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Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 

1980 



THE NINETEENTH AND THEIR TIMES 



I ORDAINED that the rights of the Warrior should 
not be infringed ; that the soldier who had grown 
old in the service should not be deprived of his place 
or his pay ; and that the deeds of the soldier should 
not be concealed. For men who exchange their 
comfort for perishable glory deserve to be com- 
pensated, and are worthy of reward and encourage- 
ment. Institutes of Timour. 



56955 
THE NINETEENTH 

AND THEIR TIMES 



BEING AN ACCOUNT OF THE FOUR CAVALRY 
REGIMENTS IN THE BRITISH ARMY THAT 
HAVE BORNE THE NUMBER NINETEEN AND 
OF THE CAMPAIGNS IN WHICH THEY SERVED 



BY 



COLONEL JOHN BIDDULPH 



56,955 




FROM AN OLD SEAL 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 
1899 



UA 

is 




DEDICATED 

BY PERMISSION TO 

HER ROYAL HIGHNESS 

THE PRINCESS OF WALES 



PREFACE 

T^OUR cavalry regiments in the British Army have 
"* borne the number Nineteen. 

The first was raised in Ireland, in 1759, during the 
Seven Years' War, and was known as Drogheda's Horse. 
In 1763, its number was changed to Eighteen, which 
number it bore till it was disbanded in 1821. The 
history of its achievements has been written by Captain 
H. Malet. 

The second regiment that bore the number was raised 
at a critical period in our history, in 1779. It had but a 
brief and uneventful existence, and was disbanded in 

1783- 

The third regiment was raised as the Twenty-Third 
Light Dragoons in 1781, for service in India, where it was 
immediately sent ; the first British cavalry regiment that 
went to India. On the disbandment of the second regi- 
ment, in 1783, the Twenty-third was re-numbered the 
Nineteenth, and, for fourteen years, it continued to be the 
only British cavalry regiment in India. During the 
twenty-four years of its sojourn in the East it bore a 
conspicuous share in every important military undertaking 
of the time, with the exception of the campaign against 
Holkar when it was too far distant from the scene of 
action to take part. Those twenty-four years, from 
Warren Hastings to Wellesley, mark the turning point 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

of our power in India. When the Nineteenth landed at 
Madras our very existence in Southern India hung in the 
balance. The gallantry of our army was paralysed by 
the feebleness of the administration that directed their 
efforts. When the regiment re-embarked for England, the 
supremacy of our military power had been fully estab- 
lished. Under their distinguished leader, John Flo)/d, the 
Nineteenth played no small part in the campaigns of 
1790, '91, and '92, against Tippoo, attracting to themselves 
an amount of interest in Southern India that no other 
regiment did. They assisted at the capture of Pondi- 
cherry, and the crowning victory of Seringapatam. It 
was their good fortune to serve under the Duke of 
Wellington in the first independent commands he held 
in the field. They took part in the destruction of the 
noted freebooter Dhoondia Wao ; a short but stirring 
campaign that deserves more notice than it generally 
receives. At Assaye, the charge of the Nineteenth and 
the native cavalry brigaded with them restored the fortunes 
of the fight at a critical moment. They played their part 
at Argaum, and, a few months before sailing from India, 
were actors with Gillespie in his remarkable feat at 
Vellore. Soon after the declaration of war by the United 
States against Great Britain, in 1812, they were sent to 
Canada. The conditions of that war afforded little scope 
for cavalry action, so that the share of the Nineteenth in 
the various operations was a subordinate one. The 
campaigns on the Canadian frontier have been so com- 
pletely eclipsed by our struggles against Napoleon in 
Europe, that the arduous nature of the lake and forest 
warfare carried on by a mere handful of British troops 
and Canadian militia is hardly known. A squadron of 



PREFACE ix 

the Nineteenth, under an officer whose whole career was 
identified with the regiment, formed for eighteen months 
part of the small band that upheld the honour of the 
British arms under Sir Gordon Drummond, at Lundy's 
Lane and other actions on the Niagara frontier. In the 
course of the wholesale reductions that took place after 
Waterloo this fine regiment ceased to exist, and its place 
in the Army List knew it no more. 

The fourth regiment, the one that now bears the title 
of the Nineteenth Princess of Wales' Own Hussars, was 
originally raised by the East India Company on the 
outbreak of the Mutiny of the Bengal Army, and received 
its present number on the transfer of its services to the 
Crown. In 1882, they formed part of the expedition to 
Egypt under Lord Wolseley, to put down the rebellion of 
Arabi Pasha. In 1 884, they formed part of the expedition 
to Suakin under Sir Gerald Graham, and fought at El-Teb 
and Tamai, suffering severe losses in the first of the two 
actions. In 1885, they were selected by Lord Wolseley 
to form part of the expedition to Khartoum ; the only 
horsemen that accompanied the force. The Head Quarters 
of the regiment formed part of the Desert Column, under 
Sir Herbert Stewart, and fought at Abu Klea and Abu 
Krou, while a squadron of the regiment accompanied the 
River Column, under General Earle, and were present at 
the action at Kirbekan. A third portion of the regiment 
was at the same time employed at Suakin, where it 
experienced serious losses. For its services in 1885 the 
regiment was granted the distinctive title it now bears ; 
a proof that it is no unworthy successor of the regiment 
that helped to strengthen the foundations of our power in 
India, under Cornwallis, Harris and Wellington, and whose 



x PREFACE 

honourable badges it wears, in addition to those it has 
won for itself. 

The history of a regiment of the British Army is part 
of the history of the Empire at some of its most 
momentous epochs. To understand it properly, requires 
a setting of general history that cannot be dispensed with. 
In compiling these annals I have chiefly aimed at provid- 
ing a work that shall be of interest and use to those who 
have served, or, in the future may serve, in the regiment. 
At the same time there is much which will, I believe, be 
of interest to the student of Indian Military History, and 
will not be unacceptable to the general reader. 

The bones of British soldiers lie scattered far and 
wide. In every portion of the globe, their unmarked 
graves are strewed on mountain and plain, by stream and 
forest, by swamp and desert ; silent witnesses of their 
devotion to their Sovereign and country. But they have 
not died in vain, if the remembrance of their achievements 
survives, to swell the hearts and nerve the arms of their 
successors, and to remind their countrymen what they 
owe to their sufferings and their valour. 

In compiling these Annals I have received assistance 
from many unexpected sources. To Mr W. C. L. Floyd 
I am indebted for much assistance from the papers of his 
grandfather, under whom the I9th Light Dragoons won 
their spurs in the Mysore campaigns ; to Major General 
Gillespie, who has kindly placed at my disposal the only 
authentic portrait of his celebrated grandfather ; and to 
Lieut. General Sir Francis Norman, who collected notes 
of the career of the old iQth Light Dragoons, many years 
ago. My thanks are also due to Mr James Wilson and 
Major Ernest Cruikshank of the Lundy's Lane Historical 



PREFACE xi 

Society, who have done so much to rescue from oblivion 
the details of the war on the Niagara frontier, and to Mr 
Douglas Brymner, the Dominion Government Archivist 
at Ottawa. I am also indebted to Mr S. M. Milne for 
the kindly interest he has taken in my work ; to Lt. 
Colonel Frank Barrow who placed at my disposal the 
letters written by his distinguished brother during the 
Soudan campaigns of 1884 and 1885, to Colonel K. J. 
W. Coghill, C.B., who commanded the regiment at Tel-el- 
Kebir, and to Colonel J. C. Hanford, C.B. (formerly 
Hanford-Flood) who commanded the squadron with the 
River Column, without whose encouragement and aid this 
work would not have been undertaken. I refrain from 
adding more names, but the list of those to whom my 
thanks are due is not exhausted. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 
DROGHEDA'S HORSE 1759-1763 

PAGE 

State of affairs in Europe in 1756 Declaration of War against 
France Increase of the Army Early Years of the War 
Invasion expected Orders for raising the iQth Light 
Dragoons Death of George II. End of the Seven Years' 
War Reduction of Military Establishments iQth Light 
Dragoons become the i8th Uniform of the Regiment . i 

PART II 
THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 

17791783 

War in America Declaration of War by France Increase of 
the Army Orders for raising the I9th Light Dragoons 
Uniform Peace proclaimed Reduction of Military Estab- 
lishments Regiment disbanded 10 

PART III 

THE TWENTY-THIRD, AFTERWARDS THE NINETEENTH 
LIGHT DRAGOONS 

(1781-1822) 

CHAPTER I. 1781-1782 
THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

Alarming state of Public Affairs Want of Cavalry in India- 
Orders for raising the 23rd Light Dragoons Colonel Sir 
John Burgoyne Regiment embark for India Arrive in 
Madras Desperate State of Affairs Madras Misgovern- 
ment Horses for the Regiment 19 

xiii 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER II 

TROUBLES AT MADRAS 1783-1785 

PAGE 

Sultan Tippoo Sahib of Mysore Operations in Southern India 
Death of Sir Eyre Coote Attack on Cudc[alore Peace 
with France Tippoo makes Peace Strained relations 
between civil and military in India The E.I. Company's 
military establishment The King's troops in India Mis- 
conduct of Madras Government Quarrel between Council 
and General Stuart Complaints of Council against 
Burgoyne Arrest of Stuart Council appoint Lang to 
supersede Bourgoyne Burgoyne refuses to give over 
command of the King's troops Strange delusions of the 
Council Imminent Conflict between King's and Company's 
troops Unworkable arrangement Fresh quarrel Bur- 
goyne arrested Mutiny of native cavalry Court Martial 
on Burgoyne His acquittal His death End of the 
quarrel Burgoyne justified 35 



CHAPTER III 
CHANGE OF NUMBER 1786-1789 

Regiment moved to Shevtamodoo John Floyd Number of 
regiment changed to iQth Uniform Sir William Howe 
appointed Colonel Foundation of Indian native cavalry 
system laid by Floyd and the iQth Light Dragoons . . 58 



CHAPTER IV 

WAR WITH TIPPOO 1790 

War with Tippoo igih take the field Advance on Coimbatore 
Division under Floyd detached towards Guzzulhutti Pass 
Frequent skirmishes Satyamunglum Dispersion of the 
Army Advance of Tippoo igth hotly engaged Tippoo's 
Body-Guard destroyed Retreat from Satyamunglum 
Casualties March in pursuit of Tippoo Private Parkes 
The Tapoor Pass Tippoo eludes pursuit, and ravages the 
Carnatic Army returns to Madras 66 



CONTENTS xv 

CHAPTER V 
CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS 1791-1792 

PAGE 

Cornwallis takes command of the Army Advance on Bangalore 
Order of March Floyd's reconnoissance Imprudent 
advance Floyd badly wounded Casualties Capture of 
Bangalore Advance on Seringapatam Battle of Arikera 
Army in great straits Forced to retreat Junction of 
Mahratta contingent I9th sent to Madras Rejoin Corn- 
wallis Advance on Seringapatam Night attack Floyd 
detached to meet Abercromby Seringapatam invested 
Peace made Tippoo's hostages igth return to Shev- 
tamodoo 81 

CHAPTER VI 
FALL OF MYSORE 1793-1799 

France declares War Expedition against Pondicherry Sur- 
render of Pondicherry Peace reigns in India Lunkia 
Naik Floyd's large allowances French adventurers in 
India Tippoo's growing hostility Disarmament of 
Nizam's force under French officers Army formed 
under General Harris Tippoo's intrigues Galloper Guns 
Advance on Mysore Battle of Mallavelly Seringapatam 
invested The Bombay Army The Rajah of Coorg 
Signal guns Seringapatam taken Tardy recognition in 
England of services performed in India Badge of 
" Seringapatam " 99 



CHAPTER VII 
DHOONDIA WAO 1800-1802 

Floyd leaves I9th Dhoondia Wao Force formed under 
Colonel Wellesley to capture him Advance on Ranee 
Bednore Capture of Koondgul, Dummul, Gudduck 
Division of Dhoondia's force destroyed at Manoli 
Dhoondia doubles back Again hemmed in Dhoondia 
crosses Malpurba river Pursuit drawing to a close 
Dhoondia caught at Conaghul Dhoondia killed, and his 
force destroyed igth return to Mysore The Rajah of 
Bullum Regiment ordered to Arcot . , . 114 



xvi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VIII 
INDIA IN 1803 

PAGE 

State of affairs in India in 1803 The Mahratta Confederacy 
The Peishwa Scindia European Adventurers in India 
Scindia's disciplined forces Perron Quarrels among the 
Mahratta Chiefs Peishwa takes refuge in Bombay Places 
himself under protection of the British Scindia's hostility 
aroused Mahratta combination against the British 
Peishwa restored to Poona Preparations for hostilities 
Summary of campaign that followed 125 

CHAPTER IX 

ASSAYE AND ARGAUM 1803-1804 

Capture of Ah mednuggur Battle of Assaye Death of Lieut. 
Colonel Maxwell Honorary Colour granted to iQth 
Battle of Argaum Capture of Gawilghur Berar Rajah 
makes peace Scindia makes peace March against 
banditti Their dispersal Grant of badges for Assaye . 136 

CHAPTER X 
THE VELLORE MUTINY 1805-1807 

Lieut. Colonel Gillespie igih at Arcot Mutiny of Vellore A 
military wonder iQth ordered to England A quarter of a 
century's changes The " Terrors of the East " Farewell 
orders I9th land in England 157 



CHAPTER XI 

WAR WITH UNITED STATES 1808-1813 

1 9th in Ireland United States declare War 1 9th ordered to 
Canada United States' plans Operations of 1812 
Mackinaw Detroit Armistice Battle of Queenston 
Heights General Brock killed Montreal threatened 
Operations of 1813 Proctor's victory at Frenchtown Fort 
Meigs United States' victory on Lake Erie Battle of the 
Thames ; Proctor's defeat York captured Fort George 
and Erie evacuated Stoney Creek : Harvey's brilliant 



CONTENTS xvii 

PAGE 

exploit Fitzgibbon's success at Beaver Dam Arrival of 
squadron of igih on Niagara frontier Engagement on 
Lake Ontario Fort George re-occupied Fort Niagara 
surprised Black Rock and Buffalo captured Abortive 
attack on Sackett's Harbour United States' operations 
against Montreal Battle of Chateaugay Battle of 
Chrystler's Farm Importance of Kingston and Sackett's 
Harbour . . . . . . . . . .172 

CHAPTER XII 
THE NIAGARA FRONTIER 1814-1821 

United States' plans Attempt on Mackinaw La Colle State 
of affairs on Niagara frontier Drummond's raid onOswego- 
Dover Advance of U.S. force Capture of Fort Erie 
Battle of Chippewa Critical position of British force 
Battle of Lundy's Lane Retreat of U.S. forces Fort Erie 
invested Assault on Fort Erie Sergeant Powell Con- 
clusion of operations on Niagara frontier Prevost's abortive 
attack on Plattsburgh Defeat of British squadron on Lake 
Champlain Other operations Bladensberg Capture of 
Washington General Ross killed Victory at Baltimore 
Expedition against New Orleans Its defeat Fort Bowyer 
captured Treaty of Ghent Sir William Payne Sir 
John Vandeleur Badge "Niagara" granted Regiment 
returns to England Equipped as Lancers Embark for 
Ireland Disbanded 193 

PART IV 

THE NINETEENTH "PRINCESS OF WALES' OWN" HUSSARS 

1858-1899 

CHAPTER I 
RAISING OF THE REGIMENT 1858-1882 

The East India Company raises European Cavalry regiments 
Their formation The Bengal 1st European Light Cavalry 
Services transferred to the Crown The "White Mutiny" 
Made igih Light Dragoons, afterwards Hussars 
General Pattle Regiment at Meerut General Hall- 
Regiment ordered to England Badges of old igth Light 
Dragoons granted Regiment ordered to Ireland Guidons 
of old 1 9th Light Dragoons presented to the regiment 
Regiment returns to England Ordered on active service . 220 



xviii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER II 

TROUBLES IN EGYPT 1882-1884 

PAGE 

Troubles in Egypt Arabi's rebellion Capture of Ismailia 
Kassassin Tel el Kebir End of the War iQth at Cairo 
Badges granted Troubles in Eastern Soudan Osman 
Digna Regiment ordered to Suakin Wreck of the Neera 
Battle of El Teb Heavy losses of the igih Battle of 
Tamai Osman Digna's camp burned Regiment returns 
to Cairo Badges granted 233 

CHAPTER III 
CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE 1884-1899 

Troubles in the Western Soudan Expedition to relieve Khar- 
toum 1 9th ordered up the Nile Korti The Desert 
Column Action at Abu Klea Action at Abu Krou 
Quartermaster Lima killed The horses Metemmeh 
Fall of Khartoum Return of the Column The River 
Column Action at Kirbekan Return of the Column 
Summer Quarters Regiment returns to Cairo Squadron 
sent to Suakin Serious losses Returns to Cairo Designa- 
tion granted of "Princess of Wales' Own" Death of 
Colonel Barrow I9th returns to England Badge of 
"Mysore" granted igih embarks for India Bangalore 
Secunderabad 246 



CONTENTS xix 



APPENDIX A. 

PAGE 

Yearly Lists of the Officers of the Nineteenth . . . .271 



APPENDIX B. 

Casualties in the Nineteenth Hussars during the Egyptian 

Campaign of 1882 304 



APPENDIX C. 

Special Honours granted to Nineteenth Hussars for Egyptian 

Campaign of 1882 305 



APPENDIX D. 

Casualties in the Nineteenth Hussars during the Campaign 

near Suakin, 1884 306 



APPENDIX E. 

Special Honours granted to Nineteenth Hussars for Campaign 

near Suakin, 1884 307 



APPENDIX F. 

Addresses to Nineteenth Hussars by Major General G. Graham, 
C.B., V.C., and Brigadier General H. Stewart. Trinkitat, 
5th March 1884 308 



APPENDIX G. 

Casualties in the Nineteenth Hussars during the Soudan 

Campaign of 1885 310 



xx CONTENTS 



APPENDIX H. 

PAGE 

Special Honours granted to Nineteenth Hussars for Soudan 

Campaign, 1885 . 311 



APPENDIX I. 

Address to Nineteenth Hussars by General Lord Wolseley, 

G.C.B. Korti, 23rd March 1885 312 



APPENDIX K. 

Report by Colonel Barrow on the Arab horses ridden by the 

Nineteenth Hussars during the Nile Campaign of 1885 . 313 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



HER ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCESS OF 
WALES Photogravure From a Photograph 
by Miss Alice Hughes 

AN OLD NINETEENTH From an old Seal 

GENERAL SIR JOHN FLOYD, BART. Photo- 
gravure 

MYSORE CAMPAIGNS Map .... 

AN OFFICER IN THE UNIFORM OF THE NINE- 
TEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS, 1792 Coloured 
Plate 

THE MARCH OF THE ARMY IN PURSUIT OF 
DHOONDIA WAO IN JULY, AUGUST, AND 
SEPTEMBER 1800 Map .... 

BATTLE OF ASSAYE Map 

MAJOR GENERAL R. R. GILLESPIE Photo- 
gravure From a Miniature .... 



GUIDONS OF THE NINETEENTH 
DRAGOONS Coloured Plate . 



LIGHT 



Frontispiece 
On Title page 

To face page 5 9 

; , 69 



OFFICERS IN THE UNIFORM OF THE NINE- 
TEENTH LANCERS, 1817 Coloured Plate 

AN OFFICER IN THE UNIFORM OF THE NINE- 
TEENTH HUSSARS, 1882 Coloured Plate 

COLONEL PERCY BARROW From a Photograph, 
Half-tone 



55 55 



99 



55 

5 139 



168 



THE CANADIAN FRONTIER IN 1812 Map . 175 

BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE, 9 P.M., 25TH JULY 

1814 Map 204 



,? 218 

5, 5, 232 



55 55 264 

xzi 



PART I 
THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



DROGHEDA'S HORSE 



1759-1763 

State of affairs in Europe in 1756 Declaration of War against 
France Increase of the Army Early Years of the War 
Invasion expected Orders for raising the iQth Light Dragoons 
Death of George II. End of the Seven Years' War Reduction 
of Military Establishments igih Light Dragoons become the 
1 8th Uniform of the Regiment. 

FROM the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 
(1748), to the outbreak of the Seven Years' War (1756), 
the peace, nominally existing between England and 
France, was continually broken, out of Europe, by both 
parties. In India, under the veil of alliance with opposing 
Native Princes, war was actively prosecuted, and it was 
with difficulty that British interests maintained a pre- 
carious footing in that country. In North America, the 
French claimed the whole continent, except the ill 
defined New England settlements along the coast, and 
denied the right of the English to trade in the interior 
Keeping themselves in the background, they waged a. 
bloody war against the English settlers, by means of the 
Indians, whom they subsidized, and whose disguise they 
often adopted. Both in the East and the West, French 



2 DROGHEDA'S HORSE [1756 

officials were acting with the support and countenance of 
the Court of Versailles, and the English officials on the 
spot were not slow to retaliate when occasion offered. It 
was evident that a crisis could not long be averted, but it 
was advantageous to the French to postpone an open 
rupture as long as possible, while the French navy was 
being strengthened. On the other hand, it was the 
interest of England to hasten the rupture, when war was 
seen to be inevitable, since the objects to be fought for 
were beyond the seas. The English navy was, at that 
time, greatly superior in strength to the French navy, 
while the French military forces were eight or ten times 
as strong as the English army, which had been greatly 
reduced since the conclusion of the late war. As time 
went on, less pains were taken to conceal the warlike 
measures undertaken on either side. In the beginning of 
1755, Braddock's ill-fated expedition was dispatched to 
New England, while a counter-expedition for Canada was 
sent out from Brest and Rochefort, a few weeks later. 
Neither side was acting in good faith : on both sides, 
secret instructions for active hostilities were given to the 
commanders. In June, two French ships, with troops 
on board, were captured by Boscawen off the coast of 
Newfoundland. Exactly a month later, Braddock's force 
was cut to pieces by the French and Indians. Still the 
pretence of peace was preserved. In April 1756, a French 
expedition sailed from Toulon to attack Minorca, which 
for half a century had been a British possession. Byng's 
well-known failure to relieve Minorca ensued, and the 
place fell on 27th June. 

Meanwhile the absurdity of maintaining the semblance 
of peace under such circumstances had become patent to 
the British cabinet, and in May, war was formally declared. 
In August, the coalition of France and Austria, soon to be 
joined by Russia, was declared against Prussia, and Great 



1757] THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR 3 

Britain found herself engaged in hostilities in Germany, 
India and America at the same time. 

The early years of the war were neither fortunate nor 
creditable to Great Britain. After the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, the Army within the three kingdoms had been 
reduced to about eighteen thousand men. In December 
1755, an increase of fifteen thousand men had been voted. 
But armies are not made in a day, and the direction of 
affairs was in incompetent hands. Pitt, who alone com- 
manded the confidence of the country, was regarded with 
disfavour by the King. In November 1756, Pitt was 
recalled to office, and a new spirit was infused into the 
management of affairs. A Militia Bill was introduced, the 
regular Army was increased to forty-five thousand men, 
and steps were taken for enlisting into the service of the 
State the Highland clans who had so recently been in 
arms against the Crown. In April 1757, Pitt was dis- 
missed from office, and all again was confusion. For three 
months England was without a Government ; at the end 
of that time, Pitt was again in office. But the ill effects 
of the political contest at home were reflected in the 
ill-success of our arms abroad, and two years were to 
elapse before the nation felt secure. The year 1757 was 
a gloomy one in England. A French invasion was 
believed to be imminent : an expedition, dispatched in 
May, against Louisbourg in America, failed, owing to the 
feebleness and tardiness of execution on the part of those 
to whom it was entrusted : Fort William Henry was 
taken by Montcalm, and its garrison massacred by the 
Indians. In Europe, an expedition, dispatched in September, 
against Rochefort, failed, through the disagreements of 
the naval and military officers in command. The Duke 
of Cumberland was forced to evacuate Hanover, and sign 
the convention of Kloster-Severn, and many months were 
to elapse before the triumph of Clive at Plassy became 



4 DROGHEDA'S HORSE [i759 

known in England. In 1758, matters improved some- 
what. In July, Louisbourg was taken, but an attack on 
Ticonderago in the same month was defeated, and Lord 
Howe, described by Wolfe as "the noblest Englishman 
that has appeared in my time, and the best soldier in the 
British army," was slain in a skirmish. In Germany, the 
British troops, under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
drove the French out of Hanover, while two successful 
raids were made on the French coast, in which Cherbourg 
and St. Servan were temporarily occupied, and a great 
quantity of warlike stores destroyed or captured. 

Pitt's genius was now beginning to be felt in every 
branch of the service, and, from this time, matters im- 
proved steadily, by land and sea. In May 1759, 
Guadaloupe was captured. In July, Rodney destroyed 
the French boats in Havre prepared for the invasion of 
England, while Hawke blockaded Brest. In August, 
Boscawen defeated a French fleet in the Bay of Lagos. 
In the same month, the French were decisively defeated 
at Minden by an inferior English and Hanoverian force : 
on the 1 3th September, Quebec was taken by Wolfe, who 
fell in the moment of victory, and French interests in 
America received their death blow. To complete the 
year's triumphs, on 2Oth November, Hawke destroyed a 
French fleet under Conflans in Quiberon Bay, in an action 
fought in the midst of a tempest. The nation could 
breathe freely again ; there was no more fear of invasion, 
and England was confident of ultimate success. But Pitt's 
efforts were not relaxed, and many regiments of Cavalry 
and Infantry were added to the Army during the 
year. 

By Royal Warrants, dated respectively I7th March, 
4th August, loth October and I7th November 1759, the 
1 5th, 1 6th, 1 7th, and i8th Light Dragoons were raised for 
service abroad and at home. In December, steps were 



i?6o] LORD LIEUTENANT'S WARRANT 5 

taken to raise the ipth Regiment of Light Dragoons in 
Ireland, and, in the following month, a Notification to that 
effect was issued from Dublin Castle. 



By the Lord Lieutenant General and General 
Governor of Ireland. 



1760. Bedford, 

His Majesty having been pleased to Order a 
Regiment of Light Dragoons to be forthwith 
raised in this Kingdom, under the Command 
of the Earl of Drogheda,* to consist of one 
Lieutenant Colonel Commandant, one Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, one Major, three Captains, 
six Lieutenants, six Cornets, one Chaplain, one 
Surgeon, one Surgeon's Mate, one Adjutant, six 
Quartermasters, eighteen Serjeants, eighteen 
Corporals, twelve Drummers, six Hautboys, 
and six Troops of seventy Men per Troop : and 
His Majesty's Letter being shortly expected for 
placing the said Regiment upon the Military 
Establishment of this Kingdom from the 
seventh day of December last past inclusive, 
to be paid at such times and in such manner 
as other Regiments of Dragoons in this 
Kingdom are paid, the pay of such Commission 
and Staff Officers and the Subsistance of the 
Non Commission Officers to commence from 
the date of their respective Commission, 
Warrants, and Appointments, and the Sub- 
sistance of the private Men, approved by the 
Officer who shall be appointed to review them 
from the Days of their being severally attested 
inclusive. And whereas We have authorized 
and required the said Earl of Drogheda by 
Beat of Drum or otherwise, forthwith to raise 
such number of able bodied Protestants in this 
Kingdom, as shall be willing to enlist them- 

* Charles, 6th Earl of Drogheda, Governor of Meath, and Lieutenant 
Colonel of the ist Irish Horse. 



DROGHEDA'S HORSE [1760 

selves and may be wanting to compleat the 
said Regiment to the Establishment before 
mentioned, in the Execution of which Service 
the said Earl of Drogheda or one of the Field 
Officers of the said Regiment is to make the 
like returns to your Office as are usually made 
upon raising Regiments : We do hereby give 
you Notice thereof and do direct you upon 
Receipt of the Returns aforesaid to allow the 
names of all such Recruits on the Muster Rolls 
of the said Regiment in Order to their being 
entered for Pay, pursuant to His Majesty's 
Letter aforesaid. Given at His Majesty's 
Castle of Dublin the i$th Day of January 
1760. 

By His Grace's Command 

RICHARD RIGBY. 



To the Muster Master General of this Kingdom or 
his Deputy. 



A month later followed the Royal Warrant. 



1760. George R. Right Trusty and Right Entirely 
Beloved Cousin and Councillor. We greet you 
well. Whereas the Commissioners of our 
Treasury have laid before us your Letter of 
the 2Qth of December last transmitting unto 
them the following Establishment of a 
Regiment of Light Dragoons to be raised 
according to a Proposal from Charles Earl of 
Drogheda which had been laid before and 
approved by Us and also an Estimate of the 
Expence of each particular to be provided 
and defrayed by Us for the use of the said 
Regiment which said Establishment for One 
Year commencing from the seventeenth day 
of December last will amount to the sum of 
seventeen thousand four hundred and thirteen 
pounds ten shillings and tenpence according 



1 7 6o] 



ROYAL WARRANT 



to the following particulars thereof that is 
to say 



Per day. 



Per annum. 



For one Lieutenant Colonel 














Commandant . 





7 


O 


127 


15 





One Lieutenant Colonel 





7 





127 


15 





One Major . 


o 


5 


o 


91 


5 


o 


One Chaplain 





6 


8 


121 




4 


One Surgeon 


o 


4 





73 


o 


o 


One Mate . 





2 


6 


45 


12 


6 


One Adjutant 


o 


4 





73 





o 


For One Troop 














Captain 10 sh. and two 














servants at 1/2 each . 





12 


4 


225 


I 


8 


Lieutenant 6 sh. and one 














Servant at 1/2 . 


o 


7 


2 


130 


15 


10 


Cornet 5 sh. and one Servant 














at 1/2 . 


o 


6 


2 


112 


10 


10 


Quarter Master . 





4 





73 


o 


o 


Three Sergeants at 2/8 each 


o 


8 





146 





o 


Three Corporals at i/ioeach 


o 


5 


6 


100 


7 


6 


Two Drummers at 1/8 each . 





3 


4 


60 


16 


8 


One Hautboy at 1/6 . 
Seventy Men at 1/6 each 


o 
5 


i 
5 


6 




27 
1,916 


7 
5 


6 
o 




7 


13 





2,792 


5 


o 


For five Troops more . 


38 


5 







5 





General Total . 




47 

OMMOM 


14 

MMI 


2 ^ 


:i7,4i3 


10 


10 



And We being graciously pleased to approve 
thereof and also of the several Particulars by 
you proposed in your said Letter Our Will and 
Pleasure is and we do hereby direct authorize 
and require that you give the necessary orders 
and Directions for placing the said Regiment 
on the Military Establishment of that our 
Kingdom from the seventh day of December 
last past inclusive for the several allowances of 
Pay in the said Establishment specified as 
aforesaid to be paid at such times and in such 
manner as other Regiments in that Kingdom 
are paid the Pay of each Commissioned and 
Staff Officers and the subsistence of the Non 
Commissioned Officers to commence from the 
date of their respective Commissions Warrants 
and Appointments and the subsistence of the 
private Men approved by the Officer who shall 
be appointed to review them from the days of 
their being severally attested inclusive as also 



DROGHEDA'S HORSE [1760 

for issuing out of our Revenues at Large in that 
Kingdom to the said Charles Earl of Drogheda 
or his Agent the sum of seventeen hundred and 
seventy pounds five shillings clear of all Fees 
and Deductions for four hundred and seventy 
four Cloaks at the rate of one pound twelve 
shillings and sixpence for each Cloak as also 
for issuing out of our said Revenues at large in 
that our Kingdom to the said Charles Earl of 
Drogheda or his Agent the sum Six Thousand 
Seven hundred and Fifty pounds clear of all 
Fees and Deductions for Four hundred and 
Fifty horses at the rate of Fifteen pounds for 
each Horse and likewise for issuing out of our 
said Revenues at large there to the Master and 
Principal Officers of the Ordnance the sum of 
Seven hundred and Sixty Six pounds clear of 
all Fees and Deductions for defraying the 
expense of four hundred and thirty two Fire- 
locks and Bayonets at the rate of one pound 
fifteen shillings for each Firelock and Bayonet 
for the use of the said Regiment and for so 
doing this shall be as well to you as to our 
Lieutenant Deputy or other Chief Governor or 
Governors of that our Kingdom as to all other 
our Officers and Ministers who shall or may be 
concerned herein a Sufficient Warrant and so 
. we bid you very heartily farewell. Given at 
our Court of St. James the I2th day of February 
1760 in the 33rd Year of our reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

HOLLES NEWCASTLE. 
H. B. LEGGE. 
JAMES OSWALD. 

Entered at the Signet office 
the 2 5th February 1760 

GEO. BROWN, Dy. 

To Our Right Trusty and Right Entirely Beloved 
Cousin and Councillor John Duke of Bedford 
Lieutenant General and General Governor of our 
Kingdom of Ireland and to Our Lieutenant 
Deputy or other Chief Governor or Governors of 
that Our Kingdom for the time being. 



1763] CHANGE OF NUMBER 9 

On the 24th March, the Muster Master General was 
again addressed, and instructed that, in consequence of an 
application from the Earl of Drogheda, " the orders relating 
to the Magistrates attesting the men raised to be Protest- 
ants and to making returns of the several places where the 
recruits were enlisted may be dispensed with, proper 
certificates that the men are Protestants having been 
obtained from the Clergymen of the Parishes where such 
men were severally enlisted, and all other requisites in the 
Earl of Rothes' said instructions having been complied 
with." 

On 25th October 1760, George II. died ; in February 
1763, the Peace of Paris was concluded, and the Seven 
Years' War came to an end. During the whole of this 
time, the Regiment, which was generally known as 
"Drogheda's Horse," remained in Ireland; but little or 
nothing can be learned concerning it. Considerable re- 
ductions of establishment were made directly peace was 
assured. The i/th (Aberdour's Horse), which had never 
been able to complete its strength, ceased to exist, and the 
1 8th Light Dragoons became the i/th. The I9th in the 
same way became the i8th, under which number it gained 
much distinction in the West Indies, Holland, the Peninsula, 
and Waterloo, being finally disbanded in 1821. Lord 
Drogheda, who had raised the regiment, continued to be 
its Colonel Commandant till its disbandment, nearly sixty 
two years afterwards, an unbroken term of service with 
one regiment probably unparalleled. 

It is impossible at this date to ascertain what was the 
uniform of the regiment, before its number was changed. 
It certainly wore the red light dragoon coat of the period, 
and the facings were probably white, with red and white 
lace, similar to what it wore after its number was changed, 
until blue was substituted for red in all the Light Dragoon 
regiments. 



PART II 

THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 

17791783 

War in America Declaration of War by France Increase of the 
Army Orders for raising the igih Light Dragoons Uniform 
Peace proclaimed Reduction of Military Establishments 
Regiment disbanded. 

" THE year of which we treat, presented the most 
aweful appearance of public affairs, which this country 
had perhaps beheld for many ages." * The condition 
of affairs in England, in 1779, was truly alarming. Since 
the spring of 1775, Great Britain had been striving to 
subdue her rebellious colonies in America. The war was 
mismanaged, the Ministry was incapable : the successes 
gained were barren of results, while serious disasters had 
been experienced. In March 1778, France, which had 
long been secretly aiding the rebellious colonies, threw 
off the mask, and openly espoused their cause. The 
warlike spirit of the country was roused, and those who 
would have conceded peace on almost any terms to 
American demands, refused to consider it at the inter- 
vention of France. The French forces however effected 
nothing of importance during the year ; towards the end 
of it, the probability of Spain joining the coalition against 
England became known, though the actual declaration 

* Annual Register, 1779. 

10 



i779l ROYAL WARRANT it 

of war was delayed till June 1779. The national spirit 
was now thoroughly roused, but there was great appre- 
hension of invasion. Supplies were freely voted, great 
additions were made to the naval and military establish- 
ments, camps were formed in many places in the south of 
England, the militia were embodied, and militia camps 
formed at Cox Heath, Warley, Portsmouth, Plymouth, 
Chatham, and Aldborough. The most strenuous efforts 
were made to place the defences of the country on an 
efficient footing. 

In April, the following Letter of Service was addressed 
to Major General Russell Manners, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of the 2nd Dragoon Guards. 

Warrant. 

George R. Whereas we have thought fit to 
order a Regiment of Light Dragoons to be 
forthwith formed under your Command which 
is to consist of six troops with four Sergeants 
four Corporals one Trumpeter one Hautboy 
and fifty-four private men and horses in each 
Troop beside the usual number of Commissioned 
Officers : These are to authorize you by beat 
of drum or otherwise to raise so many men in 
any County or part of our Kingdom of Great 
Britain as shall be wanted to complete the said 
. Regiment to the numbers above mentioned. 
And all Magistrates Justices of the Peace 
Constables and other our Civil Officers whom 
it may concern are hereby required to be 
assisting unto you in providing Quarters 
impressing carriages and otherwise as there 
shall be occasion. 

Given this 25th day of April 1779 in the 
1 9th year of our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

C. JENKINSON. 

To Our Trusty and Wellbeloved Russell Manners Esq. 
&c. &c. &c. 



12 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

On the same day, similar Warrants were issued for 
raising the 2Oth and 2ist Light Dragoons. 

In July, a small Corps of Light Dragoons, known as 
Lister's Corps, was raised, and in August, the 22nd Light 
Dragoons was formed. At the same time, all out pensioners 
of Chelsea were inspected to see which of them " were fit 
for garrison or other duty." 

The i Qth Light Dragoons were formed by drafts from 
the ist and 2nd Dragoon Guards, and the 4th and loth 
Dragoons, and encamped at Salisbury; where also were 
the nth Light Dragoons. The I5th, 2Oth, and 2ist 
Light Dragoons were encamped on Lexden Heath near 
Colchester. On the 9th October 1779, the I9th were 
inspected by Lieutenant-General James Johnston, when 
the effective strength was 355 Non-Commissioned Officers 
and Privates, and 347 horses. The Inspecting Officer 
reported that the Officers wore scarlet, with silver button 
holes and green lappels, and " were mostly young genteel 
men with a good air, and great attention, and tolerable 
horsemen." The Non-Commissioned Officers were said to 
be too tall for Light Dragoons, few of them being under 
5 ft. 10 in. 

Further orders for recruiting were issued in February 
1780, and again in February 1781. Regimental clothing 
accounts were formidable things in those days, and two 
years after the Regiment was raised it was found that the 
clothing money of the men drafted to the I9th Light 
Dragoons from other Regiments had been paid, for two 
years, to the wrong person ; so the following warrant, 
directing Major-General Manners to refund, was issued. 

" Warrant to make good a deficiency in the Offreckonings of 
the several Regiments of Dragoon Guards and Dragoons 
within specified from 2$tk April 1779 to ^th July 1781 
out of ye Offreckonings of ye \th 2Qth and 2\st 



i;8i] REGIMENTAL ACCOUNTS 13 

Regiments of Light Dragoons which were formed by 
sundry Non Commissioned Officers and Private Men 
turned over from the said Regiments of Dragoon 
Guards and Dragoons!' 



George R. 

1781. Whereas we were pleased to direct that our 

several Regiments of Dragoon Guards and 
Dragoons should be augmented from the 2$th 
March 1778 and also further augmented from 
25th August following and Whereas on the 
25th April 1779 We were pleased to order three 
Regts. of Light Dragoons to be formed (out 
of a proper number of Non Commissioned 
Officers and Private Men turned over to them 
from the several Regiments of Dragoon Guards 
and Dragoons as specified in the State hereunto 
annexed, and whereas in Consequence of this 
We were pleased to direct that each Troop of 
our said Regiments of Dragoon Guards and 
Dragoons should from the 25th April 1779, be 
reduced so as to consist of Two Sergeants, Two 
Corporals, One Trumpeter, One Plautbois and 
thirty seven Private Men, and no more besides 
the usual Commissioned and other Officers, 
whereby a Deficiency hath arisen in the Assign- 
ment of the Offreckoning of each of our said 
Corps between 25th April 1779 and 5th July 
1781 and We having been most humbly be- 
sought to grant Our Warrants to make good 
the said deficiency It appearing that the several 
Colonels above mentioned did turn over the 
Non Commissioned Officers and Private Men 
(Specified against each of their names in the 
State annexed) fully clothed and appointed 
according to our Regulations, Our Will and 
Pleasure therefore is that out of the Offreckon- 
ings arising on the Establishment of each of 
the new Corps specified in the annexed State 
and directed by our Warrant of the 29th March 
1781, to be retained in your hands, you do pay 
from time to time to the said several Colonels 
or their Assigns the Amount (as the same hath 



i 4 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

or shall become payable according to the 
custom of the Service) of the Offreckonings of 
the Non Commissioned Officers and Private 
Men turned over to the New Corps that have 
accrued from 25th April 1779 to 5th July 
following as also that shall accrue from 6th 
July 1779 to 5th July 1781, in full satisfaction 
of the Claims of the said several Colonels of 
Our said Regiments of Dragoon Guards and 
Dragoons for the deficiency on their respective 
Assignments already passed by them up to 5th 
July 1779 and 5th July 1781, And for so doing 
&c. Given &c. this 2Oth day of June 1781 in 
the 2 ist Year of our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

C. JENKINSON. 



" State of the numbers of Non Commissioned Officers and 
Privates the amount of whose Offreckonings, from 
2$th April 1779 to $th July following, as also from 
6th July 1779 to $th July 1781 are to be paid over 
from the three new Regiments of Light Dragoons" 

4 From Major General Russell Manners' I9th 
Regiment of Light Dragoons as follows 
Viz: 

Serjts. Corpls. Ptes. 

To the i st Regt : of Dragoon Guards Assignees \ Q 

of late Gen. John Mostyn . . ./ 

2nd Dragoon Guards Lord Viscount Town-1 , 

shend's / 84 

4th Dragoons Lieut: Gen: Carpenter's. .6 6 84 

loth Dragoons Assignees of late Sir John \ /- /- /- 

Mordaunt . . . . . ./ _J> 6 &> 

Total to be paid out of Major Gen: Manners' \ /- 

Offreckonings / ** * *_ 



From Salisbury the I9th Light Dragoons were moved 
to Shropshire, and were quartered at Ludlow and 
Bridgenorth during the summer of 1780, with three troops 
at each place. The declaration of war by Holland, in 
January 1781, caused their transfer to Norwich, and, 



1783] FITT FOR ANY SERVICE 15 

during the summer of that year, they were distributed 
between Saxmundham, Bungay, Beccles, Yarmouth, 
Halesworth, and Woodbridge, with a troop at each place. 
In October, the Regiment was inspected at Yarmouth by 
Major-General Tryon, who reported " This Regiment is a 
good corps, and fitt for any Service." Each Dragoon was 
armed with a sword, a pair of pistols, carbine and bayonet. 

In the following spring, the Regiment was at Bury 
St. Edmunds and Sudbury, three troops at each place. 
Soon afterwards they were moved to the neighbourhood 
of London, for employment on revenue duties, and, in 
August, we find the Head quarters of the Regiment with 
three Troops at Epsom ; the other three troops being 
quartered at Croydon, Mitcham, and Horsham. Soon 
afterwards, a Troop was sent to Bromley, and another to 
Ewell, one Troop being withdrawn from Epsom. 

But the Regiment was not destined to see active service. 
In November 1782, the preliminary articles of peace had 
been signed, by which England recognised the independ- 
ence of the United States, and the usual reduction of 
military establishments took place. In June 1783, the 
Regiment was disbanded under the following order 

Orders and Instructions for Disbanding the igth Regiment 
of Light Dragoons. 

1783. Whereas We have thought fit to Order that 
Our iQth Regiment of (Light) Dragoons, under 
your Command be forthwith disbanded, Our 
Will and Pleasure is, that you, or such person 
or persons as you shall appoint for this Service, 
do immediately repair to the respective Quarters 
of the Troops of Our Said Regiment, and dis- 
band them accordingly and that in the disband- 
ing of them the following Rules be observed 
1st. Before such disbanding You are to cause an 
exact Muster to be taken of the several Troops 
of the said Regiment, which You may draw 



16 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS [1783 

together at some convenient place and You are 
to transmit to Our Secretary at War, for Our 
Information, an Account of their Condition and 
Numbers at the time of Disbanding, together 
with an exact List of the Names and Rank of 
the Officers, specifying also if any of them 
holds their Commissions to which Pay is 
annexed. 

2nd. It being Our Intention only to pay off at 
present, and clear the Non Commissioned 
Officers and Private Men of Our Said 
Regiments, (and give an allowance of Half 
Pay to the Commissioned Officers entitled 
thereto, from the time of their Disbanding), 
You are to take care before their Disbanding, 
that the Quarters of each Troop be duly 
satisfied, that the Accounts between the Non 
Commissioned Officers and Private Men hereby 
disbanded, and their Officers, be made up, and 
that they be fully satisfied, and paid their 
Arrears, Grass Money, and all other just pre- 
tentions, to the day of their being disbanded, 
whereof the said Officers, are to take Acquit- 
tances, and Discharges from them respectively, 
distinguishing each head of Payment. 

3rd. That care be taken, that the Arms delivered out 
of Our Stores of Ordnance, and indented for, 
be returned into Our said Stores again, and 
Acquittances taken for the same, from such 
persons as shall be appointed to receive them. 

4th. That care be taken that each Non Commissioned 
Officer and Private Man hereby to be disbanded 
be permitted to carry away with him his Cloak 
and Clothes which he now wears, and that their 
Horses be disposed of according to the regula- 
tion following. 

5th. Where any Dragoon who shall be discharged 
in pursuance hereof, hath served Us, One whole 
year, He shall be entitled to Three Pounds in 
lieu of His Horse, and all the Horses of the 
disbanded Men are to be Sold, and an account 
kept, in order to the disposal of the Surplus 
Money in such Manner as We shall direct. 

6th. That the Dragoons who in pursuance of the 
above Regulation are entitled to 3 as afore- 



1783] THE REGIMENT DISBANDED 17 

said, be paid six days full pay, and those who 
are not so entitled, be paid Eighteen days full 
pay, from the day of Disbanding, exclusive ; 
which We are pleased to give them, as of Our 
Royal Bounty, to carry them to the places of 
their former Residence : You are therefore to 
cause payment thereof to be made to each of 
them respectively and to take Receipts for the 
same from each Non Commissioned Officer, 
and Private Dragoon, And all such Acquit- 
tances, Discharges, and Receipts, are to be 
transmitted to the Agent of the Regiment, to 
be produced to Our Secretary at War, as 
Vouchers for the several Payments herein 
directed, and for which You are to draw Bills 
on the said Agent. 

7th. You are also to send to Our Secretary at War, 
an Authentic List, attested in the best manner 
by Yourself, or Officer performing this Service ; 
of the names of the Non Commissioned Officers 
and Private Men, so disbanded, and to give 
them passes in case they shall desire the same, 
to the places of their former Residence, allowing 
them a convenient time to repair thither, and 
giving them a strict charge that they do not 
presume to travel with Arms, nor more than 
three in Company together, upon pain of the 
severest punishment, And to the end that the 
said Non Commissioned Officers and Private 
Dragoons may be sensible of the care We have 
taken of them upon their dismission, You are 
to cause these Our directions to be read at the 
head of each Troop, for a more ready com- 
pliance with Our Pleasure hereby signified, and 
see the same put into Execution Given at 
Our Court at St. James's, this I2th day of June, 
1783, in the twenty third Year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

R. FITZ PATRICK. 

To Our Trusty and Welbeloved Russell Manners Esq. 
Lt. Gen. Commandant of our igth Regt. of (Light) 
Dragoons or to the Officer Commanding in Chief of 
our said Regt. 



iS THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS [1783 

In a " Report of the Lt. Generals Johnston, Mocher and 
Sloper, relative to the appointments of the ipth, 2Oth and 
2 ist Regts. of Light Dragoons &c.," it is stated that the 
appointments are little better than lumber. The following 
paragraph refers to the iQth Light Dragoons 

" In regard to the seventh regiment, no report having 
been sent us with your letter, and no officer having 
appeared before us to give us any insight into the trans- 
action between the Colonels of that and the I9th Regiment 
of Light Dragoons, we can only say, that as the iQth light 
Regt. was raised at the same time, and has had pretty near 
the same duty, we imagine the same objections will lay 
against the appointments of that regiment, as to the 
others. 

To Lt. Gen. FAWCETT, 
Adjt. Gen. &c." 



PART III 

THE TWENTY-THIRD, AFTERWARDS 
THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 

(1781-1822) 



CHAPTER I. 1781-1782. 

THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

Alarming state of Public Affairs Want of Cavalry in India Orders 
for raising the 23rd Light Dragoons Colonel Sir John Burgoyne 
Regiment embark for India Arrive in Madras Desperate 
State of Affairs Madras Misgovernment Horses for the Regi- 
ment. 

ALARMING as was the state of our affairs in 1779, it was 
much worse in 1781. In January, a rupture occurred with 
Holland, so that Great Britain found herself simultaneously 
at war with France, Spain and Holland, while engaged at 
the same time with her revolted Colonies in America. The 
navy was overtaxed and inadequate to the demands made 
on it, and the command of the sea had passed into the 
hands of our enemies. Gibraltar had been besieged since 
July 1779, the siege continuing till February 1783, the only 
assistance that could be given being in the shape of stores 
and reinforcements at uncertain intervals. In America, 
things had gone from bad to worse. On I9th October 

19 



20 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

1781, Cornwallis was forced to capitulate at Yorktown with 
the whole of his army, a disaster which practically brought 
the war in America to a close, though it lingered on for 
nearly a year and a half longer. In India, affairs were 
nearly as bad. The three most important of the native 
powers at that time were Hyder Ali of Mysore, the 
Mahrattas, and the Nizam of Hyderabad, and matters had 
so turned out that we were at war with them all three. On 
the outbreak of war between England and France, the 
French settlements quickly fell into our hands. Hyder 
Ali was much under French influence, and the fall of the 
French Settlement at Mane", which was detrimental to his 
interests, aroused his resentment. He was an able soldier 
and administrator, and his army was, at that time, the 
best organised among the native powers. Collecting his 
forces, he fell like an avalanche on the Carnatic which he 
desolated. Some troops sent against him, under Colonel 
Baillie, were literally annihilated ; another force, under Sir 
Hector Munro, was obliged to retreat, so that at the end of 
1780, the Company's authority in the South of India ex- 
tended little beyond the precincts of the town of Madras. 
Reinforcements were sent from Bengal under Sir Eyre 
Coote. The results of the campaign of 1781 were, however, 
indecisive, in spite of a victory gained by Sir Eyre Coote, 
at Porto Novo (ist July), and some minor successes. It 
was estimated that one-third of the British forces were lost 
in the campaign. In Western India, the Bombay Govern- 
ment had engaged in hostilities against the Mahrattas, and 
met with disaster. On the coast a powerful French fleet had 
appeared under Suffren, one of the ablest seamen France 
ever produced. The European forces of the East India 
Company were at that time in a miserable state. Public re- 
cruiting in England was forbidden, and the ranks were filled 
with the refuse of society. Felons with fetters on them were 
shipped as soldiers ; foreigners and adventurers of all ranks 



i;8i] WANT OF CAVALRY IN INDIA 21 

were received ; many of whom only wanted a passage to 
India, in order that they might desert, as soon as possible, 
after they landed in the country ; invalids, vagrants, and 
men under the proper size for military service. The whole 
were " in a most wretched condition, almost indeed without 
subordination." The only reliable European troops in the 
country were the King's troops, and the Company's 
Artillery into which the best of their recruits were drafted. 
Lord Cornwallis, writing six years later of some troops he 
had recently inspected, says : 

" What shall I say of the Company's Europeans ? I did 
not think Britain could have furnished such a set of 
wretched objects I would infinitely rather take the /3rd 
regiment upon service with me, than the whole six 
Company's battalions Indeed I have great doubts whether 
by drafting the whole six, I could complete one serviceable 
battalion to the present establishment." 

It is only by appreciating the condition and circum- 
stances of our military services in India at this time, and 
the jealousy existing in the highest quarters in England 
of the exercise of the authority of a Government by the 
East India Company, that the almost independent position 
held by the King's troops in India can be understood. 
The chief want was in Cavalry, and it is a proof of the 
ill-judged parsimony or poverty of the Company that, 
in a country so well adapted for that arm, where 
the cavalry of the enemy were counted by tens of 
thousands, they should have failed, till the time treated 
of, to produce an efficient mounted Corps. M. le Maitre 
de la Tour, a French officer in the service of Hyder AH, 
writing about the events then occurring, says : 

"... The English have never yet succeeded in the 
attempt to form a good troop of European horse in India. 
As they have sent a regiment of dragoons * from England, 

* The 2$rd Light Dragoons. 



22 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

it is probable that their arrival may place the affair on 
another footing. Though it may not immediately be 
conceived, the reason of the want of success in forming 
their intended troop of horse, consisted in the good 
discipline to which they were desirous of subjecting them. 

" The excellence of the English cavalry is sufficiently 
acknowledged in Europe : and its advantages consist less in 
the goodness of the horse, than in the choice of the horse- 
men. The pay of a horseman in England is such as renders 
his situation very eligible ; so that the sons of rich farmers 
and tradesmen are very desirous of entering into the 
service. This being the case, it is in the power of the 
officers to select handsome well-formed men of good 
character, and to keep them in good discipline merely by 
the fear of being dismissed. The officers who were first 
entrusted with the formation of a body of cavalry in India, 
thought to establish and preserve the same discipline 
among them, without attending to the great difference of 
time, place, and persons. The recruits sent from England 
to India are in general libertines, and people of bad 
character : and, as the Company will not dismiss a soldier, 
all the punishment inflicted on a horseman is, to reduce 
him to serve in the infantry ; so that a man is no sooner 
put among the cavalry, than he is sent back to his former 
station. The French have succeeded in forming very good 
cavalry in India, by attending more to their horsemanship, 
and less to their discipline and manners." 

Hyder Ali's cavalry numbered at that time about 
twenty-five thousand horsemen, among which was a body 
of French dragoons and hussars. The Company maintained 
no Cavalry establishment, beyond a small European troop 
formed, as related by M. le Maitre de la Tour. When at 
war, they borrowed a few hundreds of horsemen from 
the Nawab of Arcot, unpaid, undrilled, and undisciplined. 

Sir Eyre Coote, the Commander-in-chief in India, was 
loud in his demands for Cavalry. In his dispatch on his 
victory at Porto Novo he wrote : 

" From the want of a corps of cavalry on our side equal 
in number to the service required, we were, with victory 
decidedly declared, obliged to halt just beyond the enemy's 



i78i] ROYAL WARRANT 23 

grounds, not being able to take advantage of so distinguished 
a day ; for with a corps of cavalry, the enemy's guns, stores, 
&c., would, to a certainty have fallen into our hands." 

Again, after the battle of Arnee, (2nd June 1782) he 
wrote : 

" There was nothing wanting to have enabled me on 
this occasion to ruin and disperse Hyder's army, but a 
respectable body of cavalry. One thing is certain, that 
had I such a corps we should have captured the greatest 
part, if not the whole of his cannon." 

Under the urgent demands made on them, the Court 
of Directors applied to the Crown for the loan of a Cavalry 
Regiment, and, in accordance with the usual practice at 
that date, it was determined to raise a Regiment for 
service in India. On the 24th Sept. 1781, the following 
Warrant was issued to Colonel Sir John Burgoyne Bart., 
of the 1 4th Light Dragoons, a cousin of General Burgoyne 
who surrendered at Saratoga in 1777. 



Warrant for forming a Regiment of (Light) Dragoons under 
the Command of Colonel Sir John Burgoyne Bart. 

1781. George R. 

Whereas We have thought fit to Order a 
Regiment of Light Dragoons to be forthwith 
formed under your Command which is to 
consist of Six Troops with Four Serjeants, 
Four Corporals, One Trumpeter, One Hautboy, 
and Fifty four Private Men in each Troop, 
beside the usual Number of Commissioned 
Officers ; These are to Authorize you by beat 
of Drum or otherwise to raise so many men in 
any County or part of Our Kingdom of Great 
Britain, as shall be wanted to complete the said 
Regiment, to the Numbers above mentioned. 
And all Magistrates, &c., Given &c. this 24th 



24 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

day of September 1781, in the Twenty first 
Year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

C. JENKINSON. 

To Our Trusty and Well-beloved Sir John Burgoyne 
Bart. Colonel of Our 23rd Regiment of (Light) 
Dragoons, or to the Officer appointed by Him to 
raise Men, for Our said Regiment. 

In the London Gazette, for the same date, the following 
appointments are made. 

2^rd Light Dragoons. 

Colonel Sir John Burgoyne, Bart, of I4th Dragoons 

is appointed to be Colonel. 
Major John Floyd of 2ist Dragoons to be 

Lieutenant Colonel. 
Captain Thomas Nash of i6th Dragoons to be 

Major. 

To be Captains of Troops. 

Captain Jonathan Thomas of I5th Dragoons. 
Captain Lieutenant Lewis Majendie of I5th 

Dragoons. 
Captain Lieutenant John Campbell of 2Oth 

Dragoons. 
Lieutenant John Beckwith of I5th Dragoons to 

be Captain Lieutenant 

To be Lieutenants. 

Lieutenant William Gilbert Child of 2ist 

Dragoons. 

Lieutenant William Walton of 2ist Dragoons. 
Cornet John Fullerton of 2ist Dragoons. 
Cornet Guy Henry Crawford of 2ist Dragoons. 
Cornet T. J. Venables Hinde of i6th Dragoons. 

The roll of officers was completed in subsequent 
Gazettes, but several changes took place before the 
embarkation of the Regiment. 

Colonel Sir John Burgoyne, Bart, of Sutton Park in 
Bedfordshire, was an officer who had served in several 



1781] FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT 25 

Regiments, the 7th Royal Fusiliers, the 52nd Foot, the 
58th Foot, and was Lieutenant Colonel of the I4th Light 
Dragoons at the time of his appointment as Colonel of the 
23rd Light Dragoons. He also held the offices of 
Comptroller of the Port of Chester, and Muster Master of 
foreign troops serving in North America. On being 
appointed to serve in India, he was granted local rank as 
Major General in the East Indies from ist June 1781, and 
was subsequently made Major General in the Army, 2Oth 
November 1782.* It is probable that the regiment was 
largely composed of drafts from the regiments that 
furnished it with officers, viz.: the 8th, I4th, I5th, i6th, 
2Oth, and 2ist Light Dragoons. The Regiment was first 
brought together in the vicinity of his home, and, under 
order dated 28th December, marched from Bedford to 
Portsmouth to embark for India. The following orders 
and instructions had previously been issued, and subsequent 
events were to show how much the admonition as to 
disputes with the officers of the East India Company were 
needed. 

Orders and Instructions to Sir John Burgoyne Colonel of the 
2i>rd Regiment of (Light) Dragoons for the Conduct of 
his Regiment on their passage to the East Indies dated 
2gth November 1781. 

George R. 

You will before embarking call together 
the Officers of the Regiment under Your 
Command, and recommend to them in a 
particular manner the avoiding all manner of 
disputes with the Officers of the East India 
Company, and that they use their utmost 
Endeavours to live with them in the greatest 
harmony, as the contrary behaviour will be 

* The commissions of Sir Hector Munro, General Stuart, and Sir John 
Burgoyne were afterwards antedated to 9th May 1777, to ensure the 
succession of one of them to the command of the troops in India next to 
Sir Eyre Coote. 



26 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1781 

very displeasing unto Us, as well as detrimental 
to the Service they are jointly to be employed 
in ; the respective Officers of Companies are to 
recommend the same to the Non Commissioned 
Officers and Soldiers under their Command ; 
The Officers of the East India Company having 
the same orders, as to their behaviour to Our 
Land Forces. 

You will give the strictest orders for keeping 
up good discipline and regularity both whilst 
the Troops are on board the East India 
Companie's Ships, and on Shore, and if any 
Commissioned, Non Commissioned Officer or 
Soldier shall be guilty of any Crime or disorder 
whilst on board the said Ships, he shall be 
immediately confined, and you will order 
Courts Martial to be held and the delinquent 
to be punished there. 

The Officers of our said Forces on board the 
said Ships, shall give the necessary orders for 
the Men under their Command, consulting with 
the Commanders of the said Ships, in every 
thing relating to their Service on board, 
dividing the Men into Watches, with a pro- 
portionable Number of Commissioned and Non 
Commissioned Officers. 

The necessary Orders shall likewise be given 
for airing the bedding daily, for keeping the 
births (sic) clean and sweet, for preventing 
gaming, and selling Drams or spirituous liquors 
and putting out the Lights between Decks 
with all which Commissioned Officers shall be 
chargeable. 

No Officers or Soldiers shall go on Shore out 
of any of the said Ships, without the Consent 
of the Captain of the Ship as well as ye Com- 
manding Officer of the Land Forces, and 
whenever any men are allowed to go on Shore, 
Commissioned or Non Commissioned Officers 
are to be sent with them, who are to be 
answerable for their Conduct whilst on Shore, 
and are to make a report thereof upon their 
return on board. 

Weekly returns of the Officers and Men of 
Our said Forces, on board each Ship, shall be 



1782] ORDERS AND INSTRUCTIONS 27 

constantly made out, and sent to You, as often 
as opportunity offers, and Monthly returns of 
Our said Forces under your Command shall be 
transmitted by You for Us, to Our Secretary at 
War, as also a Report of every thing that 
happens when you have an opportunity of 
sending them. 

You will transmit with as much expedition 
as the opportunity of time, distance and place 
can admit, the original proceedings and 
Sentences of every General Court Martial, to 
the Commander in Chief in the East Indies 
who is to send the same to the Judge Advocate 
General in London. 

In every thing you will consider the honour 
of Our Forces, the good of Our Service, and 
the Interest of the East India Company whose 
Territories and Commerce You are sent to 
protect and establish, You will therefore chear- 
fully (sic) concur in all things which the 
principal Officers of the East India Company 
shall judge conducive thereto, and for that 
purpose you will use your utmost endeavours 
to preserve a good harmony and understanding 
betwixt Our Land Forces and those of the 
East India Company. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's this 2Qth 
day of November 1781, in the Twenty first 
Year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

BARRINGTON. 

In a letter, dated London 2 5th January 1782, from the 
East India Directors to the President and Council at Fort 
St. George, the Madras authorities were thus advised of the 
dispatch of the Regiment to India 

" His Majesty having been graciously pleased to order 
a Regiment of Light Dragoons, dismounted, and two 
Regiments of Foot"* to proceed to the East Indies for the 
protection and defence of the Company's possessions, we 
hereby inform you that they embark on board the ships 

* loist and iO2nd. 



28 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1782 

now under dispatch for India. Instructions have been 
given by our Chairman and Depy. Chairman to provide 
horses to be in readiness for the Dragoons, in order to 
render them fit for immediate service upon their arrival : 
and we rely upon these instructions having been duly 
complied with. The strength of the Regiments and Lists 
of the Officers are as follows 

Establishment of a Regiment of Light Dragoons commanded 
by Colonel Sir John Burgoyne, Bart. 

i Colonel and Captain. 
I Lt. -Colonel and Captain. 
I Major and Captain. 
3 Captains more. 
6 Lieutenants. 
6 Cornets. 
6 Quarter Masters. 
I Chaplain. 
I Adjutant. 
I Surgeon. 
i Surgeon's Mate. 
24 Serjeants. 
24 Corporals. 
6 Trumpeters. 
6 Hautbois. 
324 Private men. 

412 

List of the Officers of the Twenty Third Regiment of 
Light Dragoons. 

Regiment. Army. r Maj.-Gen. 

*4Se g p,. I7 8,. ,9 Aug/ 77 . 

Lt. Colonel John Floyd do. 

Major Thomas Nash do. 

f Jonathan Thomas do. 28 June 1779. 

Captains \ John Beckwith 27th. 

[Thomas Crewe Dodd 28th. 
Capt. -Lieut. John Petley 29th. 

(Wm. Gilbert Child 24th. 26 Feb. 1780. 

William Walton 25th. 23 March '81. 

Licutenants\ Guy Henry Crawford 27th. 

I T.S.VenablesHinde28th. 

9 Oct. '78. 





V William Sage 


3rd Dec. c 




(George Williams 


24th Sept. 


Cornets 


John Campbell 
Thomas Eyre 
John Horsefall 


25th do. 
26th 
27th 




John Jaffrey 


28th 




Robert Anstey 


29th 


Adjutant 


Robert Hilton 


24th Sept. '8 1 


Surgeon 


John M'Cullock 


24th Sept. '8 1. 



1782] EMBARKATION FOR INDIA 29 

On the 5th January 1782, the Regiment embarked at 
Portsmouth, on board the ships Ceres and Royal Henry 
forming part of the East India fleet sailing under convoy of 
Vice Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton. In the same fleet 
sailed the two newly raised Infantry Regiments, a 
Hanoverian regiment raised to serve the East India 
Company for seven years, drafts for four King's regiments 
then serving in India, and some recruits, raised in Ireland 
for the Company's service. Lieutenant Colonel Floyd, 
with the greater part of the Regiment, was on board the 
Ceres. Sir John Burgoyne, with the rest of the Regiment, 
sailed in the Royal Henry. Floyd was in command of the 
Regiment : Sir John Burgoyne being apparently in 
command of the whole of the Troops. The voyage was an 
uneventful one, though not without some apprehension of 
meeting a French fleet. It was known that a French fleet 
was fitting out in Brest, under the Comte de Guiche, to 
intercept them. On the 27th February, intelligence was 
received of a combined French and Spanish fleet of 41 sail of 
the line and 18 frigates, that was cruising to intercept the 
convoy. The frigate that brought the intelligence had also 
passed close to a French squadron of 14 sail, that had only 
just missed the convoy : probably the squadron from Brest. 
But no enemy was seen, and on 28th April, the fleet was 
safely anchored in Rio, where it lay till 3rd June. In those 
days it was the custom to carry beer for troops at sea, as a 
protection against scurvy. The log of the Ceres records 
that on 3rd March the beer had come to an end, and 
spirits were served to the troops. On the 1 5th March, the 
log records that there was "delivered to Lieut. Colonel 
Floyd, Commanding Officer of the troops on board, i Chest 
of Tea belonging to the Honble Company, for the use 
of the military." Later on again the issue of spruce beer 
to the troops is recorded. It is evident that much atten- 
tion, according to the medical lights of that day, was paid 



3 o THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1782 

to the health of the troops, with a view to landing them in 
India in as healthy a condition as possible. On the 3ist 
March, they crossed the line with all the ceremonies 
observed on those occasions, now long since obsolete. The 
log records that at P.M. the Captain " mustered the ship's 
Company to know who had crossed the Line before, when 
we found 81 who had not, who all agreed to pay the usual 
forfeit except one Seaman and two Boys who were 
accordingly ducked three times from ye Lee Main Yard 
Arm." We may be sure that all on board relieved the 
monotony of the voyage by taking part in the rough 
festivities of the day. Lt. Colonel Floyd says in a private 
letter, " Our dragoons are divided into two watches, and 
relieve each other every four hours, so the half of them are 
always on deck, chiefly for the sake of their health, and to 
assist the seamen in the operations of the ship, at which 
they now begin to be very handy." On the i5th July, 
when nearing the Cape, a Danish ship "fresh from the 
Cape" was spoken, and gave news that, on the I3th, 4 
French sail of the line and 9 transports were to have sailed 
for the Mauritius : also, that on 26th June, a French frigate 
and 12 transports with troops had sailed from the Cape. 
But nothing more eventful occurred, and on 6th Sept., the 
whole fleet anchored in Bombay. There the convoy was 
broken up, and, on I5th, the Ceres and Royal Henry sailed 
for Madras, where they cast anchor on igth and 2Oth 
October. Hardly had they done so, when bad weather set 
in ; the ships were blown from their anchorage, and, it was 
not till 26th and 27th October, that the Regiment disem- 
barked ; the first British Cavalry Regiment to land in 
India. Three deaths occurred among the men during the 
voyage, Private Jonas Bateman on 23rd April, Private 
Joseph Gardner on 4th June, and Private Simon Kemp on 
23rd September. 

The reinforcements were sorely needed. So badly had 



1782] STATE OF AFFAIRS IN INDIA 31 

the East India Company's affairs prospered that, in 
October, there appeared a probability of the whole of the 
British establishments in southern India being destroyed. 
Every where was discord, and disaster. The relations of 
the Madras Council, both with the naval and military 
commanders, were greatly strained. Sir Eyre Coote had 
been obliged to return to Bengal for a time on account of 
his health, and Sir Hector Munro, Commander-in-Chief in 
Madras, had resigned his command, while the pay of the 
Native Army was many months in arrears. So great had 
been the losses among the European officers, that, in spite 
of the stringent orders of the Court of Directors, the Madras 
Government had granted Commissions to anybody they 
could lay their hands on. Four naval actions had taken 
place off the coast during the year, between the French 
fleet under Suffren and the English fleet under Hughes, 
without any decisive result, though the balance of 
advantage was with the French. Trincomalee had been 
captured by the French, and the shattered English ships 
had no place nearer than Bombay where they could refit. 
By land, operations had been equally unsuccessful. In 
February, a British detachment consisting of about 100 
Europeans, 1500 sepoys, 360 Cavalry, and 9 field pieces 
under Colonel Brathwaite, was forced to surrender to a 
combined Mysore and French force, and, in April, 
Cuddalore yielded to the same enemy. The operations of 
Sir Eyre Coote, who was at that time Commander in Chief 
in India had not been successful. In an attempt on 
Arnee he was outmanoeuvred by Hyder, several small 
reverses were experienced, and, finally, he had fallen so 
seriously ill that he was forced to resign his command, and 
sail for Bengal. Negapatam was attacked by Suffren and 
Hyder in July, and was only saved by the timely appear- 
ance of the British fleet. To make matters worse, famine 
was raging in Madras. The country had been abandoned 



3 2 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1782 

to the undisturbed possession of the enemy ; great numbers 
of natives had flocked into the town for protection from 
Hyder's Cavalry, and the ill success of our arms, together 
with scarcity of funds and bad management, prevented the 
collection of adequate supplies. " Hundreds perished 
daily."* 

In the beginning of October, there were only 30,000 bags 
of rice in the place, the monthly consumption being 50,000. 
A large quantity of rice was afloat in the roads but could 
not be landed, owing to all the harbour boats being taken 
up for the service of the fleet, t On I5th October, a terrible 
storm arose : the fleet was blown off the coast, the flag 
ship being so much damaged that she was kept afloat 
with difficulty ; several merchant ships were stranded or 
foundered at their anchors, and all the rice afloat was lost. 
" The shore for several miles was covered with wrecks and 
with the bodies of the dead and dying." J Before the 
storm, the Admiral had declared his intention of carrying 
his ships round to Bombay, and had positively refused to 
stop on the coast, though the absence of the fleet imperilled 
the safety of Madras. Some relief had been gained by the 
establishment of peace with the Mahrattas, in May (treaty 
of Salbye), though the final ratifications were not exchanged 
till February 1783 : so that even in this quarter peace was 
not definitely secured. 

It was under these depressing circumstances that the 
23rd Light Dragoons landed in India, not to leave it 
again until the British arms were triumphant every- 
where ; a result to which the Regiment contributed in 
no small degree. Their arrival gave promise that future 



* Madras Govt. Dispatch to Court of Directors 3ist Oct. 1782. 

t This was the reason given by the Madras Council. According to another 
account, the rice was not landed, because the Governor, Lord Macartney, had 
laid an embargo on it, and would neither give an adequate price for it, nor 
suffer it to be landed for sale to the people. 

+ Anmial Register. 



1782] LANDING IN INDIA 33 

successes in the field should not be so barren in results 
as had frequently been the case in the past. In their 
dispatch of 3ist October 1782, the Madras Government, 
showing their satisfaction at the arrival of the 23rd Light 
Dragoons, quote Sir Eyre Coote's opinion that "a body 
of cavalry would have procured him the most solid 
and decisive advantages over the enemy" in the earlier 
operations. 

The regiment landed with a strength of 360 privates 
fit for duty, and, by all accounts, appears to have been 
a splendid lot of men. Madras letters described the 
troops landed as "remarkably healthy, and as fine a 
body of men as ever came to India . . . particularly 
Burgoyne's men, who, when mounted, will be as fine a 
body of men as ever went into the field." A con- 
temporary writer mentions them as "this sightly corps," 
and Burgoyne himself, in the midst of his troubles two 
years later, writes, " the men are now the finest you can 
imagine." Immediately after landing, firelocks were 
served out to the men, and a party of them were exer- 
cised in heavy gun drill. In the course of the general 
mismanagement that distinguished the Madras administra- 
tion at that day, the regiment was first quartered in Fort 
St. George, in what has been described as " a suffocating 
bombproof, from which three or four hundred French 
prisoners, afflicted with various pestilential diseases had been 
recently removed. The consequences were such as might 
have been expected. A fatal mortality so much prevailed 
that no less than two or three of the men were daily 
sent to their graves." In consequence of the scarcity of 
provisions, biscuit was issued to all the European troops 
instead of rice. After a time, the regiment was moved 
to San Thome, four or five miles from Madras. The 
four hundred horses ordered to be in readiness for the 
regiment, were not forthcoming, the few horses available 

c 



34 THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS [1782 

in Madras not being large enough to carry European 
dragoons. An application for horses had been made 
to Bengal, but received a discouraging reply. An allow- 
ance of Rs. 600 per horse was therefore made to Sir John 
Burgoyne, to do his best with in mounting the regiment. 
The Bengal government were ready to send horses but 
could not find means of transport. In the Calcutta 
Gazette for 2ist December an advertisement appears, 
asking owners and freighters of ships to quote rates, and 
state what number of horses they would convey to Madras 
for government. A week later, the Gazette mentions 
that " Lt. Colonel Eyre's regiment of (native) cavalry is 
arrived at Cowgatchy from Monghyr. It is reported that 
this regiment is to be dismounted, and the horses sent to 
Madras for the European cavalry lately arrived there." But 
freight for the horses was not obtained. Bengal had been 
denuded of troops, and it was impossible to send the 
horses by land without a strong escort. It was not till 
June following that four hundred horses arrived from 
Bengal, by land, and the regiment was at last com- 
plete. 




1783] SULTAN TIPPOO SAHIB 35 



CHAPTER II 

TROUBLES AT MADRAS 

17831785 

Sultan Tippoo Sahib of Mysore Operations in Southern India Death 
of Sir Eyre Coote Attack on Cuddalore Peace with France 
Tippoo makes Peace Strained relations between civil and 
military in India The E. I. Company's military establishment 
The King's troops in India Misconduct of Madras Government 
Quarrel between Council and General Stuart Complaints of 
Council against Burgoyne Arrest of Stuart Council appoint 
Lang to supersede Burgoyne Burgoyne refuses to give over 
command of the King's troops Strange delusions of the 
Council Imminent Conflict between King's and Company's 
troops Unworkable arrangement Fresh quarrel Burgoyne 
arrested Mutiny of native cavalry Court Martial on Burgoyne 
His acquittal His death End of the quarrel Burgoyne 
justified. 

IN little more than a month after the Regiment landed, 
the death of Hyder Ali occurred. It brought no relief to 
British interests. His son and successor, Tippoo, was an 
experienced soldier, though inferior to Hyder in ability. 
He was noted for his religious fanaticism and a violent 
temper, joined to a most barbarous cruelty of disposition. 
To this was added a spirit of implacable hostility to the 
English, the only European power in the country that 
appeared formidable to him. Possessed of a full treasury 
and a powerful army, he at once took the field with a force 
that contained 900 European troops, 250 Topasses,* and 
2000 French sepoys, besides many thousands of his own 
Mysore troops. To oppose him, the Madras Govern- 
ment could dispose only of some 2950 European, and 
11,500 native troops. With this force, Major General 

* Portuguese half castes and native Christians. 



36 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

Stuart took the field in January, and made his way by 
slow marches to Vellore. Meanwhile, Tippoo was forced 
to withdraw to the westward to defend Mysore from an 
attack on that side. On the arrival at Bombay of rein- 
forcements in Sir Richard Bickerton's convoy, about 500 of 
the Company's recruits, destined for Madras, were detained, 
and, on the arrival of the King's troops at Madras, about 
400 of them were at once sent back to Bombay. Out of 
this material a force had been organized, under Major 
General Matthews, to advance against Mysore from the 
west coast. After the capture of several places, the force 
was hemmed in at Bednore, and obliged to surrender to 
Tippoo, on 3Oth April 1783. A great loss was experienced 
at this time in the death of Sir Eyre Coote at Madras, on 
27th April, three days after his return to resume command 
of the operations. After this nothing was done till June> 
when an ineffective attack was made on Cuddalore by 
Major General Stuart. The French were on the point of 
striking a counter blow which would probably have 
proved successful, when the announcement of peace in 
Europe changed the complexion of affairs. The French 
force with Tippoo was withdrawn, but otherwise the war 
continued. At this point the Mahrattas intervened. 
Tippoo's character and his great power rendered him a 
menace to the other native Princes, and it was no part of 
the Mahratta policy that he should be allowed to crush the 
English. They therefore called on him to desist from 
hostilities. On his refusing to comply, they signed a treaty 
of alliance against him with the English. In the mean- 
time, a successful expedition under Colonel Fullarton, 
strengthened by the troops set free by the peace with France, 
had penetrated into Mysore, from the south, and threatened 
Seringapatam. Under these circumstances, Lord 
Macartney and the Madras Council induced Tippoo to 
sign a treaty of peace, nth March 1784; a treaty dis- 



1783] OPENING QUARRELS 37 

creditable to themselves, and disapproved of by Warren 
Hastings. 

In a letter, dated 6th September 1783, addressed to 
the Court of Directors, the Select Committee of the Madras 
Council states that Sir John Burgoyne's regiment, being 
reported fit for service, had been ordered to take the field- 
But the regiment did not move from San Thome. The 
Council desired to send the regiment into the field without 
Burgoyne. On the latter notifying his intention of 
accompanying his regiment, under orders from General 
Stuart, the move was countermanded. The incident was 
part of the fast ripening quarrel between the Civil Govern- 
ment and the King's officers, which must be mentioned on 
account of the serious results it had on the fortunes of the 
Colonel of the 23rd Light Dragoons. 

From the time of their first military establishment in 
India, the Company had always evinced great distrust of 
their military officers, a feeling that was not without some 
justification in view of the character of the adventurers, 
who at first took service with the Company. The 
Company's troops on their part were under the influence 
of the feeling, prevalent in England, that the exercise of 
sovereign rights by a company of merchants was derogatory 
to the dignity of the Crown. Hence it arose that the 
Company's officers were less deferential to the authority of 
the Company, than they should have been, while the 
Company became more exacting of the respect due to 
them, and made it their policy to keep down the army, in 
numbers, in rank, and in authority. This feeling of 
jealousy became intensified when the services of King's 
troops were placed at the disposal of the Company ; and 
many quarrels detrimental to the public service ensued. 
At the time we are treating of, the King's troops in 
India were the mainstay of the Company's power. The 
Company was under stringent engagements to pay them 



38 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

regularly, instead of allowing their pay to fall into arrears, 
as was always the case with their own troops. They 
were to be commanded as far as possible by King's 
officers only, and the Commander in Chief at each 
Presidency was appointed by the Crown. Every King's 
officer, whatever the date of his commission, took rank 
above all Company's officers holding similar commissions* 
and every field officer of King's troops, while in India, 
was given a step of Brevet rank above his regimental 
rank. This naturally caused some ill feeling between the 
King's and Company's officers. The arrangement had 
first been made when there was only a single battalion of 
King's troops in India. As the number of King's troops 
increased, the extra rank given to the officers became a 
very serious grievance to the Company's officers, which 
was further aggravated by the Company's policy of 
maintaining a very small number of field officers, and of 
having their regiments commanded by Captains. The 
instructions for avoiding disputes with the Company's 
officers, that were issued to Sir John Burgoyne, before 
sailing from England, had been a stereotyped formula of 
orders for all officers sent with troops to India for more 
than twenty years past : but such admonitions were of 
little use under conditions that made friction inevitable. 

The Madras Government was possessed at that time 
of a perverse spirit, that led them into all kinds of ex- 
travagancies and never ending quarrels. The Members 
of the Council fought amongst themselves; they evaded 
or disobeyed the orders of the Court of Directors, and 
ignored the authority of the Governor General. In- 
dividually, they commanded little respect. Collectively, 
they mismanaged everything. They interfered in military 
matters, that in a time of war were peculiarly in the 
province of the chief military authority ; and they frittered 
away the forces at their disposal in ill-conceived and 



1783] THE MADRAS COUNCIL 39 

badly equipped expeditions that frequently ended in 
disaster. Finally, they quarrelled with everybody who 
was not immediately under their orders, and wrote long 
winded complaints to the Court of Directors and to 
Bengal, instead of doing their best under the trying 
circumstances of the time. The King's officers on their 
side were also difficult to deal with. They asserted their 
right to direct how and where the King's troops should 
be employed, and, in other respects, claimed an independ- 
ence of the Civil Government incompatible with public 
interests. In 1780, when the Commander in Chief, Sir 
Eyre Coote, had been sent down from Bengal, after the 
disaster to Colonel Baillie's army, he was furnished with 
orders for the suspension of the acting Governor, Mr 
Whitehall, against whom the gravest charges had been 
made, and he was specially invested with powers that to 
a great extent made him independent of the Madras 
Council, including the exclusive direction of the treasure 
transmitted for the prosecution of the war. The temporary 
grant of such powers was necessary under existing circum- 
stances, but was none the less resented by the Madras 
Council ; though there was little active opposition till the 
assumption of the Governorship by Lord Macartney in 
June 1781. The Council complained that more was not 
accomplished, Sir Eyre Coote complained that his troops 
were sent into the field without supplies ; the Council sent 
an expedition against the Dutch settlements, without 
consulting the General, and an open rupture occurred, in 
which the Admiral took part, in consequence of dispatches 
addressed to both Commanders being opened by the 
Resident at Tanjore. At this stage of the quarrel, Sir 
Eyre Coote's health forced him to leave for Bengal. The 
command devolved on Major General Stuart, and the 
quarrel went on worse than ever. 

Lord Macartney at once assumed the direction of the 



40 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

campaign, and made himself ridiculous by forcing Stuart 
to destroy three of his own forts, the preservation of which 
was anxiously desired by Sir Eyre Coote. Stuart, on his 
side, claimed the right of exercising the special powers that 
had been conferred on Sir Eyre Coote. Stuart's position 
was a peculiar one. While on the King's half pay list, in 
1775, his services were lent to the Company, who conferred 
on him the rank of Brigadier General. In October 1781, 
the Crown gave him the commission of Major General in 
India, and, three months later, his commission was ante- 
dated. His position, however, differed from that of other 
General Officers, in that he was not borne on the strength 
of any regiment, and his status in England was only that 
of a half pay Colonel. He had done good service already 
in the campaign against Hyder, in which he had lost a 
leg by a cannon shot. 

In December 1782, Stuart withdrew the garrison of 
Masulipatam for service elsewhere, without consulting the 
Government, and at once both parties entered into a 
paper war, that absorbed all the energies that should have 
been devoted to the war with Tippoo and the French. 
Each party bombarded the other with notes and minutes, 
that continued to be exchanged after the army had taken 
the field for Cuddalore, and the Council wrote to London 
and Calcutta in the gloomiest terms, expressing their 
fears of General Stuart's designs.* In neither quarter 
did they elicit any sympathy. In terms of measured 
sarcasm Warren Hastings pointed out that their " collected 
mass of complaint and invective" was directed in turn 
against every single British authority in India except 
themselves, including the Naval Commander in Chief, 

* "We conceive that there is a slight transition from refusal to employ the 
King's troops upon a requisition by the Civil Government, to the employing 
them without a requisition, and we submit to you to what uses such an 
authority might be applied, and where the consequences might end." Letter 
to Court of Direct or s> December 1782. 



1783] TREATMENT OF SIR EYRE COOTE 41 

as well as against the Nawab of Arcot and his 
ministers. 

The Madras Government had become contemptible 
alike in the eyes of friends and enemies, and it was im- 
possible to work with them. Lost to all sense of public 
duty, they formed the project of refusing to place the 
troops under command of Sir Eyre Coote on his return 
in April. Sir Eyre Coote was, on this occasion, nominated 
by the Bengal Government to take the command of all 
the troops on the Coast, except the garrison actually 
required at Madras. Not an unreasonable arrangement, 
as Sir Eyre Coote was Commander in Chief in India, 
and the Madras Government was dependent for money 
on Bengal. The Madras Government sent peremptory 
orders for Stuart to hasten his march, in order that the 
troops might be far distant when Sir E. Coote arrived, 
and passed a resolution that he should not have the 
command. A letter addressed by the Madras Council 
to Sir Eyre Coote when he was dying, drew down upon 
them a censure from Warren Hastings that was calculated 
to penetrate the most pachydermatous self-conceit, but 
it had apparently no effect on Lord Macartney and his 
Council. Even before Sir Eyre Coote's death, the feeling 
of Lord Macartney and the Council against the King's 
officers was shown by a minute of the Council, at the 
time of the preparation of the army for the siege of 
Cuddalore, wherein an attempt was made to deprive 
the Generals bearing the King's commission of any em- 
ployment in the field. In it, an endeavour was made 
to elicit from Major General Stuart an opinion that the 
public interests would be best served by leaving those 
officers, five in number, in garrison. This idea was 
resisted by Stuart, and Major General Bruce was sent 
with the army to Cuddalore. The frigate that conveyed 
the news of the cessation of hostilities with France, to 



42 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

the army before Cuddalore, brought also peremptory 
orders to Stuart to embark at once for Madras, to answer 
charges of misconduct. Bruce was forced by ill health 
to return a few days later. 

The command of the force in the field then devolved 
temporarily on Colonel Gordon, till Sir John Burgoyne 
took command of the returning army on I3th August. 
But Sir John Burgoyne had likewise come under the dis- 
pleasure of the Select Committee. In the same letter * to 
the Court of Directors in which they announced the super- 
session of Stuart, and their intention to give the command 
to Burgoyne, they wrote 

" Sir John Burgoyne expecting a Preference to be given 
to his men in point of accommodations and every other 
respect above all other Corps of His Majesty's or the 
Company's troops, and making no allowance for the 
calamities of the times and the Exigencies of our situation, 
has been loud and frequent in his complaints, and the 
utmost endeavours on our Part to show attention to himself 
as well as to his Regiment have fallen short of the sense he 
entertained of the claims of both." 

In another part of the same letter they stated that 
Burgoyne had claimed to be a Major General, but they had 
only his word for it, as the fact had not been notified to 
them. Yet, in the Directors' letter of 25th January 1782, 
Burgoyne's rank as Major General in the East Indies from 
1st June 1/81, is precisely stated. 

Burgoyne was justifiably angry at the treatment his 
regiment had experienced. Nothing had been done by the 
Madras Government to have horses in readiness for the 
regiment on arrival. The quarters in which the men were 
first placed were so unhealthy, that by the middle of July, 
less than nine months after landing, 78 had died. His 
own claims to the rank and allowances of a Major General 

* 13^/2 Atigust 1783. 



1783] DISMISSAL OF STUART 43 

were challenged ; while, in common with all the senior 
officers of King's troops, he was exasperated by the animus 
displayed against them by Lord Macartney and the 
Council, and the openly avowed intention to ignore their 
just claims, in defiance of the intentions of the Crown. In 
a letter, dated 3rd September 1783, in which he reports to 
the Ministry at home, the fact of his having assumed the 
command of the army returning from Cuddalore, he dwells 
on the grievances of the King's General officers, especially 
"the declaration of the Governor, who says no King's 
officer shall ever Command in Chief here, let his rank be 
what it may ; and that a junior officer in the Company's 
service should have rank given him superior to what any 
King's officer may have to entitle him to command." It 
is evident that the violent measures shortly afterwards 
taken by Lord Macartney, were in pursuance of a long 
contemplated scheme for getting rid of the King's General 
officers. 

From the beginning, Stuart had been quarrelsome and 
unreasonable in his dealings with the rest of the Council. 
The Council complained loudly of the slowness of his 
advance on Cuddalore. For this he does not appear to 
have been responsible, as the delay was caused by his 
having to wait for the squadron and store ships which did 
not arrive before Cuddalore till after the army had en- 
camped before the place. Among other causes of quarrel 
was the desire of the General to give effect to the views of 
the Bengal Government in the affairs of the Nawab of 
Arcot ; views which were strenuously opposed by the rest 
of the Council. Soon after the return of the army to 
Madras the Council passed a resolution dismissing Stuart 
from the service, and conferring the Commander in Chief- 
ship on Burgoyne. On the i/th September this was 
announced to Burgoyne, who was addressed as Com- 
mander in Chief, and requested to attend the Council 



44 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

immediately. In a General order of the same date, the 
Council, anticipating objections, justified their action by 
arguing that Stuart held only a half pay commission from 
the King, and that the Company could do as they pleased 
with him as he held no position under the Crown in India. 

As Burgoyne entered the Fort a salute was fired from 
the ramparts, but he at once informed the Council that, 
while they could dispose of the command of the Company's 
forces as they pleased, he had no power to supersede Stuart 
who held the King's commission of Major General, and the 
command of the King's troops de jure, and, so long as he 
was able to act, could only be deprived of his command by 
the King's order. On this he was told that, if he did not 
accept the command, it was intended to make Lieutenant 
Colonel Lang a Company's officer, a Lieutenant General, 
and appoint him Commander-in-Chief. Burgoyne con- 
tinued firm in his resolve, but was detained till 8 in the 
evening on various pretexts. Meanwhile, without his 
knowledge, arrangements were made for Stuart's arrest, 
and a letter was sent to Lieutenant Colonel Lang appoint- 
ing him Commander-in-Chief of the army with the rank 
of Lieutenant General. The order issued a few hours 
previously, appointing Burgoyne Commander-in-Chief, was 
ignored as if it had never existed. .Burgoyne was then 
told that he might retire. On leaving the Council room, 
he found the gates closed and the drawbridges drawn up, 
and learned that Stuart had been arrested by a company 
of sepoys, in his own house, and brought, a close prisoner, 
into the Fort, under circumstances of much indignity. 
The excuse afterwards assigned by the Select Committee 
for this extraordinary proceeding was, that they believed 
Stuart was about to seize the Government by force. 

On the following day Burgoyne wrote to the Select 
Committee, expressing his intention of taking command 
of the King's troops, since Stuart was incapacitated from 



i7*3l BURGOYNE'S DILEMMA 45 

acting. He received no reply, and, on arrival at the camp 
he found two orders, one constituting Lang a Lieutenant 
General, and the other directing Lang to take command of 
the whole army ; thus superseding Burgoyne and four 
other Major Generals and several Lieutenant Colonels, 
who had been senior to Lang. 

Burgoyne at once assembled the King's Officers in his 
tent, and related to them what had passed. For his own 
part, he said, he should consider himself wanting in his 
duty, to pay obedience to any other than a senior officer 
of the King's appointment : that General Stuart being 
deprived of the possibility of acting, the command of the 
King's troops devolved on himself. He did not attempt 
to bias the opinions of any of the gentlemen present : 
he recommended the avoidance of altercation or even 
discussion with the Company's officers, lest unforeseen 
consequences might ensue. The officers present said they 
would obey no orders but those of the Commander-in- 
Chief representing the King, viz. : Sir John Burgoyne. 

The same afternoon Lang arrived in camp, and met 
the King's officers in Burgoyne's tent, where he delivered 
an order from the Council instructing Burgoyne to sur- 
render the command of the Army to him. Burgoyne 
replied that he would give over the command of the 
Company's troops to whomsoever the Council chose to 
appoint, but that his duty to the King required that he 
should not deliver over the command of the King's troops 
to any person not regularly authorized by His Majesty : 
he placed his tents at Colonel Lang's service. Lang 
replied that he had a house at the Mount, and remained 
silent some time, till, on the officers calling out that they 
would obey Sir John Burgoyne only, he got up and went 
away. On the same day a letter was addressed to the 
Admiral by Sir John, asking for advice and support, and 
requesting an asylum on board the flag ship, in the event 



46 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

of any attempt being made on his person. The Admiral 
was so situated that he might have discreetly acted as 
mediator between the contending parties had he been so 
disposed ; but, perhaps, his previous experiences of the 
Madras Council made him unwilling to be mixed up in 
the quarrel. Anyhow, he refused to have anything to do 
with the matter. 

Very little was needed to produce a conflict between the 
King's and Company's troops that night. The King's 
troops had been exasperated at the animosity displayed by 
the Council towards Sir Eyre Coote and the King's officers 
in general. They were alarmed at the violence offered to 
General Stuart, and were resolved to repel by force any 
repetition of this violence in Burgoyne's case. In order to 
prevent surprise, guards were posted round the Camp. 
The Council, on their part, had been haunted all along by 
the idea that the King's Officers aimed at subverting the 
Government. Two battalions of Bengal Sepoys with some 
guns were ordered down to protect Lang's house, and the 
gates of the Fort were kept shut. Each party expected to 
be attacked, and, for the next forty-eight hours, a very 
slight occurrence might have precipitated a disastrous 
conflict. 

The following day, Burgoyne summoned Major Generals 
Bruce, Campbell, Ogle, and Adams to confer with him, and 
a remonstrance, signed by the five, was drawn up and 
forwarded to the Council ; to the effect that they were 
determined not to act under Lang's orders. Lang had 
meanwhile issued orders for the Army to march on the 
following day, in order to test their obedience. Lieut. 
Colonel Floyd was also senior to Lang by the date of his 
commission. Several regiments gave assurances of support 
to Burgoyne and Floyd. At a conference of the senior 
officers a course of action was determined on, and Burgoyne 
withdrew from the camp, at midnight, to his house in 



1783] LORD MACARTNEY 47 

Madras. The vedettes round the camp were at once with- 
drawn. The next morning, Floyd likewise withdrew from 
the army ; handing over his command to Lt. Colonel 
Mackenzie of the 73rd, who was junior to Lang by date of 
commission. The force marched, and took up fresh ground 
in rear of their former position. 

On reaching Madras, Burgoyne addressed a letter to the 
Select Committee notifying his withdrawal from the camp, 
and offering himself for arrest if Government had a mind to 
seize his person. The offer was somewhat embarrassing to 
the Select Committee, who evaded the point by saying 
that, as Burgoyne had refused to take command of the 
Army, Lang had been appointed in his place, and there 
was nothing more to be said in the matter. On this, 
Burgoyne deputed Floyd to carry a letter to Lord 
Macartney, in which he asserted his position as senior 
officer bearing the King's commission, and pointed out 
that he alone had power to convene Courts Martial.* 

Lord Macartney was a man of violent temper and over- 
bearing disposition that kept him in continual hot water. 
He demanded unhesitating submission to his views from all 
with whom he came in contact. His relations with the 
supreme government at Calcutta were as unyielding as 
with those in immediate contact with him at Madras. His 
chief merit was his personal honesty in money matters, at 
a time of great laxity ; a merit on which he was by no 
means silent, and which he did not insist on in his 
colleagues. He threw himself with ardour into the chronic 
quarrels carried on by the Madras Council with the Bengal 
Government and the military authorities, and, in pursuit of 
the quarrels, lost sight of the great interests at stake, and 
brought the Madras settlement to the verge of anarchy. 

* The power of ordering Courts Martial for the trial of officers and soldiers, 
both in the service of the King and those acting under the Company, was 
vested in the Commander in Chief of His Majesty's forces for the time being. 



48 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

Even before Sir Eyre Coote's death he had been induced 
to believe that General Stuart had designs against the 
Government. This belief, for which not a scrap of 
evidence was ever brought forward, led him into a line 
of conduct that brought about corresponding and in- 
creasing opposition from Stuart. After Stuart's arrest, 
the same suspicion was transferred to Burgoyne, with 
even less presumption of justice than had existed in 
Stuart's case. Burgoyne proposed an interview in the 
presence of witnesses. Had Lord Macartney been less 
bent on the quarrel, he would have grasped the oppor- 
tunity of coming to some understanding. Instead of 
this he used the most uncompromising language to 
Floyd. " Government would not recede ; Government 
must be peremptory ; " and he still affected to treat 
Burgoyne as having refused the command of the army. 
The following day, Burgoyne received a letter from the 
Select Committee arguing the old point of General 
Stuart's commission, and asserting that Burgoyne had 
acknowledged the validity of Lang's promotion to the 
rank of Lieutenant General, in spite of which he had 
withdrawn from camp without Lang's permission. The 
Committee would not contest with him about any 
authority he might undertake to exercise, unless it en- 
dangered the public safety, but would not countenance 
his resumption of command. Lang's command extended 
to the King's as well as the Company's troops, and they 
(the Committee) would convey dispatches addressed to 
either Commander in Chief, to Lang. If Sir John 
Burgoyne thought proper to act as Commander in 
Chief, and to convene Courts Martial, the Committee 
had no objection "unless their duty forced them to 
interfere." Such unworkable arrangements were bound 
to lead to further quarrels. On the same day, as 
previously proposed by him, Sir John Burgoyne had an 



1783] LORD MACARTNEY AND BURGOYNE 49 

interview with Lord Macartney, Major General Bruce 
and Lt Colonel Floyd being present. Throughout the 
quarrel, Burgoyne had been actuated by a desire to arrive 
at some working arrangement that would enable the 
public service to be carried on, while preserving the rights 
of the King whose senior representative he was. In this 
spirit he sought an interview with the Governor. But 
there was no corresponding desire for peace on the side 
of the Governor and Council, and Lord Macartney's 
behaviour was disingenuous. Burgoyne asked for ex- 
planations to some parts of the Select Committee's 
letter, which he discussed generally. Lord Macartney 
would give no direct answer, and was very guarded in 
what he said. He was only a Member of the Government, 
not authorized to decide, but only to speak their senti- 
ments, and to represent matters to the other Members. 
Would Sir John put down in writing what questions he 
pleased, he would engage to lay them before the Select 
Committee, and obtain replies to them. Lord Macartney's 
intention was to obtain the same control over the King's 
troops, as he exercised over the Company's troops. To 
gain this end he was resolved to give the command to a 
Company's officer, who would naturally be more pliable 
than a King's officer, though it was a recognised principle 
with the British Government to keep the command of 
the King's troops under an officer of their own appoint- 
ment. It is almost incredible that this miserable quarrel 
should have gone on at a time of the greatest public 
distress, when Tippoo was triumphant in the field, and 
it was still uncertain that the Mahrattas would not take 
up arms again. 

Stuart was, shortly afterwards, shipped off to England 
under close arrest, in a ship specially purchased for the 
purpose, though, for want of funds, the pay of the troops 
was in some instances over two years in arrears. During 

D 



50 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1783 

imprisonment, he was denied the use of pen and ink, 
and was only allowed to see Burgoyne on public business 
in presence of the officer on duty over him. At the 
time of his embarkation, he believed that it was intended 
to put him to death at sea. 

Burgoyne assumed the command of the King's troops 
without further direct opposition, but the Council lost no 
opportunity of thwarting him and lowering his authority, 
while they encouraged others to resist it. Burgoyne, on 
his part, cast moderation aside, and was bent on pushing 
his claims to extremity. He ignored General Lang, and 
issued orders that clashed with those of the civil govern- 
ment, producing confusion, perplexity, and relaxation of 
discipline in every rank. The Major Generals, who had 
joined in signing the protest against Lang's promotion, 
and several others among the officers commanding 
regiments withdrew their support from Burgoyne. In 
October, Burgoyne placed Lieutenant Colonel Sterling 
of the 36th under arrest for disobedience of orders : the 
Select Committee released him. The soldiers too had 
their grievances about batta which should have been paid 
to them, but was withheld by Lord Macartney. The men 
of the pSth were on the eve of mutiny, and the men of 
Burgoyne's own regiment formed the project of going to 
the Fort in a body to ask redress. Burgoyne sternly 
repressed both movements, but the Select Committee gave 
him credit for causing them. A fresh crisis in the quarrel 
was inevitable. 

In December, General Ogle reported certain matters 
seriously affecting the private character of an officer of the 
73rd. The rest of the officers of the regiment refused to 
allow the matter to be patched up, as General Ogle desired. 
Burgoyne had no option but to convene a General Court 
Martial, which he did, appointing Lieutenant Colonel 
Straubenzee of the 52nd as President. The Court was also 



1783-4! BURGOYNE'S ARREST 51 

to try two soldiers of the 98th, who had appealed from a 
Regimental Court Martial. On such occasions it was 
customary for the Council to appoint the Judge Advocate. 
They refused to nominate one for this or any Court Martial 
Sir John might order to assemble, and refused to grant a 
place in the Fort for the Court to assemble in. They also 
forbade Straubenzee to leave Poonamallee where he was 
commanding. Burgoyne then arranged for the Court to 
assemble at Poonamallee, but without making the change 
known, and ordered Straubenzee still to hold himself in 
readiness to preside. He also ordered Colonel Sterling to 
appear for trial before the Court. The Select Committee 
thereupon, on the 3ist December, issued an order placing 
Burgoyne under arrest for disobedience of orders in 
September, and for exciting mutiny and sedition, and 
appointed Major General Alan Campbell to command the 
King's troops. No attempt was made on this occasion to 
place the King's troops under Lang. 

The absurdity of the Select Committee's action, both in 
Stuart's and Burgoyne's cases, was shown by their inability 
to form a Court Martial for the trial of those officers. 
They tried to get Burgoyne to proceed to England, but he 
refused to go. He proceeded, for a time, to Pondicherry 
under open arrest, while the dual commands of the King's 
and Company's forces continued. For the next eighteen 
months Lord Macartney's quarrels and intrigues, added to 
his unjust measures touching the pay and allowances of the 
army, produced results that bid fair to end in the ruin of 
the British government on the Coast. 

In April 1784, a mutiny occurred among four newly 
formed Native Cavalry Regiments at Arnee. Arrears of pay 
for twelve months were owing to them, and they likewise 
had unsatisfied claims on the Nawab of Arcot, from whose 
service they had been transferred. They seized the fort of 
Arnee, and imprisoned their officers. A month's pay was 



52 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1784 

given them, but they held out for the whole arrears. The 
36th Foot and one hundred men of the 23rd Light 
Dragoons were dispatched to Arcot, to join General Lang. 
On the night of the 1 5th May they marched for Arnee, 
which they reached soon after daybreak, and after a brief 
parley the mutineers laid down their arms.* In October, 
one of the King's infantry regiments at Arcot broke out 
into open mutiny, but were overawed by the men of the 
23rd, and the two other regiments in garrison, who stuck 
to their officers. These were by no means the only 
instances of grave insubordination both among King's or 
Company's troops, due to Lord Macartney's ill-advised 
measures. The officers had to complain of broken faith as 
well as the men. 

Sir John Burgoyne's arrest did not prevent him from 
looking after the welfare of the regiment. There had been 
many casualties among the horses,! as well as among the 
men ; and Lord Macartney is said to have conceived the 
idea of gradually allowing the 23rd Light Dragoons to 
disappear from want of horses and men, and of raising a 
corps of European cavalry in their place. As the men 
died, the extra horses were taken from the regiment, and 
Lt. Colonel Floyd was forbidden to entertain recruits, of 
whom a certain number were procurable, probably from 
Infantry regiments on the spot. Sir John thereupon 
addressed the Bengal Government, by whom a reference 
was made to Madras recommending the deficiencies to be 
made good. The Madras Government thought the regiment 
was very well as it was, and demurred to corresponding 
with Sir John while he was under arrest. The Bengal 

* Twelve of the ringleaders were selected for execution. Eleven of 
them were blown away from guns : the twelfth was pardoned after the gun 
had missed fire three times. This was the recognised mode of execution in 
India for military mutiny, and the Company's European troops were equally 
liable to this punishment. 

t 135 horses died or were cast between ist June 1783 and loth May 1785. 



17851 HORSES FOR THE REGIMENT 53 

Govt. pointed out that that need not prevent them from 
corresponding with the next officer in the regiment. They 
dwelt on the importance of maintaining the regiment in an 
efficient state, and expressed their sense of the value of the 
services rendered by the Regiment in dealing with the 
Mutiny of the Native Cavalry at Arnee, and their " desire 
of giving the Company's service the full benefit of the good 
discipline of H.M.'s 23rd Light Dragoons." The Madras 
Government replied that they would be glad if the Bengal 
Govt. would take over the whole of the charges of 
the regiment. For their part, they thought it useless to 
recruit for the regiment, when there were already more 
men than horses, and it would be better to transfer the 
superfluous men to the Infantry, as horses were expensive, 
and a diminution in their number was a useful economy. 
Warren Hastings brushed all such cobwebs aside, and sent 
147 horses from Hyderabad to remount the regiment. In 
spite of their protests, the Madras Government entered into 
a correspondence with Sir John which was characterized 
on both sides by much bitterness. A detachment of the 
regiment was at this time at Ellore in the Masulipatum 
district. 

There seems to have been some expectation at this 
time that the regiment would be recalled to England, 
probably on account of Lord Macartney's recommenda- 
tions to the Court of Directors. Anyhow, a Madras letter, 
dated 26th May 1785, published in the Calcutta Public 
Advertiser, says : " The 23rd Regiment is to remain in 
India. The appointments and recommendations of Sir 
John Burgoyne, are approved of." In the middle of July, 
a detachment of the regiment was sent to Arcot, but was 
almost immediately recalled to San Thome. 

Meanwhile, Sir John Burgoyne's troubles were coming 
to an end. On the news of the quarrels, resulting in 
Burgoyne's arrest, reaching England, much interest was 



54 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1785 

excited in the highest quarters. The matter was twice 
discussed in the House of Commons, on the iQth July and 
9th August, and it was generally recognised that the 
trouble had primarily arisen from a faulty system. 
Burgoyne was held to have been correct in his behaviour, 
and received reassuring letters, written by the King's 
commands, pending the official settlement of the question. 
It was determined to appoint at once a new Commander 
in Chief of Madras, besides filling the vacancy caused by 
the death of Sir Eyre Coote, and to remove the chief 
actors in the quarrel on both sides. Burgoyne continued 
under arrest till the nearly simultaneous arrival in Madras, 
at the beginning of June, of Lieut. General Robert Sloper 
as Commander in Chief in India, and Lieut. General Sir 
John Bailing as Commander in Chief in Madras. General 
Sloper brought with him instructions to convene a Court 
Martial for Burgoyne's trial, and for Burgoyne's return to 
England after the trial, whatever its result might be. 
Lord Macartney, at the same time, received orders for the 
surrender of the assignment to the Nawab of Arcot, and 
private intelligence of the appointment of his successor. 
He had been severely wounded, a few months before, in 
a duel with one of the Council, due to his own overbearing 
temper, and his health was bad. Believing that he was 
about to be recalled, he resigned his post, and sailed for 
Calcutta to confer with the Bengal Government before 
sailing for Europe. While in Calcutta, he received news 
of his appointment to succeed Warren Hastings ; but his 
health would not permit him to stop in India, and he 
sailed for England.* 

General Sloper appointed a Court Martial on Burgoyne, 
with Sir John Balling as President. The Madras Council 

* Soon after his arrival in England he received a challenge from General 
Stuart, by whom he was wounded in a duel, fought near Kensington, 8th June 
1786. A letter from Sir John Burgoyne, written whilst under arrest, shows 
his intention of calling Lord Macartney to account in a similar way. 



1785] BURGOYNE'S COURT-MARTIAL 55 

at once claimed the right to appoint the Prosecutor, which 
being disallowed, they wrote complaints in their usual style 
to the Court of Directors. Another grievance with the 
Council was, that they were not given a copy of the 
Proceedings. Their desire apparently was to prosecute 
the quarrel through Lord Macartney in England. The 
wish of the Government in England, and of the Court of 
Directors, was to bury the unseemly quarrel as speedily as 
possible, and the Proceedings were withheld. A year and 
a half later, the Madras Government were still writing to 
the Governor General for a copy. The exact charges, of 
which there were nineteen, cannot now be ascertained, but 
they partially related to Sir John Burgoyne's behaviour in 
September 1783, more than three months before the date 
of his arrest, and charged him with causing and exciting 
mutiny and sedition, and refusing to take command of the 
King's troops. On the nth July, after sitting for nineteen 
days, the Court came to the following resolutions 

ist. That Major General Sir John Burgoyne did 
not refuse to take upon him the command of 
the King's troops after Major General Stuart 
was put under an arrest ; but that he declined 
superseding that Major General, so long as he 
viewed him especially appointed by the King, 
and he remained in the capacity of acting as 
such. 

2nd. That the line of conduct pursued by Major 
General Sir John Burgoyne on the iQth 
September and quitting camp the eve of 
that day, was productive of the happiest 
consequences. 

3rd. That in no instance whatsoever did Major 
General Sir John Burgoyne disobey any orders 
immediately proceeding from the Government. 

4th. That the equivocal situation of Lieut. General 
Lang, from his standing in both services,* and 

* This would seem to show that Lang, like Stuart, also held a half-pay 
commission from the King. 



56 TROUBLES AT MADRAS [1785 

this Government having at present no charter 
rights to confer such high ranks, well warranted 
his Majesty's general officers in witholding 
from him their obedience. 

5th. That the orders sent to Lieut. Colonel Sterling 
by Major General Sir John Burgoyne, seem to 
be solely for promoting good discipline in his 
Majesty's troops, and to respect only their 
internal economy, which, as the King's Com- 
mander in Chief, he had not only a right to 
give, but enforce also. 

6th. That in the instance for which Major General 
Sir John Burgoyne was originally put in arrest, 
it appears the government acted from half 
information, not having before them the post- 
script to the General Orders of Major General 
Sir John Burgoyne. 

7th. That the letters before the Court from Major 
General Sir John Burgoyne to Lord Macartney 
or the Presidency, so far from being mutinous 
or seditious, are not even disrespectful. The 
facts which they assert are strong ; but in the 
manner and expression they are as decent and 
proper as the circumstances which gave them 
birth could reasonably admit. 



SENTENCE. 

The Court having thus maturely considered 
of the evidence and records in support of the 
prosecution, and likewise the defence and those 
in support of it, is of opinion that the Prisoner 
Major General Sir John Burgoyne Bart, is not 
guilty of the charges alledged against him ; and 
doth therefore most fully and honorably acquit 
him of all and every part of the same.* 

(Signed) 

JOHN BALLING, 

Lieut. General & President. 

* Calcutta Gazette. i8M August 1785. 



1785] BURGOYNE'S DEATH 57 

Immediately on the close of the proceedings, the 
Council addressed Burgoyne in peremptory and dis- 
courteous terms, desiring him to leave the country ; and there 
appeared every chance of a fresh quarrel arising, when 
some influence (probably Sir John Balling's) intervened, 
and thenceforward there was peace. Burgoyne's claims for 
arrears of pay and allowances, for himself as Commander 
in Chief, his Aide-de-camp, and his secretary, for the 
period he had been under arrest, were admitted ; his 
passage money was advanced to him, and he was prepar- 
ing to sail, when death overtook him on the 23rd of 
September at the age of forty-six. A tablet to his memory 
was placed in St. Mary's Church in the Fort, by the officers 
of the King's troops. Lang was withdrawn from the 
service by the Court of Directors who granted him a 
special pension of one thousand a year. Stuart, a few 
years later, was given the Colonelcy of H.M.'s 3ist. In 
consequence of these disputes, the offices of Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief were, soon after, vested in the same 
person, in each of the Presidencies. In order to prevent a 
recurrence of the dispute in General Sloper's case, it was 
ordered, at the time of his appointment, that in the event 
of the Company ceasing to employ him, his right to 
command the King's troops should also cease. A project 
for amalgamating the King's and Company's forces in 
India, in order to put an end to the rivalry between the 
two services, was seriously considered two years later, but 
the only change made was to put an end to the super- 
session of the Company's by the King's officers. 

In studying the details of this unhappy quarrel, the 
conviction forces itself upon one that there were persons in 
the background, who, for their own purposes, fomented the 
dispute, and aggravated the differences between the prin- 
cipal parties, by filling their minds with suspicions and 
ideas that were equally groundless and mischievous. This 



S 8 CHANGE OF NUMBER [1786 

Is plainly stated to have been the case by an officer of the 
73rd Highlanders who published a Narrative of the war 
with Hyder. " Had it not been for the cordiality and good 
fellowship which universally subsisted betwixt the King's 
and Company's officers, who had shared the fatigues of 
war together, notwithstanding the artful steps that had 
been taken to sow the seeds of dissension amongst them, 
these broils might have terminated in a manner very fatal 
to the settlement." * Long afterwards, Lord Macartney 
acknowledged his mistake. In December 1797, speaking 
to Sir David Baird, he said, " Had I known as much of you 
military gentlemen, when I was in India, as I have learned 
since, we never should have had any difference." Sir John 
Burgoyne's justification was complete. 



CHAPTER III 

CHANGE OF NUMBER 
1786-1789 

Regiment moved to Shevtamodoo John Floyd Number of regiment 
changed to iQth Uniform Sir William Howe appointed 
Colonel Foundation of Indian native cavalry system laid by 
Floyd and the igih Light Dragoons. 

ONE of the first acts of Sir John Dalling, after composing 
the quarrels between the Civil Government and the King's 
troops in Madras, was to draw up a scheme for brigading 
the troops in Cantonments. The scheme never took shape, 
beyond the formation of a large Cantonment, in February 
1786, at Wallajabad, near Conjeveram, about fifty miles 
from Madras. Among the troops detailed for the new 
Cantonment were the 23rd Light Dragoons. Before 

* Narrative of the Military operations on the Coromandel Coast. Innes 
Munro. 1789. 



i;86] SHEVTAMODOO 59 

leaving their quarters at San Thome", they were reviewed 
by the Commander-in-Chief. Being the only English 
Cavalry regiment in the country, the review attracted 
some attention, and the following account was published 
in the Madras Courier for 2Qth March 1786. 

" The review of the 23rd Dragoons on Saturday last, 
was far superior to any expectation that had been formed 
of it ; displayed the most brilliant military exhibition that 
has ever been seen in India, and it is presumed, equal to 
any that has taken place at any time in Europe. It reflects 
the highest honour on the Commanding Officer, whose 
great military knowledge, joined to indefatigable exertions, 
has brought the regiment to that degree of perfection 
which, while it pleases and astonishes, teaches the very 
useful, though long doubted lesson, that men can be 
disciplined, and horses trained in this country equally 
as well as in Europe. The most particularly striking 
manoeuvre was a charge at full speed for near three 
hundred yards in a perfect line ; and that of two squadrons 
dispersing, and pursuing, supported by the regiment ; these 
were performed with the exactness of mechanical precision, 
and produced the most beautiful effect ; but what is very 
extraordinary the horses were all perfectly obedient, and 
scarcely a single accoutrement of the riders was dis- 
composed. 

" A Correspondent observes, that too much praise cannot 
be given to the 23rd dragoons, for the excellent manner in 
which they performed their manoeuvres, at the review on 
Saturday last ; that the men were in the highest perfection 
of discipline ; and that the officers, the finest body belong- 
ing to any one corps that he recollects to have seen, were so 
perfectly masters of every manoeuvre, and led each motion 
with so much judgment, that it were impossible for any 
troops under them to make a single mistake." 

The 23rd Light Dragoons were not cantoned at 
Wallajabad, but Floyd was directed to select a spot within 
a certain indicated area. He fixed on Shevtamodoo, 
about two miles from Conjeveram, and nine miles from 
Wallajabad. 

" The spot is extremely beautiful, exceeding anything I 
have met with in India, except among the hills. My 



60 CHANGE OF NUMBER [1786 

barracks are building something within the edge of an 
open grove of immense tamarinds. The Officers' barracks 
are within the grove. A plain extends about half a mile 
in front, and something less in breadth along the north 
bank of the river Paliar, above the ordinary level of the 
country, with a large lake on the other side of the ground 
towards its extremity, with a small woody island in it 
skirting the whole plain. The plain is sprinkled by 
nature's masterly hand with enormous banyan trees, far 
exceeding the size of the very largest trees known in 
Europe. My own barracks will stand at some distance, 
nearly in the middle of the plain, under the largest of these 
extraordinary trees." * 

It was here that Floyd laid the foundation of that 
excellence in discipline and efficiency, that fitted the 
regiment to play the distinguished part it was destined 
in after years to fill, with such success, in the stirring 
affairs of southern India. This will be a suitable place to 
give some account of this distinguished soldier. 

John Floyd, born in 1748, was the son of an officer in 
the ist Dragoon Guards who served at Minden, and died 
in Germany six weeks after the battle. In recognition of 
his father's services, John Floyd was given a commission in 
the 1 5th (Elliott's) Light Dragoons, in the year after the 
regiment was raised, and was present with it at the battle 
of Emsdorf, on the i6th July 1760, when only twelve years 
old. There he had his horse shot under him, while 
charging the French ranks, and was only saved by a 
brother officer who cut down his assailant. The sword of 
the French hussar is still preserved in the family. 

The 1 5th Light Dragoons under Sir John Elliott and 
Lord Pembroke were regarded at that time as the school 
for British Light Cavalry. Lord Pembroke had made a 
special study of military equitation, concerning which he 
had written a book, t that went through several editions, 

* Lieut. Colonel Floyd, private letter, \%th April 1786. 
t Military equitation, or a Method of Breaking Horses, and Teaching 
Soldiers to ride, by Henry, Earl of Pembroke. 



i;86] LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN FLOYD 61 

and was a recognized text book on military riding. He 
interested himself in Floyd, and took pains to give him a 
complete education, and made him a proficient horseman. 
Later, on Lord Pembroke obtaining the command of the 
Royal Dragoons, he employed Floyd for twelve months 
in teaching his system to that regiment. In 1777-78-79, 
Floyd, under Lord Pembroke's auspices, visited nearly 
every Court in Europe, and reported on their armies. In 
December 1778, he was appointed Major of the 2ist Light 
Dragoons, and, on the formation of the 23rd Light 
Dragoons for Indian service, he was selected to be its 
Lt. Colonel. No better choice could have been made. A 
thorough soldier, and a horseman from his youth up, 
brought up in the school of two such cavalry soldiers as 
Sir John Elliott and Lord Pembroke, he was an enthusiastic 
believer in the power of cavalry. Writing from San Thome 
in 1784, he says : 

"You may depend upon it, the first military miracle 
that is to be performed in India, will be wrought by cavalry. 
No one here has an idea of that arm ; a small body of well 
disciplined Europeans on horseback, judiciously led, will 
defeat and destroy myriads of Indian enemies. If I am of 
the party, it may perhaps afford me an opportunity of 
deserving your applause." 

All soldiers know how an able commander can impress 
his character on a regiment, to endure long after his 
connexion with it has ceased. Such was the case with the 
regiment that gathered laurels as the iQth Light Dragoons, 
and no small part of its glory was due to its first Lieutenant 
Colonel, John Floyd. The correctness of his views as to 
the great part cavalry might play, and the excellence of his 
system, were demonstrated on many a field in which the 
regiment fought during its career in India. 

It has already been shown* how, in June 1783, the 

* See page 15. 



62 CHANGE OF NUMBER [1786 

1 9th Light Dragoons and all Cavalry regiments above that 
number, on the establishment in England, were disbanded. 
For three years, the fate of the 23rd seems to have hung in 
the balance. At last, on 26th April 1786, an order was 
issued to the effect that henceforward the regiment was 
to be numbered the iQth, instead of the 23rd, a designation 
under which it was destined to win itself fame and 
honour. * 

Before this, a change was made in the uniform of all the 
Light Dragoon regiments in the service. Hitherto, all 
mounted regiments had worn scarlet. In 1784, it was 
determined to distinguish the Light Dragoons, by dressing 
them in blue, and the following order gives the whole dress 
in detail. 

Regulations for the Clothing of the Light Dragoons, 
April 1784. 

1784. The Clothing of a private Light Dragoon to 
April. consist of a Jacket and Shell under waistcoat 
and leather Breeches. 

The Jacket and Shell to be of blue cloth, the 
Collars and Cuffs of the Royall Regiments to 
be Red ; and those of the other Regiments to 
be of the colour of the facing of the Regiment, 
looped upon the breast, and edged with white 
thread Cord, and to be lined with white, the 
nth and I3th Regiments excepted, which are 
to be lined with Buff. 

The under waistcoat to be of flannel with 
Sleeves, and made so as to be buttoned within 
the waistband of the Breeches. 
The Breeches to be of Buckskin. 
N.B. The make of the Dress and method of 
placing the Cord upon the Breast of the 
Jacket, to be exactly conformable to the 
pattern approved of by His Majesty. 

* In the same order the 73rd Highland Regiment was re-numbered the 7ist, 
and the 78th was re-numbered the 72nd. 



1786] DRESS OF LIGHT DRAGOONS 63 



OFFICERS AND QUARTER MASTERS. 

The Dress Uniform of the Officers and Quarter 
Masters of the Light Dragoons to be made 
according to the King's regulation of the iQth 
December 1768, excepting that the Coats are 
to be Blue and faced with the same colour as 
the private Men, and that the Royall Regiments 
are to be faced with scarlet. 

FIELD UNIFORM OF THE OFFICERS AND 
QUARTER MASTERS. 

The Jacket and shell to be made up in the 
same manner as those of the Men, excepting 
that the Shell is to have Sleeves, and that the 
Looping is to be of Silver, the 1 3th Regiment 
excepted which is to be of gold. 

SERJEANTS. 

The Serjeants of the Light Dragoons to be 
distinguished by Gold or silver looping. 

CORPORALS. 

The Corporals of the Light Dragoons to be 
distinguished by a Gold or Silver Cord round 
the Collar and Cuff. 

TRUMPETERS. 

The Trumpeters to have a Jacket and Shell 
the Colour of the facing of the Regiment, with 
Lace instead of Looping in front and down 
the Seams. 

N.RA Pattern Suit of Clothing made up 
according to these Regulations, will be de- 
posited at the Army-Comptroller's Office 
Horse Guards. 

No record now exists to show what facings were worn 
by the Regiment up to this date. Probably, their facings 
had never been decided on, owing to their departure from 



64 CHANGE OF NUMBER [1788 

England so soon after embodiment, as, in December 1786, 
an order was issued, approving a pattern of yellow cloth 
for their facings. The blue jacket with primrose yellow 
facings and white or silver braid, continued to be the 
uniform of the regiment till December 1802, when an order 
came into force for Dragoon regiments, serving in India, to 
wear grey instead of blue. In February 1786 an order was 
issued directing the Colonels of Light Dragoon regiments 
to supply their men with blue cloaks instead of red. 

The vacancy caused by the death of Sir John Burgoyne 
was filled by the appointment of Lieutenant General the 
Hon. Sir William Howe,* K.B., Colonel of the 23rd Foot, 
to be Colonel. He was an officer who had seen much 
active service, principally in America, where he had gained 
the reputation of a brave rather than of a skilful soldier. 
As a young man he took part in the conquest of Quebec 
by Wolfe, and led the forlorn hope of twenty-four men 
that forced the entrenched path by which Wolfe's force 
scaled the heights of Abraham. He served at the siege of 
Belleisle (1761), where he was wounded. He commanded 
the British troops at the pyrrhic victory of Bunker's Hill ; 
and gained victories over the revolted colonists at Long 
Island and at Brandywine. 

We get a glimpse of the regiment on I5th December 
1788, when they were inspected by the Governor and 
Commander in Chief, Sir Archibald Campbell, who, in a 
minute to the rest of the Government, recorded that 
" H.M.'s I Qth Regiment of Light Dragoons were complete 
in horses and accoutrements, and their discipline equal to 
any Corps in Europe." In a general order he said " The 
rapid and accurate manner with which the several evolu- 
tions were performed, and the extraordinary velocity of 

* Brother of Lord Howe, who was killed at Ticonderago, and of the 
famous Admiral. He succeeded as $th Viscount Howe in 1799, and died in 
July 1814. 



1789] THE MADRAS NATIVE CAVALRY 65 

their charge, than which nothing could be more regular 
and correct, does infinite honour to Colonel Floyd and the 
officers under his command, by whose unremitting zeal and 
attention the discipline of the corps has been carried to so 
high a state of perfection." 

The regimental muster rolls for 1788 and 1789 show 
that the strength of the I9th, in those years, varied from 
300 to 350 men present at Shevtamodoo. The strength in 
horses seems to have exceeded that in men, but the wear 
and tear in horseflesh was apparently very great, and re- 
mounts in considerable numbers were constantly required. 

It was during these years spent by the regiment at 
Shevtamodoo, that the Madras Government dealt in earnest 
with the question of forming a service of Native Cavalry. 
To assist them in this work they selected Floyd, who was 
given a free hand in all that concerned the discipline and 
equipment of the Native regiments. The system founded 
by him may be said to have lasted nearly up to the present 
time. 

From this time up to the date of their departure from 
India, the igth Light Dragoons never ceased to furnish 
non-commissioned officers and privates as instructors to the 
Native Cavalry, not only in Madras, but also in Bengal. 
In every muster roll they are shown on duty, at Madras, 
Vellore, Hyderabad, Seringapatam, Poonamallee, and other 
military stations in the Madras Presidency. In Bengal 
there were always from four to sixteen sergeants, corporals, 
and privates on this duty, as long as the regiment was in 
India, and, for a time, some were on similar duty in Bombay 
and Poona. A General Order, dated Fort William 3rd 
December 1795, sanctions the sergeants of the I9th Light 
Dragoons "now on service in this presidency instructing 
the native cavalry, to receive the pay and allowances of 
Sergeant Majors of Cavalry." In 1798 a General Order 
was issued, directing " the brass chapes and sockets to be 



66 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

made up acccording to the pattern furnished by Major 
General Floyd." And in December 1805, a few months 
before the regiment left India, each native cavalry regiment 
in the Presidency was ordered to send a detachment to 
Arcot, for instruction in one uniform system by Lieutenant 
Neville, ipth Light Dragoons. The system observed in the 
Company's native cavalry up till 1857, may be said to have 
been founded by Colonel Floyd and the igth Light 
Dragoons. 

CHAPTER IV 

WAR WITH TIPPOO 
1790 

War with Tippoo igth take the field Advance on Coimbatore 
Division under Floyd detached towards Guzzulhutti Pass 
Frequent skirmishes Satyamunglum Dispersion of the Army 
Advance of Tippoo iQth hotly engaged Tippoo's Body- 
Guard destroyed Retreat from Satyamunglum Casualties 
March in pursuit of Tippoo Private Parkes The Tapoor Pass 
Tippoo eludes pursuit, and ravages the Carnatic Army returns 
to Madras. 

IN 1790, the Government of India again became involved 
in war with Tippoo. He had been constrained to sign 
the peace of Mangalore by the withdrawal of the French 
alliance, and the coalition of the British and Mahrattas 
against him. But the war had been a triumph for Mysore 
arms. South of the Kistna river, Mysore was the most 
powerful state in India, and no single power could hold 
its own against the son of Hyder Ali. But Tippoo failed 
to realize the increase of power of the English Company, 
due to five years of peace. In 1785, a quarrel broke out 
between him and the Mahrattas, who allied themselves 
with the Nizam, and invaded Mysore territory. The 
campaign that ensued was in Tippoo's favour, and peace 
was concluded between the contending parties in April 



1790] THE NINETEENTH UNDER ORDERS 67 

1787. Tippoo's warlike restlessness continued to be a 
menace to the other powers in India. In the end of 
1787, overtures for an alliance against him, were made 
to Calcutta by the Mahrattas. To this, Lord Cornwallis, 
who had assumed the direction of affairs as Governor 
General and Commander in Chief in September 1786, 
gave a refusal. But nothing could keep Tippoo quiet. 
In 1788 he sent an embassy to France, to propose an 
alliance against the English, and, in December 1789, he 
attacked the Rajah of Travancore whom we were bound by 
treaty to protect. Preparations were at once made to punish 
the aggression, and orders were transmitted to Madras for 
the commencement of operations against Mysore. 

The time had come for the iQth Light Dragoons to 
show their worth. One morning, early in January, came 
the news that war was imminent, and that the Regiment 
was to join the army ordered to assemble at Trichinopoly. 
" My men were on horseback, going to water, when the 
news arrived, and they received it with three most cordial 
cheers. Nothing but good humour and high hope prevail 
in the Army. My regiment is ready in all that depends 
on us, and willing beyond description." * But great delay 
ensued, and some weeks elapsed before a move was made. 
The Madras Government disobeyed the stringent orders 
of Cornwallis, to warn Tippoo that an attack on Travan- 
core would entail war, and to take all necessary steps for 
prosecuting war if the attack was made. There was a 
complete want of military preparation. Fortunately, on 
1 9th February, Major General Medows arrived from 
England with full powers as Governor and Commander 
in Chief in Madras, and preparations for the campaign 
were made in earnest. A force was assembled near 
Wallajabad, and marched for Trichinopoly on 29th March. 
The 1 9th Light Dragoons at this time mustered 355 

* Lieut. Colonel Fleyd^ private letter ^ i^lh January 



68 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

sabres. Meanwhile Tippoo took advantage of the delay 
to prosecute his conquest over Travancore, which he 
would have completed, had not a small force from 
Bombay, under Colonel Hartley, landed in Travancore, 
in the end of April, and taken up a strong defensive 
position. On 24th May, General Medows took command 
of the army at Trichinopoly, amounting to about 15,000 
men. On the same day, Tippoo turned his back on Travan- 
core, and made his way northwards to confront his foes. 

Mysore, the heart of Tippoo's Kingdom, is a high 
plateau from 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea, open towards 
the north, but fenced in to the East, South and West by 
precipitous, cliff-like ranges that overlook the low country 
outside, and are only passable for an army at certain places. 
Tippoo had also extensive possessions in the low country, 
from which he drew large revenues and plentiful military 
supplies. According to the plan of operations adopted, 
Medows was to advance on Mysore from the southward, 
and, if possible, enter it by the Guzulhutti Pass, after 
making himself master of the rich low country about 
Coimbatore, where abundant supplies could be obtained. 
As this movement would uncover Madras, a small force 
was held at Conjeveram, under Colonel Kelly, which was 
augmented later by a force of six battalions of sepoys and 
some artillery, that were dispatched overland from Bengal. 
On the west, a force from Bombay under Major General 
Abercromby * was destined to act against Tippoo's pos- 
sessions in Malabar, and, if events rendered it desirable, to 
effect a junction with Medows. On the occurrence of 
Tippoo's attack on Travancore in December, the Peishwa 
had renewed his offers of alliance to Lord Cornwallis. 
This time they were accepted, and a triple convention 
between the Peishwa, the Nizam and the British, was 
concluded. By it, the two former engaged to attack 

* Younger brother of the famous Sir Ralph Abercromby. 



1790] MEDOWS' ADVANCE 69 

Tippoo's Northern possessions at once with 25,000 horse, 
and after the rains, to act with their utmost means. So 
dilatory were their movements, that it was not till the 
following year that their operations had any share of 
importance in the campaign. 

On the 26th May, the army marched from Trichinopoly, 
but, owing to badness of transport, it was not till 1 5th June 
that Karoor was occupied. Avaracoorchi and Darapooram 
were occupied, on the 5th and loth July respectively. 
Tippoo was at this time at Coimbatore, where it was hoped 
he would make a stand. The siege guns and stores were 
therefore deposited in Darapooram, and the army advanced. 
Information was soon received of his having gone north- 
ward, and ascended the defiles on to the Mysore plateau, 
leaving a force of Cavalry numbering from 3000 to 5000, 
under Said Sahib, as a corps of observation. After 
recovering the heavy guns, the advance was continued, 
watched by Said Sahib who fell back on Coimbatore, with 
the intention of burning the town on the near approach of 
the British force. To prevent this, Floyd with the cavalry 
was dispatched to occupy the town, which was accom- 
plished on 2 1st July, the main body arriving the following 
day, while Said Sahib fell back to Demiacotta on the 
Bhowani river. Floyd, with the I9th Light Dragoons, 
three regiments of Native Cavalry, two companies of 
sepoys and four 6 pr. guns, was dispatched in pursuit. 
About ten o'clock at night on the 22nd, after a thirty-mile 
march, he surprised near Demiacotta a small body of 
horse, about thirty of whom were made prisoners. The 
exaggerated accounts they gave him, led him to believe 
that the force with Said Sahib was larger than had been 
supposed. The Fort of Demiacotta having taken the 
alarm, opened fire, and, there being no forage obtainable, 
Floyd considered it prudent to fall back a few miles. On 
the 28th, he moved forward again, and, on reaching the 



70 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

banks of the river, discovered that Said Sahib had carried 
his force across the river, and was encamped on the other 
side. The Bhowani river, at this time, was only fordable 
at certain places. A few long shots from the six pounders 
made Said Sahib decamp, and direct his march towards 
the Guzulhutti Pass. Floyd then fell back to Velladi, and 
remained in observation of the two roads leading from 
Coimbatore to the Bhowani river, moving occasionally 
to Shawoor and Occarro. On the i6th of August, Colonel 
Floyd with a Corporal and six Dragoons, set out from 
Shawoor to visit Occarro, where there was a troop of Native 
Cavalry on detachment duty. On arrival at Occarro, it 
was reported to him that there was a body of the enemy's 
horse in the neighbourhood. Taking twelve men of the 
troop with his original escort, he went in search of them, 
and discovered them close to the village. He immediately 
charged them, and put the whole body to flight. Four 
days later, Major Affleck* of the ipth Light Dragoons, 
with two troops of the ipth and an equal number of the 
5th Native Cavalry, while patrolling, fell in with a large 
body of the enemy's horsemen whom they instantly 
attacked, killing upwards of forty, and capturing twenty 
horses. Not many days after this, an equally successful 
skirmish occurred under the command of Lieut. Bayly of 
the 1 9th Light Dragoons, who, with a troop of the iQth 
and two troops of Native Cavalry, put a large body of the 
enemy's horse to rout, and drove them into the river. In 
a private letter written four months later, Floyd says : 
" Among a great number of cavalry skirmishes I was 
always successful, and fully established for the first time in 
India, the infinite superiority of European over Native horse." 
While Floyd was thus engaged to the north of Coim- 
batore, a force under Colonel Oldham was sent against 

* Afterwards Lieut. General Sir James Affleck, Colonel of the i6th Light 
Dragoons : died 1833. 



1790] FLOYD ON THE BHOWANI 71 

Erode, which surrendered, on the 6th August, after a feeble 
resistance. Another force, under Colonel Stuart, was sent 
against Dindigal, which surrendered, after one unsuccessful 
assault, on the 23rd August. Several other small forts in 
the neighbourhood were also captured. Further reinforce- 
ments were sent to Stuart, who was directed to proceed 
against Palghat. A breach was effected, and the place 
surrendered on 22nd September ; but, before this, events 
had occurred that completely altered the aspect of affairs. 

On the 26th of August, having been reinforced by three 
battalions of sepoys and five guns, Floyd crossed the 
Bhowani, and made himself master of the Fort of Saty- 
amunglum, which was taken by surprise without any loss. 
A native battalion was placed in the Fort, and all Said 
Sahib's detached horsemen were driven into the Guzulhutti 
Pass. The force was then withdrawn to the south bank of 
the river, the fords of which were constantly visited by 
strong patrols. Further reinforcements reached Floyd, 
whose force now consisted of the igih Light Dragoons and 
three regiments of Native Cavalry, H.M. 36th, and four 
battalions of sepoys, with eleven guns of different calibres. 
Exclusive of the artillerymen, the force numbered about 
two thousand eight hundred fighting men. 

So far, all had gone well in spite of much sickness in 
the army, and great difficulties due to the heavy rains. A 
chain of posts had been established to the foot of the 
Guzulhutti Pass, the flanks of the army were well protected, 
and Tippoo's garrisons had been expelled from every 
important place in the Coimbatore district. The force 
under Medows, at Coimbatore, had been reduced to three 
native and two European battalions without their flank 
companies. Floyd, with the force already mentioned, was 
watching the Guzulhutti Pass, some forty miles to the 
northward. With Stuart besieging Palghat, some thirty 
miles south west of Coimbatore, were one regiment of 



72 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

Native Cavalry, one European and five Native battalions of 
Infantry, besides six European companies belonging to 
three different Regiments, and a detachment of Artillery. 
Besides this, there were detachments occupying Karoor, 
Erode, Darapooram, Dindigal, and a few other small posts. 
Nothing but the fall of Palghat was wanting to permit of a 
concentrated forward movement on the Guzulhutti Pass. 
To the eastward, the force that had been left at Conjeveram 
under Colonel Kelly had been reinforced by the division 
from Bengal, and had moved to Arnee, where Colonel 
Kelly's death gave the command to Colonel Maxwell. It 
consisted of one regiment of Native Cavalry, three European 
and eight Native battalions of Infantry, and some Artillery, 
amounting altogether to nine thousand five hundred men. 
To the southward on the Travancore border was Colonel 
Hartley, with one European and four Native battalions of 
Infantry, moving towards Palghat, which he reached after 
its capture. The whole force was dangerously scattered, 
and Tippoo, who had excellent intelligence of all that 
occurred, was not slow to take advantage of the circum- 
stance. So far, the only active measure he had undertaken 
had been the dispatch of a small body of marauding horse 
into the Carnatic by the Changama Pass. They plundered 
and burned Porto Novo, but did little other damage. 

Leaving Seringapatam on the 2nd September, with 
forty thousand men and a large train of Artillery, Tippoo 
reached the Guzulhutti Pass on the 9th, and completed the 
descent in the two following days. Floyd was not unaware 
of the increased force in his front, and of the reports of 
Tippoo's advance, and, in his report to Medows, suggested 
the advisability of his falling back towards Coimbatore. 
But the intelligence was disbelieved, and he was ordered to 
maintain his position. He was at that time encamped on 
the south side of the Bhowani opposite to Satyamunglum. 
On the 1 2th Floyd dispatched an express messenger to 



1790] TIPPOO ADVANCES 73 

Medows telling of the increased forces of the enemy, and 
that Tippoo was advancing in person. At two o'clock in 
the morning of the I3th, Cavalry picquets of the igth 
Light Dragoons and 2nd and 5th Native Cavalry, under 
Captain Child of the igth, were ordered to reconnoitre 
towards the Poongar ford, about ten miles up the river. A 
few hours later, the 5th Native Cavalry, under Major 
Darley, was ordered to follow in support. By some mis- 
chance, Darley took a different road from that which Child 
had followed. Tippoo had however begun to pass his 
troops over the river the day before, after the withdrawal 
of the morning reconnoissance, and Child suddenly found 
himself opposed by a considerable body of horse. 
Charging them at once, he drove them into the 
river, whereby many were killed and drowned : he then 
fell back by the same road. The country all around 
was laid out in small enclosures with cactus hedges, 
rendering it very difficult to see any distance. Major 
Darley, advancing by the other road, charged and over- 
threw a body of about two hundred horse, inflicting great 
loss, but was, immediately after, nearly surrounded by some 
six or seven thousand of the enemy's Cavalry. Sending 
back news to the camp, he took up a position on some 
high ground where his flanks were protected by cactus 
hedges, and kept the enemy at bay by carbine fire. After 
some time he was joined by the 3rd Native Cavalry, and, a 
little later, Floyd with the ipth Light Dragoons, and the 
picquets under Captain Child, attracted by the firing, came 
up. On seeing these reinforcements, the enemy drew off, 
Floyd followed them up and inflicted heavy losses on them. 
Two squadrons of the igth charged a large body of the 
Sultan's Body Guard that had got entangled in an 
enclosure from which there was no outlet, and put upwards 
of five hundred, it is said, to the sword. The enemy's 
leader was slain by a private dragoon, while his standard 



74 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

bearer was cut down and the standard taken by a Corporal. 
The green flag of Islam was also captured. The field was 
cleared of every opponent, and the cavalry returned to 
camp. Scarcely had they dismounted when a large force 
was seen approaching on the north bank of the river, 
whence some heavy guns were brought to bear. At the 
same time, a second force was perceived approaching the 
left flank along the south bank. This necessitated a change 
of position by our troops, and the Sultan contented himself 
with keeping up a heavy cannonade, without a closer 
attack. During the whole day, the force remained in this 
trying position. Floyd's eleven guns were not only out- 
numbered, but were obliged to husband their ammunition 
which was limited. The cannonade ceased at nightfall, and 
the enemy withdrew to some distance. Tippoo never liked 
camping too close to the English, for fear of a night 
surprise. Of the English guns, three were disabled, and 
there had been serious casualties among the troops, the 
horses, and the gun bullocks. Many of the bullock drivers 
had also deserted. The night was very dark with heavy 
rain, the Infantry lay on their arms, and the Cavalry 
remained at the heads of their horses. About midnight, it 
was determined to fall back upon Coimbatore, through 
Shawoor, the force having been driven from the direct line 
of retreat through Velladi. It was necessary first to bring 
the garrison of Satyamunglum across the river. In doing 
this, great delay ensued, and it was four o'clock before the 
troops could be put in motion. Owing to the destruction 
among the gun bullocks, three guns were obliged to be left 
behind. Fortunately for the English, the Sultan's army 
had been greatly inconvenienced by the heavy rain during 
the night, and it was some hours before Tippoo could 
collect a sufficient force to follow the retreat. When he 
moved, his well-equipped artillery soon caught up the slow- 
moving British column, and pressed heavily on its flanks 



1790] FLOYD'S RETREAT 75 

and rear. The first attack was made by a body of Cavalry, 
who fell upon the baggage, the greater part of which was 
lost, and the Surgeon's mate, Sutherland, of the iQth Light 
Dragoons killed. The force reached Occarro about eleven 
o'clock, but after a short halt was obliged to resume its 
march, as Tippoo's army was now moving on its flank. 
Owing to the exhaustion of the gun bullocks, three more 
guns were obliged to be left behind there. The safety of 
the remaining guns was assured by a number of officers 
sacrificing their baggage, and giving their private bullocks 
to draw the guns. On account of the close nature of the 
country, the rear guard duty had to be taken by the 
Infantry, and the Cavalry was sent forward. During the 
whole march, the force was exposed to a continuous fire of 
musketry, heavy guns, and rockets, which was especially 
directed against H.M.'s 36th. On approaching Shawoor, 
the enemy pressed so closely on the column, that the 
Infantry were obliged to form up and show a front, while 
the Cavalry, unable to act among the cactus hedges, led 
the column. At this moment, a report was spread that 
General Medows had arrived to their assistance, and a 
detachment of the ipth Light Dragoons which had passed 
through Shawoor, and appeared on the opposite side of the 
village, was mistaken for the head of his column. The 
news was greeted with cheers ; and Tippoo was also 
deceived by the report which spread through both armies. 
The Infantry advanced, and drove back the enemy, whose 
discomfiture was completed by the Cavalry, who pursued 
on both flanks, and completely cleared the field. The 
force remained in Shawoor during the night, without being 
molested, Tippoo, who at first believed the news of 
Medow's arrival, having drawn off to some distance. Floyd 
fired three signal guns to show his position to General 
Medows, who had marched on the same day to Floyd's 
assistance, but not being aware of his retreat by the 



76 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

Shawoor route, had marched a on Velladi, where he en- 
camped that evening. Floyd had received intelligence 
of Medow's march on Velladi, and, recognizing the great 
importance of forming a junction, marched again before 
daylight, and reached Velladi on the evening of the I5th. 
The enemy did not pursue, and the troops were enabled to 
get food and rest, after being three days without either. 
Medows however was not at Velladi, having gone on 
towards Demiacotta, to which circumstance may be ascribed 
the peaceful march of Floyd's troops on the I5th. The 
junction between the two forces was effected on the i6th. 
The Sultan, on hearing of Medows' movement towards 
Demiacotta, withdrew on the same day to the north side 
of the Bhowani. Had he acted with greater energy, and 
pressed Floyd's force on the I5th, he might have won a 
great success. The troops were exhausted, and would 
have yielded to determined attacks on the third day of 
their retreat. In such an event, the disaster would 
certainly have extended to Medows' force, which consisted 
only of five incomplete battalions, and Stuart's force at 
Palghat would also have been involved in ruin. The 
respect with which Tippoo treated the retreating force was 
largely due to the gallant bearing of the I9th, and especially 
to the severe lesson they taught the enemy on the ^th- 
in addition to the six guns abandoned, the losses of the 
whole detachment under Floyd, during the I3th and I4th, 
were as follows : 

Europeans 

Killed ... 43 

Wounded ... 98 

Missing ... 7 
Natives 

Killed ... 128 

Wounded . . . 137 

Missing . . .148 
Horses 

Killed ... 22 

Wounded ... 8 

Missing ... 28 



1790] CASUALTIES 77 

The Infantry were the principal sufferers. The losses 
of the I9th Light Dragoons amounted to 

Killed 

I Assistant Surgeon. 
5 Troopers. 

Wounded 

i Quarter- Master. 
8 Troopers. 

Horses 

5 killed. 
3 wounded. 



Five officers killed and eight wounded were among the 
casualties of the force, and nearly the whole of the baggage 
was lost. The losses of the enemy were very heavy, 
among the slain being Tippoo's brother-in-law and many 
leaders of note. In spite of their tactical success, the result 
of the two days' righting was to depress the spirits of 
Tippoo's men, while the minds of the British troops were 
proportionately elated at their successful retreat, in presence 
of such an overwhelming force. Floyd received much 
credit, and Medows was generous enough to acknowledge 
his error, in leaving the force in such an exposed position. 
Tippoo ascribed his want of success to the cactus hedges, 
and, some years later, ordered them to be levelled through- 
out the whole district. The gallant bearing of the ipth 
Light Dragoons in this portion of the campaign, made an 
impression that spread to every Native Court in southern 
India, and gained them a reputation for righting, that 
clung to them during the whole of their service in India. 

On the 1 8th, Medows marched from Velladi, and 
returned to Coimbatore on the 23rd, after visiting Shawoor. 
At Coimbatore, he was joined by Colonel Stuart from 
Palghat. On the 2pth he left Coimbatore again, marching 
northward to the Bhowani. Tippoo meanwhile had gone 
towards Erode, which fell into his hands on the 25th. 



78 WAR WITH TIPPOO [1790 

From Erode, Tippoo marched towards Karoor, hoping to 
cut off a large convoy destined for Medows' army. 
Medows followed, and received his convoy safely on the 
7th October. Tippoo meanwhile marched on Darapooram, 
which he took on the 8th, and then marched towards 
Coimbatore, where Medows had left stores and heavy guns 
with but a feeble garrison. Fortunately, under orders from 
Medows, Colonel Hartley, on reaching Palghat, had sent 
on three sepoy battalions, which reached Coimbatore in 
time to save it from attack, and Tippoo turned off north- 
wards when within a few miles of the place. Medows 
reached Coimbatore on the I5th, and, after strengthening 
the defences, again marched for Erode, which he reached 
on the 2nd November. Some slight skirmishing with a 
small party of the enemy's horse occurred on the march, 
during which Private Parkes of the iQth Light Dragoons 
signalised himself, while on flanking duty, by attacking, 
single handed, six horsemen whom he encountered in a 
narrow road, and bringing in three horses and a prisoner. 

Meanwhile, Maxwell's force had advanced from Arnee, 
and entered the Baramahal district near Vaniembadi on 
the 24th October. This forced Tippoo to leave the 
Coimbatore district, and march northward to intercept 
Maxwell. So well was the movement covered, that several 
days elapsed before Medows discovered where he had 
gone. But Tippoo, failing to find Maxwell in a position 
favourable for attack, withdrew after threatening him for 
four days, and was nearly caught between two fires by 
Medows' advancing force. On the I7th, the two armies 
formed a junction, 12 miles south of Cauveripatam. 
Supplies were abundant, and Medows was now at the 
head of the finest army the Company had ever put into 
the field. But Tippoo's excellent system of intelligence, 
and the greater mobility of his army gave him the great 
advantage of choosing his own field of action, so long as 



i79o] THE TAPOOR PASS 79 

he was not brought to bay in the heart of his own country. 
He calculated with justice that, if he moved in the direction 
of the Carnatic, Medows would be obliged to follow him, 
and relinquish his projects on Mysore. Accordingly, 
on the 1 8th, he put his army in motion for Trichinopoly by 
the Tapoor Pass. As fortune would have it, Medows 
marched on the same day, with the intention of traversing 
the same Pass, and reached it after the Sultan's army had 
begun to enter it. The British advance brigade, under 
Colonel Floyd, consisted of the igth Light Dragoons, three 
regiments of Native Cavalry and three sepoy battalions. 
The Sultan's rear was covered by a body of two thousand 
Cavalry, who showed a bold front. Medows became over 
cautious, and waited for his artillery. So well were the 
Mysore Cavalry handled, that no advantage was gained 
beyond the cutting off from the Pass of three battalions 
which were forced into the jungle. Tippoo's baggage also 
was unable to enter the Pass, but suffered no loss ; the 
main body got through, and continued its march without 
mishap. Thus was let slip an opportunity of striking a 
severe blow under most advantageous conditions. 

Tippoo continued his march on Trichinopoly, wasting 
the country as he proceeded, and hoping to make himself 
master of the place, which was not strongly defended, 
before Medows could reach it. But the swollen state of 
the Cauvery river saved the place from attack, and Tippoo 
withdrew, in time to avoid Medows, who arrived before 
Trichinopoly on the I4th December. Two days before 
this, Lord Cornwallis arrived in Madras, with the intention 
of taking command of the army in the field ; and at once 
summoned Medows to bring the force to Madras. Mean- 
while, Tippoo turned northwards, and, ravaging the country 
as he passed, attacked Tiaghur, a small rock fortress, under 
the walls of which a great number of the country people 
had gathered for protection. Here also Tippoo was re- 



8o WAR WITH TIPPOO [1791 

joined by his heavy baggage, which had become separated 
from him at the Tapoor Pass. After two assaults, which 
were repulsed with heavy loss to the assailants, the Sultan 
left Tiaghur, and marched on Trinomalli which was not 
garrisoned. After a feeble resistance from the inhabitants, 
the place was plundered, and great barbarities committed. 
Turning eastward, Tippoo took Permacoil, where there 
was only a single company of Native Infantry, whose 
commander had orders to retreat if threatened. Owing 
to treachery, Tippoo was able to surround the place before 
this could be done. Tippoo then marched towards Pondi- 
cherry, where he remained some time, and dispatched an 
embassy to France, proposing an alliance, and asking for 
a force of 6000 French troops to be sent him. Medows 
followed the Mysore force as far as Trinomalli, whence he 
turned towards Madras. The siege-guns and heavy stores 
were left at Arnee, with a division under Major General 
Musgrave, and the remainder of the force reached Vellout, 
eighteen miles from Madras, on the 2/th January 1791. 
Before this, a brilliant success had been gained by Colonel 
Hartley, who, with three battalions, completely routed a 
large Mysore force near Calicut, on the loth December, 
capturing Tippoo's lieutenant and two thousand four 
hundred prisoners, in the action and in the subsequent 
pursuit. The Bombay force under General Abercromby, 
whose movements had been greatly delayed, was not able 
to commence operations till the beginning of December. 
Then Tippoo's garrisons in Malabar were quickly captured, 
and the whole province occupied. 

The Mahrattas and the Nizam had been tardy in their 
operations. Both were unwilling to come within Tippoo's 
reach, until they could be certain of his being fully occu- 
pied with the English forces. On the 25th August, the 
Mahrattas commenced operations, and, on i8th September, 
laid siege to Dharwar. The attack was so badly con- 



i79i] CORNWALLIS TAKES COMMAND 81 

ducted, that the place did not capitulate till 4th April 
following, when the Mahratta force, under Pareshram Bhow 
and Hari Punt, moved on toward Seringapatam. The 
Nizam moved in concert with the Mahrattas, but delayed 
greatly, after crossing the Kistna, before attacking Kopaul, 
the siege of which was begun on the 28th October. The 
fortress capitulated on the i8th April following. 

According to a muster roll taken at Clive's Choultry 
on 24th December, the ipth Light Dragoons had fifty men 
in hospital, out of a total of 270 non commissioned officers 
and troopers present. Fourteen deaths occurred in the 
preceding six months. During the same period, 50 horses 
had died, and 14 had been rendered unfit for further 
service, out of a total effective strength of 386. 



CHAPTER V 

CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS 

I79I-I792 

Cornwallis takes command of the Army Advance on Bangalore 
Order of March Floyd's reconnoissance Imprudent advance 
Floyd badly wounded Casualties Capture of Bangalore 
Advance on Seringapatam Battle of Arikera Army in great 
straits Forced to retreat Junction of Mahratta contingent 
I9th sent to Madras Rejoin Cornwallis Advance on Seringa- 
patam Night attack Floyd detached to meet Abercromby 
Seringapatam invested Peace made Tippoo's hostages igth 
return to Shevtamodoo. 

CORNWALLIS assumed command of the army, at Vellout, 
on the 29th January 1791. By taking the field in person, 
he ensured the fullest co-operation of the civil and military 
administration, while it was hoped that his presence at the 
head of the troops, would induce the Nizam and the 



82 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

Mahrattas to prosecute the war with more vigour than 
they had yet shown. Instead of attacking Mysore from 
the south, as had been done in the preceding year, 
Cornwallis proposed to operate on a more direct line. 
The considerations that had led to the rejection of this 
line in 1790, were, that Seringapatam could not be 
approached without first taking Bangalore, a place only 
second to Seringapatam in strength. The siege of 
Bangalore would have to be carried on at a distance 
of ninety miles from the nearest depot, Amboor ; and the 
country between Seringapatam and Bangalore was un- 
fertile, and not likely to furnish much in the way of 
supplies. 

The army left Vellout on the 5th February. Tippoo, 
who had remained in the neighbourhood of Pondicherry, 
on hearing of the movement, hastily regained Mysore by 
the Changama and Palicode Passes. Cornwallis, after 
making a feint towards Amboor, which completely 
deceived the Sultan, turned northwards, and carried the 
army through the Mooglee Pass without opposition. 
Without firing a shot, the whole army was concentrated 
on the Mysore plateau by the i8th February. Here the 
army was joined by sixty-seven elephants from Bengal, 
the first occasion of these animals being employed in 
any considerable number by a British force. Hitherto, 
the movements of our armies had been greatly hampered 
by the difficulties of moving heavy siege guns; but on 
this occasion, by yoking the bullocks four instead of two 
abreast, and by the use of elephants to lift and push the 
guns in bad ground, the heavy guns were able to move 
with nearly as much ease as any other part of the 
army. 

Among other beneficial changes made by Lord Corn- 
wallis, was an improvement in the order of march of the 
army. Before this war, our armies in India had marched 



i79i] ORDER OF MARCH 83 

with few cavalry and very small trains of artillery. They 
moved in a single column two or three files deep, with 
the stores, baggage and camp followers on one flank, 
covered by a strong party. This order was fatiguing to 
the troops, made rapid movement impossible, caused great 
delay in assuming any formation on coming in contact 
with the enemy, and exposed the camp followers and 
baggage to great losses from the enemy's cavalry. 
Colonel Fullarton, in his brief campaign of 1783, 
remedied this, to some extent, by making the army 
move on a broad front of three brigades, the artillery 
and baggage following in rear covered on each flank 
by other brigades. The troops marched with intervals 
to permit of speedily forming line in any direction. 

At the commencement of the campaign of 1790 the old 
order was reverted to. The battering train, which marched 
in rear of the column, often fell so far behind, that it did 
not reach the camping ground till the following day. It 
was then placed in the centre of the column. This only 
had the effect of delaying all in rear of the guns, and 
separating the army into two portions. It was then tried 
to improve matters, by placing the heavy guns in front 
of the column. This answered better when the guns were 
few, but with a large battering train gave bad results. The 
plan adopted by Cornwallis, was to make the infantry 
and cavalry move in parallel columns, some distance apart. 
Between them, moved two columns" one composed of 
artillery and stores, while the other was composed of the 
baggage and camp followers, controlled by a baggage 
master. The army thus moved in a huge oblong, with 
the fighting men on the flanks. The front was covered 
by the advance guard, consisting of a cavalry regiment 
and the infantry picquets coming on duty. In the same 
way, the rear was covered by a regiment of cavalry and 
the infantry picquets last on duty, forming the rear guard. 



84 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

The same order was observed in encamping. The infantry 
and cavalry camped in two lines, facing outwards, with 
the artillery, engineer corps, stores, baggage and camp 
followers in the space between. The order thus established 
by Cornwallis during this campaign, may be said to have 
held good in India up till the present day. 

This appearance of a British army on the plateau of 
Mysore, marks the increase that had taken place in the 
military power of the East India Company during the 
past five years. In our previous wars with Hyder Ali and 
Tippoo, the operations of our armies had been confined 
to the low-lying country below the Ghauts, and the scene 
of warfare had been almost always the Company's own 
territories in the vicinity of Madras, or the territories of our 
native allies in the Carnatic. Now, for the first time, the 
war was carried into the very heart of Mysore territory. 

Tippoo's movements, at this time, were characterised by 
unwonted indecision and want of energy. Instead of 
impeding and harassing the march of the army, he contented 
himself with watching the advance, with the intention 
rather of taking advantage of any mistake committed by the 
English commander, than of following any plan of his own. 

On the 5th March, the British force reached Bangalore, 
and took up its ground without any loss, beyond a few 
casualties caused by a distant cannonade on the march. 
On the following day, the army changed ground, and took 
up a better position on the North West face of the pettah.* 
In the afternoon, Colonel Floyd was detached to the south 
west of the town, to cover a reconnoissance by the engineers. 
He had with him his own brigade, consisting of the igih 
Light Dragoons under Captain Child, and five Regi- 
ments of native Cavalry, besides a Brigade of three batta- 
lions of Infantry, with a detachment of Artillery under 
Major Gowdie. 

* The fortified town as distinguished from the fort. 



i79i] FLOYD'S RECONNOISSANCE 85 

The work was satisfactorily accomplished, and the 
force was about to return, when a body of the enemy's 
horse appeared. Leaving the infantry and guns, Floyd 
moved against it, and, on its giving way, discovered some 
Mysore infantry, and guns, with large masses of baggage 
and stores, elephants, bullock carts, camels and all the 
paraphernalia of an Eastern Army on the march. Tippoo 
was changing his ground, and, by accident, the recon- 
noitring party had crossed the rear of his line of march. 
Disregarding his orders, Floyd allowed himself to be 
persuaded to attack, by the young officers who were 
clamorous for the fray. The temptation was irresistible, 
and the cavalry advanced at a gallop. Some parties of 
infantry were charged and broken, and nine guns captured. 
As the advance continued, the ground became much broken 
with ravines and low rocky hills. The horses were ex- 
hausted, and the enemy, collecting their forces, opened a 
heavy fire of musketry and rockets that checked the 
advance. At this moment, Floyd fell from his horse, 
apparently dead, with a musket ball in his head. At his 
fall, the squadron behind him made a half wheel to avoid 
trampling on their leader. This threw the line into con- 
fusion, the flank squadrons took it for a signal to retire, 
and, in a few moments, the whole force was falling back. 
Fortunately for Floyd, Corporal Murray and Private 
Buchanan remained with him, and, examining his wound, 
found that it was not mortal. Murray remained with him, 
while Buchanan galloped after the regiment, and in a 
short time returned with a troop of the ipth, under Cornet 
Roderick Mackenzie : Floyd was mounted on Buchanan's 
horse and brought back to the regiment. He was able to 
halt the regiment, and show a front to the enemy, which 
checked them ; but darkness was coming on ; the enemy 
pressed on, and the confusion was very great. The ex- 
hausted horses were scarcely able to get back through the 



86 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

ravines they had cleared with ease in their advance, and 
had it not been for the good judgment of Major Gowdie, 
who had advanced a mile beyond the place where he had 
been left, and covered the retreat with his brigade, the 
losses would have been very great. Lord Cornwallis, who 
had been able to see what was occurring from the en- 
campment, put a division in motion, and met the whole 
detachment returning. Floyd's wound was caused by a 
bullet through his cheek, which lodged in his neck. It 
was never extracted, and he carried it to his grave, but he 
was sufficiently recovered to take up his command again 
eleven days later. The losses of the detachment were as 
follows : 

Killed 

i Officer. 

1 Trumpeter. 

1 8 Rank and File. 
36 Horses. 

Wounded 

2 Officers (European). 

3 Native Officers. 
43 Rank and File. 
7 Horses. 

Missing 

2 Trumpeters. 
I Rank and File. 
228 Horses. 

The losses of the igth Light Dragoons were 

Killed 

1 Trumpeter. 

2 Rank and File. 
ii Horses. 

Wounded 

i Lieutenant Colonel. 
7 Rank and File. 

Missing 

4 Horses. 



i79i] BANGALORE TAKEN 87 

Major Skelly, Lord Cornwallis' aide-de-camp, writing 
of the event a short time afterwards, says : " I never saw 
Lord Cornwallis completely angry before that evening. 
To this day he cannot speak of that night's business 
without evident signs of disapprobation." 

The loss of so many horses at this early stage of the 
campaign was a serious one, as they could not be replaced. 
The cavalry had been constantly employed for the last 
three days, and the horses had not been regularly fed. 
Those that did not succumb on this occasion were of little 
use for the remainder of the campaign. 

On the following day, the pettah was taken by assault, 
and some much-needed supplies were obtained : but there 
was great scarcity of forage, and horses and transport 
animals suffered greatly. " The draught cattle were daily 
dying at their pickets ; grain and every other necessary, 
including ammunition, were at the lowest ebb." In these 
straits, Lord Cornwallis resolved to try and take the Fort 
by a coup-de-main. On the night of the 2 1st, the assault 
was delivered by moonlight, and in an hour the Fort was 
captured under the eyes of the Sultan, who made no 
serious attempt to cause a diversion. 

The capture of Bangalore was the first great blow that 
had been struck against the power of Mysore, by any foe, 
since its establishment by Hyder Ali. 

Leaving r a garrison in the place, Cornwallis moved 
northward, on the 28th, with the twofold object of forming 
a junction with a corps of the Nizam's cavalry, and of 
meeting a convoy that was expected from Amboor. After 
some delay, caused by false intelligence purposely spread 
by Tippoo, the British force was joined at Cotapilli, on 
1 3th April, by 10,000 irregular horse of the Nizam's, and, 
a week later, the much-needed convoy, escorted by four 
thousand men, was met at Venkitagheri. The combined 
force then returned to Bangalore, which was reached on 



88 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

the 28th. Arrangements were at once made for the siege 
of Seringapatam, against which the Sultan sought to guard 
himself, by wasting the intervening country ; a measure that 
was not without effect on subsequent events. 

On the 1 3th May, the British force reached Arikera, 
about nine miles from Seringapatam. The army moved 
with extreme difficulty, and there was great distress, owing 
to the inadequate transport and the wasted state of the 
country. The Nizam's cavalry refused to forage beyond 
the outposts, and added to the scarcity : great quantities 
of ammunition were dependent for carriage on the private 
resources of officers and other individuals with the army. 
Before laying siege to Seringapatam, it was Cornwallis' 
object to cross the Cauvery at Caniembadi, and form a 
junction with the Bombay force, under Abercromby, which 
was shortly expected. The Sultan, who had hitherto 
confined himself to harassing the line of march, found it 
necessary to offer battle, to prevent if possible the 
threatened junction. With this purpose he took up an 
extremely strong position about three miles from Seringa- 
patam, with his right resting on the Cauvery, and his left 
on a rugged hill. His front was covered by a deep, swampy 
ravine the passages of which were defended by batteries 
along the whole front. Cornwallis determined to turn 
Tippoo's left wing, and, by a night march, to place himself 
between Seringapatam and a great portion of the Mysore 
army. Halting at Arikera on the I4th, the force marched 
at night, leaving the camp standing, with the heavy guns 
and stores. Unfortunately, there was a storm of extra- 
ordinary violence that lasted several hours, which added to 
the confusion and difficulties of a night march, and, when 
day broke, the force had only accomplished three or four 
miles. All hope of surprise was at an end, but Cornwallis 
continued his advance. To meet the movement, Tippoo 
threw back his left, and in order to cover his change of 



i79i] BATTLE OF ARIKERA 89 

front, detached a large corps of cavalry and infantry, with 
eight guns, to occupy a strong rocky ridge on his left, at 
right angles to the line of march of the British column. 
Owing to the depth of the ravine to be crossed, and the 
weakness of the gun bullocks, it took two hours before the 
British force could form up in line for attack ; during 
which it was exposed to a galling artillery fire, and to 
some charges of cavalry, which were repulsed. The British 
force was disposed, with nine battalions under Major 
General Medows, in the first line, opposite to the enemy's 
main body ; four battalions in the second line, under 
Lt. Col. Harris ; while five battalions, under Lt. Col. 
Maxwell, were destined to attack the enemy's corps on 
the ridge to the right. The cavalry under Floyd, con- 
sisting of the ipth Light Dragoons and five Regiments of 
Native Cavalry, and the Nizam's horse, were left on the 
opposite side of the ravine, out of reach of artillery fire. 

The action commenced by an advance of Maxwell's 
force against the ridge, which was taken, while the cavalry 
crossed the ravine, and fell on the rear of the Mysore 
infantry, inflicting considerable loss. But the exhausted 
horses could not raise a gallop, and they were obliged to 
fall back from a strong body of infantry, that had rallied 
and made a stand in some broken rocky ground. At this 
juncture, the Nizam's horse, which had followed the British 
cavalry across the ravine, threw itself in an unwieldy mass 
in front of the left wing, preventing its advance, and 
detaining it under the fire of the enemy's batteries in 
Seringapatam. This unfortunate circumstance, which by 
many was ascribed to treachery on the part of the Nizam's 
commander, saved the enemy from destruction. The 
British line was for some time unable to advance, and the 
enemy's guns and infantry, in great confusion, were able 
to withdraw under protection of their batteries across the 
river. Four guns were taken. The British loss was 81 



90 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

killed, 339 wounded, and 6 missing. Of this, the ipth 
Light Dragoons lost 

Killed 

1 Officer. Cornet James Patterson. 

2 Troopers. 

Wounded 

t nffi^-o /Cornet Roderick Mackenzie. 

S< \Cornet John Fortnam. 
2 Troopers. 

Horses 

13 Killed, 
ii Wounded. 

The army was now in such a state, owing to want of 
proper supplies, want of carriage, and an epidemic of 
smallpox, that it was necessary to join hands with the 
Bombay force under Abercromby, before undertaking the 
siege. Abercromby had encountered great difficulties in 
ascending the Passes into Mysore, and so excellent was 
the work done by Tippoo's cavalry, that Cornwallis was 
without any precise information as to his advance. Nor 
was anything known of the Mahratta contingent, beyond 
the fact that they had captured Dharwar. Cornwallis 
therefore resolved on continuing his march on Caniembadi, 
to meet Abercromby. " For two marches, all the battering 
train and almost every public cart in the army were 
dragged by the troops," and Cornwallis came to the con- 
clusion, that the state of his force rendered a retirement on 
Bangalore imperative. The siege train and heavy stores 
could be carried no farther, and it was resolved to destroy 
them. On the 2ist May, orders were despatched to 
Abercromby, who was then at Periapatam, about 25 miles 
to the westward, to destroy his heavy stores, and retire 
below the Passes, and Cornwallis' army was retained five 
days in position, to cover Abercromby's movement. On 
the 22nd, the whole of the battering train and heavy stores 
were destroyed, and on the 26th, the first march of six 



i79i] ARRIVAL OF MAHRATTAS 91 

miles was made in retreat. The distress was very great : 
the troops were on half rations, and the only way of 
carrying what grain was available was to distribute it 
among the righting men. "Great part of the horses of 
the cavalry were so reduced by want and fatigue, that 
they could no longer carry their riders ; and many, unable 
to march, were shot at their pickets. The ground at 
Caniembadi, where the army had encamped but six days, 
was covered, in a circuit of several miles, with the carcasses 
of cattle and horses.* " All that occurred of mortality 
among the cattle, during the siege of Bangalore, fell far 
short of the horrible scene and pestilential air of this 
disgusting ground." f 

In the middle of the first day's painful march, a body 
of two thousand cavalry appeared on the left flank. 
Preparations were made to meet them, and shots were 
fired, when it was suddenly discovered that they were the 
advanced guard of the Mahratta force. It was not known 
that they were within a hundred and fifty miles of 
Seringapatam, and not one of the numerous messengers 
they had sent to convey notice of their approach, had 
succeeded in escaping Tippoo's scouts. There were, in 
fact, two forces ; one, under Hari Punt, consisting of 
twelve thousand horse, and the other, under Pareshram 
Bhow, of twenty thousand horse and foot, with two 
battalions of Bombay sepoys, under Captain Little. They 
brought with them abundant supplies, and plenty once 
more reigned in the British camp. Their cavalry foraged 
boldly in every direction, bringing in supplies from great 
distances, in striking contrast to the behaviour of the 
Nizam's force. But they came too late to permit of an 
attack on Seringapatam. Had Cornwallis known of their 
approach five days sooner, all would have been well, and 
another campaign would have been spared him. But his 

* Dirom. f Wilks. 



92 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1791 

siege train no longer existed, the Bombay force had 
descended the Ghauts, and there was nothing for it but 
to adhere to his resolve of falling back. The allied forces 
remained in the vicinity of Seringapatam till the 6th June, 
when they leisurely moved northwards to Nagmunglum, 
and thence eastward to Bangalore, taking the small hill 
fort of Hooliadroog on the way. " So reduced were the 
horses of our cavalry from want and fatigue, that the only 
service they could now render was to walk on slowly with 
the sick and wounded soldiers on their backs, for whom 
we were in great want of conveyance ; and it was highly 
pleasing to see the cheerfulness with which the troopers 
walked by the side of their horses, while their distressed 
comrades of the infantry rode upon the march." * The 
Mahratta cavalry effectually prevented the march being 
harassed by the enemy, from whom they took some 
convoys and elephants. 

Pending the completion of arrangements for another 
advance on Seringapatam, the Mahratta force withdrew 
northwards to Sara; the Nizam's force also withdrew to 
Gunjicotta, which, with several other small places, had 
been captured by a force of the Nizam's. 

The i pth Light Dragoons with the rest of the cavalry 
were sent, under Floyd, to the Carnatic, to recruit. The 
regiment reached Madras early in August ; and, as horses 
to remount the cavalry were not procurable, three native 
cavalry regiments were dismounted in order to complete 
the horses required for the ipth. The 3rd and 5th Native 
cavalry had their ranks partially filled in the same way, so 
that by the end of the monsoon these three Regiments 
were ready to rejoin the army. 

"The i gth Light Dragoons, which under their gallant 
leader, had made so powerful an impression on the minds 

* Dirom. 



i79i] THE NINETEENTH REMOUNTED 93 

of the enemy during the war, was again completely re- 
mounted ; and with the addition of the draughts and 
recruits that had arrived from England, was in nearly as 
great force as when it first took the field. This favourite 
corps was reviewed by General Musgrave at the Mount in 
the beginning of October, when it shewed near four hundred 
mounted, both men and horses in perfect order." * 

Meanwhile, the army at Bangalore was engaged in 
securing the passes into the Carnatic, and in reducing the 
numerous hill fortresses that abounded in Mysore. The 
most important of these, Nundydroog and Savandroog, 
were taken by assault on the iQth October and 2ist 
December, respectively. Tippoo, on his side, had not 
been idle. In the middle of June a large Mysore force 
invested Coimbatore, which was weakly held. The defence 
was obstinate, and after a two months' siege the place was 
relieved from Palghat. In October, it was invested a 
second time, and, the attempts to relieve it being un- 
successful, Coimbatore was forced to surrender, on 3rd 
November. Several parties of Mysore horse also suc- 
ceeded in making raids into the Carnatic, doing much 
mischief. One party penetrated to within a few miles of 
Madras, early in January, after the cavalry had marched 
to rejoin Cornwallis, and carried off much plunder. 
During the preceding half century, the country within 
fifty miles of Madras had been the constant scene of 
warlike operations. In that period, Madras had fallen 
to a French attack, and been held by them for four years. 
Again, it had been frequently threatened and once besieged, 
by France, and Hyder had dictated a peace within sight of 
Fort St. George. Too often, the inhabitants of Madras 
had heard the sound of an enemy's guns, and seen the sky 
red with the glare of burning villages : and now again the 
horsemen of Mysore were plundering and burning within 

* Dirom. 



94 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1792 

sight of the Mount. But it was for the last time. Shevta- 
modoo was plundered and burned by one of these parties. 

In the meantime, large convoys of supplies and material 
were being forwarded to Bangalore, the last and most im- 
portant, conveying all the ammunition for the army, being 
escorted by the I9th Light Dragoons under Colonel Floyd. 
Ascending by the Pednaikdirgum Pass, on the 23rd De- 
cember, and marching by Kolar, Ooscotta and Bangalore, 
he joined Cornwallis at Magre, near Ootradroog, on the I2th 
January 1792. Everything was now ready for an advance on 
Seringapatam, and the army was in a more efficient state 
than it had been at any time since the war began. Owing 
to Lord Cornwallis' excellent arrangements, supplies of all 
sorts were in the greatest abundance. The only deficiency 
was in horses for the Cavalry. The losses experienced in 
this respect, in the previous year, had not been made good, 
and this arm of the service was represented only by the 
1 9th Light Dragoons, six troops, the 3rd Native Cavalry, 
six troops, the 5th Native Cavalry, four troops, and the 
Body Guards of Lord Cornwallis and General Medows, one 
troop each. The force altogether consisted of 22,033 men, 
of which about 15,500 were infantry. The advance was 
still delayed by the absence of the Nizam's force, which 
was occupied in the siege of Gurramconda. On the 25th 
January it arrived, under the command of the Nizam's son, 
Secunder Jah. Part of the Mahratta contingent, under 
Hari Punt, had already joined Lord Cornwallis, but the 
greater part, under Pareshram Bhow, had gone off on a 
plundering expedition to the northwestward, in defiance 
of the agreement made six months before. It did not join 
the British force, till the campaign was over. 

The Bombay army, under Abercromby, consisting of 
eight thousand four hundred men, was also on the march 
from the westward. Ascending by the Poodicherim Pass, 
Abercromby directed his march by Periapatam and 



1792] SERINGAPATAM 95 

Eratoor, so as to join hands with Cornwallis in front of 
Seringapatam. 

On the 3 ist January, Cornwallis held a review of his 
whole force at Hooliadroog, for the benefit of his allies. 
As the Nizam's son reached the right of the line " a salute 
of 2 1 guns was fired from the park, while the cavalry, with 
drawn swords and trumpets sounding, received him with 
due honours as he passed their front. He returned the 
officers' salute, and looked attentively at the troops. The 
ipth Dragoons, of which they had all heard, attracted 
their particular notice." * On the following day, the army 
marched, and encamped within sight of Seringapatam, at 
about seven miles' distance, on the 5th February. No 
opposition on the march was experienced. 

Seringapatam is situated on an island in the Cauvery 
river, four miles in length and a mile and a half broad. 
At the western end of the island was the fortress, the 
eastern portion being also strongly defended by connected 
batteries and redoubts. On the north side, on what may 
be called the main land, was an oblong space about three 
miles in length, enclosed by a hedge of cactus and other 
thorny plants, and commanded by redoubts on the highest 
points. In this space Tippoo was encamped. He believed 
that he could protract the defence, till the coming of the 
monsoon and the scarcity of supplies should force Corn- 
wallis to raise the siege; he further believed that no 
serious attack would be made on the position, till the 
arrival of Abercromby's force. But Cornwallis had plans 
of a very different nature. The 6th being spent in 
reconnoitring, orders were issued, about sunset, for the 
troops to parade at once for a night attack. About 8 
o'clock all was ready, and the infantry advanced in three 
columns, the centre column being headed by Cornwallis 
in person. The cavalry were left to guard the camp, and 

* Dirom. 



96 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1792 

the artillery were left behind also. When all was ready, 
Cornwallis sent word of his plans to his native allies, who 
were dismayed at hearing of an advance against a fortified 
camp without artillery, and that his lordship should have 
gone to fight " like a common soldier." Moving in silence, 
the heads of the columns, which were more than a mile 
apart, came in touch with the enemy about half past ten. 
The attack was completely successful. One redoubt after 
another was carried, Tippoo's camp was taken, some of 
the troops, in their ardour, crossing the stream and pene- 
trating to the farther side of the island. The brunt of 
the fighting fell on the centre column, which, towards 
daylight, was heavily attacked by the Mysore troops, who 
had recovered from their first surprise. The fighting 
continued till five o'clock in the afternoon of the 7th, 
the last serious attack being headed by Tippoo's French 
regiment. But nothing availed to dislodge the British 
troops from the positions they had gained, and Tippoo 
was forced to withdraw on to the island, where also our 
troops had made good their footing. Our loss amounted 
to 535 of all ranks, killed, wounded and missing. Eighty 
guns and an enormous quantity of supplies were captured. 
The enemy's loss was estimated at four thousand killed, 
great numbers having been forced into the river and 
drowned. Greater still was the loss caused by desertion ; 
numbers of the enemy having taken advantage of the 
confusion, to throw down their arms and make off to their 
homes. The whole loss to the Sultan, in killed, wounded 
and missing, was estimated at twenty thousand men. 

On the 1 2th, the cavalry under Floyd were detached 
to meet Abercromby, with whom he effected a junction 
on the 1 4th. In a private letter, still extant, he writes : 

"On the nth February I convoyed 13,000 Brinjarries 
(Brinjara bullocks carrying grain) into camp. On the 



1792] BOMBAY FORCE ARRIVES 97 

1 2th February, I was detached with nine squadrons, one 
battalion of sepoys, and about 1500 allied horse, to meet 
General Abercromby, and his army. 

On the 1 4th of February, I was attacked by full 4000 
of the enemy's horse, who had got in among my baggage, 
and attached themselves to my allied horse. I soon 
recovered every article of my baggage, but was forced to 
stop there, not being able to distinguish friend from foe. 
The Nizam's Horse under a son of the Nawab of Canoul, 
and the Mahratta Horse also kept firm. The enemy drew 
off, rather worsted by the allied horse. Immediately, the 
head of Abercromby's column appeared at a distance, and 
the enemy made for them. I posted my battalion, my 
allied horse, and my baggage, and ranged along between 
the enemy and Abercromby's with the nine squadrons of 
our own horse ; the enemy collected and went clear off." 

Dirom, the principal chronicler of the campaign, says: 

" Tippoo had meant a more serious opposition to this 
junction, and for that purpose had detached the whole 
of his cavalry on the evening of the 1 3th ; they had 
crossed (the Cauvery) a few miles above the fort, and lay 
in wait till Colonel Floyd moved in the morning of the 
I4th. The detachment of allies, in spite of the Colonel's 
orders, and the remonstrance of Major Scott, who was 
sent with them, remained loitering on the ground for some 
time after the Colonel had marched : the Sultan's horse 
seized the opportunity, and attacked them with great 
vigour. They stood their ground for some time, and then 
retreating towards Colonel Floyd, he returned to support 
them, and soon put the enemy to the rout." 

On the 1 6th, Abercomby joined Cornwallis on the north 
side of Seringapatam, without further hindrance, and 
preparations were made for prosecuting the siege. On the 
1 9th, Abercromby made a detour, and, crossing the 
Cauvery, invested the place from the south. A strong 
Brigade, under Colonel Stuart, was entrenched on the 
island, and Floyd with the Cavalry was stationed about 
four thousand yards to the eastward, linking up the 
distance between Cornwallis and Abercromby. Seringapa- 



98 CORNWALLIS' CAMPAIGNS [1792 

tarn was completely invested. On the 22nd, an attack on 
Abercromby's force was repulsed with loss, and then 
Tippoo, who had been for some days in negotiation with 
Cornwallis, realised that the time for surrender had arrived. 
The losses he had experienced in the fighting of the 6th 
and /th, rendered prolonged resistance impossible. 

It was no part of Lord Cornwallis' policy to destroy 
the Mysore State, but the disposition of Tippoo, " a faith- 
less and violent character on whom no dependence could 
be placed " required that his power should be so far 
curtailed, as to render him less dangerous. On the 23rd 
February, the preliminaries of peace were signed by Tippoo, 
and warlike operations ceased, much to the disgust of the 
army, whose minds were inflamed to an extraordinary 
degree against the Sultan, on account of the barbarous 
cruelties inflicted by him on all prisoners that fell into his 
hands. One of the stipulations was that two of Tippoo's 
sons should be handed over, as hostages for the due 
performance of the treaty of peace. On the 26th, the 
young princes were received by Lord Cornwallis with much 
ceremony. The occasion seems to have made a great 
impression at the time. Three, * if not more, pictures of 
the event were painted by A. W. Devis, a well-known 
artist, who was present. In all of them, Colonel Floyd is 
prominently represented, a fine martial figure. Cornet 
Hale and Captain Child of the ipth Light Dragoons also 
appear in some of the pictures. This was evidently re- 
garded in India as the most striking event in Lord 
Cornwallis' career in the country. The base of the statue 
erected to him in Madras, has another representation of the 
scene. 

The Princes remained in British territory till March 
1794, when they were sent back to the Sultan with all 
honour. 

* One of these is now the property of the Junior United Service Club. 




AN OFFICER OF THE XIXTH LIGHT DRAGOONS, 1792. 

to face p. 99. 



i793l END OF THE WAR 99 

A considerable amount of prize money gained during 
the war was further enhanced by the surrender of their 
respective shares by Lord Cornwallis and General Medows, 
and by liberal gratuities from the Government. The share 
of every private soldier amounted to ^"14, n. 9., the 
shares of other ranks being in proportion. 

Sixty-seven forts and eight hundred and one guns were 
captured during the three campaigns ; of which, fifty-six 
forts and six hundred and fifty-six guns were captured by 
the British forces, the remainder falling to their native 
allies. 

On the 2Oth March, the Treaty of Peace was duly 
ratified, and on the 26th, the army marched from 
Seringapatam, for Madras, which was reached about the 
end of May. The ipth Light Dragoons returned to their 
old quarters at Shevtamodoo. 

A medal for the three campaigns, 1790-92, was bestowed 
on the Bengal native troops who took part in them. 



CHAPTER VI. 

FALL OF MYSORE 

1793-1799. 

France declares War Expedition against Pondicherry Surrender of 
Pondicherry Peace reigns in India Lunkia Naik Floyd's large 
allowances French adventurers in India Tippoo's growing 
hostility Disarmament of Nizam's force under French officers 
Army formed under General Harris Tippoo's intrigues Galloper 
Guns Advance on Mysore Battle of Mallavelly Seringapatam 
invested The Bombay Army The Rajah of Coorg Signal guns 
Seringapatam taken Tardy recognition in England of services 
performed in India Badge of " Seringapatam." 

ON the 1st February 1793, the French National Conven- 
tion declared war against Great Britain. The news was 



ioo FALL OF MYSORE [1793 

at once dispatched to India by the British Consul at 
Alexandria, and reached Calcutta on the nth June. 
Lord Cornwallis acted with great promptitude, and, with- 
out awaiting further communications from England, issued 
orders for taking possession of the French territories in 
India. The troops in the vicinity of Wallajabad, among 
whom were the ipth Light Dragoons, were at once put in 
motion under Colonel Floyd, and encamped before Pondi- 
cherry on the nth July, while the place was blockaded by 
sea by such ships as were available. On the 28th July, 
Colonel Brathwaite, who had succeeded Major General 
Medows as local Commander in Chief, took command of 
the force, which by this time amounted to 10,500 men. 
According to the returns of ist August, the strength of the 
1 9th Light Dragoons, at that date, was 274, exclusive of 
sick. Siege operations were commenced on the loth 
August, and fire was' opened on the 2Oth. On the 22nd 
Pondicherry capitulated, and was taken possession of 
on the following day. The British loss amounted to 248 
killed, wounded, and missing. One hundred and sixty- 
six guns, with a great quantity of military stores, fell into 
the hands of our troops, and Pondicherry ceased to be a 
French possession until the Peace of Amiens. The part 
taken in the siege by the cavalry was naturally a subordinate 
one, as the enemy had no force in the field that could 
interrupt operations. 

On the fall of Pondicherry, the ipth Light 
Dragoons returned for a time to their old quarters at 
Shevtamodoo. Colonel Floyd remained at Pondicherry, 
in command of the place, for a few months, when he 
was appointed to command the Southern Division 
of the Madras forces, with his Head Quarters at 
Trichinopoly. In 1794, we find the I9th quartered at 
Seringham, near Trichinopoly. In the following year, 
they were encamped on the Trichinopoly plain, and in 



1796] PEACE IN INDIA 101 

1796, they were moved into the cavalry cantonments at 
Trichinopoly. 

For five years the war was confined to Europe. The 
French flag was not seen on the coasts of India, nor was 
any Frenchman in arms, with the exception of those in 
the service of Native States, to be found in the country. 
While war raged in Europe, the peace of India was 
practically undisturbed. In the beginning of June 1795, a 
detachment of the I9th was employed in the capture of an 
insurgent Polygar chief, named Lunkia Naik, under the 
following circumstances. On the night of the 7th June, 
Lieutenant Oliphant, with a detachment of two native 
officers and twenty-two sepoys, surprised and captured 
Lunkia Naik, at Manapur, about twenty-four miles from 
Trichinopoly. The Chief's retainers gathered to the rescue 
in large numbers, and attacked Oliphant, who had retired 
with his prisoner into a Choultry, where he defended him- 
self for nine hours, repelling several assaults. The follow- 
ing morning, two troops of the ipth appeared, drove off 
the assailants, and brought Oliphant's detachment back 
to Trichinopoly, with Lunkia Naik securely tied to a 
trooper. 

Towards the end of 1796, the 25th Light Dragoons 
landed in Madras from England. 

In his first regimental order to the regiment, when it 
was raised, Sir John Burgoyne took occasion to point out 
that service in India was " not less honourable than 
lucrative." There could be no doubt on the latter point, 
so far as the senior officers were concerned. The advantages 
given to the King's officers in point of rank over the 
Company's officers, had the intended effect of throwing 
most of the chief commands into their hands, and the 
allowances that were granted in some cases, showed how 
strong a shake they were able to give to the " pagoda 
tree." Lieutenant Colonel Stapleton Cotton (afterwards 



102 FALL OF MYSORE [i797 

Lord Combermere) in a letter from Madras in January 1797, 
wrote 

" As the command of a station is everything here . . . 
I am very desirous of getting the rank of Colonel, which 
would ensure a command. An officer commanding at any 
station receives full batta, which, if a Colonel, is very 
considerable. I now only receive half batta, as a Lieutenant 
Colonel, and my King's pay. On the Bengal establishment 
every officer receives full batta, and the Commanding 
Officer double full batta. A Bengal command is a sure 
fortune in five years. General Floyd is now (including his 
King's pay as Major General and Lieutenant Colonel of 
the I pth Light Dragoons, his Company's pay, and his 
allowance from the Company and the Nizam as Command- 
ant of the Southern District) in the receipt of from 14,000 
to 16,000." 

Events were in progress, that were, before long, destined 
to bring the British armies in India into the field again. 
British authority in India was menaced by French hostility 
in a peculiarly subtle and dangerous form. The memory 
of his defeats and losses in 1792, had long rankled in 
Tippoo's mind, and his animosity against the English was 
inflamed by the numerous French officers in his employ, 
through whom he maintained informal relations with 
France. In Hyderabad, there was a fairly disciplined 
force of 14,000 infantry, with an adequate proportion of 
artillery, commanded by French officers in the Nizam's 
service, who flew the tricolour flag, and were in secret 
correspondence with Tippoo. In upper India, Scindia's 
disciplined battalions were also commanded by a French 
officer. Fortunately, the Mahrattas were at this time too 
much occupied with their own quarrels to meddle with 
affairs in the South. The news of French successes, under 
Bonaparte, induced Tippoo to believe that the time had 
arrived to strike a blow against the English. 

In March 1796, he dispatched an embassy to Cabul, 
inviting Zeman Shah to invade India, conquer Delhi, and 



1798] THE FRENCH AT HYDERABAD 103 

join hands with him in destroying the British, the 
Portuguese, the Mahrattas, and the Nizam. In the 
following year, Tippoo despatched ambassadors to the 
Mauritius, proposing an offensive and defensive alliance 
against the English, and asking for a French force, which 
he engaged to pay and to furnish with all necessary supplies. 
But the Governor of the Mauritius had no troops to spare, 
and could only send under 100 men, among whom were 
several officers and artificers, who landed in India in April 
1798. A few weeks later, Tippoo despatched an embassy 
to Paris. In May 1798, Lord Mornington, afterwards 
known as the Marquis of Wellesley, arrived in India to 
take up the office of Governor General, and Tippoo's 
dealings with the French became known, a few days after 
his arrival. It was known also that a great French 
expedition was preparing in the Mediterranean, which 
was believed to be aimed at Egypt, as in fact it was. The 
times were critical, and demanded prompt action : the new 
Governor General was not the man to waste time, when 
action was required. The first move made by Lord 
Mornington was to break up the force at Hyderabad, 
which for the moment was the most dangerous factor in 
the situation. The Nizam and his ministers were loyal to 
the British alliance, but the French officers present had 
become possessed of so much influence, that the Hyderabad 
Government had lost control of them, while their arrogance 
and overbearing conduct filled the Nizam and his ministers 
with alarm. The Nizam therefore willingly entered into a 
Treaty engaging himself to get rid of his French officers, 
and to break up the formidable body they had created. 
By dexterous measures, and by taking advantage of a 
mutiny that occurred in the force, it was surrounded and 
disarmed without bloodshed, on 22nd October. One 
hundred and twenty-four French officers, whose lives were 
at the time in danger from their own men, were removed 



104 FALL OF MYSORE [1799 

and shipped off to Calcutta, and a serious danger suc- 
cessfully averted.* Four days before this occurrence, 
intelligence of the invasion of Egypt by Bonaparte reached 
Calcutta. Meanwhile, by way of precaution against a 
sudden blow from Tippoo, a force was collected at 
Wallajabad, among which was the igth Light Dragoons, 
who marched from Trichinopoly at the beginning of 
August. From Wallajabad the regiment was moved to 
Madras ; their muster roll, dated 2Oth September, shows 
that they were cantoned at the Mount on that date. The 
effective strength of the regiment, then present, was 361 of 
all ranks ; of whom 1 2 were recruits recently received from 
England, and 30 were volunteers from the I2th, ipth, 73rd, 
and 74th Regiments. So valuable were European Cavalry, 
that on the bare prospect of war their numbers were at 
once filled up from the Infantry. The dispersal of the 
French Contingent at Hyderabad having been accomplished, 
Lord Mornington addressed Tippoo with regard to his 
dealings with the French Government. Preparations were 
at the same time made for an advance on Seringapatam 
from the Bombay coast, while the Madras forces assembled 
at Vellore. Tippoo's replies were evasive. His object 
was to gain time, till the arrival of the expected French 
force. Delay was dangerous, and it was evident that 
further negotiations could lead to no good result, s, early 
in February 1 799, the advance of the army was determined 
on. Meanwhile, Shah Zeman had reached Lahore, and, 
though he was unable to advance farther south, and was 
forced to return to Cabul, on account of his own territories 

* Among the Europeans in the Nizam's service was one Captain Finglass, 
who had formerly been a Quarter Master in the iQth Light Dragoons. He 
commanded a corps, and, in company with another corps commander, an 
American named Boyd, made known his determination to uphold the 
Company's authority against French intrigues. Some time after the disarma- 
ment of the Nizam's troops he was reinstated in his position in the Nizam's 
service. 



i799l GALLOPER GUNS 105 

being invaded by Persia, his presence in the Punjab 
necessitated the preparation of a British force in the North, 
to hold him in check. 

Up till this time the artillery of the British Army in 
India was entirely drawn by bullocks. An attempt to 
furnish artillery of greater mobility was now made. While 
the army lay at Vellore, an order was issued for attaching 
to each regiment of European dragoons and native Cavalry 
two 6 Pr. guns, in order to increase their independent 
action. 

" The plan adopted by Government for attaching flying 
artillery to the cavalry corps having been communicated to 
the heads of regiments respectively, the Commander in 
Chief is now pleased to direct that the detail of European 
artillery and gun lascars to be attached to each regiment 
be sent to the several corps from the 1st and 2nd battalions 
of artillery agreeably to the following arrangements, viz : 

1 Lieutenant Fireworker, I Serjeant, I Corporal, I Syrang, 

2 Second Tindals and 20 Lascars for each regiment of 
European dragoons, and I Serjeant, I Gunner, I First 
Tindal, and 18 Lascars for each regiment of native Cavalry. 
(G.O.C.C. 1 3th January 1799)." * 

Little mention of these guns is anywhere made during 
the ensuing campaign, though their efficiency on subsequent 
occasions is frequently mentioned. Thorn, the historian of 
the Mahratta War, writing four years later of the formation 
of the army under the Commander in Chief, says : 

" Among the different military improvements practised 
on these occasions, the use of the galloper guns was one of 
the most important, as afterwards appeared in the terror 
which they produced on the Mahratta horse. Two of 
these guns, of six pounders, were attached to each regiment; 
and nothing could exceed the celerity and exactness of the 
manoeuvres made with them at full speed by this large 
body of cavalry &c. &c." f 

* In November 1802 the number of gun lascars was reduced to I First 
Tindal and 10 men for each European Regiment, 
t Thorn. 



106 FALL OF MYSORE [i799 

In spite of the good service done by the galloper guns 
on many occasions, difficulties as to their control in the 
field frequently arose, after the formation of a corps of 
artillery drawn by horses, in 1805, owing to their not having 
formed an integral part of the Regiment they were attached 
to. 

At first the guns closely attended'their regiment, in action, 
seconding its efforts with their fire when possible. In line 
of battle they were placed in pairs, in the intervals between 
different corps. After a time this system was discontinued, 
and the guns were brigaded together under command of a 
Cavalry officer, or they were brigaded with Artillery guns, 
in which case difficulties arose as to. their command. In 
1815, it was ordered that, whenever galloper guns were 
brigaded, they should be commanded by an Artillery 
officer. But complaints were made that the want of 
uniform training rendered them unfit to be brigaded with 
Horse Artillery guns, and they were finally abolished in 
May 1819. 

The i pth Light Dragoons, taking their galloper guns 
with them, as well as those for the 25th Light Dragoons 
and the ist Native Cavalry, marched from Madras on 23rd 
January, to join the army under General Harris, which was 
assembled at Vellore to the number of nearly 21,000 men. 
On the 1 4th February, the whole force moved forward. 
The Cavalry under Major General Floyd comprised the 
1 9th, 430 strong, the 25th Dragoons, and four Regiments of 
Native Cavalry : 2635 sabres in all, divided into two 
Brigades. On the 2Oth, the army was joined by 16,000 
men from Hyderabad, about 10,000 of which were the con- 
tingent furnished by the Nizam, who, throughout the 
campaign, co-operated most heartily with the British 
Commander. The command of the Nizam's Contingent 
was given to Colonel the Honourable Arthur Wellesley,* 

* Afterwards Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington. 



1799] BATTLE OF MALLAVELLY 107 

who had with him also his own regiment, the 33rd Foot. 
Simultaneously, the force from Bombay consisting of 6400 
men under Lieutenant General Stuart,* advanced from 
Cannanore, and, on 2nd March, encamped on the Mysore 
frontier, near Periapatam. 

Marching by Rycottah, General Harris crossed the 
Mysore frontier on 5th, and directed his march northwards, 
as if for the purpose of attacking Bangalore. When in 
sight of that place he turned southwards, and encamped 
five miles from Mallavelly, on the 26th March. Meanwhile, 
Tippoo had not been idle. On the 6th, he crossed the 
frontier near Periapatam, and attempted to cut off a 
detached Brigade of the Bombay force at Sedaseer. In 
spite of his great numerical superiority, the attack was 
repulsed with heavy loss, and Tippoo withdrew to 
Seringapatam. He had between seventy and eighty 
thousand men, about thirty thousand of which were in or 
near Seringapatam, the whole in a state of complete 
efficiency. 

As General Harris' force approached their camping 
ground, on the 26th, the Cavalry found themselves con- 
fronted by a large body of the enemy commanded by 
Tippoo in person. As the Infantry closed up, the Sultan 
slowly moved off, and the British force encamped within 
sight of the enemy, who withdrew towards Mallavelly. At 
daybreak, on the 27th, the army marched on Mallavelly, 
while the Nizam's contingent under Wellesley moved 
parallel to it, on the left, enclosing the baggage between 
the two bodies. The front was covered by Major General 
Floyd with five regiments of Cavalry. On approaching 
Mallavelly, the heights beyond the village were seen to be 
occupied by infantry, while a large force of cavalry were 
on the British right. Wellesley's division was directed to 

* Not the officer of the same name who was formerly Commander-in-Chief 
in Madras, 



io8 FALL OF MYSORE [1799 

attack the enemy's right, supported by Floyd and his 
cavalry, while the right wing of the army entered Malla- 
velly, and attacked the enemy's centre. As the force 
advanced, the enemy drew back, as though declining an 
action, and preparations were made by the British troops 
for marking out a new encampment. While this was in 
progress, the enemy suddenly opened fire from twelve or 
fourteen guns, which did some execution. Upon this, the 
infantry picquets, the 25th Light Dragoons and a Native 
Cavalry Regiment pushed forward, and occupied a village 
in front of the enemy's left, in which was a party of the 
enemy's horse and rocket men, while the rest of the 
army formed line of battle. In the meanwhile, Colonel 
Wellesley's division advanced, supported by Major General 
Floyd, with the igth Light Dragoons, and ist and 3rd 
regiments of Native cavalry. As the British force ad- 
vanced, nearly simultaneous attacks were made by the 
enemy on both flanks. On the right a large body of 
cavalry hovered on the flanks, while a smaller corps 
charged the ist Brigade under Major General Baird. The 
steady fire of the I2th Foot and the Scotch Brigade re- 
pulsed them with considerable loss. On the left, a 
body of men, about 2000 strong, advanced in good order 
against the 33rd, till it was thrown into confusion by a 
heavy fire at sixty paces' distance. Seizing the moment, 
Floyd charged with his three regiments of Cavalry, and 
completely routed them, taking six standards and sabreing 
many men. " Into them, with disciplined impetuosity, 
dashed General Floyd at the head of the old ipth Light 
Dragoons and two regiments of Native Cavalry, who in 
a few minutes sabred nearly the whole of the fugitives." * 
The retreat of the enemy became general, as the advance 
of the British continued, and by two o'clock they had 
completely withdrawn from the field. After the action, 

* Lord Combermerfs correspondence. 



1799] SIEGE OF SERINGAPATAM 109 

the army returned and camped near Mallavelly. This 
success was purchased with a loss of only seven killed, 
fifty-three wounded and six missing. The igth Light 
Dragoons, which suffered the most among the Cavalry 
Regiments, had eight wounded, among them Captain 
Kennedy, three horses killed, twenty-two wounded, and 
three missing. It is said that, of the column charged by 
Major General Floyd, all but 230 were put hors de 
combat. 

On the 29th and 3<Dth, the army crossed the Cauvery 
at Sosilay. This move was entirely unexpected by Tippoo, 
who had made up his mind that the army would march 
directly on Seringapatam to attack it, as Cornwallis had 
attacked it seven years before. In this belief, he had 
wasted the whole country in the vicinity on the north 
bank of the river. By this adroit move General Harris 
was favourably situated to join hands with the Bombay 
force on its arrival, while he was able to draw abundant 
supplies from the villages in his neighbourhood, and from 
the rich country in his rear, which Tippoo had preserved 
for himself. Continuing his march westward, within five 
miles of Seringapatam, and watched, but not molested by 
Tippoo's cavalry, General Harris took up ground for the 
siege, on the 5th April, opposite the west face of the fort 
of Seringapatam, and at a distance of two miles from it. 
The left of the army rested on the river ; the cavalry were 
encamped in the rear of the army. 

On the 6th April at daybreak, Floyd with four 
regiments of Cavalry, among them the iQth Light 
Dragoons, six regiments of Infantry, twenty guns, and a 
corps of the Nizam's horse, marched westward to join 
the Bombay force under Major General Stuart, On the 
8th, he established communication with Stuart, and on 
the loth, the two forces were united at Periapatam. 
During the whole march, Floyd's force was closely 



no FALL OF MYSORE [1799 

attended by the enemy's cavalry, who were however 
unable to make any impression. 

The Rajah of Coorg, our constant and loyal ally, had 
accompanied Major General Stuart to Periapatam, from 
which place he was to return to look after his own 
territories, and to arrange for forwarding supplies to the 
army. 

" His romantic character rendered him an object of 
peculiar interest to General Floyd and the officers of the 
division from the eastward ; and a squadron of the igth 
Dragoons sent as an escort with General Stuart (the first 
European cavalry the Rajah had ever seen) was a novelty 
at which he expressed his admiration. . . . He accepted 
with enthusiasm the invitation to see the line of the 
eastern division under arms, and was received with suitable 
honours. He expressed a just admiration, but continued after 
his return to General Floyd 's tent, to testify his particular 
and unwearied admiration of the ipth regiment, intimating a 
wish to procure at a proper time for his own personal use, 
one of the dragoon's swords. . . . On his rising to take 
leave General Floyd unclasped his own sword, and in a 
few words judiciously suited to the occasion, begged that 
he might be permitted to present it for the Rajah's use." * 

At half-past seven in the evening of the I3th, Floyd's 
signal guns were heard in General Harris' camp, and were 
answered ten minutes later to show that they were under- 
stood.! Twenty-four hours later, the united forces of 
Floyd and Stuart joined General Harris in front of 

* Wilkfs Mysore. 

f " Time and the number of guns formed the principle of our signals ; for 
example, three guns at half-past seven denoted a position two marches from 
Seringapatam : two guns at eight might have denoted any other communica- 
tion. And in this manner may detachments or armies on some occasions 
communicate intelligence, which, by messenger, might be impracticable. 
To ascertain that the signal of the Bombay army was understood, it was 
agreed to fire the same number of guns, in our camp ten minutes afterwards." 
Beatsorts Mysore War. General Floyd's signal to establish communication 
with General Stuart on the 8th was two guns fired precisely at four o'clock ; 
and, a little afterwards, four guns at intervals of a minute each. In about 
half an hour afterwards the same signal was repeated. Memoirs of a Field 
Officer. 



1799] LETTERS FOR THE ARMY in 

Seringapatam. On the same date letters reached the 
army from the Governor General congratulating them 
on the success at Mallavelly. These letters were brought 
by a native messenger, written on a very narrow slip of 
paper, and sealed up in a quill. This was the general 
method of communication, public and private, as would 
appear from the following notice in the Calcutta Gazette. 

Fort William, Public Department, iQtk April 1799. 

" Notice is hereby given that all letters, whether 
public or private, for the Grand Army in the 
Field, are in future to be limited to a small slip 
of paper not exceeding one eighth of a sheet 
of quarter-post, rolled (not folded up), which 
restriction will continue until further notice." 

Some of these notes, 2 inches wide by 6| inches long, 
are still in existence. 

Some solicitude was experienced at this time con- 
cerning supplies, and the cavalry were busily employed 
in protecting and bringing in convoys. On the i6th, 
Floyd, with five regiments of cavalry and the left wing 
of the army, brought in a party of Brinjarries who had 
been sent out to the southward to collect cattle and grain. 
On the 1 9th, Floyd marched again with the whole of the 
regular cavalry, a brigade of infantry, and the Nizam's 
cavalry, towards the Coveripoorum Pass, for the purpose 
of protecting two large convoys of provisions en route from 
Coimbatore and the Baramahal. On the 3Oth, he was 
joined by the convoy from Rykottah, at the head of the 
Pass, but it was not till the 6th May that the Coimbatore 
convoy arrived, and on the nth, the whole returned to 
Seringapatam bringing with them forty thousand bullocks, 
most of which carried loads of grain, twenty-one thousand 
nine hundred sheep and other necessaries, thus placing the 
subsistence of the army out of danger for many days. 



ii2 FALL OF MYSORE [1799 

But the campaign was already at an end. A practic- 
able breach having been made, at one o'clock on the 4th 
May, Seringapatam was stormed by the British troops, and 
after two hours' desperate fighting the British colours were 
planted in the fortress. Tippoo's dead body was found at 
night under a heap of slain, the short-lived Mahommedan 
Kingdom of Mysore was at an end, and the most imminent 
menace to British rule in India was averted. This gallant feat 
of arms cost the British force a loss of 367 in killed, wounded, 
and missing, of whom 321 were Europeans. Nine hundred 
and twenty-nine guns and an enormous quantity of warlike 
material fell into the hands of the victors. The French 
officers found in Seringapatam had commissions from the 
French Government. By Tippoo's orders, all the European 
prisoners who fell into his hands during the siege had been 
barbarously put to death. A number of prisoners also, 
who had fallen into his hands in former wars, and who had 
been detained, in breach of agreements in 1784 and 1792, 
were massacred by his orders at the commencement of 
hostilities. 

In an order published after the siege, General Harris thus 
spoke of the Cavalry Division : 

"The advantage derived from the exertions of the 
Cavalry upon every occasion, although opposed by such 
superior numbers on the part of the enemy, are so important, 
as to give this corps the strongest claims to the warmest 
approbation of the Commander in Chief, which he requests 
Major General Floyd will take an early occasion of convey- 
ing to them." 

The 1 9th Light Dragoons remained in Mysore during 
the settlement of the country, in the course of which the 
representative of the old ruling family was replaced on 
the Mysore throne. On the 1 3th November they parted 
from Wellesley at Ooscottah, and marched for Vellore, and 
so back to their old quarters at Trichinopoly, which they 
reached about the end of the year. 



1799] BADGE FOR SERItfGAPATAM 113 

Great reluctance appears to have been felt by the 
Government in England, to treat services performed under 
the East India Company as worthy of recognition by the 
Crown. The Court of Directors issued a medal in 1808 to 
the officers and men of the King's and Company's troops who 
had taken part in the operations in Mysore, but the royal 
permission for the King's troops to wear the medal in 
England was not granted till 1815, in which year General 
Harris was raised to the peerage for his services in 1799. 
In 1818 his lordship made a special representation for some 
permanent badge to be bestowed on the regiments con- 
cerned, when permission to bear the word " Seringapatam " 
on colours and appointments was granted. 

HORSE GUARDS, 

i^thjune 1818. 

SIR, 

I have the honour to acquaint you, that His 
Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in the Name and on 
the Behalf of His Majesty has been pleased to approve of 
the 1 9th Regiment of Light Dragoons (Lancers) being 
permitted to bear on its Colours and Appointments, in 
addition to any other Badges or Devices which may have 
heretofore been granted to the Regiment, the Word 
" Seringapatam," in commemoration of the distinguished 
gallantry displayed by the Regiment in the Storming and 
Capture of Seringapatam, in the month of May 1/99. 

I have &c. 

HARRY CALVERT 

A. G. 

M. General 

Sir J. O. VANDELEUR, K.CB. 
Colonel of the I9th Lancers. 



n 4 DHOONDIA WAO [1800 



CHAPTER VII 

DHOONDIA WAO 

1 8OO- 1 8O2 

Floyd leaves igth Dhoondia Wao Force formed under Colonel 
Wellesley to capture him Advance on Ranee Bednore Capture 
of Koondgul, Dummul, Gudduck Division of Dhoondia's force 
destroyed at Manoli Dhoondia doubles back Again hemmed 
in Dhoondia crosses Malpurba river Pursuit drawing to a 
close Dhoondia caught at Conaghul Dhoondia killed, and his 
force destroyed iQth return to Mysore The Rajah of Bullum 
Regiment ordered to Arcot. 

FOR nearly nineteen years, ever since the regiment had 
existed, the igih Light Dragoons had served under Major 
General Floyd in quarters and in the field, and now the 
time had come for separation. In January 1800, Floyd 
sailed for England, the last of the officers originally 
appointed to the regiment. Soon after his arrival in 
England, he was appointed Colonel of the 26th Light 
Dragoons, and his connection with his old regiment was 
permanently severed. He afterwards become Colonel of 
the 8th Light Dragoons, and was appointed Governor of 
Gravesend and Tilbury. He maintained his interest in 
everything calculated to improve our cavalry system to 
the end of his life. A General Order from the Adjutant 
General's office in Dublin, dated 7th October 1811, contains 
a Riding Lesson, "suggested by Lieut. General Floyd," 
which Officers Commanding cavalry regiments are directed 
to practise. It is the foundation of our present riding 
school system. In 1816, he was created a Baronet for his 
services, and died at the age of 70, two years later. 

The regiment did not remain long at Trichinopoly. It 



i8oo] ADVENTURERS IN INDIA 115 

was soon called on to take part in a short but remarkable 
campaign. When Seringapatam fell, there was a prisoner 
in Tippoo's power, named Dhoondia Wao, a noted free- 
booter, who had at one time been in the service of Hyder 
Ali. During Lord Cornwallis' campaign in 1791-92, he 
had deserted from the Mysore service. After the con- 
clusion of peace, he collected a party of desperate men, 
and committed depredations in the country round Dharwar. 
Being hard pressed on one occasion by the Peishwa's 
troops, he took refuge in Mysore territory, thinking to 
make his peace with Tippoo. On falling into Tippoo's 
hands, he was forcibly converted to Mohammedanism, and 
thrown into prison, where he remained till Seringapatam 
fell. In the confusion consequent on the capture of the 
place, he was set at liberty by an officer who did not know 
his character. He at once collected a number of Tippoo's 
disbanded soldiers, and made for the Bednore district. In 
the confusion consequent on the overthrow of Tippoo's 
power, he gained possession of many of the principal forts 
in the province. His adherents rapidly increased in 
number, and he ravaged the surrounding country, his exac- 
tions being accompanied by acts of the most atrocious 
cruelty. Being provided with artillery, ammunition and 
money, he asserted his right to the Bednore province, and 
assumed the title of King of the Two Worlds. It was the 
golden age of adventurers. Forty years earlier, Hyder 
Ali had founded a kingdom on the ruins of the ancient 
principality of Mysore. In the far north Runjeet Singh 
was founding a Sikh State in the Punjab. Between the 
Ganges and the Jumna, Perron was aiming at forming a 
province under French protection. On the borders of the 
Indian desert, Thomas, the Irish sailor, had established an 
independent principality in Hurrianah, while other adven- 
turers like Ameer Khan and Ghuffoor Khan, the future 
founders of the States of Tonk and Jowrah, traversed the 



u6 DHOONDIA WAO [1800 

centre of India at the head of plundering hordes. Outside 
British territory was universal confusion and anarchy, in 
which any man possessed of a bold heart and a discerning 
brain might hope to carve out a Kingdom for himself, 
whatever his faith or nationality. Any Chief whose service 
promised plenty of plunder could command a following, 
which in a few months of successful enterprize might swell 
to the dimensions of an army. But Dhoondia had neither 
the talents nor the opportunity to become more than a 
brigand on an unusually large scale. 

Early in July 1799, the Commander in Chief sent two 
flying columns into the field against him, and the Head 
Quarters of the Army were also moved northwards for 
the same purpose. Several forts in the hands of 
Dhoondia's men were taken by storm, a number of the 
freebooters were killed in various encounters, and, on the 
1 7th August, Dhoondia himself was defeated and forced 
to take refuge in the Peishwa's territory. There he was 
attacked by one of the Peishwa's officers named Dhoondia 
Punt Gokla, his elephants, bullocks, and guns captured, 
and his remaining followers dispersed. It was thought 
that the last had been heard of Dhoondia Wao, but in a 
few months he was in the field again with a larger force 
than ever. Having been joined by the whole of Tippoo's 
disbanded cavalry and a number of disaffected men from 
the Hyderabad country, he obtained possession of several 
places in the Southern Mahratta country, and threatened to 
re-enter Mysore. Dhoondia's head quarters were in what 
is now the Dharwar district, from whence he ravaged 
impartially the Peishwa's and Nizam's territories adjoining, 
as well as the newly conquered Mysore country under 
British administration. His belief, no doubt, was that the 
three powers concerned would never act in unison, and 
that, if at any time he was hard pressed on one side, he 
would always be able to secure a retreat by crossing into 



i8oo] WELLESLEY TAKES THE FIELD 117 

the adjoining territory, where mutual jealousies would 
afford him a temporary asylum. A force of 5000 horse and 
a large body of infantry, sent against him by the Peishwa, 
was defeated. His adherents increased in numbers, till it 
was found that he was at the head of 40,000 men, and 
beyond the control of the feeble government of the Peishwa, 
in whose territory he had established himself. Owing to 
these circumstances, in the beginning of May 1800, orders 
were sent to Colonel the Honble A. Wellesley, who was in 
full civil and military charge of Mysore, directing him to 
assemble a field force, as speedily as possible, and pursue 
and destroy Dhoondia Wao's forces wherever he should find 
them. To prevent Dhoondia from again securing himself 
by taking refuge in the Peishwa's country, the consent of 
the Peishwa was obtained for the British troops to follow 
Dhoondia into Mahratta territory, if necessary. The 
campaign was one of unusual character. The task was 
not the subjugation and occupation of a particular tract 
of country, nor the coercion of an enemy with whom terms 
were eventually to be made. The object in view was the 
extirpation of a band of freebooters, whose numbers 
had swelled to those of a formidable army, provided with 
artillery and ample resources, and who had possessed them- 
selves of a province belonging to a power with whom we 
were in alliance. "You are to pursue Dhoondia Wao 
wherever you may find him, and to hang him on the 
first tree." So ran Wellesley's instructions. By the 24th 
June, Wellesley's force, which assembled at Chitteldroog, 
had crossed the Toombadra river near Hurryhur, and on 
the 27th, it marched on Ranee Bednore. The force 
consisted of H.M.'s iQth and 25th Light Dragoons, three 
regiments of Native Cavalry, two regiments of European 
Infantry, and five regiments of Native Infantry. A 
detachment of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, between 
three and four thousand strong, co-operated under Lieut. 



n8 DHOONDIA WAO [1800 

Colonel Bowser : the Peishwa also sent a force to assist, 
acting independently. A body of the Nizam's horse also 
joined Wellesley's force. On reaching Ranee Bednore, 
the advanced guard was fired on : the fort was at once 
attacked and carried by escalade, and Dhoondia's garrison, 
about 500 in number, put to the sword. So atrocious had 
been the cruelties committed by Dhoondia's men, that 
quarter was seldom given to any of them found in arms. 
The next few days were spent in clearing the neighbour- 
hood of Dhoondia's partisans, and in obtaining supplies, 
Wellesley then moved to Deogheri, where four days were 
spent in making a bridge across the Werdah river, and 
constructing a small redoubt to protect it. Meanwhile, a 
disaster had occurred to the northward. Dhoondia Punt 
Gokla, the Mahratta Chief who had inflicted a defeat on 
Dhoondia Wao the previous year, was at Kittoor, with 
10,000 horse, 5000 foot and eight guns, for the purpose of 
co-operating with the British. He was suddenly attacked 
by Dhoondia Wao on 3Oth June, his guns taken, his force 
routed, and himself killed. 

Wellesley, having crossed the Werdah river, marched 
to Savanoor on the I2th July, leaving a small detachment 
to protect the bridge. The plan Wellesley had in his mind, 
and which he eventually carried out, begins to appear. It 
was to seize all fortified places in Dhoondia's hands, and, if 
he still remained in arms, gradually drive him eastwards 
into one of the narrow angles formed by the Kistna, 
Toombadra and other rivers, and destroy him. It was the 
time of full monsoon, and the rivers could only be crossed 
by the aid of boats, which were difficult to procure. If 
Dhoondia was kept constantly on the move, he would be 
unable to make them. At Savanoor, Wellesley received 
news that Dhoondia was advancing to attack him. He 
accordingly took up a position in front of the town. 
Dhoondia reconnoitred the position, and retreated, without 



i8oo] DUMMUL GUDDUCK MANOLI 119 

attacking, to Koondgul. Wellesley followed him, and, 
reaching that place after a twenty-two mile march, and 
after the troops had been above twelve hours under arms, 
carried it by escalade on the same day, But Dhoondia 
had gone on, leaving only a garrison of 600 men behind 
him. On the i6th, Wellesley relieved Sirhetty which was 
being besieged by one of Dhoondia's adherents, and then 
returned to Savanoor for the baggage and stores he had 
left behind there in his rapid advance. 

On the 1 9th, Wellesley was joined at Savanoor by the 
Mahratta Cavalry that had been so roughly handled on the 
3Oth June, when Dhoondia Punt Gokla was killed, and 
on the 22nd, he moved in the direction of Dummul, where 
the King of the Two Worlds was said to be. Dhoondia 
had however moved off, leaving a garrison of 1000 men in 
the place. The garrison was summoned, but refused to 
surrender. The place was immediately attacked and 
carried by escalade, 26th July. On the following day, 
Wellesley marched to Gudduck, and occupied the fort 
which was evacuated before his arrival. Dhoondia, having 
thus lost all his forts in Savanoor and in the Dharwar 
country, moved northwards with the intention of crossing 
the river Malpurba. While encamped at Soondooti, he 
heard of Wellesley's approach, and broke up his army into 
three divisions. One division with the baggage encamped 
opposite Manoli, without crossing the river. Wellesley's 
intention had been to await the arrival of Lieut. Colonel 
Bowser's column that was operating to the eastward, but 
on hearing of the division of Dhoondia's force, and of the 
baggage being on the Malpurba near Manoli, he resolved to 
attack at once. Making a rapid march of twenty-six miles, 
he fell upon the enemy with the cavalry at 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 3Oth, effecting a complete surprise. 
The enemy were driven into the river, where great 
numbers of those who escaped the swords of the horse- 



120 DHOONDIA WAO [1800 

men were drowned : six guns, and a great number of 
animals, especially horses, were captured, and the whole 
force destroyed. 

Meanwhile, Dhoondia with another Division had 
doubled back westward along the south bank of the 
Malpurba. His adherents were beginning to leave him. 
Part of the Hyderabad detachment, augmented by a 
native cavalry regiment from Wellesley's force, was now 
placed under Colonel Stevenson, and directed to follow 
Dhoondia along the Malpurba, while Wellesley moved 
parallel with Stevenson in the same direction, at a distance 
of fifteen miles from the river. On the 5th August, 
Wellesley reached Kittoor, where he halted for some days, 
for the purpose of making boats to cross the Malpurba. 
Here he learned that Dhoondia had crossed the Malpurba 
near its sources, and had again turned eastward to Cowdel- 
ghee. Stevenson meanwhile had marched on Hanoor. 
Dhoondia's track was marked by the dead bodies of human 
beings and animals. 

The 1 6th, i;7th and i8th were occupied by Wellesley in 
crossing the Malpurba, to Hoobli : Lieut. Colonel Capper with 
a Brigade of infantry and a regiment of native cavalry were 
left on the south side of the river. At this time, Stevenson 
was marching along the south bank of the Gutpurba river 
by Hanoor, Gokauk, Cowdelghee and Bhagelcottah ; 
Bowser was at Shapoor ; while Wellesley moved eastwards 
along the north bank of the Malpurba. Dhoondia was 
steadily being pressed into the fork of the Gutpurba and 
Malpurba rivers. South of the Malpurba, Capper was 
moving parallel with the other British forces, through 
Soondooti, Hooli, and Jellahal. The only chance of 
Dhoondia's escape was by a ford across the Malpurba, a 
little above its junction with the Kistna, but the swollen 
state of the river seemed to render the passage improbable. 
Still, to provide for this contingency, the Mahratta cavalry 



i8oo] DHOONDIA HARD PRESSED 121 

with Capper were directed to push on and hold the ford; 
but the rough handling they had received on the 3Oth June, 
at Kittoor, was still fresh in their minds, and they refused 
to leave the British camp. As fortune would have it, the 
improbable happened. The Malpurba suddenly fell, and 
Dhoondia crossed it on the 24th and 25th. He was how- 
ever obliged to abandon five guns, some ammunition, 
arms &c. and ten thousand grain-carrying bullocks, all of 
which fell into Wellesley's hands. Capper, who had taken 
the forts of Hooli and Syringhi by escalade on the 22nd, 
was at Jellahal when he crossed. 

Dhoondia was now in the fork of the Kistna and 
Toombadra rivers, and had placed himself, for the moment, 
so far on the flank of his pursuers that, by rapid marching, 
he might have doubled back to Savanoor, where he would 
have done much mischief in destroying supplies prepared 
for Wellesley ; or he might have crossed the Toombadra, 
with the aid of some local Chiefs who were believed to be 
favourable to him, and entered Mysore. To prevent the 
execution of either design, Wellesley crossed the Malpurba 
at Jellahal, and marched, first to Hunmunsagur, and then 
southward to Khanagheri, which he reached on the 7th 
September : Stevenson continued his march westward, 
crossed the Malpurba, and reached Hoonagoonda, on the 
5th ; from thence he continued eastward towards Deodroog. 
Between the two forces, were the Nizam's and Peishwa's 
horse, collected in one body. The chase was now drawing 
to a close. On the 8th, Wellesley left Khanagheri with 
the cavalry, and pressed on to Buswapore, the infantry 
and baggage following more slowly. On the 9th, he 
reached Yepalpurri, the infantry being fifteen miles be- 
hind at Shinoor. On the same day, Dhoondia broke 
up his camp at Mudgheri and moved northwards 
towards the Kistna, but, sighting Stevenson's force, 
he turned south again, and encamped three miles 



122 DHOONDIA WAO [1800 

from Conaghul, and about nine miles from Wellesley at 
Yepalpurri. 

Wellesley had news of Dhoondia's position the same 
evening, but the night was so bad, and the horses of the 
cavalry so fatigued, that he did not move till next day. 
Marching early on the loth, he came on Dhoondia's force, 
consisting of about 5000 horsemen, at Conaghul six miles 
from Yepalpurri. Dhoondia had left his camp and bag- 
gage, and was on the march westward, with the view of 
passing between the Nizam's and Mahratta cavalry and 
Wellesley's force, which he believed to be at Shinoor. He 
drew up at once in a very strong position, with his rear 
and left flank covered by the village and rock of Conaghul, 
" and stood for some time with apparent firmness." 
Wellesley formed the ipth and 2$th Light Dragoons and 
ist and 2nd Native Cavalry into one line, and charged at 
their head. 

" Such was the rapidity and determination of the charge 
made by those four regiments, which I was obliged to 
form in one line in order at all to equalise in length that of 
the enemy, that the whole gave way, and were pursued by 
my cavalry for many miles." * Dhoondia's body was re- 
cognised among the slain, and brought into camp on a 
galloper gun of the 19th. The same evening, Colonel 
Stevenson came up with the remains of the retreating 
enemy near Deodroog, and entirely dispersed them, captur- 
ing their remaining guns, baggage and cattle. 

The episode of Dhoondia Wao is an instance of the 
danger likely to arise out of the overthrow of a military 
government, when a large number of disbanded men are 
suddenly thrown out of employ without means of subsis- 
tence. It was the overthrow of Tippoo's kingdom and 
the dispersal of his large army that enabled Dhoondia to 
gather together so formidable a force. In like manner, it 

* Wellesley coii-espondence. 



i8oi] THE RAJAH OF BULLUM 123 

was the disbanding of so many French officers and soldiers 
in 1814, that gave Napoleon's return from Elba a chance of 
success, and, in more recent times, the trouble that arose 
after the conquest of Burmah in 1886 was partly due to 
the large number of armed men suddenly deprived of 
means of subsistence, and left without control. 

The short three months' campaign had been a most 
harassing one to the troops, and especially to the cavalry, 
while it lasted. Writing to the Commander in Chief, at 
the close of operations, Wellesley says "The igth and 
25th Light Dragoons were in fine order when they joined 
the force, and I am happy to say they remain so in spite of 
the very harassing nature of the operations in which they 
have been engaged." 

The i Qth had been commanded by Major Paterson 
during the campaign. At its close the regiment returned 
to Seringapatam with Wellesley. Early in 1801, they 
were moved to Cheyloor. The country was still in a very 
disturbed state. Several of the Hindoo feudatory Chiefs, 
known as Polygars, claimed independence for themselves 
on the overthrow of Tippoo's rule ; and, from their jungle 
fastnesses, committed depredations on the surrounding 
country. Chief among them were the Pyche Rajah, 
Kistnapah Naik, and a zemindar chief who styled himself 
the Rajah of Bullum. The Mysore forces were unable 
to deal effectually with them without the aid of British 
troops. Towards the end of the year, arrangements were 
made to settle accounts with the Rajah of Bullum, and, 
on the 8th January 1802, Wellesley left Seringapatam 
with 540 European infantry of the 77th and the Regiment 
de Meuron, four battalions of Sepoys, 500 pioneers, ten 
guns, and four mortars. On the 8th, he was joined, at 
Chinroypatam, by the iQth Light Dragoons, under Major 
Paterson, and the 5th Native Cavalry, with their galloper 
guns. 



124 DHOONDIA WAO [1802 

The Rajah of Bullum occupied a tract of dense forest, 
called Arrekeery, near the Coorg border, about eighteen 
miles in circumference, covering the approach to Mysore 
by the Bissolee Pass. In this tract of forest were a 
number of fortified villages defended by dense bamboo 
hedges, and all approaches through the forest were 
defended by bamboo barriers. For two years the 
Bullum Rajah had been able to defy the newly re- 
suscitated power of the Mysore Rajah ; plundering the 
adjoining British districts in Canara, and closing the 
road between Mysore and the coast. After three days 
spent in reconnoitring the ground, Wellesley delivered 
his attack at 10 A.M. on the i6th. The infantry, 
in three divisions, entered the forest simultaneously at 
three different points. The I9th accompanied the column 
headed by Wellesley, which was destined to attack the 
principal posts. The attack was completely successful, 
and, after a brief conflict, all resistance ceased. The loss 
of the troops was trifling. The iQth had two men 
wounded. The Rajah managed to escape, but was 
captured three weeks later by some Mysore horsemen. 
Before returning to Seringapatam, Wellesley reviewed the 
1 9th at Hassan on the I3th February, when he issued the 
following brief order : " Colonel Wellesley will have great 
pleasure in reporting to the Commander-in-Chief the 
excellent state in which he found the I9th Light 
Dragoons." The Regiment then marched to Sara, where 
arrangements were made to build barracks for them. 
Hardly were the barracks completed, when so much 
sickness broke out in the regiment, that they were 
moved back to their old quarters at Cheyloor at the 
beginning of June. A fortnight later, as matters did 
not improve, they were ordered to Arcot They were 
soon to take the field again, to encounter the most 
formidable army then existing in India. 



i8o 3 J INDIA IN 1803 125 

CHAPTER VIII 

INDIA IN 1803 

State of affairs in India in 1803 The Mahratta Confederacy The 
Peishwa Scindia European Adventurers in India Scindia's 
disciplined forces Perron Quarrels among the Mahratta Chiefs 
Peishwa takes refuge in Bombay Places himself under protec- 
tion of the British Scindia's hostility aroused Mahratta com- 
bination against the British Peishwa restored to Poona Pre- 
parations for hostilities Summary of campaign that followed. 

IN order to understand the state of affairs existing in 
India at the beginning of 1803, a brief retrospect is 
necessary. The Mogul Empire had ceased to exist 
except in name. The old Emperor Shah Alum, still 
occupied the palace at Delhi, but only as a blind 
pensioner of the Mahrattas. Everywhere on the ruins 
of Mahommedan rule new Hindoo States had come into 
vigorous existence, and were even beginning to quarrel 
over the spoils. In the North the Sikhs, and to the 
East the Goorkhas, were fast forming powerful States. 
In the South, the short-lived kingdom of Hyder Ali and 
Tippoo had been swept out of existence, while the power 
of the Nizam was gradually growing weaker under the 
encroachment of his Mahratta neighbours. In the great 
tract of country stretching from the Sutlej to the Kistna, 
and from the Company's territories in Bengal to the Bay 
of Cambay, a tract measuring approximately a thousand 
miles from North to South, and from East to West, the 
supremacy of the Mahratta Chiefs was complete. Cal- 
cutta, Benares, Bombay, Hyderabad, and Madras were 
all within easy striking distance of their predatory hordes. 
Their principal Chiefs were the Rajah of Satara, the 
Peishwa with his seat of government at Poona, the 



i 2 6 INDIA IN 1803 [1803 

Scindia with his capital at Oojain, the Holkar whose 
capital was at Indore, the Gaekwar at Baroda, the 
Bhonslay of Berar, whose capital was Nagpore, and the 
Rajah of Kolapore. The nominal Chiefship of the whole 
confederacy rested in the Rajah of Satara, the descendant 
of Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta power. But the 
Satara Rajahs had long sunk into the grade of petty 
princes devoid of military or political influence. As the 
power of the Satara Rajahs declined, that of the Peishwa, 
the hereditary Prime Minister, rose. Ruling at first in 
the name of the Satara Chief, the Peishwas had in time 
grown into independent princes, wielding the whole power 
of the Mahratta Confederacy. But the power of the 
Peishwas in its turned waned, so that, in 1776, the 
Peishwa Rughonath Rao was forced to seek asylum 
with the English in Bombay. Since then a partial 
revival of the Peishwa's power had taken place under the 
protection of Scindia, who had become the foremost 
Chief in the Confederacy ; and partly owing to the 
abilities of the Peishwa's Minister, Nana Farnawis. 

At the beginning of 1803, Scindia was the most power- 
ful Chief in India. Drawing great revenues from a vast 
area, he held Delhi with its pensioner monarch in the 
North, received tribute from the Rajpoot States in the 
centre, and had a predominant voice in the Councils of the 
Poona Court in the Deccan. The fiction of ruling in the 
name of the Satara Chief had long ceased to be maintained : 
government in the name of the Peishwa was fast becoming 
a fiction. A cardinal point in the policy of Nana Farnawis 
was to promote friendship with the English Government, 
in order to preserve some check on Scindia's predominance. 
One of the most important sources of Scindia's power was 
the large force maintained by him, disciplined and 
commanded by Europeans. At that date, India swarmed 
with adventurers of every nationality, two-thirds of whom 



1803] SCINDIA'S POWER 127 

were of French extraction. Their presence in India was 

an important factor in the politics of the day. Every 

Chief, however unimportant he might be, had Europeans to 

lead his troops. The first Chief in India to thoroughly 

recognize the importance of European organization and 

discipline had been Hyder Ali of Mysore. But his efforts 

had been directed rather to forming complete Corps of 

European Artillery, Cavalry, and Infantry, which never 

exceeded a few hundreds in number. He also had many 

Europeans as leaders of his native troops, but little was 

done by him to discipline native troops on the European 

model. It was Madho Rao Scindia who first developed the 

system of disciplining his native troops in European fashion 

under the celebrated De Boigne, which quickly rendered 

him the most powerful Chief in India. At the time of 

which we are treating, his nephew and successor, Dowlut 

Rao Scindia, had in his service a force estimated at 43,650 

men, with 464 guns, armed and disciplined in European 

fashion, and commanded by Europeans. This formidable 

body of men had lived in a state of continuous warfare ever 

since it was first raised in 1784. At the head of Scindia's 

disciplined forces was the Frenchman Perron, who, had 

raised himself practically to an independent position. 

Acting as Scindia's lieutenant in the North, he ruled over a 

great tract of country, extending from the Jumna to the 

foot of the Himalayas, and from the Sutlej to the Chumbul, 

and, owing to difficulties in which Scindia had become 

recently involved in the Deccan, he entertained dreams of 

independence. Perron was known to be in correspondence 

with the French Directory at Paris, and the British 

government was again threatened with the possibility of 

the establishment of French power in India on the ruins of 

the Native States in the North-West and the Deccan. 

Perron and the British Governor General each recognised 

in the other his most formidable foe. Next in importance 



128 INDIA IN 1803 [1803 

to Scindia, among the Mahratta Chiefs, was Holkar, whose 
military talents made him Scindia's most dangerous rival. 
His disciplined battalions, commanded by Europeans, were 
second only in number and efficiency to Scindia's. Fortu- 
nately the dissensions between these Chiefs had reached a 
height that made co-operation between them out of the 
question. 

From the conclusion of the Treaty of Salbye, i/th May 
1782, to the end of 1802, no serious clash of interests had 
occurred between the British government and the Mahratta 
Chiefs. While Scindia and Holkar alternately extended 
their conquests at the expense of the Mahommedan and 
Rajpoot States, or strove together for supremacy at Poonah, 
the British Government preserved an attitude of neutrality, 
till events occurred that led Scindia into direct collision 
with the British power. 

In 1798, dissensions broke out between Scindia and the 
widows of his late uncle Madho Rao Scindia ; in the 
following year, the ladies fled for protection to the Rajah 
of Kolapore, who was then at war with the Peishwa. 
Raising a large force, the Kolapore Chief advanced on 
Poona, and severe fighting ensued. The Peishwa and 
Scindia were hard pressed, the flame spread, and the whole 
Southern Mahratta country was thrown into disorder. 
Taking advantage of his rival's difficulties, Holkar took the 
field in Malwa, and ravaged Scindia's territories. Perron 
meanwhile was fully occupied in the North in preparations 
to resist a threatened Afghan invasion, and could render no 
assistance to his master. At this juncture Nana Farnawis 
died (i3th March 1800), and a fresh dispute over his 
property arose between Scindia and the Peishwa. Fresh 
umbrage was taken by Scindia at the permission granted 
by the Peishwa for British troops to follow Dhoondia Wao 
into Mahratta territory. In the midst of these embarrass- 
ments, Scindia's presence in Malwa to oppose Holkar 



i8o 3 ] MAHRATTA QUARRELS 129 

became imperatively necessary, and he left Poona. His 
movements were, however, so slow and ill-considered that 
Holkar was able to overwhelm in succession two of his 
disciplined brigades, under M'Intyre and Hessing (July 
1801), and plundered Oojain. Roused by this disaster, 
Scindia quickly dealt a counterstroke on the I4th Oct. 
1 80 1, when he signally defeated Holkar in front of Indore, 
and plundered that city. Failing however to follow up the 
blow, his possessions in Kandeish were devastated by 
Holkar, who was soon in the field again, moving towards 
Poona. Scindia's General, Sadasheo Bhow, interposed 
between Holkar's army and the capital ; but Holkar was 
not to be denied, and, on 25th Oct. 1802, the combined 
armies of Scindia and the Peishwa were completely 
defeated at Poona, after a sanguinary engagement which 
was fought under the eyes of the British Resident. 
Dismayed at this catastrophe, the Peishwa fled to the 
coast, where he was received on board a British vessel, and 
conveyed to Bassein, near Bombay. There, on the 3ist 
December, was signed the Treaty of Bassein, by which 
the Peishwa formally placed himself under the protection 
and guidance of the British Govt, with whom he concluded 
an offensive and defensive alliance. It soon became 
evident that the Peishwa's treaty had aroused Scindia's 
hostility, and that he was preparing for war. 

Till recently, Scindia had viewed the Company's power 
with comparative indifference. Their undertakings had 
not always been successful ; their resources, so far as he was 
able to judge, were greatly inferior to his own, and, with 
his disciplined battalions, he believed himself able to give 
a good account of any army the British Government could 
bring into the field. His resentment was first awakened 
by the treaty concluded in September 1798 between the 
Company and the Nizam, on whom the Mahratta Chiefs 
conceived that they had claims. On the outbreak of the 



i 3 o INDIA IN 1803 [1803 

war between Tippoo and the English, Scindia formed the 
project of attacking the Nizam, but the fall of Tippoo, 
before he could take the field, caused him to abandon the 
plan, and Scindia became aware that the Company's power 
was more formidable than he had suspected. It was, 
however, no policy of wanton aggression on our part that 
brought about the wars waged by the Marquis of 
Wellesley. The real contest was between the British and 
French power in India. England and France were locked 
in a deadly struggle, which in India, on the French side, 
.was fought out by Native Chiefs directed by French 
officers in correspondence with the French Directory in 
Paris. Had it not been so, our policy would have been 
directed to smoothing over matters in India, while our 
whole weight was thrown into the scale elsewhere. But 
circumstances did not allow of this, and it was in pursuance 
of the policy forced on us, that, first, Tippoo the centre of 
French influence in India was struck down ; next, the 
French party at Hyderabad were dispersed by our assum- 
ing protection of the Nizam ; and finally Scindia, the 
Rajah of Berar and Holkar were humbled by the defeat 
of their disciplined armies by Lake and Wellesley. 

The assumption of the protectorate of the Peishwa, 
was regarded by Scindia as a challenge for the mastery 
of India. A defensive alliance was offered to him by the 
British, which he rejected, and his apprehensions were 
worked on by the Bhonslay Rajah of Berar, who was the 
prime mover in the war that followed. The quarrel with 
Holkar was patched up, and an alliance was formed 
between Scindia, Holkar and the Bhonslay to be directed 
against the Peishwa, the Nizam, and the East India 
Company. An able and comprehensive plan for simul- 
taneous action was devised by Perron, by which one 
hundred and fifteen thousand predatory horse and ninety- 
four battalions would have at once carried fire and sword 



1803] SCINDIA HOSTILE 131 

into the Company's and the Nizam's territories, and would 
have prevented any co-operation between the three powers 
thus assailed. But the plan came to nothing. Perron's 
intrigues had aroused the distrust of Scindia, while the 
long existing animosity between Scindia and Holkar was 
too recent and too bitter to allow of prompt co-operation. 
The Mahratta Chiefs calculated on the British forces not 
moving till after the rainy season, and expected no active 
hostilities before October. Holkar's forces were so tardily 
set in motion, that they were still on the Nerbudda when 
the battle of Assaye was fought. On receipt of the news 
he withdrew his troops to Indore, and avoided com- 
promising himself farther. 

Scindia, having suspended all operations against Holkar, 
had marched southwards to Burhanpore, towards the end 
of February, where he was joined by the Nagpore Rajah. 
Their joint forces then advanced towards the Nizam's 
frontier where they encamped. 

As soon as Scindia's hostile intentions became 
known, a force of nearly 20,000 men was assembled at 
Hurryhur, on the north-west frontier of Mysore, under 
Major General the Hon. A. Wellesley. The restoration 
of the Peishwa to his capital was the first thing to be 
done. On the 9th March, Wellesley marched for Poona 
with 10,617 men, among whom were the iQth Light 
Dragoons, drawing 412 sabres. The remainder of the 
force was commanded by Colonel Stevenson, acting in 
concert with Wellesley. On the 2Oth April, Wellesley 
reached Poona, the last sixty miles being covered in 32 
hours by the cavalry, who had been pushed on ahead to 
save the city from being plundered.* Holkar's forces 
withdrew on his approach, and, on the 1 3th May, the 
Peishwa arrived from Bassein escorted by British troops 
Wellesley then advanced to Walkee, six miles from 

* The rest of the army did not reach Poona till the 23rd. 



132 INDIA IN 1803 [1803 

Ahmednuggur, while negotiations with the confederated 
Mahratta Chiefs continued. By the end of July all hope 
of preserving peace had disappeared. The British 
Resident with Scindia was therefore directed to withdraw, 
which he did on the 3rd August. 

The campaign that ensued was remarkable, not only 
for its complete success, but for the extended nature of 
the operations carried on simultaneously by a number of 
bodies of troops, acting to a great extent in complete inde- 
pendence of each other, after the signal for hostilities had 
been given. No better lesson in the art of war could be 
studied than in the dispositions made by the Marquis of 
Wellesley to bring matters to a successful issue, when the 
maintenance of peace was no longer possible. A brief 
resume of them here will not be out of place. As the 
negotiations with Scindia made the warlike intentions of 
that Chief more and more evident, troops were assembled 
at various points, so that, on the outbreak of hos- 
tilities, the distribution of forces on both sides was as 
follows 

The combined Mahratta Chiefs, without Holkar, could 
dispose of 87 battalions of Infantry, 500 guns, and over 
80,000 Cavalry. In the north, Perron had his Head 
Quarters at Alyghur, a fortress on which much dependence 
was placed. He had over 16,000 regular Infantry, about 
5000 regular Cavalry, and a great number of irregular 
troops. En route to join him from the Deccan were 25,000 
men, under a French officer, Dudrenec, of whom nearly 
8000 were regular Infantry. With Scindia, in the Deccan' 
were over 16,000 Infantry and upwards of 50,000 Mahratta 
Cavalry. In Bundelcund, under Shumshere Bahadoor, 
were about 3000 regular Infantry, 20 guns, and 10,000 
Cavalry. All fortresses and fortified towns were strongly 
held, and there were many detached corps of considerable 
strength in Cuttack and elsewhere. 



i8o 3 ] DISTRIBUTION OF TROOPS 133 

On the British side, a force under the Commander-in- 
Chief, General Lake, consisting of 10,500 men, was assembled 
at Cawnpore, destined to act against Perron. At Allaha- 
bad, a force of 3500 men, under Lt. Colonel Powell, was 
assembled to operate in Bundelcund. At Chunar and 
Mirzapore, 2000 men were stationed under Major General 
Deare, to cover Benares and act on the defensive. From 
the Saone, near Sasseram, to Pachet on the Damodar river, 
a similar force was so disposed, under Lt. Colonel 
Broughton, as to cover the Company's territories in that 
region. This force was afterwards reinforced, and took the 
offensive in the eastern provinces of Berar. Farther to the 
south east, at Midnapore, a force of 1300 men, under 
Colonel Fenwick, was posted to cover the frontier and 
threaten Cuttack. At Ganjam, a force of 3540 men was 
ready, under Lt. Colonel Campbell, to operate in Cuttack, 
supported by 500 men at Balasore, under Captain Morgan, 
and 854 men under Lt. Colonel Ferguson, at Jalasore. 
The Cuttack operations were however carried out by Lieut. 
Colonel Harcourt, in consequence of the serious illness of 
Lt. Colonel Campbell at the very commencement of field 
operations. 

In the Deccan, to operate against Scindia, 8900 men, 
under Major General the Honourable Arthur Wellesley, 
were encamped at Walkee near Ahmednuggur. Farther 
to the eastward, and north of the Godavery, was Colonel 
Stevenson with the Hyderabad subsidiary force, consist- 
ing of 7900 men and the Nizam's own troops, acting as 
a separate corps in co-operation with Wellesley. In 
Guzerat, 7350 men under Colonel Murray, acting under 
the orders of Wellesley, furnished a corps of 2187 men 
north of the Nerbudda, covering Baroda, and a second 
corps of 2094 men, south of the Tapti between Songhur 
and Surat : the remainder being employed to garrison 
Surat, Cambay, and Baroda, thus effectually cutting off 



134 INDIA IN 1803 [1803 

Scindia's access to the coast. In addition to these, 
garrisons of 1600 men and 2000 men were posted at 
Poona and Hyderabad respectively, to ensure tranquillity 
and protect those capitals, while a reserve of 4032 men, 
under Major General Campbell, was stationed at Moodgul, 
south of the Kistna. 

That the strain on the Company's resources was very 
great is evident from the fact that the Governor General 
sent his Body Guard into the field, though he himself 
remained in Calcutta. The truest policy demanded that 
the war should be actively prosecuted and brought to a 
decisive termination as soon as possible, before further 
complications should arise ; not the least of which was the 
expected arrival of a French squadron from Europe. 
How clearly this policy was recognised and adopted, 
and how splendidly it was carried out may be seen from 
the mere record of achievements. The rapidity with 
which blow after blow was struck, will be best gathered 
from the following table : 



7th August . . . General Lake commenced his advance to- 
wards Delhi. 

%th The fortified town of Ahmednuggur taken 

by assault, by Major General Wellesley. 

loth Fort of Ahmednuggur capitulated : taken 

possession of on I2th. 

2&k General Lake encamped on the frontier ; 

received authority to commence hos- 
tilities. 

vgtk Perron's camp outside Alyghur captured by 

General Lake : Perron flies to Agra. 

... Broach, in Guzerat, taken by assault, by 

Lt. Colonel Woodington. 

tfh September . . Alyghur taken by storm by General Lake ; 

281 guns captured. 

6th Lt. Colonel Powell leaves Allahabad, and 

advances on Bundelcund, which he 
enters I4th. 

7th Perron surrenders to General Lake. 

8//fc . . . Ganjam force advances. 



i8o 3 ] 



SUMMARY OF CAMPAIGN 



135 



nth September 



17 *k 

ilth 
2ist 



yd October 



I4//& 



21-rf 

ist November 

2nd 
29M 

^ December 



Battle of Delhi : total defeat of Bourquien, 

Perron's lieutenant, by General Lake : 

68 guns captured. General Lake 

enters Delhi. 
Manikpatam, in Cuttack, occupied by 

Lieut. Colonel Harcourt. 
Champaneer taken by assault, by Lt. 

Colonel Woodington: Pawaghur sur- 
renders. 

Juggernaut occupied by Lt. Colonel Har- 
court. 

Balasore taken by Captain Morgan. 
Scindia and the Berar Rajah defeated at 

Assaye, by Major General Wellesley: 

102 guns captured. 
Soorong, in Cuttack, occupied by Captain 

Morgan. 

Agra invested by General Lake. 
Shumshere Bahadoor defeated, near 

Capsah, by Lt. Colonel Powell. 
Force outside Agra defeated by General 

Lake : 26 guns captured: town occupied. 
Force of 2500 men outside Agra, forced to 

capitulate to General Lake. 
Barabuttee, in Cuttack, taken by assault by 

Lt. Colonel Harcourt. 

Burhanpore occupied by Colonel Stevenson. 
Fort of Agra capitulates to General Lake : 

164 guns captured. 
Asseerghur, attacked on i8th, surrenders 

to Colonel Stevenson. 
The last of Perron's forces totally defeated 

at Laswaree, by General Lake : 72 

guns captured. 
Defiles from Cuttack into Berar occupied 

by Lt Colonel Harcourt. 
Scindia and the Berar Rajah totally defeated 

at Argaum, by Major General Wellesley: 

38 guns taken. 

Calpee surrendered to Lt. Colonel Powell. 
Gawilghur taken by assault by Colonel 

Stevenson: 52 guns captured. 
Peace signed by the Rajah of Berar in 

Wellesley's Camp. 
Reserve, under Major General Campbell, 

defeats a large body of 10,000 Pin- 

darees, at Moodianoor. 



136 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

y>th December . . Peace signed by Scindia in Wellesley's 

Camp. 

4/vfc February 1804 . . Gwalior, which had been surrendered by 

Treaty on 2ist December to Lt. 
Colonel Powell, capitulates; having 
been besieged by that officer since 
27th December, in consequence of 
the refusal of the garrison to surrender 
the fortress. 

Our interest is, however, mainly with the forces com- 
manded by Major General Wellesley. 



CHAPTER IX 

ASSAYE AND ARGAUM 
1803-1804 

Capture of Ahmednuggur Battle of Assaye Death of Lieut. Colonel 
Maxwell Honorary Colour granted to iQth Battle of Argaum 
Capture of Gawilghur Berar Rajah makes peace Scindia makes 
peace March against banditti Their dispersal Grant of badges 
for Assaye. 

WELLESLEY reached Ahmednuggur on the 8th August. 
The fort was an exceedingly strong one, and the pettah or 
fortified town was also strongly held. An immediate 
assault on the pettah was ordered, which was completely 
successful. The town was taken, at a cost of 27 killed 
and 92 wounded : the ipth Light Dragoons had one man 
wounded. This was a brilliant opening to the campaign, which 
impressed friends and enemies alike. A Mahratta Chief, 
commanding a body of the Peishwa's horse in Wellesley's 
camp, wrote to his friends in Poona : " These English are 
a strange people, and their General a wonderful man : they 
came here in the morning, looked at the pettah wall, 
walked over it, killed all the garrison and returned to 



io3] AHMEDNUGGUR 137 

breakfast ! " In attacking fortified places that did not 
require regular siege operations, Wellesley successfully 
followed the plan, both in 1800 and on this occasion, of 
attacking by escalade directly he appeared before the 
place. 

At daybreak on the loth, a battery was opened against 
the fort, which surrendered on the I2th. 

After arranging for the settlement of the Ahmednuggur 
district, Wellesley crossed the Godavery at Toka, and 
advanced to Aurungabad, which he reached on the 29th 
August The crossing of the Godavery took seven days 
to complete. Scindia's force meanwhile had entered the 
Nizam's territory by the Ajunta Pass, and had taken 
Jaulna. The Mahratta army then moved southwards, as if 
intending to cross the Godavery and attack Hyderabad, 
but were baffled by Wellesley moving southward along the 
left bank of the Godavery. They therefore turned north- 
ward again, from Partoor, towards the Ajunta Pass, and 
encamped in the neighbourhood of Bokerdun and Assaye. 
In the interval, Stevenson, who had been operating to the 
north-eastward, returned and retook Jaulna on the 2nd 
September. On the 6th, and again on the gth, he surprised 
the camps of two parties of Mahratta horse, after which 
he halted at Budnapore, near Jalgaum. Wellesley was 
delayed on the Godavery till the i8th, pending the arrival 
of a large convoy. 

On the 2 ist, he reached Jalgaum, where he concerted 
a plan of operation with Stevenson. According to the 
best information, the enemy was believed to be at 
Bokerdun and Jaffirabad, about thirty miles distant, but 
the enormous numbers of the enemy's cavalry made it 
impossible to procure trustworthy information by re- 
connoissance. It was agreed that the two forces should 
advance next day by separate roads, and fall on the 
enemy on the 24th. At the end of the first day's 



138 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

march, on the 22nd, news was brought to Wellesley, at 
Paugri, that the enemy was moving westward, and was 
making for the Ajunta Pass. The news was false. 
Stevenson's line of march lay about fifteen miles west- 
ward of Wellesley's. On the 23rd, Wellesley made a 
fourteen-mile march to Naulniah. On arriving there, he 
found that, instead of being ten or twelve miles from the 
enemy, as he had anticipated, he was only half that 
distance from them. He was also told that their cavalry 
had moved off, and the infantry were about to follow. It 
was necessary to ascertain the truth at once. The 
baggage was accordingly left at Naulniah, under charge 
of a battalion of Native Infantry and the rearguard 
picquets,* and the rest of the force moved forwards. The 
General, at the same time, pushed on ahead with the 
Cavalry. Without counting the force detached to guard 
the baggage in Naulniah, Wellesley's force consisted of 
nearly 6000 men (of whom about 1600 were Europeans), 
and 14 guns, of which eight were the 6 Pr. galloper guns 
of the Cavalry. There were also contingents of the 
Mysore and Peishwa's horsemen. After going about 
three miles, he suddenly, about one o'clock, came in sight 
of the enemy's camp beyond the Kaitna, near the village 
of Assaye, in a peninsula formed by the junction of 
the Kaitna and Juah rivers. The Kaitna was only 
passable at certain points ; the Juah had less water in it, 
but had very steep banks. Along both rivers the ground 
was much broken by ravines. 

Wellesley's position was a difficult one. He had unex- 
pectedly come into close contact with a vastly superior 
force ready to receive him, instead of being in the act of 
moving off, as he had been led to expect. Stevenson's 

* According to the order of march observed, the advanced guard was com- 
posed of one half company from each Infantry Regiment, forming the picquets 
coming on duty, under the Field Officer of the day. In the same way, the 
rearguard was formed of the picquets coming off duty. 



f 




1803] ASS AYE 139 

force, in co-operation with which he had intended to fight 
the action, was ten or twelve miles away. Should he 
retreat to Naulniah and wait for Stevenson, he would be 
followed and forced to fight under disadvantageous cir- 
cumstances, and, owing to the enemy's great superiority in 
cavalry, would probably lose a portion of his baggage. He 
resolved to cross the river and attack at once. He saw 
that if he could carry his force across the Kaitna anywhere 
near its junction with the Juah, the great superiority in 
numbers of the Mahrattas would be to a certain extent 
neutralized by the narrower front on which they would be 
obliged to engage. At the same time, should his attack 
fail, Wellesley was liable to be forced back into the acute 
angle formed by the two rivers, and be destroyed, like 
Charles XII. at Pultava. It was a choice of risks, and 
Wellesley chose the smaller one. The direct ford was 
commanded by the powerful Mahratta artillery, which 
made crossing at that point extremely hazardous. Ex- 
amining the ground with his glasses, Wellesley noticed the 
two villages of Peepulgaon and Waroor close together on 
opposite sides of the river, and, in spite of the denial of 
his guides, jumped to the conclusion that there must be a 
ford there. A search showed that he was right, and word 
was sent back for the infantry to direct their march on 
Peepulgaon. Meanwhile the Cavalry (A. in plan) remained 
facing a large body of the enemy's Cavalry (B. in plan), 
that had crossed the river. By this time, the Mahratta 
camp had been struck, and their army appeared drawn up 
in a long line (C. in plan), covered by the Kaitna, with 
a great mass of cavalry on the right, and the guns on the 
left. 

As the British force moved across the enemy's front, 
part of it came within range of the Mahratta Artillery, but 
beyond a Staff Officer being slightly wounded, and the 
General's orderly dragoon having his head carried off by 



140 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

a round shot, no loss was incurred. The crossing of the 
Kaitna was effected without opposition, and the British 
force was drawn up across the fork between the two rivers 
in three lines (F. in plan). The first two lines, with an 
interval of about 300 paces between them, were composed 
of infantry, H.M's. ?8th Regiment being on the left of the 
first line, and H.M's. /4th on the right of the 2nd line. The 
cavalry formed the third line. The Peishwa's and Mysore 
cavalry remained on the south side of the Kaitna (D. in 
plan), to keep in check a large body of the enemy's cavalry. 
There was a good deal of delay in crossing the Kaitna, 
which was taken advantage of by the enemy to change 
front to the left of their first line, and they now occupied a 
long line (E. in plan), with its left resting on the village of 
Assaye, and defended along the whole front by upwards of 
one hundred guns. The village of Assaye was occupied 
with infantry, and had a number of guns disposed in front 
of it. The Mahratta line of battle, exclusive of a large 
body of troops detailed to guard stores and baggage, con- 
sisted of thirteen battalions of disciplined infantry, one 
hundred and fifteen guns, and over thirty-five thousand 
horsemen. There were also a large number of undisci- 
plined infantry. 

While the British lines were forming, the movement 
was covered by artillery fire. This was quickly responded 
to by the Mahratta guns, which caused such severe losses 
among the British gun bullocks, that the guns had to 
be left behind when the advance was made. 

Wellesley had not given the enemy credit for being 
able to change their front with so large a force, without 
falling into disarray. On perceiving the alteration in 
the enemy's position, he saw that it was necessary to 
extend his front. He accordingly ordered the picquets, 
which formed the right of the first line, to move obliquely 
to the right, so as to allow the native infantry battalions 



i8o 3 ] ASSAYE 141 

in the second line to come up on the right of the first 
line, H.M.'s 74th being directed to take the right of 
the whole. Wellesley's intention was to force back the 
enemy from their guns, then, operating by his left, to 
throw them back on the Juah, and complete their 
destruction with his cavalry. Wellesley himself led the 
left of the line, while Lieutenant Colonel Maxwell and 
the cavalry were ordered to support the right, which 
was still greatly outflanked. Particular orders were given 
to the officer in command of the picquets, which formed 
the battalion of direction, to keep out of gunshot of 
Assaye. But the losses caused by the Mahratta artillery 
were so severe, that the advance became necessary before 
the formation was complete. Every shot told, knocking 
over men, horses, and bullocks, and putting several of 
the British guns out of action. Wellesley on the left, 
impatient to advance, sent repeated messages to the 
officer commanding the picquets. He was told that the 
guns were disabled, to which he replied " Well, tell him 
to get on without them." 

As the line advanced, the Mahratta infantry gave 
ground, abandoning their guns. By mistake, the officer 
commanding the picquets continued his oblique move- 
ment too far, and led direct on Assaye, masking the 
74th ; a mistake that had an important influence on 
the course of the battle. This caused a great gap in 
the British line, separated the picquets and H.M. 74th 
from the rest of the line, and brought them under a 
tremendous fire of artillery and small arms. They were 
further impeded in their advance and thrown into disarray, 
by having to pass some cactus hedges. The Mahratta 
infantry, as they fell back from their guns, separated 
into two distinct bodies. The greater number threw 
back their right, forming a second line (H. in plan), with 
the Juah river at its back, and its left still resting on 



i 4 a ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

Assaye; while one whole Brigade, under a German 
named Pohlman, continued to retreat directly to its 
rear (M. in plan). At the same time, great numbers of 
the enemy threw themselves down, pretending to be 
dead, and allowed the British line to pass over them. 
The British line swung round to its right (I. in plan), 
to attack the enemy's second line, and, here the first 
critical period of the battle occurred. The picquets and 
H.M. 74th Foot were no longer able to advance under 
the terrible fire to which they were exposed. Numbers 
fell at every step ; all formation was lost, and a body 
of Mahratta horse, wheeling round the village of Assaye, 
charged the /4th in flank, sabreing numbers of them. 
They also recaptured some of their own guns, and 
gained possession of some of the British guns that had 
not been able to keep up with the advance, killing the 
gunners and turning the guns against the British rear, 
It was a critical moment, and, with a soldier's instinct, 
Maxwell saw that the time for action had come. 
Advancing with his brigade, Maxwell charged the 
enemy's left, driving them into the Juah with great 
slaughter : then, as the rest of the line advanced and 
drove the enemy into the nullah, the Cavalry crossed 
the Juah, and charged the broken masses of the enemy 
(J. in plan), making a horrid slaughter of them, and 
driving them off the field. 



" The iQth Light Dragoons, who only drew 360 swords, 
received the intimation with one loud huzza. ! Accom- 
panied by the 4th native cavalry who emulated their 
conduct throughout this arduous day, the igth passed 
through the broken but invincible 74th, whose very 
wounded joined in cheering them as they went on, cut 
in and routed the horse, and dashed on at the infantry 
and guns. Never did cavalry perform better service or 
contribute more to the success of a battle." * 

* Grant Duff's History of the Mahrattas. 



x8o 3 ] MAXWELL'S DEATH 143 

But the battle was not yet over. A great body of the 
enemy still remained, holding Assaye and the ground 
between the village and the Juah, while the guns they had 
got possession of in different parts of the field played on 
the rear of the exhausted British troops. Pohlman's brigade 
also was unbroken, and threatened an attack. Two sepoy 
battalions sent successively against Assaye were repulsed. 
Maxwell's cavalry were still across the Juah in pursuit of 
the broken Mahratta battalions, and, had the Mahratta 
horsemen behaved at this juncture with the same spirit 
that had led them to charge the 74th, the day might have 
been theirs. At this crisis, Maxwell with the cavalry 
returned from across the Juah, and formed up on the left 
of the British line. Directing Maxwell with the iQth 
Light Dragoons and two of his native regiments to face 
Pohlman's brigade, Wellesley took H.M.'s /8th and a 
regiment of Native Cavalry, and moved against Assaye. 
The enemy did not await the attack, but retreated across 
the Juah in tolerable order. In this movement, the 
General had his horse killed by a cannon shot. Then, 
moving along the whole line first occupied by the enemy 
(E. in plan), he recaptured all the guns, not without some 
severe fighting. Meanwhile, Maxwell led the ipth Light 
Dragoons and the two native regiments (L. in plan), to 
charge Pohlman's brigade. Both men and horses were 
exhausted with the efforts they had made, and the attack, 
instead of being delivered perpendicular to the enemy's 
front, was made obliquely against Pohlman's left. The 
well disciplined Mahrattas reserved their fire till they 
could deliver it with good effect, and Maxwell fell 
dead pierced by a grape shot. The fall of their leader 
checked the squadrons almost at the moment of contact, 
and the British horsemen swept to the left, receiving the 
fire of the Mahratta infantry as they passed, at so close a 
distance, that several of the squadron officers had their 



144 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

horses wounded with bayonets. No further effort was 
made, the squadrons " halted, and then walked, and then 
trotted back."* The British troops were so few in 
numbers, so weakened and fatigued by their exertions, as 
to be incapable of farther efforts, and Pohlman marched off 
the field without farther molestation. Thus ended the 
conflict. The Mysore and friendly Mahratta horse, who 
throughout the contest had only one casualty, would not 
pursue without the British cavalry, and the British cavalry 
were too exhausted to give them a lead. Out of the small 
British force, there were, among the Europeans, 198 killed, 
442 wounded, and 4 missing ; among the Natives, 230 
killed, 696 wounded, and 14 missing. The I9th Light 
Dragoons, who had the greatest share of casualties among 
the cavalry, lost two officers killed, Lieutenant Colonel 
Maxwell and Captain Boyle, four officers wounded, 
Captains Cathcart and Sale, and Lieutenants Wilson and 
Young ; fifteen Rank and File and eighty-seven horses 
killed, thirty-six Rank and File and thirty-six horses 
wounded, two horses missing. Of the enemy, it was 
computed that twelve hundred lay dead on the field, and 
four thousand eight hundred were wounded. One hundred 
and two guns,f seven stands of colours, and a vast quantity 
of ammunition and stores remained in the hands of the 
victors. 

It was eight o'clock in the evening before the field was 
entirely clear of the enemy. The cavalry were then sent 
back to Naulniah to bring on the camp equipage, &c., 
which they did the following morning. The rest of the 
force bivouacked as best they could on the bloody field. 
Wellesley, who had had one horse killed, and another 

* Life of Mounstuart Elphinstone. 

t History of the Madras Army. The number of guns captured at Assaye 
is generally stated as 98. This apparently does not include some guns 
abandoned by the enemy between the field of battle and the Ajunta Pass, 
which fell into the hands of Stevenson's corps. 



1803] CASUALTIES 145 

wounded with a spear, passed the night on the ground, 
close to an officer whose leg was shot off, and within five 
yards of a dead officer. 

" The General was so overcome by his great and 
gallant exertions throughout the day, so overpowered both 
in mind and body, that during the greater part or whole of 
the following night he sat on the ground with his head 
bent down between his knees, and said not a word to 
any one ! "* 

Long after his victorious career was ended, he spoke 
of Assaye as the bloodiest battle for the number engaged 
that he ever saw. Of the ten officers forming the General's 
staff eight were wounded or had their horses shot. The 
74th and the picquet battalion were almost annihilated ; 
one picquet half company alone had 21 killed, 22 wounded, 
and three missing. The 74th lost 401 of all ranks, killed 
and wounded. Two of the native cavalry regiments, being 
newly raised, were not as forward as they should have 
been, so that the brunt of the cavalry work was borne 
by the iQth Light Dragoons and the 4th Native Cavalry. 
Much of the heavy loss suffered by the British troops was 
due to the misunderstanding of Wellesley's orders by the 
officer commanding the picquets, though, as Wellesley 
generously said, in a letter written a month later, " I must 
acknowledge that it was not possible for a man to lead 
a body into a hotter fire than he did the picquets on 
that day against Assaye." The early use of the cavalry, 
however, prevented the total destruction of the enemy 
that he had intended. The exhaustion caused by their 
efforts too early in the battle, prevented them from 
entirely breaking up and routing the disciplined Mahratta 
infantry. 

A singular circumstance is said to have occurred after 

* M.S. note in India Office Library. 
K 



146 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

the battle. Each of the Commanders of the three armies, 
put to death his head spy. 

" Colonel Stevenson, because he suspected or believed 
his own to have led him intentionally astray from the road : 
General Wellesley, by reason of his own having given him 
false intelligence respecting the march of the Mahratta 
Army to pass the Ajunta Ghaut; and Scindia, from his 
man not having made him acquainted with the separation 
of the two divisions of the British Army." * 

Ample testimony has been borne to the conspicuous 
gallantry of the 19th in this hard fought field. 

" Nothing could exceed the zeal of some of the cavalry, 
particularly the iQth dragoons ; every officer and man 
fought as if on his arm depended the victory. As instances 
may be mentioned, Lieutenant Nathan Wilson, who with 
his arm shattered by a grape shot, and dangling by his 
side, charged on at the head of his troop. Lieutenant 
Alex. Grant of the Madras Native Infantry, Major of 
brigade to Colonel Maxwell, observing a gun pointed ready 
to discharge on the flank of the iQth dragoons, the match 
suspended on the touch-hole, with a noble impulse, in hopes 
of preventing it, darted forward almost on its muzzle, and 
with such force, that his horse stuck between the cannon 
and its wheel : in this situation the gun went off, as he was 
in the act of endeavouring to prevent it, by cutting down 
the artillery man. Captain George Sale was attacking 
a man who defended himself with a pike or short spear, a 
weapon with which all Scindia's Artillery men were armed ; 
the man's comrade standing on a gun, made a thrust from 
above at Captain Sale, but it was turned off by the breast- 
bone and glanced off diagonally across his chest ; his 
covering serjeant named Strange, laid the man dead who 
wounded his officer, but in the act was himself speared 
through the lungs, by another man from below the gun. 
Captain Sale went on but begged the serjeant to fall in the 
rear ; this however he gallantly refused, and rode out the 
day. Captain Sale and others afterwards saw him when in 
hospital, blow out a candle from his lungs the reader will 
be pleased to learn that the gallant serjeant recovered," f 

* M.S. note in India Office Library. 
f Grant Duff's Mahrattas. 



i3o 3 ] HONORARY COLOURS 147 

Among other incidents may be mentioned the case of 
Cornet Serle of the iQth who was under arrest at the time 
of the action, for some disagreement with his commanding 
officer. At the commencement of the battle he broke his 
arrest, and joined his corps, and, by his gallant behaviour 
throughout the day, regained permission to wear his sword 
again. 

Lieutenant Colonel Maxwell's splendid service was fit- 
tingly recognized by the East India Company, who granted 
a pension of .300 to his widow, " although we find that 
there is no example of the Company's making any allow- 
ance to the widow of a King's Officer." * 

" As long as the word Assaye exists, and has a meaning 
will the valiant deeds and reckless bravery of the old iQth 
Light Dragoons the 74th and 78th Highlanders be remem- 
bered." f 

In his dispatch to the Governor General, dated the day 
after the battle, Wellesley wrote : " I have also to draw 
your Excellency's notice to the conduct of the Cavalry 
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Maxwell, particularly 
that of the iQth Dragoons": and, in a General Order 
published in Calcutta on the 3Oth October, it was said, 
" The Governor General in Council has remarked with 
great satisfaction the gallant and skilful conduct of the 
Cavalry, commanded by Lt. Colonel Maxwell and particu- 
larly of His Majesty's nineteenth regiment of Light Dra- 
goons, a corps distinguished in India by a long and unin- 
terrupted course of arduous service and of progressive 
honour." Honorary colours in commemoration of the battle 
were granted to the I9th Light Dragoons, the 74th and 
78th " to be used by those corps while they shall continue 
in India, or until His Majesty's most gracious pleasure be 
signified through his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief." 

* Court of Directors' Letter^ Z rd J ul y l8 5- 

t Milne's Standards and Colours of the British Army. 



148 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

The damage inflicted on the Mahratta host was far in 
excess of that indicated by their loss in men and material. 
Many of the disciplined battalions had been destroyed, and 
hearty co-operation between the leaders was at an end. 
They fled northwards through the Ajimta Pass, abandoning 
some guns which were afterwards picked up by Stevenson, 
and then separated. Scindia, who believed that he had not 
been loyally supported by the Berar Rajah, retreated to Thal- 
nair in Khandesh ; the Berar Rajah retired to his fortress at 
Gawilghur, while five battalions belonging to the Begum 
Somroo, four of which had been employed to guard the 
Mahratta camp, and therefore took no part in the action, 
retreated to Burhanpore, whence they made their way back 
to Sirdhana in .the North West, and took no further part in 
the campaign. 

The sound of Wellesley's guns at Assaye was heard by 
Stevenson, who at once broke up camp and attempted to 
join him ; but being without information, and misled by his 
guides, he marched first on Bokerdun, which he did not 
reach till next day, being entangled in a nullah during the 
night. His force was greatly harassed by night marching 
and want of rest, so that he did not join Wellesley till the 
evening of the 24th. All the 25th he remained at Assaye, 
in order that his surgeons might assist the wounded, and, on 
the 26th, marched in pursuit of the enemy. Wellesley 
remained encamped near the field of battle till the 8th 
October, to make arrangements for the care of his numer- 
ous wounded, and for the captured guns and stores. Nor 
was there urgent necessity for an immediate move, till 
something was known of the movements of the enemy. 
The General's first movements after the battle were in the 
direction of Aurungabad, as Scindia showed an intention of 
marching on Poona. Then, learning that Scindia had 
turned back towards Burhanpore, on which place Steven- 
son was advancing, Wellesley turned northwards to 



1803] WELLESLEY JOINS STEVENSON 149 

Ajunta. Stevenson meanwhile had occupied Burhanpore 
on the 1 5th, and attacked the fortress of Asseerghur, which 
surrendered on the 2 1st. Wellesley, hearing that Scindia and 
the Berar Rajah had joined forces again, and were threaten- 
ing Stevenson, descended the Ajunta Pass on the 1 8th, and 
moved northwards ; but, on receiving news that Asseerghur 
had fallen, and that the confederates had again separated, 
he retraced his steps, ascended the Pass on the 25th, and 
marched to Aurungabad to protect some convoys which 
were threatened by the Berar Rajah. From Aurungabad he 
made several attempts to surprise the Bhonslay's camp 
without success, although he forced him to move his camp 
five times between the 29th and the 3ist. 

Wellesley continued moving slowly eastwards, to cover 
the Nizam's territory, till the nth November, when he 
struck northwards from Patree to Rajoora, which he 
reached on the 23rd. For some days, Scindia, under the 
influence of his defeat at Assaye in conjunction with bad 
news from his forces in the North West, had made over- 
tures for a cessation of hostilities, and, on the 23rd, an 
armistice was agreed on ; the principal condition of which 
was that Scindia should separate himself from the Berar 
Rajah, and take up a position fifty miles east of Ellichpore. 

The agreement was not however faithfully observed by 
Scindia, some of whose troops took part in the subsequent 
battle. The Berar Rajah, meanwhile, had entered his own 
territories, and was encamped at Argaum. On the 27th, 
Wellesley reached Akola, and, about 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon on the 29th, he joined Stevenson at Parterly, for 
the purpose of undertaking the siege of Gawilghur with 
their united forces. 

The Berar Rajah, who was encamped at Argaum about 
six miles from Parterly, had meanwhile opened negotiations 
with Stevenson for a suspension of hostilities, so prepara- 
tions were made for encamping at Parterly. On putting 



ISO ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

out the picquets to take up the ground, they were molested 
by parties of the enemy, and, a reconnoissance showed the 
Mahratta army drawn up in battle array, on an extensive 
plain in front of the village of Argaum. The troops were 
at once ordered to fall in, and the two divisions moved to 
the front in parallel columns. At about 1000 yards in 
front of the enemy was the village of Sirsoni. It was 
Wellesley's intention to pass by the left of the village, and 
then, wheeling to the right, to form line in front of it, 
parallel with the Mahratta line of battle. The column was 
led by the native infantry picquets, accompanied by some 
field pieces drawn by bullocks, followed by two native 
infantry battalions, all of whom had taken part in the 
battle of Assaye. On the head of the column clearing the 
village, the Mahratta guns opened fire with great effect. 
The bullock drivers lost their presence of mind and the 
management of their cattle, which turned round and threw 
into confusion the ranks behind them. The troops coming 
up in rear, not knowing the cause of the confusion, and 
suffering from the cannonade, were seized with panic, and 
fell back in disorder, to seek shelter behind the village. 
Wellesley, who was close by, giving orders to the brigadiers, 
seeing what had happened, 

" stepped out in front hoping by his presence to restore the 
confidence of the troops ; but seeing that this did not 
produce the desired effect, he mounted his horse, and rode 
up to the retreating battalions ; when, instead of losing 
his temper, upbraiding them and endeavouring to force 
them back to the spot from which they had fled, as most 
people would have done, he quietly ordered the officers to 
lead their men under cover of the village, and then to rally 
and get them into order as quickly as possible. This being 
done, he put the column again in motion, and leading these 
very same runaways round the other side of the village, 
formed them up on the very spot he originally intended 
them to occupy, the remainder of the column following 
and prolonging the line to the right." * 

* Twelve years of military adventure. 



1803] BATTLE OF ARGAUM 151 

The lesson is one to be borne in mind by those to whose 
lot it may fall to rally troops thrown into disorder under 
fire. 

In order to cover the formation, some guns were 
brought into action on each side of the village, and, as 
each battalion came into position, it was made to lie down, 
which further helped to steady the troops. The infantry 
were formed into a single line, with Stevenson's division on 
the left, while the six cavalry regiments of the two divisions, 
under command of Lieutenant Colonel the Honble. Arthur 
St Leger, were formed in two lines in rear of the right. 
The British left was covered by the native auxiliary horse. 
The Mahratta line was about five miles in length, the 
infantry and guns in the centre, with cavalry on both 
flanks. 

It was half past four in the afternoon before the British 
line advanced. On the signal being given, the British 
cavalry moved rapidly forward, and brought their galloper 
guns into action against a great body of the enemy's 
cavalry and rocket men. Meanwhile, the infantry 
advanced steadily against the Mahratta centre. When 
almost within musket shot, a body of the enemy's infantry, 
nearly a thousand strong, composed of Arabs or Pathans, 
dashed forward against the 74th and 7 8th, and perished 
almost to a man under the Highland musket and bayonet. 
Almost at the same moment, a body of Scindia's cavalry 
charged the British left, and were repulsed with loss, while 
the i Qth and the five native regiments on the right charged 
the cavalry in front of them. The Mahrattas did not 
stand the shock, but broke and fled, and at once the 
whole of the enemy's force was dissolved in flight. The 
cavalry pursued for many miles, killing great numbers, and 
capturing many elephants and camels, and much baggage. 
Thirty-eight guns and many standards fell into the hands 
of the victors. The British loss amounted to 46 killed, 



I 5 2 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

308 wounded and 7 missing. As at Assaye, the principal 
loss fell on the 74th and 78th, who, between them, lost 13 
killed, and 84 wounded. The iQth Light Dragoons had 
6 men wounded. The battle of Argaum was fought on a 
perfectly level plain intersected by small water courses, 
without any buildings or other natural obstacles between 
the two lines, after they had been formed, and was carried 
out exactly like a field day as then practised. The pur- 
suit of the enemy by the British cavalry was maintained 
for six miles, and was then taken up and continued by the 
allied Mysore and Nizam's horse for another twenty miles. 
The loss of the enemy, in the battle and subsequent pur- 
suit, was estimated at five thousand men. At Assaye, 
the principal Mahratta loss fell on Scindia's troops; at 
Argaum the loss fell chiefly on the Berar forces. 

The victory at Argaum effected a complete separation 
of the Mahratta confederate chiefs. Scindia still had a 
considerable force in the field, but it had ceased to be 
formidable after Assaye. The Berar Rajah's field army 
had disappeared, and his territories lay open to the 
invading British force. Scindia's capital was far off, and 
he might yet give trouble, so Wellesley determined to 
finish once for all with the Berar Rajah, in order that he 
might be able to devote undivided attention to Scindia 
afterwards. 

The day following the battle, Stevenson marched in 
pursuit of the enemy : Wellesley followed a day later, and 
the two divisions were re-united at Ellichpore on the 5th 
December. Thence they marched on Gawilghur, a fortress 
of great strength, regarded as the key of the Deccan, in 
which the defeated infantry from Argaum had taken 
refuge. The place was taken by assault on the I5th, with 
the loss of 13 killed, no wounded, and three missing. 
Fifty- two guns, together with a great quantity of small 
arms and military stores, fell into the hands of the victors 



i*>3l TREATY WITH SCINDIA 153 

Nagpore, the Berar Rajah's capital, now lay open to the 
British troops, and the Rajah hastened to sue for peace. 
The negotiation was conducted with the decision that 
characterized all Wellesley's actions, and peace was con- 
cluded at Deogam, on the I7th, two days after the fall 
of Gawilghur. His hands being now free on this side, 
Wellesley gave notice to Scindia, that, on the 27th, he 
should regard the agreement for suspension of hostilities 
at an end, unless that Chief came to definite terms. Left 
without an ally, with his armies defeated both in the 
North- West and in the Deccan, Scindia had no hope of 
continuing the struggle with success, and peace was signed 
in Wellesley's camp on the 3Oth December, at Surjee 
Anjengaum. 

Thus triumphantly ended a war which for boldness of 
conception of campaign, rapidity of execution, the great 
extent over which it was waged, and the hard fighting 
that characterized it both in the North and South, stands 
in marked contrast to any war we had previously waged in 
India. 

" The seat of war, extending over the continent of India 
exhibited in the short space of four months as many general 
battles, eight regular sieges and storming of fortresses, 
without including that of Gwalior, which was not captured 
till the beginning of the next year ; in all of which British 
valour prevailed over accumulated obstacles, the combina- 
tion of formidable powers, and every advantage arising 
from local position, military means and numerical strength. 
. . . Their (the Mahratta) numerous armies, amounting on 
an average to two hundred and fifty thousand men, were 
defeated in every engagement ; while the corps organized 
by their French auxiliaries, consisting at the least of forty 
thousand more, and upon whom the fullest reliance was 
placed, were completely destroyed ; in all which reverses 
the confederates left in the hands of the victors upwards of 
one thousand pieces of cannon, with ammunition, treasure 
and stores in proportion." * 

* Thorn's Memoir of the War in India, 



154 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1803 

But the most valuable result to England was that she 
learned from the Assaye campaign that she had in her 
army a General who was fit to cope with the best Generals 
of Europe. 

The war was over, and arrangements were made for 
the return of the troops to their quarters. Leaving 
Stevenson's division, Wellesley turned southwards to 
Jaulna, which he reached on the I9th January 1804. 
A few days before the conclusion of peace, in writing to 
the Commander-in-Chief, Wellesley remarked: "The I9th 
Dragoons have now better horses than I have ever seen 
with them." It was well that it was so, for a severe 
effort was still required of them. The Nizam's dominions 
were at that time infested with banditti, mostly disbanded 
soldiers, who plundered the country in all directions, and 
had become so daring that they had not hesitated to 
attack detachments of British troops. On reaching Jaulna, 
news was brought to Wellesley of a large body of free- 
booters who were plundering the country to the south- 
ward. Crossing the Godavery, he marched to Neemgaum, 
where, on the 2nd February, he received information of 
the whereabouts of the marauders. He accordingly made 
up a light flying column consisting of the ipth Light 
Dragoons and the rest of the cavalry that had been with 
him at Assaye, the remnants of the gallant 74th, a sepoy 
battalion, and details from other sepoy regiments, 150 
pioneers, and four guns,* and marched on the 3rd, 
reaching Sailgaon on the 4th, a distance of about thirty 
miles in a direct line. Marching again the same night, 
he came up with the freebooters about 9 A.M. on the 
5th. The cavalry charged at once, slaying great numbers 

* The force would appear a very large one to deal with a band of free- 
booters, but according to one who was present they numbered upwards of 
50,000 men. Though this was probably an exaggeration, it suffices to show 
that they were very numerous. 



i8o 4 ] GRANT OF BADGES 155 

and dispersing them, at the same time capturing their 
guns, camp, and stores. An unfortunate mishap occurred 
on this occasion. The ipth mistook some of the allied 
Mahratta horse for the enemy, and charged them, cutting 
down two or three of them, and having one of their own 
number cut down, before the mistake was discovered. 
The achievement was remarkable for the long and rapid 
marching performed by the troops. Writing of it, two 
days later, Wellesley says : 

"The exertion made by the troops is the greatest I 
ever witnessed. Everything was over by 12 o'clock on 
the 5th, and, I think that, by that time, the infantry 
must have marched 60 miles from six in the morning of 
the 4th. We halted from 12 in the day till 10 at night 
on the 4th, so that we marched 60 miles with infantry 
in twenty hours." 

Well might he add : 

" I think we now begin to beat the Mahrattas in the 
celerity of our movements." 

The force then marched for Poona. 

Hardly had peace been secured, when Holkar, who 
had hitherto held aloof, took the field. The igth Light 
Dragoons took, however, no part in the campaign that 
followed, but remained encamped at Panwell near 
Bombay till the end of 1804, when they marched for 
Arcot. 

In 1807, the royal permission was given to the regiment 
to wear a badge of the Elephant with the word " Assaye," 
on colours and appointments, in commemoration of the 
gallantry displayed by the regiment in the battle and 
during the campaign. Nothing can be traced of the 
honorary standard presented to the regiment for Assaye 



156 ASSAYE AND ARGAUM [1804 

There can be no doubt that it was given to the ipth as 
it was to the /4th and 78th. 

HORSE GUARDS, 
i$th April 1807. 

MY LORD 

I have received the Commander 
in Chiefs directions to inform you, that the 
Marquis of Wellesley and Major General the 
Honble. Sir Arthur Wellesley have represented 
to H.R.H.the distinguished services of the iQth 
Light Dragoons in the course of the arduous 
Campaigns which occurred during the period of 
his Lordship's Government in India, and have 
earnestly solicited permission, that the Regiment 
may be distinguished by some emblematical 
Badge. 

The Commander in Chief has with great 
satisfaction submitted this representation to the 
King, and His Majesty has in consequence 
thereof been most graciously pleased to approve 
of the " Elephant " being used in Colours and 
Appointments of the ipth Light Dragoons with 
the word " Assay e " superscribed, in Commemora- 
tion of the Gallantry and good Conduct dis- 
played in the Action fought at that place on 
the 23rd of September 1803. 

I have the honour to be &c. 

HARRY CALVERT, 

A.G. 
General Visct. HOWE, K.B. 

or O.C. igth Light Dragoons. 



i*>5] COLONEL GILLESPIE 157 



CHAPTER X 

THE VELLORE MUTINY 
1805-1807 



Lieut. Colonel Gillespie iQth at Arcot Mutiny of Vellore A 
military wonder iQth ordered to England A quarter of a 
century's changes The " terrors of the East " Farewell orders 
1 9th land in England. 

" ' Trumpeter, sound for the Light Dragoons, 

Sound to saddle and spur,' he said, 
1 He that is ready may ride with me, 
And he that can may ride ahead.' " 

Newbolt. 

IN January 1801, a second Lieut. Colonel had been added 
to the establishment of the regiment, in the person of Major 
Edgar Hunter, promoted from the 2nd Dragoon Guards, 
without purchase. Lt. Colonel Hunter remained in 
England, and never joined the regiment. The vacancy 
caused by Maxwell's death at Assaye was rilled for a time 
by the Governor General, at Sir Arthur Wellesley's recom- 
mendation, appointing Lieutenant Colonel William 
Wallace of the 74th Highlanders to command the ipth 
Light Dragoons. But the appointment was not confirmed 
in England, and, the following year, Wallace was transferred 
to H.M. 8oth, to make way for Major James Kennedy, who 
had been promoted to fill the vacancy. A little later, 
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Robert Wilson was brought from 
half-pay of Hompesch's Mounted Riflemen to be Lieutenant 
Colonel, in place of Hunter, who was placed on half-pay. 
But Wilson also did not join the regiment, and, three 
months later, exchanged into the 2Oth Light Dragoons 
with Lieutenant Colonel Robert Rollo Gillespie, who, 



158 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1805 



during the short time he was with the iQth, was destined to 
perform one of the most curious feats of arms ever done 
by an individual. 

In an age prolific of daring deeds Gillespie was already 
widely known as the hero of many a desperate adventure. 
Headstrong and impetuous by nature, in action he was 
a brave and gallant soldier to whom nothing appeared 
impossible. The only child of a Scotch gentleman settled 
in Ireland, at the age of ten Gillespie was gazetted as 
Ensign to the 45th Foot, from which he was transferred as 
Lieutenant to the lo/j-th. On that regiment being dis- 
banded in the beginning of 1783, he was transferred as 
Cornet to the 6th Dragoon Guards, then quartered in 
Ireland. Four years later, he was concerned in an affair 
that attracted much notice at the time, and nearly brought 
his military career to an abrupt close. While quartered at 
Athy in Kildare, an altercation took place one day in 
Gillespie's room, between one of his brother officers, named 
Mackenzie, and a Mr Barrington, brother of Sir Jonah 
Barrington, whose estate was in the neighbourhood. In a 
duelling age, the Barringtons were remarkable for their 
fire-eating propensities. A meeting was fixed upon for 
the following morning, Barrington insisting on fighting in 
a particular part of his family estate. Gillespie attended 
as second to Mackenzie. Shots were exchanged without 
result, and it was proposed by the seconds that the affair 
should be considered at an end. Barrington objected, and 
a fierce quarrel arose between him and Gillespie. A 
challenge to fight on the spot was given and accepted. 
Gillespie, knowing Barrington's reputation as a duellist, 
drew out his handkerchief, proposing that each should hold 
one end of it. Both fired at the same moment : Barrington 
fell shot through the heart, but Gillespie escaped with only 
a slight wound, the bullet having glanced off a button. 
Gillespie was tried at the summer assizes of 1788, at 



i8o 5 ] COLONEL GILLESPIE 159 

Maryborough, for wilful murder, and acquitted by the jury, 
with a verdict of justifiable homicide. 

In 1792, Gillespie was promoted to a Lieutenancy in 
the newly raised 2Oth Light Dragoons, which was enlisted 
for service in Jamaica, and maintained at the expense of 
the island. In the attack of Port-au-Prince in St Domingo 
he distinguished himself, along with Captain Rowley of the 
Navy, by swimming ashore, their swords in their mouths, 
as bearers of a flag of truce. They were fired on as they 
swam, and would have been shot on landing, if Gillespie 
had not made himself known as a freemason to the 
Governor, who was also a fellow craftsman. While in St 
Domingo, an attack at night was made on Gillespie's house 
by eight men. Awakened by the cries of his servant, who 
was being murdered, he attacked the assailants with his 
sword, and killed six of them. The remaining two fled, 
after inflicting a dangerous wound on him. On exchanging 
to the 1 9th, he obtained permission to find his way out to 
India overland, and travelled through Germany, which was 
then in the hands of the French, Austria, Servia, Constanti- 
nople, where he fought a successful duel with a French 
Officer who picked a quarrel with him, Aleppo and 
Baghdad. The journey was a hazardous one at that time, 
and he had more than one narrow escape. On reach- 
ing Arcot, the command of the whole garrison devolved 
on him, in virtue of his brevet rank. Hardly had he 
assumed the command, when an event occurred at the 
neighbouring station of Vellore that will always be 
associated with Gillespie's name. 

Matters relating to food, dress and other petty details 
of social life, which in Europe are treated as matters of 
personal caprice, have, in the East, become so intermingled 
with religious observances, that they have, in the course of 
time, come to be regarded as an essential part of the 
religion of the people, and of paramount importance in the 



160 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1805 

conduct of their lives. Nowhere are these quasi-religious 
observances so tenaciously held as in India, and nowhere 
do they relate more to matters which in other countries are 
held to be of trivial importance. The lesson is one that is 
continually forcing itself on the notice of Indian admini- 
strators, and is continually being forgotten.* 

After the fall of Seringapatam, in 1799, the strong 
fortress of Vellore was selected to be the place of residence 
of the numerous family of Tippoo Sultan. Beyond being 
required to reside in Vellore, they were under no restraint. 
They were in receipt of large money allowances from the 
British Government, and they had gathered around them 
a swarm of needy followers who were ripe for any mischief. 
In November 1805, Lieutenant General Sir J. Cradock, 
who had assumed the command of the forces in Madras 
a few months earlier, issued an order establishing a new 
pattern of turbans for the native army. Two months 
later, a volume of regulations for the army was issued from 
the Adjutant General's office, in which Native soldiers 
were forbidden from wearing caste marks on their faces 
while in uniform, and the shaving and trimming of beards 
and mustachios was prescribed, in a manner to assimilate 
sepoys to English soldiers. In April, made-up patterns of 
the new turbans were sent to different regiments. The 
men took it into their heads that these turbans closely 
resembled the hats worn by half-castes and native 
Christians; and, connecting this with the orders about 
caste marks and shaving, leaped to the conclusion that 
their forcible conversion to Christianity was intended. A 
sepoy battalion at Vellore at once made known their 
refusal to wear the turban. The Commander-in-Chief, 
unable to understand the feelings aroused by his orders, 

* "Nothing would appear to be more trivial to the public interests than the 
length of the hair on the upper lip of a sepoy, yet to the individual himself, the 
shape and fashion of the whisker is a badge of his caste, and an article of his 
religion." Report of Special Commission on mutiny at Vellore. 



i8o6] SEPOY INSUBORDINATION 161 

treated the refusal as a mere matter of insubordination. 
The battalion was sent away from Vellore, another being 
brought in its place ; and a number of non-commissioned 
officers and men in the battalion were punished. Hardly 
had this taken place, when it became known that in other 
places the same objections to the new turban had been 
manifested. The attention of Government was now 
roused, but still nothing was done to repeal the obnoxious 
order. The punishment that had been meted out to the 
battalion at Vellore only served to confirm the fears of 
the rest of the native garrison. Meetings were held, at 
which retainers of the Mysore princes attended, and did 
their best to foment mischief and increase the fears of the 
sepoys, while at the same time communications were 
opened with other sepoys in the different Madras garrisons, 
encouraging them to combine in resisting the attack on 
their religion. In the beginning of July, the garrison of 
the fort consisted of four companies of H.M.'s 69th 
regiment amounting to 1 1 officers and 372 rank and file, 
and a battalion and a half of sepoys, amounting to 35 
native officers and 1775 rank and file, with their European 
officers. A considerable number of the sepoys lived in 
the pettah, their arms being kept in the fort. The fort 
and garrison were under the command of Colonel Fancourt 
of H.M.'s 34th Regt. No suspicion existed that any 
danger threatened ; while the Government departments 
were still corresponding with each other, and deliberating 
about the new turban, and the feeling it had caused in the 
native army, without further warning, the storm burst. 

It happened that a field day for one of the sepoy 
battalions had been ordered for the early morning of the 
loth July. It was customary on such occasions for the 
sepoys, instead of remaining in their huts in the pettah, to 
sleep inside the fort, in order to get under arms without 
delay in the morning. The sepoy guards inside the fort 

t 



162 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1806 

were furnished by the other native battalion. So favourable 
did the opportunity appear to the mutineers, that it led to 
a premature explosion of the plot that had been formed in 
concert with sepoys in other stations. At three o'clock in 
the morning of the icth, a general attack by the sepoys 
was suddenly made on the men of the 6pth and the 
European officers in the fort. At the same moment, the 
guards and sentries were attacked and overpowered, the 
sick men in hospital massacred, the officers' quarters 
surrounded and fired into, while the principal body of 
mutineers poured volley after volley into the barracks 
where the 69th were sleeping, and brought two fieldpieces 
to play on them, obtained from the magazine. The men 
surprised and shot down in their sleep, and without officers, 
could do little more than shelter themselves as they best 
might, and hold the entrance to the barracks. Colonel 
Fancourt, with several other officers, was shot down at 
once, and the complete massacre of every European in the 
fort appeared inevitable. Without waiting for the com- 
pletion of their work, the mutineers brought out one of the 
sons of Tippoo, and proclaimed him Sultan, hoisting at the 
same time a Mysore flag that had been prepared for the 
occasion. 

In the confusion and darkness, a few officers and a 
sergeant of the 69th, named Brady, managed to meet in 
the quarters of one of the officers. After maintaining 
themselves some time, they broke out and forced their 
way into the 69th barracks, on which a heavy fire was still 
kept up. Having rallied the survivors, they sallied out 
through the windows, and gained the adjoining ramparts 
under a heavy fire. It was now broad daylight, and the 
men, who had had at the outset only six cartridges each, 
had scarcely any ammunition left. Nevertheless, they 
made their way along the ramparts, driving the mutineers 
before them, till they reached the Magazine which was on 



i8o6J THE SIXTY-NINTH x6 3 

the opposite side of the fort. Finding that all the ball 
ammunition had been already removed by the mutineers, 
they retraced their steps as far as the work over the main 
gateway, after pulling down the rebel flag. Here they 
resolved to make their last stand, their numbers greatly 
reduced, the only unwounded officers left being two 
Assistant Surgeons, and the whole party being exposed to 
a continual fire to which they were scarcely able to respond. 
They had obtained a few cartridges from the pouches of 
dead mutineers, with which they still kept up a feeble 
appearance of defence. In the confusion of making their 
way along the ramparts to the Magazine, some thirty men 
of the 69th, with two or three officers, got separated from 
the main body. Finding a rope suspended from the wall, 
which had been used to admit mutinous sepoys, they let 
themselves down by it, and took refuge in a small detached 
redoubt, where Lt. Colonel Forbes with a few unarmed 
sepoys who had remained faithful, had taken post. Hope- 
less as the whole situation appeared at this juncture, help 
was fast approaching. It happened that Major Coates of 
the 69th and several of the native infantry officers resided 
outside the walls. On being aroused by the firing and 
tumult, and being unable to enter the fort, Coates guessed 
what had happened, and at once dispatched an officer to 
Arcot with a letter to Gillespie. 

Gillespie had appointed that very morning to ride 
over to Arcot, to breakfast with Colonel Fancourt. He 
had mounted his horse at daybreak, and started on his 
ride, accompanied by Captain Wilson of the I9th, when 
he was met by Coates' messenger riding at full speed, 
who told him that the gates of the fortress were shut, 
that there was heavy firing and a dreadful noise within. 
Making at once for the Cavalry lines, Gillespie was in a 
few minutes hastily gallopping along the road to Vellore, 
at the head of a squadron of the I9th under Captain 



164 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1806 

Wilson, and a troop of the 7th Native Cavalry, leaving 
orders for the rest of the cavalry and the galloper guns 
of the 1 9th to follow as soon as possible, under Lieut. 
Colonel Kennedy. As the troopers approached the walls, 
they were seen by the little party who still held out over 
the gateway. The 69th had been in Jamaica four years 
before. To Sergeant Brady's astonishment, he beheld 
at the head of the little band of dragoons the well-known 
Colonel Gillespie, whom he had seen only a short time 
before in the West Indies. " If Colonel Gillespie be alive, 
God Almighty has sent him from the West Indies to save 
our lives in the East ! " he exclaimed. The moment was 
indeed most critical. The small party over the gateway 
had fired their last cartridge, and the sepoys, who for a 
time had dispersed to plunder, were gathering to complete 
their work. On seeing the relief party advancing, a great 
number of the mutineers retired to the further ramparts, 
leaving the gateway and one bastion in possession of the 
little party under Sergeant Brady. The entrance to the 
fortress was through four successive gates. The two outer 
gates were fortunately open, and the drawbridge was 
down. Encouraged by Gillespie, some of the 69th let 
themselves down by their pouch and bayonet belts, and 
opened the third gate from within, not without losing 
several of their number, but the fourth and the strongest 
gate was beyond their powers. In order to open it, 
Gillespie formed the desperate expedient of forcing the 
wicket and opening the gate from the inside. The wicket 
was forced, and Gillespie for a brief interval, accompanied 
by Captain Wilson and three men on foot, stood inside 
the fort, exposed to the fire of the square and palace yard 
full of men. But their efforts to break the locks and force 
the bars were fruitless, and, seeing that perseverance in 
the attempt could only end in their destruction, the little 
party withdrew. Still casting about for some means of 



1806] RETRIBUTION 165 

joining the party over the gateway, Gillespie suddenly 
spied a rope. The end was at once thrown up and 
secured, and in a few minutes, by its assistance, Gillespie 
joined the remnants of the 69th over the gateway. Seeing 
a pair of regimental colours on the wall Gillespie seized 
them, and, collecting as many of the 6gih as he could 
find, at once headed a bayonet charge against a three 
gun battery, out of which the enemy were driven. Though 
there was not a single round of ammunition procurable, 
a gun, turned round and pointed towards the mutineers, 
held them in check, at a time when every minute was 
valuable. But the effect did not last long, and just as it 
seemed as if no further effort could be made to stave off 
the impending fate of the party, the remainder of the 
ipth with their galloper guns suddenly appeared at the 
gate. Forcing his way back to the wall above the gate- 
way, Gillespie gave orders for the gate to be burst open, 
which was done with the first shot. The great square 
was full of men ready to dispute the entrance of the 
cavalry, and the entrance being very narrow, and more- 
over being commanded by two guns, Gillespie called on 
the remnant of the 69th for one final effort. Putting 
himself at their head, a gallant bayonet charge was made to 
clear the entrance for the cavalry, which was attended with 
further loss. The dragoons poured in, headed by Captain 
Skelton of the I9th, and supported loyally by some of 
the 7th native cavalry, and the work of retribution 
commenced. Between three and four hundred of the 
mutineers were cut down in the fort, while numbers, who 
escaped by a sally port, were caught and slain outside, 
by a squadron of the I9th under Lieutenant Young, and 
a party of the 7th Native Cavalry under Lieutenant 
Woodhouse. One party of mutineers maintained them- 
selves for some time in one of the barracks, firing on all 
who approached ; till some of the I9th dismounted and 



166 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1806 

stormed the building, putting them all to the sword. By 
10 o'clock all was over, and the safety of the fortress 
secured, but Gillespie has left it on record that, had he 
delayed scaling the wall for five minutes, none of those 
inside the fort could have escaped. The loss of the 69th 
amounted to 115 rank and file killed, and 76 wounded. 
Of the officers of different regiments, fifteen were killed 
and five wounded. Several, who had been unable to make 
their way to the 6Qth barracks, saved themselves by con- 
cealment during the tumult. Among the iQth Light 
Dragoons, one trooper was killed and three wounded, a 
loss that would have been much greater but for the 
gallantry of the 6pth in clearing a space for the cavalry 
to form in after entering the fort. Gillespie was acci- 
dentally ridden down by a dragoon, and badly bruised, 
in the melee. 

Investigation showed that the sepoys in many other 
stations were prepared to mutiny, and, but for the failure 
at Vellore, which was the centre of disaffection, would have 
risen. By Gillespie's resolution and intrepidity in stamp- 
ing out the mutiny before it could gather force, a great 
and unexpected danger had been averted. Well might 
the Commander-in-Chief say that Gillespie had performed 
" a military wonder." The princes of Tippoo's family were 
at once sent down to Madras, escorted by the I9th Light 
Dragoons, and embarked for Calcutta, on board the 
Culloden^ on the 3Oth. The iQth remained in Madras three 
days, encamped by the Race Stand, and then returned to 
Arcot Gillespie was employed at Wallajabad and other 
places where dangerous symptoms of disaffection had 
appeared. At the same time, he was appointed to be 
Inspector and Exercising officer of Cavalry in the 
Presidency, but the appointment was discontinued as 
unnecessary, a year later, by the Court of Directors. To 
show their appreciation of his services, the Court of 



1806] GILLESPIE'S DEATH 167 

Directors granted Gillespie a money reward of 2500. 
A proportionate sum was granted to Sergeant Brady, who 
was also recommended for a Commission, and each non- 
commissioned and private of the ipth Light Dragoons who 
had been employed at Veil ore, received a gratuity of one 
month's pay. Suitable rewards were also given to the men 
of the native cavalry, who behaved loyally on the occasion. 
In consequence of the mutiny, both the Governor and the 
Commander-in-Chief were recalled to England. 

Gillespie's connection with the iQth practically termin- 
ated three months later, when the regiment left India, and 
the rest of his career does not come within the scope of 
this history. On the regiment sailing for England, he 
remained in India, and, in the following year, exchanged 
into the 8th Light Dragoons with Lieut. Colonel John 
Ormsby Vandeleur. His gallant deeds at the conquest 
of Java, and subsequently, while in command of the troops 
there, can never be forgotten. His death was in keeping 
with his whole life. He fell under the walls of Kalunga in 
the Deyrah Dhoon, on the 3ist October 1814, at the 
beginning of the first Nepaul War, while vainly trying to 
force an entrance at the head of some dismounted dragoons, 
after the first attack had failed. His remains were carried 
to Meerut for interment. By the irony of fate, on the loth 
May 1857, the first shots of the great sepoy mutiny were 
fired within a mile of the monument over his grave, and 
were the beginning of events that at one time threatened 
to involve British power in the East in ruin, and that have 
changed the whole course of Indian history. If that 
gallant spirit was still permitted to take interest in the 
events of that day, how it must have chafed at the exhibi- 
tion of incapacity and indecision that led to such disastrous 
consequences. In view of what happened at Vellore, it 
is allowable to believe that the Great Mutiny of 1857 
would never have assumed the proportions it did, had the 



168 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1806 

first outbreak been met by the same display of energy and 
resolution as was shown, under similar circumstances, fifty- 
one years earlier. On the 2nd January 1815, before the 
news of his death reached England, Gillespie was gazetted 
as K.C.B. A monument to his memory, by Chantrey, was 
erected in St Paul's Cathedral, at the expense of the nation. 
The time had now arrived when the ipth was to bring to 
a close its long and distinguished career in India. Orders 
were received for the regiment to march to Madras, for 
embarkation to Europe by the next homeward bound fleet. 
At Poonamallee, on 5th October, they made over their 
horses to the 25th Light Dragoons, who had been brought 
down from Bengal, by sea, to take their place. In the 
twenty-four years that had elapsed since the regiment had 
landed in India, great were the changes it had witnessed. 
At the time of its arrival, the very existence of the British 
settlements in Southern India hung by a thread. England 
had then been at war with France, and the two countries 
were still at war. But the conditions were changed. Now 
the French flag had disappeared from India, and not a 
single native power dared meet a British army in the field, 
without risking its own existence. From a trading cor- 
poration the East India Company had grown into a great 
and powerful government, whose supremacy in India was 
unchallenged. In achieving this result, the igth Light 
Dragoons had played no small part. On their first arrival 
in India the prevailing sentiment with which they were 
regarded was curiosity. The horsemen of native powers 
were numbered by tens of thousands. Their method was 
to waste and ravage the country round an enemy's force, 
to harass the line of march, to cut off stragglers, to inter- 
cept convoys and to wear down an enemy by these indirect 
methods. To charge home, sword in hand, into the ranks 
of an unbroken enemy was foreign to their ideas of 
properly conducted warfare. The first appearance of the 



i8o6] THE "TERRORS OF THE EAST" 169 

igth in the field came therefore as a surprise to friend and 
foe ; it was like the introduction of a new weapon. Before 
the first campaign against Tippoo was six months old, the 
reputation of the ipth Light Dragoons had penetrated to 
every part of southern India. The impression thus created 
grew with every successive appearance of the regiment 
in the field of action ; and, as long as they remained in 
India, they continued to evoke an amount of interest and 
attention that was bestowed on no other regiment in the 
service. One who charged with them at Assaye and 
Argaum, and fought his way into Vellore with them, 
though not belonging to the regiment, wrote of the nine- 
teenth as " a fine specimen of what a regiment ought to 
be. They called themselves the 'Terrors of the East.' 
Indeed, such was the respect in which they were held 
by the natives, that when they embarked for England, all 
the black town of Madras was emptied to see them off." 
Before sailing, an entertainment in their honour was given 
by the Commander-in-Chief, and the subjoined orders were 
published : 

General Order (Madras Govt.\ 
Fort St. George, October loth, 1806. 

1806. On the occasion of the intended return of His 
Majesty's ipth regiment of light dragoons to 
Europe, the right honourable the governor in 
council feels the greatest satisfaction in testifying 
in the most public manner, his highest approba- 
tion of that distinguished and valuable corps. 
From the period of the arrival of his majesty's 
igth dragoons in India, in the year 1782, until 
the present time, that regiment has shared in 
almost every action of difficulty and of glory, in 
which the British arms have been engaged 
during that long and eventful interval, and has 
deservedly established a degree of reputation 
seldom equalled, never surpassed. His lordship 



170 THE VELLORE MUTINY [1806 

in council deems it unnecessary at this moment 
to enumerate the various instances in which his 
majesty's ipth dragoons have rendered the 
most important service to their country : but 
the glory acquired by that regiment in the 
field of Assaye, and the important advantages 
which resulted from its bravery, discipline and 
activity, on a late memorable occasion, (furnish?) 
an instance which cannot be omitted, and which 
can never be obliterated from the annals of this 
country, or from the memory of the British 
nation. His lordship in council was pleased, 
by a general order under date the 27th 
August, 1805, to confer a particular mark of 
his lordship's approbation on his majesty's 74th 
regiment, at the period of the embarkation of 
that distinguished corps for Europe, by granting 
to the officers a donation of three months' full 
batta. Impressed with similar sentiments on 
the present occasion, his lordship in council has, 
in consideration of the long and brilliant 
services of his majesty's I9th regiment of 
dragoons, resolved to extend to the officers of 
that regiment a donation of the same amount, 
which is accordingly directed to be paid 
previously to their departure. 



General Order. (Lieut. General Sir J. Cradocfc) 

Head Quarters^ Choultry Plain, 
Oct. I3//2, 1806. 



1806. The eulogium that government has been 
pleased to express in their late order upon the 
services of his majesty's 19th light dragoons, 
throughout its long and distinguished course in 
this Country, leaves to the commander-in-chief 
but little to add, except his warmest wishes for 
the continuance of their uninterrupted honor 
and success, in other regions of the British 
Empire. The records of government every- 
where proclaim the value of his majesty's iQth 
light dragoons, in India, and stamp the 



'So;] RETURN TO ENGLAND 171 

occasions, where this regiment has perhaps 
secured the foundations of our empire. 

Such subjects belong to the highest authority, 
and have only been briefly mentioned with 
grateful acknowledgment. The bounded limits 
of an order were unequal to the history. 

It therefore only remains with the 
commander-in-chief, to state the humbler 
sentiments of approbation of the discipline, 
good order, obedience, and harmony that 
prevail in the igih light dragoons, which 
confirm all opinion, that such are the founda- 
tions that lead to glory, cause admiration and 
respect, while a regiment remains in a foreign 
country, and ensures to them, on their departure 
the deepest regret. 

And so, on the 2Oth October 1 806, twenty-four years to 
a day since they first arrived in Madras, the I9th Light 
Dragoons with their honours thick upon them, embarked 
in the Streatham, William Pitt, and Jane Duchess of 
Gordon^ to sail for England three days later, under convoy 
of the squadron commanded by Rear Admiral Sir Edward 
Pellew. The voyage was uneventful. Table Bay was 
reached 3Oth December, and St Helena 23rd January. On 
the 1 8th April 1807, the regiment disembarked at Tilbury, 
one detachment being landed at Plymouth, and marched 
to Northampton. A muster taken a week after landing 
shows the strength of the regiment to have been 245 rank 
and file. Recruiting parties were at once sent out to 
Birmingham, Glasgow, Dublin and Waterford. 




172 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1812 



CHAPTER XI 

WAR WITH UNITED STATES 

1808-1813 

igth in Ireland United States declare War igth ordered to Canada 
United States' plans Operations of 1812 Mackinaw Detroit 
Armistice Battle of Queenston Heights General Brock killed 
Montreal threatened Operations of 1813 Proctor's victory at 
Frenchtown Fort Meigs United States' victory on Lake 
Erie Battle of the Thames ; Proctor's defeat York captured 
Fort George and Erie evacuated Stoney Creek : Harvey's 
brilliant exploit Fitzgibbon's success at Beaver Dam Arrival 
of squadron of iQth on Niagara frontier Engagement on Lake 
Ontario Fort George re-occupied Fort Niagara surprised 
Black Rock and Buffalo captured Abortive attack on Sackett's 
Harbour United States' operations against Montreal Battle of 
Chateaugay Battle of Chrystler's Farm Importance of Kingston 
and Sackett's Harbour. 

DURING the following six years the regiment remained at 
home, and took no part in the stirring events then 
occurring in Spain and Portugal. At the end of 1808, 
they moved from Northampton to Norwich and Ipswich, 
with a detachment at Birmingham, while their recruiting 
parties were actively engaged in different parts of the 
United Kingdom. In March 1809, the regiment moved 
to Romford, and, in December, embarked for Ireland. 
For two years the regiment remained in quarters at 
Tullamore, Philipstown and Longford. By an order dated 
23rd April 1811, the establishment was augmented from 
400 to 570 privates, making the total strength of all ranks 
685. In March 1812, the regiment marched to Clonmel, 
and in June, to Dublin. The regiment was soon to pro- 
ceed on active service again. 

On the 1 8th June, 1812, the United States declared 




SQUADUON GUIDON. 

GUIDONS OF THE X1XTH LIGHT DRAGOONS. 

to face p. 172. 



i8i2] DESIGNS ON CANADA 173 

war against England. The declaration reached the British 
Government on the 3Oth July; but, as the British Orders 
in Council respecting the trade of neutral nations, that 
had been put forward on the American side as the chief 
reason for the war, had been rescinded on 23rd June, it was 
still believed in England that peace would be maintained. 
In spite of the hostilities that immediately commenced, it 
was not till October that conditional orders for reprisals 
were issued, and the formal declaration of war by Great 
Britain was not made till Qth January 1813. The war 
party in the States had the upper hand at the time : they 
were determined on war, and cared little for the pretext. To 
outward appearance, it seemed, in 1812, that England could 
not much longer hold out against Napoleon, who had the 
whole continent of Europe, except Russia, at his feet, while 
the British armies in Spain seemed to make no progress. 
In truth Napoleon's power was already beginning to totter. 
The British armies in Spain, hardened and consolidated 
by three years of war under their great leader, were 
invincible. Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz had fallen, and 
Wellington had already begun his victorious advance that 
was to carry him across the Pyrenees. At the same time 
Napoleon was preparing for his disastrous invasion of 
Russia which dealt the first deadly blow to his power. 
But the war party in the United States were unable to 
discern this. The British troops in Canada were few in 
number, the colonists were believed to be lukewarm in 
their loyalty to Great Britain, and the war party promised 
their countrymen that Canada would prove an easy prey. 
Under the thin veil of resenting injuries a war of conquest 
was intended. 

On 6th March 1813, an order was issued for three 
squadrons of the igth Light Dragoons, completed to 
eighty rank and file per troop, to be held in readiness to 
embark for North America, under Lieut. Colonel the 



174 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1812 

Hon. J. O'Neill. The horses of the officers, sergeants and 
corporals were to be taken, but all other horses were to 
be left behind. In the same month the regiment reached 
Cork, and embarked on 4th April, in company with 
other troops, under convoy of the Sybelle frigate and 
Cygnet sloop ; almost the first reinforcements sent 
from England to Canada since the United States' declara- 
tion of war. They reached Quebec about the i;th May,* 
and were at once sent to La Prairie on the St Lawrence 
near Montreal. 

The war in which the regiment was about to engage, 
was one in which cavalry could play only a subordinate 
part. The country in which they were to operate was a 
vast expanse of forest and swamp, with a few sparsely 
inhabited clearings. The chief mode of communication 
was by boat. The war was one to be fought out by small 
bodies of men far from their supports, wielding the axe and 
the oar as much as the rifle : forage was hard to get, and 
there was little place for mounted men. Under these 
conditions, the ipth Light Dragoons were only engaged in 
small detachments, never more than a squadron, seldom 
more than a troop. Their duties were of a most harassing 
kind, on outpost and reconnoissance duty. Never once did 
they have an opportunity of crossing swords with the 
enemy's cavalry. The only cavalry charges recorded during 
the war were those made by the United States' cavalry that 
overwhelmed Proctor's force at the battle of the Thames, 
and the charge repulsed by the 8pth at Chrystler's Farm. 

Immediately on landing, one troop, taking with it only 
ten horses, was dispatched to Upper Canada. With it 
went Lieut. Colonel O'Neill and a convoy of ammunition. 
The three hundred horses, that were to have been ready by 
ist July, had not been obtained. A fortnight later, a 
second troop followed, with sixty-five horses, most of 

* Quebec Mercury % iSth May 1813. 



i8i2] UNITED STATES' PLANS 175 

which had been brought from Ireland with the regiment. 
The squadron was destined for the Niagara frontier, where 
it was engaged, under Captain Lisle, till the end of the war. 

Meanwhile, in spite of the belief in England that war 
would not be prosecuted by the States, when the rescinding 
of the orders in Council was known, hostilities had been in 
active progress from the first declaration. The British 
regular troops in Canada, in June 1812, were about 4500 in 
number ; of which 3000 were in garrison at Quebec and 
Montreal, the remainder being scattered along the Upper 
Canada frontier. Their small number was effectively 
supplemented by the Canadian militia, who fought for the 
protection of their homes with a gallantry and devotion 
that could not be exceeded. Their numbers were however 
liable to constant fluctuations owing to the frequent 
necessity for their presence at their homes for agricultural 
purposes. A considerable number of Indians also, at 
times, co-operated ; allies of doubtful value, who could 
never be relied on, and whose numbers varied from day to 
day. In population and resources the United States were 
in the proportion of more than ten to one compared to 
Canada. On the British side therefore the war was 
necessarily of a defensive character. The points on which 
Canada was most vulnerable were, i. on the Detroit frontier 
between Lake Huron and Lake Erie ; 2. on the Niagara 
frontier between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario ; and, 3. on 
the line of the St Lawrence between Kingston and 
Montreal. The United States' plan was to invade Canada 
on all three points, and three separate expeditions were 
prepared for the purpose. The first attack was made on 
the Detroit frontier, where, under pretence of punishing 
some Indians, troops had been assembled before the 
declaration of war. 

Before noticing the more important operations of 1812, 
it is necessary to mention the capture of the United States 



176 WAR WITH UNITED STATES 1812 

fort and island of Mackinaw, which was effected by a party 
of regulars, militia and Indians, under Captain Roberts, 
on i /th July, and retained till the .end of the war. The 
capture was of some importance, as the island commanded 
the navigation between Lakes Michigan and Huron. 

On the 1 2th July, a United States' force of 2500 men, 
under General Hull, crossed from Detroit, and occupied 
the small village of Sandwich. On the same day Hull 
issued a proclamation that struck the keynote of the war. 
In it he called on the Canadians to seek his protection, 
threatening them with a war of extermination should they 
venture to take up arms against him. Acting in the spirit 
of this proclamation, the United States' troops throughout 
the war committed excesses against the non-combatant 
population that had long been condemned by all civilized 
nations, and effectually alienated any sympathy they might 
have found among the Canadians. The reprisals, that are 
inevitable in such cases, followed, and the war was marked 
by a rancour on both sides, that contrasted strongly with 
the more decorous but not less deadly warfare that was 
being waged by French and British troops in Spain. 

The small British force of 350 men in the neighbour- 
hood of Detroit, consisting mainly of militia, and not 
counting Indians, were gathered at Amherstberg under 
Lieutenant Colonel Proctor. Hull, instead of advancing 
at once, and overwhelming it, remained at Sandwich, in- 
dulging in petty outpost affairs. Proctor passed a small 
force across the river, and cut off his supplies, which 
forced Hull to withdraw his force, on the 7th August, 
from the Canadian side, and retreat to Detroit. On the 
1 2th, Major General Brock, commanding in Upper 
Canada, reached Amherstberg with three hundred men, 
and, three days later, crossed the river, and advanced on 
Detroit. On the i6th, Hull capitulated with his whole 
force. Over fifteen hundred prisoners, thirty- three guns, 



i8i2] GENERAL BROCK'S DEATH 177 

2500 stands of arms and the Michigan territory passed 
into the hands of the British. 

At this time a lull in the war took place through the 
action of Lieutenant General Sir George Prevot, Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of Canada, who, throughout the 
war, was the evil genius of the British cause. In the 
United States' manifesto the British Orders in Council 
had been put forward as the chief cause of the war. On 
hearing that the orders had been repealed, Sir George 
Prevost believed that the war would not be persevered 
with. He accordingly, in spite of the hostilities that had 
occurred, proposed an armistice to the United States' 
commander of the force threatening Montreal, till the 
latter should receive further orders from Washington. 
But the United States' government were determined on 
war, and hostilities were resumed on 8th September. 
The armistice was of much advantage to the States, as, 
while it lasted, they were able to convey without 
hindrance, by water, the supplies collected at Oswego 
for the use of their troops destined to act on the Niagara 
frontier, at a time when the British had an undoubted 
superiority on Lake Ontario. 

The United States' force threatening the line between 
Lakes Erie and Ontario numbered 6300 men, under 
General Van Rensselaar. To oppose them, Major General 
Brock had but 1200 men (by one account 1500), a large 
proportion of which were militia and Indians. These 
troops were posted at Fort Erie and Fort George, the 
two extreme points of the line, with a few companies at 
Queenston and one or two other points to command 
landing places. Early in the morning of the I3th 
October, about 1600 United States' troops crossed at 
Queenston, and made good their footing. In the course 
of the fighting General Brock fell at the head of his 
men, and the United States' commander was badly 

M 



iy8 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1812 

wounded. Reinforcements coming up, in the afternoon, 
from Fort George, under Major General Sheaffe, brought 
the British-Canadian force on the spot up to about 1000 
men including Indians. An attack was made on the 
enemy's position : they were driven into their boats, and 
the United States' General Wadsworth, with 958 officers 
and men were made prisoners. One gun and a colour 
were also captured. The loss on the British side cannot 
be exactly stated. Besides the General, one officer was 
killed and two wounded. Among the rank and file there 
were about 16 killed and 70 wounded, and about a dozen 
Indians : but the success was dearly bought with the death 
of Sir Isaac Brock.* 

At one in the morning of 28th November, another 
attempt was made to cross, about two miles below Fort 
Erie. But the crossing was mismanaged, and the whole 
attempt carried out in a half-hearted way. After in- 
flicting and sustaining some loss, the United States' 
troops re-embarked, and thus ended for the year all 
serious operations on this part of the frontier. 

The United States' force intended to operate against 
Montreal was equally unsuccessful. Assembled at Platts- 
burg on Lake Champlain, about 7000 strong, under 
General Dearborn, it advanced to the frontier on i$th 
November. On this being known in Montreal, the 
available troops, about 1900 strong more than half of 
which were militia, advanced to La Prairie. Nothing 
however occurred beyond an unimportant skirmish be- 
tween small detachments, after which, Dearborn retreated 
to Plattsburg, and went into quarters for the winter. 
Thus ended hostilities for the year. At every point the 
United States' forces had been foiled by inferior numbers. 
Fort Detroit and the State of Michigan, together with 
the island of Mackinaw, commanding the navigation be- 

* He had been created a Knight of the Bath for his victory at Detroit. 



i8i 3 ] UNITED STATES' PLANS 179 

tween Lakes Michigan and Huron, remained in British 
hands. The only real success gained by the United 
States was in the naval strength they had been able to 
develop on the Lakes, owing to superior resources, and 
to the absence of any assistance to Canada from England. 
The superiority thus bloodlessly established had important 
results on the subsequent course of the war in Upper 
Canada. By sea, successes were scored by the United 
States in five frigate duels, mainly due to the superior 
size and armament of the United States' ships. Effectual 
measures were then taken in England, and the United 
States' flag practically disappeared from the high seas 
for the rest of the war. The complete mastery of the 
sea by Great Britain caused the U.S. government to 
direct their naval resources to the Canadian lakes, a 
result that had an important bearing on the succeeding 
years' warfare. 

The United States' plan of operations for the following 
year was, as before, to invade Canada with three separate 
corps. The first was destined to retake Detroit, and 
acquire possession of Amherstberg. The second attack 
was to be made from the eastern end of Lake Ontario, to 
capture Kingston and Toronto, then known as York, and 
then, in co-operation with a force collected at Buffalo, to 
act against Forts George and Erie on the Niagara frontier. 
The third was to operate against Montreal, by a combined 
advance from the neighbourhood of Plattsburg, and from 
the eastern end of Ontario. 

On the Detroit frontier the Canadian forces numbered 
about 2,300 men, more than half of which were Indians, 
under Colonel Proctor ; opposed to a U.S. force of double 
that number, under General Harrison. 

On the 1 8th January, a force of 1000 men under 
General Winchester, advancing from Sandusky, drove in 
the British picquets at Frenchtown, forty-five miles from 



i8o WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

Detroit. On the 22nd, Colonel Proctor advancing from 
Detroit with four guns and 950 men, half of whom were 
Indians, attacked General Winchester in front of French- 
town, and gained a complete victory. Winchester with 
538 men were taken prisoners. In consequence of the 
greatly superior numbers of the U.S. troops in the 
neighbourhood, Proctor then withdrew to Detroit and 
Sandwich. Little further occurred till 23rd April, when 
Proctor led a small expedition against a U.S. work on the 
Miami river called Fort Meigs. The attempt was un- 
successful, and Proctor returned to Sandwich about I2th 
May. The only noteworthy incident was the severe 
punishment inflicted on the U.S. force in a sortie on the 
5th May, in which nearly 500 were taken prisoners. The 
British loss was comparatively small. On the 2nd August, 
Proctor made a similar attempt on a fort newly constructed 
at the mouth of the Sandusky river. After an attempt to 
storm, which was repulsed with the loss of 100 killed and 
wounded, he retired. After this no further movement 
on either side occurred till September, when a change in 
the situation was wrought by a success gained by the U.S. 
navy on the lake. On loth September, a naval action was 
fought on Lake Erie, between six British and nine U.S 
ships, in which the latter were completely victorious. This 
rendered Proctor's position extremely critical. He at once 
evacuated Detroit and Amherstberg, and, with a force of 
less than 1000 men, not counting Indians, retreated along 
the river Thames, closely followed by Harrison. On the 
5th October, he decided to make a stand. Attacked by a 
greatly superior force, he was at once overwhelmed by 
charges of cavalry, of which Harrison had 1200 in the field, 
and the greater part of his men made prisoners. Proctor, 
with some 200 men only, made good his retreat to Ancaster, 
eighty-five miles distant. The celebrated Indian Chief, 
Tecumseh, was slain on this occasion, and the state of 



CAPTURE OF TORONTO 181 

Michigan passed again into United States' keeping. 
Harrison, after destroying Moravian town, in the 
neighbourhood of which the action had been fought, 
returned to Detroit and Amherstberg, and, shortly after- 
wards, embarked with a portion of his force for the Niagara 
frontier. 

Active operations at the eastern end of Lake Ontario 
commenced in April. Early in that month, a United 
States' force of about 6000 men was collected at Sackett's 
Harbour, which was the United States' chief naval depot 
on the lake. On 2/th, the U.S. lake squadron with 2000 
troops on board appeared off Toronto,* and at once began 
to land under the guns of the fleet. Major General Sheaffe, 
who had 500 regular troops and militia and some Indians, 
after ineffectually opposing the landing, was forced to 
withdraw towards Kingston, and the town was occupied by 
the enemy. General Pike, commanding the U.S. troops, 
was killed, and both sides suffered considerable loss by the 
explosion of a magazine. On the 8th May, after burning 
the public buildings, the U.S. force withdrew, and were 
conveyed to the mouth of the Niagara river, where they 
landed, with a view to joining in operations against Forts 
George and Erie. The vessels were then employed in 
bringing further re-inforcements from Sackett's Harbour, 
for the contemplated attack on Fort George. 

The British force on the Niagara frontier consisted at 
this time of 1800 regular troops, 500 militia, and 40 Indians, 
under Major General Vincent. On 2/th May, the U.S. 
force, numbering 6000 to 7000 men, under General Dear- 
born, crossed under cover of the guns of the flotilla and of 
Fort Niagara. After a stubborn contest, in which they 
suffered a loss of 445 killed and wounded, the British 
troops evacuated Fort George, and retired to Burlington 
Heights at the head of Lake Ontario. Fort Erie was also 

* The present town of Toronto was known as York in 1813. 



i8a WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

evacuated. Four days later, Dearborn detached 3500 men 
under Generals Chandler and Winder to follow Vincent, 
and, on 5th June, the U.S. force encamped at Stoney Creek, 
seven miles from Vincent's position. In this critical 
position Vincent resolved on a night attack. At 2 o'clock 
in the morning, 700 men of the 8th and 49th regiments, 
led by Colonel Harvey, penetrated the U.S. camp. Four 
guns were captured ; the greatest confusion was caused in 
the surprised camp, from which the enemy were driven. 
In order to conceal the smallness of his force, Harvey 
withdrew before daylight, taking with him two guns and 
123 prisoners, among whom were the two United States 
Generals. In this spirited affair the British loss amounted 
to 23 killed, 136 wounded and $5 missing. The U.S. 
force, after burning its tents and stores, fell back 
precipitately to Forty-mile Creek, 1 1 miles in rear of the 
field. Two days later, a small British squadron from 
Kingston, under Sir James Yeo, bringing some rein- 
forcements for Vincent, appeared and drove the U.S. 
force from their camp which was taken possession of. 
Harvey's gallant exploit had saved the frontier. On the 
24th June, in retaliation for the affair at Stoney Creek, a 
U.S. force under Colonel Boerstler attempted to surprise 
an outpost of Canadian rangers at Beaver Dam, under 
Lieutenant Fitzgibbon. Through the loyalty of the wife 
of a Canadian farmer, Fitzgibbon received timely warning. 
Disposing of his little force of 200 men, mostly Indians, to 
the best advantage, the advancing enemy were caught 
in an ambush, and, after suffering some loss, Boerstler 
capitulated with 25 officers, 519 men, two guns and a stand 
of colours. Fifty-six of the U.S. force were killed and 
wounded, Boerstler himself being among the latter. At 
the moment of capitulation, a reinforcement of 200 men 
under Major du Haren joined Fitzgibbon, and enabled 
him to guard his prisoners. These successive reverses 



i8is] BRITISH SUCCESSES 183 

dispirited the U.S. troops in this part of the frontier to 
such an extent, that they suffered themselves to be 
blockaded in Fort George by very inferior numbers. On 
the 4th and nth of July, Forts Schlosser and Black Rock 
were captured by separate coups de main, and the military 
stores destroyed or carried off. In the second affair 
Lieutenant Colonel Bisshopp, an' officer of great promise, 
was unfortunately killed. On the 3ist July, the United 
States' squadron on Ontario paid a second visit to Toronto, 
which was undefended, and burned some more buildings. 
This unexpected move on the part of the enemy occurred 
just as the first troop of the ipth dispatched from Lower 
Canada was near Toronto, and the ammunition and 
baggage were captured. 

Meanwhile, Major General de Rottenburg had taken 
over command on the Niagara frontier, from Vincent, 
and, on 2Oth July, the first troop of the iQth from Lower 
Canada joined the army at Four Mile Creek. Two days 
later we find the General reporting " two of our cavalry 
vedettes were taken yesterday by the enemy." On the 
1 7th August, Lieutenant Glad win of the iQth was 
wounded in a skirmish near Fort George. About the 
2Oth August, Sir George Prevost joined de Rottenburg, 
bringing with him some reinforcements, among which 
was the second troop of the igth Light Dragoons, com- 
pleting the squadron under Captain Lisle. On the 24th, 
a demonstration was made against Fort George. The 
advance was led by thirty of the igth, under their 
Lieutenant Colonel the Hon. J. O'Neill. Beyond driving 
the enemy, for a short time, out of the town of 
Newark, and capturing 60 or 70 prisoners the demon- 
stration was without result. The British force suffered 
the loss of an officer and ten men, who advanced too 
far, and were taken prisoners. On the nth September 
an engagement took place between the two Ontario 



i8 4 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

squadrons, the day after the engagement on Lake Erie, 
already mentioned. In this also the U.S. squadron had 
the best of it, but there were no decisive results. In 
both engagements the British squadrons were at a 
disadvantage through want of regular sailors : the greater 
part of their crews consisting of Canadians and soldiers. 
Early in September, Sir George Prevost returned to 
Kingston, leaving General de Rottenburg in command. 
On the 1st October, part of the U.S. force embarked at 
Niagara, and were conveyed to Sackett's Harbour to 
join in operations against Kingston and Montreal, leaving 
General McClure in command at Fort George and Niagara. 
The following day, the 49th and iO4th Regiments, under 
de Rottenburg, started for Kingston, which they reached 
on the 1 6th, leaving Vincent in command on the Niagara 
frontier. Their presence secured Kingston from attack, 
and helped to furnish the force that triumphed at 
Chrystler's Farm. Two companies of de Watteville's 
regiment, proceeding from Toronto to Kingston, were less 
fortunate, being captured by the U.S. squadron. On the 
9th October, the news of Proctor's defeat on the Thames 
reached Vincent, causing him to withdraw from the 
neighbourhood of Fort George, and fall back to Burling- 
ton Heights ; where he was joined by the remains of 
Proctor's force. The difficulty in obtaining supplies, 
always great, were apparently almost insurmountable at 
this time ; for we find Vincent recommending that Major 
Lisle's squadron should return to Kingston and Montreal. 
The discouragement in the British force was very great. 
Sir George Prevost, believing that Upper Canada was 
lost, sent orders to Vincent to collect his troops, and 
bring them to Kingston ; but the order was not obeyed. 
The U.S. troops in Fort George under McClure, at 
this time indulged in a series of cruel and wanton 
excesses against the Canadian inhabitants in the neigh- 



i8is] CAPTURE OF FORT NIAGARA 185 

bourhood. In order to put some check on these excesses 
Vincent detached a small force of about 500 men under 
Colonel Murray in the direction of Fort George. With 
them went a troop of the iQth. As Murray advanced, 
McClure's outposts fell back. On Murray making a 
sudden dash forwards, McClure precipitately abandoned 
Fort George, on I2th December, and retreated across 
the Niagara river, after burning the little town of Newark : 
an inhuman act at such an inclement season of the year, 
and the more inexcusable, in that he left in the Fort, 
without destroying them, his tents standing, a great 
quantity of stores, and some guns. "With the same 
intention, Queenston was deliberately bombarded with 
red-hot shot from the batteries at Lewiston. Many 
isolated farm houses were destroyed by marauding parties 
of soldiers, or, when they proved too substantial for 
instant demolition, were rendered uninhabitable by 
removal of the doors and windows. The few cattle still 
remaining in the possession of the country people were 
mercilessly slaughtered or driven away, and their grain 
and flour removed or destroyed." * At this juncture, 
Lieutenant General Drummond, f who had been appointed 
to the command of Upper Canada, arrived and took 
command of the troops. Following up the success at 
Fort George, Drummond resolved on attacking Niagara. 
On the night of the i8th December, a force of 550 men 
of the 4 ist and icoth, under Colonel Murray, was silently 
ferried across the river, three miles above the Fort. 
Advancing silently in two columns, with unloaded muskets 
and bayonets fixed, the enemy's picquets were seized 
before any alarm could be given : one party escaladed 
one of the bastions, while the other entered by the gate 
that had been left open for the relief of sentries. The 

* Lundy's Lane Hist. Society. 

t Afterwards Sir Gordon Drummond, K.C.B, 



186 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

garrison made but a feeble resistance, and, in a few 
minutes the British force was in complete possession of 
the Fort, with 27 guns, over 3000 stand of arms and 
344 prisoners. The drummers of the looth found their 
way to the roof of the principal building, and played 
" The British Grenadiers " as a signal of success to their 
comrades across the river. This brilliant success was 
gained with a loss of only six men killed and five 
wounded. A few hours later, a second force was ferried 
across, and seized Lewiston after a slight skirmish, captur- 
ing two guns and other military stores. In retaliation for 
the burning of Newark, Lewiston and four neighbouring 
villages were laid in ruins. 

The U.S. force, about 2 500 strong, was now commanded 
by General Hall, and quartered at Black Rock and Buffalo. 
Intent on following up his success, Drummond placed his 
headquarters near Fort Erie. On the night of the 29th, 
Major General Riall, with 600 men and about 100 Indians, 
crossed the Niagara river about two miles below Black 
Rock, drove in a U.S. picquet, and took up a position at a 
bridge over a small stream. At daylight on the 3ist, the 
Royal Scots, about 800 strong, with a detachment of Major 
Lisle's squadron of the iQth Light Dragoons, the whole 
under command of Lt. Colonel Gordon, crossed over, under 
fire, to land above Black Rock. Joining hands with Riall, 
Black Rock was attacked and occupied after a short 
resistance, the defending force retreating to Buffalo. The 
advance was continued, and Buffalo taken after a poor 
resistance: 130 prisoners and 8 guns were captured, and 
four armed vessels of the U.S. squadron on Lake Erie, 
burned. Black Rock and Buffalo were burned to the 
ground. The work was completed by Major Lisle's 
squadron, which swept the frontier from Buffalo to 
Lewiston, bringing the operations to an end on the 2nd 
January 1814. The British troops were then withdrawn to 



OGDENSBURGSACKETT'S HARBOUR 187 

the Canadian side, with the exception of a garrison left in 
Fort Niagara. Thus closed operations at this part of the 
frontier for the year. 

The operations of the year on the eastern frontier have 
now to be recorded. Taking advantage of the frozen 
state of the St Lawrence, skirmishing parties of U.S. 
troops, from Ogdensburg, crossed the river in January and 
February, and committed depredations on the Canadian 
side. In order to put an end to these attacks, Major 
Macdonell, with 480 men and three field pieces, crossed 
the ice on the morning of the 22nd February, drove the 
enemy from their position, capturing 1 1 guns and over 70 
prisoners. After burning two armed schooners and two 
gunboats, as well as the barracks, Macdonell returned to 
the Canadian shore. This brilliant little affair was 
accomplished with the loss of eight killed and fifty-two 
wounded. On the 2/th May, an expedition, under Sir 
George Prevost, sailed from Kingston to capture Sackett's 
Harbour. Owing to the incapacity and irresolution of Sir 
George Prevost, the affair ended in failure. After unneces- 
sary delay, which enabled the enemy to make preparations 
for defence, the troops landed, on 29th, and drove the 
enemy from their positions. In anticipation of having to 
capitulate, their navy-yard and ships were set on fire by 
the enemy, and a great quantity of naval stores and 
provisions, captured at York, destroyed ; when Sir George 
Prevost, against the advice of his officers, gave the order 
to retreat, at the moment that success was in his grasp. 
The troops re-embarked and returned to Kingston, with 
about 100 prisoners, having suffered a loss of 50 killed and 
2 1 1 wounded. The capture of Sackett's Harbour by the 
British would have had a tremendous influence on the war. 
It was the principal United States' base on the lake, 
and its capture would have given Canada the complete 
supremacy of Lake Ontario as long as the war lasted, 



i88 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

besides the possession of the great quantities of naval 
and military stores that had been collected there by the 
United States' Government. 

On the 3rd June, an attack was made by four armed 
vessels of the U.S. squadron on Lake Champlain, upon the 
post of Isle aux Noix, about 40 miles from Montreal ; 
resulting in the capture of two U.S. sloops. On 29th July, 
a flotilla, composed of the two captured vessels and three 
gunboats, transported over land from the St Lawrence, 
embarked about 1000 men of the I3th and looth regiments 
under Lieutenant Colonel Murray, and arrived, the next 
day, before Plattsburg. The U.S. militia in charge of the 
place, retired without making any resistance. The barracks 
and blockhouses were burned, and a quantity of naval 
stores carried off. Four thousand U.S. troops under 
General Hampton, destined to act against Montreal, lay 
inactive at Burlington, without interfering with Murray. 

Nothing further of importance happened till October, 
when the U.S. preparations for the attack on Montreal 
were complete. For this purpose, a corps of 8800 men, 
under General Wilkinson, was assembled at Grenadier 
Island, at the eastern end of Ontario, fully provided with 
boats. At the same time a second corps of about 5700 
men, under General Hampton, was assembled on Lake 
Champlain. The two corps were intended to join hands at 
St Regis, and act in combination. The first movement 
was made by Hampton. Advancing from Plattsburg, he 
reached Four Corners on the Chateaugay river, about 8th 
October. To oppose him, Sir G. Prevost detached a body 
of Canadian militia, about 1000 strong, under Lt. Colonel 
de Salaberry, who, after some skirmishing to ascertain the 
direction of Hampton's advance, took up a position on the 
west bank of the Chateaugay river. 

On the 2 ist, Hampton crossed the frontier, and 
advanced, cutting roads for his guns, and repairing bridges 



i8i3l BATTLE OF CHATEAUGAY 189 

as he moved forward. During the night of the 2$th, 
Hampton detached a brigade under Colonel Purdy to ford 
the Chateaugay river, march down the right bank, and take 
the Canadian position in rear, while he himself assailed it 
in front. De Salaberry's position, a naturally strong one in 
a dense forest, intersected by ravines, had been further 
strengthened by breaking down bridges in the front, 
and making timber breastworks. Hampton commenced 
his attack at 10 o'clock on the morning of the 26th, but it 
was not pushed home. By keeping his men under cover, 
and placing buglers in the woods, de Salaberry gave the 
impression to the enemy of having a much greater number 
of men than had been supposed. Meanwhile, Purdy's 
brigade, which had lost its way in the woods, came up, 
attracted by the firing, and overthrew a company of 
Canadians on the right bank. Re-inforcements coming up 
under Macdonell, the officer who distinguished himself at 
Ogdensburg in February, Purdy was driven into the woods 
with loss and confusion, and took no further part in the 
battle. So disorganised were his troops that, during the 
following night, they opened fire on each other, causing 
themselves further losses. Seeing the failure of the flank 
attack on which he had principally depended, and believing 
the Canadian force in his front to be stronger than it was, 
Hampton drew off and fell back, first on Four Corners, 
and, a few days later, to Plattsburgh ; whence his force 
shortly afterwards went into winter quarters. This brilliant 
affair was fought entirely by the Canadian militia at a cost 
of 5 killed, 16 wounded, and four missing. A month after 
the action, an officer and twenty-five men of the iQth 
Light Dragoons were dispatched to join de Salaberry 
at Chateaugay. 

It was not till 5th November that Wilkinson's corps 
left Grenadier Island, in a flotilla of between two and three 
hundred open boats, protected by gunboats, and entered the 



igo WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

St Lawrence. According to the original plan, the capture 
of Kingston had been intended ; but this was relinquished 
on the arrival there of the re-inforcements sent under de 
Rottenburg. On arriving near Ogdensburg, the force was 
landed on the south bank of the river, and marched down 
to a point 14 miles below that place, in order to avoid the 
risk of passing the small Canadian post of Fort Wellington 
at Prescott. The boats were brought down at night with 
muffled oars. On the 9th, the force was again landed, 
this time on the left bank, in order to pass the rapid known 
as the Long Sault. The following day, one division, under 
General Brown, marched to occupy Cornwall ; the other 
division, under General Boyd, was retained at the head of 
the rapid, to oppose a British force that was hanging on 
their rear. 

Directly the start of the U.S. expedition down the 
St Lawrence was known in Kingston, as many men as 
could be safely spared, had been detached under Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Morrison of the 89th, convoyed by a 
few gunboats, to follow on Wilkinson's rear. At Fort 
Wellington, Morrison received a further accession of force, 
which brought up his numbers to 800 rank and file. On 
the 9th, he landed, thirteen miles lower down, and, in a 
few hours, was in touch with Wilkinson's force. During 
the following day some skirmishing took place, and then 
Morrison, finding that Boyd was preparing to attack him 
in force, took up a position at a place named " Chrystler's 
Farm." Morrison's force was made up of some 
companies of the 49th, 89th, some militia, three 6 Pr. 
guns and thirty Indians. Boyd had 2500 men, among 
which was a strong force of cavalry, and ten guns. 
Unlike all previous actions in this war, the battle of 
Chrystler's Farm was fought in open country. This 
conferred an advantage on the better trained and 
disciplined British troops, that atoned for their inferiority 



i8i3l BATTLE OF CHRYSTLER'S FARM 191 

in numbers. The action commenced about 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon of the I ith, and, after three hours' fighting, in the 
course of which a charge of United States' dragoons was 
defeated by three companies of the 89th, Boyd fell back, 
repulsed at every point, with the loss of one gun, 339 
killed and wounded, among the former of whom was the 
U.S. General Covington, and over 100 prisoners. The 
British loss was 21 killed, 148 wounded and 12 missing. 
Boyd fell back on his boats, and embarked after the action, 
crossing over to the right bank of the river. The following 
day, he descended the rapid, and joined Brown's force 
near Cornwall. The cavalry, and some of the artillery, 
marched along the Canadian bank, without embarking. 
Morrison, with his small force, continued his march down 
the left bank. On his force being re-united, Wilkinson 
learned that he could expect no aid from Hampton. He 
at once decided on giving up the attempt on Montreal, 
and retreating by the only way open to him. Embarking 
his whole force, on the I3th, he descended the St Lawrence 
to the mouth of the Salmon river, and ascended that river 
seven miles to French Mills. Here he lay, expecting to 
be attacked, till I2th February, when he set fire to his 
boats, huts, and blockhouses, and retreated to Plattsburgh 
and Burlington on Lake Champlain. 

Thus, in loss and disaster, ended the second and most 
serious attempt against Montreal, made during the war. 
A handful of Canadians at Chateaugay, in the woods 
that gave their special fighting powers a signal oppor- 
tunity, and a small number of British troops at Chrystler's 
Farm, where the field of action gave full scope to their 
training and discipline, had saved Canada. 

Of the three invasions of the Canadian frontier, the one 
by Detroit was alone successful. Proctor's defeat on the 
Thames was irreparable. Fortunately for Canada, it was 
the point at which the enemy's success was least im- 



1 92 WAR WITH UNITED STATES [1813 

portant Vincent's spirited affair at Stoney Creek was 
the turning-point of the year's campaign. Had he been 
overwhelmed, the Niagara frontier would have been lost, 
and the re-inforcements that saved Kingston from attack 
could not have been spared. The fall of Kingston might 
have led to the fall of Montreal. 

The operations of the year showed the extreme im- 
portance to Canada of the mastery on Ontario, and the 
retention of Kingston. The whole country was an almost 
trackless forest. The only way of moving troops and 
stores was by water. Full subsistence for the troops in 
Upper Canada could not be procured among the scanty 
population, and they were largely dependent for rations 
on pork and biscuit from England. So long as the water- 
way was open, the defence of the Niagara frontier was 
possible. As the supremacy of the U.S. navy on Lake 
Erie made it impossible for the British to continue the 
war on the Detroit frontier, so a decisive defeat on Lake 
Ontario would have lost the Niagara frontier also. But, 
till the end of the war, the U.S. navy never succeeded 
in establishing more than a temporary supremacy on 
Ontario. 

The failure of Wilkinson's expedition showed the risk 
of attacking Montreal, while Kingston was strongly held 
by a hostile force. An expedition, once launched on the 
St Lawrence, could not re-ascend against the current, and 
was liable to be caught between two fires, as actually 
happened in Wilkinson's case. The true objective of the 
United States, throughout the war, was Kingston ; the 
possession of which would have made them masters of 
Upper Canada without a further effort, and would have 
placed Montreal in jeopardy. But Kingston was never 
seriously attacked during the whole war. 

On the Canadian side, the importance of gaining 
possession of Sackett's Harbour was not clearly recog- 



i8i 4 ] UNITED STATES' PLANS 193 

nized. The capture and retention of that place would 
have practically secured the Niagara frontier, and assured 
the safety of Montreal. But Sir George Prevost's half- 
hearted and abortive attack in May, was the only attempt 
made during the war. To both sides, the capture of their 
enemy's depot on the lake was of supreme importance. 
The keys of successful attack and defence were at 
Sackett's Harbour and Kingston. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE NIAGARA FRONTIER 
1814-1821 

United States' plans Attempt on Mackinaw La Colle State of 
affairs on Niagara frontier Drummond's raid on Oswego Dover 
Advance of U.S. force Capture of Fort Erie Battle of 
Chippewa Critical position of British force Battle of Lundy's 
Lane Retreat of U.S. forces Fort Erie invested Assault on 
Fort Erie Sergeant Powell Conclusion of operations on 
Niagara frontier Prevost's abortive attack on Plattsburgh 
Defeat of British squadron on Lake Champlain Other operations 
Bladensberg Capture of Washington General Ross killed 
Victory at Baltimore Expedition against New Orleans Its 
defeat Fort Bowyer captured Treaty of Ghent Sir William 
Payne Sir John Vandeleur Badge "Niagara" granted 
Regiment returns to England Equipped as Lancers Embark 
for Ireland Disbanded. 

THE plans of the United States' government for the 
campaign of 1814 varied considerably from those of the 
preceding years. They realised the mistake they had 
made in advancing on Montreal without first getting 
possession of Kingston, and they recognized the delusion 
on which they had acted, in believing that the Canadians 
would welcome their troops wherever they appeared on 
Canadian soil. It was, indeed, the unflinching loyalty of 



I9 4 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

the Canadians to the British flag that had so far preserved 
Canada, as the troops England had been able to spare, 
would, by themselves, have been inadequate for the 
purpose. The United States' plans for 1814 were there- 
fore directed to the following objects. To retake the 
island of Mackinaw ; to renew the invasion of the Niagara 
frontier ; and, after getting possession of Forts George 
and Niagara, to proceed against Kingston. The United 
States' officers on the Niagara frontier, had also learned 
that enthusiasm without discipline was of little value, 
when opposed in the open field to a disciplined enemy ; 
the winter and spring therefore were utilised by them in 
enforcing a higher degree of drill and discipline than 
had hitherto been aimed at. This resulted in a marked 
improvement in the fighting qualities of their troops 
during the remainder of the war. 

In the middle of April, a reinforcement of 100 men, 
conveying a quantity of much-needed supplies and stores, 
under Colonel McDouall, was sent from Toronto to 
Mackinaw, which was reached after a most difficult journey 
on 1 8th May. A great number of Indians then flocked 
into the post, which prompted McDouall to fit out a 
small expedition of 150 men with 500 Indians against a 
small post that had been lately established at Prairie du 
Chien on the Mississipi, 200 miles north-west of the present 
town of Chicago. Moving by water, the expedition, under 
Colonel M'Kay, was completely successful, and the post 
was captured with two guns, and 61 prisoners, on igth 
July, at a cost of only three Indians wounded. 

On 26th July, a U.S. expedition from Detroit, consisting 
of five armed vessels and about 750 troops, arrived off 
Mackinaw, and landed on 4th August, when they were 
completely repulsed in an attack on McDouall's position, 
regaining their ships with loss and confusion. No further 
attempt was made, but part of the expedition uselessly re- 



i8i4] DRUMMOND'S DIFFICULTIES 195 

mained in the vicinity for some time, losing two armed 
vessels, which were taken, on 3rd and 6th September, by a 
small party of seamen and militia under Lieutenants 
Bulger and Worseley. No further fighting took place in 
this quarter, and Mackinaw remained in the hands of the 
British till the end of the war. 

On the 30th March, General Wilkinson at the head of 
4000 U.S. troops advanced from Plattsburgh, crossed Lake 
Champlain on the ice, and attacked a small British force, 
in a stone mill at La Colle, under Major Handcock. 
Wilkinson was repulsed with some loss, and returned to 
Plattsburgh. 

The position of the British troops on the Niagara 
frontier early in the year was very discouraging. The 
hardships they had undergone during the operations in 
December had caused great sickness, so that the abandon- 
ment of Fort Niagara was at one time seriously entertained. 

" The region between Chippewa and Erie had been so 
completely laid waste that it remained almost uninhabited. 
In addition to his troops, Drummond had several thousand 
non-combatants to feed, and, in the destitute condition of 
the country, this seemed an almost hopeless task. Most of 
the western Indians that had survived General Proctor's 
defeat, as well as the whole Six Nations from the Grand 
River, three thousand persons in all, of whom two-thirds 
were helpless women and children, had sought refuge near 
the British cantonments at Burlington. Their depredations 
so harassed and alarmed many of the inhabitants in the 
vicinity, that they abandoned their farms, and took shelter 
in the soldiers' quarters. The homeless fugitives from the 
Niagara were also dependent upon the over-taxed commis- 
sariat. Thus, while his armed force numbered less than two 
thousand, between seven and eight thousand rations were 
issued daily. . . . The Indians daily consumed twice as 
much flour as the whole of the troops. In the garrison of 
Fort Erie alone, not much exceeding one hundred persons, 
no less than sixty-nine cases of ague were reported in a 
single week." * 

* Lundy's Lane Historical Society. 



196 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

A great number of Indians on the United States' side 
were forced to take up arms. Marauding parties from 
Detroit made frequent incursions, carrying off loyal in- 
habitants, and destroying Delaware and Point aux Pins. 
By the end of January, Black Rock was re-occupied by 
United States' troops, whence they annoyed Fort Erie by 
artillery fire. It was in the midst of these difficulties that 
Drummond was obliged to send the re-inforcements under 
McDouall to Mackinaw, as already mentioned, and to 
further weaken his available forces by withdrawing a 
regiment from Toronto to strengthen Kingston. 

By great exertions and the employment of soldiers in 
the shipyards, the British naval forces on Ontario had 
established a superiority. Drummond wished to attack 
Sackett's Harbour, and destroy the enemy's vessels there ; 
but Sir George Prevost refused to provide the necessary 
troops. On the 5th May, Drummond made a successful 
dash from Kingston, with a force of about 1000 troops, 
upon Oswego. They landed on the 6th, captured the fort, 
destroyed all military stores that could not be carried off, 
and re-embarked. This successful attack delayed the United 
States' operations on the Niagara frontier for several weeks, 
and enabled a strict blockade of Sackett's Harbour to be 
established. 

Early in March, Major Lisle, with a troop of the iQth 
Light Dragoons and a few militia, was placed in the little 
village of Dover, near Long Point on Lake Erie, to watch 
any attempt of the enemy from that side against Burling- 
ton. On the 1 5th May, eight hundred U.S. infantry 
crossed the lake in armed vessels, and landed. Major 
Lisle withdrew his men, and Dover was burned to the 
ground ; after which the invading force re-embarked. 

By the end of June, the United States' troops on the 
Niagara frontier had gathered in great numbers, and it 
was evident that an invasion was imminent. Drummond 



i8i4l BROWN'S ADVANCE 197 

had vainly urged on Sir George Prevost the necessity 
of reinforcing the troops on the frontier ; but Sir George 
was convinced that the principal attack would come from 
Lake Champlain, and withheld the much-needed troops. 
From Toronto to Long Point on Lake Erie, Drummond's 
force did not much exceed 4000 men. A number of im- 
portant points had to be guarded, and the force under 
General Riall on the actual frontier was only about 2200 
men, including Indians, distributed on a length of thirty- 
six miles, and including the garrison in Niagara. Only 
about seven hundred men were available for field opera- 
tions. At the end of June, the strength of Major Lisle's 
squadron was six officers, eleven sergeants, and one hun- 
dred and eighteen rank and file, in five different detach- 
ments, at Fort George, Queenston, Chippewa, Fort Erie, 
and Long Point. 

On the morning of the 3rd July, the United States' 
force, 4000 strong, under General Brown, was ferried across 
in two divisions above and below Fort Erie, under cover 
of a fog. A picquet of the ipth Light Dragoons narrowly 
escaped being cut off, and the fort was at once invested. 
It was occupied at that time by a garrison of 170 men, and, 
though in no condition to make a proper defence, it was 
expected to maintain itself for a short time. It was 
however surrendered after the exchange of a few cannon 
shots. Riall, with his inferior numbers, contented him- 
self by maintaining a small corps of observation in his 
front, while he himself remained encamped on the left 
bank of the Chippewa. On the 4th, Brown advanced, 
driving before him the corps of observation which destroyed 
the bridges as it fell back. A detachment of the iQth 
Light Dragoons under Lieutenant Horton, covering the 
rear, became involved in a skirmish in which they drove 
a party of the enemy into a house, which would probably 
have been captured had not assistance come to them. 



1 98 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

Four men and eight horses of the ipth were wounded in 
the skirmish. Brown encamped that night within sight 
of Riall's position. 

Riall was reinforced on the 5th by the arrival of the 
8th regiment from Toronto, and, greatly under-estimating 
Brown's force, which now amounted to about 5000 men 
with nine guns, he resolved on leaving his field works, and 
attacking. At three in the afternoon, Riall, whose force 
now amounted to about 1900 men, threw forward a body 
of militia and Indians on his right flank. After some 
desultory skirmishing they were driven back by increasing 
numbers, and fell back on the three light infantry com- 
panies, who received their assailants under U.S. General 
Porter with a terrific volley, driving them back in complete 
disorder, till they themselves were in turn forced to fall 
back by superior numbers. Riall, meanwhile, had passed 
the Chippewa, and drawn up his whole force in order of 
battle with three guns. After some cannonading, he 
formed six companies of the Royal Scots, and five com- 
panies of the looth in two columns, and led them against 
the enemy's centre. They were received with a tremendous 
fire against which they were unable to advance: almost 
every field officer, excepting Riall himself, was struck 
down, and the columns, suffering heavy losses, were obliged 
to withdraw, leaving their dead and many of their wounded 
on the field. The 8th regiment covered the retreat, which 
was not pressed, and the force recrossed the Chippewa 
to its former position. " The guns were removed only 
by the gallant exertions of some troopers of the iQth 
Dragoons, who attached their own horses to the carriages, 
and rode off with them in the teeth of the enemy." * The 
British loss amounted to 515 killed, wounded, and missing, 
which fell principally on the Royal Scots and looth, who 
lost 422 officers and men out of a total of 950 engaged. 

* Lundy's Lane Historical Society. 



i8i4] FIGHT ON THE CHIPPEWA 199 

The I Qth Light Dragoons had one sergeant and five men 
wounded. General Riall, in his dispatch after the battle, 
says : 



" I am particularly obliged to Major Lisle of the 
Light Dragoons for the manner in which he covered and 
protected one of the 24-pounders which had been disabled. 
Lieutenant Colonel Pearson has reported to me, in the 
most favourable terms, the excellent manner in which 
Lieutenant Horton, with a party of the ipth Light 
Dragoons observed the motions of the enemy, while he 
occupied the position he took on his first landing (on 3rd 
July), and during his advance to this place." 

In consequence of this repulse, nearly the whole of his 
Indians and many of the militia left Riall, in order to look 
after their families. On the 8th, Brown threw a bridge 
across the Chippewa, three miles up the stream, thus 
turning RialPs right. Riall thereupon broke up his camp, 
and withdrew to Fort George. Brown continued his 
advance, occupied Queenston Heights, and took up a 
position, investing Fort George, with his right resting on 
the Niagara river, and his left on the lake. Riall, after 
strengthening the garrisons in the forts, withdrew in the 
direction of Burlington Heights. To do this, he executed 
a remarkable night march, to avoid the enemy by whom 
he was hemmed in. At midnight, his force entered the 
lake, which is very shallow for a hundred yards from the 
shore, and, wading through the water for two miles and a 
half, he marched round the left wing of the investing army, 
without being detected by their vedettes. For ten days 
Brown lay inactive, looking for the arrival of the U.S. 
Ontario squadron to enable him to strike a decisive 
blow. But the squadron had been blockaded in Sackett's 
Harbour ever since the capture of Oswego, and was unable 
to render him any assistance. Frequent skirmishes took 
place, in which the United States' troops suffered losses, 
often at the hands of the Canadians who were roused to 



aoo THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

fury by the outrages committed on them, On one occa- 
sion the U.S. General Swift was killed by a patrol of the 
8th regiment ; a wagon train was destroyed, and the 
picquet guard at Erie cut off to a man. In retaliation 
for these losses, the United States' troops burned the 
village of St David's, and destroyed every dwelling-house 
between Queenston and Niagara Falls ; under circum- 
stances of such barbarity that the Colonel in command 
was dismissed from the army. 

Meanwhile, Riall received some reinforcements from 
Toronto, and a great number of militia again joined him, 
badly armed and undisciplined, but exasperated beyond 
measure at the brigand-like acts of the invaders. This 
enabled him to advance, and threatened Brown's com- 
munications. On the 2Oth, Brown advanced to Fort 
George, and commenced preparations for a siege, in the 
hopes that Riall would again hazard an engagement with 
inferior forces to relieve the Fort. Two days later, Riall 
with 1700 regular troops, 700 militia, and some Indians, 
took post in front of Twelve Mile Creek, in readiness to 
fall upon Brown if he should commence active operations 
against Fort George. On the 23rd, Brown received intelli- 
gence that the U.S. squadron was closely blockaded in 
Sackett's Harbour, and was in no position to render him 
assistance. He at once broke up his camp, and withdrew 
to the right bank of the Chippewa, with the intention of 
depositing all unnecessary baggage and stores at Erie, 
and then making a rapid advance on Burlington and 
Toronto. On the same day, General Drummond reached 
Toronto, from Kingston, with the 89th regiment. These 
were at once sent forward, under Lieutenant Colonel 
Tucker, to Fort Niagara, with instructions to take drafts 
from the garrisons of the different forts, and to march, 
on the 25th, to Lewiston, where Brown had established a 
base of supplies. Riall was, at the same time, ordered 



i8i 4 ] ARRIVAL OF DRUMMOND 201 

to advance towards the Chippewa. Drummond himself 
embarked for Niagara, on the afternoon of the 24th, 
leaving Toronto with only a few invalids as a garrison. 

At midnight of the 24th, Riall detached about 900 
men under Lieutenant Colonel Pearson, with whom was a 
troop of the iQth Light Dragoons under Major Lisle, to 
advance and occupy the high ground near the Niagara 
Falls. By seven o'clock the next morning, after a fourteen- 
mile march, Pearson occupied a hill by Lundy's Lane, 
within three miles of the United States' camp, and one 
mile from the Niagara Falls. At the same time, Drum- 
mond landed and commenced his march along the left 
bank of the Niagara river, while Tucker, in accordance 
with previous orders, marched along the right bank on 
Lewiston. Lewiston was captured at noon, and the two 
parties reunited at Queenston. Sending back part of the 
force, Drummond, with 815 men and two guns, held on his 
way to Lundy's Lane. Brown, on receiving intelligence of 
Tucker's advance on Lewiston, believing that his more 
considerable stores at Fort Schlosser were threatened, and 
that Pearson's party at Lundy's Lane was only a strong 
patrol, resolved to make a countermove on Queenston and 
Fort George. Riall's remaining brigades at Twelve Mile 
Creek were under arms at daybreak to support Pearson. 
Their advance was then countermanded, and they re- 
mained in camp till noon, when a force, numbering 1230 
rank and file, with four guns, under Colonel Scott, was 
ordered to march at once for Lundy's Lane. On 
neither side was there any immediate expectation of a 
battle. 

A little before five in the afternoon Brown detached a 
force of about 1800 men and two guns under General Scott 
to advance on Queenston. On coming in contact with 
Pearson's outposts, Scott became aware that the force in 
front of him was stronger than he had supposed, and 



202 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

delayed his attack, while he sent back to Brown for more 
troops. Riall, who had ridden on to join Pearson, took 
Scott's brigade for the advance of Brown's whole force. 
He at once sent back word to the force advancing from 
Twelve Mile Creek, which was still three miles away, to 
retire on the heights near Queenston, and ordered Pearson 
to retreat on that point. After retiring half a mile, Riall 
and Pearson met Drummond advancing. Drummond at 
once took the command, ordered the position at Lundy's 
Lane to be re-occupied, and sent word to countermand 
Riall's last order to Colonel Scott, whom he directed to 
press on and join him. 

Scott (U.S.), fearing an ambush, advanced with great 
caution, which just allowed time for the British force to 
regain the hill before it could be occupied by the enemy. 
Drummond's force now amounted to about 1700 men, thus 
disposed. On the summit of the hill were two guns : a 
little behind them were five companies of the Royal Scots, 
a detachment of the 4ist, the 8Qth, with their left resting 
on the road running parallel with the river from Queenston 
to Niagara Falls. The line was prolonged towards the 
river by some of the 8th and some militia. On the road, 
somewhat retired, was Major Lisle's troop of the iQth 
Light Dragoons. Both flanks were thrown forward, the 
woods on the right of the line being occupied by the 
Glengarry regiment, a corps of the Macdonald clan raised 
in Canada, that fought all through the war with great 
distinction. By a curious coincidence, Drummond had 
under his command three regiments, in which he had 
served as a regimental officer ; the Royal Scots, the 8th, 
and the 4ist. 

Scott commenced his attack about half past six, along 
the entire front. On Drummond's right and centre, the 
attack was not pushed home, and the British guns on the 
hill, from their advantageous position, had a decided 



ii4] BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE 203 

superiority over the attacking artillery. But on Drum- 
mond's left, the attack was successful. A battalion, 
ordered by Scott to make a wide turning movement 
through the dense forest between the road and the river, 
suddenly attacked the Canadian militia in flank, threw 
them into disorder, and captured some prisoners, occupied 
the road, and forced back Lisle's troop of the ipth for 
over a mile. At this juncture, General Riall was severely 
wounded, and, being taken to the road, was conducted by 
mistake, in the growing darkness, into a party of the 
enemy, by whom he was at once made prisoner. The 
Canadian militia, however, quickly recovered themselves, 
and formed up in rear of the Sgth, at right angles to them, 
covering the flank and rear of the British position. They 
also cleared the road to the rear, and the enemy made no 
further headway on this flank during the remainder of the 
battle. 

Scott now made a determined attack, with the rest of 
his troops, on the British centre. It was repulsed after 
some severe fighting, in which both sides suffered heavily. 
A lull in the action then occurred, during which the 
artillery on both sides maintained their fire. Scott, while 
reforming his ranks, was joined by Brown and the rest of 
the United States' troops ; at the same time, Drummond 
was joined by the rear division of RialFs troops, which had 
been marching and counter-marching, under conflicting 
orders, since they left Twelve Mile Creek. With them 
came the second troop of the 



" For a few minutes firing almost ceased, and this interval 
was employed by the United States' artillerymen in bringing 
forward fresh supplies of ammunition, and a daring officer, 
Captain Brooke, stealthily crept up the hillside until within 
a few yards of the British battery, with a dark lantern, 
which he suspended in a thicket, as a guide for his gunners 
to take aim by ; for although the moon had risen, its light 
was rendered faint and uncertain by drifting clouds of 



304 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

smoke and dust, and the position of either line of battle 
was simply indicated at intervals, by the flash of their 
guns." * 

Drummond employed part of his reinforcement to 
strengthen his right, while the remainder formed a second 
line in rear of the first. A field gun was also brought up 
in line with the two guns on the hill. 

The United States' commander was now convinced that 
the capture of the hill and the guns on it was necessary to 
success. Forming a brigade, 1400 strong, in the hollow 
of the hill, he sent them straight against the guns. Part 
of them recoiled under the heavy fire, but one battalion 
was able to approach under a screen of dense thickets, 
and gained a position behind a log fence within twenty 
yards of the guns without being observed. Pouring in 
a volley, they rushed on the gunners with the bayonet, 
and were at once masters of the guns, which were turned 
upon the British line. A large body of United States' 
infantry were then brought up on to the hill, and their 
artillery ascended the slope at a gallop. In doing this, one 
gun, of which the drivers were killed by a sudden volley, 
was taken by the horses into the British ranks, and secured. 

" The remainder of the British artillery was at the 
same time brought forward, until the muzzles of the 
(opposing) guns were only a few yards asunder, and the 
battle thenceforward became a confused, ferocious and 
sanguinary struggle, waged frequently at the bayonet's 
point, or with clubbed muskets, the British striving 
desperately to regain the ground they had lost, and their 
opponents to thrust them down into the hollow beyond, 
and drive them from the field. Regiments, companies, 
and sections were broken up and mingled together. They 
retired, rallied, and were led to the charge again." * 

For over two hours this desperate struggle in the dark 
continued, with varying fortunes. At one moment, the 

* L.L.H.S. 



BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE 
9 p.m. 25th. July, 1814. 




II- alker & Koutali sc 



i8i4l BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE 205 

iO3rd, a young regiment, was forced back in disorder ; 
at another the U.S. guns were captured, and two of them 
spiked. Neither side could make headway, in spite of 
frequent attacks and counter-attacks. Drummond was 
severely wounded but kept the field : nearly one-third of 
the British force were killed and wounded. The U.S. 
forces were in equally bad case. Three of their generals 
were wounded, while the rank and file had lost heavily. 
In the confusion and darkness the whole force had become 
disorganized ; Scott's brigade, that had commenced the 
fight, had dwindled to a few companies : there were an 
enormous number of stragglers. Closing their ranks for 
a last attack the wearied British troops, headed by the 
light company of the 4ist, regained possession of the hill 
and of the guns, just as Brown had decided on withdrawing. 
Desultory firing continued for a few minutes : it was not 
till near midnight that the British troops, wearied by 
prolonged marching and fighting, remained in undisturbed 
possession of the field. Two of the enemy's guns remained 
in their possession, while one British gun was carried off. 
Thus ended the battle of Lundy's Lane, the most 
severely contested action of the war. On the British side 
both generals were severely wounded, one of them being 
taken prisoner. Out of a total strength of somewhat less 
than 3000, the total British loss amounted to 5 officers 
and 76 men killed, 30 officers and 532 men wounded, 14 
officers and 219 men missing and prisoners. The dis- 
proportion of wounded to killed, in this and other actions, 
was mainly due to the frequent use of buckshot by the 
enemy. The heaviest losses fell on the Royal Scots and 
SQth, who, out of a total of about 900 present, suffered 
a loss of 426. The I9th Light Dragoons had two wounded 
and one missing, together with three horses killed, ten 
wounded, and one missing. The United States' loss was 
never correctly stated. Of the four generals engaged, 



ao6 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

three were wounded, while the disorganization of their 
force of about 4500 men engaged, and the loss of 16 officers 
killed and 56 wounded, makes it probable that their loss 
in killed and wounded was not less than 1200. Several 
hundred prisoners remained in the hands of the British. 
In his dispatch, General Drummond writes, " In reviewing 
the action from its commencement, the first object which 
presents itself as deserving of notice, is the steadiness and 
good countenance of the squadron of the igth Light 
Dragoons, under Major Lisle, and the very creditable and 
excellent defence made by the incorporated militia- 
battalion &c." This refers to the first period of the 
action when the left of the line was forced back. 

The following day, General Ripley, who had succeeded 
to the command of the United States' troops, advanced 
across the Chippewa to see to his dead and wounded ; finding 
the field in occupation of the British, he immediately re- 
tired, broke down the bridge, destroyed a quantity of camp 
equipage and stores, and retired precipitately to Erie, 
which he reached on 2/th. The light troops, cavalry and 
Indians were sent in pursuit, and made a few prisoners. 
On reaching Erie, Ripley at once set to work to enlarge 
and strengthen the defences, in anticipation of attack. 

Drummond, after repairing the bridge, and receiving 
some reinforcements that brought his effective strength 
up to 3150 men, followed in Ripley's footsteps, and 
appeared before Erie, which he invested on 3rd August. 
Ripley's position was now very strong, with new earth- 
works and batteries extending from the fort to the edge 
of the lake. On the river side he was covered by the 
batteries at Black Rock : while from the lake, his defences 
were flanked by the fire of three gunboats. On the night 
of the 3rd, Drummond threw a small party of about 450 
men across the river to capture the batteries at Black 
Rock. Failing to effect a surprise, they recrossed, with 



i8i4] ASSAULT ON FORT ERIE 207 

the loss of 25 men k.w.m. Two days later, the spirits of 
the besieged were raised by the arrival of General Gaines 
to supersede Ripley. On the night of the I2th, a daring 
exploit was performed by Captain Dobbs of the Royal 
Navy. With 75 seamen from Lake Ontario, he attacked 
and captured, in open boats transported overland, two of 
the three gunboats on Lake Erie : the third gunboat cut 
its cable, and escaped. On the I3th, Drummond's batteries 
opened fire on the enemy's works, and continued the 
cannonade on the following day, preparatory to a grand 
assault. At 2 A.M. on the 1 5th, the assault was delivered 
in three columns. The right column, headed by Sergeant 
Powell of the iQth Light Dragoons, "who was perfectly 
acquainted with the ground, volunteered to act as guide, 
and preceded the leading subdivision in the most intrepid 
style," was to attack a work called Snake Hill at the 
border of the lake. The picquet of cavalry under Captain 
Eustace, I9th Light Dragoons was detailed to act with 
the right column. The rest of the squadron was drawn 
up in the rear of the most advanced battery, in readiness 
to receive prisoners, and conduct them to the rear. The 
centre and left columns were to assault the fort at different 
points. The scaling ladders with the right attack were 
too short ; after prolonged efforts, and suffering great 
losses, the column was obliged to retire without gaining 
a footing. The left column also was beaten back, losing 
its leader and many men. The centre column, which was 
the weakest of the three, led by Lt. Colonel Drummond, 
the general's nephew, alone effected a lodgment, and 
maintained its position till daylight, in spite of the most 
desperate efforts of the garrison. Lt. Colonel Drummond 
fell ; but his men, reinforced from the left column, con- 
tinued to resist all attacks made to dislodge them, till a 
tremendous explosion of stored ammunition took place, 
killing many, and forcing the remainder to retire. Almost 



208 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

every officer with the centre and left columns was killed 
or wounded. This disastrous repulse cost the British 
force a loss of 905 of all ranks, killed, wounded and miss- 
ing ; great part of the loss being ascribed to the explosion. 
Drummond continued the blockade, and his troops now 
began to suffer greatly from sickness. On the 2nd 
September, General Brown, who had recovered from his 
wound received at Lundy's Lane, resumed command of 
the U.S. forces at Erie, in place of Gaines who had been 
severely wounded. On the morning of the 7th, a United 
States' picquet, consisting of an officer and 21 men, was 
surprised and cut off to a man, by a small party of 
infantry and a detachment of the ipth Light Dragoons 
under Captain Eustace, the whole commanded by Captain 
Powell, D.A.Q.M.G. The General Order of the same 
day says: "Sergeant Powell, ipth Light Dragoons, has 
been named to the Lieutenant General as having again 
distinguished himself on this occasion." This brave 
soldier was subsequently taken prisoner, and is believed 
to have died before he could be exchanged. On the 
1 7th September, favoured by a heavy fall of rain, 
Brown made a sortie in three strong divisions. The 
battery guards were surprised, and the whole line of 
entrenchments was for a time in the assailants' hands ; 
till Drummond, bringing up troops from the camp, drove 
out the enemy, and recovered possession of his batteries. 
The sortie cost the British troops 609 killed, wounded and 
prisoners, in addition to three of their few heavy guns 
destroyed, and other damage. This, together with con- 
tinuous bad weather and increasing sickness among his 
troops, caused Drummond to give up the blockade, on the 
2 1st, and withdraw his Head Quarters across the Chippewa 
on the 24th, which was done without molestation. A 
strong body of troops was maintained in advance of the 
Chippewa, occupying the line of the Black Creek. In his 



i8i4J FORT ERIE EVACUATED 209 

dispatch of 2nd October to Sir George Prevost, Drummond 
reports the capture by the enemy of a patrol of a corporal 
and six men of the ipth Light Dragoons. " The Dragoons 
must have been most culpably careless and confident, or 
the circumstance could not have happened." About the 
8th October, General Izard, with a large body of U.S. 
troops, arrived by land at Lewiston, from Sackett's 
Harbour. Instead of crossing the river to Drummond's 
rear, as he should have done, he continued along the river 
to Black Rock, and assumed the command at Erie. 
Izard's force now amounted to over 8000 men, from whom 
some decisive action was to be expected. Izard advanced 
to Black Creek, and offered battle, which Drummond was 
not strong enough to accept. Beyond some skirmishing, 
Izard made no further use of his superiority of force, 
awaiting co-operation from the lake. But the U.S. 
squadron on Ontario was held fast in Sackett's Harbour 
by Sir James Yeo. Izard remained inactive till 2Oth 
October, when he fell back, and carried his force across 
the river to Black Rock and Buffalo. On the 5th 
November, he blew up Fort Erie and evacuated the 
place. Drummond at once disposed the men in winter 
quarters. Major Lisle's squadron was ordered to hold 
itself in readiness to proceed to Lower Canada, and one 
troop under Captain Eustace was sent to Ancaster. 

Several times during the summer marauding parties 
from the United States, taking advantage of the un- 
defended state of the Detroit frontier, had crossed the 
border, plundering and burning, and carrying off 
peaceable inhabitants. Drummond was unable to spare 
any force to meet this evil, and the province suffered 
cruelly. Towards the end of October, a mounted force 
of 1500 undisciplined men, under General McArthur, 
crossed the border by Lake St Clair, and marched to 
Moravian town on the Thames river, continuing eastwards 

o 



aio THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

in the direction of Burlington Heights, where only a few 
militia and some 300 of the iO3rd, under Lt. Colonel 
Smelt, were stationed. Smelt at once moved forward to 
Grand River with about 170 men of the iO3rd, 27 of the 
ipth Light Dragoons, 150 militia and some Indians. 
After making a demonstration of crossing, McArthur 
turned back and regained Detroit, on the I7th November, 
without having effected anything beyond the destruction 
of a great quantity of property. "Both in their advance 
and in their retreat their progress was marked by plunder 
and devastation." Captain Eustace and his party marched 
to Dover. 

A return, dated 8th November, shows that out of 
7552 men on the frontier between Toronto and Long 
Point, 1327 were in hospital at that date. The total 
strength of the igth Light Dragoons' squadron was 123, 
of whom 34 were sick. 

The operations for the year were at an end on this 
part of the frontier. Fort Niagara still remained in 
British hands, and the projected attack on Kingston had 
not been made. The only results of the strenuous efforts 
made by the United States' government, at this point, 
had been to show the improvement of their troops, both 
in generalship and fighting power, since the beginning of 
the war. Beyond this, there was nothing to show for 
the offensive operations undertaken by the United States 
during the year. 

The abdication of Napoleon, and the peace concluded 
in Paris at the end of May, set free for service in America 
the troops serving under Wellington in the south of France. 
A number of regiments were embarked at once for Quebec, 
so that, by the end of August, Sir George Prevost had up- 
wards of 16,000 British troops in Lower Canada. With 
them came instructions to attack Plattsburgh, which, to 
observers at a distance, appeared to be the point from 



x8i 4 ] ADVANCE ON PLATTSBURGH 211 

which the most formidable attack might be directed against 
Montreal. The strategy was at fault, as the experience of 
the preceding year had shown that, while Kingston con- 
tinued to be held in force, no attack from Plattsburgh was 
likely to be successful. On the other hand, a British suc- 
cess at Plattsburgh could lead to no decisive result. The 
true point of attack was Sackett's Harbour, on Lake 
Ontario. The occupation and retention of this point would 
have destroyed the U.Si naval power on the lake ; Mon- 
treal and Kingston would have been secured from attack ; 
and Sir Gordon Drummond would have been master of the 
situation on the Niagara frontier. The U.S. government 
gauged the situation more correctly, and denuded Platts- 
burgh of troops to reinforce Sackett's Harbour. The event 
showed that Plattsburgh was only of secondary importance. 
For the expedition against Plattsburgh Sir George 
Prevost formed three brigades on the frontier extending 
from the Richelieu river to the St Lawrence commanded 
by Major Generals Power, Robinson and Brisbane. The 
whole division was under command of Major General de 
Rottenburg, and amounted to 11,000 men. With it was 
the rest of the iQth Light Dragoons not engaged on the 
Niagara frontier. 

On the 3rd of September, Sir George Prevost, advancing 
by Chateaugay from the St Lawrence, crossed the frontier 
to Chazy, and, on the 5th, reached, without opposition, a 
point eight miles from Plattsburgh. The U.S. troops 
about Plattsburgh, at the time, amounted to about 1500 
men, of inferior quality, under General Macomb. This 
force was augmented by about 3000 militia from the 
surrounding neighbourhood during the operations, but 
neither in quality or numbers was it fit to stand before the 
troops under Prevost. On the 6th, the army advanced on 
Plattsburgh, driving in the U.S. pickets and outposts. So 
feeble was the resistance made that General Macomb 



212 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

mentions in his dispatch that the British troops pressed 
on in column, not even deigning to fire, except by their 
flankers and advanced patrols, on the militia that they 
brushed out of their way. In the advance, the igth Light 
Dragoons had one man and two horses wounded, two men 
and six horses missing. Plattsburgh stands on the 
Saranac creek which runs at right angles into Lake 
Champlain. The high ground on the south side of the 
Saranac was occupied by Macomb with some hastily 
constructed redoubts. The houses on the north of the 
Saranac were occupied by British troops, on the 6th. On 
the lake lay the U.S. squadron, consisting of four vessels 
and ten gunboats. The British squadron, consisting of 
four vessels and twelve gunboats, was still at the north 
end of Lake Champlain, awaiting the completion of the 
flag-ship which had only been launched ten days previously, 
and whose crew had hardly joined her from Quebec. Sir 
George Prevost had only to advance on the 7th to make 
himself master of the feeble defences opposed to him, when 
he suddenly conceived the idea that he must await the co- 
operation of his lake squadron. For four days Prevost 
lay inactive, while he urged Captain Downie with his ill- 
prepared ships to join him, and engage the enemy's 
squadron : the time was utilised by Macomb in strengthen- 
ing his defences and collecting reinforcements. On the 
nth, the British squadron appeared in sight, and engaged 
the U.S. ships, while Prevost put his troops tardily in 
motion. They forded the Saranac, and ascended the 
opposing heights, when, with victory in their grasp, they 
suddenly received the order to withdraw to their former 
positions. The British lake squadron, after a most deadly 
contest of over two hours, had been completely defeated, 
and Sir George Prevost at once threw up the sponge. The 
same night, leaving his sick and wounded, together with a 
quantity of stores, he commenced a retreat, which much 



1814] RETREAT FROM PLATTSBURGH 213 

resembled a flight, to the Canadian frontier. In the many 
wars in which the British army has fought, it would be hard 
to find a parallel instance in which British troops have 
been so mishandled. The co-operation of the fleet was 
unnecessary, as the enemy's squadron could not have 
maintained its position with the whole of Plattsburgh in 
British hands. Nine thousand of Wellington's veterans, 
who had defeated Napoleon's choicest troops again and 
again, were made to retreat from an inferior force that 
could not have withstood them for an hour, with a loss of 
less than 40 killed since they had crossed the frontier. No 
wonder that the enemy first took the retreat for a ruse 
de guerre, and that a British General broke his sword, 
vowing he would never serve again. In the whole of the 
operations against Plattsburgh, the land forces under 
Prevost's immediate command suffered a total loss of 37 
killed, 150 wounded and 55 missing. In their anger at the 
fiasco, an immense number of men deserted during the 
retreat, causing a greater loss than a successful prosecution 
of the enterprise could possibly have entailed. The I9th 
Light Dragoons while covering the retirement, lost five 
men and horses taken prisoners. 

Only brief mention need be made of land operations 
elsewhere, as they do not come within the scope of opera- 
tions in which the ipth Light Dragoons were concerned. 
In the middle of August, a combined military and naval 
expedition fitted out from Bermuda, under Major General 
Ross and Vice Admiral Cockburn, landed at Benedict in 
the Potomac river, 50 miles from Washington, and marched 
on that town. At Bladensberg, on the 24th, Ross en- 
countered a U.S. army of about 8000 men under General 
Winder, and gained a complete and easy victory, taking 
10 guns.* Washington was occupied the same evening. 

* The force actually engaged on the British side consisted only of a single 
Division of 1500 men and a Naval rocket battery. Ross attacked without 
waiting for his Rear Division and the rest of the Naval Brigade. 



2i 4 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

On the following evening, after burning the most important 
public buildings, in retaliation for the outrages committed 
on the Canadian non-combatants, the force retired, and re- 
embarked on the 29th, without molestation. 

At daylight on the I2th September, the same force 
landed 13 miles from Baltimore, and advanced on that 
place. On first coming in touch with the enemy, Ross was 
killed by a chance shot. Colonel Brook assumed the com- 
mand, and at about five miles from Baltimore a United 
States' force of about 7000 men was encountered and over- 
thrown in less than half an hour. Two field pieces and 
many prisoners were captured. Preparations were then 
made for a combined attack on the city, when it was dis- 
covered that the harbour was so effectually closed by 
sunken vessels, that naval co-operation was impossible. It 
being considered that, under these circumstances, the loss 
that must be incurred in taking the place by storm would 
be out of proportion to any benefit to be gained, the troops 
were withdrawn, and re-embarked without the slightest 
molestation, on the I5th. The troopships, after hovering 
on the coast, rather aimlessly for another month, then set 
sail for Jamaica, where an expedition was preparing against 
New Orleans. 

The mistake that had been made by the United States 
government in the early part of the war, in under-rating 
the difficulty of conquering Canada, and in believing that 
the inhabitants would join the invaders, was now to be re- 
peated by the British government. British Ministers had 
been brought to believe that the inhabitants of Louisiana 
were disaffected to the U.S. government, and that the 
State could easily be taken possession of. With this 
object, an expedition against New Orleans had been 
planned in England ; and, it was in order to save the 
troops for this purpose, that the attack on Baltimore had 
been abandoned. New Orleans, though a great commercial 



i8i 4 ] REPULSE AT NEW ORLEANS 215 

centre, was devoid of any military importance, and the 
expedition was destined to furnish another example of the 
faulty strategy that was exhibited on both sides during 
the war. 

On the 8th December, the expedition under Major 
General Sir Edward Pakenham, appeared off the coast, 
and, on the night of the I2th, captured the enemy's 
squadron of gunboats. On the i6th, the landing of the 
troops commenced, at the mouth of the Pearl river. Con- 
siderable delay ensued, owing to the swampy nature of the 
ground, and the advance did not approach the city till the 
23rd. General Jackson, in command at New Orleans, 
occupied a long line of entrenchments at right angles to 
the river. He was also assisted by armed vessels on the 
Mississipi which inflicted severe losses on the British 
troops, and greatly delayed their advance. On the morn- 
ing of the 8th January, the attack was made, and repulsed 
with heavy slaughter. Pakenham fell at the head of his 
men ; Major General Gibbs died of his wounds the following 
day, and Major General Keane was severely wounded. The 
total loss amounted to 2119 killed, wounded and missing. 
So strongly were the enemy posted, that his loss did not 
exceed about 80 men. Under this disastrous repulse the 
expedition withdrew on the i8th, and re-embarked. A 
portion of the expedition was then directed against Fort 
Bowyer, on Mobile Point, which capitulated, on I2th 
February, without resistance. Twenty -eight guns 
and over 300 prisoners fell into the hands of the 
British. 

In the middle of March, news was received that a 
Treaty of Peace had been signed at Ghent on 24th 
December, and the war was at an end. 

During the summer of 1814, the Head Quarters of the 
regiment was moved from La Prairie to Chambly, where 
they remained as long as the regiment was in Canada. 



216 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1814 

The four troops left behind in Ireland had been moved, on 
the embarkation of the regiment for Canada, to Radipole 
Barracks, near Weymouth ; and thence to Maidstone, in 
February 1814. In July of the same year, the regiment 
lost its Colonel, Lord Howe, by death. In his place, 
Lieutenant General Sir William Payne Bt, was transferred 
as Colonel, from the 23rd Light Dragoons. He was 
an officer who had served in the Royal Dragoons, 
and commanded the British Cavalry at the battle of 
Talavera. His connection with the regiment was very 
brief, as, in the following January, he was appointed 
Colonel of the I2th Light Dragoons. In his place, 
Major General Sir John Ormsby Vandeleur K.C.B., 
Lieutenant Colonel in the regiment, was appointed 
Colonel. 

Sir John Vandeleur had entered the army in 1781, and 
saw service in Flanders in 1794, and at the Cape of Good 
Hope in 1796. He commanded a brigade of cavalry, under 
Lake, in the wars against Scindia and Holkar, 1803-5, and 
especially distinguished himself at Laswaree, and on other 
occasions. In 1807, he exchanged into the I9th as already 
mentioned.* In 1811, he commanded an infantry brigade 
in Spain, under Wellington, and, at Ciudad Rodrigo, led 
the assault after Craufurd's fall, when he was severely 
wounded. Afterwards he commanded the 4th cavalry 
brigade at Waterloo, and succeeded to the command of 
the whole of the cavalry, on Lord Uxbridge being 
wounded. 

During 1814, gold lace was substituted for silver in the 
uniform of the regiment. 

In May 1815, sanction was granted, under the following 
order, for Major Lisle's squadron to wear the badge 
" Niagara " for their services on the Niagara frontier. The 

* See page 167. 



x8is] BADGE OF "NIAGARA" 217 

privilege seems to have been extended later to the whole 
regiment. 

HORSE GUARDS 

i^th May 1815. 

Sir, 

l have *?ad the honour to lay before the 
(Squadron Commander-in-Chief your letter of the 26th 
under Major February last, and am directed to acquaint you 

Royll' Scots in ^Pty' that His Royal Highness the Prince 
ist Battalion. Regent has been pleased, in the Name and on 
8th or King's the behalf of His Majesty, to approve of the 
iist-FLCos. Regiments named in the Margin, being per- 
8Qth-2nd Batt! mitted to bear on their Colors and Appoint- 
looth ments in addition to any other Badges, or 
Glengarry Lt Devices, which may have been heretofore 
Inf. Fencibles. permitted to be borne by those Regiments the 
Word " Niagara," in consequence of the dis- 
tinguished Conduct of those Corps in the 
Capture of Fort Niagara by Assault on the iQth 
December 1813, and in the Battle at Lundy's 
Lane, in North America, on the 25th July 1814. 

I have &c. 

H. CALVERT 

A. G. 
Lt. General 

Sir GEORGE PREVOST Bt. 

or General Officer Commanding Canada. 

Detachments of the regiment were quartered at La 
Prairie, Isle aux Noix, Blairfindie, Quebec, Montreal, and 
St John's. 

In 1816, the whole of the ten troops of the regiment, 
amounting to 620 rank and file, appear to have been in 
Canada. At the very end of the year, the strength of the 
Canadian establishment was fixed at 5000 rank and file. 
In order to bring it down to this number, the igth were 
held under orders to return to England, but, it was not till 
the following 6th August that they embarked at Quebec, 



218 THE NIAGARA FRONTIER [1816-20 

and landed at Tilbury, I3th September. On landing they 
marched to Romford, where they remained till the following 
March. 

The execution done by the Polish lancers at Waterloo 
induced the military authorities in England to arm four 
regiments with lances. Accordingly, the Qth, I2th, i6th, 
and 23rd Light Dragoons were equipped as Lancers, in 
September 1816. But great reductions in the military 
establishments were in progress, and, in October 1817, the 
23rd were disbanded, their horses being made over to the 
1 9th, whose establishment was reduced to eight troops. At 
the same time, the igth were ordered to be equipped as 
lancers.* 

In March 1818, the regiment was moved to Hounslow 
and Hampton Court, with detachments at Pimlico and 
Kensington. On the 26th May, the regiment, together 
with the loth Hussars, was reviewed at Hounslow by the 
Prince Regent, and, in November, they were on duty, at 
Datchet, for Queen Charlotte's funeral. 

The regimental muster rolls show that in October the 
regiment had 455 rank and file. 

In June of the following year the regiment moved to 
Brighton, with troops at Hastings, Arundel and Rotting- 
dean. 

A year later (June 1820), the regiment was ordered to 
Nottingham, with troops at Mansfield, Sheffield, Lough- 
borough, Peterborough and Derby. In spite of the distance, 
they marched to Hounslow to be reviewed, on 4th August, 
in company with the loth Hussars and I2th Lancers, by 
George IV., when His Majesty expressed his " unqualified 
approbation " of the three regiments. 

During the winter, the regiment marched to Manchester, 
and, in the end of May, embarked for Ireland, where they 
were quartered at Newbridge. But further reductions 

* Horse Guards order, dated 28th October 1817. 




00 
00 



i82i] DISBANDMENT 219 

were in progress, and, on 23rd August 1821, warrants were 
issued for the disbandment of the i8th Light Dragoons 
and ipth Lancers, which were carried into effect on loth 
September. The strength of the iQth, at the time of 
disbandment, was 103 officers and non-commissioned 
officers, 336 rank and file, 273 horses. 




PART IV 

THE NINETEENTH "PRINCESS OF 
WALES' OWN" HUSSARS 

(1858-1899) 



CHAPTER I 

RAISING OF THE REGIMENT 
(1858-1882) 

The East India Company raises European Cavalry regiments Their 
formation The Bengal 1st European Light Cavalry Services 
transferred to the Crown The "White Mutiny" Made igth 
Light Dragoons, afterwards Hussars General Pattle Regiment 
at Meerut General Hall Regiment ordered to England 
Badges of old iQth Light Dragoons granted Regiment ordered 
to Ireland Guidons of old iQth Light Dragoons presented to the 
regiment Regiment returns to England Ordered on active 
service. 

IN May 1857, the mutiny of the Bengal Native Army 
occurred, which so profoundly changed the nature of 
British administration in India. Through carelessness and 
false economy, the East India Company had allowed the 
number of European troops in India to sink to a danger- 
ously low level, in proportion to the number of native 
troops. As against some 230,000 native soldiers, the 
European troops numbered less than 40,000 men, of whom 
about 23,500 were royal troops. The Company's European 

220 



i857] UNDERSIZED MEN 221 

troops in India consisted, at that time, of nine battalions of 
Infantry, seventeen troops of Horse Artillery, and forty-eight 
companies of Foot Artillery. Apart from other measures 
for restoring tranquillity, it was determined to raise three 
additional battalions of Infantry, and to replace the 
mutinous Bengal Native Cavalry by Europeans. Of the 
ten regiments of regular Bengal Native Cavalry, seven 
had mutinied, and two had been disarmed. 

In November 1857, intimation was sent to the Governor 
General that it had been decided to form four regiments 
of Cavalry, for the Company's service, of men recruited 
in England, of ages between 20 and 30 years, and of a 
standard height not less than 5 ft, and not exceeding 
5 ft. 4 in. Each regiment was to consist of ten troops, 
with 70 privates per troop, together with the usual number 
of officers, non - commissioned officers and staff. All 
accoutrements, arms, and equipments were to be of a 
lighter description than those in common use by British 
Cavalry : and the men were to be collected at a depot 
in England (Warley), to be trained for three months, 
before being embarked for India. A lower standard of 
height than that of the Royal Army was adopted, with 
the intention that the recruiting for the Royal Army 
should not be interfered with, and it was thought that, 
by tapping a new stratum of recruits, men would be easily 
obtained. These anticipations were justified. The whole 
nation had been roused by the sufferings of our country- 
women in India, and recruits flocked in. Three weeks 
later, the Court of Directors were obliged to write to the 
Governor General that, in consequence of the very rapid 
recruiting, accommodation could not be provided for the 
men, in England, and it was necessary to embark a large 
body of them, for Calcutta, at once. 

With regard to these undersized men, it may be said 
here, that a large number of them made excellent soldiers 



222 RAISING OF THE REGIMENT [1858 

in time ; but there was a considerable proportion of them, 
big men on short legs, over 25 years of age at the time 
of enlistment, who were unfit for cavalry purposes. 

After being kept some time near Calcutta, the men 
were gradually forwarded to Allahabad, where they were 
collected in June 1858, an almost undisciplined mob, with- 
out permanent officers, without horses, and without equip- 
ments. On the i /th June, we find Major General Sir 
William Mansfield (afterwards Lord Sandhurst) writing 
to Major General Sir Hope Grant, then in the field against 
the rebels : " We are about to organize the four regiments 
of Bengal Dragoons, and to divide the recruits into four 
bodies without delay. How would it suit you to have 
one of these young corps attached to the " Bays " (2nd 
Dragoon Guards), and another to the /th (Hussars)? Not 
a man has ever been on a horse, and the men are at 
present armed with muskets" 

By the end of June, the apportioning of the men into 
regiments was complete, and, on the 3rd July, the regi- 
ment with which our interest lies, became established 
as the Bengal ist European Light Cavalry, to be quartered 
at Allahabad. The other three regiments marched for various 
cantonments in North Western India. A fifth regiment 
was formed at Peshawur, in November, of volunteers from 
Royal infantry regiments, who had been formed into a 
cavalry corps for temporary service during the Mutiny. 

To officer each of these regiments, the officers of two 
of the ten mutinied or disbanded Bengal Native Cavalry 
regiments were utilized : but, instead of placing them upon 
a single list, they were kept on separate lists for promotion, 
which were styled Right and Left Wings, corresponding to 
their late regiments. All officers newly appointed, who 
had belonged to neither of the old Native regiments, were 
to be borne on the strength of the Right Wing, so that, in 
process of time, the Left Wing was destined to disappear ; 



i8s8] EARLY DIFFICULTIES 223 

but the process would have been one of thirty years or 
more, according to the rate of promotion then existing in 
the Company's service. 

The Bengal ist European Light Cavalry was officered 
by the surviving officers of the ist and 3rd Bengal Native 
Cavalry, both of which regiments had mutinied. For 
remounts, the men were given a number of horses hastily 
purchased at the Cape of Good Hope and in Australia, 
most of them wild unbroken bush horses that had never 
been handled. An officer who served with the regiment 
at this time, writing of it forty years afterwards, says : 

" No regiments were ever raised under such absurd 
conditions, and, if the object had been to prove them a 
failure, no course better calculated to achieve that end 
could have been pursued. The only old soldiers sent to 
assist us were two or three infantry men from a Fusilier 
regiment, none higher in rank than Corporal. When the 
authorities were addressed on this subject, one or two 
cavalry soldiers, I think from the 7th Hussars, were sent; 
the highest in rank being a Lance Corporal who was 
promptly made a Troop Sergeant Major, and I don't 
think turned out a success. The horses, like the men, 
were all untrained, and some of the horses from the Cape 
were perfect devils, very difficult to clean, and for some 
time impossible to ride or to shoe. I have a vivid 
recollection of one roan, who stood in his stall for days 
covered with mud, because no one could go near him. 
Out of the crowd of raw recruits, we had to find all our 
Non-Commissioned officers from Troop Sergeant Major 
downwards, so it may be imagined what little respect was 
paid to the highest grades." 

On the ist November 1858, the Crown assumed the 
government of India, and the East India Company thence- 
forth ceased to exist. No attention was paid to the view 
that might be taken of the change, in the ranks of the 
Company's army. The British soldier, though he yields to 
discipline, never forgets that he is a soldier by his own free 
will ; he objects to be treated like a conscript. The late 



224 RAISING OF THE REGIMENT [1859 

Company's European soldiers quickly came to believe that 
their rights had been infringed. Had they been asked to 
volunteer for service under the Crown, they would have 
done so almost to a man ; but they objected to be handed 
over "like bullocks," as they expressed it. The Indian 
government consulted its legal advisers, who treated the 
objection as a purely technical one, prompted by a wish 
for the offer of a bounty. So long as the men were 
retained for the local service for which they had enlisted, 
it was considered that they had no grievance. It was 
decided that the men had no case, and a General Order to 
this effect was published in April 1859. The agitation 
quickly assumed a serious aspect, and, during May, there 
was a time when, in a few cantonments, a collision between 
the Royal and the late Company's European troops 
appeared possible. The movement was not confined to 
the newly raised regiments, but was equally shared in by 
the old soldiers of the late Company, who had shown their 
fine qualities on many a hard fought field. The behaviour 
of the ist Bengal European Light Cavalry was similar to 
that of the local European forces in most other places. 
All guards and barrack duties were performed without 
demur, but the men refused to turn out for parade. On 
one occasion the canteen was broken into, and an attempt 
was made to release prisoners. Mutinous language was 
used to officers in a few instances, and shots fired in 
defiance, but not with evil intent. Under the circum- 
stances already related, it is surprising that nothing worse 
occurred. In one instance alone, in one of the newly 
raised infantry regiments, was there a dangerous attempt 
to act as an organized armed body hostile to the 
State. This was speedily repressed, and the ringleader 
shot. 

The Calcutta government quickly recognized its 
mistake. In the end of June, orders were published 



1861] THE WHITE MUTINY 225 

allowing the men the option of discharge, but no bounty 
was offered to those who elected to remain, while those 
who took their discharge were not allowed the option of 
re-enlistment, as long as they remained in the country. 
Under the feeling of exasperation that had grown up, 
upwards of 10,000 men elected to take their discharge, of 
whom 2800 re-enlisted on reaching England. 

The trouble with the Indian local European forces, in 
1859, has been frequently cited as a cogent reason against 
the maintenance of a body of British troops in India, for 
local service only ; a measure that would overcome many 
difficulties now felt in army administration. Those who 
study the events of 1859 must recognize that the trouble 
arose, not from the conditions of service, but from the 
mistakes of those in authority at Calcutta. The " White 
Mutiny " was no mere outbreak against discipline : it was 
the vindication of the men's claim to be consulted in the 
disposal of their services. 

While these events were in progress, orders were 
received for the regiment to march to Cawnpore, which 
it did in June. 

Early in 1861, it was determined to cease the main- 
tenance of any European force for local service in India, 
and, on 6th May, the officers, non-commissioned-officers 
and men were called on to volunteer for General Service. 
They responded, almost to a man, and the regiment 
received the designation of the I9th Light Dragoons. In 
the same way, the Bengal 2nd and 3rd European Light 
Cavalry became the 2Oth and 2ist Light Dragoons; the 
4th and 5th being disbanded. At the same time, the 
establishment was assimilated to that of other British 
cavalry regiments in India, viz. nine troops (one at the 
depot in England) with 585 corporals and privates : 693 of 
all ranks. Three months later, under Horse Guards order 
of i /th August 1 86 1, the designation of the regiment was 



226 



RAISING OF THE REGIMENT 



[1862 



changed to the igth Hussars. The standard for recruits 
was assimilated to that of other Hussar regiments. 

At the beginning of February 1862, the regiment was 
moved to Lucknow. 

On the 3<Dth July, in the same year, the complete roll of 
officers was gazetted. 



Lieutenant Colonel 
Major . 



Captain 



Lieutenant 



Comet . 



Riding Master 

Adjutant 

Paymaster 



Charles Vanbrugh Jenkins. 

("John Hatfield Brooks. 
\Roland Richardson. 

"Henry Cadogan Craigie. 
Sir John Hill, Bt. Bt. Major. 
Henry Edward Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 

Hugh Henry Gough, V.C., Brevet Major. 
Frederick Peter Luard. 
Richard Talbot Plantagenet Stapleton. 
Charles Manners Sutton Fairbrother. 

f Charles Hay Fairlie. 
Abel Henry Chapman. 
Cecil Clarke Jervoise. 
Arthur George Webster. 
Robert Morris. 

Edward Stirling Rivett-Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 

George Cortlandt Buller Taylor. 
Charles John Prinsep. 
Albert Hearsey. 

Elliot Alexander Money. 
Joseph Boulderson. 
Frederick Henry Huth. 
Charles Robert St. Quintin. 
Francis Dallas Harding. 
.Seymour Duncan Barrow. 

George Couch. 

Abel Henry Chapman. 

Henry Octavius Currie. 



The greater number of them had belonged to the 
Company's ist and 3rd Bengal Native Cavalry. 

In September, General William Pattle C.B. was gazetted 
to be Colonel of the regiment. He was an old Company's 
officer who had entered the service in 1800. He served 
under Lord Lake in the Mahratta campaigns of 1 803 and 
1804, anc * was present at the battles of Alyghur, Delhi, 



1863-70] ORDERED TO ENGLAND 227 

Laswaree, the siege of Bhurtpore &c. He served through 
the Mahratta war of 1817-18, and commanded the cavalry 
under Sir Charles Napier, during the conquest of Scinde, 
and at the battles of Meariee and Hyderabad. 

Under orders from the War office, dated 6th January 
1863, the establishment was reduced by one troop, leaving 
seven service troops and one at Maidstone. 

In the autumn, orders were received for the regiment 
to march to Meerut, where it arrived 28th November. 
Here the regiment remained till the end of 1867. The 
only events to be noticed during these four years are a 
reduction of establishment by 56 privates in 1866: and 
the presence of the regiment at the great Durbar held by 
the Viceroy, Sir John Lawrence, at Agra, in November 1866, 
when the ipth were brigaded with the 2nd Dragoon Guards. 

In the beginning of 1865, the regiment lost its Colonel 
by death. In his place Lieutenant General John Hall 
was appointed Colonel. 

On the loth December 1867, the Head Quarters of 
the regiment, with four troops, marched for Benares, being 
followed, a month later, by the remaining three troops, who 
marched to Cawnpore. 

In the ordinary course of relief, the regiment was 
intended to leave India in 1872. In a sudden fit of 
economy, the Indian Government decided to get rid of two 
cavalry regiments, so that, without any previous warning, 
the regiment received telegraphic orders, on i8th January 
1870, to proceed to England immediately. Similar orders 
were sent to the 7th Hussars, then serving in India. 
Volunteering was at once opened to men electing to serve 
in other regiments remaining in India, and, on 24th 
January, the regiment was re-united at Allahabad, whence 
it proceeded to Bombay, where it embarked on board the 
Jumna on the I4th February. So unexpected had been 
the move, that a draft for the regiment, from England, 



228 RAISING OF THE REGIMENT [1871 

joined it four days before sailing. The strength of the 
regiment leaving India, was as follows: 18 officers, 51 
sergeants and corporals, 7 trumpeters. 257 privates, 28 
women and 55 children. 

On the 22nd March, the regiment landed at Dover, and 
proceeded to Canterbury, whence all the Cavalry Depot 
troops, excepting those of the 2Oth and 2ist Hussars, had 
been moved to Maidstone. But the British Government 
were as unwilling to have the home military establishment 
increased by the two regiments thus sent from India, as 
the Indian Government had been to retain them, and the 
idea of disbanding two regiments was entertained. The 
Manchester school was predominant ; shortsighted financial 
considerations alone had any weight. The changes rung 
in the establishment of the regiment for the next four 
months show the hesitating counsels that prevailed. On 
the ist April, one troop was absorbed. A month later, the 
establishment was nominally fixed at 25 officers, 457 
Sergeants and privates, and 300 horses, but recruiting to 
make the regiment up to that strength was forbidden. At 
the end of June the establishment of horses was reduced to 
200. A week later, the war between France and Germany 
broke out, while the question of the strength of military 
establishments was still being bandied about between the 
Treasury and the War Office. On the ist August, orders 
were received to complete the strength of the regiment 
up to 540 of all ranks, which was done by the end of 
September. The number of horses was also raised to 350. 

Consequent on the increase of establishment, an eighth 
troop was formed in February 1871. 

In May, the Head Quarters of the regiment and five 
troops marched to Brighton ; the other three troops going 
to the camp at ShornciirTe. 

On the 1 7th June, an inspection of the regiment was 
held at Brighton by its Colonel, General John Hall. 



1872-74] OLD BADGES GRANTED 229 

In August 1872, the regiment marched to Aldershot, 
and, a few days after arrival, marched to take part in the 
Wiltshire manoeuvres at Pewsey, where it was brigaded 
under the command of Major General Shute C.B. ; return- 
ing to Aldershot in September. 

During 1872, the regiment lost its Colonel, Lieutenant 
General Hall, who was succeeded by General John Yorke 
C.B. He was an old officer of the Royal Dragoons, 
which regiment he commanded in the Crimean War, and 
was severely wounded at Balaclava. 

In June 1873, the regiment marched to Windsor, to 
take part in the review held in honour of H.M. the Shah of 
Persia, on the 24th : returning to Aldershot the following day. 
In August, manoeuvres were held at Dartmoor, in 
which the regiment took part ; proceeding by train as far 
as Exeter, and returning to Aldershot by route march. 
The fine appearance of the regiment, and its proficiency 
in outpost and reconnoissance duties attracted more than 
usual attention on this occasion. 

Early in 1874, the regiment was granted the privilege 
of wearing the badges so gloriously earned by the old I9th 
Light Dragoons. 

HORSE GUARDS 24^ Feb. 1874. 
SIR, 

I have the honor, by desire of His Royal 
Highness the Field Marshal Commanding in 
Chief to acquaint you that Her Majesty has 
been graciously pleased to approve of the 
regiment under your command being permitted 
to wear the badges granted to the old ipth Light 
Dragoons for achievements during the present 
Century, viz. : 

The Elephant 
" Assaye " " Niagara " 

J. W. ARMSTRONG, 

To the Depy. Adj. General 

Officer Commanding 
i gth Hussars. 



2 3 o RAISING OF THE REGIMENT [1875-81 

It will be observed that the " Seringapatam " badge, 
granted to the old iQth Light Dragoons for four cam- 
paigns in the last century, was withheld. The 23rd of 
September is now observed as an annual holiday in the 
regiment, in commemoration of Assaye. 

On the ipth May, the regiment took part in the review 
held at Aldershot, in honour of H.I. M. the Emperor of Russia. 

At the end of June, the regiment marched to new 
quarters at Hounslow, with a troop at Hampton Court, 
and another at Kensington. 

At the end of July 1875, the regiment marched to 
Leeds, with troops at Preston and Bury. 

In June 1876, the regiment proceeded to Ireland. 
After going through the drill season at the Curragh, it 
went into quarters at Longford, Gort, Castlebar, Dunmore, 
and Athlone. In the following spring it returned to 
the Curragh, and, in October, marched to Dublin, where 
it was quartered in the Royal Barracks and Abor Hill. 
In the following August, it again marched to the Curragh, 
whence, after a month, it marched for Ballincollig, with out- 
quarters at Cork, Cahir, Limerick, Bandon, Fermoy, and 
afterwards Waterford. In these quarters the regiment 
remained till May 1880, when it was again ordered to the 
Curragh. In August, the regiment again marched to 
Dublin, leaving one squadron at the Curragh. Three 
months later, a wing was ordered to Ballinrobe and Lough 
Mask, by rail, in aid of the civil power, returning to Dublin 
after a fortnight's work, in, what was then called, the 
" Boycott " campaign. 

In May 1881, the regiment moved to Dundalk, 
with two troops at Belfast and one at Belturbet. The 
time was one of much excitement in Ireland, when the 
Land League conspiracy was in full force, and the 
regiment was employed, during the winter, in much 
harassing work in support of the civil power. 



i88 2 ] THE GUIDONS 231 

While at Belfast the regiment became possessed of 
some greatly prized relics of the old ipth Light Dragoons, 
through the generosity of a lady whose husband had 
served in the old regiment. As is well known, all cavalry 
regiments except Hussars and Lancers, at the beginning 
of the century, had a standard or guidon for each squadron. 
After their return from India, and shortly after the 
conferring of the Elephant and Assaye badges (1807) 
the 1 9th Light Dragoons received a new set of guidons.* 
On the regiment being equipped as Lancers (1817) the 
guidons could no longer be used, and, on the disbanding 
of the regiment they became the property of the Colonel, 
Sir John Vandeleur. At his death he bequeathed them 
to his relative Major William Armstrong of Farney Castle, 
Thurles, who had served in the igth from 1809 to 1819. 
Major Armstrong's widow now made known her wish 
to restore the guidons to the regiment that bears the 
number and badges which the old regiment so worthily 
earned. On the 28th March 1882, the Belfast squadron 
paraded, under Lieutenant Colonel Coghill, and received 
the guidons with a royal salute. The Princess of Wales' 
Own Yorkshire Regiment (formerly the I9th Foot) lent 
the services of their band, and the guidons were marched 
in all honour, through the town, to barracks, where they 
were deposited in the Mess Room, after a royal salute 
and an address to the squadron from Colonel Coghill. 

The honorary guidon granted to the old regiment for 
Assaye, has not been traced. If it is still in existence, it 
is to be hoped that the possessor will restore it to its 
rightful guardians. 

According to the old custom one guidon in each 
regiment was known as the King's. The King's guidon 

* It is not quite certain whether the guidons were new ones given to the 
Regiment in 1808, or the old ones with the badges embroidered on them in 
that year. 



232 RAISING OF THE REGIMENT [1882 

was of crimson silk with the Union badge in the centre. 
The regimental guidons were of the same colour as the 
regimental facings, with the regimental badge in the centre. 
Guidons were discarded on active service, after 1811, if not 
earlier.* 

In June 1882, the regiment received orders to return 
to England, and, while on the march for Aldershot, 
where it arrived I4th July, news was received that it was 
to proceed at once to Egypt on active service. Weak and 
sickly men were drafted into Depot, to remain behind, the 
four squadrons being completed by volunteers from other 
regiments and from the Reserve. The following officers 
also were attached to the regiment, for service. 

Captain Lord St. Vincent . . i6th Lancers. 

Lieutenant Sir G. Arthur . . 2nd Life Guards. 

Scott ... 3rd Hussars. 

Crabbe ... 

Morris . . . 7th Hussars. 

Ridley ... 

Holland . . . I5th Hussars, 

de Crespigny . . ,, 

Hon. R. Leigh . ,, ,, 

Blagrove . . 

La Terriere i8th Hussars. 



* Standards and Colours of the Army, by S. M. Milne. I am mainly 
indebted to Mr Milne for the drawings from which the accompanying Plate 
was prepared. 




AN OFFICER OF THE XIXTH HUSSARS, 1882. 

to face p. 232 



i88a] ISMAILIA 233 



CHAPTER II 

TROUBLES IN EGYPT 
1882-1884. 

Troubles in Egypt Arabi's rebellion Capture of Ismailia Kassassin 
Tel el Kebir End of the War iQth at Cairo Badges granted 
Troubles in Eastern Soudan Osman Digna Regiment 
ordered to Suakin Wreck of the Neera Battle of El Teb 
Heavy losses of the I9th Battle of Tamai Osman Digna's 
camp burned Regiment returns to Cairo Badges granted. 

IN June 1879, Mahomed Ismail, the Khedive of Egypt, 
was deposed by the Sultan, at the instance of England 
and France, in favour of his son Mahommed Tewfik, and a 
control of Egyptian finances was established by the two 
western powers. In the beginning of 1881, a spirit of 
insubordination began to show itself among the officers of 
the Egyptian army, who quickly recognised their own 
power to enforce demands, and adopted as leader, one of 
their number, Said Ahmed Arabi, better known as Arabi 
Pasha. By September, the pretensions of the army had 
so far increased that, they forced the Khedive to dismiss 
his Ministers. Attempts were soon afterwards made to get 
rid of the Anglo-French control. Arabi's influence increased 
daily ; he caused himself to be appointed Minister of War ; 
and, by April 1882, had practically got the whole of the 
country into his hands. The Khedive was helpless. In 
May, the French and English fleets were sent to 
Alexandria, in order to strengthen the Khedive's hands. 
But matters did not improve : Arabi openly assumed the 
direction of affairs, and began to strengthen the forts 
commanding the Alexandria harbour. On the nth June, 



234 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1882 

serious riots broke out in Alexandria, in the course of 
which a number of Europeans were killed, and their 
houses pillaged. It was seen in England that a military 
expedition to restore order would probably be necessary, 
and preparations, in anticipation, began to be made. 

In the meantime, the work on the Alexandria fortifica- 
tions had so far advanced as to endanger the safety of the 
fleets. The French Government was unwilling to take 
action : the remonstrances of the British Admiral were met 
by evasions and denials from Arabi Pasha. At last, on 
nth July, after due notice, the forts were bombarded and 
destroyed by the British fleet. A force of seamen and 
marines was landed to secure the safety of the Khedive, 
and put an end to the pillaging and burning of the town by 
Arab marauders, and, on the i7th, two battalions of 
British infantry, from Cyprus, under Major General Sir 
Archibald Alison, landed to hold the town. On the 2Oth, 
the British Government definitely decided to send a 
military expedition to Egypt, to restore the Khedive's 
authority. The French Government refused to co-operate, 
and withdrew from further action. 

The force sent from England and the Mediterranean 
stations amounted to 25,450 men, of whom 2400 were 
cavalry : the whole being commanded by Lieutenant 
General Sir Garnet Wolseley. There being no fear of their 
being attacked at sea, they were sent without convoy, as 
soon as the ships could be got ready. By the nth 
August, the last transport had sailed from England for 
Alexandria. The igth Hussars were among the last to go. 
On the loth August, they embarked at Southampton, in the 
Assyrian Monarch and the Montreal, with a total strength 
of 33 officers, 553 non-commissioned officers and privates, 
and 464 horses, under command of Lieutenant Colonel 
K. J. W Coghill. Previous to this, a detachment of 20 men 
under Lieutenant Aylmer had sailed in the Orient as escort 



i882] ISMAILIA 235 

to H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. It was also arranged 
for a Contingent from India to operate from Suez, consist- 
ing of one battalion of British infantry, three battalions of 
Native infantry, and three regiments of Native cavalry, 
under command of Major General Sir Herbert Macpherson. 

Arabi's army, at the beginning of July, consisted only 
of about 9000 men. By calling out reserves, and enlisting 
Arabs, it soon reached the number of 60,000 men, and 
eventually amounted to 100,000. 

Before the expedition left England, it had been 
determined to seize the Suez Canal, and advance on Cairo 
from Ismailia ; but, as it was expedient that the Canal 
should not be blocked or injured, Alexandria was appointed 
as the rendezvous of the troops on the Mediterranean side, 
and measures were taken to spread the belief that the 
advance on Cairo would be made from that place. 

The greater part of the troops being gathered at 
Alexandria, on the i8th August, preparations were made 
as if an attack on Aboukir was intended. Troops were re- 
embarked, and sailed under convoy of the fleet, at noon on 
the i Qth, anchoring in Aboukir Bay the same afternoon. 
After dark, while demonstrations of bombarding the 
Aboukir forts were made, the transports weighed anchor, 
entered the Canal, and commenced landing at Ismailia on 
the 2Oth. The movement was unexpected by the enemy, 
and no resistance was experienced. By the 22nd, complete 
command had been gained of the whole Canal from Port 
Said to Suez. On the 2ist, Nefisha, four miles in front of 
Ismailia, was occupied. Early on the 24th, a small force 
was pushed forward to El Magfar, which was occupied after 
a slight skirmish, in which Lieutenant Aylmer's detachment 
of the 1 9th Hussars took part. At El Magfar, it was 
found necessary to push on to Tel-el-Mahuta, to secure the 
water supply. The place was strongly occupied by the 
enemy, and the small British force was exposed to long 



236 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1882 

range fire of guns and small arms, for many hours, while 
reinforcements were coming up, which did not happen till 
the evening. The next morning, the whole force advanced, 
and occupied Tel-el-Mahuta after a slight opposition, while 
the cavalry pushed forward, and occupied the enemy's 
camp at Mahsama without resistance. Seven guns, with a 
large quantity of small arms, ammunition and stores, fell 
into the hands of the British troops. Early on the 26th, 
Kassassin was occupied by a brigade of infantry under 
Major General Graham, and the troops from Suez began to 
arrive at Ismailia. 

The iQth Hussars, in the Assyrian Monarch and the 
Montreal^ did not reach Alexandria in time to take part in 
these operations. They reached Ismailia on the 24th, and 
completed their disembarkation by the evening of the 26th. 
The duty assigned to them was to act as Divisional troops ; 
the Right Wing, consisting of two squadrons under 
Lieutenant Colonel Coghill, formed part of the ist Division 
under Lieutenant General Willis ; the remaining two 
squadrons, under Lieutenant Colonel A. G. Webster, 
formed part of the 2nd Division under Lieutenant General 
Sir E. Hamley. One troop was detailed as escort to Sir 
Garnet Wolseley throughout the campaign. The Right 
Wing joined the Head Quarters of the ist Division at 
Tel-el-Mahuta, on the evening of the 27th. 

On the 28th, a demonstration was made by the enemy 
against Graham's force at Kassassin. The Right Wing of 
the iQth was ordered in support to Mahsamah ; but, on 
its being ascertained that no serious attack was intended 
they returned to Tel-el-Mahuta. Graham, having been 
reinforced, and expecting the Heavy Cavalry Brigade to 
join him, made a general advance after sunset. The orders 
for the heavy cavalry had, however, miscarried, and did not 
reach Major General Lowe for several hours. Making a 
wide sweep into the desert, Lowe fell upon the left of the 



i88a] KASSASSIN, TEL-EL-KEBIR 237 

enemy in the dark, and charged, rolling up their infantry ; 
the darkness made pursuit impossible. The sound of the 
heavy firing, caused the Division at Tel-el-Mahuta to turn 
out again, but after a brief advance they returned to camp, 
with the exception of the iQth Hussars, who pushed on to 
Kassassin, which they reached at daybreak. It was not 
till noon, after visiting the scene of the previous night's 
encounter, that they were able to off-saddle and rest. 

The following twelve days were spent in preparing for 
the advance on Tel-el-Kebir, 13 miles from Kassassin, 
where Arabi's army had constructed a formidable line of 
entrenched works. During these days, the ipth Hussars 
and the Indian Native Cavalry were employed in continual 
outpost and reconnoissance duties. On the 5th, Lieutenant 
Holland was badly wounded. 

By the 8th, all was ready for massing the whole force 
at Kassassin preparatory to the advance on Tel-el-Kebir. 
Early on the Qth, Arabi advanced in force on Kassassin, 
attacking in two separate bodies simultaneously, one in 
front from Tel-el-Kebir, and the other in flank from Es 
Salihiyeh. Willis repelled the double attack with ease, 
and pushed the enemy back to within cannon shot of 
Tel-el-Kebir, capturing four guns. 

Soon after dark on the I2th, the whole force consisting 
of 17,000 men, with 61 guns, moved out of camp to some 
high ground in front of Kassassin, in preparation for an 
attack on Arabi Pasha's entrenched lines. At 1.30 in the 
morning, the troops moved silently forwards through the 
desert, their march directed by a naval officer steering by 
the stars. The four infantry brigades, in two lines, led the 
way, supported on the right by the heavy cavalry brigade 
and horse artillery, and on the left by the naval brigade. 
In rear of the naval brigade, followed the igth Hussars 
under Lieutenant Colonel Coghill. One troop of the 
regiment remained at Mahsamah, and another at Tel el 



238 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1882 

Mahuta, to guard those points. At five in the morning 
the attack was delivered ; after half an hour's severe 
fighting, the British infantry was in complete possession 
of the lines. While the heavy cavalry pushed on to 
Zagazig to cut off fugitives, the I9th, under Coghill, 
passed through an opening in the entrenchments, and 
seized the Tel el Kebir railway station and bridge, cutting 
off a great number of fugitives. Thence the pursuit was 
continued for three hours, when the iQth returned to the 
enemy's late camp. In the afternoon they started again 
in the track of the heavy cavalry, leaving a troop to 
protect burial parties, and reached Belbeis that evening. 
On the following evening Cairo was taken possession of, 
and Arabi surrendered himself. The only casualty in the 
regiment was Lieutenant Barclay who was struck by a 
fragment of shell from one of the first guns fired by the 
enemy at Tel-el-Kebir. 

The war was over. A medal, with clasp for Tel-el- 
Kebir, was given to all who took part in the campaign. 
The medals were presented to the regiment by Lady 
Dufferin, in Her Majesty's name, in the following 
February. H.H. the Khedive also gave a star. 

A few weeks after the arrival of the regiment in Cairo, 
a virulent epidemic attacked the horses. In order to 
shake it off, the regiment was moved to Helouan, at the 
end of the first week in November, with 248 sick horses, 
56 having died in Cairo. A good deal of sickness also set 
in among the men. In the following March the regiment 
returned to Cairo, and occupied the Abassiyeh barracks, 
having lost 18 men and 141 horses in the interval. When 
the regiment went to Egypt it had four coloured squadrons, 
chesnut, bay, brown, and black, while the band were 
mounted on greys. Experience showed that the greys 
bore the climate better than any others ; the chesnuts 
also bore the climate well. The dark coloured horses 



i88 2 ] THE SOUDAN 239 

suffered most, and were more liable, than the others, to 
sore backs. In respect to age, the percentage of deaths 
among horses between five and ten years, was double that 
among horses between ten and fifteen years. In the hurry 
of departure from England, about twenty horses, over 
fifteen years of age, were taken. They were employed as 
waggon horses, and had perhaps harder work than those 
under saddle ; yet they stood the climate and work 
better than all the others. 

Affairs in Lower Egypt, to outward appearance, seemed 
to be settling down so satisfactorily that, in November, the 
regiment received orders to hold itself in readiness to 
proceed to England. This prospect endured only for a 
week, when news from Upper Egypt was received, altering 
all arrangements. 

While the British government were busying themselves 
with Lower Egypt, they paid scanty attention to the 
Soudan, which they regarded as a burden and encum- 
brance that Egypt would do well to get rid of. The 
Khedive's government did not hold this view, and con- 
tinued to occupy themselves in dealing with a movement 
that had originated in Kordofan, the importance of which 
was greatly under-estimated at the time. Simultaneously 
with the insubordination of the Egyptian army and the 
rise of Arabi Pasha, another pretender to power, of a more 
serious type had arisen in the South. In May 1881, an 
Arab, in Kordofan, named Mahomed Ahmed, proclaimed 
himself to be the Mahdi, and preached a religious war. 
Matters were not improved by communications from 
Arabi, published in the Soudan, proclaiming that the 
Khedive's government was at an end, and that no 
obedience should be paid to it. By the end of 1882, the 
Mahdi had gathered a large force of fighting men, and 
had inflicted several disastrous defeats on the Egyptian 
troops. In April 1883, an Egyptian force, which came 



240 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1884 

to be known as the " English Army," was organized at 
Khartoum, under the command of Major General Hicks, 
who had with him a number of English officers, to 
advance on Kordofan, and put down the revolt* In 
October, this force was utterly destroyed, and the whole 
of the Soudan was in a blaze. It was at once realized that 
the reconquest of Kordofan and the complete suppression 
of the Mahdi would require operations on a scale that 
could not then be undertaken. A complete withdrawal 
from the Western Soudan was therefore determined on. 
To effect this, Colonel Gordon with 40,000 was sent to 
Khartoum. Meanwhile, the uprising of the tribes had 
developed in another direction. 

In August 1883, a slave trader, named Osman Digna, 
in the Eastern Soudan, had raised the tribesmen, in the 
name of the Mahdi, and attacked the Egyptian posts in 
the vicinity of Suakin, the principal seaport of the Soudan, 
laying siege to Sinkat and Tokar. An Egyptian force 
for the relief of these places was organized in Cairo, and 
sent down, under Major General Baker, in December. 
On the 4th February 1884, while advancing to the relief 
of Tokar, it was utterly destroyed, Baker and his staff 
making their escape with difficulty. The fall of Sinkat 
and massacre of its garrison quickly followed. The 
presence of British men-of-war at Suakin, alone saved 
that place. It was evident that without British troops 
nothing could be done. But beyond securing the safety 
of Suakin and effecting the relief of Tokar, the British 
Government had no definite plans. 

To effect these objects, a force was organized at Cairo, 
under Major General Graham, and dispatched from Suez. 
The 1 9th Hussars commanded by Lieutenant Colonel A. 
G. Webster, left Cairo on the i^th February, and embarked 

* The force was mainly composed of the men who had fought against us 
under Arabi. They could hardly have been expected to fight well. 



i88 4 ] BATTLE OF EL TEB 241 

in the Osiris and the Neera, with a strength of 20 officers, 
457 non-commissioned officers and men, and 395 horses. 
Three hundred of the horses were small Syrian Arabs 
procured from the Egyptian cavalry. The force was 
destined to land at Trinkitat, about 50 miles south of 
Suakin, and the nearest point on the coast to Tokar. 

The Osiris reached Trinkitat on the 22nd February, 
and the portion of the iQth on board, disembarked the 
following day. In a reconnoissance made on the 24th, 
they came in touch with the enemy at once. The Neera 
less fortunate, struck on a rock off Suakin, and became a 
total wreck, though men and horses were all saved ; but 
they did not reach Trinkitat till the 25th. The regiment 
was brigaded with the loth Hussars and mounted infantry, 
about 750 men in all, under Colonel Herbert Stewart. On 
the 28th, the whole force, consisting of about 4500 men, 
moved from Trinkitat to Fort Baker, but, before this, the 
news of the fall of Tokar had been received. 

On the 29th, the force advanced against the enemy, 
who occupied a strong position at El Teb. Moving in a 
large square, they found the Arab force in position on an 
isolated ridge covered with bush scrub, and protected with 
parapets and rifle pits. A squadron of the loth Hussars 
covered the front and left face of the square ; a troop of the 
1 9th covered the right face. The rest of the cavalry were 
disposed in rear of the square, in three lines, commanded 
respectively by Lieut. Colonel Wood, loth Hussars, Lieut. 
Colonels Barrow and Webster, I9th Hussars. By their 
defeat of General Baker, and the capture of Tokar, the 
enemy had become possessed of guns, small arms and 
ammunition, which they used very efficiently. As the 
British force came within range, the cavalry cleared away 
from the front of the square, which moved to the right, 
across the front of the position, so as to attack the left flank 
of the enemy, and the British guns came into action. In 

Q 



242 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1884 

forty minutes, the enemy's guns being silenced, the square 
moved forward again. As they approached the ridge, the 
enemy's fire ceased, and, in small groups of twenty and 
thirty men, the Arabs dashed at the face of the square with 
the most reckless valour. Not one of them succeeded in 
reaching it. Again the British infantry advanced, and 
again with desperate courage a great force of Arabs hurled 
themselves on the British bayonets. There are no braver 
men than the Arabs of the Soudan. Armed with sword 
and spear, in spite of hundreds being shot down, many of 
them succeeded in coming hand to hand with their foes 
and the matter was decided by the bayonet. Thus, 
fighting at every step, the British infantry swept steadily 
along the whole line of the enemy's position, capturing 
seven guns in their progress. The enemy's number was 
computed at from 6000 to 10,000 men. Of these, over 
2000 lay dead on the ridge. As the remainder drew off 
across the plain beyond, the first two lines of British cavalry 
swept round the end of the ridge, and pursued. After driving 
the main body of the enemy before them for some distance, 
it was found necessary to return to encounter a large body 
of the enemy they had passed in the broken ground, and 
that now interposed between them and the infantry. The 
loth Hussars, and two squadrons of the iQth under 
Lieutenant Colonel Barrow, charged a large body of Arabs 
composed of horsemen, men on camels, and footmen, 
and at once became involved in a desperate hand to hand 
conflict. This body of Arabs had not been engaged with 
our infantry, and were quite fresh. Thirty Arab horsemen 
charged one of the leading squadrons, three of them 
getting through and wheeling their horses in pursuit 
regardless of the second line. The Arab swordsmen and 
spearmen, taking advantage of the scrub and broken 
ground, hamstrung horses as they passed, and then attacked 
the riders. Captain Freeman of the iQth and several men 



i88 4 ] BATTLE OF EL TEB 243 

were killed, and many wounded. Of all those who lost 
their horses in the melee, Colonel Barrow alone escaped alive. 
His horse was killed, and he received a thrust from a 
spear that passed through his arm and penetrated his side. 
Surrounded by numbers of the enemy, he must have been 
killed, had it not been for the devotion of Quarter Master 
Sergeant William Marshall who rode to his assistance, 
seconded by Sergeant Fenton and Private Boseley. 
Marshall gave the Colonel his hand. Running in this 
fashion, in rear of the charging squadrons, Barrow, with the 
heavy spear swaying to and fro in his side, managed to get 
free of the enemy before he sank down. His attendant 
trumpeter, in spite of sixteen terrible wounds, kept his 
horse going, and escaped from the press, to die of his 
injuries later. Captain Jenkins, on whom the command of 
the two squadrons devolved, on Barrow being disabled, 
was engaged by three of the enemy at once. His horse 
was wounded in three places, but he himself escaped with 
a slight wound. Horsemen, as a rule, have little difficulty 
in dispersing and driving before them disordered infantry : 
but, so extraordinary was the activity and bravery of 
the Arabs, and the skill with which they used their spears 
and two-handed swords that, in the uneven ground 
covered with low mimosa bushes, they were more than a 
match for horsemen. It was not till some men had 
dismounted, and opened fire on them, that they sullenly 
drew off and retreated. 

Meanwhile, the other two squadrons of the regiment, 
acting independently under Lieutenant Colonel Webster and 
Major Hanford-Flood, had cleared the flank of numerous 
small parties of the enemy. By 1.30 the action was at an 
end. The total British loss was 34 killed or died of wounds, 
and 155 wounded. To this the iQth Hussars contributed 
one officer killed, two wounded, 13 non-commissioned 
officers and men killed or died of wounds, 20 wounded ; 



244 TROUBLES IN EGYPT [1884 

a heavier loss than fell on any other regiment engaged at 
El Teb. Every single casualty in the regiment was caused 
in hand-to-hand combat, by sword or spear. For his gallant 
behaviour, Quartermaster Sergeant William Marshall re- 
ceived the Victoria Cross. Lieutenant Colonel Barrow's 
wound was of so terrible a nature that it was not thought 
possible he could survive, but he lived to go through 
another and more arduous campaign. 

On the following day the force advanced on Tokar. 
Sergeant James Fatt of the I9th while scouting in advance^ 
rode boldly into the village, while it was still uncertain 
whether there would be any opposition, and brought out 
one of the villagers. Osman Digna's camp was taken 
without resistance: two guns and a great quantity of 
small arms, ammunition and stores, captured from General 
Baker's force, being taken by the cavalry. 

On the 5th March, the regiment paraded, for inspection 
by General Graham and Colonel Stewart, and received 
complimentary addresses from both officers. 

On the 6th, the force re-embarked at Trinkitat, and 
landed at Suakin the following day, to encounter Osman 
Digna in person, who was encamped at Tamai, sixteen 
miles from Suakin. On the night of the I2th, the whole 
force bivouacked in front of Osman Digna's position ; the 
infantry at about one mile, the cavalry four miles in rear 
of the infantry. At eight the next morning, the advance 
commenced : the two infantry brigades in squares, the 
cavalry in rear of the left. The Arab skirmishers, who 
had pelted the British encampment with rifle fire during 
the night, fell back, increasing in numbers as they retired. 
Seeing a great number of the enemy in front of them, 
massed in a ravine, the front line of the 2nd brigade 
charged with the bayonet, destroying the formation of 
their square. The active Arabs broke into the opening, 
stabbing and slashing at close quarters. Numbers 



1884] BATTLE OF TAMAI 245 

followed, and for a few minutes a catastrophe was imminent. 
The cavalry galloped forward on the left, dismounted, 
and poured volley after volley into the flank of the 
advancing Arabs, while the bayonet and spear contended 
for victory within the square itself. The 1st brigade, 
which had repulsed a similar charge, swept the right face 
of the 2nd brigade square with its fire, and, in a few 
minutes, the last surviving Arab who had penetrated the 
square had paid the penalty. The ranks were reformed, 
and the infantry advance was resumed, the cavalry clearing 
away the numerous small parties of the enemy who still 
clung to the broken ground. The battle was over. In 
those few minutes over 2000 of the enemy had fallen, out 
of an estimated number of 12,000: of the British force, 
109 officers and men were killed, and 112 wounded. The 
1 9th Hussars lost one killed and two wounded. 

On the following day the force advanced to Tamai, 
burned Osman Digna's camp, and returned to Suakin. 
For a fortnight the force lay at Suakin, the cavalry and 
mounted infantry being employed in daily reconnoissances. 
On the 27th, the whole force advanced for a distance of 
25 miles to ascertain if the enemy remained in any force. 
A few hundreds only were found. Beyond some desultory 
skirmishing, which drew from the General in command a 
highly complimentary order, nothing serious occurred, and 
the force returned to Suakin. 

" Too high praise can scarcely be given to the Cavalry 
and Mounted Infantry, who bore the brunt of a long 
skirmish on rocky ground unsuited for cavalry action, and 
who, the following morning, although nearly twenty-four 
hours without water for their horses, performed admirable 
scouting duty during the advance of the force in a moun- 
tainous district, when distant peaks and ridges had to be 
crowned and watched." * 

It being considered that the objects of the expedition 
* G.O. by Sir G. Graham. 



246 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1884 

had been fully attained, the force was broken up and 
withdrawn. The igth embarked on the ist April, and 
returned to Cairo on the 6th. 

By G.O. 10 of January 1885 the regiment was permitted 
to add the date " 1884" to the badges on its appointments. 
A medal with clasps for El Teb and Tamai were granted 
to those present. 



CHAPTER III 

CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE 

1884-1899 

Troubles in the Western Soudan Expedition to relieve Khartoum 
19th ordered up the Nile Korti The Desert Column Action 
at Abu Klea Action at Abu Krou Quartermaster Lima killed 
The horses Metemmeh Fall of Khartoum Return of the 
Column The River Column Action at Kirbekan Return of 
the Column Summer Quarters Regiment returns to Cairo 
Squadron sent to Suakin Serious losses Returns to Cairo 
Designation granted of " Princess of Wales' Own " Death of 
Colonel Barrow igth returns to England Badge of "Mysore" 
granted iQth embarks for India Bangalore Secunderabad. 



IN the meantime, matters in the Western Soudan had 
steadily been getting worse. In March, the Mahdi's 
forces had reached Khartoum ; by the end of May Berber 
had fallen, cutting off communication between Khartoum 
and Cairo, and the wave of rebellion rolled steadily north- 
ward. Still the Government in England did nothing. 
They had resolutely ignored the whole Soudan question, 
and allowed matters to drift. Gordon's urgent advice to 
occupy Berber with British troops, in order to keep open 
the route to Suakin, had been disregarded, and his demand 
for Zobehr Pasha to be sent to Khartoum, as the only 



1884] ORDERED UP THE NILE 247 

chance of saving the situation, was emphatically refused. 
It was not till August, that the British Cabinet recognised 
that some effort might be required to relieve Khartoum, 
and even to defend Lower Egypt from the Mahdi. By 
the middle of August preparations were made for dispatch- 
ing a small body of troops to Wady Haifa, and a squadron 
of the i Qth Hussars was held in readiness. Then followed 
more delay. It was not till the middle of September that 
preparations for an advance beyond Wady Haifa began 
to be made in earnest. 

On the 25th October, three squadrons of the regiment, 
under Lieut. Colonel Barrow, left Cairo, and reached Wady 
Haifa, by rail and steamer, on I2th November, with a 
total strength of 21 officers, and 353 Non-Commissioned 
officers and men. Two instances of the eager spirit to get 
to the front, that animated the whole regiment, must not 
go unrecorded. At the moment of leaving the barracks 
in Cairo, a man met with an accident that necessitated his 
being left behind. In a minute one of the men detailed 
to remain at Cairo stepped forward in his place, in march- 
ing order, with kit complete. He had got himself ready 
on the chance of some such opportunity occurring, and 
it is pleasant to know that he got it. At Assiout, next 
morning, a stowaway was discovered, a bandboy, who 
accounted for himself by saying " He was the only 
man in the band without a medal, and he could not 
stand it." 

Experience had shown that English horses could not 
stand hard work under a tropical sun, with scarcity of 
water and desert fare. It was therefore decided, before 
leaving Cairo, to mount the regiment entirely on the small 
Syrian Arab horses used by the Egyptian cavalry. Three 
hundred and fifty of these little horses had been sent up 
in advance, and were taken over by the regiment on 
arrival at Wady Haifa. The regiment was at this time 



248 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1884 

in superb condition. The men had an average of seven 
years' service, and most of them had been through the 
preceding campaigns of Tel-el-Kebir and Suakin. From 
Wady Haifa the regiment marched, by squadrons, to 
Korti, where it arrived on the 2Oth December. 

Here was assembled the expeditionary force, under 
General Lord Wolseley ; perhaps the most singular force 
ever put into the field by Great Britain, to fight in one 
of the most remarkable campaigns ; starting from a base 
a thousand miles from the sea. In addition to the ipth 
Hussars, who were the only horsemen with the force, and 
nine battalions of infantry, there were four Camel Corps, 
composed respectively of picked men from different Heavy 
and Light Cavalry regiments, the Foot Guards, and 
Infantry of the Line ; a Naval Brigade of Bluejackets 
and Marines ; a Battery of Royal Artillery, and two Camel 
Batteries. The boats by which the Nile had been 
ascended had been built in England, and were managed 
by Canadian voyageurs, some of whom were of Indian 
blood, and by Kroomen from the west coast of Africa, 
while the camels were managed by Arab drivers brought 
for the purpose from Aden. 

The original intention had been to follow the course 
of the river the whole way to Khartoum, but now a fresh 
disposition became necessary. A letter from Gordon, 
dated 4th November, was received, showing that provisions 
in Khartoum were running short, and time would not 
allow of the slow but less hazardous advance along the 
river. The new plan was to send a compact flying column 
across the desert to Metemmeh, under Brigadier General 
Sir Herbert Stewart, for the purpose of opening communi- 
cation with Khartoum. A second column, under Major 
General W. Earle, was to ascend the river, clearing away 
all parties of the enemy, and, eventually, to recapture 
Berber. The rest of the force was to remain at Korti, 



I88S3 THE DESERT COLUMN 249 

where Lord Wolseley's Head Quarters were fixed. The 
1 9th Hussars were destined to furnish a contingent to both 
columns. 



THE DESERT COLUMN 

The task before the Desert Column was no easy one. 
Between Korti and Metemmeh 176 miles of barren desert 
have to be traversed. At two places only is water in any 
considerable quantity procurable ; at Jakdul 98 miles 
from Korti, and at Abu Klea, about 53 miles from 
Jakdul. The first operation was to establish a post at 
Jakdul, where as yet the enemy had not appeared. 

On the 3Oth December, a force of 1107 men of all 
ranks, with 2200 camels, started from Korti, under Sir 
Herbert Stewart. With them went 2 officers and 32 
men of the I9th. Being the only horsemen with the 
force, the whole of the scouting duties devolved upon 
the men of the 1 9th. The rest of the force were mounted 
on camels. One gallon of water for each man, and two 
for each horse, were carried on camels. In the early 
morning of the 2nd January, the Jakdul wells were 
reached, in 63 hours after leaving Korti. Only a few 
stragglers of the enemy were sighted. On the same 
evening the force set out on its return to Korti, leaving 
a garrison of 420 men at Jakdul. 

On the 8th January, Sir Herbert Stewart again 
started with the main column, consisting of 1607 men, 
2228 camels, and 306 camel drivers. The I9th Hussars, 
on this occasion, mustered 135 officers and men, with 
155 horses, under Lieut. Colonel Barrow. On the I4th, 
the column left Jakdul: about 1800 combatants of all 
ranks, with 1118 camels. Early on the i6th, the I9th 
were pushed on ahead of the column, and came in touch 
with the enemy in front of the Abu Klea wells. A patrol, 



250 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

under Major French, pursued a small body of men right 
into the gorge leading to the wells, and captured one 
of them, on the spot where next day's action was fought. 
A number of horsemen appearing and threatening to 
cut him off, French was obliged to relinquish his 
prisoner, and retire to the entrance of the gorge. Here 
Barrow dismounted his men in order to keep the road 
open for Stewart's force. Though threatened on both 
flanks by the enemy's horsemen, the position was easily 
held by carbine fire, and the power of the enemy to 
dispute the advance of the column at this point was 
checkmated. On the arrival of the column a zeriba 
was formed for the night, three and a half miles from 
the water. As the camp was being formed, the enemy 
appeared in considerable numbers, and opened a distant 
fire, wounding one man and several horses of the igth. 
As darkness closed in the enemy became bolder, and, 
during the whole night, the force was exposed to a 
constant fire which did little harm beyond disturbing 
the much needed rest of the men. At daybreak, the 
fire increased in intensity ; several officers and men were 
struck down, and the ipth had several horses killed and 
disabled while standing at their pickets. At 9 A.M. the 
force was formed in square, preparatory to an advance 
towards the water which was of such vital importance. 
While the square was forming, the iQth were ordered 
to move out and hold in check a body of some 
500 of the enemy, horsemen and footmen combined, who 
threatened to get round to the rear of the square. An 
hour after the hussars had left, the square advanced. 
The small force moved slowly, frequent halts being 
necessary to permit of the camels, loaded with ammuni- 
tion and water, closing up. The ground was uneven, 
with ravines and hollows that prevented the full strength 
of the enemy being seen. Suddenly a great body of 



i88s] BATTLE OF ABU KLEA 251 

Arabs, 5000 strong, rose from a fold in the ground, and 
rushed at the square. So rapid and overwhelming was 
their attack, aided by the inequalities of the ground, 
and the fact that the fire from the square was at first 
impeded by its own retiring skirmishers that, in spite of 
the heavy fire poured upon them, the Arabs succeeded 
in penetrating the square, as at Tamai, stabbing and 
slashing in every direction. At the same moment, a 
squadron of horsemen charged the square, but were 
repulsed. For five minutes the hand-to-hand conflict 
raged, till the last Arab who penetrated the formation 
was killed. The remainder, who had been heavily 
punished by rifle and artillery fire drew off, though for 
a time it seemed doubtful if they would not renew the 
attack. The iQth, who had helped the square with 
dismounted fire, followed and cut off many stragglers, 
but the number of the enemy was too great to admit 
of a charge on the main body. The horses also were 
hardly able to move out of a walk, having been thirty 
hours without water. In this brief conflict the small 
British force lost 74 killed, and 94 wounded, some of 
whom died of their injuries. As at El Teb and Tamai, 
the fatal skill with which the Arabs used their weapons 
is shown by the relative numbers of killed and wounded. 
Of the Arabs, whose strength was estimated at about 
9000 men, 1100 dead were counted in close proximity 
to the square. 

On the retreat of the enemy, Barrow pushed on 
and occupied the wells, from which the enemy had to 
be driven by carbine fire. It was late at night before 
the infantry obtained the much needed water. 

The greater part of the i8th was spent in building 
a small fort at Abu Klea, and establishing a post there, 
for the protection of the wounded and defence of the wells. 
While this was in progress, the I9th returned to the battle 



252 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

field and buried the British dead. Late in the afternoon the 
small column moved out, to traverse the 25 miles of desert 
that must be crossed before the Nile could be reached. 
The 1 9th Hussars led the way. As night closed in, progress 
became very slow. Men and camels were exhausted, and, 
in the darkness, great confusion ensued. Night marching 
over an unknown route is a doubtful expedient. In the 
early morning of the I9th, the line of the Nile, with villages, 
was sighted about six miles distant. But between them 
and the column was a gravel ridge on which the enemy 
appeared, and soon, dense masses of them were visible, 
swarming out to meet the column. In view of the distress 
for want of water, it had been Sir Herbert Stewart's wish 
to reach the Nile without fighting ; but this was now 
impossible. The camels were collected together, and a 
zeriba of brushwood, saddles, boxes &c. formed. By 
8 o'clock the enemy's fire became heavy. Among the 
earliest to be struck was the commander of the column, 
Sir Herbert Stewart, who received a wound that afterwards 
proved mortal. Speaking to Colonel Barrow just before he 
received the fatal wound, he said, "Take care of the I9th 
Hussars, they have done well." The command devolved 
on Colonel Sir Charles Wilson. It was necessary to drive 
the enemy away, but nothing could be done till the zeriba 
was complete, and, owing to the exhaustion of the men, 
the work proceeded slowly. In the interval there were 
many casualties, and here the I9th Hussars lost Quarter 
Master A. G. Lima, who was killed by a shot through the 
head. 

At last all was ready. The I9th Hussars came in, and 
picketted their horses, which were so exhausted as to be 
scarcely able to carry the men. Colonel Barrow and his 
men were detailed to assist in holding the zeriba, while the 
rest of the force marched out to engage the enemy. By 2 
o'clock the square had formed up outside the zeriba, and 



BATTLE OF ABU KROU 253 

moved off. With it went a few dismounted men of the 
1 9th, under Lieutenant Craven. 

As the square moved towards the Nile, the enemy's fire 
increased, and many men fell. The progress made was 
very slow. The bush and sandhills on three sides swarmed 
with Arabs. As the square neared the ridge, the men 
dropped fast under the heavy rifle fire to which they were 
exposed. Suddenly the enemy's fire ceased, and a great 
swarm of Arabs poured down on the square. There were 
no skirmishers to mask the fire, as at Abu Klea, and the 
Arabs were met by a steady fire that swept away the 
foremost ranks wholesale. Not an Arab lived to reach the 
square, and a ringing British cheer went up as the enemy 
were seen to be flying in all directions. The way to the 
Nile was no longer closed. Half an hour after dark the 
river was reached, near the village of Abu Krou. It was 
not till the afternoon of the 2Oth that the igth Hussar 
horses were able to drink. Half of them had been 72 hours 
without water ; none of them less than 56 hours, yet only 
3 succumbed. If English horses had been employed, 
probably not one would have survived. 

" The cavalry horses were quite done up. The way in 
which Barrow managed to bring the iQth Hussars across 
the desert is one of the best things in the expedition ; but 
the horses had only had a short drink at Abu Klea, and 
then they had barely enough to wash their mouths out 
until they got to the Nile on the 2Oth. The scouting of the 
Hussars during the march was admirably done ; they were 
ubiquitous. But want of food and water no horses can 
fight against, and they were but a sorry spectacle as they 
moved out of the zeriba to go down to the river. They 
reached the Nile almost useless as cavalry, and could only 
be employed for scouting purposes, at short distances from 
the camp." * 

During the whole march from Korti the entire scouting 
duty had been taken by the iQth Hussars, so that, each 

* Sir Charles Wilson, in From Korti to Khartoum. 



254 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

day, they covered far more ground than the rest of the 
force. The men also were thoroughly exhausted with 
the tremendous efforts they had been called on to make, 
but their health continued to be good. There was wonder- 
ful freedom from sickness of any kind. The casualties 
in the whole force on the igth January, amounted to i 
officer and 22 non-commissioned officers and men killed; 
8 officers and 90 non-commissioned officers and men 
wounded. Many non-combatants also were killed or 
wounded. 

The 2Oth was occupied in placing the village of Gubat 
in a state of defence, and, at dawn of the 2ist, Barrow and 
his Hussars rode out to reconnoitre Metemmeh, preparatory 
to an attack in force. So exhausted were the horses that 
all the Hussars could do was to ride up in a body to some 
high ground on the north of the village, while the rest of 
the force opened fire from the east side. While the attack 
was proceeding, four small steamers sent down by Gordon 
from Khartoum on the I4th December, appeared in sight, 
and landed some native troops. They brought intelligence 
of Arab reinforcements being on the march from Khartoum. 
It was important to husband ammunition, and incur no 
further losses of men, so the attack was withdrawn. But 
the Arab reinforcements never reached Metemmeh. The 
news of the disastrous defeats their comrades had sustained 
at Abu Klea and Abu Krou, caused them to retrace their 
steps. 

Reconnoissances having shown that no large force of 
the enemy was in the vicinity, Sir Charles Wilson started 
on the 24th for Khartoum, with two of the steamers, taking 
with him two hundred men. On the 28th, after great diffi- 
culties, Khartoum was reached, and found to be in the hands 
of the Arabs. The town had been captured by the Mahdi, 
two days before, and Gordon was dead. On the 4th 
February, Sir Charles Wilson and his party rejoined the 



i88 5 ] RETURN OF THE FORCE 255 

camp at Gubat, after adventures that read more like a page 
of romance than of modern history. In the interval, both 
his steamers had been wrecked, and the whole party had 
been continuously under fire for eight days and a half. In 
the meantime, the force at Gubat received some reinforce- 
ments and supplies from Korti. The iQth were engaged 
in daily skirmishes with the outlying pickets of the enemy 
who showed a wholesome respect for them : " Even the 
fierce Baggara horsemen appeared unwilling to cross 
swords with our Hussars," wrote one who was present with 
the force. On the nth, Major General Sir Redvers Buller 
arrived to take command of the force, with orders to retire 
on Abu Klea. 

On the 1 4th February, Gubat was evacuated, and Abu 
Klea reached on the I5th, followed by the enemy who 
annoyed the force with long range rifle fire. At Abu 
Klea, on the i/th, a smart skirmish took place which cost 
the force 3 killed and 27 wounded. Among the killed 
was Sergeant Horwood of the iQth Hussars, who was 
acting as Sergeant Major with the Mounted Infantry. It 
had been intended to occupy Abu Klea permanently, in 
view of a second advance on Khartoum in the autumn ; 
but want of food, scarcity of water, and the complete 
breakdown of transport necessitated Buller's withdrawal 
to Korti. On the i6th, the iQth Hussars marched out for 
Jakdul, leaving at Abu Klea with Sir R. Buller a small 
detachment under Major French. The march was a pain- 
ful one, about half the men being on foot. While on the 
march they heard of Sir Herbert Stewart's death near 
Jakdul. Wishing to be present at the funeral of the 
commander they had served under in two campaigns, they 
made a long forced march into Jakdul, but arrived too late. 
They had the melancholy satisfaction of erecting a walled 
enclosure, with headstone, round his grave. On the 3rd 
March they left Jakdul, and reached Korti on the 8th. On 



256 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

the 23rd February the last of the desert column left Abu 
Klea, and returned to Korti, i6th March. In a dispatch 
from Jakdul, dated 26th February, Sir R. Buller wrote of 
the ipth Hussars : 

" I wish expressly to remark on the very excellent work 
done by the small detachment of the ipth Hussars, both 
during our occupation of Abu Klea and during our retire- 
ment. Each man has done the work of ten, and it is not 
too much to say that the force owes much to Major French 
and his 13 troopers." 

Meanwhile, the men of the igth, left at Korti, had not 
been idle. In February they were engaged in establishing 
two watering posts in the desert, distant respectively 
twelve and thirty miles from Korti, for the use of the 
retiring force. The water was conveyed in tin lined biscuit 
boxes, and every animal in camp was pressed into the 
service. 



THE RIVER COLUMN 

The primary object of General Earle's column was to 
clear the river line of all hostile parties as far as Abu 
Hamed, punishing, en route, the Monassir tribe of Arabs 
who had treacherously murdered Colonel Stewart and a 
small party sent down by Gordon from Khartoum, in 
September. At Abu Hamed a base was to be established 
for a further advance on Berber. The force, under General 
Earle, consisted of four battalions of infantry, a battery of 
Egyptian Artillery, an Egyptian Camel Corps, and one 
squadron of the iQth Hussars ; the latter under Major 
Hanford-Flood, amounting to 91 sabres and 107 horses. 
The total strength of the force was about 3000 officers and 
men. 

The force left Korti, in detachments, for Hamdab, about 
50 miles up the river, whence the final start was to be 



1885] SLOW ADVANCE 257 

made. On the i8th January, 60 men of the igth Hussars 
together with the Egyptian Camel Corps, under Major 
Flood, made a forced march into the desert to surprise a 
party of the enemy collected at the wells of El Kooa, 35 
miles from Hamdab. The Arabs having received timely 
notice of their coming, hastily broke up their camp and 
disappeared, before Flood's arrival. The detachment 
returned to Hamdab after 32 hours' absence. 

On the 24th, the start was made ; the Hussars, Camel 
Corps and baggage, marching along the left bank, the 
infantry and stores in boats. Progress was very slow, 
the banks of the river being rough and difficult, and 
the frequent rapids and cataracts causing great labour 
in tracking the boats up. On the 2/th, the cavalry 
skirmishers first came in touch with the enemy, but beyond 
a harmless interchange of shots at long range nothing 
occurred. This happened frequently, the enemy falling 
back, day by day, as the river column advanced. The 
progress of the boats was very slow owing to the succession 
of rapids here formed by the Nile. Major Flood's men 
worked and camped independently, reconnoitring along 
the left bank, far ahead of the main body, and, owing to 
the rocky nature of the ground, often at a considerable 
distance from the river. The rocky ridge, on which the 
battle of Kirbekan was afterwards fought, was ascended 
and mapped, and a reconnoissance of the iQth Hussars 
was pushed some way into the Shukook Pass, five days 
before the action. On the 6th February, a two days' halt 
at Birti became necessary, in consequence of the fall of 
Khartoum making a change of plans possible. The enemy 
meanwhile had fallen back to the Shukook Pass. 

On the 8th, the advance was resumed, and it became 
known that the enemy, about 1000 strong, had advanced 
from the Shukook Pass, and taken position in some 
extremely strong ground at Kirbekan, in front of the Pass, 



258 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

about 14 miles from Earle's Head Quarters. The 8th and 
9th were employed in reconnoitring, and closing up the 
troops preparatory to the attack. On the 8th, Major 
Flood, with twenty of his men, exchanged volleys with the 
enemy, and drove in some of their advanced posts. On 
the 9th, the whole of the mounted troops felt the enemy 
again. That night the troops bivouacked in their allotted 
stations, the most advanced of the infantry being only a 
short mile from the enemy's position. 

On the morning of the loth, General Earle, with 1196 
men of all ranks, moved forward to the attack. The 
enemy occupied a position on a line of low rocky 
eminences at right angles to the river, and a detached 
steep ridge in echelon with the rocky eminences. It was 
determined to march right round the rear of their position 
by the desert side, closing their retreat, and attack them 
in flank and rear from the river side. Two companies of 
the Staffordshire regiment, with two guns were left in front 
of the position to occupy the enemy's attention, and keep 
down their fire. The I9th Hussars led the way, and the 
force marched right round the enemy's position till the 
river was again reached in the enemy's right rear. As 
soon as they saw their retreat was cut off, a number of the 
enemy tried to escape by swimming the river, many of 
them being shot in the attempt. But a considerable 
number of them still held their ground. The Black Watch 
were accordingly ordered to assault the line of rocky 
eminences, while the Staffordshire regiment assaulted the 
ridge. As the Black Watch won their way along the 
lower eminences, a desperate rush was made by a body of 
the enemy, which was repulsed, and the eminences crowned 
by the Highlanders ; the Arabs gallantly fighting to the 
last man. In the moment of victory, General Earle was 
killed by a shot from a hut which he had incautiously 
approached. The assault on the high steep ridge offered 



i885] FIGHT AT KIRBEKAN 259 

greater difficulties, but the position was gallantly carried 
by the Staffordshire men. Both regiments had their 
commanding officers killed. 

In the meantime, Flood's Hussars and the Egyptian 
Camel Corps had gained the entrance to the Shukook 
Pass, and captured one of the enemy's camps, in which 
were a number of standards, camels and donkeys. The 
enemy opened fire from the surrounding hills without 
effect. The victory was purchased with the loss of 
three officers and nine men killed, four officers and forty- 
four men wounded. The enemy's force was subsequently 
ascertained to have been from fifteen hundred to two 
thousand men, but of these only about six hundred 
fought well. 

The advance of the column was continued, on the 
1 2th, under Colonel H. Brackenbury, on whom the 
command had devolved by General Earle's death. The 
enemy had disappeared, but progress was slow, through 
the continuous rapids. On the 2Oth, a suitable place 
was found for crossing the Nile. A scouting party of 
the i gth was first rowed across, and brushed away some 
of the enemy's scouts. By the afternoon of the 2ist, 
the whole force was transported to the right bank, at 
Hebbeh, the scene of Colonel Stewart's murder in 
September. The murderers had fled, and beyond the 
destruction of their property no other punishment could 
be meted out to them. By the evening of the 23rd, the 
whole force was concentrated at Huella, 26 miles from 
Abu Hamed. 

All was ready for the advance on Abu Hamed, where 
a strong force of the enemy was known to be posted. 
Hardly had the troops commenced their march, on the 
24th, when orders were received from Korti directing 
their return to Merawi. Sir Redvers Buller's withdrawal 
from Abu Klea rendered a farther advance on Berber 



260 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

out of the question, and the River Column had to return. 
While the main body commenced to descend the river, 
Major Flood's squadron scouted another six miles towards 
Abu Hamed, without seeing an enemy. Descending by 
the right bank, Merawi was reached on the 5th March, 
and, on the 6th, after recrossing the river to Abu Dom, 
the River Column was broken up. One troop of the 
1 9th was left at Abu Dom, while the remainder marched 
for Korti. 

In spite of the extremely hard work, the health of 
the troops, as with the Desert Column, had been excellent. 
Not a single man of Major Flood's party had been on 
the sick list, from the time of leaving Korti till the 
date of return. Of the horses, three had succumbed. 
The performance of the small Arab horses both with 
the River and Desert Columns, carrying a heavy 
weight, on scanty fare and less water, is a marvel of 
endurance. 

The next few days were spent in arranging for the 
distribution of the troops into summer quarters, in antici- 
pation of the advance on Khartoum in the autumn. The 
quarters selected for the ipth were Merawi, Abu Dom, 
Tani, Kurot, Abu Kussi, and Dongola. By the 1st 
April, they were all located in the assigned positions. 
Before leaving Korti, the regiment was inspected by 
Lord Wolseley, who addressed them in terms of commen- 
dation that will long be remembered in the regiment. 



OPERATIONS NEAR SUAKIN 

While their comrades had thus been busy on the 
Nile, the remnant of the regiment left at Cairo had 
found work to do. The effect of the operations, near 
Suakm, in March 1884, had been quite temporary. 



1885] CAPTAIN APTHORP'S SQUADRON 261 

Osman Digna had recovered his authority, and was 
again threatening the port. It was also considered 
that, by making a diversion at Suakin, the operations near 
Berber and the reopening of the Suakin-Berber road 
would be facilitated. It was determined, therefore, to 
send a sufficient force to crush Osman Digna, and to 
make a railway line to Berber. The capture of Berber, 
before the great heat of the summer set in, was then 
considered feasible. 

Before the force, which was to be commanded by 
Lieut. General Sir Gerald Graham, could arrive, a weak 
squadron of the iQth Hussars, under Captain Apthorp, 
was dispatched from Cairo on the 24th January, together 
with two Horse Artillery guns, followed next day by a 
battalion of infantry. On landing at Suakin, recon- 
noissances were instituted to ascertain the strength and 
position of the enemy. On the ist February, a small force 
of all arms reconnoitred, under Major General Fremantle, 
towards Hasheem, 8 miles west of Suakin. The Arabs 
were found in great numbers, in a position too strong to 
attack. The infantry were formed in square, while the 
cavalry and guns were sent forward to try and draw the 
enemy out of their position. But the memory of El-Teb 
and Tamai were too fresh in the Arab mind for them to 
be induced to attack the arrayed infantry. They refused 
to quit their position, and after a prolonged skirmish, 
General Fremantle's force returned to camp. One Egyptian 
trooper was wounded, and the iQth Hussars lost a 
horse. 

On the 3rd, Captain Apthorp was sent with 40 of his 
own men and 40 Egyptian troopers to reconnoitre along 
the Berber road. At Hamdoob, 10 miles from Suakin, 
a camp and village, occupied by the enemy, was surprised 
and burnt. While the small party were thus occupied, a 
great body of Arabs, 5000 strong, had moved from Tamai 



262 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1885 

and Hasheem to intercept them, and took post in a ravine 
two miles from Hamdoob, completely blocking their 
return to Suakin. The Arab force was so well concealed 
that the squadron was almost in contact with them before 
their presence was discovered, and the great mass of Arabs, 
footmen and men mounted on camels, bore down on the 
small body of cavalry at once. There was no time to dis- 
mount and fire, and it was hopeless to attempt to break 
through : nothing was left them but to ride for Suakin 
by a circuitous route. Turning eastwards the squadron 
started on a long gallop round the enemy's flank. The 
Arabs followed in overwhelming numbers, and, moving on 
a shorter line, together with their knowledge of the ground, 
were able to harass the squadron for several miles. The 
1 9th lost 8 men and n horses, while the Egyptian troop 
lost three men and six horses. 

The number of Arabs in the neighbourhood of Suakin 
was too great to allow of distant reconnoissances, little 
more of interest occurred, therefore, till the arrival of Sir 
Gerald Graham's force. Early in March, they began to 
arrive, but the whole force was not completed till nearly 
the middle of April. On the I7th March, the I9th Hussar 
squadron re-embarked for Cairo in order to join the Head 
Quarters of the regiment at Dongola, in readiness for the 
advance on Khartoum in the autumn. 

Our interest with the Suakin force ceases here. It is 
sufficient to say that it amounted to 12,500 men, composed 
of troops from England, a contingent of native troops from 
India, and a contingent from New South Wales consisting 
of two batteries of artillery, and 500 infantry. It had 
also with it a balloon detachment, the first occasion on 
which balloons were used by British troops in warfare. 
On the 2Oth March, it fought a successful action at 
Hasheem, and again on the 22nd, at Tofrik, when an 
enormous number of the enemy were killed at a rather 



i88 5 ] WITHDRAWAL OF THE ARMY 263 

heavy cost to the British troops engaged. On the 3rd 
April, Tamai was occupied, and the last of the enemy's 
force broken up. By the end of April, 18 miles of railway 
were completed, and the tribes in the neighbourhood had 
given in their submission ; when the intention of the 
British Government to abandon the advance on Khartoum 
became known. On the i;th May, the withdrawal of the 
troops commenced, and again Suakin was left with only 
a small force to protect the port. 

We left the three squadrons of the iQth at Dongola 
and other stations south of that place, with all thoughts 
concentrated on preparations for the autumn advance on 
Khartoum. The regimental establishment was increased 
by 1 10 men, bringing up the strength to 740 sabres. Four 
strong squadrons were being prepared for the field : but 
over 13 years were to elapse before Khartoum was again 
seen by British troops. About the 22nd April it was 
announced that the intention of advancing on Khartoum 
in the autumn had been abandoned, and orders were 
issued for the withdrawal of the troops. The retirement 
commenced on the 26th May, when Merawi was evacuated. 
The troops were withdrawn down the river in detachments, 
each post being evacuated in turn as it became the 
southernmost point of occupation. On the 22nd June, the 
Head Quarters of the igth marched out of Dongola, the 
last of the force to leave for Lower Egypt. At Wady 
Haifa the hot and tedious march came to an end, and from 
that point the regiment reached the railway at Assiout in 
barges. At Wady Haifa, Korosko and Assouan they made 
over their horses to the 2Oth Hussars, and, by the I4th 
August, the regiment was reunited in Cairo. In the 
whole campaign the regiment had suffered a total loss of 
two officers, Lt. Colonel Taylor (died of fever) and 
Quarter Master Lima, and 18 non-commissioned officers 
and men. 



264 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1886 

In July 1885, Her Majesty was graciously pleased to 
confer on the regiment the designation of " Princess of 
Wales' Own," in recognition of " its distinguished services 
in Egypt and the Soudan." 

By G.O. 10 of January 1886 the regiment was 
permitted to bear on its appointments, the words " Nile 
1884-85" "Abu Klea," in commemoration of the ascent 
of the river Nile and the operations in the Eastern 
Soudan. 

At the beginning of 1886, the regiment experienced 
a severe loss in the death of its commander, Colonel 
Percy Barrow. The desperate wound he had received at 
El Teb, on the igth February 1884, was one from which 
complete recovery was impossible. In spite of grave 
inconvenience to himself, he had gone through the most 
arduous part of the Nile campaign without flinching, while 
the skill and judgment with which he handled his men 
during the march of the Desert Column won the applause 
of the whole force. While preparing the regiment for 
some regimental games, a violent exertion re-opened the 
old wound, and after thirty hours of intense suffering he 
expired on the I3th January, in his 38th year. In him the 
army lost a soldier of great promise. The son of a well 
known Indian Officer, Major General Lousada Barrow, 
who commanded a Corps of Volunteer Cavalry in the 
Indian Mutiny and at the relief of Lucknow, Percy Barrow 
entered the iQth Hussars as Cornet in 1868. In 1879, ne 
was selected to command a corps of Mounted Infantry and 
some irregular troops in the Zulu war ; and served through 
the Boer war of 1881 in command of the Mounted Infantry. 
The soldierly spirit that animated him, and his intense 
devotion to everything that concerned the welfare of the 
regiment, can only be appreciated by those who have been 
privileged to read his letters written in quarters and in the 
field. Telegrams of condolence to the regiment from Her 




From a Photograph. 



COLONEL PERCY BARROW, C.B. 



i888] RETURN TO ENGLAND 265 

Majesty the Queen and from Her Royal Highness the 
Princess of Wales testified to the general appreciation of 
the loss the public service had suffered in his death. His 
remains were removed to England and interred at Saltwood 
near Hythe. To command the regiment, his brother-in- 
law, Colonel Boyce Combe, was transferred from the loth 
Hussars to the igth. 

In May, the regiment was ordered to proceed to 
England, and embarked at Alexandria on the ipth, in the 
Geelong and the lona, leaving their horses behind them. 
On the 6th and 7th June, they landed at Harwich and 
Woolwich, and proceeded to Norwich, three troops being 
sent to Colchester. The regiment was much gratified at 
the receipt, on landing, of a telegram, welcoming them to 
England, from H.R.H. the Princess of Wales. In July, 
one of the Colchester troops was recalled to Head Quarters. 
The establishment of the regiment was fixed at 24 officers, 
469 warrant officers non-commissioned officers and men, 
and 300 horses. 

In the following March, the two troops at Col- 
chester were sent to Birmingham, being replaced, in 
September, at Colchester by two troops from Head 
Quarters. 

In October, the establishment was increased by 132 
rank and file and 80 horses. For this purpose the necessary 
horses were transferred to the regiment from the I4th and 
2 1st Hussars. A month later, by which time 56 recruits 
had been enlisted, the order was cancelled, and the horses 
were transferred to the i8th and 2Oth Hussars. At the 
end of the year, the Colchester squadron rejoined Head 
Quarters. 

In April 1888, the regiment marched from Norwich 
and Birmingham to Hounslow, Hampton Court and 
Kensington. 

In September, the regiment was brought on the 



266 CAMPAIGN ON THE NILE [1889-96 

strength of the ist Army Corps, and its establishment 
increased to 707 of all ranks with 424 horses. 

In March 1889, under Army Order No. 136, the 
regiment was granted permission to wear " Mysore " on 
its appointments, in commemoration of the campaigns 
against Tippoo in the last century, in which the old 
1 9th Light Dragoons had borne so distinguished a part. 
The badge is certainly more appropriate than the old 
one of " Seringapatam " which was discarded. 

In the same month the regiment lost its Colonel, 
Major General John Yorke, C.B. In his place Major 
General and Honorary Lieut. General Coote Synge 
Hutchinson was gazetted to the regiment. He was an 
old 2nd Dragoon Guards' officer, and had served with 
that regiment through the Indian Mutiny. 

In the following June, the regiment marched to 
Aldershot. On the 3rd July, it was employed in 
London on the occasion of H.M. the Shah of Persia 
visiting the City. 

In September 1890, the regiment took part in the 
manoeuvres on Berkshire Downs. 

On the 26th June 1891, a special inspection of the 
regiment was held by H.R.H. the Princess of Wales ; 
and, on the 8th July, the I9th took part in a review 
at Hounslow before H.I.M. the German Emperor. 

The regiment was again destined for foreign service. 
At the end of July, it marched to Shorncliffe, and, on 
ist September, embarked at Portsmouth, in the 
Euphrates, for India, arriving at Bombay on the 28th, 
whence it was forwarded by train to Secunderabad in 
relief of the 7th Hussars. In November the regiment 
was transferred, by train, to Bangalore. 

Towards the end of 1892 the squadron system was 
substituted for the troop system in the regiment. 

In October 1896, the i9th P.W.O. Hussars were trans- 



1899] WILLING BEYOND DESCRIPTION 267 

ferred to Secunderabad. Here we must take leave of 
the regiment. The history of a regiment in quarters 
possesses little interest. " Soldiers in peace are like 
chimneys in summer." When the time comes for the 
ipth P.W.O. Hussars to take the field again, they will 
be found like their predecessors, over one hundred years 
ago, "ready in all that depends upon them, and willing 
beyond description." 



APPENDICES 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



271 



APPENDIX A. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS OF THE 
NINETEENTH. 





1760 


1761 


1762 


Lieut. Colonel 
Commandant 


/Charles, Earl of 
\ Drogheda. 


fCharles, Earl of 
\ Drogheda. 


/Charles, Earl of 
\ Drogheda. 


Lieut. Colonel 


John Wynne. 


John Wynne. 


Richard Gorges. 


Major . 


/Wm. John, Lord 
\ Newbattle. 


/Wm. John, Lord 
\ Newbattle. 


Francis Caulfield. 


Captain 


[ Francis Caulfield. 
\J Henry Mark Mason. 
Chas. Wilson Lyon. 


( Francis Caulfield. 
] Henry Mark Mason. 
[Chas. Wilson Lyon. 


(Chas. Wilson Lyon. 
I Hon. Richard Roch- 
1 fort. 
I. Francis Brooke. 


Capt. Lietiten- 
ant . . 


( Hon. Richard Roch- 
\ fort. 


(Hon. Richard Roch- 
\ fort. 


{Hon. Thos. Vesey. 


Lieutenant . 


(Thomas Vesey. 
1 Clotworthy Rowley. 
X Charles Burton. 
I Francis Brooke. 
^Michael Goodman. 


{Francis Brooke. 
Hon. Thos. Vesey. 
Clotworthy Rowley. 
Charles Burton. 
Thos. Walmesley. 


/'Clotworthy Rowley. 
Charles Burton. 
J Thomas Walmesley. 
William Burton.' 
VSkeffington Smith. 


Cornet . 


(William Burton. 
Skeffington Smith. 
Paul Gore. 
Robert Moore. 
James Staunton 
Hepburn. 


'Skeffmgton Smith. 
William Burton. 
William Moore. 
-I Paul Gore. 
James Staunton 
Hepburn. 
\James Johnston. 


'William Moore. 
Paul Gore. 
James Staunton 
Hepburn. 
James Johnston. 
Robert Nicholson. 
^Lawrence Chaloner. 


Chaplain 




Henry Blacker. 


Henry Blacker. 


Adjutant 


Michael Goodman. 


Thos. Walmesley. 


Thos. Walmesley. 


Surgeon 




Alexander Eason. 


Alexander Eason. 


Agent . 




/Capt. Montgomery, 
\ Mary St., Dublin. 





272 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1763* 


1779 


1780 


Colonel . 




/Russell Manners, 
\ Major General. 


Russell Manners. 


Lieut. Colonel 
Commandant 


/Charles, Earl of 
\ Drogheda. 






Lieut. Colonel . 


-| Richard Gorges. 


-j Robert Laurie. 


/Francis Augustus 
\ Eliott. 


Major 


Francis Caulfield. 


Richard Grant. 


Richard Grant. 


Captain . 


f Chas. Wilson Lyon. 
I Francis Brooke. 
j Thomas, Lord 
\ Knapton. 


{John Hamilton. 
Fewster Johnson. 
John Morris. 


f John Hamilton, 
-j Fewster Johnson. 
(John Morris. 


Capt. Lieuten- 
ant and Captain 




(Hon. Chas. Gunter 
\ Legge. 


( Vacant. 


Capt. Lieuten-\ 
ant . . / 


Clot worthy Rowley. 






Lieutenant 


f Charles Burton. 
ThomasjWalmesley 
William Burton. 
Skeffington Smith. 
[ William Moore. 


^Nassau Smith. 
Geo. Chas. Brath- 
J waite. 
1 Francis Gregory. 
Tho. Chas. Hardy. 
Ijohn Petley. 


f Francis Gregory. 
Tho. Chas. Hardy. 
J Geo. Chas. Brath- 
] waite. 
John Petley. 
I William Wills. 


Cornet 


r Robert Nicholson. 
Lawrence Chaloner 
1 William Scott. 
i John Moore. 
Gorges Crofton. 
I Vacant. 


f John Bailey, 
Geo. Montgomery. 
1 Smith. 
I Richard Warner. 
Vacant. 
\ Vacant. 


'John Bailey. 
Richard Warner. 
William Tooke 
Harwood. 
Francis Drake. 
George Street. 
Vacant. 


Chaplain . 


Henry Blacker. 


Vacant. 


Charles Mayo. 


Adjutant . 


Thomas Walmesley. 


Vacant. 


George Street. 


Surgeon . 


Alexander Eason. 


Christopher Arden. 


Christopher Arden. 


Agents 




T Messrs Bisshopp & 
Brummell, Vine 
[ Street.StJames'. 





Number of regiment changed to the Eighteenth in this year. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



273 





1781 


1782 


1783 


Colonel. 


Russell Manners. 


Russell Manners. 


Russell Manners. 


Lieut. Colonel 


R. Mason Lewis. 


R. Mason Lewis. 


R. Mason Lewis. 


Major . 


-j Benjamin Lambert. 


/William, Viscount 
\ Fielding. 


ijohn Callander. 


Captain 


fjohn Hamilton. 
-I Sir James Erskine. 
[John Quantock. 


fjohn Hare. 
J John Petley. 
jWm. Tooke Har- 
l. wood. 


fjohn Hare. 
J John Petley. 
1 Wm. Tooke Har- 
L wood. 


Captain Lieu- 
tenant and 
Captain 


Hohn Hare. 


/Thomas Carteret 
\ Hardy. 


/Thomas Carteret 
\ Hardy. 


Lieutenant . 


f Thomas Carteret 
Hardy. 
1 John Petley. 
1 John Bailey. 
Richard Warner. 
I Robert Kelsall. 


fjohn Bailey. 
Richard Kelsall. 
Francis Drake. 
George Street. 
V. Vacant. 


fjohn Bailey. 
Richard Kelsall. 
J George Street. 
| Thomas Townley 
Parker. 
IWm. Cave Brown. 


Cornet . 


'William Tooke 
Harwood. 
Francis Drake. 
George Street. 
Henry Geo. Grey. 
Francis Thomas 
Hammond. 
Francis Philip Bod- 
. ingfield. 


'Henry Geo. Grey. 
Henry Goodricke. 
Wm. Cave Brown, 
Charles Richard 
Vaughan. 
E. Walbanke. 
w Vacant, 


'Charles Richard 
Vaughan. 
Edward Walbanke. 
George Donithorpe. 
John Monk. 
Gary. 
^Philip Gresley. 


Chaplain 


Charles Mayo. 


Charles Mayo. 


Samuel Bethell. 


Adjutant 


George Street. 


George Street. 


Digby Hamilton. 


Surgeon 


Christopher Arden. 


Christopher Arden. 


Christopher Arden. 



274 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



THE TWENTY-THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS. 




1782 


1783 


1784 


Colonel . 


(Sir John Burgoyne 
\ Major General. 


(Sir John Bur- 
\ goyne. 


(Sir John Bur- 
\ goyne. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


Thomas Nash. 


Thomas Nash. 


Thomas Nash. 


Captain . 


(Jonathan Thomas. 
\ John Beckwith. 
[Thos.CreweDodd. 


(Jonathan Thomas. 
\ John Beckwith. 
[Thos.CreweDodd. 


(John Beckwith. 
\ Thomas Crewe 
t Dodd. 


Captain Lieu- 
tenant and 
Captain 


Ljames Affleck. 


Ljames Affleck. 


Ljames Affleck. 


Lieutenant 


(William Gilbert 
Child. 
William Walton. 
Guy Henry Craw- 
ford. 
T. J. Venables 
Hinde. 
William Sage. 


(William Gilbert 
Child. 
William Walton. 
Guy Henry Craw- 
ford. 
T. J. Venables 
Hinde. 
William Sage. 


(William Gilbert 
Child. 
Guy Henry Craw- 
ford. 
' T. J. Venables 
Hinde. 
William Sage. 
George Williams. 


Comet . 


(George Williams. 
1 John Campbell. 
I John Horsefall. 
1 John Jaffray. 
Robert Anstey. 
Ijohn Armstrong. 


'George Williams. 
John Campbell. 
John Horsefall. 
John J affray. 
Robert Anstey. 
John Armstrong. 


'John Campbell. 
John Jaffray. 
Robert Anstey. 
- John Armstrong. 
Robert Hilton. 
Hon. Andrew 
^ Cochrane. 


Chaplain . 


John Burgh. 


John Burgh. 


John Burgh. 


Adjutant . 


Robert Hilton. 


Robert Hilton. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Surgeon . 


John M'Cullock. 


John M'Cullock. 


John M'Cullock. 


Agents 


(Messrs Gray and 
\ Collyer, Terrace, 
^ Spring Gardens. 







YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



275 





1785 


1786* 


1787 


Colonel . 


| Sir John Burgoyne 


fHon.SzrW.Howe, 
\K.B.,Lt.- General. 


fJfon.SzrW.Hovte, 
\ K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


Thomas Nash. 


Thos. Crewe Dodd. 


James Affleck. 


Captain . . 


[Jonathan Thomas. 
\ John Beckwith. 
[Thos.;CreweDodd. 


f James Affleck. 
-I George Browne. 
[Samuel Orr. 


{George Browne. 
Samuel Orr. 
Edward Sage. 


Capt. Lieuten- 
ant and Captain 


jjames Affleck. 


/William Gilbert 
\ Child. 


/William Gilbert 
\ Child. 


Lieutenant 


fWm. Gilbert Child. 
T. J. Venables 
I Hinde. 
1 William Sage. 
I George Williams. 
\John Jaffray. 


'William Sage. 
George Williams. 
- John Jaffray. 
Thomas Howell. 
Robert Anstey. 


C George Williams. 
Thomas Howell. 
I Robert Anstey. 
1 Patrick Maxwell. 
Hon. Andrew 
V. Cochrane. 


Comet , 


'Robert Anstey. 
Hon. Andrew 
Cochrane. 
Patrick Maxwell. 
John Banger. 
Walter Monteath. 
John Whitford. 


'Hon. Andrew 
Cochrane. 
Patrick Maxwell. 
- John Banger. 
Walter Monteath. 
John Whitford. 
James Patterson. 


John Banger. 
Walter Monteath. 
John Whitford. 
- James Patterson. 
Abraham Brown. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
Robert Williams. 


Chaplain . . 


John Price. 


John Price. 


John Price. 


Adjutant . 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Surgeon . 


John McCullock. 


James Irwine. 


James Irwine. 


Agents 




[Messrs Cox, Cox 
\ and Greenwood, 
1 Craig's Court. 





Number of the regiment changed in this year to the Nineteenth. 



276 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1788 


1789 


1790 


Colonel . 


fffon.StrW.Hovfe, 
{ K.B. 


fffon.StrW.Howe, 
\ K.B. 


Cffan.SirW.Howe, 
\ K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd, 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


James Affleck. 


James Affleck. 


James Affleck. 


Captain . 


[George Browne. 
Samuel Orr. 
[Edward Sage. 


f George Browne. 
Edward Sage, 
(james Campbell. 


T George Browne. 
\ Edward Sage, 
y ames Campbell. 


Captain Lieu- 
tenant and 
Captain 


/William Gilbert 
\ Child. 


/William Gilbert 
\ Child. 


/William Gilbert 
\ Child. 


Lieutenant 


'George Williams. 
Robert Anstey. 
Hon. Andrew 
Cochrane. 
Thomas Paterson. 
John Bayly. 


(George Williams. 
Robert Anstey. 
Thomas Paterson. 
"| Hon. Andrew 
Cochrane. 
VJohn Bayly. 


1 Robert Anstey. 
Thomas Paterson. 
Hon. Andrew 
Cochrane. 
John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 


Cornet 


(John Banger. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Patterson. 
Abraham Brown. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
Robert Williams. 


(Walter Monteath. 
James Patterson. 
Abraham Brown. 
\ Robert Williams. 
James Kennedy. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
Ijohn Banger. 


(James Patterson. 
Abraham Brown. 
Robert Williams. 
\ James Kennedy. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
John Banger. 
^ Vacant. 


Chaplain . 


John Price. 


John Price. 


John Price. 


Adjutant . 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Surgeon . 


James Irwine. 


James Irwine. 


James Irwine. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



277 





1791 


1792 


1793 


Colonel . 


fffon.SirW.Hovfe, 
{ K.B. 


/ Hon. StrW. Howe, 
1 K.B. 


fffon.StrW.Hovte, 
\ K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


f James Affleck. 
\George Brown. 


/James Affleck. 
\George Browne. 


f James Affleck. 
\ William Gilbert 
[ Child. 


Captain . 


/-William Sage. 
I William Gilbert 
1 Child. 
Ijames Campbell. 


fWilliam Gilbert 
Child. 
j William Sage. 
\. James Campbell. 


( William Sage, 
j James Campbell. 
[Patrick Maxwell. 


Captain Lieu- 
tenant and 
Captain , 


I Robert Anstey. 


I Robert Anstey. 


>- Thomas Paterson 


Lieutenant 


'Thomas Paterson. 
John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Patterson. 
Robert Williams. 
I James Kennedy. 
1 Arthur Brabazon. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Lawrence Neville. 
Charles Maddison. 
James Cockburn. 


'Thomas Paterson. 
John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Patterson. 
James Kennedy. 
I Arthur Brabazon. 
| John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
James Cockburn. 
k Rich. Drummond. 


'John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Kennedy. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
| kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
James Cockburn. 
Rich. Drummond. 
William Bellasis. 
..George Hale. 


Cornet . 


John Banger. 
George Hale. 
John Fell Snow. 
- James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
John A. Winne. 
.Henry Roberts. 


'John Banger. 
George Hale. 
John Fell Snow. 
- James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
John A. Winne. 
^Henry Roberts. 


'John Banger. 
James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
- John A. Winne. 
Henry Roberts. 
Henry Skelton. 
John Dent. 


Chaplain . 


John Price. 


John Price. 


John Price. 


Adjutant . 


Lawrence Neville. 


Thomas Hassall. 


Thomas Hassall. 


Surgeon . 


James Irwine. 


James Irwine. 


James Irwine. 



2 7 8 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1794 


1795 


1796 


Colonel 


fffon.SirW.Howe, 
{ K.B. 


f^w.SzVW.Howe, 
{ K.B. 


r^.^>W.Howe, 
{ K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


'James Affleck. 
William Gilbert 
[ Child. 


f James Affleck. 
William Gilbert 
[ Child. 


fWilliam Gilbert 
Child. 
[William Sage. 


Captain . 


["William Sage. 
James Campbell. 
[Patrick Maxwell. 


fWilliam Sage. 
James Campbell. 
[Patrick Maxwell. 


f Patrick Maxwell. 
Thomas Paterson. 
[Rich. Drummond. 


Captain Lieu- 
tenant and 
Captain 


j- Thomas Paterson. 


^Thomas Paterson. 


Ijohn Bayly. 


Lieutenant 


John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Kennedy. 
Arthur "Brabazon. 
John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
James Cockburn. 
Rich. Drummond. 
William Bellasis. 
.George Hale. 


"John Bayly. 
Walter Monteath. 
James Kennedy. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
John Fortescue. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
James Cockburn. 
Rich. Drummond. 
William Bellasis. 
^George Hale. 


'Walter Monteath. 
James Kennedy. 
Arthur Brabazon. 
John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
William Bellasis. 
James Cathcart. 
Vacant. 
Vacant. 
. Vacant. 


Cornet 


'John Banger. 
James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
John A. Winne. 
Henry Roberts. 
Henry Skelton. 
John Dent. 


John Banger. 
James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
- Henry Roberts. 
Henry Skelton. 
Vacant. 
Vacant. 


John Banger. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
- Henry Skelton. 
Thomas Hassall. 
Vacant. 
Vacant. 


Chaplain . 


John Day. 


John Day. 


John Day. 


Adjutant . 


Thomas Hassall. 


Thomas Hassall. 


Thomas Hassall. 


Surgeon . 


James Irwine. 


Joseph Mayde. 


Joseph Mayde. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



279 





1797 


1798 


1799 


Colonel . 


(Hon. Sir Wm. 
i. Howe, K.B. 


'Hon. Sir Wm. 
{ Howe, K.B. 


(Hon. Sir Wm. 
( Howe, K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


John Floyd. 


Major 


William Gilbert 
Child. 
[William Sage. 


(William Gilbert 
Child. 
[William Sage. 


f Patrick Maxwell. 
\ Charles Bladen. 


Captain . 


f Patrick Maxwell. 
1 Thomas Paterson. 
| John Bayly. 
[Walter Monteath. 


f Pa trick Maxwell. 
1 Thomas Paterson. 
j John Bayly. 
[Walter Monteath. 


/"Thomas Paterson. 
I John Bayly. 
j Walter Monteath. 
[Arthur Brabazon. 


Capt. Lieuten- 
ant and Cap- 
tain 


j-James Kennedy. 


j-James Kennedy. 


Mames Kennedy. 


Lieutenant 


'Arthur Brabazon. 
John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
Charles Maddison. 
William Bellasis. 
" James Cathcart. 
John Banger. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
Henry Skelton. 
^ Vacant. 


'Arthur Brabazon. 
John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
William Bellasis. 
James Cathcart. 
John Banger. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
Thomas Hassall. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 


'John Fortnam. 
Roderick Mac- 
kenzie. 
James Cathcart. 
John Banger. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
Thomas Hassall. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Patrick Anderson. 
^Edward Darvall. 


Cornet 


(Thomas Hassall. 
George John Sale. 
Edward Darvall. 
1 Henry Young. 
George Tuite. 
[Philip Bailey. 


'Wallace Boyle. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Edward Geils. 
- Edward Darvall. 
Henry Young. 
George Tuite. 
^Philip Bailey. 


'Wallace Boyle. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Edward Geils. 
- Henry Young. 
George Tuite. 
Philip Bailey. 
Andrew Geils. 


Paymaster 








Chaplain . 


John Day. 






Adjutant . 


Thomas Hassall. 


John Crooks. 


John Crooks. 


Surgeon . 


Thomas Browne. 


Thomas Browne. 


Thomas Browne. 


Asst. Surgeon - 


/John Murray. 
\William Beville. 


/John Murray. 
\William Beville. 


/John Murray. 
\William Beville. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 



a8o 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1800 


1801 


1802 


C'ftJn'HtJ 


/William, Viscount 


/William, Viscozint 


/William, Viscount 


^oionei . 


I Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


1 John Floyd. 


/Patrick Maxwell. 
\Edgar Hunter. 


/Patrick Maxwell. 
\Edgar Hunter. 


Major 


/Patrick Maxwell. 
\Thomas Paterson. 


/Thomas Paterson. 
\John Bayly. 


/John Bayly. 
\ Vacant. 


Captain . 


/John Bayly. 
1 Walter Monteath. 
I Arthur Brabazon. 


(James Kennedy. 
1 John Fortnam. 
J James Cathcart. 


Hames Kennedy. 
J John Fortnam. 
) James Cathcart. 




I Vacant. 


I Robert Lisle. 


I Robert Lisle. 


Captain Lieu- 


\ 


) 


] 


tenant and 


j-James Kennedy. 


\ Henry Roberts. 


y Henry Roberts. 


Captain 


J 


J 


J 






'John Banger. 


John Banger. 




'John Fortnam. 
Roderick Macken- 
zie. 


Thomas Hassall. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 


George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Wallace Boyle. 


Lieutenant 


James Cathcart. 
John Banger. 
Robert Lisle. 
I Henry Roberts. 
Thomas Hassall. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Patrick Anderson. 
^Edward Darvall. 


Patrick Anderson. 
Wallace Boyle. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Edward Geils. 
Henry Young. 
Thomas Vaughan. 
George Tuite. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Robert Torrens. 
John Crooks. 


Nathan Wilson. 
Patrick Anderson. 
Edward Geils. 
Henry Young. 
Thomas Vaughan. 
George Tuite. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Robert Torrens. 
John Crooks. 
F. Cumberlege. 






F. Cumberlege. 


Joseph Dowson. 








'Michael Thomas 






'Michael Thomas 


Harris. 






Harris. 


William Lewis 




^Wallace Boyle. 


John Christopher 


Herries. 




Nathan Wilson. 


Ridout. 


Charles Cobbe. 




Edward Geils. 


William Lewis 


Port. 


Cornet . 


Henry Young. 


Herries. 


George Hutchins 




George Tuite. 


Charles Cobbe. 


Bellasis. 




Philip Bailey. 


George Hutchins 


William Serle. 




Vacant. 


Bellasis. 


Charles Abdy 






Port. 


Chapman. 






IWilliam Serle. 


John Montague 








v. Jackson. 


Paymaster 








Adjutant . 


John Crooks. 


John Crooks. 


John Crooks. 


Surgeon , 


Thomas Browne. 


Thomas Browne. 


Thomas Browne. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


/John Murray. 
{ William Seville. 


"John Murray. 
James Colgan. 


'John Murray. 
James Colgan. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



281 





1803 


1804 


1805 


Colonel . 


/William, Viscount 
t Howe, K.B. 


/William, Viscount 
\ Howe, K.B. 


/William, Viscount 
\ Howe, K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


/Patrick Maxwell. 
\Edgar Hunter. 


/Edgar Hunter. 
\Sit Robt. Wilson. 


/James Kennedy. 
\R. R. Gillespie. 


Major 


/John Bayly. 


/John Bayly. 
\James Kennedy. 


/John Fortnam. 
\James Cathcart. 






'John Fortnam. 


'Robert Lisle. 


Captain . 


'James Kennedy. 
John Fortnam. 
James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 


James Cathcart. 
Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Hugh Henry. 


Henry Roberts. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Hugh Henry. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Patrick Anderson. 


Capt. Lietit. and 
Captain 


| George John Sale 


.Wallace Boyle. 


. Edward Geils. 




'John Banger. 


'Nathan Wilson. 






Henry Skelton. 


Patrick Anderson. 






Wallace Boyle. 


Edward Geils. 


"Henry Young. 




Nathan Wilson. 


Henry Young. 


George Tuite. 




Patrick Anderson. 


George Tuite. 


Robert Torrens. 




Edward Geils. 


Thomas Johnson. 


John Crooks. 


Lieutenant 


Henry Young. 
George Tuite. 


Robert Torrens. 
John Crooks. 


< Charles Cobbe. 
Richard Miller. 




Thomas Johnson. 


F. Cumberlege. 


William Serle. 




Robert Torrens. 


Joseph Dowson. 


C. A. Chapman. 




John Crooks. 


Charles Cobbe. 


Benjamin Jones. 




F. Cumberlege. 


Richard Miller. 


.Alan Twaddle. 




Joseph Dowson. 


John David Duval. 






.Richard Miller. 


^Wm. L. Herries. 






'Michael T.Harris. 


fGeo. H. Bellasis. 


'Geo. H. Bellasis. 




Wm. L. Herries. 


William Serle. 


John Atkins. 




Charles Cobbe. 


C. A. Chapman. 


James Verner. 




Port. 


John Atkins. 


Colin Anderson. 


Cornet 


Geo. H. Bellasis. 


James Verner. 


4 Chas. T. Wilson. 




William Serle. 


Colin Anderson. 


H. A. Glad win. 




C. A. Chapman. 


Charles Townsend 


Robert Kennedy. 




John M. Jackson. 


Wilson. 


J. W. Fullerton. 


Paymaster . 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Adjutant . 


John Crooks. 


John Crooks. 


John Crooks. 


Surgeon . 


John Abercromby. 


John Abercromby. 


John Abercromby. 


Asst. Siirgeon . 


fjohn Murray. 
\ James Allerdice. 


/John Murray. 
\James Allerdice. 


/John Murray. 
\James Allerdice. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 



282 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1806 


1807 


1808 


y^-/ ./ 


f William, Viscount 


/William, Viscount 


f William, Viscount 


(Colonel , . 


\ Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


fjames Kennedy. 
VRobt. R. Gillespie. 


fjames Kennedy. 
\Robt. R. Gillespie. 


fjames Kennedy. 
\J. O. Vandeleur. 


Major 


fjohn Fortnam. 
Qames Cathcart. 


fjames Cathcart. 
\Hugh Henry. 


fjames Cathcart. 
! Hon. John Bruce. 
[Richard O'Neill. 








'Robert Lisle. 


Captain . 


Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Hugh Henry. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Patrick Anderson. 
Edward Geils. 


'Robert Lisle. 
Henry Roberts. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Patrick Anderson. 
Edward Geils. 


Henry Roberts. 
George John Sale. 
Henry Skelton. 
Nathan Wilson. 
Patrick Anderson. 
Edward Geils. 
Henry Young. 
Sir George Tuite. 








^Robert Torrens. 






.rHenry Young. 






'Henry Young. 
George Tuite. 
Robert Torrens. 


George Tuite. 
Robert Torrens. 
John Crooks. 
Charles Cobbe. 


'John Crooks. 
John Atkins. 
James Verner. 


Lieutenant 


John Crooks. 
Charles Cobbe. 
William Serle. 
C. A. Chapman. 
William Dunbar. 
Thomas Keighley. 
Benjamin Jones. 
VAlan Twaddle. 


C. A. Chapman. 
William Dunbar. 
Thomas Keighley. 
Alan Twaddle. 
William Serle. 
James Verner. 
Robert Kennedy. 
Thomas Martin. 
Chas. T. Wilson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 


C. A. Chapman. 
William Dunbar. 
Colin Anderson. 
< Chas. T. Wilson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 
Lewis B. Buckle. 
Robt. John Edgar. 
Benjamin Burton. 
Thomas Coulthard. 
IjR. W. Maxwell. 






^Edward Taylor. 






'John Atkins. 






Comet . 


James Verner. 
Colin Anderson. 
Chas. T. Wilson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 
Robert Kennedy. 
Smith. 
J. W. Fullerton. 
John Edgar. 


'John Atkins. 
Colin Anderson. 
Henry Young. 
- Samuel Saunders. 
John Edgar. 
Lewis B. Buckle. 
Charles Warden. 


THenry Young. 
I Benjamin Jones. 
1 James Rathbone. 
IG. A. Moultrie. 




.Lewis B. Buckle. 






Paymaster 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Adjutant . 


Smith. 


Samuel Saunders. 


James Rathbone. 


Surgeon . 


John Abercromby. 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


Asst. Stirgeon . 


/John Murray. 
\James Allerdice. 


-( James Allerdice. 


/James Allerdice. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 


Joseph Erratt. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 





1809 


1810 


1811 




'William, Viscount 


'William, Viscount 


'William, Viscount 


Colonel 


\ Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 


\ Howe, K.B. 








'J. O. Vandeleur, 


Lieut, Colonel . 


'James Kennedy. 
\J. O. Vandeleur. 


'James Kennedy. 
\J. O. Vandeleur. 


Major General. 
Hon. John Bruce. 








.Richard O'Neill. 




'Edward Parker. 


'Edward Parker. 


f Edward Parker. 


Major . . 


A. J. Dalrymple. 


L A. J. Dalrymple. 


W A. J. Dalrymple. 




'Robert Lisle. 


^ Robert Lisle. 


r Robert Lisle. 




Henry Skelton. 


Henry Skelton. 


Henry Skelton. 




Nathan Wilson. 


Nathan Wilson. 


Patrick Anderson. 




Patrick Anderson. 


Patrick Anderson. 


Edward Geils. 




Edward Geils. 


Edward Geils. 


Robert Torrens. 


Captain . 


Sir George Tuite. 
Robert Torrens. 


Sir George Tuite. 
Robert Torrens. 


C. A. Chapman. 
Francis D'Arcey 




C. A. Chapman. 


C. A. Chapman. 


Bacon. 




Francis D'Arcey 


Francis D'Arcey 


Archibald Ross. 




Bacon. 


Bacon. 


John Atkins. 




y. Archibald Ross. 


^Archibald Ross. 


I Lewis B. Buckle. 


Lieutenant 


fjohn Crooks. 
John Atkins. 
James Verner. 
Colin Anderson. 
Chas. T. Wilson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 
i Lewis B. Buckle. 
Benjamin Burton. 
Thomas Coulthard 
Robt. W. Maxwell 
G. A. Moultrie. 
Ijohn R. Eustace. 


'John Atkins. 
James Verner. 
Colin Anderson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 
Lewis B. Buckle. 
Benjamin Burton. 
Thomas Coulthard. 
Robt. W. Maxwell. 
G. A. Moultrie. 
John R. Eustace. 
James Rathbone. 
ohn Lucas. 


'James Verner. 
Colin Anderson. 
H. A. Gladwin. 
Benjamin Burton. 
Thomas Coulthard. 
G. A. Moultrie. 
John R. Eustace. 
James Rathbone. 
John Lucas. 
Henry Floyd. 
VWm. Armstrong. 


Cornet 


C Henry Young. 
I Benjamin Jones. 
-| James Rathbone. 
Geo. E. Quintin. 
\John Lucas. 


1 Henry Floyd. 
Wm. Armstrong. 
James Skelton. 
William Rhodes. 
Wm. T. Lee. 


/"James Skelton. 
J William Rhodes. 
1 Wm. T. Lee. 
Ijohn Lang. 


Paymaster 


Lawrence Neville. 


Lawrence Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Adjutant . 


James Rathbone. 


James Rathbone. 


James Rathbone. 


Quartermaster . 




John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


Surgeon . 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


James Barlow. 


James Barlow. 


James Barlow. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Charles Dymoke. 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 



28 4 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1812 


1813 


1814 


Colonel . 


/William, Viscount 
\ Howe,^^. 


{William, Viscount 
Howe, K.B. 
General. 


/William, Viscount 
\ Howe, K.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


f J. O. Vandeleur. 
\ Hon. John Bruce. 
[Richard O'Neill. 


f J. O. Vandeleur. 
-! Hon. John Bruce 
[Richard O'Neill. 


f J. 0. Vandeleur. 
\ Hon. John Bruce. 
I Richard O'Neill. 


Major 


/Edward Parker. 
\A. J. Dalrymple. 


/Edward Parker. 
\A. J. Dalrymple. 


/Edward Parker. 
\A. J. Dalrymple. 




'Robert Lisle. 


'Robert Lisle. 


'Robert Lisle. 




Henry Skelton. 


Henry Skelton. 


Henry Skelton. 




Patrick Anderson. 


Patrick Anderson. 


Patrick Anderson. 




Edward Geils. 


Edward Geils. 


Edward Geils. 




Robert Torrens. 


Robert Torrens. 


C. A. Chapman. 


Captain . 


C. A. Chapman. 
Francis D'Arcey 


C. A. Chapman. 
Francis D'Arcey 


^ Lord Arthur J. H. 
Somerset. 




Bacon. 


Bacon. 


James Verner. 




John Atkins. 


John Atkins. 


William Browne. 




L. B. Buckle. 


L. B. Buckle. 


George Austin 




Lord Arthur J. H. 


Lord Arthur J. H. 


Moultrie. 




Somerset. 


w Somerset. 


.Colin Anderson. 




'James Verner. 


'James Verner. 


'H. A. Gladwin. 




Colin Anderson. 


Colin Anderson. 


Benjamin Burton. 




H. A. Gladwin. 


H. A. Gladwin. 


J. R. Eustace. 




Benjamin Burton. 


Benjamin Burton. 


James Rathbone. 




Thos. Coulthard. 


G. A. Moultrie. 


Henry Floyd. 


Lieutenant 


G. A. Moultrie. 


J. R. Eustace. 


- Wm. Armstrong. 




J. R. Eustace. 


James Rathbone. 


William Rhodes, j 




James Rathbone. 


John Lucas. 


John Lang. 




John Lucas. 


Henry Floyd. 


Wm. F. Arnold. 




Henry Floyd. 


Wm. Armstrong. 


George Snoad. 




^Wm. Armstrong. 


.William Rhodes. 


John Hammersley. 




("James Skelton. 


"John Lang. 


1 William Verelst 


Cornet . 


William Rhodes. 
Wm. T. Lee. 


Wm. F. Arnold. 
George Snoad. 


Horton. 
Lionel Goldsmid. 




John Lang. 
[Win. F. Arnold. 


John Hammersley. 
.Wm. V. Horton. 


Wm. LongWrey. 
Thomas Walker. 


Paymaster 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Adjutant . 


James Rathbone. 


James Rathbone. 


James Rathbone. 


Quartermaster . 


John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


Surgeon . 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


f James Barlow. 
VWm. O'Donnell. 


/James Barlow. 
\Wm. O'Donnell. 


/Wm. O'Donnell. 
\E. Pilkington. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 





1815 


1816 


1817 


Colonel . 


(Sir Wm. Payne, 
\ Lt. General. 


f Sir John Ormsby 
\ Vandeleur, K.C. B. 


(Sir] ohn Ormsby. 
\ Vandeleur, K.C. B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


fj. O. Vandeleur. 
\ Hon. John Bruce 
[ Richard O'Neill. 


(Hon. John Bruce. 
\Richard O'Neill. 


Henry Wyndham. 


T\/T~ *>. 


/Robert Lisle. 


[Robert Lisle. 


[Robert Lisle. 


Major . 


\Patrick Anderson. 


(_ Patrick Anderson. 


\Patrick Anderson. 




/'Henry Skelton. 


'Henry Skelton. 


f Henry Skelton. 




Edward Geils. 


Edward Geils. 


Edward Geils. 




C. A. Chapman. 


C. A. Chapman. 


James Verner. 




Lord Arthur J. H. 


Lord Arthur J. H. 


William Browne. 




Somerset. 


Somerset. 


G. A. Moultrie. 


Captain . 


James Verner. 


James Verner. 


Colin Anderson. 




William Browne. 


William Browne. 


Sir John Rowland 




G. A. Moultrie. 


G. A. Moultrie. 


Eustace. 




Colin Anderson. 


Colin Anderson. 


Wm. Armstrong. 




John R. Eustace. 


John R. Eustace. 


H. A. Gladwin. 




,Wm. Armstrong. 


w Wm. Armstrong. 


.William Rhodes. 




(H. A. Glad win. 
Benjamin Burton. 
James Rathbone. 
William Rhodes. 


(H. A. Glad win. 
Benjamin Burton. 
James Rathbone. 
William Rhodes. 


'Benjamin Burton. 
James Rathbone. 
John Lang. 

"Wm T^ 1 Arnnlrl 


Lieutenant 


John Lang. 
Wm. F. Arnold. 
George Snoad. 
John Hammersley. 
Wm. V. Horton. 
Lionel Goldsmid. 
w Wm. Long Wrey. 


John Lang. 
Wm. F. Arnold. 
George Snoad. 
John Hammersley. 
Wm. V. Horton. 
Lionel Goldsmid. 
.Wm. Long Wrey. 


vv iii. j? . /vrnoici. 
George Snoad. 
John Hammersley. 
Joseph Wakefield. 
Richard E. Welby. 
Charles Wyndham. 
w William Dungan. 






Thomas Walker. 




Cornet . 


( Thomas Walker. 
Richard E. Welby. 
William Dungan. 
George Macquay. 
Chas. J. Peshall. 
, Henry Georges. 


Richard E. Welby. 
William Dungan. 
George Maquay. 
- Chas. J. Peshall. 
Henry Georges. 
John Gowdie. 
Wm. Glanville. 


1 Henry Georges. 
John Gowdie. 
Wm. Glanville. 
George Gregory. 
Robert Downes. 
Alexander Bailey. 






.George Gregory. 




Paymaster 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Adjutant . 


James Rathbone. 


Wm. Glanville. 


Wm. Glanville. 


Quartermaster . 


John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


Surgeon . 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


/Edward Pilkington 
\William Pardy. 


/Edward Pilkington 
V William Pardy. 


/Edward Pilkington 
\William Pardy. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 



a86 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1818 


1819 


1820 


Colonel . 


/ Sir John O. Van- 
\ deleur, K.C.B. 


/&> John O. Van- 
\ deleur, K.C.B. 


f Sir John O. Van- 
| deleur, K.C.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


Henry Wyndham. 


Henry Wyndham. 


Henry Wyndham. 




/Robert Lisle. 


/Robert Lisle. 


/Robert Lisle. 


Major 


\Patrick Anderson. 


\Edward Geils. 


\Edward Geils. 




'Henry Skelton. 


'Henry Skelton. 


'Henry Skelton. 




Edward Geils. 


William Browne. 


George Austin 




William Browne. 


George Austin 


Moultrie. 




George Austin 


Moultrie. 


Sir John Rowland 


Captain . 


Moultrie. 
Colin Anderson. 


Sir John Rowland 
Eustace. 


Eustace. 
John Hammersley. 




Sir John Rowland 


Wm. Armstrong. 


George Doherty. 




Eustace. 


Wm. F. Arnold. 


William Moray. 




Wm. Armstrong. 
Henry A. Glad win. 


John Hammersley. 
^George Doherty. 


Wm. H. Stewart. 
Joseph Wakefield. 








'John Lang. 


Lieutenant 


'Benjamin Burton. 
James Rathbone. 
John Lang. 
Wm. F. Arnold. 
' John Hammersley. 
Joseph Wakefield. 
William Dungan. 
Robert Downes. 


'Benjamin Burton. 
John Lang. 
Joseph Wakefield. 
- William Dungan. 
Robert Downes. 
John Gowdie. 
Wm. Glanville. 


William Dungan. 
R. S. Ruddach. 
Henry Georges. 
John Gowdie. 
' Wm. Glanville. 
Alexander Bailey. 
Charles Lush 
Cumberlege. 








^ George Duff. 


Cornet 


Henry Georges. 
John Gowdie. 
Wm. Glanville. 
Alexander Bailey. 
Charles Lush 
Cumberlege. 
George Duff. 
J. H. Whitmore. 
George Blair Hall. 
_ Gilbert E. Jolliffe. 


'Alexander Bailey. 
Charles Lush 
Cumberlege. 
George Duff. 
J. H. Whitmore. 
' George Blair Hall. 
Gilbert E. Jolliffe. 
George Mecham. 
Alexander Wilton 
Dashwood. 


fj. H. Whitmore. 
George Blair Hall. 
Gilbert E. Jolliffe. 
George Mecham. 
- Alexander Wilton 
Dashwood. 
George Talbot. 
George Johnstone. 
^Hon. Geo. Hervey. 


Paymaster 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Wm. F. Neville. 


Adjutant . 


William Glanville. 


Wm. Glanville. 


Wm. Glanville. 


Quartermaster . 


John Gloag. 


John Gloag. 


James M'Lennon. 


Surgeon . 


John Murray, 


John Murray. 


John Murray. 


As st. Surgeon . 


/"John Riach. 
\Edward Hollier. 


j John Riach. 


< John Riach. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 


Lawrence Bird. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



287 



1821 



Colonel 
Lieut. Colonel 

Major 



Captain 



Lieutenant 



Cornet 

Paymaster 
Adjutant . 
Quartermaster . 
Surgeon . . 
Assistant Surgeon 
Veterinary Surgeon 



Sir John Ormsby Vandeleur, K.C.B. 
Henry Wyndham. 

/Robert Lisle. 

\George Austin Moultrie. 

f Henry Skelton. 

Sir John Rowland Eustace. 

John Hammersley. 

George Doherty. 

William Moray. 

Joseph Wakefield. 

Robert Stewart Ruddach. 
^Richard Beauchamp. 

'William Dungan. 
Henry Georges. 
John Gowdie. 
William Glanville. 
Alexander Bailey. 
Charles Lush Cumberlege. 
George Duff. 
Gilbert East Jolliffe. 
Edward Methold. 



George Blair Hall. 
George Mecham. 
Alexander Wilton Dash wood. 
George Talbot. 
George Johnstone. 
Hon. George Hervey. 
William Osborne. 
Horatio Clagett. 

William Frederick Neville. 



William Glanville. 
James MacLennon. 
John Murray. 
John Riach. 
Lawrence Bird. 



2 88 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



BENGAL FIRST EUROPEAN LIGHT CAVALRY. 



RIGHT WING. 



1859 



LEFT WING. 



Colonel 



Lieut. Colonel . 



Major 



Captain . 



Lieutenant 



Cornet 



Adjutant . 

Interpreter and 
Quartermaster . 

Surgeon . 
As st. Surgeon . 
Vety. Surgeon . 
Riding Master . 



T. M. Taylor. 

'F. Wheler. 

,G. M. C. Smyth. 

Charles V. Jenkins. 



john H. Brooks. 
C. H. Nicholetts. 
Hamilton Forbes. 
F. C. J. Brownlow. 
Sir]. Hill, Bt. 
H. E. Ellice. 
W. H. Macnaghten. 



C. Martin. 

F. P. Luard. 

R. T. P. Stapleton. 
R. W. Dent. 
A. H. Chapman. 
R. G. Birch. 
J. S. Robinson. 
R. Morris. 

E. S. R. Carnac. 

G. C. B. Taylor. 
C. J. Prinsep. 

F. Currie. 



C. Martin. 

J. F. Beatson.. 
T. P. Page. 

J. Brennan. 



Henry Drummond. 



John Christie. 
A. W. C. Plowden. 
Roland Richardson. 
H. C. Craigie. 
G. A. Galloway. 
R. Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 



H. H. Gough, r.C 
J. A. M. Patton. 
A. R.D.Mackenzie. 
C. H. Fairlie. 
C. C. Jervoise. 
A. G. Webster. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



289 



BENGAL FIRST EUROPEAN LIGHT CAVALRY. 




RIGHT WING. 1860 LEFT WING. 


Colonel . 


/"Harry Thomson. 
\ C.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


/F. Wheler. 
\G. M. C. Smyth. 


Major 


Charles V. Jenkins. Henry Drummond. 


Captain . 


John H. Brooks. ( John Christie. 
C. H. Nicholetts. A. W. C. Plowden. 
Hamilton Forbes. Roland Richardson. 
* F. C. J. Brownlow. -{ H. C. Craigie. 
Sir]. Hill. G. A. Galloway. 
H. E. Ellice. R. Baring. 
W.H.Macnaghten. (.Melville Clarke. 


Lieutenant 


/C. Martin. 
F. P. Luard. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
A. H. Chapman. fH. H. Gough, V.C. 
R. G. Birch. J. A. M. Patton. 
J.S.Robinson. J A. R.D.Mackenzie. 
R. Morris. | C. H. Fairlie. 
E. S. R. Carnac. C. C. Jervoise. 
G. C. B. Taylor. VA. G. Webster. 
C. J. Prinsep. 
F. Currie. 
A. W. Roberts. 


Comet . 


E. C. B. Rawlinson. 


Adjutant . 


C. Martin. 


Interpreter and 
Quartermaster . 




Surgeon . 


J. F. Beatson. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


W. E. Caird. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


T. P. Page. 


Riding Master . 


Lt. W. Keily. 



290 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



BENGAL FIRST EUROPEAN LIGHT CAVALRY. 




RIGHT WING. 1861 


LEFT WING. 


Colonel . 


H. Thomson, C.B. 




Lieut. Colonel . 


/F. Wheler. 
\W. B. Wemyss. 




Major 


C. V. Jenkins. 


H. Drummond. 


Captain . 


fj. H. Brooks. 
C. H. Nicholetts. 
H. Forbes. 
- F. C. J. Brownlow. 
Sir]. Hill. 
H. E. Ellice. 
W. H. Macnaghten. 


IR. Richardson. 
H. C. Craigie. 
G. A. Galloway. 
R. Baring. 
M. Clarke. 


Lieutenant 


'C. Martin. 
F. P. Luard. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
A. H. Chapman. 
R. G. Birch. 
J. S. Robinson. 
R. Morris. 
E. S. R. Carnac. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
C. J. Prinsep. 
W F. Currie. 


fH. H. Gough, V.C. 
J. A. M. Patton. 
A. R. D.Mackenzie. 
C. H. Fairlie. 
C. C. Jervoise. 
,A. G. Webster. 


Cornet 






Adjutant . 






Interpreter and 
Quartermaster . 






Surgeon . 


J. Campbell, C.B. 


Asst. Surgeon . 






Vety. Surgeon . 


T. P. Page. 




Riding Master . 


Capt. W. Keily. 





YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



291 





1863 


1864 


1865 


Colonel . 


[Wm. Pattle, C.B., 
General. 


[Wm. Pattle, C.B. 


fjohn Hall, Lt. 
\_ General. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 




fj. H. Brooks. 


fR. Richardson. 


fR. Richardson. 


Major 


R. Richardson. 


V Henry C. Craigie. 


L Henry C. Craigie. 


Captain . 


/"Henry C. Craigie. 
Sir John Hill. 
Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
H. H.Gough.F.C 1 . 
Y. P. Luard. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
[ brother. 


(Sir John Hill. 
Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
H. H. Gough, V.C. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
.George A. Bishop. 


( Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
George A. Bishop. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 




rChas. H. Fairlie. 


'Chas. H. Fairlie. 


rChas. H. Fairlie. 




Abel H. Chapman. 
C. C. Jervoise. 


Abel H. Chapman. 
C. C. Jervoise. 


Abel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 




A. G. Webster. 


A. G. Webster. 


Edward S. Rivett- 




Robert Morris. 


Robert Morris. 


Carnac. 


Lieutenant 


Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 


Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 


' John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 
Elliot A. Money. 
^H. E. Kensit. 




.Albert Hearsey. 


, Elliot A. Money. 




Cornet 


f Elliot A. Money. 
Joseph Boulderson. 
J Fred. H. Huth. 
1 C. R. St Quintin. 
F. D. Harding. 
VS. D. Barrow. 


Joseph Boulderson. 
Fred. H. Huth. 
C. R, St Quintin. 
- F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
Jos. S. A. Bruff. 
VR.G.E.Dalrymple. 


f Joseph Boulderson. 
Fred. H. Huth. 
C. R. St Quintin. 
F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
Jos. S. A. Bruff. 
R.G.E. Dairy mple. 
^C.A. H. Bannister. 


Paymaster 






Henry O. Currie. 


Adjutant . 


A. H. Chapman. 


A. H. Chapman. 


A. II. Chapman. 


Riding Master . 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


Quartermaster , 




William Langdale. 


William Langdale. 


Surgeon . 






Edward Menzies. 


As st. Surgeon . 






/Samuel Fuller. 
\ByngT. Giraud. 


Vety. Sttrgeon . 









292 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1866 


1867 


1868 


Colonel . 


John Hall. 


John Hall. 


John Hall. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


Major 


/R. Richardson. 
\Henry C. Craigie. 


JR. Richardson. 
\Henry C. Craigie. 


/R. Richardson. 
\Henry C. Craigie. 


Captain . 


'Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
- Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
G. A. Bishop. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 


'Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
- Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
G. A. Bishop. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 


'Henry E. Ellice. 
Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
- Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 

.Samuel C. Walker. 

i 


Lieutenant 


'Chas. H. Fairlie. 
Abel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 
Elliot A. Money. 
^Henry E. Kensit. 


'Chas. H. Fairlie. 
Abel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
" John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 
Elliot A. Money. 
.Fred. H. Huth. 


f Chas. H. Fairlie. 
Abel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 
Elliot A. Money. 
,Fred. H. Huth. 


Cornet . 


'Joseph Boulderson. 
Fred. H. Huth. 
C. R. St Quintin. 
F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
Jos. S. A. Bruff. 
R.G.E.Dalrymple. 
C. A. H. Bannister. 


Joseph Boulderson. 
C. R. St Quintin. 
F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
Jos. S. A. Bruff. 
R.G.E. Dairy mple. 
C.A. H. Bannister. 
L. A. C. Cook. 


Joseph Boulderson. 
C. R. St Quintin. 
F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
R.G.E.Dalrymple. 
C.A. H. Bannister. 
L. A. C. Cook. 
J. L. Mackay. 


Paymaster 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Adjutant . 


A. H. Chapman. 


A. H. Chapman. 


A. II. Chapman. 


Riding Master . 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


Quartermaster . 


William Langdale. 


William Langdale. 


William Langdale. 


Surgeon . 


Edward Menzies. 


Edward Menzies. 


Benjamin Burland. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


/Samuel Fuller. 
\Byng T. Giraud. 


/Samuel Fuller. 
\Byng T. Giraud. 


/Byng T. Giraud. 
\Thomas Babington 


Vety. Surgeon . 






Hugh Anderson. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



293 





1869 


1870 


1871 


Colonel . 


John Hall. 


John Hall. 


John Hall. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


Major 


fR. Richardson. 
\Henry C. Craigie. 


/Henry C. Craigie. 
\Robert Baring. 


/ Henry C. Craigie. 
\Robert Baring. 




'Robert Baring. 
Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 


fMelville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 


(Melville Clarke. 
R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 


Captain . 


brother. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 
Samuel C. Walker. 
,Chas. H. Fairlie. 


< K. J. W. Coghill. 
James Duncan. 
Chas. H. Fairlie. 
Abel H. Chapman. 
U. G. Webster. 


brother. 
' K. J. W. Coghill. 
Chas. H. Fairlie. 
Abel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 


Lietttenant 


fAbel H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
Chas. J. Prinsep. 
C. R. St Quintin. 
John Nethercote. 
,E. W. G. Williams. 


'Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
- Chas. J. Prinsep. 
John Nethercote. 
E. W. G. Williams. 
F. D. Harding. 
.Wm. S. Greene. 


'Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 
G. C. B. Taylor. 
John Nethercote. 
< E. W.G.Williams. 
Wm. S. Greene. 
L. A. C. Cook. 
J. L. Mackay. 
Henry Hall. 
.P. H. S. Barrow. 


Cornet . 


'Joseph Boulderson. 
F. D. Harding. 
S. D. Barrow. 
R.G.E.Dalrymple. 
C. A.H. Bannister. 
L. A. C. Cook. 
James L. Mackay. 
Henry Hall. 
P. H. S. Barrow. 
J. C. Christie. 


'S. D. Barrow. 
R.G.E.Dalrymple. 
L. A. C. Cook. 
James L. Mackay. 
Henry Hall. 
P. H. S. Barrow. 
J. C. Christie. 
James M'Killop 
k Macwhirter. 


IJohn C. Christie. 
James M'Killop 
Macwhirter. 
Henry Edmonds 
Kynaston. 


Paymaster 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Adjutant . 


A. H. Chapman. 


J. Nethercote. 


J. Nethercote. 


Riding Master . 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


Quartermaster . 


William Langdale. 


William Langdale. 


William Langdale. 


Surgeon . 


Benjamin Burland. 


Benjamin Burland. 


Benjamin Burland. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


/ Byng T. Giraud. 
\Thomas Babington 


f Byng T. Giraud. 
\Thomas Babington 


Edmund Vallance. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


Chas. Barrow. 


Chas. Barrow. 


Chas. Barrow. 



294 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1872 


1873 


1874 


Colonel 


John Hall. 


f John Yorke, Maj. 
\_ General. 


John Yorke. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


Major 


|H. C. Craigie. 
(Robert Baring. 


(H. C. Craigie. 
L Robert Baring. 


f H. C. Craigie 
\Robert Baring 


Captain . 


f R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
C. H. Fairlie. 
A. H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
Edward S. Rivett- 
Carnac. 
John Biddulph. 


f R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
C. H. Fairlie. 
A. H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
John Bidduloh. 
IE. W. G. Williams. 


f R. T. P. Stapleton. 
Chas. M. S. Fair- 
brother. 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
C. H. Fairlie. 
A. H. Chapman. 
A. G. Webster. 
John Biddulph. 
E. W. G.Williams. 
^Wm. S. Greene. 




G. C. B. Taylor. 








E. W. G. Williams. 
W. S. Greene. 
L. A. C. Cook. 
Henry Hall. 


/"Win. S. Greene. 
Henry Hall. 
P. H. S. Barrow. 
James M'K. Mac- 


fHenry Hall. 
P. H. S. Barrow. 
James M'K. Mac- 

wtiirtcr. 


Lieutenant 


P. H. S. Barrow. 
* J. C. Christie. 
James M'K. Mac- 
whirter. 
H. E. Kynaston. 


whirter. 
Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
Frederic M. Stow. 
Charles Edward 


i Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
Frederic M. Stow. 
Charles Edward 
Warde. 




F. M. Stow. 


Warde. 






C. E. Warde. 










A. M. Taylor. 


(A. M. Taylor. 






Eugene Dieudonne 


R. C. Gregg. 






Feraldi. 


H. M. A. Warde. 






Wm. Frederic H. 


Jno. Compton 


Sub. Lieutenant 




Yatman. 


Hanford-Flood. 






R. C. Gregg. 


Wm. E. Phillips. 






Henry Murray 


Stephen George 






Ashley Warde. 


( Wilson. 


Paymaster 


H. O. Currie. 


H. O. Currie. 


H. O. Currie. 


Riding Master . 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


George Couch. 


Quartermaster . 


Wm. Langdale. 


Wm. Langdale. 


Wm. Langdale. 


Surgeon . 


Benj. Burland. 


Benj. Burland. 


Benj. Burland. 


Asst. Surgeon . 


Edmund Vallance. 


Edmund Vallance. 




Vety. Surgeon . 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



295 





1875 


1876 


1877 


Colonel . 


John Yorke. 


John Yorke. 


John Yorke. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


C. V. Jenkins. 


Major 


f Henry C. Craigie. 
\Robert Baring. 


'Henry C. Craigie. 
Robert Baring. 


Henry C. Craigie. 


Captain . 


f R. T. P. Stapleton. 
C.M.S.Fairbrother 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
Chas. H. Fairlie. 
- A. G. Webster. 
John Biddulph. 
E. W.G.Williams. 
Wm. S. Greene. 
iHenry Hall. 


fR.T. P. Stapleton. 
C.M.S.Fairbrother 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
Chas. H. Fairlie. 
A. G. Webster. 
John Biddulph. 
E.W. G.Williams. 
Wm. S. Greene. 
Henry Hall. 
,P. H. S. Barrow. 


/'R. T. P. Stapleton. 
C.M.S.Fairbrother 
K. J. W. Coghill. 
Chas. H. Fairlie. 
A. G. Webster. 
John Biddulph. 
E.W. G.Williams. 
P. H. S. Barrow. 
H. W. R. Blackett. 
W.L. Twenty man. 








Hames M'Killop 


] 

Lieutenant 


/T. H. S. Barrow. 
James M'Killop 
Macwhirter. 
Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
Frederic M. Stow. 
Charles E. Warde. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 
J. D. P. French. 
w Ralph C. Gregg. 


f James M'Killop 
Macwhirter. 
Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
F. M. Kenyon-Stow, 
Charles E. Warde. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 
J. D. P. French. 
J.C.Hanford-Flood 
H. M. A. Warde. 
VD. R. Apthorp. 


Macwhirter. 
Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
F. M. Kenyon-Stow 
Charles E. Warde. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 
J. D. P. French. 
J.C.Hanford-Flood 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 
D. R. Apthorp. 
H. O'C. Henchy. 








..Maurice Wright. 


Sub. -Lieutenant 


fH. M. A. Warde. 
^ J.C.Hanford-Flood 
III. O'C. Henchy. 


/H. O'C. Henchy. 
\C. B. H. Jenkins. 


II. E. Reynolds. 


Paymaster 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Henry O. Currie. 


Riding Master . 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Quartermaster . 


John White. 


John White. 


John White. 


Medical Officer . 


B. Burland. 


B. Burland. 


B. Burland. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 



296 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1878 


1879 


1880 


Colonel . 


John Yorke. 


John Yorke. 


John Yorke. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


Henry C. Craigie. 


Henry C. Craigie. 


/Chas. M. S. Fair- 
\ brother. 


Major 


f Richard T. P. 
\ Stapleton. 


/Chas. M. S. Fair- 
\ brother. 


K. J. W. Coghill. 




'Chas. M. S. Fair- 


f K. J. W. Coghill. 


fChas. H. Fairlie. 




brother. 


Chas. H. Fairlie. 


A. G. Webster. 




K. J. W. Coghill. 


A. G. Webster. 


E. W. G. Williams 




Chas. H. Fairlie. 


E. W. G.Williams. 


P. H. S. Barrow, 




A. G. Webster. 


P. H. S. Barrow. 


C.M.G. 


Captain . 


E. W. G. Williams 
* Percy H. S. Barrow 


< H. W. R. Blackett. 
Wm. Lawrence 


< II. W. R. Blackett. 
| Wm. Lawrence 




H. W. R. Blackett 


Twentyman. 


Twentyman. 




Wm. Lawrence 
Twentyman. 


James M'Killop 
Macwhirter. 


James M'Killop 
Macwhirter. 




James M'Killop 


Clement Smith. 


Clement Smith. 




Macwhirter. 


W H. E. Kynaston. 


.H. E. Kynaston. 




^Clement Smith. 








H. E. Kynaston. 
Fred. M. Kenyon- 
Stow. 


fChas. E. Warde. 
Alex. M. Taylor, 


'Alex. M. Taylor. 


Lieutenant . 


Chas. E. Warde. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 
Jno. D. P. French. 
Jno. C. Hanford- 

Flnnrl 


Adj. 
Jno. D. P. French. 
Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
< C. B. H. Jenkins. 


Jno. D. P. French. 
Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 




-T 1UUC1. 

C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 
D. R. Apthorp. 
H. E. Reynolds. 
Hugh O'Connor 
Henchy. 


H. M. A. Warde. 
D. R. Apthorp. 
H. E. Reynolds. 
Hugh O'Connor 
Henchy. 
^Maurice Wright. 


D. R. Apthorp. 
H. E. Reynolds. 
Hugh O 'Connor 
Henchy. 
.Maurice Wright. 




^Maurice Wright. 












TDavid Edward D. 


Sub. Lieutenant 




( David Edward D. 
\ Barclay. 


Barclay. 
Jno. Douglas M. 
Guthrie. 








i^Fred. A. Freeman. 


Paymaster 


Henry O. Currie. 




Jas. O. Dalgleish. 


Riding- Master . 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Quartermaster . 


John White. 


John White. 


John White. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 


James Kettle. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



297 





1881 


1882 


1883 


Colonel . 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


rChas. M. S. Fair- 
\ brother. 


rChas. M. S. Fair- 
\ brother. 

(K.J.W. Coghiii. 


f Kendall J. W. 
Coghill, C.B. 
[A. G. Webster. 






{A. G. Webster. 


(Percy H. S. Bar- 


Major 


K. J. W. Coghill. 


Percy H. S. Bar- 
row, C.M. G. 
H. W. R. Blackett. 


row, C.M.G. 
H. W. R. Blackett. 
Clement Smith. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 


Captain . 


(A. G. Webster. 
Percy H. S. Bar- 
row, C.M.G. 
H. W. R. Blackett. 
W. L. Twentyman. 
Jas. M'K. Mac- 
whirter. 
Clement Smith. 
H. E. Kynaston. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 


/"Clement Smith. 
Alex. M. Taylor. 
1 J. D. P. French. 
I s Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 


'Jno. D. P. French. 
Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
< H. M. A. Warde. 
Dudley Richard 
Apthorp. 
H. E. Reynolds. 
William Pochin 




Jno. D. P. French. 




Warner. 








/H. O'C. Henchy. 








Maurice Wright. 






(H. M. A. Warde. 


D. E. D. Barclay. 




'Jno. C. Hanford- 


D. R. Apthorp. 


J. D. M. Guthrie. 




Flood. 


H. E. Reynolds. 


F. A. Freeman. 




C. B. H. Jenkins. 


Hugh O'Connor 


E. K. G. Aylmer. 




H. M. A. Warde. 


Henchy. 


Jno. Charles Ker 


Lieutenant 


D. R. Apthorp. 
H. E. Reynolds. 


Maurice Wright. 
" D. E. D. Barclay. 


Fox, Adj. 
* H. D. Fanshawe. 




Hugh O'Connor 


J. D. M. Guthrie. 


H. G. Marsh. 




Henchy. 


F. A. Freeman. 


J. C. A. Walker. 




Maurice Wright. 
D. E. D. Barclay. 


E. K. G. Aylmer. 
Jno. Charles Ker 


H. G. S. Young. 
W. S. Stanhope. 






Fox, Adj. 


H.G.De Pledge. 








G. O. Welch. 








V R. W. Nicholson. 


Second Lieut. . 


(J. D. M. Guthrie. 
-{ F. A. Freeman. 
IE. K. G. Aylmer. 






Paymaster 


J. O. Dalgleish. 


Jas. O. Dalgleish. 


D. C. O. Spiller. 


Riding Master . 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Robert Speirs. 


Quartermaster . 


John White. 


John White. 


John White. 


Vety. Surgeon . 


James Kettle. 







298 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1884 


1885 


1886 


Colonel 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


(A. G. Webster. 
{ Percy H. S. Bar- 


( Percy H. S. Bar- 
\ rovf,C.B.,C.M.G. 


r Percy H. S. Bar- 




[ rov/,C.M.G. 


[Alex. M. Taylor. 


\J. D! P.' French.' 


Major 


(H. W. R. Blackett. 
J Clement Smith. 
] Alex. M. Taylor. 
Ijno. D. P. French. 


( Clement Smith. 
Jno. D. P. French. 
\ Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
I^C. B. H. Jenkins. 


1 Clement Smith. 
Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 




'Jno. C. Hanford- 


( H. M. A. Warde. 


'D. R. Apthorp. 




Flood. 


D. R. Apthorp. 


E. K. G. Aylmer. 




C. B. H. Jenkins. 


E. K. G. Aylmer. 


J. C. K. Fox, Adj. 


Captain . 


- H. M. A. Warde. 


J. C. K. Fox, Adj. 


* B. R. Wilson. 




Dudley Richard 


Belford R. Wilson. 


H. D. Fanshawe. 




Apthorp. 


H. D. Fanshawe. 


Maurice Wright. 




D. E. D. Barclay. 


Maurice Wright. 


.H. G. Marsh. 








/Jno. C. A. Walker. 








H. G. S. Young. 








W. Spencer- Stan- 








hope. 


Lieutenant 


"Maurice Wright. 
F. A. Freeman. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
J. C. K. Fox, Adj. 
H. D. Fanshawe. 
Harry G. Marsh. 
Jno. C. A. Walker. 
H. G. S. Young. 
W. Spencer-Stan- 
hope. 
H. G. De Pledge. 
Geo. O. Welch. 
R. W. Nicholson. 
..Edward S. Craven. 


Harry G. Marsh. 
J. C. A. Walker. 
H. G. S. Young. 
W. Spencer-Stan- 
hope. 
H. G. De Pledge. 
G. O. Welch. 
- R. W. Nicholson. 
E. S. Craven. 
H. W. Boyce. 
H. J. M'Laughlin.' 
P. J. Zigomala. 
F. E. S. Swan. 
F. W. Clernentson. 
F. D. Barry. 


H. G. De Pledge. 
Geo. O. Welch. 
R. W. Nicholson. 
E. S. Craven. 
H. W. Boyce. 
H.J. M'Laughlin. 
P. J. Zigomala. 
'F. E. L. Swan. 
Francis Woodward 
Clementson. 
F. D. Barry. 
H. P. Levita. 
Jas. Wm. Gaily P. 
Jeffcock. 
Chas. Sydney W. 








Reeve. 








Slingsby Edward 








D. Cradock. 








Vere de Lone 








L Temple. 


Paymaster 




H. F. G. Webster. 


H. F. G. Webster. 


Riding Master . 


Wm. Francis. 


Wm. Francis. 


Wm. Francis. 


Quartermaster . 


John White. 


A. G. Lima. 


/W. T. Marshall, 

{ y.c. 


Vety. Surgeon . 









YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



299 





1887 


1888 


1889 


Colonel . 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 


John Yorke, C.B. 




f Boyce Albert 


f Boyce Albert 




Lieut. Colonel . 


Combe. 


Combe. 


Jno. D. P. French. 




Jno. D. P. French. 


Jno. D. P. French. 






( Jno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 


fjno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 


fjno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 


Major 


C. B. H. Jenkins. 


1 C. H. B. Jenkins. 


C. B. H. Jenkins. 




1 Henry M. A. 
^ Warde. 


Henry M. A. 
{ Warde. 


Henry M. A. 
\ Warde. 




fDudley Richard 
Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
Jno. C. K. Fox. 


'Dudley Richard 
Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
Jno. C. K. Fox. 


'Dudley Richard 
Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
Hew D. Fanshawe, 

AJj 


Captain . 


Hew D. Fanshawe, 
Adj. 
Maurice Wright. 
Harry G. Marsh. 
Ijno. C. A. Walker. 


Hew D. Fanshawe, 
Adj. 
Maurice Wright. 
Harry G. Marsh. 
Ijno. C. A. Walker. 


Aaj. 
Maurice Wright. 
Harry G. Marsh. 
Jno. C. A. Walker. 
Arthur Heywood 
Brooksbank. 




/Hugh G. S. Young 
f W. Spencer-Stan- 


/Hugh G. S. Young 
/W. Spencer-Stan- 


/Hugh G. S. Young 




hope. 


hope. 


W. Spencer-Stan- 




Harold G. de 


Harold G. de 


hope. 




Pledge. 


Pledge. 


Harold G. de 




George O. Welch. 


George O. W T elch. 


Pledge. 




Edward S. Craven. 


Edward S. Craven. 


George O. Welch. 




Hugh W. Boyce. 


Hugh W. Boyce. 


Edward S. Craven. 




H. J. M'Laughlin. 


H. J. M'Laughlin. 


Pandia J. Zigo- 




Pandia J. Zigo- 


Pandia J. Zigo- 


mala. 




mala. 


mala. 


Francis E. L. S wan. 


Lieutenant 


\ Francis E. L. Swan 


Francis E.L.Swan. 


Francis W. Cle- 




Francis W. Cle- 


Francis W. Cle- 


mentson. 




mentson. 


mentson. 


Fred. D. Barry. 




Fred. D. Barry. 
Harry P. Levita. 


Fred. D. Barry. 
Harry P. Levita. 


Harry P. Levita. 
Jas. W. G. P. Jeff- 




Jas. W. G. P. Jeff- 


Jas. W. G. P. Jeff- 


cock. 




cock. 


cock. 


Chas. S. W. Reeve 




Chas. S. W. Reeve 


Chas. S. W. Reeve 


Slingsby E. D. 




Slingsby E. D. 


Slingsby E. D. 


Cradock. 




Cradock. 


Cradock. 


Vere de Lone 




V Vere de Lone 


i Vere de Lone 


\ Temple. 




\ Temple. 


\ Temple. 




Paymaster 


H. F. G. Webster 


Herbert H. Gilbert 


Capt. H. G. Marsh. 


Riding Master . 


William Pilley. 


William Pilley. 


William Pilley. 


Quartermaster . 


/W. T. Marshall, 

1 v.c. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C. 



300 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1890 


1891 


1892 


Colonel . 


fCooteSyngeHutch- 
V inson, Lt. Gen. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


J. D. P. French. 


J. D. P. French. 


J. D. P. French. 


Major 


H. C. Hanford- 
1 Flood. 
1 C. B. H. Jenkins. 
[H. M. A. Warde. 


(J. C. Hanford- 
| Flood. 
1 C. B. H. Jenkins. 
IK. M. A. Warde. 


IJ. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 
D. R. Apthorp. 








'E. K. G. Aylmer. 




D. R. Apthorp. 


D. R. Apthorp. 


H. D. Fanshawe. 




E. K. G. Aylmer. 


E. K. G. Aylmer. 


Harry G. Marsh. 




H. D. Fanshawe, 


H. D. Fanshawe. 


J. C. A. Walker. 


Captain . 


Adj. 


Harry G. Marsh. 


A. H. Brooksbank. 




Harry G. Marsh. 


' J. C. A. Walker. 


' H. G. S. Young. 




J. C. A. Walker. 


A. H. Brooksbank. 


H. G. de Pledge, 




A. H. Brooksbank. 
H. G. S. Young. 


H. G. S. Young. 
H. G. de Pledge. 


Adj. 
Pandia J. Zigo- 








mala. 




'W. Spencer-Stan- 


'Pandia J. Zigo- 


f Fred. D. Barry. 
J. W. G. P. Jeff- 




hope. 
H. G. de Pledge. 
Pandia J. Zigo- 
mala. 


Fred. D. Barry. 
Harry P. Levita. 
J. W. G. P. Jeff- 


cock. 
Vere de Lone 
Temple. 
Eustace T. Hill. 


Lieritenant 


F. E. L. Swan. 
Fred. D. Barry. 
Harry P. Levita. 
J. W. G. P. Jeff- 
cock. 


cock. 
< Vere de Lone 
Temple. 
Eustace T. Hill. 
Alfred Jennings- 

T> l" 


Alfred Jennings- 
Bramly. 
Philip W. Chet- 
wode. 
H. V. Thomson. 




Vere de Lone 
Temple. 


Bramly. 
Philip W. Chet- 


Rupert M. Ross- 
Johnson. 






,, wodc. 


,H. R. Grafton. 


2nd Lieutenant. 


"Eustace T. Hill. 
Alfred Jennings- 
Bramly. 
Philip Walhouse 
Chetwode. 


/H. V. Thomson. 
XF. W. Mussenden. 


(A. J. Mosely. 
A. L. Powell. 
G. J. F. Lidwill. 
G. A. Egerton. 
Robert F. Cox. 
C. V. Henderson. 
M.G.E.Woodmass 








E. S. St. Quintin. 


Paymaster 








Riding Master . 


William Pilley. 


William Pilley. 


W. F. G. Percy. 


Quartermaster . 


/W. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
X V.C. 


/W. T. Marshall, 

X v.c. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



301 





1893 


1894 


1895 


Colonel 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


Jno. D. P. French. 


/Jno. C. Hanford- 
X Flood. 


/Jno. C. Hanford- 
X Flood. 




IJno. C. Hanford- 
Flood. 


"C. B. H. Jenkins. 
Dudley Richard 


(C.B.H.Wolseley- 
Jenkins. 


Major 


C. B. H. Jenkins. 
H. M. A. Warde. 
D. R. Apthorp. 


Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
H. D. Fanshawe. 


\ D. R. Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
[H. D. Fanshawe. 




[E. K. G. Aylmer. 


C H. G. Marsh. 






H. D. Fanshawe. 
H. G. Marsh. 
Jno. C. A. Walker. 


J. C. A. Walker. 
Arthur H. Brooks- 
bank. 


H. G. Marsh. 
Jno. C. A. Walker. 
H. G. S. Young. 


Captain . 


< A. H. Brooksbank. 
H. G. S. Young. 
Harold G. de 
Pledge, Adj. 
.P. J. Zigomala. 


Hugh G. S. Young. 
Harold G. de 
Pledge, Adj. 
P. J. Zigomala. 
.F. D. Barry. 


Harold G. de 
' Pledge, Adj. 
P. J. Zigomala. 
Adam Brack-Boyd- 
Wilson. 






fjames W. G. P. 


'Eustace T. Hill. 






Jeffcock. 


Alfred Jennings- 




'Frederic D. Barry. 


Eustace T. Hill. 


Bramly, Adj. 




James W. G. P. 


Alfred Jennings- 


P. W. Chetwode. 




Jeffcock. 


Bramly. 


A. J. Moseley. 




Eustace T. Hill. 


P. W. Chetwode. 


A. L. Powell. 


Lieutenant 


Alfred Jennings- 
Bramly. 


A. J. Moseley. 
A. L. Powell. 


G. A. Egerton. 
Robert F. Cox. 




P. W. Chetwode. 


G. A. Egerton. 


C. V. Henderson. 




H. V. Thomson. 


R. F. Cox. 


M.G.E. Woodmass. 




A. J. Mosely. 


Carlisle V. Hen- 


E. S. St. Quintin. 




,A. L. Powell. 


derson. 


W.R. P. Stapleton- 






Montague G. E. 


Cotton. 






Woodmass. 


,A. R. Armstrong. 




(G. J. F. Lidwill. 








Geo. A. Egerton. 


(G. J. F. Lidwill. 






Robert F. Cox. 


E. S. St. Quintin. 


'N. F. Uniacke. 




C. V. Henderson. 


W. R. P. Staple- 


M. Archer-Shee. 




Montague G. E. 


ton-Cotton. 


A. J. Campbell. 


2nd Lieutenant. 


Woodmass. 


A. R. Armstrong. 


* G. D. Franks. 




E. S. St. Quintin. 


N. F. Uniacke. 


S. S. Binny. 




Wellington R. P. 


Martin Archer- 


H. A. Porter. 




Stapleton-Cotton. 


Shee. 


J. F. Ritchie. 




A. R. Armstrong. 


.A. J. Campbell. 






IN. F. Uniacke. 






Paymaster 


(Lt. A. Jennings- 
X Bramly (acting). 


/ Lt. A. Jennings- 
X Bramly (acting). 


fA. L. Powell 
X (acting). 


Riding Master . 


fW. F. G. Percy, 
\ Hon. Lieut. 


|W. F. G. Percy, 
X Hon. Lieut. 


(W. F. G. Percy, 
X Hon. Lieut. 


Quartermaster . 


/W. T. Marshall, 
X V.C.,Hon.Liettt. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
X V.C., Hon. Lieut. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
X V.C., Hon. Lieut. 



3 02 



THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 





1896 


1897 


1898 


Colonel . 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


C. S. Hutchinson. 


Lieut. Colonel . 


fj. C. Hanford- 
X Flood. 


fj. C. Hanford- 
\ Flood. 


f C. B. H.Wolseley- 
\ Jenkins. 


Major 


rC. B. H.Wolseley- 
Jenkins. 
| D. R. Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
l^H. D. Fanshawe. 


1C. B. H.Wolseley- 
Jenkins. 
D. R. Apthorp. 
E. K. G. Aylmer. 
H. D. Fanshawe. 


(E. K. G. Aylmer. 
1 D. R. Apthorp. 
j H. D. Fanshawe. 
\.Harry G. Marsh. 


Captain . 


( Harry G. Marsh. 
J. C. A. Walker. 
H. G. S. Young. 
H. G. de Pledge. 
Pandia J. Zigo- 


( Harry G. Marsh. 
J. C. A. Walker. 
H. G. S. Young. 
H. G. de Pledge. 
- Pandia J. Zigo- 


/H. G. S. Young. 
H. G. de Pledge. 
Pandia J. Zigo- 
mala. 
Eustace T. Hill. 




mala. 
A. Brack-Boyd- 


1113,13.* 

A. Brack-Boyd- 
Wilson. 


Alfred Jennings- 
Bramly, Adj. 




Wilson. 


.Eustace T. Hill. 


P. W. Chetwode. 




/'Eustace T. Hill. 


'Arthur Jennings- 






Arthur Jennings- 


Bramly, Adj. 


'A. L. Powell. 




Bramly, Adj. 


P. W. Chetwode. 


G. A. Egerton. 




P. W. Chetwode. 


A. L. Powell. 


Robert F. Cox. 




A. L. Powell. 


G. A. Egerton. 


M.G.E.Woodmass 




G. A. Egerton. 


Robert F. Cox. 


E. S. St. Quintin. 


Lieutenant 


< Robert F. Cox. 


< C. V. Henderson. 


- W.R.P.Stapleton- 




C. V. Henderson. 


M.G. E.Woodmass 


Cotton. 




M.G.E.Woodmass 


E. S. St. Quintin. 


A. R. Armstrong. 




E. S. St. Quintin. 


W.R.P. Stapleton- 


N. F. Uniacke. 




W.R.P.Stapleton- 


Cotton. 


M. Archer-Shee. 




Cotton. 


A. R. Armstrong. 


{A, J. Campbell. 




A. R. Armstrong. 


JN". F. Uniacke. 






fN. F. Uniacke. 


'M. Archer-Shee. 


'G. D. Franks. 




M. Archer-Shee. 


A. J. Campbell. 


Steuart S. Binny. 




A. J. Campbell. 


G. D. Franks. 


H. A. Porter. 


2nd Lieutenant. 


H G. D. Franks. 


Steuart S. Binny. 


- WJ.R.Wingfield. 




Steuart S. Binny. 


H. A. Porter. 


Arthur Holford. 




H. A. Porter. 


W.J.R.Wingfield. 


Walter Pepys. 




James F. Ritchie. 


_ Arthur Holford. 


Lionel K. D'Arcy. 


Paymaster 


/A. L. Powell 
\ (acting"). 


fA. L. Powell 
\ (acting}. 


|A. L. Powell 
\ (acting}. 


Riding Master . 


|W. F. G. Percy, 
X Hon. Lieut. 


fW. F. G. Percy, 
\ Hon. Lieut. 


(W. F. G. Percy, 
\ Hon. Lieut. 


Quartermaster . 


/W. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C.,Hon.Lieut. 


fW. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C.,Hon.Lieut. 


/W. T. Marshall, 
\ V.C.^Hon.Lieut. 



YEARLY LISTS OF THE OFFICERS 



303 



1899 



Colonel 
Lieut. Colonel 

Major 
Captain . 



Lieutenant 



2nd Lieutenant , 

Paymaster. 
Riding Master . 
Quartermaster . 



C. S. Hutchinson. 



C. B. H. Wolseley-Jenkins. 



:E. K. G. Aylmer. 
D. R. Apthorp. 
H. D. Fanshawe. 
Harry G. Marsh. 



'H. G. S. Young. 
H. G. de Pledge. 
A. Jennings-Bramly. 
P. W. Chetwode. 
A. L. Powell. 



G. A. Egerton. 

Robert F. Cox. 

M. G. E. Woodmass. 

E. S. St. Quintin. 

W. R. P. Stapleton-Cotton. 

M. Archer- Shee, Adj. 

A. J. Campbell. 

G. D. Franks. 

Steuart S. Binny. 

H. A. Porter. 

W. J. R. Wingfield. 



'A. Hoi ford. 
L. K. D'Arcy. 
W. A. Orlebar. 
A. W. Parsons. 
O. M. Croshaw. 
. H. Fanshawe. 



W. F. G. Percy, Hon. Lieut. 

W. T. Marshall, V.C., Hon. Caff. 



3 o 4 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



APPENDIX B. 

CASUALTIES IN THE NINETEENTH HUSSARS DURING 
THE EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1882. 



f H. C. Holland (at 
Lieutenant . \ 

I D. E. D. Barclay, 



Wounded. 

ttached), 6th September. 
1 3th September. 



APPENDIX C 305 



APPENDIX C. 

SPECIAL HONOURS GRANTED TO NINETEENTH 
HUSSARS FOR EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1882. 

Companionship of the Bath. 
Lieutenant Colonel K. J. W. Coghill. 

Order of the Medjidie (4th Class}. 
Captain J. C. Hanford- Flood. 

Order of the Osmanieh (4th Class). 

Lieutenant Colonel A. G. Webster. 

Major A. M. Taylor. 

Brevets. 

Major A. M. Taylor to be Lieutenant Colonel. 
Captain J. C. Hanford-Flood to be Major. 

Mentioned in Dispatches. 

Coghill. 



f K. J. W. 
\ A. G. W 

Captain J. C. Hanford-Flood. 



Lieutenant Colonel , 

Webster. 



U 



3 o6 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



APPENDIX D. 

CASUALTIES IN THE NINETEENTH HUSSARS DURING 
THE CAMPAIGN NEAR SUAKIN, 1884. 



Killed 



EL TEE (29th February). 



Captain 
Sergeant 

Corporal 

Lance Corporal 
Trumpeter . 

Private 



Wounded 



Lieutenant Colonel 

Captain 

Troop Sergeant Major 

Sergeant 

Saddler 

Corporal 



F. A. Freeman. 
fF. Keith. 

H. Grey. 

LW. D. Brown (died of wounds). 
CH. Ibbott. 
tP. Hughes. 

C. Maney. 

R. Fanning (died of wounds). 
rH. Cottle. 

C. Singleton. 

H. Williams. 

W. Wilkinson. 

P. Webb. 

S. Garside (died of wounds). 



P. H. S. Barrow. 
C. B. H. Jenkins. 
T. Taylor. 
H. Phipps. 
J. Ferguson. 
C. Masters. 



Private . 



rH. Reeves. 

D. C. Price. 

E. Fitzpatrick. 
A. Hubbard. 
J. Bartley. 

J. Todd. 

J. Sankey. 

T. O'Connor Lee. 



F. Floyd. 

J. Waitt. 

W. Hollinshead. 

F. Hainning. 

W. Lennon. 

R. Shepperd. 

J. Raines. 

E. R. Cheeseman. 



Killed 

Private 

Wounded 



Lance Corporal 
Private 



TAMAI (i3th March). 
W. Page. 



R. Williams. 
T. Hamilton. 



APPENDIX E 



307 



APPENDIX E. 

SPECIAL HONOURS GRANTED TO NINETEENTH 
HUSSARS FOR CAMPAIGN NEAR SUAKIN, 1884. 

Companionship of the Bath. 
Lieutenant Colonel . . 



Mentioned in Dispatches. 



Lieutenant Colonel . . 

Major ..... J. C. Hanford- Flood. 

Captain . . . . C. B. H. Jenkins. 

Regimental Sergeant Major A. G. Lima. 

Quarter Master Sergeant . W. Marshall. 

Troop Sergeant Major . T. Taylor. 



Secant . 

Private J. Bosely. 

Victoria Cross. 
Quarter Master Sergeant . William T. Marshall. 

Distinguished Service Medal. 
Troop Sergeant Major . T. Taylor. 
Secant { 

Private . . . . J. Boseley. 



3 o8 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



APPENDIX F. 

ADDRESS TO NINETEENTH HUSSARS BY MAJOR 
GENERAL G. GRAHAM, C.B., V.C. TRINKITAT, 
5TH MARCH 1884. 

"COLONEL WEBSTER, 

" I congratulate you on the efficient 
state of your Regiment, and I wish to express my high 
appreciation of the conduct of the officers, non-com- 
missioned officers and men who have displayed unceasing 
energy in the discharge of their duties. From the com- 
mencement of the campaign, no other regiment has 
done more valuable service, or displayed greater dash 
and daring, than the ipth Hussars, especially on the 
2pth February. I wish to convey to the officers, non- 
commissioned officers and men, my high opinion of 
their conduct, and, before leaving, I wish the regiment 
every success in its future career." 



ADDRESS TO NINETEENTH HUSSARS BY BRIGADIER 
GENERAL H. STEWART. TRINKITAT, STH MARCH 

1884. 

" COLONEL WEBSTER, OFFICERS, NON-COMMISSIONED 
OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE IQTH HUSSARS, 

"It affords me great pleasure to thank you for the 
valuable services you have rendered during the campaign, 
especially on the 2pth February at Fort Teb, where you 
displayed extreme coolness, unparalleled courage and fear- 
lessness and cheerful and ready obedience to orders, when 
under a heavy fire, and surrounded by an almost innumer- 
able foe. As a cavalry officer I had not the chance to 
notice each act of bravery as others had, but the conduct 
of the regiment, and its steadiness and boldness were 



APPENDIX F 309 

noticed by several Infantry Officers who were better able 
to see and judge than I, and who have spoken to me in 
the highest possible terms of the way in which it dis- 
charged its difficult duties. 

" Your loss has been heavy, but your victory has been 
sure. I mourn the fate of my comrades in arms, and of 
your second in command Lieut. Colonel Barrow. 

" I had heard of your drill, and I proved the efficiency 
of the regiment when it was on the Curragh, and its 
present state of efficiency is admirable. Words are in- 
adequate to convey to you how much I would wish to 
thank you, but I do thank you from the bottom of my 
heart." 




3 io THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



APPENDIX G. 

CASUALTIES IN THE NINETEENTH HUSSARS 
DURING THE SOUDAN CAMPAIGN OF 1885. 

ABU KLEA (i6th and iyth January). 
Killed 

Corporal . . . . J. Walker. 

Private . . . . W. Purton. 

Wounded 

Farrier Sergeant . . . J. Short. 

Whitefield 
Private 



{}. Whitefie; 
. \ C. Ray. 
Ij. Whelan. 



ABU KROU (i9th January). 
Killed 

Quartermaster . . . A. G. Lima. 

Wounded 

p . . /D. Godfrey. 

Pnva * ' ' ' '\J. Pullan. 



ABU KLEA (i7th February). 

Killed 

Sergeant .... Horwood. 



OPERATIONS NEAR SUAKIN (3rd February). 
Killed- 

Lance Corporal . . . 



Private 



W. Campbell. 
W. Cooper. 
B. Coppstone. 
P. King. 
T. Rafferty. 
St. Clair. 



APPENDIX H 311 



APPENDIX H. 

SPECIAL HONOURS GRANTED TO NINETEENTH 
HUSSARS FOR SOUDAN CAMPAIGN, 1885. 

Order of the Medjidie (tfh Class). 
Major C. B. H. Jenkins. 

Order of the Osmanieh {<\th Class}. 
Lieutenant Colonel J. C. Hanford-Flood. 

Brevets. 

Lieutenant Colonel . P. H. S. Barrow to be Colonel. 

Major . . . J. C. H. Flood to be Lieutenant Colonel. 

Mentioned in Dispatches. 

P. H. S. Barrow. 



Lieutenant Colonel . ,___,_ 

J. D. P. French. 

Major . . J. C. Hanford-Flood. 

Captain . . . J. C. Ker Fox. 

Troop Sergeant Major W. T. Beale. 

Sergeant . . R. O, Chislett. 

Distinguished Service Medal. 

Troop Sergeant Major W. T. Beale. 
Sergeant . . R. O. Chislett. 

Corporal ... P. Breslan. 
W. Woolley. 



Lance Corporal . 

' H. Baker. 

Private , . , W. Lennon 



3 i a THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



APPENDIX I. 

ADDRESS TO NINETEENTH HUSSARS BY GENERAL 
LORD WOLSELEY, G.C.B. KORTI, 23RD MARCH 
1885. 

" I am very much pleased with your general appearance 
and smart turn out this afternoon, which reflects great 
credit upon the Regiment. 

" I know the wear and tear to which your clothing and 
equipment has been put, and your appearance to-day is 
highly creditable ; but I tell you what is more creditable, 
and that is the admirable manner in which you have done 
your work during the campaign, both with the River and 
Desert Column. The late Genl. Sir H. Stewart told me, 
after the campaign of 1884 in the Eastern Soudan, of the 
good work you did there, and said that there was no 
regiment of cavalry in Her Majesty's Service which knew 
its work more thoroughly, or could have performed it 
better than the iQth Hussars, and that you were everything 
a Hussar regiment should be. 

" He was no bad judge, and I know you will value what 
he said. 

" I for my part have heard this opinion confirmed on all 
sides, during the campaign, and, from what I have person- 
ally seen of you, I believe it to be true. Your success is 
due not only to the Officers and Non - Commissioned 
Officers, who have taught you, and who lead you, but to 
the Private Soldiers, each one of whom knows his work as a 
Cavalry Soldier, and does his duty so thoroughly. 

" This is of the highest importance in a Light Cavalry 
Regiment, and you have proved its value. You have 
several months of hot weather in front of you, but I know 
you will face it cheerfully, as your duty ; and I hope that 
you will keep well, so that when the autumn comes, and 
we advance on Khartoum, I may see the ipth Hussars 
leading the way, and giving a good account of the enemy, 
as they have done before. 

" I shall have very much pleasure in reporting to 
H.R.H. the Field Marshal Commanding in Chief what I 
have told you to-day." 



APPENDIX K 313 



APPENDIX K 



REPORT BY COLONEL BARROW ON THE ARAB 
HORSES RIDDEN BY THE NINETEENTH 
HUSSARS DURING THE NILE CAMPAIGN OF 
1885. 

Description of Horse. 

Arab stallion. Average height, 14 hands ; average age, 
8 years to 9 years ; some 15 per cent, over 12 years ; 
bought by Egyptian Government in Syria and Lower 
Egypt ; average price, 1 8/. 

Work done previous to Campaign. 

Some 50 per cent, had been through the campaign in 
the Eastern Soudan with the iQth Hussars in February 
and March 1884, and returned in a very exhausted state, 
and about 10 per cent, had been at Tel-el-Kebir. 

In June 1884 the whole number were taken by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor, with the Egyptian Cavalry, 
from Cairo to Assouan in barges, and remained there for 
two months. 

In September 1884 they were marched by Major 
Grenfell from Assouan to Wady Haifa, 210 miles, and 
there awaited the arrival of the igth Hussars. 350 of 
these ponies were handed over to the ipth Hussars on 
1 3th November 1884, all except some 10 per cent, being 
in a very fair marching condition, 



3 i4 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 

The March up the Nile. 

The 1 9th Hussars marched by squadrons from Wady 
Haifa to Korti, distance 360 miles. Average daily march 
about 1 6 miles, not including halts. 

Halts were made for one day at Absarat, one day at 
Dongola, and two days at Shabadood when crossing the 
river. 

The ration was supposed to be 8 Ib. of grain, barley or 
dhourra, and 10 Ib. of dhourra stalk ; but owing to scarcity 
of grain, the horses generally received about 6 Ib. of grain 
and 10 Ib. of dhourra stalks. 

They arrived at Korti in very good condition. 



Halt at Korti. 

The horses remained at Korti from 2Oth December to 
7th January, and received 8 Ib. green dhourra stalk daily 
instead of dry stalk. They improved during the halt at 
Korti. 

On the 3Oth December 40 horses proceeded to Jakdul, 
100 miles, and performed the reconnaissance duties of the 
column. The march to Jakdul was performed in 63 
hours, 15 hours' rest there, and the return journey in 63 
hours. Six horses returned the 100 miles in 46 hours ; the 
last 50 miles in *j\ hours. 

During the 141 hours of this march the horses were 
ridden for 83 hours. 



Desert March. 

From the 8th to the ipth of January, the ipth Hussars, 
strength as below, marched across the desert with General 
Sir H. Stewart's Column : 

Officers 8 

Men 127 

Horses 155 

In addition, therefore, to one extra horse for each 
Officer, there were 12 spare horses. 

The following table will show the daily work performed 
and amount of food and water given daily to each horse. 



APPENDIX K 315 

The 40 horses referred to in previous paragraph 
returned to Korti on the 5th, and started again on the 8th, 
as fit as any horses in the troop. 

There was not one casualty out of the 40 : 



Date. 


Time of March. 


No. of 
Hours. 


No. of 
Miles. 


When Watered. 


Amount 
of 
Water. 


Food 
Grain. 


Janry. 8th 


2 p.m. to 6 p.m. . 


4 


16 






6' 


9th{ 


2.45 a.m. to loa.m. 
2 p.m. to 6 p.m. . 


4 


16 


10.30 a.m. . 
6. 15 p.m. . 


I* gal. 


} 6 


f 


3 a.m. to 9 am. 


6 


24 






\ 


lOthj 


12.15 p.m. to 4.30 
p.m. . 


J4i 


17 


4.45 p.m. . 


igal. 


\ 6 


nthj 


3.30 a.m. to 12.30 
p.m. . 


I 9 


36 


12.45 p.m. . 


F'ldr'nk 


6 


( 








9 a.m. 




\ 


,, 1 2th-! 


12.30 p.m. to 4.30 
p.m. . 


} 4 


16 


4.45 p.m. . 


,, 


J 6 


i3th 


Halt at Gakdul . 


... 




/8.30 a.m., 
\ 4.45 p.m. . 


} - 


6 




... 


... 


... 


6a.m., i p.m. 





) 




2.30 p.m. to 6.30 


\ 








[ 6 




p.m. . 


j 4 






... 


J 




5 a.m to 10 a.m. . 
1.30 p.m. to 6 p.m. 


Jj 


20 

18 


10.30 a.m. . 


1^ gal. 


} = 


i6th 


4.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. 


n^ 


40 


6 p.m. 


igal. 


4 


,, i 7th 


8 a.m. to 4 p.m. , 


8 


32 


4 p.m. 


2 gal. 


4 


, f 








7 a.m. 


I gal. 


.j 


fSth-J 


4 p.m. to 12 p.m. . 


8 


32 






... 


, / 


12 p.m. to 9 a.m. . 


9 


36 


... 


... 


i 


5? iyiiJ"\ 


9 a.m. to 12 noon . 


21 










,, 20th | 


12 noon to i p.m. . 


13 


... 

4 


2 p.m. 


F'ldr'nk 














j 





It will be seen from the above table, that the average 
forage ration for the first 10 days was about 5 lb. to 6 lb. 
of grain, and 2 gallons of water, the horses performing 31 
miles daily, not counting one day's halt. 

When the final advance was made on Matammeh, the 
horses marched to the Nile without having received a drop 
of water for 5 5 hours, and only I lb. of grain. Some 1 5 to 
20 horses received no water for 70 hours. 

The Halt at Gubat. 



During the period, 2Oth January to I4th February, the 
horses received no grain, but were fed on dhourra stalk, 



316 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 

or green dhourra stalk, about 8 Ib. daily ; two days before 
marching they received 6 Ib. of grain. 

They performed outpost and patrol duty, averaging 
some 8 miles daily. Under the above conditions the 
horses recovered from the effort made during the desert 
march, but many were in a weak state. 



Return to Korti and Dongola. 

The first 75 miles, the horses performed the whole 
distance on 4 Ib. of grain and 3 gallons of water, the 
remainder of the journey water was plentiful, and the 8 Ib. 
of grain was supplied. Two marches of over 40 miles were 
performed, which shows that the horses were still able to 
march. After two weeks' rest at Korti, the horses marched 
strong and well to Dongola and other stations, receiving 
plenty of food and water, and after two months' halt they 
were in quite as good condition as when they left Wady 
Haifa. 



The Return March Dongola to Wady Haifa. 

On the return march to Wady Haifa the distance, 
some 250 miles, was performed at the average rate of some 
1 6 miles a day, with one halt for two days. 

The marching was done mostly at night, but the horses 
were generally exposed to a hot sun all day, as there was 
not much shelter for them under the palm trees. 

Except two fractures from kicks, no horses were lost or 
left on the line of march. 

The horses were conveyed from Wady Haifa to 
Assouan in barges, and after two weeks' rest at Assouan 
were handed over to the 2oth Hussars in quite as good 
order as when they left Wady Haifa nine months 
previously. 

The attached statement gives a list of casualties. 

I think it may be considered a most remarkable 
circumstance, that out of 350 horses during nine months 
on a hard campaign, only 12 died from disease. 

This result must be attributed to the two facts : 

i. That the climate of the Soudan is most suitable 
for horses. 



APPENDIX K 317 

2. That the Syrian horse has a wonderful constitu- 
tion, and is admirably suited for warfare in an 
eastern climate. 

Conclusion. 

The distance actually marched from point to point, not 
taking any account of reconnaissances, &c., was over 1500 
miles. 

The weight carried was reduced to the minimum, but 
averaged about 14 stone. The weather during the last 
four months of the campaign was trying. Food was often 
very limited, and during the desert march water very scarce. 
Under the above conditions, I venture to think that the 
performances of the regiment on the Arab ponies, will 
compare with the performance of any horsemen on record. 



Casualty Return of Arab ponies, igtk (Princess of Wales' 
Own) Hussars, \lth November 1884 to is t July 1885. 



SUMMARY. 



Killed in action 
Destroyed 
Drowned . 
Missing . 
Died 



Total 



20 

37 
i 
i 

12 

71 



DISEASE. 



Bullet wounds 
Exhaustion 
Fractures . 
Paralysis . 
Enteritis . 
Farcy 
Purpura hsemorrhagica 
Rupture of intestine . 
Rupture of stomach . 
Saddle gall 
Colic spasmodic 
Missing . 
Drowned . 



23 

31 

7 



Total 



3 i8 THE NINETEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS 



Casualty Return of Arab Ponies, \gth {Princess of Wales* 
Own} Hussars, from \^th November 1884, to 1st July 
1885, showing the period during which the horses died. 



Period. 


Number of 
horses 
effective. 


Destroyed or 
died from 
debility and 
exhaustion. 


Destroyed or 
died from 
other causes. 


Killed in 
action. 


Wady Haifa to Korti, I3th 










November to 8th January . 


350 


... 


5 




Korti to Matammeh and back, 










8th January to 8th March . 


155 


19 


5 


20 


At Korti, 8th January to 8th 










March .... 


73 




2 


... 


With River Column, 1st Janu- 










ary to 8th March 


107 


3 


I 




Korti, Dongola, and other 










Stations, 9th March to 2oth 












34.7 








Dongola, Assouan, 2 1st June 


JTV 








to ist July 1885 . 


380 


... 


2 




Total deaths 


... 


27 


24 


20 



A few practical lessons learnt. 

1. When water was limited to two gallons or less it was 
given in small quantities, not all at once. Even one pint 
to the horses, or just enough to moisten their mouths, 
enabled them to come up to time again. On one occasion, 
late at night, the horses were much exhausted we were 
35 miles from water, and less than one pint left per horse 
the horses could not eat, their mouths were so parched. 
I had a sack of dhourra meal, and with the water made a 
number of moist balls of meal. These balls revived the 
horses, and they marched on their 35 miles next morning. 
I obtained this hint, previous to the campaign, from General 
V. Baker, who told me that the Turkomans used to carry 
in skins balls of grease, or oil and meal. 

2. The horses were saved on every possible occasion, 
and by every possible device. The men never sat on their 
horses' backs for a moment longer than necessary. Marches 



APPENDIX K 319 

in column were avoided, extended line being used, so that 
each horse had pure air to breathe ; when picketed, horses 
always had plenty of room and their heads to the breeze ; 
when possible, they were washed two or three times a week, 
which tended much towards their healthy condition. 

3. Several horses were severely wounded, but recovered 
rapidly, although in a very exhausted condition. 

4. The horses were fed, whenever possible, on the grass 
of the Bayuda Desert. This grass was very dry. The 
horses chewed it, but ate very little. During the last few 
days of the march to Matammeh, there was no opportunity 
for giving the horses any grass. 

On several occasions, tins of mouldy biscuit, unfit for 
issue to the men, were obtained from the Commissariat, 
and the biscuit given to the horses. 

They ate this greedily and worked on it. 



P. H. S. BARROW, 

Lieut, -Colonel, igth Hussars. 



CAIRO, ist August 1885. 



INDEX 



ABERCROMBY, Gen., 68, 80, 90, 94 

Aboukir, 235 

Abu Dom, 260 

Abu Hamed, 256, 259 

Abu Klea, action at, 249-251, 255 

Abu Krou, 253 

Abu Kussi, 260 

Adams, Major Gen., 46 

Affleck, Major, 70 

Agra, 134, 135, 227 

Ahmednugger, 132, 133, 134; cap- 
tured. 136 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of, I 

Ajunta Pass, 137, 138, 148, 149 

Akola, 149 

Aldborough, n 

Aldershot, 229, 266 

Alexandria, 234 

Allahabad, 133, 134, 222, 227 

Alyghur, 132, 134 

Amboor, 82 

Ameer Khan, 115 

America, War in, 10, 19 

Amherstberg, 176, 179 

Ancaster, 180, 209 

Anstey, Robert, 28 

Apthorp, Capt., 261 

Arabi Pasha, 233 ; his rebellion, 233 ; 
number of men, 235 ; surrenders, 

A 238 

Arcot, 52, 124 

Argaum, 135, 149; battle of, 150-152 
Arikera, 88 ; battle of, 89 
Armstrong, J. W., 229 
Armstrong, Major William, 231 
Army, increase of the, 3, II ; size of 

letters, in 
Arnee, 31, 72, 78, 80; battle of, 23; 

mutiny at, 51 
Arrekeery, 124 
Arthur, Lieut. Sir G., 232 
Assaye, battle of, 131, 135, 138-144, 

154; village, 137, 140 



Asseerghur, 135, 149 

Assiout, 263 

Assouan, 263 

Assyrian Monarch, 234, 236 

Athy, 158 

Aurungabad, 137, 148, 149 

Austria, coalition with France, 2 

Avaracoorchi, 69 

Aylmer, Lieut., 234 

BADAJOZ, 173 

Badges, 113, 156, 217, 246, 264, 266 

Baillie, Colonel, 20 

Baird, Major Gen. Sir David, 58, 108 

Baker, Fort, 241 

Baker, Major Gen., 240, 241 

Balasore, 133, 135 

Baltimore, 214 

Bangalore, 82, 94, 107, 266; captured, 

87 

Barabuttee, 135 
Baramahal, 78 
Barclay, Lieut., 238 
Baring, Capt. R., 226 
Baroda, 126, 133 
Barrington, 27; Sir Jonah, 158; Mr, 

158 

Barrow, Major Gen. Lousada, 264 
Barrow, Lieut. Col., 241, 242, 243, 247, 

249, 253, 254, 319; death, 264, 309 
Barrow, Cornet S. D., 226 
Bassein, Treaty of, 129 
Bateman, Private Jonas, 30 
Bayly, Lieut., 70 
Beat son's Mysore War, extract from, 

no, note 

Beaver Dam, 182 
Beccles, 15 

Beckwith, Lieut. John, 24, 28 
Bednore, 36, 115 
Begum Somroo, 148 
Belbeis, 238 
Belfast, 231 



322 



INDEX 



Belleisle, siege of, 64 
Benares, 133, 227 
Benedict, 213 

Bengal, ist European Light Cavalry, 
formation of, 222 ; services trans- 
ferred to the Crown, 223 ; the 
" White Mutiny," 224 ; at Cawnpore, 
225 ; designated igth Light Dra- 
goons, 225 ; igth Hussars, 226 
Berber, 246 
Bhagelcottah, 120 

Bhonslay, Rajah of Berar, 126, 130, 
148 ; encamped at Argaum, 149 ; 
defeated, 152; sues for peace, 153 
Bhowani river, 69 

Bickerton, Vice-Adm. Sir R., 29, 36 
Biddulph, Lieut. J., 226 
Bird, 257 

Bisshopp, Lieut. Col., 183 
Bissolee Pass, 124 

Black Rock, Fort, 183; occupied, 186 
Bladensberg, 213 
Blagrove, Lieut., 232 
Blairfindie, 217 
Boerstler, Col., 182 
Bokerdun, 137 
Bombay, 30, 227, 266 
Boscawen, 4 
Boseley, Private, 243 
Boulderson, Cornet J., 226 
Bourquien, 135 
Bowser, Lieut. Col., 118 
Bowyer, Fort, 215 
Boyd, 104, note ; Gen., 190, 191 
Boyle, Capt., 144 
Brackenbury, Col. H., 259 
Braddock, his expedition to New 

England, 2 

Brady, Sergeant, 162, 167 
Brandywine, 64 
Brathwaite, Col., 31, 100 
Brest, blockade of, 4 
Bridgenorth, 14 
Brighton, 228 
British troops, position of on the 

Niagara frontier, 195 
Broach, 134 

Brock, Major Gen. ,176, 177; death, 178 
Bromley, 15 
Brook, Col., 214 
Brooke, Capt., 203 
Brooks, Major J. PL, 226 
Broughton, Lieut. Col, 133 
Brown, Gen, 190, 197, 208; Geo., 8 
Bruce, Major Gen., 41, 46, 49 
Brunswick, Prince Ferdinand of, 4 
Buchanan, Private, 85 
Budnapore, 137 
Buffalo, 179; taken, 186 
Bulger, Lieut., 195 



Buller, Major Gen. Sir Redvers, 255 
256 

Bullum, Rajah of, 123 

Bundelcund, 132, 134 

Bungay, 15 

Bunker's Hill, 64 

Burgoyne, Col. Sir John, in command 
of the 23rd Regiment of Light 
Dragoons, 23, 24, 29; Orders and 
Instructions, 25-27 ; on the treat- 
ment of his regiment, 42 ; Com- 
mander-in-Chiefship conferred, 43 ; 
refuses to accept, 44; difficulties of 
his position, 45-48 ; interview with 
Lord Macartney, 49 ; assumes com- 
mand, 50; arrest, 51 : court-martial, 
54 ; acquitted, 56 ; his death, 57 

Burhanpore, 131, 135, 148 

Burlington Heights, 181, 184, 196 

Bury St Edmunds, 31 

Buswapore, 121 

CABUL, 102 

Cairo, 238 

Calicut, 80 

Calpee, 135 

Calvert, Harry, 113, 156, 217 

Cambay, Bay of, 125 

Campbell, Major Gen. Alan, 46, 51 

Campbell, Sir Archibald, inspection of 

the 1 9th Light Dragoons, 64 
Campbell, Capt. Lieut. John, 24, 28 
Campbell, Lieut. Col, 133 
Canara, 124 
Caniembadi, 88, 90 
Cannanore, 107 
Capper, Lieut. Col., 120 
Capsah, 135 
Cathcart, Capt., 144 
Cauveripatam, 78 
Cauvery river, 79, 88, 95, 97, 109 
Cawnpore, 133, 227 
Ceres, 29 
Chambly, 215 
Champaneer, 135 
Champlain Lake, 178, 188, 195 
Chandler, Gen., 182 
Changama Pass, 72, 82 
Chapman, Lieut. A. H., 226 
Charlotte, Queen, her funeral, 218 
Chateaugay river, 188; battle, 188 
Chatham, II 
Chazy, 211 
Cherbourg, 4 
Cheyloor, 123 
Chicago, 194 
Child, Lieut., W. G., 24, 28; Capt., 

73, 84, 98 
Chinroypatam, 123 
Chippewa, 197 j battle of, 198 



INDEX 



323 



Chitteldroog, 117 

Chrystler's Farm, 184 ; battle of, 190 

Chumbul, 127 

Chunar, 133 

Ciudad Rodrigo, 173 

Clair, St, Lake, 209 

Clarke, Capt. M., 226 

Clonmel, 172 

Coates, Major, 163 

Cockburn, Vice-Adm., 213 

Coghill, Lieut. Col., K. J. W., 231, 
234, 236 

Coimbatore, 68, 69, 74, 77, 93 

Colle, La, 195 

Combe, Col. Boyce, 265 

Combermere, Lord, 102 

Conaghul, 122 

Conflans, 4 

Conjeveram, 59, 68 

Connaught, Duke of, 235 

Coorg, 124 ; Rajah of, no 

Coote, Sir Eyre, his victory at Porto 
Novo, 20 ; on the want of cavalry, 
22 ; forced to resign, 31, 39 ; his 
death, 36, 41 ; treatment by the 
Madras Government, 41 

Cornwallis, Lord, 21, 79 ; capitulates, 
20 ; assumes command of the army, 
8 1 ; his advance on Bangalore, 82 ; 
improvement in the order of march, 
82 ; captures Bangalore, 87 ; attack 
on Seringapatam, 96 ; takes posses- 
sion of French territories, 100 

Cotapilli, 87 

Cotton, Lieut. Col. Stapleton, 101 

Couch, G., 226 

Coveripoorum Pass, III 

Covington, Gen., 191 

Cowdelghee, 120 

Cowgatchy, 34 

Cox Heath, 1 1 

Crabbe, Lieut., 232 

Cradock, Lieut. Gen. Sir J., 160 

Craigie, Capt. H. C., 226 

Craven, Lieut., 253 

Crawford, Lieut. G. H., 24, 28 

Crespigny, Lieut, de, 232 

Croydon, 15 

Cuddalore, 31 ; attack on, 36; siege of, 

4i 

Culloden, 166 
Cumberland, Duke of, evacuates 

Hanover, 3 
Currie, H. O., 226 
Cuttack, 132, 135 
Cygnet, 174 

DALLING, Lieut. Gen, Sir J., Com- 
mander-in-chief in Madras, 54 
Damodar River, 133 



Darapooram, 69, 72, 78 

Darley, Major, 73 

Dartmoor, 229 

Datchet, 218 

David's, St, village, burnt, 200 

De Boigne, 127 

Dearborn, Gen., 178, 181 

Deare, Major Gen., 133 

Delaware, 195 

Delhi, 126 ; battle of, 135 

Demiacotta, 69, 76 

Deodroog, 121, 122 

Deogam, 153 

Deogheri, 118 

Desert Column, 249 

Detroit, Fort, 178; frontier, 175 

Devis, A. W., 98 

Deyrah Dhoon, 167 

Dharwar, 80, 90, 115 

Dhoondia, Punt Gokla, 116, 118 

Dhoondia Wao, 115; head quarters, 
116; adherents, 117; defeated and 
killed, 122 

Dindigal, 71, 72 

Dirom, extract from, 97 

Dobbs, Capt., 207 

Dodd, Capt. Thomas Crewe, 28 

Domingo, St, 159 

Dongola, 270, 263 

Dover, village of, burnt, 196 

Dowlut Rao Scindia, 127 

Downie, Capt., 212 

Dragoons, Light, 1 9th Regiment of, 
5 ; notification to raise, 5 ; Royal 
Warrant, 6-8 ; change of number, 
9; uniform, 9, 12; formation, 12; 
strength, 12 ; clothing accounts, 12 ; 
quartered at various places, 14 ; dis- 
banded, 15 

Dragoons, Light, 23rd, formation of, 
23; appointments, 24; despatched 
to India, 27 ; strength, 28, 65, 100, 
104, 171, 210, 219; list of the 
officers, 28 ; embark, 29 ; at Madras, 
30, 32, 92 ; appearance, 33 ; casual- 
ties among the horses, 52 ; review, 
59 ; at Shevtamodoo, 59, 99 ; change 
of number, 62; uniform, 62-64; under 
orders, 67; casualties, 76, 86, 90, 
144, 152, 205; remounted, 92; 
return to Trichinopoly, 100, 112; 
badges granted, 113, 155, 216; ex- 
pedition against Dhoondia Wao, 
117; at Cheyloor, 123; the battle 
of Assaye, 142 ; conspicuous 
gallantry, 146 ; honorary colours 
granted, 147; battle of Argaum, 150; 
march against banditti, 154 ; en- 
camped at Panwell, 155 ; return to 
England, 1 68, 171, 218 ; approbation 



324 



INDEX 



Dragoons, Light, 23rd, continued 
of their services, 169-171 ; in Ireland, 
172, 218; ordered to Canada, 173; 
equipped as lancers, 218 ; disbanded, 
219 

Drogheda, Earl of, 5 

Drummond, Lieut. Gen., 185, 195; 
his attack on Oswego, 196; at 
Toronto, 200 ; Lundy's Lane, 2OI- 
205 ; wounded, 205 ; blockade of 
Fort Erie, 206-208 

Drummond, Lieut. Col., 207 

Dublin, 172 

Dudrenec, 132 

Dufferin, Lady, 238 

Dummul, 119 

EARLE, Major Gen. W., 248, 256; 
death, 258 

East India Company, condition of the 
European forces, 20 ; want of cavalry, 
21 ; jealousy of the King's Officers, 
37 ; raises European cavalry regi- 
ments, 221 ; cease to exist, 223 

Egypt, Khedive of, deposed, 233 

El Kooa, 257 

El Magfar, 235 

El Teb, battle of, 241-244 

Ellice, Capt. II. E., 226 

Ellichpore, 152 

Elliott, Sir John, 60 

Ellore, 53 

Emsdorf, battle of, 60 

England, condition of, in 1779, IO J m 
1781, 19 

Epsom, 15 

Eratoor, 95 

Erie, Fort, 177, 179, 186, 197; 
evacuated, 181 ; assault on, 206-208; 
Lake, 175, 177 ; naval action on, 180 

Erode, 71, 72, 77 

Es Salihiyeh, 237 

Euphrates, 266 

Europe, state of affairs in 1756, I ; 
peace in, 36 

Eustace, Capt., 207, 208, 209 

Ewell, 15 

Eyre, Thomas, 28 

FAIRBROTHER, Capt. C. M. S., 226 
Fairlie, Lieut. C. H., 226 
Fancourt, Col., 161 
Fatt, Sergeant James, 244 
Fawcett, Lieut. Gen., 18 
Fenton, Sergeant, 243 
Fen wick, Col., 133 
Ferguson, Lieut. Col., 133 
Finglass, Capt., 104, note 
Fitzgibbon, Lieut., 182 
Fitz- Patrick, R., 17 



Floyd, Lieut. Col. John, 24, 28, 29, 
46, 49, 94, 98, 100, 1 06 ; his birth, 
60; commission in the I5th Light 
Dragoons, 60; appointed Major of 
the 2 ist and Lieut. Col. of the 23rd, 
6 1 ; his advance on Coimbatore, 69 ; 
takes the Fort of Satyamunglum, 
71 ; retreat, 74 ; reaches Velladi, 76 ; 
casualties, 76 ; reconnoissance, 84 ; 
wounded, 85; on the attack at 
Seringapatam, 96 ; charge at Malla- 
velly, 108 ; sails for England, 1 14 ; 
appointed Colonel of the 26th Light 
Dragoons, 114; death, 114 

Forbes, Lieut. Col., 163 

Fortnam, Cornet John, 90 

Forty-mile Creek, 182 

Four Mile Creek, 183 

France, coalition with Austria, 2; 
declares war against England, 10, 99 

Freeman, Capt., 242 

Fremantle, Major Gen., 261 

French, Major, 250, 255, 256 

French Mills, 191 

Frenchtown, 179 

Fullarton, Col., 36, 82 

Fullerton, Cornet John, 24 

GAEKWAR OF BARODA, 126 

Gaines, Gen., 207 

Ganjam, 133, 134 

Gardner, Private Joseph, 30 

Gawilghur, 135, 148, 149, 152 

Geelong, 265 

George II., his death, 9 

George IV., his review of the regi- 
ments, 218 

George, Fort, 33, 177, 179, 183, 197 
199 ; evacuated, 181 ; re-occupied, 
l8 5 

Ghent, Treaty of Peace signed at, 215 

Ghuffoor Khan, 115 

Gibbs, Major Gen., 215 

Gibraltar, siege of, 19 

Gillespie, Lieut. Col. R. R., 157 ; his 
career, 158 ; treatment of the Vellore 
mutiny, 163-166; death, 167 

Glad win, Lieut., 183 

Godavery, 133, 137, 154 

Gokauk, 120 

Gordon, Col., 42, 186, 240, 246 

Gough, Capt II. H., 226 

Gowdie, Major, 84, 86 

Graham, Major Gen., 236, 240, 244, 
245, 261, 308 

Grand River, 210 

Grant, Lieut. Alex., 146 

Grant, Major Gen. Sir Hope, 222 

Grant Duff's History of the Mahrattas, 
extracts from, 142, 146 



INDEX 



3*5 



Grenadier Island, 188, 189 
Guadaloupe captured, 4 
Gubat, 254 ; evacuated, 255 
Gudduck, 119 
Guiche, Comte de, 29 
Guidons, 231, 232 
Gunjicotta, 92 
Guns, galloper, 105 
Gurramconda, 94 
Gutpurba river, 120 
Guzerat, 133, 134 
Guzulhutti Pass, 68, 70, 71, 72 
Gwalior, 136, 152, 153 

HALE, Cornet, 98 

Halesworth, 15 

Hall, Gen., 186 

Hall, Lieut. Gen. John, 227, 228 

Kamdab, 256 

Hamdoob, 261 

Hamley, Lieut. Gen. Sir E., 236 

Hampton, Gen, 188 

Handcock, Major, 195 

Hanford-Flood, Major, 243, 256 

Hanoor, 120 

Hanover, 3 

Harcourt, Lieut. Col., 133, 135 

Harding, Cornet F. D., 226 

Haren, Major du, 182 

Hari Punt, 81, 91, 94 

Harris, Gen., 89, 106, 107, 109; on 

the Cavalry Division, 112; raised to 

the peerage, 113 
Harrison, Gen., 179 
Hartley, Col., 68, 72, 78, 80 
Harvey, Col., 182 
Hasheem, 261, 262 
Hassan, 124 

Hastings, Warren, 37, 40 
Havre, 4 
Hawke, blockades Brest, 4 ; destroys a 

French fleet, 4 
Hearsey, Lieut. A., 226 
Hebbeh, 259 
Helena, St, 171 
Helouan, 238 
Hessing, 129 
Hicks, Major Gen., 240 
Hill, Capt. Sir J., 226 
Hilton, Robert, 28 
Hinde, Lieut. T. J. V., 24, 28 
Holkar, 126, 128; hostilities against 

Scindia, 129 ; alliance, 130 
Holland, Lieut., 232, 237 
Holland, declaration of war in 1781, 14 
Honorary Colours for Assaye. 147, 231 
Hoobli, 120 
Hooli, 120 
Hooliadroog, 92, 95 
Hoonagoonda, 121 



Horsefall, John, 28 

Horsham, 15 

Horton, Lieut., 197, 199 

Horwood, Sergeant, 255 

Hounslow, 218, 230, 265, 266 

Howe, Lord, 4 ; Lieut. Gen. the Hon. 
Sir W., 156; appointed Colonel of 
the 1 9th Light Dragoons, 64 ; his 
death, 216 

Huella, 259 

Hughes, 31 

Hull, Gen., 176 

Hunmunsagur, 121 

Hunter, Major Edgar, 157 

Huron, Lake, 175, 179 

Hurrianah, 115 

Hurryhur, 117, 131 

Hussars, I9th, 226; ordered to England, 
227, 232, 265 ; badges granted, 229, 
246, 264, 266 ; in Ireland, 230 ; 
restoration of guidons, 231 ; ordered 
to Egypt, 232 ; to Suakin, 240 ; 
casualties, 243, 245, 304, 306, 310; 
return to Cairo, 246 ; ordered up 
the Nile, 247 ; designation of 
"Princess of Wales' Own" con- 
ferred, 264 ; ordered to India, 266 ; 
honours granted, 305, 307, 311 

Hutchinson, Major Gen. Coote Synge, 
266 

Huth, Cornet F. H., 226 

Hyder Ali, of Mysore, 20, 31 ; death, 

Hyderabad, 65, 102 ; dispersal of the 
French contingent, 103 

INDIA, results of the campaign of 1781, 
20 ; condition of the European troops, 
20 ; want of cavalry, 21 ; state of 
affairs in, 31 ; relations between 
civil and military, 37 

Indore, 126, 129 

lona, 265 

Ireland, 230 

Ismailia, 235 

Izard, Gen., 209 

JACKSON, Gen., 215 

Jaffrabad, 137 

Jaffrey, John, 28 

Jakdul, 249, 255 

Jalasore, 133 

Jalgaum, 137 

Jane, Duchess of Gordon, 171 

Jaulna, 137, 154 

Jellahal, 1 20 

Jenkins, Capt., 243; Lieut. Col. C. 

V., 226 

Jenkinson, C., n, 14, 24 
Jervoise, Lieut. C. C., 226 



326 



INDEX 



Johnston, Lieut. Gen. James, 12, 18 

Jowrah, State of, 115 

Juah river, 138, 141 

Juggernaut, 135 

Jumna, 127 

Jumna, 227 

KAITNA RIVER, 138 

Kalunga, 167 

Kandeish, 129 

Karoor, 69, 72, 78 

Kassassin, 236 

Keane, Major Gen., 215 

Kelly, Col., 68, 72 

Kemp, Private Simon, 30 

Kennedy, Lieut. Col., 157, 164; Capt., 

109 

Khanagheri, 121 
Khartoum, 240 ; expedition to relieve, 

247 ; captured by the Mahdi, 254 ; 

preparations for the advance on 

abandoned, 263 
Kingston, 175, 179, 181, 184 
Kirbekan, 257 ; victory at, 258 
Kistna river, 66, 120 
Kistnapah Naik, 123 
Kittoor, 118 

Kloster-Severn, convention of, 3 
Kolapore, Rajah of, 126, 128 
Kolar, 94 
Koondgul, 119 
Kopaul, 8 1 
Kordofan, 239 
Korosko, 263 

Korti, 248, 249, 253, 255, 256 
Kurot, 260 

LA PRAIRIE, 178, 215, 217 

La Terriere, Lieut., 232 

Lagos, Bay of, 4 

Lahore, 104 

Lake, Gen., 133, 134, 135 

Lang, Lieut. Col., appointed Com- 

mander-in-Chief, 44; withdrawn from 

the service, 57 
Laswaree, 135 
Lawrence, St, 175, 187, 191 
Lawrence, Sir John, 227 
Leeds, 230 
Leger, St, Lieut. Col. the Hon. Arthur, 

151 

Legge, H. B., 8 
Leigh, Lieut. Hon. R., 232 
Lewiston captured, 186, 201 
Lexden Heath, 12 

Lima, Quarter Master A. G., 252, 263 
Lisle, Capt., 175, 183, 184, 186, Major, 

196, 199, 201, 209 
Lister's Corps, 12 
Little, Capt., 91 



Longford, 172 

Long Island, 64 

Long Point, 196, 197 

Long Sault, 190 

Louisbourg, expedition against, 3, 4 

Lowe, Major Gen., 236 

Luard, Capt. F. P., 226 

Ludlow, 14 

Lundy's Lane, 201 ; battle of, 202-205 

Lundy's Lane Hist. Society^ extracts 

from, 185, 195, 198, notes 
Lunkia Naik, 101 

MACARTNEY, Lord, 32, note, 36; 
Governor of Madras, 39 ; character, 
47; his treatment of Sir J. Bur- 
goyne, 48 ; interview with him, 49 ; 
resigns his post, 54; sails for Eng- 
land, 54; duels, 55 

Macdonell, 187, 189 

Mackenzie, Lieut. Col., 47, 158; 
Cornet Roderick, 85, 90 

Mackinaw, island of, 176, 178, 194 

Macomb, Gen., 211 

Macpherson, Major Gen. Sir H., 235 

Madho Rao Scindia, 127 

Madras, 30 ; famine in, 31; misman- 
agement of the administration, 33, 
38 ; council, 38 ; treatment of Sir E. 
Coote, 41 ; native cavalry, 65 

Magre, 94 

Mahe, 20 

Mahomed Ahmed, 239 

Mahommed Tewfik, 233 

Mahrattas, 20, 80 ; arrival of, 91 ; 
supremacy, 125 ; quarrels, 128 

Mahsama, 236, 237 

Maidstone, 216 

Majendie, Capt. Lieut. Lewis, 24 

Malabar, 80 

Mallavelly, 107 ; battle of, 108 

Malpurba, 119, 120 

Malwa, 128 

Manapur, 101 

Mangalore, peace of, 66 

Manikpatam, 135 

Manners, Major Gen. R., Letter of 
service to, 1 1 ; warrant to refund 
clothing money, 12 

Manoli, 119 

Mansfield, Major Gen. Sir W., 222 

Marshall, Quartermaster Sergeant W., 

243 

Maryborough, 159 
Matthews, Major Gen., 36 
Mauritius, 103 
Maxwell, Lieut. Col., 72, 78, 89, 141 ; 

killed, 143 ; pension to his widow, 

147 
M* Arthur, Gen., 209 



INDEX 



327 



M'Clure, Gen, 184, 185 

M'Culloch, John, 28 " 

M'Douall, Col., 194 

Medows, Major Gen., 67, 89; in 
command of the army, 68 ; advance 
on Coimbatore, 69, 77 

Meerut, 167, 227 

Meigs, Fort, 180 

Merawi, 259, 260 ; evacuated, 263 

Metemmeh, 248, 249, 254 

Miami river, 180 

Michigan, Lake, 176, 179 

Midnapore, 133 

Militia Bill, 3 

Milne, S. M., Standards and Colours 
of the Army, 232 

Minden, 4 

Minorca, fall of, 2 

M'Intyre, 129 

Mirzapore, 133 

Mitcham, 15 

M'Kay, Col., 194 

Mobile Point, 215 

Mocher, Lieut. Gen., 18 

Money, Cornet E. A., 226 

Monghyr, 34 

Montcalm, 3 

Montreal, 175, 179,217; preparations 
for the attack on, 188 

Montreal, 234, 236 

Moodgul, 134 

Moodianoor, 135 

Mooglee Pass, 82 

Morgan, Capt., 133, 135 

Mornington, Lord, 103 

Morris, Lieut. R., 226, 232 

Morrison, Lieut. Col., 190, 191 

Mudgheri, 121 

Munro, Sir Hector, 20, 25 note ; re- 
signs his command, 31 

Murray, Col., 133, 185, 188; Corporal, 

85 

Musgrave, Major Gen., 80, 93 
Mysore, 68; fall of, 112 

NAGMUNGLUM, 92 

Nagpore, 126, 153; Rajah, 131 

Nana Farnawis, 126, 128 

Nash, Capt. Thomas, 24, 28 

Naulniah, 138, 144 

Neemgaum, 154 

Neera, wreck of the, 241 

Nefisha, 235 

Negapatam, 31 

Nerbudda, 131, 133 

Neville, Lieut., 66 

New Orleans, 214; expedition against, 

215 

Newark, 183 ; burnt, 185 
Newbridge, 218 



Newcastle, Holies, 8 

Niagara, Fort, 181 ; success at, 186 ; 

frontier, 175 ; position of the British 

troops, 195 
Nizam of Hyderabad, 20, 80, 106 ; the 

horse, 89; decrease of his power, 125 
Noix, Isle aux, 188, 217 
Northampton, 171 
Norwich, 14, 265 
Nundydroog, 93 

OCCARRO, 70 

Ogdensburg, 187, 189, 190 

Ogle, Major Gen., 46, 50 

Oldham, Col., 70 

Oliphant, Lieut, 101 

O'Neill, Lieut. Col. the Hon. J., 174, 

183 

Ontario, Lake, 175, 177, 181 
Oojain, 126, 129 
Ooscotta, 94, 112 
Ootradroog, 94 
Orient, 234 
Osiris, 241 
Osman Digna, 240 
Oswald, James, 8 
Oswego, 177, 196 

PACKET, 133 

Pakenham, Major Gen. Sir E., 215 

Palghat, 71, 77 

Paliar river, 60 

Palicode Pass, 82 

Pareshram Bhow, 8 1, 91, 94 

Paris, Peace of, in 1763, 9 

Parkes, Private, 78 

Parterly, 149 

Partoor, 137 

Paterson, Major, 123 

Patree, 149 

Patterson, Cornet James, 90 

Pattle, Gen. William, 226 

Paugri, 138 

Pawaghur, 135 

Payne, Lieut. Gen. Sir W., 216 

Pearl river, 215 

Pearson, Lieut. Col., 199, 201 

Pednaikdirgum Pass, 94 

Peepulgaon, 139 

Peishwa, 125 ; under the protection of 

the British Government, 129 
Pellew, Rear Adm. Sir E., 171 
Pembroke, Lord, his book on military 

equitation, 60 

Periapatam, 90, 94, 107, 109 
Permacoil, 80 
Perron, 115, 127, 128; number of his 

troops, 132 

Persia, Shah of, 229, 266 
Petley, Capt. Lieut. John, 28 



328 



INDEX 



Pewsey, 229 

Philipstown, 172 

Pike, Gen., 181 

Pitt, his management of affairs, 3 

Pittsburgh, 178, 179, 1 88, 189, 195 ; 

expedition against, 211-213 
Plymouth, II, 171 
Pohlman, 142 
Point aux Pins, 196 
Pondicherry, 51, 80 ; capitulates, 100 
Ponies, Arab, 313-317 ; casualties, 317, 

3i8 

Poodicherim Pass, 94 
Poona, 125, 129, 131 
Poonamallee, 51, 65 
Poongar Ford, 73 
Porter, Gen., 198 
Porto Novo, 20, 72 
Portsmouth, II, 266 
Potomac river, 213 
Powell, Lieut. Col., 133, 134, 135, 136; 

Sergeant, 207, 208 
Prairie du Chien, 194 
Prescott, 190 
Prevost, Lieut. Gen. Sir George, 177, 

183, 184, 197, 209; fails to capture 

Sackett's Harbour, 187 ; failure of 

his expedition against Plattsburgh, 

211-213 

Prinsep, Lieut. C. J., 226 
Proctor, Lieut. Col., 176, 179; victory 

over Gen. Winchester, 180 ; retreats 

to Ancaster, 180 
Purdy, Col., 189 
Pyche, Rajah, 123 

QUEBEC, 174, 217 ; taken, 4 
Queenston, 185, 197, 199 
Quiberon Bay, 4 
Quintin, St, Cornet C. R., 226 

RADIPOLE, Barracks, 216 

Rajoora, 149 

Rajpoot, States, 126 

Ranee Bednore, 117 

Regis, St, 1 88 

Rensselaar, Gen. Van., 177 

Riall, Gen., 186, 197; despatch after 
the battle of Chippewa, 199 ; night 
march, 199 ; wounded, 203 

Richardson, Major R., 226 

Ridley, Lieut., 232 

Rigby, Richard, 6 

Ripley, Gen., 206 

River Column, 256 

Rivett-Carnac, Lieut. E. S., 226 

Roberts, Capt., 176 

Rochefort, 3 

Rodney, 4 

Romford, 172, 218 



Ross, Major Gen., 213; killed, 214 
Rottenburg, Major Gen. de, 183, 184 
Rowley, Capt., 159 
Royal Henry ', 29 
Rughonath Rao, 126 
Runjeet Singh, 115 
Russia, Emperor of, 230 
Rycottah, 107 

SACKETT'S HARBOUR, 181, 184; fail- 
ure to capture, 187; U.S. Squadron 
blockaded, 196, 199, 200 

Sadasheo Bhow, 129 

Sage, Lieut. William, 28 

Said Sahib, 69 

Salaberry, Lieut. Col. de, 1 88 

Salbye, Treaty of, 32, 128 

Sale, Capt, 144, 146 

Salisbury, 12, 14 

Salmon river, 191 

Sandhurst, Lord, 222 

Sandusky, 179, 180 

Sandwich, 176, 180 

Saone, 133 

Sara, 92, 124 

Saranac creek, 212 

Sasseram, 133 

Satara, Rajah of, 125 

Satyamunglum, Fort of, 71 

Savandroog, 93 

Savanoor, 118, 12 1 

Saxmundham, 15 

Schlosser, Fort, 183, 201 

Scindia, 126; hostilities, 129; retreats 
to Thalnair, 148 ; armistice, 149 ; 
peace signed, 153 

Scott, Col., 201, 202, 203; Lieut., 
232 ; Major, 97 

Secunder Jah, 94 

Secunderabad, 266 

Sedaseer, 107 

Sepoys, mutiny, 161-166 

Seringapatam, 65, 72, 82, 95 ; advance 
on, 88, 94 ; siege, 109 ; taken, 112 

Seringham, 100 

Serle, Cornet, 147 

St Servan, 4 

Seven Years' War, 2, 9 

Shah Alum, 125 

Shapoor, 120 

Shawoor, 70, 74 

Sheaffe, Major Gen., 178, 181 

Shevtamodoo, 59, 94 

Shinoor, 121, 122 

Shorncliffe, 228, 266 

Shropshire, 14 

Shukook Pass, 257 

Shumshere Bahadoor, 132, 135 

Shute, Major Gen., 229 

Sinkat, 240 



INDEX 



329 



Sirdhana, 148 

Sirhetty, 119 

Sirsoni, 150 

Sivaji, 126 

Skelly, Major, 87 

Skelton, Capt., 165 

Sloper, Lieut. Gen. R., 18 ; Com- 

mander-in-Chief in India, 54 
Smelt, Lieut. Col., 210 
Snake Hill, 207 
Songhur, 133 
Soondooti, 119, 120 
Soorong, 135 
Sosilay, 109 
Soudan, 239 

Stapleton, Capt. R. T. P., 226 
Sterling, Lieut. Col., 50 
Stevenson, Col., 120, 131, 133, 137; 

occupies Burhanpore, 149 
Stewart, Col. H., 241, 244, 248, 

308 ; wounded, 252 ; death, 255 
Stoney Creek, 182 
Strange, Sergeant, 146 
Straubenzee, Lieut. Col., 50 
Streatham, 171 
Stuart, Major Gen., 25 note, 36, 39; 

his position, 40 ; charges against, 42 ; 

dismissal, 43 ; arrest, 44 ; shipped 

off to England, 49 ; colonelcy of 

H.M.'s 3ist, 57 
Stuart, Lieut. Gen., 107, 109; Col., 

7i, 77, 97 

Suakin, 240, 244, 260 
Sudbury, 15 
Suez Canal, 235 
Suffren, 20, 31 
Surat, 133 

Surjee Anjengaum, 153 
Sutherland, 75 
Sutlej, 127 
Sutton Park, 24 
Swift, Gen., 200 
Sy belle, 174 
Syringhi, 121 

TABLE BAY, 171 

Tamai, 263 ; battle of, 244 

Tani, 260 

Tapoor Pass, 79 

Tapti, 133 

Taylor, Lieut. Col., G.C.B., 226, 

236 

Tecumseh, slain, 1 80 
Tel-el-Kebir, 237 
Tel-el- Mahuta, 235, 236 
Thalnair, 148 

Thames, Battle of the, 180 
Thomas, Capt. J. ; 24, 28 
Thomas, 115 
Thome, San, 33, 37 



Thorn's Memoir of the War in India, 

extracts from, 105, 153 
Tiaghur, 79 

Ticonderago, 4, 64, note 
Tilbury, 171 218 
Tippoo, Sahib of Mysore, 35 ; treaty of 

peace, 36 ; war with, 66 ; advance, 

72 ; march on Trichinopoly, 78 ; loss 

at Seringapatam, 96; surrenders, 98; 

animosity against the English, 102 ; 

various embassies, 102; killed, 112 
Tofrik, 262 
Toka, 137 
Tokar, 240, 244 
Tonk, State of, 115 
Toombadra river, 117, 12 1 
Toronto, 179, 183 
Tour, M. le Maitre de la, on the 

English troops in India, 21 
Travancore, Rajah of, 67 
Trichinopoly, 67, 69, 79, 100 
Trincomalee captured, 31 
Trinkitat, 241, 244 
Trinomalli, 80 
Tryon, Major Gen., 15 
Tucker, Lieut. Col., 200 
Tullamore, 172 
Twelve Mile Creek, 200 

UNITED STATES declare war against 
England, 173 ; plan of invading 
Canada, 175, 179, 193 

Uxbridge, Lord, 216 

VANDELEUR, Major Gen., Sir J. O., 

113, 167, 216, 231 
Vaniembadi, 78 
Velladi, 70, 74 
Vellore, 36, 65, 104, 106 ; mutiny at, 

160-166 
Vellout, 80, 8 1 
Venkitagheri, 87 
Vincent, St, Capt. Lord., 232 ; Major 

Gen., 181, 184 

WADS WORTH, Gen., 178 

Wady Haifa, 247, 263 

Walkee, 131, 133 

Wallace, Lieut. Col. W., 157 

Wallajabad, 59, 67, 100, 104 

Walton, Lieut. William, 24, 28 

Warley, n 

Waroor, 139 

Warrants, Royal, 6-8, II, 13, 15-17, 

23, 25-27 
Washington, 213 
Watteville, de, 184 
Webster, Lieut. Col. A. G., 226, 236, 

240, 241, 243, 308 



33 



INDEX 



Wellesley, Col. the Hon. A., 103, 106; 
expedition against Dhoondia Wao, 
117; Scindia, 131; distribution of 
troops, 132; captures Ahmednugger, 
136; battle of Assaye, 138-144; of 
Argaum, 150-152; march against 
banditti, 154 

Wellington, Field Marshal the Duke 
of, 106, note 

Wellington, Fort, 190 

Werdah river, 118 

Whitehill, Mr, 39 

Wilkinson, Gen., 188, 190, 195 

William Henry, Fort, taken, 3 

William Pitt, 171 

Williams, Cornet George, 28 

Willis, Lieut. Gen., 236 

Wilson, Nathan, Capt., 144, 146, 163, 
164; Lieut. Col. Sir R., 157; Col. 
Sir C., 252, 254; From Korti to 
Khartoum, 253 



Winchester, Gen., 179 ; taken prisoner, 

1 80 

Winder, Gen., 182, 213 
Windsor, 229 
Wolfe, 4 
Wolseley, Lieut. Gen, Sir G., 234, 248, 

312 

Wood, Lieut. Col., 241 
Woodbridge, 15 
Woodhouse, Lieut., 165 
Woodington, Lieut. Col., 134 
Worseley, Lieut., 195 

YARMOUTH, 15 

Yeo, Sir James, 182 

Yepalpurri, 121, 122 

Yorke, Major Gen. John, 229, 266 

Yorktown, 20 

Young, Lieut., 144, 165 

ZEMAN SHAH, 102, 104 
Zobehr Pasha, 246 



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