubrt- 
\y of the Village, combine in rendering tills a aoet 
eligible seat for a literary institution. 

The college course is extensive md judicious.* 

The benefits of shch an institutiof^o the wef|pni 
country, growing as it is in population, weal^ and 
refinement, are incalculable. We already begin to 
feel them extensively and powerfully. 

You will not do me the injustice to suppose that 
these observations are from the hand Of a persdn 
connected with the college. I have no interest li 
its prosperity, further than at I wish w^ te the 
cause of literature in general, ftndfeel interested lit 
the diffusion of knowledge amon^^lhis growing and 
happy people. 

Athbtul O. Tlie statement published-Jui our pa- 
per of tift 17th ult. which, it appears, i* very erro* 
neous, has drawn forth the following letter, whidi 
we insert^ith pleasure. Our article was extracted 
from what seemed to be an authentic accbunt of 
things there. The njain error, in putting 30,000 for 
3,000 dollars, as the revenue of tlie college, WW 
not ours. r 

Mhena, COJdOyJ September^ 1816. 
Mr. Xilks, , 

SIR— Knowing your wish for accuracy in your 
statemerfls, I take the Kbcrty to point out several 
inadvertent errors, noticed in your ^ort account of 
this town and its seminwy, vol. X. pagfe 414 of the 
Register, which you windoubtless think proper to 
coiTCct. The name of the institution is, Ohio Uni- 
versity ; and the lands belonging to it are 46,080 
Hcres, some pretty good ;md some worth but 
little ; yielding .a revenue, at this time, of about 

•III the Latin, Csi>ur, SflilattfOrid.Virgil, Horftce.and Ckcn^Oirf 
in the Gretk, Dalziei *• Miiioroi and Majora, comticvtine M ew^ 
lent and weU choten coonc, are read with critieal acanicf* Ift 
lope and nwral pbilmopby the c«aru* is not moM ntcmive ihut 
ordinary. In Belkt Lrtten, Blair'* Lectures, CkropfbeN't VMIomv 
pliy uf Rhetoric, aiid Walker*i Element! of £locatiou,ai« cSivMlf. 
•tuditd and tastef Uy explained. In Mecaphyties, Read*ft Emtco" 
the Intellectual and Acave powers, Stewart** Ptritotophf cr the 
human mind, and Sdwardaon the Will, constitute an eitemiv^aM 
Yaluable coune. In the natural tclencet, the course is c^Rf 
respectahlew Geography, Euelid, Coi«ck Sections, Trieoo^Milffi 
Sunre}'in^ Algebra, Fluxions. Chemistry, Natwrat PhlMl??* 
AstruQtfiDjr, &c« are «ught wiili abUtly.- 

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000 ^an yearly. *%ht litids are 
Ufm^ Wn'^i^P^ never to be, alter^l^ the rent of 
flHii Iraet bmg tlie interest of the sam at which it 
hu h^tfL vsAned in a state ^ nature. tVhen the 
tnelp»y& remaining to be lefeed, shall hate been 
.ynn^ ^s revenue will, nrobably, ^V to some- 
thing^are than 3000 dofUb jmt annum. This is 
9ttA 1^0 donation has yet been received ; nor 
Itfs any, irttkusual lbnnality» been asked. We have 
m aoiilemy here in a very flouridung state under 
the infraction of an able teacher, in which are 
i tiught all branches of a liberal ediic«||on. This is 
^eptiidanton our scanty fund for support' 'consum- 
is^ ottrly on^alf of it annually. The college, now 
a«efeiD|f>ia brR ; not stone, as ^ou have it. The 
tnislWi» spinted and persevering, are doing all 
they ISMI with thb pittance of jneans, for the growth 
M pli^aperity of the instituti^; cherishing a hope, 
ttM same time, that such honorable efibrts will 
be 4% appreciated by the friends of literature and 
s^lsee, and' secure that patronage and liberal en- 
•OQMement ftx>m pitf parent states Which the cir- 
^QiM^pces of our iinancy render peculiarly neces- 
nay.i The town is pleasantly situatlKt ; and is 
' thmbii: <u^ h ealthy . 

0?iB or TBK TB17STBX8 OX TBB unrvBBSirr. 
ftiM TABLia.— Mr. James. M. Elford, of Charles 
toiv S. 6.. has invented a univeral and perpetual 
cirMdar tibb vaBXB, The Southern Patriot thus 
Dotia^ this useful work 

Tlieft Tery usefUl and ingenious tables are the 
voikofMr. James M. Elford, author of the Polar 
Ta^ already so iustly celebrated. The object 
of t]|e tide tables la, to foretel, with the greatest 
deereea of mathematical certainty, tlie 
high water in any part of the world, at 
sQJr iKnir of the day or night. The process by 
vhidi this is arrived at, (alth<||gh the rendt of 
elabfirate astronomic^investigation) is one of tlie 
nfliieat simplicity. ^^*he purchaser of these ta^ 
qit% whether for the purpose of science, of actual 
lyf^oatlon, or of mere curiosity, can not only 
«n|icain the time of high water in every place 
HMItioiied in thi^^bles, (above 600) but also in 
aai^part oC the world, and, with a little industry, 
correct any error that may come to his knowledge, 
hf the rales laid' down. 

"Ae numerous advantages to Navigation, wliicli, 
k«f« arisen from the scientific researchcn of Mr. 
EHM, must be obvious to every one. — ^\Ve shall 
mettfoi one or two instances in which these tables 
are of the highest importance.: 1st. being caught 
Qp<Xt a lee-sliore off a bar harbor, when a gale 
Utmi wlijph prevents a pilot from venturing out; 
tbA'aaeertainment, in such a case, of the lime of 
hBgh water, might enable the vessiel to make her 
pwi in safety — whicHC witlio/ut tliis knpwle(kDe, 
voM be compelled tp keep to sea. 2dly. It some- 
times happens that a sliip is obliged to be run on 
sbore^ in oi^er to presenre the lives of those on 
hotjtd; now, every staman knows, that if the attempt 
heiRMle at hv ivater^ (which is not at all unlikely 
t&lpifipen, if the master is unacquainted with the 
tito} the whole flood woidd beat upon the vessel, 
an#aake her perliajis a wreck before she is well 
- 'ed— in such an extremity tlid^ives of those 
1 may be lost. lUit the advantage cannot 
io, when the time of high water w hiovfUt 
\. ^p is run on shore at Sie very top of the 
-fliecannot then fail of being well grounded 
iHOl only the crew, but probably the cargo 
ka saWid. 3d. — In beating up a channel with 
V winds, in a tide way, especially should there 
NidtailiJ, sands, Su^ ifi the passag*^, the knowledge^ 

e^psed in small of the actual time of liigh Water can hardly be di$'. 

■elv the rent of penaed with. 

We need not recapitulate more insmnces; those 
we have selected are sufficiently striking, and 
indeed sufficiently cnipmon^ to shew the very use- 
ful purpotfies of these tables. An ^nation in minutw 

is given to correct any error that ma^ mt 'from 

, w^hl 

the infiuence of the sun upon thetides^ 
a proportion to that of the moon as 1 to 8. 

I bears 


Manu/achiret. A considerable manufiicturcr in 
an eastei-n sUte, in a letter to the editor of the 
Weekly Register, observe*— ««I have ii in my power ) 
to state I can manufacture broad cloths and caa- ' 
simeres, fine or coarse, as cheap as th|y can be re- ' 

filarly imported, and make a handscfll profit. But .' 
cannot come into competition witli the siucxificea 
now raukuigp— nor dolj^bh it:" 

The present tariff, in dur opinion, is sufHcfent to 
protect our doroeatic manufactures under a regular 
state of things, to whicii we shall arrive bye and by. 
The manufactures and the people of the U. SUtes 
are more indebted for this to Uaae BHfrga than any 
other man; and his great exertions at Washington 
city, last winter, in this business, we are sorry to be- 
Ueve have not been requited-p-nay, we are told that 
even his actual expencea have not been indemni- 
fied! Thisistruljjtobe rep-etted; as JIfr. Jirig^i* 
circumstances neither justify, nor will bear hira out 
in the sacrifice of time and moneyh^ made to serve 
the public on the important occasion alluded to. 
We are well informed of the nature and effect of 
his labor, and trust they will he remunerated by a 
reflecting people, and especially by that portion of 
them who are interested in manufactures of cottm 
and -wool: 

Whether our friend Bri^gt will "be pleased or dis- 
pleased with this notice, we cannot say. hut an 
act ofju9tice w due to him; and he will excuse our 
act in its o^jec^ .• which is simply to draw the pub- 
lic attention to his meritorious services. 

A paragraph noticing the decease of general Van 
Benaemer wa* accidentlv omitted last week. This 
hero of the revolution died at Albany on tjie 8tii 
inst. at aft advanced agc^ and was intcned ivith all 
the honors that an affectionate people could bestow, 
masonic and militajry. His pall was supported by 
eight officers of the war for independence. 

« General Vj^p Rensselaer went earlv into the ar- 
my during tjie war of independence, and was very 
much distinguished ftr hi» hravery ar.d good con- 
duct—conduct^ which secured him tl»« esteem and 
respect of his fellow officers, and piticulariy of 
the commander in chief. Jle was in sevend engage- 
ments, during which he uniformly diicovered the 
greatest coolness and courage. In July, 1777, he 
was attacked by a Isp-ge body of the onemr; at Fort 
Ann, but with a veryAinequal force he resii^d them 
witli great obstinacy and success, until ho learned 
that Ticondcroga had been abandoned' by our 
troops, when he brotight his men off. On tliat oc- 
p ision he received a wound from a musket shot, tlie 
effctts of which he severely felt througliout the 
remainder- of his life. The ball entered his tliigh, 
broke tlie bone, passed by, and lodged in the upper 
part of the limb. The wound causeil him a great 
deal of pain and distress, for many years. The ball 
was never extracted until since his death, wheft it 
was taken out by Dr. William Bay, of tliis city, af- 
ter having been carried by the deceased, upwards- 
of 39 years." * 

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The collection of some of tlie most diatinguisiied 
officers of tbe array of the United States at New- 
York, ill cc*feequence of the court martiitil sitting 
tliere, afforded a fine opportunity for celebrating the 
anniversary of the famous sorUe'from Fort Erie, and 
on the 17th instont, that oay was ttfcdsomely 

Mvf'^h-^14 ships, 6 brigs and 11 schooners 
arrived at New-York on the 17th inst 

Connecticut efeclum.^Retufn8 from 93 todois give 
7993 federifl, and 6315 democratic votes-^he few 
towns to be hefcrd from, it is admitted by the Connec- 
tiaU Mirror will reduc« the federal majority to 1600 
votes. It is supposed that the house of represen- 
tatives will consist of about 114 or 115 fedei^alists, 
and 86 or 87 democrats. 

La FayeUe.^Vihen the Americins at Paris cele- 
brated the anniversary of their independence on the 
4th July lajU they invited Gen. La Fayette to join 
them, whicS^me thing, however, prevented. Hut 
he addressed a letter to the meeting; which, after 
drinking, "General La Fayette— le voici," was read 
amidst the cheers of the company. We have yet 
only seen the following given as an extract from the 
letter — **I shall most cordially join in the comme- 
moration of oiu* revolutionary days, and the days of 
liberty, prosperity and glory, which have since shone 
upon the United States.'* 

Gr'at and ffood news/ — The xmited ppuvinces of 
the /?»o del Plata, were declared //re andindepen- 
ilent by the grand conffreat at Tucttman, on tfte 9th of 
July. May heaven keep tliera so! 

The meeting of this congress, we are exceedingly 
gratified to learn, has had a most powerful effect in 
cementing the wishes and opinions of the people, 
and quieting the jealousies and rivalships of the dif- 
ferent chiefs. With Union among themselves, they 
have nothing to fear from Spain. 

The patriot army under Rondeau, in Upper ^ru, 
was reorganised and reinforced. The people of 
Monte Video were very patiently waiting for the 
reported attack from the Portuguese,, whosp gen. 
Artigas is well prepared to receive. Brown 
has sent a prize to Buenos Ayres, captured by him 
in the Pacific, vrorth half a million. The patriot 
privateer Young Constitution, commanded by an ex- 
priest of great valor, .patriotism and liberality, has 
been lost of Cape Horn in a gale. j 

The royalists at Laguira were fitting out 12 mer-* 
•ihant vessels to proceed ajrainst Murgaretta, whicli 
remains in the hands of the patriots. 

Flour appears to be a perfect driu^at Gibraltar— 
the best selling at 7i dollars per bfll>el. 

Monopoly of tobacco — A letter from Bordeaux says 
— **A vessel, arrived here from the United States 
(the FJixa^h ff«7«on, C.ipt. Uubbjlrd) witji a car- 
go of tobacco — the government not choosing to 
purchase, and individuals not having the liberty, 
tJiis vessel is obliged to proceed elsewhere for a 

Flmiij^ at Jamaica, Sept. 4,47 to ISg per barrel; 
cornnSkl, glltolS. 

A letter from an officer on b6ard the Washingtd* 
74, says that that ship was exceedingly adn^ired at 
15ibralUr; and tha^, when the squadron arrived at 
Naples, the sevci-al men of war lyhig in the basrfn 
"were instantly hauled into dock as soon as it was 
•liscoveVed who we were!" Our minister, Mr. 
Pinkney, with the naval officers, were most respect- 
fullv treated at Gibralhir. 

Specie — There is a pretty powerful current of spe- 
cie inio the United States. Very considerable sums 
have been brought by the great numbers of erai- 


grants who h||e latelf reached our coun^ 1 
Europe, and^lch is imported by our nflfthi 
We hope that the "silver age*» may soon be *'restor. 
ed"— it is the only chep k upon swindling^ by things 
called^anks. ^ 

We thooglUt it might form a curious item to ob. 
serve the arrival of vAiels reported with specie. 
Notices o^ the fottSwirig have reached us for the 
week ending yesterday— and whatevitr may be the 
aggfregate brought by those mcntionedj it probably 
amounU to less tlian one half of the whole that ar- 
rived in th^ime stated: 

2 vess«lsffom J^ordeuux.(28,594 dollars); 1 from 
Kingston, (Ja.); Sji'om London; L from Usbois 
(100,000); 1 from St. Thomas; l#om Antwerp, 
(6000); 1 from London (17,000); 1 from Rotterdam; 
2 from South-America; 1 from Gibraltar (24,000— 
The above is much jhort of the real amount, for 
most neglect or refuse to report specie. 

Mr. Ballat has declined to be considered as a can- 
didate for congress from Philadelphia. He is fir 
pected, however, immediatelj| to resign his secw* 
taryship. ^ 

The British ship Ann, arrived at New- York, Ims 
part of her cargo composed of cannon and shot 

Itichmond commerce— S slups, 1 barque, and 5 brig« 
from Liverpool; and 2 ships from London, have l)^ 
centiy arrived at Richmond, with about 1$,000 
packages of dry goods, hardware,. Crates, &e. a&dS 
more ships were expected! 

Exchange fallings Drafts on Baltimore have been 
sold at Boston at 9 per cent. dis. A little whtle^ 
they were at 23. 

Dreadful «cAme«.— Capt. Wheeler^ 29 days from 
Guadaloupe, arrived at New -York, loit all thttre^r 
of his sloop, except the mate, by the sickness tnere. 
Ke states that 600 Americans and Europeans had 
died of the fevci**at Point Petre. 

Some few emigrants appe* to be arriving in Ca- 

BouKDAnics. — ^Extract of a letter, dated Sackctt'5 
Harbor, Sept. 13, to a gentleman in Albany— **0>l 
Hawkins, agent for the United States, under tht 
treaty of Ghent, and major Roberdeaux, topogra- 
phical engineer, have been here on their way to the 
westward, exploring the line, &c. They say the 
line west of Connecticut river is at present too far 
south, and that by establishing it on the true 45th 
degree or parallel of latitude, will give the United 
Siiit«s 16 townships of Lower Canada, and their ex- 
cellent fort and island, the Isle au Noix.** 

Immense sacrifices of British goods, — At the sale 
of 600 packages of British dry goods, by Hones and 
Town, Xew-York, which took place on the 4th inst 
every article was (to use a technical phrart) knot** 
e?l down at considci*ably less- than first cost. The 
greater part of the invoice too, consisted of cloths 
which ought at this time to command a good price; 
but it appears from Rldrige*s "Sale Report," that 
superfines, which cost from 13 to 223. sterling per 
V ird, only averaged g3 60; tlmse which cost from 
16 to 25s. S4 50, and super double milled clotlis, 
which cost fj-om 26 to SOs. sterling, averaged only 
§5. And every thing else in proportion. 

Freeman's Jountal 

MonlredlSep. 14. Last week some of our Jonmals, 
stated that the Earl' of Selkirk had made prisoners 
the hon. Wm. M'Gillivi-ay, and other partners ol 
the North West Company at Fort William. Sub- 
sequent information confirms the report, upon tirhich 
we sliall at present make no comment. 

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JL J -.- ■■■■ -. 


\'o. 6 OF Vol- XI.] 


[WHOLK NO. ?G(). 

IJac oHm wondninsc Jiwabit. — Vjroil. 


cy be pursued — for there \m\M not l)e inoiior 
enough in Circulation to answer the comiu(»ii 
purposes of business, in our cities and princi- 
pal towns. 

AVhether there i? or is not as much specie in 
the United States now as there w as before the 
war, is a matter diluted — but it is certain that 
the people have amuch greater desire to possess 
it iiow than the j had tlien. Relieve them of this 
desire^ and the expected pressure^ou tlie banks 
will be aldo relieved. 

The superior value of specie over a note 
issued by a good bank is more in idea than in 
factr— yet the idea operates as a fact, for coin 
bears a premium. I would therefore attack 
tlie idea and lessen the weight of the fact. 

This might be done wirti considerable effect, 
if the batiks were, occasionally, to throw out a 
few hard dollars, not of compulsion, any more 
tban they do now, but voluntarily, and I would 
say, capriciamhj — as if to shew that they 
placed no particular value upon them. Tlioy 
would thus, in some degree, bring tlie public 
mind back to what it was, and the "run'* upoii 
them would be avoided in exact pronortion a« 
this was effected. The distribution ot one thou-r 
sand dollars in this way before thfe time for 
specie payments arrives, would save to them 
ten thousand when it does arrite. For the peo- 
ple having become /amt/tor with specie would 
cease their ardent wish to possess it, in pi*efer- 
ence to approved notes. 

Septinsular Republic; 
We published in No. 4, of this volume^ 
ge 54^ the proclamation of sir Thomas 
aitland, lieutenant-general and commander 
in chief of the British forces in th? Mediter- 
ranean, governor of Malta, and lord high com- 
missioner in the United States of the Ionian 
Islands. As the latter and principal portion of 
the countries under tliis officer's jurisdiction 
have lately shewn some inclination to reject 
the Britisfi yoke, imposed upon them in a man- 

^ ^ ncr one hardly kn«ws how, and as thos6 islands 

to^ecie, than by causing-tJie great sacrifices of are in themselves valuable and interesting, we 

Specie payments 

**Yest«xlay, (says a New-York paper of the 
2rth alt.) allthe banks and brokers oi this city 
camraenced paying, in spttie^ all sums under 
n Mlar. Bj this means tbe small paper trash 
will ^dmJry disappear." 

Yes— and when me good banks re-commence 
tfce payment of specie for their notes, a vast 
tittantfty of larger ^^ti-ash in circulation," under 
me impesiiig and onte respectable character 
«f bank bills^ \^ also ^^gradnally disappear." 
It i» by specie payments, only, tbatthe money 
market dm be purged of its "trash." 

Biirt the banks, vmen they re-commence spe- 
^e payments, will be exceedingly pressed. 
Every one that holilsanote will 1^ anxious to 
tonvcrt it into specie, and the **run" will be 
tppressive^-much more so, I believe, than it 
would be if a little policy were pursued. 

The time has been when, except with a few 
niiseiiB and hoarders of money, (of no coose- 
«|uence in a eeneral view) bank notes were con 
BKltered in the saftie light as* specie, under the 
Om that they were always convertible into it, 
«n demand; and this confidence must be re- 
stored before the banks can do a business ad- 
nnti^eous to theii" stockholders or the com- 

This confidence is to be regained by pressing 
lfae4tebtors of the baid^s with a degree of se- 
te^ty that must end in the ruin of thousands, 
wcby making bank notes scarce, and raising 
Adr value in consequence, and bv divestin;{j 
the people of the (iommonly prevailing idea of 
fte superior worth of specie, by the payment 
in com of all notes presented for the purpose^ 
The latter cannot be done without excessive 
and useless 8nfl^ring,nnle88 the people are gra- 
AttHy divested of their desire to have and to 
fcflW specie rather than paper. 

Itis not until the 1st of July, 1817, that there 
w a prospect of specie payments becoming ge- 
nerid in the middle, southern and western 
sttos. Might not the banks better prepare for 
Ihit perioifby striking at tiie opinions or pre- 
Jiuiices of the people, as to the value attacned 

9& torts of property that nmst follow a steady 
entailment of discounts? It is thought that 
te'old banks have not, on an average, more 
^il one-third of the paper afloat fliat they 
m when specie .payments were suspended; 
ttifeere is a real dilficulty widi the best men 
^•'get "bank money" enough to meet their 
*«w^ engagements. Great distress and incon- 
venience have already been felt, but the diffi- 
nihy has only c(mimenced if the present poli- 

VOL. XI. ] 

have thought that some information relative to 
them might not be unwelcome to our readers- 
The Septinsular Republic, as it has long 
been termed, has never been connected with 
the ancient Ionian Islands, wliich were Samos 
and Chios, opposite the coast of Ionia, and 
belonging to it. And though the inhabitants of 
the Seven Islands are sometimes called Hel-, 
Icnes, which now is a general phrase, meaning 
Greeks^ yet they are none of the descendants 

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of Helleii, the son of Deucalion. His issue 
were Dori^ iKoks aHil Ion, from whom cdme 
the, tribes that peopled Attica, and the opposite 
coast of Asia? and to a nart of ^em Ion's 
name was extended. But tne islands of which 
we are about to speak lie opposite the mouth 
of the Adriatic, and west ot the western coast 
of Albania and Morea; that is, beside the 
western shore of ancient Greece. They are 
Corfu, Zante, Cephalonia, St. Maure, Theaki 
or Itlnca, Cerigo, and Raxo. 

Some hundred years ago, Corfu was a sole 
i;epublic, but it somehow passed into the pos- 
session of the king of Naples, and was after- 
wards sold by him to tlie Venetians for 30,000 
ducats. At tliis time the Venetians acquired 
possession of several islands in the Levant, and 
amons the rest of the seven Ionian islands; 
and tor their security maintained a fleet of 
galleys, and a strong garrison in the port of 
Corfu. In 1797, on the fall of Venice, those 
islands were seized by the French, and were 
ceded by them to the king of Hungary and 
Bohemia, in tlie treaty of Campo Formio, en- 
tered into the sartie year; which cession was 
confirmed by the treaty of Luneville in 1801,* 
althou^i Russia had, during ihe year 1799, 
made some kind of seizure of Corfu, Cepha- 
lonia and Zante, constituting them "an inde- 
pendent republic under her protection;'' and 
the treaty of Amiens recognrzed her claim to 
them. Afterwards the emperor Alexander 
agreed to cede them to Bonaparte. While in 
this dubious condition, about the year 1809, 
ffeneral Oiwald, a British officer, went against 
Qiem in a secret expedition, and topk posses- 
sion of them in the name of the British govern- 
ment; but it was stated in England ftat tlie 
act was unauthorised. The British did not 
therefore recognise them as conquests, but yet 
determined to hold possession of them until 
the Europeaii contests should be ended. This 
was a stratagem : had they been taken as con- 
quered territory, it might have been necessary 
at a subsequent peace, made with France, upon 
the principle of statu quo ante fteWum, or anyone 
tantamount, to have made restoration. They 
therefore termed it a revival of the Septinsular 
Republicunder the British protection. Aprovi- 
sional government was appointed, to be placed 
under a British officer as president In short, 
the most odious kind of government, a military 
one, is now fixed upon them, and at present, 
since the disappearance of continental danger, 
the Seven Islands are regarded as British pro- 
vinces, and no republic at all. 

These Ionian Islands were considered of 

great value to Venice in hor commercial daj^^ 
and will probably be of very considerable im* 
portance hereafter. Corfu is the key to the 
Adriatic, and Cerigo to the Archipelago. The 
people of these islands are by no means so 
Ignorant as is generally imagined. It is rare^ 
says Mr. Gait, to find among them a person 
that is unable to read or write. They have 
books which are chiefly translations from the 
works of other nations; besides newspapers^ 
some in their native language, the Romaic or 
corrupted Greek; some in lUlian and some in 
French. In Zante one was printed in Italian, 
and lately one has been established there in the 
Romaic, called the Ephemeri» ton Jonikon 
EleutheronieTion JV*es*(m. This is under the 
British patronage, and directed aeiinst the 
Corfiate Gazette which belonged to me French 
party. This latter paper was printed in Greek 
and had a French translation; at present, we 
presume it is discontinued. The EUenikos 
Telegniphos was printed in Greek, at Venice^ 
to be circulated through the Seven Isles. Be- 
sides these, Gait mentions a Greek-Italian pa- 
per, printed at Corfu by one Piq>alazarus. 

^It is stated Uiat Butrinto, Larta, Vuizza, and in 
general all the ci-devant establishments in Albania, 
which are situate lower down than the gulf of Lod 
rino, were ceded to the French, but it does not ap- 
pear that tlie xUbms of the British go to the same 


This was the ancient Corcyra, and Phceni- 
cia of Homer, the scite of the gardens of Alci- 
nous. It is the most northerly of the seven, 
and lies near the continent opposite Albania. 
It is about fifty-four miles long and twenty 
broad, between 39 and 40 of latitude and 19 
and ^ east londtude. An article from the 
Jamaica Chronicle states the population at 
70,000 but others say only 50,000. The climate 
is healthy and temperate, and the soil is fertile: 
fruits are excellent and abundant, particularly 
the Fracazzoni fig. The principal pr^uc& 
are salt, oil and honey. The Greek church, to 
which the inhabitants chiefly belong, was for- 
merly under the protection, or persecution of 
the Romish churcn, but is now liberated^ It hi 
superintended by a proto-papa or head-priesf, 
who is elected m an assembly of the clei^ 
and nobility; but is immediately dependent 
upon the patriarch of Constantinople. His office, 
lasts five years, at the expiration of which 
time he returns to the class of ortlinary p2M>a89 
but is permitted, during the remainder of^ his 
life, to gratify his vanity by wearing a crimson 
girdle. The churches are numerous, ancf ^- 
nerally built by private individuals. The chie£ 
one is dedicated to their great patron St Spi- 
ridion, who, in the lists of their saints, holds 
precedence of Jesus Christ Tlie convents are 
numerous, and verypemicious to the prospe- 
rity of the island. The clei^ are ignorant to 
such a degree as to render them proverbial. It 
is to be understood that the same forms of re- 
ligion prevail in all those islands; and that su- 
perstition is still excessive and general, iMit 
will probably be soon extirp?ited. 

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CRPHALONfA. I Gill in his Ithica observes that the Gre- 

This was die ancient Cephalleuia, or Samus,* clans from the first ages of their historv, had 

or Black Epirus, or Epirus Mel«na. It lies , considerable intercourse With Ejry^it and Phce- 

opposite the gulf of Lepanto, which was an-jnecia, countries which at a very eiirly pcAOfl 

cientlj the sea of Oissa. It is about fortjrjwere distinguished notonljrby their cultiva- 

miles foDg. and nineteen or twenty nules broad, 
containing according to Holland, who visited 
it in 1812 or 1813, from 55,000 to 60,000 in- 
habitants. It is inferior to Zante in fertility, in 
commerce and almost in every respect, except 
m extent The chief articles of export are cur- 
rants, wine and oil; the jinnual produce of the 
former being estimated at from five to six mil- 
lions of pounds. '^ A considerable number of 
goats ina sheep fe^ upon the high grounds of 
the island, but 1 heard notiiing," says Holland, 
'•to corroborate the strange story of JElian, 
that the goats in Cephaionia do not drink 
during six months of tne year." The air here 
is wr warm, so that the trees are covered 
with flowers in winter and bear fruit twice a 
jcan but the November fruit is smaller than 
that rf April. The ridge called Black mountain 
is the most striking feature of the island : it is 
iiupposed to be 4000 high. It is called ^nos 
bv strabo, ^nd had once, upon its summit, an 
ahar dedicated to Jupiter ^ncsius. This 
istaud was obtained by the Venetians in 1224 
as a g^t from its lord, Craio. 
tUsis opposite Cephaionia and is sometimes 
OaRed Little Cephaionia. it is the Ithica of 
^las^c days, and therefore commands peculiar 
interest, as beins the birth-place and kingdom 
of Ulysses, anti the scite of some of the fine 
scenes of the Odyssey. It contains, according 
to H<rfland, 7,000 br 8,000 inhabitants at pre- 
seat- At l^e principal town which is called 
Valthi tr Vatni, there is a fine harbor. The 
estreme length from north to soutli is about 
seventeen maes and the greatest breadth about 
fottr. At the centre of the island, where the 
great port is scooped out, it is not more than 
half a mile broad. It is, in short, but a narrow 
nigged ridge of limestone i*ock and there is 
scarcely a iiundred yards of leval ground at 
uiy one place, which fully justifies the inhospi- 
table speech of Telemachus to his mother^s 
suitors, and wairants the remark of Cicero, 
that Ulysses loved his country "non quia lai-ga, 
«ed qua sua." "Nevertheless,'' says Holland, 
**fte scenery is rendered striking by the bold 
brdcen uutlin^ of mountains, promontories and 
bajS,^ and there are points where it is even 
pletnng, in the cultivated declivity of the 
ri^tes, and the opening out of the vallies to- 
^Wls the sea, woodea with olive, orange and 
Bhund trees, or covered with vineyards. The 
nvfer part of the bay of Vathi, and a valley at 
meimpCT extremity of the port have this sof- 

, *8troos or S»mnsy mentioaed above, (in the lea 
nui tea) was a different isl vid 

tion and their elegant arts, but by their navi- 
gation, commerce and colonial settlements. 
Tlic enterprising traders of those nations, 
thi*ougIi channels which were aftei^wards ob- 
structed by the inroads of Scythians and other 
barbarian tribes, having obtained the rich com- 
modities of the east, conveyed tliem first to the 
islands and then to the continent of Greece. 
A cdmmercial intercourse, thus established, 
introtluced a taste for the polite ai-ts among 
the islands and along the Asiatic coast; their 
poetry became more harmonious, while their 
sources of knowledge were increased. Among 
this people, then, a genius like that of Homer, 
endowed with powers unequalled, found in the 
narratives of his adventurous countrymen, ma- 
terials the best adapted to charm, to interest, 
and to instruct his hearei*s.'^ 


This was anciently called 21acynthus, or 
Zacynthos. It lies opposite the western coast 
of the Morea and near to the south coast of Ce- 
phaionia. It is about fourteen miles long and 
eightbroad. Its chief riches consist in currants,* 
which are cultivated in lai^« plains beneatli 
the range of central mountains, tliat ffive tlie 
rays of the sun creat power, and are merefore 
calculated to bring light fruits to high perfec- 
.tion. In this island the peaches grow to the 
weight of eight or ten ounces, and are said to 
be finer than in any other part of tlie world. 
Besides these, and grapes, of which they maker 
wine, the island produces cotton, silk, and 
some grain, thougn not enough for their own 
use. Mr. (rait, in his letters from the Levant, 
says that "the vicinity of the Morea renders it 
a cheap residence, for a superabundance of 
every species of provisions is still found in 
that country. It is a custom for the peasants 
of Zante to go over to tlie Morea, in harvest 
time, to assbt in reaping the corn. One year 
with another, about five tliousand people an- 
nually migrate, and being paid in grain for 
their work, return, it is supposed, with not less 
than fifty thousand bushels.'' 

Zante is the name of the* principal city, 
which is supposed to contain 17,000 inhabi- 
tants. It is fortified and has a fine harbor. 
"With respect to the appearance and condition 
of the inhabitants," says Mr. Gait, "it may be 
described as a substantial place, in which com- 
fort i3 more studied than elegance. It has no 
public amusement, if you except the billiard 
tables. The churches are not in any respect 
remarkable. The clergy being of tne Greek 
persuasion, are of course neither so numerous,. 

♦Tins name is from Corinth, on the neicrhborinj 
mwulaud, from v/henoe they wcirc ori|^inanyQr9im:t 

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po aiTOgant, nor so opulent as tliose of tlie Ro- 
man catholic countries.^' 

There is in Zante a nublic pawn bank, simi- 
lar to the banks of the Italian republics in 
former times, but different from most of the 

narrow strait Formerly it had scvjeral good 
towns, but now it is onfj a rendevouz for pi- 
rates, beine mountiiinous, rocky and barren. 
Cerigo is the chief town. It is situated on a 
sharp rock at the western coast of the island, 

banks in the United States. The persons who sunounded by the sea and defended by a castlei 
obtain loans as9i«?,n their property to the bank, 
to remain deposited as a pledge for the re-pay- 
mentn. It still, however, remains in the hands 

of the original proprietors, as under a mortgage, 
and resembles the hondin^'System adopted l)y 
the West-India merchants, llie Jews live in a 


This is an insimificant island about fifteen 
miles in circumference, lying on the south 
coast of Corfu. It produces wine, oil and 
almonds; but thefc are few inhabitants. The 

strong gate. 

street by themselves, which is defended by aj J?^" !f San Nicola. It has a good harbor.— 

— ' "^ Opposite to it IS another smaller island, called 

Atitipaxo. There are some other small islands 
in this sea, and belonging to the above con- 
fedefation, such as Strophadia, which Mr. Gait 
says "is famous for the abundance of its spring 
and for an extensive ecclesiastical rookery* 

This privilege was a measure 
adopted by the Venetian republic, to protect 
tJiem from ill usage at a time when they were 
generally persecuted by the Christians. 

There is a public granary, which always con- 
tained a sufficient quantity of grain to prevent 
a scarcity, in case the usual supply should be 
interrupted. The interior of Zante has a beau- 
tiful appearance when viewed from the fortress 
above tlie city — a large fertile valley highly 
cultivated, studded with neat lodges and vi 
lages, embosomed in olive plantations. The 
{copulation of tlie island is estimated at 40,000. 


This was anciently called Leucas, or Leu- 
cadift, or Leucatc. It was once a peninsula, 
being attached to Epirus by an isthmus about 
one hundred paces long and six hundred broad, 
which has been since washed away.* On the 
summit of a mountain, on the north east, is 
situated the town of Leucas. On this promon- 
tory Apollo had a temple; and Venus had 
another very majgnificent one; and there is a 
tradition that unfortunate lovers used to pre- 
cipitate themselves from it, into the sea be- 
neath. The readers of the Spectator must re- 
collet the famous lover's leap. Homer men- 
tions three towns in this island, viz. Neriton, 
Crocylca and Agylipa: upon the site of the first 
of these, the Connthians built Leucas, which 
now contains about 6,000 inhabitants. Tlie 
island ia about fifty miles in circumference, 
and is fertile, agreeable and salubrious, abound- 
ing with a variety of game, besides wine, oil, 
citrons,pomegi'anates,almond8and other fruits. 
There are fortifications, with walls and towers, 
i^ound the town of Leucas; and beyond the 
works, in a moiuss, are two little towns upon 
two islands. Those islands communicate with 
tlie continent by bridges. 


American Literature. 

We observe that Mr. Carey, of Philadelphia, 
is about to publish a " Universal HistOTy of the 
Worlds ^inericanised^'^' from the earliest re- 
cords, to the nineteenth centuiy; written by Dr. 
David Ramsay, and continued to the treety of 
Ghent, by S. S. Smith, L. L. D. &c. The merit 
of Dr. Ramsay as ahikorical writer, sohi^lr 
and so universally praised, should be sufficient 
motive, to every friend of American literature, 
for lendins the aid of his patronage to the publi- 
cation of Siis work. The name of Ramsay is 
already dearto us. He, whom the incomparable 
Dickinson styled "the Polybius of America;" 
now, when he reposes in the grave, is beginning 
to liold that distinguished nmk among authorst 
to which his great talents have so long entitled 
him. It has been generally known, that, for 
several yeai-s, he was engaged in somcjiteraiy 
work; and much anxiety had been felt at his 
death, lest that melancholy event should de- 
prive the world of the whole result of his la- 
Dors; but we are now about to behold thein^ m 
the production of a work that has long been one 
of the greatest desiderata among all mt literary 
fiiends of American republicanism. 

The principal works of the English historians^ 
are calculated only for the merioian of despot* 
ism; but hitherto they have been indispensible 
here. The information they contain is so neces- 
sary in some situations of life, and so useful and 
interesting in all situations, tiiat they cannot be 
in any degree supplanted, except by some such 

ork as we suppose Mr. Ramsay's to be. Tha 
This is hotter knowTb^the classic name ofl ^^!>"e'-.^,7f? s^PP'^^*^ the better; forthej 

Cylheria, wliich was said to be the favorite re 
gidence of Venus. Thevenot savs it was the 
island tliat the ancients called Porphyris, on 
account of the quantities of porphyiT found 
Iherc. It is about fifty miles in circumference; 
and is separated from the Morea by only a 

^Leiicadia continium veteres babuer« coloiii 
Nunc freta circumeunt. Ovid. 

are so full of the base and the dangerous pria-* 
ciples of modem idolatry, that no iiian can read 
them without frequent disgust^ who possesaes 
liberal sentiments with regard to the rights andt* 
fi*eedom of mankind. Througli all ages, idoli- 
try has, of all kinds of crime and folly, been 
the most seductive, the most dangerous, and 
the most prevalent. In early ages this vrki^ 
edness consisted chiefly in tlie worsliip ofill»- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



m bat almost all the world has, through tlie 
m^ntviDS wiadom of latter times, discarded 
thk puenlityr and, now, idolitrj consists in 
the worship of rank; in other words, it is the 
principle of aristocracy. The j u venility of the 
world must yet have its rattle — 

"A iiiile louder, but as empty quite/* 

To ourselves it has lone been a matter of se- 
rioQd grievance, to see the works of so many 
great, and otherwise valuable, writers, imbued 
with such mean and pernicious folly; and we 
hope it is not deviating from our subject, to 
express our exultation here, that the people of 
this country are, in some d^ree, abcmt to be 
relieved from the contagious influence of it 

'^Nou continuo si me in gregem sicariorum 
coatnli, sum sicarius," said some of the Latins, 
niiose name 1 foi^et; but, nevertheless, it is 
generaUy found, that "evil communications 
comijpt good manners;'^ and I have long im- 
puted tfe (nrevalence of aristocracy, in this 
cuoatij, tothe general circulation of the works 
of English historians. We walit books that 
may eradicate the frivolous manners — the pup- 
pyiaik of courts, and introduce in their stead 
me manly habits and sentiments — ^the simple 
dignity congenial to republicanism: a contempt 
for parade, aod a respect for what is trul v noble. 
It is particalarly necessary that an ardent na- 
tional spirit should be diffused through the mass 
of the nation. An emulation for wMe distinc 
tion flmst be excited, like that which cast its 
splendor over the better days of Greece and 
Rome — an ambition that can live only in the 
display of public virtue; a respect for public 
aeiUiinent, which can arise only from the dif- 
/iisioB of public information; and an assurance 
that public honors can be gained only by honor 
^e means. 

Bat we'' delay the account of Mr. Ramsay's 
histoty. ^^This work,'' says he, "has been in 
coatemplation upwards oi forty years. The 
project was conceived in 1768, on reading the 
tmversal History, then recently edited, in 60 
volumes, by a society of gentiemen in England. 
Theoriginal idea of extracting the quintessence 
of that Toluminous work, which contained the 
i^ost G^mplete system of history the world had 
seeDy b«s ever since been enlarging and im- 
provUg by an extensive perusal of the histories 
vntfmby Etobertson, Hume, Gibbon and otlier 
Rodcm authors— of the Asiatic researches — 
of the wcffks of sir William Jones, and other 
learned Orientalists — ^the nublications of intel- 
lij^^li&Tellers, who, in tne course of the last 
Half eoi^cuy , have explored almost every region 
of dieg^be* These, coUectivefy, have thrown 
a Uw of light on countries, comparatively, 
tiotaiiVB; and on portions, both of ancient and 
laodttB. lustory, wnich v^ere confused and ob- 
scitfe^^ the pmod when the writers of the 
I'&ivttisSl History published their invaluable 
^wL-IRie wrrangement of materials, collected 
ftom tiieee sources, comm^ced in thci year 

1780, when, in consequence of the surrender 
of Charleston to sir Henry Clinton, the author 
was suddenly released from a sea of business, 
and sent as a prisoner of war to the Britisli pjaij 
rison, then in St. Augustine, and there conftn- 
ed for eleven months, without aiiv peculiar em- 
ployment. Steady progress has^Jeen made for 
the last ten years, in coiTecting and transcrib- 
ing the work for publication." 

It is stated, that the whole work will be in- 
cluded in 10 or 12 volumes; but the part rela« 
tive to America may be had separate, in three 
volumes. "The history of the United States 
is given at full length — that of foreign coun- 
tries is more or less expanded or contracted, in 
proportion to the intrinsic importance of each 
— its tending to illustrate portions of Holy 
Writ — ^the Crreek and Latin classics — and also 
in proportion to its connection with the United 
States, or as furnishing useful practical infor- 
mation to its citizens." 

"The Asiatic part of the work contains a 
general view of the antediluvians — of the gene^ 
ral deluge— of the re-settlement of the globe 
after that great event— of the primitive post- 
diluvian nations, which were fonned in Asia, 
the cradle of the world — ^their vaiious ram^- 
cations, revolutions, and of the general coursQ 

"The African part contains a concise histo- 
ry of Egypt, Carthage, Numidia, Mauritania, 
Abyssinia, of the piratical states, and the Hot- 
tentots, with a grouped view of its uncivilized 

"The European part contains the history of 
Greece and Rome— of the various nations wnich 
were conquered by tlicm — of the nations by 
which tlie Romans tliemselves were finally con- 

?|uered, and of the nations which were formed 
rom the fragments of t^e Roman empire, and 
tlie various revolutions of the latter, together 
with a general view of the nations wliich were 
never subjected to the Romans." 

"The American part contains'a general his- 
tory of the western continent, under the heads 
of Free, European, and Aboriginal or uncon- 
quered America." 

In addition to the unquestionable merit of 
the work, it wUl furnish a motive for the pa- 
tronage of the liberal and literary part of the 
community, that the profits whicli may arise 
from the publication of this work, "will be ex- 
clusively applied to the education and support 
of the numerous family of the author.". 

The Sailor^s Wish. 


Many years* since being in a public garden, near 
Philadelphia, some of the company happened to ex- 
press their -wishes to possess this or have that, when 
a sailor, who overheard the conversatiop, stepped 
up with ''Gentlemen, permit me to t^U you wJik 
wish for." Being desxred to proceed, he said** 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


**T wish that T had three ship-loads of needles — employ those 200 children, and their wiges mty be 

«'As mwch thread and cloth :is tJie needles would 
make np into hajars — and 

"These hajjs full of j^old." 

Relating^ the anecdote a few days apo to one of 
my neig-hbors, he said he would like to see its pto- 
duct calculated, obscmng however that the amount 
must be far beyond any thin^ that the imagination 
could conceive — so I put down the wish upon paper, 
and directed one of my boys to brin^ out a result. 

He supposed — the ships mig^ht carry 1200 tons of 

reckoned ns follows: 

100 at 125 cents per week, 
50 at 150 do. 

50 at 200 do. 

gl25 00 

75 00 

100 00 

300 00 

Say for 45 weeks in the year. S13,600 00 

Calculations pretty accurately made shew tliat it 
will require §25 a year to clothe a child of 7 yetiTs 

needles, one hundre<l of which would weig-h an old, in an economical way — the clothinj';' of these 
ounce — and that each needle, i)n an averag-e, would cliildrcn would cost 5000 dollars, leaving 8,500 dol- 
make up 20 two-bushel bags. lie found out that the |lars towards their board and education. If wesiip- 
^jushel contains ^150 42 solid inches and that a cu-jpose, that, before the establishment of these manu- 
hie inch of gold weighs 10 oz- 102 grains. (factories, there w^rc 200 children, between 7 and 

The products, omitting fractions, &c. were 
3,825,800,000 needles. 
154,1 12,(^)00,000 bushels ofgold--or about 

217,297,920,000,000 lbs. or 9,700,800,000 tons. 

Enough to freight twenty-four millions two hun- 
dred and fifiy-two thousand* ships, each ca^rj'ing 400 
Ions ! And allowing tjjosc ships so be ranged side to 
side, only thirty feet admitted to each, ttiey would 
reach about 70,429 ratles, and form three complete 
bridges round the world ! 

I have not examined whether these calculations 

16 years of age, that contributed notlung towards 
their maintenance and that they are now employed, 
it makes an immediate difference of 13,500 dollars 
a year to the value produced in the town, and may 
also make a considerable savhig by reducing the 
cost of clothing. Let us see the effects of this 
employnxent on agriculture and ooraroercc. 

Daily experience teaches lis, that as the means of 
subsistence are facilitated, the people are disposed 
to enjoy what is called the comforts of life — to e«t 
better or richer food, and wear better or more cost. 

be riglit or not— nor is it of consequence. They jly clothing; and as these 200 children create a value 

are sufficient to shew that the tculor^s wish was, pro- 
bably, the most extravagant that ever was uttered. 
J do not say conceived — for tlie imagination cannot 
picture the amount. 

Product of labor iu Manufactories- 


By calculations made upon tlie data furnished by 
the census of 1810, it app^rs that the children, 
imder 10 years, averaged, for tlie middle states, are 
^Sper cent, of the whole population; and that those of 
10 and under 16, in like manner, are about 15 per 
cent, making together 50 per cent. Or, in other 
words, that the children under 16 years of age arc 
onehalf of all tlie inhabitants of this section of tlie 
Vrtited SUtes. 

A certain town, in one of these states, well 
situated and healthy, had by that census 4416 inha- 
bitants; and, consequently, the childr^ under 16 
years old may be estimated at 2208, 

But weliave no datum to determine what proppr- 
tion of these children were under 7 years-rwe niay 
suppose them at a half, or 1104; which we nuy also 
suppose incapable of any employment other than 
the little services they can render in domestic af- 
fairs; — and we have 1104 between the ages of 7 and 
16 capable of some sorts of business not immediate- 
ly connected with the conqenis of the families of 
which they are members. By an actual enumeration 
of the children at school, in the town alluded to, in 
1814, they amounted to 650— but of tliese 60 were 
from other places, and the number of to-am children 
was only 590, leaving of 1104 a balance of 514. Of 
which 514 we may suppose ^00 were apprenticed — 
50 at school in other places, and 100 in the employ 
of then* parents, who prefer keeping tliem at home 
to sending them to earn a living in the manufacto- 
ries adjacent— deducting, then, 250 from the 514, 
we have 264 in the town unemployed, unless they 
be engaged in tlie cotton, woolen or card-making 
establishments, within it or in its Neighborhood. 
Say 200— and let us attempt to calculate tlie differ- 
ence to the community in employing them and suf- 
fering them to remain unemployed. 
* A cotton manuiiustory of 5 or 6000 spindles will 

of 13,500 dollars a year, we may fairly suppose that 
nearly so much more will bei expended for these 
things; — tlie increase of tlie meat market in this 
town and the almost e.\clusive demand for si^faie 
flour, with the high prices for butter, lard. Sec. and 
the general preference for superfine cloths, boots 
instead of shoes, fi»ve fur hats, &c. &c. evidently 
shews this. The people, may not eat a great dead 
more than they would without tins product; but 
tliey are in ore delicate about their food, and waste 
much for wa\it of the economy that otlierwise would 
be evertfd. And tliis, 1 believe, is a rational way 
of accounting, in part, for the hicreased price oil 
meats, &c. which has nearly doubled within a few 
years. The farmer has reaped the first profits o( 
thisj being enabled thereby, while he lived better 
himself, also to improve his lands and extend hij 
cultivation of Uiem, and increase his stock of cattle, 
sheep, &c. The mercliaiit hjis also found his advm 
tage in it by an increased luxury and demand foi 
foreign articles, or other articles in his line; receiv 
ing also a benefit from the stimulus given to agri 
culture froni the causes just stated — for a compari 
son of the list of articles exported in 1791 andin 181( 
will satisfy us of the great increase, not only of th< 
articles exported, but of their kinds also; shewing 
tliat as our population and manufactures advance, » 
also have our products for export been multiplied. 

If such be the effects of the introduction of mi 
nufactures into a small district, (I do not wish to b 
understood as meaning only those of cotton an 
wool, hot of all that give employment to cliildrc 
from 7 to 16 years Of age) let us see how the calci 
lation will apply to all the United States. 

It is pretty clear that a gross population of 4,4^ 
persons may have 200 children wanting emploj 
ment — the United States conuins 7 millions i 
white inhabitants, and, by the same ratio, may ha^ 
317,000 such childi-en, whose annual wages, i 
above, would amount to g[21,397,500. This is mo^ 
than the average annual revenue of tlie general an 
state governments, united, and equal to about h^ 
the value of our exports of domestic produce «l 

But it cannot be thought possible to employ i 
tlie children in the United States as calcuUt^ 

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albore : l"t, because they are too widely scattered 
to be brought into such employment i and 2ndly, 
beeAise it supposes a progress jfi manufactures thai 
we may not attain to for a generation to come, if so 
soon as that— for to employ 317,000 children would 
require the establishment of nearly 8 millions of 
cotton spindles, or of something else equivalent 
thereto— an increase not to be expected or desired : 
but tliere are a great variety of bus'messes yet to be 
introduced amongst us, necessary to secure to us 
what we consider the comforts, if not the necessa- 
ries of life, and make us independent of all nations. 

A great market appears to be openine for manu- 
&ctiSe« in South America; those who live twenty 
years mav see North Americans and Europeans con- 
tending to supply that portion of the world on the 
best terms. The merchant may then experience 
the advantages of an extensive home manvfacture to 
toiish him with articles adapted to the market, 
free from the heavy duties that European manufac- 
tures will be subject to, and the heavy charges for 
doable freights. 

Considettng tiiis subject in every point of view 
that has offered itself to the writer, he is of opinion, 
that it is decidedly the true policy of the United 
States to manufiusture, extensively — and thereby 
promote agriculture and commerce, and support our 
nationkl and individual independence and ease. 

Finances of the United States. 

frmn the JS^aHonal TnteJUgencer of September 30. 


We have just been informed that Mr. Dallas will 
leave this city on Tuesday the Isi of Ck:tober next, 
and thatlic does not return as secretary of the trea- 
SETy. Jt is slated to be hb mtention to resume the 
practice of his profession in the courts of Pennsyi- 
vuia, and in the supreme court of the United 


During the period of this gentleman's administrar 
tion of 5ie finances, the plans of the department, 
with slight variations, have received the deliberate 
sanction of congress, and have been stamped witli 
the general approbation of the nation. He may, 
therefore^ contemplate, with an honorable pride, 
his official participation in the establishment 

Of a system of internal revenue^ advantageous hi 

ihe disordered state of the currency, have been so 
subdued, without the aid or co-operation of the 
state banks, that the public enj:^ge;nenls can be 
paid in the local currency, wlierever they become 
due, except in the eastern states: and even there, 
the measui*es now operating are calculated to re- 
store the capacity to pay in the local currencj', b^ 
fore the expiration of ihe p'-esent year. 

2. The noatiog debt, consisting of temporary 
loans obtained by the treasury, since the commence- 
ment of the late war, has been paid. 

3. The floating debt, consisting of trcasurj^ notes 
ofalltlie denominations which have been issued, 
has been reduced from the sum of 36,133,794 dol- 
lars, the aggregate of the issues, to an estimated 
outstanding amount, not exceeding 5,000,000; wliich 
cannot fail to be discharged before the expiration 
of the pi*esent year. 

4. The amount of the funded debt has, on the one 
hand, been augmented by the operation of funding 
treasury notes; and on the other hand, it has been 
reduced by the quarterly reimbursements of the 
principal of the old stock, as well as by purchases. 
The aggregate amount of the public aebt, funded 
and floating, was stated, on the 121h of Febnar^ 
1816, to be the sum of 123,630,692 96 

But on the 1st of January, 1817, 
(the floating debt being extmguish- 
ed, and additional reimbursements 
of the principal of the old stock be- 
ing effected) tlie whole amount of 
the public debt will, probably, not 
exceed the sum of 109,748,272 11 

Making a g^eral reduction, be- 
tween the 12th of Feb 1816,and the 
1st of January, 1817, of the public 
debt, bearing interest, amounting 
to the sum of 

13,882,420 86 

5. The whole amount of the liquidated and as- 
certained arrearages of the war expenditures, has 
been paid; and ample provision exists to discliarge 
all the unliquidated claims, for supplies and servi- 
ces, to the extent of the highest estimates hitlierto 

6. The whole amount of the demands upon the 
treasury, for the principal and interest of the pub- 
lic debt, pa3rable abroad as well as at home; and 

Of^r^iff'of dutiM^^d hnport^ founded uponl the whole'' Amount of the demand to sati5fy the 
- ^ • debts contracted in Europe, on account of the war, 

are the subjects of an ample provision. 

7. The annual surplus of the existing revenue, 
bestdesfumishing ample meais for public improve- 
ments, will enable congress to enrich the sinking 
fund, so as to insure the extinguishment of the 
whole of the public debt, in a period not exceed- 
ing twelve years. 

8. The public credit stands high, botli in Europe 
and America. The apparent depression of the pub- 
lic stock and of the treasury notes, in some of the 
American markets, is to be entirely ascribed to lo- 
cal causes, which are rapidly passing away. The 
revival of a metallic ciurency is alone wanting to 
give to the public stock, in the European markets, 
a value beyomd that of any otlier government 

In illustration of the preceding general results, it 
will be a gratification to the public, to receive the 
following sketches, taken from the records of the 
treasury department. They afford the best ans wer 
to all the lamentations which deplore the ruin of tlie 
country, and to all the calumnies which assail the 

principles equally favorable to commerce, agri- 
culture and manufactures ; 
Of a national institution, operating to relieve the 
community from the evils of a depreciated pa- 
per money, and to restore to the ^vemment 
iU constitutional power over the coin and ctu*- 
r^cy of the nation; 
Of a ftuid competent to the extinguishment of the 
national debt, in the short period of twelve 
fil the details of the treasury department (which 
hufc been rendered beyond all fonner experieace 
MeKate and perplexing, by the necessities of the 
W* the inadequacy of the revenue during the war, 
te depression of public credit, and the failure of 
4|e national currency) a laborious and systematic 
Mseverance has led to the most benefical results. 
iKM^EUig himself of the auspicious influence of the 
fHOe upon the public credit and resources, the se- 
MliiT, at the moment of surrendering his official 
tni^ appears to have realised the most sanguine 
--^-^-'•— Thiw, 

^Ifrh^ JasTments of the treasury, owing tolreputation of the government 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1. Sketch of the appropriotiimt (md payments fir 1816: 
1st The demands on tiie treasury by acts of ap- 

propriatiuo for the year 1816, amounted lo 

32,47^,303 93 

For the civil department, 
foreign intercourse and 
miscellaiteoMS expen- 
ses 3,540,770 18 

lor the military depart- 
ment, current expendi- • 
tme 7,794,250 7S 

Arr. 8,933,373 

16,729,622 7S 

Vov the naval estuMish- 
luent 4,204,911 

For the public debt (ex- 
ciusively of the balance 
of the Appropriations of 
tlie preceduig year) 8,000,000 

r 32,47^,393 93 

2d. Tlie payments made at tJie trea- 
sury on account of the above appro- 
priations to tlie lat of Au{>;u^t, 1816, 
araouaicd to the sum of 26,332,174 89 

For the civil depart- 
ment, &c. 1,829,015 02 

For the military depart- 
ment current expaidi- 
ture 4,235,236 75 

AiT. 8,935,372 

^13,170,608 7o 

For the naval depart- 
ment 1,977,788 id 

For the public debt (ad- 
ding to the appropria- 
tion of 1^16, a part of 
Uie balance of tJie ap- 
propriation of 1815) 9,354,762 62 

26,332,174 89 

Making an unexpended balance of 

tb« annual appropriation on the 1st 

of August, 1816, of 6,143,129 04 

This balance, however, is to be credited for the 

sum taken from the surplus of the appropriation of 

1815, for the sinking fund (1,354,762 62:) and the 
vhoie is ready to be paid, upon demand, at the 

II. Sketch of the actual receipts (*t the treantrtffor 1816: 

Ist. The cash balance in tlie trea- 
sury (excluding, of course, the item 
of treasury notes) on the 1st January, 

1816, was 6;298,652 26 
2d. The receipts at the treasury 

from tJic customs, during the first 7 
montlis of 1816 (from the lat of Jan. 
to the 1st of August) without any 
allowance for debentures on draw- 
back, which may be estimated at 
1,829,564 33, amounted to 21,354,743 74 

3d. The direct tax, including the 
assumed quotas of New-York, Qhio, 
South Carolina and Georgia, for the 
direct tiix of 1816, has produced the 
»i*m of 3,713,963 68 

4th. The internal duties bavepix)- 
duccd the sum of 3,864,000 

5th. Postage and incidental re- 
ceipts 127,025 68 

7th. Sales of publicland8(exclu4- j 

ing the sum of 211,440 50, received 
in the Mississippi territory, and pi^- 

Amount of receipts in revenue, 
from the 1st January to 1st August, 
1816 : 

7lh. To which adil the receipts 
from loans, by fUnding treasury notes, 
and from the issues of treasury notes, 

36,035,995 4fy 

9,790,325 21 

l*he estimated gross amount of re- 
ceipts at the treasury, from the 1st 
January to the 1st August, 1816, be- 
ing 45,825,920 67 

8tli. But it is estia\ated that from 
the 1st August to the 31st of Decem- 
ber. 181^, the amount of receipts 
into the treasury will be abotit 19,876,710 40l 

Making the gross annual receipts 
at tlie treasury, for the year 1816, 
about the sum of 

65,702,631 or 

11 ^. Sketch of the probable receipts^ cowpm'cdwitjt th^ 
probable expemUtnres iu/'1816. 

1st The gi-oss annual receipt at the treasury for the 
year 1816, as above stated^ is esti- 
mated at the sun^ of 65,702,631 O"* 

2d. The amount of the 
appropriation for the 
year 1816, as before 
atated, is the sum of 32,475,303 93^ 

3d. But it is computed ? 

that the demands upon 
the treasury for 1816 
will exceed the amount 
of tlie annual appropri- 
ation (the excess to be 
provided for by law) by 
the sum of 6,270,395 2tf 

4th. And charging tlic 
whole of the imsatisiied 
appropriations of 1815 
upon the funds accu- 
mulated in tlie treasu- 
ry during tlie year 1816, 
tlte amount may be es- 
timated at 7,973,277 86 

46,717,977 «S 

Making the probable surplus of re- 
ceipts beyond the probable demands 
on the Ueasury for 1816, the sum of 18,984,653 09 

i • 

5th. But deducting from this surplus, ' 

the amount cremted for loans and 
treasury notes, as above stated, the 
sum of 9,790,821 21 

The ultimate surplus of probable re- 
ceipts, beyond the probable demands 
upon the treasury for the year 1816, 
subject to the disposal of congress, ^ 
may be stated at the sum of 9,183,831 88 

In this sketch it is to be noted, that there is no 
discrimination as to the time when the revenue 
accrued, and when it became patfoble; nor as to the 

rem from which the revenue was derived, Whe- 
upon the war or the peace establishment ; the 
main object being to shew the probable receipts at 
the treasury from the 1st of January to the Slst of 
]>ecember, 1816, as well as the probably e^pendl-'^ 
1||re ^'otg the QMie p tf igd; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



iV. Sketchet of the product of the ctitpomtfrom March 
1815, 10 Juhj 1816, both nioiUhs inclusive. 


1st. The a^^egate of tlie duties received at the 
custom houses of the United States, during^ t)ie 
above specified period, may be estimated at the 
samof 28,271,143 50 

2d. The aggre^te of the deben- 
tures payable during the same peri- 
od, may be estimated at the sum of 2,624,421 66 

Leaving the product of the cus- 
tonu from March 1815, to July 1816, 
both months inclusive, subject pnly 
u> the expences of collection, at tiie 
»uiuof 25,646,721 84 


Ut. The aggregate of the duties received at tlie 
custom-houses of the United States, from March to 
December, 1815, both mouths inclusive, amoiuited 
to the sum of 6,916,399 76 

2d. The aggregtite of tlie deben- 
tures payable during the last men- 
tijoned period, amounted to the sum 
of 794,857 33 

Leaving the amount of duties for 
the U&t mentioned period, subject 
only to the expencea of collection, 
St the sum of 6,121,542 43 


Ist The aggregate of the duties received at all 
|be custom-houses of the United States, from Ja- 
Mttry to July, 1816, both months inclusive, may be 
^ted at the sum of 21,354^743 74 

3d. The aggregate of the deben- 
tures payable during the laat men- 
tioned period, amounts to the sum 
rf 1,829,564 33 

Leaving the amount of duties for 
the bst mentioned period, subject 
poly to the ^xpences of collection. 

li the sum of 

19,525rl79 41 


A comparative view of tlie gross product of the 
custom^ in some of the principal districts, (em- 
fandngall the districts producing more than 400,000 
dollirs)4rom March 1815, to July 1816,both months 

1. New-York 9,926,188 30 

2. Philadelphia 5,085,206 65 

3. Boston 3,579,130 77 
4u Baltimore 3,339,101 11 

5. Charleston 1,047,546 73 

6. New Orleans 732,083 13 
T. Savannah 521,287 56 
8. Norfolk 491,150 36 
^IjOR the ibregpoing brief exposition of the state 

oftht feiances, the opep^tions of the treasury, and 
J* Batbnal resources, comment would be super- 
Boom. We must lament the present depression of 
•« commerce, from causes, which eqiudly affect 

I be. 

r^ of 

ag-e, and had already accustomed himself to the 
discharge of public duties, and had made himself 
familiar with all the necessary fonns and pursuits 
of government — He was active and accounted a 
brave officer — shrewd and comprehensive — possess* 
ing genius, judgment and invention and wasie- 
markable for the promptness and decision wiiU 
whicU he managed public afiairs. The energy a!id 
vigor of Ids administration afforded to Uie Tuni- 
sians the best assurance of tranquility, ami during 
a reign of upwards of thirty-two years that king- . 
dom was preserved, from revolutions or internal 
commotions of anv consequence. 

The activity and earnest desire of the bey to ac- 
quire fame and wealth soon led him to organise his 
nvmy and navy, the former with a view of checking 
the influence of tlie Algerines, and the latter to 
cruise against the commerce of the Christian states 
in the Mediterranean. The first effort of any note 
was made by a descent on the island of St. Pierre, 
near Sardinia, by a small squadron which succeeded 
in siu*pi-ising the place and can'ying away near one 
thousand of its defenceless iidiabitar/s into slavery. 
These unfortunate creatures remained many years 
in bondage, some were released by ransom and ex- 
change, but many of them who were far advanced 
in life ended their days in that dreadful state of 

Notwithstanding the great efforts of the bey to 
insure the tranquility of his kingdom by an excess 
of vigilance, he was not wholly exempt from partial 
insurrections, and one which occured towRrds the 
close of his reign was marked by very alarming 
circumstances, in. the army which eoasisted of 
40,000 men were near 6000 Turkish soldiers who 
had left tlie territories of the grand seignior, and 
had enlisted at different periods in tlie Tunisian 
army. These men. composed the worst class of 
troops belonging to the forces of tlie Ottoman em- 
pire, and had been dismissed from the service, 
without any provision being made for them, and 
they accoraingly joined the troOps on the Karbary 
coast, and were prepared for any scenes of tumult 
and disorder. The knowledge of the Greek and 
Turkish Lmguage afforded ample occasion for the 
soldiers to organise their plans without incurring 
any suspicion of their intentions by the natives, who 
only spoke the Arabic, accordingly near 6000 Turk- 
ish soldiers an*anged a plan to destroy the bey and 
his ofi^cers, seize upon the government and change 
its form by electing one of thehr chie& on the same 
principle as that of Algiers. 

This plan however, was defeated by the rapacity 
of the Turks, wJio rushed into the city, seized the for- 
tress of the Gaspa, and without watting until all the 
strong pbces had been secured, fell to plundering^ 
breaking open shops and committing every species 
of excess and cruelty. This afforded time to the 
hey, whose palace strqngly fortified, was a league 
from Tunis, to collect a sufficient force capable of 
man ing the out-batteries, wliich soon conmieneed 
a brisk cannonade on the Gaspa. The Turks fiodhtg 
themselves briskly handled, and having no older 
or regularity, soon fied fi-om tlie ramparts — many 
tried to escape, btit were overtaken by the cavalry 
and destroyed, and the revolution terminated by the 
destruction of the greatest portion of the insurgents. 

The city of Tunis is said to contain near one hun- 
dred and twenty thousand iidiabitants. Of these 
near thirty thousand are Jews — the rest, with the 
exception of about one thousand Greek, Armenian 
and European Christians, are all Mahometans. 'Ihe 
police of the city is extremely well regulated, and 
every hrmic^ of trade, commerce, or raanufaeturfa 

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lias a chief orlmoBto wiiom all disputes »re refer 
red. Appeals from their decisictns are heard by tlie 
bev, who attends daily in the hall of justice, to de- 
cide on such civil and criminal cases as may be 
brought before him, and where his immediate in- 
terest is not concerned* he decides justly. All places 
under government are bought, aad the highest bid- 
der, without a reference to talents or qualiAcation, 
is tlie successful candidate. There arc no situa- 
tions however, so profitable to the bey as the chiefs 
or govemors^of the several districts in the kingdom. 
These pay an exorbitant sum for the appointment, 
which they subsequently raise by extortions on tlieir 
people. This system is continued until the Bedouins 
who are amazingly fond of litigation, g^ in a body 
to complain of their governor to the bey. The go- 
vernor, aware of their intentions, is before hand 
with them, and purchases a favorable decision by a, 
targe sum of money. The bey hears the qsmpluints 
of the Arabs, receives their donation and dismisses 
them with assurances that he will cause their go- 
vernor to treat them better in future. Thus receiv- 
ing bribes from both parties, bribes to secure favora< 
ble decisions, income from commercial duties, 
farms, piracies and the sale and ransom of Chris- 
tians, the- revenue of Tunis may be computed at 
three millions of dollars annually, and as the ex- 
pcnces arc managed with great economy most -of 
thif sum remains untouched in the treasury. From 
a habit of administering justice for many yeai-s,1la- 
muda Pacha had accustomed himself to a prompt- 
ness and decision which never admitted of quibble 
or delav — if a crime was committed the culprit was 
immediately brought before him, the evidence ad- 
duced, the defence heard, the sentence given, and 
the execution immediately followed. The punish- 
ment consists in strangling, beheading, or bastina- 
doing on the soles of the feet, which |s generally 
limited to one thousand blows, and this summar}' 
mode of trial is conducted with the utmost gravity 
and silence, and sentence is passed by a mere sign 
of the head. Hamuda Paclia spoke little, and ne- 
ver without reflection, and always to the purpose — 
he accustomed himself to read tlie looks of ikcn 
with a keen scrutiny, which seldom or never deceiv- 
ed him in his ideas of character, and tiiis s|>ecies of 
investigation had become so familiar to him, that 
he waa accounted a physiognomist of the first oi^- 
der — One fact alone will serve to illustrate this e 

A Bedouin had a horse which he valued highly, 
and which he was in danger of losing by sickness. 
Jn the fervor of hb zeal and conformable to the su- 
perstitious customs of the country, he vowed that 
rf his horse recovered he would present his favx)r- 
ite saint with one hundred piastres. The horse was 
pronounced out of danger, and the Bedouin on seri 
ous reflection regretted the extravagant vow 
wltich he had maqe. Consoling himself however 
with the assurance that it was unknown to any but 
himself he deliberated on the best method of g^t 
img rid of the claim, and accordingly after a long 
struggle between his conscience and his avarice, he 
decided to pay the saint fifty piastres, b^ng tiie 
one half of the original promise. 

The bey is trustee for all sums ofTeiied to the nu- 
merous saints in the kingdom, to whom he is ac 
countable and doubtless is prepared for settlement 
when called upon by them. The Bedouin repaired 
to the palace with his fifty piastres, and told his 
story. The bey struck with the hesitating manner 
of the man, suspected that alt was not nght, and 
during the recapitulation of his story, be nxed his 
eyes upon him with remarkable keeness, and on his 
conclusion, he said to biq>— Wretch, tell meqtuck< 

ly, did you not promise the saint one hundred pias- 
tres.^ Tlie affrighted Bedouin fell on his knees and 
confessed the fact. 'Caitiff, said the bey, do you 
think tliat any thing is concealed from me, who am 
myself a saint— begone, bring the hundred piastres, 
and as a punishment for your sacrilege, you shall 
receive one hundred blows on the feet, which sen- 
ten«( wa« faithfdily executed, 

The foreign relations existing with the regency 
of Tunis, are managed with considerable skill and 
ingenuity. Thepohcy of that government in tlieir 
commercial treaties is to concede no point of essen- 
tial importance, and secure to themselves in addi- 
tion to a tributary sum such points as are intimately 
connected with that policy. Thus the treaties with 
all the Christian powers, excepting England, France 
and America, bear a colourable but no reu reci- 
procity, and even these last mentioned powers are 
n!)t wholly exempt from the avarice and rapacity of 
the bey, who contrives to secure from them 4K:ca-. 
sional contributions, under the name and denomi- 
nation of annual, biennial, or consular presents. 

Hamuda Pacha had a mhiister for many years in 
his employ, known by the name of the Sapatapa or 
Sei^l Bearer. This man who was a compound of 
cruelty, artifice and fraud, was |>eculiarly annoying 
to the christian states. His long experience made 
him fiuntliar with every kind of public busioess» 
and the bey placed in hi9 hands the power of con- 
cluding all treaties and negfociating for their stipu- 
lations. Through this channel of villainy an^ ex* 
tortion, most of the treaties existing at present 
with the regency passed and the Sapaiapa generally 
received a bribe equal in value to the one given to 
the bey — this system of corruption was encouraged 
by Hamuda Pacha, who considered the wealth of 
his ministers as his private property, subject at all 
time to his orders, and thus for upwards of thirty 
years the civilized powers of Europe were compel- 
led to continue tikeir relations on such terms as the 
bey thought proper to allow. Hamuda Pacha died 
in the fall of 1813, and it wa9 suspected by poison, 
although the proofs were not sufficient to justify the 

The Mahometan fast of the Ramadan comists of 
thii-ty days and falb in the montlis of July and Au- 
gust the most oppressive season of the year. This 
fastis most rigidly observed by all musselmen, th^ 
neither eat, drink nor smoke from sun rise until sun 
set, during tliat period. The last dav, just as the 
evening gun was about to be fired, which conclud- 
ed the fast of the Ramadan and ushered in the feast 
of Biram, the bey in tasting a cup of coffee fell 
down and instantly died. The utmost consterna- 
tion prevailed— the long reign of Hamuda Pacha — 
die vigor of his administration — his high character, 
and the suddenness of his death, aU combined to 
produce the greatest alarm and dismay in the pa- 
lace— during this confusion some of the ministers 
and a few omeers suddenly forced the brother of 
Hamuda Pacha-Ottomon, who was lamenting his 
death, ii^to tlie chair of state, and declared him 
bey. The oaths were immediately administered— 
tlie flags were displayed and the cannon fired from 
the ramparts — order and tranquility were restored 
when Ottoman and Ismael the legitimate heirs to 
the throne entered the palace, and find'mg no dis- 
position evinced to recognize their claim th(^ paid 
their homage to the new sovereign and silenUy de- 
parted. Ottoman bey was a man of uncommon mild- 
ness, and possessed many excellent qualities — lie 
however had indulged in no expectations of being 
chosen bey, and therefore had taken no part in the 
public coKmcils. Uia eldest son called 8idv SikUti, 

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Wis a great favorite with Hamuda Pacha, who hav- 
Inff contemplated naming him his successor, bad 
taken jpreat pains to accustom him to the routine 
of business. 8i<li Salla became the most important 
and influential person on the accession of his father, 
and his conduct pcvt testimony of his worth and 
inte^ty. Mahmoud who considered his claim to 
the succession as the most undoubted and unequi- 
ycoal was in no manner satisfied with the termina- 
tion of the election, and althoug^h he was far ad- 
vanced in lifb and of a mild and peaceable nature, 
he felt it incumbent upon him to use his exertions 
to create a party in his favor, and in this attempt 
he was stimulated by the ambitious views of his 
two sons, Hassan and Mustapha, men of quick and 
apt parts, but of a ftrocious and villainous character. 
T!i€ plans which they laid, ppojjressed rapidly, 
and although Ottoman bey was advised of the steps 
which his cousins were pursuing, and cautioned to 
Iheir effect he neglected to confine them. The re- 
volution which was approching, at last took effect: 
Mahmoud entered at niglit into the chamber of 
Ottoman bey, and put him to death, the attendants 
around him were destroyed. Sidi Salla and his 
brother, fled under cover of the night, and reached 
the Golettawith a view of getting on board some 
of the vessels which lay in the Roads. The com- 
mander of the Goletta who was also the minister of 
marine, suspecting that some revolution had taken 
t>l»ce at the palace, contrived to detain the princes 
imtil dawn when a troop of Mamalukes arrived, 
stating, that Mahmoud was created bey and had 
. issued orders to put Sidi Salla and his brother to 
death. These unfortunate young men broke loose 
and tlirew themselves into the canal with an inten- 
tion to drown themselves, their object however was 
defeated-»-they were taken out, their hands secur- 
ed behind their backs with their silk sashes — car- 
ried outside of the walls of the Goletta, and were 
there cut to pieces. Thus ended another revolu- 
tion *which restored the regular succession after an 
interregnum of thirty-two years. 

The most promment character in commencing 
these revolutions was, Sidi Yusef the Sapatapa or 
prime minister. This man originally was a Geor- 
gian and a christian — ^having embraced the Maho- 
metan religion while a youth, he had continued in 
the service of Hamuda Pacha and was considered a 
man of extraordinary talents. Hb avarice and ra- 
pacity had made him one of the richest men in the 
kingdom; but during the reig^ of Hamuda he was 
kept in constant check. The great differences of 
character discerned in his successors, Ottoman and 
Mahmoud, and the increased influence and impor- 
tance of the Sapatapa induced him to believe that 
it was feasible by another revolution to set aside 
Mahmoud bey and his family and place himself in 
their atead. It is hot known that proofs existed of 
this conspiracy; yet as he was a dangerous charac- 
ter, Mahmoud bey determined to take a favorable 
moment and despatch hinu and in carrying this plan 
into execution, the art and hypocrisy of the Turk- 
ish character, their deep and cold-blooded policy 
was more than strikingly manifested. 

The Sapatapa had apartments in the palace and 
his empfoymenta and influence rendered it necessa- 
17 that he should always be near the person of the 
hey. He was also accustomed to spend his even- 
ings with the bey or with his two sons. The even- 
ing upon which the bey decided he should be killed, 
he spent with the family, and for a long time was 
earnestly engaged in playing a game of chess with 
the son Hast an bey. After conversing on public af- 
file some tine, he rose, ordered a small Isunp to be 

lighted, for the purpose of crossing the court yard 
to his apartments, and hade the family good night. 
As he W.1S about entering the door of his apartment 
one of the guard infbrmed him that the bey wished 
to speak to him, and on turning back to retrace his 
steps he had occasion to pass a large hall fronting 
the hall wf justice; into this hall his guide conduct- 
ed him, where, to his astonishment he saw several 
Mamelukes standing with drawn awords; on the 
floor was along cord generally u.<ied for strangling, 
and sevei'ad wax candles were ranged so as to Uirow 
a distant light on what was passing. As he enter- 
ed the Hach Mameluke or capViin attempted to seize 
him, when instantly suspecting the design, he step- 
ped back and drew from his belt a togana or small 
sword, with which he struck the captain across the 
cheek, and being then assailed by the Mamelukes 
he defended himself bravely, but being overpower- 
ed they 8ei:<ed him held him down by the beard, 
and in this position cut his throat. After his death 
the bey ordered him to be stript and carried into 
Tunis, and laid before a magnificent mosque which 
he had built at an expense of near a million of dol- 
lars. Such however, was the obnoxious character 
of the Sapatapa, that the mob-seized him, and ty- 
ing a chain around his body dragged him around 
the walls and through the streets of Tunis, cut the 
flesh fh)m his bones and, with a oharactercstic ft- 
rocity, cruelly mangled tlic remains of a man of 
whom they had long stood in tlie utmost awe. The 
bey seized upon his property, which was said to 
amount to near two millions of dollars, and very 
cooly appointed a successor. 

Banks and Bank Notes« 

I9th September, 1816. 

William W«t, 

and I 
k of I 

Amicable aetioii, ariiint; upon 
conovet. not exoeeding mum 
buodred doUan* 

The president, dirrcton 1 
comtwoy of tlie bank 

It is agreei^the above action be instituted before 
Michael Keppele, an alderman of tlie city of Phi- 
ladelphia. (Signed) WHXUM WEST, 

JOS. P. NORRIS, P. B. Pa. 

Parties appeared. Plaintiff's demand is upon a 
promissory note, called a bank note, signed by Jo- 
seph P. Norris, president, and Jonathan Smith, ca- 
shier, by wluoh"**Tbe president, directors and com- 
^< pany of the bank of Pennsylvania, profbise to pay 
*< to A. Smith, or bearer, on demand, five dollars. 
''Philadelphia, March 3, 1813." 

The note being shewn to Mr. Norris, he admitted 
it to be genuine, and one issued by the bank. Plain- 
tiff stated his haying presented the note for pay- 
ment m 9pecte, which was refused. Mr. Norris ad- 
mitted the fact, and stated the circumstances which 
led all the banks to suspend spede paymentti a re- 
sumption of which Will take place on the first Mon- 
day if July, 1817. 

Ornnoif. The candid conduct displayed by the 
defendants in this cause, through their president 
and representative, Mr. Norris, deserves commen- 

JVo unnecettary trouble has been Imposed on the 
plaintifl^ in requiring proof of the authenticity of the 
bank note. Its j^enuinefiett was readily admitted. 

No technical objections have been made to the ex- 
ercise of iurisdiction by justicei of the peace in 
cases of this kind; and the liability of the bank to 
pay aliiti eng'o^ements in the leg-al com of the Uoited 
States, viz: epecie, has been dittinctly avowed. 

Under these adimissions, furtlicr observation is 

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The Judgpnent rendar«d in this cause ut for the 
plaintirf, five dollars. 
J do hereby certify the foregoing to be a true 
copy of the proceedings had before me in the 
above cause, as they rjemain od record- Wit- 
ness my hand and seal, this I9th Sept. 1816. 

An aldermaa of tlie city of Philadelphia, 

Foreign Articles. 


A vessel lias arrived at Boston, whjoh left Liver- 

pool on the 26tli of August. The following is a 

summary of the chief things which has r^ched 

lis; — 

It is said tliat a new ministry is to be formed in 
France. The report that the allied sovereigns were 
to meet at TopUlz is contradicted. The prince re- 
gent was unwell, but had got better. The Watch- 
man, it is delicauly intima^d, has made his wife 
iick again! A severe shock of an earthquake was 
felt in Scotland on the 13th of August — it threw 
down many chimney-tops. Five per cents, at Paris, 
Aug. 20, 57 20. The manufacturers of Manchester 
are said to have found employment — ^and there is a 
great talk about retrenchment in England. The 
**ordei' of MaliOf** is to be abolished. Wellington 
arrived at Paris on the 20th of Aug. The emperor 
of Russia is said to have given the government of 
Finland to the heir of the deposed king of Sweden, 
now called the duke of llolstein Eutin— this is 
viewed with jealousy- There have been great riots 
at Preston, England — the bayonet, however, "re- 
•tored" order. There was a report in England that 
the Americans had bombarded Algiers, early in 
August— probably an echo of the account from Ci* 
vita Vecchia, inserted below, which we do not be- 
lieve; our squadron appears to have oetn at Naples 
at the time. The Turks, it is said, will not inter- 
fere witli the concerns of the Algerines. 

Lord Cochrane has been tried for breaking out of 
prison, (bund guilty and recommended to mcixy— 
lie said he wanted justice, not mercy. 

Accounts from Algiers were to July 29, by a Sar- 
dinian vessel, which had arrived at Genoa. The 
captain reported, tlia^ the place was fortifying^; and 
the dey had prepared numerous bales of wool, for 
the purpose, it was said, of placmg on the decks of 
his fleet, (who were in port) to pi*event their being 
simk by shells. The British consul was refused 
permission to depart. 

The London Gazette, of tlie 13th, contains an or- 
der in cotmcil, prohibiting the export of gunpowder, 
salt petre, arms and ammi^iition, for six months, 
from the 18th of August. 

The Paris papers mention that the emperor of 
Kussia is about to interfere in the internal affairs 
of Wirtemburg, in order to put an end to the dis- 
sention between the king and the states. 

Some disturbances had taken place in Nancy and 
Strasburg. At the latter place, it is said the nation- 
al guards, being joined by the populace, cried out 
vive Pemperettr, An action took place between them 
and the reg^ular troops, ki which 130 persons were 
killed and wounded on the part of the former; and a 
number of tlie latter. 

At Nancy, an officer of Genie, formerly one of the 
chiefs of the military college at Mentz, and since 
employed in the war department, organized a most 
serious conspiracy to take possession of the town, 
and secure the persons of the royal authorities. A 
considerable number of half pa^ officers, and disaf- 
fected individuals co-operated m tlus pJttn. Twoi- 

jty minutes before its explosion, it was denounced 
to general Villettc, who instantly had four of them 
seized, and next morning 26 of tlieir accomplices. 
Out of this liat 19 were ex-officers. Several had 

The Hague Cmirant of .Aug. 20, contradicts th« 
report that a great many foreign officers, who liad 
emigrated to America, had obumed places in the 
military service of that country. 

Colonel Brun has been tried in Prance, and con- 
demned to death, for being coneemed in the Ore* 
noble insurrection. 

The French have adopted more severe lawn 
against British gools than ever before were tliought 
of. The importation is not only most strictly guard* 
ed ag.iinst, but the sale of those smuggled is madjc 
exceedingly difficult and dangerous. No piece of 
goods is permitted to be sold, a sample and mark 
of which is not deposited in certain offices, where 
reference may be had, &c. Such are the arrange- 
ments, that a London paper observes, — "it was the 
boiist of our commercial world that our manufac- 
tures found their way all over the continent, in spite 
of Bonaparte's anti-commercial system and his Ber- 
lin and Milan decrees. We fear tliat the present 
government of Prance, as far as it wishes to exer^ 
cise tlie prohibitoiy system, will be >ble to do it 
with more ingenuity and success." 

The British have made an arrangpement witli the 
Portuguese fbr some supplies of ship timber from 
tlie Brazils, 

A vessel arrived at Boston, from Brazil, sailed 
in company with a 74 and 2 frigates conveying to 
Europe the Portuguese princ^ses to be matched to 
tlie Spanish Bourbons. 

The crops of wheat in Naples is^very abunbani. 
It is generally good throughout Europe. 

The tyranny and despotism of Ferdinand is re- 
presented as intolerable. The patriot deputies or 
the cortes, and others who were confined atCeuta, 
have been removed in an extraordinary manner.--n 
They were torn fi-om their beds in thedeadofnigtit, 
and carried on board a vessel in the s^une state in 
which they were surprised, loaded with irons, and 
set sail for some unknown place. It b feared, sfiys 
a Madrid article of July 29, "that the same lot 
awaiu all the patriots. Evefy body murmurs at 
these acts of despotism; no one is secure in his 
house. No one knows what the event of these ex- 
cesses will be, but it is impossible they can laat 

One of the most singular features in the general 
intelligence of the week (savs Bell's Messen^^ of 
Aug. 13) is the rapid vii^issitudes, andtheultmiate 
considerable declaition, in the price of the public- 

Clemency. The inquisition at Macerata, Italy, has 
sentenced a priest charged with teaching heretical 
doctrines, to expiate his errors by apostolic labors 
among the Moors of Africa! 

BiBLB ROciBTiss. An English divine, Dr. Pret- 
tymiui, bishop of Lincoln, in his charge to the cler- 
ic at the triennial visitation at Bedford, has de- 
nounced the bible societies as dangerous to the es- 
tablished religion, and to tlie orthodox principles 
of those who attend them ! ! ! 

It is understood, that more than one bishop in 
the United States holds similar opinions — but they 
are of no consequence here^ further than the opi- 
nions of other men. 

Tiiere is a high charge made against the bible 
society of CotmecHcut, "that it has circulated an edi- 
tion of the new-testament, in which the Sd verse 
of the 6th chapter of the Actn Is ma^to express a 

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BifMiilf^ directly contrary to that of the Apostles; 
imd that this alteration hns heen mude to eetablinh 
exclusively the system of congregiitional ordination. 
a the new version the word "ws" in that verse is 
made " tb" — and reads thtis — "Wherefore, brethren, 
look ye out among you seven men of honest report, 
IbUoif the holy ghost and wtsdoni, whom" tr "[we] 
nay appoint over the business." 

The probability is, that this is a typographical 
ertor — for the mistake that so pompletely alters 
the stn9e a easily made, and we would hope Uiat it 

X(lUAi.izATTOir or mrriss^ 

Weuwmter Aug. 13, 1816. 
8i» — A question having arisen wheUier the 
eputUiuUion ^ duties on the produce of the United 
States imported in American and British ships, 
.«stabliahed by the late commercial treaty, ought 
not to extend to the Anction duty on the first sale 
after importation for account of the importer, and 
a recommendation having been addressed by th« 
Foreign office and the board of Council to the 
tveasury, to adopt that construction of the treiaty 
roost favorable to the ships and products of the Unit- 
ed States — notwithstanding the opinion entertained 
by some law authorities, that the Auction duty be- 
ing an internal and (to the parties paying it) an 
•ptional dttty^ and not a duty on importation, is not 
fiuriy within the meaning of the treaty; the lords 
of the treasury have this day ordered the board of 
excise to direct their Solicitor to prepare a bill for 
tbeiiext session of parliament, to legalize the sale 
by auction of American produce imported in Ameri- 
can ships, on the same terms as if imported in Bri- 
tish ships. 

And they have further directed the excise, hence- 
forth; not to require the payment of auction duty 
on such sale« of American produce, and to refund 
all such duty, if any such shall have been paid 
since ^e 36th August, 1615; the parties in both 
cues giving security, for the amount of the duty so 
im|Mua or refunded to them, to abide the decision 
of parliament. 

This latter condition, you will find, is unavoida- 
ble in cases like the present, it being in the com 
pnss ot parliament alone, to impose or remit govern- 
ment duties; and if the nominal liability to the 
fUtimste payment of auction duty should have a ten- 
dcncy, as it probably may, to prevent individuals 
from avaHing themselves of the indulgence which 
this order is mtended to convey, it must be remem- 
bered on the other hand, that these is no uistance 
of the government having Ikiled to redeem such a 
pledge as is virtually given by the order in question 
I S9D, with respect, sir. 

Your very faitli&l and obd't. serr't. 

T^ the Chairman of the American Chamber 
of CwnmtTce. 

Mamacrx in iRXLAiTB. WofMnffton, Sept. 26, 

1S16. Mlnsrs. Galet and Seaton — tiic enclosed is an 
CBCtraet of a letter received Sept. 21, by an emi- 
I^TMit from Ireland lately anived, and now in this 
«ity. The name of the person, if published and 
tjwwil in Ireland, by transmission of your paper, 
night be injurious to him; but it is written under- 
licaith Ibr the information of any one who may feel 
«A interest in verifying the facts. L. 

•K>n Sunday the 25th May last, as the priest of 
rifih of llrumrully, in the county of Cavan, was 
»ting mass in the church, a number of Orange- 
iffStb arms, rushed into the church, and fired 
tftim ^le-congreg.'ition. Thev killed the priest in 
iSgitfOiefits OB the altar, and also killed your bro- 

ther , and num?>ers of the congregation, be- 
sides, men, women and children. The remaindei: 
of them that was not killed made their address to» 
the magistrates for justice; but their reply was, to 
"go off for a damned set of papist rascals; it was 
the Orangemen's duty, if they murdered every man 
of you, for they would take the meanest Orange- 
man's word sooner tlian tliey would take the res- 
pectablest papist's oaili." 

Piim, Jufy 23. His majesty has sent a letter to 
the vicars-general of Paris, of which the following 
is a copy: — 

GsHTLzxsif— We have experienced a satisfiMrtion 
very pleasing to our hearts in expressing our vows 
and thanksgiving^at the foot of the altar. We have 
seen that the love of religion was still preserved 
among our people, like the love of their sovereign. 
These sentiments ha^ne burst forth in die most warm 
and unanimous manner; all France has joined its 
prayers to ours with that zeal which calls down 
the blessings of heaven on kings and empires. Our 
kingdom participates in all those favors which Pro - 
vidence takes pleasure in dosing over states to 
which it is gracious. Tranquility and union spring 
up; and in a few days we may hope that abundance 
will repair our losses and deprivations. The earth 
is covered with grain and fruits which require only 
some rays of light to answer to our labors and our 
hopes. This is the moment to implore with new 
ardor the intervention of Divine Providence. Let all 
France therefore unite in praying the sovereign ru- 
ler of the seasons to preserve for us the fruit of the 
earth, to cause tlie storms to cease which miglit 
injure them, and to mnt as those serene da3ni which 
may ripen them in cue time. On thb account our 
intention is, that when you shall have received these 
presents, you enjoin public prayers to be addressed 
to heaven in all the churches of your diocese, &c. 

Given at the ThuiUeries, the 19th July, in the 
year of grace one thousand eight hundred and six- 
teen, fSi^rnedJ LOUIS. 
C CowUenigned) Laihs. 

In consequence of this letter public prajrers were 
offered up from the date to the 15th Ang^ust. 

Paris^ Aufftut 14.— Yesterday, Madam jGallatin, 
the lady of the ambassador fVom the United States^ 
was presented to his majesty, by the marchioness 
de Villette and the countess Gxtan de la Rochefou- 
cAult, His majesty spoke to her in Englbh, in the 
most affectionate manner. Mrs. 6. was received 
with the tOmoet gracitmsnefe by the duchess of 

Augtut 20. — The English expedition ag&inst Al- 
giers is expected at Genoa* where It will be rein- 
forced by 2500 men. The king of Sardinia* it is 
said, A making a considerable levy of troops to co- 
operate with the expedition. 

London^ AuguH 24.— Extract of a letter from Pa- 
ris, dated the 2d instant: — «*Mr. Wilson, consul of 
the United States at Nantz, had several warm dis- 
cussions with the commissar}', who endeavored to 
subject the American merchant-captains to minute 
and vexatious formalities, wliich materially infringe 
on all liberty of commerce. In the heat of argu- 
ment, the commissary not only arrogantly criticised 
the supposed tendency of the consul's political opi- 
nions, but losing all temper, remonstrated with ve- 
hemence against his preserving an eagle at his gates, 
and enjoined him to have it instantly removed. Mr. 
Wilson naturally insisted on preserving inviolate the 
emblematic arms of his country. l*he commissar^', 
accustomed to passive obedience, sent an armed 
force, and took down the eagle. The consul for- 
warded energetic complaints to Fart9*-tbe minis- 

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tcr deputed an inspector general of police, who, 
afYcr^having inveatipaled the aft»ir, nude every 
proper excuse, when the arms of the United States 
were solemnly replaced. 
Mtplcs, ^ugtiat 3.— We hare three American 

men-of-war in our harbor. On board of one, is the ' " IVaterloo," upon the SeneCa river, 14 miles west 

sixteen stores, 4ix taverns, and as many grocena^. 
four cabinet-makers' shops; five blacksmitlis' shops^ 
four halters' shops; besides an cqtuil pro]X)rtion of 
wagi^on-makers^ slioe-makers, saddlers and harness- 
makers, painters, &e. 8cc. 

minister of the United States, who is destined for 
Coiutantinopte [for liussia.] It is said tliat the other 
two will be joined to tlie forces destined against 

Civiia VecchiOf Jlitg. 4. — Accounts are received^ of 
the American squadron being before Algiers, and 
having demanded satisfaction from the Dey, for the 
violation of the treaty. The latter is said to have 
sent one of bis nephews on board of the commodore, 
who at first refused to see him; but on returning a 
second time, he was admitted* and offered every 
satisfaction the commodore could desire, who re- 
quired that the christians of all nations, who wished 
to quit Algiers, should be set at liberty, and placed 
at his disposal. It appears that thb demand was 
not foreseen by the dey, who expected to get off 
by an act of submission. The American sqHadron 
had burnt five boats in the roads. The cities of 
Tunis and Tripoli are in great agitation. Seventeen 
christian prisoners lately arrived at Tassari, from 

The porte will not, it is said, make any effort to 
support the Barbary powers. 


Nsw-YoBX. — Extract of a letter from a friend in 
the state of J^evt-Yorh, to the editor of the Weekly 
Jitf£ristei\—**Smce I last wrote, 1 have traversed the 
western states and territories — and when more at 
leisure may communicate something interesting 

<*It is unusually dry in this quarter — com, wheat 
and' hay have sufi*ered severely by the excessive 
drouglit. ^ou may state, as a fiict, that the Hud- 
son is now sixteen inches lower than ever before 
known by the oldest inhabitants. This will appear 
the more extraordinary, when you are told that the 
Hudson is, comparatively, a short river and subject 
to great depression of its waters. 

**The eastern and southern counties of this state 
exhibit an arid and melancholy appearance — not so 
with the western district; it has been blessed with 
an abundant harvest. No part of the United States 
presents such a flourishing aspect as New-Tork 
(state) Toest of Utica. Most of tlie villages have 
increased this year 25 per cent, in wealth and build- 
ings. In the country, also, tlie spirit of improvement 
is ''in full tide." Hundreds of farmers, in tlie west- 
em counties will exchange the log-cabin for ele- 
gant framed or brick mansions. A ride from Utica 
to Buffalo would fill you with patriotic enthusiasm 
The whole distance is almost one continued village. 
I do not believe that there is a road, of equal age 
and extent, in tlie universe, leading through so rich 
and populous settlements. Nor is wealth, elegance 
and population confined to the turnpike. Tiie coun- 
try to the right and left, to the distance of from 
twenty to thirty miles, is alive with an industrious 

**Aubuirn, "sweetest village of the vale," which 
twenty years ago was covered with a giant growth 
of forest trees, is now the first place for wealth and 
business, west of Utica. Twenty -three years since, 
the lands within the preciacts of the village were 
sold for six shillings on acre. JSIh-a tiiere are acres 
which could not be purchased for six thoiutand dol- 
not for ten, 

of Auburn, has sprung into being, apparently with 
the same rapidity ks though it had obeyed the cre- 
ative power of the magieian*s wand. Her* are, at 
least, 50 houses, most of them of size and beauty—^ 
the work of a single summer; and« what is unpre- 
cedented, not an mn, hotel, or g^rocery yet in the 

**Mochester, upon the Genessee, above the fallsy 
contains above 100 houses-^two years ago it did not 
exist. There is now a printing office and extensive 

**Mount Morris, 24 miles above upon the righlr 
bank of the same river^ is a handsome vilkge, com-* 
posed entirely of nev buildinrs. My limits will not 
permit me to name twenty other places, equally de-^ 
serving of mention. I have only given frets, fh>m 
which, perliaps, you can mould a few articles of in- 
telligence."--! «(fj>^ 16, 1816.) 


Frotn the' Charleston Evenings Post of Sept. It^ 
Finding it impossible to Ofbtain a satisfactory ac^ 
count, of the accident that happened on board th€ 
steam-boat Enterprize, we addressed a note to Capt. 
Howard, requesting of him, all the information h^ 
possessed, on the subject. Capt. H. very politely 
complied; and, this morning, we received the follow^ 
ing letter: 


Sir — I have received ybur note, enquiring my opU 
nion of the cause of the dreadful disaster, on board 
the steam^boat: being engaged below, at tliat mo-i 
ment, I can only draw my conclusion, from the fiu^ts 
of the case, which are as follows: 

We left town about 4 o'clock, for the island; tbe 
weather was so very threatening, that I would not 
have gone down, if I had not been aware, that there 
were persons on the island, who depended on the 
steam-boat, to get up; on the Way, we had a heavy 
squall, but arrived in safety; About half past five, it 
blew a dreadful g^ale, but moderated a little, and at 
six we started. I have always cautioned the fire- 
men, against raising the full power of the steam, 
until we were out of the cover and, upon this occa- 
sion, I particularly ordered tliem, to make no more 
fire tlian was actually necessary to work her, till tre 
should be out of the cove: as it was ebb tide, we 
were obliged to back out, and the sea broke into tbe 
cabin windows. As soon as we were under way, I 
went below, to put in the dead-l^ts, and while 
thus engaged, tlie explosion took place — the thun- 
der and lightning were very severe, about that time; 
I immediately ran on deck, ordered the fires in the 
furnaces to be extinguished, and had the boat 
brought to anchor, until I could ascertain the extent 
of tlie injury. Feeling satisfied that the boat vna- 
now safe, 1 went aft, to endeavor to allay the approf 
hensions of the passengers; and, while assuring them 
that the danger was over, the miate came to infbmiL 
me, that a fire had burst out in the fisrecastle: I made 
immediate arrangements to extinguish it, by getting 
tlie fire-buckets, and procuring axes to cut w»fay 
the deck if necessary, to get at it; but, bein^ very 
doubtful or success, as the smoke rendered it dif* 
ficult to be got at, I thought it my dutv to provide 
for the safety of ilie passeugers, and hailed for boats 
from the shore — but we soon succeeded in putting 
.he fire out. In the forecastle we found one untuuK 

lars — ^nay, not for ten. A new state prison is now 

btiilding— thjl3 place contains /our printii^ offices; I py man, just expiring;, his face was livid, and£e 

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IiMlcifiyappearaiujeof betn^ struck with li^ming; 
which I bave no doubt was the case, from vurious 
indintioRS. I presume tbe lightnin^j^ struck the top 
of Ae chimney, pasted through the boiler, and 
vent out forward: probably, by iu action, increasing 
tbe elasticity of the steam; and, by the suddenness 
tf the jar, starting some of the rivets: we bad at the 
time kss than fire pounds to the inch -weight on 
tbe safety valre; and the fires had been kindled but 
1 Tery short time. The top of the chimney was 
carried away; and, it is more probable, that it would 
ktve been the lower parts, where it is inserted into 
the boiler, if done by steam — in fact it is incredible, 
that tbe explosion by the steam, should carry away 
the top of an iron chimney, which was nearly twelve 
feet^Ktm the boiler, and not have started a thin 
boMd partition, which was very near; or blown up 
the decks; or otherwise, wrecked the vessel— the 
WBeca»f8e would have affected the other boiler, if 
doae by ezceas of ateam; but, tiiat was uninjured, 
and brought us up the next day, safely. 

If ym think these remarks will be interesting to 
rear readers, you Mre at liberty to publish them. 

I asi, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Hetm of vessels and pissengers, an account of 
wbase arrival in the ports of the United States 
readied Baltinore for the three weeks ending 
tbeS6th Sept. alt. The return, probably, gives 
tbout 3-4th8 of the whole amount that arrived 
faring that period. 

Arm WhertJHm Arriv^at Postengerr 

' ^' Cock, New-Tock, 34 

Bofdeaui^ — ^ 

Z ss 

— 49 


— 3S 

— 15 

— a? 
AmboT, (rap.) 80 


— 18 

— S3 
_ - «0 

LPMkrt, Londoodmy, - (rappoMd) 70 

London, ID the Debwarr, ISO 

LiTcrpool, Phibddphia, 10 

London, — 82 

-* -* (tnppoied) fO 

— Boston 25 

- . Norfirfk, 35 
Kewrj, New-York, 53 
Looddn^ - 15 
Nanti, - la 
HovrsdeOmeo — 83 
Dobin, — 30 
Londonderry, - 34 
VatcHM, - 80 
Bel&it, Philadelphia, ^ 33 

* DuUin, — (juuDOttd) 00 

"" ' 88 








Havre deOcaec^ 




r less than 10 not noticed-~we Ibt 

at few days of the period given, 

IHi and have rejected the whole. 

Ifiper, of the 17th of Sept. says— "The 

ilCaccarfiil, captain Beveridge, not long 

9 from lAith, with passen«;er8 only, 

I,i6i» fort yesterday morning for Grce- 

%mrgo of cotton manufactures, and 

I fwcn gers who came out in her! 

K^ be BogUth and Scotch emisrrantf*^ 


The British frigate Nii^er, capt: Jackson, with 
admiral Coffin on board, arrived at Boston, from 
Eastport, on the 24th inst. Her salute was return- 
ed from fort Independence. The purport of the 
visit is not stated. 

Two severe shocks or earthquakes were felt at 
Martiniqxte on the 15th of August, but they passed 
off without damage. 

We have an account of a schooner being launched 
at Athtalntla^ Q. which had on board 130 persons, 
who were all •^thrown into the lake," the vessel 
being upset, by which 7 were drowned. Where i» 
this town, capable of furnishing such a company? It 
must have sprung up within these few days. 

An address, and a very good* one too, was lately 
delivered befbre the "Vevay Literary Society." — 
Wliere's Vevay? In tlie $tate of Indiana! 

The 11th of September, was observed by the citi- 
zens of Platttbwg as a day of festivity and joy. ' 

The canal commissioners, of the state of New- 
YoriE, seem attentive to the mighty objects of imit- 
ing the great lakes, as weU as lake Champlain, to 
the Atlsntic. If these are effected, and we trust 
that they will be, New-York must become the rival 
of London in trade and commerce. In a very few 
years this city vrill exceed in population most of the 
capitals of the old world. 

A large bam in Tioga county, N. Y. was latriy 
struck by lightning and burnt, with 180 tons of - 
ha^. This is given as the ^Air^ instance of a barn 
being so destroyed on the same spot. 

Holland is said to have adopted our decimal divK 
siona of money. 

Certain citizens of Quebec gave an entertainment 
to a Mr. Bolette, commanding the government schr. 
St. Lawrence, with a sabre valued at 50 guineas, as 
a mark of their esteem for his conduct in the batUe 
of Erie. 

Tlie notes of the ^\uienal Bank are to be en- 
graved by Tanner, Kearney and Tieb^ut, in a style 
that will make an imitation of them extremely dif- 

A late New-York paper says — "We understand, 
that M. Le Ray de Chaumont, has lately arrived, with 
his family, aner an absence of six years, and b ac- 
companied by persons of eminent skill in diiferent 
branches of manufactures, who are going to estab- 
lish themselves on M. Le Ray's lands. 

*'The rapid progress whioh has already been made 
in commerce, agriculture and manufactures, in that 
fine portion of our state, which is situated on the 
shores of the Black river, lake Ontario and river St. 
Lawrence, cannot but he forwarded by the acces- 
sion of talents drawn from such a source, and chos- 
en too by one of our citizens." 

ProgrcBs of crime. Two new bom infants wer^ 
lately found in New-York, under circumstances 
which induced the coroner's juries to return ver- 
dicts of wilitil murder. 

Captain Henhf. Gov. Nicholas, of Virginia, has 
presented to capt Henly the thanks of the legisla- 
ture of the state for his courage and good conduct 
in the battle of Champlain on the 11th Sept. 1814. 

Connecticut election. Timothy Pitkin, Jonathan 
O. Mosely, Lewis B. Sturges, Epaphrodltus Cham- 
pion, Lyman Law, Sylvanua Backus and Samuel S.' 
Sherwood, all federalists as usual, are elected re- 
presentatives from the state of Connecticut to the 
fifteenth congress — the two last new members, in 
the place of Mr. Tallmadge and Mr. Davenport, who 
declined a re-election. 

Dasiel Avbut, (formerly in congress) is elected 
a representative to the present congresS) to supply 

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the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Exos T. 
Tmroop, N./York — both republicans. 

Thr Ionian hLAKos.— An Ionian, "well versed in 
the language of Homer and Pindar," has written a 
patriotic ode, in which the emperor Alexander is 
invoked »» the "sole restorer of the independence of 
the loniaH islands.*' This has given great offence 
to tlie proiectorg tf the refmblic, tlie British. It Is 
sought for with much care and anxiety — but "the 
people • siitg it whenever they can do so with impu- 
nityV Xkeb it i.i»grtv! 

Copper mine. Anotlier copper mine has been dis- 
covered near Danville, Pa. Some of the ore, tried 
in Fowler's Purnact, yielded \wo-fiftl»s in metal. 
'I'he mine is said to be extensive, and has passed into 
hands of persons wlio will work it witli spirit. 

Virginia. The governor of Virginia haa issued 
his proclamation for convening the legislature on 
iJie llth of November — generally supposed for the 
purpose of giving that body an opportunity to con- 
sider of a repeal of the law requiring the banks to 
j>ay specie on the 15th of that month. 

Mexico imd Seuth America, The scraps of news 
that we have, is generally favorable to the cause of 
the patriots. It is said that the Mtancan republi< 
cans are about to make a formal proposition to the 
government of tlie United States, to acknowlenge 
their independence; and offer to pay us fbr spolia- 
tions on our commerce. We cannot say, whether 
there is more of generosity titan justice in this ten- 

Ther^ is a report, that sir Charles McGregor, (a 
new name to us) a patriot chief, collected the re- 
mains of Bolivar's forces, and took Vittoria, after 
which he got possesskHvof Ocumanas. There ap- 
pears to have been a battle, in which Morales was 
desperately wounded, and obliged to retreat to Por- 

Buenos Ayres papers are full of patriotic and spi- 
rited addresses and congtatulations aboiit the de- 
claraUen. t^ indepfindence, which, however, we have 
not ^et received. The prospect of »,fhur% is cheer- 
ing m this quarter, though it is said the Portuguese 
force has appeared in the Rb del Plata, \yith an in 
tent to attack Monte Video— but it is hoped they 
would be well received. It appears from the ac- 
counts received at New- York, that Brown and a part 
of his squadron had been captured and carried into 
Guayaquil, and that the residue of the squadron 
attacked, that town, made a number of tlie princi- 
pal inhabitants prisoners, and did some damage to 
the place, when a truce was finally settled on the 
29th» by which the admiral was exchanged for the 
men his ships had captured; and one of his vessels 
restored for the sum of 22,000 dollars. 

Some additional vessels have lately ssiled from 
Buenos Ayxes to cruise in the Pacific. 


The Canadian Courant informs, that a serious af- 
fair has recently taken place between the individuab 
belonging to the Hudson Bay Company and others 
belonging to the North- West Company, in which 
twenty-five of the former wei-e killed. Verbal ac- 
counts add, that open hostilities exist between the 
two rival companies; tli«t a pnncipal fort belonging 
to the Hudson Bay Company haa been seized by the 
North- West, on which occasion the above twenty, 
five persona were killed, and the governor of the 
(bet or company was among the number killed. 

"The rvvai companies have been at variance some 
yean; th.eir collisions have several times before led 
to bloody fra>'s, hut the aggressors have gone un- 
in the Hudson Bay Company; and we are told hisjmencedin 1814. 

principal object to Canada is to avenge upon thff 
North- West some of the outrages which they have 
heretofore committed. Probably through his influ- 
ence gov. Sherbrooke lately issued a proclamation, 
making ofl'ences committed in the Indian territofy 
cognizable before ti)e civil magistrates of the prt>- 
vinces. Lord Selkirk has also commenced presenU- 
tions against many of the principal persons employed 
in the North-Wcst, and caused process to be served 
when the annual .trading expedition had set out ami 
P^ot some distance from Montreal. The effect, as 
inteqded, was to deranc^e and partially br^ak up 
tlie expedition. We feel no grati6catJon at the los» 
of human lives; yet we confess we are gratified at 
the prospect which tliese facts furnish, of seeing 
prosti^ted the power and influence of an associa- 
tion who have enjoyed almost uncontrouled sw«y 
in the provmccs as well as in the Indian territory, 
and who have been particularly mitnical to the ex- 
tension of our frontier settlements asd our com- 
mercial intercourse with the Indian tribes." 

From the MnUredl Berald, Sept. 2lw— The fbllow- 
mg gentlemen of the North West C^mipany, who 
were apprehended by the warrants of the Eiipl of 
Selkirk at fort William, arrived in town last Satur. 
day evening, viz : the hon. WiUiam I^rCillivray, 
Messrs. Alexander M'Kenzie, John M'DonaW, Al- 
len M»Donell, Hugh M'Gillb, I>r. Jfohn M'Lau|ghUn, 
and Simon Eraser. These genUemen were accused 
of the^highest crimes; but after a laborious investiga- 
tion till Thursday forenoon they were admitted to 
bail under moderate recognizances. 

St.Louli^Jlng.Sl. Col. David Musick, and It. 
Parker, who were sent by the executive of this ter- 
ritory to notify the inhabitants of Ouachata, Uttle* 
Missouri, &c. &c. to remove from the Indian lands, 
(agreeably to the president's proclamation) rettim- 
ed a few days, after a fatiguing tour of about 12 or' 
1500 miles. These gentlemen represent the inha- 
bitants of Ouachata a most respectable and orderly 
people, well disposed towards the government, and 
willmg to abandon the lands they have cultivated 
for years, if their respectful petition to government 
should afford them no lenity. Subsequent infomui* 
tion, derived from gentlemen who have been at the 
Springs, confirm the opinion generally prevailing 
in this country, that no Indian nation claims the 
land in question. A few families of the Arkansas 
Quapeans annually visit the OuachaU to hunt, btit 
have never set up a claim to the soil. Wretched in- 
deed must be the fate of the numerous invalida 
who resort to the springs, if the farmers ate driven 
off their lands. 

lit/ (tuthority of the honorable commienonere qf <Ae* 
navul hospital in the United Statee-^ am directed to 
give notice, that all persons attached to the navy of* 
the United States, and seamen in the merchants* ser- 
vice, will be vaccinated gratis, and every attent|ot> 
given to 'render them perfectly secure from tiie 
small pox, by making immediate application to n^e 
at the New- York ciiy dispensary. Hours of at^en! 
dance, from ten to twelve o'clock, a. m. every day 
witl) the exception of Sundays. * 

Elkathah Jttdsov, U. S. m 
JSTcvf'York, Sept. 23, 1816. 


«o!d .... 1486,46* 

SiWer .... 6,454,79^ 


g 6,941,263- 

, ^^ ,•?•? . " Besides the above, 101,365 dollars of coppe, 

1 he earl of Selkirk is deeply interested , ney, has been coined, which for the firat time i 

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1W«. 7 •»» Vol. XI.] 

BALTlMOlii:, SATL'HDAY, OCTOBKU 12. 1«1(3. 

(WMO'T. :»o. 267. 

J!(tc vli n meminisse fun a 

hit. — \n:-.iL. 

PftlKTKn a:«1I rUKLl.SlltT) 1IY R. !nLK8, .\T TIIK HKAD OF rni.AI»M:iE, AT %5 fVM ANNUI. 

Always anxious to give value to tlie AVkhklt Re 
bftTKilHS a hook of rtfcvcncey we have eonuncjiced 
a very useful chronological table, which will be con- 
diidtil in our next paper,so as lo preserve the whole 
in a body, when the woik is bound. It has cos( 
mucli application an<l research. 

We this week dispose of a mass of miscellaneous 
matttt", which has accumulated in type, to make 
Way for some extensive articles in view. 

Affairs ^i Algiers. 

TTiefbllovfne hns appeared in ihe Aurora, being an 
eitrsct of^a letter to the editor, dated Paris, 
Aaf. f, 1816. We hare perfect reliance in the 

readers of the Aui-ora, for here it woidd be treasfm 
lo mention it — particularly as entire confidence 
may be placed on its accuracy, at n moment v. hen 
curiosity is oun tiptoe every Miicrc, in continual 
expectation of tlie conscqisences of the t^ur/t Titft 
of lord Exmoulli, with a much greaici" purado of 
naval force, armed and equipped expre.-jsly, ih.;t i.M 
ostensibly, for the sei'VTce. 

At the commencement of Afarrh, lord Kxmouth, 
with a part of his souadron, w.ts at Leghorn, the 
remainder was scattered on tlie adjoininj'' coa t. A 
courier, who had performed, arcording' to report, 
his joumey fi-om I/)ndon in nine days, arrives and 
bring-s him the order to collect his fr>rce. The 
news of an intended exptdition a,s^ain»t the Barbary 
ers, is immedi.itely circtdated by the different 
nals and g-azettes. Algiers was iilled with these 
rts fourteen days before the arrival of the 
idron. Nothing less, it v/as said, was contem- 
id than a total annihilMion oP the white sla\'e 
e — or a destruction of tliose nests of piracy, in 
of refusal to accede immediately to his lord- 
's demands. On their sitle the Algerines paid 

* attention to these rcj^orts, and the accom- 
ing menaces. Once already,, during the sittiijg 
he congress of Vienna, had they experienced 

• futility. At that time they felt real appre- 
ion, and anticipated the moment when, at the 
aand of civilized Europe, it would be necessary 
hem to choose between entire destruction and 
al change of policy. \Miat was Uieir joy to find 

tlie storm, which they thought was gathering; 

tlieir lieads, depended fi)r its efficacy on a coN 

on of alms which sir Sidney Smith, in the name 
U the imperial, roj'al, noble and illustrious 
hts of the European world, volunteered to beg 

the ]nirses of Individuals, and that this collec- 
was commenced by the paltry profits of a Oa![ 
n at Vienna /&r the deiiructiori of the JJai/tai-ff 

>rd Rxmouth arrived nt Algiers in the end of 
ch, with a squadron of sixteen vessels; one of 
1 (the Bo>me^ of 98 guns; five of them 74*3, 
remainde.' frigates and brigs. A force more 

amply sufficient for any object anticipated by 
journals, or bv the private letters received by 
daves from their friends and relatives in Ku- 
. Never, however, did an expedition deceive 
; effectually the hopes and expectations en- 
lined of it. Let us appeal to tiie terms of tlie 
y which was the result. The commerce of 
Vnglo Ionian Isles shall be respected. — 'I'wenty 
or tiirce Sicilian and Neapolitan slaves taken 
?r English colors, shall be restored; for the re- 
uler (about 800) the king of Naples shall pay, 
msom, a thousand Spanish dollars per head — 
isular present, amounting generally to between 
tty and thirty thousand dollars — ^a biennial 
ent of 25,000 dollars, and an annual contribu- 
of 24,000 dollars, and finally, all the other 
ents usual on certain occasions, such as grand 
rersaries, change of ministers, of the presiding 
himself, &c. Sec. &c. &c. In short; nearly a 
ion of Spanish dollars, under the title of ransom, 
nearly forty thousand of yearly contribution. 
lie king of Sardinia came on on terms some 


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wliat wore favorable; paying only five hundred ■ coarse observations of the populace who passed bim 
Spanish dollars ransom for each of his captured sub- in the streets, on th6ir way to tiic marine batteriea* 

The English consul, who wished to follow bini on 
board, was forced from his side, and confined in 
his house, the door and windows of which opening 
on the street were walled up, so as to deprive him 
of all hope of escape. The ladies composing hi» 
family had been forced from the country to tlie town 
by the most inferior officers (sbiri) and were threa- 
tened with being lodged in the slave prison. Tvo 
post eaptaina of tlie navy, who liad spent the pre- 
ceding night with them, accompanied them to tkc 
city, with their hands tied behind their backs — *nd 
one of them, in the attempt to resist this in^gnity» 
was severely wounded. The English colors were 
Imnled down and trodden under foot. 

Amidst these events, t)f a cliaracter by no means 
equivocal, lord Exmouth arrived on boud his ahij^ 
and immedtaiely weighed anchor, in order to place 
his squadron^^-out of the reach of the marine 

jccts, and a consular present 

Afier tills negocialion, so very honorable both 
%o liimself and country, lord Exmouth, on the 2d 
of April, left Algiers for Tunis and Tripoli;— carry- 
ing with him ;i third of the slaves above mentioned: 
for the payment of the ransom of whom, he pledged 
his own honor and tlie faith of his government. 

From whatever cause, however, it proceeded, 
whfthcr reflection did not tend to tranquilize 
alto?:etlier his lordship's conscience, or that his 
ofliccrs (who, before theip an-ival at Algiers, had 
promised wonders to an expecting world) had 
ventured to manifest their discontent, and to make 
5otne reproached; or that the murmurs of universal 
* disappointment had had time to cross the Mediter- 
rar.can, .ind to reach his ears at Tunis or Tripoli, or 
ftomc other cause not perfectly known, his lordship 
suddenly determined to return to Algiers, 

He arrived on the 14th of May, with nearly the 
same forces, and demanded the immediate libera- 
tion of all the Christian slaves in consideration of a 
loodcrate sum> which should be afterwards agreetl 
on and an engagement on the part of the liasljaw, 
not to make any more in future. Instantaneous 
destruction of the town would be the consequence 
^ a refusal. "It is necessary for me," replied the 
baj»haw, **to consult my tUvun, thow. sltalt have an 
answer to-morrow." "To make -a demand of this 
nature," observed the bashaw, at tlic interview of 
the succeediiig day, **thou art no doubt furnished 
with pbwei*8 from all tlte christian potentates ?** 
<«No." "At least, however, thou hast the orders 
of thy own government." An evasive answer. 
••In all cases, however," continued the bashaw, 
•the grand seig^or is my suzenan (lord paramount) 
and without his consent I cannot accede to thy 
demand. I give three or six months to furnish 
thyself with the Jirman (order) of the emperor of 
Constiintinoplc, and the authority of the cluristian 
powers— and on their presentation I will obey.'* 

Lord Exmouth mistakiiig this wise and modetate 
answer for an indication of fear, replied that his 
business was with the dey of Algiers, and not with 
the grand seignor, and repeated his menaces. The 
dey calmly dismissed him. 

The firmness of the dey on this occasion, onght 
not to surprise us. He was but recently come to 
the sovereign power, and not yet very firmly esta- 
blished in It, Is was said of him, that be Was not 
fortunate — a negation vvhicli, in the east, anvounts 
almost to a crime. Our countrymen, moreover, 
some few months before, had most cruelly mortified 
him. It was become absolutely necessary for him 
to estiblish his reputation — and it was infinitely 
preferable for him to die in combating for his 
coimtry, than to be assassinated by liis discontented 
subjects. But matter!i*were not yet arrived to this 
crisis. The Algerines very well remembered that 
thirteen years before, lord Nelson, who determined 
to reinstate an English consul whom they .had 
driven ignominiously from the country, attempted 
to frighten them with a much stronger force, and 
that the tlien presiding dey had obliged his lordship 
to depart, without slrikij>g a blow, or effecting his 

Many persons, however, believed that lord Ex- 
mouth had gone too far not to execute tlie menaces 
he hud made — more particukrly as insults had been 
given him, which it was supposed an admiral of 
the mistress of the ocean could not possibly digest. 
fie returned on board his squadron from his inter- 
^iew with the bashaw, amidst the liootings and 

batteries! The remamder of the day and the whole 
of the ensuing night passed in tranquility, Th« 
next mornuig at sun rise, and with a firesh wind 
from the south east, the most favorable that bis 
lordshipcould desire, the squadron was seen ap- 
proaching majestically tlie marine batteries, and 
every succeeding moment was expected to announce 
the eommencement of -the fire. But the Algerinea- 
were not so foolish as to commence it themselTes, 
and his lordship, after an empty demonstration, 
deceived as to the effect of his menaces, and still 
more as to tlie effect of his provocations, was obl«g. 
ed to resume his former anchorage. 

The next day a boat with a flag arrived from the 
quadron. It brought an officer charged with a let- 
ter from the admiral to the dey, demanding the re- 
lease of tlie English consul and permissbn for him 
to go on board— "Yes," replied tlie bashaw, «a» 
soon as tlie consul and admiral shall have paid the 
ransom of tlie slaves I suffered five weeks since to 
depart." ">Vhat is the amount ofthis ransom?" ad- 
ding an insinuation of a disposition to an arrange- 
ment. "You have then money on board," rejoined 
the deyt **it iippears to me that you ought to hare 
commenced by paying me what you owe me. Your 
word of honor was pledged; this pledge you have 
sought to violate. I wul act, more honorably tiian 
youra elves — whatever may be your intentions, your 
consul shall not be hurt." 

The ensuing day another flag^— and the admiral 
aecepts the propositions of the bashaw, of 6 mcnths 
to procure himself the firman of the grand ^ignor 
and the authorization of the christian powers. What 
passed subsequently is not precisely loKwn, and { 
must be the subject of conjecture— but all at once 
tjie English and the Algerines are the best frieada 
in the world. Lord Exmouth makes the dey a pre- 
sent of a superb spy glass, and receives in r^um 
a white horse, an ostrich, and the usual refreal^- 
ments, (consisting of two or three beeves^ some- 
sheep, fruit and vegetables,) which on their arrival 
to the squadron, were saluted witli three §pns, 
agreeably to usage. The admiral's brother, ma, fie- 
veral officers of the squadron presented tliemadves- 
at the palace, and were graciously received. IjotA 
Exmouth made a peace witli the dey for the king;'- 
dom of Hanover, on the condition that PfusSia and 
the JIanseatic towns do not profit by it FinaQ;f tiie 
English frigate promised some months befove t<^ 
carry the presents of the regency to Constantinople, 
for the purpose of obuioingfrom the grand seigttor 
tb e necessary reinfbrcem en t of Turkisa reotiitf^ ia 
offered anew to tlie dey— and at the period of -llie 
departure of the squadron, the 22d of iMa>:,'thi>fi-i. 

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ph reinamed in the road with the English colors 
tt kerinast bead. Between the 16th ami 18tli of 
May, some Dutch fH^tes anchored near the Eng- 
lish squadron; but after a short stay, separated with- 
out any communication with the shore. 

It Is only necessary to add, (and it may aid us 
inoOT conjectures on the sudden reconciliation 
mentioned above,) that the monxent of the depar- 
ture of the English squadron from Algiers was the 
moment of a renewal of our difficulty with the re- 

JJic labor^~^oc opiu est. 

Would H be too bold, aftei* a perusal of the above 
paper, to prophecy a complete defeat of our own 
expectations of the demolition of Algiers, of the 
firitish squadron, and of his naval lor^ip. 

British Opinions. 

f^wn the London Observer, of June 24, 1816. 
Commercial meil are not without apprehensions 
of darker to all oiu* AVest Indian possessions. The 
rising j)ower of America, and the intriguing facili- 
ties which hep situation gives her, with an immense 
population of slaves, lorded o?er by a handful of 
jwle Europeans, present a prolific theatre of tur- 
DttlcBt changes. Let us suppose, tliat in the event 
of asotber war with Amei'lca, the latter were to 
proceed upon the principle which Bonaparte medi- 
*»ted (but did not put in execution) in Russia, of 
prodaiming freedom and national independence to 
all who would espouse the cause of his arms against 
ancient authorities.* Our immense colonial system 
TMildbe shaken to its btue, by such a plan; and *^me- 
rieOf mth her tfmting and vigilant navy, would spec- 
^ place Europe in an entire dependence on her for a 
iihartofaU the principal existing channels of commerce. 
Suck a tremendous facility of mischief has s/ie over the 
firtwies of this once mighty empire, that it lays toithin 
her loery grasp, to change the face of all the civilized 
tdations of mankind Europe would break and de- 
stroy Itself against that resting position of hostility 
vhieh she may ere long assume towards the retro- 
gmdinr empire of the old world We have not any 
prince m Europe, who is aware of the rising advan- 
t^;e« of the new continent : or who sees the flush- 
ing eontscations of glory teeming from the barba* 
roos broils of ^j^'/fmize^ Europe — ^and forming over 
her bead, a halo of the best skill, the valor, the in- 
td^cnce, awd independence of Europe. But which 
or What of our European princes is aware of this, in 
i^ true light ? They are happy' at getting rid of 
tJMfl. tone and temper of intellect which would ar- 
raign their sway : but they do not know these form 
therfrtual strength of all nations. It is tl»e spirit 
of knowledge and improved public mind. A de- 
based and insolent soldiery, who has scarce any 
feeSb^ in common with the community, from which 
^MfnaA been separated, and a degraded spirit in 
the Mi»le, formed the ulterior and lowering ele- 
m^insor&lLen Greece and Borne : and the spurious, 
'ndail'^at tottered on the last of the race of ty- 
T«tt»vf other times, could flatter only the meanest 
oniif^lf lAindfl — such as we may descry in the Fer- 
diBfBldji^ the Bourbons, the Fredericks, 8tc. of ouj' 
vvnid^i. They preserve only the perishable and 

^ te gKia ewe were to do what the humane Uriiisii 
M^Minndve^ do and attempt to do in the lute wurP 
to-Mtidiim firtedom to the slaves and put arms in 
tRarMMH to murder their roasters? ilritain may 
Iwuible t» her WesMndia colonies, in^ked, when 
^f^Mk resolve to follow her infamous policy, not- 
^'itetilKlIn;^ her naval qiipremary. ♦Kd. Uffp.. 

=== ^ 

combusiible scaffolding of thrones— the dead and 
marrowless skeletons of rovalty, which has lost all 
that purified and Sustained its attributes, that sanc- 
tified its power, or gave purpose to its energy — the 
living and breathing substance which rounded and 
clothed the hideous nucleus — the mind that irradiat- 
ed, and the gallantry and magnanimity which shed 
such blandishments on its intercoursewith the peo- 
ple, are seen no more ; nor will they be traced in the 
records of our days. Europe has not a single prince 
who is capable of regenerating the character of roy- 
alty, or of arresting the policy which is hurrying 
tlie thrones of our times mto oblivion and decay.— 
But this will be a plain statement fifty years hence, 
if all the legitimates continue. Ajnciica will then 
have trebled her population. The great moral con- 
dition of Europe will then be naturalized in het 
community. Wiat power may not South Aineric.i 
yet develope, witli such a neighbor ? Hut the sul ♦ 
iect is full of the direst omens. Tlie despotism of 
Europe will soon become harmless, if the scene 
conthmes of "700 people emigi'ating, in one party, 
to America." In a few years we may have "omitted 

"Tide in the affhin of n«Tiom.* 
And where shall we trace the causes of those mo- 
mentous charges.? Wliere, but in the ignorance ruid 
misrule of princes.* It was by standing armie-j t!.at 
all the principal nations in the world have fallen. 
The reason is obvious : emulation among citizens 
ceases. The arts will no longer be studied w'tt^n 
wealth and distinction wait not oti those who study 

Progress of Complaint. 


Kotliing is more prolific than complaint; — whidi 
thrives equally well on a poor as a rich soil. One- 
would have supposed, that the fi^ee imi>ortatiort of 
so important an article as fine Slieeps woo!, must, if 
any thing, have escaped its attack* This ai'ticle hail 
certainly been one of the great means by which 
the manufactures of our countr}- iiave attained to 
such an astonishing eminence; and from it we cer-~ 
tainly manufacture cloth and threads Which gives 
employment to millions, and for whicli we obtain, 
even in the coimtries from which the wool is receiv- 
ed, ten times the amount of the raw material. — Yet, 
notwitlistanding this, we find the free hnportation 
of this article the subject not only of complaint^ 
but of a petition to parliament to prohibit its im<- 
portation. This petition was agreed upon at a late 
meetingof Agriculturalists, introduced by lord 
Si:bfftbld, and is in circulation fiH* signatures. The 
following are paragraphs of it :— ^ 

"lour Pelitionm'a reapcrtfuUy represent 
to yonr honm'able house, 

"That the g^wth of Britbh wool U abimdantlr 
increased, that the quality is greatly ameliorated, 
and was in a progp'cssive stiae of improrement imtil 
the late depression in price, occasioned by the 
ufirestricted importation dF forci'iu ^ o(»l : 

•A celebrated Jioman Catholic mentions aS 
facts, in his publication on Italy, that the present 
king of Naples never knew that such a pc(>j>le ns the 
;uicient Romans ever existed, until ucciJentally 
told of it by our late ambassador, sh* Witlia:n Hi- 
milton— but all sir William's :irgiimeiit.'4 could iu>t? 
induce his majesty for one moment to give credit 
to the story of the beheading af our CiiHrle» the 
First. He never believed it possible thai co^ninm 
men could cut off the head!<i of tin^s,' unii the 
^i^r.iih r\i^ rrff that ef t/Kiv<rXVIth, 

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**That wool of tUe finest quality can he grown in 
these kiiig-doms : and that in g^ciieral the quantity 
of wool jj;m\vn is^r might, if not discouraged, be 
adequate to the demand in the most ftourishing state 
ol* the manufiicttires : 

**Tliat the largest growers of fine wool have fre- 
quently, during the last 30 years, had two, or three, 
or more years growth upon their hands, for which] 
(even previous to the late overwhelming iraporta>| 
lions) they could not obtain such reasonable prices 
as could encourage the growth of that article : I 

*'Thut the breed of Spanish sheep in Kiu*ope isj 
increased in a vast def^rtt, especially in France,! 
Germany and Himgary : 

"That in France, in particular, the growth of fine 
wool is so greaily increased, tliat that country takes 
from Spain, and will continue to take comparatively 
a much smaller quantity than heretofore, conse- 
quently greater quantities of Spanish wool are and 
M'ill be poured into this country. 

"That the averse importation of foreign wool of 
ci;^ht years in tlie begihniug of the last centur)*, 
when the woollen manufacture of this country was 
in aliighly flourishing state was 869,727 lbs. 

"Tliat the average importation of eight years, 
ending 1789 inclusive, previous to the French re- 
volutionary war, was 2,660,828 lbs: 

That the importation of the two last years into 
England alone, was 30,704,072 lbs.! 

"That the importation of last year from France 
and the Netherlands, from Germany and Hungary, 
alone (from all of which little or no wool was 
formerly imported) was 4,432,655 lbs. an amount 
nearly double the average whole quantity of foreign 
wool imported from Spain, and all other countries, 
previously to the war of the French revolution ; 

"That large quantities of foreign wool are now 
stored in England; and that there is also at this 
time in Germany and Spain an immense quantity 
of wool read}' to be consigned to this country, as 
soon as tl»ere is a prospect of improved prices; but 
that the glut of short fine wool ^ at present so 
great, that no adequate price can be obtained for 
that article: 

*That the admission of wool from ever)' part of 
the world, free of all duty, in competition with 
the produce of this country, so taxed and tithed, 
cannot be supported on any principle of policy or 
justice, and is contrary to every principle which is 
so justly and necessarily established in respect to 
every other produce and manufacture of the coun- 
try : und is more peculiai-ly oppressive and unjust in 
respect to wool, as that article is sevei-cly proliibitcd 
by several acts of parliament from seeking another 
market, in case of a redundancy." 

They therefore pr.-xy the imposition of such duties 
as will prevent tlie imporLition of the article. The 
pianufacturers will comphiin of tliis petition; and will 
present a contra statement. 

The Bank of England. 


Amidst tlie vuritjus squanderings and public 
extravagancies which have aggravated the pressure 
and distresses of tTie present period, t'-ere is none 
more culpable in its nature and principle, than that 
which has arisen from the enormous iiid rapiicious 
profits which the bank of England have been per- 
mitted to miike, arising wholly and excusively out 
of their dealings and contracts with the public 
during the last twenty years, Ti-uly was it ob- 
aerveu by Mr. Homer, in the late debate on the 
restnction biU— "That the information and docu 

ments laid before the house upon thia subject, in 
the two last sessions of parliament, in consequencef 
of the discussions raised thereon by Mr. Grenfell, 
have exhibited a scene of ministerial extravagance 
on the one part, and of profligate rapacity on the 
part of the bank, that is without example in the 
financial history of this or of any other country." 
We do not know whether this is to be attributed to 
ignorance,' negligence, or too ready an acquiescence 
on the part of the government m tlie exorbitant 
deniand of this trading corporation, as a set off 
against those occasional pecnniary accommodations 
which the bank are supposed to afford to the 
treasury; which accommodations, however, be it 
observed, can only consist in an advance of bank 
paper, for which they never fail to charge five per 
cent interest; and which paper too, it may be re- 
marked, the bank are enabled, by the restriction 
act, to create to any extent they please, vitliout 
its costing them one farthing ; nor do we mean to 
charge the present government exclusively with 
blame for these transactions; for by a reference to 
the papers lately produced to parliament, it ap- 
pears that every government, from that of Mr. 
Pitt downwards, has been equally negligent of the 
interests of the public and either ignorant of, or 
indiflferent to, the enormous profits made by this 
banking company at the public expence. Is it 
necessary to prove tliis ? Look only at what have 
been the profits acquired by the proprietors of bai^ 
stock since tlie year 1797, which were stated by- 
Mr. Grenfell, in his late discussion to have exceed- 
ed, >»ithin the last nineteen years, the enormous 
sum of TWEWTT OHR naLLTONS 8TSRLIS0; oveT and j 
above the annual dividend "of seven per cent! and 
that this profit, made in 19 years, by public cmtracH 
only, amounts to seven times a$ much a» was made j 
by the bank, from all their banking operatians, dur- 
ing the whole of the preceding century ! ^ 

Grievous upon the people and objectionable in | 
principle as this system is, it is by no means uuim- 
portant to look to it as a source of public retrench- | 
ment. The discussions and the notice of parlia- 
ment, which has been attracted duruig the two j 
lust sessions to this subject, have already been 
followed by a reduction in b*nk profits, and a cor- 
responding sa\mg to the public, to an amount of 
about 180,000/. per annum — and if any person will 
advert to the statement made by Mr. Grenfell in 
parliiunent, upon this subject, he will sec the 
sevend items of which this saving is composed— 
namely, the additional stamp duties paid by the 
bank; the loan of six millions at four per cent; tliC 
loan of three millions at three per cent; and a sum 
of nearly half a millinn taken away from the bank, I 
out of the balance of unclaimed dividends, and ap- 
plied to the use of the public^ 

This is, of itself an important savmg — but it i» 
evident from the papers now before the public, that j 
1 it is only comparatively, a small part of that sav* I 
ing, which may, and ought, and will we trust, be 
• U'tcted from the same source; and we were happy ! 
to observe, that Mr. Grenfell closed liis labors up- 
on this subject, at tlie end' of the session, by a notice 
thut he shpuld resume it as soon as parliament shall 
:igain meet. 

Previous to the last session we remmded Mr. 
Grenfell of the pledge he had given to the public , 
aiul expressed a confident hope that he wouVi 
redeem ic. We have no hesitation in declaring- it 
to be our opinion that he has done so; and at the 
eve of the next session we shall again take thfe 
liberty of reminding him of the public promise he 
has made, not to stop at the point at which he h«s 

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flow arrired; confidently tnwtin^, that he will not 
teU satisfied, 4ill be shall have obtained full and 
* anmle justice for the public, in all their transactions 
with the bank of England. [Morning Chr&nicU. 

Singular Literary Scrap. 


It is within the recollection of every reader, that 
during- the late American war, while our flag flew 
rictoriouslv at sea, the British prince regent exhi- 
bited, for the amusement of his royal guests, a mock 
•ca fi^^t on the Serpentine river. A British and an 
American squadron were set a fighting — and as it 
may naturally be supposed, we only come off second 
best. Af^er a decent resistance, the Yankee flag 
was struck — ^to the gfreat joy of the triumphant by 
ttanders. ITe beat them, it is true, in real fight ; 
bvt M<y beat us in the mock engagement^ JVe tri- 
itmphed <m lake Erie and Champlain — but on the 
Serpentine, where we could not manage for oar- 
•elves, 0nr squadron was totally vanquished. They 
shouted in sport; while we illuminated our cities 
for (he briUiant reality. 

The wits of London laughed a good deal at the 
'joke; and declared that the prince regent must have 
been very roach in want of a victory, to have won 
one by such contrivance and manosuvers — that the 
Yankees had not a fair chance — and that it was no 
wonder the Britons had won the game, when they 
had all the cards in tlieir own hands. This laugh 
has been so loud, and the satire so keen, that it is 
very much doubted whether the royal exhibitor 
18 not by this time somewhat ashamed of his spec- 
tacle. Certain it is, that the people have got out of 
all conceit of it; and think there was very little 
credit in tlie fight or the show of it. It is singular, 
however, that this verv Serpentine river should have 
been thought ot, a9 far back as the year 1765 as the 
scene for suchan exhibition^^and that the very idea 
of such a thingshould have been ridiculed, even k* 
that time. Smollet did, however, really suppose 
sach a case, and treated it as one of the most absurd 
yrhkAi hecould conjure up. How much more ridicu 
UuMy then, would it have appeared even to him, if he 
oould only have taken in the whole of the ridiculous 
circumstance of the case itself; if he had known that 
H was a oiock fight with a power which really beat 
bis countrymen every where else, and that they had 
to resort to the Serpentine to gain a fictitious victo- 
ry* Smollet tiKHight it would have been silly enough 
to have shown the spectacle on the Serpentme, in- 
stead of the Thame8--but he must have thought it 
still more so, to have fought successfully on the 
Berpei^tine, when they were beaten on the broad 
Atlantic or the Lakes. 

Bat to return to the extract, which is from a let- 
Xtt in Smollet*9 travels, written from Nice, March 
loth, 1765: 

^'The Roman emperors seemed more disposed to 
9tBvate and ntrprizey than to conduct the public di- 
verskms according to the rulea of reason and proprie- 
tjf. One would imagine; it was with thb view they 
kutitated their naumachia, or naval engagements, 
performed by half a dozen small gallies of a side in 
•n wtificial basin of fresh water. These gallies I 
i^poce were not so large as common fishing. 
M^oks, for they were moved by two, three, and 
Avr oars of a sidie, according to their different rates, 
btmnes, triremes, and quadriremes. I know this 
il a knotty point not yet determined; and that some 
Mti^Qarians believe the Roman gallies had diflcr- 
«at tires or decks of oars; bat this is a notion very 

ill supported, and quite contrary to all the figures 
of them that are preserved on ancient coins and 
medals. Suetonius, in the reign of Domitian, sperJc- 
ing of these naumachia, says, " EtUdit vavalen pu^- 
nasy penejustantm classiumy effostio^ et cirntmdvcto 
juxta Tyberim iMaf, atqiie inter maaimas imbres 
prospectaxdtV This arliHcial lake was not lai-g-er 
than the piece of water in Hyde Park; and yet ilie 
historian says, it was almost large enough for real 
or entire fleets, /fow tootdd it sound in the ears nfa 
British saitor^ an advertisement that a mock eng-n^e- 
merit between two squadrons of men of war would be 
exhibited on such a day in the Serpentine river? or 
that the ships of the line taken from the enemy 
would be carried in procession from Hyde-Park- 
corner to Tower-wharf? Certain it is, Lucullus, in 
one of his triumphs, had one hundred and ten siiips 
of war Craves long-asj carried thrpug^i the streets 
of Rome. Nothing can give a more contemptible 
idea of their naval power, than this testimony of 
their historians, who declare that their seamen or 
mariners were formed by exercising small row- 
boats in an inclosed pool of fresh water. Had they 
not the sea within a few miles of them, and the ri- 
ver Tyber running through their capital! even this 
would have been much more proper for exercising 
tlieir watermen, than a pond of still-water, not mfich 
larger than a cold-bath. I do believe in my con- 
science that half a dozen English frigates would 
have been able to defeat both the contending fleets 
at the famous battle of Actium, which has been 
so much celebrated in the annals of antiquity, as 
an event that decided the fate of the empire."— 
Travels' through France and Italy, Uc By T. Smal- 
let, M. D.-^VoL 2, p. Iti^^London, pniUed 1766. 

The honor of carrying o%tr ships "in procession 
from Hyde-Park-corner to Tower-wharf," seems to 
be out of their power to enjoy — unless they employ 
the discomfitted squadron, which they captured on 
the Serpentine! 

Miscellaneous Articles. 

From the -Ww J'orA? Commercial ^idvertiser. 
Messrs. Lewis & Hall — Please to insert the fol- 
lowing in your paper, for the gratilication of those 
who are interested in the memory of that celebrat- 
ed christian chief whose death was lately noticed 
by several editors. It is sent you by the permis- 
sion of Mr. Jenkins, missionary of the Oneidas, 
who took down the speech as it was delivered. 

Head chief of the Oneidas, on tlie discovery that 
theii* land aud improvements at the Castle were 
sold to the state, by the intrigue (as he asserts) 
•f certain white men. [The tears ran copious- 
ly from his eyes, and of all that heard him in 
c-ouncil, while he spoke.] 

My warriors and my children! hear! It is cruel ! 
it is very cruel ! A heavy burden lies on my heart; 
it is very sick. This is a dark day. The' clouds 
are black and heavy over the Oneida nation; and 
a strong arm is heavy upon us, and our hearts groan 
under it. Our fires are put out, and our be£ are 
removed from under us. The graves of oar fa- 
thers are destroyed, and their children are driven 
away. The Almighty is angry with us, for we 
have been very wicked; therefore his arm does not 
keep us. Where are the chiefs of the rising Sun? 
White chiefs now kindle their ancient fires! There 
no Indian sleeps but those that are sleeping in their 
graves. My hoose will soon be like tlieirs; soon 
will a white cliief here kindle this fire. Your Sea- 

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mndo will soon be no more, and hisvilla^ no more 
a viUag-e of Indians.* 

t*he news that came last ni^t by our men from 
Albany, made this a sick day m Oneida. All our 
children's hearts are sick, and our ej'es rain like 
the black clouds that roar on the tops of the trees 
of the wilderness. Long^ did the strong voice of 
Scanando ciy,-— childreji, take care, be wise, be 
straight. HU feet was then like the deer's, and 
his arm like the bear's, lie can now only mourn 
otit a few words, and then be silent; and his voice 
will soon be heard no more in Oneida. But cer- 
•^uinly he will be long in the minds of his children 
— in white men's land Scanando's name-has gome for, 
and will not die. He lias spoken many words to 
•make his children straight. Long has he said drink 
ho strong water; for it makea you mice for white 
men, who arc cats. Many a meal have they eaten 
*f you. Their mOuth is a snare, and their way 
like the fox. Their lips are sweet, but their heart 
hi wicked. Yet therp are good whites and good 
Indians. I love all good men; and Jesus whom I 
love, eecs all. His great day is coming; he will 
cnake straight! he will say to cheating whites and 
drinking Indians, begone, ye! begone, ye! — go, go, 
^o! Cei*tainly, my children, lie will drive them 
4i\vay. In that day 1 will rejoice. But oh! great 
Borrow is in my heart that many of my children 
mourn. The g^eat JesuB has looked on all the 
wliile the whites were cheating us; and it will re- 
main in ])i8 mind — he will make all straight again, 
l^ong have I believed his w^rds; and as I long as 1 
Jive I will pray to him. He is my good Saviour— 
my blind eves be will open.t I shall see him.— 
Children, his way is a good way. 

Hearken, my children! when this news sounds in 
tlie council house, toward the setting sun, and the 
diiefs of the Six Nations hearken, and they send to 
ihe couucil by the great lake, near the setting sun, 
and they cry make bows and arrows— sharpen the 
tomahawk— put the chain of friendship with the 
vhites into the ground — warrior, kill, kill ! The 

treat chief at the setting sun won't kill any of tlie 
ix Natiuas«that go into hjsland, because they have 
a chain of friendship with the whites; ai^l he says 
the whites have made us wicked like themselves, 
and that we have sold them 6ur land. We have not 
sold it — ^e have been cheated: and my messen- 
gers shall speak true words in tlie great council to- 
ward the setting sun — and say, yet bury the toma- 
hawk; Oneidas must be children of peace. 

Children! some have said, your chiefs signed pa- 
pers of white men that sold our fires. Your chiefs 
bigned no papers; sooner would they let the toma- 
hawk lay them low. We know one of our men was 
Jared by white men to tell our men this, and will 
now tell you so, (liiroself.) Papers are wicked 
things; take" care, sign none of them but such as 
pur minister reads to us. He is straiglit. You now 
see his tears running like ours. 
Father, you are our minister — di-y up your tears. 

•The Indians are now driven to their unimprov- 
ed lands. The old chief himself, an hundred and 
six years old when I visited the place, lived in the 
woods, three miles distant Irom the meeting-house 
— which, together with the missionary house, were 
in possession of the state. Men were then laying 
out the extensive improvements in the village lots, 
and few of the tribe, comparatively, kindled their 
Jiret within the whole reservation, and the mission- 
ary station there was soon to be broken up. 

I He was blind, and near 100 years old when he 
delivered tius speech. 

We know if vourann could, it would help us We 
know wicked men speak ill of yoa for our sakcs. 
You suffer with us; but you are Jesus' servant, and* 
he will love you no less for loving Indians. 

Children! our two messengers will run and car* 
ry your sorrows to the great council fire toward the 
setting-sun. Run, my children, and tell our worda. 
Give health to all the chiefs assembled round the 
^eat fire. And may Jesus, the great Saviour, 
t)ring you back safe. 

[Two men then set off immediately for Buffalo.} 

P. C. 


From a London paper. 
It is said that disputes have arisen with Turkey 
respecting our possession of the Seven Islandis 
which are coveted by the warlike pasha of Albania, 
Ali, whose increasing power and wealth give him 
great influence with me Ottoman TOvemment. The 
following brief account of this ambitious chief may 
be acceptable to our readers: — 

Ali was bom at Tepelene, a smalltown in the in- 
terior of Albania. His father held the rank of pa- 
sha of two tails, but was not possessed of any exten* 
sive power; and he died when All was only fifteen. 
In a district so turbulent, and filled with hostile and 
warlike leaders, the young chief was necessarily pla- 
ced in a very critical situation. He is himself accus- 
tomed to boast, that he began bis fortune with six- 
ty paras and a musket; and an Albanian who attend- 
ed a late enlightened traveller (Mr, Hobhouse,) 
declared, that he remembered to have seen Ali with 
his jacket out at elbows. Ali was ere long driven 
from Tepelene, his native place, and was abandoned 
by almost evei7 follower. A plan w^as next formed 
for his destruction, by Uie inhabitants of Gardikl, a 
neighboring town, and for this purpose they sur- 
rounded, in the night-time a village where he had 
taken rehige. Ali escaped throurii a garden, but 
his mother and sister fell into the hands of tlie Gar- 
dikiotes, and were treated with every species of in- 
dignity; wrongs for which he afterwards took a 
dreadful vengeance. His address and activity ena- 
bled him gradually to repair his fortunes. He insinu- 
ated himself in the favor of Coul pasha, then the prin- 
cipal chief of Albania^ whose daughter he at lengt^ 
married. Having thus been able to collect some 
followers he succeeded in surprising his present ca- 
pital, Joannina, and in prevailing upon the Porte to 
recognize him as pasha of that important district. — 
From this time he took the lead among tlie Albanian 
chiefs, employing sometimes force, sometimes mo- 
ney, and sometimes treachery, to increase his author- 
ity, and add to tlie extent of his dominions. The 
most formidable adversaries with whom Ali had to 
contend, were the Suliotes, a people placed in the 
southern extremity of Albania. They inhabit an 
almost inaccessible range of mountains, beneath 
whose gloomy shade winds a river, which Dr. Hol- 
land conjectures, on very plausible gfi-ounds, to be the 
Acheron of the ancieijts, the strength of tlicir native 
bulwarks, their passion for war and c6ntempt Of 
death, made them tlie terror of Albania, which they 
frequently invaded; while no foreign power had 
ever ventured to scale the tremendous Darriers by 
which they were guarded. Ali at length succeeded, 
partly by force, and partly by bribery, in gaining the 
passes which led into their comitry; ana tlie whole 
nation after a furious resistance, was reduced to 
subjection and partly extirpated. In 1811 and 1812, 
Ali attacked and defeated the pashas of Berat and 
Del vino, by which means he gained possession of 
£oni* of tlic linest parVs of Albania, and a popida*' 

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1^ of between 3 and 300,000 souls. Tepelene, proud as Lucifer himself; severe as a tyrant towards 
Ims native place, now fell into his hands; and no w^ those of Ms own colour, and whoiU*e his suhjects. 

abo it was that he obtained the means of inflicting' 
mgnsX vengeance on Gardiki. With his accustom - 
^ duj^icity, he pretended a complete oblivion -of 
all grounds of resentment, until he had surrounded 
and enclosed the city witli his troops: when up- 
wards of 700 of those inhabitants who were suppos- 
ed to have been most deeply involved in the ancient 
l^lt, were dragged into a larjf e khan near the city, 
and bound together with cords. On a signal given 
by All, the Albanian soldiery, who were stationed on 
the walls of the khan, be^an a discharge of muske- 
try, which continued until the destruction of the 
whole seven hundred was completed. It seems im- 
pOBsible to define with perfect precision, either the 
extent of All's dominions or the degree of authority 
which he posesses. Even within Albania, the 
^ictudic of Scutari remains still independent. — 
Tlie tract over which he bears sway, is bounded on 
ihc north by an irregular line, extending from Du- 
nzzo to the gulph of Salonica; it comprehends 
the mountainous district of Macedonia, nearly the 
whole of Thessaly, and a great part ot Lavady. On 
the eastern side, he is kept in check by Ismael Bey, 
who possesses an authority as independent over the 
plains of Macedonia. In Albania his power is al- 
most absolute; and while litile regard is paid to the 
imperial firman, a letter with the signature of Ah 
commands implicit obedience. The Albanians are 
entSiUsiastically atUched to him; they view him as a 
native sovereign; they admire the energy of his cha- 
taeter, and when the'y hear of any other chief, com- 
monly remark, that', "he has not a head like Ali."— 
In the relations between Ali and the court of Con- 
stantinople, mutual fear has hitherto preserved an 
ootward good undersUnding. The progress of this 
'enterprising chief has been long viewed with jeal- 
«uBy and alarm; but the Porte was never in a condi- 
tioo to hazard driving him in to open rebellion. It 
lias been {bund prudent, therefore, to invest him, by 
its firman, with the government of those provinces 
which the sword had already placed m his posses- 
sion. Ali, on the other haftd, pays an outward de- 
ference to the Porte; and remits to it some portion 
of the revenue which he collects. He has also uni- 
Ibrniiy supported that power with nearly his whole 
Ibrce, against the the foreign enemies with which it 
ittA to contend. 



The follomnff interesting particulars respecting tids 

extrdorSnafy character ai^ supplied by a gentleman 

who was in St. Demiigo last June: — 

' His person is the elegant model of an Hercules. 

1b battle he is brave to desperation; his courage 

litnig with danger. He has been seen in the heat 

jff an engagement, animated with the fury of a ty- 

„^peiV 'aging and foaming through all his ranks. He 

»rCT«igeftil beyond measure. He had a regiment 

fmaaunded by a coloured man, which went over 

* J^ yetion. The moment he was apprised of the cir- 

',^Sl0Mttoce he ordered a massacre of all the colour- 

'^Svomea in his dominions, and not even to waste 

^^Igimdxxon them. I was shewed several places where 

'J^ifllun of those unfortunate females were butch- 

' : JM^ and many were hid there by relatives till the 

jjllipf.abated^ and I had the particulars of their es- 

'^TBJbethto the lips of two or three. They still live 

j|Bk jmsaft ' df ead; and some who are even wealthy, 

Vd^i riftdly abandon al), and go any where to get 

.^jMddf fib power, whom they hate, but never name. 

at Uie same time rigidly enforcing tlie laws, aad 
protecting strangers who respect them. Li no cotni- 
try in Europe are duties and customs so rigidly ex- 
acted; or illicit trade so completely prevented. — 
Add to thb, that I travelled in the interior of the ■ 
country, where not a white face is to be seen, with 
as much security as I could have done in any jwrt 
of Great Britain. This is not to be done without a 
passport signed by himself. No stranger is permit- 
ted to go a hnndred yards beyond the barriers of 
the Cape without permission. I do not think, how- 
ever, that his government will be of long dur^iion. 
He is so much the tyrant, that he must have mtmy 
enemies among his seeming friends; besitlcs bcinff 
iiiniself a usurper, and engrossing all tlie riches of 
the country, and applying them often foolishly, and 
without advice, will naturally inspire those abonthim^ 
with notions dangerous to his safety. Hi«< personal 
character is so well known, that none will attempt 
any tiling against him till they are sure to have lii;n. 
At all events, I conceive Petion must eventually 
overcome him. His character is so opposite to Chris- 
tophc's, that his success will save the country. 

/'^^j^iljprtnvagant in his notions of grandeur, and 


Ld?riK>v, JULY 13. — The official gazette of Berrm, 
of the 20th of June, contains th a following article: 

Maria Catalini was bom at Sinigaglia in the land 
of the church, and descended from an honorable 
family. She was placed early in a convent, where 

she remained till she was fourteen years of age. 

Her voice even then was so surprising, that she was 
applauded whenever she sung in tjie choir with tlie 
nuns; and on that account her singing was prevent- 
ed least her vanity should be excited. Her talents 
developed themselves early, so rapidly, and in so 
peculiar a manner, that, at the ik^t ol' fifteen yetti*s 
she appeared with success at the side of Marchesi 
and of Crescentini. At this period tlie CDurt of 
Portugal collected at great expense several virtuou 
at Lisbon. Catalini was invited at a sabry 24,000 
crusailes (12,000 crowns.) She remained fi)ur years 
in Portugal, and then travelled tlirough Spain and 
France, proceeding to England, where very advan- 
tageous proposals were made to her. She sung at 
Madrid and Paris. In the first of these towns a sin- 
gle concert produced 1,500 louis d'or. At Pnv'is 
she gave a concert, for wliich the tickets were a 
louis each. She remained eight years and a Imlf in 
England, and never did a singer in that rich country 
collect so abundant a harvest. Her benefit concerts 
were worth more than 90,000 gtiiueas, independent 
of the considerable presents that she received for 
private concerts. She left that countiy which was 
to her a mine of gold, for the purpose of going to 
Paris, where the king has granted her the privilege 
of tlie Italian theatre. She is the sole pn)prietf>r 
And directoress of tliis theatre, whic^^ during her 
absence has been confided to the celebrated Paer. 
She wishes to revisit her native country from which 
she has been so long absent; but in going tliithe^ 
she performs a great cii-cuit, as she truveU through 
Germany, and will give concerts vX Hanover, Ham- 
burg, Berlin, Dresden, and V^ienna, Mudame Cata- 
lini is about 32 years of age; but she seema younger; 
because independent of a distinguished figure, she 
has a beautiful Roman head. She is so modest, 
with such talents, that she is called La Cosa Jiara. 
She has been man-ied eleven years to M. de ^'alla- 
breque, an old officer ofhussars, but she had resolv- 
ed to keep her own name of Catalini, \v^la fh« con- 

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tinues in her profession! Three children are the 
fruits of her marriage, of whom two were bom in 
England, and the third in France." 


From the Salem Be^tter. We have melancholy 
tales from France of executions. %Ve 9\\a\\ Ave a 
specimen of just such vfm\ as the restoratioi of 
Charles IT. of England, in which a minister of this 
town of Salem suSered. We ofl'er it in the words 
of Ludlow. *<An order being" made, that the chief 
justice Coke and Mr. Peters^ should die on the same 
day, tliey were carried in two sleds to tli^ place ap- 
poMitedfor the execution of the sentence that had 
been pronounced against them; the hcadof mujor 
general Harrison being placed on that wliich earned 
tlie chief justice, with tlie face uncovered, ai»d di- 
rected towards him, which was so far from produc- 
ing the designed effect, that he not^only seemed to 
be animated witli courage from the reflections he 
might make upon that object, Uit tlie people every 
where expressed their detestation of siiqh usage. 
At the place of execution, among other things, he 
declured thathe had used the utmost of Iiis endea- 
vors that tlie practice of the law might be regulat- 
ed, and tliat public justice might be administered 
with as much expedition and as little expence as 
possible; and tliat he had suffered a more than ordi- 
nary persecution from those of his own profession 
on that account, lie said he understood not the 
meaning of the court, when they affirmed that if the 
lords and commons had brought the king' to the 
ba", it had been treason \\\ them ; and as to the 
part he had in tlie action with which he was charg- 
ed, he was so far from repenting what he had done, 
that he was almost ready to seal it with his blood. 
Here the sheriff nidely interrupting him, he repli- 
ed, tliat it had not been the custom in the most 
barbarous nations, much less in England, to insult 
over a dying man ; adding that he thouglit he was 
the first 'who had ever suffered death for demanding 
justice. When this victim was cut down and brought 
to be quartered, one, colonel Turner called to the 
sheriff's men to bring Mr. Petert to see what was 
doing;- which being done the executioner came to 
him, and rubbing his bloody hands together, asked 
him how he liked tliat work ? He told him he was 
was not at all terrified, and that he might do his 
worst. And when upon the ladder, he said to the 
sheriff, **sir, you have butchered one of thefservants 
of God before my eyes, and have forced me to see it 
in order to terrify and discourage me, but God has 
permitted it for my support and encouragement." 
After this scene, the work went on and other suffer- 
ers took their turn. They who do not regiird the 
tales which instructed our fathers, and forget, or 
have never heard, how much Mr. Peters did for 
Salem, and liow much the people loved him, may 
find tlie same work of destruction in their own 
times, and read tlic daily news from France. At all 
times men will be found to abhor every scene of 
cruelty, and will lament the government which is 
obliged' to such measures for its support. And at 
all times men are to be found who will flock around 
tlie scaffold and place of execution, and exult in 
tlie work of destruction. 


A late London paper, says: — ^"We are happy to 
announce to the public another interesting discovery 
which has been lately made in the classic register. 
Tlie following is an extract of a letter from that 
ititelligcnt traveller, Mr. Salt, to a friend in England: 

<*t bftve omitted tb mention, ^t on otir way 

from M:dta w<i touched at the island of Milo, where 
the inhabitants have lately discovered a theatre of^ 
wljite marbh% which appears, from the little that 
has been yet exposed to view, to be in very perfect 
preservation. The seats at present opened are se- 
ven in number, beautifuily worked out of large 
masses of the finest marble, forming a segment of a 
circle, whose diumeter, it completed, would be M6 
feet. The situation of this the.itre is one of the 
finest that can be imagined; it stantls a hundred feet 
above the level of tlie sea, and commands m front a 
noble prospect o\'er the hai:bor to the moimt.^ins on 
the oj^posite side, and is backed by lofiv hills riiing 
one be!)ind the other up to the turrcled village of 

"Immense ruins of solid walls stand close by, :md 
a few remains of inscriptions have been found in the 
neighborhood, two fragments of which I enclose; 
the former is cut on a wl»itc marble pe Jest. d which 
has been much injured, and the latter \< said to have 
formed part of a large in.scription which u bigoticd 
papa obliged the inhabit-ants to breuk in pitccs to 
prevent the Europeans from disturbing his luily re- 
treat — a cottage wliich he had built on an adjoining 
hill, where manj remains of a white marble temple, 
ar« still to be traced. Tlie pricsi is luckily dead," 
or otherwise the theatre would have stood great 
danger of suffering the same diijastrous fate. — 
From the scite of this theatre I should concciic 
that it was intended for naval exhijjitions in tiie 
ports belo'A*, as it is constructed immedi.atcly on 
the brow of a hill, having in its front scarce ly room 
for the proscenium. t)f this, however, it is not 
possible to judge very correctly till the whole shall 
have been laid open — an operation neither very ex- 
pensive nor difficult to accomplibli, as the inhabi- 
tants are .almost like a colony of English, and wouhl 
be glad to give ihclr assistance in any work that 
vvn of tlic'ir island." 

would tend to the rcnovvi 

Foreij^ii Article.s. 

American stocks were in dcm'i^^d i:i England ai 
the latest dates, at 85, for cash, and expected to 
rise. If they continue even at that price, they will 
do much to eq-uilize tlie exchange between tliat 
country and the United States. iJoliars are quoted 
at4«. 6</. per ox. and at As. \hd. each. 3 per cents, 
consols, tAug.i 24, 61 7-8 rt 62. Trade is said to 
be reviving in England; and the.reduclioji of some, 
considerable expenditures is spoken of. Sixteen per- 
sons were capitally convicted at Norwich for bein^ 
concerned in riots at Dawnham. Several a^-izurcs 
of British goods have been ma<le at Biscay. 

Gens. Lallemand and D'Ei-lon, have been tried 
and condemned to death in France, par cojitumace, 
— they are botli in the United States. A quarrel, 
attended witli bloodshed, took place between the 
Russian and Austrian soldiers at Mentz— but tlie 
officers restored order. It is proposed to raise an 
army of 200,000 men for the French peace establish- 
ment. The London Courier says that France has 
regularly paid her contributions to tlie allies. It is 
said the purchasers of the national domains will not 
be disturbed. 130 persons were killed i^ an affray 
between the national guards and the foreign troops 
at Stratsburg. Gen. Merlin, called into actual ser- 
vice, has taken to his staff the aids of the late 
Marshal A>y. The wife of Joseph Bonaparte has 
asked leave to g^ to Sweden. 

The government of Sardinia has ordered to be 
built at Genoa, 4 ships of the line and 4 frigates. 

700 Switzers have arrived at Paris; tliey are iti- 
tended Xq form a Swiss regiment of ipuards. 

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It is «aidtfettt the nuirber of Russian troops in is, probably, tlie cause of the f^rcat and long-conti 

FraBce is 6*2,000; that tJrcy had been reinforcetl bj- 
cftvalfy from time to time; and they have not 
been onder Wellington's command since May last 

nued depression of the British funds, as well as of 
the rise of American stocks, which we cxj-jcct to 
hear of being at par, the difference of exchani^c not- 

Acconnts from St. Helena state that Bonaparte! withstanding', 
complains bitterly aarain^t the British for sending! A neat trick The brotlier ofa person convicted 
bioito the^isUml of desolation;" saying that Mii- for miirder, in the cdunty oft Meath, Ireland, who 
rat's fate vas merciful compared witli his. He is! was just about to be executed, got introduced into 
represented as beng much depressed and altered, j the prison, and, on pretence of going for a plerg-y- 
Thc king of Nnples has forbidden his subjects i man, let the crimiiiid. escape. Ue kept praying, ^c. 

ipplying to the pope for indulgences. ^"" " ™c:,i«,..ui,. *:.>.^ u^c — *k^ *_r_i_ ^ = _ 

The French government have required of tlie 
Butch to give up Mr. N. Simon; but the Dutch 
authoHlies hesitated to take any steps on the sub- 
ject, although they had held Mr. S. in custody 

The duke of Kent has gone from Ei^gland lo Brus- 
sels to reside there tliree years. 

The Japanese Iwve dtscovered an inclination to 
trade w itfi England, and have permitted an acade- 
my to be estAblisbed, in which the English language 
is taught, and it has many pupils. 

Reports fi-om India were, that there was a report 
that the Napaul war would be renewed a second 
time. Such a treaty as the British dictated to the 
rajah mtghi to be broken. It is inserted below. 

The<)ourier (to deter from emigration) says it is 
llie practice of the American captains who have 

rlairas on the emigrants, to sell them to satisfy such 

The Courier cTDmpliments Mr. Hughes, who went 

to Carthagena in the Macedonian, for procuring the 

release ofBritisli as well a<? American prisoners. 
The dey of Tunis is said to have impsded the 

commodore of one of his corsairs who captured a 

French ship. 
About 300 Swiss were passing into Holland, 

bound fbr the United States. 
A Swiss paper says, a ventriloquist has been ba 

nisbed from the stales of Parma for some unlucky 

spfcLmens of his art. Following a funeral proces- 
sion to Plaisance he heard the bearer of the pross 

ask on which side he should turrk the procession 

having arrived ut a cross way. Tue venU'iloquist, 

imitating the voice of the deceased, said, *'when I 

I vas alive I we. it ou this side wiiei*« we are.**— 

Thes« words spread terror among the people pre- 
sent, every one fled, and the dead waa left alone. 

In another instance, under the portico, wliere wlictt 

is -sold, there is a provisional prison destined fur 

those who disturb the market. The ventriloquist 

sent Ibrth crie% as of those of a poor prisoner lorn 

by a mai^ cat. All the inhabitants of the town, to- 
gether with the gendarmerie, and the troops of the 

corps de garde, in consequence assembled, when 

the trick was dueovered, and the ventriloquist was 

An expedition, to consist of about 10,000 men, it 

b said only wants nioney to pay and ships to carry 

it from 8pain to Mexico. If this force shall fail 

of its purpose, it is thought it may be the last cf- 

fctt to police the colonies. It -mUlfuiL 
A ^eRBan paper publishes a long lying letter 

frtMD NcSviF-yoric, stating-, among other things, that 

many o# tbe French military men had obtained ad 

i-antageotw appointments in the United States. We 

hive MVfjr h«ffd even the rumor of one being ap 

poiBtt4 lo o€Bee. 

Tkere w^ a loud conversation in England about 
reducing the interest of the national debt. Some of 
the piiiSs deny it — but it must come to it. The re- 
venue of Sie last quarter is said to be equal only to 
thetiKerft^ diie, and the quarter befpre it fell short 
^ee iiiilfiofis. The opinion that this mnist happep, 

for a considerable time before the trick was disco- 
vered, when being accosted bylhejailor in a rage 
"your brother has got off "— Ive afiected siuprise 
and said "wiiy then, he has taken off my great 
coat!" He wa* detained, and to be tried for a mi;>- 

^* Glorious uncertainty ^tke Ltv." A criminal has 
been acquitted in England, because the words bt/ - 
m§^hts were used instead of by tiight, in enumerat- 
ing the words of a letter in his indictment. 

London^ Jbtg. 15. We can st.ite from the best 
autliority, that it never has been in contemplation 
to call parliiiment together for any purpose whate- 
ver, uniil after Christmas; neither is tliere the 
most distant prospect of a dissolution. Nor is there 
an idea of either touching the sinking fund, or of 
taxing the funds. We can also state from au- 
thority, that the revenue is daily improving, and 
tliat there are fewer exchequer bills now in circu- 
lation than there have been for many years. 

Sinkingr fund. A paper has been printed by or- 
der of the house of commons, which contains the 
certificate and declaration of the commissioners for 
the reduction of the national debt, stating the 
amount of c^tal stock purchased or transferred 
up to the 14th of June, 1816. 

/.. s. d. 

Capital stock, total amount 308,539,330 10 7 
Amount of funded debt created 
by and prior to 25tk Geo. III. 
c. 14. 284,157,773 17 T; 

Thus making the excess redeem- 
ed of 24,381,556 12 111 
In 30 years from the first esta- 
blishment by Mr. Pitt, hi 1786, 
there has been redeemed of 
the debt, (of capital stock) 
above 308,.WO,000 
And of mterest, 9,337,000 

[But in the 30 years the public debt has been in- 
creased about 800 millions.] 

Mr. Chantry, sculptor, and Mr. Wyatt, both took 
casts of Sheridan's face, in plaster of paris, shortly 
after his death. That of Mr. Chantry is for a bust, 
lo be executed by order of the committee of Dfiu-y 
Lane theatre. 

August 19. Saturday his majesty's store-ship 
Abundance, Mr. Thomas Stokes, commander, 
sailed from Portsmouth for Quel>ec, loaded with 
naval stores for the dock-yard at Kingston. Chain 
cables, and nearly forty thousand blocks, were ship- 
ped on board her from Portsmouth dock-yard. — 
Capt. Pring, R. N. capt. John Campbell, R. M. Mr. 
Ballinghall, naval storekeeper at Kingston; Dr. To- 
bin, R. N. Mr. Pollock, Mr. Grey, Mr. Stevens, and 
Mr. CoUs, surgeons; R. J<i. and several other 
officers, going to join their ships upon the lakes, 
were passengers. 

Liverpool, Avff. 14. We are informed tliat the 
earl of Londsdale has reduced the price of coals 
2s. 6d. per waggon, which, it is supposed, will be at 
least 12,0001. per annum from his lordship's income. 
His lordsh^ would reduce the price stdl lower if 
the exigency of the tim^s required it. 

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106 muBS^ yfmVuV begcstbr-satusday, October t% isie. 


The following la given at length to shew the man- 

nei- in wliich leffitimacy (i. e. rowsu) it exercbed 

in tlie East Indies. 
From thfi Govemmeut Gazette Extrmrdituuy. 

Fort WilKtun, Bfwrdi I5th, 1816. 

The treaty of peace between the British govern- 
ment and the rajah of Nepaul, concluded at 
Segowley on tlife 2d of December, 1815, and ratified 
by the governor general in council on the 9th of 
the same month, having bern finally ratified by 
tlie rajah of Nepaul, and the ratifications having 
been duly exchanged between major general sir 
David Ochterlony, K. C. B. agent of the goven^or 
general, and the accredited ajjents of the gov- 
ernment of Nepaul, in the British camp before 
ifuckwanpore, on the 4th inst. a copy of the treaty 
is published for general information. 

Treaty of peace between the honorable East 
India company and Mahanajah Bikham Sah, rajah 
of Nepaul, settled between lieutenant colonel 
Bradshaw, on the part of the honorable company, 
in virtue of the full powers vested in him by his 
excellency the right honorable Francis, earl of 
Moira, knight of the most noble order of the garter, 
one of his majesty's most honoi-able privy council, 
appointed by the court of directors of the said 
honorable company to direct and control all their 
aflaips in the East Indies; and by Seree Gooroo 
Gujraj Misser, and Chunder Seekur Opadeeah, on 
the part of tlie Murajah Grimaur Jodc Bikram Saw 
Behauder Shumshees Jung, in virtue of the powers 
to tliat effect vested in them by the said rajah of 

Nepaul • — 

Whereas war has arisen between the honorable 
East India company and the rajah of Nepaul; and 
whereas the parties are mutually disposed to restore 
tlie relations of peaoe and amity, which previously 
to the occurrence of the late difTerences had long 
subsisted between the two sUtes, the following 
terms of peace have been agreed upon: — 

Article I. There shall be perpetual peace and 
friendslup between the honorable the East India 
company and tlie rajah of Nepaul. 

lif. The rajah of Nepaul renounces all the claims 
to the lands which were the subject of discussion 
between the two states before the war, and ac- 
knowledges the right of the hon. company to the 
sovereignty of those lands. 

III. The rajalfof Nepaul hereby cedes to tlie hon 
East India company, in perpetuity, all the under 
mentioned territories, namely:— 

First, The whole of the low lands between the 
rivers Kali and Rapti. 

Secondly, The whole of the low lands (with the 
exception of Bootwul Khass) lying between the 
Kapti and the Gunduck. 

Thirdly; The whole of the low lands between 
the Gimduck and Goosah, in which the authority 
of tlie British government has been introduced, or 
is in actual course of introduction. 

Fourthly, All the low lands between the river 
Meilchec and Teesah. 

Fifthly, KM the territories within the hills east- 
ward of the river Meilchec, including the fort and 
lands of Naggre, and the pass of Nagarcote, lead- 
ing from Morung into tlie hills, together witli the 
territory laying between the pass and Naggree. The 
aforesaid territory shall be evacuatecT by the Goor- 
kah troops within forty days from this date. 

IV. With a view to indemnify the chiefs and ba- 
rahdars of the state of Nepaul, Whose in tereste will 

senle pensions to the aggrq^te amount of ,twa 
lacs of rupees per annum, on such chiefs as ma^ be 
selected by the rajah of Nepaul. and in the pro- 
portions which the rajah may fix. — As aoon'^s the 
selection b made, Sunnuds shall be granted, under 
tlic seal and signature of the governor general for 
the pensions respectively . 

V. The rajah of Nepaul renounces for himself, 
his heirs, and successors, all claim to, or connec- 
tion with the countries lying to the west of the ri- 
vcB Kali, and engages never to have any concern 
with those countries, or the inhabitants thereoC 

VI. The rajah of Nepaul engages never to molest 
or disturb the rajah of Siccem in the possession of 
his territories; but agrees if any diflTerences should 
arise between the state of Nepaul and the rajah of 
Siccem, or the subjects of either, that ^uch differ- 
ences shall be referred to the , arbitration of the 
British government, by whose award the rajah of 
Nepaul engages to abide. 

VII. The ra^ah of Nepaul hereby engages never 
to take or retain in his service any British subject, 
nor the subject of any European or American state, 
without the consent of the British government 

Vni. In order to improve and secure the rela^ 
tions of amity and peace hereby established, be- 
tween the two states^ it is agreed that accredited 
ministers firom each shall reside at the court of the 

IX. This treaty consisting of nine articles, shall 
be ratified by the rajah of Nepaul, within fifteen 
days from this date, and the ratification shall be 
delivered to lieutenant colonel Bradshaw, who en- 
gHges to retain and deliver tP the rajah the ratifir 
cation of the governor general, within twenty days, 
or sooner if practicable. 

{Red sealS (l. b.) Pari9 Bradthaw^ UettUnata 
of the I colimel P. A, 

Rajah of f (l. s.) Gooroo Gi^rqj J^ner. 
Nepaul. J (l. s.) Chunder Seekur Opadteak 
Published by command of his excellency the go* 
veroor general in council. 

(Signed), J. ADAM, 

Secretary to the government. 
oxsrsaxL oaDsna. 
By his ezcdlency the governor general in council. 
Fort miUam, March 15, 1816. 
The governor general in council is pleased to 
direct, that a royal salute and tjiree volltea of mus- 
ketry be fired at all the principal stations of the 
army, in honor of the conclusion of peace between 
the British government and the rajah of Nepaul 
(Signed) J. ADAM, Sec, to Gov, 


Died, on Monday last, at his seat near.Baltimore, 
colonel ^JUhoUu R. Moore, a revolutionary patriot, 
and a most excellent man; and lately a representa- 
tive in cong^s^ from this district. He was in the 
62nd year of his age. 

The report about the boundary line to the north 
extending so as to take in a part of Canada, is con- 
tradicted. The old line is said to be the true line. 

The rumor that the patriot-fleet has captured 
Penoacola appears to be unfounded. 

A new steam-boat called the Oliver Evans,haB 
been built near Pittsburg — she is 122 feet on deck 
and intended for the conveyance of passengers and 
goods, on the Ohio and Mississippi. 

The new steam-boat Connecticut, running be- 
tween New-York and New-I/)ndon, is said to sur- 

suffer by the alienation or the lands ceded by the I pass all others for beauty, strength and speed. 
foregoing article, the Brittsli government agrees to ^ A book-make^ at UalifaK has done mor^ (if we 

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are t» beliere him) fbr the British navy than 
DKres, Garden, Lambert, Barclay, Downie, and a 
fftriDf^ of et ctterat "too tedious to mention'?— for he 
Ikfi completely proved that all the courage and skill 
ailheUte war with Great Britahi, as to naval mat- 
tm, was on the side of the British. This is very 
cowoling — and besides, they captured the Yankee 
feet on the «*Scrpentine river." 

Gen. Jackson was holding a treaty with the 
diickasaws, Choctaws and Chcrokees, about the 
■iddle of last month. The Creeks had not yet ar- 
rived, but were expected. One of the objects seems 
to be to astertain the Indian title to the ceded lands 
kt^ so much Ulked of— but we have nothing de- 
fii^tive on the subject as yet. 

Tbr #tf6tfc lands lately sold at Jeffersonville were 
di^MM of at from g2 to 10 87i per acre. The bo- 
dy off^ed consisted of about three millions of acres; 
sad a large quantity was sold. The tract is said to 
bevenrTOh. One tract sold for ^3?, and several 
otlenirom 30 to 12 dollars. 

BfUuk law. A British judge at Sierra Leone, con- 
doBidiig an American vessel, observed, ^Hhat the an- 
^ffi^ of a foreign vessel vitfdn the -maters of the 
JHtiak possessions in Jfrica, tsas a sufficierU cause 

^ AteHud impnrvement. The executive of Vir^nia 
has iqppointed several scientific persons to survey 
the water courses of the state. 

Efmtbxmg. The difference of exchange between 
Hew-Tork and Boston, is at 1 a 1^ in favor of tlie 
latUj* and at Baltimore, bills on Boston were sold, 
dttriig' the present week, at 6 per cent, advance. It 
it ttonglit Uiat tiiey will soon be yet lower. 

it it eurious to observe (tlie facts above stated 
beipg known,) that bills on London, were (Sept. 
39)at4i percent. tUs. in Boston, when at lii- York, 
«i fke 5th of October, they were at 6 a 7 per cent. 
fldL nit may be accounted fbr, perhaps, in the 
¥ail in^Kyrtations of British goods into the latter^ 

>he sold fir tshat they might fetch, 

Tbe president of the United Sutes, has returned 
to WMfcington city, fh>m his seal in Virginia. 

iMiriiiif % Newburyport paper has the follow* 
iig aftif If ^'J\y a letter received in town last even- 

SiEOm Eikstport, it appears, that an English fleet 
jost arrived there, consisting of one 50 gun 
•^p^'tto 38 gun frigates, one gun brig, and a sloop 
*^""Ti American property of every description is 
litfd the people are talkuig of nothing but 

-iV^flie amount of this business we expect is about 
vMfowt: Hie great object which the British had 
m t#inf imit" rr iTun of the islands in Passamaquod- 
4f bigr, «a one of which is Eastport, was to facilitate 
' " r with Uie United States? and an immense 
\ done there, being resorted to by a mul 
eves and traitors. This ^[freedom of tracts* 
; have continued, perhaps, bad not the Bi-i- 
I aat that those concerned in it were cheat- 
vemment as well as that of tlie United 

* have therefore seized all merchandize 

* being imported contrary to ^aw— for 

i««tA.^lt b stated that British goods, 
^ uve been selling fbr some time in New- 
ft Ion n€ SO pel* cent, to the importers. 

I is elected the delegate to represent 

I territory in the fifteenth congress; and 

1/^ is electe<l the delegate to the fif. 

Kf-firom the territory of Illinois. 

^. 6?c.— It is with pleasure we learn 

: iMlitlf i1 *n^ht journal of a young man 

^ , » prisoner of w^r with the British, 


confined at Melville Island, and thcrt at Chatham 
and Dartmoor," is undergoing a second edition, the 
first of 4000 copies being sold. We have had occasion 
more tlian once to notice this journal, and we wish 
it extensively read, tliat the people may be Acquaint- 
ed with the facts tliat belonged to the late war, 
happening to their gallant countrymen in prison. 

A floating manufactory, or a fulling an^ canling 
machine, is building near Montreal. A Imuse 23 
feet square is to be placed on two scows, between 
whicli the water whcM is to be placed to give mo- 
tion to the machinery. It will be anchore<l where 
the current of the St. Lawrence is the strongest, 
with the family of the proprietor, work people. Sec. 
During tlie winter it will be removed .to a place ot 
safety and serve as a tavern. 

Geargia election. — Alfred Cutlibert, Tliomas Tel- 
fiwr, J. Forsythe, R. H. Wilde, Joel Abbott and 
V. H. Milton, all republicans, ai-e elected to con- 
gress for two years from tlie 4th of March ftext, from 
Georgia. The two last are new members; and it is 
observed that the other four "voted agamst the 
compensation law," 

Delaware election. — For governor, J. Clarke, fed. 
4008; M. Bull, rep. 3517. For congress, L. M'Lanc, 
fed. 3580; C. A. Rodney, rep. 3530. A federal gover- 
nor and one federal and one republican elected to 
congress. W. Hall, the other rep. candidate, had 
3529; and C. Rodney, the otlier fed. candidate. 3433. 
La3t election the federal majority was about 1000. 
But the non-election of the federal candidates is to 
be attributed to the opposition of the present mem- 
bers, Messrs. Clayton and Cooper, to the nomina- 
tion; for the §rst received 486, and the latter 391 

Maryland election.-^TUe congressional district 
composed of Baltimore city and county, elects two 
members. Gen. Smith and col. IJttle were cliosen. 
For Smith 5326, Little 3974. There was only pne 
other candidate, gen. Stansbury, who had 3337 votes, 
between whom and Little the contest was. All re- 

Mr. Cidbreth, rep. is elected from the district 
composed of Queen Ann's, Talbot and Caroline 
counties— maj. over col. Potter, fed. 51. 

Major J'eter, fed. is elected from the district 
composed of Montgomery and a part of Fi*ederick 
county, by a reputed majority of about 600 — He was 
oppos<^ by Mr. Xtlgour, fed. who had the support 
of Mr. Hanson, now in congi*ess from the district. 
The republicans voted fbr major Peter. Qj^^Mr. 
Hanson was himself a candidate for the state legis- 
Is^ture from Montgomery county — but was unsuc- 
cessful, being opposed by federalists. 

Mr. Herbert, fed. is re-elected by a small majority, 
from tlie district composed of Prince George's and 
Anne Arundle, over com. Bai^iet,, rep. 

Gen. Ringgold, rep. is elected by a considerable 
majority, in Uie district composed of a partof Fre- 
derick, Washington and Alleghany counties, over 
Mr. Vanlear, fed. Mr. Baer, fed. the present mem- 
ber, was not a candidate. 

Colonel Read, late a senator of tJie United 
States, is elected from the district composed of Har- 
ford, Cecil and Kent counties, in place of Mr. 

The present representation of Maryland in Con. 

press consists of 5 federalists and 4 republicans 

m the next congress there will be 5 republicans and 
4 federalists. The legislature is decidedly federal 
by a large maiority. 

Peimsylvama election.-^Mes&rs. Seybert and An- 
derson, republicans, are elected, and Messrs. Ser- 
geant and Hopkinson, federalists, are re-elected to 

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congress, ft'om the district com|K>secl of the city and ascertaining the leveT of the lake, states, Hat 
county of Philadelphia and county of Dehiware. In although always sanguine in the belief of the 
tlie present congi-ess all fbur are fetleridists. The practicability of the canal, the impediments 

entire republican ticket would hare sticcccded but 
for the schism in the party— as follows: 
The highest federal vote m the city and county of 
Philaddphb was, 4449 

The highest united republican, (elected) 53^ 

republican, or democratic, 294S 
"old scliool" democrats, 2595—5543 
The division also lost the republicans their mem- 
t?ers of assembly, sherif?, &c. Com. Tnixtuu has 
has the highest vote for sheriff, 4401— Mr. Worrel, 
rep. 3205; Mr. Sullivan, "^old school" rep. 2722. 

Fires in the -moods. The woods, in very considera- 
ble districts in Maine and New Hampslure are on 
iire. St>me hotises and bams have been burnt. One 
of the accounts says— "At Gilmantown, (X. H.) on 
Tuesday last, the* woods being on fire, an explosion 
took place which threw up trees and timber to the 
height of sixty feet, and a column of fire was raised 
as liigh as the eye could reach to the extent of about 
five rods square, attended with a noise similar to 
an earthquake, and lasted a minute or two.** 

Military settlements are forming in Canada ; and 
the British are making great exertions to direct erai 
gi*ation to that country. 

An effort is making in Philadelpliia to restore a 
specie currency for change. 

There was a dreadful hun'icane at St. Ci'oix and 
otlier West India islands, about the 2nd of Septem- 
ber — 60 sail of vessels were lost. 

The English play-bills announced the intended 
departure of Mr. Incledon for America. 

A letter from Montreal says — "It is reported, that 
a proclamation will be issued immediately, prohibit, 
ing the impdrt of every description of provisions 
and bread stuffs from tlie United Slates, which we 
believe is a fact.** 

A letter from Amelia Island to a gentleman in this 
city, dated 21st instant, states that a great number 
o^'jtfricatu, lately brought from the Havana, have 
been smuggled into Georgia, with tlie intention of 
sendihg them on to the back parts of this state. — 
I/et the constituted authorities look to tliis. 

Chnrhston paper 
Tlie British consul in this city (New York) lately 
eave a very sumptuous dinner to Mr. Bugot, the 
English ambassador, and other persons uf distinc- 
tion. We are told that Mr. B. filled a bumper to the 

prosperity of the United States. Columbian. 

A real tragedy was exhibited at Sacket's Harbor, a 
few days since before a large company of spectators. 
Attached to the show bill of a wire dancer, appeared 
an advertisement of an Italian sailor, who promised 
to exhibit wonderful feats, such as the spectators 
had never before seen. Curiosity attracted a very 
ftill house. After the first had performed his part 
of the entertainment, the sailor entered, called for 
a blanket and pillow, and kid himself down upon 
the floor. All eyes were turned towards him in 
anxious expectation, when he drew from his bosom 
a pistol, clapped the muzzle to his ear, and blew ota 
Mb bratns t This closed tlie entertainment. 

As horrid at this deed appears, the deluded man 
who became its victim had undoubtedly a I'icipated 
as much eclat, as he does who deliberately jfoes 
out to shoot his friend, or to be shot — in a duel. 
And as there are shades of difference in the two 
crimes, the self-murder is Uie least criminal. 

[^Mbany' A^s^. 
Of the Conot— Capt. Ellicott, of the party now 
engaged in exploring and surveying that section 
lying between Genesee river and li«e Erie, and 

much less to encounter than he had antioipated in 
that quarter of its coptemplated rotite. We ace 
convinced that the undertaking is perfectly within 
the capacity of tlie state to undertake and com- 
plete. As soon as the survev is completed we ^U 
endeavor to pi-ocure an abstract, fh>m some of its 
leading features, forputlicatio:..— Hr/rawtJ Advocate, 

Tlie Spaniards. — A New Orleans paper of Septem- 
ber 11, says— "By a gentleman from the Balize, we 
learn that the United States schooner Fire-Brand, 
mountinj^ 9 guns, and commanded by lieut.Cunning- 
ham, while off the Balize a f^w days since, was fired 
on by a Spanish sloop of war (another vessel of war 
in company) and one of the crew of tlie Fire-Brsmd 
killed. Ldeut. Cum ingham immediately returned 
the fire, and the Spaniards made off." 

This is probably a part of the force lately fitted 
otit at the Havanna to cruise against the patriot ves- 
sels. The outrage, we trust, will not be passed 
over quietly. 

The J^atioJial fntelU^encer of Tuesday says^A 
letter was received in this city yesterday from col. 
Jcssu|) the commanding officer at New Orleans, an- 
nouncing the capture oi\he United States schooner 
Firebrand, lient. Cunningham, by a Spanish squad- 
run, on the coast of Mexico. Lieut. Cunningham 
was put on board a merchant vessel, and had ar- 
rived at New Orleans. Col. Jessup's letter does not 
communicate any reasons for tins hostile act li- 
leged by the Spaniards, nor any other particulars. 
The next mail will probably furnish them. 

JSTew-Vork, OctobtT9. prom xiw-OKta Airs. Capt 
Fowler, from New-Orleans, informs that U»€ daj 
before he sailed, the U. S. schooner Firebrand, It. 
Cunningham, arrived there from the coast of Mex- 
ico, where she had been atucked by two Spanish 
gun brigs, and lost one man killed. 

Capt. Fowler also states that the revolutionists 
had taken possession of the fine jwrt of Matagor- 
da, in the gulph of Mexico, where they had e«U- 
blisbedacourt ofadmirality. A prize schr. amv- 
ed at the Balize the day capt. F. sailed, and several 
other rich prizes had been taken and regularly con- 
demned at Matagorda— H>ne of them ww said to ke 
wortli lialf a million of dollars. 

The editors of the Mercantile Advertiser were 
yesterday favored with a translation of the follow^ 
ii>g interesting intelligence from Mexico. The fact 
l^ere stated of the revolutionists having taken pos- 
session of Matagorda, is confirmed by the report 
of capt. Fowler, from N. Orleans. 

"His excellency Don Jose Manuel de Qerrtfa, 
minister plenipotentiary from tlie republican gw- 
emment of Mexico, to the U. S. has communieated, 
under date of 24th August last, from the port of 
Matagorda, to a respectable person at Philade}|dlia, 
the folio .V ing information. 

The republican army of the province of Vera 
Cruz, under the command of gen.Vitoria laid setge^ 
on tlie 18th July last, to the cities of Cordova and 
Orizabo, which were then on tlie eve of surrender- 
ing. The commander in chief of the rq>ublleaii 
troops of tlie province of Puebla Teran, was endea- 
voring by forced marches to occupy the porta of 
Guazacualcos, which was without means of defence. 
Gen. Bastamante had been victorious over the iPoy- 
alists as often as he had met them» and was pursuing 
them will all haste. Gen. Arredondo, commander 
in chief of the interior provinces, for the roynlists« 
had fallen back with the few forces under hf» orders. 

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oft AlQOt^rey, the capital of the new kingdom of 
LeoD, in oo»8equence of the repubKcana havinp: oc- 
cqjnc^ th« port of Matagorda, where they had fbrti- 
fioi llieOM^eft, and where they were daily augr- 
aarting their streng-th. SuUsequent to the posses- 
QMof tlmt poK has heen the eraeuation of St. An- 
towde Baac«r> capital of the province of Texas, 
vlucb'Mj^ ^rrisoned by tlie regiment of Estremu- 
<ttthk» one of the must famous corps of the royal 

tie republiojui army of the north, is fbr the pre- 
sent under the command of cd. Piere, durin;^ the 
ahmice of ^n. Toledo, who is now in the U. States 
on bnikiess of moment, and whose presence with 
t(e army is impatiently desired. 

•'tTie representative^ who are to compose *he next 
cofigress are named by the people, and by the pre- 
sent time will have opened their session. It afford- 
ed great pleasure to see the joy and enthuaiasD) 
vhioh p^vaded tike Mexicans on the days of eiec- 
ti<ML A person who was witness to tliis interening 
tccoesi^s^ that in the province of Valadolid, there 
were ranous likenesses ofWashington and Franklin, 
which the preople carried in their processions, ac- 
CMt^nied wHh music and songs, allegorical of the 

"Between Washington and FrankUn, some carried 
the resemblance of the gen. Ciu-a Balgo, the fii-st 
who h»A the ^lory and courage to raise the standard 
of liberty, who was afterwards made prisoner, and 
shot by the cruel Spaniards at tlie age of seventy. 

^ever has the Mexican cause presented so fa- 
mnblie an aspeet. The next congress formed of 
nai of indikeHce, will remove all those difficulties, 
which until the present moment, have paralized 
that rapid progress which was looked for in a revo- 
lution created by the unanimous and express will of 
th« people. 

**The immense resources which our beautiful 
Mvntvy ooBtaini^ will henceforward be administered 
k^A^ government, which, meriting the public confi- 
dence, will give a new impulse and will cause itself 
tajbefelt t^ the physical and looral qualities of the 

*Tht neait cMspaign will be an object of lively 
interest to all who are really lovers of the sacred 
kiglit* of humanity; it will complete the emancipa- 
tionof that fine country from the op]»*essive hand 
of derootism. The inhabitants of Mexico will here- 
sAtf be enabled to enjoy and participate equally 
tbftpiieciDua gifts with which natuve has fiivoved 

money it is said, belonged to persons in this town. 
The Americans ai-e bttsily employed in rendering 
Niagara one of the strongest fortresses in the United 
States. On the land side tliey are extending the 
works by strong redoubts; and on the river they 
are constructing shelving batteries almost even 
with the water, which they properly call marine 
fortifications. Whether these vrom of defence 
or offence, have given rise to suspicion in fort 
George, we eannot pretend to determine; but we 
are credibly informed that the British commandant 
has lately become^ very particular about the spot 
where every boat is to land, and has prohibited 
British citizens horn amusing themselves at shoot- 
ing or fishmg on certain parts of the common beach^ 
which has always in tin^s of peace been as free to 
them as the air they breathed. Li consequence of 
Uiis order of the comm»idant, Thomas Racey, Esq. 
and a son of the honorable William Dickson, have 
been ptrt into confinement, for amusing themselves 
on the tacred ground of the pubHc in a Hme of profound 
petKe/ We soon. expect further particulars respectr 
m^ this disagreeable oocurrence. 

•5 correct stattpment of the quantity and vakie of ex- 
ported goodt from. the port of Philadelphia to foreign 
places; during the first quarter o/*18i6. 



Admiral Bpown. The number of prizes captured 
hf:^ Buenos Ayrean admiral Brown, ui the Pa- 
cific ocean, is said to be fifty seven, many of which 
vite exceediaglj vnluable. The quantity of specie 
ttl^i is immense— one vess^ having 800,000 dol- 

^lOvn, himself, in a small vessel, attacking a bat- 
HQT* kf the grouiMling of his brig, was made pri- 
soM; out he had btfjre captured tlie govefnor of 
ft iy aquil» and othei persons of distinotion, and an 
«w6ange wa« immecHately made. He again took 
f flf|imiind of his squadron, and is since said to have> 
1(^00 the eoast of ChUi, and rqiorted io liave 
<MjhW)ldthe fleet from Lima, of 128 guns, and 1038 
ffp^ yhich was fitted out to destroy him. He has 
^tiaMpld the whole coasts of Grenada, Peru and Chi- 
M|d Acems to liave banished the Spanish flag from 
^MfiM adjacent. 

n^Mneflj; September 28.-^We understand that 
AiOt #1^CX)0 have been seieed in the American 
tenrhoatajfc St. John's, dtstmed for the New Yorit 
' » m vioUtioA of the previscial statute^ The 

Rye meal 
Com meal 

Fish, pickled 
I^. dried 


Staves and heading 
Cordage ^ 
Spirits from grain 

Flax seed 
Bees wax 
^kins and fiir 

Merchandize mMiufVLctured 
Bo. raw 

bbls 12307 







qUs 89 

trs 1785 

hhds 548 100 

bbls 630 4 



M 338 

cwt 130 

gala 1904 

buBhs 18204 


kegs 1072 

lb» 417824 










dok. cts. 





















Goods free 

at 25 percent 
at 30 per cent 











































■ 3201' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


AVliit« »uffar 
Bro^ii do. 

lbs 45972 










Green teas 2(1 qual 







lbs 6000 






M 730 

Spirits from min 
Do. from otne mat 

grals 3712 

erjals 1614 

Wine, Madeira 


Claret, in casks 


Otjicr wines 


Amount of foreign goods 

Domestic do. 


























Total amount offirdgn exports. 

the forces ei^2;aged — ^fifithlj, tiie result, incited^ 
in^ a statement of the loss on each side — luid, 
lastly, the consequences. To execute this plan? 
at the present day, would be iinpossible--bitt^ 
even to carry it to the furthest oractical pmati 
would require the labor of many months. There 
is grcaf contusion among the writers, both in 
the names of the battles and in the dates. Some 
of these memoir and chronicle compilers, very 
rarely mention commanders' names. With rc- 
^uti to tlie forces engaged iu the diffi^rent Iratt- 
ties, there is, even in the original documents* 
so much positive, wilful,mistatemeut— 80 mitch 
wonderful contradiction, that the truth seems 
to be now, in almost every case, inaccessible. 
As to the losses sustained, you will find one 
party representing it ten, or m some instances, 
twenty times as great as tiie other does: so tfaaty 
to give the different amounts, and the authori- 
ties for each, with the prolMible conjectures^ 
would require a volume and cost immense la- 
bor. We have devoted a week to the follow- 
ing meagre, imperfect list (of which the remain- 
der is to be given next week) and now publish 
it, in the belief that some may find use or cu- 
riosity in it. 

N. B.— Preferring, generally, to give the 
names of tiie commanders, instead of designat- 
ing the armies, it is to be understood, that the 
French are always placed first. 

BATTtM. 179£. 

Moru — April 30» Biron defecated shamefully by the 

Beuieu — April 30, Dillon defeated by tlie Austrianc 

and killed* which caused Rochambeau to leave 

the army in disgust. 
Lmffwy — ^August 22, Lavergne, Champ-Loqri«r, de- 
feated, surrenders the fortress to the king of Pms- 

sia, who had 80,000 men. Lavergne and bb wife 

both executed in consequence. 
Grandpre — Sept. 10, Dumouriez defeated by the aK 

lies under clairfait and prince Charles de Ldgne— 

latter killed. 
Fa/my— Sept. 20, Dumouriez and Kellerman enga^ 

the king of Prussia with the allied forces; IK> vic^ 

tFomu — October 21, Custine takes the city. 
Jcmappe — Nov. 6, Dumouriez defeats diike Sazc^ 

Teschen and enters Brabant. 
Motu — Nov. /, Dumouriez captures the dty, widi 

28,000, after five days fightuig. 
^rderlecht'-^or, 13, Dumouriez defeats the Ao*- 

trianH under Saze-Teschen. 
Thirltmont — Nov. 17, Dumouriez defeats Saze-Teit 

CliTonolocical Account * I c^en. 

eS tlu principal bmUs of Vu French, sinc^y^Z^Z^Z'S:^'^^:^^' ''''^'' 

the time of the revoliUwn. ^ 

As the histories of France ai-e extremely de- 
fective, particularly in tlie statements of bat 
tics, generally omitting almost every thing but 
tlie result of uie operations, we undertook, for 
our own use, to make a set of tables of those 
battles in the following form, to wit:— To give 
the names which had generally been attached 
to the battles — secondly, the dates^— Hiirdly, 
the names of those who cemijiuuided.— fourthly, 

g 388157 

[ Grotjan. 

SaTTiaBSLs. Ovid Vtlla^, f JV. Y.J Sept. 10.— 
ftreat numbers of squirrels are daily killed in and 
about this villa^, with clubs, stones, &c. They ap- 
pear to be movmg to the south. The fences are 
literally covered with them. Hundreds are daily 
sl^in by boys. We understand that in 1813, they 
moved similarly, to the north, probably owing to 
the scircity of nuts, which the squirrel subsists 
upon through winter. 

Jl check to tJte sqidrrel emigration^ — Several gen- 
tlemen of this village and its vicinity, last Tuesday 
formed a squirrel himi. The party consisted of 34 
huntsmen, and brought in 780 black squirrels, toge- 
ther with a considerable quantity of other g^me. In 
the cveniT.g the party partook of an excellent sup- 
per, at Air. Elliott's \nn,~^JRochester Gas. 

Got. Sbslbt. On the 5th of Sept (says the En* 
ipiirer,) that illustrious patriot, gpovemor Shelby, 
whose virtues would reftect honor on any "Grecian 
or Roman name," ceased to be the governor of 
Kentucky— on that day, he<lined with a number of 
his fellow citizens, and in the evening was escorted 
by a troop of horse several miles on the route to- 
wards his residence in Lincoln. At the moment of 
his departure, an affecting compliment was paid 
I)im — a national salute was fured by the indepen- 
dent company of artillery, with that memorable 
piece of cannon taken at Saratoga, surrendered at 
Detroit, recaptured on the Thames, and presented 
by the United States to gfovernor Shelby. Major 
Georj^e Madison, (brother to the late bishop of 
Virginia) a distinguished patriot, succeeds him. 


Ifock^eint^^MMBry 7, Dumouriez defeats Clairfait. 

Mayla'Chaptlle-^aiiy 15$ Dumouriez defeats CUic^ 

Bergen^op'zoom and Steenberg taken February 17. 

Buda — February 18, D'Ar^n takes the fort; which 
is followed by the capture of Klundert,.Gcrtniy- 
deiiberg and Williamstadt. 

Tongres — March 4, Valence nearly defeatetl. 

Jurvienden — March 18, Duniouriez gains some ad- 
vantage over lire- Mi»trxini». 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Miifrnmit MTnr*h 19, Duinouriez sustains much 

Jqiil but keeps bis ground. * 
•ftMtvtfn— April 2, Lduioue defeated by Clairfait 

(j^irm'n Mnj- 1, Dsmpierre baffled br Glairfait. 
riMmft May 8» Dampierre beaten by Clairfait, Co- 

btfilQ^ and the duke of York. 
St. .^itiuiMndMimlder May 8, Dampierre killed and 

hia army defeated by Austrians, Prussians and 

MirSni i iw June 16, resists the attack of the £ng- 

lish, under gen. Bruce. 
MeOB f o rtt e June 22, Frendi defeated by the Spv 

niHi, under Ventura Caro. 
fnlmekmiet'^yiXy 35, 28, taken by the allies, under 

the duke of York. 
Bahamaa I»land9-^n\y 30, surrenders to the French 

under Bompard and Gen est. 
Cm kna August 24, insurgent troops defeated by 

lMM»&t— Aug. 18, Houchard attacks that post, and 

is repulsed 9y tlie duke of York. 
L g m u A ug. 24, bombarded and taken. 
Ihmkirk — Sept. 6, attad^ed by the English, under 

the duke of York. 
Htndicf»ate — Sept. 7, allies defeated. 
DuMrk — Sept 8, Houchard signally defeats the 

EngUsh, under the duke of York> and the allies, 

Older FrejTtag. 
QiicfjMy — Sept. 11, garrison taken by the Austrians, 

mder Clairfait. 
Pumaten* — Sept. 15, French defeated by the duke 

of Brunswick. 
TVirfOhf— Sept. 22, French defeated by the Spanish, 

under Ricardos. 
TMm-^Qct. 1, besiegers driven back by the allies. 
7Wm — Oet. S, besiegers agam driven back. 
Wdmenbwg^ — Oct 17, lines carried by the duke of 

TWm heighu — Oct. 14, republicans carry the lines 

by ttonn. 
Jfott^m^v^— Oct. 16, Jourdan defeats Coboupg,whie)) 

Are gtcA^ advantages in the campaign to tlie 

fi|pmaif^-Oet 17, garrison surrenders to the allies, 

nnder Mezaros. 
Mrumpt O ct 18, taken by the same. 
Wkfuemm-^Oci. 25, surrenders to the allret. 
Mmxfdmef — Oct. 30, French repulsed severely by 

the aU'ies, under gen. Kray. 
Ftfi Loms — Nov. 14, surrenders to the allies. 
fhrt Miigrave — Nov. 14, French repulsed by the al- 
Sarirtieh—'Scfv. 17, Fichegni and Uoche defeat the 

Fnissians, under the diuce of Brunswick, and take 

Deux Fonts on the 21st. 
JUnu/oii—Nov. 29, besieged. 
•Mar%ne«^I>ec. 5, Danican beaten by the Vendean 

Mu u D ec. 12, Moreau defeats the Vendean royal- 
ists, led by prince I'almont. 
^liK OR c/^i ^fi w ^ ■ D ec. 17, Dugomier defeats the Bri- 

tidi, Fiedmontese, &c. in their sortie, and com- 

pdf them to abandon Toulon. 
Deocaber 22 to 26, Pichegru and Hoche defeat the 

hawrgi fet royalists snd tJieir allies, retake Weis-. 

iemboorg, raipe the siege of Landau, take Fort 

horn, lUSserlautem, Germersheim, Spires, 8;c. 


Jta f f nue ^— March 19, Frencli defeat tlie Spaniards. 

ZflRirejtqr-^April 21, French beaten by the combin- 
ed armicft of Austrians^ British, Dutch, Hanove- 
rians ^d He$stan»; 

Cambray — April 22, French beaten by the combined 

Catoau— April 24, French beaten by tlie combined 

^(mcr«M— April 26, Pichegru defeats Clairfait 

Cwir/ray— April 29, Pichegru defeats Clairfait 

Monte%qxMm — May 1, French defeat tlie Spaniards. 

Toumay — May 10 — Fifench defeated by the combin- 
ed armies. 

BtdUon — May 18, Jourdsn defeated by the combin- 
ed armies. 

T««majr— May 22, Pidiegru repulsed by the Eng- 

Laut cvn May 27, taken by the Austrians and Prus- 
sians, which was fellowed by their reduction of 
several fortresses in that quartei*. 

Barcelona — June 14, French defeat the Spaniards. 

Charleroi — June 26, Jouixlan captures the garrison^ 
containing 3000. 

Fieunu — June 27, Jonrdan defeats prince Cobourg 
and the prmce of Orange. 

.^lion«— July 2, Jourdan defeats Cobourg and the 
duke of York. 

Aott-^uXy 6, Earl Moira gains some advantages over 

the French. 

EtUkhofen-^nXy 12, 13, 14, BVendi defeat tlie com- 
bined armies. 

-Fo»ijorfl«a— Aug. 2, De la Forde defeats the Spa- 

IV<fw#— Aug. 5, Michaud takes the city, and after- 
wards that of Coblentz and liolda the Falatinat<i 
in subjection. 

Sluif9 — *Aug. 25, Moreau captures the garrison. 

Bcttegarde — Aug. 26, French defeat the Spaniards. 

VaUty o/XcM'o— Sept 8, French defeat the Spa- 
Creveceur — Sept. 29, taken by tlie French. 

Pampelunor-OzX., 28^ Fretich defeat the Spaniards. 

Jstmeg^ten — Nov. 4 to 8, taken by Moreau. 

Gratis— Dec. 29, taken by the French. 


^aa/— January 11, Piehegm defeats the allies aad 

crosses the river. 
J^'eve Minuter, March 3, French repulsed. 
Co/o/wiia— March 5, French defeat the Spaniards. 
/V§T«er«*— April 15, Fi-ench defeat the Spaniards, 

with great slaughter. 
Quiberon—iviXy 15, French emigrants pushed on by 

the Knglisli to be massacred. 
/?f76oq^-July 17, French defeat the Spaniards. 
Fort PcTUhicvre, Quiba-on-^xily 21, retaken by the 

r*We>r/a— Aug. 14, French completely defeat the 

Trf;icom«fc— Aug. 26. surrendered to the English- 
Campo Ui Pi>/rrt— Augereau defeats the Austrian}*. 
XoflTio— Nov. 22, Scherer defeaU the Aiistro-Sardi- 

nian army. 
Gareslo — Nov. 23, Scherer defeats them again. 
A'rw/riiflcA— Dec. 1, Pichegru defeated by the Aus- 
^ayierlaiUerrtr^Dtc, 20, Jourdan defeated by the 



JHillesimo^ApriX 13, Bonaparte defeats the imperi 

al'tsts under Beaulieu; Austrians lost 15,000 and 40 


f)ego — April 14, Bonaparte defeats the imperialists. 

Lodi^^Uy 12, Donap:irte carries the liridge in the 

most brilliant manner, defeats the imperialists 

I under Beaulieu, and decides the campaign in thai 

• quarter. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


vVrtTi/wo— May 30, Ronaparte again defeats Be:\ii- 

Campaipi o/1796— Jonrdan and Moreau had 160,000 
—archduke Charles 150,000. 

<^fackeraih^iM\\e 1, Kleber defeats prince Wiirtem- 
burg^ kills and wounds 2,400 Austrians and takes 
1000 prisoners. 

AUeiikirchen^iMwe 4, Do. defeats do. and takes some 
Austrian ma^zines. 

Fraiikenthal^^\xx\t 14, Moreau attacks the archduke 
with little success. 

Wetzlaer or fVustUier-^June 15, Lefebre defeated by 
Wemicfc; imperial loss 500. 

>\wiJb«?7i//ja/— June 20, Moreau attacks the arch- 
duke; no important result. 

Xir/w?7i---June 20, Kleber defeated by Kray with in 
ferior force; French loss 1,500 and 700 taken pri- 
soners; Austrian loss 600. 

tff/*/— June 24, Moreau, witli 3000, takes the fort 

/?e7icAea— June 29, DesaiXr defeats Latour, of the 

yriedber^^July 4, Jourdan, Grenier, Kleber and 
Lefebre, with 65,000, defeat the imperialists, who 
were inferior in numbers. 

Jre«/<mef«Ji— July 4, St. Cyr defeats the Austrians 

July 6, Jourdan do. 

i?a,9/flf//— July 5, Moreau, after a severe battle, de 
feats Latour. 

EtEngen or Estingen — July 10, Moreau defeats arch 
dtike Charles; Austrians lost 2000, and 1000 taken 

Eslingen^3u\y 20, Moreau repulsed by gen. Hotzcj 
French loss 2000. 

^attigUone — Aug. 5, Bonaparte defeats the Austri- 

Raveredth^Aug. 6, Bonaparte again defeats the Aus- 

Aug. 11, Jourdan defeats the Austrians. 

JVitremlntrg — Aug. 18, Jourdan defeated by arch 
duke Charles. 

Teming^Xug. 27, Jourdan totally routed by the 

Hvrzburg*-'Sept. 3, Jourdan again defeated by the 

Biberacfi—'OcX. 1, Moreau defeated by the archduke. 

Jircole — Nov, 16, Bonaparte signally defeats the Aus^ 


i?«fo/«^ January 14 — Bonaparte defeats the Austri- 

Mantua — January 27, Bonaparte defeats the Aus< 

Treaty of Tolento, signed Feb. 20, after Bonaparte 
had been successful, this campaign against Italy, 
in above 70 engagements. 

Ca/m?i— March 16, Bonaparte defeats the Austrians 
under the archduke Charles. 

Traines or Tar-ah — March 26, Bonaparte again de- 
feats tlie Austrians. 

Triesac-^ April 2, Bonaparte requests of the arch- 
duke Charles a mutual cessation of hostilities, 
wliich is rejected; on which Bonaparte meets and 
defeats him. 

.Hexandria — July 5, French take the city after a se- 
vere resistance. 

Chebriesae-^Mly 14, Bonaparte defeats tlie Mama-. 

vJj the Pyramid9^3\i\y 21, Bonaparte cuts off nearly 
the whole army of Uie Mamalukes. 

Cat<fc6flr— Aug 27, Hunibert defeats the British in 

Ca«<itfAar— Sept. 8, Humbert, totally defeated, sur- 

Standtz — Sept. 8, 9, SchawenHiirg defeats the Swiss^ 

after which they submit to the new constitution. 


El Jrich-^Fch. 25, Bonaparte defeats the Turks and 
proceeds through Gaza to Jaffa. 

JMa»*A<r/m— March 2, Jourdan defeats the Austrians 
and takes the city. 

.fc^i— March 6, Bonaparte takes the town by as- 

Psuflendorf— March 20, Jourdan fights tt^o severe, 
indecisive battles, with the ardiduke Charles, but 
on the tliird day the French retreat. 

r«**«a— March 26, Scberer, Serrurier and 'Sfortua 
forced back by Melas and Kray and with the Aus- 

Verona — March 30, same generals beaten a second 
time by the same. 

ViUengen or IJeblingen — April 5, Jourdan tinsiiccess- 
ful in attacking tli« archdukej notliing decisive. 

Mount Tabor — AprU 16, Bonaparte defeats Ac 

Casmno — Moreau beaten by Suwarow, and the al- 

, lies enter Mikm. 

Coire — May 7, Massena defeats the Austrian^. 

^cre — May 37, Bonaparte defeated by sir S. Smith. 

; Zurich — June 4, MasscJia defeated Suwarow. 

7Ve6»a— June, 17, 18, 19, Macdonald defeated, after 
three days severe fighting, by Suwarow. 

Aboukir — July 25, fionaparte, willi Lanes, Da\^oust 
and .M urat defeats the Turks. 

vVln?»— Aug. 15, Joubert defeated and ktUed by Su- 

Zurich — Sept. 24^Masscna totally.defeats the Eus- 
sians, Austrians, &c. imder Suwarow; after seve- 
ral days of severe fighting. 

-Baccwm— October 6, indecisive battle between the 
French and the allied English and Russians. ' 

Jfonrfota— Nov. 6, French defeat the English aind 

Sediman^ in Eg3rpt— Dec. 4, Dessaix defeats the 'She 
malukes, under Murad. 


Bochetta^KpvW 5, Soult and Massena beaten bftck 
by Melas, and forced into Genoa. 

iSto^ofA— May 1, Moreau, St. Cyr, etal. defeat the 
Austrians, under gen. Kray. 

•WbsHrcA— May 3, Moreau again defeats Kray, in se- 
veral successive battles. 

Riis — May 9, Austrians again defeated. 

MontebeUo — June 10, Bonaparte drives the imperial- 
its back, after a long severe bsittle, in which both 
sides had occasional success. This led to the 
most decisive battle that Bonaparte ever fm^^t, 
except his last one. 

Marengo— 3\m^ 14, Bonaparte, after a severe bat- 
tle, in which his lines were repeatedly brokien, 
and at last, on the retreat, rushed forward and 
told the arm^r **he would sleep upon the MA^* 
and Dessaix just then bringing up his reserve* the 
battle was rencvved, and the Austrians, under 
Melxs, were totally routed. 

Blenheim^ ivxit. 19, Moreau defeats tlie Auatrjaaa, 
under Kray. 

jVeubourg—inXy 8, Moreau again defeats the Aus- 
1 1 ions. 

Ih/ienlinden^Dec. 25, Moreau totally defeats the 

Mincio — Dec. 25, Macdonald defeats the Auatrans. 

Hhamoma, in Egypt— March 21, indecisive but se- 
vere buttle, in which sir Ralph AbercromlMe loM 
his life. 

Peace of Andem^si^ed March 27—1802. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Ko. 8 o> Vox. XL] BALTIMOKE, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 1 % 1816. [wnoi£ no. 268. 

Hac oHm mdndnuae jtnmbU, — Vikoil. 



trertitt^enr^Qct. 8, Murat defeats the AiistrianSc 

OioKrdiny— Oct 9, Bonaparte defeats the Austrians 
under prince Ferdinand; French take 2000 pri 
soners and six cannon. 

U7m— Oct. 13, Bonaparte defeats the Austrians. 

I^hmtren— Oct, 14, Bonaparte again defeats the 

AWrem^r^— Oct. 21, Murat defeats gen. Mack* 

Adige^Qci. 28, French defeat prince Charles. 

CoWfcpro— Oct. 30, French again defeat prince Chas. 

^BuiAacA— Nov. 1, Murat defeats the Russians and 

Awf— Nov. 4^ Murat defeats the Russians and Aud- 

4fon«i/zif/— Nov. 8, Davou9t defeats the allied ar^ 
miesj takes 3 standards, 16 cannon and 3000 pri- 

JXemttein — November 11, Mortier, iq a severe fight, 
defeats the Russians. 

aimw— Nov. 12, Bonaparte defeats the Russians. 

Castei Franco^yoy. 24, Ney defeats the Austrians. 

.^iffrei;f/z*-Dec. 2, Bonaparte, with about 100,000 
men, defeats the Russians andAustrians of about 
«n equal number, (sUted 80,000 Russians and 
25,000 Austrians) conmianded by prince Lichten- 
»tein, under the emperors of Russia and Austria; 
20,000 of the allies drowned themselves in the 
lake; 20,000 taken prisoners, and their whole 
parfc of artillery taken; 15,000 Russians killed oii 
the field. Thb decided the waf. 


*»wKi*-Jnly 4, Regnier defeated by the English 
and SicUians. 

Caite/ J\ Wttti— Sept. 29, French defeat the Russians. 

/eno— Oct. 14, Bonaparte, with about 200,000 men, 
directed by Davoust, Soult> Augereau, Lasnes and 
Ney, signally defeats tlie Prussians, of a force 
Bomewhat inferior, under the duke of Brunswick, 
prince Hohenlothe, Ruchel and Kalcreuth; Prus- 
sian loss, 40,000. 

Brfun-^Oct, 15, fourteen or fifteen thousand Prus- 
sians surrender themselves. 

ier/m— Oct. 24, capitulates, which is fijllowed by 
the surrender of Magdeburg, .Spandau, Stettin 
and Cuatnn; and the French march into Poland. 

Jfarsaw^iyec. 12, Bernadotte repulsed by the Rus- 
sians and Prussians. 


Pufrtttlr— Feb. 2, Bonaparte defeats the Russians, 
under Benin^en. 

i^lttv^Ttb. 8, Bonaparte fights a severe battle 
with the Russians, in which 20,000 were killed 
Wd wounded; and, by remaining on the field at 
night, induced the Russians to retreat, though 
they had the best of the dav; tbis was, in effect, 
a Victory to the French, and the honor of it is due 

t»frofcii*!o— Feb. 20, Bonaparte defeats the Russians. 

««*«•»— March 9, Soult and Ney deffeat the Rus- 

*'']«i*«ttefii— April 13, Lefebre repulses the Pfus- 
t under baron Kleist. 
-May 24, taken by Bonaparf e. 

'ypa7irfen— June 5, Bonaparte defeats, the Russians. 

Lomitten^^xmt 6, Bonaparte defeats the Russians 
and Prussians. 

Deppen-^unt 8, Bonaparte defeats the Russians. 

FriedlanO^MTie 14, Bonaparte, with irO»000, sig- 
nally defeats the Russians, under Beningsen— 
takes 7 standards, 120 cannon: Russians killed^ 
taken and wounded, 60,000 

Oder and JUle-^mie 15j Russians severely beaten 
in their retreat. 

JTomnj'ftcfy— June 18, Bonaparte takes the fortress, 
together with 300 vessels. 

Treaty of TiTs*/— July 7, between Bonaparte and 
Alexander L 


Se^ovia-^VLne 7, Frere takes tlie city and 5,000 

Spanish troops. 
Tudelor-June, I^febre, with 8000 infantry and 900 

horse, defeats marquis de Lazan. 
3fa/fe»---June 13, do. do. do. 

Aloffon — June 14, do. defeats the Spanish. 
VaUadoUd-^MXit 14, Merle defeats a'supertor num- 
ber of Spanish and takes the city; kills 1000 and 
takes 4000 muskets. > 

Zaragotsa^^ioit 15, LefU)re'attacks the city and i^ 

EfdUt^Vine 23, Leffebre defeatr Palafox. 
St. Arukro^MtiB 23, Merle and Ducos take the 

J9tffto/o«-^une 26, Moncey, with 15.000, defeats 

&rayo#«a— June 27, Lefebre and Verdier Ukc the 

Vaieatia'^June 28, Moncey repulsed and retires to 

G^*ona— June» Dttkesme repulsedi 
Llobrojcate^—Jwat 30, GrouUes and Bessieres defeat 

the Spanish. 
MoUnoe del J2^-^une 30, Leckie, with 1,500, takea 

the bridge. 
Medina del Hid Seco^imCt French defeat the Spa- 

Cortffoiwi— July , Dupont takes the city. 
MetUfia d!f/ JBt9iSl?co— July 14, Bessieres defeats CueS- 

ta and Blake. 
Bogflen-^u\y 18, DupoAt defeated by Reding. 
Audfijar-^xily 19, Dupont, defeated, surrenders to 

Castanos, Reding and Pena. 
Boiflenr-^MXy, Wedel, with 14,000, defeats Reding, 

with 25,000. 
Zaragotta — August 4, French take half the city, 

but abandon it. 
i?o/(»i»— August 17, Laborde forced from his posi- 
tion by sir Arthur Wellesley. 
Vimeira — ^Augpist 21, Junot defeated by Wellesley, 
which gave great advantages to the English dur« 
ing the remainder of that campaign. 
J?tfrjrtf9— Nov. 10, Bessieres takes the city after two 

severe attacks. 
JZeyiMso— Nov. 11, French defeat Blake. 
7ti<i^Za^Nov. 23, Lasnes, with 30,000, totally de* 
feats Castanos, and laid open the way to Madrid. 
Madrid-^lAec. 4, Bonaparte takes the city, throtnrh, 
the trt achery (say some) of MorUu * 




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Con/flno— January 14, SouU attacks the Knglish, 
under sir J. Moore, who U killed; but, after a se- 
vere battle, in which the loss was about ecjual on 
cac!i side, the English embark safely during the 

ZarngQssa — January 21, Bonaparte compels Palafox, 
after a severe sieg«, to surrender the fortress icnd 

0/!>'>r/o— March 29, Soult tak« the city by storm. 

^l/ci/cr///;}— April 1, Victor defeats tlie Spanii^^^ un- 
<ler Cuesta. 

T'rtwn^-— April 19, Auerstadt (Davoust) defeats the 

J.(itutshut^\liT\\ 21, Bonaparte takes the fortress 

AV/'-mw/i/— Afjril 22, Bonaparte sererely defeats the 
Aiisinans, under archduke Charles. 

JiatLbtiHr^XXiYil 2o, Bonaparte takes the fortress by 

0/»aj;o*-May 11, Soult driven back by sir A. Wei 

.5/r'f;;/ara— May 12, French take the post from the 
Kng^liih under col. Mayne. 

•^v/i^/i— May 22, taken and retaken three times. 

J^idngen'^'Sii.y 23, Bonaparte maintains his post^and 
pkcf s himself on the island Lohau, after a severe 
battle with tlie Atistrians, \mder archduke Chaa. 
an.l prince Lichtensiein. Above 200 cannon were 
enj^'ag-ed on both sides. 

Jitric/attt^jMne 17, Suchet defeats Blake and com- 
pels him to abandon Arragon. 

Ifn^ani — July 6, Bonaparte defeats the archduke 
Charles, and decides the campaign. Austrians 
lost 10 standard<<, 40 cannon and 20,000 prisoners. 

Tov'ijos — July 26, Vic lor defeats Cuesta. 

7 (t/ar^rc— July 28, 29, Soult defeated T>y Welles- 
ley, after very severe losses on both sides. 

W'jdcl^ern expedition brought before Antwerp^ Aiu 
gust 24. 

Ocana — Nov. 19, Soult defeats the Spaniards and 
English, under Arrizaga. 

F(ffi«/irt— Dec. 10— capitulates to the French. 

ViVaneHva-^Jnn. 20, Soult defeats the Spaniards, 
under Gazan, et al. while Victor and Sebastian! de- 
feated Arrizaga's and different other Spanbh corps 
along the Morena, 

Matag'orfla^X^rii 11^ French drive the English 
from the fort. 

Msqmn^nza^vme 8, Suchet, after a long siege, 
compels the fort to surrender. 
^^(ind'Rodfi^r^SMly 10, Massena, with 10,000, 
' bombarding the fort 25 days, compeb it to 

Burredrkr; it was found to contain 6000 men. 

JUmeitla—\\ig*^2i, Massena, with U),000, takes the 
city» after a se^e atuck of three days. 

^waco— Sept. 26, 2^, Massena, with Junot and Ney, 
make some unsuccessful attacks on tlie Spaniards 
and English, under WcUington. 

Tor/oM— Jannarj' 1, Suchet takes the fbrtress 

/?a/irt;.«— February W, Soult defeats Mendizabal; 
fort surrenders on the Jlth of March. 

Jian-osn—MKTch 4, Victo? repulsed by tlie allies, 
under Graham. 

^^iw^ra— April 16, Soult engages Beresford, .and 
forces the position of the allies, though to no pur- 
pose; each side lost about 10,000 men. 

JTrtctttesHc-Onora—Mny 3, Massena at tacks Welling- 
ton; a severe battle, but no victory giiined by ei* 
their side. 

Tflra^'ona— June 27, Suchet, after fiye assaiUts on 
the ci;y, in which 5000 Spaniards were slain, takes 
it by %iQTm» 

Mmeria— August 9, Soult defeats the Spaniard un- 
der Blake. 

iX§T/tfrot^ August 16, Macdonald takes the garri- 

Sa^wtum'-Oct. 25, Suchet defeats Blake and taket 
the garrison. 

GuQtiulaviar-^Dec, 26y Suchet passes the river and 
defeats Blake, pursiies hitn-to Valencia and takes 
tliat garrison. 


T/xnyrt— January 4, Victor compelled to abandon 
the siege, after several very severe attacks. 

Cit/da//-i7o</rtj'o— Januaiy 19, Marmont is forced by 
Wellington to surrender the city. 

Batlajoz-^HRVch 16 to April 6, fort besieged, storm^ 
ed and taken by Welliiigtort. 

JB^rmoM^^une 1, Canroux attacked by Ballaaterost 
latter defeated. 

Slalamojicii-^wly 2, Marmont, with about 50,000» 
was defeated by about the same number of Eng- 
lish and Spaniards, under Wdlington, and severe- 
ly wounded? Clausel retreats wiUi the French ia 
good order; loss of the allies about 5000; French 
loss nearly as g^eat; besides 6000 French taken 

rr»<fi/>«*j— July 23, French defeat the Russians. 

0»/raw;io— July 26, Bonaparte, after some irregular 
fighting, repulses the Bussians. 

FfAr^-August I, Bonaparte repulses the Russans, 
under Wittgenstein. 

iTrorMtf— August 13, Key and Murat defeat a part 
of the Russiaaarmy. 

Smolensko^ A.Uff\i9t 16, Bonaparte defeats the Rus^ 
sians, underWittgenstein, with great slaughter. 

.^«t<wya— August 19, t$ken by the Spanish general 

Moskwa or Borodirto^Sept 7, Bonaparte, in a most 
destructive battl«, defeats the Russians, ond«r 
Kutusoff, taiA thereby opens the way to Moscow. 

Mato'Jaroilaviiz-^Oct, 24, Bonaparte repulses the 
Russians; immense slaughter on both sides. 

Fitfrma— Ndv. 3, French, with difficulty, repnlse the 
Russiansw' This was followed by repeated attacks, 
too numeroas and unimportant to descrU>e7 and 
a succession of horrors, during the whole of the 
French retreat from Russia, bejrond all deserip^ 


Xitt/stfyi— May 1 , Bonaparte defeats the allies, 150,000- 
strong, under the emperor of Russia and king of 
Prussia. French loss, 10,000; allies' loss, 20,000. 

JBat/fzen— May 20, Bonaparte defeats the allies — 
kills, wounds or takes 28,000, and dictates an ar- 
mistice on the 4th of June, to continue 33 days.i 

Fi/rtnVi— June 21, king Josepli, with 70,000, defeat- 
ed by 80,000 Ehglish and Spaniards, under WeU 

Pyrenee9-^vXy2^, Soult defeated by Wellington. 

Di'eadai — Aug. 28, Bonaparte, assisted by Murat, 
Ney, Marmont, Victor and Mortier, defeats th« 
allies, takes 4 standards, 60 cannon and 25,000 
prisoners. Moreau killed here. 350,000 men stat- 
ed to be engaged. 

Pampehtna-^Oct. 13, surrenders to the allies, after 
a siege of four months and ten days. 

X«)i«o— Oct. 18, Bonaparte defeated by the allies. 
French loss, 65 cannon and 40,000 men killed^ 
wounded and taken; among whom were Regnier, 
Vallory, Brune and Lauriston. 

•9/onrmarfre— March 30, French defeated by t 

JP^m, March 30, taken by the allies wiUioat i 



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fhtdn and Zo/^r— June 16, Bonaparte drives back 
the allied afm'tes. 

F7gnra»-^3\me 17, Bonaparte U again successful 
i^inst the allies. 

Vtmerloo or Mmmt St. J<ran— Bonaparte, after a most 
destructive battle, m which he apparently gained 
tiie advantages of the day against the allies un- 
der Wellin«'ton and Blucher, is defeated and to- 
tally routed by the arrival of Oulow— Allies, in 
these three battles, lost 40,000, and tljbe French 
stiU more. 

ported, and worth, at the present pnce^, from 
10 to 1 1 millions of dollars. But on the other 
hand, they, with tlieir families, itould also ae- 
ate a fwmt market for bread and meat, equal 
to about 250,000 barrels; and as, on this earn- 
ing, the laborers could not lay up any money, 
they would cause an internal trade equalto the 
H'hole amount earned, in articles for clothing, 
&c. Supposing that all were employed in ma- 
nufactones, or as mechanics, the women and 
children assisting, they would give us an ao^gre- 
gate value of about 15 millions a year, and fur- 
nish, on the spot, a new market lor all the vaH- 
otts articles or food raised, equal to omset^enih 
part of aU that foreimers eter took from us; 
besides the' demand they give for wool, cotton, 
wood and other raw articles, some of >vhich arc 
now lost to t\it general wealth or of little va- 

These brief remarks may be sufficient to 
shew the incipient benoftts resulting to a coun- 
try, like the United States, from emigration. 
The quantrtv of labor here is yet inadequate to 
our want of it, and as it is increased our wealth 
is increased. But the fact would be exactly 
the reverse, if emigration were made to the 
thickly peopled states of Europe. In England 
the excess of laborers, beyond the employment 
for them, fills the poor-houses ^vith paupers, 
and severely taxes those who are employed. 
Every laboring individual, there fore, who leaves 
England, relieves the public of tlie necessity of 
supporting an individual; for he gives room for 
some one of liis fellow subjects to earn a sub- 
sistence for himself. In either case — of add- 
ing to the wealth of the United Sta tes or of re- 
lieving England, emigration from that country 
to tliis has a geometrical ratio in its Operation; 
and, indeed, it seems almost as much the policy 
of the latter to get rid of some portion of her 
laboring poor as it is for the otner to receive 
them. But political jealdusy checks humarity 
and even overpowers self-interest, and emigra- 
tion is obstructed. 

The accounts we have of the state of the la- 
boring classes in England are enough to make 
one'sneart bleed-^tlieir^nisery is beyond pre- 
cedent or pa ral lei . Th e eftects of Bovaparte^s 
famous continental system was as nothing com- 
pared with the natural effects of a continental 
peace: and, u nless something be speedily done 
which we know not how to suppose practicable, 
the boasted victory of fFaterloo may <^jLuse a 
second royal family to % their countiy. We 
shall, proWbly, notice at some length, in a fu- 
ture paper, the condition of the poor, as stated 
to the late meetings of the "nobility, clerjry and 
gentry" of England, assembled to devise' ways 
and means for their relief— some of which pro- 
ceeding}) are among the most impudent and pre- 
posterous things we have seen . We say i mpu - 
dent — for we see such persons as the duke of 
1,250,000 barrels of floury about as much as the! ForA: and the archbishop of Cctn/erfrur^, wal- 
amntint of bread-stuffs we hav<» generally ex- J lowing in wealtli wrung from the poor ahd ite- 

Home market and interoal wealth* 

In all matters of mere calculation, ^cat al- 
lowances mnst be made for errors-of opinion as 
to principles assumed, as Veil as on account 
of the difficulty that may jntervene when we 
Wettld reduce their theories to, praetice. Siitill, 
tnttli may be found in them, and the gratifica- 
tion of a laudable curiosity may at once amuse 
and instruct us. 

From the facts that are known to us^ we ven- 
ture an <miniotn that 50,000 persons will have 
em]^tea>to ihe United States, from Europe, 
dmn^ the year 18-16— about one half, or 25,000 
of these, may be considered as adult males, in 
tfii^ prime and tigor of life; the rest chiefly fe- 
males, not above %e middle age, and children* 
. The £5,00# men may be estimated to eacn, 
on an avera^ fbr each, one dollar per day, for 
SOO days i» the year — for many of thcnt are 
mechanics and manufacturers, and few of them 
are of the unprodlictive classes — hardly one in 
a hundred of them have calculated on a liveli- 
.Kood except by mamud labor. And this must 
be readily admitted, when we consider that 
they aaid those depending upon them, cannot 
be supported for much less. The a^;regate is 
r,500,000 dolltre, per annum — the women and 
children may earn a third of this sum; and 
hence^ hy this emigration,we add to the general 
wealth of the country no less than ten miHions 
a year, in its first stage of prodvction. The 
ftoflt9 maiie on the value of this labor, in its 
sul:^equent stages— in its passa^ through the 
hands of the landholders, manumcturers, mas- 
ter-m«|fiianiG» and meichanis, may be safely 
estimated as bein^ equal to the cost of the sub^ 
sistence of this people, and the 10 millions are, 
therefore, a clear ^in. 

^ From tile en()Uiries we have had an opportu- 
nity to make, it appears reasonable to believe 
that the labor of one man i$ equal to the pr6- 
dttct of -isemetbing— wheat, rye, corn or pota- 
toes^ &G,— equal in value to 290 bushels of 
wheat per annum, over and above what may be 
required for the horses and cattle employed, or 
Usually kept on a farm, llus seems moderate, 
because a farmer could not comfortably support 
his family on less. Admitting that all liie emi- 
mnti» were applied to works of agriculture, 
iney would then raise certain articles equal to 

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cessit^ud, friving ^0100 each to a chant j fund! 
. AVhat folly? — ^tliese famous meetings have been 
trumpeted forth as something great and praise- 
worthy — the product of the whole of them will 
not, probably, amount to as much as has been 
given to thc'Dutchman for marrying Charlotte 

The state of England goes to verify what was 
•idd in tlie Weekly Remster over a^d over, two 
or three years ago— that she would find more 
difiicultyto support a peace establishment than 
to carry on an active war. Dreadful, indeed, 
must be the condition of a country to which 
peace ia as a curserr-to which war is as a bless- 
ing. But her difficulties must increase. The 
market for her commodities is every day be- 
coming more anil more circumscribed, and her 
commerce is daily lessening. It is the natural 
order of things, in a time oT peace, that Euro- 
pean nations should chiefly manufacture for 
themselves, and carry on tiieir own trade. — 
They would soon be bewared without it— 4heir 
wealth depends, upon it; and they*, as well as 
ourselveSj must do it We must manufacture. 
It is of no consequence that a man can buy a 
yard of cloth for a shilling, if he cannot get that 
shilling; and he must make it for himself or 
buffer for the want of it It is with nations a» 
it is witli individuals. They cannot buy if they 
cannot sell, no matter how cheap the commo- 
dity desired may be. 

Brigadier-general Chandler. 

The following letter, copied from an eastern paper, 
throws much light upon an interesting incident 
in the late war, and aemands a record. 
Dear Sib— With regm^ to your enquiries, I can 
assure you that I am happy in heing suile to give a 
considerable detailed account of our northern army 
on the Canada frontier, during the early part of the 
year 1813, so far as they affect the military reputa- 
tion of gen. Chandler. I shall do this with the 
greater satisfaction, as 1 have noticed^ with some 
solicitude for the credit of the late anny and our 
country, those incorrect statements (and some of 
them under the imposing character of "official 
reports'**) to which you allude as having been so 
injurious to the reputation of that vahuble officer. 
Oil thin account, in regard to the veracity of its 
nurrutiou, you may implicitly rely. For you, sir, I 
am persuaded thb assertion will be sufficient— If 
it were not, I could produce the testimony of others 
of the most respectable fchid, in support of every 
material part. 

Among the first operations connected with our 
subject, was the capture of fort George, situated 
on.tJie British side of lake Ontario, and near its 
tipper end; which took place on the STlJi of May 
^Pursuant to the arrangements made by the com- 
mander in chief for effecting this object, tlie light 
troops under colonel Scott were to from the advance, 
and consequently occupy the first line of boats for 
.the purpose of landing. The second line was to 
contain the brigade of general Boyd, and the third 
that of general Winder. These were to be followed 

♦ Vide gen. Lewis's official letter to gen. Ann- 


by the reserve, in the fourth line,uiider the command 
of general Chandler; embracing his own brigade and 
colonel Macomb's corps of artillery. The orders- 
provided that the several lines should observe a 
proper distance from each other, in order to avoid 
the confusion which might arisfe fron^ any succeed- 
ing line arriving before 9ie troops of the preceding 
had disembarked. Owing to the extreme and 
protracted indisposition of major general Dear? 
bom, he was under the necessity of reniaining on 
board the flotilla, ordering major general Lewis t«' ' 
assume the immediate command as soon as the 
troops should arrive at the shore. 

Agreeably to these dispositions Scott's conunanid 
first landed, under cover of the fire fromr the 4^ 
of com. ChauncT and commenced the attack with 
promptness and gallantry. The remaining line* 
arrived, disembarked, and formed to sustain tliem 
in as Tupid succession as was practicable. The . 
conffict was severe but of short daratjx>n. Wheir 
the enemy discovered that the troop of the first 
and second lines had effected a landmg, that those 
of the third were disembarking, and that the reserve 
was in readiness to land whenever space should be 
made for that purpose, he commenced a retreat. 
About this time, in consequence of th« repeated 
intimations from the commandhig general, of the 
importance of a more prompt attention to orders^ 
and expressing it is said, extreme solicitude on ac- 
count of the procrastinating disposition discovera- 
ble on the part of the officer to whom he had com- 
mitted the charge of the expedition, gen. Lewis 
found himself ot^ shore. 

prig. gen. Chandler having landed almost at the 
same moment, at the head of his command, with 
the alacrity characteristic of the good soldier, im- 
mediately dispatched capt, Tobey, his orderly of- 
ficer, to inform gen. Lewis, that by the time he 
should receive the communication his line would be 
formed and waitinc^ his orders; expecting doubtless^ 
that they would be for an immediate and rapid 
pursuit of the ^emy; which must have resulted 
in the capture or complete destruction of the whole 
British force. Such, however, was not the case. 
The remainder of the day was occupied in fruitless 
preparations, which tended rather to protract than 
to forward any practicable object; and indicated 
a disposition rather to assume the appearance of 
activity, than to hazard the consciences of ite 
reality. Conseqiiently the reserve was not brought 
into action during the day; but in furnishing boats 
for the landing of the artillery, it however, sufiered 
some inconsiderable loss. It is perhaps difficult for 
one who has never been exposed to the same morti- 
fication, to judge how much the feelings of^fficers, 
particularly of a commander, must simer from be- 
ing thus improperly deprived of an opportunity of 
rendering essential ser^'ice to his country; and of 
gratifying that laudable desire of fame which always 
inhabits Uic bosoms of the brave. 

The comn^ander in chief, to his mortification ani 
disappointment, having learned that general Lewis 
had neglected to pursue the advantage that had 
been gained, ordered him tlie next morning to c^- 
m^nce an immediate pursuit of the retretaing ene- 
my, with the brigades of gene"ral Chandler and 
Winder, a part of colonel Bums' dragoons, and a 
corps of riflemen. After having wasted as mudi 
of the forenoon as could with any decency be 
consumed in preparation, he commenced his mArch, 
and proceeded, during the day, as far as Queens- 
town, a distance of teven ndlea -f Finding ' very 
convenient lodgings he took up his quarters fat 
the Bight at this pUce, retaining geneurl Winder'^ 

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bdffade, and ordering that of general Chandler, 
. with apirt of the ^dragoons and riflemen, to advance 
AS far as St. Datid's where they arrived just before 
dark and encamped. 

It was now however, too late to ptirsue the ene- 
my by this rout; and as major general Dearborn 
hid received intelligence that he was endeavoring 
te^-gain Burlington Heights, he ordered general 
Lewis to fall back upon fort George, with a view, 
it appeared, of ordering a detachment to pursue 
thenmt by iJie lake road, as that was most practica- 
Wt^ Mid aflbrded a prospect of cutting off the retreat 
of ttie Btitiah to York. General Chandler received 
orders to return to fort George on the following 
morning, and arrived at that post a little before 
night of the same day. General Winder was then 
ordei«d to march by the lake road for forty mile 
Crc*,with the 5th, 13th, 14th, and 16th regiments 
1^ infantry, two companies of artillery, part of col. 
Bums' regiment of dragoons, and part of a company 
of riflemen, in the whole amounting to about 1400 
men. On the 3d of June, general Chandler received 
orders to jom general Winder, with the 9th, 23d 
and 25th regiments of infantiy, one company of 
artillery, and part of a company of riflemen, and 
assume the command of the whole. He effected a 
juBCtion with general Winder's detachment at forty 
mile Creek, on the morning of the 5th, and at 11 
o'di^ took up the line of march for Stoney Creek, 
eleven miles beyond; with the intention it is believ- 
ed ol^erossing the neck of land between lake Ontario 
and Burlington bay, intercepting the communication 
between York and Burlineton Heights where the 
enemy had now established hb head quarters, and 
thus cuttiiig off Jiis retreat. 

When we had nearly arrived at Stoney Creek, 
where the road is little more than a mile from the 

' lake, hid advance fell in with a strong British picket, 
uider tiie command of col. Williams, and a skirmish 
ensue d >g e n. Chandlo being then marching by his 
left, ordered the 25th to the support of his advance. 
On Ae approach of this* regiment, the enemy broke, 
scattered and fled; and it was not till ader sunset 
thacl the pursuit was abandoned. Fmding his 
poflition tenable, the general concluded to halt 
icr* Ibr the night. The 13th and 14th regiments 
with a company of artillery were ordered to take a 
atroi^ station on the lake shore, near the mouth 
of Stoney Creek, and something over a mile ftx>m 
the enciSiipment, in order to protect the ammimi- 
^Mio, baggage and provisions, which were expected 
to arrive 4A t^ts from fort George. The position 
selected ftnr the encampment ' was near a small 
Iftcadow, by which it was in some measure defended 
in front, as well as by the almost perpendicular 
aseeot, on the rear or southerly side of the same, 
to the upland, and on the brow of which was a fence 
-pfRly or logs and partly of rails : and in addition 
lo which d6r the borders of the meadow the tim- 
ber fa«fing 1>een filled, but not cleared away, was 
eojOV^fgrown with briars and small bushes as to 
be*;rendered almost impassible, except in the wood. 
te the left the mountains and woods shut down so 
doiie^upon the meadow aa|tq render that flank 
^fl0 secure; and the right was equally protected 
%*«ircmp which approached it on that quarter. 
^Idedang^ was apprehended in the rear, as tliere 

' Wm fld passage known, by which it could be gained 

'^"<btf enemy. The guards were posted by col. 
MAmUiK^o was officer of the day. The 9th regi- 

'WmiMwAa^yery small, and in rear, formed the rear 
Mod. Hie advance picket was posted from half to 
wt^tftiarUti of anile in advance of the meadowy 
tile tight flank guard was posted on the right of 

the meadow; near the swamp, and the left on the 
opposite flank near the mountain. 

That general Chandler expected an attack during 
the night, and tliat at the very point where it was 
afterwards made, is evident from the disposition of 
his g^uards, and his subsequent precautionary mea- 
sures. Indeed, so far from "having been taken by 
surprise," he is known to have declared to general 
Winder, that if the enemy intended to flght them, 
he would commence the attack.before morning; and 
with this expectation the arrangements were made. 

The troops had no opportunity to cook their pro- 
visions for the day; the general deemed it prudent 
for them to occupy ground, and build fires for that 
purpose at stains considerably distant from those 
selected for the encampment, from which they 
should be removed into the line whenever they 
should l)e refreshed; so that the enemy should not 
be able to calculate from reconnoitering in the 
evening, what their position would be in the latter 
part of the night. He therefore ordered the 25th 
infantry and the light troops in advance to form a 
line, and kindle their fires at about 150 yards in ad- 
vance of the high ground in rear of the meadow, 
where he intended to await ,the attack, if it should 
be made in front, as was expected. The other regi- 
ments were ordered to form on a ridge of gfround 
in the rear of tlie meadow, and on the left of the ' 
road, and extended their line of fires from north to 
south. The artillery was likewise posted on the up- 
land in rear of the meadow, in a position to rake 
tlie road, which was nearly straight for the distance 
of half a mile. 

As soon as the troops had finished their cooking 
and were refreshed, when it was near midnight, the 
general ordered that part of his forces which was in 
advance of the meadow, to leave their fires burning, 
fall back to the upland, and form on the right of the 
road, near the fence, with the left of the 25lh rest- 
ing on the right of tlie artillery. The regiments on 
the left were at the same time ordered to advance 
in an oblique direction toward tlie i*oad and fence, 
by wheeling them partially to the left, so as to form 
three lines by each succeeding regiment being a lit- 
tle in tlie rear, and to the left of tlie preceding, 
aomewhat in the eschellon form, having the 23d iu 
front, on the left of the artillery, and near the road 
and fence. Colonel Bums* dragoons were ordered 
to post themselves in the rear of the whole, and al- 
so near the road. In the event of an attack in front, 
the 23d was to form so as to cover the artillery, with 
its right on the left of the 25th. The I6ih was to 
form to the left of tliis regiment—the 5ih to left of 
the 16th, and the light troops to the left of tlie 
whole. The dragoons of colonel Burn* were to act 
as circumstances should require. The whole forces 
were likewise ordered to ground and lie upon their 
arms, so that on being ordered to rise, they would be 
formed into platoons and sections; as when they 

By these arrangements the general would not on- 
ly prevent the enemy from gaining a knowledge of 
his position, and have his own forces in constant 
readiness for action; but, by leaving the fires in front 
would also gain the double advantage of deceiving 
him, and of availing himself of the light to regu- 
late his own movements, and discover those of his 
opponents, if they should advance within the first 
Ime of fires. Had the rear line on the left been per* 
mitted to remain, its light would have given them 
the same advantage in that quarter. Severel times 
however, contrary to orders, some of these fire^ 
were rekindled; but they were again extinguishe 
the moment they were discovered by the genfir<i 

i^ uy ^.^^^^^^L^ 


118 aihiiSf WEEKLY BEGIS-fEIU- SATURDAY, «CTQB^ 19, 1816, 

wbo was constantly on his guard, and did not0ufi*er| recover himself. He arose as soon af was posiiblo 

himself to sleep during the niglvt; Wrhich va» as — -• ' — '^^' '^"'^^ -*- — ^ "" "- "*^^ 

dark and gloomy as can well be imagiued. It was 
cloudy, misty, and perfectly calm; and the fog 
which arose from the low land completed the ob- 

About an hour before day light, the dbcharge of 
a musket was heard by the general who was then in 
his tent on the }efi of the 25th. Immediately, he, 
with his assistant adjutant general Johnson, who 
was then in his tent, was mounted and gave orders 
to form for action, which waa done with t|ie great- 
est facility hy the troops under his more immediate, 
command, as they had only to stand -up on the! 
ground, which they then occupied. Major Johnson 
waa forthwith dispatched to general Winder who 
pomraanded the left wing, wiu orders to cause the 
infantry on tlie left to advance to tlie fence in rear 
of the meadow, where the ground was too wet to 
have admitted of their laying down upon it, there 
to await the attack. TJ>i8 was scarcely done, when 
the head of tlie- British column was ^een by the light 
#f the fires in front, advancing to tlieh* line, expect- 
ing doubtless to find the ionericans sleeping by 
tliem, and intending to deploy to the left and dasii 
il> upon tiiem. 

The25th, tlie light troops on the right, and nearly 
at the aame time the artillery, now opened their^ 
fire upon him, which coiiy^iderably checlced his pro- 
gress. Soon after th^ 5tli and liglit troops on the 
left also commenced their fi^e; and as the enemy 
was between tlie advance ime of fires and our troops, 
they enjoyed an advantage which w^ well improved 
by tho-je who weye brought into action. The ex- 
cessive darkness of tlie night, however, rendered 
i't impossible for the general to ascertain whether 
lis own ti*oops had all been formed, and advanced 
agreeably to his orders, or what was the number 
and exact position of the enemy. Shortly after the 
commencement of the aotioti^ therefore, hearing tlie, 
djsdiiarge of miukets to tJie rear, in the direction of 
liis r :ar guard, and apprehending that quarter might 
have been gained by some rout unknown ^to him, 
ajid that he might there be attacked, he ordered the 
5lh to ferm in that direction, at soine distance from 
tiie line in order to protect 4t. lie now observed 
tliat the fire near the artillery was not a^ brisk as 
he had expected, and riding up to ascertain the 
cause, dlicovcrcd tliat the 23d had not taken the 
posit ion .to which tliey had been directed. He there- 
fore again ordered them to be formed ao as to cover 
tlie artillery, accortling to his previous, arrange- 
meut. By tlii.'i time the enemy appeared to be cx)m- 
pletely broken, and the genentl had every reason to 
suppo 6 thut he could keep him employed and at 
i>ay until day light, when there could be^no doubt 
of obtainin^^ a (leci!>ivc victory. He was thus 
JiMxiously expecting the first; glimmer of dawn, 
when a new burst of ike was h^ard upon his right, 
paving Just before dispatched major Johnson, as 
also his brigade major, and his aid to other parts of 
the line, he unfortunately had now no officer about 
him by whom to transmit orders or gain inlolUgeuce. 
Appvoliendir.g, liowever, tlial the enemy might have 
received a reintbrcement, and oitdeavm* to turn his 
riglit, :md being awai^ of the importance of ascer^ 
t&ming this point as soon as possible, he attempted 
to repair thither himself^ witli all the rapidity of 
wliich the ground would permit. He had Ij^t pvo- 
ceeded tar, when his horse was killed tinder him, 
while in full speed, and himself severely wounded 
l>y the f.ill. Stimncd as he muat have been witJi 
the shock, he perhaps was not himself sensible how 
^r| hf mn^^ied on the field betbi-e he wu able to 

and passing the ^^tb, whom he encouraged in thd 
performance of their duty witli perfect coolness, 
arrived on the right, and ordered major Smith to 
wli^el the platoon on his right, on its left backward 
(the fence in front not permitting it to be wheeled 
forward) imd by this means prevent tlie enemy firou^ 
gaining the rear of his right by surprize. The fire 
of tlie British had now considerably subsided, and 
the gen^^l was about returning to tUe centre, thett 
appearing to be some convulsion near the artUlcay, 
and on the ground where he had repeatedly orderej 
the 234 to be formed. Knowing this regiment to 
be new and undisciplined, 4ie najturally concluded 
that it miglit have broken, mid tl|erehy •ccasione4 
the confusion which heJiad discovered. He theret. 
fore proceeded on to tlie ground to rally it imd 
bring it up to the proper position. Instead of the 
2Sd, this confusion was occasioned by a body of the 
enemy, who, owii^ to the 2ad not having bees 
£)rmed according to orders, had penetrated his 
centre, but were broken, and now retreating. BiK 
from the unusual darkness which prevented hit 
distinguishing one coi*p8 from another, be did not 
learn his mistake, till he* was surromided hy tbia 
body of the British, and by caliing on the name of 
an officer, who was nptin their service, disoovered 
to them that he was an American. He vms then im^ 
mediately seized an4 disarmed and taken jkito their 
rear. Almost at the same moment general Winder, 
from similar causes, likewise fell ^to the hai>jds of 
the enemy. 

Uoquestionablv there was not at this time aa en-' 
tire pUtoqn in the whole British forces. C^tai* 
Milc3, an aid to governor Prevost^ Who had a com* 
maud OQ that night, repeatedly acknowledged ^lat 
their troops broke at the commencement of ttie 
aclioni and Ahat it wa^ npt possible to fona theo^ 
itgain, until they had retreated from the eoene o^ 
action the next morning — and thAt in the excessive 
d trkness he had himself lost his command, m^ did 
nqt find it again during the n^pht. He likewise 
stated that general Vincent was also driven fboi^ 
his command and did not recover it until the a^ 
ternoon of the succeedmg day, and then at the dia* 
taiice of seven m^les from the field of battle; andi 
Uiat he passed the forenoon in concealment amoni^ 
the W'Oods, concluding that his own forces were to** 
tally destroyed, and th^t his only chimce for safet)^ 
lay in secret itig himself until the American forces 
should be withdrawn. Certain it is, he only joined 
his army at the time and place above stated. It m 
also certain that colonel Harvey, the nest in cooin 
mand, must have supposed him e^er )uHed er 
wounded or taken, as he sent in several ^ags during 
the next day with a view of ascertaining his situa'^ 
tion; although \n doing this he might have liad the- 
further object of learnhig whether the American 
ft>rce8 were advancing. 

The BA'ilish nEKist have considered their fiiU as 
inevitable for some time aftci' the action; since Uieir 
loss was more than four tiities greater tlian that of 
the Americans, being litUe less than five hundred 
in killed, wounded and missing; and since from tlie 
cii'cumstance of their having made every prepara- 
tion fur retreat, by slinging their knapsacks, pack- 
ing their baggage, and putting every liorse which 
they cortld muster, to the waggons, it is evident 
that they had abandoned all ideas of furUier resis- 
tance, and would have fled on the first appearance 
of pursuit. From every consideration it is obvioui^ 
that tlie ixnviant of the enemy owed its safety only 
to the miHfortuae ^i' th^ AsnericiOlt i|;i lusi<2g th^ 

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Indeed the Americans, although very possibly 
dispirited by the unfortunate loss of their g'cnerals. 
were unbroken, as the greater part of them had noi 
suffered in the slightest degree. The IStli and 
14^ regiments, which' were the strongest, being al 
a distance Irom the scene of action, had nothing to 
do with it, except in collecting a considerable 
number of prisoners, whom on their return the next 
day, they found scattered through the woods in 
every direction. The 9th infantry and colonel Bums' 
dragoons being in the rear were not at all enjjaged: 
nor was the 23d, notwithstanding the exertions of 
the commanding generals. The 16Ui likewise was 
only partially engaged; for when the enemy on the 
^t fire set up an hideous Indian yell, this regi- 
ment broke, and only a small part of them could 
again be formed and brought into action, who^ how- 
ever, displayed great bravery. The whole loss of 
those who were engaged on the American side, did 
not exceed tJiirty in killed and wounded, and was 
something less than one hundred prisoners. It is 
not however, intended, by these observations, to 
censure colonel Burns, on whom tlie command de- 
volved, for not pursuing the enemy, nor in any mea- 
sure to impeach the bravery of this officer, or to 
<^e8tion the correctness of his conduct bn the 
present occasion. 

The occasion of the British having approached so 
near, our lines before th^ were discovered was af- 
terwards learned from themsdves. Major Mundy 
who led their advance and )vas severely wounded, 
stated to several American officers that he did not 
fidl in with our advance guard at all, and that thev 
must have been asleep in the church near which 
they wei-e posted; and that tlie first centine^ with 
whom he fell in near the church, was totally igno- 
r»aX of liis duty, and was taken without noise. From 
him the major unquestionably obtained tlie coun- 
tersign, as he stated that no difficulty was expe- 
rienced in capturing the otiier centinels, except the 
one who was posted next to the line, who did his 
duty fiiithfi^lly, and by his discharging his piece, 
gave. the first notice of their approach. 

Such, sir, weretlje events oftliatpart of the cam 
paign x>f 161 3, for his conduct in whidi, general 
Chandler has been censured—How little he has de- 
served this, you will judge. For myself, and on the 
authority of a respecuble number of the officers 
under his command, and of several engineer and 
other officers who have since visited the position 
^osen for his encampment on the night of his ren- 
contre with the enemy, I can safely avow my belief, 
that but for misfortune, to which any officer, howe- 
ver able or intelligent, must have been equally lia- 
ble, he w'ould have obtairurd a most brilliant and 
decisive victory, and in the words of an order of 
major Johnson, issued immediately subsequent to 
the action, "have been covered with glory." Indeed 
htd it not been £ot tlie lamented dea5i of that valu- 
able officer, the calumnies to which you refer 
would have been as ephemeral as the chai'acters of 
those who originally propagated them. 

Bketches of the Barbary States. 

No. Ml. 


We have observed that the kingtloni of Tunis is 
the most interesting among the Regencies in conse* 
quence of its high rank in antiquity. Within nine 
miles of the city of Tu^iis and on the margin of the 
most noble bay in the world .ire the remauis of the 
once mighty Carlhage — its scite^nd ruins are ye\ 
ptffect, and at this d.ty gives a clear and com 

prehensii' idea of its situation and extent and co"- 
-esponds with liie description given of it' by the 
most a^.cr'^dited historians. 

These ruins seldom fuW to excite t)ie hiffhest 
mterest, the l:i])sc of lime since the fdunilation of 
Carthage, the various struji-gles and revolutions 
it has witnessed, the illustrious characters it !rai 
produced— its wars— its tyrants, its triple vulls 
and demolished towers uM combine to awaken 
recollections of Jiistory — to m.irk the progress of 
time sweeping indiscriminately in its course nations, 
countries and cities. The mind tnices with rapidi'y 
the great events connected with the rise,' declirse 
and fall of this great republic. Its foundation hy 
the exile Dido, the love of Eneas, (error to xYe 
liomans — I*unic wars, fiela of Zama. (loihs and 
Vamlals, the light j^loors and its present possessoi^s, 
all appear as dreams; the events of twenty-five 
centuries pass the eye with the rapidity and im , 
pression of a noble fiction. We look in vain for 
those temples in which great spirits dwelled, those 
schools in which great genius presided, those walls 
which constancy and valf»r defended, all are ruins, 
the flames at the same time'destroyed Carthacre 
and Corinth — and the revolution of empires has 
consigned them to oblivion — The fall of states 
and calamities of nations, have destroyed Utica and 
Carlhage, a change of masters or the adoption of 
a new political system may place that cotmlry into 
hands less barbarous — and while Rome is stripped 
of its splendor and power without a Regulus or a 
Scipjo, Carthage its fallen rival may once more 
rear its head, and if the Barbary states become a 
province of a civilized power, Carthage firom its 
commanding position and gi'eat commercial ad- 
vantages, will once more become the first city in 

Dido landed on tlie coast of Africa 800 years be- 
fore the Christian ^ra, and with a few followers, 
established a colony which even flonrisbcd prior 
to her death-^As she had created no fi*om of gov- 
ernment, but simply administered laws which she 
herself had enacted, the people on her death whoss 
numbers had augmented greatly by cnip-atioii 
assembled and adopted a govei-nment of a mixed 
nature, divided the power between tJie nobles atid 
the plebians, and strange as it would appear this 
form of government existed unimpaired for seven 
hundred years. Civil wap« then commenced and 
popular commotions changed tho features of tlie 
republic, which were increased by entangling 
alliances. The Cartliag^iians first commeucwl 
with tlie people of Boetica— they then .jiasistcd 
Xerxes, fought with Agathocles in Africa, with 
Pyrrus in Sicily, and finally gave rise to the first 
Punic war. 

Regulus one of the most illustrious captains of 
tlie age defeated the Carthagenians in Hiveral con- 
tests, and at length got possession of Tunis, which 
even at that period was a town of some note — The 
Carthagcnians finding hi;n so near to th^lr city and 
with a victorious army — uucmpted to efl'ect a peace. 
Regulus although anxious to return to Rome and 
superintend his little farm still proj)oscd terms so 
hari>h and inadmi^isible tliat the Carthaj^ rely- 
ing on the justice of their cause and tlie strength 
of their city refused to accede to tiic terms pro- 
posed — This was the fii-st error of Reorulus, it led 
to his destruction, and laid the fouudaiion of a long 
and bloody war. Contrary to the gcnci-al expecta- 
tion the CarthagePiiaas resumed the contest and 
Iwitli success— part of ti^-ir forces comtnaiuicd hy 
a Lucedcmonian culled Xautippus def«al<wi XixB 
Romans and took Regulus prisoner. 

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The Romans on receiving the intelUjfence recruit- 
ed their forcei and were in their turn successful. 
The first punic war continued for twenty four years. 
The Romans were no longer the advocates of mode- 
ration, the ''piping times ofpeace" had passed and 
ambition received new impulse and direction. The 
c^apture of Ssunlinia and the infraction of the treaty 
witli the Carthagenians laid the foundation of th^ 
second punio war. 

It is impossible to look at the ruins of Carthage 
without thinking of Hannibal^this association of 
ideas willfnever be separated-every broken colonade 
or mouldering tower reminds us of this the greatest 
hero of Antiquity. We have.often been led to com- 
pare Bonaparte with Hannibal — ^Their characters 
and operations difitised in equal ratio with their 
times. One surmounted with inejUmustible strength 
of character and fertility of invention— the dif- 
ficulties arising from circumscribed resources— the 
other with an improved system of ^fcrfare, a gallant 
army and a treasury adequate tfl^allits wants, 
^nappalled by danger, undismayed by numbers 
and supported by unconquerable ambition, gained 
victory afler victory with a rapidity which had no 
parallel in history. Hannibal crossed the sea in 
his little bark, passed tracWess mounUins— barren 
plains, and conquered barbarians with barbarians. 
The invention of gunpowder alone has created tlie 
l^eatest distinction and distance betweea their 
operations. Hannibal howev^, had not the genius 

4er— Bonaparte has both. Hannibal could destroy, 
but could not organize empires. Bonaparte did bfbth 
with equal facility— Hannibal was c<dd and unfeeV- 
jng, without the least spirit of magnanimity; Bona- 
parte was equally repulsive, but by no means 
destitute of a liberal disposition. Both crossed the 
Alps and were victorious on the plains below— both 
committed an error whioh laid the foundation of 
their ruin. Hannibal in tut marching to the gates 
of Rome after tlie bdttle of Oannea, and Bonaparte 
in marching' to Moscow, and from the two last 
i^auses alone can any suck comparison be drawn. 
The last great struggle made by Hannibal was on the 
plains of ^ma against Scipio sumamed AfVicanus, 
a gallant and amiable general; the result of this 
battle led to the final destruction of Carthage and 
ended the second Punio war. 

The battle af Zama is so renovmed in history for 
acts of heroism and extraordinar}' valor, as well as 
for the important changes it produced, that we 
were at no little pains in endeavoring to ascertain 
precisely where the battle so called was fought. 
Polybtus describes the field of Zama as being three 
days march from Carthage. When we consider how 
numerous Hannibal's army was, of what discordant 
materials it was composed— the heavy cavalry and 
elephants — it is reasonable to conclude, that the 
army, on leaving Carthage, could not have march- 
ed more than fifteen miles a day. Scipio left Sicily 
and landed at Cape Bon, which lays south-east of 
Carthage, across the bay; the distance between the 
two capes, in a direct line, is not more than twelve 
miles, yet in a circuitous march from cape Bon to 
cape Carthage, which includes tlie head of that spa- 
cious bay, the distance cannot be less than forty 
miles. Supposing that the arn>y of Scipio took up 
its line of march from cape Bon at the moment the 
Carthagenian forces began to move— they must have 
jnet about half-ways— the heavy sand prevented 
both powers from marching on the borders of the 
bay — the army of Scipio passed in iht interior, be- 
hind \he mountainv of Mamellf, ipid must bare en- 

countered the forces of Hannibal near a place <^Ueft 
at this day Z&wan; it is here where I have every 
reason to believe the battle of Zama was finigbt. 
Zawan was celebrated for a spring of water, so co- 
pious that it supplied Carthage by means of a noble 
aqueduct of fortjr miles in extent, the ruins of which 
exist at present. The advantages of this water, 
connected with a plain of consideiable magnitude, 
affording room for the operations of the cavaby, and 
well known to both parties, must have been the spot 
where both generals endeavored to fix upon. 

Hannibal was anxious to avoid this battle and 
demanded an interview of Scipio for the purpose of- 
concluding a peace. His eloquence, however, was 
without enect, and he made his dispositions with his 
accustomed vigor and ability; and, though surround- 
ed with the most discouraging difficulties, he did 
not forget that he had conquered on the banks of 
Tacinus, at Trebia, Thrasymene and Ctnnea. This 
was a decisive and hard contested battle. Polvbius, 
at a loss who to commend most, avers that the ac- 
tion was gained more by the steady valor of thei 
Romans than by any peculiar merit of Scipio, and 
seems ta thhik that Hannibal's plans displayed the 
most skill and judgment. The forces of Hannibal^ 
were drawn up m three divisions; the first was com« 
posed of men^enaries, Gauls, Mauritanians, Ligu- 
rians and natives of the Balearic islands; the se- 
cond division were Carthagenians, a body on which 
hb whole reliance was placed; the thind division 

ofCeasar, nor the fearless, dating spirit of Alexan-. was the reserve, and the worst part of the anny. 

called the Brutii; the whole front was covered by 
^ghty elephants. Scipio, Reviewing attentively th^e. 
arrangements of Hanniba^ made corresponding dis- 
positions — ^the arn^ which he brought wi^ him 
from Sicily did not exceed thirty-five thousand men» 
but they were picked troops, and on his arrival the 
African prince, Massanissa, joined him with a hea- 
vy body of cavalty, so that both armies might have 
consisted of fifty thousand men on each side. Han- 
nibal placed great dep^dence on his elephants. 
Since Regius had def^ted the Carthagenians, ow- 
ing to the\r confining the operations and movements 
of these animals in a small space, they had been 
particularly careful to sel^t a spacious plain fiar 
their battles; and these pl£nB Sre numerous in the 
north of Africa, where there az^iyU few trees. — 
Scipio formed his infimtry into a phalanx similar to 
the Macedonian, and gave sufficient room to each 
soldier to wield his sword and shield, and, if n^es- 
sary, to close their ranks and allow sufiicient space 
for the elephants to pass through without doing 
much damage — this plan rendered their operations 
weak and inefficient. Ilannihal had no very distin- 
gui^ed generals under him. The ri|rht wing of 
Scipio's army ^as commanded by Laelius, and the 
left by Massanissa; the centre was headed by Scipio 
in person. The attack was commenced by the. Ro- 
mans, and on the very onset, the elephants, on 
which Hannibal placed great reliance, were driven 
back by the liglit infantry, and threw the right wing 
of Hannibal's army into conflision — before they had 
time to rally and recover their position, they were 
fm'iously attacked by Massanissa, at the head of 
tlie cavalry, ami driven off the field. The battlethen 
became general; Uie Carthagenians fought with 
great valor, but were poorly supported by the mer 
cenaries. Laelius had routed the Cartliagenian ca- 
valry on the left — Hannibal saw the confu:fioii, bi^t 
could apply no remedy — ^lie placed himself at the 
head of the third line and charged the Romans with 
pikes; this created a temporary derangement of 
Scipio's p-oops, who fell back in the rear. Scipio 

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thin changed the order of the battle, and formed 
hla anny into one entire line, with which he made 
a 46q>erate effort, and whue valiantly eng^ag^ on 
both sides, Laelius, with his horse, came on the 
retf* of the Carthag^enians. Hannibal, finding him- 
selfattacked in mntby Scipio, and on his rear and 
ilanka by Massanissa and Laelius, sustained for a 
long time a horrible carnage; and, finally, was com- 
p^d to ffy with a few horse. Thus finished the 
great contest — in which theCarthagenians lost forty 
thousand men in kiUed, wounded and prisoners—* 
and thus ended the second punic war. Hannibal 
left Afinca, and Carthage obtained a peace on such 
conditioRS as led to her ruin. 

To Napoleon. 

The Barbary States. 

Jhe Algerines are a brave nest of pirates, and 
bsve for nearly three centuries, almost defied the 
^orts of Christendom. The city is large, strong 
and populous, containing upwards of 100,000 inhab- 
itants. In 15il, the emperqr Charles V. incurred 
greater disgrace before this city, than the glory he 
acquired at the battle of Pavia, when he made Fran- 
^ T. a prisoner. At Algiers he lost almost the 
whole of the finest fleet and army that ever bad 
•ailed from Spain. In 1635, the English under sir 
John NarbpriYHigb, bombarded the ci^, and burnt 
iai the shipping |n the harbor. In 167Q, lord Dart- 
mouth paid the city a similar visit, and totally de- 
stroyed their vessels. But the city never could be 
taken. In 1775 the Spaniards lender general CRei- 
ley, were repulsed with great slaughter, which was 
considered an indelible disgrace to the Spanish 
arms. The naval force now sent against those free- 
booters is the strongest ever sent from England on 
^ similar errand. How it will succeed, ia not easy 
to foretel, unless the admiral's instructions were 
known. But it may be presumed that this expedi- 
tion is like our former ones; the object is only to 
bumble the enemy for the time-being, thereby af- 
fording him another opportunity of renewing his 
audacious pursuits. Experience has proved that 
to crush those hordes, a naval force is not adequate, 
unless supported by numerous land forces. The 
European commerce will never be secure, until all 
the Barbary powers be permanently conquered, and 
the country colonized, tt has often been a matter 
of astonishment, why this has not been attenipted. 
The coasts of Barbary, m point of fertlliw of^ soil, 
and Variety of valuable productions^ yield to none 
on earth. Tripoli could be made to produce as 
good crops of sugar, as Dutch Guiana, Jamaica, or 
any^island in the West Indies, besides all kinds of 
truncal fhiits. The same may be said of Tunis, 
Algiers, and Moroco. But the produce of those fine 
r^ioos is not confined to luxuries; they yield in 
great abundance all the necessaries of life. The 
i^eat and pulse of Barbary are equal to any within 
the temperate zone, and the flocks of cattle in those 
cooDtries are not surpassed in France and Spain for 
excellence. In the low groimds, indigo and rice are 
raised with great sucess, of the finest qualities.— 
These noble tracts of countiy present more inviting 
fidds fbr acquiring wealth and comfort than any 
rttion in America. Indeed they may at some period, 
not very distant, diminish tlie intercourse between 
Europe, America and the West Indies, should the 
riewB lAd poKcy of the European nations be direct- 
H to Afinca. In the mean while much will depend 
on what the British government has determined 
opoQ, should the expedition under lord Exmouth 

prove upcessful. ^Afontrral ifrraltL 


When the motion was made, in the Tribunate of 
France^ to conffer on you the title of Emperor, and 
fbr making that title hereditary in your family. Cab- 
not, in opposing the motion, asked, "whether it 
was to grant the First Consul a reward fbr his ser. 
vices, in the cause of liberty, to oflTer to him the 
sacrifice of that liberty t whether to confer this title 
on him was not to destroy hU ovm leork, and possibly 
himtelfin the end? What! (said he) is liberty, then, 
disclosed to man. only that it may never be enjoyed 
—only to be snatched from bis sight? We arc told, 
that this measure is necessary to comoUdate the go- 
vernment; but, as all history shews, a government 
by one individual, is not, in the smallest degree^ a 
pledge of utoMUty. The example of the United 
States of America has proved the practicability of 
imiting freedom with order; and the high destinies^ 
to which that nation appears to be called, leave no 
doubt remaining as to the existence of these ijn« 
portant truths." 

This is the season to recal these truths to yoiu? 
mind, but not for the purpose of insult, or reproachs 
buty for that of justifying the principles of liberty. 
As long as you fought under her banners, victory 
was your inseparal^le cqmpanion, and the gratitude 
of millions placed the laurel on your brow. Prom 
the moment that you associated your name with that 
of kings, you began to sink in the estimation of 
maskindj and when you, at last, allied yourself with 
them, milling even your legions with theirs, the eye 
was unable to follow yon in the rapidity of your fiill. 
AflTorded a chance of revival, even from a state of 
captivity and banishment, so deeply had you im- 
bibed the infection, that the empty title was re- 
sumed. — Nay, when the voice of fiite had apparently 
gronounced your eternal seclusion, you must stiU 
and over your abdicated name to your child. 

Charge not liberty, therefore, with the injuries, 
the insults, the base qpprobrium, the horrid denim* 
ciations, to which, through the English press, you* 
have now been exposed. Charge not her with the 
natural oflsprine of cowardice, in the hour qf tri- 
umph, over the brave. Charge them on your own 
desire to rule as a matter^ where you ought to have 
administered <is a servants and, especiaUy, to your 
inexcusable desire to take r<uUe amongst, and to 
make common pause with those, whom the French 
nation had commissioned ^'ou to go forth and de- 

While seated on your throne in gor{;reous robes, 
surrounded by bowing coronets and mitres, the Pre- 
sident of America, had he appeared in his simple 
attire, would have seemed to you a being, founded 
by qature solely ibr the humblest offices of life. Let 
those who prize external erandeur; let those who de- 
sire to rule as masters ofmen, now behold you sub- 
dued by, your person actually in the hands of, and as 
is asserted, about to be imprisoned for life by that 
same power, which he, having the heart of frcemei| 
on his side, Aiiled in all its hostile attempts, and 
drove, in a manner which history will fearlessly de- 
scribe, from the blazing capital and desolated shorei* 
of his country. 

Bxamplea so striking, and tllustrsted by events so 
momentous, will not, let us hope, be lost upon you, 
if personal freedom be ever again to gladden yom- 
heart, and the admiration of your great deeds^ 
which will always exist, be destined once more to 
restore you to power. Look at the people of Ame- 
rica. No titles of count, duke, prince or emperor^ 
dazi^le their eyes. No splendid shows, no o?)jectt 

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to ^e at, are necessary to remind them of their 
duties and of their past deeds. Contrast this peo- 
ple with the miserable people of Prance, who, while 
they stare at the colanm of JvsterlUz, are paying 
cqntribations to {>amper the soldiers of Austria, and 
upon the %'ery bridge of Jena, are trampled und^ 
root by the soldiers of Prussia; while Uieir provin- 
ces are overrun by those Bavarians and Wurtember- 
gers, whose sovereigns were elevated to thrones by 
the valor and blood of French armies under >'our 

In locking back upon mankind, on the interests 
of so gi*eat a part of whom your actions have had 
an influence, which class do you find to have been 
the roost brave, the most sincere, tlie most faithful, 
tlie most magnanimous ? And wh ich the most cow- 
ardly, the most hollow, the most perfidious, the 
xnost cruel ? Your fiite, as it will excite a gi'eatcr 
interest tlian any former event in the history of na- 
tions, so it will produce a greater and more lasting 
effect on men's minds. It wiH be the beacon, the 
ever existing warning, to every man, who, having 
the cause of freedom consigned to his hands, shall, 
in anvvil hour, be tempted to convert the valor he 
has inspired to the promoting of his private views 
of vain ambition. "That** will it be said, "was the 
rock on which Napoleon split ; Nupoleon, in whose 
name was comprised all tliat was skilful, generous, 
and brave." 

Were the friends of freedom as unfeeling as their 
adveraaries, they would exult in your fall, as the 
triumph of their principles. For who is it that is 
fallen ? Not *«the <5hiid and Uie champion of jaco- 
4>inism," as you had once the honor to be styl»i by 
the child and champion of corruption ; not the 
darling hero of democracy, with 'Uiberty andequali- 
tt/," or 'Uleatk" inscribed on his banners. No : but 
an emperor and king ? the son-in-law of the house 
of Austria ; the eulogist, the associate, tlie friend, 
the preserver, tliQ restorer, the upholder, the crea- 
tor of nobles and kings. It is not Napoleon, drivhig 
the lazy monks from their cells, and scattering to 
the winds the relics of superstition ; but, Napoleon, 
crowned by the holy father, re-establishing in some 
degree, bisliops and priests, and daily prostrating, 
in his own person, the interests of truth before the 
mummeries of the mass.* It is not that Napoleon, 
the FIRST CONStJL, who, in the year 1804, formal- 
ly and specifically, and officially charged the Eng- 
lish government wilh the hiring of bitndt of ayaas- 
situ to take avay his fife ; but Napoleon the EM- 
PEUOIi, the son-in-law of ihe house of Austria, who, 
in 1815, c.lls tliat^ame English government, *<thc 
most ^merotw" of his enemies. 

Still, the friends of liberty cannot liarden their 
!\earts to feelings of exultation, when they look back 
to your wonderful eflbrts in Iior cause. When they 
benold you rising up amongst the sons of democra- 
cy, marching forth against the privileged orders of 
Europe; leaving unsubdued not one single sovereign, 
ruling by Divine rig:ht; bnngiug them all to your feet; 
enlarging the dominions of some, curtailing those 
of othcrij;— -slrippmg these of their dignities, and 
bestowing new ai^ities on those; prescribing t!je 
i>ounds of their alliances, and giving their suns and 
tlieir daughters in Aiarriage : when the friends of 
liberty look back on these exploits, which have 
cstablislied forever t!ie suptriurity of talent over 
insolent birth, which in dissjpatmg slavish pre- 

• In republisJiing Cobbett's manly addretis to Na» 
poleon, 70d do not mean to cast any rcfleciion on the 
Catliolic sect, creed, or worship. Thank God, all 
icligions sieeqnal here.— ^uit, Qui^uhbian. 

indices, have laid the sure foundation of ftitare 
freedom; all your errors are forgotten, and, whedler » 
to exile or to deatli, you will be followed by Ibe 
admiration and gfratitude of every brave and ewmj ' 
free man in every nation in the world. - ] 

JBotleif, 6th An^itft, 1816. 

Convention of Maine. 

JBnmrmch, Octobef 2, 1816.— <k)mmittee8 were 
appointed on tlie travel and attendance of the 
members, and for granting leaves of absence. 

hydnesday, October 3.— Several memorials oti the 
subject of the votes, and returns of memben, were 
read, and committed. 

Tfmrsday, October 4.— The motion made yestir- 
day by the hon. Mr. Jflu'iman, of Portland, that We 
committee appointed to report on the votes be alto 
initructed, (in case they should not find the majo- 
rity of votes in favor of separation as five is to four) 
what further measures, if any, will be expedient to 
adopt, to obtain the consent of the legislature of 
this commonwealth to such separation, and to re- 
port thereon; was called up and adopted. 

Monday, October 7. — The committee appointed 
to examine the votes on ihe question of tepdratioH 
made the following UEPORT :— 

The committee appointed to examine the returns 
of votes on the subject of the separation of Maine 
from Massachusetts, and report tliereon, and also 
to inquire what further measure it Mill be egpt- 
dient to adopt to obtain the consent of the legisla- 
ture of this commonu ealtli to such a separatm 

also to consider and report on the memorial of 
John Low, Jim. and others, agamst the votes from 
tlie town of Lyman, and also the memorials of the 
inhabitants of Mercer and other towns concerning 
said separation, have attended to that service, and. 
ask leave respectfVilly to iuport ik ranr. 

That they have examined all the papers and A>- 
cuments purporting to be returns df votes from the 
towns and plantations in Maine, which have been 
committed to them, and find that a very lai^ pro- 
portion of those votes are incorrectly or lliegAlly 
retiu^ed. ^ 

In nearly half of those returns the question which 
was to have been submitted to the people, was im- 
perfectly or erroneously stated. 

Very many of the meetings appear to hare con- 
sisted of otlier persons than qualified voters, fci 
several towns certain descriptions of voters appear 
to have been excluded. In tliis state of votes, yb*«- 
committee feel a reluctance on the one hand to 
excluding the expressions of the opinions of^any 
portion of their fellow-citizens possibly correct, 
and on tlie other in admitting any return which may 
be the result of imposition or fraud. 

If other considerations or views of the subject, 
can authorise them to dispense wilh a strict op ri^ 
gorous scrutiny, their inclinations urge them to the 
adoption of such a course. 

But iiiasmuch as the memorial from John Low^ 
jun. and others, relating to the improper and ttnUar 
conduct in the officers and voters of the town of 
Lymati, was specially referred to your comiiktttec, 
they wei-e obliged to give it thcu* parUcular cpiu 

It appears to your committee that after the mext- 
ing was opened, a motion was regulailv made, «iid 
put, and carried, that the voters be polled to sec 
who were for and wlio against the separation; that 
though this course was objected io, it was carrted 
into effect. Thus in a town whore the majority 

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tlie sepaimtion, were its advocates an expression not ooirtained in tbe act, than from a 

..^ . pfunted out, before they were al- ' necessary import of tlie words themselves. Where 

fetflp €an;]r their written .votes, 'thus were a this act is doubtful it should receive such interpre- 
"*-' ef the l^ttizens deprived of the privilege of tat Ion as, shall best comport with the public will. 

tbeir opinions -mthout intpecHon^ and That will has, often, been decidedly and unequi- 

,_. to the mfiuence of powerful men, and I vocally expressed. On the tveiuieth of May Imi^ 

censure or disappirobation of a vindictive ma-! the single question of expediency, was' di*c)ded in 
it)— Tour committee have therefore rejected [the affirmative by a very large majority. On th©^ 
return from the town of Lyman. Itecorul of September, with the terms and conditions 

reciM'riDg' to the second and third sections of i before them, and the pn^undless alarms of expence 

•ctcoBDeniing the separation of the district of 
' efroffi Massachusetts proper, and formmg the 
into M indepeudeikt state, we find that the 
ifCRti^n is autliorised to ibrm a constitution pro- 
led "a flMi^*^ ^fj^vf to four at least of the votes 
tOMedfare in finr«r4Mr the measure. The meaning 
'& word iM|/ority is doubtfuI—'Thifi word is some- 
ondeistood to mean the excess of one number 
Mother^ and sometimes the excess of half the 
Ic mmb^. Exclude the words <<a minority of" 
tbeseoood UkI third sections of the act, and no 
)t remains but €i9^ yeas to four nays or fve^ 
i# ^ the votes returned, would be required. 
yoMr committee do not fed authorised to fiay 
these words have no meaning. 
In tlie repon of the committee prefixed to the 
•et, it appears to have been the intention, that the 
expediency of separation <hoidd have been decided, 
hj <te assembly of men charged with the most 
I wlemn duties,** meaning no doubt a ctnventi4m of 

^eUg§te9 chdien by towno, 
I Here the delegates would hseve been in proportion 
to the number of majorities in each corporation and 
not in proportion to the aggregate majority of all 
the ij>t«8 returned. 

his understood that the bill as first reported to 
the kgjsktiire, nuthorized the delegates to decide 
^the oxpeMency. It was however so fiir amended 
p that oa the day of the choice of delegates, the 
is hib i t aiTta ol' the fowTtt, districts and pUntations, 
futtM to Tote ibr senators, were to give in their 
vnttai votes on the question proposed in the act, 
iiAm mtgorH^ ofjhe to fitir was required^As the 
ddqpirtes must be apportioned according to the re- 
^>ecH»re majorittes ef then* towns, so on the ques- 
^MK of septfation, the majority of yeas in tlie towns 
wd plaatatioiis infkvor must be to the majority of 
s^« in those oppooetl^ k»J!ve toybur of the votes re- 
^wned. The corporate majorities of yeas must he 
pbeed in one column and those of nays in the other, 
<Bl«Bch added— Then, at Jive it to four, so is the 
>g|Begate majority of yeas in the towns and plan- 
tstwns in favor, to the agpgregate majority of nays 
^ theee opposed. In this ^vay oidy can your com- 
n&ttee give a meaning to the word majority as con- 
Uined inthe second and third sections of tlie act. 

Tlie whole number of votes returned, including 
th(^subjeetto the exceptions, is . . , 22,316 

the yeas are 11,964 

Theoaysare 10,397 

The wlu»e s^^eg^te majority of yeas in 
tbetowns and plantations in favor, is . . 6,031 

9h» whole aggregate majority of yeas in 
th^iW»n$ «Mi plantations opposed, is . . 4,409 
Ifam, as Jhic is to four, so is 6,031 to 4,825 Uie 
wg Mquked. But the majority of nays is 4,409 
«if* Hence, it appears, that upon tliis construc- 
|i«l of Uie act, there is a majority of Jive to four at 
l^iPt of the volci returned in favor of the said dig- 
trfct^fi becoming an independent state. 

Wottr oomoiittee are aware that it has been the po- 
^^i» construction tliat ^five-ninths of the votes re- 
^omfA are uccr.;sary. But they appi-ehend that this 
wOftriJLctittn UjH^ prttvaile4 ratlvoi: fv9;n tU;e ^'4^ of, 

to the people, and embarrassments to the coasters, 
tJie citizens of Maine, by the majority here report- 
ed, have decided the question again. And they 
are here represented by a majority of deleg:ites in 
favor of the measure. It is expedient therefore, that 
tliis convention should give sudi a constiuction to 
the act, as shall best eflectuate the hopes and g^ati* 
fy the expectations of the {people of Maine. But 
your committee forbear to recommend that this 
convention act without deliberation and athdco. The 
legislature of Massachusetts will soon be in session* 
No inconvenience would arise in consulting their 
wishes or as/.Ing tbeir opinions, bliould tiiey, as 
they undoubtedly will, confirm this construction, or 
otherwise explain or niuilify the law so as to give 
effect to the voice of this majority of the people, 
much dispute would be prevented, and g^eat satis- 
faction afforded to the oppo&ers of the separation. 

But if contrary to all reasonable expectations, the 
opinion and decision of Massachusetts should be 
unfavorable, we could at an adjourned session of 
the convention determine for ourselves and oari*y 
the act into fnll effect, agreeably to our oua un- 
derstanding of its provisions. 

But in the report of the committee, prefixed to 
the act, we find it conceded, that "expectations 
have been authorized, that the legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts would consent to the proposed separa* 
tion, when the deliberate wisbes of a majority of the 
people should be developed in favor of tlie mc?i- 
stire.** And we have no doubt tliat witii the preuent 
commanding majority, Massachusetts will fjive sucli 
fall* and rational interpretation to the law, as shidl 
carry into effect the **<leUber(Ue wi«Ae*" of the peo- 
ple of Maine. 

Confident that a separation must be declared, 
your committee would recommend, that as soon as 
may be, a constitution of government should be pre- 
pared, to be presented to the people of Maine. But 
as much time and labor would be required, before 
so important a document could be matured, they 
would propose an adjoiu'nmentto f;ome future day, 
and that a committee be appointed to sit ia tlie re- 
■cess, and report a constituiiou at the next meeting 
of the convei\tion. 

In this stage of the progi-ess of tlie people of 
Maine to independence, it ii* proper that they 
should apply to congress fur their admission into 
the union. It is important aUo, that a law be passed, 
that in case of sep:u*ation, our coastir.g trade U;ould 
be secured iVom additional embarrassment. Should 
the legislature confirm tfieir consent, congress at their 
next session would udmit us into the union. But 
should Massachusetts i^ive an unfavorable interpre* 
taiion of the ret, or refuse to modify it, as justice 
requires, congress would decide, whether we have 
not com)>iieil with the conditions upon which the 
consent of ^laiisuchusctts was to be obtained. 

Your committee have considered Uie memorijtlj* 
from sundry inliahitants of Mercer unci other toni;-, 
coniphuMJMf;- ihey ii:ivc no delegates in the cot.vcn- 
tion. Ami they arc satisfied that in fonninj;' a con- 
stitution, lhc!>e and other towns and phinialions iii • 
enti^J^jd to ><;. hc»a*d. Th^y can, liuv/cvc;., dj:>ibc 


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«o other remedy, (except what may be contained 
in that part of the constitution which shall provide 
for amendments) than an application to the legis- 
lature, so to modify the act, as to admit those town« 
and plantations not represented, to send delegates 
to this convention at its next meeting. 

Tour committee, therefore, ask leave to report the 
Ibllowing resolutions — ^^^rliich are submitted : — 

Hesohedy That the Ihrther consideration of the 
votes returned, be referred to the next session of 
this convention to be held by adjournment 

Besolved, That, provided all those papers and do* 
cuments, which purport to be returns of votes, 
should be lega) and correct, ^e whole immber of 
yeas is ... ^ . . . 11,969 

Thewholenumber of nays is .... 10,347 

That the majority of yeas of the towns and 
plantations in favor of separation is . 6,031 

That the majority of nays in the towns and 
plantations opposed to a separation is 4,409 

And that the majorify of yeas as aforesaid, is to 
tlie majority of nays as aforesaid, a majority of five 
to four, at least, of the votes returned. 

Metolved^ That a committee of fiye be appointed 
to make application to the legislature of Massaclm- 
setts to ratify and confirm its consent, that the £&'«- 
trict of Maine shall be a separate and independent 

Hetolved, That a committee of be appointed 

to report a constitution for the commonwealth of 

Jietolved, That a committee of tliree be appointed 
to make application to congress for the admission of 
Maine into the union, upon the same footing as the 
original states. 

JRetolved, That the same committee be directed 
to endeavor to obtain an idteration of the law of the 
United States that in case of separation our coatting 
trade should be relieved from additional embarrass- 

Besohed, That when this convention adjourn, they 
adjourn to the day of to meet at 

this place. 

Foreign Articles. 

France seems to be ^uiet, but not tranquil— at 
least it is not tlie tranouility of content, as a certain 
publisher insinuated ftom a similar expression of 
ours in a late number of the Register. It is vtry 
plain that what we behold there is not the calm of 
happiness and prosperity, but the repose of despond- 
ing misery— the disheartening— the ominous and aw- 
f\u stillness of despotism. The character of tlie late 
disturbances at Nantz and Strasburg is not distinct- 
ly known, but we believe that tliey are only the lo- 
•cal symptoms of a universal complaint— that nothing 
is systematic or the result of combination. They 
seem to wait for the occurrence of some convulsion 
to set them free from the load of their disgrace and 
calamity. It is the waywardness of misfortune wait- 
ing until tlie strerim of wTath and ruin shall run by. 
We augnr nothing, any way, from their quietness, 
nnd little satisfaction or /confidence can their op- 
pressors find in it while the)' see it accompanied 
witli such a feverish excitability, ready on every op- 
portunity to break into riot. A meeting of the em- 
peror of Austria and king of Prussia v/as announced 
and afterwards contradicted, but again asserted, 
The papers of 'tother day mention that the empe- 
ror had gfone on a visit — v.'e forget where : but 
tlicie th.ngs arc probably of no consequence, no 
more than Uie proposed meeting of national repre 
a ntath c) to settle thcafikirs of^uropt seems to be* 

The affairs of South America become 
more interesting. We see no late notice ^dif i 
troops in Spain prepared for thie^ suppression 1 
these new republics, but, no doub^ some wiD f 
sent. W« hope this concUtion of things will teal 
political wisdom to the South American petrid 
and tfttly, we must say, that they seem to needd 
The present crisis, and indeed every step of thl 
profi^ess, recommends union to them as necessf 
m their struggle for independence-— and even 
wards indispensible. W|«t folly 
ruinous and disgraceful than the petty warfitfe 1 
tween states engaged in the same cause — st 
the same principles, and warring against a i 
enemy. In tliese fine, fertile provinces 

* Where alUtet tlie spirit of mm, h diving* 
how easily and how speedllv would a sv 
combination have realised their hopes. If there we 
wanting any proof of the wisdom of our revokttion 
ry sages. South America furnishes whatierer tJ 
Allure of French republicanism h3^fid to do. Tl 
South Americans have shewn courage even to dc 
peration on some occasions— they have shewn eve 
thing but the gre^t soupce of power, <<the power 

The I>utch contemplate the poschase, sm| ' . 
tlement of large tracts of land on tke ri^cr Oncob 
(gold coast) where they now have several forts- 
which, it it said, are h'^ly favorable to the caHn 
of cotton and coffee. 

The importation of cotton from Calcutta Xa Cai 
ton, this season, is likely to be eonsiderable. Thii 
teen ships were fittmg out for China with 160^00 
bales. To this we may add— from Bombay, 30^ 
bales in the East India company's ships — and 25,p€ 
in private ships; making the wb«Ae export thlvyei 
about 180,000 bales, equal to Pecuis 293,000, est 
mated at 1^ bales each, is 6,305,000, equal to 1 
lacs of rupees! 

A phenomenon, accompanied with terrific.^ti 
cumstances, took place near Casignano (Piedmottt. 
A spot of earth appeared at a short distanee t 
the town, in shape like an inverted cone. Its | 
was elevated to an immense height; dreadful i . 
proceeded from sides. Suddenly an impetuousL wii> 
dispersed the column, black and dense vi^ 
stted from it, and beat down some walls and < 
neys. The inhabitants fled from it in every i 
tion, to escape this terrifying phenomenon, 
persons were luirt by the rubbish. The obJ!^ ( 
terror at length passed off*, and the weather 1 1 JMii"" 
ed its former serenity. — London paper of Ju^. Mi 

•i serioitt Joke^.Mr. Sheridan's fatal disofeder 
arose originally from a tumor, for which it is said nn 
operation was recommended, which at the .time 
would liave been slight, and would most probably 
have saved his life; but Mr. Sheridan turned it off 
witli a ioke, saying he had suffered Jwo operatiotis 
in his life-time, and he would not undergo a third. 
When asked what the two were, he answered — 
«*That he had had liis hair cut, and had sat for his 

Algiers* We are yet wkliout inteUigen^frow 
Exmouth's squadron. In addition. to me M$m <rt- 
ready stated, he is said to have w'wefj boats csob 
can7ing a brass gun ! 

The Import of the massacre of a priest at the aUw^ 
8cc. in Ireland, as stated in this p.iper, is contra- 
dicted. We are glad that things have not renojied 
such extremities. 

Taxes in Ireland.— \ fritiyd has favored «»wi«^n 
late Irish paper, containing the nev Insh assessed 
taxes, agreed to by the house of commons on the 
3d of Mav, I816.—Thc following iB a sketch. 


', act of hostility from "the Firebrand, 
afford him a pretext for her instanta- 
al destruction. \n that case, lie would 
e reported to the captain- ^neral that 
I pirate, and the American public, not 
actual fate of the Firebrand, wou)d 
to68, like that of the Wasp and Eper- 
iements. But Providence determined 
I of justice should not thus be de* 

and estimable commander has had an 
f reUting the story of his wrongs to 
Those wrongps, and the insult offered 
liich we hope, is destined to flash ter- 
ay wherever a Spaniard can be found, 
ibundantly revenged. But here is the 

Bay of St. LcuU, Sept. 8, 1816. 
Nothing of importance occurred after 
until the morning of Uie 27th of Aug. 
>t far from Vera Cmz, at dav break, we 
res near three vessels, whicn proved to 
ic Spanish majesty'iB ship IMana, of 24 
mded by Josse Semado; the herma- 
^ Cassidor and Le Gera, of 18 guns 
mes of the commanders of the two last 
;ssels were refused to be given to us. 
re not less than five hundred men on 
two first mentioned vessels, as besides 
iiey had many soldiers. The Le Gera 
>e in chase of another vessel. The Diana 
? made for us, captain Cunningham at 
proaching them. As we approached 
shot, one of the Spaniards on each side 
very moment that our flag was hoisted, 
^ without hailing, or without any cere- 
K)me of her cannon, loaded with grape 
r, into us, and a volley of musketry, 
igfaam immediately leaped upon a gun 
tatin^ who we were and demanding the 
ir firmg. The firing continued, mter- 
th the most vulgar and billingsgate 
served a single musket aimed from the 
^ of the Cassidor, and evidently intend- 
in Cunningham, who was conspicuous 
tion on the gun and his epaulette; but 
lately, by a few inches, missed aim, and 
breast of a marine, and lodged in his 

ordered to send a boat on board. Capt. 
I said he would not send, but he would 
at. We were then ordered by the Diana 
>at on board, and lower our mainsail, 
^t, that in case of refusal, they would 
iptain Cunningham ordered lieut. A. S. 
» proceed on board of the Diana, where 
ns were taken from him, and he was 
ir a guard of marines; the gig's crew 
irons, threatened to be hung, and beat 
I, the marks of which are yet evident. 
r a lieutenant came on board of the Fire- 
irhile conversing with capt. Cunningham 
, was hailed from the Cassitdor, and 
) get out of danger, as tliey intended to 
board ajid shew no quarters. He replied 
re an Americxm; the reply was that we 
irels and liars, and again was poured 
ay epithet of abuse that cowardice or 
>uid sug^^st, and a single musket shot 
At this time capt. Cunnmgham commit- 
ly act which, in my opinion, was not 
recti it was the result of his feelings, 
pnent, soured and irritated by the con- 
Q«wsr<ily awASsinSf heexclaimed> open- 

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i«d NiLES^ WtSKLT BE6lgl*Eft~-SATllftDAY, 0€TOftfift 19, 1816. 

in^ bis bosom imd springing on a ffun, "fire at me, 
but not at my men." The Spanish boat's crew, that 
brought the Spanish lieutenant on board of us, when 
they heard the last threat^ leaped overboard, well 
knowing their, own nation, and convinced that tlie 
ocean presented more probable chances of escape 
than our deck. The Spanish lieutenant was tlicn 
hailed from the Diana, and he ordered capt Cun- 
ningham to proceed to the Diana; before he tvent, 
he ordered the colors down, which the Spanish 
lieutenant would not permit to be done. The Spa- 
nish lieutenant mentioned, while on board of us^ 
that we had no right to navigate the Gulf of Mexico 
— that the Spanish king claimed its exclusive sove- 
reignty; that we could have no commerce there to 
protect; that a new g^ernor general had arrived at 
Vera Cruz, who had ordered out all the vessefU to 
scour the coas-; that the whole coast was in a state 
of blockade; that their orders were to respect the 
f^ag of no nation; that to them there %vas no differ- 
ence between the flag of the insurgents and pirates 
(as they termed the Mexican republicans) and the 
United States. Among other insults, equally un- 
justifiable, Jie accused the brave and respectable 
captain Porter, ofthe brig Boxer, of robbing a Spa- 
nish vessel and of being a pirate. The Spanish lieu- 
tenant was then hailed, and proceeded to the Diana, 
and soon returned witli a party of marines, and took 
^ssession of the Firebrand, stating that we were 
to go to Vera Cnij!, and if the governor found it all 
rignt, he would pay the expence of our detention^ 
A real Spanish sentiment — dollars a salvo for wound- 
ed honor and outraged feelings. Our vessel was 
searcJied; and, being prisoners, the signals were 
sunk. The Spanish lieutenant was again hailed, 
and proceeded to the Diana, ami shortly after we 
were gratified by the return of our commander. 
Heat. Campbell and gig's crow. 

Capt. Cunningham, when he cnterd on board of 
the Diiana, offered his sworil as a prisoner, which 
was refiised, and be was told that he must follow 
the Spaniards to Vera Cruz, which he indignantly 
rejected. His reply was, that as they liad so vastly 
a superior force, they might -take him where they 
chose, but that he would follow no vessel, and tliat 
he should represent the whole transaction to his 
government. A scene of vulgarity, confusion and 
abuse; passed on board the Diana, that would dis- 
grace an American cabin boy. 

It U owing to the firmness of capt. Canningham 
that we have ^een enabled to reach oiu* own shores, 
and tliat I have this opportunity to address you. 

For I am fully convinced, that no difl:erent 
treatment would hare been measured to a non-com- 
batant, tlian was xnilicted on our sailors, fetters and 

To me, who saw all that passed, tliere is not a 
dotibt that the Spaniards, by their outrage and 
vulgar^ abuse, wishetl to provoke us to some act of 
hostility that would afford them a pretext for our 
indiscriminate butchery. They stood ready to 
Uischarge from two large vessels 42 heavy g^ims, 
against a small vessel of 8 gims. They fired with- 
out hailing, they continued tlieir fire after they 
ascertained who we were; they fired once after our 
lieutenant was on board of their vessel; they abused 
us by every vulgar epithet; they imprisoned our 
officer, and fettered and flogged our men; they made 
disgraceful propositions to us; they deliberately 
aimed at our commander, searched our vessel, and 
stigmatized the worthy Porter as a pirate. 

And, sir, wltli me j^er this recital you will be 
compelled to believe that they intended to sacrifice 
us to their dastardly and ignoble passion tbr as- 

sassmadon. I<nt thank God we wc»€ saved by ^ 

firmness and prudence of our commander, vfc 

calmly auted who and what ^e Were, q 

indignantly rejected a propositttm, nOt conMsta 

%vith the character of an American officer to acccf 

— owing to him we have the opporVitnity of coS 

plainmg to the American g^vemmeot' of the wantd 

violence offered to its citizens, aiid the base i 

tempt to tarnish tiie reputation of its flag. ToS 

justice we appeal, knowing by experi^ce that (^ 

government will be prompt to redf ess out wroid 

and uphold the honor ofotir flag, f an^ &C- 1 

Mro OHeam^ Sept. l6>^Undep a free andpopuU 

form of ^vemment like ours, it is the high privil J 

of the citizen to form and express his opmions \ 

aH tnring emergencies. The govj^ment itself i 

bound to regard the public sentinMMMv a^^d in sonJ 

measure to direct it* operations in confbrmity to iJ 

There is little doubt that in consequence o( u 

unexampled outrage upon the national flag; and A 

measuret of retaliation adopted by the Haoalc9tuimd 

er on the JV^w Orleant Haiion, our country it on th^ 

eve of a war. It is proposed, there^e, that ameii 

ing of the citizens of New Orleans he held on ThurJ 

day at 1 1 o^clock, at Maspero's coffee housei lo onU 

to express, in a respectful addf»s to the exccutW 

of the United States, our indigfnation at tbeoatra« 

committed upon oiu* flag, and our readmess to stq 

port the government in such nxeasures mt ttspf tw 

m order to obtain satisfaction f6r the same. 

Sept. 20. — At a numerous and respectable loeelim 

of the citizens of New Orleans, held on Tlrarsds 

the 10th of September, 1816, agreeably tonotid 

in' til e pnbRc prints, in conpeouence ofthe liS 

wanton and atrociotis attack upon the hMior a 

the American ftac^, by three ships of war belonj 

ing to the kmg or Spain :— 1 

The hon. Josluta Lewis was called to the dkiir, m 

Peter K. Wagner appointed secretaf)^.- 

The objects fhr which the meeting WM calle 

having been briefly stated, the following ttsou 

tions were moved, and the sense of the nieetln 

having been separatafy taken, upon thenr, thi^ wei 

carried unanimously; with the exceptim*'.^ tl 

last, which however, was adopted hifn, r^tf \v% 

matority. m 

Jiexolvedf That the cowardly attack made by t6 
Spanish squadron upon a small vessel of wifOf tl 
United States, on the hi^h scas, excites oor Mgbc 
indignation — that the circimistancea wMdi feooofl 
panied and followed this attack, are ealcuU^ 1 
inflict a lasting wound on the honor of tbe ni&Ba, 
suffered to go unrevenged. . \f^ 

BewlvedfTh^t indignities and stnpOi, Hfete 
on our brave seamen, when not expect^ "a 
hostility, they had put themselves in th^ poiH 
of an overwhelming force, mutt corrode tbe nij 
of every American, until the remembranee^iall I 
erased by ample expiation. 

Resolved, That the assertion of t]k«* cxdusij 
right to navigate any part of th»h^ seaa, set« 
by the offieera of Spain, is as ridicukMMi as it I 
insolent, and if not abandoned oug^t to be^resbti 
with the whole force of the nation. I 

Refolvedf That should a recourse bebaA«o tH 
to procure satisfaction for these injuries idlf insult 
we will cheerfully incur tiie risks Ml iftJAsptthii 
crifices incident to such a state of things and ha 
by pledge ourselves to our government to. WpW 
tlie measures they may think fit to ado|it aitk ^ 
subject. J 

Heaolved, That the king of Spam„ indemmt)^ 
of the United States, through his minister D^ 
Onis, a cession of part ofthe tttritory of iht^m 

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tf UMiiftiallAy evinced as well a disposition to find 
pretcxti ef hostility with the United States, as an 
utter disregard for the solemn obli^tion of treaties; 
tui dint ve never will consent to tlie surrender of 
ttf por^on of our fellow-citizens to the dominion 
of caffrup|aon» cruelty, and superstition. 

M tth v^ That a committee be appointed to 
tfvmilt these resolutions to the jiresident of the 
l^iit«9 State»^ together with a respectful address, 
dcjoliria^ our readines to support him in such 
BfMTM as he may adopt to obtain satisfaction for 
the lajberiolation of our flag; and Messrs. Duncan, 
Cywm» and Dnrezac are appointed said committee. 
Jk99ived, Tliat it is our opinion that the com- 
mWfit^ naval officer on this station ought to pro- 
Mfd U> take immediate satbfaction for the insult 
offered to a Vessel under his command, and to the 
hg^fff countiys and that, if he should have taken 

* 'iment 
e, and 
) will 
id his 

d im- 
id we 
Its for 
iv rau- 
s have 
en the 
ith, to 
ver 30 
ins are 


Lie fuad 

•. : gen. 
Ir. Bay- 
s. Hei-- 

r. Y;et 

r. Bod< 
to con 

gress; but it appears that Mi^all, a repubHcan 
idso, is the colleague of Mr. M'Lane, fed. Mr. H. 
had one vote more than Mr. U. 

Specie is still flowing into the United States from 
various quarters — Several very large sums have re- 
cently arrived. If the current continues, and the 
banks continue (if it be posatt)le to continue) the 
present system of curtailing their business, they 
will probably bo more able to pay specif orf the 
1st of July next tlian they ever were. 

Exchange* Drafts on Boston, We are told, have 
been sold as low as 4 per cent, at Baltimore. But 
the fair price is consideimbly higlier — from 6 to 8. 
Some people seem to have been alarmed lest they 
should be at par, from the export of flour to the 

• Emigration continues at the rate of from 4 to 600 
pe? week, from England, Ireland, &c. Another large 
body of ^wiss is expected. 

MortaUty. — There is said to liave been one hurt- 
dred funerals -in a day at Point Pctre, Guadaloupe! 
Several other places iji the West Indies seem almost 
as severely afllicted. The disease, supposed to have 
been brought to Antigua from Guadaloupe, was^ 
making great ravages there. One-third of the inha- 
bitants is said to have died at the last named place. 
J^fediten'anean gquadron. — It is imderstood that 
our force in tlie Mediterranean will not be reduced. 
Canada. — The governor general has prohibitei 
the import of bread stuffs, &c. from the Unitea 
States — the alarm about a scarcity having passed 

Gas Lights. Pipes are laid in several streets in 
Baltimore for the purpose of lighting them with 
gas. The corporation of ^'cwTork are adopting 
means for the same purpose. 

Ocean Stean^ottt. A sub«<;ription to raise a ca- 
pital of 8125,000 has beeti opened at New-Orleans, 
to build a steam boat to ply between tliat city and 
New-York, with leave to touch at the Havana. 

The harvesu Notwithstanding the great alarm 
tliat has been felt in Bumpe and America on account 
of an expected deficiency of com, &c. there is rea- 
son to believe that the crops, on the whole, will be 
about as good as \;sual. Alany districts of country, 
however, are short of the accustomed supply. 

The Firebrand. Those who read the Wkkklt Hk- 
GisTBR are perfectly satisfieil that we are not among 
those that would recommend passiveness under 
/Spanish aggressions. We believe that if it can be 
the true interest of one nation to be at war with 
another, that otu* interest would be promoted by a 
quarrel with Spain — nor have we any love for her 
ideot king, and bigottetl people. But we think it 
well to susi>end our opinion as to the character in 
which the lute attack upon the Firebrand should be 
viewed, until we lieai* further of the matter. It 
may be impossible to justify the conduct of the 
Spaniards; yet let us wait the oiHcial representa- 
tion. Our fellow citizens at New-Orleans, however, 
wlio have a good opportunity of knowing il»e merits 
of the case, affe very indignant at it. We have 
given in a preceding page all of importance that 
w^ have heard of this outrage, witli an account of 
the proceedings had thereon. 

GuBAT NAVAL DKPOT. — The United States^' agents^ 
appointed to survey several rivers, emptying into 
the Chesapeake, for the purpose of ascertaining the- 
most eligible spot for a naval depot, have complet- 
ed their labor; and, it is u.ulcrstood, that Gosport 
has been fixed on as possessing superior advantages; 
to a»>y other site in that part of the country. 

It is stated in the Alb.iny Register, that a few 
weeks since a merchant from England, committed 

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tnlcide in Xew.Y()vki fn consequence of despondency 
from loss experienced in the side of goods he brought 

The Antediluvian lady has arrlred in Boston. 
Her future residence is to be in the parlour of the 
Anticuarian society. 

Steam boats. We lately mentioned the launch of 
a steam boat at Sackett's Harbor; a second, for lake 
Ontario* has been lauched at Ernest, U. Canada;— 
The Kington Gazette observes— "the opposite sides 
of this lake, which not long ago vied with each other 
in the building of ships of war, seem now to be 
equally emulous of commercial superioriW.** 

list of chartered bank* in the state of Ohio, 
Miami £jq>orting Company. . 

Farmers and Mechanics' Baiik of Chicinnati* 
Bank of Cincinnati. 
Bank of Chilicothe. 
Farmers, Mechanics and Manufacturers' Bank of 

'the Lebanon Miami Bankmg Company. 
The Davton Manufacturing Company. 
The Vroana Bankmg Company. 
The Bank of Marietta. 
The Bank of Muskingum. 

The Zanesville Canal and Manufacturing Company. 
The Bank of Steubenville. 
The German Bank of Wooster. 
The Columbiana Bank of New Lisbon. 
The Franklin Bank of Columbus. 
The Lancaster Bunk of Ohio. 
The Belmont Bank of St. Clairsvi!le. 
The Commercial Bank of Lake Erie. 
The Bank of Mount Pleasant. 
The Bank of West Union. 
The Western Reserve Bank. 

LoRDoir coxxERCB. 306 ships cleifred of their 
cargoes, in the Thames, in the montli of July— 39 
from Portugal, Spain and the South of Europe; 22 
from Bordeaux, Oporto and Teneriffe ; 135 from 
Dutch and Russian and northern ports; 12 from Irish 
ports; 17 from the French coast, and 25 from Am& 
rica, the rest chiefly coasting vessels. 

A ORCAT xoBTAR, a tTophy from France, is exhi- 
biting in St. James* park, Loiulon. Its weight is 
said to be 13,300 lbs. 

CoicxaiA, s. c{. By a late census the population 

of this town was ascertained to be as follows: 

Whites, .... 1031 

Free persons of colour, - 84 

Slaves, - - . * - 943 


IsLAT^D or icB. Captain Gooday, of the ship Jones, 
arrived at this port, informs us, that on hb pas- 
sage fbom St. Petersburg, on the 31st of August, in 
the latitude of 46, 50, long. 47, 54, he saw an island 
of ice, from' about a mile to a mile and a half long, 
and from fifty to seventy feet high. When first seen 
it appeared like a white cloud. We do not recol- 
lect ever to have heard of ice being seen in the 
Atlantic ocean so late in the summer. — JV". Y. Gaz. 
District of coluxbia. An abstract from the 
returns made by the principal assessor of the dis- 
trict of Columbia, to the treasury department: 
Alexandria county contains 782 assessa- 
ble persons whose houses, land and 
slaves are valued at % 3,259,901 

deorgetown, 645 assessable persons 2^325,605 
Whashington, 750 do. do. 2,391,357 

non-residents, 780 do. 1,099,194 

Total number of assessable perKms S,S47. 

Of which Alexandria county pays $$3,667 % 

Georgetown 2,616 3i 

Washington, residents 2,691 15 

oo. non-residents 1,237 68 


3510,212 44 
The above valuatibnft ^lirere made in 1815, and 
ag^eably to the law of congress, no addltiohs have 
been made on account of improvements, and no de-, 
duction, except where slaves have died, run away* 
or otherwise become usdess, or property destroy- 
ed by fire, or Other decay. The tax levied is 11 
1-4 cents on each valuation of 100 dollars. 

Alex, Herald, 

Salt in Tenneeaee. We congratulate the citizens ot 
E. Tennessee on the late discove^ of an inexhausti- 
ble quantity of salt water, of the first quality. It 
IB thought by some, to be next inferior to King's. 
The company, composed of Judge Powell, Gillen- 
waters, Wilson, and Looney, have succeeded beyond 
their most sanguine expectations in procuring this 
invaluible article. The works are situated on Poor 
Valley Creek, about nine miles north west of this 
place. Ad attempt to procure salt water, was made 
at this same lick, by a Mr. James, about twentj 
years ago, but after penetrating the rock 70 or 80 
feet, he abandoned it The present proprietors 
have bored upwards of two hundred feet fbrtber, 
and struck 25 br 30 veins of salt water, which vitt 
enable them to tupply at least all east Tennessee, 
with plenty of salt. The benefits we will derive 
from this gnnd dWcovery, are incalculable. The 
immense sums of money paid bv the citizens of this 
state to Virginia for salt, will now be saved. It 
will also render us independent of Virginia. The 
company deserve g^eat praise for their public spirit 
and perseverance.— [i^o^^^*^ Gazette, 


The resolution adopted by cOA^press at their last 
session, relative to having a Regis\er printed once 
in every two years of all the agents and officers of 
government, with the state or country ia which 
they were bom, originated from a resolution oflTered 
in the house of representatives, Dec. 12, 1815, % 
gov. Wright, in these words : 

**Re»olved, That each member of the senate and 
house of representatives be annually furnished, with 
a copy of the Reg^ters of the army and navy of 
the United States, with the state or nation of Uieir 

This was read, and referred to Messrs. Pickerings 
Wright and Bassett; who, on the 5th of JnaOMry, 
reported a resolution requiring^ the secretary of 
state to compile and prints once in every two years, 
a Register of all officers and agents, civil, milita^ 
and naval in tlie service of the United SUtes.** This 
was afterwards agreed to in committee of the whole, 
reported without amendment, and ordered to be 
engrossed; passed, as we believe, without a division, 
and sent to the senate, where it was referred, rqictft- 
ed without amendment, and finally passed, with 
little, if any, opposition. 

We give this brief history of this resolution to 
shew, that it orig^ated irith a distinguished re- 
publican, and passed with the general c««i6ent of 
both parties; and that therefore it could not have 
been considered in congress, as we observe itSs 
by tome individuals out of it, as tending to introdo^ 
an invidious distinction between native andadi^ited 
citizens, or between dtisent of differeot aectioM ^ 
the union. 

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\«. 9 ♦># VUL. XI.] 


[U'UULK x». *269. 

Nac olim intmamsse juvadit. — Viaoii- 


«*Fbobablb population— 1820." The tables un- 
der this head, inserted in our paper of the 14th ult. 
paj^ 35, have been very extensively noticed, par- 
ticular^ by tlie re-publication of a neat and inte- 
resting article founded thereon, wluchfi rst appear- 
ed in the Richmond Compiler. 

But in this article there are two errors we wish 
to correct. Whether they originated with the Com- 
piler, or were made by copyists from that paper, we 
hare not. ascertained — we* have observed them in 
perhaps fifty publications, and wish they may be 
rectihed in all. Sensible of our liability to mis- 
take in things of this kind, we are anxious that 
what we venture upon may be fairly stated. 

We are made to say, tliat the "Jlfim«<fApi* ter- 
ritory would probably increase at the rate of 500 
per cent, for the 10 years ending with 1820. This 
is the rate we allowed to tlie present small popula- 
tion of Micuioa:^, that for Mississippi being stated 
at 12$. 

It is also said, that we gave the greatest Increase 
of all tlie Atlantic states to **Petm»ylvama" being 
S3 1-3 per cent. It will be seen by referring to 
the table that we supposed the population of Nxw- 
Vbax would rise at the rate of fft if per cent. 

Those who have copied tlie article as alluded to 
wiH be pleased to insert this notice. 

Refotmatiou and Retrencliment 

There are very few «*thinking people" in the United 
States, of forty years old and upwards, that have 
not remarked the wonderful change which has taken 
place in manners and habits amongst us, within the 
.'Ust thirty years. The progress of luxury and ex- 
tnvagance has been unparalleled— and, indeed, the 
j*f«ent generation regards the last as having had a 
sort of antediluvian character. The domesUc eco- 
DOmv of old JSToah and his sons and tJieir wives, 
Woiud hardly appear more strange and ridiculous to 
some, if it were as well known to them, than the 
customs of the men and women of that age wherein 
independence was won from the tyrant that would 
have enslaved our country, 

I, myself, can well recollect when a dish of sou 
cfumg' tea was the nepUts ultra of "ladies of quality" 
— ^h«i tlie most substantial mastei'-mechanics sat 
down to tlieir meals with -working- aprom on to de- 
fend their small clothes. When the wealthiest peo- 
ple wore boots only on jounnes, a pair lasting them 
fi*e or seven years; it being regarded the finish 
of iqppery to use them on other occasions. AVhen 
women, of tJie first respectability, spejit the morn 
login their kitchens, clothed with «Aor/ gowns, and 
men were content with coats costbig 10 or 15 dol- 
te. Such yas the state of society, not in rural life, 
hoi 2^ a large town, adjacent to the largest city hi 
the union* and having a full sliare of fashionables. 

But'ft is useless ^o recapitulate — tlie mere men- 
to of these things will lead to the recollection of a 
tspkbed others in a moment, pertaining to the cha- 

fence, gradually altered the manners and liabits of 
^citizens of the United States, until we arrived 
at oar present stage of luxury and exVUvagance, 

for which there is no precedent. Our commerce, 
which theretofore had consisted in a mere exchange 
of ruw^ commodities and provisions for articles of 
necessity, or at most of comfort and convenience, 
suddenly expanded, and made us familiar with Uie 
choicest and most costly things of Eui-ope and A.siA. 
As the general wealth increased, through tlic tradu 
thus opaied, the use of them spread like a conta» 
gion: what were at first mdulged in as rarities, grew 
common and soon appeared to be necessaries. The 
man accustomed to a silver can is loath to use a 
brown jug, though the water is as well contained 
m the one as the other. Such is the force of luxii- 
rious habits, which grow upon us just as they are 

Europe, returned to a state of general peace, is 
about to "restore** her old customs. The French 
must return to tlieir ^ooodeii shoes and soup maigre^ 
and the people of every country more or less re- 
vert to their ancient economical habits. The a;v*- 
ficial condition of society must give place to its na^ 
tural order, to secure the me;ais of a livelihood-^ 
abating only such enjoyments as reasoaAbly come 
from an improvement in the arts. 

Reformation and retrenchment are nmch easiet 
preached than practised. There is somellung ex- 
tremely unpleasant and severe in the idea of deny- 
ing" ourselves the luxuries we have enjoyed. Our 
pride is alai-med, and we revolt even at an economy 
that equally secures us all the comforts we had in ex- 
travagance. The present generation, I allude to those 
of 35 or 40 years old, have been brought up in thia 
profusion — it is their "second nature,** and most dif- 
ficult to change. But it must be changed. The state 
that permitted its existence has existence no lon- 
ger: tJie cause has ceased and the effect must stop. 
The wealth of the United States and of individuals!, 
immensely advanced in the period stated, affords a 
capital on which enjoyment may be tor soaie time 
stmsisted; tliis capital, however, must rapidly de- 
cline, with Europe at peace, by a mere exchange of 
our raw products for her useful manufuctuici and 
useless gewgaws — and the end willbe, that man/ 
who miglit live plentifully, by a faithful and patriotic 
economy, will be reduced to absolute misery and 
distress, through a spirit of pride and an indulgence 
in foreign superfluous commodities. 

I am not of tliose who desire a return to the «'gooA 
old times'* which have so much felicity hi the vo- 
lumes of romance — when legislators eat tlieir bread 
and cheese for dinner on the steps of the state-houst, 
and men were punished for kissmg their wives on a 
Sunday. The ease and comfort of society has asto- 
nishingly advanced within a few years, and I should 
regret, mdeed, tliat any of the solid pleasures of 
life were forbidden to my fellow citizens. Let them 
have abundance, but let them retire from ex- 
travagance ! A piece of roasted beef^ or even a 
pair of **canvas-back ducks" will eat as sweet on a 
well-scoured pine or oak table as on one made ai 
mahogany. Many people of fashion expend as nmcU 
money for cut-glass to set off a side-boa^d in tht^ir 

*ikw of our people for industry and economy ^ - - . - 

t)ie,great events rising out of the revolution of (Uning-room, as it would have cost a man of double 

their fortune, 30 years ago, to furnish, in tlie most 
elegant stile, a drawing or baU-room. The example 
of this spreads like theyettow-fcver, and tjiou^ds 

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litivc folly enougli to ape what they cannot presume :be as much disposed to laugh at a **Jack^'* dresicd 
1 ) rival. It may be policy in the wcalUiy of some in the present stile, as we would if a lady were now 
cotuitiles, where laboy abounds, to possess such ito appear in our streets clothed as was the tip of 

' — ' - -»-- J— ^~-: f -.«.i.*«a ^g ^Qfy 3Q years ago— with a hoop round her body 

large enough to encompass a puncheon of rum!— 
The wealth created by our labor will then remain 

things, and exhibit them for the imitation of otliers 
^of other countries— but with us, the cost of them 
' is just so nuich drawn from the wealth of the nation 
and deposited in tl^e hands of foreign ei-s— so much 
IfiSt, "witli its interest forever," to the comitry, and 
sliouid be discouraged. These remarks apply 
f quallv to a thousand other articles in use that real- 
ly add' nothing to tlie comforts or conveniences of 
IHe. • 1 

The evili to be apprehended from the profuse 
h.ihits of the people, will be powerfully assisted in 
lljcir ulterior effects by tlie molded aristocracy which 
tlie same artificial state gave rise to—I mean our 
BiNKLNo iKg-riTUTioss. Tlic solvcncy of thousands 
lias been made to depend on the caprice or rapacity 
of those who manage the funds of the banks; and 
many of those who hold the piu^e-strings are too 
igno'i-ant of the nature of trade, as well as too con- 
tracted in tlicir ideas, to be invented with the power 
winch a diapobul of such an accumulated capital 
gives them. The banks were originally got up for 
public convenience, but have too generally been 
devoted to private speculation — to advance the in- 
terest of tlwi few in the grinding-down of the many. 
The chain in buhiness is so close, tliat almost every 
jn.'ui ill the community is aff'ected by the conduct 
of the banks, good or bad; and this has especially 
been the case bince the suspension of specie pay- 
n^jcnts. 1 am clearly of opinion that if the mania for 
these institutions be not checked, that they will do 
n.oie to humble the high-minded people of the 
United States, llian boasted IVelUngton^ with hun- 
dreds of thousands of his boasted «*Scolch Greys,"* 
provided with all they could desire for reducing us 
t>i'*uncondiiional submission," could do, being true 
to oiuselves. Unfortunately, the establishment of 
one bunk has afforded a pretext for the establbh 
ment of another to counteract its supposed partial 
(jpcraiion, imlil wherever there is a "church, 
blftcksmitirs shop and a tavern" seems a proper 
icite for one of tlieml The effect of tliese is coming 
to the feelings of every m^in, and a vast ruin must 
be made before we can get down to a peace enta- 
bUshmvnt. Their evil has yet hardly begun, if they 
persevere in the coui*ses they have generally adopt- 
t;d — and sacrifices of men and property will accu- 
mulate as the thing goes on like a snow-ball, to the 

at home, and have a circulation amongst us. Every 
day will more and more convince us of the neces- 
sity of this, for every day brings the trade and com- 
merce of the world more and more to its natural 
level; and we shall find that no nation will buy of 
us merely because we may buy of them. " There 
is no friendship in trade." 

Seriously impressed with the importance of these 
trutlis, I have deliberately resolved for myself, 
hereafter, to apply them as closely as I can, and 
gradually approach the desired state of tlnngs. If 
my remarks shall induce one other roan to do so, my 
purpose is accomplished. 

making of immense fortunes Ibr tliose who com- 
maiul the funds; though, in the end, many of the 
banks must fail like individuals. The present multi- 
tude of them in the United States is no more fitted 
to the condition of societv, tlian a long- tailed coat 
becomes a sailor on ship-board. The skii*ts.must be 
cut of}', and g^eat will be tlie waste thereby occa- 
sioned! Tlierc cannot be security until Uiese are re- 
formed and reduced — until it shall be considered as 
, great a favor to receive as it is to give out the re- 
pL'cseniatives of money. The people have been too 
passive under the conduct of tiie banks. But the 
bubjcct is too extensive to be more than alluded to 
at tills time. 

To conclude — it is by reformation and retrench- 
ment only, that we can get into comfort, in the pre- 
{icjit state of tilt world. Let us banish from our 
tiouses all useless articles o^ foreign manufacture, 
und substitute the buck-skin like cloths and stout 
cottons of our own country for the fliinsey goods 
fa cm from Englandj particularly made for the Ame- 
1 icaii maiket. When tliese get inio fashion, we shall 

♦Stc the review, which follows. 

^^A visit to Flanders; 

There is a sort of madness in the British about the 

battle of Waterloo, as they call it, where they got 

the glory that the Prussians won, which justifies 

a laugh at their absurdities. 

"JVoitV/ioii/y is a word of the last age, whidh 
has risen ftom vulgar use into classical adoption, 
having became indispensible in defining the charac^ 
ter of the Scottish people. It is understood to be 
the most universal, inveterate, invincible character- 
istic of that nation. I am not at all disposed to be 
angrv at it; but even candid Scots, like Dr. Moore, 
admit tlie absurdities it leads its possessors into. 
We have all heard of Scotchmen denying tluit the 
American moons were equal to the stars of Scot- 
land; and of the patriotic integrity of him, who re* 
fused to admit that the American pumkins, tied on 
a pear tree, were equal to tlie pears "in the du^e of 
Argyle*s garden"— but, for my part« such a speci- 
men of nationality, as this "Field of Waterloo^** I 
have never before seen or heard of. 

Every body would admit, that there was glory in 
having conquered Napoleon, if tliere was anjr "mea- 
sure in the madness" of their exultation at it. Nay, 
we would endure any thing, but this meanness and 
insolence to a fallen foe. If we did not know to 
whom the Waterloo triumph did best belong, we 
I could ascertain it by the laughable absurdity of 

these pretentions. But we must make many allow-' 
ances for this work — its author was a Scotchman, a 
lawyer — a very self-sufficient, unreflecting, warm- 
headed, cold-hearted, sort of a roan— who went 
over to FL-mders, when the fever of unexpected 
glory was at its crisis, for the purpose of making a 
book, that should even '^astonish the natives afewJ* 
In such a case it was very convenient to believe all 
the marvellous stories that every sycophantic land- 
lord on the road could contrive; and disprove the 
less glorious accounts of British officers. — British 
ofiiccrsl — that was well enough — who believes their 
accounts, since their officials^ in the late war with 
America, have been repudiated by tjieir own admi- 

In the battle of Waterloo, our author says, that 
"fortune bestowed only one melancholy smile on the 
arms of Napoleon. No moment, even of temporary 
success, was their's in the line; but they did estab- 
lish themselves, vith twenty to one, in the post d 
La Haye Sainte," As this is the only place where 
he admiu that the French accomplished any thinf^, 
one b a little startled at it; but tlicn this unaccount- 
able accident is explained, when we are infiwmcd 

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that the post was defended hy the German legion, 
and that their ammimitiQU failed. That twenty 
Frenchmen^ "cased in iron,** could ovepcome one 
German, who had no ammunition, i^ possible; but 
had they encountered theRritish, or rather, the end- 
less Scotch Greys, in such a predicament, the result, 
it woukl seem, might have been verv different. 

In another instance, two hundred of the British 
attacked a column of the enemy, three thoiitatul 
strong, broke into the centre, and the "Scottish 
Greys** dashed into their support, "and the enemy, 
to a' man, were put to the sword or made prisonei*s!** 
Captain Bobadil was a modest, candid jjentlemaa; 
ami I shall think the belter of him for it hereafter, \ 
while I live. | 

After these specimens, it caimot be expected that : 
we would attempt to give tiie absurd and disgust- ! 
ing detail; but, nevertheless, we cannot suffer the | 
htwk to pass without remark, as we frOst its ungen- 1 
tlemanly, ungenerous, bombast and charlatanism, ; 
may ser/c to put down the Waterloo mania, which 
has so much disgraced his conn try. "iTie trite and I 
abused term glorj," says the author, "does not con- ; 
vey the idea of a hundredth part of the merit of! 
such unshaken constancy," refermg to an instance 
of what he calls courage: and as it is the only trait 
cf skill or cotirage that Wellington is mentioned to 
have exhibited at that battle, it is worth notice. 
Wellington was paying a visit to the troops of the 
95th, when a bo<ly'of French infantry happened to 
approach them: the British exclaimed, "let us at 
them— l«t us down upon them." His lordship's an- 
swer was, "not yet, my brave men; but you shall have 
at tltem soon;* firm a little longer — we imtst not be 
heat; what would they say in Englaiul.'" "The last 
caution,'* continues the author, "was praise rather 
than encouragement: for let any people on earth 
match it, ancient or modem — from Thermopyle 
downwards, through ages of ]%oman fiinnness and 
chivalrous enthusiasm!*^ I suppose the reader stares 
to see what could have drawai forth tliis rhodoman- 
taile — and well he may. And what is this moat iiiso- 
lent challenge for a parallel? — But we can furnish 
one— the case af an American officer, who used the 
very same expressions. Every body must recollect 
gen. Smyth, of Black Rock memory, and his threat- 
ening proclamations. He gave notice that he would 
ftjfht as soon as he had force sufficient to ensure a 
twlory — "but he must not be beat;'* those very 
words drew on Itim the indignation and ridicule of 
both the army and the country. What is the sen- 
timent of every cowanl in the hour of danger? •*! 
Woukl fight if I were sure tliat my enemy was ndt 
a match fiir me— but I must iK)t be beat. Oh lord ! 
tbat would never do— what would they say In t.]\f^- 
knd^" The brave man says to himself, "I may be 
conquered, but never can be disgraced, and that is 
enough.*' But this much must be said of gen. Smyth, 
that he expressed his feelings in the cool hour of 
ealculatioj); whereas Wellington's restrainhig or- 
ders were given amidst the ix)ar and animation of 
battle. General Hull comes something nearer — but 
will we cannot "match it." No, m»— John Palstaff, 
sergeant Ewart, captain Bobadil, lord Wellington, 
and his historian, Mr. Simpson, baron Muncliausen, 
and all the rest — you may continue to challenge the 
**ages of Roman firmness and chivalrous entKusi- 
asm." "We must not he;" and to be as sure 
AS possible of that, we must not fight if we can 
help it. 

Of Xapoleon, this author speaks most ungenerously 
tnd most absurdly — "he threw way," suys he, "in a 

*So eijgagemcnt took place on the occasion*. 

moment, the character founded on fifteen years of 
miracles." Rut how? Why he ordered l\is troops "to 
destroy, and break, and sweep away the En.i?!ish,'* 
and shewed an insensibility to the carnnge he was 
Causing; but particularly when Ins army was routed 
he repeatedly said, "let us save ourselves.*' Those 
fools tell us he simuld have attempted to retrieve 
tlie fortune of the day. What nonseu'^e is tliis — 
during the wlible day, they say, the battle was 
against him; and they reprobate his cruelty, in crv- 
ing, "forward, forward,*' tirging his troops to de- 
struction; but at night, when the Pnissian reinforce- 
ments had arrived, and the French were "turned 
topsy.tur^'y and thrown heels over head," he should 
have attempted to retrieve the battle. He should 
have desisted when he was sure of the victory; but 
he should have fimglit on when there was no chance* 
when the English had lost 15,000, as Mr. Simpson- 
says, and the French had lost ten times as manv, 
(see page s:^) that is, nearly one half more than 
they ha<l on the field, Napoleon should h.ive re- 
trieved tlie battle; but "he availed himself of the 
darkness and Uie crowd, ami sneaked away. It 
would have been qtiite suitable in a pick-pocket; 
but it wofidly misbecame an emperor." If such 
was the disgraceful conduct of Nnpoleon in defeat, 
what was the behavior of their idol Wellington dur- 
ing that battle, in which they say victory was not: 
for one moment dotibtful? *'*l'he anxieties of tl»c 
British chief were now over," says our author; — 
"they had been almost too much tobe l)orne. OfLeii. 
it is said, he had prayed, in agony, for the Prtisslani 
or the night! When their gin^s [the Prussians'] c nn- 
menced, it is described by otftrers, who heard it. 
as .<;omething like a yW/ of rapture, with which he 
called out, "there goes old Bluclier at last," aiu 
unable to bear up longer, burst into*' Bravo 
my good eulogist— this is the heroism that vov 
place in competition with what you call the distrao 
tion of Bonaparte. < 

During the battle, it is saijl, that the emperor fr<^ 
qnently praised the English troops, but particularly | 
the Scotch Greys. This, tliey s-iy, Was wTiing fron 
him; tliough, from the terms of his compliments 
they seem to h&ve been bestowed pretty freely— 
**quelle» auperbe» trouftes/** It puts one out of pati 
ence to see praises given to the ungenerous; for no* 
one sentence of praise could be wnmg from thes< 
vain, selfish wretches in rfsttmi. Some of tlie nobles 
instances of en til us last ic self-devotion that the WorU 
probably ever witnessed, are sneered at ;»nd imput 
ed to French vanity. This author, describing tlu 
wounded and dying at Antwerp, mentions one toss 
ing his amputated arm in the air, witli a feeble shou 
of "vive l^einpei'e'.tr.*' "To cease to cry out "vivt 
l^emperettr/* as long as breath or life lasted, was a 
thotight not to be endured for a moment." One o 
these miserable militai-y devotees, "at the momen 
of the preparations to take off his leg, declared, tha 
there was something he knew of, which would cur* 
him on the spot, and save his limb ami the opera 
tors trouble. When asked to explain this Strang, 
remark, he said, "a si,jht of the emperorl" Th 
indispensable amputatitTU did not save him; he die< 
in the surgeon's hands; ;in(l !»!s last words, stead 
fastly looking on his blood, w?re, tlut he woul. 
cheerfvdly shed the last drop in his veins for th 
great" This rold blooded writer, wh 
can deride a scene like thi:^, wliicli appeals to ever 
tender and elevated feeling of the lie.rt, cndeavoT 
to excuse himself, for the instdt he oHc;*s to \mn\R 
nature, by exclaiming — ^**Had the rrjocrormerite 
such hei-oic devotitm — luul he g^ofions^jr saorltic? 
hiiprsetf in tlie fieUfl;* &c. 

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IVitli what roiitempt an<l indignation, do we agp.iin 
> rc-ecbocd, the abominable sentiments of that 
prinriplcd woman, Helen Maria Williams. Bona- 
•Ic has been abused by the advocates of despot- 
) in tliis country, and in Europe, because he 
irned to commit suicide: he has been ridiculed 
1 insulted, because he did no\ seek refuge from 
jfortune upon the sword of his favorite Mamt- 
:c: but was found, the day after his abdication, 
king arrangements for his journey, and busied 
Hit the trifles of the toilette. 
Dhrislianity, or even humanity, amongst those hy- 
[;ri»ical legitimates, I did not expect; btit some 
•lial gleams of common sense, one m^ht have 
ked for. To our liumble apprehension, it needed 
)sc appalling and soul-trying reverses, fully to 
lelopc the mighty mind of that wonderful man. 
ave ne\er bestowed imqualificd eulogj' upon Na- 
leon— ercn iiis downfal ami his exile I will still 
ie may, finally, subserve the cause of freedom; 
L, as regards his personal character, permit me 
?ay,,that all those circumstances that subicct him 
the censure of his ungenerous enemies, place him 
I higher in my estimation. Fortune carried him 
X liigher pinnacle of glory than human being had 
ST before been placed upon, and then precipitated 
1 to the lowest condition which, it was presumetl, 
dd, in this eartli's dark habitations, be found for 
^ — behold him, cast down, but not crushed, by 
; fury of the world, or even the fi'owns of hea- 
I. The gay, glittering visions of power, that had 
ed him on, and wound then* ties round the weak- 
ises of hishe:irt, dashed away in an mstant— his 
ions conrjuered; but his mind, amidst the dark^ 
a of the frightful discomfiture, unconquerable. 
Argentine proposed as a model for Bonaparte!—- 
at most mad and useless instance of self-sacri- 
% tl»at degrades the character of a vain carpet 
ight, must point out the road ot honor to tlie con- 
:ror of nations. Oh heavens! what is thy blessed 
elation, and what is the farce and fallacy of ho- 
n reasoning, if morality is come to this? 

Gillespie's improved Steam Still. 

kVehave now before us an exemplification of Mr. 
lespie's plan, and do not hesitate to pronounce it 
improvement in the art of distillation. It is cal- 
the Log'ttiUt because the tub, its principiil cha- 
teristic, is formed by splitting a large log into 
irters, and cutting away tliat part of the timber 
ich had formed the heart of the tree, so as to 
re only the outside shell (except at pne end which 
ms the bottom of the tub) and then placing the 
CCS together, and rendering tliem firm witli 
>ps, like k common barrel. It is divided into two 
ts. In the lower is placed the fermented liquor 
ill beer) and the steam passing through that, 
ries the first distillation (singlings) through in- 
Led tubes, and con denses it in the upper part to a 
id state, but its heat sends ofTother steam, which 
he liquor desired; through the head on the top of 
tub,and thence through a pipe, which heals more 
mcnted liquor, in the usual way. The boiler does 
\ diifer materially, from those of Brown, and 
jst, that have been adopted in many parts of the 
ited States. It is not necessary, oor would it be 
y (without a draught,) to describe the aparatus 
«. Tlie patentee Mr. Kobcrt (iillespie, at Wash- 
ton, can give every requisite direction concern- 

t would a}>pear that the method of boiling witli 
im was applied to dye kettles in Europe, about 
IT years ago. It W(ts applied to dbtiUation about 

the year 1800. Dr. Brown and E. AVest, of Lex 
ington, Ky, obtained a patent in 1803, foi* a plan 
which t4iey publislied. In 1810, Mr. Bernard, of 
New- York state, obtained another patent, for a plan 
somewhat similar, which has been generally adopt- 
ed in tliat part of the country. As the patent of 
Brown and West, claims to be exclusive, it is of lit- 
tle consequence, as it is about to expire in three or 
four months. The advantage of Mr. Gillespie's me- 
thod seems to consist chiefly in its economy; and 
we would be glad to see it generally adopted; for 
if people cannot be dissuaded from the use of so 
pernicious an article as spirituous liquor, we must 
at least recognise the utility of every invention, by 
«rhich it can be manufactured, so as least to impair 
the health and the capital of tiie public. 

Connecticut Legislature- 


Gentietnen of tfte couneilf Mr. Speaker, and 
Gentlemen of tlie home of repretentativei. 

No important change in the foreign relations of 
the United States seems to have taken place since 
the last meeting of the legislature, nor has any 
event occurred to disturb our internal repose. It 
becomes us gratefully to acknowledge tlie Divine 
goodness in the continued enjoyment of peace 
abroad and of tranquility at home. 

That Uie advantages which were confidently ex- 
pected from the restoration of peace have not been 
realized in their full extent, is indeed a subject of 
regret, but not of despondency. The embarrass- 
,ments arising from a limited commerce, and the 
too successful competition of foreign vessels in the 
transportation even of our own productions, from 
the depressed sta^ of manufacturing employments, 
and the unequal and restricted operations of the 
monied institutions of the country, are evils to 
which no adequate remedies can be instantly ap- 
plied. I trust, nevertheless, they wiU be gradually 
subilued. The dbcouragements to navigation which 
may have grown out of the late commercial treaty 
will expire at no very distant period, and I think 
we may entertain a well-g^unded confidence tliat 
they will not be revived. Other embarrassments 
will undoubtedly disappear as the country shall 
return to the reg^ular pursuits of industry, and as 
Divine Providence may favor the characteristic as- 
siduity and enterprize of our citizens. In the mean 
time, tlie representatives of a people extensively 
concerned in the cultivation of the soil, and in the 
arts and manufactures with which it is connected, 
will not lose sight of these objects. I am persuaded, 
gentlemen, you will be disposed to afford them 
such encouragement as shadl comport with the 
best views of the interests of the commonwealth. 

I have the satisfaction to inform you, tliat the re- 
organization of i\r^ militia contemplated by the act 
of October last, has been effected as fiir as respects 
the infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The general 
orders eml>racing these arrangements will be sub- 
mitted to your examination. The formation of the 
regiments of riflemen will probably be completed 
in season for tlie appointment of their field officers 
at tlie present session. In discharging the diities 
enjoined by the act no pains hare been spared to 
fulfil the intentions of the legislature in a manner 
the least burdensome to individuals; to combine, m 
short, as much as possible, the personal accommoda- 
tion of our fellow citizens with regularity and effi- 
ciency in the system. How far the attempt has 
succeeded, time will determine. It woidd not be 
strange that in aiTangements afiecting in a grektet 

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or less degree nearly every company In the state, 
errors should have intervened from a want of tlie 
requisite information, or from other causes. These, 
it is hoped, are few, and when discovered, will be 
readily and cheerfully corrected. You will permit 
me, gentlemen, to congratulate you on the accom- 
plishment of a reform which recent events had 
shown to be every way desirable, and which, if 
carried into effect, as it unquestionably will be, 
with the accustomed spirit of our militia, must 
eminently conduce to the military strength, and 
consequently to tlie future safety of the state. . 

By particularly adverting to the act already 
mentioned, it will be seen that some further pro- 
visions are required to insure its complete opera- 
tion. You will also observe, tliat by a late act of 
congress, an alteration is prescribed in the rank 
and commissions of field officers — a regulation 
which you will doubtless consider it expedient to 
adopt at the present time. 

It is not my design, gentlemen, to detain you by 
an unnecessry reference to the various subjects 
which may suitably engage your attention. You 
will allow me, however, to remark, that the law 
which defines and ptmishes forg^ery, was passed at 
a period v/hcn the notes of incorporated banks con- 
stituted but a small proportion of the circulating 
medium of tlie country. Hence* to forge, alter, or 
counterfeit instruments of this description, was 
subjected to no higher penalties than were annex- 
ed to several offences which ai'e obviously of an 
inferior grade, whetlier we regard the temptation 
to the cnme, the frequency with which it is com- 
mited, or its injurious effects u|>on the great inter- 
ests of the community. If, therefore, in the one 
case, the punishment be now adequate, in the 
others it is manifestly too severe. Prom the free 
and general circulation of bank notes authorized by 
the different states, it would appear that this is 
peculiarly a question in which the respective states 
have a common concern, and are consequently in- 
terested in establishing a uniform mode of treating 
the offence. In many of them, it is believed, a much 
more exemplary punishment is inflicted than is 
^ecified in our laws. It is at any rate, to be de- 
sired, that a crime which strikes at tjie root of 
credit and confidence amongst men, should, if pos- 
sible, be effectually prevented. How far a change 
in the intercoui*8e of society requires a correspond- 
ing alteration of our criminal code in the case to 
which I have alluded, is a point respectfully sug- 
gested for your consideration. 

An election of president and vice president of the 
United States will be held in the month of Decem- 
ber next. Conformably to the existing law, it will 
be the duty of the legislature to appoint, within 
the limited time, the number of electors to which 
the sute is entitled. 

In all measures, gentlemen, which may be cal- 
culated to promote the welfare of our immediate 
constituents, or which shall contribute in any res- 
pect to support tlie national constitution, and ad- 
vance the prosperity si^d honor of our country, you 
may rely on my sincere and cheerful concurrence. 

General Assembly, Oct. session^ A. D. 1815. 

Maine Convention. 

Webvzsbat, OCT. 9. — The hon. judge Stebbins 
nwved for leave to have entered o^ the journals the 
following piu>TEST:— 
In comJiuim of cUlegatet, at BruMvnck, Oct. 9, J ^16. 

Being conrened in the first assembly callM in 

Maine, to tieliberateonthe momehtous sul^jcrt of 
forming the District into a separate state, a suHjr'^ t 
in which all the members of the convention have 
alike rights, duties and interests; we, whose names 
are underwritten, delegates in the convention, fef I 
deep regret that such diversity of opinion should 
prevail as to render it necessary for a minority to 
declare their dissent from the measures of the ma- 
jority. It would be in the highest degree gratify- 
ing to us, if discussion had produced a j'esult, in 
which we could have imited. But we hold, that all 
power emanates from the people; that no bodies of 
men, acting in virtue of delegated powers, have a 
right to designate not only to whom they will dele- 
gate power, but what power they will dcleprate; 
that according to our civil compact, by which "the 
whole people covenants with each citizen, iandcac!i 
citizen witli tlie whole people, that all shall be go- 
verned by certain laws for the common good," the 
citizens, besides their natural riijlits, possess, as 
members of the body politic, the rights secured 
by this covenant: that as this compact between the 
commonwealt!\ and its citizens is mutual, ii cannot, 
as respects any portion of its citizens, be annulled 
without mutual consent, and without power dcU^- 
gated from them, no man or body of men can esta- 
blish a new government over them, •r abolish that 
which they have legitimately established for them- 
selves. Considering these principles as true and 
unquestionable, we puotest against tlie repqrt of 
the committee on the subject of the returns of 
votes and the resolutions thereto subjoined, and 
against the vote of this convention yesterday pas- 
sed, for accepting the same : because we consi- 
der the said report and resolves, as in their general 
tenor and spirit inconsistent with these principles, 
and with propriety; and as instances we iidduce the 
following: — 

By the said report it appears that apart from the 
votes of the town of Lj'man, which were in our opi- 
nion improperly rejected, of which a majority of 
173 were against separation, there are returned 
11,969 votes in favor of separation, and 10,847 
against it; the former being less thun a majority of 
five to four of the votes returned. Nothing there- 
fore remains to be done by the convention. The 
only duty, in this event, assigned tb them by the 
legislature and their constituents, here terminates. 
An adjournment of this convention to a future day 
must throw upon our constituents an expense, with- 
out possible advantage, and without their consent. 
The exercise of farther powers by this convention, 
we are constrained to consider as rsunpATioi*. — 
"To proceed to form a constitution," is, in our vif w 
at once, a violation of express law, and an invasion 
of the rights of our constituents. 

We protest against a separation of Maine from 
the present government, by any means whatever, 
without the consent of tlie people. No such con- 
sent has been given. Their last vote was with a 
fuU understanding that a majority of five to four 
was necessary to a separation. This conclusion was 
by the competent authority rightfully adopted and 
became a law. It is a conclusion distinct and obvi- 
ous. It was di.stinet in the legislature, where it 
passed against but a small majority, who magnani- 
mously submitted to it, and constantly support it. 
It was, as we understand, and have never heard de- 
nie^, sanctioned by the votes of every member of 
the legislature present from Maine, who was in fa- 
vor the separation. It has been distinct in the mind 
of every voter and every citizen. How tlie people 
would have decided on a different question had a 
different question been submitted to them^ we have 

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\tr th^ knowledge nor tbe right to (iecree.-— 
principles of amendment variously inserted in 
constitutions of the slate* and of the union, 
ttenance the opinion entertained by many, that 
nintjis U u smaller proportion of votes than 
it to dissoU'c xhc important relations of civil 
ety. In the present chkc the proportion of pve- 
[i$ ^v^.& 6.\ed by a large majority and binding on 
whole. Shoujd the, late vole in fuvor of the se- 
ition of Maiiie be made tlie foundation of its 
;tion into a state, th.c government would be 
ided in force, not in right. The vote v»s given 
t coi^diiion wluch !\as not happened. 
Vq protest against a reference of this subject to 
general court for tlie purpose expressed in the 
>lution, because, for the reasons already men- 
led, it ib in our ostiroatlon, a request to that ho- 
able body to enact that whiph cannot be recpn- 
d with Constitutional principles nor actual fact. 
Vt protest agauist the proposed applica.tjoj} to 
g;rcss, because it is imseasonable and presents 
even a hopeful prospect of utility. And we pro- 
'- against addressing congress or the general 
rt on behalf of our fellow-citizens, because such 
ress implies a riglit to bind them by tiie result; 
ght which tliey have not given us. 
Ve protest against the report on which the reso- 
ons are predicated, as indecorous, as not cxpres- 
in terms, suitable to th« respect which tliis con- 
tion owf s itself, nor to tl»e honor due to the^ le- 
iiture— becuise, to our apprehension, it inti- 
:es in terms too plain to be misunderstoo<l, that, 
t aupfust body may *ail to do what ^'justice re- 
res;** and, though it purports to request advice 
direction, holds forth, in language of superiori- 
ind menace, a signification, that if the general 
rt should not do what we consider to be proper, 
shall contemn and disregard their opinion; and 
ice, as fyr as indicated in the report, to be sought 
he legislature, respects a ciise »u free fi-om doubt 
t a regard to our own understanding ;^nd tlu^t of 
legislature, forbids us to a^mit, even by impU- 
pn, that advipe is necessary, 
mpresaed with the presence of him who knows 
motives and will Judge them, w^ declare that 
ofl'er this protest not from a wish to discounten^ 
e a faithful and liberal discharge by this conven- 
\ of all the duties confided to tliem; but from a 
scientious belief that the measures against which 
protest are mistaken in principle and dangerous 
heir tendency; and, if ettectuated; will be sub- 
Bive of therighls and destructive to the liberties 
:he citizens. And we request that this dissent 
f be entered on the journal, and remain a wit- 
s for us that we seasonably and solemnly give 
: voice aad ^ifer our reasons against them. 

[&ijned by 71 mtmberg.] 
t was then resolved that the hon. Mr. Holmes, 
I Mjessrs. Davis, of Augusta, and Preble, of Saco, 
kuld be a committee topublisdi an address in an- 
erto the protest and in vindioatioa of tlie mea- 
es of th6 convention. 

rhe fi>llowing gentlemen were appointed a com- 
:tee to risport a constitution, &C. 
Messrs. Holmes, Dimn, Rodwell and Hobbs» of 
itcrbprough-^York county. 
Sessrs. Widgery, Foxcraft, Ingalls, and John 
ing, ofGumberUuid county. 
lesMTS. Dawes, Neal, of Litchfield; Thompson, of 
bon, and Jiaily, of Whitefield, in Lincoln county. 
lessrs. Chandler, Davis, of Augusta; Cushman, 
ston, and Hond, of Kcnnebeck county, 
tessrs. lloojjcr, 'J'urncr, and Btoel,*9f Oxford 

Messrs. Moore and Allen, of Somerset county. 

Messrs. Kinsley and Leavilt, of I'cnobscot county*- 

Mr. Merriam, of Hancock cmmty. 

Messrs. Paris, Davis, of Augusta; Preble, Gen. 
Chandler and Johnston, were appointed a commit- 
tee to muke application to the legislature of Mas^ 

Gen. King, Mr. Holmes and Gen. Cliandler are a 
committee to make application to congress. 

Sketches of the Barbary States* 

, NO. IV. and latt, 


On the conclusion of the second punic war, tlie 
power and resources of thQ Cartliagenians had be- 
cornieso weakened as to afford no prospect of diang- 
ing the obnoxious features of the treaty entered into 
with the Romans after the battle of Zuma: They^ 
however, hsd the consolation to know, tliat if they 
were unable to sliake off the yoke, that their weak- 
ness would be the means of insuring their tranqui- 
lity, and rendering dormant the destructive ambi- 
tion of their great rival— they were deceived in 
tlieir calcidations, and the opposition of the elder 
Qato laid the foundation fw the third punic war* 
The Carthagenians, finding their hopes of peace had 
fled, and perceiving their enemy Avas bentdn their 
destruction, prepared to make a desperate effort in 
defence of theur liberties. The RomAQs» under the 
command of tlie consuls, Marcius ^d Manilius, 
commenced the siege of Carthage, wliich was pro- - 
secttted with vigor, until a fleet and reinforcement 
arrived, and the besieging army were then com- 
manded by Scipio Emiuanus. This general, witlv 
his combined fbrces^ made bis dispositions with 
considerable ability; he blockaded the Carthage^ 
nian fleet, Mliich was sheltered in the inner harbor^ 
the celebrated Cotlion, and made preparations to 
bum them, by nteans of fire-ships; when the Car- 
thagenians, it is said, in one night, witli an incre- 
dible industry, cut a canal, by which tlieir fleet 
sailed out, and, doubling the point now called cape 
Carthage, blockaded the Homan fleet, which had 
taken shelter in the bay, opposite to the level part 
of the city, known by the name of the suburbs of 
Mendracium. This canal, or cut, as it is called b/ 
historians, is at present so choaked by the sand and 
earth, which have been collecting for some centu- 
ries, that it is somewhat difficult to identify it. 
After some labor, however, we were enabled to fix 
upon the spot. Th6 cut is at tlte base of tlie hill on 
which the citadel of Byrsa and the temple of Kscu- 
lapius stood. It ran between tlie upper and lower 
town called Megara; and, when viewing the same 
from the summit of cape Carthage, tlie length oP 
t!)is canal is a full half mile, and ran about souiiw 
ea:^t and north-west. 

Scipio continued the siege with great vigor, and 
gained onl)- inch by inch — Carthage was defended 
by Asdi'ubal, a man of dreadful energy-; and^ whei^ 
Scipio hud m.ide himself muater of the snbiu^jsand 
lower town, Asdrubal retreated into the cjtadel and 
continued to defend the city with great bravery-^ 
but, being overpowered by numbers, lie sued for 
peace, and deserting his companions, in the hour of 
danger, gave up tike citadel. The deserters and 
mercenaries, finding themselves betrayed, set fire 
to the splendid temple of Esculapius^ and the noble 
wife of Asdrubal, to mai'k her abhorr6nc^ of tho 
treacheiy and meanness of her husbaad, tlirew her- 
self ai\d)icr children into the flames. 

Thus fell CurthAge, and the flames that consttrtk-. 
^ed it lasted fccvcnleeq <Uys. IUMn,c> no.^ ^^ ^% 

i^iym£.cu uy -Kw^ ^.^ %^ 3^ IL, 



rival to contend with— a strong militaiy fq^ce still 
remained to her — without war or active employ- 
ment, they commenced a system of broils and com- 
motions^ which depraved their manners, corrupted 
their habits, introduced civfl wars and factions, un- 
til their liberties expired at the feet of Carthage. 

Several attempts were subsequently made to re- 
build the city of Dido by Tiberius Gracchus and 
iolius CaesaiN^and Strabo affirms, that a flourish- 
ing colony existed, celebrated for its schools of 
eloquence. In the new city St. Cyprian, Amobius 
and Lactantius resided, and rendered it celebrated their learning and piety. Carthage was still re- 
sored for new scenes of desolation. An unlocked 
Ibr enemy, after ovemmning Europe, suddenly 
made his appearance. The fierce Vandals, under 
Genieric, appeared before the walls of Carthage, 
and fixed his seat of empire in tliat city. These 
barbarians overran Africa— which they held for near 
a century; razed Carthage, its walls, aqueducts and 
towers to the earth— it was the ruins, as they left 
them, which we now viewed. Africa, in 647, fell 
into the hands of the Moors. 

We left Tunis early in the morning, with an es- 
cort, for the purpose of viewing the rums — and went 
out at the gate ca^ed Babelswaka, which opens in 
front of a modem aqueduct, built by Charles V. now 
used to convey water into two forts which guard 
the road to the palace, and at the same time com- 
mands the town. Carthage is nine miles froft Tunis; 
yet, 1 have reason to believe, that m its most flou* 
rishing time, wheii it contained upwards of a mil- 
lion of inhabitants, that Tunis must nearly have 
joined it. On the borders of tlie lake we meet, oc- 
casionally, with the foundation of houses very near 
Tunis; and the hollow sound arising from the horses 
hoofs at times, led us to believe that we were cross- 
ing some stibterraneons passage. In fact, Carthage 
was entirely imdermined, and for a most extensive 
distance, was composed of these subterranean ca- 
Terns — the hill on which the citadel was built is a 
complete shell; and, for several miles from Car 
thage, holes are seen in the earth, of considerable 
dejrth, flagged witli square stones, and leading, no 
doObt, to passages of great length: the confined air 
renders it impossible to explore these caverns to any 
distance—if it was possible, and was permitted, 
many valuable discoveries mi^t be made. The 
number of sieges tlus city has witnessed, its great 
wealth, and works of the arts it possessed, must 
have rendered these subterraneous passages ex- 
tremely tisefuL From Tunis to Carthage the road 
is perfectly level and clear, interspersed here and 
there with a few caroob trees. We leave the for- 
tress of the Goletta to tlie riglit, about a mile dis- 
tant, and first reach a beautiful spot called Marsa, 
at the fbot of Carthage, on which most of the fo- 
reign consuls have summer houses and gardens.— 
Carthage was boilt on three hills, and all historians 
concur al to this point. Yet these hills cannot be 
ditftingtnshed at any distance; but when you an*ivc 
at the foot, the three divisions are distinctly seen; 
these hills are not taken for cape Carthage, which 
is at a small distance behind them, and . near one 
hmidred ffeet higher; it was on the promontory 
where the citadel and temple of Escutapius stood, 
which was the strongest part of Carthage.— On 
the simimit of the hill there is at present a Tur- 
kish village, the burial place of a favorite saint, cal- 
led Sidi Busaid — formerly none but Mussulmen 
were permitted to pass tlirough this village; at pre- 
sent, this superstition is wearing away. On tlie ex- 
trene point and height of cape Carthage is a tower; 
used at present as a si^^al post to announce the ap- 

pearance of vessels bound in, who are seen at a dis- 
tance of thirty miles. Tliis tov^er was built by St. 
Louis of France; and on this spot the good kla,qf 
died while endeavoring to WTest the country from 
the Moors. 

It is impossible to conceive, or to describe the 
beauty of the surrounding^ countr}*, when viewed 
from this height — the eye glances over an amphi- 
theatre of above sixty miles in circximferonce. On 
the left, cape Bon and the village of Solimm, the 
high and curious shaped mountains of .Mamelif, at 
the foot of which are the celebrated mineral spring's, 
so often visited by the tloraans; the extensive b \v 
of Tunis, with the shipping and fortress of tlie Go- 
letta and the lake and city — to the right, the villaive 
of Ariana — and the gidph and town of Porto F.iri:ia 
below tlie ruins and site of Carthage — tlie vast plain 
on which stood the suburbs of Mendraciiim — the 
clusters of the olive and carOob trees, here anrl 
there interspersed with a few melancholy cypre "s, 
above which are occasionally neen the minarets of 
the mosques, gives a most delightful appearance to 
this situation; and when Carthage was in its most 
flourishing state, its splendid temples and expensive 
commerce, sui-rounded, as it was, with numcroi^H 
villages and tributary towns, must have truly made 
it the first cHy in the world; and it is much to he 
lamented, that so beautifid a country, with a s /il 
and climate fruitful and salubrious, should 
at tliis day in the powei' of Barbarians. 

The only remains of Carthage, yet in a perfect 
state, are the cisterns which supplied the ci;y\vitli 
water when besieged; these cisterns are of astonish- 
ing beauty, and form a row of cells or caverns, ench 
of which are about fifty feet in length, twenty in 
breadtli and twenty in depth. These 
built in an oval form, with great neatness; \])cy 
were plastered with a cement which Jias become 
hardened by time, and the water at this day in them 
is perfectly sweet; at the extremity of them sar.iU 
temples were built, and the aqueduct which s! re- 
plied tliem bi-ought tlie water fifty miles froiu Zow- 
an; the ruhis of the aqueduct are visible and t?.'i 
be easily traced the whole distance. The eiiuj-- 
prize and industry of the work has never since been 

Below the hill, on the sea, there are remains of 
an extensive mole, which tlie giudual approarb of 
the sea has covered— there are sufficient ruins, bow- 
ever, to justify the belief, that it was a most cxton^ 
sive work — large square masses of stone, of wiiich 
the mole was built, are seen in two or three f. et 
water; and some have been found with Uv'^o hoa 
rings affixed in them, to which the cables have been 

The whole of Carthage, which U rugged and un- 
even, is covered with ruins — foundations of bouses, 
cistei"ns, caverns, pieces of marble, broken columns, 
giving at once an idea of its natnreand exlent. 

The ruins of Utica are more interesiinj^ than 
those of Carthage, lliis city never could luive it- 
tained the magnitude and import iuce of Cai-J liajj^e; 
its situation, the defect in its maritime positi )n, 
and its close approximation to a place, alrcadx of 
the the highest political and commercial im'.oi-. 
tance, would have prevented its hicrease bc\ m I 
the site which its ruins now occupy. Accm-din '- lo 
the calculation of Appian, Utica was nine miles i?it:n 
Carthage. If thb calculation be correct, the dis- 
tance must have been computed from the extreme 
point of Carthage to the nearest point of Utici, as 
this city lies west and by north of Cartha.'^e, and 
aocord'mg to the road, which is somewhat ciic.nums, 
it Is at this day near sixteen milesr Wii lefi I'mas 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


hy the gate leftdinr to the palace at Bardo, and pas- 
Ted through a modem aqueduct, built by Charles 
V. for the purpose of introducing the water into 
the fortress of the Gaspa. The aqueduct is in good 
preservation and presents a noble appearance; be- 
yond t])is» nearly six miles, in a westerly direction, 
js part of. tlie aqueduct which brought the water 
JVom Zowan to Carthage— tjpwards of twelve cen- 
turies has elapsed since this wqrk was constructed 
— its duration appears co-eral with time, and marks 
the diiTerence between tlie solid and enterprising 
works of antiquity and the weak efforts of our mo- 
dem architecture. 

We Btnick off from the aqueduct to the north 
ward, and pursued a road lined with the olive and 
cai'oob tree, and about seven miles from Tunis ar- 
rived at a country seat of the bey's, palled Isabella. 
The Moorish villas and gardens bear little or no 
affinity to the warm and glowing descriptions ©f ro- 
mance. We look in vain for the splendid vestibule, 
the columns of poi-phyry — ^the cooling fountains, the 
light verandas, the windows of the harem, and the 
impervious groves of orange and pomegranate— We 
*ee, indeed, a confused mass of stone and mortar 
thrown together, witlwut taste or symmetry — long 
nallas, in the Spanish style, and a few fruit trees, 
scattered promiscuously anriong groves of olive — 
Isabella, however, is said to be the neatest country 
palace in the kingdom; and although the architec- 
ture is strictly Moorish, the ornaments of the inte- 
rior, and in fact, the^hole of the internal arrange- 
onents are in the Italian style. We were received 
by several Neapolitan slaves, to whqse care tfie pa- 
Jaoe is assigned, and who receive due notice of each 
•visit .contemplated by the bey or any of his femily. 
"We entered a spacious gateway, over, which a ram- 
Dart had been built, and on which several small 
I>rass field places are plac^, and pursued our way 
into tlie hall, which terminated in a view of a large 
tank OP cistern of water, near one hundred feet 
uquare, in which a small bqat and one or two fri- 
gates, in miniature, bearing the Ottoman flag, were 
moored. Around this tank, which by the Moors is 
called a jerbi, and the water of which flows into 
the ^dens, ran a range of marble columns, sup- 
porting a portico, from which the doors of the se- 
veral apsirtments were seen. In three apartments 
there is no furniture; the ceiling is richly orna- 
mented with stucco, the wall inlaid with colored 
marble, and a row of Ottomans, on which cushions 
are placed, form all the convenience and ornament 
of these palaoes. . . . 

The slaves prepared oeffee and lemonade for us; 
and, as the night approached, they seated themselves 
on the marble floor and gave us a description of 
tlieir unfortunate situation, the length of time Uiey 
had passed in slavery, their native country,birth and 
family. It appeared strange to us, but nq less true, 
that most of these Italians had been surprised by 
small parlies of Turks, who had landed fram their 
corsairs and made them prisoners. We woifld na- 
turally sup|>ose, that the terrors of captivity, joined 
to the facility of approaching the coast and afiTect- 
ing a landing, would induce the government to 
*dopt precautionary measures, such as fortifying 
the line of coast, arming the people, and embody- 
ing the militia, as would tend to afford a sure pro- 
tection from the inroads of these pirates. But, so 
it is, tiiat a territory of near 600 miles is wholly un- 
prepared for resistance; and it does not unfrequently 
happen, that a boat's crew land under cover of the 
niglit, and carry awav whole families into bondage. 
It would naturally be asked, are tJiese outrages 

ransom generally paid for a slave? or is it from JiM- 
red to the Christians? The motives are mixed — 
Avaripc has its full share, but religious prejudice 
is the powerful incentive. Many of these slaves 
were of respectable families — several had been 20 
years prisoners, and had almost lost all hope of be 
ing restored to their country. 

At dawn of day we were awoke by the Binging* 
of birds which perched on the iron lattices of tHe 
windows and regaled us with ,their melody.-^Cato 
had also been disturbed by these warblers a few 
minutes before he fell on his sword. We were a 
few leagues qnly from Utica, and felt the analogy 
of the situation— every thing around us looked 
flourishing— the country, the high road over which 
the Roman l^ons had marohetl, remained un- 
changed— the stern patriot and big little senate we^ 
no more. 

We mounted our horses, and precedrd by ai 
Jannissary as a ^de, we pursued the main road 
for about five miles, until it terminated by a narrow- 
path cut from a mountain, which;opened on an ex- 
tensive plain, at the extremity of which wepercciT- 
ed, on a rising ground, some scattered ruins. Tliis 
was Utica. 

We approached a river of about twenty yards 
wide with steep banks— over which we crossed in 
a^ flat; tlie remains of an ancient bridge were- in 
sight, the freshet had destroyed the piers which 
were dgcajred and partly sunken; our horses were 
safely Scri'ied over, and we turned to look back on 
the river we had passed. How frail arc tlie hopes 
of glory — ^liow sure is the corroding hand of Umc — 
it was tlie Bagrada of antiquitv we had passed, on 
the banks of which I^egulus had killed the enormotis 
serpent — ^its stream rolled sluggis^hly along, indif- 
ferent tq passing events. On the banks of this river 
now called Booshata by the Turks, have tlie legions 
of Hannibal marched, the triumphant army ofScipio 
encamped. How often, perhaps, has Qato paced itsf 
borders deeply revolving ^n his mind the state of 
tlie republic, and the me^^ns necessary to save the 
common cause from shipwr^ek, How often on that 
spot has tlie stern patriot vowed to live free or die^ 
Hqw often has the senate, relased from the perplex- 
ing careti of tlieir station, assembled on its banks 
to meditate on the high and solemn duties imposed 
on tliem. Here a Sempronius strongly urging mnj^ 
fiercely supporting a call for war, there Luoitis 
mildly essaying to calm those turbulent feelinga 
and wearing constiantly the silver smile of peace. 
A view of this spot is a collateral evidence of history, 
the even^ of wliich pass rapidly over the mind asf 
we trace the ruins of those splendid edifices which 
a spirited and liberal people had reared. We passed 
through a small camp of Qedouins or wandering 
Arabs who had pitched their tents, i|(kade of coarse 
hair cloth, on the banks of the river. The sun was 
just rising and tlirew arich tint on the surrounding 
country, ^n front we had a v^ew of the sea and tlie . 
distant island of Zimbn4 ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ under a bold 
and commanding promontory lay the town of Porta 
Farina, near which two or three of the bey's cruisers 
were moored — to the right and behind us, was an 
extensive plain bounded by narrow hills covered 
w i til verdure and olive trees. The air was pure an^ 
soft as it is in Attica, and we stopped near a tent to 
survey this rich and beautiful country, which a 
revolution of ages had thrown into the power of 
barbarians. We were soon assailed by the Arab 
dogs in the camp, whicli have the appearance of 
wolves, and are extremely fierce — our Jannissary 
tried to appease tliem in the Arabic language, but • 

committed for the sake of gaining the value of the not succeedmg, he drew ]ii5 pistol from his h^i 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



vijth an intention of shooting one of tliem, which 
he was prei^ted from doing 1^ their being called 
!^ by tbeir pwnen. 

The Mussulmen are not fond of strangers. Their 
fdd aad retiring disposition unsuits them for habits 
of social intereoor^. It is also contrary tQ their 
laws and cust^^n^ for their women to expose their 
fec e s- an d this is strictly observed in their towns 
md cities, but in th« country tliese laws are not 
rigidly eoforcefl. The Arab women and girls were 
empl^red aboQt the tents in domestic purposes — 
they viewed us with much indifference — the sim 
kad scorched them nearly black, they wore large 
silTer ear rings, and bracelets around their ancles, 
—and their appearance strongly reminded us of 
our American squaws— one of Uiem brought us a 
few pieees of colored glass, and some coins which 
^e bad found on the ruins; two of them were 
small copper coins which are frequently found in 
the oeigfiborhood, and are of little vahie; on one 
ikie is m. Numidian liorse, and on the reverse a 
vheat skea^— <me of the coins was a Constantlne 
in good pres^rvatien, and the other was one of 
the «npres9 Julia Faustina— we purchased them 
f» a trifle, and proceeded to view the ruins. Utica 
cciginally uras built on an eminence of nearly a 
blf mile in length, and extremely narrow country; 
contrary, however, to the custom pursued at Carth- 
^ and orUier important cities, \he public buildings 
vere built on the plain, and only the remains of an 
SRiphithentre are to be seen on the eminence. Utica 
■tost bftVe been a very small city;' traces of the wall 
by iHiich it was surrounded are still discemable; 
k took in the before mentioned eminence, and the 
^aflilei!«nee qif the whole city according to the 
best calcttlation, could not have been more than 
Aree maim, 

Tlie remains of the amphith^tre are a great 
eorioaitf-^ occupies nearly the entire widtli of 
fbe ^imncace, but there are no vestiges of founda- 
fkn «r ffOUM to be seen — it never could have been 
i|P|Nt*|irialed for gymnastic exercises, chariot races 
IT thm cjdiibition of gladiators, but was used for 
Maadya or mock sea fights. Its form is oval, 
JtAAfmM. Ibur hundred feet in circumference — 
dcp^ from the surfiice of the earth is apparently 
feet, and as nearly as we could j udge the wa- 
Cttave occQpiedadeptb of near ten feet. This 
§am0a it may be called, has an appearance 
' r giwul, and testifies the lib^rali^ of the 
whose amusement it was originally 
The water was introduced into the 
tram^kc Bagrada, by mes;is of an aqueduct, 
-^ — mi ivhieh are still to be seen on the 

-,, . ^- entered at one end and was let out 

. tite odM>-*the apertures for which, are still 

T!k» eminence orliill was sloped in order 

a» mmy entrance into the amphitheatre — 

m. ii^ present appearance it might have 

twenty thousand people. The Ror 

ymiUuiy attached to this 9pecies of 

1^' of the largest amphitheatres in 

«t present in the best preservation 

te.,niock sea fights — it is at a place 

^XHit nine miles from the sea, be- 

rnad Tripoli, near Ifax, and will contain 


', tia the plain, in order to discover 

saute house, and were naturally 

(t pile as affording the most 

its situation and extent, to 

s of the Goths and VandaU 

iMlttirated edifice. It was of stone 

cement, and so completely 

crumbled in ruins, that no correct idea could bq 
formed of its architecture, or internal decorationif. 
A circumstance, however, lately occurred, which 
left no room to doubt tliat this was the senate 
house. — It is contrary to tlie religious customs of 
Musselmen to dig for the purpose of discovering 
any atiques, or as they term it, anv coins or imager 
belonging to the christians. The first minister wa^ 
building a splendid mosque at Tunis, andha^ given 
orders to clig among the ruins of Charthage and 
Retii-a for columns of marble, many of which, and 
several of various colours were found, and were 
new polished for the mosque. While the Moors 
were digging in Utica and close to the pile of 
ruins which we concluded liad been the senate 
house, they discovered several marble statues 
which they brought to the minister of marine at 
the fortress of the Goletta, who permitted us to 
view them. They were all imperfect, but had 
beai rendered more so bv the barbarous custom 
of the Moors who mutilate every statue they 
discover by striking off the nose or breaking an ^ 
arm. One was a CoUossal figure in Roman dress, 
and was said to be a statue of Trajan— it had lost 
its head, and at some distance from tl^e figure a 
head was found and placed awkwardly on tlic 
shouldei*^ of the statue — the head evidently did 
not belong to tlie figure — it had a wreath of laurel 
bound round it, but was so mutilated, and tlie 
features destroyed, that no traces of them w^e 
lef^.— There were two figures of Vestals without 
heads or arms, the drapery of which was in tlie 
most perfect and delicate style of execution, the 
feet and sandals were in complete preservation. 
There was also a plain figure without drapery or 
arfns, the head of which was apparently flattened 
or cut off above the nose — it is evidei»t that this 
head supported a part of the dome or portico of 
the senate — the smaller figures may have occupied 
niches, several of which are still to be found, and 
the Colossal figure which appeared to be upwards 
of eight feet in height might have occupied the 
centrfe of the hall. These statues collectively were 
a great curiosity and a high value was in conse- 
quence placed on them by the minister. 

We discovered in Utica the same number of sub- 
terraneous caverns and passages as in Carthage, and 
in our sqrvey qf the ruins were frequently in danger 
of falling into them. One fact is strikingly appa- 
rent, that the sea had receded.from Utica since its 
destruction nearly two miles, as on the margin of 
the ruins we discovered several^ square blocks of 
stone, some of which were clamped together witii 
iron and formed a part of a mole, and in one of those 
blocks an iron ring was fastened — these circumstan- 
ces joined to the appearance of the earth and sun- 
dry ridpes or water marks left no doubt on our 
minds toat barks or small vessels could originally 
come up to the cit} ; at present there is not a suf- 
ficient aeptli of water in the Bagrada for the convey- 
ance of boats or sandals. 

We finished our survey of Utica, which thoug^i 
confined to a much smaller space than Carthage, is 
the most interesting of the two places — and we re* 
turned to Tunis. 

Our par(^ consisted of Americans, witJi one or 
two exceptions, and here it would not be improper 
to remark, that though separated from these inter 
esting spo'.s by a world of waters, inhabitants of an 
infant country, where science and the arts though 
progressing with rapid strides, have not attained 
maturity and perfection — they were animated by a 
zeal and industry — an enterprising curiosity and a 
perfect knowledee of the events Jn history relating 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


to this coimUy Which did credit to their studies 
and pursuits, and ^vhen it is considered that a ik- 
▼omle breeze will waft us to the ruins of Carthage 
and Utica in thirtv days, it is to be hoped that when 
the north of Africa becomes more tranquil that 
many of our citizens whose ]elsai*e and means 
«nite to justify a voyage there, will enrich their 
country with a more general description of the soil 
and climate — natural curiosities and historical facts, 
thaji we are ^-et in possession of relative to the states 
In Barbary. K. 

Foreign Articles. 

France. Nothing important has taken place since 
the date of our former intelligence. The same strict- 
ness of police and degradation of liberty still con- 
tinue. One of tlie loyal journals of Paris, the Fidele 
Jtmi fie Hot, (true friend of the king) has been sus- 
pended for publishing even a mutilated accovmt of 
the riots at Stratsburg and Nancy. The interdiction 
will soon be removed, but tlie paper will not here- 
after be permitted to appear in the evening. It is 
by this me.ins we are enabled to give the following 
aketch of these disturbances : 

**In one the public houses at Stratsburg, some of 
the lower class of the populace and certain tYench 
and Austrian hussars were drinking together; a 
number of the legion of the Vosges were there also. 
An altercation arose between some of the national 
lifuards and the regular ti*oops; tlie former were 
joined by the populace, and the treasonable cry of 
Five V Empereur! was proffered. Tht drum beat 
to arms, a skirmish ensued, and 130 persons Were 
killed and wounded on tlie di^ of the rebels. Nu- 
merous arrests have since taken place, and the town 
is said to be in ^ state of tranquility. 

••At Nancy, though no blood was spilt, th.e affair 
was of a more irpportant nature. An officer of the 
denie, fbimerly one of the chiefs of the military 
college at Mentz, and since employed in the war 
department, organized a most serious conspiracy to 
take possession of the town, and secure the per- 
sons of the royal authorities. A considerable num- 
ber of officers on half pay, and disaffected indivi- 
duals co-operated in tliis plan. Twenty minutes be- 
fore its explosion, it was denounced to gen. Villatte, 
who instantaneously had eleven of them seized, and 
the next morning twenty-six with their accompli- 
ces. Out of this list nineteen are ex-officen.** 

A crocodile from French Guiana has been landed 
at Havre without any accident. The formidable 
animal supported the voyage extremely well — it 
will arrive at Paris fortliwith. 

The duke of Wellington, on landing at Calais, 
was accompanied by cols. Churchill and Percy, and 
a pack of hounds, 72 in number. 

We observe an article from the Paris "Jotimal de 
Commerce^*' which speaks in high terms of the man- 
ner in which Mr. Hughes fulfilled his mission to 
Cartliagcna, in obtaining the liberation of the Ame- 
ricans, English and French that the Spaniairds had 
imprisonea there. In speaking of the arrangements 
to be made, it concludes with observing, that— 
"Wliatever may be tlie course of other powers, we 
shtidd be vei-y much sitrpiUed if tfie Americans sacri^ 
feed their diymty and the rights of their citixent, to 
their deference for the Spanish gwemment,^ 

The British 4»arliament stands prordgued until 
the 4th of November. The harvest, in England, 
«een;)s abundant. 120 persons, condemned to trans- 
portation and confined in Newgate, made a despe- 
rate effort to recover their libertv, but fiuled. The 
♦'Ludilitcs" have rfccotnmeu«cd the breaking q\\ 

ttiachines; they de8tra>ed 13 at Stableford. T&ere 
have been several defaulters in the Lbndoh liodL^ 
market. Consols continue at about 62. A tmikAt- 
pot will be established at Ceylon. 

We are authorized to declare, for the fcttlhi 
time, (says the London Courier J that the gQ^«n- 
ment do not think, and ne%'er have thought oP| i 
reduction of the interest of the natbnal debt;«r6fi 
any other violation of public faith. 

Speaking of the "alien bilP which has passed Iht 
British parliament, i!i spite of th« vigorous opffMli- 
tion of many enlightened members in both houses, 
the London Monthly Magazine says, "it m^rt 
more properly have been called a bill to export the 
intelligence and genius of Europe to the Unked 
States of America." 

In allusion to the Dartmoor butchery, the same 
publication has the following :— "We caiuiot di». 
semble our concern, tliat a subject so deeply in- 
volving the feelings of two great nations, shoidd 
not, at least pro forma, hare been a subject of dis* 
cussion in the British legislature.** 

In South America, says the Monthly M-igazint; 
the patriotic cause languislies, and inuch blood is 
spilt for want of effective external assistance. South 
America, in truth, wants a Franklin and a Wash' 

The London papers mention the in tire loss, on the 
German coast, of tlie Abelino, Capt. Moiso'ir, 
after leaving Hamburg for Boston.— -It is ranch 
feared, that a large part of the new library pmrohas- 
ed for Mh. Jkppebso!^, in Paris and Germany^ were 
shipped on board this vessel, as also many Biivaltuf- 
blc literary wortcs, selected in Prance and Germany 
by professor Evaaurr, for the Cambridge Unheni^, 

We obserre in the papers^ the account of an Ame- 
rican frigate and brig, having attacked «Hire Bat* 
barian vessels," near Algiers; but as we tldnk it 
quite incredible, we pass over the particukn. 

At tlife trial of the Ludditfes in Nottinghrt, (Eng- 
land) befi)re judge Graham, (says the Cohimlmn} In 
August, no less than aeventy-one persons BW<»e to 
an alibi in the case of the prisoners on tnaJi, When 
it was notoriously false. On this ocCvttttAtb, ^i 
Dublhi E. Post remarks— "Such wholesale 
is not on record— it exhibits a most firigMril 
of the state of morals in England— but, it is, '^nmA* 
ble, more alarming in a political view. Itmiw^ 
that a general and alarming combination of tfte 
against the rich is in active and compUte 

One Towle was found g^Hty, and sentence 
death was passed upon him. In going tti tgiAt* 
turning from the court, the judge was insid^ed* 
the populace. "W^e understand, (says the £fte> 
paper of August 16,) that a fine of .^ 5,000 h^ bea 
set on the county, for the iniurioUs example H hi 
afforded in tlie excesses by which it has been distil 
guished." I 

From the London Slfttr.— We have rec^v«d ti 
counts £rom Naples announcing that an AmMiSi 
smiadron under commodore Chauncey, et»0gom 
of a ship of the line, two frigates and a corvet^,hii 
arrived before that city, having on board IVIr, Ksdt 
ney, who has demanded of the Neapolitan 
ment 4,000,000 piasters as an equivalent I 
rican property, confiscated' during this rdgn-tf 
rat. Mr. P. has, it is said, accompanied m0 
with a threat of bombardment, if justice ian^ 
This demand has been rejected and pr< 
have been made to give the Amei'icatis a 
ception. The government have constructed 
to heat bullets and have mounted the 1 
with cahtion of heavy calibre. Tlic Austriaii' 

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^ of HiyA tbe kin^ of Naples has taken into 
servk^Oeeil|}ytHe castle and all tlieforU. The 
ipdliUMare counting on the arrival of an English 
laiim to prevent the Americans fi-om commit- 

f, /u^ 23.— On the 4th of June the 
dor Unded at Constantinople, on tlie 
the grand vizier and received from 
B ilrtpii of four beautiful horses, one an Ara- 
^omit tilne. He also offered him a pelisse 

fai^XiSf 30.— England has ten thousand men 
K jgtie $«vcn Islands, but it does not seem as 
m Ji^inded to remain, li is tliought that they 
Pc H&tto jom lord Exmouth, for which service 
^vetekept in readiness. These klands are all 


futtlM «t Boston we have the following inte- 
Mthf ^taeiea. England has really atucked 
It^ ju)d humbled the barbarians. We are 
Bflcetehr |l>d of it — but the action has been se- 
ffflt K II worthy of remaik, as we go along, 
HwHQ^ iM said about ^wmco— every regu- 
iUm i^brs to Europe only. Yet we care not— 
Ifteanitid will ^manage our own affairs in our 
rtrntiy.** The British behaved, it appears, witli 
^c«Vn|^ And skill. 

M|te. ^3. The president of the Anti-Bar- 
in WMbntioD, h^d yesterday, a private audi- 
i«tf Uifliiiesty; vrho, before he passed into his 
w«V f«*^y complimented tlie president upon 
i iMMSbbment of the great object of their 
himiistt^n, by the brilliant success of the 
RiMl^Mpediiion against Algiers-,- the news of 
idlMKen received by his majesty in a des^ 
AMtttbe French consul residing in that re 

g^lSl Httmediate result of this ereat success, 
^ iri^ted by lord Exmouth, has been, 
• Jfe^estruction of the piratical cruisers, 
tikttfim of all Uie Europeans in slavery, and 
•Ao^bi of the capture of them in future. 
d^lpSbof the operation of this signal act of 

£jA8t tlie nest (foyer) of the piratical 
a not delav officially to publish. In 
^^ the (bUowmg particulacs are authen- 

„ t6 the accounts from Algiers, dated 

aiV the English 6eet presented itself be- 
tiff on the 27th August, at about one in 
* »*», to the number of 32 sail, of which 
•liuob frigates. 
iMig fruitlessly tried negociations, lord 

An Algerine flrigate being vn fir^, and t\f\vcn by 
the winds upon the English admiral, forced the lat- 
ter to cut his cables, and withdraw from the battle 
for some time. His lordship was wounded, and n 
captain of one of the frigates was killed. The dey 
did not cease, during the whole action, to pass fVom 
post to po*?t, animating his soldiers. 

It is said that the loss on board of lord ExmoutL's 
ship was 200 men. 

On the 28th, the English squadron anchored in 
the great harbor, but out of cannon shot from the 
town. On the 29th, an armistice was concluded, 
upon the basis which lord Exmouth had previously 
proposed. The following are the piiucipal condi- 
tions: — 

Ist. The Algerine regency consents to itboVish 
the slavery of Eurnpemxa in Algiers; and in conse- 
quence, to set at liberty, immediately, all Ettro- 
pean9 in captivity. 

2d. As a reparation for the tvTongs done at l^onx 
and Oran, the regency shall remit to England the 
370,000 dollars, which have been sent by the Nea- 
politans to Algiers. 

3d. Consular presents shall be abolished; but as 
it is the usage of the East, they may be admitted as 
personal presents, on the arrival of n new consul, 
and given in his own name, but shall never exceed 
500 pounds sterling. 

4tli. Thekingdomof the Netherlands, in conse- 
quence of the co-operation of the Dtitch souadron 
in the expedition, shall enjoy the same privileges 
as England. 

5th. A new treaty shall be formed between Enp:- 
Imd and Algiers, in which the kingdom of the Ne- 
therlands shall be included. 

Other articles of the armistice stipulate that the 
regency shall preserve the right of making war up- 
on certain European powers; but that those of thei:* 
subjects who mav fell into their hands, shall never 
be made slaves, but treated as prisoners of war. 

Another account of the afTair at Algiers state.^, 
that the dey had been compelled to give up all the 
money that h.e had received of the various F.vropenu 
powers, and to release 11,000 white European 
shives. The English lost 800 men and one of tlieir 
ships suffered much. 

On the 5th of Sept a royal ordonnance was i«5sucd, 
requiring a new election of 258 deputies in the 86 
departments of France. By a late census the po- 
pulation of France is ascertamed to be 29,400,000 

An American schooner arrived, Auglist 19, at Ra- 
venna. The captain proceeded immediately to Rome 
f€M»e4 his vessels to be*moored at half on business with the pope. Another account says it 

iiOl distance, under the batteries of tlie 

MlOtd; his own ship placed at the entrance 

l^pt^ knd so near the wharves that his yards 

•^ mt hoQses; and his batteries tukiug in 

illAof the interior of the poi-t, bore directly 

ei^ikmia^ of tlie port, who rcmabied 

tfte English was sustained more than 

only served to increase the rage of pies on a special mission, and he is to proceed to 

, %lien two English officers demanded 
to go in a small vessel, and set fire to the 
' IKgnte, which blocked up the en- 
port-— this being complied with the 
entire success; a fresh west wind in 
sH fire to the whole fleet, 5 frigates, 
i 20 gun-boats, which were consumed. 
M-^uffcred less, although tlie bombs 
' W considerable destruction there.— 
Iteet experienced a very heavy loss. It 
that Xjo^t l9s gn ts^c^ si'd^ i« 1.000 ni^a, 

was a frigate that anchored at Ravenna. 

The London Times, of Sept. 6, contradicts the 
report t)f the American squadron intoidinpf to bom- 
bard Naples, and adds, "wh.itcver are tlie claims 
of the Americans, they have been bi*oiight forward 
in a more decent way. On the 8th of Auc^ust, Mr, 
Pinkney presented his letters of credentials to the 
king of the Two Sicilies. lie has been sent to N.n^ 

St. Petersburg, when is accomplished. It is 
pretended, already, that he is to a cc.'Jhion 
of territory, in cast the Neapolitan government 
shall not discover tlie disposition, or the means of 
satisfying the demand of the Americans in money. 
The Lipari Isles have been mentioned, hut it is not 
probable that the court of Naples will consent to 
such an arrangement ! ! !** 

The same paper mentions a report Spain li;t* 
ceded to the court of Rio Janeiro, all the Uft ban'; 
<#f Vfce HJvcr Phtii; au4 that the lattj?r had ceded lo 

Digitized by 



tlie former in th« form of a dower of the princesses, 
the province of Olivenza. 

By an order from the prefect of the department 
of the Meuse^ the distillation of hrandy from grain 
is forbidden. 

Sept. 14.— The details which we have given of 
the attack on Algiers, were brought to Marseilles 
by a French corvette. It is added, tliat the buttle 
of the 2rth, lasted from 2 o'^clock in the afternoon 
to after mislnight; ami the dey dissatisfied with the 
measures taken by his minister of marine, had cut 
off his head. 

JVaples, Aug. 18. — Thp American squadron re- 
mains in pur road. It i$ said, they are desirous to 
enlist the colonists who are here. By a regulation 
f>f tlie scpiadroB, tlie indiscriminate visit of all per< 
tons thei'eunto is proliibited. 

24th. — As to tlie American dsums, the first de- 
mand of four milUons of dollars was at first referred 
by tlie government to the congrefs of Vienna. But 
it appears that at tlie time, its intervention was not 
accepted. The urgent demands of Mr. Pinkney 
gave rise to a thousand rumors. Some say that 
^he government lias promised to pay; others that 
they have definitively consented to the cession of a 
port in the Mcditeri*anean. But it has not been de- 
determined, as has been pretended, to cede Syracuse. 
The Lipari Isles are likewise spoken of, situated in 
the North West extremity of Sicily, called in tlic 
classical ages the Oeonian Islands} but they ^ave 
110 port fit for accommodating tiic wants of the Ame- 

London^ S^pt. 7. Three per cent. cons. 62 1-8.— 
Five per cpnt. 92|. 

S€pu 9. Three per cents. 62^. 

Original letter from Dr. Franklin, 

The following is an original, and was sometime 
since published in the Poar Folio. It will excite, 
it is presumed, no ordinary degree of attention. It 
will be read by some with eagerness, because it is 
from the pen of Dr. Franklin — and, in the opinion of 
bis disciples, it is no superstition to venerate every 
thing from lUm, as a precious relic. It will be read 
by others, as a curious specimen of tlie doctor's li- 
beralvU' of sentiment on religious wibjects:— t 

* {Pet. Jut 
FtsiLxsKLFBiA, June 6, 1753. 

Sib— I received your kind letter of the 2d iiist. 
JUid am glad that you' increase in strength — I hope 
you will continue mending till you recover your for- 
mer hcaltii and firmness. J.ct me know whether 
you still use tlio cold buth and wlut effect it has, 

As to the kindness you mcnrion, 1 wish it* could 
have been of more sci*vice to you. But if it had, 
the only thanks I should desire, is that you would 
always be equally ready to serve any otfier person 
that may need your assistance, and so let good of- 
fices go round, for mankind ai*e all of a family. 

For my own part, when I am employed in sei-r- 
ing otherii, 1 do not look upon myself as conferring 
favors, but as paying debts. In my travels, and 
since my settlement, I have r^eived much kind- 
ness from men to whom I shall never have an oppor- 
tunity of making the least direct return. And num- 
berless mercies from God, who is infinitely above 
being benefitted by our services. The kindness 
from men I can, therefore, only retiuni to their fel- 
low men, and I can only shew my gratitude for 
these mercies from God by a readiness to help his 
other clrildren and my brethren. For 1 do not think 
that tlianks and compliments,^ though repeated 
weekly, can discbarge our obligations to each other 

and much less of those to our creator. Y^tt « 
this my notion of good works, that I sm Jfarl 
expecting, as you suppose, to merit heareitiif^ 
By Heaven we understand a state of happSyii^ 
finite in degree and eternal in duration-^ ctf 
nothing to deserve such reward. He, ^!tailtfw\ 
ing a draught of water to a thirsty perioi^'^ 
expect to be paid with a good plantatkm mtKik 
modest in his demands compared with tftKitei 
think they deserve heaven fiir the little gooA i 
do here on eartli. £ven the mixed, impcrfetjj 
sures we enjoy in this world, are rather &0nt' 64 
goodness than our merit— how much VMM •) 
happiness of heaven. For my part, I hare lliiit^ 
vanity to tliink I deserve it, the folly to d^>6et 
nor th^ ambitbn to desire it—but content myi 
in .submitting to the will and disposal of 4^1 Q 
who made,, who has hitherto preserved aildMsl 
me, and in whose fiitlierly gooilness I may #^^ 
fide, that he will never make me miscMrible, 'i 
that even the afHictions I may at atiy iatee Ml 
shall tend to my benefi^t. 

The faith you mention has, doubtle^B^ , Its 
in the world. I do not desire to see it d 
nor would I endeavor to lessen it in any 
wish it were more productive of good W« 
I have generally seen it— I mean real good 
works of kindness, charity, mercy and pi^^ict 
rit — not holliday keeping, sermon readinjf wW 
ing, performing church ceremonies, or longjMi^ 
filled with flatteries and compliments^* fw^ 
even by wise men, and much less capabl^b^plC 
ing the Deity, The worsliip of God is Ifc^Mti \ 
hearing and reading of sermons may be VlidU,'1 
if men rest in hearing and praying, as to^M^'j 
it is as if a tree should value itWli on beia|^m&i 
and putting forth leaves, thougli it never |a « |id< < 
any fruit. \our great master tliouglit nte# kll 
these outward appearances and profeg»ioim ^ami 
of his modern aiscij)les. He preferred Ite Al 
of the word to the mere hearers, the son ttlit:*»M 
ingly refused to obey hi&father^ andyeyyu^ofil 
his commands, to him that professed U» jMdIl 
but neglected tlie work— the heretical, bciViciitt 
ble Samaritan, to the uncharitable, thoug^^alO^ 
priest and sanctified Levite-^and those Al> gl 
food to the hungry, drink to the thirs^» tvlAMl 
die naked, and entertainment to the stnfljMi^ I 
relief to the sick, though tliey never hettSUif I 
name, he declares thev sliall in the first i|nrw 
cepted, when those who cry l^rd, I/)rd, vmf^ 
themselves on their faith, though gre«t«.eMKti 
perfimn miracles, but liave neglected good 
shall be rejected He professed he cane not to^ 
the righteous, but siimers to repentance 
impliedly in his modest opinion, that there w 
in his time so pood, that they needed not to 
iiim, even for impi-ovemcnt — but, now-a-/'" 
have scarce a little parson that does net 
tlie duty of every man,. wiUiin Ids reach, t» ait^ 
der his petty admiaistration, and that who^vior 
tliero, oifends God. \ wish to such more " 
and to you healtli and happiness, being y( 
and servant, B. FR " ~ 


Between fiction and fact, it would apQ^Hflf^, 4 
America is assuming a most alarming attit " 

the nations of the world. ^The late 

priAts say, that we have augmented our 
amur to 18,000, and are buildhig 17 ships of 
22 frigates and 20 steam frigates! tliat Mr. , 
has demanded §4,000,000 fo>m Naples, f<^ 

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prapeity confiscated In Afurat's reign; — \hmt 
ithstitened to bombard them in case of re- 
t]vp English fieet were going lo as- 
iUiift ! 1 ! — See ''foreign articles." 
brif^ is now building at Salem, by 
a^GeorgeCrowniiishield. Her model, 
ct, celebrated for his skill in the art 
^43 iHTOnounced by competent judges 
(f^fuvre. As no expense liks been 
>rpffobably the best built vessel in the 
OC^ressly intended for a voyage of 
travels in the Mediterranean, and 
arc peculiarly extensive. — 
^ ^ i» a large dining room, In a style of 
Mfi^^lmBce never surpassed. 
m. ^^f judge Parle, and Mr. Sbarpe, have 
' ted comnussioners from the new state 
to Bieeociate with the Miamies. It is 
that we purcliase of land on the bran- 

lil'I^Wiite River is the object in view. 

Ife ciDed» are committing considerable 
OQ the whites, by murders and rob- 

tf« ji^CHnma.— A great fire was ragmg at 
4IMMP.4B the 28th alt. The best part of 
PPiU|^ba4 been burnt *<between Toulouse 
pMate^Mit of the city and Royal and Bour- 
imttr It ia said that the theatre and eighty 
fipM'Bieai consumed^-the £^e was not stop- 
vMllpBCCOttnt eame away. 
L.^ .• ^New York, Oct. 21, Bills on Bos- 
UCBt pretn. ; on Philadelphia, 4^ dis. ; 
Vlrgin]A,4; North Carolina 4; South 
2. United States* 6 per cent. 

«neroQ8 friend of the editor of the 

t%Ulipolla, O. says — "Notwithstanding 

mg^ s^asotiy we have made in this 

oi wine — ^the connoiseurshave a 

it SO far as it can be judged of at 

Itprores i^ood, I intend to send you a 

,^,|iui^ about GalUpBUf has been fre 

^^IMdbilof as possessmg superior qualities — 

' compliment will be very aocepta- 

■er was ^ven to gen. Lefebvre Da- 
' olis. 

^ tieetun, A general election has just 

I Kew Jersey for members of thelegis 

It in given in the True American 


Q > 



P > 

5 18 

The election for members of congress and elec- 
tors of president, &c. will take place on tlie first 
Tuesday of next month, by general ticket. There 
is no feilei*al opposition. 

Peniiaylvama. We have not received the com- 
plete returns of the election in this state, 

Vern%ont, Election for governor — J. Oalusha, rep- 
17,162; gen. Strong, fed. 13,888. All the republi- 
can ticket prevailed bv nearly the same majority. 
Six republicans, instead of six federalists, are elect- 
ed to congress. Republican majority in assembly, 40. 

Conneciiaa has recently elected her members of 
congress, &c. They are Timothy Pitkin, Jonatlian 
O. Moseley, Sylvanus Backus, Charles Denmson^ 
Samuel B. Sherwood, Thomas S. Williams, Uriel 
Holmes, all federaliats. All except the two first are 
new members. Mr. Pitkin, at the head of the fede- 
ral ticket, had 6139, and Mr. Hontiagdon, at the head 
of the republican ticket, had 4647 rotes. 

The gallant coL l^ierce, late of the*arbty, has been 
elected sherifTof Ches^ county. Pa. 

William H. Craw/ord, secretary of war, is appoint- 
ed by the president of the United States, to be te« 
cretarif •/ the Weantry, in the place of Mr. Dallas, 
resigned. We have not heard, (says the Mitionat 
InteUigencerJ who is to succeed Mr. Crawford ia 
the war department As the business of Uiat ofiice 
is not now very urgent, it is possible the vacancy 
may not be immediately filled. 

Com. Tinixton has been elected and commission- 
ed sheriff of Philadelphia city and county. 

Ohio. — Gen. Worth ington is probably re-elected 
goveraor of Ohio. Gen.llarrison is elected to the 15tk 
congress, as well as to supply the vacancy occasion- 
ed by the resignation of Mr. M'Lean. 

South' Carolina. — Henry Middleton ts elected to 
congress from Charleston district, over Mr. Crafts 
(both rep.) by a majority of 300 votes. 

Com — 1300 bushels of Indian com have been im- 
ported into Connecticut from the island of St, Do* 
mingo, where it was raised and cost about 75 cents 
per bushel! 


We have the happiest accounts fromifi^no* Ayret, 
The new government appears to have quieted all 
dissention, and union is the order of tlie day — thia 
insures success. At tlie 1st of Sept. nothing was 
known there of the much talked-of Portuguese ex- 
pedition. We have accounts of some partial sue- 
cesses of the patriots over the royalists in the inte- 
rior — "Gen. Padilla attributes the success of the pa- 
triots to the energy and spirit that pervaded Uie 
people of every class throughout the country, more 
especially the ladies;-^among whom is particularly 
mentioned the lady of the commander in chief, gen. 
Padilla; an also. Donna Juana Axurdy, who, at the 
head of 30 privates and 200 countrymen, had put to 
flight the enemy in several rencqntres. In one of 
which, she in person wrested from an ensign of a 
company the colors which had been presents them 
for their bravery, manifested in the conquest of the 
cities of La Paz, Peru, Arequipa and Cuzco. The 
colors were richly embroidered, and on the flag 
were figures emblematic of their valor. The same 
Gazette contains the act of the independence." 

Gen. Morillo ha9 declared Carthagena a free port. 
We fear he has succeeded in establishing the au- 
thority of the inquisition and king in this quarter, 
for tlie time being; but the patriots are still m arms 
and resisting. 

JWw Orleans Sept. 27.— We have just received 
the following news firom the coast of Mexico: 

^^Boqtdla de Pedra, Sept. 16. — General Gaudlupe 
Motoric hfs be»tci\ th^ enemy sa Orbsav:^ and 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


taken from th^m all the crop of tobacc^o, so preci- 
ous for iktteninp their treasury. Thecommnndant 
Tcran haclgone by forced marches to the vila^es on 
tlie coast, to the soutli of Vera Cruz, to seize on 
the port of Guazacualcos, from whence the royal- 
ists fled to Vera Cruz, according to a number of in- 
tercepted letters. 

**A Spanish squadron lately sent several launches, 
manned by a hundred soldiers, to drive the patri- 
ots from Boquila de Pedra — but the Dons, repulsed 
with the loss of several men, retired with the great- 
est precipitation.*' 

A Charleston paper sajTh-"Capt. George of the 
schooner Caroline, from Havana, informs, tliat three 
days previous to his sailing, he read in the Havana 
JXavo ^ account of the vice roy of Mexico (gene- 
ral Apod AC a) having marched from Vera Crnz, 
wlierc he lately arrived from Havanna, for Mexico; 
on his way he met with a party of insurg^ts, 
amounting so % or 5000 men, and after a desperate 
action of about two hours, the insurgents were de- 
feated with a considerable loss in kilted and wound- 
ed and 70 prisoners. The vice-roy lost about 100 
men in killed, wounded and prisoners. After the 
action the royal army marched to Hallapor, and 
were to proceed shortly for Mexico." 

It is stated by capt. Pereras who lately arrived 
in Charleston, that about thirty miles to windward 
of Matanzes, an action took place between a Spa- 
nish sloop of war, and Independent privateer, in 
which 18 men of tlie latter were killed — tlie loss 
of the former was not known. They, left each otlier 
ftillt/ iotisfieil ! 

By an arrival at Charleston we also learn that 
two French ships had arrived at Cuba to cruise 
against the patriots — that the French and Spaniards 
had a perfect understanding witli each other, and 
that all the prisoners they made were to be exe- 
cuted. This is **le^itimaqf,** But we doubt the 

Sl Johns, X. B, Sept. 2^— We learn that the com- 
missioners under the 4th and 5th articles of the 
tJ'eaty of Ghent, between his majesty and the Unit- 
ed States of America, met and opened ttieir respec- 
tive commissions at St. Andrews, in this province, 
on the 23d inst.— The 4th article relates to the 
islands in the Passamaquoddy bay, and the Island 
trf" Grand Manan in the bay of Fundy : and the 5th 
to the eastern boundary Hue of tlie United States, 
to be traced and surveyed from the source of the 
river St. Croix to the river Iroquob or Cataraguy, 
according to the 2d article of tlie treaty of 1783. — 
We understand that col. Barclay, late H. M. consul 
gen. for the Eastern states, aiid the lion. Ward 
Chipman, of this provii^ce, who acted, the former 
as commismoner, the latter as agent on the part of 
his majesty, under the 5th article of iJie treaty of 
1794, for determining the true river St. Croix, are 
again employed in the same capacities under both 
the above mentioned articles of the present treaty. 
The hon. John Holmes of Massachusetts, met col. 
Barclay as the American commissioner under the 
4.tli, and Conielius Van Ness, of Vermont, under tlie 
5lh article. U is said thut the American claim ad- 
vanced under the 4th article, extends to all the 
''islunds ui the Passamaquoddy bay, as well as to the 
Grand Manan. Both commissioners, we hear, are 
adjourned, to meet in Boston in the month of May 

IVaiJdnglon City October 22.— The public feeling 
appears to have been strongly excited by the late 
news from New Orleans, of a rencontre between 
one of oiu* vessels and a Spanish squadron; and the 
hope has been repeatedly expressetl that our gov. 

ernment would take prompt measures ttx rei 
of this and prevention of future simitifr if^gij 
Tlie public may rest assured, thJit tb«re|litti 
like indifference felt on this subject %t ^ m 
government. All our naval force m'^llit li 
bourhood has been directed to put tofeitB] 
tect our fl!^ from insult; and, lest hosj^Ki^ 4 
be seriously intended, the Co7n»]utss ft^|;rt<il 
Morris, has been ordered to cruiM ifl &] 
Our naval force, tlius strengthened, fctmiwl 
to fear<¥om continued hostility, if it WniidilM 
Measures will also of course be taken la seel 
repai*ation for the injury svsuined, pftMspt 
proportionate, to the importance and aggnil 
of character which shall appear, on amSmi 
properly to attach to it, 

JUoMe, Sept. 13, 1816.— Our Spanish Bd^iM 
Pensacola have been under consideralfle t|iptt 
sions from the patriot fleet from Cart)ii|^. 1 
have been busied for sometime in row^pr^ 
tions for defence. They cannot, bowiO^» mAi 
effectual resistance. It is reported; tiat the 1 
bitants of tlie place were lately oh thepoftitof 
sentin^ a memorial to the govemor,^^nr)-H« 
to invite down the American troops, miim 
sumed that the appearance of the fttgjf tfietS 
Sutes would conciliate tlie enemy, nod pd 
their property from destruction The Jiqect,! 
ever, died away with their feara. 

A week ago, the first superior comt m» hi 
the county of Monroe, which inclader^ «^ 
surrendered by the Creek Indians to g». Jafl 
An Indian was tried and condemed|br kii 
white man; and a white man was broiMt^td 
his trial for killing an Indian wonuftrbut^ 
conclusive evidence appeared, tiie tx^ wis 
poncd. It is not easy, indeed, to OlDvict ' 
qien of offences against the Indians, «ft ll« bP 
the Mississippi territory, like those of 9anj < 
states, reject Indian evidence when irfrf^ am 
accused. The Indian chiefs sent fb)efi>d I 
dian witness against theif countryiM, w 
of killing a white man : but he attempted to t 
on the way, and his Indian conductoct pot ll 

Large quantities of cedar having been fl 
the public lands, and sent down the rferer ft 
portation, many of the settlers, fearing t^ 
trespass miglit be a ground of crimiwi^saii l| 
those who have received permission to ttoA 
the lands of the United SUtes, made a repr« 
tion of the cUe to the court, previously: 
adjournment, which was immediately wX Ji4 
hands of the United States attorney fbrtheter 

The people of this country look forward 
great and laudable anxiety to the admissioii 
territory into the union as an independent sti 

Formerly the preponderance of the small 
of country on the Mississippi was so gteatj 
throw the eastern part of the territory aM 
in the back ground, and there seemed td^ 
hope that the seat of government vould berC 
from one of the exti*emes of territoiy. Bl 
the population is more equally difllned, i 
people look forNvard with coniid^ carpe 
to equal justice to all parts of the tflPfitoi 
they are accordingly electing r eptCiff't ati 
the several counties, who will meet fcaj 
assembly, and adopt sizch metL$ot0i «ft ^ 
most likely to promote the establli ' 
government, without any previotl* 
territory. It is suppose('l that tltcy V _ 
special delegates to Washington db^lltf 
po«c of communicating such local mtbnrral 

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next morning*. They according^ caiflC to his quar- 
ters; and found him under alarg^onk tree, eating 
acorns. Sit d(^wn, ^ntlemcn, said he;— this is ray 
breakfast and all that I ha^e to give you. T!ie of- 
ficers were so well pfeased with the visit, that they 
returned, and persuaded the soldiers to continue 
during the csmpaig^. 

Fisaiso. From the Albany Jirgits, On Wednes- 
day mommg, one of o*ir scientific anglers, Mr. 
ritrer, amounting to at least ten millions of Elus, brought in three J!th upon one hook, the lar- 

nay te itiefid, whenever the national legislature 
iHalttidbeQp the subject of admitting the territory 

JUGmhiSet Oct, 3. — Gen. Jackson is expected in 
Xaiirtflle the last of this week. We understand 
tie W succeeded in secwingthe object of his mis- 
sioil '% the southern tribes of indiafis. From the 
duiessaw; it is said, he has procured a relinquish - 
— il of Ml the land they claimed north of tlie Ten 

«rtf1t IS conjectured, and also their claims to part 
of tie Creek cession, for which he covenants in be- 
half of the United States to ^ive them %YQyQQ(l 
yet^ for ten years — This cession is important to 
TeicMeeand Kentucky, and will enable the gov- 
enuBcnt ta bring into market some very valuable 
hoi in Tennessee ai>d the Mississippi territory. — 
Fktci^eCherokees he obuined a relinquishment 
ofift^^ claim they have to the lands considered 
li li^i^ed in the Creek cession, and the reserves 
Qpctt tpf the Tennessee river, for which he coven- 
tftftogiire % 10,000 a year for eight years. The 
iadkii settled on farms to be secured the peaces- 
l)e JMMesaaon of thera, or paid for their improve 


tt$B great and glorious termination of a business 
^huiq^ over this section of the unionlike a por- 
XfSBSmm cloud, deserves to be commemorated, and 
ve hope that suitable arrangements will be made 
\iif themzens of Tennessee to receive the general 
on lii$ teturn with tliat eclat he so richly merits, 
asj ^Wt no time will be lost in returning thanks to 
the iffteers of the general government, for their 
prwaipt attention to the expressed wishes of the 
citaens of Tennessee. If we are prompt in com- 
pUinil^ when unjustly treated, let us be equally 
pnm|itin acknowledging that our desires have bceii 
flttei^^ to. The first week of our October coiurt 
i^'mrd a convenient opportunity for convening 
^cilizens to take this subject into consideration. 
.iMliitt ofuupecHoju in the city of BdUvnore for the 
*' hit quarter, entUng the oQth Sept, 1816. 
$5665 bbts wheat flour 
3872 1-2 bbU do 
277 bbls rye flour 
1 1-2 bbl do 
593 bbis pork 
828 do beef 
6917 do herrings 
856 do mackerel 

5 1t2 bbls do 
141 bbUshad 
* 497 kegs butter 
f 476 do lard 

4128 casks domestic liquors 
274 do foreign do 
61^0 do ullages 
260 do oil and molssses 

TftADX or PHiLAVRLPHiA. During the four qua- 
rintlfte nonths, ending the 1st Octobei', there nr- 

i station of the Pliiladelphia Lazaretto— 
129 bri^ 181 schooners, and 52 sloops, 
I total of 450. 

) above number, 54 were English, 10 Spa- 
3 Dutch and 1 Danish. 
JProm i/te Mercantile Jidvertiner. Wliile 
was prosecuting tlie Creek war, there 
' in his army, occasioned by a want 
ne company actually resolved on quit- 
l.gfiieral, and returning \o their homes. The 
liras apprised of tlieir intention the evening 
. \ l8icy intended to march off, wlien he sent for 
tbevflkers and Invited them to breakfast with him 

fest a fine bass weighing about three pounds. The 
ook had been baited with a small live chub, which 
was swallowed by a bass of about 1-2 or 3-4 of a 
pound weight; and the wliole swallowed, or rather 
partly swallowed, by the large fish, leaving the tail' 
of the smaller bass projecting from its month. ITiia 
spectacle establishes a fact in natural history We 
believe not generally known , that the voracity of 
this fish induces it to devour its own species. 

The common council of New-Yosk have given 
notice to master dilmney-sweepers, that if any 
sweep-master, or boy employed by him as a sweep, 
shall be guilty of crying the trade in the public 
streets, «ich sweep-master shall forfeit his licence. 
Now, this may not be taking away the liberty of 
conscience, but it oertaholy is an attack on thfe 
liberty of speech f [A! T. paper. 

Two e«tire brick, shaped and burned Iflce com- 
mon brick, were lately found in digging a cellar at 
Wooster, Ohio, four feet below the surface of the 
eartli, and under tlie roots of a large tree of about 
two fleet in dkmeter. [IVeatem Herald. 

JVew rbrA?.— We understand that captain Schultx 
has proposed a new method of augmenting lamp- 
light in this city by means of reflectors, which in- 
crease the brillittncy, by collecting tlie ra3rs of light 
to a focus, and reflecting them thence. It is said, 
that at a moderate expence, the brilliancy of the 
lamps may be multiplied to a fourfold extent. The 
lamps now in use, must of coui-se be laid aside dh 
adopting those of the proposed construction. We 
have not learned whether the corporation have tak- 
en the subject into consideration; but we have 
heard murmurs enough on the present mode of light- 
wig our streets. Columbian. 

Seinams of extinct Aitimali.^The region for a 
hundred miles, or thereabouts, around New York 
city, is one of the most remarkable upon the globe. 
The fwsil remains of eight or nine animals, not 
now supposed to be alive, have been raised from 
its soil. Our professor of natxiral historj. Dr. 
.\UtchiU, has pronounced on the extinct mastadov^ 
elephant, crocodile and rljinoceros, whose teeth, 
»iid bones, and skeletons liave been disinterred in 
this vicinity within a few years; races of huge crea- 
tures, of whom not a single individual is known to 
be alive at this day. He has given a shnUar opin- 
ion on tlie belemnites, spir'ilas, oysters, and other 
rclicks of murine animals, raised from tlie strata 
deep beneutli the surface; ull of them vestiges ot 
families that exist no more. In these respects 
New York is more curiously situated than London, 
It is equal to Paris. Rome' does not excaed it. 
[jVdtional Advocate. 
Of all the pedestrians who have distinguished 
themselves, since walking became the rage of tlie 
day, the most extraordinary is a Welch drover; who 
has just finished a muichlcss pci-formance at New- 
Murkct. This younp^ man i.s only 22 years of age, 
and does not cxceea in weiglrt eight stone, com- 
pleted his task on Friday night, at 6 o'clock, of' 
1008 miles in 18 days; walking at the rate 65 milcjj 
per day, foi- '.he whole time. The young man^ when 
i\(t commenced the oiidertaking was complcicly or.t 

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of condition. <*IIa fin idled his daily labor etch day 
precisely at aix o'clock, performing exactly 56 miles. 
On tbe last day of his performance, having finished 
his usual number of miles, his friends proposed that 
lie should wall^ the same evcmng, six miles within 
the liour. , 

C/dnese method of mending CA>iui.— Take a piece 
flint glass, beat it to a fine powder, and frrind it 
well with the white of an egg, and it joins china 
without rivetting, so that no art can break it in the 
some place. You are to observe that the compo* 
sition is to be ground extremely fine on a painter's 

Some public papers speak of a machine, invented 
by M. M. G^ser, brothers, which would induce a 
supposition tliat they had discovered the perpetual 
motion. The Genevese society, for tbe advance- 
ment of arts, thus speak of the nMchine:— 

M. M. Geyser, brothers, and Langenthall, canton 
of Heme, residing at La Chaux-de-Fonds, have ex- 
hibited to the society a well made and ingenious hairs; and some of the most eminent literary and 

since— but the fellow has beai ciught and the pro. 
perty recovered. 

Died recently at Paris, Kentucky, James MadUon, 
lately elected governor of that stau without oppo- 
sitbn. The decease of such a man is, indeed, a na- 
tion's loss. The lieut. gov. Mr. Slaughter, will act 
as goveiiior for the four years for which Mr. Madi- 
son had just been elected. 

— also suddenly, at Washington City, Tobia» 
Lear, Esq. accountant of tlie navy of the United 

A plan has just been published in Paiis for the 
establishment of what the projectors call — ^^Am 
Acadendo Jnatitution tf the Allied Maiont/* which 
is said to be under the immediate protection of 
,the duke of Richelieu, the minister for foreign af- 

roachine, viz. a wheel which seems to turn of itself, 
and of which it is impossible for the most skilful ar- 
tists to discover the moving principles, and which 
the artists keep a secret, but which serves to show 
how fcir illusion can be practised on persons the 
best instructed, in persuading them that the per- 
petual motion is not a clCmera. The society admure 
the beautiful execution of this machine, and ac- 
knowledge, that the illusion is very striking. 

From tike editor of the Portland Argtu, PomTtAMD, 
OCT. 17. "We are informed by a gentleman from 
Lubec, that on or about the 1st instant, several 
American fisliermen in chebacco boats bemg engag- 
ed on the banks, near the island of Grand Mana; 
a number of /boats from the island, were sent to 
drive them from the ground. The Americans, per. 
ceiving the approach of the force thus put in requi- 
sition agunst them, prepared to repel the islanders 
by a determined resistance, and obliged them to 
retreat to land. Being exasperated at this repulse, 
the inhabitants unBoediately sent to the main for 
assistance. A revenue cutter accordingly was pro- 
cured, which on her arrival ordered the fishermen 
from the coast and dispersed them. After an ab- 
sence of some time they agun returned, and not 
finding the cutter, occupied their old ground, and 
resumed their fishing. The islanders discovering 
this, attacked them a second time, but bemg unable 
to witlistand the resistance of the fishing squadron, 
they brdce and made for shore, the fishermen ui 
full pursuit. On their landing, they were followed 
into the woods, where a skirmish ensued, and se- 
veral were killed on botli sides." 

Gen, MUler.^Tht governor of New-York, with 
considerable ceremony, and in the happiest manner, 
recently presented to general MilUr, of the United 
States' army, the elegant sword voted him by tlie 
patriotic legislature of that state, in testimony of 
his many and distinguished services to his country 
ill the lite war, especially at Drownstown, Bridge- 
water and Erie. 

Specie.-^^e daily hear of arrivals of specie from 
abroad. The banks of New-York city, it has already 
been noticed, pay all sums less than a dollar in spe- 
ciei and the banks in the interior of that state, with 
several in New-Jersey, are following the example. 
The last specie instalment of tlie Bank of Niagara, 
of g50,000, was punctually paid at Buffalo the day 
it became due. 

Mobbery, The bank of Philadelphia was entered 
and robbed of coiwitJcraHe property j^ few nights 

scientific men in the kingdom are named as the 
persons intended to be tlie principal instructors. 
It is proposed that one hundred young men, selected 
from some of the most distinguished families bdong- 
ing to tbe allied nations, shall assemble at one house 
in Paris, where they shall be instructed in morality, 
philosophy, in civil, political, and commercial his- 
tory, in all the stages, firom the earliest times to the 
present; in all its higher departments of literature; 
in every branch of science and the arts; in the laws 
of nations; in the codes of different countries, ftnd 
their diplomatic; agricultural, commercial relations 
in general; grammar, physiology, and anatomy; paint- 
ing, music, dancing, &c. 

The following are mentioned as masters: — The 
Abbe Sicard, for grammar; M. Lemercier, for French 
literature; M. Vig^c, for reading and diction; M. 
Malte L^nin, fioJ geography; M. Tremery, for 
phvsic; M. Orsila, for chemistry; M. Salguea, for 
philosophy; and the elder Kreuzer, for music.— 
Every branch is to have its particular instructor; 
and there will be servants of all languages. One 
of the principal obiects of the institution will be 
to promulgate the knowlege of public law among 
the leading people of the dijRTcr^t nations of Eiurdpe 
— a thin^ considered essentially necessary towards 
maintaimng peace and social order throughout tLe 
European family. 

OJdo Penitentiary. ^Thert are now confined in 
the Penitentiary, twenty-eight pf esons, one of vth&ok 
is a female. They are employed at Shoemalii^, 
coopering, blacksmtthing, nailing, (both wro«^t 
and cut) and tailoring. The articles manufiuctwned 
at this prison are of a superior quality; which £»ea 
much credit to both inspectors and keeper, \o 
whose direction and management tlte institution 'i% 
committed. — Intelligencer. 

JV<M«iw, Aug. 17. — As a proof of the efficJM^ oT 
the copper cement, in preserving the bottoms of 
vessels, we insert the following fact:-^ix bmmiIIis 
ago, the schooner Mary-Ann, of thb port, wa* JpAy* 
ed with tlib cement, and has made several w^mtea 
since to the United States, without any etanAM' 
whatever. Having lately taken the ground tuMJL'lJih 
jured part of her false keel, it became ueocMM* 
heave her down, which was done on Thurs^y \ 
when the cement was found to be in the smki 
nearly as when first laid on, except whtre \ 
nibbed off by taking the ground* and ] 
from gr^ or fanniicl^s 

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inwii ninwi itiirHiiiif M*t ifn tii¥i_ -^r'" 't^ ^ '• T nt 

IniT ^ l it ilft[<,li ■■ 


-3!*— -^ . : L 1 : , 

Ifo. 10 OY Vol. XL] R-M.TIMORE, SATUHDAY, NOVEMftF.R 2, 1816. [whoik mo '270. 

■it , t J : i2 ,,.-' — ^ * . . — ■■ 

MnrtmrD Air» rdvhitmtii'VT ir. itilcb^ jrr thk mrAV dF cl^si(PllnT1^ at %5 pkh ahvitm. 

F9iteh& i& l^lfin^irn -This i« art j^r-icVe thai 

M^f Bckmjl;^ to <h« ch«i'actep df oup work as a 
k^gUiM', With pitiiyet' aWmvancfis fbr the individual 
whoirrdf^ it, it HiiXi be fbund, ]lethstfi»», 1!6 eoirtain 
iMMt kite^fes^H^ facts aiKt curioiiA 9f)icttlat4t)n» than 
WBcf pK^ li^kifi hiS' yti oppejar^d itfi Cofop^, in re- 
^mt%6 Ch^ gfl^t erierittf that haVe haiipen«d in 

ttMM ^ to be eoDtiififcd Without im«MtfIfl«loa, 
Viieil tie W6^ H hbimd xxp 

JMteli tiewig; t«Mve to K. Gbl^ns. 

, «f#;^^«^iiin with at^l^tid^ that tv»saTviriky9 ill the 
I3|l% ^E|4fief>t ifTy^eli;" «a^d an old l^i%neh kdy onec 
«*iglMbn dffjin^t the presainpiirtn of poslth^ opi- 
IMi. tfAp!ieit fttith can only be hidttl^ed in sub. 
JiM flhat nObody know»any things aboal— for there 
ttl i WMit fiot be es^^ed, and, it is only in plain mact< 
<M iitft we see clearly how diffleuH'it is to lud^e 
Miagty . A variety ot conjeet%ires, pro and con, 
ki < tf|WULd through my ihind, upon tlie subject be* 
WS^ife, and, if any of them diiouid accidentally be 
Ml%<1^^ may be, opera preUvm^ aft we used to say 
i m m s m tlie White. 

WrtSher ^fe British intended to hold New^Or- 
MMTIfi the event of its fallings mto their haiids^if 
IMl tfhetker those nent agak»t it, did not believe* 
MMMe, aitd irftemied to be retained. Whether 
I ffl tf t it Wa» tenable, snd what would have been 
tti^ Consequence of their holdingf it— but we ne«d 
fllfWMItii^ qii«fies. Wftedieritwttt thefrrtentibn 
inikllQfrittsli* cabinet 0oon to make peacte witN the 
tttk0k States at the thtie they sent the e^medhion 
MMK Louisiaihi, is a matter, known perhaps only 
Ifctlwailiiilvea— we think it wtsisi I'he points inter- 
MHfrvt the^l«m«tid confoeftCe, couM not have 
KlI^Kbeftded ibr any pnrpoiie but delay. The«»ne 
^ H i ^wSH i regard to the Indiaiia, at a time wheif 
VH IMato at peace with the pritidpal ti^bes, and ne- 
MMh}^- w^ere we weA« able to force a peafce with 
ifc^ftiftily Was a maneuvre adopted in the spirit of 
IIIIM^ In-lnolgar life, is called w^;^'n^. The aban- 
1 0f their propositions was a matter of cours^e 
It have been foreseen; for at the period I 
r^fbe Oonqtiest o^ these states must have ap^ 
^ 0kSi to "^e most sanguine of til em, imprac* 
I end yet there migflit naturally have seemed 
lft<^uiiice left for accomplishing some thing 

w« a pretence, to extenuate the disgrace of his 
defeat The British expected #14,000,000, it i* 
said, by tJie conquest alone; and they Cmrld have 
made it cost the United States #14,000,000 more to 
dislodge th^m: amd yet these things were of no 
consequencei it seems, in cc^mparisoh with their ul- 
terior views which were then discovered to be hope- 

Wr9hat. ftd. aikf to deniartd ar^^eOfd by us; It is so less. Theii* ftiilnre couM be recorded as of no mo^ 

£mj»ihe qH& ahUbelkm tUlst could have been 
' " it is, the British raise questions 

r figbt to liouisiana; and if they could have 
A their positloh in it by force, it would not 
» dilBeuH: to have quibbled us out of' the 
r- tff right, and as to the expedency that 
~ ' ^e been questionable. When general 
Ke of the impossibility of holding Loui^ 
t^in United States* he mtiroates thait 
^ I of this fact, (if it Was fact} was new 
"the occupation of that territory was 
'»5t of the expidition; and that being 
I would halve made tlie Capture of Or< 

ment^ wben^ they fbtind that the result of tlieir suc- 
cess must have been trtvial and^ temporary. 

Tliose rvprcSKntaticms of the British oiBcers seem 
to indicate #A«»»< views more clearly, than does the 
cfaieumstanee of the arm v being accompanied by a 
re|fukr trthvof ciyil ofllcers for the administration 
of a provisional gt>vemment. That arrangement 
might hat¥e been a trick practised on theii* own ar- 
piy to inspire it irith zeal and tonfidence. Such of- 
fice expectants might have been picked up any 
where, an4 would cost little. It rein!iid< one of the 
monmnental marbles carried, in ancient tmtes, to 
the fields of^ battle. What folly is there in such 
prepirli^ions; now that national honor is so costly 
and so neOessaryJ they oecasion defeat and embit> 
ter the mortification of ft That the British wero 
confident of sticcess is evident, from the boasts of 
lord CastleresgSi (see Reg. vol. Vfl. pare 389,) the 
conduct o* lord Gamibier', the first official dispatches 
afiter the laitdhig of their forces m Louisiana} and 
tlie whole tenor of their conduct 

If the British cornmissioners at Client, were ac- 
quainted with the Views of the cabinet^ then it is 
probdble that NeW-Orieans, would not haVe been 
retaiiTied in ease of capture; because lord Gambler, 
would nothsvff madea declicnition recognieing the 
Validitj of the United States* Clahns to Louisiana, 
had the British cabinet been resolved to reject 
those claims— yet it is not certain that the private 
views of that cabinet were known to ahy of iu 
agents. But it seems unnecessary to be tracing the 
tokens of their intentions-^we need never ^ fur- 
ther than this— would it haVe been expedient? or 
might they have believed it so? That is the point. 
The British army might have belie%'ed iliat the U. 
States could, at an/ time, easily reconquer Loui- 
siana, in case it sliould be taken; or tliey might 
have pretended to believe so, in order to account 
for their easy ab!mdonment of it, as it is vulgarly 
termed, "crying sour grapes!" But what shall their 
opinions of the matter be taken for? yet most peo- 
ple seem to have acceded to themiimd held opinions 
of the^ security of Orleans, diflferent of late, from 
those that were cun^eiit in formef times. When