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Full text of "The Nineteenth century French Collection"

. IR^^^ THE IVIIVETEENTH CENTURY 









i 



FRENCH 

COLLECTION. 



JOHN M. KELLY LIBRARY, 

UNIVERSITY OF ST. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE, 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



2010. 




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THE NINETEENTH CEXTURV 

FRENCH COLLECTION. 



JOHN M. KELLY LIBRARY, 

UNIVERSITY OF ST. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE, 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

2010. 




This publication was made possible thanks to the financial support 

of the John M. Kelly Library, the Canada Research Chair in Book History (University of Toronto), 

and the Book and Media Studies Programme (St. Michael's College) 

as part of their training and research activities. 



Text by Professor Dorothy Speirs and Professor Yannick Portebois 
Design and Layout by Renee Jackson 

Special Collections and Archives of the John M. Kelly Library 
at the University of St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, 2010. 



ihis publication uses a font called "Garamond ", named after Claude Caramond, one ot the 
most famous t)'pe designers of the 16"'' century. His t\'pe, created for the French king Fran(;ois 
1", was re-discovered in the 19''' century, and has inspired generations ot designers because of 
its elegance and its legibility. 

Ihc typography and layout of this publication were inspired by 19"'' century printing 
practices. Hie vignettes interspersed throughout were drawn from publications found 
in ihe C'ollcciion. 








TABLE OF CONTEIVTS 



Word from the Director of Library and 
Archives, John M. Kelly Library, University 
of St. Michael's College 
by JONATHAN BENGTSON 



A TRAVERS LE 19' SIECLE: 

Selected items from the Nineteenth Century 

French Collection: 

POPULAR READING: 

a new pastime 



Word from the Curator of Special Collections, 

John M. Kelly Library, University of 

St. Michael's College 

by GABRIELLE EARNSHAW 



MAGAZINES: 

the early "mass media" 1 1 



THE THEATRE: 

a century-long passion. 



15 



Presentation of the Nineteenth Century 
French Collection 
by YANNICK PORTEBOIS and 
DOROTHY SPEIRS 



AUTOGRAPHS AND 

PHOTOGRAPHS 19 



THE "LONG" 19™ CENTURY: 

toward the industrialization of the printed 
word 



EMILE ZOLA: a thirst for social 
justice 



SOURCES AND FURTHER READINGS 



.22 



.28 



Above illustration from Almanach Musical, 1861, Paris. 




tA\W)l\TI,i.l.i; 



IMMORTELLE 

From Les jieurs animees, drawn h\' J.J. Cirandxillc, published in 186:" by Ciarnicr Frcr 
Each engraving wa.s hand-coloured. 



A LETTER FROM JONATHAN BENGTSON 



When I arrived at St. Michael's College and the Kelly Library in late winter 2004, it did not take me long to appreciate 

the extraordinarily rich teaching and research activities that were coalescing around the current director and Canada 

Research Chair in Book History, Professor Yannick Portebois, and her colleague. Professor Dorothy Speirs, curator of 

the Emile Zola archives, both of whom had offices in the Sable Centre, located in the library. 

As a librarian, it is always exciting to see faculty take an interest in the library and its collections, but this was some- 
thing more. In no time, I found myself drawn in and actively working with Professors Portebois and Speirs, and their 
colleagues, on expanding the nascent, and now hugely successful, undergraduate Book and Media Studies programme; 
installing a printing room with 19''' century and early 20* century hand-presses in the library; establishing a book 
collecting contest and university press internship; creating a library publication series (of which this volume on the 
Nineteenth Century French Collection is the fourth); and, many other projects. The Nineteenth Century French 
Collection collection provided a solid foundation tor many of these activities - beyond being a remarkable, and interna- 
tionally recognized resource for research, this collection became the catalyst around which collaborations and partner- 
ships among staff, students, faculty and the wider community flourished. 

This publication is not only a tribute to Fr. Sable, and the legacy that he left the John M. Kelly library and St. Michael's 

College, but also to the work and commitment of Professors Yannick Portebois and Dorothy Speirs. Without their 

active care, study and promotion of the treasures to be found within the Collection, the library might well have suffered 

from a degree of ossification and, without a doubt, the last six years would have been significantly less interesting. 



Jonathan B. Bengtson 
Director of Library and Archives 



S^ 



-1- 



A LETTER FROM GABRIELLE EARNSHAW 



As a student of archival science in the 1990s, I was trained to consider collections with a very careful eye. We were told 
that unlike the (supposedly) natural, organic, nature of archival fonds which followed the logic of form and function, 
collections were highly subjective entities fraught with the idiosyncrasies of the collector and those who managed them. 
1 can still bring to mind one particularly strong-minded professor who crinkled up her nose at the thought of all those 
vicissitudes of human nature affecting the objectivity of reality. 

It is interesting to find myself so many years later, not only working in a library surrounded by collections, but one of 
the number affecting their care and management. One of my first assignments upon arriving at the Kellv Library, was to 
accompany Louise Girard, former Chief Librarian of the Kelly Library, to Paris to purchase items for the Sable collection 
(a major collection within the Nineteenth Century French Collection), from the estate left by Father Sable. Here I got 
my first taste of how personality and politics, budgets and attitudes can affect a collection. We visited room upon room, 
in Father Sables Paris appartment, of material but only selected a small portion to be purchased. Later, while hammering 
out the details over dinner (and a glass of good red wine), I started to understand better the fundamental role of the 
librarian in the shaping of a collection and the delicate dance that often ensues with our benefactors. 

The personaliry and interests of the collector - which evolve over time - place a unique stamp on any collection. From 
that point of view, collections should be understood as being dynamic, ever-evolving "ensembles" responding to, and 
reflecting changes in intellectual pursuits, financial means, and even the availabilit)' of books and documents to be 
bought. The acquisition of a particular book can lead a collector into unforseen directions, and trigger the unexpected. 
Institutions, in turn, contribute to the life of collections entrusted to them, through the emergence of new academic 
programs, complementarity with other collections, acquisitions, deaccessions, the personality of the curators, and the 

research interests of faculty and students. 

These are but two examples to support my teachers claim about the subjective character of collections. Personality, 
budget, space and academic interests all contribute to their composition. However, unlike my professor, I see this as a 
strength not a weakness. As you will read in the following pages, the Nineteenth Centur)' French Collection is an ever- 
evolving composite, aiming to cover a broad and sweeping subject: France, over an entire century, in its social, cultural, 
political, technological and literary aspects. It is my pleasure to be part of the good company of men and women who 
have shaped this collection to be what it is today. I look forward to participating in its future growth and use - and 
someday reading a study of the vicissitudes of human nature that have contributed to it. 

Gabrielle Earnshaw 
Curator of Special Collections and Archivist of the 
Henrv Nouwen Archive and Research C'ollcction 






-2 




PRE8EIVTATIOIV 



For those who are following the publications issued by the 
John M. Kelly Library, the presence of a strong and rich 
collection of books and documents related to 19'*' century 
France within the walls of the library will not come as a 
surprise. St. Michael's College was founded by the French 
Basilians Fathers, and the founding collection, the Soulerin 
Collection (now well documented in this series), contains 
hundreds of titles in French, either given to the College 
by early benefactors, or brought from France by Father 
Soulerin in the mid- 19'*' century. Another collection, the 
Nineteenth Century French Collection, presented here, 
has an equally interesting trajectory, which links it, in 
several ways, to the roots of the College. This Collection 
has increased substantially over the past quarter century, 
through the generosity of a number of scholars and profes- 
sors. As a result, the Nineteenth Century French Collection 
is remarkable in its diversit)', as we have attempted to illus- 
trate in the following pages. 

The "Collection romantique", which covers the first half 
of the century, was donated by Father Joseph Sable (1918- 
1998) upon his retirement in the mid-1980s. A little over 
a century after Father Soulerin crossed the Atlantic to 
come to Toronto to found St. Michael's College, Father 
Sable came to the College (in the 1960s), to teach in the 
Department of French Studies. A passionate and deter- 
mined book collector, over the years Father Sable created 
a collection that reflected his wide-ranging tastes: travel 
books, government reports, illustrated novels, popular 
novels, biographies, volumes of philosophy and history, 
plays and operas. The "great classics ' of the first half of 



the 19th century were very well-represented: Alexandre 
Dumas, George Sand, Victor Hugo, Francois-Rene de 
Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, and of course 
Honore de Balzac, for whom Father Sable had a special 
fondness. Innovative publishers, such as Leon Curmer, 
Camille Ladvocat, Gervais Charpentier and Michel Levy, 
figured on Father Sable's shelves. 

The early 19'*' century magazines he collected were 
certainly a testament to his eclectic tastes, and to his clair- 
voyance as a collector ol primary sources, since, forty years 
ago, magazines were not very high on most collectors' lists. 
The Nineteenth Century French Collection of periodi- 
cals boasts more than one hundred different titles: maga- 
zines for women, for engineers, for physicians, for family 
reading, for children, illustrated publications, etc., some of 
which are not found anywhere else in the world. During 
the 1830s, popular reading became more and more wide- 
spread, thanks to the establishment of thousands of new 
schools all over France. As a result, children became a "new 
reading public"; magazines, illustrated books and moral 
stories especially designed for them started to appear. 
Professor Jean-Jacques Hamm, a Stendhal specialist from 
Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario), donated a collec- 
tion of children's books written by the Comtesse de Segur, 
and issued by the successful publisher Louis Hachette 
under the label "Bibliotheque rose". The Bibliotheque 
rose books became extraordinarily popular, and were often 
offered as gifts to children - in fact, one of the authors of 
this publication was offered some of these little novels as 
late as the 1960s - a testament to the lasting impact of the 



PRESENTATION 



Comtesse de Segur. This donation complemented Father 
Sables "Collection romantique", particularly insofar as 
it added another dimension to our understanding of the 
world of children's publishing of the time. 

Going to the theatre was a passion for the French - and it 
could mean wealth and celebrity for the successful play- 
wright and for his publisher. One cannot underestimate 
the importance of the theatre throughout the 19'*' century 
in France. Social movements, historical revivals, literary 
schools, and political upheavals were all mirrored on the 
French stage, moving from the light comedies of the early 
1800s, to the famous "bataille d'Hernani", in 1830, to 
the bourgeois vaudevilles of Eugene Labiche and Georges 
Feydeau, and finally to the more serious plays of the Belle 
Epoque, which featured in particular workers and peas- 
ants, with a view to drawing attention to their difficult 
living conditions. Here lies another of the great strengths 
of the Nineteenth Century French Collection. It includes 
over 2,000 plays, a large number of them donated by 
Professor Mariel O'Neill Karch, who retired recently 
after a distinguished career as a professor of French at St. 
Michael's College, senior administrator in the Faculty of 
Arts and Science, and Principal of Woodsworth College 
of the University of Toronto. The plays are in their orig- 
inal wrappers, some inscribed by the authors, which 
adds greatly to the bibliographical and historical interest 
of these publications. This theatre sub-collection also 
includes a wide range of letters from actors and actresses, 
playbills, photographs and documents from and about 
Andre Antoine, the famous director who introduced what 
is now considered to be the modern "mise en scene" in 
France. These rare documents come from the estate of 
Professor James Sanders, who passed away in 2009 after 
a long career at the University of Western Ontario and 
who was part of the research team that edited the Zola 
correspondence (see below). Professor Sanders bequeated 
his collection of Andre Antoine materials to the Kelly 
Library, as well as more than 40 autograph letters by Zola, 
several first editions of Zola's novels and plays, letters from 
Zola's daughter and grandson, as well as various corre- 
spondences with journalists and other playwrights such 
as Georges Ancey. 



The last third of the century is also represented by a 
substantial collection which was constituted during the 
twenty years (1975-1995) that the Department of French 
Studies was involved in the edition of the correspondence 
of the French novelist, journalist and activist, Emile Zola. 
Zola's works, and the works of his contemporaries, like 
Gustave Flaubert and Guy de Maupassant, among many 
others, are one of the features of this Belle Epoque sub- 
collection. As well, this sub-collection contains a great 
deal of iconography - portraits, pamphlets, caricatures 
and broadsheets - which reflect how diversified the print 
media had become by the turn of the century. 

A glance at the works of these influential writers of the last 
decades of the century shows clearly that this new genera- 
tion of authors was also strongly committed to public 
affairs and, as such, many became prominent journalists, 
alternately praising and scourging the leadership of the 
Third Republic. The defining moment for that generation 
was undoubtedly the Dreyfus Affair, when Emile Zola 
took the unpopular and very public stance of defending a 
Jewish army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, who had been unjustly 
accused of espionage and exiled for life to Devil's Island. 
The upheaval which Zola provoked, when he published 
his famous "J'Accuse" in the newspaper L'Aurorem 1898, 
rocked France to its foundations and, as is reflected in 
the sub-collection of brochures and periodicals around 
the period of the Affair, was the first public scandal to be 
played out in the popular press. 

The Nineteenth Century French Collection has grown over 
a quarter of a century, from the original donation of Father 
Sable, and has been considerably strenghtened and diversi- 
fied by other donations complementing it. We express our 
thanks to all who contributed to its growth, among them 
Professors Chantal Bertrand-Jennings, Graham Falconer, 
Anthony Glinoer, Peter Nesselroth, Janet Paterson and 
Paul Perron of the Department of French Studies; Professor 
David Higgs, from the Department of History; and Father 
James Farge, from the Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval 
Studies. We also express our gratitude to the stall of the 



-4- 



PRESENTATION 



Kelly Library tor their care and enthusiasm over the 
years: Madame Louise Girard, former Chief Librarian 
of the Kelly Library, Mr. Michael Bramah, Head of 
Cataloguing, Ms Gabrielle Earnshaw, Curator, Special 
Collections, and Professor Jonathan Bengtson, Director 
of Library and Archives, St. Michael's College. Every 
contribution has enormously enriched the Collection and 
facilitated research for seasoned scholars as well as under- 
graduates. The great diversity of the Nineteenth Century 
French Collection makes it unique and unmatched. The 
Collection speaks to the French roots of St. Michael's 



College, to the rise of literacy and the appetite for reading 
that marked the 1 9* century, to the involvement of remark- 
able individuals in the public affairs of the day - with a 
view to furthering social justice - and to the remarkable 
evolution of the printed world of the 19'*' century. It is an 
extraordinary legacy, which still resonates today. 

Yannick Portebois 
Dorothy Speirs 

Department of French Studies 
University of Toronto 
June 2010 



THE "LONG" 19^" CENTURY: 

TOWARD THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE PRINTED WORD 



Many historians use the label "the 'long' 19* century" to 
describe the period beginning with the French Revolution 
(1789) and ending with the First World War. Although 
France went through several different pohtical regimes 
during that period (The Consulate and The First Empire, 
1799-1815; The "Restauration", 1815-1830; The July 
Monarchy, 1830-1848; The Second Republic, 1848-1851; 
The Second Empire, 1851-1870; The Third Republic, 
from 1870), all those years were marked by one striking 
constant: a passion for the printed word, i.e., an increasing 
and unremitting demand for reading material. 

This appetite for reading was triggered and then sustained 
by a number of factors, technical, social, and economic. 
The printing press, as a machine, had not changed much 
between 1455 and 1800. Three and a half centuries after 
Gutenberg invented movable type, the basic mechanism 
of the "hand press" remained the same: a compositor set 
type, which was then locked into a form; the form was 
laid on the bed of the press, and inked; a sheet of paper 
was secured onto the rympan, the frisket folded on the 
tympan, and folded again on the form; the form was rolled 
under the platen; the platen was lowered by the pressman 
onto the form, to obtain an impression. The platen was 
then released, the bed containing the form rolled out, the 
printed sheet lifted from the tympan and frisket, and set 
aside to dry. Every printed sheet underwent all these oper- 



ations twice: once for the recto, once for the verso of each 
sheet of paper. In other words, printing a book was a long 
and complex operation. The output was slow, raw mate- 
rials expensive, which kept the prices of books and news- 
papers relatively high, and certainly out of the reach of the 
working class. Subscriptions to quality newspapers hovered 
around 80 francs per annum, more than the monthly 
salary of a Parisian worker. In 1814, Friedrich Koenig, a 
German inventor, sold his steam-powered printing press 
to The Times of London - the machine could print over 
1 ,000 pages an hour, an astonishing number compared to 
the slow output of previous times. Over the course of the 
century, every operation involved in printing, from type 
casting, to composing, to paper feeding, to perfecting 




Above illustration from L'Art de Briller en Societe, 1856, Paris. 



THE "LONG" 19™ CENTURY 



(printing both sides of the sheet at once), to trimming 
the paper and binding, etc., became mechanized. Book 
production took off, prices came down, distribution 
became better organized, thanks to the railroads that criss- 
crossed France, new "reading products" started to appear 
in large numbers, such as magazines, plays, self-help 
manuals, dictionaries, encyclopedias, school books, etc. 

This printed material was quickly absorbed by a new 
reading public, thanks in part to the June, 1833, laws 
on primary schooling, which actually implemented, 
some forty years later, the vision of literacy for all put 
forth at the time of the Revolution of 1789. Those who 
could not afford individual newspapers subscriptions 
created "savings societies". Those who could not read 
frequented the cafe, where news and items of current 
interest were often read aloud. Over the 19"'' century, 
however, the number of those who could read rose expo- 
nentially, and reading became increasingly a solitary rather 
than a communal activity. In 1832, about 50% ot young 
men of age to join the military could not read. In 1914, 
this figure had fallen to 5%. The appetite for reading 
first took hold in the cities, where books and newspapers 
were abundant, while they remained difficult to obtain 
in more remote regions, that is, until the development of 
the railroad. In rural areas, almanacs, collections of tales 
and stories, ballads, songs, among other "popular genres", 
were favoured. Trains made it possible for a wide variety of 
printed matter to reach small towns rapidly (within hours 
rather than days or weeks), and contributed to the imple- 
mentation of a vibrant network of bookstores all over the 
country: in 1851, there were about 2,500 bookstores in 
I'rance; by 1877, that figure had almost tripled. Reading 
was also sustained through school libraries: in 1866, there 
were about 4,800 of these libraries; five years later they 
luunbered over 14,000. Ihe availability of reading mate- 
rial was made possible by the mechanization of the chain 
of production, as we have seen above, which allowed for 
great quantities being produced, rapidly, at a lower price. 
And it was also made possible through the emergence of 
a new figure in the book chain: the publisher as we know 
him or her today, the person who chooses a manuscript, 
advises the author, and who promotes the book once it has 
been published. Since Gutenberg, the printer, more often 
than not, had played all of these roles, from choosing the 



manuscript (later the role of the publisher), to printing 
it, to selling the printed end product (later the role of the 
bookseller). From the early 1830s, this new character - the 
publisher - emerged: he did not own a printing shop; his 
sole property was ideas, in the form of the manuscripts 
of writers in need of an active and enterprising interme- 
diary to reach a growing reading public. Louis Hachette 
(who specialized in school books), Pierre Larousse (who 
produced popular French grammars), Michel Levy (who 
published and sold plays in stalls located near theaters), 
Gervais Charpentier (who launch the first low-cost 
books), Jules Hetzel (the publisher of Jules Verne) - all 
of these and many more were discoverers of talent, and 
they used advertisement, publicity, marketing campaigns 
and book reviews in periodicals and newspapers to create a 
"demand" for the books they were publishing. 

Today, reading is considered an important activit}', a 
window onto the world, a necessary component of chil- 
dren's play and of a solid and comprehensive education. It 
was not always so. In 19''' century France, reading was still 
considered a potentially "dangerous" activiry for women, 
children, young people, members of the working class; 
their readings had to be closely monitored, according 
to the Church, the bourgeoisie, and the ruling classes, 
in order to avoid social unrest, the spread of ideas chal- 
lenging the established order, or any claim to aspirations 
outside of one's original social milieu. Various societies 
devoted themselves to the task of recommending "bonnes 
lectures", "L'Oeuvre des bons livres" being one of the most 
influential. To help counter the flow of "bad books", the 
Church entered the fray herself Series of moral stories, 
hagiographies, and magazines were created by dioceses, 
often bearing the imprimatur of the local bishop. Publisher 
Alfred Mame (the firm still exists today) issued the 
"Bibliotheque de la jeunesse chretienne", a "rich series of 
books destined for prize distributions, the religious tone of 
which was guaranteed by an express approval given by the 
Archbishop ofTours" [Catholic Encyclopedia) . For almost a 
century, a battle was waged for the mind and soul (and the 
wallet) of the "new reader" - who often remained faithful 
to tradition, while cnjoxing sentimental novels, accounts 
of sensational trials, .uid political news. Reading, for moral 
purposes, for enio\ment. tor education, had become an 
integral part of daily life. 



6- 




A NEW PASTIME 



With the rise ot literacy and lower prices for printed matter 
came all sorts of publications. Some were meant to "supple- 
ment" the basic education offered by the new schools, such 
as popular medicine and correspondence manuals; others to 
offer escapist reading (popular novels, cheap magazines and 
newspapers); others to orient the new traveller in her/his 
peregrinations in France and elsewhere, thanks to the devel- 
opment of the railway (travel guides); others yet to promote 
the use of the French language, as regional languages were 
still spoken in many areas (grammars, dictionaries, school 
books). Reading in French greatly contributed to the spread 
of the French language, and to the acculturation of large 
segments of the population. In addition, the reduction of 
the number of working hours left more time for leisure, 



thus for reading — and reading became more closely associ- 
ated with the novel. Newspapers started serializing novels, 
to lure new readers with the likes of Alexandre Dumas and 
Victor Hugo. Some tides became familiar to all, notwith- 
standing their social status, Les trois mousquetaires and Les 
miserables being excellent examples of this phenomenon. 
Print runs provide an interesting perspective on the expan- 
sion of the reading public; before 1830, most novels were 
printed in 750 copies. By the end of the century, it was 
common to see print runs of over 100,000 copies. Some 
newspapers sold over a million copies a day; they were avail- 
able for reading in circulating libraries, cafes, hotels, and in 
the famous bookstalls opened by Louis Hachette in railway 
stations. What better way to pass time than to read? 



Above illustration from Vizetelly & Co., Catalogue of April, 1884, London. 



POPULAR READING: A NEW PASTIME 




POPULAR READING: A NEW PASTIME 



JE T'AIME 

Popular novels; novels for the masses; mass literature; 
cheap literature; "litterature de portiere": unsavoury labels 
abound to qualify the fictional output of the 19"'' century. 
Like most of the popular novelists of his time, Jules Mary 
(1851-1922) was extremely prolific and very successful (he 
is said to have died a wealthy man) . The plots of his nov- 
els usually revolved around victims unjustly accused, and 
whose trials and tribulations are focused on clearing their 
name. The publisher Tallandier understood the appeal of 
these novels and issued several hundred titles in the highly 
recognizable and tantalizing coloured wrappers 




PALMYRE ET FLAMINIE 

Books could live a very long life. Written by Mme de Gen- 
lis, the governess of the last king of France, Louis-Philippe, 
this novel was reprinted in French, by a London printer, 
lor the British market. It was given as a school prize in 
1824 - the inscription mentions "Hazelwood", which may 
refer to the progressive school founded by Thomas Wright 
Hill, the mathematician, and father of Rowland Hill, the 
creator of the modern postal system in England. In 1889, 
the book was again offered as a gift, to "Mary Fordham, 
in remembrance of her Grandfather". Over three-quarters 
of a century, one can only imagine the number of uniden- 
tified readers who occupied long afternoons turning the 
pages of this copy. 




NOUVEAU DICTIONNAIRE DE SANTE 
A L'USAGE DE TOUT LE MONDE 

The cholera epidemic of 1832 alerted the authorities to 
the importance of public hygiene - and many popular 
medicine books hit the market in the decades that fol- 
lowed. These books, often arranged in alphabetical order, 
offered a description of various common maladies as well 
as recipes for home-made medications. In the Dictionnaire 
shown here, wine was recommended for its all-encompass- 
ing properties: "Good wine makes for good blood; good 
blood makes for cheery dispositions, which in turn trigger 
good thoughts; good thoughts produce good deeds, and 
good deeds will open up the doors of heaven" (p. 435 - our 
translation). 

ART DU CHAUFFAGE DOMESTIQUE 

ET DE LA CUISSON ECONOMIQUE 

DES ALIMENS 

Prized by today's collectors, artisans and antique dealers for 
the quality of the information they provide, the lamous 
Roret manuals were published be- 
tween 1822 and 1939. This very 
useful series, the "Encyclopedic 
populaire", issued in a format (lan- 
guage and price) accessible to all, 
touched upon every possible topic: 
removing all manners of stains, 
controlling house fires, making 
furniture, binding books, cook- 
ing meals and heating houses at a 
reasonable cost. 




POPULAR READING: A NEW PASTIME 




PETITE POSTE 

IIES AMOL'REIIX 

KorvKAi: s(;( hctaibk gaunt 



ilr CormpandaDrf. DNlaraliti 

th-mioilri ^n aianaf;r, A»f|>la[liBl, Rrfit 

ll'l-mlm, lalgiiir 



LE eUlDE OU MARIAGE 

rul'5 LM kf^XLf. xiCUSkttkSS 

eODMmsnt 
U dliDRtTION Er IE CilEMIIU 



lllusirt'ds ISOdcsslos 
Par 0R£VIN 



LA PETITE POSTE DES AMOUREUX. 
NOUVEAU SECRETAIRE GALANT 

Letter writing was a necessity for all - and as such, it was 
an integral part of pedagogical programs in 19''' century 
schools. Children were taught, for example, how to write 
to family members and friends, according to model let- 
ters showing the proper tone and "formules de politesse". 
Correspondence manuals on more specialized topics were 
pulilishcd ID supplement school training. Shown here is 
a manual aimed at lovers. It contains models of love let- 
ters, as well as letters expressing jealousy, doubt, and even 
anger. I he last chapter is entirely devoted to formal letters 
addressed to parents, asking for the hand of their daughter, 
wedding invitations, and thank-you notes. 



IMIUS-IUVMVNT 



Mi'iU'llE ET fill. JIIVWE 



I'AIIIS 



PARIS-DIAMANT EN 1878 

The father and son team of Adolphe ct Paul Joanne 
gave their name to a famous series of tourist guides, the 
"Guides-Joanne", put out by publisher Hachette, who 
owned book stalls in railway stations across France. The 
copy shown here was published especially for the 1878 
International Paris Exhibition. It offered information 
about monuments, parks, museums, theatres, the Exhibi- 
tion, and many tips on how to chose a hotel, a restaurant, 
a cafe, how to travel economically across the city, etc. These 
guides catered to the new travellers, the middle class tour- 
ists and their families. 

NOUVEAU DICTIONNAIRE DE LA 
LANGUE FRAN^AISE 

This Dktionnaire w^s one 
of the first to be issued in 
a small format, for stu- 
dents to carry to school. 
To accompany it, Noel et 
Chapsal created a series 
of exercice books, as well 
as the "corriges des exer- 
cices" for the teachers. 
Til is "bundling" proved a 
success: it was in use for 
almost 75 years in French 
school.s, and the au- 
thors became extremcK' 
wealthy. 



\oi\r.ti nil Tii»i\ tint: 



l.\N(;iK FHANCAISE, 



r»ii H. "ton.. 



® 



10- 




Em 

THE "EARLY MASS MEDIA" 



The first periodicals, appearing in England in the early 
1800s, were almost indistinguishable trom books. The 
layout of the page was rather austere, and most of these 
publications were designed for an "enlightened" reading 
public, interested and knowledgeable in political affairs, 
diplomacy, international trade, and social movements and 
ideas. The French quickly followed suit and serious periodical 
publications appeared in France, progressively carving a niche 
between books and newspapers as a new source of knowledge 
and information. 

Magazines as we know them today, featuring an abundance 
of topics, pictures and illustrations, maps, tips, recipes, trav- 
elogues, printed in two or three columns, became available 



to readers around 1830. Again, in England, the desire to 
provide working classes, women, and children with appro- 
priate reading material gave birth to TJje Penny Magazine, 
under the directorship of Charles Knight, as part ot the 
educational efforts of the Society tor the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge. TJje Penny Magazine, (whose title was derived 
from the French word "magasin") was profusely illustrated, 
reasonably priced, varied enough to please the entire 
family, and offered "safe readings" to all. The new "reading 
product" quickly crossed the channel; in 1833, Le Magasin 
pittoresque was launched - the first of a long series of illus- 
trated periodicals, which thrived until the Belle Epoque, 
when photographs replaced wood engravings. 



Above illustration from L' Illustration, juillet 1849, Paris. 
- 11 - 



MAGAZINES: THE "EARLY MASS MEDIA" 



REVUE 

l)E PARIS. 



y<SVv/f»(i* >J^n, — ^€m,» /.W/ 



TOME PKEMIEK. 



PARIS. 

All buri-:au de la iujvue ni-; pahis, 



r 


■^-^ 


REVUE 


; 


UE PARIS. 






\ 




\ 


SECONDE EDITION. 




Tour. PIKHIU. 


A 


JANVIER I8S4 


( 

1 
' 1 

J 




BRIXELLES, 


4 


U. DtHONT, LIBKAIHE-tDITEl'R 




I8t4. 




k 





LA REVUE DE PARIS 
(FRENCH EDITION AND BELGIAN PIRATED EDITION) 

Influential, literary, polemic, modern - it must have cal (accompanied b\- a predictable surge in popularity), 

been a winning formula, as /.(^?/^n'»<'i^r/('?m lasted well Belgian printers understood rapidh- the attraction of 

into the 20''' century (1829-1970, with some interrup- La Revue; cheap, easilv-recognizable pirated editions 

tions). Flaubert's famous novel MadiU)ie Bovaiy was regularly flooded the F.uropean markets. Tlie size of the 

serialized in La Revue de Paris in 1856, which led to a original editions was larger (15 x 24 cm) - thus more 

trial for "outrage aux bonnes moeurs" for the periodi- expensive - than the counterfeit ones (9 x 15 cm). 

- 12- 



MAGAZINES: THE "EARLY MASS MEDIA" 



L'AMI DE LA RELIGION ET DU ROI 

One of the early periodicals, devoted to the promo- 
tion of religion. Published between 1814 and 1862, 
L'Ami believed in the power of the printing press to 
advance its ideas - and it paid a great deal of atten- 
tion to various trials of printers accused of defamation, 
or suspected of printing "dangerous books". Because 
L'Ami reported on politics, it had to pay stamp duty 
like other similar publications; the title page shown 
here bears the "timbre royal" (Seine Department). 




LE MONDE MODERNE 

Probably one of the first French periodicals to embrace 
enthusiastically all aspects of modern life, Le Monde 
moderne ( 1 895- 1 905) took its inspiration from Ameri- 
can magazines. It featured photographs, articles on the 
applications of electricity, sports, the sciences, and pro- 
moted the Art deco poster as art (and not merely a 
marketing tool). It also organized, for its subscribers, 
trips to exotic countries, such as Algeria and Tunisia. 



LAMI OELA HELIGIOlN 

ET DC ROI , 

JOURNAL FXCLESIASTIQTJE, 

VOXITIQUS ET UTT£aAXR£. 

Vidgt^ n» guts vos decipiat per phUotophitm 
etmanem/al/aeiam. ColoiH. II, 8. 

Pram guile ipi'on nc toil* c^uue par In Tanx 
rauonncmriu d'lior vainv philosophic 

.19.1 UXa CATllor.IOTKf. 

TOME Cli\gUA.\TK-SIXlfeME. 




PA1J>. 
UDRAIRIE ECCLESLASTipUK 1>'ADIUE.\ Lt CLEHE ET C 

IBTtlltVll SK n. S. r. LK tktT tT BE Sc* L'AHC»IVtQtK, 
qii«i i^ Augmlioi, o* 35. 

1828. 



LA REVUE BRITANNIQUE 

Anglophilia swept through France in the 1 9* century. 
In spite of the language barrier, ideas flew between 
the two countries, thanks to intermediaries like La 
Revue britannique. From 1825 until 1901, La Revue 
britannique offered its readers (senior civil servants, 
members of the political 
circles, the elites, and the 



high bourgeoisie) a selec- 
tion of articles chosen 
from the "best periodicals 
from Great-Britain". All 
the articles were translated 
from English to French, 
and commentaries were 
often added by respected 
French scholars and sci- 
entists to facilitate the un- 
derstanding of these new 
points of view. 



REVUE 



cnOII D'AKTICLES 



DE U r,R\!IIlE.IIilETACKC. 



Paris, 



13 



MAGAZINES: THE "EARLY MASS MEDIA' 



MAGASIN PITTORESQUE, 

A DIX CF.MMMKS I'Atl I.IVIIMSOV 



PREMIERE I.IVRAI80H.— 1843. 




LE MAGASIN PITTORESQUE 

Under the directorship of Edouard Charton tor 55 years 
(1833-1888), Le Magasin pittoresque ^N'AS, a tremendous 
success; within a year, its circulation rose to 100,000 
copies (it ceased publication in 1938). Charton had 
first contemplated becoming a primary school "insti- 
tuteur" - the opportunity to launch a popular periodi- 
cal of quality became lor him another form of teach- 
ing. His commitment to education lor all was reflected 
in the great variety of topics leatured in each issue ol 
Le Magasin. In the first issue of January, 1843 (shown 
here), one could find an article on the recent opening 
ol the Eglise de la Madeleine; a dialogue about lamil\- 
virtues; a travelogue; various historical anecdotes; an 
Irish folk lalc. Most of ihc wootl engravings were tlone 
by Andrew, Best & feloir, the famous Parisian engrav- 
ing workshop. 



LE CAMELEON 

Printed by the celebrated Didot shop, Le Cameleon 
was "compiled" in Paris for the benefit of young British 
people, aiming to bring to them "la langue, les idiomes, 
la haute societe, la litterature et les moeurs fran^ses" 
("the language, idioms, high society, literature and 
French manners" — our translation from the introduc- 
tion to the first issue). In England, it was distributed 
by the agents of The Penny Magazine. Again, variety 
was the key word, to please and entertain young read- 
ers. The first issue (14 June, 1834) leatured an article 
by Alexandre Dumas, and others on coal mines, the 
history of church bells, the discovery of a Roman sculp- 
ture, and a column on the latest Parisian fashions. 



LE CAMELEOM, 

JOLRX.AL \0\ I'OLITKJLIi: 



A. P. BARBIELX, 

t PROmSiri Al' COLLiloB DB rAVT.«W'ji\ A B\ril. I A'.Ui Hot- 



PARIS. 

Jll.i;s DIDOT L.MMi. UOl I.KVAHT D CM'EH. X- 4 ; 

i.oxniU'S. 

IMTRIMr. r\ll > l.owi >. 1)1 Kl. sTBKirr. 

I'Oin H llOOl'UU. i.T I'.VLl. M.\LL-E.\ST ; 

i TROl'VB AI'SSI CIIIZ OROOUBRIDGI. PANVKR .tLLiV. P.\TIR'NUniR ROW 



14 




A CENTURY-LONG PASSION 



Tragedie classique, comedie, comedie larmoyante, vaude- 
ville, operette, melodrame, drame bourgeois, drame roman- 
tique: French theatre goers, especially in Paris, could chose 
from a wide variety of plays, in several genres, staged in the 
36 theatres of the capital. The public got value for its money. 
Often, several plays were performed during one evening; 
for example, a tragedy was followed by a comedy, at the 
Comedie fran9aise, or three or four vaudevilles in a row, for 
the boulevard theatres; such a rhythm triggered the necessity 



for authors to be extremely "productive". Some of the very 
popular authors (most of them quite forgotten today) were 
churning out an extraordinary number of plays: Ptxerecourt 
wrote 100 plays during his career, Labiche 175, Nicolas 
Brazier 200, and so on. Success was lucrative, and it was 
said that writing plays was the most profitable of all literary 
activities. In 1880, electricity replaced gas in the theatres, 
reducing greatly the risk of fire. In Paris alone, more than 20 
theatres burned down during the 1 9* century. 



Above illustration from Le Tlieatre, sepcembre, 1904, Paris. 

-15- 



THE THEATRE: A CENTURY-LONG PASSION 



ABONNCMENT [I VfNIE fueiiCiii _l-,. . : ieONHEMENT : 




,^W5^>|^^ 


r 





MLLEVANDOREN 

Her hirtli name was Fernaiide Petit, her stage name Van couple and tlieir son (tlie tutiire director Jacques Tourneur) 

Doren. She was one of die stars of the Theatre Antoine. hi moved to the United States, where Tourneur's work was 

1904, she married Maurice Tourneur, the Tlieatre's stage much appreciated. Van Doren appeared in several of the 

manager, who became a him director in the 191()s. Ihe carl\- movies directed by her husband. 



- 16- 



THE THEATRE: A CENTURY-LONG PASSION 



\ T&OIS HOIS AO POtrvom, p«r UmsHlne. 
ntrnm:^ l vol. io-18 Jnglais 2 fr. 



BIBLIOTHEQCE DRAiMATIQUE 



Th4A<r« niodrrnc. 



LE 



LION EMPAILLfi 



, j^Vft y Com«dle-Vaad«*IUe en 2 acie>, 

l>AK M. LKON GOZLAN. 



A/^j?' 



Rn irntr. Ich irolf> prrmirr* lOlninF. dp 

JEROME PATUKOT 



.V t A Htl.llF.lll.lie 



DE LA MIIilURE DES REPUBLIOIS 

PA.B rOCIS RETBAUS 

IiI'H lii i:'.ii: :n'.i: 'm!i:^'il.-i d is Ji i:: ':v.\A i !i :i:i!::ii i ill juui iKit:i. 

AOo. leNum^ro 2 fr. le vol. — Un Iffum^io toiu IcJ sAmodi*. 

Le loine IV r( diTnirr sera coRjplct \c 4 .No\rniLre prot-hiiin. 



MICHEL LtVY FnfcUES. LlBRAlHES-eDlTEUIlS 

lis Suttii l'iltiu:n Decii . fiiail ls-18 i]|li!i. it it ttiiln Ji Vilici Bis* 

aois riTiBXMii, 1 

PAHIB. — 1848 



55 



"a 






Ek TMTE : BISTOmE DES ATZUX&S NATIONAUX, |iiir 

Kmilc Tliomos.i vol. iii-lS aiial.»is ^^^'• 

Ml 



LE LION EMPAILLE 

Leon Gozlan had a successful literary career as a novelist, 
journalist and playwright. He is mostly remembered be- 
cause he was, for a time, the private secretary of Honore 
de Balzac, whom he succeeded as president of the Societe 
des gens de lettres. Gozlan's plays, like those of many play- 
wrights, bore the imprint of Michel Levy, a young and en- 
terprising publisher. Levy used the paper cover of the plays 
as a marketing space for other works by various authors he 
was issuing. Note, on the right hand side, the text set verti- 
cally, advertising political speeches by statesmen Lamartine 
and Thiers. No space wasted. . . 



LICIK 

OF. I.ilUSIEIIM(K)K. 



LUCIE DE LAMMERMOOR 

The famous opera by Donizetti, adapted by Alphonse Roy- 
er. With his collaborator G. Vaez, Royer wrote a number of 
plays (comedies and tragedies), 
but the pair became best-known 
for their French adaptations of 
Italian operas. Royer became the 
director of the Opera House in 
Paris. Lucie de Lammermoor was 
one of his most celebrated ad- 
aptations; the libretto was sold 
in an unbound format, to allow 
spectators to follow the plot dur- 
ing the performance. 

SOUFFLEUR ET REGIE 

These two rare items belonged to the staff of the Theatre Li- 
bre (1887-1894), which was revived as the Theatre Antoine 
in 1897. This copy of the play Rolande was used by the 
"souffleur" (the prompter); it bears the stamp of approval 
of the Ministere de I'lnstruction publique et des Beaux- 
Arts, which was in charge of censorship for theatres. The 
copy of Un beau soir was used by the "regisseur" (the stage 
manager). It contains various stage directions, revealing the 
movements of the characters - and on the last page, these 
two words, the timing of the plav: "14 minutes". 









lllH..VM)K 







Uif beau Soir 



17 ■ 




The passion tor autographs grew extraordinarily in the 
19th century. Between 1830 and 1850, more than 95 
public sales devoted solely to autographs took place in 
Paris. This passion led to numerous thefts - often in insuf- 
ficiently supervised repositories, such as libraries. It also 
led, of course, to countless forgeries, the most sensational 
case being that of Vrain-Lucas. Over the course of two 



decades, the "prince of forgers" (as he became known) 
created 27,000 autographs, which were bought by many 
serious collectors and luminaries of the time. When, in 
1870, his scheme was uncovered, Vrain-Lucas was sent 
to prison. And the torged documents mvsteriously disap- 
peared. Gentle reader, please be reassured: the autographs 
and photographs presented here are authentic and real. 



(f^ 



(5<>M^ 



^'f&'L-t a.^ fvi 




[Vu^vU^j^o,^ J' ^ , Kwi 






MONSIEUR J.H. ROSNY, AUX SOINS 

OBLIGEANTS DE MONSIEUR AL. 

LEMERRE, EDITEUR, PASSAGE CHOISEUL" 

Vk'ho thinks twice about keeping envelopes.' For the 
researcher, the\' are an important source of information 
(and a delight for the stamp collector, of course). This 
envelope was addressed by J.K. Huysmans - a naturalist 
novelist - to J.H. Rosny, a pioneer of science fiction, and 
the author of the famous prehistoric novel La Guerre du feu 
{The Quest for Fire). Publishers were often used as "mail- 
boxes" (as is the case here). Tlie letter was sent to Rosny s 
publisher, Alphonse Lemcrrc. whose reputation was such 
that the name of the street where his store was located was 
enough for the letter to reach its recipient. 



18 



AUTOGRAPHS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 




LAMARTINE 



VICTOR HUGO 



"Hommage et souvenir, 1863". AJphonse de Lamartine This portrait of Victor Hugo was drawn by Leon Bonnat 

was one of the key figures of the Romantic movement. in 1 879 and engraved by Paul Rajon. The autograph 

After a meteoric rise as a poet, and later as a diplomat declaration dates from the period when Victor Hugo 

and statesman, Lamartine withdrew from public life had chosen political exile in the Channel Islands (1852- 

in 1848. Until his death, in 1869, he published mostly 1870) because of his opposition to Louis Napoleon's 

historical works, in an attempt to avoid bankruptcy. Second Empire. The text reads: "I will remain in exile, 

This fine portrait of the writer was drawn by Leloir (from since I will not bow down." 
the famous workshop of Andrew, Best et Leloir) and 
engraved by Levy, well-known for his engravings of literary 
celebrities. 



-19 



AUTOGRAPHS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 



^ecc/feJ d^J <^ //i^c/acl^ eJLc/e/ -^ m^^^JeJ ^ 



f6UL 









,».(• -f. 



tfoV 



(Woi- Po 



•CO, SQihittc 

^ Mazcie.' . S'S^C- it 

^. ■Iff A^^V-.-.oc,. %ia::ii<.<!L 

\a c "la/'rlere . 









■ic'ufct 



iMUlit 



ofiitnf' 



rot 



tfot 



trot 



tfot 



iS'et 



zroi€ 



^ aii'/.'?J\ //^jfep!] 



: AViTnrifi 






ff-i 



j'fq. 



iiR 






YHo6%^ 



'UXiMfX. 



toff \ro 
j)jff 

Sol 
J42. 






^ 



Jitto !ir 






61jji 



A LEDGER PAGE 

A very rare item - a page from the ledger of the Tlieatre Jules Renard, Emile Zola, HraiK^ois de Curel and Guy 

Antoine, summarizing the takings from the troup's de Maupassant. The actors performed every day for 21 

tour in Buenos Aires in 1903. Instead of presenting days. The success was enormous. The troup met with the 

the classic Irench repertoire, Antoine chose to intro- same success in Rio de Janeiro and Montevideo, before 

duce modern playwrights to South America, such as returning to France in the tali of 1903. 
Georges Courteline, Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, 



-20- 



AUTOGRAPHS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 



ifi^d^ aZ^..^ 7,; 



7' 



k. 



ni^^xii 



Ci^.ry 



^^ w^id /u^i (/ Uy^{i'cuf^\ 



*> Vl C\ 






i) ci-tia^i^ ^Xi.c^Aif^lU^ I u.i ^ 



c 



•.^ 



^ ^^«^c^ jIl xujl^ J'tviKMA^^.^tJ Mtjf^^\^' 



(f 



Uui 






7 

s 



ZOLA'S LETTER TO CHARLES O'NEILL CONROY 



In June 1890, Charles O'Neill Conroy, the secretary of 
the Powis Square book club in London, wrote to Emile 
Zola on behalf of his club's members, requesting that Zola 
comment on what was viewed in Victorian England as the 
rather scabrous nature of his works. The novelist's reply 
is terse, to say the least: "I have no explanation. I believe 



that my novels speak for themselves." Charles O'Neill 
Conroy would later settle in St. John's, Newfoundland, 
where he became a prominent lawyer and civil servant. 
Like Zola, he was an enthusiastic cyclist: Conroy was 
the founder and first president of the Newfoundland 
Cycling Club. 



21 




A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 



The literary life of Emile Zola (1840-1902) ended as it 
began - in controversy and polemics. Having started 
his writing career as a young journalist, Zola was one ol 
the first art critics to spring to the defense of the young 
Impressionist painters, like Manet and Cezanne, with 
their revolutionary views on art and nature, at a time 
when their works were still being received with scathing 
sarcasm. As a novelist, Zola developed and expounded 
his theory ol "naturalism", the idea that the role of the 
novelist is to portray his society in the most objective and 
realistic fashion possible. For Zola, the role of the novelist 
was analogous to that ot the scientist, who dissects and 
observes, with complete impartiality. As such, his first 
novels, like Therese Racjuin in 1867, had .ui enormous 
impact in their frankness and even their brutality on 
France's ever-increasing reading public, and elicited from 



the conservative critical community violent reactions to 
what they considered "pornographic" literature. 

Undaunted, Zola next began a series ol novels, the saga of 
a French family during the Second Empire, which, by the 
end of the 1870s, had made him France's best-known and 
best-selling author. When, in 1 883, a young critic enquired 
as to how he might contact Zola, the novelist replied: "You 
need only write on the envelope 'Emile Zola, France', and 
it will get to me. " The appearance of each novel in the 
series of twent)- (18^1-1893) became a literar\- "event" tor 
the reading public and rarely failed to rouse the ire of a 
substantial portion of the critical communit)-, insofar as 
Zola laid bare in the pages ot his novels all levels ot French 
society, trom the "haute bourgeoisie" (as he does in La 
Ctiree) to the working classes (tor example in L'Assommoir 



Autographed photograph to Perez Galdos. 
-22- 



EMILE ZOLA: A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 



and Germinal). To these attacks, most of which appeared 
in the pages of Paris' major daily papers, Zola responded 
with enthusiasm and eloquence: as a very young man, he 
had spent two years working in the publicity department 
of the famous Hachette publishing firm, and the lessons 
he learned there had made him a master of what we would 
today call public relations. His message, throughout the 
polemics which characterized the appearance of his novels, 
remained the same: his role as a novelist was neither to 
praise nor to vilify, but rather to expose the truth. And 
this would become his rallying call a quarter of a century 
later, when his conscience impelled him to take a leading 
role in the Dreyfus Affair. 

By the mid- 1880s, Zola had become a household name 
in France, and his novels were being translated and read 
throughout Europe and North and South America. His 
bestselling works included not only novels, but also stage 
adaptations of his novels, and, beginning in 1891, a series 
of operas, for which he wrote the libretti. As such, Zola's 
very public involvement in the Dreyfus Affair caused an 
enormous stir, not only in France, but throughout Europe. 
When, in 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, a young Jewish army 
officer, was convicted of having sold military secrets to 
the German government and was subsequently sentenced 

to life imprisonment on Devil's Island, public opinion 

,.11 L -J f L . -u r u- u L J personality greatly troubled the anti-Drevtus activists, 

was solidly on the side or the army tribunal which had v j b . . 

J A T~\ c us ■ c -A who began their own extremely scurrilous press campaign 

condemned Dreyrus. However, as new pieces or evidence & . . . 

began to come to light, it became increasingly clear to a 




number of politicians, academics and writers who had been 
working in Dreyfus' defense (the newly-baptized "intel- 
lectuals" of the end of the 19th century), that a cover-up 
had taken place and that Alfred Dreyfus, as a Jew living in 
a society where anti-Semitism was endemic, had been a 
convenient scapegoat. 

As time passed, Zola too became convinced that a miscar- 
riage of justice had taken place. As a writer who had spent 
his life battling in the press, it was natural that he should 
turn once again to the newspapers to make his position 
known. At the end of 1897, he began a series of articles. 



against Zola, flooding the right-wing papers and peri- 
odicals with caricatures, and producing violent and often 
scatological pamphlets and broadsheets, in which the old 
accusations of Zola as pornographer were revived. Death 
threats and physical violence followed and, when, in the 
first days of 1898, Zola published his famous "Letter to 
the President of the Republic" ("J'Accuse"), he was found 
guilty of treason and chose to go into exile in England, 
where he would be free to continue his campaign. It was 
not until the autumn of 1 899 that evidence of falsifications 
and lies became so overwhelming that the new President of 
the Republic, Emile Loubet, finally had Dreyfus brought 
back from Devil's Island and declared an amnesty, thus 



whose titles were emblazoned across the front pages of permitting Zola to return to France. However, Zola would 

Paris' largest dailies. In so doing, however, Zola met with not live to see Dreyfus reinstated in the army: the novelist 

the disapproval and even the wrath of a great percentage died on September 29, 1902, according to some scholars 

of the French population, who remained convinced of at the hands of an extreme right-wing anti-Dreyfus orga- 

Dreyflis' guilt. Further, attacks from such a highly-visible nization. 



-23- 



EMILE ZOLA: A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 



Nmndro 188 



PHIZ : 36 CBNTIMSS 



e M*i isaa 



La Caricature 



AltoiincintmiK J ud 40, Pmib ti Mi-anrmn 







m M«r Hm 4m« U t Anrntiom *m 



"PORNOGRAPHIC" LITERATURE - 

"LA GRANDE EPIDEMIE DE PORNOGRAPHIE" 

DE ROBIDA, LA CARICATURE, 6 MAI 1882. 

In May 1882, Zola published the tenth novel in hi.s tani- of' the 1880s, is entitled " Ihe great pornography epidem- 

lly chronicle, a study of adultery in the Paris bourgeoisie, ic", and reflects the hostile opinion of much of the critical 

which he entitled Pot-Bouille. This caricature, by Albert communit)' towards Zola's study of the social causes of in- 

Robida, which appeared in one of the satirical publications fidelit)' in his society. 

-24- 



EMILE ZOLA: A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 



EmileZbIa 



n^^Bife; 



\M/im/M/^-*^m 





IMII.I Zdl.A 

La Taberna 




i.>*^«... 



L'AURORE 



irft, Artlitlque, Soclti 



LETTRE AU PRESIDENT DE LA R^PUBUQUE 

Par EMILE ZOLA 






















TRANSLATIONS 

When it appeared in 1 877, L'Assommoir caused an enor- 
mous scandal. Excoriated as "filthy" and "crude", it none- 
theless became Zola's first best-seller, with over 40,000 
copies sold in the year of its publication, an enormous 
number for the times. These three translations of Zola's 
L'Assommoir ( 1 877) represent only a very few of the extant 
foreign-language versions of the novel. By the time of 
Zola's death in 1902, translations of L'Assommoir existed 
in all the major European languages. 

• Der Totschlager (Herausgegeben von Rita Schober). 
Miinchen, Winkler Verlag, 1975. 

• Nana's Mother. New York, Avon Publishing Co. Inc., 

1950. 

• La Taberna. Edicion de Francisco Caudet. Madrid, 
Ediciones Catedra, 1986. 

"J'ACCUSE" 
(carte postale "J'Accuse") 

In his open letter to the President of the Republic, Zola 
presented an expose of the Dreyfus Affair, explaining how, 
in his opinion, the miscarriage of justice had taken place. 
In a long final enumeration, he named all those whom he 
deemed guilty of participating in the cover-up. These accu- 
sations left him open, as he knew, to prosecution for libel 
under French law. 



25 



EMILE ZOLA: A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 



"A HIGHLY- VISIBLE PERSONALITY" 

These postcards, one from France and one from Germany, 
are examples of the many series of "cartes postales" which 
appeared during the Dreyfus Affair. The cards bore the 
likenesses of the most high-profile figures in the Dreyfus 
Affair, from both the pro-and anti-Dreyfus camps. The 
cards became so popular in fact that several prominent 
artists published special, limited collectors' editions of 
Dreyfus postcards. 




"SCATOLOGICAL PAMPHLETS" 

This broadsheet, published the day after Zola's "J'Accuse ", 
needs little commentary. It was the work of an anti-Drey- 
fusard journalist, Gustave Salavy, who accuses Zola, in his 
scatological diatribe, of being "a German spy, a traitor, a 
coward and a monster ". 




^wAf ,..r 



IMIIF. Zl'I 



La R^ponse 

n IMS Ui iiiicii! 

EmileZQLA 



Mufoufdhui. que h /ugemeM ttnitu par 
h Comttl dt Cuwff en fartur du Commamlmnf 
ISUMAir a fMtt/uHict det occuMtitni port^ 
ccnire eH oUicitr par Ic tfndtcal Ortjffu*. Emih 
iOLA MtlrvprtiKi unr ncutrffe campagitf fwt 44- 
ivic par urte Ictlni au Prttidrirt Je la ll*puklifti» 
tn ftntur dii juH de ffle dv Dmbh. 

£h ^len. 1/ /aul que H. inuh lOLU h aacke 
tmhn h FrwKt. wi a pt»tn h dot dr cHta rcw- 
mntr atfmrt ' 

L autn/r dr C£IHMIH H d» MAM mmpn 
49 mtti/eur parti a Itrtr dr ■«>j p** '• papttrt 4 
At louangf dc Ofvffut que d» tmt nnrr a «t 
MOi/OUern povr /»> ^mr dt fmi/' /<• «f;ar 

Cor. out dirert aryumvntt w. fmmir 4b 
Ifv/trr. tout lr§ rnut palnatrt. r«v« It* A<m« 
Fraa^ait n ont d**ormai» qu t povuvf w* cMmtt 



26 



EMILE ZOLA: A THIRST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE 




"FOUND GUILTY" 

This extremely rare photograph shows Zola at his trial, Fernand Labori, Zola was sentenced to a year in prison 
which began on February 7 and ran until February and a fine ot 3,000 francs. 
23, 1898. In spite of a valiant defense by his lawyer, 



INVITATION TO THE 
"TRANSLATION DES CENDRES" 

In June 1908, Zola's ashes were moved from the family 
crypt in the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris to the 
Pantheon, a national monument honoring the heroes of 
France. The ceremony, which took place in front of a huge 
crowd, was marked by a speech by the President of the 
Republic and a military parade. However, tensions in the 
crowd were still high after the Dreyfus Affair: the occa- 
sion was marred by an attack on Alfred Dreyfus himself 
by a right-wing journalist, Louis Gregori, who Fired 
a pistol at Dreyfus, wounding him in the wrist. This 




LA IRANSLATION DI-.S C:^;^I)KI^ 

DEMII.E ZOLA 

AU I'ANTHION 

JIllX .t Jl IN 1908, A 9 HItltIS 1/1 PHECIHC^ 

invitation was sent to Saint-Georges de Bouhelier, at 
the time an aspiring young writer. 






27- 



SOI RCES AND FURTHER READINGS 



CHARTIER, Rober, MARTIN, Henri-Jean (sous la dir. 
de), Histoire de Vedition fran^aise, tomes 3 et 4, Paris, 
Fayard/Cercle de la Librairie, 1991. 

DOUGHERTY, Patricia, "The Rise and Fall oi L'Ami de 
la Religion et du Roi: History, Purpose, and Readership of 
A French Catholic Newspaper", The Catholic Historical 
Review, January 1991, p. 21-41. 

DURAND, Pascal, GLINOER, Anthony, Naissance de 
I'Editeur. Ledition a I'dge romantique, Paris/Bruxelles, Les 
Impressions nouvelles, 2005. 

LYONS, Martyn, Reading Culture and Writing Practices in 
Nineteenth-Century France, Toronto, University ofToronto 
Press, 2008. 



MOLLIER, Jean-Yves, Histoires de lecture, XIX'-XX' siecles, 
Bernay, Societe d'histoire de la lecture, 2005. 

PORTEBOLS, Yannick, SPEIRS, Dorothy Entre le livre et 
le journal, la revue du XIX' siecle, Lyon, Institut d'histoire 
du livre/Ecole normale superieure, 2010. 

TWYMAN, Michael, L'imprimerie. Histoire et techniques, 
Lyon, Institut d'histoire du livre/Les Amis du Musee de 
Timprimerie, 2007. 

WEBER, Eugen, Peasants into Frenchmen. The 
Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914, Stanford, 
Stanford University Press, 1976. 



LYONS, Martyn, Readers and Society in Nineteenth- 
Century France. Workers, Women, Peasants, Basingstoke, 
Palgrave, 2001. 




MEDAILLON - HONORE DE BALZAC 

The sculptor Pierre-Jean David, known as David d'Angers, realized medallions depicting the 
leading lights of the 19''' century. Ihis plaster model is a copy of the bronze original. 

-28- 






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►^(g> 



r) 



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PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED >XqTH FULL COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHS 
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ILLUSTRATED WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF FULL COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHS 
A splendid historical publication... Highly educational. 



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A insightful publication... A page in Canadian literary history. 



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