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Full text of "The nineteenth century token coinage of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man : to which are added tokens of over one penny value of any period"

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ARRANGEMENT 



CORAXCT J>-D COMF1. 

Brprteentaticn 



Provincial Coins, Tokens, and Medtllets, 



PROVINCIAL 

<B(5)IPIPiB3B E-ESJiSg 



By JAMES COXDEK. 



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Me Storgi CfcrtbraB, Varonct, 



I IN TUB SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 




BATTY'S CATALOGUE 

COPPER COINAGE 

GREAT BRITAIN, 

IRELAND, BRITISH ISLES, 

COLONIES^ 



TRADESMEN'S TOKENS 



Eighteenth Century. 



JASES ATE1KS 



TRADE TOKENS 

jbbucO In tbe Seventeenth Cenlutv 



AUTHOR'S OWN COLLECTION OF ABOUT TEH THOUSAND VARIETIES. 



TITLE PAGES TO NATIONAL WORKS ON TOKENS. 



THE 

NINETEENTH CENTURY 
TOKEN COINAGE 

OF 

GREAT BRITAIN IRELAND THE CHANNEL 
ISLANDS AND THE ISLE OF MAN 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED 
TOKENS OF OVER; ONE.PK?/nY VAitJF '. M^ A#Y PERIOD 



BY 



W. J DAVIS 

Inspector of Factories to Queen Victoria Member of the London and British 
Numismatic Societies _ Author of " The Token Coinage of Warwickshire " 



LONDON 

PRINTED BY J. DAVY AND SONS AT THE DRYDEN PRESS LONG ACRE TO BE 

HAD OF SPINK AND SON PICCADILLY \V. CORNISH BROTHERS BIRMINGHAM AND 

SIMMONS AND WATERS LEAMINGTON SPA 



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All Rights Reserved. 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION. 

Token Authors, p. vii. 

First mention of a token. Tokens to pay wages. Early lead tokens. Pledges of 

tokens by Queen Elizabeth. Want of small change. Cotton's estimate of persons in London 

issuing tokens. Lord Harrington's patent. Proclamation by the Dublin 

The Origin Lord-Deputy and Council. Farthings of Charles II. Stringent laws 

and History passed against tokens. Extract from an essay on tokens, 1644. State 

of Tokens. °£ tne coinage during the Civil War. The Commonwealth pattern 

D v jjj farthings. Farthings of Oliver Cromwell. Richard Cromwell. The 

great seventeenth century token period of Charles II., state of the coinage. 

Sir William Parkhurst urges necessity of small money. Indifference of the Government. 

Corporate and private tokens. Proclamation by Queen Elizabeth making tokens unlawful 

after All Saints' Day. Solitary seventeenth century token of Scotland. Petitions against 

tokens. Token devices. Evelyn's prediction. Token legends. Proclamation that no form 

of coin to be legal except made at His Majesty's mint. The copper coinage of Charles II. 

Superiority in design and quality of copper. 

Coinage neglected by George III., its debased state. Regal coinage almost extinct- 
Power of governments. The 1797 copper coinage, and its influence. Council on the 
coinage, held at the Cock Pit. Money of necessity. Commerce and 
Cause and tokens. Eighteenth century tokens almost supersede the national copper 
Effect. currency. Quantity of copper consumed in tokens. The forgery of 

D. XV. regal copper specie. Government orders. Matthew Boulton to strike 

the 1797 copper coinage. Pingo's penny of 1788. Perfection of the 1797 
coinage. Restrikes. Traders make thirty per cent, profit on the issue of tokens. The trade 
of counterfeiting, Colquhoun's treatise on. Price of copper, its effect on coinage. Govern- 
ment contract with Boulton. Copper coinage of 1799. Advertisements to defraud. Heavy 
coins worth more when melted down. Fluctuations in the price of copper. Pince's prices 
from 1800 to 1820. The Anglesea penny tokens. The expansion of trade. Copper coinage 
of 1806, 1807, and of 1821. List of Soho productions in coins, tokens, and medals. 

Why they appeared. Bank tokens, shilling and sixpence, of 1787. Yeo's shilling 
of 1763, Dorrien and Magen's shilling of 1798. Spanish dollars. Spanish dollars 
captured and carried from Plymouth to London. Forgery of counter- 
Nineteenth marks. Bank dollars of 1804. Complaints for the want of small silver 
Century coin. Mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne convenes meeting, 1807, to petition 
0:1 „ Parliament for a new silver coinage. The stoppage of the Bank of 

t_ , England. Directors of the Bank ridiculed. Commencement of nine- 

. ' teenth century silver tokens. Sir Edward Thomason on his production 
o xx i 
H " " of tokens. Agitation in favour of tokens. The Earl of Lauderdale's 

questions. Firm supporters of tokens in Parliament and the country. 

The height of token popularity. Fereday's tokens. Token note found by H. B. Bowles. 

Protest against ten per cent, appreciation of dollars by the Bank of England. A criticism 

by "A Briton," Overseers', private bankers and tradesmen extensively circulate tokens. 

Bank of England issue tokens for three shillings and one shilling and sixpence. Weight 

of the tokens. Price of silver in 181 1. Number of Bank of England tokens issued. 

Expansion of factory system. The demand for tokens in 1812. Value of a guinea in 1812. 

Wellesley Pale fails to obtain permission to issue a new gold and silver 

Token coinage. J. B. Monck issues a gold forty shilling token. Hon. S. Per- 

Decay. cival, Prime Minister, interposes. 

p. XXViii. Public discover the coinage is absorbed in making tokens. Morgan's 

Agency. Halliday's and Thomason's Factories. Weight of coins 

and tokens compared. 



vi INDEX TO INTRODUCTION. 

Government indifference causes their appearance* No regal copper coinage struck 

between 1807 and 1821. Absence of Act of Parliament against the issue of copper tokens. 

Petitions to Parliament fail to redress. Scarcity of small change. 

Nineteenth Petition from Birmingham. Debates in Parliament on the coinage. 

P . Onn C°PP er tokens suppressed by Act of Parliament 1817. Immunity 

_ , preceding the Act. Character on design compared with eighteenth 

Qnp Tokfins . . 

^ ' century work. Weight of tokens compared. Bogus companies varied 

p. XXX. devices. The departure of tokens. The Dudley petition. Sir Edward 

Littleton's Bill passed. Birmingham and Sheffield Overseers granted 

extension of time. The silver coinage of 181 7. The people support the act of suppression. 

Montagu on the dignity of reigning sovereigns. Want of contemporary collectors. Sharp 

on token collectors. Sir George Chetwynd's sale of tokens. The increase of token 

collectors. 

The earliest Irish tokens, denomination of. Royal Proclamations of 1660, 1661 and 

1673. Aquilla Smith on money of necessity. Tokens pass current until 1679. Patent 

granted to Sir Thomas Armstrong. Protest by the Governor of Ireland. 

Irish St. Patrick's Halfpence, when circulated. The Tynwald Act. Butcher's 

Tokens. Halfpence. The copper coinage of Charles II and James II. Gun 

p. XXXV. money. Copper coinage of William and Mary. Queen Anne ignores 

the currency. Wood's Halfpence, weights compared. The Duchess 

of Kendal. The want of small money. Dean Swift on "raps." The Drapier controversy. 

George II copper issues. Voce populi Halfpence and Farthings. McMinn's token. 

Mossop's Pattern Penny. Bank of Ireland and Six Shillings token, weight compared with 

the English Dollar. Slap tokens. Bank tokens, Thirty, Ten and 

Counter- Fivepence Irish. The copper coinage of 1805. Private tokens. 

marked Wyon's pattern for One Penny. Ireland without copper coin for nearly 

Tokens. forty years. The coinage of George IV. 

D x | Why issued. Silver a standard value. Copper countermarked 

tokens. The custom of countermarking. 

Parliamentary sanction. Bankers receive permission to issue tokens. The act of 1812. 

Crowns and Dollars melted to make tokens. Meeting held in support of tokens. The 

extension of the Tokens Act. The Act of Suppression finally passed 

Tokens a an d p U t into force. Bank of England tokens. Wyon's Pattern Nine- 

Lawful pence. Depreciation in the value of silver. The public lose confidence 

Tender. in tokens. Wellesley Pole appointed Master of the Mint. The price 

p. xlii. of silver from 1813 to 1816. The cry for more silver coin. Tokens 

undated to avoid the final Act until the end of 181 5. The coinage of 

1 8 17 supplies public demands. The weight of coins and tokens compared. 

-p , Great Britain until the end of George III.'s reign. Ireland 1822. 

. The Isle of Man 1831. Farthings and other pieces without date or 

tea. value expressed omitted. Several names on one token. Truck money 

P" x ' Vi excluded. 

Acknowledgments, p. xlvi. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Seventeenth Century Tokens, issued by Corporations, trades- 
men and others, were dealt with by William Boyne in his great and 
laborious book published in 1858. 

The year 1889 saw the publication of G. C. Williamson's 

extended work, embodying the efforts of former writers, with 

original observations on numerous token issuers ; the 

Token result being a compilation which meets with general 
Authors. approval. Although it has not exhausted the 
subject, nor dealt with every existing token or 
variety, it will not be superseded for years to come. The 
Eighteenth Century Tokens, more than a century ago, received 
from James Conder of Ipswich, and Charles Pye of Birmingham, 
a treatment which established a solid interest in them, and 
speaks volumes for the energy of collectors, who lived in an age 
which knew nothing of the facilities afforded either by railways, 
telegraphs, telephones, or a cheap and rapid postal service. 

During the following twenty or thirty years that interest appears 
to have languished ; collectors apparently were few and unenter- 
prising, no further work upon tokens appearing until 1834, when 
Sir George Chetwynd commissioned Thomas Sharp, the Warwick- 
shire antiquary, to catalogue his collection of Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Century pieces. The catalogue was issued when Sir George 
was in the prime of life. The worthy numismatic baronet, by his 
personal acquaintance with James Conder, Charles Pye, Thomas and 
Peter Wyon, E. W. Percy (whose collection of tokens Chetwynd 
purchased) George, and George Hollington Barker, Francis Blick, 
Matthew Young, John Harding, William Till and other eminent 
collectors and dealers, had a vast knowledge of tokens, and this 
knowledge was embodied in Sharp's work for the advantage of 
students. 

b 



vlii INTR OD UC TION. 

It remained, however, for James Atkins, in an exhaustive work 
on the Eighteenth Century Tokens, to bring together or focus the 
token issues of that period, and to show the great variety of dies 
and edge readings. A long period must elapse ere any want for a 
re-issue of the book in an extended form can make itself felt. The 
arrangement was the best that could be chosen thirteen years ago ; 
for even so recently tokens were buff little appreciated, and 
co-operation difficult to obtain. 

In 1866, William Boyne published The Silver Tokens of Great 
Britain and Ireland, which, although containing much information, 
is rather a suggestive catalogue than a completed epitome. Indeed, 
the author was of the same opinion, for he says " Nearly the whole 
of the tokens described are specimens in my own collection ; there 
may be others which I have not seen." 

In this brief review of the principal works relating to the old 
trading currencies, reference to local efforts should not be omitted. 
Indeed, the stimulus for standard works emanates from local zest. 
Akerman and Burn's London, Boyne's Yorkshire, Cotton's Worcester- 
shire, Davis' Warwickshire, Golding's Suffolk, Simpson's Lincoln- 
shire, Waters' South London, show the deep interest of the local 
antiquary in token coinages. 

The best authority on the laws respecting tokens, as on coins, 
is Ruding. 

The first mention of a token by this or any other author is 
interesting. He says " I have met with an account of money struck, 
by this monarch, upon a material very different 
The Origin from those usually selected for coinage." He then 
and History quotes the writer of the History of Allchester, 
of Tokens. 1622, as follows: "King Edward (1272-1307), his 
leathern money bearing his name, stamp and pic- 
ture, which he used in the building of Carnarvon, Beaumarish and 
Conway Castles, to spare better bullion, were, since I can remember, 
preserved and kept in one of the towers of Carnarvon Castle." 
Ruding continues : " If the. statement of this anonymous author 
be correct, the above must have been rather tokens, or a kind of 
promissory note, than money."* 

The anonymous writer was probably correct, as, by the subse- 

* Vide Ruding, vol. II, p. 130. 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

quent history of tokens, it will be seen that they were mainly used 
by tradesmen, and especially for paying the wages of workers. 

Ruding also informs us " that private tokens were used 
to supply the want of silver coins " at the commencement of the 
reign of Henry VIII (1509), or at the end of his father's; and 
he refers to Snelling, as mentioning that Erasmus spoke of " Plum- 
beos Anglic?" or tokens made of lead. As Erasmus visited 
England in 1497, and wrote Adagia, alluded to by Snelling, before 
he (on the invitation of Henry VIII) revisited this country in 15 10, 
it would seem that the leaden tokens were in circulation at the 
latter end of the monarchy of Henry VII.* 

There is historical evidence, that such contrivances were in 
vogue (1558-1603) in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Ruding tells 
us : " The use of private tokens for money, which were stamped by 
inferior tradesmen, was at this time grown to such an excess as 
to be the subject of frequent complaints." And Snelling f says : 
"they were made of Lead, Tin, Latten, and even of Leather. Of 
these base materials were found Farthings and Halfpence, to the 
great derogation of the princely honour and dignity, and the great 
loss of the poor, since they were only to be repaid to the shop from 
whence they were first received." Queen Elizabeth, for the ease of 
her subjects, caused "Pledges and Tokens" to be made of "pure 
and fine copper " to pass current as halfpence and farthings. The 
copper coinage of Elizabeth was, however, only issued in Ireland. 
This would seem to have been the first recognition by the State of 
anything resembling a copper currency since the Anglo Saxon styca. 

Several patterns for English copper coins made their appear- 
ance during Elizabeth's reign, but were not put into circulation. 

The people's want of a convenient and ready medium of ex- 
change received no practical attention. The discontent was so great 
when James I (1603- 162 5) came to the throne, that cordwainers, 
butchers, vintners, chandlers, and others, issued farthing tokens 
of lead. Sir Robert Cotton estimated that there were 3,000 persons 
in London alone, who " cast yearly Five pounds apiece in leaden 
tokens." Such was the dissatisfaction then prevailing, that the King 
granted, in 1613, a monopoly to John. Lord Harrington, of Exton, by 

* Vide Ruding, vol. II, p. 411. 

t Vide Snelling, " View of Copper Coinage," p. 2. 



x INTRODUCTION. 

Letters Patent, to make a " competent quantity of Farthing Tokens 
of Copper " to circulate in place of the base leaden ones, which were 
prohibited by Royal Proclamation. The regal tokens were mean in 
appearance, weighing only 6 to 8^ grains each, and were unpopular. 

This attempt to be rid of an old abuse gave rise to a new one. 
In order to force these tokens into circulation, Lord Harrington had 
been enjoined to give twenty-one shillings nominal value in tokens, 
for twenty shillings in sterling money. This, Ruding says, " did 
breed an inconvenience, because many, for the gain of twelve pence 
in twenty shillings, would take the tokens in great sums, and so with 
the same, and some money, pay handicraftsmen for their labour at 
the week's end." The abuse, however, gradually discontinued, but 
not without the aid of a new proclamation, ordering that " the tokens 
should be freely exchanged backwards and forwards, for their equal 
(nominal) value only, in silver money, and providing facilities for 
the same." A similar proclamation was issued by the Lord Deputy 
and Council, at Dublin, in 1622, in which it was stated that His 
Majesty's English subjects had derived benefit from this special 
provision, and the circulation of the tokens. 

Charles I (1625-1648) continued the use of these farthing tokens, 
but, unfortunately, with a return to the practice of exchanging them 
in the ratio of twenty-one shillings for twenty shillings in sterling 
money, and often labourers were compelled to take their whole 
weekly wages in tokens. The murmurings of the people, on the 
renewal of the abuse, led to a decree that no one should pay above 
two pence in farthings to any person at one time. The forgery of 
the tokens had helped to " breed an inconvenience," and the most 
stringent laws were passed against the offenders. Notwithstanding, 
things went from bad to worse. 

Snelling* gives the substance of a tract, published in 1644, 
which reveals a semi-State approval to the private venture tokens 
of the period. The author says : 

Our projectors soon found the advantage that accrued to a private tradesman by his 
farthings being sometimes lost, and, under pretence of the good of the subject and of 
the poor, obtained a patent to make thousands of pounds' worth ; and, amongst other ways 
to get rid of them, some merchants would sell unvendible commodities for tokens, and then 
would press them upon their workmen whom they dealt with, and by that means, even 
chandlers, bakers and victuallers had their hands full. Their profit was exorbitant, as 



* Vide Snelling, " View of Copper Coinage," p. 9. 



INTR ODUC TION. xi 

out of 10 oz. of copper, which cost them one penny,* they made 20 pence in tokens. This 
could not hold long, but others, more eminent persons, must have a share, and so the first 
makers were dismissed, and their patents disannulled, and all the tokens left on the subjects' 
hands, who were to sell them to the braziers at 10 pence or 12 pence a pound, for they had 
a patent to distribute them, but the poor subjects had no patent to force the makers to take 
them again. 

The next token makers, we all know who they were, the public farthing token offices 
in London do witness it, and this was done with a more large profit to the makers ; they had 
their officers to attend the sale of them daily, and had a pretty way to vent them, by giving 
one shilling over in twenty to those who came to buy them, which occasioned many to fetch 
them, and force 5, 10, yea 20 shillings at a time away ; so that in a short time there was an 
infinite quantity dispersed abroad, to the excessive profit of the makers, but the excessive 
loss of the takers. The City of London and the adjacent counties of Kent, Essex, Suffolk 
and Norfolk were so loaded with them, that there was scarce any silver or gold coin left, 
but all was farthing tokens. 

During the troublesome times of the great Civil War, the 
coinage fell back to its worst state, and a "petition of the poor" 
was presented in the House of Commons, in 1644, complaining that 
"there was no exchange for their farthings, to their great damage, 
even to their utter undoing." There appears to be no record that 
any serious attention was given to the grievances complained of; 
but at this particular time, Charles I must be excused, if he gave a 
little more attention to the head on his shoulders than the copper 
tokens of the period. 

The Commonwealth (1648- 165 3) was prolific with patterns for 
a copper coinage ; the legends resembling more the token sentiment 
than regal inscriptions ; such as : — 

THE • FARTHING • TOKENS • FOR THE RELEFE OF THE PORE • 

ENGLANDS • FARDIN • FOR NECESSARY CHANGE • 

\ OUNCE • OF • FINE • PEWTR FOR NECESSARY • CHANGE • 

THE • FARTHING • TOKEN • OF • THE • COMMONWEALTH • OF • ENGLAND • 

These were more a pretence than an actual coinage, as the 
great rarity of these farthings prove they were not generally circu- 
lated. Nor did Protector Cromwell (1653- 1658) recognise his 
obligation to the people in the matter of small change ; although on 
some pattern farthings his effigy appears with legends, olivar • pro • 
eng • sc • irl • thvs • vnited • invincible • and on another reverse 

CHARITIE- AND • CHANGE • 1 65 I • 

During the brief rule of Richard Cromwell (1658- 1660) there 
was no possibility of dealing with the question of a new coinage, all 
interest and attention being absorbed by the larger and more urgent 
question of the Restoration of the Monarchy. Consequently, in that 
period, as in preceding years of Oliver's Protectorate, private tokens 

* A silver penny is here referred to. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

increased in number, ushering in one of the greatest token-periods 
known in the coinage history of England and Wales, and Ireland. 

At the Restoration, which brought Charles II to the throne 
(1660- 1 684), one of the things the nation badly wanted, and which 
the people hoped to secure, was a sufficient supply of copper coin. 
This desire and hope seemed to be full of promise, as patterns for a 
farthing were made freely in the first year of the re-established 
Monarchy. Among the legends were svch • god • loves • thvs • . 

VNITED • INVINCIBLE • TRUTH AND PEACE Alld On Others THE 

king's • grace • is • the poores • reliefe • This pattern-making 
went on for some years ; it was seen that they were mere play- 
things, and there was no intention to come to the • poores • re 
liefe • 

The poor badly wanted relief, and the substitution of Regal 
halfpence and farthings for the tokens then in use was pressed 
on the Government. Sir William Parkhurst, in 1660, urged the 
necessity for small money, to obviate the inconvenience of Trades- 
men's tokens, and complained that the practice of coining tokens 
was so common that the implements to produce them were openly 
sold. 

The indifference of the King and his Parliament to supply a 
medium of exchange in the lower denominations of our coinage was 
not only the cause of, but warranted, so to speak, corporate bodies, 
chamberlains, companies, merchantmen, artificers and retailers, in 
establishing a general token coinage to facilitate easy purchase and 
ready settlement. 

From 1660 to 1672 corporate and private tokens were freely 
coined and circulated without let or hindrance. As there was no 
State prohibition, except which had become obsolete, until 1672 — 
the year of the real establishment of the English copper coinage — 
these tokens must be regarded as the authorised copper currency of 
the period, though they were not so technically. Indeed, in 1662, a 
legality by inference was established for the use of private tokens. 

A proclamation stated "all persons who should, after the first 
day of September 1672, make, vend or utter any kind of pence, 
halfpence, farthings, or other pieces of brass or copper base metal, 
were to be chastised with exemplary severity." In like manner, 
Queen Elizabeth, nearly a century before, in a negative sense, made 
existing private tokens lawful ; for, in 1574, Her Majesty by pro- 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

clamation "forbid the making or using any such (private tokens) 
after the Feast of All Saints next (November ist) ensuing without 
special warrant or commission from Her Majesty." A special 
license was granted by the Queen to the Mayor and Aldermen of 
the city of Bristol to make farthing tokens. 

Mr. Williamson, in a note to the only Seventeenth Century 
token issued in Scotland (Combes, Dunbar), says : — " This is very 
surprising ... as there seems to have been no special law in Scotland 
against their issue, any more than in England and Ireland." 

From England there were numerous protests and petitions, one 
stating that "brass and copper tokens, pence, halfpence, and farthings, 
which the owners now refuse to receive back, saying they are 
exempted therefrom by His Majesty's pardon of such offenders" 
and praying " some means of redress to prevent their utter ruin." 

The devices on the tokens were many ; including tavern and 
shop signs, articles of dress sold by the issuers, implements of trade, 
processes of manufacture, animals, articles for domestic use, heraldic 
signs, the mail coach, views of public edifices, and punning legends. 
Under these heads, Boyne, in his work, gives interesting descriptions. 
The tokens were mostly halfpence and farthings ; no pence were 
known until after 1660. 

A contemporary observer thus expressed himself on how the 
tokens would be regarded in after years. 

The tokens which every tavern and tippling-house (in the days of the late anarchy 
among us) presumed to stamp and utter for immediate exchange, as they were passable 
through the neighbourhood, which, tho' seldom reaching further than the next street or 
two, may happily, in after times, come to exercise and busie the learned critic what they 
should signifie.* 

There were some curious legends, among which the following 
are selected as examples : — 

Richard Bakewell, of Derby, in 1666, issued a valentine 
token, with two doves billing ; legend, good • morrow • 

VALINTINE • 

At Braintree, one Allen put forth a token with the legend, 
turne a penny, encircling a representation of a soldier. 

Sam Endon, of Macclesfield, put on his token, welcom • 

YOV • BE • TO • TRADE W TH ME • 

An issuer, named Swindell, also of Macclesfield, had for 
his legend, sqvare • dealinge • is - best • His token was struck 
on a square piece of metal. 

* Evelyn's " Numismata." 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

Thomas Cotton, of Middlewich, frankly states, althovh • 

BUT ■ BRASS • YET • LET • ME • PASS • 

Thomas Thorpe, of Hepworth, in 1667, adopted the legend, 

HIS • HALFE • PENNY • THAT • GOES • TOOE AND FROE • 

Edward Lewis, of Maideley Market, announces around a 
collier's pick, madely • wood • yields • coal • thats • good • 

Two remarkable Christian names, America and Amisist, 
occur in the family of Baggerley, at Thingden. 

In 1652 a token was made payable at womorsle • chapel- 

TURTON • 

At Exeter, in 1651, Mary Moore put on her token a Com- 
munion cup, with the legend, drink yee all of this 

Richard Lucas, of Wycombe, declares (1670), around a lion 
rampant, rather dead than disloyal 

The only token, throughout Great Britain and Ireland, 
where the issuer's name began with Z, was Francis Zacacy, who 
was a brewer in Limehouse, Middlesex. 

On July 25th, 1672, there appeared in the London Gazette an 
advertisement " that it was his Majesty's pleasure that no person 
or persons should for the future make, coin, or exchange, or use 
any Farthings or Tokens, except such as should be coined in his 
Majesty's Mint, his Majesty having given directions for the speedy 
making of a considerable quantity of farthings, to be made current 
for exchange of his Monies by his Proclamation." 

This proclamation was hailed with approval, but some had 
doubts, and were, from past experience and disappointment, not to 
be considered disloyal if they had but little confidence in the King's 
promise. 

It transpired, however, that his Majesty was serious, and had it 
not been for the fulfilment of the undertaking by the issue of a copper 
currency, worthy the demand and the times, it may be questioned if 
the tokens of the period would have been suppressed. As it was 
they lingered, but the undoubted superiority, both in design and 
weight, of the Farthing of 1672 was what was wanted to restore con- 
fidence to the State in its capacity as provider of copper money. 

In 1674, Parliament at last recognised that the practice of private 
persons passing into circulation their own currency had become a 
source of unfair profit to the few, an inconvenience and pecuniary 
loss to the many, and must cease. On the 15th of December of 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

that year it was, by proclamation, announced that those who should 
" make or utter Farthings, Halfpence, or pieces of Brass, or other 
base metals, with private stamps," would be prosecuted. 

The denominations of the new coinage were halfpenny and 
farthing. They were of pure Swedish copper ; the weight of the 
halfpenny was 175, the farthing 87^ grains. The coins became at 
once popular, and the farthings were turned out at the Royal Mint 
in great numbers. The superiority of the coins in design, execution, 
and weight, did more than any Act of Parliament or proclamation 
to stamp out tradesmen's tokens. The supply of copper currency 
being sufficient, tokens disappeared. 

In the third decade of King George III., who had grossly 

neglected the coinage, a token production and circulation was 

again brought into existence. The debased state 

Cause of the coinage justified it, and the result was that, 
and at least for a few years, the regal copper coinage 

Effect. became almost extinct. The English Government 
has, in many matters, the power to do equitably 
and efficiently for the public that which cannot be done so well 
by private enterprise. It may be slow to recognise a danger or 
to perform a duty, but by virtue of its power it may set aside any 
attempt to usurp its authority. The issue of the approved copper 
coinage of 1797 did completely that which was wanted to stamp out 
the eighteenth century tokens ; and this as effectively as the copper 
coinage of Charles II. did in its day. 

Had the Council in 1787 given speedy effect to its resolve, 
quoted below, it would have put a check on the token specie. 

In consequence of a Council held at the Cock Pit (Whitehall) to take into considera- 
tion the present state of the copper coin of the Kingdom, Lord Effingham, who is Master 
Warden of the Mint, attended, and repeated the various representations that had been 
officially made to him, in order to prevent the present abuse of that species of coinage. It 
was then determined immediately to commence a new coinage ; and in order to put a total 
stop to counterfeit halfpence and farthings, which are now so great a burden to the public, 
it was resolved, that in the new arrangement one pound of copper should be made into 24 
halfpence instead of 48, which has been the practice hitherto, and the farthings in the same 
proportion of size and weight.* 

It has been seen that tokens were brought into vogue from the 
neglect of the Governments of the times to provide a proper 
coinage. Like siege coins, they were a money of necessity ; this 
condition alone sufficiently justifying an issue of trader's tokens 
mainly for the purposes of small change. 

* The European Magazine, December 1787. 

C 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

A ready circulation of money is one of the essentials of 
commercial life. Tokens forced the Commonwealth, under the 
Protectorate of Cromwell, to think of an issue of farthings. Tokens 
caused the issue of a regal coinage of small value under Charles II, 
continued as need arose by his successors down to the second 
decade of George III, during which long period tokens disappeared 
as needless. 

The lapse in the copper coinage, from 1775 to 1797, was 
responsible for the revival of tokens in the latter end of the 
XVII Ith century. The issue of these tokens became so vast that 
Sharp said they " almost superseded the national currency," which 
statement is borne out by the fact that 600 tons of copper were 
used from 1787 to 1797 in the coinage of tokens in Birmingham, 
to which must be added those struck in London, absorbing 
many additional tons of metal. At the Royal Mint, prior to 
1797, halfpence and farthings only were made. By forgery 
this copper currency was debased and degraded. One-fourth only 
of the halfpence, and scarcely one-tenth of the farthings, were struck 
at the Mint. As a consequence the people ignored them. On the 
other hand, the eighteenth century tradesmen's tokens were popular, 
containing as they did almost their nominal value in weight of 
metal. Soon, however, the fabricator's art was brought into re- 
quisition by manufacturers and traders. The public, especially the 
wage-earning class, were victimised by a token coinage almost as 
base as the coins supposed to be of Government issue. The 
question of the copper coinage was often before Parliament during 
this period, and although the Government had repeatedly promised to 
put it in order, it was not until 1797 that Matthew Boulton received 
instructions to strike the twopenny and penny pieces once so famous. 

After this tardy treatment it is remarkable that the Government 
confined itself to these two denominations, rejecting the halfpenny 
and farthing (patterns for which still exist) — remarkable inasmuch 
as previous issues had been for halfpence and farthings alone. The 
pattern penny, prepared by Pingo in 1788,* not having been 
approved cannot be recognised. 

The copper coinage of 1797, struck at the Soho Mint possessed 
beauty of design, good quality and weight of metal, and was so ex- 
cellently wrought as to defy the forger's art. 
* Vide Montagu, p. 104. 



INTR OD UCTION. xvii 

No contemporary counterfeit of Boulton's copper money of 
1797 is known ; but, years after, dies from the Soho Mint came into 
lawless hands, and brought his proof coins into disrepute : the 
deception did not consist in imitating them, but in striking from the 
original dies, which were repolished, or, as it is technically termed, 
"lapped." 

Young, Till, and Taylor, the two former, dealers in coins and 
tokens, muled Boulton's dies somewhat extensively. 

Another influence in the disappearance of the token currency 
after 1797 was undoubtedly the avarice of some traders, who sought 
to make as much as 30 per cent, profit from the issue of their 
tokens. 

The counterfeiting of coin was a trade, illegal of course, but a 
profitable business, connived at in proportion to public submission. 
P. Colquhoun, an eminent magistrate, in " A Treatise on the Police 
of the Metropolis," 1797, informs us that there was a rolling mill in 
London, well known, where all the dealers and coiners of base money 
resort for the purpose of having their plates prepared, from which, 
when finished, blanks were cut out of the size of the money to be 
counterfeited. He also said: "The artizans who stamp or coin 
these blanks into base money are seldom interested themselves. 
They work as mechanics for the large dealers, who employ a capital 
in the trade." Colquhoun estimated that the annual turnover of 
counterfeit coin was ,£200,000, and states that " the great dealers 
execute orders for the town and country with the same regularity as 
manufacturers in fair branches of trade. Scarce a waggon or coach 
departs from the Metropolis which does not carry boxes and 
parcels of base coin to the camps, seaports, and manufacturing 
towns." 

The maintenance of a copper currency, either by the Crown or 
by private persons, was, to a great extent, controlled by the price of 
metal. In 1793 copper was ^105 per ton, a price the Government 
considered too high to justify a new coinage. In 1797 the Govern- 
ment undertook to supply Matthew Boulton with copper ingots 
at j£io8 per ton. The contract stipulated that Boulton should 
charge that sum, plus 4d., for every lb. avoirdupois of coins 
struck. Eight twopenny pieces and sixteen pennies were to weigh 
1 lb. respectively, exactness being insisted on, so that the coins 
might be useful as weights. The cost of the coinage was ^140 per 



XV111 



INTRODUCTION. 



ton, leaving the Government £g 6s. 8d. as a profit, out of which had 
to be defrayed the cost of carriage and the distribution of the coins. 
This would leave but a small margin (if any) for Brassage. The 
nation was, however, secured against loss by the continued apprecia- 
tion of copper. The Boulton " cart-wheel " penny was so heavy 
that an artizan who was paid his wages of 20s. in those coins 
would have to carry 15 lbs. in weight from the pay-table. Early 
in 1 799 the Government announced that a further contract had been 
made with Matthew Boulton for halfpence and farthings, at a rate 
of 36 halfpence and 72 farthings to the lb. 

This decrease in weight occasioned confusion and unrest, which 
was taken advantage of to defraud the public, and not without success, 
as attempts were made to bear the currency, which the following 
advertisement will show : 

J. Owen acquaints his Friends, and those who have on hand Bad Halfpence, that 
he has received a quantity of Woollen Cloths, Kerseymeres and some Drapery Goods, 
which will be sold on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, by private Sale, half payment in 
Bad Halfpence, no Promissory will be taken, those who have quantities will find it worth 
their notice.* 

Also : Arts' Birmingham Gazette,\n March, 1799, contained an advertisement stating 
that " Base copper coin, that will not pass in this country, will be taken for eight days, 
and positively no longer : as the ship sails in a few days after, and they cannot be taken 
afterwards." 

The company who issued this advertisement offered goods in 
exchange for what they called " base copper coin " knowing at the 
time that no order had been made either in Parliament or in 
Council. At the end of 1 799 the new coinage made its appearance ; 
and, while it did not give the same satisfaction as the 1797 issue, it 
was on the whole well received, and gave much relief to the com- 
mercial classes. 

In the meantime copper was still increasing in value ; indeed, 
so scarce had it become, that the heavy Boulton coinage found its 
way into the melting-pot, to the profit of the metal workers at the 
various centres of that industry. Ruding quaintly says : " Whenever 
copper happened to rise in price the lean coins soon devoured the fat 
ones." 

In consequence of this melting process, small change gradually 
again become scarce. As will be seen from the table below the price 
of copper, too, was constantly changing, and this in itself made the 
question of the coinage difficult to deal with. 

By 1805 "the greater part of the penny and twopenny pieces 

* Bath Journal, Jan. 20, 1799. 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

disappeared, being worth, when melted down, nearly one-third 
more than their value as coins. The Anglesea penny tokens, of 
1787 and 1788, then in general circulation, and which were of 

PINCE'S PRICE CURRENT. 
Copper, British, in Cakes.— per Cwt. 



First Qr. 


Second Qr. 


Thirc 


Qr. 


Fourth 


Qr. 


Year. 


S. S. 


S. 


s. 


S. 


S. 


S. 


S. 














133 
117 
III 


— 


1800 
1801 
1802 


I40 — 


130 

i 5 6 
165 


140 


140 
200 


— 


l6 5 


— 


1803 
1804 
1 805 


— — 


200 


— 


182 


— 








1806 


— — 


162 


— 


147 


— 





— 


1807 


— — 


147 


— 


200 


— 





— 


1808 


Uncertain till April 
— — 160 


_ 


160 — 

Uncertain 





— 


1809 
l8lO 


— — 


150 


156 


140 


I46 





— 


l8ll 


— — 


140 


146 


130 


135 


— 


— 


l8l2 


— — 130 
None till December 


135 


140 




120 a 


130 


1813 
1814 





130 
120 


140 
130 


120 130 
Uncertain to Nov 


'• 85 


z 


1815 
1816 


133 — 


105 
123 


~~ 


133 — — 
No price after April 


— 


1817 
1818 


— — 


No price 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1819 


— — 


>) 


11 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1820 



the same quality and even of a greater weight than the Boulton 
coinage, suffered the same fate. 

Through the continued expansion of trade, which brought 
the Nation an increased turnover, a greater need than ever was 
felt for a ready exchange, and the demand, instead of being a 
pleasure to the Government, was esteemed a trouble. 

The Government was, however, compelled to provide a 
further supply of small money, and in 1806 and 1807 pennies 
were issued representing 150 tons of metal ; halfpennies, 427^ 
tons ; farthings, 2i\ tons ; altogether 600 tons. There were 24 
pennies, 48 halfpennies, and 96 farthings to the lb. avoirdupois. 

This order was the last which Boulton executed for copper 
coinage ; and, strange as it' may appear, no further issue of copper 
money made its appearance until 1821, when a farthing (by 
the famous artist Pistrucci) became current in the reign of 
George IV. 

The following account, contained in a circular letter printed by 
Boulton and Watt, is extremely interesting : 



INTRODUCTION. 



<y#A# 



Struck at 



-o— o 



£&als. 



Emperor of Russia. 

King's Preservation. 

Assassination of King of Sweden. 

Restoration of King of Naples. 

Final interview of the King of France. 

Execution of King of France. 

Execution of Queen of France. 

Prince and Princess of Wales on their 

marriage. 
Marquis Cornwallis, on the peace with 

Tippoo. 
Earl Howe, on his Victory of the first 

June. 
Hudson's Bay Company. 
Slave Trade abolished. 
Chareville Forest. 



General Suworow on his success in Italy. 

Empress Catharine of Russia. 

In commemoration of British Victories. 

Union with Ireland. 

On the Peace 1802. 

Serment du Roi. 

Lafayette. 

J. J. Rousseau. 

Respublica Gallica. 

The Death of George III. 

Battle of Trafalgar. 

Frogmore Medal. 

Prince Regent of Portugal. 

Manchester and Salford Volunteers. 

A Specitnen Prize Medal. 

Emperor Alexander of Russia. 



Coins, 

British Government. 



1797 



{Twopenny Piece. 



\_Penny. 



11m i Hal # enn y- 

'^\Farthmg. 

1 Penny. 
1806J Halfpenny. 

\ Farthing. 
1797. Specimen of proposed Penny . 
1797. Specimen of proposed Guinea. 



{Irish Penny. 



[Irish Halfpenny. 
1806 Irish Farthing. 

~{Manx Penny. 
l 79°\Manx Halfpenny. 

Q (Bank of England Dollar.") £ 
1 8 ° 4 1 Bank of Ireland Dollar. $ * 
181 1. Proposed Bank of England Token. 
A Soho Mint trial Piece. 



Foreign Governments. 



1790. 5 Sols Pacte Federatifi. 
1792. 5 Sols Hercule. 



1822. Buenos Ay res Decimo. 
1792. 2 Sols Liberie. 



Provincial Tokens. 



1791 

1795 
1791 
1789 



Anglesey Halfpenny. 
Bishop's Stortford do. 



Cornish 
Cronebane 
Dundee . 
1800. Enniscorihy 
179T. Glasgow . 
Hornchurch 



do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 



1794. Inverness Halfpenny. 



1794. Lancaster . 


do. 


1793. Leeds . . . 


do. 


London . . 


do. 


Penryn . 


do. 


1791. Southampton 


do. 


1793. Wilkinson's . 


do. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xxi 



Bencoolen. 



1804 



'4 Koping. 
3 Koping. 
2 Koping. 
, 1 Koping. 



Colonial. 



1794 



1804 



1786 




Bombay. 



African Company. 

• 1 Akie, or 1 Crown Piece. 

\ Akie, or \ do. 

2 Takoe, or \ do. 
L i Takoe, or \ do. 

Sierra Leone. 



1796 



100 Cent, or 1 Dollar Piece. 
50. . do. 
20. . do. 
10. . do. 

1. . do. 

1 Penny Piece. 



Madras. 



1803 



f4 Faluce. 
\z do. 

20 Ca^. 

10 do. 

5 *• 
1 do. 



Ceylon. 



(48 /# 1 Rupee. 
g6 to do. 
192 /<? do. 

Miscellaneous. 

1 791. Bermuda Penny. 
1804. Bahama Halfpenny. 
182 1. .S£ Helena Halfpenny. 

1830. Guernsey 1 Double. 
„ Do. 4 Doubles. 

1 83 1. Sincapore 1 Koping. 
„ Do. 2 Koping. 

1809. Portuguese Dollar. 

„ Proposed Indian Coin 1 /*/«. 

„ Do . . h do. 

Copper Company of Upper Canada 
Halfpenny. 



&rize Medals 

of various 

Gollec/es ; Societies, dec., 

of which 

Specimens are fumislieoZ only to tneir order. 



A renewal of the failure to supply coin, a token coinage — the 
last this country has seen — was taken in hand by traders, for gold, 
silver and copper. The first Bank token coinage 
which appeared in this century was in 1804. No 
silver coins had been issued by the Royal Mint 
since the shilling and sixpence of 1787; indeed, 
this was the only silver coinage of George III 
during the forty years he reigned in the eighteenth century. The 
shilling of 1763, by Yeo, and the Dorrien and Magens' shilling 
of 1798, although they appear in English numismatic works, must 



Nineteenth 

Century 

Silver 

Tokens. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

be regarded as tokens rather than coins, as the former was struck 
for the Earl of Northumberland, limited to 2,000 pieces, and the 
latter minted in error, and forbidden circulation by an order in 
Council. Previous to the issue of the Bank dollar of 1804, Boulton 
and Watt, at their Soho Mint, had countermarked 3,744,583 Spanish 
dollars. 

The capture of the Spanish specie by the British was naturally 
popular in this country. On one occasion a haul was made of no 
less than one and a quarter million dollars, as will be seen from 
the following account : 

"Wednesday, Dec. 4, 1799. 
"This day six waggons, loaded with the treasure taken in the two Spanish frigates, 
reached the Bank from Plymouth. At 9 o'clock, the waggons arrived at Kensington, where 
they were met by a Captain's guard of the Grenadier battalion of the Guards, and the pro- 
cession moved along Piccadilly, St. James's-Street, Pall Mall, the Strand, Fleet-street, and 
Cheapside as follows : 

" Military Band of Music 

A Detachment of the guards ; 

A commissioner of the customs, and a lieutenant 

of the navy, on horseback ; 

Six waggons with the treasure, drawn each 

by eight horses ; 

" Each waggon had flags on it, the English surmounting the Spanish. Sailors rode on 

the outside of the waggons. 

"A detachment of the 16th regiment of light 
dragoons closed the procession. 
"The horses were decorated with ribbons. When the cavalcade reached the Mansion- 
House, the Lord Mayor, the Lady Mayoress, and the gentlemen of his household came out 
in front of the house, and drank from out of a gold cup, ' Success to the British Navy,' the 
band playing Rule Britannia, while the honest tars, who were regaled at the same time, 
gave his lordship three cheers. (Twelve or fourteen waggons more are since come up. The 
whole of the specie taken on board the two ships amounts to the vast quantity of forty tons.)"* 

The forgery of the countermarks, and of the dollars, had 
become such a scandal, that as many genuine pieces as could be 
collected were sent to the Soho Mint, to be restruck by the new 
machinery invented and used there. The design had the bust of 
the king and his titles on the obverse, and, on the reverse, in an 
oval, Britannia with her attributes ; legend, bank of England five 
shillings dollar 1804- They were in striking contrast to the 
silver crowns issued by previous monarchs, and welcomed on 
account of the paucity of silver coin. The new dollars were 
excellently well struck, and although they did not defy the forger's 
art, they supplied the public with a good medium of exchange. 

There were, however, great complaints, owing to the absence 
of coins of lesser values. Silver was scarce, and the Government 
did not see the importance of the question ; merely promising that 

* Gentleman's Magazine, January, 1800. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

the matter should receive due attention, and that it was preparing 
to provide a new supply of silver coin. 

From 1804 t0 181 1, no new coinage made its appearance. The 
inconvenience was keenly felt, and the old methods of the Bank of 
England, whose great idea was that a paper issue was enough to 
serve the public, had become antiquated. Maberly Phillips, Esq., 
F.S.A., recently informed the Institute of Bankers, that such was 
the condition of things that "merchants, traders, overseers of the 
poor, and the City Corporations, were floating their promises to 
pay, and publicans issued small notes which they could not redeem 
in specie, and so indorsed the drinks of the holder on the back until 
the debt was liquidated* In Ireland, we read of a country 
gentleman who had to abandon a dinner party he was to give, as 
no one would trust him with goods, or could give him change for 
a note." Archd. Reed, the Mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
response to a numerously signed requisition, convened a meeting of 
the principal inhabitants of that city on the 13th July, 1807, to 
petition Parliament for a new silver coinage. 

The Government had no definite proposals as to silver and 
copper coin. It was, moreover, unable to rehabilitate confidence in 
the Bank of England, since its stoppage of payment in 1 797. 

The Directors of the Bank had also brought ridicule on them- 
selves by adjusting the standard value of countermarked foreign 
coin, Commercial men cried in vain for a sufficient medium of 
exchange, and the poor were alike inconvenienced. This intolerable 
strain was working its way again to tokens, the production of which 
literally verifies the adage that necessity is the mother of inven- 
tion. In 1 8 10, such was the contempt in which the Government 
was held on the question of the coinage, and the public indignation so 
great, that history repeated itself, and traders again, with public 
approval, resolved to supply a token coinage, in order to facilitate 
the trading propensities of the Nation. 

The Nineteenth Century Tokens proper commenced in 1804, 
by Clark, West & Co., of Dublin, and in 1809 with Bishop de Jersey 
& Co., of Guernsey, who commissioned Boulton and Watt to strike 

* The italics are my own. Bruce's Licensing Act made the recovery of debts for 
drink consumed on the premises illegal, until which there was a custom to have drink, in 
slang phraseology, " on the strap." To clear the " strap " at the public house " hard by," 
workmen have been known to pay more than half their wages. — W. J. D. 

d 



xx iv INTRODUCTION. 

over dollars, their bank tokens for five shillings. In the following 
year, orders were extensively forwarded to Birmingham for great 
quantities of tokens in silver and copper. Sir Edward Thomason, 
in his Memoirs, states : 

The copper and silver change, in the year 1810, became so extremely scarce and incon- 
venient throughout the country, that the demand for the manufacture of tokens, to enable 
the masters of manufactories and others to pay their workmen their weekly wages, was so 
great, that I had endless applications for both, as I was, at this period, making the silver 
crowns, half crowns, shillings and sixpences* for the Douglas Bank in the Isle of Man. And 
I manufactured, during this year, silver and copper tokens for Wales, Brecon, Gainsborough, 
and Newcastle-on-Tyne, and for many different establishments in the neighbourhood. 

In 181 1, there was an agitation, in and out of Parliament, for 
and against local tokens. The Earl of Lauderdale, who at the time 
was defending the issues of private tokens, wrote to Edward 
Thomason (afterwards Sir Edward) as follows : — 

Dunbar House, Dunbar. 
Sir, August 31, i8io.t 

In a letter I received last night from Mr. B. Thomson, manager of the Burichie 
Main Colliery, Newcastle, in reply to a printed letter I had sent him, as an issuer of 
tokens, he says — " I would recommend your applying on the subject of your letter to 
E. Thomason, Esq., of Birmingham, who, I apprehend, can give you more general infor- 
mation in relation to it than, perhaps, any other individual." 

I have to urge this as my apology for enclosing one of my circular letters to you, 
and to assure you that I will be grateful for any information you can give. A list of the 
names and addresses of those you know to be engaged in circulating local tokens will be 
particularly acceptable. I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Lauderdale. 

In his letter, his Lordship states : — 

In the last Session of Parliament, I opposed the Bill, entitled An act to prevent the 
issuing and circulating of pieces of gold and silver, or other metal, usually called tokens, 
except such as are issued by the Banks of England and Irela?id respectively. 

Much as I could wish for the credit and welfare of the country, that a general 
revision should take place of the principles upon which our circulation is now conducted, 
I was then, and am now, perfectly convinced that the measure of annihilating all local 
tokens in the month of March next, unless it should be attended with some further arrange- 
ments, must prove highly injurious. 

I am indeed of opinion, that there is just reason to believe that, if this Act is not 
repealed immediately on the meeting of Parliament, the commerce of the country will 
sustain a most severe shock. For, in my view of the subject, it will deprive the master- 
manufacturer of the power of paying the wages of his workmen, and leave the poorer con- 
sumer without the means of dealing with the retail trader ; whilst it would prove a source 
of infinite inconvenience to the community at large. 

There were fifteen queries submitted at the end of the letter 
for Thomason to answer : — 

1. What is the denomination of the tokens you have issued? 

2. What is the average weight of each species ? 

3. By how many dwts. in every twelve ounces is the metal of which they are 

composed inferior to standard silver ? 

4. What is the average intrinsic value of each species ? 

5. Are there any local tokens circulated in your immediate vicinity, besides those 

you have issued, and by whom ? 

* If a sixpence was intended it was never issued. 

+ Sir Edward dates the letter in error ; it should have been 181-1. 






INTRODUCTION. xxv 

6. What do you compute to be the total value of the local tokens circulating within 

the district in which you reside ? 

7. What proportion do the local tokens bear to the halfcrowns, shillings and six- 

pences, that are in circulation near you ? 

8. What do you conceive to be the average intrinsic value of these halfcrowns, 

shillings and sixpences ? 

9. Are there many tokens of the Bank of England circulated in your vicinity ? 

10. Has it been common to refuse change for a banknote, unless a large proportion 

of copper is taken ? 

11. Have you known a premium given to get silver for a twenty shillings bank note? 

12. Has there been any attempt to issue paper notes or tickets under the value of 

twelve shillings ? 

13. Have you not known master manufacturers pay their workmen's wages with 

paper tickets, under the circumstance of a shop being established in the neigh- 
bourhood, where the workmen are furnished with goods in exchange for 
those tickets ? 

14. Where this has occurred, has it not been customary for the retail trader to 

settle his accounts monthly or quarterly with the manufacturer by whom the 
tickets were issued ? 

15. Is there a disposition to petition the two Houses of Parliament, at their next 

meeting, for the repeal of the Act, which has recently passed, prohibiting the 
circulation of local tokens ?* 

It is to be regretted that Thomason does not give the reply 
to this important letter, as in all probability particulars of a 
valuable character would have been handed to us. 

Tradesmen's tokens were once despised and ignored because 
they never were strictly a legal tender. Tokens had firm supporters, 
both in Parliament and the country ; who, in consequence of the 
failure of successive Governments to provide a constant flow of coin, 
believed that commerce could not be developed without such aids. 
Indeed, it will be presently seen that by Acts of Parliament they 
were, if not a legal tender, lawful for specific periods. A distinction 
certainly, but one which the people failed to see: 

Throughout the year 181 1 the rage for tokens was at its 
height, and such was the hold they had on the public that meetings 
were held in different parts of the country to promote them. In 
Sheffield, at a public meeting held on October 24th, 181 1, it was re- 
solved that " the denomination of 2s. 6d. and is. be stamped and 
sent into circulation to an amount not exceeding ^10,000 and not 
less than ,£5,000." Nor was there any sign of abatement in their 
popularity during the year. Thomason says: "In 181 1 I manu- 
factured above two million of copper tokens for Samuel Fereday, 
the then greatest Ironmaster in the world. He (Fereday) stated, 
upon examination before the House of Commons, that he had 
nearly 5,000 persons in his employ. . . . The tokens which I 
manufactured for him to a very large amount were all of copper. 

* Sir Edward Thomason's Memoirs, p. 44. 



xxv i INTRODUCTION. 

: . . He used to send a carriage to my establishment every 
other Friday, during the continuance of the pressing of these, to 
enable him to satisfy his numerous workpeople." 

Silver and copper tokens were now firmly established ; indeed, 
thanks to H. B. Bowles, Esq., it has been discovered that a token 
bank was started at Bristol. This bank issued a token note for one 
pound, which is the only known instance of a bank circulating a 
token paper currency as such. During the year the price of silver 
had so much increased that the Bank of England failed to issue a 
new supply of its tokens. A correspondent, writing in the 
Statesman on March ioth, 1811, appeals to stockholders to resist 
the attempt of the Bank to levy a tax of 10 per cent., and depre- 
cated any excuse for abusing the public confidence. 

Christopher and Jennett, of Stockton, who had their own 
tokens, printed a scathing criticism in 1 8 1 1 on Bank Tokens, 
written under the nom de plume of "A Briton.'' The writer voiced 
the opinions of the extremists who advocated the abolition of the 
Bank of England's protection by the State. He trusted that "a 
House of Commons, before whom all Europe trembled, would see 
(so he wrote), that the marriage a la mode between the Bank and 
Treasury . . . will be speedily dissolved by Act of Parlia- 
ment." * Although this reasoning was untenable it throws a flood 
of light on the bad state of the coinage of the time ; the inertia of 
the Government, and the incapacity of the Bank, or its unwilling- 
ness to meet the emergency which had too long existed for an 
adequate coinage. The fluctuation in the price of silver from 1804 
to 181 1 had, of course, much to do with the chaos, and made matters 
extremely awkward for the managers in Threadneedle Street ; but 
an enlightened policy, coupled with an acceptance of responsibility 
to find the country necessary money, would have saved the 
situation, and private tokens might have been prevented. 

During the controversy, the Overseers of the Poor, private 
banks, and tradesmen, jointly and separately, were sending out their 
own tokens, and, as they were freely accepted, trading was expe- 
dited, which further tended to strengthen the opposition to Parlia- 
ment in its desire to suppress the issues. 

* Discussing Mr. Manning, M.P., in defending the Bank directors' actions, this critic 
says : " I wonder he has not proceeded to coin crowns of tin ; to assure the ducal diadem 
of Cornwall ; to divert the prince (Wales) of that which bound 
His baby-brow with sovereignty." 



INTRODUCTION. xxvtf 

In 1811 the Bank of England issued tokens for three shillings, 
and one shilling and sixpence. They were of less relative weight 
than the countermarked dollar and the dollar of 1804, being in pro- 
portion 76, as against 83*3 grains per shilling. There was no com- 
plaint as to their weight, and relief was given by their circulation. 
Much of the difference was accounted for, as the standard value of 
the dollar was 5s. 6d. Their lightness was a benefit to the com- 
munity, as, although a large quantity was put into the melting pot to 
make private tokens, they were, for this purpose, ignored when 
dollars could be obtained. 

The dies were engraved by Lewis Pingo. Of the three 
shillings and one and sixpence the obverses bore the King's bust in 
armour, with his short titles, as on the dollar of 1 804. The reverse 
indicated the denominations within a wreath of oak. 

The price of silver in August, 181 1, was 6s. 4d. per oz. ; in 
October it had risen to 6s. n^-d., and before the year was out had 
advanced to 7s. per oz. 

The countermarked dollars were issued in 1797 at 4s. 9d. each, 
and, as they weighed only 6t, grains under the ounce, it will be seen 
how, without a firm, clear, and definite policy on the part of the 
Government, the coinage would be demoralised. The report of the 
Bank of England — February 9th, 18 10 — informs us that '' Dollars 
issued by the Bank of England," to the 8th of February of that year, 
were : — 

Dollars stamped and issued 1797. .-.-.■..■. 2,325,099 

Dollars of 1804 ....... 1,419,484 

And 1809 and 181 1 inclusive ..... 1,073,051 

There were also issued between the 9th of July, 181 1, and the 
10th of December, 181 2, Bank tokens for three shillings 9,548,690= 
,£1,432,303 ios., and for one shilling and sixpence 4,708,937= 
^353. I 70 5s- 6d.— total £"1,785,473 15s. 6d.,* a supply quite 
inadequate to the nation's needs. 

The expansion of the factory system had created or developed 
an increased demand for small change with which to pay wages, and 
in these circumstances all attempts to put an end to the private token 
were ridiculed, and resulted in failure. 

The Gentleman 's Magazine, in 1811, announced that "a rise of ten per cent, of the 
stamped dollars in circulation took place this day (March 19th). The increase in the price 
of silver has become so great, that the dollars or tokens issued by the Bank sell for more 
for bullion than they are current at as coin. The directors of the Bank gave notice that 
they would receive them at 5s. 6d. In the House of Lords Lord Grenville, commenting on 

* Lo)ido?i Star, Dec. 18 12. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

the action of the Bank directors, censured it as violating the constitution, by an assumption 
of the rights of sovereignty. Earls Bathurst and Roise defended on behalf of the 
Government.'"' 

At the commencement of 1812 there was no falling- off in the 
public demand, for such it was, for a continuance of token issue.* Sir 
Edward Thomason says : "In this year an English guinea was 
" worth twenty-seven shillings, according to the Mint price of gold ; 
"and so scarce was the coin, and the panic so great, that every 
" maiden lady hoarded up all the gold she received. The Master of 
"the Mint at this period (The Honourable Wellesley Pole) could 
" not obtain permission from the Government to proceed with a 
" new gold and silver coinage ; and the country could not afford 
" the loss which naturally attends the calling in and re-issuing of a 
"new coinage of gold and silver. Berkley Monck, Esq., M. P. for 
" Reading, in Berks., the principal banker at that place, determined 
"upon issuing both gold and silver tokens; and desired that I 
" would proceed with manufacturing as soon as the dies could be 
" completed conformable to his drawings. For the obverse he 
" adopted the likeness of Alfred the Great, with following motto on 
"the legend: — ' pignora certa petis do pignora certa, 18 12.' 
"And on the reverse: — '40 Shillings. Berks Token. Standard 
"gold, 6 dwts, 18 grains. Reading.' On the legend : — ' Payable in 
"bank notes, at 6s. the dwt., by I. B. Monck, Esq.' The weight 
"being struck upon the gold pieces, fully proved the Mint price of 
" gold at this period. 

" The Hon. Mr. Percival, the Prime Minister, requested that 
" I would suspend proceeding with the gold tokens until he should 
"see Mr. Monck. No more were manufactured, and only ;£ 1,600 
"worth were struck, and the pieces were eagerly bought up at as 
" much as the sum of £5 each, to be retained as mementos of the 
" only gold token ever struck, and to confirm the price of gold at 
"this eventful period in his country/' f 

There was a coming awakening to the danger of permitting 

private parties to coin their own money. It was gradually dis- 

T , ^ covered that tokens issued by the Bank of 

England were melted down for the purpose of 

making tokens of less intrinsic value. 

* The Earl of Lauderdale, speaking on the Local Token Bill, on July 21, 1812, said he 
" opposed the Bill, as it would be sure to injure the retail trade of the country, which could 
not be carried on without these tokens. It would also be the means of introducing again 
those local notes, which were good for nothing, whereas the tokens were worth three-fourths 
of their nominal value." 

t Sir Edward Thomason : s Memoirs, p. 48. 



INTRODUCTION. 



There had also been working an insidious malady, which was 
eventually sure to kill private enterprise. H. Morgan, of London, 
publicly advertised that he was a licensed maker of tokens ; but it 
would appear that his statement was made without warrant, at least 
no record for any such authority having been granted him has come 
to light. He was probably the agent of Thomason or Halliday, of 
Birmingham. Halliday was a die engraver and manufacturer, whose 
business premises were in Newhall Street, in that town, and near to 
Thomason's works, in Church Street. Halliday engraved most of 
the token dies for Thomason as an outworker, but Morgan's orders 
were engraved and struck in Newhall Street, at Halliday's works. 
Morgan gradually reduced the weight of his tokens to suit his 
customers. The Birmingham Overseers' shilling weighed jt, grains, 
as against 83*3 in each fifth part of the 1804 dollar. A Bristol shilling 
sold by Morgan weighed only 60 grains, or a difference in value of 
thirty per cent, in favour of the dealer and trader. The Marlborough 
Old Bank circulated shillings, the specific gravity of which was re- 
duced to 53 grains. The imposition continued, and was practised 
openly — firstly, because Parliament was indifferent ; and, secondly, 
in consequence of the relief the public had received from a ready 
system of barter. 

The subjoined interesting calculation is taken from a journal of 
the period : — 

SILVER TOKENS. 

The following table of the weight and value of several of the Provincial Tokens, which 
at present form a large part of the silver circulation, has been drawn up by Mr. North, of 
the Assay Office, York, from the assays made by him. The intrinsic value is said to be cal- 
culated according to the present price of silver (but the price is not mentioned), and the 
weights on an average of several pieces. The fourth column states the inferiority in every 
12 oz. to standard silver : — 









Weight. 


Worse. 


Intrinsic 








Dwts. 


Gs. 


Dwts. 


Value. 




s. 


d. 








s. d. 


The Bank Dollar of 


• 5 


6 . 


.. 17 


8 


9 . 


• 5 5 


Ditto 


• 3 





9 


II 


.. 9 . 


■ 2 11J 


The Gloucester 


. 2 


6 . 


6 


8 


20 


1 ioi 


The Newcastle 


. 2 


6 . 


7 


3 • 


II 


2 2! 


The Hull . 


. 1 


6 . 


3 


14 . 


II 


• 1 1} 


Ships, Colonies and Commerce 


. 1 


6 . 


3 


18 


21 


• 1 ii 


The Doncaster 


1 





2 


21 


.. . 30 . 


9| 


The Leeds . 


1 





3 


1 


.. 29 . 


10J 


The Newcastle, by Robertson 


1 





2 


22 


IO 


IClf 


The Newcastle, by Kelty . 


1 





2 


18 . 


II 


10 


The York . . 


1 





2 


16 . 


IO 


10 


The Lincolnshire 


1 





2 


12 


.. 30 -. 


. Si 


The Whitby 


1 





2 


16 . 


IO 


10 


The West Riding . 


1 





2 


16 . 


.. 18 .. 


9J 


The Scarborough . 


1 





2 


16 . 


20 


9! 


The Stockton 


1 





2 


16 . 


.. 23 . 


• 9f 



XXX 



INTRODUCTION. 



SILVER 


TOKENS 


— {Continued). 










Weight. 


Worse. 


Intrinsic 






Dwts. Grs. 


Dwts. 


Value. 


The Newark 


I o 


2 12 


20 


•• O 9| 


The Sheffield 


I o 


2 23 


■• 23 


10J 


The Shaftesbury 


I o 


2 IO 


20 


.. 8* 


The London's (Warren's) . 


I o 


2 15 


II 


.. 6 9 § 


The Bristol . 


I o 


2 10 


14 


9f 


The Bridlington 


I o 


2 IO 


.. 19 


• • 81 


The Derby . 


I o 


2 12 


.. 48 


•• 7'i 


The Lincoln 


I o 


2 13 


II 


■■ c,\ 


The Gainsborough . 


I o 


3 1 


29 


IO 


The Charing Cross, London 


I o 


..2 7 


.. 15 


.. 8f 


The Stamp Office 


I o 


2 15 


.. 46 


.. 8i 


The Bradford 


I o 


2 20 


.. 28 


•• 9I- 


The Fozely {sic) 


I o 


..2 8 


.. 24 


..08 


The York . 


o 6 


i 5 


IO 


.. 4j 


The Britannia 


o 6 


1 7 


.. 32 


• • 4j 


The Hull . 


o 6 


1 6 


11 


.. 4f 


The Derby . 


o 6 


..12 


.. 48 


•• 3l 



It has been seen that silver tokens originated from the indiffer- 
ence of Governments to the needs of the populace in respect to the 
mediums of exchange. The same causes which 
Nineteenth brought in silver tokens operated with greater force 
Century on the issue of copper ones, and, as this metal was 
Copper more or less plentiful during the nineteenth century, 
Tokens. there was less excuse for the neglect. Early in the 
century many people received their wages wholly 
in copper specie, because traders were bound to find ready cash 
of some kind. The traffic in truck was indirectly forced into 
existence in olden times by the failure of monarchs and Govern- 
ments to supply a sufficient coinage. 

It has been already mentioned, from 1807 until 1821, no copper 
coins were issued by the State either in Great Britain or in Ireland. 
Early in the century, as previously dealt with, copper had 
become so high in price that the heavy coinage of 1797 had been 
put into the crucible, because it was worth more when melted 
down than its indicated face value ; but this only aggravated 
the unsatisfactory condition of the regal coinage, and should have 
induced Parliament to grapple with the difficulty by providing, for 
the time being, a coinage of less specific gravity. The apathy of 
the State caused tradesmen to bring on another token period, which 
received tacit official recognition in the absence of any Act of Par- 
liament to prohibit its issue until 18 18. 

The people wanted regal coin, and repeatedly petitioned 
Parliament to provide it. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

In 1 8 1 1 copper coins were so scarce that the Gentleman s 
Magazine noticed that a merchant of Truro had offered to give 
Bank of England paper for one thousand pounds worth of small 
money which, in those days, was regarded as a wonderful under- 
taking. 

In September of the same year the High Bailiff of Birmingham, 
in pursuance of a requisition, forwarded to the Privy Council, on 
behalf of the town and neighbourhood, a memorial : — ■ 

" that trade suffereth great and serious evils from the want of small change. . . . That 
there are in this town and neighbourhood many thousands of persons whose weekly labour 
does not produce more than from three to ten shillings, and that their employers being 
compelled to pay several together in pound notes, they are under the necessity of going to 
public-houses to get change, where, of course, some of the money must be spent to induce 
the publicans to supply them therewith, or they must buy some articles which they do not 
want, or in many cases must take the articles of food on credit at an extravagant price, 
paying for the same when what they have had amounts to a pound. That the issue of 
Bank Tokens, although of great and essential service, is by no means adequate to the 
remedy of the evil. And your memorialists, therefore, most earnestly request that your 
lordships will speedily order a coinage of copper penny and halfpenny pieces, which would 
effectually remove the evil they labour under." 

On the second reading of the Silver Tokens Bill, June 13th, 
1 8 1 3, Mr. Huskisson asked the Chancellor of the Exchequer: "Is 
it intended by the Bill to prohibit the circulation of local copper 
tokens, as there is an immense quantity made of spurious metal,* 
the circulation of which has a tendency to enhance the price of first 
necessaries, being issued by large manufacturers, and exchanged at 
par for bills at twelve months after sight?" Sharp, in a footnote 
written as early as 1833, after quoting this statement, doubts it, as 
he found no evidence on which it was based. The same member 
further stated that " shopkeepers consequently charged their articles 
higher, and that the labouring classes are obliged to submit to the 
imposition, from the difficulty they have of procuring employment." 
This general statement supports the contention, if such it may be 
termed, that tokens were largely used in paying wages to labourers 
and artizans. On the third reading of the Bill, June 29th, 1813, Mr. 
Grenfell, M.P., in calling attention to the depressed state of copper 
specie, said : " The bad halfpence, when taken by the shopkeeper, 
are sold by him as base metal at 8d. per lb., whereas 16 good penny 
pieces weigh lib., and it takes 73 of these halfpence to produce the 
sum of sixteenpence, so that the difference or loss is as 32 to 73."f 

* I have not found many tokens which are not of the best copper. Mr. Huskisson's 
remarks would well have applied to the spurious regal coinage. — W. J. D. 

f Hansard, v. 26, c. 961. 

e 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

On July 27th, 181 7, the circulation and issue of copper tokens 
were dealt with by Act of Parliament. Copper tokens had enjoyed 
a long life, as from 181 1 to 181 7 no official interference checked their 
circulation. This immunity gave to the issuers a free hand, and, as 
a result, many of the industrial districts secured a ready medium of 
exchange, remarkable from its matter of fact type. The eighteenth 
century tokens aimed at the picturesque ; the nineteenth were 
severely Spartan, some with nothing but inscriptions or legends, both 
on the obverse and reverse, and when character was delineated it 
was represented by busts of eminent men, workhouses and mills. 
The reverses were largety devoted to the figures of Britannia and 
Commerce, and in Ireland the harp naturally predominated. Many 
tons, mostly the penny denomination, were circulated, and though 
they fell short of the just standard of the 1797 coinage, they success- 
fully competed with the regal issue of 1807. There was, however, 
much difference in the specific gravity of the various tokens, that of 
the Birmingham Overseers being the heaviest of all. This disparity 
in weight gradually became more marked, and led to dissatisfaction. 
On many there was no "promissory" to redeem, as was the case with 
most of the silver tokens. Bogus companies, with a promissory of 
imaginary persons and legends, overshot the market, and an un- 
doubted reaction enabled the Government to deal with the subject 
by public consent. 

The design, or devices, of the tokens, silver and copper, were 
very varied and included : — 

Gods of classical literature, saints, emperors, kings, queens, the Druid, and warriors ; 
men of mark, figures of Britannia, Justice and Commerce ; heraldic arms of country, cities, 
towns, the nobility, and gentry ; diadems, crests and monograms ; statues, cannons, 
military trophies, musical instruments, and the stage coach. 

Animals, birds, and fishes. The Phoenix and the Griffin. 

Mountains, cathedrals, churches, castles on land and on rocks at sea ; light-houses, 
ships, sea views, public and private buildings interior and exterior ; bridges, mills ; furnaces 
and collieries. 

Engines, machinery, including the loom, the plough, water wheels, windmills, the wheat- 
sheafs ; trade appliances, agricultural and horticultural implements ; bales of merchandise ; 
beehives and casks. 

The time had come for these tokens to depart. Many of those 
who had issued them had either become bankrupt, or refused to 
redeem them. For the purposes of commerce, it was gradually per- 
ceived that as vouchers they were insecure. As these evils grew the 
public became uneasy, and a movement commenced, which found a 
ready response in the House of Commons, where the private issue of 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

tokens had always been disliked ; and sanctioned only on the ground 
of expediency. 

A petition was presented in the House of Commons, from 
Dudley, by Mr. Grenfell, on April 25th, 18 17, complaining that the 
copper tokens were not half their nominal value, and praying that 
their issue might be forbidden. At the time of the petition, tokens 
were so plentiful that the wage earners had a difficulty in purchasing, 
and were forced to accept in exchange for them less of the common 
necessaries of life, which in effect raised the price of commodities 
but did not bring a corresponding increase to their earnings. 

The grievances of the people were real, and Parliament was not 
long in giving effect to the Dudley petition. 

Sir Edward Littleton, member for Stratfordshire, introdueed-a- 
Bill to prohibit the making of copper tokens, and to render the circu- 
lation of such tokens illegal after January 1st, 18 18. 

The Government succeeded in passing the Bill on July 27th, 
181 7.* It contained, however, a proviso that the penny tokens 
issued by the Sheffield Overseers of the Poor, in 181 2, 18 13, 18 14, 
and 18 15, were to remain a lawful tender until March 25th, 1823 ; 
and another to the same effect in respect to the Birmingham Over- 
seers of the Poor, and their tokens bearing the dates 181 1, 18 12, 
18 1 3, and 1814,1 which were lawfully permitted circulation until the 
25th day of March, 1820. The ground for such exceptions as stated 
in the Act was that " the immediate suppression of which would be 
attended with great loss to the said townships, and to the holders 
of such tokens, being for the most part labourers and mechanicks, 
as well as with great inconvenience to the inhabitants," 

The new silver coinage, which was now in general circulation, 
contained a plentiful supply of shillings and sixpences ; and, conse- 
quently, not so much copper specie was required. 

A study of the subject will also show that a greater power than 
Parliament had decreed that tokens could no longer be tolerated in 
England and the Principality of Wales. For nearly three years 
(with the exception of the twopenny piece of Rugeley, a few far- 
things, and the Sheffield Workhouse token of 181 5) none were issued 



* Ruding, vol. iv, 139. 

t Ruding, who was evidently quoted by Sharp, gives the additional date of 181 5, but 
this is an erroi - , as the Birmingham Overseers did not issue tokens after 1S14.— W. J. D. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

were almost regarded as a regal issue, and, though there is much 
obscurity as to how and when this interesting coinage was first 
produced, probably Mr. Grueber is right in that it was not issued 
so early as thought by Simon and Lindsay, as he says " the style 
of work shows that it is of a much later period, and it seems more 
probable still, according to Dr. Aquilla Smith, that the issue took 
place between the cessation of the copper tokens and the striking of a 
regal currency." This opinion Mr. Grueber bases on the fact that 
" these coins formed part of the currency of the Isle of Man in 1678 
and 1679, being especially referred to in an Act of the Tynwald of 
the 24th June, 1679," and that "also in 1682 they were the 
authorized currency of the State of New Jersey." 

The Tynwald Act referred to was an Act to suppress the circu- 
lation of " Butchers' halfpence, Patrick halfpence, copper farthings, 
or any other of that nature after the 1st day of January, 1679." As 
the Isle of Man was at this time in the possession of the Earl of 
Derby, and it had the sovereign right of issuing its own coinage, it 
does not follow, because of the Tynwald Act referred to, that the 
Saint Patrick money was not a regal issue for Ireland. Even 
Ruding had no information, and Simon is content to quote Rymer, 
who only " supposed that the copper pieces called Saint Patrick 
halfpence and farthings were struck by the rebel's authority." 

In 1680, Charles II. gave to Ireland what it needed to effectually 
stamp out private tokens. 

In this and the two years following, under another patent 
granted to Sir Thomas Armstrong, halfpence of good workmanship 
and weight were circulated ; and tokens ceased to be made. 

The next issue was the halfpenny of James II., which was 
struck 1 68 5- 1 688. Then followed, during the troublesome times 
of this monarch, the appearance of the gun and tin money, the 
former of which was, in Ireland, known as " brass money." After 
the abdication of James, William and Mary, from 1690 to 1694, 
supplied a currency in the form of a copper halfpenny, and in 1695 
and 1696 William III. issued halfpence. Queen Anne, during the 
twelve years she was on the throne, ignored the currency of Ireland 
altogether ; and it was not until George I. had reigned eight years 
that a patent was granted for coining copper money in Ireland, 
which Dr. Philip Nelson says, in his account of the life of Wood, 
was originally granted the Duchess of Kendal, who sold the patent 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

rights for £ 10,000 to William Wood, and that the halfpence and 
farthings of 1722-24 were issued or minted in Phcenix Street, 
Brown's Gardens, Seven Dials, London. 

The Hibernian Patriot, p. 44, quotes the report of the 
Committee of Privy Council. 

Whitehall, July 24, 1724. 
The want of small money in Ireland has now grown to such an height, that 
considerable manufacturers were obliged to pay their men with tallies or tokens in cards 
signed upon the back, to be afterwards exchanged for money ; and counterfeit coins called 
raps, * were in common use, made of such bad metal, that what passed for a halfpenny was 
not worth half a farthing. 

Dean Swift wrote : " It having been many years since copper 
halfpence and farthings were last Coined in this Kingdom, they have 
been for some time very scarce, and many counterfeits pass about 
under the name of raps." 

In 1730 Mr, Prior, in "Observations on Coin in General," 
quoted by Aquilla Smith, noted " the constant drains of money out 
of the Kingdom, for the support of our gentlemen abroad, and the 
scarcity of money occasioned thereby." 

Wood's currency was very unpopular, occasioned perhaps more 
by the informal way the coins were sent to Ireland than to the specie 
itself. The prescribed weight, 128 grains, compared favourably 
with the preceding copper currency, and which had become very 
worn. It must also be recorded that the failure of successive 
Governments to keep up a sufficient supply of copper had caused 
a want of small change, and as private traders were preparing to 
reissue a token coinage it is assumed that the opposition was 
strengthened by this interest. Indeed, during the next twelve 
years, no effort was made to satisfy the legitimate requirements 
of Ireland in its coinage ; of either gold, silver, or copper ; there- 
fore, as Ruding states, " several persons in the North and other 
parts of that kingdom were under the necessity of making copper 
and silver tokens, which they passed as promissory notes amongst 
their workmen, customers and neighbours, those of copper for 
twopence, and those of silver for threepence." It was during this 
period that the " Drapier " (Dean Swift) controversy arose ; and 
there was, until 1736, practically no restriction to the issue of 
private tokens. 



* This seems to be the origin of the saying "Not worth a rap. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

In 1736, it was decreed that his Majesty (George II.) was 
graciously pleased, at the humble request of the Lords Justices 
and Council, to direct a contract for fifty tons of copper to be made 
into halfpence and farthings for his Majesty's subjects in Ireland, 
and that the profit of such issue should go to the public revenue of 
that kingdom. From the legend was omitted " Dei Gratia,'' which 
was much noticed at the time. Halfpence and farthings were 
issued until 1755, and private tokens disappeared apparently 
without a royal proclamation. No further regal copper coinage 
appearing, there was created, in the words of Mr. Grueber, "another 
occasion for the striking of copper tokens." The voce populi half- 
pence and farthings " struck by Roche (or Roach) of South King 
Street, Dublin, who was a manufacturer of metal buttons for the 
army," were extensively circulated in 1760, and were recognised as 
Pretender money. In the same year F. McMinn issued a private 
token for twopence, and as Ireland, until 1766, had to find its own 
coinage there was no other way but to resort to tokens. At 
intervals, from 1766 to 1783, halfpence were coined of twenty-six 
pence to the pound avoirdupois, the number struck was inadequate, 
but sufficient to check private token venture. From 1783 to 1804, 
Ireland was, in the matter of its specie, left to its own resources. 

Efforts were not wanting to induce the royal authority to 
maintain its copper coinage. Mossop, the Irish die engraver, in 
1789 submitted a pattern for a penny, the design of which delineated 
national feeling. On the obverse was a striking portrait of the King 
with the legend georgius hi rex, and under the head a harp. On 
the reverse the figures of Britannia and Hibernia, with their 
attributes, hand in hand before a lighted altar. Legend con cor 
dia. (Unanimity) 1789. The King evidently thought well of it, 
as he was graciously pleased to retain two of the specimens out of 
the six, which, it is said, were struck.* 

In 1804 there were struck for the Bank of Ireland six-shilling 
pieces. The obverse was similar to the English dollar, but with 
the reverse Hibernia seated, supporting a harp, and the legend, 

BANK OF IRELAND TOKEN 1804 SIX SHILLINGS- The design Was 

by the renowned die engraver C. H. Kiichler. The peculiarity of 
the pieces was that they were struck over the Spanish dollars ; 

* Vide Montagu, lot 240, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, July 16th, 1897. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

were of the same date and weight as the English dollar, and yet 
represented a shilling more in value. Previous to the issue of this 
token no regal silver coins had been minted for Ireland since 
the reign of Charles II. 

So much had Ireland been neglected that worn shillings and 
sixpences, without any trace of the obverse or reverse designs, 
were in circulation, countermarked with the initials and names of 
various tradesmen and shopkeepers. These were called " slap 
tokens," from being countermarked by another trader, probably to 
induce acceptance. They were almost as thin as a hammered 
English silver penny, and, like the imitation regal halfpence and 
farthings of the second decade of George III., show the depressed 
state into which the coinage of Ireland had fallen — indeed, had 
almost disappeared. 

In the two succeeding years the Bank of Ireland issued 
tokens for tenpence and fivepence, which were a great convenience. 
Those dated 1805 were the most abundant. Mr. Grueber, in his 
excellent work on the " Coins of Great Britain and Ireland," 
ignores the second issue, but the tenpenny and fivepenny tokens 
of 1806 were plentiful, and as the latter carries the obverse of 
1805 there can be no doubt that the Bank of Ireland caused 
them to be struck in 1806. The Bank of Ireland in 1808 
brought another relief to facilitate the medium of exchange, in the 
form of a half-crown token, or xxx pence irish. The designs of 
this, as well as of the tenpence and fivepence, were by Pingo. 
Ireland here established another peculiarity, inasmuch as the Bank 
of England issued no tokens from 1804 until 181 1. The last 
silver token of Ireland was struck and circulated by the Bank of 
Ireland in 18 13; it was for tenpence. The obverse was the same 
as the pattern for the English ninepence by Wyon. 

In 1805 the dies for a regal penny, halfpenny and farthing, were 
engraved by Kiichler, and struck at the Soho Mint, Birmingham, 
in the following year a farthing only. The farthings were circu- 
lated in large quantities, but the penny and halfpenny are usually 
found as proofs. 

The issue of private silver tokens commenced in 1804, an d 
consisted of three types, each for one shilling. With the excep- 
tion of the " Pro Bono Publico" token, only a limited number seem 

/ 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

to have been circulated, which is accounted for by a sufficiency of 
Bank silver specie. 

In 1813, an attempt was made to supply a new copper coinage, 
and for this purpose two patterns of merit were submitted from 
Soho. The first has, on the obverse, the bust of the King laureate 
and draped, under the bust a rose, beneath T. W (Thomas Wyon), 
legend georgius hi d:g: britanniarum rex. The reverse a large 
harp similar to those on the tokens of the period, legend hibernia 
1813- The second pattern has a broader but similar bust with the 
rose omitted, and W on the shoulder, legend georgius hi d:g: 
rex * This obverse was afterwards used for the Colonies of 
Essequibo and Demarary, one stiver token of 18 13. Neither 
pattern was accepted for Ireland. 

For nearly forty years, except in 1805 and 1806, Ireland 
was without copper money. Private tokens, as a result, began in 
1 80 1 and continued until 1822-3, when the last regal coinage of 
Ireland was struck at the Soho mint, from dies engraved by William 
Wyon, who, for the King's portrait, was supplied with a model by 
the famous Pistrucci.f 

The assimilation of the Irish coinage with that of Great Britain, 
and its regular supply, finally ended the desire or the necessity for 
private tokens. There did appear at a later date work (or truck) 
tickets, but these will be dealt with in a forthcoming book on 
badges, society, garden, and theatre passes. 

Early in the nineteenth century there was issued a trading- 
coinage of a remarkable character. This currency, for such it was, 
is now known as the " Countermarked Tokens." 
Counter- The seal, or countermark, of the issuer was intended 

marked to be taken as security for the full indicated value. 

Tokens. The token issue was again directly caused by the 
failure of the Government to supply sufficient silver 
coin for public requirements, which was the more keenly felt, as 
people were naturally averse to accept foreign dollars, which bore 
effigies and inscriptions they did not understand. To meet 
this antipathy mill owners and merchants, perforce, impressed 



* Vide pi. 3, Montagu sale, July 16th, 1897. 
+ Vide Grueber 133. 






INTRODUCTION. xli 

on foreign coins their own promissory stamp, and such was the 
desire for something reliable that the issuers could almost demand 
the acceptance of their countermarked money. These counter- 
marked pieces are described, and, so far, form a complete list 
of all known to exist. 

At the period in question silver had its intrinsic, or standard, 
value, almost as gold has now ; and it is more than conjectured that 
the various values were stamped on the coins in proportion to the 
appreciation or depreciation of that standard. 

The smaller denominations in copper also show that the public 
had more confidence in the mill owners' than in the regal coinage — - 
pre the Soho productions. These pieces were generally counter- 
marked over worn English and Scotch halfpence ; also on eighteenth 
century tokens, many of which were in circulation at this period. 
Some few indicate that dollars might still exist with these counter- 
marks, but, up to the present, research has failed to find them in 
silver. 

The countermarked pennies of Bradford Workhouse, and of 
the Keighley Overseers — also those crossed G r, j m and w w — 
were issued by local authority. At the time money being scarce, 
puncheons were resorted to, to save the expense of a pair of dies, 
and to give an additional promissory that tokens in circulation, but 
struck for another county, were to be accepted on good local security. 

The countermark was most favoured in Scotland, which is 
attributed to an old custom of re-issuing coins at a rate different 
from that at which they were first circulated. During the reign of 
James VI., the testoon and other coins of Mary were countermarked 
with a crowned thistle, and re-issued at an advanced value. 

The ryal, or sword dollar, struck 1567-1571, was in 1578 
similarly countermarked, which process was resorted to in conse- 
quence of the appreciation of silver. The testoon, so countermarked, 
was made current for tenpence more than its original recognized 
value, and the sword dollar four shillings and threepence above its 
face value, in the method of the Scotch calculation.* This appears 
to be the origin of the countermark in Great Britain, and, as it 
was first applied in Scotland, accounts for the preference given to 
this form of a token. 

* Vide Grueber 193, 134. 



xlii IN TRODUC TION. 

There can be no doubt that the tokens of 1811 and 181 2 were 

a lawful tender by Act of Parliament. This, it is admitted, was 

made imperative by the necessity of the times, but 

Tokens a it is not a sufficient justification for excluding all 

Lawful tokens from the coinage of the country ; to do 

Tender. so is to make a similar mistake to that of the 
historian, who passes lightly over the Cromwellian 
period, in a descriptive chronological record of our Monarchial 
system. A Parliament that decrees a certain coinage for a given 
period, and afterwards extends such time of official recognition to 
that form of coinage, confers on such a circulation its highest 
mandate, short only of a royal warrant. 

By an Act of Parliament, passed in 1S09, it was required that 
local tokens, when presented to the issuer, were to be met in Bank 
of England notes. This not only accounts for the promissory 
legends to honour the tokens in the highest security of the times, 
but conveyed the impression that they were allowed to circulate 
with official sanction. 

The Statesmen informed the public on September 18th, 181 1, 
that " All the Country Bankers have received permission to issue 
silver tokens for small chancre." 

On July 20th, 18 12, it was enacted* that after the 25th day of 
March, 1813, no tokens, except those issued by the Banks of 
England and Ireland, should be current. The penalty for the issue 
of each private token was to be not less than five pounds or more 
than twenty at the discretion of the Justices of the Peace, who 
should hear and determine the offence. Ruding says: " The copper 
tokens were not mentioned in this Act, and consequently their 
circulation was not forbidden." Thus, for eight months, private 
tokens were clearly a lawful tender. 

During this period of official recognition no regal coinage was 
struck, except Bank tokens. Crowns and dollars, especially the 
crowns, were fast finding their way into the melting pot for the 
production of tokens, to the great loss of the community. 

This absorption aggravated the situation, and, as time advanced, 
the dearth of regal coin was such that much anxiety was manifested 
as to how the commerce of the country was to be conducted. 

* 52 George III. c. 157. 



INTRO D UC TION. xliii 

Citizens held meetings and expressed their disapproval of the 
extinction of tokens. At Reading, on September 19th, 181 2, a 
meeting of traders and the inhabitants generally thanked J. B. 
Monck for the issue of his tokens, and condemned the Act forbidding 
the circulation of gold and silver tokens. 

In the beginning of 18 13 there was no improvement, as, 
although the Government had passed the Act of prohibition, it 
failed to substitute coins for tokens, and was, as a result, ultimately 
compelled to give a new lease to the traders who provided them. 
Therefore Ruding says : "It became necessary to extend the 
circulation of private tokens to the 5th day of July next fol- 
lowing." This extension Act was passed on March 13th, 1813, 
and again on July 10th of the same year* it was enacted that 
the "time for the circulation of private tokens be extended to the space 
of six weeks after the commencement of the next Session of Parlia- 
ment, and in order to remove doubts which had arisen it was enacted 
that the issuers of local tokens should be liable in Law, upon 
demand made, of the value denoted upon such tokens to pay the 
same." On November 25th, 181 3, Parliament again considered the 
question, but the Government had no definite proposals to make as 
to the immediate prospect of a new regal silver coinage except 
Bank tokens. It enacted that private tokens should remain in 
circulation as a substitute until " six weeks from the commencement 
of the next Session of Parliament." This Act,f which received the 
Royal Assent November 26th, 18 13, is the last on record which 
in any way gives parliamentary sanction to the circulation of 
tradesmen's silver tokens. 

The Bank of England had, during the token periods, issued 
the three- shillings and one-shilling-and-sixpence of the Pingo type. 
The directors had also given large orders to the Soho mint for 
tokens of similar denominations. These were engraved by William 
Wyon, and were circulated in the years 18 12-15. The three-shilling 
token was also struck in 1816 but not circulated. In 181 2 a pattern 
by the same artist for ninepence was submitted which, however, was 
not approved. 

Bank tokens, by their superior make and intrinsic value, were, 

* Statute George III. c. 106. 
+ Statute 54 George III. c. 4. 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



on their merit, doing more to suppress private tokens than the final 
Act of 1813, again showing that, without a sufficient official coinage, 
Acts of Parliament were almost abortive. 

" The time had come even for Bank tokens to cease as it was announced.* The first 
of May is the last day on which the five shillings and sixpence Bank dollars will be 
exchanged by the Bank, after which time they will not be received in payment but must 
be sold for old silver. The Country Banks in general have intimated to their customers 
that they cannot take dollars later than to day." 

The general public, rather suddenly, was changing its opinion 
on the question of private tokens, and members of the House of 
Commons, whose protests against the wholesale issue of commercial 
tokens had been made in vain, now found ready support for their 
final extinction. 

Another agency came to the aid of the Government. The 
price of silver began to fall. The movement in this metal went on 
until the Spanish dollar, in November 1815, which had been 
honoured by the State Bank for five shillings and sixpence, was not 
worth more than about four shillings and threepence. 

On September 30th, 18 14, the Hon. William Wellesley 
Pole was appointed Master of the Royal Mint, and proved himself 
to be equal to all that was required to reinstate a regal silver 
coinage commensurate to the commercial necessities of the times, 
and, since the coinage which he introduced in 18 16, there has been 
no need for tradesmen to set up a token silver specie, and therefore 
none have been issued. The continued depreciation of silver was 
an important factor, as will be seen from the following table : — 



1813. 



DOLLAR SILVER 


PER OUNCE. 






s. d. 






s. d. 


May 


6 7 




September 


5 6 


June 


6 8 


1815. 


January . 


5 7 


July . . . 


6 9 




February 


. 5 10 


August . 


7 




April 


6 9 


September 


6 n 




May 


6 8 


October to December 


7 




June 


6 5 


January . 


6 ni 




July . . . 


5 7 


February 


6 11 




October to December 


5 3 


April 


6 6 


1816. 


January . 


5 3 


July . . . 


5 " 




April 


4 ni 


August . 


5 71 




July . . . 


4 10 



1814. 



From the time of the final Act of suppression, however, to the 
issue of the silver coinage, which from various causes was delayed 
until 18 1 7, there were loud cries for silver coin. 

A writer signing himself " An Englishman, "f dealing with 

* Northampton Mercury, Apl. 26, 18 17. 
t Monthly Magazine of 1814. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

the lightness of silver coin, says : " I find that a crown piece is equal 
in weight to twenty-two sixpences, and to eight country tokens 
which pass for one shilling each." 

Tokens were now an illegal tender by Act of Parliament, but were, 
in the absence of a new coinage, still being made, undated so as to evade 
the law, and were in general circulation until the latter end of 1815. 

There are various opinions as to where the series of nine- 
teenth century tokens should end, and what pieces should be admitted. 
The course taken is, that in Great Britain tokens 

Tokens are described where they express a value, or are 

Admitted. dated prior to the end of the reign of George III. 

In Ireland, where no specific Act appears to have 

been passed for their suppression, they are recognized until the 

regal coinage of 1822 was struck. In the Isle of Man until 1831, 

the date of the last token. 

Tokens are included which at sight leave no room for doubt 
but what they were circulated and used as coin. Many pieces 
of farthing size have been omitted which do not express a value 
or a date ; to include such would bring in doubtful pieces, issued 
probably in the eighteenth, or too late in the nineteenth century. 

Many of the silver tokens have, on the reverse, the names of 
several tradesmen, notably those issued in the towns of Bath, Bristol, 
Haverfordwest and Newark. These tradesmen had, as it were, a 
small combine to assure the public that the issuers or the company 
were able to meet their liability. 

Mr. Sydney Sydenham found that Culverhouse, Orchard, Phipps, 
Whitchurch, and Dore, were tradesmen who carried on business in 
different parts of a street, or in various streets, in the City of Bath. 
This form of partnership applies to the issue of tokens in many towns. 

All tokens, other than purely truck money, expressing values 
exceeding one penny, are recognized as necessary to complete a 
distinct section of numismatics. 

The present work aims at finality, both of die and variety. 

The great assistance which the author has received from advanced 

collectors, eager to help, has made the task lighter 

Acknowledg- than such an undertaking would otherwise have 

merit. been, and considerably added to the pleasure of its 

production, which kindness and zeal he will always 

remember gratefully, and thankfully acknowledge. 



xlvi • INTRODUCTION. 

Most esteemed assistance has been rendered by Mr. James 
Atkins, who for some years diligently laboured to get together 
varieties of the nineteenth century tokens. The manuscript is in 
the author's possession, and has been found invaluable for reference. 

Mr. Thos. Bliss kindly lent the whole of his choice counter- 
marked collection, and other tokens, from which plates h, l and m 
have been entirely prepared. 

Mr. H. B. Bowles, of Clifton, has minutely examined his splendid 
cabinet of silver tokens, and from time to time reported varieties of 
die, the knowledge of which has done much towards making the 
long series complete. In many ways Mr. Bowles' contributions have 
enriched the work. 

Mr. Lionel L. Fletcher, of Caterham, who is an authority on 
the early Irish series, and whose cabinet is particularly rich in farthing 
tokens, has contributed the specimens illustrated on plate n. 

Mr. William Norman, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, whose collection 
of nineteenth century copper tokens is one of the most perfect, 
has been ardent in the desire to afford aid ; and who also most 
willingly forwarded any token required for description or illustration. 

Messrs. Spink and Son have given willing and excellent assist- 
ance, and readily supplied the blocks for some of the woodcuts. 

Mr. Sydney Sydenham, of Bath, has v/aded through piles of 
old newspapers and periodicals, and found many important facts to 
justify the issue of tokens. 

Mr. A. W. Waters, of Leamington, by research, has been able 
to furnish much information on the literature of the subject, and 
assisted the undertaking in many ways. 

The author is also indebted to the following gentlemen for 
their valuable assistance : Mr. A. H. Baldwin; Mr. J. H. Dormer; 
Mr. Herbert A. Grueber, British Museum; Mr. S. H. Hamer, 
Halifax; Mr. F. G. Laurence, Sutton; Messrs. Lincoln and Son; 
Mr. F. E. Macfadyen, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Mr. J. Macmillan ; 
Mr. T. C. Martin, Clifton ; Mr. W. Sykes, Hull ; Mr. J. Verity, 
Dewsbury; Mr. W. C. Weight; and Mr. W. C. West. 

Indeed, it is not possible for the author to express adequately his 

indebtedness and gratitude for the genial aid, which so many have 

given in the effort to classify this interesting branch of numismatology. 

Moseley, 1904. 



^^T^ 




xlvii 



ARRANGEMENT OF PLATES. 

Contemporary Collectors. 

Title Pages of Token Works. 

Matthew Boulton ... ... ... ... ... ... Page i 

Lady Chetwynd and Autograph Letter of Sir George 

Chetwynd ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ,, 29 

Thomas Sharp ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 31 

Matthew Young... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 71 

D. T. Batty ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 91 

Token Bank Note of Bristol ... ... ... ... „ 103 

James Conder ... ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 135 

View of Soho Factory... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 143 

Birmingham Overseers' Token Notes ... ... ... ,, 147 

Bust of Charles Pye ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 157 

Charles Pye : Autograph Letter ... ... ... ... ,, 159 

William Boyne : Autograph Letter... ... ... ... „ 167 

J. K. Picard ... ... ... , ... ... „ 177 

Sir Edward Thomason ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 181 

John Lindsay ... ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 213 

Aquilla Smith ... ... ... ... ... ... ... „ 229 

Isle of Man Bank Note ... ... ... ... ... „ 243 

Autotype Plates A to N at the End. 



REFERENCES TO WOODCUTS. 

Mionnet Scale ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 11 

Bolton Countermarked Dollar ... ... ... ... „ 17 

Pt. Glasgow Countermarked Dollar .„. ... ... ... „ 21 

Devonshire Twopence ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 41 

Bust of Samuel Fereday... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 121 

Birmingham Sixpence ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 147 

Birmingham Sir Original FIalfpenny ... ... ... ... ,, 156 

Hancock's Workshop at Soho ... ... ... ... ... ,, 158 

View of Staverton Factory ... ... ... ... ... „ 160 

Dudley Penny ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 162 

Bust of Nelson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 185 

Sowerby Bridge Seven Shillings ... ... ... ... „ 186 

Peel Castle Two Shillings and Sixpence ... ... ... ,, 243 

Atlas Halfpenny ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,, 246 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



o- 



Obverse. 
Reverse. 



E 

Ex 



Edge. 
Exergue. 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 75, 7io. 49, read " Pidcock's." 

Page 190, omit the first D in " glancly(d)wedog." 

Page 227, Co. Mayo. Since including these Tokens, the Author has received the 
following important communication from Earl Altamont : — 

" I am sorry to say that, I fear the tokens of which you wrote to me, and whose 
rubbings you sent to me, are not Irish Tokens at all. I have found a set among some odds 
and ends. They are described as having been used for paying negro slaves in Jamaica. 
My family at one time owned large estates and many slaves. The head " garden " or estate 
was known as " Kelly's." These estates came into the family about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, by marriage. My grandfather, the second Marquis, sold them about 1840. 
He went out to Jamaica as Governor-General in 1834, to carry out the Abolition of Slavery, 
as, tho ! a large slave owner, he had scruples, and spoke strongly in the House of Lords in 
favour of abolition. It is likely that tokens were in use long before his time, when small 
money was scarce, but whether or no these represent early or late specimens, I cannot tell. 
The date, however, must be between 1800 and 1834." — London, yd March, 1904. 





!?7Z^ 



Ae* « -OU 



u^}^- ilS 



/C/d&m „^4£j&//£<™ /y> 



,/„/, 



l/ U -/(>//X /l'.l/Jf 



THE 

Nineteenth Century Token Coinage. 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 

SHIELD DOLLAR, 1798. 
SILVER. 

1. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgius hi dei 
gratia rex. Truncation mark c.h.k., the first leaf of laurel points to 
the centre of the e in dei 

#> M. B. F. ET. H. REX. F. D. B. ET. L. D. S. R. I. A. T\ ET. E. 1 798. 

(Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hibernae Rex; Fidei Defensor; 
Brunsvicensis et Lunenbergensis Dux ; Sacri Romani Imperii Archi 
Thesaurarius et Elector) ; the royal arms surmounted by the crown 
which divides the date, a proof pattern. R.r.r. 

2. A Copper Proof. 

3. Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the first limb of 
E IN dei R.r. 

4. A Copper Proof. R. 

5. Similar, but truncation mark ..k. and the first leaf of laurel 
points to the centre of e in dei R.r.r. Kiichler. 

This variety was sold at Preston's sale (Lot 118) for ,£14. 

BRITANNIA DOLLAR, 1804. 
Bust to Right. 

6. O Laureate and draped bust to right, georgius hi dei gratia 
rex. Truncation mark c.h.k. well spread; top front leaf of laurel 
points to the centre of e in dei 

$> bank of England 1804 Britannia seated, with her attributes, 
between a beehive and cornucopia ; x incuse under the shield, 
inverted ; all within an oval band inscribed five shillings dollar 
and surmounted by a mural crown. 

Boyne 7. 
B 



2 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

7. Also in Copper. 

Boyne 10. 

8. Similar, but truncation mark c.h.k. close, and the first leaf of 
laurel points to the end of e in dei 

£> Similar,, the }i under the shield inverted and expressed. 

9. Also in Copper. 

10. O Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the centre of 
e in dei 

9> Similar, but with k under the shield proper and expressed. 

11. Also in Copper, struck on flans of different sizes and thicknesses. 

12. O Similar, but truncation mark c.h.k. again close ; the first 
leaf in laurel points to the end of e in dei 

P> Similar, but the x under the shield inverted and incuse. 

13. Also in Copper. 

14. O Similar, truncation mark c.h.k. The first leaf of laurel 
points to the centre of e in dei No period after rex 

9> Similar, but k under the shield proper. 

15. Also in Copper. 

16. O Similar, but with a period after rex. ; the first leaf of laurel 
points to the first limb of e in dei No period between c h 

Vo As last. R.r. 

17. O Similar, truncation mark c.h.k. 
$ As last. R. 

18. Also in Copper. R. 

19. O Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the centre of 
e in dei 

V° Similar, but x under the shield inverted and expressed. R. 

A vagary of the time is well placed by a contemporary writer who, with commendable 
shrewdness, passed it to the antiquary of distant ages. He wrote : 

Mr. Urban, London, Sept. 17. 

The following curious phenomenon, occasioned by the present state of British 
currency, deserves to be recorded ; and may be of use to the future Historian who shall 
consult your pages. 

£ s. d. 
A Guinea made of Standard Gold, weight 5 dwts. 9 grs., passes 

by law for only 110 

A Guinea 3 grains lighter is worth as Bullion . . . .156 
A Crown Piece made of Sterling Silver, weight 19 dwts. 8 grs., 

passes by law for only 050 

A Bank Dollar weighing 2 pennyweights less, and the silver 2^d. 

an ounce worse, is current for 056 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 3 

A Half Crown Piece of Sterling Silver, weight 9 dwts. 16 grs., 

passes by law for only . . . . . . . .026 

A Bank Token weighing 5 grs. less, and the Silver 2§d. an ounce 

worse, is current for 030 

The lesser Bank Token for Eighteenpcnce weighs 1 dwt. 2 grs. less than a Shilling and 
a Sixpence, and the Silver is also 2-Jd. an ounce worse. 

Any person who buys an ounce of Standard gold, and pays for it in Coin, will receive 
Ten-pence in change out of Four Guineas and Two Seven Shilling Pieces. 

The One Pound Bank of England Note purports to be the representation of full 5 dwts. 

3 grs. Standard Gold ; but at the present nominal price it will purchase not quite 4 dwts. 

4 grs. : its deficit is full 23 grains, and its consequent depreciation 3s. 8^d. 

Yours 8r*c. B. S. 
Gent. Mag., Sep. 181 r. 

It does not appear that any notice was given by the Bank to assimilate the value of the 
Regal Crowns to the Dollars, which apparent neglect was probably due to a legal difficulty. 

GARTER DOLLAR, 1804. 

20. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgius hi dei 
gratia. Truncation mark .'•c.h.k The first leaf of laurel points to 
the first limb of d in dei Four berries in wreath. 

^ britanniarum rex fidei defensor The royal arms within a 
garter ; motto, honi soit qui mal y pense surmounted by a crown 
dividing the date 1804 Under the shield dollar R.r.r. 

21. Similar, but truncation mark •:c.h.k R.r. 

Plate J, no. 5. 

22. Also in Copper. 

Glendining 6° Co. (lot 183) April 29, 1903. 

23. Similar, but truncation mark •: k R.r.r. 

24. Similar, but truncation mark . . k and rex added to the legend, 
the first leaf in laurel wreath ; points to the upright limb of e in 

DEI 

25. Also in Copper. 

In Mr. Bowles' Cabinet. 
All the above described Tokens were from dies engraved by Kiichler. 

FIVE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE, 181 1. 
Bust to Left. 

26. O Laureate and draped bust to the left, georgius hi dei 
gratia rex Truncation mark k* ■ •& The first leaf of laurel points to 
the first limb of d in dei There are five berries in wreath. 

9. Britannia seated, holding in her right hand a spear, her left 
resting on a shield ; bank of England token Ex. five shillings & 
sixpence 181 1 R.r, 

Plate A, no. 1. 

27. Also in Copper. 

28. Similar, but there are six berries in the wreath. R.r.r. 

Philip. 



4 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

29. O As no. 26. 

& As no. 1 Shield Dollar of 1798. 

O by Philip ; #> by Kiichler. 
This rare mule is in copper, and in Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 

Bust to Right. 

30. O Laureate and draped bust to right, georgius hi dei gratia 
rex. Truncation mark c.h.k The first leaf of laurel points to the 
centre of e ; four berries in wreath. 

$> Britannia seated, holding in her right hand a spear, her left 
resting on a shield ; bank of England token Ex. five shillings 

AND SIXPENCE, l8 1 I R.T.T. 

Boyne 16. 

31. Also in Copper. R.r. 

32. Similar, but the first leaf in laurel points to the end of e in dei 

33. Also in Copper. O by Kiichler ; ¥° by Philip. 

Bust to Left. 

34. O Laureate and draped bust to the left, georgius hi dei 
gratia rex. Truncation mark %> • & Six berries in the wreath. 

9= bank token 5s. 6d. 1811 within a wreath of oak ; stem of 
wreath turns slightly downwards ; i.p under the tie of wreath. R.r. 

Boyne u. 

35. Also in Copper. 

Boyne 13. 

36. O Similar, but with five berries in the wreath. 

& Similar, but the stem of wreath turns slightly upwards ; 
i.p. under tie. R.r. 

37. Also in Copper. R. 

38. Also a Proof in Brass. R.r.r. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

39. O As last 

9> Blank, a trial piece, copper. R. 

40. O Blank, 

9. As no. 36, a trial piece, copper. R. Nos. 34-40 by Philip. 

41. O As no. 34. 

9= Britannia in an oval garter 1804 as No. 10, with k proper 
and expressed. R.r. O by Philip ; ^ by Kiichler. 

This mule is in copper and until recently was not known. 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 5 

Bust to Right. 

42. O Laureate and draped bust to right, georgius hi dei gratia 
rex. Truncation mark c.h.k Top front leaf of laurel points to the 
centre of e Four berries in wreath. 

£> bank token 5s. 6d. 1811 within a wreath of oak ; under the 
tie knot i.p. R.r. 

43. Also in Copper. R. 

44. Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the end of e 
in dei Kiichler and Philip. 

" The Bank has lately had ,£100,000 worth of dollars new stamped at Boulton &-= Co.'s 
Manufactory at Birmingham. The charge for stamping is only one farthing each." — Bath 
Chronicle, Oct. 12, 1809. 

"^800,000 in stamped Dollars will shortly be added to our Silver currency. They were 
sent a few days ago from the Bank to Birmingham to be restamped." — Bath Chronicle, Dec. 
21, 1809. 

These notices must have referred to the Octagonal Countermarks, as the large denom- 
inations coined at Soho subsequent to 1804, were not circulated, and were without exception 
proof patterns. These were the 5s. 6d. and the five SHILLINGS S- 5 SIXPENCE 181 1. 

THREE SHILLINGS 1811. 
Armoured Bust. 

45. O Laureate and draped bust to right in armour, georgius hi 
dei gratia rex The first leaf of laurel points to the. first limb of e 
in dei Five berries in wreath. 

£> bank token 3 shill. 1811 within a wreath of oak with 
twenty-four acorns. R.r. 

Boyne 17. 

46. O Similar, but with the first leaf of laurel under the space 
between d and e of dei 

fy Similar, but a wreath of oak of twenty-five acorns. R.r. 

47. O As last. 

9> bank token 3 shill. 1811 within a wreath of oak with 
twenty -six acorns. R.r. 

48. Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the end of e in dei 

49. O As last. 

9> Similar, but a wreath of oak with twenty-seven acorns. R. 



50. O Laureate and draped bust to the right in armour, georgius 
hi dei gratia rex The first leaf of laurel points to the end of e in 
dei Four berries in the wreath. 

£> bank token 3 shill. 18 1 2 within a wreath of oak with 
twenty -seven acorns. 

Boyne 19. 

51. Also in Brass. R. Nos. 45 to 51 by Pingo. 



6 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Head Laureate, 1812. 

52. O Laureate head to right, georgius in dei gratia rex The 
top leaf of laurel is under the space between 1 of dei and g of gratia 

& bank token 3 shill. 1 8 1 2 within a wreath of oak and olive. 

Plate J, no. 1. 

53. A Proof in Gold is in the British Museum. R.r.r. 

54. A Proof of the obverse only, in Gold, is in the British 
Museum. R.r.r. 

55. O Laureate head to right, georgius hi dei gratia rex The 
top leaf of laurel points to the centre of d in dei 

V° As No. 53, R.r. 

Boyne 20. 

56. Also in Platinum. R.r.r. 

Boyne 21. 
1813. 

57. O Similar to last, but the top leaf of laurel is between the 1 in 
dei and the g in gratia 

9= bank token 3 shill. 1813 within a wreath of oak and olive. 

Boyne 22. 
1814. 

58. 0- Same as last. 

9= Similar to last, but bank token 3 shill. 18 14 

Boyne 23. 
1815. 

59. O Same as last. 

fy Similar to last, but bank token 3 shill. 18 15 

Boyne 24. 
1816. 

60. O Same as last. 

£ bank token 3 shill, 1 8 16 R.r.r. Nos. 52 to do by T. Wyon. 

Boyne 25. 

EIGHTEEN PENCE. 
Armoured Bust, 181 i. 

61. O Laureate bust to right in armour, georgius hi dei gratia 
rex The end of the centre ribbon turns upwards, 

£ bank token is. 6d. 1811 within a wreath, an acorn over b 

in bank. Pingo. 

Plate J, no. 2. 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 7 

62. O Similar, but the end of the outer ribbon turns downwards. 
Jt Similar, but the acorn over the b in bank is omitted. 

Unknown. 

Probably a forgery of the period. 
1812. 

63. O Same as last. 

£> Similar to last, but bank token is. 6d. 1812 Pingo. 

Boyne 29. 

Laureate Head, 1812. 

64 O Laureate head to right, georgius hi gratia rex 

9> bank token is. 6d. 1812 within a wreath of oak and olive. 

Boyne 30. 
Proofs are rare. 

1813. 

65. O Same as last. 

£> Similar to last, but bank token is. 6d. 18 13 

Boyne 32. 

66. O Similar to last, but the terminating centre leaf in the laurel 
wreath is the same length as the outer ones, whereas in the last it 
projects. 

& Similar to last, but the tops of the ones point to the right 
instead of to the left. Unknown. 

This is in brass, and in Mr. Bowles' Cabinet. 
1814. 

67. O Similar to last, but projecting leaf as before. 
9» Similar to last, but bank token is. 6d. 18 14 

Boyne 33. 
1815. 

68. O Same as last. 

5k Similar to last, but bank token is. 6d. 18 15 

Boyne 34. 
1816. 

69. O Same as last. 

9> Similar to last, but bank token is. 6d. 18 16 

Boyne 35. 

70. O As last. 

^ As obverse, but incuse. 

The Dollars and especially the Three Shilling and Eighteen Pence Tokens were 
extensively forged. In consequence the government announced that the law would strictly 
be enforced, as will be seen from the notice here reproduced. 

" Bank Tokens. Counterfeiters are liable to seven years transportation ; Utterers, first 
time, six months imprisonment ; second time, two years imprisonment ; third time, fourteen 
years imprisonment." — Bath Chro?ticle, August 15th, 181 1. 



8 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

NINEPENCE. 

71. 0- Laureate head to right, georgius hi dei gratia rex 

£> bank token 9D 1812 within a wreath of oak and 
olive. R.r. 

Boyne 36. 

72. Also in Copper. 

Phillips, p. 34. 

73. This obverse was muled with the reverse of a Farthing of 
George IV, and struck in Platinum. Nos. 62 to 72 by T. Wyon. 

Montagu, p. 120. 

The Ninepence was submitted as a pattern, but was not approved, the obverse was 
afterwards used for the Irish 10 Pence Token. 



BANK OF IRELAND. 

SIX SHILLINGS. 
Bust to Right. 

74. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgius hi dei 
gratia rex. ; truncation mark c.h.k The first leaf of laurel is under 
the end of e in del 

9> Hibernia seated to left ; in her right hand a palm branch, 
her left resting on a harp ; k on the ground ; bank of Ireland 

TOKEN Ex. 1804 SIX SHILLINGS 

Boyne 37. 

75. Also in Copper. 

Boyne 38. 

76. Similar, but truncation mark c.h.k close together. 

77. Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the centre of f, in 
dei The truncation mark : c.h.k 

78. Also in Copper. 

79. Similar, but without the period after rex 

80. Also in Copper. 

81. Similar, but the first leaf of laurel points to the first limb of 
e in dei 

82. Also in Copper. These were engraved by Kiichler. 



BANK OF IRELAND. 



Bust to Left. 



83. O Laureate and draped bust to the left, georgius hi dei 
gratia rex. Truncation mark ^ • & 

9> Hibernia seated to left ; in her right hand a palm branch, 
her left resting on a harp ; k on the ground ; bank of Ireland 
token Ex. 1804 six shillings R.r.r. Philip and Kuchler. 

This is in Copper. Lot 197, Lawrence Sale ; Sotheby, Wilkinson &° Hodge, May 3rd, 
1900. The piece is obviously a restrike. but of an early date. 

The singular feature about the Bank of Ireland Six Shilling Tokens is that they were 
struck on similar blanks, and were of the same specific gravity as the 1804 Bank of England 
Five Shilling Dollars. 

HALF CROWN. 

84. O Laureate and draped bust in armour to the right, georgivs 
hi dei gratia rex Under the bust 1808 

9> Hibernia seated to left ; in her right a palm branch, bank 
token In the exergue xxx pence Irish Top of harp points between 
the o and k in token 

Boyne 39. 

85. Similar, but the top of harp points to the o in token Pingo. 

Plate A, no. 2. 

TENPENCE. 
1805. 

86. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgius hi dei 
gratia The first laurel leaf is under the e in dei 

£> BANK TOKEN TEN PENCE IRISH 1805 

Boyne 40. 

87. Similar, but the first laurel leaf is under the d in dei R. 

1806. 

88. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgius hi dei 
gratia The right hand laurel leaf is under the e in dei 

9> BANK TOKEN TEN PENCE IRISH 1 806 PingO. 

Boyne 41. 

1813. 

89. O Laureate head to right, georgius hi dei gratia rex The 
outer end of the ribbon lines to the e in georgius 

£ bank token 10 pence irish 1813 within a wreath of 
shamrock. T. Wyon. 

This obverse is the one engraved for the English 9D of 1812. 

Boyne 42. 

C 



10 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

90. O Similar to last, but the outer end of the ribbon lines between 
the e and o in georgius 

9> Similar, but the i in 10 totiches a shamrock leaf, whereas in 
the last it is distant from it. Unknown. 

Probably a forgery of the time. 

FIVEPENCE. 
1805. 

91. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgivs hi dei 

GRATIA 

$> BANK TOKEN FIVE PENCE IRISH 1805 

Boyne 43. 

1806. 

92. O Laureate and draped bust to the right, georgivs hi dei 

GRATIA 

9> BANK TOKEN FIVE PENCE IRISH 1 806 PingO. 

Boyne 44. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 

ENGLAND. 



- 






* 


- 


A 


- 


go 


f 


s 




» 


s 


s 


s 


= 


« 


CC 


s 


Q 



/S&es of the Tokens. 



Scale of Mionnet. 



The size of the circles or ovals on which the legends appear are given 

in Mionnefs scale. 



DOLLAR. 

Small Oval Stamp. 
SILVER. 

1. Bust of George III countermarked in a small oval on the 
obverse of a Spanish dollar. 

Boyne i. 

2. Similar, but with g r also countermarked at the side. 

Meili 8. 

3. Similar, but with s c s also countermarked at the side. 

Meili 52. 

4. A specimen countermarked on an American Dollar of 1795. 

Meili 5. 

This stamp was the same as used by the Goldsmiths' Company, and the Dollars were 
an equivalent for 4/9. 

5. Similar, but countermarked with 5/ incuse and without the small 
oval. 

6. Similar, but value 4/9. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

7. Similar, but g r 5 O^CD countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
R.r.r. 

Plate A, no. 3. 
This is said to have been countermarked for the Board of Ordnance. 

8. Similar^ but in a rectangle m ; 2 x z\ h c r co no value 
expressed. 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 



12 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

9. Similar, without the small oval, but with bust of Washington (?) 
to left, r b and dagger at the side, all incuse. 

Meili 50. 

The Bank reported 1816 : "The order for stamping these was given in March 1797 and 
in the year 2,325,099 at 4/9 each were issued." In 1797 an attempt was made by the Treasury 
to supplement the deficiency of silver coinage by the issue of the Spanish dollars, and half, 
quarter, and eighth dollars, countermarked on the obverse with the bust of George III, the 
stamp, an oval one, being that used by the Goldsmiths' Company for stamping the plate of 
the Country. The dollars were to be current for 4s. 9d , which gave rise to the saying " two 
Kings'headsnot worth acrown." — Coins of 'Great Britain and Ireland, no. 865. H. A.Grueber. 

Octagonal Stamp. 

10. Bust of George III in an octagon, countermarked on a 
Spanish dollar. 

Boyne 5. 

The stamp was the one used for the Maundy Penny, not the Fourpence as Boyne 
incorrectly states. 

11. Similar octagonal countermark on a Spanish Dollar; but in 
addition, counterstruck over the large bust with the small oval head. 

This singular piece is probably unique, and was sold in the Marshall sale at Sotheby's, 
lot 568, March 1852. It suggests the query " If two Kings' heads are not worth a Crown, 
what are three worth ? " 

The octagonal countermark was by the Order of the Treasury, and was resorted to in 
1804 in consequence of the extensive forgeries of the mark of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 1804. 

12. Counterfeit w z countermarked on a forged Bank of England 
Britannia Dollar of 1804. R.r.r. 

This piece was forged by S. and S. J. Ingleby, who were tried and convicted at the 
Warwick Assizes in 1814, and transported for 12 years. The specimen here described is 
said to have been the identical forgery countermarked COUNTERFEIT by authority for the 
purposes of conviction. 

On February 9th, 18 10, Henry Hase, the chief Cashier of the Bank of England; produced 
evidence before a special committee appointed by the House of Commons on the currency, 
that the dollars stamped and issued between the years 1797 and 1810 numbered 4,817,634. 

HALF DOLLAR. 

13. Bust of George III in a small oval as on no. i. 

Boyne 3. 

14. A specimen countermarked with a bust of George III in a 
small oval on the reverse. R.r. 

Meili 2. 

15. Bust of George III on an octagonal, similar to no. 10. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 1. 

QUARTER DOLLAR. 

16. Bust of George III in a small oval, similar to no. i. R. 

Plate H, no. 2. 

17. Bust of George III in an octagonal, similar to no. 10. R. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 13 

ONE SHILLING. 

18. Bust of William III ; on a shield m And on another shield r 
(Mary Regina ?) (M. I.) 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 

19. Bust of George III in an octagon, similar to no. 10. R.r.r. 

Meili 56. 

20. e.s. surmounted by a crown, struck over a George II Shilling. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 
ONE EIGHTH OF A DOLLAR. 

21. Bust of George III in a small oval, similar to no. i. R.r. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

22. Bust of George III in a small oval, similar to no. i, on a 
London and Middlesex Halfpenny of 1792. R.r.r. 

Atkins 140 ; 740. PLATE H, no. 3. 
This countermark is from the genuine die of the Goldsmiths' Company and perfectly struck. 



PRIVATE BANKERS' AND TRADESMEN'S 
COUNTBRMARKED TOKENS. 

ENGLAND. 

DERBYSHIRE. 

DOLLAR. 
SILVER. 

23. cromford Derbyshire, in a circle (M. 3) ; and, in the centre, 5 
struck on a Spanish Dollar. R. 

Plate H, no. 4. 

24. The same, but with a small c countermarked on bust. 

CROMFORD. DERBYSHIRE. 4/9. R.r. 

Boyne 27. 

25. The same, but no value expressed. R.r.r. 

Issued by Arkwright dV Co., Millowners and Bankers. 

DORSETSHIRE. 

SHERBORNE. 

DOLLAR. 

26. sterling countermarked in a small rectangle ; the monogram 
&& dbffl 1754 engraved ; countermarked and engraved on a Spanish 
Dollar. 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. Preter, Pew & Whitty, Bankers at Sherborne, it is said issued 
a Five-shilling Piece in the eighteenth century. 

POOLE. 

SHILLING. 
COPPER. 

27. O w. best in a garter, &c. 

& A female seated ; one shilling &c, as Poole no. 8 ; counter- 
marked on a Walsall Church Penny. 

Plate I, no. 4. 
This rare piece is in Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 15 

DURHAM. 

HALF CROWN. 
SILVER. 

28. On a shield, a ship in full sail to right ; above, S° Shield, 
(M. 2) ; struck on a Charles II Half Crown. R.r.r. 

SHILLING. 

29. Also struck on a Shilling. R.r.r. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

30. Also struck on a Halfpenny of George III. R.r. 

The last three are in the Murdoch collection of tokens. 

LANCASHIRE. 

CARK-IN-CARTMEL. 

31. cark cotton works 1787 in a ribbed circle {M. 5) ; no value 
expressed ; countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. 

Plate K, no. 1. 
In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 

MANCHESTER. 

32. mary . hampson . & . son in a circle ; a rose divides 
mary and son (M. 5) ; in the centre, man ches ter a period over 
man and under ter No value expressed ; countermarked on a 
George III Halfpenny. R.r. 

MIDDLESEX. 

HALF CROWN. 
SILVER. 

33. DAVIS WINE & BRANDY MERCHANT 46 HOUNDSDITCH LONDON in 

a circle ; no value expressed ; also countermarked above with the 
figure of Sir John Falstaff. 

34. Similar, but with the first d in houndsditch omitted. 

This countermark is generally found on Charles II Half Crowns. John Davis, White 
Rose Co., Wine and Brandy Merchant, Colem Street, Houndsditch, existed in 1790. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

35. Similar to no. 34, but struck on a Penny of George III. 



16 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

HALFPENNY. 

36. clarke above, a lion couchant in a square compartment ; lon 
don surmounted by the Royal crown in a rectangle ; no value ex- 
pressed ; countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. R.r. 

Plate J, no. 3. 

37. Also struck on a Halfpenny of George III.* 

These countermarked pieces were issued in the silver token period by Davis, of the 
Falstaff Inn. There is a public house of that sign in Houndsditch at the present time. 

38. O A lion couchant gardant fondling a dog, exeter change 

LONDON PIDCOCK 

9> A beaver eating a root, the beaver 1801 countermarked 
on a George III Halfpenny. 

Davis catalogue, Sotheby's, March 11, 1901, lot 147. 

39. iohn tate & son. London, in a circle (M. 5) ; and within an 
inner circle, a woolsack, countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. Plate K, no. 2. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 

SILVER. 

40. Ships in quay, a cart unloading, may north shields flourish 
On the reverse, the cipher J & 01 Under, 1795 Within a wreath 

of laurel northshields halfpenny (M. 8) ; counterstruck on a 
Spanish Dollar. ( 

Atkins, 161, 25. 
In the British Museum. The device is well spread and the Token very sharply struck. 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

EAST RETFORD. 

DOLLAR. 

41. An Ampers and, and a crown thus : — Sf 3 No value expressed, 
countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 

Boyne, 28, 37. 
In the British Museum. Boyne says : "In the MS. catalogue it is said to have been 
issued from the Revolution Mill, East Retford." This town was famous for its mills early 
in the nineteenth century, and the reputation is still maintained. 

SUFFOLK. 

BURY. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

42. bury w. house countermarked both on the obverse and 
reverse of old Copper Farthings. R. 

" There was also, at the time of the Reformation, a college in this town, named Jesus 
College, and was situated in College Street ; it had a Guild attached to it, and consisted of 
a Warden and six Associates or priests. This building is now converted into a workhouse. 
The College was founded by King Edward I." —History of Bury, by Gillingwater. 

* No. 37 should read as no. 35. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 17 

WARWICKSHIRE. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

43. O A female seated extending alms, etc., countermarked w 
(Workhouse). 

£ two shillings and sixpence etc. countermarked w (Work- 
house). R. 

Plate I, no. i. 
For full description see Birmingham. 

ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE. 

44. O A beehive and bees ; industry has its sure reward 
An ornament at the bottom. 

S D 

9> i. 6 incuse countermarked on a blank reverse. Wyon, 

Boyne 24. 
ONE SHILLING. 

45. O Bust to left, adm^ l? nelson Victory at the Nile, August, i. 

1798. 

9> 1 incuse countermarked on a blank reverse. R. Wyon. 
Plate I, no. 2. 

YORKSHIRE. 

BOLTON. 




SILVER. 

46. O The ruins of a fortress, bolton castle. Yorkshire. 

£> An urn, surmounted by a flaming torch, between sprigs of 
laurel and scythes, arrows crossed, a skull, and an hour glass at foot ; 
time destroys all things 1 797. (M. 8) ; counterstruck on a Spanish 
Dollar with the additional countermark of the small oval of 
George III. 

Atkins 249, 1. 
A specimen of the Token was sold at the Davis sale, in March, 1901, for £?.g 10s. 

D 



18 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

BRADFORD. 

THREE SHILLINGS. 

47. Bradford workhouse no value expressed ; countermarked 
on a Three Shilling Token of the armour type. R. 

Plate H, no. 5. 

ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE. 

48. Bradford workhouse no value expressed ; countermarked 
on a is. 6d. Token of the armour type. R.r. 

THIRSK. 

SHILLING. 

49. scurr thirsk on a rectangle (M. 1) ; countermarked on a 
Thirsk Association Shilling. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 6. 

BRADFORD. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

50. Bradford workhouse countermarked on various copper Nine- 
teenth Century Tokens. 

Warwickshire Token Coinage, 752. 

Kelly's Directory says, "the present Workhouse was erected in 1852, cost ^40,000, has 
a large Infirmary attached, and is available for 1000 inmates." Most likely it supplanted 
an older building. 

KEIGHLEY. 

51. keighley and on the reverse keighley in a straight line at 
the top, and keighley in a curved line at the bottom ; countermarked 
on various Nineteenth Century Penny Tokens. 

Warwickshire Token Coinage, 751. 
These were issued by the Keighley Overseers of the Poor, to pay the paupers in 1818. 
Boyne Yorkshire Tokens, no. 107. 

52. As last, with the additional countermark g r. 

53. As no. 51, but with the additional countermark j m. 

54. As no. 51, but with the additional countermark w w, 



COUNTERMARK ED TOKENS. 19 

SCOTLAND. 

AYRSHIRE. 

FIVE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
SILVER. 

55. catrine. cotton, works No. in a circle {M. 3) ; within an 
inner circle the value 5/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

FIVE SHILLINGS. 

56. catrine works, in an oval (M. 7) ; No. ; and in the 
centre the value 5/ countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

FOUR SHILLINGS AND NINEPENCE. 

57. catrine. cotton, works No. 3505 {M. 6) and value 4/9 

Plate H, no. 7. 
In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

58. galston. soc.y. No. above ; the value 5 s countermarked on 
a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

59. muir kirk iron works + in a circle (M. 4) ; within an inner 
circle the value 5/6. On the reverse a view of the blast furnaces at 
work ; with the date 1809 under ; all within a circle (M. 3) ; counter- 
marked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

Meili 40. 

60. O the same as last, but without the blast furnaces on the 
reverse. R.r.r. 

BUTESHIRE, 

DOLLAR. 

61 . rothsay cotton works, in a beaded circle (M. 2) ; in a cable 
circle the value 4/6 and date 1820. countermarked on a Spanish 

Dollar. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 8. 

HALF DOLLAR. 

62. payable at rothsay mills x in a circle (M. 4) ; and in an 
inner circle the value 2/6 countermarked on a segment of a Spanish 
Dollar. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 9. 

63. Similar, but the value expressed on a rectangle [M. 1) ; and a 
star countermarked at the right. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 
ONE-THIRD OF DOLLAR. 

64. payable at rothsay mills + in a circle {M. 4); and within an 
inner circle the value 1/8 countermarked on a segment of a Spanish 
Dollar. R.r.r. 

Plate A, no. 4. 



20 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

65. Also in Copper ; countermarked on a George III Halfpenny 
and on Eighteenth Century Tokens, but no value is expressed. 

66. payable at rothsay cotton mills in a circle (M. 5) ; in the 
centre a woolsack ; no value expressed ; countermarked on a 
George III Halfpenny. R.r, 

CLACKMANNANSHIRE. 

SILVER. 

67. payable at alloa colliery + in a circle [M. 4) ; in the centre 
5/, incuse; countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

68. Similar, but with the additional small bust of George III 

struck at the left of 5/, 

Plate H, no. 10. 
In Mr. Bliss : cabinet. 

SHILLING. 

69. Similar to 67, but countermarked on a Shilling of George III ; 
without the cross after colliery and no value expressed. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

70. Similar, but countermarked on George II and III Halfpennies. 

ELGIN. 

dollar. 

SILVER. 

71. ballindalloch * in an outer circular legend [M. 3) ; and in 
an inner circular legend cotton* works* in the centre a large 5/ 
countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 11. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

72. ballindalloch cotton work in a circle (M. 7) ; and in the 
centre a woolsack ; no value expressed ; countermarked on a 
George III Halfpenny. 

In Mr. Bliss ; cabinet. 

LANARKSHIRE. 

DALZIEL FARM. 

DOLLAR. 
SILVER. 

73. payable at dalzell (sic) farm * in a circle (M. 3) ; in the 
centre 5/ countermarked on the reverse of a Five-Franc Piece of 
the French Republic. R.r.r. 



COUNTERMARK ED TOKENS. 21 

74. Similar to last, but no value expressed. R.r.r, 

Plate H, no. 12. 

75. Similar to last, but dalzell farm. R.r.r. 

GLASGOW. 

DOLLAR. 

76. Glasgow bank + in a circle (M. 2) ; within an inner circle the 
value 5/. countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 13. 

Issued by the Glasgow Bank Company whose London Agents were Morland, Ransom 
& Co., 56, Pall Mall. 

77. rob t crichton p T Glasgow -r in a circle (M. 3) ; within an 
inner circle the value 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
R.r.r. 




From a Block in possession of Spink & Son. 

78. + a. steven & sons p t Glasgow in a ribbed circle (M. 3) ; and 
within a cable circle the value 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish 
Dollar. R.r.r. 



Thistle Bank. 

FIVE SHILLINGS. 
SILVER. 

79. thistle bank • in a circle (M. 2), and, within an inner circle, 
the value 5/ On the reverse a thistle in a circle (M. 2) ; counter- 
marked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

four shillings and ninepence. 

80. The same as last, but value 4/9 R.r. 

Plate H, no. 15. 

81. The obverse same as last ; but the thistle countermark on the 
reverse omitted. R.r, 



22 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

FOUR SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

82. Similar, but 4/6 R.r.r. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 

These tokens were issued by the Thistle Bank Company, Glasgow, whose London 
agents were Smith, Payne & Co., George Street, Mansion House. 

The Order of the Thistle, known also as the Order of St. Andrew, was first mentioned 
in the inventory of the effects of James III, who probably adopted it as an appropriate illus- 
tration of the royal motto, " In defence." 

LANARK. 

DOLLAR. 

83. payable at Lanark mtlls- in a circle (M. 5) ; and in the centre 
5/ incuse countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r. 

Plate H, no. 14. 
84 Similar, but value 4/9 in large incuse figures. R.r.r. 

85. payable at Lanark mills * in a circle (M. 4) ; and in the 
centre 4/6 incuse. R.r. 

86. Similar, but with the additional countermark D at the right. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 
HALF DOLLAR. 

87. payable at Lanark mills in a circle {M. 5) ; and in the 
centre 2/6 incuse ; countermarked on a Half-ecu of France. R.r. 

Boyne 30. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

88. Lanark, cotton, mills, in the centre ; a shield of arms under 
thistle sprigs ; crest, the monogram & (0 &) {M. 5) ; countermarked 

on a William III Bodle of Scotland. R.r. 

Plate K, no. 3. 

" On Wednesday week about mid-day the preparation house at Lanark Mills was set 
on fire, in consequence of part of the teazing machinery becoming red hot by friction. The 
fire was soon extinguished, but not before .£200 worth of cotton was destroyed." — Star 
Newspaper, Oct. 2gt/i, 18 13. 

MIDLOTHIAN. 

HALFPENNY. 

Mr. Bowles has, in his cabinet, an old countermarked Halfpenny, 
wilkison • Edinburgh • In the centre a thistle. 

PERTHSHIRE. 

SILVER. HALF DOLLAR. 

89. adelphi cotton work in a circle (M. 6), and, in the centre, a 
woolsack ; the right hand knot is over the r in work no value ex- 
pressed ; countermarked on a Half-ecu of France. R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 16. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 23 

COPPER. 

90. adelpiii cotton work in a circle (M. 6), and, in the centre, a 
woolsack; on the reverse Four Shillings and Six Pence 1786 
countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. 

Plate K, no. 4. 
This is in copper and is in Mr. Norman's cabinet. 

HALFPENNY. 

91. As 89, but countermarked on George III Halfpence. 

92. adelphi * cotton work * in a similar circle, but the knot at 
the right lines to the o in work ; countermarked on Copper Half- 
pence. 

The woolsack first made its appearance in the House of Lords, during the reign of 
Edward III, to remind the Peers of the importance of England's staple trade. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth an Act was passed to prevent the exportation of wool. — 
Brewer: Phrase and Fable. 

DEANSTON. 

DOLLAR. 
SILVER. 

93. deanston cotton mill in a circle (M. 7), and in the centre 
5/' R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 17. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

94. The same in Copper, but without the value expressed ; on a 
Charles II Bawbee of Scotland ; also on Halfpennies of George III. 
R. 

Boyne says : " I cannot learn where it was used." 
These Mills were the Deanston Mills, but were known as the Adelphi Cotton Works, 
and were situated on the West bank of the river Teath. In 1794 the owners were James 
and Archibald Buchanan &* Company. 

LOCHEARN. 

HALFPENNY. 

95. dun. m c laren merch t - • lochearn. in a circle (M. 7) ; no value 
expressed. 

Plate K, no. 5. 

Countermarked on a Coventry Eighteenth Century Token. All efforts to trace the 
countermark on a silver coin have failed. 

RENFREWSHIRE. 

GREENOCK. 

SILVER. 

96. r & g. blair. greenock. in an oval (M. 4x2), and, in the 
centre 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 18. 



24 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

97. payable by i & w scott greenock countermarked on a 
Spanish Dollar ; the value 4/9 expressed on a rectangle (M. 1). 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 

98. a king greenock. 5/- countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
Rr.r. 

99. Similar, but value 4/6. R.r.r. 

100. j. m? k- & Son greenock. in a toothed circle (M. 3), and, in the 
centre, 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 19. 

101. m c fie lindsay & coy * greenock * in a beaded circle 
(M. 5), and, in the centre, 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 20. 

102. The same, but s incuse, under the figure 4. R.r.r. 

Meili 37. 

103. j & a. muir * ■ * greenock in a beaded circle (M. 4), and, 
in the centre, 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

104. a muir * greenock * within a beaded circle {M. 4), and, in 
the centre, 4/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

LEVERNBANK. 

105. s • d • & Co levern • mill- in a circle {M. 4), and, in the 
centre, 5/6 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

106. The same, but with an additional countermark s • d in a 
small beaded circle ; a puncheon mark over all to obliterate the value. 

Plate H, no. 21. 

107. s • d • & Co levern • mill • ; same as no. 105, but for value 5. 
R.r.r. 

LOCHWINNOCH. 

108. a. Gibson & c.° lochwinnoch. in a circle {M. 6), and, within 
an inner circle, the value 5/- countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 22. 

PAISLEY. 

109. corcer paisley, in a circle {M. 2), and, in the centre, 5/- 
countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

110. john lang mercht paisley in an oval (M. 6) ; the value 
obliterated by a puncheon mark ; countermarked on a Spanish 
Dollar. R.r.r. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 25 

111. (pay)able by w. langm ... in a circle {M. 7), and, in the 
centre, 5/3 countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

112. Similar, but the arms of Paisley in the centre, and on the 
reverse paisley... society in a circle {M. 6) ; countermarked on a 
Spanish Dollar. R.r.r. 

Meili 33. 

113. j. muir Manuf 1 : paisley, in a plain and beaded circle {M. 3), 
and, in the centre, 5/. On the reverse the Prince of Wales' plumes 
and motto in a circle (M. 3) ; countermarked on a Spanish Dollar. 
R.r.r. 

Plate H, no. 23. 



STIRLINGSHIRE. 

CULGREUCH. 

DOLLAR. 

114. payable at culgreuch mill * in a circle (M. 4), and, in the 
centre, the value 5/- R.r.r. 

115. Similar to last, but culgreuch mill 5/- R.r.r. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

116. Similar to no. 1 14, but no value expressed, and, in the centre, 
tho s whyte countermarked on Eighteenth century Halfpenny 
Tokens. R.r. 

Plate K, no. 6. 

SILVER. 

117. forster & corbe hotcheson town in a circle (M. 3), and, 
within a double circle, the value 5/- countermarked on a Spanish 
Dollar. R.r.r. 

118. Similar, but forster & corbe hotcheson mill. R.r.r. 

The factory at Culgreuch was erected in 1796. For this information I am indebted to 
Mr. William Paterson, Chief of the Glasgow Fire Brigade. 

FINTRY. 

COPPER. 

119. p. (Payable) by. Robert m c nee fintry * in a circle (M. 6), 
countermarked on a Glasgow Eighteenth Century Token. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 
E 



26 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



IRELAND. 

(Co) DOWN. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

"120. payable at m* s somervills. down in a circle (M. 6) ; no 
value expressed; countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

(Co.) DUBLIN. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

121. O gibbons bistruck, and md 
9> The monogram J ft 

Boyne iob. 

122. O i. Three four-leaf shamrocks in as many compartments. 
9> Blank. 

123. O i t in a rectangle. 

9> w r and the monogram J ft 

124 O m c cormic w murphy and in a rectangle i T 
$t w r with c under. 

125. O m c o'grady three times countermarked. 
$t As obverse. 

126. O J M C QUOID 

^ bolton bistruck. 

127. O o'brien 

£ M D 

128. O o'neill 

$ M 

129. O j short The monograms ffi & and »X M 
£> powell and s under. 

130. O toole also in a rectangle r 
9> Blank. 

Boyne ioa. 

131. 0- wilson bistruck. 
B> Blank. 



COUNTERMARKED TOKENS. 27 

SIXPENCE. 

132. O A M B 
9> H 

133. O powell and ^rfb 
$ s 

Aquilla Smith says " about the year 1804, many traders issued silver pieces, which passed 
as shillings. They were thin pieces not worth more than sixpence each, usually stamped 
with the name or initials of the issuers, and frequently countermarked." Mr. Fletcher has 
two irregularly shaped silver pieces, from the Gillespie collection, which, without any device 
or countermark, circulated as coin. The dearth of silver being such as to command ex- 
change on the merits of its intrinsic value. 

(Co.) KILKENNY. 
CASTLECOMER. 

DOLLAR. 
SILVER. 

134. payable • at ' castle ' comer ■ colliery ■ in an oval (M. 4 by 

S D 

3) ; and in the centre within a wreath, the value 5 5 countermarked 
on a Spanish Dollar. 

Plate H, no. 24. 
Aquilla Smith, in his Silver Tokens of Ireland, 1855, p. 5, says — "I am indebted to 
Mr. T. G. Robertson of Kilkenny, for the following account of this countermarked Dollar — 
' A friend of mine, who has often seen the coin, says that, about fifty years ago, Anne 
Countess of Dromore, not wishing to lose by the depreciated value of Spanish Dollars, of 
which she had at that time a large number, caused all she had to be stamped with the 
legend ' Castle Comer Colliery, Five shillings and five pence.' Coals for that amount being 
given for them at the pits, Kilkenny traders used to take them in exchange for their 
commodities, knowing that they could give them afterwards to colliers in payment of coals." 

(Co.) MEATH. 

HILL OF DOWN. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

135. i* Mitchell, h. down in a circle {M. 5) ; nov'ahie expressed ; 
countermarked on a George III Halfpenny. 

In Mr. Bliss' Cabinet. 

ISLE OF IV1AN. 

SHILLING. 
COPPER. 

136. A incuse ; countermarked on the reverse of a Peel Castle 
Shilling token. R.r. Halliday. 

Nelson, pi. Ill, no. 9. 
Dr. Nelson informs me that there are four specimens known of this Countermark and, 
in a note on p. 34 of his work, gives the names of three gentlemen who possess one each. 
They appear to be all struck in copper. 



28 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

LOCALITY UNKNOWN. 

CROWN. 
SILVER. 

JAS. 

137. meeson No value expressed, countermarked on a William III 
Crown. R.r. 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 

138. oates & co. 5 shill s countermarked on a Thaler. R.r.r. 

HALF CROWN. 

139. oates & co. 2 shill s 6 countermarked on a Half-ecu of 
France. R.r.r. 






* 



N^ 



v 



^ 



■s 
\ 



« 



M 






X 



ts. 



• s 






X 



% 

\ 

r 



Si 






ss 



i s 












s. 



^ 



:^ N 















/ 



X' 



\X 









4, 



3* 



\1 > 



•*. 



■so 



<x 




"^ 



OVERSEERS', PRIVATE BANKERS' AND 
TRADESMEN'S TOKENS. 

BERKSHIRE. 

READING. 

FORTY SHILLINGS. 
GOLD. 

1. O Bust of the King to left, with sceptre ; Alfred below the 
bust, and 1812 under; pignora certa petis do pignora certa 
(Pledges sure thou askest, I give sureties faithful). DWTS GR 

£> 40 SHILLINGS BERKS TOKEN STAND 1 ? GOLD 6 . 1 8 READING 

in a circle ; legend payable in b* notes at 6? the dwt. by i. b. 

monck esq 1 ?-? R.r. 

Plate A, no. 5. 

2. The same, in Silver. R.r.r. Halliday. 

In Sir Edward Thomason's Memoirs it is stated that the gold tokens were eagerly 
purchased at £$ each as mementos of the only issue of tokens struck in gold. 

The Sheffield 10/6 and the proof of the Bank of England token in gold were, however, 
struck subsequently : the former at Halliday's works, and the latter at the Soho mint. 

HALF CROWN. 
SILVER. 

3. O The arms of Reading, azure ; five busts in saltire, the central 
one (Queen Elizabeth) between e r legend labimur in pejus donec 
meliora revertant. 1811. (We pass into the worse until the better 
may return). 

£> half crown token span. doll, silver 6 dwts between 
sprigs of palm ; legend payable in bank notes by i. b. monck esq r ? 
reading, x. Halliday. 

Boyne 186. 
The arms were granted to Reading in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

EIGHTEEN PENCE. 

4. O Similar to last, except in size. 

9> Similar to last, but 18 pence token span: doll, silver 
4 dwts The left top sprig of palm points to the centre of the t in 
token and the 8 is under the y in by 

Boyne 187. 

5. O The same as last. 

9> Similar, but without a period after doll and the 8 is under 1. 
and the left top sprig to the space between pence and token R. 

6. O The same as last. 

9> Similar as regards the position of the 8, but has a period 
after doll, and the sprig terminates at the t in token Halliday. 

J. Berkeley Monck was a Member of Parliament. 



30 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

HIGH WYCOMBE. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

L O The arms of the borough, a swan gorged and chained, not 
in a shield ; high wycombe & Buckinghamshire token xii pence 

9= View of the Town Hall ; james gomme Ex : mdcccxi 

Halliday. 

Boyne ioo. 
The issuer of this token was a cabinet-maker and auctioneer. 




From a Print in the possession of the Author. 




31 



CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

MARCH. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. 0- The golden fleece, payable by mess rs * s. ratcliffe e. elam 

& J. THURBON :•: 

|k MARCH SILVER TOKEN ONE SHILLING in a Circle TO FACILITATE 

trade * issued nov r i 1811 * Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 6. 

Stephen Ratcliffe and Edward Elam were grocers, John Thurbon a brewer. About 
1,400 of these shillings were issued. Boyne says " After the tokens had been current a short 
time it was discovered that there were more in circulation than the proprietors had issued. 
They were in consequence withdrawn from circulation and the silver sold in London." If 
this statement is founded on fact the same dies were used for those wrongly circulated 
as no variety of the token exists. 

E. W. Elam, grocer, March, was declared bankrupt May 20th, 18 17. — London Gazette. 

CHATTERIS. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

2 O A sugar-loaf labelled w c — c and two canisters inscribed 

hyson and souchong chatteris farthing. 18 13 

B> W. CURTIS. GROCER & TEA DEALER LINNEN & WOOLEN DRAPER, 
WHOLESALE & RETAIL. 

3. O w. cvrtis. 18 13. chatteris farthing, with an ornament 
above cvrtis. 

& ONE FARTHING I 8 13. FOR PUBLIC ACCOMODATION. R.V.T. 
W. G. Searle, Cambridge Tokens, p. 25. 

4. O Blank. 
9> As last. 

5. O As no. 3, but reads curtis 

#> Blank. Hallidciy. 

MARCH. 

6. O john smith 1820 march isle of ely An ornament under 

MARCH 

Jk LINEN & WOOLEN DRAPER & TEA DEALER WHOLESALE & RETAIL 

Boyne was under a wrong impression with respect to the extreme rarity of this token, 
as they are not difficult to obtain. 

The issuer was the successor to Edward Elam, and in 1825 he had a similar farthing 
struck. John Thurbon, as late as 1827, also issued tokens of farthing size. 



32 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

CHESHIRE. 

NANTWICH. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms (quarterly first and fourth or, second and third gules, 
a bend sable over all) ; nantwich token value one shilling 

R at the old bank within a garter ; inscribed payable i8ii 
one pound note for 20 tokens 

Boyne 149. 

2. Similar to last, but payable 181 i is incuse upon a plain broad 
band. R.r. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

3. O value one shill. within a wreath ; broughton. sprout. 

GARNETT. & SUTTON * 

R at nantwich bank within a circle ; one pound bank, note 
for 20 tokens * R.r.r. Halliday. 

The persons whose names are on this token were the proprietors of the Nantwich Bank, 
whose London Agents were Stevenson & Salt, 80, Lombard Street. " C. O. Broughton and 
J. J. Garnett, Bankers, Nantwich, were declared bankrupts January 13th, 1826." — London 
Gazette. 

STOCKPORT. 

SHILLING. 

4. O Beehive and sixteen bees, t. cartwright & g. & r. ferns . . . 

STOCKPORT ... 

R Female seated on a bale to right holding scales and cornu- 
copia ; on the ground a sword ; the initials v & d under the hilt ; a 
small h on the bale ; a ship in the distance ; one shilling silver 
token 181 2 

5. O Similar to last, but g & r. ferns & t. cartwright . . stock- 
port . . with fifteen bees. 

R Similar, but without the h on the bale. 

Boyne 213. 

6. Similar to last, but y & d under the sword at the right. R. 

7. Similar, but seventeen bees ; stockport ... Cheshire ... R. 

These reverses also occur on tokens of Mansfield and Doncaster. -George and Robert 
Ferns were tallow chandlers in the Market Place. George Ferns was declared bankrupt 
March 9, 1821. 

SIXPENCE. 

8. O Beehive and fifteen bees ; t. cartwright ... stockport ... 

R Female seated as before, but ivithout sword, the initials 
y & d are partly under the bale and the figure ; the small h omitted ; 
six-pence silver token. 1812. Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 7. 
This reverse occurs again at Doncaster. Thomas Cartwright was a draper in the 
Market Place. 



33 

CORNWALL. 

COUNTY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms (fifteen bezants, 5 over 4, 3, 2 and 1), north Cornwall. 
1811 

fy one shilling value within a wreath. . 

Boyne 57. 

2. Also a copper proof. R.r.r. 

This reverse occurs also on Devonshire County, and London, Charing Cross. 

3. O The same as last. 

9= SILVER * TWELVE PENNY TOKEN SOLD BY MORGAN * 12 

rathbone place * london * displayed with various ornaments. R. 

Boyne 58. 
See Charing Cross. 

4. O Arms as before, but the bezants are not expressed ; between 
two sprigs of olive, Cornwall. 1811. 

9> a token for one shilling within a wreath. R. 

5. Also a copper proof. R'.r. 

6. Similar to last, but date is omitted. 

Boyne 59. 
All efforts, up to the present, have failed to trace this undated token. Probably it is 
an error, or omission in description. 

LAUNCESTON. 

shilling. 

7. O A castle within a circle ; launceston token, one shilling. 
1811 

Jl w. & g. pearse t. ching h. nicols & j. prockter within 
a circle, issued to facilitate trade 

Boyne 107. , 

Boyne 46, 107, by an error, has nichols instead of nicols William and George 
Pearse were drapers of Newport, Thomas Ching, Chemist, Henry Nicols, Broad Street, 
and John Prockter, Silversmith, Southgate Street, Launceston. 

STRATTON. 

shilling. 

8. O Arms as on North Cornwall no. i. 

& 1 2 within a wreath of olive ; shephard. watts & co. 

STRATTON. R. 

Boyne 215. 
John Shephard was a Farmer, and Watts & Co. the Postmasters. 

F 



34 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

9. O Arms (argent, per pale, a triple tower) of the city of Exeter, 
between two sprigs of olive; h.m. under; Devonshire silver token. 
See Devonshire no. 4. 

& The same as last. R. Halliday. 

Boyne 216. 
For another token relating to Cornwall, see Devonshire no. 9. 

10. O north Cornwall, the same as no. 1 . 

B> devon and Cornwall in a circle ; barnstaple * strat 
ton * Unknown. 

In Mr. Bowies' cabinet. 

COUNTY. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

11. O Arms, supporters, crest, and motto pro rege et populo 
(for King and people) ; the foot of the right hand supporter is 
between the po of populo 

9> penny piece in a circle, success to the cornish mines 18 12 
the p of penny lines with the ce7itre of the second s in success 

Sharp 192, 1. 

12. O Similar to last, but foot of supporter is over the o in populo 
& Similar, but the p in penny lines with the end of s 

13. O Similar, but the foot of supporter is over the second p of 

POPULO 

$> Similar, but the p lines to the space between s and t 

Halliday. 

DOLCOATH MINE. 

14. O The same as last. 

£> cornish penny within a circle, payable in cash notes at 
dolcoath mine Halliday. 

Sharp 192, 2. 
Dolcoath Mine was situated at Camborne. 

WEST WHEAL MINE. 

15. 0- View of St. Michael's Mount ; cornish mount, one penny 
token. 

9> The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet ; 
motto, ich dien (I serve), west wheel (sic) fortune, one penny 
token. R.r. 

Sharp 192, 4. 
Plate A, no. 8. 
Sharp says Sir George Chetwynd had a specimen of this rare token in which the mis- 
spelling of wheal was " corrected by an indented A, formed by a punch." As this is not 
a variety of die it is omitted from formal description. 



CORNWALL. 35 

1 6. O View of St. Michael's Mount, with sea and vessels in the 
foreground, the nearest has 7to ropes between the mast and jib ; 
legend, as before. 

£= Similar to last, but wheal instead of wheel and the i in 
ich is above the end of the ribbon. 

17. O Similar to last, but the nearer of the two vessels has two 
ropes between mast and jib, the flag on the castle is smaller. 

& Similar to last, but the i in ich is below the end of the 
ribbon. Halliday. 

In consequence of its rich yield of ore the West Wheal Fortune Copper Mine was, 
during the great depression of 1807, one of the most prosperous in Cornwall. It was 
situated at Cudgvan, one mile from the present Marazion Road Station. 

SCORRIER HOUSE. 

18. O View of a pumping engine and winding machine, under 
181 1 in a circle ; legend cornish •* ■* penny *■ * 

9> A fish between blocks of tin in a circle ; payable in cash 

NOTES AT SCORRIER HOUSE * R 

Sharp 192, 6. 

19. As last. 

& Similar, but legend for the accommodation of the 
county ■* ; the bottom block of tin lines to the bow of the d in 

ACCOMMODATION 

Sharp 192, 7. 

20. O Similar to last, but hooks attached to the drum of the 
machine instead of rings ; the door is filled in with brickwork, 
whereas in the last it is plain. 

V° Similar, but the bottom block of tin lines to the centre of 
the d 

21. O Similar, but the bottom block of tin lines to the first limb 
of d 

22. Similar, but the summits of ground straight instead of 
irregular. R. 

23. O Similar, but the window as well as the doorway is filled in 
with brickivork. 

9> Similar, but the bottom block of the tin lines to the first 
limb of a 

24. Similar, but flat tops to ones in date, whereas in all others 
they slope. 

9» Similar, but the bottom block of tin lines to the second o in 
accommodation R. Halliday. 



36 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

25. O Similar view of pumping engine, etc. ; payable at scorrier 
house upon a ribbon above ; ex. one pound note for 240 tokens 
1812 

fy The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet and 
motto ich dien (I serve) within a garter inscribed cornish penny 

Halliday. 

Sharp 192, 8. 

26. O Similar to last, but a plain rod instead of a chain to lever. 
9> Laureate bust of George 1 1 1 to right, within a thick wreath 

of oak. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 192, 9. 
Scorrier House was near to Redruth, and in the occupation of John Williams. 



PENZANCE. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 
TIN. 

27. O A wheatsheaf in a circle, two shillings + token + 

9, tea dealer and grocer in a circle, samuel higgs + 

PENZANCE + 

28. O Similar, but reads one token + two shillings + 

9= Similar, but a circle of pellets, no inner legend, w • r • 
rowe, grocer • penzance • (M. 9). Halliday. 



37 



CUMBERLAND. 

WHITEHAVEN. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

1. O A monogram w @® In an outer circle, payable at white 

HAVEN * 

9> A ship under sail to right ; in an outer circle, farthing 
token 1812 Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 9. 
The token was issued by William Bragg, grocer, who was gazetted bankrupt Feb. 8, 18 17. 

2. O A monogram W Ji In an outer circle, payable at white 

HAVEN * 

9> A tea canister ; in an outer circle, farthing token 1 8 1 2 
R. Halliday. 

The issuer of this farthing was William Kitchin, also a grocer. 



38 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



DERBYSHIRE, 

DERBY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O A griffin with wings displayed, gorged, issuant from a ducal 
coronet ; legend, one shilling token, sterling silver. 

J*> FOR THE USE OF THE INN S AT DERBY ASHBOURN CHESTERFIELD 
NOTTINGHAM LEICESTER LITCHFIELD (stc) BURTON &C The legend 

occupies the whole field. R.r. 

Plate A, no. 10. 

2. Similar, but with a period after &c. R.r. 

Boyne 6o. 

3. O West View of Peterborough Cathedral, silver xii token 

9> DERBY LEICESTER NORTHAMPTON AND RUTLAND LICENSED 

shilling silver token in a circle ; legend, h. morgan licensed 

MANUFACTURER I 2 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. R.r. HalUday. 

Boyne, 6i. 

This obverse is similar to, but not the same as Peterborough, no. 3 ; the reverse is the 
same as Leicestershire, no. 1. 

For other tokens relating to Derby, see Leicestershire, nos. 1, 2, 3 and 5. 



39 

DEVONSHIRE. 

COUNTY. 

SHILLINGS. 
SILVER. 

1. 0- View of Eddystone Lighthouse, ships at sea ; i/colue one 
shilling, h. m on the rock, and h on the wall ; the g in shilling is 
below the pennon from the mast. 

#> devon silver token, within a wreath of oak, h - m under. 

Boyne, 62. 

2. O Arms, vert, per fess, lamb and plough, chief, argent, a ship ; 
crest a dove between sprigs of olive, h m under, silver token 

9> The same as last. R. Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 11. 

3. O View of Eddystone Lighthouse, &c, as no. 1. 

9> one shilling token sold by royal licence at morgan's * 
12. rathbone place London displayed with various scroll orna- 
ments. R. 

4. O Arms, argent, per pale, a triple tower of the city of Exeter 
between sprigs of olive, h. m. under ; Devonshire silver token. 

9> The same as last. 

5. O The same as last. 

p> one shilling value within an olive wreath. Halliday. 

Boyne, 64. 

6. O Arms as before, but the shield is tinted, between sprigs of 
oak and palm. 

9> one shilling value between sprigs of olive, h. m. under. 

7. Also a Proof in Copper. R. 

8. O The same as last. 

$> The same as the obverse of no. 1, Eddystone Lighthouse, 
&c. R.r. Halliday. 

9. O Arms, gules, a castle triple towered, but without sprigs at 
the sides; legend, one shilling and on a ribbon below; Devonshire 

9= DEVONSHIRE SOMERSETSHIRE AND CORNWAL (stc) SILVER TOKEN 

with Staffordshire knots above and below Somersetshire and 

cornwal R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate I, no. 3. 



40 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

10. Also in Copper. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

"The Statesman," Sept. 18th, i8ir, announced that "the Devonshire Bank has 
employed an artist in town to stamp near five thousand pounds worth of tokens for 
shillings and sixpences." 

Holinshed. in his Chronicle of A.D. 1577, writing on the Silver Mines of Devonshire, 
says : " The Workmen of that County being not sufficiently numerous, or not sufficiently 
expert, three hundred and thirty-seven Miners were, in the Year 1296, brought from the 
Wapentake of the Peak in Derbyshire, who fined and cast into wedges, in the course of 
that year, 704 pounds three shillings and one pennyweight. 

" In the next year 348 Miners were brought from the same place and to them were 
added 25 from Wales." 

BARNSTAPLE. 

SHILLING. 

11. O BARNSTAPLE TOKEN ONE SHILLING. l8ll. The G in SHILLING 

lines to the centre of the e in token 

& Arms (argent, a castle triple towered) of the Borough, be- 
tween branches of palm and flowers. 

Plate L, no. 1. 

12. Similar to last, but the g lines to the first limb of e in token 

Boyne, 32. 

13. O ISSUED AT BARNSTAPLE 1 4 NOVEMBER l8ll * BY MESS— JOS. 
EVANS JOHN BOWHAY MICH^ NOTT & R. GRIBBLE 

$1 The plumes of the Prince of Wales, for convenience 
of change, in a circle ; Devonshire silver token for xii pence * 

Halliday. 

Boyne, 9. 

For another Shilling of Barnstaple, see Stratton. 

The names of the persons given on the token were the proprietors of the Barnstaple 
Bank. 

SIXPENCE. 

14. Similar to no. n, but barnstaple token six pence. i8ii. 

Boyne, 8. 

15. Similar to no. 13, but Devonshire silver token for vi pence 

Halliday. 

Boyne, 10. 

EXETER. 

SHILLING. 

16. O View of Eddystone lighthouse, similar to no. 1, but the g 
in shilling is above the pennon on mast ; the initials h, m and h 
omitted. 

$t Arms, per pale, gules and azure ; a triple tower and sup- 
porters of the city ; motto, semper fidelis (always faithful) ; crest, 
a demi-lion holding an orb ; exeter and devon silver token R. 

Halliday. 
Plate L, no. 2. 



DEVONSHIRE. 



41 



17. O JOSEPH HICKS. * EXETER * ONE SHILLING TOKEN 

9> Similar to the obverse. R.r. Unknown. 

This piece is generally badly struck. The issuer was a silversmith, of New Bridge, 



Exeter. 



TEIGNMOUTH. 

SHILLING. 

18. O Crest, a demi-lion holding a lily ; under the chaplet h m 
all within a garter, inscribed payable at the bank Outer legend, 

ISSU'D. AT. TEIGNMOUTH. FOR. PUBLIC. ACCOMODATION (su) l8ll. 

9> FOR 20 OF. THESE TOKENS. WHICH COST. ME. EACH ONE. 
SHILLING I. PROMISE. TO. PAY. THE BEARER. A. I. £. BANK OF ENGLAND 
NOTE I. HOLLAND R. 

Plate L, no. 3. 

19. O Similar to last, but with id under the chaplet, and annulets 
on the garter as periods. 

9> Similar to last, but with small stars after one and before 
and after note R.r.r. 



20. Also in Copper. 



Davies. 



In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 



COUNTY. 





COPPER. TWOPENCE. 

21. O View of a lighthouse ; s. view. of. the. edystone. light- 
house, compleated. (sic) oc r 9. 1759. by. i. smeaton. + Under, 

DEVONSHIRE PRIVATE TOKEN 

9> View of a lighthouse ; view. of. the. high, lighthouse, on. 
the. spurn, point, compleated. (sic) ap. 7. 1 777. Under the base 
line, w. upcott. des may. 1801. R.r. 

Sharp 190, 1. 
G 



42 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

22. Also a Proof in Silver, which is in the B. M. Wyon. 

These dies were softened and repaired, and 24 impressions taken by the late W. J. 
Taylor. 

W. Upcott was the famous book collector and antiquary. 

"The Edy stone lighthouse, built by Mr. Winstanley in the reign of King William III, 
took fire, and burnt all the timber work ; but the stone work, 30 feet high, and founded on a 
rock, remained unhurt. Admiral West, at Plymouth, seeing the fire, sent out a boat, and took 
away the two men that had the care of the place." — Historical Chronicle, Tuesday Dec. 2, 1755. 

"The store-vessel came into Plymouth from her moorings at the Edystone, with all the 
workmen on board, the lighthouse there being entirely compleated under the direction of 
that excellent mechanic, Mr. Smeaton, F.R.S., without the loss of one life, or any material 
accident." — The Gentlemarfs Magazine, Oct. gth, 1759. 



TAVISTOCK. 

PENNY. 

23. O A mining engine; devon mines * 181 1 * The chimney is 
emitting smoke to the right. 

9> The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet ; 

TAVISTOCK * PENNY TOKEN * 

Sharp 193, 1. 
Plate A, no. 12. 

24. Similar to last, but the chimney is emitting its smoke to the 
left. 

25. Similar, but the chimney emitting much less smoke, and the 
windows of the building not filled in. R. Wyon. 



43 

DORSETSHIRE. 

BLANDFORD. 

SILVER. SHILLING. 

1. O The arms of the borough, argent, three lions passant gardant ; 

BLAND FORD I 8 I I. 

9> ONE SHILLING TOKEN. H. WARD. * FOR PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION. 

R.r.r. 

Plate L, no. 4. 

2. O Arms as before, but within a garter ; payable by h. ward 

BLANDFORD 

£> ONE SHILLING TOKEN in a circle. FOR PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION 

1 8 1 1 . Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 1 3. 
In 1806 a prize of fifteen guineas was awarded Henry Ward of Blandford, for a " New 
Striking-clock Movement," by which the whole train of wheels, used in common clocks, 
together with the barrel and weight are entirely superseded. 

DORCHESTER. 

SHILLING. 

3. O COX. MERLE &. PATTISON. DORCHESTER BANK ONE. SHILLING 

token pure, silver displayed with various scroll ornaments. 

£> St. Dunstan standing and leading the Devil by the nose with 

a pair of pincers ; between sprigs of olive, know thyself On the 

ground, i. d. R,r. Davies. 

Plate A, no. 14. 
The issuers of the token were bankers. Their London address was Cox, Merle 6° 
Pattison, 2, Cox's Court, Little Britain. 

" St. Dunstan was born at Glastonbury, of which monastery he became Abbot, and died 
Archbishop of Canterbury in 988." — Butler. 

The legend of St. Dunstan relates many miracles of him, the most popular of which is 
that St. Dunstan, as the fact really was, became expert in goldsmith's work ; that while he 
was busied in making a chalice, the Devil annoyed him by his personal appearance, and 
tempted him ; whereupon St. Dunstan suddenly seized the fiend by the nose with a pair of 
iron tongs, burning hot, and so held him while he roared and cried till the night was far spent. 
There is an engraved portrait of St. Dunstan thus detaining the devil in bondage, with 
these lines, or lines, to that effect, beneath ; they are quoted from memory : — 
" St. Dunstan, as the story goes, 
Once pulled the Devil by the nose 
With red hot tongs, which made him roar, 
That he was heard three miles or more." — The Every-Day Book. 

POOLE. 

SHILLING. 

4. O The arms of Poole, a dolphin, in chief three escallops, 
between sprigs of olive; town and county of poole token. i8ii. 

9> JAMES FERRIS. SILVERSMITH. POOLE, VALUE ONE SHILLING 

arranged in two straight lines, and three curved ; two sprigs of olive 
below poole and a small ornament above. 

Boyne 176. 



44 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

5. O The same as last. 

V° Similar to last, but there is no ornament above poole which 
is in a straight line ; there are four leaves and as many berries on 
right-hand sprig, and one in the centre. Halliday. 

6. O Similar to last, but the berries on olive sprigs are much 
larger, more like annulets. 

£> Similar to last, but there are five leaves and as many berries 
on the right-hand sprig, the two last berries at the right are nearly 
side by side. R. 

7. O The same as last. 

£> Similar to last, but the two last berries at the right are over 
each other. R. Unknown 

The issuer was a silversmith and watchmaker. He was declared bankrupt April 27th, 
1816. 

8. O w. b. best within a garter inscribed payable by Legend, one 

POUND NOTE FOR 20 TOKENS. l8l2. 

& Female seated on a bale, holding scales and cornucopia, a 
sword below; the initials k. s. under the figure, one shilling silver 
token, poole. Made by Kempson & Son. 

Boyne 177. 
See countermarked tokens of Dorset. 

SIXPENCE. 

9. O Similar, but 40 tokens 

fy Similar to last, but six pence silver token, poole. 

Made by Kempson. 
Plate A, no. 15. 
William B. Best was a draper. 

SHAFTESBURY. 

shilling. 

10. O Arms of Shaftesbury, quarterly first and fourth argent, a 
fleur-de-lis, second and third azure, a leopard's head, Dorsetshire 

WILTSHIRE. & SHAFTESBURY. BANK TOKEN 

£ ONE SHILLING AT SHAFTESBURY OR S. LLOYDS BUCKLERSBURY 

London Circular legend, for the accommodation of the public. 
1811 R. 

Boyne 194. 
Samuel Lloyd was an ironmonger in Barge Yard. 

11. O The same as last. 

$t A military bust to left (Nelson?), commercial token i.b.x.r 
1 8 1 1 R.r. r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 5. 
This piece is struck in brass. 



DORSETSHIRE. 45 

12. O Bust to left in naval uniform, commercial token i.b.x.r 
1811 

9> one shilling value within an olive wreath. R.r. 

13. The same in Brass. R.r. 

14 O Arms similar to no. 10, but legend Shaftesbury bank token 

HENDERSON & CO. 

9 A large xn within a wreath of laurel. R.r. 
Plate L, no. 6. 

15. A Proof in Copper. R.r.r. Halliday- 

16. O Arms as before between sprigs of olive, Shaftesbury bank, 
licensed 14 march 1811. The 14 is the same size as the figures in 
date ; the point of shield is under the y the centre bar of shield 
to left is above a leaf. 

9> DORSETSHIRE WILTSHIRE AND SHAFTESBURY BANK TOKEN 

°Ucolwe one shilling A Staffordshire knot between first and second 
lines. 

Boyne, 196. 

17. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

18. O Similar to last, but the centre bar is opposite a leaf. 
9= Similar to last, but the word and in italics. R. 

19. Similar, but the figures 14 almost as small as the letters in 
march R. Halliday. 

20. Similar to the preceding, but the Staffordshire knot is omitted. 
R,r.r. 

21. O Similar, but the point of shield is under the r of bury 

9> DORSETSHIRE WILTSHIRE and SHAFTESBURY BANK TOKEN VALUE 
ONE SHILLING FOR THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE PUBLIC. Ornament 

under one shilling R. 

22. O Same as last. 

9> MAY TRADE THE PLOUGH & THE FLEECE FLOURISH IN ALL THE 
BRITISH ISLES SUCCESS TO AGRICULTURE & NAVIGATION. Halliday. 

In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 
Plate I, no. 5. 

SIXPENCE. 

23. O The arms as before, but no sprigs at the sides of the shield, 
Shaftesbury bank, licensed 1 4 march 181 1. The 1 4 is the same size 
as the figures in date, and larger than the letters in march 

9 DORSETSHIRE WILTSHIRE AND SHAFTESBURY BANK TOKEN 

V'alwe sixpence The top and bottom lines are curved, the last 
limb of n in token is under the foot of y in Shaftesbury 

Boyne, 197. 



46 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

24. Similar to last, but the 14 is the same size as the letters in 
march and the last limb of n in token is not quite under the foot of 
y Halliday. 

25. G Similar to last, but with for the accommodation of the 
public added as an inner legend. 

$ Similar to last, but value in Roman capitals, R.r. 
Plate L, no. 7. 

THREEPENCE. 

26. O HENDERSON & C? SHASTON BANK- -TOKEN- • 

& A large 3 within an olive wreath. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Boyne, 198. 

SWANAGE. 

TWOPENCE. 
COPPER. 

27. 0- SWANAGE FRIENDLY SOCIETY 1 785 

V° value two pence R.r. Milt on. 

Plate J, no. 6. 
This is of excellent workmanship. 



47 

DURHAM. 

STOCKTON. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms (of Stockton) a castle over an anchor, Stockton, above; 
1 8 1 2 below. The anchor stock extends to the last embattlement of 
the tower, the cable loops quite clear of legend. 

9> SILVER TOKEN I SHIL? Legend, CHRISTOPHER AND JENNETT 

a crosslet after jennett 

2. O Similar, but the anchor stock does not extend to the last em- 
battlement of the tower, the cable loops are larger, nearly touching 
the legend. 

£> As last. Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 7. 

GATESHEAD. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

3. O JOHN HARROP GROCER & TEA-DEALER 1814 BRIDGE END GATES 
HEAD 

#> A tea cannister inscribed h g (Harrop Gateshead) ; legend, 

FINE TEAS * RAW & ROASTED COFFEE 

4. Also in silver. R.r. 



SOUTH SHIELDS. 

5. O Bust tO left FRANCIS. ROBINSON. S™ SHIELDS 

#> A three-mast ship sailing to left success to the coal trade 
1 8 1 4. R. Unknown. 

Plate A, no. 16. 



STOCKTON. 

PENNY. 

6. O View of a bridge; tees above, 181 3 below. Christopher 
& jennett * Stockton * incuse on a broad rim. 

9. Figure of Britannia seated, Britannia * one penny token * 
incuse on a broad rim. P. Wyon. 

Plate A, no. 17. 
Christopher & Jennett were booksellers and printers. 



48 

ESSEX. 

EPPING. 

COPPER. 

1. O A stag proper courant, under a tree. 

#> A star and garter inscribed, value one shilling. In the 
centre f Over the star a bugle horn ; legend, epping * * forest * 

E. SPENCE x DEALER x IN x COINS x LONDON x R.r. J l ed 

Plate I, no. 6. 

2. Also with edge milled. R. 

Atkins la. 

3. Also with edge plain. James. 

Sharp 2, no. i. 

WALTHAMSTOW. 

PENNY, 1812. 
Twenty-three Acorns; 

4. O A lion statant gardant ; rolling mills at walthamstow 
Ex. one penny 1812 The tip of the tail points to the first limb of 
the letter a and the 2 in date is under the first n in penny 

.£> British copper company within a wreath of oak. Legend, 
smelting works at landore * There are twenty-three acorns ; 
eleven to left and twelve to right. 

Plate A, no. 18. 
There is a double obverse of this piece with one side incuse. 

5. O Similar, but the tuft to tail points to the centre of A and the 
2 in date is under the first limb of n 

9> Similar, the wreath has twelve acorns to left and eleven 
to right. 

Sharp 193, 1. 
Twenty-two Acorns. 

6. O Similar, but tuft points to the second limb of a 

#» Similar, the wreath has twenty-two acorns, eleven on 
each side. R. 

Twenty-one Acorns. 

7. O Similar, but the tuft points between the letters w and a and 
the 2 in date is under e and n 

9> Similar, but the wreath has twenty-one acorns, ten to left and 
eleven to right. 

8. O Similar to no. 1, but the tuft points to the centre of a and 
the 2 in date is under nn in penny 

$k Similar, but the wreath has eleven acorns to left and ten to 
right ; the second acorn at the right nearly touching the star at the 
end of legend. 



ESSEX. 4<J 

Eighteen Acorns. 

9. Similar, but the tuft points to the first limb of a 

$1 Similar, but the wreath has eighteen acorns, eight to left and 
ten to right, and the 2 in date is under the e and n of penny R. 

10. Similar, but the 2 in date is under the first limb of n in 
penny all by P. Wyon. 

The British Copper Company was established in 1807 by subscription. Mr. Jones, of 
Lambeth, was the promoter. 

11. O A lion passant gardant, as no. 12, below, but legend and date 
as no. 4. 

9> Similar, but the wreath has twenty-four acorns, twelve to 

left and twelve to right. P. Wyon. 

Plate K, no. 7. 
This pattern piece is of fine workmanship ; and was presented by the artist to Sir 
George Chetwynd. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 



Twenty-five Acorns. 

12. O A lion passant gardant, the same legend as before, but date 
18 13. The tuft of tail lines to the second limb of a, and the 3 in date 
is under the n in penny 

~§> Similar to preceding, the wreath has twenty-five acorns, 
twelve to left and thirteen to right. 

Twenty-four Acorns. 

13. Similar, but the end of tail lines to the centre of a, and the 
3 in date is under the first limb of n 

9> Similar, but there are twenty-four acorns in the wreath, 
twelve to the left and as many to the right. 

Twenty-two Acorns. 

14. O Similar, but the end of tail lines to the first limb of a 

9? Similar, but wreath has twenty-two acorns, eleven on each 

side. 

Nineteen Acorns. 

15. O Similar, but the end of tail lines to the last limb of a 

]£) The wreath has nineteen acorns, eight to left and eleven to 
right. R. 

16. O Similar, but the ground line at the right points between the 
t and o, whereas it is opposite the letter o in all preceding. 

$ As last. R. ' P. Wyon. 

The Rolling Mills were on the South-west of St. James's Street, between the River Lee 
and the present railway. The property was purchased by the East London Waterworks. 

H 



50 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

HALFPENNY, 1811. 
Vincit Amor Patriae. 

17. O Laureate bust to right ; vincit amor patriae i8ii (the love 
of country exceeds everything) ; the laurel leaves point on either 
side to the o in amor 

9> Britannia seated, holding olive branch and trident, within a 
wreath of oak, with fourteen acorns, eight to left and six to right ; 
there are ribbon ends to tie of wreath ; the centre and right barbs of 
trident touch a leaf ; bcc under the shield (British Copper Company). 

Sharp 208, 3. 

18. Similar, but a larger bust, and the point of drapery is near 
the m instead of over the last one in date. 

19. O Nearly as last, but the laurel points more to the o 

£> The wreath has sixteen acorns, seven left and nine right ; 
the centre barb of trident touches a leaf, and the right of it is close 
to an acorn. 

20. Similar, but the laurel points to the r 

21. A rather smaller bust, laurel points to the o and r 

22. O Similar to last, but the laurel points only to the o 

9, The wreath has fifteen acorns, nine left and six right ; the 
left and centre barbs of trident touch a leaf. 

23. Similar bust, laurel points between the o and r 

24. O Similar, but the laurel points to the o The v points to end 
of ribbon farthest from neck. 

£> Wreath has eighteen acorns, nine on each side ; the right 
barb of trident touches a leaf. 

25. Similar, but the laurel points to the o and r 

26. Similar, but the v points to end of ribbon nearest the neck. 

27. Similar, but the wreath has sixteen acorns, nine to left, seven 
to right ; left and centre barbs of trident touch a leaf, the right is 
under an acorn. 

28. Similar, the wreath has sixteen acorns, but eight on each side; 
the left barb touches a leaf. all by T. Wyon. 

Brutus and Vincit Amor Patriae. 

29. O Bust to left ; brutus 

9> Bust to right ; vincit amor patrle R.r. T. Wyon. 

Sharp 208, 4. 



ESSEX. 51 

Brutus. 

30. O Similar to last. 

£> Britannia seated, &c. ; the wreath has eighteen acorns, nine 
on either side ; right barb of trident touches a leaf. 

Sharp 208, 5. 

31. Similar, but the wreath has fifteen acorns, eight left, seven 
right ; left and centre barbs of trident touch a leaf. 

32. Similar, but the wreath has fourteen acorns, eight left, six 
right ; right barb only totiches a leaf. 

33. 0- Bust smaller than before, with 2. period after brutus. 

£ The wreath has twenty acorns, eleven left, nine right ; all 
the barbs of trident nearly touch a leaf. T. Wyon. 

Mercury. No date. 

34. O Head of Mercury to left, wearing a winged petasus, 
a caduceus over the shoulder. 

£> Britannia seated, &c. ; the wreath has nineteen acorns, ten 
left, nine right ; right barb touches a leaf. 

35. Similar, but the wreath has eighteen acorns, nine each side ; 
the centre and right barbs touch a leaf. 

Sharp 208, 6. 

36. Similar, wreath has eighteen acorns, ten to left and eight to 
right ; the three barbs each touch a leaf. 

37. Similar, but the wreath has nineteen acorns, ten to left and 
nine to right. Wyon. 

1813- 

38. O A lion passant gardant ; halfpenny 18 13 The tuft of the 
tail points to t)s\e first limb of the first n 

fy Britannia seated within a wreath of oak ; in her right hand 
an olive branch, in her left a trident ; under the shield bcc The 
wreath contains nineteen acorns, ten to left and nine to right ; the 
centre and right hand barb of the trident touch a leaf. 

39. O Similar, but the lion's head touches the h and the tuft of 
tail points between the e and n 

9> Similar, but eighteen acorns in the wreath, ten to left and 
eight to right ; the left and centre barb touch a leaf. 

40. Similar to last, but the lion's tail touches the y 

41. Similar, but the tail points to the first limb of the first n and 
is again free from the letter y Wyon. 



52" NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

1814. 

42. O A lion as before, tail points to second limb of the first n 
Dated 18 14 

# Similar, but with eighteen acorns, nine on each side ; no tie 
to the wreath ; the right hand barb touches an acorn. R. Wyon. 

Plate J, no. 8. 

4o. O As last. 

$ An incuse impression of the obverse die. 

In Mr. Norman : s cabinet. 

Sharp says these tokens were struck and issued by the British Copper Company, in 
Thames Street, London. The Company had smelting works at Walthamstow. 



53 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 
CHELTENHAM. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O View of St. Mary's Church in perspective, an. avenue of trees ; 

VALUE ONE SHILLING 

ft A POUND NOTE FOR 20 TOKENS GIVEN BY WILL- BASTIN 
CHELTENHAM 1 8l I 

2. Also in tin. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 19. 

3. O PAYABLE BY MESS* S J. & S. GRIFFITH CHELTENHAM OR AT 
NO. 2 RIVER S T BATH in a circle. PAYABLE BY A ONE POUND NOTE 
FOR 2 OF THESE TOKENS. 

ft The arms and crest of Bristol within a garter ; inscribed 

DOLLAR SILVER Legend, SILVER TOKEN FOR XII PENCE R.r. 

Unknown. 
GLOUCESTER. 

HALF CROWN. 

4. O Arms of Gloucester, or, three chevrons gules, between ten 
torteaux, two sprigs of olive at the sides ; Gloucester token two 

SHILLINGS & SIXPENCE 

ft A POUND NOTE FOR EIGHT TOKENS GIVEN BY J. WHALLEY 
GLOUCESTER AND AT N° IO CHARLOTTE S T FITZROY SQUARE LONDON 

Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 9. 

James Whalley traded as a banker and draper. His son became the representative of 
Peterborough in Parliament. 

SHILLING. 
WITH CREST. 

5. O Arms of Gloucester between two sprigs of olive as before, 
crest a cap of maintenance ; for xii pence No period in the legend, 
and the tassel is between the ones of value. 

ft View of Gloucester cathedral ; Gloucester, county. & city 

TOKEN. MDCCCXI. 

6. Similar, but a period after each word in the legend on the 
obverse ; and the tassel is tinder the last numeral of xn Halliday. 

Boyne 91. 



54 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



WITHOUT CREST. 

7. O Arms of Gloucester between two sprigs of olive, Gloucester 
city token one shilling There are thirteen leaves in the olive 
branch at the right. 

9> PAYABLE ON DEMAND BY SAUNDERS & BUTT Legend, TO 
FACILITATE TRADE OCTOBER 20 T . H l8ll 

Boyne 92. 

8. Similar, but the reverse is dated October 25™ 

9. Similar to last, October 2 5 t . h but with twelve leaves in olive 
branch at the right. 

Saunders & Butt were chandlers. 

10. O Arms of Gloucester between two sprigs of olive. Gloucester 
token one shilling On the third leaf at the right the letter h 

$1 PAYABLE AT J A? WHALLEY's GLOUCESTER & AT N° CHARLOTTE 

s 1 . fitzroy square London. ^ in ja^ is under the centre of a in 

PAYABLE 

Boyne 94. 

11. Similar, but the ^ in ja s is under the Jirst limb of a in payable 

12. O Arms of Gloucester between two sprigs of olive, Gloucester 

CITY AND COUNTY 

£> MORGAN'S GLOUCESTER CITY & COUNTY SILVER MEDAL BY THE 

royal authority with a knot between the third and fourth line. 
R.r.r. 

13. Also in copper, on a small flan the size of a sixpence. R.r. 

Halhday. 



CHELTENHAM. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

14. O View of St. Mary's Church in perspective, an avenue of 
trees. Ex. value one penny. 

£> A POUND NOTE FOR 24O TOKENS GIVEN BY JOHN BASTIN & 
C° CHELTENHAM l8l2 R.r. 

Plate K, no. 8. 
John Bastin & Co. were tailors and drapers. 



GL O UCES TER 'SHIRE. 5 5 

15. O As last. 

9> Similar, but by john bishop & c- Halliday. 

Sharp 194, 2. 

John Bishop advertised himself as tailor to H.R.H. the Prince Regent, and carried on 
business opposite the Plough Hotel, Cheltenham. He was declared bankrupt March 16, 1822. 

SEDBURY. 

PENNY. 

16. O View of a mill with four chimneys emitting dense smoke. 

GENUINE BRITISH COPPER Ex. SEDBURY IRON WORKS 

& one penny token within a mixed wreath of oak and laurel. 
h on the laurel leaf opposite n in token Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 20. 
This reverse also occurs at Burton, Sheffield and Not Local. 



56 



COUNTY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

~~T. 0- Ships at sea, the sun rising Hampshire token At the left 
of ship, h.m In the waves under the ship, at the right the letter p 

9= ISLE OF WIGHT PORTSMOUTH SOUTHAMPTON AND GOSPORT 

shilling silver token Within an outer circle, h. morgan 

LICENSED MANUFACTURER I 2 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. R,r. Patrick. 

Boyne 95. 

2. O Arms of the county; gules, a rose surmounted by a crown. 
Hampshire silver tqken 1811 The one in date is over the first 
limb of r in silver Point of shield is between the 8 and i of date. 

9= A sloop sailing-, value one shilling to facilitate trade 
The top mast touching the upright limb of the e in one The water 
line touches the t of trade 

Boyne 96. 

3. Also in copper. 

4. Similar, but the mast is under the extreme left of the e The 
water line touches the r 

5. O Similar, but the point of the shield is over the 8 and the 1 is 
above the centre of r 

9» The mast similar to no. 2, but slightly more at the right, the 
water line as last. Unknown. 

sixpence. 

6. O Similar to preceding, but an ornament divides the legend ; 
the point of shield is between the 8 and 1 of date ; the figures 
of date same size as each other. 

£ Sloop sailing, value sixpence * to facilitate trade. 

Boyne, 97. 

7. Also in copper. 

8. Similar, but the point of shield is over the third numeral ; the 
ones in date are smaller than the figure 8 Unknown. 



HAMPSHIRE. 57 



ANDOVER. 

SHILLING. 
1811. 

9. O The arms of the borough ; argent, a lion under a tree. 
andover token for xii pence The point of shield lines with the 
first limb of k and the lion's foot is half across the trunk of the tree. 

9> payable by w. s. &. 1. wakeford, 1811 within a wreath 
of oak. A period after the &. and I. The tops of ones slope. An 
acorn under the date, making six on the inside of wreath at the right. 
The p of payable touches a leaf. 

Plate J, no. 10. 

10. Similar, but an acorn over the first a of payable No period 
after i and having seven acorns inside wreath at the right. 

11. Also in copper. 

1.2, Similar, but a leaf over the first a in payable 

13. Similar, but with eight acorns in the inside of wreath. 

14. Similar, but a period after i. and nine acorns in the inside of 
wreath. 

15. O Similar, but point of shield lines with the centre of k and 
the lion's foot is only a quarter across the trunk of the tree. 

9= Similar, but a period after all initials, but not after & The 
tops of the ones in date are fiat ; there are only four acorns in the 
inside of wreath at the right, and no acorn under the date. R. 

Boyne 2. 

16. Also in copper. R.r. Halliday. 



17. O Arms as before, point of shield lines with the first limb of k 
9> Similar, but without a period after i Seven acorns in inside 

of wreath, dated 1 8 1 2 

Boyne 3. 

18. Also in copper. 

19. Similar, but with six acorns in inside of wreath. 

20. Similar, but with a period after 1. Halliday. 

William, Samuel, and Joseph Wakeford were bankers, who issued also bank notes. The 
bank closed in 1825. On April 20th, 1826, dividends were paid at the Star and Garter 
Hotel, Andover ; and the final dividend at the same place on March 10th, 1827. 



58 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



NEWPORT. 

SHILLING. 

21. O An antique ship in a circle ; Newport isle of wight 181 i 
The anchor touches the waves, there is a break in the flag near the 
mast, and the ones in date are Jlat topped. 

& ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN in a circle. MAY PLENTY CROWN 

our happy isle * The terminal of the g in shilling lines to the 
upright limb of the first p in happy 

Plate A, no. 21. 

22. O Similar, but the flag is severed from the portion attached to 
the mast, and the anchor does not totuh the water. 

#> Similar, but the terminal of the g lines to the last limb of a 

Boyne 169. 

23. O Similar, but the flag is entire and attached to the mast by 
its whole width ; the anchor touches the water, the ones in date slope. 

9> Similar, but the terminal of the g lines to the space between 
pp in happy Halliday. 

SIXPENCE. 

24. O Similar to preceding. 

9> Beehive and bees in a circle ; union token sixpence 

Boyne 170. 

25. Also in Copper. R.r. 

26. The same in Tin. R.r.r. Halliday. 

The issuer of these tokens was Robert Bird Wilkins, ironmonger, etc. 

Atkins, in "Tokens of the Eighteenth Century," under Newport, describes a halfpenny 
with the bust of Robert Bird Wilkins by Mainwaring. It was issued in large quantities, and 
even now is fairly common. The Newport silver pieces were also extensively circulated. 



PORTSEA. 

shilling. 

27. O A crescent and star, the arms of Portsmouth ; accommoda- 
tion of trade 181 1 The arms and legend divided by a band in- 
scribed PORTSEA SILVER - TOKEN 

V° VALUE ONE SHILLING PAYABLE AT MESS R . S AVENELL & SIMMONDS 

queen sT portsea R.r.r. Unknown. 

Plate L, no. 8. 
William Avenell was a watchmaker. On July 30, 1 8 14, Avenell was declared a bankrupt 
at the George Inn, Portsmouth. 



HAMPSHIRE. 59 

PORTSMOUTH. 

SHILLING. 

28. 0- Portsmouth accommodation, change A crescent and star 
in a circle. 

ft one shilling token within a garter inscribed dollar sil 
ver Outer legend, payable at the bullion office 69 high street 
1811 

Boyne 180. 

29. O The same as last. 

ft isle of wight, &c, as no. 1. 

Boyne 181. 

30. O A crescent and star as before, but with an eye in the centre 
of the star; a garter inscribed Portsmouth 181 i Legend, payable 

AT I. DUDLEYS 

ft xii pence in an olive wreath of eleven berries, silver token 

Boyne 132. 

31. Similar, but the crescent to left nearly touches the star, and 
the period omitted between 1 and d 

Plate J, no. n. 

32. O Similar, but the tongue of garter does not touch the d in 
Dudleys which it does in the preceding. 

ft Similar to last, but the wreath has seventeen berries. R. 

Halliday. 

John Dudley was a goldsmith in the High Street. 

33. O A ship sailing ; let commerce flourish issued by i m 

STEPHENS I 8 I I 

ft value xii pence with olive sprigs under. Portsmouth 
silver token R. Unknown, 

Boyne 183. 

J. M. Stephens was a jeweller. He was declared a bankrupt January 21st, 181 5. — 
London Gazette. 

ROMSEY. 

shilling. 

34. O Arms, argent, a portcullis, between two sprigs of oak ; h m 
under the shield ; romsey token, value one shilling 

ft payable by w. adams 1 8 1 2 within a wreath of oak ; h. m 

below the wreath. {See also Suffolk no. 4.) R. 

Boyne 188. 

Boyne incorrectly describes this piece, as the date is 1812, not 181 1. The issuer was 
not Webster Adams of Ipswich ; the same die was probably used to save the cost of engrav- 
ing a new one. W. Adams of Romsey was a rope manufacturer. 



60 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

35. O The same as last. 

9> Ships at sea, etc., the sun rising; Hampshire token 
Similar to the obverse of no. i. R.r. 

36. O Similar to last, but romsey token, value + one shilling 
The initials h. m omitted. 

5c Ships at sea, the sun rising ; william lintott & sons. At 
the left p in the waves. R. Patrick. 

N Boyne 189. 

The issuers of this token were merchants. 

SOUTHAMPTON. 

SHILLING. 

37. 0- The arms of Hampshire, argent, a rose surmounted by a 
crown, between two sprigs of oak ; Southampton token value one 

SHILLING 

9> An antique ship ; william lomer & son Unknown. 

Boyne 206. 

The issuers were printers in the High Street. W. Lomer was declared a bankrupt on 
April 29th, 1822. 

ANDOVER. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

38. O The arms of Andover ; andover token, for one penny. 
The ribs of the lion are expressed. 

Jjl payable by w. s. & i. wakeford 1812 within a wreath 

of oak. 

Plate A, no. 22. 

39. Similar to last, but the lion's ribs are not expressed. Halliday. 

Sharp 194, 1. 

BASINGSTOKE. 

40. O A spade and mattock in a wheelbarrow ; john pinkerton 
value one shilling 

#> A man in a barge sailing ; Basingstoke canal i 789 

E A wreath of laurel. Wyon. 

Plate I, no. 7. 

This token was current and paid as one shilling to the workmen during the cutting of 
the Canal. It differs from the general run of truck tickets in so far as it purports to be more 
of a general medium of exchange. 



61 



HEREFORDSHIRE. 

COUNTY. 



SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms of Hereford, three lions passant gardant, on a border 
azure, ten Scottish crosses, between sprigs of oak and palm ; crest, 
a lion gardant holding a sword ; there are Jive acorns in the oak sprig; 

HEREFORD COUNTY AND CITY TOKEN l8ll 

9> PAYABLE IN CASH NOTES BY WAINWRIGHT & C°. AND CARLESS 

& c° one shilling token displayed in six lines ; the third and fifth 
being on scrolls. 

Plate A, no. 23. 

2. Similar to last, but with three acorns only in the oak sprig. R, 

Halliday. 

Wainwright & Co. were chemists and maltsters, and Carless & Co., drapers. T. Carless 
was declared bankrupt, Feb. 17, 1821, and B. Wainwright on November 22nd, 1822. In 
recognition of its loyalty, King Charles, in 1645, granted the addition of the border to the 
arms of the city. 



62 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



HERTFORDSHIRE. 

SAWBRIDGE WORTH. 



PENNY. 
COPPER. 

1. & Bust in very high relief; Robert orchard sawbridge 

WORTH o o HERTS o o 

£ An open book lying at the foot of a tree ; a church in the 
distance ; * sawbridgeworth * penny * token * Ex : # * payable 
* * febI' xi * 1801 * R.r.r. James. 

Atkins 46, 1. 



63 



KENT. 

FOLKESTONE. 



SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O The arms of the Cinque Ports, three lions passant gardant, 
as many hulls of ships ; crest, a Royal crown ; Inscribed on a 
ribbon below cinq, port, token Legend, iohn boxer Folkestone 
1811 

9> one shilling value within a wreath of olive. Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 12. 



64 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

LANCASHIRE. 

LIVERPOOL. 

HALF A GUINEA. 
COPPER. 

' 1. O A phoenix issuant from flames; .tho! wilson & c? • Liverpool. 

S D 

& LANCASHIRE TOKEN l8l2 STANDARD IO ■ 6 GOLD R.V.T. 

Halliday, 
Plate A, no. 24. 

This is in copper. Research has failed to find its existence in the precious metal. 
The firm were merchants, carrying on business in Red Cross Street. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

2. O The arms of Liverpool argent, a bird (Liver) holding in the 
beak a sprig of laver ; crest, ears of corn between two oak sprigs ; 

THOf WILSON & C° LIVERPOOL 

£> Female seated on a bale, holding scales and cornucopia ; a 
sword rests against the bale ; Lancashire one shilling token 1812 

Halliday. 

Boyne 119. 

MANCHESTER. 

SHILLING. 

3. O The arms of Manchester, gules, three bends or, between 
sprigs of oak and palm ; Manchester token, value one shilling. 

B= View of a building; w. ballans tea-dealer market-place+ 

Boyne 138. 

4. O The same as last. 

9> Similar to last, but y and d on the base line of building ; the 
date 181 2. added. R.r.r. 

5. O The same as last. 

#> View of same building; but legend, for public accomodation. 
(sic) 18 1 2 Halliday. 

Boyne 139. 

POULTON. 

SHILLING. 

6. O POULTEN TOKEN VALUE ONE SHILLING 

# payable at r. d halls in a circle. Legend one pound note 
for 20 tokens R. Unknown. 

Boyne 184. 
The issuer was an ironmonger and grocer in the High Street. 



65 

LEICESTERSHIRE. 

LEICESTER. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O The arms of Leicester, vert, a cinquefoil, between two 
sprigs of olive ; one shilling silver token 

& DERBY LEICESTER NORTHAMPTON AND RUTLAND LICENSED 
SHILLING SILVER TOKEN Legend, H. MORGAN LICENSED MANUFAC- 
TURER 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. 

Plate A, no. 25. 
A similar reverse will be found at Derby, no. 2. 

2. O The same as last. 

#> NOTTS DERBY LEICESTER NORTHAMPTON AND RUTLAND SHIL 

ling silver token The outer legend similar to last, but the h. 
before morgan omitted. R. 

3. O The same as the reverse of no. 1, derby Leicester etc. 
£> The same as last, morgan licensed etc. 

This token formed by the two reverses is very rare. 

4. O The same as no. 1. Arms of Leicester, &c. 

$t LEICESTER SILVER TOKEN ISSUED BY ROYAL LICENSE Legend, 
A. ONE. POUND. NOTE. WILL. BE. PAID- FOR 20 OF- THESE- AT • I. W & 

1, rawsons 181 1 R.r. Halliday, 

Boyne 114. 
SIXPENCE. 

5. O Arms as before, but without the wreath of olive ; six penny 

SILVER TOKEN 

9= DERBY LEICESTER AND RUTLAND SIX-PENNY TOKEN l8ll. 

Legend, morgan licensed maker 12 rathbone place London 

Boyne 113. 

6. O The same as last. 

9= Similar to no. 4 (rawsons), except in size and value. R.r.r. 

Halliday. 

For other tokens relating to Leicester, see Derbyshire. 

Rawsons were cotton spinners and hosiery manufacturers in Churchgate. 



K 



66 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



LINCOLNSHIRE. 

COUNTY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O A fleece suspended in a circle; Lincolnshire. . + . , silver 

TOKEN. . + . . 

& 12 pence 181 1 within a wreath of oak. 

Boyne 117. 

2. o Arms azure, a fleece suspended; 181 2 above. Lincolnshire 

SILVER TOKEN 

9= twelve pence an ornament above and below, for use and 
accomodation, (sic). Halliday. 

Boyne 118. 



ALFORD. 

shilling. 

3. O alford silver token 12 pence in a circle ; the second and 
third words on a ribbon in the centre, above the ribbon a dotted 

line. PAYABLE AT ELIZ T . H EMERTON & SON 5 . + . 

9> A beehive with bees, 181 1 in a circle; legend, industry 
has its reward with palm branches below. R. Halliday. 

Boyne 1. 
The issuers of the token were drapers. 

EPWORTH. 

SHILLING. 

4. O PAYABLE IN GOODS OR NOTES l8l2. Legend, EPWORTH ISLE 

token, t. & w. read. An ornament above payable 

£> View of a building (the Court house) ; one shilling, 
current value A quatrefoil at bottom ; the quatrefoil has the 
initials y d & c° upon it. Halliday. 

Boyne 78. 

Thomas and William Read kept a general stores. 

Numismatic Magazine, vol. VIII, p. 13, says : "There is a variety reading pa yadle 
(sic) but I cannot trace it." 



LINCOLNSHIRE. 67 

GAINSBOROUGH. 

SHILLING. 

5. O Star, garter, and motto honi soit qui mal y pense (Let 
him be abashed who evil thinketh of it). Legend, john gamson. 

GAINSBRO. 

l}> Female seated on a bale, holding scales and cornucopia, a 
sword on the ground ; the initials y and d under the figure, one 
shilling token 181 i. R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 87. 
The issuer was a linen and woollen draper; on May 11, 1822, he was declared bankrupt. 

6. O A three-masted ship sailing ; william jerrems. gainsbro. 

£> A windmill ; one shilling silver token 181 i The top of 
window is straight, reaching to the last bar of sail, and there are six 
lines of brickwork on the building. R.r. 

Boyne 88. 

7. O As last 

#> Similar, but the window is arched, the top reaching between 
the fourth and fifth bar of sail, and oxAy five lines of brickwork are 
exhibited. Unknown. 

See Notts, no. 1, for another token payable by W. Jerrems, who was a grocer. 

8. O A ship sailing under canvas ; gainsbro token 181 i 

9= A near view of a bridge ; s. sandars above it in a circle. 
Legend, for twelve pence branches of olive under. Halliday. 

9. O The same as last. 

£> A distant view of a bridge in a circle ; legend, for twelve 
pence Olive branches as last. Halliday. 

Plate A, no. 26. 
Samuel Sandars was a corn merchant and maltster. 



SIXPENCE. 
10. O SILVER TOKEN ISSUED BY M3RUMBY GAINSBURGH FOR VI PENCE 

9= A wheatsheaf. Below, 18 12 Legend, to accommodate 
the public with small change. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 1. 

This beautifully executed little piece is peculiar in so far that it is the only token where 
the initial forms a diphthong with the first letter of the surname. Martin Brumby made 
sail cloth for the Grimsby fishermen. He was declared bankrupt, Sep. 22, 1821. 



68 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN CO IX AGE. 

HOLBEACH. 

SHILLING. 

11. l8ll HOLBEACH AND LINCOLNSHIRE SILVER TOKEN H. M in 

a circle. Legend, a one pound note will be paid for 20 of 

THESE BY R. B. HOFF + 

£ one shilling value h. m within a thick wreath ot oak. 
issued by royal licence R. Halliday. 

Boyne 101. 
Robert Beer Hoffthe issuer carried on the business of a seedsman. 

LINCOLN. 
shilling. 

12. 0- The arms of Lincoln argent, on a cross gules, a fleur-de-lys, 
between two sprigs of oak; Lincoln silver token 18 12 

£> millson and preston within a garter, inscribed dollar 
silver Legend, a one pound note will be given for 20 of thesec 

Boyne 115. 

13. O Similar to last, but without the sprigs of oak and the cross 
is tinted gules and vert. 

fy Similar, but reads will be paid and pi. m added under 
preston Halliday. 

Boyne 116. 
Millson and Preston were wine and spirit merchants. 

14. Shield of arms. First and fourth quarterly, or two fleur- 
de-lys, in the first and in the fourth a cross patee, second and third 
argent, three fleur-de-lys in the second, a lion rampant in the third. 
over all a cross gules; Lincoln silver token 

£ one shilling token within a circle of dots, to facilitate 
trade. An ornament at the bottom. R.r.r. Unknown. 

This reverse will be found also at London. 

LOUTH. 

SHILLING. 

15. G louth shilling token 1S1 1 Legend, c. stovtn & h 

CHAPMAN . .-. . 

& A fleece suspended, payable in cash notes. + . R. 

Halliday. 

Boyne 134. 
Cornelius Stovin and Henry Chapman were drapers. 



LINCOLNSHIRE. 69 

STAMFO RD. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

16. O A lion couchant, supporting the Royal standard, surmounted 
by a crown. Below, stamford i8ii 

9> silver is. 6d token Legend, payable in cash notes by 

EDW? & FRA? BUTT. R. 

Plate L, no. 9. 

17. O Similar to last, but the. crown is smaller, and is radiated. 

R The same as last. R. Unknown. 

Plate L, no. 10. 
The issuers of this token were drapers. 



70 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

MIDDLESEX. 

LONDON. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 
SILVER. 

1. O View of a statue (Charles I) enclosed by railings with four 
lamps affixed. At the top of the pedestal at the left i and at the 
right d Legend, charing cross is. 6d. 

& Large 18 within a wreath of oak ; branches of wheat ears 
at top. London silver token The ends of the tie in the oak 
wreath are over the first limbs of the l and e in silver R. 

Plate L, no. n. 

2. Similar, but the ends of the tie are over the first limb of l and 
the last limb of v in silver R. 

Boyne 120. 

3. Also in Copper. R.r.r. Davies. 

4. O London silver token i«. 6^. in a wreath of oak. morgan 

MAKER 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON 

£ dollar silver token is. 6d. in similar wreath to obverse. 
h.m. under. Halliday. 

Boyne 128. 

" Silver Tokens and Small Change supplied to Regimental Paymasters, Manufac- 
turers, Farmers, Shop and Inn Keepers, Clerks of Public Works, and all other Persons who 
require Change for their Business, or to pay Workmen." 

" Country Residents may be accommodated, per Coach, with from Five Pounds 
worth to a large amount, weekly, by directing, with real Name, Occupation, and abode, to 
M &*• Co. care of Mr. Heaton, No. 27, Clement's Lane, Strand, London, enclosing a remit- 
tance in Notes, or Good Bills. No letters admitted unless post paid." — Star Newspaper, 
July 26th, 181 1. 

This advertisement shows that Morgan at the time did not want his whereabouts known. 
It will be seen by the next announcement that he afterwards disclosed it, and that it was 
exhibited on some of the Tokens supplied. 

" Local Tokens of Gold and Silver, invented and first made for Public Convenience, in 
March, 181 1, by Messrs. Morgan and Co., Die Makers and Medallists, at their Licensed 
Token Manufactory, No. 12, Rathbone Place, Oxford Street, London, having been honoured 
with Legislative sanction and patronage, by Three successive Acts of parliament, continue 
to make to any design, for Companies and Individuals, at a short notice, in that superior 
style of execution which has obtained for M & Co. during the last two years numerous and 
extensive orders for Bankers, Manufacturers and Shopkeepers, in almost every city and town 
throughout the United Kingdom. NB. Unpaid letters will not be admitted. Dies of 
numerous patterns ready engraved." — The Star, London, June 24th, 1813. 

SHILLING. 

5. O View of statue similar to No. 1, with lamps to railings 

CHARING CROSS 

Jk The arms of London argent, first quarter a dagger erect, a 
cross gules, between two sprigs of olive ; the shield at top is curved. 

ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN 

Boyne 129. 




/fr? 



t</. 




O-Zsl^t 



y 




From a Plate in the possession of the A it t/u 



MIDDLESEX. 71 

6. Also in Copper R. Davies. 

7. The same as last. 

]£ A ONE POUND NOTE WILL BE PAID BY W* JONES & C? CHARING 
CROSS LONDON FOR 20 OF THESE R.T.r. Davies. 

Boyne 125. 

8. O A similar view of the statue and railings without the lamps. 

CHARING CROSS 

$t Arms of London as before, but shield at the top straight. 
Plate J, no. 13. 

9. Also in Copper. 

10. (> The same as last. 

Vo one shilling value within a wreath of olive. 

Plate J, no. 14. 

11. 0- The same as last. 

#> knapp & c? one shilling between two sprigs of oak. h.m 
under. R. 

12. Also in Copper. R. 

13. 0- The same as last. 

Vo SILVER * TWELVE PENNY TOKEN SOLD BY ■* MORGAN * 12 

rathbone place * london * displayed with various ornaments. R. 

Davies and Halliday. 

This reverse also occurs at Cornwall, no. 3. 

14. O A female seated holding a caduceus, her right arm leaning 
on a bale, supported by a cask, behind a ship. England. Ireland. 

SCOTLAND & WALES * LET COMMERCE FLOURISH 

9= LONDON TOKEN ONE SHILLING PAYABLE AT S. LLOYD'S 

bucklersbury 181 i The ones in date are flat topped. 

Boyne 126. 

This issuer's name also occurs on a Shaftesbury Bank Shilling (see Dorset). Samuel 
Lloyd was an ironmonger at 6, Barge Yard, Bucklersbury. 

15. Also in Copper. Halliday. 

16. O Similar, but the female is standing with her right foot on a 

globe. ENGLAND. IRELAND. SCOTLAND. AND. WALES * LET. COMMERCE. 

flourish R.r. Unknown. 

9> Similar to last, but the ones in date slope. 
Plate B, no. 2. 



72 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

17. & LONDON TOKEN PAYABLE BY A ONE POUND NOTE FOR 20 OF 
THESE AT MORGANS 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON Legend, H. 
MORGAN LICENSED MANUFACTURER 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. 

£ one shilling token — h.m within a wreath of oak. R.r.r. 

Halliday. 

18. O As last. 

fy Arms and crest of Bristol within a garter, inscribed dollar 
silver Legend, silver token for xii pence R.r.r. Halliday. 

This reverse also occurs at Cheltenham and Mansfield. 

19. O ONE SHILLING LONDON SILVER TOKEN ISSUED BY ROYAL 

licence in a circle. Legend, h. morgan licensed manufacturer 

12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. 

9) one shilling token — h.m within a wreath of oak. Halliday. 

20. O Arms emblematical of commerce and agriculture, between 
two sprigs of olive, crest, a dove with olive branch. silver token 
Under the wreath h m 

^ ONE SHILLING TOKEN SOLD BY ROYAL • LICENCE AT • 

morgan's 12 • rathbone place London Scroll ornaments before 
and after sold by and place R.r. 

Boyne 132. 
These arms also occur at Devonshire. 

21. Similar, but with a star after morgan's on the reverse. R.r. 

22. O The same as last. 

& one shilling value within a continuous olive wreath. R.r. 

23. O As last. 

9> SILVER # TWELVE PENNY TOKEN SOLD # BY MORGAN # 1 2 

rathbone place * london * with various scroll ornaments and 
an additional ornament between the third and fourth lines. R.r.r. 

24. O The same as last. 

9, knapp & c° one shilling between sprigs of oak. h m 
under. R.r. 

25. Also in Copper. R.r. Halliday. 

26. A bottle inscribed n° 14 s T martin's lane London with r w 
on the cork ; payable at r. warrens liquid blacking . . \ . . 
manufactory . . + . . 

9. one shilling token 1811 an ornament above in a circle. 
Legend, issued by robert warren London R.r.r. 

27. O Same as last. 

R Similar, but without the date and ornament. Halliday. 

Boyne 133. 



MIDDLESEX. 73 

28. O Four hands joined ; London york. Swansea and leeds. 
£> one shilling token within a beaded circle, to facilitate 

trade An ornament divides the outer legend. R.r.r. Unknown. 

This reverse occurs at Lincoln. 
SIXPENCE. 

29. O View of a statue (Charles I) charing cross The top of 
the pedestal lines to the s in cross. 

9> Arms of London between two sprigs of olive, six-penny 
silver token The corners of shield cut off. R. 

Boyne 122. 

30. Also in copper. R. 

31. O Similar, but Cupid supports project beyond the panels. 
charing cross The top of the pedestal lines with the o in cross 

& Similar to last, but with curved line at top of shield. 
Plate B, no. 3. 

32. Also in copper. 

33. O The same as last. 

9> SIXPENNY TOKEN SOLD BY ROYAL LICENCE AT MORGANS • 

12 • rathbone place London displayed with various scroll orna- 
ments. Halliday. 

34. O LONDON TOKEN FOR SIXPENCE PAYABLE AT S • LLOYD'S 
BUCKLESBURY l8ll 

9> Female seated to right, holding a caduceus ; a ship in the 
distance, England. Ireland. Scotland & wales. * Halliday. 

Boyne 127. 

35. O Similar to last, but without for before sixpence. 

& Similar, but female standing, her right foot on a globe, 

ENGLAND IRELAND SCOTLAND AND WALES ■ R.r. Unknown. 

36. O LONDON SIX-PENNY LICENSED SILVER TOKEN in a circle. 
MORGAN MAKER • 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON.* 

9> six penny token h.m in a wreath of oak. 

Boyne 130. 

37. Also in copper. R. Halliday. 

38. O PAYABLE BY A l£ NOTE FOR 4O OF THESE AT MORGANS 
TOKEN MANUFACTORY 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON 

9> The same as last. 

L 



74 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

39. O Arms of London, &c, as on reverse of Charing Cross, with 
the comers of shield cut off. 

V° The same as last. R. 

Boyne 131. 

40. Also in copper. R. Halliday. 

41. O A ONE POUND NOTE WILL BE PAID BY WHALLEY. & C? THAMES 
STREET LONDON FOR 40 OF THESE 

£> six penny token h.m within a wreath of oak. R. Halliday. 

SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

42. O The monogram G$@> 1800 The top of the 1 isyz^ and no 
period after date. 

fy six pence R.r. Wyon. 

43. Also on an octagonal flan. 

Boyne 31. 

44. The same as last, but the top of the 1 slopes and a period after 
the date. R.r. 

Pye states "these are circulated among the boys at Christ's Hospital," and Boyne 
adds " they had a limited circulation in the neighbourhood." 
Similar Tokens were also issued for pence and halfpence. 

THREE PENCE. 

45. O A bear gorged and chained ; Goodman's, fields, brew 
house. 1760 

£> thomas jordan and co. three pence. r.r. 

Sharp 2, no. 1. 
THREE HALFPENCE. 

46. Similar, but three halfpence R.r.r. Unknown. 

Sharp 2, no. 2. 
Both pieces are struck in brass. 
The house of Jordan & Co. stood on the south side of the Minories. 

PENNY. 

47. O Bust to right, on the truncation milton f Legend, 

ROBERT ORCHARD N? 34 GREEK STREET CORNER OF CHURCH STREET 

soho London * Below the bust, 1803 

#> AND AT SAWBRIDGEWORTH HERTS MANUFACTURER OF CHOCO- 
LATE & COCOA ON A NEW IMPROVED PRINCIPLE Legend, GROCER & TEA 
DEALER WHOLESALE RETAIL & FOR EXPORTATION R. Milton. 

Plate J, no. 15. 



MIDDLESEX. 75 

48. Also in silver. R.r.r. 

Although no value is expressed, this piece is described as a token on the authority of 
the issuer's own advertisement, which is here reproduced : — 

" A list of the Cabinets who have in their possession the Penny Token issued by me, 
Robert Orchard, Grocer 6° Tea Dealer, No. 34, Greek Street, corner of Church Street, Soho, 
London. Engraved by Milton. 

Mr. Miller, Barnard's Inn, Holborn. 

Mr. Young, Ludgate Street. 

Mr. Rebello, Hackney.* 

Thomas Woodward, Esq., Bungay, Suffolk. 

Miss Banks, Soho Square. 

Mr. Miles, Tavistock Street, Convent Garden. 

Mr. Reeves, Lowestoft. 

British Museum. 

Mr. Hancock, Leather Lane, Holborn. 

James Bindley, Esq., First Commissioner of Stamp Office. 

Mr. James Conder, Ipswich. 

Mr. Madden, Hackney. 

Mr. Bauert, Altona. 

Mr. Warberg, Copenhagen. 

Mr. Milton, in Silver, Roll's Buildings, Fetter Lane. July 30, 1803." 
* Rebello, who issued the artistic Hackney Penny, died in 1796. Orchard must 
therefore refer to one of his relations. 
Mihell's caravan ticket, which states the office was established 1800, is ignored, there 
being no evidence to prove it existed at the token period. The name does not appear in the 
London Carriers' Directory of 1813. 

HALFPENNY. 
Elephant. 

49. O An elephant to left statant, pidock's * * * exhibition * 
Under the animal, james 

9> An ape, with a stick in its left hand, the wan--derow 1801 

PIDCOCk's* GRAND. MENAGERIE. EXETER. CHANGE. LONDON* R.T. 

Atkins 310. 
Lion statant. 

50. O A lion to right statant regardant, a dog on his back, lion 
and dog •• 1 801 •• 

9> A rhinoceros to left statant, chained, pidcock exeter 

CHANGE LONDON 

Atkins 312. 
This obverse is muled with the following reverses. 

51. 9? A zebra to right statant. pidcocKs * grand • managerie • 

EXETER • CHANGE. 

Atkins 313. 

52. 9 A two-headed cow to right statant. exeter change <§> 

STRAND LONDON <3> R.T. 

Atkins 314. 

53. ft A kangaroo rampant regardant, this • kangaroo's • birth 
• sep • 10. 1800 A small j under the tail. 

Atkins 315. 

54. 9> An ape, the wan--derow, etc., as no. 49. 

Atkins 316. 



76 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Lion couchant gardant. 

55. O A lion couehant gardant fondling a dog; piDcocKg * grand. 

MENAGERIE. EXETER. CHANGE. LONDON * 

£ A cockatoo perched, orange crested cockatoo 1801 

Atkins 319. 

Wanderoo, or Long-tailed Monkey. 

56. O An ape, the wan--derow, etc., as no. 49. 

9 A two-headed cow to right statant, exeter change <8> strand 

LONDON <3> 

Atkins 335. 

57. O As last. 

9? A cockatoo, etc., as no. 55. 

Atkins 339. 

58. O As last. 

9> A crane to right, the African crown crane *pidcock s 
exibition # {sic) 

Plate I, no. 8. 

Kangaroo. 

59. O A kangaroo, as no. 53. 

9, A cockatoo, etc., as no. 55. R. 

Atkins 338. 

Zebra. 

60. O A zebra, as no. 51. 
9> As last. 

Atkins 332. 

All by James of London ; most of them manufactured by Lutwych of Birmingham. 

"The grandest spectacle in the universe is now prepared at Pidcock's Royal Menagerie, 
Exeter Change, Strand, where a most uncommon collection of Foreign Beasts and Birds, 
many of them never before seen alive in Europe, are ready to entertain the wondering 
spectators. This affords an excellent opportunity for Ladies and Gentlemen to treat them- 
selves with a view of some of the most beautiful and rare animals in creation. Amongst 
innumerable others are five noble African Lions, Tigers, Nylghaws, Beavers, Kangaroos, 
Grand Cassowary, Emus, Ostriches, &c. indeed such a numerous assemblage of living 
Birds and Beasts may not be found for a Century to come. This wonderfull collection is 
divided into three appartments, at one shilling each person, or the three rooms for two 
shillings and sixpence each person." — The Morning Chronicle, London, May 17, 1808. 

An earlier advertisement, of Dec. 12, 1792, states : "A capital collection of wild beasts, 
so well secured, that the most timorous may approach them in safety." 

The double-headed cow was advertised on Jan. 29th, 1791, "as BEING alive and 
taking its sustenance with both mouths at the same time. To the Admiration of the 
Faculty, and the beholders in general ; and it is the received opinion of John Hunter Esq. 
Professor of Anatomy, that She has two hearts." 

The exhibition appears to have been taken to various parts of the country, as on 
April 21, 1798, the Newcastle Chronicle advertised that " there was on their way for Durham 
Races the grandest assemblage of chosen living rarities that ever travelled the kingdom in 
the age or memory of man. . . . Some of the marvels to be seen for the sum of one shilling." 
are given. A male Elephant, the largest ever seen in England, and its wonderful perform- 
ances are described. A real Bengal Royal Male Tiger, the Pelican of the Wilderness, a 
Vulture from South America, a Nyl-ghau or horned horse, and other animals from the Pidcock 
Collection appear in this ornate advertisement. 

Gilbert Pidcock died Feb. 18 10, aged 67. About 1828 the animals were removed to 
the Surrey Zoological Gardens. 



MIDDLESEX. 77 

61. 0- RATLEY DEALER IN COINS DUKES COURT S T MARTINS LANE 

Before the c in coins a small bust to right, t millar {sic) bungay in 
a small circle, and after s in coins, in a similar circle, a shield of the 
Brewery and Block Company, of Southampton ; outer legend, a great 

VARIETY OF PROVINCIAL COINS & TRADESMENS TOKENS + l8oi + WyOfl. 

R Blank. 

Plate J, no. 16. 
This interesting piece is in lead, and probably unique. Ratley issued a fine token, 
popularly known as the " Tired Boy," after Henry Morland, which will be found described 
by Atkins at 347 Middlesex. 

62. O Two stockings crossed ; payable at romanis's ■$$ cheap 
side 18 14 An ornament divides the legend. 

9> A weaving frame ; truth strength & speed united + 

Halliday. 
Plate B, no. 4. 
Robert Romanis was a wholesale and retail hosier, two doors west of Friday Street. 
He advertised as " Manufacturer to the Honorable East India Company." 

63. O Bust to right ; r. warren, the inventor of japan liquid 

BLACKING. 

V° A bottle inscribed n? 14 sj martins lane London with 
r. w on the stopper. Robert warrens, liquid blacking manufac 
tory. Halliday. 

Sharp 209, 9. 
It has been stated that Charles Dickens was employed by Robert Warren, but this is 
an error. In the life of the eminent novelist, by John Forster, it is recorded that young 
Dickens worked for James Warren, blacking manufacturer, 13, Suffolk Street, Charing 
Cross. Robert Warren was in no way connected with the latter in business. 

64. O A swan with two necks ; payable at the mail coach 
office lad-lane london Under London w • w 

fy A mail coach and horses ; speed, regularity & security 

Halliday. 
Plate B, no. 5. 

This was a famous posting-house. The Sun, Aug. 6, 1794, has an advertisement : 
" Swan with two necks, Lad Lane. By command of their Lordships, His Majesty's Post- 
master General. The Royal Mail Coach to Weymouth," &c, &c. — The Sim, London, 
Aug. 6, 1794. 

The swan with two necks is a corruption of the swan with two nicks, i.e. nicks in the 
beak : a sign that the bird was owned by the king, whose mark was two nicks. They were 
so marked on the Monday following Midsummer-day. — Vide Burn, no. 984, London Traders 
Tavern Tokens. 

W. Wilson was the proprietor of the tavern when the token was issued. 

65. O A building, inscribed over the door new auction mart 
Legend, halfpenny payable at the old stock exchange in bank 

NOTES ESTABLISHED I 8 I I 

9> SALES OF ESTATES, HOUSES, MANUFACTURED GOODS, AND 
MISCELLANEOUS PROPERTY, SPEEDILY EFFECTED WITHOUT RISK. PUBLIC 
AUCTIONS EVERY DAY AT 12. PRIVATE ORDERS FOR ALL KINDS OF GOODS 

punctually executed, within an inner circle ; outer legend, thomas 

WOOD. BROKER, AUCTIONEER & GENERAL AGENT. 

Sharp 209, 10. 
Early this morning (Tuesday, April 23rd, 18 16) a fire broke out in a bed-room of the 



78 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Coffee-house over the Old Stock Exchange, at the corner of Swithins (Sweetings) Alley, 
close to the north-east corner of the Royal Exchange. The fire soon communicated to 
every part of the building, in which, at the bottom, were an Auction Mart, and a large 
Wine-company, and above stairs the Coffee-house and several counting houses, all of which 
are entirely consumed." — Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1816. 

The word established on the token has led many to doubt if it was struck in 181 1, 
but the report quoted above clearly proves its existence at the token period. 

On J any. 5th, 1809, Mr. Shuttleworth, of 17, Austin Friars, advertised in the Morning 
Chi'onicle that he would sell at Garraway's, the Old Stock Exchange, which was contiguous 
to the north-east corner of the Royal Exchange, occupying the angle formed by Thread- 
needle Street and Sweeting's Alley. 

T. Wood, auctioneer, of Bartholomew Lane, was declared a bankrupt on Dec. 8th, 
18 13. — Star, Dec. qt/i, 1813. 

FARTHING. 

66. O ROBERT ORCHARD GROCER & TEA DEALER N° 34 GREEK S T 
SOHO LONDON WHOLESALE & RETAIL 1803 

9? A Chinaman standing beween bales and casks, a ship in the 
distance, maker of chocolate & cocoa on a new principle 
Under the figure farthing 

Plate B, no. 6. 

67. O As last. 

9= View of a building, robert • orchard • tea • warehouse 

• CORNER OF CHURCH ST. AND. AT SAW BRIDGEWORTH HARTS (su). 

Plate B, no. 7. 

68. O Bust to right, robert orchard grocer & tea dealer 

N: 34 GREEK ST: CORNER CHURCH . ST. SOHO LONDON 1 804 

9> As last, except that the a in harts has been altered to e 

Milton. 

Atkins 763. 

PIDCOCK. 
Lion. 

69. O A lion couchant regardant fondling a dog, exeter 

CHANGE LONDON PIDCOCK 

9= A beaver to left ; the beaver 1801 

Atkins 769. 

70. G As last. 

£ A wandroo holding a stick; the wanderow 1801 

Atkins 770. 
Wanderoo. 

71. O As reverse last ; wanderow etc. 

£ A pelican to left ; pidcock exeter change London. 

Atkins 773. 



MIDDLESEX. 79 

Beaver. 

72. O A beaver to right; the beaver 1801 

$o A cockatoo ; exeter change strand London R.r. 

Atkins 771. 

73. O As last. 

fy A pelican to right ; pidcock exeter change London. 

Atkins 772. 
Pidcock was succeeded by Polito early in the nineteenth century. He was followed by 
Cross, and the animals were finally removed in 1828. Two years afterwards Exeter Change 
was taken down. 



80 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

NORFOLK. 

COUNTY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O NORFOLK SUFFOLK AND ESSEX SILVER TOKEN FOR ONE 

shilling with scrolls on either side. 

#> View of Eddystone Lighthouse and ships at sea ; value 

ONE SHILLING R.T. 

Boyne 171. 

2. O The same as last. 

V° one shilling token h.m within a wreath of oak. R.r.r. 

3. O The same as last. 

9> Shield, arms of agriculture ; crest, a dove, etc. ; as London, 
no. 20. R.r.r. Halliday. 

ATTLEBOROUGH. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 

4. O Arms perpure on a bend or, an escutcheon perfess three 
crosses ; supporters and helmet of the Duke of Norfolk ; motto on a 
ribbon sola virtus invicta (Virtue alone is invincible) ; crest, a lion 
statant gardant ; attleburgh token, two shillings, h on the 
ground at the right. 

£> A female standing, an olive branch in her right hand, a fish 
in her left ; william parson & son oct* ii. 181 i h on the ground 
at the left. R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 31. 

5. O Arms, argent, a castle triple towered ; under a lion passant 
gardant, between laurel and palm branches ; legend as last ; h on 
the first palm blade. 

& The same as last. R.r.r. Halliday. 

The issuers were grocers. Mr. Parsons was declared bankrupt on April 27th, 1816. — 
London Gazette. 

SHILLING. 

6. O payable at wm. rf. & rk Above a Staffordshire knot ; 

ATTLEBOROUGH 

£> i shilling within a radiated circle ; for the use of trade 
1 8 1 1 R. Halliday. 

Boyne, 4. 
This token was issued by William Muskett, Richard Francis, both clockmakers, and 
Robert Kiddell, shoemaker, draper and grocer. — Numismatic Magazine. 



NORFOLK. 81 

DISS. 

SHILLING. 

7. O Arms argent, nine bars wavy azure ; crest, an anchor, pay 

ABLE AT * MUSKETT & SONS * 

9> 12 pence within an oak wreath, diss token mdcccxi R.r. 

Halliday. 
Plate B, no. 8. 
For similar arms and crest see North Lopham. 

LYNN. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

8. O The arms of Lynn, azure, three conger eels' heads, in the 
mouth of each a cross crosslet, within a garter inscribed dollar 
silver Crest, a pelican in her piety, a i£ note and i s will be 

PAID FOR 14 OF THESE BY I HEDLEY LYNN <Q> OR AT H. MORGANS TOKEN 
AND BULLION OFFICE LONDON 

Jk dollar silver token is. 6d. In a wreath below h. m The 
same as London, no. 4. R.r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 12. 

9. Also in copper. R.r. Halliday. 

SHILLING. 

10. O SILVER TOKEN STAMP OFFICE KINGS LYNN l8ll in a circle. 
FOR THE ACCOMMODATION OF TRADE + 

9> one shilling value h. m in a wreath of oak ; legend, 
issued by royal license R. Halliday. 

Boyne 136. 
For another shilling payable at Lynn see Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, no. 1. 

SIXPENCE. 

11. O A ONE POUND NOTE WILL BE PAID BY I HEDLEY STAMP OFFICE , 
LYNN FOR 40 OF THESE l8ll 

9> six penny token h. m in a wreath of oak. Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 9. 
Besides being the postmaster, Isaquey Hedley was a bookseller. 

NORTH LOPHAM. 

SHILLING. 

12. O Arms and crest, similar to Diss ; payable at # s. porter's 

NORTH LOPHAM * 

9> i shilling in a radiated circle, for the use of trade 
R.r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 13. 
The issuer, Samuel Porter, was a banker. He was declared bankrupt on Jan. 10th, 1826. 

M 



82 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

YARMOUTH. 

SHILLING. 

13. O The arms of Yarmouth ; three demi-lions conjoined with 
as many demi-herrings, gules and azure, within a wreath of oak. 
Norfolk and Suffolk token one * shilling * There is one acorn 
at the corner of shield at the left. 

9> Arms of Bury St. Edmunds, azure, three crowns, two and 
one, each over sceptres in saltire, between branches of olive and 
palm ; 181 1 under, payable at j. hunton's Yarmouth & at blyth & 
c? bury. The top outside olive leaf is under the u in hunton's 

Plate B, no. 10. 

14. G Similar to last ; there are two acorns at the left hand 
corner of shield. 

£> Similar to last, but the olive leaf points to the foot of the 
h in hunton's Halliday. 

Boyne 229. 

John Blythe & Co. were mercers in the Butter Market, Bury St. Edmunds. The firm 
was noted for Suffolk hemp goods. — Vide Golding 89, I. 

John Hunton was a linen draper in the Market Place, Yarmouth. After the issue of 
the token he migrated to London, where he was in business as a mercer, at 21, Bishops- 
gate Street Without, but resided at Low Leyton, in Essex. 

He became involved in speculation, and lost a considerable sum in Spanish bonds. 

Hunton was found guilty and condemned to death for forgery on bills of exchange. 
He was one of the last to suffer capital punishment for the crime of forgery. A petition 
was presented to the Home Secretary praying his reprieve, and among the names who 
signed was M. N. Rothschild. "The Times" advocated clemency without avail, as Hun- 
ton was executed at Newgate with three others on Dec. 8th, 1828. — " Camden Pelhani's 
Chronicles of Crime" Times Newspaper. 

15. 0- The arms of Yarmouth within a garter inscribed payable. 

BY. F. R. REYNOLDS. YARMOUTH 

9> Arms, dexter three crosslets, and as many in sinister, in 
the bend argent, a lion rampant, over two batons in saltire, within 
a garter inscribed Norfolk token for xii pence. Under the shield 
1 8 1 1 Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 18. 

16. O The same as last. 

9= A castle. Under 1811 Crest, a hand holding baton, in a 
garter inscribed as last. R.r. Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 11. 
Frederick Riddell Reynolds was an attorney, who likewise carried on the business of a 
brewer and merchant, King Street, Yarmouth. He issued promissory notes for five shillings. 

N.M. 1893. 

We read of a successful capture of some of these tokens : — 

" The Yarmouth coach was robbed, a few nights since, of silver tokens, to the amount of 
^19 17s. of one shilling each, out of a box containing the same description of tokens to the 
amount of ^ioo. The coach goes from the White Horse, Fetter Lane, and changes coaches 
at Ipswich, where the coach becomes a Mail ; the box was there discovered to have been 
broken and shattered, and when it reached the gentleman at Yarmouth to whom it was 
directed, tokens to the above amount were discovered to be missing. A guard has been in 
custody for several days on suspicion of being concerned in the robbery ; two or three wit- 
nesses were examined, but they not being able to prove anything against him, he was dis- 
charged." — The Eve7iing Sun, London, Nov. 22?id, 1811. 



NORFOLK. 83 

NORWICH. 

TWOPENNY PIECE. 
COPPER. 

17. O Arms of the city, a castle triple towered, base a lion passant 
gardant gules ; Norwich two penny piece for change not profit. 

Vo Norwich on a ribbon, a shuttle above, legend robT blake. 

COTTON & BOMBAZINE MANUFACTURER. 

Plate B, no. 12. 

18. Also in silver. R.r.r. Halliday. 

This is in the British Museum. 

Robert Blake's works were in Higham Street. 

PENNY. 

19. O View of a castle ; Norwich castle 

£> Two sheep in a meadow ; barker, woollen draper 181 i 
Plate B, no. 13. 

20. Also in silver. R.r. P. Wyon. 
Samuel Barker was a linen and woollen draper who had a shop in London Lane. 

HALFPENNY. 
With Crest. 

21. 0- The figure of Hope supporting a shield inscribed dunham & 

YALLOP GOLDSMITH'S NORWICH 

V° Arms of the city, crest Prince of Wales' plumes and motto, 
ich dien (I serve) regency 181 i On a label below, relief in 
distress The top bar of shield lines with the first limb of n 

Sharp 209, 1. 

22. O Similar, but with a period after Norwich. 

9> Similar to last, but the top bar of shield lines with the 
second limb of n T. Wyon. 

Without Crest. 

23. O Britannia standing helmeted, a lion at her side ; newton 
silversm™ and jeweller The centre plume on helmet touches the 
small H The lion's tail touches the first letter of legend. '■■■ 

~&> Arms of the city as before, but crest omitted; Norwich 
mdcccxi The portcullis to the castle is not seen. 

Sharp 209, 2. 

24. O Similar to last, but the plume is larger, and forms three 
distinct feathers ; the lion's tail is qzrite clear of the letter n 

9> Similar to last, but the portcullis to the castle is expressed. 
R.r.r. 



84 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

25. Also in Silver. R.r.r. 

26. Similar, but the plume is much smaller ; at the left it nearly 
touches the m 

27. Similar, but the feathers forming the plume are all the same size. 

28. Similar, but the plume has a long sweeping curve. 

Newton's silversmith's shop was in London Street. 

TUNSTEAD AND HAPPING. 

PENNY. 

29. O A wheat sheaf; payable at the corporation house. 

9> one penny token within a circle, tunstead & happing. 
1812. 

Sharp 195, 2. 



HALFPENNY. 



Halliday. 



30. 0- Similar to last, but half penny token 

Plate B, no. 14. 
The Corporation House was a workhouse in the Parish of Smallburgh. It is still in 
existence, and situated three miles from Stalham railway station. 

WROXHAM. 

THREEPENCE. 

31. O A wheelbarrow with mattock and spade laid across it ; to. 
pay. workmen, and. promote, agriculture <q> Under the wheel- 
barrow, marle • pit token 

9» 3 pence payable at wroxham Outer legend, D. COLLYER. 
proprietor • 1 797. Milton. 

Plate J, no. 17. 
The issuer of the token was the Rev. Daniel Collyer, who afterwards accepted a living 
in Kent. 



85 



NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

PETERBOROUGH. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms, gules, two keys in saltire, a crosslet in the angles within 
a garter inscribed, dollar silver. Legend, Peterborough token 

PAYABLE BY GEORGE GRIFFIN 

fy silver token 2 shill 1812 within a wreath of oak. h.m 
under. R.r. 

Plate L, no. 14. 

2. Also in Copper. R.r. Halliday. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

3. O The west front of Peterborough Cathedral ; silver token 
181 1 within a circle of pellets. 

9. for eighteen pence within a wreath of olive. Peterborough 
bank token cole & c? in a circle of pellets. 

Boyne 174. 

4. Also in Copper. R.r. 

shilling. 

5. O Similar to last. 

9. for xii pence Otherwise as last. R.r. 

Plate B, no. 15. 

6. Also in Copper. R.r. Halliday. 

See Derbyshire, no. 2, for another shilling token with view of Peterborough Cathedral. 
Cole 6° Co. were one of the principal city bankers ; their London Agents, Glyn &-* Co., 12 
Birchin Lane. 



86 

NORTHUMBERLAND. 

NEWCASTLE - ON - TYNE. 

HALF CROWX. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms, three castles, two over one, gules, and supporters of 
Newcastle; Motto, fortiter defexdit triumphaxs ( Triumphing it 
bravely defends). Crest, a lion holding a standard issuant from a 
castle ; payable by tohx robertsox. xewcastle ox tyxe. 

£ Female seated on a bale, with spear and cornucopia ; a ship 

in the distance ; xorthumberlaxd .v Durham xxx pexce token i8ii 

On the ground, p. wyon f. 

Plate B, no. 16. 

EIGHTEEXPENCE. 

2. O Similar to last, but the motto omitted. 

R Similar to last, but without the artist's name, and reads i85 

tokex R.r.r. 

Plate L, no. 15. 

3. Also in Copper. R.r.r. P. Wyon. 

Both obverse and reverse have a broad toothed border. 

SHILLIXG. 

4. O View of a coal staith with a ship laying to, in a circle. 

BERWICK MAIN COLLIERY + l8ll + 

£ OXE SHILLING PAYABLE AT XEWCASTLE OX TYXE AXD 

LONDON ■ + ■ R. 

Boyne 160. 

5. Similar to last, but the name spelled bewicke Halliday. 

Boyne 159. 
Samuel Cook, the inventor of a self-acting plane to convey coals from the mines to the 
Tyne, was part proprietor of this colliery when the tokens were issued. 

6. O Arms, supporters, etc., as on no. 2 ; Northumberland and 

DURHAM l8 I 2 

9: Britannia seated with her attributes, a ship in the distance ; 

BRITISH OXE SHILLIXG TOKEX MDCCCXII 

Boyne 168. 

7. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

In the Ge?it~lema7ts Magazine, 181 5, p. 305. John Bell, the issuer of the farthing tokens, 
says : " This was done by a person at Shields to pay off amongst the common people as a 
Robertson's token, and appeared to be made of worse silver." 

8. G Arms, etc., as before; payable by alex r kelty xewcastle 

OX TYNE 

£ View of a colliery ; xorthumberlaxd & Durham 12° tokex 

1812 

Plate B, no. 17. 
Boyne, by an error in dating this token 181 1, caused much search to be made in vain. 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 87 

9. O Also in Copper. R.r.r. Halliday. 

On p. 592 John Bell again says : " There was another pair of dies sunk prior to this 
(differently executed), but very few impressions struck from them, being found too large for 
circulation." 

1 0. O Arms, etc., as no. 2 ; payable by john Robertson. 

NEWCASTLE ON TYNE • 

& Female seated, etc., as on no. 2 ; Northumberland & 
Durham 12^ token 1 81 1 The spear is under the n A small w 
on the ground. 

Boyne 164. 

11. O Similar to last, but iohn instead of john and a border of 
dots added. 

9= Similar to last, but the spear points between the n and d 
A border of dots as on the obverse. 

12. Similar to last, but the spear is under the n the small w on the 
ground omitted, and withoitt the hyphen under the small d 

13. 0- Similar, but the tail of the left hand supporter approaches 
nearly to the legend, whilst that on the right points more upwards in 
the direction of the t 

£> Similar, but the w is again on the ground. 

SIXPENCE. 

14. 0- Arms, etc. as on no. 2 ; payable by iohn Robertson 

NEWCASTLE ON TYNE 

fy Female seated, etc. as before ; Northumberland & Durham 
6 D token 1 8 1 1 No initial on ground. 

Boyne 166. 

15. O Also in Copper on a large flan. P. Wyon. 

Boyne 167. 
The movement of the times as reproduced below will be read with interest. 

CAUTION 

To the Public againft taking Local Silver Tokens. 



Newcastle, Nov. 26, 181 1. 
" Mr. John Robertson, Silver Smith, Dean Street, hav- 
" ing, by public Advertifement, announced his Intention 
" of issuing Silver Tokens, for general Circulation, as Shillings 
" and Sixpences, in this Town and the adjoining Counties, — We, 
" the Underfigned, think it necefiary to inform the Public, that we 
" will not receive, in Payment, any Tokens which may be iffued, 
" either by the faid Mr. John Robertson, or by any other iNdivi- 
" dual whatever." 

[Here follow the signatures of 118 names of individuals or firms.] 
" N.B. We have Authority to fay, that all Local Tokens will 
' ' be refufed in Payments by the regular Bankers in Newcaftle. " 
S. HodgsoN, PriNter, Newcastle. 



88 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE 



I 



N CoNsequence of a Report which has been circulated, 
that J. Robertson does not hold himself responsible 
for the Tokens issued by him, he begs Leave to inform 
the Public that such Report is groundless, and that he 
conceives himself as much responsible to the Public upon 
the Tokens issued by him, as if they were promissory 
Notes payable on Demand. 

In Answer to a most malicious Advertisement which 
appeared in the Tyne Mercury of this Week, stating, 
that various local Tokens issued in this Neighbourhood 
had been assayed, and found on an Average not to exceed 
in Value from 8d. to 8^ each, — J. Robertson begs Leave 
to assure the Public, that the Statement contained in that 
Advertisement is a gross Misrepresentation, and calcula- 
ted to mislead the Public. Perhaps no two of J. Robert- 
son's Tokens are exactly of the same Weight, but any 
twenty of them, taken promiscuously, will average in real 
Value from iod. to \o\. each. 

Newcastle, May I, 1812. 



S. HodgsoN, Printer, Newcastle. 
John Robertson, silversmith, was declared bankrupt, Feb. 20, 1821. — Loitdon Gazette. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

16. O View of a coal staith with a ship laying to, in a circle. 

BEWICKE MAIN COLLIERY + l8ll + 

9> ONE PENNY PAYABLE AT in a circle. NEWCASTLE ON TYNE AND 
LONDON . + • 

Plate B, no. 18. 

17. Also in Silver. R.r.r. Halliday. 

BEWICKE MAIN COLLIERY and WORKS, DURHAM, 

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, 

By Mr. Munn, 

At the Auction Mart (London) on Thursday the 26th instant, at Twelve, by Direction of 

the Assignees of Harrison, Cooke and Co. with the concurrence of the Mortgagees, in one 

Lot. — Star Newspaper, September 17th, 181 1. 

FARTHING. 

18. 0- The arms of Newcastle on Tyne. john bell, bookseller. 

QUAY. 

#> A double-fronted shop ; bell over the door. Under 1815. 
R.r. 

Batty 613. 

19. O As last. 

9> NEWCASTLE, TOKEN. 1 8 I 5. R.r. 

Batty 619. 

20. O As last. 

9= A barge sailing. R.r. 

Batty 620. 

21. O As last. 

¥0 ROBERT. OLIVER. DRAPER . . . QUAY. . . NEWCASTLE. 1815. R.r. 

Batty 618. 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 89 

22. O A double-fronted shop; bell over the door. Under 1815. 

9> FARTHING YOUNGEST SON OF. FORTUNE. R.r. 

Batty 616. 

23. O As last 

9> ROBERT • OLIVER ■ DRAPER. ..QUAY. ..NEWCASTLE. 1 8 1 5. R.r. 

Batty 617. 

24. O As last. 

& a proddy in a circle of pellets. R.r. 

Batty 615. 

25. O ROBERT • OLIVER • DRAPER ... QUAY . . NEWCASTLE. 1815. 
#> NEWCASTLE. TOKEN. I 8 I 5. 

In the British Museum. 

26. O As last. 

^ a proddy in a circle of pellets. R.r. 

27. O A Turk's head. 
9» As last. 

In the British Museum. 

28. O As last. 

& COALY TYNE. R.r. 

Batty 622. 

29. O A barge sailing. 

Vo COALY TYNE. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 

30. O NEWCASTLE TOKEN. 1815. 

#> FARTHING YOUNGEST SON OF. FORTUNE. R.r. 

Batty 621. 

31. O As last. 

9, A barge sailing. Unknown. 

In the British Museum. 
These are all in white metal, and those numbered to Batty were purchased by that 
gentleman of the executors of John Bell, who was an antiquary and collector. He was 
declared bankrupt on Nov. 1st, 1817. 

32. 0- A rose spray. 

9> ^ token 1812. An ornament under. 

In Mr. Macfadyen's cabinet. 
This is in white metal, and of fine workmanship. It is located in consequence of its 
similarity in make and material to Bell's tokens, and is with a Newcastle-on-Tyne collector. 

33. O A tobacco plant in bloom ; genuinet#obacco & snuff* 
The bottom leaf at the right points to a in tobacco 

9> JOHN ELLIOTT 1814 TOBACCONIST QUAY-SIDE NEWCASTLE 

N 



90 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

34. Similar, but the bottom leaf at the right points to b 

35. Also in Silver. R.r. 

36. Similar, but with a period after Newcastle. 

37. Also a proof in Brass. R.r. 

This is in the British Museum. 

38. Similar, but with the date omitted. Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 19. 
John Davidson, who was in a similar business to Elliott's, issued in the second decade 
of the century an advertisement of farthing size, but as no value or date is expressed it is 
omitted. 




D. T. BATTY. 

From a Photograph in rJie possession of Win. Norman. 



91 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

MANSFIELD. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O PAYABLE BY E. DAWSON MANSFIELD W. JERREMS GAINSBOROUGH 
I. HEDLEY LYNN NORFOLK & H. MORGAN LONDON l8l2 in a circle. 

Legend, a pound note will be paid for 20 of these + . 

9> The arms, crest, etc., similar to Bristol, within a garter in- 
scribed dollar silver Legend, silver token for xii pence R.r.r. 

Boyne 140. 
This reverse also occurs at Cheltenham. 
Edward Dawson was the Mansfield postmaster. 

2. Beehive and bees, c & g. stanton. hancock. wakefield 

& C? & w¥ ELLIS. MANSFIELD 

9> Female seated on a bale, with scales and cornucopia, one 
shilling silver token 1812 The initials y & d tinder the hilt of 
the sword ; a small h on the left corner of the bale. R. 

Plate B, no. 20. 

3. Similar to last, but the initials y & d are near the end of the 
sword. The h on the bale is omitted. Halliday. 

Boyne 141. 
Charles and George Stanton, and Hancock, Wakefield & Co., were cotton manufac- 
turers ; William Ellis a draper and woollen salesman. 

NEWARK. 

shilling. 

4. O View of a building, town hall newark silver token for 
one shilling 1811 The head of the figure on the pediment is 
under the E in token 

$> T. STANSALL cha s moor rich? fisher w^ fillingham w 1 ^ 

READETT AND T. WILSON Legend, • THE CURRENT VALUE. PAYABLE 
IN CASH NOTES. 

Boyne 158. 

5. Similar to last, but there is no period after t in the first line of 
the reverse, nor between the and payable in the outer legend. 

Plate B, no. 21. 

6. Similar, but no period between value and notes The line 
w 1 ^ fillingham is above the s in notes 



92 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

7. O Similar, but the head of the figure is under the k in token 
^ Similar, but reads t stanzail cha 1 ? moore rich 1 ? fisher 

W* FILLINGHAM W? READETT AND F WILSON R. 
This singular piece is a counterfeit. 

8. O As last. 

£> Similar to no. 5, but the t of first line intersects the c of 
current R. Halliday. 

Thomas Stansall was a grocer, Charles Moor a chemist, Richard Fisher and William 
Fillingham drapers, William Readett grocer, and Thomas Wilson a brazier. 

ARNOLD. 

FIVE SHILLINGS. 
COPPER. 

9. 0- A fleece suspended from an apple tree ; davison and 

HAWKSLEY 

~fy The Roman fasces with the axe, a spear and cap of liberty in 
saltire ; Arnold works 1791 * a-crown* R.r. 

Plate K, no. 10. 
TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

10. Similar, except in size and value; * halve a crown* R.r. 

Boyne 13. 
ONE SHILLING. 

11. Similar, except in size and value ; *one shilling* R. 

Boyne 14. 
SIXPENCE. 

12. Similar, except in size and value *six pence* Wyon. 

Boyne 15. 
A few of these pieces were gilt and silver-plated. Boyne says : "In the M.S. Cata- 
logue the Arnold Works are said to be a mill for spinning wool at Nottingham." These 
mills for the manufacture of worsted were situated near the Qean, Nottingham. They 
were destroyed by fire in January, 1791. This probably accounts for the scarcity of the 
tokens, especially those of the higher values. 

NEWARK. 

PENNY. 

13. O View of a castle and the river, 1811 under. Legend, 

NEWARK TOKEN FOR ONE PENNY + A Small H at the left. 

£> T. STANSALL CHARLES MOOR RICH? FISHER W- FILLINGHAM 

w- readett t. wilson and, in a circular legend, the current 

VALUE. PAYABLE IN CASH NOTES. The M in FILLINGHAM is below the 
s in NOTES. 

Sharp 195, 1. 

14. Similar to last, but the m is the above s in notes. R. Halliday. 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 93 

NOTTINGHAM. 

15. O w^. 1 baker Nottingham An ornament between baker and 
Nottingham Legend, a pound note for 240 tokens. 1813. 

fy one penny token within a wreath of oak and laurel. R. 

Turnpenny. 

Sharp 195, 5. 
The issuer was a hosier in Fletchergate. 

16. O A distant view of Nottingham Castle ; one penny token 

Ex. 1 8 I 2 

9> The arms of the borough in a circle ; payable by j. m. 
fellowes • a pound note for 240. The top of the cross is under by 

Sharp 195, 2. 

17. Similar, but the top of the cross is under j. 

18. O Similar to last, but dated 1813 

9- Similar, but the period between a and payable omitted. 

P. Wyon. 

19. O A near view of the castle ; one penny token Ex.notting 
ham 18 1 3 A scroll before and after Nottingham 

£ As last. R.r. P. Wyon. 

Sharp 195, 3. 

20. O A still nearer view of the castle ; Nottingham penny. Ex. 

TOKEN l8 13 

£> Similar, but point of crown in line with the, j/lrst limb of the 

second a in payable instead of to the centre of that letter. P. Wyon. 

Plate B, no. 22. 

J. M. Fellows & Co. were bankers at Nottingham ; their agents in London being 
Taylor, Hanbury & Co. 



9-± NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



SHROPSHIRE. 

DAWLEY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. SELLS CHAINS FOR PITS CRANES &c OF BEST HORSE-NAIL IRON 

at 5d. per lb. in an inner circle ; legend, gilbert gilpin day/ley 

SHROPSHIRE. 

9> A wild boar at speed ; pays the bearer a shilling i 8 i i 
R.r. Halliday. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

2. O Same as last. 

9= Similar to last, but legend, pays the bearer a halfpenny 

i8ii Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 23. 

This is in the British Museum. 

The Mechanics' Section of the Society of Arts, in 1805, awarded the silver medal and 
thirty guineas to Gilbert Gilpin for "an improved crane and flexible chain."' — Vide Randall, 
Appendix to Life of John Wilkinson. 

Gilpin, before commencing business, was employed by John Wilkinson, the great iron- 
master. He died in 1827, and Palmer says "was buried in Wrexham Churchyard, where 
his tomb may yet be seen." 

HALESOWEN. 

PENNY. 

3. O A mounted yeoman at speed ; god saye the king 1813 A 
small h on the ground at the right. 

9= View of a church (St. Mary's) penny token, payable at the 
workhouse halesowen. A small h on the base line at the left. 

Halliday. 
Plate B, no. 24. 

Sharp says Sir George Chetwynd had "a variety,'' but advanced collectors have failed 
to find it. 

The following inscription is placed over the door of the workhouse : — "The ground 
on which this building was erected, the garden hereunto belonging, together with 3 houses 
next adjoining, were given by Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Baronet, to the parish of Halesowen, 
for the accommodation of the poor, in the year of our Lord 1730." — Angel! s History of 
Halesoweji. 

The church is remarkable for its beautiful spire. King John (Tanner says, ann. reg. 16) 
gave the manor and advowson of the church to Peter de Rupibus Bishop of Winchester, 
for the endowment of an abbey for canons of the Premonstratension order, which seems to 
have been begun and finished at the charges of the Crown, though the bishops of Win- 
chester had the patronage. 



95 

SOMERSETSHIRE. 

BATH. 

FOUR SHILLINGS. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms, a chief two lions passant, on the base argent a Hon 
rampant, holding an oak tree ; supporters, Commerce and Justice ; 
motto, on a riband below, to facilitate trade Justice holding 
scales as crest ; legend, bath token four shillings The right 
foot of Justice points between t and r in trade Her left foot is over a 
in the same word. 

9 A POUND NOTE GIVEN FOR FIVE OF THESE TOKENS C. CULVER 

house I. orchard and j. phipps within an inner circle ; legend, 
Margarets buildings bath The name, culverhouse is in line 
with the s of buildings jR.r. 

Plate I, no. 9. 

2. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

Boyne 12. 

3. O As last. 

9 Similar to last, but orchard is in line with the s of build 
ings R.r.r. 

4. O Similar to last, but the right foot of Justice is over the r in 
trade, her left spans a and d of trade 

9- A POUND NOT GIVEN FOR FIVE TOKENS BY C. CULVERHOUSE I. 

orchard and j. phipps No inner circle. R.r.r. 

Boyne 13. 

5. Similar, but 1. instead of j. phipps R.r.r. Halliday. 

6. O As last. 

9= A fleece suspended; ships colonies & commerce 181 i 

R.r.r. Halliday and P. Wyon. 

Plate L, no. 16. 

7. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

This reverse will be found on the Not Local Three Shilling Piece. 

Charles Culverhouse was a baker, No. 5, Margaret's Buildings ; Isaac Orchard, 
auctioneer and upholsterer, No. 6; J. Phipps, shoemaker, No. 2, all in Margaret's Buildings, 
which was a street near to the Royal Crescent. 

The advertisement copied below indicates that the tokens were in circulation in 181 5. 

" Deer. 29th, 1 8 14. 
Bath Tokens 

Messrs. Culverhouse Orchard and Phipps, respectfully inform the Holders of their 
Tokens that they continue to exchange them for Notes in quantities of not less than One 
Pound, agreeably to their original engagements with the Public at No. 6 Margarets Build- 
ings every day in the present week, between the hours of Eleven and Four, and afterwards 
on Saturdays only, between the same hours." — Bath Chronicle, Dec. 29th, 18 14. 



96 NINETEENTH CENTURY TO "KEN COINAGE. 

8. O Arms, argent in chief, two bars wavy, azure ; in base a 
battlemented wall loopholed, over all a sword erect ; supporters, 
dexter, a lion rampant, sinister a bear contourne, both resting on a 
base of rough stones ; crest, hands clenched ; bath token + four 
shillings + Under the arms, 1811 The lion's head touches the 
b in bath The left hand cuff lines to the first limb of h The tops 
of ones in date are fiat. 

£ A POUND NOTE FOR 5 TOKENS GIVEN BY S. WHITCHURCH AND 

w M dore A Staffordshire knot below, nearly touching the legend, 
commencing at w and terminating at o in dore 

9. Similar, but the Staffordshire knot commences at m and termi- 
nates at the r and is farther from the legend. 

10. Similar, but the lion's head is quite free of the b in bath The 
left cuff lines between t and h The tops of the ones in date slope, 
and the last numeral touches the base line. R. 

11. Similar, but the left cuff lines to the first limb of h 

Plate C, no. 1, obverse only illustrated. 

12. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

13. O Similar, but the left cuff lines between the limbs of h The 
tops of ones in date axe fiat, the figures in date distant from the base 
line. 

9> Similar, but the knot commences at the last limb of m and 
terminates at the first limb of r in dore R. 

Boyne 16. 

14. O bath token 1 8 1 1 within a ivreath of oak ; legend, four 
shillings The tops of the ones in date slope. 

& As last. R.r.r. All by P. Wyon. 

Plate C, no. 1, obverse only illustrated. 

Samuel Whitchurch and William Dore -were tradesmen at 26 and 24, Market Place ; 
the former being an ironmonger, and the latter a hatter. William Dore became promoter 
and partner in the Bath City Bank. The sign of the Golden Fleece which was suspended 
over William Dore's hat shop is now in the possession of Mr. Sydney Sydenham of Bath. 
The popularity of the issue of the tokens was beyond question, as will be seen from the 
subjoined notices. 

"The Four Shilling pieces issued by the two public-spirited tradesmen of this City 
Whitchurch & Dore) have been subjected to chemical analysis by Drs. Chichester and 
Wilkinson, and they are found to be equal in purity to Portuguese dollars, from which they 
are probably made, the proportion of alloy which they contain being n per cent, of copper. 

Sterling Silver is worth 6s. 4d. per oz., and one of these tokens weighs 10 dwts., and 
would sell as old silver for more than 3s. 

The small profit the issuers may receive, is duly merited by the advantage derived by 
the public from the circulation of these tokens in the absence of the legal coin of the realm." 
— Bath Ckro?iicle, Nov. 28//Z, 181 1. 

" To Messrs. Whitchurch and Dore. 

Bath, 24th January, 1812. 
Gentlemen, 

We beg leave to return you our sincere thanks for the very seasonable relief which 
your Silver Tokens have afforded us at a time when we (in common with our Fellow-Citizens) 
were labouring under the greatest inconvenience for want of small change. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 97 

" While your respectability at once dissipated any apprehension of loss, your public spirit 
has impressed us with gratitude ; we therefore earnestly hope that you will not withhold 
such further supplies as the necessity of the case may require. 
" We are, Gentlemen, yours, etc. 

W. Kemp Wm. May James Taylor 

Jas. Evill and Son Sheppard and Trinder R. M. Payne 

Evill and Newell Stephen Leedham Moger and Nicholson 

John Daniel H. Godwin B. Shaw and Son 

Edward Gibbons John Barnard Sam Hallett 

Evill and Godwin Geo. Barnard Henry Griffith " 

S. and W. Slack 

— Bath Chro7iicle, Thursday, Jan. 30, 1812. 
These signatures represented the principal traders of Bath at the time, such as Jewel- 
lers, Auctioneers, Booksellers, Grocers, Linen and Woollen Drapers, Merchants and others. 

PROVINCIAL TOKENS. 

" Whitchurch and Dore beg to inform their friends and the public that they purpose to 
continue to take, in exchange for goods at their respective Shops, s long as the wisdom of 
Parliament may permit such Local Coin to be circulated, the following Tokens : viz. those 
issued by the Marlborough Bank; the Bristol, Andover and Gloucester Tokens ; the Frome 
Tokens, of one and two shillings each, also the tokens which have been issued by their 
neighbours in Bath ; — With respect to their own Tokens, as their promise is exhibited in 
very legible characters on the face of every one of them, Whitchurch and Dore have only 
to say that they hold themselves in readiness to perform that promise whenever it shall be 
required of them. 

" Market Place, Bath, 9th May, 1812."— Bath Chronicle, May \$th, 1812. 

Deer. 22nd, 18 14. 
WPIITCHURCH AND DORE TOKENS. 
"Whereas the Act of Parliament restricts the payment of and for Local Silver Tokens 
to the original issuers of such Tokens, after the 19th inst. 

" Messrs. Whitchurch and Dore hereby give notice that their Tokens will be received 
and paid by themselves only on this day and in future at the Shop of the said Mr. Whit- 
church in the Market Place. 

" Bath, 20th Dec, 1814." — Bath Chronicle, Dec. 22nd, 1814. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 

15. O Arms and supporters ; motto, to facilitate trade Justice 
holding scales as crest ; legend, bath token two shillings 

fy A POUND NOTE GIVEN FOR TEN TOKENS BY C. CULVERHOUSE 

i. orchard and j. phipps Hallidciy. 

Plate C, no. 2. 

SHILLING. 

16. 0- Similar, but bath token one shilling 18 12 

$> A POUND NOTE GIVEN FOR 20 OF THESE OUR TOKENS C. 
CULVERHOUSE I. ORCHARD AND J. PHIPPS Legend, MARGARETS BUILD 

ings bath Periods after initials. R. 

Boyne 15. 

17. Similar, but without the periods after c 1 and j R.r. Halliday. 

The tokens were advertised as follows : — 

" Base and Spurious Twelvepenny Tokens having for some time incommoded 
the Public, and it being now discovered that the only Bristol Tokens which freely cir- 
culated in this city have been basely imitated to a great extent, we have at length been 
induced to accede to the presseing solicitations of our friends, and thus announce to 
the public that they may now be supplied with Silver Shilling Bath Tokens of weight 
and purity equal, if not superior, to any yet issued. 

O 



98 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

"As our aim has hitherto been, so it will continue to be, to satisfy the public mind, 
and supply them with necessary change of intrinsic worth, as near their nominal value 
as can possibly be done without suffering loss by the issue ; and the Tokens thus 
issued will be readily exchanged for Bank Notes in any quantity, at either of our 
houses. — Charles Culverhouse, Isaac Orchard, James Phipps." 

— Bath Chronicle^ Feb. 27, 1812. 

Another advertisement shows the reputation of the tokens in 1812 : — 

"Sydney Gardens, Vauxhall, Bath. In honour of His Majesty's Birthday. On 

Thursday, June 4th, 1812, will be A Grand Gala. 

" To prevent the great inconvenience and delay to the Company at the Gate, and 

more particular from the present scarcity of change, parties are requested to previously 

provide themselves with tickets. 

" N.B.— No tokens taken but those of Messrs. Garratt 6° Co., Bristol ; Messrs. Whit- 
church <&■= Dore, and Messrs. Culverhouse, Orchard &° Phipps, Bath." 

— Keene's Bath Journal, June 1st, 18 12. 

BRISTOL. 

SHILLING. 
Without Supporters. 

18. Arms, argent, a ship, issuant from a castle, of the city of 
Bristol ; crest, arms in saltire, in one hand a serpent nowed, in the 
other a pair of scales ; no legend. 

£> BRISTOL SILVER TOKEN. 1 2 in a Circle. FOR NECESSARY 
CHANGE. l8l I 

Plate L, no. 17. 

19. Also in Copper. R.r. Halliday. 

An early notice of the token : — 

" A society in Bristol are now issuing twelve penny Silver tokens to remedy the 
inconvenience arising from the scarcity of change. The}' are said to be of equal fine- 
ness with the silver issues of the Bank of England, and have the Bristol arms on one 
side, and on the other 'For necessary change, Bristol Silver Token. 12 (pence) 181 1. : " 

— Bath Chronicle, August 8th, 181 1. 

With Supporters. 

20. O Arms of Bristol, with supporters, and helmeted ; crest as 

last ; ONE SHILLING TOKEN GENUINE DOLLAR SILVER 3 DWT NOV R I. l8ll 

9> issued by E- bryan Bristol within a floral wreath. 

SOMERSET WILTS DEVON. GLOUCESTERSHIRE. NORTH AND SOUTH WALES. 

and Bristol token. Unknown. 

Bo}me 32. 

E. Bryan adopted a similar method of advertisement as other issuers : — 
"A REMEDY FOR THE SCARCITY OF CHANGE. 

" The public are respectfully informed that in consequence of the impositions practised 
by the putting into circulation Tokens of light weight and inferior metal, and particularly 
by the recent unprincipled imitation of such as from their respectability had procured free 
circulation, a New Shilling Token of genuine Dollar silver, and intrinsically worth about 
eleven-pence farthing, exclusive of the manufacturing, has within these few days been issued 
by E. Bryan, City Printing-Office, Corn Street, Bristol ; intended for circulation in the 
counties of Somerset, Wilts, Gloucester and in North and South Wales : — The public may- 
rest assured, that the above Token is of the value and quality stated. Individuals, com- 
panies or communities can be supplied to any amount. 

" No discount whatever can be allowed, but if ordered in quantities, they will be sent 
carriage free, and insured." — Bath CJu-onicle, December 12th, 181 1. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 99 

Bristol Commercial Token Bank Company. 
August 12. 

21. O Arms and crest of the city of Bristol without supporters, 
within a garter inscribed virtute et industria (By Virtue and 
Industry) ; legend, Bristol token for xii pence The tail of the 
snake in crest touches the n of token The flag on mainmast reaches 
the centre of the flag on left tower, a portion of the flag staff and a 
corner of the flag is seen on the tower at the right. 

9> PAYABLE BY MESS^f FRA? GARRATT W^ TERRELL EDW° BIRD 

lanI beck & fran^ h. grigg. in a circle ; legend, issued in Bristol 
aug! 12. 181 1. to facilitate trade. The f in fra£ lines to the 
foot of t in to and the final t in garratt points between d and e in 
trade • 

Boyne 34. 

22. O Similar to last, but the tail of the snake does not touch the 
n in token and the tower at the right is without the staff, the corner 
of the flag is seen as in last. 

9> Similar, but the f in fraIi lines between t and of to The 
last t in garratt points to the first limb of e in trade. R. 

23. O Similar, but the tower at the right is without the staff and 
flag. 

9> Similar, but the last t in garratt points between d and e in 
trade. R. 

24. O Similar, but the tower at the right shows a portion of the 
staff and the corner of the flag as in no. 2 1 . 

9> Similar, but there is no period after grigg the f lines to the 
foot of t in to and the last t in garratt points to the first limb of e 

in TRADE. R. 

The outer legend of this reverse is tinted or, and known as the "frosted border " variety. 
Mr. Bowles is in possession of the reverse die. 

25. O Similar, but the flag on the tower at the left floats clear 
above the flag on the mainmast and nearly all the flag on the tower 
at the right is seen. 

9> Similar, but f in fra£ lines between the t and o of to the 
final t in garratt points between d and e in trade, as no. 23. R.r. 

26. O Similar, but the tail of the snake in crest touches the n in 
token The staff is omitted on the tower at the right, the corner of 
flag is exhibited. 

9> Similar, but f lines to the foot of t in to as in no. 21. R.r. 

All by Halliday. 



100 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

27. O Arms, etc. as before ; the tail of snake does not touch the n 
of token The flag on the mainmast reaches to the centre of the 
flag on the left tower. 

£ Similar, but reads payable by mess^ fra? carratt (sic) 

W^ FERRELL (sic) EDW° BIRD LAN* (sic) BECK & FRAN? H. GRIGG. The 

f in fra? lines between t and o of to and the final t in garratt 
points between d and e of trade. 

28. Also in brass. Unknown. 

The last two are contemporary forgeries, and very rare. 

August 22ND. 

29. 0- Arms and crest of the City of Bristol within a garter in- 
scribed yirtute et industria The tail of snake in crest does not 
touch the n of token Legend, Bristol token for xii pence The 
flag on the mainmast reaches the centre of the flag on the left tower. 

& PAYABLE BY MESS- S FRA- GARRATT W- TERRELL EDW? BIRD 
LAM- BECK & FRAN- H. GRIGG Legend, TO FACILITATE TRADE. ISSUED 

in Bristol aug- 22 181 1 The f in fra- lines to the foot of t in to 
R. Unknown. 

30. 0- Similar, but the flag on the left tower floats clear above 
the one on the mainmast ; the tail of the snake in crest touc/ies the 
n in TOKEN 

$> Similar, but reads payable by mess- s fra- garrett (sic) 
wSterrail edm- bird lam- beck & fran- h. gregg (sic) in a circle. 
Legend, to facilitate trade, issued in Bristol aug- 22 181 1. R. 

Boyne 35. 

31. Same as last in copper ; the reverse is silver plated. R.r. 

32. Same as last in copper, on a larger flan (M. 8), not plated. 
R.r. Unknown. 

The last three are contemporary forgeries, but all are rare. 

Francis Garratt, Bristol Buildings, and 9, Cathay, was a grocer : William Terrell, 17, 
The Black, a rope maker; Edward Bird, silversmith, Launcelot Beck, haberdasher, both of 
Clare Street, and Francis Hore Grigg, 34, High Street, haberdasher. 

Garratt & Co. are said to have issued Silver Shilling Tokens to the amount of ^27,000. 
— Bath Journal, Nov. iiik, 181 1. See Official Balance SJieet. 

"Bristol, 17th Feb. 1812. 

IMPORTANT CAUTION. 

We, the undersigned, hereby caution the public against a spurious Imitation of our 

Twelve-penny and Sixpenny Tokens, differing, however, in the names on the reverse, which 

in the Base Tokens are all erroneously spelt, as will be perceived in the specimens subjoined. 

Original Token. Rathbone-place Token. 

Payable Payable 

By Messrs By Messrs 

Fras Garratt Frans Garrett 

Wm. Terrell Wr Terrail 

Edwd Bird Edmd Bird 

Lant Beck & Lamt Beck 6^ 

Frans H Frann H 

Grigg. Gregg 



SO M ERSE TSHIRE. 101 

" Considering it an imperious duty which we owe to the public and ourselves to trace 
the authors of this infamous deceptio?i, we have succeeded in ascertaining that it has been 
carried into effect by the well-known Mr. H. Morgan, No. 12, Rathbone-piace, and A. B., 
No. 35, Cock Lane, Snow-Hill, London, and that the new coinage he has produced is of 
inferior value to his former tokens, said to be issued by Royal License, and which fortunately 
for the community, have been long since detected, and the circulation stopped. 

" We have with equal certainty ascertained Mr. Morgan's Resident Agent in Bristol, 
whose name we for the present for-bear announcing, in the hope that this public notice will 
so effectually put the public and the parties on their guard, as to render further measures 
unnecessary. 

Francis Garratt Wm Terrell 

Edward Bird Launcelot Beck 

Francis H Grigg." 

— Bath Chronicle, Feb. 27th, 18 12. 



TOKEN BANK NOTE. 

The note in the plate on the other side is the only one at present known. 

It was obtained by Mr. Bowles from a descendant of William Terrell, one of the partners 
in the Token Bank. 

The building, illustrated at the left of the note was built in 181 1, in Corn Street, is still 
in existence, shows the same elevation, and is known as the " Commercial Rooms." 

Mr. Bowles has since secured from a descendant of Francis H. Grigg, another of the 
partners, an unissued Five Pound Note of the same Token Bank, which is believed to be 
unique, and of which the following is a copy : 



Commercial 
No. . . . Bristol Token Company. £ FIVE 

y; ew f I Promise to pay the Bearer 

Commercial the sum of FIVE POUNDS, on Demand. The 

Rooms, at Mefs r s Will 1 ? Storrs Fry & Sons, Bankers in London. Ar ™ s of 
Bristol. Value received the . . . day of .... 181 ... N°. ... Bristol. 

For Garratt, Terrell, Bird, Beck & Grigg 
Entd . . . 
FIVE POUNDS 



This Token Bank also issued Bankers' drafts on London ; a blank of which is here 
given : 

£ N°. Bristol 181 

o Commercial 

s Bristol Token Company 

" Established August 12^ 181 1 to facilitate Trade 

g . . . after . . . pay ....... 

h or order 

08 value received as advised 

J For Garratt, Terrell, Bird, Beck & Grigg 

a to 

h - Messrs Will 1 ? Storrs Fry & Sons, 
£ Bankers, 

g London. 

Subsequent to the circulation of the tokens, a statement of account was published, 
showing the enormous number issued, at a loss of .£5,588 10s. 2d. It is generally supposed 
that silver tokens produced great profits to the issuers, considering the cost of silver and 
the light weight of the tokens, but. it will be seen that in this instance such was not the case : 



102 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



GARRATT, TERRELL, & COMPANY'S ACCOUNT CURRENT. 



Dr. 



Tokens. 



1812. To cost of 85,332 oz. 
Silver which made 
,£32,000 of Tokens at 
6s. o|d. per oz. . . . .£25,777 13 



To cost of making 
640,000 Tokens at 
£4 per thousand. . 



2,560 



Contra. 
1812 

Nov. By cash received for 
28,600 oz. Silver, at 
5s. 1 id. per oz. . . . 

1814 

Dec. By amount of Tokens 
now paid 28,600 oz. 
worth 5s. 2d. per oz. . 

By amount now out 
26,000 oz. at 5s. per 
oz 



£28,337 13 6 



By Interest 
circulation 



during 



By Loss 



Cr. 



3,460 16 8 



6 8 



6,500 o 
400 o 

5,588 10 



£28,337 13 6 



January 2d, 181 5. 



The above is a true statement. 

— Garratt, 
Wm. Terrell, 
Edw. Bird, 
Lan'. Beck, 
F. H. Grigg. 



The following printed notices speak for themselves : 



TOKENS. 

REDCLIFF - PARISH. 

Public Notice. 

Messrs. Garratt & Co. having publicly declared that after the 2nd of November, they 
will not give for their Tokens, the value for which they were issued by them : We, the 
undersigned, have determined that we will not receive them in payment for more than 

Nine Pence each, 
After this Day. 



S. & J. Fitchew. 
James Clark. 
John R. Grant. 
William Frost. 
John Clark. 
E. B. Willmot. 
Step 11 . Doughty. 
John B. Jacques. 
Samuel Lucas. 
Brookman & Son. 



Purnells & Co. 
John Simpkin. 
Heny Gwyther. 
William Puke. 
John B. Cross. 
Rob 1 Rowland. 
Thomas W. Hall. 
Thomas Lane. 
Pet r . Peace Jun. 
G. A. Hogarth. 



Richard White. 
Bristol, 31st October 1812. 

T. Lane, Printer, Redcliff- Street, Bristol. 

TOKENS. 

At a meeting convened to take into consideration the issue of Garratt & Co's. Tokens, 
it was unanimously Resolved, (as they will not be paid after Monday morning next) not to 
take them after this present day Saturday, Oct. 31, 1812. 

Castle-Street Stephen Biss, St. Philips. 

William Major, Printer, St John's Steps, Bristol 



I J 




w$$WSSm 



•^ 






^ 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 103 

BRISTOL, MONDAY, NOV. 2, 1812. 

" GARRATT&CO. Engage to pay the Tokens Issued by them until the 25th of March, 181 3. 
Evans & Grabham, Printers, Mercury Office, 34, Broad-Street. 

" No. 22, High-Street, Nov. 15, 1814. 
" To the Tradesmen of Bristol. 

" With a view to relieve the inconvenience felt by the Public at large (but more especially 
by the labouring classes) in consequence of the sudden stoppage of the old copper currency, 
Wm. Ringer was induced to write a letter to the Honourable Commissioners of His 
Majesty's Mint, Tower, London, to inquire of them whether any real cause existed for 
such stoppage : In reply he received a letter on Saturday last, 12th inst. (which he will be 
happy to shew to any Gentleman who will call on him any day before 9 in the morning, or 
after 4 in the afternoon) stating that it was the intention of Government to withdraw the 
Old Halfpence from circulation, for which purpose the Mint Office was now open to receive 
them, under certain restrictions and limitations to be stated on personal application at said 
office, on certain days named. W. R. immediately wrote to a Friend in London to procure 
for him the necessary particulars, which he expects to receive by to-morrow's post, and 
whilst upon this information, he is content to receive Old Tower Halfpence in payment for 
Stockings, he begs leave most earnestly to invite his fellow Tradesmen to follow his example 
in their respective articles of Sale, and thereby rid the city of an Evil, which it will be their 
own fault if they ever suffer to exist again, at the same time assuring them, that any infor- 
mation he may receive on the subject shall be quite at their service 

" Good Old Tower Halfpence taken for Stockings between the Hours of Nine in the 
Morning and Four in the Afternoon 

Major, Printer John's Steps" 

It will be seen by this important announcement how unpopular were the old Tower 
"halfpence, and the keenness with which some tradesmen took advantage of the discredited 
copper currency to dispose of their wares. 

No Date. 

33. O The arms and crest of the City of Bristol within a garter 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol token for xii 
pence 

9> payable by a one pound note for 20 of these at p. 

ROSE'S STATIONER BRISTOL. Legend, H. MORGAN LICENSED MANUFAC- 
TURER I 2 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON R.V.T. 

34. O The arms and crest of the City of Bristol within a garter 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol token xii pence 
The tail of snake in crest touches the n of token. The flagstaff on 
the mainmast is under the t in et 

9> BRISTOL SHILLING SILVER TOKEN ISSU'd BY ROYAL LICENCE 

Legend, h. morgan licensed manufacturer 12 rathbone place 
London. Halliday. 

Boyne 37. 

35. O Similar, but the tail of snake in crest does not touch the n 
in token and pence in the legend reads pense The flagstaff is 
under the scale pan between the arms. 

9> As last. 

36. O As last. 

9> Similar, but issued instead of issu'd in the legend. R. 

Unknown. 



104 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

37. O Prince of Wales' plumes and motto, ich dien issuant from 
a coronet above a drum, inscribed § 01 Cannon, flintlock, 
trumpet, and flags, with an ornament below. 

9) BRISTOL SHILLING TOKEN ISSU'd BY ROYAL LICENCE Legend, 
H. MORGAN LICENSED MANUFACTURER 12 RATHBONE PLACE LONDON. 

R.r.r. Halliday. 

July 12TH. 

88. O The arms and crest of the city of Bristol within a garter, 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol medal the xii 

OF JULY 

Vo BRISTOL AND WELCH PRINCIPALITY SILVER MEDAL F. GARRATT 
& F S HORE GRIGG Legend, PROSPERITY TO WALES & THE CITY OF 
BRISTOL. R.r. 

39. o As last. 

£ As last, with the addition of the words issued by R.r.r. 

40. O As last. 

V° Similar, but reads Bristol and welch principality silver 

MEDAL FR GARRATT LAM T BECK & F S HORE GRIGG R.r.r. 

41. O As last. 

9> BRISTOL AND WELCH PRINCIPALITY SILVER MEDAL ISSUED BY 
ROYAL LICENCE Legend, PROSPERITY TO WALES & THE CITY OF BRISTOL 

R.r. 

September sth. 

42. O As last. 

£» wales and Bristol in a circle. Legend, merthyr ■* 5™ 
sep 181 1 -* R.r.r. Unknown. 



Bristol Bridge. 

43. 0- A bridge of three arches. Bristol & Wiltshire token 
1 8 1 1 The tops of the ones in date are flat. 

5? value 12 pence in a radiated star, payable by niblock & 

LATHAM. AT THEIR WAREHOUSE. BRIDGE S- & TROWBRIDGE The point 

of star at the right lines with the terminal of e in warehouse • 

Plate C, no. 3. 

44. O Similar to last, but the tops of the ones in date slope, and 
there are projections on either side between the pillars and the 
lamps. 

R Similar, but the point of star lines with the first limb 
of e R. Halliday. 

J. Niblock and R. S. Latham, Mercers, Bath, were declared bankrupts, Nov. 30, 1821. 

Boyne 39. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 105 

With Supporters, September 6th. 

45. O Arms of the city of Bristol, with supporters, and helmeted ; 
crest as before, let trade & commerce flourish. Bristol issued 
by w. sheppard ■ exchange • sep- 6 1 8 1 1 The tops of the ones 
in date are flat. 

9= value 12 pence in a wreath of oak. Somersetshire 

WILTSHIRE GLOUCESTERSHIRE SOUTH WALES AND BRISTOL TOKEN 

There are two acorns above the intersection of the wreath. Halliday. 

Boyne, 41. 

46. O Similar to last, but shephard instead of sheppard and the 
tops of the ones in date slope. 

R Similar, but with one acorn above the intersection of the 
wreath. R. Unknown. 

William Sheppard was a bookseller, and Lottery Office keeper, in Corn Street. 

— Numismatic Magazi?ie, vol. VIII, p. 66. 
The following form of advertisement was resorted to by W. Sheppard, to call attention 
both to the tokens and his business : — 

Advt. SCARCITY OF CHANGE. 

"Wm. Sheppard, Bookseller, Stationer and Dealer in Patent Medicines, &°c. opposite 
the Exchange, Bristol, in consequence of the distressing scarcity of Change, has procured 
a quantity of Silver Tokens with which he will accommodate his Friends and Customers in 
the Country on their remitting, post paid, cash notes for the quantity they may want. At 
the same time, orders in the line of his business, will be duly attended to." 

"Bristol, September, 181 1." — Bath Chronicle, Sept. 26th, 181 1. 

The issuer of this token was declared bankrupt, April nth, 1818. 

Bristol Quay. 

47. O A three-masted ship sailing, value one shilling for the 
army &? * 

9> n° 2,7 quay Bristol Legend, payable at government 
stores r TRIPP & c°. 181 1 R. 

Plate C, no. 4. 

48. O As last. 

V° As last, but r tripp & c? 1 8 1 1 omitted. R. Halliday. 

Robert Tripp and Co. were tailors and accoutrement makers. They also had stores in 
Duke Street. R. Tripp was gazetted bankrupt June 10, 181 7. 

SIXPENCE. 
Arms and Supporters. 

49. O Arms, crest, etc. as on the shilling. Bristol sixpenny 

TOKEN • TO FACILITATE TRADE • l8ll 

9> 6 D within a floral wreath, genuine dollar silver issued 

BY E BRYAN. 

50. O Same as last. 

9> Similar, but with a period after e. in e. bryan. Unknown. 

Boyne y 2 . 
P 



106 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Without Supporters, Augj 12. 

51. 0- Arms and crest of the city of Bristol within a garter 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol token for vi 

PENCE 

5k PAYABLE BY MESS- S FRA- GARRATT W- TERRELL EDW D BIRD 
LAN- BECK & FRAN- H GRIGG. ill a circle. TO FACILITATE TRADE. 

issued in Bristol AUG- 12. 1811. Halliday. 

Plate C, no. 5. 

AUG! 22. 

52. O Similar, but the corner of the flag is not seen on the tower 
at the right as in last. 

£> Similar to last, but reads payable by mess rs fra n garratt 

W R TERRELL EDW N BIRD LAM T BECK & FRA N (sic) H GRIGG Dated 
AUG- 2 2' l8l I. R. 

53. O As last. 

^ Similar to last, but reads payable by mess rs fra? garrett 

W- TERRAIL EDM- BIRD LAM T BECK & FRAN- H. GREGG, (sic). 

Unknown. 
No Date. 

54. O As last. 

9> BRISTOL SILVER SIX-PENNY TOKEN ISSUED BY ROYAL LICENCE 

in a circle, morgan licensed maker i 2 rathbone place London. 

Boyne 38. 

55. 0- Similar, but the corner of the flag is seen. 

E> PAYABLE AT MORGANS WAREHOUSE FOR BUCK & DOE SKINS 

castle sT- Bristol in a circle, a \£ note will be paid for 40 
of these. R.r. Halliday. 

July 6th. 

56. O Arms and crest of the city of Bristol within a garter 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol medal the vi 

OF JULY 

#> BRISTOL & SOUTH WALES SILVER MEDAL ISSUED BY F 
GARRATT & F^ HORE GRIGG in 3. circle. PROSPERITY TO WALES & THE 

city of Bristol. R.r.r. Unknown. 

July 12TH. 

57. O Arms and crest of the city of Bristol within a garter 
inscribed virtute et industria Legend, Bristol medal the xii 

OF JULY 

£= BRISTOL & WELCH PRINCIPALITY SILVER MEDAL ISSUED BY 
ROYAL LICENSE Legend, PROSPERITY TO WALES & THE CITY OF BRISTOL + 

Unknown. 

In the cabinet of Sir William Henry Wills, Bart, M.P. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 107 

Bristol Bridge. 

58. O A bridge of three arches; Bristol & Wiltshire token 181 i 
£> value 6 pence in a radiated star, payable by. niblock & 

LATHAM. AT THEIR WAREHOUSE BRIDGES (st'c) & TROWBRIDGE R. 

59. O As last. 

9= Similar to last, but reads bridge s t Halliday. 

Plate B, no. 25. 
Niblock, in 1795, issued two halfpenny tokens. The Bristol Bridge, with a quaint 
reverse, where two men are standing, one of whom says, " I want to buy some cheap bar- 
gains," to which the other replies, "Then go to Niblock's, Bridge Street." The second 
token has on the obverse a case of merchandise with the legend general commission & 
public sale ROOM. Same address. 

Vide Atkins 178, 86 and 89. 

With Supporters. 

60. O Arms, supporters and crest of the city of Bristol ; sep t 6 
181 1 under. Bristol payable by w. sheppard. exchange 

£> 6 pence in a radiated star ; Somersetshire Wiltshire 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE SOUTH WALES AND BRISTOL TOKEN Unknown. 

Boyne 42. 
Without Shield. 

61. O 6 pence in a radiated star; r. tripp & c~ Bristol 181 1 

9> PAYABLE BY ONE DOLLAR FOR IO TOKENS & 2- OR 20 
TOKENS FOR 2 DOLLARS & 4- AND 40 FOR A ONE POUND NOTE J?. 

Unknoivn. 
Boyne 44. 
The following notices are taken from a collection of broadsides, etc., relating to Bristol, 
in the possession of Mr. G. E. Weare, Weston-super-Mare : — 

" Bristol Tokens. 

" As the time limited for payment of the Bristol Tokens will expire on Tuesday next, 

Nov. 3rd, We, the undersigned, do hereby call a Meeting {of the traders and others of this 

City, who feel interested) to be held at the Rummer Tavern, All Saints Lane, this present 

Tuesday evening, at Six o'clock, to consider of, and adopt some plan to prevent a recurrence 

of the late inconvenience for want of change. 

Joseph Hall. 

Bristol Tuckett & Sons. 

October 27, 1812. J ohn ™ on ? as & Son - 

" Hugh Taylor. 

James Edwards. 

" T. Lane, Printer, 59, Redcliff Street, Bristol." 

The notice below shows the invective of the period by those who were opposed to tokens 
of any kind : — 

" Partners Wanted. 

"A Mechanic who can procure nearly two hundred poiaids !! ! wishes tojoin one or two 
persons, who can each advance a like sum, to embark with him in a speculatio?t which will 
produce without any risk to them a profit of at least Two hundred per cent !!! I and in which 
no credit or responsibility is at all necessary. 

" For particulars address, post paid, to Mister Fudge, Humbug-Row, Bristol. 

" N.B. — To save trouble the speculation is to glut the City with Silver Tokens, following 
up by a plentiful issue of Bank- Notes, of considerably less value ; and it may be worth a 
future consideration to issue Copper and Brass Tokens, which the Partnership would find 
particularly profitable from their possessing such an ample stock of the latter article. 

" Evans & Graham, Printers, 34, Brood Street, Bristol." 

It appears from a perusal of other broadsides and cuttings from contemporary Bristol 



108 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

newspapers in Mr. Wear's collection that twenty-one firms or individual tradesmen who 
were carrying on business in Redcliff parish, in the city of Bristol, gave public notice to the 
effect that Messrs. Garratt & Co. having publicly declared that after the 2nd of November 
they (Garratt & Co.) would not give for their tokens the value for which they were issued by 
them, the tradesmen referred to would not receive them in payment for more than gd. each. 
On the other hand, twenty-two firms or individual tradesmen issued a manifesto, in which 
they offered to take the tokens for their full value " until this City shall be more effectually 
supplied with Government Coin," the signatories testifying their belief that the tokens 
" have been of essential service to this City, and that the discontinuance of them would very 
materially affect its trade, and reduce its inhabitants to as great distress as was experie?tced 
prior to their being issued." 

The correspondents who* wrote to the editors — or, rather as was the custom in the 
period, " To the Printer" — approached the matter from various standpoints, both favourable 
and unfavourable, alike to the principle of the issue of tokens and to those who issued them. 
One correspondent gives what he alleged to be the question of pure silver in the tokens as 
follows : — 

Worth. 

Tokens marked Garratt, Terrell, Bird and Grigg, contain 57! grains of 

pure silver . 9J fractions 

Tokens marked Bryan q| „ 

„ „ Sheppard 9 „ 

„ „ Tripp's 6d. tokens . . . . . . . 4J „ 

It was stated that the Bristol tokens were made of dollar-silver, without any additional alloy ; 
that all the attendant expenses as to the coinage, carriage, insurance, etc., are on an average 
one penny each token. It was also stated that the Birmingham manufacturer charged one 
half profit ; upon each token the issuers have a fraction more than one penny ; this profit 
was acquired at a very considerable risk. One of the writers alleges that Messrs. Garratt & 
Co. had their shilling tokens made at the nett cost of 129 shillings per gross, independent 
of carriage and insurance to and from Birmingham. It was also alleged that dollar silver 
had advanced in price from 5s. nd. per ounce to 6s. 6d. per ounce ; that there was a strong 
probability that by March, 1813, the prices would have so far advanced "that the public 
might have preferred rubbing the tokens plain, and hoarding them as good, passable Tozver- 
Shillings. n 

CHARD. 

SHILLINGS. 

62. O chard somerset 1811 in an olive wreath. 

9= 1 within a radiated garter inscribed shilling Legend. 

ISSUED. FOR. THE. BENEFIT + OF ■ TRADE + R. 

Plate L, no. 18. 

63. O Similar, but reads chard somerset sept r 1811 
fy As last. R.r. 

Boyne 47. 

64. Also in Copper. R.r.r. Halliday. 

FROME SELWOOD. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 

65. O Full faced bust (Edward I) crowned ; frome selwood 

TOKEN FOR 2 SHILLINGS 

9> at mess^5 willoughby & sons and a sugar loaf upon a cross 
radiated a one pound note given for io tokens 1812 R.r. 

Halliday. 
Plate C, no. 6. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 109 

SHILLING. 

66. O Similar to last, but token for i 2 pence 

9> AT MESS* S WILLOUGHBY M* S SINKINS H. RYALL W. SPARKS W. 

gerard Griffith & GOUGPi. upon a cross radiated, a one pound 
note given for 20 tokens 1 8 1 1 HalUday. 

Boyne 85. 

"According to the Norman Survey King Edward held Frome." 

Willoughby & Sons were grocers ; Mrs. Jane Sinkins, draper, in the Market Place ; 
Henry Ryall, grocer, in Catherine Hill ; William Sparks and William Gerard, grocers, 
Market Place ; Griffith & Gough, grocers, Stoney Street. — Numismatic Mag. no. 156. 



TAUNTON. 

SHILLING. 

67. O In a shield a crown surmounted by a cherub ; payable at 

JOHN BLUETTS l8l I 

|& value xii pence within a wreath of oak. taunton token 

R.r. r. Un known. 

Plate L, no. 19. 
John Bluett was a wine and spirit merchant. 



BATH. 

PENNY. 

copper. 

68. O A fleece suspended from a ribbon ; bath token 181 i The 
left foreleg is over the first one in date, the ones are in a straight 
line, and slightly pointed at the tops, the tail falls below the hock. 

9» A POUND NOTE FOR 24O TOKENS GIVEN BY S. T. WHITCHURCH 

and w. dore The t in tokens is over the n in given R. 

Sharp 196, 1. 

69. Similar, but the t in token is over the space between given 
and by 

70. Similar, but the left foot of the fleece nearly touches the first 
one in date ; the ones are flat. R. 

71. Similar, but the date is in a curved line and farther from the 
legs of the fleece ; the ones are pointed. 

72. Similar to last, but the first one in date is between the fore- 
legs ; the ones in date are more pointed than the last. 

Plate C, no. 7. 



110 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

73. O Similar, but the first one in date is under the right foreleg ; 
the tail does not fall below the hock ; the ones in date slope. 

9> Similar, but the t of tokens is above the last limb of n in 
given P. Wyon. 

Arms and Supporters. 

74. O Arms and supporters of the City ; Crest, hands clenched ; 

BATH PENNY+ + + TOKEN+ + + l8ll 

^ A POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS GIVEN BY S_ WHITCHURCH 

and w. dore R. P. Wyon. 

Sharp 196, 2. 



BRISTOL. 

PENNY. 

Arms and Crest. 
COPPER. 

75. O Bust to right, robed, laureated (George III) ; one penny 
token 1 8 1 1 Tops of ones slope, and the last numeral in date nearly 
touches the robe. 

fy Arms, helmeted, with supporters ; civitas Bristol Crest, 
arms crossed, snake and scales ; the outer scale pan extends to 
the elbow of the arm, the waves under the ship are formed by three 
pa.irs of thin lines, and there are five stays from ship to castle ; the 
snake has a forked tongue. 

Sharp 196, 3. 

76. Similar, but the last numeral in date does not touch the robe. 

Plate C, no. 8. 

77. Similar to last, but the outer scale pan extends to the muscle 
of the arm ; the waves under the ship are formed of three thick 
lines ; there are no stays from ship to castle ; the snake is without 
a tongue. 

78. Similar to last, but with only a slight slant to the tops of 
the ones. 

79. O Similar, but the tops of the ones in date are flat. 

9» Similar ; the snake with a tongue, but no fork. R. 

80. Similar, but there is only one stay from ship to castle, and the 
towers are without flags. Halliday. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. Ill 

Bristol Brass & Copper Company. 
Portcullis perpendicular. 

81. O Arms and crest of the city; virtute et industria 1811 
The mast next the castle is the shorter of the two ; there are four 
stays, and the doorway under portcullis is filled in with perpendicular 
lines. 

9> 0$ 0$ & COPPER £ff ONE PENNY. PAYABLE AT BRISTOL SWAN 

sea & London. The downstroke of the 05 is under the second n and 
very short ; 0$ 0$ in solid lines. 

Sharp 196, 5. 

82. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the monogram 0B 0$ is outlined. 

Portcullis plain. 

83. O Similar, but there are five stays from ship to castle ; the 
doorway under portcullis is plain. 

£> Similar, but the downstroke of 0$ extends above the curve 

of the letter, and is under the y in payable The monogram in solid 

lines. 

Portcullis horizontal. 

84. O Similar, but the tops of the two masts equal ; six stays 
from ship to castle, and the doorway under the portcullis is filled in 
with horizontal lines. 

9 As last. 

85. O Similar, but five stays from ship to castle ; the two loop- 
holes above the doorway are filled-in with brickwork, showing 
faintly. 

£> Similar, but the downstroke of the @ft extends above the 

curve, and is under the second n The monogram 0$ 0> is outlined. 

86. O Similar, but the top of the two masts equal in height, and 
the two loopholes above the doorway -axe, plain. 

9. As last. 

87. O Similar, but the two loopholes above the doorway are filled 
in with brickwork, showing faintly. 

& Similar to last, but 0$ 0$ solid. 



112 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Ship Sailing. 

88. O A ship, \N\\hfive port-holes, sailing under topsails, in a circle; 

PATENT SHEATHING NAIL MANUFACTORY. BRISTOL. The mainmast 

points between the i and n of sheathing 

9= ONE PENNY TOKEN in a circle. PAYABLE AT BRISTOL AND 

London 181 1 Flat tops to ones in date. 

Sharp 196, 8. 

89. O As last. 

9= Similar, but the tops of ones in date slope. 

90. O Similar, but the mainmast points to the centre of n in 
sheathing Six port-holes to ship. 

9> As last. 

91. O Similar, but the mainmast points to the first limb of n in 

SHEATHING 

£ As last. Halliday. 

With Boat at Stern. 1811. 

92. O Ship under sail with boat at stern, in a circle, patent 

SHEATHING NAIL MANUFACTORY BRISTOL Ten port-holes tO ship. 

9> penny token in a circle, payable at Bristol and 
London. 181 1 The tops of ones in date are fiat. Halliday. 

93. O As last. 

9= PENNY TOKEN in 2, circle. PAYABLE BY, S. GUPPY ; BRISTOL 

181 1 No period after Bristol Ones in date slope. 

Plate C, no. 9. 

94. O As last. 

9= Similar, but with a period after Bristol. 

95. O Similar to last, but with nine port-holes to ship. 

9> Similar to last, but payable, by; s. guppy Bristol. 181 i. 

Sharp 196, 7. 
1813. 

96. O A ship sailing to right fully rigged, no inner circle 

PATENT SHEATHING NAIL MANUFACTORY. BRISTOL, under the ship 

1813 

9> one penny token in a circle. PAYABLE by s. GUPPY AT 
Bristol and London + Halliday. 

In the cabinet of Sir William Henry Wills, Bart. 

Samuel Guppy traded at 34, Queen Square, Bristol, and 22, Dowgate Hill, London. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 113 

Bristol and South Wales. 
With Portcullis. 

97. Arms of the city of Bristol within a garter, crest above ; 
virtute et industria. 1811. There are seven stays at the right of 
the main-mast, the bowsprit touches the edge of the garter, fiat tops 
to ones in date, and the portcullis is formed of two horizontal and two 
perpendicular lines. 

fy Prince of Wales' plume encircled by a coronet ; motto ich 
dien on a ribbon, one penny token. Bristol & south wales. The 
1 in ich lines to r in Bristol R. 

Sharp 196, 9. 

98. O Similar, but there are six stays from the mainmast, and the 
tops of the ones in date slope ; the portcullis is formed of two hori- 
zontal and three perpendicular lines ; h under the right tower. 

9> Similar, but 1 in ich lines with 1 in Bristol 

Plate C, no. 10. 

99. O Similar, but the h under the tower omitted. 

9 Similar, but the 1 in ich lines to the space between 1 and s 

in BRISTOL 

100. O Similar, but withyzz^ stays from the mainmast ; the bowsprit 
does not touch the edge of the garter ; the portcullis is formed of one 
horizontal and three perpendicular lines. 

9. As last. 

101. O Similar, but there are no stays above the top sails at the 
left. 

9= Similar, but the 1 in ich lines to the 1 in Bristol The b 
at the top is disjointed. 

102. Similar, but with seven stays from the main-mast ; h under the 
tower. Halliday. 

Without Portcullis. 

103. O Similar, but with six stays at the right of main-mast, and 
stays above the top sails at the left ; there is no portcullis ; the tag 
of the garter is above the date instead of between the 8 and the 1 No 
h under the tower. R. 

9> As no. 99. 

Plate C, no. 10. 

104. O Similar, but with only three stays from the main-mast, and 
there are no stays from the sails to flags at the left ; tag of garter is 
between the 8 and 1 of date. R. Halliday. 

9 As no. 101. 

Q 



114 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

PbcENix Glass Works. 

105. O A phoenix issuant from 'flames, within a wreath of oak and 
laurel. 

$> one penny token in a circle surrounded by an oak 
wreath. R. Halliday. 

Batty 1069. 

Issued by " Rickets, Evans & Co., Phcenix Glass Company, Temple Gate without 
Bristol." 



Bristol Brass and Copper Company. 

HALFPENNY. 

106. O Arms and crest; virtute et industria 181 i The hand 
holding the scales is under the 1 in industria 

fy £3 c$ & COPPER &- HALFPENNY. PAYABLE AT BRISTOL 
SWANSEA & LONDON. 

Sharp 210, 1. 

107. 0- Similar, but the hand holding the scales is under the n 

9> Similar, but the downstroke of c$ at the right projects 
above the curve of the letter. 

Plate C, no. 11. 

108. O Similar, but the hand holding the scales is under the space 
between the 1 and n 

R Similar, but the downstroke of M does not project above the 
curve of the letter. 

109. O As last. 

B> Similar, but the c$ at the right is outlined. Halliday. 

Ship to Left. 181 i. 

110. O A ship sailing to left, under topsails, patent sheathing 
nail manufactory. Bristol. The pennant reaches the centre of a 
and only one lift to sprit-sail. 

^ HALF PENNY TOKEN in a circle. PAYABLE AT BRISTOL AND 

London 1 8 1 1 Scarcely any tops to ones in date ; the p of penny 
lines just below the e in payable 

Sharp 210, 2. 

111. O Similar, but the pennant barely reaches the a 

9> Similar, but the p of penny lines to the end of L 



SOMERSETSHIRE. ■ 115 

112. Similar, but the pennant only reaches the t There are 
two lifts to sprit-sail, and the ship shows its stern. 

1 13. O Similar, but the pennant approaches the t and follows the 
circle to a The stern not seen. 

& Similar, but the p of penny lines with the end of e and the 
tops of ones in date slope. 

114 O As last. 

9> Similar, but the p of penny lines with the centre of e 

115. O Similar, but the pennant reaches the second limb of a 
Only one lift to sprit-sail. 

9> Similar, but with scarcely any top to ones of date ; the 
top of penny lines with the centre of l Halliday. 

Ship to Right. 

116. O Similar, but the pennant only reaches to the first limb 
of h The ship sailing to the right shows its stern. 

#> half penny token in a circle, payable at Bristol and 
London 1811 Ones in date flat ; the top of penny lines just below 
the l in payable Halliday. 

Ship to Left with boat at stern. 

117. O A ship under sail to left, with a boat at stern ; patent 

SHEATHING NAIL MANUFACTORY BRISTOL. 

9> HALF PENNY TOKEN in a circle. PAYABLE AT BRISTOL AND 
LONDON l8ll 



118. A ship under sail with a boat at stern, as last. 

£, HALF PENNY TOKEN in a circle. PAYABLE BY S. GUPPY. 

Bristol & London. 1812. Halliday. 

FARTHING. 
Ship to Right. 

119. O A ship under topsails sailing to the right, the stern not 
seen, in a circle, patent sheathing nail manufactory Bristol 

9> far-thing token in a circle, payable at Bristol & London 
i8ii. 

Plate C, no. 12. 

120. Also in Silver. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Mr. Weare, of Weston-super-Mare, has in his collection a Notice which was posted on 
the hoardings at Bristol during the time when the tokens were in full circulation, and which 
by his kindness is here copied : — 



116 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

" Let Trade and Commerce 
FLOURISH ! 

COPPER 

TOKENS!!! 

" Reports having been industriously 

circulated in this city, that the currency of 

Copper Tokens has been stopped, which has a 

tendency greatly to injure the Retail Traders ; 

The Public are respectfully 

informed, 

That no such Stoppage 

has taken place, 

On the contrary, they have free circulation, and 

the said Report 'is only the result of idle Chit-Chat. 

The Author of this, a tradesman and a Citizen, 

is convinced, that the greater majority of his Fellow 

Citizens are of his opinion, and would much rather 

take them than so much bad old copper, now 

in circulation. 

With respect to their not being made payable, he 
begs leave to observe, they are far preferable 
to some white ones for payment, you have a 
bit of paper of their own coming tendered you, 
which, intrinsically, is not worth half a 
farthing, and should you not like that, 
you must pocket your Tokens, and be off. 
So much for being made payable ; — but give 
me the Copper Tokens, which are ?iot made 
payable, but arevaluable, and will pass everywhere. 

' A Tradesman." 



Major, Printer, John's Steps. 

TAUNTON. 

PENNY. 



121. O A workman at a forge ; taunton penny token 

9> A POUND NOTE FOR 24O TOKENS Legend, PAYABLE AT 

MESS^f COX'S. IRON FOUNDRY. P. Wyon. 

Plate C, no. 13. 

W I V E L I S C O M B E . 

THREEPENNY PIECE. 

122. O A female seated on a beehive with spear and olive branch ; 
a sheep behind her; a ship in the distance ; Ex, 1814 The whole 
within a circle ; three penny token +-wiveliscombe + 

9= A POUND NOTE GIVEN + FOR 8o TOKENS + BY JN- FEATHER 

stone R. Halliday. 

Sharp 190, 1. 

123. O Similar to last. 

9= A POUND NOTE GIVEN + FOR 8o TOKENS + BY R. NORTH & C- 

R. Halliday. 

Sharp 190, 2. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 117 

TWOPENNY PIECE. 

124. O A female seated on a beehive with spear and olive branch ; 
an ox by her side ; in a circle, two penny token, wiveliscombe. 

£> A POUND NOTE GIVEN. FOR 120 TOKENS BY W. TEMLETT &. J. 

clarke. R. Halliday. 

Plate I, no. 10. 

PENNY. 

125. O Similar, but one penny token, wiveliscombe. 

V° A POUND NOTE GIVEN. FOR 240 TOKENS BY W. TEMLETT. &. J. 

clarke. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 197, 12. 

This is one of the exceptions where the legend is made to read intelligibly, by not 
describing the centre arrangement first. 



118 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 

BILSTON. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O The arms of Stafford; a castle between four lions, passant 
guardant, and one on the ground ; bilston silver token one shil 
ling A circular line above the castle. 

& PAYABLE BY RUSHBURY AND WOOLLEY l8ll in a circle. ONE 
POUND NOTE FOR 20 TOKENS R.T. 

Plate C, no. 14. 

2. O Similar, but without the circular line above the castle. 

9> Similar to last, but commercial change 1811 inscribed on a 
garter added to the legend. Halliday. 

Boyne 18. 
SIXPENCE. 

3. O As last, except in size ; six pence 

£> As last, but one pound note for 40 tokens Halliday. 

Boyne 8. 

Rushbury and Woolley were military ornament manufacturers. Edward Woolley 
patented an improvement for making screws Nov. 18, 1818. 

FAZELEY. 

HALF CROWN. 

4. O Arms of the Harding Family ; or, on a bend azure, three 
martlets, a sinister canton of the second, rose between two fleur-de- 
lys, within palm branches ; fazeley silver token mdcccxii 

9> half crown token between four sprigs of palm, payable 
by peels harding & com!!. + . + . R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 75. 
The issuers were bankers and cotton spinners. The first Sir Robert Peel, Bart, was a 
partner in the business of the Tamworth Old Bank. Their London agents were Dorrien, 
Magens and Mello, who demanded the Mint authorities to strike from their bullion the 
shilling of 1798. — vide Grueber,fip. 149,858. 

SHILLING. 

5. O Arms of the Harding family ; fazeley silver token i- 
october 181 1 in a radiated border. 

9> one shilling within a thick wreath of oak. R.r.r. 

This is an artist's proof struck in brass, and the only specimen known with shilling 
fully displayed, 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 119 



Eleven Acorns. 



6. Similar to last, but with a fine toothed border. 

R Similar, but one shill g within a wreath of oak, eleven acorns 
at the left, not counting the one over the tie, the letter h is on the 
fourth centre leaf at the left. 

7. O Similar, but payable by p. pi & c?fazeley silver token i^ 
October 1811 The left corner of shield is between the b and l of 
payable 

R Similar, but a figure 5 is on the fifth leaf at the right. 

Boy-ne 76. 
Ten Acorns. 

8. O Similar, but the left corner of the shield is under the bozv 

of B in PAYABLE 

R Similar, but with ten acorns at the left. 

9. Also in copper. R.r. 

10. O Arms as before; fazeley silver token 181 1 Legend, pay 

ABLE BY PEEL 5 ! HARDING & C° 

R As last. Halliday. 

Plate C, no. 15. 

SIXPENCE. 

11. 0- Arms of the Harding family ; fazeley silver token 181 1 

PAYABLE BY PEEL? HARDING & C° 

R 6 pence within a wreath ; the centre limb of the last e in 
pence is clear of the top and bottom limbs of that letter. The h and 
figure 5 omitted. 

Boyne 78. 

12. O Similar, but the centre limb touches the top and bottom 
limbs of the letter e in pence Halliday. 

STAFFORD. 

SHILLING. 

13. 0- A building (The Shire Hall); Stafford token for twelve 
pence 181 1 Tiles are seen on the roof; the eaves of the building 
at the right lines with the foot of l A Staffordshire knot below. 

R The arms of Stafford ; a castle and four lions ; cK& under. 
The right-hand corner of tower lines between the paws of the lion. 

Boyne 207. 

14. O Similar, but the tiles on the roof are not expressed, and the 
eaves lines between the e and l 

fy Similar, but the lion's paw nearly touches the tower. 

Halliday. 



120 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

COUNTY. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

15. O Laureate bust to right (George III) Staffordshire penny 
token The nose of the effigy points to the first limb of e in staf 

FORDSHIRE. 

9= Female figure seated, holding palm and olive branches, a 
shield at her side ; commerce i8i i The centre blade of palm points 
to the last e in commerce The shield is not tinted. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 197, 3. 

16. G Similar to last, but the nose lines with the last limb of -the 
second r in Staffordshire 

^ Similar, but the centre palm blade points to the letter c 

17. O Similar, but the effigy has an aquiline nose. 

18. O Similar to last, but with p on the bust; and the nose in line 
with the first limb of the r 

£> Female figure seated, holding palm and olive branches, a 
shield at her side ; commerce 181 i A ship in the distance ; there 
is a p between the figure and the shield, which is tinted. R. 

1814. 

19. O Similar to last, but centre leaf of laurel points between the 
r and d whereas before it pointed to the last limb of r The p 
omitted from the bust. 

9= Similar, but dated 18 14 No ship, and the p does not appear. 

Sharp 197, 4. 
No Dat-e. 

20. O Similar, but the circle of pellets as in the last omitted. 

9= Female seated, holding palm branch and cornucopia ; a ship 
in the distance ; commerce R. Patrick. 

Sharp 197, 5. 

21. G Bust unlaureated to right (George III) ; Staffordshire 
penny token Under the bust 181 1 the first numeral is over the 
centre of the y in penny 

£> to facilitate trade within a wreath of oak ; an acorn 
above t in to on the inside of wreath. 

Sharp 197, 1. 

22. O Similar, with an acorn above the t and o of to 

23. O Similar, but the first numeral in date is over the last limb 
of the y A flaw at the left of st in Staffordshire 

$ As no. 21. Turnpenny. 



S TAFFORDSHIRE. 



121 



Mule 1812. 

24. O Similar to no. 19, bust laureated. 

ib View of mining engine and machinery ; payable at scorrier 

HOUSE ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS l8l2 

Halliday and Patrick. 

Sharp 197, 6. 

Mule, no date. 

25. O As last. 

9- View of a building ; payable at the exchange burton 
R.r. Patrick. 

This building represents the old Royal Exchange, London, which was destroyed by 
fire in 1838. — Bazaar Articles. 



26. O Laureate bust to right, date 181 1 under. Staffordshire 

ONE PENNY TOKEN 

fy PAYABLE BY H. BAYLIS. BIRMINGHAM. W-HAMPTON. & BILSTON. 

within a wreath of oak. P. Wyon. 

Sharp 197, 2. 
HALFPENNY. 

27. O Laureate bust to right ; Staffordshire half-penny token 
9> Female figure seated holding palm and olive branches, a 

shield at her side, commerce 18 14 R. Halliday. 

Plate C, no. 16. 

BILSTON. 




From a Silver Medal in the possession of the Author. 

twopenny piece. 
28. O View of iron furnaces and engine house priest field 
furnaces 181 1 t.h on the ground at the right ; a small emission of 
smoke from the chimney. 

¥0 TWO PENCE PAYABLE AT BILSTON S. FEREDAY BRADLEY 
BILSTON & PRIESTFIELD ■ COLLIERIES & IRON WORKS • 

Plate C, no. 17. 
R 



122 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

29. Similar, but the chimney is emitting dense smoke, and the t.h 
is omitted. Halliday. 

Sharp 191, 2. 

Sir Edward Thomason, in his Memoirs, p. 45, 'records that Samuel Fereday was the 
greatest ironmaster in the world ; that he, Thomason, manufactured over two million copper 
tokens for him ; that he employed nearly 5,000 persons, and every Friday, during the 
period of striking, Fereday sent a carriage to Thomason's works for the tokens with which 
to pay his numerous workpeople. Fereday resided at Ettingshall Park, and was the 
principal in the firm of Fereday cV Co., Bankers, Bilston. 

30. O Bust, unlaureated, to right, robed (George III) one pound 
note for 120 tokens 1811 The shoulder lines between o and n 
in one 

£ View of the Exchange ; payable by rushbury & woolley 
bilston 

Sharp 191, 1. 

31. Similar, but larger bust, the shoulder lines with the o in one 

Halliday. 

PENNY. 

32. 0- Bee hive and bees within a square ; one pound note for 
240 tokens • 181 3 • 

9> Three cannon balls within a circle ; payable by james 
atherton. bilston. Halliday. 

Sharp 198, 18. 
James Atherton was an iron founder, and made cannon balls for the Government. 

John of Gaunt, 18 ii. 

33. O Crowned bust to left of John of Gaunt; one pound note 
for 240 tokens 181 1 The point of crown lines to the first limb of 
n in note and the figures 240 are the same size as the letters in the 
legend. 

9: A horseman at speed ; payable by edward beebee bilston 

No period after by or beebee 

Plate C, no. 18. 

34. O Similar, but point of the crown lines to the last limb of n 
in note and the 4 is larger than the other figures. R.r. 

9> As last. 

1812. 

35. O Similar, but dated 18 12 

9= Similar, but a period after by. and beebee. 

Sharp 198, 15. 

36. 0* Similar, but a period after tokens. 

& Similar, but withottt a period after by or beebee R.r. 

Tiimpenny. 

Sharp 198, 16. 

Edward Beebee carried on business as a stone mason in High Street, Bilston. — Bazaar 
Articles. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 123 

Iron Works. 

37. O View of iron furnaces and engine house, priest field 
furnaces 1 8 1 1 The engine chimney emits only a small quantity of 
smoke. 

9> one penny payable at bilston Between sprigs of palm, 

the monogram 6^3? Legend, bradley bilston & priestfield. 

COLLIERIES & IRON WORKS. 

Sharp 198, 20. 

38. O Same as last. 

^ ONE PENNY PAYABLE AT BILSTON S. FEREDAY with a double 

line beneath, bradley bilston & priestfield • collieries & iron 
works. The t of at is over the centre of n in bilston 

Sharp 198, 19. 

39. O Similar to last, but the chimney is emitting more smoke. 

9> Similar, but the t of at is over the last limb of n in 

BILSTON 

Sharp 198, 22. 

40. O As last. 

9= Similar to last, but the 1 of bilston is under the y of 
payable instead of under the a R. 

41. O Similar to last, the first one of date is between the two 
limbs of r 

fy Similar, but the t of at is over the centre of N and the 1 of 
bilston is under the space between a and y of payable 

42. O Similar to last, but the chimney emitting still more smoke, 
h on the ground at the left ; the first one of date is under the upright 
limb of r 

9> As last. R. Halliday. 

Double Inscription, with period after date. 

43. 0- one penny payable by in a circle ; legend a pound note 
for 240 tokens • The p of penny lines to the centre of u in pound 
and the n in one is tinder the e in note 

9= samuel fereday bilston 1812. the first one in date is 
under the 1 and l of bilston 

Sharp 198, 17. 

44. O Similar, but the period under the is at the left of that 
letter. 

9> Similar, but the first one in date is under the first limb of l 

45. O Similar, but the p of penny lines to the end of o The n 
in one is under the t and e of note 

9= Similar, but the b of bilston is under the f and e instead 
of the f of fereday 



124 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

46. O As last. 

Jfc Similar, but the period is at the right of the o in bilston 

47. O Similar, but the top of p lines to the first limb of u 

#> Similar, but the s in bilston is under the e in fereday 
instead of at the left of that letter. 

48. O Similar, but the n in one is under the t in note and there 
is a crosslet to the figure 4 

£> Similar, but the first one of date is under the first limb of l 
and the period is under the centre of o in bilston Halliday. 

No Period after Date. 

49. O Similar, but p in penny lines between the o and u of pound 
and the n in one is under the e in note 

fy Similar, but the period after 181 2 omitted. 

50. O Similar, but the p lines to the centre of u in pound 

9> Similar, but the a in fereday is tinder the l in samuel 
whereas previously it was under the space between the e and l 

Halliday. 

S. Fereday, Ettingshall Park, Staffordshire, Ironmaster, was declared bankrupt Feb. 
19, 1821. 

Bust of George III. 

51. 0- Bust to right, robed, unlaureated (George III) ; one pound 
note for 240 tokens 181 1 The nose of the effigy lines to the o in 

TOKENS 

9= View of a building; payable by rushbury & woolley 
bilston The attennce or horns of the grasshopper touch the first 
limb of the b in rushbury and, bilston is in a straight line. 

Sharp 198, 13. 

52. Similar, but the point of bust is midway between the s and 
date, whereas in the former it is much nearer the last numeral. 

53. Similar, but the nose points to the t in tokens 

54. Similar, but the horns of the grasshopper touch the last limb 
of h in rushbury 

55. Similar, but the horns of the grasshopper touch the h and b 
of rushbury Halliday. 

Date on Obverse and Reverse. 

56. O Bust to right ; one pound note for 240 tokens 181 i 

^ View of a building ; the date 181 1 under, bilston is in a 
curved line, payable . by • • rushbury • • & . woolley 

Note the punctuation in the reverse legend. 

57. Similar, but the point of bust near the s instead of midway 
between that letter and the last numeral in date. R. Halliday. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 125 



No Date under Bust. 



58. O Bust to right ; one pound note for 240 tokens No date 
under the bust. 

£> As last. Halliday. 

No Period after bilston. 

59. O Laureate bust to the right, draped and armoured ; one 
penny token 181 1 

$ View of a building ; payable at bilston Under the build- 
ing, royal exchange The top of the building at the right lines to 
the second limb of a in payable The summit of the weather vane is 
seen above the grasshopper. R. Turnpenny. 

Sharp 198, 12. 

60. O Bust draped, to the right, not laureated ; one penny token 
181 1 The last numeral in date touches the bust. 

$> Similar, but the grasshopper is on the summit of the vane. 
R. Halliday. 

Sharp 197, 7. 

Bust (robed with Ermine). 

61. (> Similar to last, but the bust is robed with ermine, the letters 
smaller, and the date quite clear of the bust. The nose of the effigy 
points to the n in token 

9> Similar, but the top of building lines to the foot of the y The 
final e in exchange terminates with the base line of the building. 

62. O Similar, but the nose points to the e in token 

9> Similar, but exchange extends beyond the line of the build- 
ing ; the top of building at the left lines between a and y in payable 

63. O Similar, but the dots on the robe are very prominent. 
9= Similar, but the top of building lines to the foot of y 

64 O Similar, but the nose of the effigy points to the n and the 
spots on the robe are small. 

fy Similar, but the top of building lines between the a and, 
exchange does not reach to the end of the base line of the building. 

65. O Similar, but the nose of the effigy points to the e 

9> Similar, but the top of building lines to the last limb of a 
The grasshopper nearly touches the t in at and, exchange extends 
beyond the base line. 



126 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

66. O Similar, but the nose points between e and n There are 
pellets on the robe instead of small spots. The figures in date very 
large. 

R Similar, but the top of the building lines to the first 
limb of a R. Halliday, 



A Period after bilston. 

67. O Bust as before, the legend in smaller letters ; the nose of 
the effigy points to the e The last i in date is under the centre of 
the robe. 

fy Similar, but the top of building at the left lines to the foot 
of the y and there is a period after bilston. exchange terminates 
with the base line. 

68. O Similar, but the nose points between the e and n and the 8 in 
date is under the centre of the robe ; the last numeral is nearer the 
bust. 

9> Similar, but the top of building lines between the a and y 
The grasshopper in this is much smaller than in any others. 

69. O Similar, but the nose points to the n The second l in date 
is under the centre of the robe. 

9> Similar, but the top of building lines to the foot of the y 

70. O Similar, but the second and third figures of date are under 
the centre of the robe. 

£> Similar, but the top of the building lines to the first limb 
of a and exchange does not extend to the end of the base line. 

71. O Similar, but the nose points to the e and the third figure 
of date is under the centre of the robe. 

$ Similar, but the top of the building at the left lines between 
the a and y and exchange terminates with the base line. Halliday. 



HALFPENNY. 

72. O one half penny payable by in a circle, a one pound note 

FOR 480 TOKENS. 

B> SAMUEL FEREDAY BILSTON l8l2. 
Sharp 210, 2. 

73. A Proof with a broad toothed border. R. Halliday. 

Plate C, no. 19. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 127 

BURSLEM. 

PENNY. 

74. O one penny token in a circle. FOR public accommodation 

■•'*■• 

$> one pound note for 240 tokens 1813 in a circle, payable 

BY I & R RILEY AND MACHIN & C° BURSLEM P. WyOfl. 

Sharp 198, 3. 

John and Richard Riley were earthenware manufacturers, and Machin & Co. colour 
makers, in Hill Street. 

Riley's Semi-China, within a belt and buckle, is found on blue willow pattern. — Vide 
Chaffers' Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, 10th ed., 1903, p. 630. 

BURTON. 

PENNY. 

75. O View of a building (Bond End Mill) ; payable by james 

PARDOE BURTON 1814 

9> one penny token in a thin wreath of oak and laurel, a 
border of pellets. 

Sharp 198, 24. 
The issuer was a tape and cotton manufacturer. 

76. O As last. 

^ one penny token within a thick wreath of oak, a serrated 
border. R. Turnpenny. 

See Sedbury, Gloucestershire, for a similar reverse. 

Mules. 

77. O As last. 

9. Druid's bust to left ; penny token, pure copper preferable 
to paper. R.r. 

78. 0- View of the Royal Exchange ; payable at the exchange 

BURTON 

9> As last. Turnpenny and Wyon. 

Sharp 199, 25. 

79. O As last. 

£> one penny token within a thin wreath of oak and laurel. 
h on the leaf opposite n in token R. Turnpenny and Halliday. 

80. O As last. 

p. Prince of Wales' crest, encircled by a coronet, and motto 
ich dien on a ribbon, to facilitate trade . * . Under the plume 
1 8 1 3 R. Turnpenny and Halliday. 



128 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

CHEADLE. 

PENNY. 

81. O token 1812 in a circle, cheadle copper & brass company 
. # . The t of token lines with the c in copper 

#> one penny in a circle, payable in London cheadle and 
neath • The y of penny lines with the last limb of a in and 

82. Similar, but the y of penny lines to the centre of n in and 

83. O Similar, but the t of token is between the e and c 

9> Similar, but the y of penny lines with the first limb of n in 
and P. Wyon. 

Sharp 199, 26. 

This famous Company was founded by Patten in 17 17. The smelting works were 
built at Bank Quay, near Warrington, and the Brass Mills erected soon afterwards at 
Cheadle. The River Churnet supplied the power for the wire mills. The works were sub- 
sequently removed to Neath Abbey, South Wales. 

• DARLASTON. 

PENNY. 

84. O ONE PENNY PAYABLE BY ill a circle. A ONE POUND NOTE 

for 240 tokens, The y of penny lines to the figure 2 in 240 

9> job wilkes darlaston 1 8 1 2 The ones in date are curved. R. 

85. Similar, but the y in penny lines to the figure 4 R. 

Sharp 199, 27. 

86. Similar, but dated 181 3 and the ones in date are straight. R. 

Unknown. 

Sharp 199, 28. 
These are almost invariably struck over some other token. 

Job Wilkes was a gun lock maker in Bilston Street, Darlaston. The house occupied by 
him when the token was struck is now the " Bradford Arms." 

LICHFIELD. 

TWOPENCE. 

87. O View of a factory and river with trees at the sides ; john 

HENRICKSON LEMMONSLY MILL NEAR LITCHFIELD (sic) # Ex. TWO- 
PENNY token On the ground at the right, h 

& Arms of the city of Lichfield between oak branches crossed 
beneath a lion's head ; landscape, trees and view of cathedral and 
castle ; bodies and limbs of three men on the ground, all proper, with 
crowns and swords dispersed over the field, one pound note for 

120 tokens R. Halliday. 

Plate D, no. 1. 
The issuer resided in Dam Street, in this city. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 129 

PENNY. 

88. O Similar, but one-penny token The h on the ground is 
omitted. R. 

9> Similar, but 240 tokens Halliday. 

Sharp 199, 29. 

NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYME. 

89. O A bale of cotton inscribed with the initial t within an oval 
wreath of laurel ; payable at the cotton works Newcastle. 
Legend, one pound note for 240 tokens 

9. one penny token in a circle, for public accommodation 
1 8 1 3 Sheriff. 

Sharp 199, 30. 
" Issued by John Harrison Thompson, the proprietor." — Bazaar Articles. 

PERRY BARR. 

90. O A wheatsheaf; payable by w^ 1 booth perry barr The 
wheatsheaf is under the y of by and the ground lines with the p of 

PAYABLE 

I£> penny token in a circle. Staffordshire -M 81 1 * The 
ones in date are formed by fine strokes, and there is 3. flaw over the 
n in token R.r. Patrick. 

Plate D, no. 2. 

" William Booth, ' near to the House of Queslet,' it is said, struck the Perry Barr token 
as a cover for his forgeries, for which he was found guilty and executed at Stafford on 
August 15, 1 8 12. 

" It may be of interest to know that when Booth was arrested a specimen of this token 
was found in the farmhouse at Perry Barr, and handed to the late Mr. Hamper, a magistrate 
of Warwickshire." — Token Coinage of Warwickshire, 802. 

Execution of Booth for forging Bank Notes at Stafford. 

"On Sat. Aug. 15, about 12 o'clock, William Booth was brought upon the scaffold to 
suffer the punishment due to his crimes ; he acknowledged the justice of his sentence. A 
most distressing occurrence took place at the time of his execution, the rope slipping, he fell 
to the ground and many people thought he was dead, but the unfortunate man got up and 
fell on his knees, praying for mercy for his misdeeds. The assistants then prepared the 
scaffold again, but owing to a mistake the drop remained fast, when Booth gave the signal 
for it to fall, and it was not until much force had been applied that the drop fell. The 
number of people who attended was not so numerous as was expected, but all appeared 
much shocked at the sufferings of the poor malefactor." — The Star, Aug. 20, 1812. 

91. Similar, but the wheatsheaf is under by and the ground 
lines with the p of perry 

#> Similar, but the ones in date are formed of thick strokes and 
the flaw is absent from over the n in token Unknown. 

A modern copy of good workmanship ; it is described so that collectors may easily 
identify the genuine token. 

S 



130 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

POTTERIES. 

PENNY. 

92. O A kiln, at the right a workman laden with pottery ; staf 

FORDSHIRE POTTERY 1813 

#> one penny token in a circle. Legend for public accom 
modation.. # •• R. Halliday. 

Plate D, no. 3. 

RUGELEY. 

TWOPENCE. 

93. O A wheel with machinery ; double blowing engines for 
foundries made by e- barker rugely Below, two penny token 

^ A hydraulic blowing machine ; street's single patent 

blowing engines for smiths • 1815 R.r. Halliday. 

Plate D, no. 4. 

PENNY. 

94. O one penny payable by in a circle. ONE pound note for 

24O TOKENS* 

9> EDWARD BARKER RUGELEY Halliday. 

Sharp 200, 33. 

STAFFORD. 

Short Gateway. 

95. O The arms of the town, a castle and four lions statant 
gardant ; Stafford above; 1801 below; the embattlement of the 
centre tower at the left is under the a and f of Stafford The apex 
of the arch to the doorway reaches to the eighth course of the masonry. 

£> The monogram w e/fe A crosslet at each side ; above, 
penny Below, a Staffordshire knot in solid lines ; the end of the tie 
at the right is under the bow of the knot. P. Wyon. 

Sharp 200, 35. 
E, PAYABLE BY HORTON AND COMPANY. + + . R. 
Long Gateway. 

96. O Similar to last, but the embattlement of the central tower 
at the left is under the_/f?^ limb of f and the apex of the arch is 
built to the ninih line of masonry. 

9> Similar to last, but the knot is outlined and the end of the 
tie at the right intersects the bow of the knot, from which a flaw ex- 
tends to the edge of the token. 

E, As last. P. Wyon. 

Plate D, no. 5. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 131 

97. O Similar, but dated 1803 

£> Similar, but the end of the tie at the right is over the bow 
of the knot, and there is no flaw in the die. 

E, As last. P. Wyon. 

Sharp 200, 37. 

The Stafford-knot was a charge on the banner of Sir Henry de Stafford. Horton & Co. 
were boot manufacturers, one of the principals occupied a high public position in the town. 



STAFFORD AND STAFFORDSHIRE. 

98. O one penny in a circle. Stafford & Staffordshire * 

$> token 181 1 in a circle, flint copper company Arose 
ornament below. R.r. 

WALSALL. 

The Bear and Ragged Staff. 

99. O Bear and ragged staff ; payable by Fletcher & sharratt 
The bear's ears are under the e in Fletcher 

9> walsall token one penny 1811 in a wreath of oak ; the 
centre acorn has a long stem, and an acorn toziches the w in walsall 

Sharp 200, 38. 

100. Similar, but the bear's ears are under the h 

101. Similar, but the acorn is above the w in walsall 

102. Similar, but the centre acorn has a short stem. 

103. Similar, but the centre acorn has no stem, and an acorn nearly 
touches the l in walsall whereas in the last it is distant from it. 

104. O Similar, but the bear's ears are under the last limb of h and 
the centre of e 

9> Similar, but the centre acorn has a short stem. 

105. Similar, but the ears point to the first limbs of h and e The 
centre acorn has no stem at the junction of the wreath. R. 

Turnpenny. 

Walsall Church. 

106. O View of St. Matthew's Church ; w t f under, payable 

BY FLETCHER & SHARRATT 

9= walsall token one penny 1 8 1 1 in a wreath of oak ; 
the centre acorn has a short stem. R. Turnpenny. 

Plate D, no. 6. 



132 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Druid's Head. 

107. O A druid's head ; payable by Joseph parker. The hood 
points to the e in payable 

~& walsall token one penny 1811 in a wreath of oak; 
there are three acorns, with long stems on the inside of the wreath at 
the left ; the first acorn is tinder the p of penny 

Sharp 200, 42. 

108. O Similar, but the head of the Druid is shorter, the hood 
points to the l in payable and the first fold of the hood commences 
under the y in by 

P> Similar, but the first acorn is at the left of p in penny 

P. Wyon. 

109. O Similar, but there is a border to the hood, which points to 
the e in payable The first fold commences under the space between 
the y and j 

£ Similar, but with an acorn on a short stem at the right, 
close to the last l in walsall and the first acorn at the left turns 
from the i in date. 

110. O Similar, but the head has a Roman nose, and the first fold 
of the hood is under the j 

9= Similar, but the first acorn at the left inclines to the i 
in date. 

111. 0- Similar, but the head has a Grecian nose, the hood points 
to the l and the first fold commences under the y in by 

$ As last. 

112. O Similar, but the first fold of the hood commences under 
the b in by 

£> Similar, but the centre acorn omitted, and the two inside 
acorns at the right have long stems. R. 

113. O Similar, but the head points to the e and the first fold 
commences under the space between y and j 

Vo As last. Unknown. 

Double Obverse. 

114. O Bust and legend as before ; the first fold of the hood 
commences under the y in by 

$> Similar to the obverse, but the first fold of the hood 
commences under by 

This double obverse is in Mr. Norman's cabinet. 
The decline of the latter pieces, both in workmanship and specific gravity, seems to 
intimate that they were forgeries of the time. 
Joseph Parker was a locksmith. 



STAFFORDSHIRE. 133 

HALFPENNY. 

115. O Bear and ragged staff; payable by fletcher & sharratt 
R walsall halfpenny token 1811 in a wreath of oak. 

Turnpenny. 
Plate D, no. 7. 

WEDNESBURY. 

PENNY. 

116. O Bust to right robed (George III), one penny token 181 2 
R View of a building ; royal exchange under. Legend, 

for public accommodation Halliday. 

Sharp 200, 43. 
This token was issued by Abel Round, a maltster of Wednesbury. 

HALFPENNY. 

117. Similar to last, but halfpenny token 1812 Halliday. 

Plate D, no. 8. 

WEST BROMWICH AND COSELEY. 

PENNY. 

118. O penny token 1812 in a circle, west bromwich & coseley 
R in cash notes in a circle, payable by james cooksey. 

Halliday. 

Sharp 200, 44. 
James Cooksey was a nail manufacturer. 

WEST BROMWICH, OLDBURY, TIPTON & BRIERLEY. 

PENNY. 

119. O penny token 1811 in a circle, west-bromwich • oldbury- 
tipton & brierly * The n in token lines to the centre of n in 

TIPTON 

R A POUND NOTE FOR 24O ■ PAYABLE AT WEST-BROMWICH • BY 

w • whitehouse & c? The 4 is at the left of the n in note 

Sharp 201, 45. 

120. O Similar, but the n in token lines to the centre of & 
R As last. 

121. O As last. 

R Similar, but the 4 points to the right of o in note 

122. O Similar, but the n in token lines between & and the n in 

TIPTON 

R As last. Halliday. 

Whitehouse & Co. were canal carriers, and their London House was at the Axe, 
Aldermanbury. 



134 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



WITHYMOOR. 

PENNY. 

128. O Interior of a forge ; on a label above, withymoor scythe 
works Ex. one penny 1813 No brickwork at the right of the 
forge. 

9> Agricultural tools in a circle ; crossed spades under ; one 

POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS ■ PAYABLE BY JA- GRIFFIN & SON? The 

b in by is under the 2 

Plate D, no. 9. 

124. O Similar to last, but dated 18 14 There is brickwork at the 
right of the forge. 

V° Similar, but the b in by is under the 4 Sherriff. 

Sharp 201, 47. 

WOLVERHAMPTON. 

There were no issuers of Nineteenth Century Tokens in this town. They were 
extensively circulated there. Fereday's and Rushbury & Wooley's, being the principal. 

"At a meeting of the inhabitants of Wolverhampton, on Thursday last, they resolved 
— ' That the great influx of silver and copper tokens, issued by individuals, companies and 
corporations, is becoming a serious public grievance,' and they agree with each other to 
discontinue the receiving of them in payment." — Worcester Herald, Jan. 1812. 



r 



CVA--\ 




yf- *$&?7.£>/ei 



LIC 



From an Original Pen and Ink Sketch in the possession of Win. Norman. 



135 

SUFFOLK. 

IPSWICH. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O The Prince of Wales's plume and motto ; ich dien A drum, 
inscribed Q ft (George the King) and implements of war ; i d on 
the ground. 

9> 1 8 1 1 ipswich shilling silver token h.m in a circle. Legend, 

A ONE POUND NOTE WILL BE PAID FOR 20 OF THESE BY W ADAMS. The 

s of shilling lines with the e of note R.r. 

Boyne 104. 

2. O As last. 

& Similar, but the s lines with the o of note and a cross after 
adams + R.r. Davies. 

Webster Adams was a pipe-maker in Currer's Lane. 

3. O As last. 

& silver token to convenience the army and the public 

< voulu& one shilling Scrolls at the sides of To'and and R. Davies. 

4. O The arms of Ipswich, a lion rampant gardant, three demi- 
hulks in a garter inscribed, dollar • silver • Crest a demi-lion ; 

IPSWICH TOKEN FOR XII PENCE 

£> payable by w- adams 1 8 1 2 in a wreath of oak ; h m under. 

Boyne 105. 

5. Also in Copper. R.r. Halliday. 

See Hampshire, no. 34. 

6. O The same as last. 

9> payable at clayton and hyde's in a circle, accommoda 
tion change 1811 R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 106. 
This reverse is also used for a Shoreham token. 

NEEDHAM MARKET. 

SHILLING. 

7. O silver token stamp office needham 1811 h • m in a circle. 
Legend, a one pound note will be paid for 20 of these by j. 

STEWARD x 

Tfc one shilling value h ■ m in a wreath of oak. issued by 
royal licence R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 157. 
This reverse is also used for a Holbeach and a Lynn token. 



136 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

WOODBRIDGE. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

8. O Figure of Justice standing ; for the accommodation of 

TRADE I 8 I I 

9> silver token value is. 6d. h m in a wreath of oak. 

PAYABLE AT STUDD & MATHEWS'S WOODBRIDGE • + • 

Plate L, no. 20. 

9. Also in copper, R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 226. 
The issuers were grocers and drapers. 

SHILLING. 

10. O VALUE ONE SHILLING PAYABLE AT W SIZERS WOODBRIDGE in a 

circle. 

$0 woodbridge silver token 1 8 1 1 in a circle. Legend, for 

THE ACCOMMODATION • OF • TRADE R. WyOfl. 

Boyne 225. 
William Sizer, who issued the token, was a grocer and excise officer. 

BENHALL. 

COPPER. 

HALFPENNY. 

11. 0- iohn shuckford wade in a circle. 

B> benhall Suffolk 1 765. in a circle. R. Halliday. 

Golding 91, 1. 

" Mr. Wade had a fine estate at Benhall ; he was a large farmer and osier grower. Mr. 
Wade was also a shipowner at Aldeburgh, where he was buried 4. April, 1839. The date 
on the token is the year of his birth. 

The token was probably issued for a halfpenny, for paying the wages of his Work 
people, about the year 181 1, as it is very similar to the pieces struck at that time." — 
Goldi'iig's Coinage of Suffolk. 

J. S. Wade, the issuer, " was awarded a prize for planting fifteen acres with upwards of 
12,000 sets of osiers per acre, which it was certified on reputable authority are now in a 
thriving state and fit for basket making." — Monthly Magazine, April 1, 1807. 



GLEMHAM. 

12. O glemham Suffolk 1 732 in a circle. 

$> 1 8 1 2 francis wade • * • in a circle. R. Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 19. 

The date on this hitherto unpublished piece confirms Mr. Golding's assumption as to 
the date of the issue of the younger brother John's token. 



SUFFOLK. 137 

HOXNE. 

TWOPENCE. 

13. O A trooper leaning at the side of his horse, in a circle. 

LOYAL YEOMAN PRO REGE LEGE ET PATRIA (For King, Law and 

Country). 

% I PROMISE to PAY to THE HON : BLE GEO \ YEOMAN or bearer 
the SUM of TWO-PENCE ON the PERFECT ESTABLISHMENT of PEACE & 
UNANIMITY for KING LORDS, and COMMONS. John Bull 

Outer legend, old England. 2. march 1798. ent? ja? loyal. 
R.r.r. Wyon. 

Atkins 360, 1. 

This piece was engraved by the same artist as the Penny and Halfpenny of Hoxne, 
the motto of which is PRO ARIS ET FOCIS (for our altars and our homes), indicating a 
different school of thought prevalent in the stormy days of the French revolutionary period. 
The tokens were all made at Peter Kempson's workshop, Birmingham. 

LOWESTOFT. 

PENNY. 

14. O Female seated on a rock, resting her arm on an anchor, a 
ship in the distance ; success to the lowestoft fisheries i 8 i i 

9> one penny token Legend, non sibi sed patrle. (Not for 
himself, but for his country), payable at i chaston's lowestoft. 

P. Wyon. 

Sharp 201, 1. 

15. O The same as last. 

9 Similar, but an inner circle added ; a scroll ornament above. 
one penny token A sprig of laurel below. P. Wyon. 

Plate D, no. 10. 
John Chaston was a draper and bank agent. 



138 

SURREY. 

GODALMING. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O In the centre xn Legend, godalming * token • * 

9? A woolsack, inscribed 1811 Legend, pro bono * publico.* 
(For the Public good). R.r.r. 

Plate L, no. 21. 

SIXPENCE. 

2. Similar to last, except in size and value, vi R.r.r. Unknown. 

The issuers of these tokens were probably Moline & Co., bankers. 

RIPLEY. 

SIXPENCE. 

3. O In script characters ./^i/ Legend, ripley sixpence 

fy 6 No inner circle. . . Unknown. 

This is in tin. 

In Mr. Bowies' cabinet. 

WEYBRIDGE. 

SHILLING. 

4. 0- A barrel in a circle ; 1 bunn & c- weybridge iron works. 

9> one shilling token On a band azure, dowgate wharf 
licensed P. Wyon. 

Plate D, no. 11. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

5. 0- View of mills and water wheel ; weybridge mills. 

9- ONE PENNY PAYABLE AT WEYBRIDGE I BUNN & C~ l8l 2 Legend, 
HOOP & IRON WAREHOUSE. DOWGATE WHARF. P. Wyon. 

Plate D, no. 12. 
The issuers were Bunn & Johnson of Dowgate Wharf, Upper Thames Street. 

LONDON ROAD. 

FARTHING. 

6. O Laureated head to right (George IV) ; 1 king. London road 
1821 

9> Two pipes in saltire ; tobacconist 1821 Halliday. 

Waters 49. 
Issued by John King, 10, London Road, Southwark. 



SURREY. 139 



RICHMOND, 

FARTHING. 

7. O innocent virtuoso Richmond surrey Ornaments under 
Richmond and above surrey 

# TOBACCONIST & PURVEYOR * OF foreign snuffs i 82 1 

Unknown. 
Waters 53. 
Robert Innocent, George Street, Richmond, was also a dealer in curios. 



WALWORTH. 

FARTHING. 

8. O JAMES BEAN 1814 TOBACCONIST NO I • BLACK PRINCE ROW 
WALWORTH ROAD SURRY (sic) 

£. GENUINE TOBACCO & SNUFF WHOLESALE & RETAIL R. 

Unknown. 

Waters 47. 

Black Prince Row was on the left side at the commencement of the Walworth Road, 
opposite the famous Elephant and Castle. There is still a Black Prince Court in the 
immediate neighbourhood. 



140 



SUSSEX. 

BRIGHTON. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O SILVER TOKEN J- B PHILLIPSON CHEMIST BRIGHTON With VariOUS 

ornaments, within a wreath of olive. 

9> ONE SHILLING PAYABLE BY R- PHILLIPSON DRUGGIST CHICHESTER 

with various ornaments, within a wreath of olive. R. Halliday. 

Boyne 20. 
J. Bradshaw Phillipson conducted the business at Brighton, and his brother, Robert, 
at Chichester. 

CHICHESTER. 

CROWN. 

2. O Two hands clenched, union token five shillings mdcccxi 
The final s of shillings is the same size as the other letters. 

$> PAYABLE AT H y COMPER's OR B- CHARGES CHICHESTER Within a 

wreath of oak, a Staffordshire knot between the fifth and sixth lines; 
the R of chichester is between e and s of charges R.r. 

3. O Similar to last, but the final s of shilling 5 is smaller. 

¥° Similar, but the r is under the s of charges R.r. Halliday. 

Henry Comper was a draper, and Benjamin Charge a harness maker. 
HALF CROWN. 

4. O Similar to last, but value 2 shill & 6? 

$> Similar to last, but reads payable at h= comper's or b. 
charge's chichester The top of the small y in h= is above the 
final limb of h R.r. 

Boyne 51. 

5. As last. 

R. Similar, but the top of the small y is level with the final limb 
of h R.r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 22. 

ONE SHILLING. 

6. Similar, but reads one shilling No zvreath on the reverse. 
R. Halliday. 

Plate D, no. 13. 

7. O A view of the Market Cross ; chichester accommodation 
xii pence The base line of the building commences at the x of xn 

£> PAYABLE AT B & J. CAFFIN's J. REDMAN'S W. HALSTEAD's AND C 

shipham's 181 1 

Plate J, no. 20. 



SUSSEX. 141 

8. Similar, but the base line commences near to the first c in 

CHICHESTER R. Unknown. 

9. O Arms, a triple towered castle, over the entrance a shield 
guttu-de-poix in chief, indented a lion passant gardant ; chichester 

SILVER TOKEN ■ I 8 1 I 

£> payable by t- dally & c° i^ in a circle. Legend, commer 
cial * change * inscribed on a band, vert. P. Wyon. 

Plate E, no. i. 

10. O The same as last. 

9> xii pence in the centre. Legend, commercial change R. 

P. Wyon 

Boyne 55. 

Thomas Dally & Co. were drapers in East Street, who, in 1794, issued a halfpenny 
token : obverse, bust, of Queen Elizabeth ; reverse, the Chichester cross. On the edge is 
PAYABLE AT dallys CHICHESTER x It was the work of Thomas Wyon, and 5 cwt. were 
struck. — Vide Atkins 197, 14. 

SIXPENCE. 

11. Hands in grip, etc. Similar to the shilling no. 6, excepting 
in size and value ; six pence R. Halliday. 

Boyne 53. 

12. A castle, etc. Similar to the shilling no. 9, excepting in size 
and value 6? P. Wyon. 

Boyne 56. 

ROWFANT. 

shilling. 

13. O A farmer with horses ploughing; henry hunt rowfant 
house Sussex On the ground at the right y & d 

9> one shilling 181 1 in a circle. Legend, token in exchange 

for • labour • R.r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 23. 
Henry Hunt was a farmer in the Parish of Worth, one mile from Rowfant. 

SHOREHAM. 

SHILLING. 

14. O View of a church with tower and weather vane ; shore 

HAM • TOKEN XII • PENCE 

9> payable at clayton and hide's in a circle. Legend, 

ACCOMMODATION CHANGE l8ll R.r. 

Plate L, no. 24. 

15. Similar view, but with an inner circle added; legend, 'etc., 
as before, but reads pense (sic). R.r. 

Plate L, no. 25. 
This reverse also occurs on an Ipswich token. 
Thomas Clayton and John Hyde were grocers at Shoreham. 



142 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

STEYNING. 

SHILLING. 

16. O SILVER SHILLING TOKEN PAYABLE AT S GATEIS OR I CHEESMANS 

steyning Sussex in a circle. Legend, issued by royal licence for 

THE CONVENIENCE OF TRADE • I 8 I I 

9> A beehive and bees, within a hop and barley wreath, h- m 
under the hive. R. 

Boyne 211. 

17. Similar, but the first issuer's name gate's (sic) instead of 
gateis R.r. Halliday. 

Samuel Gateis kept the Three Tuns Inn, and John Cheesman was a draper. These 
tradesmen issued the token jointly. 



; '•St ^ 
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143 



WARWICKSHIRE. 

BEDWORTH. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O A crest ; out of crescent two dragons' heads addorsed ; for 

THE CONVENIENCE OF CHANGE- ISSUED OCT? 25- l8 1 I • 

£> ONE SHILLING TOKEN PAYABLE AT BEDWORTH-MILL * WyOU. 

Plate K, no. 12. 

Bedworth Mill is one of the oldest in the county, and is now used as a silk mill, It is 
at present in the occupation of Mr. A. E. Jagger. 

Henry Poynty Lane, the issuer of the token, carried on business as a wool comber, 
or " garsy comber." The motive power was obtained from the finest water wheel of its 
day, which stands in its original position, although in a somewhat dilapidated state. The 
crest of Henry Poynty Lane was two eagles' heads addorsed, issuant from a crescent. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

The Overseers. 

2. O West view of a building; Birmingham token Ex. 2s 6d mdcccxi 
There is a side wicket in addition to the central entrance. 

9= The arms of Birmingham ; quarterly first, and fourth azure, 
a bend of nine lozenges or, second and third per pale indented, gules. 

ONE POUND NOTE FOR EIGHT TOKENS PAYABLE AT THE WORKHOUSE 

R.r.r. Wyon. 

Plate D, no. 14. 

It is said that a variety of this piece exists where the value 2s. 6d. is above the building, 
divided by the tower. At this period Birmingham was much inconvenienced for the want 
of silver coin, as will be seen from the efforts of the overseers. 

"A Deputation of the Overseers of Birmingham waited upon the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer (Spencer Perceval) a few days since, and having represented the extreme dis- 
tress of the town for the want of small change, obtained three thousand pounds in dollars, 
which arrived, and a further sum of ,£6000, in 3s. and 1/6 pieces is expected." — Star News- 
paper, July nth, 181 1. 

Wright's. 

3. O A Chinaman, in his hand a palm branch, standing between a 
canister, vase, and a chest labelled fine tea All surrounded by a 
band inscribed two shillings and sixpence • Legend, payable by 

EDWARD WRIGHT BIRMINGHAM 

& Shield of arms. Warwickshire silver token pound note 
for eight 181 1 R.r.r. 

Boyne 23. 



144 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

4. O As last. 

9> As last, but the p in pound is between the limbs of the r in 
Warwick whereas in the former it is under the last limb of that 
letter. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate L, no. 26. 

The arms are those of the de Birminghams, who were lords of the manor. 
Edward Wright carried on business as a mercer and a grocer at 33, Bull Street, the 
corner of the Minories. 



The Overseers, 
shilling, 1811. 

5. O West view of a building. Birmingham token one shilling 
Under the building 181 1 The eaves of the building at the left lines 
between b and 1 in Birmingham and the 1 in date is over the s in 

SHILLING 

Vo The arms of Birmingham, one pound note for 20 tokens 
payable at the workhouse The centre bar of shield at the right 
lines to the space between s and e in workhouse 

Boyne 21. 

6. O As last. 

9> As last, but the centre bar lines to centre of e in workhouse 

7. O As last, but the eaves opposite to 1 in Birmingham and the 
first numeral in date is over the s and h in shilling 

$t As last, but the bar in centre of shield lines above the e 

8. O As last. 

&> Similar, but the bar lines to the centre of e 

9. O Similar, but eaves lines to the bow of b The first numeral 
of date is at the left of s 

$> Similar, but the centre bar is in line with the frst limb of e 

10. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the bar lines to the terminal of e 

11. O Similar, but the eaves opposite to 1 in Birmingham and the 
upright rabbets in window are omitted. 

9> Similar, but the bar lines to centre of e 

12. O As last. 

& Similar, but centre bar lines to terminal of e Wyon. 

13. O Similar, but the eaves opposite to the space betwee?i b and 
1 of Birmingham The first numeral in date is at the left of s in 
shilling The vane is without its summit. 

$ Similar, but the bar lines to the centre of e R. 



WARWICKSHIRE. 145 

14 O Similar, but the eaves opposite the i The n in token nearly 
touches the wall, and the first mineral in date is over the s in 
shilling There are no upright i^abbets to the windows. 

fy Similar, but without the horizontal centre bar. Unknown. 

The two last are in copper, and forgeries of the time. Both are rare, the last 
especially so. 

1812. 

15. O Similar to the preceding, but without the wicket at the left, 
and dated 1 8 1 2 The pavement is longer than the wall. 

B> Similar to the preceding, but the centre bar of shield lines 
with the first limb of e 

16. Similar, but the centre bar of shield lines to the centre of e 

17. O Similar, but the pavement is shorter than the wall. 

$ As last. Willets'. 



SIXPENCE, 5 ; 1811. 

18. O Similar to last, but dated 181 1 and the wicket is at the left, 
as on the shillings of this date. 

£ Similar to preceding, but one pound note for 40 tokens 
The centre bar lines with the first limb of e Wyon. 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 



19. O Similar, but dated 181 2 and the wicket omitted, 
fy As last. 

Boyne 22. 

20. O As last. 

fy Similar, but line of shield to centre of e R. Willets. 

Plate L, no. 27. 

WlLLEY. 
THREE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

21. O Bust to right, iohn Wilkinson iron master- 

£> A two-mast barge under sail fine silver 1788 willey 

£, SNEDSHILL BERSHAM BRADLEY R. 
Plate L, no. n. 

22. Also a proof in copper. R.r.r. 

This is in the British Museum. 
U 



146 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

23. As last, but edge payable in anglesea • London or liver 
pool • x • R.r.r. Hancock. 

This piece was current for three shillings and sixpence. Pye says only ioo were struck. 

Mr. A. N. Palmer, in an excellent little work on " John Wilkinson and the old Bersham 
Iron Works," illustrates a one guinea Brymbo Iron Works Note, issued in 1814, with the 
promissory of the Trustees of the late John Wilkinson. The halfpenny tokens of this 
celebrated ironmaster had a very extensive circulation in Wales, Staffordshire and War- 
wickshire. Many tons of them were made at Soho. The varieties of die are very numerous. 

John Wilkinson died at Hadley, Shropshire, on July 14th, 1808, aged 80 years. 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

24. O A female seated, her right hand extending alms to an old 
man, her left supports a child kneeling ; a boy is at the side of the man. 

& In script characters 0$ W $£> (Birmingham Workhouse) 

above the monogram 1788 Legend, two shillings and sixpence- 

Dixon. 

Boyne 21. 
See Countermarked Section no. 43. 

TWO SHILLINGS. 

25. The same as last, but and sixpence partly obliterated by a 
puncheon. 

These pieces are occasionally met with, and there can be no doubt but what they were 
altered by order to pass for two shillings. 

ONE SHILLING. 

26. O A beehive and bees, industry has its sure reward 

9> 1799 I- s R.r. Wyon. 

Atkins 202, 4. 

These were the earliest tokens issued by the overseers of the poor of Birmingham, and 
although in copper were circulated and honoured at their face value. 

Boyne and other authors have been under the impression that the Two Shillings and 
Sixpence existed in Silver and Brass, but this is an error, as some were heavily Silver plated 
and Copper gilt. 

See also Warwickshire Countermarks for other Workhouse Tokens. 

The overseers, in 1808, also issued paper money for Five Pounds, One Pound, Five 
Shillings and Two Shillings and Sixpence. The author has in his possession (formerly the 
property of R. L. Grew) an original Workhouse Note for Five Shillings in leather, signed 
T. Saddington and Jas. Welch. The notes differ from other paper money, as they are 
mostly issued on " Account of the Town" or "Parish" of Birmingham ; clearly indicating 
that the Overseers, at that time, provided, at least, a part of the currency. 

COUNTY. 

PENNY. 

27. O Laureated bust (George III) to right. Warwickshire 1813 
V° Britannia seated on a rock to left, a spear in her left hand, 

in her right a laurel branch ; the Union shield at her side, one penny 
token R. Halliday. 

Sharp 201, 1. 



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(A^sj>Avmmi)l)(\]iv^(vnU)ou^(\ v __ 




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From the Original Copper-plate in the possession of the Author. 






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I on At-cpmn ol'tjic Town 





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S/SSY'/I'/S / <"/ W? S/f'S/'/ 



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From Paper Tokens in the possession of the Author. 




WA K WICK SHI RE. 



147 



The Birmingham Overseers, 
sixpence. 
28. West view of a building, showing centre tower and weather 
vane. Legend, Birmingham six pence 1813 On the pavement w 
There is no side wicket. 

ft The arms of Birmingham. Legend, one pound note for 

40 TOKENS PAYABLE AT THE WORKHOUSE {Size M. I $\ ). R.T.r. 

Plate D, no. 15. Willets. 

The specific gravity of this token varies slightly. The author has weighed, except one, 
all the known pieces : the lightest was 5 ozs. 3 dwts., and the heaviest 5 ozs. 7 dwts. The 
diameter is Mionnet 13I in all cases. 

There are seven known specimens. Recently one was bequeathed to the Birmingham 
Museum ; until which it was believed that only six were struck. This is the only Nineteenth 
Century Sixpenny token in copper containing equivalent metal value. The Birmingham 
overseers, at a time when copper was comparatively cheap and silver dear, thought by this 
means a currency could be circulated on economical lines, but its excessive weight was an 
insurmountable obstacle. 





A copy of last without the w on the pavement. 

weight 4 ozs. 8^ dwts. (M. 13). 

30. The same on a thin flan, but with a fine corded rim. 

weight 1 z. i|- dwts. 

31. The same in gold. weight 1 oz. 5 J dwts. 

32. The same in silver. weight 5 ozs. J^dwts. 

33. The same in silver on a thin flan. weight 1 oz. 5^ dwts. 

Unknown. 
Of these copies, there were six perfect specimens struck as 29 ; a similar number, on a 
thin flan as 30 ; one example in gold as 31 ; and one each as 32 and 33 in silver. The 
dies have been destroyed. 

THREEPENNY PIECE. 

34. O West view of the Workhouse. Birmingham three pence 
1 8 13 The 1 in date is over the space between the two last letters 
in three and there is a w on the pavement, but no side wicket. 

9> Arms as before, one pound note for 80 tokens payable 
at the workhouse The second o in workhouse is over the o in 

TOKENS 

Sharp 190, 1. 



148 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

35. O Similar to last, but the first numeral of date is over the 
first e in THREE 

£> Similar, but the second o in workhouse is over the k in 
tokens R.r. Willets. 

"The old workhouse was erected in 1733 ; enlarged 1766, and further extended in 1779- 
It stood in Lichfield Street, just below the Assize Courts, and was demolished in 1853." — 
Token Coinage of Warwickshire. 

PENNY. 
1811. 

36. O West view of the Workhouse showing central entrance and 
side wicket. Birmingham above, 181 1 below. 

¥° The arms of Birmingham. Legend one penny token R.r. 

Wyon. 
Plate E, no. 2. 
This is a pattern penny, and is found with milled and plain edges. 



37. O A larger view of the same building zvithout the side wicket, 
w on the pavement. Birmingham one penny Under the building 
181 2 The summit of the weather vane is under the first limb of n 

in BIRMINGHAM 

& The arms of Birmingham, one pound note payable at 
the workhouse for 240 tokens. The second a in payable is 
under the of pound and the 4 is at the left of the first of work 

HOUSE 

Sharp 202, 4. 

38. Similar to last, but the a is under the space between the o 
and u The 4 is under the centre of the w in workhouse R. 

39. O Similar to last, but the summit of the vane is under the 
centre of the n in Birmingham 

9= Similar to last, but the centre of shield is above the space 
between r and k in workhouse Prior to this it is over the r 

40. O As last. 

£> Similar, but the a is under the o in pound The centre of 
shield is over the r The 4 under the space between the w and o 
in workhouse R. 

41. Similar, but the 4 is under the commencement of the first 
in workhouse Willets. 

18.13. 

42. Similar, but dated 18 13 The summit of the vane is under 
the first limb of n and the w on the pavement is omitted. 

9> Similar to last, but the h in the is over the o in for 

Sharp 202, 6. 



WARWICKSHIRE. 149 

43. O Similar, but the summit of vane is under the centre of n 

#> Similar, but the 4 is under the w and the h in the is over 
r in for Willets. 

1814. 

44. O Similar, but dated 18 14 The w again on the pavement. 
V° Similar, but the h in the is over o in for 

Sharp 202, 7. 

45. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the h in the is over o and r in for R.r. 

Willets. 

Gibson. 

46. O View of the Mills (metal rolling and wire drawing). 
Ex, 1 8 1 2 . 

9> THOMAS GIBSON BRADFORD ST MILLS BIRMINGHAM Legend, 

a pound note for 240 tokens •• ■* •• Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 3. 

These works still exist as metal making and rolling mills, Cooper, Goode & Company, 
Limited, are the occupiers. 

Thomason. 

47. O Bust to left (Thomason) within a wreath of oak. 

V° token for one penny 1811 The top of the ones in date 
axe. flat. R.r. 

Sharp 206, 18. 

48. O Similar to last, but the tops of the ones slope. R.r. Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 4. 

This bust, Sharp describes as that of an "eminent Birmingham manufacturer and dis- 
tinguished patron of the arts." 

" It is believed to be that of the late Mr. Boulton, son of Matthew Boulton, founder 
of the Soho Mint." — Note by Benjamin Nightingale, of Addenda, to Sharp. 

Nightingale fell into an excusable error as Matthew Boulton and Sir Edward Thomason 
were both regarded as "distinguished patrons of the arts." In his Memoirs, p. 45 (18 11, the 
date of the token) Sir Edward says : " I remember presenting to many gentlemen, who 
were then collectors of tokens, one of each of those which I executed as they came out ; 
among the rest, to my esteemed friend, John Johnstone, M.D., and received from him the 
following note : — 

" Dr. John Johnstone begs that Mr. Thomason will accept his thanks for his obliging 
and handsome present of a set of tokens, which he values highly as a specimen of the 
ingenuity of one of his townsmen, and the more as containing a very good likeness on 
one of the tokens of Mr. Thomason himself* — Temple Row, Dec. 4, 1811." 

Sir Edward died on the 29th ult, at his residence in Warwick, in the 80th year of his 
age, deservedly and deeply lamented. He was an eminent medallist and manufacturer of 
bronzes at Birmingham, and received the honour of Knighthood, 27th June, 1832, for being 
instrumental in improving the Arts and Manufactures of England. He was likewise a 
Knight of the Red Eagle of Prussia, of Francis I, of Merit, of the Order of the Lion of the 
Netherlands, of Isabel the Catholic of Spain, of the Sun and Lion of Persia, etc., and acted 
for upwards of twenty years as Vice-Consul for seven of the Continental Powers. His name 
is known in literature by his "Autobiography during half a century." 

Sir Edward was married to a daughter of Samuel Glover, Esq., of Abercarne. — The 
Illustrated London News, June gth, 1 849. 

* The italics are my own. — W. J. D. 



150 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Birmingham and Neath. 
Tops of Ones slope. 

49. O A crown in a circle. Birmingham and neath • 181 1 • The 
tops of the ones slope a little. 

£ one penny in a circle, crown copper company • + + + • The 
top of p in penny is above the last limb of w in crown 

Sharp 202, 15. 

Flat topped Ones in date. 

50. 0- Similar, but the tops of the ones in date are flat. 

9> Similar, but the p of penny lines with the centre of w 

51. Similar, but the p lines with the first limb of w 

52. Similar to last, but the centre jewel on the band of the crown 
is diamond shaped, whereas in all others it is oblong. R. 

53. O Similar, but the cross does not touch the orb, the centre 
jewel as in no. 49. 

51 Similar, but the top of p lines to the space between w and n 
in crown. 

Tops of Ones slope. 

54. O Similar, but the tops of ones slope. 

fy Similar, but top of penny lines to centre of w R. 

55. Similar, but the top of penny lines to last limb of w Halliday. 

The Crown Copper Company established copper smelting works at Neath in 1803. 
The offices were in the Minories, and subsequently at 36, Cannon Street, Birmingham. 

RlSCA PAYABLE IN BIRMINGHAM. 

56. O Range of furnaces, the smoke emitting to right from eleven 
chimneys, risca above ; copper works below. Under the furnaces 
t8ii 

9= one penny token in a circle. Birmingham • union copper 
company- R.r.r. Halliday. 

57. O Range of furnaces as before, dense smoke emitting from 
ten chimneys to left ; under 181 1 in a circle, risca * union copper 
company* 

& one penny token in a circle, payable in Birmingham 

Sharp 202, 10. 

58. Similar to last,- but smoke not so dense from the chimneys ; 
a fiaio under the 1 of risca and at the end of building opposite the 
y will identify this piece. 

59. Similar to last, but much less smoke and withotit the flaws. 



WA R WICK SHIRE. 151 

Square Cuffs. 

60. O Hands clenched, 1 8 1 1 under in a circle; a line of pellets 
above the hands. Legend, Birmingham and risca * copper com 
pany * The corner of the cuff points to the r in risca and the 
cuffs are square. 

Vo one penny token in a circle. Legend, payable in birming 
ham ■■-Hr" - Halliday. 

Sharp 202, 8. 

Payable in Cash Notes. 

61. O Similar to last, but the corner of cuff points to the s in 

RISCA 

^ ONE PENNY TOKEN in a circle. PAYABLE AT BIRMINGHAM • IN 

cash notes • The top of penny lines with the centre of the first a 
in payable 

Sharp 202, 9. 

62. Similar, but the p of penny lines to the foot of y 

63. O Similar, but the corner of cuff at the left points to the 1 in 
risca R. 

9, As last. 

Round Cuffs. 

64. O Similar, but the cuffs are round. 
% As last. 

" In consequence of the commercial success of the Copper Companies, a new one was 
formed under the style of the Birmingham and Risca Union Copper Company. Their 
smelting" works were erected near Newport, Mons. Competition consequently became very 
keen, which led to a trade arrangement by which the Union Company was dissolved." 

— Modern Birmingham, p. 46, by Charles Pye, 18 18. 

Union Copper Company. 
Flat Topped Ones. 

65. O Hands clenched; an ornament above, and 181 2 below, in 
a circle. Legend, union copper company • Birmingham • The 
centre of the cuff lines with the n in company • The tops of ones in 
date are fiat. 

9> one penny token in a circle. Legend, payable in cash 
notes •• * •• The top of the y in penny lines with the last limb 
of n in notes • 

Sharp 202, 12. 

66. Similar, but the cuff lines between a and n of company • 

Halliday. 



152 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Ones in Date slope. 

67. Similar, but the ones in date slope ; and, one penny token in 
smaller letters. 

68. Similar, but the y in penny lines with the centre of n in 
notes • 

69. Similar, but the y lines to the top of the o in notes • 

70. O Similar, but centre of the cuff lines with the first limb of n 

in COMPANY ■ 

9? Similar, but the top of the y lines to the centre of n in 
notes • 

71. Similar, but the top of the y lines to the last limb of the n 

72. Similar, but the y lines to the top of o in notes • 

73. O Similar, but the cuff between a and n of company • 

9> As last. Halliday. 

For Public Accommodation. 

74. O Similar, but the tops of the ones in date are flat, and the 
centre of cuff lines with the first limb of n in company • 

& one penny token in a circle. Legend, for public accommo 
dation •• * •• The top of the y in penny lines to the centre of d 

in ACCOMMODATION • 

Sharp 202, 13. 

75. Similar, but centre of cuff lines to the centre of n 

76. Similar, but centre of cuff lines between a and n of company • 

77. Similar, but the top of the y lines to the bow of d Halliday. 

Birmingham and Sheffield, i8ii. 
Flat Ones in Date. 

78. 0- one penny in a circle. Legend, Birmingham and shef 
field • 

9= token 181 1 in a circle. Legend, copper company divided 
by an ornament ; the tops of the ones in date are flat. R. Halliday. 

79. O As last. 

9 Similar, but the n in token lines to the first limb of a 
instead of to its second. R.r. 



WARWICKSHIRE. 153 

1812. 

80. Similar, but dated 18 12 The top of the y of penny lines 
with the first limb of e in Sheffield • 

Sharp 202, 16. 

81. Similar, but the top of the y lines to the centre of e 

82. Similar, but the top of the y lines to the first limb of f 

The Ones in Date slope. 

8-3. O Similar, but the top of the y lines to the centre of e 
9> Similar, but the tops of the ones in date slope. R. 

84. Similar, but the tops of the ones in date slightly slope. 

Halliday. 

Made for sale for manufacturers of Birmingham and Sheffield, with which to pay wages. 
There never was a Copper Company of the name indicated on the tokens. 

Birmingham and South Wales. 
No Period before or after Date. 

85. O Prince of Wales' plumes encircled by a coronet ; motto, ich 
dien all in a circle. Legend, Birmingham & south wales- 1812- 
The tops of ones slope, no period before or after date. 

fy A horse in a circle, copper token one penny The horse's 
ear points to centre of e in copper R. 

Sharp 203, 19. 

86. Similar, but the tops of ones flat, and the terminal of & is 
curved. 

$> Similar, but horse's ear points to first limb of e in copper 

A Period before and after Date. 

87. Similar to last, but with a period before and after date. 

88. Similar, but the horse's ear points to the centre of e 

89. Similar, but the horse's ear points to the end of e 

90. O Similar, but on a much smaller flan ; the terminal of the & 
is flat on the top ; the date in much smaller figures. 

9> Similar, but the horse's ear points between the e and r of 
copper Halliday, 

91. O Similar, but the tops of the ones in date slope, and the 
terminal of the & is airved. 

9> Similar, but the horse's ear points to the centre of e in copper 

This is another instance where the tokens were made for sale, as no firm or company 
existed as pretended in the legend. 

X 



154 nineteenth century token coinage. 

Rose Copper Company. 
Flat Tops to Ones in Date. 

92. O one penny in a circle. Legend, Birmingham and swan 
sea • The top of penny lines between the w and a in Swansea • 

9> token i8ii in a circle, rose copper company A rose orna- 
ment at bottom. The tops of the ones are flat, and the top of token 
lines with the centre of m in company R. 

Sharp 202, 14. 

93. O Similar, but top of penny lines to last limb of w in Swansea- 
#> Similar, but token lines to last limb of m in company 

The Tops of Ones Slope. 

94. O Similar, but penny lines between w and a in Swansea • 
|k Similar, but the ones in date slope. 

95. Similar, but top of token lines with the centre of m in company 

96. Similar, but tops of ones do not slope as much. 

97. Similar, but top of penny lines with centre of a in Swansea • 

Halliday. 



98. O A lion supporting a shield bearing a rose, thistle and sham- 
rock, in a circle. Birmingham and Swansea 18 12 

Vo A rose spray in a circle, copper token + one penny + 

Halliday. 
Plate E, no. 5. 

The Rose Copper Company, formed in 1793, conducted the Birmingham agency at its 
warehouse in Cherry Street. The famous Matthew Boulton was one of its shareholders. 



Birmingham and Warwickshire, 181 i. 

99. O one penny in a circle. Birmingham & Warwickshire * 
The top of penny lines with the flrst limb of s 

9> token 181 1 in a circle, flint copper company A rose 
ornament below. 

Sharp 203, 21. 

100. Similar, but the top of penny lines with the centre of k 

Halliday. 

These were imitations of the Rose Copper Company's tokens of 1811, made for sale. 



WAR WICK SHI RE. 155 



101. O A crown with thirteen pearls on the arch of the crown, 
six to left, seven to right, in a circle. Birmingham & Warwickshire • 
The band of the crown at the bottom lines with the s in shire • 

9> one penny 1812 in a circle, for general circulation 
• * • The top of penny lines with the centre of the first e in 
general 

Sharp 203, 20. 

102. O Similar to last, but the top of cross is under the w which 
before was between & and w The band of crown lines with the h of 
shire • 

fy Similar, but penny lines with the first limb of e 

103. Similar to last, but the shape of the & different, being flat 
at the top, and there are fifteen pearls, seven to left and eight to 
right, on arch of crown. The band lines to the s of shire • 

104. Similar, but the & at the top turns downward ; there are thir- 
teen pearls, six to the left and seven to the right. The band lines 
to the h in shire • R. 

105. Similar, but the crown has fourteen pearls, seven on each 
side. There is a b (Birmingham) inscribed on each side of the orb 
under the arch of the crown, and a b on each section of the cross. 

Halliday. 
These pieces, also made for sale, were a colourable imitation of the genuine Crown 
Copper Company's tokens of Birmingham and Neath. 

HALFPENNY. 

106. O half penny in a circle. Birmingham and Swansea • The 
top of the h in half lines to the centre of G 

#> token 181 1 in a circle, copper company An ornament 
under. The t in token is in line with the second p in copper 

Halliday. 

This piece is presumed to be unique. The omission of ROSE from the reverse legend 
probably caused its rejection. 

Flat-topped Ones in Date. 

107. O As last. 

#> token 181 i in a circle, rose copper company The top 
of t in line with the bow of the c in copper and the tops of the ones 
are nearly flat. 

Sharp 210, 1. 

108. Similar, but the t in line with the last limb of e in rose 

109. O Similar, but the h in half lines to the space between the 
n and g in Birmingham 

9= As last. 



156 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Tops of Ones in Date Slope. 

110. 0- Similar, but the top of h in half lines to the centre of g 

£ Similar, but the tops of the ones in date slope ; the last 
numeral is under the space between e and n of token 

111. Similar, but the top of t lines to the centre of the space 
between rose copper 

112. Similar, but the top of h lines to the centre of the space 
between n and g in Birmingham Halliday. 

The Copper Companies were : 

i. The Birmingham Mining and Copper Company, formed in the year 1790, who issued 
halfpenny tokens in 1791 and the two following years. These are described by 
Atkins on pp. 210-213. They were art productions by the famous Wyon (Thomas). 
The tokens were, as in the nineteenth century, extensively counterfeited. Imita- 
tions were also issued in the name of bogus companies, called Birmingham Com- 
pany, and the Metal and Copper Company. 

2. The Rose Copper Company, established 1793. 

3. The Crown Copper Company, formed 1803. 

4. The Union Copper Company, which sprung into existence about 1807. 

As will be seen, all these companies resorted to the issue of tokens as a ready means 
of disposing of the metal they produced. Without exception these bodies gave 
as near as they could intrinsic value in their token coinage, and, although it was the means 
by which they disposed of copper by the ton, the issues were popular, as an honest and 
ready exchange in the coinage of the period, and were appreciated by the public. 

Sir Original. 




From a Block the property of Spink & Son. 

113. 0- Bust to right with wig. sir original At the right i. g. h 

9= THIS IS MY WORK IOHN GREGORY HANCOCK AGED 7 YEARS 
l800 Ex. INDUSTRY PRODUCETH WEALTH R.r. 

Batty 2322. 

114. The same in brass. R.r.r. 

Shakespeare. 

115. O Bust to left. w. shake speare In small letters under 
the bust I • G • Hancock aged 7 y's 

V° As last. R.r. 

Batty 2321. 

116. Also in brass. R.r. 




CHARLES PYE. 



From a Bust in the possession of J. Macmillan. 



WAR WICK SHIRE. 157 

117. O As last. 

^ As no. 1 12, but reads produseth (sic) R.r.r. 

Norman's sale 316, July 14th, 1903. 

Strictly speaking, these specious tokens belong to the eighteenth century, but, as they 
were struck too late to be included in Conder, and are not described in Atkins, they are 
admitted. 

Pye tells us that " doubts having been expressed as to the bond fides of this work being 
that of young Hancock, induced his father to make an affidavit that they were entirely 
engraved by his son ; and the gentlemen for whom they were made declare they were 
perfectly convinced of the truth of this affidavit." 

" It is to be regretted that the subsequent career of this precocious boy is unknown. 
It is, indeed, beyond comprehension that all attempts should fail to trace what became 
of the remarkable son of so distinguished an artist." — The Toke?i Coinage of Warwickshire. 

It has recently been observed by Mr. Hamer that, as I. G. Hancock, jun., was born 
June 24th, 1791, he would be at least 8 years and six months old at the beginning of 
1800 ; so that either a mistake was made in reference to the age or the date, or perhaps in 
reference to both. 



COVENTRY. 

PENNY. 

118. O Bust in profile to left with antique dress. Philemon hol 
land • m- d • Under the bust, died 1636 aged 85 • 

£> View of an interior. Ex. free school Coventry 

E. PPINNY TOKEN PAYABLE BY E • W • PERCY COVENTRY x 

Plate E, no. 6. 
Thirty-six impressions. 

119. Also in Silver. 

Six impressions. 

120. O Blank. 

$> As last, but a trial piece before letters ; struck in tin. R.r. 

121. O Similar, but hollond (sic), and the legend under the bust 
omitted. 

$k Unfinished. 
E. Plain. 

Atkins 205, 22. 

"This is also a trial piece in tin, of which six impressions were struck." — Vide 
Pye 4, XV* 

122. O As 118. 

V° Similar to 1 18, but two boys detected by the schoolmaster 
playing at marbles. 1801 
E. As 118. 

Atkins 205, 23. 
" Only six impressions were struck when the die broke." — Pye 5, XV* 



158 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



123. O As last. 

fy An open book resting against two others, lettered Britannia 
cyrop^edia • The first page of the open book is inscribed : 

With one Sole Pen (on the other), A Pen it was 

I wrote this Book When I it took 

Made of a A Pen 1 

gray Goose-Squill leave it Still. 

By the book is an inkstand with a quill pen in it. Ex. 1801 • i- g- h 
E As n8. 

Plate J, no. 21, reverse only illustrated. 
Eighteen impressions were struck and the dies destroyed. 

124 O As last. 

9? As last, but a trial piece before letter struck in tin. 

Hancock. 
125. O Blank. 

9> As last. 

" Four unfinished Proofs in Tin." — Vide Pye 6, XV*. 
Philemon Holland was appointed, in 1608, usher of the Free School. In 1612, pre- 
sented with the Freedom of the City, and appointed master in 1628. Holland was the first 
translator of Camden; and the "Romanes Histories" MS. he claimed to have written 
throughout with one pen. "A monumental pen," says Fretton, " which he solemnly kept, 
and which, ultimately, was enclosed in silver by a lady of his acquaintance." — The Token 
Coinage of Warwickshire. 




Hancock's Workshop at the Soho Mint. 
From a Trial Piece in the Possession of the Anchor. 






HBMBBHHBHBI 



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From tJie Original in the possession of the Author. 






159 



WILTSHIRE. 

MARLBOROUGH. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. o One Shilling 1811 in a circle. Legend, Marlborough Old 
Bank Token 

R King Gosling Tanner & Griffiths in a circle. For 
Neceffary Change R. 

Plate L, no. 28. 

2. O Four hands joined in a circle, king- gosling- tanner & 
Griffiths + The centre of the cuff lines to the o in gosling • 

9> one shilling token 181 1 in a circle. Legend, marl 

BOROUGH + OLD • BANK + 

Boyne 144. 

3. Similar, but the centre of the cuff lines to the s in gosling • R. 

4 O As last. 

#> Similar to last, but with a circular inscription one • shil 
ling + token + and the date omitted. R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 145. 
SIXPENCE. 

5. 0- Similar to last, excepting in size. 

& sixpence token 181 1 with a Staffordshire knot above, in a 
circle. Marlborough old - bank Halliday. 

Boyne 146. 

The London agents of this bank were Spooner, Attwood & Co., 27, Gracechurch Street, 
London, and New Street, Birmingham. 



STAVERTON. 

HALF CROWN. 

6. O View of mills over a river, with a clock tower on the centre 
mill. Legend, staverton factory • near Bradford - Wiltshire • 

S D 

$> 2 6 181 1 between palm branches. Legend, prosperity to 
the woollen manufactory •••:••• R.r.r. T. Wyon. 

Boyne 210. 



160 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



--:- 



ii 




From the top of an Invoice in the possession of A. W. "Waters. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

7. View of mills over a river, with a clock tower on the centre 
mil]. Legend, staverton factory • near Bradford • Wiltshire • 
on the ground at the right, t w The summit of the weather vane 
is under the centre of the x in staverton 

£ A fleece suspended from a ribbon. Legend, one penny 
token 1 8i i The tail of the fleece falls below the hock. R.r. 

Sharp 203, 1. 

8. Similar to last, but without the periods in the legend ; the 
t w on the ground omitted, and the summit of the vane is under 
the first limb of the n in staverton 

£ Similar to last, but the tail does not extend belozu the hock of 
the fleece. R.r. T. Wyon. 

Plate E, no. 7. 

These mills, which were between Trowbridge and Bradford, were partly destroyed by fire 
early in the nineteenth century. The experiments of manufacturing cloth in this part of the 
country were of an enterprising character, but, unfortunately, brought several occupiers to 
grief. John Cooper &* Co. were the proprietors of the mills when the tokens were issued. 
The mills are now adapted for milk condensing. There is a tablet on the present buildings 
to commemorate the date of the fire. For this information the author is indebted to Lord 
Edmond Fitzmaurice. 

The Bath Chronicle, April 15th, 1813, says: — "The creditors who have proved their 
debts under a Commission of Bankrupt, awarded and issued against John Jones, late of 
Staverton, in the County of Wilts, clothier, banker, dealer and chapman, are requested to 
attend a meeting to be held at John's Coffee House, Cornhill, London, on Thursday the 22d 
day of April, inst., at twelve o'clock at noon. 1 ' 



161 

WORGESTERSH IRE. 

COUNTY AND CITY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms, sable and gules, a castle argent ; three pears in canton 
sinister, between olive and palm branches. The motto civitas in 
bello in pace fidelis (A city in war and in peace faithful) on a 
ribbon below. Worcester county & city token ■* 

9. value one shill: in a wreath of oak and acorns, to 
facilitate trade 1 8 1 1 Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 8. 
Issued by the Directors of the House of Industry, and Overseers of the Poor. 

BEWDLEY. 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

2. 0- TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE N° Legend, STANLEY COLLIERY 
NEAR BEWDLEY I & B THOMPSON 

#> WE PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND A ONE POUND 

note for eight of these pieces Unknown. 

Plate K, no. 13. 
In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 
This Colliery, situated ten miles from Stourport, was sold by auction on Dec. 9th, 1822. 

DUDLEY. 

PENNY. 

3. O Figure of Justice standing between a cask inscribed respon 
sibility and a bale. Dudley & Birmingham token one penny 181 i 
On the ground at the left, h The ones in date slope. 

9> RICHARD WALLIS BIRMINGHAM T & I • BADGER DUDLEY 

Legend, a pound note for 240 tokens with an ornament below. 
The last letter in Birmingham is quite clear of the o and k in token 
The whole surrounded on obverse and reverse by an Etruscan border. 

Sharp 203, 1. 

4. Similar, but the last letter in Birmingham touches the o and k 

of TOKEN 

5. O Similar, but the ones in date havejlat tops. 

#> Similar, but the final m of Birmingham lines with the top of 
the o in token instead of its centre. R. 



162 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 





6. O Similar, but ones in date slope. 

£= Similar, but the issuers' initials are t & j • 

7. O An anvil pointing to the left ; the date 1812 under in a circle. 
The ones in date slope. Legend, Dudley one penny token 

9» A vice, jam 5 : Wilkinson vice maker in a circle, a pound 

NOTE FOR 24O TOKENS + 

Sharp 203, 2. 

8. O Similar, but the anvil points to the right, and the tops of the 
ones in date are fat. 

fy As last. Halliday. 

LYE. 

9. O Bust to left (George III) 181 1 under. A small h on the 
shoulder, nail & trace manufactory The tops of ones in date 
slope. 

9> one penny token between palm and olive branches. 

PAYABLE BY J • FORREST & C? LYE FORGE • + • H on the second 

palm blade ; there are six berries in the olive branch. Halliday. 

Sharp 203, 3. 

10. 0- Similar, but without the small h on the shoulder ; the tops 
of ones in date are fat. 

$ Similar, but there are no berries in the olive branch, and the 
h on the palm branch omitted. Unknown. 

Probably a forgery of the time. 

11. O A tree in a circle, spade, shovel, trace & chain j 
manufactory • 181 1 • On the trunk of the tree h 

9> one penny token in a circle, payable at the lye 
warehouse by t. wood & c° Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 9. 

REDDITCH. 

12. O Prince of Wales' plumes encircled by a coronet, redditch 
token + one penny + The quills of the feathers are straight. 

£> payable by w • bartleet & w • hemming Legend, a 
pound note for 240 tokens - 1813 - An ornament above the 
date. 

Sharp 204, 5. 



WORCESTERSHIRE. 163 

13. O Similar to last, but the quills of the feathers are curved, and 
the one at the right is over the centre of e in penny instead of its first 
limb. R. Halliday. 

Both the issuers were needle manufacturers, but at separate establishments. 



WORCESTER 1811. 

14. O Arms of the city, civitas in bello in pace fidelis • • * * * • • 
The lower bar of shield is in line with the a in civitas 

ty> value one penny between palm and olive branches. 
Worcester city and county token • 18 1 1 • There are six 
berries in the olive branch, the tops of ones in date slope. 

Sharp 204, 6. 

15. Similar, but the tops of ones in date are fiat. R. 

16. Similar, but with seventeen berries in the olive branch ; the 
ones in date slope. 

17. O Similar, but the lower bar of shield lines between a and s in 
civitas 

9» Similar, but with only six berries in the olive branch ; the 
tops of ones in date are fiat. 

18. Similar, but with seven berries on olive branch. 

19. Similar, but nineteen berries on olive branch. 

20. O Similar, but the lower bar of shield is in line with the 
s in civitas 

9> Similar, but there are six berries on olive branch. The 
first two blades of palm on the inside are unequal in length ; the 
second nearly touching the foot of the y in penny 

21. Similar, but the two blades of palm under n and y are nearly 
equal in length. 

22. O Similar, but lower bar of shield lines above the s in civitas 
9> Similar, but with seven berries on olive branch, and the tops 

of ones are pointed. 

23. Similar, but tops of the ones in date are flat. 

1814. 

24. O Similar, but lower bar of shield lines to s in civitas 

9 Similar, but twenty-one leaves on olive branch, and dated 
1814 



164 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

25. 0- Similar, but lower bar of shield lines between a and s in 

CIVITAS 

%c Similar, but with eighteen leaves on the olive branch. 

Unknown. 

This is a forgery of the period. 

William Cotton, in his Tokens of Worcestershire, quotes : — 

"In the Worcester Herald of November i6th, 1811, the following advertisement, 
referring to these tokens, appears : 

'"THE DIRECTORS of the HOUSE OF INDUSTRY finding the demand for 
their TOKENS greater than they at first calculated upon, and that many disappointments 
have occurred in consequence thereof, have now provided a sufficient quantity to supply the 
public with any amount. They likewise beg to state, that as the Advantage arising from 
issuing these tokens, independent of the convenience of the trading Interest, will be applied 
in aid of the Poor Rates, they trust they will meet due encouragement from every class. 

" ' N.B. — These Tokens will be regularly exchanged at any time for Bank Notes at their 
office in Friar's Street, and they presume to add, that their Responsibility must have a pre- 
ference to the issue of any Individual.' 

" In the same year, October 12th, we read : 

"' It is with much satisfaction we learn, that in order to relieve the public inconvenience 
so universally felt from the want of small change in this city and neighbourhood, the 
Directors of our House of Industry, at the earnest solicitations of many respectable tradesmen 
and others, have resolved to circulate CARD TOKENS of 2s. 6d. each, to which their re- 
sponsibility will be attached, and consequently that of the united parishes ; by which, the 
principal objection hitherto made on the subject of similar issues, will be obviated.' " 

26. 0- Arms as before, within a double circle, john knapp junior • 

WORCESTER • 

fy one penny 1812 in a circle, for general circulation R.r. 

Sharp 204, 7. 

27. Similar, but one penny in a circle, payable in cash notes • 
1813- Halliday. 

Sharp 204. . 
John Knapp Junior was a glover. 



HALFPENNY. 

28. O value half penny between palm and olive branches. 
Worcester city and county token- 1811 • The third blade of 
palm points to the centre of the f in half 

$c Arms as before, civitas in bello in pace fidelis •■ x x x .. 

Sharp 211, r. 

29. Similar, but the third blade of palm points to the foot of f 

30. O Arms as before, john knapp junior • Worcester • 
9= halfpenny in a circle, to facilitate trade- 1813- 

Sharp 211, 2. 

31. Similar, but without the period after Worcester R. 

32. Similar, but vigornia substituted for Worcester • Halliday. 






WORCESTERSHIRE. 165 

FARTHING. 

33. O Arms as before, john knapp junior • Worcester • 

$ one farthing in a circle, to facilitate trade • 1813- 
Plate E, no. 10. 

34. Similar to last, but vigornia • substituted for Worcester • 

Halliday. 

two shillings, 
porcelain. 

35. o I Promise to pay the Bearer on demand two Shillings. 
W Davis At the China Factory. 

$1 w p c (Worcester Porcelain Company) in raised letters. 
R.r.r. 

Cotton 50. 
ONE SHILLING. 

36. Similar, except in size and value One Shilling. R.r.r. 

Cotton 51. 
SIXPENCE. 

37. Similar, except in size and value Sixpence. R.r.r. 

About the year 1760, tokens were issued by the proprietors of the Worcester Porcelain 
Company about the same size as the coins of the value represented. There is a set of these 
Porcelain Tokens in the British Museum and in Sir A. W. Franks's collection (R. W. Binns, 
quoted by W. Chaffers, " Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain? iot/1 ed., 1903, 
p. 756). 

The issuer of these tokens was one of the principal founders of the Worcester Porce- 
lain Industry in 1751. 

The house taken for the Company's Works was a famous one, being the residence of 
Sir William Windsor, temp. Henry VII. 

The building now forms part of Dent's glove factory. 



166 

YORKSHIRE. 

COUNTY. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O A fleece suspended, for public accommodation 

& value one shilling. A scroll ornament between one and 
shilling within a garter, tinted or. Yorkshire west riding token 
i 8 ii The date divided by the tag of the garter. Halliday. 

Boyne 235. 

BARNSLEY. 

shilling. 

2. O The arms of Leeds between sprigs of palm and oak. Crest, 
a star within an oval, william horsfall • barnsley • 

9? Female seated on a bale, holding scales and cornucopia. 
one shilling silver token 1812. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 1. 
This reverse occurs again on a Sheffield token. Until recently the firm was carrying 
on business as Horsfall & Co., and is now in existence as a limited company. 

BRADFORD. 

shilling. 

3. 0- Arms, gules a chevron between three bugle horns, stringed, 
two and one, within a wreath. Crest, a boar's head. james lay 

COCK • BRADFORD • 

9> Justice standing between a bale, labelled y & d and a cask 
inscribed wine & spirits Legend, one shilling token 1812 

Halliday. 
Plate K, no. 14. 
James, subsequently to the issue of the token, took his brother Thomas as a partner, 
who was a dealer in oils. The firm was declared bankrupt April 4th, 181 5. Dividend paid 
Nov. 22, 18 17. — London Gazette. 

BRIDLINGTON. 

shilling. 

4. O b b b in the field, one over two. Bridlington 181 i. 

Ifc one shilling silver token Legend, cook & harwood 

Unknown. 

Boyne 27. 

5. O A shield with B B B in a wreath of olive. Legend, cook and 
harwood 18 1 2 Scroll ornaments on either side of date 

£> 12 in large figures inscribed, twelve penny the letters incuse. 
Legend, Bridlington silver token 

Boyne 28. 




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From the Original in the possession of the Author. 



YORKSHIRE. 167 

6. O Arms of the Priory of Bridlington. A ship between ebb 
within palm and olive branches. Bridlington quay i8ii 

#> ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN Legend, JAMES STEPHENSON • + .•+■ 

Wyon. 

Boyne 29. 

DONCASTER. 

SHILLING. 

7. 0- The cross of Otho de Tilli, birkinshaw • doncaster • 

9> Figure of Justice standing by a bale, inscribed y & d A 
ship in the distance to right. Legend, one shilling silver token 
1 8 1 2 Halliday. 

Plate J, no. 22. 
Birkinshaw was a pawnbroker carrying on business near to the Castle Hotel. 

Otho de Tilli. 
"One of the most interesting antiquities of this town" (Doncaster) "is the cross of 
Ote de Tilli. It is a cylindrical column eighteen feet in height, with four half cylinders of 
smaller diameter attached to it. Each column was originally surmounted by a cross pattee 
raised on a slender shaft. The Puritanical zeal of some soldiers of the Earl of Manchester 
in the Civil Wars urged them to pull down the crosses, and the whole pillar might soon have 
perished had not William Patterson, who was Mayor in 1678, interested himself in its 
preservation. 

" The original position of this cross was at the beginning of Hallgate, but when that part 
of the town was improved, in 1793, it was removed to its present site, or rather a facsimile 
of it with a vane instead of the crosses was erected. Around the cross, at about the height 
of seven feet, is an inscription in the Langobardic character. 

ICEST EST LA CRVICE OTE L> TILLI A KI ALME DEY FACE MERCI — AMEN." 

— Extract from AllarHs "History of the County of Yor/e" 1831, vol. Ill, p. 94. 
"Ote or Otho de Tille is a name which often presents itself in the records of the 
affairs of this neighbourhood. He lived in the reigns of Stephen and Henry II and was 
seneschal or steward of Conningsborough under Hameline Earl of Warren." 

8. O A lion holding a standard, the crest of the town of Doncaster. 
The pennant is inscribed don Legend, mirfin and parker ■ 
doncaster • 

9> Female seated on a bale to right, with scales and cornucopia ; 
on the ground a sword ; a ship in the distance at the right. The 
initials y & d under. Legend, one shilling silver token 181 2 
The d is over the first 1 in date, h on the bale. 

Boyne 68. 

9. Similar to last, but the d in y & d is over the seco7id 1 in date, 
the h is omitted, R. 

10. Similar, but the d is over the space between 1 and 2 in date. 

Halliday. 



SIXPENCE. 



11. O Similar to last except in size ; the pennant is inscribed do 
instead of don 

9> Similar, but without the sword on the ground. Legend, 
six-pence silver token • 1 8 1 2 • Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 11. 



168 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



HULL. 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

12. O The arms of Hull ; azure, three coronets in pale between 
olive branches, hull i8ii There are six berries in the right and 

four in the left wreath ; the tooth of the border does not touch the 
second limb of u in hull 

9> Is. 6d in the centre, with a rose spray above and below. 

RUDSTON • AND PRESTON • R. 

Boyne 102. 
A radiated border on both obverse and reverse. 

13. Similar, but a tooth of the border touches the second limb of u 

14. Similar, but five berries on each side of the wreath, the border 
tooth is again free of the u in hull 

15. Similar, but there are five berries in the wreath at the right 
and four at the left. 

16. Similar, but six berries at the right and five at the left. 

Unknown. 

SIXPENCE. 

17. Similar to preceding, excepting in size and value. 6- Four 
berries at the right and six on the left of wreath. Unknown. 

Boyne 46. 

LEEDS. 

SHILLING. 1811. 

18. O Arms between palm and olive branches; azure, a fleece 
suspended on a chief, or ; three mullets of five points. (Boyne says 
the tints are wrongly depicted). Crest, a star within an oval. 
Legend, john smalpage & s • lumb • leeds • 

9> A female seated on a bale with scales and cornucopia, a 
ship in the distance, a sword on the ground with y & d above it. 
Legend, one shilling silver token 181 i The ship lines above the 
e in one 

Boyne 108. 

19. 0- Similar, but the nose and hind legs of the fleece are on one 
line in the shield. 

9> Similar, but the ship lines with e and the d of y & d touches 
the sword. 

20. Similar, but the d is between the dress and sword, the hilt 
extends to the end of the bale, the sword points to y in y & d 



YORKSHIRE. 169 

21. Similar, but the nose of the fleece is on the line above that on 
which the hind legs rest. 

22. Similar, but the hilt of sword does not extend to the end of 
the bale. 

23. 0- Similar, but the nose and legs of the fleece are on one line. 
£> Similar, but the point of sword extends beyond the y 

There is grass over the hilt. 

24. Similar, but the d is between dress and sword ; and no grass 
over the hilt. 

25. Similar, but the d touches the bale. 

26. O Similar, but the nose of the fleece is on the line above that 
on which the hind legs rest. 

9= Similar, but the d touches the sword. 

27. Similar, but the hilt nearly to the end of the bale, the point 
of sword extends beyond the y in y & d 

Plate E, no. 12. 

28. O Similar, but the nose of the fleece is on one line. 

V° Similar, but the d is between the dress and sword ; and 
there is grass over the hilt. Halliday. 

The varieties of die are tending- to make this otherwise common token scarce. 



29. Similar to preceding, but dated 18 12. Halliday. 

Boyne 109. 
Boyne informs us, John Smalpage was a tailor and draper ; when called upon to meet 
the repayment of the tokens he was financially embarrassed, but Beckett <&-" Co., Bankers, 
enabled him to tide over the difficulty for a time. Smalpage's place of business was at 22, 
Briggate, and S. Lumb was a cloth-dresser in Meadow Lane. J. Smalpage was subsequently 
(Sep. 15, 1821) declared bankrupt. 

Arms and Supporters. 

30. O Arms as before, but with crowned owls as supporters ; 
crestj two maces in sal tire ; no legend. 

9> ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN PAYABLE AT THE LEEDS WORK 

house • 1 8 1 2 • Halliday. 

Plate K, no. 15. 

SIXPENCE. 

31. Similar to 29, except in size and value, six-pence silver 

TOKEN l8 1 2 

Boyne no. 
Z 



170 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



SCARBOROUGH. 

SHILLING. 

32. O The arms of Scarborough ; an antique ship, a castle 
towered, with a star between the ship and castle ; no legend. 

9> ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN l8 1 I in a circle. LORD & MAR 

shall * Scarborough * Halliday. 

Boyne 191. 

33. O Similar arms, but within a garter. Motto, honi soit qui 
mal y pense Legend, the current value in cash notes divided 
by a quatrefoil labelled y & d 

9= Similar to last, but dated 1812 Halliday. 

Plate E, no. 13. 

SIXPENCE. 

34. O Similar to last, but y & d omitted, and a period instead of 
a quatrefoil divides the legend. 

Vo Similar, but six pence Periods divide the legend instead 
of stars. Halliday. 

Lord and Marshall were hardware merchants. 

SHEFFIELD. 

HALF GUINEA. 
GOLD. 

35. O A Phoenix issuant from the flames, younge, wilsons & 
younge • Sheffield • in a fine toothed border. 

S D 

9> standard gold io • 6 Legend, Yorkshire token 1812 
in a similar border. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 2. 

HALF CROWN. 
SILVER. 

36. O The arms of Sheffield, eight arrows in saltire banded 
between two pheons, oak anal palm branches at the sides ; crest, a 
cherub, younge & deakin • Sheffield • 

9= Female to left seated on a bale with scales and cornucopia ; 
the bale is inscribed y & d A sword o?i the ground, two shillings 
& six pence silver token 1812 A small h to the left, under the 
robe. R. Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 3. 
"A public meeting of the inhabitants of Sheffield was called last week to consider the 
propriety of issuing a local silver coinage ; when it was resolved that pieces of the denomina- 
tion of 2s. 6d. and is. be stamped and sent into circulation to an amount not exceeding 
10,000^ and not less than 5,000^." — Bath Chronicle, Oct. 24th, 181 1. 



YORKSHIRE. 171 

EIGHTEENPENCE. 

37. 0- Similar to last, but the arms are not on a shield ; a 
wreath of olive encircles the arms and crest, s & c • younge & c? 

SHEFFIELD • 

fy Female, etc. as before, but the sword leans against the 
bale, one shilling & sixpence token 1812 There are no initials 
on the ground. R.r. 

38. Also in Copper. R.r.r. Halliday. 

SHILLING, 1811. 
No Wreath to Shield, Flat Tops to Ones in Date. 

39. O Similar to last, but ivithout the wreath younge & deakin- 

SHEFFIELD ■ 

#» Similar to last, but one shilling silver token i 8 i i Grass 
above the sword hilt, and the tops of ones in date arejlat. y & d on 
the ground. The point of sword extends beyond the y and nearly 
touches the edge of the ground. 

Boyne, 200. 

40. Similar, but no grass above the sword hilt, the point of sword 
is under the y 

41. Similar, but the point of sword extends beyond the Y and the 
hilt to the extreme edge of the bale. 

Tops of Ones in Date Slope. 

42. Similar, but the tops of the ones in date slope, and point of 
the sword extends beyond the y in y & d 

43. Similar, but grass over the hilt. A small h on the ground at 
the right. 

44. Similar, but the point of the sword is under the y The h on 
the ground is omitted. 

Plate E, no. 14. 

45. Similar, but the point of the sword has four blades of grass 
above it. 

46. Similar, but the point of the sword is midway between y and & 
No grass above the hilt. all by Halliday. 

1812. 

47. O As no. 39. 

9> Similar, but dated 181 2 No wreath to shield. The tops of 
the ones arejlat, the point of the sword is under the & of y & d 

Halliday. 

This is the same reverse as the Leeds Shilling of 1812. 
In Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 



172 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Wreath to Shield. 

48. 0- Arms in a wreath of olive ; crest, a cherub, s & c • younge 

& C° SHEFFIELD • 

£> Similar to last, but the sword rests against the bale ; the 
initials y & d omitted. The base of the letters are square, and there 
are four blades of grass at end of sword. 

Boyne 202. 

49. Similar, but with three blades of grass at end of sword. 

50. A close copy, but the base of the letters scolloped, and four 
blades of grass at end of sword. Halliday. 

Overseers of the Poor. 

51. O Arms as before, but without the wreath. Sheffield 181 1 
A pellet between the arrow barbs. 

& one shilling token Legend, overseers of the poor A 
quatrefoil labelled y & d with two periods on either side divides the 
legend. The terminal of the second limb of n in token lines to the 
last limb of r in poor 

Boyne 204. 

52. Similar, but the terminal of the second limb of n lines between 
the limbs of r 

53. Similar, but withottt the pellet between the arrow barbs. 

Halliday. 
Plate E, no. 15. 

SIXPENCE. 

54. O Arms withottt the wreath, younge & deakin • Sheffield • 
£> Similar to preceding except in size, six-pence silver 

token 1 8 1 1 There is no sword by the seated figure. 

Boyne 201. 

THIRSK. 

SHILLING. 

55. 0- Arms azure, a cross patonce argent, thirsk 18 12 The 
legend is divided on each side by a quatrefoil. 

9> silver token in a circle. Legend, thirsk association one 

SHILLING 

Boyne 221. 

Boyne says the arms should have been tinted sable and gold. 
For SCURR countermark see Countermarked Tokens of Yorkshire. 
Richard Scurr, clock and watchmaker, Thirsk, was declared bankrupt June 28th, 18 17. — 
London Gazette. 



YORKSHIRE. 173 

WHITBY. 

SHILLING. 

56. O Arms of Whitby Abbey, argent, three shells (ammonite), 
two over one. whitby association • i8ii- 

9> silver token one shilling A quatrefoil inscribed y & d 
under shilling HaMiday. 

YORK. 

SHILLING. 

57. O Arms of the city, quarterly argent, on a cross gules, five 
lions passant gardant, between olive and palm branches. Legend, 
york 1811 There are four berries in the olive branch; on the 
second palm blade at the right of the last numeral in date, the letter 
y (york) The bottom horizontal line of the cross at the left, lines 
to the third berry from the top of the branch, which is without a stem. 

9> cattle and barber An ornament above and below. 
Legend, one shilling silver token The top of the b in barber 
lines to the top of s in silver The centre of the rose in the upper 
ornament is under the last limb of h in shilling 

Boyne 233. 

58. Similar, but the third berry from the top has a stem. 

59. Also in Copper, but the y is omitted; the 8 in date is not 
joined in the centre. R. 

60. O Similar, but with y on the first blade at the right of the 
last numeral, the 8 in date properly formed. 

9> Similar, but the b in barber lines above the s in silver 
The rose is between h and 1 in shilling 

61. O Similar, but the y on the palm is omitted. The bottom 
horizontal line of cross lines between the second and third berry from 
the top of the olive branch ; the third berry is without its stem. 

#> Similar, but the b in barber lines just beloiv the top of s in 
silver and the centre rose in the ornament is under the first 1 in 
shilling 

Bottom Line of Cross opposite a Berry. 

62. O Similar, but the letter y is on the first palm blade over the 
last numeral in date. The line of cross opposite the third berry. 

9> Similar, but the centre rose of the ornament is under the 
space between the h and 1 in shilling 

63. O Similar, but the y is on the second palm blade at the right of 
the last numeral in date. The third berry has a stem. 

^ Similar, but the centre rose is under the first 1 in shilling 
the b in barber lines between s and 1 in silver R. 



174 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

64. O Similar, but the third berry from the top is without a stem, 
the y on the second palm blade is also at the right of the last numeral 
in date. 

ft Similar, but the centre rose is under the last limb of h the 
top of b in barber is in line with the bottom of the s in silver 

Plate E, no. 16. 

65. O Similar, but the third berry from the top has a stem, 
ft As last. R. 

66. O Similar, but in Copper, the third berry from the top is 
without a stem. 

ft Similar, but the centre of the ornament is between the h and 
i of shilling R. 

67. O Similar, but the olive branch has only three berries, the 
second or the one opposite the cross has a stem. 

ft Similar, but the centre of the rose is under the space between 
h and i of shilling Halliday. 

With Ornaments at Side of Shield. 

68. 0- Similar, but an ornament added on either side ; there are 
nine berries in the wreath. 

ft CATTLE • AND BARBER • ONE SHILLING SILVER TOKEN • the 

bottom of b in barber lines to the terminal of the s in silver the 
centre of the rose is under the h in shilling R. 

69. O Similar, but the cross is not tinted, a period after york • 

ft As last. R. 

Boyne 232. 

70. O As last. 

ft Similar, but the bottom of the b lines to the 1 in silver The 
rose is under the h and 1 of shilling R. Unknown. 



SIXPENCE. 

71. O Similar to the Shillings with the cross tinted; the stem of 
the palm is over the first one in date, and the letter y is omitted. 

ft Similar, but legend six pence silver token The top of b 
in barber lines to the centre of the s in silver 

Boyne 234. 

72. O As last. 

ft Similar, but the top of b lines to the bottom of s in silver 

73. O Similar, but the stem of the palm is between the first two 
numerals in the date. 

ft As last. 



YORKSHIRE. 175 

74. O As last. 

£> Similar, but the top of the B in barber lines to the centre 
of s in silver Halliday. 

Cattle and Barber were goldsmiths and jewellers in Coney Street, York. 

" An issue of silver tokens has been made by Messrs. Cattle and Barber of York. These 
tokens are of the value of Shillings and Sixpences, and are finished in a neat style, bearing 
on one side the arms of the City of York, and on the other, their value, with the names of 
the issuers." — Chronicle, Oct. 12, 181 1. 

BARNSLEY. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

75. O A weaver working- a loom, no legend ; the sley board touches 
the weaver's head at the left, and the cloth turns under the piece 
beam ; the end of the piece beam is seen opposite to the knee of the 
weaver at the right. 

9> penny token in a circle. Legend payable at jackson & 
listers warehouse* barnsley* The upright of the p is over the 
upright limb of the t in token and nn in penny are without their 
terminals. 

76. O Similar, but the sley board touches the weaver's head in the 
centre, the cloth longer, the piece beam is not seen at the right of the 
weaver. 

£> Similar to last, but nn in penny are correctly formed. 
Plate E, no. 17. 

77. O Similar, but the sley board touches the weaver's head at the 
right, the piece beam is seen at the right of the weaver, the end of 
the cloth \s pointed. 

9> Similar, but the upright of the p is over the commencement 
of the t in token 

78. O Similar, but the sley board passes through the weaver's head 
at the right, and is connected to the sley of the loom, no cloth is seen 
at the left of the weaver. 

& As last. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 204, 1. 
Jackson & Listers were linen manufacturers and bleachers. 

BEVERLEY. 

THREEPENCE. 

79. O The arms of Beverley, in chief argent, a beaver, three wavies 
azure. Legend, the beverley new friendly society established 
1789. 

£> THOMAS LECK FATHER Legend, THREE PENNY TOKEN 1813 

V/yon. 
Plate K, no. 16. 
The Beverley Brotherly Society, under the auspices of John Gould, Father, issued a 
very fine piece, the size of a penny, in the eighteenth century. — Vide Batty 629. 



176 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



DONCASTER. 

80. 0- Justice standing with scales and sword between bale and 
cask birkinshaw* doncaster v On the ground y & d at the left of 
the figure. 

Vc one penny token 1812 within a wreath of oak. Halliday. 
Plate E, no. 18. 

BRADFORD WORKHOUSE. 

See the Countermarked Tokens of Yorkshire. 

HULL. 

PENNY. 

81. O A view of lead works. Under 1812 There are four small 
chimneys emitting smoke ; and a stack or tall chimney which exhibits 
a very small quantity of smoke. 

9> one penny hull lead works with an ornament under 
works Legend payable in bank of eng? or hull notes by i. k. 
picard • The last limb of the second n in penny is under the n in 
notes 

Sharp 204, 4. 

82. O As last. 

I> Similar, but the last limb of the second n in penny is under 
the o in notes 

Plate E, no. 19. 

83. O Similar, but with a little more smoke to the stack, and a 
thiniier volume from the smallest chimney. 

9= As last. 

84. O Similar, but there is no smoke exhibited from the small 
chimney next the stack. 

9> Similar, but the last limb of the second n in penny is under 
the n in notes 

85. O Similar, but still more smoke from the stack, and the small 
one emits a thick volume at the left, h on the ground. 

9. As last. 

86. O Similar, but the stack emits a large volume of smoke, there 
is a key stone over the centre of the archway ; at the left h on the 
wall and h on the ground. 

9> Similar, but the last limb of the second n in penny is under 
the last limb of the n in notes 








From a Photograph in the possession of W. Sykes. 



YORKSHIRE. 177 

87. O Similar, but the smoke issuing from the small chimney is 
upright, and clear of the stack, which previously it touched '; the key- 
stone over the centre of the archway omitted, as also are the initials 
on the wall and ground. 

9> As last. 

88. O Similar, but less smoke from the stack and small chimney ; 
a keystone over the archway. 

9> hull lead works An ornament above and below. Legend 

ONE PENNY • PAYABLE BY I • K • PICARD • 

89. O Similar, but the stack emits much less smoke. 

£> As last. Halliday. 

Sharp 204, 3. 

Double Inscription. 

90. O hull penny 181 2 Legend, one pound note for 240 of 

THESE TOKENS • 

£> PAYABLE BY I • K • PICARD AT HIS LEAD WORKS IN HULL 
OR AT 1 24 UPPER THAMES STREET LONDON • * • Halliday. 

Sharp 204, 5. 

91. O As last. 

£> Similar, but the name instead of 1 • k • picard is j • r • 
prichard and 184 upper Thames street London • * • R.r. Halliday. 

This token was probably the first prepared, the mis-spelling of the name necessitated 
a new reverse die. 

Wellington. 

92. O Bust to left (Wellington) unlaureated, in military uniform. 

VIMIERA • TALAVERA • BUSACO • BADAJOZ • SALAMANCA + The Star of 

the most noble order of the garter does not appear on the bust. 

fy A mounted Cossack to right with musket and lance, cossack 
penny token Halliday. 

Plate F, no. 1. 

This token is one of Halliday's finest productions, and is scarce, in consequence of its 
popularity with the American token collectors. 

1813. 

93. O Bust to left, similar to last, but with the noble star on the 
breast, vimiera • talavera • badajoz • salamanca • viTtoria • 

Jk A female seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch, 
in her left a trident, at her side the union shield ; in the distance a 

ship. ONE PENNY TOKEN 1813 

Sharp 207, 21. 

No Date. 

94. Similar, but without the date. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 207, 24. 
A A 



178 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



HALFPENNY. 

95. O A lion sejant, the dexter paw on a shield gules, within a 
bordure a fleur-de-lys (the crest of the Picard family) esse • quam • 
videri (to be rather than seem to be.) 

9> HULL HALF PENNY l8l2 Legend, PAYABLE BY I • K- PICARD- 

lead works hull • The y in penny lines to the last limb of r in 
works Halliday. 

Sharp 2H, 2. 

96. O Similar, but there are no periods in the legend. 
#> As last. 

Sharp 21 j, i. 

97. Similar, but the y in penny lines to the first limb of R in 

WORKS 

98. Similar, but the y in penny lines to the o in works Halliday. 

"John Kirby Picard's works were situated at the west end of the south side of the Queen's 
Dock. For some time prior to entering into the business of his father, Picard practised as 
an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, and eventually became a barrister, and was chosen 
as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull. He was a man of considerable wealth, and in 1811 was 
solicited to stand as a candidate for the office of Member of Parliament for Hull, but declined 
in a letter dated 4th March, 181 1, written from Summergangs House, Holderness-road, Hull. 
Picard became greatly reduced in circumstances, and died in 1843." — W.Sykes's Hull Coins 
atid Tokens. 

Mr. Sykes' information in the latter part of the paragraph is corroborated by the London 
Gazette, of Feb. 13, 1827, which announced that J. K. Pickard, white lead merchant, Russell 
Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. 



Wellington's Battles. 

99. O Bust laureated to left, in military uniform, hispaniam et 
lvsitaniam restitvit Wellington ■ (Wellington restored Spain and 
Portugal.) In the wreath there 2x0. four berries, one button on coat. 

£> CUIDAD (sic) RODRIGO JAN- 19- l8l2 • BADAJOZ APRIL 2- l8l2 • 

salamanca july 22 1812 &c. &c. &c. In an outer circle, vimiera aug 

2 1 • 1808 • TALAVERA JULY 28 • 1809 • ALMEIDA MAY 5 • l8l I + 

100. The same in Gold. 

In the author's copy of Sharp, formerly the property of Robert, brother of William 
Boyne, at p. 212, the following note appears : " Head of Wellington R Inscription on his 
battles 1812. A proof of this in gold was sold at Younge & Co.'s sale Sheffield in 1867." 

101., The same in Silver. 

102. Similar, but with periods after july- 22- and 181 2 • in the 
seventh line of the reverse. 

103. The same in Silver. 

104. Similar, but two berries in the wreath. 



YORKSHIRE. 179 

105. O Similar, but without the button on the coat 

9> Similar, but with periods after JULY 22 • and 1812- in the 
seventh line. 

106. O Similar, but the button again on the coat, letters of legend 
smaller. Tip of wreath points to m in lvsitaniam whereas in the 
others it is under the second a 

B> Similar, but no period after 181 2 in fifth and seventh lines. 

107. Similar, but &c. &c. &c. omitted and Madrid aug 12 • 181 2 • 
substituted. 

108. Similar, but with three berries in the wreath. A long stalk 
projecting from the end of the third leaf. 

109. Similar, but there are no berries in the wreath. 

110. Similar, but button on coat very large, tie of wreath hangs 
belozv collar. 

111. Similar, but no button on coat. 

112. O Similar, but the button again on the coat, four berries in 
wreath. Periods after july • 22 • and 1812- 

]£> Similar, but zvithout a period after jan 

113. Similar, but three berries in the wreath. 

114. O Similar, but with four berries in the wreath. 

#> ciudad instead of cuidad B.nd periods after jan • and aug- 
R. 

115. Similar, but without the periods after jan and aug 

116. O Similar, but there are no berries in the wreath. 

£> SALAMANCA JULY 22 • l8l2- MADRID AUG 12 • l8l2 • S T 

Sebastian sept 8- 1813- pampluno OCT 31- 1813- surrounded by 

CUIDAD RODRIGO JAN 1 9 • l8l2 • BADAJOZ APRIL 2 • l8l2 • The 

whole within an inner circle. The outer legend as before. R. 

Hal lid ay. 

Extract from MS. on the Local Coinage of Kingston-upon-Hull, by John Richardson, 
dated on cover 1848, but evidently not finished until a much later period. 

" SUMMERGANGS HOUSE, once the residence of J. K. Picard, and then pronounced 
upon the united judgement of 4 Nobles, 2 Marquises, and 2 Earls, the most gentlemanly and 
prettiest place of its size between Hull and London, . . . and when the Head of the Chancery 
Bar came to spend a few days of retirement with me J. K. P. at this house he expressed pre- 
cisely the same opinion upon it as did the other Noble Lds. Hastings and Warwick, etc., etc. 

" His business and pleasure as a rich man often calling him to London, and having an 
extensive acquaintance with the Nobility, Judges of the Land, and the Leading men in Par- 
liament and the fashionable world, he was tempted to enter into the gambling dissipations 
of the period. At this time the French Armies in Spain and Portugal, under the command 
of Napoleon Buonaparte's Generals, were being beaten in a succession of Battles by Arthur, 
Duke of Wellington, and the idea struck Picard that he would issue a Token with the names 
of the Battles, and their dates, on one side and a profile of Wellington on the other, and as 



180 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

he gained fresh victories, he issued new Tokens with the additional battles, until at length, 
instead of having one list of victories in a circle round and in the centre of the token, he 
was obliged to add another circle with victories and dates. At one of the meetings where 
gaming was going on, some of these tokens were exhibited by him, and as Wellington was 
then the idol of the British people and the intimate friend of the Prince Regent, afterwards 
George 4th, the circumstance was mentioned to the Prince Regent, who invited him to 
Court, to exhibit his Tokens. Before he had an audience of Royalty he ordered several to 
be struck off in Silver, containing all the victories of Wellington to that date. The date 
of the last victory on these silver Tokens will therefore enable us to judge at what time, or 
nearly so, he went to Court. 

"The author, in personal interviews with J. K. Picard, received from him the substance 
of the paragraphs relating to this Token, and also the Penny and Halfpenny Tokens, called 
the Lead Mill Tokens as related before. Picard at that time lived in Pemberton Street, 
Holderness Ward." 

In the Advertiser, of August 14th, 1813, is the following notice respecting his Copper 
Tokens. 

COPPER TOKENS. 

" Some imitations of my Wellington Tokens being in circulation, without either the name 
of the person who issues them, or any pledge for repayment, I feel it due to the public and 
myself, immediately to call in all my Tokens bearing the name and likeness of Lord Welling- 
ton. I therefore request that they may be presented here, on or before the 7th of September 
next, between nine and ten o'clock in the morning on each day, when a clerk will be in 
attendance to receive them, and deliver Hull or Bank of England notes in exchange. After 
which day I cannot hold myself responsible for any of the above description. BUT ALL 
the Copper Tokens with my name on them, I shall continue issuing, so long as they ma}' be 
of use to the Public, said for the repayment of THEM shall always hold myself responsible." 

Lead Works, Hull, Aug. 13th, 1813. J. K. PICARD. 

John Picard established the Lead Works, which were on the Dockside, in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, later John Smith joined the business, but when the tokens 
were issued the proprietor of the Mills was John Kirby Picard. 

" In 18 12, the English arm}', then in Spain, were distressed for the want of small change. 

" I was applied to through Mr. J. K. Picard, of the great Lead Works, Hull, who, I 
understood, was appointed the agent, to obtain a peculiar coinage to pass in Spain for the 
value of one penny English ; and which coinage was not to interfere with the coinage of 
the English Government, or with that of the Spanish Government. 

" It was resolved then to have on the obverse the head of Wellington, and on the reverse 
the following victories : Battle of Vimiera, Passage of the Douro, Battle of Talavera, Lines 
of Torres Vedres, Battle of Albuera, Capture of Badajos, Battle of Salamanca. 

" To make a good likeness of Lord Wellington for this coin, Mrs. Wellesley Pole* sent 
me a wax profile from Saville Row, Jan. 1812. 

" I made upwards of two millions of these pieces in copper, which passed current with 
the army." — The Memoirs of Sir Edward Thomason, p. 48. 

* The wife of William Wellesley Pole, who was appointed Master of the Royal Mint, on the 30th September, 1814. 

KEIGHLEY. 

See the Countermarked Tokens of Yorkshire. 

LEEDS. 

FARTHING. 

117. 0- Arms, gules, a lion rampant between three acorns ; no 
legend. 

£> A pair of scales, leeds 1812 R.r. 

Boyne (Yorkshire Tokens) yj, 20. 

Boyne says : " This was issued by William Jackson, tobacconist, at the time tobacco 
was sold at a penny three farthings the half-ounce." The writer of the Bazaar Articles adds 
" and also a tea dealer carrying on business at Lower Head Row, Sheffield." 

118. Similar, but dated 1817 Halliday. 

Plate F, no. 2. 








Fro/// a Plate /'// the posscss/o/i of the Author. 



YORKSHIRE. 181 

MALTON. 

FARTHING. 
119. O MALTON 1815 

& esto Justus (Be just). Unknown. 

The issuer of this token, in adopting the motto, inferred that it was of just weight, and 
therefore the public were served. All efforts to trace the name of the issuer have failed. 



SHEFFIELD. 

PENNY. 

120. O Bust (George III) draped and laureated. for public 
accommodation Sheffield On the shoulder h The nose of the 
effigy lines to the d in accommodation and there are two projecting 
laurel leaves in the wreath. 

Jfc Britannia seated to left, with her attributes ; a ship in 
the distance, one penny token 1812 The centre barb of trident- 
is under the foot of the t and there are six leaves in the olive branch 
held by Britannia. Halliday. 

Sharp 205, 8. 
The issuer of this token is not known. 

121. O Similar, but the h on the shoulder is omitted, and there 
is one projecting laurel leaf in the wreath. 

9> Similar, but the centre barb of trident is under the o and 
there are nine leaves in the olive branch. R. Unknown. 

A forgery of the time. 

Workhouse, 181 2. 

122. O West view of the workhouse, overseers of the poor- 
1 81 2- The eaves of the building at the left lines between the r and 
s of overseers The base line at the right lines to the first limb of 
r in poor- 

^ Justice standing, with scales and olive branch, on a 
pedestal. Sheffield penny token On the corner of the base at 
the right, h 

Sharp 205, 9. 

123. O Similar, but the eaves of the building at the left lines to 
the last limb of the r in overseers The base line at the right is 
belozv the R in poor- 

& As last. 



182 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

124. 0- Similar, but the eaves lines to the centre of the r in over 
seers and the base lines to the centre of the r in poor- 

9> As last. 

125. O As last. 

Ijk Similar, but the h on the base line is omitted. R. 

Halliday. 

1813. 

126. O A view of a building and legend as before, but dated 1813- 
The eaves of the building at the left lines between the r and s of 
overseers The base line of the building at the right is opposite the 
first limb of R in poor- The centre bar to the door is extended to 
the masonry, and there is only one rail projecting on either side of 
the building. 

9> Justice standing, legend as before, with h on the base at 

the right ; the first laurel leaf at the bottom is partly hidden by the 

arm of the figure. 

Plate K, no. 17. 

127. O Similar, but the centre bar to the doorway extends only to 
the cross bar. 

£> Similar, but the first laurel leaf is fully exhibited. 

128. O Similar, but the eaves lines to the last limb of the r in 
overseers The centre bar extends to the masonry, and there are 
two rails projecting on either side of the building. 

#> As last. 

129. O As last, but the base line is opposite the last limb of the 
r in poor- Only one rail projects on either side of the building, and 
no cross bars to the gate. 

9> Similar, but the first laurel leaf partly hidden by the arm 
of the figure ; the left foot does not come to the edge of the pedestal 
as previously, the h on the pedestal is omitted. 

130. O Similar, but only four perpendicular bars to the gate, the 
long'one is omitted. 

#> Similar, but the first laurel leaf is exhibited, and the h 
again appears on the pedestal. 

131. O Similar, but the eaves lines to the centre of the r six per- 
pendicular bars, the base line is between the limbs of the r in poor- 
and the bar in the centre extends to the top of the door ; two pro- 
jecting rails on either side of the building. 

9> Similar, but the h on the pedestal omitted. 

132. O As last. 

V° Similar, but the letter y is on the pedestal at the right. 



YORKSHIRE. 183 

133. O Similar, but the base line of the building is opposite the 
last limb of r in poor- 

9> Similar, but without the initial on the pedestal. 

1815. 

134. O View of Sheffield Workhouse, and legend as before, but 
dated 1815- The eaves at the left in line with the s of overseers 
The base line of the building is opposite the last limb of r in poor- 

9= Similar to preceding, but y & d on the pedestal at the left, 
the first leaf of laurel \s partly hidden by the arm of Justice. 

135. O Similar to last, but the eaves lines between the r and s of 
overseers and the base line of the building touches the first limb of r 
in poor- 

9> Similar to last, but the first laurel leaf is fully exhibited. 

Halliday. 

The Westbar Pump stands on the site of the old Workhouse represented on the token. 

136. O A female standing, similar to preceding reverse, but be- 
tween laurel and palm branches ; the legend is omitted, and there is 
no initial on the pedestal. 

I& one penny token within a mixed wreath of oak and 
laurel, h on the laurel leaf opposite the n in token R. Halliday. 

This reverse occurs at Burton and Not Local. 

Shield of the Town Trust. 

137. O Arms as described on the Half Crown, but without the oak 
and palm branches ; under the arms, Sheffield Legend, payable at 

S- HOBSON & SON'S- BUTTON MANUFACTURERS- 

£> Britannia seated to the left, with her attributes, a ship in 
the distance ; under the shield h Legend, one penny token 18 12 
Incuse on a raised band. 

Sharp 205, 6. 

138. O As last. 

#> Similar to last, but dated 18 13. Halliday. 

Sharp 205, 7. 
This token is of similar design to the Soho Penny by Kuchler of 1797. 

Phcenix Iron Works. 
Long Cannon. 

139. O View of Iron Mills ; under, a pyramid of cannon balls, one, 
two and three between two cannons. Legend, phoznix iron-works 
Sheffield The lips of the cannon at the right, line to end of the 
small door in the wall. 

9> Justice standing with her attributes, between a corded bale 

and a cask labelled s j & c° A crowbar and two chisels on the ground. 

Legend, one penny token 181 3 The hilt of the sword totiches the 

centre cord of the bale, the right-hand beam of the scales line to the 

foot of the t in token 

Plate F, no. 3. 



184 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Short Cannon. 

140. O Similar, but the lip of the cannon at the right lines to the 
centre of the small door in the wall which is barred, whereas in the 
last it is plain. 

& Similar, but the hilt of the sword is over the centre of the 
corded square on the bale near to the robe of Justice, the right-hand 
beam of scales lines to the o of token Halliday. 

Sharp 205, 15. 
These works are still carried on at Furnace Hill. The proprietors who issued the token 
were Longden & Gregory, afterwards Longden, Walker & Co. The present occupiers of 
the works Longden & Co. 

Roscoe Mills, 1812. 

141. C- View of a range of mills showing fowteen chimneys, a 
weather vane and flagstaff. Legend, roscoe place Sheffield On 
the ground at the right h There is an emission of smoke {rovcv four 
chimneys. 

$ Female seated to left on a bale labelled Y& d In her right 
hand a pair of scales, in her left a cornucopia of fruit ; a sword on 
the ground and a ship in the distance. Legend, oxe pexxy token 
1 8 1 2 The point of sword is over the centre of the 8 in date 

Sharp 205. 12. 

142. Similar to last, but with an emission of smoke from five 
chimneys. 

143. O Similar, but with an emission of smoke from nine chim- 
neys, and the flagstaff displays its flag. 

9= Similar, but without the Y & d on the bale ; the scale 
balance is exhibited, whereas in the last it is not seen ; the point of 
sword is over the space between the two first numerals of date. 

Halliday. 

1813. 

144. O Similar, but with an emission of smoke from five chimneys, 
and the flagstaff is without a flag. 

& Similar, but dated 18 13 On the bale Y & D The point of 
sword is over the centre of the 8 in date. 

Sharp 205, 13. 

145. O Similar, but with an emission of smoke from seven chim- 
neys. 

9. As last. 

146. G As last. 

£ Similar, but the cross bar at the hilt of the sword is 
smaller and does not extend to the base line ; which it does in the last. 



YORKSHIRE. 185 

147. O Similar, but with an emission of smoke from eight 
chimneys. 

fy Similar to last, but the point of sword is over the bow of 
the 8 in date at the right. Halliday. 

Shaw, Jobson & Co. were the issuers of the tokens. In 1887 the works were carried 
on by Barker & Sylvester ; the patterns of their stove grate business were afterwards 
purchased by H. E. Hoole. The building has since been dismantled to make room 
for City improvements, but two streets newly made are named Roscoe Road and Jobson 
Road. 




From a medal block in the possession of the author. 



HALFPENNY. 

148. 0- Bust of Lord Nelson to left in naval uniform. On the 
ribbon of the order of the garter, a medal. Legend, England expects 
every man to do his duty • There is a band of braid on the collar 
of the coat. 

~&> l8l I PAYABLE AT N? 1 8 NORFOLK ROW SHEFFIELD 

Legend, halfpenny • token A bird (the domestic cock) under 

SHEFFIELD 

149. O Similar to last, but with w on the medal, and there are two 
bands of braid on the collar. 

9> As last. 

Plate F, no. 4. 

150. 0- As last. 

9> A man-of-war sailing under canvas to right. Legend, 

BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic) l8l2 T. WyOfl. 

Sharp 211, 4. 
B B 



186 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



Roscoe Mill. 
151. View of factory warehouses, with gateway and office 
entrances. Legend, roscoe place • Sheffield • On the base line of 
the building at the left y & d Also under the base line the y & d is 
repeated. 

fy A female seated on a corded case, labelled s j & c° In 
her right hand a pair of scales, in her left a cornucopia of fruit ; a 
ship in the distance. There is no sword on the ground. Legend, 

HALFPENNY TOKEN l8l2 Haffiday. 

Plate F, no. 5. 

Younge & Deakin were merchants and button manufacturers, in Union Street, Sheffield. 
The dies for the tokens, and their production, were the work of Thomas Halliday and Sir 
Edward Thomason, of Birmingham. It is evident that there was an understanding that 
the initials of Younge & Deakin were to be punched on the dies. The initials on token 
no. 151 are those of Shaw, Jobson & Co., who, at the time, occupied Roscoe Works. 



SOWERBY BRIDGE. 




COPPER. 

152. O SEVEN SHILL 5 ! PAYABLE AT ROB? WILSON'S SOWERBY BRIDGE 

R n? R.r.r. 



YORK. 

FARTHING. 

153. O A cupid-arm, in the hand an olive branch. Legend, 

PEACE AND ALLIANCE • 



£> YORK FARTHING 1814 



Unknown. 



Plate F, no. 6. 



187 



WALES. 

BRECKNOCKSHIRE. 

BRECKNOCK. 



SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms (of Brecknock). A robe corded and tasselled. breck 
nock silver token for xn pence The t of token is over the centre 
of the robe. 

£= for all parts of the kingdom in three curved lines. A 
scroll ornament under kingdom Legend, payable at george norths 
general waggon warehouse The s in parts lines to the g in 
waggon and is quite free of that letter. 

Plate K, no. 18. 

2. O Similar to last, but t and o of token are over the centre of 
the robe. 

9> Similar to last, but the s in parts intersects the a in waggon 

Halliday. 

In Mr. Bowles' cabinet. 

George North was a carrier between Brecknock and London ; his house of call, the 
George Coach Office, Snow Hill, Holborn. 



188 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

CARMARTHENSHIRE. 

CARMARTHEN. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Crest, a crowing cock between sprigs of laurel. Legend, 
morris & sons On the first laurel leaf at the left h There are three 
berries in the olive branch at the right. 

$> Carmarthen token xii pence 181 1 with a sprig of palm 
on either side. 

Plate K, no. 19. 

2. O Similar to last, but there are four berries in the wreath at 
the right. 

B> As last. R.r. Halliday. 

Boyne 45. 

The crest was that of the Morris family. The issuers were bankers ; their London 
agents, Foster, Lubbocks & Clarke. 

3. O The script capital /f in a beaded circle. Legend, carmar 

THEN BANK l8l I 

9> xii within a band, which is inscribed twelve pence Legend, 
robert waters & Robert waters • + • R.r. Unknown. 

Boyne 46. 

This bank stopped payment in 1863. The name of the firm then was Waters, Jones & 
Co. ; the London agents, Barclay & Co. 



PENNY. 
COPPER. 

4. O Arms argent, a castle triple towered ; a chough (jackdaw) 
on each of the side towers, between ostrich feathers ; base, a lion 
passant gardant, all in a circle. Legend, Carmarthen + penny + 
The horizontal bars of the gateway are fixed to reach the centre, the 
windows are not filled in. 

9= A cask within a wreath of oak. payable by w- Griffiths & 
Co 1 8 1 2 There are twenty-eight leaves in the wreath at the left. 

Sharp 192, 2. 

5. O As last. 

9> Similar, but with twenty-four leaves in the wreath at the left. 

6. O Similar, but the gateway is barred to the top. 
& As last. 



CARMARTHENSHIRE. 189 

7. O Similar, but the windows are also barred, the birds are larger. 

9> Similar, but with twenty-seven leaves in the wreath at the 

left. R. 

Plate F, no. 7. 

8. O Similar to last, but the third window at the right only barred, 
and the birds are smaller. 

R PAYABLE BY WILL^ MOSS CARMARTHEN - SWANSEA • - AND AT 

jacob & halse London 181 3 within a wreath of oak and acorns. 

Halliday. 

Sharp 192, 1. 

Sharp incorrectly described the token Jacobs & Halse. 

William Moss was an ironmonger, and Jacob & Halse were factors, 1, Crescent, Jewin 
Street. The firm last named dissolved partnership on Jan. 8, 1823. 



190 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



DENBIGHSHIRE. 

GLANCLYDWEDOG. 



PENNY. 
COPPER 

1. O View of a mill showing a bell at the end of the higher build- 
ing. Legend, glanclywedog factory Under the building 1813 

9> one penny token in a circle. Legend, one pound note 
for 240 tokens • Halliday. 

Plate F, no. 8. 



191 

FLINTSHIRE. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms, sable, two keys in saltire. Crest, the Prince of Wales' 
plumes ; the ribbon inscribed ic dien {sic) Flintshire bank august 
12 • 1811 

£> bank token Under, in script capitals, J & ^f fy & 
Above, a Staffordshire knot. Legend, Flintshire one shilling 
The top of the J does not extend beyond the k in bank The com- 
mencement of 8f tottches the 

Boyne 79. 

2. Similar, but the top of the J extends beyond the k The com- 
mencement of Sf does not touch the '(y 

3. Similar, but the J '¥ > <P omitted, and a Staffordshire 
knot above and below bank token The end of the lower knot 
points to the a in bank 

Boyne 8a 

4. Similar, but the end of the knot points to the o in one R. 

Halliday. 

SIXPENCE. 

5. O Arms, crest and motto, as on the shilling. A similar legend, 
but there is no period after 12 

9> Similar to no 1, but value sixpence 

Boyne 81. 

6. Similar to no. 3, but value sixpence 

Plate F, no. 9. 

"The Holywell and Flintshire Bank has issued silver tokens of shillings and sixpences, 
to the standard of the dollar. The device on one side is the County arms, and the Prince 
of Wales' crest, bearing the date of the 12th of August, 181 1 :— on the reverse 'Flintshire 
Bank Token,' with the value." — Bath Chronicle, Sept. 14th, 181 1. 

Oakley & Company were the bankers, and their London agents, Ramsbottom & Co. 

FLINT. 

PENNY. 
COPPER 

7. O View of mills showing eight chimneys, mast and rigging of 
a vessel laying to by a crane. Legend, flint lead works 181 3 
The first and fifth chimneys from the left do not emit smoke, the 
third is built from the ground, there are seven stays to the masts. 

9> one penny token in a circle. Legend, one pound note for 
240 tokens • The top of p in penny lines to the last limb of n in 
pound The figure 4 is without a crosslet. 

Plate F, no. 10. 



192 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

8. Similar, but the top of p lines to the centre of the n in pound 

9. Similar, but the top of p lines to the first limb of n R. 

Sharp 193, 1. 

10. Similar, but the fifth chimney from the left is the only one 
which does not emit smoke, and the third is built over with brick- 
work at the bottom ; there are eight stays to the masts. 

9> Similar, but the top of p lines to the second limb of u and 
the figure 4 has a crosslet. 

11. Similar, but the top of p lines to the first limb of u 

12. O Similar, but with six stays to the masts, and shrouds added. 
There is no emission of smoke from the first and fourth chimneys 
from the left. The third chimney built to the ground. The summit 
of the mast touches the first limb of r in works 

# Similar, but the top of p in penny lines to the last limb of 
the n in pound The figure 4 is without a crosslet. R. 

13. Similar, but the third chimney from the left is built over 
with brickwork at the bottom ; the first and fifth chimneys do not 
emit smoke. 

14. Similar to last, the fifth chimney from the left is the only one 
which does not emit smoke ; the summit of the mast does not quite 
touch the first limb of R 

15. Similar, but there are ten chimneys, the fourth, sixth and 
ninth from the left do not emit smoke, the summit of the mast only 
reaches the last limb of r in works All by Halliday. 

These lead smelting mills had been long established when the tokens were issued. 
The writer of the Bazaar articles says : " In fact there is said to be no safety in attempting 
to limit their antiquity. . . . The works passed into the hands of Roskell, Tipton and Co. ; 
by which firm, or their successors (Roskell, Williamson and Co.) we believe the token was 
issued. The Flint Lead Works are now absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of 
Muspratt Bros, and Huntley." 



193 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. 

MERTHYR TYDVIL. 



SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O View of a foundry with six windows, smoking chimneys, an 
elevator at the right, all in a circle, surrounded by a laurel wreath. 
No legend. 

& merthyr 5™ Sep- 1811 Ornaments divide the legend. The 
ones in date slope R. 

Plate F, no. n. 

2. Also in Copper. R.r. 

3. O Similar, but with an additional window in the foundry. 
9> Similar, but the ones in the date are flat. R.r. 

4. O Similar, but the laurel wreath is omitted. 
9= As no. 1. 

In the Murdoch collection of tokens. 

5. O View of a foundry, similar to no. i. 

9. wales and Bristol in a circle. Legend, merthyr 5 t . h sep 
Ornaments divide the legend. R. 

6. O Similar, but the smoke from the centre chimney meets the 
smoke from the one at the left. 

9> Similar, but the letters of the legend are larger, the w in 
wales is below the m in merthyr whereas in the last it was in line 
with the flrst limb of that letter. R.r. Halliday. 

7. 0- The Prince of Wales' plumes, merthyr silver token 
for 12 pence Legend, TO facilitate trade change being scarce 
181 1 The tops of the ones in date are flat. 

9» BY MORG- LEWIS MORG- MORGAN DAVID WILLIAMS W~ WILLIAMS- 

merthyr tidvil A sprig of palm over merthyr tidvil Legend, A 

POUND NOTE GIVEN FOR 20 OF THESE SILVER TOKENS • • • Both letters 

of by are under the figures 20 

Plate K, no. 20. 

8. O Similar, but the ones in date slope. 

^ Similar, but y in by is under o of 20 and only seven blades 
in the palm spray instead of eight. R.r.r. Halliday. 

c c 



194 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE 



NEATH. 

SHILLING. 

9. O An embattled tower between buildings, flag posts at the 
sides, h h on the ground ; all within a circle. Legend, payable at 
h • rees's & d • morgan's The first flag post at the left is supported 
by two stays. 

9= 12 pence 1811 in a circle. Legend, neath silver token 

Boyne 154. 

10. O Similar, but there is only one stay to the first flag post at 
the left. 

^ As last. 

11. Similar, but without the inner circle on the reverse. R. 

Boyne 155. 

12. O Similar, but the roof line of the building at the left lines 
betzveen l and e in payable instead of to the l 

£> As last. R. 

13. O Similar, but withozit the flag posts at the right. Legend, 

S? WALES & NEATH SILVER MEDAL * 

#> 12 march 181 1 Legend, neath silver medal R.r. 

Morgan was declared bankrupt April 22, 1826, and paid dividend December 6th, 1827. 
He was an ironmonger. 

SIXPENCE. 

14. O A tower as no. 7. payable at h rees's & d- morgan's • 
On the ground h h 

9> six pence within an olive wreath. Legend, neath silver 

TOKEN 

Plate F, no. 12. 

15. O As last. 

9> 1 2 march 1 8 1 1 Halliday. 

This is in brass, and in Mr. Bliss' cabinet. 

SWANSEA. 

SHILLING. 

16. 0- View of Swansea Castle, showing a flagstaff on each tower, 
houses at the sides. No legend. 

Vi payable at s- padleys & I- andrews s within a laurel wreath. 
Legend, Swansea silver token for xii pence Halliday. 

Boyne 217. 

Sylvanus Padley, wine and spirit merchant in the Strand, was one of the principal 
inhabitants of Swansea, and occupied several public positions. 



GLAMORGANSHIRE. 195 

17. O Similar view of Swansea Castle ; but the tall tower shows 
a weather vane, and the houses at the sides are omitted. Swansea 

TOKEN FOR XII PENCE • MDCCCXI • 

& A key suspended from a knotted ribbon, payable by- john 
voss draper &? Halliday. 

Boyne 218. 

The design of this piece was taken from John Voss's token of the eighteenth century, 
by Thomas Wyon ; illustrated in Pye 46, 1, and described by Conder 36, 2. In that 
instance, as was the custom, the edge is inscribed payable ON DEMAND whereas in this, 
as is the case in most of the silver tokens of the nineteenth century, the pledge is inscribed 
on the face of the coin. Ten cwt. of the halfpenny tokens were issued. John Voss, of the 
Golden Key, circulated a large quantity of his silver shillings. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

18. O one penny A star above and below in a circle. Legend, 
nantrhydnyvilas air furnace C-- 

9> 18 1 3 A star ornament above and below in a circle. 
Legend, payable at Swansea & morriston- The ornament over 
the date is under the s and e in Swansea 

Sharp 194, 1. 

19. Similar, but the ornament over the date is under the n and s 
in Swansea and the figure 3 is smaller. R. Turnpenny. 

The writer of the Bazaar articles informs us that the Air Furnace Company was 
established by the Bevans of Morriston, near Swansea, for the purpose of profitably 
utilising the slag thrown out of the smelting works at Landore. 

20. O one penny token A quatrefoil above and below. Legend, 

SWANSEA AND SOUTH WALES- I 8 I 3 • 

P> BY L- W- DILLWYN T- BEVINGTON AND J- BEVINGTON An orna- 
ment under the second bevington Legend, payable at the cam 
brian pottery Swansea + Halliday. 

Sharp 194, 2. 

The Cambrian Pottery was on the river Tawe, where the North Dock now is. 

The Cambrian Potteries were erected in the Strand, Swansea, and pottery first made 
there in 1780. In 1802 L. W. Dillwyn became sole proprietor. 

The opaque porcelain at these potteries " delineated natural history, birds, butterflies 
and flowers. The ware became remarkable for its beautiful and truthful paintings." 

A plate, painted in wild roses, in the South Kensington Museum, is marked Dillwyn & Co. 

Mr. Richard Drane, of Cardiff, says " there were two Bevingtons, Quakers ; one was 
part proprietor of the works, and the other commercial representative or traveller." 

A trident is one of the marks found on Cambrian pottery. 

Chaffers says "The name of Bevington is occasionally found on pieces of recent manu- 
facture, but we have no information respecting him."— Marks and Monograi7is on Pottery 
and Porcelain, lotked., 1903, p. 929. 

The Swansea penny, issued by Dillwyn and T. & J. Bevington, shows conclusively that 
the latter were potters as early as 18 13. 



196 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

ABERCARNE. 

SHILLING. 
COPPER. 

1. ONE SHILLING N° - Legend, ABERCARNE IRON WORKS 
SAMUEL GLOVER 

#> I PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND A ONE POUND 
NOTE FOR TWENTY OF THESE PIECES UnktlOlVtl. 

Plate K, no. 9. 
In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 
This County was in the Principality of Wales until 1535. 



197 



MONTGOMERYSHIRE. 

WELSHPOOL. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O 1813 Legend, Montgomeryshire one shilling 

£> R- GRIFFITHS CORNER SHOP W • POOL Legend, ONE POUND 

NOTE FOR 20 TOKENS R.T.T. Unknown. 

Plate M, no. 4. 

The issuer was also a County banker. He was declared bankrupt on November 12th, 
1 8 16. — Lo?tdon Gazette. 



198 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



PEIVJ BROKESH I RE. 

HAVERFORDWEST, 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. 0- A castle triple towered; issuant from the centre, a herald 
with a cavalry bugle. On each of the side towers, a flagstaff and 

flag. HAVERFORD WEST SILVER TOKEN FOR 1 2 PENCE l8ll c-. 

9> PAYABLE AT MESS- THOMAS & PHILLIPS DAVID JARDINE JOHN 

lloyd & w & j- Phillips Not in a circle. Legend, one pound note 
for 20 tokens Halliday. 

Plate F, no. 13. 
The issuers of this token were the principal tradesmen, who formed a private company 
to supply the public with necessary change. 



199 



SCOTLAND. 

AYRSHIRE. 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
SILVER. 

1. O Bust to right, georgivs- p- s- g d- i 799 (Georgius Princeps 
Senescallus Scotise Cornubia Dux.) Under the bust, Milton 

#> Arms. The order of St. George ; and motto, Honi soit qui 
Mai y Pense surrounded by four shields, crowned. First, England 
and Scotland impaled, difference by a label of three points ; second, 
France; third, Ireland; fourth, Hanover; between each the Prince 
of Wales' plumes. Legend, br- l- pr- e reg- so pr et- sen cor- dux 
(Brunsvicensis Lunenburgensis. Princeps ; et Regni Scotise Princeps 
et Senescallus. Cornubia Dux.) 

Boyne 24, 16. 

2. Also in Gold. 

3. Also in Copper. 

4 Also in White Metal. R.r. 



ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE. 

5. Similar to no. 1, except in size, but with <Milton> & under the 
bust. 

6. Also in Gold. 

7. Also in Copper. 

8. Also in White Metal. 

9. O A Trial Piece, of the obverse of no. 5, in White Metal, 

•without the artist's name, and in a circle instead oi a toothed border. 

9= Blank. R.r.r. Milton. 

Plate I, no. 13. 

10. Similar to no. 5, but the apex of the Hanoverian shield is 
over the 1 of honi instead of over the space between honi soit R. 

This is generally found in copper, and recognised by eighteenth century token collectors 
as a halfpenny. 



200 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Mules. 

The obverse of no. 5 is muled with the following reverses of 

Eighteenth Century Tokens. 

1L A female seated, in her right hand a garland, her left resting 
on a shield charged with St. Andrew and his cross, a thistle at the 
right. Scotia rediviva At the left m on the ground. Ex. 17 £Cf^97 

PLATE *' na I4 - Milton. 

Davis' Sale, Sotheby, Wilkinson &* Hodge, March 14, 1901, no. 578. 
This reverse die was engraved for Colonel Fullarton, who issued the Wallace Half- 
penny Token, vide Atkins 299, I. 

12. A female standing, holding her robes in her right hand, dropping 

with her left herbs into a still, a plant at the right, hygeia preparing 

velnos' vegetable syrup* In the exergue, p- R.r. 

Milton and Ponthon. 
Plate I, no. 15. 

SHILLING. 

13. O Similar to no. 1 except in size, and Jvliltoii Sunder the bust 
omitted, 

5k Similar, but legend reads regni scotle senes callvs R.r.r. 
Plate I, no. 12. 

SIXPENCE. 

14. Similar to no. i, except in size, and <M. under the bust. R.r.r. 

Boyne 25, 19. 

15. Also in Gold. 

16. Also in Copper. 

17 Also in White Metal. 

The gold impressions were in the Murdoch Collection, and sold in the Scottish Series, 
lot 373, by Sotheby Wilkinson &* Hodge, on the 13th of May, 1903. The degree of rarity 
applies to original specimens. 

The original half crown and eighteenpence may be identified by the absence of the flaw 
under the bust. The restrikes are on thick instead of thin flans. The illustrations 
on Plate I are from originals. Subsequently to the restriking by Matthew Young, the dies 
were taken to the late W. J. Taylor, who supplied the tokens to order as required, and 
those in gold are of yet more recent striking. 

Sharp says : " The dies for this rare token were made for COLONEL Fullarton, after- 
wards Governor of Trinidad, under the direction of Mr. Young ; the object not being 
mentioned at the time by Colonel Fullarton, but it afterwards appeared the coins were 
intended for circulation as shilling tokens in Scotland, the sanction of the Prince of 
Wales having been previously obtained. The late Sir Joseph Banks happening to see 
the dies whilst in the possession of Milton, was so struck by the resemblance of the 
design to the National silver coin, and the illegality of the Royal Arms being thus assumed 
by the Prince upon a piece intended to be current, that he cautioned the artist against 
further proceeding, since he might be liable to a charge little short of High Treason. In con- 
sequence, the project was abandoned, only a few proofs being struck, and those in copper." 

Sir George Chetwynd, quoting this, states : "for the same purpose dies were prepared 
for the striking of shillings smaller than those for the halfpenny, which they resemble in 
every other respect, except the legend of the reverses. A few pieces were struck in Silver 
for presents. Dies were also prepared for half crowns and sixpences exactly like the half- 
penny, size only excepted. It does not appear that any impressions, except a very few in 
soft metal, were taken off at the time ; but afterwards there were some struck in silver from 
the dies which were in Mr. Young's possession." 



201 



BERWICKSHIRE. 

DUNS. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

1. O GRAY TOBACCONIST 

9> dunse 1813 Unknown. 

In the British Museum. 

2. O ECCLES 18 1 3 

fy blank R.r.r. 

Neumann 24923. 



D D 



202 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



EDINBURGHSHIRE. 

EDINBURGH. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

1. O W- BEGG I39 COWGATE 

9> ONE FARTHING 1813 R.r. 

Plate K, no. 21. 

2. O j- brown l n m* (Lawn Market) 

fy FARTHING 1805 R.r. 

Neumann 24839. 

3. O W m CALDER EDINBURGH 

£> TEAS & SPIRITS 1806 R.r. 

Neumann 24840. 

4. O S- P- CHRISTIE TOBACCONIST 

9> ROYAL EXCHANGE l8l2 R.T. 

Neumann 24843. 

5. O A star, a d- douglass edin r 

fy Two pipes in saltire. tobacconist laun (sic) market- R.r. 

6. O MENELAWS WEST BOW 1 805 

9> TEA AND SPIRIT WAREHOUSE R.r. 
Neumann 24863. 

7. 0- D- PURDIE WEIGH HOUSE 

£> edinr- 1806 R.r. 

COPPER. 

8. O ALEX ROBB TIN SMITH * CANNON GATE * 

$k payable at 289 Palm branches below. R.r. 

Batty 1238. 
This is found in copper and lead. 

9. 0- john Steele's tin & oil shop 

$k PAYABLE 2 24 * CANON GATE * R.r. 
Atkins 321, 112. 
LEAD. 

10. O An ancient gateway in a shield ; crest, an anchor, nisi 
dominus frustra- (It is vain without the Lord.) 
9= J- t- b- c 1821- R.r. 

This piece is oval, and in white metal. Nisi dominus fmstra, motto of Inglis 
Edinburgh. 



EDINB URGHSHIRE. 203 

11. O J- WILL 

$> COWGATE HEAD l8o6 R.r. 

Neumann 24883. 

12. O A jug within a circle, j thom + china merchant • 

9> COWGATE FARTHING R.r. 

Atkins 321, 116. 

13. O ALEX? WISE- F- 

9> edin? 1806 R.r. Unknown. 

Neumann 24885. 

DALKEITH. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

14. O J- MILLER DALKEITH 

9> 1806 R.r. 

Neumann 24832. 

15. O A & J SCOTT DALKEITH l8l2 
£> TEAS SPIRITS & WINES R.r. 

Plate K, no. 22. 

16. O JA? WHITE DALKEITH- 

9. 1806 R.r. 

Batty 1 153. 

ESKMILLS. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

17. O WIL? JAKSON- PAPIN- 

^ ESK MILL l8l2 R.r. 

Neumann 2 

LEITH. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

18. O JOHN EGGO 

9> leith 1806 R.r. 

Neumann 24898. 
COPPER. 

19. O leith w m Christie An ornament above and below leith 

9> one farthing i 8 19 

Plate F, no. 15. 
LEAD. 

20. O A- MCEWEN 

9= WATER OF LEITH 1806 R.r. 

Neumann 24860. 



204 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

21. O W MILLER 1806 

9> LEITH FARTHING- R.r. 

Atkins 323, 139. 

22. O W MILLER- SENIOR- 

ft LEITH- 1806 R.r. 

Atkins 323, 140. 
The two last are found in copper and lead. 

23. O JAS- POLLOCK 

R leith + 1806 R.r. 

24. O R WILSON- TOBACCONIST l8l2 
R NORTH LEITH R.r. 

Neumann 24915. 

MUSSELBURGH. 

FARTHING. 

LEAD. 

25. O 1805 MUSSELBURGH 

9> COWANS FARTHING R.r. 

26. O T- THOMSON MUSSEL GH 
9> FARTHING 1805 R.r. 

Neumann 24892 

27. O W §ray 

R 1805 A scroll above and below the date. 

Plate I, no. 17. 

28. O m Sf s 
V* 1806 

The last two are in Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 



205 



FiFESHIRE. 

DUNFERMLINE. 

FARTHING. 
COPPER. 

1. O j- kirk - * - merchT high - street * An ornament below 

merchT 

9> DUNFERMLINE * FARTHING * l8l 7 R.r. 

LIMEKILNS. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

2. O PAYABLE- AT R- MAILLERS • • • • LIMEKILNS- 
$o ONE FARTHING 1819 R.r. 

3. O As last, 

9= grocer- & ship chandler- An ornament above and below 

SHIP 



206 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

FORFARSHIRE. 

DUNDEE. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O An armed Highlander, from the heath = covered mountains 
of scotia we come Below, in a sunk oval, the arms and motto, dei 
donum (The gift of God) of Dundee. The end of the sword points 

to A in MOUNTAINS 

O View of a ruin. Dundee shilling pay^F by j- wright jun 
Over the ruin the date 1797 Ex. broughty castle R.r. 

Plate M, no. 5. 

2. Also in Copper. 

3. °- As last. 

fy View of the Cross. Dundee silver medal price one 
shilling At the sides of the Cross, w des Under, cross taken down 
1777 R.r.r. 

4. Also in Copper. R.r.r. 

Norman's sale, 419, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, July 15th, 1903. 

5. Similar to last, but the end of the sword points to the t in 
mountains R.r. 

Plate I, no. 16. 

6. Also in Copper. R.r. Wyon. 

James Wright, of Dundee, was a famous collector, and was ardent in his efforts to 
obtain issuers of eighteenth century tokens. He wrote the preface for James Conder, and, 
in an able article, under the nom de plume of" Civis," in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1796, 
said : "Excepting the Coins of the Romans, there has nothing occurred parallel to these 
within so short a period, since the eras of the independent State of Greece, when almost 
every City had its distinct Coinage." 

BRECHIN, 

halfpenny. 
copper. 

7. O West view of a mill showing a water wheel, east mill 

BRECHIN 1 80 I 

9= West view of a church, payable by smith and wilson 
Under the building, church 

Plate F, no. 16. 

8. O As last. 

9> Similar to last, but the legend omitted, except church 

E. payable by smith and wilson + + + Willets. 

Atkins 294, 5. 
Smith & Wilson were flax-spinners. 



207 



HADDINGTONSHIRE. 

PRESTONPANS. 



FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

1. O G • NIMMO • PRESTON • PANS • 1813- 
9= GROCER • AND • TOBACCONIST • R.T. 



208 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

INVERNESS-SHIRE. 

Bracteate Tokens of the Highlands, 
twopence. 

BRASS. 

1. i'll pay 2- pence g : beverly A crown above, a thistle below, 
all within a border of pellets. R.r.r. 

Plate N, no. i. 

2. I PROMISE TO PAY ON DEMAND 2 PENCE G BEVERLY in a Cable 

circle. R.r.r. 

Plate N, no. 2. 

3. I Promife to Pay on demand twopence fter in- gray 1758 in 
a circle. R.r. 

Plate N, no. 3. 

4. angus m^ donell william fraser Four stars above ANGUS 
Outer legend, we promise to- pay- y b . bearer on demand 2 Pence 
all within an oval. R.r. 

Plate N, no. 4. 
"William Fraser was a merchant in Fort William, in 1744, thereafter vintner in 
Inverness." — Inverness-shire Antiquarian Notes, by C. Fraser Mackintosh, F.S.A. 

5. I Promife to Pay on demand 2 pence W M9 Intosh* in a 
circle. R.r. 

Plate N, no. 5. 

6. I Promife to pay on demand two Pence fter alex mc pherson 

1 76 1 in a circle. 

Plate N, no. 6. 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 

In the manuscript catalogue of the Banks Collection in the British Museum, it is noted 
that this token was received as currency at Fort William in 1787. 

7. I PROMISE TO PAY ON DEMAND 2 PENCE D M c VICAR in a cable 

circle. R.r. 

Plate N, no. 7. 
"Duncan Mc Vicar was appointed barrack master at Fort Augustus in 1768." — 
C. Fraser Mackintosh, F.S.A. 

8. i'll pay 2 pence a- stewart Three castles above and three 
pellets, two over one, below. R. 

Plate N, no. 8. 

9. The same as last, struck on a thick flan in white metal. 

In the British Museum. 

The Banks manuscript catalog-ue in the British Museum notes that the tokens of 
A. Stewart were received as currency at Port Augustus in 1789. 



209 

LANARKSHIRE. 

GLASGOW. 



PENNY. 
COPPER. 

1. O View of a building showing front warehouses with gateway, 
a factory at the left ; there are nine chimneys phcenix iron-works 
Glasgow Under the base line y & d There is no smoke seen from 
the second chimney from the right end of the building. 

9> Justice standing between a corded case and a cask, labelled 
between the first and second hoops, s and between the second and 
third, s- j & c° The figure of Justice has in her right hand a sword ; 
in her left, a pair of scales ; three chisels by a crowbar, on the ground, 
coins by the case one penny token 1813 The point of the sword 
is under the last limb of the first n in penny The left foot of the 
figure is over the second one in date. 

Plate F, no. 17. 

2. O Similar, but smoke is emitted from all the nine chimneys ; 
the fourth from the end of the building at the right is under the space 
between r and k in works 

9> Similar to last, but the initials on the cask are omitted', the 
hilt of the sword does not touch the case, two chisels by the crowbar. 

Sharp 228, 1. 

3. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the hilt of the sword again touches the case, the 
foot of the figure points to the last numeral of date, only one chisel 
by the crowbar. 

4. O Similar, but the fourth chimney from the right end of the 
building is under the first limb of k in works 

9, As last. 

5. O As last. 

£> Similar, but the point of sword is under the centre of the first 
n in penny and there are tzoo chisels by the crowbar, the position of 
the left foot as on no. 1. Halliday. 

The writer of the Bazaar Articles, says " The Phcenix Iron Works appear to have been 
established in Glasgow at the commencement of the present (nineteenth) century by Thomas 
Edington .... the works are still actively carried on. . . The Phcenix Iron Foundry is situate 
at 94, Garsube Road (corner of Anne Street), Glasgow." 

E E 



210 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



FARTHING. 

6. O D BONE & C° & PAYABLE AT GLASGOW 

£> 1806 ? The last numeral detrited. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 

7. O JOHN M c - MILLAN & G! -l8l6- 
#> TOBACCONIST + GLASGOW- + R. 



Unknown. 



CALTON. 

FARTHING. 

8. °" A pair of scales, henry reid + 1815 calton + 

£ TEAS- SPIRITS WINES- & GROCERIES- Unknown. 

Plate F, no. 14. 

9. O Similar, but barrowfield road added to the legend and 
the date omitted. 

fy As last. R. 

Atkins 320, 102. 

10. O A pair of scales with two ornaments h • reid • barrow • field 

CALTON- 

£> As last. R. 

Atkins 320, 103. 

" These tokens are wrongly attributed by Mr. Atkins to Edinburgh." — Lionel L. Fletcher, 
Spink's Circular, Jan. 1903. 



HAMILTON. 

FARTHING. 

11 O HAMILTON RETAILERS TOKEN 
$0 ONE FARTHING 1814 

Plate K, no. 23. 



Unknown. 



211 



PEEBLESHIRE. 

FARTHING. 
LEAD. 

1. O ROBT FRAZER • PEEBLES • 1 813 • 

fy Three fishes in fess tea and spirit • dealer • Unknown. 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 

Scotland was famous for its farthing tokens. There are described in Atkins' Tokens of 
the Eighteenth Century, no less than 136, but he says "some of them may belong to the 
nineteenth century." Probably many of them do, but to recognise these where no value or 
date is expressed, would open a wide door for the inclusion of many doubtful pieces. 



212 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



I RELAN D. 

Co. DUBLIN. 

DUBLIN. 

SHILLING. 
SILVER. 

1. O A female robed and seated to left on a rock, supporting on 
her left shoulder a caduceus, her right hand pointing to a merchant 
vessel ; on the prow, i (Ireland). Ex. The countermark, a harp 
crowned. No legend. 

]£ for one British shilling 1 804 Above the word for a 

small countermark of Hibernia. Legend, sold by clark west 

and c° R. 

Plate M, no. 6. 

2. The same in copper, but withotit the countermarks on obverse 
and reverse. R. 

3. O Similar, but with commerce above the seated figure. 

9= Similar, but the date is omitted. R.r.r. Hancock. 

Boyne 6. 

The countermarks are similar to those of the Dublin Assay Office of the time, but without 
the letters. Aq. Smith says " Clarke and West, wholesale goldsmiths and jewellers, resided 
at No. 9, Capel Street, in 1804. This long established firm is now represented by Messrs. 
West and Son, 18 and 19, College Green." 

4. O A robed female figure seated to right on a mound, holding 
the model of a ship. Legend, confidence augments the value 
Under the figure an oval, inscribed J ffl 6° (Irish Bullion Company) 

fy for one • British shilling d 2- 16 G- (2 dwts. 16 grains). 
Legend, sold by the irish bullion c° Hall marks on either side of 
d 2- 16 g. The o in one lines to the b in by R.r. 

5. Similar, but without the countermarks. R.r. 

Plate M, no. 7. 

6. Similar to no. 4, but the d and g? and the period after one 
omitted, the o in one lines to the space between by R.r. Hancock. 

Plate M, no. 8. 

These three tokens were made at Peter Kempson's manufactory, Birmingham. 
Aq. Smith was under the impression that this reverse was the same as no. 4, but the die worn 
from repeated lapping; this is not so, as will be seen on reference to the illustration of both 
the reverses in plate M. 









i 



j 



^/.>Ka..sS). a^r- 




^~^/L<^__ y^-^^/^t 






From a Plate in the possession of the Jut In 



DUBLIN. 213 

7. 0- A tripod altar with burning incense, entwined by a serpent, 
olive branches at the left, and a celestial globe at the right. 2 DWT 
20^! sterling Legend, public happiness 1804 

9> A female figure supporting a crown, above a cippus inscribed, 

HEALTH TO THE KING Legend, PRO BONO PUBLICO 

Boyne 23, 8. 

8. O As last. 

B> Similar, but legend reads, probono publico and, king on the 
cippus in much larger letters. 

Plate F, no. 18. 

" So great is the scarcity of silver in Dublin that it is customary to pay iod. for change 
of a £i. note. : ' — Bath Chronicle, Sep. 24, 181 2. 

The state of the silver coinage in Ireland was worse in 1804 than in 1812, when this 
announcement was made. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

9. O Hibernia seated to left, a harp at her side, payable at the 
pawnbrokers office bishot s? 

#> The monogram W & 0$ <$ G° Above the monogram, 
penny Below, 1804 Legend, licenced by act of parliament 

TOKEN M OS SOp. 

Atkins 3. 
The initials are those of W. F. Bently & Company, trading as indicated on the token. 

10. O Bust to left laureated, on the shoulder 1 parkes Legend, 

WELLINGTON & VICTORY 1814 

ft A robed female seated to left on a rock, with spear and 
olive branch, a shield, bearing the Irish harp at her side, a ship in 
the distance edw d bewley 1816 On the ground I p f- Parkes. 

Sharp 238, 2. 
The issuer was a grocer at 35, South Earl Street. 

Rolling Mills. 

11. O View of the interior of a rolling mill showing two men at 
work, and a large fly-wheel ; one penny token In the exergue, 
j- hilles dublin The last cog in the wheel is clear of the man's 
head at the right. 

£, A sprig of shamrocks, payable in bank of Ireland 
notes- 18 1 3 

Sharp 237, 1. 

12. Similar, but without the period after j and the corner of the 
last cog in the wheel is Jiidden by the man's head. R. Halliday. 

Sharp 237, 2. 
Plate F, no. 19. 
James Hilles, wholesale iron merchant, Abbey Street, was free of the six and ten per 
cent, duty in the Customs House, Dublin. — Wilson 's Dublin Directory, 1799. 



214 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Crest a Cock. 

13. 0- Crest, a cock upon a wreath in a circle, merchants above ; 
stores below. Legend, for the use of his own establishment- 
1813- The o of of is over the centre of the m in merchants 

& token in a circle, james's above, street below. Legend, 
edward Stephens's Dublin The second t in street is over the last 
limb of the n in Dublin The ceriphs or tops of the ones in date 
point to the left. R.r. 

Plate F, no. 20. 

14. O Similar, but both letters of of are over the m in merchants 
& Similar, but the t is over the centre of the n in Dublin 

Halliday. 

15. O Similar, but the ceriphs to the ones in date point to the right, 
fy Similar, but james's omitted from above. Under the circle 

james's street Halliday. 

Sharp 264, 2. 

16. O Crest, a cock, a much larger bird, without the inner circle. 
Legend, for the use of his own establishment • 1813 • 

£> A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown. 

E • STEPHENS • DUBLIN R.r.r. 

Sharp 264, 1. 

This rare piece is from a pattern by Halliday, and was rejected in favour of the bird in 
a circle, with the additional legend. 

Wellington and Erin go Bragh. 
Bust to Left, 1813. 

17. O Bust to left laureated, in military uniform. Wellington & 
erin go bragh (Ireland forever) 1 813 The projecting laurel leaf 
points to the & There is a button on the epaulet strap. 

£ A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
e • Stephens • Dublin- The arch of the crown is decorated with nine- 
teen pearls. 

Plate F, no. 21. 

18. Similar, but the projecting laurel leaf points to the n in 

WELLINGTON 

Sharp 238, 1. 

19. The same in silver R.r.r. 

This was in the possession of Aq. Smith, and described in a note at the end of his 
silver tokens in 1855. 

20. Similar, but the top of the cross is directly under the upright 
limb of p in Stephens- whereas in the former it is slightly at the 
right. R.r.r. 

This is in tin, vide Davis' sale, 796, March 15th, 1901. 



DUBLIN. 215 

21. O Similar, but the bust unlaureated. 

Tfc Similar, but there are twenty-three pearls in the arch of 
the crown. R.r. Halliday. 

Plate I, no. 22. 

1814. 

22 O Similar to last, but the bust laureated, dated 18 14 The 
button on the epaulet strap omitted, the star is over the 8 in date. 
& As last. 

23. Similar, but the centre laurel leaf points to the & the button 
again on the epaulet strap, the star is over 1 and 8 of date. 

24. Similar, but the star is over 8 and 1 of date. 

1816. 

25. O A draped laureated bust with long/lowing hair. Wellington 
& erin go bragh On the shoulder p 

& A harp of ten strings, surmounted by a royal crown. edw d 
Stephens 1 8 16 Parkes. 

Plate F, no. 22. 

26. 0- Bust laureated, after the antique. 1 parkes on the shoulder ; 
the top centre laurel leaf points to & and the end of ribbon to the h 

in BRAGH 

#> Similar to last, but the harp has nine strings ; the top of 
cross on the crown is under the upright limb of e in Stephens 

27. O Similar, but the centre laurel leaf points between & and e in 
erin and the end of ribbon to g in bragh 

$ As last. 

28. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the harp has eight strings ; the top of cross is 
under the space between t and e in Stephens 

29. O Similar, but 1 parkes f on the shoulder. 

£> Similar, but with nine strings to the harp ; the right corner 
scroll projection lines to the s in Stephens 

30. O As last. 

& Similar, but the harp has eight strings, the corner scroll 
projection lines to the n in Stephens 

31. 0- Similar, but the end of ribbon points to the h in bragh 

9> Similar, but the harp has nine strings. Parkes. 

32. O Similar, bust to left laureated with bare neck. 1 parkes f 
on the shoulder ; over the head, Wellington Under, erin go bragh 

#> Similar to last, a harp with nine strings, etc. 



216 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

33. O As last. 

£ Similar to last, but the harp has eight strings. Parkes. 

Plate F, no. 23. 
Edwin Stephens was a corn factor and proprietor of the Merchants Stores. 30, West 
Cole Alley, and one of the few citizens free of custom duty. — Wilson's Di?-ectory, 1799. 

Bust to Right. 
1818. 

34. O A laureated and draped bust to the right. Wellington & 

ERIN GO BRAGH 

£ A harp of eight strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
Ireland 18 1 8 R. Wyon. 

1822. 

35. O Similar to last, but the bust has long flowing hair. Leo-end. 

WELLINGTON ERIN GO BRAGH 

9> Similar, but dated 1822, and the harp has ten strings. 

36. O As last. 

5k A robed female figure seated ; a trident in her left hand, 
in her right a laurel sprig, at her side the union shield, a ship in the 
distance. Above, hibernia Ex. 1822 Unknown. 



George III. 
1800. 

37. A laureated and draped bust to right (George III) with long 
flowing hair, one penny token The projecting laurel leaf points 
to the centre of the second n in penny 

£ A female seated to right ; in her left hand a sprig of sham- 
rock, her right hand resting on a shield. Ireland 1800 R. 

Unknown. 

This is a forger)' of the time, and the figure intended for Britannia is peculiar, as she is 
seated to the right. There can be no doubt that the token was struck much later than the 
date indicated. Mr. Fletcher has a specimen post-dated 1827. 

1814. 

38. O Similar to last, but the projecting laurel leaf points to the 
first limb of the second n in penny 

£ A harp of ten strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
Ireland 18 14 The tops of the ones in date are flat. R.r. 

39. O Similar, but the bust is without the long flowing hair ; w on 
the shoulder ; a period after the legend. 

So Similar to last, but the ones in date slope. R.r. Wyon. 



DUBLIN. 217 

1819. 

40. O Bust to right, with long flowing hair, laureated and draped. 
one penny token. The top leaf of laurel points to the y in penny 

9< A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
Ireland 1 8 19 Kiichler. 

1820. 

41. Similar, but without the period after the legend ; the top 
leaf of laurel points to the first limb of the second n in penny 

9? Similar, but dated 1820 

42. O Similar, but the top leaf of laurel points to the centre of the 
second n in penny 

R As last. Kiichler. 

This is struck on a thinner flan. 

Bust to Right. 

St. Patrick Apostle. 

1806. 

43. O Bust to right crowned with a wreath of shamrock. s T 
Patrick apos 432 

R A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
Ireland 1806 R. Parkes. 

Plate G, no. 1. 

This is struck over J. Hilles' Penny of 1813. Others are found struck over various 
tokens of later make. 

Referring to the difficulty of recognisng some of the Irish busts, the writer of the 
Bazaar Articles suggests the appropriate legend : " Whose image and Superscription 
hath it." 



44. O Bust laureated to right (George III), luke • xx : chap- xxv: 
ver- (And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Cesar the 
things which be Cesar's). 

9> A harp of eight strings surmounted by a royal crown. 

IRELAND l8l8 

1821. 

45. O As last. 

£> Similar, but dated 182 1 

1822. 

46. O As last. 

9= A female figure seated to left ; a trident in her left hand, 
in her right an olive branch, the union shield at her side, a ship in 
the distance, hibernia 1822 P. Wyon. 

F F 



218 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE 

Bust to Left. 

St. Patrick. 

1815. 

47. O Bust unlaureated to left, a cross on the breast. s T Patrick 
apos 432 

51 A robed female figure seated ; in her left hand a spear, in 
her right an olive branch, a shield at her side bearing a harp ; in the 
distance a ship, hibernia 1815 R. Parkes. 

These were made at a later date, as they are found struck over Stephens' tokens of 1818. 
The figures on the tokens represent the year A.D. 432, when it was supposed the Patron 
Saint of Ireland commenced his mission to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity. 

George Prince Regent. 
1818. 

48. O Bust (Prince of Wales) laureated to left, on the shoulder w 
Legend, luke xx : chap • xxv : ver- Under the bust e- Stephens- 

9> A harp with eight strings surmounted by a royal crown 

IRELAND 18 18 

Plate G, no. 2. 

1822. 

49. o As last. 

$> As 46 ; female seated with trident, etc. Legend, hibernia 
1822 

Double Obverse. 

50. O As last. 

9= As no. 44; bust to right (George III) luke etc. R.r. 

P. Wyon. 

Edmund Burke. 
1806. 

51. O Bust to left unlaureated, p on the shoulder one pound 
value for 240 

& A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown 

IRELAND 1806 

This was engraved at a later period than that indicated, as specimens are found struck 
over tokens of a later date. 

1815. 

52. O As last 

fy As 47 ; female with spear, etc. hibernia 1815 Parkes. 

Daniel O'Connell. 

53. O A large laureated bust to left, irelands advocate 

9> A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown ; three 
leaves of shamrock on the sound board, may our friends prosper 

Parkes. 
Plate G, no. 3. 



DUBLIN. 219 



Without Busts. 
54. O A harp of nine strings, surmounted by a royal crown. 

HIBERNIA 1805 

£> one penny in a circle. Legend, for public accommodation 

Wyon. 



Double Reverse. 

55. O A harp of nine strings, surmounted by a royal crown, 
Ireland 1806 The cross on the crown does not touch the orb. 
£> Similar to the obverse, but dated 1805 

Some of the tokens without issuers' names, were also circulated in England. 



HALFPENNY. 

56. O Hibernia seated to left, her right hand resting on her knee, 
her left supporting a harp, payable at the pawnbrokers office 
bishop s T The head of the figure is under p and a of pawnbrokers 
A flaw runs through the die from b in payable to t in the 

9> ffi & 0b <$; G° Under the monogram 1804 Legend, 

LICENCED BY ACT OF PARLIAMENT*** R.r.r. 

Sharp 238, 2. 
The obverse die failed, which necessitated a new one. 

57. O Similar to last, but the head of the figure is under the a and 
w of pawnbrokers and without the flaw in the die. 

9> As last. Mossop. 

Plate G, no. 4. 

58. O View of the interior of a rolling mill, showing two men 
working, and a fly-wheel, halfpenny token above. Ex. y hilles 

DUBLIN 

£> A sprig of shamrocks, payable in bank of Ireland notes 
1 8 1 3 Halliday. 

Sharp 238, 3. 

59. O Hibernia seated to right supporting a harp in her right 
hand, and a cornucopia in her left, halfpenny payable at Under 
the figure mdccciii 

& A ship sailing under canvas, the warehouse of nevill & c° 
dublin- R.r.r. Mossop. 

Plate M, no. 9. 
Brent Nevill, Sheriff's Peer, was a merchant at 52, Abbey Street. He was exempt from 
Custom dues. 



220 nineteenth century token coinage. 

Wellington. 
1805. 

60. 0- Unlaureated and undraped bust to left, field marshal 

WELLINGTON 

& A harp of nine strings surmounted by a royal crown. 
hibernia 1805 R. Unknown. 

1816. 

61. O A laureated bust to left in military uniform, the illustrious 

WELLINGTON 

£ A harp of eight strings surmounted by a royal crown. 

WATERLOO HALFPENNY l8l6 Halliday. 

George III. 
1814. 

62. O Laureated and draped bust to right, halfpenny token 
The centre laurel leaf points to the y in halfpenny 

?= A harp of ten strings surmounted by a royal crown. Ireland 
1 8 14 R. Unknown. 

1819. 

63. O Similar, but the centre laurel leaf is tinder the second n in 

HALFPENNY 

9> A harp with nine strings. Ireland 1819 The scroll of 
the harp at the right lines to the first limb of the n and the cross 
touches the l in Ireland 

64. C- As last. 

9= Similar, but the scroll of the harp at the right lines to the 
centre of the n and the cross is quite clear of the l R. Kiickler. 

The two last tokens, and the pennies of similar design described under nos. 40, 41 and 
42, resemble the 1805 regal coinage of Ireland, manufactured at the Soho Mint and engraved 
by Kiichler. This eminent artist, besides engraving the dies for the regal coinage of 1797- 
1807, and the tokens made at Soho for the Bank of England and Bank of Ireland, was per- 
haps the finest commemorative medal designer this Country has had. Unfortunately, he 
had a dispute with Matthew Boulton a short time before the death of the great inventor, 
which lead to a separation after many years of service. At the time of the quarrel, Kiichler 
was engaged on a medallion of Boulton, which afterwards was finished by Pidgeon, who 
received ^300 for the work. Kiichler, at one time carried on business at Bride Court, Fleet 
Street, as a medal engraver. He died in comparative poverty, and rests in Handsworth 
Churchyard ; where there is no stone to perpetuate his memory. 

65. O Laureated and draped bust to right, luke- xx- chap- xxv : 

VER- 

& A harp of eight strings surmounted by a royal crown. Ireland 
1 82 1 Kiichler. 



DUBLIN. 221 

St. Patrick, Apostle. 

66. O An unlaureated draped bust to right, a cross on the breast. 
s T Patrick : apostle 432 + The cross is suspended by a chain. 

fy A harp oinine strings surmounted by a royal crown. Ireland 
1806 R.r. 

67. O Similar, but legend s T Patrick apos 432 On the shoulder p 
The cross is connected to the rosary or necklet by a loop instead of 
a chain. 

$ As last. R. Parkes. 

Plate G, no. 5. 
The last two pieces and the penny of similar design, although dated 1806, were struck 
at a later period. 

68. O A large laureated bust to right, halfpenny token 

#> Hibernia seated to left, supporting a harp of eight strings. 
hibernicus 1820 Parkes. 

Without Busts. 

69. O Hibernia seated to left ; her right hand supporting a harp 
of eight strings, her left resting on her knee, hibernia 1804 The 
harp points to the letter a 

$> for the convenience of trade No inner circle. 

Sharp 138, 5. 

70. O Similar, but the harp points to the letter 1 

£. A ship sailing under canvas, for the convenience of 

TRADE * R. MoSSOp. 

Sharp 238, 5. 

71. O Hibernia seated to left ; supporting in her left hand a harp 
of six strings, her right resting on her knee. Under the harp a 
shamrock, one halfpenny token • 1820 

9> A ship sailing under canvas, trade and navigation • 

Unknown. 

72. O A beehive and bees, from industry abundance flows- 
9> A harp of nine strings surmounted by a Royal crown. To 

the left of the crown e and to the right m c Legend, one halfpenny 
token 1 8 1 9 R.r. 

73. Also in Silver. R.r.r. Mossop. 

74. O Britannia seated with her usual attributes ; a ship in the 
distance, halfpenny 

I> A harp of nine strings surmounted by a Royal crown, the 
union 1 80 1 Kiichler. 

Plate G, no. 6. 

75. O Hibernia seated supporting a harp of nine strings. 

#> A harp of eleven strings surmounted by a royal crown 
hibernicus 1830 Unknown. 

This was struck at an earlier period, although dated 1830. 



222 nineteenth century token coinage. 

Ords. 

76. A laureated bust to left, george ords token 

9= A harp of seven strings surmounted by a Royal crown. 
Ireland 1834 Unknown. 

Although this token is dated 1834, it has every appearance of having been struck during 
the token period. 

Pantheon. 

77. 0- West view of a building. Under, 1802 

9> pantheon Legend, payable at the phusitechnikon A 
flaw appears at the p in pantheon 

Atkins 432, 140. 

78. Similar to last, but the last letter in pantheon extends beyond 
e in the whereas in the last it is hi line with the circular legend. 
There is no flaw by the letter p P. Wyon. 

A very similar token was issued in 1799, but the entrance to the Pantheon has plain 
instead of panelled doors. 

The writer of the Bazaar Articles states that the issuer of the token was William Binns, 
an ironmonger, at the Pantheon, 25, Stephen's Green, which was a stores for the sale of a 
variety of articles. 

1820. 

79. O A laureated and armoured bust to left. No legend. The 
ribbon from the wreath rests on the shoulder-piece. 

& A harp of ten strings, 1820 The scroll of the harp is over 
the space between 8 and 2 of date. 

80. Similar, but the harp has nine strings, the scroll of the harp is 
over the 2 in date. 

81. Similar, but the scroll is over the 8 in date. 

82. 0- Similar, but the ribbon falls below the shoulder-piece. 

^ Similar to last, but the scroll is over the 1 and 8 in date. 

Unknown. 

These tokens are of rude execution, in brass or yellow metal, and resemble the imitation 
regal money circulated during the reign of George III. They are included for the same 
reason as the 1812 Not Local pieces, to show the debased token issues or forgeries of the 
period. Breton says there are 25 minute varieties. 

83. Also in Copper, dated 1825 R.r. 

Probably struck 1820. 

SWORDS. 

84. 0- Hibernia seated to left holding a harp of six strings. 

FINGALL * HALFPENNY * 1 804 * 

9? y^Pft? W° PAYABLE AT SWORDS OR DUBLIN R. MoSSOp. 
Atkins 345, 168. 

85. Similar, but legend reads for the good of the publick * 
1804 * R. Mossop. 

86. Also in Silver, on a thin flan. R.r.r. weight 2 dwts. 19 grs. 

Boyne 22, 7. 
Fingall is a district, and Swords a town, both in County Dublin. 



223 



Co. GALWAY. 

MENLOUGH. 

SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

1. O A leopard passant gardant, within a garter inscribed virtus 
sola nobilitat- (Virtue alone ennobles.) 

& MENLOUGH CASTLE SIX PENCE WORK TOKEN l8lQ Unknown. 

Plate J, no. 23. 



224 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



KINGS COUNTY. 



TULLAMORE. 



ONE SHILLING AND ONE PENNY. 
COPPER. 

1. O Arms, first and fourth quarterly vert, a cross crosslet ; second 
and third azure, on a chief indented three mullets, a crescent, over 
all an escutcheon ; supporters, two Moors in golden armour ; crest, 
the coronet of a viscount; motto, virtus sub cruce crescit (Virtue 
increases under a cross) ; over the crest, charleville Under the 
motto, forest All within a circle. Legend, industry shall 
prosper- The date 1802 between sprigs of shamrock. There are 
ten shamrocks in the sprig at the left ; and the end of the ribbon at 
the right lines with the terminal of e in prosper • 

£> PAYABLE AT TULLAMOORE FIRST TUESDAY IN EACH MONTH- 

Above payable a rose and branches of shamrock ; under month 
olive branches ; all in a circle. Legend, one shilling and one 
penny • A conventional scroll divides the legend ; the y in Tuesday 
lines between p and e of penny • and the terminal shamrock at 
the left is under the o in one 

Plate G, no. 7. 

2. O Similar to last, but with only eight shamrocks in the sprig 
at the left ; and the ribbon at the right, lines to the first limb of e in 
prosper • There are tzvo tassels on the coronet, whereas in the last 
there is only one. 

9= Similar, but the top of y in Tuesday lines to the first limb of 
e in penny- R.r.r. 



3. Similar, but the top of y in Tuesday lines to the p in penny 
and the terminal shamrock at the left extends to the first limb of 
n in one Soko Mint. T. Wyon. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 

The arms, crest, etc., are intended to be those of Charles William Bury, Viscount 
Charleville, and Baron Tullamore. The token is one of the best executed of the nineteenth 
century ; and, fortunately, the finest examples are the commonest variety. 

Lindsay, Coinage of Ireland, p. 64, says : " A proof in copper gilt of a Charleville 
shilling token, 1802, is in the Dean of St. Patrick's cabinet. 1 ' But Lindsay's description 
of the' reverse is ONE SHILLING AND ONE PENNY- It is unfortunate that an author, 
writing on tokens only 37 years after they were issued, did not obtain the information as to 
why and under what conditions a copper piece was circulated for about twelve times more 
than its intrinsic value.- 

Charleville was born 1764, made a Viscount 1800, died 1835. The Forest mansion 
was burned down in 1808. 



225 



LONDONDERRY. 

COLERAINE. 



PENNY. 
COPPER. 

1. O A female robed and seated to left on a corded bale ; in her 
right hand a pair of scales, a cornucopia of fruit over her left 
arm, a harp at the side, a ship in the distance, and a sword on 
the ground ; d between the harp and the bale. Legend, w • m c . 

KENZ1E • COLERAINE • 

9= one penny token 1813 within a wreath of shamrock and 
laurel. There are three berries in the laurel branch. Davies. 

Sharp 237, 1. 



G G 



226 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



Co. LOUTH. 

DROGHEDA. 

HALFPENNY. 
COPPER. 

1. Hibernia seated to left supporting a harp, leinster * 

HALFPENNY x 1804 * 

# The monogram J \^ ' W° (Irish Mining Company) Legend, 
payable at drogheda or Dublin * R.r. Unknown. 

Atkins 331, 3. 
HALFPENNY. 

2. tate & lill louth in a rectangle {M. 2), countermarked on 
George III halfpence. R.r. 

Plate J, no. 4. 
This should have been included in the Countermarked section. 



227 



Co. MAYO. 

WESTPORT. 



ONE SHILLING. 
TIN. 

1. O + MARQUIS OF SLIGO + TOKEN FOR ONE SHILLING STERLING* 
9> PAYABLE AT KELLY'S ESTATE + + + EACH FRIDAY EVEN? 6 

o'clock* (M. ii). R.r.r. 

SIXPENCE. 

2. O Similar, but sterling omitted, value six pence 

9> Similar, but evening instead of even? (M. 9). R.r. 

THREEPENCE. 

3. o Similar, but without the star and crosses in the legend, 
value threepence 

^ Similar, but a period instead of a star after o'clock • 
(M.Si). R. 

These three pieces have holes in the centre, Mionnet i, down in proportion. The legends 
on the tokens very much resemble in character those of Charleville Forest, Kings County. 

" I much regret that I am unable to give you any satisfactory information about the 
family 'Tokens.' There is only a vague tradition that, during the last 25 years of the 
eighteenth century and the first 25 years of the nineteenth century, these were issued in 
place of money. Those in the eighteenth century would be in the name of Lord Monteagle, 
Viscount Westport, or the Earl of Altamont, as the Marquisate was not created till 1800. 
We did not know that any of the tokens existed, and I am much interested to hear that you 
have some." — Earl of Altamont, heir to the Marquis of Sligo, to the author, Jan. 22, 1904. 



228 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



Co. TYRONE. 

STRABANE. 

COPPER. 

1. Similar to the Coleraine Penny, female seated, etc., but the 
harp has eight strings instead of seven ; the d again appears, but its 
bow is partly hidden by the sound board. Legend, G • irvine 

STRABANE 

9= one penny token 1812 within a wreath of shamrock and 
laurel, four berries in the wreath. R. Davies. 

2. Similar, but dated 1813 

Plate G, no. 8. 



Atkins, p. 347, gives a list of Irish leaden tokens, and says they were issued in 
Dublin towards the close of the eighteenth century. Lindsay, in his advertisement, p. 139, 
states that they were struck at Cork between 1809 and 1813. As there is a doubt, and 
none of them are dated, they are omitted. 



/ 




^J4ha / c**~& 0e ^ ^^--^^- ^ 



From a Plate in the possession of the Author. 



229 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY IRISH TOKENS. 

Co. ANTRIM. 

B AL LYME N A. 

TWOPENCE. 
COPPER. 

1. O A hare lodged ; below 2 • p (two pence). Legend, • 1 • make- 
good • speed • The right ear of the hare touches the p in speed • 

$t • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • ONE (sic) DEM AM) • TWO 
PENCE • IA S . • ADAIR • B- MEN A 1 736. R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 1. 
Plate N, no. 9. 

2. O Similar, but the right ear is some distance from the p 

£> Similar, but- iam s adair • The M) in demand not joined. R.r, 

Plate N, no. 10. 

3. Similar, but the left ear of the hare is under the s in speed • 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 
Plate N, no. n. 

4. O Similar, but the right ear of the hare is under the -i- 

9> Similar, but the last letter in bearer • is under the t in the 
whereas in the preceding it is under the y in pay • 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 
Plate N, no. 12. 

The following extract from Benn's History of Belfast is of interest : — "It cannot 
be discovered that any bank was established in Belfast prior to the year 1752. In that year 
the earliest bank, which is known, was formed, the partners in which were Daniel Mussen- 
den, James Adair and Thomas Bateson, three of the principal merchants in the town." 

Probably James Adair here referred to was the issuer of the token, as he occupied a 
good social status at the time. The successors of James Adair still hold a leading position 
in Ballymena. The representative of the family is Frederick Adair of Ballymena Castle. In 
the " Mc Donnells of Antrim," it is mentioned that William Adair, who died in 1626, purchased 
the estate of Sir Faithful Fortescue. 

5. O A double-headed eagle displayed, dividing" 2 • p Legend, 

• READY • AY • READY . ° . 

$> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • ALEX • 
BEITH ■ B : MENA I 735 R.r, 

Aquilla Smith 2. 
Plate N, no. 13. 
Advertisement from the Belfast News Letter, from the 16th to the 27th of Feb., 1739 : 
"Tickets Local. — Whereas there are some Persons betwixt Lisburn and Belfast, who 
have counterfeited my Tickets with a Dye and Press, and sell them to the Country People, 
at half what they pass for. Therefore these are to give Notice to all Persons who have any 
of my Tickets, that they bring them unto me at any time before the first of March next 
(Counterfeits excepted) and I will pay them in Gold or Silver, and will give two Guineas 
reward to any Person or Persons, who will discover the Person or Persons who made these 
Counterfeit Tickets with the Die and Press, so that they may be convicted of said cheat. 

Alexander Beith." 



230 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

BE LF AST. 

TWOPENCE. 

6. O A falcon volant, trussing a mallard (wild duck) never • 
without • my • prey Only one wing of the falcon is seen. 

£> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO • PENCE • IOHN • 

knox • Belfast 1 735 The h in iohn is over the e and l in 

BELFAST R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 4. 
Plate N, no. 14. 

7. O Similar, but the falcon exhibits both its wings. 

£= Similar, but the h in iohn is over b and e of Belfast 

Plate N, no. 15. 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 

" John Knox, watch maker, Belfast, was sworn to the ' Roll of Freemen ' on the nth of 
September, 1729." — Town Book of Belfast, R. M. Young. 

•8. O A wolf rampant, gorged and chained, dividing 2 p • Legend, 
• fierce and • strong • The hind feet of the animal are over the 
space between strong • and fierce • 

9= • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • HUGH MAGAR 

ragh Belfast • 1736- The a and s in Belfast do not touch. R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 5. 
Plate N, no. 16. 

9. O Similar, but the hind feet of the animal are over and • and 
there is no period after p R. 
£> As last. 

Aquilla Smith 6. 
Plate N, no. 17. 

10. O As last. 

9> Similar, but the a touches the s in Belfast 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 
The wolf figures as a supporter in the arms of Belfast. 

11. O A dove displayed, in its bill a sprig of olive, good tidings 
Above the wing at the left \ 

51 • • I • • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE : W" RING 

land Belfast 1 734 R.r.r. 

12. Similar, but value expressed % R. 

Aquilla Smith 7. 
Plate N, no. 18. 

13. Similar, but dated 1735 R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 8. 

14. Similar, but the value omitted, date 1 734 R. 

Aquilla Smith 9. 



IRISH TOKEN COINAGE. 231 

15. O A lion rampant, supporting a wheatsheaf above a leopard's 
head. Legend detrited. 

$ I PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND TWO PENCE 

(name detrited) Belfast 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 
Plate N, no. 19. 

PENNY. 

16. O Similar to no. 13, except in size. 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • ONE PENNY 7 W. M RING 

LAND BELFAST 1 734 R.T. 

Aquilla Smith 10. 
Plate N, no. 20. 

HALFPENNY. 

17. O View of the High Street, showing on the principal building 
a centre tower with weather vane. Belfast ticket • 1734 • all 
within a cable border. 

#> l'L PAY THE BEARER ONE- HALF PENNY- W IOHNSTON 1/2 • 

^ p? for this co Sp (One shilling and two pence per lb. for this 
Copper Paid). 

Aquilla Smith 3. 
Plate N, no. 21. 

There are only two specimens of this token known, one being in the Belfast Museum 
and the other in Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. The two last, and the Maculla halfpennies are 
included in order to keep together this section of the Irish Tokens. 

In the Ulster Journal of Archeology, of January, 1903, Mr. Lionel L. Fletcher has an 
article on this token. He says : — " The most interesting feature is the representation of 
Belfast. It shows a part of High Street and the end of one of the bridges which crossed 
the open river. The lofty steeple figure in the view was considered by George Benn to be 
the old market-house which formerly stood at the corner of the Corn Market." Mr. Fletcher 
however, expresses the opinion that the " building more probably represents the old Parish 
Church, in High Street, which was taken down in 1774, and which stood on the site 
now occupied by St. George's Church." 

Mr. Fletcher thinks the issuer was " William Johnston, Baker, who it is recorded 
in the Town Book of Belfast, was admitted in 1729, to the freedom of the town." 



BELLYLONAGHAN. 

TWOPENCE. 

18. O A peacock 2 • p Legend, youth and beauty 

£> I PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • ALLEX m9 

clure • bellylona ghan -1735 

Aquilla Smith 11. 
In the Dublin Museum. 
Aquilla Smith mentioned that the name of Ballyloghnegany occurred in the Index 
Locoriim of the Ulster Inquisitions, but he was unable to locate it. 



232 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

BREBY. 

19. O A pelican in its piety, with my blood i feed my young 

9> * I * PROMISE TO PAY • Y E BEARER ON DEMAND TWO PENCE 
PATRICK BROWN • BREBY • (?) * 

Aquilla Smith 12. 
Plate N, no. 22. 
In the British Museum. 
This token may belong to Bready, Co. Tyrone, but spelled BRED Y. The reverse 
is rather indistinct, especially so in the name of the town. 

GLENARM. 

20. O An anchor and cable, between two fleurs-de-lis. 2 • p below. 
Legend, • 1 • live • in • hope • The links in the cable are joined, and 
the o in hope is the same size as the other letters. 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • HUGH MOUNT 

gomery glenarm • 1 736 • The period after to touches the p in pay- 
R.r. 

Plate N, no. 23. 
In Mr. Fletchers cabinet. 

21. O Similar, but the links in the cable are not joined, and a 
small in hope 

9> Similar, but the period is equidistant from to • and pay 

Aquilla Smith 19. 

Plate N, no. 24. 

Hugh Montgomery of the Ardes was the first Earl of Mount Alexander in the seven- 
teenth century, and the name Hugh occurs in " Burke."' 

LISBURN. 

22. O Unicorn's head to left couped. Legend, *:edw =d smyth * • • 
£ A minute eagle between two small circles, i • owe the • 

BEARER • TWO • PENCE LISBURN • I 736 • R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 21. 
Plate N, no. 25. 
" The issuer was High Sheriff of Co. Antrim in 1738." — Young's Historical Notices of 
Old Belfast. 

The same Journal copies an entry, dated August, 1744: "To Edward Smyth for 
repairing 1000 Perches of the Road from Lisburn to Antrim ^15." 

MALONE. 

23. O A dolphin embowed. Under, 2 • p Legend, with • covnc 

ILE • AND • COVRAGE 

& • I • PROMISE TO ■ PAY ■ THE BEARER • TWO PENCE ££- AARON • 

KEAN MALLONE • (su) I 735 • 

Aquilla Smith 25. 
Plate N, no. 26. 



IRISH TOKEN COINAGE. 233 

Co. ARMAGH. 

THREEPENCE. 
SILVER. 

24. 0- ALEX : MORTON ARMAGH © . •£. © I 736 

£ i promis : (sic) to : pay : the : bearer : three : : pence : 
the a in bearer : is under the last limb of the a in pay : R. 

Plate I, no. 18. 

25. Similar, but a small scroll after morton and Armagh 

26. Similar, but the a in bearer : is under the first limb of the 
a in pay : 

27. Similar, but the a in bearer : is under the colon after to : 

The issuer was "a famous clockmaker, in the year 1717 ; he lived in Market Street, 
where he struck off a number of silver tokens, which were being used as current coin in 
Armagh." — Stuart's Historical Memoirs of the City of Armagh. 

PORTADOWN. 

28. O IOHN • OUEREND • PORTADOWN * • P • -X- III • I 7 36 • 

9> I PROMISE TO • PAY • THE • BEARER • THREE PENCE R.r. 
Plate I, no. 19. 
"John Overend, Merchant, died at Portadown, 1758." — Monthly Chronicle, Ireland, Feb: 
1758. 

RICHHILL. 

p 

29. 0- SAM MACKIE : * III * RICHHILL 1 736 

9> • I • PROMIS • (sic) TO • PAY • THE • BEARER • • THREE • • PENCE • 

R.r. 

Plate I, no. 20. 

30. Similar, but reads richill (sic) R.r. 

Boyne, 4. 

31. Similar, but the p over m omitted and reads richhill R.r. 

p 

32. O sam mackie in richhil (sic) 1 736 within an inner circle. 

£» • I • PROMIS • (sic) TO ■ PAY • THE • BEARER • THREE • • PENCE • 

within an inner circle. R. 

LURGAN. 

THREEPENCE. 
COPPER. 

33. O A roll of linen 3. p above. Legend, • the • draper • • o o * o o 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE • BEARER r THREE • PENCE LAM? 
GREER LURGAN 1 736 R.r.r. 

Aquilla Smith 24. 

It is stated in Knox's History of the County Down that this family descended from 
Henry Greer, who came to Ireland from Dumfriesshire and settled in Lurgan in 1653 The 
family is now represented by Captain J. W. Greer, The Wilderness. 

H H 



234 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

TWOPENCE. 

34 O A stag at gaze ; at the left, 2 p The antlers have each 
four branches. 

9> ■ I • PROMISE • TO • PAY • THE BEARER I TWO PENCE • THO? : 

O : BRIEN * LVRGAN I 736 

Aquilla Smith 22. 
In the Dublin Museum. 

35. Similar, but with six branches in each antler. R.r.r. 

Aquilla Smith 22a. 
Plate N, no. 27. 

36. O A horse's head to left, bridled. Below 2 * p • 

£> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY- THE •:• BEARER •:■ TWO- PENCE IOS- 

WILSON LURGAN 1 735 

Aquilla Smith 23. 

Plate N, no. 28. 

In the British Museum. 

Co. DOWN. 

DROMORE. 

TWOPENCE. 
COPPER. 

37. 0- A griffon, passant, for • y? parish • of • dromore • 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO • PENCE • WILL • HALL 
DROMORE 1736 R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 13. 
Plate N, no. 29. 
The griffon was supposed to be a guardian of mines and hidden treasures. 
One Edmund Hall issued a token at Dromore about 1663. — Vide Williamson, 256. 

GILFORD. 

THREEPENCE. 

38. O A man riding at speed ; under the horse, dividing the date, 
17 36 a horseshoe. Legend, louse • run • for ■ ever 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE • BEARER • THREE • PENCE IN? 

COCHRAN • GILLFORD • (st'c) 1 736 • 

Aquilla Smith 18. 

Plate N, no. 30. 

In the British and Dublin Museums. 

Aquilla Smith has the following note : " In the year 1685, James II incorporated by 

charter the Governor and Freemen of the Corporation of Horse Breeders in the County of 

Down." In the Gilford Directory, the Rev. John Cochrane, Presbyterian Minister, occurs, 

and the family, since this token was issued, has been an important one in this town. 



IRISH TOKEN COINAGE. 235 

KILLYLEIGH. 

39. O A messenger with cudgel running, 2 • p • • beware • of • 

COVNTERFITS • (sic) 

9. • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • IOHN 

STEWART • KILLILEAGH • (sic) 1 735 • 

Aquilla Smith 20. 

In the Dublin and Belfast Museums. 

George Benn, in the Ulster Journal of Archeology, July, 1855, says : "The hurrying 
messenger impressed upon it imaginative people might describe as the figure of Mercury ; 
those who knew better would say it was the very image of a County Down ' boy,' bred and 
born in Killinchy, with a little round cap on his head, — probably a scratch wig underneath, 
a bunch of ribbons flying behind, loose jacket, short tights, home made hose, — his headlong 
speed, his determined look, and above all the stout cudgel in his hand, plainly intimating 
that the argument in the last resort would be brought to bear upon every caitiff guilty of 
forging the tokens of Mr. John Stewart of Killileagh." 

NEWTOWNARDS. 

40. O A kingfisher, a fish in its bill. No legend. There 2x0. five 
feathers in the tail of the bird, the fish does not exhibit its fins; all 
within a toothed border. 

9> I PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND TWO PENCE 

thomas fisher The first upright limb of the m in thomas is over 
the first limb of h in fisher R 

Aquilla Smith 32. 
Plate N, no. 31. 

41. Similar, but there are eight feathers in the bird's tail, and the 
fish exhibits its fins. R. 

42. Similar, but there are six feathers in the tail. 

9> Similar, but the o in thomas is over the first limb of h in 
fisher R. 

43. Similar, but a bird of closer plumage, the feathers in the tail 
are short ; all within a cable circle. 

9> Similar, but the upright limb of h in fisher is under the 
space between o and m of thomas instead 'of as previously being under 
the first limb of m R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 32a. 

The late Mr. Gillespie, in the list of his collection, placed the Kingfisher tokens to 
Newtownards. 

44. O A cask dividing 2 p Legend, iohn m9 cully brewer A 
rose at the bottom. The h is over u in m? cully 

V° I PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER TWO • PENCE ON • OEMANO 

iohn • m? cully newtown (sic) ■ : 1761 :• A rose before and after 
bearer The t in newtown is under the c in m9 cully R. 

Aquilla Smith 27. 
Plate N, no. 32. 



236 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



45. O Similar, but the p is at the right of y whereas in the last it 
is under that letter. 

9= As last. 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 

46. O Similar, but the h is over ul and the p under y in m9 cully 
£> Similar, but the t in newtown is under m in m9 cully 

R.r. 

Neumann 24948a. 
In the copy of The Ancient and Present State of the County of Down, in the British 
Museum, there is a MS. note, that in 1754 William McCully was one of the Churchwardens 
of Newtown(ards). 

47. O A lion's face between flags, 2 • * p • below, hold fast • 
above. 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • WILL^ m9 

quoid newtown {sic) 1736 R.r.r. 

Aquilla Smith 26. 
Plate N, no. 33. 



PORTAFERRY. 

48. 0- A ship under sail. • 1 • come • speed - 2 • p 

& • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • IOHN 

GALLOWAY PORTAFERRY- 1735' R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 28. 

Plate N, no. 34. 

The issuer of the token found it necessary to follow the example of Alexander Beith of 
Ballymena, and gave notice : " Tickets Local — Whereas some Persons with a Dye and Press 
have counterfeited the Tickets put out by John Gallway (sic) of Portaferry, Merchant, and sell 
them to severals at half what they pass for. Now I do give this public notice to all Persons 
who have any of my Tickets, that they may bring them unto me at any time before the first 
of May next (Counterfeits excepted) and I will pay them in Gold or Silver, and will give two 
Guineas Reward to any Person or Persons who will discover the Person or Persons that 
made these Counterfeit Tickets with the Dye and Press, so as they may be convicted of the 
said Cheat. John Gallway."— Belfast News Letter, from March 13th to April 27th, 1839. 



49. O A stag tripping. 2 • p truth • over • 

fy • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER 
MILLER- PORTFEERY {sic) 1 736 R.r.r. 

Aquilla Smith 29. 
Plate N, no. 35. 



COMES • 
TWO PENCE 



ROB! 



Co. DUBLIN. 

DUBLIN. 

SILVER. 

50. O A hart statant, pierced with an arrow. 
i*> ben bowen Dublin Legend, 1 • OWE 
ster • R.r. 

Boyne 2. 
Plate I, no. 21. 



THE • BEARER • III 1 ? 



IRISH TOKEN COINAGE. 237 

COPPER. PENNY, 1729. 

51. CASH NOTES VAL RECEIVED DUBLIN 1 729 JAMES MACULLA 
PENNY 

R> I PROMISE TO PAY • THE BEARER • ON DEMAND 20 PENCE • A- 
POU ND • FOR • THESE 

Aquilla Smith 16. 
Plate N, no. 36. 
In the British and Dublin Museums. 
The die was originally intended for a halfpenny. It will be seen from the illustration 
in the plate that the first N in PENNy is engraved over \ 

I73I- 

52. O A large fleur-de-lis. cash • notes • value • recd • 1 • 

MACULLA • 

R> A female standing between two pillars, holding in her right 

hand a sword erect, in the left a pair of scales ; the head of the figure 

divides the date 17 31. Legend, 1 • promise • 20 • shillings • 

pound • str • R.r. 

Plate N, no. 37. 
Aquilla Smith thought that this piece was intended to pass as a shilling. This is 
inconsistent with the idea of the period. The issuer probably intended to convey that he 
was prepared to pay, on return of the tokens, either in regal silver or cash notes. 

HALFPENNY, 1728. 

53. O promesary {sic) notes value received : Dublin • 1728 • 

IAMES • MACULLA 

£> I PROMISE TO • PAY • UNTO BEARER • ON • DEMAND • 20 • PENCE • 
A • POU ND FOR • THESE • 

Lindsay 119. 
In the British Museum. 

54. O CASH NOTES • VAL, RECEIVED DUBLIN- 1 728 IAMES • MACULLA 

R I PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • ON DEM A ND • 20 • PENCE • 

A- POU ND • FOR • THESE • R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 14. 

1729. 

55. O CASH NOTES • VAL, RECEIVED • DUBLIN 1 729 IAMES MACULLA 

^ The a and l in val, touch. 
B, As last. R.r. 

56. O As last. 

R> I PROMISE • TO • PAY * THE BEARER • ON • DEMAND • 20 • 

pence • a • pou nd • for • these The o in to is over e and a of 

BEARER R. 

Aquilla Smith 15c. 
This is also struck from the same die on a much thicker flan. — Vide Aq. Smith 15b. 

57. O Similar, but the a and l in val, do not touch, most of the 
letters in the inscription are without their ceriphs. 

&> As last. 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 



238 EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

58. O As no. 55. 

9> Similar to last, but the o in to is over the e in bearer- R. 

Aquilla Smith 15a. 

59. O Similar to last, but the i in \ is directly under the u instead 
of between c and u in maculla • which has a period after it. 

& As last. R.r. 

Aquilla Smith 15. 

60. As no. 52, except in size. R. 

Aquilla Smith 17. 

James Maculla was a brazier in Dublin. 

Maculla proposed to supply the coinage on a plan which he publicly stated. It was 
to circulate copper tokens for pennies and halfpennies stamped with a promissory to pay 
twenty pence for every pound of copper notes whenever they should be returned. There 
was to be forty-eight halfpence to the pound, avoirdupois, which he undertook to sell at 
two shillings. This he calculated would a'low little more than sixteen per cent., provided 
the tokens should be returned without loss of metal by circulation, and provided the expense 
of stamping should amount to sixpence each pound. 

Maculla submitted this plan to Dean Swift, who disapproved it as but little security 
would be given to the public "that the tokens should always be made of the intrinsic value 
which was proposed in the project." 

Swift pfoposed a counter plan. It was to form a Society of ten gentlemen to issue 
tokens of increased specific gravity to Maculla's, vide Swiff s Works, vol. XV, p. 260. This 
project was not taken up and Maculla issued his tokens, notwithstanding the criticism to 
which the plan had been subjected by Swift, who, Ruding says, " was absolute monarch over 
all those who were likely to be much affected by the circulation of the tokens." — Vide 
Ruding, vol. IV, p. 3. 

Co. LONDONDERRY. 

KIL REA. 

TWOPENCE. 
COPPER. 

61. O A halberdier crowned, girt with a sword, in his right hand 
a halberd. 2 • p at the right. Legend, virtue mine • honour 

9> • I • PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE • I AMI HENRY 

• KILLREA {sic) I 736 R.r.T. 

Aquilla Smith 31. 
Plate N, no. 38. 
The specimen which Aquilla Smith had was so detrited, that he placed this token in 
his Not Local section. 

Macaulay, in the Spanish Armada, says — " Behind him march the halberdiers, before 
him sound the drums." 

Co. TYRONE. 

DUNGANNON. 

THREEPENCE. 
COPPER. 

62. O A stag tripping ; below o 3 ° p o Legend, fides • non • timet 
(Faith knows not fear). 

9> • I ' PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • THREE PENCE THOM^ 
REA • DVNGA NNON • 1736- R.r.T. 

Batty 1562. 
Plate N, no. 39. 



IRISH TOKEN COINAGE. 239 



STEWARTSTOWN. 
63. A view of the Market House. 

9> I PROMISE TO • PAY • THE BEARER • TWO PENCE IAM? TEM 
PLETON STEWARTS TOWN 1 736 R.T.T. 

Aquilla Smith, in his introduction, gives an account of the state of the copper coinage 
of Ireland when these tokens were in circulation. He says, " the coinage of the fine copper 
halfpence by George the Second, in 1736 and 1737, and of farthings in 1737, put an end to 
the issue of private tokens... They were withdrawn from circulation, and full value given for 
them in gold or silver, which accounts for the extreme rarity of the greater number of the 
tickets, as they were designated. The weight or intrinsic value of the tickets, being nearly 
the same as that of the new halfpenny, gave rise to the once common saying ' not worth a 
two-penny ticket.' " How one could expect a halfpenny to be worth twopence is not explained. 

" It is said that our good halfpence are carried to the West of England and to Scotland 
by the colliers and other dealers, which is a good trade for them, as they get thirteenpence 
for a shilling, which is eight and one-third profit, so that, unless Irish halfpence are pro- 
hibited in Great Britain, we shall be constantly drained of our Copper Coin, great quantities 
of which are likewise exported to America." 

This interesting note, quoted by Aquilla Smith, from Falkner's Dublin Journal, Sep. 2, 
1760, shows how difficult was the coinage question in those days. The same journal had a 
week before announced : " We are assured that several casks of halfpence, amounting to 
,£15,000, lately coined at the Tower, for the use of this Kingdom, are shipped on board a 
London trader, and are daily expected here." This assurance was of no value, as the 
coinage dated 1760 was not sent to Ireland until 1762. 



COUNTY UNKNOWN. 

TWOPENCE. 
COPPER. 

64 O I PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND TWO PENCE 

FRAN M c MINN 1760 The final letter in promise is over the 
last limb of h in the 

$> Similar to the obverse, countermarked f 

Aquilla Smith 33. 
This is supposed to be the specimen which Aquilla Smith described. 

65. O As last. 
9. Blank. 

Plate N, no. 40. 

66. Similar to last, but the 8 in promise is inverted, the final e 
spans the h in the 

In Mr. Fletcher's cabinet. 

67. O A greyhound to left at speed ; 2 p above. Legend 
detrited. 

fy 1 promise to pay the bearer two pence The remainder 
of legend detrited. 

Aquilla Smith 30. 
In the Dublin Museum. 



240 NINETEENTH CENTURY 



THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

Although the Channel Islands are not within the Constitution of Great Britain, their 
insular tokens are sought after and included in British collections. 

The Islands were taken by Rolf, or Rollo, in the ninth century, and William the 
Conqueror was the first monarch to unite them to the Crown of England. 



GUERNSEY. 

FIVE SHILLINGS. 
SILVER. 

1. O Arms of Jersey, gules ; three leopards passant gardant in 
pale, in a circle, bishop de jersey & c? A rose ornament divides 
the legend. 

9> token of five shillings within a wreath of oak. Legend, 

BANK OF GUERNSEY 1809 R.r.V. T. WyOfl. 

Plate I, no. 23. 
This piece is struck on a Spanish dollar. 

Bishop de Jersey & Co. also issued at their bank in Guernsey one pound notes. The 
following notice is of interest : 

"CREDITORS OF BISHOP DE JERSEY and CO. GUERNSEY. 

" Notwithstanding Mr. Bishop has engaged to devote the profits of his business to the 
liquidation of any defalcification that might arrise in the concerns of the Bank, he is credibly 
informed that several malicious persons mean to proceed against him, as soon as the terms 
of the Royal Court opens, and endeavour to molest his person and trade ; he therefore 
takes this opportunity to request those who wish to take advantage of the above engage- 
ment, to sign or cause to be signed the agreement entered upon before the 13th of October 
next, in default of which he will take the advantage of the regulations of the Laws of the 
Island, and shall not consider himself bound to any person having neglected to close with 
this offer. Guernsey, 7th September, 181 1." — The Star, Sep. 14th, 1811. 



THE STATES OF JERSEY. 

THREE SHILLINGS. 

2. 0- Arms as last; but not in a circle. Legend, states of jersey 
1813 

£> three shillings token within a wreath of oak. R. 

Atkins (Colonial Tokens) 6, 45. 
EIGHTEENPENCE. 

3. O As last, except in size. 

£> As last, but legend, eighteen pence token T. Wyon. 

Plate G, no. 9. 
Struck by order of Council. — Vide Ruding, vol. V, p. 368. 



TOKEN COINAGE. 241 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

4 O Profile of George III laureated. jersey bank token 1812 

£> ELIAS NEEL JERSEY Legend, A BANK OF ENGLAND NOTE FOR 

240 tokens R.r. Unknown. 

Atkins 7, 47. 

5. O Draped, and laureated bust to right of George III jersey 
bank 1 81 3 

£> A robed female figure seated to left on a bale, holding scales 
and cornucopia, one penny token R.r. Halliday. 

Atkins 7, 48. 

JERSEY, GUERNSEY AND ALDERNEY. 

6. O Laureated and draped bust to right (George III), within a 
wreath of oak. 

9> one penny token in a circle. Legend, jersey guernsey 
and alderney • R. Halliday. 

Atkins 7, 50. 

7. O A druid's bust to left, pure copper preferable to paper • 

PENNY TOKEN • 

9> As last. R. Turnpenny and Halliday. 

Atkins 7, 52. 
This obverse die is used on a Burton token. 

8. O As last. 

9> A robed female figure seated to left on a bale of merchan- 
dise, holding an olive branch and cornucopia, a ship in the distance. 
Legend, commerce Turnpenny and Halliday. 

9. O As last. 

9> A robed female figure seated to left, holding in her right 
hand a sprig of olive, and in her left a palm branch ; a shield at the 
side. Legend, commerce 18 14 Turnpenny and Halliday. 

10. O The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet. 
Motto on a ribbon, ich dien Under the crest, 1813 Legend, to 
facilitate trade . # • 

9> one penny token in a circle. Legend, jersey guernsey 
and alderney • Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 10. 

11. O As last. 

£> A female seated to left on a bale of merchandise, holding 
an olive branch and cornucopia, a ship in the distance. Legend, 
commerce 1 8 14 R. Halliday. 

1 1 



242 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

12. Similar, but the date omitted on the reverse. 

13. O As reverse no. io one penny token in a circle. Legend, 

JERSEY GUERNSEY AND ALDERNEY • 

9> one penny token in a wreath of oak. R.r. Halliday. 

Atkins 7, 51. 
HALFPENNY. 

14. Similar to no. 10, except in size, half penny token 
R.r.r. Halliday, 

The Channel Islands form the one exception where no seventeenth century tokens 
were issued. 



■^f.«*ri 



5o 








/-■ 









§fwll* '■ >//.//.>// .(///Ac It////,,//?.//.) (///<■/, in Bank 
/ / ) >/> // 




rv/ 



///////■. //>:* 



f//Y } /r// ( >f//r/f///y/ s } ( \, 



§&Mmi\m\, 



From a Print in the possession of the Author. 



243 



THE ISLE OF MAN. 

Like the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man is not within the Constitution of Great 
Britain, but the Tokens form a most interesting section, and are eagerly sought after by 
English and American numismatists. 

The Isle of Man having been for a long period the seat of an extensive smuggling 
trade, to the detriment of the Imperial revenue, the sovereignty of it was purchased by the 
British Government, in 1765, for ,£70,000 and an annuity of ,£2,000 a year to the Duke of 
Athol, he still retaining certain manorial rights, church patronage, etc. The last remaining 
interest of the Athol family in the island was transferred to the British Crown in 1829 ; the 
amount paid for the island having amounted in the aggregate to £493,000. — Vide Chambers's 
Encyclopedia, vol. VII, 1901. 

Charles Clay, in his admirable work, commences the chapter on the Insular Tokens 
by quoting Dr. Combe : " Though at present no high value be set upon town pieces and 
tradesmen's Tokens by men of learning, a time will come when these Coins will be as much 
esteemed in this Country as the town pieces of the Greeks." This forecast, quoted as 
recently as 1869, has already been realised. 

Three years after this opinion was quoted, the Collection of Tokens formed by Sir 
George Chetwynd was dispersed by Christie, Manson & Woods, and lot 545, which con- 
tained three fine specimen pieces, the Peel Castle crown, half crown and shilling, were sold 
for ,£1 17s. to Mr. Webster. It is no exaggeration to estimate their value to-day at thirty 
guineas, and that a similar relative appreciation has followed tokens generally which possess 
some degree of rarity. 

In the Isle of Man, tokens were resorted to for precisely the same reason which caused 
their production in Great Britain and Ireland. Clay says : " For instance, in the time of 
Elizabeth, tradesmen's tokens were numerous, but it was the necessity for a small Coinage 
that forced them on the public," and, he goes on to say, that both the eighteenth and 
nineteenth century tokens were the result of Government neglect. So much so that " Before 
the issue of the Victoria coins (1839) the currency of the Island was utterly exhausted ; and 
almost every kind of token was circulated, even to buttons with the shanks rubbed off. Dr. 
Clay illustrates one of these buttons, which represents the device and motto of the Isle of 
Man. 

DOUGLAS. 

SILVER. FIVE SHILLINGS. 

1. 0- View of a castle and vessel from the quay, two mariners on 
the harbour watch. Legend, peel castle isle of man 

£> PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND 5 SHILLINGS BRITISH 

1 8 1 1 in a circle. Legend, the douglas bank c? * at their bank, 
DOUGLAS * R.r. 



Plate M, no. 10. 



Halliday. 





TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 

2. O Similar, except in size. 

9> PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND 2 S . 6 D BRITISH l8ll 

Legend as on the five shillings ; the first numeral in date is over the 
space between b and a in bank, R.r.r. 

Boyne 71. 



244 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

3. Also in Copper. R.r. 

4. Similar, but the first numeral in date is over the first limb of 
b in bank, R.r.r. 

Plate M, no. n. 

5. Also in Copper. R.r.r. Halliday. 

SHILLING. 

6. O Similar view of Peel Castle, but the quay, harbour watch ; 
and the legend are omitted. 

$> DOUGLAS BANK TOKEN ONE SHILLING BRITISH l8ll R.r. 

Halliday. 

Boyne 72. 

7. O As last. 

9» s • ash occupying the field. R.r.r. Halliday. 

Atkins 12, 25. 

See also Countermarked Tokens no. 136. 

This is in copper, and may exist in silver, but all efforts to discover it in that metal 
have failed. 

C. Clay, on June 17th, 1864, stated to the Manchester Numismatic Society that the 
Douglas tokens were issued by Littler, Dove & Co., bankers, of Douglas. The bank did 
not survive the issue of the tokens for many months, nor were they circulated in large 
numbers, except the copper tokens hereafter described. On the currency of the Isle of Man 
Clay gives the following additional information : 

" In the month of November, 181 1, a new bank was opened in Douglas, under the firm 
of Littler, Dove & Co. Its claims on the public confidence were set forth in the following 
advertisement : 

" ' To counteract the Effects of many false Reports which have been circulated respect- 
ing the Plans and Intentions of the Douglas Bank Company, they feel it a duty they owe 
themselves and the Public to declare their Readiness to meet their tokens to any Amount 
above Twenty Pounds by Bills upon London, at the usual Exchange of the Island. Under 
that sum they propose to issue their own Notes, but as they are not quite in Readiness, they 
are prepared with Notes and Cards current in the Island. The Office of the Bank is at 
present in Fort Street, until the House they have taken of Messrs. Callows, in Duke Street, 
be finished. They have no other Office in Town. Littler, Dove & Co., Douglas, Nov. 
29th, 181 1.' 

"It appears that disputes very soon arose between the members of the new banking 
firm of Littler, Dove & Co. The firm consisted of William Scarlett Littler, James Dove 
and the Rev. Robert Littler. The latter being about to leave the Island, his partner James 
Dove sued out an action against him for ^i,ooo,under which he was arrested, and imprisoned. 
This led to the adoption of proceedings in the Chancery Court, on the part of the Rev. 
Robert Littler, against Dove, and which came before the Court on the 3rd January, 1812, 
when the arrest was set aside. The consequence was that the banking establishment was 
brought to an abrupt close." 

CASTLETOWN. 
Isle of Man Bank. 

PENNY. 
COPPER. 

8. O The triune armoured and spurred with feet to left. Legend, 
qvocvnqve ieceris stabit • (Wherever you may cast it, it will 
stand). 

9> bank penny in a circle, isle of man 181 i Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 12. 
C. Clay, June 17, 1854, said "The Isle of Man Bank Tokens were issued by George 



THE ISLE OF MAN. 245 

Quayle & Co., bankers, Castle Town." The London agents of Quayle & Co., were Master- 
man & Co., 2, Whitehart Court. Subsequently, in the currency of the Isle of Man, Clay 
amplifies the information, as follows : — 

"The Isle of Man Bank commenced business at Castletown, in the year 1802. The 
partners were Mark H. Quale, George Quale, John Taubman, and James Kelly. These 
constituted the firm until 1805. Then the bank was carried on by George Quale alone until 
January 1st, 181 1 ; afterwards George Quale, Edward Cotteen, and Patrick Townsend Light- 
foot continued it till about 1816, when Edward Cotteen retired ; and the above George 
Quayle and P. T. Lightfoot conducted it to its close in November, 181 8. The first set of 
partners of this bank issued the Isle of Man Bank Penny and Halfpenny Tokens, although 
they have usually been attributed to George Quayle alone. I am indebted for the above 
information to the kindness of M. H. Quayle, Clerk of the Rolls, through J. F. Crellin, Esq., 
M.H.K. (Member of the House of Keys), Orrysdale. 

HALFPENNY. 

9. O Similar to last, except in size. 

#> Similar to last, but bank half penny in a circle. Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 13. 

DOUGLAS. 

PENNY. 

10. O View of Peel Castle, without the harbour watch, as no. 6. 
The building at the right of centre tower is nearly as tall as the 
tower, there axefozir stays to the mast, which touches the land. 

9= douglas bank token one penny 1811 No inner circle. 
The tops of the ones in date slope. R. 

Plate M, no. 14. 
In the Haw sale, Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, no. 304, Jan. 20th, 1904, was a proof 
of this piece struck on a thin flan, penny size. — Vide also Dr. Nelson, p. 35. 

11. O As last, but the building extends only half-way up the 
centre tower, and there are two stays to the mast, which does not 
touch the land. The f of of is under the ship. 

9> Similar, but bank omitted. The upright limb of the t in 
token is over the last limb of the n in one The tops of the ones 
in date zrejlat. R.r.r. 

This is a proof, of excellent workmanship. 

12. O Similar to last, but the end of f in of is at the right of the 
ship, the mast touches the land. 

& Similar, but the upright of the t in token is over the space 

between n and e in one R. 

Plate M, no. 15. 
This is of inferior workmanship. 

Atlas. 

13. O The figure of Atlas kneeling ; on his shoulder the globe. 
Legend, payable at the office douglas 

9> The triune armoured to the knee piece and spurred, with 
feet to right. Legend, manks token one penny 1 8 1 r 

Plate M, no. 16. 
C. Clay, June 17, 1864, says the penny and halfpenny " were issued by Beatson and 
Copeland, Bankers." John Beatson and George Copeland also issued Bank Notes for 
various sums ; were the agents of the Atlas Fire Office ; and, in addition, kept a Wine and 
Liquor Stores at Douglas. 



246 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



God Save the King. 

14. O Bust to right (George III) god : save : the : king 1830 
The figure 1 in date is curved. 

£> for # publick accommodation # An ornament above and 
below publick The bottom ornament lines to the 1 in accommo 

DATION 

Plate M, no. 17. 
This is also found in gunmetal. 

15. O Similar, but the figure 1 in date is straight. 

9> Similar, but the bottom ornament lines to the t in accommo 
dation Unkitown. 

Atkins 33. 

This is in brass, and a contemporary forgery. 

" God save the King Token, There was a report that an issue of Coins for the Isle of 
Man had occurred during the reign of George IV, but it was simply this token. It certainly 
appeared in his reign, but was in no way connected with the Government, except by having 
a badly executed head of George III on it. This token has also had the name of McTurk's 
Token, by others it was known as Caine's (Banker) Token, and again as Carter's Token. 

"It is now easily explained how this piece became associated with the names before- 
mentioned ; the issuers being relatives, or connected in business, the dies consequently 
came into the possession of different persons at different times. Some time back, evidence 
was furnished me from the daughter and son-in-law of John McTurk (the former still 
living), confirming the above facts. This token was looked upon by English numismatists 
as an English token ; and I believe I was the first to discover the error generally made." — 
Charles Clay, p. 102. 

HALFPENNY. 

16. O View of a castle without the quay and the harbour watch. 
Legend, peel castle isle of man 

9> douglas bank token halfpenny 1811 No inner circle. R. 

Halliday. 
Plate M, no. 18. 



Atlas. 





17. O The figure of Atlas kneeling, on his shoulders the globe. 
payable at the office douglas The right foot of the figure is 
over the space between c and e in office 

9> The triune armoured and spurred with feet to right, manks 
token halfpenny 1 8 1 1 The foot at the left of date points to the 
first limb of n in manks R. 

Atkins 12, 30. 



THE ISLE OF MAN. 247 

18. O Similar, but the right foot of the figure is over the centre 
of the e in office 

¥o As last. R.r. 

19. O Similar, but the right foot of Atlas is over the o in douglas 
$t> Similar, but the foot of the triune points to the first limb 

of the a in manks R.r.r. 

Nelson 49. 

God Save the King. 

20. O Bust to right, god : save : the : king 1830 The top of the 
1 in date is fiat. The centre laurel leaf is under the colon after save: 

£> for publick accommodation as no. 1 3. An ornament 
above and below publick The k in publick lines to the last limb 
of n in accommodation 

Plate M, no. 19. 

21. Similar, but the 1 in date is pointed. 

Nelson 52a. 

22. O Similar, but the centre laurel leaf lines to the first lijnb of 
h in the : The top of 1 in date fiat. 

B> Similar, but the k lines to the first limb of n in accommo 
dation R. Unknown. 

A forgery of the period. 

23. O Similar to last reverse. 

£> A ship under sail, ships colonies and commerce 181 5 R. 

Unknown. 

Atkins 307, 230. 
The last two are in brass. 

RAMSAY. 

FOUR SHILLINGS. 

24. O Head of a king, hiare skillin peesh (Four Shilling 
piece). 

9> St. George and the Dragon. 

Nelson 56. 

Dr. Nelson, in a note respecting this piece, which is in copper, says it was found in 
1892, at Ballaugh, near Ramsay. 

HALFPENNY. 

25. O The triune armoured and spurred, with feet to left. On a 
raised rim in incuse letters, quocunque • ieceris • stabit • 

fy half penny token On a raised rim in incuse letters, pro 
bono publico 1 83 1 Halliday. 

Plate M, no. 20. 
"William Callister, of Ramsay, was the issuer." — Vide Clay. 



248 



NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 



26. O A man beside a horse. Legend detrited. 
£> The triune. Legend detrited. 

Nelson 57. 
Dr. Nelson says this is in brass and of rude execution. 



As it is customary to complete the list of tokens issued in the Isle of Man, the solitary 
seventeenth century Penny of John Murrey with its variety are included. 

27. O his penny i $ m Legend, iohn • murrey •:• 1668 # 

$k The triune spurred to the right, qvocvnqve • gesseris <& 
stabit $ R.r. 

Williamson 1. 

28. O Similar, but reads Murray •: • 

V° Similar, but the triune omitted, and of dovglas in • man • 
substituted. R. r. r. 

Williamson 2. 

Clay thinks the Token was made in Birmingham. He questions the statement of 
Oswald, in Vestigia, that the penny was a legal tender issued by Governor Murrey in 1669, 
and in support of his contention states : "The first governor of the name was the Hon. 
James Murray, but who was not appointed until 1739." The eminent author in all matters 
relating to the Isle of Man coinage, did not know at the time of the variety IOHN MURRAY. 
This, however, strengthens rather than weakens his knowledge on the subject, as the christian 
name of the variety being the same is a confirmation. 

Boyne, quoting Snelling, says : " John Murray (sic) gave security to exchange his pennies, 
which his executors performed, when the copper money of the Earl of Derby was issued in 
1709." 

Clay gives the following table from Feltham's work on the relative value of the 
Manx Coinage to that of Gt. Britain and Ireland until it was assimilated to the English 
standard in 1840. 



£ 






£ 


s. 


d. 


100 


English, 


is equal to 


n6 


13 


4 Manx. 


100 


Manx, 


>) )> 


85 


14 


3 English. 


100 


Irish 


5) » 


107 


13 


10 Manx. 


100 


Manx, 


)> 5) 


92 


17 


1 Irish. 


1 


English, 


» )J 


1 


3 


4 Manx. 


1 


Manx, 


5) )) 





17 


i£ English. 


1 


Irish, 


?> ?3 


1 


1 


6 Manx. 


1 


Manx, 


>> )5 





iS 


7 Irish. 


shillings. 










I 


English, 


» » 





1 


2 Manx. 


I 


Manx, 


» » 








10J English. 


I 


Irish, 


5) J> 





1 


1 Manx. 


I 


Manx, 


>> )> 








iij Irish. 



249 



NOT LOCAL, OR TOKENS OF GENERAL 
CIRCULATION. 

THREE SHILLINGS AND FOURPENCE. 
SILVER. 

1. O A beehive upon a wreath, surrounded by bees. No legend. 
9= three shillings & four pence within a wreath of laurel and 

roses. R.r.r. Unknown. 

The Lawrence sale, lot 357, May 1900. 
THREE SHILLINGS. 

2. O The golden fleece suspended from a ribbon, ships colonies 

& COMMERCE l8l I 

$> The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet. On 
the ribbon, ich dien within a garter inscribed three shilling 
token R.r. 

Plate G, no. 11. 

3. The same in copper. R.r.r. P. Wyon. 

Boyne, in his Yorkshire Tokens, 1858, p. 45, claims this for that county, the One Shilling 
and Sixpence of the same design, and the Sixpence with obverse fleece suspended, as described 
hereafter. In his general work on silver tokens, eight years later, he adds them to the 
section "without names." Somersetshire might claim them, as the obverse of the Three 
Shilling Piece has since been found muled with the Bath Four Shilling token issued by 
C. Culverhouse & Co. Boyne, and all token experts, have failed to trace their locale, 
therefore, they are included in this division. 

4. O The Prince of Wales' feathers issuant from a coronet, and 
motto, ich dien Legend, long live the prince 

£> The star and garter. Motto, honi soit qui mal y pense 
Legend, regency token R.r.r. 

The Lawrence sale, lot 357, May, 1900. 

5. The same in Copper. Unknown. 

In Mr. Norman's cabinet. 
EIGHTEENPENCE. 

6. O Similar to no. 2, except in size. 

9> Similar to no. 2, but the motto omitted, and the garter is in- 
scribed one shilling & sixpence R.r. P. Wyon. 

Boyne 241. 
SHILLING. 

7. O A beehive and bees, for use and accommodation Under 
the beehive, 1 2 penny token 

5> A female seated to left ; in the right hand an olive branch, 
in the left a trident, a shield at the side. Britannia Unknown. 

Boyne 239. 
K K 



250 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

8. O one in large letters, inscribed shilling silver token 
Above, 1 8 1 1 Below, w All within a wreath of oak. 

£> Female seated to left on a cannon ; in the left hand an olive 
branch, the right resting on a wheel. Britannia • R. Unknown. 

Boyne 236. 
SIXPENCE. 

9. A head to right, commercial • t • ok • en 

& The rose and shamrock, between J> <$ sixpence i8ii 
Olive branches at the sides. Unknown. 

Plate M, no. 21. 
Boyne surmised the two last tokens were made to circulate in Ireland. The initials 
may be for Irish Bullion (Company). 

10. O A fleece suspended from a ribbon, 1811 in a circle. 
Legend, for public accommodation * 

9= silver token six pence in a wreath of oak. 
Plate G, no. 12. 

11. Also in Copper. R.r.r. P. Wyon, 

12. O A beehive and bees. 1812 under. Legend, for use & 

ACCOMODATION (su) 6 PENNY TOKEN 

9> Female seated to left on a cannon, as on no. 8, but without 
a period after Britannia Unknown. 

Boyne 238. 

13. O A large 6 inscribed six penny token On the ceriph of the 
figure 6 the letter w Within a wreath of oak. 

£> As last. 

Plate K, no. 24. 

14. O As last. 

# Similar, but the top leaves of the olive branch are between 
the 1 and the t instead of the r and 1 of Britannia Wyon. 

Plate K, no. 25. 

15. O A crescent and seven stars, pro bono publico -1812 

& g between the all-seeing eye, and a hand holding a baton, 
six pence • silver token • 

Boyne 243. 

16. Also in Copper. R.r.r. Unknown. 

This device suggests the motto : " The clasping hand is under the all-seeing eye." 

TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 
COPPER. 

17. O two shillings and sixpence 1804 Outer legend, remming 

TON & SMITH 

& WE PROMISE TO PAY THE BEARER ON DEMAND A ONE POUND 
NOTE FOR EIGHT OF TPIESE PIECES R.r. 

Vide "Spink's Circular," Dec. 1895. 



NOT LOCAL. 251 

ONE SHILLING. 

18. O Similar to last, but one shilling 

£> Similar to last, but twenty of these pieces R.r. 

Unknown. 

Vide Davis sale, no. 791. 

These tokens are of fine workmanship, and remarkable in consequence of the similarity 
to the tokens of 1811-12, although dated 1804. 

PENNY. 

Bust to Right. 

Date 1812 on Reverse only. 

19. O Bust (George III), laureated and draped, within a wreath 
of oak. On the shoulder, h The nose of the effigy points to a leaf, 
the h is over an acorn, and the bust touches the wreath. 

& Female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; in the 
right hand a pair of scales, in the left a cornucopia, in the distance 
a ship, h on the ground at the right, one penny token 181 2 The 
foot of y is over the head of the figure at the left. 

Sharp 206, 6. 

20. O Similar, but the h on the shoulder is over a leaf, and the 
bust is distant from the wreath. 

9= As last. 

21. O Similar, but the h is over the stem of the acorn. 

$1 Similar, but the foot of y is over the centre of the head of 
the figure, the hand of the figure points to the end of e instead of 
between e and p in one penny 

Plate G, no. 13. 

22. O Similar, but the h on the shoulder omitted, six leaves in the 
laurel wreath instead of nine. 

$1 Similar, but without the h on the ground, and the hand 
points to the centre of the e in one 

1814. 

23. O Similar, but with eight leaves in the laurel wreath. 

9> Female seated on a shield to left, holding in her right hand 
an olive branch, in the left a sprig of palm, commerce 1814 



No Date. 
24. 0- As last. 

£ A female seated on a bale to the left ; in her right hand an 
olive branch, in her left a cornucopia, commerce R. Halliday. 



252 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

Date on Obverse and Reverse. 

25. O Bust laureated and draped to right (George III), h on the 
shoulder ; a wreath of oak divided by 1812 surrounds the bust; the 
h on the shoulder is over the first numeral of date. 

9> A female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; in her 
right hand a pair of scales, and in her left a cornucopia of fruit ; in 
the distance, a ship ; at the right, h on the ground, one penny 
token 181 2 

26. Similar, but the h on the shoulder is over the first acorn stem 
to left. 

No Date on Reverse. 

27. O As last. 

9= Similar, but date omitted. 

Sharp 206, 7. 
1813. 

28. Similar, but date on obverse, 181 3 On the shoulder h The 
laurel branch at the right terminates with two acorns and one leaf. R. 

Sharp 206, 8. 

29. Similar, but without the h on the shoulder, and the laurel 
branch terminates with three leaves. R. Halliday. 

Obverse 181 i, Reverse 1814. 

30. O A robed bust (George III) unlaureated. one penny token 
1.8 1 1 

9= A female seated to left ; in her right hand a spray of laurel; 
in her left a palm branch, commerce 18 14 The palm lines to the c 

in COMMERCE 

Sharp 206, 17. 

Obverse, 181 i ; no Date on Reverse. 

31. O As last. 

9 Similar, but the palm lines to the last letter in commerce 
The date is omitted. Halliday. 

Wellington. 
No Date. 

32. O Bust to left laureated. field marshal Wellington Crossed 
laurel branches under the bust. 

9= Britannia seated, in the right hand an olive branch ; in 
the left a trident ; a shield at the side, a ship in the distance ; 
crossed laurel branches under the figure ; the barb of the trident at 
the right touches the first limb of k in token 

Sharp 207, 22. 



NOT LOCAL. 253 

33. O As last. 

$k Similar, but the crossed laurel branches omitted '; the barb 
of the trident touches the o in token R.r. 

Sharp 207, 24. 



34. O As last. 

$> A female seated on a bale of merchandise ; in the left hand 
a pair of scales ; in the right a cornucopia of fruit ; a ship in the dis- 
tance. ONE PENNY TOKEN l8l2 R.r. 

1813. 

35. O A similar bust, but ttnlaureated, decorated with the order 
of the star and garter; the date 181 3 under; the crossed laurel 
branches omitted. 

9> Similar to 32, but the centre barb of trident is under the 
o in token The crossed laurel branches omitted. Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 14. 

Ships. 

36. O A ship under full sail to right, one penny token 181 3 
9= one penny token within a wreath of oak R. Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 15. 

37. O A larger ship sailing in the same direction ; without the 
legend. 

£> one penny within a wreath of laurel. R. Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 16. 

38. O A ship under top sails to left, in a circle, one penny token 
1814. 

fy 91 $0 within a wreath of oak. R. Halliday. 

Without Busts. 

39. O A female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; an olive 
branch in her right hand, in her left a cornucopia of fruit ; a ship in 
the distance, commerce 

V° one penny token within a mixed wreath of oak and 
laurel, h on the laurel leaf opposite the n in token Halliday. 

The reverse appears also at Sedbury, Burton and Sheffield. 

40. O 0? J £f 1812 occupying the field. 

V° one penny token No inner circle. R. Unknown. 

Plate G, no. 17. 



254 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

41. O 2%? 2%? Above, a segment engrailed, gules ; below, on a 
similar segment, 1814 

9> one penny token No inner circle. R. Unknown. 

Sharp 206, 4. 

This token is on a flan the size of a halfpenny, and of excellent workmanship. It was 
probably rejected as not being " good value " for " exchange." 

42. O A female seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch, 
in the left a winged caduceus ; a ship in the distance, h on the 
ground at the right, trade & navigation 181 2 

9 one penny token in a circle. Legend, pure copper pre 

FERABLE TO PAPER • R. 

Breton 962. 

43. Similar, but dated 18 13 

Sharp 205, 3. 

44. O Similar, but the top of & is rounded, whereas in the last it 
is flat. 

9 Similar, but the p in penny lines to the upright of the 
second p in copper instead of to a little above it. 

Plate M, no. 22. 

45. O Similar to last, but dated 18 14 

R Similar to last, but the p in penny lines between the p and e 
in copper 

46. O Similar to last, but the top of the & is flat. 

9> As last. Halliday. 

HALFPENNY. 
Bust to Right. 

47. O Bust to right, laureated and robed (George III), h on the 
shoulder in a wreath of oak. There are four pearls in the 
shoulder brooch. 

9. A female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; in her 
right hand a pair of scales ; in the left a cornucopia of fruit ; in the 
distance a ship. On the ground at the right h Legend, halfpenny 
token 1 8 1 2 

Sharp 212. 

48. 0- Similar, but the brooch on the shoulder has six pearls. 
9 As last. 

49. Similar, but there are no pearls in the brooch. 

50. Similar, but the head of the figure on the reverse, instead of 
being some distance from the Y in halfpenny nearly toitches it. 

Halliday. 



NOT LOCAL. 255 

The following ten varieties of inferior work, are forgeries of the 

time. 

51. 0- Bust to right, laureated and robed (George III), within a 
wreath of oak containing thirty-nine acorns ; no legend. 

£> A female seated, similar to those previously described 
halfpenny token 1812 The y of halfpenny touches the head 
of the figure at the right, and the hand points to the f 

52. O Similar, but the wreath has twenty-four acorns, the pro- 
jecting laurel leaf points to an acorn. 

]jk Similar, but the y does not touch the head, and the hand 
points to the l of halfpenny 

53. O Similar bust, but the leaf projecting points to a leaf. 

£> Similar, but the y touches the head at the right ; the hand 
points to the first limb of f 

54. O Similar bust, but the leaves and acorns have short stems. 
£> Similar, but the y does not touch the head. 

55. O Similar bust, but the leaves have no stems. 

#> Similar, but the head of the figure is under the n and y of 

HALFPENNY 

56. Similar, but the y touches the head of the figure. 

57. O Similar bust, but the wreath is reversed, the leaves being 
arranged from left to right. 

£> Similar, but the y does not touch the head. R. 

58. O Similar bust, but the wreath has thirty-four acorns. 
9> Similar, but halfpenny token omitted. 

59. Similar, but with thirty-two acorns in the wreath. 

60. Similar, but the cornucopia touches a cord on the bale, whereas 
in the last it rests between the cords. Unknown. 

Trade and Commerce. 

61. O Bust to right, laureated and draped, success to trade 
1812 

9> Britannia seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch, 
in the left a trident, a shield at the side. A ship (looks like a rock) 
in the distance, commerce rules the main 

62. O As last. 

9> Similar, but legend, halfpenny R. Halliday. 



256 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

63. O Similar bust, but legend, great Britain 

$k A female seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch 
of seven leaves, in the left a sprig of palm ; at her side the union 
shield, commerce 1 8 14 

64 Similar, but the olive branch has only six leaves. 

65. O Similar bust, but legend, half penny token • 18 14 • 

& A ship sailing under canvas, for the convenience of 
trade * R. Unknown. 

66. O Bust to right, laureated. george hi rules 1806 

9- Britannia seated with her usual attributes ; in the distance 
a ship. Britannia for ever In the exergue, medal R.r. 

Halliday. 

Ships. 

67. O Bust to right (George III), laureated and draped, half 
penny token 1 8 1 5 There are two projecting laurel leaves. 

£ A ship under canvas sailing to right, success to naviga 
tion & trade * The bowsprit points to the t in trade * 

68. Similar, but the bowsprit points to the & 

69. Similar bust, but with only one projecting laurel leaf. 

70. Similar, but the bowsprit points to the t in trade * Halliday. 

Genuine British Copper. 

71. O Similar bust, but on a smaller flan. The projecting laurel 
leaf points to the second n in penny 

9> A female seated to left ; an olive branch in her right hand, 
a trident in the left ; the union shield at her side ; in the distance a 
ship, genuine British copper There are nine leaves in the olive 
branch. Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 18. 

72. 0- Similar bust, but the projecting laurel leaf points between 
the n and y 

#> Similar, but there axe five leaves in the olive branch. 

73. Similar, but there are four leaves in the olive branch. 

74. O Similar bust, but the projecting laurel leaf points to the foot 
of Y 

& Similar, but there are five leaves in the olive branch. 

Unknown. 

75. O Similar bust, but on a larger flan. Legend, genuine 

BRITISH COPPER 1815 

fy Britannia seated with her attributes as before, but legend, 
halfpenny Halliday. 



NOT LOCAL. 257 

76. O Similar bust, but without legend. Under the bust, 1820 
9» Similar to last, but legend, genuine British copper 

77. O As last. 

9» Female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; in her 
right hand a pair of scales, in the left a cornucopia ; a ship in the 
distance. No legend. R. 

78. O Similar bust, but without legend or date. 

9» Similar to last, but the date 1820 added. R. Unknown. 

Wellington. 

79. O Bust to right in military uniform, victoria nobis est 
(Victory is for us) Under the bust, laurel branches. The coat has 
no button. 

£> A female seated to left, in her right hand an olive branch, 
in the left a spear, at her side the union shield ; a ship in the 
distance. Legend, halfpenny token In the exergue, sprigs of 
olive. R. Unknown. 

80. O Bust to right, laureated and robed, marquis Wellington 

i8i 3- 

& A female seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch, 

in the left a spear, the union shield at her side, a ship in the 

distance. Legend, commerce Parkes. 

81. O Bust to right, unlaureated, in military uniform. No legend. 
There are eight buttons on the coat. 

9? Wellington Waterloo 1815 No device. R. Unknown. 

Bust to Left. 

82. O Bust laureated to left, in military uniform, between 
branches of laurel. No legend, and zvithout buttons on the coat. 

9> A female seated to right on a bale of merchandise ; in the 
left hand a spear, in her right a pair of scales, a ship in the distance. 
Legend, trade & commerce i 8 i i R. Unknown. 

83. O Bust laureated in military uniform. Wellington halfpenny 
token The projecting laurel points to the second l There is 
one button on the coat. 

$k Britannia seated to left ; in her right hand an olive branch, 
in the left a trident, a ship in the distance, within a wreath of oak 
In the exergue, 1814 The left barb of trident does not quite touch 
a leaf, and the right and centre barbs touch a leaf. 

84. Similar, but the left barb touches a leaf, and the right an 
acorn. Unknown. 

L L 



258 NINETEENTH CENTURY TOKEN COINAGE. 

85. Similar, but the right and left barb each touch a leaf, the 
centre barb is between two leaves. 

86. O Similar, but with two projecting laurel leaves, one pointing 
to i and the other to n 

Jb Similar, but the left barb of trident does not quite touch a 
leaf. 

87. Similar, but Britannia surrounded by a wreath of oak, and the 
date omitted. 

88. O Similar bust, but legend, field marshal Wellington 
Sprigs of laurel under the bust. There are two buttons on the coat. 

$t Britannia seated to left with her usual attributes. Legend, 
halfpenny token Under the figure branches of laurel. 

89. Similar, but sprigs of laurel in the exergue. 

90. Similar, but Britannia holds a spear instead of a trident. 

91. Similar, but Britannia with trident surrounded by a wreath 
of oak. 

92. O Similar bust, but only one button on the coat. 

& Similar, but the date 1813 added to the legend, the sprigs 
of laurel omitted. Unknown. 

Wellington and Blucher. 

93. 0- An unrobed and unlaureated head to left. Wellington 
above. 181 5 below. 

£ A robed unlaureated bust to left. Above, blucher R. 

Turnpenny. 

This piece is of fine workmanship. 

Ship sailing to Right. 

94. O A ship sailing to right. No legend. 

£> Wellington Waterloo 1815 No device. Halliday. 

95. O A ship sailing, no legend ; the sails -axe. plain 

9> A female seated to left on a case of merchandise labelled 
s j & c° In her right hand a pair of scales, in her left a cornucopia, 
a ship in the distance. Legend, halfpenny token 1812 R. 

96. Similar, but dated 18 15 

Sharp 212, 5. 

Sharp attributes this piece to Halliday, but he could not have been guilty of so mean 
a production. 

97. O Similar ship, but the flag is smaller. 

9> Similar, but the date and the initials on the bale omitted. 



NOT LOCAL. 259 

98. Similar, but legend and date omitted. Unknown. 

99. O A ship sailing. Legend, for general accommodation • 
The sails are striped. 

9> half penny token in a circle. Legend, pure copper pre 
ferable to paper • Halliday. 

100. O A ship sailing, plain sails ; no legend. 

V° <$ <M (o° in a circle. R. Unknown. 

Ships sailing to Left. 

101. 0- A ship sailing under top sails in a circle. Legend, trade 
& navigation 1813 The rope nearest the foremast leads from the 
spritsail-yard to the top of the shrouds. 

9> half penny token in a circle. Legend, pure copper 

PREFERABLE TO PAPER • 

102. Similar, but the rope leads to the bowsprit. 

103. Similar, but the rope leads from the spritsail-yard to the 
foremast. Halliday. 

104. O Ship under topsails in a circle. Legend, half penny 
token 1 8 14 

9> 01 $0 within a wreath of oak. Halliday. 

Sharp 212, 6. 
This piece is also claimed for Canada. 

Beehive and Bees. 

105. 0- A beehive and bees within a wreath, the rose, thistle and 
shamrock. Legend, industry the source of content JO^ 

Vc A shield azure, inscribed for change in trade. In base 
a rose between branches of oak. Crest, a knotted ribbon. Legend, 
to convenience the public 1 80 1 Dixon. 

Atkins 372, 120 bis. 
This token in design and motto is similar to eighteenth century work. 

106. O A female seated to left on a bale of merchandise ; in her 
right hand an olive branch, in the left a caduceus, a ship in the 
distance. On the ground at the right h Legend, trade & naviga 
tion 181 2 

B> half penny token in a circle, pure copper preferable 

TO PAPER • 

Sharp 212, 3, 

107. Similar, but dated 1813 Halliday. 

108. O An anchor and cable in a circle, halfpenny token- 1816- 
$> A large H within an olive wreath. R.r. 



260 nineteenth century token coinage. 

The Spread Eagle. 

109. O An eagle volant, in its right talon four arrows, in its left 
an olive branch of five leaves, a ship in the distance, halfpenny 
token 1 8 13 The date divided by the tail. 

Vo Britannia seated to left within a wreath of oak, in her 
right hand an olive branch of five leaves, in the left a trident. The 
centre barb of the trident is under an acorn. 

110. O As last. 

]£> Similar, but the olive branch has seven leaves, the first 
barb of the trident at the left is under an acorn. 

111. O Similar to last, but dated 18 14 

9> Similar, but the olive branch has five leaves, the centre 
barb of the trident totiches an acorn. 

112. Similar, but the head of Britannia is directly under an acorn, 
whereas in the others it is under a leaf. 

113. O Similar, but 18 15 under the tail of the eagle, with only 
three arrows and six leaves to the olive branch in its talons. 

9> Similar, but the centre barb of the trident is shorter than 
the other two, and is under a leaf. 

114 O As last. 

9> Similar, but the wreath arranged from left to right, whereas 
previously from right to left. R. Unknown. 

FARTHING. 

115. O A draped bust to right. No legend. 

9> commercial change occupying the field. R. 

116. O Over a cask, tobacco Legend, pro • bono • publico * 

9= 2%? c$ farthing 1 803 in a circle. R. Unknown. 

117. O A ship sailing to left under top sails, farthing token 
1812 

& £$> 2%> within a wreath of oak. R. Halliday. 

118. O A view of rocks. Legend, pure copper preferable to 
paper • 

£> A female seated on a bale of merchandise ; in her right 
hand an olive branch, in the left a caduceus ; a ship in the distance. 
Legend, trade & navigation 181 3 R. Halliday. 

Plate G, no. 19. 



261 



WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

Aitken (W. C.) Brass and Brass Manufacturers, sm. 4to, 1865. 

Atkins (J.) The Coins and Tokens of the Possessions and Colonies of the British Empire, 
8vo, 1889. 

Atkins (J.) The Tradesmen's Tokens of the Eighteenth Century, 8vo, 1892. 

Batty (D. T.) Descriptive Catalogue of the Copper Coinage of Great Britain, 3 vols., 
sm. 4to, 1868, 1894. 

Blades (W.) A List of Medals, Jettons, etc., in connection with Printers and the Art of 
Printing, 8vo, 1869. 

Bowles (H. B.) Bristol Coins and Tokens, 8vo, (1900). 

Boyne (W.) Silver Tokens of Great Britain and its Dependencies, 4to, 1866. 

Boyne (W.) The Tokens of Yorkshire, 4to, 1858. 

Burn (J. H.) London Tradesmen's Tokens, 8vo, 1855. 

Clay (C.) Currency of the Isle of Man, 8vo, 1869. 

Cotton (W. A.) Coins, Tokens and Medals of Worcestershire, 8vo, 1885. 

Chaffers (W.) Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, roy. 8vo, 1903. 

Davis (W. J.) Token Coinage of Warwickshire, 4to, 1895. 

Davis (W. J.) Short History of the Brass Trades, 1892. 

Evelyn's Discourse of Medals, 1697. 

Goulding(C) The Coinage of Suffolk, 4/0, 1868. 

Grueber(H. A.) Handbook of the Coins of Gt. Britain and Ireland in the B. Museum, 8vo, 1899. 

Heaton (R.) Birmingham Coinage, 8vo, 1865. 

Holinshed (R.) Chronicles. England, Scotland and Wales, 1577. 

Lindsay (J.) The Coinage of Ireland, 4/0, 1839. 

Manchester Numismatic Society, Proceedings of, 4/0, 1871. 

Meili (J.) Die Munzen der colonie Brasilien, 1645-1822, 8vo, Zurich, 1897 (Describes and 
Illustrates some English Countermarks). 

Montagu (H.) Copper Coins of England, 8vo, 1893. 

Nelson (P.) Coinage of the Isle of Man, 8vo, 1899. 

Nelson (P.) Coinage of William Wood, 8vo, 1903. 

Neumann (J.) Beschreibung der Bekanntesten, 6 vols., 8vo, Prague, 1858-72. 

Numismatic Chronicle. The Proceedings of the Numismatic Society of London. 

Numismatic Magazine, 8vo and sm. 4I0, 1886 to 1903. 

Palmer (A. N.) John Wilkinson and Old Bershaw Iron Works, 8vo, 1899. 

Phillips (M.) The Token Money of the Bank of England, 8vo, 1900. 

Pye (C.) Complete Representation of all the Provincial Copper Coins, 4/0, (1801). 

Pye (C.) Modern Birmingham, /w/ 8vo, (1818). 

Randall (J.) The Wilkinsons, \21no, Madeley, (1870). 

Ruding (Rev. R.) Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, 6 vols., 8vo, 1819. 

Sharp (T.) Catalogue of the Coins and Tokens in the Collection of Sir G. Chetwynd, 4/0, 1834. 

Simon (J.) Essay Historical Account of Irish Coins, 4/1?, Dublin, 1810. 

Spink's Numismatic Circular, folio, 1892 to 1903. 

Smith (Aquilla) Irish Tokens and Jettons, 8vo, 1869. 

Smith (Aquilla) Papers on Irish Coinage, 8vo, 1855. 

Snelling (T.) The Coins of Great Britain and Ireland,/^//^, 1766. 

Sykes (W.) Hull Coins and Tokens, 8vo, 1892. 

Thomason (Sir Edward) Memoirs, 2 vols., 1845. 

Waters (A. W.) The Token Coinage of South London issued in the Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries, 8vo, Leamington, 1904. 

Besides the above Numismatic Books, there have been consulted Pamphlets, Coin Sale 
Catalogues, Files of old Newspapers, Directories, etc. 

M M 



262 



INDEX I. 

Places at which Tokens were issued ; or were current. 



*#* The numbers in this, and following Indexes, refer to the page in the book. 



Abercarne, 196. 

Adelphi Cotton Works, 22, 23. 

Alderney, 241, 242. 

Alford, 66. 

Alloa Colliery, 20. 

Andover, 57, 60, 97. 

Anglesea, 146. 

Antrim, county of, 229. 

Armagh, county of, 233. 

Arnold, 92. 

Ashbourn, 38. 

Attleborough, 80. 

Ayrshire, 19, 199, 200. 

Ballindalloch, 20. 

Ballymena, 229. 

Bank of England, 1-8, 11, 12. 

Bank of Ireland, 8, 9, 10. 

Barnsley, 166, 175. 

Barnstaple, 34, 40. 

Basingstoke, 60. 

Bath, 53, 95-98, 109, 110,249. 

Bedworth, 143. 

Belfast, 230, 231. 

Bellylonaghan, 231. 

Benhall, 136. 

Berkshire, 29. 

Bersham, 145. 

Berwickshire, 201. 

Beverley, 175. 

Bewdley, 161. 

Bilston, 118, 121-126. 

Birmingham, 17, 121, 143, 144, 146-157, 

161, 162. 
Birmingham Workhouse, 17, 143, 144, 

146-149. 
Blandford, 43. 
Bolton, 17. 
Bolton, Ireland, 26. 
Bradford, 18, 166, 176. 
Bradford Workhouse, 176. 
Bradley, 121, 145. 
Breby, 232. 
Brechin, 206. 



Brecknock, 187. 

Bridlington, 166, 167. 

Brierley, 133. 

Brighton, 140. 

Bristol, 98-107, 110-115, 193. 

Buckinghamshire, 30. 

Bucklersbury — see London. 

Burslem, 127. 

Burton, 38, 55, 121, 127, 183, 241, 253. 

Bury St. Edmunds, 16, 82. 

Buteshire, 19. 

Calton, 210. 

Cambrian Pottery, Swansea, 195. 

Cambridgeshire, 31. 

Canada, 259. 

Cark-in-Cartmell, 15. 

Carmarthen, 188, 189. 

Carmarthenshire, 188, 189. 

Castlecomer, 27. 

Castlecomer Colliery, 27. 

Castletown, 244, 245. 

Catrine Works, 19. 

Chard, 108. 

Charing Cross, London, jo, 71, 73. 

Charlotte-street — see London. 

Channel Islands, The, 240. 

Chatteris, 31. 

Cheadle, 128. 

Cheltenham, 53-55, 72. 

Cheshire, 32. 

Chesterfield, 38. 

Chichester, 140, 141. 

Christ's Hospital — see London. 

Cinque Ports, 63. 

Clackmannanshire, 20. 

Coleraine, 225. 

Cornwall, 33, 34, 39, 71. 

Coseley, 133. 

Coventry, 23, 157, 158. 

Cromford, 14. 

Culgreuch, 25. 

Culgreuch Mill, 25. 

Cumberland, 37. 



INDEX I. 



263 



Dalkeith, 203. 
Dalzield Farm, 20, 21. 
Darlaston, 128. 
Dawley, 94. 
Deanston, 23. 
Deanston Cotton Mill, 23. 
Denbighshire, 190. 
Derby, 38, 65. 
Derbyshire, 14, 38, 65. 
Devonshire, 39-42, 98. 
Diss, 8k 

Dolcoath Mine, 34. 
Doncaster, 167, 176. 
Dorchester, 43. 
Dorsetshire, 14, 43-46. 
Douglas, 243-247. 
Down, 26. 

Down, county of, 234. 
Drogheda, 226. 
Dromore, 234. 
Dublin, 26, 212-222, 226. 
Dublin, county of, 236, 237. 
Dudley, 161, 162. 
Dundee, 206. 
Dunfermline, 205. 
Dungannon, 238. 
Duns, 201. 
Durham, 15,47, 86. 

East Retford, 16. 

Edinburgh, 22, 202, 203. 

Edinburghshire, 202, 203. 

Elgin, 20. 

England, Bank of — see B. of England. 

Epping, 48. 

Epworth, 66. 

Eskmills, 203. 

Essex, 48-51, 80. 

Exeter, 40, 41. 

Exeter Change— see London, Strand. 

Fazeley, 118, 119. 

Fifeshire, 205. 

Fintry, 25. 

Flint, 191, 192. 

Flintshire, 191, 192. 

Folkestone, 63. 

Forfarshire, 206. 

Frome, or Frome Selwood, 97, 108, 109. 

Gainsborough, 67, 91. 
Galston Society, 19. 
Gal way, 223. 



Gateshead, 47. 

Gilford, 234. 

Glamorganshire, 193-195. 

Glanclydwedog, 190. 

Glasgow, 21, 25, 209, 210. 

Glemham, 136. 

Glenarm, 232. 

Gloucester, 53, 54, 97. 

Gloucestershire, 53, 54, 98, 105, 107. 

Godalming, 138. 

Goodman's Fields — see London. 

Gosport, 56. 

Greenock, 23, 24. 

Guernsey, 240, 241, 242. 

Haddingtonshire, 207. 

Halesowen, 94. 

Hamilton, 210. 

Hampshire, 56-60, 135. 

Happing — see Tunstead and Happing. 

Haverford West, 198. 

Hereford, 61. 

Herefordshire, 61. 

Hertfordshire, 62, 74, 75, 78. 

High Wycombe, 30. 

Hill of Down, 27. 

Holbeach, 68, 135. 

Hotcheson-town, 25. 

Houndsditch, 15, 16. 

Hoxne, 137. 

Hull, 168, 176-179. 

Hull Lead Works, 176-179. 

Inverness-shire, 208. 

Ipswich, 135, 141. 

Ireland, 26, 212-239. 

Ireland, Bank of — see Bank of Ireland. 

Isle of Ely, 31. 

Isle of Man, 27, 243-248. 

Isle of Wight, 56. 

Jersey, 240, 241, 242. 

Keighley, 18, 180. 
Kent, 63. 
Kilkenny, 27. 
Killyleigh, 235. 
Kilrea, 238. 
King's County, 224. 

Lanark, 21. 
Lanark Mills, 21, 22. 
Lanarkshire, 20-22, 209, 210. 
Lancashire, 1 5, 64. 



264 



INDEX I. 



Launceston, 33. 

Leeds, 73, 168, 169, 171, 180. 

Leicester, 38, 65. 

Leicestershire, 38, 65. 

Leith, 203, 204. 

Lemonsley Mill, 128. 

Levernbank, 24. 

Levern Mill, 24. 

Lichfield, 38, 128, 129. 

Limekilns, 205. 

Lincoln, 68. 

Lincolnshire, 66-69. 

Lisburn, 232. 

Liverpool, 64, 146. 

Locality unknown, 28, 55, 239, 249-260. 

Lochearn, 23. 

Lochvvinnoch, 24. 

London, 13, 16, 33, 53, 54, 56, 65, 70-79, 

81,86,88,91, 112, 114, 115, 146, 

189. 

„ Exeter Change, Strand, 75, 76, 
78, 79- 

„ 10, Charlotte-street, 53, 54. 

„ Soho, 74, 78. 

„ 12, Rathbone-place, 33, 56, 65, 
7Q-73- 

„ Goodman's Fields, 74. 

„ Charing Cross, 70, 71, 73. 

„ Christ's Hospital, 74. 

„ Bucklersbury, 71, 73. 

„ Thames-street, 74. 

„ St. Martin's Lane, 72, 77. 

,, Cheapside, 77. 

„ Lad Lane, 77. 

„ Old Stock Exchange, 77. 
Londonderry, 225. 
Londonderry, County of, 225, 238. 
London-road, South vvark, 138. 
Louth, county of, 226. 
Louth, Lincolnshire, 68. 
Lowestoft, 137. 
Lurgan, 233, 234. 
Lye, 162. 
Lynn, 81, 91, 135. 

Malone, 232. 
Malton, 181. 
Manchester, 15, 64. 
Mansfield, 72, 81, 91. 
Manx — see Isle of Man. 
March, 31. 
Marlborough, 97, 1 59. 



Mayo, county of, 227. 

Meath, 27. 

Merthyr, 104. 

Merthyr Tydvil, 193. 

Menlough, 223. 

Middlesex, 13, 15, 16,33, S3, 54, 56,65, 

70-79, 81, 86, 88, 91, 112, 114, 115, 

146, 189. 
Midlothian, 22. 
Monmouthshire, 196. 
Montgomeryshire, 197. 
Morriston, 195. 
Muir Kirk Ironworks, 19. 
Musselburgh, 204. 

Nantwich, 32. 
Neath, 150, 194. 
Needham Market, 135. 
Newark, 91, 92. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 86-90. 
Newcastle-under-Lyme, 129. 
Newport, I. of W., 58. 
Newtownards, 235, 236. 
Norfolk, 80-84. 
Northampton, 38, 65. 
Northamptonshire, 85. 
North Cornwall, 33. 
North Lopham, 81. 
North Shields, 16. 
Northumberland, 16, 86-90. 
Norwich, 83, 84. 

Not locals — see Unknown locality. 
Nottingham, 38, 93. 
Nottinghamshire, 16, 38, 65, 91-93. 

Oldbury, 133. 

Paisley, 24, 25. 

Peebles, 211. 

Peebleshire, 211. 

Pembrokeshire, 198. 

Perry Barr, 129. 

Perthshire, 22. 

Peterborough, 85. 

Phoenix Iron Works, Glasgow, 209. 

Phcenix Iron Works, Sheffield, 184, 185. 

Poole, 14, 43. 

Portadown, 233. 

Portaferry, 236. 

Portsea, 58. 

Portsmouth, 56, 59. 

Potteries, Staffordshire, 130. 

Poulton, 64. 



INDEX I. 



265 



Powell, 26. 
Prestonpans, 207. 
Priestfield, 121, 123. 

Ramsay, 247, 248. 

Rathbone-place — see London. 

Reading', 29. 

Redditch, 162. 

Renfrewshire, 23. 

Retford — see East Retford. 

Richhill, 233. 

Richmond, 139. 

Ripley, 138. 

Risca, 150. 

Romsey, 59, 60. 

Roscoe Mills, Sheffield, 184-186. 

Rothsay Cotton Works, 19, 20. 

Rothsay Mills, 19. 

Rowfant, 141. 

Rugeley, 130. 

Rutland, 38, 65. 

St. Martin's Lane — see London. 
Sawbridge worth, 62, 74, 75, 78. 
Scarborough, 170. 
. Scorrier House, 35, 36, 121. 
Scotland, 19, 25, 199-208. 
Sedbury, 55, 127, 253. 
Shaftesbury, 44-46, 71. 
Sheffield, 55, 152, 153, 166, 170-172 

181-185, 253. 
Sheffield Workhouse, 172, 181-183. 
Sherborne, 14. 

Shoreham, 135, 141. 
Shropshire, 94. 
Snedshill, 145. 

Soho — see London. 

Somersetshire, 39, 95-117, 249. 

Southampton, 56, 60. 

South Shields, 15, 47. 

Sowerby Bridge, 186. 

Stafford, 119, 130, 131. 

Staffordshire, 1 18-134. 

Stamford, 69. 

Stanley Colliery, Bewdley, 161. 

Staverton, 159, 160. 

Stewartson, 239. 

Steyning, 142. 

Stirlingshire, 25. 

Stockport, 32. 

Stockton, 47. 

Strabane, 228. 



Strand — see London. 

Stratton, 33, 34. 

Suffolk, 16, 80, 82, 135-137- 

Surrey, 138, 139. 

Sussex, 140-142. 

Swanage, 46. 

Swansea, 73, 1 H, 154, 155, ^9, 194, 195- 

Swords, 222. 

Taunton, 109, 116. 
Tavistock, 42. 
Teignmouth, 41. 
Thirsk, 18, 172. 
Thistle Bank, 21. 
Tipton, 133. 
Trowbridge, 104, 107. 
Tullamore, 224. 
Tunstead and Happing, 84. 
Tyrone, county of, 228, 238. 

Unknown locality, 28, 55, 239, 249-260. 
Vigornia, 164, 165 

Wales (North and South), 98, 104-107, 
113, 150, 151, 153, 187, 193-198. 

Walsall, 14, 1 31-133. 

Walthamstow, 48-52. 

Walworth, 139. 

Warwickshire, 17, 143-158. 

Wednesbury, 133. 

Welshpool, 197. 

West Bromwich and Coseley, 133. 

West Bromwich, Oldbury, Tipton and 
Brierley, 133. 

Westport, 227. 

West Wheal Mine, 34, 35. 

Weybridge, 138. 

Whitby, 173. 

Whitehaven, 37. 

Willey, 145, 146. 

Wiltshire, 97, 98, 104, 105, 107, 159-160. 

Withymoor, 134. 

Wiveliscombe, 116, 117. 

Wolverhampton, 121, 134. 

Woodbridge, 136. 

Worcester, 161, 163-165. 

Worcester Porcelain Company, 165. 

Worcestershire, 161-165. 

Wroxham, 84. 

Yarmouth, 82. 

Yorkshire, 17, 55, 73, 152, 166-186. 
Yorkshire, West Riding, 166. 
York, 73, I73"i75» 186. 



266 



INDEX II. 



Names of Issuers of Tokens. 



A. on Isle of Man shilling, 27. 
Adelphi Cotton Works, 22, 23. 
Adair, James, 229. 
Adams, W., 59. 
Adams, Webster, 135. 
Alloa Colliery, 20. 
Altamont, EarFof, 227. 

A. M. B., 27. 

Andrews, J. — see Padley and Andrews. 
Arkwright and Co., 14. 
Arnold Works, 92. 
Atherton, James, 122. 
Avenell and Simmonds, 58. 

Badger, T. and J., i6r, 162. 
Baker, William, 93. 
Ballans, W., 64. 

Ballindalloch Cotton Works, 20. 
Bank of England, 1-8, 11-13. 
Bank of Guernsey, 240. 
Bank of Ireland, 8-10. 
Barber — see Cattle and Barber. 
Barker, E., 130. 
Barker, Samuel, 83. 
Bartleet, W., 162, 163. 
Bastin, John and Co., 54. 
Bastin, William, 53. 
Baylis, H., 121. 

B. C.—see J. T. 

Berwick, or Bewicke Main Collier)-, 

86, 88. 
Bean, James, 139 
Beatson and Copeland, 245. 
Beck, Lant — see Garratt and Co. 
Bed worth Mill, 143. 
Beebee, Edward, 122. 
Begg, W., 202. 
Beith, Alexander, 229. 
Bell, John, 88, 89. 
Bently, W. F. and Co. (W. F. B. and 

Co.), 213. 
Best, W., 14. 
Best, W. B., 44. 
Beverley, G., 208. 
Beverley New Friendly Society 175. 



Bevington — see Dillwyn and Beving- 

tons. 
Bewley, Edward, 213. 
Binns, William, 222. 
Bird, Edward — see Garratt and Co. 
Birkinshaw, 166, 167. 
Birmingham and Sheffield Copper Co., 

152, 153- 
Birmingham and South Wales, 153. 
Birmingham Union Copper Co., 150, 

151. 
Birmingham Workhouse, 17, 143, 144, 

146-149. 
Bishop and Co., 240. 
Bishop, John, and Co., 55. 
Blair, R. and G., 23. 
Blake, Robert, 83. 
Bluett, John, 109. 
Blythe, John, 82. 
B. M. Co., 259. 
Board of Ordnance, 1 1. 
Bohay — see Evans and Co. 
Bone and Co., 210. 
Booth, William, 129. 
Bowen, Ben, 236. 
Boxer, John, 63. 
Bradford Workhouse, 18, 176. 
Bragg, William, ^y. 
British Copper Co., 48-52. 
Bristol Brass and Copper Co., 11 1, 114. 
Broughton, Sprout, Garnet and Sutton, 

32. 
Brown, J., 202. 
Brown, Patrick, 232. 
Brumby Martin, 67. 
Bryan, E., 98, 105. 
Buchanan and Co., 23. 
"Bull, John," 137. 
Bunn, J. and Co., 138. 
Butt, Edward and Francis, 69. 
Butt — see Saunders and Butt. 

Caffin, B. and J., Redman J., Halstead 

W, Shipman, C, 140, 141. 
Calder, William, 202. 
Callister, William, 247. 



INDEX II. 



267 



Cark Cotton Works, 15. 

Carless and Co., 61. 

Carter and Caine, 246. 

Cartwright, T., 32. 

Cartwright, T. and G. and R. Ferns, 32. 

Castle Comer Colliery, 27. 

Catrine Cotton Works, 19. 

Cattle and Barber, 173-175. 

Chapman — see Stovin and Chapman. 

Charges, Benjamin, 140. 

Charleville, Viscount, 224. 

Chaston, J., 137. 

Cheadle, Cooper and Brass Co., 128. 

Cheesman, J., 142. 

Ching — see Pearse and Co. 

Christie, S. P., 202. 

Christopher and Jennett, 47. 

Christ's Hospital, 74. 

Clarke, 16. 

Clarke, J. — see Temlett and Clarke. 

Clark, West and Co., 212. 

Clayton and Hide, 141. 

Clayton and Hydes, 135. 

Cochran, John, 234. 

Cole and Co., 85. 

Collyer, Rev. Daniel, 84. 

Comper, Henry, 140. 

Cook and Harwood, 166. 

Cooksey, James, 133. 

Cooper, John and Co., 160. 

Copeland — see Beatson and Copeland. 

Corbe — see Forster and Corbe. 

Corcer, 24. 

Cowans, of Musselburgh, 204. 

Cox, Merle and Pattison, 43. 

Cox, Messrs., 116. 

Crichton, Robert, 21. 

Crown Copper Company, 150. 

Culgreuch Mill, 25. 

Culverhouse, C. ; Orchard J. ; and 

Phipps, J., 95, 97, 98, 249. 
Curtis, W., 31. 

Dally, T. and Co., 141. 

Dalziel Farm, 20, 21. 

Davidson, John, 90. 

Davis, John, 15, 16. 

Davis, W., at Worcester, 165. 

Dawson, Edward, 91. 

Deakin — see Younge and Deakin. 

Deanston Cotton Mill, 23. 



Devon Mines, 42. 

Dillwyn, L. W., Bevington, T., and 

Bevington, J., 195. 
Dolcoath Mine, 34. 
Dorchester Bank, 43. 
Dore, William — see Whitchurch and 

Dore. 
Douglas Bank Co., 243, 244, 246, 247. 
Douglass, A. D., 202. 
Dove — see Littler, Dove and Co. 
Dromore, Countess of, 27. 
Dudley, John, 59. 
Dunham and Yallop, 83. 

Eccles of Duns, 201. 

Eggo, John, 203. 

Elam — ,swRatcliffe,ElamandThurbon. 

Elliott, John, 89, 90. 

Ellis, William— see Stanton and Co. 

Emerton, Elizabeth and Sons, 66. 

E. S., surmounted by a crown, 13. 

Evans, Bohay, Nott, and Gribble, 40. 

Evans — see Ricketts and Co. 

Exeter Change, 16. 

Featherstone, John, 116. 
Fellowes, J. M., 93. 
Fereday, Samuel, 121-124, 126. 
Ferns — see Cartwright and Co. 
Ferris, James, 43, 144. 

Fillingham, William— see Stansall and 

Co. 
Fisher, Richard — see Stansall and Co. 
Fisher, Thomas, 235. 
Fletcher and Sharratt, 131, 133. 
Flint Copper Co., 131, 154. 
Flint Lead Works, 191, 192. 
Flintshire Bank, 191. 
Forrest, J. and Co., 162. 
Forster and Corbe, 25. 
Francis, Richard, 80. 
Frazer, Robert, 211. 
Frazer, William — see McDonell and 

Frazer 
Fullarton, Colonel, 199, 200. 

Galloway, John, 236. 

Galston Society, 19. 

Gamson, John, 67. 

Garnett — see Broughton and Co. 

Garratt and Grigg, 104, 106. 

Garratt, Fes.; Terrell, Wm. ; Bird, 

Edw. ; Beck, Lant. ; and Grigg, 

Fes. H., 98-103, 106. 



268 



INDEX II. 



Gateis, S., 142. 

Gibbons, M. D., 26. 

Gibson, A. and Co., 24. 

Gibson, Thomas, 149. 

Gilpin, Gilbert, 94. 

Glanclywedog Factory, 190. 

Glasgow Bank, 21. 

Glover, Samuel, 196. 

Gomme, James, 30. 

Gosling — see King and Co. 

Gough — see Willoughby and Co. 

Gray, John, 208. 

Gray, of Dunse, 201. 

Gray, W., 204. 

Greer, James, 233. 

Gregory — see Longden and Gregory. 

Gribble — see Evans and Co. 

Griffith, J. and S., 53. 

Griffith, W. Gerrard — see Willoughby 

and Co. 
Griffiths, R., 197. 
Griffiths — see King and Co. 
Griffiths, W. and Co., 188. 
Griffin, George, 85. 
Griffin, James and Sons, 134. 
Grigg, F. H. — see Garratt and Co. 
Guppy, S., 112, 115. 

H., 259. 

Halesowen Workhouse, 94. 

Hall, William, 234. 

Halls, R. D., 64. 

Halse — see Jacob and Halse. 

Halstead, W. — see Caffin and Co. 

Hamilton, retailers, 210. 

Hampson, Mary and Son, 15. 

Hancock, J. Gregory, 156, 157. 

Hancock — see Stanton and Co. 

Harding — see Peels, Harding and Co. 

Harrop, John, 47. 

Harwood — see Cook and Harwood. 

H. B., 260. 

Hedley, Isaquey, 81, 91. 

Hemming, W., 162,' 163. 

Henderson and Co., 46. 

Henrickson, John, 128, 129. 

H. H., 254. 

Hicks, Joseph, 41. 

Hide — see Clayton and Hide. 

Hilles, James, 213, 219. 

Hobson, S. and Sons, 183. 



Hoff, R. B., 68. 

Holland, J., 41. 

Horton and Co., 130, 131. 

Horsfall, William, 166. 

House, W., 16. 

Hunton, John, 82. 

Hunt, Henry, 141. 

Hyde — see Clayton and Hyde. 

I. B., 250. 

I. B. Co. (Irish Bullion Co.), 212, 250. 

I. M. Co. (Irish Mining Co.), 226. 

Innocent, Robert, 139. 

I. P. R., 16. 

I. T., 26. 

Irvine, G., 228. 

Jackson and Lister, 175. 

Jackson, William, 180. 

Jacob and Halse, 189. 

Jardine — see Thomas and Co. 

Jennett — see Christopher and Jennett. 

Jerrems, William, 67, 91. 

Jersey, States of, 240. 

Jobson — see Shaw, Jobson and Co. 

Johnston — see Bunn and Co. 

Johnston, W., 231. 

Jones, W. and Co., 71. 

Jordan and Co., 74. 

J. T., B. C, 202. 

Kean, Aaron, 232. 

Keighley Overseers, 18. 

Kelty, Alexander, 86. 

Kiddell, Robert, 80. 

Killrea, James Henry, 238. 

King, A., 24. 

King, Gosling, Tanner and Griffiths, 

159- 
King, John, 138. 
Kirk, J., 205. 
Kitchin, William, 37. 
Knapp and Co., 71. 
Knapp John, junior, 164, 165. 
Knox, John, 230. 

Lanark Mills, 21. 

Lane, H. P., 143. 

Lang, John, 24. 

Langm. . . ., W., 25. 

Latham — see Niblock and Latham. 

Laycock, James, 166. 

Leek, Thomas, 175. 



INDEX II. 



269 



Leith, W. C, 203. 

Lill — see Tate and Lil!. 

Lister — see Jackson and Lister. 

Lintott and Sons, 60. 

Littler, Dove and Co., 244. 

Lloyd, S., 44. 

Lloyd, Samuel and Co., 71, 73. 

Lomer and Son, 60. 

Longden and Gregory, 184. 

Lord and Marshall, 170. 

Lumb — see Smalpageand Lumb. 

McClure, Alexander, 231. 
McCully, John, 235, 236. 
McDonell, Angus, and Fraser, 

William, 208. 
McEwen, A., 203. 
McFie, Lindsay and Co., 24. 
Machin — see Riley and Machin. 
Mcintosh, W., 208. 
McK., J. and Son, 24. 
McKenzie, W., 225. 
Mackie, Samuel, 233. 
McLaren, Duncan, 23. 
McMillan and Co., 210. 
McMinn, Fran., 239. 
McNee, Robert, 25. 
McO'Grady, 26. 
McPherson, Alexander, 208. 
McQuoid, William, 236. 
McQuoid, J., 26. 
McTurk, 246. 
Maculla, James, 237, 238. 
McVicar, Duncan, 208. 
Magarragh, Hugh, 230. 
Maillers, R., 205. 
Marlborough Bank, 97. 
Marshall — see Lord and Marshall. 
Mathews — see Studd and Mathews. 
Meeson, James, 28. 
Menelaws, of Edinburgh, 202. 
Merle — see Cox and Co. 
Miller, J., 203. 
Miller, Robert, 236. 
Miller, W., senior, 204. 
Millson and Preston, 68. 
Mirfin and Parker, 167. 
Mitchell, J., 27. 
Molineand Co., 138. 
Monck, J. B., 29. 
Monteagle, Lord, 227. 
Montgomery, Hugh, 232. 



Moor, Charles — see Stansall and Co. 
Morgan, H., of London, ^ 38-40, 54, 

56, 65, 71-4, 81, 91, 103, 104, 106. 
Morgan, of Bristol, 106. 
Morgan, D. — see Rees and Morgan. 
Morgan, M. L. ; Williams, M.D. ; 

Williams, Wm., 193. 
Morris, of Carmarthen, 188. 
Morton, Alexander, 233. 
Moss, William, 189. 
M. and S., of Musselburgh, 204. 
Muir Kirk Iron Works, 19. 
Muir, J. and A., 24. 
Muir, A., 24. 
Muir, J., 25. 
Murphy, McC. W., 26. 
Murrey or Murray, John, 248. 
Muskett, William, 80. 
Muskett and Sons, 81. 

Nantrhydnyvilas Air Furnace Com- 
pany, 195. 
Nantwich Old Bank, 32. 
Neel, Elias, 241. 
Nevill and Co., 219. 
Newton, 83, 84. 
Niblock and Latham, 104, 107. 
Nicols — see Pearce and Co. 
Nimmo, G., 207. 
North, R. and Co., 116. 
North, George, 187. 
Nott— see Evans and Co. 

Oakley and Co., 191. 

Oates and Co., 28. 

O'Brien, 26. 

O'Brien, Thomas, 234. 

Oliver, Robert, 88, 89. 

O'Neill, 26. 

Orchard, J. — see Culverhouse and Co. 

Orchard Robert, 62, 74, 75, 78. 

Ordnance, Board of, 11. 

Ords, George, 222. 

Overend John, 233. 

Overseers of — see Birmingham Work- 
house. 

Padley and Andrews, 194. 

Paisley Society, 25. 

Papin, W. J., 203. 

Pardoe, James, 127. 

Parker, Joseph, 132. 

Parker — see Mirfin and Parker. 

Parson, William and Son, 80. 



N N 



'270 



INDEX II. 



Patent Sheathing Nail Manufactory, 

112, 114, 115. 
Pattison— i^ Cox and Co., 203. 
Pearse, Ching, Nicols and Prockter, 33. 
Peel Castle, Isle of Man, 27. 
Peels, Harding and Co., 118, 119. 
Percy, E. W., 157, 158. 
Peterborough Bank, 85. 
Phoenix Iron Works, Sheffield, 183, 

184. 
Phoenix Iron Works, Glasgow, 209. 
Phoenix Glass Works, 114. 
Phillips, W. and T- — see Thomas and 

Co. 
Phillipson, J. B., 140. 
Phillipson, Robert, 140. 
Phipps, J. — see Culverhouse and Co. 
Picard, J. K., 176-180. 
Pidcock, Gilbert, 75, 76, 78, 79. 
Pinkerton, John, 60. 
Pollock, James, 204. 
Porter, Samuel, 81. 
Powell, 26, 27. 

Preter, Pew and Whitty, 14. 
Prockter — see Pearse and Co. 
Proddy, A., 89. 

Preston — see Millson and Preston. 
Preston — see Rudston and Preston. 
Purdie, D., 202. 

Quayle, George and Co., 245. 

Ratcliffe, Elam and Thurbon, 31. 

Ratley, 77. 

Rawsons, I. W. and W., 65. 

Rea, Thomas, 238. 

Read, T. and W., 66. 

Readett, William — see Stansall and Co. 

Redman, J. — see Caffin and Co. 

Rees and Morgan, 194. 

Reid, Henry, 210. 

Remmington and Smith, 250, 251. 

Retford — see East Retford. 

Revolution Mill, 16. 

Reynolds, F. R., 82. 

R. H., 253, 259, 260. 

Ricketts, Evans and Co., 1 14. 

Riley, J. and R., and Machin, 127. 

Ringland, William, 230, 231. 

Risca Union Copper Co., 150, 151. 

Robb, Alexander, 202. 

Robertson, John, 86-88. 

Robinson, Francis, 47. 



Romains, 77. 

Rose Copper Co., 154-6. 

Rose, P., 103. 

Rothsay Cotton Works, 19, 20. 

Rothsay Mills, 19, 20. 

Round, Abel, 133. 

Rudston and Preston, 168. 

Rushbury and Woolley, 118, 122, 124-6. 

Ryall, H. — see Willoughby and Co. 

Sandars, Samuel, 67. 

Saunders and Butt, 54. 

Scott, A. and J., 203. 

Scott, I. and W., 24. 

Scurr, Richard, 18, 172. 

S. D. and Co., 24. 

Sedbury Iron Works, 55. 

Shaftesbury Bank, 44-6. 

Sharratt — see Fletcher and Sharratt. 

Shaw, Jobson and Co., 183, 184, 186. 

Shephard, Watts and Co., 33. 

Sheppard, W., 105-7. 

Sheffield Overseers, 172, 181-3. 

Shipham, C. — see Caffin and Co. 

Short, J., 26. 

Simmonds — see Avenell and Sim- 

monds. 
Sinkins, Mrs. — see Willoughby and Co. 
Sizers, W., 136. 
Sligo, Marquis of, 227. 
Smalpage and Lumb, 168, 169. 
Smith and Wilson, 206. 
Smith, John, 31. 

Smith — see Remington and Smith. 
Smyth, Edward, 232. 
Somervills, Mrs., 26. 
Sparks, W. — see Willoughby and Co. 
Spence, 48. 

Sprout — see Broughton and Co. 
Staffordshire Pottery, 130. 
Stansall, Moor, Fisher, Fillingham, 

Readett and Wilson, 91, 92. 
Stanton, Hancock, Wakefield and Co., 

and William Ellis, 91. 
States of Jersey, 240. 
Staverton Factory, 159, 160. 
Steele, John, 202. 
Stephens, Edward, 214-6, 218. 
Stephens, J. M., 59. 
Stephenson, James, 167. 
Steven, A. and Sons, 21. 
Steward, J., 135. 



INDEX II. 



271 



Stewart, A., 208. 
Stewart, John, 235. 
Stovin and Chapman, 68. 
Studd and Mathews, 136. 
Sutton — see Broughton and Co. 
Swanage Friendly Society, 46. 

Tanner — see King and Co. 

Tate, John and Son, 16. 

Tate and Lill, 226. 

T. C. (Stafford), 119. 

T. C. S. (Ripley), 138. 

Teignmouth Bank, 41. 

Temlett and Clarke, 117. 

Templeton, James, 239. 

Terrell, William— see Garratt and Co. 

Thirsk Association, 18, 172. 

Thistle Bank Company, 22. 

Thorn, J-, 203. 

Thomas and Phillips ; Jardine ; Lloyd 

and W. and J. Phillips, 198. 
Thomason, Sir Edward, 149. 
Thomson, T., 204. 
Thompson, I. and B., 161. 
Thompson, J. H., 129. 
Thurbon — see Ratcliffe and Co. 
T. I. C, 253. 
Toole, 26. 
T. P., 259. 

Tripp and Co., 105, 107. 
Tunsteadand Happing Corporation, 84. 
Tullamore, Baron, 224. 

Union Copper Co., 150-152, 156. 
Upcott, W., 41. 

Voss, John, 195. 

Wade, Francis, 136. 

Wade, J. S., 136. 

Wainwright and Co., 61. 

Wakefield and Co. — see Stanton and Co. 

Wakeford, W. S. and J., 57, 60. 

Wallis, Richard, 161, 162. 

Walsall Church, 14. 

Ward, H., 43. 

Warren, Robert, 72, 77. 

Waters, Messrs. Robert, 188. 

Watts — see Shephard and Co. 

W. C.-C, 31. 

Westport, Viscount, 227. 



West Wheal Mine, 34, 35- 

West— see Clark, West and Co. 

W. F. B. and Co., 219. 

W. H. Co., 222. 

Whalley and Co., 74. 

Whalley, J., 53, 54. 

Whitby Association, 173. 

Whitchurch and Dore, 96-98, 109, no. 

White, James, 203. 

Whitehouse and Co., 133. 

Whitty, 14. 

Whyte, Thomas, 25. 

Wilkins, R. B., 58. 

Wilkes, Job, 128. 

Wilkinson, James, 162. 

Wilkinson, John, 145, 146. 

Wilkison, 22. 

Will, J., 203. 

Williams, John, 35, 36. 

Williams — see Morgan and Co. 

Willoughby, Messrs. ; Sinkins, Mrs. ; 

Ryall ; Sparks ; Griffith, and 

Gough, 109. 
Willoughby and Sons, 108, 109. 
Wilson, 26. 
Wilson, Joseph, 234. 
Wilson, Robert, 186. 
Wilson, R., 204. 
Wilson — see Smith and Wilson. 
Wilson, T. and Co., 64. 
Wilson, T. — see Stansall and Co. 
Wilson, W. "Swan with two necks," 77. 
Wilsons — see Younge, Wilsons and 

Younge. 
Wise, Alexander, 203. 
Wood, Thomas, 77. 
Wood, T., and Co., 162. 
Woolley — see Rusbury and Woolley. 
Worcester Overseers, 161. 
Worcester House of Industry, 164. 
Worcester Porcelain Co., 165. 
W. R., 26. 

Wright, Edward, 143. 
Wright, J., Junior, 206. 

Yallop — see Dunham and Yallop. 
Younge, Wilsons and Younge, 170. 
Younge and Deakin, 170, 172. 
Younge and Co., 171. 
Younge, S. C. and Co., 171, 172. 



N N 2 



272 



INDEX III. 



Miscellaneous Subjects. 



A. B. Token Issuer, 101. 

Adair, James, 229. 

Adams, Webster, 59, 135. 

Adams, W., 59. 

Air Furnace Co., 195. 

Allaifs History of the County of York, 

167. 
Altamont, Earl of, xlviii, 227. 
Ampers' and (&), 16. 
Andover Bank, 57. 
Andover "Star and Garter," 57. 
AngelPs History of Halesowen, 94. 
Armagh, Stuarfs Historical Memoirs 

of, 233. 
Arnold Works, 92. 
Arts, Society of, 94. 
Atherton James, 122. 
Atkins' \%th Century Toketis, 13, 16, 

17,48,58,62, 75-9, 107, 137, 141, 

146, 157, 200, 202-4, 206, 210, 

211, 222, 226, 228, 246, 247. 
Atkins 1 Coins of British Possessions, 

240-2, 244, 246, 247. 
Auction Mart, London, 88. 
Avenell, William, 58. 
Ballaugh, Ramsay, I. of M., 247. 
Ballyloghnegany, 231. 
Bank Note of the Token Bank, roi. 
Bank of England dollar, 1, 2. 
Bank Quay, Warrington, 128. 
Banks Collection, 208. 
Banks, Miss, 75. 
Banks, Sir Joseph, 200. 
Barge Yard, 44. 
Barker, Samuel, 83. 
Barnstaple Bank, 40. 
Basingstoke Canal, 60. 
Bastin and Co., 54. 
Bath Chronicle, 5, 7, 95-8, 101, 105, 

160, 170, 175, 191, 213. 
Bath Journal, 98, 100. 
Bath City Bank, 96. 
Bath, 96-8, 104. 
Batty 's Tokens, 88, 89, 114, 156, 175, 

202, 203, 238. 
Bauert, Mr., 75. 
Bazaar Articles, 121, 122, 129, 180, 

192, 195, 209, 217, 222. 



Beck, Launcelot, 100-2. 

Beckett and Co., Bankers, 169. 

Bedworth Mill, 143. 

Beebee, Edward, 122. 

Beith, Alexander, 229. 

Belfast News Letter, 229, 236. 

Belfast Town Book, 230. 

Belfast, Young's Historical Notices oj 
Old, 232. 

Belfast Museum, 235. 

Bell, John, 86-9. 

Benn's History of Belfast, 229. 

Beverley Brothers Society, 175. 

Bewicke Main Colliery, 88. 

Bindley, James, 75. 

Bird, Edward, 100-2. 

Birkinshaw, of Doncaster, 167. 

Birmingham Mining and Copper Co., 
156 

Bishop de Jersey and Co., 240. 

Bishop, John, 55. 

Black Prince-row, Walworth, 139. 

Blake, Robert, 83. 

Bliss Collection, 4, 11, 14, 19, 20, 26, 
27,32, 40,41, 45, 171, 194- 

Bluett, John, 109. 

Blythe and Co., 82. 

Board of Ordnance, 11. 

Booth, William, of Perry Barr, 129. 

Boulton and Co., 5. 

Boulton, Mathew, 149, 154, 220. 

Bowies' Collection, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13, 14, 
22, 28, 34, 99, 101, 138, 145, 187. 

Boyne's \jth Century Tokens — see 
Williamson. 

Boyne's Silver Tokens, 1, 2, 4-12, 
14, 16, 17, 22, 23, 26, 29-34, 38-40, 
43-6, 54-9, 64-8, 70-4, 80-82, 85-7, 
9i, 92, 95, 96, 98-100, 103-9, n8, 
119, 135, 136, 140-3, 145, 146, 159, 
166-74, 178, 188, 191, 194, 195, 199, 
212, 213, 222, 233, 236, 243, 244, 
249, 250. 

Boyne's Yorkshire Tokens, 18, 180, 249. 

Bracteate Tokens, 208. 

Bready, co. Tyrone, 232. 

Breton, 222, 254. 

Brewer, Dr., 23. 

Bristol and South Wales, 113. 



INDEX III. 



273 



Bristol Bridge, 104. 

Bristol Token Co., 101. 

Bristol Tokens — opposition to, 107, 

108. 
Bristol — want of silver coin, 107, 108. 
Britannia dollar, 1. 
British Copper Co., 48, 49-52. 
British Museum Collection, 6, 16, 75, 

83, 89, 90, 94, H5> 165, 201, 208, 

232, 234, 237. 
Broughton and Garnett, 32. 
Brumby, Martin, 67. 
Bryan, E., 98. 

Burn's London Traders' Tokens, 77. 
Bury, Gillingwater 's History of, 16. 
Butt, Messrs., 69. 

Camborne, 34. 

Cambrian Pottery, 195. 

Canterbury, Archbishop, 43. 

Card Tokens, 164. 

Carless and Co., 61. 

Carless, T., 61. 

Cartwright, Thomas, 32. 

Cattle and Barber, 1715. 

Chaffers — Marks and Mo7io%rams on 

Pottery, etc., 165, 195. 
Chambers' Encyclopaedia, 243. 
Channel Islands, 240-2. 
Chapman — see Stovin and Chapman. 
Charge, Benjamin, 140. 
Charing Cross, 33. 
Charles I., 61, 70. 
Charles II., 15. 
Charleville, Viscount, 224. 
Chaston, John, 137. 
Cheadle Copper and Brass Co., 128. 
Cheesman, John, 142. 
Cheltenham, 54, 55, 91. 
Chetwynd Sir George, 34, 49, 94, 200, 

243- 
Christie, Manson and Woods, 243. 
Clark and West, 212. 
Clay, Dr. Charles, 243-8. 
Clayton, Thomas, 141. 
Cochran, John, 234. 
Clocks, 43. 
Cole and Co., 85. 
Collyer, Rev. Daniel, 84. 
Commercial Bristol Token Co., 101. 
Comper, Henry, 140. 
Conder, James, 75. 



Cook, Samuel, 86. 
Cooksey, James, 133. 
Cooper, Good and Co., 149. 
Copper Companies, 156. 
Copper (old Tower) halfpennies, 103. 
Cornish Mines, 34. 

Cotton, William — Tokens of Worces- 
tershire, 164. 
Countermarked Tokens, 14-28, 226. 
Countermarks, 5. 
Coventry, 23. 

Crown Copper Co., 150, 155, 156. 
Dally and Co., 141. 
Davidson, John, 90. 
Davies, die sinker, 41, 43, 70, 71, 135, 

225, 228. 
Davis, W. J. — see Token Coinage. 
Davis, W. J., sale, 16, 17, 200, 214, 251. 
Dawson, Edward, 91. 
Dean of St. Patrick's collection, 224. 
de Birmingham's Arms, 144. 
Dent's glove factory, 165. 
Derbyshire Peak, 40. 
Devil, the, 43. 
Devonshire Bank, 40. 
Devonshire Arms, 72. 
Dickens, Charles, 77. 
Die Sinkers, indexed under their 

names. 
Dixon, die sinker, 146, 259. 
Dollar, Bank of England, 1, 2. 
„ Shield, 1, 4. 
„ Britannia, 1. 
„ Garter, 3. 
„ Countermarked, 11. 
Dore, William, 96, 97. 
Dorrien, Magens, and Mello, 118. 
Down co. A7icient and present state 
of, 236. 
,, Knox's History of, 233. 

„ Horse Breeders' Corpora- 

tion, 234. 
Dromore, Countess of, 27. 
Dublin Museum collection, 231, 234-7, 

239- 
Dudley, John, 59. 
Dunstan, Saint, 43. 
East India Co., 77. 
East London Waterworks, 49. 
Eddystone Lighthouse, 39, 40-2, 80. 
Edward I., 16. 
Edward III., 23. 



274 



INDEX III. 



Eighteen-pence Token, armoured bust, 

6,7- 
Eighteen-pence Token, Iameated head, 

7- 
Elam, Edward, 31. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 23, 29. 
Ellis, William, 91. 
Evening Sun newspaper, 82. 
Every Day Book, 43. 
Exeter, 34, 39, 41. 
Exeter Change, see London. 

Falkner's Dublin Journal, 239. 

Falstaff, Sir John, 15, 16. 

Fellows and Co., 93. 

Fereday, Samuel, 121,122,124. 

Ferns, Messrs., 32. 

Fillingham, William, 92. 

Fisher, Richard, 92. 

Five shillings and sixpence Token, 3, 

4, 5- 
Five pence Token, 10. 
Fletcher collection, 27, 204, 208, 210, 

21 1, 216, 229, 230-2, 236, 237, 239. 
Flint Lead Works, 192. 
Forster, John, 77. 
Fort William, 208. 
Franks, Sir A. W., collection, 165. 
Fraser, William, 208. 
Frome, 109. 

Gamson, John, 67. 

Garratt, Francis, 100-3. 

Garraways, 78. 

Garter dollar, 3. 

Gateis, Samuel, 142. 

Gentleman's Magazine, 2, 3, 42, 77, 78, 

86, 206. 
"George" Inn, Portsmouth, 58. 
Gerrard, William, 109. 
Gillespie collection, 27, 235. 
Gillingwatef s History of Bury, 16. 
Gilpin, Gilbert, 94. 
Glasgow Bank Co., 21. 
Glastonbury, Abbot of 43. 
Glendining and Co., 3. 
Glyn and Co., 85. 
Golding, Charles — Coinage of Suffolk, 

82, 136. 
Goldsmiths' Company, 11- 13. 
Greer, Captn. J. W., 233. 
Griffiths, R., 197. 
Griffith and Gough, 109. 



Griffon, 234. 

Grigg, F. H., 100-102. 

Grimsby, 67. 

Grueber, H. A., 12, 118. 

Guppy, Samuel, 112. 

Halesowen, 94. 

Halliday, Thomas, die sinker, 27, 29, 
30-32, 34-40, 43-47, 53-55, 57-61, 
63-68, 70-74, 77, 80-88, 90-92, 94, 
95> 97-99; 103-110, 1 12-130, 133, 
135)136, 138,140-142, 146, I49-I55* 
159, 161-167, 169-195, 198, 209, 
213-215, 219-221, 241-247, 251- 
256, 258-260. 

Hancock, die sinker, 146, 157, 158. 

Hancock, John Gregory, die sinker, 
156, 157, 212. 

Hancock, Mr., 75. 

Hancock, Wakefield and Co., 91. 

Harrison, Cooke and Co., 88. 

Hase, Henry, 12. 

Heaton, Mr., 70. 

Hedley, Isaquey, 81. 

Hilles, James, 213. 

Historical Chro?iicle, 42. 

Hodgson, S., printer, 87, 88. 

Hoff, R. B., 68. 

Holinshed, 40. 

Holland, Philemon, 158. 

Holywell and Flintshire Bank, 191. 

Horsfall and Co., 166. 

Houndsditch, 15, 16. 

House of Commons, 12. 

House of Lords, 23. 

Hull Advertiser, 180. 

Hunter, John, 76. 

Hunton, John, 82. 

Hyde (or Hide), John, 141. 

Illustrated London News, 149. 
Ingleby, S. and J., 12. 
Inglis motto, 202. 
Ipswich, 59, 141. 
Isle of Man, 243. 

Jackson and Listers, 175. 
James III, 22. 

James, die sinker, 48, 62, 75, 76. 
Jerrens, W., 67. 
Jesus College, Bury, 16. 
Johnston, William, 230. 
Jones, Promoter of British Copper Co., 
49- 



INDEX III. 



275 



Jones, John, 160. 
Jordan and Co., 74. 

Keene's Bath Journal, 98, 1 00. 
Kempson and Son, die sinkers, 44. 
Kempson, Peter, ditto, 44, 137, 212.' 
Kilkenny Traders, 27. 
Knapp, John, Junior, 164. 
Knox, John, 230. 

Kiichler, die sinker, 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 183, 
217, 220, 221. 

Lane, H. P., 143. 

Latham, R. S., 104. 

Lawrence sale, 9, 249. 

Lea, River, 49. 

Leather Note for five shillings, 146. 

Lichfield, 128. 

Lincoln, 7^. 

Lindsay 's Coinage of Ireland, 224, 228, 

237- 
Liverpool, 64. 
Lomer, W., 60. 

London Carriers' Directory, 75. 
London, Exeter Change, 16, 75, 76, 79. 
London Gazette, 31, 32, 59, 80, 88, 166, 

172, 178, 197. 
Lord and Marshall, 170. 
Lutwych, 76. 

M ; 2 x 2| H. C. T. Co., 11 
Macaulay, Lord, 238. 
Macfadyen collection, 89. 
Mackintosh's Inverness-shire Anti- 
quarian Notes, 238. 
Madden, Mr., 75. 
Mainwaring, 58. 
Mansfield Postmaster, 91. 
Manx Coinage— Relative values, 248. 
Marazion Road, 35. 
Marlborough Bank, 97, 1 59. 
Marshall sale, 12. 
Mayo co., xlviii, 227. 
Meili, 11-13, 19, 25. 
MihelFs Caravan Ticket, 75. 
Miles, Mr., 75. 
Millar, T., of Bungay, 77. 
Miller, 75. 

Millson and Preston, 68. 
Milton, Mr., 75. 

Milton, die sinker, 46, 74, 75, 78, 84, 

199, 200. 
Minories, London, 74. 



Mionnet's scale, 11. 

Modern Birmingham, 1 8 1 8, 151. 

Monck, J. B., M.P., 29. 

Montagu collection, 8. 

Montgomery, Hugh, 232. 

Monthly Chronicle, 233. 

Monthly Magazine, 1 36. 

Moor, Charles, 92. 

Morgan, H. and Co., die sinkers, 70, 

101, 103, 104, 106. 
Morland, Henry, 77. 
Morland, Ransom and Co., 21. 
Morning Chronicle, London, 76, 78. 
Morris Family Arms, 188. 
Morton, Alexander, 233. 
Mossop, die sinker, 213, 219-222. 
Mount, Alexander, Earl of, 232. 
Munn, auctioneer, 88. 
Murdoch collection, 13, 15, 19-22, 24, 

193, 200. 

Neath Abbey, 128. 

Nelson, Lord, 17, 185. 

Nelson, Dr., 27, 247, 248. 

Neumann, 201-204, 2 3°- 

Nevill, Brent, 219. 

Newcastle Chronicle, 76. 

Newport, 33. 

Newport, I. of Wight, 58. 

Newton, silversmith, 84. 

Niblock, J., 104, 107. 

Nightingale, Benjamin, 149. 

Ninepence Token, 8, 9. 

Norman collection, 15, 16, 23, 25, 49, 

52, 89, 132, 157, 161, 196, 206, 210, 

224, 249. 
Norman Survey, 109. 
North, George, 187. 
North Lopham, 81. 
Nottingham, 92, 93. 
Numismatic Magazine, 66, 80, 82, 109. 
Old Stock Exchange, 77, 78. 
Ordnance — see Board of Ordnance. 
Orchard, Isaac, 95. 
Orchard, Robert, 75. 
Order of St. Andrew, 22. 
Order of the Thistle, 22. 
Otho de Tilli, 167. 
Overend, John, 233. 

Padley, Sylvanus, 194. 
Palmer's John Wilkinson, 146. 
Parker, Joseph, 132. 



276 



INDEX III. 



Parkes,diesinker,2i3,2i5,2i7,2i8,257. 

Parliament and Tokens, 97. 

Parsons, 80. 

Paterson, William, 25. 

Patrick, die sinker, 56, 60, 120, 121, 129. 

Peak in Derbyshire, 40. 

Peel, Sir Robert, 118. 

Pet ham's Chronicles of Crime, 82. 

Peterborough Cathedral, 38, 85. 

Peterborough, 53, 85. 

Phillips, 8. 

Phillipson Brothers, 140. 

Philp, die sinker, 3, 4, 9, 10. 

Phipps, J., 95. 

Picard, J. K., 178-180. 

Phcenix Glass Co., 114. 

Phcenix Iron Works, Glasgow, 209. 

Pidcock, Gilbert, 76, 78, 79. 

Pingo, die sinker, 5-7, 9. 

"Plough" Hotel, Cheltenham, 55. 

Polito, 79. 

Ponthon, die sinker, 200. 

Portsmouth, "The George" Inn, 58. 

Porter, Samuel, 81. 

Port Augustus, 208. 

Portuguese Dollars, 96. 

Poulton, 64. 

Preston — see Millson and Preston. 

Preston's sale, 1. 

Prince Regent's tailor, 55. 

Pye, Charles, 74, 146, 151, 157, 158. 

Randalls Life of Wilkinson, 94. 

Ratcliffe, Stephen, 31. 

Ratley, 77. 

Rawsons, Messrs., 65. 

Read, T. and W., 66. 

Readett, William, 92. 

Reading Arms, 29. 

Rebello, D. A., 75. 

Redrutn, 36. 

Reeves, Mr., 75. 

Revolution Mill, 16. 

Reynolds, F. R., 82. 

Richardson, John, Hull Coinage, 179. 

Ricketts, Evans and Co., 114. 

Riley, J. and R., 127. 

Robertson, T. G., 27. 

Robertson's Tokens, 86-88. 

Rolling Mills, Walthamstow, 49. 

Romanis, Robert, 77. 

Romsey, 59. 



Rose Copper Co., 154, 156. 
Roskell, Tipton and Co., 192. 
Rothschild, N. M., 82. 
Round, Abel, 133. 
Royal Exchange, 121. 
Ruding, Annalsof/he Coinage, 238, 240. 
Rushbury and Woolley, 118. 
Ryall, Henry, 109. 

St. Andrew, Order of, 22. 

St. Michael Mount, 34, 35. 

St. James Street, Walthamstow, 49. 

Sanders, Samuel, 67. 

Saunders and Butt, 54. 

Scurr, Richard, 172. 

Searle, W. G., 31. 

Shakespeare Token, 156. 

Sharp, T., Catalogue of Provincial 
Copper Coins, 34-36, 41, 42, 48, 
52, 55, 60, 74, 77, 83, 84, 92-94, 
109- 1 1 4, 116, 117, 120-129, I 3 2 ' I 34> 
137, 146-155, 160-165, 175-178, 181, 
183-185, 188, 189, 192, 195, 209, 
213, 214,221,225,251-254,258,259. 

Sheffield, Meeting with reference to 
Tokens, 170. 

Sheppard, William, 105. 

Sherriff, die sinker, 129, 134. 

Shield dollar, 1, 4. 

Shuttleworth, Mr., 78. 

Sinkins, Mrs. Jane, 109. 

Six shillings Token, 8. 

Sizer, W., 136. 

Smallburgh, 84. 

Smalpage and Lumb, 169. 

Smeaton, J., 41. 

Smith, Aquilla, 27, 212, 214, 229-239. 

Smith, Payne and Co., 22. 

Smyth, Edward, 232. 

Society of Arts, 94. 

Soho, 5. 

Sotheby and Co., 9, 12, 16, 200, 206. 

Sparks, William, 109. 

Spink's Circular, 210, 250. 

Spooner, Attwood and Co., 159. 

Stafford, Sir Henry de, 131. 

Staffordshire Knot, 39, 131. 

Stalham Railway Station, 84. 

Stanley Colliery, Bewdley, 161. 

Stansall, Thomas, 92. 

Stanton, Messrs., 91. 

Star newspaper, 22, 70, 78, 88, 129, 
143, 240. 



INDEX III. 



277 



Statesman, The, newspaper, 40. 

Stephens, Edward, 216, 218. 

Stephens, J. M., 59. 

Stevenson and Salt, 32. 

Stewart, John, 235. 

Storrs, Fry and Sons, 101. 

Stovin and Chapman, 68. 

Stuart — see Armagh. 

Summergang's House, Hull, 179. 

Sun newspaper, 77. 

Surrey Zoological Gardens, 76. 

Sydney Gardens, Bath, 98. 

Sykes, W., Hull Coins and Tokens, 178. 

" Swan with two necks," 77. 

Tamworth Old Bank, 118. 

Taylor, Haiibury and Co., 93. 

Taylor, W. J., die sinker, 42, 200. 

Teath river, 23. 

Tenpenny Token, 9, 10. 

Terrell, William, 100-2. 

Thames Street, London, 52. 

Thistle Bank Co., 21, 22. 

Thistle, Order of, 22. 

Thomason, Sir Edward, 29, 122, 149, 

180, 186. 
Three shillingsToken, armoured bust, 5. 
Three shillings Token, laureatehead, 6. 
Thurbon, John, 31. 
Times newspaper, 82. 
Token bank note, 10 1. 
Token Coinage of Warwickshire, 129, 

148, 157, IS8. 
Tokens, Collections of, indexed under 

owners' names. 
Tokens, Notices referring to, 107, 108, 

115, 116, 134, 143,170,180,229,236. 
Tokens supplied to order, 70, 98. 
Tower halfpennies, 103. 
Treasury, 12. 

Tripp, Robert, and Co., 105. 
TunsteadandHappingCorporation, 84. 
Turnpenny, die sinker, 93, 120, 122, 

125, 127, 131, 133, 195, 241, 258. 

Ulster Journal of Archceology, 231, 235. 
Union Copper Co., 150-152, 156. 
Upcott, W., 41. 

Voss, John, 195. 

Wade, J. S., 136. 
Wainwright, B., 61. 
Wainwright and Co., 61. 
Wakeford, Messrs., 57. 



Wallace Halfpenny, 200. 

Warberg, Mr., 75. 

Ward, Henry, 43. 

Warren, James, 77. 

Warren, Robert, 77. 

Warwick Assizes, 12. 

Washington, 12. 

Waters, 138, 139. 

Waters, Robert, banker, 188. 

Weare, G. E., 107. 

Weare, Mr., 115. 

West, Admiral, 42. 

Whalley, James, 53. 

Whitchurch, Samuel, 96, 97. 

Whitehouse and Co., 133. 

Wilkes, Job, 128. 

Wilkins, R. B., 58. 

Wilkinson, John, 94, 146. 

Wiikisor>, 22 

Willets, die sinker, 145, 147-149, 206. 

William III., 22, 42. 

Williamson's Boyne's Tokens, 234, 248. 

Willoughby and Son, 109. 

Wills, Sir W. H., Bart., collection, 106, 

112. 
Wilson, Thomas, 92. 
Wilson's Dublin Directory, 213, 216. 
Winchester, Bishop of, 94. 
Windsoi - , Sir William, 165. 
Winstanley, Mr., 42. 
Wood, T., 78. 
Woodward, Thomas, 75. 
Woolsack, The, 23. 
Worcester Herald, 1 34. 
Worcester House of Industry, 164. 
Worcester Porcelain Co., 165. 
Wright, Edward, 144. 
Wright, James, 206. 
Wyon, die sinker, 77, 92, 136, 137, 143- 

146, 148, 167, 175, 206, 216, 219. 
Wyon, Peter, die sinker, 47, 49, 83, 86, 

8 7, 93> 95. 9 6 . "o, 116, 121, 127, 

128, 130-132, 136-138, 141, 217, 

218, 222, 249, 250. 
Wyon, Thomas, die sinker, 6, 9, 17, 

42, 50-52, 60, 83, 159, 160, 185, 

224, 240. 

Y. and D. — see Younge and Deakin, 

Sheffield. 
Yarmouth coach, 82. 
Young, Mathew, 75, 200. 
Younge and Deakin, 186. 
York. — see Allan. 




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