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TO wairH ARE FREriXEi). 












VOL. 1. 






OCT 1 1940 


;<;■: .' .''>"/.::. ■•-.'V 

• A 



On rtviring the first Four Books of this History for a octt 
Edition, the Translator was satisfied of the justice of a Re- 
viewer's remarli respecting some Gallicisms and Archaisms, 
which had escaped notice. To chasten (he style, therefore, 
and to render the whole work more acceptable, he decided 
on a NEW TRANSLATION of the Firtt Volwne; — and having 
accomplished this laborious task, he trusts the present Trans- 
lation will be found so greatiy improved, as to induce the 
Readers of Herodotus to peruse these Four Books more 
attentively. — ^The Notes hare also been more strictiy attended 
to ; and every deficiency supplied, to assimilate the plan of 
both rolumes. 

As the chronology of the First Book is considered of para- 
mount importance, some observations have been incorporated 
in the Notes, with the intention of furnishing students with a 
comprehensive idea of Ancient Chronology — of its authen- 
ticity — and of the means by which the data may be deduced 
from the texts of Classic Authors themselves. This was par- 
ticularly necessary in Clioi where the histories are much 
varied, and extend over so wide a field. In the other Books, 
the chronology is not equally important ; every date having 
been previously ascertained by many illustrious scholars, 
with all possible accuracy, as far as respects the History of 

A 2 


In the Text of the Second Volutnejnhich has been honoured 
with the approbation of the Literary Public, the Translate: 
has adoptetl a few alterations, approaching more closely u 
the English idiom, without affecting the sense of the original 
and to the Notes he has made considerable additions. 

To render the present Edition more acceptable, an accu 
rate Map of the World as known to Herodotus has been ex 
pressly engraved ; and the Latitude and Longitude of everj 
important place added to the Geographical Index, so that tbt 
exact position may be readily found in the Eton Atias. 



VOL. I. 

Sdiimibt of the Nine Books of Herodotiu. 


Lifo of Herodottu i 

Plmn and Object of the Hiatoi; ...... ri 

P ig T M gioMofthe Hiatory xir 

Honl ChBnwter of Herodotus XX 

His Religioos Character ....... xzri 

His Indgatry xxix 

Hia Venatj xxxi 

His PoUtiir*! Prindidea xzxri 

His Style xxxviii 

Cmelnaioa .......... xxxix 


I. Clio 1 


III. Thalia 195 

IV. Mblpombnk ........ 275 


or TUa 



HutuPOTCB, iiii«i)<lin(f loderalopeibs cauaosof (behoalilily b»- 
twvao ihf Oreeki nnd Out Dartiariiui*. iii the Hin place records lbs 
tnotu&l rapeaof wouiuiicouimillrdbv the twu purlks: Uiutoflo, I ; 
thai of Eurnpo. and ^tnlt4l,3; ihm orHelon, 3: iu doiug vbiclij 
ht tlalea th« account] given btHh by tbe I'l-ninnii Biid tb(> i*b<Bni- 
ekiM. Tbeo, «s Crcvsus. king uf ihe Lydiiuis, vu the linL tu 
attack lli« Greeks vriUi nnns.d, he eulen on the Lydian bislorjTjfi. 

.The fircl kings «r th« Lydinii!*, ibctit Fprniig frxnn Alyi; lb« 
etnti ilyWHiy frnm Herroli?)), 7; Ihe Ua of whom, CaiKlauiM, 
baniig been killed by Gygea, 8 — 12, the kingdom is uannrcrrod to 
tba MennnadH.'. Thvii follows the biab^ry ofOygKii, 13, 14; liiat 
at Atiy*, lA, under wboso reign ibe CiinmrmnK nuule aa 
iTTopiioa into Asia, and took Sardii, 12; that ol Sadyaitas, 16; 
that of Aljrattes, Id, 2d, who «x|Klli-d tlic Ciniiflfiriaiis fruiii Asia. 
Digmiions aro iuierpow^, relating to Thmsybulus, tbe cyraitt of 
Miltftuv; at»d Periander, the tyr<tni ofCorimh; coteiuporary vith 
nbuiD «raa Arias, lavMi by a dol])hiii. 20^2-1. Alyaltes ii suo 
cotrded by bi:* son Crtritu, 26, whi) siibju^c!) ibe Aniutic Grvckx, 
Md «xtcnd« hi» power orar ibe wltuU- uf Asia, as far as ibo lialys. 
36—38. Cra-<u« is adinoiiiatied uiitniccvBululty, by Solon of 
Atbent. tn bnid tin cnie happy, iiotil bt* bave ended life in baiipi* 
Ilea, 20 — 30. Cru-.inA i» vixiied vrilh i-reat calumity; his soti 
Aljra is kilM, iuMntiin(tU-, in Ibc chur, by Adrasitu, a Phryf[iui 
rv&igtw, Hi—AA. Tbu Mcdps baring born conqimvd by Cynu, 
Cta9wu, alarmed at ibo (^rawing power of ibe PersiuiiH, lirsi sends 
roud to oiakfl trial of ihs oradu of the Gnn^ks, 46 — S3 ; and 
ooOMilis aboui l^^yin^ *ar against Cyrna; an ainbtgiuMH 
nisratiinied, «bii>.h Cr<i-«u<' tniurprats aa laruiirable to bimself; 
tlmcfore nudifrtakes ifae expedition, Gm sending to coun tba 

[•IliaticR itf the Gmrk*, tliv cliii'f nations of whom, at thul liinf, 
lb* Aihenmts and ( a^nmonisiis : tlin foruMT spniiiy from 



tliu Felusgi, the lutlor Croiu 1)r> Hellt;iics, 56 scq. The ein|)irc of 
til! Atlieiiiuns wns then held hy Pisi.strjtuii, 69 — 64 : the l^ce- 
(Iteinoiiiaiia hud received oxcellcut laws fioin Lycurgiis, 60, and 
cuiiqiiercd the Tegoana, G6 seq. The La<:(;dj;uioniaiis frame aii 
alliuiice with Croesus, 69. Croesus crosses ibc Halys, and eugagcs 
CvTUH with dubious sncceas in the Pierian plain, 76 s«i. Re- 
I liming from Sardis, he sends fur assistance from the Egyptians, 
Itabyloniaiis, and LacL-dii^inoiiianH, 77. Cyrus meanwhile follows 
rapidly on the heels of CrtesiiH ; conquers the Lydian army before 
ibc town ; beiieges Sardis, which he takes, togeihor with Croiaua 
himself, 79 — 85. The <;ouutrj' and manners of the Lydians arc 
briefly described, 93 scq. The fabtory then passes lo C^tu.s, 95. 
The empire of Asia hod been five hundred and twenty years iu 
ihe hands of ihe Assyrians: the Medes were the 6rst to assert their 
[ freedom : their example was followed by other nations. The 

Medes, afier eleven years of anarchy, choose Deioce» for their 
king, 95'^101. He is succeeded by Phraortes, 102. Phraortcs 
is Biiccceded by Cyoxures, who expels the Scythians, who hod 
taken possession of Asia; luid subjects the Assyrians, 103' — 106. 
Asiyuges the son of Cyoxares, admonished by a dream, gives his 
daughter Mundane in marriage tun Persian, Cambyscs: he delivers 
ihe child born of ihat marriage to Harpagiis, with orders to put ii 
to death : HaT]>agu'i gives the child to a herdiman, with orders to 
expose it ; but the herdsman, prevailed upon by his own wife, 
educates the child as his own. Cyrus, thus preserved, having 
reached his icnih year, is reL-ogiiised by his grandfather, Astyages, 
and sent safe into Persia: Hurpagus, however, is punished in a 
mast erui'l manner, IU7 — 121. Flurj)agu.s, di'sirou.t of being 
avenged of the injury he had received at the hands of Astyages, 
pru]n]ils C>'nis to ri^ie np against his gruudfulher : Cyrus excites 
the Persians to rebellion, 12*2 — 126. The Medes arc routed in 
two buttles, and Astyugi.>s himself is taken prisoner, 127 — 130. 
The maimers of thi^ Persians are described, 131 — 140. After con- 
quering Cncsns, Cyrus direcis his arms against the Asiatic Greeks : 
hut before the Historian describes the war, he gives an account 
of the situation of Io:iia, the origin, institutions, and manners of its 
inhabiianis, 142 — 148; the same with respect to .Solis, 149. 
Cyrus having oncT more subdued tlic Lydians, who had rebelled, 
154 — lOU, ycnds llarpugiis against the louians; among whom, the 
Phoi'iipaiis andTeiuiis fnrsuke their towns, and establish themselves 
elsewherf; the n-nt submit : 162 — 170. Cnrin and Lreia are nnci 


MtMnrtl, 171 — I7lt. In l)ii<[D«au llniP, Cynu in pemm wbdatc 
I'pjxrr Asia: dc^cripiion of Bubyloii, btii) hijiory of S<'inimii))i 
Mfid Nilouris, 177 — IS7. Cjtus i»nqurra the BiibyloDiuos in 
tMlUe ; drives rbi>ni vilbin lh« city, which he be^ie};^, and <:a[WitrH 
fcy stratigfta, 188 — 191. In iliU yAncif, the u-niuny nf ilw- Raby- 
loiiioBK, tlii.^ir instil II donis, laws, inannon, dici, 8£c. nrc dLtMTibvd, 
Jtt9 — 900. A< test, Cyni's C4rryiiig vtr against ibe Mfts»age(», 
^nOom the Arum, and b slain by Quoeo Tmnym, 201 ia ibe end. 


CAanTses, huviiig sncceeded bLi faibn- Cyius on the thnnet 

sa4dvn4d[u«, in lb« firib year, an expoditivo ufpuuil tbu Egyplkns. 

^3n> bofwiti tlw Historian rcUlos that expedition, he describes lh« 

tfoontrjr of the Eg;ypliiuis. and the nature of the Nile, 2 — 3(j, tbv 

WBMUun, rices, nud madf nf living of the people, 37 — '9S. Tbe 

0m i ki oT ibeu' kiii^it is giran, 99 — 160 The aflkin of E^iypt 

tMKMDB buiior known after simngeiBareadiniiied iiitntho coiintij 

by I'simuiiticbas. 1<0I sk4(. Hi-- Is succeeded by Nccos, lOS; who 

is s.-ccvultrd by I'MUuuiia, I(i0; who is succeeded by Apriea, ISl. 

Apris » dppri«od of lbs CTuvm by Aiuasiti, \6'i, (here tbo seven 

umesof the E^i^^iipliiuis are d^sciiM. 164 seq.) 173 lo tbe and. 

Ttu cuiucs of the oar bclweeD Cambyses and iIih Gf^ptiana, 
'"O. K'lOji PuinnHMiilns son of Aniasis, ia conqnored near 
MuaiiiiD, 10 seq. A(i«r the suniwtder of Memphis, iho Afiictuis, 
^yrc!'ini;au!>, and itiirccui!> surrendiT uf their ova acrun), 13. 
I^anaicnitas b at Jint trenied l)b«rally; but awta afU-r, being 
(iu>?jl4l tiilr^tiiiiiK. b put lo dtttth, 14, 19. Having .itihjgf^led 
^O'P't Canibyass jtf^Avea (u carry wat aguiiisl (be ('unhaginiaiw, 
ia>ii>ii:iianm. and Kihiojiiaiis ; but lb« Pba^cians rvltise lo eanv 
agaiiMi tbe Curtbu^uiunis, ibvir fvlloir citixcns : the expedilioo, 
iote, U dr<;ppcd, 1^- Spio arc scui from the Jvbtliyqthagi 
ilba F.ihiopianv 20: they bring back a tb.eateuiD^ aintivcr fn>i9 
'4ak)ai^ 'rbdarmy.iuarcliiiigatpiiiihi ihv Ethiopians, Is comjiHIud 
flian by finuTUff. '2ri. Those acnt sKainst llio Aiuiouiiiuns an> 
•nlUiDd lip, (indnr mooiiiains of sand, 96. C'anibvtts u wruili 
VgiinK tliv (itrs and the priastA of the E)i\ piiaii.i, fimcying ib«i tbe 
EfVftimi rejaiiv an arnmin of his faihirv, 27 mhj. Ua rvfraim 
fiotu hi* oan RUhJH-u; bnt put* lo d?a>h iii> hrulhrr 
1.1 hisM^lci.wbti wa« bkfwiM> bis wife; Hlaughiei-a m&nv. 


Iwtb or tlw PHnJuiin anil F)(%-ptiMiis ; and gi««a larinu* ulbrr 
|iroofs uf bia uisuiilv, 30 — Si*. Id this phw a inserted tlie liisioi^ 
nf IMvcratcH, urani of (lie Suniaiui, agnitiBl «*hom ibc«dn- 
inonutiM undiTionk, abaiit ihbi time, an ex{)ediii(in, HO &0(). Tb« 
CorcjntrutiK nhshu in ihi» exjiediiitni, in toQHeqiidicc ul'a (jrudfiu 
againsL the SaDiitui» frwiit ihc liiiM.> of Periuider : coiic«iiiuig Peri- 
Mi<Ut| 49 Ri>q. I II ihti iiimiii limp, Smrrdix, the Magu«, lakat po»- 
aemioa of the ['ltuuii iliroup, SI : he Bends a hentid inlu Egypt, 
to wimmnn ibe tniopi to abandnn thn standurd of Cgmtbvwa, 62. 
Cnibypce, Miixi^ wilb nrv*l ani^or, is abi>ul to leud his armv ngaititt 
the Mttgi; but is accid^uiall v ffoiinded, as he ii^ leopiiig on hta 
burw, uiddi«t,t}4 wq. lliecheniuftW Magun baring been diivo- 
vtitMl by the daiigbrcr of Otaiifs, ^vvn of tbc chief men among the 
Pet«tui* conM])ire ihff dc*ih of thu nHtiTpei, 68 seq. The Mufft arv 
put lo dMith, 78. A consul I aiiun is hold on th? mohl oxppiJi^nt fortn 
of gofcriiineuL tu be itdopled; and tiuAlly. Darius, ibe Hin of 
Hysttapea, is poinled out king by ihe ntnghinic of liiv horse, f*0 acq. 
H« dtvid«8 the einpirQ iow iweiity snfrapi^ ; ihc rci-flniic from «)ch 
«f which i> HlBied. ^, 96. Some oiber nation!) fumiili free gifts 
to ifar kiii^ ; among nhoni thi< I ndiant, whiMr^ cminiiy and manners 
are described, 98 — 101. The advanlaipM of .\rebiA are then eiiia- 
montcd, 107 — 1 13 ; »x well u* thn«a of Rthiopia, and tht^ distant 
tract* of Rurope. 114 »e<]. luiaphenien, ■ini> ofnieswrqi totiapi- 
ratora, is pul u> dcutb by DuTiu.'<'n urdrr, 1 18 spfj ; and afterwardft 
Qroetc*, 128. who bad compassed, by perfidy, the denlb of Poly- 
cmtef, ilia tyrant of Sainm, 120 — I2fl; who had likewise pnt to 
death MitTobaieH, a noblii Peniaii, togi'thcr wiib his son Cna^ 
toapM, and hud ordered the murder of a ines»euf{;er lu htm by Da- 
rius, 126. Democedes, a phy-tivian of Croton, harini; In'«« found 
among iheslamofOroetir*, (l'2-\) carvs the king and Aloutn: he 
is sent as a guide wilh some Pcn*ians, to ^ceoDnoit^^ Grci-ce and 
I laly : he make* liis escap« : and ibo P<ersittn9 who had accompa- 
nied him are taken, and Taaaomed hy Oilliis, an enilu of Tarentutn, 
129—138. The inamirrin which ihc PcrsiaiB took Samns, 139^ 
149. Rut, Dt ihc KUQc time, the Hahylonianfl i«cede ; and, after a 
Btege of twenty months, are subdued by the art and ralour of 
^npYTus, IdO to the eud. 


AfTKR Oie captnre of Babylon, Darius maiclM-! against lh« 
Scythians. bi-CBiisc ihcy had iiii-Bdcd Asia, and held painoasiuu uf 


it for t«etily-«iKht yeuv, 1. The ^miiitry iind ibe urigiii ot lIm 
Scr(liiui», 5 — 30. CuiicetniiiK iha Uir«e qiUTim nf iti« world, 
Aaiu, Lib\ii, and Enrope, 37 — iO. Cutic«niiiig th« rivers ol' 
Scytfaio, 47 — 67. Darius, bntiiig siarteJ from Ktua, cniwes tin 
Tbnidau B<Mplk>ntfi by & bn<)gc of boau; compeb the Tliniciuit) 
Ki labuiit Ui btB yoke; (digrvratoii coiiucitiiiig ifae Gvlw uiil j^al- 
aoOD^ M—^H;) cTDNte* ilie hu-r, luid, leaving the loniuiiH lo 
tvud ihe floaliiiK bntljfr v*a ihc river, uiiirclies u|> ibu cuiuiirya 
S^— 98. Tb* Riluaii'Ti and iliinfrtuitiiiii of Scyibit: iu lanoua 
vibes, 9;> — 117. Tbi* wi i>y Mlikh ihu ScyDiiaiB tiuia ibe eUbru 
•f Duiin. lis — IU4. After punuiing iha ScytbtBUs wiih'uut 
wcvass, tite bag at lut roiunis lo the Jsterj from «bvttc« h« 
puon ever inio Am, 134 — 143. At llic xniiii- time, soatber amy 
•f ibc Penian* aiuickx Itarcc, in order to avcDgv the death of 
iramlauK, king ui tlic Cyn:n»-iini>, aiid whi of Pberiniuiu. 'Ili« 
Hiiloiiui lakca ilie {ippoHnuny a( iiiH-rtiiif; ihe biAlon- of Cvr&ne, 
fnm the limv ttiat a coloviy «ih m-iiU'iI in Libya by the liliiiyie of 
Ae ialaDd of Tlifra, 144 — 1&4. .\ d&MTijiiiuii <>f ilt« \n\x» o( 
Libya, 168— I91J. Tbu Barcwi an: takun by tbe perfidy uf iha 
feniara; and Ph«iviiin(> miclly nv<rQpoit ib« dntb of her ion. 
The Perduii make & vain atieiDpt um Cmii«; nnd, on tbvir 
Ktani iiitii Egypt, au- lianisM^ by the Alricitns, :!01 lo ihc end. 

A?T«R Ibo failure nf the Scythian catnpnign. Megabuua, v>bif 
badbeoDlof^ by UanuKin Kiiro|it', first subj(>(.-iB ihe I'cTinthiNDS, 1 ; 
•AenrardA the Thraciaiis, 2, whose coiinlr)- is dewribed, 3 — 10, 
ll« lnuitr«n the Pamoiiim out uf Europe iiilo A«ia. 12 — 16; 
after which be receives (he submission of the Mwsdmiitina, 17 — SI. 
In lliii plara iba family of ilie kbfpi of Mlcedonia u cumnietiio- 
n(«). 33. Oarim, hannc apiminicd Arinpbemcs xairap of SnrdiSt 
Muraa lo Suu, taking' with him Huliicns, whum Ite has recalled 
M^ivintK, (a lo<ni which he had given him, II,} lent hn 
plan any measures again't him, 23 — 2d. Megabazua ia 
ied by Oiaiieis, who subjects fivEUBtium and some other 
dbea, Imaaos, Imbfo*, and some other islands, SO, 27. At that 
thaa iba ebiaf tnon of Naxos. being expelled thair couniiy by lit* 
oimiMiM, go over lo Aristag<im», (nho Imd bt-cu laft by Hialinu 
an nev-gotremor of Mlletu",) and beseech bis aaHslanoe, 90. 
Ariatagunw pfnuadea ArtaphvniM Uy »uiz« iho opiwnunitv ^f luV 
jrrtinit lo the King, Naxos, uid the rest of the Cycliide« islands : 
tha Kuin appriivra ibr projcn; in coiuequracf of which, Arista* 


gona, accompanied by Megnbalw, departs for Nhxos; but n 
qoarrol uiMeH beticwn the mo conunandoni ; wbaranptm MogabftW* 
bum.;'* tbe inieniioiiH of Uie Peroans u> the NaxUni, who tbon- 
fore make the doe prepanriiotn for an obstinate reetsianoo; in 
wbicb tbny nircfxxt mi trail, t1inl iho ciutini^M arc compelled lu 
retiini into Asia, wiiboul gaiumg iheir rmds, 31—^4. AnMii((oraai 
bowarar, pn>ui)>led by fear itf rvceiriiiK puuishoionl from (Ik 
PenJans, and by the ad\-ice of Uistisiu, excites Uie loniuis lu 
lebellkni, 3ft — 37; and proceeils toS|)Viaiutd Athi-nx, in order lo 
tKilicit oaeixlaDcc, 38 : in this place, the nlBtcs of thocitieiorSipaTUt 
39 — m, and of AUxnu), Ircwi ihe dealh of Pi«i»tr6itU9, &A — 96, ar« 
deanibed. AriRtagoras, not suce«edtnft in fain request with the 
Spvuuu, fftm to Aifaens, aiid satily pcreuadtis ihtt people Ui vote 
the loaiaoa a supply of iircDty sail, lo which ibc ICnruiaDs udd fire 
trtreniee, 97 — !<8. Strengthanad by tbb aaristauco, the loniaos 
lake Surdn, nil biit the ettadcl; bin, reirealin)^ at iIik up)imach 
a [Vrtion u.nny. are niulitl in bulilc, ueur Eph«si». >t9— Ifl 
The Athaoioiis retuni iuto Grt^ccc: tbc luaians, boncrcr, coniiniM 
(iHBir revolt, and add lo thconsclvM the anns of Uoria mid C}'prD5, 
103^104. Tlie Persian leaders, after reducing C^'priu, Caria. 
and ilie umta of ibe Hcllespoat, diruci ihcir anns against lutiis 
sod JBolia, 100^184. Arislagvraa Bees to Myrcinus; iii a sally 
trrnn whicb, be tH slain by the Thmciaim. 


Tub Ionian ftciet U Wntun olT IjhIg, Milulus u taken, and ' 
uoee more reduces), G — 26. Htstiwu^ (ubu, hairin^j been sent by 
Darius lo Sardia, had tied over lo iho island of Chios, 1 — 6) crosses 
over \a tbe inuii land for fom^ ; when he in muted, taken, and 
put to dentil, by ArtBphi.-nics, 2ti — 30. The P'TrsiuDs sii\iJL-ci ilio 
Eurvpcaa side of iho HetleapouL In ihis place is inserted a 
digrcasian conedniiug the Thramn Chersonosiu and the donainion 
urthc Cn-»t Mi]iiad«H son oTCypselns, and that of the twrund Mil- 
liwlfla s«D of CyniOD. 3&-~40. The kttui (in feur, on nccoimt of 
Iba oonnssl lia bad given l*j break asimdct the bridge over (be 
Danube, iv. 137) Aees lo Athens, 41. GiKid order in restored tn 
loTiin, 19. Manlnniu^, with vast furres, inarches ugaiiist Gtvtxie. 
to wreak TvogcaiiL-c on the Alhouians and Ereuiaiia; bal lh« fleet 
is *io«k<Ml off Mount Atiiou. and the land-urmy is woiwed by ibe 
TbraciaHH ; in i:oRwi|uence of Hhic-h, he reiuruh into Asia, 43— 4d. 
Durin» ti>cii aiiihuKwdunt iiiiu Ororcn, In dctnaiid taiih aud 
water. 48- All ihe islanders accede to ibe demnnd ; and, taao 


olhere, ihv .^giuetiv, whom the AtWiiaiw and L«ee<lmiii>niaiu 
pRparc lu puniiJi: )>ij| Cleomcncs. oac of ibr kuigs of K|i>rtai 
Wing gone owi tu dm isUw) (or that piir{K)a«, in t:»uip«llcd. bv 
ll» tns or the other ian^, OcmAmiiui, to rt'liim without hiu^cms. 
48—^1. Tbcii fnlhiwi n ilii^Trmuni atricpniing the Sparian kingt, 
63 — 00. Hut ('leomrnos, initaii-Kl ii;fui»i Dcmnrattui, jirovis to 
tlu) Kpartnns that be ifl not theii lawful kinff. vinco not boni of 
Atislcm : DemantDs, in entueqiieace, in obliga) to abdimte; and. 
being iusolied hy lii-i mccenor, Leut^chiden, fl««* over into Asia, 
lo ibe King. 91 — 70. C'lo^neitcs, bowcwr, pinsev over once more 
into Mffina, •oizn the chief inhabltuits of lh<^ IsUiid, u>d dcltvuni 
ibcm tniu the keeping nf the AtheniuiH : but the fraod with wbi«li 
b* had ntciunvented Deuiatatiu bciitK deiecied, he encapea fnin 
Sputa, u afterwards rcccU'cd back again tn tbe alaie. faUi uad, 
od lajn violent hands on hlmaeir, 73, 74. Tbe eauset aiBignail 
far bta madtteai are eniimeraud. 7(>— 78. The M^ueUB. afW 
dtbaing lo no parpaae iheir cJtiuni fnnn ihn Athenians, levy war 
agunat Attica, 83. Meanwhile I>aiift and Aruphemcji, appoiniM 
In the Perrian cntnmand in place of Mardonius. cross over imo 
GiwMf. and. iifior Nnbjecting the ulaiids, Inkr Ktctria by treadieiy: 
Ihey |Hn» ov-QT into Attica; but boing routed at Moralhon, by the 
AAeirtanfi under the command of Miltjades, ledre back into Ana, 
94— lid. Herodotus, in exculpating ibc AkmsBonidie from 
(be charge of a ircacfacioiu compact with llw PcninnH, vu~ 
gage* hinuetf in a digresdaii TOopeciing the foriunes of that 
funtly, ISl — 131. After ibo battle of Marailum. Miltiiideii 
aittcfci Parps; but being compelled, in ron5(.-(|iicnce uf a bodily 
aecidonl. to niM tlie laeffi, a indicted at Atb<.-ns: tbe victory of 
Manthei) and the >'«>n(|U(^i of l.einiioH ure hitn fmni capital 
ni. hut nol from a Tine, I3'i — 1^6. Then follows a 
I oincenring l^eninoa and iia inhabiliints. ibc Pelatgi* 
137 lo the end. 


Dakjita prepare* Cor auuthei expediiioD against Greocc. Egypt 

Hnnwbile ndidt; and ihu King die*, having previously «pp(>itiied 

Xanua bia lueeeMor, I — 4. Xerxes, havi]tg ascendnl the throne, 

■— w— hy subduing t^gypl, 7 : then, pruuipli^l by tlw advice 

Mardonim, tbo Aleuada;. and the Pinstiatidie, 6, 6, although 

■UAdad bv Ariabanus, 10 — 11>, he prt>|)aro« lo invade Grae«a. 

lavtBg made the due prflpantioii*, 20—26. Xetxu and lib aiBDjr 


*Hler iipoo Uirir ittureli, uitl L-rmw ib« Hi;lhw|iont by « Ixidga 
or boats, A6. Ttiv vnriuiM Irihivi in ih» nnny ue 
61 — 09. Theioirchof XencBK. and die nature oflhs cotrait 
crswaa, mm ilescribnl, 100. Several uf tbr (irecJui naliuns subntit 
u> hU pooor : ihc puituaas of freedom iviinlv« to pnnUh ibnn, at 
the U'nnitiBiian of lb« «r«r, 131. On ih« urrivul gf iho tiding*, 
iHai XerxD* in uu bin tn;in-Ii ngntimt Gnvi'^, tlie {[Tvaicist Aniinnn 
and cuuiB^ is shetiu by th« Aih'iiioiM. 139: according to llieadvk* 
of an «racl«, UO — 143, thpv n-M>l«e to fnrf>«ke tlidr city, and to 
nubaTk n1iimi>d the ■tiijiii wliicli TlieiiiulDelos. with adniirablo (vtv 
sij^ht. bad pvnnadcd ihcin >oid« nine bnroru lo build, 144. The 
Aigtvea TefiuB to joia iho Orecli confederacyr 146 — 10S> AlU* 
b a i n a ri orwaTO wtii by tbeGrc"-!:* to Ge(o, lynint of SyraciMB (wbon 
origin BiidkBlorv niu iiaimled, Iu3— Id6j,tn onl«r to bMe«ch his 
iMhlMWie. Golo reruuii}; to aeiid any auccflun. unlets ibo whole, 
or it kaat one half, of tbu cvinmand bo gircn 1» hiiu, ibe ambsa- 
Mdois wiilidniw, «(ut a Iniiilcxs ni'i^uciaiioii, 1S2: nev«rtheteaa, 
G«lo smda a pOTMii into Grewr. lo walch the ermU of ibn war^ 
103 aai). TliD Siciliaufl gije another ivm-vm fur the rcfuaol of 
aMisunoe ; to wii, iho threnlAued iiiruion uf their cotiuin- by tbe 
Carlha^niatM, wbo, a Itlllc time aflvr, did in oflitcl nmkr ati iiirMd 
on Sicily, but watt coii(|u«rcd by ficlo. and Thcmn of Agrigcnium, 
about the uuno day ibac tbn Grvi'-kn ddrtwteil ibe Pemaiis at 
Sclamis. IBS — ^167. Neilhec ran any UMJalanflc bo obuuned, 
wb^di^r from ibe CorcynMns or Cretans, lt>t^— 17 1 . The Gt^eka 
make clioico of Ibc puss uf Tbennopylie, and the n«ds4ead uf Ar- 
K^mixiuni, to roc«iv« tbe ini'aden, 175 »et|. Tbe fleet of ih« bar- 
iMimns is shattered by a dreadful Monn oir!hi> coaxi of iVIaf^ema. 
wild thf. firc4-k» have voine Utile i.u«-tn, 177 — 19S, Xerxei 
marched, ihrongh Theualy, to I'hermopylH' : ihis Hiiumion of the 
covnirtM ii dewTtbed, l!>S— 300. A chosen handful of the Gre^ 
(S02 xq.) tiiider l.eonida« (W4 !H>q.) keeps the enemy ai bar (or 
several days, tiniil a path leadii);; round the inounlain is ireache- 
rmnly shewu lo the Persians : the Greeks, tbwt surrouudvd, perish 
40 a mail ou the Geld, 210 lo the end. 


Thr Greeks off Artemisium enfi;agif the hafbartan* three 
lime*, with douhlfol anccess; but hearing of the discomlilura at 
Thermopylir, rctin.' lo tho inner part* of Greece, I — 23, Xencea, 
iiuving pua.ied through Ph«c-t< (whore a pari of his army inakcst « 


nio ftltduirt an tli« Inaplo uf D«)plii, 1)5 — 39), tnur* B«ulut. 

■Inch n ID Ilia tnUreftU.S'l. Tb« (ixeck deo\, after (juilliiii; Arte- 

muiuin, makes for Sal»nm: the Albvoima abaii<ivii tin- cliv, 41. 

BaumcrattoD oltho n«liuu)t ufOreNe wblcli aeutaliipo to Salauil*: 

their orifiin 't» briefly described, -W — iH. The iMtrtiarian)! break 

iittu Attk'u. put all to fire and swutd, cajilun* liiv dc^irled ciiy, 

■nd Uoriu the ciuilel, ifurrisutied 1>jr a few obsliualti Ailicniarut 

40 — 66. Tbo majutiiy of tht; On^ck. adptimlt, torrilied by tbe 

niwa, ar« deitreqi of ptvi't<e<ling lo lh« iathmuii orCorinlli, but are 

muiiiutfd by the afyuun-iiiK aud Ibreaii of TheiuisiocU-s, <V — (13. 

Ill the ninui iJiiif. ihe baibariui fli-ct luiii.lie.s al Phalenis : il is tbui 

tMo)r«d in couuciJ, nolwiUtsiaadtUK iW coiiiraiy advicM of Arte- 

■liaia, Uf), lo sllack the GrtvV Aaet §taiion^d at SalaiittH, nhi)o llii* 

land army ti lo maali unrKrilit iti« iKilin)us, wbicK U cuL-rully fur- 

a&ti by i1m9 Polopmiticsiiuis. vrbu are eauin«rated. Til. Tbeoii- 

dockx, itvrittg l«9l tlio Greek Hevt sboiild praoced to the defence 

of ihc nibtniu, adviHes Xerxes thai liie Urwkx nrv iti«cltuiiiig a 

iTirrat, and pcnuoilcs biiu (o ciivelopo ilicm vith his flout. 76. 

Atixti<l«s, hacin^ bmuglil tn:*» lb«t ibc loaitixurre bad bceu per- 

(onn(^ by tlw PeTsiooa, the tireekM make ready (or liuiU<>. An 

fUj^i^ietDKni eJisue», aiid ibti I'enbtis ate coiKguernd, 84 — 9C. 

Xerxes (appiwYiiijj tbt? adviui; uf .Maiduuiiis, 100) urdt-rt ibo fleet 

10 tlBUd fur tliv Hii]lc»|>i>iii. 107: (b« GrvuktjdeEiixius of punuing 

ike fugitive sbips. are retained by Eun-biades, »en>ndfd vvr.ii by 

TbnniBtucleH, lt)6 se>|, X<rxt^ Iiiiiisvlf Wvea iJin^c hundreil 

tbfUMUid oieu wiib MuId'Jlliu^ and, aLcuiupaiiied by the nat of bis 

■tviy. retieais by Uuid lowunls the Helleifpoiil : after Invinj; l)w> 

nujiir ponioii of hit folloitiira by hunger and i'lmaMn, and lioding 

t^ bcid][M awvp* a-viadcT by ■ imiipost, be cruaaeit tuvr lo 

Abydoa on stu]}-board, I'jU. The oB'truiff» of ibc Creeks to ilic 

goib axe cotnmeinoraied. ibe dirinon of the apoil, and ibe 

boDoun paid u> Tbiuiii!itiH:1<--i at Sjinrta, 121 — I2d. Artabazns, 

aba bad etcortod the Kiui; wilb a budy of Marduuius's snay, (a.\U 

iqMn the OljiKhiatia at bis rsitini, bui is grievoiuly ducomfiiod 

la lii« attack on ibe Poiidoeaiu!, 12G- — 129. In the mean Kliile, 

tbe Peniau fieri asitranU*^! at Sauim, lu keep natch oi'er the 

lottiaiu ; aitd ibe Oreek», iiii-iled by ibc loniaiis lo dciirer ibani 

from •larer^', proceed, under Leoiycbides, ns Car an Dclos, but 

daro DM advaiiw any furttier, ibroiigfa (eu of ilte Pernatn, 133. 

Diirii)|t wtntoT, ^Iiudotiiu.t consulta iho ota*:l<.'s of the tireeks; 

and Mnds Alexander of Macedonia wiih propo^ft of pence tn 


Alb«ii>. 136 (ill wliicti placi' tho origin niid |^i-iiL-alu){y uf 
MMeduoiaii kiinp> »tf. inierpoMtd, 137 — I3i>) ; i)ii> Alli?iii>n«,1 
hcm-erer, apum tli« couditions of M anloniiis, niid exhort ihel 
SpvtBOs ui cooio sptedily to Umt usinumoct 140 — 144. 

)f iRDOXlus, It diu opeiiiuij of sprinj;, uarehei inio Attica, audi 
takes Athont once more. Rltbougb dewned, I — 9. He leiiews inl 
vnlu bis yolit-ttattoti!! lo th« Athraitui), lo make pvocc with the King,^ 
4 Ml]. ; but u ihc- S|>i.TUn«, nrtvr long ddav, Bciid at last as«»L 
10, 11, iDfl all tiif (arm o{ PelopoDnestiN are jiQiinng ttrarardft] 
the isthmus, be roturns inio Ucvulio, and piicbea his camp in tbsl 
Tbeban leniion'. Id. Soon after, Uio Grerlu coma up, nnd pildi 
dinr caiiip at Ervibrae, 19: afiernrBrdii, having viiga^ with siii-cvw 
the barbarian Iiotbc, tbc> ahifi ibeir station i» the Plaumn lerri*.] 
tonr, St^. Some dar* arv passed, during which ihv twu nnnioB J 
remain in view, the vicihn* boding mcees* to nmlhor parlr, in tba-l 
case of an eoga(i^Dient : at last, Maidoniiis,in spile of the victitBK,! 
pifjiarei (o give batlta, 2D — 42: hit d(»ign is communicated to 
tbe Groeks, by Alexander of Alacodonia, 44. The Grt^kA, tl«- 
prived of water and rietoals, rCMolve In ahiTi tbiiir mnion nt nigbtj 
bat an Bitacked by the barbaiiaiu: a b1tK>dy buitio cnsuiM, in 
which 1irlaidi>tiitis in sluiu, and the PeraJana are drircn bock lo 
their (unp: Artabiuus nlonc< «scapoa, «iib forty thousand luon, 
into Pbocia, 69. The ciunp of ihe barbaiiaDx b niomied, and a 
dreadfal slaughter ensues, 70 aeq> The morvn of tbn Tlmhan 
derecdon to tho Mcdcs arc dolivored up to I'ausanias, tho leader of 
tho Sparuns, and pui to Aenh, 88. In lh« mean time, tbe navil 
rorcca of the Greeks, nccordiiig lu tho imiuiion of ih* Suiiiiani, 
take tltcic departure from Dclos, 90 — 93. A digTeaaion conccni- 
tn^ Erenius of Apollonia, ihe father of Dvipliouus, the divinu of 
tho Gr«dn, V3 iteq. The PenJanf, iiifoniiiyl of (he kppmiu-b i^f 
che Grwk flsM, haul tip iheir ships on tht< arraud of Mycalt?, und 
foTtilj' itiem with a null, Tbe Greets, punuinij Uiem, debark, and 
DTcrooDW llie Persians in a sharp ciigagenient : they capture the 
ctHsp, and tei Arc m the shipa. Ionia once more seeedes from ihv 
PersaaDM, 96 — 107. The Pclopi>nnc«ians return into Grftci- : llie 
Athenians, also, anor capturing Sestos, return into Greece, 1 14 l<> 
ilto end. 



tlBnonoTL's wsH bom at Ilnlicaniasmtti', a conmderable 

town of AsU KlinoT, foiir hundred and righiy-four yearn 

before the Chrisiian era : he wa»> therefore, sl>oul fonr 

yean of age at tliu lioic- thiit Xcrxca quiUud Sim]t», on 

hts exiMidilioii agiiinsl Greece'. lie iraa of un illustriouii 

foutilj, originallv Dorian, and botli his )>arcnU wen of 

bigh ranlt in Uic state*. Among hist reUuons iras 

Pu)vn6is, AD uncle cither by the father's or mother's side: 

the work» of lliis person have, unfortunately, not rc-uched 

tmr day; although hu was go celebrated, thai some of the 

luieiciita* do nut scrupKi txi assign lo him the siieond rank 

afl«' Homer, in pi>etica] excellence. Soon after Horodo* 

itu bad reached the agt* of early maidiood, hu euttred, it 

ippean, on a coanie of trarelling: it cannot now be de- 

termtuetl, whclht^ir lu> adopted this plan uf practical edu* 

catitm in the detiigi) uf {giving to tlK world llto result of 

liis rcMrjirches, after the i-XHmplcs of some wtitum who 

had preceded him, all of vhom came li'om the same qtiar- 

lor of tfac world as liimself *, and wbosu success ui the field 

of liisltrry may be reasonubly ituppuncd lo have sitmiilatcd 

Ap ambition of a youth, whoso naitiral cndon'mcots wero 

BTidcniiy (treat, and much improrcd, no doubt, by the 

oducHtion which an illuftlrioiu birth placed witliin bis 

reuh : or, whether lie merely (|uiucd bis couoiiy In 

order lo fp'atify that curiosity which, iti miods creotud for 

' TW Pttfat*- lo Clia « WM«el. Herod. VltB. 

■ S«I>!m tu'ilfA>«f. * S«idu in ttmUmnf 

* HOTtgQj irf Miltim, SaGthcg. Hdl*ain» of Mitrhii. anil Ckuma «f 
UttpnoiB. 8m WmmL UanL ViL 
Vi>L. I. B 


the contemplation of hiiiiian nature, is an irresistible pas- 
sion. Be that as it may, to bis travels he was indebted 
for many of the fascinating beauties scattered over bis 
works; from which we gather, that he visited all the most 
rcinaikable parts of the world then known — Egypt*, Sy- 
ria', Palestine", Colchis*, probably Rabylon'* and Ecba- 
tana", the northern parts of Africa", the shores of the 
Hellespont, the Euxine Sea", and Scythia'*. He pursued, 
in all those countries, bis researches with unwearied in- 
dustry : convinced that circumstances, which at the first 
view appear trifling, are (i-equcntly the cause of that va- 
riety which human nature assumes in difTerent climates, 
he dedicated the same patient attention to the religion, 
the history, the morals, and the customs, of all the nations 
he visited. 

On his return to Halicamassus, be found that his uncle 
Panyasis had been put to death by the tyrant Lygdamis, 
grandson of the celebrated Artemisia, who accompanied 
Xerxes in his disastrous campaign". Thinking, perhaps, 
his life not secure in bis native country, Herodotus with- 
drew to the neighbouring island of Samos. This volun- 
tary exile gave him leisure, of which it is fair to presume 
he profited, to arrange the researches he had made in his 
trarels, and to form the plan of his History. But the love 
of liberty, innate in the Greek, combined witli a justifiable 
desire of vengeance for the death of his kinsman, inspired 
him with the idea of overthrowing the tyrant, and restor- 
ing freedom to his country. Halicamassus was not want- 
ing in citizens discontented with the tyranny of Lygdamis ; 
the talents and ex])erionce of Herodotus gave decision and 
unanimity to tbe counsels of the malcontents ; and when 
his plans were ripe for execution, he appeared once more 
in bis native land, and at the bead of a formidable party. 

■ Lib. ii. passim. ^ Lib. ii, 44, * Lib, iii. G. aod ii. 106. 

• Lib. ii. 104. '• Lib. i. 193. " Lib. i. 98. 

" Lib. ii. 181. '» Lib. iv. 86. '* Lib. ir. 168, 43, 196, 196. 
I* Suidas Toc. 'Hfilftit. 


Tb« Ijrant wta dcllironvd, am) Hulicuniassus might Irarc 
Iwoii free; but the iiiotivus whicli urgeil thu Hislorion lo 
Diukc this aia-iupl vcrc shared by ftw among those who 
lind joined in ilio oxecutioo. Tho men of rank and Uk 
nvallby had hceo eager lo overihrovi- the lyraiii, in order 
ibey mighi get thu goveniini.^nt in their nnti linnds, oi»d 
eitAblish an an8iiM:racy. llie pvople prvututly discovered, 
lltiit the v»uined cnthuKiniitii for liberty vras but a pretext 
to Butgect them to a yoke still mure galling. The rirtlionn 
repuhlicai), too boncct to join the ariBtucratic [larty, n'as 
looked upon by thein witli a jcaloiiit eye: uii the oilier 
hand, liu wbn ioKuUi'd by the people, as the author of a 
cttaiigc which they found ruinous to thenibcl i*cs. I'hc 
natural ftiraplicily and honesty of his own heart had pro- 
bably bitbcrto blinded the Mititoriaii tt> the fiicl* Cbnt 
palriottAiu aud lore of freedom are the cloaks under which 
neo are woni to hide the deformities of a »clGsh nature: 
convinced now by experience, and disgURted, he bado 
fvPH'clI for over to his ungratoful country**. 

Ue proceeded to Olytupia": the gauies ncrc then cele- 
hmting, nnd he read lo an illustrious tneeling in tho 
OpiKlhndi)iiuit>" some portion* of his History. Although 
the circiimslance is not inimcdiauly couuected with liis 
life, it mniil not be omitted lo oliscrve, tlial among bis 
lirarem waa 'I1iucydide«, then about fifteen years of age: 
tbo youth, swelling with twble ambition, buret into Icara: 
*' Olorus," said ll(Ti)di)iiui to the bnr's father, " thy son 
" burns nilh the deture of linuwlcdgo**." 'Jlic compoailions 
of the Historian were mach applauded. Encouraged by 
Ike wagc« tnost graiitting to a high and well-formed 

1 Ifniim in'MfSiwrH- ■■ Aul. OeU. Kaet. Attic. XV. 93. 

" Th« OputbndanKN mm ■ larf;« bull in Iha boek put of Iha UoipU 
rf Ul^piaa Jare m Eli« j mhum Hwniotut tMilwi, datfug tliv tvlebnilim 
•<th* (Mjwfio (ianw*, ■ |>art of bh HJNtot]', in tfaa prannov of thr mnt the 
HMt illHiiiBaialuri b^ tlieir ulentu mid BrquiteiutnU, who b»d Mtlwud 
frMnall f*nv of Ortvcr. Lu^tan. m llm d »lv, i. quoted by Odofs. 

" ''Ogri ^ f •«» rW ■» rw TfW Tk tuMtmrm. Murccll. VJL ThlMTi. 
WiM. Ilvfod. VtL DiMliftll, AppirM. aJ AniuL ThocjHia. 18. 



miml, \i<: tledicatftl tliu next twelvo years of liis lilir to tlic 
iniprovernriit of a work (lcstiii(;(l by Providence to surviTi- 
long after his own dcatli, aiul to remain, for future gene- 
raliiiiis, an inoxliausliblu mine of useful knowledge and 
prdi'tical wisdom. He recommenced his researches and 
liis travels with rcnovalid ardour ; and, as he had before 
directed his attention more particularly to the nations 
and countries whicli acknowh'dged the supremacy of the 
Persian empire, he now travelled with the same patience 
of investigation over llie various provinces of Greece, 
collecting the records of the most illustrious families of 
the difiereni towns of any note. 

Ilavinf^ thus bn>u{;]it his work to a degree of perfcc- 
lion more satistactury to his own mind, he presented 
himself before thi? Alhciiians at the Panathenita *', a festi- 
val celebrated in tlic sunniicr. He a-jain read some ex- 
tracts from his llislory ; and that enlightened i)L'ople not 
oidy ai>plauded the work, but ]iroscntcd the writer with 
ten talents*' from ihe public treasury. Soon after this 
second triumph, bo joined a band of adveuturers, who 
(|uitted Athens to found a colony at Thurium**, near the 
ancient site of Sybari.s, in the south of Italy. 

On bis anival at Tburium, Herodotus was forty years 
of a»o ; and here, it is jacibable, he ])asscd the remainder 
of his days, making various improvement in his History: 
indeed, several pa'^sages are pointed out by the commenta- 
tors, whicli were evidently added to the body of the work* 
subsequently to his coming to reside in Italy ; more par- 
ticularly the revolt of the Medes against Darius Nollnis, 
which inu'^thave been inserted, according to good chrono- 

*• Ciirsini Fast. Ailic. fom. ii. 3ri7. Lart'ber, Vie d'Hi'rodote, lixxv, 

<" riuturcli. de Molip. Herod. 

M I'lin. Hint. Nat. lii. +. Larcher, Vic d'Herodote, Ixxxvi. 

** 1. Tho I,;iptJii'nioui;in invasion of Attica, iii thf tiret year of ili(> Pe- 
loponiicsiiui War, lib. ix. 73. 2. The ealamilous lot of the Liici'daimo- 
nian aniliansBiUirf nuiit intu Ania in tlif second yoar of the- ri'l'ijiunut^iiin 
War, vii. 137. ;^. Thi> dfserlion i>f ZopTCDs the ^(pii of Slcfrnhym^, to 
ttie Aibi'ninQ'", iii- H'"- 

LIFE 01' llKKOnOTUS. » 

Ingiiu, aft4>r he liad comtilutod liis scrcnty-eixtb year*'. 
'llie period, iho inaiirttT, and ihe place of Im death arc 
alikv unknnvD ; nithoiigh it seems iinquoetionablo thai his 
lomb, tir Bt k'aKt tits ci<notaplt, was ^hewti ou tlio C'wle, 
just without Olio of the [■att's of Athcus, aimmft the luoniu 
RKiiu of Ciiuoii's family, »iid jutar that orThiicrdidt;***. 

TTic ndmircri of Herodcmis are disappointed to timl that 
» friv ilirlaiU of the life of llii^ grvn and virtuutu man 
can be gaUiered from the work:* of the ancients thul have 
reached uur tiuic. Jt would, indeed, bt- gratifying to ihu 
Cttrioais and iustruclivi; lo the wnrld at Inrgr, particularly 
ill thv prcuint age* to be iufonned by what process of 
edticaiion, and wlial scries of accidents in Hfe, this lli»tu- 
rian vaK brought to unite ihc highest feeling ofdcvolluu 
and rehgiou wiib the favutty of penetrating tlie human 
(^niK^eti of cvtnitt), and to join that ]>nliencc of rcj^areli, 
uliiirh KponKHt notc?en tlie inoi^i iritling ilotails of human 
nature, lo auch depth of ibonght and quickneKS of percep- 
lioD. But it is useless In repine at the absence of wli»l 
waa Dercr posausscd: it will \>f, more prudent to direct 
aticntiou tu his wrilings; in which lie may be said, 
^ors perhapK than any other of tlio uucicnt authors, to 
be alill liTiiigi lor he diepons^^ ioblruelion with ejucIi a 
delightful alloy of aiuuseoiont, und, at the same time, dis- 
covers the principal features of Uh chiiracter with auch 
amiable artle^ue^t^ tlint it is imfio&sibtu lu »lAidy hiy 
yagn without fvcliug a sort of friendly aitai-hmuut to the 
or picliiring tu di« imagiuulioit almuttt u peruinal 
of ilie nrilcr. 

In order, however, lo form a just cslimalc of the art and 
chanuitrr of this Hisiurian. it ta nece3»ary, Grxt of all, to 
undeniajid well the nieihud which he hu^ followrd; tor so 
cxteiiH>e and uumerous are the liiihjictf wliich Im hoA 
liBudlod, that while aouhi con com|Niro him only tu lluinvr, 

,>■ l,wrliw, VirJ'tlAnklbtCjIlslilx.j n*) Iti-tt!. lit. 1. I.ln. 
LKmitt. Vii. thucjd. p. !>» 



in (lie art »it}i which liu has blended mi man; bvtcrc 
nuoiis pnrls into uiiv beaiillful wtiuh;, oibsrs doDj ilui he 
bad any fixnl ]>lau ut all, and cmphnltcnlly Dbservu, Lfaat 
his Ilidton' IB no 8»unt:r read tlian it is forgotten. To 
\KiiQi out all the inslanceB of the nicety of art by which 
[ferodf>lus has coutrired to iiiM:it in a narrow Gom})«sa • 
panorama, as il were, of the whole world, would be a sab- 
ject sufficieiilly vxlcusivc for au interesliuK work, it will 
not, howerer, bp irrelevain, to giro in this place the broad 
lines of Herodotus'* jjlan of history; le^i-iiig the aUon- 
tlve and sagacious rvader lo supply thu deficiencies by bU 
own exercionn in the mudy of ihc original author. 

Tlio uhiinaLB object, therefore, in the llislory of Hero-' 
. aIoIuk, in, to cunimeiiKiratu the glorious struggle between 
the {JrecliK and the IVrsianH ; in which the fimner succcsB- 
folly defended their hberlies against the incredible ntnlti- 
ludes biuui^ht into the field, fruiii all (Kirts of the wtirld, 
by lilt' loiter, whose dominion extended orer the whole of 
Asia and Africa then known, and sonw parts of Kurap«. 
Tlie account of the iinine<liate causes of the war, and ibo 
events which ensued after its brooking out, commences at 
the I'inh Book, and is thence rontiouod to the cod of the 
work ) occsMoiiully inierrupled by digressions, or rather 
epifiodes, which sene ti» reheve thu rt-ader's attention, by 
diverting it for a while from the direct course of the 
llistorr', and thti», by infiiruetitig, to amuse. Such how- 
ever is the nicety with which most of those digitswous, 
as they ate colled, arc fitted into the body of the wotk»i 
that, in almost eveir caflc, the llifltory would lose hy 
their suppression, Dol only in interest, but even in (terfec* 
tiou Aft a whole. 

The tnobt remarliablc crcnts, tending directly towards' 
the ultimate scope of the lli&toi^- — and they »rc all con- 
tained in the tire InM Books — may be summed up in a few 
words, llie loniaus, baring en^urvd the assistance of the 



AUwnWDft**, revoU fruin tho Porsian empire'' : tho Athe- 
iditwsend a fewsliipK to ttie miccour oril3i'iril««ceuilaau: 
tbcv abuin powursMOD orSardis, and lire iu buildings". 
Doriiu, kiDg of Pt.'ntia, informed of the e}iare the Atlie> 
niaitt have bud iu tliu cuptiiri: and dustruciion of SardU, 

f swears Uuit lie trill wreak rcngeaucu on thi'Ui": bu com- 
tDiaiccx bv reducing nncc more the loniuus", and ihen 
detpatcbcs a fnniiidable array against .Athcnii". llic Per- 

fMans aro beatc-Q at IMamtlton". Enraged at the tidings of 
th\% d4.'fcnt, DahOB malios still greater pruparaliunH*'; but 
ht« vengeance is muipcnded for n time by tlic rebellion of 
Efgrpt", one ofhis provineus, and finally chucked for ever 
by dealli**. X^rxnti, his son and fiuccessor, pninipted, as 
is natural in a jroiing man, by nuibitinn, and the counftcia 
of the iinprudeni, imitead of confining his designs to tlio 
pantahiiii>nt of Athenn, rcsulrcs to snbdue the whole of 
nreecL-^: dcttrnuiuing to inarch in person ugainitt llie 
enemy, be levies the most numcroua and formidable 
army e*er beard of"; he mans a considorablt; fleel"; and 

■ establishes, fur this icimeiiMf multitude, magazines uf com 
and pntviflions on the frontier of (ircoco*; and finally, 
tr two years of incessant preparations, commences hia 

Eaureh in the fipring of the third**. He first receives a 
cheek nl Thcnnopylie"; and, his Qeet being aAenrards 
efealL-d ut ^-ilamiii **, he roturnst into Asia, covered writh 

' disgrHce ". Mardonius, l>i>i chief general, is however left 
ID Europe **. with the ablest pan of the forces : iu the fol- 
lowing yt>ftr, MardoniiiR i» conquered at I*lata*u**; and, bjr 
a fiingular coincidence, on the very day of the battle of 
Ptutaoa. aiiothcr battle is fought by tLe forces on board 
llbe OrecMn licet, againat a Persian army stationed at 

«• Ul.. .. »7. 

• U1>. 1. 1(15. 

* LA. Til. 4. 
■ Ub. Til. M. 

•• Ub. rU. 933, Jm. 
•* LEkTfii. IIS. 

" UKt.99. 

» Lik. Ti. 

" Llb.«il. 1. 

» Mb. T«. 1". 

* LIK Tli. 94. 

« Lib. Tiii. IU, At. 

« Lib, U. «9. 

" Lib. T. 100, 101. 
»• lib. Tli. I. 
" Uk. Til. ao, 60. 
« IJh. Til. 3?. 

« Lib.Ttii, iir. 



Mjrcolv'", ID Ciirin of Asia Miaor; and here likcwuu tbc 
Creeks win n signol victory. 

It ha« already been obsen'ed, lliat ihvM events are Ibe 
laoKt reinarknMe of tho»e lending; towanU Uie object of 
tl»* History, otnJ thai ihev arc all conlatned in the fi*e last 
Ufinlitc this is so Lritc, tliat ihoso wiiust* indium ion aud 
curitMiiy do not extend be^'uiid tlie dusiri! ul obtaining 
<ionio knowledge of tlie ntaniur iu u hicb tlie valour of iho 
West, uided by an inscrutable I*rovidi;iice, Kuccecdud in 
re|H'lling (he rountlcsH tribcn of the EuM, generally confine 
their study of Herodolus to Uie Books whicli contain tlic 
d€«cri]}lioQ (]f the eoiiiiit^ of the war; and few hisloritms 
«rouId probably have carried their researches any further. 
Bat Herodotus, whose geniuR for expatiating cnjincnlly 
qualiflcd him fur the ini-e&ligation of causes, while bi» 
natural MuipHcity of eliarauter inclined him to devote hi« 
talents to the tervice of his felloir-crcattirDs, saw that, if he 
confnied bin flistory witliin .such narrovr limits, the OrecLa 
would funu but au iudi^iinct idea of the difCculties with 
which their ancestors had to contend. It was necessary 
la shew them, that the hcrnes of Marathon, of llientui- 
pylm, of Saluniift, of Plataja, of Mycalu, had comguu'cd Uic 
conqurrors of the world : it was therefore in<li^|it^u)uihlc 
lu pa-Sent to their ricw llic history of the Persians. 
Hence the history of that cxtraordinarj- and highly-civi- 
lized people forms the connecting chain ibrougliout Iho 
whole ofllic Nine Books; to tlie Tarioua links of which, 
Herodotus, with most surprising art, attaches the histo- 
ries of till) other barbarians, tlie manners and customs of 
forngn nations, the wonders of dtstaul lauds, and even 
the autitjuiiies and early tiaditious of the firceks them- 
selves. Thii) leads u« to a contemplation of the more 
complicated machinery of ihc First Book. 

Clin opens, occordiiiKlyt with tlic writer's declaration of 
his inlunlion to eumuieuiurule the actions of the barhariaiui 

« Lib. n. 9H. IM. 



and Uiv Grt«ks, and likewise to record the causvs of tbe 
faostilhy buiween thwe two ra«e« of men ", li wems, at 
flfst, mtlicr extraordinary, that lie should hart' (^n« so far 
back into thu tmnata of time, as to pn>ducc tlie muluul 
rapes*" of wumen cuintiiitti>d by ibc Iiuropcant: aiid llie 
Asiatics, which led, in the cud, to tlic Troian uar". Out 
liiis olijcctiun ia answered by iht; Uisluriuii hiuiat:!!'^. It 
tfoetnis in fact, lo bare Weu u princi]>)e uf the PcTsiun 
polity, tliat any insults olTurcd tu Ihu- cuiiiilrins under Uio 
Great King's scvplrc, evt-n ocoturics prtiviuii» to tJieir 
beii)}; united lo Ids empire, were beld as in»ulU lo bi» own 
persou: tliis principle is ilhislraled by a ciiriou* anecdote 
in tlie Ninth llook*', nml was indeed tlic ostensible uio- 
lite of Darius in nudi'rlaking the Scythian canipaigu". 
Absurd as it may ap{>(.'ur, it wax unquestionnbly tbiindcd 
uu j:()i)d ptilitic.l1 r«3tM>ning: for ivben onrc a couutr}' 
like Persia, in bcr glory, is inspired wiili the Bpirit of 
conqiu-st, and llitrcfore has cuoniiouiily ugi^riLiidlzcd tit-r 
territon-, it W-comot absolutely necessary that pretexts 
for distant urarfarc should be alwayb at liuod, in order t» 
tMTcupy those rc«tlc8» cliuraclcrs, who ollicnvi.*u would, in 
all probability, bui^y themselves in IbmoDtiug rebellion 
in ibcirown country. 

tierodotu?, however, evades giving his opinion upon 
ovcnt» oC so early a dale^; and, ehooRing it pi:riod of time 
neftrcr \m uutd day, declares his intention of pointing out 
ibe prineo whuiu be knew was die fiml, in times coinpum- 
tirely nKxlrni, lo commence hostilities on tlie Greeks: 
afi«r wbicfa, bv iviU enter upon die cuiinHj of hi» llUtury. 
Dimply connDLdl that iIhi noblest attribute of History ig 
Ut inMnicI tnunkind by uttructiu^; tlieir uttenlioii lo iho 
tnnUibility of human afluini, he tururui& ua, that he shall 
commetuoTUto alike llio fuubic and Ihtt powerfid slates: 

o Tte PrdWc to Clio. * Lib. I. 1 , d». • Ub. i. ft. 

■• lib. Is. ll«. X Lib. W. 1. <* LA. i. 0, 


'* for tlioge," says he, " nliicli of old were if^iit, mosl of 
" llietn have now bpcoiue small ; irliile ihufto which in niy 
" lime were givut lia<l previotmly licvn siuall: cun^iuced, 
" thfrt'fun:," lie coutimic-tt^ in » straiu of di-i-p monil fi-cl- 
ing, " that biiiuiLa KruaLiicss ts over variable, 1 shall com* 
" roemorate both alike.*' Ere therefore ne are presented 
irilh ibe recouls of lliu victory won by tliu Greeks over 
tfac PcntiuQS, VQ shall have to contemplate a long counc 
of hutnan cvcDt*>, by which wc shall be enabled to under- 
stand better the real beariugs of the (jueslion with I'cgard 
to tbti iaiiiortoQce of ibe Grecian stand for freedom, and, 
at the same lime, be improveil in heaxt aad itiitid by the 
DUtuerouij exampli-s of tl}c instability of worldly KfCaUieBs. 

Crccsus, ilien, was the first who commenced bosUlities 
on the Greeks": be itwo? who stihjoctod the colonies of 
that nation residing in Asia. Dut u'bo was ihts Crtcsufi I 
The conKideratioH of ibis ([UL-siiou aflbrds an opportunity 
of going back to ibe uarly age« of cbe Lydian empire**: 
Qorcan ne blame the riistorian for taking advantage of 
the opportunity, paTliciiIarly if wc consider that the sub- 
ject must bavo beiu fraught with interest to the ]>cople Jbr 
irbom be prolctutedly wroU.-. lu order, however, that chc 
objecl of tlie Ilislifry may not be likst sight of, the origin 
and ptugresK of the kingdom of Lydia are dismisjwd in a 
ftiw words, and Croesus is again brought before the reader". 
Ho is represented as uneasy at the gtoning poircr of Cyrus, 
king of the Persians, who had olrt^ady subdued the king- 
dom of the Medes, and was niarvliiug from conquest to 
conquust'*: be draws upon biniKelf tlie arms of ihu HersitD 
hero": he is uiken prisoner, and hi* country Kiibdued*. 

*' The liistOTT now proceeds to im)uire mtIio this Cyrus 
" was, ibiU ovenumi'd the kingdom of Crtesus; and in 
" what manner the I'erKians came to obtain tbe supremacy 
" of Asia*." The cnnquesi of LydIa had provwt ihnn to 
be a people ol' some iuipoilbucv: tliey had. howevcr,but 

" LEb. I. U. 

••Uk. i.A. 

" Lib. \. 7. 
■• Lib. 1. 80. 

• LIh. t. 9S. 



•hokci) ofl' the yoke of iho Mcdc« : Uio lliBloriaa 
Iberelbre goes back lo Uie early historj- of Uiu Mudra", of 
■rhich he gives a iikctch down l<i Uie deHtniotion of that 
i'in|iire, by ihc victory wbicli Cynw won over AslyagcB". 
Bui tht Mi'(l(.-s Uicnist'lves liad b««ii foniierly doiM--iMlent 
on tbe AssyriaDs, wbo pomiesscd lli« supremacy of Uppur 
Asia during Cive hundred and twcuty rears"; it was 
Ihcrcfore naliirul tliat Hcroduliis should ghe »i>iii« ac- 
couul of that rcmjiTliablc pcuplc; but had tliis been done 
rjt tlic placu irbirrc ibcr first appear in lliis bistoric txeoe, 
ffbe reader's aliciiUini noulJ have been too luuch diverted 
from tbe history of the Fcrstaiis, which must now be re> 
(vded as the main ^Ireani, flnwing through the n-hulo 
work) JDto which all the others are made to foil: add to 
which, thai an excellent opportunity occurs for com- 
pLrting tbe vaet picture in the aci;ouDt of Cyrus's subsc- 
([oont euterjmKt;^*'. 

Cyrus, having conquered Media, and ovenlirown 
Crtssua, king of Lydia, left to l)i« generaU the task of 
mbduing the Asiatic Greeks"; and uiarchiog in person 
againiLt the tlnbylnnians* and their dependent uniioos, 
compelled ihcin to submit to his power. Herodotus tar- 
ries anrbile only on ibe most important and intercstltig 
KuhjectA : hcnco he dues not inenliun the Buclrii and Saca:, 
whom CrruA did, we know, reduce": and if the llii>torian 
expatiatca aomewhat on ibc Massaget.'c'*, it is only be- 
cause the war against that nation was unsnccesKfu], and 
led to the death of the founder of tbe Penian monarchy* 

Cyru» was succc*cded by his son Cambysea'*. Proud of 
Ins power, lliib laitur utarched into Kg.vpt> That country 
was in thoi>e days the nio«t inleresling in the world; and 
it was here (hat the learned among the Greeks mispected 
that tlietr arte, scicDces, and religion, had their riw: it U. 

•• Ub.l.««. ■* 1Jb.i. I». 

* Lib. L IW. &r. " Uti. i. IM. 
•• LMchrr, Pr*fcc*, »i»iil. 

» LiK i. M. 
" Mb. i. I r«. 
■* l.ib.l.91&, At. 



Uiereforo, fair to aesuiuc Ihat tlic Greeks must liarc 
luuki'd upon E)^y])t wilb nearly Uic kuiuc ft'cliiiKS tus «'e 
Jo uu tirceco and Iloiut;: tlic Greeks, moreover, were 
DOW hegiiiniiig to visit Egypt, from motives of coiiimtifcc, 
instructiua, and ctiriiKiiiy. It wa« consequently of ttto 
ulmDi^t importance to give the (>rfiCionB n com>ct idea of 
tJiat porliuii of the world: Herodotus, iherefore, couRii- 
cratcs the wtiolc of his Secood Boot to lh« hi&ioiy of the 
kingB uf F-tn'P'' ^"<^ 3» ai^cuutil of the prndiictinns anil 
cnriositie)) of" that extraordinary region, logctluT wiili 
the raannent aud religion of the inhahiuntx. Tliis history 
is traced, in a Kuccinct niannrr, from the most early 
period, down to that of the invasion hy Cainbyscs; wht-n it 
merges into the history of the Pemians. 

AAvr the coiiqut-st nf KKypt, Cumhysc* nwrched ajcaiilst 
the impoBlorSmerdift",who had usurped Ihc thtoiic of Per- 
sia: his death was caused by an accident. Soon after the 
decease of Cambysea, the clieat of Smerdis the Magus was 
discovered": be wm pul tu death, and Duriiis was. elc(;|p<l 
Kiug**. This prince KiilMlned once more tlje Babylonians, 
who had rerolted'*. Thcfte erenlB of the Purbiau history 
form tlio groundwork of Thnlia, the Third Uook. 

Prompted by ajubilion, or ntorf probably by the neces- 
sity or employing the rcsllcsit sjurits of his vast dominious, 
Darius formed the design uf ensUving the Scythians". 
Tliose tribi'ii' Mere but Ultle known, excepting Id tlieir 
uoighbuurs, aud tlie Grecians »ultled in the tuvns on ihu 
froutivT of Scylhia : it i» natural, hotvcvcr, to suppose 
tlial the Greeks inu^it have been deuirous of having Bomo 
information reBfiectiug that curiouB people, particularly 
as there were already somv Grecian colonies settled in 
Thracti, and on ilic European and Asiatic shores ol ilie 
Euxiuc Sua. Moreover, the Scythians weru In thai Mate 
ofharburuus society, to the accounts uf uhich men of all 
ogea, who enjoy tlic hicaoinga of civilix«Liou, listen with 

n Lib. iii. »«. 

«■ Ukili.tti. 
II Lili. Hi. lau. 

» Lik iii. no. 

" Lib. U. I, 


a nainrtl cngcmcsB of curionly. Thr Historian's ^c- 
wriplioo is (ramud so ara to givt- a rough bui cli-ar idea 
oT Lhc fCMi'L-miiKrut of tlic Scythiaiis. tlteir manners, and 
the (laliirc of ilteir coimtrt'. I'hc Sc;t)ii«n.s adopted a 
orslcm of warfare wliicb cuiDpollcfl Darius to rutrcat into 
hn o«ii stall's'*. 

But at Uio time lliat Darius was carrying oa ao atisiic- 
ccaefu) vru a;;aiiiHt tlio ScylhianR, anollier oiight)' expe- 
dition" was undertakrn, by tlic Pmianit etntion«d in 
Kgyjtl. against the town of Itnrcc, on the nonhcru coast 
of ArHca. Tliis affords ihc Hlsiorian au opportunity of 
luucluit;^ oil a suliJL-ct iihicli tuu4t liavi! been no less inte- 
resting than inslriiciiTc to his conntrvnirn : it is, the found- 
alioa of the Hrvek colonifs iu Libya, which bugan titen 
to ajonniL- an iiuportunt NUtion. This biatory he lihewiso 
tracts I'ruin its lx'}(iuriinj;. and coiiliiiues dom to the 
ltm« of itic inrond of tho Pfrsiaufi on thu Libyan territory-. 
lIcrfidutuA hiicw, also, too we'll tJie inslruulioo which civi- 
liic<4 iiiiliou^ uiuy deri^'e from contrasting tht'ir situation 
wiUi tliat of men crarapwl beocatli ihc oppressivtj weight 
of barbariMn, to ncglocL th(! ojiportiinity noiv h«fore him 
irf giving «umv account of tho vai^rant hordt's rosidcnt on 
the north coast of AlVica. 

All ihe TTcnu* hero mcntimicd arc nrcc^tnarity and in- 
lioutcl) L'uniicctc<l with ihc histor)- of the Persians; and 
perhaps equallr so vith that of the Grecians, inumucb 
an tht-y enable Us belter to appreciate' the importance of 
the ndhlti rictorint nhich they won over llic i'unnans; and 
uolonly the valour of the oibor Greek confederates, but 
more particularly that of Ibc Athenian.^, u-jio, to use the . 
iliitori&n'N ciii)ihatic language, " engaged the Pentian a^ 
" Mirotlton singl«-haudv4l, foufjlii and cou<|iiered six aiid 
" forty nation* '•," 

« til. it. iw. Lr. 

" Lib.i*. ii». 

" Lit), is. 27. 



niosiS!iici.>is or the ntsToRv. 

Such, then, arv tlicprincipnt lines of the ])Ian of History 
ndopU-d by Herodoltis; nnd if we consi'Ifr the pro1>able 
motives which may have indnce<) him lo chooee so vast a 
fu-ld, vc shall, no dotibl, trace thuui to that thint of nni- 
vcrsal 8cqnaiiitiinc« with huinan riftiurc which eitabled 
him to face the hardiibips oftrarc) in ho many and distant 
counthos. Happily for mankind in Kcnfiral, lo th« thiivt 
here alluded lo is always united an equally irresistible 
desire of <:omninnirating the knmrlodgo ubtaioetL Nov 
18 thiK tiint of mind perceplihle onl}- in the ^nerat out- 
line of the ineiliod: it rlinritclerizes the execution of each 
indiridual part of the Ilislury. The anxiety of llie vriler 
to explain and expatialp, and by his explanarions to in- 
Htnict, 18 every where loo visible to escajie iiotife; and 
nne is sometiines templed to think thai the work must 
liavr1>cc:n composed by some matlmmatician, accuelomod 
to define as he advances. Hence the numerous digres- 
sions frtnn, and iiilcmiptions of, the narrative, which aro 
met with iu the course of the Histwy ; many of these are 
naturally introduced by the subject in hand, wlide otlierst 
according to hi» own fair avowal, are rather for-fetched: 

lint having touched on the subject of the digrewions of 
Hftrodotns, it will be proper to ratend a little farther our 
observalioQS ; juirticularly as the objeclionH made lo Uie 
History nn tide score, unlike most uthcre, proceed IVr- 
qncnlly from pcrsoni nhoM: talents entiUo their opinion 
(o M)ine reitpecl. Many minds are naturally endowed with 
a fretlVil curiosity to sec the SL-quel aad tvnuiualiaii of the 
«vpnt>t announced by a history: hence their judgment con- 
demns whatever obliges Ibem lo loso sight for a moment 
of the object of their sole interest: to such persons, He- 
rodotus uiu»t always appear exceedingly garrulous ; and 

» LIh. W. 30. 

niGKEssioNs OF THE insumv. 


iEi(]cc<1 Uic rrndei uiusi be a Tcrr prejudiced admirer uf 
the Hiftlorian, who can see hi« aticntiuii divercud, in the 
taiddle til* thv lirillianl dt-scripliun of the biiltlu of Tltvr- 
mopylor, to the roanriAge of a Persian lady, and the 
atnoiinl of her dowry*, and vcl deny that he is it Itiast 
wuH>/ed. But cxuinides of stivh preposterous inkmip- 
lioii* an ver^ few : presuming that his reader haa the 
liso and inciinatioii to Bttenipta pertV'cl linowted(;e oflhi* 
Ooiinliy he is giiing tu travel uver, tiie iiisloriau disdutus 
to whirl him along the straight and sandy road, hiil lead* 
kim, bj- ihf hand, over hill and dale. 

The digTfsaioni* then of Ht-rodoliis may be divided 
into two cI&srck; thoHL- nnlurally su);g[-st4:d by the subject, 
mnd those which an; not sn. The object of the 5r3t i», the 
■ntiqiiilivs of natJon», their manners, cUAloniH, and reli- 
giuii ; the conslituliun of sUtvs ; the geot(TiiptiicaI deJlni- 
liOB of countries; the fulfdment of oracles and predictions; 
the oriRiu of ihc worship of the gods, and of the Grecian 
mysuries. 'lliefte subjoct^ were all of high intereet to tbo 
Greek poople, who could nolbut hold themselves indebted 
lo the writer ulio attached <io much u»i-ful information to 
tbo iiarrativo of their deeds of glory, llie art with whieh 
lome of those digresidons are linked oo to the whole is 
imly ftuqirivinK^. p3riui!,in liis expeilitionagninuScythia, 
goes to cooleitiplate the Kuxine: the Hlstoriun ftei2eit the 
opportunity to descrihethat sea*'. Ariatagoraa of Miletus 
b about to answer the question of Clcompnrs, king of 
Sparta, how far it h from Ionia to Siisa : he is interrupted 
in bis reply ; and tbo Historian, having thus ivhettt'd the 
curiosity of the reader, lakes up the subject, and describes 
biniiM;lf the road*. The consideration of the Myperboreaiia 
leads the Historian to consider the opinion of those who 
bcld that the U'orld was round as a shieM : he rernteK their 
opinion, in a digression, rich of geographical knowledge". 

* Ltk Tit. iSI. ■■ Lib. i«. 8&. « Lib. r. 69- M. 

* Lihi nr. 'Jd, dec. Ttiu c&flBiinDn nf ihi- Hiiloiuii il, al 'narntU «t 
Hmt* yt ^ #«i»i ri^ rit ynr. t»M> tmXtrifit it 'Tt wi(mp: Ibe UMul 
UwtUiifl* ailrm I*, •• la if tartMil \rj » tatte.'* The nUnkt of dw 


moRESsioNS or the history. 

Ckdmu, (Icnroufl of raprcwing tiic power of the Pcrsiani, 
weks tlie nlliancc of Hio Grccfcs : thi? intiwlQce* the 
earlivM histoTj of S|>Jtna and Athene"*. ArisUgorm of ^ 
HiletUH, intending Lo levy war against thf Pf man cmfrfref fl 
Rocii to Ijicvdstmon, lo solicit awislance : iho Hiwiorian 
seizes llic opportiinity ufcontiDuiu}; iliuht&toiy of Sparta^*. ^ 
Tbu Bamtf individual procoeds nn the samu urrand to H 
Alliens; when ihc hislorj' of thai state ih likcirisc conti* 
niicd". In tb« account nf the Libyan tribes, Uie Hislorian 
has nccanon to mentioo an island, where, according to tlic 
stalfini-ut of tlie Carthaginians, tlic girls prvcuri; gold sand fl 
by dipping hunches of fenlhcrs dauWd «-iih pitch into ™ 
the inud of a lake : Herodotus signiHes his unirillingoess 
to decide whcllivr the talc is correct or not, hut takes tfao 
opportunity of describing, as an vyc-»itDcsii himself, a 
phoinomenon in (be isliud of ZRcyothup^ u-hcrc bitumen 
is obtained from a lake by a similar cootrirance ; and 
thus conveys a piece of )afr}rination which would be de- 
spised by none but the hermit of the closet". Ilio 
abore are but a very few instances of the art of He- 
rodotui^ the illustrations of which, as has boon observed 
before, ^vuuld fdl a volume ; and ever)- where this asto- 
nishing skill of execution is to lie traced to a desire of ■ 
instnicting ; this art even sonietitnea bonlcrs on cunning. 
Sofltclcs, the Corinthian dt;pu(y, oppows tlic lyruunic prin- 
cnplcs of the SpnrtaiiK : Herodotus grasps the opportunity 
of placing in his uionth the biAtory of the Cypselidse' 

IntnaUlnni mipbt bo cxcumkI, but not th« tOMr of iguomico whioh •oin* 
bilulfn tt the iilvn ttiat Uvrudoliu iibould liavt- laufhod at thiwc wlin 
teprtMnledihr «ror1(1 u j^tubuUr. 'Hif r«ct it, ihut Btrodotu* jnnbolilj 
had no idn of the woMJ tning iijkbiiriFiiI : "be d«rid(« thato who sake 
" ibe urory like a KhieU, irilb lh« Mv&a ■ufniuoding (bv flat oircti 
'* of tb« uvlh." Bee Lb« 'tabttim UttoAaUut. I bail oat ann the 
pndktoi;f cbtenBiioju lu iluu tnlDiilitv liula boot nlisn I tniMliUrf 
thiMt fut of Mtlpomane: I un ftlud, bon*v»r, !■> flnil nj expUiiUiaa 
DorrohoraMd hj ihin •otbarli)'. See vol. i. p. 28&, oolcr 4 ; wbrre I barn 

: VJfNWtM 

•■ ].iti.i.6C-W. 
■> Ub. IT. IH. 

. atmpa**, 

u Lib. *. 99. 

Uh. 1. w. 


Lcot^'cbides, addrvs&ing tlio AllicnUos, a re|>r«ftttOtcd as 
pnxluciDg on old Sparian tradi lion **, which cAn hardly b« 
f*id to bear on the question: and, to speak tho truth, 
Gveti tlie brazen plaUi uf Atislagoras** seetni; ti) have beeii 
inlrodut-'od only to afford an opportunity of giring geo- 
graphical hifomiatiou to a pouple, trliu, but a few years 
before, wflre so ignorant of the state of the world, that 
nttny auiong them fancied Samos was as far from Delag 
u the pillars of Hercules". 

But llicw.- digresstous uland in need of no defence : all 
patient readcTR will be grateful for the instruction which 
the Historian thus finds (he means of conveying ; and, far 
fluui regarding tbeui as sui>erJluous oniatncnts, will deem 
tlwiD an essential part of tlic History itoclf; which may be 
compared to a vigorous tree, well »9l with branches, and 
idonied ivitb rich foliage; an object truly tuorc gratify- 
ing to tbe eye than a dry tnink with two or three leaflcM 
MBDI8. It is not, however, so easy to account for those of 
tllB second clasA ; in which the writer has tividenlly strayed 
out of his road, in ujarch of an opportunity of introduction. 
The study of hiMory and of foreiifD couutiies. having 
engaged tbe mind of Herodotus in a coui^L-inl and deep 
considei^on of human nature, he must necessarily have 
fcamed a system of inorality and religion, which he bim- 
kU ho doubt tbuught the hantr and the priueiples of 
•hicb none can deny that it was not only his right, 
tu hiH duty, to record, aad, when possible, to exeiaplify, 
in the coarse of his work. Thla appears to be die ouly 
KuofMble gn^onds on which we can account for several 
digiestions, that hare no rchition, either in point of time, 
<vi]| their otlier bearings, to tbe tbn<a(l of tho narrative. 
Ths (Me of Periander" of Corintli uraa too slrilting an 
ilkiittatiou of the chastitement of the wicked, even in this 
vnrkl, (or llurudoius not to wijtb tu shew his readers, by a 
dtuil of iluu tvrant'» dooiefttic miisfurtuoes and miserable 

• Till. ri. ss. 

* lib. •til. 132. 

*• Lilt. iii. 60, &o. 


uod, lliui piiwcr and wealth unitetl cantwit make maQ 
happy, unless accompanied hy virtue. IJitl tbo Toign of 
IVriatidLT uas mauy yenrs rnterior Ui the evetiu wliich 
cuiisiitiile the Hihjcct of tbt! TliJrd Book, and is tolalljr 
imcttnnectfd wiili the ubjccl of ibv tlielor>'. The art 
with uliich this beautiful mural leuiun U iutruducod is 
ibtrcforc (k'st-rring of some couai deration, llie lIJKlorjr 
is CTigagfd in Ihr account ufAunic BamiunFi, who, in urdur 
to asst-rt their lri.-cfloro, attract the arms ot the Larcdae- 
moniauft on their island, to nkicli are united Ihose of tbc 
Corinthians". This portion of the History is itself a di- 
gression, which }I«rodotua takes tlic opportunity of intro- ^ 
during in thin place, becaaae somo of ilic Saniiaiis liad been ^| 
sent by their tynnit PolycruteK to assist CanibyKes, and 
because the iLiies uf the Pfr«ini) expedition ag<iinf;t Bgypt, ^^ 
and uf that of the Lact'da-iuotniiiis agatoKt Samos, wero ^M 
coiucideui*'. The ini^ricrenct! of foreign nations in ciril 
wars may gcnenJIy he aUribuicd to mii; of twro raoiivrsj 
either to nn honest desire of ruMiring the success of one 
party, or to a craAy design of treakeniiig llie I'ountry ilsrlf 
for some jmlitical reason, by entangling the qiiaiTcI, and ^| 
■ddiug to the honors of the struggle; il is not tliorefore H 
BUTprisitig, that two causes should have been alleged for the 
olocrily wilh which llic Laccdtemoniansjoine^l the repub- 
lican parly ; tho Saniians a&scning itiat it was out of grati- 
tude for a former farour, nliUe the Lacedemonians tlieiD< 
selves declared il Kns from a desire to be avenged on the 
Samians for )kOiii<> acU nf piracy vrliich they had couimttlvd 
oa iheir nation**. With rogaid to tlie Corinlliiaus, Plutarch, 
in bin Treatise of ihe Slalignity of Herodotus — the proto- 
ty[>c of thuNC cotnpositiiiiiii, ini]iroperly termed criticisms, 
iritli which niudcm lilcrniurc is infested — takes for granlcd 
that Ihcy iictcd from the pure and praisenorlhy desire of 
iniLlitig duirn tyranny : it in. to be hoped, fur the boitour 
of humna nature, thai such was rcalls- lite caae. Hero- 

» Ub, iii. i$. 

** Ljb. iii. 39, U. 

i.ib, iii.47. 


dcMiu, howorcr, states, that t\n: Corinllimus meddled in the 
ciril war out of n dcmre of rtmgcnncc, anil in nrdiT to 
panisli Ibe Samians for an inHiU received at iheir liands, 
nrhen $ome Corcyne-an buys bt'inj; ^nt by Feriaudvr u> 
Asa for a toott inratiioua purpose, in order thereby to 
blKtaisIt tli€ Corcytscans who had miinlcred his son, were 
pd by iho Sainians* It is tit}- iruo, that whvn we 
coDcider the liroe elapsed between llie rwcnc of the Hotb 
and tile Snmian r«vnlation, and, likewise, wlion wc ctmsidtfr 
that the rescue, if an intiiiU at all, wa« au ^iisult not on tfar 
Corintliian people^ but un the C^iitcetid^e tlietr tyrants, a 
&niily At this period rrcollcclcd only nilh frellngx of dc- 
Icatatioi) by the descen<lants of their SHlijecU", this motive 
floes at Brst appear extreunely improbable: but thu Ilisto- 
riaa, foreseeiDR, as it were, the objecliou, gives a very good 
reason why the ConalUiiuis ehnuld have considered the 
MTTicc rendered by the Samians to the Corcyraians as on 
inaolt on their n'liote body; tlie Corinlhiani) and Corey- 
nuns had, in faet, been at variance from the very fonnds- 
tion of the island : Nuv ii alti, hi*l rr ixrivan n^u v^tro», i^o-) 
t w i y o jci icnti hmnWi**: — and Mirely this iti not the only 
imtance of grosR anomaly in conduct produced by national 
■ntinusilT. Whtther Herodotus is right in the motiTe viliich 
"be aliribntes to tlic men-bants ofihc lathmus, is howerer 
a quMtion of little importance, and perhaps somewhat fo- 
mgn to the otiject of these remarks: the nicnUon of the 
tndilion which he adopts, whether true or false, makea 
room fur an uccuiint of Pt-riaader bitni««tf, and affords an 
opportiiaity of attaching to the hiMorical dii^Tession a 
iBonil q>i&odc: the tyrant had murdered his wife, but nei- 
ther power nor wealth could shield him from the vengeance 
of Providence, which smote him while yet alire: one of 
his aoBs was an idiot : the other, seeing in his father the 
murderer of his mother, made use of th« powerfnl f|uali- 
Acations with which nature bad endowed his mind to 

i.iv iii, 4>, 

lA. V. B9, poMim. 

Lib. lit. 4». 



torment an age<] parent by obstinate i]i!tobi>cIieoce: Uie 
young man at laxt meets M!« dcAtli in(orc>Ta; and Peri-fl 
andtT, kl the e<Ige of his ^rave, finds liimfwirrdt of any™ 
tuti'ful posterity, »nd cuuiplL-tcly aiiserablt;. Such indL-Ml 
is Uic urt of ihc iliiitnrian, thai Iw not iuifiv-<|iiently lakes 
ndvaotage of some obscure tradition, or vrcn some most 
iinprubuLle a'port, to nanate events which muy illustrate 
his inorol principles; and, as before bofi been obserrediH 
ia upon this ground that the insertion of not a few digra* 
Bions niu&t be accounted for. ^ 


TViK likewise leads us to the considuralion of a subject 
botli tnipnrlant and interesting, namely, the mora] and 
religions phiioKnphy which pcr%'adpK the History of Ileio- 
doltis. The principles of the system are s«hmitt<*d to the 
reader at an early stage of tbe work, and repreflenlcd ss 
proccedinfi from tbe lip8 orSolon*': 1. Power and wealUi 
arc not sufficient to conittiuiti: happiness; ftir the mau in 
poxscssion of a uioderate fortune is nftenlincs happier tboa 
the aurercign on his throne. 2. Every tiling is i>ubject lOtfl 
the laws of dcftliny, which not even llic (tods cuu avert.^ 
3. The divinity is jealous of the piide and ranity of men*, 
and loves to abash thusc thai ratso themselves too high. 
■1. CuDseqiieutly, no man can be predicted to have beenlrtily^ 
happy until he han ended life in happiness. To which mayfl 
lie added two oihrr maxims, which are lepeaiedly illus- 
trated in the course of the Histon-: A. Tlie divinity visitB 
trreiitrriiaeKwithptmishmetil in this world. A. The divinity 
is wiiiit lo interfere directly in human affairs. Any reinarl 
on ihew maxims wotihl he inconsistent with the scope 
tbt^se ob8er»ations : it will suffice, lo prove that such wci 
the ideas of llcrodutus, in order that, in reading the His- 
tory, the attention may be directed towards their illustration. 

«• Lib. i. 32. 



The 6r6t maxiui, that pcnrer &iid wealth are not tiufB- 

cianL to coustitutu happiness, is strikingly dispUyt-tl iu the 

account of Cra-sus bimsrlf, who, soon after the departure 

ofth* Athcuian sage, is plunged into tho Jcepcst domestic 

misery : bii son, the only darling of his hope, is killed by 

the hanti of a ponioii whom he hnd comforted in miticry 

ud cherished uk it wens in his bosom*. 'Hie same priuei- 

pie is liltewise rvniarkahly illiistratvd in the Seventh Book. 

Tb« account of l)ie wreirk of the IVrsiau fleet off the Se- 

piad foreland leads the writer to tnenliuu an individual 

vrbo much enriched hioiself hy tlie quantities of ^Id and 

lilver plate thmwn up by the sea on his estate: men arc 

Want to listen with a sort of envious and ca^i^'' curiosity 

t» iho oarratircs of wealth thus obtained by chance: 

thoM' feelings, howevur, are in this instance benumbed j 

for ihe MoraliKt carefully observes, that even this indivi- 

ilttnl was n«it(vi with sorrow, which ombitieied hie day*, 

teiM's luil Twrov', to use his own cspressivo language. 

Hie nine maxim ig illustrated in the hintnry of Polycrates*, 

«t Portaoder^ and indeed almost every high persoDa({e 

Woe^ht to the reader's view, 

(lixdly less numBroii* are the iihislrations of the se- 
omid maxim — that every th hi g ik subject to the laws of 
•^wtiajf ; or, as he makes llie Pytlioness reply to ibe re> 
■fistranccs of Crawiw, ri^v ifrjw^ti^* fiaifaa iSimri 
^> inpvyiin vx) tap*. Thin principle slicdB a consi- 
**>hle dfgree of dramatic interest on several ponions of 
«• »Wk, more particularly, perhaps, on the misfurtunes 
■■Iffcath of Adrastos^; a tragedy which, by Ihc effects ie 
pVBJucM on the finer feelings of our tiatorc, way bu 
pKed on a level with those written by the heal masters, 
popwely for the itia^. Nor mn<it wi> omit to obacrvo 
lit an with which the Historian avails himself of thia 
principle to rivet tlie aileuliun of his render: Canihyras, 
WModnl accidentally to death, tindiug that he has mistaken 

■ Ub.t. 43. 

* Dk (b. sa. flu.-. 

• Uk ffi. IM. 

• Lib, I 91. 

• Liti. iii. I», 1^4. 
' Uh. 1. iA. 



the oracle, and tliat (he F.cbatana, which he undemtood 
of Media, atliuVrl to an ubi^cun: lown Id Syria of the 
Baine naiii«, excluims, " Here U the fated apot for Cam- 

\/hjKct, the son of Cvriis, to die'l" — no pcrsou can read 
tins paraage trithoul having the same m^archinf* frvUog M 
aft 19 produced by a rtiiitilar stroke of art in Shnk^pcarc't ™ 
Macbeth. Xerxes, in the pride of vuulh and power, has 
brought the myriads of Asia across the Hellespont: 
harrily has ho set foot on the European shore, than vari- 
ima lolecnH forebode his diiutscers*: the Persiau priocs 
paHKeH them itithei'dud : not %o the render, who is pre- Mi 
pared lo contemplate, during the whole account of the ■ 

^oxp«d)lioQ, iho iinbecihty of human power, when acliog 
contrary lo ihe decrees of fate. Hie Kaiiie art, if ait it 
usy hit ealh'd, is dUplared in the narratito of the death 
of Potycrates : the dream of the daughter previous to the 
deparlare of her fatlier to meet the tieacherous Orvctea, 
ihu earncstntjKs with which she is represented foreboding 
her pari'nl'f calamity, and the isimphcity with which abe 
prefers to abide long unweddcd rather than to lose a dear 
father, excite an awfnl interest in the roadyr ••, 

The thin) maxim, that the diiinity in jealous of the 
pride and ranity uf man, and loves to abash ihoM that 
raiitt.' tlit'imielves loo high, is too Ireqiiently laid down in 
the eourse of the IliKlnry for any one to diiubt tliat atlcli 
was the idea of IlerDdoliu. 8ot<in produces it, in his di«- 
cour^te, tn hiimhie the pride of Cra-&n»".' Atnasir^, hi his 
letter to Polycratcs, wlicruin he endeavours to hcI bis 
friend on Inn guard ogaiust too great a reliance id his 
own good rorlimc": and Artabaniis, vi'hen, taking adran- 
tage of the young King's state of taind, he tnakea a last 
eSbrt to bring hint to some feelings of humitity**. To 
illustrate thiii priucipU', tlie Historian, prcrioii-t to rc- 
counUng the diKaslitinB e^spcdition of Cyius against tba 
Maasagctffi, his drath, and the ignotninious treatment 

* til. 64. 
•> Lih. lii. 10. 

» Lib. »ii. a:. 

" ub.iii. i». 


Ijb. *ii. 4S— SO. j[f) n l^tftx—ra 



fais body by Tomyri*, infoniis the reatU-r, tliat Cynis 
thought hinweir BooMiiliing inora Uian a man, nod that no 
naliuii could n.>9ul his power": thus the chasiiseuient 
which be receive!* corrahnrates the truth of the muxim 
jdicrtl in the moiilh orSolnn. 

Tho fourth niaxiiD, that no man can he pi¥<lical«d to 
be happy until he has cndei) \i(i in happiiie»», i» a ne- 
eauary cooaequunce of Ihc preceding ]innciplcs. Arlu- 
baBUs dcvclctpvE it, ID hilt speech to Xerxes, jitst noir 
■lhl<Ie<l lo; and the llislor; excmplilie^ it, ia passages 
too numcraiia lo specify. No where, however, is i1« irulh 
enforced more directly, than when Cnenus, 6xed on the 
pyre, colls ont," Solon ! Solon I Solon"!" in (his part of 
the work, the sympathy of the conqueror, the racing of the 
flames In spite of all efTorls to quench them, the uiiiu>rab)E! 
llate of llie Lydi^n kinjj, fmni u hich he is ieM:uud only by a 
tniraclfl, constituio a living picture, admiiahly adapted to 
buinhli* the proud, and painted in such vivid colours, tliat, 
irbcn once riencd, it remaius lor ever fixed in the memory. 

Herodotus seldom permits any opportunity to slip of 
impTcsnog his reader with the belief that Ifau divinity 
vinla great cnmeit with ^cal pitQiishiueut : it will he sixfii- 
cient to adduce one or two instances. After proving prac- 
tically that the Trojans could not be in pOKsessloo of 
Helen, who had indeed been ravisht'd by Paris, hut was 
in Egypt during the trar, he aceotmln for the dittbulief 
ftliewn by the Oreek» to the assertions of llic Trujaua : 
" No faith was put in uhnt they said : the cause of 
" which, iu my opinion, was, that ProTidencc orrangwd 
** that the detclTuction of the Trojan nation, by one general 
" nuUMcre, nhould couviuce all mcui tliat fur great mis* 
** deeds, great arc the punishments at the hands of tlw 
** goda"— <^ Twe fuyaXepy iiiMiiftarimr fMyoAcu (Crl xal «] 
** TifiMfUi wm^ Tm ftwv'V Pheretinia, havint; glutted 
her dears of bloo*! and veuguaDcv, die* a must mi^terablo 

■• Ub.i.aH. 

u Mb. i. e«. 

^ Uk. h. iM. 



ileallt; Iter IxhIv swarming, while yvt alive, t.'itli intiRgots: 

Tfuw^Mii wqU itav n-fi^iciwi yi'iwvrai". The same priacipte 
leads the PliBtoiian, <le«pite of the olher reuons rejMUled, to 

YT^ard the luadness of CIvomeoes as a puuishmetit inflicted 
on him hr Pmiidvnct;, for having tainpen-d niUi the pro-H 
plmtL-sa uf Delphi* and iirtKutcd ihu niiii uf Dfinarutus". V 

Wu now proceed to the sixth and last principle of tfab 
inoi'iU philosophy ; namely, Ihnt th<^ divinity i* wont to 
inlorreni directly lu human nOaini. To the adoption of 
this Toaxim, Herodotus wai> nu doabt conducted by tlie 
nalUTDl connx* of hiK sliidies: for tlio more we ronbim 
plate tho woild, whether in active life or the pages ol 
liislor)\ the more convinced we are of the futility of at- 
teiiipliii^ lo account for ert-iy thing noh-ly hy human 
agency. This principle, howevirr, in a mind guided only 
by the light uf natum, may be reasonably supposed lll^■ 
sujicnmliicfi eunicthiii^ of supcretillon, and cotiKL-queully ^ 
credulity: it would be a fully lo dcuvt that Uerodulu^ it 
entirely free from those faiho)^. He is of opinion, Ihatfl 
tokens forebode tho approach of calamities to naliontt and 
cilieit : <^lAfn li iw; ^fto^fixivuv (ur' ctv ^XX[] fuyiXii 
xMtA ^ vifxi ^ «$wV eii§r9tu"'. As the Grecian forces wcrefl 
DMrchii)}; up to the Persians, on the strand al the fool ' 
of Mycale, a report penadcd the army, that Puuaauiaa^ 
bad defeated Manlonius at Plata-a that same day; and afl 
cailiiceus, or herald's ivand» wa.s related lo hare been ~ 
seen on the shore. It would certainly have been a good 
alrolie of policy in the Grecian leaders to animate tbcir^ 
men by such a rci)re8entalioii : Ihu Historian, however, 

Vprofcn; attriboting it to diiinc agency; cliaractcristically 
obfiorring, Ar,Ka EiJ woWuiTi rmftiipoivl im ra Sfia to». 
T^fioTGw*'. Hence, likewise, the n>pugnancc which ho 
exhibits, in the Second Hook, lo enter into any discussion 
on the Kgypiiau mvHteries". Let it not, however, be 

" till. W. 906. ■' Lib. It. (14. ■* Uk vl. i1. 

)*Ub.iii. ino. H t.ib.ii.3, 4S, 171. 



■uppoMxl, Uint ihis 8U|K;»titioD has induced hiio to suppruiuf 
•njr th'wg Uial might ha lined as an argument ugatnst his 
own principles. A liltle previous to the account of the 
balUc of 8alami8,he ((uutts u prediction of Bacis, the a^ty 
wbicli had been remarkably fulriUed : the comment do- 
I serres aitcotioD, as il decidedly proves that IJerodotiis did 
believe io tlie nraclcs ulitch axe so thickly scattered over 
his pagvs : " When 1 consider theKe eventit, and refle<^t thai 
" Bacis has spoken fin distinctly, I dare not myself «iy any 
** thing in contradiction of oracles^ uor do I approve it io 
" others*'.'' Yet the JliMoiiaji docfl not scruple, iu anutber 
part of lii» uork, to unfold the avaricious views of the 
1\tho»ess hi-raclf"i and to |{ivc it as hisupiuiou, that those 
"]iu bad corrupted her were the real autliors of the deli- 
verance of Athens from the tyranny of the Pius Irati die**. 
Bat enough has been said on iliie subject to minister to 
the depntred appetite of lbo«e persons who love to fix on 
the failings of jjreat men. The reader, who recollects that 
Heiotluln s was a |>aKa n, and considers the iwiueuse diffi- 
calty,or, more strictly speaking, the utter )ni|KiKHbility, of 
the hntnau mind, iu t] |gf st ate qi's j ^rittial darkn ess, kcttp- 
ing itself properly balanced between the extremes ofnni* 
>nul scepticism and disgusting supenitilion, will admire 
tile spirit of true dcvo^on which ]>tnvadc» the whole worlc. 
Ouo striking instance, among many, may hv biuuglit fbr- 
tard: ho has been considering the stale of iho Ureek 
miioDS al llio time that tidings were brought of Xi;rxcs' 
iniHttioii to invade and subjugate the country ; and sliews, 
"iA great political skill, that Greece was indebted for her 
fiueitoni to the decisive mt^osures adapted by the Athe- 
VUa: tbcDce he concludes, that it was they who clfectnally 
W njpcl the King, next, at least, he adds — fearing the 
Jreriau reader may be induced by llic preceding [Militical 
irewd statement of the facts to forget that be was to 

« Uh, tt. Itt. 

V LR). T. 61: cofnyarv, IlkwiH, lib. ti. 06. 



thank lh« godf for th« vUtoricB woo by bitt forcfuthcrB — 
next, al leaM, lo llie gixls — auroi «^t9i ijff«» «; ^^tt fAtrtt 
yi i«oi*j ivaivafLnu'*. I^ovideiicf did Dot orduD Uml tiiia 
t-iilunus man shuuld bare die priviloge of acquiring the 
principle* <ifn purt' and revoaied religion; bul ihai Mme 
Providence has peiiniitwl that his works should Mirrive 
llie lapse of tenturieK, and ibe wreck of ancient litcratnie ; 
BO that wf, who, ihrotigh the Divine mercy, have the 
straight road pointed out lo us, are enabled to aroid ibe 
erroTs into which tlie greatest men, when \eh to the light 
of nature, have falleu ; and hnply may be brought txi a 
conriclinn of our unwnnliine»s, when we contraM our own 
feelings of dcTotion with tliose even of an ethnic philoso- 
pber, whose soul »'.■)» cramped under tlie trainmcU of tm- 
aroidable supersiiijon. 


But as the religion of Herodotus may be attacked, at 
the preMnt period, wiiliout any danger to the worldly in- 
terests of the critic, there are many paaaages of ibe History 
produfi'd as proofs of superstiliuu and credulity, which 
might more fairly be regarded an ur^imenlK of a rtij' 
praise n-ortliv feeling of religion and momtily. Artabazua, 
in hi« attack on the Polidipatic, loses a good poitioo of 
his troops by a wondfrfid ebb and 6011* of the &ea in 
tbe Thcmiuic gulf; the Historian asM-nIa lo the belief 
of llie nalJ^'Cfi, tlml tbis M'ag a iniraetc wmuglil by Nep- 
tune, in order to punitih the barbarians for baring via* 
latod his temple and sacred image*". Tbc bnttlo of 
Platxa »«« fiJiight ne.'ir a grorc sucred to Ceres: Hero- 
dotus slaicfe it to bi- an extraordinary fact, that none of the 
barlKiiiaus fell witliin the precinct, bul thai all tbe bodies 
were found ou profane ground : he gives it nil hin opinion, 
that tbis liliowiM.- was a pitmshmeul al tlie bonds of tbe 
goddess, because the Persians bad violated her fauo at 
Klcwis*'. The commentators do not fail to direct the 

« uh. tit. iw. 

*• Mb. vill. 130. 

*: Ub. ii. SI. 



r'« altenlion lo the itipenitition uf the writer: it 
sold certainly be tnoie honeRt to refer lo that noble 
'portiou of the work, where Uerudolus explains the mitriil 
riew that he tukes of sacrud mattt-rs. Camhyscfti in his 
iuvuitrn of E^vpt, hntl insulted and dcridctl tliu tctapluB, 
ibe gods, and the riles »f the iiihabiUint« : Herodotus con- 
riodeit thai he iiinBt have been completely ret^ of bis tentcs, 

a priticipit* which, ns a praclical philosopher, he prores bjr 
ao iDl*-muiiig and instructive aiMcdole. Eloquent and 
portical as the opponents of siiperHliliun may be iu tlietr 
descriplionH of the evils which it prodncett on the human 
mind — and the Mihjecl is one that affords nn ca»y oppor- 
Uinuy uCdisplaying the omameols of oratonr, and worliing 
on ifao passiooK of men — still they will uuqiiesiionably allow 
that sacrilege, under wh;iieKer form, and nuitiug wlmlevcr 
people it may occur, iit a very wicked crime ; sa nicked 
id*ed, dial one in (cuipted lo nrgHnl il, like »uicide, as 
one too horrible to enter llie niitid o( oiiy but a uiaduian : 
and certainly that liiatoriau should not be jeered as snper- 
Milious Jiinrawlf, who uk»^K . .try opportunity of exciting 
|iuh)ir detfHtntion agiiinst »ucii impious deeds : if mistaken 
in llio reli^doua view of the subject, he is, as a pagan, 
eniitled Iu the cnmpaKsioii of die nin^ ; but the <iotidily uf 
the mora) principle cotinul fail to claim their admiration, 
however il may be railed at by the foolish and incxpcri* 
raced. lliaM-, on the other hand, who rccum; Mcrixlatu» 
of loo much credulity, nnd nf attaching implicit faith to 
ibt) tradilioDs he collected in the rarioits countries ho ri- 
aitedi are bound, iu justice, to produce classical inMancesof 
hUbclieiingin the reports he indites. Tliouiostinbiructivu 
fBod« of conveying an idea of the slate and history of any 
nation, pnrticularly at the time when the Munes hctg 
wiilten, Has tn f^i-e fairly the mrious legends, traditions, 
and reports credited by the inhahiianrs, and lo leave 

» Ut>. iK.SS. 



Ibe reader to Judge for biauelf: thu Usk Herodotus »□- 
dortook aod performed*. quotiiiK inrariftbly, with Uie at- 
most BcrupuIou6n«ss, his autfaoiitios'* : it somctimps in- 
deed happeoB, llial he doeii give bis own opJntOD, in words 
which imp]}* much mndesty and diibdcnce'*; but in oonu 
oi tlioM; cases can he be accusetl uf credulity ; on ihe 
coulraiy, tboite parut of ifae vrork are, perbapv, «^d)»at 
one exception, so many prou& of bis good sentc and sound 
judgroont- One of tbc practical adrantogcs rcsulliog 
from this raanoer of handling tbe Riibjectii is, thot the 
reader certainly obtains, from a pemsal of HerodotUK) a 
for more complete knovlcdgi* of tbe state of civilization 
among distant nntiong tbau be would have from rcRding 
aoy pbilosopbical trestiM- on their character t)iat could 
have been penned. Wo nmsl iheroforc buwaro, |>anicu- 
larly when we cuusider the object and plan of the whole 
work, and the iiucceiiH attending its execution, of accusing 
thu Histotiai) too lightly ofcredulity ; fur uirely it would 
be nut only absurd, but biglily diiibuDest, to stigtuadKe a 
modem traveller as sharing in the base and barbarous 
superstition of the Soutli of Europe) because be nj^rms 
that at Naples tbe coniinou people bring forward manf 
imttaucca of the progress of volcanic t(irn;al« and tbc bor- 
rors of a protracted drought being checked by the exposi- 
tion of St. Janiianiis's blood. Nor would the indiguatiou 
of the accused be much dimtui&licd, ttrcrs be lold, that he 
ougbt to have stnmg together some common places about 
supentjtton, iu order tcj show- that be did not approve of 
Catholic bigotry. Hnt perhaps raoro has been 6atd ou this 
subject tlinn is strictly necessary, particularly when we 
consider tbe many proofs of nouud judgment and critical 

» Piocif: TtSn fit) nw •r' Aiywwrlwt Xiyt/iiutn Xf^t^ t*tf ri nwSra 

A.«$7{<i^. Lib. ii. 133. 

*> Amoog rntm; nibu iiuUnii<», MX tjh. ii. 33. i. 101. it. 194, Ix. 16. 
iii.U. more p>rticuliij1}- ii. 33. Pcrliapn slm *i, 117. onnffnting vhjeh 
lul |>**i«^ thu reader tnny catMsIt Milfard'a Hrttorv ofGrvtct. 

*■ A 1^ fi ImIht, lib, Ti, US, Hd En other pMntHp^ taonunwfogitoiiuata. 



dMcriminaiian wliich a person well acquainted with the 
workK of Hf^rodoiiKt may bring forward, from the text of 
hi9 IltKiory. He fxprcssL-8 hh dittbelief of th<i gocl's 
oigliUy^ Tixiuto iht* Hnbylouioji temple*': be cndcarours 
to explain phyeirally the curinitn tradition of thv Dodo- 
D«aD«^: and over nnd over again, after the relation of 
•Otoe woadcr-working rcporl, we uimi wiUi tbu phrase, 
*Efii fthf wr rocvrat hiywrii 6u «>[f«M'i, or sometbiDft 

Up lo this point of lhc«c observations, the object has 

been, lo give some idea of the art and character of Horo- 

dottts, considered as a man and a philosopher: il now re- 

nnins to inreiiligate Mk qualtficalions in n cognate though 

more couliDed ricw aii an historian: in which therefore it 

will be itfce«8ary to iiKpiirt-, whether, in his ncconnis of w» 

vamj and difTerenl nations, and in tlie coniniemuration of 

«Teiit» extending over aiich a long rangu of tiine, fae haa 

'■■iird duo indusir}- and judguicnl of rrsearch ; strict 

I'liy, in inditing the result of his iDC|uirirs; and lastly, 

wlivtlicr be had adopted duch a mode of conveying his in- 

foniiation, its may plea»e, interest, and allure hia readers. 

fn? wiiboul much indaalry and patience, corroborated by 

a Round judgment, il is impossible tliat man sboold ever 

.irrivi- 31 historical troth : u-ithnnt mith, history ig but a 

oo^el: and again, unleits truth is decked wiili the onia- 

ouat* of a pleaaing diction, mankind too frequently turn 

■siilefrom il with indifference. 


OfHerodolns'ainduMrv, the History, in its whole, and 

I ^ each of itK p.irts, bcar>: the moKt irn^rrngable pronf: he 

IfellFd orer aluiost all the coanlrie.* which it was nceos- 

nn lie should mention, examining with scrupuloiu atten- 

IJoit. %\ «(• Iiiive before olwcrred, their geographical sitii- 

ali.iiit. their productions in all the kingdoms of nature, the 

" LIU <. im. 

n Ub. U. i7. 

u Lili. if. 106.11. 131,5, JM. 



manners and n-ligion ofthL' inhabitaiils; bv cuDKiilUtl ibcir 
monurncnto, am) iusc-riptiuiis, ami hisloriral clirraiicles; 
and carurullf collected their traditions. Ho measured 
liituselflhe Propontis and Euxiae Sea**; examined care> 
fully the nncicnt niooumenU orE^rpt, in order to be able 
to describe thcin us an cyc-w-ilnriw'*; and, when he had 
not the opporliintly of persunal obaenalioD, ho cvmiuUed 
th» be^l-infonned nulii-es of the countriex be visilpd. Can- 
tiou8 of adopting trnditions vithout MifTicient Hiilhority, he 
iparud no pairni to obtain all possibk* evidence lo warrant 
a correct inference: tbus Itu travelled, he telU uh, from 
Memphis tu IleltopoliK, and from Hcliopuliit to 'J'hcbca, 
cxpreAMy to ascertain nliellter the prtt-sis of the \aH two 
places would apcu with thuitc uf Memphia: iSiKan ttHntu 
(1 vuft,6i79mu roVi ;Jy»(o-i roiffi ir Mifj^t", llie Second 
Hook afTordf^ likewise another rcmuxkablo instance of hia 
auxiety lo corue at tlie truth, and of the patience which he 
exposed to all the obstacles that stood in his vray. lie bad 
beard Irom the priests of Kgypt an account of t)ie anti- 
qoilj of the woiship of Uorcnlei;, which was cnlculatcd lo 
slartic a Grt'ek : desirous of aniving at the initli in a 
point w important, as conneL'tod with ihu n>li^uu of bit 
country, he proceeded to Tyre, and from thence to the 
island of Tliasos, two plares rclrliratcd fov the antiquity 
of tlieir icmplcs of Hercules: finding that the traditiona 
of Uie Egyptian, Tyrian, and Tbasiao prieals prolty 
nearly agreed, he concluded, with good reiDion, that those 
Greeks acted more consonantly to probability who pua* 
Mssed two temples of Hercules, one of the hero, and the 
other of the god". Anuthcr equally cuuvtnciag proof of 
(he care and industry with vrbicli Herodotus pursued bis 
bisloric&l researches may be deduced from the erideot 
attention uith which he examined almost all the colo- 
bratcil temples cxiMing in hi» doy ; most of which be 
describes as an eye-witness'*. For in those ancient 

f Llli.«. J. 

» Lib. It. 86. 
» T.n». «. 44, 

" LJb.>i. 148, MpBMim. 
1* SMlIh.i.SI. vtli.lS,ke. 



lUuKwl all Teiuiittfablc c\-eiiu were iransiuj iiimI to 
pofitcriljr by means of inacriptions engrtivcd on iltirable 
■nontunents, nnd tripods de(licate<l in the temples. As an 
exatnple of tlie judfnnent will) wbich thuse researches 
wcrv conduclL'd, it will sufiicc to rclLt lu that part of thu 
H'uttorj whcrn >lero<icitUH dificiissfs the probabilily of the 
ast) of writing baviui; beco iutioduccd in Grcecu by tbe 


It call Itardly be doubted, that uiie «rbo tool: suvh pains 
ascettaiu the truth, would be etjually Bcrupulouft in 
fcriog notliiiig hut the truth to his reader; and indeed, 
strange as it may sound to tlioM who hare been in ibo 
habit of hearing llurodotus i^tiKuiaiiitcd as a liar, by per- 
avns who oiiRlit to kuow belter, there probubiy is no 
auUior, ivbetber ancient or uiodum, (tbt- iuspired writers 
excepted,) who duiicrTe lo be placed before him io Uie 
acale of Inilb and accuracy- Not, however, that it is to 
be supposed, ibat erery thing contained in the Nine Boolis 
is strictly true, ur even was thought to be so by the author 
himself. " It is ray duty," be says in one place, " to rrlato 
" all that is reported ; altliotigh 1 am not, at all erento, 
" oblignl to giiT credit Io every thing: this observation 
'* I would hare to be applied ifamughouc this History:" 
'Erf^ li iftbjB Xi/Ms TCI Ktyifjitm, V>(4«vi9a/ 71 fw cS* o$ 
noftiraffi J^tfAcP* xotf fKH ravra rh hi; ip(rm j; vatr* 
liv ktyrnf". It in thereforL-, in all fainiess, ncccHiark-, that 
befbnt we accuse Herodoliis of a wish to deceive in any 
inrticular passage of his History, we should first ascertain 
wbctfaor he is epeaking on his o>rn authority, or on lliat of 
others: for this llic original text must be referred to; 
iMCMse the mo<lcm Unguagcs not admitting of that syn- 
tactical flexibility by u'liieh a long narration may ho go- 
verned by one vcrii at the befptining, it miuit oflen happen 
that the translator is obliged to repreiient Herodotus an 

^ Lib. r. fi7-4i. •• Lib. til. in. romparc lib. II. lU. 



spi^king in his own name, while he rualljr is oilI; relatiag 
what he lias bc-artl froui otIiL-ni: fur instance, in the long 
tale about RhauipaiuitiiH, kioK of K]jypt» aud the sons of 
the architect, a jicrson who would only conault a modem 
Uiuifilatiou tui);ht oatURdl; be led to hetievu that the whole 
is Mated by Herodotus od his own authonlv ; whurcos in 
the (ireok, the structure of cveiy sentence recalls to tfa« 
reader's attuulion, that the vrriter is uiilj repeatiD^; what 
bo had hvard from Ihe Kgyplian priesls ; ur, to ukc the 
griruuiatical temi-S Uuit each inlioilive is governed bj" 
fAfycw at the head of the chapier*. 

The interior evidence, therefore, of the veranty of the 
lliniory of Herodotus cousislit in the visible care iriib 
. which he alirays quolea hiit auihoritics*'; his attention lo 
mark his own opinion, whenever he ihiiiks proper to ofler 
it"; and his upright antl fran}i avowoJ of beiiij; uoublc to 
give any certain iDfonuation to hia reader, when his re- 
searches have not enabled him to obtain any that he could 
relv upon**. This evidence is so convincing, that it U by 
no means to the honour of the ancients that so muy 
among them ehoiild hnv» treated the Historian as a fabulist: 
that the pretended learned, hoivt-vei-, aimmg the modcma 
should chertit.h a umilar opinioD, cuu only be accounted lor 
on the liuppusition that dic-ir ignorance c<iiib1k their pra- 
stimption. D'Anvillc and UnineU, among geographers; 
Shaw, Parke, Drowne, Belzoni, among travellers; Cuvier, 
among nahiratisLs; all hear their powerful ti-sttiuony to 
tlie astonishiiig accuracy of the Father of Hiaiorj*. It is 
now too late to laugh at Herodotus, wben ho asserts thai 
Africa is a peninsula*', or when he stales that the Niger 
I 'was reported to Botr from the uost". Hts descriptions of 
r the crocodile", the hippopotamus**, the method of embalm- 
ing bodies**, are all found to be perfectly exact, by modem 

« Ltk. ii. 12). o Sm ni>t« », p. sxviii. m s.^ „«(« 3), p, ^^^y, 

*» liMtxm irrtaiMi Jnl. t. 67, 180. ii. 103. viii. «, tee. 

« Lib. i*. «9. <' Lib. H. 33. « Uh. H. M, m^. 

• Ub.ii.7i. *• 


uatmalutA: it U even nov naii), that (he anto incntinned in 

the Third Book", as llirowiug up the f^oUX saod, lia^e been 

recogniwd Ut«ly in the animil called the cortai;'*, a sort of 

dog or fox : bu true is the remark madv hy llie illustrious 

Boertuuirn, in sheving the possibility of the nccDunt of iho 

fimotatn io the country of the Macrobi&n Ethiopian*" 

being true : ** TTcxlieruED obsen-ationuK probaiit fvio omnia 

MAONt TERi dicta^." Thoxc, therefore, who join in the 

irile and old cry of falsehood agairmt Elerodotiis, in this 

day, give no slight evidence of iheir own vanity und pre* 

sumption: in ancient limes, indeed, when llie world wiis 

little known, men might be excuacd, if llicy brought the 

iccusalion against an author, nbo u-as not ouly a great 

ttarellcr, bnl Ukowiso too honest to follow the poet'a 

precept : 

Ov TOi iraaa xif^an 

lint, in examittiDg how far an historian ii entitled to 
die tunfidence of his readers, tliere are two questions, to 
«faicb the attention must lie particularly directed ; namely, 
J. Wliether he is blindly partial to any {tarticuliir country ? 
2> Whether he is inclineil to favour any particular system 
oC political govemiueiit? Patriotic aud political preju- 
iicM, however nccejBar>- to lighten the bunds of human 
•ociety, ought to be cari^fuUy excluded from history; the 
■uin object of which is, to unfold the nature of man, an 
tciect upon bv dilTL'reut religions, climates, and govern- 
nwiu. When, hnwe»'Mr, tlio writer of liisloiy starts with 

' Ufa. iii. \Vi. * UioL Tn^ttoliDD MUf-ntitAa . p. zri*. 
" LIL S.0. ** BovtkMTs, mrmentaChTinWitiiotcd t>r^'*^tlls^ 

" Plad- Ntm. Ctfm. *■ 30, *e(|q- Hercdocn* wu awtreofcbf prudtnm 
•i dw muim: la A aiyj^ia mti niriptu Itn n liJfo ^iyattt fimrai. 

*""■ X^**' **' *^ ilfOfiiM Mifvwi iiff^tw li ivirrmi n)i)ub i^arm. 
Lih.1. IM. 

rOL. [. n 



the desi^ of B^ewiog the Jsuperiorily of any paniculu- 
aociety of meu, or uf any particular fonn of goTcmnicirt, 
U geDerally hiippens, that the love of systcni gircs a 
tiDcliirc to sUttcainilK, even accurate in thnmsclriis, wliicti 
hinders tbe reader rrom delecUog tlie truth. It lb aootber 
merit of llerodotas, that bis trork i» free from such de> 
fectA : h« piaiwK and ccnsurfi* by tomg all the tutions he 
bas to mention, and leavos Uqq reader to frame bis own 
judfpnent resp^ctirig ibeJr comparative ranks iu the scale 
of moral and jHilitical disciplinD, He bas been accused of 
harbouring a gradge against the Corinthianii: that people 
of merchants was not, pro1>ab1y, an object ofgreat interest 
to a inun of elegant acquirements anil mlincd taste ; and, 
fiom the eagerness with uhicb Herodotus seems to seize 
errry opportunity of producing such facts as may dL-te- 
riorute llie respect for their natioiia] eliaructer, one mtgbl 
aUo bv templed to Bupinisc that Ibc charge brought 
against him was not entirely unfoundod. Uui even Lbe 
parts of the History conQccte<) nitb this people afford 
ample eviduQce of bis honest and upright mode of daal- 
iog: tbc Corinthians are represented as playing by far 
the most honourable and docinico pait lu the confereitee 
of the Lacedsemonian confederates, respecting the expe- 
diency of replacing tlie I^Kistralidie in the trmnny of 
Athens; — " If yon pemst," says the Coriutbiait repre- 
Mntalive to the hanfcerers aAer universal power, " if you 
" persist in endrafouring to replace nip]>ia8 on hi« 
" throne, know that the CorinthianR will not second yon;'' 
«rr« ufilr K»;ivSfou; yi oJ oui>aiy('ovr«f'*. Again, after 
ponrtraying in rivid colourn, pcrhajw indeed too Tivid, tbe 
dastardly conduct of AdimantuH, the Corinthian admiral, 
at the battle of .Salamis, he tabes care to state, that he 
speakn from the authority of (he Athenians, whose re- 
port was contradicted by tbc univerKxl testimony of 

H LUh viU. |I4. 8tr Mkewiw is. 1«. 


XXX r 

Btrt pcrbaps, after all, the greatest proor tliat can b« 
ftddoced of the reracity and impartiality of Ilcrodotns is 
tbe recilalion of Iiis IlidUiry nt t)ic Olvmpic ^tncs. This 
•not seenK to be loo wril niuh<>ntic.ite(l to adioil of any 
doobt: tea probabilltv is likeu-iee oot a little increased by 
ithc erident mark* which tha HistorT iwelf Ijeara of having 
composed for the purpose of ipciuition : hence ihoae 
pleonastic scDtunccji so often occurriofr at the lerminadon 
*f ibo different brancheH of the narrative ; such aft, Toa-aura 
fu* fcxpfun-wy »»fi d^Uf^, and many others loo frvr|urnt 
to eDumeralo : they arc in Herodottia much more numc- 
than tniftht even he cxp«clf d in an author that wrote 
Ibra paragraphic dii'iaion* came into vogUL-; uiid can 
lly be bccouokmI for onder the suppoaitioa, that they 
were intoiidvd to din>ci th<> aiu-ntitm of the hearer to those 
paria where the narrative changes itx subject. Now, at 
tlieiime tliat Herodotiu read hia Htatory at the Olympic 
gamea, it wan only one bundriid years ainco Cyrm had 
destntTed the empire uf ilic Mcdca; not more Uiau nincly- 
MTTTO once be had conquered Croaaos; not more than 
seventy since Cyrui* hiin^lf bad died; and about tiiirty- 
nat ycats aince Xcrxce commcncod bis cx]>uditiun agaiuac 
Greece. Tt may therefore be assumed, that, among the 
i}n» compoRin^ the atidience of the Historian, there 
lusl have been Kome indtvidnaU who had actaally aharod 
in lbs war, and many who were acqunint^d, by immediate 
mdition, with all the evenu of that glorious atruggle: 
imlen, then, Herodotus bad stated the truth, parheularly 
En erery thing respecting the Greek uutiona, there can be 
no doubt that some person i^'oiild bare bci-n found to have 
contradicted the eloquent but false narrator: liad that 
been tba case, some of the detractors, whom the well-earned 
faine of Herodotus excited against bim iu subscqueiit times, 
would not have failed to make proper use ol a circumstance 
•o &Tourable to their on'n designs: but Plutarcb, tbo Ml. 



mewl bitior uf iIil- critics of Hunidiiltus wbo ovcd gnAyt al 
Uic uplKirtnnity nffonlpd by the use of orjiiivocal terms* 
lo ground his accusation against Herodotae of moligoity, 
and n-bose disgraceful tract subatitUt tD this day, nwntions 
no Mich ciicuni<ttancc : it ix therefore highly probable that 
111! ftiich (!(>nlra(]ictor was found. The whole of Greece 
asMmihlefl iniiKt eons4!i{iio»Uy have been convince)] of the 
T«Tacity uf llie Ilistorj-; aud surely inoderu reader* can- 
not Tcqiiin^ a safer tranrAnt of iti> atiiheuticily, ai> far al 
leant as thu (jret-inn history is in any respect conctrned. 


A« 1() the political principles of Herodotus, he has ex- 
plained Uicm too clearly for the most cardeu reader to be 
in doubt what they really were: be was a republican: 
this is prored, not only by the crents of hi« life, but liko- 
wisc by hix onti words: Si^i H tu tun iv ^u>e», iiXXA 
vavrMj^ if ltifyof!n df ivti y(f>ifM> rwwitMV*', The truth 
of wliicb ub8«r<raliou lie illustraies by the rapid rise of the 
Atbenion coinaionwealih, after ttie expulsion oftbe tyrants. 
Wh u]ii6t beware, however, of attributing an improper 
and lou oxtensive sente to die word iiat/orin : it ccrtainlr 
means, in Herodotus, nothing more than the even-handed 
award ofjiiftiice acccrdinK tu law, luid the eqnol righti 
posso^Ecd by all citizeus, of rai«iug thenisclviD to tank id 
the suiC) by the proper cultivation of tlic talunts wiLh whiiih 
Providence may hai-u blessed thorn. Hiin liberty was 
incompalible with the exiKteuce of llm rj^itno;, who was 
obliged to eusuru the posuieiisian of an usurped Ihrooo by ^M 
the i^tartinliiy of tavour shewn to hi» own crfalures: it ' 
miglil, hnworer, be co>rxis[«nt with the Baxrtkevi, as at 
Sparta for tiuitance, where, idlliougK there were two 
IcingK", the law wax the sole master, both ovt^r the iiogs 
and the fliihjr<:ifi*°. The HL>^to^an even appears anxion^ 

w Sec WiuMiliDf'* note nn lib. it. «S, S. tcI. it. p. 1090. Gktebrd'a «dh. 

» Ltb J. n. 

*> lib. Ti U. 

w Uh. •«. IW. 



in dilTeivni plnccs, to impres« on the Grecian readers a liiei 
which they soem to Iiavc been imwilling to beliere; 
namely, dial Uto P&rsian iistiou were uot nriiboui the truo 

IfeeltDgs of liberty. In llie Third Book, Uie sevfii grau- 
deed, bflTing put the Magi to dcntli, lioltl counsel on vrhHt 

'fimn of f>Tivt.-niiii<:nL it will be exjiediciit to adopt, now 

tthat thu dirt-ct liiii.- froiu Cyrus i« extinct: iIk' ccttpt-ctivc 
speakers shtiw the atlrantaged of a deinocriicy, of an 
aristocriii-v, of a monarchy : tbt- proposal uf retainiug tbr 
loonarchical form of goTemiaent al lat-t prcvaila. I( 
would bo the heiglit of folly to suppose that the very 
words written by the Historian were really spofcen by tho 
onilan : Iht- intention ufHiirodotub wa^, no doiihi, to shew 
tin Oroeks, that people whu bare as good ideas of the ad- 

|VIBiage> of lihertT lu thn«e on irhich the l)CKt republicans 
PODl lit prirle tbem^elres, may choose, owing to vo- 
rioui circn instances to subject Lhetn»elves to a nionajchy: 
indeed, bavu wc not bul-u the ri'asuuing of Darius exem- 
plified, in its minutest delaib, by the Ucvolulion of Francef 
This (act, however, some of the Grecians were un^villiog 

>to allow: hence ihf strong csprcssiou of the Historian — 

>»mI iXi^iuva* Xi»yci aattmi uiv nktO'i 'EXXTt-af, i}Jy(^ffm 
^ A.* Mardonius, the Persian satrap, pves a deraocta- 
eal constitotion to the Ionian slates; an extraordinary 
Htanec in tho eyes of thi; Greek repubhcanK ; which 
Herotlotus takes care** to produce, as a eoTroboration of 
Uk' probabilitv of the sfntimt-nis placed in the mouths of 
the com^irat^int against the Magi. Although a rupubli- 

^CMD, tlierefbrr, by principk-, Herudotas waa willing to 
altow that every nation knew bcHt what gorcmmcinl wna 
ftttitig for itself: " For," says lie, in one place, " were odo 
" lo offer all nntinnH to mnko their choice of tlie bvst hiw» 
** onl of all codes, tliey would uach, aftor mature rclU'clioQ, 
** select their own; so convinced in every nation that ilK 
** own institutioiu aro much the best''." Il roust not bo 

Lib. ill. w, 

** Lib. tl 19. 

Utk III. i 



iiifL-rredi howL-ver, that Herodotus approired tliat {iliable 
maiLiu), nliicli Lravullcrs bare nut uiirrc<|ueQtl/ made iIm 
cxcuAC for disftreccful conduct; Damely, to lit ooe'd bft- 
hai-iour to the ctistoins of itie couubr one may happen to 
hu rcsidiag in for a time ; or, according lu the fooUsfa 
proverb, " To do at Rome, as Rome does." Herodotus 
mentions tho courageous manner in which tlie Spartans, 
sent to Xi-rxes as a eatislaclton for th« h«rald» who had 
heea murderud. upheld tliv dignity of their nalioaal 
luisges*, with as much high-niindRd jiride as an EnglLsh- 
nian could relate the rery same conduct exemphfied iu 
the ambassador orhis omi nation m the court of China. 


It can scnrcely bo iieccAaary tn say any thinf; on the 
/bsauties of the dictioo of lierodolus, as on tliis subject 
both the ancients and modems arc all agreed. Dioujsbu 
of HaUcaniassiUi a good judge on these poiuts, assigns to 
Ucrodotos iba same rank and class in stylo among histo- 
rians, as to Homer anvong the epic poets, to Sophocles 
among the tragediiuis, and tn Derooslbmos among the 
uraton. Herodotus nrole for the poople; lus object, 
/ therefore, was to instruct; hence simplicity and cleamosa 
are the main and diHliiictivc fc-atureii of his style: if be 
hafi to describe nny place, hi- Iake», as it were, the reader 
by the hand, and loads him over it : io hi« descriptions of 
the actions uf men, ho snlcclji ]>rcciscly the language be* 
fitting their station, their age, and their rank ; aud in the 
/art of making bis personages display character in their 
discuuraes, he has been excelled by none but Khahspeaie, 
oUbough perhaps equalled ia the modem day by the 
author of the Scotch novels. In short, in bis langu^e, as 
vrell aii in evi-ry thing i-lsi', Herodotus gives manifest proof 
that his knowledge uas iicquired by actual nod direct in- 
tercourse nith mankimi, and not with ImokE. It was this 




pntcticol luKwli'dgo that enabled bitn to tlucover aud 
bcliero tbat the Plxcniciaos bad circumitavigalcd Africa, 
and tbat the Caapian was a sea. of it«elf ; 1«o imporlant 
truths, which Strabo, a moiit respecUblo and learned imter 
of later times, couH not be brought t<i admit. To thU 
pntclica) knoiTledf;e be vas likuu'iiie indebted for the easy 
fpaodomand sweet eimplicily of hU style ^ which, compared 
with the Mudied L-leguuciea of njme «rriter», are as much 
■upcriur, US ibc bcoltby brvezc of ibe opvu litild is to the 
peifiimed air of a coaBned apartmcnL 


In this TrattslationoftheWorksofilcrodotusjlbo object 
has been, to giro a correct version of the original, in as 
ninple and clear lanjruage as posaibie ; sinipHcitj' and 
clearness being regarded aft the most sinking charac- 
teristics of si^le iu the original. The Notes have been 
cnmpoccd in the two-fold view, of illustralirtg the meaning 
(jf Uic Ilistoriaa, and of i^xplainiug the graniniatical con- 
Mniction of bis language. The comments of the latter 
clau have been wriUen principally with the view of 
directing the attention of the »tudcnt in Greek to the 
peculiarilicf of stnictiire in the text; lest, prompted by 
iadoleDCe] be sbould imagine that a perusal of a traus- 
bliun may answer Lbo puiposo of a careful study of tbe 
oulicir himself^ 

P. E. I. 


KlioDoTV*, mtntdinji to •tfrtt^iff Ikt oaMri ^ tMr SmMHj Mwn-ji the 

'imt* nd iA» fbi-ktriamt, in l*€ firM ploer mvrib (Ar nMr/wif rapri tgf 

, •MM ftmmittfd bg lAe /aw fi»ititt: that nf h, 1 ; IM </ JSmpa and 

I ""^S: 'W'/irrbii, S: iA tbimg wAkA, ^< iloti* Utt «t<viaH* gntt t»tk 

1^^ mW AnMM •iM' 4*e Phtntii^M. TAm, w Cnnw, Ui^ V' 'A« ^t^^M, 

^Bm ti»fgm to dAiMMt M' (.'imyX-* tettk itma. ft, A« «*(«« m (Ai- ZjhAib 

^B■Mf|^ C TAtfirtt Itiagi ajlht iyjirma, lSt», tfratgjrfm Jljf .- tJU tranJ 

^Bl%*M(y,^«n Ifrmf/ro, 7 ; fAe Aul «/ ivAom, CnmAM/M, Aob^ Ami iilletl bf 

I <hl'*,S—\t. lim ktAgdom a Irviufvrrntta llkt Mtwmmda. ThntftHmnthr 

''^f^Gygrr, i», 14 ; lluil •^ JrJgi, 15, iJtiter roAMr rtxjpt lAt Cimtm^r^tu 

^^tmirtwfhttx imtv Alia. 'tint (out Air*iit, 16i tM r/ StufyoHtt, Itf; Uof 

I f Atjttin, lt*|3A, kAa txptUft rAf (.'iMixruiiu ymn ^wa, Digr^Mlmtan 

"/"prnd, rtlaltmy lo TkivtjfMHt. tht tyrvmt «/ hSiUtMf; aimT i'rWoiti/rr, lAr 

^i* »/ Cwm/A ,• rvtrmytrary «^A irAma hsi ^iwm, ciihW liy a iMpAm, 

'"-X Alj/alln it iiicfrctltil Agr Am «m CroViu, St), wAv tul(jtiffa<t tie 

^**t CtmA*, aw4 *ttrnd* Aw ^uvr M«r <A« irbote t^Atia, ai /or ou (Ar 

Alpt, H_98. Cramj m aJmomMeil Haiutxet^iUf. hf S4ihm iff A'Afiu, to 

^ •»•«■ Aappf, unlH Ar Amv rjUnf /(/> m AifpiiK44, 39—33. Cnm* m 

"^"^ M4 yrni/ eattmilf: Aij *n* j4'jw ■'( M^rvf, <tmvtltiitftf, in tJie rjMMf, if 

■i*nmu. a ilkrygiitm nflgtt, U-tb. 7Ac Afiutot hitting ittn ttm^titrrJ 

*f *^r»t, C/vnw, «AiniH(/ of /Ac ^rowMy /wcfcr (/ CAr PovMVif. />W mWi 

■■^ ft wiAr trial ^ lit Mittir$ i^the (Irnkt, «A— U; tnj lAn, rmumllt 

^■« Ifwfutg vor i^iiuf Qmf : dm hmX^iuu aji««wr it rthintfJ, muUnI 

'^'▼<a< uirr>fir*te tu /nrv/r^r la Aiaitrt/i itud thertfor* aniirr/4Jt«* Hit 

£1, j(n« mW*^ ro r*wrt Ote ailitmr ttf ttte OrnAa, lie thit/ mtliiau 
al tAitl ffiar, wm> tAe AlAniiaM m4 ljite4*m*iikm*: thf /mrmfr 

tfn»j//nm tkt iVteiyi. Mr Uirr from Ik* HeUntrs, 06, tf. Tit rmfirt 

rwfa^J rjvWfcn/ hwsfram Xynr/yM, W, aiU mi^yerrJ lie TtytOMt, M, «cf, 
rAr l/aeed Kiitu tMat /rvnt amallirmix ttHk Cra-mi, 09. CrO'.iiw traurM IHt 
B9tgt,€md ettgofti C frill ipifA tluiumi iwveu tn fA* AmM ^^dm, 73, Mf. 

«Pi«f loM^mcNMM, 77. C^ntu >MviiH4ifr ftHmt* mynW/jr m <A» 4rr/* ^ 
Cr^nu ; cvMfHeri IA» Ljfiltan onxy 6rf«rr lAe tmrn ; ActM]^* SarJU, wAitA 
Ae loin, lefrlAin- wilA Cnrni* kimirff, 7« — M. TAf mmiry muI manmtrt %J 

Thtempirt^Atia had lam fire liunJrtdamd ttiftnl) i/ttirtiMlSchaMd* »/ IA» 
Jit^riaiu: (k« Mntea mm Ikt firti to aiierl their Jrrei^m: their Kiaiqplr 
U«« fiihtltd ij itlAer fLolimM. Tht UfJes, <^fUr iteftn ftan ^ omirrAj^ 
ehatt Dticcti fitr their kii^, M— 101. Ue i> ntxvritd kf Pkr««rln, 109 : 
PimarifitmcttetMbr ffMrof**. "^o exptii Iht ftjOMw, leia hai laJtm 
pa u t u i m if Aim ; atid tvbferU Ihr Jttjfnona, IIM — 106. Attfapei,t/M »m^ 
Cyanarrij tiJmaiiiahfJ ly tt Jnam, giptT Au Jaugltltr Uandan* M m arrio^ to 
a PfT*iitn,CviAfM*: ht Jelieen the ehiU tarn «f thai mamayr *» flaiya yw *, 
*hth vr^en U pm H to itmlk : Uorpoi/Ki gmtj Ibf thiU to a hrrdtmoK, vitk 
or4er*UffpMr tf ; iM Iht hfrii*iinin, freeaiM uptm Ity Aitvim f>A, wtanofw 
IhefAiU athii ottn. Cyruf, Ihye prettTval, AowKy rrarhrJ Kit IraUi jrwt, w 
rtngniudtKf hi* graiuifather Mtffifes, imd Mul xtfe iaf« Penia : Ita r p^/mt, 
komettr, U pmiithid ta it nwaf frmft manner, 107— 191. HarfMfui, tietirau 

^Uiitg (B<«^«^ c/lhe mjnry ht hoJ rtwipprfol Ihe hamiU »f AttyOfit; prfmfU 
Cyrut to riie up agaimU hi$ //raitdfiaher: Cyrvtejtcilei the iVfMM to rtUt- 
Horn, in— 190. The 3S*Ju art rooted m *»eo haUkt, omJ Aitriifitt kiMMff u 
loAtn prteonrr, 19T_13(K 2V« ammtri of the Permamt are Jt*efiied, ISl— 
ItO. d/ier amftarriitg Cnwtu, Cynu dirteta Am armi o^Htl the J jt rtf 
Grtiii ; Ant bt/art Ikt EiUvriait dnfriin the Kar, he jnwl m aRVBal cT tAr 
jtflHfKH ff /mm. fAf «n^, ntrtfa/Mli,<i>»rf<iM)«n«'>«^<«r uAoMdnif. US— 

148 1 M« ttme K-ith rtepfti to .RJij, l«9. ^ru, hating snct nwrr mUworf 
4A0 I^fAm*, irAn Aorf rtMUd, LM— 160, (niili i/dr^q^M ^■'""Af Iiminme, 
timmg whom Ihe PA*r<MH< an^ Teian* /setake Ihtir Immtf mtd rrtoiJiiA 
A»m»eh<e* *Un>Atr*: Ihertel mbmH: Xii-X'Q. Otri* *»4 Lyeta are mut , 
MMinr. 171— 17fl. 7n rtf iwnia ftinf . Cynu in p er m i* MmtSu* U/iper Atio: ' 
diietipltoji 0/ Babflat, and kMory qf Stmiramii OMi KiMn*. )7T — 187. 
Cyrui MMfuwi Ihe Jiatyloniaut >'■ inilV; Jneet Ihetn triikin the fly, whteh 
ht ^tkgf, and eoflnm by ttratajrv, \e&—\i\. tm lAii piaet, *he femttry 
eg lAc Bolf/biitMJ, rAA> itutUwhoru, hi»>e, wmnert, diet, ^. on dttcriiei 
in — BOO. Al liut, Oynu, farry4mj irar i^nit the MoMapelm, nwfH the 
Aram, and i» itaim ty QTtem TVmjrrw, 901 to the tmd. 




HsBODOTtn of Ualicsniassus* bere uiakeft knoim die 
ramlt of his msesrcheK and inqnineit*: in order Utat the 
dsmk of iDoti may nut he uLIilcnxU-U by time, uor tbo great 
um) wonderftil work», achicwd br Ixiih Hellenes and bar- 
bftriuw, be rell of reiiowu: aniuog other subjects, be will 
expliio tbe cause that gave rise to the spirit of war between 

The Penianii, dlrilled in history*, aswrt, therofore, Ibftt 
die !*)itrniciftn» were the original authors of Utis feud. For 
ibMo people, havinf^ mii^tetl from tbe Erytlirian sea, as il 
in called, to tlie Meditenanean*, and Reulcd in Uie country 
tlial they now inhabit, applied forthwith to long naviga- 
Bom : exporting Egyptian and Asnyriao luerchandize, Ihvy 
lOQched at rarioiu plareK; among olhein, nt Arf;og, a town 
wbtcb, in those days, surpassed, iu erei; respect', all iu the 
cooBtry now cnllrd Hellas'. Ilaring arrired at this town 

* Muf. Gt. Oram. Z'S. 
I* Lhanll/: " Ak it iho Mmiivv 
' bkiMBiy »/ HtradftDo." 
■ Sm SAbwvick. SM. Herod, wl. 

' tifm- t w3i ImfiM W*tm. He 

' " Tli* •»;" Am l> M ■■*, tbe 
Sa4iWrrwMa. ' Thu GntkHu- or 
■«i Sa; iJWMflflg to n* fWMt 
ladlaa Onan, obd anoarlitc^ thv 
ft— nl B«l Bm at Untrof Aitlila. 
d« PvTlM Grif, vdOmJitj tS Bm- 

* Malt 404. e. wfitxmt, la exW, 
M tmtfami with da gwiitiTC of tint 
01W «M«b It •ac«U, mi tb* dalin 
of tb» ihtD^ in which it «i««ll«d. 
SriwM^A. iQ f^^. flmirf. — Luvbcr 
tnailina, " Ttiai nma wrfiiwj 
tlicD nil time in tbo tumtrj, Ac."; 
ud, in a DCtr, otMctTo*. that In th* 
fhnt wifHi'xn 'rw> *w It wf'ZXiMi. 

rit 1* ItACiMaitrilf gOT*nl*ll bf /«■«•. 

' Ttuojrd. i. 9, S, M{04W, " M 
•li«B— « am-Mdhnian." Hwod. a. 


4 CUO. I. 9» 3. 

nT -Argos, 111*' I'inrijii'inns, wo art* wW, sproiHl forth ehoir 
cargo ; and on (tic fiAh ur sixtli day from ilitir cotiiing, wlit-n 
they liad noarly dispo^sod ol'ihoir carffo, suvcral nomen enme 
down to Ihe »L-u-sidL-; aiautij; ^vtmrn U'att ike king's ttaugfaier, 
whose name, according to the ['iiamicians as veW a« tho 
llt^lluuus, was lo, dau^htvi uf luuchus. While tli(.'»e woiikb 
were standing near Uiu ateni of the tosmI, and chafTt^Tttig' 
such n-are« as look uuni their iaacy, ihu Phoenicians, shoal- 
ing to one anoUiur, mado a sally on them : the consequence 
wax, although most of the womeu tnndp their escape, Ihe 
^lor$ seized lo, together wiih a few others, threw them on 
board the ve«!w.d, and itet >ail for Egipt'. Thus, vuryioK 
from the Hellenic account, the Persians describe the dciiar- 
lUTQ of lo into Kgypt ; and to thLi refer the fin4 buginnin^ 
of nnlanrfiil violence. Subseqnenlly, they say, certain Ilcl- 
luncK — fuT tlit-y are iinahle to |miditcv thuir names — landed 
at Tyre in Phcrnicia, and canied off the king's daughter, 
Euro[>a. Thr^e men were, in all pmbability, Cretans, lu 
so acting, Ihey certainly did no more tliau like for like : but 
after these oceuK ihe llulWneK wlTu the authors of tlic 
second instance of nolence: for tbcy camu, in a long nhip**, 
lo if^, uu the river I'hasin, in Colchis ; from whence, after 
despatching the oilier bu5inc8« for ubich Ihev had come, 
tliey carried nlT Ihe king's daughter. Medea. The Colehisu 
prince", in e(mBe<)netice, sent into Hellas n herald, to 
demand justice of the rape, and claim back hi» daughter: 
tho Hellenes, buu'ever, niadtj atiswtT, that as tluise of Asia 
bod not given Hatisfuclinn for the violence slievrn to lo of 
Argos, so neither would they, on their part, give anv In 
them. It is also said, tlmt, in the second generation follow* 
iog these events, Alexander" the sou of Priaiu, having heard 
of AcM occurrences, detcmiineU lo procure himself, by 
force, a wife oui of UelUs; being fully convinced that ho 
should not be conipelled to make any rt>]nniii(in, inusiuucli 
as ilie Hellenes themselves had not done so. Alcxaudur, 
accordingly, stoic Helena; and the Hellenes thought propor 
to 8«nd imtaoLly mosseugun to recl^m Helena, and de- 
mand justice for such tin ontmge; but the ulber purty 

• Matt. 349. U«m>d. *. 6. 

* Had. 6M. 

** " Lcoff ahip :" buill long and 
■amw, lor ttw parpow at tvlndly - 
ibt HMTcliaat fCwU wuie nnre round, 
lar vIowMta. Tbc \oa$ t««)»b wen- 
nmtU at wu; the rciunil imncIi, 
ancliaBtiDMi ami tni^ipotu. rtjutf 

tk mdupui iM^uiCMrn. Ulpiia. in 
Otbi. Gem. contra Lupt. p. fi9d, E. 

1* " Tbe C«lob>an: ' urJentanil. 
' mltr,* ' ir-vrKlga,' nr * priOM.' 

'* Xor« Mii«r«llT knows by ikf 
nauw of Vitit. 

CLIO. 1.4, A. a 

ruplied tu Uif |iiu|ioM;rH*'. by " olijeclitlg llie v&ye of ^IiMk-n; 

" that, not liaviiii^ tlK>lll8l■lvc^ ^ivcii t^atUtaciion, nor made 

" the rL-i)iiir<;<) Fe:<tiuiliuii. tlii^v sbuuld vxpuct »ucb rcdrvKS 

** from oilier*." Until then, iliirvfore, nnihinR iiud occurrod 

bMveou thv two raec«, say tbc i\-n»iau«:, n-ith tlie v\cc{ition 

nwfdy of » few rapes: but, froii) that ]M:riod, the Hollenes 

were, in irnili, greatly to blamo ; being l-lic first lo levy war 

atfainsi Af>ia, ere they of Asia made any nllHck on Europe: 

non they bold it to be the crime of n wicked man, to nui^h 

WMDcn; but iIhU of a simpleton, to Iroiihlc one's self about 

RT«ni;<! ; for priidt-nL men nnght lo take no accoimt of 

Mwh fetnalf-s; Rince it is evident, thai, vritlimil their own 

eonM^t, tbey could not be forced: ilic Ffrsians cnnse* 

qtientljr dcclarr, that they of Asia never troubled Ibem- 

•ulvcs. about wompn that aro tuoleii awuy; whereaM the Hel* 

Uncst for th'^ ^kc of a Lac«ia:inoDiaa girl, collected an 

nmnense licet, and tlieu^ piiMiin^ over into Asia, overthrew 

lite power of I'riam. From that time, they have considered 

the Uflliniic rac« an their foes; for ihe Persians claim'* 

Ana, and the there residing forciji^n tribes, as bcloi^ging to 

thein9clvf« ; while ihcy n^anl Europe, and the Hellenic 

penjil^, nx wholly distinct. 

Such is ihr accounl of tlie IV-rbians ; and lo the capture of d 

Troy ihty altribuu- tlifir aniijialhy to the Hi'llcntrs. The 

Ilia'mciati^, on the other h.ind, do not assent Ut ihc Peruan 

tfatoOMnit concfniin*! lu : they alFirm, they made no use of 

nolrnce'* to reuuvv her into KgiF-pt; but tliul, having formed 

I connexion u-ith tliu master of thu mere ham- vesKel, she 

found bcffclf with child ; and dreading, in consc<|UcDc«, the 

rMivs of hiT pan-utti, (tailed away, of her own accord, with 

iW Fbcenicianit, to avoid detection. The above, therefore, 

vcihe accuunia uf (he FeT»iuns and the Phoenicians. It is 

W oiy intmiion, howOT«r, lo di^cidn whether tliingK were ao, 

CCutlKrwise; but I shall now, after previously poiming out 

^ Man I ntyscir know to have been Uie 6rst to eammit 

•wod* of violence against the Hellenes, proccf^d oo iho sequel 

<)• 0)1 Histor}', tniiching alike the small and tbe largo ^stales 

"'■WB : for of Midi us were of old and mighty, many have 

hetoiBB weak; while of those ftonriKhlng in my day, many 

•era ftriginally insigniricant: conscious, therefore, of the 

Ott'oaa] frailty of hninan prosperity, I shall commemorate 

^b impanially. 

'»ii. ■ liulr Mow, 

irri— - - _ 

irn)oall[in, iw- 

NoL Heroil. toI. jii. n. 9. 

" •lautwra<,"Hiuinfar(lieiMelm.*' 
S™ Ht-nxl. Lfli, ix. Jft. 
•> Hmi. 4 is. 


CLIO. 1. 11-6. 

6 GfXBsni was by birth a. Lydirin, son of AlvAttes, Ktid bad 
umrped** tbe supremacy ovor tlie nmuons fritbiii tbc Halys, 
a river that nins between the Syrinn^" and Paphlogoniaiu, 
froin south to north, auJ (»\\% into tbe EuxJiw wa. This 
CnBBUS was the first of the alienti, we know of, thni kubjeclpri 
any of the l^Icllcuea to the payment of tribute, and uoilcd 
others to hioiself by alliance. He not only rednceil the 
Ionian, .-KoUan, and Dorian scttlets in Ana, but alto ihtiiied 
a treaty of friendship with the Laced ti'moni an*. PreTiom 
to CrcBsmi's cinpiru, all tht; Hellenes had bc<;ii free ; for the 
expedition of the Cimmerians, which was anterior to CrtESSS, 
altlioitgh directed against Ionia, was not so much a auhjuga- 
tion of fttaten, a^ an imiption, having rapine for ibt object^. 

7 The empire, which bad prevjottely been in tbe posMssion of 
the Ileraclid*, pa^ed over to the Hoe of Crtpsun, called the 
MermnadiD, in U)» folloirin)^ manner. Candaules, named 
Mynilus by tho Hellenes, wax ttTant of Sardis, and a de- 
scendant of Alc:L-U!i the son of Herculea: for Agron aoD of 
Ninuii, ^nndBon of BrhiH, );n:ut-{:rimdRon of Alctcus. waa 
tbe htst l^ing uf Sardis un tbu Ileraclid line, and Candattlee 
sonof Myrsus the last. Tlic prcriouM mlcrs of this country, 
predecessors of Agrou, were the progeny of Lydus son of 
Atys; from whom the whole nation, originally called Mtto* 
nians, took the name of I.ydianK. The lleraclidn, spntog 
from a female-slave of JardanuE and from licrculcs, ha<rinK 
been entrusted with Uie affairs" by the above family, seizea 
the power, according to an oracular hchest : tlicy ruled f« 
twenty -two generations*' of men, fire huudreil and Ave yean; 
the SOD Inheriting tlie throne from tbe father, down to Can* 

8 daules the hod of Myrsus. This Cuudaule-s therefore, was 
enamotired of bi^ wile : impelled by his love, be fancied to 
bimiielf tliat she was by far the moict Iwautiful of all wometi. 
I must first observe**, that one of his body-guards, Oyges 

I* rifmm m , the niuqMr nrer * peo- 
pie onca free ot aoder s imtAiit: it 
npplie* *oini-tini(« even to & rultr in- 
««<tc4 with ooDdltiQnid pm>«r taSj: 
*' OwM> wU«ra MtMbninr at dienn- 
Utr Imaami, qed polMtti* ptrptlut » 
«a dvttaK, qtiB libeTtftte um tit." 
C«r. Stf. Mili!>d. 

" Th« Syrian* (not to ba oon- 
flHodtJ wla TjniAU), ei Lea«A- 
8^, m 111* fMDS M th* Cippa- 
dooHnt- n«rod, i, TS. 

* Tbe irraption twrr ■lloM to 
oeenmd u»^ (Iw nig* of llic L;- 
iim Aniy*. H«n>d. i. I5. 

** tn*fafMr«(, Mr. 1. p«M. «f Uf 

miOHttr: f A^ irmrfifmrmi. Baa. 
IL li. a, mt f^mti cvpnw'ut *md. 
Utniaht* ekmt cM« tbi« axErwiloc: 
ii. 111. liL lfi&, 1S7. rtc l-arvhrr. 

" Tfaa vard ^uM U, appkmtl] 
here tikcn ia s nwant mtnewhat 
ferent fntn what it brM* in 
placet (Ucrod. ij. Hi); but, for' 
4(>tukl reign* rrom &t)wt to mh, 
Cwntj'thrM jean e4«h, on u kre- 

'I CoucerulnR ihie hjrperbatoa, 
MfMull Halt. ^IS. It ; and wan p»t- 
tipolarlf S«b««icb. Not. Heral vol. 
iu. f. 98, At Ibe bettoM. 

CLIO. I. 9, 10. 1 

ihf M>ii of Dtscylus, was his jiarticulftr farourita; to vbooi 
be fras wcml to coufidc his more imporlant affairs, and cxag- 

Setating r«.(M;cia1Iy his consarl'H beauty to this parson. Can- 
tttleftr after a brief lapse of time, (tur he was doomed to be 
Btaerable,) addn-swjd Oyges in ihrnc word* : " Gygcs, I think 
** you gire me no credit, uhon I attempt to describe to you 
" tLo bi-autic-s of my wife: the ears of men, wo know, ani 
" more incredulous than their cyeH: 1 will have you see her 
" Daked." Gyges, uttering a loud exclatnation, replied : 
** Uy lord ! what anseemly language do you bold, enjoiuing 
" a« to cotd my eyes on my naliud qncen ! At Lhu &ame 
" dme woman strips off hirr ganneiits, slie caitit off her 
" nodesly also. Our laUicrs of old dcvis«d tht; maxims of 
** Tirtue, and it is our duty to follow ilj«m : among iheMu is 
" this uyittg, ' IjCt evei^- man look to bis own concerns.' I 
" 6nn]y believe this laly to be the most l>cauliful to the 
" world, bni entreat you not to exact any thing wicked**." 
By this rq>ly, (>yges soaghl to combat ^ht^ proposal, dreading ^ 
ttut 8om<> harm might accrue to himself. Bat the king re* 
tinned in thvMr words : " Take courage, my Oygo» : be not 
** fearful that I hav-o any dt'Ugn to tumj^t you by lliis di»- 
" couts« : be not alonncd at any disagr(.-eable nrnsequences 
" to yourself, on the part of my wife. First and foremost", 
" I will take care »be »halt not' even know that she hu been 
**Ken by you. I will p1ac» you iu the room we sleep in, 
"behind the open door; aed wlion I enter, and my wife fol- 
"lovit me to bed, there stands hard by the entrance an arm- 
" cbair**, on which she will lay cich of her garments, as she 
*' cula them off: there, at your leisure, you may take the op- 
" poftunity of looking at her ; and when ithe steps from the 
"clnir towards the bed, you will be at her back: then, liave 
''a carp, and mind she do not get aglimjKe of you, as you go 
" Out by ihe door." Gyges was unable to evade : he held liim- 10 
•tlf therefore ready. Candaules, on the other hand, when he 
l^f(hl it was time to ko Iu bed, tuvk GyK^-» into the sleeping- 
tbrnber; and immetliatcly afu'i, the lady made her appear- 
"ice, and Gyget saw ber as ibc came in and )aid her clothes 
"B Ibe ch«r : the lady, turning then her back to him, nieppRd 
fcrrird to the be<l; and be crept softly out; but sbe spied liim 
tobc went away. She *aw whai her husband had been doing; 
Wmodeicty renimined b^r ftom crying out, nor did she shew 
nf cmotioD**, being determined to nare n>vcoge on Can- 

■eMH«Tod.lU.4«. Mfta.SSa,»9. bowd; (b« mU of di^tf , tb« Un^'i 

* <((:*•. wilharU tha wtiAl*, fcr U Umik, thejudge'i bcnoh. 

4ct» ■* Hattipr. ■■ the pretBudad lOUl if- 

** ffkti. ta ann^bait with i bM- aatiDM ol what had oee u nwi.'* 


CLIO. 1. II— IS. 

dailies: for among (lie Lydians, arid «reD almast all otbar 
foreign nations, it is held n grca.t (liKgrace, for a uian t-i-en, u 

1 1 he sei-n naked. She accordingly huld hci peacv for the 
time, and inado notliing tnown; Iml as soon as day dawnc<l, 
shr ordrrcd such of her household as she 8uir «ern the noM 
uttachi-d Id bur per«ou to bo ready, and i^uinmoncd Gygea 
to hcc prEKcncc. Ho, fiuicyiuf; slie know iiotliiog of M'hat 
bad taken place, came as soon as lie was called : indeed, lie 
was wont, cron before, to attend whenever llie queen sdol for 
hioa. As soon as Oy(;es anived, the lady addressed biia 
tllU*: " Here, Gyges, 1 gire you your choice of two wayi, 
" that are open to you: lake nrhich yon like: for, eilber 
" yon ahall nut to death Candnutes, and inki* posse!>«ioii of 
" TOy»elf and iLe Lvdian throne, or you sliidl yourself perid 
"by the hands of these**: thus, obeying Caiiilaules in all 
" things, you may hereafter behold no more what is not 
" lawful t(i ynu. Therefore, citlier he lliat gare such conosel 
" nhall be cut off; or you, who hare seen me naked, and ham 
" done wliai is not decenl." fiyges stood some time amazed 
At this fipccch : then he )>t;souKlil the <|iiceD not to chain him 
donn to the neees&iiy of sucb a choice: he was, Iiowerer, 
unable to persuade, but saw before his eyes the necessity ia 
which he traii placed, either to destroy hix master, or to be 
destroyed himself by others: he elected, therefore, to sQrvire; 
and so put the following question : " Sinee you compel me, 
** however against uiy will, to murder my lord and master, 
*' come, lot me hear also in what manner we shall lay our 
" hands on him." The queen resuniud, and said: " Tlio onset 
" (diall be from the very »pol where he exhibited me naked: 

I'i" the blow «:ha11 bo struck when ho lies asleep." Tlie plot 
tho» laid, at nightfall (fur she would not let Oygfi* go, and 
be had no mode of escape, being forced eitlivr to kill Can- 
daules or be liimself killed) he followed the lady to the bed- 
room: ^he put a dagger in his hand, and concealed him 
behind Ihe same door: some time after, when Candaulcs 
was asleep, Gyges crept np to him, ami, inflicting a mortal 
Ihnist, won bulb the woman and the kingdom. [Of this 
event, Archilorhu», who flouriNlicd about this period, has made 

lanientiiiD, in an iambic trimeter poem.] Oyges oblainvd, 
accordingly, the power; in which he was confirmed by the 
autliority of the Delphian oracle; for the Lydians, ■■xaiij>e rated 
at the murder of Candaulcs, were up in arms; and the par- 
lisans of Gyges came to these terms with the of tlie 

«> <(m>, " ihiia :" ■b« ttana in Iuito pnpvtA to kilt him, if he Imlialad 
|»int*d to k(>r alleadaiil*; Mho iitood la «e««p< Ilit prop(«»l. 

L^dUnfi, tliat iflbr oracle slmiilci drolan- (ivges liiriK (if tht^ 
Ljrdions ti« should rale ; if not, he vras lo givu liuck t)w jtovor 
•gain In the Heraclidw. Accorrlitigly, the oniclu ac:knon'- 
d ((\i:<rK. tttitt so 111- became king : it iniisl lic> ub&erved, 
CI, ihat the Pvihia ndtled,' \'engcance would be vouch- 
to ttie llemciidie on ibc tilth gRni-ratioii of Gygcf« ;* 
bat of lh» propht'cy neither ihr L.vdians nor their liiiigs 
took any jLCcoimi, until it wkk fultilled'^. 

Such, therefore, nas the wa> in which the MenuDada-M 
powntOTgd thfin))elve$ of the stipreme potrer, iiiid d«prived 
the Hemclidic. Gyycs, become sovereign, sent no inconsi- 
denible gifb to Delphi ; iimkiI of the Kilv<T ofTenngf^ nt thnl 
shrine are Iii.s"*: l.ul, besides the silver, he dedicaled also 
abnndADce of gold; nnd, among the rest, what" is ei^jicrinlly 
deserving of mention, are the wine-booln** of gold, conae- 

»crBlcd by liitn, six in number. These wine-bowls stami in 
the treasury of tlie Coriittliinns, nnd nro thirty talents in 
wcigbL — <^>rreclly speaking, however, ihis tn^asiiry does not 
Moog to l))e whole ('orinthinn people, but is that of Cyp«elllii 
•on of Kelinn. — Tins f»\ges was ihi- first aliiMi, wc know vU 
llial mude luiy dediiMlions al Delphi, »uth the exception of 
Midas son of Gorciius, ling of Phrygia; lor that prince 
dedicated the royal throne on which he sat in judgment, sn 
otajcet worthy of being looked at. Thia ibrone licK m ihu 
saine pUce a. the nioe-bowU of Oyges. The gold and 
lO*cr prescDled by (jygwarc by the DetidiiiinK deuoiniuitvd 
, from the fomidcr's name. This prince, after IiIk 
«ioD lo the throne, mftdo also an inroad on Milotui^ and 
Smyiua, and capture-d the fort of Colophon, lie performed 
Do other great action, during hia reign of limy years, all but 
l*v; 1 flhall therefore diainisp him, having svid thus unich. 
I niisl however mention Ardys, the son and stieceseor ofl(( 
Ojgcs: he to<jk Priene, and invaded Miletus. Duiiug the 
lint that he ruled" at Sariiis, the CiinmerianR, driven from 
Iter seals by the Scilbians, came into Asia, and obtained 
p»e»rion r)f SardiK, the citadel excepted. 

ArdvB, after a reign of fiky years, all but one'', wok aiic- l*> 
Midcd by his son Sadyatles, whoocoupied llie throne during 

* IW MftMriKOuD M psrliap* tbn: 
ttl' &• ^ Urn i»>^r. iffifH- U 
AUfn*. rtirtit ri rXMfra l«*M (J. |tu£ 

m Mui. *Aa, f. 

* rmht tl. Mntl. 3tll. 

* Tbv crucf KM a bowl In vhlcb 
TOU I. 1 

•rmWr >ail wine were laixrd ; it waa 
aniallj placed «b a tiipoi) : but ](aanr- 
tiaiM <iu nikde witb a bot m VmnA, 
HkR a coblei. 

» Man. 414. 3,^ 

' Mau.337. C'lnji. BntHl.t.U.M. 

" MaU. 141. («r. I. 


CLIO. I 17, IS. 

twelve yearx: Kaclyalles wjui siiccee<led hy Alyntles. 
prince CAlyatb's] waged war against Cyaxares", a descend 
of Dvloces, and against tliL- Mudi-K: he drnve the Cimmariaiif 
DUl of Aflia : he look Sinjrna, a city pto[iled froiu Colopboo. 
an<l invaded ClaxontenK : fmm thU la»i, hovever^ b« came 
off. Dot as be nibtied", bciug M>rely beaten. The other 
actions muH deserving of deHcripdon. [Mrformed by tlui 

liking during Ms reign, are tliese. })« uihcrited from i» 
lAllier**, and followed up, llie war against the people of 
Mileliis, oTitmmning aim harassing their territory lu the 
manner 1 am gning to relate. At tlie time ihc fruits were 
ripe on Otc gruiiiid, he tnar4;hed his troops into the comatry, 
to the Kound of 5tci> ami stringed inatrutncnt«, and of 
masciiliiit! and feminine". WIkih Alyattes entered Mi]e 
he would no! pull down Uie faiin-houses waMrred Hboui tbft' 
fields, nor set fire tn ihem, nur wrench the doors, but 
theiu standing as they were: on the other l»and, heuut 
returned iinlil he had destroyed all the [diuitK and firutU 
the earth; for tbi» rex&on, that the Mile^ian^ prevailing 
sea, a blockade by the laiKl-focces woidd be impracticable' 
The nolivi', however, that Led the Lydian prince nol to pull 
down thp housrs, was, ihaL llie MiteKians might coma frm 
the city lu till and sow the j^ound ; so Uial, when be nautnnA^ 
his inroads, he should, in consequence of tlicir busUandrx^l 

16 have soinctiiiag to plunder. Acting thtis, he carried on th^B 
war olereu years ; in the course of which, two great defeats 
befcl the Milesians ; one at tiu: battle of I JmeiiaTiim in their 
own terrimry, the oilier in the plain of the Meander. Dar- 
ing six years, therefore, of the eleven, Sndyaltes the son 
ArdyA Klill occupied the throne of Lydiu, and waft, in tli 
period, tlie leader of these inrfiuds on Miletus; for Sadyatte* 
it was Lhal began the war; but during the five yeais subse- 
c|uent to the six, Atyatles llie son of Sadyattes, inhoriting 
(as I just observed^) the war from his father, prosecuted il 

»• Henrf. i. 74. Plir*ort«. failier 
rfCfBSUc*. tvlrJ oicr H«ilU la At 
injw nf Anljt*, Of gnoirin <i Aly- 
sttaK. Thi* VM th* ateciiii trraptiMi 
nf Ih* CiamirUiu : bob Haml. t. 8. 

>^ lim it Mil a'WxXali Such in 
the RiaaiitT in wbicti tbr Greet* 
exprrwcd thttnselrn, in ord-rr lo 
•often, in •onw CD««i>ur«, wbu might 
be tta banib ta > mutUkau Is th* 
Avitamaebe of Bnrlpldw, dw Cliarui, 
uldnwhig ItMlf W e^tat (to whom 
the^ w«ra bdngiai; the corpse of bi< 
graadMni), Mji, " UnfatfuBMtv vlJ 

tnu ! you rctvitc U y<Mi patac« (he 
tun ut Athillen, M«l at jmi fvvU wisk," 

" Th" mwimlinr snd ftmlntu 
nat«» or fi(M wvn probiH; mo dl^ 
frcTTDt *ara of mncml ioatnoieM^ 
Till,-' m^U WW an «»eieM itutra- 
<n«-iit, ttio nveutioii nf ih« \,ji\*», 

■**: it iruiD Utar daua eoabawM 

■with the kifs.— CooMtaiaf tka paver 

a(M.sirr Mntl.OdS,^ 

« 3MBerHii.)7. 

CLIO. I. I(K— M. 


lifttiroaalf". None of the loninns, however, afforded any 
beiji to u« UileBiaus, saring the (icople of Chios, who came 
to lb«tr «»«iftUncv, in return for a similar eonncfl*: for. lit 
a fonoar period, thi: Milesians had uken ihH part of ihit 
Ctatn*, in the war agaiosl ihv Krythmans". In the tvrelfUi 19 
jTMT, the harvKsi bt-intf agnia ««.-l on fire by ihi: army, the 
fallowing accident occurred : a» soon at. t)ic> balia <ra« lighu-d, 
fiumod by the vrind, caught d tenijilt; of Mtncna, 
tbe AwQsiaa: thL* tiimplp, thus svt on tire, veas hurnl 
to the ground. At the imnicdiale liiuc, no notice wan taken 
of Uiis: but after iliv roiuni of the vxpedilion to Sardis, Aly- 
•Uoa fell kick: Uie diacaae IsHtiiig a coundL-rablu tiint;, he 
ftentaomv person tu coiiMiU (hi* onick* ai Dolphi — whetli^r 
e(nm»eUc<l by somebody, or hitiiM;]t' coiicciviuj; ihc idea, to 
tend and itiqniru of the god coiio^ming hia malady : iho 
I'jtbiii, howeior, refused to make any respoupo to the per- 
no* who catue to IMphi, until they liad rebuilt ihf U'luple 
of Mtnerra, which they had set on fire at A«sc«us in thu ter- 
ritory of Milesia. So far ( know niiai louk place, hy tbeSO 
iDfoimntion I obl-Tini-d from thft HelphianR. To which the 
Milesians add thv fullowins purticulart : That * FcriaodL-r'* 
the soo of Cypsolus, who was n nio^t intiinnte iViend of 
Tbrasybuliis, then the ruler of Miletus, having asceruinod 
vhal answer the oracle had made to Alyattes, sent off a 
neaaeDger to report it to Tbrasybulus, so that, knowing 
aU bcforeband, ho might taku aomo counsel for llic present 
Majuocturc. Alyaltcs. apprised by his messengers, forth- 2 1 
with wnt a herald lo Mili-ius, rvqiiesiing tu make a lrtic« 
with 'i'bnuybulus and the Milesians till such time ss he 
diould have rtbuill tbe temple : the herald, therefore, went 
kit way to Milctos; and meanwhile 'ITirasybulus, autbenri- 
cally informed of all particular:*, and knowinfr what were 
tbciRtentiona of Alynltes, deviscxt the following nrliliee: He 
wUected in the market-sqiiare all the wheal there was tn 
ibi place, the proptirly ofhininpirand oihem, and notified to 
4ke Milesians tbut, when he gave llie signal, tbcy should all 
Ul to drinking and taiing among iheniseh'i.'s*'. Thin was 23 
■nu^d and eonimaodcd by Tlirasybuliis for the purpose 
wat the Sardinian herald, after witnessing the vast quantity 
(•(com heaped up, aitd the inhabitants enjoying theinselreft, 

* BMlUita wfiaat MiMoa hnu 
^ lk« dy«Ml7 of ttw UtnnsMtt; 
<■! toMlMMd mttmr vr^rj Uog «f 
*U tnaMi, »iA Ttfi«aa loMTrandea* 
Ol It, i», 17). 

* Littnltr, ' ichrlDit buk lb* Hk*.' 

" Tbe difnM of Errtlir*, me of 
A* loalw SCUM. Sm Band. i. 149. 

** Co»:^>ranig Pkri»i>iar,an Hatvd. 
til. 44. 

A Matt.4ia. 



CUO. I. '23,24 

slioitUI roport nccordiiifi^lv !■> AlyAtu-s. And »u h 
inallcra came to pass; iur the herald, having seen 
iti'iDgs, and coniinimicated thn mes<KaKe frota Alyattes to 
Tlinuybul'iA, m;iit hack to Sanlis; luiJ I am infbrnied that 
ihc recnncilUlioi) vtus brought atiout by th», and Dotliin|{ 
more: Pur Alyntlt-.*' liad hopfd that a severe famuie was 
rsKinp in Mili'ins, and Uinl thi- nt-oplo werp ground down 
to cKtrcuK- tu'r!H:ry; but uon lie beard Iroiu the herald, le- 
tlimed from MtltMtttt, a »tali*merit m» dinecll}' opjiuMlc to 
what he had pictured to bitDself. Sodd afti'r.a reconciUalion 
look place between the two parties; .1 tiralj iratt framed, tm 
the condition** they shonhl be mutual friends and allies. 
Alyattes built tu-o temples or Minerva al Aascsuh instead of 
one, and h<' himself recori'red from sickness. 

23 Poriander, iht- person «ho gave notice to Tlira'^ybuiiis of 
the oracle, waa tlie son of Cypselus ; Iw was sovcrrif^i cirer 
Corintli: in liis lifi-tiiitt.', th»rc occurred an astonishing pro- 
dig}', according lu tb» account of the CurinlhianK, which is 
bontc out by that uf llie Lesbians ; That Arion, a native of 
\fetliyniii.-i, was cotircyfid by a dolphin to Tienanini: he was 
second to no cithern ■player*' o( that age", ami was llie first 
man, wi; knon- of, iliat imcnted, named, and ptrrformed llie 

24 dithyrambus al Corinlli**. It 13 asfyeried, that this Arion, 
after spending a consirlrrftbU- portion of his time* at ibfl 
court of Poriander, conceived a wish to cross over into Italy 
and Sicily: baring there accumulated, by his profession, great 
weallli, hu detunaiocd lo n-tum luick to Corinth. He took 
hisdcpartiirf%in coiisc^qiicnce, fioin Tarantumi and confiding 
in noiiu uiorL' than Coriutliiaus, he frt^igbled a mrrchaiil-bark, 
manned by a crew of thiit nation. The marini'rs howcvert 
irben at st-'a*", cunspired to tlirow Arion overboard, and take 
to themselves his money ; the niiisiciaii, aware of llieit pro- 
ject, entreated that they u'oidd spare his life, offi-ring 10 
deliver up lo ihum bis money ; but be wa!> unable to prevail 
upon ihcm ; the Nailors ordering liim either Ui lay violent 
lianrU on himself, so that be might find sepulture on shore, 
or lo junip iuslantly into the sea. Arion, reduced In Uiia 
strait, rc(]iK9tpd, siuco such was their pleasure, to be per* 
niittcd to Ktand ul the poop, in full atltrc,nnd sing: be pledjred 

'^ Ttia lutatfUi played tin Pttbunr 

own TO Ice, 
*■ Malt. 373. f. and 1S4. 
" M»il.4r». 

•* hiiriM ififta, ' dooart (in NtBISI 

pro^QOMv, tgen) fidtulnm/— ~Seutavte. 
J>jr. Jiimd. UBithlw, 473. 

« Uml 443, 3. 

" viA«y*r. " the i!*«p •*»," in roa> 
(r«dinin«liai orMiMmv.doKr in )inA> 

CLIO. I. 26, SO. 


lliouelf to make away with }li^ own lifts M'bcn Ite h&d siintT' 
TTw cailont — for they fell wlial a pleasure it wnuld he to 
hf«T ibo first musician in the world nng — ** lerircd trom 
atioft to mid^liipo. In llie mean lime, Arion put on his 
wbole attire, and, •Elnndin^ on llie poop, took liia cilbvru and 
ircnl through tlie orthian strain ; having come to the end 
of hiH tune, he thn^w hiniM^tf hciidlong into the tu>ii, with all 
his appDTt'l on : ineanwliile, tlie .^ilom mailo awav for 
Corintli. Put a dolphin, it is ntprexi-ntcd, ptckecl up ihu 
mmjcian. and bore nini olT to Tsetianm, where- he landed, 
md proceeded nn ta Cnrinlli, still in t'rill attire: no hi* 
arrival there, he ^armt(^d all that hud happened. Pcriandcr, 
bowever, diiicrediting the report, nnt Arion under guard, 
hiodeiing him from Rolng away, and walcbod narrowly*" for 
the sailors : as soon therefore as they made their a|>j)eii ranee, 
he Butninuncd ihem bol'ore him, and intiuired wIi;U they had 
to say abntit Arion : they replied, that he was safe in Italy, 
atid Uiey had loft him flourishing at Tarentam ; tliereiipon 
Arion nuddenly appnaret] before thetn, jnst as he nas when 
be leapcl orerbuaru : llip men, thus :i1>a^hed and eoiifoundud, 
llld nuthing tn say in denial of iheir guilt. Sitch, then^fore, 
I the accounts of the Corinihians as well as ihe Lesbians: 
is, inoreorer, at Ticnamni, a small brass ofichug — a 
■lan astride on a dolphin. 

Alrattes ibo Lydiaii, nho carried through this protraclodtU 
■tr a^nst the Milesi.inK, died nome lime aAer, having 
nifpied fifty-sercn yearn. Al his rccorciy from siclcncss 
hebrrame the second benefactor of his family "tn Delphi; 
fa he dedicated a magnificent wine-bovel in nilver, together 
tilb its siiiicer of iron, inlaid; an object worthy, iK-fure all 
iiSerings** at Delphi, to be inspectea. It was a work of 
Gliocus, a native of Chios, the only man in the world that 
wcr found ont the .irt fif inlaying imn **. 

At the de(H:asB of .\!yattes, Crotsns Ins son, tlieii in theSO 
Ifciny.fiftli year of his age, BU«cee<led to the kiugdum. 'ibis 
ptacc, accordingly, attacked 6rht of all,amoni; the llellcDtw* 
4t people of Epbesus : at which lime iJie iitizens, being be- 
*i^gcd by CrojBUK, placed their city under the safeguard of 
IHaDtt, stretching, for tliat puquse. » rope from the tumplo 
^ the city wall. The distance between the old town, then 

_" BMiiDte l.tuclisn. tUL Sm alw 

Uifci, tl*<vd. rlii, IW. -jet alim 

* nil U M oj, if ill* MrtditiiutH'. 

5«« UMad.i.7-uil 11. 

» i\uu.beo,t. 

" The iahjine m daoMWMnbg 
of iiuti coiuiaU til nidttiii; inaiitan* 
•nd tilling; Ikriu iif wtlh fi«l<l w til^r 


CUO. I. 27. S8. 

besieged, ami tlis Icrapl*; i» neven sladt*^'': these, tbcie-' 
fow, were the first thni Crcesiis bid liis haniU npoii. H« 
aftcnrards atisclced, in turn, racli of llie Ionian and .-1lo1!iid 
lelLlL-niL'titfi : alleging rariniiB preU'Xt'i Bgiitn-il various staUHt ; 
producing, wlierever he coutd liod (bem^ serious couipliuotB 
af^inst thc'iu, aiid, in many instanct.-*, hai-iii}^ recooree to 
37friTolon« moliveit. Having thus reduced the Hellenic settlen 
iu Anaio the piiynnmt nftriliiitR, he next bethought himself 
to construct ubip!. und altark the i>lauder3. AU tbiuga being 
got ready ii)r the building of the ships. liLis orPrlene came 
In Sardis : some say it was Pillacus of Milylene ; aiid bdug 
asked, by Cncsnis, if there wag any thing new" from Hellas, 

Eui a 6tu]t, hy the followiDg answer, to all further ship- 
uilding: "Sire, tho islanders are collecting a vast l>ody of 
" borso, having it in contemplatioii to enter the field againtt 
*' you and Sardis." CTrEHU.s, siippot^ng his rifittor In be 
8erfou>i, excl3iTn4>d: " May the gods (lut such a ihuiiglit into 
" the hi-ads of thn iitlancleni, a» tu face the sons of tbo 
" Lydiftiis'' on horseback." The other, then resuming, said: 
'* Sire, I sec you canict>tly pray that you may incct the 
** islanderv muunted, and on the main land : your liojwe are 
" rational. Hut do you think iho islanders tii«inMlfM can 
" pray more fi-rreully for any thiug^, when iliey he«r yoa 
" are titling out a fleet a^jainnt them, than to catch the 
" Lydians out at nca, under fiill sail*, where they may rc- 
•' TflDge on you the Hellenes settled on tbe contineni, vbom 
" you Irave cntlirallt^l"?" CncsuK wan highly pleased mlh 
the point in this ohsen'atiun; thinking tho visitor spake id: 
the purpose* he look the advice, put a arop to sliip-biiilding/ 
and uccoidiiigly L'lKcred into a league of alliance wiiJi the 
lontanft resident in the islonda 
"2^ In tile courso of lime, and when nearly all the nations 
dwelling H'ilhin the Halys river were reduced ; — for, with the 
exception of the Cihcians and Lycians, CrtBMU held all in 
subjection; and ihcy were, Lydians*", Phrygians, My uons, 
MariandynianKj Clialyhiami, PapbUgonians, Thracians, both 


" Untt. -la?, 3:liiin'i>eS79. 

" Mmt. *W, 6. 

"> 8<ih<i«i^h. Niit. Hem"!, wl- iii- 
p. 8J>:n» aXto tbv L«i. n«niiI.'Adfti*. 
Tlw TMillofI propcHml hj thia inulli- 

Sent ictkolu it iufi^HM (uTukmtnd 
IB •oeonlWl- ri irrMU kMft l> 
tmkirrw Ttm sueolnuUiU of infi- 
rm-, irfttritig Id imtU n i, I* MWUBtsd 

(br hj (ht fcilnninj itiMucn or ftli* 

iHlmh-n.^mlnrttUihy I'.IS.udliT- 

'•> CriMuK noruiiil^ lnlM>ril#d Ui« 
•lalM nf Lyillft-. tnll, hv HTu an 
iwiuMT or rtftim, MBf Uti d^ 
■oniilAiit of ^PM| t)w Mnarti of 
CandmntM. ThJa b the rMam, (wt- 
hapa, vliv LjilJB appir&r« no eoani- 
CDOiu in thi* lint nf vntbralVI 

tbc Tbynianit snd Bithyninnit, CariaiiK, luiiUiis, I>uriBns, 
jEoliann, i*luiipliiliau8;— all these hud been rtdncMl ai»|29 
tDoexed to Lydia under Crcrsiis u'heii tlie difTeniii wise 
meu*. wbi> fluuriftbed in tho^e dav8 in Kellan, rintcd Bardie, 
whicb had nuw soHR-d lo ihe highest pilch of opulence : eauh 
coaling ut his own convenience". Among the reet, wa« 
Solon, a native o( Athens; who, after dran-ing up a code of 
laws for the Atlienians at their oirn reqnost, had «xp9trialod 
himaelf for ten Teiini ; departing under the pretence uf ]>eciuK 
the world, but, in reality, in order not to he compelled 
himiieirio ahm^te any of the stutiitrr hn hnd enacted^; ■ 
lbin;{ which the Athenians dared not tn do llieiu»elT«8, 
being bonnd, by solnnii cinths, lo obsunc for tf« _ve«iB tlio 
laws lliat Solon mif^hl instiltiie for ihuui**. Solon, lhereforc,30 
ooo of these w'tBc men, eniigniting from the above tuolirv, 
at vol) as for the purposes of study and contiMiiplulion, pro- 
ceeded to ibo court of Ainasis, in Kgypt, and innrc parti- 
ctibrly to that of Crtesu^.. On his arrival at the latter, be 
was rcceircd hospitably by the king: the third or fourth day 
after, Solon was, by ilie command of Crtesus, conducted by 
•otae atlendants over the treasuries, and shoun all Uiat was 
great and luxurious. \Miou he had seen and contemplated 
mflieiently** every thing, CrctKus put thi« question to him: 

* My Athenian nicod, the great celebrity hm rcacbod even -^- 
^ lo lu*', which you Iiavc gained for your wisdom, and ihr 1,. j/^JW 

* tnccla you have underliuieu for the purpose 
** ntaor countries and coiiicuiplating them as a 
** and ihcicfore I feci anxious to know* from 
•* the most happy being you liave yet se^^n." Ho asked this , 
qaestioD because he fiincicU liu was himself that happiest //: 
being. But iHHilon, not at all adulatory, and roterring to r >^ 
*spcrieiice* said: " it was, sire, Telbis nt'AtboDs." Cnrsn* 
was uHtoni^hed at the answer. " For what reason," asked he, 
pcniifaly, " do you judge 1'ellus to hare been the happiest/" 
" TeDiu,** resumed he, " in the first place, betoogecl to a 
" lomishing town-*; bis snns were h,indKonie and goodj end 
"he saw children bom to them all, and oil living. In the 

nom. ann ine 1,. j/ifiT 

8c of visitiug I JL 1m/» 

philosopher •W\/yj^ 

1 you, who '" imfmi 

* RamdMta iprim tba nmM of 
«»i»h to PjrtbigoTM, ir. 9S. Tlur 
MBir cfAiWt ocoun a. 49, whtre tl 
''ViMi b? inlcrrrcMd Iq bdj other 
*>« tlian ' Uite,' * viM nui.' TLu 
iMllaCioa *u >t flnt kmoarahlu, 
M teal aAnwudi oJlMti. Xno- 
1^ dcfima tlw toakiit, one who 
mBt kk kiiinrled^, in muicy, to llio 
hi aamtt. Ltrrner. 

• HkU.UI. 

*• Mmtt.5l». 

*» Man. W7. aU. I. 

•' M«t(.Aei. 

*' 8m note 21, in r- S «f Ihii V*. 

^ LlleriJIjr, A Jaire, lk<rtffe, hat 
nms mm* U m*. 4^. 

the IrutJk: v) lb, id i|UCnl r«« ffU— 

*> Hatl. 31B, l**t ptn«. 


CLIO. 1. M.32. 


" iwcood place, b«inK iu couifi-irtablo circumstaoccs. accord* 
** ing to our ideas, lie met wiiti tbe most trilluioi irniiiiui* 
" lion of life Uiat could bcHU niitn: li>r hv had ^otic to t)ie 
" support ut' the Alhenia[i», id a battle with their neigb- 
'* )x)Urs it( EIi'iimk; there ho tumfd tlie foe into complete 
" rout, and died gallanllv. The Athcoiaus eiitomlH'd him at 
" the public cotit, on thi- spot when: he fell, and honoured 
" bim iDaj^ifiecnlly." 

Solnn having ilias ndmonished " CroisuR by descauliag 
thus Diudi oil the felicit}' of Tellus, tbe king again u&bed, 
who WHS the next to Ti'lliis, he hnd seen"'; expecting 
surel>' lo obiuio the second rank, at least. " Cleobis auo 
" Bilon," replied tbe Athenian: " they were natives of Argos. 
'* aapplicd wiih a ijiiflicieiicy for life i aod, tooreot-er, both 
" were endowed with tuich strengib, that each alike con* 
" quered in the lisLs, It i« relaU^d of iheni, that one day, 
" the festiiial of Argeian Jimo, their motber was, by law, to 
** he eonreyed in a chariot U) tlii; t^jtuple": the oxen came 
*' not from the held in lime: ihr youths, prcssrd by ibcif 
" delay'', placed ihemKulves beneatit the yoke, and dragged 
" the car in which their mother rude: proceeding thus for 
*' iivc-aiid- forty siadeR'*, they reached tbe temple. Af^er 
" they had acbieted lhi» feal, in Ihu sight of tlio asAcniblcd 
" Kp4'Clators, ibe best of emhi ums voiich<«.ired them; tha: 
" deity, by their exauiplc, bhowing that death h a greater] 
"boon to man than life*. For the Arf^eian by-slander 
" extolled tlie strength of the youUis, while tbe women of 
" ArgoH bleKSp<l her ui> the mother of such kodk". Tbe 
" tnotbur, transported n ith joy by tbe deed as well as hy the 
" glory, Hlood befon^ the ucrcd image, and poured forth her 
" praynra, thai the yoddess would couehsare whatever was^ 
'* biiit to hefal man unto (Jloi>bis and Itilon, ber own soDStSj 
" wbu honoured ber so nobly. Afti^r thiK prayer, when tba 
" sacrifice and holy banqncl were over, they fell asleep 
'* within tliB Kacred precinct itself: they uuver awoke tDore, 
" but Ml fonud their final repose. 'i*hc citi7.ens of Argos 
" had tlieir statues carved'', and dedicated lliem at Delphi." 
33 Solon, uceordinKly< allotted to the»e young men the socondJ 
rank iii feliciiv, CrtEsus, vexed at this, exclaimed: " MNTiatli 

'I S«« $«lnreig. Not. Herod. «dI. Hi. 
p. 99. tW alio Les. H«nd. *f^- 

^ MaU.Ml. 

^ Sbc wkr tbv t)nc4l«t of Jftno 
&r|p*ii, mihI, u auoh, could not tnw- 
futlf Bhaenl brnrlf fram the (aptrI 

*' uii«r<^n> T$ iiff, ifntpnnr n- 

«luil, I. «. nunm nihil icnporU t4« i 
liq)iuinc«i«l; ur^Dto botB. 5r^ 

*■* MotL 424. S. FortyJiM 
an! kboDt (mil nika unl * halt. 
w MBit.46ti. 
^ Man. abs. M<l tm. a*, s. 

■» MntI tl>8, r. 

CLIO. I. 32. 


UjiiiUa (ncni)( is our liappiuetw ibus wonict), and 

** bell) a& Dotliin}; by you; so ititu-li cvuu, tlial yo" bave 

" ntnkrtl ns less worthy llian mvtv sulyucU"?" The Athc- 

niitn rv|'lit:d; " Cra?xufi ! is il couct^niing n'oildly rk-hL-s yuu 

** wk the opioiou of a man who is convinced thu divinity 

** looks au Micl) tilings with iudifjuatiuu aud proucncM to 

" cfauige*? Let mo first obserrc, that, in ihclong lapac of 

** thae, many ihingit must he niliiesaed, man^ uiflurrd, mch 

** ■* one mifcbi not vish. Tor 1 set Ibc bourn of human 

" life at 8K^t:^ly )'ears"'. Those s«vt-tity limes twelve 

** isontfaK coiiiprine fiv(>-aiid>lweniy ihoiisiind two b<indrc<l 

" days, wilhouL reckoning the iutt-ri-alalory monibo. Now, 

" if every oOier year i^hall be made longer by one month, in 

** order that ibe seasoas may properly ugree in coming 

" (Dund, d>cn ihe iniercalatory months to ihc itrventy years 

*are tbiity-bvei the days uf ibeno moullis are one ibou- 

"sind and fifty. TheKum total of all tbes« days, making 

*n,p (be sceenty years, is twenty-Mx tlioiuand two biindrca 

"ind fifty days'*, ol' which not one produces one single 

" ibtDg exactly the same as another. Tbusi then, man, 

"0 Cra-nua ! is but the sport of circumstance**. 1 am, no 

" (Uiubt, convinced" tJiat you are immensely rich ; that you 

" in kiu}{ over many nations ; biiL, in rcspcci of what you 

" iiu^turi!* now ol me, 1 cannot salisly myself, unlit I shall 

" Unt. ' AM who bold* no public 
4(iri' uut ■ klDK ; lint ft mm il«- 
P*iwt, ia cuuiuuiMD Willi ttie hch 

* L»prti\j . ' IViit lluM Btk UK-, 
Orrau, hIkiiii banian klfsim— bii>, 
"fa bam Imw tii.1i|riiuil siul istbn- 
Im Ac 4cltj cTcr ia ?' In ebiji. M. 
A* B^«inijin talb u, tXMfii U /w 
^•Mi ptfiXn B^nn*. Tbi* prorr* 
ta ti j^'s, U <H«I tjnaaijDntim\j 
^ihit, Bnd ii eunitmaiud bf (be 
■«<■ uinbiiinl lu AitatiwiM (U«> 
["tTii. jii ), f.A(u >A( i M( r* Inf 

" ru d*;ii of otii yr*rt nra ihree- 
-mt tiij ton. PmIv «c. m. 

* ll ■■ koowD, th»t Id mft Iniikr 
^Kk* UoR at* IM mtn Ibiui •nr; 

a1S8 ndu niMtlw: 130 «nlM 
■ndicMtM M IPaolujcon; 
■kM«lR«.iiM« 23»— S«B-7.i(>*ii«- 
■■mj to »dd 7 loaar nwDllii to It) 
{u> ;««n, !• onln lliat Ibr «■ 
I* and tamr pariod* nujr eoineiile. 
■^ (Jnak tKlMdsr iaWiwUsta* tfan 
■^ <rtMi tanu nontb in nui««Mii 

tuDu jt*n :— 

Ycanof laiuQKT nitiiillu: 1,3, b, 
7,8,9,11, 13. tft, 16,17,19. 

TMracifJS lunsr muolhii: 'J, 4, ll, 
10, 13, U, 18. 
llib «r>a Ili« madn in which MMnn 
tunglkt Ib» (intnk* to ncFkou, *a m to 
■eoarc a iwnrct tcium nf the kmom 
crrr; jiiar, llerodotoi probnhlj <ru 
II ntioju lintel nilh Mptaii% rarortD 

df itao Gr«k ctlcD'Iiir: tiiil ll » difli. 
cull CO coocFi*!! buw tuob an latolli- 
MBt oWriiir >■ Hrrodultu abaiiU 
DsTe iirifeil ao aiil* ot iruch, aa lo 
adopt au aiTttrsirc j«ar too ti;i]^ bj un 

•> 8»B Scliwvigh. Not. Herod, vol. \i\. 
p.3A- nn thmnaantiiy of jip^^ (.'od- 
■ull aUu I.(x. Harofl. ^a^ftfi. 

*• fttinai. Salon hul CXIBiiDcd at 
kiaoic all tbc ridic* of CroMi : lie 
coald JMI, ibttcfotv, «•/ praprrif, 
Vmi appear l^mgloie, &c. V iucv r». 
miilL*, Uial ^afn/isi U attn taMii In 
tha HOW of Hfmrrr, i-mtiart, immh 
fiitc tmaperm nr fmrri .^Lttrf^r. 

••Matt. III. 


CLIO. I, S», Si4. 

" bavc oBcerlaitKtd that yoa liavc cndud your life ci 
" fortablv. For tiie nii^hcy rich man is noL so loticli liflp- 


u wLu uariis liia diiilv tiriMil. iiriK-ws, ii>tlc<;ii,B 
ttowl rurliine ni'con)|)aRV him iliruu^jh lif*.-, to its ciitl**, JaW 

pier Uiiiii bt 

*' tbo posKSsiou of every eDJoymoat. Many mosl opulent 
** men are miserable ; while many in uioderatu riTcum* 
" itances arc bleesed vith sood-fortune. lie, therefore, i 
" who possemes vast ricbc», and yet is i)ii»eTahle, surpassc) 
" only in two leapocU him who is blcs^od with gowi-IVirtune ; 
" while the lalter exceeds, in many rpspccts, die wi-allhy and 
*' mUerahle. The fonner is h»tler empoweted In gralily 
*^ denie* and to hear up againnt heaiy calamity: the laUcr 
" soara above him in these piirliculan; he is not equally 
*' empowered to contend with desire and accident, but 
** good-fnrtinie aTerls tliew Irnm him; he i« whole of limb, 
'* unafflicted with disease, in«xperi«iiced of soitow"'^ blessed 
*' with good children of comply laatnres: if, in addition In 
" these adrantagcs, follows a hap|>y death", be is the man 
" you seek lor, worthy to be calh;d happy": nnlil he be dead, 
** however, it behoves «8 lo refrain from calling him happy*, 
" but fortunate*". Still, it is not possible that one human 
*' being unite all these advantages ; nn uo country •itifTicrs 
*' to prodncc for it>tc)f every tiling, but riimishes somi: wrliilc 
** reh of othem, and thiit which gire^ the raoHt is beRt; ao 
" no human being is complete in his accomplifdiments; otM 
** be hoi, another he bos nut : he who continues to the end in 
" poBseasion of the most**, and then tcrminales his tile in 
** peace, that man, si a*, deser^'es** tn bear tbu name of 
** happy. In all, it hebovos never to lo&e &i^ht of tbu end ; 
" for to many has the divinity rouchiiafed n glimpse of 

33 " bappiDC«s, and ihcu scathed Lbom to the root**." Solog, 
addressing C.*r(vsuii in this language, was in no way complt- 
meutcd, but dismissed : he was considered a very untutored 
man, who passed over present good, and advised to keep in 
fiew the tormination of orery thing*. 

34 AAer the dciKirluiv of Soltm, the diro indignation" of the 

" M*n. MS, J. 
" HMi.a99. 

fnfrlf. Henjcb. 

*< JvIk* no nw hlaicd bvfor« 
hii ilHik. &^«l(■. si. ». i\n»td h-r 

w Malt. MS. 

" H«U.SM. 

« I.a •-)u>l fin, e'l di loda la nra* 

» Mali. 4HI]. v^. 1. 

v" Afitrii ID, ti tc«fiu, fpumjmtm 
mtb ftlrtf of eliap. 3S, Hemleai 
ibvrtforB u»c» ibo term ftim. uM 
for *«UTy,' bat for Ibai viriue nbidi 
Ari«toilf placM bntirMn fHtn,'mrj,' 
Ulltl tngmf U tMtm. • patii«ktl«n W 
Jntrumon;' ■ %irtw whieh di» 
phikwopber calli ti/ttttr. Mit Ir ih* 

CLIO. 1.96. 


lied Crs8ii«, in cunscijiicncc, it msy he presumed, 

. resamptioii lliat he was ihc nuiHi hii])]>}- nf men. 

Furtliwith. a vision stoud over liitn iii tiis sleup, wbich por- 

Umded llie tnitli n.>sp«c(ing tlic calamilti-s UiaL were alxHJt 

lo be&l his «oD : for Criruiii ba<l iwo sons ; on» of ubum 

WW grierou»ly afilitlcd, bcirijj dumb"; ihc ollur, howtTor, 

was by far ihe firKC in all lliiiigs, among all tiis oulcmpura- 

ries; ill!! nam« was Atye. I'tiis Atya, acconlin^^Iy, il w&b, 

whom dir dream pointed out lo CitBSUS, ihui li*.* sliuuld lose 

liini, piercud by a sliarp poini of iron. When ihc kiuK awoke, 

and tumrd orer in his miud the oi-curreuce, be dreaded tbe 

aecfmipliKhmeni of the dream, aod took a wire to the youth ; 

aod allboiigli liillicrio U'oni to place liiiu at ihe head of tbe 

Lydiui forces, he ni> lonj^er xciit him ou such business; 

tprars, jamlinH, nnd all »iich iiiMnniienls as men u»c in 

war, he removed I'rnm the men's apartments, and laid up iu 

Uit bock chainhern, lest sdt »u8pei)ded weapun might full 

down upon bin soo**. At the time be wojt busie<l villi his 35 

moq'b wedding, a man arrived at Sardis, oppressed witli ca- 

Umhy ; his handH were sullied ; and bo was by birth a Phry- 

P»n, one of the royal family. This person entered ifae 

pillce of CrirMis, luid mipplicated to rcccivi^ piiriAciilion**, 

■KordiDg to the common lane. Crcesus puhhed him ; — the 

tormonies of expiation are nearly the t>ame with the Ly- 

&n u with tbe Ilelleoes; — when therefore he had performed 

Au accustomed Htea, he inquiied of the suppliant whence 

Wcane, who be waR, addressing him tlniR : " Good man ! who 

"its yon f and Irom what pan nf Plirygia have yoii come 

" lo niy hrarth ? uhat man 01 uhiil ironian have you slain f 

"I au, Mtre," answered'"' the fugitive, " the son ofGordiua^ 

" Caf^. * otMm«,' sml tliercfiaiB 
AibI Id tni)4l«ici. in hoiring, in 
■A. In ■rtc^'ti. Witli ilie more 
■■mm unSlcn, iliij word MgaiSe* 
Ml; Jtimt. Auong Ihe aore to^ 

' M.ri, »«, ik. 

"Th> Mihatiul of HwiHr IcTorai* 
■^ <Mr *rr. ••», lut Book of tlio 
^tt,) iLkl It wu cuMunaiT «iDon^»l 
■■ twiwUi ft>r wfciWTt had ««m< 
*^i ta iBVohntaTj mndar, Ui 
^» Ua oMBtfy, and fly Id Uia 
Jm* •< MMD* p«iTeit*l uullrldaal. 
■W. nvml^ Uaueir, he tU danm, 
**'TBln«lnl lo ht pnriSod^ — No ku. 
^ ba< d«wnh«l aorm minuulj or 
OMk iW Mnamia* B t w i ied oi the 
■nWtaia tkm ApcUoniH Rhodiu*. 
Im iwltjr pinoa itti down uu llie 

beinh, fliu hit CYM oa ifao gmuud, 
BD() m\e\s ihc iMtnitnent of the 
DiucJer in Ihe wtli. Tlw petvon 
vlmte pr«t«ctloa li« taiolcn* ilixm- 
i*r« b; ihMc ngnt llmt n* wtebM to 
ba aipimM of ■ mordar. H* ihon 
UkM » uoUlna pit, >lM|{bt«ri hitn, 
nd iDHMn the bandi of iho Kuiiplicut 
«lih the blood. He ac«t u»e* loitra) 
wnt^n, iti*olciD)i Joi« IIm ExplMor. 
E<r*r]r thing tluU bud Mncd Rr th« 
axpiafioQ i« th«i raoMiail out tS ihe 
botiM). Cake* an tli«ii buiat, warn 
poured out, and lb* godi InvokMl, n 
■ppeaae dw aogoi of the Forico, wai 
to propilialp Jtyrv. t,nrfhtT. 

" Wf#«Ht, Inn. for Ifl^ww. "hieb 
tbe wbolJMl of Apnllonini Rhodina 
oi]il&riit, Tery prnpettj, i«) <7 trrtf £•. 
t«K (A<tf jf«w al fhe ArarfA, i. r- a 


CLIO. I. 3»,87. 

'* ■ndgrwH h on of MiJns; I am namnd AdraMus: mm-ttlingly 
" T have slaiii my own brother: driven anay by mr liilbcr, 
" and reft of all, 1 Mand here." Crtesus ansirered in these 
words : " Vou are tlie child of my friends, and you aru cunw 
" toyoiir frieDdK: abide io my palace*", where you Rhall buow 
" no want: and bear with this calamiiy as meekly as yc 
" can ; yon will he the greatest gainer." AdroRius, ace 
ingly, took up hi» re&ide»cc in the palace of Cnestis. 

30 At this name lime, a huge inonsttt of a boar"" madv hi| 
appearance in the Mj^ian Olynipiiei; ruslnnK down ffviiil 
that mountain, he Favage<l the rnttirAted land;* of the M)-l 
siaiMi. The inhabilante had repeatedly gone ont agninst thifl 
animal : they conld do htm no h.irm, bnl were comprltcd (a 
suffer his dcraRtatiiins: at last, a di>piU:iliMn from the Mystaofl 
came before Ctickiis, nnd npokg thus : " 8irt:, a vaM inunsi 
** of a boar has. appeart'd in our land, and di'vaKtales 
" cultivated lieldfi : vvc have cndAironrcd to catch him, bul 
"cannot We lliurefore now entreat you***, send with iii 
" your 80D and ftorao chosen youths. toRclbcr with dog», : 
'* that we may drive liira out of the land." Such was ibeit' 
petition : to which Crasus, rcmcmbertng the warning of bis 
dream, Replied thus: '* Alake no more menliun of luy Mm***: 
** I shall not send him witli you ; for he is but just married, 
" and for the present has lo attend to that'**. However, 1 
" will send with you some choHen Lvdians, together nilb my 
" whole pack ; and give thoKc that go, my commands lo assist 
" you in extir|iatiug the savage monster from your coiinliy.** 

37 Such WHS his anxwer, with which the Mysians were content; 
M'hcu the Kou uf Cra'^uK liappeni'd to come in : having heard 
wlmL ihe Mysians petilimicd fur, and that Cr<rsiis had n-fusod 
lo send his sun with them, tlie youth tlmiiaddre!i»i'd Uh (iither: 
" Father, fonucrly it was dc-ciucd most betitting and worthy 
** of my blood to frequent the ware and the chace, ibere to 
** gain roDown"": now you cxcbide mc from both these exer- 
" cines, nithiJiit having obsurvi-d any cowardice ou my part, 
" or any want of spirit. With what eyw must I now appear 
"to you"", stalking to and from the umrktl? What idea 
" shall f give ofuiyMlf to luy ivllow-^-itizens r To wlint a man 
" will my bride say ishu is united r Either, llicrci'ore, permit. 

tmpptiaal, W« imrv m H"tii»r it icrx 
ratnufcahlu ln«uiiiJ>« of tlv* oodaai. 
— UljRM, «A«r implnrini: <ha awiiii- 
uiv« of AlolnoU*, Miu himitrtf <ni 
tha Mhw neai tlie hrarih. OilyM. <ii. 

w Man. »7I». 

""• Mnlt. 430. 

iM MUL»tA. 

p. HOT. 

*" ArcorAinK to TRtckeiiur't rttd- 
■DK, wr m (fof rm) «lc.. Jimnu] of i 
Sc* Hi-ro'l. vol, iil. i> W. 

CLIO. I. as— 42. 


r»m this hunt III g-paity. or convince me by some 

lini )'uu an': jitstil'iud in doing as you do." " I liarc 38 

*' DM B«vD in you, my boh," replied CriBsus, " oiilier coward- 

*' icct or any tiling to flis{)li:u»e mo ; i( is not on ibal accuunt 

" 1 set iIiuk: u tisiud lias, appeared iMtluru mo iu a dream, 

** when 1 Was buried in aleup, and warned ine that you will 

** bave but fallen limu lo livu, fur you will bu dcudruyud bv a 

" point uf iron. In coiiKcqucnct: of ibis vision"^, 1 liavo 

" IiaBi(;ued this mairiage ; aud liave refused to wud you on 

" Uie prciieiic onter|)risc, liaving care to preserve you, if by 

" any means I can, during my life ; for you are my only sou: 

" tbc other, ofllicled in bis bearing;, I recl<on not as mine.^' 

The youii'^ man rt-plicd: " Tu hare beheld sticli a vistoH,3f> 

" dear f:iilior, is indeed an oxcuw? for ket-pinf; such a watch 

" over me : but yuu iniKundLTsiaiid tbrr drvam ; you du not 

" we it« reul lueuuing : and il ie rigbi"* 1 Kbonkl exptaiii to 

** you. \'ou say timt iliu dream boded I was lo dio by a 

"inint uf iron ; but where arc tlie hands of & boar? where 

" the ]K>int of iron that aknus you i Were I indeed to die 

"by a tusk, or sonietbiug of that kind, it woidd have been 

"imidciit in you to do as you do"". Agaiii, ok lo mr dying 

'by a »{H^^r ; ihi^ h no baltle with men ; ihoreforv do give 

"n« U-.ive u> go." " My sou," replied llie king, " it is true: 40 

"you beat me here in the iuierpretauon"" of my dream : 

*'jOQ bave conquered ; I give up, and allow you to go.'* 

Am soon ax Crtetius bail dune Hpeaking, he sent for the 41 
Phiygiati, .AdrnKtuf:, whom lie addrottM^d thus: "At the time, 
"AdnuitUs, llial you were smitten wiili a dreadful'" cala- 
"iittir' — not llinl 1 ivproach you with that — 1 then expiated 
"you, racoiv'cd you iuto my family, and ministered lo all 
"your wants. Now therefor** — for it is your duty to make 
*ttca returu for Ibe service 1 have rendered you"* — L re- 
"cjucatyon to be the guardian to my son, who ik going to the 
*aHiB, lest o» the road some skulking thieves make tlieir 
*ippearftnce lo your detriniKnl. It becomes you, nioreorer, 
to go where you may make yourself couspictious by your 
" deads ; for that ?oii inherit irom your fathers, lo which you 
''■dd bodily atrenglh." '*6ire," 'said Adrastus, " I would 48 
"oulliavc taken any part in tfabi enter)>riHe ; for it is not 
"Beet that one ngited with my miafortmie"* should join 

" Mmu. S*«. 
• Man. BIO. 

■• S «>;. In. rf. fm M^, • hM In 
^^ pt tm^, MO. 0ra Lex. U«ro<L 

"* ix^. Ike cwnvclKl datl<re of 

';t;^i> for ixif*'- The ROBintliTe 

hM on (be tittt Mllsble. Sm U«TDd 
*qL 111. ji.'ll. Si4«Mg. uoL I. 
"* MiilMI.A. itMcbap. 1% 


CEJO. T. 43—45. 

** with liix more hnppv com}N}en, uoc have T the wish 
" fre(|iienlly eron I have refrained myself: but now, as jroa i 
*' yourself iiipe me, *nd it becomes mc to oblige yoa — for I fl 
*' am bound in Kt^titudo to ouiko a TCtum — I am ready lo *| 
** do as you desire. I pledge myself to bring back your son, 
*< whom you command me to watch over, safe and sound, as ^ 
" far as (ifpends on bin guardian"*." 

43 Afl(>r AdmatuA hnd returaud this auswur lo Crcwus, Iheyj 
departed, provided vriih choncn ynulhs and diigA: arriti-nig al ' 
Mount Olympus, they trucked ihu game, aiid foiiud the 
boar; then standing round him, ihcy hurled their spears: at 
that moment, this rery man who hud beun pitrified of bluod, 
lie called Adrastus, levelled bia spear at the boar, miMed his 
mark"', and hit the sun of Crunam: thu youth accordingly, 
wounded by the »pear, fiifilled the warning of the dmm. 
Some one ran off to announce the tidings to Croons, and. 
reaching Sardis, commwnicat«d an account of the html and 

44t}iv fate of his son. Cnisiu, horror'Mricken at the death of 
bis sou, was still more i>xa£pcral«d tliat the d4>ed shotdd hare 
been dono by the rcry hand that he had purified of blood: 
sorely deploring his calamity, he invoked Jove the Kxpiator, 
attesting what ho had suffered at the Uunda of his guest: he 
called also on Jove as the god of Hearths and of Muttiat 
Friendship"*; — as the god of Hearths, hecaufc, by admitting 
a stranger among his household, he had unirittiugly har- 
botircd and fed the aAKa&stn of his son '" ; — tB Ibe god of Mu- 
tual FrieiuUhip, hecamie, liaviug sent bim as a giiud, he liad ; 

45ibund him his moet cruel enemy. Soon after appeared the I 
Lydian.t, bearing the dcitd body : behind followed the homi- 
t'idc ; be advanced in front of the corse, and, stretching forth 
his hands, gave himiudf up to Ctcekum, bidding the king 
sacrilice him on thi^ dead body: then he alluded to his lirst 
misfortune, owned that he afier that misfortuno*" bad been 
the inatrument of death to him thai had purilied him, and 
that he deserved no longer to live. Crattus heard tho words 
of Adrafilus, although absorbed in dnmetctie sorrow : he took 
pity on him, and spoke to him thus : " My fncod, you have 
*' made full reparation to me, by thus devoting yonraelf lo 
" dcatli : you arc not the cause of this misforttmc, saving so 

•>« Mut. K9. 

<u Mut, a». 

"• Jspttcr "»» >4«r«d nodet A'tStf 
cut title*, accerdiog lo tho pjaec nod 
dfennuunm of bia diflermt wonihip- 
p««. Bmdc tliOM nipnwloM, 'Ay*- 

'" Mut. AM, 3. 

"« !»• la^ (t^ rn^t^. Pnelpr 
ittam GiJasdtalem. £, Poriat, Lts, 
Ion. [>o«t illata ealtiBii4t«iQ. Sdtntta, 
Ua. Brrmf. 

CLIO. 1. 40, 47. 


hr fts yoii were ibp iinwUlinf; instninicnl. bui soiim; gixl, 
** vko loDK Biikce fuTi-»IiOweil tne what wa.h to coinu to pass." 
CnasuB therefore performed the funeral of bU »on with 
tfafl besccmioK liouour». Adrutstun, ou tbu olhur band, the 
sUjer of bift own biotlier, the slayer also of bin expiator, 
coDviDCtfd Ihni he was the most calamitous of men, wctdi to 
the septilchft;, wlicn mankiud had retired to rest, and slew 
htOMdf on the lomh. CrtpHiiii, during tvo yeurs, sal domi"* 
in deep Riutiminij:, )>t;wailin){ hi& son. 

Some liiiie after, the empire of AslyigcM ston ofCyaxares^g 

bobig ovDitbrown by Cynis the eon of CanibyseK, and the 

iDcreaun^ power of ibo PersianK, put an end to the mourn- 

ioK vrCricsus: it occurred to hi^ mind, wbelh'^r he cuuld 

cheek tiir Krotrioi; power of the Persians, before they became 

ti' ble. Having conceived tliis idea^ be r«rthiriLh 

• I ■ make trial of tlie oracles ; not only those in liel- 

but aUo that iQ Libya. For this pur|)Ofte, bu deapntchvd 

IS persons to various places; some to Delphi, some to 

Abe in Phocis, some to Dodona; others were sent to Ara- 

pliiaraus and Trophoniiu : others to Branrhidi^ in MUeaia: 

ibv abore, ihcrcfoTv, were the Helleiiit; omclea which CrCMDB 

sent to consult. OLhcrs, also, were srnt ro consult the oraclu 

al Ainmon in Libya. Thesu depuUtiontt Cnmus Kent for 

the poriiose of ascertaining wh^tt ihe omcles respectively 

kiMW; in order that, if he found they knew the truth, be 

might socond time consult tbem, whether be should hazard 

a vax against the PetNians. Before he sent the Lydians to 47 

make Inul uf Llitt oracles, he gave tbem thesv orden; Tbcy 

were to coosidl tJic difTcR-nt shrines on thehundredih day 

froiB tbet of tbeir departtn-e from Sardis, aud to iiupun: of 

cub what Crce^us Hon of Alyattes and king of the LydisDB 

wa« at that moment doing: — whatever responses might be 

nxpectively given, they were to wrilo down, and briag to 

bin. As far as the n-plies from the other oracles arc con- 

CBTnedi nothing !!> related by aiiy body: but in the case of 

IWphi, 00 sooner Imd ihe Lydians consnlied the god, and 

"pat ibe qu&slions prescribed, than the Pylhia, iu besametcrs, 

tpnke thoft : 

" 1 kcu Uic number of ibc >aud, lh« liimcnsinns of the bm; 1 

''■ndeniaiiJ rliv dumb, iiml I bear bito that speakvth nui"". 

** On my viises tirikvs the niuaU of tlie hvunl-sbpalhed lurile, 

" bopilhix in brawt wiili fimh of Umb : bras* srntrhee benpalh ; 

" <wsT aJI »Uu»d> brass." 

'" mAv*, Ml doim I I. 0. uumUi 

» Matt. rar. •!«.«. 


CUO. I. 4ft— 50. 

48 T1h> Lydians hnving written down thr ahori; words lliai 
had fall<-n from llie oracular Pylhia, went lh«ir irays hack lo 
SardiK. Wh«n nil the rc'iit, who hnd heRQ desjiatched around, 
bad arrived, hriiigiog the dictates iVoin the diffrnmt shriites, 
Cnesiis unrolled each tnaniiscripi, and looked over what waf 
wriUen iii them; but qoid; caiuc up to hh expectalioDs"': 
when, however, he had read'" that from Dpiphi, fnrthwilh he 
adored and approved it; Wing convinced Ihat Uie oracle ar 
Delphi alonf! was the tnie onn, aa it had discovcrefl n'hat he 
bad done. Because, on the appointed day, Trom thv depar- 
ture of the messengers for the various shrines, liaring first 
considered what would be tJie thing tnuNt dilficalt tn gtiNK 
and describe, he hit upon the foltomn); cooirit-ance: he cut 
up a tortoiiw and a lamli, and tioilfd them togellwr hinisi^lf 

49 in a brBRS caldrnn wiih a covt^rlid of bnuw. Knch, therefore, 
wa« ihe answrr to Cra-sus, relumod from IMptii: as to that 
froiQ tho fthrinc of AinphiamiiK, I cannot qiioto exactly what 
was Kaid to thu Lydiauit, trim perlbnncd dio accustoDied rites 
found ihc holy precinct ; nothing is related oo that Bubjecl: 
at all events, htiwever, Crotsus acknowledged tliat oracle 
also to be fatselcss. 

50 After this, he propiiialt^d the god of Delphi wiili mag* 
niliccnt sacrifices: he offered up three thousand head of 
cattle fit for sacritice, and of each kind'", together with gilt 
and »lvcred table-cnuchcH, gold flagons, purple shawls and 
garmentii; and building up a lofity pile, hnmt it down ; fancy* 
ing that, by so doing, lie should eKpvcially conciliatp tlio gnd. 
lie had likcwiMT given prcvimiK natiro to all t.ydiaiis, to offer 
U]> nhaterc-r victim each might happen to p«i<«es»:, to tb0 
Kame (livinity. When the sarritice wai^ ended, he melt«d 
down a great quantity of gold, which he nm into lingots; 
making each lingot $ix inches long, three inches broad, and 
one inch thick ; the niuohtrr uf which wan one hundretl and 
aercnleen : four of ihcm, of refined gold, woighed each two 
talents and a half'*' : the other tingota, of palt gold, weighe<l 
each tivo lalontg. Ho made likewi^ the figim- of a lion of 
pure gold, of the weight often talenta'**. Thin tiou, at the 

'" rSi ftit it riHr wftrliTi ftn —Ton* 
«md ■>/ iraiXay)/; fur t« ftlt 1) <1}I« 
•trif rgnUn. littrtm lamfK [onifvl*- 
ram] mAMM ait ipnm Unl, ad ^tt» 
oniliHkM mwriMuf, ri ;>lin-«4af, tn«r»ad 
vin»Uum kinm horam ijut pniaitl. 
— ^ Pvrt. J^*. I'M. Tbv u*D4l nfi- 
niB«u(M of vMv'iWIri i*, to afhu; to 
nmrmt, to uHem, i. 7S. i. ISA. ri. 

'** itrtai n yXf rm tiri^a virra — 
^MM, ofe^rh ki<ui. S^i in ix.HO. Dm* 
Sr/npria. Ceup. S Ctmna. «iL. A. 

»' S»n. Ml. 

1*^ ThU lion was, pcrhkpt, in mcB* 
inemeralJnB of the iilnfpih 

iloguhr tnAitiiTa 

CLIO. 1. ai, fti. 


tiflke of ibr couflugratiuii uf Dulplii, full off (lie linf^ls on 
which it visui itlapoiJ us & pedestal ; und now lies in the trea- 
»ary nC |I)i: ('tiriDlbiuns, wciKliing six UluuU and a half, 
afarctt ami a hall' being iiiL-lu.-d oiT. Cntsus bavin); compleied 51 
these BTticles, »uQt thum to DL-lphi, lo^cthcr wtlli lh« others 
iblloring: luu trine-bowls of iiutiiuuKe sizu"*; odu goldt Uie 
otiwr silver : that of gold liud oo tbc nglit as you entered ihe 
MapW, aud iliai of silver on the left; but these also were 
RiBored at the tinic the temple was burnt down; and the 
goldea oae now is IViund in the treasury' of the Ctazomo 
nians, weitthing cif;ht talents and a half, and twcire tnin» 
abcire. The Hilver bow) tn one comer of the vestibule is nf 
ifae capacitr of sixty ampborffi; in consequence of which, it is 
naod by the Dtilphtaos for mixing Uie vine vrith (lie water* 
al the Thenphnnian festivals. Some of the OelphianR say 
thai this was the work uf Theodorua of Samoa: tn which I 
agree with ihem; for intlead tbe workiuaiMhip appears to me 
ofoo couimoD order'". Craesin eentebo four silver caske; 
and dedicated two liislral vases, one of gold, the other of 
stiver: on Ihe eolden one there now Clauds tbc insctiptiun 
AAKEAAIMOXIUN, who are represented aa the dedicators; 
bat taJaely so, for thai also is from Cra»ii!i: the JDRcription 
mu cut fHit by one of (he people of Delphi, who wished to 
nattfy (he I^-tcdivmoaiflnR: 1 know the man's name, but 
rtfeed not im^nliuti it: the boy however, through whose hand 
«tfae water Hows, is, in reality, a gift of the l.aoeds!moTiiflna; 
bat certaialy neither of these rases for aspersion. Crte&us soul, 
moreorer, many other votive otfcriugy, distinguished by no 
Dwrks ; among which were Mmie round water-ewers of 
slvOT*"; aod especially n gold stniiu-, three feet high, of 
a woman; said, by the Dc-lplilau people, to be the image of 
Cnetut'a baking-woman : lH>sid<^s these things, he sent also 
ibe necklace antl girdles of his wife '". 

Koch were the prfsentx he made to Delphi: (o Ainphi*^^ 
aniHiliiving ascennined his virtue and sufferings, he dedi- 
caled a buckler wlwlly of gold, u>gether witli a spear of solid 
gold, head and shalt alike***. Both tliese were, in uiy time, 

)alD ItiM plMB> UD b*>v iBRtnt; tb« 
X'^f — ''■ n**<^*r, fonnrd ■ port of 
MM *wea puf <ia tbe taUf-. LaixA^r. — 
^t^t. ■qui'ilenn w Wffx^, » mm Io 
owtwa tbe Wktet itiM !■ pourn) on 
ifaa bsni* of tkm KWMf : im ntgniitf 
VOL. I. 1 


■■ BanMlvDiT vuUm tb* niae of 
lh« pmvati of CrtMO* Maouirt l« 
31,109,140 Fr««^ fiMM. Viy. ifa 
Jmrnt Aitarh. 

"* Th« bpiil ai tfa« «|t«r «M 
(tinUar lo itiu nf a Frniob pilHi ar 
hnlbrri, wbidi i» dm unlikt • Jlntr- 


CLIO. I. 54—50. 

ftt'iioMtetl at Tlitibex, in tlie teiPpU' of Ismeitiui Apollo. Tm*- 
loiiRitiR to tlial city. 

63 Tn ili« Jjviliant commisiiioDpd In escort these gifts lo tlie 
t<.'tii|>]o8, liL' Rave it in charge m inquire! iit Uif BhrinpB, trhnthcr 
Crrv5U» ought to levy u'ar agaiDslthe Persians? and nhettiur 
he should unite to hiv own forces thone of any other nation? 
On the arritral of tlic LyHian depiitiea, they appended Uie 
nfterinf^s; and ilien infiuired at the respertive Khnnes; luiying, 
'' Cnesus, king of the Lydians and otiicr iiatious, convinced 
" that this is the only oracle in the world, has given yon 
*' these presents, worthy of your diRCoreries; and now tn- 
** oiiirea at your hand*, whether he shall levy war against 
** the Persians, and lake the Iroopit of any nation as tin 
'* allies?" Both oraclen agrcetl contplclcly in tlieir opinions; 
pi^dieting lo CnEsiis, that " if he attacked ibe Persians, he 
" would overthrow a mighty empire ;" and advised hira to 
ndopi ss olIioK ihinie uf ihe Hellenes he should lind to lie the 

04 most pntVL-rful. When those decisions of the god were 
hroughl, and mado known to Crte^uE, he nan beyond inea«tir« 
delisted with the oractcr.: fully confident that he should 
deMtmy thi- (.-nipirB of Cynis, he Kent again to l^elphi, BUer- 
lained the number of the inhabitants of the towu, and gratiiied 
every citizen with wo gold atalers a. head. In return for 
which, the Delphian'* bestowed on Crcesus and the LydiaiM' 
the privilege of Unit consulting thp oracle, exemplioo frwn 
scot and tot, priority uf eeat!i, and pcnnission for over, to 
auch as chose to avail thcnuclvcs thereof, of being citJznis 

Adof Delphi. Crccfius having gratified the people of Delphi, 
consultttd for tlie Uiird lime the oracle; — for when once Iw 
hari ndtiiittfil tlie vtiracity of the oracle, he never tired of it : 
he now ngmo coiisitlted the slirinc therefore, and inquired 
whether hU dynasly would be uflung duration: tlic Pythta 
pronounced lo him this warning: 

■• So MOii ta a male ln-cnnies ilic Medic kin?, then, sufi-rnotnl 
" Lviliin, o'erpeblilv HeniiiiMbie thee: larr^- not, nor bltish lo 
•' h^ a dartaH/ 

li6 When tliin eoninnini cation reached Crtcsun, he wna nior 
than ever delighted ; laueying tint a mule, instead of a mat 
could never rule over the Modes ; and thai, in consequence,* 
neither he himself uor Jii& descendnnls"' would ever ccmw 
to hold tlie Rvty. 1 mmedi:)toly after, be directed hiK alteiitiou 
towards aRcertainiug who «ere ihe most powei-l'nl of the 
Hellenic nation*, whom he should adjoin tobmi&elf. Making 
his inqiuries, lie discovered that the superior nations were 

"■ ajvif anifJia (ht Mnuaitivt, initMdwf ibeMounUTr. 

CLIO. I. 37. 


ihu Larcdtenioiilans aiid ihu AUit^'iiiiiii^: (lie ronutr of Do* 
fiau W(jikI, the latter of Ionic : lor tlictw were, from old, ihe 
two moAt disLiiiguislitrtl races ; ihi-^ a Pelosgic peuple, that 
Hcllonic: the former"' liml scarcely cvot chaoged their rc- 
ndnncti : the other had wuudcrvd far uud nidv ; for tlie pro- 
g«DiluTs of the LBceda>moi)iai)8 '", under IcinK DeucaUon, 
inhabited the tenitorjr of Piliiolis: aud, uiidur Dums ihe eon 
of HrltcnuK, ihe coiintr^- at the fnoi of Oi«a uid 01vin|)0s, 
callcil Lliiitiafotis: driven out of llistiivolis br the Cad> 

I inciaiw, thf;j- settled at Pindu*'*', and wvri; c;illed Macedni; 
from ib^nce agaio the}' cro»«ed into Drropis, and »o from 
Dtjropis came into Peloponne^Ufl, where they took tJie name 
of Dorians. 

I coDDOt, for a certainly, afQnn what langtiagt: the l*uta»gi 37 
med'"; but if it he pi;n)iittcd to speak IWrni tht.' inferences 
that may 1m; deduced from the Pclangiaiis tliat Mill fxisl to 
ihU d.iy — lliosf Pelatiffiatia, I mean, that reside above the 
Tyrrb'-iiiuns, in the town of Crestonf'*, and once were bor- 

I deren uf tlie puo|ile now designated Lac-edteiiionians, and at 
ihal perioil dwelt in Ihe lands at present called Thetisalintia ; 

»1 /•(•. Th» P»la«gianii of 
tJMm, MM tka P«lMfiiAa in fjcocral. 
■ MM* taigntlooa ««m vmIohi bdiI 

I* 1 ka*« f ipHiM tiie mom, id 

"* If n«r«4otiM had inriiBl that 
tkrj Mirh>ir«w nn Meaat PindBt. b> 
riraoM hirv a>*d ik» ■rtkl*. 1> ry 
Tim Dimiwon oT ilw Miehr 
Ib«l thu town ui3 (crritotj a( 
1m wv bete niMnt — ZnrcArr. 
BjMm: • bttle L>Kcr dovii. tfao 
■■> thiag if enreMcil Sm* •!>««. 

•• Acvaritinic lo H«r<^tu*, lh« 
* tattJ b cail<l tiaiM wttled 
I'k Attica i lbs tnluiliiuiit* vt nbtcli 
ff atill uf lh« «un« itiK-k, altlwagb 
'tkn b»d bmntoB Ibr lutmnn of 
Orfr *«g|iilti*T> br tha llonunle. 
TV P«4Ma»tu. in thit pacing* of (hf 
tnt, Krc Dili thov (if Ailira, but a 
Ctlonjr IVd<U tbc main I'ctaxiiie boij, 
iinOj fluci) ill Argoiia. Tlii* 
■J bwl mli^ttd iiiti Tprticuia 
(TuMaar} l« lulji Uom Mhi^b, iks 
iMel b; (uiliw, mai^iiiua dwMae, 
iDl«nwl braiU, tlw7 p«Mrd into 
jfuu* MHMtnMl ■•nVK raaobcd Al- 
I link TliH Athenian* r«reiT«il biMpi- 
vibtj lh« aMfruft; l« «bmn tb>f 


■Ilntt*(l m portion af land at tll4 Ibot 
of Hjrn^tnu, OB (^onilitirm thoj- (h«aU 
trit't (he nill biimiiiiI the &erapoU*of 
AitrniH. TlwH loriM oer* ■eniM 
ic, and tbe Pelugiins prnapcrad ilnr* 
ing Uttfj-twr jvanti at ibo m|iira> 
tion «f whtph, tn untimarO qoarrol 
Mimud b?tir««ii tti« AlhmiuM aad 
PalMfiian«<HprMl.«il.]S7)i ihe Pe. 
ImqcintiB w«ro vxpallad Tor eirr from 
Artica. Tbcif nittdrew lo L<«nD«a. 
Miltiadca, maof Cimoii, (obn^itifntlr 
drOre ih«tll oat oT th>l itlasd; Mia* 
tb«ii founded In Ana tba lowna uf 
Plada Btid Spjlace: nlbvfa look n. 
fn^ In cIm ]<>iiiti>nla of Aihot : 
tuilj. a tm pn>c«iiM to ibc «cuiet of 
Thnw*. anO faiuulcd, a liuln inlnnd, 
ibv (OKii uf CfCttinr.— ZtfrrAfr. 

Tbo Tyrrtimliinr, a brani^ «f Ilw 
Polaittl« (toefc, Mli)«) ta Leonaa and 
linlKoa ; (hcj afwmatda cocnpiad 
Tsrioui pin* of ihr Clrervunnu* awl 
UtUrfpoot, H h'bII af tbo fiwC oT 
Kihv% (Tburyd. U. 1U9). Abore 
thcM> «aa Ike CrvaioRK nalliia, aMd 
jfMrlU^ a ritj cnllad Cp«iton«, wbieh, 
IB (he tiHie of Thncjdiiteii, waa. for 
the moil uari, alitn lo the UpUenaa. 
and l .}X*mat. Th*y arc ncntionwl 
ij Ucrodoliw, lii. |3( I fiii. I IC— 


t'LtO. I. M, m. 

thoiki likewise AtfUletl uii Lite Heltt^spont, at Placia Dn<l Scy- 
Ince, vtit) wore rmco co-rusuieiit with the AlheniaD»"'; and 
inilt'vtl ull Pt-lasgic cituimuuiiies wbalKvcr thai now exist, 
although they may have altered ihelr nppellalioii — if. ) nay, 
we an: allowed lo infer from these, the Pelosgians f^oki; a 
languags tliatinct rrom lite Helluaic: if, therefnnr, tills waa 
the caw with the whole Polafigiin mce, the Attic nalioa, 
which is Pelasgic, nrnst have forsaken their own language 
■lao when they turned into HellanM ; for it is well kouwn, that 
ncilhrr the CrostoniatH use the rame langiia}^ as the people 
that dwell around thcni, nor the PlaciunianR either, aud yel 
hoth Crestoniats and Placianians havr one and the aainc 
sjwech : thiK proves then, that, when the}' mignlud to thote 
parlH, they brought wilh them thuir characteristic language, 

dSu-hich they still preserve. Thu Hellenic race, however, from 
its origin, has itscd the same speech — such the fact appears to 
uie ; neienhetesH, distinct fnnn the Pela-«gijiiw, iui^igiiifiaiill 
as they were, and proceeding at first from a small beginning, 
they have increased to a raultiludc of nations, mainly by ihe 
adtnixltiro of many races disUnct from tlicir own : «o, accord* 
ingly, it is the general opinion, and I join in it, that the F^ 
lasgian race, remaining unamalgamated, never increased to 
any extent'", 

49 CnesuA acconlingly found, nn inquiry, that the Attic 
pco|)lei one of the alntcH nations, was oppressed and dis* 
traded under Pisistratus the sun of Hippocrutfs, at that 
time tyrant uf Athens. A great prodigy occurred lo Hip- -^ 
pocrates, who was then in no public situation'*, while pre- fl 
sent as a spectator at the Olympian games, lie had soen- ' 
ficed a victim, and the caldmns, full of flpsh and water, stood 
by bis side; when, without the assisiancc of lire, they bubblod 
and ran over. ChiUm of lioceda'tnon happtmetl to be pre- 
sent, and, witnCKsing this phtmoracnon, advised Iltppocratc*, 
in tlie Jinil place, nut to take into his house a breeding wife ; 
and, in the second ulaev, if lie bad already ttueh acoDsurt, to 
eund her anay ; and also, if he had a son, to disclaim htm. 
Nevcrthele**, Uippocratcti woidd not be persuadwl, by this 
exhortation from Cliiluu. Some time after this, l^sistratns 

"f W« a<^ iobrmcd, in rl. IS?, tkkt 
th* AfhMiMBdi <-Tp«iwt thorn ft«m 
thair huMtUiiniH, hpono th»j nfferH 
il«i1«nr<i lo Ihv Toonf) womnn who 
w«Dt to ilnv nairr at tbc nine louii. 

■* Th* HMiilra^liaa of tb« )*•! tea- 
tt»et oF fhi?. SS mav (w piplainrd 

'rtimnMnkoB nt Hrroitoto* i*, Ihitl 
(hp Pelu^, nxving mniiii«d ttfm* 
mtr, ami ai ic urr*' inmland, asll 
Dot baitiijr Incorpotmird UiMaadfw 
iniii DtliCT iialioii*, coalil ut laenan 
H t])D Helli'aM.— LarrAtr. 



was bom to Lim; wlio,at tbt< Linic of the altorvutiuti Lt'tuctMi 
the people of the sea-sidot headfrd by Mcgaclus son of Ale 
nucoQ, aod the people of tbe plain of Atbtins beaded hy 
Lycargus Anstoclaiacs rousted a thinl ]>artj*t with a viuw of 
nsoipiDg KUpreiiie power. lie collected some partiKaDS, and, 
Boder pretf^ace of beadiog the mountaiucerS) devised tlie 
roUawing arciilcv: be uouiidetl liimseir atid li'is mules ; and 
(bra drove to ibc pabUc squaw, as if just cwapod from bi« 
enemies who forsooth wanlcd lo assussiualu bim as be vu 
riding iuto (he countiy. He eDtrcalo<l tbo cumiuotiH lo give 
him certain persuiis, to serve as a giiunl of his hfe ; fur, in fact, 
be bad before obtained much renown, in beading the ex- 
pedition agninst Megara aod cupturinf^ Nisiua, uud hiid uIho 
dupLavetl oilier deeds of valour. Ulie cuiuniuutt of Alliens, 
deceived by this, cliuse from Ihe cilizeus iboHe men he bad 
pointed ont; and ({ave tbem to hiQ),uot lo actasJavelin-tuuQ, 
baL rather as club-bcoicrs (o Pisixratus; for they were Lo 
fioUovr tiehind bim, bearing staves in llieir bauds. These nieu 
Toae ap conjoinllv with I'isiRtrntu?, and look po*^c$Kiou of 
tbo a4:ropoH&: tlieu, according;! v, Pinsuatus auMiuied ibo 
gorernment of Athens; without, bun-evor, diiturbing the 
BM^stcria) otbccs, or making any alteration lo tbe laws: 
on llie eoutrary, he ruled the state aeeording to the enact- 
menls, and adopted a good and liberal policy. Not long^ 
after, the partiKanK of Megacle^ on one side, and Lycurgus 
on tbo other, made up llieir diH'ercocee, and drore out 
Pisistimtus. Tbu)^, tlierefore, Pi^islratns got po*.)!e«»iou tbe 
£rst time uf Alliens; luid lhi» |iuwer not having yet stnick 
deep root, be 1ot>I i(. But they who had driven hiiu out 
«gua renewed Iboir mutual quarrehi; and Megacles, tired 
<]ut by the faction, sent a herald to Llsistnilus to ask if he 
VDUla consent to take Megacles' daughter to wife, under 
cvodibon of receiving back the power'". I'imiratuit closed 
with tbe olTcr, and cunseoted to the terms: accordingly, Lo 
«a*iire hi& return, tliey had recourse lo a scheme, ubicli, 1 
thinb, wa-t by far the moHt foolish ever hinird of; parlieularly 
as tbe Hellenes were from early times, as a race, ct^Iceiued, 
l>y foreigneni, more acute, and farther removed from absurd 
aimplicily ; and more particularly still, as tbcy playtd off tliis 
trick upon tlio Atben^ms, said to be, of the tlellenen, the 
first in wisdom. In llto Pa^ajiian district there was a woman 
called Pliya,foar cub!t» all but tliree fingerH in height"*, and 

■■• Hmi.9«1,# rally, l^ tiil»f^, lr*«;ng ihrtr -ngU* 

^ (Mr*! ^^/w AvvAH'nM* t^'t «»/ i/four rtbiU; that i* m wj, tix 
l^tiltt lr> nrttfit r»x,t*"' Ut«- b«t all knl ■boof twri* inthm. 


CLIO. I. tfi.fla. 

ia otiltr KApecU ItandsoiDt; : they ilns&sed Uris wom&n to a 
cont|>letu suiL of annoiir, placed lior in a chariot, and, hiivin){ 
pn-vic)iiKlv in»>truclcd her how tu |plaj hur pnit in thv most 
gractiful iiiiinner ' *', drove lo the eity. They had sent 
facraltU on before, wlio, coUinug ihe town, prDclatmed these 
prescribed words: " Adieuians, receive, with frmcioas spirit,^ 
" l^isistratus; whom Palloa herself, esteeming most of nil, 
" iiicn, is now conducting back lo her citadel T* Forthwith 
the report aprt'ad, in all (inortors, ihot Minerva was bringing 
in PisistraliiH; and the people of the town, perKuaded thatllK- 
woman nem the goddess heiwir, bowc<l down in worship lo 
a human form, and reci'iied Pisii>tratus. 

SI PisiKtratns, having recovered the power in ifae manner 
abure described, married, according to agreement, Mega- 
eles' dati|jhter: but as ho had already sons prriwn up, and 
the Alcmaiunida! were smd t» be contaniiiialcd"', not desirous, 
in coDsefiueiice, nf having any children by his new-married 
bride, he conversed with her ami a in rally. The lady accord- 
ingly kept this, at fintt, seem ; hni some dmu altiir, wbetbcTH 
qnestioned or not, discovered, it lo her mother, who com-^ 
manicatcd it lo the father. Tic was exasperated at beiog 
thus dishonoured by PisiBtratus"*: filled with indipiation, 
he reconcih-d himself to his partisans: and Pi^istralus buar- 
ing what was machinating against bim, departed wliollr 
from the country: he went in Erclria, and held counsul with 
his sons. The opinion of Ilippias prevailed, t]iat llie tyiaiinj' 
ahonld be recovered: Ihey levied, therefore, free gifU from 
such cities as were in any manner indebted to them for 
former services'**: several conlribuled large fums of money, h 
bnt the Thcbans exceeded all by the libenility of their gifufl 
In short, lime glided on, and every thing was provided f«t 
their rcmru ; for a body of mcrcenanes joiiicil them from 
Argos in IVloponncsns ; and a native of Naxos, called Lyg- 
damis, displayed the grcaleat ardour, bringing money and 

tiam<-n"'. Snihng from Eretria,tbey came back iu the eleventh 
year of their absence, and Jlrst took possession of Maratbuo*^ 
In this place ibey encamped, and ilieir partisans from 
city came and joined them : others also from the vaiifi 

jInJ /int ■Arii'iiiiy (Arr) r-kaJ linnmit- 
fir *ke aIawM hat-e, lo apf*ar me*l 

■** l>^bi-fxplaii»<dliiUerod.v.70. 

I'* Mall. fid. 

I*' rtijiimrf Ivx. for Wfyhrrt, (mm 

mtmemurJi 9/srallluikli>»«mteme,ftr 

!• ii.'t. 

■'' trftiitttia* rXii^TV vafJvtVK. — 
TrBn*lM*(l bjt Larclier, itedmOto bm 
aniemr pu on inoaan vokauin 4s 
Utnpm It tl'irgtob 

UisLricte flocked U* llivin, all indeed l\r n'bnm tyranny "ros 
cborisbetl more than frwdom'*. The citizens of Athens, 
faowerpT, took no iccounl of I'i^slraiufi, «it))cr when hu uus 
lev,vmg funds, or, agUD, irheo h« made himself mastur ol' 
Mjusthoo: but OS 8(M)U as tJiey asct-natuud tliat hti nat 
about lo sdviuice U!(ain»t llic towoj thc.v at last pn-parud to 
npm\ htm from their country ; and umrclifd, nitli uU llieir 
lorcAS, to me«t the invaders, lo the mean times l'isi^tr^tll»'li 
party'* marched from Afaralhon, and proceeded ugaiutti t)io 
city : (alUog all into odo body, Ihey reached the sacrcil c-a- 
closure of MiiKTva F«l)eiia, opjxiMic lu nhich they jiitchtrd 
tboir ttitlts. Here, inspired by R<)dly inipul'^e, Antphilyiiii« 
the Acomanian, a prujtlieiic 6e«r, stood in tht; ))r(»iencv ul' 
Kaifltraiiu, und, advancing before bim, prophesied in hex»- 
mctcr vcxse : 

" The net ia cast, ihe ni«i«hc<i urn kpreail : 

** In the DOOn-ahini) oi{;ht the luiiniea u-ill poui in." 

Tbos, 61Itid with tile god, he spoke. Piaistratus, calcbingGS 
the sense of the oracle, and xaying be took the warning, 
msrrbcd onwards hiH troops. Hut the Atbcninns hud at 
that hour addrfsst-d thrinwrlrps to supper; and afu-r thai 
mpal, some wltc aniusinj; ibcmsclvefi at dice, others were 
pTCparinj,* for sleep ; nhen I*isislial«!t and his followers fell 
upon tbein, and put tbpm to the rout. Now, aH the Atb^'iiians 
»«re Tunning away, Piststratiut made use of a very inge> 
noiu expvdicat to stop tht> Athtmians fiom rallying**, and 
make them remain rlixpersed : he mnunte^l his fton» on hors<.-», 
nd sent them on bulbre hU van ; and thm-. coming up witb 
■be (bgilives''', spnkc to them y,» wab prescribed by Pisi- 
ftnttis, bade the iiien be of good cheer, nud go every out; to 
his own house. The Athenians took tliu advice; and ihH8,S4 
therefore, for ibe third time, llKuiratus obtained possesuon 
«f Atheoa; and now rooted firmly his power, by lite help of 
Biany Mibsidiaries, nnd rectiiplx of funds, some of which 
Aowed in from the couniiy iuvlf, others from the Str^-mon 
livtr"*. lie seized uh hualagcs (be hoiis uf the Athenians 

w Mut.IW.atr. t. 

filwbw'» iruiUtiuD: " Piiutrntsa 

b»« IC«rslb<«, all 

■^ Uufti^n, tnid AjJ{m. rjttnllv, 
Tial Ibe jlHtntiaMt might ml U ttd- 

Ui AcoloalU&,aali«>(>wlMmr. 

•fftnwkad »>• titj. Tb«« vHttd tittm aad Tbonena (I*. W) ia AHiea. 

tmr Uw HiBpl* (rf UiD^rva PslUas, 
•fpMtt 10 wXiek ckqr plislwd lUr 
imy.'— Tbw UUilMlna najr b» 
'^ I'ai l hj MKb M do not iMVPt m 
iW KVMlait iImi SchirrigtMMMrf 

ll«M In U rirri timftwtt. 

and NmWi •bMD'M id minet of kdUI 
■fH) ■llrct: ihs AchenwM hni mi- 
iJmmiiU in ikat aua"*'* *«p««<BUr 

CLIO. 1.6ft. 

iheir ground"* id the battle. Miii did mil im- 

'mIk Hijtht: these he banistwd Ui Naxos (wbicb 
__ kftd •Ireatij- eabdapH, nnd itimcd over to Lyg- 
Ijltrlrr which, he purifie<l the island of DuIuh, accurd 

^ cnacular hcheeU*. The puri(i(Talii>ii bu perfo 

^^. ^ (Jug itp ihe dead bodies, as fnr as the fyv could 
|MH 1^ MCTcd enclosure, and transported tbum to •&< 
^^lf( of tilt) ishuid"*. Piiiistratxis was now lyranK 
25imb: but maxiy of the Athenians foil iD tbo battle ; wfatk 
H^MtAvd from their homes, with the iion of AlciuKon"*. 
I fl^eh tticrcfore M'ere Ibe circumetances of the Athoni«n«, 
a||h» ritna Citcnis made bu im]iiiries: concerning the I^- 
^^^gmotAua, he was infurtned that tbey had escaped fnini 
M«t r«lflinit/i and had at last become superior to the people 
rf Ti'iTP* '" lualters of war: for under lh« reign of Lpo 
■pd llogeAtclcSf at Sparta, the Lacedcinoniaos, although suc- 
_^jnfii1 in their other wars, vere defeaiud hy tha Tegeaos 
fulr. I-'or a lung lime before this, they bad been altnoftl tfa« 
qnnvt-coo^tituied state among the Ilellt-iies, averse to com- 
aMinication with one another and with straagers: but bid 
ctttfmaTdt altered for a goi>d goreruineut, •» I am going Hi 
lU'icribe. — Lj'curgu* was a man much venerated by llie 
Siwriana : be bod come to Delphi for the purpose of coo- 
mitiug ibc oracle; and immediately he entered Uic holy 
ftaie, ibe P.vUiia spoke thus: 

•• 'I'liou iiast caine. Lvcurgun, to mv ranipiiious"* tCTiipte, dioii 
•< rriond to Jure and ell that dwell inlh«> iniuittiona of Ulympui' 
" — [ <l0ubi whether lo greet th«e, from the sbrioe. god or man ; 
" bill tadicr gt>d, I weun, I.jrcuigtui !" 

Soma penions accordingly uy, that the P)'thia not only pro* 
uounced this salutation, hut also dictated t)ie constittiUuD 
now established among the Spartans: but, bv the accoiint of 
iho Lacedaemonians tlwrnselveR, Lycurgus, being ap)>uialed to bin nephew Ijeobotas"', king of die 8partan«, 
brought that code frooi Crete: for they relate^, that no 
sooner was be appointed guoidiiin, than he reformed all the 
laws, and took measures to prevent the violation of tbe IMV 

I'* l.«r«lifr tmilMa*, " Qui »aiFnt 
WDU fciiata 4m» U dsniUra ftclion." 
8«hwei^«UMr •!•« cxplnins *«(■• 
fAim. prmtio w M a erw Aim Uli ongnoMt. 

"• TlwoydM. iii. 104. 

>*» *• Sea of AlMnnm;" lliM ii to 
•IT, MaRkclH: «n clwp. fift. 

»• aUJutCrUj*. fi.U)i»'ami|t- 
iiill««n< aad fampiunuvW-rataiabc'i 


■** Tbere U mwocIt a dmbt IhK 
Cbaiilu* WW Inlmdo], \vmtmi cl 
tiCobobM. Lv«<h*r ahim <imt Ijh 
aufgoi wu vunUuk U rhiiflaw. 
about m4 a C. Mrf pooMilgalia hb 
coifaHM: CluaMl.».«B9. 

^ ityi^: lUKhnmd ii>MM. Ceo. 
I»it chap. SS. ScbwcJ^b. noie M, 3. 

CLIO. i.«e,Br 

M. After which, Lycurgus Kttled ever/ thing belooging 
WW, the eoomotiw and triacades and liysutia"*: be iiutli- 
tnted also the ef^ori and Bcnators. Thus ihe Lacedsemo- 66 
■uoos exchanged their bad lav.s for good ; and haro rrc<-tcd 
holy encloRim; to l.ycurgus, and honour him maf^ifiet^nUV' 
As they inhabited a good soil numisrouiilr propird, ihcy 
|uickly grew up and flourished. IJfiug no longer content to 
iro to peace and qiiiul, and faacTing thenisclres better men 
ihan the ArcadianH, Utey consuluul thu uracle at Delphi 
about conquering tlic whole of Arcadia: the Pyihia's re- 
aponae was tliis : 

" Thau MkeM mv all Arcailia* — It I) a largv reqaenl; I cannot 
" gnuit it ilwe. Many BMini-fuiliiig men tlierc are in ATmdin, 
** who nill Tv\>c\ tbev. A port I will aot gnid|;« thcc; 1 will 
** pn thv« fool-trod Tegea, to (lauce there; and the fair taeadt 
" to Bwsiure otii by ibe rod'*'." 

When this answer was ronoried, the LAceduMnooians gave 
Of their views on the whole of Arcadia; but, taking fc-itcnt 
»iih them, innrchr'd to attaek Ti-gna; putting their trust iu 
■ ambiguous Oracle, and confident they oboald enUiral thu 
Ttgnn*. But they were iheniiMtlvei! defeated in battle; and 
Mcb as atirriref), and were made' prisoDen*. were compelled 
to till the ground, bearing (h<; fetleni which they bad ihem- 
wbes brought, ajid meai^uring their task by the rod, on the 
f4iii] of Tegea. The«e same fetters, in which they were 
boaod, were still in my lime extant at Tegea, banging 
Wniod the temple of Minerva Alea. 

Daring the first war, therefore, the Laceda;nioilians bad 67 
mwantly fought with adverse fortune aguinst the people of 
Ti^: but in the days of Croons, and under tbc reign of 
Aauaadridfs and Arista over Lacedtunum, the Spaituns bad 
flhndy beconif )iU|>erior in the wnr: this happened in the 
Ubmog maDDer. Being constantly worsted iu battle by the 

' U^Mia, ' a ceruin nonbet of 
•MiMUlcni' i>« luartM- of s Xi- 

SVbMi, txomUj ifp«kiag, tru of 
mn, diritM into fiwr eDomoti*, 

4 bj n eaoB>oti ii ficli-^-*yjit , m 
<i4 iliriwia. Yf wbioli eB<fa ff),i 

ki tfn^a^. - fwirtinm, tb* dallj 

•■ti la oamnan «r sU citlsM* Id 
Mt mpMfl«« dHi*—. tutmtm. 
> •■■»■(■ oM 1MB Itea tlxtj Ttan 
wL-4mn, Itc iiiuimw. MoalltiHiiif 
* MnMi, to roBUBin aad bdBWt th« 
mm tt lb* twa king* {fmrnyu,). 

Tbeae were tbe mnagt of Lymr* 
gDB'a mnatitnlioai botb nililBry and 
aivij. Tbe word* ri 1^ vAvud^trTa 

"• Tbe tcittmuM \a Hrrrcv. iika ibo 
prrtica id llajj, «u a niFunrv. br 
nhick lb* Bbora of cnniaerrd ImiI 
wtn> AjifxiTtioned to tbe ncttlcra: it 
niui ltk*wUe DBfd B* « msMurv o( tiM 
dailv iBbour nf « ilsTe al I)eld>vtirk. 
^^X«iPN it B Gn^i nofd, rignlfjrlDK 
*a mh:' b«ice, n baBkn, mat, oora 
fcf dmwt&iit water from a wdl, fW 
iSBBBUfing di« «xim of labcwvn' 
work <lorM, (fc«. 


CLIO. 1.6a. 

Tegeaoft, tli*-y Hent deputies to contuU die EMpblau oracle; 
and inquin^, which of the gods tbej uugbl to propitiate, in 
ordf r lo become superior to the Tccciina in the war. Tie 
Pylhia ctutrget) ihRm, rrotn the shrine, tu lalfo liuine ibtt 
bum's ol' Orestes the 8on of Agamemnoti. But, as tbey vterv 
btUI uuablo to discover ibtr colliti nf Oresteit, tJiej Rent ontt 
inoie a deputation '*' to inquire oftbc fod what spot On;*tttt' 
boDcs laj in : to this queiilion, put bjr the consuUcr&, tbc 
i*ytliia gave thia uiBwer: 

" Id Arcndiu's levd plain atanHs ■ town, Toges: ihcra, bj- aim 
" «>iu|iulsioii, two ne'mi* hteathe; iho blow wii] ibe connw- 
" blow; wu oil wo lies. Tbere ih« fertil« MUib contaica 
" AflMWinnoa's son : iwnvey him boin«, and tliuu wiU coii<|net 

On hearing this, the LacedEeraouians wt-rt' as far off a» 
ever from findiMjc what they wanted, although ihcy search^! 
OD all Kidps. Al bi8l, Lichas, outs of tlie Spaitanx culled 
Agilho*!^, ni«dc Ibp didcovcr^-. 'ITiCM ABathocrp art 
cprtaiu cilizt-its, ibn five senior* of ibc knight* which pi 
oat every y<'iiT in rotation: during that year in which th«T 
go oat of "tlie body of the knights, tbey arc not siiflcrrd lo 
Tt'inuin idle, btit aw Rent "respectively to various placev br 
68thi' SjMinmi com iiion wealth. Liclias, who was one of these 
persons, made the distovery at Tfgea, ]>artly by chance, 
partly by his own inj^mily. Al that tinir, comnuinicaiioD 
■with Tegea was allowed ; and Lichas went into a Haiitli'« 
forge'*, ivbere he saw iron xvelded : he was Miq>rised 
what he saw done ; and the smith, reuiarking how astonish. 
he was, stopped working, and said : " How greatly then, m 
** Spartan friend, would yon have been astonished, had y<: 
" 8C«n what 1 saw, parliciilarly when you are so suri>riAe< 
" to wo how iron is wi^Idrd '" ! I wanted to make a well in 
" my y-ird, and, in digging, 1 came down to a cofiin s«reil 
" cubitH long. Not bclievitig that men were ever any tailed 
" than they are now, f opened the coJiin, and fmw tlie bodr, 
" which was as lotig as the coflin; I took the measure, and 
" covered it up again." Such was liie nianV description of 
what he bad seen- Licbas turned l]ic tiling over in his 
mind ; and conjectured that, according to the ora6le, this 
mast bo Orustc! ; he came to that conclusiou by ibc followtodl 

mil It Ajt 

Btms vhi diKorcrcd uit) furtcfl Ih< 
hn \tva. " IVior miU mi quam 
r«rri rognitu* uson^" I.iurft. t. 1-ID3. 

tay Itniiod, ■■ m ihtte unu eat thtn 
■nj' iron." Vbra ina b^rmat tan- 
man, >Dch ix (h« btce orkabli, ibrj 
•lit) cnUcJ n (inilb jc"*"^— ''A'vAcT. 

J», 70. 

ig : seeing thp smitb'B lu'o bellutrs, lie inrerrcd tliey 
tlic two winds; the beetle and the aovtl, the blow and 
coonUT-blow'**; the iron that was being welded, the wo 
IjJDg OD wu i figuring lo him.<>clf it was Mich, iM^causu iruii 
wa« (band lo the injiiij- of mao'"". njiviii); tunniid this 
ctrucliuMOu, be woQt lo Sparta; where he related every thing 
to the I«ced«inoniam ^ — who brought againml him a iicli* 
liotw cbarge, and he was banished. Ltchas then came hack lo 
~'egeaf and explained lo tlie smith bow unfurtunate he had 
DlTering him a remuneratiou fur bis jird*^, which tbo 
man refused : hovevcr, aner iiomc time, be altered his mind; 
Ijiehns tuuk iwtuieustoii, opetwd the k^^vo, collected the 
and rurried them tu Sparta. Frum that time, nhou- 
tlia Spartans and 'IVgcani; trii-d ibi-ir stn-ngUi, tho 
unians wun; always ii)i|iumiust in the war; and 
already niottt pail of Pulopoiuiestis was likewise subjected to 

Cncsiis having been informed of all these particulars, Kent 69 

«abaMador» to Sparta, wiih gil't.<, and a r<;(|ueM of mutual 

•ISaDcv: what xhcy were Ut say wax piescribed to them; 

ud, OD Uu'ir arrival, tlioy spoko thus: " Crir^us, king of the 

* Lydiauit and utln-r nmiuns, has »eut us lu say ii» fulluwa: 

'Me Laccdxmoninns! the god has, through his oracle, bade 

"no connect tuysrH willi some Hellenic friend. I undcr- 

"ilaod you are the titvt in rani of Ilellos; thcrefure, iu 

"obedienca to his oracle, 1 invite you lo be my willing 

"triends auj allips, uiUioiit let or fraud." This was the 

nuiwiinicaliun tliat Cru:Mi» made ihruugli the ambuesadurs. 

lite Laceda;Rionian>', who had lhem»«1veH heard of thti 

•mle given to Croisus, being much gratified at the arrival 

of the Lydian^, swore the oallis of alliance and mntnal 

tbemhihtp. Indeed, certain favonrs had already been prc- 

Tiwuly shewn them by Croesus : for the Laceducmouiana 

MM Romo agents to Sardis, who were to purchase gold, 

*ikh llicr wanted to ur<! aliout a statue of Apollo wliich 

Dot ttaods at T]ium:ix in Laronica ; but, us they were trying 

lottiike a bargain, Croesus ^avc it lo ihcm a& a gift. From 70 

tail motire, as well us from hiK lic-leeting litem in prefer* 

*We before all the rest of the Ek-llenc!', the Lacedajmoniens 

*■ f+rM. Ifpt, Mfliinf Iron * 
txf nmu jnttf well 

' th* 

■Wm ' In tb« ni^Mliv Intkgot^r of 

••Mt it i«i>(4* (lie nm\r. — Litntter. 

* " A»t mminni frmm MttUinctidt 

»imk Pr^iUuiuf fantm." Jnr.Sat. 

sv. lliA: quoted l>v WMtvtbft. 

*^ Tbe taett' of ibe impcrfcet 
•boald b« oliMfted: l/itf/fvn rli«a unt 
•iynlfv, he hind, IjuI hi a'ithtd to 
kir*. So, la th» bUowiag obaptWi 



CUO. I. 71. 

accqtteJ tlie Irenty of alliance. In Ibe first place, accordini^I)^ 
they hoUl ihenuelves in rea<line«9 for the earliest call: to 
the necond place, they iiiatle a Trine<bowl of brass, cov«riDj: 
the outaifle, ii|> to the rim, with Tariouii figures nf animals and 
other objects **% oud of tuch dimenetoos qb to hold chr&e hoa- 
dred amphone"*: this the^- sent, intending it for n pmtent 
to Crtesus; but the wine-bowl never reached Sardis; lh« 
reasons for which Hn:^ slated in tbeae tno ways. The Ijice- 
daatnoniaoB, on the ortti hand, amert, that when the nrine- 
bowl, on its road to SardJs, was opposite to Samon, ihr Sa- 
miaott, infonned of its coming, pushed oiT with some Hhi|K 
of war, and to<»k it away by force. On the other hand, Iho 
Samians declare, that when the Lacedaimoniuis, who were 
coni-eyiog the wine-bowl to Sardis, found they wero loo 
late, and that CroiKits was a prisoner, they diapoaed of tfaa 
vine-bow] in their inland; where it was purchased by toow 
privut« individuals, 38 an offering for Juno's temple: they 
add, that probably Ibe sellcre, on their return to Sparta, nuglit 
hare said that it was taken away by the Samians"". 8o 
much, therefore, for the wine-bowl'". 
71 Cncaus, misunderstanding; tho oracle, prepared for & cam* 
paign against Cappadocia; uxpectiug bt; sliould ovi^rtfarow 
Cynis, together with the Persian power. When he had pro- 
vided every thing for war with llie Persians^ one of hia 
Lydian ftubjects, prewoiisly noted for his wisdom, hut who* 
in consequence of the advice he now gave, obtained a very 
great name among the Lydiann, counselled the king in theae 
words — the name of this pemon was Sandanes :— " Sire ! you 
" are about to engage in war with a people who wear notliing 
" but hose'*' and other gannenta of leather j who feed not 
*' on what they like, but on what Ibey have ; and tlicy have a 

" ruKS"' ''*''' ' ^^^ '" '^'''> ^^^X "^ "" wine, but tlrinlc wa- 
*' ter : they have do figs'^ to cat, nor any thing that is good : 
*' should you, therefore, conquer them, what can you taka 
** from those that have nothing? But, on the other band, 
** if you should be conquered, know what blesKing-s yon throw 
" away. An soon as they will have tasted of our good things, 
" they will cleare to tbem ; nor will they be easy to shake 

"* t^ttf riftnlflai Dol onlj animoi*, 

bolj^iirw BJrrtrif iinJ, whether nni- 
■iaU,flo«rta, rruiw, &<-. — SeAu'fi^h. 

■* Tfa« amfiorm, acconiinf tn Af- 
buQiDot, U an-sn RallriDi, oof pint. And 
« bnU nani ihn t> (o »».j, tathct lew 

•• Blall 514. C«Di;. iii. 47. 

<^ Tbo Gmk t«it adth: mmrk /iji 

Mai, uiM rvaon/ /« thf rroUr. 

1^ Fip »d oliTM eonainn Hm 
ekigf ftM of tin loww elutm la dia 

1^*1 01. 


off*, t give, Uiervfore, tbai)l;s u> l)ie guds, that ihey hare 
' not inspired the FcruaDs willi the thnught of bringiug 
'* var apod the Lydians." Sancknes however failed to per- 
ttiadA Croesus by thin diitcoursc. What he suid vaa true 
cmm^; fur, prerious Lu the mibjuclton of thn Iiydtans, the 
FEFTTumtts posseseed nothiuK dtiUc&lc or good. The Cappa-^ j / 
dodaas are called Syrians hv lh« Hellenps: before thn rise ) •'"^ ' 
of the Persian power, they had been subject to the Medes : *, 
Ihry now were subjects of Cyrus ; for tlic river Halys nen-ed ( 
aa the boundary between the Medic and Lydian empires; 
that rirer flows out of Amioaia, tlirough Cilicia; then con- 
tbnes ila course, having Dig Mabaniaus on the right, and . 
die PhrygiaiiN on opposite hanks; below which, flowing np'*f 
to the iiOTtbwanl, it dirides the Syrian Cap[iiaducian>i froni' 
the PaphliignnianA on the left. 'Hiux the llalys rirer ntiirtA 
nrarly lli« whole of Lower Afia IVom the ima oppusilc 
Cypnta to the Euxinc m-a: it marks, as it were, the nock 
of that whole division of Asia ; the way across which occu- 
pies five days to a well-girt'" man. 

The following were the motives that iodiice<l Ctcesus to7S 
inrade Cappadocia: firet, (he desire of getting possession 
of ■ coiutiry which he wimld faiu annex to his own aiaics: 
elitcfly, however, bis confidence in tho oracle, and the wish 
to be avenged ofCyrua for his Ireatmcut of Aslyage*. For 
Cyms the son of Cambyecs had subjugated Astyages son 
of CyaxarcN, n nrlatimi by marriagv'^ to Croe«us. He had 
heeome related to Cnfsua in iho following manner. A 
party of Kc-ythian nnniaileH, in conscrjuencc of a fend, had 

Sitted their countrj", and secn-tly entered"* Media: at 
a time, Cyaxares hod of Hiraortes, grandson of Deiocea, 
mlMi over the blades ; who at first recnvad these Scythians 
hnnaanely, as heiog his suppliants; at last, be conceived so 

*" Hm Im. Jlmnug up ; t. •. qp, hi 

itlMkHi k) tiM Mrdiaal p<e(Bi*| in it 
>«■« boa Iku H>u{k, (owst<l( ib« nortb 
pl«, ■iMcb M thf lact tUvntt-J. 
* (i^M>, yetH-ffirt, erpnfitiBtiii • *v 

^iMom nj nutinetiiM, UatD nhicfa 

W Emt AtlM, PI. Is. The prill- 
(t?*! b««d of the Ualx* )• >t the jtinc- 
aia MT tlM Pu7«dTM and Cuini»M> 
Moiato* ta Armenli Minor (Vw- 
^nm IS and to lu., se long.) Tba 
■■rf Imm) !■ in iIw rann uT Tftn* 
■M^ M ibe nmfiiiM of Cllkla (brtvMn 
Twd ae lU., S4 k>a«.> Hcr<7d(>t<» 
Mvwttj ooaband* thcM h*ftdit 

HM W Mjm, IfpBM OBAj to th« 

ranrw nf ihr bmcb ronnlDg won 
frooi tlin»Din Muoi. Hic knsili 
of wbAl Iho HiMociMi e*ll* tbe ottik 
\f wcrrlalacd, b; modem rMeueb, 
ID lit^ itbnui SOD GBm&n tnllM; 
eiuiialfnt to Ifnlmtbimea' MhOMte, 
iih,\ch wu, iccurditiB taSlnbo, 90(H> 

■u ytffifli. Tbi* word ia wt ««n- 
fioed to Due mBatiinc only, ' a»B-tn- 
liv:' in ttila cw, Tt ligittflM ' lia- 
I«r'« biiab«j>[l,' or what ia {t«il«rallj 
called ' brwAcr.iolnw.' 

"* fcrtftj-M^. ci«ii WW*. *.P»ft. 
Lex. loD. — tirrwtlerr ntit t*iAm, H 
alio t* e^n/rm. — $«bw*igh. Lex. He- 

BB CLIO. 1.74. 

loucli eslecni Tor Iheni, that lie entrusted nme boyn to leua 
truui thcin tlieir liuigua}^', and Ibe art of xhtxitinfr wiili Uir 
liuw*. In the coiirsv ol' liinti the ScyUtiaas, makiii); il th<.-n 
cniifitant practice to hunt, imd always hiiiiipng home hook- 
tbiiiK, it QQv day so happened, that ihvy look oo gaiDC : m 
the)' returned enipty-liauded, Cyaxarcs — for be wbh, aa he 
proved, inctiocd lo anRer — treated tbcin prutty harshly, with 
abtuivc laninia^c. Tlic t^cythiat)s, liaviDK »iitfcTcd uiui^ 
at the hatidH of Cyaxarcs whkb thty conttidcrt'd uoi dc- 
M-Tvod hy tbetii, dcti:rniin<^d among thcmiiclveB to cut up oul* 
of their pupiU; and, dres^iug tlie flesh as they ucrc uuiit 
to do the anitiuU iif the rbacc, serve it tip, hb if fnTsuolh 
il vera ftaniu; and, iniiuediati'ly after they liad taken it in, 
to proceed to Alyatlcs, sou of Sadyattes, at tianlis. I'bu' 
was accordingly done: in fact, Cyaxart^ and hia (^ueelx of 
thai day, ate <>f the fle«h ; and the Scythian*:, who hud cotn< 
74 milted thin ofi"L-iic«. bccanic- suppliautH to Aiyaltes. After 
this occuireuce — for Alynttvs refused to give "back Ibc Sey- 
tbiaos, when claimwl by CyaxurcB — »ur raged fur five yean 
between the I.ydians and Medcs; ditrinK which, the Mod«s 
rrecjuuntly defeated the Lydiaus, and the Lydians fre<)ttcnlly 
defeated the Medcs: nmoni; these*", occurred a sort of 
MiKlilly ciigiigenieuU Uein^ hitheitu equal iu war, a meet- 
ing took place in the sixth year, uhcre, as tlic- battle began 
to grow wami, day mif, all at once chati^ed into night. 
This change uf the day had been fureiold to the lonians 
by lliaU'K of Miktti», who had fixed it* occtiriencc in litfi 
year thai it actually took place. Thu Lydiaus, as wet] 
m» the Medes, sesing the day become night, ceased fight- 
ing i and both panics hastened in i^ood eunit-st lo etttabliiih 
peace between thiin-'i^lve}'. Tlic inediator!> between tbem 
ureie Sycnuc^a, the Ciliciau prince, and Labyuctus'", the 
king of Babylon : these prinrca hastened to t4.'nder the oatha, 
and arranged an iQlerchange of connubial connexions; for 
they ordained that Alyaties tthould give his daughter Ary- 
enis to Astyagcs the »on ofCynxareit; because without the 
powerful uk of necessity, they knew the peace would not be 
of itetlf stiong enongb. Thci*o iialiouH perfomi the cere- 
monicK of t<iking an oaih nearly after the Konie manner as 
the Hellenes; with this addition, that, after making a »lighi 

1^ kit. Id full, il iroutd he, IvasTt llin lintii 7«ar. 
Snjtmit fLix"*- l'i>['Wiu^i;rr«f. ttiiii '^ TliU I^bj&rtn* (Tar othsTm of 

iJw pailiclr /ill iddiciiin), iboi liuiinic the mote aune oodut, cb. I']' »»i 118} 

the &m f^Tc ;euK the succc^i van » luppoted Id bo ibe NcbuclMdiiraM' 

eqiul on bMh MtK. I>n prove* llul of Scnptnr*. 
tlw aathor I* th«li ^Dg (o tpcal Of 

CUO. J.75, 7fi. 


Inctsion id llic upper slcin of tlieir arms, they lick up one 
another's blood. 

Cynis had therefore, fnr a reason which I shall (Mint 'A 
Mit in the wquol'", dethroned this Aslyagtrs, who teas his 
gniDdfat}i(.'r by the imithrr's »ido. CrcEsuM, lajrini; Uiis to 
the chargp of Cyriu, had sent to the ontcles, to iuquiro 
wdclhtT he ouf^hl to undertnkc u-ar on the Feniians: an 
■n»ver ncoordingly (.■ame ; and hv, fancying it to In* in hiK 
otrn fiivour, determined to attick a portion of tht; Pi^rsian 
appurtetumcfK. When ho came lo ijje Ilalys, lie inarch«d 
bi» ann; acro^ the river by the same bridges (hat arc 
now** ibere. Such is my opinion; bttl, accordbg to the re- 
f»ort gencrti amon); tho IKIlcoGS, Tbalos the Milcnan wom 
tbo penon that got thi^ trooju over for him : it is lelatuJ, 
[■hat Croesus doubting how be should crow the river with 
hi« forces — for the ahuvc-nieuliuned bridges were not in 
existence nt that tiuu- — ^I'hnle', who was in the camp, planned 
for him aoinc works on the rivi;r, so that the stream running 
tm thp left of hi? nrmy mi|^ht flon- on its rif^ht. 'Die work 
WBS this: begrinning some distance above the camp lo dig 
■ deep canal in the shape of a crescent, to ax to enclose the 
back ufthe camp in the mluation vrhere it then atood, tho 
rifcr, being turned off from i\s old bed into Uit- canal at the 
nborr place, and thus passing along the camp, would fall 
again into the old bed*". Thus, as soon as the river waa 
split ioto two flircoms, it became fordablc to bolb. Some 
my, iudi^^-i), that the old bed tvas completelv drained of wa- 
|»r; but that I can never assent to; for, io such a case, how 
tronid ihey ever liave e/Ti-clL-d a passage, on their rctnm 
li<nn«f CncHiis, however, passed over with his army, and 73 
carao to a place called Pierta in Cappadocia: Uiif is the 

*" Sot eb. 131 or thin Book. Iniinifl rnmtiuctiou. 'Otrt •• <for 

• Wjtttabdcti prvncw tatisTMto- Itm't I wtTitfii\ *»rf^> U»f««V«»^ U 

Utf irHjfft iriitti irt nov thfrr, tnd aari ivrw ul aI*M l«fiiXJu> li «A 

"* Sofcwctgliwii'i propojLi Uie fol- 






CUO. I. 77. 78. 

K ir on ge at posilimi In Uia( (|uartcr, sttuaio noi far" 
Sinope, a town un titu Kiixini> iiea: tbore tie piiehod his 
camp, and drvastaUxl ihc firlds nlthn Syriann : Iir cujilunnl 
also die town of the PwriaiiK, and sout lliom iutu captiviljr: 
1)0 took pafiDc&sion, also, of all the itcigbbouriof; places j am 
coiupellvd tb« Svrians, altlioiigli guilUetw, lo leave ttieir 
country. Cyms, boweicr, miutcrod hi> own aoldtcrs, oikI 
enlisled all dn't-lting on liie road to Cappadocia, where "be 
fiiccd CrCESQS. I'rcviouf howcrer to commencing hU march, 
he sent heralds lo (he loiiian», suuituoniug iheui to secede 
from Cr<C8U8: hut the loiiianit rcfustd. Cynis, notwiib- 
ntanding, proceeded, und pitched Itis tents opposite lo CitisiHi 
in the ricinily of Pteria, where he was rcHiIved to make 
eseay of the strength or both parties* A bloody battle ra- 
Riied ; and ){re«t numbprtt having fallen on both sides, the;; 
at last M-pamlcd, neither having coni|uered| at the fal\ «f 
night. Such was the resiuU of the engagement between the 
two annies. 
77 CrcFsuji, laying the blame to the numbers of hix ovtd 
army"* — for the troop? engaged were far inferior to those 
of Cymi — and seeing Cyrus on the following day wa» not 
inclined to renen- the atkirli, marched back to Sardis; with 
Iho intention of summoning the Egyptians, couturuiably to 
the treatf of nlliiince he hnd framed with ADiasiB king of 
Egypt, prcriouMy to (hat with the liacedanDonians; of send- 
ing for the HabylonianH, with whom he had alHO entered 
in Alliance, under the reign of Labynelns; and of letting tfao 
Lacedaemonians know at what appointed time tliey should 
be prc»enl. lie thought to spend the \Tinler at home, and 
to open with the Hpring a campaign against tliu PerBians, 
aflcr hairing collected ihc above allies, and mustered bis 
on-n forces. In this view, on his Birival at Sardis, he sent 
heralds to the diflerent members of the alhanee, giving them 
notice to assemble hcfore the end of iivo iDontfas. 'llie pre- 
sent army, that which bad just been engaged with the Per- 
sians, and which consislcd of foreign mercenaries, he dis- 
banded completely, and dispersed; not once giving it a 
thought, that Cyrus, having been so nearly bcalen'**, might 
76>iiareh aguinst Surdis. While Crcesus was fonuJng these 
projects, the suburbs were completely sirarmed with tor- 

M^'xn^B*. Lik* Ilia Lilb *d- <»C<iMtni*: KftSrt, D.^yfWi W' 

wrk numwr, thi> Gigpk ^i^»*m« la pQi )<»*•* rr(iritfia H*i #1 *)Mt . 
for 41/MMt, NMr^i; *hm ulfo \a **^ iy^mni^im >■» n^*x«rW 

tbat aniM, Hcrodotn* ir*iicr>llT aii» Qni isa n^o Uarfr pnfptnut.^- 

ike panicle a* or ■■— Snluv^. Ltr. Srhvtig. Vrr, Lot, 


CLIO I. 70, 6V. 

pentR ; iit ilic appearance nf which, the hones, fontaking Ibe 
postures, came iiiit) devoured th<-ni. Crccsiit mw this snd 
cotividercd it, se it was in (act, a pn>digr : rortliwtth, he 
deapulcliL-d aainc persons to consult ibt; soothsayers of Tcl- 
raeMus; the poriwns thus sent, arrircd, and li-aral, from thH 
TeluMMiaiiSf what the prudiK>' portuuilcd; but had not the 
nppofluniiT lo report it to Cra'sus; for before they could 
entDplct« their voyu^e back lo Sardin, Cra'stis had livi-n Uikvn 
priionvr. Tin- decliiraiioii of tlie Telmessiaris was, (bat 
Cnnos »liould expect a foreign host wiibiu his tcnritor7, 
sDil they would come (o sahjugatc the nalivrn ; for, itaid ihcy, 
the aorptnit i« the Ron of the earth, whereas the horsu is ft fio 
■od alien. Thin unKtrer ihe Tolmessiaiis gave to Crtcsus, 
wticn bu had almady been taken priNotier; nlthoiigh ihsy 
km-w nnthin); about Sdrdin, or Crajsus hini'M-lf. 

Crni%, hnwi'ver, imniwliately nflur the diiparliirv ofCroD-W 
■OB, BubMt(|ii(!i)t to the engagement at T'teria, lc;init ihat 
Cneuia bai) ivtrualcd, for the piir|>a<ie of diHlinnditig hi« 
Irwops: be considerod the matter; and found Uiul the lieM 
thing be coald do, would be, to march as quickly im be could 
up'^n Sardii, and anticipate the levying a second lime of the 
Lrdlan fonca : no sootiL-i tlionglil done; for he directly 
tBwched into Lydla, and came his own messenger to Croesus. 
Cnr^m. nuw llirown into great rmharniKiimcnt, events turn- 
ing nnt BO contrary to his expectation, neverthelcsR led oni 
tbe IirdiaiM to battle ; and in lluMe days, there wa-i no iialioo 
in all Auia moru valiant and warlike than the Lydinn: their 
iDO«l«> nf fi^^hting was lirom the back*; of bnrscs '**: they carried 
)iT (<, und were good ridcrn. The two armir-s metgO 

iu I :: that Htretclieii bcrore the citadel of Sardia, which 

i» extensive, and not eneunilwrcd with tn«s"*— several 
tirvn (lowing through it, among which is tlio llyltus, pour 
tbetr waleni into the largi^<it stream, call«<l tJie nenaiis, 
which nsM in the sacred mountain of mother Ceres, and falls 
into the sea l»y the city of ITiocaja— where C\tus, who was 
alarmed at the eight of the Lydian horse drawn up in battle 
array, acted, atUT the suggestion of Harpagus, a Mede, in 
tho following manner: He collected all the camels that fol- 
lowed in the train of the army, carrying pnivisions and mii- 
nItloRs; be look off their burdens, and mounted upon them 
aoldier^ accoutred a.s cavalry ; having made ibcKe prepara- 
tion*, he dreu ihem np in the van of the whole army, oppo- 
«ila to CroMia's cavalrv, and commuudcfl the infantrv (n 

<* ^OUb, ntHut, tiuticMM lliil Ike 
TOI« T. C 

ntcin haH ncitktr trfCS am hvthf 


CLIO. 1. 81, 88. 

follow on and sapport tlic ramcls: in Ibe roar of lite inranUy 
liv arniyeil tht? wliaK- uf Imr uwii caralrj*. Tlaving Uiuji 
fonncd all liis forces in lin^', lio r&comincnded tliem not 
spare any uf th« Lviliaus, but to cut dnvrn erery ninn tliall 
fttoot) up ogatnst Uicio : not, huwpvcr, to slay CroBsiis, not ^vta 
if, wt)t-n overpowered, lie nliouUl still resist. Thv rcaamj 
tliai iuducvd bini to place the catouls opposite to tbe enemy*! 
horxc, iroa, Ijccaiiac tlie horse has a dread of the cosmM 
and cannot bear lo look at thv OguK or suufT the snwll of] 
that untmal*". For tbbi pur]joi<-c, therefore, Cynu) bad 
course U) Uic above expcdit^'ut, that Ul- might make CrtSBUi^i 
cavalry ul' no use, by which the Lydian prtncf L-xnccted to' 
pLTlbrui many brilliant acbiereiueitiB. As Hoon as tlw amues 
joined battle, the liuist-St ia»taully HmvltinK the camels, and 
KOi'iuy tliem before them, reared bucli, and the hopes 
CrcGSUs were blasted- Novi-nhoirs!:, the Lydiana behave 
Dol ft8 cowards, but, as soon as tbey saw vrliat bad occurr«d, 
Iraped oS* (heir hors«H, and cnifngcd the Persians foot to foot. 
Afkur some time, many having fallen on buih stde:i, the Ly- 
dians Wt^re tuniad to the rij^ht-abnut, and, shut up wiifatn 
tlieir walls, w«rv blockaded by the Persians. I 

81 Siej^e van nrcordingly laiH l» the Lydiaos. But CrrBsos,' 
who thought that the blockade would last aoiue time, heuU, 
froin witbin the rampiru;, othi>r ineRsengers to the alliv«: 
as those Ibrmeriy des|K)tcbt;d had t^tveu tliein mittce to as- 
semble iu the cour»e of the fifth luonth, CriDsus seat tbe 
preseut persons to request assistauce as speedily as pos- 

Sasible, he himself betni^ already beiiicged. He sent more 
particularly, of all liia alli(.-<i"*, to the Laccdoemonians ; but 
just at that Fcry timr the Sparians tbcniselve« happened tu 
be cngaj^ed in a qmirn-l with thi- Arpans, on the snbjeei of 
a place called Tliyna, ivhich. Although a portion of the d«>- 
niain of Arj^wt, the Larudatmouiaiis had appropriated. To| 
the Argiyns also helnnged the whole roiinlry wtHtward ' 
down to Maleum, both on the land, and Cylbera, logethrrJ 
with tlie rest of the islands Tbe Argians proceeded to tbo 
di'fenceof their own property, thus abmracted: then lM>th par- 
ties met, and camo to an agn^mcnt, that tijree hundred men- 
on each side Khouhl engage battle, aud that the disputed i 

■" I ran re M abjeetion la lb* 
Tcnctif of ifalx oBitodotei tb« em^ 
lloa of tlie Lvditn ^avntry anue ^om 
k »»ry n»toril fao-w— tbo (■«!, tlmt 
Ike Lrdiu lioiwi tiim bfbell fur Iba 
ftnC ths* tlii> uncoudi flfim of lbs 
oMkc!: th( Hutoriu wm well awMe 

that ibo ciinbI* oI Cyrai wen not an 
i)tj«ct of «iicb abbormice to hli own 
bone*, ill confniuaicr «1 fh* lowg 

»ni ctaw nxmciioa 1.ctir*«i) Hit tvO 

tarea, in tht MiiKtrim nadtr th* Pm- 


groon^ should be that of which every party 8urviv«Ml : it 
vu aUo setllcH, ihnt the msus of the ftrmy on both side* 
should retire homewflrd. Cor ihiB purpose, that ncilht-r army 
hetQft prrsviit, they might not, seeing th^ir own party give 
way, nith to tlicir assistaiice. AfU-r they hnd a^ret-d to 
Ihme lemw, they reapectircly wiihdrcn- : tho eho^en chaoi' 
piami uo hoth sides, left to tl]eintieti-t;i<, joined battli: : thcT 
foiight irtth sach equal v.nloiir, thai, out of the six hundred, 
ibrve atone retiiained ; Alceiior and Cbroaiius on the part 
oTlbe .Arf^ans; Othrynden on that of the Lacedteinoniarts : 
these were the combatanlf^ remaining, when night caioe : 
Ae two Argionn accoidingly, an having conquered, ran off to 
Al|;o«; while Olhryaden the I^ccda^montan stripped the 
deaJd bodit-H of thr Argirmii. nnd, having carried their arn)& 
to hh ramp, •■tond at hi<) post. On the Hccond day, both 
partiea came to ascertain the rcKuU; for somr lime, accord- 
tnriy, caeb {Miny jHirsiaied that ihoy had conquered : on one 
^■lir, it wax Kaid that the greater number of their men had 
^f^Bnrivecl : ihi- iittiers contended, ihallhii two that dii^appeared 
mn rana«ray», anrl tliat their one cun-irnr stripped the 
iVul bodies of the otiu'n: at U^l, from words ihey cauiu to 
blo«i-«: many fell on both side*: the Laced if moniuus gained 
the day. From that time, therefore, the Argian* have shiired 
tbeir heads although prertously obliged by nccefsity to wear 
long hair; und enacted a law accuuipanied with curses, ou 
ffoch fts riolatn it, that «o Argian man should let his hair 
grow, and that the women Khuuld wear no jeyrls of gold till 
fldrh liioc an they should recover 'niyrea. TIih Laeediemo- 
niau^ no the otiier liaod, enacted u law quite the contniry : 
for (hough, until then, they bud nei-cr worn loug hair, from 
that time it vas suffered to grow"*. As to Olhryade)(, the 
tmte Spartan that remained out of the three hundred, he, 
iMBitfT ashamed to return to Spartai all his fellow-champions 
hariDf* fallen, made away trith himstlf at Tliyree. At the 83 
ttm; aOiirs weiv iti tins eonfiLsioQ at Sparta, the iSardiao 
herald arrited. and rfquested theni lo cnme to the atisistauce 
of iho besieged Cra»ns: the people nevertheless, when in- 
formed by Uie herald, prepared to start to his assistance ; 
vhim, as they had all got ready, and tlieir ahips were eqnip- 
ped, another inesaage came, that the Lydian ciladirl had been 
taktrn, and Cra>Hiis made prisoner: coDseqiipntW, «ympa- 
ihtzing deeply with Iho Lydimis, they renacd their esertionK. 

SeJili» was taken in the fnllowing manner: ou the foiir>84 
leentli day tUat Cr<BSU6 bad been besieged, Cyrus seot roaud 

— Malt. KM. c; ui<l SM. otf. 1. 
u 2 


CLIO. I. ea. 

some horsemen, to proclaiin Ut Uu- whole anuv, that 
woitUl girc a n-varil Ui the ItrsI man ihnt vroulcl Kcalc thl 
wall; ill cuuKcquciici*, llu* whole anur having mndo the 
aUctnpt iritlioul iiucc(.'a)("°,all|;avij up, hut n Mardiau aoldiur, 
who tk-tenuiued tu Iry if ho could climb up : the luau's name 
was I]ynrad<;a: oo lliat quarter uf Uii; citadel no guatd 
n-as fiiuliuofd, hecuiise there was no fear of the fort heint! 
cvrr csrricil in that piacu i for in tltig purt tho citadel wi» 
abruptly pfTpi^ndiciiliti', mid initccexsible : ihiti wa» the only 
part around which Mvlcs, one vf the I'onner kioj^ of Sard!*, 
nad not carried the lion which hiR coucubitM} brought forth ij 
the Telmcssians haring decided, that if thit lion were c< 
rned around the fortific:ittons,Hardis would be impregnabhi 
and Mulfs, after carrying; llie liuii about the rest of the wi~~ 
where it misht he possible lo storm the citadel, refraii 
ironi doing the KBine by this place, regarded as impregnable 
and precipilnns : this quarter of the town lies toward!* Tmo- 
lus. This Hyra>ad«s tlieroforu, the Mardian, had the day 
before wen one of the Lydians descend by this way, pick op 
alielmet Uial Itad rolk-d dowu, and carry it up: he obsprred 
what was done, and turned it over in bis mind : accordingly, 
hp awifiidi^d thfu liimst'lf, and was foUowcd by some alh« 
Persians ; grwit numbers having gone up, Sardis was Uiii 
taken, and the whole town abandoned to pillage. 
S5 I will now relate what happened to CrU-'sus liimself. Hc 
had a son, whom I have before mcuUoned, in other respects 
well endowed by nature, but dumb : iu the foregone days of 
prosperitTi Craisup biid doue every thing for him possible : h( 
had recourse to many expt-dieuls; more panicidnrly, hi 
wnl u dcputaLicQ to Delphi, in order to consult tlie oracle : 
the uiisvrer returned by the Pythia wa« this : 

" I'bnu Lydioii-botn, king of many, mifjfair simple uiaa 
" ihoii on, C'rffwn ! loiig aw u> htwr the mDch-beanughl 
" of iby «oo, wiibiri (by bulb : ihst wore far bviler for 
" ind«cd ! for in e hap1«M day (Imu wih &ni bear lutn." 

Tlie fortittcaltons had been carried'": — one of the Persians 
not knowing Crirsus. wa* about to kill him: Crn^su? i^aw th( 
man milling on : absorited in bis present calamity, it mac 
no difference to biro whether he died under the stroke ; bi 
Iris *vtif the dumb bny, saw the Persian rushing to Ibe attack: 
pKajfcd by terror and misery, he bitr«t a passage to his 
voice : " Soldier, kill not Ocesns t" he eselaiined. This waa. 

U». Utn4. 

>w ft y^, Httt. 6I», tfi. 
eh. 8, of ihif Book. 


t, tho first u-ortl lie ovttr iiU/ircd ; htu frntn Uiat time, 
jr, thraiigLout Hie, hti hiid llic use of liis speech. 
Tbi; Persians had potiMssion of Sardis; aaci took CrncsusSC 
alire} havioK m^ie<] fuiincL-u jeant, and been besieged tb« 
•ane nutnbev of days : he had thus, .nrcording to Uie oraclo, 
put ail ittid to liis owu ii)it;lit^ eiiipirt:. Xtie Pcr»ian», nho hud 
made him prieonef, earned him before CyniR; who collected 
A hug« pile, OQ which he placed Cr<esus, bound m fetk-rs, 
and, by bU ude, twice neren of the sons of I>j dinns : whetlier 
hanog it in contetnplatioD accordingly to offer up these 
firstling* to one of the gods, or wishing to fnlfil Mime vow; 
or perhaps, having heard that CrfCHUH was a dttvoul won^hip- 
per of tht- divine powers, he plueed him on the jtilc i>n1y to 
ascertaiu nht-lhur any of llie duiaiLips would n-!icuti hiiu Iroui 
being bumt jitivc. They relate, that as Crotsiis was Htand- 
JDg on I lie pile, and, noiwitlisiaiiding the deep lutiiuTy he wan 
in, recalled to his mind tho saying of Solon, pronounced as 
it wea- by diriue iiispiratiuu, that " No one, yet in life, is 
bappy." When this occurred to him, he broke bis deep 
■ileuce: brrai)iiu{j frt>iii the boiloiu uf his henrt, and sighing, 
bo colled out three limes, '* Solon." Cyrus heard hiiu, and 
comiuAndcd the interpreters to ask C'lfu-siw wliuni he called 
Iboft**: they approached, and put the qiic*tion. Crocsiw, 
Itowcrer, although npcatedly asked, held fur eome time his 
poacL> : at lust, from compnUion, he uiid : " One, whom 
** to new converse with all kings, I should prefer before great 
** wealth"*." As what he said was umiitelligiblc to the inl«r- 
DfCtCTS, ibcy again inquired what he liiiid : as they persevered 
ui urging him to speak, he said, * That utice upim a time, 
Kolou, a native uf Allieni^, eanie to his court, and, having 
weu all bis bleR*ingM, despised them:* — he accordingly 
slated. ' that Solon ^lad lold him ever}' thing exactly as had 
occurred to him, and would say no more m respect of him 
(hiQ of the Te*t of mankind, and *ueh especinlly as con- 
ceived themselves to be happy.' — TliusCrtesus Bpoke: the 
pile was already lightetl, the flames caught the outside, 
Ud Cyrus heard from the inteqireter^ vrhatCrcesus had said: 
bi now relented: and recollecting, that he, being himself 
t laaD, was giving up alive to the flames a man who had 
Vbd not lesA foitonate than himself: dreading, moreover, 
MtibutioD, and confiidering that ootliing pertaining to maa 

" Miri. «■»*. «. 

I*llac (iita llu* c«n>trutt><)D, r^r- 
H^X*> Kfiffidfit (<w£*1 ran 

•VfibMn. AaolbfT irnnilaikni may 
W uimi : On*, •m^ 'Aa< J^tuU prr- 

frr hrforr i/rrot n>ri«AA, iii tt t tCtrnitf 


CLIO. 1.87— »». 

ii stable, gave order ihat tht^ btiniinj; 6n> should be qtieacl: 
u ipeedily as possible, aud that Crir-sus, as well bb the 
with hiin. should be liftc<i duwn fmrn ibr pilp. Thcjr en- 
deavoured lu ubcy tbe orders, but vrcre yet unubic to tuaiiwr 

g7 the flani(!s: ibca, it i.<i rcUtlud by Uic Lyduas, tliat Orontw. 
perceiving the cbaogi! io Cyrus's resolutiuii, and ftretnK all 
the people cudravour to quench the flamrs but iiut able to 
rejiress their viuk-iico, involjwl atoud Ajiolltt, if cter any 
gratuful gift hnd been presunlnd to the god by hini, that be 
would cuiue 10 his auiHtauct', mid rescue him Iroiu im|M:tiil- 
ing death. Wccjiing, it is said, he tlius called on the god : 
iusianlly, from its being a clear and tranquil sliy, cloud* 
gathered, the storm burst, and raio poured down in torreotiw^ 
to extinguiiih the fire, lliis u*as Huflii-icnt proof to CynlH 
that Croetns was a pious aad good man : he caused him to bt»^ 
taken down from ilie pile : " Crtvsus," raid he to the kingi 
" who in ihp world ever induced you lo invade a coonUr 
" that belongs to me, and to be my foe, iuslcad of being m] 
'* friend." ** Sire," he repiied, " what 1 have done i» to 
** good fortune **, to my misfortune : the promoter of i 
" things was the gnd of the ficllones: he it was thai spt 
" me to war: — for no man is bo rell of eommon svnte, as to ' 
" prefer war before pcaec '** ; «inee in peace sons bury (k- 
** thcrs, while in wax falht-rs haw to bui7 eons. Bui il 
** plaased the gods th.Lt things tthunld thus come to pus." 

86 When he had thus epokcn, Cyrus took off his fetters, ud 
seated him near himself, and behaved to him with great 
respect: he, as well as bis attendants were ftstonifdied at the 
uglit of tlie Iiydian monarch: Cru-su« hiiuself, absorbed io 
thought, Rtoud Rilmit : after a tinio, he turned roimd and aaw 
llie Persians sacking the Lydiao capibd. " Sire," aaid bo 
to Cyrus, '* am I allowed to communicate any ihoughu lo 
''you"*, or must t be silent now in my preaeni stater** 
Cyrus bode hira be of gowl cheer, and say what be cboae- 
" Tell mc then," said Crocsun, " what is all this crowd occu|n«d 
at M> eametitly ?" lie was nnxwered: "They are sacking 
** yoQf city, and plundering your riches." " Not my city," 
rviorted Cnusuft* " not myiicheK, are they sacking: Done of 
" thi'pe things belong to me any longer ; it is your propetly 

jjjl" they plunder and ln;ar away'"." Crcesns'B words had ■ 
striking cffeclon Cynia : he dismissed all his attendants, and 

m Mdct.40i3,«. 
m 479. tii. I. 

■K diXi fifurirt aal iyttn ri n.^ 
iy^A ■■! pifvt •■fHiHifl, frop»t\y. ' to 
jiilUgei' bat irith Utb difference, lliat 

tyuf ia *M ftf ftncltii wbicli are driven 
before, >iul oT the men tLal sre kd 
•way «■ ■!»«*« 1 irkil« fifH* i» iMed elt 
monthU*, ud «bdI> Ihatfi aa it m 

WM My * l« WTf atraj.' 

CLIO. 1.90,91. 


asked Cnsnts wb»l h« tlionf^ht shntilil he (lon<! itt the 
tMcscnt ctMijancture. " Since (lit.- ^oiln bate given uu- a slave 
** (o yoo,*' said CTfBsus, '* it bocomes my duty, when I ubseire 
** ooy thing that escapes you, to point it out. The Ptfrsiaus, 
** br Datnre preNumptuoux, arc poor: if, tberefnre, you per- 
" mit (bed to pluuder aud retain thiR great tv^alth, yon inuy 
** expect the issue to be thin : he who gctK iho greatest 
•* booty, be assured, will revolt. Now therefore, if my pri>- 
** poMl be agrecaMo lo you, adopt ihiH nhin : [iliice M each 
'* gmic Mmc of yoDr body-j^uards, as sentinels; let (heui etop 
" those that arc carrying uH' the ralaable booty, and «ay to 
" them, that they must aban]in«ly pay the tithe to Jupiier: 
** lliiK yon Mill not incur ibc liatr^ of taking away the 
* property ; and the soldiers, eoufessing ibu ecjiiity of your 
" pfvcerdiii^s, will willingly accede," ("mis wa« excoed-90 
iogly gntified to hear thcKc vtinls : Iw ihuiighi llie Kugges- 
tioo very expedient, praised it bii^hly, and garc orders to his 
muds to do what Croisus intimated: tlieii he addressed him 
Di ihe«e words: " You are rcsolred, Croesus, like a true 
** kia^***, to slieir youiKeir wise in ailiun and iu word: dv 
" mod whatever gilt you may dceire, at this i-ery monicnt.*' 
" My lord," said Crotsus, " moisl hiKlily would you gratify 
" me, hy giving me leave to s^nd the god of the Hellenes, 
** wboia 1 hfiTe honnnn-d the most of all Uie godsf UicM 
** /otters, and aitk if it is bin custom tu lead astray his beue- 
" facton." Cyril!, a«kcd why he made ituch a charge, aod 
why s«eb a rer|iKiil. CriBsun tlieu related to him all his 
pic^ects, the annwen; of the oracles, and dwelt especially on 
tbe oflTerings; and again observed, thai, urgetl by the uncle, 
be bad waged v'aragaiuKt the rersiane. Having said m) much, 
be conclu<led by supplicatiug tliat he might reproach tbe 
god with tliia behaviour**. Cyrus buntl into Jattghtcr, aod 
aiid: " N'ol only shall you receive that boon from me, but 
wkattTCf eUc you innr'al any time want." CrcesuH heard 
Ab; and sent the Lytfi^n:* lu Ui-lphi, prescribing lo ilieni lu 
Uy the fetters on the temp)c-si1l, urnd ask the gml if he wslr 
Dfit anbamed lu have, by his orucleh, incited CrcesiM to attick 
(bo Ft^-rsians, ■« he would put an end m Cyrus's dominion; 
andsuch ircrethefirstliugKoltbcconlcM: lliey were to make 
those inquiries, and ut the same time n^k whether it wns the 
cnstcnn with the Grecian gods to be ungrateful. The Lydians ^1 
■rrivad, and it]>oke as was prvticribed : it is related, that the 

■ M()( UroOw, <M • MM 4'^f . **M^ reym^lt IJtfm a* Jom. Eurip. 
M# •• jmi »l*n«a*ti*»llj : lliii r%. tSepK, &9S_Z.o>v4rr. 
yiwiiw U fcfliillV I" the Cftabk "* MMl.Mt). 


CUO. 1.02. 

PyUiia's Mply was ibis 


fffnd lb» power of li>(_ 
locim. CriTsuH liaamadeteU^ 
rttlon lor the wicke^l ducd of hiR tilth pnigrnitrir^ wtio, 
" being but a gtianlfsinHn l» the Urraclidii;, abtUing a wv 
" man** fraud, murdered his Horerdgii lord, and gnLs]>«i a 
" dignity which in no manner a)i)>eruiiit:d lo hiiu. Apollo had 
*' indeed eaniesllv wi^heil tliat d)i> fall of Sardis might come 
** lo pass under ihe sons of Cr<E8U&, and nol under Crwjwis 
" himiidf; but h« wan noi c<iuh] to iht- task of re)eiilin(( ihc 
" fotea. As much aft tliv falus would give, he obtainedt and 
" transferred llic boon to him : be retarded three whole. 
" jearB the ca{iture of Sardis: tut Cn£sua Icnow, that ha 
" made a ]>rii)on(T three years later than wan fulud. In ' 
" second pluce, Apollo bruufirlil salvaliun nrlieu he was abouC I 
" to be conKumed h\ tire. As far an concerns the oracle, 
" Crcmus brings fonvard a ialsa accuj>aliun : Ajudlo declared, 
" ifhu nugvd war against the I'craiiinFi ho would ovcrtlirow a 
" Diighty empire : had be bv«D anxious to take good cotmsel, 
" it behoved him to send and inqairo which empire wai 
" meant, his or that of Cyrtis ; as he oeithiT cuinprabended 
" the oraclo, nor repeated his inquiry, lei him take the blame 
*' to bimM-'lf. In (lie k^t oracle, prunomiced ut tlic Khriu< 
** he again tnistuiderHlood the words that A]>ono spoke aboitl 
** a tnulo : for Cyrus was that uiule, bk he was bom of parent 
** of diflbrent nations ; the mother superior, the father inferior;' 
*' rIic a Mude, aud dau(*hler of Astyagrs the king of tbo 
" Medes; lie a Peniian, vassal of the Medvs, and lower than 
" any Mede, was united to his sovcnrign mistress."— -'iliis was 
the an«;wer rctiimed by the Pydiiu (o the Lydianti: it was 
brought back to f>ardts atid communicated to Cncsus, who, 
having heard it, rnnfesKed the fatdt to be his, aud not the 
godV Such is the history of the role of Cr<ESUs, and the 6rstj 
Hubjugation of Ionia. I 

92 It is to be observed, however, that there are a great num- 
ber of ofTerings from Cra^iiH in Elellafe^ besides those oalv 
mentioned heretufore. In 'Iliebes of Bfpotia is a gold tri- 
pod"", which he dedicated lo Ismentan Apollo; in Ephcsus> 
iKttb the golden oxen and several of the pillars; in ihs 
Pronaia at Delphi, a largo buckler of gold : all these objects. 

» UatL 443. 

*** Tb* Greelu conaidtrtJ, In Qtish 

gBDcTAtloD, tbo gnaif%A»r an tho 
ttiinl gdwnttion, Btid «a an: GjrgM 
mtm, ibcreTore. iFw liflh prc««nJlcir 
of Ctiniu; thw: lf>, i'rcDiwi Id, 

Aljart»: .Id. SadjrklCM ; 4ih, Aiin; 
»lh, Gjgv. 

*" The tripod wu n *uv, sUadivg 
on tkrco IcR*: ills; wtm cif ttm •otv, 
fmt bdar OMi M InaqaMi fcr tnix< 
Ins tbe Mirw hhI waUr; Mhsi hdiu 
intnidKl M Ml w««r.— Larain-. 

CLIO. I- 03, U4. 


were slill ill oxisU'ticv in my ilay ; some ulliurs, liuwuvw, 
llAil Ijvi:h lust ; tlnntC ul Braiictiiilx, lor im^Uuicv, iti Milvitia, 
eqiialr 1 am Uiltl, in weit^it, and similar to lliose al Dolphi. 
liiiuo uffuringa nliich lie preseuteU to Dtlplii autl Auiphi- 
ATBus werv bis ovrn property, and the firsiliug of his pat(>mal 
lobchunce ; the other oHeriufpt were Ibe produce ol the 
>poiU of lii& eiiemy, who, previously to Crixsus's accession, 
tuuj rcrolted, exerting biiiiBnlf to nise Pantiilcon to the 
lliruuci u sou of AlyHtluH, but by tlie sanit- molher m bis 
bn>t)ier Crce«ii» : for Cuckus was the ofl'spring of a Cariao 
wife of Atyiit«», but Faauleoa came from an Ionian woman. 
VFtwD, by the will of lili father, CrtBstK attiiiuod to the royal 
powtsr, hv put his adversary, thi' support4;r of Faiilaleou, to 
dealli, tearing to shreds hit> deKh, by a rack mu<l(! like a 
fuller's ihiatle*". As ht- had previously dedicated Ibe pro- 
perty of this iiidinUual to sacrc-d purposes, tic presented out 
of It the oSerings just nienliuned. 

]>yilia dm^ not prt-tuttit many nuuders fur t)eacTiplion,d3 
like some ottier eounuici^, if we except tho gold-duat brought 
dinrn from thr '1'niolu.s. This country, however, exhibits an 
immotiM! Work, mukiiig next to tliosu of the Kgyplinnti and 
Duhyloniaiis: you i>i:v there a moiumiont to Alynttis, father 
uf CrtBsils, the ba»i)« of nhit'li cousLsth of lareL' atones, the 
real in made of accumulated earth : this mound vraH wrought 
by the tradt-smeu, the meehanieit, and iJiu proKtittUes : tiva 
faounis, slill remaining in my time, are jilacod uii tiie top 
of thin monument ; on wliicli iiiscripLioas are earved, stating 
how much of Uic work was doue by each of the above cla&ses: 
liutn die uieasurL-K. it is evident that the largest portion 
Mra« tile work of the protititutos: for tlic daughters of the 
Lydiau loner orders all make a truffic of tlieir )>er»on!i; and 
ifaus coUcet money fur (heir portions, until, by so doing, 
ihry have ;^t enough to marry : the^ girU have Uic right of 
chotiuag tlieir own husbands. The monument i« six. slades 
and two pletbru iu cireumforeuce"**; the breadth across is 
thirte^'n plethrn. Adjoining*' thi>. iiionuiiK'nt is a wide lake, 
vhici) the Lyilians represent as alnavi* full : it is calk-d the 
GvMsn lake- 

lliu people of Lydia have pretty nearly the same cufitomi94 
aa the Ilelleues ; excepting, of course, that the Utter do not 
prostilute their fcmalos. They are the first nation, we know 

BiyuMw. — d Tlnvn*. In wt iiwtm- 
■wi WM iriih Bolin, tun iinllk* the 
dibilM wUgh Ul«t> «« : It ITU • 
■nrl «f fwk, aa mhlrh t^ihiwU* ntre 

totn ta dMib.— ZdrvArr. 

**• TbMt I* to UT, 600 full. S ft. 
10 fu. Prmcii, in rlrcoinfimiiM ; m 
tfvtr » milm Nnnd. 
w Man. 36». 


CLIO.' I. W. 

of, that introduced and circulated gold and sihTr coin ; and 
were Uic liuil venders by nclait. Atcordiug to Ibc stat<:iiiirnt 
of tbe Lvdians thtfiriK^'ltx-tt, all tbe games likewise, now in 
Togae amoag Llicmsc'lves nnd tlio Ilclltiiics, wurc InTcntitnu 
of Uieir own : the epoch of tliis discuvcrj' is nid to bate 
beCD coincident wiih that of Ihcir colonixalion of Tyr- 
rhenia: Ihey pye the fullowiu^; account of these Diall^ra: 
Under the reiKn of AiT<s*on of Mnnp^, a j^vat famine jwr- 
vaded lliu vvliulc of L\dia: lor a long limc itiL- Lvdinus hore 
ptttieDllj nitli tliitt scourge; but no cessation taking plarr, 
(bey souKht for remedies to tiie evil. Vaiions persona »le- 
vi8i>d varioii« expedients: at that time, accordiagljr, the dif- 
fereul kindK of kooics ueru discovered ; dice, rouiid-booes, 
ball, and all i-xcepi drafts"", the invoTition of irliich the do not claim to themselves'*'. The folhmiug was 
also indented as an expedient against the dearth — to play 
the irhok- oT one <lay in order not to feel the bankering alX^ 
food; on tbe iiexi, to eat, 'and refrain from P^aT- Id ihii 
manner ihey p-ossed eighteen yeiirs; at the end of which, llie 
evil, far (roui relaxing, had acquired greater virulence : ac- 
cordingly, their king dit-ided the whole Lydian nation into 
two ponioiis, and tlieTi drrn- lota which should rematnt 
and which forsikc their cowiitn-*": im tlie jMirty allotted to 
remain, he appointed himself king r at lite bead of ihe f mi- 
grants be put his. own son, whose name wnx Tynhnniu: 
wiotie, whum fortune bad doomed to abandon their countrr, 
went down to Smynia, built sbipii, and, stowing on board all 
their usel'id articles of furniture, mailed away in search of 
land and food; at last, after consting many Rlates, thej' 
Teachetl the Ombrici, where tliey erected lor ihemsclvcg 
towns, and dwell to ibis day. ITiey have, however, altered 
their name from Lydians, to that of the king's flon who 
headed the expedition ; according to which they have given 
thetn.selrt'it the name of I'yrrheniaiis. — ^Thus tbe Lydiana 
were euthralled by t!ie Persians*. 

W TIm gminu* hen RniiBinnUf^ ant. 
tlie ArrfByaXM, ' I li* bono on whicit (be 
liMl *priD^,' thoK <it »hrrp in pif- 
donlar, nsD't In tbn (anc cntloJ nr- 
wmXitlfta, or flociiiff tin pebblra or 
rauBd-bMi** OD liu! back m Uic Lanil, 
Anwinjt tliFm uu. uiJ unliibinu tJieiii 
til in the |iil1ic uT ibe huiil ; ' Ui* gtme 
oftbsbuukloboneurcockiU ;' in Praach, 

hynt 4e» ettltU j—rfwi^m. • (tw ball;' 
— ritn), a kiDJ of ' ilraugtU-boud,' 
divided inlo 3S plkoea bj flrr Uss 
drawn lengtliwaj* and lireailthwma : 
lh« middl* Udc wm oall«d tho 1^ 

•^ Comf. ei. 4, Wiu 1,01 thl* 'Book. 
«* Mult. 413. 

* cBKO!«oi.o«v or LvniA, vbom tbb rvxT or sKaosoTua. 

I. Til* dee«aM af Dariw, (on af Kr«taapw, M<nin«d 'Mr yuan alter A* 

Baltic of HanthOD. ( Hami.vtI. 1.} 


CLIO. I. yfi. 


Our tiuuirr frtiin Uiis place proceeds, accordingly, lo io-96 
quite who the Cynis was that overtlirew (he power of CrcBBus; 
xdA in what manner the Persians obtnined the Kiipremacf of 
Asia. This 1 shall describe, therefore, on the autliority of 
•ome Punian n-rilen ; who shew an anxiety, not no tnnch to 
' ellish Uie adventures of Cyrus, as to speak (he truth. I 
> acquainted, nerertlieless, with three other diflerent icaya 
of presenting the hfe of Cyrus"*. — The Assyrians had been 
turdti over rp[>i-r Asia during Ave hundred and Itreii^ 

2. TIm Balde oT Mtnilhan, from ODdonbud anlborilr, look itiao» •bo«l 
17ll> Avgvat, 490 D.C. Th« death cf Diriiu cooMiiiMQiIr bappcnod Id 

3. IHniw mtnic<l {ni. 4.) S6 ftt-t* ; ^iDprdii th« UuDf (i. 6S,} S laoothi ; 
C*m\jm; 7 yctf and ft moctin (ni- 6li.>) Cjrw (i. S4.) 99 j-cara. The 
um M ikMe tpifM* u 73 jcan and 1 nxonth ; wbwh, tdded U 4SS, ^vm, 
fa iha fint ofCynu'n nlgu, 009. 

4. The dale of the rapiure of Sardli t* du wten: okulj dtrfiued k; Her«< 
doici: it m fnramti, ho«*t«f, ilt»c ihia wftU OMured in tW Mooad 
jtar of Cyra*'* rrign, RC. W. Ttiii M«aMp<lon r*0«{*M • p««trfiil 
MrnhoruioB fion lb« chMnobtrj of HodJA, irhUA will b* •xplslmd 

'S. nppuikig froin D.C. M7. the aMunnl dat« of th« oiptnrc of Xardb: 
Cmw niiatd U jrowa (i. 60.): AIjMIa (i. S6.) a; roan; SidjriUM 
(i. I&t 12 r«r»; Ard)-» fi. IB) *» yw»; Gjm» <1. U.) 3<3 rcwi. Tbc 
•WB af tie reiftnt In Iha Uonte of ibv McrmaaJni amouobt to 170 ; wUek, 
•ddad lb Ike 6»tt M tb* ea-^latv nf Sordit, ptvt fat that of Gfge** aturfa. 
tian, tt.t'. t?7. Tb« Hnu-lidie hdil Uir nia; pivvwtuljr I« MB yMts ; 
■D thai Anna, iha firat pr>QC« of lliut lint, aicndtd the throne &.LM2S3. 

IH TijtMMj I Atysda?. in tlio fabulou* tiin^». B>C> 

SJDjnaiiljr: UcraoUir: Fir<<t King, AgrootoB of Nmw.iia>a.«.>..tS3S 
Laat King, Cao-laolM, iiiiirdM«4 if Gygm. 

atDjtt^tj: HtnatAtKi 1. tijrna unrpi the Ihrooe 7S7 

S. Arfj* «urPr«<li. 0S3 

I]« ufct* Pcicne. 
lOTuIn Milctiu. 

Tbe CimoMriuM, dlapliMil hj ScyiUaa 
Noinadei, eoine into Aaia, uid tmke |io*> 
Mnioa of BaiTli*, all bal th« citadel. 

3. 8ad;attw necked* 640 

PnntURi war against Milctta. 

4. A1.TIUIUI aUOCV^ib OjO 

Ha makaawar (it* j««n wiUi Cjraxvea, 

wUeh lenniniUM Is emaeqimnee of a 

^TUI Mlipat. 

Orina tbc Cimtnchui* out at AjU, tatei 
8in;rna,Biid IiUm In an itlack oa Cluo- 

Conilnaea the vai a^ainet llil*4ot tar Am 
J pan. 
A, Cnavu tncreeda 571 

Cjnu, alreadj sott-rcicn ot Aaia abort ifao 
Ualra, ca^tM Cfimm, and takea pea* 
•MtianofSardi* 6&f 

** Amonf tbe Gnsekt, thne <a«e 
Ur^ iBodft of aanatiiv llie life of 

CjrrvK 1 Uioae of Uafodoim, 



CLIO. J.UC»I»7. 

yean, when the Mcil«:s finit sccc-ilcd from tlicir allegiuice: 
ID ihe stTLggle u-iih llie Awiyriaws fur freedom, llifj* IwcitiiM!, 
i( appears, a valiant and warlike race***, and, uhakiog ofT the 
yoke of lien'Uiide, n^tuvert'd llicir libortj : subscqueii tly, ihe 
other dcpoiidcnt naiioud followed the (.-xBtnplc of llie Aledei. 
All thu natioDK uf th« ruutlnctit wt-rc \hax their uwu maiilerai, 
but Ihuy again fell uu(U<r usurped domioion : in n-hat mnnnec 
06 this came to pass, I sliall iicinr describe. Amuog Uie MtiJes^ 
was nil inu-tli|^cit tnun, u-huso narao was Dcioces, sod of J 
rhraurlcs : tliiH individual, euamourcd of royally. utidab-J 
vourcd to aUain bis object, by the folloiriug means. Tha* 
Medcjf were scalUired about in viIlaRes; tii hi* own, Deioces 
bad already made himself conspicuous, by his eaniest appli- 
catiou to tlie distribuliou uf justice: be acted thus, pnnd- 
ualty, ou account of the general lawIessDexs tliat pervadvd 
Media, and from ihe conviction, that, by oil honedt people, 
the rioUiors of juhlicc aie reganled as enemies*" : the Mcdes 
of that village observed ihc disiHwiliun of Deioces, and eleeted 
him their judge. He, slill bearing in view iho wvemgn 
power, conducted biuiself uprighlly and buuccitly, by which 
means be obtained no ulight praific at thu hands of his fellov- 
citizenii : in conKeipiencu nf (his, the inliabitants of the olher 
rillagcs having aM:er(ainrd that Deiocee was the only nion 
that prouDunced fair decisions and senlenciis, having theni' 
selves before met willi unju$l judgmoiUs, habtcncd joyfully, 

g7Jad^. Tlic crowd of applicants conKtantly iRcreL<«iDg°'*, as 
pooplc became aware that justice vss distiibuted according 
to trutli, Ueiuces, who knew tliat cTc-ry thing dc]]ende(l upon 
himself, would no longer occupy the seut from nhich ho 
bud hi-rctofun: pTunuuiiCL-d judgment: he rtfusc-d to liU any 
longer llic office of judge, as it did nut stiii his tutea-st to^l 
ncgieet his oivn allairs, and attend the whole day to ths^m 
adjudication of tliose of others : ia consequence, rapine and 
wickedness pervaded ihc villages slill more cren than ba- 
fore : the Medes therefore assembled, and <lebaled on ibeir 
prescnt circumstances. ITic friends of Ueioces spoke, I 
presume, in some such language 

elves before met willi unju$l judgments, habtcncd joyfidly, ^ 
hen thpy heard Has, to submit their <li»putes to I>cTocc8'^| 
djudicauon : at last, no litigant would ap|>ly to any ollierVJ 

I>a|iii (rantliH<4, •Imply, * 1h ' 

(rantUH<4, •Impfy, * WhMt'd fa}- 
lalitty;' n* in rliip. lA!) □[ thia Beek. 

»i ni>V<K<ca. aiminjr to umrp Oi* 
•(iTcmitn piiwn, Kiu((hl pmdrntljT 1* 
iniUr n panv lUaoBii ihr hnotM niii^ 
(c*p«rubV invmb«n of (hr cnmiDU. 

nit; 1 he tlienfbn abvwed Tiimi«tr i 
t» ftn unrelenttng pro w mitor of lair>| 
iMi m ■!«<«» Ion ; aoA ihiui niMla goMl'' 
hb rodi, bfiDg u \mU elnfUa b^ 
cbr finc6 ud drtuouK, lo tw iMr i 
'" M»tt. M», 

CLIO. [.9^,00. 


lossiblc for us to liru in tins couiilry, if \\c are Ircated in 
. manner, K-l us, vriihout delay, establisli a king n\'eF 
" n*"* : by »Ui:h moans tlic country will be well managed and 
" goremed, and wo oumulvea sbafl be able to attend to our 
" btmnc», without being disturbed by the violation oftbc 
** hirs." By such discourses, they persuadt-d the ii»<ifmbtyj)6 
In adopt n kindly government. Imnirdinltly nftcr that do- 
ctsimi, Llie subject for debute proposL-d wus, whotu nhnuld 
ihey apiKtim king : DeioccK was by nvcry one prewnt ffri-atly 
preferred and extolled ; so ihiil, at last, all approvLiI hin ap- 
pointment as liing. TVTocps inKiKted, thoy atiould build lor 
him a palace norlhy of tlto royal power, and insure liifl Hafety 
by appoiiiliiig a Imdy-guard for Iiiro. This tlm Medes ac- 
ceded to, and built him an oxton<tive and strong palace in 
that {tart of the cotuiiry that he him^clf poinipd nut: ihey 
also deferred to bitn the privik-gi' of cliiKifiing bin body- 
guards from among tbu whole Medic papulation. Now 
Ibort'fore, being in possession of tbu jiower, he compelled 
ibc Mcdes lo build one single city, attend to the fortificatinns 
■ltd cmbclliahniont of lliat, aud take less account of llie 
crtbera. The Mcdcs again obeyed : they built rast and sub- 
•tantial ira1N at tbe place now called Ecbatana, riHtng up 
one circle wiihiu anotber. Tliis fottilicatiou waa »o con- 
trived, that each circle was higher than the preceding by 
tbe battlements only ; to which the billy «itnation con- 
tributed in some degree, although its efiect was mainly due 
to art. The circles are sevan in number: witliin the last and 
highest is the myal palace and treasuries. The most exten- 
sive nf thesp ivalls is very nearly equal m ihi* circiimlerence 
of Athens in length. Tlic baUlcmentA of the first circle is 
white; of the second, black; of the third, purple; nfthe fourth, 
blae; of the filib, scarlet : these battlements are all painted 
of those coloure : the two last are coated retpectively with 
•QTcr and gold"*. 

Such, therefore, were the fortificalionn, tliat DeTocea erected 99 
around htm^clf and his palace: to the rest of the people he 
asxiKncd the- Kpacc about tin- walls for ihi-ir residence : when 
all these buildings ivere completed, he celabliHhL'd, for tbe 
fintt time, the fulluwing statu etiquette — tliat nobiKly should 
dart) to contc into the immediate jn-cseDce, but that all busi> 
Doe« nhould be Iranascted through messeugcis: in addition 
to this, that it should be held al least disgraceful, in all \*er- 

*** VikkcDMr pto^m {t— ) D^Ui larv fa Mill frcquemlr tttn 
drm: uma* of Cbina tmA Inoia. 

In tfaiP 


CLIO. 1. 100—103. 

aons whatever"", lt» lati^h or »[rit in lii« pr<''^ooce- He east 
about himself this niaiiU<j ">f vencralion, tor the puqtose ihil 
his compeers, who had been bruughl up with him, and were 
not of baser blood than himself, or behind him in ralour, 
should not, from seeing him frequently, Piivy his elorauoa, 
and cons))ire ij^ingt him ; but that, unseen, he Kbould Mwm 

100 to iheiu a being of another niLlure. After he had establiithed j 
nil tlieNB forms and coieinonieii, and Kpat^d himsflf finnlr in 
Iho throne, he continued to keep a ri|p]ant watch on the di^ 
trihulion ofjustirr: the complainiinLi WTotu down tht-ir de- 
pooilions, and sent them in to the king, who, after deliberating 
on the conlmis, and coming In a jud^em, scut them back ; 
such was his arrangement in respect of jti»ticu: all tho othvc 
details of govvnimirnt were scllk'd by himself: if he aBOvl 
taincd Utat anv of h\» subjects had itn^sumed Lo contraveno 
the law, he sciiL for bim, and awururd th<- proper sentenCA 
for every olTence: for this piirjiuw, Iil- kept spies and eavM' 
droppers, in erL>ry jiort of bin doniinious. 

101 Ueiocpft theielbru coubiiited himNi-lf with collecting toge- 
ther the MedtiS only ; aud OTcr tbcin he ruled. Tlie folloirilig 
are the Medic tribes i the linsx, Parvtaceni, Stnichates, Ari- 

lOSKanti, Budii, Magi. — Dmces had one son, Pbraortes, who « 
the decease of his father, after a reigu of fifty years, inberilod 
the throne. Invested wiih royal power, this prince was not 
content to rule nver thu Mcdt^-s only ; but attacked ilie Per- 
uans, and. reducing ihem, gave the first subjects to the Medes. 
After ihifl achievement, being master of those two naUonSi 
both of iliem very powerfnl, Itc stibdued Asia, passing from 
one uation to tho other; until, having made an attack on the 
Assyrians, that is to say, the As\vrian« that occntiied Ni- 
Dvnib( aud bad preriouslv been supreme over all, but were 
now reft of their allies, who had abandoned them, and, 
although standing by Ihemftelves, were even now a flourish- 
ing nation — Pliraorles, I say, having marched against tbw 
people, tbero perished, after two and twenty years' ruga, 
together with the greater part of his amiy. 
103 ' At the di-alh of Phraories, Cvaxares, the son of Deioees, 
succeeded: this prince is rcprpsented a-s ha^ioR hcsn far 
more valiant than his progenitors; and the fir^t that divided 
the Asiatics into military dcpartim^nU, and first separated 
the javelio-meo, bowmen, and horKeioen, who in former 
days were all, withoal distinction, confused and mixed lo- 
gctticr. This was tlie same king that was fighting with the 

"* —1 inOrt M w ih« i»eMti»g of Jlyn. ■ all wUhoat txeapttgo.'— Seiiivv- 

CLIO. 1. 104—106. 


•TdUtisi at th«! time day was converted intu nigbt over the 
coubatAnU***, and that subjected tlie tvbole of Asia above 
the Ilal^K river, lie roUccted forcex fTOiti all piris of hiB 
donuDiutis ; and invaded Ninevcb, with tbe iulvutiifti nut unljr 
\a avcogo bis iather, but abio to get pouetHOli of Uiat city : 
ht bad defeated tbe Assvriaiis in an open engagement; and 
vu encamped l>crore Nineveh, when a large army of Scj* 
ihianSt beaded by tbeir king Madyrs, the son of Prololhyes, 
paned over iiiio Abia, liaviiiji; driven the CinitnenaDa out of 
Europii: in their uunuit uf the fugitiveK, they cnnic into 
Media. There is indeed a mad of thirty days, for an expe- )04 
dilinm nalkvr, from the Poltut Algeotis to the I^a&i* rivor 
Colchis ; from Colcbi» to Media is no great distiuico ; 
Ij one nation, that of tbe Satpires, interreniog; pasnng 
u^b ivhicb, you find yourself in Media. But the Scy- 
thians ilid not inakc tbulr cutnuicv by this route: they 
tomd, far norlhward. into a much looRor rond, keipin}; the 
Caucasian mutintaius lo their right"': tbeie the Jkledes en- 
gi{^ vrilb the Scythians : ihey were dflealed iu the battle, 
anil ivft of the empire, while Uk' Scytbiaus ruled over all 
Aaia. From Mi^ia they proceeded on to Egy|)t; and wbeo lOS 
Ihey bad rcacUcd PutesUrie in Syria, PtaniiiiiliL-bnii, king of 
Egypt, met them nith giftx anil pniyerg, and diterlcd ibem 
from advancinif any farther : iu their march back, tliey 
pacsed tlirougli A>calon of Syria : mo»t of the ScylbiaiiB 
proceeded on their way. nritbout Mopping to pilUgc : ftome 
few bowevLT lagged belitnd, aud stripped tlie boly precinct 
of Cclwlial VVjius. This holy precinct, I find, by iuquiiy, is 
ibe tDi>st aticieut of all palaces consecrated lo this iciKidcu; 
for thai in Cyprus was a hmnch from thiis, ns thf Cyprians 
ibaniaelirea cotifi-twi ai>d that in Cytbera was built by Phce< 
nietaos, who cnine from this Kiune Syria. 'Ilic goddess, liou'- 
er«r, smote with a female disease those Scythians and their 
poit«rity who had riilt'd her temple at .-liiCAlon : the Scy- 
thiami assett. tliat for tho »ame reason they are still afflirtod, 
and tr«vfller!> visiung their country may wilaexs bow tbcsa 
ticopk arc afflicted'": the 8cythianf> call them Euarocs. 
For eight and twenty years, therct'ore, did the Scythians 106 
hold tbe sivay, and every thing wan turned upside down by 
iheir pr«siimptuoiu and haughty conduct; for not only did 

M* Sm L 74. Csolta ^tM, opoB Ucdia. 

w Tlia CiMinerttiH took At nj *' Ttw inif<ahi« ciplustioa tt 

al0M liw ■boo a/ Ike t^nilne, ud lUt •ALnuidiBH]' dlwMC, itttMimtj 

iiDOt ^m^n A'!* \i3 U« C*iwaai«a <)c- ■□ c«rhia bnllim, c<«ii in Eo^luid, 

llto: ihr S<Ti!ii*iii, m their parauit, iut b« Motvllad ^j iLu ouiie«i. Is 

mtUwti llMir'oaj, lal mom, hy tha VaUknur^ ooU on H«rod. i*. AT,X 


CLIO. I. lor, joa 

(\iey t'slort frum ererv biKljr wfial tribute thcj- tlioiwr io im> 
pose, but, inJoivendi'in nf all tliat, tlicv galloped abwit, ran- 
ttackiUff whatever the people iiiielil nave*'*. AccdrJiriKly, 
Cruxarcs and the Mrdcs invitc^d most of ihom to n banquet, 
wnore, after orerpoircriiig tlicin with wine, ihey tnaissocri'di 
then) all : in that nnuiner, then, the Modes recovered Iht 
power, and, ae before, extended their daniiuion over tlie 
of Asia: they took also NincTeh — the siepo itf which I 8ha]I 
describe in a difTerent history^; and entliralled all the As- 
syrians, nith the rxccption of tlie HalM'Iniiiitii territory, 
After these exploits, Cyaxares, who, including the time ibal 
the Scythians predominated, had reigned forty years, de-J 
parted life. 

107 Astyagcs tlie son of Cyaxare**' succeeded to the throne: 
he had a daitKhlL-r caltt^d Maudane, who, he dreamed, dis- 
cbai^c^l fiuclt a quantity of urine, that it nut only filled hit 
eapital, hut even iiiiindati.'d thf tihole uf Asia. He eunitnu- 
nicutud his dri:am to the ma>;taii3, that profess Io interpret 
Mich vicious: lie \\a» greatly alarmed, nhen informed by 
them uf every particular. i>oiue time afler, dreading the 
acconiptisbnient of the dream, he avoided giving this dangh- 
ter, then already mnrriagenhle**', to any of hisi Medic gran- 
dees ; but united her to a Persian, whose name was Camby- 
sc«, and whom he knew to 1>e of R reupcclahle family and 
a (lutet disposition : he considered ttuch a man as vastly 

lOSinferior to a Mcde, even of the middle order. In the first 
year of Mandane'ft union with Cambyscsi Astya^^s bad 
another vision : it teemed to him as if n vine grt>w np from 
bis daughter's tromb, and spread all over Asia. Hut iiig be- ^ 
held this vituon, and conimnnicated with the interpreters of Vj 
dreams, bo sent for his daughter, who was pregnant and ~ 
near her time, out of Persia: from the time of her arrival, ni 
he kept a watch on her, being determined to destroy her ^| 
ofispring; for the magian interpreters had pointed out to ^^ 
luin, from Ins dreuin, that the progeny of bis daughter froald 
roign in his sicad. Astyagcs thiTrcforc, watched In this 
manner, until Cyrus cauio into the world : be then called 
Harfiagiits one of his n;iations, Ihe most loyal of the Medea, M 
and the couGdaiit of all his affairs. '^Harpagiis," said he to * 
bim, " by no means neglect the husinofls that I nm about to 

[■f<im> ' Ihr* oxVMoi trtlMt*' w' 
jlallii. Jiu^i K fvw ' 1^*11, (irri mid 

ahxir inhittv' H^mtitt. etc. Thi> Itrtt ■*■ Msn.973. 

pMilloo.— &An«v> 

•> FV.h«hl.T the UiHoTT ^ Awjrik, 
■u|>poM<d to I'm* • woik of iicruJotan, 

JCHflf in iip <i|»«t' ; Ih' «*«id, ft pr* 

Matt. 517. 

CLIO. I. 109, 1 10. 


" cimrge rou wiih. Lci inu bo L'xposod to no danger, by 
'* Any dtft-eption : coiwuU nol the interest of olhers, lest you 
" wmk rniir uwii Jesiniciiou liLTfuller **". Talie the Him 
" tbat Miimianc has jusi brought turlh; carry him lo yoiir 
" liouKC, and put )iiiu lo death ; aiid then hury him, in vrhat 
" manner yn« yourself may think proper." Haquigua iiuilo 
ihc fill la M' in); aimwer : " Sire-, hitherto, never have ynu wit- 
" iia»t>d in the man that »tandB before yon any ingraiituda : 
" bo assured, thai, ri>r the time to come, I aball aull hare a 
" care not in offend you. If, therefore, it ix your pleasure 
* tlial it nhnuld bo dnno, aa lur, at all invents, ba I am con- 
" ctrrned, it in my bounden duty ni perform t1i)i);tiiidy irhai 
" you coinoiand." Harpa^fus having givwii ih'.- aboi-c answer, 109 
the babn was delirered over to him, sumptuously clad in its 
ahrowd, for death"*. He proceeded home, weeping: at bis 
entrance, he related In his nife all the coiiver«ation ho had 
had u-iih A»tyage8. " .\nd what, tlien, d\, you now intend 
•' to do?" said the Jady. " Not indeed, what .Vslya^cs pre- 
" scribea,'" answered ho, " not even were he tnoni raring and 
" distraught than ho now is, would I, at idl rvcntii, accede to 
" hia desiri!, or lend myself to such a murder. I bavo many 
" reaauns not to he his hatcher: not only is the child iDy 
" own relation, but Astyages himself in now an old man, 
** and has no male ia-nue : at his ilecuase, tJiould*** the cra\rn 
** descend lo tliis dau^hu>r, tchoKu suu he wish(!<i to maaaacre 
" by my band, what tlitn can I expect, but the most dreadful 
" danger***? Yet my own safety requires dial the child 
** ■ball die : let, then, one of As'tyagcs' own people be ihu 
** aaaaaiiin; none of mine." So he spoke; and forthwitli des- UO 

Ciched a courier lo one of Aatyages' hordsmcu, who be 
ew grazed his ealde on (lasturcs excN^diuf^ly well adapted 
lor bis pufpu«io, being in mounluiTis gn-ully iQfe(it«.-d with 
wild beasts : the man's name was Mitr.iduti.'s : he u-ns mar- 
ried lo a fellow-sen'aal : the name uf ilie numuii tvho was his 
uATtner waa Cyno, in llollcnic; or Spaco, in Medic, for the 
Medut use the word npaca for ' dog.* The mountains, at die 
fool of wliicb this herdsman accord'mgly grazed Ida cattle, 
U/ northward of Eebatana, facing tliu Knxiue sea: that 
quarter of Media, on the cooliaes of the Saspireo, is very 
tDouniatnoQa, lofty, and corered witli forests: the rest of 

** «4 n) (st «i) liwi> npaiffi' *" Axww tl It proper U oblttTi, 

■« to* ipdv cvlpa in N«Juia ineiilMi tbsl ia Uert^iiu, ud oiban, Hkm 

mm Al I|M» DttHM mm vsitii. SsktenS' *n'l ^f^^M M« oftm fodondant, vid 

X«K Ifmd. Mui. 4()9, li. jcHiinl n innnimsM otijfeU. — Lvfher. 

»• UuaFnUad aia^am ■Iter ri>. ■*■ Mnllh. *»7. H. Crauitr. W lix» 

UsU. i87, >!. Wrirai ^im < J MiyMvit rim ■i*)>mh. 
VOL. I. U 


OUO. 1. 111. 

Hedia, howarer, is all level grouml. On Ihe arrira], accord* ^ 
iagly, «i(h all speed, of the herdsman ; &» soon u hafl 
vnK .summoned, Iliiriiagus uildrt-ancd Inm in ibt-M words :^^ 
•' Aslyagi's commands you lo take litis inrw-bum cliild, and 
** oxposv him im the bleakest part of y<rur muuitiiuus, so that 
" he may iiuickly pirmh. Hi' baa liki^wisc (^iven ]m cotii- 
'*' maodK, (hat you libould be uiformud, that if you do DOl 
** procure ilio immcdiale death of tbia infaitl, but in any 
" manner coolributc to tii& pn-M;rvBtiun, yim Khali be visited 
" with the mo»l horrid of deaths. I myself hare it iii com- 
III •• mand to set- the body v&pueod.^ Thi- Rnutiur beard Ihewj 
orders : he took tlie new-bom child, returned l)y ihu wmo ' 
way be bad come, and arrived at hia farm ; where his owa 
wife, who was expecting every day to go to Wd*", had biq)- 
pCDcd jiift then lo l>e dclicered, white he hiiD»elf was goiM. 
lo town. Both man and wiftr had been uneasy on each otber'a| 
itccount: be was slnrmed nb<^ut her approaching delivery:] 
the woman, on tlie other hand, was not less alanned for berl 
htiftbnnd, aft it had ncrpr been the ci»tom wilh Har|>agiis to 
si-nd lor hill). At his return, the woman, seeiug liiin tliui 
unexpectedly, first inmiircd what Harpagus had Rent to liit 
for in »iich haste. " wile !" said the luan ; " when I got i 
'* the town, 1 there beheld and heard what I fain nc 
" wotild have wished lo bcc, our lu have b«ralleii our mas-^ 
" Ivn: thb whole bouse urilaq)agu8 wa» tilled witli moam- 
"•ing: terrified that I was, I entered: no sooner liad 1 
" stepped in, tlinn I behold a nen-bom babe lying on the 
" gnmnd, palpitating and crying, clad in cloth of gold**. 
" linmcdiately llint Harpagus saw mo, he ordered too lo 
** take directly tlie babe, carry him away with n>e, and ex- 
" po5e him on the mountain that abounds the most in wild 
" animals : he obsrned, at the Kame time, that Astyages was 
" the person that charged me witlt thin coinmi^ion, and 
*' threatened me nilh dreadful piioiiilinient if 1 failed to 
" execute it. I tlicn took away the inlanl ; and was bringing 
" him liere, fltipposing thai it was the child of one of 
"servants of the house; for I could not gueea whence 
" came : ycl I was surprised to see him clad in clolb-of-goli 
" garments, and still more at the mourning evident through' 
" the house of llarjiagiis. Soon after, however, on my ran 
" home, I was itiforuiod of tliu uliolo business, by the servant 
" who was to escort mc out of the town, and ^irc the child 

W vim V't"'- siiniific«,_/>om liay wriwl rotie of poW ctotk ; tl ia «a ex- 
'o dajt, ant Uin olmle dsi ; lWn|. unpic n( Ihp ftsatr oalM by tha 
nnr brr Jttkrrif. (^DiinariUM ti )■■ \mii. taro>«r. 

CLIO. I. US— li4. 


** inlo my hands — that he wu the son of AftLynKCB' ilangh- 
•• ler, lij- Cunbyne* ihft son of C/ius; and that Aslyugea 
•* couiuiaiidcd he should be destroyed ; — and uuw, hen: he is," 
So Mviri^, ihe herdBoiaD imcm'erml the child, and KhnwodH'i 
hita fo b» wife ; ftbe, MciDf; the infant of ^ood size and baud- 
tama ftniareit, shttd tenTH; and cnihrscing the knetiK of her 
bosband, she besouglii him, by all njeans* not to cxpnso Uie 
infjuii : but bo denied the iwfuibility of doing oiherwise ; for 
iiMprctara were to coue,on iIr- {tart of liaqHigiiii, who would 
dostmy Ittin by the most rnii;l of dualhs, if he did not ohvy 
bis orden. Not Hiicci>i.-diiig in [ivriiuading her hn«tband, the 
wife nnre morn addressed him Unui : ** Since I cannot then 
** obtain from you not to expoiu.' this iufiint, I beseech vou 
** lo act as follows: if it ia abmhitoly neceiuary n child 
** shouhl be neen strelcbed no the nmuniain, I nlMi have 
" been delivered and hare brought forth a slill-boni inbnt. 
** CuTT the dead body mil. and i-xpose that ; nuti let us bring 
** op lite son of Astyagcs' <iaugliUT as though he were one 
"of our own: in that manner you ciinnot be convicted of 
** dlMbedience to your masu-rs, and ire shall Uike Do bad 
"coanael tii oorselvcs; for the lifelcas child will rcccivu a 
•• kiogly funeral, and the surviving babe will not he reft of 
*' Ule.** The ht-rdHnmn tliuught bja wife spoke quite to the 113 
parjiosv, and insUuitly prueeeded to do aa she »iid : the child 
that be had bmuglil**, for the porpoae of ptilting it lo dcalh, 
be eonngned to bis wife : his own lifeless child be deposited 
in the cradle Ihai he bruughl the other in, and, aduruint; it 
■ritfa all tlie finery of the living child, carried it to the bleak- 
nt Bounlain,a»d there exposed it. On the third duy uf the 
body lying there, the herxuinan set off for the citv, leaving 
of hit) hinds on the "fttch. Mo nrri^-cd at liarp,igiis's 

Idenrt!, and dci-larcd ihat lie was reiuly lu exhibit the dead 
body of the infant : JJUrpagus, accordingly, sent some of tJic 
rancl failhrul of his guards, through ihem saw the infant, 
and tntcrred the lierdaniaii'a son. Tfaua the still-boni child 
««• buried; and the grazier's vrife took the boy subsequently 
eaVed Cyrus and suckled him, giving hiui some other name, 
difTprmi from Cynis. 

When, nrcordiuglT, ihe boy had reached his ten lb year, the I U 
following accident disclosed his birlli to the world: be was 
pUyiug in the sanitr irdlage where the cattle^stalls were, along 
wtih the boys of his own age, in tbu rood: hia comrades, 

ciirdingly, in sport, elected for their king this herdsman'* 

1, ashr was called. lie appointed soroc of hisplaytnatea lo 
Mijierintcndants of the buildings ; others, to h« bia body- 
* ^> rvpnt*'). Hut. 606, S. 



KU»r<ls; oao of them, tu be the khifi^s eye; to another hi 
aiMfEned iho ufiici; of bringing in nil ines!>«gc»; dctcnDin-l 
in;; according lo hiti own jiidgnient the duties of each re-1 
Kpcciivcly. One of xIiksc. boys, ihcrclorc, who «"«« jainiiig 
in tho gmiie — hu was tlie son of Artembares, a Mi>dic iioble- 
laun — rofiiAiiig lo ubcy llir oTdcrs of Cyrus, the mock-king 
gavu his urdeni that the boy nhould be taken into cafttodv 
by Iho others : ho was obeyed, aod C}Tuh handled the youth 
|)rctly xharply wiih llie whip. The boy, immedialely h« wa* 
tvlcii8c-d, being highly affronted to hare uudcrgoac such 
unworthy trealmtnl. hasti^iiud to the cily, and complained 
bitterly to bis father of the irealmcnt he* had received Imin 
Cyrus — not ibat be made use of that UHine. for he was not 
known by it llicn — hut, from Iho hands of the son of Aity- 
Hges' herdsman. Atlciubaies, in anger, went, on tho cpot, to 
AstyagL>8f lakiD|i; his sun with him, and eomplained of tlie 
inluterabie trt'atmcnt bu had net with: then shi^wiuK the 
l)oy'» »:hi>ulders, he said, " Thus, im king, are wo presump- 
*' tnously insulted by your slure, thu Ron of a hurdscian." 

ll>'lWbeD Astyagos hud seen and heard the case, wishing to 
bare ftoine reparation made lo the honour of Arlembarca, he 
sent for the herdsman and the boy. When they were both 
come ioto his presence, Astytges'fixcd his eyes on Cynu: 
** How, then, have you the audacily," said be," you. the »on 
" of »o huiuble a man as this, to treat tmb siieh indigniiv 
** ibe Hon of that geiilk-man, thu fir«t nublL-inan in my court :^' 
** My lord," replied the hoy," what I did was injustice: for 
" the other lads in the Tillage, to which 1 belong, had elected 
" me as king, in pUy, over tbera ; as 1 appeared to be the 
** best adapted for that office. Tlie rest of the boys obeyed 
" my orders; but this youth, without assigning any reason, 
** refused to obey, and consequently was pinii»lied'^: if, on 
*' that aci'oiini, T am deserving of blame, here I stand before 

116" you." As the boy spoke these %rords, A thought struck 
Astyages that he recognised him*" : he fancied to himgalf 
that bis countenance was something similar to his own: the 
time of the exposing neemed also to agree with the tad's 
age. St-irtled at ihesc thought)!, he i«tood norae time silenl : 
at lengtli, when he recovered, he said, with a desire of 
getting rid of Arteinbnres, and in order to be able to exa- 
mine the beidsmnn all alone: " Arli^mbaies, I will tnke care 
" to arrange matters, so that ncitlier you nor your &oti sball 
" hoFc to complain." Thus lie dismissed Artembarea: at 

■• U t. " qnw*,'' " qus[iTopt«r: 
aee BooV il. 10. 

tntrrtti tb« mai o( Aatjagn, 

CLIO. I. 117, MB. 


le^reo of Aslvaffcs, Cyrus wu» taktii, hy ftoim.' utt'*iiit- 
ants, into the inner part vt the palace. Tlien tlit lierdsniari 
alone n.-niuin<;<l ; and AsLvogcs questiuiied liiin, unaccum* 
panie^t by u-itnciEW8,froin wtienoe he got the boy, and ivlio lutd 
'vm hito ta him? The man atlirinu() lliat the lad waa his 

*o«D-begotIen SOD, and tho mother that had borns him waa 
still living with hitu. AsLya^'cs obserTcd to him, that he had 
nottakt'u jimdeut coiuisol, and wished to bring hiinaelfiiito 
great troublf: as ho pronomiced tliesc words, hv hi:ck<4icd 
to his guards to lay hold on him: u-heu brou};ht lo the 
rack, the inau discovvrvd the truth ; and buKinuiiig iVoin the 
bfginning, wuBt through all ilia true particulant; and cnn* 
eluded by prayer, bMeeching (he kioff to fhou* mercy lo 
him*. Astyages however, now that the herdamaii had dis- ||7 
coTetvd the tnitli, was indifloreni as to what became o( the 
num: but attacliii)^ great blame In llar|iagus, he ordered 
IIm guards to summon him. Ah iioon as Harpagiis made his 
qipearance, Aslyages put lbi& queatiou to liini : " llnrpuguit, 
" to what kind of death did you put the son bom of my 
** dAi^hter, whom I delivered into your hands?" llar])BKna, 
who caught xight of the herdsman in the inner pan of the 

"iMUacu, would not recur lo faUehuod, lest he ;«hould be dv- 
lectfd and ronvic'ted ; but explained as fnllowK: " Sin', when 
•* I had rcetivcd the ucw-hwm child, I tx-vidved in my niim] 
** boH' I niij^ht act according to your plea«.ure, and yet re- 
** main blameless in your cyca as well as in your dauffhicfK, 
" without dtpjiiug my own hand into his blond for you: 
" I ih^n did as I will now tell yon : 1 sent for lhl« hcrd«inaii, 
" In whom 1 delivered the iiLW-born in&nt, lelliu}^ him (hat, 
** by ynuT command, it was lo be put to death: in go n^yinc 
*' at all events, I udd no falseliood, for 8ueh wen? >our iu- 
" juncttond: I then delivered ilie ehild to him, with orders 
** to place him on aome bleak mountain, and rotnain by him, 
" on the wateh, until he died. I threateniHl ilie man with all 
** itorts of torture, if be did not do this ef)ectiial)y. Wbvii he 
had properly executed these orders, and the infant was 
dead, 1 sent the most faithful of my eunuch.'), and, through 
" them, saw, and buried the ror^e. Thii», sire, ihingh |>at«ed 
** in this busineaa, and such waa the fute of llie child.'' 

Ilnrpagiis, therefore, told llic honeat truth: but Astyagea, 1]8 
■notfaeriog the anger that p<iasessed him at what liiid been 
done, repeated to Harpngan the account as he hatt heard it 
from the herdsman ; and, when he had finiahed the reheiiraal, 

■■ CnDinruqtina : •■)(sa*U«iM;> ■•■ 

MjoiIj oooainifil with Iba paniviplc. 


CUO. 1. 119,120. 

concluded by eayiog: " The tad is still Uving^aod tbo resuH 
" is as it ought to be : for," couiiauvd he, " ] sufTerod ^reallf 
" on lh« boy's account, and 1 took much to hear!*'* the le- 
" proaclies of my daiighiei : however, as things have tunied 
*' out wj lucky, you nmsl send iw your own son, Ui Veep coio- 
** paoy with tho young stranger: besides, a& I intend to uflor^ 
" sacrilicc, an a Uiiuikjigiiing for (he pn-serration oftliu boy, 
" to the gods lo whom that honour belongs, yoii n't!! atteaiT 

1 19" yotiDidf nt my table." Harjiagus, on henriiiR thiti inviia-l 
lion, prostruled hiiiiit«lf, and kiitM'd the ground: coD|;mUi- 
lating hiniKt'lf thai hU diiwbedicnce was followed by such a 
farourable restilt'". and that he was invited to the royal 
board under such auspicious circumstance)), hv went homo: 
M 4001] as be entered — (be had ta only soti, at most thirteen 
years of age) — he sent him out, bidding him go to Astyagea, 
and do what he should tell him : and then, full of gladiuMB, 
went and told his consort all that had 1ia|>p'-ncd. Hut, at 
tlie arriral of Har)>agus's sod, Aslyagi-K slaiigliUTed the 
youth, ciil him up inlo joints, nnd roasted somu of die llcsh, 
tile rest be bulled : having properly cooked the whole, he held 
it in readiness : at the diniier-hnut-, together with the otber 
gnestti, came llarnagus also: before Astyages uud lite rest, 
tables were pbccd"', replete with mutton i but llicy senred 
np to HnrpagiiR all the partx of his own turn, with die excep> 
tiou of the head and extremities, that in, the fuet aiid bauds; 
these wern deposited apart, in a basket, carefully covered up. 
Wlien Harpagufi seemed to have calen a sulEciency of the 
meal, Axtyages asked biin tf Ik; had enjoyed bis feast. Hbi^ 
pagus, having rciunied for answer Ihat he had f^roatly eU' 
joyed it, Home pi!rNUtis, appointed for the purpose, brought 
him the head of his mju, logeilier uiili ihe hand)) and feet, and, 
Btaiiditif; before |[aq)a^is, bade him lilt up the covering, 
and take what be chose. Hari'agus assented : heliJled up the 
cover, and beheld the reninants of his son. Not at all sliakei) 
off hid guard, he kept hiit pruHvuce of uiind. Aatyagcs uked 
him if be knew of what game he had eaten: be reftlicd, that 
be was purftclly aware ; and whatever a king may do, it is 
ttlway* pleasing. Having made ihis answer, be picked up 
the reiiiftiuiiii; bits of Jlesb, and weiii home ; iuiendiu},', I sup- 
pose, to collect and bury nil he could. 

120 Such was the punishmeut Astyugeit inflicted on HarpagiH. 

" luUld kiilBI lull," tsrlitriy. 

*" 1 i/wnif «■' b )1« ly*yitu ' ptriv n - 
mm ci in tA V^ iWbiiil (comnmilr, 
rwU) rvmt. SeHwftf. Acr. Urrod- 

>« It app^sn fliat rrary pMt bad 
hit inm MfiMraU taUe, or trsjr; 
which ii tbc cue Dov, Mxntiinet, in 

CUO. I. 131. 


leo, taking intu hi& cou«i(lL'TaUou wliat eIiouIiI be (tont- with 
Cyrnfl, he cohvpikmI the sarac nia{Oi>n» "ln» 1""1 inlerprcted 
bis drcain in the manner I liave ulready described. When 
ihcy wcni comu, A»tyiigc« aiikcit Uicin wbal was Uie intcr- 
pmuiftn Uiey had put upon liis dream : (hey anttWLTed, say- 
ing. TLiU the child would rvign, if he sun-ircd, and had not 
pfferiunsly died. " The child in, and still survires," said 
Atty»g» lo the tDag:i3Ds: '* he has b^^n brought hj> in the 
" coantiy, whurc the luds of ilie villog« havu tnadv him king. 
" He b«» pCTformtid all things cxacUy as kings in reality do: 
** (or ho has ap^ioinlcd (juanls, ushers, and mL-H»eiigeris and 
" made all the other arrangoini^nta. Toll mc, what you think 
** tfaeae things lend tu?" Thu ansirer on llie pari of tho 
■>^"— was: ** H the child doi<& survirc, and has in fuel 
" retgned. withtml any pmmudiUitixl ubjuct, you may ceafto 
" to fbel alanu nu Iiik accuunt: resum<^ a stuul heart, Tor he 
'* will not rule a sccuiid time: indeed, many of our dcdnnt- 
** tions bar« endud iu insignificant rusultx. At all evcntJt, 
'* drvams, and ihc like, frequently bring, in coDclosion, very 
" siinplo accomplishmenls." To this Astyages made rtply : 
** I also, OM^ans, am chiefly of the satoo opinion, that the 
"child liaviug been uominalr-d kiojr, the dream is fulfilled, 
•* ind he may no lonyvr be nn object of tt-rror tn me. Never- 
** thclesft, il IK my wish, that you should cart-fiilly weigh the 
" tuaUcr, and advise me uhat vvill be the safest way of pro- 
" ceodtog, fur the advaDtagc of tuy family and yourselves." 
To which the magians spoke as follows: " Sire, it is of high 
** naportaiice tu ourselves, to »up|M>rt your throne : for if llie 
** nDpirebe diux alienated, passing: over lo this child, a Persian, 
*' eren wo Medea uhall be entbrallet), and held in no account 
** by Persians, as being foreigners. But so lung as yon are 

* king, you our fellow-citizen, evwn we ourseli'es paTlicipate 
" in ftome measure of your government, aiid we receive great 
** bonours at your hands : thus, therefore, the welfni© of 

* yuiirself, and the aecurity of your throne, must he the coo- 
** vtaiit objectbt of our vigilaiice; &ad did we see at prest^nt 
'* aogbt tn fear, be a^Hiired we would not ful to inform you. 
" Now the drfam has been thus innocenlty nccompliNbed, we 
** ounelrcs take heart, and exhort rmi to do as much. Wo 
" (utTtse jtiu, sire, lo send this child away, firom before your 

" ^ttf to bis father and mother*", in Persia." AstyageslSI 
HaCeoed to this aniiwer, which gave him much pleasure. He 
called Cyms into bis pr«9coco: *' My son," Mid he t« him, " I 
** oonfeas lliat I have done nnj iistly by you, in conse4ueureora 

Hittt. S70. 


CUO. I. 1-2-2, 12S. 

** Tain dream ; y<iii f sfape<l Uie !ol Umt whb iutendcd Por 
•'you: now, therefore, go into Persia: 1 wili strict uu c4Cun 
" with mi. When ymi grt there, you will fimi ytmr ftitbi-t und 
•' mother, who are nothiog liW^ Mitradutes and hi» wife." 

123 AstyagCR hnving tliiin spoken, srnt Cynis awar. On 
his arrival at the houeo of CarohvBes, he 'was received by 
his parent^ who embraced him with tTans))ort8 of juj when 
infurraed who he was, haviug been hitherto convinced that 
he had died immcdiatrlv at his birth. Thcv inquired in 
what tnannur he had been savt'd : be related to them, sayiDg 
that he knew nothing before, hut had been imdcr a )(real 
tniBtake: on the road, honrerer, he bad been iufonued of all 
hie adt'enturcs; for, previous to that time, he thought bo 
was ihp son of Asiyagea' herdsman: on the road from 
Media, he had been made acqiiaiiilcd with the whole hislorr. 
by his cHcorters, He dL-seribed how he had been brougnl 
up br the herdsman's n-ifo ; and praised her, in jivefcmKc 
of all'"; Cynu was every ibing tu hini iu his discotine**: 
in conscuuence, hts parents, availitig themselves of lliat 
name, anci in order that the preservation of the thild might 
appear to the Persians more elearly the work of the 
Bods, put about tho report ihal Cynia, when exposed, waa 
euekled by a bitch : from thence the lalc bud its origin. 

133 When C>TU$ approached to manhood, and became tlic most 
gallant aud beloved of the young men of his day, liarpagus 
fient him gifU, and courted him lo take rerrnge on Astyagcs ; 
for he himself, facing but a subject, saw uo prospect of ever 
oblatntug reparation by his own influence : r^nrdiug, there- 
fore, Cyrus as one grown up and etUicaied to be his avenger**, 
lie sooght to maVfl him hi« cotifcdcralc, comparing the sof^ 
feriugs of Cyrus with hia own ; but prcriously he inude the 
following prc|)arattou«. The beliarionr of Asttyages to the 
Medcs being gt-nvraUy very bantb, Harpagiis had commu- 
nication with the various chief noblemen among Uic Medea, 
•nd perstiaded them to stand up for Cyrus, and put an end 
to the rule of Atilyages. Having etfected (his obJL-ct, and 
being now ready, lie was accordingly desirous lo make 
known his ideas to Cynis, who was then resident in Persia: 
but, as llic roads were walebed, and he had uo other modu of 
so doing, he devised the following artifice : ho took a hare, 
and ripping np its belly, without discompocing uty tbiog or 

■■ Moll. Ml,*. 

■I Uilt. leu. ScbwciK. hkkci U 
■«*rl« in Ibt tratB cT ii>. See likr- 
•riM Hsu. UO, e, no ibc eircamlocii. 

*» Hall. 438. 

** Supply, after Iwirffifutu, the 

Hiiri) ryiMJ*. from the tortfifinf 
rrfu^m — n'jiffnll. 

CIJO. I. 124, iM. 


trariD); any nf the Itnir, Rli]i|>u(1 in n letter, mnumiii^ what 
be had to say: then, 8t:wing up a^aio ihe hare, he gave it, 
together with waw; neis, to iht moM faithful of his wrranU, 
dK«s«<l as a *portMiiau ; whom he sent over ioto Persia, prc- 
aerihiDg to him eicd coce, la tell Cyras, tn delivering the hare, 
to paunch it himself, aiid let nobody be pri^sent when hu did 
BO. 'ITiis was therefore done: Cyras took the bare, and rip|>ed 124 
ap the skin: he? found the letter there dp|)asited: he tuok it 
aadrcadit: Iho Iclt^T ran thus: "Son of Camhyscs — eh** 
** the go(U watch over you: for oiherwise you might never 
** bare attuned sach good-fortune — 1 beseech you now lo 
** Wreak vengeance on AHtyages, your murderer: according 
** to his intentions, you would have long sidco dtcd: oidcd 
** by the gods, and me, you survive- You have ereuhile, me- 
" thinks, been informed how he behaved towards you, what 
" auflerings 1 umlt-nvent myself at the hands of Astyagex, 
" beeauM ] did not $lanf;htcr you myu^lf, but gave yoti to 
*' the herdsman. Now, thi-u, if you will hearken to me, you 
" shall rule over the same empire that Astyages now reign* 
** over. l>o you, therefore, persuade the Persians to aland; 
" march lliem upon the Medcs. And tvhcthcr ] myself, or 
" any other noblu Mode, be appointed commander against 
" yciQ, be axsurcd every tiling will bo- as yuu wish; for all 
" tboso will be ihc iirst to stand up against him and for you, 
** and to depose Astyages: a& all is here, at least, prepared, 
** do as I say, and do quickly." 

Cynis, having leceivcd tlii» information, considered what 134 
would be the most pnid*-!!! manner to persuade the Persions 
to relwl: aAer turning the niHller over, be found that the 
nio«i expedient mode wonid be lo net thus : he wrote n letter, 
coapiistug what he thouiichi proper to iudite. and iheu 
ntKtored the Persians: in the presence of llic assembly, be 
unrolled the letter, and, reading it out, said tliat .^styagee 
appointed him. leader of the Persians. " Now," continued 
be, " Persians, 1 eummand you to aitsemble, each brioKitig 
** with liim a siekle." This was Cynis's proclamation. — The 
Persian tribes are numerous; some of which Cyru.s colleeled 
together, and persuaded to secede from the Medes: ibey are 
tfauav from whom all the rest of (he Pcrfians take their 
origin ; Pa^argadie, Marnpliians, Maspians : of these the 
I*asargadfe are the most noble: among them is the bnmeli 
from which the Persic kings spring, called the Achtemenidv. 
The rest of the Persian tribes are as follow : Pnnthiala>ans, 
Deruateans, Geriimninns, all of whom are huahandinrn : the 

*» Tlw brpwbMni, «1 1^ etc. See ch.ll eftbii Bmd. 

00 CLIO. 1. 1S0— 138. 

rcmaindor are nomades: Duuis, Mftrdons, DropicAns, Slg&r- 
12tl lian*. When Uiey were all assembkd, providt-d witli Uia ptr- 
8cnb«<l iiistrumcDU, Cyrus piopwed to them to clo&r that div 
a certain tnicl af land siiuate in Penis, and overrun wiui 
biube«t the extent of which, every wa^, was ibout oigblci 
or Iwenty Blades : aa aouu as the Pcrxians bad completed tliol 

f prescribed task, b« ordered them to master ft){«iii oii tbv fol- j 
nvring day, and previously wash Uiemselves. In tbe iiitcnol, 
Cyrus <;ullL'cte(t utgelhcr llio flocks and lierds of hi» liuber, 
fikiitthtcrcd aud rooked tiicin, for the purpose ofrcKaiiug tb« 
PLriUHTi body. Iti addiliou to UiU, the proper ration* of urine 
and brvacl w<;Te ]>rcparcd. At the arrival of the Ptn'ian* on 
tb« itust day, Cyrus bade ibein stretch ihemselvea on tbt; turf, 
and fvastetl tliem. After ibe repast was at an end, be aakcct 
tbeiD wbicb of tbe two was preferable, io their opinioo ; 
wbetlicr tbe trcatmerjt of ibe preceding day, or the prvseni : 
ibu men rcplieiJ, that there w<is a vafti difiercoce bt'tweeu the 
two; the day before, they bad ex|)erienccd nothiuf^ but bar<!- 
sbips of all kiuds; on the jmriient day, tbey had tasied do- 
tbinf; but tttveets. Cyrus louk advantage of ilie exprcsstoD, 
and laid before the assembly the whole naked plan: " Men 
*' of Persia," taid he, " thus matters stand tritb you: if fon, 
" will bi-arkeii*" to me, ihta^. and ten thousand oilier awevta . 
" are youn;, and vou hare no ^lavi^-h toil: if you hoMtate to 
*' hcarkco to ine, loiU beyond number, like Uiosc of ;kt:«tor- 
" day, avvaii you. N.m, tlierefore, follow my orders, and 
*' bo irv-c> 1 myself, mcUiiuks, am bom, by divine blcssiag, 
*' to place tbia bonn witliia your bands: you, I bold not be* 
** hind tha Medea in valour, either in war or other thinM. 
" Since NUcb in the caM', rise up directly axainat A^yagea. 

1S7 Tb<3 PersiunB, thu^ provided with a leader, nlthont;h ihey 
had long since abhorred the Medic ride, now longed for 
liberty- Astya^es, acquainted with tbe projects of Crrua, 
sent a oiesM'nger, lo aummon hiai to his presence : CyruB 
ordered the meiisenger to rejiort, that he would corner and 
meet him, sooner chati Aslyages bimnclf could wihb. At 
thia intelligence, AstyageH armed all his Medes; and, as if J 
driven aatray by the divine jxpwer, plactrd Hurpagus ml 
tlteir head, unmindful how he had exasperated the feelings 
of that person- Accordingly, the Medcs engaged with tbo 
Pcndans: some uf them, not implicated in tlie plot, fought; 
Ibe rest either passed over, of their own accord, to ibc I'cr- 
aians, or, acting as willing cowards, fled in great numbers. 

lltSAf aooo as Astyagi<<s beard of thin disgraceliil rout of tbo 

Ml MM. MO. ' Mibi (il<tenp««M«>, orwbv*.'— »J««m«. 

CLIO. I. I8tf. 


U«dic aniir, be excUumcd, threatening Cynis: *' N0| Cjmu, 
" tun hIisII not, al all events, rcjiiicf al so cheap a nte." 
Hating m said, the first tiling he did was to impale the ma- 
gian iiiU'q>relen< t\( drcaiiiS) who had induced hiiu to send 
awar Cynis: next, he aruied the Mi-duK Unit had heen loft 
bdhiDc) in the capitai* youn;; and old : tlicsc he led out, 
eogoffed the Pervians, and was defeated. Astya^jeA himself 
iras taken priftoner, and lost all the Iklvdcs under his cout- 
niand. \^v(on Afityagt-'H. thiu u prituDur, HarpagUK 001? 129 
pr«Male<I bimself: he ioMihcit with cutting gibes, and tri- 
umpfaed over hi& rillen eriL-my : sayiu^ lu liini many heort- 
nndiii}; thiofT);, and, aoionfc others, <|ucstionc<l him, in refur- 
CDCc to the repubi at Hhieh be liad feasted him with tlie tleah 
of 1h« own aoi), " Hon- be reliitbt'd iii« prcM»l thraldom, 
" instead of his (onner Avtay.'^ Ilut the prisoner looketl up, 
and a«3ied( in retimi, whellicr he attribuu'd to iiimtielf the 
•cbicveinent ot L'ynis: and liarpagus ubnerving, that, as be 
bimwlf had written, the credit of the tiling was his due; 
AUyatf* pro«L-d Ik hitii, heyoud doubt, that " he waa both 
** llie OKKt foulish and tlie mostiniqiiiious ufmen : certainly, 
" if when the opportunity oflered him to he bioiKclf king, 
" and if. an he prelendetl, he was the agent in tliu present 
"* coujunctuTc* he must have been most foolish to have fn^'cii 
'* the jiovrer lu anotlier; and nioitl iniqiiiuuM, to have, for the 
" sake uf that rcp**l, cnsJared all the Medi*»; for grauliog'* 
*' il was absolutely neceasary thai the royal power bbuuld bo 
** mtivfvrrcd lo other hands, and he hini«cir could not hold 
** iit it would ha«« been more fuir and equitable to have 
** given tlial boon to sotne native Mede, and not to u Perbian : 

MML W&. »t4. 3. 

rasoxoLoav up thb MBi>m, iccoxDiHo to UBRODOTeii. 

1. Thriu* of 1I1C fcM«ti«n oT Aujigca, at tlw Knl fow of the ran at 
Cjn; mottiiDtai tbie foumUtion of Mm ehgcatlofj: Handohw ^mem 
Ikia ittr, u we muA Iwfcrt, in B. C. MS. 

a-AMjiKT* vdgnti 3fi }wi <i> \M)i CjaxtstB 40 fwn. mahulinn- 38 
fnn of tb» ScjttkutD nk; PhrwrM ti jwt (i. 101)4 IMoce* 53 
yean. Sun «f ib« jv^n vt tli« <lyaMtf of Dvuctw. IM j««n. AiU 
IM m 3Ml (Im Arat jtar of Cthm'* reiga, Ue mmIi i* B. C. 70a, t^ 
BrM ttxt Of tka «Mirpaitan at IVioof «. 
^. Iht 'tha powM of dM MfilMliad nimd ti Upf« AMa liH jmui 10 •II; 
la vlikb 3t* ^Mra ot S071UU1 wi^irMiMr muM be added. Tbi Kmj- 
riaiw. iJwt«fur«, bad ioM the lanraiiiavy or Vp^ Aal* IM jt^tm hrfara 
Oa tlnwttioa of A>l;«(n (k ISO}. A< eliu djnuil; tif Dci»m« laated 
atij IflO jTMn, it u iivlerKd, ihu dunnp ais ivw*, infvnooinH Mnvni 
ilia «riyii of Hadie iiul«|MikdMie>o and Doi'min' iunrp4tioa, tM iAt^ 
wtn in tbat ilkto ttaivnijtm dcaenlNHl i. 9ft, 

4. Th» Aafrini vnfrBmcr pranoM M tlw Uedic indcvtDJaom h*d ra- 
aond ASft Tnn (L (H>. Tlwnfcrt, 


68 CLIO. I. 130, 131. 

" bill now, iho Meiicfl, wholly giiiltlc»s of whal he funulnint 
'* of, were, from masters, to becutnc Mrrvants; whilt; liit Pc 
" siaiiK, from bi:iii>; fonnerlj' servanls to the Modes, 
" now tu br vxallcil into mnsten." 

130 Aslvuges was aotturdtiij^lj-, afWr a reign of fivc-and-lliiny 
jcurs, tbuH dcpoBvd: tlic Medcs, who had nJn] uvor Asia 
above the Ilaljrs duiin^t one hundred an() tbinv yeare, all bat 
two, excc)iliut( the time thai the Scythians bvid the piAfcr, 
bovced to the Pitmuhk, iu consequfuce of the har^h niW of 
Aatyages. hi Intor days, hon-erer, tbcy rcpmu'd tbcm to 
have so done, and rose U)) aj^ainitt Dariutt ; but, conqucrud in 
battlo, they were a second tim« siihjupatcd: at Uiis period, 
however, the Persians, headed by Cyrus, rose up a^insl ibe 
Mcdi'B under Antyugcs, nnd from thai day liave be«ti ibo 
ndere ol' Upper Asia. CyriL8 kept Astyagu^ by him until his 
decetser without doing bim nny further iDJury. Tbprcfon< 
Cyrus, thii» bom and educated, cane to tiie throne; and 
sabBequeniiy to thtttie evenin, as I have already described, 
ftubdued Criesus, the author of the first provocaliou: after 
depotung the Lydian prince, he obtained the soven;ignly of 
all Asia. 

131 Tlie following obscrraaons on ibe tnanneTH and cuslotns 
of tbo Persiaus 1 know to be correct It is not the ciislom 
with them to civet staUU'S or temples or altars; tlRy re- 
proarh » ith folly Hiich as do xo. Tbi^ir reason for thi» appears 
to be, thai ibcy flo not, after the exainjile of the Hellenes, 
legnrd tW gods as partJci paling in tbo nature of man. They 
are in Ibc practice of ascending the lodiest of ibeir monn- 
tains, there to make lurriftce lo Juve, calling by that name 
the whole ambient &ky. They olfer up sacritice lo the twin 
and moon, lo the earth, water^ fire, and winds j and llmM 


Aojtriui nfKmnej cEimmrncifB niviter Nioat ISU 

Origia of ih< indcpmilfnA* nf Mpdia .... 7iA 

Lut jearofdeniocrutjr (i.Ilfl) f ._ 

I. DeiDcea murfki the tbtonr— 5 .....*............ i«f 

Hit gCTerninait coii£ard tdelT tn iltr Medc*. 

A. PIvMrtw ciwcoed* IH 

ConqoMH begin : P»rfik; Upp«r A«a, «c«pt th« AMjrriAiu. 

3. (^»ar« nwevcU OM 

War nf ttre jmn wtth Ljdia ^J 

Capture of NiDCTfii. J^U 

4. Atty^-if^ tvcetti* .,,, (j^^l 

Depoud bf hii grandMii Cyntt .,., Hl^l 

Tbi oni^a of tbc aaayrimn •opitmiMir balng attaitxH bjr KiniH. tip, la lb« 
Moood 7«ar. it nppwuii, of bia raiga, tiliM* biN mo A^rim im ih# ihraor n[ 
I.jdia, B. C, )9A9. Tim smuc remit in oblaitied from (lie auamMtm ol the 
Mte of tbc csntun of Sardia : tliii if « itratiir coirobrtalim of (br ■rcurK'^ 

CLIO. I. 132, IS3. 


arc the only gods they liare worsliitipL'd from tht; car1ii:9t 
titni;i: tlipv have now, hnwerer, leaml lo oir«r saciilicc to 
V«nu3 Ctclestisi Irorhuwiog lite custom from the AFj^yriana 
iind AnliianK ; the formor of whom call lliis KOildess Mj'litta ; 
III'- Utter, Aliila; and the Pcrsiane, Mitra. Sjicrificc, with the 132 
tViMitiw, to the above deilieft, in conducted in the folloiring 
tnaiioer: they raiso no altars, kindle no fires, when about to 
ofTvT ft ?iciim : tliey make no nse of libiilion, or flute, or 
IntK'H"*, or rnastod linrloy***: every one that wishes lo offer 
aji Kitcrilicc, takes the victim to a cWan spot of ground, and 
mvdJctK ih(» di-iiy, his liara*" decked generally with myriJo- 
hranchcs: no ono that prescntfl a'vtctim is i)prmilted lo pray 
for blcssingfi on himself ulonc; be must supplicate for the 
welfare of all the Persians ami their king, in which number 
be himself is necessarily included: he tlitm carves the 
sacrificed victim into joints, boils the llcsl), and, fprcading 
abtmdiince of herbage, more particularly trefoil or shamrock, 
(HMpUys therein the meat. When this bas been properly 
laid out. comes a magus, who chaunls uvi-r the meat a tfieo- 
poKM, the name ihey give to the hymn : without such magas 
It is not lawj'id for them to olTer any sacrifice. After tarry- 
ing a short lime, iho saehfic-er carrit-s away ibo flesh, and 
dw* wiili it whatever his fancy prompb. Of all days, lluit 133 
which liiey arw wont to honour must is the birth-day of each; 
on ihat day ibey hold it necessary to serve up more prori- 
fdon than on others. At such times, the opulent Pcrsiaos 
put on their hoard, an ox, a hoiso, camel, and an as&, roaslcd 
tvbule in ovens. The poor peupk* make a display of the 
Mnalier kinds of cattle. They eat little at dinner; hue arc 
fond of sweelnieals oi all kinds, serrcd up sepuratety, not 
kll toother*"*. And it is on that account, ihcy say, " that 
" the Hellenes, when ihcy have oiico eaten, ecaite to be 
'* buDgiy, because, after dinner, nothing of any account is 
" brought hi; but if any delicacies were to be produced, 
*• they would no longer ceaao to cai*"." They arc exceed- 
ingly addicted to wine; but it is forbidden ibeiu to vomit, or 

•" Tl» labirk MB iwo Iock »liii« 
«f motA, luairiDg d'xtn fron tli« tar*, 
«n Ih* litiocl JaM »B<1 iilr>nft rhc brrut. 

*■ jil«l. undrnuud nfdii: rtaitt 
crMiMi) iMUleT. loantnl: ti «u ilrcwn) 
Mlvcek the bonM of tbc lictim. 

■^ tkrsrfotu) Dukn nit' i>MP<>- 

•• Tki* MM«iii Mill hnldB In ibe 
Eom: pipw. MlTei), and nraMmcMi 
•rw hrmixnt ti lo 

lifiiuri SI all ko«n 

<" I nke ibp in««iuDg of (lib r^ 
lurk tn b«, " dtsc Xh* H»U«a(« •■» to 
" eemplMi) altety lU m« *\ntA» OMal, 
" soil ihMvTor* lak» m nvMbint&i 
" betwna Dealt ; whurtM tba Per> 
" tiaas *l9 not oat at ow in«al to tkii 
** flU, but rewfvf •ODi* npp<ti(D fbr 
" rtfrald nifttnlwwim nl rvei7 boar 

Tba Pvniuw ct9[i>ii>«v liila ooMna 
of aaliait oHire ■rateftil and MoHorr 
llm tlict W ib« H«I}«M«. 


CLIO. I. 144—186. 

to Rulio imtoTj in the prescnco of taothcr. Thcso custoou 
art.- xiitl now id vogue. Thvy aru in tlie practiic, al«o, of 
dfbatiof;, wlicn ininxicaied, tlie ino»l iiti|>orUut aBain: 
u'liab'ver mav liavo met with their appntliation al llieae df- 
baiicliCK is proiKist^d to them fastinjj, on lIid day following, by 
iJie laiidluril at Hbose bouse the council Ls bejd ; and if tbcir 
deciaionsi Htill meet with their approbation when Utii» ranting, 
tbey adopt them. The resolutions entered into while Eut- 
ing are, ou the other hand, siihmilted to ihein when lliey 

134 arv under the influence of n-ioe. Wbea Persians meet 
one another on the htghwavK, any iqieclator can asceriaia 
whether the individuals thai come in contact are equal ia 
rank, by thin sign : before they arcost each oilier, tlicy IciH 
on tb« lips: if one is a Hltle inferior to the other, they kias 
on the checks: if one of the parties u greatly below ths 
other, he prustTui4nt himself and kisses the ground. As a 
nation, thoy honour, tmincdiatrlr after themselves, those that 
reside next lo theui ; those further on are th« second in their 
estimation ; and so by degrees, as they udvancc further from 
iheniselres, apportion their honours, boldiuj; iu accouul the 
least of all such as reside at the grcaleet distance from Peisiai 
thinking theiuKelvea, of all nations, the most worlhy in erery 
respc-ct; and atl oUicn inferior in vinue, according lo ibe 
proportion above described ; the tnost distant from tbemseltei 
being the worst of all. Under the em| •'itm of the Mcdcs, cat 
nation even ruled over anotlii-r ; llie Medcs over all, genc- 
raJly spoakiny, and paniciilarly over those resident next to 
tbcmsctveii : these, over tliu uations on ibcir boundaries; 
they again, over the more removed. In the same order the 
FDnuans also distribute their honour and resirecl; for ibcy 

l3Sara iheinselved an ancient and superior race, llie Persians 
aro of all uations the most prone to adopt foreign tnannun 
and customs : for instance, they wear the Mi-<lic cotituiDCr 
fancying it more hond^uiue lliau their national dress: in wdi, 
they adopt the Kg^piian cuirasses; and indulge in all ti>- 
luptuona luxuries they become acquainted witli : a particular 
example of which is, that ihcy have adopted from tlie (Icl- 
lenes .in infnmons practice; they innrry each several law. 
fnl wives, but at the same time keep many concubines. 

l36Ncxt to gaUiint conduct in battle, the most manly qu:ili6ca- 
tioD is deemed to he the possession of a numerous onspriog: 
the king every year sends gilU to him that exhibits the 
greatest number of children : number is regarded as forco. 
Their children are brought up, commencing from the fifth 
year and contuiuioe to the twenlietli, in three things alone; 
uorsc-riding, ui>e of tlie Iww, and spealaug the truth : pro- 

CLIO. I. 137— WW. 


vioad^ to the fiAh year, the cliildrcn ccrer cone iu the 
preaence of the fnther. bat pass Uieir whole time with the 
W'Dinon : the molivc for this cusloni Is, thai if the chiUl hap- 
pen to die in his infjuii:}-, he mty nut give any uneaKiUMB 
to hi* father. 

Thr above custom 1 approre of: as I do aluo of the next 137 
following ; which is, that not even the king biinsolf is alKiWcd 
to pot to death tuiv pcnwtn for onv nrirae onl^' ; neither is it 
Uwftil for aoy Pi'ntian lu iuQict any reiy severe punish- 
tnent*** on one of his davcs, before be ban carefully roa- 
■iderpft and ascertained whether bis misileeds aru more 
ntunerous than hi» K"^d w^rricvs, in vhit^b cokc he may 
gnitiJjr hi* anger. Thuy deny that any huuiaa being ever 
ntordercd his own father or mother i but assert, that wbon- 
Drerauch things havy tiiken plac^-, if matters were properly 
looked into, it would bo acce«»arily found that they are 
t'ommilled by soppituiitioua ur adulterine children : for it ia 
tunwiural lo snpposc, thoy say, that the lawful and real 
inrent of a child ishciidd be kilM by thai same child. The 138 
things that it is iiiiiitwrut for them lo do, they may nut woo- 
Uon : lyiiif^ i», th<:y hold, the moat tii»<;ra('i:rtjl of vicva: next 
to which i9 the coniracliog of debts, for many reasons; bat 
especially becuusc, they Kuy, it ts abM)lutt;ly i)e«:ei»ary Lhat 
a oebtor should lell lies. Whosoever of the natives has the 
leproay, or wor^ihew, 'm furbidden lo cuter a town, or to 
havr any comniuiiicaUun willi the rest of the Persians: they 
preU-nd that alt allliclcd with those diKteuipcra must haro 
nnned agaiiut the sun: mauy uf them wen drixe out of the 
eotmtry every atfanger that may hni-c caught these discaeos: 
they likewise drive away all white pijjeons, alirthntiug lo 
them ibo same infections. Tbev never make water in riven, 
nor s{^nt nor wash their hands in iheui ; but prevent uthcra 
fimn so doing, and in all re>]M>cts vonernte highly their 
RtMiiaa. "flicy huvc anutlicr pecnliarily, which thv PersiunalSIt 
thetDselTcs do not lake notice of, but whieh we faul not to 
Q\mxvc: it is. Iliut their names, alliviive lo the body iuid to 
pnkdmr, end all in one and the same letter, that called 
Hn by the Uurians, and Sigma by Ihu lonians. ]f you exa- 
tsine the namea of lh« Persianx ending in that letter, you will 
find thry all do so, invariably**. TTie abore things beioglHO 
^fectly known lo niL', I am able to speak positively (^ 
tli«in. The following particulars, relating to the dead, ar« 

** M*tL 400, h. of Uw fliul » in tb* Pcrriui nnxum 

*" Aaoltwr ohMwuioa cqasllj irv, Cjvu, CtunbjiM, Smcnli*, Da» 
'■•dooi oecura ahap. 148, luitancv* rioi, Xjirrxn, etc. 


CLIO. 1. 141. 142. 

mentioned notso aatlienticaltj. bciiiK kept secret The dead' 
boil/ c»rn Pemian '» never interred until il has been lacerated 
by some bird or dog: Uiat Uie luogians do tbtis, I am con- 
fident, for Uicy do it onenly : tJie Pfmans then caoe the 'body 
Id vrax, and conceal it under ground. The magkns, bow- 
erer, diflir exceedingly from nlhet men, and from the 
Egyptian uriests in particular: for tbo latter kill notbing 
that hrcatKcK, with iIil' exception of the victims thai tbev 
sacrifice; wbureas tbu magians, n'ith their oven hands, kill 
all animnls except man and dog: they display evt-n great 
ardour in the dt'struction of ants and serpents, and of all 
other creeping and flying (hingH. I)ut bv this custom ob- 
served aK it has bucu from the fimt, 1 now return [o uiy for- 
mer subject. 

Ml The Joniuus and .^,olians sent ambassadors to CyruB at 
Sardis.iniaicdiutvly after the subjection of the Lydians: they 
were desirous of being subjects to Persia, oo'*lhe same terms 
AS ibcy had been, before, to Crccsat. Cyrus having heard ibc 
puqinrt of u'hal tliey proposed, related to ibt-m this fiible: 
*' Once upon s time," snid he, " a piper tieeing some fishos tn 
" the sou, began to pipe, in ibu expectation of ibL-ir comiDg 
"out of the water, on land. He nns disappointed of his 
" hopi-H**'; so he look a caitiing- net, tbretv it un a numerotu 
" shoal of the fishes, and hauled thetn up. Seeing ibetn 
*' bound on tlte shore, he said to tbcm» * Ccaiw now yotir 
" dancing ; since, when I piped, you chose not to come oat to 
** dance.* " Cyrus related Ibis parable to the loniaas and 
.Colians, for thf%f reasons; thai the Tunian)), when be before 
had, by hia dejiuties, employed them to shake ofl" the yoke of 
CrtBsits, had refused to take his adrice ; but now tbe work 
uras done, they were ready enough to hearken to himi in 
CQBseqnenco of thin, irritated at their be}ia.rioitr, he gave 
them the above fable for answer. At tbe receipt of this 
intelligence, which iraf> commniticalei^l to all the cities, each 
state fortified tbemsebes, by building walls around thedr 
towns ; and all met together at the I'anioniuni, with exception 
of llie Milesians, tbe only stale with which Cynis entered 
into the same treaty as the Lydian sovereign had done 
before The rc-ac of t!ic lonians agreed unanimouslj to 

U2s«nd ambassadors to Sparta and implore assistance. The 
loniaus, to whom also the Paiiionium beiongs, have erected 
their towns under tbe finest sky and sweeunt climate hi 
Ibe world, that we know of: for no country approaches to 
Ivaia in these bles-sings, neither above nor below, nor w«st 

n Mill. $10. 

CLIO. I. 143, 144. 


HOT east; iKiriic of nlik'h arc oppn-Ksvii by coW aii<l wet; 
oUieri, b^ litrai Hud drougiit. Tbese louian stales hace uot 
" 000 and th« same language : it divides into four dilfcreiil 
dies". JVnielii8, Uie lirrt of iIwfM staiirs. lic» lioulli ; next 
lo which ar« Mjii* and I'rionv : ihcsc ihroe places arc situate 
ID Caria, :ind iisc ouv conimoii diiil4.'Cl. Tlie states in Lydia 
are, F.plutsu.*, Colophon, Irfb*.-ilii«, 'IVos, Ciaztmu-iiatt, Plio- 
cica; thcM.1 »uUlt:rnut]lM do imt at nW agrc^;, with iliu uLhers 
nwniinned abore, in Ungiingc; Uioy speali a dialt^ct com- 
Dion to themselves. There arc thre« more Ionian stacus; 
two of which, SamoR and Chios, occupy islands: the third 
fttanOft ni) the ii>uiu land, Erylhre. Tlif Chiang, accordingly, 
and llic F.rythrxaiis, speak one »nd the same dinlect: ilia 
S«isian» have a foroi of langungc peindiar to themselves. 
Thrsc muke up the four rhnractriiiilic hi:iiii:heK. 

Among ihciw lonians, ib'Tpforc, the Milesians were ODderl43 
lAelicr from any alarming danger, as they had already franifld 
a treaty • there was no cause for tenor, either, to the islaod- 
rr»; for the Phocniciann were not a* yet stihjcctcd lo tlie 
Peraiaait, neither were the Penians thems^Iveii any thing of 
sailors. I'he A[ilesian» had seceded from the nrst of the 
lontam for the following and no other n-asNii, ihm, feeble aa 
lbs Hcllrnic corporation w&s in those days, tlie louic wae, of 
all the IlFllenie triheii, the weakest and niont initi^nilicant, by 
fcr*"; for, Athens excepted, ibcy possessed not one blate of 
aujr renown. The otlier lonians accordingly, together with 
tlw Athenians, Ebunncd ihc name, and would not be called 
Ionian*: I know many of ihcni, even now, that blii)>h ai llw 
nanii.'. These twelve Btutce, howfver, pridL-d ll. cm selves on Ihfl 
appellation, and csliihlisbcd for tliL-iii:tclvi'S, scpamtcly, a holy 
meiuet, to which ihcy uifixcd tlio name of Pauioiiiura. 
Tbvy dccn-ed, that ihis temple should not bi'^ shared by any 
4Nb«r of ibe louiunB; nor, indeed, did any enivc for ad- 
■htaocc. unU-ss the Siiiyrn[caD». In Ibe mmie uianucr, the 14-1 
Dorians of the pre^eni Pentapoli«, the same territory as 
firniK-rly l-ore the name of Hexapolis, take care not lo admit 
any of ihe tie igtilmii ring Dorians int«) ilio temple of Trio* 
pium ; and even have excluded from participation**' such a& 
nave riulutcd the sacred institutes. For in the Triopiau list, 
brau Inpotla were, of old, propoRed as prize* to the nclorsi 
it being understood, that those who slioiild win them would 

•■■ They •»te »ll comiptionB of 
Ite oM Aiti^. 'I'h« teoiv of rjirm 
mmgmpmitmi and xf ■*■*(" rAw'M 
b e«i noil ilw souil-, ■ tarictla,' 

* iMMUtMt;' DflT, in Iki* pMMflC M 

!«■«, ohMfM in gn4m n «»»**■ 

VOU I. 1 

») MiM.461. 

■*) Tbe word funxii. twice t^ 
pMMal In ihM I'liapier, aigriillM, aro- 

Crti; laolv) hy X««**r, 


CMO. 1. 14S-U7. 

not take Uicm awar from Uic tuit)(tli:, Lut leave Uwm tben, 
as ulTeriDgH: accordingly, au iiiliaUiant of llalic druiuutis, 
callcil Aga«iclc», bciitK conquvror, iofriugcd the law, anil 
carried his triiMitl humc, wlit-ru liu liuu^ it up: in cans»* 
qiieoce of which, iho five citlei^, Ltndus, lalyKBiw, Ctinivintt, 
CoK, aiid Cuidus, t-xcludtxl fruui their couuuumuu the sixth 
town, UalicnrnasKits : siicb was, therefore, the puDishmGoi 

146 ihcy ioipcwed ou ihc jieoplc of that place. I am incUncd to 
iMilii^ve thai the loDians founded twelve cities ; and would not 
aduitl auy more, ftuiu the folluwiug uiotive : wbuu they ro- 
hiImI in PeloponiieKHs, thej consisted of twelve portioos: 
«iii-h is ihc case aow with the Acha-aus, who expelled Uie 
loiiiaiis, and arc divided aUo into twelve MateK ; — Ptlleae, 
the Hrettowai^s^^SicyoDi oext JEgira, and .di^ (ia trliidi 
ta seen the ever-flomng Crathls, (ixjm which the rirei in Italy 
baa borrowed its name] ; Bura, and Elice (at which the Io- 
nian*, milled in battle by the Argians, tooli refuge) ; .-ERium, 
RhypeH, and Palrces; together with Plianias, and OTcdob 
[where Hokr the cxtonetvc rirer of Fcirus); besides which, 

146 the only inland towns, Dytoa and Tritjces. Such, at the 
present day, are the twelve dinsious of tbe Achaians; anil 
such wcru thusu of tht.- luniaos, at all events: and, in conse- 
quence, the loniane wade for l)iciu£clvcs twelve towns in 
Atiia :di;o: for it would tie exceedingly foolish to eonteiKl 
that thuso lonians of Asia are io Uie lightest degree stall 
iiU[x'rior to Lbc other lonians, or uf any purer origin. No 
small portion of Ihcm, in fact, are Abantes, out of Eobcea, 
who hare no connexion, but the uaino, witli louia : the mix- 
lure cotnpiises Miayans from Orehomcnus, Cadtaeans, Dr;- 
opiaua, Pliocidiau emignuits, MuluMiaus, Arcadian Fdiu- 
f^ai)s, Dorian Epidaurians, together with other nations, tnanf 
and various. TlioHe among ihciu that cume front the pn- 
taneum of Aihouft, and imagine themselves the pureat of the 
luoiaas, brought no wives with Uieu to their new Kettlemant; 
hut took to iheinselve^ Cariau women, after they had killed 
all the men belonging to ibcm. In consequence of thi* 
massacre, these women established a law, which they bound 
ibeiiisclveH to by oath, aud heqtieatlted to their daughters — 
that they would never eat witli their husbands, nur call theoi 
by that name; because ihey had slain their fathers, husbands 
and children, and, after so doing, had taken them ui live nitfa 

147tli(5in. These events took place at Miletnx. These loniana 
elected for their kings, home of them Lyciana, descendanta 
ofOlaucusaiid IlippolocbuK; ntbera chose Cauconiao Pylians, 

**> w^, f>ith (be iKiiitiTc, iudaII; 
/aimntti, <n the lidt bf, Ste. 


ImrAtr, Mftlt.SM, y. 

CLIO. I. Ud— iO). 


from iNc ramilv of Codnia aud MiOaiilhuBj some tU^t-twl their 
kin^ from Uith houDrn. Itiu then it is argucc), that these 
lornisitfi are more attached to the niitnB than the other IuiiUun. 
We will fifTtaitt thai livrsv: lonians uf Asia am, thvn, af unsullied 
origin : slill, all are loniaiiB, that descend rroin tlif AtfauniaaH, 
ami crK'1>rat<- llic Apaturia feBtJval: now, all cdobralc that 
fc^nval. eic(>)it llie Kphpsians :ind Colnplionians, wha iire the 
only iDOions that refrain from mi doinp; nixl (hey arc ex- 
clndod ODHoinecicust'ofiniifdi r*". The I'aiiiouimu, Imuuvor, |4g 
b ■ uered spot at Mycalc, lool;ing nnrtliward, aad erected 
hf the lonians in comiami, (o th<.- honour of Jioliconian 
Nrplann. Mycale, hL>Te mentioned, ift n haidlniid of the 
coDtinonl, jiiltinK out trtistMard luward» Samos, un which 
luaiaiu, con)fr<-|;atinff fium i)il> variuim Mates, celebrult->d 
Um hue calK'd Hauionia; for nul only (ht; luuian fvstiraU, 
bat thoM> nf all tlie HelK'ni-s n-jthuiit excvpdoi), en<I in one 
and lh« Minic letter, siuiilar to the Peruan namo»*". Such, liH 
then, are the loninn stales. Those beloiiijing tn die iEotians 
are, Cjnna, called alfto Phriconii^ L«ri»»]c, Neon-t«icho6, 
Trmnos, Cilta, Notium, Ji({iroe«»a, l^iane, .-KRieac, Myrina, 
f»n.iita: thtwc eleven towns are the ancient .'i'^lian Riates; 
for one i>f them had beca taken away hy the lonisns, the 
number of those un Ihe continrnt bein^ twelve before that. 
Iliese ./Eolians possessed a better soil than the lonians, bul 
a* to the umperutnre of the scssonfi did not come near thorn. 
Tlifl .Colians ]o«>t Smyrua iu the following manner. The ISO 
Smymasunn had received certain inhabitants of Colophon, 
who had becu worsioil in a tumult t)i<.-rtt, and caal out of their 
country: sonip linir? after, the Coloplioninn fuffilive*, having 
WTitched the opportunity of the Smj rua'an** being oul«id« of 
ttiL' walU, biiAv in celebrating tlie feast of Baechus, uhut to 
iJie gates, and took posHeMion of the town. .Ml the .foliaa 
forcrs eatne to the relief of their fellfiw-countrymen; and an 
agreement wax made between the two partioB, that the 
loaiRn^ should n>«tnre the mnTrahle property, and ihi: 
Cohans would abandon Snivnui. The Smyrua-oiis at'Lvded 
to this: thr eli-^vm rilio«t divided them among th<nn»uli*os 
rMpOGlively, and crenled them all citizeus. Tliu above, 151 
Ibatoforv, arc the .Kolian towua situate on tJiv main laud of 
Aaia; wilbont reckoning tlioee in Mount Ida, as tb«y were 
'KMiQct from this confederation. The following itates arc 
found on iiilnndK: firt> lonns are inhabited by .^Eotiaofi in 
Lf*hos; for iho sixth town there, .Vrisha, was cntdaverl by the 
Melliyna.-an^. although of kindred blood. Oni- city bclongR 
to tbo .'li^ltans on TencdcM ; and in the itans called I locaton- 
■* M«t. 471, 7. *> Camf. KiU <h»p. 139 bImw. 



CLIO. I. IM, 1&3. 

iiitHi. tlii-v ban- nnothcr. TtiP l,es\>\a.n%, iiccordinglj'* snil the 
.flutiarns at Tc-riL'tlos, siiuilurly Mtiiuteil U) tliu Ionian island- 
ers, had nothing to fear: the rem of the stales decided, of 
one accofd, to follow the louiaua wbercrcr lliejr might lead 
the way. 

152 The amhassadord from the lonians and .-EolianB, on their 
nrrival at Sparta — for all Oipse raalten were tran^acb^d with 
j(Tfnt ci'leritv — elected for llieir common orator a citizen of 
P!i(ic«-a, whose name was VythennuH : he put on a purple 
cloak, mth a view ihat a^ many an possible of the Spaiiaiui 
iiUKht be infonneil and assemble : he then stood up, made 
II lung discourse, be«»ec1iing them to a&sist bis countrjrmea. 
Hut the Laccdtemouians, vilhout listeoing to what be had to 
K.iy, decidedly refused tu give any asNgtance tu the lonians. 
Tlie deputies therefore retraced their etep^ The Laccdav 
monianii, boworer, allbougb they had rejected the luuiiiu 
niiiba»£ador», f^nt, at ihi- santc time, »omc men on board a 
pentecontcr, for the puipose, 1 haro no doubl, of recunuoi- 
trinit the afluira of Cynis and ibe loniane. On the arrival 
of these people- at PhocKa, ihcy sent up to Sardis ttic mo^t 
approved man in the party, vluiso name was Litcrines: be 
repealed to Cyriis the- waniitig of the Laci'diEtiionianiS " thai 
" Cyrus should bewaru of iittackinganv city i^taudiugoD Hcl- 
" leiiic ground, a» they did not intend to be idle spectator^*' 

133 The herald having pionounced these words, Cyrus is related 
to bare inquired, of the Llcllcncfi who were present, '* Who 
" were" these Lacedajinonians, and what llieir nuuibtrs, that 
" they darod to accnst him in such a manner." Having rc- 
ccit'cfl tlie information be wanted, he uddreitsed tlic Spwlon 
herald in the follouiiig u-ords: " Ne\"er yet waft I afraid of 
" Mich jjcople a* have an appointed space in the middle of 
" tlieir town, where they congregate to cheat one another by 
*' false oaths. If 1 preserve my health, they slial) have to 
" chatter about their own stifleringsnot so much about those 
** of tbe lonians." Cyrus threw out this taunt against all 
the Hellenes, bee-.inse they have nurkets where they practise 
buying and selling: for the Persians UitmM;lv<.-» arc nut 
wont to have any nnch mans; a market is a tiling unlcMMV 
with tbetn. Some time aOer, Cyrus appointed Tab«lu«» a 
Persian, o.s governor of Sardis; and made choice of Pactyas. 
a l.ydian, who was to supenntend the conveyance of the 
sold taken from Cricxtts and the other Lydians: be then 
directed h'w mareh towards Ecbatatia, taking u^th him Ct;CB- 
siia ; at iirRt, rcKnrding the Ionian; as of no importance! The 

«* Hflu. sei. 

CLIO. I. I3J— 13«!^ 

Bn»t obstacle<i, in hh career, wen.*, Babylon, the llactrinn 
people, tbe Sacoe, and the Egyptiaim: he pro{>o«ed faimeelf 
to head tbe foAses a^ust thcs« latler, and send eotnc otbvr 
general af^aiiut tlie lonUn);. A« Cynis wm on his way Iroin )jM 
Sardis, Pactyas Mirred up ilie Lydiaiis to rerolt frnm Taba- 
luB and CrniH : being in poKscsRirm of all the gold found at 
Sardis, ho went down to the sea-c«aat, wbero be hired mor- 
f«naries, and prevailed on the people of the out-potts to j«iu 
him in the- expedition ; he then inarche<l his troops aguinsl 
SardiB, sod besieged Tab»lH!», vho war kIiuI up in the citadel. 

CjTua rpccii-ed intelligence of this, ubile on his road : and lis 
addreaicd Cncmui. " Crcesita," wd he, " n-bul uill be the 
*■ end of ihese proceedings ? Tbe Lydians, it stoiiis, will 
" nevtT tiMM- to cut out work for thrmscires and uie. I 
" reaJiy think the best thing I can do is, to sell theni oJfal 
** once into sUvcry. For now, indeed, every body tnust see, 
** ibat, at all ovents, I bave acted jii»t as if I bud cut ofl'tbe 
** father, and spared the children : sinci: I am carrj-ing iiiray 
** Tou, who weri' Komt^tbing tnuro than a I'aiher ui ibe Lj- 
** dians. while I tniHt the city to Lydiuus ihuniSL-lves: and 
" then t atn astoniiihvd that tbvy stand up againM nie !" 
TheM words discovered what ('rnu contemplated : Cra*!!!!!) 
dreaded lest he should utterly destroy Sardis. " tSire," 
replied be, " what you say, is agreeable lo reason. But, let 
** tne beseech you, yield not to the impulse of your niiud 
" wholly! destroy not an ancient city, guiltless of any furtner 
" oflenccf, or even of the present events. 1 myself was the 
" anihor of the former gfiuvanec, and my bead pays the 
" forfeit: in the jiresent n-IiL-llion, Puclyas is tlio culprit; 
** Pactyas, to whom you confided Sardis*": let bim, then, pay 
" tbe [>enalty. Shew nicrey lo the Lydians t do by tbcm as I 
"will tell yon; to ibe end, they shall nexer more rebel, 
•• iWTer more be an object of tenor to you. Send to them, 
" and My, they shall no Imijjer have in their leeqting iiny 
•* wetpmis of war : bid them put on linen shirta beneath their 
" cloalis, and bind buskins on llieir 1egi> : command llieni to 
** sweep the cithern strings, to dance, to teaeh their sons to 
"chaffer; and fonhnnih, mighty king, yim will dec tbcm 
•* converted from men into wom(jn, ro that you will never 
*• have to fear n^heilions on their pari**." Cnmue, aceonJ- |5q 

•^ AoMnGntf lo L-McWi, the ooB- 
trmrtiM U: mSrt {i. o. Pttityt) litm 

Tiflw. SchwrtshsMn t( of npmlon. 
\»wr*er, ihBi L'ruM ww iba wo* 
«tr«tfan (oDsmkI ia ihit irxnUlinn. 

t* laiprMS OD lb* Pcniu ooa^tNtw, 
iLu, la voolidinf •» PMtfu »■! Om 

tn g'ivinii ■ I.Tdiui aupROia powvr 


CLIO. I. id7. i«e. 

ingly, gave this advice; fccUnf; ihat such trealmcDC of lbs 
Lydinn.H would be prcfcral»lc to t\mt being sold into bood- 
age: moreorer, he knew pvrrecily well, that if he did not 
bring for^ra^d Home feasible prnpoul, be should not be ablo 
to uXu^T Cyrus's duteriniMaUou. lie dreaded, alKu, lest tb« 
Lydinns, even nhntild they cecapc tlic prnicnt tiU»nn, would 
again rise up a^am;).! the J^LTsiaus, aud be ulturly destroyed. 
Cynis wa^ ploatird at Uiu Ku^f^tiUun, relaxed bis anfter'", 
and said that he tvould follow Ciie^us'it cdunwl. He then 
colled 10 Ills presence Mazan^,a Mftda; ordered iiiui to con- 
vey lliese curomaiida to llm Lydians, such a» Crivsiu pro- 
posed : and, over and abov« this'"', Mozares was commiauDiwd 
to Kcll into captivity all Uio otbcn who bed joiiwd the Ly- 
dians in tbc attack on Sardi^ but by all means lo brittf; 

157Paciyas to bioi alive. Cyrus liariug, accordiuKly, given 
iheeu orders on his nay, proeco<led lo the seals of the Fer- 
sians. Pactyas (indiuf; thai un army was ccninK arter bini, 
was seisicd wiib fear, aud fled to Cyma. Mazares the Meds 
inarched, however, his forces against Saidis, baring iiadcr 
his command a very 8lif;ht propoiiion of Cvma's nmyi 
a» be found Pnclyas's party were no longer in Sardis, bci in 
the fint pbce, put into execution Cyrus's orders, and cotD* 
pelled the Lydiou^, according to the royal behvat, to cbftngo 
completely tbuir mode of life. Having iiccoinplifched ibis, 
Mazares Bcnt aniba»Mtdors to Cyma, suoiinoning tbc citiun* 
lo deliver up Paclyas. The people of Cyma resolved lo 
apply lo the god nl Branchidw for advice on the subject; 
for at that place stood a shrine, built in early times, which 
the Innians and .^^olians were in the pratice of consulting i 

106 thi» spot lies above Lake Panonuu(>, in Milesia. Tlie CyiuwsoB^ 
therefore, sent nome perRons to conMiltthe god al Branebidie: 
they asked: '* What would the gods be pleased that they 
Hbould do with Pactyag?*' The auKwt-r returned lo these io< 
quirurs, from tlie shrine, was : *' To deliver up PaotyM lo 
the PcTiuank." ThiR declaration was brought and commmi" 
cated to the cilizen» of Cyma^ who prepared to deliver up ibc 
fugitive : but, aliliough the peujflc had come to that duciuun, 
Aristodicns the son of Humclides, a man in great repiste 
among the citizens, restrained*" tlie Cyroieans from con* 
miuing Micb an action ; uoi biioKelf giving any credit to ibe 
oracle, but faucyinj; it lo be an invention of the persona 
Hcnt to con»tiIt. Finally, oiher ironsulters of whom Aristo- 
dicus himself was one, went lo iniiuin- a second time 

CLIO. I. ISO— Ifil. 


about Paclyas. Arrived at liranchiHie, Aristodicus, in the l&fl 
iratne of all, addressed tbo slirino, nnd made iho foilovring 
inquiry: ** Sovereign lord! Pactyati, a li^dian, has come to 
** us, a suppliant; flying a violent th:Mh nt the hnndg of l)ie 
•* I'mianft: thoy rlaim hini, and summon ihe Cyinwaus to 
** d^rer biui up. We, bowerer, drrading as we do ihc Her- 
•* nan power, have nol dared to dclii'er np, hitlierto, a sup- 
*• ptiaut, before we ascertain, beyond all doubt, (iroiu yuu, 
• whether w« ought to do bo." Such was the question put: 
the answer from the oracle was again the same, enioininj; 
to d«H»*T up I'actyas to the Persians. Then Arielodicns, as 
he had b*forr dtlcrmined, proceeded lo act as follows: he 
w»l)tvd all ronnd Ihc holy precinct, and pulled down the nests 
Imilt in liic temple by tlw! sparrows and various othrr kinds 
of fowl: as he was oL-cupied in this wori, a voice, it is «iid, 
isBoed from Iho sanctuary, addressed to Aristodicus, saying: 
" Mo«t nelahous of men ! dare you commit such deeds as 
•* this ? Do you thus ttar my suppliants from my lomptc ?" 
Aristodicus, nul at all thrown off bis guard, raplied: " Sove- 
•* nnfrn lord ! you proloct your own suppliant*, but command 
** the Cyntwans to deliver theirs?" "Yea,'' rL-loriud (hu 
Ttrice, *' yes, I do command you so, that such ungodly 
" wretches should, at all erenls, be forthwith swept away, 
** that henccfonh you toay not como and ask at the shrine 
" about the delivering up of suppliants." As soou as the leo 
people of Cymsc received this nn-swcr brooght from Br&n- 
chtatc, they sent oll'thi: fugitive to Mytili-iie, ; not wishing to 
bring dowu deslruelion on their heads by delivering up 
RKtyas, nor lo subject Ihemsulves lo a siege for keeping 
bim with tlicm. But tire MitylenaiaDs, when a mc>«age naa 
acaX to tliem by Mazares to give up Paclyas, were prcjiar- 
iDg lo do SO, for some remiincration : what the remuneration 
VM to be, I cannot say for certain, as Ibe agreemeut was 
oem completed; for the Cymwans, having received an 
inklilig of what Iho Mj-titenieans were about, sent a ship to 
Licabos, and conveyed Factyni> away lo Chios. Dm there be 
«■■ torn from the temple of Minerva Poltouchos, by thft 
CkiuDSi and betrayed : tlte Ctiians beuayed the suppliant, in 
ratnni for Atameus, a diRtrict in Myaia, opposite lo l#sbo«. 
Pactyas, therefore, being now in the hands of the Persians* 
was kept under watch, tn be delivered over lo Cyrus: but it 
WHS a very long time before any of the Chians would offer 
to the gods any lihalinn of nia-xted liarley from Aurneus, 
or would take aay paatry of thu flour of that quarter, all 
productinuK from that country, of every sort, lieing carefully 
excluded from all holv |tfecincts. Thv CliUns ihervfore* |fi| 


CLIO. 1. 162—164, 

Iwlravcil pHciyds. Mazares aftcnrards allaikwl ihc poople 
who Imil juiuci) to l^-Kiege Tabalua: ud iIil- mip hand, be 
M>l(l llie Friritians as slaves; on the oUht, he nrcrraii Lbe 
]itain of the Miratiiler, uhandonitig nil b> tbu lury of his 
soldiery: Magnesia whh ravaged in the saiat iniuiDcr: coon 
uflcr which, MazarcK i)iL><l ol'(Us«a&c. 

162 At Ihe decease i>f ihis general, Harpagus came down lu 
assiniKi ihe coniiiiaiKl iif the iroopn: he u-»fi aho a oalivft 
Mcjc, the sdinc vrtioui Aatya^c&t kiug ol the Alcdcs hud 
leasled at the ahoniiimhlc banquet; (lie kainc also thai an- 
sif'tcd Cttiis iu alt^niug to the throne. This individual, 
iippuinlcd b}' I'yrus to head the anny, canir into Ionia, 
where be cuptured Uie various cities by iiwans of earlben 
mounds: for alter he had compelled the citizens to abat 
ibeniselves witLin their rainparts, he pmcecded next lo 
scalo the ifuUk, by thniwin^ up excavalioii» :duu}rside of 
ibi?ni'^: the rir>>i place be IooIl in lunia, vu* PliocKO. 

163 TbfM: J'hoca:uDii ncic the firi.t of the llellcDCB ibal pcr- 
foniied any long loyatces by xea: they weT« the discweiera 
»1 (bi; Adriatic una Tyrrbuniuu t-oas, of Iberia and Tar- 
tesKUs. The? 8ailcd uot iu inercbanu' cralt, but in fifty- 
oared (^llcys: on their comiuf; to Tailes8U8, they became 
favourites uf the kiug, called Argauthuiiiiift: he was ruler 
ofcr 'J'artcsMis. eighty yearti, and lived, in all, one hundred 
and Iweuly years. Tbu Pbiicayiiis became such great fa- 
vourites of ihi» old niau, that he exhorted tliem at first to 
fantakc Ionia, and eume aod Uve iu his country, wliorevcr 
they chose*": aftemariEs, not being able to picvail on tbe 
E^iocaeann lo accede to his adviee*'', and iiifunned that tliftw 
Mede"' was groning in »lrengili in their neighbourhood, be^| 
gave tbeai mouey to erect a. wall around their city**; and" 
gave it with no sparing hand, for llie walls are not a few i 
Blades in circuit, all built of iiuiuea&e blocks nicely joined^^ 

I(j4 tt^thcr. The Phociean u*al]« had been accordingly buillH 
io tbu above mauaer, when Harpagtu brought on his foTceai-fl 
and besieged ihein ; first proflbrJng tRmis, ** that ha would 
" he salisfied*" if the Phocat&nR would throw down only 
** one ol Lhcir bailie rtients, and cnn^ecrale one house to the 
" kingV service"'." The Phocieans, aldiorriiig lliraldom, 
said, ** ihcy wished for one day to hold counsel, when Uiey 

>■< Tb(W bnpi of nrih would M^rini'i OiKt ■« U> Mj, CjTW, W in 

prabkblj atrre m indlnm) (ilatiM, b;r i'. K'K. 

wHtih th.' horirffin nlithi w-hIp ihc •* Uati. 4ift. 

fiiilU ia treat numbcrf b( odco. ** U«U. 007. 3, 9d puag> 

■* Mail. ^7, 3. lal ^tra^. •*: l^i* j, tti« nredkU* utcaaintil 

•" Mnii. 'tis. hauiBMlx>, >' <l«4ie*M tn (h« god*:** 

»• *«• uStrn, " Ihn bnp at tbe wa a. 131. 

CLIO. I. 165, Ititf. 


rould re(um an aii^vrer: lhej~ slipiilaitid aJso, thai, diiriti]; 
•* tbe lirac they were debating, lie should conduct bis array 
*' tu a distance frnin the waJlit." Ilarpagiis obserred, iliat 
" h<t knew pcrlecUy well what their intentions were, bul he 
" would pfiraii ihem to hold council." .\l ihc appointed 
time, therefore, ^larpagus lud his troops away from the 
walls; and tht^ Phncsanx meanwhile lauuclietl their fiflv- 
oand galluji's, placinf^ ou board tlieir ctiildrun, wiveK, and 
noTombk-s, lo);cttwr with the images of the temples aud 
otli«r votivH olFiiTiiiK?, except articles of stunu, or bratig, or 
puiutiujc: ba%-ia^ Ktored all these ibiugs, and outbarked 
ibetoitelt-eB, they took their departure for Chios: and the 
Pervaaa took possession of Phoc«ca, thug deserted by its in* 
balxtintx. The OiiatiK relused to pan with tfai; CLuiys».'c )6d 
wJ«nd« ; which thv Hlioeicans wished to purchase, being 
a/raid h-st that slatioii tliould become a staple for trade, and 
exclude their own island: the Phoctcniis, therefore, dcler- 
niiaed to uiaie lor C'ynms where they bad, twenty y«ai« 
previoBft to this, erected, iu obedience to tbe bebe«t of th« 
oncle^ a city called Alaia: Argauibonius being at that time 
no luDf;er alive. Previous lo i».iiliiif; for t'ymus, Ihey steered 
Irack to Phoeoja; wtiere they puL lo the sword tbe Fereian 
gurison appoiutii-d by IlnrfuguK tn guard the city: aAer 
they bad done this, they prououoced horrid imprecationa 
on Mich as should desert the fleet : they let down, aUo, a 
red-bot peg of iron into Ibu sea; and swore "ihcy would 
** nercr come back to Phoctea, before thai peg of iron came 
" to bjjhl Sftain-" When, however, they were about to set 
■ail for Cyrnus, mure than one half of tbe citizens were 
Mis«d wiih u longing nffection inr their town, and dwellings 
in the country : iliey broke tlitir oath, and sailed back lo 
Flioctca : vhile those who kept their oath, hove anchor, 
■cod stood away fruoi the Qi^nyssa] isles. On their arrival at 166 
Crmus, they resided for the tiri>i five years in common with 
Um earlier eettlers, and built some temples: but as they 
made a practice of ravaging and p1i)ud«riug all ilitir neigh- 
boun, the Tyrrhenians and Cartha^nuian^ accurdingly agreed 
to lit out together Kixty ships, and tiiake a touibiued attack 
upon tbem: the Phocfcans. on their part, utaniu'd their 
snips, ftixty in number, and proceeded lo face their adver- 
sanes in thd Sardinian sea: they engaged the eonibined 
squadroiiH. and mrt with a mtntt disastrous defeat**'; for 
fortv of tlx'ir f^hips were utlerl) destroyed ; and ilie other 
iwcniy rendered uHelesa* by hating their points &l the prow 

V In ik« CBxt, "« Codmmii ric- Puljeio*! ; aiimdcil with kt«u dl*- 
r,'' ODc Ukr dikl of KuadM viil Mtcn In both pntiw. 


CUO. I. 167—189. 

bluiitcnl. Tbi-j n'tumud back to Alalia ; whore lliuy toi^ 
on Imartl ihoir wivL-» and children, togithcr wilh what pro- 
ppity they cotdd slow; and tlien, forsaking Cyrnus, sLoocl for 
l67KhcKium. A* to ibc men bdungiotj; to tlio ships destroyed] 
thi- Carthaginians a« well as the TyrrlR'iiiaiM dinded ibe tiur ' 
greater portion oftbctu, and look ihcm on shore, wbon: they 
stoned theiu to deadi*". Afler (liis, evvry citizHn of Ag^-Ila, 
that j>«Rwd by tho spot wh<^re the slniit^htercd l*hocKao8 lay, 
was»ciKe4:liriihconlorlion«, fallbig off of dm biubit, and palsy: 
□or were these disoascs conlined to men only ; the stieop and 
oxen suflfured in the aame manner. The people of Agylla, 
anxious to wipe off tbc ftinfiil nbtin, sent to L>elphi, to coniwU 
the oracle : tlie E^thia, in reply, ordered them to do as tbor 
DOW do ; that tx to say, pay magniticent honours to tb« deao, 
and open a list for ^yinnic AjKirts and chariot-races. Such 
was the fate of this portion of the PhorieanR : the oihens, that 
bad flod to Khegium, quitted that place, and built in the laiMl 
of (Knotria ii town now called Vclia ; in conseoucnce of in- 
formation which they received from a trilixen oi Posidouiam, 
chat the Pydiia, in her n^ti|M>ntic, alluded not to Cymua (lie 
island, but to Cyrnus the hero, to whom tboy were to emu 

168 a slatuc. The peopln of IVos iirtrd ncrarly in tho sune 
manner as tbi> Pliocajans: lor wbeu Harpagus had, by 
meanH of hi» cxcavationn, become master of their riladel, 
they embftrited on board of tbeir ships, and miled away to 
Thrace; where they built the town of Ahdt^ra, on Ihe site 
before chosen by Timesias of Clazomente ; who, howerer, did 
not oDJoy his acquiwtion, being expelled by the Thraciana. 
He now received honours, as a hero, from the Tdan settlors 
of Abdora. 

169 The above, then^fon'. wf^ro the only Ionian*, who, ralhur 
than brook thraldom, forsook their countries: tbu rest of 
the Ionian^, with ihe exception of the MileKinnH, gurc baolo 
to Harpagus*" ; and proved themselves g&Uant men, as well 
as Lbusc who had leH their countr)-, cuch fighting tor his 
own: they were, however, defeated and subdued: each ru- 
mained in bis resjK-ctivc country, and paid the appuiutcd 
impost. The Milesians, :ir 1 said before**', had entered into 
a treaty wilh Cyrus himself: they enjoyed peace. TbtUj 
therefore, Ionia was, for ibe second dme, deprived of free> 
dotn; and when Harpagus had completely subjogalvd Uie 

*> atmM r«Cen Ut the PhMataM. 
■nd not (0 tlie Cuthi^inimDi sad 
Tynhmitm*. TU» ««iiIhdoi' In fnl- 
loirad hj u noBodbcI; abrupt ttuui- 
doD to AgrUa, tha «rniati<iD of wbEdi 
h Irfl whoIlT undvflniy) br lti« Hia- 


tova or Einiiia. 

Mall. 363, Aftf. 
*■ Matt. SW, e. 
"■ HfwJ. r, tw. 

k kaown 
9m ^as 

CLIO. I. 170, 171. 


lOTtans on ihc conltiietit, Uiosu KeiUed ua ilie islanilit, dread- 
ing ifau laine IrealmrDt, gave thcuiHcli'Cfi up lo CyniH. 
OpprvMed hy cnlamity as tlii>r were, the Innians did not 170 
cease to liol^ a»seinblies at I'aniooium: I understand Uiat 
Bias, of Priene, broaclicd liere a very wise prnpnua] to 
Uia lofuanai which, bad Llioy accepted, n'ould hare made 
ibtm tbe most happy and tluuri^hinj; of the llellenes: hiii 
adrtce wa», " to heave anchor, and u* sail, in one combined 
** squadron, U) Kaidioia, aiid there build one Utwn for all 
" looiajis: (has tbey would secure thvir happiDoss, far re- 
" moved trom Kluvcty, respected as tiie most oxtunttive of 
'* ibo islandit, and supreme over the others: wharcaa, if they 
** ranainetl ia luiiia, liu declared be could not we anj pro- 
** speet of ihore ever being freedom." lliis euggestiun 
vm^ madu by Bia> »( PtiL-ne lo the louians. wbvn almady 
Kubjii^uiL-d. PrewoiiKly to ibeir detiiiuction, a wholeKomu 
'•^l'™*' wu giren lilieHise by Tbales, a Milesi&o, and of 
Pboniician extraction ; who adnscd thai the Toniaua should 
etttbliab a common council, which should ait at Tcoa, that 
being Ihc central point of Ionia; and the TarioiiK settlements 
ntiKbt neverthele^H Mill be guit'rued as independent aUlU-s. 

Uarpagns havinie; .•iidHliicd Ionia, invaded Caria. Caunia, 171 
aad Lyoa, taking bmb luniaus und JColiaus in his ranks. 
Tlte Carians one of the ahuvo nations, consisted originally 
aTenaigritatfi from the isiaods: for of old they vrere subjects 
of MiiMB, and called liClegca: tlicy held the inlands, and 
paid DO tribute, as far as I can ascertain, by inmiiry reiipecl* 
lUK fio reiDotu a period. Tbvy manned the ships of Minos, 
irheneTcr he required tlieir SLrrii-es: as Minos accordin;fl/ 
aubjecled a great extent of coiinin,-, and was Kuccessful in 
War, tile Cariaiis li-cainu die most noted of all imtions by far, 
in tboBo dayft: to liu-'iu the Hellenea are indebted for three 
inrcnliotu wbicb iliey have adopted; tlie Carians were ibo 
ftnl to Mt the example of putting crvfits on helmets and de> 
Doa on aliiclds; tliey were likewise tbe finil that made 
iJiaDdlcs for bucklers: until their lime, all who eajritxl a 
liold was accustomed to manage it by means of tlic leather 
jtiMMga, with wbicb it was »lung round the nerk, over ili(> left 
WOUldcT**'. A very long time after (hi^, tbe louiiuis and 
[^vriani drove the Carians out of the islands; and »o ifaey 
CAiBe to (he eootinent. Sucb is, therefore, tbe account tlial 
the Cretans gave uf theCariam; very diflereni, at all events, 
tfrom what the CarianK iheniM'lveft di>clare: they consider 
irmaelvca as aburigiiiully belonging to tliv contiiieni, uod 

'»* Han. 491. 


C'LIU. I. 172» 173. 

as liaving boruo always Uie same iintne aa Lbcy now do. 
Thuy point to ihi' anci<?iit temple of Jupiter Cariuii at 
AlylaKa, Mlitcli is shared by tlie Mynians and Lydiajis. as 
kiii&uiL-ii to llie Cariaii»; for it is relatAd, ihat l.ydus and 
My»i«i were brothers of Car. The aborc temple is shared, 
by all who, ihotigh of a diirerent nadoo, agree in their laa- 
Ruage srith the Canans: all otbens are excluded, llw 

ITS Cauniann are also aboriginal, in niy opinioR ; yet they ihcm- 
selves assert that Ihey pmceod from Crete: vitber they 
have approxiinatt'd lo tlio CarJans in languaKc, or the Cn- 
rians have done so to them — lliat is a qu»itiou I cannot de- 
cide; but it in certain thai thry difTcr greatly in tlicir tnau- 
Dera and euslotns from all vava, ac well as from the Carians. 
With ilie Caiiniuns, for instance, it is looked upon as rery 
pra[>er and decent to men, noineo, and children, that, ac- 
cording lo ego and iVirnd^hip, they should ineot together in 
crowds, to drink: they had once erected leuiples to furcigu 
gods, but aficrwarfls, changing their minds, deterinined to 
worship none but their pau-mal deities; when the Carian 
youth, cind in armour, and beating the air with Iheir 8pt-ar», 
followed up (o tbfi Calyudic oiuuntuina the foreign goda, 

173 saying, Uicy were expelling them from the land. The Ly- 
ciauH, however, sprung* in early times from Crete, which of 
old watt enlin.*Iy occupied by barbariane: a tend having 
arisen in Creli: resjieetiii}; the tlironu, between SarpedoB 
and Miiio>i, the ^ouk ofEumpa, Minos orercame the faction 
oppotied to him, and drove out of (he island both Sarpedon 
and his partisan!!: the exiles came into the land of Milyaa, 
in Asia; for the country now occupied by the Lycians was 
then called Milyas : and the Milyans of ihose days bore the 
name of Solymoi, So long an Saqiedon niled over tbem, 
they were designated by ttie name Teniiihe, which they had 
brought with them, and by which the Lyciautt are still 
called, among their ncighboura. But from the time that 
LycuK ^n of Paudion, exiled from Athens by his brother 
.£gciis hkcwise, came to the court of Sarpedon in tbu 
country of the Termilar, the Lyciaua have in time come to 
be caUod allcr the name of Lycus- llicir manuers and 
ctisioms are partly Cretan and partly Carian"'; one ensCom 
is peculiar to thnm, in which they ditfer from every other 
nation ; lliey take their mothers' nameii. not those of ilieir 
fathers: if any one ask tbciii about their kindred, who ihev 
are, they reckon from themselves lo ifatir mother, and theu 
rohcarae their mother's mothers*". Moreover, if a free 

wi Matl. «9. i. 

m Hui. DO), 4. 

ClilO, L 174—176. 


vromi) many a slave, Oiu oflsprin^ in looked upon ax pure 
and firo : but if ■ free-man xaVe for wifu a iitraiiff<: woman, 
(IT ediabie trith a coDcubinc, the cbildrca arc dtmaied in' 

Th« Cariao« ibercfore perfonnod no brilliant ach)ev«-i74 
tnenu, bot were L>nslavcd by ilarpaKux : this obsf-rration 
■ppliM not onlj to ihe Carians, biii likewise to the lU-lUnes 
MtUcd in tliat quarter: among those rvsidtmt hfrc arr- the 
Cnidians, Lacedemonian settlen, whotw ti'rrilury, jutting into 
the sea, is calUt] ibi; 'IViopeuni : be^Qtiuig from the Hybaa- 
uan peninsula, the whole of Cnidia, with ezceplion of a small 
Kiace, is Hurroundud by the tea.; for it is bounded north by 
the Ceramic gulf, while to tlie soutb stretcheti llie %l'& of 
8jttte and KhodcK; that narrow portion, thcreforx;, about 
fir* itades in length, the Cnidian^ were exoivnling at tb« 
^e that HarpaguB was subjugating Ionia, ^'ith a view to 
converting their territory into an iidand. Within that, all 
bclnngK to them; Tor the Cnidian territory extendx to tbe 
MthiDitii they were now cutting through. The Cnidians had 
set many handi at the n-ork ; nnd aH tiw workmen, it was 
fbtindi were more Irequently and unarcnnntably uonndrat in 
the face ami all other pans, particularly about the eyes, by 
ibc cbtpa of Lbc atone, they nent to Dvlpbi some deputies to 
ask for a remedy : the Pytbia, according to tbe Cnidiani, 
fipcke ibus in trimeter verse : 

(>a ihi' isihniii-*, erw;i no tower, nor dcbc: 
Jove woiitil hnvvi madt! it ui ivluid, hsd he wtllod. 

In consequence of ibis answer from tbe Pytbia, tlie Cnidians 
alo[»pcd tbcir (excavation, and, without a blow, delivered 
ibumsclves up to tiarpagus, as soon as ha mad*.' bis up- 
pcarantv wilb bis army. Above Halicamas&tisi inland, went 17A 
the P«dase«: when any evil is lu fall on these people or 
their neighbours, the priestess of Mincn'a acquires a long 
beard: tbmi times has this occurred. Tliese were the only 
p«uple about Coria that stood any timc*^ against Ilarpagus : 
tbcT gave a great dual of iroubV, by fortifying a moimtaio 
called Lida : but the Pcdascs even t^ere, aflcr a time, cap- 
lured. But when Harpagus led bis army into the Xaiitbiao 176 
plain, the Lycinns came forth, and, i^-ngttging an cn^my far 
superior to their small baud, displayed prodigious bravery : 
flrfmted and sbut up in their city, ibcy collected in the ctta- 
rlcl their wiies and children, tJicir property and sen-ant». 
then set fire to the whole, and burnt it to tbe ground: 
baring ro dtine, Ibcy bound each othor by tenible oaths; 

■>■ Hut. 434, «. 


CLIO. I. 177—179. 

«n<l, Mtllyitig. every XaiiUii.iii dit-'d (ighiing. Most of the 
Jiycians, dow said to be Xanlbians, ari- nciv-eotncre, triUi 
iho rxceplion of irigfaly (ainilieM, wliicli lm))pei)eil at ihtt 
lim« to he avay from home, etid coni«(*qiioiuly u'er« not 

ftrcMitiL Haqta^^ tlius poHsettned liimaelf of Xuiithus: \\v 
ikewise reduced, aftur tlw sanic manner, nearly ilw whole 
of Caimia; (or llic Cauuiaiis, generally ftpeakiufft fulluwed 
t)ic fxanipiu sot by ilii? Lyilinns. 
17? Huqmgiis Llit-Ti^loru rcducrd tlie lower ]>art3 of Aria: 'm 
tfa« upfier parte, Cyru* liinisell' «abjuf(ai«d ereiy Datlon, 
villiuut out' uxcvplioQ. Most of these conquests -^c ohall pan 
ovor. I will, lion«ver, coDimeinorate thotw: which garo htm 
the grcateitt trouble, and are likewiMi the most tlesenhig of 
men lion. 
178 Cyruft having s^tibjected tu hia dominion all the other paru 
of the coiitinviit, now dinrctrd his ann» afiaiiiBt tho Aasy- 
rions. Aspyrui coinprises, hesid«^ many other extensire 
towns, one of tho most mnaiviied and bcKt fnriifiinl; and 
there the Koat of gnremmcnt was established, aAur tlie fiill 
of Nineveh : thin city i» Babylon, of vrhich tho followioR is 
n descriptimi : — The city itandtt on a wide plain, and is of i 
quadrangular shape, oach stdi; being oni; hundred aod twcntj 
ittades in fixtetit : the four sides uf the ciir, iberefors, COO- 
sliltite a circuit of four fanndred and eighty fttadcs in all"*: 
8uch arc the dimenMunN of tlm city of the Babylonians: 
moreover, it is built aud adurvcd willi a uiognificonce not 
found in any other great city that vc know of. In the first 
place, a moat, deep aud broad, full of water, riinit round the 
whole; UfSlto which rises u wall, fifty royal cuhila in tliick- 
ncfig, and in height two hundred: the royal cubtl is longer 
17& by thrc* fingers' breadth than the avoraRc cubil. 1 must 
not neglect to explain how the clay dug up for the moat was 
consumed, and in what manucr the muII was wrimghL At 
the Rame lime they were excavating the moat, lht.-y moulded 
the clay, thrown up in the works, into bricks: when a suffi- 
cient qnantity of bricks was cast, ttiey baked lliem In kilns: 
next, ranking use of hot bitumen in the place of mortar, and 
spn'ading on each of the thiny bottom courses of brick ai 
layer of wattlnd rcedii, they first built up the cdgeii of the 
moat, and then went on with tltc wall itself in the samej 
manner: at the edges of the top, and on opposite sides, 
thoy erected, all round, uniform (urret«*^*, leaving belwceo 

*> mmlmtiH f Ibi* wold, McordinK ux« tiai^ura n*f ntm ftwMii 
ta BelntMSlueaMir'i obaarvitiaD, mmj uaf/i>rmfi, rimiHimam nmtfmJ^mUmj 
bs bikNi in tk* $iim Mam u ^w^lit, pM^trtntt*. 

cue. I. ISO, 181. 


two n space im/Iicient to turn a foiir-horsc chariot, 
gates leading through tlie nail, nil around, am or»nli<l 
bnai^ as well a& tbc jnnibx and linteU. At (tight days' jour- 
ney iToni Babylon, there is a towu called Is, od a small 
river of the satai: name, which diKhargeR its stream into tht-> 
Kuplirales: tills riv-er Is, accordingly, bhngH down with its 
waters abuadonci: of Hokus of hiluiuen, rrom wheuco tbc 
littumeu u&L'd ou the wall of Babylon was brought*". Such, IliO 
ihcu, was the mode in M'hich UBhyloii waK nallod around. 
Tilt! city cousistti of two parU, divided by llii* Euphrates, 
which flows through Uic uiiddlc. 'Hiis river rises in Ai^ 
taenia, u large, de«p, and rapid : it disembogues in the 
KijthrtDtn muu Ucnco the wall of each of ihvso two parts 
mns to au elbow oq the rirer side : from tliuKC ulbows, fol- 
towinjj; the curves on each side of the river, nms a wall of 
I>aki-d bricks. The city itself, full of houses, tlirve uiid four 
uofifcs high, is cut into rcetilinenr streeu; some parallel to 
tilt: river; otliuts, crossing the above at right augl<;», conduct 
to the bank'": in each of the latter strectfi, a small door 
opens, through the masonry, over the stream: they are in 
number equal to the »>lreets tbeni!>elves, are made of brass, 
and talo down to the water. The outer wall, abo\ e dfi>cribcd, 181 
is the main ram]>art to the town : but this lattvr, ranging in 
the interior, i» scarcely inferior in strcogth to thu other, al- 
lh4)Ugh lurrower"*. In each porUon of the city stood a f aat 
butltSog, occupying the centre: in ooe, the palace, sur- 
roandi'd by a long and well-rortificd inclosuro: in the other, 
tlie brazen-gated precinct of Juve Belua, yet Klanding in niy 

.day, o( a square ^pe, in each direction two slatlen : in the 

r^ltiiddle of the precinct riscK a miisKive tower, one slade in 

length aud hrcnchh : on that rises another tnnxr ; and ko on, 

up to eight. The road up to tha Uip of this building ranii 

|«piralty round the outside of all tho towers: soioewheTC 
■Jwut the middle"* of the asc«nt, there lA a placo whuni 
mliujc-beuchea stand, on which those going up ma; ut 
dowu and take breath. In the la^t tower standi a maguifi- 
it teaiplt>; in which is placed a bed, t^umptuously fitted up; 
ad, by itn Hde, a table of gold. No statue has been erected 

^oa this spot; nor does any person pasit the night hcr«^, 
cacepl otdy a native woman, elected by the god fainutelf; so 

*** The ■tnsilMt mmrtm of U{i»- 
la dwM oouBln u« notimd 1^ 
rB^vra ln*eU*n: tttaol Bi)rJ*J, it 
■oArad U> flow Into thn Tigri; 
It ioMi OB Ui* nrliMM, uvi i» 

•ncc of ■ fiTtr cTflr*.— ifaAr-ifriM. 

*" Tbii tiuiUtMi If m ibc M- 

n* Hstt. 331, ci tb« lut |«n«- 

l||a|MMly Mt en Ara by tlw inuiiuin; Scr abo SM, 6. 
^Av liwwlliH ibt A«Dltf Sppoar- •" Uatt.494,$«. 


CLIO. I. IM— 16&. 

183 ny the ClmUlePS, nho nrv tlii< jtricslG uf Bulufi. Hicse sani 
inHivitliialfi Rsst-rl — not (hat I gii-c any crfdil to ivhal tfat 
»iy — that ttie god hiiiiseircuiiits to Uii' tvm[>l«, aud reposes 
in the bed, junt in the same manner as the Kf;vptiaui! say is 
ih« ca»e at Thebes in Egj-pt ; for, in fact, a woman thriy 
also lieu in the ifmplo of ■llicboic Jove : both women, «■« an 
tohl, have no coiiimiinication whatever with men. ExaciK 
the «ame llnrifi; lakes place at Patres, in Ljeia, with the 
woman llint pmpuiiuds the oracle, when ibL-re i» a goti 
there ; for there is not cominnlly an orncle at that plnee : in 
such case as there i^ the woman ties vritJi the god a( night. 

163 within the templr. There is iinniher temple, besides, in llie 
Babytuiiian precinct below. Here is fteen a colossal Ktatiw m 
of J ore, iteateil; cloiu* to u'hich Ktand* a guhl table: th^H 
flight of steps up to the throne, and tlie throne ilself, are of^ 
gold} and, according tn thi; Chaldecs, all ihcso aniclfs are 
computed lo be cipht hundred talents of gold. Outside of 
the temple is a golden allar: together ivith another large 
altar, where all full-gruu'n sheep are saeridced, none bnt 
ftiieklingii being allowed lo be s&crittci-d on ihc golden 
altar. On tho larger of llieso nltars, annually, the Chaldcei 
bnni one ihoiisund talents of frankinci^nst-, when ihpy cele- 
brate the feaHt of this ((i>d BcUis. Tlicre was al that lime, 
also, in the precinct, a liUituc of twelve cubits of solid gold ; — 
not of eouise that 1 e%er euu' it : what 1 sar, I repent on the 
authori^ of the Chaldecs. Doriua tbc son of Hyslaapes 
coveted tliiH Malue, but duTst not »«ize it : Xurxea son ofv 
Pariiis, however, took it axt-ay, and liilled the priest Uiatfl 
warned him not to move thf image. — Thus have 1 described 
how the holy precinct wntt docoialMl- I must add, there 
were abundance of private offerings. ^M 

im Several sovereigns, ai diSV-rent times, have nded ore^H 
Babylon, whom I shall nit-nlion in my Asityrian history: 
they were the builders of the waIIs and sacred editices. Twom] 
of them, especially, M'ere women : kIiv who reigned the fii 
was manv generation* anterior to the second; her name 
was Semiraniis: this priiict:;$s acconiphAhed several worke 
on the jilain, that hitt worlliy of contemplation: previoualr^ 
to her reign, the river wis wont to inundate, and mabc a sea 

ISflof the whole plain. The second queen, that flourished after 
Scmiramis, boro the name of Nitncris: her genius was 
greater than that of the queen before her: she left, aa a 
memento, the works which I shall prcseully dpscribc : in 
the next place, seeing tlic Mcdrs' empire great and never at 
rest, and obsening, among other lities, that nf Ninereth 
captured by that power, she adopted beforehand every 




sea V 

vor- 1. 

CUO. i. 180. 


iMMntble o)L[>e(ltcitl Tor |»reservalioii. PirHt, Uieti, by maliiiiK 
deep «xcataiio]is hi^li up ilie nrnani, i>lie kd altered thu 
coarse of ilit; Euphrates which pa»&e» ihiough J}ab,viou, thitt, 
horn Mraigtii itial it vfsiR, il hfcame ko uiiiding a» to touch 
three tim«i> at one aod the same village in AsAjria, as H 
flovkdotvTi: the naine of (hii> village U Ardericca; and eveii 
to tliis lime, those that, Irarellin]; from the MediierraDcan 
■hoTO down to Babylon, embark on iht: Kupbrntcs, pnss three 
titn«s, within throe sucophsivc dayti, at this )t|>r)t: this was, 
tbcTi^fdre, one of the (hin|;8 hIii; nccdiiipliKhcil. She thrt* w 
up, on both sadea of lht> rirer, a pi-odi^ioua inouiid, axto- 
nbbing by it>i ningniuidc and height: »ht: rHvcted, a long 
distance above Uabyino, a reservoir lor a Itike; which ithe 
placed not fur from the river, dig^inS '''*'' ^^*^ depth till she 
cane to walvr, and making i(H exit-nt tht> cirtuiiirereDct> of 
font bundn-d aud twenty 8ladc»: the curtb throtvu out in 
this excnvalion nhe ex.pfiide<l in rorniiii^ an i^inbaiiknit-nt on 
Uw 8idc« of the rivL-r. When the luku tvas fiiiitdiL-d diggio;; 
out, she hnni^thl Munes, u itfa which she lun a cast- nil round. 
These two <rork«^ — 1 mean tlw windings of the stream, and 
Uie whale cxcaraicd marsh— were pvrronucd for the puqione 
of Irmgthening the course of the river; breakiiii; tis Ibrcu in 
Biauy windings, und niakiog ibc passage t^ Habylun intri- 
catt.-; mid lliiit iravi-llen., on (imtliiix iliuii* barks, nii^lit Ktill 
have lo ni,;ike the long circuit of the lulti.-. In ihiK manner 
»hc thmw up these vast works iu itiat part of the cunncty 
where tJ]c titiortcsl road from Media catvrs Hahylontn, in 
order tliat the AIudeK might cease lu comniuiiicata with thu 
Babylooiaos, and spy into her tiflTatrs. These fbnilicalions 186 
cumpleted, Nitacris added the following performance, the 
effectual success of which was iho oonw<|iioncy of her pre- 
vious workk. The town b«ing divided inlo two districU, by 
tJie river flowing between, whoever, under fonnvr reigns, 
wbbed to puss over from one to the otlier, mha obliged to 
croM in a boat: aud thai, I conceive, mnst have been an an- 
DOTsmce. Nitorris provided for this. After she had dug 
ODt the basin for the lake, she delemiined to Icavo another 
tnoDUioent of the utility of the wui-kii thrown up on the 
Euphrates. She eaus^Mi Isifte blocks of xione to be hewn: 
vben they wore ready, and the basiu had been excavated, 
ahe tunied the whole xlreaio of the river into the hollow tdie 
ImiI dng. While that was filling, the original bed of the 
riwr became dry: seizing the opportunity, ilie qiteen buili 
tip, with baked bricks, the banks of the river H-ithin ihe 
city, and the steps leading down from the siuallt-r gates to 
the river, after the same fashion as the groat wall had beun 



CLIO. I. 187—189. 

put tog(>tiici. Bosidcs tbiSi about the mtddle of tlie city *i 

CDUBtmctod a bridge of cut stone, faiUMunl logetber with 

l«ad and iron. Uuritig the day, u^uure floors oC wood irera 

Inid from pier to jiii-r, by wliirb the Hnbylonians crossed 

ovL>r: but at nighi tfaiso boards were tukuu away, for tbe 

purT)usc of prcvtniliiig pvtiplc fmm aaing across, ia the 

dark, and coniiiiiltiitf; robberieii. When th« boUow had 

been repk-iiislicd by tliv jircr, aud thv bridge was Bnisbedi 

Niiocris bronght (he siream of tbe Kiip)irn[<-s bacl HgaJQ* 

into it« did brd, out of the lako. Thus the hollon-, becoming 

a marsh, proved itM^f adnpled for the purpose intended; and 

187 the inhnhitantR wprc nccomniodiitcd with a bridge. This 

saine queen, N'itocvis, planned the following deception. Over 

the gate, which is the greatest thoronghfare of the citjr, she 

erected her own sepiikhrt-, high above the gate itfttlf; aod 

engrared on it an inscription to this pnrpori :->-" Whoever 

*' may, after me, be the inler of Rabylun. if in want of cttth. 

" let him open'*' ibis sr-piilchre, and ukft \ he cboosea: 

*' not, however, unless be be truly in nanl, lei him open 

" it**': for it would be no good." This wpiilchn? remained 

untouched, nntil tbe throne came to Darius. 'Iliat king 

conceived, thai it vthk nbKiird he Rhoiild not be able to make 

DM of that gate, nor touch the money tbero deposited; 

money, loo, that seemed to incite his grasp. Tlie reaaoo 

that induced him not to muke use of this gate, whs, that ifhe 

went through, there would he a dead body over his head. 

He opened the wpulchre: instead of money he fooud nuUiing 

bnt the skeleton, and a scroll, purporting: " Had yon not 

•' been so greedy of money and disgraceful pelf, yuu would 

*' not bavo broken into the sojonm of the dead." 

183 It was a{;Min8l the son uf this queen that Cyrus wa» 

ftccordinglv directing liis next attack: thi^ Babylonian king 

inherited the nauie of Lubynetus, aud the AKvyrian etupire, 

from his father. When ihc great king gws to war, he 

Irarela provided tviili ])rovisiou<t well prcs«frvcd, and cattle, 

JVom bon^o: he takes, o«pccially, with him, water from iha 

ChoBKpes, a rivur thai flows by Sasa, of which, and no utiimt, 

the king diinkN. A vnut number of four-wheel waggons, 

drawu by mulea, follow in bis train, wherever b« goes: they 

are loaded with tbe CboaHpes' water, boiled preriauxly, and 

ISOatored in silver vases, fu hi-i march to Babylon, Cynia 

came lo the Gyndes*", a river that riti(!s ia the Maiiaman 

mountains, Hows athwart the land of the Dardaniaosi and 

CLIO. 1. 190,191. 


f»!I* iDto aiioiher rirer, the Tigris, wbicli, rolling ics water* 
Uirotiffh (he city of Opys, disembopics in llic Krytlitiean pea. 
A% Cyras, tiicrefcirr, was fiKieaviniiiun to gel across this 
m»r Gynd«>s, whi<;h is only ju^seblc in barges, one of tlie 
amend wbitc horses, full of imutlt-, rushed into tlie slruam, 
■od uivd to swim over; but tlio torrent Sfize<l the animal, 
■ad, whirling hiui uudi-r the surfucf, dashed iiini down the 
Mnsua. The Fi-i^ian ktn^ was much enraged by this insult 
Ml the part of ihc river; and pronounced a threat, that he 
voald {mil down hii^ ^itrenKth, so tlint for evemiorc crcu 
women should cross him readily, vfithoul welling ihe knee. 
This diroRi pronounced, he suspended tbe campaign against 
Babylon, and dirided hio troops into two budiet;: Uiis being 
flone, he marked out, by tine, one hundn^l and eighty chao- 
Bols on each side of the river, diverging from the direction 
of the (iyodcM in all (iiiarten. lie then stationetl the tuen, 
commaudud ihrna to dig. With sueh a uiultilude of 
ids, the work was indeed brought to a completion: llio 
Uuops, ueverihelcM, pufsed at tlial place the whole of the 
tiiiomcT in the (ask**. Cyrus having wreaked his Tvngc-IM> 
aure on [lie Gyi>des river, by distribuliug iu stream into 
tbrev hundivd aud sixty chaunel«, proceeded, at the tirat 
glcatn of spring, to inarch on to I'.ahylun. Tlie II ftby Ionian s, 
encninpc'J on the licld, awaited liia onset: ibc LVrsian leader 
brou;<h( bis anny near ihc city, where the liabylouiaus gave 
baule; and, being routed, shut tfaeuisulves within their iralls. 
But, aa tbey weru long before convinced that Cynta would 
never hm, and saw liiin fall on every nation iudiU'eruntly, 
they collected! lieforeiiund provi^inns for many years. They 
cared, iherelore, nothing fut tho blockade. Cynis. however, 
found hiiust-lf iu difhcult circuiDstauces; a lung ^tno hariag 
slipped aivny, uiihout hi» alfairs making any progress. 
WbcUicr, therefore, any pcr&on suggested the thing to faim in 191 
tJie uiidst of hU diHicultiea, or he bimftelf conceived a plan of 
•etiDg, he did as I will non' describe. He stationed the 
greater \mn of his anny at the opening by ubicb ihc river 
enters the town, placing also a few companies at the uppusite 
opening by which the river makes its e\it: ho then gave 
bii orders to ttie men, that when they found tlic stream furd- 
dile, they should punh into Ihe town : having tliua dispersed 
his amiy, and giti-n the above din-etiuns, be biwHelf marched 
iwny with tlio unanued train of lii« army, lie came to the 

Tli» Hbioria4 WUlbutcJ Ait 
kiag of lb* PvniAii l.irro tu u 
Jtnilna* grivl^ tfaliMi thti Li^nilu*. 
ten WM, it seeiiit, tiiat iim im- 

biHiMt work KM Biklenik«B for tka 
purpiMD of rendering tbk Mtl c/ A«> 
itiia HMFK «mHj soMNibb b; • tmI 
UDij, la NbNquiM pn g itmn. 


CLIU. I. lQ-2, 109. 

1uk«, ttic nork of the queen of tho Baliyloniiiw, tmd du! ibe 
Mim« by the Inke ant] the rircr a& sfac had daoe before : lliit 
iH lo say, opening the sluico into the lakr, ihcrt a nmmK&i and 
luming in the waters of thf river, maJL- ihu old Ih.-() ford* 
able. This being the case, the Pcratnne atationrd ou tlial 
Mirice c1t»se lo the En)>hrat4>», which now )ia<l sunk lo at 
least tlie mid thi^ of a man, made iheir ingress into Ba- 
bylon, ir, therefore, the lUbTloninns had been npiirisM) 
beforrhand, or had heard of what Cynis wan about, which 
they did not, they might have handled Lhuir foes in the inoM 
drendfnl manner: ihey would have clused all the lillle 
l^tes leading down to the river, and, inounling theoDselve* 
on the quays stretching along both Mdes of tho straiDi, 
would have caught them aa in a net: but in ihia iDsiaocv the 
Persians took (hem by snrpriite. It is relatt^d by the people ^ 
who were then residing at Babylon, that, in conscqut-uce <ff fl 
the immense pxlent of the town, the extreme limitii of (hr ~ 
cily had been taken before the people dwelling in iho centre 
of Hnbylon knew any thing of the capiurc: but— for it wan 
with tiicm a festii-e day — ihcy were dancing at lb« vciy J 
time, and rnjoying themnclrca, until they also were at liwt^| 
brought acfjuniiued with the tmih. Thua was Babylon e«p- ^ 
tured for the lintt lime. 

182 The most cogent proof I can give, araon^ many others, of 
Um resources of the BahylonianH, is this one thing: tbe 
whole extent of lands over which ihe nile of the great king 
stretches, beftidotf trihules, fnmii>hc8 the norercign and hia 
army with provisions for food : the Babylonian diatricl 
supplies this during four months of the twvlre: the eight 
TPmainiiig uiouihs are provided by all .Aria together. Thns 
tho Assyrian soil possesses one third of the resource* of ibe 
whok' of Asia. Moreover, the MipcriiilL-ndL-iice of this pro- 
vince, called satrapy by the Persians, is, of all the govem- 
mcuts, the most lucrative. When Trilanlarcbmes, »oii of 
AnabaKOK, hold that govi>mment from lh« king, his daily 
income was a full artaba of sjlvtr*' — the Persian ineaaut^, 
railed artaba, contains above the Attic mediinniu ihree 
Attic chtvnixL-s. The horsce belongtn» to hinisflf person- 
ally, besides the army horses, were eight hundred Ktalliaaa, 
and sixtei.-n UiuuEsand luarcs; one it'tallion lor itrecty mar«s. 
So numerous were his packs of Indian dogs that he kept, ihai 
fbor large villages in the ploiii, which were relieved from all 
oiher i^xes, were .ippointcd to supply their food. Such were 

IWihe advantages arcniing to the governor of Babylon. TThj 

*' Aceot4Ii>sto Arbtitiiiet, four r«vk* uJtnyint*. 

CUO. I. 194. 


|n4<^tbc AvsjnaDa in visited with lilllc run, and lliat lillle 
VMB* » wbat feeds tlie rooL of tlie corn : llii? crup, liuwui-er, 
18 OMde to grow up to give « haivosL, hj constant irrigatioQ 
tntm ibo riTor: liiiit irrigalinii dous unl taki- nlaeo, as in 
1^:^,^ pL, by tlie spoil taiumi IS nveifluw nf the nver on tlie 
Uiiiiii, but id done by iJie band nr &n-ipB; fui l]ie wfaole uf 
lUb^'looia is interseclod by canals. tl>o samo as Kgypl; the 
lofgcM of diera t-anals is navigable, aud stretches iu tbe di- 
tvoUop oT tlie winter sun-rise: it coiumuuicalcs iVoni the 
liuplinite^, with Lhu TigiiN. ui ilic spot wbLTu Niucvub 
Mood: tbis is, of all (he lands wc know any thing of, by fax 
ibe bcKl™* fur tlic produce uf Ci-riV (pfts: other plants do 
Doi evi'u imike a &)iiiw of growing in lliitt qiiarler, neither 
the fix* Q^i* 'lit= Kntp(^> nor tbc ohvu; but the wheat il bears 
is bi'AUUlul iu tbi3 uitlrcni^: it returns, on an aveni|i^, two- 
liundrcd-hildi but wbt-n it jiriKlucirs its iR-st, tbu rt-tuni Is 
tims-bundredfuld**'. TbL- bUdcs tit ulR-at and bailey ac- 
qoin caaily a breadth of fuiir lingL-rs. Alibougli 1 nm well 
awiins to what size of tree the sesaiuu a»ed docs groiv, I ahall 
aot uiciilioa it; hviog fully couvinced, that, to those vrbo 
baie never been in Babylonia, what I have already »aid of 
ilji producte will be conudcred too exafrfCiTatod to be gircn 
crrdit lu. Tlivy ujake no use of olive-oil, bin make theirs 
from iie«Bine. ralin-tn')-!i spring; up nil over tlie plain: 
DKttt of tbeitc are fructiletous; and I'roui the fruit they pro- 
cure brcadt wine, and honey ; they cultivate (bcin in Uio 
Mine ttunoer as (ig-tinces, particularly a» to what couuenu the 
iBale pdnis, as the Hellenes call itiein ; the fruit of which they 
lie aboal the hrani:he» of the date-bearinj{ treea, in order 
thai ibo fiy may come out and outer into the date», and 
•o pnivent the fruit of iho puhn from fallinK off; for the 
male palms have tlie» in llieir frnil, jiinI like our wild figs*'. 

The greatest tvonder of all ibinj^b' here, next of course to 194 
the city, is, in my opioion, what I am now going to ex> 
ptaia^. rfacir boats, that ply down the river to BabyloO) 

» MUL(61. 

w Mmi. i«a. 

** Tkn 'l(t>-4r», » M't af Mkln, 
fcu the male an-l titatlt an dlfffrHii 
pisib: Ibv pailrti fruai tb« male ■• 
(•r»«<l *» tbc feniLlc, tnihcr br tli« 
iHailnT nwn, Ike bvM uid flt«>, or by 
Ikv mA bncia. 'Hie (ig-Uce «t 
(IrMpv. UjUu, nnil llie l^tkoi, are 
nl iKu IImU, ibe cnUi«atrd and 
wild ; tko Uttrr u( wUok ■• sol cftl- 
ftWr, b«t CM*** •• > rpMpraoU fer a 
MR «r jM-bUck Hj nit itMiiite 
■akt rhiptob oT Uir Agi of nit wtld 

pUci, r-.nllpil iLn tttprifinu, and ap. 
pv»i) ibttn to thn hnnobn of ole 
iWiAil SK<tTm: tba black fij hatcbn 
in tliMt cba)iltii>, and, UNing fran 
iliciK«, procccjf Id pitrw the eys of 
tb« «>ltiT&led fmil, in whirh ibef 
are Mid W f<Frtiliie Iba tivmtt* as- 
claacd mCliiii th« fruil. hy burrouriog 
nmciTii; lliL-ni fur touJ. Hrtodolai 
ut);lL-c(cd, ID tbia catt. It aeema, (o 
MMi?t> for aMufat* islbmisUaa, aitli 
hla Ddial pU>ono# and wntraranM. 
•» HaiL Ofl«. r. 


CLtO. 1. 195, 186. 

are all circular, and congiat of leather: after umking 
fraincH in Armenia, which lies above AftS3rm, Irom lfa« 
osiers tbcr cut iu tbal cuuutry, tliey Ktrelch on the uiil»i(lv 
X leather corerin^;, in the room of plnnVing^ malinif no 
distinctiuu between siem or stem, but perfeclly routHi, lilte 
a buckler. They line the innde of ihiK craft with straw, 
Uiincb it into the rirer, and then etow it with tnerchaodiK. 
Their freight consi&lK principally of caiiks 6)led with date- 
winc : they are managed, with two poles, by two men stood* 
ing trcci; one of whom hauls his pole in, while the otber 
Khores his ant**. Very largt- barges are made un tlm pat- 
tern, and M) are smaller CTufi: the largest of all are of fire 
ihomuuid talenic' burthen. On board of erurj' barge there 
ia seen a live ann: in tlic larger bargea there are aeTeral. 
When ihey have Boated down to Babylon, and dtiipnsod of 
their cargo, Ihev put up to auction the ribs of the bark, and 
theMraur; and the skins aru piled on tbe pack-Middle of the atf, . 
who is driven back tulo Arnifuia. To rc-a»cei]d the river, io ' 
the same u)auiii.T, is out of tlic qucKiiou, so rapid is the ciir- 
rent ; in cnnscmiencc of which, also, ihev are obliged to make 
their boats of leather, and not of wood. When iltey have 
driven their asses back to Armt'nia, they construct olber 

195 barges in llie same manner. — The tostume of the Iluby- 
loniann consists of a cotton t^hirt, roaeliiiig down to the feel; 
over which they throw u woollen cloak, and a close white 
cape : their covering for tlie feet is after a laftliiou ]>ecaltar 
Io this couQlnr, closely uvproaching to tbc Uuntian clogs. 
Their flowing hair iliey bind up uuder a milTC, and anoint 
the whole body with perfiimes. Every individual ha« a seal; 
and a »iall', made by hand, on every one of which is carred 
■ti apple, a rose, a lily, and .so forth : for Iher are n 
allowed to carry a Mtck, unless it hear some utaik. 

IMt The follnn'ing are some of their viiRlotus: the wisest 
iDy idea i& this, which 1 understand holds*** also among 1 
Venetians of lllyria. Once every year the follon-ing se* 
took place in every village: Tliaiever maidens might be 
of marriagealde yean)**', were nil eullecled, and brought int(^ 
one certain place, around which MomI a uiulliltidti of mcr 
A crier called up each girl sep-ir-ilely, and nffiTed her 
enio: he began with the prctliesi*" of the 1'>H and when 
had found a rich bidding, he sold her off; and called 
another, the next ho ranked in beauty. All these girh wei*- 

*■" Th* moie of vtmin^ ■ twru* 
nn \hf 9tnart. nhm thai rirer U hiKhly 
■wi-'Ilrn, If •xarlly rlin lunn u this 

w* Mm.Mtt.ttr.X 


tottl oirin tnarriaii^e : the rich meii, that were camlLdntes for a 

wife, bade agaJnut uite another for the hanclsoiiic!>t : tlic more 

humble clau«s, deurous of gelling parlneni, did not require 

Atwololdy beauty, buL wvre willing to take even tbc ugljr 

girls for a sum of moiiifj-. Thererore, when the crii!i had 

ftoiM; through the list of the pretlieat vromcii, and disposed of 

theiD, tw put up the ugliest, ur Home one (bal wan a cripple, 

ifanr there wore, and, offering to dispose of hur, called out 

(or iW biddi-r that would, for the amallt-st mm, take her to 

Utv n-ith him: ko he went on, till he oawu to liur that be 

codBiden-d the leant furbiddinK- The uiouey for tliis waa got 

bj the udc of tbe protly maidens ; so that the handuime and 

well ehaptjd gave ouwries to the u>;ly and di'fi^ruied. It was 

Dot lawliil liir any oue to give his dau^hler to wlutiii he chose ; 

DOT for a person to lake a giri away that he had purchased, 

without giving bond that he verily propofced to marry her; 

when ho inigbt take ber with htm. If tbe couple could not 

a^re«, the law pemulted the money to be relumed. It was 

aho allowed to any man coming Iroiu another viUage to make 

a jmrcliu^c, if he chose. This was ihu best of thrir inHtilu- 

tidns. Liitely, tliey have hit ujion au oxpedit-'iii, that iheir 

daugbttra might not bi- malln-atcd or carriid off to some 

other town : (or since they have bceu oonfjuereil, they are iU- 

irvated and rained by their lords; and all the lower orders, 

for the sake of getting a livelJIiood, prostitute iheir female' 

ollvpring. The following is another of their instituiioDS. I*J7 

They bring out into ihe puiiHt- square all their sick ; for they 

have no regular docton). 11)« persons that meet the sick 

man, give him adrice; and i-xhort him to du ibe same that 

tbey ibcm«i<lve>i have found (o cure such a disease, or have 

hoDw-t) some olJier person lo be cun-d by. They arc not 

allowed to jtoss hv any sick person, imtil ther have asked 

bim what ailing lie has. — They embalm the dead in bo< lyy 

oey: their lamentations are nearly ihe naim^ as in Egypt. 

Every Babyluiiiaii that hsH eouverscd with his own wife sits 

down near the smoke of burning perfumes; the woman, on 

ber part, does the same ; and at dawn of day both wash ', 

for nntil they bave done so. ihcy will not touch any vase : 

the s«me practice holds with the Arabians. 

The moBt disgraceful of the Habyloiiian customs is t1iis:l!>0 
erery native woman mu<!t, once in her life, sit don-n in 
tlte holy precinct nf Venus, and have communication wiili 
sami> stranger. Many of theH<> wonii-u disdnining to mix 
vith thr uiherK, and inflated by their riches, go to the ti-m- 
plc iu covered carriagefi, followed by a numerous retinue of 
lertantx. Bui the iiinjnrity act in ihc following manner: 


CLIO. I. 200—8*2. 

ihvT scat themselves in tho tetoplo of Venus, weuittg on 
thrir heads a wreath of cord: some sro t>oniing, athere ire 
Koiiig: [Mlhit um m:1 tifl' by line in bVfTV ilireclioii through 
the crowiU of wniiicn, hv tvhicli thi- Mrangers paw and 
makn thi'ir choice. Whui) a womiu) h.ts> once taken lier seat 
Uicre, «liv caiiiuu Teliini lionie until m>uii; kirangcr casu a 
piece of silver on her knees, and enjoys her |>eT»(ni ODtside of 
the lemplt'. When he throus the money, he is to say this 
tnnch : " In thu name of the goddess Mvlitta." The Asaj* 
rtons call Vcmis, Mylitta : the piixi: of silvrr may ho crcr 
KO small; it will nut be rot'usud. tor tliat is ti«>t laM-ful; but 
that coin is deemed Hucrcd. The woman lulhms the find 
man that throws: slia rvfuiivs nu one*". After surreudering 
her person, the Roddou Wing Mitinliod, she returoc hornet 
and fnim that tinio, liowevt-r gruat a sum you may git» 
her, yoix wUl not obtain hor fa«'oiir». Sucli fti'*'" u are 
emlnvv^d i<itli boaiity and grace soon reiurii home ; othc-rK. 
that ttTv (k-fornK-'l, tarry a long time, finding ihcinseKct 
unahlt; to fulfil tliu law : some evi'o have remained three or 
four ycitrs. In many parts of Cyprus the same cu-t(oai, 
nearly, is in vogue. Such, then, are the cnslunis with the 
3UU QabylouianB. There are three tribes among them that eal 
iio(hiu); but fish; which, after they liu\e caii(tht aiul dried 
it, they pr(>pur« ihuv : they put it into a tnnrtar, bray it with 
a pestle, and iliive il through a sieve; and whoever chooses, 
may makti frumenty, or bake it into bread. 

201 Cyrus ba«'inK done nith tliia nalion al»o, couceived tbe 
desire of subjecting to hiii dominion the MaMtagelie. This 
people is dencrilK-d as both f^eal and warlike, dwelling 
eastward, towards the rising sun. beyond the Araxes rifer, 
and o]iponte to the Issedones: there are even luime per 

202 who as.<<t-rt thai this nation is Scythian. The Araxen is re- 
presented an both lai^^er and Binaller than the Iftter; there 
are islands, thickly studded, on this stn-am, and nearly as 
crmtiiderable in sixo as Lesbos: on. these iidauds are found 
men that in summer lire upon root» of all sorts, which tliey< 
grub up ; but mure up also, as food, the ripe fruits lliey ge 
from the tree*, ond upon \vbich they lire io winter: thaj 
have also discuveied a particular kiud of tree, ljt.'aring fridl 
of n peculiar quality : at tinier, they collect to^-tbcr in 
large parties, kindle a fire, and, niuing io a ring around, 
throw Mome of this fruit into the flames. By inhaling the 
fumes of the burning fruit they have thrown in, (hey bccooie 
intoxicated by tbe smell, as the Hellenes arc by nine: the 

n Hau. MB, t. 

CLIO. 1. 203—205. 


lOre ihiil tlicy throw ou, die inort- incbriulcd clii y arc; till 
bst ihry K^t up to (iatiL-c ami sing. Sui'b iheir inoito of 
n HUtl to be*". Tlic rivur AmxrK flows from tiui Ma- 
iui mnuDtnins — ibv tKiimc thnl t)u< Gvuilcs rises iti, which 
iCynt* <li»pv-T»cd into ihu thrc« hundred aud sixty cliantipls: 
lie «at4*(& of tlie furuier gii»h out of forty mpriugs; all of 

hich, with the pxcepiion of one, difrcharRc thcm»vtvcs into 
tnriini(>y marshrA***, where men are said lo reside that 
live on raw fish, and wpiir seal-skin gatmenu. That one 
•iTMtu of the Araxes I have mentioned, flows, without iin- 
Bsdiumi, into the Cai>|ii:ui una. The Cnit|>inn U a ma of^OS 
IbM-lf; tiisl is tit say, it dm-s not mix irith any other aea : for 
■11 dial u-a u'hirh the Hellenes navigate, and Uie Atlantic 
Vithuiit the l*illara, toRclber with lite Krydirivan kcu, are «1! 
ono and the hante. But, as I havu said, the Caspian is a dif- 
flitmit ««a of ilKcIf; uhich, in kuglb, is a fortnight's toyage 
to A row-hnat; und in brcfiillli, at itit widest part, a week's 
toyBBo"*. On the wcjiteni shore of this «?* slrclches the 
nmtso n{ CuticoiUM, the turgi-M and luAiesi of mmnitatns. 
Jtlwiy and <rari<>ri« Tnce» inhabit th(t region* of Caiica«ii-4, the 
nsiority of itlioni live on ibe wild jiroduc'tx of tlie forest; 
ainonit which nre tree» that Mipply leaves, which, when 
rubb«(l aud tuixed uitli water, ^ive a dye, iviUi which ttieir 
cumeuui laay he istnined uiih all sorts of figures. Thu 
|lfpH«M never lade, but last us long att the stuff il^If, jiut the 
Rame at if it were inwoven ni {\nt : it is said ibat aiming 
ibcMi people the sexual iuteuour^e takes place openly, as 
irith cattle. The Caucasus, tlierefore, serves as a buundari* 34)4 
Id llm CaHpiao Kea in the west: on the east, and towards the 
rising Sim, a plv^in siicceedft, the extent of which is far 
beyond thi> sirelih of the eye. A considerable portion of 
|bi» bi-ath h occtipit^d hy the Ma.H»iigcue, agalusl whom 
Cyrus pnijticled war: niotiveK, uumerous and |xiwcrfnl, 
incited and nrgecl hini on : in the first place, his birth, 
which he oonf^idcred as sotnethitig muro thaa biutun ; sc- 
coodfr ihe fcooil fnrtuno that had ulLcoikd - him in hia wars : 
lor wlierei''er Cynw directed his arms, it was wholly impos- 
lible for that nation to cHcape. 

The pTeccdiiig king's widow, called Tom^Tis, was the 306 
qucea over these Ma»»ageitr. (.'ynis deopatched to her an 
■mbOHadur, nudor prtluuce of paying his addresses, aud 

*< Ca«np*f«l*.7K. MtablhbM the MrUbtv that llvra- 

W Thia lT*nalalia« i» on Om ■■• Ailiw, in tkia fkMkgv, M all etMtU. 

phoriijf nf iMbwBlRhriiirt : Hiftfi I doM aot tnvaa ohu mr aow rtll Ikit 

Ai aiiriitAni ia hmrti frnm a (priiqc or t'a4[0- 

Nwre, qitlip Ac c^irar}- fo itif * Halt. 100, 



CUO. I.20«,2»7. 

oBbring marfutgc ; but Tumyris, aworo that it wu not lier- 
self, but ihtt kiiigduui uf llie Massagetie, that he courtrrl, 
forbade liis approach- Cyrus, thus tihwarted io his atucnpl 
to deceire, inurchtrd lo llic Araxcs. and made opeii prepare* 
turns for vnr with the Mnituigelii', bv «T«c(ing n bridn 
over the river, and buitdiu^ floating castlns to convey the 
30fi IroopK icross**". While the Persian chief was thus t-inpIuTed, 
TomjTis sent a herald to him, who was to say : " King of the 
" Medes, cease your great haste *" ; for you cannot yvt know 
" whethvi: this witl end fo yoiu* udvnntage. Cease, then, 
" onee more: rule over your own dominionii; and coDtetn- 
" plate, with a peat-efiil eye, ray government over what is 
" mine. If you will not hearken lo thin advice, but prefer 
" every thing before qmetaess and repose — il you are to 
" exeeiuivcly anxious to inaVc trial of the ManagB fag 
" come ; spare yourself the troubli) of throwing a briilga 
" across ihc river. We will rclire three days' march from 
" the river: iiicaiiu-hile, du you erass iiilu our territory : btiK 
" if you had rathvr nict-ivc us oa your own ground, do you 
*' the same." When Cyrus hei\rd this proposal, he vailed a 
mecliuK of the chief Pcisianet; the aissctubly conrenedt 
Cyrus laid the business before ihem, asking their opinion aa 
to how he should act. llicyUDaaimoutily af^ecdiDadPinng 
207 him to admit Tomyris and her anny on his own soil. Crcesas 
was preseut: the Lydian prince disapproved the counsel; 
look up the oppuvile Kide of the quesiiun ; and said : ** Mighty 
" king, I havi; already observed to you, that since Jore bu 
" gireu me into your bauds, whatever ini'^lortuue I may tee 
** im|>ending over your houw-, to use all my exertiona lo 
"^ turn il aside. My suHvriug^, bitter as tliey are, have been 
"a lesson to me. If you consider yourself and your Bnajr 
** iumiortal, there can be no need of my cxplaininx to you 
" what mv opinion is: yei, if you are convinced that you 
" yoursell even are but a man, and those yoa rule over 
** nothing more, be in the firat place apprised of this— Hbc 
** wheel of human life is ever revolving, and will not allow 
" tlio same mortal to be constantly successful. Now. there- 
*' fore, the opinion 1 hold on the matter in question is 
*' wholly contrary to that of this usAcaibly. If wc resolve lo 
" receive the foe on our own ground, 1 say thai there is ibii 
" dunger in so doinfi; ; if on one hand you are defeated, you 
"will lose, besides, your whole empire; for it is clear the 
" MassuKcla;, ifconquerun, will not retrace their steps, buE 
" will dasli furward. into the heart of your doiuiuious: if, ou 


«• Mstt. 417, mAi<r. Sm •In »$T, 

ClAO. I. 406. 


•* the other faaiKl, j-o*i con(|iicr. Mill w yonr ronquesl not «o 

" cotnplcie as if you had your foot on their soil, Imd con- 

*' qiiorrd tho MaHsagebB, and werp |iiin>iiiiig thp fiifjitive*: for 

** 1 *hz)\ ^il) nl)j«:t to this aaaetnbly, that aiWr rouiinj^ roiir 

** adroTsaricE yon will directly presn on into the interior of 

** Tomjri&'a (lumiDians. And, raoiwovcr, is it not disgracefal 

" and intolerable that Cyrus the son of Cainby»A should 

" retire bufore a woroan, on his own territory? My opinion 

" ihcrtforc if, that yon should crOM the Araxos, and go as 

" fat as thry nrtire; and having so done, i-ndcavour to gain 

** the day upon them. Thtf .Massngctie, 1 um told, knov of 

" none of tlie Pvtvian delicacies, and an; iacxpi^ri^iict'd of 

** ibe coTDforis of life. For such men, therefore, slaughter 

** abundance of cattle, dnisa the Oeah, and spread it forth in 

" mir camp; add va5;os filled lo the brim with wine no- 

** mixed vrilh water, and ali sorts of dishes. HarinK dune 

** this, IcaTP the worst portion of your army behind : let the 

** tvt.1 relum again to tlie river; and, if I am not mistaken, 

" the enemy, Reeing all these good things, will fall to and 

** devour theiDi and it will remain for lis taachiei-e a mighty 

« mrlc." 

Such were the planR propoited on both aides. Cyms re- 208 
jeclrd the former, and adopted that of ('neaus: he made 
Known to TomyriB, that Khe might retreat, and he would 
cro*^ tlie Arnxes to gire her the meeting: she retired, ac- 
cording to her previous Btipulation : and Cyrus, placing 
CrxEtnis in the hands of Cambyses, to whom ho beqnrathed 
ibe kingdom, earnestly prescribed to bin son to honour and 
•h«v every attention to the captured prince, in case the 
eiunp.Tign against the Masmigeiir shonld be a failure. 
Having gircn these injunctions, and sent Crccsas and Cam- 
byteo otr to Persia, be cnmsed the river with Wut forces. 
Arrirc4 oit the opposite bank of ihc AraxeK, at the fall of 
ay he beheld, as be slept in tlie land of the MuasaLgelie, a 
rod: it was this: Cyrus fiincicd in hie sleep that he beheld 
^Hm eldest son of IlyHtaspes with wings on his shoulders, one 
of which shadoired Asia, the other Europe. Ilie eldest son 
of Uystaspes the mo of Ariuunes, one of the Acha-menides, 
was Darius, then at best hot twenty years of age : this son of 
hit vaa left ia P»raia, not being of age to join tlie expedition. 
WWn Cyras awoke, he considered within himself about his 
drt'im; and, as the token seemed iroportant, he eent for 
Hyslaspes; and, taking him aside, said : " Hystaspes, I hare 
*■ detecled your son plotting against me and my throne: 
" I am certain nf it, and will Ic1l you how : the gods watch 
" over me, and Ibrewaro me of all things Uiat am to come. 


CLIU. 1. 210-312. 

** Notr, tilts reiY nighl, in my slocp, I hulield Uie eMol^l 

" of youT sono with wingH on bis iilioiilderH j otie of wbkcUHj 

** covered Aaia, the other Kurope, with shade. There cannot ~ 

** be the Hlitjhtest doubt, from this drejiiti, (hai Uit; vcmlfa ii 

** eoospiring against nic. <io beck, therefore, as speedily 

" AS you con to Persia ; and uiaoagv >o, Uiat trheo I return 

" then from the present expcdilioo, you may prodaco yoar 

310 " son before ino, to examine." Cynis tspukt; thus in the 
coDvictiou that Darius was plotting againnl bini ; but the 
dirioily forosliOT«d to liim, tbut be would himsell be kUkrcl 
in Ui« campaign, and tliat his kingdom would descend 
to Darius. HrKtiisptrft' ansvTcr ffas accordingly in these 
words: " Sire, lire); there a IVrsian that would conspire 
** against you: if so, let bim forlfawilb die: for you ba*« 
** made the Persians, from bning slaves, to be free men ; in 
** ^aoe of being lorded br all, to rule over all*. If any 
" dream ha» announct'd to you that ray son broods any 
" distnrbnnce against yon, I pledge myself In deliver him 
*' into your bandit, to do by him irhal you choows." ( lysldspeit 
baring returned the abovi* au&wer, repassed llie Araxe»; and 
proceeded into Persia, to take his bou into custody, and bring 
him before Cyrus. 

ill Cyru8 having adTauced one day's march Irom the banks 
of the AraxeSf proceeded to act according to the suggestion 
of Crcestts. Having done as he adviM:<i, Cyrus, aud the 
efficient part of die Persian anuy, marched back to the 
A raxes, leai-ing the ini'fficivnt forces bi-hind: the third 
diiriHion of the MiisHagetic army coming up. put to death 
the men thai composed the body he had left belnnd, and 
that reMKtcd : ihcn, seeing tlia proviHtons itpread out, tbey 
MrelcIiL'd themselves on the turf, und feasted, after ruutiug 
their cot^ioiLS. Filled wiih food and wine, tbey drop|>ud to 
sleep: aud ihu Pemians coming up, put many to the liU-ord, 
hut tcxik B much greater number priiauuors: among the rest* _ 
the leader of the Massagetc, son of queen Tomyris, called ■ 
3)2 Spurgapise^. Tuuiyris, informed of wbat bad happened to ^ 
her army and to her son, sent a herald to Cyrus, to aay: 
'• Cyrus, yoo Ihnt are never satiate of blood, boast not of 
" vhat has taken place ; for it was the juice of the grape^ 
** which caiinoH you ynuru^lf, when tilled with it, to rar« so, 
" and sinks down into your body bnt to throw back a lids of j 
** insolent abrntc — it was by that poison you deeeired my ^M 
" son, and not in fair battle. Now, listen to aome good ^fl 
" advice, which I nfiVr in giwid part: restore to me my soo. 



CLIO. i.2ia,2ia. 


ami ik))Mui uapiuiishcd Iroiii lliis land, allhough you Iiara 
so cruelly irvsU-'d ibo thiri) of my armv. If vou refuKu lo 
** do tbis, I »wt-Br by the nun, tlw f(ml of Uic MaKEagvla-, thai, 
*' iiisalialf as you are, I uill ylul yo» Krilli Llood!" Cyrus 
look oo occouut of this iii<.')UKi4(c ; autl SpurKapt&vs, haviug 
nvcoreied fruui tde iufliimce of niiu-, and a^en llie fXleiit uf 
hi* inUf<>rluni-, bc|;gcd Cyrus to liberau him from hiit fieltcra, 
vbidi vas grained : uo wiouer >va8 hv released, liovrtver, and 
had rt-'gaiiied Ibv use of his hands, tlian he put *o end to hts 
life. Such iras the Talc of the son ; but Tumyris, not being 
Itsieoed to by Cynm, cnlled all her (oTceti toj^rther, »t\d nave 
bktile lo Cynis. — I take it lliis engugoiDcnt wa» the moat 
bluody ol' battles that erer look planp hetvroen foreign 
nations: I have heanl tlie lollowing dcsf-Hption nl' iIir fight. 
Piret, it i» relati'd, thai, al a diiiuiice from one anolliitr, ths 
tiro annies fougbl with their bone and arrowft: whcD their 
arruvx were all shot away, they chmed, and engaged with 
jafclin and cullassi nan to man : for a long ttcae the battlti 
il^d; neither jiarty would givif way; but at last the Maa- 
ttgfiXx got tlic ii[i|iur hand: tiiust pan of ihc PtTnian army 
vai cut to pieces on (he Ould ; and there also fell Cyrus, after 
a reigu u( nine-and- twenty years. TmHyris fdU-d a rftin 
with human blood: hhc caused the Umly of Cynis to be looked 
for amiuig the &luia <>t the Persiaim: it ua^ found: «bu 
plunged bin head into the skin, and reviled the dead body'**, 
aayioi* : " Although I live, and hare eonquertd thee in battle, 
** thou hast ruined tnu for ever, by ensitariiiK my son. Uut 
*•" I will gorge tliee, as I threatened, willi Uoo<l." — ^Tbis aC' 
eouDt of the deuth of Cyrus, of the many that arc given out, 
appears to tne the most authentic. 

The MasMigclK wear the same costBmc B» Ihe Se>'tbUiDS,5|5 
and have the same mode of life: their forces consist of 
horse and foot; both join in battle: there arc bowmen and 
jsielin-uien, who are wont to carry bulllu-axes. Tliey make 
great use of gold and copper: in what concerns the spear- 
head, arrow-buad, and lAfltlle-nxe, they make all of copuor; 
an that belongs to the helmet, girdle, and coal nf mail, is 
otnaiDeuted with gold: in the same manner, l]iey put copper 
mail on the cruppers of their liorM^ ; but the bridle, bit, and 
bead-trappings are of gold: they use no fiker or iroui lor 
tboM metaU arc not found in their eountry, which abounds 
hoirerer, in copper and gold. Their manners and customs 2 j (J 
are as folluwa: every man inarriGii one woman, but all the 
women arc in common^ for it is the Massagetip, uot tho 

Matt 384. 

104 CLIO. I. 216. 

Scythians, as the Hellenes assert, that have this practice. 
Wnaterer female a Massagetan man feels a desire to enjor, 
he has onlj to hang his qaiver on her waggon, and do what 
he wishes at his ease. No limit is set to human life ; but 
when a man becomes exceedingly infirm by ^|^, his nearest 
kinsmen all meet, and sacrifice him, together with other 
cattle : they then boil the flesh, and feast on it : this is con- 
sidered the happiest mode of ending life. Such as die of 
disease are not eaten ; but are placed under ground, their 
friends lamenting that they did not reach the age to be 
sacrificed. They sow no pulse ; but live on their catde and 
fish, which abound in the Araxes: their beverage, also, is milk. 
They worship the sun alone, to whom they offer up horses : 
the reason of which custom is, that they think it right to 
consecrate the swiftest of mortal creatures to the swiftest of 
the gods. 


The kingitom of Babylon begui, acMirdiDg b> Ptolemr'a Canoo, wftk 
NabcnuBv, 747 B. C; who tru followed hj tw«lv« king*, down to Nabom- 



NftbopotMiar 637 

NebnchadneizkT 604 

ETilmerndacb A6I 

NerigliMir BW 

LabjDeto* 6M 

CfnuraptDTM Babyton ASS 



TOL. I. 


CahBTBES, Aovt)^ tueeteded Aw father Cjfrtts m the tkruu, t(mdertaJkee, m 
the fiflh j/tar, an expedilion againti the Egfptiant. But, hejort the Hitloria» 
relate* that expeditkti, he deteribe* theeowttrj/ ijfthe EggpUatu, tmdihe rnatwrt 
t/Ihe Kile, 3—36, the matmert, ritei, aitd mode of Imittg of the pewpte, 37 — Wp 
Th* leriei of their kinge u gtoen, W~~lSO. The affmri ofEfffpt becoBU Utter 
kiMwn after itrtmgeri are admitted into the amatrg hg PtamMitiehmi, Iti tef. 
Be it ttteeeeded ijl Ifecot, lAB; urAp i* tncceededby Peammit, 160; icA* itme- 
eeeded bg Apriet, 161. Apriet it deprived qf the eroien ^ Amaeie, 16S, (ikrr 
the teven eotle* eftke Eggptkau ore deteribed, 164 eeq.) 173 to the emd. 



At the decease of CyniR, Cambjsts succeeded to tbo I 
tlvroDe: be waa a sou of Cyrus, by the daughter of Hiar- 
DBSpes, Ca&sandan« ; u-hose pretiouH dt^atU ('yruti not only 
mourned deeply bimseU', but commanded all that he niled 
ova likcirisc to monm. Cumbyscs, llic sou uf this princess 
ftod of C^TUD, considered (ht- lunianK aud .£0113118 au liere- 
dttary sUtcs'; and wlun alwiit tn o|icii a campaign against 
Bsjrpt, took men, not only from thu other nations under his 
mlc, but also from those Hellenes ihat had been conquered. 

llie Egj'ptiana, prior to the reign of Psammitichus, ru- 2 
gardcd themselves as the niofit ancient of manltind. Hut 
thai prince, having come to tJio throne, rusulved to asicortain 
what people were Uie first in rxislcncc: from Uiat time the 
Egypiiaus hate allowtid that the Phii-nicians existed before 
ihem, but tliat they IhemiicWcs arc anterior to all others. 
PsUDUiitichus, finding it impossible t<i ascL-rtain, by inquiry, 
any means of discovering who «erc the first of the human 
race, devised the following cxperimcni. He delivered over 
to a berdtnuiu two ocw-bom children of hiiinblo paTeot«, to ; 
nor them, with hta flocks, aticj ihix manner : bis ordcnt were, 
thai no onu should t-ier pronoiiuce a word in tlie. prcsonct; of / 
lb« children, who were to be kept by tlicmsclvcs in a Kohlary 
apanmeni^ at ccrtatu huuD>* goaiN were 10 be Iirought to 
tbctu; the herdatiuin van to Hct' tliey sucked ihcir fill of 
tnilk, and tlien go about bis bui^iness. Tliis was done 
and ordered by Psamraitichus for the purpose of hearing 
what word the childreu would dm utter, after they left off 
the unmeaning cries of iafaocy. And such lu-cordiagly was 

■ Man. 049, t, iMt panjc. 

■ Mrttl. *ftt, 3,0. 




EUTKUPK. II. 3,*. 

Ihc result. For tlic pamor had cnntiniied during Oie space 
ol' hvo yean to act arcording lu tliese orders, when one day 
oiwiiing thu door, and cnteritig, both Ibe children fell Dpoo 
him, cr}'iu]{ * bt!co»,' und Mretching oat their hands. The 
lir»t time that the shepherd heard iliis, he accordingly kept 
quivt; but the »ame word occurred ri;p«atedlv, every tioie 
he eanio lo aUend to them : he thrrefore let hit, master 
know, and was urdtrud lo bring the children into his pre- 
sriice. pHDiniiiitichiiK heard hinwcirthr word; und inquired 
what peoptu it was that callt-d. in Uic-ir language, any Oiing 
'becof*:' he was informed that the I'homicians give thai, 
iuttn« to * bread.' In consequeocc, the Ecyptiiuis, haviof^ 
deliberately ni'ight:d iIik mutter, gar« pluco lo tht; Pborai- 
ciatiR, and granted (bi-r were uiotl' aneieni tliaii ibuuisclvea.^ 

3 ll was by ihe prieMn of Vutcn.n, nl McmjihiK, that t was iu- 
fonnc'd ihingH occurred as I have thus tiescribi'd *. Th# 
Ht^llenciit h»\vi;rci', mhl imnijf g^^iyr f|"'i|jfir"''a\ ^h'"'" ' ^^' 
instance, that pKamiiiilicbus cut out the tongues of some 
woiiK'U, uiid, by their assislanci-, succeeded in brtnfpnff op 
thf chilHren: — to far for iJie account of the educalioo of^j 
llh-flc childrt-n*. In mv conversftiioos wiUi ihe priests o£^| 
V'idcaii, I heard many ollit^r tradiliuiiK al Memphis; iind bvcti ^^ 
pr<irec<Ii.ti lo ThcbcB and lloiiopolis,on thotr account, behig 
dciiiroUA to know whether the inidiitonR there would coiueidu 
with thofle ai Memphis; furtlio llcliopulilans aru repa-scuted 

R!t lliu mu»( skUrul anliquarii-s among the Kg>'pltiuis. Of 
those tmdilioits that relate to dtvino thiugs, ant! whteh 1 may ^j 
have heard, it is not my *?*<'"''"" to my[[tio|t iny 'l-i-y ■-"■■»• H 
tJian ibe utere liamc-s ; 'or I thiiil; all mmx eauall y wiw iipy n ^| 
these mallfrs. ll" 1 ithould cusually iflBIlffilffl TucTi tbiof^, ^ 
it will be only when ueceanitated, by the coo rw of Ae 
Darraiive. ' """'"" " ' 

4 So fur, then, as conceros human matters, ihey agree 
amont; thomsclvos in ihc rtutcmcnts I am going to present. 
That till- Ki;ypli«ns were llic firRl people in the wurld lo dis- 
to»-er ilie j<-ar, mid di-slribule over it the twelre paitR of ilie 
limr KonHi^Uit; a discovery, Ihey said, deduced from the stat^; 
(so far, in mv upintnn, they act more iriscly than the Hd-i 
lenes; fur the Hellenes iotercalate erery other year 
month, on account of the seasons*: the Egyptians, on 

• MM1.3?4,*nitp(ir»f. 

* ThI* PKpvrimcnr wu rtiirwrd in 
tht tlftMDih ctntury, by Jhhim IV. 
k'Bir u( 9cntUnd, «ha ihni nji Ivo 
vhililfrn hi ttie hIcoJ Inchkeitb, liili 
a Jgni1< utin>''''i'i (i "nit ■■pen them. 

1 r,.rni. Hrtfi. I. ftftfe.-If tbdr 

^r 1»il t«tM txMilT thrM htiod'W 
wlttxiy-Hvedajii; Ttr fmn tfc« m»- 
noiw x\y\jii poiBiD^ mt (be «*■> iln». 
rbt wltiicr inonttii wouU •! iba rad 
or Kaw oeainriM cosw in dk apriiVt 
nod to on w'llk ttio olI)«n. DioitoM 
Sicntn* lUM-rta, Ibat Iba iDliat)itaBU 

KLTKHPK ll.5,fl.' 

ker haacl, reckon twelve mouUin of thirty days, and add to 
jrcar fire days above tbat number, so tbal tlic circle at 
the aeasons comes round lo iho namo priitiL) They aucrU 
likevijie, that the Kg^'ptians uere the first to adopt and 
bring into us« the nanirs of the twelve gods ; a )>ractico 
which the Hpllenes borrowed from iheiii*: ihey wfre litie- 
wise t]>e fint m erect ultars, an well as iniagt^s and Lcinplem 
and to inrent tbe carving of figures uu stouu: ol the authen- 
ticity of these blatemeats, they, in most com*, brought proofs 
firoiD facts. The prientx slated, also, tbat Mt.>ues was (he finu 
of woiulfl' tbat ever ruled ovnr Egypt: w this tlicy addtd, 
tliat in the days of that king, all Kgypt, with the uxc-cptiun of 
tbr Thebaic nomt!, wus but a niora&s; and tbat uouc of the 
landu now srcn below I^lic Ma-*ri» Uien existed: from the 
sc» tip lo Ibis place is a voyage, by the riter, of st-vcii days. 
I mjrsclf am perfectly convinced tlic account of Uic priuKts A 
in this partieuiar is correet: for Ibe thing is evident to 
orery one who sees and has coinmun Hcasn-, ntthoogh he 
wsy noc havB iH-'ard thw fact, that tlif Kgypl to which the 
Ueneniis navigate is a land annexed lo ttie Kgypiians, and 
A gift friim the river; aud tbat even In llie parts aliuti- the 
Jtlce jii&t mentioned, for three days' sail, concfming which 
<fce priests relate aolbtug, the cuunuy is just of thu sjimo 

Tlic nature of llie Kgyptiau soil is, thercrorc. such as 1 vritl 
now relate. In the tirst place, as you make for that country, 
whrn yoii are ycl one day's sail from land, if you east the 

luding-lead, you will bring op mud, and find yuitn>eir in 
eToTcn btlioms' watt-r: a proof this, lliul so far tbi- alluvion 
BXteiwia. The breadtli of tins port of Egypt, washed by the 6 

rf tkihiii. Is B|i7i>t. iM«vaibtMl, st 
ito tad M tmA nu, tn iiB>-* and 
» iiBiTin- T^iyiier wtfucmm there 
w- ■ '"TO n*to of 5c«n : tbe 

•«<< ! iH- tiuiii)r««l ii»d tistj. 

R<r dj)i; aoJ the utr<nKiiiilcal one, 
liKwn milr to tbr phatU. by Khicb 
Aajr nfvikM ihcir IrttiTtJR, ud 
«aaillUtFd M thanNlni ibe raipc«t 
«f Ika pMpl*. Tlii* iut jf*T w not 
fcscvn lo Hen<l<ttu> ; and JiuIcmI it 
WW wilb grr«l rlifliirally Ibiit Plata 
Md EndoKoi, who lind UiirlcrD jtmn 
Wtftlho CcrptikD priMi, conM dmw 
fma *)irm tfci« dwcottry, of wbich 
fc»T ntul« ■ ftvmt Binbnj- Tfce 
■M* la sbiili the •diliiWst womIm 
««n LMMmUM In tb* ejrlv of aine- 
\tm fnn, raprvMUtd bj wNfiata, l> 
1,1, *».*.§,•«, 7, 0, •»,?«•. 

whieb aeoouot* for Uw intvrvaU belafr 
d«al)[iiated frkitru, latbnr tlua, mnra 
aconrttelT. lirlrrU, See CotrIdi, 

B Tha Greek* itid not t>orr«w tli« 
«cfT tUOM frnni Ibv E^jftUn*; bat 
Idol from th*ni th* pnctloe uf fitin|r 
eaob or tbrlr loitny |todi aoaae |iarti> 
cnlkr iMiuc. Tb« r*lMgiuM, wtin 
tmd twrrowed this ii»*fv from tte 

V.KrjitiaXti. anil trai:iiimtt*i) It Ui iIib 
Groeki, «anlit|ipaj many ^oit id 
esrliMt litniu. but knsw of do noni- 
Dal dutiDctiuD bciwcim ihmt. Herod. 

' la c«tilr>idiili«rtNa vf tbe K9d* 
bit predecMWni; 11.09. 

■ All.wtMi vi*ri Kajjft. Mnfe*< thai 
ibcf CmI nmvlured ol itiU Ewt. 


EUTEHl'K. 11.7,9. 

Kpa, is sixty schotni ; Tor 1 reckon Ui« cooftl rnim the Kulf « 
HiDlhiueteK to Lake Serboais, near vrhich Mount Ca^\i 
rises, to belong to I'''gvpC. From thai place, therefore, (be 
sixty »cbcBi)i aie takcui — for llic people, w))0»e Ituid i» scaDtjr. 
ineaRurc it by llio ralliom: Uionj leu coufiuetl id thnt n»pecjf 
metftiiTO by stadi-x ; such as havi; ui t-xiensive torrilury, ~ 
paras«Dg: lastly, in the ca^e of a rcry vast country, the 
measure U extiniHtQc] in Kchcvni. Now, tbo parusaug Js equi- 
valent to thirty 6Utdi.'8i each Hchicnus, thv Kgyptiuu moA- 
KUTc, contniii!< sixty i^tades : coosequeuUy, tbe coatit ul' Egypt 
is ol ihrue Uiousuni) »ix hundred »tadeb*. i'rom tbu coaati 
up to HeltopoliH in the interior ICgypt, in wide, all on a gra- 
dual slope, without fresh water, and swampy, llio waj 
from the sbr tip the river to IlelioiMlU*" i« pretty u«ailjr 
equal iu k-ngth to the road from Athens^ that is to 
from the aluir of Uie twelve gods, «iid Icadint; to Jj 
temple at Pisa: not but a person actually incOMring 
two ways might detect some little dilTciencG or in-i 
equality betwut-u th«ni" ; not more thau tifloen BUdos, how- 
uvrr; for the ri>ad from Atbenn to {"ina irauts but £Aeen 
stadcs to bt? fiftuL-n huudred : ou the other hand, the distatm 
from the sDa to liclinpolin is full that iiuoiber. Aa you coft- 
liuue (joiug uj) above lleUujKiUs, Egypt IwcouifM iiariov : 
on one aide extends (he range of the Arabian mountaiiit 
running Irom the north to ibe Bouth, and continuously 
stretching up to the EryUirxan sea, as it is colled. Id this 

* The miitn anp- vxh'tUt the 
COMI irf Egypt pntty nMrlj ri^uHl to 
tba nvmbpT of rntinnoa t1ki(i« men- 
lionfil tiT Hcradatu) ; induuriDH fiom 

tomsr? irith tbo muniieri from nhoa 
oar Hiatoriaii obtaincil hia infonn*. 
ttM. Sm the Eton AOat. 

M In a»«niilliij; (hi* ri*or, lb* aw- 
rlaer*. no doubt, took intD ttocouM 
Ui« wbidUp ud rvftchw of llw rinir; 
M lb* BuaW of <lsy«' navlgatioa 
wu Ao onljr infennklion whirh (b«ir 
■nwrieao* onabM thnm t« iiapptr. 

'■ Tbero an many rruon* lo liaahl 
vhcilipr Hnnidotui uiri in thin flook 
Ae Pxikio «tadc, inntcsd of Hat <ma- 
■n«D or Oljmpac stBde, irbicli u of 
ftboiit Md to ■ itritUh Biile: ■neb, 
tamVMT, is the gmrrsl opinion af tb« 
nmtnfiiUton In K«Reni(: ot tliii, ibo 
(bUowinK qaoCMlon rnim ih« von of 
Hi^of llraitcl Gihlbic* ■ pnlpaUc 

" Iu tte rrpnrt of Elor«<loluii r». 
■pMiiDR the DKiciit of Egypt, h* bw 

iBk4« oM of • «tad« whicli I* Mallf 
(llAnnt ftwn tini whirh b> mm 
■rhtD he nian to Gnooi or FWt^ 
Thi* appcan in ■ icrauksbt* is* 
niucc, «b«r« he uh^« ta oqnal 
■nunbct <X alidei, wldun 19, ta lb« 
■pMco between AAam mk) PiiM, w 
b«tw«at UcliiTHKkU* ud th« «ea w> M i 
of KgTP': BlUiaugh iti» tatmB bo 
about IM. tb« iMlcr W Q. ibIIm euty ; 
iba use f^^'xC ' pnpO'lMB of m, IM 
odiM of 1019 U k ^l«iTM. SolbMb* 
sppMn to bftva DM cUIm of diSo. 
HQt wnln. wiifaoM A iMnicloawiw 
of it." Rftut,y.*tl. 

I^pon tbii op«Dio« of ifao jHw nri — 
Koofcrnfibcr, I may be pemltt«d t* 
ranark, that the 4>Sn«ae«<lB snta*) 
betw*«K tbo two diwaaw* M«atbMd 
hj HrMdotM nav poik^a hale fi^ 
ceviM from dio UiitOTlaa aot takuc 
like Milor Bannc), tbe nwunrei la a 
Uaear dircoilMl bill coMpittd dwa 
frara dot*' ionnwy*, avd doy*' — ^^ 
gatiiM along Ibv oomL 

EUTERPli. II. 0. 10. 


cfaain arw open i)it* qunnif-s n-li<>ro the Honct wera cut for 
Uie jiyramidH at Meinpliis**; aiid irliere tfae mountain, 
oraring iu founvr c<mne, beurls away east to the ua aborc 
mmlioDfid". Here ulso, in ita exlreioe leiigtli, the Toarl from 
esat to west, I am told, takes up ivo months: the efistem 
part of ibis nionataiii cmislitutes the boundary ol tbeinceoae 
eowitn' : such, then' tore, is thu Arabian range. Dctween 
Libya antl I''g,vpl extends imothcr mouutaiti-L-Iiain, coiu- 
poaed of rock, on which the p^fiimids Rtand, ami covered 
witli Band: it lo11ow<^ a direction paraliti) Ui tliat part of llie 
Arabian chain which runs to the south. From HclJopolia, 
Ihawfrnv, ibn territory b«1onf(ing to Egj'pt is not coo- 
■dcnblc, as tliv cniiutry remiiina vcr)* narrow during fonr 
daya' navigation np llie Rtn>aui ; t}ie land huvrvi^r, belwvun 
tha two abore-metitioned mountains, h level; and in the 
nariiiw«f(t part, the distance troui tbp Arutiian i:bain to iJie 
ridge, called tlin liibyan, did not appear, at iitiml, but two 
trandred nudrt: ab<iv«> this spot, Kgvpt again expands. Sucb, 
aocordinxly, i« ao outline of this country. From Ueliopolts to 9 
Tbebea, ia a royage of nine diivx ; the length of which, in 
ttMde»t is fwit' Uiousaod eight hundred and sixty, or eighty- 
one achceui. If w ciilh-ct iheM mcaKurus in stadi's, tlic 
Invatlth along the §hore is, aa I have already oxpl^iinod, 
loor thoniiand aix bundn»l : next, tho di&tanco froni tfai- »ea, 
iatand, aa far as Thebea, is, namely, six ihou&and oui' hun- 
dred and twenty Mades'* ; aod from llictics to the city of 
£|ppbai)tiDC, one tliouaand eight hundred. 

MndL pnrt nf the counlrr, tbui* described, appeared to me, 10 
in acronlance uilh the statement of tiie prieaUt, tu be au 
adjuDclion to F.gypt. For tl»e apace- bctwvuu iJic uUorti- 
nanlioDed mountaius, situate beyond the town of Mem- 
Xt6ii, was evidently to me, at some tiiou or other, a gulf of 
ibe sea ; after the name manner, id fact, as the coantry about 
lYny and Teutlinnia* and Ephcsus and the plain of the 

% mti»tvi, turn wbiob fn difftrait 
wm af Mom, uad la tha «Mftrio. 
Om of ito ^ l)ra u »^A ^ ■« ukco : iht 
•tWBui Kona mt alituacd troni 
uihiIm wh fu frnm Mcmvtkii, on 
4« «Qnltc bnk tt tiio Nik: tbv 

'^ ■mill 4bitaBee, luffhef up Uio 
f, IB dM vldall^ of Elr]iI»a(>iiB: 

lfc« lalUT qwiim me One mltaiM 

ti ia ibt mt. 
** /■ iA<( piarr (wbaic iW i|nni«« 

h at tmj, u tauftt ■rrcloHn^ mat 

afy rOn (daa^ that «m, tmrarda ib» 
R«nm«r «ul, and continae* iu pro- 
KTMM to ibo laotMe-bcuicg cwua- 

<* Tbe Hiatoriui I* •■ trtUim* «ltb 
NmMir: be ii«>ii piitf CISii «»dH tea 
(ko <!»(■»)>(! fltjM lb* «va-ildH m TlivbM ; 
■hil* he baa Mar* itatcd thr diatuM 
tnai ifcc MM » Hvliopolii ■( IMO 
■tad**, an4 ikat froA Ualiopalu lo 

Tb«bo* kt wm. 



MictndcT', to compare litUc t1uiiK» vr'ah jgreiX*^: for n 

one oflhe rivers, wliosc dcposils have fonj^d ihose coun- 
tries, can be ^iii into cotnpnriHtn, as to size, wilb I'ven onv ^M 
uioiitli of llic Nile, divided into five as the sirc-ani of ihal rirer V^ 
U. Bui Ihfre sue i>Llier rirersi, not equal in size lo tlit! Nile, 
whicli have wrouj^ht great works: 1 iiiigbt uinition iheir 
DHiues ; and among others, not llie least, those of the Acht>- 1 
lous, which, lIo»ing through Acamania, falls into ttie ^ea, 
and has already convened one lialfoftlie Echiuades islands 

1 1 iulo ctiuliueut. There belongs also to the tcrnlory of Arabia^ , 
not lar front r.g;)'pt, a gulf of the iwa that strelches ia- 
l«t>d from the Krvthrae'an sea. the length and breadth of 
which 1 will here describe : the length of the voyage, be- 
ginning" from the innermost recess, and proceeding to the 
open sea, takes up forty days wiUi oani ; anil in ibu bcoad««t 
part of this gulf presonts a passage of half a day.' Id thisi 
arm of the tiea* an ebb and flow of tlie watcr> takes jtlaco 
daily. Now, in my mittd, Eg>'tit was, at uiio time, another I 
fiimilar bosom of thu aca ; this lailcr pcnclruting from tfauj 
nortlieru" wa, towards Ethiopia; and tlie fonner dowtog 
from tho southern ocean, towards Syrtu ; working, by iheti 
re8])ec-tire buys, alioust into uue another, anil learing but 
very little lauil between thcni. Now, then, were the Nile to 
turn hw Mreatn into the aforesaid Arabian gulf, and con- 
tinue such deposits, what could binder him from fiUitig 
it up, witliin. say even twenty ttiousand yean i I ani 
myself ci-rtaiu that it would take less than icn thousand. 
How. then, I a&l>, in the time that elapsed before I cauc into 
the world, might not a gulf, at all orcnls raucli krgor than 
this of Egypt, have been absorbed by tlie deposiw of an 
great a river, and one so capable of wutkiug ebaugcs .' 

12 ITiorefore, I do not discredit what the prie»t« rtJate con- 
cerning Egypt ; but am completely of their w»y of tliiiikiDg, 
when 1 see Egypt projucl beyond the neighbouriug coasts 
into the Nea, »]ielU appearing on the mouniaius, and a salt 
effloreficence, that even cats into the pyramids; and Ibai moon- 
tain also above Memphis, the only one that is covered willi 
sand ID Egypt": add to which, that Egypt,in its ftoiUresem- 

» Matt. SW, t. 

I' Thu It M mj, the McditMTi- 
Mu trx- lti« Miuibmi M« to the 

'• It U VCT) MtUio, ths» thtWt urv 
foiuid upon Uiu mouDt&im of E|;<Fpl i 
hii (ti{* hf tin Oinnw pmTM (h# «iisl . 
•DA* at ih» Ktrrptiu golf. Shftlli 

•Jfo sra IvMui upca iii*iiBtaii» bmIi 

bi(th*T lllui lliwv of t'gfft, >D Ed- 

r«p<'. Alia, knd AnMtK*. Ttu» oolj 
proiM, thai all thov HviM* bav« in 
pnrt bpcn cnrvrad bj- tlii ostM* of th> 
■cK. name Bt noc timo snil tetam at 
naotlifT. 1 Mri b 1*n i b«OMW it U 
certkln, from tb* ob»»tTiidriD <if lb» 

£UX£KPE. II. 13. I*. 


"*ipr Anibin on its frontUT, nor JJbvn, nor Sjria 
<i 1 ' .ire Syrians ihul Liccupv tli« sL-a-slmrvs of Arabia): 
ifai* hgyptian earth is black, chapped, and claiumy, bi>ing 
swept from Ethiopia by tlte river, auU deposiUsd here ; but 
the ^niund in Libyn is, wo know, of a ruddish colour and 
sandy nalur« ; while Uiat of Arabia and Syria '%s tnoru clayuy 
mod Sintv. 

The lollowiuf; fact affords a great proof of Lhc orifitiu oflS 
llii» country : U)ift wan comiuuuicalnd (o me also by the 
pricBift ; tbey asserted, tlial, under king Mtchs, whenever the 
river roce at least eight cubits, its waters irrigated Egypt 
beluN- Mempht* ; and at the time 1 received this informaiioii 
froiD the priests, nine hundred years had not passed from 
the time ol the death of Mixris. But in the prexent day, 
ttntcM the waters of ihe river rise at least sixteen or fif- 
tc«D cubits", ihey do not overflow the land. It appears 
thcrulore to nic, that if this noil continues to grow according 
to th«! same proportion in boigbl, and tlie river to furnish the 
same deposits for the increase", the Kg^ptians dwelling in 
what is called the Delta, and in the rest of the countries be- 
low Lake M(cri»,in consequence of the land not being flooded 
br the Nile, maft for ever afit-r siiITlt the very satue cala- 
iniir which ihoy boded once to the Hellenes: informed that 
all the noil of the IlcllencK is refreshed by rain, and not, as 
ihetrfi, by the river Soodit, ihey observed: " Some daj-, the 
** HeUciu-s, dcccired in their hojies, will bo miserably amicled 
•' Willi the horrorn of famine." The purport uf this ohsuna- 
tion was, " that if God did not vouchsafe*' rain to them, but 
** Sunt a drought, the llelletifs would be taken off by famine; 
** a* it soetned they had uo resource for water, excepting 
** Jove only." And in no saying to the Hellenes, the Egyp- 14 
tiuis are perfectly right : but let us, on Uic other hand, 
nmwmbcr what woidd happen to the tlgypljaua ihemsRlvCH: 
if, u I sjiid lieforx', the lands bolow Memphis, which aro 
tboM! that iocreaw.-, should lu time to come grow iu height 

htgtiwt mwnitaina hiT« sqI bwn <•- 
ir w A with vattr. TltcM, in tb» ttiut 
of (oah fen«ral hioiiAuloaB, ^pwnd 
IVfcf M Bun; liliS']!. 

la EfBiT fmn of ZkIP*< oa diKKiiiK. 
a VaeUM intUI u mnj, cviilwninK 
nmttumt, M>trin« ■«<(, uiO ■ Utile nitr*. 
£••• wbm Ik* itmrdirB* we oreiflnwed 
Ibr lh« nkd oi w«l«raig tlirin, Itw 
■wrfu* «f Uw fmund, »tiet iIm (i>p(^ 
fwtim and abMrptiao nf tb« water, 
minn fisaid over with mIi. — Valmef. 

" P<>«aek«'a raggn(i«n U, llisl both 

KtaUntntu «f th* n»««««4Ky tit* <X IIm 
w«MTB of tfct Nib ara the aiun* ; (Im 
fint Mug token rrom ihi- uirnal tia- 
Ibc* of the itiwam, tbe ■eeoiid frocn ito 
bntloin. The faot w, iiMttert niwid 
notr prrttf otvilj tlw uow ■• lb«; &i 
b lli« tioM «f ihe HlitoriaD. 
w It la diffloult to make aniiar of tbU 

f**%', tti x"t" ■■** ^ rcKudnl ai 
tba ■oiiiinaliii «r twib (riba, l«i)il«, 

•• UsU. SS&, 7, i. 


EU'I'EKPE. 1). IS, 16. 

in the nme pro|K)Ttion, whkt could Anve ih« r.R\~ptian«'ol 
those )wrUi I'miTi the ^amc c-ilaimly of fAiuine f when llicir ' 
i>oU will not be relreiJied, At nil events, br rain, and the river 
will uo longior be nble to oveTlloir ihcir fields. Nuw. iDde«d| 
these people certainty onx-ure the ftiiiu of the earth with 
less Inbonr i)i*n onr other in the world, and even than thctj 
TO»l of the F.):ypliaii8: they have not the toil nf breakinj 
open the furrows with the plough, nor nf liorinj^, noT of iinir 
other nurkwhitili t)ic rest t'f nicii niubt perform in ctilLiTattn^ 
a crop. On the contrBry, when the river, of iuown accord, 
has uowed over and watered the fields, and then, returning, 
forsaken cheni,cach sows hisoirn lio)d,and drive* into it iho 
swine : after the seed has bven trodden in bj these aoiinalit, 
the crop n>mnin« the «eaKon throngh nnioachc^d : at l;i5l, the 
hnsWridinaTi tlire^heii the com by means of the snine, and 
Carrie* it in Itis pimpr". 

Ifi If, therefor?, we chooso to adopt the opinion of the loniifis 
concerning Kgjrpt, who declare that the Helta alone consU- 
tuten Egj-pt, and say that it; shore streteb<?s from the vratch- 
tower of Perseiw to the IMiisinc Tarichaea, a space that in 
equal to forty ttchteni; that troni tlie sea, inland, it stretches 
tip to ihr rity of Cercflsnnis, where tho Nile dividen, flowing 
in two Htruaius, one to Pt^hisium and thu other lu CanobtiR; 
and add, that the other parln of Egypt bt'long to Libya and 
to Arabia ; — if, I %ar, we adopt llie Ionian system, we may 
prove that the Egj'ptians had originally no leiritory of ibeir 
own, and ibiN by the following reasoning ; — (betr Delta, as 
the Kgyptians t)icmft«;lv«s say,and I Khare in tlicir opinion, 
has dowed together, and come in light in late time», to tlSQ 
such an expression : if therefore thoy had no tcrritoiy at all, 
what an itUc thing it was to fancy that they were tlie nUleitt 
race in the world! surely they had no need of recurring to 
the cxperimrnt of tho children, to determine what language 
Ihey would speak"! But I do not believe the Egyptians !o 
be co-oiiginal nnth the Delta, as it is called by the lonians 
but that iIr-v have existed from tb^ time that mankind has 
been : thiit, as the soil incn-ascd, many of them were left 
buhind, while otliers proceeded lower doivu ; and therefor 
Thebes wan, of old, called Egypt", being in circiimfcrcnc 

lOsix thousand one hundred and twenty stades. If, then, my] 

■ Alnwst t^vj eammmttMier at- 
ffnai, tiitU n glBltoom* an anhiMt 
fnti DFTur ham been luwd for tlw pur. 
fof here •ItD^nl cd: heoce diffmnt 
re*dia|t> hare bnn propowd aiul 
adopted, at ibe wbim of rdilora. Il 

naj t>* uk*d «f tlw<*» aa^ Infi 
irliMlMT tb* nhM m<^lit not hav« I 


•• MattSM. 

EUTKRPE, II. 17, J 8. 


lion about tlieso matters is correcL, Uie touians bave very 
|icriiHioooti cuitcvpliotis about Egj-pt: if, on the contrary. Ili« 

Z'nioii of the loiiians is correct. I will prove tliat ueilher 
BdloDM Dor thu looiaiifl tberaaelrfft koow hov to leckoa, 
wben ibej soy tJie whole «iinh consists of three parts^ 
Enmpc, Asia, and Libya : for they ou^ht undoubtedly to add 
a fiMirth pan, the Delta of Egyytt ; since, at all events, it 
belangi nottbcr to Asia nor to Libya. For it is clear, that, 
according to this account, ibe Nile is not the boundary** 
betwi^tn Asia and Libya; as. that river (lividi.'S at tho rerlfx 
of this Delia, so as** to |^ace il hctwcco Asia and labya. But 17 
let tue disuiiss the opinion of the louians, and say what I 
hsTc to say about thcw thiog^" ; vrhich is this : — The h hole 
of th(.> country inhabited by Egyptiann should hv Eg^'pt; 
likf lh«l of the CiUciauB, ivhich is Cilicia; and that of tho 
Assyriaiis. which is Assyria. 1 know of no boundary, cor- 
rectly (Speaking, to Asia and Libya, unless it be the^onttcr 
uf the Egj-piians; but if we folluw the custom of tlic Uel- 
lenes, wo aball cousidtir oU Eg}-pt, coiomunciog from tho 
cataracts* and Eluphaiuiuv, as divided into two [tans, and par- 
fjcipatiug in ibti nauiCK of both ; one part belonging to Libya, 
atid tho olhtT Lu A»ia: fur the Nile, reckoning from ihu 
coiaracu, flows on lu the sea, dividing I^Ryp' iri tbe middle. 
As lar, then, as the town of CVrcasorus, the Nik- has but one 
otream ; from lliat city, however, it breaks into threw direc- 
Uom" : ouc of tlicM turns eastward : it is called the Polusitio 
DMHUh : auotlier proceeds westward, and is called the Cano* 
bic mouth: lamJy, tbe direct path ofthe Nile is this*; rolling 
down Iruii) the upper cuuniries, it comes to the vertex of the 
J>ella; from thence it continues its couroe, dividing the 
Delia down the tniddle ; and discharges into the sea, not by 
any means tlie most insignificant or lenst-renowneii portion 
o( its waters i tJiis mouth is called the Sebennytic. Two 
mote mouths diverge from the SM:heiiuytic, and go down to 
iJm sea: thtir names are, one tJie Saitic", the otlier lite Meo- 
il*siao. 1'he nolliiiine and Ttiicolic mouths are excavations, 
not the ti'ork of nature. — An oi-acle, pronounced at Ammon, It) 
aerres likcHisrc to corrohonttr all tliat 1 havp here deuinn- 
Mnied on the eiibjecl of Egypt: this argument was cum- 
muxiicaled to luc after I bad rnrmi-d mj own opioioii of the 
nature of this country*. The inbabilantH of Marea and Apis, 

■ M«n.31t,c.aAj. 

V ^Ht S ■ •■> a.) Ik. *• but w« »»] 
tkm d( tkum." 

> t, ■■ fti ito Neood «uaraM ■ i b» 
tuft PM » In EihinfU. 

» MMtSSI. 


liUTERPK. II. 10,20. 

ivlio are situaU^ on Uic cotitincit of libra* fauciMl iber 
imtii Lihyons, nm ERyptians; and being disconlcnled with 
tha riles that roncem rictiniis would fain br no longer re- 
stricted from the iwe of c-ow'b flfsh; (boy suiii accoidingly 
to Aniinon, and rcprest^titcd, tlint " tbctv was natbiud com- 
" iiion betH-«?Da Uicm and thu Kgypliaus; as xhey dwelt 
" ttiihout i]i(- IXilta, and iiscd not the Mxao language"; ami 
" winhed to bu allowed to eat of al) things." But the god 
deiiifd ibo request, fiayinp, lliat " all Iht conntry whirh the 
" NUp rracbfcl, uud (ivcrflowtd. was Kgypt ; and that all irlio 
** dwelt below Kicplianline, and drank of tht^' walent of iha 
" rirer, were ligyptianR." Such was the answi-r returned. — 

19The Nile, when full, uverllows, not only Ibt.- Delta, liul also 
other parlK at' the country, aaid to belong to Lib^a and Ara- 
bia; in pome iDBUnces, for two days' journey on citlier side. ^ 
more or less. Hj 

Concvmiiii; ibe nature of the river, I was unable in ob- ^^ 
lain any inlorinalion, wbetht^r from ihv pricaU ut fmm 
otiiers: I was rery desirous, tH*verthele«s, of aKL-ertntning, 
through ibvm, the following partieulurs; — why llic Nile filln 
and orerflows, during one hundred days, beginning from 
thu Slimmer solstice ; and why, ns it approaches to that num- 
ber of iliiys, it foisakeK ihc fielils, aud retire* to it» bed** ; so 
that the siream reinuinx, thmnghout winter, shallow, until 
the return of tlic stimmer soUlice. Theftt; were, accordinglr, j 
things concerning which [ contd not get any infonttation ^| 
whatever from ihe Egyptians, when I inquired of (hum what " 
was the reaMin that the Nile dilfered so widely in it» nauire 
from all other streams. Not only was 1 ansioux to know 
something about the ahore particularities, but I alfto made 
inquiry wherefore this is the only river m thi; worUl Uial 

SOsendu forth no fresh galcH blowing front iln surface. Sami-> 
of the llellenofi, however, de*irous of making a display o( 
their wiitdom, have ]>ro]H)se<l three diflerent ways of explain- ^d 
ing the pbivDomeua of this rirer: two oftheKo niiteiTix arc ^| 
nndescrriug of mrulion, except for the purpose of shewing ^1 
that such ever existed. One of these asKorLi, the ctcaan 

1° aaJ ti» t/ttlrytui mlriin. VTni 
Mlltif, And, a/tor him, LktcbeT, un> 
danUtid ifitlnylut vf ibu ' laDituagi:,' 
k> in i. 142. Scfaw(t|EhB?»ttTr iruutklH 
" BM libi eom illit cinrrnir*." 

** Larehtr UDckniandf vikimM of 

auncro diBroin." I ihioV L>r«b«> 
Tenrion w nnrr utMablr w ymd 
•csnc; •inco HertKlota* bv Joat o^ 

M** l«t tiarl* iftifni, oikI wouU 

now contrftdict bimiwil m «en>» raub 

tb« inornM of ibe iItit; " hatlti^ ant. bj njring Citu in Ioitvm* teM 

rifM dnriBfc ihal nanibvt «f iajt. ' ddi coatinaa " qaiu one b«n4r«t 

Scliw«tgb«v*«r <tiiap}in>vM Ibit tnto*- dl.^." But cnsniH tv'Aif*'ig. Iftt. 
Utkin, kdH ipndcT* " *Kplatb for* bbc 

EUTERPE. 11.91,32. 


VMJjliiJHI'(|lia causa of thn riRe** in the river, hy impeding 
illS^athtltte of the Nile into tlie aea. Btil, frequcutly, lliu 
eiMa^ii winilB have nol blown, and n*M-erUic1i>fiB lh« Nile siill 
pPMUUtcd iLi- same olfects : moreover, if the titcftian w)Dd» 
WDie ihe cause, thai cauiie woold acl slfto on the other rivers 
ihat flow in a dinrction op[>o»ilc to ibe said iriods, and t-ou- 
Me<|i]etitlr lIr-v wrjuld uiidergu the Kame cliiin){i>8 an the Nile 
itaviri inrlood, so much the more still, ae they are eiiioUer, 
and their currcniM not au »lrotig. Xuw, then; are manr 
riki!r», hoih in Syria and Libya, which are uoi siihjecl to such 
alt^riitiifna as the Nile. The next system Is indeed Ies83l 
pntitletl to credit than Ow ubuve; but mure man't-llous, so 
UM lliat expression. It usorts, that the Nile, fluvriitg unt of 
ihe ocean, i« the cHtise, and that the oc»au iIowk all ruund the 
uAith*. The third t-xplanalion is hy &r the niosi filaustl>le,23 
but also th«- iiio»t dtx-e|>liou«. This svstttin destroys itiM-K*^, 
hy affirtninK that the Nile proceeds Troto luellud snow ^ fur riri-r flows out of Libya, through Ethiopia, and thence 
|>a<Md« into Egypt. How, then, can it come about, Ihot it 
Hb<iald flow froui snow; comin|<, as it does, from the hottest 
qiutncr* into cooler? Many thinf;8 occur, to a man capable 
ofrrjsoiiiiig on &uch a subject, to shew why it is not proba- 
lil*! tiiU river can come rrniii riiou'". The fir»t and grand 
proof is afforded by the winds iliat blun hot front thosv 
nrgioas: the second is, tJiat the soil is never wetted by rain, 
nor is ice koo«n there : if, however, anow were to (all, miu 
tniut necessarily succeed within Ave days: so that if it 
lioowcd, it would likt-wise ruin in these countries'*. The 
Ihird proof is, ihat the men in that conn try become black, 
frinu the bunting heat: kill's and swallows abide there 
ihroti^^lwut the year; cranes, flying firom the nide climate of 
the IbcyUiian tract. Reek their mnter-quarters in this coun- 
By: if, therefore, erer so hitle snow ware known to fall m 
fbesc regions, through which the Nile flows, and from which 

* •&a/M», withoul the fKOitiTC u- 

tMc «w. Stc tiut. Oi. QraoL BIV; 
arwwt. Ml. M■tl^ 

" Iliii TTpUauiaii teetna tu b« w 

TiVtm* rh« occu, whkh Ui« uci«utt 

KF|rsiiM » e a mfimi of frwh «aMF, 

[ — w o ^ iMWi A* nrtk : whan tbe p«ft- 

CfidlMl >.K. or «t«rfta tralM Unw, ■ 

I ft>«At bcxl; uf wwri >* ilrirtn itnwn (a- 

' W«rd« tht 9.W. iiuvifr at lh« ficriHt 

wbcrt it opear ibIv ibf NiU ) ibo cmi' 

■•^u<«Q« U, ■)>■■ Uk lUficrBtianduiI 

watoTi mab tntn Ui> phviOat iiT the 

r. tmi BUM il to vrarflaw tba 

Dutb, ■ftvouring bighlf 0/ Iht abnrd 
•Dil roKTrclloui. 
** Lh. " —r* oothtnf." 

tn/r i r r ip litrMm, inStit inillUi itdimat 

vjro,"fto. SHiwriiibiPuiiT, wiilt (bu 
iDftMODOIMsa KUich iliitimruiibubLoi 
■l>d H«]rDr, obacnM tbU WewrlinB'* 
esplowtm would da tcrjr well if Um 
rvMliu WM rw> r*X>d l#*i, " mi tar- 
bu wljMCu ri itticaliii, q«i quU Iwa 
ttciu Dan ^ides." 

* Wbieh ia not Um mm : n* UL tO, 


EUTBRPfi. 11.98—25 

it springR, nnnc of the abort; tbingfi cDultl lake place, as bp- 
23cL-ssity dcnioiistratee. As for thepereon who talk?* atont ihr 
ocean, be rineH not think ehom pmrtng, hut refent his deci- 
MioD to some fable enveloped in Hie Haik : fox 1 nerer kwiw 
of anv river, at all Brents, catted tlw Ocean ; but suppose 
ilial Homer, or some of the earlier Po«ta, fouad the oamOt 
and HO introduced it into poetrt'. 
24 But if, afi<T crilicising ihe above opinions, it becomes me K> 
explain my oim opinion on ihi-se obscorn sul)joct«, 1 will de- 
scribe what 1 conceiTfl lo b© the cauee of tlic Nilo'w swcltiag 
in wininjor. 'Ilie sun, driren from his former path hy llie 
Biorma al the winter seHSoii, proceeds to the upper pans of 
Tibya. llius, therefore, to i-xptain as brieSy tui poMible, all 
ia said ; fur tlie nearer ihie god is to any tract of land, there 
the lack of water wit!, accordinp to reason, be tlic jfrcatcst, 
SQand (he natire river^Kln-aniM will bo dried up. Bill, to de- 
rolopc things uurTv m detnil ", the COM) U thiR: the sun, pass- 
hig through the upper part of Libya, produces the fotlowiog 
•ffeet: the otmosphere bcin^ at all times clear in tbow 
ocmntrtes, and the ground healed through, in consequence of 
the absence of cold winds the «»n, in parsing o'er, docs just 
the •sine as he does to other eounlrtes in summer- time, when 
Ml path is niong the middle of the firmament; that is to say, 
he ciruws to hitnseir the wuler, and scatters it in the liigher 
regions of the air, where the winds take it up, didbso and 
dissolve i(: so (hat, as one raii^ht reasonably expect, the J 
south and south-west winds, blowing from those quarters. 
are by far the uiost rainy of all. It is not, howerer, nir be- 
l)«-f that the Mtn thrown away all the annual supply of water 
from the Nile, but &ome of it abides round him ". '!rhe wiotcr 
becoming milder, the snn comes back into the middle of the 
heavens ; and from that situation and time, he attracts water 
equally from all the rivers in the world : until then, those 
rivers have abundant streams from the admixture of raia- 
walcr, the smi being rained upon and torn by torreots ; but 
in summer, the rains no longer pouring down, tbeRe rivers 
bi:comc weak, from thai caiiM-, as well as Irom the aUractioQ 
on ihf j)art of the sun : the Nile, however, which receives no 
tftiu, ami yet is oltraclcd by the sun, is the only nvoi thai at 
these times is shallower tlian in suraraer" ; for in ntimnier it 
is attracted in the finme proportion as all the rc&t ol livers, 
wheruaK in winter it is the only one that is made to ooo- 
iribiiu*. Tlius i eonrludc that the sun is the cause of these 

■^ Mall. 849, Him MRU. mni't ftvd w«* irtter. 

*■ It wu • gcBaraf apmon, thai the * Mui. 4A3, list f»nf. 

KUTEaPK. ll.Sft—sa. 


tldngt. Tfae same cauno, ru ray opinion, prodticcft llie drj air id 
in thu coualrf, ttie stm btimiog all uii its inusagc*': einnraer, 
hi canaeqo«DGe, erer reigiw over tbe upper parU of Libya. 
But if Ibe Btalions of Uie aeosons wcru to be ititerchaDg«<I, 
ODtl the quurler of the be&rens, vhcro llie iiortli and H'inier 
now r«#idc, were to bo occupied by the south-woM nnd south, 
Ktid tlie nonli took the position oi the noiitli**; if. I nay, such 
■ cluDgo woro mado, the mm, drirftn awsv from th(> middle 
(if the firmainent, voiild psrA ovrr to tho upper parls of Kd- 
ropv, u H now does lo iIhikt of Ijbya. Fn^Kin^, then, tbraugh 
all Emope, he would, I conceive, produce on the Ister just 
ibv mme effect as he does now on the N'ite. The alwtiice of 27 
■II breezes from tho Nile is accounted for, in my mind, by 
liitt reason ; thai frotn exceedint^ly hot countries it is not at 
all likely any should blow ; for such a breeze is wont to pro- 
ceed fmm sonic cool region. 

L«t these matirrs, therefore, remain as they wen at the 28 

bc^nniog. or all K);ypliaDB, Libyans, and HcUtmcH, that I 

fCver eooTersod with, not oue professed to know any thing 

tbtiat the iwmrces of tlio Nile* excc)>t the steward of the sa- 

I'Ctwl Ibiiiffs iu Minerra's Ismple at Sa'is in Egypt; and hat 

lo all appearance, wsh, ut be»t, only jokiuj^ mc, when ho suid 

lliat he knew perfectly well. His Kl»leinL>tit wa^i a« follows: 

"■ Two mountains, rising each to a peak, arc situate between 

" the cily of Syene in TIicIkub, and Elepluiutine ; the name 

** of Ihcse mounUuDS ars, ono Crophi, the other Mophi. 

" Between thtnie riae the sourcea of the Nile, which are Dot- 

** Unnless : one-half uf the water runs north to Kgypt, tbe 

. ** other half toutli to Kihiopia. Psaniuiilichus. kinj; ot k^ypt, 

ba Said, provL-d, by aclaal experiment, that the sprinft* are 

** boUMnlCHa : he caused a rope, many thousand fathoms 

** Irag, to be twisted and let down, and it ncirpr came lo the 

** bottom. " Thus, therefore, this steward, if indeed he apoke 

at all to the fact, induced roc, by his doscription* to infer 

ihsnr were at that place stronfc eddk-H and ■ whirlpool; Bo 

tlial the water ttntfeting affaioKt the roclie, (lie sounding-line 

coald not find its way Lo tlie butlinu. NoUiing more was 1 39 

mbio to get from any person : but with respect to my further 

rcwMTch in the most distant part of this rirer, 1 went up toy- 

■rlf to the city of Elephaiiline : so f&r I speak a» an cyc' 

wttoeM; beyond that, my account procee^U from what in- 

lanoaiioa I collected by hearsay. As yon ascend from £Ic- 

pbuntjiio, the country is vqtv nigged ; here your boat uiuat 

he la&icnLfl with it rope on both sides, as you would harness 

•> atnv for Uvnv. 

M HaK.we,a. 


EUTERPE. 11.30. 

an ox"; biii] thus yuu proceed: ttit if the cords saa[ 
boat is cftrricd oif by tlio Corcc of the cuircni: tliis sort of 
loiintry la&Ut during; lour da>'»* uavigatioD ; in which ibe 
Nile winds am much a» tlie MiRandor. After this, you will 
come out into a smooth plnin, where the Nile rolls around an 
island, the name of which is Tachompso: immediately above 
Elephnntino von begin already to meet will) resident Etbio* 
pians, and they occupy one-half of ihe island; the othe* 
half is inhabited by EgyptianE : c1os« to tlio i&land is au ex- 
tensive lake, romid which some Etliiopian nnmadcs rore: 
after you hare cro&s«d thio lake, you enter again into the bed 
of the Nile, which di&chargea ilccif therein: you arc then to 
land, and perfonu a forty days' journey along the liver 
Bide ; as sharp rocks there ritii: in the Nile, and many iihoala 
occur, which make it luiifossiblo tt> uuvigftte: after you have 
fduiplrlcd your forty dayu' luiid-jounicy, you embark again 
in a dirrureiit boat, and continue your uavigucioii fur twelve 
days, which briugn you to a great city, calltnl Mcroi-. Ttna 
city, it is ^aid, is the metropolis of the rest of the Etfaiopiana : 
its inhabitants worship only Jove and Bacchus among the 
gods, and these they honour magnificenlly. Ttiey possess 
an oracle of Jove; and wage war when and where the god 
appoints, through his warnings. Ascending the river abore 
this city, you will reach the F.migrants (Autoinali), in another 
S]>nce of time uqual to what you cotne in from Elephantine 
lo the Ethiopian mrlropohs. These emigrants are deno- 
minated the Asmach; a word iJiat signifies, when translated, 
the men tlint stand on the king's left hand. These two hun- 
dred and forty thousand Egyptians, of the war^caste. came 
over lo the KthiopiaoH frc»m the following motives: under 
king Psammitichus ihoy were placed in Uie city of Elcphan- 
linc, as a dcfeucc and gtiard against the Kthinpliuis; another 
party was placetl at Oaphncc Pclu&iacie, against the Arabians 
and S^-rians; a third was stationed at Marea, to face Libya ; 
and still, in ray day, the garrisonB of the Persians wers I 
distributed in the same order as they were tmdcr PRamnuti- 
chos ; fur PeniaoE are ganisonod now at Elephantine and 
Daphno;. These l^g>-ptian)S thrreforc, who had been three 
years on duty, wca* not relieved by any new garrison: 
tbcy, in couitcqueuco, held council, and unanimouslv came lo 
a resolution, to secede all from P&ammitichus, and go over 
to Ethiopia. The king, an-arc of this, pursued the deserters : 

^ i eancBive the aKtaoinit In lio, ox to th« plouf I ; by miw rf wUah^ 
diu s ropn u fanrned im lioih lidM (ha b towed u}t from b«di baakfc 
"t die boat, u r"* ^oiM bsniMB an 

KUTERPE. 11.31,82. 


when ho cauK upwiili ihi-m, Ik* iiiipKircU tfacni,<&j'ing9t great 
tlcal, and U-g^m ilifiii iiol ui lon-iiKr their pmemal gotls, 
ihcir chil^ifi^n, ami iho'xr wipi^». Oiip of tlio deserters is re- 
pmwmrrf U) have tlien diKjila^ed his secret paris. and said : 
" Whi-rr ihiit iH, TK Khxil find pl<^nty "I troinen and children." 
When these Kg^piians arrived in Ethiopia, Uicy gave thcra- 
•eltis up to ihe kitiff of the Klhiopians: he tnudo tliis rutuni 
to thsiD. Certain Kihio{>ian» were oppoi^ed lo the king: he 
ordrTi'd the Egvptian^ in drive oiil these, .ind take poHses* 
»ioii tif ihi-ir laitd. In eons«|nf iice of iheir i-etllin^ auioug 
til'' Ktiiiiipians, that iiiition UvaiDe nicire cii'dized, baruiug 
the Keyptian manaerft. 

For ihc sya<:c ol'a narig&tion xihI joumt;}' of four innulhs,31 
Ui« Nil* » llicwfore known, hesides that portion of its 
cooru; thut roinpriscK Egypt: such in thii number afniontlis 
that in fuund in sddin;; up the days t^pent in going from Ele- 

rphantine to the coniiiry »f these omigTHiiIn. llicrc the Nik- 
liovB froin tb« went and setting sun. ('oiiceniing tlie still 
higher p.irtH, n<i nnir ran giro any coireei account; tlial 
couotf}' lieing de&eri, by rmsun of the broiling heat. I have 32 

finardi howorer, the following statement from nomc nalives 
Cyrenu ; who relate, that the}' went upon a time to tlie 

I'Orwle of Ammon, and then: had an interview with Eteai- 
chm, the Icing of the .Ammonians : and how, after other xub- 
jecto of cooveiMiioo, llicy fell upon a di.icourse ahout the 
Nile — that nnbody knew its winrceh. And thiit Klcarchus 
taid, Bome Nasamoniaus came once to vivtl him: — thiBnatloD 
is Libyan : they occupy the Synin, to the east of which they 
extend for a small distance: — that at the arriral of these 
ritjloni, they were asked if ihey had any fresh information 
Ui r'tminunicnte n'^jtpcling the de<ierl» of Libya; and they 
trpltiil, that some daring youths the sons of powerful men, 
bad gruwn up among tliem : the-ie voting men, having 
reached men's estate, devised various extraordinary feats; 
and atiiung oiherK, wat;, to chooKe, by lot, five out of their 
uuinber, who should go and reconnoitre ihi^ deseits of 
Libya, and try whether they could make any further disco- 
veries tJian those who bad visited iho nu>!>t distant parts. — 
It muat be observed, that in the portion of Libya which 
iMretcbes aloni; the .Mcdiienoueun ttra, beginning from 
Kpypt, and reaching to ('ape Solols, which i« the exuemity 
ul Ubyot the vrhole country is occupied by Libyans, di- 
rided into various nations; excepting, however, the territories 
ocrnpied by the Hdlenes and Ph(Enic)«n«. In the parts 
■Wvi- the fiea-shore, and higher up than tlie iohabilanls of 
tlie coast, l^hya is iufesU'd with wild beasts: above the mild- 

voi. r. M 


KiriEUi*!:. 11.33, 3j. 

beaxt trsct, all U unil, ilrearlfully scant of waior, nnil wtiolly 
uniuhdbiU-iL — " AccordiiigW, llie youh); nicu deputed br 
'* (Iwir toiu|iai)ioii9^ ni-ll |jinvic]r<l trilh wsier and proviMoii*, 
" liaH ]>a&«v'<] first ihrou^li Ihe tiilntbited cotmlrr ; iben CAinv, 
" li» ibe natt inlc«lt-il willi wild bi-asls; and, cns^iiig over tu 
" the dew^n, commenced their journey towar-Itt the wert. 
" Afior ff»iV£ oviT much sandy {;muiid, m a niurcfa nf 
" miiny lUty*, limy :\t Inst tuiw Boinu Irpeft, ^luinft io * 
" plain. TticT u'L'til up to Ibcm. niid plucked the fruit that 
" liUDft from the lirunchi's: biil, wliile tlit>y vcre thu« occn- 
" piv(] til L:utlienn): tlio inaU Mtinc diiniiiuliix tu>:iii lca« th»n 
'* the coiiiiiNiTi sl:ind.ird, l^iiU hold of ihein, aiid cjnrivd 
" thtiu vA'. The Na^amDiiians did uot uui,Ii;r»Uiii(l the lun- 
" giU((e of iheKt* penple, nor did the coiiductDTfi nnderataDtl 
** that or the N'atiamoQians. Tbcy vere accordingly taken 
" tl]rou;rh nQiiii' «niit iii'.iiii».s«s; aAur whicli, tlii>y caav. lu ■ 
*' totvii (vh<:re all (ho inhaiittants vcre of th« »Anic »izo as tbetr j 
" comliKlors, iind hliic'k in ci.lDiir. A great river finwrd lir the] 

33" wlijch erofodiles uiti- seen," — So tir, iheo, ] hamj 
rv)>i>rlt-<l the diseuurw ul I'I(<tircliti» the Aniiiioniun prineri' 
except thiiL, aecunlitig to the ('yretifeans, ** he tuiid, ihu Nas«- 
" moiiians returned ; anil dial the people ihey thuR caoio tOyJ 
*■ were all nferoinaneerB," With res|>i»ct lo ihis riror Unv'n 
brtlie Itnvn, EleareliiiK cimjt-i: hired it to he the Nile; imlecdJ 
reiiKon slic\i*& ihatil is so: for the N'ili> Dohm out of I.ibyii,1 
and dividt's Umt cottnlry; aiid (as I as!>iiii)e, iiiferrin^ \ho\ 
linkiinirii hy ihp known) pmecedR parallel to thn Inter **. 
7'bc Istcr IK a river tbnl, ri^iii^ in the eonnlry of tho C'cUp, amlj 
at the town of i\n*nu, flows, diiidiiiK the whole of F.urape.' 
The Colu arc outside (be pilinr-* of Hereul**; they confine 
OQ the CynesiaiLs, who inhabij thn most wesliirrn parLs nf all 
the Kim)p«iii>ti. llic Ister ends hy llnwing thnnijfli FtiMpe 
into thf Kiixiiii; sea, at tlie »\nn where »laii<U the Mil> »iin 

H4si'ttIemL'Ut of Utria. Tht- Islor llieri?1or« runs throu{L;}i in- 
hahi(i-d lands, anil is known lo many; while no one ean say 
any thing about the vources nf ttie Kile; heeauxe Libra,j 
ihioti^h which it flow», is Uotli uninlbtbited and dixsert: 
far as it uas posKihle lo eany inquiry, it lias been describefh 
Near its end, it enters Kgypl: that roiintry lies aliai 

V wf'trrffit »!t tint fitf ft ifftiiMt 
1 fcKrHrfoIln«f<lSoh««<tirliii'M«'*« Lilin 
vmloni An lf«mtil <r!i«Jxr ob>rT*p«, 
iMVrwr, [hni, udcr n-cnn^iJrrlnir i^tif 
urMfti b* uirlini-r lo iliv oii'iuuii of 
TareMMri; D>a><.l«, " itin: l<t-iiHl<>. 
Ill* ttnijeebtni lliat tbi* eaat<u (if 
llui N>lv, riiioi it* hiad W tW |ilac(> 

nltrtv it diiwbarfro* ita kMmb in 
V.]ijv', WOK M)iial III tm^h i« ihM < 
■111- Idrr. tttua iu iciurvf to in ninill 
In tliif Euiisc »«." St« ticbwtii 
Lri. Ufi'iJ. «uc. ^jrt«.^X«rrl«i) 
liKu*I:itl»ii }*, " Jb ovrnt «'il p*Hj 



ot<;)o«k< Cilicia MonLitiii : rroin tliii> laitiT tii Binope, on Ui« 
Kuxinc itca, is a hlrai};lit road, fivt: il:)y»>' jotiniey hn a tijieud- 
courier mi Ux-^t. Now Siuojic lies cxnclly opposite lo the 
place whi-rt.' tlie Utt-r I'ltU into die tu-a: so tliut I consider 
tint the Nile, cnx*inH tin; whole of Liltyu, cxlemU Ip the 
taiae \trvgth a-i ilic Isnrr-^So iimth ibcu for Uic Nile. 

I am now f^oing lo cxh^nil luv accouiiluf Kgy|M; tiTniiRe ilSd 
pouetses more wundt-nt, ami rxlii)m)« infiR-ruriosilit-e.beynnil 
Uin |»owrr« ol* ilt-icripnuii **, iliiin am olJior cotinlir in (lia 
wiffl*] ; aniJ fnr th;il rciiKou, ii)uru ftiUM be Mtid alioiit it. Thu 
Epj'|Ui;iii« iini fliilv have a clitiinlc pt-ciiliar to ilirnjs**hc»,and 
a n*W dithrinjf in iu nattirc from ii)l other rivets: ihcv hftco 
■Ica inniiy customs and usages « holly ojjposite lo ihr>sc of 
oiltrr iscii. Among ilieinf the women gu to utarliet, and 
drol; but tlir ini^i) May at home, and weave: in weaving, 
otb«r nstions throw the wooi up ihc uarf, but the Kf^piiaDS 
tlirou- it down : the men rairy biirilicns on (heir hrflds, i)ic 
wtnnen on iheir Hboiildcn ": the woaicn slariil ert'Ct when 
Ibi-T iliwhniuti their urine, the int-n crnnch down : they uiil 
oat uf douTii; hut Riiti^fy tliR other <.r;)nts of nalnri- within 
ihinr bouse*, alleging, ihnt what is tinseendyi but neccssHir, 
cbnatd bo done in secret ; bill wbiil io not nnM^cnily. in oueii 
view : no woman can serre the holy office, either for goa or 
goddeM; bill men ciin for both : no nrcc^Mly comiwU sonn 
to HipiKirt Ihcir parrnts, nnle^s thoy chooiK': the lUnghtorsog 
are compi-lKd to do »o. en-n agn>n»t their will. The itricsu 
of tb« goiU «Uewhfrc "ear loiif; bair; but in Egypt ibey 
hflce it ftliora: in other nutionft, it is ciuloniary-, in moiin>- 
ioj(, fi>r the nearest conntxioos to »ha*e their heads; lh« 
Kg^'piiann, in case of death, swfler tlisir hair lo grow*: 
with oihi-r nations, bUo, it is the practice to liie -wparale 
Ironi ih«ir cattle; with the Kyypiiurs, it is the conlrary ; 
[ tliffy Hvc tngrliier wiih their doineidic uniniAls *. 'Hie food of 
moM others <:ouMM.t of wheat and bailey: anion;; th« Kgyp- 
tiant, evMT one is held very inrnmniix thnt does so; and all 
unite tlteir bread of spelt". Hiey knead tlie dough will) 
their feet, btit pii-li up dung and fillli ntth lliuir bands. All 

*f Milt. *Sl; SBJ US. Ot. I, «: 

•■ Mm- Mi. "i, a. 

' C«u»Mlti>B: hV* 'tr*l| ■#■ 

ImMrm '.ri s3h j ikfiHt'j- iff- Ur- 
r^i4rt. ilwl u lo laj, Ibe nran^l r*- 

Itntkm of rrput, m»at: Schwn'Elii-u- 


•cr A*ii\t* th^it tti« ir«H i« Bt«f tafc«Q 
by Him'MiK in iJ.bI ouaAif 4 tmtr. 

*> 'Hie tritiruni tjirita of LltiDMia. 
— Mamn, in hji nuie upoo Grorf. I. 
'3. it <i! iTpiiiiun thai " the {tii «r (li 
ofiha QTprk* i* « hal «« Call *f^t' 

»nri of c»rn vvr* Ilk* «rhra> ; Ml Wi 
rhntf idtierM *i> tlTMitCl} "< *^' K'^n, 
ih>t ii ie<|ii>m ■ (bIII tvwparatvllMai, 
like bvlcT." 


EirrEllFK. 11.37,39. 

nxtiuiis leave tbcir prirale parts as ibey are ; except &ucb as 
hare luamt oiherwisL- from the Kgyptiuns, who are circum- 
cised. Kvery mnii wears iwn {janncnls; cvury wolqbd moo. 
OUifr people fasten uuuicte the riii)^ aiid sheela of auils ^J 
the EgyptiuDii foi^teti ihctn inside: tlicy wrile letters, and sumj 
nuniberK with peliblfs, from riijlit lo left; uii<l, in ho doing.' 
fcuy ihcy go riRhi-ways, and the lU-liciic« left-ways*'. Thcj- 
hare iwo sorts of letlerii; ouc sort called llie sacred, the oihcr 

37 They arc the ramt exceedingly devout of all nten, and 
follow the pmeticcs here stated. Tliey drink from brasa 
mugs, whicii ihcy scour out every day williout exception ; 
and w«ar cotton garments, coiivtAaily fr(^«h-vr«K.hcd, uUt^ttd- 
ing to this most emefully. They eiretiiucisc them&elvea 
IroiD motives of clennlineMS, deeming it belter to be clean ^ 
tbnn buudsunie**. 1'he pricals ahavc their wUule bodie»^| 
evt-ry third day**, in order that no louse or any other rer-^^ 
min may be found upon tbviii when attending upon ibo 
gods: the priests also wear noUiing but collnn, and shoes of^M 
byblas'": no other ganncDlB or $>hoes are they allowed tofl 
wear. Tliey wash themselves twice every day lu cold S 
walor, and twice ereiy night; and obiu^rvo ten thoasand 1 
other c(Temonie&, to use the expression. Bat, ou the otbor 
hand, Ihcy enjoy no slight adrantages; tbey conmiioe nooa^ 
of their private proper ly ; are exposed to uo expense ^^| 
sacred bread is baked for them; n good Mipply of heef and " 
ge«Be is funiished to each cvtry day ; and wine from the 
grape** is allnwed Uicm : fish lliey must not touch. A»< 
for oeaofi, llie Egypliaus not only refrain from sowing thetn^ 
on their land, and alt^o from entiug raw those that come uj^\ 
spontaneouKly ", but will not taste thciDi even when boiled : 
the priests, csprcially, abhor the sight of that vegetable, re- 
garding it as an impure husk. Every one of the gods is at- 
tended, not by one, but by several priests, over whom ta « 

a^ rector; and whenever a prient dicR, his son Micceedit. The 
pure male kine** are held sacred to Epaphiis ; and, un thu. 

<^ Tlia fact i», it •weiM, lb» Eg7i>- 
tinno ipnko of [b» rlntit ildi of the 
Vf^'t and noil tkc rltbi Mt of the 
«filcr, u the UcUcDci, I iitie 
hfKrd (h« time [t.-msrk mxli- b, 
Tuilu. tind oih«T Ltrt&ntine*, iriih 
njesnl (u llir £uri>iwaii mode of 


" Matt. (36, fiiat ^rs«. 
** Matt. MO, <t. 
" The bM* »' iBI«c!»r b*rl <T the 


I" In euntnttiitiuMkn of faarhi^ 
wine or hevt. Sm oh«p>. 77. 

** rf*}«>, uioiniitlf u*ed •oM]' at 
lbiug> ««t«i raw ur uavookoJ. 

" WMwUng i« of o|>inloD, tUi tit^l 
nord mmJMftii Iiu bm Mnitted, bj' 
oegUeence. OnsoTtlieM ii the Api* 
of Uia Et-ypliiuu, chap. IS3. VoAtf 



accotuit, ibojr ascertain u'litch arc no, iu the foltowing loaii- 
wai if lh« cxamiDer dcscr)- ovtm one black hair, the niiimul 
is deotncd impure. One of lKl* prieftu appoitituc] f> the 
office examines tbc fstcer, both n-hcii standing, and when Ijtng' 
on ihv back: be pulU out his tongue, snd aves wht'thur 
it is pure of tbu pri-scribcd nmrks, which I slinll nit-nliun 
elMwhen:*": \ik looks ut titc hairs uf the tuil, wlit'thL-r llicy 
grow naturallv. If ihc ^teer i« pure in all these respecU, lie 
puta a mark uu him, by twisting a pit^re uf byblun round the 
homN, and 6pn>acling sooic fiealiiig-earlh, which he stJimps 
with his si}^i;l, and then driven l>iin away. Jle who eucrr- 
fices an iniinarked victim \ti piiniHhed ivith death. Such is 
the mode of ascertaining the pwriiy of the i*ictiin. ITieir^)^ 
manner of sacrificing is this : tliev lead ihn animal, nrojiurl^- 
marked^ to the altar, where thov an> ga'invi ^" sacrihcc, and 
kindle fire: Uiiit beinK done, they pour wine on the allai'**, 
and invoke the god; then slaughter the steer, and cut off the 
bead. They next flay the animal's body; and having pro- 
oounced many impn^catioQH on tht> head, those whu have a 
toarkct-Mjuart^', and among whom many Hellenic merchants 
reside, carry it to that market, and accordingly difipoiu! ui'it: 
those that have do HclleiKe r<.-sideut among thcui cast Iha 
bead into the river. Tlie imprecatiuuK they pntnouncu on 
the heads ai« ID tbegc words: — " Whaterer onl is uboiil to 
** fall on the wicrificer himself, or on the whole of Kgypl, 
" tnay it be diverted upon tide bead." In respect to the 
beadii of the slaughtered animaU, and the libations of wine, 
tbe Ij^gyptians univeraally practise! the same ceremonies 
■like in all sacrificcA: and in comwqnencc nf thix cii>lon), no 
Egyptian will ever ta-iie of the head of any animal. The^O 
disembowelling anil burning are rariously perfonned, in 
rarions tacrifices. I will describe, therefore, tlit* practice for 
tbe deity nhom ihey con»ider the gri-ulesl, and in whose 
honour they celfbraie the iniMtt magniJicfiit festival. After 
they have wtript otf the skin of tin- steer, with prayer, they 
uke nut all tlie intetitine^ of tlK- belly*', leaving in tbe body 
tbe beatt> liver and lights, together with ihc fat: they then 
cnl off the legs and the extremity of Uie hiud-4|iiarter. with 
tbat of the fore-<)«arter and neck. Attcr they have done 
tlus. they fill the body of the «teer with white bread, honey, 
misins, figs, ineenae and niyrrb, together with other pe'r- 

* ThUblow;; J}>. 

* tW* atw i , (list U fim^. 

** I^MlUr vifat flj'Mt uilivvt tho 

HMD ckr prvfMiilaa in 'I tlip 

Ttrb, wi is rmguiril iu Hi-iniulua. 

ptrr (if thi> inililf (Ktwatrn iii« iiha 
*n4 tb* biandt. 


EUTtUi'E. 11.41,42. 

fumes : IwvifiK tlms sliiflVd the Wily, (bey bum if, ponrion out 
ubtitiilAiicu of oil. Tiiis nachlicf lli'V jtcrrcnii latliiig; bhiI 
while llie holr i]\\n^» aru bi'liig coiituinud, tiicy all biat 
llivir Itrcniils : when tJiuy haw ci-u»c(I l}u», tlwj spreadj m 
liMJt], nhnL rviniLius of tbu victims. 
'" All K[;y|j|tai)H, tlii-rt-rure, vnciiBcc yun- mule kiiie and 
calit's: thfv am not all^wi'd, liuiwier, in Kacritit'e voirx, 
ubicli uvi' MCK-U to Ins: for iht- iinngu of Ifi» i* a womuu'fl 
figurL- uith cows' liuniH, tliv sume- a» (hf Ilir|l«tic« tleplrl 
In. All LgyptidDs alike- have even a luucb druatcr veoe- 
mtiuu fur cow» i))sii fur any oiher caitkr; ih»i ift tbo 
reason ihal no KK>-|ilian man or u-oinan will linrdly km 
«D Hfllcuic muii nil iliK lip***, or lualie um; of an llelttnc'ii 
knife, or «|»it, i>r winci'pari ; iior will [hty lR»ilt> of ihu (lnnh ot\ 
a piuv ox which tius h-ivn c^nt-d hy an llcllt-iiic knife. Tbe 
kiiir (hiU die are buried iit ihtt followiiif* nmnner: UiB 
fuiiMlivs are Uirowo into thu rivvr: tlx* tniih-« aie put uii'ler- 

^rouii<l,liy farh ]-riiprii,-tor,iii the Kuhiith>: te.ivtnf{.ibuvpUiaj 
Kurface one or both liorna, a» a mark*. Aftvr lli« body ban 
rotlrd »tviiv. and when ii cvnoiii time lins t-Lipiiecl, a barjje* 

from the i»lan<l of Pi'osopilis, comics to each city: — this islaud 
is »itimieit in ihn ndta; it is nine schteni in circunireronce, 
u'ithiii which are M>vt.-ral i'itici<,but especially out; from n-Iiick 
a great number of the har^^es conic that colhct tlu- Mkt-leluiia 
oftbe oxcH : Iho nnoic of this low-n is Alarbechis, n'hero k 
temple to Venus Itas been erectwl: — fiom iliis town, accord- 
ingly, uinny persons go In difTerent plnrex, tUn up the bones^^H 
convey ibeiti away, and bury thi'Ri ail in onr pUi-et In ihoSj 
same innnnpr a« the oxen, they buri- iiM oilier cuttle ilul ~ 
die: 6uch i» their ciif«toin; for the EgypliaiiH kill nom* o( 
43ihe««**. Those wlio bMorij; to the temple built to TIrU 
Jove ", or are v( the TlieUan aonie, n:friitii all froni frbecp, 
and &.icrilice i;oiUs ; for nil K|{yp(iaH« do not u-oivhip 
Hdine p>d» alikv, excepting Uia and O&irif, vrlicnn llur aa- 
eordinjjjly call Batxhus: lliise ihi-y all worship al-ke. Bnt 
tJiose who belong to the temple of Mi-ndi-s, or the .Mend 
siaii noiiip, n-fmn iVoni gnaw, and Mcrifice Khecp. 
Tbebans tlicrcfnrp, and kiicIi as rEfrain fmm xheep aftoi 
tbeir exuinjiU-'*, acconitt for that ii»aKC in the foUotvii 
nianner: '* tbxit Hercules was ef ccedin^jly dc-simus ol' KReinfj 
" .lupiler, and Jnpitor did not wisJi to he wen by him: a» 
" Horcult'spc'iHsU'd, Jupiter di'vist-d this: he >i)iimii>d a nun; 

* Unit-SU: M'lfill?,i>4(. the-t. >.<■■ t)w Olh^ktnJ* vrwi^^U. - 

u Mbi'. 43', t. "1 TlfMrM >« f>)u{tJiI>«i (« Sf^HK 

** Bni'iMWr ymf H Jwli *■*(«.- Lit. Jx"*'' "' 'If**"* t«r*>'ir'— ^■">V- 

Ein'KRPK. n. 43. 



"tui olftlw lieatl, whuli lie held before him; then wrapped 
•* himwlf in tin- fl^-fcc; and no pxfiiliilpd iiimiiclf la Iler- 
** tfale*-" In c<inm,qii«nce of ifiis, die K^vjuiaiis miike llie 
nnaKT of JiipiKT in llic nliapc nf a nini-fucc : and fmm ihe 
Egvptiam ilie sanH* prat'licd lius heen Ul.en by Die Amma- 
mtna, who An> dtrttceiidAntii frmn dir Kgrptinns, and spciik a 
langaa<*e beiirecn ihatofbotTi dioMnalious: in my opinion, 
Uic Ammnntans took nUa IhHr nnmc I'rom thi^rircninMancc, 
a> thc.Kgyptian word I'it Jnpitcr is Amoiin. TIip Tlicbwis 
do nol, fur this rrnsnn, i;acrifico rains, but hifld lliim 
Mcrrd ; excc[>t an one day only in llit? ytar, lb« fosiival 
of Japiter, when they slaugbU-T a ram, skin hitn, and wrap 
the fleece artund ihe iuia^ii of JnpiU'r: Uiey then bring 
anoCher imui4<^' aloa){side of rt, that of Htrc(ilc« : having so 
<IoD«, die TTOishippcrs, ussenihlrd in ibt: urroplc*, biral tlicir 
bmnias all i<i mminiing Tor the ram", and afterwards bitry 
Urn in a Iio(y crypt**. 

By Or' u(.-cuiiut gii'i-n me of lhi«* I-It-rciiles, he is one of 43 
Ike Iwclvc prxU: cuiiccmini; die other !!crcule», known 
Viang Ihe ilcllpnes, I was no where able to hear any tbhi]; 
iboat him in bmypt. And, indci-d, I hare many difTerent 
pmofs, ui deinoiiKcnile that, al al) events, ifae Egyptians did 
Hot adopt from the HL-lk-nes the name of ibuir Hercide«. bnt 
nthiir thni the HL'llei)t^4 udopte<l ii from ih» Hgyptians; 
il»o»c IJellL-ncs, I mean, who impoiurd the name on Amphi- 
tryon's sou: for inxtance, (his is one ; that Amphitryon and 
AlctneDe were of Egyptian origin ; and because the Egrp- 
lisn* say that ihey are ignorant of ibe names of Nupiunc 
and the Diosctiri, and never admitted ihcm among their 
other gods; — now it in rertain, iliai if iher lind admilttd the 
name of any di.'ily from the Hellpni.s. ibey muKt, iit all 
cTi;nti, have thought of ibem Ihu br^tjOol the lart"; Ibrcteii 
in ihose days ilte Egyptians made some royages, and there 
miwied Mellenic eailois ; and I myself have every reason to 
think" that the Egyplinns wonid hare been acquainted with 
iho names of die aboTt- gods long before they heard of 
liirrrulcH. Hut ihi? Herriilps of the Kgxpliaiis i« one of their 
anrieni gods; and, ncnording to their slatcmenl, it was seven 
tboojwnd yeara prior to Ama-iis's reign, when from the eight 

" Wiifa the middle Tcrh* tr«rirAi>, SeMniff. 

I* W*»il,' lu in Ljtin ptmig', th« 
«kjMi nF ih« frwf i(« ptti in Ibe sc- 
"i«." Matt. 419, A. 

e. Ihn Ilcii'iilet to ithom Iht 
Ejnpiiuw otter McritiM. 
» Matt. 4GX. 
^ i ilii r»^» aVfiii it I tiTMBm 

Maa li^flM, tn HcrodoiBS, a txpmtim Am tkn^xi tl Bit^Inn, 

**fmtfgrj oi afiwincRt, m wliicl) 
iWti* it«m farMfTcralturcvpliiiKi' 


EUTERPE. 11.14,49. 

Kods came Iwelfc gods, of niioiu tlivy rej^ard Hercules 
44 one. Anxiutis m gel aulbviiLic inlonnation fmni wltvuce 1 
could obtain it, I undertook a ^oyaKO to Tjrc in Plitrnic»»,| 
where I liad heard thvrn was a temple of tlrrcuKs much «c- ' 
neratcd ; and I saw ttial eacrcd cdilice lichly stored wndi 
Tnrioiui and nuiuuiuus ofll-ringh; and in thu inude slood^y 
ivrii vills'^i 0°^ '^f pu'*' Boltli the olher of emerald stone ^,^| 
which nhanc britliutilJy at nightJi. 1 entered into conversa- 
tion with ihir jiriL'sis i>f Llio god, and iiiqtiired or tht-in how 
lonj; it ivas since tht; tt-mpk wuii erected; and i found that 
ihey also dilFcifil from ihu IlelU'UGS, as Uie priests j^ave for 
answer, that the tcrnplu u( ihv god was huilt at the same lime 
l^'ix? its(;lf was ; ana that from Uiu building of Tyre it wa» 
two (houaand and three bundrud ycora. i saw also another 
ieinple,at Tyre, lo IK-rcuIes, witli the cognonitmof niasian'*^^^ 
to ThaKO* therefore 1 proceeded, where 1 found u icmpk oT^^ 
Hercules, built by the nia-iitclaus, who. iiavigulingin search ^ 
of Lum[Ki, Inid the fi>undaU(tn of Tliasi.>!4 ; uti event thai 
occurred fne geueralions of men belbre Uie Ilereulea «on of 
Amphitryon was bom in llelliitc, Thi* rcRult, therefore, of 
thcuu rcoearchc!* makes it clear, beyond all doubt, that H«- 
eiiles was an ancient god; and tliose Hellenes appear U> mo 
to act the lno^t properly, who have creeled two »orl» of] 
Hemclenm'*; one foi' the ori^itial HoreuloK, tu whom they 
offix sacrifice, as immortal, uud under the name of Olyw 
piaii Herculea ; the other, for him to whuni ihey ^ve honours 
46 an to the hero. But the Hellenes relate many other things 
iboughlle^tdy : lMi>, for instance, is a silly falde ihey tell of 
Hercules; thai, *' on hi« arrival in Egypt, th« inhabitanu 
" crowned him, and took him in pi-octfssiou*' to be Hacrificed 
'* to Jupiter; that for some time Hercules kept quiet; but 
" when, at the altar, they btj^an the sacrific itolemiiiiivs, be 
" exerted biti stren^'h, and slew litem er(*ry one." Now, such 
peojile as say this sun of things strike me to be totally un- 
acquainted with tlic nature and the custonift of the Egypiiaa&; 
for with that people it is not lawful to sacrifice even cuttle* 
excepting ^hepp, and ^ueh steers and ealves a» happen u> be 
pure i 1 must add t; alaa: how could they, then, sacrifice 
hnman beings? IlesideK, Hercules was but one, and, as yoi, 
iin inorv.' ihiin a roan : Iiow could ho, tJien. as they say, haro 
ihc powrr to slay many thousands r lie mercy sliewu, atj 

*" yiii>]um<d ta hi>« bran ^tteo glnm. ^ Malt. SSi. iW nif«ffiiMna. 

~A4^«(*rit«btA*«w^y«lilM.Toiaake '' Trmphu, «t prtcioctf w 8i 

>mM nl ihe nam^, fttymhi tniut be nilo*. 

Inkfn iul\ritiiiill7, tw if (fX luydimi, '* Mari.A93, #. 

ECiTKUFl!;. II. 4ti»47. 


Ihc liAuds botb of gods and berocs, tu u», that say such things , 
abuiit llit-iii! k 

1*111. a« to the reason why tbt- abwve Kgvpiian* do not4(>' 
sacrilict: buclcH ur goats, the Mcuiititians thiuk that Fau uas 
one or the eight original gods: Iheae eight gods, ihej- say, 
nifttcd prior to tlic tirclvi; gods; and, accordiugb', like thu 
Hellenic painters and utaluarics, ihcy rcprcseul Uic images 
of Pan witli a goat's face and buck's legs : Uioy do aol, how- 
eTcr, Jaocy (hat Pan is such, btit consider bioi similar lo ibo 
vtlier gods: fur vrlmt purpusc they represent hiiii in (his way 
ii i» not easy^ for lueto explain. But the Meitdesiaus vene- 
ratt: all goals, aud liie laales more than the femalea; and, nilh 
ibeu, goat-herds are beid in great honour; one especially, 
fiuuoDg tiw buck»; who, wlien be die», is deeply niounied, 
nccording to cusloiu, eiery uhere, by the MendcKian. The 
buck, likewise, is called Mendes in Kgj'piian ; and bo is Pan, 
thu ginl. In uiy time, a prodigy ocrurrcd in tliis nomc ; a 
buck bad connexion uiih a tronian in open day, which came 
nnder ihe obsenulion of all persons. The pig i» cQnBidertrd,47 
by Egyptians), as an unclean nninial : in the 5nit place, if any 
one pausing by a pig should touch Uie beast vilh bis gar- 
ment, he fonhnilh goi-s down lo the river and plunges in ": 
ftccundly, llm Hwiur-liords, allbough native Kgyptians, arc the 
only (a-ople of the countn* thai never enter a ttuiple ; nor 
will ati> pcr»un give one of them hi» daughter in marriage ; 
nor will hft take a «ife from among tliera: hut the swine- 
lii-rd» lake aud giie in uiarriage among themselves. The 
Kgyplians, therefore, dare not offer swine to any other gods 
than Diana (the Moon} and Bacrlius: to whom, at the same 
time, that is lo fay. at llie same full uinou.thcy sacrilicc pigSi 
and aftemards eat of the Hesh. Why tljcy abhor pigs at 
rvirry othtr leslival, and sacrificQ them at ihiil one, is ac- 
counted for by Kgyplinns: although I am a*rarL> what lIh; 
leason i», it is more becoming 1 should hay notbiug about 
it*. This sacrifice to the Moon is thus performed: after the 
•acrificcr" has slaughtered the victim*, he puts together the 
lip of (he tail, tlip uiilt, and the cani ; ihcu covers lliem with 
all the fal found upon the belly of the animal: this is aller- 
vanlfi cousutued by fin;. The remainder of the AksIi is eaten 
diiriog the full mono in which the sacriKee is offered up ; 
oQ no ullier day would it hardly be even la^ited **. The poor 

■ Mfttl. 447, 3. 

" Or, aiooHinp (o ;iiuilhtr niaii*- 

fbiUm oo.'" Mail- *™>, /. 

naMl inH#Ml of ih« pMiiln. Mui. 

'>■ Rcrpplf tfa, or I tim, or i trwif. 
Utan tin. — tckirrui. 
•Matt. 981. 
•> HMt, ftl4. 


EtrrenPE. ti. 4*1—50. 

))fo|i)o ;im(iii^ L)iein, fmin their wanl of mean*, make pigi of 

4^iIuuk1i, M'hu'li thcv hixk^ and uffvr up ni sacrtRce. On tbe 

pi-c of tlie revlivjil of nacclms, pxery nne slanjrhiern before 

hw ii<>or z yf-uiitr jiip ; and tlit-n rt-tom* the ru-thn lo iho 

swiiif-ln*rd wh" siipplitii ii, th^t hi- may carry it away. Tbe 

rest of ihft (nilM**!, with ihc exception ol ilie pign, in (.-elobmlod 

L17 the l-'gyptiati^, ill almmit all its dclatlA, niter the tunra 

msniter ss Ity the Hellenrs: in iho plae« uf phalli, ts s>ih«ii- 

liiti-d an invention of thi-ir own; tin.ip-'K tibmic n cubit m 

height, iiioTcd by sprintp", which are pnradpd about ihc tuu'oa 

umi TJIIagTH liy iIjk n-omi-ri ; the mciiihcr scarcely any J^iiiallo^ 

ihaii the whole hiidy. iiuililini; ctiiittrmully ■•: u piper heat 

the proccK^ion; and the tvomt-n follovr, tiin^'in^ (be praiwa 

HaccbuH. A religtooH reason is a»si^vd lur the ttiember 

beiag »o dtsproporlionatc, an<f for its Wiiifr the only part uf 

40 the body tlmt moves. 1 |ii-rMiiiir. tlnrrcforf, iliat, even m 

thiwe early iithos, Mclampus the fi^ii of Amyihaon, far frwa 

bciiiK iRiioninl of this mode of sarrilicf. was pi-rfcctlr «C" 

c|iwji)ifd with ibc u>i9g«'"; for Meliunpiis was the |>erBr)a.1 

who inlrorluced unioiig iht- Hellenes die name of Uucchufti 

hi» eereuioiiieK, and the proeesstun of the phaHits. Me Hid 

not, however, lay open the whole ; but (he ^a^cs thai Ibl* 

loweil him have given more copi'Uis explansiiuns. Melat 

\mm, ihtTi'forc, wnft the iniflilnlor «f the processiirti of lli4 

phallti«ta Bacchus; and friiiu him the Ilt-llciies Icanictl tn do 

as they now do. For my part, I am of opinion liial Jle- 

lumpiis, a wise man, uodoweil »-ilh the gift of pntphi-cy, tii 

coQbcqucncc of infomtatioo obtained from Ki;ypt, introduced 

Taniotia things among the Hellenes, and more parlicnlarir, 

with M>m« slight alterations, the worxhip of Barchiit<! ; fijr I 

eau by no no'iins altoth' that the cert-monte:* performed in 

honour of Unechiis, l>nth in Egypt mul nmong the Hellenes, 

bhould so coincifte by eliance"; in which cii-sc ihey uonld be 

consonant to H^^-lh-iiic cuKluni«, and not have Iwen so latply 

iutrodnced : nciiliercan 1 utlniit that the Egyptians bam>wvtl 

either this practice from the Hellenes, or any other tiKSga. 

Mr opinion i», that Metumpns obtained most of his infonn- 

aiion respecting Duechiis from Cudmus the Tyriun, and 

from liis follower? out of Phccnicia into the country do* 

called lloeolia. 

50 Nearly all the names of the gods came from Egypt to 

" Cr,nj (■ of Rti*klu*'t n^lnlnn. ** Sffhw«igh»OMr l*k«a th« *(n4 

that we iboiild reid npova. lA a4(TM> rwjttlmnn ia I>i« KOm af ' tn luf|MB 

uJrli i)«v<' ir "to ^*^ ■•*•*> I "' "»■< >l o°e vkI lbs aunt tima:' 

think I;t**** """" '* UMJnsUioJ— Gunmriii*, WimeliBir, aaH LanW, 

EirriiRpE 11.51,53. 


ITvU»9: fof I aiu convinced, by my own inquiries, Oial they 
muset have proc<wHled from some ppoplc noi of I UUcoic race: 
a(-cimJii)>;ly, I ttiinlc iIk-v iraine, fur iJie inuM pan. I'ntnt Kf[ryit. 
Indeed, wiih the exception of NepuuiB and thi- DioBciih, as i 
beroro obHtrrrt'd*', and of Juno, \'e.sta, 'Ilieuiis, ilic fimccs 
and Nereids ilip nanivs of all the oibcr f^ndi have fur ever 
been in exislvuce imunx ihe Egyptiuns: tins I hhv frnm 
the onihnriiy of the Kuypiians ()ien).Ke1ves. A« to tliuw? names 
which tbty are nol uc<)iuiiiUM) wilh, they nvrc. 1 liuvc no 
doiitil, invemiont of ibe IVlasjiiaTis'*: Xeptuiie, liuwevtr, 
iDu^t be tixvipUrd; wbtch pod thp IJclK'uei Ixinowed from 
the Libyans; for none bnl l.ibyanii originally possessed the 
name of N«fptiine, a god whom ihey have alway? m'orehipped. 
TIk* KfTj'plians havo no ccrcmonieit iiLstiiiitcil in honour of 
herwes", TJie above, thert-fort', ami oereml olhcr thing«5) 
likewise, which I shall byand by rxplain, have been adopicd" 
hy ihc Hi'llenes from thu l""jjy(iiian«. As to iho pra<'lii."e of 
TC|ire!wiiling the iinagrn of Mrrniry with the nicmbt-r erect, 
tbut « tut Dot leamed fruui ihi* Eg^i pUauK, but from Ihe Pelas- 
gtms ; ihc firsl of all ihv Hellenes that adopted lhi» custom 
vcftf ihc AtJieuiaiiK, whuM: example the rest followpd; for 
th<- Pvl(i~:.;iauB wore neif^bbours of the Athenians, al that 
lioio already ret:Iioned Ik-UeucK: and froia ibence die Hel- 
leoes first look ihis praolice. Whoever has l)ecn initiated 
in I he iiiysicries of the Cabiri. which the pcoph; ot tSaiiio- 
thravf have udopkMl from die Fetas^ians aud now c«l«bratU) 
will know what 1 meun; for these IV-laK^^anB who had |>re> 
vioDsly been the iicigbboiirs of the Atheiiisn&, dwelt, of old, 
in Sarundiracc; and fmm tlHtn the Sutnothrjciairs iidnpted 
ihe inyf^lettea. The Alhi'uiaim were acconlin^iv die Uml of 
llie llelienrs lhat,li(irr(iwiiiK the ciii^toni from the l'eia^^'ianN, 
maile their iaiagva uf Mercnry with tliL- nKriiiber erect: fur 
which the PelntsgianN a-'siRned a aacrcd p:a:<nn, explained 
in the mysterivs ^it Sauiutliraco '. Originally, die Pe]as)^53 

■* Sm f bafL 4.x 

** «»> 1) - • - *;>M U. Frc, will) 
mand i*tli« rnctiuos ofttM fartUh, 

" I tluak ihi* in th« irup mwc of 
Um iiiiinb nfu(m^ S £t Aiyirvt^ •f9 
3(Mt iQh. I'ha LtUa truiilaiiit hu* 
lM|iiiy«jih nadcrtd iltroii ' 't4 b>- 
m*> .l^)flil niilki eiiteu pm^r^uui^- 
lor.' T<>*- •rrm «pp«Bn ta ni« oon- 

Wi' < r> «Be kamr* vbat ihf 

n.. Iw (lie tern wi (ww- 

C^M, •■i.i' u <■ ioiiimI trnj ahrtr^ 
** firw n. I*. 97. «vfa ZitAwt NMpw- 

m^/im tt'iutMn, hrtarv whiab idiia 

be unJeniBiHl fiadiitti, vanAatfivn*, 
or (OOH! f t)M> »CTfc. 

' 111 >• Ut ^M. lia«IKUtlU ttof 
uiaitlf hi I (he (Mpradina marA ri. 
\i in' iKiitcalk lis 4. and ««U tor 
■■r^, TliNitiiiir hii ciplnitMvl nlwliji 
(lie rtijurc ralk'f) rnaliagp, in RMa* 
mar; ia tW eve, r^ will feUiu to 
ift^m fm, wtuoh MBA in iliu auibiM'* 
ci.iiii:!. aiul inntad of wtilrh im baa 
ixllivii i^* riM Xiym. ijatektw. nl 
It ««hm i* X<^. BUM tw rr|[MA*ri M 
■■<|uivaltii( vt aara va or ■§, HVm. 


EUTERPK. n. A3. 

sacrificed all kinds ofvicliins^anc! ofleretl proyere to the gods 
(such wait Ibt.' inforiuatioii I obtained at Dodona); but u- 
tachcd ii'> tianic, ur cuKiioiiieii, Ut any one of Uiomi k^Jk^ for 
OS jot ili«y Latl never heard of any. Tliey called thcni^jorf*'* 
on this nccfiunt, that tlicy had amuoi^d and distributed all 
thiugd nitli nuch order. Aller a long time had inlervenDd, 
they became ftcqoainted with the names of all the god» im- 
poned from F.gypt ; excejii thai of Bacchus, which ihry heard 
of tt a later period. Soon alter, they consulted the oracle at 
Dodona concerning the names: — that oracle is deemed the 
most ancient uf all in Helbii, and n-n^ at the lime we art) 
speaking of, the only one: — the Pelan^iaiis. therefore, having 
coQsiiltod the Dodoniean oracle, " whether they were to 
adopt** tlic names coming from abroad;" the orado g&ro 
the ansiver, ** to adopt tlietn." From that period, they made 
use of the names of the gods, in their devotions; a practice 
imitated some time later, from the Pela«gian», by the !U'l- 
A3tencs. Ab to whence each of tlic godii spniog; whether 
they bad all existed from eternity; what ihcy were, as to 
fonu ; such thiage were only known of yesterday, or the d»y 
bcferc", to use a inTiul expression: for 1 con&idcr Homer 
and Hesiod older than mytiolf by four hundred years, cer- 
tainly not more: they were Ihe pocLs that fmrocd" the Hel- 
lenic llieogony, gave distinciive namest to llie go<ls, dUtri- 
buted among tliem honours nnd professions, and jroiiited out 
their respeciive foniiK. The ](uet8 s-nid to have Nourished 
before the above two were, it is my belief, really postertur 
to them. My autliority for the assenionK in the firet part of 
the«c statements i» the Dodonasan prieote&see: it is on uy 
own auihuriiy I speak of Hesiod and Homer. 

* tJndvnluxl Kr^m^ with !/•«• n 

f< CIciDfTil. AIpiiir'I. edf li «f4 

/Mnr: ttliotci bj Wfurliirij. Thii 

alluJei k) dio iljtnnlofi; of Mi, wliicli 
it Mid tA bo ilcrircd from <iiivj H, 
th« oriffinal root of rVi^u. 

M MBtcMA.A, « 

w wfAn «t kmX j;rt», 1* h pn>T*rljial 
eiprmi'iii T'lr I'ltrli/. 

** 't'bc «ij(iiil>cotion if «wuV| in iblt 
ptHia^, H >. Kul^rcl i-f iliaputL-: Wen. 
MlJnit, •nd kfler him Larcher, take it 
to mciin. ' to (Ipnorilw in rrrto.' Thi< 
intoriirviitinn i* combnttn] bjr VtaU 
fioi ; nbudeniu lliat a-aaT^Hbrii taJEen 
In that sRpar, cun bu followvcl bj- • 

upinioa ofWtMcliogi it brioK mhnui 
tn tofipoi* Ibal HcrMatui «t<t had la 
Idem ormtlrihutiop to Hoiner or Hetiod 
the nu( fabric of Oreoiao •itp«i> 
*ti tiun. I knte uiwd ibc Eiigljik wan] 
' fnuunV becautre 1 tliiak. the mow- 
iug of Hi-nxlotua U> be, that UovH^ 
nod Hfaiod MiUaltd in on* bo4r 
irbit wu rvlaced In nrtrai wrtlUn, 
MDaOTttlriii lh(> htrlh. ihajie, &p, of mt 
frodx, luiii Ihrlr mylAi: in the »>■> 
nuDOCr w« Dilfibl laj tb:il Mnbonci 
rrBiucI a. new n-lift'on, sltlunjili k H 
well known tbnl tbt< Kuran t« littlr 
lacin- Ihtn nntpbca nf lb* worbi of ibr 
Jem. the CbridJani, «nd tb« Iilnli> 
lers. 8«r fiohircifc> quotoiion fna 
Hcinf, lu ante to ii. iX 

EUTERPE. II. S4— 56. 


CoQcenuag llic two oracles, tbut or the llcUeoes. and lhed4 

alhcr in IJbva, ibc fullowiug accuuiit Is giten by the Egyp- 

lians. The priests of TbcbflDOn J(ipit«r wserl, '* Tliat two 

■* consecraieu woiiieu** were carried off by Phceoiciaiis; lliai, 

" it ura^ asccrtjiiiiod, ono of tliom van sold, to bo ukci) inlo 

** Libya**: ttie otlier was dUpu&ed of to the Uelleuea : thut these 

** iroiueti were the original foundre««es of the oTacles, in the 

** said nations." L asked, bow they could know so po^itivelv 

timi this wasilie case: to which lJicirre|>U' wns: " that dib- 

** i;rtil search was made h>- ibeiii after those wouieu i hut Uk')' 

** were unabU' to tind ihem ; and wpm suh!i«f|uenll_v made 

*' acqtMtoted wiibwhut ttiey bad accordiogly stated concera- 

" ing the two women." Suc:h, therefore, was the accouat Jqo 

fa«ard from the priesU at ThebeB : Ibe foUowing, however, in 

atalcd by the women prononnre the oraclrs at Uodona. 

•' TVo Mack dovee How away from nielwjB in Egypt: one 

** rrachod Libya ; the other directed her fli}(bt tn tlicm. That 

" thi- do»c perched in ao oak-ircc", and, with human voict-, 

" proclaimL-d, it )Khnvcd an oraelu of Jotc Khoiild he there 

*• established. Thi'V took this to tw a divine token to them, 

** and (lid accordingly. — Tbcy add, that ibc other dorc ar> 

"rived in Libya, and ordered the Libyans to found the 

**onc]c of Amiuon," which is alfto one of Jupiter's. The 

pHrsieBHi'S of Hudona said the "lauie ; both the eldest, named 

rronicnia, and Uiu juniors, called Timaretc, and Nicaudra: 

and all the DodoniEBn people belonging 1u the holy pTt-cioct 

Mgnwi with them. Afy opinion of these things is, that ifitoe 

■rua Inic that the Ph<Bnic)anK did carry ofT the consecrated 

wtimcn, and that they were sold, one into Ubya, and the other 

iiiln llcllaii. I pri'TiUiui: that the latter was ()is[joficd of to some 

peoplu ofThe^protia, now a part of Iltrllas, previously called 

IVu»fpn; and that, reduced to ^InvL-ry, sbt: ercctud a tciu|]Ie 

lo Jupiter onder a gr^en oak"; as it was natural for a 

Rerr-aDt in the temple of Jtipilcr at Theb«s 10 think of the 

place from which she camo: and from ibis arose the oracle, 

*^ U *« Mttd l(ft^, HcTodotiM aa- 
Rifeatljr MBiiBiliei* hit ilattmrnl, 
*.3li. Vklekmaop Brapow* yptmi»mi 
^ fa* in c. U], wliich will ugaity 
' msui mtmtay BMh, prabkblf, ui 
•«•« trnplojed lo ittaiM Ibe t«mp]e 
m4 iW prical*, kul wefw not adgiitlnl 
to lb* biMiMir at priMthM^ — InreJktr. 

W If &4M<> «t«MMi. Tb« pnpo. 
Mm li, witli lbs Kcuniin, tu- 
maM HiKiM : it dovld tbcKfote 
W iBMrrtci fi IrasilsCe ' «H Mid In 

" 'I1w fvyif of the Gmki it dm 
tile tame m itb tiwfiiffut tf the Lfttlnt. 
Tlie latter ia the otteh ; ibe fbnner a 
■IMri** of MJ. t,arw*»r. SckmUv 
Mnililm it lo bti ifac jtititvt ttitUtu 
of Lian«a*. — Sekmfid. dr. Grr. Lt». 

* S«hw*tcrbnaf«r prapoMi ' im<I*i 
a rc^ ntk, inferring th« tb« Dtlxr 
)Mnicn]«r* of tbM traditUMi were oll^ 


EUTKUPE. II. 57—00. 

n-ftcn the voman liad atlsinod a knouledgc ofUic l-liOIoiitc 
InDfi'tia};^- ; uml tliu rcpuri nrif;iiint(^d wiiti her, ibai licr tti«tcr 
hurl bc^n sold iu iho ^aiiio inariiu-r Itv tiie i^htuniciaoK, lo ga 
07 into Libva. 1 prt-siitiir, liticnise, that the ni>im-ii vnw caltrd 
duvei^ by ihii )ieu]il(; uf Doduiio ; for this reason, tliat tbey 'Kcre 
ftrreigavnt, and appeared to them to chaui-r like birds: alter 
a time, tbi'V say, tJi« dov« spolte nith human voice ; that ffu. 
when tbc woman bcK*in to rpcak iutclh^iblv : k> long as shd 
Apnke a foreij^i toiixue, ihtty imagined she cliait«red uk a bird; 
but lioir could n dove, r>f all ihings, »pp«k like a human 
bcini;? By s&ynig thai the bird was black, i)><:y giri: u» lo 
iindcrsHiitid thh w<inion w»s an KgyplioH*. The oraclo at 
Tlii-ties ul' Kg>pl, and that at Dodona, iv^eiuble each other 
very clo«cly. — The practice of dirinatioa by the rictitiM in 
lem|ilri! caiuc likewise from EgypL 
d8 Fenlive congiiegniions'", (irnresnioti!), niid thank spiv inn* '^ 
In ihc gods Wire tirsl inUrtidiioed by iJie Evii-ptiitnSf froia 
i«hnm ihp Mollent^s Ifanicd llie *iinip pnctices: ihe eariy 
a'lo|ition of tlivr><; rileti by llic E};y|itiaii». and tbcir compara- 
tirvly mDd{>nt eMiiblivhment among the Hellenes afonl siifli- 
McioTit proof of loy aswrtion'". The Egyptians have ie»ttt« 
meetings more ihnn once in erery year: the greaieft and the 
most rifridly-obfcen-ed fi>s(iral is that of Diana, at Kubasli*; 
the second, that of Uis, at Bmiris: the largest temple of Ims 
ia in ihis town, which fttaiids in ihe centre of the Egyptian 
Pt'lta : Isis, when tran^Jaied, Mgnilies Cere*, llie tliird r'esii- 
val iH celebrated at Sni«, in hoiinur of Minervn ; the fourth 
at IleliopoIU, lo the Sun; the fiflli at Rulo, in honour of 
OOl^tmiH; the rixiIi at FapreniiK, tn Mars. Thoso, accord- 
ingly, who come by waler to Biibafllis act in the fullowiog 
ninnncr. Men and women embnrk together; vast numbers 
of both st-xcs are seeo in ©very baige ; some of the women 
ha^'D rftCLl(.-«, with which iliev make a nninte"*, snitie of the 
men also play on the Hfe, m otcry boat: the rest of the 
women and men sing, and clap their hnnda. When, in ihdr 
progress, they arri*e at any town, they push their bark to 
land ; where some of tl)« »-omrn do ns I have described, 
whilu oilit'rs scoff and scream ai thtt women lieloDging lo th& 
place: tinmeaUo ilance; while olhcrii, Atauding forth, pntl up 

<* The Eg^ptnuM wen tilack : m* 
eliBp. 104, 

■•* nmrtiifu. VaiMfjm, VtMtmm 
d'MuneelttiiBiio.Si^AH-rig. J>'. UrntJ. 

*• UerodMo* (ti'w '" rj^wTw-ji* 
tlw mnninc of ' telcim McrrHcr' ■ml 

ant6t tit f c ^tti 6oai aal rifirM k 
doubt I it nlUtf cniilaiii* ui affiniM- 
tioti. Smfhar. Sea Vi^vr. cirol. liii. 

■■^ The iMraAir ina « tan o( nl- 

' flni4.' ntlltd. in latot limt*, e^f)«. lie, mtit or ■ fpliiten r^, uAo^n 

Sriirriit. Let. t*^i*^<f. 

EtiiKnPK. II. 81— fl?. 


(btir cKiUirk luiil exhil*K tlirir pcrimng. The sain« diiug Ukca 
pUcc flt et«rv louD an ihe rirer-Ride: and trhcn ihcy hai'o 
reachi:*! nubaMiH, they CL-lrbnilc ilic feasi, and nfTL-r up grt-'at 
ucrificVA: morR gtaptf-uine U cimsitined at tlijs f(-a»it than 
in «ll llie rest of ilie year Wnidce. The con^^j^oLed luiilti- 
lude of mm and woinen. wiOiniit rcclimiiu^ iht^ children, 
aim'iioLf, the ]>eo))lv nl Bubnstis My, to st«cii huodred thoii- 
uand. tn uhai iujnni>r ihe ffaftt of Wis is kept at Dudriafil 
has been already described by mc"": there, accordingly, 
after ttic sacrifice, all the men and women, to the amniiiU of 
many myriads, beat tIiemR«d>«e on Ihe brea<ili lo Un> honour 
of vtioui I urn nut lit Ubt-riy in divulgu'". I'bc Csriaii^ ihal 
sre si^ttled in Kgypt carry their zenl Ktill faiiber, inosinitch 
»» they f\as\t ihcir faccx willi thrir liiiircii ; (ihrniii;^ tliii!>, that 
tlicy art- iioi Ef!;iiilinnF, but lurui^^iciK. At Sais, aOer ihe^S 
pcoplit liavc collected to bo present at the FaetiKceK'", all the 
luljabiiaiit!!, on a ctnlatu nif^lu. kindle a ^reat uiimbvr of UinjiR, 
iu the open air, annmd tlicir bouses; (hu lamps are »inall 
KaiiccrK liil(>d with Kalt anil nil, on iIki Biirfiici; of trhich 
it« » wifk Ihai bnrnit Ihmnt^b Itic nhrdi: nipht j and hencu 
the fcnyi i& callwl iiie h^lilin^ up of )aiii]x<t"''. The Itgypuans- 
*ho cannot join lhi« febtive (.-otiprcKation obecne tbe ni^ht 
o| nacriiicc. mid even- one li(:tits np lurupK ; mi tliat the iliu- 
minatutn is not eonfiitcd to Sa'ij) alone, bnt extendK all o^vr 
Kgy)it. A ntiiffiiiuK reaxon is a]iHt^ii--d lor this ni|;bt being 
u> honoured, and the ilUiiiiniuiion lliat iiccoiupatiiL>s ■(. Al63 
Tlrlicpnlis and ISnto the proph- come merely, and allriKl the 
«rrifices : but nl Piiprenii^, ii"t only aro Ihe saerifices of- 
fend up, and iht! holy ccrenionieo {terlunned, as in tlie other 
lovna, but, about uintiet, a lew ol' the prieKls are employed 
aliout the image, vhilo the greater pari, armed with bind- 
noDK, Htand in ihe portal nf the sacred edifice: ulli«tr men, 
ulermined to uccdmplish certain vokh ihey haro, and 
more than a ihinisniid slmn;;. each piovided also nitli a 
lIad(;'OU. stand in a iiitisA o)<posite: (tiie imago, placed in 
a small wooden (:ha|Hl, all gill, i« convtrjed the day before 
to ftome olher holy sojourn:) the few U-ft nboiit th« im^ 
drag a four-wheel rehielr, with ihr chapel conlaining the 
image : the pric«ls stationed in the porkd rtfusc admittance : 

■** Cliop. 40. u in wtiMal ntlim, Rmxlotoa k> 

K* S*a iho i>ad at chnp. 4.— «h M irmiii*, threufli religious icntfilM, 

w ri »,! ■» - Tli<> >< an aian:|rlc of tbe (mm sUtiug itiu onifcin of tbh G«r*- 

m^Mr lerb, taica in * tctini^vs mam. 

Th« ^rfM^tina U nut b« " Mill. aiU. Alh piirait. 
«l(M>d with rhtt. Larefktr. 8m >" Ihit tPiniiiil> m of (h« F«Mt 

UiU. IXt, i. In ihii cue, nf Lviomt, in China. 



iba i]oTote«9, nishing to Uie anistance of tite god, fall on lb 
oppouents nitli ttieir bludgeons: then begio! a furiou 
Rtriiggle with clubs: ihpy breal: nne anotl>er*s brsds, an 
many must, I cooceive, die of their wounds, ilUiough t)i 

C-l Kgypuans ihcmsrirps deny that this fver is tbc case. Tbl 
pcoplo <>1' Papreinis awiert, thai the r<>asun for thus celebTKl 
ing the feast in this: thai the mother of Mars re»ded in tfa 
temple; her sod, educated at soniB disl^inl spot*'*, hairfai 
come to manhoodt Trinhed to pay a visit to his mother ; bi 
lh(> attendnntK, who had nevur before suen biiu, refused bil 
admittance, and drnvc- liiiii away. Afars Uicrcfon; called 
ing men from the other ]wrt of the city, bandied the servani 
I'cry severely, and forcvd an entrance to his molhirr. I 
coiiHeijoence of that evutil they dechtre tliat tbia sort of COB 
bat is iDstituted on his festival. 

The l^gyptjuns weru also the firat to establish ibc custoa 
that all communication with womon in the saerud pi 
should be pruhibiied.and that men who had been connects 
with feuiak'i4 should not enter the temples unwaulied. Pi 
villi nearly all nations, except iJic Kgyptiau» and llellcoc 
mi>n may either sleep with women within the sacred edifi< 
or, nsing from a feioolu partner, cuter tlie temulc umvaabc 
Xliese people put mankind on ale7el with tlieorute creatine 
for, say Lhcy, other animaU and rarioiu birds arc Sfii 
conpling in tlie shrines, temples, and Baemd precincts** 
and, consequently, if tbie^ was displeasing to the god, ti 
brute creaUinrs uvt>n would not do it. The penwus ll: 
ctidcaTOur to cxcufc, by such reasoning, tbc abore bfihi 
riour, do not by auy means meet with my approbatkK 
Tbe Egyptians obiwrvc, witb scrupulous earc« all rcligioi 
ordinances, and especially the above mentioned. 

0^ .-Mtliough Egypt conlineeon Libya, it i^ not vory ab 

tyrh. Tti9 whnle cf ctii* pum^e 
m*; br truw 1«ie>cl In ktioihffr ntBiitifiri 
M tlM raadsT wil) Me, If b* cooralt* 
thi oonmoDlBtora. 

••• TUn nnsmph tfforix bd ia* 
■faniw of the ibc*o' dil&^rrnl lerm' 
I«t)r, wmit. TVHHt. The Ifii vu the 
mnAo of tbn »«cr>d incluiure : it 
iBiiat, in tnmr irun, bive btta ler; 
»XWa*iir, for tlist of tlie t«iup1« of 
faoalnpui, at CpiJaurui, Uit limiu 
irf whioh may to t!ii» <iny In- jir»i(j- 

hundiM tcrw, ind ww ailonDfd (rich 
ibnuraa, KmphllhntrM, htthi, »aA 
Other biiilditi^*. Tbo wn frax the 

Ml) ilMir of Di« deity, in vhirfa 
anctni imi^ wM A«pn«t(d. 
*i^tm VM B part of Ih« fifla, 
tliiinR of vuiog* •difion. (in 
isfC Uk mm, and ptcnUarlr 
oraiod, 4r, K It wre. oat o^ i 
Mnicu of tfao diiimtr. Th 
trill no doubt obU In hit 
that ctDD iht iit*At of bnl 
ti<iiiiin»<. niQntioiKc! L 199,1 
timriiilfai, Tlie nlcR dinllnctlc^ 
1 hare lost explained iraii tivdlj b« 
■tlvaHea tn in tiic l&n^nxe if 
coufllTy vhieli a mfrfifol ProTid«l 
hw loDD tinra delircTod rron tha ' 
rauny oi jupenlilio*. 

iUnKKl'K. II. (iC. 


In nnitnak'": Ihrm* loiiiid in Uiis Poitmnf" art' all lield lo be 
Siicre<l, urlit-llier <luuit.-sticiiit.-il liy lucii or olhenriw, Were 
I la moution the n-uitoiiK uliy (liey are connileteil holv, 
I Kbuultl be (ItrsccntlioK i» ui.v tiarniuve to rultgioiis iiallory, 
whiuli I uisi), abotc all thm<;!c, U> avoid'": even the few 
I have eu))fifit-ia)lv »|ju)(eii uf, vnxv tueiilioiivd (jvia dccvs- 
riiv"*. Thi? [inaiict! ititli ili« Kj)!v|nians, hi ruspccl of aui* 
^, mnN, i« Ibis; ctimtors are atvpoiuU-d (or r»-«<liny wity Itiml 
■t-(ijiiaU-lt : thcv lire n]{y}>uuii iiii-n itiicl Himitii: and tliu 
son tutieriu ihe dtKniiy ot his r,itlK'r. Tlio irdinliitanu of 
cilic» ncqiiit llu>m^>elvc5 in ihe IVillnwiiig luatiiit-r ut tivi vnvs 
Ibey fa&ro iuad« lo the goHs; when Ihey pray lo iho god to 
(rhom ihr aniniiil inuy W cniiscciatcd, Lhuy Khavu cillar tW 
whole heads of iliuir thihln'Ujor ihu half, ui- ih« third only of 
tbinr hL-ntlx; lliry uoigli the hair iti Hcalaa u^aiiiBt tiitirer: 
whatever ihat nei>;lit mny hv, tbey ^'itu it lu the cunitor nf 
ibc soiniaU; iu rLtiini lor u'hkh, she cuta up suniu lt»b, and 
gires it as food u> them : such, accordiugly. i» the ap]i()tiileil 
nude of feeding ihcm- VVhocvcr l;itls one of lhe«fi anininia, if 
wiirully, the puni»liinrtil isdtath'^: ifaci-idviitally, the culprit 
§■ bound lo pay wli.vt fiiu' Iht- pries^tn may impose : it es ui^ 
dr^^tlMJd, however, diut he ulii> kills an ihJH or a vultun:, 
«heLti(<r \vittin)jlv or tiii<villin|tly, tiin»t neceK^arily be put tu 
dnth. Altli»n<;h llic tliiiui-siicaiv<l aiiiiiial»aroiitiinerouci( thi-ir (j6 
nambent would bu still greater, >verfi it not for irhat take« 
Blace vriih the caU. When Ihu femulex liuvt- liUund.iliAy no 
l<ni}{«T jwlc the company of thv malcK, who, llndiny it itn- 
posaible to Kriltify ihi-ir dt.-i>irL'ft at thai time, have rc<.-Dlir»e, 
m conwi]iirni-e, io this artifice : they iali« away, secretly, 
tlio 1(iitL'ti& from tlie Ictuiiles, and, ca^ryin^ thetii otT, kill 
tbcm : in so duiiig, however, (he males do not devour tlio 
fouug. ITie fiMnali? cats, di'privcd of their kittiiUs, and Ac- 
trirQita ot othcm, secli again thit rompany of Ihe iRates; for 
the cat is much allachcd to her otTspriii^. When n fire 
Occura, n aiiTptiMii^ pmdit;y t^ikcs placr aniim]^ ihu cats : for 
die Kgyptians, not heL'diii)* lln> conlla^rHtion, stand at luime 
dl»taiii;i:, anil ^ire ihtir whnh- altt^itinn to the csiU: those 
animal* however slip botweuii, and leaji over the rnnVs nf 
nw, to rush into the Arc : at this, great sotcqw lake^ pos- 
tieMMiD of the £m-ptiaii. When a cat dk's, in a house, ofa 

>■* litiya •IwtMiiM id KtlJ imiiiiil* 

of kit kint*: U ui^hi )«fhi|M linr« 

• hMB iDrnfil, ihit ihr caw wm ibi^ 

I Mm* «iili Enj-ri : iki* iMiHtiptioii Ihu 

'" Till* ^ttMtpi, ooajird irlMl • 
■lailir not m «. S, in ■>., w««int* 
VUL. I. N 

fur tht ncriipnlnuinvn with vlilcb 
llefklaiuo »ioidi MUthiH the r«4«iiDa 
uf fl>n luiiiiiM cetrntouie* In li«« ic- 

IH (amp. ehtp. S. 

IH Hittu«t*l.«i*.a. 


EUTKKFE. 11.07.08. 

nnlural dcatli"*, Lho imiiuies all ft!iavo iheir ej'ohrtnrs: bol 
iktim (titli whom n iloft dies, Kbiivu ttic wtiulo bmly. t>i|;i'tlitr 

117 wiU) tliu Uetul. The (k'ce;LSi:d lats are r.irried tn UnlL-uiiiA, 
whore tbcjr are embaliDcd, and burietl io holy taulu. At 
foi ibe dogs, all ihat die are buried in »acifd c*s\h. by the 
respective pereons to whom they belonged, and in iheir own 
towns. The ichncunions are bnricd in the samp miinner aa 
the dogs*" : but slirew-mtce and vultures are taken to Buto; 
the ibiscH tn licrmopoliai the bears, which am not very 
abundant, and the wulves"*, uol much l&rgur ih^ui foxes, are 
buried wherever their carcases may be fouud. 

C8 Tlio lulUnviiig is a descripliou of thtr crocodile. During 
the four winlor months be ciUs nothing: be is fotir-foou'^, 
and amjibibious: tliia animal is oviparous: the female lays 
her eggs to the ground, and there leaves them. The croco- 
dile pasacB ihe greater part of the day on tlte dry lund; hut 
the whole night in the water, becauae nl that time Lhc vrnlet 
b at a higher temperature than the atmosphere or the dew. 
Uf all liriug thiugK we are acquainted with, the cnx-odile it 
that which, from the Hmallcat, grows to be the krgest; for 
the crocodile'H egg is iiot tuuch larger than that of the 
goose; and the newly-batched aoimal is proportioned tothe 
egg he comCH fmui, but gradually increases io me, till ha 
reaches a length vf scwntiH^n cubits, and even still motb 
He has the eyes of a pig ; large teeth and tusks iu pruporticm 
to his body : is the ooly animal that has no tongue ; the 
only animal, also, that docs not more the lower jaw, bot 


'" I WM n loBg lime in iloulit, whc* 
iber I itiii>al(l iiruulalc irl *h ivti^- 
rm, * hj MMideoC or ' natnttWj.' I 
adml Ibe laii«r, rrom Ibe ■utborit/ <f 
Aafui Oolliii*, «rhu njr*. M^(fur« 
iJta<M, ' qiiul Daiur&lu n fuutis, 
mviVi rxtnanciit >i coactut ivait.' 
Norl, Allk. liii. 1. Il ia tli* kmii* »a 
vbsl thn Lnltn* faH ' mMi uA 
monr.' Nu(, homTot. bat that Awl 
n£ airi^ria unj 'i^^ ' bjT ctitOC*,' 
a« ID thn bllowioK piwajTw frnin 
Xracpbon: rttntt ttfi«fr((i| h r«A>- 
*W i*i vw •trtmimt. ' 1 bare for wil- 

iMWf of it thoM wlio )i*r« laved 
diMOMflTM bf ciiBSf^.' Btllfm. t. T. 

' ■ TtMcl haviof Rrriidl jtaurAtj 
liT otiucr.' Cfr. Ery. *i. 4, IS.— 

fjtr uz A sr 

■M HML ass, 3. 'IcMVfwJ, J tm 
lyi^aiw* Xtj-yiiwr i, Uttyth. Tlii* iDi- 
nal i* ftpuod buth in Uppti and 

M if r»dj Id mIm I« prrr : ii fcH» 

on pikAu, •«•, •« fowlk la 

of Ihe erwulilD, which It« U4 ia tG» 
land, tuiil eai« tfaeim, tbervfaj p^ 
Tfudii); tiie iucn-He of ihai ninU. 
It maj b« vwilj tamtd, aod p>w aUst 
ttiabMaMlikaa«at. IioMWagtvlfay 
noiac, and barfca irbM it m *a>7 aagi;* 

■>* WD]«ca ar« not faoad, It b arid, 
acrw-a-daji, in Gf{m= Sonial, llwti 
Sttd, M|ipowa tlikl llendalaa, b <Us 
InMsnre, ct.nft«ail* tb« wolf with tb« 
rhxca] nr isFkal. Oar Hittartaa waa 
a naiiTo ol AiU Hlaor, wbcrv woh*« 
ate Tttj [rc<)»inllT aron; anil JMfcall 
arc >o numiiou* aad aobj', i£tl Aa 
irarrllcr finda fitnX difflcult} ta •■- 
Jojr at nl^I the necctaary nfraab- 
ueitL vt 4l««fi, amid ■ din t»a ikts- 
aaui] timn graatar ttiaii (ha uHt* 
waalliiK« on a fumoMsr nifflii in a pa> 

BUTKltPK. 11.69,70. 


riogs tbi- upper jaw down to the hmcr. lie is urmeil with 
ItrcHig claws; bU ikUi covvrLnl with scales, iiiipeiieirabli- 
m tbo back ; blind in the water, exceedingly qmck-MKbtcd 
m land : pasting en niuc-h of lils time In i)ie vratiT. tbe 
aside of bis mouth is alwavft bc^ct nith leeches. All other 
leasts and fowU fl,T bcf'ort^ him; but lie is at peace with 
RM tort of water-bird, ciUlcd lh<> ImchiliiR, wliich a^ttixU him 
7i:atly ; fur whuu lie gfU out of die rirvr on land, and 
ipCDB bis jaws (whivh bi> is wont alunvK tn do towards 
hti vcM), tbi! trochihm cnti-rti bis nioutlt, and devours the 
ifccbrs. The crocodile is )^tteful for ihitt Kervicfl, and does 
» harm lo the bird'". The crocodile, lliervfore, is sacred 6!> 
rill) Minic Kgvplians: bv olbrrs, far fmm bein;* siicred, 
IP is purBHcd as an onoroy. Thi* people residing about 
rhebcs and I.«iki) Mtrris coiisiilcr rmcodilcs lo be bigbljr 
Mcred : each of tiiesc jM-ople ll'ods one crocodile in jwiti- 
Mllor, brou;;ht up ho lame as Ui allow liiiiisclf lo be liandlrd: 
hey put in his uars, crystal and gold gems '" ; bracelets ou 
lis fore pawBj and fpvc him apjwinti^d ami itucrud prori- 
RODS, and treat liiin bandAuincly while be ii> ulive; wbon 
■•ad, ihcr emhalin him, and iatt:r him in u boir cell. J'he 
nople at Elepliaiiliue, and the rnviruni^ eat these rttpliles, 
Oticetviug tbcm far frum sacrc-d. These animals are tiot 
u Egyptian called crocodile, but ' cliampsse :' the loniaus 
UTc gi%'cn ihcni the ronucr name, from an ides of llioir 
resemblance iu shape lo the lizards or newts of ifao hedges, 
rhich they thus denominate"'. The mixle* of calchin}^ tbem 70 
ro many and variuu^: ibut which accurdtnifly appears Iu mo 
1 biasi ihe most dewrviiig of deseription, I shall describe. 
rbuv'" bail a liook with tl>o chine uf a pig, and let it down 
ibe middle of the mrcam : the (isbernian holds, on tlic bank 
ttiut nrer, a live hog, which he beats : (ho crocodile, hcariui? 

M* n« tnltutca dMmicd in ihit 
W»i lf lto o( \k» oTModlU, bj Dudeiu 
lUufBlim, ar*— til* crocodile hu k 
■I in, ihil ii to IRJ, the Unh nnd 
nMMof* tnwMi; ImI ihc «kta U»i 
mfn It flfttaaila all over U)« lower 
', aod RNiBMli iuelf wrcli that uf 
■Uh of ihc noulh: tlie Iowct !> 
OBIt nMreabl^ uf llir jaw. i;f itiv 

raUit, Mt w«ll as «tttr aAouli ; 
dlOtaw* In a» onwodils ii, tbu 
toww Jaw I* •odow*!} wlltl a dnn- 
BMkiD from top tn bniwai, and 
I Ti)tlit M loA I all tiic tcclh arc 
■H, aa^mrrcJ lonafdtlh* thfoal: 
a th« Mtlnal eloaM bi* maaih, 
Ihalaath af tha npper aad l«w»rjaw* 


lo-k iT\ Ir^Hhrr, Bi Iijthtlf u Cu prw 
ttDI (he apprnraacc of a bDiritv of 

"" li/'M X"« * work* t>f mdud 
•tcvi',' 1 imtiiiiii <](«iile wbethcr H»> 
rudoiu* meauf )[biM, •Daaael, or asy 
nthn aTOGcial >l<iur. The uaeofglaaa 
ii TLTt aiicicol, IvuT iid otigtu caaiurt 
be ilit-Tiiiiim) — LtTfKrr. 

■■'' Tti« lip^Ifio-liiitRl. at *ft '/.iVWAa 
tttlito l.iun.) wiu knoKii \rj ttin BBina 

■*> i^uiijily. f'ooi ihn pracMinit ix«i, 
iIm ■nlMUiiiWa AjfAt (liuratlT, '' hiM- 
t«.r,'') lo ftorars tb* vsrb liJitirf. Se* 


EUTKRPK. 11.71-73. 

tliR srineults, romes tn tlie smitxl, stiil, inccllag with tbe 
4!hini>, ^oT|^s ihe >>aiL Tliti nifii now haul him in; and, 
\\he.n ihr nniiiial U drawn up on lite land, the ^rst thing; 1^ 
tiHhcnimn i3c»es is to jihiMur his evps over with mud : tbici 
bcinjf dnnc. ihc renl in uniiily cfll-ctud : nn Iohk as thM 

71 remains uiiduou, tbe difficuUit's are gi'eal. The hip)tcipou>j 
mit^t »lsn, is held sacred in tbe nomo of Puprc-inift, but not 
an l>v the Te&l of tJie KgipliaiiK. ThU aiiiinul tiiav be thtn ' 
<twcrilH?d ; lio i* a <jiiadnipofl ; his fool i« armed «-ilh claw*; , 
hU b<H)f U tltat i)f tlic ox : lie has a ptig'UOM. uiid n horso't^H 
nock ; jiitltiig Icfth ; the tni) atid the iiei^h of a l>nr»^.^ lIuVj 
size is that of ihu largest Hort of o\«a ; and his bide is (o 

73 toiijib, that, wh^jti dry, javelins nr*' mode frnm it'". Olirrvv^J 
likewiw, aru uii-l with in llic Nile : thoy bold them la bv^f 
sacred, as wt.'!) as, nmnng fish, ibo lepidoinn and eel: tbey^^ 
nffirui thill the aburi; sacred animaU are the pioperty of the 
Nile'": *nd w>, anionic biidd, ihn fox-grKiRc 

79 There i» another sacred bird, called the * phoenix ;' which 
I mywrlf ni'Tnr aatr. vxcopt in a pii-lnre; for it srldoin i»»li 
its appearanct among them ; only every five hondred yeaw 
according In ibo firople of Hclinpalia, Thrr slate, that 
enmcR oi) the death oi hta mv : if at all like \m {iteture, this ' 
bird ui.'jy bu l1ii» difirnbrd, in size and Khnjic. Some a{ lus 
leathers are of the colnnr of gold ; others are red. Iii oul- 
Hnt- **', lut it* exceedingly fiiinilnr t« the eagle, and in sixe 
niNO. This bird is said to diKplay an ingenniiy, which lo tne 
dnett not appear credible : lie is i-ejiresenled an coming onl of^ 
Ambin, and bringing with him his father to tbe temple t4^| 
Ihe Sun, vmbalmud in myrrh i and there buTyiiig him. Tbo^ 
mimner in which iliis is done, is a» foil own : — In tbe find. 
place, lie sticks together an egg of myrrh, te much aa 
tan caiTv, and iht:u tries if he can bear the burden : thii 
experimciU nehiovcd, he neeordingly scoops out the Sf 
stidieieutly to depu.Mt his xire within; be nexlfilU with (r 
myrrh the opening in Ihe egg by whieh the body wbr «• 
cIo».h1 : ihiia the whole tnas!), cotilajiiing the carcnsc. is atiQ^ 
uf the same wt-ight. Iluiing ihii^ completed the euibalm- 
ing, lie transports liiui iiilo Eg>'pt, and lo llie temple of lb( 

'" t*"' ithri9. Hmdrriut hrre 
JtillM Ibr wotd.< Xerrlr And imitrttf. 
lb* ti'r.irt oT wMfh w •n B"ljrpn>c, 
■nd, •rhcn a<Ml ■Iori'. t)L'n<lir>< ' t 
Jnxlin,' nil B(!p'<unt of rliv itulHtatiilvc 
JiwHH beiaK uait«ntouii. It wiiuli). 
Ilim-lnr*, ha«r Im-i'II Iclirr, irnif.iil 
of* pnlila Jftduln,' Mbicli I l>■<'^ mfl 

in mjt hanalulon. to bave put 
' jacola.' — SrAveif. 
'f Mall. ;t7i, 1. 

lii>p, ftifnitin ' furmiun tf dilt^vkMa J 
rju* ilnctihIioiiBin.* I Uk> it la 
wbai we iboiild nil, ts FtctM-h, ' \i 

EUTERPE. II. Tl— 77. 


In the vicinity of Tlif^cs, a kind of scqtcnis arc aatrwl, 74 
Ibat Derer Ao any liamt to men'". Tliey am iliuiinniive in 
ris« ; and cam in\> boros, sprinffinR from the crou-u of the 
tind. All tbfM> M^TfieuU, tbat (lie, tfaey bury in ilie temple 
of Jnpiu-r, to whom it is »nid these reptiles arc consecrattfd. 
But close lu ttic (^nvinins of Biilo, thcT« is a spot belongitig 7js 
to Arabia; which 1 visited, in poiispfmcnce of inforroation 
I received concerning soint; winged R«rpcut-<t. On my arrival 
there, 1 beheld sneh qiinniilie^ of prickly bones as it would 
be imposNble to describe : lliere were heaps of these spinal 
bones ***, xome large, oihcri) stnall, others attain Mill smaller : 
all tti great quan lilies. The spot wbere the bones ere 
accumulated, may be thun dt-M!ribed : it is a gor^^c, between 
two flieep nioinitaiag, and leads lo a n-jde plain, which 
is connrcted wiih the F.gyptiari plpin. .And rejioii say*, 
ttuil, wiih the spring, the winged Bcr]w^nts fly on! of /\rabia, 
towards Kgrpl ; bnt the ibis, a son of bird, takes bis post al 
the defil«, opposes the passage of the serpents, and destroys 
tbetn. For this service, the Egyptians according lo the 
Arabiaas, give great lionours lo the ibis; and the Kgyplians 
themselvvs confess that such is Uieir motive fur honutiring 
lbr«f bird's'*. The following is the de«cripliou of the ibis. 70 
He is all of a dct-p hlack ; bis legs are like llie crane's ; his 
bin is strongly cun-ed ; bis sizo that of the crex : such is 
the (lescriplioit of the black ibis, the champion that fights 
aKtinst llie serpents. Tlie other sort (for there are two 
Innds of ibia}, more freqnenily root with"', are naked on 
part of the bead and Ibe whole of ilie ueck : the plumiige is 
white, nxcepling the few ffnthere on the head and throat, on 
the tips of the wings and llic extreuiily of ilie lai), all of 
which are jet black. The legs and bill nrc stmilnr to the 
other species. The winge<l-»erpent is similar in shape lo 
ibe water-5nake: bis uHngs are not corered with feathers, 
hill completely similar lo those of the bat'". — So much for 
the deKcriplion of the sacred animals. 

Of iht? Egyptians «nth whom I bare had an opportunity 77 
lo be actpiainted, those iiibabiliug the arable parts of Egypt 

M Uut.m.1. 

^ S»a*tm liifnlfiM SOI Mity ibc 
hek-iona, but all (fan boiM af m fiib 
•r MrpMl! it !• cqniikUiil lu the 
FmMi motA * srtle,' Uie Gib-tMDe. 
Am ia, like tint cd the mIf. fur iu- 
Mmcc— ZmrirAer. 

"• Be* B. ill. tor. 

(tfilm')n:n a>/f*ra>n lMn)^ilJtt. «. t. 

{Aiiiipiiwf fiuia ilKiutmt • Tcrstn.* 

^Mvrijr- ri h nti arc ' eoanoa 
ibiiig*,' Bvch ■• cnw IW^WMitly iDMta 
OD an*'* foaiJ. — t^rfktr. 

>** Mult. Wit Int psra^. bur aa». 
Tbr partiuie ■«, na t<i^x,ma, I* pln>- 



EUTEKPE. II. 78, 78. 

iiihed nf the wurlil in Uieir 

aro Uie mosl diMinRuiidie*! nfthe wurlil in Uieir exertions 
presiMTc U)u memory of events'", and, beyond aJl doubt, lb*: 
most Kktlfiil higtorianR. As to their mode of diet, ttiey takv 
purKativcB three successive days in ever; month ; and look 
for health by iiieanK of emetics and clyslers, being con- 
vinced thnt all the diseases incident to man have their 
origin in the food litat h<; tiikcs. In fact, next to the Li* 
byanit, the Egyptians are ttiti most huallhy in the world ; an 
advantage, I ihink, to be utlxibuti-d to tlie hcbaouii, uliicli ate 
always the same ; fur di»i-as«t most fretjuenlly aitnc)>'K tlie 
human frame at the changes of the Bea«>us. They an> 
eaten of bread in ihu form of upeU loares, which thoj call 
' cyllestb.' They make us« of wine, brewed from barley i for 
tlieir soil produces none from the grape, lliey live on fish, 
mw, but Huii-dricd, or steeped in brine: they eat also raw 
quaiU and ducks, uiid the auialler birds, Kalicd beforehand; 
and all the reel boiled or roasted ; but rt^frain from the birds 

78 and fiabes which are regarded as aacved. in the wealthier 
clasaes of society, and at their convivial banquets, a man 
carries round a wooden image of a d«ad body, exactly 
carved and painted to reprenent a corpse, alUiouKh in ita 
vrliulu height*** uot more than one or two cubitJt. The per- 
son, that shews it round, aays: " Look on tliis; drink and bn 
jovial ; for when yuu are dead, such nill you bo." This is 
their mode of mauaipng their feasta. 

7V They have tbeir own national airs, and adopt nono others: 
among various compositions highly descrviug of praise, 
there is.more especially, one song, which is sung in Phtcnicia 
and Cypru>, and in other places ; it bears diflemit names io 
different nations, but cuinci<lca with whet the Ilollencs call 
Linus, and which they sing '". AFiiong ilie many won- 
dcrliil things that 1 have obsurrud in the Egyptians, this is 
one. Whence did they get iJie Linus *^ ? Tbey bare appa- 
rentiy sung it from time immemorial. The Linus is called, 
in Egy])liaii( Mancros. The Egyiriiana represent, that Ma- 
neros was the only 'begotten stm of the tint king of Kgypt: 
and thaU on the occasion of hia untimely deaUh, hu was 

i* TU* is UlcD bjr Titlcliunaat ui itt$ *bioh iitm Mt Bal* •ran lo Ikk 

niltinUoQ pT Ilia fMtMj of namiory.' ■'> Mall. ItSS, tf. 

I^tcIiL-r ii of th« •ajn« Ofilnion; faot *^ Linnt.a. Iitni, the aon of Cfa> 

ikhwi-ijiha-iaf r wgarA ^i^i»a> allnd- nU. i>n wbtMv faie the Orcda bad ■ 

KiK Ui * tin tavmtrj vt fsM crtoc*,' *Mf, wliiob wae fraqacallr ckaoBlal 

' InsUirw) raoonl*.* Hi tliMr fcanfc^ Mid vrur Galled aSif. 

'» «-■>*• w iiKnl by HcnrJotm lo StAanrffT, Lrjiif. 
•ipill*. " ill each ditMliMi ;" n mean* 



honoured wiUi thcsunioumru] sLraius byltiu people: and this 
lay wxi ihe first and only one they liad in early times. InfiO 
lb» iMXt following particular, the E^jptiaoa onusUato to 
acme of tb« Hdteues, except the LacedaimouiaDs. Ute young 
people, tneclinB their elders, ritc way, and turn out of their 
path ; and, at their approach, rise up from their seats, lliu 
rollowiDj; custom, however, is not known to any Hellenic 
nation whatever: instead of accosliog one another in word^ 
Of) the wayii, they salute by xinking the hand to thn knee. 
Tbey wear cotton undar^uineDts, with fringes about tho^l 
hgs, and call them * calasiriii :' over these they throw miui- 
lies of white flannel; l>ut thoy take nowoolleu clothing what- 
erer into ihm Icmplr, nor do ihcy use shrouds of wool fur tlio 
dead : that would be conirar>- to law. In this respect they 
agn^e with ilic Oqihic and Bacchic rites, which are the same 
M the Egyptian and Fythagoreaii : in ihi' above my uteri uh, 
none of the initiated is allowed t£) bu buried in winding* 
ibflets of wonl. for which iouitulious, a religious leason is 

TbesG again arc indentions made by the Egypiiana;83 
Every monlb, and e\'cry day, ts consecrated Lo one of tho 
goda; and, according to the birth-day of any peTM>n, is de- 
tonnincd what eball befal him, how be shall end his days, 
■nd whnt will become of him. The Hellenic Poets liavij 
made UM of this science: ihoy have found oat more signs 
and tokens than all tlie rest of mankind put together ; for 
whenever any prodigy occurs, they observe and note down, 
in writinK- tlic result; and if at any time a nearly similar 
ihinf; should hnppmi, tbey conchide that the same resolt 
will ensue. In resjjcct of divination, tho following pntctice83 
holds: 'r\\v art is vniichsafed to no mortal man, but to somo 
vf liiu gods. Accordingly, there are oracles of Hercules, 
fif Apollo, Minen'a, Diana, Mars, and Jupiter; together 
with that of the greatest repute, Iho oracle of Latoaa at 
Bulo. The practice «f medicine is tlios distributed amongfU 
Uieni: K»ery physician confines himself to one disease only, 
no more: all places alxjuud in doctors: some are doctors 
fortheeycs; others respectively for the head; tcetli; andfor 
llie belly, and tlie parts about it, for the inward diHont(;r.-i. 

Their mode of mouniinf; and performing funeral cervSil 
monies is this: At the deiuli of any person of distinction 
belonging to tli« family'**, all the females of the liousu ac- 
cordingly daub their heads and faces with mud, leuru the 
corpse in tho Iiuum;, uud parade the lown; and, ufler tyiug a 

)" llttt.&37. ot*.>. 


KUTKKI'E. II. 8fi. 

gtnllc rmniE) ibinr waists, expose tlii-ir bo»onu, aiid bes 

ihetr brcafiu'^: ib'-r am uicuumiioied lilw hy all tlictr 

fcinalu tvlutioiis. The iren, oii ine oiIict haixl, bcai tbuir 

brcasls, at>il gitd ihti'tT uai»l». Wbt-n tbc^c cereniomcs litve 

bfun perforinL'd, lliey carry iway tbe Head body, for the 

86 purpose of havinfi; it tn]balm<*d. For Uiit bu>iiDL-8s, cirruiu 

pureoii* lire upccifically nppoiulcii '*>. und exercise it as a 

prnfesHJon: nheii ihu car|>&tf ik bnnighl to lliuin, Ibesr artisU 

Hbevr U) ibc bcan-rs of tbc body M>ino nuudiQ models of 

dciid biidieH, painted to iuiitaiv uatiirc; mid linit explaiu lo 

ihf m iho iRosl-caicliilly executed of tbeKc piilleiii!<, Ua- n&me 

nf u'hicb in this biibtntuui 1 deem il ini)pro|icr to iiifniion. 

Tbcy n«xt shew ihc second petUrrn, considerabiy inferior lo 

tbH former, and €bi-u))t-r; and llieu tbe tliird, wbith t» llic 

cheapest of .ill. 'J'b^y Uku inquire according towliicb model ^ 

ibe people tvisb tu b^rt: tbe body |)rc)mreil : when (be reU- H| 

lionit presi-nt bave agreed for ibn price, (iu-v tvilbdniw; 

ttliile ()ie urtiHlD, ntio vrurk at bouie, proceed Lo mibslm 

tbe bmly in the following manner, which is alco tbo most 

t<iimpiuoU!<. hi tlic fiTtil place, with an iron hook, tbey drav 

out tbi; brain lhn>iigh tbe mwtriU; not tbo uboV, but a jwit 

only; wljith lliey rt-place with terfctiii drugs. Next, with a 

Miarp Ktbiopian Kt«m-, tbey make an inct.«ion down tbe 

(I auk, by wbieh tbey draw out tlio whole ot the inleMinee: 

having cleanM-d ibr alidonien, and rinsed it with pahn-nine, 

Ihcy llien sprinkle the inside with ponnded perfumes'". 

A'ter ihcy have filled tiie belly with genuine potintkd mynii, 

easia, and other perfunicti, frankinrensc excepted, ibey aew 

up a^ain tlie aperture: having ao prepared the bndy, Ihey 

put it in natron"', whero they Bleep it for iwvt'nly tUvBi 

*** The wiiiDKn uixlid the top of mid rinw ib<m in fiilin-wttia: tkcy 

lljvir (tviDrnt, m onlrr iti ripeu tbrir 
bMunwi uaO, ItKi I lie robo «bauld 
dnip. >nd ta iUccttt ibcm naked to 

the aprctiton. thi.-T licit it up n i(h a 

S'rdle riuiiJ tfn-ir niitlcllt Thii i* 
omMiniug of In^nr/iiMj. LarrArr, 

lu tM^mtm, ]vn,t'a t4/n»rmi. Tliii 
l«riD, lUiUiiii^h |t(-<>tral. if patticu- 
litrlv «p]>]ic(l to tlinae o'lio o^rk si tbc 
iraoei (Bllvd, ky Uip Ijitiri", arttt »W. 

AitonW, " MdOTiuykru." LuvlitT 

1 bDrv fnlldwril 8i?hirrl)ibaiiMr'a >rr> 
■InD, " couFiituli nont:" hi •(«(«•, 
btwricr, tbal aaTfaiNu m&y lira b« 
rmilinvd ■ilnplj " i«<lene." SelM^g. 

"* The rolloKlDH ■■ rhp inumUlbn 
of T^rrhnr: " Thrj enr«cl, bj ttii> 
tpvuijig, die intMtiDc*, cleajin t1)«m, 

ricps ihtin mrain in pouiided uinbe* 
tin: aftrr which, they fill itie Mlj 
will) mjnh," <l:e. A JifficuUx (kta 
oocMin; WhM did thv; do with Urn 
inlwdnrt, ofur th«; bad lak«B m 
muph iMuhle In cI«*db» thnn ?— 
Sriioriftlt^rgu'r <« tf Ofiliitno, ftatt 

Ibc boiTvIt uui of (be bultr," (h hi 

C. 40, j|«<Li«t iturit Twn l{ ^ i&ml) 
iktid {iiotLB that rtAim «nd nUf ai* 
•yncnjnmiK. By lliu iolvrfiMMiiM, 
tliei1iflici]lijdiinp|i)»n. StviinhMtpL 
A'of. titid tlttvd. 

'" I.nrrhcr lufllfiMiily pr>tts diU 
lA^tbobld Dvt Ikt tnnaUird''Mtn>,'' 
btit " n>tnin,"i> liied altal', wbtt)> 
would Weed with tha t^pbari« «id 
nllv JakM ami the Tat. 

EUTERPE. 11. 87—90. 


tfaan Uiat (iinc it is unlawful to keep the bcidy hi 
rklr. Wlifti tbp seienly ilaj-s are gone by, ihcy nasli the 
nae, and wrap tbc wliole body in bandai^cK nf cotton 
IdUi, sraenrct) with the gum*", which llin KK)'pliuns jct-ue- 
llf UHi imUiad of psiiiB: ila* dead budy is tlien laken back 
f the rclalioiiB ; wbu have a wooden case, made in the yhupe 
\» man. in iihich ihey ptii the corpse; uiid then, eloeiiig ii, 
t the u'tioli; ill u scpulrliral chiuiibiT, placing tbe caeo 
ighi agaiiiNt the wall. Thi« is llu- iiiuki costly mode of 

intton. For »iich as wish to •.'<> to a moderate ex- 87 

mte, and avoid all extra vngiiiu-e, tin- eiiibahiienf preparv the 

'iet ihnit: 'Jliey fill their »rrioKe« with oil made from the 

, and iuDate tlie abdomen nf the corpne, nitboul makiiig 

^r ineisiun ur t^ikiii;' out the inie^lineit, but mi?rely npply 

)rir injrctions by the ami!) ot'iln' di-ad body : they tttitp tbe 

fesMige by which tbe iTi)[!clii)!i might Hnvv out, and bo put 

kn body into pickle for tlic pruAcrihed niiinber of days; oD 

bo last urvhicb they let out from the abdomen lIiu cedar 

R, ijy injccltn); which they bad begun their opcralion : tbo 

^wcr of this (Jni^ is so great, that it dissnlres and brings 

TTith it tlio bowels and other iiilcslinc*"*. The natron 

limes iIk- (k-sh ; and ronsutjuently nothiiii; remaiiiA of the 

\y Init *kiii and bouc. When thi* hn* been done luid com- 

ibe f-mbulmers retuni the budvi "itiiout dning any 

iitg more. The thiid mode of euibuluiiug, which is used HS 

1/ for the rrry poor, is this : they inject the abdomen with 

l<lisb-jtitcc'", steep the body the suruniy duys in pickle, 

bd tlten gire it to the relatJoiis when tbuy eumu to fetch it. 

L» for the nives of great people, ihey are not delivered lo8!) 

m cmbalmers immedial<.-lY after dcatii ; neitlii-r are such 

iDien as hare been paitiiiilurly beaniiful, and the subject 

great nolitc : tlwy are entnisicd to the embalniera three 

fonr days after death: this is done in order thai the 

kracn may not abuse the nerrans of the deveoscd le- 

Ica; for lliey fiay that one of these persons was caught in 

le vi^ry act, Imiing beiin informed aguintit by a brother 

irorkman. l->cry person Kcizcd by a crocodile, no matter ■)() 

^hethcr he be Kgypiiuii or alien, and all bronght to death 

tjr the rivtr iisull, on whatevi-r territory the body way lloat 

Py tnust by law be embalmed, adorned i[) the most mug- 

llHDt loanuer, and cutombcd in a sacred coffin. No one 

CDDi-arsbif, prufanlitj. 

Wvtl ut i'lt««lian: vi fw^Uyi^tm 
Ni tht rtnkW TM«*ttl, >, t. tli* Ix-urt. 

'" It ii Bol dvicrmiMd wh«l Mrl 
of liqui-l ia luiiBt hj n^fU. Th« 
»iii* *inrd oocni* in <•. 135, wh«*« 
Pliiij intiulaiM it in > troM- whtch 
Mimoi upplj htro. 


EUTEUl'E. n. Bl,9a. 

dare touch him, wbcliicr ruliUiDn or frivnil: tbc priests uf 
tbc Nile bury ihe body ti'iili tti«ir own haodB, as b«iDg BoiDe->^| 
thing more than that of a man. ^| 

HI 'Vhv. E^])ciai)i« have a great arersion to the Hellenac^ 
customs, and, ^iiernlly sppakiofr, to all the usages of otfaer 
nalionR. This avfrsion penadts all Egypt, with the excep- 
tion uf Ciiemmi^ a Inrge lowii in the Thebaic nome, not far 
from Ntapolis. At Om place there is seeu a quadranj^nr 
tt-uiplo to Pfrii(!itH ihi! turn of Dnntii, around which palm* 
tnss bare been planted : the propylea of iha edilioe is rerr 
extensive, and built of itiiine ; upon (be top of which xtana 
two colu&tiiil elaluuti. Within ibis precinct stands the temple 
itseir, where thi- image of PcrNcus ia st^cn. The people of 
Chemmis assert that I'crseua has frequently appeared to 
tliem on earth; frcqumtly, likf^tvinc, witliin tbc tt-mple; and 
that one of the sunduls that hv wears, two ctibit^t iu length, 
is sometimrs found: and after tliis appearance, Kgypt is 
throughout bltts&ed with abundance. In iuiitalion of the 
Hotlenic ceremonies, Ihcy upcn, to tha honour of Perseus, b 
gymnic U&t fur all sorts uV itports and combats'^ ; proposiog 
aa prixes, heads of catLk-, cloaks, and skios. Wlion I in- 
quirMl how it vus that Porseiis nas wont lo make his ap- 

Scarunce to thc-ni ahmv, and why tbt-y departed so widely 
om the Egyptian customs ax to celebrate gyuinic games, 
the answer given to mc was : " that Perseus was originally 
** of their town; fur Danaus and Lyuceus, who were nutivea 
" of Chemmis, cam«, by sea. from thence to Hellas :" then re- 
capitulating the };L-ni'alogy uf tlicse two mea, they brought 
it down to FoTMus: and next proceeded to say in uiswer: 
" Penous bad couie to Eg>'pt, for the swoe purpoeo as the 
" Kclleno! tlieiitselvcs rcprt-sent; that i« to say, to bring 
** away from Libya the (jorgun's head : he |>aid them also a 
" visit, and ack no iv lodged all his kindred: — that, informed by 
" hie mother, he had heard of Lliu name of Cbumuiis before 
" he came to Egypt; and that according to his injiuicdoo 
" they celebrated the gymnic games." 
02 AH the above customs hold among the Egyptians that 
reside above the morattaesT thoM that occupy the monwse* 
tbomsclves have the !uime institutioai as the rent of Ihe £gjp* 
liana ; among otliers, that, lilia the Hellenes, of every man 
having but one wife. Hnt, as respects tbc domcBtic custons 

TjCtrra, " lodoa I^DHIWM qui Mr nm- 
nia cettamtaiMi gtnora olitin«iit, 
loedtn taobat," ■■ r, " oelebraatiir," 
oqnlfftlent to " ladot grmiiicof om- 
auuB aertaopiauiD featn coBplec 

I;^M unl tynt. L«roh»t, after W«- 
•cllait, U«B*l«tM, "foi da MH lea 
JnUK auit Im pin* rsocdlm* ;" wfttdii 
dS >U fiunra, SM Uie nMHt csceflfUii 
8«c G<Ht/or^4 Hend, 

EUTERPE. 11.93. 


TaliD'; to provisiunK, tb^ hate diacuvered many things 
C4>(uiliiciv« uj llieir caintnn. For iiislancti, when ihe river 
bu svalleii to ilK highest, and hiis swamped the mca- 
dovB, an atundnnco uf Idics spriDgK up tn the water, which 
am called \>y tlit- Egrplians 'lotus:' ihey gather these 
plaDts, diy thvm in the sua, aad then thresh out the pod» tn 
the niiddl« uf tbc luiux, which are similar tu ihotie gf lite 
|)opp5, and make loaves of the seed, and balic- th«m : the root 
of tou lottu tat also cdihlc, and uf a dulicatti svivci taste ; it 
is globular, and of the size of an apple'**, 'lliero art', monj- 
OTcf, uthfr liliesi siiuilor to ro^oi^} that grow iu die rircr ; tlio 
fruit of which shoots up from tho root in a calyx, supported 
on ail iodcpfiidcul vtali. and Is vin-y like a n-axp's comb: 
wtUiin this calyx are contained »erera] eatable kernels, 
about the tiize <it' au olive-stoue ; Uicite are eatuit, both fruidi 
and dried '**. Th« nnniia] plant called the ' bjblus' is ])ulled 
up iu the innrshes : ihe t<^p uf the plant is cut off, and put to 
vaxious iiRO : the lower part, about a ciihit long, they eat, and 
maJui an object of sale : tliosc who are desirous of having 
the bybltM rrry ddiciously pre)mrcd, put it into a hot oven"*, 
and eat it without any suuHonio^ '**. Some uf ihese people 
lire ciitirt-ly on linh, which ibcy catch, f^ut, and dry in the 
uui; and, when properly cured, hh.' thoin as food. 

Tho gregarious aorta of fish are seldom found in the f3 

•• ThM i^ant >• lh« wnter-Iilir of 
_)pf[U OdC uolita oiu i>iili wa(«flilj : 
lb d^rwvf* mti fnal aiiik audpi witvr 

M>ta u aBD-ru*. Tb» font and mtd 

mihM^tai ounantaudputof iliafaod 


'* TTu* plnnt M * kiiul of Cnlocwla 

or Arnai, nnila' <>> <hp Cnlla MM- 
M tf oar gr««o.bM«M Tb« Egjp- 
I BilomriB hu lea*M abmit (bu tit* 
Fa MblMfc^raf. (dD of itKoof Jatcn : 
ft, tkrra fceL tAfb, luij of the liie or 
tttaoib: tb* flowcn nn moooptia- 

iv Ibv •liiija' of u> »**'• Kur, iif 
nlUK oolr<ir. Tbr flowrr-dnlk 
I !■ a pMil, vhidi JB time tcramM 
■ V^lBdrin] ftnit, ecnpaaed of tertt»l 
Iwribw. iM antikn • vm^'* Dcrt whoa 
ivg or- 

is^ ham proHft; ««)tlni>i«l iim^mtii, 

Imt, r*d M: th« riiirviftou It 

Iftwal, «Bd U «M(>I miut ba uaatir* 

i\ tm Herodobu rxpitaM* h\n- 

It. n, AMif I4 v^tM iMfoUt. 

lrfiprAirr.^TIie sigtiillflBtion OT witytn 
\» " aiiflbcaro;" but thi» word b 
st*o uKvd (u uE^rwM a ovrtwu lovdo of 
cook 1 lift, til lit dpKfitwd hj Cuaii. 
bon (aA Atbrn. ii. p. «5, t.) " Ttio 
iwtl !• onokad Id !(» (iwn JillM, Ik* 
cImci) In « {int or pan, ao thai wi 
■team inaj ethold; a node of drrM- 
iDK vhicli cmr onoka nliu call ' lufiih 
t^itm,' (i. ^. b'uUiog.)" From Ibb 
It it ffvidi-Kl ihnc Hrriidoru raDitoit 
ann bj ■xjdtfin 11 HxihI lirg« oted, 
Uil a poi, pan, ot nome oibcr ealkiarj 
nm: and wo aulwr fron AUioianie, 
(hnl ths aJipaH* wu MHrniliiM* 
timag;ht tn Cihli! with iu eontoitt. 
S/-/iwiff. IjfM. Bttwi. yvvK. wii^tn and 

'" Tbi* i* cbc Crpm' Mpjrw, or 
waMr-pluil ; Momdog cr ■ lalt of 
■talk* withnot Uavn, ca«b iMni- 
oatiDf; in an umbtl of Aoverw *«fj 
(tog'uii md lir^. Tbv inocr bark of 
thi> plBot wrrvd iba uucicdi* Iniickd 
(J pilirr. 


EUTtRPE. 11. 0J,93. 

rivt'r: llie^ gram to tiiL>ir iiaUinif »iz^> iti llie lakeh''^; aa* 
when naluri? excites llicm l» priKTeulioii, pnicced in Khoals 
to ifae Ka : the maltrs lead ilie vraj, ftheilding the ir tnilt ; and 
Ihe females, foltumnK iii the reax, etgvtiy ftwallow ii up, aud 
arc thus milled. Wli«ii «ll have bveo fecimdjited in ibo 
«ca, lh«7 rt'tiim back, «ach lo htK ovn i^iind: ihe rnaleft, 
however, no longer takc^ th« Knd ; tht- fcuinlc? Hwitu at Uie 
hcftd of the Hhnnl, and, as ih« males did before, eject now j 
their »pann. whirh h nhouc at) liiigr an niillut-seed ; the' 
tnalen, liillowing behind detour grewtily these K««dt^, wlticb 
arc tbeiuAelrea a.11 liitlieH. The fitx-ds that escape, and are 
not devoured, gFow u{t, and become fi«he<t. Tliose ilint are 
caught io iheir descent to the ttea all bear marlis of rriclton 
uti the leli of the head ; thoH« taki-ii on their return 
hat'e the uuuka on the rif;hl. 'J'bU proceeds from Ihc 
fcdloning circuDiNluDce; goiuff down to the mh. thvy kerp 
oloM ID the land on their left; and at tbt-ir rcium up lh« 
river, keep up to the same bank, and bug and scrape the land 
lest they should be thrown out of their vay by the force of 
the rurreut. As soon ua ihe Nile begins to ewel), and tb« 
bolloivs ill the land and the quagmires near the riier first 
begin lo fill with the water oozing through the bunliH I'rou 
the river, immediutely ihoMi pools fill, vau qnanlilie» of 
little fishes swavni ou ull sides. How this cunica to pnas, 
may, I conceive, be lliiis expUine«l: when, the preceding 
year, the Nile fors/>ok the lands, the fish that had spawned in 
tile marshy grounds withdrew at the same time ; but when, in 
the course of time, the water again hties, fishes batch forth* 
with, from those very eggs, 

94 The Egyptian!^ reHiding in the mnrshvs use an oil ex*l 
Iractcd from ihc seeds of the ricinus, or palina-christi, which] 
they call ' cid'"'. They cultivale this |>lant iwhich in Delias 
grows spoil Uineoiisty wild) on the banks of the rivtr aud 
lakes ; by which means it bearK a greater eit)]i, hm sbeda a 
vile smell. Whcu ibcy have harvested Uic seed, tliey tr«ad it 
out; and some put it under the prefs, while oihers grill or 
boil ii, nnd collect lliu matter that it discharges : the extract 
IS fat, aud not inferior to olivcoil for burning in lamps, oidy 

96 that it senth forth 8u<'h an nbouiinuhlc smell. As a defence 
against llie miis(|uil(ie!', which are in va»l swannn, ihey resort 
to the folloMing expedients: the people reading in Ihe 

t*t Thai ^» lo tn;r. ihti aaialt Jt- nor gnin$, tb« m«>)* of wbieh tar- 

rirtdjrom ikr NUr — Htiike. ni*ii tbf CMtor-oU of ihe apMbrtan. 

"^ lb" U Ihe '■ Bidmi." of Ihr l^rrhtT. 
l^tinr, uO tbe " I'aliiia Cbriiti" of 

EUl'ERPiv. 11.96. 


SawKcB theuisehcs. laVe adva"laf;<! "I" »!'« '"ftv tnwi-r* llipjr 
tililigcd lo inhfibii, and slwp nii (lie lop; whicli tliL- itms- 

amtrtes we hiniWn'd, by t)ie winds, from atlniniii^', in ihoir 
ight. But thu nvopic tliut rcuidv on iho t-iiiix or in the 
neighbourhood or Uiv niarsbex suhsUuite another expedient 
for tbe toirvrs: evrrv man pOKsvsses & net* with wliicli he 
catches fi&b in llic (Tuy, and inukcs (he rallowin<; uftc of in 
Um niiilil: around uiid owt the bed lie slw-ps on he ca*U 
thy nt-l; he th«n creeps under, and lay* hiniRidfditwn. Tlie 
inii«qiiit(>ef:. nliicli, even il he n-ere lo wrsp himself in a linen 
clouk when iu bed, woidd bite through all, du not %a much 
u even try the nut. 

Tlie cfdft ihfy u.M! for tlic firpight of merchandise arc con- 96 
Mrurted of n kind of thom***; I mean tlie thorn that resein* 
bits the Cyreiia-an lulus'**, and the RHiidnlion of whith con* 
■ttiQii'K Kiiin. Out of this tri'e ihc^y cut uondi-n nlnnks, almtii 
two cubits in len'-clh, nnd iirrango Oirin bi-ick-las))iun; pro* 
ec«4in)f thus in thmr fihip-building. They fai^len ingelber 
U)« planks uiround with inauy long tret-QaiU*"; and, when 
they have ihun complclwl the hnli, they lay acroM the top 
■ome beAins of ihc same nialcrials: thoy liai'e no n^conree 
til ril»: and laiilk tlie warns wiih byblu* in the inside : they 
fit un only one niddei:"', whicli ]t«8sf« through iho kwel; rig 

'• Th» Ai?»i)Ib, a th/ittij tTM, ffnm 
"klsb nn^M irtBI we ckll (fuin-ara- 

** The I^lnu toiui i* ictj diRct- 

[ (ma ihp fgjplim, ja«t •Iticrlbcd. 

ftuot iv, e. 17 7- S<« lil>«i'iu 

rVfM (iiniiliM, » ' p^B.* or • pio,' 

I hi Romrr, Odjewtj-, Btmk t. $48.— 

■re pi(cr» put nenwa, tn furm a 

i * trwatia' ii owij In tbl) •va*-, 

laW, k; til* I.stin*. &|«rJaf*«» Cmr- 
IMI ki^pifT titfrrfninl. Ht U nnt 
etilnit, in (hn pltM, nf KCnjipmir up 
tnienticM «tih pspytan, u Bi'h 
Imn. bat «f MtrtagAenins thi- ilr^r- 
■r?-) ibM [* Ihe nMiaiaji of tht 'erb 
Eiuliithin* vi-rt ftripptljr 
pUln* it a^TmrfmXi^—rmi. Lnrfhfr, 
•SebMM'r, bovv^ar. IrmnfUloi llili 
*' civ *emnpft«n Ave KuKcn 
Pap-rr," Or. Gmdi. Lei. v«c- «wt- 
IrJw. — ^rhvciglwrwct trsnsUlcD il, ta 
Ll^ •■mv tinni, " ComniiHuriu m*- 
rpiira IDtuc obtarmt bjhie." Thta 
rMlbuntv, ud 1 r«Afrpa(« la 111* MOW 

*. ID, have tfklucnl nir tn FjikII"!) 
t^vaani* by to * (BulL' n^) j-v'P'"' 

«t(iilftt«i rA (^Xs, lit. '> th»j rattan (h« 
jilnnkj nrniin'i yiaajAi." ( nm ktrva 
*liii ih* (rmnaliiioo I ha*» fti*"* 
>Ihitc il «iij ikiii^t but ll(«t*l: I bave 
cnrrfiilt; oonaultrd Scboriiloc'* cru- 
dile arttole ou <hv word )'Aii^> b*t 
m<M Mnfeia that I ar* mi ntgnific*- 
tton wttioh will anawnr tbe porpaaf 
uf wiinbiiiiQK irrniiiinaticfti iMarary 
^ilti s gooir 9<tiie: the paioicr ro 
niaiug naiululiiKiMe to mc. PcrtiaiM 
ihi' IxtM oaii a «ort of raft, and tlw 
>^ f «« a tip or bandage fukninfi tlte 
birwki tngatlwr; biil if Ihit b« lli« 
ennr. nhit nhali mc <]a uiili Initm It 

'" Ut. '■ ihcy maka one ruild«T. 
and that i* drioo thrmifib I ha keel." 
The ihip* of Iba aaaanr* mtrt vtrj 
diffvrant from thoao nf tbe preemt 
da;. Tbn bditi nr mddnr (<on<t*t«t 
af two fcrnoJ nan (nlaAjal Jntriog 
?ut cni cithrt aiile of llit ■i«rii: UiMii 
KBf* tualenrd li'^rrthcr bj a«ro«-hai, 
({tvyr«{>a. Act. ApoM. I><*ii. <I0,^ ao 
Ikat 'Mil:' illlvr (aTafi morpd both rwl- 
d^a. Tbe hdni of lb* barii appaara 
lo haie bND preitj nrartj of the vane 
fciml aa that adofitrd in oiodoru Dafi- 


EUTERPE. Il.fi7, S8. 

s nmst rmni (lie same sort of (linm ; aiitl litiisl cotton saiK. 
TlMtse t;raft. are iinablu to siem llio ciirrpiit, utiIl-wi it blow a 
fn-sli galr, and arc t<iwwl nff land. When thty go tJowD 
stream, llioy inauagL- thiftu llms: A squaro frame is maAe 
of tamarisk"* buanui, wiLttli;<l with rucds: a stone in likcMiM 
procured, burud lltruugli Uiu uiiddlo, and iu wnghl abonl 
two talents. Tlic frame is now fastened to a hawser; and 
let down lironi ibu prow-, to be carried uiit by the Mream : 
the stone*^ U let donn at the fttom, and fa^tcoed to anolber 
h&wter. Arcordint^l), ilio frame, ^inj; in with the LurreiilT 
drives tlown pretty (asi, willi the * baris' in tow — thai is the 
name given to tliis craft: the t)ton<^ trailing at llie stent* aad 
along the boltoiu of the river, •■erres to steady the reSKel 
There aiv vaM. number» of tliift sort nf barks, sonae of which 

97 arc of ninnr tons' burden. When the Nile overflows the 
land, the cities only arc to b« 8©eQ above ita surlace, some- 
what similar to the iKUnds in llie .F.gnsan si.'a; for at those 
times all the other parts uf E^pt are under water: so thai 
Uiey navigate, when tliisiei the cuxe, not onlyalmiR the river- 
streatu, but even over the middle uf the plain : thuft, if ymt 
arc making tho voyage up from Naucrutis to Meniphis, your 
eoursu will pass cloee to the pyramids: this is not, hon-ai'er, 
llie general road'", which is lo the vertex of the Octla, aud ' 
tim eity of Ccrcatioruu. As you »uu) from the sea up to 
Nuurmtis, you also cross tliu Ciuiupic plain, and pass by the 
lowu of Anthyllu, aud that chIIl-o the cilv of Archandros. 

9^ The former of these, a Tcttpectabic town, is set apart axpt«Mly 
for the shoes of the wife of the reigning king of Egypt; a 

Slion; but bcteg a> diffbntnt rrain 
Ml in xraerat twc M Ihc lime tlie 
Hnats were irtiilcn. it 1* no imiikr 
Uemdotiu ahuulit Uink it tSoMrruifi; 
of mFDlian, '' that llir btiri* luil bul 

oM niitr t r^ l ^XwiJ, utd tbu daw 

" Tbe wiM ii tli« tamariM Llan. 

ttf I« utM ta #fgnif^ n boMd, or (a- 

tuialiim of l)r)*[<l«, Igufcvr thaa tl ii 

bn>«<!. ScAjifn/, fir. (lerm. Lex. — 
mmnff»^\n. lit. ' tcoed lugcUi'Dr' 

"■ '1 hw irtnjiu rrdainlj: eaoM not 
Iiai-nbprn nf nnj mmil IdbiiiI* iIpcc- 
iag thi: Tntirlj nor did llcixxlotus 
tluak K>, cine* be bu prviiouilj mm. 
lioneJ ibe xirlder. I cocinciv* lbs uM 
or thii ««'lght kt ihr jioop (u buTd b«fii) 
tu sen* M * MTt of fhifting ot tnoTO- 
M* bkllAft, tbo BilTiinikxr* of vhich 
tn nbrioaii^ln thr Cftae of the cur< 
nst btaf ipg vtr; btuxl on tb« fnm? or 

huMla, th«j Im tb» wvight inf M lk« 
batlom (if tha rivvr: (ha rmiatuiM 
Cbiu procDtnl «mild hinder the bar- 
dU ^m limilinfi chu pitnt nndw va* 

C«r, kud pwuDjiD); the biiat; k nmfor* 
tiM whioh athen*iM mOM, in »ll 
probmhilitj, hara bftppaoaiL I have 
ibnvfore (fUMlactd mtfMt m or aar- 
tMna u Blloalie tu tbv pMttiiM, 
BDil Do( [■> the coamt of lli« twiJ. 
Sucb u i)i*nji|>ruvi> of tkia aiaaamt af 
rvndvrine tho Grrck verb, mj, «itk 
!Khirei|[fcRiiMr, l.nrchpt, Boloe, Ac. 
truialnte, " tbe ■tunc dfifcsioK u Ac 
pcK^, Hid nnkJDK I" the baUoB) 
•lem tba TMael.'* 

1^ It i* cnridmt ibal Urn tSm ■BV* 

be tftkifn » tlgolfylag tha umxal and 
ordinir; pmum, •'. *■ thu foUmrad 
when tho rtrvr flom banrMft^ 

EUTERPi-:. n.»8. 



prmctice which his W«n inslittiled since Egypt wua subjected 
to thv Vvtwuis. The latior intrn appear* lo am to lake its 
■aae fram Duiaus's son-in-law, Archanrlms son of PliihiiiK, 
giaoAson of Achnus; for Uint place in cnlled Archnndras. 
Thera laav, indeed, havo boen another Ardumdrns ; but* at 
ill e*i!Db^ Uie uaue is Egyptian. 

Up to ibis tmrt of my account of Egypt, the Darrative Jadd 
drawn from wbat I havo huvd niyxclf, aiid my own ideal of 
Ukinga : whAt follows was composed from tliu in formation I 
{;aUiin«d in my cotnmuiiicaiiomi with Egyptians, accompaniin] 
by MXDC particulars frnin my ovn obscrvaUons. The priesU 
zulcd, that Mciiea, the lir»t that ever ruled over lvK>'pt> tliiuw 
up, in the finti place "^, ibc dyke that protects Memphis '* : 
for, previously, the whole of the stream flowed aluog the 
ia[Kl>cor«rBd mountain ridge fronting Libva; bnt Menca, 
beginning about one bundrod slades above Memphi», filled 
in the elbow madu hy the Nile to the south ; ana thufi, not 
orly cxliaiifilcd the old bed, but fonned also a canal by 
which the rivrr wiu mudv to Row in ihc mtd-»pacc between 
the [Libyan and Arabian] tnounlains. Even at the pr«««Dt 
day, thia ancient elbow, repelling ifau Mile in hix course '",18 
lUimdMl lo aud watched with gn*at care by the I'crsians, and 
fortified ctcry year wiUi udditiuual works ; far shuuld the 
river ri&c ui'ur aud burst liiis dyki', the whole of Muiiiphis 
wonld be csposctl lu thu danger uf bmiig swept away. When 
the part reclaimed from the- river had become firm laud, 
Menoa, this first king, built in Uie first place, as 1 hare said 
before, on thi« spul, the town now culled Memphis (fur Mem- 
pbt* is siliutcd in the narrow part of Egypt) ; and withoat 
the town excavated a lake, communicating with the river, in 
tlw north and west quarter: for MempbiK being u'ashed to ibe 
cost by the Nile, it was not possible to t-lfccL thcHe works on 
lliat side, lu ihf iieL-oiid place, be erected next"*, inilieKarae 
town, the (cmple ol'Vulcan, which isavast building, and well 

a, |. • 1 1*^ ****'* liiiM^ntlBf ptinw* 
•H IM ton*, «*vrt ^ UnpfiitM, V 7. 
M— y.— s«« UiiL 28S.i 

Mm^.— 1W rntiWr ■• b^n Mlvrr- 
t\mi, oner fx all, thkt niMl <rf Hi* 

«• t*M )n tt ifiit ta*}«t : Dn obwrr. 

•dn )• iMMpSMUlvi >UlMk is A Bli}> 

4MB Ttfriaa, K Is tBcaawillUt wldi 
lb* « iL— ■1)1 Ammt wf )uifm«v t^ 
|r>Mf 1 1 ftt >tlt limM thu Mnw eon- 
•tTDftlioa *• in t^ uripiikl; the «M< 

•cioMtc* of which kw bMti, tad M»/ 
h« igslD, that • perrai nIatHag wlj 
In ■ trunlBtiaii (onMiinM htuim iksi 
HeradotiHi ttaiM, tram Ua own ■«• 
UmtH;, vbst h* meant lo I* miAgr* 
vteod aa Ilia trWHiaDa of ibe toccrdocaJ 

fiu: Ul. "trhieb. txclaMyrvn Hi 
/trmtr itd, flmn.'' 

*" TM«i ^,1> aJvvrAfi arlraa, aa 
wdl aa Ha iMdotic, rtn>K, rw'HW- 
rn« r; lAr OnlraWai, r*l»t« U (l J((«l 


eutkrfl:. u. iuo. loi. 

l(N)(le«o^^i1i|^ of commemoiatinn. As mcCeBHors to Mencs Uic 
prifsis (jiioiud I'miii v manuKcript Uie names of llirve liiindred 
aad Uiiilv otlivt kin^^. In so many generations of men, tfaer«'^l 
occiim><l ei};liteoii JClhittpian kingn. ami one native qiipen : ^M 
all tho rvsl v^c^t' Kgrpliuu kings. The name of tb« u-oinan, 
who ihtiK licM the stceptru, uras Nitocrts, the ume as Uiat oC^A 
tito BaWlcintan qtit-en- Accurdii)>{ lo the report of tbo^J 
priests, the arcngcH lit-r brother, ivho had preceded her on ^^ 
ihu throito, Imt w»s put to death hv the Kfcypuaiis : after 
cumuiitliiiK this dee<L, thi.- nation prt-m^ntud tite empire tofll 
this woman, liis lister. In ret^-DKP nf tier brother, she di^'fll 
stroycd miiiiy of the E);_vptians by aitifite. She buill her- 
aelf exteuuve aiibterraneuiw apannients ; and under the pre- ^J 
tctice of iiiatigtiralinK Uie odiBce'*i but really with « veTjr^| 
diOerenl purpose, invited to a banqn^l many ol'tbe Egyptians ^^ 
vlinm she knew to have participated in the murder; and 
when ihfv were seated at lable anil enjoying themseUea, abe 
]ct in th(' river watem, by tneane of a large concwiled drain, in 
Nothing more in rtdatrd cnnrerning this qTiprn by Ihe priestx,^! 
except ttial, having effected her purpose, she threw herself^j 
into a room full of aKhea, in order lo oradu retrilnitinn •*. 

101 No display of worktt or splendour of action was menlionevi 
of any of Ihe other kings, nith the exception of thu last, 
McBriR**': this Hovereign erected, as a memorial, the north 
poital uf Vultaji'it temple ; and dug a lake, the dimensions of 
which I shall hen-afti-r fxplain : he erected also the p^a- 
mids within the lake, the size of which I shall likewise de- 
scribe, when 1 come lo tlie subject of t}ic lake itHtlP**. Such 
were thi> achievcmeuui ofMoBriti: none wero led bv any of 
llie others. 

** tamim. In Her«dotiu ii. 100. la 
•qnUntfnt In tilitifiAm. ' to MD-ie- 
rraic'sciN^w. SchottiL (ir. Gtrm.Lrx. 
—At 8cbHrlgh»uivr apptotr* tlii* 
faiMrDrsuiina oi ScLoeiderV, I have 
vA ncfiuitc^ lo admit it in mf Tt(- 

■" TUo nnnnymuoi author of ft 
' Trrnliu vn thr iroiarn irfio ftarw 
utadr lAejMitti'ft Ulaiirima m ivar 6f 
/Acir pruJtnn amt raJimT,' *[)i-«ktnit 
tit Tlittient, iwK- t'lr foDowinir rcoJ- 
tDK ■ Uuri) )) I'f tUn/im. rrtiti wXi^n, 

liUa&ii. K w* adopt ihi* mAin^. 
Il will h* DMMuary tu EnnXu a vnfy 
aliirht alictmiwn In the text ur Hmo* 
Ouia*, wbioli cooilti4 il. puiiinc a 
com ma nflvr i!*»pm aiiJ chanj^u^ rXUt 
inia vXIm- Tlia fli'torinn'* ineamni; 

thM t#Mineit, • Uiat, coTcm) with 
ashta. ihs threw h*fi«lf into Vre 
apanaiFal, iu oidvr to •vado rvtrilai- 
il<iii.' Tbia no daobt admlla dT an 
car J axplanatiun; bat there iwnaiM 
a tlulc dlffloolty; ii mJ^K or ajiw 
»»*).J HuivBl.-nl to «if*^ipi« r^ttmt. 
I^rehur, qontinj DiMiol. der altao IM. 
Mr. aatuan. \T^9. 

Ill Tba «ciniit(\]otK«i t* raiber ii>- 
triraUj il mnT bo ihu* imtatdM: 
n^i )i iMwn fim^xlm* Mt* rfS. tlaM 

a'rAi^ l(y— <!>■>, vl^i 1h« vr* Ir^dUw 
atrwi, Ma^iM. Tho iroiilt •a** •£))• 
ll*w Lji^M-firirrM ■Wia U be aawTakot 
111 Ii «*iiM Xa^*f«if that GttiUtrd. 
■" Ch>^ 1 19. 

EUTERPK. 11. 102— KM. 


I ftboU therefore pass orcr all tbc obore luoturcfas ; uid 109 
mako ineDlion of a Vma ihai cam« uAer tbeiii, and whose 
name was SeftoscHa. The prii;»t« rcpreMtit^d Si-<UMUis( as 
the first that, rmlmrking on loDg ships, proceedrd out of the 

Salf of Ambia into tlie En'thnran s€:i, and aiihjc^cled tin- in- 
abitaiits of the shore: llicy added, that, wi^hiug to penetrate 
still furtlii-r, be arrirvd al Inst idIo a sea unaavigable, by 
reaiOD uf Ifai: shoals; and thence sailed bacli into Kgy-pt; 
wbare, accordiug to the same prieirts, he levied a miplity 
ay, ftnd marched ovor llie whole coiit3iit;nt, fubjeciing 
rer>' nalton h« ft-ll in with. In the terriioriL-s. accoidinglj, 
afsttcli as foiiRht Kallaotly, and strove hard for freedom'", 
bo crecle'd pillars, with luscriptionM (Itscribint; his own name 
and country, oiid in what manner he had subdued Ilie inha- 
lubuits with his forces : but in the lauds of such as yielded 
Dp their tovtu a» dasionlf^ without a struK^le, lie R«t up 
pillam with the same infrripiinns as lor the vulianl nations; 
to which lie added a representaUon of tlio «'er>'i parts of R 
vo&aOf iutcndia^ tbi;reby tu signify thut tlicv wi.-re Hofl and 
sfletmoate. So doinp, ho Iracenwd the conlineiil of Asia j 103 
ibm, crossing over into Europe, subdued the Scytbinoi and 
the Tbraciaos : tlivM: were tlie must diHlant, it is my npinion, 
to whom (be Egyptian army reached **' : in that quarter the 
piUani art' rouiiil, but not any further on : here, therefore, the 
troops wheeled back, to return. Wlit^n tliey cauiu to the 
Pbaais river, cither thr; king himself, Sitn^siris (lor I cannot 
say tu B certainty,) divided a portion of hia army, which he 
itift to scllli: in that country ; or some of the men, weary of 
this long roigraliou, choKC to remain on the banks of the 
I^hasis. Indeed, it is manifest'*^ that the C'olcbiana are 104 
E{;)-ptians: this I a*iKert, not only from uiy oim previous 
eHJ«ctnr«, but also from what 1 lieard of others j for, as I 
felt an intensi iu lhi& subject '*, 1 made inquiries both of 
Egyptians aod Colcbians: the latter had a clearer remem- 
brance of ilic Ei^ypliiiiiK, tlian tlie Egyptians bad of the 
Colchians. The Eg^-ptians, honcrer, said, that lliey eon- 
■iderett tbc Cok-hians as baring proceeded from Scsostris^s 
array: and I inferred the came thing, not bo much because 
the Cotcbiaiis are black und curly-headed, (which amounts to 
nothing, since there are other racex of that kind,) but chiefly 

M UaH. 8SS. cut, v^i/mimn vill ntTnf d «n iMlaBM 

>■• Mut 4*4. — tit. * TIm BpTptiM of ilw ivparlui** fin for Htm tamptn- 
(• mc tn hiTB raapMd id livtt. 

x» flaw. «m4. xlil. ttf . t. 

•• " QooiB*er»«ir»inifci b«« M» 

lfcM« i%.t. rAr TAronaiit), tb* fwthm 
mM ff /Aetr prvgrtn ia Kimpr.' 
Bom vmJ ■«> •* •ft^^Mn ; la *liinb 



EUT£K1'£. 11. lOd, 106. 

from the foltowinft proofs; tliai^ofilt mankind, tbe Colchii 

EgyptinnSf and Kihiopijins, are llie only nntioiis lliat, ffi' 
tbi? Iirat, hftve practised circiinK-iaion : itit^ PhcBnicians, an( 
Syrians of Palestine, evun rnnlViis lliey li'araed (he ciist 
from lliH Eifi.-plUiis; "liilo the Syrii (Cappadocians) about 
tlio Thcrmndon und I'arthcnius rivi-rs, as nrell oa cht-ir 
ndghbount the Macit)iit>fi, ackoowledgtr tliat they have bal 
Uti'ly ndoptctl llic practice. Now, the aliovc arc llie oQlr 
nce% of circiiiiiciftod nneu; aiid, in (Iiik rvspuct, ili«y all 
evidently act in the luimo manner as tbc Kf^'ptiun^ ; but the 
tiru nalious, Ethiopians and Egyptians, nhicli uf ttmse learnt 
it ftnm the other, is n point I cannot dtrcidc iipnn, for it is 
clearly a vt'iy atirirnc cu»toin '". The o|riiiion, (hat it was 
learnt by coininiinication iriih Egyitt"*, in, 1 think, prored 
beyond doiibti by this fact : »iich of the Plicenician» as faavi_ 
any trnHic u-ilh the Hellenes, no longer imitate the Egr]l^| 

lOdlianA, hut leave their eliildrvn uncircumctsed. 1 will noir 
mention'**, hIko, an additional iuKtiince of similitude between 
Colchians and Egyptians. The Culchians and the Egyp' 
weare cloth iu the same manner, but diflVreot from all 
world besides : the whole life, the language, arc one and 
same, iu botli nations, llie linen wovun by tlie Colcbiana 
called Sardonic : that made in Kgypt is, however, dcsigo 

106 as KKy]>tiun*'°. As to ihi: pillars eructcd in the varioi 
couiilrioM by Sexostris kin^ uf Egypt, nio&t of tlieni bar 
ci-id<nily jwrished "' : 1 saw, howKvcr, one of tlitse iu Syria 
of Fule^tino, bearing the inscripliou as abofe, u lib the cha- 
racteristic of the female sex. Un Home rocks in Ionia then 
are engraved images of this prini-e : one i» on the n>ad by 
which you go from Epbesu to I'hoctea, and the oilier 
between Sardin and Smyrna. In both theiic placeH the 
imago of a man ha>> been cut out, foar cubits and a half 
high "*, bearing in biH right hand a spear, in his \e(t a bov. 

'" <Iec»'n ai^ifiM » cUHlom mir'ttt 
wilb Ibft ori^iD <if th« twliol), «ata- 
blltlin) ripm lime immcnMnal : * in- 
rtitalun ab ijud primk fi«ati« ariKmo 

misceptuCB.' ijirclier. 

*** irifMyiftkit caniuil rctnUi to the 
Ethinpinii*; Turin thni ranc, Uorado- 
tuaw«u1i) rnnirfliiirt nbtt h« hft* jntt 
Munrtml ; nam«ty, ihal h« rtid vol know 
•hirh ot thoxe no nallont htil lak«D 
<«(««moiiioii friHn ihc niher. — Thin 
w»nlai»ttbercKffc refer <<' the Mhcc 
aatiwil th«t had oonunDnkalrd with 
iha EfcTptiiiu. £arMln>. 
•* «!(■ H«. ■ aga voto.' Sm Tijiar. 

•oeu siii. rw. H. 
*» Th* E^).iiuiii bad Ibfii agtt* 

IiPcuUn nannrr at aaaaflHtnulBg 
Inau. Rerndotaa b«a manttoaad. cIl 
Sb, thni, in wearing Ihcit oloilii 
ibcy ahoi tha woof or w«(t dawn- 
««n}t; »h«n«a otber ttaUon Ain 
It upwarii. Tbli I*, perbafM, tba 
ctiHinnt ba altoilM To In tiUa pan- 

■-> Matt. Wii.Z. tad 474, c. 

■» Cimp. B. i. c. 00. Soa aW Um. 
141.— 'rhe*«i«i^MWr'i>c«M. Wa 
baaa aaoB tialbM, i. M, Ibal T|hw 
ilMwi\mn*» aigmaw Iwa l>laau aad 

EUTfcRPK. II. li>7— 109. 


uid so on wiih llie whole nttim, wliirh in half Eg>'pusii ami 
hftif Rlhinpiaii: from slioiiltler to flhouldcr, alliirart the 
bnatit. a line of sacred Kji*pliaii chavactijni i« curveil, ihe 
purpott or uhich ia: I k.we won this L^sn bv hv own 
SHOVLDRfa: — who, or whtTiri! he. is, SeiuiNtris does not hlol 
htrc, but expiuioB cUcnliLrv. ^umn persons, who hav« 
tevu liicne relics, bare coiijecUired lliciii lo be images of 
Memnon: in thi*, howercr, Uicy arc nivatly deceived. 

Ttw pricsu gu au to stuU-, that whoti Uiik Kjryptian 107 
Sesoatns, on bi« rfUim with many men frtin itiiioti}; the 
Tirioua mibdued natious, reached Oaphna- uf Pelui^iiim, beinfr 
ty lii« oivn hn>lluT, wlmrn be had wt ovt-r K({_v|rt, invited 
to be present at u baiiquel, liiuiHi-lf and hi» »ou.s irood iraa 
piled up on the outside of the <'dificp, and set on fire. 
SecMlriK, uifonne<l or thi.s immediately couMilted liis wife, 
•rlto bad accompanied bitn thiiher: tbu advice nhu gave him, 
u ihey had «ix sons, was, to slrcich tw.> acrr-ftf the five, and 
iha*, making a dyltB again^it the damcH, seek sal ration. 
Snoetris did bo ; and in this manner two sona were con- 
UUBod by the fire, while the rest, toRrther nilh dicir fathur, 
made ihuir escape*". After Sesostris's return to Kgypl, and 108 
irbi»i be liad taken rt-rcnKc on Wis brolhi:r, be employed the 
niiltjt»d« of prisonura brouj^ht from the subduui) countries 
in the following wiirks: not only were (hty m:! to drax ibo 
huge ma^iie!! of atone, which, under the rei)ni of ibrs LiDg, 
weru brought to Vulcan's temple, but were likewise obhged 
lo dig all tbe canals now ticen in Kgypt : thus, Uiey were 
compelled, by force, (o work such an allerritioa iu the fujo of 
ibe country, that tbe whole tL-rritorr, [trcviouidy well adopted 
for horftc-ridtnf; and the use of chariots, became usetess (or 
those purposts; because from that time, in Kgypt, which is 
all lurt^'l Innd, horsed and earriagos were no lungor used : lh« 
cau»u iK-iuK, tile numerous cniiitltt in uU din-ctious. Tbe 
Riolite that induced the kint; lo interse<.'t in ibis niannot the 
CDiratry, wut*, that all the Kf^yptiao^, whose cities do not stood 
on die rirpr-side, but lie at enini- dii^tance, suffered from 
draught when the floods leA them, and the itibabitaots were 
otHged to procure a brackish bcrera^"* from their wells. 
It WIS also related, that this king divided the soil amons all 109 
the Kgyplians, givins to each indiridnal an equal qiiftdmn' 

• baK. »nil b^M* bimiMww ini 
alrau anrl » half: tt 1< ihercfotc elev 
<tiK wtpvn mh/m matt *igoi/y l<»r 
tuUu and a b*ir. Snivwiy. 

Mhan, hmn rtidcuM of • direct in- 
MipraMloa id tb» A^ra cmmi ■» 


tbewkilt of Vnlcaa'aUoiplH: whclbr 
the biiffU Imw of tbe alletottc 
■icamv, at wUhid M wiikhoU It 

[r«iii K«iadoto», i* A MMtM of m»M 


EUTERPL. a. 110, JU. 

gular portion ; aod frum iheuce drew liis revenoes, ouacUo^ 
what coatribulioD should be made ercij ^ear: and if thr 
rivtr should sweep away any porlion, the propriutor was to 
vuinu tu hiiu, and report what had happened ; vben he would 
send surveyors and mo^Ltumrx, tn asconaiu to what I'xteol 
the soil was diutinisbed, so that ihcreaAer the appoiotei^^ 
contrihuiioD Khnuld be pniporlioDately decreased'**. llenco^H 
in luy opinion, land-Riirveyicg took its origin, and subso-^ 
(lacnily extended tn llelhiR: for it was from the Babylouianft 
thiit l]ie HcllcncB Icaint the u»e of tbe clixk and sun-dial^i 

IIOThis king wan accordingly the only Egyptian iliat uvef^ 
ruled over Ethiopia. IJe left, as meraonaJs of biuiseU'"', '' 
«niDe Ktone statues in front of Vulcan's temple : twu, tliiitv 
cubits each, himself and hie «-ife: their Mns, four, eaco 
t«'i.-nly cubits. A long time after, one of the priests of 
Vulcan warned Uirius, the Persian king, from cetting iq» 
bin own statue bL-fure these; observing, that" Uurius had not 
" acbiecfd dveds equal to tbose of 8eiit>slris the Egfpuaa: 
*' lor Stisoslris bad conquvrcd no rcwtrr nations than Ourius 
" had subdued ; and bad, moreover, uverjiowered the 
** Scylhiuiis, a ibiug which the I'crMau could nut compaai-^M 
**■ iheiefore it wait not fair he should place his own statue "^^ 
'^before tboee offerings'^, unless he had stirpused in 
" oi:ploiiB." Darius, accordingly, by their account, exc 
the boldness of the priest. 

Ill At the decease of Sesoslris, tbt- pont-r, it is laid, 
assumed by his son Hheron. This prince displayed t>o incli- 
nation for wht: he was aiFlicied with blindness, in cooae> 
qoenee of the following ecent '" : the river having swollen 
eighteen cubits, an enormous beigbl for iboso days, arid 
covering the arable lands, a gale of wind arose, and the 
river was agitated by waves ; when the king, itnpiou^y 
grasping a s|>ear, htirled it in the niid^t of tiie eddies of llitr 
stream: forthwith he wa^ taken with ouliibaluia, and btscanid 
blind: and the affliction, accordingly, lasted during ten 
yoan: but in (he eleventh year, an oracle came to bita from 
tfao city of Huto, declaring, " that llie period of his visilA- 
** lion was at an end; and be would recover sight, by bath-^ 
** iug his eyes in the urine of some woman who bad nereifl 

<" Mni/iJnita u a maaumcflt in- 
tmdta IB pi«ssn<e ibo 01*111017 ■>' 
MMMltl io>.— LureArr. 

■* Tbe tt»tw thu wta* $neUi 
Id bij pMMn mtrtt io'viafcljr oflvnd 
IV ilolieslRl Id the coils, to tbt Vd, 
tliti, Iwiiiii miiln' IDC protntin tf 
rr)i(pan, dq onv sbovU aan to AlvM 

EUTERPt). II. 112. 118. 



" gone auray from her lawrul liusbatiJ, aaJ was inooccnt 
" before nil men excupttug him." Tbo k(Dg,thererore,ii]n<lc 
Ifae firet trial ud bis own wifo; bat sceiog do belter afua 
that, he penistfid in tiiakiiig the i;x|>crimi>nt on all women: 
baviug at last bt-uti rc-Kturcd to sight, be collected in one 
lotrti, caJIfd Ervthrt'bolu*, all eIil- vvoiiien whom be had mail* 
trial of, exccptiii}; bur by wbust; uriiiv he was ciirod; aud 
conMimcd Uioiii all by fire, togttiher with the town iLsrlf. 
Her, lo whom he <ras indebted jbr bin ^ig}it, he look to liiui- 
aolfaft vife. Haring thus escapc-d from the disease in hi> 
eyes, PheroD made magnificent ofToritigit ton]] the celebrated 
temples; but the most particiiUrly descrriiig of our admi- 
nliuo, no doubt, are the beaiitilid worlds dedicated at the 
temple of the Sun, namuly, Lwo i>tuoe obelii^kB, each cut out 
of oiiu <!inglt' block, and each of a hundred cubits in length 
by oigbt iu breadth. 

He WAH Hucceedt'il, the priests said, lu the kingdom, by a. IIS 
utirc of Uctophis, whose name, in HollcDic. i& I'roteiu -. bis 
sscred grove, a beaiitiliil and trelUadonied spot, is still cx- 
Unt nl Memphiit, lyiiiK smuh of the Vulcantan fane : t)te 
eurirons an: iuliabitcd bj- Tyrian Pha-niciniis ; and the whole 
of tliis quarter is kuoM-u by the nume of the Tyrian camp. 
Within the sacred grove of l*rolcu5 stands ihe temple of 
Foreign Vc-nits: this ia, I presume, tlje tem|)le of Helen ibu 
daogfatur of 'I'vudam-s, who, I have been told, lived with 
FraCetiA, and bore tin- name of Foreign Venus; for, among 
all other temples of Venus, there is none elsewhere having 
llie namfi of Foreij^n'". llie prieBt&, when I inqnirHd 1)3 
iato the hiirtory of Helen, told inc that mattcrt pasticd in 
ibe fi^lowing manner: — Parix, having iiboleu Iltiten frum 
Sparta, steered for hJs own coantry ; but, when he wu» on 
tns .-£gean sea, an adverse gale drove him from bis cuunie, 
into the sea of Kgypt ; from «'licnec — for the slonn did not 
ilsf kcQ in violence — he eaine to Kg>'pt : and lan<Icd at 
Taricheie, on the month of tlie Ntlf, now called the Cunopte. 
On that shore stood a temple, the same that i-t seen tlu-re at 
pretont ; uhcrc, if a nlave, belong tu whom be may, tnfcrs 
nfnge, and gives himself up to the g<^, by hsTing certaiu 
ucrvd marks impriwed on bis body, no one cun lay band* 
M bini. This custom contiiiited still in Ibrce in mr time, 
Bxactly as it ivas at the beginning. The atiendantK of Paris, 
eoTwequmiily, urh«.<n informed of llie practice that bold in 

' tnw^iiw. t. e. tr. ' iiy m : Qui ah Vm. li ikosli li*.] Ivan^Mt. 1. a. U> 
K) (fiW a pvmHik, *irc • re <|ul- t1 maXUrmi Mtimi 'A^ftUrmt Stimtif, 
' IHNBCD Innelt i Qoi ■licnjiga Itji. Brr^, 

EUTERPE. II. lU, nr 

timt tuinplf, forsook iheiT innster, and, neiliiig down as sup- 
pliauls of Uie guci, acciued Paris, with a view of doing him 
nil injury ; and drncribcd honr he had behaved to liclrn, aod 
his ini(|iiit,r luuardii Meiielatis. Thi^i deptiBiiion was made 
to ihu |>riir»U, as wi-ll HH to the governor of that itii>iuh, the 

1 14 name of whom was Thntiis. On ihu rucfipt of iliis iiiUrlli- 
geiice, 'niL>ui!< im.'ihU inEtaiitly it mci^i'ago in Pi'ult-iis at Mem- 
phis, conceived iu these words : " A atranger of Trojan w«e 
" has arrived here, after committing a ncfarioOB d«cd in 
" Hellas; for he carried off the wife of his lio«l ; aud has 
" come liiihcr, bringing tlie woman, with great ireasiiir, 
" being driven by the niuds to your shore. 1 ask, ^^1letll«- 
" we shall allow iliis tiranger In take his depnrliire untno- 
" tested i or shall 1 fteize his property before ho goes away ""?" 
Proteus returned for answer: " Arrcfit this iniin, whoever 
" he may he, that has dealt so wickedly n ith his host : 
" hint u> me, that 1 may M-e what be lias to my for himse) 

llftTbonis, bavint; receive'd these orders, seized the pei»oil 
Paris, and put an embargo on his shipii; and tlicn jieni off 
the prisoner to Memphis, together with Helen and hiti trea^B 
ntrt's: the KUp])lium«tri'n- also despalehiMl to the samep1ac«9 
When all were arrived, Proteiiti examined Paris, as tu whom 
he was, and from whence he had sailed : the prisoner muo- 
tioned hift familV) and Btalmt what was the name of his coudH 
try; and, more parlicnlarly, ilescribed his voyage, and tb*^* 
port he had sailed from. Then ProieuH questioned tha 
pri»oucr on the manner he got possoiiiun of Helen. l*ariia| 
prevariealing in his answers, aud nut speaking the truth, tb^| 
mcii, who had become suppliants, confronted bim, and vest 
through the history of his iniquities. At last, Proteus pro* 
nonnced this senlenee on him :— '* Did 1 not hold it of para- 
" mount impoTiance not lo put to death any fttranger 
'* whatever that may com* to my sihoirs wenthcr-boimd ••, 
" I would revenge the Hellenes of your behaviour, you must 
" wieked wretth ! «h)t, afler having receixed the blessings of 
" boepitality, have dared lo commit so flagrant a crime. Not 
** only have yon Kiibometl the wife of your own benefactor; 
" that was not enough to conlenl yoii ; but you must cany 
** her off*", steal her person : nay, even that does not aatts^H 

»i til. ■' Vfh«r he rttnp, htvinR." 
— 7anf«t. which I buf rrniletcil 
Tiojfln. a>cuii> tin inlialiitBiit of T«u- 
eii* or Ttdw. «I«^ Ktb • - • - - 4- 
Halt. eOP. 3<1 pinff. 

drrrd (mm [mriuinii IhrtT rauru hj 
the iritid*." 

rtt^ I riicdifii'* ' lo Tai»« tb« feiktbtfi 
Or ,iic)|;>:' IliBi iW po*e«rt, (pmul- 

inft hi> uil, it Mid itaTnginu*^ lUx- 
Xm- M»iapti. i(«r««fwt ma mimm 
' tn flU nni- with Inogtng dnlre— kope-' 
.SrAnnrf. lew. Gr. Otrm, I^m DWJ 

KUTERI'K. II. llfl. 


'jour cupidiiy, but you musl even riflo your frifind** bouac, 
'ere you (lL-[?ari. Now, diurcfon.', tliuugli I liold ii of great 
* ccmset^ucnce not Ki take, tliw life of slranKi-Ts, ! shall nut 
" illow ynu to Uke away lliis woman, ur (lii« Irvasure; but 
** I will ket-p Ibum for your JIvUenic friciKl, uulil he choos« 
" faimtelf lo come luid fetch ilieui away. Mj comuiands are, 
" that yoQ yourself aud- your ftbipraatcs shall quit my laud, 
"and go to tome otiier, wiihin three duys'"; if not. you 
'* ahall be treated as fneniies." 

Thus tht prieslA described the animal of IIcIoti at Pro- 1 Ifl 
te\is,'s court Homor also, i think, must have heard the t>anie 
account : but it was not so well adapted lo the epopirra, an 
tliat which be made use of: fur ibis reasou'"^, bu rejected it, 
although ho has givrti proofii that be was ufrarc of Uic aboru 
histur>' as well, lliis is evident; fur, a» he siugs in the 
Ifiad {and oo where else docs be retract) ihe waDderings of 
Euia, how, when carrying away Helen, he was driren out 
of hU courK, and strayed to various countries; among 
oilier^, to Sidon of Pliu.-iiicia"*. He hiuis at the sauie thing 
a iht! cxploils of Uiomcdos'*' ; and these arc his words : 

" Wb(ir« the variegated rob6S> works oi llie Sidoiiiau dames, wen 
" fnuui). dial die god-like Paris biintelf broughl froia Sidon, 
" wiliDg on the wide aeo, what way lie look ibe high-born 
" Hdm." niaJ, ri. am— •29-2. 

Bo alludes lo Uic luimc also in Ihi; Odyssey, in thcM 

" Such dmgs of healing oxft^ll i^ik^i^ Iiai1 Jore'a daughter, gift 
" from Polydainna, Tboiiis' .■i|'(>ii»u ■>!' Kgypl, where tie uurtur- 
*' itig licld lireed<t lini^^ luitni^niav Mtmf Cor saluUiy, other* far 
" puisouou-i poiiona." (klyti. \v. 227. 

■M b* Jotned t« la>xl>ta«, tet nlhrr 
ta ififHii, I. f. JI}^imM f^ti* mirrit'. tliU* 
■>tiii!t[{i#iwl];tv,' I COOM. bttlOK,' 
•■ f . ' I brii>)i '' irii^ t.^**! 1 ^ "IJ 
"■Mt btrin^ i ' I tWtili uking wiui 
ae,' •- «. * I oMfj »¥i»v.' i^Aufg. 

'•) ai^nll** tn etiing:)' Utt port nr 

■^—t at m «wmI: ilw litrtal [ran»- 

voalil pcvhua be, " to R^in 

Sr Mooriog*, wlOiLii ihrtc ityi, 
n BBj *(4tM. U tone Mber." Sic. 
•■ Mall. 47'. <r. 8ei-QlM B-f. Ity 
tl taMt «^Wim; ^naf np trr pvmu 

■^ (*nr»'r> amrk Ffer matk ot amt S, 
whirl) i> it^tlj llie UHtau wi •<• "f- 
ftmavVwivAina, frail fuofeiiMt, tut ill 

1. mn. fl. «. ill. 86.1 yi^9untt[^ ha* 
dMPrilied In ntm] U 'iJudi (mb) m)«- 
^ it.Xm inriSm Umji (bu be n- 
iit/et-i hit i(ep«, f. f, tttnaxi, con- 
(todicUj tiiiii*«in rxiiwi rJ|> 'Ak4Jt- 
IfM, ^In'irnj it irw^^J^t^ ■ V. k 

I"! Thii till* «r A.i^rtJw Apm^ U 
jiri'fixcd In lh« nUi linat of tlgi> lli(d, 
(u Aawii jmI ;iiM to (W 1ii;'Om- 
fH ihJ iHrBXryit U> lh« 8d. Ud Kt 
on;) bui tlie kmis quvlal In tbe rab- 
>M|DcuC p«tt at the text ■(* laksn 
trom the Bib Book (iiMerJb«d *EaT^M 
■^ '.itl[«<i«:);iH ipiXw: it M tu be pre- 
nuiDcd. tbttthit, thai urtitiuilljr (li« 
B«ak iascriboil ^miAim ifirrtSa oain- 
prehttHlcd likewW ibe 6tli> SeAiertj/, 


EUTEIIPK. II. 117—110. 

Tbese words, also, are spoken bv Menelaus to Telnnacbut: 

" In IC}|A-p( the {rod* retained mc, ihoti^h anxious lo reltmi bilfapr, 
"becitiiMlliiulnoioirvi£dtotl>cini'umpl«U'licciu<»mbs.''0«/. iv.36l. 

In these verses, Homer proves tli&t he koew of Piris**! 

waadcrings: for Syria confines on Hg>-pt; and the Pbceoi- 
117 cimis, (o nhoin Sidun belongs, iuliabii Syria. From tbesc 
rerees, and lh« last passage Cfiix-ciaily, it niay btf erideully 
conclnded'", ihat Homer was not tlie uuilior of tlie C^'priac 
veree», bui Bome other poet. For in that poem it is said, 
" On the third dny. Fans reached Ilium, with Heleo, troca 
" Sparu, wafted by n favonrablc breeze orer a calm se* :** 
whereas it i» said lu the Uiad, that he wandered far and 
wide with his prize. — lltit now bid we farewell lo Houc^r 
and die Cypriac vrrses. 
116 I intpiired of the priests, whether it was a vain fable, or 
npt, lliat the llellcnos narrate of the Titian war. To this 
they made the folloning answer, nbtiiined, they said, by in- 
quiry from Mcmclauii himself; Thai, after tbo rape of iiclcn, 
a vaKl anny of Hellenes invaded the land uf Teucria, in 
Mraclatu's cause: after the host had landed, znd pitched 
tlit'ir camp, they sent a deputation to llimn, which Menekiw 
himself accompanied : n-hci) admitted within the wnllx, they 
claimed back Helen, and the treasure that Paris bad stolen 
from the Hellenic prince, and dotouuded saliisfaction for that ^y 
unjust deed. But tliv Teucrians, both then and erur aftefj ^M 
persisted in the same deduratiun, wbeiber put to the oath or ^^ 
not, that they had not Hdcu, nor tlic trcoimre thus claimed, 
but, that all the^e things were in Epiypt; — iImI it uonld not 
be right thev should mike retribution for what Proteus, the mi 
£gypdan king, had in his puKsesuon; — that the Hellenes, flj 
fancyinj^ the Trojanii werci laughing at them, therefore be- ^ 
sieged the town, and at la^t" capinred it. Having utorwed 
the city, (hey found no Helen iliere, but reccired the sane 
account as before; so that the Hellenes, giving at last credit 
119 to the report, sfnl MeniJaus himself to Proteus, ^lenelaus, 
on his arrival in Egypt, sailed up to Memphis; where he 
describtd the true events that had taken place, met u'iili a 
suiuptuous reception'"', and received back lielen unhurt; 

to liOTcrn )«XHi I )ii< >rrl> niitv, Iioh- 
vrcr, b« tak«n tnlrnn»lti*«l^ «nd tin. 
penoiiKlly, ' cl«niin «l,' ' wij]»n-t.' u 
In ix. 69. itc^ttrif. — $i-h«cighpiiM<r 
miiloiiiiaiiila X^' ■* t«rtrTln|; Bo ^ 
paMtce of the lli*d quoiH in itw 

fkJlvF>. 8» Hatl. 40;). 
ie DiKleel. 923. Jm-J r.! U, <;. tl, t, 
I** Mut. M3. 

KUTERPE. II. 120. 


if together tntti licr, all Uio treasure, lliiu succcMiru], 
letoos, niitwiilihiamliiij,', behaved very iui^uitoiisly towards 
Eg/ptittOM. Foul winds liindvred him frum bc&ving 
iticbnr and talfiug lib; depurlun! ; Uiis having cotiliiiuvd a 
loog time, he bad recourse to tbc fullotriDK uvfarious vxym- 
diem: he seized Ivo Ej^pttau cliildreu, and sacrificed iLem. 
From the nanment tliat it wa« kitoim be bad been giuUy of 
such a rBuidcr**', be becanx; an object of hatred and uerse- 
cntion, nnd fled with hi« ships to Libya. Whither he dj' 
rrcird bin course froio tbencv, the Egyptians coofessed they 
could not tell : but that of the above particulani, some they 
bod sMertained by inquiry ; others liad occurred before 
their eyes, and llicv were able to vouch for their accuracy. 
Such was the Egyptian account: and I tDyselfaccedo to the 120 
tnitb of these e^eniis having Imppcned in respect of Helen, 
to w-bicb I will Hubjoin the following remarks. If Helen 
had been in Ilium, she noiild have been restored to the 
Uelleues whclbcr at or against ibc coqbodI of raris; 
for fturi'ly IMnm, at all events, could not have been so 
dutfauf^ht, nor could all belonging to bis family be »o 
uifiiluatutl. OH to expose to destmctiaa tbcJr own persons, 
their chihlreu, their city, in order that Paris might still 
be united to Helen. Indnid, Ihougb they mtuht in the 
enrlier times have followed that couusf?!, yel, when so 
maDT, not only of the Trojan subjects, vfexc cut off, uben- 
BTCT they engaged with the Hellenes, but whenever a battle 
wu fought "* it was not without the slaughter of otte, two, 
three, or even mons of the sons of Priam, if we are to give 
credit to tbc accounts of the epics — if, I say, such wa.s really 
the case, it is my decided opiniuii, that had Priam bimftelf 
bcvn monied to Helen, he would have given hi-r back to the 
Acbeei, with a view, at any rate, uf putting un end lo sncb 
din* consequence*. Neither wa« Parix even heir to the 
thrnne, so U!« iu tliu old ugc of Priatn to have assumed the 
management of afiain. Hector was the real heir, being the 
woior of Paris, and more of a man, and was to succeed to 
the |N)urpr at IMaiu's decease : it would not have been expe- 
dient in bim to side with his brother, in }i\» )i)it|uitiesi and to 
do this, when such calami lies, through Paris's agency, op- 
pretied hiniself and bis family, together with all the rest of 
the Titiians. But ibev had really no Helen to give up; and, 
although ibcy spoke tfie truth to the Helleneti, no fiuth was 
put in what they said: the cause of which, in my opinion, 

(■ llaa.aac son, nnp« qsotlM tetiim imrltam 

* m» Im fv« (J. noD Ml (Mf ooa ML—St*mig. Le-r. Urrtil. 
h) qwun MD, eta : «tf etf, manam 



TIBS, that Pmvidi'iici) anaDK«<l that tbu deftlnietion of 
Trujun nation, by one gcueral massacre, Uiould convir 
all men, tbaL tot K^^'iit iiiiiw lm:d» meal are Uie pu aiahinet 
at '^f l] np*i« nl ilio gofW: — 
■SI lUiampsinilu^, said tlie prieeU, was the succeMor ofPro- 
WU8: lielefi,asa tneinorial.lhe wesJern propjlwa of Viilcao'j 
temple; in front of which be set up two staUics, twenty-fil 
cubits high : tbal Htanding to llic noilh, the Kgrptians ca 
summer; ibe other, lu t]icHiulh,tht?y call winter: buforo tli _ 
cal1«d somincr ilicj pmrttatc thtinsclvcs, and nffur sacrifieet 
but behave just in the euiiltary way to tlie other cal)«^ 

I wtDter"". Ihvy added, tlial thU king possessed a vit»t qi 
tity of money, such as uudv of the kiiiga tlial cauie afd 
him'** could ever »urpax8, or orca approach to. Wisbiug 
titoru up bis treasuru in safi'^ly. he gave onlers tbal a rl»i 
b«r should be built of ^tone, wiib one of the walls (>.taniliii 
agaiitKt the ouuide uatl of the palace. Thv builder, after 
some consiideralion, devised llie followiu); artitice : he laid 
one of the .slones in nucb a manner, tbal it mi^bt bii vt 
taken out bj two men, or even one. When the chtmt 
waB completed, the king deposited bis treasure in it : but ' 
buil(ti>r, some lime afier, being at the point of death, callt 
into bia presence his mius, fur he bad two "** ; and desciibed 
to them, bow, in order to provide for Oioir plenleon* *ub- 
sivtence, be bad managed in the construe tJuii o( the )(ing*a_ 
treasury"*. Having accuraiely explained to them all 
particulars about the extraction of ttie stone, he gave Lht 
the measure*"'; and said, tliat, if they observed hi» directlt 
they would become tlii' stewards or the royat riches, 
builder accordingly dic<l ; and hif. amn did not long tarrr I 
pul in practice iboir fiiiber's advice ; ibey came to ibe paJacF 
at night, asierluiuud (be sUmc allndt-d In in tlic wall, pulled 
it out without any difllculty, and cauio away vviUi great 

^ booty. Hut, when the king camu to open the cbnmbert 
saw, to his aatonisbmenl, that the vaxeKConlaining ihenioitl 

» UUL4I);. BtldflOR, 3. 

'*■ ivtvfmplmn, (rain Irirjlfw eqai- 
Ttlciil rn lriyit4jtfnn, ' iiohit of (be 
kio)[8 ilncc born u)d cducutcil ;' ' Dion 
of tli« •wccMdiDft kiDi;*.'— SrA(r«ry. 

>* ibM fif av«f 1m, " fat h« had 
rwu;'' tliin ici[iiilci«e. tik» a gnm 
mernj nam, in ibis iitd irouian'^ uli? 
particulvlx, " RO'CinciJ lij txtyn. 

"* Lit. * ttml bciDK iiDXHiua (itf 
*ti^, lookins fnrwkid) for ihrm, ihii 
iii«y might liikis abiindsini uipittt nf 

Biifc«l«lmM«, h* iMd ixni Ml 
(r*x*iZ'^. ' ■rtlliwa uti'>in i 
En^ ihB treuuiy nf tbo kin^.' afNtl* 
govtruB ihc gtBltivF of Uie p«tM*, 
tai Ibe Mctu«u*f of tba diinft, itUeli 

i> h*te t«(imHnt(4 kr Ibe propttrili* 
Jun Am* JflHH l^iMt See 
I"' Tbnt i« to nqr, not <alr A* i 

mcnaioii* nf ibc Mme, but lU HiMOMen 

ftom the botMu Midddw of ilw i 

liUTKKPE. II. 121. 


were dclicieat in contcnU: he could not, however, laj the 
blNtntf 10 aiiv one : ihe seals were nil nnlmiken '*", and the 
dumber well secured. Uaring two ur ihreo times tnure 
oj>ciicd llic trciuun-, tlje tuoney vifiil>ly decreasc'd (for ilie 
ibitfvfis coniinufd Uitir rapine) : ibe king therefore ndopled 
ihK expedicuL: be ordcTcd some traps to be nuilr, which he 
»l anumil tlic vasen in which iho roonfj wa« stored: the 
ibitfvea comin};, as was tht-ir cufilom, and one oCthciii hnring 
entered the tn-u8iiry, neut i^lnti|{ht up to one of the vases, 
and was iniiiirdiutcly cau^fht in tbti tnip: as »oon as be found 
hituM-If in thift prcdieamenl, he called to his brother, fx- 
plaintid lo him what had hup)>eiied, and bade bim cuter as 
quiekir as poKsihle. and cni ulT hi^ head, le«t he i^hould be 
seen and Tecu);;iiigt'd, nnd thereby cause the dcstructioa of 
ibc other also, Thtt brother on the ontside thought be 
>j>oke to the purpose, and did as he rru advised. The sur- 
living thief reiuraed the stone carcfnlly, and proceeded 
Ktmie uitfa htH brother's head. At day- break, the kin^; en* 3 
lervd the rhamber, and was amazed to behold ibe decapi- 
tated tbiepH hwly in ihn trap; while the room rrtnained un- 
nolaled, and prr-xentcd no incanH of eitlrance or exit. I'hus 
ctrcnni«iaiiCe(), ihe king, the priciits add, acted as ToIIowh: 
lie hung the dead body of thn thiff over the wall ; and 
Uationed ftentinoU nndernralh, giving them orders to mHxo 
Kod bring before hiiii u'honisoever tbey might sue weep or 
mourn at the exhibition. The mother, it \n naid, was greatly 
exasperated at tlie exposin'o of ilie corpse: she spoke to the 
nirviving son, and enjtiine<l him, in all possible ways, to con- 
trite lo get poflsession of the IkmIv i>f his brother, and bring 
it toiler; but, should he neglect to execute her order, shu 
tbrcalened to go herself to the king, and impeach him as in 4 
posKMion of the money. Ah the mother treated !<i) harsldy 
her anrviring non, and be, tKitwiihBtanding hh many argu- 
ments, could not pcrKUade her.hc had rtcourM to the folluw- 
isg nriilit-e : he got ready, they nay, hia aesea, and loaded 
thrill with skins well fdlcd with nine: be then drove the 
nminali) before bim; and nheu be ua« come to the seuiinpla 
Kl over ibe Busix-ndcd body, he pulled two or three of the 
feel of the skinii'^ that bung down; and, nheu the wiue 

tmdrt win piFKM l» rcoollrFi, Hut 
latk* war* t>ai ;rt ln**f)iFd. 

>* Tha 'klai at tkrrp nod h«I> 
V* u»rd dill in rhe I^tant for the 
' >mlcoB*cy»ac«of wiiM. Whan 
M lb' nnlmnlii BboTf mpntion^ 
bMB »Uaj|hl«t«H, Uie prrMn wbn 

officiate* a< butclHt tUna tb* My 
with a 4estwtl; and npidltj Mnreelj 
ima^fnable: in a r«w Mconda, tM 
vholi! hiie is dravn off, wlf'h tba hall 
intBc, and ua; ba imaiBUalai* omJ 
fbr ihr piurpoau inUitdvd: (Biall aycr- 
ttirM ar* aiada »l ika four faei bmI 
nack mK, aail diaa* ars liad claad; 


EUTERPK. II. 121. 

ffushctl out, he beat his head, ntt^ny luiul cries, as if in 
doubt wtiich or Uie iusos he should tnm first to. The sciiti- 
adfl, seeing abundance of wine ftonini; avray, ran ouc all 
together into the road, with cups in their hands, and coll<*led 
the spilt liquor, which ihry cnnHidercd as so much gain"*. 
The drover, prt-tending violent anger, pursued tht) «i>ldiea 
with all kinds of abuse**': thi; men, howcvt-r, soothed hiJ 
luid he pn'lendi.'d to niullify, and relax in wrath: at hint, h« 
drnvv lii» aiiscH out of the road, and put their loads all ri^ht 
again: ss the soldiiTS continued tu chatter with him, one 
of them cracked a joke that cscilcd hiui lo taugli, so h& 
gave lliem oihi urtliu whickVins. The M>ldier« imniediatin 
stretched thcrosclves on the ground, and attended only W 
drink, and make a friend of the drover, whnni they invited 
to ttay and join their rc»cl : the man suflered hiui-^olf, 
torsooih***, lo be ]>i;rsiiaded , ami remained. As the soldicife 
bflhavpfl HO civilly inwnrdts him, he gave llif<ni another of llj 
ftkiiis of wine, The men having partaken atiundanlly of iM 
beverage, became complelelv intoxirated; and, orerpowcred 
with sleep, laid down, and sfept on the »aino spot where th 
had been drinking. The drorer, then, as the night was 
advanced, took down the body of his brother, shaved 
right chei'ks oJ'all the sentinels as a sign of his cnult^iu 
then tbn.-w the body od the hack of the asses, and drtive 
121 home, having accomplished ihe orders of his inolhcr. Ilic 
priests rcpr<}scDted the king as sorely irate, when informrd 
that the of the thief had been thus stolen airay: fully 
determined to find ont who was the author of this piece of 
trickery, he is said — aUhongh I give no credit lo the (ale~4 
lu havu done as follows: he pliiced Ins own daughler in || 
brotlirl, with orders to receive all comers without excrplioo, 
and not lo admit their ciubiaces until she had com 
each lo tell to her what ho had done most ingenious 
nelflrious in his life: him that miglit relate the same 
na irerc known about the thief, she was to arrest, and keep 
from going away. Tlie daughter actvd according to b 
father's orders: but the robber (so the priests said} hari 
ascertained why the king had rectiui^ie to such an cxpcdicn 
dolerroincd lo orcrrcach tlic king himself in trickery, ani 

np: wbea aMicd, tha bar l»|ts wtt* 
M «Mk*, u>d die n*ck w ttaa banir- 

nenlM, oi tlcnre hu cxprcun) him- 
Mir, Ub. i. Oa. 0_Lart^r. 
" Mrti. 363,6, •*..». 

■■ Tbr pMti«lt ll) i* not «■ I 
iiv«: tl Mutwti* la ' oirairgi 
■ ioilkwt,' of lU l.Ktin ; aT\i b" 
in aJMHaji nr ironlci*! tnuincr, ui 
Tcrtnre, * popohM id curat acilic«t.'« 

EUTERPK. II. liW, 123. 


j>roccrdt*d thus: he cut oft*, at tho shoulder, the anD**ofB 
btait ctiq^sc, antl, cnncenling it under hih cloak, weut iolo tho 
kiug'ti lUtightei'**^ and being f]uei>iinneH, as nil the otlien 
hid been, related, aa the niosl nefarioiif' tiling ht- ei-er didi 
tbc cutiing oS liiK brother')! head, when he was caii(;ht in a 
(fit) wiihiii tbu king's tKEi&ury, and, as the inoitt ingt-iiiuuA, 
the uiauiiiT in which he intoxicated ihu MmliDeU. and extxi- 
Mtcd tlie stupcndcd body of bis brother As soon as the 
girl tienn) this, she kid hold of him ; but the thlpf pre»ented 
to bar, in the dark, tho dead man's urm, which she took, ran- 
ching she grasped htr visitor's hand. In tlic mean vihiU-, the 
ihteflel go the <)i_'ad lirub to thu wuuiau, and t'SL-apcd by the 
door. Wht'ii thin olso was reported to the king, he waa 
■taazed at the »kill and audacity of the ihicf: bnally, bu 
Htul round to all the towns, und proclaimed (tardon to thit 
culprit, and promised a great reward, if he would comti into 
hts |m;»ence. The thief trii^ttd to the pledge, and went to 
tbc king ; who grr^atly iidniired the man, and united in mnr- 
rioge to bin) the same daiifthtor, ronsidtring him the WIMK 
hnihuud he could select; ttiiico ihis Egyptian siirpussed all 
other Kgypiians, who are ao preemiobnt for wisdom among 

SubwqneDlly to the abovi>, according to the priests, this 132 
king defended into the place winch the Hellenes think to 
be ' Hiiidt's,' and there played at dice with Cenis; Kometiines 
beatiuK the guddeiis, at utber» the ^odde^s beating him. At 
bi» rotuni, he received a present from her hands — a gold 
uapkiti. The pricHls say, abo, thai the Egyptians have la- 
■tJiuted a fekiival, which lasts from the time of the descent 
nf Rbampsinitus to that of bis retara. I am aware, Indeedt 

It Mirh A fcstiral waa celebrated by them, down to my time; 
whpthcr for the above, or any other reason, 1 cannot say: 
fm Unit (Liv, the priests wearc a cloak, and bind the eyes of 
one of their number wiUi a haudkercliief : they conduct the 
pcTsoHt thtis bound about tite eyes, and wrapped in tlic cloak, 
lu the rood that leads to the temple of Ceres, where tliey 
karo him, and return. The blindfolded pric»l is taken, they 
My, fay two wulres, to the temple of Ceres, twenty stodes' 
fistance from the city ; and 'a afterwards brought back, to 
die place he started from, by the same animak. Those who 123 
can lK:Iievc buch tales arc at liberty to adopt what the Kgyp- 
ikus rL-lite : my busiui-a^, throughout this History, b to write 
4o«m what I hoar from nil persons. The Kgyptians assert 

■* I-Meli*r pr*TM, btytni qatatioa, aUV th* »nii, le^lMr witk tki h 
Oat ^Jf it rr<V|MntI]r Ukta U> lif- •>• Sm MsR. a;S, iMt pMif. 

I till 

Ein'KRPR. n. 124. 

that Ceres and Btcchus are (he princes of the infernal 
rf^onfi. They arc, ItkRwiftt;, ihe finit people that prutmilfjnlcd 
the iuiinorialilj of th(- human miuI; and the floctrinr, ihu, 
it'bcn the body is consiuincd, (he soul cutirrs fjitate uilitT aui- 
mal, rising into existence ahvaye at that tnotncnl; and that 
ofirr it has putuutd through thu budles of all t(>rtetitrial, 
uarino, aDd aerial creatures, il again animales a hiimaa 
budy, boni at that time; the circuit bviuu uiadu in three 
thousand years. This doctrine lias been adopted by UMiiy 
Hellenes, some at one |ieriod, and others m anothtr, aa being 
iheir own inrontion : their names, altliou^ knovni to me, I 
do not meuliou. 
124 Accordingly, until the reiga of Khampsiniuis, by the 
pricHts' aceuuat, Egypt enjoyed the ftdraiita^os ol iinivenal 
jaRlice** and of great prosperity. After ihal king's reipi, 
and under that of Cheops over lite Egyptians the country 
was rediicetl to the utmost misery***: for he shut tip all the 
temples, in the 6rst place, and forbade them to offer aacri- 
Bce: in the next place, he onlcreil all the Egyptians lo 
labour in his own sen-ice; some of whom lie accordingly 
appointed to the taitk of dragging, from the ((uarries in toe 
Arabian mountains, (he blocks doun lo the Nile"": others 
be statiimed to tuku the said blocks, when hruughl across 
Iho rirer in vessels, and drag tliem to the range called the 
Libyan mountain. Thcv were compelled to labour in this 
munuer by one hundred tliuusand at a limi;, each paiTf 
during three mouths: the lime duriug vrliich Iho peopie 
were thus ground down**, lasted ten years on the road 
which they COM striietcd for the conveyance oflhc&tooca; a 
work hardly less lahoHouK, in my opinion, than that of 
building the pyramid itself; lor in length it is five stades; in 
breadth, ten orgyct; in height, at the loftiest pari, eiglit orgyie; 
Uio muierials of poliKbed stone, covered wilJi all kinda of 
carved figures. On Uiis road, therefore, ten year* wrre 
s]}enl, besides iho works on the hill where the pyramids 
stand ; namely, underground apartnu-nis, which Cheops or- 
dered (o be made, as repOMtories for himself, in an island 
formed by the canal drawn from the Nile. The time 
peoded in erecting the pyramid itself wiu twenty years: 

<*( aSrst lirifJ^t: tl)« Uttvr wori 1m t»l«i (raDfitiTcl.T, fUppljisg 

il]«>ii«, ■* Ihnl 'tii.> at til* «onni(ia> <ir t4> AT^vrrn, fo AW^A, (« A- 

wnlth to oliioh ^nal \Mwn And liiMl> thni mtutirt nuMt b* ta*i>v4 

tutioni prriKil." caAiM'fjr.— &*iM^. 

•* Ixdrai IB»T be mftde inttaiwltlrf , "> Xtn. *W, S b. 
rqvlvklcal tn IXtA ; and ibcn sastnt ■'* Ualb 3M, (. 
mail bo treri(la(i»] m>itn/im«; if it 

EUTERPE, n. 125. 


dinivMioos aru, each fiG« eight plcilira, ibe e<li5ce being on 
a quadnitigiilar plan: the heignt is the sniue : it is coia- 
posini, for ihe most part, of poliahed niones, nicelr joinlcd, 
aori Ttone of ib*- Iilocks K*s than tliirty feet, Tliis pyramid 125 
WHS nrrclerl in the mniiutr wliicb i fihaU now dnscribo**: 
limy adfiplcd, forib(,-ii plan, aUii^ht nf Fteps; called, by sorne, 
ilairs: by otbers, u pilu of altars. Having laid the lir»t 
course nf slpps for the buildings, thcr boistcd tlie rcni.iinder 
itf ibe btockfi to a propur bright, by means of machine* 
eaasUting or short wtxidcn apaw**. From Uic gr<tnnd, 
thra. tbt-y Hfu-il tbt^iii up tu the 6ral courae; and wben thu 
«ton« hail reached thai height, they placed it on nnother 
ciORtrivu]i[:e uf ihc- saiuL- nature prepared for ibc purpoMt 
OQ the firu course, and dragged il up to the second ; and 
tbii* the machines must hare been th€ same in numbers as 
that of the step)': or eUe ib^y had but one machine, and 
that moveable, which was taken from step to step *", as they 

** rin sDD*t«>l diaKraoi l( intcoM to trpnvvM th« plu «n which (b* 

It v»a tint built in (he ihspc of 
Mvp*: tbrw itep-, ahc,'lt/,ki, 

Khen, Im^it' tti* RtonH for finlah- 
iifl the iinitrtiir?, thai I* la *hj, to 
111 op Ibc TRraltiM <■ c et.t k, Ac. 

fruB ai Xu €4, feii4 •« OD. The; fU 
ibkcd. jk IW flrit cImc, lh« Mp, 
iff, tod ebrn prM-v«cM lo *fk; and 
Unt roatiouol dtuMndiiig (ill tb«f 
iMrimri the bauom; m that the arc- 
Ika of Um pTnaJd, when crmplete, 
WM Ml iMMe*lo» lri«tigl«, rg: TS« 

largctt of tbt {nrramldii canfiati of 
abi)ot tira baodrad tin*, or Rteixi, tb- 
rjins La httshl frnm two co fooi Iwt 

*" Plaotd log«thir, probably, te u 
to form an inclitied plane ; a ■«- 
chino, which, rten In ths prvMM 
^wj, !■ Ch« cnly one <iti for ni«iaK 
«Donnou* hlockf, which waulil bniM 
Ihe cnDM tod other initramrat* DMd 
fof IcM pooderoua object 

<« ll Li prabnbl*, that, altrr /tc^m. 
«Dfne mcl) wordi ■• U rw livvftw Ir) 
rli r^im rrM^n baio bnii mtud. 


EUTERPE. II. 126. IW. 

hBuIud tlw stoue up: for it is proper I shonld stale bolb 
tnodoB***; asUieyaro relnted. The highert parts wemaecord- 
iiif^ly iho lirat Bnifihed uff*" ; afterwbich,the}r proceeded dovn 
to tlw oilier pHrts, step hj step ; and do, at last, come to (lie 
course re-«ttD^ on the ground, and completed also th« fool-^| 
ing. On tlio pyniniid, an inscription, in K);,vptian lclti-n,^| 
shewa how much vt as expended in supplyinf; lUe worlcineB '^ 
witli radishes"*, onions, and garlic ; and I rtcolk-cl pcrfccU 
ly "* Uic interpreter's reading Co lue the iuscripiion, and say- 
ing the amoiiat was one ihonsand six tiundrud mWvr talents. 
If this statetoent is corroci, huir much uiorif must hitvo been 
expended for tbu iron tools that lh«y worbt-d with. Tor lb« 
provisions, atid clotliing of the la)>unr(.Ts? when tbry occa- 
picd so loQf; a tiCDC as I have said in erecting the pynoiid 
ttxt^lf, besidi^s that, I suppose, passed in culling the stone, 
cont'cying it, and building ihe iiDdcrfn'')U»d placcii'**, whieh 

]^niti8t have been of no sniull duration. Sn deeply had 
Cheopa, it was said, sunk into infamy, that, being in want of 
cafth, he placed his daughter in a brothel, enjoining her to 
extort a certain Kum of money : what tlini »ras, however, is not 
loldi hut the damRcl not only cxtnrtcd what her fattier pre- 
scribed, but contrived to leave for herself s«'|iaralBly a menio- 
liol, by asking every <hic that paid her a viut to give one 
Btnne towanls the building. And with these sluues, ii ix said, 
she built the pyramid that stands in the middle of the three"') 
in front of the great pyramid: its sides are each one and a 

127 half plethron long. This Cheops, according to the Efjyp- 
liuoB, rfignud fifty years: at the decease of this prince, his 
brother Chephreu assumed the power, and acted after tite 

•* Lltmll;, •' Ibr let It U toll] l»r 
M In bod) nwanon. u )l b nktvd." 

•1 \*rttm ■igniflM to ' fitiiah,' ' ta 
conplirt*,' ' la oruMm^at,' ' to put tb« 
l»n RtTotB U « irart.' HertMOtut i* 
tpnkimi *f <)"> (Kwttiiff of the pjia- 
mld. tmreltert tntta. ITeM. 

*** TbU nord ii teadcted, i>J Pliiijr, 
" niftMbaf,'' i.». radirh; \>y "lii"h 
!■ ta bs nDdpntaed, ooc tbfl dclirnt* 
railUhn wi' hnir iii oer aatdi'D*, far 
wbioli w« IIP iiii)«bied to Ui« Ctiln«M, 
but s Urn black ton of toritip, callird 
la Sni^liA the DUck Spubb Btdi^. 
trUeb urowii, in hot eoiialriM, to an 
>D«rm«iR ah*. 

•u BM[HWtiD{t A irith ths inflnl- 
tive, ccticolt Sctiweig. Lci. Herod, 
roc. Ai, it.; uiA Matt. Gr. Gnmin. 
p. 999, or Mct SIS, id which l»t, iha 
tranilatioB Rinn bjr BViiolitM of m 

recallwt rl^titlj:" SchwdglianMn'i 
TaraiOD i» " rccU ineaiiEi.'' Lilanl- 
If, " tsd u I pcffecdy ricaiiutii 
wbat Iha inlxrpntn, ohnn ba tMd 
tbe iMcriptian, Mud to me,'' fte. 

*■' PiDtabh- ka Hk looDdaiJaa of 
tbu pfnunidi aince, aocordiBg to 
Scliwc)g1iani>«r*t taxi, tlia Iibb fMaad 
in «xi:a*atiaft tba raulU «& Ua UH b 
coiii|ireh(miI«id In tbe tea yean aa* 
ployed (Ml Ihe owMRwaT. 

*'^ Acoordinf ID HtradUiit, the 
flrat pvikmSd waa that of Chnpa ; iW 
wwani, that of ChapbroD ; fta4 Ika 
itiiH, that of HreeriBoa. 11i» tarth 

SjTvuid, or that erccud bj cha 
Bfigbier or Chtopi, was in tb« mil* 
d)e of the tbiee Grrt, anJ gppoaita 
tfaalcftinfatfaeir— forcArr. ~ 

EUTEUI'li. II. 128—130. 



lamc niannvi u his prodccvsKor i ai]d, ainmi;; other things 
built a [t^raniid, nhkh,in stze, fallii vi-rv short of hi« bmthi-T's 
il itJi diin<:nMon», fur 1 utciuurud hotit myscir Neither arc 
tbei« any imder-jjroiiiid apartuicuu"* atuched tu ii; uor is 
il w«tt?red, like the other, by a canal rrom the Nile ; which, in 
ifan Utier caikc, llutvs hy mean" tif an artiAcial drain rniind 
iho iitUiid, wIkto l'lico|w }niiiKcll'i!i Kiiid lo lie dt'poRiltfd. The 
6r»l ftlorv ut' Clit-i^hrtit's pyrumid consists uf r.tliiupiuii slune 
of tariutift colonrs, (iirlv jtjel Irs* in huighl Uian ihe oth^, 
cuDUguoua b) which it Mands*'°. llolh are erected on one 
aad the »aine hilt, about a hundred feet high. Chephrea is 139 
uau-U to ha«« ruined fifty'^ix ,vears. Thus ouo huudre<l 
and MX yvart an reckoned, during which tliv gnratcHt cala- 
tntttes t'isttcd Ibe Kgyptians : during that time the temples 
•en: rinstd, and nctcr opened. Id coniieqiujntrc of llic de- 
lv$talion iho Is^'j-pijmis luivo for them.' two princvs, they ore 
nal very auxiou:« to locntion their naini-ti j but call the py- 
tiinidi^ after a hcrdtinian, Fhililiun, who at that tiiue grazud 
lu* bcrd» about this placv. 

The liing ihxt aiteci-cdi-d ChcphrL'ti on thtt ilirono ori'29 
E|{V|>1 wais Ihuy !iHid, MyivriuuK, die mm up (.'ht-ops; ubu 
diMpprovL-d the conduct of his rather. Thiit )>riiiou rv 
optfttvd the tvinpk-i^; and ruslured to the |>coplv, gruuud down 
to the groatusl misery, tin' privileges of working for tbera- 
•vlvea, and ofTcriuj; up sacrilice : he adjudged also tbutr suits 
io lfa« UUitl fijuilablu manner uf any uf the kings: iti cou- 
mec o( tlti« inude of uctinff, the Egvpiians praise this 
iiarch far above all others of tln;ir kings: for not only 
Sd lie jutl((<i in oquily, but even, ubeii any one vmnplaiiied 
of Ilia atiiieiice •*, he gave him a Tcuiuueration Irorn lui uwn 
pOHeMion.'i'", and pacified his auger, tiui the first b<'({iii- 
aiDg of the calamities that bcfel this mvi-k piiuce, one who 
look Ko tnoch care of lii» aulijertfl, niw the death of his 
daughter, the only child tliat nsmaiuud to biiu. He wax 
stricken norely with sorrow hy wich a tiwutiou; and de- 
lifOQa of entombing his doceusud daughter i» a more 
•nniptuoiu manner than whs> cuHtoniary, he gave hi^ cum- 
■awU that a hollow wooden imnge of a cow should bo 
{in-|ured, which be cinL-rcd with gidd, and in it enclosed 
tbo body of bi:* departed daughter. U'hia image, aecurdingly, 130 

■• Milt. 4M. r. 

v^aaSaj i*>#^n* tit ^lyixnt j •* 
fytil'lt^ irAtipmt tit r^^4t tifk4t IJm 

roi„ 1. I 

[i. c. wit taydktj. 
*" Matt, bl* ; oul of Br<i f w*9- 
■■ Mall. 588 4. 

larTERPE. 11.131—139. 

was not concealed im(1er>f;rouii(], but u-ils an objecl erf 
iuapectioD even in my time ; being foand nt Sais, kUtid- 
ing wilhin Uie palace, in a hall »tiinptuuusly decorated. 
Perfumes of nil itoru are bomt, every day*", befori' her; 
while, ihrougb the whole otght, n lamp is kept bomiDg. 
Adjoining the place of this image, in anoiJier apartmt-nt, 
are Been tlic images of Mycerinus's concubines; such the 
prirsis of Sa'is assiTt them In be: in fact, »evera) woodco 
coloseuHeft are placet! h^re standing, to the number of abont 
twenty pcibnps, iill represented as naked : as to who tboy 

|]3arL>, I can say no more ihaii was snid to me. There are,botr- 
rvfr,»on)c people who fn**e the fulluwing account of Uiis cow, 
mid of the culo»suses ; — ihat Myceriuus was in lore with 
his tlaugbtur, whom he drtluwerod by violence : the young 
woman, they aay, slrangK-d hcn«L'lf tliruufjh anguish : accord* 
mgly, ho eDtombed her in this cow ; w-hile the moUieT cut 
off the hands of the attendants who had betrayed her daugh- 
ter to the father : and even now ibcse statues bear evidence 
of the punisbment Ihey underwent when alive. But I think 
nil ibeiw things arc mere fables, mor4> especially that about 
the amputation of the hai>d»: for I myi>clf saw that the 
hands had dropped nlTtn the lapse of time, and remainod in 

I32full view at the feet of the imagea, even in my day. Tfaia 
cow is covered with scarlet tra)ipings : all bnt the head and 
neck, which she exhibits, covered with a very thick plate of 
gold ^ ; between the two boms is placed a ji^ld circle, the 
representation of the sun: the cow herself is not repre- 
sented standing ou her legs, but crouchlnj;; on her kneca: in 
size, the image is about that of a large living cow. It is 
carried every year out of the apartment where it is kept : at 
the time that the Egyptians beat their bosoms in honour of a 
<lcity whose name 1 must not nicnuon here, then they bring 
out the cow into the ligbf": for it is said the princess, ouher 
death-bed, requested her fiither, Mycerinus, to let her mm the 

I33SUU once in every year. After the decease of bis daughter, 
the following was the second misfortune that bcfc! the 
monnrch. An orarU- wa;^ receiied fmni the city of Duio, 
announcing, tliat " be was to live »x years only, and die in 
" the screnlli." It is related, ilial the prince, vexed at tJiis 
doom, sent ta tlie oracle ; and upbraided the deity, urj^gi 
that *' his father and uiiclr had closed tlie temples, and 
" »hghte<l the g'Mls, but bud enjoyed a long life, in 9fita of 

•" Malt. 441, t,«. 
«* Mm. 419, i. 

EUTERPE. II. I:U, 183. 

** llicir ofipreHaioTis ; while he, tbttiigli pioitH ami n'ligiinis, 
" wiut tn du- KO snoD." There rntne, then, a f>i-ioncl cnmiiiit- 
ni^Mliuu from Uie slirint- ; staling, " for (but vcrj- resitnii his 
" Wt> unH ahndge<l, an he ha<) acted contiury to wti.nt he 
" ought to have done : Tor it was lat«d thai iC;;ypt (should 
" W opiimicti witli cal.iiiiilT during one hiiniln-d nnd fifty 
" yi-«r»; irhic)i the two prccediiij; kings wrn- aware of, 
" wht-rt-ashc hiinitrir wa.s nnt." It ii* added. Uiat Myccnnii!! 
having reccivi-d this iiitilligcnce, and smn^ ihwi his fate 
Was already dnidcd'*', nrdcrcd a roat nutnhcr n( lanipii li> 
bo niiide, which he lighted up whenwvor night came ; dnring 
which hL- drauk and cnjoyc-d hiniKelf, netcr ccoHing nielli tint 
(lay, and iraiclled o«i-r tliu iiuirshL-s, ihu gruveK, and all 
pliers wht;T<i hu aBCcrtainiMl vohiplunuMic&K might he gmli- 
fifH. 'i'hix mode uf acting vias dovisi-d by the king, for the 
pDr|>oBc of uuiivittiog the oracle of falsehood ; hecauAe, by 
changinji' uight into day, hu tdiuuld {;ain twelve years in the 
placu of three"*. 

This king hIso Icfl a pyra.inid ; greatly inferior, however, in 134 
«ie to tlint of his fiither"', being twenty feet less Ihnn three 
plelfaru on each Hide : it is uf a i|na<irATigulur ftinn. and 
built hiili'-nay itp uf Kthiopinn «lnne. Snnie Hellenes s>«erl, 
lalsely, Llint thia pyramid i» iliat oi IthudopiM the harlot; 
lhe«e ih-reonK arc ei-idcutly to me (jiiite ignorant who Kho- 
dopia wok; olhcrwi&u tlit-y could not hare utlritrnted to her 
the erection uf sueh a pyramid a» ihitt, on which, to use 
«uch an eiiJresBtitn, thousands uf talents inuiiiucrable were 
vxpeiidixl : nioreun-r, Jtlmdupis QunriKhod in the reign uf 
AtDosiA, and not at the e]KJch we are now alluding to : fur nht: 
was wry many years posterior lu the kings that left these mo- 
nuRH^t« : bv birth, t^hc was a 'I'hracian, a fcllou'-slavo witli 
/Kaon the fiibulist*". in the service of ladinoii, the son of 
HvphiBMopoIift, a Saminn. For ^iiop, there ran be no 
ilouht, belonged to ladmon ; a fact clearly proved by this 
eircimiKt^ineo: the Delphianx, acconhng to the bchnd of the 
oraele, frei|ui-ntly applied, by herald, for infonoatinui 
** who would claim (uniMiiction fnr .-fisop'* life;" nobody 
tppmred, but the son of ladmou's tion, another Ia<lioon, who 
took the fine: therefore jV-my mnut have been the piojieriy 
of Udmon"*. Klio<lopis arrived in Egypt, under the con- 135 

w «•(». 5M?. 
w* Han. «», I. 
•* Kui. S87, », <**. 
* Mall. 4SS. 

*" (^riKiu* M3it Aw|> M Udphl 
wtA a snal qMBtlty of noM, ia 


order to aSrr a ma^ilieeol (■rrllloa 

«ltiHn fnar mlnr. Baling, li would 
■Mm, Km* dlraul* nrilh Ibo Del- 

thtM*! hn iMrnrwil ilw laertficC) 
ui ton* tbv won*; l»rk agaia ta 



iIiK-l nf a Sjinian. cnllL-d Nuiillins : slif came- Lhcre lo excr- 
ctiu! Iii'i' ]>rori>t;«uin ; ))ui wus ratiMimeil by n nnlit-c of Mitv- 
Icnr, Chani]iu<s ibo son of ScuiaamlroiirnMis, and bmllicr of 
Sa]ipliu llw poclesw. 'lliiis Kliodopis wax sei at libertT, 
BTnl stnycil ill KKVpt; and, being much soaj^hlallrr, ania*«d 
grrrMt (Vfiihh for a ivoinnii of ihat class, 1>iiC,at all events not ^M 
v1^o»^•\l lo erect sucli a prramid**: any one who wishc*, V| 
may see, m ihis diiy, what Iht' titlie of her pmjierly itiiauut«tl 
to, nnd n*oiild not attrihiiK; (o her such immense irealibr 
for Rhndopitt, nnxinu« tn leave in lleDnf) a montinneiic of] 
hi'r!>elf, hnn the rotlou-ingarLiclea made; uhk'h nhcdrdicateil 
M Delphi, as a iiiemorijil; Mich as it nrvrr occurred indeed 
In any tndividiuil lo think of, and present in the temple. 
Out of the lenlh of her whole property, therefore, she made 
n« many iron spitx to roast nxi*n upon, as were cqnirnlent 
lo Uie tenth of hirt poMc-H^ionn, and Kent ihem to Dulpliu 
They still lie, in a heap, behind the altar erected by the 
Chiaiis, opposite the temple. — The harlots of Naucralis are 
priierally rcrr fasichiiiling: for, in the first instattre, thia 
\ron>an made herself so fAntotw, that llie name of Rbodopis ^H 
becnine familiar to all lli<: llellL-ui-a. The second example, ^M 
Mibst'ipiL'titlv to Rhoilopic;, wiiK fjiven by a bariol called ' 
Archidice, celebrated ihron^hout Hellas, but less nniorioiM 
than the other. — Cbamxiia, after having nmsorocd Rlmdopis, 
rotumed In Mitylene ; and wait often the Kubjoct of Sap* 
Ithu'a gibes, in her venefL. — But I uill say no more about 
I3fl Next ti> Myceriniw. tlie priests mention, as his aucceaaor 
on Ihi' throne of Lgypl, Asvchis, who creeled the eastern 
porch of Vidcaii*» temple, which is by far the largest and 
most bcaniifiil. Each of the porches is covered with en- 
graved figures, and va^l nnmben of architertnral oma* 
mcnts; bnt this one more nhnndanily than itie rest. In th« 
reign of iIiIk )<tng, it is rniid, the circulalion of motirr »-aj< 
so straitened, that a law wnx instituted by the l^gyptians, that 

Sardl*, J'-vminit (li« iabsbitBnu uu> 

oorth* of Ibt priora'" nmnitiocDN'. 

Tlip D«1[ihiBJ)«, urged hj iin(tCT, ana- 

nimoiw!; arcuicd liim of Hctileitr: 

knd fmi bim "i d^-ath, tiy danliink- Kim 

from iNv rock H;f*'i>P "''"'■ "^^ f^ 

of Ucltihi, affrnilc.'! nt •ooll * iir6, 

madg their land' To Iw bormi, and 

BEnt llivin all manner r>f riira il.»?iw«(i. 

Winhiitft to WiJ thr *courKc, thty 

prorUiiiird 11 ibff dlfTcrcm foliiafi 

of Or«cr(. lb*t if any nne pniild b* /rwi Phrtvre^. 

ftmnd b> HifinBiKl *ati>br(inn for ili« *'* Matl. 4U. 

danlb nf .fv-an, ihn^ VtMild irTmtIt ll 
hitn. Id th* thifd gmeration, ■ D>tiv* 
of SatDM pfmnied hiiMclf, naMei 
litinon [tbtr nine with ib« ladman 
of Hrrodcnu*]: lie mm uo rtlatiaa 
i» JEtop, bul one of ibc lid II II iiihaW 
iX rli^*o wlin baJ pimhawJ Ub at 
Samnti. Tlwj^ of Delpb) maiip tamr 
oaiUfHini'iniobtin, ■ndwwtfmiUlivfrfd 
from Ibc ralamltica wilb wbiph Atj 
liml bma afliciod— £jimAn'*« (mm*. 

EUTERPK. II. 1S7, las. 


Ui TedfL'rn n dfl)t, llie ptrson that owed the uiuiiey was to 
pledge the deail iKidy t'( liis latlirr: (n tliin Jaw was ap- 
pended anotlif>r, that the creditor should lia\c xhc j)o\t(t of 
»eiziiig the whole oi the scpiilchial dc)>OMt» bclonjinng >o the 
delitor. He who, altttr giving this pledge, fuiXt-A to cant-el 
die dfllit, wab f>uhject«d to tbt following; piinibhnifiit: he 
TW DOI hitnNeir to receive burial nt di>nlh, nliellier in the 
^tnily scpulclirc or any olhcr; neither nas any ol" his poslo- 
ricy lo be depu-<^iled in a lumb. Asychi, auibiliuii-H of siir- 
pantog hift predfcessore, left, as » monumctit of himself, a 
pyramid composctl nF bricks, villi an iDKC-ri|iliun carved ou 
MOBe, niiining as follows: ** Dcepifio too nol in cotni>ari<iun 
** viih the Ktunc pyramids, for I uxccvd thuiu a& much U6 
" Jove does ihe oilier gude. Tlioy plunged a pule into the 
** lake"'; and collecting ulmt aill adhered )o ihc ptilu, made 
•* of il briclt%, and built luc iu (hat manner." — Such waa lliu 
Wdrk uf Uii» prince. 

Next lo him, I was iDrunned, ruled a blind man belonging 137 
to the Utwn of Anysisi and himsvlf called Anysis. I'Dder 
liif rvigo, Sabuciis the Ethiopian kiugi fullowed by a mighty 
force of Ethiopians, invaded Kgypi: accordingly, tlio blind 
princF took Tefiige in the niiirahes, uliilc thi.- Ethiopian ex> 
icndi'd bix sway over Kfr>'I" during liftyyoiir«; und, while 
be held the power, p^rriimird the following actiunn. When- 
vrer any Kg\'ptian nas found guilty of a criuw, SabaciiH 
wotdd Dot have him put (o death ; but, in proportion to the 
niagniludo of tlio offunce, adjudged each to labour at throw- 
ing Qp a mound before the eily to ivUich tliv cnlprit might 
bslong. By this means, the (owns were raised lo a still 
higtier Ictx-I than belbre; for under king Susostrin, the pri> 
HocTK of tvar, who dug the canals, hud already iliiown up 
mnuDdft about the cities; and under the Kthiopjau prince, 
ttieae wcrs cleiatcd to a much greater height Although 
cicTT town in Kgypt now lies high, the most extensiTC 
ntuiinds must have been, I think, made about Uubaslis, a city 
which poKSesses a temple of Hnbasli«, wt'l) desnrving to he 
lueiiuoiied : other t*:mplcH may lie larger and iuon> sump- 
tuoas, but none is more gratefid to tho eye. liuhastis is an 
Egyptian word, answering lo Diana. This holy precinct 136 
may be (bus dmcribed. Willi the exception of the road 
IkmIius to it, ttic situation ib a complete island ; for tno 
canaU from the Nile running inland, wiibniit mingling ihiiir 
«a(ers> cxt«ad euch lo the entrance: one flows around this 

™ (VMvrrMt^gM&n " to put MiBr- pitting ■ I>bI» iind*r Mr mttd in ih« 
ihnif it Biidar mMlwr, m ttitt lo lako, all iba nnd thai Murk to it, 
nlim II." LmrrJttr. l.iiDnlljr, " br Uui." *e. 


EUTEKPE. 11. LStI, t4U. 

(.'tde, the (itlier lliai: oacli is ouc litimlrcil feel iti lirfB 




IK IL'O i>i(iv» iu hi'iglit; iiiiil decoralL-il trilli Winilifiil flgureK, 
six cnl'itA lii^li. As Uiu eacrcd precinct Ktstitlij.iii ihi; ccniiv 
uf lliL* town, il h visible on awn side, fi-uui lop lo tullou, 
when you ^o round it; (or lliv town i\w\{ iiaviug bno 
raisud coiisiik-riiMv abuvt; the uld level, hr inouus of tliB 
work» thrown up, nhiW the temple mnainrd iintouchi-d, ii 
is Kiill L-uuHpicitam lut when fir^t liuilt: u wull nms all rutiuil 
the precinct, eovenMl n-iih fifjure^ ciu in llic kloup. Iti 
iusiuc is seen a t^toye of vitv large liws, giuving roua^ 
an exieonve icmple-, where tho divine iinnge Klands. llw 
dimciisiunE uf the holy precinct, both kttglb und breadth, 
nri'! tii'i; stadox: near the entiaiict^ i*. a uauMnray of eione. 
aboiii three Madeti long, leading tliruugh the public squar«(^| 
ea!4lwunl: the brcadili nf this cauxetv.'iy Ik lour pleihia: (>aH| 
both Hides of the road which lake» to the teuiple ol Mcrctu) 

l391otljr ireea art- planted. Snch, tlien, in thiK preciiicL Tue 
final dc|>avlurc of the Ethiopian jjrince is ihiw described by 
the priests: they kit that he saw a vision of the folluwiitg 
nalnrc in his ideup: he fancied he beheld a ninn stunding 
over bitOt wliu iidmonifihed him to colleet all the prienta iti 
Ef;ypt,und cnl tbcm down the middle. Sabacuii having Iiad 
thin dreaini Kuid that he regarded it an a suggestion sent 
him by the godsi, in order th;it be should attack the reltgioiia 
riLc», iind thereby draw upon himself some calamity at the 
hands of ihc gods or men. He detennined not In act su^bnt 
lo lalie bis departure from the coimlry ; as tin; period during 
which he was fated lo rule o^er Kgypt was gone by: for 
before hv tiiiitled Ethiopia, ih*" oracle frequented by the i 
Ethiopians declared that he wa<t Lo reign over F.gypt fift|^| 
years. As. therefore, that time va.i come, and be wai^B 
alarmt.'d at bin drcnm, he, of his own accord, withdrew from 

UOEg,vpt. After the depailtiru nf gabaciis from Eg>-pt, tfao 
blind king re!>itnu-d the nnlliority; and came (orih Itom the 
iiiMrasseH, wht^re, during a »c^oum of fifty years, he had 
formed an tshiiid of ashes and earth: for the Egyptians 
being wont to conic lo biin xvith provisttms Hccnrding lo 
what was imposed on cnch individual, unknown to the 
Elhio|)iau***, Anyais commanded them to bring with the 
tribute a certain quantity of ashes, as a present. IMor to 
Amyitxnft, nobody was abli- to find out thisisliuid: ditring 
more than seren centuries the predecossor^ of AroyilMU 

writ, M tbr "-nid ».7J, 1 ihtai h Ic iLarcArr. 

EUTEKPK. H. 141. 142. 

uiLablo In asceruiia wbcrc ii liiy. 'ilie □bum! of this 
ilUad is Klbo: its exieut, in v.\e.ry ihrcctiou^ is ten staiiva. 

Next Ui this \ant, il waa stated, tliai a priiiHt o( VulcaaUl 
aftconded tbe tliniuo: bis uaine was Svllion ; hv nugliicted, 
BDd held iu ao account, Iho Bgbting cueU; of tlic LgypU(U)»i 
not TeeUug aujr utNiHHHiijr of Uit-ir svrricus. Iu cmisKtjueuce, 
betook various ci|>))»riuin(toii oriitQictinK dUgraccs on thcee 

ate; uud, amuiig other tilings, he duprivud ibcm of ilii^ir 
k, which had bccu )'icLt:d out aud j^ivc-D them by his 
predocesaocs* to tlic aruuuut of twulvu ucrua*" every luan. 
A abort time aAcr, Si-uacborib, king or the Arabians and 
Aaaj-naua, Itrd a iiii(;blr host against K{{,v]>t ; iu lhi» eiuer- 
gsncy, tLu Kgyplion warriors uuuld uoL coiuo forward: but 
tbe priest, thus beaut with difficulties, coterud tbe tenple, 
irut, in frant of ilm Kacrcd iiuagi.*, putm'^l fortli bi^ trailiuj^ 
U the danger hu wa» t;x|>o»ud to. After mailing thi» coin- 
plaiutf alccp came upou him, and in u li^on ho fancied the 
jUtty was BiaDding by and checriuK him, uasurinj; liini Uiat 
^^Wsliould HufFcr no dikcouiliture in facing ilie Arabian boat; 
^^W be binuetf trould s«ad assi^tantti to biiu. Xrualing to tbia 
W dream, ibc king took »ucb of the Kgyptians as c^osc tu 
■ ibUow biiDf and eucnnipi-d wtlh his troops at IVIusiuni, where 
P tbo entrance into Kgypt lay. Not ou<; of the warrior ca»tv* 
liowifver, joined him: hiit army conMst^jd of tradus- people, 
iDechanictt, and inarkf t-peopli*. Having arrived at the aboru 
place, the held-tnice poured in legions against tbe foe during 

ttbo night, end ilovoured the quivem and the bows of the 
enemy, together with tlie sbicld-thongt; ; so that, uu the fol- 
lowing day, a multitude of ibi; ievadiog troops, ruil of ibeir 
vnu, Ml in tlieir flitjhL And even to this day tli« Hioue 
iaiagn of ibis king elands in VtJcan's temple, with a mouse 
in bia baud, .taying, oa ia nhcwn by tin- iuHcription. " Let 
^ bun Utat looks at mc, pay hoiuas'.'' to ihc gode""." 

Up to ihia portion of our hbuory, tbe Kgyptiuna, as well US 
■a tbe prieMB, shew that tbe Ume elapeed from the first kiDg 
to tbe duQtli and cud of tbe reign of tbia priest of Vulcaa 

** Tbr Ifw^M it a Isn^-mrunrv, 
•fOd to lO't L|ivpti*n vf^'X- >!<A»r»J. 
Ln. CaiutT. (IXirn aivHi lifixutai 
«^ dflf»t ffUi. ittv Mali. tl«,6.) 
VM (tl,i^«J dffVfu MlWai Ic) (•» 
tfittprt tanXUt )va)iu i^iit'*' 

** Xiytniti yfmfi^Tm, Uicmik tllkt 
Hut* wu on ibc (lAln* *a iairn^oa, 
topivling &<■. Tko r*ib x{]4i( i« 
m)UHi(l]r w«4 with ypififtmrm, ttiiM, 

y^ffJtt'. and Knajuttti iiutKUiwx 

BitfihE bo prv4ua«JL I ikmiU moI 
have thounhc It nMnxurj to nuke 
thii rspliuiat1«o, hti I nnt wcB in 
me of iLe aubliibf) tmulsdocM at 
Uendutiu, l!b«l lh« ahyn b rrnilcTed, 
'' aoi tboa* wordi inuiuji fVma Uf 
aMtb." Il would bo liighlf inipeMliMM 
I* Mil** tnfo any loog diiqvlMdon K) 
prftT« that worda Mnnul WaiM ti<nm tb* 
tnMtli qI > m«rlile itanw, fMiteakMl; 
Uf HandMW aap nu (uob ibuiit. 



wiiit UiiTv liiiiidrKil niicl fotly-one |{fntTAtiiHi!> of mi-n, ni» 
(liinii^ lIic'Nt' };fiii'iiili<>ii£ wi-rf as inaiiy liiemrcbv aut 
kiiigH. N'DW, ilirrc liundrLtl RcnL-rationK of men are equi 
to ten llioiisaiiil yisiini; for ilirut- g(.'ii<.-mti(ms of men ntDnic 
to onv liiitidrvd years ; uul tlic furty-um: gi-iicrttlion-s atil 
reinamiug over anil hIkivu the thn-e hundred, nuiliv 
thmiKund ihrcu hundred oiid forty rears: l)ia&, in rleve 
itiouvaud yi'ant, togi;OiLT irjtL (lie adduioa of ibree Imndni 
and forty, acconlintf to their nMtcrtion, no |;nd aK*im<.'d ibo ,« 
liniuQii fiirru ; tiL-iilit-rt »uJd tht^y, had »tit'h a thing hii|>|ieti(!4^B 
before, nor ufu-r, .tnion>f the hUkt kinf{K of Kt^rpt. l^U^II 
diiriug this period, they H!)>erieil, ihnt fuur tiineti the hud bwl 
risen ont o1 his u<^na) spaIk: and thnt tuict; he n>t4s whi 
be now Bct», and tmue be net where hi? dow riscs^ Tbei 
add, llial. in ninBRqiiniiee of lh««e rovniutintts, no alleratic 
ill reKard of Efcvpt. "'helhcr laitd or river, occurred ; nor 
likewise u'ith i'cs|K-€t lo diKi-axes, or the thiii)fs pcrUiniii^ tn 
14.'ideatli. In furni<^T days, HccatoJiis thd llietorum, )M--iij){ at 
Tlielies ^a.s reheamiuK his gcneulogy, and connecting hi* 
laniily with some god in Ibc sixteenth remove: but Ibc 
prie&ts of Jn|>ilcr bcharrd to him as they did to mysvlf, at- 
thoiif;h I did not incntiou my gi'ncalo^y ; tbey took me inio 
lliR iutirior of the etlifice, which is of considerable extent, 
and rerkdnod up, one hy oiiu, avi'uraU-ly, a n(inil>i,'r of w<H>d«n 
cflIn.<iMisrii Hbicli thiy shewed mt* : ibr pv(?ry hi>!h |>ritKt thcra 
HtftK up the image of himself in hix lifetime ; after ru'ckoning 
the whole scries, uiid tilicwinK ihum to me, Ihcy i^rorcd thai 
every one was the son of but predecetixor, comnrencing nt 
the tmngc of the tnsl deceased, and proceeding along iha 
line till they bad got iJimtigh the whole. When lleeatsuit^ 
ax I Kitid before, reckoned uji bis um'cstorfr, ami coiincclcd 
ibeni with »ouie god in the sixteenth geneniiiuu, the priests 
objeetfd to him llie genealogies of their hierarchs, wboin 
tbey cnumei'ated **, without adtnittinf; in tlic Ititt that any man 
was ever sprung from a (;od : but deRCrihed tb«r pencAlo- 
gical table in lhi» manner; saying, thnt eaeli of the coloa- 
susos was a Pinnuis, honi of a Piromis, until tbey bid 
pointed to four hundred and forty-five culoasuarea Pirouiis, 
soHK of Piromit>, and eonuected Uie line with no god or hero. 
Piromis is aa Isgyplian word, tbal muaDs * a noble and good 

*^ Tbn« ^druJ u<l rwlj-oiii:. uIm I flicuU i»w Islcn Ivl in dw 

(DUDItnteraiil. SeAterig. Dont lU 
lui lirpDir#liLilu<ratl'>lJ. I itrrber. Il 
«mU bo 111* lic!p;hi nf ^mnnntlDn 
Kk\ t'jbovi lo such lulhoril'^; Mhrt- 

aunit' qf, tvtlA rntait to ; Uict niiiiiMlil 
bill geftvalo^ III rtgud to aoinlHr, 
i. «. iImmt trctnnciH np tXrt* bw- 
dud kixl ft-ilv-drt hi Hrci 

EUTKRPE. II. lU—i*6. 


man-' I'hiiii, aceonliiiftly, l)m prienUi |)Tort^d Ui inu ttial all 144 
those L^luuKiiig tu thou iii)ii)fe» were lar (rnm any (bin;; like 
a god : bnl that, prior to Uiese in«n, Kg>-pi had had thu gnds 
for its riders, who re»idvii aroon^ ineii; and one of whom 
wns olwayx inre«ted with the siipreiuu power. The lasl, lliey 
a«»H;rted, ihal ruled over Envpt, was llic sod of Ofiiri«, Unis, 
the Ljiyptinn name for Apotln : ihitt ^od dt'poMxl Tvphuli, 
snd «u the hf^t of the itnnKirtul K-ings tli«t roigned in 
E|JETpt. Osiris in (lie- K^'vpltaii fur liaccliUH. 

AuiLin^ ihe HvlkueK, ihi- uioxt modoni of Ihv gods are 145 
liL-ld la be llrrcules, and Iliii'chuH, and I'an. Wilb the 
Kgyplinnn, Kuii is reganlod if, extirmely nneient, and one of 
Ihe cifihl giHls calk-d uriKinal ; llercuk-s is said lo belong 
lu thu wcuiid gudfc, calk-d iht- tMrUe gnds; and Baci'huK lu 
Ibc Ibjnl, spniDK fruDi the luclre*". I have slutcd ab<»re, 
boH- many years the Egyptians »ay have inteneiied from 
ilcrculi-s lu the reign of Aniosis**: it is said, that in tbu 
cnae of Pan the number of years \ia» Mill greaU'r: the 
IcAitt of all Kacchtu, Iroiu whom, down to king AtnaKis, tittty 
leckriii lOpcn thousand years. All the above dales the 
Eg}'punns piofi-SB to know exactly, having ut all tinie& kept 
ma arcnnni, and rrgiHlercd thi; yeiirs. l-'rotn my time, iherc- 
ilnre, tu that uhen Bacehus, it is fniti, uok bom of Semele, 
Cadmnti'ii daughter, in about on<: tlioiii^And n\x hundred 
Tcarv: to Hcrciilef>, bom of Alcmena, nine htmdrcd years: 
to Pan, bom of Penvlo|»o (tlio HetkneK give to Iter and 
rcury lite title of parenUi to Pan), the years are not au 
tiy a« lo the bcgimiing of the Trojau war; that i» to say, 
■Iwitt right hundred years ut my lime. Of thenc two ays> |46 
leuis every one is at libiTiy to adopt that ot either nation 
to whom lie f{ivt5 the f^realcr credit: 1 have therefore put 
down wltiii uiy uwn upintun on tlieiie uutters is ; fur if thettc 
gods bad beeu known tu H«lla», and bad lived to old age in 
Ibat countrv, I mean Hercules, begoUun of Amphitryon, 
■nd especially Uacebus tlic Hon of heniele, and Pjin, borne 

* la. c IS, fthm^igitmrntt oti> 

IhIub *h Ifimrt f«IiaOt aigflifV, M 
Lati^ef bu, " (luH tweltc gudt Ihal 
•wr boiD al Iha right gnia ;" nnd 
nnsrtj, •! Ike iBiPc lim-, tlut Jn- 
ttvMki p>0]M>ttj ot<*«rtii>, that Ikv 
Cfjid.aii* <«iJi]t4, in Miccmdinfi llmwt, 
iMr ilHitM in Iha fight wki^h ihr; 
"r<BiiBllf wnnbipikvd. A«li**i^ri»o- 
m bai tfe«i«fur» nwulaitd In tlia 

■ham CUT, " pMtquHn «x prfmia 
ocM iti^' «siiiiicTiist illi iluoilririia.'' 

Il atrikri uw uti iiiiJuhitalilr, that tfa« 
•amp nuiHiiiinit xppIW rt Ihv pn««e*, 
bJnfi ll. *M T(Jr«t, 4tU rit imHiMm 
ttCr \y ti mv t . 1 liiKP til rtiiwijunii-D 
milarnt Gn iltniUr ffnm )VI>ir(i|iha^- 
•Tt, Blinm TcrflvD iri«a ** ifai tt dui>- 

.li^iln dita (trnrinli (an)-" 

°> Mall. :ii>fi, r. S«« tUf. 43. 


eutkkpj:. II. U7. 

by r«n<^1u|M!, any on« mifilit say, that, altbougb tlie_ 
mortal men, tlioy bore Uic nnmesi of tfae godK lonff i-xuuil 
bi-foru tlitiir timi.-. Now ilie Hellenes allirui, that BaccboB* 
immediately alltr liis liml comiog into exUlence, was sewed 
up iu Ju|)itcr's llilf^h, aud conveyed by that god to Nysa, a 
placti iu Ethinpia, silimie above Kgypt : an tn Pan, tliey do 
Dot preteud even (o say wbithcr he was lokcu lo at bis birth. 
Hence, tht^refore, 1 havt: come tu the concliuiou, that tbo 
Helleiii.-ii ubluined ibrumiutiun of tbeur aames »oidu tiu« „ 
aXivr tboHc (if ibe rcxi of the goitK ; and that from ihnt cpoc bafl 
the Hellenes reckon by the genealogies tbe (lato« of lh«H 
birlh* of the»e ^odi*'*'. This accordingly is agreeable to 
what the Ef^yptiann tbemw^lves say**. 
147 What both the Kg^plians and otbcr nations agree (o bare 
occurred in thin country, will be tbo subjecl-maller of the 
folloning part of this Ilifttory i to which will be added soiuu 
things from my (jnrii pcrsuiial ubHen'atiOD. The E;^pti;tni^l 
haTini; bccomtMQ(le|iend<.-iit, nfti-r tbu ntgn of tbc prieM ofV 
Viilciui, eslablished tfor tlu-y could not live a moment uilh- 
oul a king) iweUc kings, and divided Egypt into twelve 
parts. Ttieiic twclre kin^js connected themaclves by inter* 
innrri&gca, and ttttcred into the following xtipulatious ; that 
they bhuuld not destroy the kingdoms of oik anolhcr, nor 
Rhoiild any one In get more than nnolber, and 
that ihcy ^hauld all keep un ibe most friendly terms: the 
roason wbivh induced ihum to adopt tbc above resolution 

■■■ Tbe i]M«tion wnMeni h^ He- 
rodohia in thin ch«BWT it, " WThHlii-r 
AiA Iti» GT««k( r«c«l*« Iheli tin<l< fmoi 
[)ic Edirptlwis or noiP" Tbto Mmiv 
aJIiriocJ. aad oibcri demml.' heae* the 
ipf/rtfa, " t)i« IHo i)|iiniaa<,'* l>4 nl- 
liiif. (o, HcrodatiK tj of oiimioti, ihnt 
tile " Giwkii took their jfoiln from thu 
EgJIptivu:" nliiuh be eiiiica<Oiiii to 
prove bj- (he fulluwidg Imi; uf stgu- 
muni. — Nv one vau dttiij hut th«( itie 

jrwJa UertniltH, Rkk^Iiiu, sad Pan, are 
DU^h mnro kn>Rien( (hsn Iha neii Wir- 
ing (b«iir [iiuim, <rlio ni'Tn hnru Id 
RrMtw, inil arv i>orihi|ippil hx Iho 
Gtvclkni amonK ihr fnit, Nnn, If in 
NcicDt tiuica lbc(c had bica knowo to 
the Grvciui* kh; Hotouli;*, Uaccbiu. 
OT Ptn, TtaX goitt, who hftd nipiti 
•mong tham, tben Indeed aoL'h as aiUriii 
IhOM gnda IU be uf GtecimD, «ud uot 
Er^Ubo aricin, inlgbc nlliigv thai tlju 
olber HcrcoTcB, Baechui, vui Pu. 
hiiA mroveditil th«m Ift nanw >nil in 

hoannra ; but, on th« tcntrvj, 
Greoi*Df kno* ot na HcmuIm 
Bnclenl ibM) rlie nu of i^lnnctia: 
with rnp^Dl CO BaMbiji uid Ph. bM 
«ul} ira iha arigiual oom ukMn 
to thtin, but ihcT an not tuActOUly 
aequuntfJ with tiM Uitar oee*. Reoeo 
it ia fnir to infer, that tlWiMBW amt 
vtonUip at HrrcuU*, Bainhat, tmi 
Pan, were not knnwD AHOBifc ibe 
Greviaa* till sboot t&« t<iac when tfae 
mrn whn bi>n Iboae m iiw i tool birth. 

*" Tavm fnt nv Mval Alyiwrut 
Uyttm, " TheM lltia|n aeMrdlDgH 
the E|[j|>liMifi ibcDixriTw amy:" i£m 
I* to tty, all that ha liaa »*»'*?"■* 
raepoctin^ thp tbr«* onW* «f ||oda 
who rukd ever Eft^'t b<-6Ma (he 
icepira Cril InUi tbc hanili uf tea* ; 
M likewiN the aocaunt Ika baa p*en 
of the anoieiK kinin of ibe hui 



tug out; anutbcr, uas, to furtify tlieiiuelrcK strougly. Ai 
very bcgiutiiug of tlicir ucccssioo lo Uil- diQcrcQl 
goreniuieuu, it was d«clutcil by tbe orade, " ih&l, of tlie 
** twvlvu, hv nho bbould iti Vulcau'» temple makv a UbaUuii 
•* froiu a braicu cup would be king of all Kgypl;" for ibey 
i.veie woiiL t4 liold ^cnerul a.4!«omlJlie9 at all the Ivinpl^s. 
^^u:c«rdiiigiy, they dcturiuined upon Icaiing, in i;omi»on, a I4d 
iiumciil of themwlres; nntl, ngreeably u> tbat rcRoliilion, 
tOKtrd a Lttbyriiitbtabc builia liillc above tlieluku ufMocris, 
«titt) u<H Tar from ibe town called ibe Cily of ijie Crocodiles. 
Iliis rditice, which cxcx-ede all powunt of description. I bavc 
vnysfir M?»>u ; for it is such, thiit if one could collect togelhex 
«ill tbo Hellenic edifii^vs, dl tliu trorkft llivy liave wruuKbtf tbu 
cull', elioii would \k mideiilly inferior, as respects the labour 
«n)pluy<.-d, and llic cX)miisc incurred. Tbo t«uiple of Kpbe- 
*.u» ■» uiidoubtcdlr magnitici-nt, aud so h that at ijamos: the 
i\nuuid» likewise were noble frtiucturvB, cacb equal Ut many 
ui llie iiiigbly works acbicvud by the Ilellnat put together: 
but Uiv latiyrinih beats tbe Pyramids thcinwivm. Tbe laby- 
riuth toiisisU of twelve court-yards, Minnundi/d by piazzas; 
two upposiw door& ooiiMilute tla- uiitruncL'ii, six luokin^ 
lu llio iioftli, Hix to the !<oulb, all in line: one and thu 
tame wall ua the ouuide dories in tbetwvlvu courts. In lllc 
jatenor arc two f^orts of ru(>Di», lho»c undL-rgrouud, aiid 
thtne above, tli« latter raiMH) ii|)ou tbe funuitr: iUnj arc 
UtT«« liiuututod in tiuuibcT, fifteen huudred of each kind. 1 
utyi<^>ir pasiu'd iliprefort; through, and saw the upper apari- 
uit:ut&, which 1 de&cribu from ovular iuapcctiou. I was 
obliged, liowcvLT, to confine my acquaintance with tbe sub- 
Urraocao purt« in the iDtbrroation I could get by inquiry; 
fur tbu ICgyptiuns appointed oTvr thu lubyrintli would not 
shew mo tJie&u apartitwuts by any means. u1lL-giug, Lbal in 
ihom; places were deposited the relicn of tlic uiunarcbs who 
ovclc^l the edificf , and t1uj«e of ihe sacred eioeudilet.. Thus 
wlial 1 nay uf itie lower aportiDculs is taken from lirarsay ; 
bDl all about the upiicr parts is from actual obM-rraiion, 
and 1 cuimider them inc uoble^l works of utcu: fur ibe pa&- 
«igi» leading out through tJie piazxas, and Uie paths across 
tte coarts, M varied in tlicir wiadtoga, prcscul very luany 
wooden to tho»e thai ]}»»» by the court tu tbe chotiibciB, and 
from thf^ chiimbcni to lli^ porchoii, and from the pordies to 
uther piftzzns, and other courts from the chambers: all 
kso have a roof of stone : the wallv are of tlie siuiu- niatu- 
lU, but lull of carved fi^n.-i>. Kound every court-yiird ia 
colonnade of whi ic Ktones, nicely joined. At llio uxtrcoiUy 
the labyrinth ribcs a pyramid, Ibrty or^yir high, tni 



which some gijjuniic figures are carved : Uie way iuto 
pynnniil is by ft subttiranciiii passage"'. 

149 A slill greater trmidrr than ihis lahyrinth even is fleen in 
ilB vicinity : 1 mean the lake of Moeris; the ciri-tiit or which 
(■nnipri>e» ihrei; thoiiiMiii(! Kix hun(lri:i] Hlailes, or MXiy 
Khccnes, a iitiinbor (.'<|uul lo ihu U'Dglh of E)?y|>l on the sea- 
feidc. I'hi^ Iniiu Htrdchtrs, iii i\s lc-ii);tli,frum north ta aoulh: 
its depth, wht'TO it is ili-vposl, in tony orgya;" tliere can bo 
no dimht that it was vxravalcd by haitu ; fur about thtr 
middle Kiaiids two pyramids, ouch rising fitly oi^f^-a) iibote 
tbv surface of Uic tratur, «-ith a (uttnduliuii to ihc fame doptb 
itndvr wat4>r: uo both is placttd a sioite coIoasuk, seaiud on a 
lhron«. Thcec pyniinids have iherePorc one hundred orgj« 
in total height, which are exactly equal to one ^itatle uf six 
plcthro; for Ihc orpra mcasurra «ix feet or (btir cubil«, 
each foot l>eiiig eqnnl lo four pubits, and ih^ cubit to six. 
The wnlera of this lake are not the spnnlnnonits produce of 
the Hoil, which is purticulurly dry in this qunrti'T : (hey cotue 
firom tlie Nile by means nf n canal; and linn- nix months 
from ilie Nile into the lake, and six nmnllts from the lake 
into the Nile: during the six monllw from the timr that Uik 
frtn^ni bvgiutt to How out, lh« lake bringH in (» ihu royal 
exchequer onf i^iber talent d:u]y, on thi.* fi)>h ; bnt at the 
other tiiui-s, the daily eonlributioD is only tnenty iiiiuK. 

IdOThe people btdon^ng to that country told me, aUo, that thi« 
lake discharfics it9 n-aten iuto the Libyan Syrtis, by an 
undergmniul tunnel*", running ivc!itn-ard into the interior, 
along the inoiintaiu above Memphis. As im mound wan itt 
bs seen rc^sulling from this rxcavalinn, a fact which »tnick 
me forcibly, I inqiiirud uf ibt; )>L*ople that reside ne.ire!tt la 
lh<; borders of the Inku whi-ru \hu Krunild thrown up was to 
be found: ilii-y infonitt'd uie, that it was carried away; and 
] readily gave credit to ibcm: for 1 had heard that 

■" The fiillovirR explMiRtion ol the 
diDrreiii piii* uf the labyrlrjtti b 
ukm pnril) Tiouk Lkrulicr, uiil ptrtly 
ffvia Vljttmlmeh: — 

I. mtiai m*txm-yml BT* IlOl eovncil 

enuri«, Imi oiunn MielMad whh walla. 
Th<m> cnurti wru- «nfroiiiid«! wilh it 
piTinTlp or colnnnuiR nf n-lir((? niiiblf , 
■tXt 11 Uamt. rtfltmXti, Xiha Ximtr 

%. There w^ra tvrnlve i*ti^ of 
IniJIdinjn. tho ■Kitie uuiiiWr h of 
cmifU. Tbrii! imiMin^!! HrnidoEui 
i-»ll(> ■! fTl>«i- — Tile vatffalM tu-A [irrocdillg. 
IJM>^ vrn- p«r(* of Ihc ti^i: tbr *<> MmU. M>6,*i. 
*i*4ftmrm and iiii^M wrrc pitl> iil >)>* 


3. Til* Ufy^wl *Brc wbding pw> 
H K*t, lo^diuK out or tlie court, or Mk, 

4. rartHu. at ■eaiihulM of A\ 
^riytt, Iruin ubi^h oat p«Mr(l biM 

A. ttmd^rm^ot ttftitmtau; lhra«gb 
obick rut lite 

8. Ilfilw, or (tnifht pajMa((p», lt*i- 
Inp rnfoiti to the atW, or i^iturt*. 

Lwiljr, tpfi ft »i>n» :l£m nwat 
be refpimi to iJhi^tir, iMim.'diairir 

NiniTtili, tlie AK<ivrimi lowii, a similar tiling Imd (ak«n 
^flacfi. Sfime llitcvcH (k-Urrrainctl U> maki: an alU'inpt to 
cany off thi' rictifiK of Sari)jna)>»1iis, king ofNiniveh, wbic-h 
wore conNidcmblf, und dipobiluU itt nudcrKrounil trcasu- 
rtes: lb«^' aciurdiu^lv commented in llieir own bouses, and 
opened a mine leading dived to the palncc : every ni){ht 
tbeT convened avay the iiionld pnict-ediitK from tlic exea- 
valtoii, Mini CUM it into ihc rirer Tiffris, irhicli pusses by iho 
c:ity (if Niuiieh; mid i]iis lliey coDtiniied to an, iiniil tbey 
'botl roin]wwied their object. 1 now bennl n ximitHr account 
respcctiiiK ibe escavation of the Kgypiian lake; M'ith tbe 
<)xce]>lion, thnt il took phicp hy day, and not by night: for 
the Egyptian!*, after making ibcir cKcatalions, carried 
the Rialt^rK throtcii up to the Nile, wliieli seized the de- 
pofit. and presently dispersed it abroad. Siicb, ihere- 
ftirc. iras tlie manner in wbiih ibi^t lake, it is reported, was 

cluR out. 

Tho twclrc kings, however, conducted tlicir (;oTemment8 101 
-writh juuice, tinlil the time irlu'ii they tnui to offer aaerifiea 
in Vnlcan'» temple : on the la-^t dnv of (he feslival, bs they 
iwore aboiiL to maki- libatiunK, the hi^fh prie«t brougliL ilieiit 
polilen t>nikcTB, which tliey were wont to nse in this ceru- 
kmmy, but made a uiistuke in the nuniber, bringiiitj eleven 
unly for the twelve. Thercupou Psanitiiitichus, who stood Itut 
vif nil. seeing that he had no beaker, doffe<l bin brazen helntot, 
Atretclied il ont to rcceirc the wine, and made his libation: 
all the n<8l of the kings wore behnets, and at this time bad 
iheiu on. I'Minuulkhiis accordinfrly »tretchcd out bis hcl- 
tDOt with uo sinister motive; but ihe rest fjok inio consi- 
deration what PMiminitichiia had done, and how the oracle 
pronounced lo them (hat be who should make a libatiou 
tram a bnuw beaker would he sole kiiiR of Egypt: re- 
minded of the ontcle, however, ihej could not, in justice, 
decree drntb to PjuinimittcbiiK, being ronrinced, on their 
inquiry, that the deed •>\an not purposely commilled ; but 
decided to bxniKli him to the mamheH, after directing him of 
the greatefit part of bis power. It was added, also, that ho 
ihouUt never come ont of the ninrshett, to have any commu- 
nication with the reflt of Egypt. This fsamroirichiis had 103 
fled into Syria previous lo the ri-trnit of Sabucun the Hibi- 
opian, who' had put to death his father Neeo; atid, after the 
Kthiopiiui, in consequence of his dream, bud witb<lTdwn from 
llio throne, wan bruu}>ht buck by the Egypliund beloiigiiig to 
tbe Saitic iiouie. Some time after, being appointed one 
of the kings, he was thus once tnore compelled, by iho 



pIovcti bingfi, to fly in the roarshw*". Peeling, thrreforr, 
thiit he huA beun uTuiigt-d by his collt'<igu<-'», he coiitmi- 
plated rei-engc on his persecutors; anti Bent )o the Khrinfl 
of Lutotia at Btito, wh«rc Ihc must rtracious uracle» are 
reccired l>y the KHj-piians, The answer of the oracle was, 
that veugeance \roultl coiuv M-hen iiitrii of hmati appeand 
risinif from the sen : but pKammititbns was Intli in give cre- 
dit to brass lueu ever being his coadjutorif. Not long tU\eri| 
however, Kome loninii^ iind Citrianx, who had embnilfed fot 
purposes of piracy, compelled by necessity lo bear away tot\ 
Eg}-pt, camo on shore, clad in hnss armour: an KfE^rptiat 
(who had never before beheld men accoutred in brass) weni 
to Psammittchus in tlio marshcis and rcpnrtt-d. t}iat somuj 
brasa roeii liad come ffom the si?a, and werti pliinderiDg thai 
cnnntry. Pfiammilichim, srcinjj thai the or-iclu was thna fnl- 
fitled, madif friends with lliu loniaiis and Carianit ; and havine 
rccourac to jp^cat pn»miscs, bruught tbi-ui ovtr to join «itli^ 
liiui. IJaving efleclud this, he accordiuglv, with »ucL Kgyp-J 
tiaDS as rolttntccrcd in hh scn-icc, and thc«c auxiliaric«,| 
dethroned the elercn kirig<(. 

103 PsammiLicbuB having reduced all Rffl^t under hi« domi- 
nion, erected the porch uf Vulcan at Memphis which looks 
to the soiilh ; and built for Apis a court, where he i« fed 
whenever he appears: it slaniU opposite the porch, i< 8»t^| 
rounded witli a piazitfl, and coveretl n-itb emblems: colossal^B 
statues, tn-elt-c cubits high, inslead of pillant, support tfao 

154 ptazxa of [be court. 'Hiis prince gave to the lonians, sod 
(hosn who hud nK)>iHled him, Mime lands to occupy, on oppo- 
site banks nf the Nile: to t]ie«e tu-o tracts of land he 
aAsi)(ned the names of camps; and, accordinf;ly, uol only 
jiresenied ihem with land fnr their subsistence, bui fulfill* 
hU the other promises he had made them. Among otli< 
things, especinlijr, he enlrnsled to the care of these aliens , 
some of the sons of the Egyptianit, to be taught the Hellenic 
tongue; and from these pupiU descend the prewnt int 
preten in J''gypt. Tlie Inniamt and Carians rcnutined for : 
long time in those (piai-terfi, which extend along the »*«■ 
shr>re, a short distnncc bclou' the city of Itubnslis, on tiv 
Pcliisiac mouth, as it is called, of tbc Nile. Tlie&c colonial*! 
were aubsequeutly tTansferTe<l fmm hence, and settled at 

\i «4 TXia tanXmftBmm ^t rfi: fm TaI' <tr tiappMIS ta •» Ulll M, ta At I 

Irlita fiMilun ka rif tniw. TDb »■ U ■offer Wl Wirl Rl" S«« SMMN^fJ 

pn-uidn. ■■mJLA/iiUiu vna **aT; nr i^s. Ilrtndt 
^it)^ttr riitf, an4 limiUr inflancr*, 

EUTEKPE. II. iM, 156. 


ewipliK whciT they wrvcd as a body-giianl to king AmaMs 
ailBt the KKj-pUans. From tlic iioriud of the scukmL-nt of 
people in Eg^'pt, tho Hellcues have kept up with ihcin 
cb a cloM! coDOL'siuii , that wv kacm (ur ci-rtoin, beginning 
tn tb« fci^Ti of PsBiiimiiicbus, orory t>ccuTT«Dce that hafc 
inec taken pine i; in KKVpt; for these loiiiiuis mitt Cunans 
.TV ibc tirst penoiu speaking a foroign tongue that settled 
iQ EigypL Dowu to my day, tbv duck fur shipx, aii<l ibe 
rains ul' bouses, were elill seen in the couiUrv', from whence 
Ibejr were traosptaotcd Sach waa therefore the manner in 
ubicli P«amniitichu)i obtainccL poiuession nf Kgvpt- 

I have already mode frequent mention of (he Egyptian IfU 
umclc**' ; but shall h(T« cxlrncl my remarks mi ihis Mihjcct; 
(OT it well dKRerveaftisii notion. Tliu holy precinct of Lalona, 
ntmte in a tars:^ town, pmiicnts iinnlf tti vonr view, when 
yon Mil up fn>ni th« sea by Uio month colled the I^bennytic 
moatii of the Nile : the name of the city, where this »hrino 
Ktdnils, is Huto, as 1 have before uhserveu. Within tliiK city 
are seen not only the precincts sncrcd to Apollo and Diana, 
but the temple likttwisfl of Latona, in whicb, accordingly, 
the oracle is located: it is of considerable extent, and the 
fionl portico riacH to the height of ten orgrte : but what 
stmck mc as the nioRt marvellous of iiU, that «-.i« to be seen 
at ibiK pinrr, n-ax, the temple of Latona itiwlf, ma<k', length 
and height, of ooo ungle block of stone : the sides are all 
eqaal, i--ach dimcnaiun measuring forty cubitfl: the roof 
consintK of anotlier flat stone, the eares of which project 
Iwyond the walls, on every i^ide, by four cubits. This edifice, 150 
tlien-fore, is the mo^i Rdmirable of all tho things iliatare to 
bt: kccii abuut lliis precinct: the next to tbis is an island 
called Cbemmis: it lies in a deep and hmad lake, close by 
tlie boly precinct in Dntn, and h said by the Egyptians to 
Soil I myself, however, never saw it Rvrim or more, and 
VM atmck with astonishment when 1 heiird of the existonce 
of doatitig islands. In this one, accordingly, is seen a largo 
temple ofApoUo: hero, also, three altars have been erected: 
palm-trees gmiv in alinndaiice in this island, as well as many 
other fruit- bearing and forest Ireeis. The Egyptians give the 
following explanation of the Hoaling properties of this island : 
that Latooa, one of the eight gods first exisu-ut, and who 
lidded at Huto, where her oracle stands, saved Apollo, whom 
•ba bad received from Jsis as a sacred depmit, by conceal- 
ing hitn in this island, now said to float, but in early days 
known u> be fixed. This happened at tho time that Typhon, 

»■ Chspp. M; SS; 1S3. 


EUTERPK. II. 137—159. 

f^arcbing on all mdes, cniiiK in Ibo expfCUilion o( I'lndiii^ ' 
son of Usiris. For lUc K^fA'^ttetis assert, Lhiil Apntlo and 
]>iatiA vcuiv tlic uflttprinfT of Buci'lius and Ixis, and ihat 
].aiona was their liiirac: aoii Nivioiir : for Orux is tbc Kgi'pliao 
fur Apullu, and Uis for Ceres, and BuUastis for Diana. 
From tbi8 intdition, and none other, J^^whylus the Ktin of 
Kiiphorioti adopted ihe follouiiig ttmet. in whirl) he U sin- 
gular nmnnf^ tho onrlior pnetx; Ihnt DiniiA in the daii;{hlcr of 
CiTcs*". Ill consetpKrnc*! of the event dcscriWd alwvt-, this 
itOflnd was made to tloaL Such is the accuiinL the Rgrpiians 

1A7 Psammilichiift occupied the thrime of Kgj'pt fifly-faur 
years; diiriufc' iwfiity-nJDu of wliich, that prince beMegud 
AzotiLs a targe town in Syria, which he at hist ca|>lui:ed. 
This town of Azotus i« thai, which, of al) wo knon-, stood the 

li^moHt pmlracird sitgi-. Nccos was a son of I*»amniitlchii)>, 
and MiccL-cdod to the throm- of Kp-pt. This prince was ihe 
fint that hf.-gun ihc canal leading to ilic Krythrman sea ; ao 
undertaking which Darius the Persian, in later tiim-s, con- 
IJnurd. The length of this cut is a voyase of four days : iu 
bruaillh is iitade such, that two triremes mnv pull abrt*!ist: 
llic \T.ttcrs that feed thU cunal come from the Nile: it bc^ns 
a littiu abotu the city of Biib;isiiR, and riid^; in LlieF.ryihr:i.'aii 
aca* not far from the .\ruhian town of I'a(umo», This work 
waa dug fiFKt tlirou^h the pans of the Kgyptliu) plain thu 
aru contiguous to Arabia: above the plain rises the moiin- 
taiD tbat 8tretclie» down to Memphis, in which the quarriea 
arc. Accordingly, at Ihe font of ihts mountain Ihe canal 
takes a long reach, from the west to the eat^t ; then stretches 
to tlie defiles ; from whonco, taking ita course towards tbu 
soiilh, it proceeds to the ftiilf of Arabia. Tlie shortest wajr 
from the Medilerranfiin sea, to the ituulhem, called also the 
LrythroMtn, in from Mount Casius, the frontier of Egypt aud 
Syria, whenee to the GuU of Arabia in one thoumad stodec: 
tJie above is ibe most direct road ; but the canal is coDsi* 
durably longer, Jnasinnch a* it is more winding. One hundred 
and ten thoui^and Lgvptian delvi>Ts perished on this uniler- 
taking, during Nrcos's reign : that jirince, therefore, ceasvd 
in ilie niidiik' of tho work, in consequence of an oracle, that 
came warning him ihal " he wa« working for an alien ;" 
for the Egvptinns call every body aliens who do not u.«c the 

109 same language as themaelres. Bui Nccox hanng pnl a 
stop to his excavations, turned his ailentiou to war: triremes 

*** Bmo^Mu*. it !• probal-le, bIIuiIoi tiiiirfaitn'illidrftinifrninib«>dminlMB 
to ton* fieoe of ibe Ingio pact wlneli of tbv vrofM. 

KUTKItPR tl. IdO, 1U1. 


;4in8tnict(:il i some oa the iJiorc of tlio Mrdik-mnean ; 
others uii t]it> ^uil uf Ai'iibi:i, which is a partof L)ie Kirlhncan 
sbb; the dockii for the nhipA arc Ntill Roeo : ibese fleets iti-ro 
rrwlj ror use whunvvcr riiqitirL-d. Necos engaged by knd 
Ui(! Sj-rian forcua Dear"* MugcluluH, aiifl conquered: allvr the 
bsiilu, he tuok C>kIvu&, a lai*)$f- cily of Sjria. Th(-> garb 
worn by tho king in lh«sa achicrcmcnifi wan wnt to Hrdn- 
cbtdn ia MiW.siA, and dttdicamd lii .4|m)11». He dii-d »oiiil-- 
tiaw after, haiinx Wftucd, ia all, sixtveit juuisi and b«- 
<)ai;aUtL'd dtL- thrutic to his noit PK.tnniii'b 

fndcr Ihe rtij(n of I'«itiiinrs, n depuuiion from the people 100 
of Kli» arrircd; boa»Uug thai tbcy hud i-stablJsJicd the Olyiii- 
|>ic li>Us on the most c(|i)itabli! and fain-st priucipivs*" in ilu' 
wurld; and fnucyiti}; that iho Kgjiitiaiis, the vtimbI uf 
Buuikind, would be tinnblv to dcviso any ib'mg butU'r. The 
(tepntieK of Eh*, mi their arrivul iii Knypt, explained f»>r 
wltsi ptir|>ovo ihoy b-id coiao: in cnns«*|UL-nc(;, tht^ king coti- 
teood iho« e&ltttiDcd ilie iriscrt of thi; i' The ii»- 
Mtnbly ta«i, and heard the ainbaH&adors di>«cribi> all the re- 
IpilatioDx rv«puctiiiK the lists which thvy had thouuhl projNtr 
to make: after explaining every particular, the Kluatix de- 
okred tliey had coni€ to atic«rtain, ** n-hother the Kxyplians 
** could device any improt ciiienl ia thesu instilules." The 
Egrptiaoa held council ; and nskcd tlio EIcatis, whether 
ihetr fellow-ciiiKtiiit ivtre alluwcd to contend in the games: 
the depuiie« made an&wt.T, thai the li«tx were open to auy uf 
ibuiiwlrca or the Htdlenes, who ch'Me. Ia conBequoiiL-e, iW 
EgrptianK obf^erred: " that, enact! nff such rules, they swerved 
** vide of ctery tiling; like juflice: fur it could not ho 
" ntliiirwine than (hat they nonld give tbo prolcTonco to 
** ibeir own citizen, and bo do an injualice to a slrann^r; 
" but that if they reully viHhed to leund intit lau s, they would 
** advise ihem to institute the ganiu» fur candidates of other 
" citiea, and exclude from the li»t every citizen of Elis." 
Such waa the admonition the Ej{yptiaa8 miDtsterod to tha 
people of Klis. 

Pfuiainis, having reined alooe six yean, died Imnie- 161 
diaisly afW an attack nn Kthiopia : he was succeeded by hit 
•on Apiius, who, next to his grrfat- grandfather, I^M^^nmiti- 
ehlta, was the rnt^t pronperoua of former sorereignSt during 
a feign of fire<aud-tM-enty yean; in the course of which be 
nuuched bis army against Sidoni and engaged the Tyrian 
king by Kea. As he was, however, doomed to be I'iKitud 
with cftlamiiy, this came to pass on an occasion that I shall 

VOL. I. 

*> Hmi. «)I*. 


EUTERPE, ir. im, 169. 

dtfltriilie more largclj" in my Librao HtMorv, bul sliall noir 
tixicli lif-htlv upon. Aprirs baring smt an exprHiOon 
against Ihe (I'vrt-Da-aiis. met wild a sore dtfeal. The F^gyP' 
tiuDs uttiibulitiK tht.' bUiine to the kiofi;, it-belk-d Q|;a.insl liinif i 
bemg i-onrioced timt Apric'». in Ainberaoco of bis owzi^ 
r'wwe, had sent ihem to eridcnt elesiruction, in order that 
Hiich a destniL-lion of ihem shonld lake place, as woald 
«nahlf! him to reign imdiitiirhed over the rp«t of the tiation. 
Itigblv exaspeToii/d at lliis, (he men ibai rscaptrd fruin |]>c 

103 roul, niiit the friendK nf Ihi? «Uin, openly n>)H>U<>d. Apiiea, 
infonuud of irliat bud occiincd, twnt Amanis to the msiir^oiA, 
who wa« lo repreoR the sedition by permiasive*. Ob hi« 
arrival, be endenroured lo appease the l^gypliana, exhorting ^4 
iheni not to liebave in that HMntier; when one of the iuMir- ^| 
l^nts. standing behind hiai, put an helmet on the speaker's ' 
head, sajHng, " that he crowned hini ait their king*** :" ihia 
wat not rery repognant lo iho wishes of Amasis himself, 
sj> be plainly shewed; for tlHT insurgents having appointed 
him king of the Egyptians, hu prvpared to march against 
Aprieii. lint Aj)ric», inlormtd of bis intention, despatched 
Patarbemis, onii uf his suite, and a man of great repate^ 
with ordrrs to bring before him Amasis alive. At the arrival 
of Patarhtniis, he ealled Aniaais ; but Amusis (who happened 
t<i be then mounted) lifted up his thiKh, and broke wind, 
and bade the mesMmger lake that back to Apries: nerer- 
IhelesB, as Putarbomis bogged him lo come before the king, 
u'bn had xent for him, Amasis ansnered him thus: ** Ue bail 
" long been preparing to do that very thing; and that Apries 
'* abonld have no cause lo blunie bitii, for be would fertbwith 
" make hi« ap]M>aran<-e, bringing othem in h'\« train." Pa- 
larbeinis, fully apprist-d of the intention of Aiuasis, both from 
what bud been said, and the urc]>araliuus he himself saw 
making, husiened to lake his departure, for the pnrpme of 
communicating, as speedily as possible, to the kiDg, tidings 
of whul was going on: but, us he presenled bimself btsfuro 
Apries uuiieeouipauied by Amasis, ibc king, niiliout taking 
time to dilibtratc, nnd excited by anger, ordered tbu cant 
and nose of Palarl>emis to be cut off. TI»e re*it of the E^p- 
tiaas <xh<j sliU udhcred to the king's cause, uitue&sefi of the 
shameful treatment of so distingul sited a fellow •citizen, 
hesilated not an instant, but fotlhwith went o^er to the ^ 

163 iniwrgenti!, and gai'e their allegiunce to .\maais. Apnea, ^| 

*** The bcbieC wti, is EoTpti tht of M, i« Aia aMM, ve rwtj fr*- 

mariE ij (iTvTTtpcB power. S**«.lSi, nant: M tx^j, *' aoMsdl (•ml. 

i«J fimnX»tf, " tn pnf hiiB in pOMN. I9 i»^Hr*.''—Ltire^». 8o ir))kt<Mi, 

fioD nf lliH rrnwn.*' Tbn rumfilM 1.41: but Ma MaIt.a8A.ff. 

EUTERPE. 11. 164— IW. 


of (his, fikced hU atiitliories nnder anns, siid K-d 
tgaiosi the EgvptUns: his army amuunied to thirty 
ad auxiliaricN made up of Cnrians and loniann; and 
paUce wfts in iho citj ol' Sais, a vast and admirable «nic- 
Apriea* parly look the Held a^^ainfit tbo Egyptians, 
wliUe tfaatof Amasif< marched against lhi> auxiliariex : they 
bocfa niL-t near** the town ofMrnuoniphiK, and prepared for 
ihe conflict. 

Tlie Egyptians are divided into seven elftssef:: tbese Br«104 

Deolirely cilledr priosts, solfiiers, ht-Tdsmtin. swinehrrds, 
a«n«D. intfrprvier», pilots: nuch arc iho Kgjptiaa 
elaSM«; their oamei) arc derived Irum their prorc<wiona. 
The inililary arc called either Calasirics or H«njiutybies: 
ibey bflun^ to tlie followintc notnes — fur the vrlioto of Egypt 
is diiidcd iaiu iiumett : lJit< lullon'inK ^^^ ihe noiuc« ol' the 1$$ 
HennulvbicB : Husiritrs, Saitc^K, Chctuniiles, Paprcniiles, thn 
idaml uf Prusupiit^, tlio IimIT of Nuthu : to tlic abovt- iioiiiea 
ihf llenuiHvbicH bcIuiiK: they umoiiiit at Ihc hiiflicat lo ona 
hundred and itixty thouisand: nonu of these is ekcrupprea- 
ticed U> any baiidycmft, but a.11 arc devoted to vox. Tha '^ 
Calasires Iwloug to the other following nometi: 7*hel>ais, 
3a)MMitc8, Aphthit«s, Tanitcs, McudcMUS, Sebennylcs, Athri- 
liites, Pharba?tliitL-«, Tlmiuiies; OuuphJtcs, Anysius, Myec- 
pfaofites — this Dorae oonsiAts of a part <if the island Iving off 
tbe city of Itutis"*: the above arc the nomes lo which iho 
C«]sires belong : they amount, at the highest, to two hundred 
and fifty thousand: nouc of thew are allowed to apply (o 
any trade, but to militarv pursuits nlone; the son inheriting 
baa falber'a callii^. \\'liclhvr the Hellenes borrowed thia 167 
cnftDm likewiso from the Kgyplians, is a qiieslioii which [ 
eaanot describe for certain, inadwuch as 1 see Thraeians, Scy- 
thians, Persians, Lrdiaiis, and nearly all fon^ignc-rs, e»>ti>em 
u 4 lower class of their fellow-cilizens such persons aa pro- 
ftaa anr hnndycrafl trade and transmit it to their posterity ; 
«hile iflow who keep aloof from Irude are esteemed noble; 
ftuchi above all, as distinguish thcm^etvcs in nar. These 
principles are instilled among all the HelleueK, and the Lt- 
cedannonians especiully: the Corinthians are the people 
[that shew the greatest reapect for mechanics. Wilh the ex- 16S 
ception of the priests, the military arc the only Egyptians 

IbIi.S'7. iiuwad »f '' ia litwtc^ in aa UIhhI," 

|b tiM isKt, " ihii DOOM- it In ta m* it an luiiaiioD ef H>-«d(t, «h«fn 

\f"hiit 11 the B«fne ocMplM Iha Htrvlatcu alirsfi felleviM hfa m^l 

I af dia taland, 1 cboogbi It h*a«r in nyk. II. >i. 895, Of !• AmUj^. 

imttbU) anllr tiecntlj. TIm 'Bx(W»> f itf^M A»t at mSt»m ■<(«• 

■ko ot ibe nkiorina it rrmuk* iiJi. — Larf^er. 
" Uik n«m« dwvlb in m iaind," 



EirTRRPE. 11. 169-171. 

cniitled to any pririleges: lo each of ihiftclaM lue ai 
twelve choice arouras of grotind : the arotira. tbrougboot 
Rgrpt, is etjiial id ntie hundred c-iihits the Bgjrptinn cubit 
heinR the same as that of 8amos : this privilege extended to 
all, M'ilhoiit dincrimitiatintt : the followinK iwrquisitcK, thc^ 
imrticipate in tuni,nevL<r the same as before. Ooe tbo 
Calnsiivs, and the ttainc iiuiiibf r uf i Icnnotjrbiss, wet 
appointed as bwlv-giiards ui-'wrj- yt-ar to iht' kiiif*: to theaa, 
besiden iho lands ahont nivnltutinl, the following laf g ea* 
nm« given every day ; M vach umii. dve mioaa of icnatsd 
com, two niina: of btrcf, lour arystcrs oi' iriiie. 

169 AlWtho arrit-al of AprieK dmif Monieniphis at the h«ad 
of till' aitxiliaricA. and Amasi; at the head of all the Egrp- 
tiaiis t)i« two jvartien engaged bault.- : \\ia auxiliariea Wliaved j 
gallantly : they were, however, far inferior in numbers, ODdj 
cnnsrqui'ntly defeated. A[)rit-*» is rtpreufntfil as biring coo* 
vincod thai even a g»d nii^bt not dethrone him, »o fkTteif 
did he conceive him'^Of aoaic^l : but in thia battle bs wti 
beaten : taken prisoner, be wtm conrevvil back toSais, to bis 
former palace, now thai ofAmasis: lieru, for some umt>, li« h 
was kvpt at the pulace, and AmnsiB trcaliKl him rer^' kindly :fl 
Init at last, llio K^yplianK blaming Auiusis for 8ucli unjual ' 
buhavtoiir, in lhii« vhpri^ilting the grt-alest »u#niy botli of 
llipmscKcs and himself, he delivered Aprics up lo tlivm, who 
put him to ileaih by Ktnn^ulation, and tlitrn interred him io 
hiA palrmnl tombs, llicae receptacles arc in Minerra'a pi 
rinct, clo^D to ibe temple, on thu leA hand as you enter: 
Saila; arc wont to Unry all kinps, bom in their nomo, witbii 
thiii precinct ; for the muniiuient of AuiuttJs *" ia aeen then- it} 
a greater distance from the temple than the tombs of Aprit 
and his (orpliillierH. In t)ie t^acreil rpindninglc xiaiids 
great hall, adorned with pillars tnnrlv to imitate palin-i 
and decked with vanoiis embelli&bnienta: witliin the ball 
atanda a niche, vith fo)ding>door», wiUiio which is tba 

170 •epulcbre *". At Sois, also,!? 8ee«,in Minerra'apreciact, iba 
depo)iitan~ of ont* whose name I do not hold it lavrful to utBD- 
tion ill thi<> mailer: it stands behind Uie temple, and occa- 
piea the whole of thai wall of the aacied buildiog: l«rg« 
atone obelisks arc found in the precinct; near which ia a pond^ 
adomisl with a bnrrlcr of monc-wnrk ; it is in sba[)e circa)ar^| 
and, as far as I can judge, is about the aize of that of Dolos," 

171 called tlio trochoid. l)n this ahcet of water the Egyptians 

^ Amui* Iwlnntnd tn tti* Smllr latinti. 

«h)rt) SchwriRlMiMM 

EUTF.nPE. II. 172. 


mt (tie adventures of btm uieutiouetl abuve ■**: this 
sfMWtsele is called iho DiyBt«rics, by the KKyptiaiii>; coucern* 
ing whicli, alUiuiigli infurmud u( wciy ilvtiiil, 1 shall hold a 
dpcenl siiencL-; as wt-tl as <rliut couccniii tht> initialion of 
Cert-s, called by ibe HulU>iic» ihL- thcatnojihuria; which lam 
well a<:qnninted with, btit shall withhold dcscribiug, except- 
ing so far as it may be lawful tu hi>vak uf il*". IL was Uio 
diiDgbteisor Danaiis thai iuiporterl ihU ccrt-iiioiiy of ihe hiiii- 
atKMit and cuiuiuuiiicatcd Um »auiu (u Lhv IVIa^K't" woiiicu: 
in subsequent liiiM^K, the nholc of tbi! PtIo|>ouiic«us being 

«of Its Toruicr occupauts by the Durtans, Uicm; ritts 
late extinct, excvpl with the Arcadianii, the only P«lo- 
D4HuaQ» that rcnuiinod and prencrrcd their remcmbranco. 
Apticx thus cut off, Amasia ascended the throne: he 172 
bclongod to the Sauic nouie, anil vras a natii-t> of th» ton-ii 
callixl Siuph. At first, accordingly, the Kj^^'ptians slifjlitc-d 
Ania&if, oitii held him id Utile account, iis having bewi pre- 
tioiuly nothing but a private man, anil of no i^ery dislin- 
guisbrd family: Amasjs, howorvr, soon bronght them over*** 
to faim, by hia skill and afi'ability. Of the many precious 
tbiaga thai he po^Kei>Hed, thurc tvan a golden fout-basuu, in 
which Ama&ia himself, and mil bis gucsl6, were wont to wash 
ihrir fct-i: accordingly, he broke up this va>«, had it con- 
vert<'d into an image of the god, and eel it up in (he moat 
pruininc-nt*" pan of the city. Thu Lvgiptians. crowding round 
the iniuge, deroatty vor«btpped it. Aniasti>, heariiif; how lh« 
^^sena acUrd, called a mucling of ihv Kgyptians, and ex< 
^jUned to them, " that the image had been made out of ilio 
^^bot-bason in which tlie Kg^pUans were wont to vomit, to 
"maika water, and to wash Uitiir (vvi; and now it had become 
** a apceial object of their ailoratiun." He ailded, " that be 

* Tltat U (D n.j, of bim whoM 

j ana HamdoiQ* h«« jiui fiifonni»4 a* 

h* iom m4 Uilnk hinueU at libcil? to 


I *• TTrrDJocw i* prvhstlr tbt (t(*i 

*Ih> s»ie IK* of ihw cxpraMioQ, 

rfw^^M hmtJUi a* n»>i uf lkiu*a tbil 

lam uch! ti, tii\ uAf'ttfAitm, " ro 

■M llw «ipri«aioD of Hunxlotaii-'' 

'Ite etlcki* blunnl Uii «ipnMon, 

. mi fUeet the nark X bj ike kids 

«f h, trt aIkw that it nai not to be 

tailBtni, i«*i)ae tIrllMirus, id rc«d> 

iBf it, IkU rmirm Irtm tSm^, wilh- 

joat illflilD^ liw worJ, wbick itiM 

>' ap^AM '* iM lliM« tbiBga b* ut yuud 

"taMt,** W«N(Unc Tiijf pro|)«tlr 

b» «lw(h«T mt tM^(\A Ic imJ tt 

*r^ in r«to ««)()■, B* th« giamnik* 
riADs would kni m in bclioro. So- 
phoclM (Pbllwi. W)l) writH it in ili« 
»ftir>n niinnrr u HnodcCni; tSrrvim 
tj^l, ■■■•, "W rtlcTIt, HUB." TI* *ioh»> 

liui, wba rclaica tlip join of Uvlla- 

nicua, •aii, ui4mm tim Xi^it, irrl 
*•» wiirf. Larcher. The osprmiioa 
in Hirndotu> (rannoi, iMiu-ctrr. bw rv- 
•oltrd ollientiw tbiii bj diiidintt tbs 
nord iMTvia. thui: «i{l nrmi (raj 
rr^ fua ■! mtittm, 1. «, «f J>e(ti« 

**> r^crt'y ««/»•, " to brinp io lli«ir 
duljr,' ' ■■ 10 i'iul. WiXi/uf wfttiytrt^i 
Ml. &A«niV. 

*" Lit. " fltlctl. matt ojipertui)*." 
rw nUim Jim, •» Matt. 367. 


EUTERPE. 11.173,174. 

" binaclf now had uader^oue t)ic same cb&age as the foot- 
" baBOD; for previuiisly bu wax but a privatt tnau, whereas 
" at present lie "as their kiuR:" aud be then proceeded lo 
(?xbon them t(i honour and reKpecl him : iu thi» maimer he 

173 brought the Kgyptians lo brook bis rule. He adoptfid the 
fuUonittg aminKt'iui'ut in liis aflairi : Iroin the davru of day, 
lo the usual lime when the public square is full of peojile"', 
lie applied closely lo the affairs brought before hini : Uie 
remainder uf the dii}' he passed dhnliiiif; and joking with his 
guests, tbrowiiig aside all thouKbti and abaudouing himself 
to Tun and I'rulic*^. Ilia frieudfi, displeased at this behariotir, 
reoionetrated with him, iu these wurds: " My liefcef" aud 
thev, " you do noc hold resiraitit enough on ynurxelf ; aod 
" debase your rank by Bucb Icvily. It behores you to «l 
" veneraled oii your venerated throne, and attend ilimugh 
■ tlie day to aflairs: thus the Egyptians might be com-ioced 
" ihey are ruled by a great man, aud you yourself obtain 
" more repute: your conduct now ie in no manner kingly." 
His answer to this was: " They who make use of Ih>ws are 
** vonL to brace them when thoy wish to tihoot; but unbrace 
" then), when Ihey have done : for were tlie bow to Temaio 
" conslantly slnmg, it would surely snap ; and so the archer 
" would not he able to use it, in case of need. Such is Iha 
"case vnth man: were he to he incessantly engaged in 
** &eriou:i Lu»iuti8s, nor abandon himself ^Olnetime!t to sport 
"and pastime, he would gradually*" become cither mad oi 
" frtupid : this I know, and allot, accordingly, a poitioa of 
" my time lo both." Sucli was die answer lie returned to 

174 his (iieuds. Amasis is represented, when a prirate inaii, 
as a giddy youth given lo drink and mockery: when the 
means failed him to drink and carouse, he went about pilfer- 
ing. The pcr«ons who accused him of liaving their pro- 
perly, were woni, iu consequence of his denial, to bring him 
before the oracle that happened to be in their neighbour- 
hood: in many instances, be was convicted by the oracles; 
in others, he escaped: in cooBequeace of this, when bo come 
10 the throne, he acted in (he following manner: of alt 
such gods as absolved him of tbeli, be neglected their tem- 

<•» Pio ChrjtoiL it Gtoiil, Ornt. 
Hti. v(-t, ' -on-iW,' ' «4rlj in ibe 
B«niinit ;' n^i vXit*un. iy^t, * tli« 
niddU of tbe RKirtting.' tbii ii tn •nj-, 

tb« (hinlhuiir: *iiMinjt^!*t, ' ticirm;' 

nfJ Win. ' Ibp riiiilillr of ibe afler- 
uooe,' llul i' Iu snj, ' the ninlti ham 
of Um Jk}-!' U«i(a, ' the eveaiDg,' ' the 
■■»••«<.' — LortAer. 

*" vwywfpM i* Mud of » Bi»a thai 
»«rcU« Um vit tf • nuUMMsai 

/Uwmat, (^ >>>'n «rb«M Joke* olfnd 
dooctip; uid irood mnrftli; mymt^m, 
' wittjr;' uarmm. ' •EBUUy.* SM 
Luobvr and ^' ilckeiiker. 

•* On tlio lue of Xaitdtm vilb A* 
pwtioiple, HH MaU. Mil. ud V(««r. 
«. *. tMl. viii. rig. S. 

EUikRPii. II. Hi, na. 


Elet, sikI cootributud nulhiug to tlieir repairs i Dfilliur <iiil 
e present Ascrilico in tlium, votmduriiig tboiu unwoilliv of 
mny remunernlion, aiid Imiiug Taltw uraclus: such us di- 
dared him siiillv of ihcit, Im altcndiid lo nith ^b^■ grcali-M 
cxn, u beiug truly gudu, and pToiltfiitig iruB anxwerh. 

Ill the tecoplu o( Minerva at Suie, be erocled"* a wonderful "^ 
portico, far Kurpastiiig all) in liuiglit aud sizv, as well as iu 
tb« bulk and quality ol the stones: be likowiiw dedicated. 
not onljr largu culuitsuscx aud liiigc spliinxca"*', but alsn 
brouglil, to rcpuir llio sacred cdilioi*, »>t«iie liloL-kii of extra- 
ordinary diiuciiMuuH: kuuiu of tla-AC ht: tuuk from tlit- quar- 
lies iu ili(r vicinity ol' Memphis ; laii the targebt bluckN uf 
all caiUR from Kkpliuiitinc, a place iwuuty days' voyage frvin 
Sails, Dut uf all these loaises, that nhich slnicV luu with 
the greatest axtouipiiinenl wa« a chaiulier bniugbt from 
Klepbaiiiiue, and liewn out of one sin^rle block of stoue; this 
cBonnous maas uceujiied ibrct; years in its conveyance; two 
tboitsaud men, nit heJongiiig to the ca^tu of Uie pilots, being 
■DMially apjxviiiled lor that purjwse. The Ic-ngUi of this 
ciiainber is, uii the uiiLside, iMeiUy-oue cubiu ; its brradtli, 
fourteen; its heij^bt, eight. Such are the dimensions of this 
chamber* measured on tlio outside: iu the inside, they are* in 
leogtb, cif{bteen cubiu i breadth, twelvu ; height, tiire. This 
sUine chumber lies near tbe entrance into tht^ precinct: itie 
reason why it was not drawn into the i^acred inclosurc is 
staled to have been, that the architect, wearied by the labour, 
■Ming what a long time liad l>pen taVen up, tu'ealhed a itah 
aa tbu chamber moved I'orvrard^. Aniasin, eunndering tlic 176 
sigh ominouii, forbad the $tono to be drawn any funber: but 
others say, that one of the workmen employed at the levers 
was crushed bcneatli the maivi, and consi^qiiently tbu chamber 
Vfts not moved any further. Aiuiisis <li>dicat^'d, in all the 
reoowncd tcniplrs, u-oik» of giijaniic size : at*" Memphis, in 
particular., he dedicated, in lionl ti{ Vulcan's temple, a colos- 
sus, reclining on his hack, Mivcnty-five feet long : on the 

*■* If dw rckdioB J is mmct, it 
■art b« nfand lo r^ 'AfuwM. Mof 
^1 pJeMuticallj, u iQiiT b* «b- 
MTfcd la diSpTMr panm of oar Hla- 
toiiwa. Sr/kturtf. Tberv !• in tht Inl 
Mvrt pit. corrMjUDiliug Iu niri )) * 
lini« kiirCT iara : " od Uw oaa baud— 

*" HoMtrou* Abotm, whith had Our 
tody of a lion an'f Uia fa«« of • ibmi. 
1W UtJfi*" »nuu (vpraamtMl enin- 
Bmlj ihr rptuns vitb ih« bndr of a 
Ubb inri Uit ht9 rif a joong ntHnan. 

*" *t' 11 'AftrntH li<^nirTw vnari- 
fHtrt, mhMt the Latia irr>iial>l->r bu 
nnil«wd ■■ 111 mdrcTtmui Aniiwia."— 
Thai )• iiol l-otimK. 'EA^rk. of 
Wi^iun «-Hi7r4ac. ilfitiifio *' in rtligi- 
Dntun, in uiuin, vertrrc:' ape Daltr 
oa Tliai-jJiiks, \ii. I*, harckat^— 

aeietiotAif Uirt nu dli* qnetque fboM." 
iB. P^H. LtM. ium. 

■" On ibe rwvtflion of I*, aM Mail. 
It^(. I. 


EU'IEUI'K. U. 177— 17». 

MtDs bost) "* filaiid t«'o colossuset of KthiopiBa (tone, each 
ItrcDly I'eet high; oi>o ua onu eide, aud the other on tb« 
ulhcr :«i(lo <>r llie icniplu. There is at 8«i)( a »imilar coIomub, 
lyinj,-, tts ut Mrii])ihis, im tl)u buck. U was Amasis also who 
L-rectcd at MRinphis the t«inpl« to Ins, m vast edifice. d«^ 
serving lu be seen. 

177 Under the rtiign of Amssis, Cg.Tp<, it is uid, enjajrcd tbe 
greatest pro^peritj^, both iu regard lo the advanlajjietf accrn- 
ing to the land from the river, and to mankind from ibo 
land; the tawm in that period amounted to tweuljr llioa- 
»and, all inhabile<l. Amasia it was thai garo to thi.- K)^-p- 
tians Ihc law, that every year each Kgvpliau sbuuld iinke 
known to tht- govL-mor of his nome"*, from whence he gut his 
liring: if he failed to do ao, andcoulduot produce an bo(i«tt 
livelihood, he was conrlenincd lo death. Solon Ifae Atbe- 
nian borrowed this Iilw froin L'^gypt, and iuKtitut«d ic at 
Athens: lliat nation »(ill ohxervc thia Ian* as au exceUcot 

ITScnacltnetit. Amaei-s being fond of the llelleova, not oolj 
couferred various favours to difftrctit pcriwDs of that cation, 
but gave In the Ilell(ni8!i, lliat cauiv intu Kg^pl, the tonn of 
NancTBtis for their rosideoce: to such as did not wish tu 
settle in the country, but carry on traffic with Egy]>l, he be- 
Ktowed places where they might ervct altars and preeiocta 
to their gods. The most extensive of tlitse holy precincls, 
the mohl rvnownivl nml frequented, was the [-lelk-iiitim: it 
v»s erected at the common cot>t of the following state*; of 
the lonianii, Chins, Tens, Phocva, and ClazunKrnib ; of the 
IJorinn, Rhodes, Cnidiis, Halicamasaiis, and FheHclU; of the 
.^EoliauK, tbe Myiilenieans alone: lo the above cities ibtt 
sacred precinct belongs, and they appoint the prvaidcola of 
the factory**. Whatever other citiex may claim a «hant, claim 
what is not thuir own, ITie .EgioetK, however, have orccted 
a tenijile to Jiipiler, apart lo themselves: the Samians baTe 

17Ud«ao the same to JiiDOi aud the Milcnaos to Apollu. Ori- 
ginally. Naucratis was the only factory; there was jo other 
in Kgypi ; if any one arrived at anolher mouth of the Nilc» 
lu- w-na obliged tn take an iiutli, " that he did not voter of 
** his owQ accord*." and having done ut, he waK to proceed 
rnimd to the Canobic moutb : iu ihc ca»v (>id,> of coolraiy 
winds impeding navigation, tho cargo was to be convejad, io 

** 1 fBpftate tbil iMff \t at*tt 
tier« to tiipr««« one of iha li«r* of 
•{«(4 bj wblob pvople ucMided lo lh« 

**» TTi*- proriac-Bs of E^pt "cr« 
Billed Nonui, iiud tit (i'""0(n, o( 
ehirf vtgwlrmt* ut <-»rh of ltin#» pra- 

x* l^vJfiu incKtii a tuimmnrriki pbn : 

iudttc of *urb a limu, anil noi ■ prttslc 
a()|t« (or comuivrTr, «list <•« c«B ■ 
■■ «on(ul." M CHiihall (Anliq^iat- 
AtutirO ttdfikt. LareAtr. 

EUTERPK. II. 180-183. 





bftriwK, round llie Deha, uiilil it reiiched Knucralis. Kuch 
wt» ihc privilege be8tow<?d to Naucratis. The AtnphictyoDfi Ii40 
baviDg cnlrn-d into a ctmlracl lo build, Inr three hundrert 
Ulmui, tli« icin|ile now Ktnadiiig at l)«1phi — for ibe lorint-r 
ottfi had bccii burnt dnwu ai'cirlrntan^-, mid tlie Dulphiaiis 
wt^re laxpd lo funiiith ouv quant'r of ilie cobib — the peopte 
lit Odptii andcrlook a bcKginc excursion lo difl'er^tit plarrn, 
ftom which llicv ubtained subsrription^i : in ibis viay tbey 
brooght fntui K^ypt a very f^rcat i-uTiiribution: lor Atnaais 
gare lliifui a ihoiniaiid lalriits of ulimi ; and lh« Mellunic 
•eltloTs cotitributc<l, ou tbcir part, twenty minor. 

Amans contrai-led a league of friendship and atUance 181 
with the Cyrgnff'ans : he detrnnined, also, to take a wife 
trma ibtruct: ; — wlifUiur be destrvd lo unitt- himst-lf ut an Hel- 
lenic la'ly, or uisbcd to ji'e thm a proof of his aiiacbnicnt 
lo tbt; C^TL-uu^uns. He espoused, therefore, the daugbtvr of 
Batttu; 8«nie say, Arcc^iluiiK; olhere nlM> Critiibuliu, a re- 
■piTtabli; ciiizcu : the lady'ii name nus Ladica, When 
Aiuaxis lay wiili his bride, he foiiiid bim^'lf iinuhle Iv con- 
•mnuiate, uliboufth Im coutd t-njoy otlier women : iliie had 
luted t confiidf rable tiiUR, vhen Aiuasis sent for Ladice her- 
wlf, UDtl add^:^M-d her limn : " Ladice, you have UM^d bdum 
" cbarm opon me, and now yon ba»e no iiieanH ot (-i^eapiog 
" ll)v nio»t miserable death of all noiui-n.'* Auiusis in apilo 
of all JLadice said iu her defence, relaxed not hia attfm 
imcotioo: the princeM pravcd mentaUy"^ to Vtous, that 
Anuftis might he gratified that night, Hbicb would be tbe 
only preventive of tlic colaniily lt>ot au-ailed ber, and 
Towcd site would Kcud to ilie grnddeits an image at Cyrene : 
iramedialel^ she had made thiK vow, Ama»is was mado 
linppy : lii» liup]'iiu-^ coiiiiuuL-d, and hii* iifli-ciion for bis 
ctmsurt incrcas^'d. Lndice fulfilled her vow to the goddcM: 
she ordered the iiuage lo be made, and sent it ufTtn Cyrene; 
wbi>fe it remaiDed safo and sound lo tny Ume, with its back 
lurtied to Cyrene**. Cumbysio, after bis conquevt of Esyplt 
wbcQ he dtseotercd who Ladice was, »«m her buek, unliurl, 
10 Cyrene. .^masis dedicaud o6eringt in Hellas: first* a 162 
gilt Ktauie of Mioerva at CTrenc, and his own portrait 
painU-d : secondly, at Liudus, two stoae ataluca lo Pallai, 

Hwnla of Vnua." 

** li b |irahabta tfcM llib MMm 
«M flan^ witUn ibi uwa i if •», 

lawv^ ib« rndain' ; »wS Ibu u (b« 

«»nap that I havp adniit*!). Rat tlw 
1*11 may. Kith «>)ml plopiiHj, W 
takoi lo (tfniif; ih4( the *tjuur «m 
g«i(td<o(tlNtoi>n,ud tBiDvd tov»H* 
iu l'b« Kwlet mtj ehvmt abWh k* 
likM. toMkrr. 


EUTEKFE. II. 182. 

together with an admirable corset of lineo***: he dedicated, 
moT«ovor, to Juno, at Santox, two wocMlea images of him- 
self, which stood to my day^ in the ^^at temple b«hind iho 
doors: tho&e dedicatioiih at SaniOfl he made out of rcftsrd 
for the cunipncl of fiiendship entered into betweeu himself M 
and Polycratcs the sou of Ajax : the dedication at Liodiu m 
was not in couavqiicncc of any similar compact, but btrc^uu- 
il was related that the daughters of Danatu, in their flight _ 
from the sons of .'(^ji^'ptus, Imving touched at Liodus, founded ■ 
there the temple of Minena: Kuch wore the dedications of 
AaiAAVi, He via» the first that ever conquered Cyprus, and 
snhjeclc'd that i&taud to tribute. -M 

*■ Prafcablt MUMtUtig of ih« kiml, 
at diutt or dunuk. Sm iii. 47, /In. 
Thii i* th« Imc toto 1 Hnd It iHvf>«(uy 
to aipcnd to thlf laosl impnrtanl nnd 
intomdn^ pBii of Micieni biitoiy: ihr 
object that 1 bn^^ Ivpt in Ticv>, in the 
eoupodtloo umd «oaipilatian of clie*o 
OhMmttOO*, lut tiKD lo FXplHiu the 

iMsiilaE of H«rodaiu*i — u object of 
DO amBll fflotDFiiE, •rhcn mc vtumitt 
llui this Biitoriui i* tmquMtioosltlj 
tkr Wat authofilj wiib rvgar^ teincUnl 
V-g^t, vbiob ht •Mm* a hiTi «s- 
aBmad uid ■nidi«4 vttli tho vDriotiiT 

upon thi* (iDgU bcwl wo«U have U- 
tradsd 10 two MlasiM; indead, Uibh 
of L«niti«r Mpupf four humlrcd fifna 
a! matter ulowly ptintnl Id vctj na*U 
[jpc: coniidcruimi*, net witbia db 
coQiral of no antboT alono, hs*« Im- 
dcrcd me from cBrrjiog info «0»rt tj 
dcvi^; but I regnl il th« lew, U a 
Qvc^rapliinJ DtelioDur to ttia WaA» 
of Utrodotua, tnoiUtM fron Larelwr, 
and accompaniiid with UlufUatioMfr)* 
vmrioui autJiara aoil traToIUn, ia aboot 
lo nake lu app«anu>Ba ; wUob will, at 
leaat, ualat (ba rtadcr to fboac pafU 

of a trarcllai and Ott R«niu* of a pbf- at Uerodotiu wbare lllaitnliini la •( 

loaopber. Had 1 folliwcd Ibe plan 
I onfflnally propoMd to tajnAU wbicfa 
«H,io lUuitratc m;r anlbor by ihc irork* 
of n haeqnen I Matori am an d the j ODTQ at « 
tt rnodarn travpllBr*, lh« rommpnta 

(hc^mtML coii>«qi>citcr; Imou, wift 
rrgui to ill* ixlauTe Mtnaticoa of lb* 
placca bo mcBlivni, and the ttti* at 
tho world At the lima the Muwa wtra 

Tb« CbnnalogT of Egypt, slTen upon fcofwall'founded&athofilybj HaTOdotaa, 
aooardiagto hU uviu&Towal/Vicgiiti wlih tbcDodekarchla, aDdlaihui unaffA: 


Doilekarehift «T1..W6 

Sola rula of PuutmitiRbai «M. .617 


Prammai ... 


Amasia ..... 
Faaminenitnr . 

.617. .801 
.601. .5M 
.AW. ,bn 
.£70.. 038 
.990.. S» 

Cgjpt conquered hj CambjM*. 




Til fauset <fl^e itar Mwtrm Cami^ttt and lAe Ej$i>'''^'*t '-(>■ ^> 
PtcmmirtiitHM, Jm of Anatu, u am^uwrHl near Ptltuimm, 10 Mf. Afttrtia 
ftirr^»ArT of M«nrpAu, t\i AJneaiu^ CfreMtaiu, and Barr^miu ivrmulrr,^ 
Mrir vam aeeanl, 13. Ptammfnilut » at firti treottj l^rrat^i 6wl WW •(IW, 
Aniv mvAf iUrisuiay. it put lo ifrn/A, 14, I(. Baring i^ugattJ E/H*, 
Ctimlrf*r» rrtWeet (o earrg irtir agaiiul lit Car/AcifiiiHMi, Amwmi4Mu, mi 
tHAiayiam; lirt Ihr PJurniriuat rrfutr /u tarr^ var agmintl Mr OtHtmgiuittt, 
their ftlha.- cUiacnt: t/te ejpeiiilivn, lAer^/wr4f i* itnfftU, 19. Spiti um*>l 
/rvai lir Ii-MAvuplkayi Co /A« Ef^Uipniiu, ZO: tHey MMfi back a lhrrait*i»i 
cnsumr Jrotn the Jnnij. Tht nrmj/, maivAii-g rtgai»tl the £tAi«pi>iiif. it «>• 
pelted h> rrimn, ty/a>«ine, ii- T^Me fcni aya>>t»r the Ammmiaiu, ot *««^ 
imi-rj up, tmtirr nu«iif<iinJ nftanJ, iS. Camtgtn # NVMA a/ntncr <Ar n(M 
and t/if ynfili t(f the K^^yptiaiu , fanejpnf that U« Ij^Ffrfuiw r^v* m iMrMri 
of hu failiirt,V3 tt^. He Ttjraint A» uK-n tnl(frctti bul/mbll 
deidA hit bntkef SmerJii, andAit m'ttrr, mHa mu liiririte Ai« teifi^: liamfUm 
maiis,toth aflht Perrittiu and Hfypliaiu ; OMd^tort oariou idAtr ynafi vjkt 
iiMiiMify, 30— 38. Itt Ikit fdaet it iiuerlt^ tkt AiiUef iff P^ye^idet, Ifrtid ff 
tke SatitiaMt, <tj/oiiul KiAani M« i.«iViAraMiin»u trndrrivcA, abtmi Mu Am*, •■ 
erpeititicm,Si> *r^. Ttte CurryritauM atsitl im IAUe.rpeddiati,iM t-iuue^imieT if't 
grndg* ogaimM lie Haouaiu from tit tint nfFeriaitdvr : etmiemin^ I'eriamif, 
49 a«Y, Jn lit* ineaH time, SmerdU l^r Mai/iis iai n /wucchui •/ (A« I'ernt* 
throne, 61 : Ar tmdt a hrntid mi/> l^g/d, tti nnttnaii the tewtpt la abaaJim (If 
ttnidard of CanAytu, Vli. CamliyiM, leizetl mtlli great aiijtrt, it atoni I9 M 
Ait armf againll Iht Magi ; but ii lUVuieHtnllj/ mau.mdtd, at he ij leaping Oa iU 
hartt, and diet, ^ii to/- TAe rArat vf the lianut /taviits ^ern Jitctrered ty tit 
dattyhter »f Otanct, irven of the chief men (JnvHUf thf Ptrtiant evufiiet Ik 
dnM f/'/Af tituriMrr, m H7. TAr Maji ar* put lo dtath, U. A pwuNfMM 
it held on the uwrl rj-pritirnt farm of ifaferHfmt to bt adoptfd ; itud Jt»at^f, 
Dariut thr ion iif Utr'tiupet it pvinleit out king if the nrightHg ^Kii haewi, 
HO f«y. Be diriiriiv the tmjiirt iute fwenlg lalrapirt : the retiemntjiinm eat* 
(/"uAmA it ttaifd, 8V, Wt. Some diher luttioK* /amish/ree g0t fa /jir Jtm^; 
amenf vAm> lA? Indinnt, lehote cvvntry and manner* art dm-riM, 9tt— Itfl. 
TAr adenatngrt qf Ai-aliia are Ihrn mamrrafrd, lOr— 113; at irttl ut Owr 
^Ethitiyia, and IJit dittaiil Iradi of Europe, J N «fy. ttUapheriu; om ^ttit 
ttten rantpirnltrt, it put to denlh iy Dnriitt't order, 1 1 9 te^. ; und a/fcrwgnh 
Urata, 138, who had tvmftuied, by prrfidtf, lAtr den/h rj JVgcraln, tht tgmid 
irfSamot, \'il3 — I2S; Kho had liku iPiK put lo dtath JHitr»tat*t,anM* Pertt^t, 
teyelhrr u-iM kit mm C'rtMHUptU, and had orrlrrtJ tht martUr t(fa •mf«Twrr tt 
Aiui lig Darittt, lit. Drmtetdei, a phgticiau iifCroiM, haring 6een Jtmtid 
amimg the alarti iffOnrta Kl'ti) rnret litt kinj and At^tn: he it trni .u • 
guide ttilh lomf Ptmant, M retuniintre Oretee and Ihtgi he imdiet hie 
etcopr: tmil Ihr Prrmant who had nceompniiied hin trt laXtn,»nd nmtamtd 
if itiU i^TaraHum, 129— I:J». r*» lORMBrr in vhieA tkr Per. 
t%iau took Samo*, 1311 — 118. liut, at the tamt limtf titf Hiiykmuuu trr^dt; 
lUid, a/ler a iiefi of lirtiilj m*nt*r, art tuhdued if the art and walomr 1^ 

Znpfiif, IW to the end. 




the abovp Anaasis that Cambv! 


as n^ramst 

pre|)arefl for war. »l Uii- head of nn armj", consisting 
not nnU' nf nil tlie rari'ius tribes iiiKlcr liU clomininn, htll 
also of Inniann and .{']n)inns froiii anion;: llx' McllrncF: tliis 
expedition waH umltTtakcn fixim ihu follutringntutit'^. Cam- 
byitea h*A sent a herald into E^'pt, and irrjucstcd the baud 
of AmaKis'K dau|{lit«r'. This request vas made at tl»? wag* 
|f«tioii of a natire K^ptian ; who, harinft n Rnidfco apninat 
Amaiiist «L"ied in this manntr. bfcanxt- tlie king of Kgypi hud 
iclectvd hiiu alone from amoiiR the JL^gypttaii phvMciaos, and, 
fnrcihlv tearing him from wife an*! cnildnti, Imd made a 
p«»ent of htm lo the IVrcians, when Cynis sent to Amosis, 
and asked Tor an ophthalinisl, that should Im; tho besl in 
EpTil- This bt'ing, accnrdinglv, the reason of the Kpvplian*« 
ill-will, be ioKiij^u-d C:iiiil>ys(.-«s bv his counsels to ask Amam 
for bis daii^btur; in order ibat the king of Epivpl either 
ofanuld, to his groat nKniificatiim, f;i*t.- his daugbtiT. or refuse 
htir, and so become the object of CemhyKes's hatred. Bui 
Amaais, alanncil. and dreading to be oppressed by the power 
of the Perwans, knew no! whether he fthonUl give or refuse 
bta dauKhtcr; a* he was well aware thai Cambyses did not 
intend to tako the ladv for his wife, but to make her his con- 
enbine- After revohingtn his minr) this subjeet, he decided 
to act thus. Apries, the preceding king, harl left one 
dftnghter, a sintely and handiuime u-nmnn, the only retnnining 
oSspting of the fotnily : lier name was Niletis. Aecordingly, 
AiDasis decked this dam^tel in cloth of gold*, and aertds her 

> Cm<t'. I'Syi rj tuftitriJj Kmm ll 14, I thiak, tbc f>Kun* wU^ tfao 

fliii. ■!>«»*» Utrtn' mMt4r 'Aftatn ^mmUMua t«nn l*U )*hV. u m tbt* 

ta^rit»- StftiM. ^Mmtt.411.4. T«n» i€ VirgH: " Vxitna llhmiu M 

1 I'W GtMt ■», IfrfM «« «>> Xff- *<"«■" G*oTtl. 'i> 193- LartieF. 


THALIA. III. 9—4. 

off into Penii, RS his own daughter. Some lime after, obJ 
Cambvscs'8 saluting her by her paternal name, tlie i»Aj\ 
addrcsBtd him thus: " Sire," said she," you know not ihit 
" jau arc deceived by Amasis', who aent me away to yon 
"thus richly adorned, and gave, as his okti daughter, me. 
" who iuu )Q reality the daughter of .ApricA, nhoin Auikm 
** rose up against, with the Egyptians, and killed, allhoBgi 
" hie sovereign lord." This information, and the deeire ofj 
arenging that murder, indnccd Camhyscs violently tnc> 
aspirated, to iiivadt> Kgj-pt. Such is the PeraiaD accouo 
SBut the Kgypuan!«, on the other hand, claim Cambysea 
their countrj-man ; affirming, that he was bom of thtK veir 
same daughter of Apries; for Cyrus was tfau person thil 
sent to Amasis for bis daughter, aud nut CambyBM : but in 
so saying, they mistake the truth; for it cannot have c6ca|>rd 
the Egyptians — indued, if any uaiion in the world is well 
convcisant with the Persian custonia* Uiat nuliun is surelf 
the Egy[>iian~-ihat, in the iirsl place, among the Poniitot 
it is not custoiriDry that a bnsiard shoidd reign, while 
theru still exists a legitimate heir ; and. accoudly, that Cim- 
byscs was the son of Casisandune, the daiigliler of l*hsr- 
naapea, one of the Acheeiiienidae, and cenainly not spmag 
from Egypt. But the F.gyptiana pervert history, in claimiag 

3 any connection with the family of Cyrus. The foUowiaj: 
talc is likewise told, but 1 give no credit to it. Some Per- 
sian woman paid a visit to Cyrus's wives; and beboldtng tbe 
tall and bcuutifnl cliildri'u staitdtng by Ca^sandano, praiael 
them highly, as one filled with aslonishiuent Ca3»audaae, 
one of the wives of Cyrus, answered thus : " Although Oie 
" mother of such children, Cyrus slights me ; and faonoun 
" the foreigner from Eg^pl." Such was the langiuige of 
Cassandano, who was envious of Nitetis: and the eldest rod, 
Camhyscs, herrnpnn said : " And therelbre, mother, when 1 
" become a man, I will, I assure you, turn Egypt upside 
" dowTj." This speech was made by a twy of ten years of age 
only, and was held as a prodigy by the women. CambytM, 
when bo grew up. remembered accordingly his tow ; and. 
having become king, entered upon a campat^ * agaiatt 

4 Ttic ftdlowiiig otlier occurrence also took place, and 
contributed totvarde the furtherance of this expedition. 
Among the mercenaries ofAmaiuswaa an officer, a natir* 

* Mm. *S4.H,3. XrnnpltoD mitkr ihc mow dUVenaea 

* VolclcDicrolMwMe*, tbot, in Hv betwem trfinSm mi rff»fj, 4m 
rcdulu*. rrjarafa mcuii an ciuixlilioi). Sr^taeif. Ltm- BtnJ- 
■nd rrfaitti %a tnny. Thn.ejJiAc* and 


of HalicaniassitR, and called Phanes; be was bo4h a wise 
couu*el)ur and gallant soldier. T\m iodiridual, di^KusU--d 
at ilie behariour of Aniasis, made his escape by &en out 
of t^gjpt, with th« intention or baring an interview with 
Canibyscs. A» he wax of nn hnmblc rank among ibe roer> 
cenarien, aiid niureovor va& perfectly acquainted with every 
thing appcnainin;; to Kgypt, Anianis pursued liim, making 
eTpry cHort to capture his porsunt tor this purpose ho 
despatched afu^r the ftiK'itivc one of his moH faitliful uunucha, 
on board a triremu. Tlit* (.'iiiiucli overtook the desL-rliT, and 
made htm priaoner; but did not contcy him back lo E^-pt; 
for Pbanes cheated dexleroui^ly bin kee)i«r, made the guards 
drunk, and went over to the Pen^tans. CambyKea was on tlia 
ere of marchini; ugauist Egypt, and iu doubt' how he should 
gpt bi» lojcea acroM a country wholly without water; wbea 
Fbjticn caiDu over to liim, conimuiiiciittd vrcry particubf 
relatiiiff to Ainatti^'); ufl'nirs, and cxpliiiiied bow the paiaig* 
over tlic desert was to bo perfonued : be advised that an 
ctnba5»y should be despatched, to request the king oC the 
Arabiiina to give hitu a aafe passage across his lorritories. 
The only practicable entrance into hlg>'pt is by this road : 
froni Plitcutcta, down to the con&ncfl oi' the city of CadytiS} 
the land appertains to tlie people called Syrian Palirstiuians: 
from Cidylis, which, in my opinion, is scarcely inlcrior io 
sizv to Siirdis, the staples along the shore lo JciiyxuH belong 
to Uie Arabian prince : from Jenysus, on to Lake tiirbonis, the 
coaat is a^^ain pasara»cd by the Syrians. Adjuiniag ths 
abore lake, Mounl Casius extends down to tlie sea; and 
fmin Tjiike Sorbonis, in which tradition uys Typlion is con- 
cealcd, 'E-nypt begins. Accordingly Uie country between 
the city of Jenysua and the Lake Scibonis with Mount Cosiui} 
no ioconiiiderable space, for it is a three days' march% 
ta dreadfully scant of water. I am now going lo describe 
what eery few of lliose who have perJunned the voyage to 
Egypt know any thing abouu Earthenware, (tiled wilh 
vine, is ini|)orlcd twice a year into Egypt, from all parts of 
HcUa« a^ well as Phoenicia ; yet not so much as one wiue- 
jar — if I may use iho oxpreasion — is to be seen in Egypt, 
[low then, vou may say, are they consnmud' t To thia 
qacslion 1 gire tlie following answer. Every magistrate ia 
held to collcet all tlie eiuthen'jnrs of bis own town, and 
«ninaniit llicm Ut Mewpbts: froia .Memphis they are trans- 

' Cnnatr. ■■} irtftmi <*-rA) At "klrot lo ih rf^ (I mmr aliobl takas 

SrAifif- in tba —a— of Mt " ohM*, tbM, 

• Mall. ixi. oil. 4. wn Oiej eaoncBMlP" Srktivip. Um. 

: uf for *MBtT ba (*fttn u aqid. Btrti, 


THAI.IA. m 7—9. 

porter) full of ir»ler, u> those <lr_v parts of %ria. Thm all 
dill earllicu jars ituporled iulo Egrpt, and exhibited for 
•wle, find ihtiir wav iniii Syria, and fjo to incruasc tltu old 
stock. TiiU mode of facilitatinR tlie ingress inM Kgypt, bj 
supplying the abore-mentione<l de»ert with water*, vas 
adopted by \h« Per-tianH, aa MM>n ax tbey bad got possoscioo 
of Kgypt. At ibe time, bowt-vert we are speuking of, ttu 
storo of water u*aa at hand : Cainbyws, in consequence of 
infonuation received from llie etraoger of Ilalicamasniat 
gout ninbaHndorn to the king of Arabia, am) r«>f)Ufstvd a aafo 
paasage; which be obtained, afler a mutual iiiiiTchiuige of 
pledges . 

Tlie Antbiann respect their oaths as religiously as any 
otlier people*: they plight their faith with tbc followjug 
forme : — when two persona aro about to plight thoir failb, a 
third fttanibi bctwcnn the two partien, and, with a sharp* 
edged st^'nc, makes a Might incLoion in the poliiia of boto, tht two middle fiu);<!r»: be thru takes a shred from ibe 
cloak of each, aud rubs the blood u|K)n aeven stonea placfd 
betweni tbc Lwn; in doiug which, he itirokcs both Baccbna 
and ITrauia. This curemouy beiag gone ibrougb, tlie per- 
son that plights hiff failb tenders his Iricnds, as a bond**! 
lo the stranger or the countrrioan, if the cereraony takv 
place with such; and thuac frictids cnimider tbemselrtn 
bound to obii^rve llie compiii-'t. Tliey acknuvledge no utbvr 
Kod^ than Bacchus und Urania; and aflirm, that tbey cut 
their hair the same as Bacchus duea; that is to say, thev 
shear off the hair all around like a wheel, and cut away aU 
the comcra about the temples, lliey call Bacchus, Orocal ; 
and Urania, Alilai- Accordingly, the Arabian prince, aftet 
pledging his word to the deputes coming on tlie part of 
Cambysvs, proceeded to net as follows: — he filled sone 
cami-lb' skins with water, and ptacod thcin un the barks of all 
his living oamols: this done, he proceeded to Uiedewn, aod 
there awaited the arriiai of Cambyscs' anuy. The above 
ia Uie more credible of the two accounu given; but it is 
proper to mention the other also, iQosmucb as it ccrlaioly 
doea exist. There is in Arabia a great river, called the 
Corys: ii falls into the sea known under the name of Ery- 
thrseaD. From this lirer, therefore, the Arabian king is ro- 
preaonted to have made, b}- lacking together the hides of 
oxen and rarinus other animals, an aqueduct, strelchiog In 
length to llie desert, and tbiis conducted the water; he is 

< Milt. MU. 

THALIA. III. lO-ia. 


&aid to have dug deep well* in tho desert, to pro- 
»enc llir water ifiiin obtained. The mad from llic river to 
the d«ort U a Iwelv«-daja' march; aiid thi? wutw vras coii- 
ductrd* by ihrec ifjiiediicts, lu direc dtfTcrcnt statinns. 

Near" the moutli of the Xik' called thy Pelutiiac.Psamiue- 10 
oituii the turn of AinasiA pittrhcil hiK camp, and anailiHt the 
conriog orCambj'se);: fur Citiiibyi>L-K rnuiid Auiat.U rio tmi)^r 
•lire, rthvn ho inarched ugaitwt K^ypt; that kiiiK, oftor a 
retgn of fory.four years, had dfuartfd life. During this 
period, no great calamity bcfd him: aUcr his decease, liu 
vBs embalmed, and hh remains deposited in the sepulchral 
chambcm be had built in ihc temple for hiinsclP*. Under 
lbs reign of I^uminenituit the sou of Aiuasl.s, a mighty prO' 
^j occurred to the Egyptians — rain fell at Thebes; amtrentV, 
that nerer cuuie lo pas» before, nor since, to luy lime, 
according to tht Thebans ; for no rain whatever tills in the 
tipper part of Egypt; hut in the present instuuce, a drizzling 
Bhawur was seen at Thcbeti". The Pemans, aJ\er crossing II 
tbe Valerius demerit halted close to Lhe £g)'ptiaos, for tlie 
iMiirpose of engaging: at this moment^ the mercenaries of the 
Egyptian prince, irlio consisted of Hellenes and Carians, 
laying it to the charge of Phancs tliat lie had brought 
I foreign host upon Egypt, dei-i^d the following act against 
Inm. Fhanes had left nin sons in Kjrypi: they, therefore. 
brought the youths to the camp, and orithin view of thoir own 
blher; then, placing a wine-bon-l in the mid sjjaco between 
the two canipH, dragged tlie yonthK, one by one, and cut 
tbcir tlirnati over the bowl, Haring thu» slaughtered the 
whole, lliey ]xiure<l wine and walrr into the howl ; and all 
tbe uierccnuric!!, having qualFed of (ho blood", engaged 
battle. A bltxjdy conflici ensued : gntat numbers fell on 
both «id«s, and the Egyptians were put to flighu la conse- 12 

Snencc of information from the people rcsideDt about the 
eld of battle, I had an opporluoily of seeing mrsolf a very 
mprbing thing, llie boncii of iho fallen in tliis battle are 
Kattered about ; those of each party sepanitely — for the 
bone« of the Prrsiaus lie by themselves, as they were at (irst; 
Ofpposi1« to which are seen those of the Egyptians: — and tbo 

U b doM Mt henr ■Jeni^ at: tbm town down, ■■) «iri CWWar al BMt 

N> Mi| <tf tb« Pttotiui nxnilli tru <^A, " al that itnic Iticbc* «■■ 

ky M wiai tt tor ibf cncarapBoni w>tcicd wrtli ilrop* of raln."-- 

<f U iVHiT. Mall- £^7. Vaiettruitr. Srhivi'i. 

I* $«• Bnnk li. ie». ** |^:U«H S r.i m7^,„: lil«r>IlF, 

■■ [it ■' Thcbnof Ef7p( wu«^ ■' htimg drank of the MdoJ." rm 

■nd with nim." •aob la Uw mMu- ■^•m is Ifat putHrra (nllivk^— 

iufd thn pttwue itim : Ihofl, Srvw 1 liarfiur. 

til^irf, «t»dfrnuiJ nan: 90, ■ litll* 

rou I. It 


THALIA. Ill, 13. 

KttlU or iho Persiann arc fo aoft, that you may euiljr ' 
a holt) ill thrill hy itirnwing a pclible; while those bf < 
lvg_Vptiaii« are so hard, that you can Kcurcely brekk i}i4 
l>y n'i»eate<i ltlow» with a Ktonu. The iranon of this a»M)n»ed 
by the [wople, I ut It-aM. readily a(:L-t>d<>d to: tl ift, Ihnt the 
Kgyptiani, iiniiiediatc-ly Irom their inriinry, br^iii lo aliavi 
their liL>adti, iiiid thi' Ihhil- ol tliu scull ix thickt^^uud hy cxpd 
ftiire to tlll^ 81111. llii''' iiccDUiit!> litivnisc fnr tbum bciug 
iiifilmic«K uf baKliiL't^ utuuiiu the K^vptiatiK; for yon Kec If 
bald inon in that t-r>iiuliy than any other: such, tfaerufoFr, 
the reasou i-ftlie Egypiiaui having such strong sculk. Wit 
Tcepeci to the For^iaus, tlic cause of their having such thin 
KculU is this: fToiii early youth iliwy are broufrhl up will 
the head shaded by Ijirbnns, which ihpy w«ir in the place 
fiilt caps'*. 1 wituesstHl ihe suiiif thiii): also at Pfiprcitiis, il 
the sciillit of tlio Pci'ftiani:, imdnr Acha^monL>« ih» son 
Darius, who wurc cut oil' by [iiarus, the Libyun prince". 
)3 The Egv'piiitus, rmiled in ihc bnlilv, fldd in grent comfu 
Mon. and ahtit tbein^ielrtis \u Mt-inphiB. Caiobyscs sent Op 
tlve river a ship belcini^iig to Mitylcne, with u Funnui dIh 
riuiL on board as a liLniid, inviting the EKyplituiii to twtnmJB 
lli« inhnbildiilx. seeing llie »>1iip cuter Memphis, ixjurvd forth 
in a ma^s from their cily, destroyed iJtt? vesacl, and tore, 
limb fioiti limb, the creu', carrying the fragiiiruLs into the 
town. ^^ieR« woft ttien laid to the place, and the Egyputtm 
at laKl Kiirreudeivd ". The Libyani^ on the borders, in foar 
of receiving the same tr«iktiii«nt as Kg)-|it, gave tbcni««lve> 
up iviihoitt fighlini;, siibiiiilted to tribotei and sent gifU: 
the Cyri:ni<>anK and Hnrctenns, eqiinlly alsrnied with Ibo 
Libyans, acted in thv lutiiio tuaituer. Cambyses received 
grBcion»ly the Libyan giflii; but found fault with ihoae of 
the CyreuicaiiR, ou aci-uuut, I suppoftci of tlieir losignifi'^ 

Vinp; of Ptraitt,' ' the king at ErTpt>n 

'O AlytrriH. II. ii PcAltialMilW^'^ 
kitlg ol EKjpt. 'O 'AfiSiH. f>, U dM 
kiati of the Arabi^nti. Stoondlf, t 
have ao e^Icd bim hcpnuM Utit ae* 
m-titim il olcarij dcMfaniBad tj 
TnucrdidM, i. 101. LarrJtwr. 

" In Ehe rerb T#ra^, aad {M OMft- 
poiitHi*. Ihe p»rr. aud nor. 2, tr* uikn 
m ■ |«i«iva itraic. fjorvArr; mIm* 
of Liliya," alifcftiKb ItrTodaiu.- eimi irantlui'iu it >< fumit mfin vhUflit 
blm mitj; tbc ap^llstion of rti xifim,, do *« i«Oiirti" — »m»rtimi namiM, 
" tbo l.ibjMi;" flrti, b*cati»a IJcro- jiroprrh, '■ to gbiad Vr;" bulM^ini 
dotn* ppiMtrallf rallii kir^ by Ilia inkim bjr Banivtm in the «*nM M 
oamm oi th* cutioii attrr wUicb tiMtjr ■■ to •arramlff','' " m ilellt^r ont't wif 
ivUl H< »»yt cQD'iantlj ' ih> Per- up." iii. IH; r, flA; tl. 99, lu.— 
(iaa,* ' the Kitn>'''^'i|' ■■■■(*>'^ of ' ^' StJkietig, Lex. Btrod, H'Mt. 

I' r'Jitri rmm ^(imi. The •lluf 
WM the ^Kaenc tutor far ■ Aat: Ibo 
panicular Hart or lint or KiTeiiii)i tu 
(lie htmA Rorn lir Ihe h;r»iatiii wiu 
the nitfa, a ml at liirliaii, if wa luaj 
fTl^vn QdIdI, Cuit, ill. .1, l!>, r<-|(ivni 
rapilin iniifcne, ^iir>d i-a-diUa (nans 
*lho iJlKrierta clrcumllMti. SnlnrW. 
Or. Gttni. Lrr. 

" I hove ckllod ihia In»m» '■ Unit 


cancy; for Ihc pru^cnl wnl by llic people of Cyrumr wa» 
only (ii\y iDiniu of silver. Ttio kiii^, gnu-jiiitg tJie niuucv, 
iv«U4;n^l, with his own tiand, tlio uoins aiiiuug ihf KoMiers. 

On the tcnlh day uHor th« viii>ttir« <»r Mtiiopliis, Cuiuhysca 14 

phcvd ill thu suburb, for tbu purjioH.- ul' iiiMilt, the king of 

ibe Egy|»tuii8, PMiwrncniniN, whose reign had lasted six 

iDomh». tiigciher niib othi-r Kgypliaiw, ami made irial of 

Imi conslaricy, bcbiiving to him in the following manner. 

He drBistd the king's (Utughicr in llif garb of u sliit-f, and 

wnt her doii'n to the rifer with a pitcher: she was accom- 

panii-d with olbcr young inaidcnx, whom Cambyses »:.'li:ctf(I 

Irani tbn Rr«l families, nil clad in the »>anio niaiinor ns ibii 

btflg'» daughter. Ax t)ic dain^cls pasni-d bt-fure them'" tii 

lennn and with Innu-iilablo t-iiLS, all die fatliprtt answi^rcd 

vUh MniiUtr erica and uioans, when thi-y beheld lh«ir children 

ihas debxNed; excepting Psanimeiiituit, who, although bts 

law and knew them, mt-rcly c««t his eye* to llie ground. 

After the water-cam em had ]>aBsed by, lite procession was 

<anlinued by the king'» son, with two thousAnd other Kgyp- 

(ians of the *ame n^t; each wtih a baiter lii-d ronnd his neck, 

knd ■ bridle in ihc iiiouth": these young pi^rsoiis were then 

conductrd to death, as a rrvengc nflVri-d to the Miiyln- 

Qaeana who had couir to Mfniphis on board the ship: for 

tbe royal judges liad pronounced their sentence, that, for 

each iDurdiTed man, ten of the ehtpf Egyplians should be, in 

return, pul lo dealJi**. When Psainineninis haw his son 

pQMttp by, and was iiiformi-d thai lie waK being li*d lo the 

acaflbid, he behared in the xauie inaimcr a<t hn had done to 

liis daughter ; ahhough the rest of the Kgj-plians, scattrd by 

his side, wept and ben-ailed. AlWr these bad pa^acd, it so 

liappened, that an old mau. one of his drinking coinpanioiui, 

fallen from hi.i former -statu, possessing nothing more than a 

cuminnn pauper, and asking alms from the soldiorK, came to 

PKauimeniluR the »on of AinnMH, and the Kg^pliaiis seated 

in the huhiiih : IVainuieiiitus, at tho Mghl o) the beggar, 

gtve Vent to his teare, and, calling hiK uld companion by 

ttamoi amotc his head. Some guards, plaeed over tJu- Kgyp- 

tittii king, commmiicatcd to CambyseH all the iKirticidars of 

lat behaviour, aa each procestuoti pahacd by : aurphsed at 

■* HrA v*W««rl{«f. M*ll. &9I, Jl, 

w 1 tlwuuht, u fir«i,ll)il Hefodotui 
bad allUiWil 10 the " gag ;" tMt a pu- 
(•Xe in 111) uf thw Uok mn*lncc* oie 
t)i«i it I* * rE«l briille, which wa> 
fiuhntil M • m\A of Hitgimc* ruuad 
ilw ncel .—£arKA«r. nsr^Mtoi, It. M. 

n>n tht itonl rri fu m in iht MnM 
'>^g'K3"f; f ^w* aoJ Imrva^M are 
ih« mori-uaual aiprcMkiiiai tiiatorUMT 
ID owtiftilar. 

» CoiiM^uimUjr, the ttvw of itia 
MitrlcDiKi <liip. mMMervd \<-j Uw 
IvffTjpt^an*, iiiui>t bav« aaiftattod to two 




thiK voD^uci, he aenl a meswogei, In luaku in<}nii 
ktnp in Ihc following words; — " l^sainincDilus, your W( 
•* Innl, Camliyses, asls, Why. sewog your daughter so 
** linted, and your tun pToccvUtni; to druUi, did you 
'* from iDoutuing aud wcfepiiig; but st'<>lng the hegga 
" is DO wavs couDt-clcd with you, honour him ait they t 
** you did)" Tims queHtiuiicd, the king gave the ln|l 
nnttwi-T: " Son of Cynis; iho cnlaiiiitif^H of my own 
" are too j;n.'at to hv deplored"; bul tlic misery of laj 
" panion claimed a tear, he Imrinff fnllen Irom hap 
" ami prtMperily, to heggar>'< on tbt; tlireabold of ) 
This beinR reported", Pgnmmemtnii nppearcd lo C*n 
to have spokm I'ruycrly : and CrcEsus, according to the . 
lianx, shed toiirft; for the l.ydian prince had foUovred 
by.seti to Egypt: the Pei-siana, ulso, thai were prc^otJt, 
Stich coni|KiH<iinn, it is said, tooV [losKuioii of Cuiiib 
that forthwith he gave onlcrs for the eon of thi* Kp. 
l»rincL' to bi; reprieved* Irom being cxc-cittcd with ibc 
doomed to death, and the priuce bim>^e1f should be 
\6 from the saburh, back tu liis home, llic persons m 
this comuiissiuii** found the vouih do longer in exis 
huvin;; ht-en tlie firpt exffiitcd; Uicy removed l?&itun>< 
hiiDM?1f, aiid bruugbi biiu to Cambyscs; with whn 
passed the rent of his life, wilhmit being subjected t 
further rioleucc; aitd, hud he been pnidenl ettou^ 
frain from moddliog with affairs", might Uarc been tm 

•Matt. 419, fr. Cf. AdMub Bbct. 

•• TliiJi Hotnpnc! I'ljirtixiciri *|>jirtK 
In ailinLt ot Iwn nmuiiti^, the com- 
mRirrinpnl tiDd Itin and of old ag^ 
l^ci: l.atI^hc^'g nnln. 

** Ms) vaSrm m inniji^tT*. Thr 
in6nitiieit Imitii ud') l«i^ir mn f^- 
««T1l*d (>j Jjytan, uniWtiKnod ffolB 
aw )i Xiy*rai. iMttttd of trhU WOulH 
liavB iHreu ih« common ntpnvrion, sal 
wmfta it ivwtSxh. HcnilAiaa miicbt, 
theicrorc incuiri'icii ai rliu intinitivc 
Tvat throuf^ the *ca1cii(-i, bitr used 
ilo lii£iiitii« iniiod i (or v« kn>><* IhM 
in (tinllar phracM, l«i), and (n«li lik« 
pRTiiflet, mi; be coniimcd with the 
JnHniiiTr. il. 33; liL 3fi: bat lo tliW 
iortuiM liui unthur ha* cIwhd (o 
comrnif ttio par<lclc mt vritb tt p«t(i- 
pipl*, indpod of citbre in iolieitiTo 
«r indiratitv, tnkinft rmSv ii mwun- 
jgHtrm !■ Hjuinlnil (o ruva it in' 

* Mult. 394, r. 

^^ Jitexplctite: a>iiuhrp1 
it cijuailT coDnian in FmcW, 
tn ■IT. ID fumilini Inngoiigi) : " 
■not Ini fitrt t^II« ohM*."— £o) 

■n<MM .' '^J/tr*^tr. 

" SchwcitihiFuscr, after Ht6 
nkn ihwvtf* to (h« th«ios t 
•nd rxpLniiu tfcia pbraw by tl 
DUtie nrgmtir* ct ibo (irNk 
nnr iy\nf In thf m »riratit« 
T«rb, th« othfT in tlw panli 
T.Lietm»r, " It il bad b«n dUI 
ibot be vaa pi an nine innovi 

■nrri*. .'Km, PcrlO* ttltn i 
lo Irkraftmi. d{ which he n^nu 
ilic.iDi. pau. I. AlLj ind.takl 
aa impcnnnal vatti, fci'vf* the 
itifl UDoil»liuo i " l( it bx 
fcaowalbkl bewuiiM jilanniD 
mioot.'* P»W. l^'- lem.ive.i, 
Vp'erfer, a jrausft !>•■ of ffToai 
iclme prenaOiiv deUb SMin 
Ml (Mam, nqBHif 



■ U the rule of Egypt, and appointed governor of that pro- 
^^^ rioco; for ihv I'crsiBus arc wonl to shi-w honouni to llir 
^^K wos of royaltv; to wbum, altliough <li4>ir fatliers tniiy lisve 
^^H ntTolietl^ Uiey still f{ive back the pouur, I'liat Huch is th<;ir 
^^P practice, can he slionnt by luaiiy iiisiaiiceii ; more eupDcially, 
^^^ TluMinvTas the m>u of Inariis, llio Lihvnii prince, who wan 
K^^ reilufrd lu liiti fai)ici'K pou'or ; and so wun PausiriK thf son 
^^K o[ Amyrtaius ; and titls wa» the case, iiulwilh^itantlinf; the 
^^V PsiBiatm were more aimi>yed by Inariiii and AiiiyrUL'tib ihau 
bjr any other priiict-'S. Uat now I'suiumcniliifi having worked 
mittc'hitf, ri'cvi>*«d his reward; lie niitc againxL the Pumian 
king, aod roused the Mgrptiaii* lo totoU r having been con- 
iicbe«l> be- was si-iiitnccd hy Caiiibv^es lo bu pul lu death 
inttaatly, by Kwtillnwin}; a draufflit of bull's blood: thiis, ac- 
CortDugly. this prince caino tn hi»end. 

Cambyiii-s prixrocdod from Memphis lo the eiiy of Sais, 16 

for iho purpose of accomplii>hing an object ho had iu view. 

A« soon as he reachod AiuasiK's p;ilace, he cnniriiauded llie 

carp«c uf tJie dec«ai«od to be dragf^cd forthwith out uf the 

aeiiuU'hn.*. Wheo thiK order bad been (>xecut'>d, tie gare 

(lirectioiu^ that tbc carcass should be scourged, the h.iir pulled 

out, tbc body pienrcd in all purls, aud insulird in evety iniin> 

Der. Wbcn they wcrw tired of pcrtbrrviing these operations 

(for tlie body, being embalmed, re»isled, and did noi i^ice 

Wiiy"), Cambyscs comnianded thai it ahonld be conui^cd 

by firo. it must be observed, that the Persians beliere fire 

<o be a god : it is tlienifuro by uo mi-ans consonant to ibe 

cusiotns of cither nation to bum the dead — lo the Persians, 

for the reiKon above asstgneil, as thuy say it ik not right a 

qod fvltould feast on a man — to the Kgyptian», because ibey 

lieliure firu lu be a vild living animal, that devniini whatever 

be can seixe upou, and, when t>atialed wilb food, dies to- 

netlicr with what bv hait cuusuuied ; and consequently it is not 

ngbl. by any means, to give bim n human l>ody ; and tbal 

CD Oti-o aci'ntiui they enibalui their dead, in urder thai, being 

placed undergmund, they should not be oatwi by wonua. 

rb'Tclorv, iu LJus instance, the inJuuclio»» of Oambyans 

wore equally criniiunl in the ey^s of both Fersionit :mA 

£}(yptian.v Huvevvr, according to the Ivgyptiaii account of 

thu went, it was not Ainasis that underwent this trcat- 

tMioTUkiiw.' Bet. Tkn Uuit\uien 
I have adiifiit«il iritlicnit hnilUioik. 
Ike Sehit^. Ler. ITertid. in nr. M- 

•• u) JHim ImjcIhv, wm hgr ho imsm 
Mit Mil r^cUing, u s palrl4 
wwM Imtc I 

oKb uno In VI). 2U. Ivimam iTmi aJU 
«MSr««, ' tiww bnw,' I. f. ' raultiTv, 
W«< • r*tr, Ml W olirat* luch .' 

tA wtf\miliiUK tbia pkfaw, ' If li« hs<l 

Wiwii iu>w, i. ••. * ir h« ksJ immi 

pral«Qt ■aMftli, nal lu »«U1* *\ib 


THALIA. 111.17—19. 

iiicul, but suuie uthtn* Kgyptian, of tlir Mine o^ » Amutt, 
whom itic Fi?rsi*ii8 abused, Tancyitig they were tn&ulljng 
Aii)ui!i* Th«y ndiU lliat Amasis wus vramed, l\v an oracle, 
of what would happi'D in him afler his death; niul, in ordijt 
to avvrt the forUicoEDin^ calamities, he dejMsited, clone to 
the doom of the Kepulclini] n!)K>sit(in', the vory man that ««s 
MDurKotl alter his death, and gare clur^ to bis &on to de- 
posit his own bmly in llie deepest n>ce)u( of the vault- In mj 
opinion, thctc is not tbe least shadow of truth iu these orden 
of AiiianiK, or in thc-iM- cviints canuccU-d ^\ith his si'pullun 
and niih the other man: these thin^ »tv sli ombcllifihiDMiU 
of the; KKypliaus**. 

17 Subserjut-ntly lo the aboro cvGots, Cambjecs firojccled 
tlin-u diHurt-Qt campaigns Huaiust ibc C'ari|]a^nian.s, tfav 
Aiumouiaui«, und the Macrubian " Ktlitupiuns dwelling ua 
thi: Huulli(-rn coast iif Libyu. Hi' ilcli^niiincd lu M>nd bU 
ilwL agninsi Catl)i«Ke f to ib-Hpatch ii poriiim of his iiiranli; 
aftaiuHt tbt AnniioDiitnsi and tn fteiid brHl spius to tbc KUii- 
opiitus, who were to see the lable of ilie sun, said to be in 
Ethiopia, if r«port vm iruu ; und, besidoft, tu rvconuoitrv oil 
Ui« t£al ; these spies werr to carrr, as & pretext, gifts to tbe 

18 fc'.lhiopittn soverei};n. The tihle of the nun ia dn*«rib«d a»a 
lUL-adovr slrclching iH-ftirc the city, full of the boiled flrsb of 
all sorts of qtiadrujieds, vrhich are Kprt'ad thi-re hy night by 
tlic individuals lluit buld iho civic L-liargt-s : iii tbc day-tine, 
whoever choDSen, may eome and e«t. The inhabitants, it i* 
said, alBnn that ihu e«rih itself prodticrs all these good 
ifatDgs. Sucli, therefore, is the description gi»cn of what is 

19 termed ihu table of llic sun. Cambyseti. Uattnif resolved to 
send s]»e* immedmuly, summoned from Klrphantiiiu stMtf 
of tbt Iclithyophogi aeqtiaintcd with tbe Ktiiiopic ic 
While lIii-'V were fL-lcliinjj; these pcrMinK, CaiiihyBe-a 
orders lor the licet to ^ail agiunst Carlbnge: but thu V 
cians leriiM-d lo obey, huing bound to the Caithaginiatnl 
the luufit sacred oattiH, iind determined not to act so wickedli 
ax bn carry war u^uiusl their own offspring**. ,\s the rhof 
nicians refused to join, the fleit was no longer suSicient for 
t)ie uiulcrtuliinic: and, accordingly, the ('anhaginianK ifau* 
eiicaped ibraldom at ihe bauds of tlie Fei^ians: for C^atft' 
bytes considered il would be unjust lo employ main forcA 

■ Mslt. 384. 

M CcDVlTUCliiM : (Indw/ pm) aU 

*■ Murtobiui* iM aul tlii' rnunv nf a 
■ullnn, hoi *n pjntSni piira hjr H»rn- 

b}- nton of tbrir loagWMtj. tnrmtrm 

" Kiieiy tmc knoui tb* Cknlut' 
^niam wttr« » aolnnj of ihr PhoBi- 
cian* ; th« «iiit«rii«; ■ppoUuka oT^ 

dulua tn ihat portini] af iliv litJiinfittni ir.oliivi oauotrj lo h«i toWiM. 

THALI.A. 111,20—33. 


aitninst * pooplc who ba<t t'oluntari H' Riibiiiiiied llietuKclves 
(o tlie Pt-pkiaiis, and were tin- inaiiis|)nii^ dd irliirh the naval 
unament depended". Tb« C\vpriini» had also ^ven tbuin- 
■elvcft up lo lli« PeniauB, and juiiicd llic esiK<lili(in aKninsl 
Kgjrpt. When the Ichlhyopliap lixd anri»*!»i fnitn Elephan-20 
liue, Caiiih,v»ct) dcapalched Uium to Uie KUliopiaiie, pTC- 
■cribiiig what Uiey were to say ; and carrying gift», consisting 
af% purple duaV, a ^{olden ucck-chaiii, armlets, a stoQciar 
filled wiih myrrh, and a flask of dale-win)!. Thcso Etlii- 
0|ntuts« to whom Cambyses ww Mading, an dt^crilKd aK 
iho iBoifl ti;>?'>uUc and the haDdsomeitt of men : their cus- 
tpmfj it is added, are totally diffBreot rrcim tbosa of oilter 
naliuQii, and especially sn far as regards tbc royal power; 
tlie&v piiople invc'stinf; with llie ^uveieignty that c'rliKetl 
nhrmi they rt-gard a^ nf most gigantic stature, and of 
ktn-ngtb CDmmi^iisurale to liis sixe. 

Tbc tcbihyophafo baring reached lo this nation, presented 31 
the gills lu iht! king, sayin); as iolluus : " Cainbyses, king of 
" tbe PcrsisLDs, desirous to become your fticnd, has sont us,«ttb 
" bis behcMS to its lo have an imeniew wiUi you, and present 
" ymi with ibew> gift?, in tbc unjoymenl i>( which ho Iiiioself 
" deligbtH.*' The Klhiopimi, already iuforuied lliut spitM 
w«re coming to him, Dtadc this reply lo thttm: " it is lalse 
" lliAt tbe liinff of ibe FcretatiH," suid tbc prince to them, 
" ainit vou with gifts, csteeuiiug it such an booour to Itave 
** Did for bis friend: iieitber do you speak tbc truLb, fur you 
" bai'ccuiiic bithpf as Kpii>supun my kingdom. If your king 
** Wens an honest man, be \rould neither cowl another's 
" lerT)l(.ini- l>f«id<.-» bis unn, nor would he reilucu to ifaraldom 
*• uieu Iruui whom he bos uevcr received any olFence. Now, 
** tlierefore, do you give tu biin this bovc; and fay to lihn 
" ibese words: 'The Ktliiopian, king odviws the Pcrstaa 
** Itiug, when tbe Persians can thus easily string a bow of 
** (bin pize,thcn to hoAd his overwhelming multitudes against 
** tile M'tcruhian Eihiupians: until ibat lime, let him thiiuk 
" tliB goils tliey have never inmiMl llie miods of the sons of 
" the Klhiopianis lu pa)ne»^ lheiii:>e]ve8 ol any couuiry than 
** Uwirowu.'" He spnke thus, nn*lTnng the how, and gave it 22 
to tbe new-couiers: then be took iip the puTple cloak, asked 
what it was, and how it was made. The Ichlhyopbagi doscrib- 
IDgto bim all the exact particulars TP<<pecttng purple, and the 
iDodc of dyeing; tbe king said, "llie men are full of deceit; and 

* That i> to Mj, ihe PluenidMii Mldioot ihca, CwRbriM coold coai- 

w*re aa* oal; lb« wM uontldciabU pMi no uDilermkinK by •••• StriiM 

p*n of Caailijw«* (le«t, l<ai itip inn«l quoted 1>y /.APrArr. 
*iHM In iMtiM ud wsri n Hut 


THALIA. Ul. -^3,91. 

ftill of deceits also are iheir gamicnts" Thru he asked abort 
l]i« nccb-cliHin ntiH the Hmikw": tlic Ichthvophagi repre- 
»o(itiug lIiu hoiiutv of imch uniaintniis, the kiipg burst into 
laughter: hv kniMv, liu suitl, they \M:re cbaiiis, aud observed 
tbal thu Kthiu[)taD« had stronger oues than tliose. Next be 
iDquirod nbmit the myrrh; and when informed liow tbal oint- 
in«Dt waa luauufucturud, he umdo tlie sainu ruinarks as he bad 
done rcsjivcUng the cU>ak- But when hv cauic to Oie mnv, 
and iraK inl'orniL-d liow it vas obtained, bv was bi^youd mva* 
sure delighted with the beverage ; aad iben asked, what was 
the chief food of Uie king, aud wliat the greatest extentiioD of 
lite among the Persians. The spies replied, thai the king mi 
bread, auu di-scribcd ihe nature of wheat ; and stated, that 
the longf-st duration of life prt«cril>ed to man is eight; 
yeaiTt. Wliurenpon the Ethiopian prince observed, he was 
not lU all gurpiised thai, living npon dung and nmck, tlinr 
ftbtnild bv so hborl livedo nor uidced u'oiild they even be 
able to attain to that a^a, if they did not refresh their vigour 
by the uae of the beverage" — pointing to tlie wine, and 
canfesning, in that pariipular, the Ethiopians wens 

SSinferior to the Feraians. The Ichtlivophagi, in their lum, 
qaeslioned the king on tlte length nf life, and the iliet of his 
people: he told tliem.that most of hi» subjects reached theii 
nundredlh year, and »oiue even exceeded that; their food 
was boiled meat; their drink tniltc. The »pie9 expreaAed 
their asiouisIimeDtatthc number of years; and ilir king, tl is 
said, took th<<ni to a spring, in the u-at4>r nf which ihey wash 
and glisten, as if it were oil; afterwards, they !>niel) as of 
Tiolets. The of this spring, according to Uie report 
of the Ichtbyophagi, i" so little buoyant, that scarcely any 
object doau on the .surface, not even wood, or things lighter 
than wood; ever>' thing tinks to the bottom". If what 
they say concerning this wutnr in true, it is probable that 
the coustatjt use of it may contribute to their loogenty*'. 
When they quilted the spring, the king look them to apri> 
son for men, where all were confined in golden shackiM; 
bnuM, with these Kihiopians, being the scarcest and most 
esteemed of the metals. Tho IchOiyophagi, after ibey had 

24 viewed the prison, visited also the table uf the sun. 1 ostly, 
tliejr were shewn tho sepulchral repoulorieK of the dead, 
which Uiey dcttcribc as maitc of rock-crystal, in ibc loUow- 

** M8U.411.3. 

■> UnJenunil Urnlf after dttftfu. 

>* Ic tl IB alliMion Iv (h^ |KiMag*, 
tliat th# illudrioii* Botrhiii to Imi* 
Ilia imjMftaat (miIiimoj C« ch* ttn- 

cky fit Hcrodatw: " Eiubtko bod*- 

erar olMcrralioim probaDt fera aook 

nownt rin diola." 

>■ Malt. fil4. 


mg ouiiiner. Alk-r the body lia» beeu desjccatcd, L-itlicr in 
ibe Kgyptian or an)' otlicr manner, tbey spread plastor 
Orer ever; port, uid paint it, to iniitale the original as far 
as pontibie ; and then lay the corpse in tlic iuude of a 
hoUon* crystal cylinder; great quandtieii of wlijch aru du); 
up in till? country, of aWautifiil kind. The rflicK contained 
within the cylinder are seen through the crystal : they 
eject net bad MneU, Mnd hare iinching fnrhidrling about them: 
thus iha whole body is rinble in each part". Ihmnjt twelve 
months the relations keep, generally, tlie body by iliem in 
their houses, presenting to it the firstlings of all, and offering 
aacrificu. After that linur, thry bring nut the muiuwy, ana 
|)]ace it Bomewlierij about tlif Ioh it. 

'flic Hpifte having rxaniined all the above things, retumedSd 
from vheni'e ihey came: ihey inade ihelr report; and Cnm- 
bysM, filed with angt^r'^, instantly commenced his caoipaigu 
■gutHt the Eihiopidns, witliout announcing any previous 
orders for preparing provisions, or once giving it a tJiought 
thai he was about to take hiK army to the extrcniitic!* of the 
worid; but, 08 if mad and nneiiund of mind*", began his 
marrli, as »oon as he had heard what the Ichthyophuf^i bad 
10 «iy. 'ITie Hellenes present were <ir(ien'd to remain where 
they were: the whole land amiy" he look with liim. When 
he came with his forces to Thebes, he set apart abuul fifty 
Ibotaumd men ; and ^are ihcm his commands, to enthral tlie 
Annoonbm:, and set fire to the leuiplc of Jupiter; then, at 
the bead of the rcat uf the nnny, he set out for Ethiopia. 
But before iJie troops had proceeded ouu fifth of the way, all 
the proriMODs tliey had brought with thcin wcreconMumcd"; 
the sumpter-beaMt-t then became fuml, but the supply u-as 
toon exbausicd. if, therefore, Cambyses, when he saw this, 
had vouchsafed to alter his mind, and led back the onny, lie 
would have proved biniself, even after coaimitling this firat 
error, to be a man of uiuse: the FersiaD king, ou the con* 
tnry, paid no attention to this; he pnrsoed bih march on* 
la. The men, mi louf: as tliey could find any thing 
upon the grooud, lived on roots and vegetables; 

pmit Tiaible, m Kell u tiw bodj;" 
tku I* lu uj, ibe cue van not put 
«p agmiaaC ■ wdl lik« itv E^ptiau 
BtMA, ii. M. a( n-hicb latitl lbs 

put wu mnwqiwnilf mil tliat 

* ifr^ manymo. 1. c. tfyivAff. 

■ MMt. **I.O. 

" I ««{lr rT[an« tifoiSv, ia He- 

niilntiui, « ianil amv, uiil nm inftn- 
try or fool, LartA*r. Thi« ii not 
slwaTR tbr caifo: ii U toioetiniM op- 

Sold tu i Iwni, anil M olbn* to 

*i n<^ Ix'/iiM. " tt.« pMnlftou:" 
tkii cifrmaian ii r«rf mHUaa in 
Hemlotui. Seg ihc t*j. Btmi. of 
SnWe^. Mc. txft. '•> fin. 


THALIA. III. 26,37. 

bill when Uiey cnUMi-d upon tliu detiurl Hands, aomv of tlKsi 
had TucuuiXL- lu u li'irrid i.-X|>t-(liviit: ttiey drt-n- IntH. Ivn bj 
It'll, anil val lti« fledli uf one. Caiub_vKi-s Wiii}; made u- 
quointud wiUi tLU, und borror-alrickun b; iIiom't iittlaucts of 
caDDibalism, gave up i\w cxpeditiou agaiu»t the Klliiopuna, 
marclied back »n hiK Mcpe, and c«ine tn Tbvbes, having luM 
gnat uiimherii of hU men. Frtiiii lliubi-s lie dv^ccudcd 
dnwn 'to Aleiiipliii), und g^vp. pcrniiH^ion to the llrllenrs U 
»8tl away. Such was the »urccs»" ol ihe Elhtopian cam* 

SCpnigit. IIkim* u-lin bad htu>n di-sputched on the AmnKniian 
vxpedilion, departed iVom Thelic-s and proceeded on ibnr 
mnrch, accon))>nnied by guidcK: there is no doubt tbal tbof 
reuchtd the cily uf Oasist tobabited by Samians, caid to 
belong Ut Hw .f^schrirniinn tribe, and seven day;^' distance 
from Thobcs, across the sandf*. This ])Iace is i;alli;d by tu, 
ihe TrIc of the Ilb-ssct). Accuunis are pvtn ihtreforc of] 
the arrivfll of the J'ersianR «o far; but from tbiH !ipol nobodj) 
Inon-H wbUt becamu urthcui, uur did the Aimuuuiansor anir 
other people, bear of them ; for th«y never renchod AiumuD, 
neither did ibey return back. Thu folluniiig parlictiliui, 
hou'erer, an* titau-d in addition by the AiiuiiniiiiDK ; — that 
vben the Persluns ivcre on ibeir lunrcb fiom the <Wi» to 
their cuuntr)' ihrotigb lb<> de«<eri, and had reaebed about 
halfway between iheuii^elves and Uie OasiSf juM b» they 
were at ba-:ikfaKl> a lurioiis and powerful suuili-wind arose, 

V/bringing mounlains of saod, vbicit spread orer the uimj, 
and tbus made it diiuippeur. The Aiuuionlaus reUte, ihetf 
fore, that such wa» the (ate of Ibis artny. 

27 On tht; nritcnl of Cuwbyses back to MtmjJiis, Apis, 
enlle^l by ihn Helleiit's K[iapluis appeared to the Kgypliwia: 
in cout«e<)uence of lbii> nuiiti<^estulion, Ihc Kgypliuns fonb* 
with donnc-d [heir Itest cloakH, and uddri-Ksed iheutKelirM 
(o feetive enjoymciil». Cainby»es obi^ned what the Egyp- 
tians were nbiiiit, and, convinced that lliey were makinff 
these rejoicings in exultation of bis ill fiueceb&, &uiuuiuoea 
into bin presence t}ie niufjislrateR of MenipbiH: when ihvy 
appenred before him, he put these ijiiettions; " Whereiote 
" the Kt^ypliaiis had not done tbi;se ibingK on hii^ lirsl linit 
" al Mciupbts, but bad waited till he non- come, having lost 
** a great nimdier of his troops f* 'I'bij explained lo bim^ 
ihvt a god Imd u]ipeared to iheiu, who wa» woni lo tuonifesl 
himself oidy at lonf; iiilerviiln of time; tlml when ihi^ hap- 
penedf all tliv Egyptians rejoiced and eclubi-aled a fetut. 

" ***• t«^i : " ul)* ctm» iiifellni- viti lo stf-nifr a csbniljr, wiibml l)w j 
tn." The Tttli «{«{•' )" rr(.-r| II fillip addition of a«a4> Bee ITrM. AV. 

TIULIA. 111.28—80. 




CambvsPB )ie«in^ heard this answer, iuiid Uiey Wt^re Uara, 
■od OS Uurs M-nlciiced thrm lo death. ArUr ths c3U»:utiiiQ28 
of the abriro punuius, lie next called bcrore liim the prieKix. 
wbo ^STc Uiu tuinic explanation. Canib^'fes Kud lie wmilii 
wuo find out wlietlter su laoiiliar a gud hail rutue to the 
£t{Tpuans**: li&viiig Uius ftpok<-ii, hv orilcTx.-d the priu»U to 
brinjc Api» Lelin* liiin ; and lliey weiit awajr-, to fetch him.— 
This Apis, or E|MipliU)t, is a steer, born IVuni a beifi-r, vliich 
ia actcT more ulluwud to buvi; yoitii;;. The Kgyptimis 
asM-rt, tbiLt tbe ruomi dL-sccnds rrorn ilic fVy on ihe lieifvr, 
and thai I'luui lliuucc Apis is pi-ixtucxd. 'Iliis sti^vr, btrarinK 
the name of Api», has the following marks : he ii blarlt, bnt 
carnL-a a f-ciuan; white Hpi>l oti his rurehriul : on hie bucti 
i< ti}>urt-() (111 e^/le ; in tli» tail tite liaim are double ; on tlie 
Inoguu is A cliiilVcr. — Whcu the piieMj« bud broii^bt Apiit to 2D 
Cambvses, ihu prince, att if di>>lraii)^ht in mind, drew his 
dAfct;'--r, and aimed al the belly ol Apis, but ivoundvd him iu 
tlie thigh ; then, bui-sting into laiijcbter.aiiilreMcdlhe jtriesis: 
** O yon Hlnpiil lonU ! are gods kucIi as Uiiti, of Hesb and 
•* blood, and sensible to stoci ? .A yod ihi», worthy imircd of 
" the Kf^yptiatifi! At all eventx, faoverer, you ithall nut get 
" off iitipuiiii>hud", for mailing »port of nn-J* llavinf; to 
tpokf-n, he ordered the execgliontTs tu Sog the priettls 
uiundly. and to put to death all Itie other Kj^-piianii they 
eaiight feasting. .Accordingly, the fnaHt of the Egypltaus 
ma pul un end to ; tho priesta vrere puniftlietl ; and Apis* 
votindrfl in tbe thigh, lay pining' in the temple: he died soon 
after of hi.s wound, and uaa entombed by the prithts, unknown 
to CanibyRea. 

But Camliyse*, according to the account of tbe Egyptians, 30 
forlhwiih became raving mad in eotiKequence of thi^ crimu ; 
although even previously ho bad not tiis right semtcs. And 
Itia fimi misdeed was coniinittcd upon his brother Sioerdisi 
>torn of the same father and moLher lui himself: he sent this 
prince back from Kg^ pt into Persia from jcahnuiy, bocauae 
he waa tba oidy Persian who could string, wUbiu two 
flogf^Pi' breadth, the bow brought front the Kthio|Han king 
by the Ichthyophagi ; a f«al wliii^b none of tliv other Pvrsianft 
could perloTin. Alter the depurturu of Siavrdis for Persia, 
CunbyMB had the following druam in his sleep : He fancied 
• musaeugcr came to hiuj from Perm, announcing lh«t 

•> 4 &<r«> mrri; -. r. X. Uterklly, 
** It ■b'''U'd not bu cnnwalfil rniia 
htai i*bDlli«r vtj gad liaciabtn In rtm 
iMnd hMl cam* ituiuip ibe E^jp* 


■o «MiMn"ii in alt lti» Rreek wiibtirc, 
bii* itrneTaTlj htMi rbciiamhltnr-MiNrk 
(if trmiiUtcr.: ii liitoifln " *i(b in- 
pTinrlj.' — LtrrAtr, 


THAMA. IM. 3].,-)9. 

Suierdis wa» siuing nn ihf royal iliruii«, and luutrlied mill 
his liead the sky. In conscciiicnce uf liiU, drcaijmg tltai liis 
btoUier mi^hl kill hiiu, and becutne liing, he de-'^putchrt) 
PrexaspcR into Pemn, his most Inithrul wrvtint aiuong thn 
PersiatiB, with orders to mulie away with Smenlis. Prcxa.Hpc») 
accordiii];ly, ux-ol up tn Susa, and ]iiit Smerdjn to fl«>ib; 
taking, m some fay, the prince oul la a kuiititig- party **; 
or, as ollieis relate, coiiducting biiu doun tn (hi* Kea-nidt^ 

31 where ho dfowoed him. The above, thererorc, was ibe be- 
ginning of ihu rril dcriUorCambyws. His tnckiMliie»ii uu 
next directed againet his Msier, who had I'ollowed htio iuio 
E^vpt ; attd lo whom hv was iiniicd in marriage, aUbougb 
she wan bis siuier by bift latbcr a& woll as bis niulhcr. Tlw 
manner in w)iii:h lie coulrivi-d tu forai tbi» cimneclion was 
as follows ; for httbi<rto the F4.-niiaub bad slrieily rt-'ftaiued 
tirotn alt inif-nnarrtaj^-K ul' bruthi^m and Kisti.T». I'ambyKvs 
became oiitimuiired of one uf biK own Kistors: having at'((.T- 
wards dcttnuiiicil 10 espouse her, and aware tltul surb a 
iirecedent wa« contrary to custom, h« ealled tugeiber the m\ a1 
judgt«, and inquired of them whether there was a law 
authorizing any one who wished to many his aister. The 
royal judgt-s are Persians^apjiointerl for lite, or till $uch time 
as they l>e convicted of injustice : these individuals pro- 
nounce judgment to the PeTsiantt, and are t)ie cxpnundcnt 
the taw» of their rorefaihers: to lliem all mutters are tt 
fcnrcd. When (jiieKtioned, accordingly, by Cambyses, thcjF* 
coniMilbcd, in their answer lo him, both jualice and their ouii 
HaCety : they declared, iJiey knew of no law that advi««d a 
brulber to marry hh ait^ter; but tlial tbey hud found, indeed, 
enothnr one, saying it i* |>eni>itled tn the Pei-sian king to 
act in every thing as he chooses. Thus they evaded tui 
abrogation of the law, Imin the frnr nfCambvAes; and, iu 
order Ihey might not bring destruction to themselves 65' 
maintaining that law, found tor their puriiosc another ii 
fiiipport of the kingV wish to mam* his sisters. Theni in 
eoDsequence of this decision, Cambyscs married the object 
of bis love: not lung after, he took ai> a wife aiiollier sister. 
The younger of these, who bad aecom|)aniefl him into Kg^'ph 

32 was, acconlii)gH> the victim of bis lury. As in llie cOmj uf 
.' Smerdis, two account!! arc given of tlie death ol tliis princcsi.. 

V' The Hellene* *iiy, that Cambyses placed the wbeljj of a tic 
to fight with that of a dog, and this lady WAf^ a >4pecUlor 
the combaL The p"ppy being beaten by the young lie 
his brother puppy broke the chain, and ru«bcd to hie oMUt 

THAI.TA. 111. 33, 34. 


ftoct : ihr Tonng *i«gs, now twi» afniiuM une, soon orcw- 
powrrecl lli<? lion's wbelp. At this »iglii, Caiiibyses wa» 
Ifreaily plfiucd ; bat the Lady, sitting by his sitle, Khed tears. 
Cambyiirs obMni-d tier ti^ars, and afiied why slw wept. Fler 
answer wtts, that nlm cried at seeing the puppy cotaa to the 
■JuMsloiice v{ his brother; bving tliercby put IQ miod of 
SiDndiF, U'hn she knew nuuld hure no avenger. For this 
rrniaik, CambT^cs accordingly, as tiie Hellenes state, mar- 
■Irrvd liU siiIit. Hut the K^typtianii, on the other hand, 
tilErni, Uut they "i-'rv bitting at table, wlien ihe lady took up 
a K'lluce, pidlcd nfl' ihu uulsidi: tcuvcx, and asked Iter husband 
n-bvUiur the U-lluee watt mure beautiful when sinppod, ur 
when neeiimpaiuvd with all its fohage. Un Cambyitcs aa- 
■weriog, uheii widi it^ leaves — slie reloru^d, " llieu, indeed, 
" you have doiif: what 1 did lo ifaix lulhice, in your treal- 
" DU'Di of Cyrus's lamily." This enraged the king, who 
kicked hi-r, allliuucli ahe was vriUx child ; in consequenco of 
ithii-1i, thv miscarried, and died. 

Such Were Um^ exees«es coniiniited by Cambysea on his33 
(inn luuiily. in (his fttatc of tnadnera; whether thai niadnoM 
bad its origin in the insult to Apis, nr any other cause 
Bmung the Miniiy ralaniitic?* that vinit mankind: for it is 
nid, that Cunibyseii was Crum his birth afilicliMl with filA, ur 
what suitR- peofilt: call ihe sacred die>rn^*^: if such was tha 
case, ihorefore, it nas unlikely that the body being upprcsxed 
with »nc)i a grievous diftordcr, llie luind should renaain on- 
iDpnrvd*. The following are instances of bis mad phrenay,34 
slic-wn tuwurdA the rest of (he Persians. It is rvlaled, that 
\» once addressed IVexaspca. whom he esteemed highly ;^ 
Uw oflict: of thiii p>^n;on waa to present all mesuges ; and hia 
kou was cupliearcr tn Cambyseii, no inconsiderable dignity ; 
— be addressed, il is said* litis officer thus: '' Tell me, Prex- 
" aaye*, what in the opinion the Peraians have of me? 
" what are the diKcourm.-& they hold about nte i" '* Sore- 
"nrigii lord," replied Pruxasfies, "in every roapect thay 
** cxud y-iu highly; excenting, as lliey say, your too gieaC 
" fnndnrsM for wine." Thus FrexaspitH !i]X)kc concerning 
lbs Persians i but Cainbyses went infi a passion, and said: 
*' Well, the Persians say, do they, that I loisc my senses 
** ihntugh my paasiou for wine? surely, then, tlieir former 

•I Th* Grxrk il ^»yiim *Um. wtih-h f>*y«<U. £df«tn>. — If arc adopt Lu* 

I •! tint It .•Jt'tii miglii be iraDcliiiad, vbef'i tcnioa of (hnH Mo won)*, I 

llu*kllf , " i:'uU Aimfiai" bat He- cmiiioc *m what will bMOOM at da 

«T«ka* lubrtM m thai ^wyA« Htm quajilbaiir* «m. 

•^nillfti lUc " opllcfuj :" cooiult Ui * Matr. US, 
Vrtitoti, (Of- fiijifl'X* •(nr, ^ni rim 



THALIA. 111.84,36. 

" praiMJ was false." For, prt^-ioudy lo this, Canibyfea 
aiikecl tbc FcTrsians who sst m his council, and C'r<csit 
sort of a man ilu-v c)iou);tii hitii to bo, in compariRon wttli 
bis futlier Cyrus. Tiio PfnttaDs aiiswcruil, that !ie was 
mperior to bis fatlicr; as bo po«$K'«M<l nut otily llie whole 
of the dominions ttf Cyrii.-^. but lisfl increased th<?m by the 
nddiiiiti) of Kgypi and the eiii|>ir« nf thu s«a. Criesns, wba 
wits pri. sent, and disapproved this decision**, addrta&ed Cam-i 
byses iii llie^e words: " Sou of Cyriht," he said, " in my' 
** Opinion you aw no! e<|nal to your rather ; for you hare 
"not yet a son, tike hnn ihat he lefl." Cainbysen waii 
pleased at this observation, and approved highly of Cntsos') 

3fi devisiun. Recollecting, tberefon-, nbul wa^ then said, ha' 
apolce thux in his anf^er to PrexnRpe<t! *' Kehold non- vour-' 
" self, whether the Persaans sjwak the initli, or whi^lher ihcy 
" theni««^lvi?s do not act as if reft of their senses, when Ihc 
'* hold nnch langiia|;e ! for if 1 Rboot at your son t})ut 4(a 
" yondttr in the porch, and hit hitn just in the iR'an, thai 
** will shew that tb« Persian* talk Donseuse : if, however. I 
" misK my nmrk, that will prove the Persians to be rigbl,' 
•* and me lo be oul of my scoscs."" He spoke, and, bendtDg 
the how, shot the yonlh, who iastaucly fell, t'aiiibyw* or- 
dered the body to be opened, and the wound examiniid ; and 
when the shaft was found sticking in ibe heart, be said to 
tbe &ther of the Ikiv, latighiog, and seeming highly Rrttt- 
fied: " Prexaspcs, you must at present be conviuced that it 
" IB not I that AID distraught, hut tbe Pernann chemsel 
" tbat arc so : pray, telt me now, did you ever see mortal tni 
" take sueh pood aim "' f" Prex.i»pe*, who saw the prince 
mad, and fc-ari-d for bis o^vu safety, said: " Sovereign loiu, 
" I do not think llie god himself could tukc bo steady an 
*' aim." Such was tbe ciiine he then committed : at auolbet 
time he seized twelve Persians of the 6rst rank", without 
any rightcoQ« cause, and buried them up to iho neck". 

36 The king acting in the above manner, Crtrsus, the Lydiao 
prince, thought it hi-i dnly lo advise bim in the following 


W tvtrsMTa i* m n«UtM' plsral, takfti 
Kdrfilik&JI} for inritWwr. IrfrMTM 
M>r}| i* ui trrow (hat hiU ibf iiiark, 
» in Tbi-ocrilui, Id. ixiv. 106, rt|M 

wtiioh Wgttnn uniiK'nii'atily (^rtvina 
Iwtftftf. Thrtv i> n grr'X itrRcTrnon 
tiMWtM) t*ir^rm TifiJur and Iri *>*■ 
vti, Mmri ratwh, aar* ra(*iv rJfiitn. 

Til* fini Dxpr»**i»D tignifit*, to hil 
lh« muli; tli« other*, <o thool nt llin 

rnarh, wbctker it U hit or mc— 

" Lil. "t»rtff PonimiH of Ito 
MRie Txai as tbe tiii;Hcit." ^O^m 
i* for i^B). Tlir«« wrrr of ill* otMi 
callei) by X*>naption, ir mutf phcM 
of thM Cjrapndla, th* Ifitw^m. Utr- 
chrr. — .Scbwi>lB., howarcf, (nndatat 

jfWB T^t •(rfrww " KM aiflrinBI fv 

tiimc." Sci<K*ig. Vtr. Lai. ^M 

Larthtr; " lnr*fwea|)iie;" SriMW^^ 

THAUA. III. 87. 


rv, 1 »!3niestlv Leswcb voii, uol lo votniDit 
*' jroursi-lf entirely to [uiKHinn and tlic vraniitli nf voiuh ; but 
" mtistn a»i) (;c>v'(;m jfoumelf. Koi-eM^it anu piuHence 
** an raluable and wj<i<i qualiLii*8*'. WbureiiH you piil to 
** floaih ,vour oirn ri']|uwi.ittzi->nH, wizing ibmii for nu jiitA 
" csusr: vou «Ten elxy children. If yon coiitiDiic to uct 
" in lliM raaniKT, bewuru lc«I ihu PiT^iaDS riw- up agoiniit 
*" yon. Yoltr father Cvrii< eiijoint-d inc expressly lo ad- 
" vb* you, mid to sufExcst wIiuIcht I niigbl ihitik uxpe- 
•* di<*nt."* Thi'so obdun-aiionx evidently prucecdcd from a 
spiril of bcnci'olcncc ; but Ciimbysc-s ga\e the fullowing 
anawer: " Do you, aUo, duTe to gii^e counnd lo me ; you, 
** who M wisely inanogcU your own couiilry ; and gave 
" mmIi excclkttt adricc to Cyru», exhortinft liim to cross tlie 
" Arases, and ninrcli a^uinsl tbe MasMKCtw, although tboy 
" went willing lo cross over thenwelve* into our temloiy? 
" You have Miinud yoiUKlf by your bad goverDiDcnt of 
** jrotir own country : you have ruined Cyrus, who lUteued 
** to yonr advice**: but ynu sihall pay fur it, aa 1 have lonff 
" been wishing to find a pretext to lay bands on yoti." So 
uyiD){, h" look up his bow, and prepared to aim an arrow 
at the Lydiaii piiiiue : but Cro-jmH e^captnl, and ran out. 
('ainl>ys)e8, diH-ipiwiiiled in his intentiuo lo ^hoot biui with 
hia oMTii biin', orucreil the atlendaut^i to lay hold of hlin, and 
put him lo death: the altrr itaiit-s, however, aware of the 
kiog's humour, coac<'u]ed Crccau^, with a view, in case of 
Csmbysea repenting of what he had dune, and inquiring for 
Cncnui aKnin, to sliew hint, an<l thereby gel a reward, for 
ttiing his life : in case the king did not repent, or i^gret 
bi« loovs they might even then put him to death. Xo long 
time elapsed before Camby sea did, in fact, express hia regret 
for Cro^flus: the altendmts seeiu;; this, announced tu hint 
thai the Lydian prince was Dtill alive. Combysea observed ; 
" that he u-as much gratified lu find he Mirvived : but that 
** be would fthew no mercy" tu tbuoe nhu diaoheycd hia 
** orders, and would have them put to death:'* in jacl, ho 
did Ml. 

Many other instances of the king's phren*iy, shewn in his 37 
behuvionr to the Persinna and their allies, occurred during 
hia stay at Memphis. He broke open the ancient repositoriea 
of the dead, and examined the dead bodies. lie went even (o 
Vnlcan'a temple, and derided the ucred image**: for the 

» U*U.*K. Diili impiituit:" ihb terk k na> 

•• £«• Mui.. ohewtTMiaa Ml I be w Mrved vltli ibB pwlid^lo>~5slhm^ 

farwtiaa of tbe prvpoaltina froin th« Lex. Hrrtil. 

n«b {A*i from Si.m», i, Mi, 9. •• MmI. DM, m. cfa. I. 
>, '^ Id <U ■■!<,■ ihing 

21 « 


im»gi> of Vulcan is vxat^Uv similar to lite Pbonician Palsies, 
w)iich the PhfrmrianK carry at thr prow)^ nf their triiemeii: 
I'ur the infDrmation of tbosu whu hare never Keen Uiis Hgare, 
1 may nay, it is the scmbloQco of a dwarf. Cumhysos also 
entered Uie temple of the Cabfliri, irhich is unlawful to all, 
txccpdng the priest alone: he coDsuiDud by fire the imagcti 
after imsulliuK and dL-n(tiii|j tlii-m in variciuK ways. These 
images nrc likr that of Vulcan^, of whom tht.- Cabi'iri on 
38 said to be llic childruii. I am clearly of Dpiniuii. ihcfc- 
^ fore, that Cambyse« waK in cverj' ronpuct rnving inad"; for 
, otlivrwise Kl- wuuld oever hart: Ibougbl of insuJtiug aud de- 
biting religious things and general cu^tome*. Indeed, vctc 
ao olTcr made tti all mankind tu seWl the l>c»t of all laws 
and customs, after conRidtring those of every country, cacli 
would iirvfur tbo»c of hi^ otvu i m) fnlly couviiicttd is cvcir 
onp of uie excellence of his country's luiages: consfrmienlly, . 
it is out of the queolion that any but a iuualic wotud orer 
hold such ibingH in derision, llial all have the same Renli- 
menls in respect of national jiraclicefi, is a fad that may be 
established by abundant proofs, tbe follovi-ing in })articular. 
Darius, at the beginning of his roigu, called into his presence 
the Hellenes reNidcnt in his vicinity, and inttnired, *' at trhat 
" price they would rei^ulve lo eat l}ie ilifsli of their deceased 
" fathers:" they all declared, they vould not do so foi say 
com|>i>nsaiion whatever. Darius afterwards sent for some 
Indians called Callati.-i>, who feast on Ibe dead bodies of 
their parents, and, in the pieseoee of the Hellenes, inquired 
of them, " at what price they would adopt the practice oP 
'* consuming by fire their deceaM-d faihers:" the Indians 
cxprt'Gscd their horror by loud exclamations, and iuiplored 
the kill); to use mure xecmly language. Such is the general 
pcrsuu^ioD**: and, in my upiniou, Pindar llie poet says justly, 
> " Custom is llic king of alL** 

" UaU. 386, 6. 

" Tht r<«d«r who^ aflAr p«ra«iag 
th<f iiin* bocik* at Herodeiiu, eloMi 
lh» mlmiip, aDd finili Ui4l tie nuDem- 
b«i bnt thi» nnc cbnpirr, will mrolj 
not ittJD hj( liciie ill fneoL Th« 
UinariKii Ei<e> h<?rt n wholvKHJi-c lev- 
(cfd, uhieh, Mxinrr or later, bll nrn 
\tvn froni • miMttt fur man mtom 
Ihui our hoiiMi autliur ; I meau, from 
Ibc ootid, whoM iDttrurliooa ace 
often pufcbwvd ■( Um «x]xnrie of 
cbMMiar ond fortnn*. " TbtM," 
Mfi Mi^nr R«ns(>l, caniriuilinic iIi* 
ftbsraOMT i>f ■ tnti Invcr of Wbtrtf 
with tlul of His drniiRn^c fcauii- 

drsls of tbc fiencli RvTolutiaa, is a 
•train Iiighl; chuwitomlk of Um 
Engliib g«ntUiB»a, " ut iba Mslt- 
mcDiii of a npuhtitnu, who, in «fto 
ir> «ujojr k gr«aur degra* of iriTil 
liberty, quitteil bi* nsiivi? ciQr, Itili- 
Guniusui, vtliFn iu lyKnu of law* 
«u rjolkipj bj^ Ibv ijrwtit LTgduaH." 
p. J. 

■ MitLS!ti.ol». a. 

*< *ti'«i /lit tm varra mimitrm: (Ml, 
I [kiok. irUicH !'• M H T Mil'--- 
rtt rtfl nit ti/t—t, a lilUa hiflin' ip; 
bving «n« uf Ibtn* rctK-Utioiu as coo^ 
mva in Hafodotua, m-M aanaat 
wriur*. LweWr iramUUi " tiat 

r At Uie (intc of Cainbrses' expedition againxt 
Lacedicnioitian& were likewise engaged in a war ogainst 
Sftmos, mid Paljcnites son of Ajax, who Imd risen up aud 
taken posseRsion of that Uland. At the licginning, he had 
separated the slate into three portion:^, and dtiided it with 
hi* brnihers Panuigiioiiis nnd Syloi^nn : MihReqiicnily, he put 
to di;ath the t^riiUT, and drove antiy lliu ^uuugcr brother 
SyloKon, mo ihat he came into nole ponetNcm of all Samos. 
Uavia^ thus established Ids power, he franitrd a contract of 
friendfihlp with Amasin, the king of Kgypt, (lending gifU to 
that sovereign, and rcceiviog othciH iu return, In a short 
titBe, the power of t'nUciatts iiicrrased all al oii<-e, and be- 
came renowned" over Ionia and (be rest of Hellas : for 
■wbcrrrcr he ditecti-d his forces, every ihing siicei-cdf-d hap- 
pily to him. Ho was iu possession of one hundred penttv 
content, and bad a thoiiKand archers. He attacked and rifled* 
every uuc without disliucliou ; alleging, that the resLuratioD 
of what he took away, gave a greater gralificalion to those 
wbo bad l>een pluiidert.-d, than if he had not taken it away 
at lint, lie becaine, acconlliigly, master «f several Ulauds, 
and of many cuiiliiti'iital towns : among others, he de- 
fcaled, and took prisoners, in an engagement, the lesbians 
who were coming with all their forces to the succour of the 
Milcnans: Ibesc Lesbian prisoners, loaded u-iih shackles, 
dug out the Qioat that surrounds the nails of Sanios. Aiua-40 
sts was u-dL^vutw^of- ihc ftxuaorditiary sDodiortune of 
Polycrates, but it was a subject of uneasiness to him. As 
bis prosperity couliuued lo iuerca^c, ihe king of KgY|it made 
tbc following coiuinuuiculion, by letter, which he sent off to 
Saioos. — " Amaeis to Folycrates says this : it is sweet to 
** bcai of Uie prosperity of a friend and ally: biil, convinced 
** as I am of tha dirju^ j ealous y". 1 feel little gratified by 

I* MOlainB s <]« (otm;" and Schiicig. 
•* Ma Igliur 1W4 roBititut* ■am." 

a. 9. k. *' sail Ai> pmerr wKi cclc- 

• Sm not* ISI7, in p. 4». 

■ *| Wt. ■ • ■ IhI ^mf^h Thii 

«o«MM ef itolaa to rmaa*. i. 3*2, b*te 
toes lh« anbjcct of inarh ^itqniKlian i 
m li wouU ■rrm. »t flmi fight, ihftt 
BrrodMiH nlrntuitei lo the dirinitir 
eoM (if ine «or>t pinion* nf buman 
mmn; I UM-u, tn^j: bqH, iuilcpd, 
PInlBreli tetam iho tllitariui of ao 
Mrs, ia diract mmi. We mtftt not 
Kipact to Bad unong tli« tllnicb 
VOL. t. 8 

Ihace nbliiB* lient of the diiriitllj 
fbr wbl«h wa are Inilrbleil lo Ih* iai> 
mcdlmt; rvivlalioiii i>( tha Aluii^tblj. 
T (-BIlDIiC. booi'Ttr, but b« H !lic unl* 
•ion vt 'Lucitet, ibu b;r </•«(•• Ht- 
re^otiu aiMD* div liiMliiitj o^ the 
di^aitj knioM Utat fnir »a oftm 
vtijNiacrFii b; niwaKi in th« booiiB 
hrtit, and not Ih* rrirri^ whidi MO 
mai'jr nt^ (cd u tbc arMperitj at 
thrir fet'ow-oreatcrcf. The ffiilhtl 
"j*'a|ou«'* la ncil ol unu'wl upplivs* 

t\nn ID ih» Ali»i|tbt<r iii the Soriutuu-*, 
wber* th« *>-ii>e of ibe wnrit l» (aiHTa 

Let. Jlrrotl. itne. fttiflt- 


THALTA. 111,41,44. 

*' your great |^oi] furliitie : 1 wnnld fuiti mviutir, and sucfi 
" m 1 clicrifili, t^tinutil lie «( ooe lime exallrd hy prtwpcrilv. 
"and at aonlher time biimbW b^ dUa]i|)oininie-ut; and 
** tliiin have life chif(|(icrt-il by Uiu allcniatino of succcmi and 
*' failure, ralhvr ibaii pronptT in ever/ tx^caftion: for never 
** havu I livard of an iuditidual, cuiibtanlly fciicct^asrttl, tlist 
*' did not ccmie tu a must inisi-ralilti end. LUten, therefore, 
" lo l)ie adrice I now offer yciit ; ai>]>)j tliis pulliativi- io 
"your K"<"1 fnrtiUM;: CoDudi-r well, un<l decide on snnir- 
" ihirijr Uial you hold lo he of the j^ri-alf-st worllu aod ibe 
** loss of ffbicb wimtd miM bilLerly |>aiu yuur soul ; cast it 
'' agjjc^iiw. froiii_jou, so tliat it way no more be vcen of 
*' man: luid if, after this, good forliuiu uiid bad ibi not in 
'* turn befal yuu, buyu rectiuriu! lo llm rL-iiiedy I bavt* pro- 

4J '* posciK" rolrcrnlc-s rtrud over ibin CDmuiiinicalion i siiH 
having debatetl carrfiilty in liie ovu iiiiiul, binv lie sliould 
exactly follovt tbc advice of Aiuu^iti cousidctt-d which of bit 
rare inntMirvs u-uuld, by iu loss, inflici tiit; |fri-:iUf>t M»nnr 
on bis vw\ ; tdvx du« coDitiderabon, he doctdnd upua tliis. 
He had a acal which he wore, itel in gold ; jl wus an ettwrald 
stoiiv, the nnrlc of a Snniiaii, Theodoriw »on of Tolecks : 
he rcKolvfd. ibt-rrfuiv, lo uasl awiiy llii» jrwt-l ; and fur thai 
purpose 4!V}ui|ipi.-d ;i pcnieconl^r, on which he t-nibarkcd; 
und Rave onlcm for ihu idiip lo »ui)id oul for deL-)> walor. 
Having ri>ucbed to a coni^idi'mble dii^ajice from land, be 
took off bis ring from his finger, and cattl it inio tbe dee|]h 
before tlie (>ye« of all on board, and then »;sil(.il back again : 
whi'n rttlunKtl to hin iMlai'e, be ii»»uiiiod thu dcnnnimnr of 

42 one Klricken wiih frtf.n niif<.rorlnn«. Fite or six ' r 

this, a A^hi-rnan, having ciiiiRbt a fine large fn^b. ' . in 
bimMtir ibat it would he a present worihy of Pulycraiea: he 
accordinf{)y went with tbe fiah to the pulacc-galvs, and 
made known bi:« to be admitted into ihe pn^xencv of 
PoljcrateR. 1)ib reqiu<sl was (^iited**: be proK>ntL'd the 
fisb, and naid : " Sn-, I have i-;ni(;lil thin fish, hot did mn 
" ibink ii right lo tuke it to market. Althntiifb I nm a poor 
" labnuring in;in, iliac rams hiH bread by bi^ hanrli^, I said lo 
** mytteK, il h worthy of Polycrates aitd his empire; aixl 
** tbcrcforu 1 have brought it for yonr acccpunce-" Poly- 
craleji, pleased wiib the mau'a address, answered: " You ha^'a 
" gratified me much ; and I am doubly obliged to you **, 

ri AiemWIUfl," i. C. haiin^ (uccarnli'd 
in ohlainiDK «hai b» ttked. 't'lip 

XnfW, 4re fm)UMll]r taken in thin 

M-imir, withuul thv feooral addltfoa 
of tirvjf^L^. LarrA^r; StAmw^. JU^, 
tlrrmt. ; IfetMluH/. Mof. 

■^ Lit. " uii) d« (svoar b dmitih^ 
Wtb id the Udnw wl tbe gift." 

A A. 

»— 15. 


" Hir your eiHnpliiQviit and yuiir |>r«KPnt. ( inritn you lo 
** Kuppor." Tbc fielK-Tiuan, con^icUnu^f tbif a \cry grcal 
bouour. wcut huuiv: anil Uiv NLTvaiiU pmcceiliiii; in rnt up 
the fi*)i, found in tis bcllv Polj-craU-s' rinif. Aa soon us 
ibcy rlt-scricd tliL- jirtcioiis jewel, (hcv i<">li il onl, and funli- 
w{(h, full uf vxullHtidii, crirrii-d it Lu Polvcratt's; and gavi> 
him tim riii^t cx|iliiiuiii}; in wliai muiiuc-r tUc.y liad ftitind iL 
Thin evoiil M.H^iiifd to FolycraU'*. frHiiglit wiili somelliinx 
divine**: liu dcscrilitfl in trriliugall tim particulars cif what 
he had donv; tnenlioned what uus tbu rvsult; and &enl olT 
ihe letter to Exypl". Aina«s rtad over ihu k-tler lliat camera 
fruui Polycralf8, and tVU pi^rHuadrd iliat it in quitv imjiuH- 
sible for a man lo eavo a inao from his latei and tbut, with- 
out doubt, Poljrcralgs. cnuKUntlj s o forlunatf, uould nol 
atiHwi^^P "' ''ijuril ' '" *^'""^~''*^'''^*-^^ ihc TL-ry 
' tbrags thai be cast a«r«v. Tie therefore despatcht-d a hftald 
to Samoti, to rennuiKe liix compact of allinnce. lti« motive 
for acting; in this manni-r n-as, ni orJiTthai, in case uf any 
dirt* Diit.runiin<> falling upon Pulycratvs, ho shoiild nut hini- 
wlf hv afflicted wiUi pain at heart iti coosvquuucc uf his 
Iriviidly conm-xitm. 

U tva» againtil tbi& Potycralc5, so successful lu all U)iii(;s,'i1 
that iho IjaccdicmotiianK were no<v wagUijj war, at llie Roli> 
citAtioQ of a party of llie Samians, who, etib«fq»i.'ntly to 
tbeau oi-witB, lijundod Cydonia in Crete. Pulycniies had 
trot to Cambrseo, who wa^ al that lime collecting forces I'tif 
tile Kg^'plian campaign, and requested thfit piiiicc to Kcnd 
In him ai Saniu^, and skIc f<ir men*. Cambyws, on this iii- 
teili)'ruc<*, eaf;crly gTR.spt'd tlir offvT, and asked Pnlycratcs 
to K«iid u nai'ul aniianiunl to join i» the i-xpvdilion against 
Efrypt. PolycnitcH, therttfnn:, isulcctcd such of ibc citizens 
as tut most Huspected of an iiiU'tmou to rebul; put ibem on 
board of forty Irircmcs, and (k-s|iat<:hed tlicui ; eujuining 
CanibyKS, at liie sauic tiinv, uevi-r lo sond tht'iii back ajjaiu. 
Aceordiait to some* accounu, the Sniuians, thus despatched 45 
br Polyrrates, nui-er camv lu Egypt; but, after rraching tlie 
CarpaibiAn ftca, held council among thomsolrpft, and re- 
solTrd to proceed uu longer in ilirir vuyagc: utber acconuls 
i«pr(-*»>nt Ibem ax hnvinf; arrived in I'gj'pt ; 'ind, finding 
themselves watched tbcru^, taking to flight; then directing 

mipahamtta." Uif^Mte. in lliu Mnar, 
ftHBctliDrf KOTrna tbi- daiiir; ■*. 
ILtA>r IntMt rl nf Jhmti, i- 60. 


** Pt^ 111* fKni*- t*iiro*-^Kiu in V. 96. 

•» VhI!. Mr. ait, 3. 

' ftX^rrt/ntttt aiiuiUi bF rw» in>*n> 
ing*. " ')li(wr>»('»," »nil " in cwtodifc 
'■bitoj." Sekmeia. trg. Hervi. toc. 


tbcir coime towards Samoe. It in further stated, t}istFo- 
lyerat«« vent ont to tne«t tbcm vith his tlcut, and nie 
tbi'in battle: Ute rctuniing parly ronquerec], aitd loam a 
dcsctrnt upon the island, ivhere, in n liinii cnfragf'iiieiil, tlirj 
were rcpuUfd, and so made Away for Iriii-fdivnitm. Th«e tat 
snTiiv persons who assort thnt ihi-w Samianft, on l)ifir 
rcluni from Kgypi, ranqnishcd Puljcratcs: Ijiu this stilC' 
ment appeam lu tne incnrrect ; for there vanld liare been no 
necffsity for llieir application to the Lace<Ueiuonians, if llKf 
had been Ktiflicicnt of ihetnseWpit l» get the iippt^r hantl 
Poiycrate*'". Besides, reason will not admit, that a ww- 
reign, whosir paid atixiliariiii and natiro ar<!h(Ta wer^ so 
pteittifnl, kIioiiM hare been worsted by such an insi):niliC3ti( 
band as these Saniians. rcliinung from Kgypt, conFiiiiiited. 
Moreover, Polyerates had colleciecl ibc ebtldren and wiretol 
the citi:eens nndcr his dmninion, in ihc- nnral ittort^hoiucA 
and held himself prepared, iti cas« of any ircaehery on ihaj 
part of }iis subjects, oi tampering M'itti the retaming partyi. 
to 8C-I fire to the KorehouaeM'', and eoneume all the innuitn; 

415 When these Samian.'s rcpnlBi.d by I'olycrates, arrired tt 
Sparta, diL-y titood before llie niaj^ixlrates; and madt? ■ long 
speech, exposing, in prohx wnnls, their request*. At iVtlfl 
first intcn'iunr, (hi; Spartans ansirered, that iliey had forgot-'' 
ten the vomro cnccnient, and did not understand the con- 
clusion. Afleni.-urd», in u necond internet', the Samisn^j 
brought a leathL-r-bag^, mid i^aid not one word more tha^H 
this: " The bag wants flour." Thu Spartuna ohKcrvr<l. that " 
the»-e words were siiporflimiiB, the hag was enough"; tot 

dTresuIved to give llicui assistance. When the Lacoditimmiens 
had made the necessary preparations, they s*'l out for 
Sawos. The motive, according lo the Samians, was to re- 
pay them for tbelr former services in awittUng the L»ce6m- 

^ wm^rnfu, in tbe plettrife Vii 
9d Mtmtt, •l|nii<tt«i, ' I nn subdued,' 
' I Dm compelled tit jIHd ^ n-» iii. 13. 
In itir n^kldlr loicu, ihi» ^crb i« 
talcn ncLiTe'lj, uiil ti|pill^i-f>, ' I itat^ 
dor,' ' 1 iHiinpel lo inrriniii'r:' ri- 
e«M in th« lirit futurt, vi-mv it it 
tupn ill a puaitc mdm, ■• in iii. ISA. 

*i Mut. 400,/. 

lack:" Hnifftblii* PspliiD* it bt 

in Glo—ii MS3. " ru td fpretiduin 
MDMti vK rocio, quoi] nitlta frivoL" 

^ «iMi«yrfj<^i «l|[iiif«s, Itltnlly, 

■' to in (onMbinit laBetfloo** tai 
utuku:" b«4i«e tliii pttrmHi ataitl 
of two iMBiUnfn: the lini it iktl 
llivfii hy &uhMM«r, ill bin Gi. tuA 
Grrm. Lnlcos; " ihu ibcr bMl 
Atom (einptbinf *up«fRo»aa with tt« 
baft, icawuscb lu 1W7 sbpirai 
»hilc it WW >Dflicii>ni Id imhiIob 

imit drni Sacke Iik'llva tfr 
Trlirrl^iiniifFs sctbui, daM iri* tin' 
t;i'tcit biittni;"] ihn BcroMl Ift, ** Ifcal 
iiiej bud JoDi- t'o iDDch," t, r. " had 
)««a tno garrul<iuii la twinfc axr^ 
Hi all: Ir wnutd hme brm «alil«i«rt 
to ahcv ih» CBM>I; ban." Sntwy. 
Lld.Ufmd. ; Sehitei^ Gt. (irpm. Um. 

THALIA. HI. 4H, 41). 


BDonians with tomu ship^^in llicir cuiiU-sl with titu people or 
MessODe: but, according to tliv account of iht! Lttcedteinci- 
otaos tlicDiMilvus, it wus nut ao inut:}! to luniiitb Uie a»«ifrt- 
Mucf crAvvfl by iliese Samians, us In gratifv a ileMre of 
rtrenge lot iho robbory of the wiue-bowl wliich th«y "ere 
acnding to Ctoniu, and tlial of the conelet heot tu iliviD as 
a pKMDt by Amasis, kioR of Kgypl, iht; year before ib« 
plniider of the win«-briw1. This cornelet wm niatle of linrn, 
and drcoratefl with ^ibiindanve of inworcn li^iii-es of animals, 
iu guM and i-egelabic vkioI". Every tlirtad v( lliis corsilct 
riclily (icm^rves our aduiiiation; lor, iitthuugli nf very ilulicalt? 
texture, each consists of three hundred and sixty twiuc!>, all 
of which aro distinci: Kuch another corselet i» that dedicabwl 
by Amasiti to Altoerra at Lindiu. 

71te Corinthians likewise eagerly abetted the oxperlilion4S 
agaiQSl Sawos; for ihoy had bct-u insulted by tbe Sauiinoa 
in the g«tiLTatiuii preceding thiR uav, ant) iilimil the luitRO 
time thut thcwinc-bowl was) taken by violence '*. Pertandor, 
iho !iou of ('ypselus, i^-iit three binulred of the sons uf the 
cbict m«n of Corcyru to Sardis, where they were to be eina^ 
cuUted. Ilic pcrsiius charged with conveying the hoys 
touched at Smnos: Lhc iiihubiuiiiis having uu iukliug of the 
purpoM: for which iht^ chiUireii were citiivcyt'd to Kardis, (imt 
tutored iht^'iu huw lo eiubrvice the lemjile ul IJiaiia; and then 
forbade tliat any ]K:r»oD tihouid k iir the suppliants fr«)in the 
teni|)le. As the CoriuthiatiK reluMrd all food to the children, 
the Soiiiious iiutitulcd a fuaal, which they 6liU celehrste in 
the same maniMr. At uighlfallt during the whole liiac the 
childrcD stayed »i fiuppliaut^, they iustitulvd choirs oI'virKiun 
atid yuutig bu>», t-nacling, that they shoiild carry h^ike<l 
caketi of ^t^-same and honey, in order that the Cori-yra<aa 
children uiit;hi lay hold uf tlii-m fur food. This continued 
ODlil lhcCoriiilhia]is,oppoint<H) lo 8U|H>rinlcnd the lads, took 
their departure*; and then the Sauiiaiia conveyed the chil- 
dren i>ack to Corcyra. If, therefore, after the deceasti of49 
Periauder. friendehip had existed between the CorinUiiana 
•nd tht! Corey nean», ihe former would not, for the abovu 
eaiwe, have tal>en nay part in ihe ex|)e<litioD a^inst Kamos: 
tbe fact IK, ihal, ever since ihe foundation of Coreyra, tho 
Coriiilhians aod the colouibts liuve conslautly been at vari- 
ance: on this account, therefore, the Corinthians »till ure- 
■erved the remembrance of the Insult they had receivea ol 
tbr hands of the Samians. Pcriander selected the soui of 

** C-'Mloa, Ivyaiul a ilvubt. 
» Mail 39(1. r. 

^ if mSn - 
• • • donee.*' 

- • li I, " CO tiiqua 



the firrt fantillM tt( Corcrni, a&<1 sent thom lu S^trvlii to be 
t;a«lniie<1, in revunup of an insuli pnriioiiRly olTi-retl to him 

iSO by ihc roloiiislft. For tftt-r Pcriainler lind kiUed hi» conmm ,^f^ 
Ml'IUvi, nnother calnmii}' wiii» acMed to the finrt: hv l>»rl .^al 
two (wnn by Mflissa, oi' the rc»pecti*6 ape* of geveniten iiiid - ff^ l 
eighieeti ve»ni. Tlieir ntabTnn] graiidrailier, Pnico*, the ^^ta 
iisorper o^ £pidaaru», mhI for bis Iwq grandsoue on * risit,.^-^ 

fB(>Iing naliiriillT nn aRetiion Tnr the nfr^priiig of hi» daogll ^ 

tur : and wlien he wnt back i1k> youlhii, and biida then &!»■ - -^ 
well, Raid, " My firms, do ynn knotv who inurdcrt'il your ~.w JT 
** moilier?" Tht' elder boy liiok no noiict o( tlus sjiefch; bui:^ ^t 
the yoiingor, nhose name waa hycophron, nan twi sthcksn^T'Hl 
witJi grief at having heard this, that oti his arrival at Corintb.,^^ -^t 
knowing hin fathi^ to havn been tho murderer of faia nKflher^^Ti 
hu would not sjit.<a1: lo him, nor enter into coiuersation «ith.^r~A 
him; nor W'uhl he rrturii any answer, when <nK-»tioned b i *^_J 
him. At last Heriander, setting' himwlf .ig-iiutt Uie bt>y^ ""i 

Sltuniwl bim out of diw>Ts. Having expelled the fouojuvr^'^t 

siiu, be qticstiotit-d tlie i^ldt^r ulxint what his umlcntai grand i- 

father nii|i(ht hurc convi^-rsedwith him. Tbc youth d«8crili»K^:sd 
10 liitn how niri'Clionately ho had received ihcm: a« to iha=-^< 
very words thai Prrk-len prononnccd when he seiii tlieniK^^Mi 
away, ho had not taken iiotici- what they were, ami couliW" <^ 

iiul ndl iliva) to mind. J'erijnder observed, that it was im ■•- 

ptiMsilitc that he Hhiiiild Ufit have ffiven ihinn some advices- ', 
and continued to examine biit son, till, at IsnI, lh« yonng maaa^rs*) 
recovered his memory, and mentioned the above observa — -«" 
liuii of Prucles. Puriander hariag con<tii]ered iho aubjectr-^ti 
and detemnncd no longer to shew any indalj(CDce U* hJMH '» 
yoimpcr son, sent people round lo the p(.T!«oii» at wbo«e— » '' 
liouBes hi« ninawny son ate, and for1>adc iheiii any liiiiK«*r Uwr?^^^ 
receive him iimler their roufV. Tht- youth, wlien tnrih-d awai-%^^-,' 
by ooe,M>nf;hl r^fngi- at another's house; hut was twfiti nblig(»iB^~» ^ 
to Irare thai alfio, in consequence of Ptriander thrt-aien — ^• 
ing the reeeWen, and tnmting upon their tnmiiig hiinr:K^») 
away; and thus the banished son went" from tho hnuHi flfc -^^ 
*me lo that of another: and the proprii-lnr*, although in fear- '^•'i 

63 still opemd their doors to Periander'ft boh. jM last, Pei'iao — *^' 
der pniclaimed, tliat whoever received liJm into their Iioiih'9 ^^- *' 
or spoke to him, ehonid pwy a holy fine to Apolly, ihir^ *^ 
amount of which wus sjiecified. In canneqnence of tliU pro — ■*:3>- 
clamalioii, no perwn would ftj>eak to Lycojihron ; ererr on^^ ^"^ 
n-fiisedliiui admittance into theirhouscft: Ix-sidrs, liyeophroM^^^," 
biuibell' did not offer any reKtstaucu to hiK father's prohibi — -^' 

n ?t« Halt 509, a. Bttmmm. <i4 T^r. n. 3M. 



tian, hut liegaii (o liaiinl cnntimiall; tire porticocv, Fotir 
davB after this, Pcriamler, eifeiiif! liiin rt-'duccil lo mtMir)*, 
nnwaBhed"* and itiilet), ti>i>k pity on him; his loger re- 
laxed ; hf* .ij»proanhi-<l Iiim, and said: " My son, which w ould 
** you chouiw; Cor yotirstif, your prcscnl iiiodv of hk", or Ihe 
" VDprcme power and )uxiiri(;s which I uow enjoy- — iiiid \hc. 
** same are yours, if you but Tt-^iiccl your r«lh*>r? Although 
" my own wm, and the king of ivmliby Corinth, you havo 
** chutcn a vaf;rau('s )ifu, r<.-«i»t)ng, »nd troitiing in ungvr, 
** bitti lo whom you oiighl to behave lliU!t ihe It-asl of all. If 
** any misforiuno has occurred in the fatnily ", and pro- 
" duced suspicions ngitinitt me in your mind, know, tlmt Uiis 
** calnniity hus n^uited on luytLdf, and I b«ur a11 tlie burthen, 
** b^og tut' p«rpctrator of the deed". Now that you have 
'* Irarnt how inucli b*lier it is lo be ensied than piije<i, and 
** know what il is to evince anger againet parents, and 
" parents endowed with purer, come back hoiue." by such 
langtuif^, Hcriandcr cnd«-a<*otircd to win the ofrecttou of hu 
aoo : but the youth made no reply ; and merely obserred, 
that bin father owed a fiiK? to Apollo, for having spoken to 
bitn. Fi-riander, scfiiit; llie youth's diKteriiprr was obstinate 
and inciimble, equipped n ship, and sent him auay lu Cor- 
cym, out of his sislil- Having so done, I'oriaiider marchetl 
againnt his father-in-law, Prncleti, an the chief author of his 
present Diisfoituncs : he captured Epidaarus, and made a 
priisoner of Proclp*. In tne couni« of time, Feriander, $3 
►triek&n in years feeling biiiiself no longer competent to 
su|)eriRtt'nd alfuint and conduct the gnvemmciit, ncnt to 
Corcyra, and invited Lycopiiron to assume the power; for he 
ctHtld discern nothiitij hut stopitlity in his cUlcst Min " : 
Lycophron, however, did not even vouchsafe an anitwer to 
ibe bearer of the message. Hut Pcriander. who tcudcrljr 
loved the young man, aeiit a second uiessugo by bia daughter, 

** n* Gi«Hc nipreiMinn AXnttmn 
neuM, ihu ' be b«d not btthed.' Bo- 
ftn tk) ID* of Ibto, frtqarnt bathing 
WM w n»c»»w>ry for hnltb m Tdi 
rlaMilincn, mm* pAtti«ul>rly ID hot 
(limatra. £«rwA/r. 

* It ainin Wcxii^liitti sod Conj 
■npjil) v^iiyfufi. SchireiiEtiff'Uwr, ■'fU'r 
lt«>iiiu, take* Il to brt^utirtlvut Ui h 
W>. " ■f<iilQ««,ii> foioilit iieFtTit:"*D 
litcwiM io ir. i*7- SeAtcfig. l^i. 
tfrmJ- voe. «^tt. S. 

■* Tlicra is no iiccrMkr of chuigmil 
f) WXth Into ri*f vXin. aronntiitK >» 
ibe eunjectiiTB nlTnmx. bcv.iuac ihiK 
MtrcbliTa il commpplv undrtttood' 

?»« HMiit«v«ra de Putienlli Onrob, 
III. 3, Tliete if no doub4 wbateicf that 
l{i;7«iviiir •iitiiiRv«i " 1 littT* killed :" 
rfi it a |vnetial prmioan, *\fTt\tjtaf 
' lp«>]m,' ' ipMin.' PeriBodtr ium 
not njr ta bli Nn, " I bar* killed tlijr 
motJivr :" lit ninilj (■;«, ■' I liang 
knied hcT;" wUblng, |wrha^, n> 
dimlni'h ilii; horroraf hi* crime. £«r- 
fA<T, on-t St-tiuvig, Let, Urml. f«t, 

" (.(iniinii-iiuD : •!■ Itu^a fif b 

rji rk r(iyp»tm layu) : the rlliMia 
bring ni[jpii(>l from mbu £<ki bi:br«> 



TUAUA. 111.64,55. 

ihu naler of Lycopltron, fAncviitg that he nii){bt l>e more 
efTectiiallr perittiadi^rl by her. {-)n h*r arrival at Corcjri, 
Bhe s|>olic la her Wollier thus: " BrothtT, w.niH you bo^e 
** ihi; siipremp powvr I'all imo otlier hands »»«' Miffer yottt 
•' futher*8 properly* to be 6qiunrfffrc<l away, rulhor than 
" Romu aiid lake posuctisipn of it your»vir? lluturii boiuc i 
" cewo to puuisll youriicir: obstinacy is but a Korry tenure: 
" iKL-k not Va cure evil by i-vil. Many pliicu uiildncM before 
** ini}fhtiueiis: inauy, cui»>uUiii}^ u iiiuthur's ni;ht8, have cast 
" away thu rights they clatiiifd at a falhur's batidB. Tbe 
" usurper's power U a »lipp«ry holding : the wiiiois for ii 
*' uri: many: our fatlivr is tiuw uld: give not to etnogen 
" what is your own." Tutored by her father, tlie danusl 
usod every {K-rsuaitivc art ; hut tbv brother would gLt-e do 
iinswi^r, but t1ii«i : " that be iittver would return to Corinth, 
" so lonK as bis father Kunivcd." The lady reported all 
In h'-r father ; anil IViiandcr item a third niessta^ by O- 
hcnld, MgDifyiiig hi« intvnlioii to no biniiwlf to Corcyra; aoiL 
exhorting his sun to come to Coriiilb, and sneered to tbcs 
throne. The sun coneentud to tlwue terms: Uie lather pre- 
pared to sail for Corcyni; the tsou for CorioUi. But tlits 
CorcjTseauR, informed of ihis nrmngcment, jjutjthejouth i 
to deaths ill order to preclude the lidher's coiningTotheir 
island. Tbette wL-rt> the reasons that uioved Periander 
wrcal vengeauci; on tbe people of Corcyra. 
C4 The Laceda-uionians, on their arrival at Sanio« wilb 
powerful fnrce, laid siege to the town; and attAckiog the 
walls li-'ft in tlieir rear t1ie tower situated on the aea-aide, -^^ 
DCar the suburb. Afterwards Polycratea himself, with a^^s 
strong party, fell upon the besiegc-rs who were driven.^^^ 
bncV: at the same time, the auxiharicii, togelhiT witlj crowds^^^ 
of tlie Samians tbemselvt'S, poured down, irom the uppcf^^' 
tower erected on the declivity of the niounlain, n|ion tbo^^^ 
LacedsDinonians, and, aller engaging the enemies a sbon^V 
time, put them to flight: tlie conquerors pnrmed the ftigi— -" 
5j> lives, and kilted great nninbers. If the rest of the Lace- 
dsemonians had behaved on thiti day vrith the same gallant 
as Aicbias and Lycopai>, Sanios would have been taken ; fo 
those two heroes :dl alone, niKhing inlo the city with t)* 
Saniian fugitives and shutout from all retreat, fell Mitbiu 
tbe town itself uf the Samituis. I myself once met, at 
Pitane, with another Archiaii, the third descendant of tho*^ 

** Jati. ' pmpnml pnawmmiK,' ' pit. m; iiet* b* nhnti to Am. &Aw«y_ 
Irlwuny :' «^, tikr im. i* rfjuiTalml m Larchrr. 
mMt, aSrl*. mrvt', (UiiJ, roDfoqiiPDllj, 

•nienli'Miotl warrior", son of Samius, and gntnrtiMni of 
Tchiafl; 1)« l)L-luiigL-tl to that canton. He rcsjiecieil the 
iniuns more than auy other fttrangefs; both bRcaut-e his 
Her recvtvrd the uame of Sainius, aotl was the sou uf tlie 
Ajrc)iia>L who ilit^piaved Ktich valour at Samoi, where he pc- 
nsbe4; aatl becau»€, as lie Haid, hh graudfather was bnncd 
hy the Samians at the public eX|»eiiKe. 'llie lincedKiDoiiioiiK, 
ler spcodiuK forty du>'» in bc9t4?|iing Samos, saw thuL 
utters H-ere none the foTHarder**, and returned to Pelo* 
uncsu!!. As a ratht-r !«illy Ulc runs, FoHcmtes is said to 
vc ttruck a great quaDliiy nf tbv country- coin in lead: 
this coin he had gilt, and gave to the Spuitans**, who ac- 
ceptL-d it as a brihu Ui depart. — This was Ihe first warlllm 
exptdiiiou undertaken bv Uie LaccdHtinuuiaii Dorians into 

Tliose of thi* Sauiinns who had kiiidlud tb« war against,- 
P<dyci'ateii sailed atvay to Siphnos, when the Luce diem onians 
shewfd an intention to roreake tliem. The alTairs of Uie 
Siphoians about this liino wv^rc in Uie most flourishing 
stale : tl>L'jr weru (he richest of the islanders ; having in their 
isUnd, mines of gold and silver, so productive, thai out of 
the tiiiic of the coin accniiiig fruni thiiu u iruasiiry is dedi- 
cated al Delphi, c-onipftrabic to the ricbe«t. 'Jliey divided 
pniong ihcmM-'lTcs, crery year, the product of these mines"*. 
While ility were orecting this Ireasurj-, ihey consulted the 
»hrino, whciber nnch riches wunid stay by thoin a long 
lime**. The Pylbia replied : 
" When the ftiphnian Prytaueuin will be white, uid the public 
" square while too. tlic-n will you ataDd ir ueed of on tnlelligcnt 
" in«i lu Offend yoH frvm u ixMHieii ambush " and a criittitoD 
'• h«rttl<l. ' 

Bat at that time tlic Pcytaiwum and public square V6i«„ 
made a( the Parian marble. Tlio Saniians, however, were''^ 
tiDablc to expound this oracle, neither at the time it was 

* t. '. till- frrindKin of tbo Af<-btaD 
who «iu <l>in ■! Sunna. In tpenkin^ 
of pni««lo([K'>l diHtTMi. tli« Grreki 
MflnptMei) the tvo rxltmio; thai 
tbt Mm WW (be ■ocimtt 'J<»niicl»i)i, 

I Av KnMiJ*Pii ^* ibitil, ftnil ihp K'vHt 
■mtAaan ^ fourth. S4« nou 'Joi, 

** C«mti«ciJun : ■*)■* «i *£• rfwytid- 
«•• wfrnmlvrtrt k r) r^im. " niiJ n* 
•Mblng of ihcir aAiin ■■• adivic^l 

* Tbr ttiphntast, a* I^rcb«r oh. 
«rtw, hwaowt. In the wfuel of tint*. 

M intMfttt-Io u timj hnil boan apa- 
loDl ; aSiinlin^t laolhot iuiitMico, 
that tlie niuuDpolT of the prMioiia 
tnclaU, KiaaeT nr Ulcr, prmlnces ibn 
downfitl arostioiM. 

" Lit. " *hrlli«r it wu pqHsible 
(Jii rl t<<n) that the preMnt arlvaa- 
Use* iluiuld «bid* with tbfin." 

" 1.arclMTtnD*UM*{<iUM*rf Jk^^n, 
fajt '* tine vmbAobe ie ban:" auihor- 
inng hiuKlf on EuripUn*, Troad* 
A34, who, ■poaXing nl Ui* tnxrfM 
hoTM brfoni Tro; Mjrt, «iraf It ifgUip 


THALIA. III. 60,60. 

pronntinceil, nor c-ven aAer th« coming of ihe Samtiins. Ai 
•oon M llie Saniitiiis reached Siplino^, they sent up lo Ihe 
city one of their vcrscIh, niiti tiinliatxa<)orN nn hnani; MV, 
or>'or«, nil sbijwwi-re pkintt'd »i(h rtd lead j and lhal*rtt 
what tho Pytliia nicaot, when she ()ccl»n>(l, the Siphuinn 
uu[;hl to (Ciiard against a wooden anibuati and rriinsum henld. 
Tht: umbass^durH hat iuff arrived, n-qiicMrd thf Hi|'hniaitii lo 
give ihc'iii i(.-ii lulctiiii*. On rlit'ir tl-IiimiI to advance Bucfci 
Huin, ihc Siiuiiuris In'^tan lo pliui<k-r tlinr landFi: the cittjtem^ 
iiiroriiicU uf iliiH, imrnudiatHlr ^'allifd fimh to rept-1 ih« et» 
itiiv»i tlicv engaged in batllv, and wci-n bi-aleti, ManT of then 
were cut off, rn ibuir rL-ireat tu the city, by lhi> Satnim; 

£l»»ho,aftor ihi*, extorted one bnndi'cd uIcdIk.' ThcseSaoltM 
(lurtliajwl, with ib»-ir moni-y, from llw people of Ifermioof, 
Ihc i^Iund of Ilvjrt-a, on iht IVIoporiiR-sian short, aod 
pledged it lo the Tra-Kcnianx: 4ud lliey tttciniiclvcit wrnlto 
Crete, and lh*rt? foiind«l Cydonia: not that they had j^ 
for thai piirpOMT, but to i-xpd the ZacynlhianH finm At 
ialand. Ilen.^, howevor, tbcy n<miiinud ; and dnrii^ fin 
rvars pronpered gr^-atWi eo much aa to be capable of 
building the aacred prvrincw now seen at Cydnnin mid lli« 
toiople uf Diclyun. In the >ixih year, the JEginKUe, tt- 
stated by the Cr«iati«i, conqih-red thrill in a natal eugafiP- 
rnuul, and n'duct.*d tlii'ui to t^lavcry. Thv cooijurrors sawtfl 
off' the prowK of their vessels, which carried ai ibe liead tbc 
figure of a boar, and coDsecraled tb«iD to the temple rf 
Minerva in ^£^na. Tliis expluit was achtered by the .K^- 
nel« in revenge oJ an injury done to them by the Saiiiiaw: 
for iho Saniinni), under thu rci|^ of Ainphicrau-s at SaoHMi 
had lirHl attacked .^.giiia, and caused much niiMrhitif to i)is 
inliabtlaniA; hut RiillVrcd ncrcrcly in nturn. 

tiO ) have been llie mure prolix on the Kubjcct of the Ss* 
inianK, as three of the mighlic^^t works of the Hellenea 
udecled by ibis people. The first is, the excavation 
mountain one hundred and filty orgyo? in lieighl, bcgitmi 
at the foot, and constilntiug a tunnel with two iuoiiiIik: thi) 
length of this tunnel is seven elades; il« height and brradlli, 
each ei^bt feet. Through the whole of ihift lunnpl raitf 
another excavation, twenty cubits deep, and three feet broatli j 
iilong which, through conducting pipes, waUT ia conveyed HW 
the oily froui o eopiousspriog". The archilecl n-aa Eupftlimic, n 

iriMt Sc« StMerif, lit*, Utrid. vmf. aqueiluci wiu loads. The laMrl 

JE(a^ 1. I. WM H{!bL (net hiRh, and u iudv 

"> Till* wotk •TMD^ 10 twir been a hrwid: tlie aifunhict wm Ibfw tek 

brge tuMi doR ihro^gli a mcun. brvadj m thai oo ridiar Mile 


Ada of NaiHtro|ili(iK. uf&Iegani: lliiu, acconliii^K^ ik iniv oi* 
the threo jircat frork*. Tbc second h a brcakwAicr, itirown 
up in tlic tr«, around llit- burlioar: iu <lc])tli, alxuit mtv 
huHdrud orgyin; its length, be«et than iwo oiaduft. The 
third work )s (he taoAt rxtvaaive icinpH of all tLai I wet 
hohelH ; ilio fmt iltcIiiu-ci o( which was Hbteciu son of 
l^tilruA, a niilivtf [»ri}ic fiUco. 

Wliiiu L'aitibyiH.'S mm of L'vriis was larrving in Kgypl, refl 61 

of his ■cDHcs tiTu brothers, of Ihu onlcr uf tliu Alagi, re- 

Tolled. CambvAus had MX one of ihvni to b« aluward uf 

his )>nrj>cfty : hu it yfa* thai, acvordinKlj't rcmc up; having 

aac'rrtjiini>d the di*ai1> of Snierdi«, uhich nas krpt at-cretf 

an^l awatfl that tho Pcntian* acqiinink-d with that circiim* 

Kt~iiiC(< «rerc few in uitmber", Hm majority r*iiicyiiig the 

priticc to b(* Rtill ah*e: hi; liimtKl over thi'se ihingn in his 

mind**, aiHl resolved to aeize tlie o])porlunitj', and laku pi)9- 

MVBion of liw throne. Jle hod a brother; who, aa I bclbre 

obM'rTc'd4 foMinrrd his examftlu, and rtvuliud likewifte : thb 

bruthur, in his appearance, rwxcnible^l greatly Sint-rdiK, aiid 

bnrc the Mme name m the diccasid prim-e, the aon of Cyru-s, 

vrliDin CnmhyMK bad put to death, aUhoiig]i he van his own 

brothLT. Tlie ullier Magtis, Pati/.trithes, well nMnre thai 

this indtvtdnal iroiild in every ihiii^^ do an he wUhed, Heated 

him ou the throne; and itnnxKliatcly •eitl horalde to all 

quaitent, bat to F.gypt particidarly, and in'oclainicd to the 

utny* that thv comiDands or Smordia von of Cynis wcro 

hencrfonrard to be obeyed", and not lho»e of Cambyaot. 

Tbv ( heraldn pronnuneed the above proclainatioii: 63 

ihe one thui nn/t ap]>oiuted m proceed 1o Hftypl, met Cam* 

liyMH and the nnny at Kcbatana in Syria, and, standing 

fonht in tli« midnt of the congregnttun, reud the proclatua- 

tion iasiied hv the Magtut. Cnmbys<.<R, having heard this 

fmiB ttw herald, tliongbt the man f,\K>Ue iliu iruUi, and thai 

hfT himaetf had been betrayed by Pn^'XanpitK [ttiai in to nay, 

that, ulllioiigh »ent (or lliu purpose of pulling 8inerdis to 

death, be had nut nixryi-d the order): lie lliert<rore turned 

bia eye to Prcxaept-s: " pKxaapvs," said the kiitg, "ia it 

** ihtia yiHi PXecttU) the ordcra thai [ give yoitf" iSvxaapea 

rtplitid : ** My liege, it oauuoi hv tru«, ibiu Siuardia ibould 

auk wUMb tbc toiHl tva feet atrf ■ 
lalfbniailt ly,ua|M«- 
(■ire. to rrpair tW works lii cm« of 

Wvl. Wrttr!t»g, t^rthtr, 

" M«n.*at>i.3. 

ID* (vjibUim." S>*Airriif, IV ri. I.M. 

dnK jo Tti* ynln- — tkk rfmM, 
t»aplr3 iriri tkt pirtumtiauM* J am 
oI<m( to mtntiim," «fi« raws »!«<« 
M Ihv dvatk of B<a«n)H ; *A, In mhu 

ftlbin, «ii. U>* rc«Hnb)*nM of U« 
Hb|PM> Kmvnlia to iha fTilini Snrt. 

** Mait.«ta, l.30p*rp«. 


THALIA. 111.03,64. 

*' ever bure rebelled agaiiut )-ou ; «nd you aeed not Ih« , 
" any altercation, great or little, vritb ibis man • fur I inr- 
" self, after I had f^xeculed your order*, buried Smerti* 
" witli iu,v ovrn hands : if, ihorefore, the deiid h»c ftgiio, 
*' Toii muy nlso expet^l At^tyageK, the liiiig of the Medt^ 9 
" riso up ogsiii. If it is now as formerly, ootbiiig can accrue 
" to 3'aii from thit^, itt all erenU. Now, therulore, 1 iliiik 
" we ought to pursue the herald, quesliou and examine bia 
" as to the person from whom lie eomes here to pto- 

63 ** claim that we are to do homage to kin^' Siaerdi»." Tiutl 
Prexa.H])eH spokt- : Cambyses took the ath ice : furlliwilli tbe 
herald vaa pursued^ and came back ; and, n-hen he arn«ed, 
Prcxii)i|>es questioned him : '* My good man, since you hate 
" told u« that you come with a messace from Smordis ti)c 
" Kon of CyniH, i<p(.-ak ibu truth now, ana yon shall he lui gv 
'* bannless. Did Smerdis bim&ulf, appearing beliire you, gte 
" you your orders; or was it one of his attrndantx^' li* 
mail iiiude aiiswi?r: " I bavu never wen Smerdis ihu soimf 
" Cyms, wnce liinjf t'ambysea dt'iKirtcd for E;j;ypt. It wu 
" tlic Magus, whom CainbyECH appoiutud UU sioward. llui 
** gave iQC my orders ; saying, lliat Smerdis the son of Cynif 
" charged me to make this couiuiunicaliou to you." So 
spoke the man, without recourse lo any sabtcrfugo: ui 
Cambyses tlien said : '' Prexupes, you have duue yonr dnljr 
" 06 a faithful servaul, and an blameless : bul who cad ^ 
" then, the inilindiiid that lias risen up againM. mc in Pcnifc 
"and falsely assumed the name of Smerdis.'*' Preitaipw 
replied : " I think, my liege, I can tell you bow ibii cesiet 
" abouu The Magi are tJie ivbels, one of whom you U^ 
'* your steward ; I mean Paiizeitheii,uudhisbrutberSiuer<Iii>'' 

64 Cambyses, on beariog the name of Suierdie, was tiruck 
with the ful6Iment o( his dream, and the warning 
accompanied it : it was, that he fancied ho &aw in Ho 
sleep a man who announced to him that Smerdis was seated 
on Vie tlirone, and that his head touched the skies. S««ii){ 
nov that he had by mitloko destroyed his own brother, iw 
mourned the fate of Smerdis. Having so done, and bitlcrf/ 
coroplaiiiinp of the many ralamitieB that oppressed hitn, b* 
leaped on bin hnrf«, intending forthwith to proceed lo Siis* 
ami alluck tlx! Magus: but, lu he jumiwd upon his horx, 
the ferrule of hifi sword-sboath** dropped off, aud the avi 


* fiiamt, "k muiliTDom." Thii tbeibfjUli. ScAmrM. Gr. Gtrm. • 

word i> mrlnnpnirallir uari to signify NiruiOct viftrtav himarif fn 

KTcral ihiuKi bcanug; tomi irttax- smat maanct, fttam if' mmwwtmii* 

b]at)c« in flutp*' lo • ma I h room : it Hul ikt lonft m vc art ■» ilU 

■CMUW h«rc tbc bub U ih* und at Mi|uaiDl«d irttii ibe «lupa at lt*J 



tliiifi UDcovered, entered hi<t thigh. Slmel: Uiub in the same 
part whcrt! he hud iM^fore pierced ApiK the god oftho F.gyp- 
lians, Cainlivses, concitiviiig that hu wax mortally wounded*', 
in(|uircd whnt was Ihc name of the town; and wa5 told it 
was Kcbataiia ; a place where, acL'ordlii{j lo an oracle some 
time belore pronountcd at BiUo, he was to end hia days. 
Cambyges. acconlianly . hail.lUuuitUt iliAl. iie was la die in 
old ogc at iL cbataiia of Mt'dia, where all hi* richf* were 
:Ac)io»iled; but the oracle meant, in inilli, the Echatann of 
Syria. No sooner had the king henrd tho name of the town, 
than, oppressed hy the combined ralauiities of the revolt of 
the Mai^Lw and liiii wound, he wa.t renlored to his senses; 
and. applying to ItiiiiKcIf llie orncle, exclaimed: " Here it is 
" ihat Cambyses the son of CyniR is doomed by fate to die." 

Such were tliu vrcnls at the lime ne ai'e now speaking of: 65 
but twenty days aCier this, Cambysfs conrenpd nn assembly 
of thechi«f Persians, and addre&sed litem as follows: — "Men 
*• of Pe*»ia, nomething had occurred to me, which I kept the 
" molt wcrot of all, but mast now discloso lo you". I waa 
" ill I'-Kypi at ihe time, and beheld a vision in my sleep: and 
** would llial I had merer !ieen such ! J imagined thai I saw 
" a mcRseiiger roming from my home, and informing me, 
" that SmerdiK was seated on tlie regal throne, and with bis 
*' head tonclied the canopy of heaven. I feared that \ should 
•' be reft of my power by my brother, and acted with ranra 
" precipitation than prudence"; for it belongs not to human 
*' nature to avert what in fated to happen : 1 mistook 
** tho eeuse of ihc Marning, scot Prexa«pc$ to Susa nitli 
" orders lo destroy Smerdis: having committed this wicked 
" deed, I lived tran<iuil, never giving it a thought, now as 
" Smerdis was taken off, that any other individual would 
*• dare lo rebel. But I was eoinplctely deceived in my views 
•* of rutiuiiy : 'Ircudful lo say, 1 murdered my own brother, 
•• and nevcnhelijss am deprivt'd of my kingdom ; for the 
" pcTMrn wrlioui ilie go(\ fbreshewcd me, in uiy dream, was to 
" ri*e up against me, was Smerdis tlie Magus. Being now 
** informed of what I have done, do not you fancy tlmt 
•* Smerdis tlie son of Cyrus is will alive. I tell you, tlie 
*> Ma^aoM are in possesaion of the crown : him that' I left lo 
" administer my private property, and his brother Smerdis: 

Pmian snJ Grwk wuHi, we can m 
■Mliintt cBTlain icaptDtTDg ihit woro. 

* it ti •«(•> Q<Cl nwtf Ut . Tho 
•*r<l mXmyf aiittt bo undeniood frDtn 
t«)i«Ei: an eltipdi of frwiueni rtcor* 
•Birr, lairktr, Bu Etttp*. Gr. 1 7i. 

" IinpolD* iovMiC Miim«iB intitn." 
— CentmvU Larelunu: jt oe poi* 
In'empfc^hBr. Sekvtig. Lrt. B**§d. 
toe. ■Hila^fw. 
" MUL MS. 


THALIA. 111.06. 

*• lliat priiirr, iJiprpfote, «ho«u.> duly il wimlil liavi* jirlwi. 
" inlly Uut-n lb Avi'ii|;r lue of ihis (litif;>'o<^>'f^ul iit»iitl nf ik 
*' M«K)R»B, lilts died a moM unjiiM flenih, at the hancU of kii 
" nearc-Kl relative: hv is no luoic; tlit-rvfiiiit it is bighlj 
^ nejJcxNir}' 1 fIkxiUI ^nn my conimaudii to juu, the tVNt at 
" tha Ptmans", at, to wliat 1 w'lvh you BbouUl do, rlien I 
" dt-p.iTt life. I ncKtirdingly call to witii«u> the •ovEiBgs 
" gofift, anfl enjoin y<>» all, and more e«^cially the Achirni';- 
" iiidiL- iiKn: iirrscnt, not (o alluu* llio power to [ju back lo 
" lb« M<?(Ikk: if by cr»ft thi-y hai-e posseaeion, by crall nUo 
** do you di»fKis&Li« tlicin: if tltey hare wrought by liim. m 
" do you n-ciiver llic upjwir liand by forti?*. II yon obty 
"my )iijiuictiunfi'°*, uiay your land he fiuilful! may yoof 
" woiuwii and yuur cbildri>n malitply, atid yo<usclve« bt 
" {wv lor vvL-r! But uti1<»K yim ri-tovcr the Bit)inTivicT, aoti 
'* «xert yotiraflvefi for iiidH]M'iidi'iicu, 1 |>ray ilie ronlran 
*' niuy bcfiil yiHi, and, nn-K-ovcr, lliat wciv iVnsiunV df»vK 
'* way hv tiki; initio!" Aftt-r Cimhytt:^ hat) timii K|x)L«n, Itr 
66depl(irpd Ui<> practice of hix life. The Per^iiins, sccinji ib-iif 
king u'er|>, rent their garmpnts, and did not upare ilte crtrs 
of mminiinfj; «">n nfter, caries ntUcked the bone; tlie 
thing rorihwiii) ht-gau to frnkr, and carried oW Camby »«.*«'*. 
w)ii> had reigned, in all, m-'ii^n yean* and livn nioiithK, »oi 
dii^d without leaving iiiiy ofl'tprin^, male or fL-niule. (>rpat 
diiibvlief pervaded the Ft-rsinns that were present of ihe 
Mat;ian8 being at the bead of afTairs: they were pcn>imdc(l 
thai CambyBe" had said what he did of the dealh of Sm«- 
die, in oidcr that the whole |\i-sian nation idiouhl hccimt 
his enemies. TheKc pfrwinK, accordingly, were under con- 
rJction that Sujfrdig the soo of Cyriia bad revolted anil 
asceuded the ibroiiv: fur even Prexaspes Mrenuou»ly denied 
that he had been the perpetrator of Smerdi^'s death ; aa it 
woald have buen dangen'iis for him, now that Canihyfiri 
was dead, lo hiivn said tliut he killed Cyrus's son with btt 
owQ baud. 

« •& 

io tbe MiBo &■ 

JMi«>£, uhI ngnifies. *' Undem, qood 
■d n<h>)uani nitlnvl, ?iFI«ruin.'' — 
taivher. ll ItRfldrtir timi Ihp Rrn<- 
ll*e, *•■ iLarvi, It tiirrF Kiiicitiui) 
t)jr thv lupurlntrii^ itmynuirmTtt i t\iB 

rum pra-rvfitorain, qiiar mihi rnUi 
duliffn lupntunt. miiimti nf(«u*rtiim 
lor •»!, " Sefui'tis i'-^- Urrtd. iw. 

hBT« put mn eod to Uie ctnpiir of thr 
PeniiLna." I hire frJIoved febwclf 
lid-utcr'a Lillin ve'Klon. 

■<" ■■] vufB iHi »wmn i/ilw • . • • 
twin If «k /r»n xt^"* llirftc" 
' Si »ou« fmiCT tc nut jp Youi tfnar 
iiqaiiJc, CI «i villi conKf^n 

Mirtii. - If yon ixV arearJii'g 

mull." Sic. LanAti; 

•°' ^u)ipt). to goitn hwimmt. lit* 
irortlt. i NWM, or vaSra ri aMi — 

TIULIA. 111.07— 00. 


Accrtrdingly, the Mafjits after the death of CBnibj'»«»,(;7 

pui-i>iu.-il hiH rule iiiidiMiiilxHl, laking adviiiiugc of hi* naoie, 

lirhicb «'a« iho tamv as lliat ofCvTun's kuu MmtritU. (luring 

Iba twTt-n oioulhi iliut n uuiiu-d to compkii: ilic rigjii yeo*^ 

Df CaiiiLjrses' rcigii. DuriiiK t^ii^ perioil, he tavitihtrd hU 

DcncfitH on ull his iuib)Lt.-tff ; nj thaU at histlrath, all in Asin, 

P'ith th** i:-xct-|iiioii of ihr PirKi^iiis btiwuilcil his loan: fur llm 

ilagus had pruuiii^td U>c>t:i> nuUoit iit hits (louiinionA^cxmnp- 

ioD fruii) nil Wurit lor war and pavuicnt ul liibuie for threw 

tan i a booo which he pledged himselC to* at his tinst ri&o to 

lower. In the tighih utmiili the TrAiuI wan disco vc nil, an 1(18 

inv shall describe- Otancsu'aH Ihenonof Phariioftpe*, equal 

B blood and opidcnri; (•> ihi- 6tH of (he I'ereiAiiB'"' : he was 

be fint, also, llial siiR|H'Cted lh« Mngiis not lo he the 

koerdis stiD of C^nisbut what he lenlly m an ; lie inferred 

bis from tltL- fact, thai the king never canir out nf the ciladel, 

■nd never called into hi^ presence any of the Persiantt of 

ank. Having roucuived theKC Kuspiciouis he &el to work 

B Uiis manner. Catubyses had married his dauchler Pbic- 

lima: the Magus, accordiiiijly, hnd uimu her, lo(;ciher wUli 

til the rc»t of Cambyseii' vuincu ; and slie waH to him aa 

I wife. Ouui-!t tUerelcirc svnL to this diiu^hter. uul in<piirud 

ith <>vhat man nhc <ra« woi)t to sle<-p : n-h^thcr uith Snierdis 

If Mjn uf Cyrits, or any otiier ninii. Tbe lady stinl luirk, 

ansu-er, thai ehu did nut know ; for she had uever toun 

\erti\s Ibe snn of Cyrus ond knew nul tbo person who 

isited her. Uiunoe u-ni a ^eeond time, wiUi this mersagct^g 

Ifyuu do uiiL yuuKeir know Stnenlii^ the son of Cyrus, ask 

Atosiu uho it in thai vihiis both her and you; for no 

doubt phe uiuat, at all cveuts, know her own brolber." 

Wfliuia relumed this anairer : " 1 cannot hate any con. 

' vcrsatiuD irith .\li>ssa,or see any of tb« other women nilh 

M'bain tre used tn ait all tngelher at work '**: fur ba aoon 

u tbiK man cnme, vhoercr he nmy be, he di«]>eTEcd u«, 

' and placed ii» uoincn, one here, nnolhiT ihe»e." When 

>l«nea heard ihiN, the husinfSK seemed lo him clearer dian 

lelore; he dchpalchid a third itie.s<age to his danghler, lo 

bis purport: ** Dear d;iiiyhler. liigh-lxtni that you are, it 

becomes mu to face niiat perils your father may expoiw 

yon to. For if Uiis man be uot the Smerdia son of Cyrus, 

■*■ Maotii* nukM a rcfnarit m lUa 
■w^d hitlicfoUoini t^ald tcadiftg, 

mU. »rct. 3>)!I. 3. 

rrfnmr^jiiMrr. from W)»«iiffci. 

TctHJniE, lU we mny ituhar (run ibe 
hia'of^ of quern 1'j>ih*i. Watfl. Thw 
intorpT^alinn ii appmt«d br ^h«t*i|i. 
hieiM^r; ■lrho(i|th h«K<te*in bin iMin 

M Nl MgriiK-r:" ki the Kartnnit of Tpntlnn. " i)uic nwroB tno itnil !>■• 
Ilijlii iBd Vmtmtta. ihe numrii Lniani." S«)> SeAirrig. L^i. Umd. 
\ to lit (ngctber «piDiiiii): and con- *or. njaaiMai. 


TIIALU. HI. 70,71. 

he migbt nut curiainly to Vrv\' 

'* hilt him ihat 1 surniiw 

" company «ri(h rou and the other women, or to liold ihe 
" IVrsian empire and i-scapi; unpuuislicd, but uiuM aau^ 
** joBlice. Now do, therefore, as I tell you. AVhen be liw 
" down by your mde, and you bare uccttoitivd tliat bv i* 
" fast asleep, then I'ct^l for hi» cars : if it appears that be liu 
"earn'", let that convince you that you arc witli Su«wi* 
'* ibe son of Cyrus ; but if be has none, you are wiib Smw- 
'* dis th« Klafpta." riitcdiuia sent bick word, and Mi'i. 
** abe sliould be exposed lu gr«at danger; for if )if hip- 
" pcDcd not to bai-e any eats, and the was detected feelk"! 
" for ibt'iii, sbe knew very well he would put lier out rf iW 
** world i nevertheless, siio would run the chance." Tliu* 
abe pledged lier*elf to do what her father required.— Ii 
must be ob»erircd here, that Cynis the son of Caii>by!tt!3,l)>' 
iintt Persian king, bad cropped the earn of che Hspfi 
Suierdia, as a pnmHhmetit for Home serious crime. — Pfc** 
dima, tbis daughter of OtancH, determiiii^d to fulfil bcrpnh 
misc to her father: accordingly, she vraiied till it came lo 
her turn to be the bed-companion of the Magns ; lor in 
Pervia, it ih the custom that the men should visit Llieir wivn 
in regular succewsion : accordiinjlv, she went and olopl »i^ 
hint: when the M.-tgUK t(;iK fast asim-]), she felt for bis etn. 
iiud easily '°* as4:erlaine(l Uiat tlie man had none ; and at tlr 
5nil dawn of day, 8hc sent and let her father know bo* 
matters atood. 

70 Otanes innled .Aspathines and Gobryas, Persians of ttw 
highest rank, in whom ho placed the highest confidence, and 
explained the whole bii.sincMi in ihcm. They llienisebc^ 
hail their giisjiicioim, also, ihai such was the ca»o ; and wkrn 
OtanoH had jtioducctl his reasons, ad<iptod bis opiniim- 
Tliey agreed, amung Lheni»elve<:, that each should adil k 
himself a partner, a native Pcr^tiau, in whom he put hi* 
greatest trust. Otanes, accordingly^ associated to bin- 
•elf"* InUphcmcs ; Gobirj-os, JHegabyzaa; A»pathiDcf. 
Hydames. They were therefore wx in muabet, when Da- 
liuB the son of Hysliwpcs arrived at Susa from P 
of which his father was viceroy: the six Persians .ire 

7lingly agreed lo add Dariiu lo iheir number. These §e 


'** ttriyivmi. •' iitT>fwoit." ScAiPtiy. 

■chal&r tiBH Mtr* lii^njiprnvf^ i Hnd 
aronMCd Co re|,l«re ilial of L.ValJa, 
"idMlvicaibii" tbe Grwk «atd bciug 

•qalraleni u> *(*nMUM'f«WM, 
Worp. Sriitt^. Lrr. limd. 

"^ •^uta.ihoDjthuneafttonpitab'C 
the P*f«iai) oinpiir, yiwt not la Pgwii ■' 
but in Ciuia; ct 91 tn «p, Sm th-^' 




met. and nmtunlk exchanged pledfif* ami opitiions : and 
whet) it cuiDv to the tiini of Dnritiit to discloxe \nn idcrus 
oo ihe subject: *' I thnuKhi," Miid he, " that 1 wa* the ouly 
" person who knew thai the Ma(?ii& was on the throne, aiid 
" thai SihphUb the son of Cvnis was dpad: and on (hnt ac- 
** count I came hither, with all ajHied, to concert the death of 
" the Ma(i:ii'». Hui it appears tlmt I am not the only one 
" acf|(iiunt(xl with this socret; yuu know as niu(-h as myself. 
** I am therefore of opinion, that itn ought, forthwith, to 
** act, and not interpose any furlhtT di-lay'*'." To thin 
Otanes made n;ply : " Son of ll_vsla»ip(is" siiid he, "yon aro 
** S(>ning from a gallant sire, and appear likely lo prove 
** yourse^ not second to your I'athLT. I beacfch you, however, 
*' not heedlessly lo preeipitale thitijjs as yon do ; and consi- 
** dcr with more prudoot-c our uudortAking; for we muat be 
" more numerous, to coinpaiis our ohject," To this Daritis 
retorted : " Gentlemen, be assured that you will all perish 
" must miserably, if you adopt the plan pmpowd hy Otanes. 
" Some one, eouKulliiig hit oivn private ends, wjH report 
" evtry ihiui; lo the Mapiw. It is theitforc your hoiinden 
" doty iuuiK-diauOy lo Mrike the blow yourselve*. But if 
"you have determined to wail fur greater numbers, and 
** compel me to it, listen to me: either lei us act Ibis itiry 
" duy ; or be aisiired, if you lot Klip thu present day, no one 
" ifaaU have the start of me"*: I will myself become the 
•* inlbnncr, and iui]H>acli yon. all lo the Magns" Otanes, 72 
seeing Darius ao decisive, spoke thus : " Since you bind on 
** down to doch despatch, and forbid all delay, come"", ex- 
** plain yourself in what niauner we can peuetrale into the 
'* palace and fall upon tlio UHurpent ; for you yourself mtut 
" Know, and, if yoa have not seen, have heard, that itciitinelit 
** ue stationed on all KideKt by what means shall we paw 
" ibiDUgfa ihem !" — Diiriua's reply lo this ohjectiim wa» in 
tbrsc words: " Otanes, there are many things not suscep- 
" lible of proof by words, but hy facts: there are olhen 
" adapted to the powers of description, but, when put in 
** pTAcUctt produce no brilliant result He assured, all of you, 
* that the guard* at the difTcrenl stalionn will present no 
" ob*l4cle$ to our passage : for, in the first instance, none 
" will impede the entrance of Kuch persons as we are, 
" pailly Irom vcnoraiion, parllj' from fear: in the second 
" place, t mysL'ir havi; a vltv jjulpahle exeuae for our 
•" entrance, in saying ibai I bare just come from Persia, 
" nod wi^h to deliver to the king a message from my fallior. 

>" Uan. tS7.3. 

■* Sw Ihe levneil SUbop or Loo- 

VOL. I. T 

dnn'n obifTTaD'on, MaU. p. dvlil. 
"• », * ■««,' ' MOW.- Vig. Till, ^ 9. 


THALIA. 111. 73.74. 

" When n. fal^tiood is ex(>edient, lei it he used; forw* hwB 
" all till* saintr object in vieiv>i°, sthc-llK-r ^vc nay xibut is bl*: 
*' or what is true. In ibai caxe, tber wIk> lell the ralcubwd, 
** do so, at all ercol*, id onU-r iliat ibvy axa.y ftain bfj 
"making othrr^ helieve what U fal^e: ibe}' who tell 
" lTath,do so likeu'i&o in gain and attract cnDli(icncc,so 
" uiorc tni8t ina;r be put in tbeni. Thiiii taking diflt: 
'* wn^'s, we lend tu the same scope. If f^iii U'cro not ilH'1 
" tended, it would 1m: indiffVrenl whether truili were false* 
** hood, or falsebiiud truth'". Tbe rtonr-koej>er, tltorvfoir, 
" timt lets ii» cii-illy pass by, &hall bcreafter be placrd io a 
** bvtltnr ftiinatton : he that attempts to pnsb n« back, thiW 
*■* furttiwilh be declared a (oe "'. Tueo let ua go in, and adtbcu 

73 " ourselves to work." — IlcTfUpon, (iol>rvas roue: "Dew 
" frUmds," be said, " when will a belter opportunity pre*enl 
" ilsr]{, to nrcover tliu ihnine ; or die, should ne fail in cm 
"attempt? now that wc IVrsians are under the rule of a 
" Medii- MagUH,ai)d him cropped ofliis ran too. Vou.wfco 
" weif prt-Rcul at the ^ick-bed of Cauibyws, (orget not wfast 
" curses tho dyinf? tcinf; pronuunctnl on ibo Tn'Rians who 
" u'oiUd iiol exerl ihemsvh'es to recuvtf the L'uipire: U tiut 
** tioievrc did nut believe him, but thoo^bl be q>oke thiougb 
"haired of liis brother. Now, ihenrfon;, I give my *oti, 
" that we follow the advice of Dariu.s and, without brcakiD;^ 
" lip our pretwuL meeting, straight attack the Magua.'' 
spoke Gobrrast and all approre<l the proposal. 

74 At the same titnc ibcy were debating these tbin^ 
following occurrence catnc to pat-s. The Magi bad del 
mined t4i conciliate ilie support and frit^mUhip of Picxasiieiilf 
a9 be had tiull'i^red xticb iiifnmoue troatmcnc al the hauda oT^ 
Cambyaes, the uiurdtrrer of bin son nith his buw, and wa* 
ibc only person that knew of the death of Smerdia tfa« uxi 
of C^iux, put away by his ovro baud: he was, besides, in tbe 
highest repute among the Modes. For tliese rcaaom iheji 
accotdiiiKly called him into tbeir pi-esL'uce; and brniigbi 
ofcr to Ilifir si(l«, insisting, ujion his pledge and oalb''^ 
he would keep tobiuiAell, and not divulge to any living beiRgiM 
tfau deception they were practising on the Persiauft ; and pro- 

■l" (I vaSra ^aUtnt. " nan eadnin 
nemnus." rMn««ifiix4^*'*i " 'b 
■re wiilciu* for the •mne," i. c, " wc 
lk*« >h« t*me thins " b^trt." 

■■) Tha v*nerati>)ii Cor (rath nioong 
Ihe Pvnuum {m; i. 13(1.) Hill bl-pouiu 
for DmIii* Dning ibet« tu;tlii»tic ar- 

thv aid nading, h a tt^tt, vbeb 
?uh«eiabruicT kai rtrj froftUr 
abMRcd for Lalwa4rtB. 8ee X«v. 

" fide <U\n «i jataaionn* alM)aMa ol^ 
(ilrin(t<n« :" tha atlffiilr verb I ^,»tim^ 
bdoK und for tbs oanpotmd 

Halt. M8, ». MsiOiir hUirs ^uwUttn. StJurHf, Im. BnmL 

THALIA. III. 7«,7! 

lo him thousands upon thonsnnds"*. l*rrxaHi«s con- 
3 their otler: nnfl the Magmns harinf^ promilcd upon 
Irim, pnipufiod, in the next place, lo UAsemhte all (lie Peraians 
under the wnljs of the pnlsi-v, ukI tmlt^n-il him to asrenil a 
tower and proclaim (hat Smcrdis the son of Crnis, and no 
Mlier pensoD, occupied the throne: ihcy eujcMnnd him to do 
Ihift, as he was cstreiiitd bv the Pt^rsiana a must Imnourable 
tnuii, and had frvmienlly u.uerte(l h\* opinion that Smerdix 
was still alive, and denied hin being thtr pt-raon Ihal killed 
Um. PrexaspeN said he was ready to accede to these 7S 
«isb«8 ; and the Magiann af«cinblcd the Persians, sent 
Pirexas[)es np the tover, and biuh- him proclaim. Hut he, of 
his own accord, chose to t'or^'i't ttio reituest of thv Ma;{ians: 
be began from Achicmcnes, and went through the gcnralogj- 
of Cyrus'i! fuinily : cominp down to tliat prince, ho finished 
by rtthcarflin){ tlic services Cyrus performed for the Persians"*; 
Mid then proceeded to disclooe the truth, saying,', tliat her«. 
tofont he had kept it secret, as it wmild not have been safe 
for him to have mentioned what bad taken place; but in tlie 
present cmcrgenry, necessity forced him to spciik opi-nly. 
He ihun Niatedj thai, coiniwlled by Cainbys<?»i, hi- had himself 
made away with Snicrdis the son of Cyrus, and that iho 
Mttgians were in possession of the throne, Afler pronouncing 
tmny iroprecations on the Perstaas if they did not recover 
tbe empire and wreak rengeancit on the Mngians, he threw 
himself, head foremost, from the top of tbe tower to the 
bottom"''. Prexaspr^ thus put an end to himKctf, having 
always been a man ol' groat repute. 

The seven Persian noblemen, accordingly, having decided 76 
to fall immediately on the Magians and to admit no further 
delays, proceeded, after prayers to the gods, lo their onder- 
taldug, knowing nothing of what had been done by Prexaspes. 
In the middle of Ihcir way Lo the jyalace, tlicv were informed 
of what had taken place with respect to Prexaspes: in 
consequence of this, they stepped out of Uie highway, and 
again consulted among themselvCB. Otanes '" earnestly 
adnscd delay, and not to effect their purpose in the present 
stir of aflairs. Darius contended they sbuuld go on, and do 
as they had Kgrccd, imraediatcly and without any delay. In 
the midst of their altcrcalioii, appeared seren couples of 
luwlts pursuing two couples of vuIturL-s, pecking and clawing 

<•• Ml. '<Oul lli*y mwlil Kivn to '* Lit. " cut hiffiarlf (<!rii.i>it •«> 
Mm MM of UiaB«iiiiI* of «U Dikanrr h*t4 torriaatt, lo h* d»>)it<d fmtn lb« 
«f euvn." 9^ MitMig. t-€»-Bero4. towrrlo (he aronn'!." 

«ee. vSi, 4. "* (f i^l rit "OmIw, I. I. OUDF*. 



THALIA, ill. 77—70. 

ibom'", Tbn seren saw lli'is, un!iiiinini)»lf* approved ilw 
senlitnent of Darius, aiul went on tonanln the palace 

77 encouraged hy th» oinen. With respect to the Kentiuck 
stationed at tlic gatci>, the Kamc Whaviour nearly was »b«Hod 
ihat had been anticipated hy Darius in the Hlatement a( ]u» 
opinion ; ihe f^uards evinced great rcspt^ci to the Perau 
nobles : and nut Misjit'ctiii^ any hucIi atu^mpt on their pad, 
permitted tlicin to pnsit on, as under the guidance of ih* 
guds : and none put any qui-sliuns. When thcv rKached the 
rronl court, they met with tho eunuchs apiminted lo take in 
all utciMiKces i who inquired uliul their husincss was; at the 
same time threatening the door-koepcis for lollinf; thvm in; 
and endeavoured to hinder the seven cunspiraturs fruu 
going any further. The nohleineu chttered one snotber on, 
and) gianping their dirks, Slabbed all their opponents on the 

78»pot, and llien made a ruKh Ui the men's a)iartnH-ui "°. The 
Magians happened to be both there, debuting the conilact of 
IVi'xatipeK : Lhev saw the eunuehi^ in lunmll, and heard tlieia 
shrii-k : they both ran up to them, and, when inforoKd what 
had been done, resolved to defend themselves: one, in biij 
hurry "°, look up hiu buw ; the otiier had recourse to bii 
Innce. A srnfHe then eiiNUed : the how was of no sen 
him tliat Utok this weapon, Uie foe piessing tan close u} 
him; but the other, with lii» javelin, resisteil, and wixindej] 
AKjinthines in the thigh, and lutaphemes in the eye:— 
Intaphcnics did not die of bis wound, but was deprived of tlic 
sight ol that eye. Accurdingly, one of the Magians voundedMl 
two of the cou8|>initor8: the other, finding his botr of nflfl 
Uic, made for an ak-ovc cuotiguous tu tlie niun's apnrtmoni, 
intending to doxc the doors; and was followed in bv tuo 
of the seven, Diirius and fiobryus. (Jobiyas grappled the 
Magus; and Darius stood uncertain, wishing to avujd wound- 
ing Gcbryas in tlie dark. Gobryas, seeing him istand idle, 
aslied wherefore he did not make nse of his hand: the reply 
was* " I am anxiou!< not to buit you your»«1t." " No matter," 
exclaimed Gohryas, *' drive your sword ihrongh both, if 
" necei^Hary.'' Darius acted accoidingty, made a thruM wilb 
his dagger, and luckily hit the Magus only. 

79 Having killed the Maginne, and cut off their heads, they 
\e(t their tronnded men there, on account of their feelile con- 
dition, and tor the pnrpotie of keeping guard on tJu> citadel :^ 

' elawinti <«•> couple* of vulture*.' 

■" iUfUHia. " (lie apirtmenl of the 
iDFii;'' ID ditlioclioo of ihr yttai- 
■«i», ur apartmcDt of ibe minva, the 


" &i]o«liiiics ib« Ue* «f ruiditf 
onlir !■ oouujncd in fMwat Sm MM. 
Mi3, t. 

TiuuA. III. eo. 


le tifher fire, Triilj the hoacU of iho Majtiun^'", riwhfil om, 
Buil, iiiukiii^ luud cries und grunt tipn>ar, Lalletl ii|> Lhu 
Olhcr Hvrwana, shfuuil ihi-Qi llio Iieaii*, n'luipU what ihey 
1»<1 (luue^aiid cut duttn every Mdj{»'' t'^i-'y 1^^" >'^ with. Tlu> 
IVniaiix, inlormed of wliat liail bt'«ii ilmie hy the Retwti, and 
Uw fnu^ of lite .M^Kiiins, n.-Nilvc(l tu I'ulluw thi; exaiupl« of 
ibo nobleincii, and, da^^i-r in liiiiii), slaughtered every Magus 
ibi-y ci,nild find. — Tiiis day tlie rewiiuis iu coinmon Iiononv 
iu()rt> ihati any ntlitir; and, on ilit ani)iverK.-iry, cch^bralt: a 
tnaKiitfii-c-nt fvatival, called by tltcm (be Massai'rc af ttic 
Alagiatuu On thai day no Magu» mUHt appear out a( 
lioon; jill slay hi their houses till uunset. 

AftL-r an intvrral of five days, and when the tmiiuU ha<i-W 
subt^idL■d, thf! iiubluR who hud dunotufd the Mugtaub held 
cuiiiicil iin the niliiaiiun of pulihc affairs; and npc-cches 
ware Uiun raadv, which Rnme of the llellenus disbelieve, bill 
■jtfcfa WL-rt- cLTlainly »f)okrn. Oianps advised ihnt the iiia- 
p^Binmi of atlaiis Khoiihl be couiiuitied to tlie u-holu Per- 
tiioi oatton. ** i am of opinion," Otancs said, ** that wo 
" ahould Du louj^er be governed by one single man ; auch a 
" kind of rule i» iitiihi-r good nor desirable : for yoii know 
" to whai a lidgbl (he pri-suinption ol Cuiubysi-H rose : you 
*' have hkewise experience the iiisolcncf of the Magus. 
" How, iiidL-ed, could the government of one man alone be of 
" any wonh'", when he is ulUmed to du as he likes/ For, 
" BUppoBu the very best of all men inrcstcil with such power, 
** he would be noun ilirawu out of the sphere of his former 
" and baliilual ideas: Uie advantages he enjoys brings inso- 
" lencc ■ envy i^ innate iu luau: these two viei's constitute 
•• ibc sum of human wjckcduess. 'iliu dcsjwl, filk-d wiili in- 
" Roleiice, i» guilty of many nefarious deeds: envy likewise 
** drivea him into iniquitio.s. You Would think, that, in tb« 
** pOHeasion of m many good ihingn, the despot shouldi at 
** all evenlfi, bo void of envy : jut»t the contrary t» his beha- 
** rionr to his unbjects'". He hales the virtuous that siir- 
" i-ive, and is plea-setl with the innst wicked of his citizens : 
" he lislcnn j^raciously to slander'", and is the mo:»f incon- 
*' mst»'Ut of men"*. Shew, iu moderation, respect for him, 
" hu in ollondcd because you did not honour tiim greatly : 

' pNtaaU*.' Larehcr craaol&tci " !». 
MM d iu «Mtiii." 

f Man. 437, •HMoa) paiaK. 

1* f¥ y tmmrri— fw w (the emt- 
bury vf tbiK puUwt), U "'I »i3L* ff « 
(imiarit* llie oitiipa*}, mlfmt (ti wont 

<*• Lit " Im it «xretl<-ric in admit 

racM N w^m*, " qdnd r«iD itiBxima 
omaiam iDODn^ronm nt:" mutt re 



THALIA. lU. 81. 

" honour biiu grtutly, lir is oirciided at vtbai be cuUs uh^ W 
'* lion. I come ikih* to )iU u-orBlqualilJcs: be overUimit '^■Iw 
" laws olour falliiTs ; lie nfTcrs rinlcocc lo our noioen; ^s^nd 
" puts tu iloatli iiiili\-i(luiilK iinliL'&rd. The ^avercign pe-of:^^)r. 
*• m the first plnce, bears the faireat of tiaiavts ' tqunKiy — pf 
'* jusiicw'"": iu the iwcoud pUtce, this government brii "ags 
** not the same evils an the luoasrcb. The sovcreipi peo^B'!^ 
"appoint the ruagiAtrate,. bv lh« ca^t of the die"'; he a^ 
" aiisM-erable for all ho doc's: nil deliberations are refers <'JB 
" to ihtj I'OUiiiiuDS. I luii th«rffon.' of opinion, that wc shot — ^la 
" do awiiy wiili inoaarchy, and exalt the peoplu; lor oh ^i^lif 
" toany all tbiii^^s depend." Such was the opinion lfc:^3a> 
blOlanes laid before the council. — Megabjzus thought it ^S=t' 
pedieul to establish an oligarchy *** : h\f words were : " 1 ^^WT 
■* ibu same u» Otane» naid on pnuing down tyranny'*; tmul 
" be strayed far fruin the right jnilijnK-ut, when he urf^gfi 
" UN to confn till' power on the uiullimde"". Tht-re i" 

" nothing iDOic elupid than a useless mob"*; nothing m^^fJ 
" insolent U is indeed most insulTcnible. thai men. aiixic=3>l* 
" to escape the insolence of & tyrant, should cxpow lUu" "i™* 
'* selves to the insolence of an uncurbed people. The ti Ta^MtUlt 
" when he does act, knows what be does^ the mob cann Q^h 
'* for bow Khould tlicy know, uho have never lieen Uun^^MB 
" who am i|piorniit itItUe of what is tirluouti uud pnipci 
"they rush headlong into things, nn^^iiidod by i eaJ' ""•' 
" like a winter torrent. Let those who biuod eiU tu ^^*hc 
" Foraians adopt a deiuoeracy i wbtlu we elect & boaid vL 

w •• Llh«r«i •t EgtliT*" WM iba 
nfj (if III* lilixMlhouncto of th* frtath 
n^i'Iiitiou ; whoa* onlj obJMI, faul 
nsprririiRfi Tiwi nhcwn, wu tlie ruin 
of the ^ood, onil ibo cloTUion cf tli« 
wictnl. 1 uni fotry ib^l tliu umr'Jw 
limit! ichirb Mofino diwi' itloslra- 
Ijuiu will uul lUiDH' IDS la prMtBt mjr 
rtAdiT witb Lbi' etnlUnt natM ot 
Larclier uu tlii-ir ihrpc chapton of 
Hcfi^olu^: bift nmotlls sre itiMc of 
A (toad ictidUr miii a virtaDU* taui. 
1 rtn onlj ahtarve, tiku I hafe no 
Kn^'iohmMi vrjtl retid Ibis poruon of 
bjiiiity, wiihmtt ferIlii|E ihaukful ibal 
hii Finiairy it fclewioi) tritti a c<iiutl- 
(utioD tbat knQvi oclclier ibo ioM- 
l«Dc«> of Iht! mob, Ihc appriMJOD of 
ih« fxiv, not lliK ijnaaj er'on*. 

"f " U': Magiaiiitt ■ jr tilt au tort ; 
i1 est coin|itiibli- de nun mltuinUtra* 
boDi B( [UK In Ira ■l^liliiTUiuni *'j 
(oDl vlt conuuoa." LarrJkrr. Tbti 
nilg««l to 4(cu >■ vXiJaf i(x«t '' po- 

palw Wilnmoin iiDp«rfuai tnna- 

gttil ni^iltstTi* ocl (orte nht "Jg^ 

runt." frAiMij/. &*. fttnd. "^ 

■V C«BM'. (by^AfC* Utlun " ^ 

■* Ut. " It* thm«» iJi»l O0^^»"? 
hM «ald, propxing tn jmt an m 
ro*al ^vmtiiMiit, Im tl»r wuv 
Mid bj IDS alw." 

i** HBi[.4:B.a. 

i» txf^W: tbli wonl, wludi 
aifiM, lllrcallv, ■' uaelea*,'' !-»< 
rrsn«lal« " [imiiciota:" (he 
" Jautilin," is. ho air*, taken in 
•aMaadiiM by fTutace, 8m. L A, II 

■■B Camj, in a nolv iw e erii j 
LwTirt'* traoalalion, UVm * ~ 
W cquiialcal t« r(I«i>: lb« 
probably iiirtrc that tiM aaU* 
wAmtt at the Greeks Mia<ey«J 
nbicb ciuiacii Iw fueeiiKttjr rcadc 
m En)(!i>b> 

TIJALTA. ill. 88, 88. 


bctt mffn, and commit to ihom tho power ; for wc shall 

" ha uurM.-lvrs of Uil* tmiiibL-r, niid it is pTntmlite thr bc^st 

'' counscU <«i1) tt|iniig from tliu beet nifu." Mogabvziis ne* 

eonliugly bniugiu rorw-arii the ubtjvti upiuioii. — Tho ibiril 82 

as Darius : lie uxplainod his opinion iii iheee u'onje: "I 

cordiiilU tigrL-u tu wliut M(.-RuWzua has said rciq)rctinR tho 

ntib: ill tvhiU be says ou uligurchy, be is wrou);. Of ihv 

thrci- lonu^ of Koveruineut omsrej to uur considcruliont I 

!^ viippiisv each composed of llie best men, the best people^ 

''' aod httt oligarcby. and best mooarcb. The laM"*, I 

' s*jr» far exceed* the two others .- nothing surely can be 

better than one man, tho heat of all. When of such prin- 

cipica, tit! will (;i)Tern his Mibjeclfi in a muniier that sball 

',** call for no cuuiptainlx ; and thus n-ill keep hi;) (lcMgii» nx 

•' secret aft possible from the Ci"!! -minded. lint in an 

' oligarchy, among tho many tliiit vxert tht>ir talent for 

Ifae public g»od, abslin&le piirato feuds are wont to 

arise '^: for each, anxious (o be at the head of all, and to 

' CftlTv his ovrn invasurcs, becomes an object of enmity 

" to too rest: heiicp rebellious arise: from rebellion, raiir- 

"dor; and from murder, the passage to monarchy"*: by 

ifaia \s proved lioir much tlic bc«l tbat government is. 

" When the people mlc, it is impoKxiblc tlint uickedness 

should aoc cxi»t soincwbcii- : ultcn corniption, however, 

nsDB amuug iJie commons, powerful coalitions, not private 

ieuds, ore funned among the bad : for those who seek to 

destroy thu slaU', couapiri> togetlier. This lasu till some 

one of tlm jieuplc sun<U fortli to put dovrn the evil-doers: 

' lh«! champiou of ihv people becoiiics au ohjerl nf admi* 

" ration ; tlma admirc-d, he soon iis dtcrcfore nvjdontly sole 

" niler"*; and in iliitt he prove* Uie slrength of monarchy. 

*• To comprehend in one word all, let mc ask, whence carai: 

" ODf freedom ; from the peopIi% an oligarchy, or a monarch f 

'* My opinion therefore ia. that, enfranchised by onv man, 

** ire should iiand by the same constitution : bcxides, it hu- 

" oomea lu not to subrert the iu.stitutions of oar fathers : 

** that woidd he a perilouii experiment "'." 

The above were the three opinions snhmilled : accord- 83 

hmr down, m) I. «^y uS^ l^ (,*) 

"• ftkii En Ihv •our uf " -tieit," 
wbKb <ro !■•*• MCB prcviou in- 


'«• alllM .■mlMriUM of the utIii, m» 
1 baiv bifort t ibw itd. tanAer. On- 

itntuiA ti *(«n», -' i4 rfitrwBTs, to 

){«*«» A^Vm. .VAw^. Lrx. Hermit, 
TOO. Amttmiiut. 

"• i» £w IfrfM ^uA«(%H U>. Tlw 
IMTtick ilk I* t ww M rt b; uied* tram 
tb) tcib Ifte (UmlCH. 3): "hrii 
dcelkicd (da ralvr." 

>" Hut. Gr. Gnun. 4&r. 3. 


THALIA. 111.84,85. 

in^ly, four uiit of the Mven acceded to t>ie last. OtoiM^ 

ileleaU><L un thix qnwiiOD— for lia was nnxiouft to see a 
democracy '" esiaKlinlied in Pcmia — msp, anil spoke thus: 
•' Mr coiJi|>aiiioii8 in tlic ia!e stand (or fre«duiii'*, it is cltaf 
** tliat one of un, at all vreuLsi must bvcomu a king'*, 
** wbetber clin&<;n by lot, or by i^frn-TicH to tlie choice 
" of ibe Peifian peoplt '", or by any otber <levicc ; and I 
" therefore infnnu you that I do not intend to enter the 
*' coDlral with yon, I uish neither lo ruU>, nor to be rul^d : 
" on lliio condition, 1 give up luy cbim to tlio throne ; and 
** on (bis condition, aUo, 1 am, myself and my postority, to 
" be ftir fvcr independent of al) of you." To ihia tnopoeal 
the e\x cuuneuted : he cHaued to 1>p a t-andidatp, and retired 
fmni the mevtin^;. To this day, his family is ibo odW one 
in IVrxia that conliimos indi^pcndeiit ; nnd 8n1>j«ct lo Ui« 
govL-nuiicnl so far only as the membiTs of it chifORC, provided 

64 tliey do not violate tliu FufMini Inws. Tbu reM debated in 
wliut mnuiK-r tlim' nii.L;bt dc»l the most hon4>urably in ap- 
puiniing the futiiie king. Thi>y rpsulved, lo vrhichever of 
thv six. remaining Candidates the throne luiKht eventually 
fall, he should pnisent to Otaocn, and Otanes* posterity fiir 
cviT, anntially, a Medic dresa, and the gift* vrhieh might 
liereafuT be considered in Persia the most tionoiiralile* 
Thfv roted llii« yt^a^'y present, becanwt thin nobleman waa 
the lirsi to advise the tbin;;, and roused them all: this dtB* 
liiicliiu) was i^iven, avcunliugly, to Otanefi. >Vitb rexpect 
to themMdves in common, tbcy decide<l, tbau at all times, 
any one of the seven should have th<> ])ririle|ie of going 
into the royal pi-emnice unannounced, unless tliu king *rer« 
Kh'epiog with one of bis wivL-s: the king uas alw to be 
biumd not lo marry, except in the families of ihc conspira- 
tors : UK to the mode of appoiniin^j lo the Oirone, tht-y sriUed, 
that be whofte horse, at the next sunrise, when they rod* 
out in company, would neigh in the tuburb, aliould have tbc 

85 DariuA had a groom, a clever fellow, whose name wa» 
(KbaivH. .\f< soon a» the niceliiig bad »eparaled, Dariut 

"• The woril Ittu/tla hw. 1 thick, 
■ III* R)P.ti.iu)i lieie, uiKt ill v. .^7 

'* fWMriifmi. II wtj luttect, that 
OlAUCi- wuuld iii>( hare (;i,(.q io him* 
*«ir »ni umaeistn tlin nlioul epirhcl 
of ttrHliatitf it !■ <>lpar wv iMUt iiotV. 
H>m« nttisr niftnilicfliion for Ibit wnnl. 
[toDyi-hliul intnr|iti-la r«sri£riu, w !■ 
tit aurat ■*£•■*. "r iMl>i*r rrari**, 

n* I itiink we ouzlil to rrad; iliia 

MDl. TlitF ■Bin« nwanitiR, perikf*. 
■pnliB* In tranirmt at rhp b(|;iiuiiii|r>^ 
i. lU UrrAcr. liXafafU ^VCMM. 
<tia. 111. 

■x C'wcr. : S 'f^airtt U .rtffi>". 
n n*(rlmt tAM*'*, r. K ia tlw |«ait. 

'" !■ «■<* /if««v ■■<■»««■ An M^ 
nsiiii? •xprvninn : " tonk hi* mH **• 
pitatr fn'rn ainont( IbMOi" 

THALIA. III. 80— S8. 


said to this man : " U-ibares, we have decided, u-jih respect 

" tn the throne, ih.!! he wluMte horse shiill iicigh the t)r>it »t 

" fttnirise, wlien we ride oul od hofseback, in to be king. 

** How tlierefurc, if you have any wcrci to efTt-ci Uiiei, con- 

** tme that 1, ukI do one eUe, mar f^iii lliis honnur/* 

<Khares rcpliwi : " If, mj- Inrd, yoiir cirction Ui the thinno 

•' depends ou ihai alune, b« ol' ^ocmI chi-er, unci keep up your 

" spirits; for I will lake care none bnl youreelf !>hiili be 

" kiiin'": I have wveral such secrel*'**." "* if you kiiuw," 

said Darius, " any such art, »cc that jrou put it into praclica 

'* difvcljjr, UB the trial » to take plact- lO'iuun'uw rauming." 

QCbarvs thcrelore acted in thi« manner : as soon a« it was 

dark, Itc lo<ik to the xuburb u mure, tiie great faiouriu* of 

DnhitVs hlfiUioii, and then- It'lhert-d her: he ibcn retch<.-d 

out tht: fikillioii, and walkLd him runnel and round tlie spot 

wliufu the mure stuoi)'*'; {gradually apptxjachiiig her: at 

lost hoalluucd the slatliou to corer. At the dann of day, gg 

according to a^eemetil"*, tbe six asactnbled on horer- 

bflck : they tniltcd tlirough the suburb ; and nheii ther 

iched the s|Hit wherf. ihe mare wns t^^tbeied thn nif;bt 

rei Oarins's hoHM; arriving tliere, neighed: at llif Niiiie 

mouieiit came a flash ol' lighiiiing iVom heaven, followed by 

a clap of thunder. Tliis coincidence, as if it were iho 

result of a preniedilaled amtn[jenR'iil, consecrated Darius 

kiiit:"*: the olhcn dismounted froun their horws, and pro< 

■tnted themaulvea beforv Darius, as their sorereign. It is 87 

said hy sotDC (for two accounts are airen by the Femians) 

that the artifice to which O^haies had recourse was this : hu 

|iuaed bis hand over the ^'niialst of the ni.nrc, and kept it 

close uuiJer hiit hrecchts'" : as M>on as tike iun ntse, and (lie 

bones were alxiul to atari, (Khares pidhd out his hand, and 

nitdied it over the nuslrilit ol Daiins's liorse, which, sniffiag 

up the smell, beifan to snort and neigh. 

AccurdinKly, liariue the eon o\' Hrstaspcs was oppolatdd 88 
kiug ; and all in Asia were, exceptiu); the Arabian'^, stib- 
jrct lu liiin, having becD reduced by C'ynis, and again by 

M IJl. " No UM «U« iball Iw Ifn^, 
Ik nrvfvrdfp lu Ibor.'' 

■tdill* term, lakes tonii^iimn to a 
L imai 4<ih1 •oiDctiEic* ia a iMd nsw. 

I ilaii'l Ibal ibr dnlliv tf W^f U Bf>- 
H IA a»rt lun. I«r ■«/■' Lnrrftrr. 

I ttillf* liT(iilltli(C Ihtnai) JIntf la rm- 

#Jr«>«M '^•i^ma (a* if biipp*tinift iis 
nmlinp ro Romp iH-H ltd plan'. inXUiri 
lut (runiummnln) him, and, >■ it wtm, 
con>rcr>«-<1 him kino). 

»" " lo lUM MMTiidw." Th« 
■nnxjriHfr- WM« S loit (if full tiww- 
ttrt, reKkine da«-u lo th« ancilM. 
Lafeher. Tnft aoKl bu mtirrMl 
l»foR, L 71; frnm wblfb or ma; 
irailipr, lli'l ihifi c-icpltut " "* made of 
Kkin; hrxt't ibr Gmk vxjnfio* f>r 


THALIA. 111. 8U. 

Cambysen. Tlie Arabians nerer bent to the Penuao volte: 
two ualions ntte on Iricndly Kimti, the Arabians 
giren a jiassage to CainlirH«s, thmtigh (heir tcrritorieif, int'i 
Egypt i for irithoul Iho »»M:tn of the Arabians, the Pcrsiaiifi 
could never have invatlcd KgypL 'Vha flist malriuianiat 
connexiontt that Darius formed wilh the Pcrsianfl, were the 
most illiistriou-s, bring with Cynis'a two daughU-rK'**, Atu«Ka 
and AnviilunL'. Aio!>hb had pTuviou&ly bt.-t^'u u'ifo to bftr 
brotlicr Caiiibt scs, and t>iib&L'qu(;iitly to lliv MaKUs: ArtyatODS 
was Blill a virgin. He marrifd likHwise another lady, the 
daughter of Sincrdis the sou of Cynis* uaiued Pannya : be 
took also the datighler of 0tuii«8, who detected tlie hiagui; 
oror)' part was tilled wilh bis power*". Hie timt thin; he 
did was to »L-t up a slone image of hiuisvlf, rv|tre8entin^ i 
man astride on a horse: on Uiis he put the totlnwing ia- 

HiK iioit>;(: (incntinning hi« horse's name), .\M* Tiih skill or 
HCted in thit. manner in resfu'Cl of the Pt-TKians, DariiiKfiro- 
ceeded to establish twenty governments, called, by the Fn^ 
sianii, HatrapieK: having ealablished the above satrapieH, anil 
appointed the rcHpcclive fialraps, he determined the anwuU 
of Iribnte that he iiaH ii> receive from the cHlfen-nt nattoDs: 
to some of iIicr* be appended the bordering jicople ; whilt in 
the caw nf others, oiniiting the namet* of the neighbonrtng 
statce, he placed in oDe and tlw saiuo department dideiMl 
nations at a eonKidcrablo distance from one aootbei"*- 
I shall now describe tbe manner in which t3ie goremnieiits 
wen: distributed, aud how Urn yearly contingency of tribntt 
in each ttas settled. Such ascontribuii'd silver, wereordcted 
to pay according to the Itubyloiiian »tunduid of llie laJent: 
siicn as (gave gold, were to pay necurding to the Eobuic 
laleiilj^ The liabyloiiiau talent is equal to twenty Kub«it 
mines. Under Cyras'", as aubsequeutly under Cambytei 
even, nothing had been established as to tribute ; each natioD 
brought donations; and, in consequence of llus imposition o( 

■if rfmrtn i}^i« 
" (Je (at aTeo (lr> 

D((/fn I tMfutt 

femoM* Pcrava nor Darini coatracU 
■M f leiaiera marlnx"— iiarim miira/ 
Mrib murriage Jirit uHk ivinp Prrnait 
ii'Qinfll."—LtirfAfr. Daiiu» wgwlMiuid 
Mt to muTj nut of Ihr txiiiilie* t/t 
th« Mr*«n (tH>: ha «ould not, lbcr«- 
tan, baie marrM any hut i'enian 
women: 1 have Tor tbii tcamn ptr- 
tonti ill* nwuIalioEi of SobwdtE* 
hvoMT, " l'x»nw duxii nobiliwiinB* 

inlet (VrMU." 

■« Lit. " AdJ 4l) puu ««t« tad 
with hill txiner." 

•*■ L«ich(r t«nri»l«i: " Et t nt 
cffirl, il }-ripi*it s OM uiiiuQ \m 
p«B[it<« liii>iir«ph*>; •( qurifvebvs 
oiMttaat crux qui Aunt voImM, 
il mtliait dan* un latai* itfaitumH 
dM pniplM vIoiRD^t I'sB i» Vtatm." 
This iraitilktiaii m imHfipnmi kjTj 


TIULIA. 111.00,91. 


'}, and other ettniliiir nnnctmcnls, tho IVnians say that 

wBK a iraiit-smuii, Cainb;s«s a tuutL-r, iiiid Cynts a 

r: Lho first, because he Innkod after moitey in every 

jog; tbo second, because be was u stem aud superciliuiu 

tbe lam, because tie was good-natured, and had done 

n tfac good lie could for them. Accordingly, liuin Llie!)0 

Romans, Asiatic MnK<i^l^^< -f^olinnn, Carians, I.ycians, Mi> 

ilraiis. and Pamplivlian^* on all these one ana tbe utoe 

itribute vra» iinpn«>>d: l\w pn)diir:c vrag four hundred talenU 

■" f silver: this nas tlie ftrst salrapy. From Uie Mjsians, 

diaii», Loauniaiis, Cabalinns, and ilygennen»c», came Jive 

red laleiita: this iras the second satrapy- Froin the 

ellBapoDtians, on tlic rii^lit hand as you go up tlio straite"*, 

PhiygianK, the Astatic Tliractans, FaphlaFJouiaDs, Mari- 

lodynians, and Svrans'", cunic a InlnitG of three hundred 

kod kixty talunlH: this waM the ihinl Kalrapy. From tbe 

jCilicians, tlircu bundri-d aucl sIxLy wliitct horses, one every 

Way; and five huudnnl ulc-nLs; one hundred aud forty of 

vbicb were expended on the cavalry to gttard Cilicia, and 

three hundred aud sixty weut to Darius: this was the 

h utrapy- 'I'he coinitry hef^iuBing from tbe tonn ofdl 

'iMeidi-'i'iiiu, built by AuiphilochuH on the frontier of the 

l^ihcians and SyriAn*, down to Kyypt'". except a jiart of 

Lrabia which was cxenipu-ii from tuxatton, produced a 

ribale nf three hundred and liliy talents: this is the fifth 

ntnpyt and cotnpriMs tbu whole of PhcBnicia, and Syria, 

•allod Syria of Pal^eMine, and Cy|>ru8. From Egypt, and 

Ihe LihyauH udjoitiinK lo Libya, from Cyrene and Uarca 

all of which were annexed to the Egyptian departmrni). 

luno seven hundred talents, besides the money proceeding 

im tbe fish, the |)iodiicn of the Lake M<eri»: thus, witiionl 

g «Ten into account that sum, or the com Hupplied, tlie 

ftrilmu: alune ainounti!d to wren hundred talents; for, in 

•ddilion, tlie Kgyptians had to furnish to tbe amount of 

100,000 measures of com for the FerHuns and their auxiti- 

tries"*, i^arrisoned at the White Castle in MeuipbiK: this 

Ints the nixth satrapy. 'I'he Saltagidn, Gandarians, Dadice, 

sod AparytiT, placed in one and the same division, vcnitri* 

111* HvnHliitni vrateBl llaliCMiM*- 

■, or tc lonut. LarcMr. 

*> ^. e. t)i« heaeotjtmim, or Capfi- 

ipb; u, Km, " mm ilro<nit,' IfJr. 
> Mni (it penn'Hain,'' wmfir, " mm 
iMt (Multu." U<i:^M>. "(lum Iwn 

^ At in Lalia. on* utght w, 
xklbouc onjr impropriei; , " utiurl nllU 
tibiu fiutniMituiD uli aat t«II mcMnrv, 
taU ({uautiiBLt i" m> in Gm>k, <*bicli, 
loalvad «( Iba alilabia of Ihs Latia, 
■IM Ilia ilaliTa. iha DonlMrnt n u M u wi 
diKTtbnlail la liia aoldiar* mluhl be m. 
[imwcl in tbe ilacln. 


TIIAUA. ill. !»■>— I»y 

lmti,-(l one liiiiulivi) :iiid (wenly laleniK: thin wns tlie t 
»alrii)»y. From Susa, and lh» rest vi (be Ci»tfiiui u 
came tlirve hiiiidrccl uU-iiIa: vhiH was lliu ei^lilh ftalrapy. 

9i From Bubylonia, and ilio rctc of Assyiiu, caiR<.- one tLuuMwd 
talents of »i]ver, and five hundred yiMin^ciinncb»: ihitt was 
tkf- nhilli satrapv- From Ecbatana, and the rest of M^dia, 
ui^tbLT with tlic t'aricanians and Urtbncorj-banieA, five 
huudri-d and (i(\y tak'niii: this was ilio It-nth satrapy. TTie 
C'a&pians, loKi'tliur with the I'mtsJca-, Panumatfaifuiii, and 
Darila-, all colU-ck-d into ont- i;ui-oniincut, bruu^lit tma 
hundred and lorly talents: this was the eleventh satrapy. 
Prom the Bactrians, and the uattuns beiwcL-n tliein and the 
Aig1te,caine a tribute of tliivc hundrc<l and sixiytaients: this 

93waB the iwi'lftli satrapy. From Paetyicaand the Aniieni;ins, 
and the imtiuns vxtcnding to iht; Kuxin« »ca, proceeded 
Ibtir hiimlred talents: this was llit; thirteenth saiiapy. From 
the Siiganianfi, $nnin(^<>anii, TlinuianirnnR, LJii-tniK, and My- 
ciuns, and tlie intiabititnl!^ of the islands in the Krytlirsas 
«>a, to which the king SRndii the exili's; rrom all the above 
came a tribute nf nix hnndrfd talents : this is ihe foar- 
teentb «airapy. The Savx and CoKpianii brought in two 
liunilred and fifty talents : ibis h the lifteeuth naiiupy. lite 
Varthians, Chnrasmians and So^diaiiK, tojicther with the 
Arians, three hundred t-ilcnt^: ihiswa^ the t^ixteLuth lutmpy. 

94 The Paricanians, and Asiatic Eihio|iiaiift, furnish four hun- 
dred uicDU: this wu!i the sevcnteemh satrapr. Two bim- 
dred ulcnt»' cnnuributton uxre impoHi'd on the MmLit-nians, 
Snspoires, and AlarudiauK: this waa the eighteenth satrapy. 
'I'bree luindrt^d talents vrcrn claimed from the Klnschiauf, 
Tiban-'uiaus, Maeruniuus, MusttyiuBciaus, and Manti : thi» 
vas the iiinetoeiitli sutrajty* Of the Indiana, llir popidatioa 
is by far the nioMt umiieruus of all naiinns m« knoM-; ibeir 
tribute amounli^d lu mure than lliat of any other natiuu"** 
BIX hundred and thirty talents' weight of |;uld-dust: they 

0ft«oD&t)lutcd the twcniivth gacrapy. Commuting the Babylo* 
uinn btaiuUrd talent inf^ the Kubo'ic talent, iIm; silver amounts 
to nine thousand live hundred and forty lalenls: if we reckoo ^ 
the gold at Uiirieen times the value of silver, that article itfll 
found to nniotint lo Ibnr tlioiiitnnd stix hundred and eigl)I^S| 
Kuboic taluulfl: con^equeritly, the 8ntn total of the tribute^ 
drawn from all the nauonH together by Uariiw, amount«il 

>u r^ nrrw «W tXXtm. *' lU 

Ivre* EM aU lit* rttl y<tl tagtUitr."— 
Lartlkfr. 8eliw*Jgb«UMt dltapftm*?' 

ot ihU mod* of iruajaiiap Ai fw 
iii<r«. '* Conin iiuaiD (or, "f* 
uDaiii) reliqai nrntna^" StAitH/, Lf». 

TMALIA. III. 96, 97. 


■ t -^gry veaj lo foiirieifii tliuiuaiiil (1>-l' liiinilrL'd ainl sixty la- 
l.tiu'-^. 1 do m>l c<>iiii»riiso in tliis I'stiiiiaU- ilif gums smaller 
than a lalcnl'". Such was the income uf OairiitK. I'njin lliu ye 
triWtc ill all Asu, and a sidjII ])onion of liliya. In Uie 
couree of lime, liuwuvt-r, UiiR was increujHid by cuutrilmtions 
frotn llie ttJaods sod the people of l:^urop<' iii)ial>iling the 
coniitr)' down tu TUi-snaly. The king depu&itft ihu prmhicti 
of tho tribulu in hh treasurv, after ihi>> maiincr : the iirecioiu 
BietaU an: jHtun-tl, in a tilale. of Uibion, into earUieovuo 
tiiouhU: nben those tnotddsjuo full, he turns the nMsxex out; 
«ud u'hcuevvr lie n'anti> a ^^upijljr, hu ciild off the Dece»- 
•ary quantity. 

^uch are the various d^ ]rartmrnUi ami the amount of tribute &T 
affi-ied to each. Persia only has been oiuitteil by me, a* coii> 
tribuliiif; nothing; : the faet ir, thu Fi-rxjans are exempt Irom 
taxation on the l»nd$ thry have in eidiivHiion ; iieverthi-lesa, 
tbey send ftiftK, altbouph ilioy are iH't Ixtuuil lu [lay any 
ilopoHt. The brancllcA tif tlie J'.thiu|ji<iM)sn'iuiclyith(Mc cnn- 
6Diu^ uu K^\))l, reduced by CaiiibvKes in bis expedition 
aRuin^t tlie Alacmbinn rithiopians ; lbu»u who reside about 
the iMcreit city of Nyim, and obxeivu ilie teatiii >i]8 of [tacchus. 
oil ol u'lioiu, together »itb their neighbours, mnke use of 
tbu BJime kind uf pulse as tlie Cullantia: Indiana '**, luid livu 

•* A» U B^mallT ihe rimt whrte 
KiMlkn are wttitiowrd in anotaat 
■Ulh*r«, tkiK fttttgt <An gttM iith- 
fh*t¥ t« ao doubl thit (om* 
niBH lutr htm rommlltnl, 
la tM* clwpin or onr of cbc 

AcvOnlina tu iI«f<>lotUii'i) cntcnU- 
Am. an Iti* irit now atand* in «. M, 
tb* anm «v|r'ii m br — 

Silvvr. ... l*Atu liab6i'« UlvDla. 

OcU 4lMl 

SilTtr. .. . M80 EuboTc uIodU. 
(3ol4 ,...4«eo 


vl wliiefa, mr liavt XtW). 
)0)I Mir calpi'luifln* ttola tW 
Hn of th' uirapia*. w» hiif 7740 
BalifloafaD Ltlcsti; which, M the 
l>nt^uanu) Uleai «m lo ihc EuboV« 
W 7v to 60, C*M 0. BDJ Mif. 

gi»l) E. latrnti. 

!*• pM fnan India 4«#0 

ErawiwftiMDtfaaUka UO 


J( Ucloi- lfc*f« ir»«t U'an rfTot«ffiii*- 

•kfr. Luehrt, i>t(h''Ul Mtfholont 

tntlMrilT, naiJ* In o. US, laMwd of ^i(|inr>« that 

H*a. utw minilKf tMHO, whlob doM ft^ntr—i- 

wMTtj KiiJi the diflk-ulty. 

I arrhrr'* rraMa fcr tDatlu thta aW 
tr'Mtion ti, Uiat the Swimfl Hua- 
•ctipt b«« in ib« aivRTD Arr, vbicb 
ftand for 9^11^ but l>r. Ufli<r«rd io- 
ti^Rnf tu, llwl thin ^lT^■ia^l aalc pT«< 
rt*i» (rinn tW band of Muir ear- 
n-cior ; H can, liMrofoiT. b« cmiitdvnd 
tif no 4utburiij> Sen SL'k«n|[Laits«t'B 

u: rl r In »i«w tt«m Jmifr. 
Uatfact olnicur*l]r ospruMd, '■ omJl- 
ciDR «bat ii JHt (liflii (at In) Ibiwr." 
Tftial ia nx'tiil i> iiifflrirntlT riear, 
namtlj, llint hr omita tlic IdOBT 
nuiiib«i uf iiaitf, nuiiing to oouipletv 
tW Ifti* nin, ScAtfti^. 

>* ««Immn, a H«d of wbM Bcra* 
duCM malip* BwnciMi, e. 100. Valirfcr- 
bBcr rsad* *4Mn, la vUih faa ta lul- 
Id«m1 br LarcW. *' ihay bar* lb 
fWM riha «f Hpiultur*" — Some a'** 
b> r«i{pa a *l|tniri«*liMi rMDarluU* 
tar It* filihisM-i aiul iaat««racf : m 



inidi-r groutttl ; brought ercrf ihiri year. 3» iheir gift in 
cominoti, two cbcrniscR of nnmollen jfolii"*, two hiiivlnit' 
bltK'kx of vbonjr, five Eiliiopiaii hoy% and IweDly Urge 
olepbanU' tusks : thin cusloni continued down to my doy. 
The Colchiiins, and their neiKhboors up to the Caucasus— w 
far tbe Persian domininn extendi! — taxed ihemselrat Ui fiir- 
nisli a ni^ : those north of the CaucBBUs were iDdependeni 
of the PrrManft. The CnlchianK, tbc^refore, Uxeil themwho, 
and, down to my day, broiiglit every five years one 1iait4ml 
boys and one hundred ^"irK llie Arabians supplied a liioa- 
sand talents' weight of ineense cccry year. Such "vn,* the 
gifts brought to the king, otcr and above the tribute*". 

98 The Indians collect the vast quantity of guld-dusi, whicli, 
as 1 hare already obitcn'od, they bring to the ktii|r, in llie 
manner now to be described'*'. Kastward of the Iniliuil 
tmritoricft bcs a 6andy desert ; fur, of all imttonB ib .Am i 
tlial wc know, or have heard of lo a ccriuii<iy, the ln«1tni 
on* HitUJitcd the farthest in the east: beyotiU the IndioM, 
towards the east, the countrr is a desert, in conseqiienci' of 
the sand. There arc several" races of Indiaus, whose r«pt«- 
tire languages vary : some of them are nomades, othera not ; 
Homc lire in marshes formed by the rivet: ihcy e*l ra*i 
fish, which ihcy catch on bonrd boats made of a kind ofj 
rccd, so large that one joint alone is stifliacnt to make a 
boat. They reap down and pick up in ibe river a sort of 
bass; from which they plait Komelbing like a mat, wom l»J 

99 them as a habergeon '"*. Othen of the luduins, rt-sidinf; to- 
wards the east, are nomaden, eaters of raw flesh: iheyiiv 
represented as having the following usages; every citizen 
that id sick, whether man or woman, they kill: if it be ■ 
man, bis male relations and coonexioiis &luut,'htef bim, 
because, as they say, illness would bring down hi*' lleuli, and 
deteriorate m qiialilics'". In vain he denies thai be U ill: 
d]ey do nuL listen to him, but kill him, and feast on his body. 
If a woman be sick, faei nearest female acquaintances do 
with her llie same as tlio men do to one another. 

" I. r. jKold, luch a* ii wm taaud 
rn (he mine, or raUcctud hi ttwacrFBOu: 
being nmtureU br tbc obrmis, U wait, 
probBblr. j^lil-du>4. 

■■ Major RNincI iMkM tb« itggr*- 
gUc of tlw Panlan king'* r«v«nn» 
mmouM to about £3,000,000, or aoDe. 
■htit tnnr* than Arrc niiUioni uid n 
half of o«T moacT, 

"' r^wf rmfh. 'l"hi« owtalioii ia 
4M«rib«^ in «. IDS; Uie tour ttttnt- 

vmin^ obspUn^ pnatalniti); 
•rrvuDrFni rnpeotiog IboilUEerentl 
of lulJBni. 

>•■ The fxi^ of ib« Altk*, er#lM 
of Ubc loiiiui*, WKi a Karl of roth, 
the ArnDilo wopetodaamm. SfjMml, 
(St. Germ. Lt*. 

'<• *' Caracm ipaia catTvMDB Iri;" 
(be Rtsah wUoh iMf (beaiaaifw lottad 
Cv eal irodd booome eonvpt) loaa In 
Savour. J jur Acr. 



crifirf! those wlio have reachwl old nge, imH ml them ; but 
there are Teiy few Ihal live to such years'*': for ihey kill, 
bafan? Uien, every one ihal is seized with nny disorder, 'lliere 100 
ATo otJitT Indiaus wIiom; mode of life is very dilferenl: they 
Idit Dothtoff thAl breallieii ; they sow no crops, and are not 

Ril lo have houseik ; they live oa regetables ; and in tbeir 
mtry growx a sort ol' seed '** nboiit the MKe of the paiiicutn, 
a cod; it rises spoDtaneoosly, and the people |{athor it, 
boil it, cod and all, and eat it as tltcir usual food. Whoever 
ia viMied with sickness amonff tlietn, govs aiid lies Amvn io 
jht; de»crt; aiid tkooo take any accounl, cither of the dying 
Omick. With the above-aieiititnifd Indians th« intercourse lOt 
of the two flc-xe» tnkt-K place openly, in the same manner as 
with the brute eTealiun. Tliev aro all of a colour elonely 
pproachinK to that nf tbc Kthiopiaiis : their seminal liquor 
not while, liku that of other men, but black, as ivlOI as the 
in : ibu cane is the same with the Kthiopiaua. These 
ndiaos are rerv a'uiotu from the Perniaus; they reside in 
southern parts of ihc country, and were always inde- 
clvnt of Darius. 

But thtrru are other Indians, st no great diitancc from 103 

the city of Caspatyrus and the conntry of Pactyka: they 

lie north of tho rest of the Indian*, and roRemble closely, in 

their mode nf hfe, tlii: liuctrian fn-uple. Tbe«c are the most 

irarlike of the IndiantiT and are the people that are sent to 

Mocure the gold. lu the vicinity of their territory ibo land 

ps desert, being covered ivitli sand: in these sandy iracls, 

nccurdiugly, are found pismires of a size between ihc dog 

rand the fox, x|>ecitiien8 of which are nuvti in the menagerie 

lAf the Fcraiau kio^, which bate been caught, and imported 

■Ton that country. Theiie pismires, accordingly, burrow 

Bader ground; and, in excacniing their habitation!;, throw 

up hillocks of sand, just the same, and in the same mauner, 

u the anu do in Hollos: they are likewise very similar to 

Dor Dwti pismires: the sand that they ihrow up contains 

abundance of ^old-dtut For the nurpose of collecting this 

Band, thorrfore, the Indians are despalcliod to llie desert. 

Kach mnn harnesses together three camels; two males 

Tastened by traces on the off and near aides, and one female 

In the middle'**. The Indian riden the female camel, taking 

•Irvi Jnutivtw, '* n«t tnr «f tbnii 
fsuh III iliin i>uie nf thkgi Qm h^Joa 
|tt ( ■! 'otivm : ") L e. imI mutf iwiiab 
k> l-ir *j |o br pat Co death ij (heir 
H«id* aa sonouit of eid if*, — Schwig. 

/.M. titr. 900. XtfM. II. a, S. 
'*»SiiyplTr*<ff»»nftefi»Ti. fe lli t^ i. 

■* m^wfSftt. >pp)M to an; dtaaftbl 
•ntmal, liniiAoa ooo thai U haniaaMl 
ij iba tida of th« ]>o)t*, ■> ia doaa 


TIIAIJA. 111. 103— 10». 

care lo clifvjsc one ihni ha« lately dropped hn yini' 
thi-ir female canifis ari; nut irilerior in spet-d to ilit- 
nud, bi^-Kidf-s, ate sirunt^er, ami much better adnpUKl in carry 

101) burthens. I do not intend to di*.»cribe llie 6iis|H3 of the 
camel, whicli is well known tn tlie Hellenes; but nil) tnentwo 
one jtarticutuT, wliirli lliey are n»t aware of: the camel lia» 
in his hindor-U'^K four jointu and four knees: the orfran 1/ 
generation passtj" ^e^M■tt■u tlie hitider legs, mid t^Ttniiinlr* 

1(M about the iHil. The Indians llierelore, provided encb with a 
yoke of the above kind, procef d in quest of iht gold ; liannu 
arranged so, as to he able to roramencc collrciingihc wiiiJal 
the (imi! when the sun ia most violent ; beeanse, tluTio^ \he 
parching heal, the piiiniireA keep nnl of sight, under ground 
In il«i country we are speaktug nf, the stin is hottest in tb* 
tnofning. nnd nnt iit uiid-day, ns in nthrr places, Itiit fnwi 
the litne tJint the sun is fnlU' risen, to abuui the bteukin^up 
of market "^i during tlufi time, the ruq burns luucli iDore 
rchemenily than at noon in HeUasj and thu heat is k 
oppn's»tvv, thai the inhabitant* say they «wim in •aier* 
then : about the middle of the day, tile teinperatnre in Itiilil 
ie not niticl) higher than in other places Having eroeied 
the Meridian, tlio itun bt-conieK mild, a^t at \l» rise in »tbH 
connlrice ; and then, gradually sinking, rerroshcs the aUno- 
»phcre, nntil it selw, and the weather become* quite cool 

105 When the Indians ate eoniu to the pro])«r place, ihey lill vilh 
sami the leatbcr-bugs they have brought with lliein, and ttivs 
retire at the niost TJipid pace ihoy can ; for the pisuiim, 
according lo tlie Pe^si»n^, iU-tf.-ct the Htrungers by the aintll, 
and rorthwiih enter npoii a pursuit: ihe Heetness of the caiDcl> 
exccedee that of all other aniniaU; for if the Indiain tUdttM 
get a good way a-head of the pianiin*8, white tlioiie aiiiinils 
are collecting, not one of the men n-ouhl escape. They adA, 
that the male cnmcln would not only flag, being inferior ia 
velocity to the female, bnt would not poll together; wkilo 
the female, mindful of tht' young kIic has left, doea nut allow 
tlie males to tarry beliind- Sueli, according to the Peniana, 
ix the munner in irhirh the Indiums obtain mast of their gold: 
the other Kort of gold is not so abundant, and is dug np in 
the voimtry. 

Mn«tliaH in this eoatttty witti an 
kddltlcnal bone U> » gini "rid !<■ uet- 
Dlcial]^ o»V«A an oal-Hsgn-. 

*" trlfriXl^tn i/t ibc "nti, In ri|ut- 
*il'oilt, ill Hi'tniJom*, lo ■>««tUUM. — 
SfJ^vnif. l^ec tlrroJ, 

^ Ai tli« Ijltin nnrd iitJar in 

niiniliMtlT thv nmv with the fttvek 

TIm. cMiliiinl hj the 9Mgt «r At 
Latin* zo a trv Mi»ii>tv« mmm il tir 
tioD : M> Uctdderai, no 4iiM, la» 
inkcn thr GtMk irord Sttif In the fom 
o{ tvti'fT, lii. 1(H. SrAiFTiu, Vtt.Btni. 
" Pri,.lni>l rt tutiK-U ■'■ *» tirtkOrf 
dan* I'dtiD— Airriiif tknl limt Ab|f 

THALIA. III. loe— lOP. 


Tfac cxtrcinilics of the iulmbitvil oartli. lor «aniL; rcasQO )05 
Or ocber, are blussed nith tiiL- inont Iftmutiful productions, a& 
'elUs is witli the bc6l-lciu|>cr<:-<t M-asons". India, as I 
iTc just obstrred, ii* sitttaied ai ilie verge of the habitable 
orla : here the liring quad^up(^ds and birds arc far greater 
tbn.te uf utbtT cutiiiirii-s ; uitli t)ie exception of the 
ionie5, which are surpassed by the Medifi breed, called the 
iftieaD liunes. ilcre, again, gold is found in ihv inosl 
viKh abiiiidimce ; some brought dovrn by llio rivtr^, some 
taioed in tbu iiiaiiuer I havt; deitcribed : here, also, tbfre 
iWiJd trees which bear, inntcad or fniit, a kiod of wool, 
iot in beauty uiid service to thai shorn from ttie sbccp. 
'Indiau^ use the prodiicl of these tree* for their clothes. 

, ill liie southern verge of ibc habitable world lies ID? 
ia: here alone incenw; grows, and in no olbt;r places; 
s myrrh, cassia, cinnamon, and ladaaum: alltlioabovo 
ides, except mjrrhi are obtained with considerable dilK- 
Ity by the Arabians. They collect the incense, which 
e Phoenicians import into Jlrlla^ by means of the smobe 
■otn giitn-styraK : for ihr inceiiBc- bearing trees are guarded 
h by THfit niimbepi of winged NerpenlA, diininutire in 
ize, and varying in colour : they aro of Ujo sHme sort as 
loae that invade KgypL These iringcd rcptilDs can be 
iwea off the tree by nothing bat the nmuke of the Rtrrnx. 
ccording to the Arabians, the whole world would be filled 103 
itb these nerpents, if the same thing did not occnr to them 
1^ 1 know happens with vipers. It is a wise contrivance, 
DO doubt, of Divine Providence, that all living crratiires 
irhich are limid and fit tor food slmtdd Imve bot-n made very 
proIiSc, and ihut those which art- noxious and ferocions 
ihotild bring forth few young. As an insiancu of the 
inneT, the hare, hunted alike by buatit, bird, and man, ia 
cordingly bo prolific, that she is the only animal that 
roita of super filiation : Mime of the young, tvlirn still in 
e betly of tiie dam, are rough with hair ; others are quite 

^ " H«rodo <M , ae««HiaK to hit dmO' 
Im, vlu«li !■ no") nn doabi, pretty 
(Miliar t» tlia ttiAtr, m^tt & ilig;r««- 
on lira *mri<wi pmduotloo* i>r th« 
laDidtof iheworlil Lbea kuowo: 
U rcautiitdu c. lis. I nnd 
e, th»i almwi all he mji in 
n^ vhaptan <■ now krio«m to 
m; tnt (h<i rtaiin mutt rt- 
',tkaiBUunI biaUiy !■ a«f ienr« 
MKEpainCisloiic: cawnndflc. 
I, (MS a ganemtion morr tbaa 

two tliDu«aiid jmrs *abi«(|ucai to He- 
rodolua ihoold MtwCftf atvjiiBiiit^ with 
ths H«retf of nttar* than th» ea. 
t«tDportriM of our Hiatoriu. Er«Q Uw 

of nnr owa 3iy, if 1 mtf v.*v the (i> 
pr«»Iai),af* not free from Uiindgn; lor 
iiutnncc, th* itnmorlml BoSim aaMru 
thai oavK nhril thuir honuoocv ayw; 

wu Mrpird fa; r>r. Guldtmlth. 


THALIA. 111. 10»— Ul. 

XTDOnili. and wiihnut hair ; thf> latter having been but 
ronccived bv the mother, whilt the others ore of tl 
MZt' '^. Alt Hn iiiKtance of tlii; more sterile animiL ifat 
lioness, irhtch is vctt powerful and during, bring* (txtt 
^vhclpH bul once in ht-r lifn j for nl lh<; limi; of her cjwlia; 
the ofHtprini;, she discharges the womb also. This proceMb 
from t1i(; follnwiti^ caiiM-: whcii the whelp in hrr tntiik 
begins to be fiiduwed with the facuby uf motion* b«ii| 
nrmcd nilh clan's niiich sharper than all other aoimaktbt 
laeeratet tbc wauib; and as he iiicrua^eti in ^ze, he ecm* 
tiniics to inflict the Kamc injurr in a Rreatcr proportioo: *<■ 
thut when the birth approachef, not one ))art of the «rk(Je 

loyonvflope rtiDftins entire. A eimilar thing occurs alw lo 
rippr*, as well mr to the winged srrpenia of Arabia. If tlictc 
reptiles wore to multiply iccording to the course of their 
naltire. thert; could he no fioxiiibilitv of the existevce eJ 
R)ftni;ind*": bnt when th<-y copiilau-, the ri-OKile Mtzntb 
male by ihi? neck, and gnisps him fa;rt, crcn aficr «bo bi» 
conceived ; nor does ahtt lot go her bold liU hIio hu de- 
voured him : in thi.s manner the male* arc destroyed. Tlw 
fcnmie, liovrover, is pnntKhrd for her ill-lruaUneni oftlv 
mole: Ihe youiiK ofl'sprinf; avenge their father, bj dL'vounaf 
herwoiub; and thufc. eftl'ci their entrane*; into the u-odubv 
gnairin^ their way thmit^h the abdoinoo. 'I'he snakes tW 
do uo hann to men '" bring forth eggs, and bo leavu an int- 
menfw pnfitcriLy. Vipers aiu found, iodeod, in all pant of 
tlio world ; but ihes* winged serpents are seen in Arabia,iiul 
no where else ; Ihorc they exist in great numbers. 

no TIk; aboi-e. then, is iho mode by vrhlcli the Anbiuv 
obtain tlieir incense*": they procure the cae^ta thna: tbef 
ineloKc their whole body in tlie tskins of oxcu and atlitf 
animals; they cover likewise their liice,exccpt the eyes oiriy; 
and, thuii uccoutjx-d, approach the cassia'trec, which ^ 
in a shallow lake, in and around which winged anu 
harbour, nearly the fame in shape a& bats : their Toice i| 
appalling '", and their strength fonniilable : tlie AratHat 
accordingly endoiivour to keep thetxi away from their cjcs 

I II and sn gather the cassia. But they collect cinnamon in > 
uiunaer still mure wonderful : they are unublo to dxpbi> 
where this spice corner from, and what land it groir^ 

■* WbM HcrodMim lajra of Out ban 
ft Macllj tne. UmAer. ?ofrttrta- 
lion doM BOt oooor eitber is iKr rabhii, 
lian, or ntc L i)"'« lH<en nt wmf 

" ' Milt 113, I. 

•» Halt. Sn. A.I. 

'" rnH», "dr i|ai> n«ta &'»*• 
rn-ncnm.'' -ScAinr^, Vrrr.IjA 

'" »ir(V, f rmn T^Jf ut. tlriirf*- 
Tlip ■ii>ijci:i i« A^a Tif f / . 

THALIA. 111. iW. 

•2d I 

in ; except that sonic relate, pn>)>abl>' i» Ai-cordancc witJi 
fact, ttml it is iDdit^enous tc the land where Itacchii^i wag 
nnned ; thev add, that those little lubes, which wc call, 
aA(!T the Phccniciaim, cinn«nion, are brDiij^ht by large birdii 
to tfaeir oests, which are coiiHiructed ol' iuu<l-[ilaKter on the 
face *»f the ovtrrhanging cliffs of certain moiiiitainH. As it 
is nut in the potvcr of tuen tu clitiib u> such uii height, the 
Arabianii have recttuniti lo tlie rollovriiig expedient ; thay 
cut up iiitu vvTv lur^^ juiuts, tbu oxen aiul auvK, iLiitl other 
draught aninialis and cnnvey Ibciii to iho inouiitaiiia, and, 
laying tbeni duwu near llie neiit^, ffi au-ay lu snme disunce : 
tbe birds pounce iminc<ti&toly oit the piuc^.'s of curriun, and 
cany litem up to their ncxts : the ne»t», bowu-ver, urc not 
strong <iioiit;h u> support the weit,'ht; they break, and fall to 
the grotind : and the ArabiaiiK run up, pick uut the cinna- 
mon tiilii's '■*, and export thiui lu oilier emnitriirx. 'llio mudv 1 12 
of obtaining what cbo llellene» cull leduuuu. oud the Aia> 
faiaus ladannm, is tiill more exiiaor^linar}- ; JVir RlLlu>ugh a 
moet odoril'eruiis substance, it is I'omid in a ui(»t stinking 
ptac : it i% obtained from the beardx of hO'i^onts, in the same 
taaniicr aa gnin from trees '"; it ia u^d in several |>erfiuno«, 
aod in tbe principal ingn-dienl of the Arabian fiiimgiiiion vf 
the person. So far upon perfumes: to which it loay be 
added, that a sweet and divine Iragniuce breatliea froni the 

» Tha mAet wHI jfnae to eli- 
Mm, that by tiwniNM m r»l undat- 
d»i wbirli ■« ncncrBltj imc 
■^■Aayi: batb the wwfa tad ibc 
vrre fi* U prvvfsl hj Lu- 
nliboajCb UBfcdotua unnu not 
to bare b«ni nvue or ii| the prixluM 
Cf one nd dm liaiiiH btint : Ihe natia 
wm At ikj hollow tiMk of (be Ure 
(kk nst cifiDeoiuD uf our ihopi); G-sm 
tt# vfatpH it rtoeiitJ tfatr nauM* of 

mmA ia Fr«M4i, raameilei %\\ which 
ritDtlj »i rrtd or fHpt. 'rtteniA' 
OD ibo odior fauDi, wa» ibu 
_ I, Wfteiher wUt tbe baik: thi« 
kttor n oow d« bnget Mi okjccc uf 
isportetiao, problblf beeMee enaagh 
•f th* tBorc dtliffnU produvi', tta it cullpd 
aaecM bj tb< juicieab, i> lOiTdt-d lu 
eopplj a mw kct, ibe ilciiian<3i of » hiob 
ttmoi be neirlT ao great ai iti Kinoer 
, wkea periunwe an-! (pic«a wire 
■■orw vacd tibao U pevMeC I 
i wm. Id tlia fomtMm of • frtenil 
Ine, wbo ti Id ihc EaM-Iiiilli *«r- 
'>ie«i ft piece of the clnatiMn-woad : 
Un •dour wat '«tj gralaful, and io 


tatlo it might nniwer tm a raagh niH> 
»tittiic fnr tlic nioituoD canm^la, or cin- 

"^ ■*<■ «M E^nf. "from the ilingba.*' 
Tlw bro<rHv of th» GrMk would aot 
be iDieUifft'bld la englLth. Tbe leds* 
Don li u pn>da«tion of ihe ledum, t 
■Itvoit* «r oiatoi - It !■• eottof gummy 
«ndsriea> etdleetcd iiffir-m-4aj» in tba 
Le^aui, by rubbntlt ih« brancbta vitb 
a l>i*i?e oi Icatber, ti> which tbo Titeoot 
initnar Mick* ; it it nftvrwmM* aenpad 
off, Tollivt into balla, and dried. I 
bavr (eni K^'Ua browMns on the team 
lo ibe interiorr parte or the Iriand ef 
Ceo*. aDd hnv« no ^ouU Ihail what 
lIcKiilotad itoteii leapectibg th« ui- 
cicnc ineife d oolleotiag thlji dmir m&f 
b« true. 'Ihe Irduin ii cQllivatei] fii 
uui |raiil«-n) undiT the nsnio of tbe 
fcum-cistut 1c3ita> ladaiiHcrgi, Luhu) ; 
tbe TtM^ditj of the bliesc i< not *> 
gfcsl «i in Itw planu tbitt grMr on tbe 
ecBHt of Aaia Minur, althoush II l> auf- 
Hcleni 10 producv a vcijr diM^roealila 
claromlnMi oo the fiDg«n uf ihoM ihaft 
hftn^lr it. 


TIlAUA. HI. 113—117. 

113 Arabian reginns. TheKe jMMiple poKsess, likvw'is(!rtuo<ip«cia 
of sbecp, Mghl; deserving of our adiuiraiiou, and eetn aa 
where but tn Arabia. Onr ofthi'^ hzu an cxcc»uvel_vloii| 
tail, three cubits in length at least; wiiich, if ibev vm 
alloved lo trail, might bt; tilcuraUrd, rubbing; conliuuBllToi 
the ground: everj* sbephord, however, of Iho prowiit drr, 
kpoira hnw to liim carpunlcr, to avoid this luisfortiinn; ind 
makua a li(tlL> (.'bariot, to uuc v( uliich ht- binds each Uil. 
The otIiiT men of sbrep has l>road tails* above a cubil 

I H acroM. WL'tilWHrd, tovrardx the acttiti^-sitii ''', is fouud Eltit- 
opia, the last inhabited country* in that <|uurtur: it prvdacti 
abuiutaiK-e of gold, viephaiiu of huge &iz«, all kinds of«iU 
tivce, and cbonj' in porticutar, and gigantic, liand^mt, Iccig- 
lived men. 

lift Stich aocordiDxiv are the vci:pcs of A?io and Libya- (>»• 
cemiiig the <-xlrL-u>c: weMerii parts of Europe, I cao aj 
nothing u> a certniiily; for I do not assent to the ritpon, lloi 
tliere fxist.s aiuuiig burhariaiis & river called tht: Kridtnu^ 
that discharges its waters into a nnrihem sea, from wbeace 
amber conies; oor am 1 ai-quainted with the Cassiiendo 
islands'^, from which tm is imported to tis: for, on om 
hand, the appellaliou Eiidanita of itself betrajrs au IJcliciiM! 
and not by any means a I'oTcign origin, and vac fabricaieil 
hy como poet: ou llie other hand, I have never been ublelo 
hear, from an eye-wilness, in spite of all rny elTortK. how» 
sea exi<U in the extremity of Europe. Tin, however, uvdl 

116 aa amber, comes from the utinosc Imnnds of Europe. A«l, 
moreover, the north of Europe evidently produces | nst 
(]nantity of gold : how it is procured I am at a loss to stji 
lh(-> tale goe-'^, that sontd one-eyed men, ualled Arimaspi, Eloil 
it from the ji^llmi!^''^. 1 hy no means acccdo lo the opiniMi 
thai there exisU a race of one-eyed men, in every othet 
respect similar to the rest of mankind. The oxtreaiities ti 
the world, ther^fon.-, seem to encloite and L-oufine witliin 
themselves tiie rest uf the land, and lo possess the things we 
hold to be the ntost beautiful atid rare. 

1 17 There i» iti A«ia a plain enclosed on all «idcs by a nup 
of uioiinluins, the defiles of which amouiil to five. This pUio 
fonocrly belonged to the Chorasmians'^ and lay on ibe 

"."fi'Tt 't** )>""■ S>tn: (be Ijtvial 
ntcaiiag o( whii-Ii I lakv ca bo, 
" Whore (h* nouttiorn traci c/ AnwM 
ileHiora lowurdH ihp wUin|[-«uii, t.e. 

'" Tlie Siillj Island*, if not Eng- 

UqiI icwif. See GaigraflHeal Jn^ 
Iv Btndalur, roc. CamitsbiBM. 

I'* imifmijw>, tuihprrr. IV f** 
pdnUea In MfisralcJ frovi L^r (rrk tr 
(ini!«li>. nf nhioh w# Iiitq tlmdf*r<* 
ivierftl lacUtKip*. 

■*■ &«rMsit.3TI. 

CfmftiMfs of tlie Cbumsraiuns tlmm^Ivps, ihe Hyrcauiaiis, 
the PuTthtunii, the Santngicatis, and 'Iliamanvaiis : since the 
PersiaoH haw liail the empirp, il w Oiv a]>piiru>na»cu of the 
king. Uiit of tb« buHin, formed bv the mouutuin, Hows u 
coQ4>i(]rraliU- nvi-r, calleil ilie Ace*, which, at ibt cotiiincncH- 
nipnt, divides into various diTWtioos, and waters all cht- lands 
uf the alxive-uieniiuiied nutioiiH, oni- of the aiiti^ llutviiig 
Uir»ii^li oncli dofile wspcctivciy. Since this quarter has 
beeu siiliject to tlie Persian monarch, the futlouing change 
hu been nrought th4>TR: the kinff has thrown i)|) dvLea 
■croea each gorge, nilb Hood-gates in each: the water, thus 
curbed in ils conrse, convertR the plain euclo«ed in iho 
mountain into a deep iea; the river con&tuiitly discharging 
itii Mrenin into it, and having nn longer any egreiis. Tliose 
wfao iu former days were wont to use tliat water, no longer 
eiijoyiDg that hlessing, are exposed to a great calamity : in 
wmlQr, the ground is refreshed b> the rain from heaven, like 
filher countrieK'*'; but in sninmrr, when they sow iheir 
miltut and ftcsamv, tlioy suffer from drought. Receiving do 
boon of water, they K" iheinsriics, and their wires, into 
Perma, and, staiidiag ut the palucti-gHtes, ecrvam and moan. 
The king ordrrs the flood-gates to bi; thmwn open that lead 
into iJio lauds of the supplicants ; and, when the ground itt 
aonked through with wutrr, isbiite them again, and orders 
otb«r sluicea to be opened for ihc ii'sl that want pani- 
calarly. These, I »m informed, are not opened before a 
Isrge sum of money has been extorted, over and abore the 

Almost ininiwliately after the rising against the Magians,! IS 
one of the conicpiraton;, Intaphcmcs, ivas put to death"*, 
fbr the futlowing insolence: he wished to enter the palace, 
having some afTnirK to transact with the ttovei^^ign ; and, as 
il bad been umiiged by the conspiralors that free cutrance 
to the royal presence, unihont being announced, should bo 
ft privilege of each, unless the king wert; couvcrMng witli 
one of hi« wires, Intiiphenies accordingly resolved not to 
send in any one to announce his arrival, but, as one of the 
■even, to enter at once. The doorkeeper and usher'" would 
not, however, let him pass; alleging, that the king was 

W iurftttut'- liL ■< IIm gt>d ( Jd- 
pttvr) nin* lo ihi-m ;" a usual minis 
«( «xpra*ilcin. Ti yi( t Zihi »wi7; 
•• Wk»l KKiorwcBtlKTr hiive vre?' — 
Ari'Wpb' A*. )(h1|. — Larc/irr. 

<■■ mm*^3LMfi^'^rrmfi(nM irtlmtut. S(» 
»a4« MS, p. Ift3, of ihit volufno. 
*■ tyrOMfiit. Tht*, inji Lvebar, 

w*» nnn nf thi< mMt Imporlslit Md 
hnaooralils oflirn* >inoi]|i thv Prr- 
liBiis: tba dul; of tbi* ]>«r«ia no* io 
rcrrit« Mtitioiii, tnd introdoiM fa- 
■on* to tbe rojial pr««oii««. TU* UM* 
will trfve to rettiff tto mactiUT^ej or 
inj Inuui&tion. 


THALu. m. ii», wo. 

ongaiii-'iJ ivitli one o( his wivi*«. Ititaphemcs, faiu'Ti 
people- uishctl tu ilutTUx' liini, drew hi^ laciinrlai, au 
ifaeir i>ani and ii<<m.'»; nnd banging thrin to tbe bridle aC 
Ilia bontc, iiluccd tlic brulle ruuiid tbu ui.'lI:» of \hcav tnea, 
1 19 awl M-nt t item uloiit ttieir bu«iui'«». Hie iJisJifrurud nieo 
)ii-UH3tilL-d ttitniisclvug )]«f(irc Duriuit, and ^xplaiiit-d die rea- 
son uhy iht'V ueie so nialiu-atrd. Tbe Ving. apprehcnsite 
lha( lliis Imd tukeo place- *«itt) the connivance of (ho six, 
gem for euch ittparau-ly, and soiindfd (Iicir ojiinioDS, w)i«Ui«r 
Uiey approved or Dot tbe (rausaction: he ducovered they 
wen- not \mvy to the outrage ; and iinin«:diatcly amiited 
Intaphcmes, tnd his childn-n tuid his relations, baring minj 
iMbBOns to aSHUiDe that this noMcmnn, with the support of 
hia Airaly connexions, wax plouinf^ an inKOTTectian againat 
hirofflC. As soon as hi? bad their ptrsons in custody, he put 
them in fetters, and condemned them Id dc»t)i'*'. And the 
wife of IntapherncA cJimc In the palace-gales, weeping, and 
utioring laniL-ntable cricA'**: she penisUHl iu acting ifaw, 
und Darius i\-as moved to jntf ; and seudJo^ a rocesongcr ID 
the lady, tie spoke lltiis: '* Madam, king Darius gives yuu one 
" of tlio prisoners, your kinsmen, to be reprieved : take 
" which you choose." The lady reflected a lililr, and nn- 
swered: " If the king grants tbe life of one only, I choose, 
above all, my brother." Darius, infnnned of this, and 
wondering at llie choice, sent to uslc this cjucstion: " Good 
" lady, die kin)c trii^vs to know, for irhat reason, omitiiog 
" your busbaud and your children, do yiMi elect your brutber, 
** n-bo is a more distant relalire than your imn cliiltino, 
** and less dear than your husband "*." She ausnered in cbeee 
wordH : " Sire, I may perha]>s get auolhcr husband, if sucb 
" be the divine Will; and otiier children, if such be my lot: 
** but now that my father and onotlier ari: no loogtr-r VmoKt 
" it is impossible I :«hoiild ever have, by any cbunct). another 
** brother; taking this into consideration, I spokt Jt> 1 itid." 
Diiriiia thoujjhl di«t the lady spoke with judf^teut; and, 
pleased at her conduct, relcnjiect not only the prisoiicJ fJic 
asked for, but added to the boon her eldest boy: all the 
rest he put to de^ith. And tbus be made nway immediately 
witli one of the seven. 
lao Pretty nearly about the same lime as the sickness of Can* 
byscs. the fdlowiog event took place. Orxctes, a Peranuii 
appointed viceroy of Sardis by Cymii, conceived a 

■*■ CflMiniDtJnn: fim (rflv) «i* rxnrrw rrpMitlan. itec UkCi.S0tk«. 

Ui t»»Arr (iciU Hkm). Sec Sckleeig. <*• «z>M>|»lrN,'B<!t«pnu,"irr«iw,~ 

.V«/, oa i, iDO. 'Jwuudiir.^ SttUrm. tt*. Btni- 

■» TbF iMiUclr it !■ here Doeil to 

THALU. 111. lil, 123. 


v!eked desire of gulling {>o$.st'SMon of Polycrites, and doing 
amy with bim ; allhouRli h« hud iievt;r suiffered at tlic- Iiaiid^ 
of his nctim, fiiht- r in word or dei-d, nor had he even pre- 
rioMljf si-vn hini. According lo the report which is the 
most rife, this wns liis motive : Greeted was sitlin); in tlie 
biug'n ptirtnl'", with another Persian gentleman called Mi- 
trobates, the satrap of Dascyleiiim*" : iliesc two goDlleimin, 
fnim conversing before, fell tn quarrelling n-ith nnf anotlier: 
tbi! diapnte was upon their n^apevtivc merits; and MitrobaK.-;! 
thren- out Ihix reproach on Oroilus : '* Are you In Iw ranked 
** among dt;»eiviiig men, you, who hare not even uddi-d to 
" your Mvereigii's dominiua the iKlunil of Samos, that lies 
•• close to your own province, on which you might so tjosily 
** lay your hand? au i&laud which onu of the tiihahiuinis, 
" w&iste<l will) hiiL fiftfeu soldiers. io«v up aud took, and in 
"now il» tyrant." According to thU account, then, a8 soon 
aa OrnMes heard thi» reproach, he tnok bo lo bcarl the dia- 
gtBjCe, thnt hu wished imt even ao much to bo avcngt^d of llie 
peraou who bad madu this rvmarlc, an he longed to destroy 
tUlcrly Polycrates. I'hcrc arc a lew pcojde, however, who 131 
relate, that Orntlvs sent a herald to Suuios, to raake ft^mc 
Tt<|u<»t or oihi-r, which, at all cvctits, is nut tncniioiied, 
whatever it was ; and tliat Polycraies happtOL-d to be re- 
clining in ibe nicu's Hpariincnl, iii company with AnaciL-«m 
of Tcos; and u'hether he did ku pitrpoiHily, fort-seeiDg that 
Oroalca w aa about lo make sotue request, or it bappoiied ao 
by rbaitce, when the hurald came into the room autf advanced 
to deliver tlie mesRagi.' from Onutes, Polycrates, having bis 
fnccio the wall, neither tuniiHl rouod, not made any amiwer'*. 
The above two ditVcrt^nt lootii-ea aro a««gD«d for tht ui'ir- 128 
der ofPolycrates: every one may jbidt; by which he liliss. 
Accord iujjly, Urostcit, who was staying at Magnesia on the 
river Ma*under, sent Myr»us Uie tnon of Oygcs, a native of 
l^iUa, to Samoa, with a measage to Polyrrates, whi>8e cb«- 

'*• The KTMt lanit wHtoJ M di« 
gatea «f tb« tinx* "i t'cnia. Tbl* 
prutiM, MMUuhdl bj Cyiu«, \mu^ 
■a kog M llw mcmsrcar il*«r; bi^ 
(ncm ta Uh pt(wai ilnr, la Tntket, 
1^ unirt b oaUed llw Oltocau Avfc 
or flalc Larthrr, 

" —fim nS if tatmaXiif, I. •. tW 

nrntaiw round ik eitj of Ducy- 
MaiB, that at tthUb Dwcylcion vw 

* Tb* cooMnictiep b rstlKf iutri- 
6alw : tli« iBGi'ilivtui ^pmil <in «J U 

tiai : «1 B XXimtti Xiytvti, r^^ 
"OfiJw It X4^» ■■(>». M->> U ^t(it-^ 
rH liar^iHf i ti ^if it Iji rw^i yt 
X\yi*mi I : Kiynts ami fit "''iTfu'na 

•1 ■*! 'AraulaiT* Ttt Tim* ih> awt, 
iiJr'fm r(rm»i mrrit it.t. ntXwtf'^riti 
■■riA^ t wr* ri Olftimr Wftfftmr*, iTn 
•■J rnrr y lw tif vtm l n i lnyM«v)W> ft 
yk( (••^# MlK. ,VI).A) mifntmrir 'Ofj. 
rw vs^iU/rra htkiyvhi. ■■! rrt n*JL. 
{rrx<"7*t '>1>«"«^'*J l«''"'f«'^i«* 
m^it fit TUX" ' *^ •' »"**#»f»fiHB. 


TiULlA. ta. I!23. 

racier be bad been inromied or. For'*' PolvcnlM u Ibu i>'<i 
uf tbc H(>l|piies, we kiion- or, thai pntjticled lo have tUc rale 
over the wa ; wiUi the exception of Minos from Cnossus, or 
some ut)i«r lK.-foTv liiin, if aiir. In res{i«ct tu wlut i» cuUe» 
llin Hiitloric 'J'iuips"", Polycritirs was the first Ihm coticeWcd. 
auy bup(;» of attniuiiigln llic empin: oflouitt aud tlic iakt**— 
OroDles therefore, iufomied of iho views of the Satuitiiw- 
ii8iirper, sent liiiii a inesaagi; in tb(;se tenu?. " OwETES TC^ 
*' Poi.Y<:HATi:s Hi'KAKs TUDs: I uiidenslaiid that you project* 
** mighty things, and have not tbc nii;aua compaiibU' to you r ^ 
" views. Now, then, act aa ( advise vou : you will exsl^"— 

"yourself, and save me; for Cflnibyaijs i» meditatiDg toy 

" death, a)i I am informed, beyond all doubt. I besceeh joa — ^^ 
" lo convey iD« away from this land, with my riches : laku- ■" 
" one-balf for your own, and allovf uie to keep the rest: hj~ 
'* n'ealt)) you will obtain the empire of Hellas. If you do-^^ 
" not give ercdit to what I aay concerning my Irmsure i , m; 
•' send oter the roimt Irusty of your gervauta : to him I will-^B 
123 " shew them." With this conimunicaliun Polycralea wa»-^^ 
highly gratified, and resolved lo aeeept the oiler; and, u-^^ 
perhaps be wan too fond of money, sum first Matandriiw th©i^^ 
son ol MsandriuK, to examine the trea&urcN of Orajies: thi a-^** 
Mflcandrius was a native of Saraos, and held the office ol ~-^ 
secrelaiy to the nsiii-per: he was the same that, some lime ^^ 
after these cveuU*, dedicated at Juuo's temple all the beauii- ■ — 
ful ornaoicniii n( Pnlycratcs' audience-ctianiber"". Onctee,.^^ 
informed that a povson was expected to cutne and uxamine-^^ 
his trcaMiri-N. lillid eight che-sts, almost to their brims, vilh ^* 
stoDL>«, aTid over the surface strewed a layer of gold ; corded-^M 
the cbealis and held them in readiness ***. Mfcandrius soou^^^ 

I** Tliii jAf intpalurpji an cxpla- 
nttiofi of TM n>A»i{<«M( r)> Ml*; 

PQlj«r»i««'R HTithition tuiinii, Id bo 
lord «T«r th» iph, and u> (Xtond hi* 

w' •i^imlii ymi, Ihc timea of 
mm, I. *. tiintw to whivh biKtoririil 
iiiid Irne retard* rrafh. In oppoitlnn 
te ^vAal, tlie fabuluui Ilim*. SraHgtr, 
qantml bj Larrhtr. 

'•' ].il. *' P(i!)cra!e« I* ibr fint 
ihm Siuj J^*^^^ li<r|)n tbnt he fliould 
ru1cfk*cr loaiti And thr iiil&nJfV 

'^ Mfi«>, a waril or vhieb in har* 
met inMUMirf an(« mii'l nnio - it » 
•quiralcot tn M{«. <ir iAf^nnt. in 
Ofipmilitin 10 yt n i m t'n "t yvmaimnrit, 

the fomifr At w^ritncni of the men, 
Ihr lillrr that of the •omMl- 1 hf 
»niA iJJf^iHax uicd UkcwJM lo iig- 

ni^, in tb« lmu« of tl>* RoaaM| ■ 
•rilk htnTM* two MMiauon* i|a»- 
dnuiftltn (if ih« biiililin^. I have wmM 
thii wiird MMbnKv c/tam6er, in «dtf 
1(1 nvnii) a prripbrM)*; f«ir tlin clii' 
li»d 1naicai|m «f Qw prtKoC iaf 
harp no (cnn* tndirativo of that •*- 
«(u«ion of tbfr fair tx, vliltli marta 
birharidn in tlii- mao, atid want ol 
viriiiF it) iIji- woinaa. 

*"' Itf'Iotv tiin inrtutiea of 
it w»t tho cvuga, in anotail ri wa » ^ 
lo (vcurp ill* iamw, cl u ata, lie. «itk^ 
Imnm. S««i(> of tli«w taoit ••» "^ 
ditiflMill, that no on* who waa not i*^ 
(ho «*(Tntt f flu Id unfaalnn lheia«— — 
Kiirrj oor hm briird '4 ihr <t«r)luv 
knot : mii Hwittr frfiocntljr allo^t^ 
tn ih« |>rtictic«, Oijt*. liii. 44?'^' 

THALIA. III. 124—128. 


Ifter arrived, made his siirvry, nud ncul bia report to Poly- 
Cfates. Tli« Siimiaii j>rince, iu spile of divine warnings from 124 
the shrines, in spile of the ropresentatinns of hi.* Iriends, 
prepiired lo sel out htiDHrir for Oruptrs* retnidenci* : to all 
thes« admonititms was added that of his dtinghb-r, who had 
dreamed tliat »hc savr hiT father high alofc, washed by the 
nin'", iind aiioiiileil by the fiiin. The younf^ lady having 
nceivvd such a viaion, had recourse (o evt-ry expedient ia 
order lo avert lier fuliter from goiti); over In Ortetes : eveD 
at tlie moment lie wa6 slipping on board the penleconter, 
the pursued biin with her evil omeoK. Polycrates meanwhile 
threatened hia daughter, that, if be relumed »afc hotnc, 
be Would tiiki- care iihc itbniild long rf:maiu n Kpinsier : the 
young woman prayed it might come to pass ; a? ^ho woidd 
prefer nailing a hmg time lo hi; married, to being reft of 
ber fatltfr. Poljvrates, h»we»er, reganlless of all advice, 136 
■ailed away to Orcelcs, taking with him si-vcral eompauions ; 
and among others, Democedes iho son of Calliphon, a native 
of CruUin, and hy prufcsMun u physician and surgi-on, iho 
most »kiliiil in Iiik art of all his eoiempomrii's"*. On his 
arrival at MignvMu, Pulycmt^iLpiUulied tu a hutrid maunur, 
Bhnlly iinwutiliy of liiinselT or of Ins exalted mind ; for not 
even the Syracusan u^urjiurs, nor one uf thu Hellenic tyrants, 
vraa ertrr duserviug of conipari^on iviili Polycrates. Orwtes 
put him lo a death too dreactlul to describe, and crucified 
aim a/lcrwards '**. Such of his (olluwurii as were Samians 
Onetes difmisKed and let go, bidding them be thankful to 
liim for their liberty : Mich a.<t were aliens aud SL-Tvani», ho 
considered a^ mi-re ^laveH. Thus Polyerates, enicified, ful- 
Ulod ereiy particular of his daii){hter's drcum ; lor when it 
rained, he wa<i waidied by Jove- and he was anointed by the 
»un, which drew out tlie oily juices from liia body. The 
fretjiient good fortune that attended Polycrales. therefore, 
brought bimlo lhi!< end ; as Amasis, llie Ittn^ of Eg>-pt, had 

Not toiig after, due vengeance was awarded*" lo Oroetes, 136 

■• Ln. " ky Ji)v«." Ses ootr 181, 
p. Va, «( lliU *oluti>e. So iQ thv ticxl 
c&aptct: " He wu irnbod bj Jore, 
w fcj — ^T hit ramttti.'' 

•■ Lii. '• Mni whn «t<>TclHd hi* «rt 
llMbat orthnv in liii Cmf.*' 

^ ttutul^mn •' ripftid hi* tioly 
OB a atakr oi r-nu(, \. r. jiMrl." Thi* 
paiavRc vhcwa tbot ibv %tirb Jiam*- 
09W9 u n'^t iitrd Kv HcrnrltHiu* fn^ \prt** 
Biij pRriiLitlv nods of Kccution: il 

H probable, from vrbit ^ww hoToN, 
tbnt ibc DDfoiiuiiRle i'AlTcnUn wu 
flnj«d tVne. The vorart iMaoftiy, 
M>d trraJring «n Mr •rA«v/, «fttmi|tb 
afid*ntt>od ij manj u #xpr«M Mni- 
riilu minner* of «xMutinp priniliul«, 
xpplf iwl; In th« •ipcnltfOB of ttM 
rimuii ifter ilcMb. 

>• Lil."Tl)<rFi]rM>,avrnpiig?oly- 
eraiaa, pvrsM^ OiwtM evrk. ' 


THALIA. III. 137, KB. 

for the murder ol' PolycraU'8. For ftfter the deatli of Cam- 
bf ses, ami the reigii of ibe Magiaiis, On£tei« had rvniRinrd 
at i$ardis without rentlering any sapport to the Per«ai», 
who hnd wTe»tcd the empire from the Medes: seiz'mg the 
opportunity of thosu days of cotifiisioo, he cotnpaBsed Uie 
death nf Mitrobiitt'«, the viceroy of Dascyteiura, who had 
upbraided liiiii with his conduct lonardK Polycmtcu, and 
awajwinatcd Mitn.batcs' son CmnaKpes, Persiuns of hin^ 
rank, lie uxliihia-il iimuy uther ittstancesof grow inxalono*; 
and murdered onu of Dariua'a coimero"*' who had brought 
him disagFeeHhlt; iiiielli^etice, on hix return ; ixiKting ou \}te 
road some ruffiaii»,who killed thu man and bis horse, and put 

IS? the bodicH out of itight. After his accession to the ibnim:, 
Darius longed to be avenged of Or<ptc«, for all his itiiqttities; 
bat priucipally fur the murder of Mitiobiiti.'s and Mitro- 
bates* son: he thought it, however, not expedietit to send 
an expudiliun ifumciliately Uf^mtut him, for ^lltt«.-r^ wen 
not yel quito ectded : ho himself had but juitt atlaiued the 
aovereinii power; nod he knew Ortvtes had a Ixidy-guard, 
(MNisiating of a [houaand Fcrsians, and held the govunnaeDtc 
of PbiTgia, Lydia, and Ionia. DariuK therefore deviud 
the following siratagrm : he convened the Persians nt tlie 
biglKSt rank, and uddieseed theiu thus: " Persiaiift," said 
he, " who auiung you wilt pledge himself to accomplish an 
** object which requires *ki||, not Tiolenco or great numbera? 
" for trhere iikill i& required, force ia of no avail. Who 
" among von, then, wiil kill Ormtes, or bring him to me 
" alive? niiu, who never rendered any service XA^ the Per- 
** siiuis, but baK been guilty of great crinicK- In the dm 
" place, he has made away with two of ns, both Milrolialt-* 
" and liiK son: iieeondly, he slays even those who suinmipn 
'* him in nty uanie, and are wat by my order ; !>ucb iololv 
" rahle insolence does he shew. Ero, therefore, ha work 
" any greater evil to Persia, let death prevent him, at oiir 

1S8" bands." Such was the proposal made hy Darius: ihirty 
champiotts pledged themselves in the now Inng, as pri 
each lo do according to his bidding. Darios put n >< . 
their contestations "', by ordering recourse to lot: the lou 
were drawn: the prize felt to DagHBus tJic son of Artontcs. 
Bagsuua, thus cbostni, proee4.>dcd thus: be wrote sin*cml Icuera* 
concuniiug variuux matters, and affixed to ibem Darius^* 

*M J})W{4m. a coutkr, or hirtar, ofa limilu vxptcwfani nxur* in lil-IK 
bclnnicing in iht Pmiu venlc* <tf irhnr* Poiliv esplalaa ttnti^iMir 

*1 mmrtXJfifim— I^M*M. Somi-rhiDII 



M«1 ; atitl, uiUi tlK-st- letters in his jxtssvssioii, deparUfl for 
SanJis. Al bis arrival, and introduction to Orcetrn' preseoL-c, 
he took out Lbe letters one by one. and gave them to be rc^id 
out by ihc kinft'ft secretary*"; for an officer o( that kind is 
always ajipi-nded to llic train of a riceroy. These letter* 
»ere deliren^d bv BaRa-uss wiib a vivw to try whether body- 
gaards wero incliiit.-d to revolt Iroui Oru^tes : and observing 
that they paid great respect to the letters ibenuclTes, and 
itill more to tla-ir coutenls, produced another, which ran 
ibuii: " Perfians, it i« the buhest of kinf; Darius that you be 
" no longer the jruanls of OrtBtes"*." On hearing this, they 
iinnu'diat4>)y grounded their javelins. Bagn^us, scoiug ihey 
obeyed this ordvr, evvn took i:ouniK<-'i und handed over the 
last letter lo (he iwcrptary, in which was wrillon : '* King 
" Darius commands the Persians at Sardis to put Orcetca lo 
" deal])." The guards no sooner beard the^e words, than, 
drawing their Kim«tars, Uier killed btiu on the spot Thus 
Oro'tcs, ihe Perwan, paid forfeit for the murder of Ptaljf- 
crate«, the Saniiao- 

The property of OrcEtrs having hern coiifiwaled, and con- 139 
rerwl to Sutn, an at'cident happened to iing Darins «honly 
after: in leaping from hin hor^io at tliu chare, l)« filrninnd his 
foot: so violent was the tuist, that the ankle was forced out 
of its socbcl : and, at fir«t, presuuDing that ho had at his 
court sotno of the Kgv'ptiaDK regarded as i))e first men in the 
pfofcAhion of the healing art, ho tniMlcd his case to their 
tFCatnient: these doctors, however, vielenlly twiifting tho 
loot back, did but increase the evil. During Miven days and 
HT<rn uightis Darius, io cons<f|Hciicc of this accident, wan 
kept awjikc : and on the eighth day, accordingly, tho king 
being still no better, some one, who had already heunl, at 
Sar^fl, of Oeinocedep the Crotoniat'H skill, make a conitouni- 
eation to iJarinx. who ordered Democcde^ immediately into 
bis ptKUiiee. Tbcy found him auiuug the slaves of Ora>tvs, 
where ho wan held in no estinmlion ; and look him before tJic 
king, bound in fetters, and eluthed in tags. As the man 130 
stood before him, Darius asked him irbethta' be knew the 

tike wrapper at rcv iUb^- in llui 
MM« w« hiv* prwiDuIr iMn Polf 
anlW,IU. 41 . *fafftfm»t ritff f y A a, 
** UUkR vtt ths alKACI which (iHinA- 

rtA Ilia fii>g«r." The Ivttrn »mt 
TarkiiL K«illli;ni*D mia si* tj* 

wn^ftd in nib bafp or eawa, Mil«d 
Willi tbvir «i^et: One aneimt PeN 
■n tamt protaUy Iiail amni! limilsr 

DM^i, mhith will lutMml fcr t)w 
nnrvsnen hntf naed tnr Hcra ik i ta i, 
wUch nftntllM, liMnllv, *■ hBTiiifi 
takm oiT ilia wrapper >i cuta atfm- 

*■> Tbc ■Dpmrflnoiia Dlfmfii*, wUoti 
ik, no JMibi, IM r«mill)Lr lo Ifc* rMdar 
bo Tnvin u; eafflDteni. Hm- M*n. 
MS, ■«*. S. 


THALIA. l[l. ISO. 

medical ut: Democeiles, teannn to (1iM-nv(<r liimKelC, l«Rtl« 
sbould be separated for erer from HvUss, denied tbtl be 
knew anv ihing nboiii il. hat DArini; Raw enuugb in coo* 
rince bim tliat he was dissembling"", and pcrlcctly «• 
qiiaiiili'd with medicine; so he ordered ihe pcrMins nbii \ui 
broughl him, to ff^tcb the n-Iij|>s and spurs. Doinoccdcs tbcn 
diitcnvpred himviir; declared, thiit he hud learned the art, buL 
imperfcictly, and that hv bad a emutU'Tiii^' only of it, bating 
been intimate with a phy»ciuii. InitiiL-tlialuly, Durius cd- 
Inislvd hiuiM.-ir to bis In-iLlineut"; and he made use of llii; 
llellcnie niedictni.-s ; aud, by aubstituliug cmoUicuts iusk-ai) 
of vtolmt meaus*^, prueured some tile«u to the patient ; aoi) 
in a short time restored him to perfect health and souadows 
of body, atthoiigh the king liiinseirhad given up all Lopes e( 
ever bcinR able to step on that fool. In recompense lor this 
acrvice, Daritiii prescnird his medical aliendant nith a pair 
of goWii^n Nhackk<s. Demnet^deR, upon this, aalied the king 
if he hnd pnrpoNcly donhird bis sorrows because be bud 
restored him lo healilj. Durius, much plejuied at this answer, 
sent hitn to his own wives: and the eunuclia, taking bimi 
round to see them all, said lu the ladies, ** Thin is llie man wboj 
** restored life to our hegc Wrd." Each uf the ladica dipped 
a vase*"* into a chest of goUl, aud presented it lo Democeaea; 

■X Th* tv(n« if thn ramc u if 
there «■•» Hnf ■•« n rf Ab(«>V tij^wI- 
(ut. Mm! ri( iri#«(i^Nir, " It appcarrd 
to UariuB Ibal lie d wcmbled Wjlltc 
a phjgiciko, tbuuRli lie wu m ia 
(net." t^irrher. 

'*>> Iwitfi-i-i: at.Atnt,a3i.A Uvrir, or 
f) mSf^. Sfhweig, 

"* 1 itie Snm t> relatlnu m ihr 
[rcsimcnc •<( Drinurcdoi, and Ir%^f> 
CO Ihn( nf tbi: E^E^pliiuia, u bvtP^ 
tbe fl'<< nigtiiticsimn Ititl noold bn 
pTvn to Ihi pkMkjr* iij ■ ran-tfirtllral 
reader. Cofht und«nia£']> bum tttm 
■nd Irxfi or Iha tmlnipiil m^upinl 
liy Kcmticcdc . "the injurr," Mm 
hei " wo* a laxati<>ii «[ ^i» jboi, that 
lo4 berfi uaifciKulljr tmtU'l br th« 
Egnttu pbT>ielftni: lh« fine apera. 
Um iWnNOMw ti»A to perforni, lonsc 
hvn bwB, tttenftuv. lo laimtv a^Mn 
Hia joint. Immfillatel; alter (bat 
optratioD. fHrl *d 'rCY^i '" "^^f to 
calm Ihe paiD, W kdiniiiittcrcd to hii 

talieut MOID narmtie, fma. ■■•, for 
MtailM. opium, In make Iiiiji timy. 
I'bi* |irMHi:t i* Btill folluHcil Lo ull 
TiotfBl irariiiral operiitioQi." Tlie 
UuelatioD, acwiding t» Mn illu»- 

tn'mai e4ilor nf Siratn, vntl k*,] 
thoroCoie. •' And, b; adainiaieittgi 
«ani« r.arcrit lo aSU-f the opmOOtt, I 
proruitJ," &c. 

•" mrfertvr* R attin Un«' 

ilitTiiull [iHUiift*. l-"r iba <li0at^| 
cmi'niiiilidnK propcHBd by vuJaM ' 
■cliulara, tiiv DolM of Sckwalybau*} 
mar b« cnnpulttd. CM*inteiiM : j 

laMTt ^irirtt ParA of llirm, tnf^ I 
vntira t^Xj, 'liff's '"^''f' •'•'* * 

i| X^iii) It ril> tiam rtS iCf*'- '''''1 
(fle rftcjf ar rrvotilsry it/ i/alil, •» 

•y**}>f iirXlw, " ebakin^ under «itk 
a buctft draw* /raa /A« trrft' 
I h**e felloKod tha r«»4ta^ 
Ur. (ialiifoT^, pn^«af<d bjr Pone 
8«kwel|t)uMMr RItm l«**4rr«Ma 
aar(M laibra fti^f. rw XT*"* ' 
Mas l)«((ir« &iwM>(4Ha ibtv H m U^ 
)J7)«fip, a. r. X. Tilt iiiatbtloaaf 
wbi«fa niiKt bo, bMtaTf^, lasM 
" taoh «f f}i«n dtppmg hi with 
taacer, pmentad to utqnooedn < 
ID alHindiiil fpn of KoU 
iriiti iha TMWi" 4m>^Utxf 

(bus coiifV-rriag gucIi a umuificeiit gift, that the itervanl vha 
followird liiiu, namud Sciton, pickecl up lUc gold sUlet» tlial 
fell from tli» rases, and tlms collect^ a great quaali^ of 
gold for hioksolf. 

TbU DetDovedes, coming thus froni Cm(on,had proceeded 131 

to tilt? court of i'olyc rates. Beinf; at Croton harslilj treated 

by hi» father, a iiiiu pmiie to anger, and unable to hrook 

any longvr hiich usngv, lift tomook his, home, and pruc^ednd 

to .Cgiiia. 8eitliug in thnl inland, lie MiqmKsed, in the first 

jear, the latai phj>ici.ins, altlioiij,;)) unprovided with iusiru* 

menla, and havin): none of the necessary adjuncts to the arts 

of luedicineand t^iirgerr"*. In the second ycar,thi? vEgineie 

rewarded biiu by a y«aTly Tec of one takiit from Ihv public 

chest: in tlie third year, ihf AlhtrniaQs al)owi.'d oiil- huudrL-d 

mioa;: in the fourth year, he arrived at Sajnos, where I'oly- 

CTHtL-x allont'd him two talenta aniiually. From ibis man the 

people ofCroton became notthe least celebrated phyciciann**; 

for it rtoon came ui {lass, that llicy were itpokeu of, all over 

Hvllus, as iho first mi-dical men: the Cyrcnsean physicians 

were but the second. So, about the same period, the Argeians 

were txallvd Lo ihe Gr)>t raDkaiuonu iitiiHicians. At Uie lime 133 

vaore now- speaking of, Democeden, having completely cared 

Darius, was iu po&sei>Mun of a large house at Suxa, and was 

the companion of Dahus's table: he enjoyed et^ery luxury, 

wid) the exception of liitt being far away from Hellas. Of 

bU iQiiuiQcy with Uio king, the first instance is, that he 

obtained from Darius the reprieve of the Egy]itian doctors 

who had first adutioistered to the king: lltcy were about to 

be impaled, becaust; they had proved themselres inferior to 

one Greek pliyitician: secondly, he rescnnd from bondage a 

soothsayer of Bits, who had followed Polycrates, and tc- 

mained among the slaves, not thought of. In short, l>emo- 

cedes was all iu all witli the sovereign. 

rtsdn ta bcbipS fui farther ioforuia- 
60* OB iht* piMBitc (rom Ibr wjoa* 
«e(Binrauur«, 1 tball prooM^ to ^w 
Lkrrlwr't IllMtnrlan of (h« DMaojiij 
«f fdlM-~'fhn ncti) fHX> btloii^ to 
tba Met tit ittc rap-bt«tvr». In onim 
tt1i*t«»earr«tt Uotofwlifttiimeati*, 
It it ttuefmntj t" t>« •rauijotfii wilh 
vbu rtgvil* tbia »tnit*. Iil. A 
Mflslii qtmntitf ^ oin* tutA wttcr. in 
ynfMWD M Ue icm^ib of the «(u«, 
Mooriiag to th« iMte of ibe 
n, KM Muted into hi ft *mm. 
*■»««, mm lb« mixtun of t^« 
SoDor*, V4>r« flklM (•mom.^— 
SA7, 1m mivtiirt wn dtppd oai of 
lbw« OTBlan Titb a cyMbna (aaMtl, 

a WTt «( itfp pitcher, and tb« drink 
•TM pourvd unl i>to * cup wtikb wu 
enllfj U*-fM. 3dtj', Tb« Uv*fM WH 
jirrBrniJvl t" tho gnrxt on « fufAa ! 
ihia liiinr, itiereforv, tm t suirar or 
pUtr: 1 ncu, ft (tot, broad vom), on 
vbich Ibc cup waa pncMDted. 8i« 
Xen. Cytrtf. i. il, 9. LartAer, 

*■ Sorpr^waa ttot, in fonncf timM, 
MMiatcd fna uvdioifiak 

"" C'MI i liii quo Im mtidaeiM da 
Cracone iloiwDt la plua ariDde partic 
do 1<ur ii^olaliai) — 7*0 Ai'n Ific Civ- 
ttmtan JnHtn art ittMirJ far iJtt 
grtat*tt part ^f tMttr ripM<n«i— . 


THAUA. 111. 133. 1S4. 

1.13 A filiort lime after thr»c cTotitK, the fnltuwiiig nccarrcQD! 
rook place. Alwwa, liio dauyhtor of Cynw, and wife of 
Dariiiii, wan afflicted irith a titinor on the braasU Aficr socw 
lime, it brtiku; and ata away hy degrees, until il bad 
ittcreascd In a considerable nizc: sho coocealud it ttirot^ 
xbame, antl mt-'iitioDBd it to no one. Uowerer, as it continued 
to get wane and urorftu, sbo sent for Dcmoccdcs, and shewed 
it to him. Hu told her. ibat he could heal the lumour: but 
iD«8t«d she should pledge bereclf"* to rerannerott him fiiirly 
for his senici-, hy granting a re<|ucst u-hicb lie beraaAer 
Avoiild male; and nddi^d, that h« h^ no intention lo ask tnt 

1 34 thing that a lady would blush to grant. When be had healed 
the tumor, and rustored her to health, Atossa, iniitnicied 
by Demucedes, Uiuh uddresscd Darius, wbo waa in bed with 
her. " My litge," said Atnitsa, " poiwesninf; wicb ptiwvr, tor 
** sit down tranquil, and alteuipt not to add by cuI)llU<;^l any 
" nation or empire In the Persiaim. It behoves, 1 tbink, a. 
" monarch, young, and mitsler of such riches, to give proof 
" of bis valour, so that the Peraiana may know tliey arp 
" commanded by a gallant k*ing. There are t*ro motive 
" which should urge yon tnact in this manner; that th« Per^ 
" sinns may be convinced they are he:i(ie<l by araliant bcio; 
" and that they iitay taste Iht- toils of war, and not abide in 
" idleness, brooding oniKpiracias ngainst yotimelf. Now 
" that you are in ibe bloom of life, you should achieve sotae 
'* brilliant deed : lor, as the body grows, so the mind groirs; 
" as the body becomes old and infirm, so it is with the mind; 
" it is blunted for ull purposes." Thus, at the suggestion 
Ptmocftdes Ato&sa spoke. Pariun answered : " All that yon 
■' nuggesl, my dear lore, 1 have mysflf already resoUed lo 
" do: for i intend to throw a bridge from this continent to 
" tlio other"', aiid carrj- war into Seythia: ray designs will 
" bo accomplished ere long.'' Atos.<ia then ^oke tbos; 
" Look you now ! I bncech you not to march flnt"* agaiasl- 
" the Seylhiana; for, when you cboose, they will be yours; 
*' but, for my sake, inradc Helios. I ko long, from ivlial I 
** bear, lo have, in my train, Laeoniau girls, and olJier« fruto 
" Argos uud .Attica and Corinth. You have, behideH, tbe- 
" best man in the world to ti'll you every tiling alxiut Hellas^ 
" him tliat cun^d your foot." Darius answered: " My lor«^ 
*' since you prefer i should moke my first essay on Hellas^ 
** I think it better previously to scud some Persians, with tbff 
*' man you speak of, and survey the coiinuy. They will aem 

"' tiiii. lunl loninllriiti fanoAof Eaivpc: scciv.tiS. 
swrarinR, br fUr »■ Matt. Wl, 9. 

■" That I* Id tvf, tram Alia to 

TUALU. 111. 130, 130. 


auil litriir a11 [tarticuliiTS, and iiiakc their report: and ihcn, 
*■ fullj iiifoniieii, I uill march rlirf^clly aj^ainsl ihc ] Iclloiiiis," 

TbiiK hu A)>uku ; aiid no suonct' »aiti, lluiii ilonc. As soon 135 
lu day diinnt-cl, lii; Nuniiiimind firicen Pcrsiaiw of rank; and 
comtuaudt^tl thom to follow Deinocedea, and tiait tht; efaoTH 
of Hellas : but cniitiuned them not to let, Democedcs ewape 
out of ibeir bands, but, by all niL-an-H, to briiij; him bock with 
them. Hdvin); i.sKiii-d these commands, he next summoned 
to hU prcHeiice D(jiuuci-dvt> hiinitelf; requested him to act U 
u guide to ihc IVriiiaiifi, s}iu»' ihcm the whole of Hell.x<<, and 
ri'Uirn: he lilewise ordered him to taku with him all his 
movrahlc pru|it'rLy, a^i a pruisent to liie father and hmthers, 

Eromising that hv u-uuld make it up to him liberally : to this 
u would add a mrrcbauc-sliip. to cuiivey tho giRs ; and hIow 
tier with oil liiuds uf precioiit ihiiigti, to accumpany liim on 
bi» *"oyage. I have no doubt niyscll'" tliat Darius made 
thettc oflt'i's without any scent Miii)tti;r motives: hut Dumo- 
ced(v, brinif nfniid that Darius was only making a trial of 
liim"', ftcctpled tlic Kifls without any apparent uagLiTKiM*", 
hilt obfterrf't], th.iL he would leave his own thinj^ behind, in 
order hi> might find them again on his return; he said he 
would accept the mrrchnnl>5hip, which DariuK promiftcd him, 
lo convey tliu tfifl to hin hrr>lhcr»< Darius bnving given 
ibeM orders to Democedes, despatched the party don-n lo the 

Thry proceeded down to Sidon in Phoenicia; forthwith 136 
mauii(»i two triKmics, togeth«r vith a large Pbocuictan 
mQDd cntd, and loaded them with precious things. HariDg 
made all the proper preimrations, they sailed for Uetlas: 
thej touched at variuus points of the coast, snrt'cyed it, 
and wrutt- down ihi'ir oliserraliuiis*'*: aftur visiting many 
phiC(.'& of thi- great^rst cok-hrity, Uk-v proceeded to Tarcutum 
in Italy. Thurc the king of the TarL-uiiuwi, .'irisiophilidc*, 
oat of Vindiiess lo Deuioeedes*", first lcH>k away the rudders 
of the ?tledic vessels; and next Cii8t iutoprisou the Persian*, 
alleging, it U pretended, that they were spies. While tbesu 
were in durance, Democedcs procee<led (o Croton ; and when 
kalely arrived at home, AristophiUdcs liberated tbc Persian*, 

M $M>Hslt.fi43. 

■* iff Mm. 
*" iTiVf'i^iit lifiniliw to teisejrte- 
iitj. Larrher. CDDffniiMiaa ■ Inam 

eui :" tha fanuf. Iiowhvvt, may 
I itmmIMiJ, uniT " Kruic Jown ■ 

dCfCTipltnn of Uinm." 

"^ U /■(T*>«i rii awunAuo Ikv 
ItTnitiic miui apply to An«iiopkUU«. 
CofB; tnaten ii nWt lo DcouMdw, 
gtvinfi 10 ;*rwn« quita uiolbcr 
iMMiog, •' lir (■>■ nrtilicc of Vtma. 
M<dMi" tail iwvnb in *n|iiMrt tM dri* 
MMMnir arc too leaf lartoOTKiBa to 
dill work. 6m lAKier, UL SM. 


THALIA. 111. 13?, UB. 

I37an<l gnrc Vpack Lho nidders which ho had talccn away. 1 
IVn-ians ihen iiailed anay, in piiniuit of I)emucc>(1<is, an<l ar- 
rived at Crototi ; audi D)e«tiiig witli him ta the market-place. 
Ketzed his penwD. Some of the citizens of Crotnn, npprtt- 
hensiro of drawing upon tboniRclves ihe vengL-ance of (he 
PerBJans, would fain hare winked ut thix outrage"'; but iha 
rest full u|Kin the flfli-en, aod ihraslied Uie Persiana with 
clubs. Till! IVnnanni, in thv uic-an timv, luilloocd oik to them : 
" Citizens of Croton, liavo a care what you du! you an 
** resctiiuK a runuway from our wivi-miKn. And do you 
'' iinngttic liiiij^ Darius will put up uitb such iDtiulBuce"*? 
" How sweetly wiil ho liaiidlu you, if he come upon you? 
*' Will lie not attack your city (he lirsl of all ? Will you not 
" be the first reduced to boudage ?** But Uio Crotoniaos 
listened not to what they Kiud, but rt'scu^d Dcmocedes, am) 
fleii'.cil the merchant-ship thu Ktrangcn had brought with 
them. The Persians wiilcd back to Asia ; and did not aiteuipl, 
now they wore reft of iheir guide, to prosecute their r*- 
Krarclics into llcUna. Dcmocedes, at thnti departure, cojoined 
them to iufomi Darius, that Democedea was on the point of 
marrying Uic daughter of Milo: for the name of that wreatlor 
wuii well knowu and celebrated at the court of Dnriot- 
And, in tnitb, I am of opinion that Dumocedea hurried litis 
union, and expended much, in order to prore to Darius thai 

ISSfae was a man of rank, even in his own country. The Pei- 
liians unmoored, end departed fmm Croton; but were drirftn 
with their ships to lapygia, where they were made prisoacn. 
Gillus, a TareuLtne exile, ransomrd, and Ltjok them over to 
Darius; who wa* ready to give, in return, whatever he might 
ank. But (iillus related to him his misfortune, and implorei 
the liing to ensure his return to Tarenlum : in order, hot*- 
ever, nut to disturb and alarm Lbu whole of Hellas by i 
grand amiamint sailing on Lis account to Italy, he said tbr 
Cuidiau6 would be i^ulficienl to ru-e»tabliah him ; being con- 
vinced, that, in consequence of the friendship existing between 
the Coidians and Tarentincft. he should easily obtain pomif- 
aioD to return. Darius promised him he would do so ; and 
kept his promise j for he sent a messenger to the Cuidiaa*, 
requesting them to convey Gillus to Tareutum : the CnidianB, 
following the rt^couimendation of Darius, were not ablo id 
prevail on the Tarentlnes, and not powerful euough to com- 
pel them by force. Such, therefore, was the result of thii 

>" Cnnolraelioa : •■' ^i Wn^ui mu 
rfmtmi Imrrit *ta nEf«a<|). 

*'* til imniii i»x(^ «wf« wif- 
tfi^rtf. Liu '' qwnoda lufllrvr* po- 

tent rtgi uli fonlMMlia *dial^ 
r'. f. Bow cftn li« In nawat lo bt 
infiiltcil In (hi* tBumerP 

THAUA. Uf. m 



ulnlerlaVing: ihe alwrc M'ere the firsi Persi,iiis Urul came 
from Asiu lo llella», Oiiiil Lliev came lor lllv purpose ot re- 
cunnoili-ring ilic couiltr^> 

After llic ahovo nvetitft, king Dnriui; look ■pvufenniiM of 139 
Samos: this vrns tlie lintl city, ivhcllier of tlii.- HiOltrneit or 
Barbarians tlinl he rnptunv) ; nncl it vas from iht- liillnwinf; 
moliTo. In the exju'iiitiim mudc by Catiihy^t'a son orC'.vni» 
again&t Kgvpt, a grtat iuiiiiti(-r iil Ite)tuii(.-s fdlloMvi) Iiim to 
that CDUutry ; »oiiic, vf vour^e, t'i>r couituctcial speculations i 
athirrs for taking a part in the tnilit^irv opvrationK; some 
fc«" also f>>r the opporliniily of si'ciug the country. Of 
ibt-av laal. SyliMuii vraH utn-i Im nas lUc suu at' .Vmcvs^j ant\ 
l>roih«r lo PoljcraU's, and an exile JVlhii Kamos. The fol- 
JoM'ing piece of giiod liitk Ix^fi-I this SyJ(»}ii>n: he llirrw a 
scarlet niauilu about hits KhoiililiTS, ami luulc a uatk into the 
market -jilucc at Memphis: he wuh remarked by Duriiis, at 
the ittnu bfloa^itig to Caiubyst^K* giiardtt,' uud as }'ut held in 
no Accoimt; l>aria-« had a Inii^inK (or the cloak, anil ac- 
coiiled Sylt^fSdii, iryitif^ to purclMse it from liiui. Syhisoii, 
Mvtug that the youoK inuii was so anxiouii to become the 
{toavMor of ihi; clo^k, iiri^ed by i^oiue extrauicliiiary infa- 
tiialioii, ikaid : " I do not intend to mU my cloak for auy >iin> 
" ot monty i bill, ncicrlhtles:*, ah ihiii)>9 art? thus, it ^lialt be 
" yours"*." DariuB praised his liWralily, and aco-'plcd the 
cloak. SyloHon, accordingly, made up his mind to having 140 
loKt hi« cloak hy liie nvrn Hii)it>lic)ty ; but in the conr^e of 
lime, CaiiihyKes died, the stivcn conspirators rove up a^aill^l 
thp MagiiM, ami Dariufi, one of their iiiiiiiher, afceiided the 
ihmne, Syh-Nou boius inhmiied ibat the power had jtassed 
into the hands of the very same man al whosv request he bad 
oucif given him his ehmk in t'^icyi'L. vent up to .Su»a ; where 
a>e»ted himself in ibe poilal of the royal palace, and 
~ Uiat he bad been the beiicraclor of |i;i>ius. The ttate- 
?r, benrin^ ibt^, coTiiiiiiinieaied it M the king; who wai 
•nqiriseti. and said to hirasell'": " Ua^e 1 then received any 
^ favour from a Hellene, tn whom I nni inilcbird, having no 
** lately cotno to llie throne i Scarcely has one of that na- 
"lion appeared before nic**'. 1 haie conliaclcd no debt 
■*• wjtii anv Hellenic nan. Noertheless," said Darius to tlie 

■*> There \* m dmibt ihal •««« ^irm 

_._. .. _. .*ol rrpij- i( «i|uiTalnnt U «(tf Lvrlt. I Ho rxK 

it, RfHlifi." j Tif iZrm >ii yiArtai «e, bowntr, in *l,>t ■■■•oiiw tbi» o«- 

*** MXfM n iikitMi " I f[iT( It in — inciE ■■Bvuuuiniiii 

MMlhif n«Bnct. t. e. witbcot rrMj- ■( «i|uiTal(int to «(tf Lmlt 

. pui*jM'il Jnnl ft tt» e)nfft plaiiRtiati gib be Hiide k> oiukk oiih 

«l, l.arrh^; n •mmimh tin Ihtt jviri of Dirlux ■ tnliluquf, ^wwD 

•not iKm^ (1 e. pnAwHi ) /m~ evpii. ■(p), rafajtpi l**>. 

srAtivv- *" Mill. tvr. r. 

VOL. I. X 


TRAUA 111. 141, 14'2. 

portvr, " send tlic niun in : let mc a-sccrlain what be nwam 
" by ihis." TIju porlc-r iuirixluccd Sjloson : as he alooi in 
Uio presence, llie intcrprutcrs inqiiin-d of hitn who ho wui 
and what he had dune, to say thut lio bad been a bi'ac&cMT 
of the king. I Ic rq>hrdi by drscribing what had ocrnneil 
with reKpecl to ibu clunk ; aud KlaUtd, thai hi- was the Jadi- 
vidtul who inadv thi- jircKt'ul to him. At thi.^ Uaiinsa- 
claimed: " What, unwt jjcinirou* of murtals! an? you tbf 
** pcrsoQ that did inc thai service, when I was but ao humlile 
'' soldier, small as il was > At all crt-Dis, my f[cati[iide diaO 
" be oqtisl to what I should nnn- reel for tlio moM nupiifi- 
" cent gift. In recompense, 1 will givu you gold and wlw 
*' wjlh a lavish han(l ; «> yon shall nt-ver repent the srrrice 
*' you have done to Darius the 6oa ot'>]y»laA|)eff." To lint 
Sylofton made reply: "Sire, give me not gold Dorailta: 
** rccorer and give me batl Sariios, my cumitr>-, now iunii)ed 
" by one of our slaves, since the murder of my brother IV 
" lycrates by the hands ofOrcclcs: give it without bluo^ 

■41" shed or bondage." Dariuit listened to this petitiooi and 
dcit)>atched an army, under tho command of OtABOS, OM 0( 
tlie »K\en ; enjoining him to accomplish what Syloaon ailid 
for: ftccordingly, Otines went down lo the wa-side, bA 
embarlted *** the troops. 

142 ITm poTercignty of Samos was in the liands of Mmi- 
driua ihcaon of Msandrius. who bad been leit asa-geoit; 
Polycratcs: hp- vna desirous to proTc himself the tnottjiut 
of uicn, but did not succceil in his project; for when ibf 
death of Polycrntcs was announced to him, be acted io iW 
manner I am now going to describe, lu the first place* 111 
erected an altar to Jupiter Liberator, nnd Axed the boanlt* 
lies of the sacred precinct that Mirrounds it, a& is still mco ■■> 
the suburb ; having done ihiti, he convoked an assembly of ill 
the ctiizcDR, and addressed lo tbem the following «pcc<)>: 
" ^'nu all know," said he, " that the »ceptre and tlie wbok 
** power of Polycraies waa entrusted to me ; and now it i^ 
" pcnds upon my will, whether I ahall assume ibi- po*ff 
** over you. I intend to do my utmo«t to avoid what 1 nv 
*' probate in my neighbour: for I cannot approve the con* 
^ duel of Polycraies, or any other person who as«mt* 
** despotic sway over men equal to himnelf. PolycnWi 
" ihon, has fulfillud bin dentiny ; and J will plnce the jmjbcT 
" in the hands of you all: I proclaim liberty and e^Kidilr"' 
" laws. I Oiink it jufti, howerer, that I should receive tixBe 

■B triilu, <4 mid of lb« (M M Well 681 ; .^ehyl. Ptn. 171.— imn*''- 
• of tbw land. Eurip. Ipliip. iu Aul. 



reDumeraiioQ for my sacrifice: lei mo chorwe In tlit? raliie 
of MIX UlvnU, out or the urojierLr of Polycrate». I claim, 
' moreover, for myself ana my descendaiiU for tiver, the 
' prifslliovd ol" Jupiter Lil>fraior, to wiioui 1 liav« ertcted 
' a temple; wliilc on you 1 confer ibe boim of freednm." 
Suell was tiin iddress to the Samianti: but our of the nssein- 
Aj rose up, aud ^aid : " Yon, sir, arc ct'rtainly very unfit to 
^ rn\*t over U9, neraictons nnd wicked innn tliat you «n>. 
'' Yon ought rather to give uh an account of the moneys 
" that hare fMSKed through your hands*"." 'ITius spoke one 143 
of tlic influential cilii'.rnN, whoflc naim^ was Tclcfliirchus. 
teandnUR, conviuccd by Ihi-s, tliat, il' lie htmsell' lei an the 
owtrr, Bonit' tyrant would aritM in his place, thought no 
gerof ^ring ilnp; but retired to tlie fitadel; auiliiendiug 
for each of the principal men of the Saniians, under pretence 
pr giving an account of the kuuk he had ex[ieuded, arreaied 
ihem, and threw them into chains. Soon after, Mffiandrius 
jbll xick: liis brother, culled Ljcarctiis, cxpcclinK lie would 
div, put lo death ull the prisoiierf, wiih u view of facilitating 
lis asKutnptioa of the Kuniiaii (;oveniinunt; fur it appears 
lie ]M?oplc of SamoK uere not at idl incliued for liberty. 

Aceunlinttlv, when the Fci'siaus arrived at Samos, bring- 144 
big with Lbom Sylosooi not one fras found to tilt up bin 
band ai^insl tlieui : MmandriuM himself, and his partit>ans, 
declared they tvcr« ready to couiu lo tvrma, and to leave 
liw island. Ouuies uccedc<l to these cuodiljous, accepted 
and gave thu pledgee; aud the most distinguished Hcr- 
nans placed ihciiis«lv«« before ihe citadel, &<^ited up4>n 
cbain. The tyrant Ma!aiidriu<t bad a brutlier that nas not 14^ 
quite in hUsenses"*, whoso name was (.'hnrilaua: this brother 
or bia, accordingly, baring done something wrong, waa con- 
fiaed in a dungeon. 1'he lunatic having heard what had 
been donr, looked through tlK' grating of bin dungeon, and, 

I teeing the IVniianK thus quietly sealed, made a loud excla- 
roalion, and lieclared thai be wished to s(>oak to Maian- 
diius"*. M.-^andriuii, informed of this, ordered him 10 be 
nachaiocd, and brought before hiui- As noon an he was 
brought in, he began to ahuse and vilify lii» brother, urged 
hiin to fail on the Persians, and spoke thus: " You, the 
greatest wcoundrel of the ivnrhl, have doomed me to be 
" chained down in a duugcTon, I, that aui your own brother, 
'* and had committed no ofTence duiwrriiig of fellent ; yel^ 

■B CaiulrTt<;(k.j ^ JXi^ fixXn |J Herod. X<>«*. 2. HmU. 613; wmI 
<l4|w) t%Mi3jy4ol£rm,».*.X Bp. HloaiflHD'x obMmtion, MaU.Or. 

■* Sf« NlK-U;, I. I7nln. p. t- 

* Ifa llyvi. Sc* Stiv€ig. Let. 



lit. lift— n?r 

" en-ii when juu see tin; Persimis t-xitelling you hy \iolenet, 
*' au(l bcniiving you ui wiir lionw, h»vo not tht hMrt to 
*' seek a-vL-ngr. easy u» it would be lo tlefent Lhcni. If you 
" »T0 afraid of tliem, (rivtt lut* vMir rnvrccnaries ; 1 will uu/l 
" vengetliice on llit-m for eonmin lit-iri;*'*: and as tor your- 

146" svlf, I will [iifsonily seiitl yow out of the island." So Kpoke 
ClmriluLUii. MuuuDdriiit look liini at Monoid: not tbat he 
wait, in my opinion, such a fool an lo fiincy his furccn irault) 
be a umlch lor tboi<« of (he kin^, hul that he i-nxied Sylo— ^J 
iwti's ^ond lucli, if he shoidd, withonl any toil, gel pc».<tc««iotL ^M 
of ibc loxvtj unscathed. By exaBpcrating the Persian*, hi&^ 

Koitghl acconlingly to clip ihi; poHt-r of Sani(M, and *o dc 

liver it up ; woll awtire, that if iht- i'eniians sulTorcd any dis 

comtitiirc, ibry wouhl be billfrly inTeUniu; a;;^aiti»t the Sa 

tniaiis : lie knuvr, moreover, of a safi- rL-lreat from iht' it^lim d — „ 
wbt-DLner he cbo6c to iiTiiii luiiiM-lf of it ; for he liad urdcreciH 
a Ki-crvl luiM^agfi underground to b« fs.cavalcd, begin nio ii^g 

nt the citadel, and IcrtniitatiuK at ibu w-a. Accordingly, Ma: 

niidriiiH hituMrll ^aiIl•d away from Siinms; anil Chanlaiu, alte^^ 
pultiog all liic unxilibry troop> under arms, thrcH- open the 
galcK, and Tu»he<l opmi ihe IVrKiJUH; who were far from «x- 
jteclin;; «iich nn itllack. And tjincivd thai all iniiltcr« ner 
KcUlnd iind arr»ii){ed. Mrannliile, the inereeuaries inasvi' 
cred llio uboi e-mentioD'-<l Pt'ii<iiin» of rank, wbom ihcy foiinr 
sitting befoit: llie citudcl*". While they were engaged ir 
ihU i^Inughler, the Tv*l of tJie J'ersiians came up, lo teai 
a hand : the inLTceniuie», Imiken. ran hack, and bhm them- 

),17 H.>l\ps np in the ciLuti'l. Olnnes, lht> coinnmnder, a vitnesf 
of thf blow tidlieU-d on the Peri^ian», Ungnl (he iiijiinclioDi 
giren him by Dariun, not tn kill or lake priBoner any of thi 
Saniitiiif, tnit to deliver up the island ntisi-athvd lo Syli>9<m 
On ihc contrary, be made known to the army, that ihey * 
to tut down alike cvt-ry ouao t,r boy; in i*>nscqiienco, 
poritui) of lilt; iiTUiy procpedi-d to lay siege to lIio castle -^ 
while tlic rest went ahnui, pimiun every one they met to ih^^ 

I4d9»roi'd, ivhtiiuT on sacred nr pmlane grmnid,— Ma.-andriuiB- > 
having inade goo<l bi<! esciipe irom SainoK, sailed for Lace — 
dajioon : un his arrival tliere, he carried up to the capital ib^^B 
things he had brought wiih liiui, and acted in the followin^B3 
maiiiker : be net out lii» diflerciil va^es of siker and gold, uu^^ 

«« *w W«h ir>V(. Miit(. 345. a. 

*" lif^ap^a^HM U rtkcn I7 Cnny 
ia Ihr niiililic \mrc. It wa*, be tnyt, 
a luxarj, luoti n ett-n unonK >l>o 
Atheniana, (a be Ir-tlivwcd 'bj n «rr- 

mnl vatrjinn ■ •<>>f, which h^ prc- 

smtail fo hit miuttr itb«arrn li 
withnl in lit ilonn. " 'Iboac unm 
(be Pruian ntm were the stoit i« 
)jiv«ird, tiiid had mM-htann ut tir' 
Irain," Kiv. Corny, i]iio'<mI tijr JiMV 

THAI.IA. ]]l. 148—199. 


Lift atteiiilunls prucccdrd (ci n-ific itR-in ctean. He, being at 
llie time in conv-L-rviitiuii wiih Clemiu-ne*. ilie soil ufAnaxan- 
driJe^, urw o( ifau Spartan kiii^. look liiiti itilo liitt boiise. 
Clpomrnes was MiiicU wllli wonder niiil nmazeinpnt nt the 
«ight or so tniicli platr. and Mit-andriris urged his vjtiitor lo 
eanj- airay with him Mhiii articles he chose "*: twice or 
■brice ibis olfcr n'us made; but Cleomeoes behaved as an 
■oDcst man ; be spurned the gift, ami. hctng iiirormed that 
If eandriiiR n-nK conning support from utlierii by sucli mvatiit, 
ire^cntrd himelf befure ilie ephon. nnd declarctl tiiat it was 
ictu-r Sparta Rhmild <Ii!tnii.<M tlii'* Satiiian stranger from the 
horivfi of IVInpuniiesiifs so (hat ho might no longer pcnsiiade 
untteH' or others to bocome a pander to bis views. Tbe 
pbori, to conM^iience of tJiis communication* procbiiu)<:d, 
ijr berald, the expiilMon nr Mieanilrin%- — But the PtTsiaus 149 

ring captured all the Samiaas, as in a net"", gave up to 
l^loson the i&tand, reft uholly of popuUlioii ; some tiitie 

er, hnwovcT, Olancs re-pcopIed the land, in consequence 
if a dreum that occurred to him, and a disease that attacked 
lis oatiiral parts. 

A* tbc naval armamcn]! nas on its wajr ui Suuios, the Baby- 100 
ians, haviug inade va«t prepuralions, re1>e1Icd. During 

e wlioli- lime of disorder that lasted throu};h the reign of 

e Mii^tiG, and the instirrL-clion of the seven, ihey had been 
rovidiug tu n-Msl a wegc; and, by some meuiis or other, 
rcre enabled tu du so, unknown to any un«. \^'1len they 
ipenly threw off ibctr allegiance, iJicy acted iu the fulloHiug 
Banner. With the exception of their moihpr«, evei^' one 
if tbe ctiizcn* cho»c one of the women in his hons4>, whom 
te liked the best ; all the rest nere gathered togellier in 
ne plare, and Ktrungled : the one pre8ervc<l by each citizen 
raa for the iiiii-|>uAe of cmiking his provisions; the reat 
rere sirangh'd, to decreaxe the consumption of provisions. 
Darius, having received iiilelligeuce of ttii^ coltcclcd aJI hts Idl 
irces, and marched against them : baring reached Babylon, 
le laid siege to the place ; but tJic inhflhiianlA took little 
ccouot of thiii: ihey a.«cended to the baltli-mentJt of their 
rmll, and there danced, and laughed at Darius and bis 
lOrt : mie of them even hallooed to the besiegers, buying : 
' Why <il you there, IVisians ? had you not butter go about 
'your business? for you will never catch us, uuiil mules 
' breed." lliis was Htdd bv on« of the Babrlonianx, who 
icvcr expected to see a mule nith a foal. Atiet a lapse of 162 
)De year and suren months, both Durius and his whole army 

!. lit, 04. whm UtnAatu* «s- 

Sm Man. Me, n. 

flain* ttiM madp v( txftan. 


TUAUA. 111. ioa-t&S. 

n-rre sarulr aunoycd, thai they could not yet capture ilibrlW' 
Durius tried nvorj- Kiratagera. every artifice, a|;aui)tL ilir )iliix; 
and, Willi all bis •.xtTtioiis, could not get possession, en9 
by reitortiii); to ilii' iiiudc in which Cyrus had Kuccecdfid: bm 
tho I)a1>yloiiinnsi krj>t guard, and it was impossible to siiT^irw 
Uu'in •». 
103 In the twentietb uinntli from the Qpening of the sieee, 
Zopyrns, the son uf tbc Mc^byzus trbo was ooe of vas_ 
seven conspirntom against tliu Magiu, nrm; n-itoeu to 
very vxlraordinun,- occurruucc : one of his owo mulu, bc*1 
longing lo ibn ba^gnge-irai d, brought fortli a young 
Zopyrus, informed of the vreot, scarcely could give cr 
the report, but wnm and saw the foal himself; chargcdl 
grooras to say notliiog of what had happened, and rcvolvf 
the prodigy in his oiim mind. He recalled ta liis mind thr 
.speech of the Babylonian, pronounced at tbv bugiiiriiDg o' 
the ."iifgr — that when mules, barren as they arc, should ttm- 
cn!UtfJ,tb(!D should Lbt-ir tity be carried: ho cuududed, uou 
this omen, that now the time was comv when Babyko 
was to be lakiMi ; fur this seemed to have been spoken bj 
dirinc inspiration, und had actually occurred to oue of bb 

ISA own mules'". Having made up his iniud that now was i' 
lime appointed by fab: for the ca]>lurc of Uabylon, be 
ftpnle<l himself before Darius ; and inquired of his iuu)v8ty, I 
he regarded it as of paimmount importance that Habrln 
should be taken. When informed that the king conaic 
the thing as of iho first coa«equcnce, /opynw consider 
bow he should ainuv iiiakc the capture of tbc place, so lltat 
the achievement should be his deed and work: for vritb 
Persians, such gallant exploiia conduce greatly lo ilie 
motion of the niUhorR*", Accoidiiigly, having det 
wiUiio liiuisclf how Ijo should bv able to attempt what 
]jroposcd, he could not devise any other expedient, than lo 
disJiguro dreadfully his perwiu, and then desert over to the 
enemy. Holding this nf little consequence, he Iicnnua) 
liimsclf in a most dreadful manner: he cut off bis own acm 
and ears, sheared his hnir all round, lashed bis bod)- with 

1 65 whips, and presented himself before Darius. The king wa> 
surely grieved at seeing his chief nobtemun thus disfigured: 
he started np from his throne, and witti loud exclaiualioosi 

*» Soei. 161. 

*>■ I have oadeawiarcd to MptcM 
ika Ibroe or thii p>.rtic1o wtf. >liioh ii 
b; no DMaoa an eiplntttv. Lart^fr. 

** Lit. " hikI lliBt tbo mult bad 
r(wl«a to him<mU." 

" ttonoruotur vl mI iDiignFiB ntgnt- 
tudinit omlum nveliunttii," I- 1>- «> 

ti «*efr« fMr^AM irfun. ;1mHsIL 




nmn(1r<l wlio ha<l treutt'd titm lliuH.aud wliolitiJ clUii^uiud 
m ill Uiiti manner. " The niao lives no|, itiy licgts lliut 
dares," siiici Znpjnis, " or lian the jMJwer to ircal tiu- (Jiim, 
except youMfir. No stranger, sire, ha» wrought this: I 
m/KcIf auj Uic pcqietrator of tliis ilviif), indiguaiil to bo* 
bold AssyriauK <leri<lo Persians.** *' O niotit uiiiwrable of 
hmsd!" rutuitcd Darius, *' you fiivv the fiure&t of nazuea tn 
Uic fotilest dt^^i-dij, in saying tlial you have thus (rented 
ruureulf, ill order lo gtl ibc u|))rcr hand of tht enemy : 
how, HJiDple miiUf will the foe rulax Ids imsoleocc, in c<in> 
•equence of your dixfigurjuK yourscU"? Are you re» of 
your »eii8eif, to have ruined yourself in this manner?" 
Dpyras made reply: " If 1 had comnuinicated to you what 
I was about to do, you would nol hare allowed nie to act 
iu>: hut now 1 have had llic resolution to do it mystdf; 
ud (herefure, if you do not fail on your part, we nhal! get 
poasesKion of Babylon. As I aiu now, I will dettert orer 
to tl»e city ; tell the jteople tliat I have suffered this tieutt- 
meotat yourhanditj and, by persuading tbem to tlial, Hfaall, 
I cx)>cct, get tbc command of the garrison. Do you, 
reckoning from the time that I enter the rampart, count 
the tintli day ; and ebooso a iboubaud of tlie men, Uie loss 
of uhotn would be of little moment, asd post litem at tlie 
gatefi called after Semimaiis: soren days afWr, posl for 
mCi at the (jatcK called iboM^ of Nineveh, two thoumind: 
Ui«i) wail twenty dayt* more***, nhea you will command 
fciar ihouHBnd more, to dieir station at the gate* called the 
Chaldnau. Lot the first, and the othurR, hare no amw of 
defence but tlicir swords; leave them tbone. And after 
trntnty days luoru have elupBed, wiUtont delay order the 
whole army to encircle the city, and storm the ivall; und 
station uiy IVrtiiauB al lliu gates of lieluH, und those of 
Ciina: for I expect, that, in consequence of my heroic 
deeds, tbc Batnlontaus will, luuong other things, confide 
oren the cross-bars**' of the galea lo my keeping: and 
tlicu I and the IV-rHiaiiit mutcl address ounteU'es to work." 
Having thus explained what he wished to have performed, \66 
c irroceedixl up to the city ^aies, uinnng hiuiKrlf round tn 
WH bohijid, as il he ucru a real deserter. The persons 

■■8m Uml ft44: likcwiK ilix 
iaktf of Laaiom't rcmwk in Ok 

* fim\mtJyt*t- TbU w*rd aittnifini 

•VTt M hmk itM4 lo pall «at ibv 

ik^itr, k «mkU nxiBil pieco 'J "on 

llvM ihreofb the jtmb nf tk*^ ff, 

•xirawity nf ibc ^x"i '" 

rmai-tar, Ui k*«|i if in lU prnpvt 
■ituaiinii: iu caw uf iipcuinx tht 
KBWk, ihB a«)u tirf ) c DU iodiappRia' 
lilc TO rriour thr fiutening of ihe Inr, 
■o (bu ii nujibt be »bol back. I 1i*ti 
uiloplcd Ibe Eoftliah wotil ivjr, liir 
wMt or t bettd lam. 


TUAI.IA. 111. 1&7. 

«t(HUiiu-ri on the towers, \o keep n iook-mit, ran down bek>»-~. 
uml, putting one of the larjje foldinit-doors ^ar**, iiiquinr -^ 
who he ivaB,nii<l what ho wniitod. Hi- informed thptn, ibal h^s. • 
Dainc nus 'Jtoyyrun, and thai Uu bail c-orae orer to thi^iii as > 
di'«jncr: Ihe door-keepers tio noont-r heard thw, than ih^^j 
look tht^ Duw-coiiiKr berure llie coitimoii-t-outicil of tlio Do^K- 
hyhmiftfjs. St:iiuUi)fc before ihc member* of that awembl ^^B -. 
be (k-jflorcd liis misforiuue, savinB, that Pariiis bad sen-t'd hii«Ka» 
in U>i» triicl ir,.-iiiner, because be advis^-d him lo raiw ll^^c 
siege, 89 there vmn endenlly no ine«ns of secoriiig a ca| — 3- 
ture; " And now," said he, continoing his discnunic, " I b^r-*- 
** come a ^rpat ■cccsston to jomscKes fi*^^ <*f Babylon, atm. -d 
•* a ftrcat defiilcaliou to Daiiiis and his army: for be nfa^ll 
"pay iiw for bavin;; mmtlaU'd nie in Oiis manner: I a^m 
157*' Heqnainted wilh all the sfcrvW i>f his iviiinsrls," Sfj ir^Lt 
saiil. Thi! Itabyluniatii', Keeing a man of thitt rank among lftr»f 
IVr'^iiiiii' dfiprivod of liJii nui^e and earH, and covered iriS..!) 
weals and slripes, we-e eomplelely convinced of Uie truth o/ 
what he said, and that ho was conw to Iheir su|>|)ort : llic^y 
therL'fore wern inclined to grant him whatever he might a* J*. 
He a<ikcd for the command of the mililarr force. IJaitt'SK 
au liir succeeded, be prtweeded lo ocl as he bad arrangi^^a 
wilb Paiine: on the lenlh day, accordinnly, he made a sallj 
wilh the llabyloninii Iroojis sniTnitnded the thoiDund mc^n 
whom he bad eomminRioned Duriuit fi fitadon. and cut tliotsi 
lo pieces. The Rabylonians finding he veaa a man lo actiaf 
to hiK words, were all ovetjoyed beyond measure, and wBT*« 
c!a){rr tn obey bis Cffrnmand-i. He lei pass the nnmber of 
<lay« a]>poinied; and again, with a chosen parly of the Habjf- 
loniaiis, iiia<1c u i»aHy, and cnt to piece-" rrvry one of tbc tiV* 
thousand men Maiioiied, aceordiii}^ to agreement, by Oariix*- 
The Hahylnnians, wiints«e8 of the pallant exploits' of tb(?M 
new commander, had all of them Zopyms's name at ttrnf 
end of their tongue**", cxloJling him highly. Oucc mo«"«. 
alter letting the appointed time pa»» over, be led on t^t* 
ahove-ineniitmcd band, surrounded thf; fwir thonsand, nO*I 
desUoved theiii to a innn. Having ncbierrd tins gloHosV 
aetion, he beenme the idol of the Babylonians: they P'"*"! 
I'laimcd him tlieir communder-in-chief, and goveinor uf Uicifj 

"* «b M(M rii-tf. ThM i> m mi, 
•mv ol the iiMiufi-Aiiori of kIucIi ihe 

ft«i''« M rli» >rtirn( lanrna coikuIfiI 
nf iwa fnlilii)s-<1i>iir*, each (iitil to a 
iriun<) hjc. liirnltiK wilbin •oeLrN 
litwn in ihc ■ill luiil liUel: Uicm; 

NilinE-'toin vrrc fiulcnnl \tj ' 
cfnu-bram, ttw i-nila rif vbioh ru 

inio CBtilW* ainiSv in thr JMRh>> 
iiiiob, *t lMi>t, vnr» Ih* (lalM of Hj- 

nmw, (ht Kinfrmlnua ettia of M^»ci 
1 flair MimD yarn liiicr. 
*" 6cc UalU 438. 

THALIA. III. 158— IflO. 


liiEilly, Darius liaiiii^, accuniing tu pieiious agree- \S9 
eiiC, uiiidc u KiMtc-ral assault uii the wall, /.upj-nts displaced 
e whole of lii& Niraiagein: fur llie Bab^luiiiuDS uiai 
jccudcd lu lht> baltkuictita itvn all burlvd lii^iiJ-forcmosl 
Zop^rus, witli his own Laiid»,upeuiug widt; iIk; gales 
i BeluR and Ci^Ma, adiuittt'd ihc I'trsiaus within tbe u-all. 
\atte of tht: Habvlotiiaiis wlio saw what Imd betm doiii- look 
fnge in the temple of ,Iu[>i(rr Itolii^: tlio it'ril krpl vach to 
S pMt, till )r- aUu was iiiluriucd uf tli« ireauhvr^' which bad 
n practised "*. 

TbiiK wa» Bulij'lua a second lime captured. DBritia,l£9 

baring now the Babylonians in his power, in tlie lirxi pUct; 

naed thu walls, oiid Lore duwu nil the flatus i fur ut ibu Hntt 

capture by CyniK, nothing of the kind had been done. Next, 

lie impdied ubuut tlirut; thi^iiMitid of Ihv cliit^f cilizeii^, and 

avL- the town (o die rest of the l)abyl(inian)i tii inhabit. In 

rder that the uilizciLs uiight not be nithout woojvd, and 

leir race become extinct, Daiiiis made the foltoivlug provi* 

The Babylonianti had, as 1 before obwrved, 8tnin([lcd 

leir wives at the coioinen cement of thr blockade-, wiih a view 

Bparu their slureH: the Pentian monarch, Ibervfoie, taxed 

i^ riei);lib«urin^ nniionii u> send a ci^ttaiii number of n-innen 

)tu Bab\l(jn: the contingency from all (hc-se naiiunaamumiUHl, 

^o the wliolc, to 5lK ihou^iuxl noiiieii. Fmin these wonitii 

bo pref«nt UabylonianH descend. None uf ibu Pcniansrieo 

hcliicr previous or sub&eqiienl — with ihe exceptioDt hour- 

rer, of Cymx, to whom no would prRSitinc to cotn- 

are bimscll' — ever suqiaist-d Zopyrus^iu Dariuh's opinion**, 

ly his hrrnic dt'trds in the ^^n-icc uf ibe slalt:. It !» relaled, 

hai OariuH frequently expressed his opinion, thai he would 

.ibcr that /opyriiH had not diKli^iurL-d hiN person than have 

received the accession of iwcniy Bahylous. He tn-ated htm 

irilb tnagni5ccnt honours; sent to him every year the giit» 

i«cmcd the most hunourublc by the Persians ; and gave him 

Babylon lo ruU-, u'itliuut any conlribiitiun tu the myal ex- 

thequer, during the whole of his life : he enrieheil him by 

rery many other <lonBti<m». From ihis Zopynis ili-scvudud 

Mrgaby;euK, who held th« command In F);ypt during the war 

wiib tho Athenians and allien: from Me>:abyzii« dc!«cciidcd 

S^opytua, who voluntarily einigralvd from Persia to Atltem^ 

HoU. 'US. 3~-t^-m. »IuraJ, 
«, ningulu, HBtLSlll.o. 





Aftbh the capture ^f Babglon, Dariut mareke* againtt Ute ScylluaM, 
ieraute fheg had intnded Atia,and held poete»*httqfit f»t fwentg-eighf stitn,\. 
The country and the origin ef the Scythimu, S— 36. Coneemiitg the thrti 
quarter* of the world, Aeia, Libga, amd Europe, 37 — tft. Co»eernii>g the 
river* of Scj/thia, 47 — 67. DariH*, having itarted from Suta, erotett lit 
Thracian Botphorue bjf a bridge of boat* ; compel* the Thradatu to mhmil It 
Aitj/oie; {digreuioit eotteeming the Getm and Zalmojei*,9i — 06 ;J eroetettk* 
I*ler, and, tearing the Ionian* to guard the ftoating-Mdge over the rietr, 
marehe* up the country, 63 — 9B. The rituation and dimeneiem* ^Seglhia; id 
tiariou* Iribei, 99— 177> The art by which the Scythiant elude the effort* rf 
Darin*, 118 — I3i. After puremmg the Scythian* without *»cce*a, the kingol 
but return* to the Itter; from whence hepateei over into Alia, 134 — U3. M 
the tame time, another army of the Pereian* attack* Barce, in order to eae^ 
the death of Arcerilau*, king of the Cyrenaan*, and ton of Pheretime. Thi 
Hi*loriaH take* the opportunity ofinierting the hitlory of Cyrene,from the limt 
that a colony wag eettled in Libya by the Minys of the iikaid ^ There, 
lifi— 164. A deecriplioH of the tribe* of Libya, 168—199. The Barcmi art 
taken, by the perfidy ^the Pereiant; and Pheretime cruelly avenge* the deM 
<lfher eon. The Per*iaHi make a oain attempt on Cyrene; and, on their rti»r» 
into Egypt, are hara**ed Inf the ^ricam, 301 to the end. 




Tub next vxpe<liuoti undmaken l>jr Diiriu)t,subs4?()uini to L 
tlie cupdirc ol' Batiylnu, was a^HinsL ilic Sc>i]iiai)B'. As Aua 
floumheil in pojiuialioii, uiiO vast njvtim<;8 pourt^ in on ftH 
Ufifs, Dariiiit conceived a dusirs of viniUng ibe Scyiliians 
wiih his vQiigt^ana!; ihey )ia) ing been i1k> original prumolere 
tif linHitlilv, hv brciikiiitc tiiu> tlio territory of lliu Mi-des; 
•ud, afiur (U^feaiin^ tti;il naiioii in battle, unjnsily tiiiurpiitg 
llic bii[>ri;iiiti poKcr: for, as [ tiavu alrcail; obiKrvud, Uio 
!Si-ythi;inn bad btrt-n, dnriiig viglit-aiul-lwciUj* jcare*, the 
iMvi-rci;,'n Iot<1s of Upper A^ia. In ihcir piiTMiit of the 
CtniuiuniiTis, tlicy binkc inlu Axia. and put dnirn ibc power 
of lbt> Medcs*, who, pruvtimxly to ihc irruption of the Scy- 
tbians had abiuiuiMl the wbule ciu]>in; of Ania. The Scy« 
ibiaMK, boKi'vcr, afivr their ab^enco from home during 
cight'aud-twriily yc-nr^, uud at ihtir K-luni tu tticir own 
countrt , tni'l nilb litiU stnTcc inlciiur ' lo those ibi^y bad 

I cspcriL-nct'd at tbv bands of the Medcs, for (h(.-y found tbeui- 
ulvvs opposed by no incoui^idfTable multilDde of eneinieii. 
Tie n iriK of the Scythian!', in the \"n^ absence of Ihcir hiis- 
)iaDd«, had ftotiglit tlir cani|>any of tht-ir KlaTca. 1 ahall takeS 
this opporumity of obsening, that the Stythians pot oul the 

[ fycs of iill liifir slaves, in order to make use of ibtun in the 

Iprepumtioti of the milk nbirh couslilultK l}icir only bf vcmge. 


• tt*. " An r>|>r<litiau at Dariu* * l^ai. 103, Ittt. RVm. Sm lOt*- 

'■■mintoiik plkr«acniiit(iWSajtlii>ni.'' wiBi c. II. of Ifaii Book. 
^iTirvfeilaw thcolJ rirailiaB, «i*w in* • " S(7lhM->>oKc«'iiit Ubar nm 

•ivmI tit mS M>, ihr mexBinK will W> lainor," cic. SrAnvu, Le*. Htrad. — 

Hiu thriD* BtiFcbed in ptrma irsId** t'ndtntaad win* wvr Maluf?; tbw 

ew Sfjiblftn*. $e« S'Air^v- •^''- *^* l*«*tl« of Marilhon 1* olM Wn«. 

1 »M BUil. 111. n. 114. 


MELI^aniNK. IV. 8. 

r^>. nt^ 

These slaro« uso tubes of bone, similar to our mtu!ic&) 
fifes, which thej thnist up ibe rulva of tliu tnarv, aiid sn I))on 
in air by thoir moutbe : sodm are omploycd in milking lti« 
mares, while olberH an; busy thus bluuing: as Xhey auert, 
this practice is adopted for the purpose of iDfiatiog the veins 
uf the marc, and making die dug niiik lower down. When 
the milk has been procured, they pour ii into wrnidcn irase«i 
around which the blind slaves urc ftlaliuni'd, ui keep agilatiug 
aud shaking violuntly the milk : they skim off the siibsianci: 
that swims onthn tup, and consider it the most delicate: llie 
rest is deemed inferior*. For the above purpose, the Sey* 
thious put out the eyes of every slave lliey can procure: 
course, I do not mean the Scythians that apply to a;mfi«li«rr,1 
3 but those that are uomades or pastors*. From ihejm sIbvto,] 
accordingly, and the Scyiliian women, had sj>nmg a btnil 
of youths ; who, when infonncd of their origin, re»oh*ed 
go forth and face the Scythian.s, at their return from Mc<Ua: 
but previoualy they cut olT their own territory by a broad 
trench, extending from the Tauric raimntains to the rast 
take called tlie MsBOlis ' : after having accomplished this 
work, they opposed Ihc Kcylhians in their cflortH to make 
good tlieir infp\>K?i, and enj^aged bailie : mauy enciiunUts 
took place* hut tile 8cytliians were unable to advance a step, 
in spite of ilieir fif^hlinf^: at last, oue of the returning 
party addressed his comrades ; " What arc vre about," Mid be, 
** men of Scylhia ? We engage iu equal fight with our 
'^slaves; thus decreasing our own numbers by our own 

fcltowing note. Thi< ii the irresm. It 
ia *«rj luiatiiihiD^ thiLt □ciUin' Uie 
Ore«ki nor tbt Lalin* bul mt wunl in 
their Uni;ii!i||e to i>spru9 tliii idea. 
Porlanntqi, wbn flourl'hnd id (hr 'iitli 
c«ntui7, h»> lutd* a**' at thn word 
<rmM, dsrlrod (rom erttnor, wliioh 
tbe lMia•^ we Co Mprwi ibc thick 
tStM that nrlmt on wnirr in ohicb 
■njplllMtiMtMicn «oak«d> Lamher. — 
1 d0 nM tkiuk thit th« vhakinK tbc 
ttiba KAuld have W*n ihc reMllMl way 
to obMiiJ crnvm, vlitch, u etor; (.tip 
ktiowi, i> ptnonred Ijjr mflirniiH llie 
millt lo iwUIr for some tiotP. rl In 
tidfutt airti ^ppetrf i-o me f> kllude 
tn ttiF puiil or IratCrr, MhUh rIhajh 
«wiiM in (htfbum; itnriri Irirva/iOM. 
M i)i» mtuf or bBCWr-inllk 

■Tbani vara Sofltiiuw vhoni Il«- 
rodotn* Mptclkllj ocal^nMK ■frfgn. 

in diolinelitui of tW n^Jitt- 
mpwiiDg nf th* Hl'tnriu) mM 
■ harofnT*, that new bal lb* 
or pantontL cribaa lunoDg tho ScjrUdaw 
b&Tc thin (Tud prncocc with their 
tlnTw, Sec VakA. »ail Sfkwtig. Ai 
1tiM<^ nomnctot ItJ » roo^nattS' Md 
ragsbond Vila, ibc bidm tfu liiiT uoki 
lo jirefent thtiz davci from MOwriH^ 
iru tu blind fitrta; tuid IhU arntidy 

i> tlia mtMing 

<rf tba coD)aaciinn 

mniincnin. inuHt nut be MMbMBtM 
with thv Mnuii.i Tsurui of Afim. Ser 
Ihr Geofra/iMfat tiubt to ttmJtno- 
Sce, nsprcning ihl# trench, Uw oeir 
"n «. M. If lirK were lo tawl 1* **• 
TaJ^i •Jnn, ■' frnm ihp cxwfilK* ol 

tha faun, ' th* fmrifios of thi* tnoeh 
noutd bv much nor* mmiIj ■odhr- 



and diiTiiniiihing that of our aUren that am left hy 
yfiag LhtiiD. BelivTe me, therefore: let us dismin 
" javelin ami bow ; let each take bin horsewhip, luid make a 
** rush upon tiwrn. So loiif; as they liave seen ua armed, 
" their hare fancied tlicinKelvc»> our ctgosla: but when they 
" shall f-er UB giBHpUig the whip insteud uf lite how, thej 
*' will id:} they are out slaves, aud, convinced of that, will 
*' offer no mote ap|>osition," The ScjrlhiauA, bearing this, 
adopted the advice : the opposing party, surprised at the 
alteration, forgot to fight, and took to their heels. That 
Uie Scythians not oiiiy nilcd over A»ia, but, being driven 
hack by the Mede», rcturueil to their country iu tile above* 
deseribi'd niaimfr: this was llie motive which urged Darius 
to be anxiuuK to wieak vt:ogeuuce ou the ticythiauK, and 
induced him to collect his force for the purpose of invading 

According to the aecounl given br the Scytbiana*, they 
inuxt be the most niudeni of all nations in the world : the 
origin of their race, ax they say, was this: the first man that 
existed in ibis country, previously a complete deecrt, bore 
the name of Targiiaus. The progenitors of ihiN largitaus 
arc represented as being Jupiter and the daughter of the 
river Uorysthenes : I pui no faith, howerer, in this report*. 
From Targitaus sprang three sons, Leipoxa'u, Arpoxais, 
and, the youngest, Colaxais: under the reign of these three, 
some iiistnnnetitft of gold fell from heiiTen'*, a plough with 
il« yoke, u bultle-axe", and a cup ; all these aligliled uu tlie 
Scytliian U-rritory. The finit tliat cHpicd tliem was the 
elder brother: he approached the things with the intention 
of picking (hem up ; but on his coming up, the gold caught 
lire. He retired: (be second brother went up, and tlie gold 
again flamed'*: thus two of tlie three were driven back 
by the fiery gold ". lliirdly, the youngest cotniog up, the 


^ 'Oa II IbvAu AtyHx i^ 

iu See Mml. 6»^, a. In iho 
tiiw of ne:iM]otii», ihttt ««tii fnar 

opiDlvDR fctpectinr tli» rttifiiii at U)o 

tpeCtUiC til' Atjf^iii at U)0 
I M , TW u( (he S«7 tbiiui* 

MJ it." 

■■ «(^M. Cod«uUHM(.W7: u«l 
tiM DiMop of Lwdon'i MM, p altill. 
of ili« taMa walk. 

ihrMMlvn, in»anan«<l in e. i. Qi\j, frtmeitdi! of oar nnRlum (nnfctbM*. 

Tkai of lhi> Gipoti at. tha Euitne, 
wtiirh ImkIiu r, 6, and oonttDuc* to 
ill* Mid t,f c. 10. id);, That cfframaD 
\t iW Gricta Mid Dwbnriatii, uid 
Mlofitcd by lIvroAotu. TbI* ofdnlcn 
!• meniMinMl t. II uid 18 iMj. 
TkUof ArUtcAiorProMiiiictUB. whitli 

bewii»at c. Ii. 

The OT«»k uldii, " Bat thcj d" 

» Lit. " And il (1. r. iba |{old>did 
^kin tlie luur." 

" irirt*4»i, i >t mirllrre. rvpa- 

disrr. .S-Aiiviy- Lfji. llrrvd. I tu« 

of tlw MiitvnM*: It ma; otlinwlM ht 
tniDilarn). taUeg nh fcl> Toi tba i»b- 
Jrot, " TbMc, aecordinitljt rcAueil the 



liri.- Weill out, xiid lie tovk tlic things honic. Thr cIiIk. — T 
brothers, in conBcqiience of (his", ii is naid, of ouu ncctif— 
made orer ihc whole kingdom to iheir youn^jcBt hrothe— i 
P'rom Lipoxais, accordingly, »pnng iho^c Scythians thai tm^B 
calkd tlie Anrhuiic horde : from the necond, Arpoxai ^ 
proceeded ihofe callod Caliari «nd Traspies : fmm tl-^u 

ioitrgesi anysp tlit- royal horde, cuHcd Pamlatic ". \l\ ih»sK( 
ordcsbcnr one Kcnrnil common name, Si:n1()l)irroiii lliekin^^ 
cognoiiit-n. liy tlic Hillunps they are calU'd Si'jthi-s. Suc^J^ 
ihc Scythians Atatc to bt- their origin: the ycar», fmtn Use 
firvt beginning, amount io all, fruin the firHl king, Targiuika^ 
lo the )nra»iou of their country by l>arius, to ju»t one mil- 
Icuniiiin", mid nu oioil'. The ahovi; gold, nhkh is iiacred, h 
WBifhfd with tho grt'ftU'&l caro by the royal horde : tber 
a[>)iruach il, propitiating wiih gfL-nt sat-rificL-K, t-vcry Vf-ar^. 
lie thai is nppninlL-d at ihi< TrKtiiAl to bring thu sjcrcd gold 
iulo day-liglil, nhuuUI hv fall a^lut'p, cannot, according tn 
Uw acconnt of the ScylhianK, p»i« ihrough the year: in 
coiuequcnce of this, he is prevented willi a» much ground 
an he ran compass in one day on honieback ". TIisj 
land being very extensive, Cotaxais, according to their] 
ncconiit, divided it into ibn-e kingdoms among his sous. 
1'be largest portion, being appointed to thai where ike 

" */«■*•?*■(' in ren(pqi>«'np# of Ihia 
t^tml: itt M:itllurr'x mnaik on th« 
RieBni(i)r of nif *««*■, MM , A,) nit 
r(i«0nl(>M dlifkfuii ttyytinmi \ia- 

— 8eliw<iglurowf, hower^r. ^itm In 
bM l.min n>f*inn, <* <)tit rt> intFl- 
Ifv^ :'' ( limiUr ilsnil^ratlnn !■ it* 
■ribdlH t» »()« raSt* rtyy- It "H the 
Iraailstnn, tnidiuli iiD'l Kipnrh. 

** The rnijifla r*^ ^unASf i* 
*ur»lT ant Ibp rialil. If wa r«iul v*v 
^anJliar, iW linniliilmn orlll bo, 
■' FiDiii Ito jDunn«t of thorn, who 
wu kinp, (h(B(i ihnt ato cUIrd Pora- 
Istip." If WH follow Uir rorijpoCore 
i>r Srliwi'iijlijcuiK-t null U'rw»ftiD([, w»i^ 
fWiAafiM. ihc niPsnini; wilt ho. VitiX 
•■ Iruin tfir j(iunn«' "pnioit tln> lln>al 
Srjrrhliuiiii, of whom rnrniioDi* hereafter 

" Th« t«t *M», " Hut to mniiy." 
>T Hul Hor^doiiM mcBiit ocl; iImU 
lb* SoyitiiMi* offered |tr*«i (urilioM 
to chii tculd, hr voulit ruirety h*va 

WpMvliii); if of opiolon ihit ^tri;^' i 
«■■ ai« wit Itn, slrniBm !!>■■ -■ ihr ■ 
iiuBf brii]|[ errrT jrcsr tkit gM, earb 
into hi> cifH fndMilual Matet." t 
Itiinl he i* rif)bt, «i><t (hiir it ^ 
tuatt I liave lolliywed. LarrArr—Hj 
iranilnli'iri ri<lla«i that irf SrkirrlK- 
h<Eu*tr, who. [ ilunk. civattlinin ib ] 
■ reunicDl III Wcmditig. 

» Thf »boU of tfai* i* aBinMlllitMl' 
to mr ; nwsn eaaiMt bat aikiur, ikai 
if«a)(iMii quaniirf of ImhI nu ^Wm 
tn tho nentlOFl for TvinainlBR awtk* 
onl; ODC day, a* Iforcbvr ripti^M ii, 
tbc iBfk wu b;r no ■»»&< paaantaaa- 
TKl* to lh« rrpard. I irc that ootef 
th» niKOTimcript* giTM i^t S>, inaMd 
<il*fa: if «r adopt Ibitri*Ading, night 
UM Elir ivtite l<. " Ad(I for tkal raaM 
iitcj t\i* it (I. «. ihe mored gold) i 
him, that he m^y rids abooi wiib tl < 
r>Q hnn>vbk(Ji durinftmndaj ?'' Bfvrr 
onp will allow thai th« ^nard ««tf) 
Dot bi> (D iorliocil lo dfvnlnMi, iiUk 
un h(itHiba«k, 



d ^oM vTflj kept. AlioTc, mwardti the norths bcfoml 

iuliabiluuu of this l[act''fllte luiid caimot 1>o 6Kxn to 

y coiiM<Wrablr dWiaiici?, or Ih' Imrt-lled over, hj- reason 

shiivTCD' ot fcuthiTs lliul lull do»'a*: for tlie i-artli and air 

TO filled villi rvnihur», wliich ii tbe caatie that precludes alt 

ro»|H.'c 1. 

Sucli in llie iiccotinl tlie Scjtliiaiw give of lheiii»clifes*',8 

id of the cuiinLrii-K abuYv ibt-ni. Tlie HuUeDic itcltiers on 

le shores of tlie Pontus*' make (he following statement: 

at Ht-TciiloR, driving before hiro the herdu® of Gcr^-on, ar- 

red in 1)119 counirv, now inliabiled by ilii^ ijcythians, but ai 

at liinf! completely dt-fu-rt. Geryon ihey rejirestiit an 

tisiHing far from ihu Ponms**, in an island, t-allrd, by thn 

elleties, Erj-iheia, nitaate Wyond Gadc», without ihe Pillars 

Hercules, on the Ocean, a river. Conc«:min;t the Ocean 

ley bavu an idle tale, Raying, that it bt>){iu« in tbu east, in 

c (jiKirter where the snn rises, and flnwi romplelcly ronnd 

e eartli — ihin however they do not nhcw by fact: from 

cuco IK-rculcs had coiue to the country iio"* called Scy- 

a. llie Hellenes go on to Mate, that, vi>iiled by a stunn", 

|(D<1 chilled by the cold, he drew over him^lf the lion's 

Hiin, and fell asleep: that, in the mean tinu:, hi:i lionwrs, uu- 

" 'ked for ihi- puriiosv of grazing, disapjwaa'd, by 8ora» 


!**■ Join rfii fit(it ttt/ut rii infti*^. Iliprefir*. TMinIre that •># ahnulil wi. 
Mr. I li><e fuilowol L.arc)>Fr: dcrttasd b; iIm Oraektof ibr PotKo*. 

ira «l BU l)«MU« J'4 riemit'i Aolt'- 
M A* c* fy-* '•• ScT»b«, " *e. 
■■ UrmdoiUM napJsina what it 
nnl bv tlm>i fwlbara, that ia to 

B, ihrj arc nmhiPir man thm 

*< M( in the *«a«c of wt^i «n 

r** Spp tbe DoU on th* word rimif, 
pv#r rlfittn. 

I ■■ Tb* toniiD* nmkr uw of tb« fs> 
ina «lch thr iiitnic '■( ths ■nimal. 

Ihow un th« EusiM', aKJ not ih* 

DCilr, I.Hn-lirr Istti u>. ■■ Uk<*n fpMU 
■ IvtUf n<Mm>and tn HFllaoirrr, wfcn 
anHnntiMHl ihit wtirria 'EAX<w» K •! 
«)t nttrm (I'linnt. at tt« hrflnninii 
nf thi< rhajWt, nf the Grrd* <M tka 
B] edited K^)c«i. In tlic fovtctit in- 
■(■ncc, it wo«U npi>p«'. froiu Ihv men- 
Hon ef ihr |>roiiitiij of Gnilti*, that 
f(0 r*i IlAvtr muM •i^ifjr " withoat 
ihp ***," itat U In nj, «ltho«t lh« 
Mndiiemuinui. If tlw readrr cbuas 
r i ^rr * ' a lict-l, ur onjcrricniiijii of to adopt ibe na^inic <«ar«>(a«if>at. ae- 
; 4 !«*»(. eaTalfj: t Imw, a oontiiv lo S<liwrig!>=r>n«»T'> coqW- 
tnr*, Ih* tnoiUtlwn will b«: " u»< 
r*o«). iliey tif, InhalMed an ialan^ 
Wlilob tb« Of««k( Ml) brfthela, il- 
toau (aanaavitat) vlthMrt tlir ack, 
(■'. «. ihe M«iiiMrraimD> anr Gixlw, 
nit lb* Oocao, bfjand (ha i'ilUii n( 
HrrcuW It*qwPtinc Ae aipiii- 
oalfoti here pr» is >»«Ha«it(t«i, tbt 
rii«t*r w folmad to p. IT, ihUp XWi, 
of lhia«nl«inr> 

» Rot Matt. «ia, »tL 

I of aaaw. turvAet. 
Harwkinia, aad mvt of tbe ui- 

■I ; nor nuu that wotd W 

la fiKnitj lb* ranlu* Eoiinw, 

^|r«« rirruia'tnnvM aA« (» il thil 

BM, ihai ■■ Id •■;, wWn Hrroilcrtii' 

ikioft rf Ibo nuntiiTC in ttti< 

bboamnd of th* Eutin*- In 

CM* ho i« oprakiTif of rtie P<t. 

dana, av) nf itirir ronmry. •iiuatf 

dM Entinv. Tht rirmnitxiKv*, 



MbXPOMENE. IV. 9, 10. 

D HUpcrliuman influence. When Herculen awoke, be pro- 
cot-dec) m Kvarcli ofbiii Kteeds; went .il) over die latid; snuil 
lu»t came to the coudIt)' called Hylsea; Kitere, in a even, 
hv luund a monittiiT of two natures, one hnlf a womuo, iIk 
other ft Beriieot". The upper part, down to tho buiiocb, 
prcsuntcd tlie furm uf a woman: below, that of a serpeU. 
HcrcuIcK saw this monster: be watt surprised, but iuinind 
ir she had yen hU Ktniycd horses. She replied, that thor 
nern in henlpoKKesfeion ; and sbo tvould nuL restore tbns 
until fthe liml eouvcrMid wttli him: to thul condiitun Hertii- 
left BKfiented; but the eruature still put ulT Lhu re^loraikio "r 
the hon(t;», wishing to enjoy a longer litnc the compaDTof 
Hercules, while he biiuself was anxious to depart; at bit 
slie restored thorn, and said: " 1 bare saved for yoo ihew 
" horses, which had slraved to this place. You bate n- 
*' turned the »ervice; for 1 hare by you three wos. ft>J. 
" lell me wbnt [ am to do with them, when tbey grovqi; 
"whether Hhall 1 eHtablish Ibem here; for here'i am spr»- 
** rei^n fpiecn; or shall I send them lovou." Tothift,stl^ 
Hellenes i-epreseni, Herculi!!< made ihix reply : " When rail 
" see my sons grown to manhood, fail not to do as I no* ttD 
" vou. He, whom you we bend, as 1 do, this how, and gW 
** liiiuself in this manner with Ibe belL that is here, keep Mv 
" in your country'. Send away from lienec him that (^ 
" foil in nlut I now eiijoiu. In so doing, you will be cw- 
10" lenled; .ind you will bare obeyed my orders," HerrulHi 
accordingly, beat one of liis bows — for til) then lie ct,rnti 
two; shewed bis paramour how the belt was to be girt". 
then gave her the boir, and the belt, from the top of IIk 
clasp of which hung a gold cnp ; and took bis depaitarc. 
Wlien tlie children were grown up to manhood, she ga*? 
them tlieirre^pcclivr iiaineK**; AgathyTi:iii5 LothefirBt; wkf 
nus to the second; and Scythes to the youngest. TbcOi 
mindful of her commission, she aetctl conformably to the 
behests of Ilurcules. Accordiitgly, two of the yoang unit 
Agathyntus and Gcloniis, not being c<iual to the appointed 
task, were driven awuy by ibeir mother, and left the cood' 
try: but the youngest of the three. Scythes, having acton- 
plislied the conditions, rcmaiued in his country: and from 
Scythes the son of Hercules sprang the Iloyal Scythiauof 
Bubsc(]ueut generations: from the aborc-mentiuncd cap 
came also Ihc custom, still in rogoe, of ScyihianR weajing> 

» nm lxi)n>i tipfr. * rrfr* fUi (Klymi aMi) if •*" 

^ rgtitmrim iii^nili«« to abaw fint, /wn Awb>. - - . ««pn ll «•>••*' " 

tff niM't awn «X*n[>I*, biow ttif thing IMt nta jbw^ . - - «« Mf «titr Itmi- 

h Uib* ilnD(>. 

MELl'OMKNE. IV. II, 1-2. 


iclt. This accordingly * vm doac for Scyllies 
motJier. Such is the account pvea br tho 
Hellene's settled ou the shores of the Fiixine. 
I ITicic is also anuilier ziccomit gireo, to which I myteit 1 1 
ktuch some credit: it is this*': they relate, That the nomade 
BcyLhians, who onc« resided in A»ia, being (lefealed in war 
by the Massagette, crossed " the Araxea rifer into the land 
CMT the Cimmeriane; for it is Bdded,thecouDlrf now occupied 
tj the Scythians belonged In former times t^rihc Citnine- 
iians. That on the aj)pro3ch of the Scylhians, tlie Cimme- 
nans held council, thi: invadinf; aTmy hting mi immcnnts'*. 
Erhe opiniunu were accordingly di^idcii bi'twucn tbein; both 
irere warmly Hipported : tliat of tht- kinj^ was the best : for 
|he opinion of the* p«opto wa^, that expcdioocy suKgc«tcd 
Ibey Ahiiiild iK>t hazard thcmsclTCS before such a multitude": 
lliat of tbc kings uas, to fight for the soil with the invaders. 
3)nt the people did not choose to yield U> the kinK^i nor did 
hhe kingtt ehoo«e to bend to the people: accordingly, one 
feHuljr resolved, without striking a blow, to retire, and abandon 
she country to llie invaders : the kings voted to reutain in 
Itbc country of their fathem, and there raecL death, rathi^r 
fUian join tlie people in their flight; arguing, how many 
lilesftinga they had hitherto enjoyed, and what evils they 
might exped in flying from their native soil. Such being 
(the opiaioni* on the two sides, they separated, and, being 
jequat in uumbrrs, fell to blows. Ercry iiion among the 

kings having been slaio by the opposite party, the Cimme* 

rian people burieil them all on the bank of the river Tyrns, 
iwliere the grave is to this day seen. AAer they had buried 

die fallen king*, the remaining people departed Irom the 
'country ; and the Scythians coming up, took possciuion of 

a deserted Und. Kven now wo find in Scyttiii, Cimmerian Jg 
IcastlcK and (^inimcriaTi frrriea**; we lind, also, a quarter 
C'immeria; and there is u Cimmerian BoKphorus. It 
cridcnt, that the Cimmunans'*, floemg oat of 

IM, raUtlDjt, I bel!n«, Co Mn 
li T9 x^tf ScLtrclgttvuBcr 
I tlitn Uiai ittS m ii m ad^ttb. 

'■^v#«lM^>ra(, Mart. SOft, «. 

[Sm Uitt. I>«i8,3. 

')»biii«>. MfM Furnm«>niati>r* rr> 

I a tMitolnej. Bat 8otiwiti|br«aer U of 

I opiaiim tb"t ll>* n«mamnfirrmata,v^).- 

^i l«v> wnrt «M.<. t> r^iti*>l*fil, h; 

r •tlipii*, to 'fitf^ Jt^ii* l»t». Tlw 


roBitnirtlon, Iherpforf, will be: (x(- 

" Hiff^f* in brrv ■ f>ra|i4r n»ni* : 
li wmi [hit •■ne of m lawa (ran 
wbracD Ibe CtminerlMi Boaphonu aw 
cro«Kd. Tline an mtaj f\wcm in 
thi* coudUj eallfd, hj ■ iliDttor nmn, 


iMi:i.lH)MENE. IV. 13, U. 

Asia before ihe Scyihiann. colonized (he CherBonemt 
whicli U>« Hvlleaic town of Sinope now ntand*. Ii is lik^ 
wise ceruin, llini (he ScvthianK, iii (lie pursuit of the Cimuk « 
riflDS, miss«d thmr roail, aud fell tinuwares u}>oi) tlie Mc-^ i 
lerritory : for tlic ('iinineriiin^, in thnu flif^lit, kept constant. ~\ 
to the sei-Bhotf.- ; uliik* tlic Sevthiaiii; purKiiiKi, Lui-piag Cm. ^ 
casus lo tilt: right; and »o fell upon tbi; Mi-dic trrrilo'v^ 
having waiidcrod iuu> ilic interior, otit of tbt'ir right ir^«b 
This dilTcirnt accuuiit is couiuiuu butJi amunf^ llcllcue» K-ancJ 

13 ArietuoA llio bod of C»yslrob)us, a ualive of Proconoetttj^ 
mentions in his poems; Tbat be ciuiie ns far as the Issedoneji, 
inspired by Apollo. TliJil above the l&#edotW8 dwell tl^ 
Ariioas])!, mm with but one eve : alcove (hem latter 
found the gold- keeping griffoDK: above ibem are the H] 
perboreanE), cxtenduig to (he sea. lie adds accordingJ^ 
that all these, uith (lie exception of the HvperboreanO 
hare, cammnicinK with Ihc Ariaiaspi, r^ucceMively advanced 
on tJieir next neiglihunrK": ami that hy the Arinunpi ibe 
IsscdoDcs were pusbod out of tltcir countn-; the Sc^LhiiM 
bv tlte U?>edotii-Si the CiuiintTiuus, hy the Scvlbiant; lllo 
former of whom, res-iding ou the southern wa ", were oblifpji 
lo forsaVe iJieir country. Tbiis eveit that poet docs not 

N coincide in respccl to this connlrv uitli the Scylbiaoa. I 
have" ulready mentioned of wliut countij' AriKleai vu, 
who Mng«i tlu'i^e thiiigit: I will now Helnil wbal 1 have bend 
couremiug hiin at Fmconne«)U!» ami Cjzicus. It is relaU<li 
that Ari«triis, nho did not belonn to Any very bniublo bmilTi 
had gone into a fullcrii shop at Proconuesiis, and there sIH- 
denly fell dead. 'I'lie fuller directly closed his uorkftbopt 
and hastened to carry the tidings to the nearest ktn^meD o^ 
the deceased. The report of the ileath of .Arititeas bavin; 

J|uickly »im-ad over the town, a cil'xeii of Cyzicns. coming 
roui Artaie, cooLrudiiU^d (be rumour; declaring, that Im 
had met AriMeas going to Cyzivus, and conversed iriUi 

* mU rin r. i^irHtttm, '• Tonl ran- 
limwIiniiMii Ib Kuoirp it Irtin vmiinf.'* 
LarrAcT, I shnuM hato ptrfrrml 
utiDK aiiJ in tbo leave of Hui/vrm/gf 
nxikinf; tli« awiKiin|[ to tw, " oil IliriP 
DaUoU'i, tb« Arlnarpi bWftoin^, m?> 
0«Wi*elT Ml 00 (h"ir nriftnboim.'' 

^ I*] wf wrlf tmkinft ilil* aittt 
tw lie Etulae, wb rli w r.allj m 
(lie louth, iu ■r'lwct «r tic Aritnaapi, 
ttc. 1*h« •Hont (■nfiHvrar M fi- 
A—w> iillad*( pertiap*, to mow mo, 
WfelMl frabalily Ariitvui rapr«wnlFd tu 

bouadiBg the nortkerti tiu tmit} ^ 
Eurt>j>t: tbe eUataiR of Uihican*. 
w MT •tun am brreanrr, ikiitnd tf 
oui HinotUa. 

■ The dcacripitoiO of ScjHliUit*'* 
lamM IB e. ll>. Tlis Iwu iiiun*«ii( 
«hBf4cra arc a digr««MOB, ttmcixf 
ATwtvai, a celebnwd pMt, af vh^ 
•noti.* oDlf CKtlic Twmrt nt •** 
txtuiti MKcfwkicti arr ptraMwJ^ 
Xitrugfwm, tke uttien in Ttvtim. 6* 
Urcher, 111. 499, 3. 

MEUPOMKNE. IV. 13, 16. 


I. Tliit ptrson contitmttig juTtiiviciuuHly to give llio Hu 
lo llic rpporl, ihe relations of (lit! ik-craiwil jiroci"edt:<l lu tlic 
fuller'n, witli the inifiUi'm of inkiug away ihe biidy for 
iotcnncuL: they nponvd the worktihop, but no .\rietcas a|>- 
pearei!, dead or alive. Ilowerer, in ihe suvcnlh year after, 
tw appcareil again at Procoiim-sn*, and composed the poem 
itDW called, by tliL- EiL>1lL:nt-<i, ilic Ariumspfa: after he bad 
wrillen ihul poi-iii, ho disappeared a second ume. Such are 
ibt? accuiiiitn (^vL-n at Pri>ct»ijne»ns and Cyziciis. Tlie fol- 15 
lawinif parliculiirs I heard from the people of .Melaponlium 
in Italy. Three l(undrt;il and forty years after the second 
dtuppcariiiice ofArisienit, as I hnd 1>y comparinf; the Htate- 
meota wade bolh at Pri>uoi)QttBiu aad 31ctapo»tiuiD, an 
event connected with the abovn poel occurrt>J. TIio Meia< 
pontinvs declare, that Arisleai* apjK-ared perxonalty in their 
courury, ordcn-d iht-ni to t-rrcl an altar to ApoMo, and place 
clow by a sutuc of hinibt-'lf, (0*t"K '' *bc name of Ari»ieas 
of Procminrsus: for he affinued. that llieira was the only 
eoomry of the ItaliotM* whom Apollo had <risitc<l, and at 
the lime he himself**, who was now Arinttias, fotloved the 
god, under the form of a raven, iiann); said thus much, 
ue di(iapp<.-ur(;d. The Mvlapontinet* add, that they »LM)t to 
Delphi, til in<t«iie what spectre of a man it might hai'e 
been: and the i'ythiuu answered, by biddioK ibeiu attend 
to the p)ianir>ui; if they did »o, they would proa|»cr*'. The 
Meuponiinc*. hannp received the response, obeyed the in- 
laocUou: and now ibcn> stands a statue, bearing the name 
of Ari^tcAK, c1o«e by the ima^ of Apollo, around which 
bajr-treea spring: tlie second image \s found in the market- 
place. So iniieh, then-fore, eonceming AnMiffas". 

CoDceruitig the i-ounlry, however, of wliieh this history 16 
procvvdx to lipcak, no uuv kimwK any thing lor certain about 
the partA that are sitnatc above it: for I have never been 
able to obtain any account of tliein from an eve-witness : 
Dor even docs Aristcas, of whom 1 have jn«t made mention, 
pretend, in his poem, to havu reached any fnrlher ihuu llie 
U8edonc«: whai he heard u)>oiit the countr>' higher up to 
Donb was, ho Kays ttikeii from the description givoa by the 

tW«MI th» 'iwaXiirtt ao'l tkv ' InikJ. 
M bMwHn lh« IjBiJjwrai aad Ih« 
fmXti. Th« 'I^tkAW nod (W Trfu)j> 
irw« tka «Mimt iuh>'>i<Boii> of luij 
Mtd fuel If ; Ihe 'IvmAwtw •&(! IbB 
mi* lb* GrMU vbo (laJ 

r«Ubliilt«d tbniiMkflt in luly Ud 

*> lint MBit. fob. 
'■ Mail.4A7. 

" Lit. " I«t ID lavcb b« «aU, m- 
cvnlinglj, abool At4«U 


MEIJOMENE. IV. 17-40. 

Itupdnnrs- I fthnll howt-ror inrndon^ liere vhalCTcr 1 ha*i 
n lieurtl as ruttain cuncvniing (lie nii»<l tli&taul )>artfi. Taking 
nur dcpaniirc from ihu utaple of llio Horvsthci] i ta;> wbtcb 
U tbe eeiitml jjoiiit of ibo &ea-cuast appertaiiiiiig In ScyUiiSfl 
ibc first o(;cu}]anU of ibc Uod arc tfao Callipidu, wbo anj 
liusbaiKlmrii, iind Hellenic Sc^lbiauft. Above these ia a 
diflcrcnt Datioo, the Alazonc«, as ibcy arc called: they, u 
well as the Callipidar.faare llie saiuti usages as ibc Scythiaiui, 
biit snw, for boise coneumptioD, com, onions, p;arlic, lentiiii, 
and millet. Abore the Alazoues are the Scylliian butiband- 
roen: they grow com, not for thoir own use, but for eKpnn- 
ISation: north of these lie the Neuri. Farther on, lowaids 
the aortb of the Neuri, the land, as liir as we know, u 
desert^. Such are Ihe oationH on the Hypanta river, and 
west oftlie BDrystbenes, as j^oti a«cend that Etream. If^rou 
now cross** over the Boryathenes, the first country- from U>e 
edge of the nea is Ilylieu: advancing nurlhward frocn 
tbcncc, you come to the ttrritorr of the Scythian Gcoip, 
whom tbu IJtIlcnL■^, dwulling on ihc lianks of the Hypanis, 
call UorysihcDiia;, but give themselves the appellation of lJ»e i 
Otbiopoiita:: these Scythian Georgi accordingly occupy thoM 
land for three days' journey to the cast, extending to i^ 
river thai bears the name of Paiilicupon: iheir territory ei- 
Cends DorthA'aids, for a epace of eleven days' uiLrigaliun U|) 
the B<irj-stbcnc». Tbe land immediately uJjutc them i», (or « 
the greater part, desert. Having crossed the desert, youfl 
leach the AodrophaKi, a diutiuct nation, quite uucouDucted^ 
with the Scythian : beyond these, the land is wholly destrt": 

19 no human beings arc seen there, that we know of Etat- 
wanl of these Scythian Georgi, oAcr crossing the Panucapt*, 
yun meet, for the first time, with Scytliians notmides (paston), 
who neither sow nor plow : all this country i& wholly dcBti- 
tute of trees, except Hylsea : the:W! nomadea occupy a space 
of fourteen days' journey across to the esRt, and slrctchiug 

20 to the hanks of the river Gerrfaus. On the op|K>site side of 
the Gorrhns are the quarters called the KoyaJ: the tah4lHl- 
ants are the most valiant and numerous of the ScythiaM: 
they regard the reat of the Scylhiaiis as their vassals. Tliii 
race extends down, suulliward, to Taurica: eastward, oloQK 
the trench*^ dug by the progeny of the blind slares, and to 

Jm^m* Kufwi, (i 1^} IfVMf •■^T'* 

«) UL " Bot «ku «« hate ben 
aUa Id ounte u socantelj 'in banty, See Mall. 437- •£<- 3. 
M &r M pmriblH, aU ihsli be men- *> IwUrn- ■« Mau.S^O.L 


*' CaMtrii«ti«a : {u»rlt " fit ik(3f 

MEU'OMENE. IV. 31— 38. 


the staple railed Cn-mni on t^ic Lakt^^ .Mxolis: sonu* ol'Lhijm 
suvtcb evtni tu llic rivur Tuiiais. N'orltiward of, and aboro 
the Royal Scytliians, are found tbe MeliuichlKni ; ont a Scy- 
tkian, but a dialiiicl nuliou. Finally, abuve the Melanch- 
Uent, are lake^; and tlia land, as for att wc know, U desert 
and uaiobabited, 

Aftei croesing the Tana'is rirer, yoa are no longf<T in 21 
8«ytbia: the firti region is tbat of Ihc Sauromatffi: ihey 
conunenco ai the to|i of ihe Lake ^lieolis, and occupy the 
land nwiliward, for u space of fifteen days' journey, all 
dettituic of trees, whelhur wild or culliTated. Ucyon'd the 
SfturoDiatffi are the nudini, dwelling in Ibc second trncl: 
they occupy a land ttiiclily studded with nil »Qrt» n{ linilicr. 
Above llie Butlini, udtaueing [ji tliu noitti, tics iinit a dei>4.>ri 
SVFCD days across: at the uxlrcmiiy uf the dc&cit, inclining 
more to ihu wtsl, are found the TbysBagL-tie, a nutnLTous 
and distinct nation, living by the chacc. Contiguous tu22 
tl»c«u aiv thu lyres, tvuding iu the Hanm iguaner: thuy Uvo 
also by ttic cbftcu*, which is manaii^cd in thu foUowtug 
nianuer: the country being well clotliud witlt foresu, every 
buntor climbs up a tree, and puts himself in anibufth": ho 
a provided u illi a honte, trained lu lie down on his belly, iu 
order to appt^nr very small ; and with a dog. Whcnevfir he 
Bpiei« any gainu from the tive, bo iihootH it widi hiK bow, im- 
■edtalely luumiLs his bor«e, and pursues, followed elos«ly 
by his dug. Beyond t\iet»o, incliuing'" eajttward, du-vll a 
distinct race of Seythian«, which at one tiioo seceded from 
the Koyal Scythians, mid no settled in this country. &u rart£) 
aa the land of thi'se Scythians, the al>ore-de«cribed regions 
Afo level, and the M>il is deep: beyond, the face uf thv 
coontry bocouies utony and rugged. .\Jier cravelliug over 
a good distance of tlm rocky country, a nation iu founds 
they say. at the foot of wme lofty mountaios ; who are all, 
mate and female, bald from the birtli, have snub noses, and 
lung chins". They spixik a distinct language, but ivnar the 
Scythian costume. They live on the fruit of a certain tree, 
the name of which is * Pontic :' it is, in siicc, about cf|unl to 
the Gg-tree, and beats a frutt Kittiilar to a broad-beau, with 
a atone inside. When this fniit is ripe, they s<iueoite it 
through cloths : a thick black juice exudes, which they call 

tial* U. Tha tr«nch ot iha niu r>f ih« 
bHnd riavM uip«»r*, frooi thii ps*- 

> I 4o bM MS ttn otasriy tha 

ps«- orwiN fan* til ih» aruata *). la tUi 

Mf*, to li«T» baen lirait* namiittn matSBO*. WIUi rni»<l ■" (li' gn^ 

banvmi it* Taurlr CbermotviH, ud nl axpr«Mian of iw—iAtm In lb* 

ill* ttHMlh of tlw TflHi*. datiT«, icc MaU, 390, 6. 

^ i€i MfM. " oo kudo" Malt. ftrs. *• Or, inndt. it dw n«d«r vboMw: 

UodFr^tanJ J Jtyfu^ bcbrn A*Xf- "^ Stitieetg. Lta. Htrvl. roe, ^fwM 


MELPOMENE, iV. 94— 20. 

* Asi'Jij':* liiis llirj' »ipi and luix wiilt iheir milk, tlic geocnlj 
l)f<rerA|f«.'. Froiii the ihickcsi :^ediiD<>nt of thU jmiIji 
timtiltl Irtzyiigtf:*, u'liicli serve lliciii as food ; for they han 
linlc catilf", ihr pasiiires not bring very excelli'iil in liioK 
rejtions. Evt-ty one of these people lii-os beiuMth b uw: 
io tlic winter, ihejr hide tlie tree ondcr a wliile woolka 
•lufl**, which in aiimiaer ihey Uke off. No odl' dowi ihw 
any injury; for thi-y arc comudered aa sacred: Uiey poottf 
none of the inntmnients of war. Tliey** nul only settle ihc 
ili ffcntncLe lliiit hn))|wn ainnng Ihrir tl^iKIllKlU^^, but who- 
ewr takL>« tufut^o with tiiiiiii ib haCv from all violence: 
tlu-iu: pcuplc arc called Ar^ip)>a:i. 

24 L'p to these bald-lieudod niun, we bare a very accanUe 
liiioM-|i-(lgL- of lbi)« country**, oa well a* of the uation* tliat 
precede theiu ; fur Kome of the Scythians are in Lbe hatitl 
ol K'>inj{ thitlier, from whom inloriiution may be procuniu, 
as well a» ul lIr- staple of llie HelletieK on ihe Borystbencti 
and ilie other pliices of the same kind in PontUB. TlieSt^- 
ihiuns who ptifottu this joiiniL-y transact hiisincna in ^ic'^ 
dilftnnit InngUiigi-s, tlirmigh xei-en diH'ereni iutcrprvten- 

2ANo one enn nay any Ihinx certain about what is beyoac 
the bald-beaded race, for lofty mountains of v^ry i]i6icub, 
a»ceiiL cut off coin muni talion : hoirever, the Ar^ippmi n|^ 
whjit appi'ars to me incredible, that thi-se nnttiutaiu« 
inUiibileri by men with j(outs'-feet. When you have 
tlirouph" these people, you meet witli another race of oieo, 
who sleep six months at a tiuie: this appears to loo qiHt^^^ 
impossible": but thc! ])artK east of the bald nice are 
known; they ar«^i inhahiied by Isaedonefi : aa tu the l-ouoi 
that lie north, both of the bald Argippwi and liUK-'dones,! 
iTniiiinti loully uuLiiuuti, with the pxcepitoii uf uhatlhoi' 

Sfilnu iiatiuua rvporl**. The IssL-doncK an; buid to have ll" 

kirt llkvuiiv iiU kinii* of .'Blllr. In 
Hwo'tolU''- iraWa tl nrfmrita W- 
Xtini wMKmMi vmISbm. Sobo3. Hum. 

" riKf my* Aiva^. TlitB was n-M 
X wvtro MuD, Wi ttuul tqurrtnl and 

•lufk Ii<i-<lWf; in -li<irl, trli. The 
Wonl tf^iyMt. fin/mi, jnmirA (o WiXtf, 
tfprnn Id me dEcitivi>; nni) | tJiiok 
*« nnrt onilentiuKl ten « ftlf letH. 

*■ (wrf fat • '•- Twr* )), OB the 
vat ImiiiI •' - • oh tllf olMff. 

lt(. '■ ibn knawMRB oi ti.t. ixif lo 
i|uaJiittncr with) thv eaunirjr b great ;'' 

tbot Ii 10 Mj, lb* Maatrj M f^ 
cieotlir ln<Mn>. 

-Kt Sm Matt. aaa. «, {m tb» nb ^ 
which trt^iitn R In Uii^ ilativt. 

Vijwt. Sn[.tf7. 

" The foUowini: U L»tchBf'» I"* 
lotion, wliirh tbc rMilpr i* at ItlaQ 
la tuio^i : " Uvt vhif b aten, b^ 
narili tli» Bpnh, is kniMD 
ilip Anrip|>a.'i nor ihr iMrdo 
irliF na runhrr af^ouoi ilwa ' 
biv« (titicij fiwB tlwm:— Ua 
^ni «•( au-Jr-xii, du ro*' <ta 
h'm crttinn ci Avt ArripF'vn* tri ' 
lnvJait«, uni nVn dJHni 'i"* f" ' 
j*»i rapfroit* it'apirn rux." ljtn^-\ 



fifllOB'ing ciist'imt^ : \VIjeu tin- fatlii-r of one of l!ii;ui tlics, all 
Uir iini^m^ii bring to him uiiiii- of ilieir kiue : aAur they 
b&w HlmightoKd tlicf!« unhitnU, and out up the fle«)l, tbvy 
procccil lo tut up a:* well ilie dt-ceased fatlier of tlivir host, 
and, mixing loptHhcr the dipV-wnl kinds ol flotih, spreiid it 
fnrth us » l>iiri(|uet. Willj Tcspecl to the lit'sd nf ilic deceased, 
they Kiri]) it to the lionca, iicoiir ii riciin, and jilnte it uith 
gQld'; and altenvftrdfl use it ns a sacred onMiiteiit", at ihn 
great annual sscririceK they make. The son ncls thus with 
regard to hi» father, and h» the Hellenes celebrate ibt; aitni- 
•renury of tlie death of theirs: th« Issedones, however, are 
nekuned honc&l: the wonieD have wilb tliciu the saiUA 
authority as iIib men ", 

l*hc Isscdoncs theuiBcIves protend, ihat above their couulry 27 
are the ont'-cyed iiu-n, and the gold-tratching KritJons: 
frotu lfi(>in the Scyibiutis borrow the Ksriie talo whieh we 
Hellenes havu adopted from ihc Scyihtaiis, und tail the aboro 
peoplfl, aK the 8eytliiitn« do, AriuinHjii ; ' »rimii' bi-ing (he 
Scythian word for ' one,' and ' tpoH' that lor ' eye.' All llic 38 
eonnlry t have been speaking of is fisiied «iih a hard 
vioter ; during m liicli, eiKbt monllis, llie Irost is iuLolera- 
ble"; xnch, t)mt il you potir water on the ({round, you make 
HO uiudi but kindUuf{ hre, you produce tt. The wa con- 
cretfb, and »u doeti the whole of the Cinniierinn Iki>pliorus. 
The Scythians residing within the trench" make warlike* 
expeditions uii tlie ice, and drive titeir waggons across to 
tlie Sindi : thux the winter Wts** during eight uioiilhs^ 

It M nrtuadMl thai ihoiv U » 
JIfcwngll Mtwnn •*r«;^a«M and 
W^t jOH I Ih* fntnwi aiijiiirj ia|} fttl, 
Md ibr Uitcr. pMrd tcirh guM. 

** Urijcbiut csptalii* lymttftm bf 
«4t 1^ ^ v« ayaAAirH. Ltichvr Lnn*- 
UilOT il, in ih» imtiiscii, hj cmhjk' 
rf'M eatf friririLr, Mwl Sfhirciiir- 
h««wf by ^ra larto Pair ^ but, »»ft 
a* Mia. ■■ bt> 1-Pi. M«rol. ' aiiiia 
fiMrai M«n pr* omumeato y uo giiTi' 

** Thr 1*11 Willi i •■lh«M »e*^td- 
Julj v« ltk»iri*« kao»B." 

• dfiffti mm. Srt M»lt. 41ft, t. 

* Heoidctii) mrua, ai iloiihi, tbp 
Ireoch ditg b; th« »on* u( tlic blind 
#I»i>«* mrationcd in c. 3, Uo*t fic- 
ftMfAct* pUca thi* fTFDf'h on tbc 
MbniD* UiU Jmm (be L'berSMiau* 
tu lb* vencininii : if tb«ir poniioii it 
rii(hl, Hvridocu? limit allude in lhi> 

itaCL- to ibu EcTihiiuir of lbs Chenn- 

wbiiK -i^iiifinnlion l,4f<t>rr 

ha» kdoptvj in hit trui'lftiion. I 
•hall prove hervaflw, tbiil ii U by d» 
meant e'.iw thai ihen* vrit tti} Scj^ 
ihiHO* at all nuhlinhcd In thr CbH- 
foooiiM. I bars tbrrefiTTF ftwtrtitti 
* llmal traatlatlcD. I Tt, (h*i in a 
tnuli mlume of mapii, &c. Uicly puh- 
liibHl TO illmlrafc Mpmtaiua, I be 
irmcb or Ub« •out of lbs U'tad tlarca, 
a vcij imporlaiii putitkiD iD tba an* 
ctt-nl gcoitrapb; at Sc>lJiiti, i» uUmJ 
al tbu hoUuin of ititf Palut Micotla, 
ntmr Iha tnouch nf Ih* Tink'i*: I am 
net b4<r»nv airar* by nhai •uibahLr 
iho cnajfcinrv of Higcr Ranul ■• 
*> Initrad of rr^^tit'^mt, it ba* 

*• th*« uaynin." We ii»ie *np 
booibf , wRRKcna, and »tcb a prttHlngf 
•ffipv.iti foil Mllviljr HI (be frwi bmiMl 
* iHtvMli. 1m Sm Mair. W), I. 


MELPOMENE. IV. 99-31. 

during Uie four remaioiag mouths, the cold u( still |>tir 
ble in Ibat couniry. This Scj^Oiian wioler is diQcrciit 
thoKc of other countries, in luaoy respects: in the Et«t place, 
while that season lasts, it rains hardly worth spoakinf; of*; 
but in summer, rain uvrer ceases. When there is thunder 
elsowberv, there is none in Scythia; but in simitner, llie 
thunder ut must awful : if this pbaiuonieDoa occur in winter, 
it is rtigarded as n most extmordinnrj prodiffj. The sania 
is the casti with reaped to csrth(tuake«i whetlier in summer 
or winter, they ara reckoned wonderfid occurrences in Scy- 
tliia. The horse* bear through (bis winter : malee and asses 
are totally unable to stand the wvcre cold : and yet, in other 
countries, horses got frost-bitten vben they stand out tn s 
'i^ serere cold, while the lusacs and mulea resist. I think thil 
the HaniL- cause may account forth« oxen being a luutilak-d 
race, inasmuch as they Imre no horos in Scylhia : my npiniao 
is borne out by (bis tioo in Homer's Odybsoy**, which runs 

•" And Libya, where the rams quickly shoot (heir bom*:" 

expressing, justly, tliat tlie faoms grow rapidly in hot cooih' 
tries ; but in rude climates the horns of cattle arc not pro- 

30 duccd at all, or if 90, scarce grow to any size. But — as, 
indeed, my narrative from the beginning has uought rood' 
Dually for excursional subjects — I urn aurpriscd that in (he 
whole country of Klis no mules can breed; althougb Die cold 
is not great, nor can any other evident cause be assigned.. 
The people of Klis thprnndtes attribute to i^omc curse thtt] 
impossibility of breeding mules in their territorj'; botj 
when it is (he season for mares to be impn-gnated, tlii-y 
drive them to the nelglibouring districts, and tbere have 
them covered by the aseei; ; until (he males are with foal, 

m when they drive them back. As to the feathers with which 
the Scythians say the adnosphere is bo replete, that ih^y^ 
hinder Uiem from all possibility of seeing (lie extension offl 
the continent, or going over it, my opinion is Uiis: In (he ~ 
upper part of this couudy there is n constant fall of snoH, 
emaller", of course, in sammcr, than in winter: any one 
that lias seen snow fall (hick, close to him, knows what I 
mean; the snow looks just like feathers; and on account of 

»U ^ O-*-^ f *^l. Jnu^), fa ««cr, tat«« *^ Jfafw la ih* mmi '(•^M 

rA< innltr, fi» ^t«(«fn. al tJu unal if lAr tprittg. Soc &ohadid«r'« Gr^Ml ^1 

/nv tin 44hfT eommStw), lim Sv kfytr Ginna. Luxicoe. 

1^ *i)U, if rauM itatMnu iltitnimj; * TAb. it. rtn. NA. 

■Mgrtmi (or, If ibt reader cliorMc, ^ DJmn. Sr« Malt. 44M. 
mtMKg U tiPHfir)- Sckneiiiei, ho»- 

MELPOMENE. IV. 39,43. 


Bucli a Kcv-cn; niiib-r, tbu uortheru parts of \\m coiilinciit 
are uniiiiiabitwl : and therefore the Scytbiaiis aud tlieir 
neigbbourft, i think, say featliera*, cornpariog ibe sdou' to 
tbern. llic tbore is tbo account of what is related of ttioao 
very dislaot tractft, 

Cunveming the Hyperbureans nothing ia related, wbctherSS 
by Scylhiaos or the oilier nations residiog in that country, 
excvpt perhapK the iMcedones: and, in my opinion, even 
tbu luscduncn ha^L' nothing lo say on tfae Dubjecli for in that 
casu ihu Scythians would moku aft«:r ihcm the Kamc »tatL>- 
DM^nts as thoy do in respect of the one-eyed men. But 
HcMod mentions the IlypvrboruanK; and so docii IIom«r 
in the Epigoni, if indeed Homer bo really the author of 
that poem. The pt-ople of i)clo«, faoworer, arc those that 33 
have the tutist u> say about the aboro race of men. 'Fhey 
state, tliat crrtain siicccd Uiiu){!4, packed iu wlit^t-straw, 
prt'M-ntcd by ibe Hy|}crboreanj>, pax^ed through the bauds of 
tlic Scyihian;^ - by whom they were traiiamittiKl to tho ad- 
joining people, and so on from nation to nation, till they 
came to the farthest point of their western progreas, on tius 
Adriatic: thence, received Bntt by the Dodonieans, they were 
forwarded into llie south ; aud duKCouded to Uie Maliac 
Gulf, where they croRwed oror lo Kub<ca, aoil were sent from 
one tuvn to aiidther on to Cary&luii. From tliat port, the 
CarysLians, without touching at Andros'', took them direct 
u> Teuos ; and the Teniuns duliverud lliew at Delos. This 
was the manner io which the sacred things reached Delos, 
■vcording to the account of the people of lliat island. Tliey 
add, that, the first time, the Hyperboreans Mut, as bearers 
uf tJio sucrtr'd thiugK, two virgins, nboiu:- tmnits, the Deliana 
■aj", were Hyperocbc and Landice ; and that, for the &l-cu- 
rity of the two virgins, ihti llvperbort-ans sent (ivc of iheir 
citizens lo attend them; thc«e are now eaJlcd rerphereea, 
uid receive great honours at Delos. In conseuuencc of tlie 
persons ihiw despatched not coming back to their country, 
the Hy])erbbrcaus conceived that it would be a grievous cala- 
mity for tliem ucvcr to be able to greiit again** the deputies 

* Lit. " 1 tbink, tbt^rcfont, the 
SMliiuw tod tha naa^libourlDg! p4Hi|de 
caU the aixiv fralhtre, hj cuinpiiritou 

{tiaJ^mm. oorapwing)" > ' Wlii' 

MnJelh Uia mow liU irool.' Vmita 
oil*!). 16. qi»-(cil bj LivwIt. 

* Ul. *tt tri rti*iin*i4 ILtfi^tHt 
*&Luf), m lAriT prufrmt frt-m thit 
Jttacf (i. r. frntu C'arytlua). bidVifi 
ixItum) 'Attfm, flum xqr (Ary (L r. 

b lo M]P, 4id not tm^A at Amint: 

i»mt U T«Mf, IW th€f mji it oat 
the CarytHaHM that mu'efeii (Ara Ca 

^ iTw, rvdonduil, M« p. 138, doM 
73, of ihi< voliimv. CmMll, Uk*wlw, 
HaU. lU. 1,111. 

*) " 'Ihti II thonlil bapfwa In tbnt 
ftliTBj* Dut to,'' &e. 


M ELPOMENK. IV. 34, 36. 

llist thpv iioiil: Lhi-y urnpiH'd ihcnrroiv, for l)i<< future thai 
sat-n^d tliingn in whcul-slniw ; iiuc] took ihtrm to the [ictflB' 
OQ their tiordtint, rv<|UL>8tiug" liieiu to loi-wanl the paicd 
froiii iht-miHitvuis to somu ullirr iiatiuu: and by this luude »( 
ccPUTt-yniice, accortJing to tht- Dt-liaas, il reachL'i] tlieir 'ii]»ai. 
1 im-!H-ir am rntaxv of a. prnclice Minitar Ut kdopwd 
I) ilh tliese Kaci'eH o))jrct». The Thracian and Px.-oiMa 
M-omea, uhen ihi^y oiler ancriBcu to Koral Diana, will aoi 

34 filaiiglitcT ilic victims'' withoul wrlienl-straw, In lionaai'' 
of lliese Hypt-rbowan iirginn, who dii'd at Delos, the yoiiDj 
wonK-n and men of the island an* wont to cut Ihcir b*if: 
the girls, pn>noiiit lo llieir wedding, cut off a lock ofhiir, 
twt8l it round a fpindK-, and place il on their scpukbnlj 
motmnieiK, wliicli •tta.utU in DiairnV precinct'*, ou yourkfi 
band, as you ko id - on Lbu top of tbo inonoiuL-nt j^otrt al 
olivc-inw. 'Ilif yotuig mt-n twist sonit; of tlu-ir liair ruunili 
plant, and do the »itin(>. Such is the honourjhk' tribute ihe 

3CriT|;iux receive from ihc Delian yuittl). Tbf i>>lauden odJ 
to the nbnre account, Ihni, prertoiis lo Hyporuolte sod 
Laodire, Iwo virgins, Arge and Opis, travi^Ik'd ihruui;b iU 
aame Qatioax, and came to DeIo)i: ftiey hronffht to lliibjii 
a contrihiition which tticir couutrywomcn ttupo»L-d ou tben- 
iielveK, in return lor easy lahnurs in chiKl-hinJi ". Ai^ snii 
Opis, they iNiY, came, acconi]>aoied hy the gods i1k^»- 
wIvcr"; and nther honours, loo, were shewn to iIh'iii h? die 
Deliaos : for, they say, the womeo collect gifts ** for ineia, 
and inrolic them by natnc, in the hymn composed tn ibcir 
praise by Oh-n th« Lycian : and that, Itorrowing the euitun 
fixini lliu UtOiiin wotncn* those of tlie isIandH and Innia cde- 
bmte Opis and Arge, imokiug tlieiu by naiue^ itnd tDtking 

•ooonliTv, CuQttrucliuii : Ir^ajn-u* 
MiXtiiitmi, Mry trrrr mrHnl in <nt- 
^tmiltg, «MV «-Jlnna;^wf •*« . Ilun' nrxt 
ttrigiiimrt, Vftri^vbi #fu li. r. rk 
•H)i loJirUMitl t/ifm. In tfitJ lAm/ar- 
tatrii, ^ri U-vran /Vuu Ittfitiithvt, Kic. 
" W*» T- Sfi titiniflf* " to ■«<iiflc« 
(bt npliiD*." The n«ttiMll*v (Toverncd 

'> -S-e M«lt. 3s;, 2. 

*• 'Afn/tirmt can h»re no tiibrr hIie- 
nificArivp, Nince il miitt b« cHdwit 
tv all lliM U oIKc-trtv ««nild noi 
gr<i«- wilhtn l>iF<i>m|i1eil*r!f. LnrtAer. 

" I iiipj^Mtf «h«I. ureufdtug I* Ihiit 
•KViild !w>i<oiiiit of ihe llrllaru, H;ii«< 
roch» anil l.anilirp vivn poi rrjire- 
•*D(H a> '^itgin*. l.arcbcr irarslottt, 

wtilioiit lib iiftial mrcnney: ''Tit* 
bnughi la IllUiya iha iilHir ih^ 
vnr ooniinif loDDil to olTw W *' 
■pDcdjr and happy 4» B < w t of i*' 
woini-i) of Ibcir cBUOlry — CpHM-ct tf" 
piirli>kml a llilhfr h> tritiut qt'ilJ'* 
pLjirnl cbar)!^ d'oAVit jaur Ic pfaaf 
*i htoreus a«<s:ui?bT>ticol ■!«• faoi»^ 
de l«if pnr*-" Iwri, utt SlW. Gr. 
UraB p. n7T. 

** Apnllo asd DIaiia. Laftha. 

** ayaiftn al^lfte* ' lu cAtlMt W 
trlboiiou*,' M in i. Qi. In Cul* 
«niii(rii», ihc practier rf wiW** 
nvoDer, in ihr nanwi oi xaiM **'*^'' 
wnc*', U mill (bilawml: ro (hM "(•' 
■rliox alludfK, ia bit wUt wu A* 

UELPOUENE. IV. 36, 37. 


col](ction«. This Olcii, coniing from Lrriu, coinjioscd ol«o 
ihc iillicf nicl h|ii]iiK llmt arc sung ul Delcw. The Deliaiii^ 
add, that when t)iu tlii^hn of th<> victimH have bc<^ii ci>ii> 
samcd on thr altur. iht> a^^hr^ arc thntu-n iind Kprcad * uii 
Uie loiiil) of AtXL- and 0|ii!i ; which is placetl behind the 
Icniplr of UiuDii, luivajtU llic t;ast, and c\osc lo ch<t banqiuu- 
lial) of tho Ct'ian*. The above obwnaliouii aru sufficients^ 
eoQCvniinff the H^pcTboreaDS : for 1 need ant ri-bcarfiv tho 
lale of Abari!«, repriittMilvd lo have been an H ypi'Tburean, 
and vho 8«yA thai he carri<.-d an arrow all over thu world, 
wilJioiit taliii;;. If there he Hypirhon-aiu), tlit-rc munt be 
H)'[ivrnuliutiit*'. 1 c;)n hiil l^iigh, howi-ver, ivhcn t *ec 
many persons making outlines ** of tho world, niihoui pOM- 
■e«aing the slightest knowledgi} to !u>rve them as a guidt) : 
they draw the ocean flowinK all unmiKl the nirlh, a» if it 
H-ert! a circk> maiU- on a tuiatr's lathe**, and trace Kuroue 
and A-^ia as equal : but I tvill now explain, in a lew wonu, 
what i* the tize, and nlial tlie figurL- of faeh**. 
Tb« middle part of Asia** 16 occupied by Ptirtiann, conti-37 

MfluJ-J hy tM»aiI Ibfown upnti," Set. 
vim wljiMm all, I ihinl, r<ini«>'i> 
the trb>a vit^ milKf l<-n( rtlaiinrttliw. 

•• *T*yft/fi« •Ptniifi" ihnwdicllinc 
nnder ibi- I'ltn-nr uuftlirrn iraclof the 
b«it«lui ; in^rUti, llkiMi uiiilcr lh« 
tUlrtum Multirni ittct. 'I'll* r«M«n- 
log erf H*raJ<it(i«. mhii-h ■jiiodiiI* Io ■ 
1^ b ihMtfcirc F''<'<>T ntaii) Hit »^mt m 
' IhcMgb yieii.oMt»j: If CnplniiiPirry 
da<l* 111* Dirrlb {loIr inhatiiCi-ii , mo mav 

nnirl«<l« tb* lioiiih poU lo In M) likt- 


* Olbcmlfr. '' who h»ie dncrihrd 
b w»rd4 ttw prnpfc«»y of the ratlh-" 
Th» r«i<lct «)ll coIIkI, from *. 1M, tbM 
ItaM map* vt-rv nM tiaIfc«|tH«t in Itio 
ttMM of HcTodolut. 

«■ w iri «(W>. !<M Hilt. ATS. 

1 tic rJfiM nr lu crriaiult nothma mam 

Idtr baa lalna im-al pvo* to praov id 
'■ nwHi wutir and aindtl* artiol« an 
>llw word ^ttv In bi» Or. mmI G«nn. 

•* Thu Iraila <ini Hiiteciaa lo » rtry 
Ciulau» aoil iiiitmliDit dH^mai-ia an 
Ittiv arvM a« itwn knnoii. Tliv eon- 
ItiAeOl At AMm km kiMiwti Id b« 
jlmandnl iH toand hj lit- ■va; iha 
itliwn euuia vf A>ia bxl bem ft- 
aiud; but ibe veainn ■n'l Mrthora 

a* «vl1 a« Ibe raatnrv f aru ol Aala MM 

<* S«tiwelgbn-ufrr ia nf npinina, ihu 
ntradotiM wntc 'Arfci, err 'Avhn W 
^•Mi nifrai (JaiMint. In ibla d«crip- 
Ihxi, be Mpfow* a actaif bl line lo ba 
drooB, a* it ver*, (roM (nft Krjdtfania 
Sn. Ilial it \o aay, Ihiin tliv Qulf of 
Potma Co ibn Ebiioc or Block tira: 
alaoil ihid line dweh bur Batuma, 
vmupvitiit tfaewbole covaUr bctwcea 
Iho MX <r«j>: th*~«' nattOM irvre, 
tvrkiniriR f^tm thtt *nuth, th« Per* 
ilan*. Ma>li>». t^iwjiirm, and Colcbl- 
nai ; nhicti laltrr riltndi:!) ir> th*i 
Phaii>, tbr ailmitlpd bnundar^ of 
A*ia vaA \Mrofr. He dom- procectla 
lo df«crlb« the onotinatil *et(*ard 
•f tbia Inafflnsrf \\»tz fran ibe tin*, 
tvo TBM Iraci* ol land Jai tDMirda 
tliF ml ; ifeo flr>i. iImi b tn any, Uw 
Dortbtfii one, in iba abapc of a rauh 
quadr«0|clc, Uic norih uil* of wtilvli 
ruiw nlooj; the Eoiin*^ PrajiAiitb, 
aarl HHlrapoal, lu Cii|>e ftipvum ; tbi> 
wtatrni down Ibv Xma ; ■nd tb« 
saiilbFrn frmi Cape TriapiuiD abnc 
the U^riaDilric gulf: Uia M-ron^U 
that ■• lo nar, thr •ciulhara Irvrt, im 
iIm ahaps of a tmi^b irlanRlit. lb* 
wMtFrii sidonf nhtcb nina aloiifi the 
cnail of Ptifraii^a aM Sjrta, cnta 
athwart Ibe Uihnin* ibat jnina Afnea 


MELPOMENE. IV. 38— 41. 

fnioiiR to ihc Ervtlirffien sea : aboTO ihrae. on tl>e tiorlb, IR 
the M*-des : nortli uf the Med«s aie Ul« SMpire* : above ibc 
SfWi'ircs lie the i-'oK^biiuis, rcFidcnt on tlic shore of ihe 
norlhem ki^b, inU) u-hioh (liu Phasts disch»rges iU wattti' 

a^Thcsc Tour nAtions vxteud rrom u» tOMft. Westward of dnt 
nudcUu tract "* project two regions, bounded by the sea^wliKii 
1 shall DOW proceed to describe. Tlic coast of the tot | 
begins in ilie north from the Phnsis; it stretches along tl» ' 
Enxine and the Hdloi^pont, to Sigeom in the Troad : in 0>( 
muth, the shore of thia projecting rcpion commences fiwn 
Ihe Mvriandric pilf adjoining PhiEnicia, and extend* U) 
Cape "friopinm. In this tract dwell thirt)- difrcrrnt nalions- 

39The sbon; of the second projecting region begins in Peniii 
and is formed bjr tlic Erjthrtcan : along tbiK cuastt fin* 
comes Penda, ttien succeeds Assvria, next Arabia: il lenat* 
nates (not really, but by ousIodq*^) at the bottom of tbe 
Arabian gulf, and llio spot to which Darius conducted ibo 
cannl from the Nile". The remaining shorx; extends oo lie 
Mediterranean : between PhwDicIa aud Penua. the country 
19 hroad and cxteniHvc ; and belotr Hiocntcia, the ftbore 
etretchvB along Syria of Palicstine, to Kgjpt, where it teran- 

40»ate!i. Ln the easlem quarters, beyond the middle tract of 
the Pereiaus, Mcdes, Sa.spirejs, anil Colchians, extends tb« 
Eryihru^n sea: in the north lies Uie Caspian ; and eaM oti 
that sea the stream of the Araxes. hi tliis direction, Asiaiij 
inhabited ai> far as India: from that country begins air 
Ihe eastern desert, aud do one knows any ihiog about tb 
rest. Sncli are the outlines and dimensions of Asia- 

41 LtBVA belongs to the second of the pinjecting tracts'* ^Kwq 

to Europe, aotlouolmuu BlaiiglLeltal 

&«■, wbilc t)ia RVutbirrD >i<I« ■■ nsjihol 
hj Ih* F.rrchnp»a. Hikring thin dfa. 
(onb«d lira rontinml wvMttard of the 
four niuirini), h# prncM^s to Ihota rui- 
wardt ilic DAinr* o( wlilcb bs <loc« not 
nenuoD, coaicDiinji himMlf idth itat- 
iagttbftt on th* DOTtli xUvf mn hovaiti 
bj thv Cupiaa &eii und the Adlk**, 
and tat tbe tuutb br the Krythrvan; 
uid tkal«lllw>an(Iihi9ix;EliBiia'w[|cMit 
and salnKiKa. 

• i«' airSf. i. <-*A».'««. It ia a pitj 
that I hi' colt Ann hnuft not faaiij 
•nlHAifnt jnnhnntf Tur *'•■' 
mutr. uti lifrnlfie* a tnwt tliwicn- 
inft tXann ilii'ica: the comr^t Rheari 
cically t^al pcDintfuliiL, tntfn in lu 
iwaaJ K-rcptuiuo, Timid doc b« a 
prcDcr utarprtladoD, 

" I haw Mtinr«d Sohir»l)ihHV*er'B 

ioten>rctallaa, I^s. Bend, net 
I. Lirfhcr'* iraDflalloB ia, " 
abuutic, moil H-nlemra< cu nttm d^ 
loi — if trrmiHole*, hitl tut) n iiwiai \ 
a lav." 

•> See U. IW. 

* The nteaniDr k, tliat Lit^a U aa 
imnxoK jnaiuula, Jetting bum the 
temad Jtm^ t th* [«th>ia« of g^ 
riia breadth at Ihtt %ecX et laai b 
anil thnuttnd (lade* rrom tfatt m^ 
i.r. the Medtlerraneaii, to tlw Erjr- 
thnrui S«a, «. r. the Reit 8e«. It a^ 

tcnr*, tVom diflercat panagCBi tnt 
lenidDta* •(•plied the oaae of Hn- 
ifarana to all the Ma moUi and MWh- 
eait or tt>e iMfanui of Seat, ttaajn- 
b<«idiiig the Be4 Saa, the Peoiaa 
Golf [of the eslBtaca U «hick, h««> 
r»or, HerodetiM •ccna •> hai** bita 
iffDMont), and Ibt Id£mi OcMlfc 

MELPOMENK. IV. 43.49. 

ribcd; for front Egypt, LiVn begins: in EgypU ihin 
tract in cunlincd to a narrow isthmus; far from the Mediter- 
ranean ftt-a lo llic Arabiau giilf is a space of bnl oni! hundred 
th<Hisiiiid urgyu-, trhich make one ihoiisaiKl RtadpH: at a 
short disiaiice fioin Uic isUimuK, the tmcl, which now laltea 
thu name of Libya, bccuinum cxcoodingly wido. I am Rur-49 
urUed, llieretbre, that p«rsi>iu make Hticb mistakt^s in duGn- 
ing and dividing Libya, Asia, and Europv ; for llicte is an im- 
mesiM difference between tboM; purU: Europe, in iu knglb, 
extends alonn both that of Libya and Asia; but in breadth 
it ia, cvidriilly, not lo be tuiDpari'd": for Libya proves of 
iuelf", that it i& surrounded by lie sea, with the exception 
of the part that is coniiectca with Asia. Ncco. king of 
Egypt, is. the first we know to hare demonstrated this fact. 
When be had ceased his works on the canal between the 
Nile and the Arnbinn gulf, he despatched some Fhcrniciati 
aailorK, irilh onJers to return through the Pillars of Hercu- 
Wb into the Mr-diierranean, and to reach Egypt- The FhtB- 
' niciuna accordint^ly loolt their departure from the Enrthmtfit 
■nd navig,ited the sontbem sea. When autumn came, they 
l&odtid"': and sowed a crop, whatever part of Libya Ib^ 
might have reached, and awaited the barTest. They then 
reaped their wheat, and $el soil. Having thus continued 
, their cKciirMons during two years, in the third year they 
I doubled the piUam, and arrived in Egypt; and doclarRO, 
I what to mc appears incredible, but may perhajw seem la 
otbcni probablo, that, in their circumnavigation of rjbya", 
I Ibey had the sun on their right hand. Thus the limits of 
^^tt»ya were iirsL ascertained^. The Carthaginians relate that, 43 

■ ■ Or, whftt vooiil, y*AKft, bt % tetuld eoovtjr (h« mom iie« ia Biy 
{ tatter msalfttim: '* In tmftet ta tUh. Thi Ptuniniu, b»ia^ two 

to Bake ft cnmniLriioii." Vhn mrxniciK bij ptrfbrnwd tilt aptnOtBB ol mm' 

dl BmvdoUt U, [hai Earape citrndi ing Bud mping twioe. Sm Hall. 

ia hnistb, tbn t> t« nj, froin weft t99, a. 

to MMt, the whole of Afnc* and \*it,; " ThRt l« to way, whui lli«7 bad 

Eafnp* h«la(; nppoMd, o^eonlici^ to «r«i««(l iht Ei\itaUtT. 

the gMgnph; <a our kuIIiot, to ex- *• orn> fUt awn, VytMm *k r{*m*, 

Mod VNiwtrd, inio untanwn irvt* Uc. " liiiM il (••«. Llhrk) mn fbr dm 

bfymd iba CwpiBo, u hr ar Alia tlm tlss knotra." Reradona tnm 

dU: iwt in Tffvct to brcaJth, ibu 
la fe> N]r, lh« iliinniabni (tori ■aulh 
(0 nntb, Rornpe wu not jet dntiMd, 
(■M ». iiU Mhmru N(««'* •xrirdi 

not BM«B that (lie interior of Afrtea 
wa« Blade kii»wn, bat onlj that it 
WM aiir<iti-r*d that thia qnarwr af 
tho ittab* «ru nnonD'M by ih« 

tbn bad dtftrtnfoed that of Amen, eiofpt on the >iil« where It conftiMa 
Mid ScjlaiM tbu of Aala. 

«• S«eHatt.M8,S. 

*■ 1>. with (tie impcrlcet of the ia 
itieatiie, to cipreae tho rrpetUinn of «f)>, rii'k^w (JftCx- Lorrlur. 
Ibr ai<ci(m; I think Ihu MisilUrj^ 

no A'Iki The (act i*, we mnvl anp' 
plj froia ibc bcfinniait of tbia obap- 

tor, wtfiffrrti Imrm, rXit In* «Arer 



sobscquentiy** Iho following circumBtanco nfenrrod: S«uispi«] 
the sou of Teasipin, one of ihn Achxnicnidir, wn» ncnl on 
name exposition, btil, ai all events, did not circiinina.tij(aU>1 
Lilivfl : terrifii'd al ihc length «l the vojiigii, and Uw dc- 
«<>rteil appi'iininc*? nf tlie filii»re, he ii'lnriiud wilhoiil Accoiu-j 
pliHtiinK the lasli ini)>osed on liiin liy hi» iiUfditTt — for Sa-i 
taspes had vinUu-d tlie inaiduii daugliter of Zopynw ihe »on 
of Megnhyzus: bring scnlfnci-d, in c4jnFcqu<:TlceorthiscnmcKJ 
to bu inipattNl** by king Xerxes, ilie iiioiher of Sataspcs, a ' 
8i*UT of I>ttriu8, besought ibc life of her son, ilficlnring (th« 
would inflict on liini a greater punishment tli^ii Uii* iing 
hinucif proposed : she would bind him dou'n to circ-utu- 
navigate Libya, until he had completed the task, and re- 
tiinicd by ihc Arabian gnlf. On Uifse cnndtlinns, Xenrn fl 
granted the rccjutrst. SataHpc« proceeded into Kgj-pt. uid, ™ 
taking a ship inannixl by CarihRgintaii!!^ sailed ihrougli the 
Pillars of llirrculi-ft; and, afu-r doubling Ibc foreland of 
Libya, called ("app Solceifi, sltcred lor die south: hariog , 
paMcd over waiiy It-agues of 6ca, in many months' voj'nge, ^ 
Meing that them slill remaintnl a greater distance before V 
him", he turned about ship, and sailed away for Egjnit 
AftCT thi«, he presented himself befcirc Xcrxea; and related 
lo ihu king, that at the furlliesl extremity of his voyage be 
bad sailed along a >>hort> inhabiled by pygiuioi, dressed ia 
clothes of date-leaves; who, when he steered from tlieit 
coast, foriionii their towns, and I1<;d to the woiuitains: bis 
crew had euiered the towns, but had dune uo harm, taking 
nothing hut a few headn uf cattle. He AMigned, a» the reaaoo 
for not eonlinuing hi« progress, and conipletiug the circum- 
nuvigaliun, thaL his ship iras stopped, una it was impouibte 
to go any farther, \erxe8, however, convinced he did not 
speak thi.? truth, and a« Sataspo* had not completed the 
tnRk imposed, he impaled hiin, in accordance with the wri* 
gioal sentence'*. An eunuch belonging lo Salaspes no 
sooner heard of liis master's fote, than he fled to Samoa witk 

** Mtri )), ■uhieqiianl1;r tn thf rir- 
PUIIIUBri|cati(iD or iiie«i Phiviiii'Urn, 
Kmti^tUiMS ijn •! Xty^mt, ih* Cirlhii- 
■iniaiw nfflrm {tkac thcv knoir I.ltijk 
i« raiTouadvd \ry tht *ca]. This it lo 
h* *n]))i|T«d from th* lut irordii of 
III* fnr«fti)tnp ffhiptM. Sm t<chwnf[- 
bvom'* iini*. LiTclirr iruKlulo*, 
'' Iju Culht^iiinltt rscontrni unt, il«- 
pnit cf t^mps Satsffpe*. Hln &e &d. — 
IA* Cttlhiyinhm nialt, ilkat, liiur 

eM Iw no nMd irf rfwwiaft <ti* mf^ 
rioriiT at 8(ihw«i([bMaMV** fiMM* 
rukiion and inlrrpretaiioa. 

u Sm p. 167, aoM IP;, of tUi TV- 

M UuWt r«lit*4 to 1.WM1LM-. nl 
to Xttxet. Sm Mart. 44S. 

" roDilruotKm t Inl <l la i ^ — 1 1. 
mhl tilt rti rXmt («w 0Mf. Sk 

Mstt. 3»e. 

** Lit. " n«oitir>fi tke tannw 



freai riches, nhicli wore iwiKci) by a Smnian citizen, whose 
name I am acqiiainled uriili, but do not chuoso to divnl;^. 

We arc indL-blcd lo Dariua fur ranny discmvties ruvpi-ct- 44 
iiiff Asia. Tills king, anxiouK to ascoruiii itUu «)iat ftea tlie 
fodus diiwrnbogiiuA, the oiily rivvt brf'iilcK onv" ihat hnit 
cmcodilfs in its »iri.-aiii, Mrni uo Hxpeditioii l>y wa in di.-t«r- 
Btioe ihc truth : it vuiikivtud of rariuus iudivtUiul* in whom 
be could placf hw cniiGdriirc, but more parlu-ularly $i-ylnx, 
a citizen of C.irvnndtf. This «xpe'litiori embnik^'d at Caspa- 
^ni5.a city in Puciyice; and proccetled doirn the 
lit eastern direction, till it rrached the soa: tht-n, sieoring 
cm l]iv S1-.I ir«&tu'Ard, arriied in thi; lliiritRlh montl) at thu 
Mine pliicf "• from wlieiicf the Kfryjitian kin^', as I bfl'ore ob- 
Mrrea, dc!<]>aU'ht'd th? l*h<L-nicianii to ciTcuiniiavigala Ijbya. 
AftpT tile compktioij of this i-nvagu of discovery, Dahlia 
lubdiieil the IndiiiiiH, and look advanta^^ of the Mik for Iiis 
awD 8enit-i>: the whole of Ania, uitb ih« exception of tbe 
frastcm side, was found to prcscut the Kumc circutniilaDces 
oa Libya'*'. As In Kurope, bowcrer, ii is compIetL-Iy un- 40 
innwn to every ono"* wbfthcr this part, of tht worUI is 
bounded by tlir KL-a on the caitl or north: in IcnKtb, it ia 
IcnoRn to «xc(H'(i that of the t>vo other i;oiilin(?nt& lo^ctlier. 
i cannot eonccivL- why *** die earth, bt'inK ^'"^ i^ix' undivided, 
erer cauio to recoirQ three uaniOK, and iho](« of women ; or 
wbv tlic Nile, on li^pliun rivt-r, and the Phasis, u river of 
Colclits. should bavo been finf^l upon as tlie bouudariea o^ 
Asia; («)nie nive, injtieud of llie Phuis tl"' Tanais, Maolis, 
and Cimmerian Hytlii-'**:) nt:ilhi<r can 1 fnrniith any iu> 
focnuiioD aa to tht: names of the p«rstin8 who aaaigned the 
abore litiiits, or whence tliey borrowed** Ihe names of the 
thre« parts of the world. Libya, according to the account 
of the Hellenes in general, lakes tts name from Ijtbyo, iho 
name of a nnlire womnn : and .Asia, from** thai of Prorae- 
thcuH'fl wife. Btil the Lydians claim the latter, alKrming 
tliat Asia wiL>i so called nl'tfr Asiats, sou of Cuiyn, and giand- 
iKm of Planes i from whom llic tribe cnlled Avias take their 
name in Sardis. Ak i» Kunipt-. however, no one in exisi- 
enco kaowB whether it is encirchid by the sea : whcnco il 

■f.«.tbeNIfe: mMMi.lAr.Sa. 
1b hia DM* «i ikii pMHipw, C^VM ■ 

noch bcU«r B«iBc, ri ixjia iM^(«Tai 
tftM ri( ix>^1 T9 Aifiij, " the tv*i 

VOL. I. 

which adjoiua it." 

M S» ViMt. b. SE. 

•<■ la^ Stm. 8m UbU. U4. 

N* Sm natp SA, m Ibli word.p 283. 

"* L4rcfa*r abMTm, Iku Uum it 
not. Id tltb IuUmcc, iak«n m Um 
radprecal (uuv iua»J In Um nlddU 
njlce. Lttrrhtr. 

><■ &-C Uan. BR*. 



MEU*OMKNK. IV. 4«, 47. 

obtoinc-d iia name, or who gave it, rcmftiiw a myrtwr; 
unieiui wv my Ihal itns (.-oniiiiL-nt takes its aumt fvm 
EiiTopa of TvTo, having pri'viotisly iMH-n iiaiDclesv, as weD u 
Uie ino o(li»r!i. Hut Kuropa, il in kuowu, was at all o^enU 
an ARiatk wuinan, and ne<rer Louctied at tlii> counln' dow 
called Kiirupr br Uic HdleucK: she psued nulr** rion 
Phaiiicia lu CrtU-, nud from Crete to Lycia. We sliill ftj 
no more iipou tlii» tubjccl, and sbuU make lue ofllio iiauw 
now ill (.■omuioii use"*. 

4G The I'oiilm Ktixinue, nhiclt Darius invaded, exbtbitt, of 
all cuuutries in the world, the most uncivilized naboifc^ 
I except, however, the ScythiaoB: for we cannot meoltoBfl 
one ualioii nitliiu"" the Fouius that has displaced nnv inlel- < 
loctiial pou'erH; nor hav«; we crer htard ota learned man in 
thc^e ((tiartirit, fiaving t!to Srvlhiau (leople, and Anacharns. 
The Scviliian^, niriong all iintions w<3 know of, bave invented 
the wi^e^t uiodu nl' &(.-curiDg one of the mont importoat 
objects of goremmoul: this is the only thing 1 admitt 
among them. 'J*his laosL inporlant iuvcntion is an expe- 
dient by which thofie lluii come ftith an inteutlon of inradins 
them can ncrcr escape: the Scythians not being lo be found 
but when ihcy choose, il is impossible to surprise lliciu ; f(if 
they have no cities, no fortresses: they carry wiih them 
their houses ; are all gni»d horsemen pnd archers ; ibey liw 
not by husbandry, but -ou the prodaee of their cattle; and 
their tra^cxnns are their dwelling. Hotr, tlicrcfore, codd 
the Scythians bo otlieru-ise than invinelblc ; and miul it nni 

47 be vcr^- difficnlt to brin); them to engagcmenif This in- 
vention of the Scytliians has its origin in the peculiar fitnesc 
of the country itKclf, and the nuiiicroua riveni which aarvc 
tbem as bulwarks : for their laud ia level, and, bviog weU 
watered, produces on abuudant bcrlMgc. llie riv«rs thai 
intersect the surface of Scythia are scarcely less uumeroui 
than the canaU of F.j;ypt: 1 shall mention only those that art 
the most celebrated, and such as are uavi)^ble fiom the ses 

>M Sebwfliir. Los. H4>iad. •mx, !»•; 
Viner, p. IDS. vid Hrrnunn'siiotr. 81. 

■irnti. K. ^mw tUfimt r«i yM) xf"' 
ftlm. Lart/KT. — " H'c tkail atiiic ia 
lilt rttptei ij IJke rMvi><^ tpinnn — 

opblonj r«fUM. " 

*"* BorwMui DfTir a*ta lf*)( but 
is apakilip of wk«l U m iii« iiiUer 
■iil«, Ihst u W Mjr, Mvtcn liivMlf 
•i>4 •»ai»iliin([ tJiih ThiB «riui sni, 
llerefbrc, wriutn in Aim Mittnr, at 

HsUesnuura*, B'"*'>*t ^- '** ** 
tkst >it»l>aii, tkm SojtUHM, to. 
wonid not him bMV Imwccd btn^K 
■ad Ihr (lasinc. He nwl IwTe mH- 
[cn ic Bt Tburi&m. in (be bvd i' 

Ituly ; Ihc ScrtkiklU beiBfl «• A* 
hilhM iiiie of Ihe Ebxim, is KC^tA 
lo lU- intLitdtUlti cf Iksl ISBS- 

of tliaM BMsd br oar kunsUd ifWr 
ht Ini mUlti in Ilslj. Ltret^ 
8m> W«Nwtikf|li Pfmf. p. *. oT IM; 
<*u«(n«d^ edition of II •radomft < 

MfciLPOMKNE. IV, 48, 40. 


upwards. Tbcy arc, the Uut; next, tb« Tyrw; logelhw 
M*illi llic Ujpaiiiit, Uic Btirysilicueii, ihc pBoiicapcs, Uie 
Hypacyris, tlie GiutIiuh, and Ifat* Taanii'*. Tbeir eoursas 
are lu fdlows. 

The klcr, iu tbe first place, is the migluiosi rircr ihat we aro 48 
acquainted with ; it is always uquul, aad of ihv same dcptb, 
boch in u'iiilor aud suiuiiier. It is thv firet river in Scytliia: 
it cutuca dtmn from the west : and is the- larRCi^t, hy roaaoQ 
of tliK iiiultitudi! of KtrL-aniH that (.uiiiribui*.- (heir waters**: 
tbcH are the causes of the extraordinary magnitude of tbt 
later. From the Scytbiau tt-rriiory, tiie riv«^H"^ at least, 
pour their n-atcrs into Ibis ono: the Scythian names of tbem 
are, ibe Foiulu (tbL- Pyretus uf the Hellenes), the Tiarantus, 
Arams, Na|>.iris, and Orit^sxiiK. 'J'hi) first of the ab(>ve ia 
large: its stream lie» eastward '" o^ the olberst and mingles 
its irai4!rs with the Islcr. The second, called the Tiurantus, 
is ct>it»iderably tuore to the west, and sntalter '". Tbfl 
Araius, the Naparis, and the Ordsiwus, ^owini; between the 
coiinies uf tlie above two, accordingly dischartie tbeniselves 
in the Isier. TheM arc the indigenous rivers of Scytbia, 
that coniribnte to siretl the ma^s of the waters of the Istcr. 
From the land of the Ajathyrsi Hovcs iht; Maris, anotlier49 
tributary to the Ister. From the pinnacles of Haiinus roll 
three other largo rivers, that poiir their waters into this 
■Iream, the Atlas, Anras, and Tibiais. Athwart Thrace, 
and the land of the Thracian Crobyzi, flow the Athrya, 
Noes, and Atamea, which also unite with the later. Fruin 

bndnl b«tw«n Ibv Pwmhe (liter) 

MdttlV Dno(Tuiaii). Il rnmpriict, 
aMordivgi.f, tbr rtninr, ihc N<v>i* 
Tart*r*, tlio Don Cowatkii dto. 

*• ss<J *wi3( • • . . . «r«inrM< I 

haw* feltawed KehreighvuMr'i Lalin 
■mion, tliMch by nu meaiu MIi»* 
fiMWry. SctgvreiKhvuMr iiiupote* n 
pWHRMrioa wU4li gtto a ivrr ifooii 

|]m nilM nf VrtOIIIBr; »»ri wnli 

■**»• idkMWi. Jri D itll *! ^iy«i 
■fcrti vamitf. In •fhiefa, vmi^^m 
••> AUwf l( »i*'t UHAitim* m niti'Ti- 
Ufit (i> Tirii^ >tii ■■■ aXXti il nirit 

■W"i>n<^ tbcrtr mte varl«u* rit»r* tliat 
rail their WBt^rt knlo hi Uretm, but 
Dm (allowjH k't thnr tbai mate It 

■■uw<ial» ibw* n*>n> — Sckatig. 


lift Aftrr readintir Dr. GaurfM'a 
obwTvutiini. 1 )!•(« not beiitatpd to 
mSnpt fityilif iriilcad of mIi «f. If 
thin lulirr rroilinc be fatlOKed. tin 
firtt fir, i*Lcrc d)« vitbor Mn. U 
at* y< *M 1- •"•/ fc« ngvitd M 
harlnir for ill rMpoDdmi Ibe H in la 
n ATimh, and tbn «««mil ^It rn aim 
fMi (J fiitnt. M Mng aiwirem) liy 
Ibrliiutall'Aya/^gMi, SerSchiraig* 
bvuaor'i note oa c> 49> 

'" Tkvre U tto riT*r no«-*-d*n 
aatttMiiif to th* pMitlon of im 
PTtetiw, ih4t flow* toward* its •wt: 
(be PjTMa* i* probabl; Ui« nodvni 
Proth. I think, dierrforv. tbat tba 
wuniK rfh U /iw* arc to be tnkert in 
the aania -vaM ■■ id C. 40. p. 391 ; (b«t 
ia (a »}, that ibcf <lo nAC alftBliy 
" flowing biward* Ibe ewi,"bnt tathac 
that th» rlnr (irt «aat, iti ((naa 
flawiitc ■nafh. 

wf *l*v(> W !)•>; 



Fwoiiia and Mouiii Kliotlop-, ilw Scios river, bunting 
ihroHffh a cirfilc uf llstmu^tjoing thi* main Btream. From 
the coiinlry rif tin- lltvriiiiis, ilif Angrus. nonli of the ntun-, 
llou-a thrtiu{{li tliL- Tniiallitr plain, and [|v«c'i-ndti to the Una- 
gits nliicli juius ixaeV lo lb« later: tliiis iIk Islcr reo-iiu 
the tribute of iioili Otnste ktcjU livfre. The Carpiti, and 
anotliLT river, tlic Al}iU, iitirili of the Bi¥)tit;us iIctkccucI fioiD 
ili« land of ilio Ombrici, and <H»i;liar(ie their waters into ibe 
Islcr; for that river flowa acroM* tlic wlmk uf Kurupt. rising 
in the roiinirv of llic Celts'", who, next tt> the Cuitetie, nn 
thti last iiihal.itaiits to Uic west of Kuropc: it 6ow* all acr"»» 

HQ Enrope, ami cntcrii sloping into Scjtliia. Froiu the accu- 
mtilatioii of Uie uau^ni of iho afon^Miid rivprs, and « graft 
nianr more, tlkt; Istt-r uxct-vils all uthtr rivcrK in tize: for] 
undoubted Iv, if you compare the two n^bts the omi to thai 
oihiT, the Nile miixt yiultl lo iht- Uu-r in the abiindaucc vt\ 
ilK vatt-T^: lor in ttu-cusoof the Nile, uo ri\(!r, no limok picii,f 
ctHilritiuIeK to Ktrt-11 that slrcatn. Hut lllu iMcr in;ana)tl' 
flows Htjun]. both in «iiiiinner and in vi'iiit»*T: lbi> n^asun 
itbich ■!•, ill tor miiiil, as folluwa; (hi: cutinlrr ihnniKb'' 
which thia rivi.-r runs i%y throughout the winter, visited witli 
l>ut Itulo rain, but all pans are covered with deep suuiv; 
in the ditniuit-r, the snow, that had fallt-ti the ivinier before 
in vasl qimntilics, now n)«'lt-s aitd gives itself lo the l8t«i^^ 
the wiit4-rs ofnhicU ure ihertlbn.- kept at tlKtrfnll: lo tbitS 
must bu added iho frequent and violent falU of rain tliii 
ncctir in auuinier: but in proportion aa the mud attmcta la 
himself, in Miimner, more water than in Bintiir'", w», in pn 
portion, the wuter> lliat iiiingle njth the Ister am in miiuio 
nearly the Nume as in winter: from the biilunce of tliL-M: two 
agents, such an equilibrium is prodnceiU that the rivers v 
we see, is conKlanily tiiic and the smne. 

'J' The IsitT, iht-n. is one of the riwra of the Scythians: ontt 
la thu TyriiK, which proceeds from thi: north, ami liaea In aa 
extensive lake, out of which il floiva: this strt'am divi~ 
Scythiii rrom the land of the Neuri: al its ninnlh are fonm 

fliHt'Uenie residtuis, called the Tyriiai. The lliiid rirer, 
HypBiib, rises in Scythiii iUelt; and Howri oul of an cxlen^ivi 
lake, around which white bor«es are ({razed: this lake ii 
rightly desJKuak-d the mother of Ihc Jlypanin; oal nfirhicfc, 
aeeoitliiigly, the Hyj^anii* springs. Duiiiig a abort naviga- 
tion nl" fife diiy, the water is still Rwcet: trotn tliai poioiii 
becouies, and continues all through its course of forty day* 

*u Sceii. St. f. liJof this rolunc. tHnmij bttn tnciitIaM>i) 1^Bra>dM»i 
1^ Thi) tiuaclinu <4 lb* aaa bu ji. ii. 


ttovn lo tlie sea, lo he excessivt-iy'*M/ilUx The cause of 
this is lht> ilischnTfto ufa bitter Kpriiiji into the HtKam : this, 
tfiring is »o bitter, that, iilUxjugb iiisi^oillcaiil in iu uzo, il 
poltutus "• the MypaniR, n river of the necuiid onlcr, but the 
Urjicsi of ihil. Thifl bitl<rr 8[.ring lies on ihe bordci* of the 
HcTthiHii bnshnticlnieti ami (\w AlazoncM: iIk name, as well 
ai thai of ihf place whrre it (biws, is <.Mlleil, in Scythinn, 
Uvxuin|taMU ; in tlic Hellenic limgtK-. llirn-'tKtdt (Sacrt-il 
Ways). Ill the country of the Alazont-]', llio Tyras aud Hy- 
panis rontract the interval lliat ncparatcs cine ntrt'am f'ruiu 
th(> mher'"; from thai sjiut, each, making an elbou', floira 
ot>, ((.-uiling ^adualty to cxjund the tnid-fpnvt^. 

T^e futirtli is i)ie UoryKihL-i>L>s ; nest iu niaf{nitudu, of lliese -M 
streams, Iti the Istrr, and, in my opinion, thv most jjtoductive 
and cmidiieive lu eumlort and prosperity, nut only of all thi! 
Scylhiao rivets, but of all in the world, saving and esc<!pting 
ihu l''g\'piiau Nilv: tu thix latu-r. iiulti^l, no rircr tilialever 
can be compared, ollhongh the Bcry)((heoc« is, of the rest, the 
OTU- thiit confers the (^ealest ble^iuK^ It rolls through the 
noil beautiful and hi((lily-ciiltivaied meadtju-n, which tiimish 
IbtT cattle »illi excelleiil pa&turv; it Kivea in gri^at plenty the 
beM «urtx nl Siih ; it if. sweci to drinL- of iin nateis ; it lIun'K 
limpid and i-lear, amid rirent turbid and muddy'", the pulso 
■thai apring up on tis banks are ihv very beet ; and io those 
}ilaccs nherti no crupa arv Mtivn, risea a inoNt vigorous and 
■all heritage: at the luouth ore natural salteruK; which pro- 
duce, ftpi>utancou.vly , inimeitM; qnuntilit-i) of suit: this hrer 
prodnees ai«n Ijrge fishe* "*, willHiul bonet, for sailing; luid 
• ^rpat many other things worthy of admiraiiou. Up to the 
land of Gcrrhu», accordingly, a voyage of forty dnyji, the 
B(iiyalhene« is known to cunie from the north ; but no one 
rclatnt any thing about the pari» higher up, or the people 
that inhabit them : it is estrcroety probable, tlierefore, iliat 
this river p&AM-a ihmiigh desert liind&, before it arrivri, at 
the country of the Georgian SeyttiiniiN, mIiu extend along 
ita hanks for a voyage of ten days. This, und the NUe, axe 
lb« only rivers of which I cannot dencrilH! the sources ; nor 

■■* Sofiplv vM^wf after ttXtf^tt, 
■■> TM* i( uodauhtcdlj (be arurmoo 
«f tba DaDob*, k Isrg* flab, irbow 
■|»afi, bi^hw vl:h ih>( cif MiM 
ntbrr lUli, hrta*, when •■lied and 
prfBxd AowB, iht wkbriicJ ctHnri. 
Ji^^i^doMiiM «ifi»i(y«xa^j ■ ititb- 
ou bin*',' but intkoni thuM ban* 
juuinc not on cilbnr jiiIf u( the Bpltie, 
M la tbi.' eaae vilh raon flab : Ibc eel, 
tbcnrlgr*, if J(J«bWW> 

•u aJ-i, U M l<«i»m tot *f^, 
laUa. £«rrA«r. 

■M tmffi ■<)(")'>•* to tnlasl* ai iriae 
In a craMr, a^pf a^prSc aho, i*. M. 
A llirnl iiMMlsikin irmU dm he itir- 
Sdnllf lni«llt«ibte. I ^t^M. &v. tu 
Wbleb tbe r*UliT« 9 >* fut (or Slrrt, 
•M Mm. 4;9, <At. I. 

*" rmdymn *i rlffutwm, conirBhunt 
Unilv*, Mliraii liilrliitiJl dieUBttW 


MELPOMENE. tV. &4--A8. 

do 1 con»ult:T aiiv of tbe He1l«n«« wio^ iban myself on Ih: 
ftubjecl. PrellT ne»r the sea, the Mrpaois miD^les with ihc 
Botystheoet., and both streanw di»etnbogae in one tnsnh; 
ihe space of land lying between ihi^ two rirers consdwie* 
a pruniontoiy, something like the prow of a. ship ■*, and b 
called Cape Ilippolaiis: hire alno stands the sacred ptndnci 
of Ceres, neyoml ihc leinplf, and on the bank of tke 
lljpania, reside the Uorrsthcnila;. So mnch for tbta sboie 

64 Next to these is the tiftb rircr '", the name of which ii the 
Panticapes: this river come» down from tbe iiorlb, sod 
flows from a lake: between tbe bank of this river and that 
of llic lioryslhi'ucs dwell the Georgian Scythians. The 
Pcnticn{)C8 proceeds down to llylica, and, after passing along 
tliBl region, mingles its waters nith llios*: uf the Bory- 

6i fitheneo. The sixth river is the Hypacyris; which lalieg in 
origin in a lake, 6uvv.<i through the territories of tlic Scytliian 
noma(1c«, and falls into (he sea near the tou'u of Carcinitis, 
skirting, on the right, Hylica, and what is culled the Acbil- 

56 lean Course. The seventh is the Gerrhun river; it branches 
out of the Boryslhencs, in that quarter of the country up to 
which the Borystlienes is known : the spot where this lakes 
place, bears the same name, Gcrrhiw, as (be nvur itself. 
It flows dowi] to ibe sea : and senes as a Wundary, both to 

57 the territory of the Nomadea and Koynl Scythians. Hie 
rigblh river, (berefore, is the Tana'is ; which fliiwa rrcnn ^ 
Qpper country, out of an extensii-e lake, and discliargea iu 
waters into a still more vtint lake, called MkoUk. nhich 
bounds the Royal Scythians and tbe Saurnnintte. Into the 
Taiia'is falls anolher river, the name of which is tlie llyrgif. 

flw Tlie above are the most renowned of tbe riierx by whicb 
Scythia is enricbe<l. Tbe grass that grows in Scylhia, simI 
is grazed by the cattle, is more productive of gall "than 

K lb IfifitXjr nt x^- "'• " * 
rflly't spiir of the luiil :' tliu inranltiit 
li mtlcinitlv RTiilimt, Clint the laaA 
Mromrd al it> ipnninalion Ihe ahapp nf 
t\tO tfot t>t trmUum xilh wbich wa »1I 
Lntnr the skip! •>{ Ihr Bnoicnlii virrt 
Wised at Th# prnw. 

I" Mufk )t niSrin m/tn^t rtrtytit 
ixiH. *9 tfHiu naiTiiiraii luotbet 
lltlh ilvar. It is lu ihin iiinmic-r <hnl 
Ab Rtcieni Aliie "riitrt rx|>rtM 
IbmMlva. rir^ctt iXX.| - - - - (in 
^f ruimru. A»(h. Hi-pL n. Thch. 
4SH. An th« loBian* war* onginftll; 
AthniHtii. ihsf bad pnifTnA Mrtnl 
of Oi* anctnt Attic tbrnn. TiortAer. 

■■ tnx$kMrd*%. ThU worA Mm- 
Partu* tiaualtie* amartMima t tW 
Ibiulu iliDt Hrrodotw alloda id * 
rppcia of nonnoooi], gnnttag ti 
(trt»t mbaadsDoc m 9o]rtb>B, vM 
irbich, aocordia^ to PKb>, tha (Sfib 
of Ih* MiDnti^ wen faittvtd. 0*t& 
de PoDto, 3— TrUlia per vmws lor- 
rmt tbirMhla «sapM, C«Braalcii^ 
rini foo nwMla aiDMa kica eri. IV 
tint fvllafrtn^ (ronla of ifcc latW. 
Fortaii in <vf apinicm, «k^iiy nalfeitBf 
mar* tbao thai ee» mtjt ao n flata 
MM''* (Bir ibM thif naitb li«« M 
wotiawund bf 'ifuiiim thdr n>- 
caaars (fbr no rdl wffl br lbwl> 

MKLPOMENE. IV. 6»,60. 


u»y of the grasses that wc know of; a fact easily ajcRrtaiovd. 
by aptming Lbc carcHasvH of some Scytliinu beaAU^. 

Thus abtimlaiiily aro tlie Soythimis provided uilb tbo6f) 

great commuditius of lifL'*": thi-ir Tarious ciuloms are ttucli 

iU 1 atn uuw ^oiog ti> di'scribc. Tbe folluwuig arc the only 

igods to wlinm tliuy pay wuraliip: lo ^V«lai^ puitlciiliir; next, 

to Jupilur ittiil ili(! Earlli, for tlicy coimdtT Euilli nK ili«.- 

eoDiort oiJupilci; ufltr ibesc. Apollo au(l Cclostial W-uus, 

Hercules aiid Mars: all ilie abnvr (lie Scythians a(-kiit>w> 

ledge. Thobv called Koyal Scythians ofll-r likeris? sacrifice 

to NcpluiK?. In Hcylhiao, the uamca of the ^joiU are. 

Vecta, Tabili; Jiipiti.T, rcry properly, in my opinion u 

lewl, P&pit-u»"*; Earlii, Apia i Ap<itlo, (KlosyruS'; Celestial 

VenuK, ArtiiiipaRn; Neptune, Tliamima^uulaR. Tliey xte not 

accutUiuR-il iii build altars and temples, except lo Mars: for 

,tbat go4l they do ko. 'Ilie mode of nacritice i» the somefiO 

with all"*, and iu ci'ery sacred enclosure alike. Tbe eacri- 

ifice is thus made: the i-icLim iiself tiUiniU ereet, liis l»u 

, fore-feet bound; iJie oliicialing priest places biniaelf behind 

(the beast, icize* ihi* end of tile cord, and throw* lilm down. 

• Aft tlie victim fatU, he imokes the god lo nhom the sacn- 

)6ce is ofTrred ; and, aAer that, thrown au haller rtiimd the 

UMfik of thi; victim, and, thru^ling a stick in the loop, Initts 


1^1. t»j. Tm. Lvchff »>■«- 
I IMM " U Biat wcvskaU.'* I ktr« 
iMtownl StTbnciglmwr, MhOKirao*- 
'btkn !i tbo HtFM M thtl of Stfaiivl- 
I4n, " GtM, i»* rirl amllc oiadir." 
\StiUL. Gr. Grrm. Let. 
I >■ " Tbo ^cjIbiotiH liRva tbpn in 
atmitJaacc ihr mcrt ocmmii; Ihinga 
far liCr— J>j ScfUU* m( Aar en 

r«nre> > la r<f-'' Uirritr- " Id** 
I igltsr naslinU coincD'KlU quam t- 
taBdrft Sojthe." Ac. SrAmij/. Ill 
■U iDOKh ilrituthi of ibp |iii:>iiDl 
mirki I lud coMldnfil [1ig Grtt mii> 
Irani of ihJ* cliBMrr «■ ■ rriNiittan. 

i* «th«« w<icil*, nl tf B Z'tAay ytnt 
h flit rl pityrrrn r« ii/{a>«ii« *[*^ 

I of c. its, «lti(h ibtrdiHi'l i:^i- ii-- 

iCrearion no iht riven <i S>>iiuu 1 

I nsJ. ihtnloTv, tmwUtcil : " Tiie 

»ti^ iiD)>(icUnl iibittu, ihrtdoffi 

I ■• Tht ft* it. thi>( IlnulMAi 

fcnmr ihst, tn all lui(piiw«>, av, «■. 
wmwM, am the Sm nllahltH tbat 
ctklWnrn fiKmoiint*, mm ili»t ihej 
iM* Ibvo If JMifkite ibeir pimit*. 


■» H'.ra «4 '(^ TIlTM dMvraol 
iDlarpRlaiyiBa aic gi>«t> uf lliNB 
wonli. lit. " In all tbvlf ncrv4 
pbcet." AUIumikIi ibv SryUlaiv dM 
iwi «Tnrl no» Unijilii, ii can irairgvljr 
he 4aubl(4 bul Ibil lh«y bnii •iima 

opMi (M)E( iwt *(An fur ifitir fi>li)tioM 
fntamnilU*. Thii u ih« [muiatim 
irf Lorobcr. Xdly," loall thck itcnd 
ctrcniokUii." Tli>i_ b iLc tnUrprv 
Utivn livru b>r VT^atpliiig, tMl fol- 
kiwfil br Sfl.wriftha'ovr in bl>i li«Iii) 
vffulDo/' Sdly, " Wiih etfiy kinil nf 
viiiiDK." Vie tninr thai tun 9d tfi 
in>:<i.' In jnuuiilate firlimi; (Miir«- 
I'l'ii-!}-, if llie priTt4iii|t ^rIi to 
uLio IB llMit i^ecifir ariuv, ^ miwl 

«Bgwiy tlctint: ihu iDirquTtalloa 
ii nmtwhitcd by ibu uorJi .i: il;«> 

CDl) lif ll»> 0l*t I'lllpIA. 

nxlota* InftiTaK u> ifcai n < 

iu> >lfl<« all lUit of rallk, t>ut rlU:llT 

Iwrtr*. 8«» So*wTTf. Z,*^. IfrrW. 



it until Uii> Iwwt i» siiffDcnttil. 11<- Liii(l)eii un ftrt', mabrt 
no uii»[>icatmy cert-monies'*, nu libations ; liiit hmtn; 
HUnnt^Ufl ihr beasl, tind fluyerl him, addfeHeR hiruKlf 10 tlm 

61 cooking. As Scytliia, liuwner, is vrholly destitute ol~ Itro- 
wcxkI, iiivy ha.\e invi'tiUNJ the rnlUtwin^ nuMle o( cooking the 
flesh: when thu'v haw ^kiiiiiL-d Hk licliaif lliev 6thp tb« 
flesli fmm the bones; anil llien, if ihe_v h«ji|>en to bare 
an)- <j{ the cvnntn- caldrons, wfiich are siniilur lo ihoso 
ihu Leshiaiiii, (jnlj- ihiit lliry arc much Urj^nr, \hvy kindle' 
K fire of the bones, and so c<K>k the meal. Jf thev liaic no 
aiicb utensil, ibr_r suifl* all th<! flesh of ih« rictim into the 
muH', pour u'ati.>r ort-r it, and kindte a fire ol bones: the 
bones bum U)i biiauiilullv, and \hv tnawe hold lo^lber 
«lli<;ieii(]y the ti«ih wliilt- it is boiled ou ilie bonea: ibm 
lh(i ox ct-iriUs hinisr-lfj and such in the obtu-Trancr furenn^fl 
viclitn. Whi-nllit.- niL'aiiHgnislK'd L->iokin);,bt' that sacriticc^fl 
thrown thv firsllinj^s of ihr llt^fJi and bonvU before hint i« 

<i2an olTerin^: \\u-y sucriitt^'e aUa ditferent sorts uf Uta5t»,and^ 
principally hur?>fK. ^M 

Such is tlio mode of §acrificu, and such are tlte victinn^ 
liBid b_v tilt- Scj-iht«ii8 to tbe Kcncrality of ihcir gods; bm 
in rL'>|>t-ct to Mars, tbc-ir pTactici^ ix this. Accanlio]; lo ge> 
iieral U):ngc, in vach t'( ihv f;>kt.'i.>mmcnt« a cacri^^d «lation<* 
is didicalird to Mur't. Kundlcs uf brush-vrfxij are heaped 
up, to a leii};th and breadth of three Htudes i^nd )e«s in 
heighl"": on the lop of this pile is erected a square plat- 
form, pL'rpeudicnlar on everj- kuIo excepting on», which, to 
facilitulc the a.feent, is on a slope: every year tbry add to 
the pile tine hundred and fift^ Wii^^«n-luiidH of fagois, be^ 
iuiiM.' ihu heap is coa-tanlly sinltinit, froui the vreuUier. Oo 

I* ThcH: ctTToiunirH aauiBf: (bv 
Qite^' i-<nii*leJ, 1>-t, In ti|iriBkll(i|t 
Ihr vir'ririi Willi lualral watrr. Sdlv, 
III itimriitt: nn lu rar«h*Md aam* 
whole liiilcj m)ird Kilb *«lt <Th>ii 
l.alin* uml flnur unil nRlt, whirli 
the)' caUeil wa/h iiaf«t.) SdK, In 
cqtlinic off >uine ha-r from ibe brow 
■/ thr ViAtni. Mut cmaliug It into 

the tt*~ Th* Gnwfci dMi«Biiri>ri 
IhCM cefrtDdslM bi Ihe uuni amrif- 
X»t^. oliicl) I* ibr ptuper Irmi. 
biN Laidicr's nalr. — Tlii' mtuhr will 
do <nill tn nllrnd lo tl>c itifTcrrncv 
bphirwii mmrafj^u^ •nil Armf^firtki, 
■I tiif wnd uf i!iu lii'ii iitopUtr. 
Srbitfiff. Not. 

'*' ■'fCii'** liltti^Ar* 'W Miuir, Itir 
|>l>nr wlirt(! ihc ina)niitr»lc* Mc-cmblr. 
Ai ibu i^vlhiuw lini) n«> boiwrs, 

tbr>H plaoM wHli ihnn nne oe liMtl 
in ihc up«a »tr, ibt ^rMt V* ^"^ "f 
our >nc««li)rN. Bcmdaui, ■ ptiv lbi«a 
itnilM lanf, *iii! ft* biauv hf id, 
cnild hiuHy h» mniaiii«d wifUi 
aiif liuiliiinii. I ham raMeqmortf 
ciprtwrd in mjr croMlaiiaD tbtt 
dicir ««Tc fidilxif AMrnibl*. Lafthrr, 
■» 2^tf K IliMM.. The iiiewti|ig4tf 
Ih • it, ' RMMwIiat leM in h(%lt' 
Tbi- riiKlEtice of mirh pilo in « oaoft- 
Irj- where wixid wai »> «cvm, ikaliE 
couU not be fnnnd fur llu arcvmaiT 
puirmr af eovlinte, ihubL alnbv tHfj 
uTiif iu( iiTiprvhihlc. Sc^tvfl^hjfUMI 
■mpfri- ihitt Her^dnlat trrM* f^ 
n rrtilto IXmrrm. Pi-rhapi Ikia oh- 

ttlnal Tvndinf wm t^m ll bw, nMD- 
ing " t<iual lahtlnhi." 

MELPOMENE. IV. 03, 84. 

IIk) Aummit, accurdin^Iy^ ao old scinwtar of iron U pUnted 
hy each Sc^iliinn govprninL-nt, and tins survus as ibu Kvmlml 
« JH&n. To tliis scitiieUr tWy offur ycaily sucrifici-s of 
bunrs and caltle; Hnd prest-iil amte KucrifK-fs t<i tlivae 
B)-uhols than to all tbe re»l of Ihi; gods. Out of all ibe 
priMJuera tiu^y maj lalte of the eiiviu^', tliuy tHicriGce unu hi 
ervry htiiidred: thix sacrilice is not jierforuied iii the sani« 
mannur as ilic bea»t.s; iho c;4.-ri;inuiiies ari; rt^ry ditfereul. 
Timy begin by making lihnlioriH of wine on tlic hvtu)» of 
ibctte viclinis and tlii^ii slaiighu-f lliein over a bowl : as soon 
M ihis Uufl been done, tht?}' carry np the bovl 1« the top of 
iba ragi>l-piW, and pnnr the bliiod otx-r the scimvtar. While 
this is doiii); uti the pile, oltwrK bt-luw, about the fool nf the 
pile, cut off ihe nf{ht aimis with iIh; eboiildi-rs and haudt of 
tJie dlaughlervd pris<mt-rH, and throw them alolt in the air. 
Whoii ihcy baM; pcrfoniK-d these ccivmouiei*'* on each 
victim, tbcy retire: uberei'er tbe liiub t-nt olT may haiu 
fallen, there it li«s, apart from the body. Such are, tbcn^GS 
Ihe sacriGceii instituted among ihc Scythians: they ireier 
ii»e Kwinc IVir ihi' purpose, uor wJH liiey nifier one ol' thoiHj 
JiDiuiitls to be ruan-d in their dominions. 

, In «-hal concerns war, they have ihe following institutions. 64 
OJ tlic Hr»t enemy a Scythian »'ndn down, hr ((iiall'B the 
blood: hu carries the heads ul all ibut be i^layK in battle to 
tliu king; fur when hi- has brought a bead, he is entillcd to 
a sliare of the booty that may be taken ; not oiherwtKe. 
To skin the head, he makk-s a circular incision from ear lo 
ear; and then, laying hold of the cruvn, sbakot out the 
akull : after scraping ott the Qah '" ^itb an ox'» rib, he 
rumples it bctwet'ii his hands, and, Imving thus Miltetied 
the skin, tnakes use of it a^ a napkin: he append* it to the 
bridle of tlic horse he rides, and pridtii hiuiseli on this ; for 
ihe Hcytbian that has most of these skin napkinit is adjndged 
Ifae beat umn. Several among them make coverings also 
of the entire skins, taeked (oguther like sliephunU' coats'", 
Btld weur tlii-m, instead uf cl'jak^, over oil ; olhtTb fluy tlie 
right haiid^ of tlieJr slain eneinie*, and, t»kin^ off the nuiU 
Irilh the skin, make covers for their quivenk The liiiman 
kkin is thick and thtuiiig, auti about the most brilliant white "* 

^Mvdlkiujr mrtnltig. Sm 3«liw*la. 
Taad Cmmj- ■ raiaait* Id LjifobM't 
iwlMiM. m. III. 4U. 
•* &• naU) i. D. 4M. of Dr. G>h- 
i't edition e# Hir>Kl»|ii", lwtre«rd 

from W«iH«liii|[. 

"* 'tbetn «hBphet(lii' MkU were 
dikiIp of tkiat Mweil tvgvtbrr; uid 
wary prrl«b))r not UuUkc (l>c cmpotc 
oTtliedlbuiMipeMaoUlB tb< pruBttC 



uf all hides. Maiiv ariKing them taltc ihe wboK- skin of a 
man, Mrrtcli il on a uooHen I'ranic '", and use it as bone- 

65e1otb*: such nn> lh«ir cuslomft. Thv KkulU tbeuMdm, 
that in to tity, not all, Imt thnw of ihcii most invMenie 
enemies tljvy prepare Uius: they saw off ibc parts IwDOlh 
the cyc-browii, anil scmir out tliu top. If tlic oHTicr be ■ 
piKir niau, lie itiL-rely coven) the uulside witli leather, and to 
makes use of iL: if a rich niitn, bv not ouly covers it mtb 
leatber, but plain it uith |,'ol(l iu the inside, aitd »&«» it at 
a drinkinfi-ciip. Iltr prepares in ibe same manner the skolU 
of his relations, if tiny had anr quarrel aitli him, and he 
bfts Rained tbc day over them in prcwnce of the Icing"*. 
When any truest, for nthum be lias respect, TUMtfi biio, he 
brinftH forth Ui(>iie itkiilU, nnd narrates, how ihcy vere rela- 
tions of his, and acted as foes*", and hnw he oTerftoirered 

6$ them: this they call heroism. Once in erery yi'ar, llie 
provincial (;otenior, euib in his goremnient respectively, 
inln{;leK'*' wine and water in a btnri, of nrliich drink alt the 
Scythians by wboni foeit have be«u captured. Tbo*e whe 
have never achieved sncb ii dee«l, taste not of the n-ine, but 
sit apart in disgrace: Ihiii is, with ibom, coosidercd as the 
greatest opprobrinm. All who hjire made very many prisouen 
of war drink two cupf'" for one. 

67 The snnthsayers among ihe Scyihians arc in great nnin- 
beni: they foretell the future by the help of several willow* 
rods; and perform in tlie to)lou-ing manner. They bring 
with them large huntlles ut rodfi, lay them on the grounil 
and untie them ; arrange separaU'ily each rod| and prophecy. 
.As they pronuiiiiee their predictiuns, tbey gather d|i 
sticks, u»d again mnkc up the bundle. Thiie is Llie imU- 
K«tious art of xouibsaying practised among tbem. Itoc the 
Ennrecft, the half men and half womou "*, are said also to b« 
endowed by Venus wiili the divining faculty: diey pre^rt 
by the help of bast, the inner bark of the litno-trce: they 
s]}lit the Ihish into thne pariA, twist it round their fingcn, 

M(PB. SdHttig, le». Bend. Prevl< 

am\j to ScKw«lglMMiMi, ihe readinK 
WW It lf« rj|;tA>. «. T. A. 

■■> 1 nniliiMIAnil Ki>riiiL(>luii lo n**ii, 
that Ihan «kiita n-i-rr >(talehDd Ml 
on \ wocmIbii frame to dry ; and, (rhm 
drj, were uacd aa laddle-Rlotlii fof ibc 


I. r.Judieio i«Bi*, h» a re|t^ Jodicala. 
Seiu*iff. Ltr. HrroJ. 'Fbii i« the tamp 
intarpRtalioa a« thai «f Larcher. 

SubweiBliKaiar RivM, in U* Ltfii 

kureiuD : " aiquc rtgin jodkiB alUf 
alieri iu polerlatcm nt tradiiDS.'^ 
■" Lil. <• n«ii*d mta a«a[arf kiM." 
■» S«» oot« 907, r. MO, af iM 

ui rCidM arfjiMw la gmtanHj miv 
land, ■■ iw« cups JtilMid lagauier."— 
Sobm-ighwonr fQUi.-iia tlis Kaoaral 
inlarfiTBUtioa ia lti< Laiia vaniM. 
bnl rnrraeta il. ia bH omm, U " if* 
pnini'a ainfali habtslM-" 

" He alltidts U i. 10ft. 



ihifti, unrolling il, pn-iiln-sv- WhcncuT ihe king of the W 
j ScTtliiaiis 18 sUicltcu with illncx);, he snids for the three niort 
I renowned soolhsayfri!, wbo diviii« in Uie manner jiiiit 

1> describetl: tlit-y asHL-rt. tlint tltcro is ni> douhl but ihm so 
and M)'*, iQCQCioniiig acconllngly some one of tfae king'o 
, subject, must baru swum lalselr l>>' ll>e king'ii hi-anh : Ii>r 
i it in ciiRUnuar)' with tlic Sf rOtiatiK, in gi>nt'nil, W invokL- the 
royal benrlJi, whcu ibcr wish to pMgn thrmsclvts by Ihu 
moxt solemn of oaths. Forihwiih ili« acciisvd, vibuiu ilie 
divioen thas iinj>cach of pcrjnry, \% bmiight before the king: 
the MMthRayers accu8« the prifiouur of haTiug, sh is evidently 
tbewn by divination, foriworn, by invoking the royal hearth, 
uid in con^equeuct- tlit- king lit vi»itcn with jmiii. Tbu 
accu)u>d (letiie* hi« guill, dcclaro* that he has not forsworn 
I hiniRelt, und t^puriis (he tni)>eacbineiii: then th« king, suni- 
raoHK twice thf- niinibcr of ftonihsavi-rs, dilffn-iit from the 
foriDer; and if they, likewise, rcciimiifc lo tbeir art, convict 
the priiuiner ofpi-ijiiry, he ix in]inedi«t«ly belu-ndcd, and the 
fint sootJiNiycrs »hare by lot bis possessions. If th« »ooth- 
aayem Kent for, afler the first, by (be king, acquit the pri- 
sooer, olbeis, and again "** others, are convened : accordingly, 
if the majority agr^e in acqiiitling ihr mnii, the firM itooth- 
nyen tbemselveit are cumlemned to drath. They execute (K> 
tberefore tfacae inen in the iniinnrr 1 Hhal) now dewribe : 
ibey load a waggon u'ith fagots, and bnmess to it aotne 
oxen ; then feller the legs of the snothsuvers, tie their bands 
t behind, put a gng in th4>iT months, nnfl atirk them in ibo 
middle of the hrush-wmjd. They next set fire lo the 
apparatus and, frightening tbe nxen, set them off. The benKla 
are frequently CMfcinni'd together with the ftoothwiyent: some- 
t times they get only a Kcorching, and e-seniie, when the 
Ipole"' has been burnt ofT. Id Ibe same manner tliey bum 
- lo death tbe Koolh^iyers, for other reauins besides tbr 
jjabuvc, and call ihcm false prophets. Of ihoue whom ibe 
»lBDg putH to death, he spares no males, but does not touch 

I (be feinales. The Scythians, whomsoever thej' pledge their 70 
OBtht to, practice lh«; following crremnnies : ihey pour wine 
Into a large cup of earthenware, and mingle with it some of 
Hho blood of the contracting partioit: the blood is procured 
tby a slight cut on the body with a pricket or knilis: they 

w Viut. A»i.h. 
' >«• itJM . ■ ■ ul lOiM llLim. illi— 
i itonuuuE sKi. Scimtg. 

ItM frobt nf ll>« rBiria^ : it (be ei- 
I tnwitj el It, ■ har (th* &">«*> "*■ 

flxvd ctowwiM: to thi« bu lb« boTM 
of tbe otro ircta fMlennl. TIU »4b- 
plt node at htraenria^ Vtti* !• ttlll 
in ui* ■fcrottd, ud tt fbrnxt lA uumtr 



then |iloi)ge into ibe nip & M:tiiicLar, au armw, a tiaitl«- 
axe, and a JAvdiii. Having tnado nil titctu; prepamtioDi, 
Ihty prunoutice long prayen; after wliicli, the coulracling 
panics driiilt a piiriiaii of (tie wirie and IiIchk), and after- 
wards ihv luuel (Ii-stmKui»bi-d ut' their followura do ihe saiuc. 

71 Thr toiiilis ot' the Scvtliian kingK are »p<'n in thif laud of 
tlie Gerrhi, at tlw extreme point to which Uie Uoryethcnci 
18 narigahlc. I Icre, in ihe trvctu of a kind's decEMMf, ihcy dig 
a deep xquam tosae. Having made this pruparalion, thev 
envelope iht' body'" in wax ; open the belly, and clcamie it 
out; ttieo BtiifTit full of tunneric and ammatics, together^ 
with purtJey ami ajiiKc-st-ed'"; sew it up a);ai» ; and conrc^ H 
it in u waggon to twiiue uciglibouring Scythian natiun. Tfce " 
people receive the dead body, and act in the fiame mauoar 
a» tilt" Uoyal Scytliijins, that ts to say, cut off the lips of their 
ears, sllU^c their hair around the bead, make incisions m 
their unns, lacerate their faces and ouaes, and drive arrows 
through their left bands. Kroni thence ihey convey ihp 
royal corpse, by waggon, to anollier province of his doini* 
uionn, and the penpli- fir>^t vifiiiod accompany the procession: 
when llicy have paraded the coqusc through all the pro- 
vinceK, thev lind ihruisclves in ihiit of the tjerrhi, th« inoGt 
distaul ul' the king's dominions, and where tlic royal tombs 
are situated. And then, having placed the deud hody in its 
grave, on a bed of gruK^, and plunled Kut-ars un bolfa sidai J 
they lay some wooden beanie aeroK», and cunipk'ie iho ruoffl 
by covering in with osier twigu'". In llie vacant space left " 
round the body in the fosRf, they now l.iy one of llie king'i i 
concnbine!>, whom tliey strangle for thiii purpo&c; and bifrfl 
cup-bcarcT, hiK cook, his grnoin, his page, bix measengfif^M 
some horsey in short, samplea of nil his things, together 
with gold cnps, for they use no sitver or brass. Having m 
done, all lu1L tu work at ihrowing up an iminenso mound, 
Btriving and vyiiifr wiih one another who shall do the 

73 most. AlWr an iiiieival ut tneUe inonihii, tiie following 
additional duties are perforoicd. 'i hey tiike the nioitl iiw 
ful o( die deceased king's servants; — ihfse nre all nad 
t>cythiaD8, and by th« late king's orders waited on him ; fi 

M CanatTaetian: im>.»i^nmi <4> 


«■, «. *■ X. S« Mott. 4^7. ft. 

tM grbtriirr lulei iamr— to I* 
«(tiiWBliinl Id timtf, 'lilt vi /rnnrl.— 
ftthcr* uIp it to lifTiiifr <tnU, tbr 
litopcr Uftn for irhicb u inrtt. Tlie 
nrtif lA both |iUalt an bighl; un. 

I'f icry iiltU iiB|Kirlntice SeAneiAr, 
f}rf-hUc*- DtmIkIh;— Wvrttriat^ 
tyy. imrn. 

■» f,<lJ. Tha n>D« lexlMcrtplw, 
Hluim 1 hmn joM iiao(«d. it ol apl- 
nion thai thh wanl tboM be imi 
latril, ' u^ terJt' 



lfi*king posBOsscs iKi piiri*li!iRi}<l slttvt•^ j—af iitew ihry 
8iiaiH{li' filtj-, Uigcthrr with tifly bcaiililnl hnrsi-s. Thpy 
lake mit llie buwL'ls from lliv cU-ad boclius, hcuut out the 
bcDiCf, blulf (hctn witli eimw, and »t)v tlicni up a)caia. 
Tbcynextplai-ebalftliefelloeofa wheel ***, the oulsiilcflown- 
warns, bvwefn iwo posts, and slick in ihc ground many 
ottivr rrmm-s »( ttic vniit; Mtrt. 'I'livy tlieii ruu Uiick pules 
through thi> wlioU' Icn^ili of the boditw of the horses, up to 
Uie slioiil<)fi-3, iiiid Ml (bmu acruss tlie felloes: ihc furcinost 
ftflloe Mipixiris the slitintdeni of lh« home, and the hindor- 
nioiit hohU up the belly and the hin d- qua tiers : while 
the four lvg«, unsupported, danffle in the air. They pui a 
bit and bndle to each borse; and pull the bridle Ibrward, 
fasteniti;; it up to a pmt***, for that purpotce. Accordingly, 
ihcv seal upon uue of Xlw.w bor&es each of the fifty at- 
lendanls ihi'V have titran^led, after driving a noodrii ipar 
along the back-boue of each, up lo his throat; thin spar 
I projucb* atthe bolloin; and tliatparl ixpuxbud into asocliet"' 
Qiadu in the pole that pauses through ibc horse's belly. 
Uiiviiig fasionrd this sort of horaouicti around the mound***, 
they l;ik«." llieir departuiv, 

1'hus iliu Scythians inlir their kings. When any other 73 
ScyiJiians die, their