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^ UL//^i,J^. - 



MAR 20 1951 


Lr preparing the first edition of '* Nineveh and its Palaces " it 
was deemed desirahle to follow a system of arrangement origi- 
nated by the highly suggestive sculptures which have been 
discoYered. Thus, after carefully examining the remains in 
our liaseum and in the Louvre, and studying the ground-plans 
of the respective structures with the original situations of the 
friezes, I selected a starting-point, and then pursued a regular 
and systematic course through the ruined chambers, reading 
the sculptures upon the walls together with the Scriptures as 
I progressed. Whether the line of reasoning adopted was 
erroneous or just, is still open to consideration ; but though my 
inferences and conclusions may be questioned by many, the 
approbation of the public is, at least, an evidence that my 
speculations were not altogether unwarranted, while the facts 
and subject-matter must indisputably continue interesting to all. 

The present edition has been most carefully revised, and 
comprehends many additions, including a full description of 
the recent discoveries in Nimroud and Khorsabad, which 
have completed the collection from those places in the British 

In conclusion, I would wish to avail myself of this opportu- 
nity of expressing my acknowledgments to the officers of the 
British Museum, for the uniform urbanity and liberal aid they 
have always afforded me : and likewise for the co-operation 
I have met with from many kind Mends. To Mr. Samuel 


8harpe I am indebted for his valuable chapter on Assyrian 
History and Chronology ; to Dr. Lepsius, for his prompt in- 
formation respecting the C3rprus monument ; to Dr. Lee, of 
Hartwell, for the papers of Dr. Grotefend ; and to Mr. Re- 
main^, for his sketches on the very spots whence the anti- 
quities were derived : to each and all of these, as well as to 
other friends who have kindly promoted my labours, my heart- 
felt thanks are cordially returned* 

Jfarch 2Aih, 1853. 

A Thibd EDineK having been called for, the work has under- 
gone further revision, and is considerably enlarged both in 
matter and plates. It comprehends, among the additions, a 
full account of the important discoveries which have been made 
at Kouyunjik and other places during the last few years, and 
engravings of many of the most interesting of the Assyrian 
sculptures recently added to the stores of the British Museum. 
Chronological tables, founded on modem research, have also been 
added, and will, no doubt, be appreciated by the scriptural and 
antiquarian student. In the compilation of these tables I have 
been mainly indebted to Mr. Samuel Sharpe, Mr. Bosanquet, 
and Mr. John von Gumpach, to whom I take this public occasion 

of tendering my grateful acknowledgments. 

J. B. 
November i 1857. 



Tlia bnried city and its disfiovererB — Rich — Eiaminatioii of pniBiimed 
site of Ninayeh, 2- — Buildings on Nebbi Tunis, partly ancient cham- 
liers, i — Inscriptions, and Hncient passages in Mound, ti.— Inscribed 
slabs with bitmuon on under-eides, & — AaBjrian andqmtieB and in- 


Botta— Appointed Conaul at M<5sul — Qualifications— M. Mohl, 8— 
Botta^s Sss«archcs and Disappcintioenls, 8, 10 — Opens the Mound 
of KouyuDJik, 11— EiwiTationB at Khorsabad, 12— Success of his 
flret operationB, 12, 13 — Graut bj the French GoTamoient for their 
oontiniumee, 14 — Difficulties with the Govemor of Mosul, ii. — The 
eicavations stopped, i*.— Turkish Official Delinquencies, 15— Addi- 
tional Grant of Money, 18 — -Permisaion to continue the Eicavatdoos, 
19 — ArriTal of M. Flandin, ii, — The Village of Khoraabod purchaaed, 
ii, — Difficultiaa attending this ftrmncement, 20 — Workmen engaged, 
and the Biesearchea reeumed, 22 — Ketum of M. Flandin to Paris, 
24 — The discovered Helics packed and traoBmicted to Pliria, 25. 


Lnjard, 29 — Early Travols, i8.^Proc*«ds to Ajia, tS. — Eioursion in the 
neigh liourhood of the Tigris and Nineveh to Ealah Shei^bat and AI 
Hadhr, 30— Visits Plain of Met Amir and Susan, SO, 31— The Biver 
K£mn, 33— Tower of Living Men. i'*.— Ketums lo Mdsul, rt.— Pro- 
ceeds to Conalantinople, 83— Sir Stratford Canning, it. — Eetunu to 
Mfisul, ii,— -Ajrivea at Naifa, i6. — EiploTBtiona and SuoceBB, ib, — 
Visits Pash* of Mdsul, 34— Proceedings interdicKd, 35— Kosumos 
EuMtationa, i6.— A third inlerdiet, and Works stopped, 36 — Viaili 
Arab Sheikhs, <b. — Ishmael Pasha superseded by Talijar Pasha, ib, — 
Savours Layard — Despatth of a Vizerial order— Opening of the Great 
Mound of Kouyunjik, ib. — A rick ooUecUDu <A aci-^vawa, *. — 


Their transport to Bagdad, 37 — ^Layard visits the Devil-worshippers^ 
ib. — Grant from British Museum, ih. — ^Fresh excavations at Nimroud, 
38 — Great success, ib. — Embarcation of Marble Obelisk, ib, — Ex- 
amines Mound at Kalah Sherghat, 39 — Bemoval of Lion and Bull 
from Nimroud, ib. — Operations necessary, 39, 40 — Leaves Nimroud, 
42 — Departs for Europe, ib. 



The Nineveh of the Bible, 44 — ^Nimrod, ib. — His name expressive of 
his character, 45 — His Kingdom, ib. — ^Babel, Erech, Accad, and Cal- 
neh, ib. — ^Their present sites, 46 — Asshur, 48 — His kingdom, ib. — 
Nineveh, Calah, Besen, B«hoboth, ib. — ^Their locaUties traced, 49 — ^Ex- 
tent and population of Nineveh, according to Jonah, 50 — ^The Assyrian 
Kings, 52 — ^Their wars and conquests, tb. — Deportation of Samaria, 
54 — Mr. Dickinson's remarks, ib. — ^Destruction of the Assyrian army, 
56 — ^Death of Sennacherib, 57 — ^Esarhaddon, 58 — Nebuchodonosor, 
69— The fiall of Nmeveh, 61. 



The Nineveh of the classical writers, 63 — ^Boundaries of Assyria and 
Mesopotamia, 64 — ^Median Wall, 65 — ^Ninus, ib. — Descendant of As- 
shur, ib. — Asshur founder of the Assyrian monarchy, 66 — Ninus 
founder of the united empire of Assyria, ib. — Semiramis, ib. — ^Ninyas, 
67 — ^The Chedorlaomer of Scripture, 68 — Mesopotamia named on 
Egyptian monuments, 69 — Obelisk of the Atmeidan and Tablet oi 
Karnak, ib. — ^Teutamus assists Priam at siege of Troy, 70^— Sardana- 
palus, 71 — The revolt of the Modes, ib. — Ctesias and Herodotus, 71, 
72 — Final overthrow of Nineveh, ih. — Period according to Mr. Bo- 
sanquet, t^. — ^Bise and Fall of the Babylonian Empire,- 74. 



The ancient Assyrian empire ends with Sardanapalus and the conquest 
of Nineveh by the Medes, 77 — ^Rise of the modem empire, 78 — 
Pul, ib. — Tiglath Pileser, ib. — Shahnaneser, 79 — Sennacherib, ib. — 
The conquest of Israel, ib. — ^Esarhaddon, 81 — The conquest of Baby- 
lon, ib. — ^The Chaldees, ib. — ^Nabopolasser, king of Babvlon, conquers 
Nineveh, 82 — Nebuchadnezzar, 83 — ^The conquest of Judah, ib. — 
Babylon and Assyria conquered by the Medes, 84 — Cyrus is king of 
Persia, Media, Babvlon, and Assyria, ib. — ^Table of Chronology, 86 — 
Egyptian art and raahioBB copied at Nineveh, at Babylon, and at 
FerBepoUa, 86, 87. 


Banks of the Tigris, 90— Rplative position of Mounds, iS,— Situation 
of Khorsabadj 91— Botta remarked no tTBce of Wall of Nineveh, 
91 — Charactor of Moimds on which Aaajrian Palacos stood, 95 — 
KhoPsabad, j*.— Well, 96— Dimensions of fortified Enplosnre, 97— 
Salt Swamps wittin Wall, 99 — NeighboxuTng Swampa aeeouiiled 
for, 101. 


Yammjeh, 103 — Zikru-1-awaz, it. — Resen, 104 — Lariasa of Xeoophon, 
i6. — Chesnej, ib. — Ainaworth's observations, lOS — Nimroud, iJ, — 
Koujunjili and Hebbi Tunis, ib. — Discoveries mentioned bj BJch, 
106 — Karamles, i6, — Area of antient Kincriih, ii. — Layard's yiewnot 
tenable, 107— All Tols and Eoums, probabhi siteii of Kuins, ii.— 
Gebel Makloub, li.— Mounds within boundary line^ 109— Width of 
Wall nearly idantioai with that of Khorsabad Palace, 110— Course of 
Tigris changed, **.— -Nimroud distant from Boundarr of Ninevoii, 
111— Sites of CStiea of Holy Writ, ib. 


Babylon, 119— Bira Kimroud, i6.— Mujallibeh and Knsr, 120— The 
Weatem PhIdco, ib. — Al Heimar, ib. — Itridse of Masonry and Boad 
of SBmiramis, ift.— Peraepohs, 121— Tal-el-Minar, «.— Diodorus' dc- 
soription, ift.— Temnwd Plaffonn, 122— Parapet and Palisades, IBS- 
Grand Flights of SlaJTB, i6.— Portal, ii.— Winged BiiUb, <6.— Cis- 
tern and Subterraneous Aqueducta, 126 — Palace of Forty PiUars, 
ii.— Beeond Terraced Building, «,— Third ditto, 127— Fourtli ditto, 
129^Fifth ditto, tft.— Large edifice, li.— Torabs, 132— Pasargadas 
nf Pliny, ii.— Tomb of CyruB, ifi.- Mourgaub, tft.— Hareem of Jem- 
■hid, 184— Na^ah-i-Boustam, ii.—Taiab of Dnriua Hystapses, 135— 
Insoribed Stone on Mount Elwand, 137— Ecbatana, i6.— Behistrtn, 
13S— Scmirunia, <b.— Bas-relief and Insoriptiona, ib. — Paw and In- 

■nrintim, nf 1C.I{.Hh{.i 111— Tn»<riiitinni it Tdikn Vnn. US— IKUn. 



Tlie PalaoeB of Assyrift, 147— Plim and coaBtniction of Mound, 147, 
lis— Entranoo guarded bj Winged Bulk, 151— First Court, (*.— 
The Cherubim, lB3-CHgantic Figure of Simrod, 154— Tha Bomme- 
reng, BucientlT and universally used, i*. — Egyptian, Aasjrian, South 
African, and AuatraliEu Eiamples, 1B5 — Court n— Four- winged Diri- 
Dilj, 157— Cronus or Ilua, 158— Preaenting Fir-Cone to ItoBe who enter 
the Chamber, i6. — Similar idea nn Egyptian Monumenls, ji. — Tomb of 
Bhamses TV. i&— BBa-rehe& of Kings, Attendants, and Offlcera, 159 — 
Their Dresaes and PoculiaritieB, 160 — North-Weetcm aide of Court, 
165— Repetitions of King and Court, i6,— Historical Frieze, 166 — 
ABsyrian and Egyptian Ships, 166, 167 — Maritime Subject, 167^ 
Dagou, 168 — PaBBBge Chamber between Courtfl, 170 — Wooden lock, 
ii.— IiMcriptions on Bulla and pBTcment, 171 — PrneeaaioQ oETribnta- 
baarers in Passage, 16.^ — Tartan, Chief of Tribute, it. — Kabsaria, 172 — 
Babahukeh, ib. — Gtxremors of Prorinees, 16, — Sultan Medinet, ii. — ■ 
Their Insignia, 173 — Second upper line of Tribute-boarara, it, — The 
Deputy Chief of Tribute, ii.— Lower lino of Proeeaaion, right-hand 
aide, 174— Sagartii, i*.— Ditto, left-hand aide, 175— Tribute from ai- 
tramitiaa of the Empire, i*. — Conflagration of Wooden Door, »i. — 
Second Court, the Eing'a Court, 176— The Porch for the Throne, it.— 
The Prophet Daniel, ii.- King's Gate at Babjlou and Shushan, ii. — 
Facade, 177 — Doorwaya, 16. — South-Eaatem Side — Repetition of Bus, 
King and Court, 178— Korth-Westem Side, 179— Payement, ib. — 
Secrat Cayitiea oontaining images, ib.— Inscribed Slaba in Doorwaya, 
180— Terspliim, 180, 181— Superstilion of theEyil E;Fe, 181— South- 
eastern aide of Court, 182 — Isolated Building, ib. — !matorical Cham- 
bera, iS. — Symbolic Tree, ib. — ECTptinn Symbol, 16. — Historical 
lUustration, 183— Siege of Fortifi^ City, ii.— Nysians, a Colony of 
LydiauB, 184— War engines, 183- IniiEr Chamber, 186— Sack of 
City, ii.-Gable Boof, 187- Saercd Edifice, ii.—So Upper Story, 
18S— Diyining Chamber, 16.— Magic, 189— Interior of the Palace, 
190— Chamber VIII., 16.— The Hall of Judgment, 16.— Fettered Pri- 
sonera, 191— Flaying a Man alive, 192— The Chief of the Slayers, 
i*. — Second scene. Introduction of Priaonara — Sagartii, a paatoral 
people, 193 — Third scene. King thrusting out the eyes of a Suppli- 
cant, 194 — PriBoners led by rings in their Lower Lips, ib. — B'oiith 
Bcene, aimilar rcpreafiutation— Chamber IT., 195 — Chamber of Judg- 
ment — Bepetition of King Judging Prisoners, 16. — Bridle in lips, 
196, 198— Jews, 197— Isaiah's Prophetic Message embodied on Walla, 
198— Chamber VII, 16.— Pleasure House, 199— Altars inhighplaotH, 
it. — King following the Cbaao, 200— King's Sons, ditto, ib. — Bboot- 
ing at Target, 201— King's Foresters, 202— Hunting and Hontsmen, 
*). — CSiarober T., ii. — Hall of Historical Records, 203 — Battle Soanea, 

SOJ~C!bamber VT^ SCiS — Thn PJininhHr ot AnfliBnoB— 'Smo amna 

audience to Deputj GoveniDrB — MiljE from Coaat of CilicJa, 310— 
Ohainber XI,, 311— Inner Preaence Cbamber, 213 — Ternania, or 
Porters, ii.— Chftmber XII, i6.— Priyate Council Chambor— Clism- 
berll,, Banqiieting Hall, 213— Sieges, 314— Banquet ; Wine Viae, 
215 — Drinting Cupa, ii. — Aaajrian and Greet, 216— Lvres, 'ib. — 
Aseyrian, Greet, and Hubiaji, ii. — The Gueate, 217 — ^Higii Sesita, ib. 
— Ahasnerofl' Feast, ib.- — Second line of Frieiea, 218 — BatOes and 
Conquest*, ii. — Impalement of PriaOQers, 219 — Kumbering the Henda 
of the Slin, 220— Citif?s and Fort in Flamea, 221, 222— Circulnr- 
headed Tablet cepresBnti'd on Frieze, 228— Spare Bow-Btriug, 224— 
Moveable Broaetwork, 225— Chamber III., 226—Itetiring Chamber- 
Castellated ffiUa, ift.-JeruBalim, 227— Court L., 16.- wlieeled Chair, 
229— High Seat or Throne, ii.— Seat of Judgment for Master of 
House or Heads of Tribes, ib. — Ancient Customs — Altar, 230— Heory 
Chariot, 231— Mighty Men, (t.-Moraea, 232— Tables, 233- Cham- 
ber It 234i Divining Chamber— Curvetto Moulding, 336— The Temple, 
236— Court, Court of the Kine's House, 237— King's Private Waj 
■6.- ChahlraiuB on Walls, Ezeticl miii. 11, 938— Instructive eharac- 
ter of Sculptured and Animus displayed in the detaila, 240, 241 — 
Conatruotion of AsspTmi Palaces, 241— Walk, iS.- Boofa, 243, 243- 
KoUer, ib. — Means of Lighting! Windows; Sleeping Apartmcnta, 
343 — Columns in Coort, 344 — Awnings fastened to rings in Pave- 
ment, and in backa of hronse Lions, ti.- Gable or Pitched Koofe, ib. 
— Fergiiaaon's Eestorations, 245— Botto'a Opinion on the Destruction 
of the Khorsabad Palace, 24S, 248. 

The Assyrian Relies in the British Museum, 249— Layard's Contri- 
bntioQB, 250— North-weatem riiina of Palaea of Hunroud, 250, iBl — 
Antechamber, 251 — Colossal Winged Figures, ib. — King and Eunueha, 
ib, — Winged Liona at entrance, ift.— Great Hall with historical sub- 
jects, ift.^Kisroeh, 252, 295— Siege of City by King in person, 256 — 
AaBjrian and Egyptian Chariots, 355, 25S-—Ketum after Victory, 
25B-— Proi»B9iau of Standard-benrera, 260 — Eunueh receiving Pri- 
soners of rant, 261 — Mummers, 262— Cittern and Plectrum, 262, 
263 — Modem Example, Tamboiu^ ib, — Curry-eombing Horse, i6. — 
Boyal £itchen, 263— Second Series of Battle Scenes, 265— Trained 
Birds of Pray, 267— Lower line of Illustration, 268— Siege of City, 
Celts, 269, 270- Damascus, 272— Fraccsaion of King and Officera, 
And Beccplion of Prisoners, 273 — Passage of River by King and 
Troopa, 274, 376, 376— Ancient and Mo^m Boats and Rafts, 277, 
278, 279— Colossal Figures of winged beings, 279— King and Ea- 
nuchs, ib, — Winged Bulls at Entranoe, 280— Siege, i6,— Lion Hunt, 
283- CUw in lion'a Tail, 288, 284— BuU Hunt, 284— Prisoners with 
Spoil, 285— The Treaty of Peoco, 287— Royal Sceptre-beaiei, A.— 
Return &om Uie Chaae, 288. 291— UmsiC\Bj-\i«i™,'aa— <^>»^ 


393— Hemwiu of Bonas and EWments of Gold Leaf under stone 
Blab, 293 — Saorifieiid Stoaee and Conduit, ib. — Four-wingod DiTmity, 
iA. — Winged Liona with Humiui Hoods and Anna, i'6.^ — Parthian 
Bowmen, 294 — Deified man with Fallow-deer, ib. — Lions with Hvunan 
H4ada ajid Anna, carrying 8Wg and Flower, 29B — Divinity with Fir- 
Cone, ib. — Lregolar Arrangement of Subjocts, 297 — Inference, ib. — 
Selikdar, or Sw-ord-bearor, ■*.— Ontec ChMnber, 300— King snd Offi- 
cera reeeiyiog Tribute, ib. — Winged Bulls, ib. — Symbolical form in 
allusion io name of people, 301. See M. A. de Longperier — EoU 
of Hisrocb, 303 — Figures of NiBroch before Sjmboho Tree, ib. — 
The Hall of DiTination, ib. — The Eine drinting in the presence of 
the Diyinities of Aaayria, ''A.^Metaphor in tlie Psalms, 306 — AJtar- 
nation of aubjecta, Euig with Attendants, and King with IHvinities, 
il.— Sqaaro Slabs with Hole in the Centre, iJ.— Dirining Cup, B06, 
307— Cup of Jemahid, 307— Babylon, a Gblden Cup, 308— Divining 
by Cup and ArrowB, is.— Keces&ea in tbe Walls, 309, 314— The HbJI of 
the Oracle, 309 — Chamber entirely covered with Inscriptiona, iS. — 
Chamber of Diviniliea, 309— Divmitiea and ^inbolic Tree, i6.— The 
Oracle, 310— Beardless Figure with four Wings, ifi.— Mysterioue 
Rites, 311— BtmmoQ, 312— The King, t'A.- Inscribed Chamber, 314 
— ^Ilhambar with Inscribed Walla, ib. — Central Court, li. — Second 
Hall of Divinities, ib. — Hall with Slaba inscribed aoroaa the middle, 
but without sculpture, 315 — Small chamber where ivories and or- 
namenta wore found, ii.— Deified Man with Goat and E&r of 
Wheat, I'A.— Images in Fiery Furnace, ib. — RopreaantationB on Walla 
of Babylon and Mneveb, 317 — Sontb-weetera and Centre Ruins, ib, — 
Aaasult on City containing Data Tree, ib. — Impalement of Prisoners, 
Eracustion of City, and taking account of tho Spoil, 320— Slialma- 
neaer. 321— Not a City of Samaria, ift.— Dale Treaa do not bear fruit 
in Northern porta of Syria, ib. — Attack on a Citadel near a Torrent, 
822 — Pursuit of Enemy, Tulture above, li. — Arab on Dromedary, 
pursued by Spearmen, 323 — Female Captive followed by Cnmels, 3^ 
— Warrior himting the Lion, ib, — Eunuch introducing ftisoners, ib, — 
King holding two Arrowa, and addressing Warrior, 3!SS — Man driving 
Floi^ oFSheepand floats, lA.— Fragments, ib, — King and SeUkdar,326 
— Priests, ib. — GriBbn purauod by Dua, it. — Contention of Good and 
Evil SpiriW, 328— OBniies, the Chaldean Dagon, 329— Mias Fwrny 
Corbeam on the Ecphaim, 330— Colossal Lion, ■*.— Statue of High 
Prieat, iS,— Portrait of King in Chronological Tablet, 332— Cireularil- 
tar,a34—Cup-bearer,33[j— King and cup-bearer, ■i.—Priaat,i6.— Pour 
other Fragraonta, 335, 336— Colossal Heoda, 336— Portraita of Kinga, 
i4,—01aas,lToriBB,Bronzefl,i6.—TerrBCottaVBfle«,4c.ri.— Small Lions, 
Weights— Inscribed Slabs, 337— Mode of Reading, i^ft.— Basaltic 
Statue, ib. — The Obelisk and Deacription of its Four sides, 33B, 
347— Mr. Hector's Contributions, 347— Sir H. Rawlinson's Collec- 
tion from Khorsabod, 354 — Besemblance and Comparisons between 
the Palaces otKhorsabadand Nimroud, it,— Soulptures integral Part 
of Planst Khorsahad, 36S— Soulpturea adapted at Nimroud, ■*.— Hegal 
jufrf Hiatorical Cbaractesr of Palace of SiiotaB.Wi,a&&— -"Ba^and 

of Art, ifi.- 


Sacred Oharacter of Palace at Nimroad, Si, 356 — Chambera at 'Sim- 
mad doyotod eicluBJvely to Di?iiiitice, and to King attended by 
Divinitiea, ib. — Divinities peculiiff to Nimroud and to Khorsabad, i4. 
— Baal, ib. — fieardleaa Four-winged DiFiuitj' and Deified Man, sesQ 
only at Nimroud, i4.— NimrodatEliorBaijadonlj, ib. — King Dinning 
at Nimroud, li.— Trained Bird of Pray at Kimroud, ti.— Xing Drink- 
ing, 16,— Ware with Shaep-Bkin clad People at Khorsabad, i6,— With 
People wearing Fillet at Nimroud, ib, — Triliute obligatory at Kim- 
roud, 16. — Voluntary at KhorBabad, ib. — Inacriptiona acroaa Soulp- 
turoa at Nimroud, 357 — No Ajmlogous Inacription at Khorsabad, li. — 
endage to Chariot peculiar to Nimroud, ib. — Differencee in Styles 
rt, tfi.^Inferenees, 16. — Khorsabad finished Palace,*. — Nimroud 
Incomplete, i*.— Evidences, 358— Tribute, 359— luacriptions, ii.— 
Trained birds of Prey, ii. — Chariots, 36ft— Divinitiea, ift.^Human- 
Headed winged IJon, a. — Four-wiiigBdBeardleBBDiTinity,ii. — Deified 
Mortals, ii, — Degeneracy of the ajetem of religion at Nimroud, 361 — 
Hiaroch, ii. — Boalibundat Persepolia, t'A.- — Nimroud intermediate be- 
tween Khorsabad and Pereepolia, ib. — CoGolusion, ii.— Plan otN.W. 
Palace at Nimroud, 363. • 


Layard'fl Beeearches and Diacoveriea at Koupu^jilc ; opens seventy-two 
halla ; chambers, and pasaageB, 865 — Diacoveries of Raeaam and 
LoftuB, 365— Sculptures from North Palace, Sennacherib, to.: 367 — 
Double-banlied war galley, 16. — Cup-bearer sent to Heieiiah, 368 — 
Combat by river side, and battle in a marsh, 16. — Beed Mia^hea 
of Ohsldea, it. — Rails and bonta made of reeds, ib, — Depor- 
tation of the People, 369 — Slingers and ArcherB, 370 — Aasyrian 
Cavalry, ib. — Spearmen, 871 — VaHoua Dhnsiona and Begimeota of 
Assyrian army, ib. — ProoesaiDn of Horaas and Grooms on inclined 
way, 372 — Procession bearing food for. a Banquet, ii. — Ashurakbal 
nX in battle with the SubIbjib, 373 — Grinding com, and kneading 
bread, li. — King of the Saaiana, hia fete, i*.— leathern cove: ' " 

hoTBea, 374 — Crueltiea of the AsByrinna, flaying, pulling t 

and Dancers followed by Women playing on MnsicAl Inatrumenta, 
S78— RaiBmg water to the Hanging Oardena, 379— King in Wheeled 
Qiair, 380— CaptiveB constructing an Inclined Plwie, li. — Embodi- 
ment of Metapfiora in Scripture, S.— Jewish Captives, 381 — Qmory- 
ing, SBS — Wicker Boats, with oara of peculiar iorm, it. 383 — Sswa, 
ShcrvelB, and Pick-axes, ii.— Ninety camel-loada of Picks foimd at 
Khorsabad, 383, 412— Car drawn by Eunuchi, ii, 384— Siege of oily at 
embouchure of Tigris and Euphrates, ib. — Lion Hunt Cluuaber 
386 — Hunting Oround in Paradejaos, or BOTal Park, several miles in 
exl^mt, 387- Temporary Stable and Coach-house, id. — Eunuch hold- 
ing Screens, ib, — Earoessuig the Hones, 388 — Embroidered milAwa. 
on King's hand, i*.— LiouB brouHiA in cane* \n 'evw.'a>™»i5v(,'^'''»nA, 

•i— Thn Hunt aOft— RliinA H™,>,A. n^ K,, liiiB iSDUgfc.'Jl^V "" 

Setablialmieut for keeping and rearing Lions, 
oeeaion to Hunting Ground, 395— Driving and snaring Gamr, 396 — 
Hunting Ground enclosed nilh Nets, 397 — Men eetting Trap or 
Gin, ti.— King on foot slaying Lioas, ib. — Lions drugged or pre- 
pared to render them Tame, 3^ — Dead Lione at King's feet, Mnei- 
ciaos, and Attendants, tj, — ThankBgiving to tJie God of Victory or 
the Chase, 399 — Inacription translated bj HawlinsoD, ib, — Tting on 
horspbaok hunting Lions and Gazelhw, 399— King hunting Wild 
Horse, 400— The Lasso, King superintending dissection of Lion, 
*.— King feasting with Queen in the garden of his Palace, 400 
— Genina, or Garden Place of Pleasure, ib. — Queen in raiment of 
Needle Work, ib. — Maletna, or Chiefe of the HKBem, ib. — Tonng 
Women in attendance, it. — Ivory Casket, 402 — One which he- 
longed b> Haroun e' Bashid, ib, — Musical InstrumentB, mentioned 
in Danid, 405— Harp, Psaltery, Sackbut, Flute, Timbrel, (^mbals. 
Dulcimer, and Drum, shown on seulpturee, 406, 409- Chief of the 
Muaioians, 408— Musicians Dancing^ 409— Large Susian City on the 
banks of a rirer ; Its MagniBcent Susian Palace, HO — Assyrians and 
E^ptians acquainted with the True Arch j Eastern Hthiopians, 413 
— DeBtruetion of another city of the Susians, 413— King hunting 
the Wild Horse witli the Lasso and Doge ; King present at dissec- 
tion of Lion, ib. — Samaritan Priests, or the Quefs of the Jewish 
inhabitante of Susiatia, ib. — KinEwith iiia foot on CaptiTo, bi. — ' ' 
Bioians, 413— Garden with Fnul^^Treos and riowera, and Tame Li 
t6.— DiTinities, iS.- Guardians of Entrances, i6.— Tablet of Tiglath 
Pileser, 411— Parement Slabs, 415— List of Sculptures from Nim' 
roud, Khoreabad, and Kouyunjik, now in the British Museum, 415. 


Assyrian Art, Industry, Dress, Ornaments, and Equipages ; Perfettion 
of the Art of Sculpture in Ninereh, 426 — Assyrian Art intermediary 
between the Grooian and Egyptinn, 43G — Vaaea and Furniture, 430 — 
Splendour of Costumes, ib. — Besd-dresses, 431 — Warlike Weapons, 
1*. 434— Ertreme care of Beards, 434— Lore of Ornament, 435— 
Eorrings, r'i.— Bracelets, 435, 436— The Style of Art which charac- 
terised their Omanienta — Comparison with more familiar forms of 
Greek Art, 437— Assyrian Industry, ii.— The liigh degree of perfec- 
tion it attained, £6. — Acquaintance with the Art of working various 
Metals, 438— Pottery, ii.— Tablets of Gold and Silver, Copper, and 
Lead, 440— Bronw Xion, ib.—lu Use, 441— Broniea, tt.--Se»lB oi 
Clay, 443— Funereal Urns, 444— Painted Bricks, 445— Altars, i6.— 
BaSs, It,- Burnt cUy Idols, 446— Chariol-Wheels, ift.- Lapis Ollaris, 
447 — Commerce of Ancient Assyria, 448 — llabylouian boast of Skill 
in Archery, 449— Its Chief Branches of Traffic, S.— Tribute ob- 
tained by IheEayptiaos from Mesopotamia, 450 — Im — "* — ■- '"■* 


Bronie Vesaels, Mother of Pearl omamenta. In:,, 457 — Glass Teisels 
and Statuettaa, found at Suaa, 459— Inscribed Cones of Chal^ ib. 
— Writing Implementa, ib. — Needles, Wine Strainer, and Bells, ib. — 
Cliain Armour, 16. — Hatcheta, Knives, and Ladles, 4fiO — Clay Ee- 
cords, Glasa Vases, ii. — Fertility of Asajria, 16. — Condition of the 
Ituins, 461. 

Asajrian Inscriptions and (heir Interpretation, 463 — Tlie AjTow-Head 
CharacfCT, 46-1 — How it cams ta be deciphered by Profesaor Qrote- 
fend, 4S5 — Si^gestiona of M. Boiiraouf and Profoasop Lasaen, Col. 
IKawlinaon and the Beliiatiin Inscription, 46B — Froosas of analyzing 
the Aagyrian Teit, 489 — The Inspriptiona at Khorsabad, the SituatioDS 
in which tier were found, 470 — Botta'a opinion of these Inscriptione, 
171 — ColonBl Bawlinson's Account of die Labours of bis predeoesEors 
and of himself 472, 477— The Babylonian unqueationably the most 
ancient Cuneiform Writang, 477 — Tablets at the Mouth of the Nahr- 
al-Kelb, 482 — Cuneiform Writing- confined eiclusiTely to Sculptures 
and Impresaions, 484 — The Inscription on tlia Obelist found at Nim- 
rond, 486- CoL Eawlinaon'a translation and remarks, 486, 496— Dr. 
Grotefend's reading of the Obelisk, 487 — Shahnaneain', 498 — Dr. 
Hincts' reading of aome names — Jehu, 499 — Identification of the 
king who buJJt Koujunjil with the Sennacherib of Boripturo, by Col. 
Ita»linBon,439 — Esar-Haddon, 603 — Language and mode of writing 
the ancient AjBjrian, 504 — Difference between the two sjfllBms of 
CoL aawlinaon and Dr. Hincka in iutOTpretiDg InaeriptioDB, 505^Mr. 
Bosanquet, Dr. Hinoks' further Diacoyeries ; Dr. Grotefend on the 
Plan 01 Nimroud, 509. 


Latest Proceedings and Discoveries in Assyria, 512 — Inl«lligence of 
Layard, 1849, 1850, 1851, SIS — Conmiimication from CoL Rawlinson 
rrad at the Asiatio aocicty, 16. — Eioavationa of M. Place, 513 — CoL 
Eawlinaon on Ouneiforni Inscriptions, 514 — His Beport on Inscrip- 
tion containing name of Pul, 615 — Assyrian Antiquities forwarded by 
him to British MusGum, 516 — His Article on the Cjlindors of Baby- 
lon and Asayrin, ii. — Chronology of the Aaayrians, by M. Oppcrt, 
&18— Cbronologica] Table, 531. 



•.■ nfratm llu cri^al mm,bm«s. On ruU m(M w Hit nJIftw. crt lUmd; lies omc 1 

pri^if^/r^lSiniOi. I 

PR^ Pl^^F 1 

1. FronllBploce — Amvsl of Bcdlp- 

19. Plan of Mnund of Khonwbad 

m Dit»ot%tlif™on»blihpalai; *" 


=fKhor»badJl«>d M 

connDy ffl/aor tmos 1 
a. Aaayrtan wlqepd-lion N,w. pijice ■ 

21. EaiMm aide of mouoda of Khoraa- 

l»d ... ... IM 

M. ObellBltfromNlinmnd ,„ ... lOS 

The QTB^t Hoittid uf Koii'j'aiijikI 

i3. Boundary of andenC Nlneieh ... loa 

opposilsMosjl l^fi^pas, 3 

24. WaUaofMneteh lU 

MwDl, from the Euttm bwirSf 

the Hftris to face pa^ 4 

M. Kuliis at Al H»dhr 18 

27. Bira Nlraraad 10 

88. PemcpoUtan Colmnn 38 

8;™'.^ordll?r' .,:"*■,., V! IB 

S9. PlanofllieRnlaaofFeTHpotta ... W 

JebDDTl Anba employed at the 

««™tfoM 88 

AnbTmU, iwu the Monnd, re- 

dad 148 

■ideni» of the Jehi.url work- 

aa. Forepjrt of Bnll on Jamb of door 

peopls Ufoapnn M 

'^ '(Khorsabad) KS 
S3. PorttI of th« PalaM ofKhoi- 

T. MoEDdttNlninHid... S» 

Nenoriuu eiti|,l»yed at the exca- 



(notu,pi-«) .-- ... --. 160 

S6. Portal of Paliuw, with flgnrB of 

«. Plain ..d «.„»., or m^»r^ 


{Khorwbi^) 163 

S6. Pignroof Nirarod(Botta,pI.*l)... 168 

KoordiaUD [ADDiDnt AHyria) 

Io/a»I«iM 41 

39. Hunsa Uanga, tnim Bouthen 

HBMlO/Hatydotu. tn 

40. Trombash, from Conml Africa '.'.'. lb. 

18. tdiiD ft^D ll<« Eiwt'iloadd, Nlid- 

11. BaSal6in,fromthoDfflierlbetw8aii 

rotid .. JT 

42. A intmltan Bomraorang 0. 

TaMsBtChfonology 8B 

13. Divinity llu (Botu, pi. 28) 

(KhoraabaA) 157 

IS. Kama on tyory bdi found at Nta- 

nmd 88 

11. EgyjUanaTmbolotUfs 168 

16. BKjpBan kl,,g Bl,«..«a IV. 

14. Hwd of Cyrut In EgypllaD hoad- 

drsH «. 

(TbebEB) 159 



88. Greek ir!ne-«.p ...(Kho™ 


(do.j ib. 

90. OueaU .t tobla-tho loaal 

™.dMI«.Tt(B0tU,pl.3W {io.)im 

(Holla. pl9. 81, «6) 

(do.) M7 

SI. Amyrlad Bbip (do.) ib. 

91. ABBanlt of a city, and ira- 

(do.) SIB 

«. Biiming of a Reneged cllr 

M. Dagon ... ^ IBS 

(Botta, pi. 88 H.) 

(do.) i!2i 

"■'•/„?•— -!"'»"": .,0 

B3. Bumtngofsfort andpm- 

suit of the eonquored 

08. KMcluHil Of Cilro cnrliig tbe 

(Bona pi. 7S) 


ke; of b)« magBElus a. 

fii. Part of bsslegod city oo 

6T. TsElan, cWef of Tfibuw (Bntln, 

hill, .howlDg citcnlar. 

beaded Ublet (Botta, pi. 

6S. Sultan Medlaet (Botle, pL 

(do.) ns 

3B,) ... .„ ... {do.)i7S 

9B. Attack byboi and'spoar- 

W. Ons nf tbe Si«u111 (BotU, 

man: aettlnB fite te Bates 

Pl-ISB) (ao.)lT4 

ofacty(Bo«a,pLei ... 
98. Bowmen' charging ^.Ur 

[do.) 221 

ea Prr<«t Wo.) 178 

ei. EigU-hMd«d Divinity ... (ilo.;) B. 

Ol-as. TsMphlm fraud In KKret 


(do.) SS5 

Clvllie»(Bott»,pLiH)... (do.) I7B 

97. SmIptorB representing Jo- 

64. B™i»llette8 ,. ... (do.) 19! 
K. Stem with batUring-nmB 

( 1«) (i"-) 1B3 

niaaIeffi(Bolt«.pI.7a) ... 

[do.) ES8 

irith oiipa md wboalfd 

ing-run^Bolto, pi. lao] (do.) 18B 

chair (Botta, pi. IS, 10 

(do.) K8 

68. Bured ediOu vlth gsbls 

mf(Botto,pl. 141) ... (do.) 1S8 

chair of auto, altar, and 

eS, Reiring ■ tigan (o glecai 

ebariot (Botta, pie. 18. 19 

(BoIU, pi. 140) (do.) las 

TO. Pfctring4;«(BotU,pl.lM) (ao.j 192 
71. King pulHoE ont the aye. of 

m ... 


100. Ditto, itith horaee, tubtai 

aed vaaos (Botta, pH. 31 

• aiplly«(Boa»,pl.ll8),.. (do.) 194 

W. W) 

(do.) S3J 

7». BrtdlalnOiillM ... ... (do.) 106 

101. Ciirvatlo moulding of tor- 

laca on plaUijnn (Botta 

( IH) (do.) 19» 

Pl.160) ■ ■■ 

(do.) IBS 

74. TLa graal King foJlowIng 

lOS. Priest with gueBe (Botta 

.hacl,a«(Bo«. pl.113) (do.) BOO 
75. ThS King's wma ditto (part 


(do.) MS 

103. BecUon, shewing conatmo 

of the preoadlug) (Botui, 

(dO.J 2« 

pLUai ... (do.) ft 

104. Proceaaioo, aho-mg dlvt- 

78. ahooHng at > Urgat (Botta, 

olon of Blab and dnoma; 

pl.ll) (do.) KM 

[Botta. ply. 21, 93. SS] ... 

(do.) 248 

77, ThaKloraforeateraBotl., 

Pl.110) (do.) KM 

at Kimrond 

(do,) S49 

( 1081 Ido.) a. 

(N. W. Palate, Ninmrad) Ml ■ 

107. King in hla chariot, be- 



(do.) EH ■ 

(Botta, pi. Ba) (do.) SOS 

lOftEgrptHfn chariot 

...25S ■ 

§1. CapUvEi and apoil (Botta, 

109. Ai>yrlBn do. (N. W. p., Nlmrond) IM ■ 

pl.W) (do.) «I7 


at. One of the MLl™, from 

CUlaa (Botti, pL t<» Ml} (do.) ao» 
8). ClaipofdroH do. aiO 

alloaofFig. lOi) 

(do.) 263 ■ 

111. King in p[«e.aion *n«- 


(do.) 269 ■ 

Si. Altoek of a citr; lettliiK fln 

111. Suind<^-be(ren iii pn^ 


totIiB«ta«lBottt,pl,70) (do.)m 
flS. Aluek o7 ■ city of tha 

(do.) isa m 


■heopakln-dad ruo (Boi- 
tt,pr-77) (do.) a4 

(do.) MO ■ 

114. Mmomera dancing 

1 do. m M 

M. Fowl: drlnWniMupi and 

llB-118, Tamhoum 

... aai ■ 

wliie.vaseilB<jlla,pl.76) (dolSlB 

sr. Atiirnaa wiw-cap (do.) aio 

117. Tho BUbIs— currv^nniMiic 


.!»», ...^.. ™J8..1»« J 

; or rLLtrsTHiTioiis, 

lis. SgTpUaa lilrawlyphlc, < 
tennlnaclve a? country 

IUl iDterlarartherojslkilct 

— bird otjftej above 

Chuiol mul DtHeen oT U 

gFHtklng ,. 

SIsoB of DaDuoua— aul 

"""It W 

GompletlaD of ulegA-people 

led iDta uptlvtCr -.- (i 
TrlacaphAl pfqc^aiion bfr- 

foTBtllB wallsof icttj ... (( 
Its. Fuugs of ■ livsr by ths 

150. PreparuUmi tar 

ationsf Ihschai 

151. Kii&h modern nui 


■.se. winged humen-fasiLded bell (do.) 301 
'" HiiriKA berois armbolia 

trea (do.) 308 

King driatilDB or dIvlTiinK 

■wliigs fdo.) 810 

irselWng (do.) 318 

Illy wllh ogg-aliaped 

homed MP (do.) aiS 

isa DeiB«d mm carrying goat 

felllns trees ™'""' 

(Centre rulnn, Mmroad) 31S 
IBS. BleKo,priBoneraliDp«ledtie- 

fatethewillHottheolly (do.l 819 


OuiiieB,lheAHyrl*aD*gDD(dD.) X» 
StitueorhlKh-prlsat ... (do.) SS'i 
Portrait of King In OhrOBo- 

logical Tablet (do.) 333 

"■-' r to the King of 

& tJie Surrounding Country. 




Tah away from the highways of modern commerce, and tlie 
tracks of ordinary travel, lay a city buried in the sandy earth 
of a half-desert Turkish province, with no certain trace of its 
place of sepulture. Vugue tradition said that it was hidden 
somewhere near the river Tigris ; but for a long series of agea 
itB existence in the world was a mere name — a word. That 
name suggested the idea of an ancient capital of fahulous 
splendour and muguitude ; a congrt^ution of palaces and tern' 
pies, encompassed by vast walls and ramparta, — of " the re- 
joicing city that dwelt carelessly ; that said in her heart, I 
am, and there is none beside me;" and which was to become 
" a desolation and dry like a wildemesB." ' 

More than two thousand years had it lain ia v\,fti«j4si'i"St>. 


grave, wlien a French iBvaitt and a wandering English Boholar 
Bought tlie seat of the once iioworfol empire, and searchinj 
till they found the dead city, threw off its shroud of sand ant 
niin, and revealed once more to an astonished and curiona 
world the temples, the palaces, and the idols ; the repress 
tions of war and the chase, of the cruelties and luxuries, of 
the ancient Assyrians. The Nineveh of Scripture, the Nine- 
Tiih of the oldest historians; the Nineveh — twin sister of 
Babylon — glorying in pomp and power, all traces of which 
were believed to be gone ; the Nineveh, in which the cap- 
tive tribes of Israel had laboured and wept, and against 
which the words of prophecy had gone forth, was, after a Bleep 
of twenty centuries, again brought to light. The proofs rtC 
ancient splendour were again beheld by living eyes, and, by' 
the skill of dmftanien and the pen of antiquarian travellers, 
made known and preserved tfl the world. 

The immeiiBe mounds of bricks and rubbish which marked 
the presumed sites of Babylon and Nineveh had been used i 
quarries by the inhabitants of the surrounding country, from 
time immemorial, without disclosing to other eyes than thoe^ 
of the wild occupier of the soil the monuments they muat^ 
have served to support or cover. Though carefully explored 
by Niebuhr and Claudius James Eicb, no other traces of build- 
ings than a few portions of walls, of which they could not 
understand the plan, had been presented ; if, however, the in^ 
yestigations of these travellers produced few immediate reEultSj 
the flrat-named certainly has tlie merit of being the first to 
break the ground, and by his intelligence, to have awakened 
the enterprise of others. Rich, who was the East India Com* 
pany's resident at Baghdad, employed his leisure in the invea- 
ligation of the antiquities of Assyria. He gave his first atten- 
tion to Babylon, on which he wrote a paper, originally pub- 
lished in Germany — his countrymen apparently taking lest ■. 
interest in such matters than did the scholars of Vienna, In 
u note to a second memoir on Babylon, printed in London in 
1818, we find Nineveh thus alluded to by Rich. He says ; 
" Opposite the town of Miisul' is an enclosure of a Tectangular 
^^erm, corresponding with the cardinal points of the comi 
^H* eastern and weBt«m sides being the longest, the latter 
^H ' Correctly " El-Mosil." 

ftrirg the river. The area, which is now cultivftted and offers 
no vestiges of building, is too small to have contained a town 
larger than MohuI, hut it may be supposed to answer to the 
palace of Nineveh. The boundary, which may be perfectly 
traced all round, now looks like an embankment of earth ur 
rubbish, of Bmall elevation ; and has attached to it, and in its 
line, at several places, mounds of greater size and solidity. 
The first of these forms the south-west angle ; and on it ia 
built the village of Nebbi Younis, the prophet Jonah (described 
and dehneated by H^iebuhr as Nurica), where they show the 
tomb of the prophet Jonah, much revered by the Moham- 
medana. The nest, and largest of all, ia the one which may 
be supposed to be the monument of Ninus. It is situated near 
the centre of the western face of the Micloaure, and is joined 
like the others by the boundary wall ; — the natives caU it 
Kouyunjik Tepe. Its form ia that of a truncated pyramid, 
with regular steep sides and a flat top ; it is composed, as I 
ascertained from some excavations, of stones and earth, the 
latter predominating sufBcicntly t« admit of the summit being 
cultivated by the inhabitanto of the village of Kouyunjik, 
which is built on it at the north-east extremity. The only 
means I had, at the time I visited it, of ascertaining itsdimen- 
siojia, was by a oord which I procured from M6sul. This gave 
178 feet for the greatest height, 1850 feet for the length of 
the summit east and west, and 1147 for its breadth north and 
south. In the measurement of the length I have less confi- 
dence than in the others, as I fear the straight line was not 
■very correctly preserfed; and the east side ia in a less perfect 
condition than the others. The other mounds on the boimdary 
■wall offer nothing worthy of remark in this place. Out of 
one in the north face of the boundary was dug, a short time 
ago, an immense block of stone, on which were sculptured the 
figures of men and animals. So remarkable was this fragment 
of antiquity, that even Turkish apathy was roused, and the 
Pasha and most of the principal people of Mileul came out to 
see it. One of the spectators particularly recollect^Ml, among 
the GQulptures of ttiis stone, the figure of a man on horseback 
with a lung lance in his hand, followed by a great many others 
on foot. The stone was soon afterwmrds cut into small pieces 
fur repairing the buildings of Miiaul, and this ineBti.(aah\& »^ 
amen of the arta and maniietBottivuea.t\i.fflS.fteft«.\\";c«N««^si!5oi 


lost. Cylindere, like those of Babylon, and some other 
tiques, are oooasionaUy found here ; bat I have never seer 
heard of inscriptiona. From the assurances given me by the- 
Pasha of Mosul, I entertain great hopes that any monument 
which may he hereafter discovered will be rescued from destruc- 
tion.' Aruinedcity, as Major Bennel justly obaerves, is a quarry 
above ground. It is very likely that a considerable part of 
M6bu1, at least of the public works, was constructed with the 
materials found at Nineveh,^ Eouyunjik Tep& has beeu dug 
into in. some places in search of them ; and to this day Btouea 
of very large dimensions, which sufficiently attest their high. 
antiquity, are found in or at the foot of the mound whick 
forms the boundary. These the Turks break into small frag-* 
ments, to employ in the construction of their edifices. 'Bie 
permanent part of the bridge of Mosul was built by a late Pashs' 
wholly with stones found in the part of the boundary which 
conneota the mound of Eouyuujik with the mound of Nebbi 
Younis (the pro'phet Jonah), and which is the least consider- 
able of all. The small river Khauaar traverses the area above 
deaeribed from east to west, and divides it into two nearly 
equal parts ; it makes a sweep round the east and south ude« 
of Kouyunjik Tep6, and then disebargea itself into the Tigris 
above Uie bridge of M<5aul. It is almost superfluous to add, 
that the mount of Kouyunjik Tep^ is wholly artificial." 

Kich remarks that the ramparts and hollows among the' 
ruins of Nineveh, would seem to indicate that the city had ft 
double wall ; and farther, that the walla on the east aide had 
become quite a concretion of pebbles, like the natural hills. 
The jealousy with which every rootion was watched rendered 
actual surveys difficult ; nevertheless, his examination of the 
buildings upon 14'ebbi Younis satisfied him that they were 
partly formed of ancient chambers, la the kitchen of a 
wretched house an iuBcribed piece of gypsum was found, which, 
appeared to form part of the wall of a small passage, said to 
reach far into the mound. The passage itself had been dug 
into, but was subsequently closed up ivith rubbish, from an 

■ Similar RBsnrancea liad been ^ven to the English and Ftonah Consnh 
nF Egj'pt bv Mobanimed Ali ; neTerthelcu, since that time, nil tho ruiiii 
that murkeil the site of Antinopolia, and some nearly perfect templ^ bare 
dntircl]' diESppearBd. 

' I'iiis ia partiflllj oonttadicted by Botto. 


apprehension of undermining the houaes above. In another . 
email room, not far distant, and parallel with the pBEBage 
before mentioned, an inscription was seen, which was the 
more eurioua, because it seemed to ooeupy its original position : 
for it was discovered on building the room, and left just where 
it was found. At Kouyunjik, Kieh also saw a piece of coarse 
grey atone, shaped like the capital of a column, such as at this 
day BUrmounts the wooden pillars or posts of Turkish or Persian 
J verandahs. Oa the south aide, or fuce of the encloaure, and 
not far from Nebbi Younis, some people who had been digging 
fcr stones had turned up many large hewn stones, with 
;Htumen adhering to them. The escaTation was about ten 
feet deep, and consisted of huge atones laid in separate layers of 
Wtnmen and lime mortar; there werealsosorae very thick layers 
of red clay, which had become as hard as burnt brick, butwith- 
'«ut any indication of reeds or straw having been used, sand- 
'Stone cut into blocks, and large slabs of inscription with 
>l)itaiaen adhering to the under side. Eich'a opinion was, Uiat 
Ml the veatiges of the building were of the same period ; that 
■ttey did not mark the entire extent of the great city itself; 
but that theae mousda and ruins were either the citadel or 
royal precincts. He finally inferred that very few bricks were 
used in building Nineveh, but that the walls, &q., were formed 
of the rubbish of the country, well rammed down with a waah 
of lime poured upon it, which in a short time would convert 
'the whole into a solid mass. At the present day the natives 
~Oix pebbles, lime, and red earth, or clay, together, and after 
axpoBure to water, they become lite the solid rock.' 

Bioh made Nineveh the subject of a further paper, but all 
■flie resalta he arrived at were that a granite lion at Babylon, 
the fragment of a atatue at Kalah Sherghat on the banks of 
the Tigris, and a bas-relief at the mouth of the Nahr-el-Kelh, 
near Beyrout, were productions of AsByrian art. In the various 
museums of Europe a small number of seals and cylinders, 
oovered with mythological emblems, were carefully coJleeted, 
vhich prove that the Assyrians were acquainted with the pro- 
cess of working the hardest materials, but which were, generdly, 
Ettle calculated to give us a just idea of the skill thej- had ac- 
quired in the artof representing objects. In a word, it may be 
'd that though we had some belief in the ejciatenceof AsaYrio.' 


art, ABByrian architecture and Assyrian sculpture were totally, 
unknown to us. 

As to inscriptions, we were no richer in them than in other 
Assyrian worka. The chief were an inscription engraven, upon 
a Htone sent to London hj Sir Harford Jones, and preserved itit 
the Museum of the East India Company ; a circular-headed 
tablet ; two egg-shaped stones ; and still more recently the oast 
from the Nahr-el-Kelh monument, in the British Musenm ; 
and another of the same form in the Cabinet dea Antiques of thf 
National Library of Paris, known by the name of Caillou A 
Miehaud, The mottoes of a few cyOnders and some insignifi- 
contfragments completed all that was known in Europe. Copies 
ofiEBcriptiona were more numerouB, but they all came from dkh 
numentssituatedheyond the limitaofAssyria, properly BO called. 
M. Schulz had collected a considerable. number on the bar' 
the lake Van, and the Assyrian tranBcriptiona of the ii 
of Persepolis had also been more or less faithfully copied. 

Thus although up to within a short time we pot 
thing which could add to what the ancient writers had handed 
down to us concerning the history and the arts of Asayriaj 
yet all interested in the subjects anticipated far different resultB 
when favourable circumstances should allow the ground to h 
more attentiTely explored. 

That these hopes were not disappointed is now a matter <^' 
history, and the two following chapters will therefore bo 
devoted to a description of the labours of those whose exertioni 
have revealed the monuments of ancient Assyrian ciTilisatioa,; 
of which all trace seemed to be lost. 


BoTTA, in the narrative of his researches at Nineveh, which 
has been pnhliehed in five handsome folio volumeH through the 
liberality of the Frenoii governtnent, after eumming up the 
amount, or rather the deficiency, of our knowledge of the great 
Aasjiiaa cities before the period of the recent cscavatioDB, 
prefaces hia adventures at Khorsabad by an accouEt of the cir- 
cumstances that led him lo tlie neighbourhood of that place. 

The French government having come to the conclusion that 
it woa advisable to ecnd a consular agent toKi^Bul, cfaoee Bottu 
to fulfil that office, — a selection thitt reflected the highest credit 
on its judgment. Botta, the nephew of the celebrated historian 
of Italy, was himself entirely devoted to science. His long 
residence in Egypt, Sennaar, El YenieD, and Syria, undertakeu 
n^gardless of difficulties, or of the dangers of climat«, solely 
to (\irther hia scientific pursuits, had eminently adapted him 
for an appointment ia the East. He could oaaimilate himself 
to the habits of the people; was conveiaKat-*iS;ii.'Cii>Hix^K»- 


intalligent and practised observer : Tcith siich qualifications it 
wae obvioua that his residence in the vicinity of a spot that 
history and tradition agreed in pointing out ea the site of 
Nineveh could not but be productive of important resnlta. 
Accordingly upon his departure for McJsul, in the beginning of 
the year 1842, his friend Monsieur J". Mohl, the accomplished 
translator of " Firdousi," called his attention tfl the archoso- 
logieal interest of the place, and strongly pressed him to make 
excavations in the neighbourhood. 

Botta promised that he would not forget this good advice, 
hut he felt that before being enabled to keep his promise, the 
definitive establishment of the consulship at Milisul must place 
at his disposal both more considcrablo pecuniary resources, anil 
more powerfnl means of action than he then poaseaaed. In. 
the meanwhile he employed himself in collecting every small 
object of antiquity ■which appeared to be at all interesting, and 
made the necessary inquiries for pitching upon a favourable spot 
for really serious researches. 

Botta was not so fortunate in his acquisition of antiquities 
as he could have hoped from the report of Rich, who had had 
the good fortune to purchase in the neighbourhood of H<}sul 
several objects of interest. Botta had, in consequence, pic- 
tured to himself the locality as a most fruitfid mine, but a 
residence of several years csnaed him to entertain a different 
opinion. Mr. Bich, being the first to enter upon the still 
vii^in ground, had at once collected all that chance had 
amassed in the hands of the inhabitants during a long seriea 
of years, and no conclusion, therefore, as to the real abundance 
of objects of antiquity to be found in the neighbourhood of 
M<5aiJ could properly be drawn from this fact. "With the 
exception of a few fragments of bricks and pottery, Botta had 
never been able to collect anything in the way of antiquitieB 
whioh he could be sure were indigenous (ao to speak) ; and aa 
he spared neither time nor expense ts procure them, he had 
good reason to believe that they were not common ; the cylinders 
in particular, those relics of Assyria so curious on account of 
the emblems with which they are covered, were very rare at 
Mdeu), and out of all those which fell into his hands, there was 
not one that he knew of, which had been found upon the terri- 

Saghdad, and oonBeqnently from Babylon and its neighbonr- 
hood. The source of the others was unknown. The same 
held good with the Assyrian eeala ; almost all of them came 
from Baghdad ; and in the following pages the reader will find 
that this rare occurrence of small objects of antiquity waa 
confirmed by the researches made by Botta at Eouyiinjik and 
Khoreabad ; for during the whole period of the excavations 
not a single cylinder was discovered. Our antiquary draws 
attention to this fact, because it is one that was Hcarcely 
expected, and which will perhaps modify the received opinions 
regarding the real source of these engraved mythological stones. 
The Bucceaa of Botta'a inquiries with a view to find a fitting 
spot for his researches was not more encouraging ; and the 
reports of the inhabitants furnished him with nothing certain 
on this head. The spot which appeared to offer the greatest 
chance of success, and to which he naturally first directed his 
attention, was the mound on which is built the viUage of 
Niniouah, then believed to he the last remnant of tho immense 
city of which it preserves the name ; for it waa there that Mr, 
Eich had observed subterranean walls covered with cuneiform 
inscriptions — too valuable a sign to be overlooked. The number 
and importance, however, of the houses with which the mound 
was covered did not allow of Botta making any researches. 
Every attempt of the kind was repelled by the religious preju- 
dices of the inhabitants, for it is there that the mosque of Nebbl 
Tounis is built. He was thus obliged to look for some other 
spot ; but in the vast space covered with the traces of ancient 
edifices which surrounds the village of Niniouah, there was no- 
thing that could guide hira with any degree of certainty. A 
great many erroneous opinions (according to Botta) have been 
disseminated with regard to the actual oondition of the ruins of 
Nineveh : they have been represented as a mine in constant 
requisition for supplying bricks and stones for the erection of 
the houses of AI^sul, and thus assimilated to the ruins of 
Babylon, which have for ages furnished the necessary building 
materials for the surrounding towns. " Such, however," saya 
Botta, " can scarcely have been, the case at Nineveh at any 
period, and very certainly it is not so in the present day. The 
reason is plain : all that exists of the ruins of the ancient city, 
boundary walls, and mounds, ia formed of bricks wtetii. -«ew. 
merely baked in the film ; tlieae ^J^v^i)sa\^we\«H».■«&slsl^■^_ 


age into an eartby state, and consequently cannot be used | 
again." Botta goes on to say : " There can be no doubt but || 
that in the conatructioa of these ancient buildings more solid f 
materials, auch as stones and Iciln-burnt bricks, were sometimes j 
employed, and this accounts for their being accidentally dis- I 
covered; but they were merely employed as accessoriea — the I 
moss of the walls was composed of unbumt bricks. Thus, in 
thia particular, there is not the least similarity between Nine- 
veh and Babylon : the ruina of the latter city offer an iramensB 
quantity of esoeUent bricks ; they have, consequently, been i 
capable of being used oh quarries, but the masses of earth, 
which are the only remains of Nineveh, could not be employed 
for a like purpose. It would, besides, be difficult to under- 
Htand why people should trust to chance for obtaining a few- 
raw materials, when quarries of gypsum, which are far less 
expensive to work than a series of uncertain excavationa would 
be, are situated at the gates of Mtisul." | 

This is the case now ; but formerly, when those mounds of i 
crude brick were incrusted with limeatene and slabs of gypsum, 
it was otherwise, as the fact of the almost entire diaappeuranoe 
of this crust, or casing, abundantly testifies. 

Botta further tells us that it was only in the immediate 
vicinity of Mdsul, and very often within the city itself, that the 
inhabitants bad sometimes looked for materials. They had 
found there, at the depth of a few feet, the remains of ancient 
buildings; but, in spite of all his researches, he could not 
observe a single sign which would allow of his assigning , 
these Tcmdns to a period anterior to the foundation of the 
present town. Never, to his knowledge, had these operations 
brought to light ancient bricks or stones with cuneiform in- 
Bcriptions, with both of which the inhabitants are at present ' 
well acquainted, and of which they would certainly have i 
brought him the smallest remnant, had they found any ; he 
was therefore convinced that the walls existing under the 
ground in the interior of Mosul, or near the city gates, were 
comparatively modem — either the foundations or the subter- 
ranean apartments' of the bouses which were ruined at a time ■' 

' In Ibt houeoB of llAsul, as well aa in tliosa of Bachilaif, there is 
-vays a anbUrraaean apartin{?Dt, called in thiue pattB, Serd^di tbe inhabi- 
tant* retreat tbither, in summer, U> pnae tbe botteat houia of tbe day. In . 
order to be rendered iohabitable, theM apaiUneub have to b« coated Kith 

aOTTA. 11 

when the city, as was the case tut a few years ago, occupied 
a much more couaiderahle space than it doca at the present 

As regarded the ruins situated on the eastern hank of the 
Tigria, Botta aays he never heard, in the course of a residencS 
of eeveral years, that any excaTationa were made there for the 
purpose of obtaining huilding materials ; nor had he ever Been 
in the houses at Aldsul the lea»t trace of antique Temains, al- 
though he took particular pains to discover them. The walla 
were not, as had been reported, huilt of brick and coated with 
gypaura, and he did not find a single iustauce where such waa 
the case. The walla of all the houses are formed of gypseoua 
or calcareous stone, rudely joined with plaster, and the same 
plan prevails ia the vaults of the largest edifices. A few old 
mosques only are constructed of hricks, but their form, their 
size, and the absence of any cuneiforni inscription, prove that 
those hricks do not come from the buildings of Nineveh. He 
mentions another fact, in order to show how littlo the inhabi- 
tants of M<^ul are accustomed to look among the neighbouring 
ruins for the materials they may require. The Pasha of Mi^ul, 
being desirous of constructing ovens for the use of the garrison 
of that town, hastened to Botta for the hricks which the works 
undertaken at Khorsabod had brought to light. It is very 
certain, argues the French antiquary, that if, as has been re- 
ported, the Pasha had possessed an abundant supply at the gates 
of the town, or if it had been easy to obtain them, he would 
not have seat a distance of fouT leagues for them. 

Kot haviag, therefore, any precedent to guide him in hia 
researches, and not daring, he says, to op<eii the mound of 
Kehbi Younis, Eotta selected the mound of Eouyunjik as the 
spot for commencing operations. This mound is situated to 
the north of the village of Niniouah, to which it is joined by 
the remains of an ancient wall of uabumt bricks. It was 
evidently an artificial mass, and, to all appearance, fonnerly 
supported the principal palace of the kings of Assyria. On 
the western aide, near the aouthera extremity of this hill, a 
few hricks of a large size, joined with bitumen, seemed to be 

thin ilab* of Mdsal gi^pBum, and tbo walls are, bcaidei, cooitructed with 
the ^cateit >oliditf, since tbey have to Buppurt the nhole weight of tlia 
BUperiacufflbeat buildiiisi, Tim fut maf espbin th«ir preterraaoD uadec- 


the remaiHS of some ancient building, and it was here there- 
fore that Botta eommeneed his investigations in the month of 
December, 1842. 

The reaulto of these first works were in theraselvea i 
portant, though they possessed considerable interest whea 
connected with the discoveries subsequently made. The work- 
men brought to light numerons fragments of bas-reliefs and 
inscriptions, but nothing in a perfect state was obtained io 
reward the trouble and outlay, during the three months that 
tbe researches were continued. 

Botta's proceedings had meanwhile attracted attention. 
"Without exactly knowing what was their object, the inhabi- 
tants were aware that he waa in quest of stones bearing ia- 
acriptioEB, and that he bought all that were offered. In con- 
sequence of this, and so early as December, 1842, an inhabi- 
tant of Kborsabad had been induced to bring him two large 
bricks with cuneiform inacriptions, which had been found ni 
the village, and offered to procure him as many more as 
wished. This man was a dyer, and built his ovens of the 
bricks obtained from the mound on which the Tillage was 
built ; but, reckoning on the success of the first excavations, 
Botta did not immediately follow up the fidnt and solitary hint. 
Three months later, however, about the 20th of March, 1843, 
being weary of finding in the mound of Kouynujik nothing se 
small fragments without any value, he called to mind the 
bricks of Kborsabad, and sent a few workmen to sound tl 
ground there. Such was the manner in which he was led to 
the discovery of an immense monument, to be compared, with 
regard to richness and ornament, to the most sumptuou 
ductions bequeathed to us by Egypt. 

Three days after the commencement of the works at Kbor- 
sabad, one of Botta's workmen brought intelligence that some 
figures and inscriptions had been dug up ; but the description 
which he gave was so confused, that the antiquary hiraaelf 
would not run the chance of making the journey for nothing ; 
instead, therefore, of going in person, he contented himself 
with sending one of his servants, and ordering him to copy a 
few of the characters of the inscriptions. Having thus 
acquired the certainty that the inscriptions were cuneiform, ha 
hesitated no longer to proceed personally to Kborsabad, where, 
with a feeling of pleasure which the reader will easily under- 

scmi. 13 

stand, he saw, for the first time, a new world of antiquitiea 

Hia workmen had been fortunate enough to commence the 
excavations precisely in that part of the mound where the 
monument was in the most perfect state of preservation, ao that 
he had only to follow the walla which had already been dia- 
oovered, to succeed most certainly ia laying bare the whole 
edifice. In a few days, all that remains of a chamber, with a 
fa5ade covered by baa-reliefc, had been disooverod. On bis 
arrival at the scene of action he immediately perceived that 
these remains could form but a very small portioQ of some con- 
siderable building buried in the mouad, to aasure himself of 
which, he had a well sunk a few paces further on, and instantly 
came upon other bas-reliefa, that offered to view the first per- 
fect figures he had seen. He found also, during this hia first 
visit, two altars, and those portions remaining of tlie faqade 
which jutted out above ground at the other extremity of the 
mound ; and finally, bis attention was drawn to a line of mounds 
which formed the grand enclosure. 

Ia a letter dated the 5th of April, 1848, he hastened to an- 
nounce the succeaa of his first operations to Monsieur Mohl, 
and to send him a plan of all that had as yet beea laid bare; 
adding some copies of difiercnt inscriptions, and some drawings. > 
The letter was laid before the Academy of Inscriptions and J 
Belles-Lettrea, in Paris, July 7th, 1843, and was subsequently | 
printed in the Journal of the Aaiatic Society of that city, 

Kot with standing some difficulty, occaaioned by the untavour- 
able disposition of tho Pasha of Miisul, and the fears of the 
inhabitants of the village, Botta caused the works to be con- 
tinued with a degree of activity continually increased by the 
abundant harvest which they yielded ; and on the 2nd of May, 
1643, he was enabled to send to Monsieur Mohl a second 
letter, more important than the former, and accompanied with 
fresh inscriptiona, drawings, and descriptions of doors, chambers, 
and portions of another wall, ornamented with bas-reliefa, 
which the excavations had laid bare. Butta's second letter waa, 
like the first, communicated to the Academy of Inscriptions, 
and inserted in tho Journal of the Asiatic Society of Paris. 

Up to this epoch the works of Khorsabad, as wi.dl as those 
in the mound of Kouyunjik, had been carried on at Botta's 
expense, and the smallness of his personal resources threatened ,. 



Boon to put an end tfl thera, even though hie learned friendhad 
been kind enough to come to Tiia assistance. However, the at- 
tention of the antiquarian world had in the meantime been 
greatly excited hy the acoounta of the first fruits of rcBearches, 
the sabsequent Bucoeag of which was certain ; and on the de. 
niand of Monsieur Mohl, whom MeBsra. Vitel and Letronne 
hastened to support with their influence, the French govem- 
nient decided on giving a fresh proof of that generosity with 
■which it is always so ready to facilitate scientific researches. 
By a decision of the 24th of May, 1843, DuchStel, Minister of 
the Interior, placed at Botta's disposal a sum of 3000 fi-aucs, 
that he might thenceforward cany on the works with more 
activity, and on a more extensive scale. 

Notwithstanding this important aid, Botta had to contend 
with fresh obstacles at every step. The marshy environs o( 
the village of Khorsabad have a proverbial reputation for in- 
saluhrity — a reputation which was fully justified by hia own 
peraonal experience, and by that of the workmen employed ; 
for they all, in turns, felt its dangerous effects, and on one 
occasion the antiquary himself was very near falling a victim. 
But this was the least of his difficulties ; the unfavourable dis- 
position of the local authorities was one which caused even 
more uneasiness, and one which was moat difficult to surmount. 
It is a well-known fact, that the Moslems, too ignorant them- 
selves to understand the real motives of scientific researches, 
always attribute them to cupidity, which is the only spring of 
their own actions. Not being able to comprehend that the 
sums laid out were for the purpose of obtaining ancient remains, 
they believed that the scorch was for treasure. The inscrip- 
tions, copied with so much care by Botta, were in their eyes 
the talismanic guardians of these treasures, or to point out the 
spots where they were concealed, for the benefit of the Frank 
who should succeed him. Others, who no doubt thought them- 
selves more cunning than their neighbours, proposed, by way 
of explanation of Botta'a researches, a atiU more eccentric idea ; 
they imagined that their country formerly belonged to the 
Europeans, and that these latter search fbr their inscriptions in 
order to discover therein the title by which their rights might 
be proved, and hy the help of which they may one day or other 
lay claim to the whole Ottoman empire ! 

Theae absurd notions did not fail to influence the ararieious 

and suBpicious mind of Mohammed Paaha, who was then 
governor of the province of Mosul, and it was not long ere he 
began, to grow uneasy at the reBeocches which he had at first 
ButhonBed. Taken with the idea of the treaBure being hidden 
in the ruina which were being brought to light, he ut first con- 
fined himself to having the workmen watched by guards, and 
when the alightust object formed of metal was found in the 
course of the excavations, it was seized and carried to him. 
These relics lie Bubmilted to every possible kind of proof, to 
convince himself that they were not gold ; and then fan- 
cying that, despite this watching, the men who were em- 
ployed might Btill succeed in keeping irom him objects of 
value, he threatened them with the torture to moke them 
revetj the esialence of the imaginary treasures. Several of 
the workmen were, in consequence, on the point of leaving 
Botta'a service, notwithstanding all his assurances of protection, 
so well did they know the cruel disposition of Mohammed 
PiLsha. Each day threatened aome fresh difficulty, and Botta, 
who had continually to recommence his negotiations, would 
perhapB have been driven to throw the matter up in disgust, 
had he not been eacouraged by the certainty of the extreme 
interest of his discovery. The works, however, although often 
interrupted by these petty annoyancea, gradually advanced 
until about the commencement of the month of October, 1843, 
when the Pasha, in obedience perhaps to hints emanating from 
Conatantinople, formally prohibited all further search. Some 
pretext or other was necessary, but a Turkish governoria never ' 
at fault in this respect, and the following is the one he invented. 
Botta had built, with the governor's express permission, a. i 
small bouse at Ehorsabad, in order that he might have a place 
in which to reside when he visited the ruins ; nevertheless 
the Pasha pretended that this house was a fortress erected to , 
command the country, he informed his government of this grave | 
fact, and any further excavation was immediately prohibited, 
and the innocent researches of the zealous antiquary suddenly 
asHumed the proportions of an intemational question ! ' 

Botta lost no tinio in taking measures to obtain the removal 1 
of the prohibition. On the I5th of October, 1843, he de- ] 
spatched a courier to the French ambassador at Constantinople, 1 
informing him of what had occurred, and bogging him to apply 
to tlie Sultan for such orders us might be necessary to enable j 

i mscovEEEss. 


Lira to continue without impediment the works which were, 
at that period, being executed at the command and expense of 
the French gofernment. "While awaiting the result of the 
steps taken by the ambassador, be had the greatest difSeulty 
in prevailing upon Mohammed Pasha not to pull down his 
hotige at Kliorsabad, nor to fill up the exoaPatioijs, which he 
affected to believe were the ditohes of the pretended fortress. 
At last, however, he granted the persecuted gavam a. respite,' i 
in the hope that his falsehoods would gain credit at CoastBa^ 
tinople, and that the Sultan would approve of hia conduat^ 
The means which he employed for this purpose were very ' 
curious, and afford an illustration of the way in which the 
Turkish goveniraeut is coutiuually being deceived as to what 
takes place in the provinces of the empire. The inhabitants 
of M6sul knew, from long experience, ihat Mohammed Pasha 
shrunk tirom no means by which he might attain his ends, and 
fear rendered them obedient to his will. He first obliged the 
Cadi of M6aul to go to Khorsabad and draw up a false account 
of the extent of the pretended fortress : this report was sent 
to Constantinople, accompanied by an imaginary plan, calcu- 
lated to inspire the most horrible ideas of poor Botta's hut. 
He then had a petition against the continuation of the re- 
searches drawn up, which he compelled the inhabitants of 
Khorsabad to sign ; this petition also was sent to Constan- 
tinople. During all this period Mohammed Pasha never 
desisted from his protestations of friendliness towards Botta ; 
he assured him that he wuB a complete stranger to all the diSSf i 
culties that impeded the scientidc work, and gave him, ijtji 
writing, the most favourable orders, while he immediately:^ 
afterwards threatened the inhabitants with the bastinado ilH 
case they were unfortunate enough to obey him. One sina^JJH 
trait in this long comedy will show the manner is whi<^| 
Mohammed Pasha played his part. "I told him one day,^H 
says Botta, " that the first rains of the season had caused ^M 
portion of the house erected at Ehorsuhad to fall down.**! 
" Can you imagine," said he, laughing in the most naturat.fl 
manner, and turning to the numerous officers by whom hewas^ 
surrounded, "anything like the impudence of the iuhabitaatA'fl 
of Khorsabad? they pretend that the French consul has con- I 
structed a redoubtable fortress, and a little rain is sufficient to I 
destroy IL I can assure you, sir, that, were I not afraid otJ 

Boru. 17 I 

hurting your feelinge, I would have tlem all bastinadoed till 
they were dead; they would richly deserve it, for haviug 
dared to accuse you." "It was in this manner," continubH 
the justly indignant Frank, "that he spoke, while he him- 
Belf was the author of the lie, and his menaces alone were 
the obstacle which prevented tbe inhabitants &om exposing 

At the expiration of a little time, however, Mohamined 
Pasha perceived that the shameful tricks he was carrying on 
did him more harm than good. His position was no longer 
sure, and as he desired a reconciliation, £atta was in full hope 
of obtaining permission to continue his operations, when the 
Pasha's death, which took place in the interval, afforded hira 
the wished.for opportunity. But by this time he knew the 
intentions of the French government, and was espeeting that 
the draftsman he had asked for was on his way l« M<Ssul. He 
had found how quickly the sculptures lost their freshness when 
once esposed to the air, and thought it better to await this 
gentleman's arrival, as he could then copy the bas-reliefs as 
they were dug out. Sesides this, he had no doubt that tbe 
French ambassador would obtain such orders as would effec- 
tually prevent all future annoyance, and he therefore did not 
think it advisable to take advantage of the opportunities 
affordediby the Pasha's demise, but preferred commencing 
when he had obtained tlie means 'of continuing the work 
without fear of interruption, and with every chance of turning 
it to account. During* the iatervol of delay he finislied the 
copies of the inBcriptiona already discovered, and conveyed 
into the courUyard of hisyiouee at Khoreabud all the bas-re- 
liefc which he judged worthy of being sent to France, 

Up to the period of his researobes being interrupted, he had 
brought to light a large number of monuments. He had 
opened a door, and at the feet of one of the winged bulb which 
ornamented it, had found a bronze lion, the only one remaining 
of all which must formerly have been placed at the entrances. 
While the workmen were digging ta lay the ioundutions of his 
house, they had discovered the head of one of the bnlls of an- 
other door ; and this single fact would have convinced him, 
}jad he not been before aattsfied, that the whole space was full 
of ancient remains, Lastlj-, the accounts received from the 
inhabitants of tbe town allowed no room tor doubting that ther 


were also ruinfl buried at the place where, at a later perw 
found the small momiineiit of baRoltio atones. He poBsesced, 
thereforo, the most Tinmiatakesble signs of the existence of 
orchteological treasures tlirougljout the whole extent of the 
mound, and his conviction on this head was so great, that he 
invariably espressed it in his letters to his friend Mohl. 

The Paris Academy of Inscriptions and BdleB-Lettres had 
followed the progress of Botta'ft discoveries with the liveliest 
interest. The certainty there was of arriving at still greater 
results than those already obtained had induced them to second 
the demand he had made for an artist who was better qualified 
than himself t« preserve, by an exact copy, those sculptnrea 
which it would be impossible to send to France. This demand 
had been granted, and by decisions of the 5t3i. and 13th of 
October, 1843, precisely at the period that the Pasha of M6huX 
was stopping his researches, the Ministers of the Interior and 
of Public Instruction had adopted measures for furnishing him 
with means of terminating his undertaking in a manner worthy 
of the French government. A fresh sum of money was placed 
at his disposal for the continualnon of the works, and, on the 
suggestion of the Academy, Monsieur E. Plandin, a young 
artist, who, conjointly with Monsieur Coste, had formerly been 
employed on a similar mission, was selected to proceed to 
Ehuraabad to copy the sculptures already found, and which 
might yet be discovered. At the same time, the Ministers 
decided that all the sculptures which were in a stjite to admit 
of their removal should be conveyed to France, and that ft pub- 
lication, dedicated especially to the purpose, should maie the 
world acquainted with Botta's diBcoveries. 

"We must DOW return to Ehorsabad. Botta still had te obtain 
the consent of the Porte ; and those who are ignorant of the 
resources which Ottoman diplomacy derives from roisrepresen- 
tation, would hardly imagine all the difBculties that the French 
Embassy had to overcome in order to prevail upon the Sivaa 
no longer to feign a pretence of a belief in those phantom forti- 
fications, said to have been erected by the Consul of France at 
Mikul. Some more real obstacles, however, founded upon, 
certain peculiarities of the Mohammedan law, were added to 
this ridiculous pretext. The village of £horsabad was built 
over the monument it was desirable to lay hare. To do this, 
it was necessary that the inhabitants should remove to some 

BOTTA. 19 * 

other spot, and pull down their old houses. But the law per- 
mits no encroaclimunt upon lands suitable for cultivatioo, and, 
consequently, the space destined for the new village could not 
be taken from the grounds of this description around the 

The perseverance of the French Ambassador, Baron doBour- 
gueney, finally triumphed over the reluctance of the Forte. 

y virtue of a special agreement, the inhabitants of Khorsahad 
lutborised tfl sell their houses and to locate themselves 
temporarily at the foot of the mound. Botta'a house, which 
had been the cause of so many disputes, he was allowed to 
retain until the oonelnaion of tlie works. The researches were 
pemiitted, on condition that the ground should be restored to 
the state in which Botta found it, in order that the village 
might be rebuilt on its former site, and a commissioner was 
sent to Khorsabad from the Porte to prevent any fresh diffi- 
culties. These arrangements, however, owing to the un- 
willingness of the Divan to ratify them, had taken up much 
time, and it was not before the 4th of May, 1844, that Mon- 
sieur Flandin could reach MdauJ, bringing with him the fir- 
mans which had been asked tor seven or eight months pre- 

Nothing now prevented the resumption of the excavations, 
Botta had at his disposal funds eufBcient for clearing the whole 
building; the artist FLindiu had arrived to copy the bas-reliefs, 
besides aflording other active nnd cordial co-operation. The 
necessary meaanrea for immeJiutely commencLig the works 
were taken, and they were pnsLed on briskly. In the first 

c2 ; 



place it waa necessary to clear the ground of the housBB upon 
it — an easy task, as there was little difficulty in satisiying the 
humhlo proprietors, who themselves desired the removal of the 
village, and were but too happy to effect it at the expense of 
the stranger antiquary ; hut Botta had likewise to indemnify 
the proprietors, or rather the tenants of the ground on which 
the new village was to be built, and their expectations were so 
exorbitant that they would hiive swallowed up a great part of 
the sum placed at bis disposal, if the new Pasha, by acciden- 
tally reminding him of one of the peculiarities of the Moham- 
medan law, had not himself supplied the means of obliging 
them to moderate their demandB. 

It had been said tliat the viUage and the surrounding grounds 
were the property of a mosque, and consequently could not be 
sold without infringing the law, which does not allow the 
sale of any property which has become teakf: this was not the 
case. The houses belonged to the peasants who lived in them, 
but the ground on which the village was built, as well as the 
ground in the neighbourhood, was owned by several individuals, 
each of whom had a greater or leas ahare of the profits. These 
persons, however, were not the real proprietors, for in Moham- 
medan countries there is no real property, but a simple right 
of possession paid for every year by a ground-rent. All the 
soil intended for oidtlvation, with tiie exception of the gardens 
and orchards, belongs to an abstract being, the Imaum, who 
represents the Mohararaedan community, and is himself reprt- 
sentfid by the sovereign. The latter being, as it were, nothing 
more than a guardian, can never concede more than a tempo- 
rary grant of land, in return for an annual rent or service. 
Sometimes, it is true, these grants were transmitted by means 
of inheritance or sales ; but this was an abuse, a real infringe- 
ment of the law. In this manner the Viceroy of Egypt, 
Mohammed Ali, was able to recover, without difflculfj, from 
the usurpers of the public domain, the poxsession which long 
abuse had perpetuated in their families; and daring Botta's 
residence at Mosul this ejtample was followed, without any mora 
ado, by the Turkish government. In 1845 the Porte revoked 
all the old grants of land in this province, and commanded 
thut for the future they should be annual, and sold by public 

Such was the state of matters at Khoraabad. The seven 

BOXTA. 21 

indmduslB who owned the ground between them — the prin- 
cipal of whom was Tahia Pasha, a former governor of Mosul 
— had no right of real property, hut merely a right of posaea- 
aion perpetuated hy abuse in tjieir families : this furnished a 
weapon against their cupidity. When Botta waa treating he- 
fore the Paeha for the purchase of the houses, the accredited 
agent of these persons had the imprudence to claim, an in- 
demnity for the laud they stood on. The Pasha replied that 
they had no right to any, because the Sultan alone waa lord 
of the soil, and disposed of it as he chose. This was a liint 
for the plundered antiquary, who henceforward easily pre- 
vailed upon the proprietors to accept with gratitude a reason- 
able indemnity, which he could, had he chosen, have had the 
right to refuse. They themselves, however, felt so clearly how 
little their demand was really founded on right, that they re- 
fused to give him a receipt, and begged him to be silent on 
the matter, for tear their conduct should reach the Pasha's 
( To return to Botta's narration. The misfortunes of otliera 
now placed at his disposal the number of workmen necessary 
for the speedy clearance of the rest of the monuments. A few 
months previously, the fanaticism of the Kurds had terminated 
by triumphing over the resistance which the courage of the 
Kestorians had for ages made against them. Intrenched in 
the lofty mountains where the Zab takes its rise, these Chris- 
tians, who were the remains of one of the most ancient sects 
that separated from the Catholic church, had been, up to that 
time, enabled to escape fium the Mohammedan 3-oke ; but in 
1843 their own internal divisions weakened them so much as 
to incapacitate them from contending longer against the con- 
tinually increasing power of tteir enemies. After a courageous 
but useless resistance, some !Neatorian tribes were destroyed 
by the Kurds : and in order to escape a general massacre, a 
great number of these Christians, following the example of 
their patriarch, Mar-ahimoun, took rchge either at Mi^aul, or 
in some of the villages of the neighbourhood, where they 
couid at least be certain of safety in exchange for their in- 
dependence. Previous to this event, Botta had been charged 
with distributing among tliose unhappy Christians the direct 
assistance of the French government, — not the first relief 
afforded by that power to the victims of fanaticism in the 



East; and now the continuation of the researoheB at EhoTHa- 
bad placed at Botta's disposai new means of alleviating tho 
tniaery of the refugees. He found among them a whole 
population of labourers at once tobuet and docile, whoao aa- 
siatance was the more useful, as it was almost impossible to 
procure the requisite number of workmen among tho inhabi- 
tants of the euvironB. Besides their demand for high wages, 
the natives had certain singular superstitions which inspired 
them with repugnance fcr the work he offered, and this in- 
fluence was trebly powerful when it was proposed to interfere 
with the village of Khoreabad itself. They said they were 
afraid it would bring misfortune upon themselves and their 
families. As regarded the Nestorians, although they suflered 
a great deal from the climate of the plain, bo different from 
that of the high mountains they had until then inhabited, 
they worked with great ppirit, and many of them were 
enabled to return to their own country, carrying with them 
savings which made them much richer than they had ever been 
before. p 

AU obstacles being removed, about the middle of the month 
of May, 1844, Botta once more proceeded with his reseamhes, 
nor did he pause in his labours before the end of tlie month 
of October in the same year. As Monsieur Tlandin was first 
obliged to copy the bas-reliefs discovered before his arrival, 
the works progressed, in the beginning, but slowly ; bnt the 
scientific labourers were able gradually to increase their scale 
of operations, until at last they had almost three hundred 
workmen in full employment. During these six months each 
had but one thought, which was to unite every effort to tura 
Botta's discovery to the best possible account. Accordingly, . 
tliey worked together with the most cordial understAnding. 
Monsieur Flandin used to copy, with tlie greatest care, the 
bas-rehefs as fast as they were uncovered ; to measure the 
building and draw up a definil« plan of it : while Botto, no 
his side, was oceupied not less actively, in transcribing the 
numerous inscriptions which oovered a port of the walls. It 
is true that both had to suffer much, but they were amply 
recompensed for it by the results and the nature of the work ; 
for it was with a feeling of delight that they were able, from 
hour to hour, to observe what the ]iick-axe of the workmen 
had uncovered, and to endeavour to guess the direction of the 

BORA. 23 

■walla ■wliioh were atill bnrief^, to realiBO the scenes they would 
offer to view, and eyen ta divine the Bignifieiition of the Laa- 
reliefs as they were BueceBsively brouglit t« light. 

Eotta liberally acknowledges the zeal with which Flandin 
Joined in the researches into the secrets of a buried city. 
Bamg less accustonied than the consul himself to the mise- 
ries of eastern life, Flandin, it appears, felt more keenly the 
inconveniences of a prolonged stay in a miserable village, 
beneath a burning sky : and hia health suffered more than 
once in consequence. But his courage never failed him, not 
even at a most serious conjuncture, when the consulate of 
51<iaul, and the esiatence of the whole Christiaa population, 
were for a moment endangered.' His share in the undertaking 
was not limited to the eseeution of the artistic portions with 
which he was more especially charged. Qotta's ofBcial duties not 
allowing hira to remain constantly at Khorsabad, he relied upon 
Flandin to superintend and employ the work-people : and the 
artist, thus left in charge, discovered certain objects which would 
etherwiae, perhaps, have escaped notice, — such, for instance, 
as the little statues in terra-cotta, hidden under the pavement, 
and the sepulchral urns. Thus the two Frenchmen worked in 
concert with each other, aud Monsieur Flaudin can, with 
justice, lay claim to a part of the merit of the operations 
which led to the complete exhumation of the monument of 

At the period when Botta was obliged by Mobammed Pasha 
to suspend the works, he had only to follow into the interior 
of the mound the walls already laid bare. The work then com- 
pleted naturally pointed out the direction their further labours 
should he made to take, and they pursued this indication until 
all traces of construction disappeared. The monument, how- 

■ In the moDtli of Julf, 1814, the Dominicsn Missionaries uttlod nt 
U6iuL hmiug bad a house repaired in order to add it to tbclr original 
moiiast«rj, were, as Botta had lonnerlj been kiiuseir, itccused of willing 
to erect a fortrtiBi. The weakness ot the new Pashu, who had just suc- 
ceeded Uohamined Paaha, having eacoorsged the populace, the ndiouloui 
Bcoosadon ooeaiiuned n aeiiuus riot, during which the mouaeterj was de- 
■troyed, the eliuroh pilUgud. and one of the misaionaries aieoBBLnated. 
This uircnaiBtance, as he could eesiJj foreeee, produced slinilei feelingg in 
the inhahitanti uf Khonsabed : and it was only the firmness of Uousieur 

Flsndin which oauldkeop thumin check, until such tj " ' ' ' ' 

auae arrived. 


ever, had formerly extended further, and for soiue time they 
still followed the brick tbUh, but the coveringa of eeulptured 
Hlabs no longer existed ; and variouB signs clearly proved th&t, 
even in the most ancient times, a purt of the monument had 
heen intentionally destroyed, and the solid matfirials carried off, 
to he employed somewhere else for other purposes. In an- 
ticipation of still meeting with the lost trace, trenches were 
opened at various points of the moimd ; hut in vain, and thoy 
were at last ohliged to renounce the hope of seeing a new 
store of riches udded to those they had already found. At tha 
end of the month of October, 1844, Botta therefore put a stop 
to the works. 

Monsieur Flandin having finished hia drawings, was enabled 
to quit Mosul on the 9th of November, and proceed to Paris to 
submit his work to the Academy. Arrived there, a commission, 
was named by the Academy to draw up a report upon Monsieur 
Kandin'a drawings. Through the medium of its repori«r, 
Monsieur Baoul I{ochett«, the commission rendered a tribute of 
deserved prwso to the lahoura of the artist, and su^ested the 
propriety of issuing, in a special publication, Flandin's draw- 
ings, as well as the explanatory matter £otta might bring with 
him, for the study of scholara and artists. In a meeting of the 
16th of May, 1B4S, the Academy adopted the conclusions of 
the commission, ordered the import to be printed, and thus gave 
both Botta and his artistic coadjutor the £rstreward of theic 
labours, by publishing the results in a series of magnificent 
folio volumes, with the public approval, and at the public ex- 

Although Flandin had been able, in the beginning of the 
month of Koveraher, 1844, to return to France, in order to 
enjoy that repose of which he stood so much in need, after six 
months of suflering and fatigue, Botta's own task was not so 
soon ended. In the first place he had to complet* his copies 
of the inscriptions — a work that had been commenced a year 
before Monsieur Flandin's arrival at M6sul, that was continued 
during the whole period of his stay, and which occupied several 
months after his departure. Besides this, in conlbrraity with 
the orders of the government, £otta and Flandin had choeea 
together the most remarkable and best-preserved pieces of 
sculptoie to send to Fiance; and after Flan din' a departure, <' 

som. -35 

,3 left alone to prepare and pack tiieae precions relics, 
to get them conveyed to Sidsol, and thence to send them to 
Eoghdad. The Forte had at first imposed certain restrictions 
on the removal of the sculptures, but hod ended by yielding 
to the persevering efforlB of the French Anihassador, Baron de 
Baiirqueney, who had shown ihe most unceasing and lively 
interest in the exhnmation of Nineveh. He obtained the 
necessary orders, and Botta was at liberty to remore to Francfi 
all the objects he deemed most worthy. 

Now a new speeies of difficulties aroae. Neither the need- 
ful machinery nor workmen accustomed to the kind of operations 
■were to be had. The object was to convey, for a diatance of 
four leagues, a number of blocks, some of which weighed as 
much as two or three tons, fiotta had to invent everjthing, to 
teach everything — and, above all, not to despair of success alter 
many fruitless attempts. Much against his will, he was obliged 
to saw up into a nnmber of pieces BBverai blocks, the weight 
and size of which would hare rendered the carriage, not only 
difficult, but too dear. As n^gards the packing, it was so im- 
possible to procure cases snfficiently strong, that he was obliged 
to adopt the most simple plan, and contented himself with 
covering the sculptured surfaces of the bas-reliefs with beams, 
which were fastened by screws to correspcmding pieces of wood 
placed upon the opposite side of the stone. These means of 
protection fortunately proved to he sufficient, 

The most difficult part of the whole atfair was the convey- 
ance of the blocks. Great trouble had to he taken to get a car 
built of sufficient strength, and £otta was even under the 
necessity of erecting a forge in order to construot axle-trees 
strong enough to support so heavy a. load. The reader may 
fancy the kind of workmen ayailable for the task by one fact 
— the axle-trees took six weeks to make ! 

Patient perseverance secured at last the necessary car, but 
an almost equal amount of trouble had to be taken for find- 
ing the means of dragging it. The Fasha of Mi!isul had at 
first lent some buffaloes used to work of this description, but, 
from an inexplicable whim, he took them back again. Botta 
then endeavoured, but in vain, to employ oxen, and at lastwaa 
forced to have recourse to the thews and sinews of the Nes- 
tortaus tliemselvea. In addition to all this, the road &om 




KhoTBabad to Mtiaul being soaked through with continual ra 
had DO firmueAB, eo that the wheels of the ear, although they 
were made very broad, sank into the mud up to their axlea. 
In several places it was neceaeary to pave the road, or to covec 
it over with planks. Two hundred men were scarcely sufficient 
to draw along some of the blocks. " The difficulties were ia- 
deed BO great, that more than once," says Botta, "I feared I 
should not be able to transport, that year, the most interesting 
blocks, because they happened to be also the heaviest. I had 
no time to lose : although a great amount of rain obstructed 
my operations at Mdsul, by a muHt unfortunate contrast very 
little snow had fallen in the mountains during the winter o! 
1844-45, so that not only was the Tigris far from attaining its 
usual height, but it began to decrease much before the acouB- 
tomed time. It was necessary, however, to avail myself of ita 
rise, in order to send to Baghdad the objects which I had de- 
termined to transport to France, for the carriage of the sculptures 
required rafts of unusual dimensions, and a delay of a few 
days might oblige me to wait until the next year. By dint of 
great exertions, I succeeded in surmounting the obstacles and 
terminating these wearisome operations before the Tigris bad 
finished falling. In the month of June, IB45, eight months 
attor my researches were ended, all the sculptures had been 
removed to the side of the river, and, by means of an incLned 
plane formed in the bank, embarked on the rafts, lliia last 
part of my task was, unfortunately, attended by a sad accident. 
The men were employed in embarking the last block, and had 
already placed it upon the inclined plane ; in order to mova 
it, one of the iN^estoriana, in spite of my reiterated wai 
iugs, persisted in pulling it from the front ; it was imp 
aible to stop the course of the ponderous mass already in 
motion, and the miserable workman was crushed between 
it and the blocks previously on the raft. This was the only 
accident I had to regret during the whole duration of the 

The Tigris is navigated by means of rafts constructed of 
pieces of wood, which are supported by inflated skins. These 
rafta (which are called by the oativea iellek) are well adapted 
for descending the stream, which in summer is very shallow ; 
but they are of no use for going up, "When the rafts have 


arrived at Bag)idad, they are broken np, the wood sold, often 
at a profit, aud the akins brouglit hack to MdaHl, to serve 
again for the same purpose. Such were the means thatBotta 
euccessfully employed for traDBporting the sculplures down 
the rirer towards the sea — the rafts of the rei]uired solidity 
heing secured by the use of timber of a large size cut ia 
the mountains, and the number of skiiLS proportioned to the 
dimensions of the raft. 

Kot content with giving to his countryman, Flandin, all the 
credit due for the assistance he rendered on the works of Khor- 
Babad, we find in Bolta'a book a paragraph of grateful praise 
awarded to a more humble, yet scarcely less valuable assistjmt 
whom he found on the accne of operations. " As ray principal 
object," says tlie savant, "in writing my introductory chapter, 
was to do justice to those who assisted me in my labours, the 
reader will, I hope, pardon me for naming the chief of the 
workmen, Naaman ebn Kaoiich (Nauman the son of Naouoh'), 
who, from the commencement of my researches in the mound 
of Kouynnjik up to the termination of the works, never failed 
to give me convincing proofs of two qualities which are very 
rare in his country — namely, intelligence and probity. It was 
he whom I charged to go and explore Khorsabad, and it was 
he who discovered its hidden treasures. Since tliat time his 
activity and his spirit of invention were of the greatest assist- 
ance to me when in a difficult iKisition ; and it is certainly to 
him that I owe the fact of ray having been able to surmount 
tho difficulties I met with during the removal of the sculp- 

Some time elapsed before all the sculptures obtained from 
the raound at Ehorsabad hud been succtssfully landed at 
Baghdad, and confided to the care and intelligence of the 
French Consul-Oenerul, who was cbarged to forward tbem to 
their ultimate destination. It was not till the mouth of Uarch, 
1846, that the wished-for vessel, the Cormorant, could reach 
BasBora, The consul then experienced as much difficulty in 
eliipping the ponderous masses on board the boats of that part 
of the country, as had before been felt in sending them as fur 
as Baghdad ; but he eventually succeeded, and had them carried 
down the Tigris to the place where the vessel awaited tbem, 
la tlie beginning of June, Lieutenant Cabaret shipped them 



Tab last and most important of the labourora in the field of 
Assyrian antiquities, is our own couutrjioan, Austen Henry 
Layard ; and to him, therefore, the foDowing chapter ia de- 

Layard commenced hie career, as a traveller, in the aummer 
of 1839, when he vinited Russia and other northern countries. 
"Without any very definite plans, he journeyed in succession 
through various states in Germany, paying special attention to 
those on the Danuhe, maatering not only the German language 
itself, hut several of the dialects of Transylvania, and Monte- 
negro. From Montenegro he travelled through Albania and 
Boumeiia, and not without perilous and tronhlesome adventures 
made his way to Constantinople, which he reached abont the 
latter part of the year. 

Having by this time seen all that was most remarkable in 
Europe, a new field seemed opening upon him, full of interest, 
in Asia. His experience as a ti'avelier had rendered him hardy, 
and equal to the emerganciea of European jourueyings; but 
new languages and new habits — a more perfect reliance upon 
himself — were requisite before he could plunge into the half- 



wild life led in Asia Minor and other countriea of the East. 
TJndauBted by difficulties, he went to work to learn the liui- 
giiageB of Turkey and Arabia ; he studied the manners — ■ 
adopted the costume — and was before long able to lead the 
life of an Arab of the Desert. 

Some records of these wanderings found place in the Jouraali 
of the London Geographical Society, throiigk either incidentul 
mention, or direct communication. In one number of the 
Society's Transactions, we find a paper by Mr. William Francis 
Ainsworth, in which he gives notes of an excursion in the 
neighbourhood of the Tigris and Nineveh — Layard being one 
of the party. The traTcllers Htart«d from Mdaul, April 18th, 
1840, and made their way down the stream toEalah SLerghat, 
where the ruins of an ancient Persian city are still visible. 
In this excursion Layard passed the spot where bis future ex- 
cavations were to be made, where he was to unveil Nimroud, 
and so raise a lasting monument to his own fame. Mr. Ains. 
worth thus speaks of the circumstances under which Layard 
joined the party ; — 

"The accidental arrival of two English travellers, Messrs. 
Mitford aod Layard, at M6aul, enabled us to make up a strong 
party to visit the sites of the ruined cities of Ealab Sherghut 
and Al Hadhr. 

" The party consisted of the above-mentioned gentlemen, 
Mr. Eassiim, and myself; and we were accompanied by an 
Arab of Tunis, of whose courage we had had proof in crossing 
Northern Mesopotamia, when he was in the service of Mo. 
hammed 'Ali ; but being worsted in an engagement between 
the Shammflr Arabs (the men 'without bondage') and the 
irregular troops of Ibrfthim Pfiah^, which had recently taken 
place, he had abandoned his horse to save his life, and sought 
re&ge at Mosul. We had also with us a kbaw^s from Mo- 
hammed FftshS of MiSauI." 

As, however, we intend uvailing ourselves of Mr. Ains- 
worth's interesting paper in a subsequent chapter, we shall now 
limit ourselves to scenes in which Layard took a more promi- 
nent part. Prom one of his communications, dated Earak, 
December 31st, 1840, we gather that after visiting Ispahan, 
he crossed the highest part of the great chain of Mungasht, 
on his way to Kala Tul ; examined the ancient mound and 
Jassanian ruin in the plain of Mel Amir ; the sculptures and 

L&TA.11D. SI 

cuneiform jnBcriptioiiB of the Bhitajti Salman; beaiiea ob- 
Eervtag in Uie aamc plain, and on the road to Susan, numerous 
other aeulptiires and inscriptions. After encountering many 
difficulties and dungers in hia joumej', he at length reached 
Suaan, believed by Colonel Raiplinaon to mark the site of the 
Susa of the ancient geographers. Layard expresses himself 
Batisfied that a large city did once exist on the aput, although 
&t the preaent day there are neither moundn of any size, nor 
columns, nor hewn stonea, nor brickH to mark the site. The 
ruins that are found are entirely confined to the left hank of 
the Kanin, but on either side there are the remains of ancient 
roads, and the river was formerly apanned by a bridge, four 
piera of which still atteat the stupendoua nature of the build- 
ing. He adds that the so-called tomb of Daniel is a compara- 
tively modera building of rough stones, containing two apart- 
ments. It is, however, regarded with great veneration, and 
is always known by the name of Gebr Daniel Aklibar, or the 
grave of Siiniel the greater, in contradistinction to the one at 
Shua. During two visits to Susan he searched and inquired ia 
vain after inscriptions; and waa, therefore, inclined to doubt 
the existence of the sculptures wtiich he was informed were to 
ha found in a cave at a place called Pfiirah. 

These excursions, sketchea of Bculpturea, and copies of various 
inacriptiona, seem only to have whetted Layard'a appetite for 
further adventures and discoveries, la 1842 and 1843 we 
find him busy at KiiiizistSn ; and of his adventures there, he 
sent a lengthy deecriptiou, through Lord Aberdeen, to the Geo- 
graphical Society. 

This paper gives glimpses of the history of an interesting 
portion of our traveller's life, while to the geographer it has 
eapecial value from the exactnesa of its details relative to a 
country but previously vaguely understood. He eonaidered 
this country as very difficult of access, particularly to a Eu- 
ropean ; and although he twice succeeded in traversing it, 
partly in disguise, he was plundered by those who were sent 
to protect him, and narrowly escaped on several oocajions 
with hia lifo. This was the more remarkable, as the Sheikh 
had frequently courted the friendship of the English engaged 
in navigating tho Tigris, and it was under his protection 
that he entered his territories. But there were some spots 
Buler and more pleasant than others. It would aeem that one 



Mohftmined Talti Ehan then esercised a wide authority in th»- 
provinco of KiiziBtan, Sober and ahatemious, and never in- 
dalging in many vices prevalent in Persia — he was affable, 
and mixed with his people as though on an equality with, 
rather than above them. Layard aays, that during a year's 
reaidenoe with him he never saw an individual receive chaB- 
tiaement, nor did a case of robbery or Tiolence c 
his notice ; yet, nevertheleaa, Layard appears to have been a 
victim to partial violence at the hands of another tribe, for he 
Bays : " I was attacked and robbed, hut by a tribe of D{n&- 
run^B, whieh even Mohammed Talii KhSn could never control. 
He, however, sent to the chief, and insisted that every miasing 
article should be immediately returned ; and I received hack 
the whole of my property. It was my habit to traverse these 
wild mountains perfectly alone, and never was I attacked or 
insulted, except on the occasion mentioned, when the country 
was in a state of war," 

In the province of EhusisttiD, Layard visited the moat im 
portant of the rivers — the ESriiu, which he tells us hi 
examined im the "Assyria," accompanied by Lieut. Selby, 
whose survey of this river, the Bahniah-Shir, the Kerkhah, 
and the Hai, are, he says, " some of the most interesting and 
useful results of the Euphrates expedition." 

The most painful story in the description of this portion of 
his experience relates to an act of curious barbarity com- 
mitted by the ennuch Mo'tammid upon the followers of Wall 
Khan, the legitimate chief of the Mamesseni : — "He built a 
lofty tower of hving men ; they were placed horizontally one 
above another, and eloaely united together with mortar and 
cement, their heads beiug left exposed. Some of theao un- 
fortunate beings lived several days, and I have been informed 
that a negro did not die till the tenth day. Thoae who could 
eat were supplied with bread and water by the inhabitants of 
Shiraz, at the gate of which this tower was built. /( Hili 
exiili, on evidence of the utter caUoUBuess to cruelty of a 
Persian inveated with power." 

In the summer of 1842, we find Layard again at Mosul, in 
the Deighbourhood of the spot which now formed the one 
chief object of his thoughts. It was during this visit that 
lie met with Bolta, who was then engaged in excavating tlie 
great mound of Eouyunjik. The success attending the sub- 

aegnent r^searcheB a.t Khorsaljad still further sfjengtheaed 
Lajard's desire to follow out his scheme of inveBligattonB' on 
the TigTiB, and he departed for Conatantinople, intent upon 
obtaining means for realizing his views. Botta's excavations 
were encouraged hy his countrymen, and upon the |first ap- 
pearance of Bucoesa, the French government supported him 
Tvitii money, artistB, and diplomatic inflnelice ; in England, 
however, science meets with little sympathy from those in 
power, and the government leaves to individuals what ought 
K) be the duty of the nation. Layard sought help in vain, 
untU Sir Stratford Canning nobly volunteered tfl bear for a 
while, out of his private purse, the coat of the excavations. 
To Sir Stratford Canning we already owed the marbles from 
HalicarnasBus, and to his generous offer, as Layard observes, 
" are we mainly indebted for the collection of Assyrian anti- 
quities with which the British Museum will be enriched; as, 
without his liberality and public spirit, the treasures of Kim- 
roud would have been reserved for the enteiprise of those who 
have appreciated the value and importance of tlie discoveries at 
Khoreahad." Thus prepared, by private munificence, with 
means for commencing his long-dtsired labours, Layard quitted 
Constantinople for Assyria in the autumn of 1845. 

When Layard arrived at Mosul, with die intention of 
commencing his excavations, he found the province under the 
rule of Mohammed Pasha, a man notorious for his rapacity 
and atrocious cruelties. The Pasha was the last person litely 
to comprehend the travellers object; and was, therefore, 
certain to offer every opposition in his power to whateviT 
works might he commenced. To avoid this, Layard, with 
hunting weapons ostentatiously displayed, but with a few 
mason's tools secreted in his valise, quietly floated down the 
Tigris on a small raft, wilii no other companions than Mr. 
Euss, a British merchant, a kh&wnss, and a servant. He 
established himsell' for a time at Noifa; but subsequently, for 
greater security, removed to Selamiynh, a village near the 
Tigris, well known to the early Arab geographers. "While at 
Ifaifa, the excavations at Nimroud were commenced ; and 
some fragments of inscriptions, slabs which had evidently 
been exposed to intense beat, a great uccumulation oi' char- 
coal, and many fragments of ivory, gilt pottery, bricks, &c., 
were discovered. Ere long, hoivever, as in the case of Botta, 


reports tbat Layard was extracting gold from tie rnffiB'i 
reaehed the town, and he began to apprehend a formidable 
oppositioa to hia lahouTH. The escavations at Nimroud had 

been entered upon not only without permiflaion, but without J 

the knowledge, of the local authorities; and ae tbe Buppliea J 

of money which were to suatain the undertaking were only . 
goaranteed for a limit«d period, their continuunce was con 
tingent oii,a ikir prospect of aucoess. Aa yet no sculpture 

had been discovered ; neverthelesB, Layard did not slacken ] 

the ardour of his application. As a first step he proceeded to ( 

M6sul to acquaint the Pasha with the doings at Nimrond, i 

but the wily ruler, with true oriental duplicity, affected igao- I 

ranoe of the wotka, though he had Lad a spy watching them I 

from day to day; he forbore, however, either to sanction or j 

to object to the continuance of the excavations, and Layard I 

consequently felt convinced that he would seek oa opportunity ] 

for obstnicting his proceedings. ' 


. After a short Bojoum in Mi'isul, Layard returned to Nim- 
roud, having hired a number of Nestorian ChriBtians to join 
his gang of workers. He began, to examine the aouth-weat 
ruins, with the view to discover their plan ; but the soil 
offered such resistance to the tools of the workmen, that the 
labour was immense. The Arabs were not sufflcienlly expert 
with the pickaxe, and no spade could be thrust into the 
heterogeneous rubbish, which they were obliged, therefore, to 
detach with theu- own less efficient instruments, and to carry 
away in baskets. 

Layard was working in the rain with his men on the 28th 
November, when the first of the long -wished- for baa-reliefs was 
suddenly disclosed to view. At this critical and exciting stage 
of the proceedings, orders were privately issued from M6aul to 
stop the works. Layard hastened to remonstrate with the 
governor, who pretended to be surprised, and dbclaimed the 
orders; but, on returning to the village, he found that oven 
more positive commands had been issued, oa the ground, as 
was subsequently declared, that the monnd which he was 
digging had been a Mussulman hurying- place. Remonstrance 
was useless ; there was no resource hut to acquiesce, and rest 
satisfied with the permission to draw the sculptures and to 
copy the inscriptions, under the inspection of an officer, who 
Layard specially requested might accompany him to Nimroud. 
The presence of this officer relieved Layard from the inter- 
ference of the local authorities, and he was easily induced to 
conntenance the employment of a few workmen, under a plea 
of guarding the sculptures. Fortunately, at this juncture the 
Fasha Mohammed was supplanted by Ismael Pasha, who wbb 
favourably reported, and whose conciliatory acts towards the 
people of M<5aul produced a cliange as sudden as it was great. . 
Layard was' received by the new Pasha with affability, and 
consequently, in January, 1846, was enabled to resume his ex- 
cavations at the village of Nimroud. A ravine, apparently 
formed hy the winter rains, which ran fur into the mound, 
attracted Layard's attontion, and he formed the fortunate reso- 
lution of opening a trench in its centre. In two days this moa- 
flure was rewarded hy the diHCOvery of several additional bas- 
reliefs, and of a gigantic human head, much to the terror of the 
Arabs, who hurried to communicate the iutelligenoe that Mi m- 


TOud himself had been found. The excitement prodnoed 'bfl 
this discovery set the whole of Mdaul into commotion ; and thej 
result was a message from the governor, to the effect that *' the( 
remains should he treated with respect, and be by no means tax-u 
ther disturbed!" The operations atNimroiidhaving been thus,, 
for the third time, suspended, Layard had no alternative but; 
to await the arrival of a vizirial order from Constantinople ;, 
but in the mean time he visited the Tunnel of Negoub, oi? 
the hole, on the outskirts of Nimroud, the inscriptions iq^ 
which place led him to infer that it was coeval with tti6( 
Kouyunjik palace ; he occupied himself in receiving and in 
returning visits to various Arab tribes, and in studying theiir 
manners and euatoms, with a view to securing the friendshipi 
of their Sheikhs, and thus checking the thievish propensities^ 
of their followers. During his excursion, Ismoel Pasha hadi 

been superseded in the Government of ilcisul by Tahyaij 
Pasha, who enjoyed a reputation for liberality, kiadnesa, an(E 
intelligence. Under his auspices the excavations were re. 
Bumed ; and though the progress was slow, fresh eculptaT«%, 
of increasing value and interest, were disclosed. At lengU;^^ 
ttoragh the instrumentality of Sir Stratford Canning, Layi 
ard received from the Turkish government an authorization Ui 
continue his operations, and to remove any objects he mighti 
discover. The opposition of subordinates being thus overoome,^ 
Layard determined to open trenches in the southern face oft 
the great mound of Kouyunjik, and a rich collection of sculp, 
tures, in an excellent state of preservation, soon rewarded..^^ 
his exertions. Kings, priests, griffins, eunachs, and eymbolioj 
trees, were among the figures, which excited feelings of amaze^ 
ment in the Arabs, and of delight in their employer. 

Among the remarkable discoveries made by Layard at 
Nimroud, was a vaulted chamber, built in the centre of a 
wall, nearly 50 feet in thickness, and about 15 feet beneath^ 
the surface of the mound. The dimensions of this vault were 
lOfeet in height by 10 feet in width, and the arch over it waa 
formed of kiln-burnt bricks ; but there was no apparent en- 
trance, Qor could Layard divine to what purpose it had beeqi 
applied. The discovery, however, of so large an arch, turned^ 
in baked bricks, and built into the solid mass of the mound,, 
is a convincing proof that the ancient Assyrians, like th9, 

ancient EgyptiauB, ■were acquainted ■with, the prinoiple of the 
arch, although they both evidently refrained using it in their 
larger stmctures, or ■where the abutments were not eecure, 
from a knowledge, ae we are assured by this discreet use of 
it, of the inherent self. destroying principle of the arch. 
We could have wished that the discoverer had informed ua 
whether the bricks were of the usual form, whether they 
were wedge-shaped, or whether, as in some Egyptian brick 
arches, pieces of tile were inaerted to keep the bricks apart 
at the top. 

Another curious discovery was, that tubular drain-tiles 
were used for removing the rain-water that tell through the 
openings iu the roofs on to the pavements of the several 
apartments, and that there was under the pavement of the 
mound a main-drain, the invert formed of kib-burat bricks, 
and the upper part covered with slabs and tiles. 

He noticed alao, that a thin layer of bitumen passed under 
all the floors and slabs, to preserve them, douhUeas, fiwm the 
damp which would otherwise have arisen from the earth 

As it was in vain to think of moving the gigantic lions, or 
other larger seulpturcB with the means theo at command, 
Layard proceeded to take steps for the embarkation of suoh 
as could be moved. The difSoulties that ISotta had had bi 
overcome were repeated in hia case, but ultimately, the sculp- 
tures were removed fttim the trenches with levers and native 
ropes, packed in rough cases, conveyed to the Tigris in 
buffalo carts, and transported by raft to Baghdad preparatory 
to their removal to Bombay. 

After deapalehing these first fruits of his diacoveries, Lay- 
ard undertook a short excursion in pursuit of health, to the 
country of the devil-worshippers, and upon hia return to 
Miisul, he found letters apprising him that the British Mu- 
BGUm had received a grant of funds for the continuation of 
the Assyrian researches. Notwithstanding the inadequacy of 
the sum, which was to include all expenses, private and 
otherwise, Layard determined on directing the escavatiouB, 
and eoonomising to the utmost, in order to secure as complete 
a collection as suoh small means would allow. Many of the 
Bculptures were iar too dilapidated U>_ admit of removal, and, 



as others were likely to fali'to piec 

thero was' no alternative but to make drawings of them, i 
the records they afforded would be for ever lost. As r 
artist had been sent to assist him, Layard was obliged to d 
his best to copy what he -saw, and bis drawings ■9 
creditable to him. He bad thus, he tells us, to euperinten 
the exeavationa, to draw all the baa-reliefa, to copy, compan 
and take casta of the inscriptions, to direct the moTing a 
packing of the seulpturea, to be continually present at t 
works, and frequently to remove the earth with his oi 
hands Irom the face of the slabs, — labours sufficiently varioo 
and onerous. At the end of October, he was again amouj 
the ruins of Nimroud, and in November the excavation 
were proceeding On a large scale, New chambers were e 
plored, battles, sieges, victories, triumphs, banquetings, a: 
sacrifices were daily diBCoveted, and besides these an obeli 
of black marble, which was instantly packed for transporl 
The large band now at work rapidly uncovered the bui' 
treasures, and by the end of the second n ' "" ' 

number of bas-reliefs were collected for di 
dad. Layard proceeded to Mosul, bought the necea 
materials for a raft, and far packing the sculptures, and n 
turned to Nimroud, leaving the raftsmen to bring the piu 
chases by water. On their way, having found it neceesar 
to halt for the night, they were plundered by Arabs ; aa 
the mats, felts, and cordage were carried off. This was i 
proceeding which Layard was determined should not becom 
a precedent. He applied, in. the first place, to the authorities 
and was put off, no douht, with the Turkish phrase Baiia 
him (we will see), the equivalent of the Arabic Bwkkan 
(to-morrow). In three or four days he learned who were tl 
robbers, and he determined to make them feel that they we 
not to carry their incursions into his quarters with impunitV 
Taking with him two trusty Arabs, expert at their weapoiiB 
he came upon the guilty sheikh in the midst of his foUowen 
and politely asked for the missing articles, some of whiol 
were hanging up in his sight. When the sheikh end h" 
party had stoutly denied the possession of the goods i 
question, one of Layard's two attendants handcuffed the oli 
man in a moment, and, jumping on his borse, dragged t ' 

ont of tbe encampraent at a, most uncomfortable pace, Tlic 
suddennoss of the performance parolysed the bj-standers, who 
were well supplied witb arms. The sheikh was carried to 
Nimroud, where he thought it wiser to make a fidl confession 
thaa to journey to Mdsul and confront the Paaha. Next 
morning, the missing property, with the addition of a kid and 
a larah, as a peace-offering, made their appearance : the sheikh 
was, therefore, liberated, and Layard had no eiibsequeut reason 
to complain of him or his tribe. 

In the first fonr months of the New Tear, Layard explored 
almost the entire north-weat palace, opened twenty new 
chambers, and discovered Eumerous sculptures of considerable 
interest and importance. As the means at his disposal did 
not warrant him in searching for objects which he could not 
hope to carry away, he spent tlie greater portion of his time 
in exposing the monuments previously discovered. Au op- 
portunity now ofiered of examining the mounds of K41&h 
Sherghat, ruins rivalling those of Nimroud in extent, but 
which the reputation of the Ticinity as a rendezvous for 
plundering parties had deterred travellers from examining. 
The long drought at Mdsul having, however, driven many of 
the Jehour tribe, friends of Layard, towards those ruins, he re- 
solved to profit by the circumstance, to visit them under that 
protection. Layard remained at Efi,Uh Sherghat only a few 
days, and returned to Nimroud, having left a superintendent 
to continue excavations at the fiirmor place; but the position, 
of the workmen shortly became bo insecure, that he was 
relnctantly compelled to recal them, though not without satia- 
fj'ing himself that the mounds contained many objects of 
interest, if not seulpturod slabs. A sitting figure, discovered 
there, has since been added to the Nimroud sculptures in the 
Britbh Museum, 

Having decided to attempt the removal of the lion and 
bull, Layard, after much consideration, resolved to build a 
cart of the best materials attainable, and a carpenter was dis- 
patched to the mountains to fell mulberry timber, and convey 
it to Miisul. A fi-ame-work of strong beams was formed, and 
laid over two iron axles, found in the town (those made 
by Botta). Each wheel was made uf three solid pieces of 
wood, nearly a foot thick, bound together by an iron hoop : 


a pole was finally added, fiirniahed with rings, to admit a 
rope, by which the carriage might be drawn. In order to raise 
the bull, and place it on the carriage which, stood in the plaii 
below, at a distance of 200 feet, it was necessary to make a 
road through the mound, 15 feet wide, and in some places 
20 feet deep. The figure was to be lowered from its pedestal 
on its back, a work of no small difSculty ; for during its 
descent, ropes, which, were the only means of HupportiDg it, 
might break, and involve the destruction of the whole. 
iAithough ropes had been sent for from Aleppo, the best of 
them were too small to be relied on. A stout palm-fibre 
hawser had been obtained from Baghdad, and two pairs of 
blocks, and a pair of jack-screws had been borrowed from the 
stores of the Euphrates expedition. These were all the re- 
sources available tor removing the bull and lion. 

By the middle of March the earth and rubbish had been 
cleared away from the bull, which was now retained 
place oniy by beams which sprang from the opposite side of 
the excavation. "Well-greased sleepers of poplar were laid 
down on the ground parallel to the sculpture, and over these 
several thick rollers on which the object was to be lowered. 
A deep trench had been cut in the solid mass of the unbnmt 
brick wall at some distance behind and above the bull, and 
the square block, thus exposed, formed a sort of column, round 
which the ropes used for lowering the bull might be run during 
the operation. Two of the pulleys were secured to this masa 
of earth by a coil of ropes, and two others to the bull, and 
between these two points the tackle worked. On each side 
of the bull stood a large party of Arabs, holding the ends of 
the ropes, and some powerful Chaldeans were directed to hold 

strong beams which they 
reduce the strain upon the ropes. 

All being ready, Layard ordered thi 
supporting wedges. Still the bull ri 
last five or six men tilted it over, 
almost broke with the strain, and won 

of earth around which it was carried, but the smaller ropes 
did their work well, and the bull began to descend slowly. 
As the bull neared the roller, the beams could no longer be 
used, and the entire etrainwas thrown on the ropes, whioh 

e gradually, s 

men to strike out the 
Gained erect, until at 
The Baghdad hawser 
its way into the block 

I^T&BD. 41 

stretched anil creaked more thnn ever ; at length the ropes all 
broke together, and tho bull ftll forward to the ground. A 
iilent moment of auspenae followed, Layard leaped into the 
trenches, expecting to see tha hull in I'ragments, It was 
entire and uninjured! A Bort of tram-way was laid down to 
the end of the track, over which the buD was to he drawn on 
rollers to the edge of the mound ; and thua the Journey to 
the end of the trench was speedily accomplished. When the 
bull arrived at the sloping edge of the mound, it was lowered 
into the cart by di^ng away the Boil. AH was now ready 
for proceeding to the river, and the buffaloee which were at 
first procured refusing to puU at the weight, the Arabs and 
Chaldeans, assisted by the villagers, in aJl 300 men, drew 
the cart. 

Oa reaching the village of Nimroud, the proceaaion was 
brought to a sudden halt. Two wheels of tJie cart were seen 
buried in the ground ; and the ropes were broken in the 
attempt to extricate the vehicle. The wheels had sunk in a 
concealed corn-pit, in which some villager had formerly 
stored hia grain, Layard was compelled to leave the eeulp- 
ture on the spot, with a guard. In the course of the night 
some of the adventurous Bedouins, attracted by the packing 
materials round the sculptures, had fallen on the workmen. 
They were beaten off, but left their mark; for a ball in- 
dented the side of the bull. Nest morning the wheels were 
raised, the procession was again in motion, and, after some 
temporary obslruotions, the bull waa placed on the platform 
from which it waa to slide to the raft. Here a small camp of 
Arabs was formed to guard the bull until its companion, the 
lion, should be brought down, and the two embarked toge- 
ther for Baghdad. 

On tho 20th of April, Layard determined to attempt the 
embarkation of his treasures. The rail lay alongside the 
platform : and tho two aculpturcs were ao placed on beams, 
that on the withdrawal of tho wedges they woidd slide into 
the centre of the raft, along an inclined plane formed of beams 
of poplar wood, which were well greased. The large raft, 
supported by six hundred skins, was brought close to tho 
hanki the wedges were removed, and the bull was slowly 
lowered into its place. The lion was next placed on a seoond 


similar raft. In a few hoars tke two sculptures were properly 
secured, and by night-fall they were ready to set out on their 
long journey. Tlie working party was now disbanded, and 
by the middle of May, 1847, the excavations at Nimroud 
'were finisbed. Layard took a parting glance at the ruins, and 
on the 24th of June he hade farewell to the Arabs, and de- 
parted on his journey to Conetautinopie. 

It now beeonieB necessary to inquire what biblical and 
classical writers had been thinkiug and saying about the 
buried cities in tlie East, and to examme also in detail the 
discoreriea of fiotta, at £horaabad. 

i backwards — more than two thousand yeara — be- 
comes ueceaaaiy, when we aak what NiueTch was undei'stood 


to be before the excaTations of Botta and LayarJ, We have 
two sources of information on the subject, — the sacred 
writers, and the ancient Greek and Eoman historians. 

From the eacred writers we learn that the long forborne 
Tengeance of Heaven, overtaking the impious pride of the an- 
tediluYian world, had swept from the face of the earth the 
numerous tribes of Adam, reserving only the family of Koah, 
to make him the second progenitor of the human race. The 
three sons of the Patriarch had gone forth to aBsame other 
new sovereignties, and to people the earth. At this period, 
■within a century after the flood, and while Noah was in the 
full vigour of hia power, his great-grandson, Nimrod, the 
founder of the earliest post-diluvian cities, is introdneed on 
the historic page. 

" And Cush begat Nimrod ; he began to be a mighty one 
in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord ; 
wherefore it is said, even as Kimrod, the mighty hnnter 
before the Lord. And the beginning of his kingdom WM 
Sahel, and Ercch, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of 
Shinar." ^ 

Although the scriptural account of Ifimrod, the first ino- 
naroh on record, is short, yet bo much more of him ia said 
than of any other of the immediate posterity of Noah, as to 
afford ample testimony to hts Btreugth of character and supe- 
rior natural endowments. The Hebrew word lai Oihbctr, 
which the vulgate renders " mighty one," is by the 8m- 
tuagint translated "giant;" but the subsequent "mighty 
hunter," would intimate that he not only sought to hunt wild 
beasts, but to subdue men also ; and Ezekiel is understood by 
some commentators to give the name of hioiters to all ty. 
rants.' Nevertheless, some think that the words " before the 
lord," may be taken in a favourable sense ; and Calmet 
admits that they are commonly understood as heightening the 
good qualities of any on,e. It muBt be allowed that there is 
nolhing in the history of Nimrod which carries an air of 
reproach excepting his name, which signifies " rebellion of 
him that rules," or, according to Gesenius, " extremely im- 
pious rebel;" but it is this name which has caused oommen- 
tul«r9 to represent him as a usurper and oppressor, and as 
instigating the descendnnts of Noah to build the Tower of 
Geneun, i. B— 10. » Ezekiol, mii. SO. 


Babel. The qualifioationa ascribed to Nimrod aa " a mighty 
Imnter" Buffioiently fijt hia oharuoter; and alter the Beparation 
of mankind he is siippoBL'd to have became the head of thoao 
who remained at Shiuar. He united the peopla into com- 
panies, and by exercising them in. the chase, he gradually led 
them to a Hocial detence of one another, laying the founda- 
tions of his authority and dominion in the same way that the 
Persians to a much later day prepared tlieir kings for war and 
government by hunting.' His kingdom began at Babel,' and 
as hia seat of power became too populous, he founded o'ther 
cities, thus dispersing his people under the direction of such 
deputies as he deemed prudeat. That he was aided in es- 
tablishing Lis power by his brothers Seba, and Havilab, 
and Sabtuh, and Baahmah, and Sabtecbah,^ who were ail 
settled in Arabia, may readily be believed, for without snch 
aid he could scarcely have built cities, and united his people 
with others under a coramoa form of government. The four 
cities which are recorded in Scripture to have been founded 
by Nimrod, Babel, Erech, Acuad, and Calneh, were all in the 
land of Shinar, the southern jiart of Mesopotamia. That 
Babel was the original of the subsequently imperial city of 
Babylon, the identity of name Heems to prove, the latter being 
the same word with the Greek termination. The miss near 
Hilluh are still by the Arabs designated BabeL According to 
Chesney, " four miles and a quarter north, and twenty miles 
west of the bridge of Hillph is the Mujellibeh, near which 
are the remains of the Kasr, and the hanging gardens ; and at 
rather more than six miles from Hlllah, standing amidst, and 
crowning the summit of, extensive masses of ruin, ia the 
'Birs Nimroud," supposed by Niehuhr, Ilich, and others, to bo 
the temple of Belus, which Ht^rodotus tells us was separated 
from the palace by the river.'" 

Erech, Accad, and Calneh, having probably grown up 
around the frontier fortressee of Kimrud's tirat realm, the 
identification of their sites would serve to define its limits as 
they existed hefure the conquest of Assyria had merged the 
mother country into a superior kingdom. Herodotus, Pto- 
lemy, and Ammianus Uarcellinus speak of cities, the names 

' Xenopli, Cjrop., lib. i. &ee olio Bonhait. Pbulrg, lib. iv. a. 12, 
pp. 227, 22B. > Geneai>, ^. 7. 

'' Cli<9>DCf, Survey of the Euphratea. 


48 WEEKl — EEECH — AM AD. 

of Trhich, like the IraJt of the modem Arabs, are clearly Ae- 
rirahle from the Erech of Scripture ; but do not precisely 
indicate their poaition. 

Colonel Taylor, the late Britiah resident at Baghdad, aatia- 
fied hiiuBelf that the place formerly called Onhoe by the 
Greeks, and now known as Werka, ia the true aite of the 
ancient city, Werka is situated on the Euphrates, 82 miles 
south, 43 east from Babylou, and ia celebrated for the im- 
mense mounds of El Aaaayah, the Place of Pebbles, which 
bear also the name of 'Irka and Irak, and are believed to bo 
the ruins of Erech.' 

In Colonel Rawlinson's recent " Outline of Assyrian His- 
tory," he says ho has not yet " been able to read with 
any precision the name of the city, Warha, upon the bricks 
which have been found there ; but as this city is sometimes 
denoted on the bricks by a monofi;ram for ' the moon,' and 
■was farther celebrated for the worship of that deity, it may 
be allowable to compare the name with the Hebrew tt 
yerahh, the Babylonian language, like the Arabic, invariably 
Bubstituting i, vau, for ', jod, as an initial. It is further 
probable that T"", Erech ia Genesis, x. 1 0, ia another form 
of the same name. Bochart translates TJr by 'vallu,' quot- 
ing Isaiah xxiv. 15; but it is more likely that a~V3 tw 
T7r Chasdim, simply means 'the city of the Chaldeans,' TTr 
being Babylonian for ttt Ir, with the usual change of vowels 
and the softening of v into k. ■ 

" As Warka, moreover, waa a holy city, and as it eshibits 
at present the appearance of a vaat N^ecropolis, there pro- 
bably," Colonel Rawlinson surmises, " are to be sought the 
ruins of the tombs of the old Assyrian kings, which were an 
object of curiosity to Alexander, and which are laid down in 
that exact locality in tlie old monkish map usually colled 
Peutingerian tables."' 

The site of Accad — or Accur, as the best scholars agree to 
write it — is assigned to the Sittaco of the Greeks, the Ak- 
kerkuf, Akari Nimroud, or Akari Babel, of the present day. 
It is distant about 55 miles north, 13 miles west of Babel. 
A primitive monument found here is sttU called by the Arabs 
" Tel Nimrfld," and by the Turks, " Nimrlid Tepass^," both 

' Cbeiney. ' KawlinBon'a Outline of tlie History of 

AHfiia, in Jsuin. Boy. Ai. Soc 1852, 


designatioDB signifying the hill of Nimrod. It conBists of a 
mound, surmouoted hy a masB of huUding whioh looks like a 
tower, or an irregular pyramid, according to the point from 
■which it ia viewed : it is about 400 feet in ciredmferenee at 
the bottom, and rises to the height of 125 feet above the 
elevation on -whicii it stands.' 

Calneh, or Chuliieh, ia fixed by the concurrence of a great 
mass of authority, ancient and modern, oriental and Euro- 
pean, at what was the ancient Ctesiphon, oa the banks of the 
Tigris, about eighteen miles below Baghdad, the dislriet sur- 
rounding which was called by the Greeks Chalonitis. The 
site of Cbalneh was afterwards occupied by El Madair, among 
the remains of which travell^ra find tho ruins of an ancient 
palace called Tauk-Kesra, believed to have been the White 
Palace of the Persian kings, the magnificence of which struck the 
barbarian conquerors from Arabia with amazement and delight. 

This site does not agree with that mentioned by Colonel 
Chesney, who Bays, " At the extremity of the plain of Shinar, 
and near the foot of the Sinjor mountains, we find on the 
banks of the Khabur, near its confluence with the Euphrates, 
two extensive heaps of ruins, partaking of the same cha- 
racters as those which appertained to the preceding cities. 
That on the right bank (the presumed Kerkisyah), is crowned 
with the modem town, Ahfl Serai (ikther of palaces), whUst 
that on the opposite, or left bank, may, from its name Calneh, 
or Chalanne, and tlie more modem Charchemish, be the 
fourth city of Nimroud." This surmise ia supported by the 
learned annotator on Calmet, who suspects, as it stands the 
latt city in the order of those built by Nimrod, that this cir- 
cumstance is denoted in its name Cala, "the completion," 
nueh, " of settled habitations;" as if it were "last built 
town." Or it might be at the extremity, last district of hia 
dominions; " border town." 

The prophet Amos'' speaks of Calnah as forming, in his 
time, an independent principality; but shortly afterwards it 
became, with the greater part of Western Asia, a prey to the 

If Nimrod's chief towns ere thus correctly localized, his 
fl.rBt kingdom — resting on tlie Euphrates, stretching from 
Erecb on the south to Accad on the north, and guarded in 

1 Ainiworth'i Betearclieg in ABSpia. 

48 cii 

tront'b'y the Tigria — must hsTe extended towards the trib£ 
of the east, a fraotier of about 130 milea. To the bous c 
Shem, ocoupjing the other bank of tha river, the seizure o 
the plains ofShiimr by the Hametic chieftain would be a just I 
cause for apprehension ; but, with the setting-up of Nimrod'si f 
kingdom, the entire ancient world entered a new historical'! 
phase. The oriental tradition, which makes that warrior I 
the first man who wore a kingly orowu, points to a aigBi-.l 
flcant fact. His reign introduced to the world a new BysteniMl 
of relations between the governor and the governed. Thai 
authority of former rulers had rested upon the feeling of-fl 
kindred : and the ascendancy of the chief was an imag« of " 
parental control. Kirarod, on the contrary, was a eovereigu 
of territory and of men, just eo far as they were its inha- 
bitants, and irrespective of personal ties. Hitherto there hai, 
been tribes, enlarged families — Society ; now there was ft, 
nation, a political communitj — the State. The political and 
social history of the world henceforth are distinct, if not; 

" Out of that laud went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, 
and the city Eehoboth', and Calak, and Besen, between Ni- 
neveh and Caloh : the same is a great city." ' 

Of the sons of Shem, Scripture has recorded nothings 
except of Asshur ; hut of him the record is of the higfaest- 
importance, as it fixes the epoch of the kingdom of Assyria. 
It may he inferred from the rerses in Genesia, tiut Asshurv 
had originally dwelt in the plains of Sliinar, and tliat at aomet 
period of Nimrod'a reign, he led a company or tribe frouj 
Dabel ; that he travelled up the Tigris, and settled in theti 
land to which he gave hia name, Assyria being the Grtsjlti 
derivative from the Hebrew Asshur : farther, it may he du-' 
duced that he followed the system of government adopted by, 
Kimrod ; dispersing his people over the country an they?: 
increased, and employing them in establishing adjacent cities. 
Others explain the text differently; adopting the inaigintil 
reading, " he went out into Assyria," which they understaud! 
to speak of Kimrod, who left his own country to attack A»-i 
Syria. The verse in Micah, however, strongly corrohorateB 
our view of the question : — " And they shall waste the lauitl 

< GeueBig, x. U, 12. Aipin. Anal. tin. Hist., tuI. i. p. 237. 


of Assyria with the sword, aad the land of Tfimrod in the 
entrances thureof;"' — a pussage which certainly impliea dia- 
tinct founders for the separute kingdoms of Nineveh and 
Babylon, which were both united in the Assyrian inonarohy 
about the time of this prophecy. How long Aaahur lired, or 
how far he eatabliahed hia powisr, are not to he learned from 
the sacred narrative: nor has Assyria, like Babylonia, any 
great natural frontiers to determine its extent. The aite of 
Itfhohoth is so uncertain, that it has been aliifted every- 
where ; but we learn from Chesney, that " on the right hank 
of the Eiiphratea, at the north-western extremity of the 
plain of Shinar. and three-atid-a-half milea aoutli-weat of the 
tuwn of Mayadin, are extensive ruins, around a caslle, atill bear. 
irig the name ofKehobolh." Of the ruins of KSlSh Sher^hat, 
wliich have been, with great probability, identified with the 
ancient Calah; of Nimroud, whicli competent judges have satis- 
fied themselves is the ancient Resen ; and of Nineveh itself, 
we ahull treat more at length in the nest aection of our work. 
After the foundation of the kingdoms of Nimrod and As- 
shur, we meet with no direct mention, in the sacred writings, 
of Nineveh or its king, for a period of fifteen hundred years.' 
Thia ia no proof that the city or empire remained unim- 
jiortant, since the Bible does not profess to contaia a system- 
atic history of the world. In the fourteenth chapter of 
Geuesia, one " Amraphel, king of SAinor," is mentioned, of 
whom the Jewish archteologist, Joaephua, says he was a com- 
mander in the Assyrian army,' Likewise Arioch, king of 
EUaaar, El-Asar ; may not this he " the Assyrians"? Atoll 
events, it is probable that they were Aaayrian satraps or vice- 
roys, according to the subsequent Assyrian boast, "Are not 
my princes altogether kings ?"' At the closing period of the 
age of Moses, we again meet with traces of Aaayria as an 

' Kiah, T. S. 

' Many leacned man, including Dr. Faher (who infomed me tliat he 
had made the auliject biii particular ituilj), tliink tlint there are strung 
riHuoaa for adopting the Saniaritun text in preference tu tlie nebrew ; the 

great point gained being the increaae of time friim the Deluge to Abra- 
ani. The adoption of Che Samaritan text, however, iloes nut appear to 
me to aSeot the queation of the nearly eonal I'ouudation of Ihe lungdonu 
of N'Liiirod and Aiahur, as gathered from the Bible, hat merely to throw 
tha data of Ihtir origin fiirwaril. — J. B. 
' Aut., lib. i. IS. ix. * Iituah, x. " 


independent and formidable state. BaJaam, the seer, ad- 
dressing tlie Kenites, a tribe of highlandera on tlie eaat of 
the JordaD, " took up his parable," — " Strong .is thy dwell- 
ing-place, and thou puttest thy nest in a rock. Kevertheleaa 
the Eenit«s shall be wasted until Assbur shall carry thee 
away captive."' We also find, that, shortly after the death 
of Joshua, the Israelites submitted to the arms of Chnshan- 
riBhatbaim, king of Mesopotamia, which was then a separate 
government from Aasyria. " Therefore the anger of the 
Lord was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand 
of Chushan-rishatbaim, king of Mesopotamia : and the chil- 
dren of Israel served ChuBhan-rishatbaim eight years.'" 

Although the Assyrian kings or their country are not ex- 
pressly mentioned until the reign of Jeroboam (825 n.o.), we 
are not left without indicatians of the state of the kingdom 
during the latter part of this period. It is a striking proof 
of the weakness or sloth of the kings of Nineveh, that they 
made no attempt to resist the rise of the Jewish power under 
David and bis son Solomon, whose sovereignty extended to 
the very banks of the Euphrates.' 

The first returning mention of Assyria or Nineveh in the 
Bible is in the book of Jonah, The name of the monarch 
then reigning is not given, but it is supposed that he was 
the father of that " Phiil," whose invasion of Israel is sub- 
sequently recorded, and the commencement of whose reign is 
dated n.o. 821. In the history of Jonah's visit, Nineveh is 
twice described as " that great city," and again aa an " ex- 
ceeding great city of three days' journey." 

The measurement assigned to Nineveh by the sacred writer 
applies, without doubt, to its circuit, and gives a circumference 
of about sixty miles. 

The twelfth verse of the fourth chapter of Jonah furnishes 
us with the means of estimating approximately the population 
of the ancient city when visited by the prophet. It is there 
stated to have contained 120,000 persons, who "could not 
discern between their right hand and their left," — a figura- 
tive expression usually understood of young children, Aa 
these are, in any place, commonly reckoned to form one'fifth. 

' Nmnbers, niv. 21,23. 
' Gen.. lY, 18; Eiod,, siiii. 31; 1 Kings, iv. 21, 21; 1 Chron.j 
XTiii, 3 i Pulm IxiiL 3. 


of the population, Hiceveh must have contaiced 600,000 

The accompanying diagram shows the relative proportions 
of Nineveh, Babylon, and London, by which it will be seen 

that the area of Babylon, a, I, c, d, was 225 sqoare milei, 
that of Kineveh, a, e, /, g, 216 square miica, while that of 
London and its cnvironB is but 1 14 square miles ; so that with 
an area of little more than half that of Nineveh, the popula- 
tion of the latter is nearly four times greater. This may at 
first sight appear a disappointing calculation, but we are not 
to look to our crowded towns and high streets as types of 
those arrangements which 3000 years ago prevailed in Asia. 

Babylon, we know, contained within its walls not only 
gardens and large open spaces for purposes of pleasure, but 
a sufficient quantity of land for tillage to support the in- 
habitants in liie event of a siege. It may be that the major- 
ity of the houses of Nineveh, like those of many eastern 
cities of the present day, consisted but of one story, so that 
thu number of people spread over a much wider area than in 
our western towns, where houses are carded to a considerable 
height, and are often made to accommodate several families j 
but to enable messes to provide themselves with the neces- 
saries of life, there must he ten thousand centres instead of 
one, and immense independence of individual action. This 
can only be the oflapring of freedom through long ages ; and 
e of these coniiitiona ever existed in Assyria. 


None of the luBtorical books of tlie Old Tefitament giveai 
dotnilB respeuliiig Nineveh. TLe propliete, however, ma] 
frcqu(^iit incidental ellusiou to its magoifioenoe, to the " fenoeC 
place," the "Hlronghold," the "valiant men and chariots,", 
tlie "silver and gold," the "pleasant furniture," " carvecl' 
lintels and cedar work." Zephaniah, who wrote ahout twenty- 
four 3-ear3 before the fall of Sineveli, says of it — 

,e beside me." 

For a long aeries of years the foreign relations of the 
Jewish kingdom turned upon Assjiia, and from the com- 
inencement of that period we consequently meet i ' " 
empire in Uie sacred writings. This may be regarded as thfl 
seeoad historical period of the Assyrian empire. The first 
king of Assytia named in Scripture is Pnl or Phul, who ap 
peared in the countries west of the Euphrates, in the days o 
Menahem, king of Israel (772 B.C.), upon whom he mad. 
war, and carried off two tribes of his subjects, fiually exact- 
ing from the weak monarch a tribute of a thousand talentt 
of silver as the price of his maintenance on the throne.' Wa 
lind the prophet Hosea making frequent allusions to tltfl 
practice common to both the Hebrew kingdoms, of throwin* 
themselves for support on the kings of Assyria. The nex 
Assyrian monarch mentioned by name is Tiglath-Pileser, 
whose accession and intercourse with the Jewish national 
repeatedly mentioned.' The usurper Pekuh,' who, by th 
murder of the hereditary monarch, had established himself a 
ruler of the teix revolted tribes composing the kingdom < 
Israel, entered into treaty with Kezin, king of Syria, with th) 
objects of expelling the race of Ditvid from the throne ol 
Juduh, and of placing upon it a tributary of hia own. Aha* 
king of Jerusalem, whose throne was menaced by the move* 
mcnis of the confederates, called Tiglath-Pileser to hia asaisb 
ouce, ofiering him teudul aUegiunoe and the temple treasui'eL 
as the price of that service. " So Ahaz sent messengers to Tig- 


Inth-Pileser, king of Assyria, saying, T am tliy servant and 
tliy son : come up and saro rae out of Iho hand of the king of 
Syria, aail out of the hand of the king of Israel, which vise up 
against mo. And Aliaz took tlie stiver and gold that was 
found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the 
king's hoiiRo, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria." ' 
The king of Assyria advanced at the request of Ahaz, and laid 
siege to Damascus, subdued Syria, Galilee, and all the country 
eafit of Jordan, and sent the oliitf inhabitauta of Syria to the 
h:ink9 of the Kir or Kiir, — a river which, uniting its stream 
with the Aras or Arases, flows into the CaspiaTi in N. lat. 39", 
— while Ihoaa of Galilee were transferred to Assyria. Tiglath- 
Pileser soon proved not less dangerous as an ally than he 
could have been in the character of an enemy. The aocn- 
niuliited wealth of three centuries of prosperous trade was 
exposed to the view of the wily Assyrian, and with it the 
■weakness of its possessors. The Syrians were subdued; but 
Tiglath-Pileaer, instead of retiring to his own dominions, 
hovered dubiously abont Jerusalem, 

From tliis point it would have been easy for him to move 
against the Philistines and Edomitea, who during the Syrian 
war had invaded the southern and western frontiers of Judab, 
end made themselves mostera of its strong cities; hut it is 
said tbttt " Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, came unto tha 
king of Taracl and distressed liini, hut strengthened him not ; 
for Ahaz took away a portion out of the house of the Lord, 
and out of the house of the king and of the princea, and gavo 
it unlo the king of Assyria; but he helped him not,"' Ahnz 
and his suoceaaora had now to contend alone with the wholo 
force of the king of Assyria, instead of with that of two 
petty princes. 

The successor of Tiglath-Pileaer waa Shalmaneser, called in 
the apocryphal book of Tobit, Enemeasar, who ascended the 
throne about 729 b.c. Ahaz still occupied the throne of 
David, and Hoshen was king of Israel, Shnlraaneser now 
resolved to complete the subjugation of Israel begun by his 
predecessor. He commenced by exaoting of Hoshea a tribu- 
tary acknowledgment of Buhjeotion — " Hoshea beeamo hia 
Bervant, and rendered him presenta."' Growing weary of 
1 2 KiBgi, iri, 7—9. ' 2 Chmn., jiviii, 15—21, 

» 2 KiDgii, ivii. 3-8, 


this dependence, the king of Israel attempted to negotiated 
defensive alliance with 80, king of Egypt, then the only 
power that could pretend to rivul the Assyrian, and proceeded 
so far as to withhold the annual tribute. Upon thia rebellio 
Shalnnaneaer advanced into Samaria, where he carried on 
campaign of three years, finally imprisoned its king, and caT'- 
ried away the Ten Tribes into his own country. The captive. 
Israelites were sent to Haluh and Kabor, two cities by Ih^ 
river of Oozan, and into the cities of the Medes, a fact wbict). 
shows that Media waa not yet separated from AsByria, la 
their stead a number of Assyrian families Irom Babylon, 
Cuthah,.Ava, and Sepharvaim, were settled in Samaria, and, 
mingling with the few remaining Israelites, form the SamaritaS 
people whom we Bubsequently meet in the NewTestament. 

Mr. Dickinson' remarks upon the foregoing passage in 
2 Kings, that the interpretaUon cannot be other than thia £ 
"To the Habor the river of Gozan," as the particle "by** 
has been interpolated. As regards Halah, there are no meaqi 
of ascertaining precisely whether this is the name of a rirffl^ 
or of a town ; but lie Burmiaea it to he a river. The Oreefc 
translation of the Septuagint rendera the passage " about tl 
Halah, and about the Habor, rivers of Gozan." — In Bufasta])- 
tiation of this view, Mr. Bickinaon quotes Edriai: "and fi 
Al Habor to Earkasiah is two marches ; and Earkasiah is a to 
on the east side of the Euphrates, and under it flows 
Hennas, commonly called AI Habor." This Al Habor ia 260 
miles west of Baglidad, near lie left bank of the river Euphg 
rutes ; and the name ia extended to the district, stretching f<q 
miles along the banks of the river. Not many miles west of tlu 
source of this atream, atanda the ruined town of Horon, 
Hara, the Chamo of the ancient geograptiers. About fifty milei 
from Kerkiayah, up the Habor, at its junction with anothei 
stream, stands the town of Naharaim, or the "Townof the tw( 
Rivera." The one is the Habor, which flows down to Nahorain 
from a westerly direction ; the other is called Al U&lih a 
Halah by the Arabs, and the country on its banks is called b_ 
Ptolemy, Gauzanitia : when, therefore, Mr. Dickinson observe^ 
• ' in the very places where it is most probable that the laraelite 


were deposited, we find every name recorded in Scriplnire bo 
little changed in-the lapse of centuries," it is reasonable to 
believe tbat we ba,Te ascertained the locality in which the 
captives Irotn Samaria were placed. Another argumeot in 
support of Ibis theory, is, the probability tbat the conqueror 
woiild exchange the captives for people of his own country, 
BH he would thus have vassala on whom he could rely, at 
distant points of his empire, while the malcontent foreigners 
being more immediately under his own eye, would be more 
likely to become incorporated with the Assyrians. 

Sennacherib, who succeeded Shalmaneser, appears in Scrip- 
ture as a worthy follower of his warlike predecessor. 

Since the inglorious reign of Abaz, the kingdom of Judah 
had been numbered with the many states which confessed the 
superior lordship of Assyria. Hezekiah was the first king 
of Judah who " rebelled against the king of Assyria, and 
served him not.'" For fourteen years the Assyrian refrained 
ii-om chastising this presumption ; but in the iburteenth 
year of Uezekiah's reign, Sennacherib advanced against the 
fenced cities of Judah, and took thera. The approach of 
the conqueror having opened Hezekiah's eyes to the con- 
sequences of the quarrel he had provoked ; whift the Assy- 
rian camp was yet at Lachisb, be sent thitber messengers 
bearing a most full and complete submission. "I have 
offended ; return from me : that which thou puttest on me I 
will bear,"' was the brief but expressive supplication of the 
penitent king. Sennacherib received the submission, but paid 
no regard to the conditions by which it was accompanied. 
In the exercise of his re-acknowledged power, he appointed 
to Hezekiah a tribute of thirty talents of gold and three 
hundred talents of silver — a weight of bullion equal to about 
266,850^. steriing. When, to raise this targe sum, Hezekiah 
had drained his own treasury, borrowed all the money of the 
Temple, and even stripped off the golden ornaments with 
which he had ovetldd its doors and pillars, Sennacherib re- 
sumed the campaign, and sent bis lieutenants with a large force 
to require the surrender of the king with his capital. The gas- 
conading communications of these commissioners, as preserved 
by Isai^, mark the arrogant and boastful cliaracter of the 

' 2 Eingi, Ktiii. 7. '2 Kingi, i 

ABsyrian people, and agree remarkably wiLii the tone of £1 
sculptures lately brought to light at Nimrcurl. Aabshalcel 
pretends that his master is the especial meesenger of Oo^f 
deputed to subjugate the earth : he is the Great King, th« 
King of Asayrin, and is ready not only to conquer the Jewidi 
army, but, in pity to its weaknesa, to lend Hezekiah li 
thousand horses, &c. 

"Kow, therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord tl 
king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two thousand horse 
if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them." ' 

The signal catastrophe which cut short these inmlea' 
boastings, is described with beautiful simplicity by Isuiah 
" Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in th( 
camp of the Assyrians a huudred and fourscore and five thou 
Bond : and when thi>y rtosc early in the morning, behold tbq 
were all dead corjises."' 

Thus in one night perished 185,000 fighting men, a num. 
her which, considtTed as forming but one division of tin 
invading forces, gives an exnlted idea of the military power* 
Assyria at this time. The prophet, in the figurative style < 
his age and country, states tliat the enemy were smitten b 
" an angel «f the Lord." Isaiah's Tcords threaten the inoolen 
conqueror with a "hot blast," and J^eremiah speaks of them i 
being cut off by a " destroying wind," or more literally, " 
hot peatilential wind :" words which favour the prubabilil^ 
that Sennacherib's army was destroyed by one of those ho 
winds which to this day sometimes destroy whole caravans. 

A tradition preserved by Herodotus, who received it ftofl 
his favourite authorities, the Egjptian priests, is loo ourioa 
in resemblance to the liible narrative to pass unnoticed. Tin 
priests, transferring the entire event to their own country, tuii 
the empire of their own deities, related that after the reign o 
Anysis, there succeeded to the throneaprieet of Vulcan, named 
Setho, who " treated tlie military caste of Egypt with extreniA', 
contempt; end as if lie had no occasion for their services, amoar 
other indignities, he deprived them of their arurte, or fields a 
fifty feet square, which, by way of reward, his predecessors haAj 
given to eocli soldier. The result was, that when SeanaF 
chei'ib, king of Arabia and Assyria, attacked Egypt with I 
mighty army, the warriors whom he had thus treated ri " 
■ 2 Kint-a, »viii. 23. ' leaiiiii, j 


to nssiat liim. In tliis perplexity, the priest retired ffl the 
shrine of his god, before which lie lamented liia danger and 
misfortuneB ; here he enuk into a profound sleep, and hia 
deit}' promised him in a dream, that, if he marched to meet the 
AsajTians, he should experience no injury, for that he woulil 
furnish him with aseistuiice. Tlie vision inspired him with 
conhdence ; lie put himself at the head of hie adherecta, and 
marched to Pdusium, the entrance of Egypt. Kot a soldier 
accompanied the party, which was entirely composed of 
tradesmen and artisans. On their arrival at Pelusium, so im- 
mense a. number of mice infested by night the enemy's camp, 
that their quivers and bows, together with what secured tbeir 
ahields to their anus, were gnawed in pieces. In the moming, 
the Arabians, finding themselves without arms, tied in 
confusion, and lost great numherB of their men. There is 
now to be seen in the temple of Vulcan a marble statue of 
this king, having a mouse in his hand, and with this inscrip- 
tion :-— ' Whoever thou art, learn firom my fortune to reverence 
the Goda."" 

Such is the narrative of Herodotus, which, confused as it 
is, and eridently made up by the priest*, is yet obviously con- 
nected with the true story. The visit to the temple, the 
prayer, the vision, and deliverance are, as nearly as possible, 
alike in both versions, and grammarians have discovered that 
the title under which the Egyptian god who interposed on 
this occa«ion, was worshipped, was also ascribed to the Su- 
preme Deity of the Jews. 

The disaster which so suddenly terminated the Jewish 
campoign, paralysed Sennacherih's forces just na the report 
had reachod hira that Tirhakah, king of Cush or Ethiopia, one 
of the greatest heroes of antiquity, wub on his march to attack 
the Ssayrian territory. " And he heard say concerning Tir- 
hakah, king of Ethiopia, He is coming to make war with 
thee."' These events determined the king to lose'no time 
in hastening back to hia capital ; " So Sennacherib, king of 
Assyria, departed, and M'ent, and returned, and dwelt at 
NineTeli." " And it oarae to pass, as ho was worshipping in. 
the honse of Niarooh his god, that Adrammelech and tSharezer 
his eons Bmoto bim with the sword : and they esoaped into the 



land of (Ararat or) Armenia. And Eaarhaddoii his son reigiM 
in his stead."' 

The death of Sennacherilj, added by the aacred writer in 
mediately after the flight from Judea, did not actually take plae 
until some time after that eTent. Such at least la the inferetic 
hvm a curious relic of antiquity, which, for another reason,, 
demands notice. In the Armenian version of Eusebiua, thtf 
following fragment of Alexander Polyhistor ia preserved ;- 

" After the reign of the brother of Seneeherib, AciseiF 
reigned over the Babyloniana, and when he had governed 11* 
the space of thirty days, he was slain by Merodach Balad&nnt 
(Baaladon? the sovereign lord),' who held the empire by foroft- 
during aix months : and he was slain and sucueeded by ■ 
person named Elibus. But in the third year of hie rei^i 
Seneeherib, king of the Assyrians, levied an army against tb» 
Babylonians ; and, in a battle in which they were engaged^ 
routed, and took him prisoner with his adherents, and com-' 
m&nded them to be carried into the land of the AsByrianil. 
Having taken upon himself the government of the Babylo- 
nians, he appointed his son, Asordanins, their king, and he 
himself retired again intfl Assyria."' This fragment of his- 
tory explains how there could be in Hczekiah's time a king 
in Babylon to send him presents and letters, although both- 
hefore and after Sennacherib that city was the capital of Mt,— 
A^syriaQ province. Berodach-Baladon was one of those thniM 
fie facto kings ; and it may be that the misfortunes of thM 
Asayriau campaign in Judea had tempted the BabylonuaM 
revolt, as it most likely did that of the Medes, whidi h^-1 
pened about this period. In any case, however, conuna^l 
hostility to Assyria would form a natural basis of alliaoo^ 
and friendship between the successful Hezckiah and the 
aspiring monarch of Babylon. ITie flight of Sennacherib's 
murderers, who were at the same time the natural heirs of 
his crown, left the path to the throne open to Esarhaddon, hia 
faithful son. Little is recorded of this monarch in the Bible, i 
His great coDcem seems tfl have been to restore to his empira 
il« lost military sway, in which he was highly Buecesafiil. Oi 
I to recover the sovereignty of Syi 
B to have been in the hands of t' 

rii. 37,38. 

' l8«iah, 1 

' Corj'a " FragmeiiM." 

:. 1; 2,King«, IX. laj 

Egyptians from the time of Hozekiah. His general adyaneed 
iiiW Judah, defeated MauaBseh, its king, oviTtook him in 
flight, and removed him into captivity. " Wlierefore the 
Lord brought upon them the captains of the host of the king 
of Assyria, which took Manaaaeh among thetliorns, and hound 
him with fetters and carried him to Babylon."' After two 
jturs' duresse, ManasBeh was permitted toruturn to Jerusalem, 
and to pass the remainder of his life as an Assyrian vassal. 

'I'he empire of Assyria now fades away from the page of 
canonical Scripture, and is only to be traced on the transi- 
tional ground of the apocryphal writings. The author of the 
book of Judith preserves the memory of Nebuchodonosor, who 
ruled at Nineveh in the forty-eighth year of Manasseh, or 
B.C. 632. This king, in the seventeenth year of his reign, 
and Slty-seven years after the loss of Sennacherib's army, 
determined to attempt the reconquest of Media, then governed, 
by Arphaxad, Previous to his taking the field, he called upon 
his allies and tributaries, Persia, Cilicia, Samaria, Bamascus, 
&c,, to join him with their forces. An unwillingness to in- 
crease the power of their mighty neighbour, the remembrance 
of Sennacherib's reverses, and probably a confidence in the 
success of Arphaxad, induced every one of them to avoid 
compliance with the request. Nehuchodonosor advanced with 
his own unaided army, gave battle to Arphazad on the plain 
of Ragau, overthrew his power, secured Ecbatana, bis capital, 
took him prisoner, and put him to death.' 

" Then be marched in battle array with his power against 
king Arphaxad in the seventeenth year, and he prevailed in 
liis battle : for he overthrew all the power of Arphaxad, and 
all his horsemen, and all his chariots. 

" And became lord of his cities, and came unto Ecbatanc, 
and took the towers, and spoiled the streets thereof, and turned 
the beauty thereof into shame. 

"Hetook also Arphaxadin the mountainsofKagau,and smote 
him through with his darts, and destroyed him utterly that day.'" 

Beturning from Ecbutana, Nebuohodonosor celebrated his 
victory by a feast at Nineveh, which lasted one hundred and 
twenty days, and then prepared to chastise the countries which 
bad refused their assJatance while his success was doubtful. 


" AtiiI thoii nhalt go at^ainst all the west country, becauj 
they (liBobeyed my wmiiriinclmpnt, 

" And thoM slialt deckre iinto tliem, Ihnt they prepare i 
me earth and wat*T ; for I will go forth in my wrath sgaim 
them, and will cover the whole fuce of the earth with tl 
feet of mine army, and I will give them for a epoil aDli 
them r t 

" So that their slain shnll fill their vallpys and brooks, an^ 
the river shall be filled with their dead, till it overflow : ' 

" And I will leud them caiitivea to the utmost parts of th* .1 

The power of Nineveh was now in its zenith, and to ti 
period the graphic depc.ription of the propliet applies : — 

" Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with ( 
hranohes, and with a shadowing shroud, and of a high atatun 
and his top was among the thick boiighB. 

" All the fowls of heaven made their nests in hia bongli 
and under hie branches did all the beasts of the field brii 
forth their young, and underhis shadow dwelt all great nation 

''Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of i 
branches ; for his root was by great waters. 

" The cedars in the garden of God oould not hide him : t] 
fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees wa 
not like hts branches : uor any tree in the garden of Ood wi 
like unto him in his beauty. 

" I have made him fair by the mnltitude of his branchel 
Bo that all the trees of Edeu tliat were in the garilen of Go 
envied him."' 

Prom this hour, however, the glory of Assyria began i 
decline. The invasion of Judoa by HololerneB, the AssyFioA 
general, followed immediately upon the subjugation of Medi^ 
After long marches and numerous conquests, that comraondt 
was disastrously beaten and slain, and hia army put to tl 
rout. How long Nebiichodonowr maintained himRelf on tli 
throne is not known, but the effect of his military misfbrtniH 
on the renown of the Assyrian name is not doubtful ; fot tl 
empire, surrounded by younger and ambitious kingdoms, atoa 
in need of all iu ancient influenoo to «i?ciire it aguinet a 
gression, and its main army being now disurganiaed and oi 
quercd, it no longer possessed the pou'cr of resistance. 
> Juditli, ii. 6—9. ' Ezi'kitl, iixl. . 


The alliance of Cyasares, son. of Arphasad, witb Nabopo- 
liLssar, the revolted aatrup of Babylon, and their oonibined 
attack upoa Asayiia, will be noticed with the teBtimony of 
BBOular history ia the suocoeding chapter. The fall of Ni- 
ueveh, which took place twenty-eight years after the rout 
of HoIoferneB' army, was ontjcipnted by the Jewish t&ptive 
Tobit, long a reBideot of that oupital. Some of his lat«Bt in- 
Bli'uctiona to his family are : " Go into Media, my son, for I 
Hurely heUere those things which the prophet Jonas spuke of 
Nineveh, that it shall he overthrown." " And now, my son, 
dispart out of Nineveh : bury me decently, and thy mother 
with me, but tarry no longer in Nineveh."' 

While reading the delaila of the destruction of Nineveh, 
preserved by the secular historians, the predictions of the 
Hebrew prophets are forcibly suggested. An inundation of 
the Tigris swept away twenty furlongs of the city wall: 
" With an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the* 
place thereof, and darkness shall pursue his enemies. The 
gates of the rivers shall be opened, and the palace shall be 
dissolved. Nineveh is of old like a pool of wati^r."' 

The despairing monarch periabed in the conflagration of the 
imperial residence : " The fire Hball devour thy bars. There 
shall the fire devour thee."^ 

T^e spoil was divided between the conquerors ; " Take ye 
the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold ; for there is none 
end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture."* 

Her images shall be destroyed : " Aud the Lord hath given 
a commandment concerniDg thee, that no more of thy name 
be sown ; out of the house of thy gods will I cut off the graven 
image and the molten image : I will make tliy grave; for thoa 
art vile.'" 

The ruin of the proud city, long the terror of nations, is cele- 
brated by the prophet Ezekiel in bold and striking language : 

"Thus saith the Lord God, Because tliou hast lifted tliyself 
up in height, and he hath shot up his top among the thick 
boughs, and his heart is lilted up in its lieight; 

" I have, therefore, delivered him into the hand of the 
mighty one of the htalhen, he ahail surely deal with him : I 
have driven him out for his wickedness. 

62 FiLL OF AssraiAH eupibb. 

" And strangers, the terrible of the nations, hare cut hiij 
off, and have iait him ; upon the mountains and in the valleji 1 
hia branches are fallen, and hie boughs are broken by all thft I 
rivers of the land; and all the people of the earth are gonol 
down from his shadow and have left him. ■ 

With the deatnietion of Nineveh the empire of ABSjria feQ,.l 
pursuant to what had been foretold by the Prophets; henoo 
forward it merged in that of Babylonia, and the charm 
power passed finally from the Tigris to the EnphrateB. 




The object of this chapter is to- sketch out al! that can be 
gathered of the history of Nineveh and its empire from the 
" classical " writers, not, however, despising the aid of thoee 
historians of antiquity whose testimony is trustworthy, even 
though they may not usually be honoured with that distinctive 
epithet. A brief glance at the subsequent fate bf the country 
wili appropriately bring us to the examination of existing ruins. 
The story of Assyria, as collected from uninspired testimony, 
has been often told, and generally with success, so long as one 
or two authorities only have been consulted ; it is when we 
come to compare and attempt to harmonise the scattered and 
often incidental notices of many ancient writers, that the 
difficulty commcnceB. The causes of the vagueness and dis- 
crepancy which mark the statements that have come down to 
us are obvious. The ruins of Nineveh were virtually unknown 
to the ancient classical writers, though we gather from all of 
them that it was one of the oldeat, most powerful, and most 
splendid cities in the world; that it perished utterly many 
hundred years before the Christian Era ; and that after its fall 
Biibylon became the capital of the Assyrian empire. On ex- 
amining their details, we find names confounded, incidents 


64 BilTLOSlA. 

transposed, and chronology by turns confused, extended, < 
inverted, Difflciiltiea of another and more peculiar kind bea 
this puth of inquiry, of which it will Biiffiee to instance oi 
illustration — proper names, those fixed points in history arouo 
■which the achieyements or siifierings of its lieroea cluster, ai 
constantly sliifting in the Arayrian nomenclature ; hoth me 
and gods being designated, not by a word composed of certaii 
fixed sounds or signs, but by all the various cspressiona equt 
vaient to it in meaning, whether consisting of a synonyme or t 
phrase. Hence we find thiit the names furnished by claaw 
uutliora generally have little or no analogy with the Assyrian^ 
as the Greeks usually construed the proper names of othflB 
countries according to the genius of their own lacgne 
not unfreqnently translated the original name into it. 
dotus, however, though be mentions but one Assyrie 
gives him his true name, Sennacherib. 

Ancient Assyria, or Athur,' from Assliur, Shem's a 
originally of but small extent, its limits being partly detcx 
mined by the sites of the cities founded by Asshur. It " 
stated to have been " bounded on the north by Mount Nipbut 
and part of Armenia; on the east, by that part of Medfi 
■which lies towards Uounts Chahoras and Zagros ; on the 
by Suaiana as well as part of Babylonia ; and, finally, i 
west by the river Tigris."' 

Strabo^ and Pliny' inform "us that Mesopotamia, orNaharaim 
is bounded by the Tigris on the east, the Persian Gulf and tl 
Euphrates on the west, and Mount Taurus on the north ; tl 
length being 800 miles, and the breadth 360 miles. 

Babylonia was situated in lower Mesopotamia, between tt 
estuary of the Sha*t-el-Arab, the Euphrates, and the westei 
extremity of the river KhSbur, and adjoining this lay tl 
monarchy of Assyria.' 

'" Hear the commencement of the Dujeil, or little Tigris, ; 
one extremity of the Median wall, which proceeds from tbeno 
8.S.W. i W. towards the Euphrates, a few miles westward t 
the Saklawiyah canal. It ia from 35 to 40 feet high, wiCi 
towers ut intervals of 55 paces from each other along its weste 
side, and there is a diteb towards the exterior 27 paces b 
It is called Chalu, or bid Kuiirllld, and is built of the : 


pebbles of the country, embeddei in lime of great tenncity.'" 
The natives say that the Median wall was built by Nimrod to 
keep off the people of Nintveh, with whom he had an im- 
placable feud. The bed of the Dujeil is cut from 50 to 60 
feet deep, through ground apparency aa hard as iron, iu many 
parts esposing sections of ancient brick walls." 

According to Scripture, Nineveh was founded by Aashur 
about 2230 e.g., but according to Diodorua Sioulus, quoting 
Ctesias, it was founded by Ninus, 2183 B.C. Herodotus is 
silent upon this point, but Africanus, quoted by Syucellua, states 
that the foundation of the Assyrian monarchy took place 2264 
B.C. Tlie Armenian historian Euaebius places it 1300 years 
bpfore the fortieth year before the first Olympiad, or 2116 b.c. 
.^railius Sura, quoted by V. Patisrculas, auys, it was 2145 b.c. 
By far the most distinct evidence is contained in the extract 
from Polyhistor, found in the Armenian Chronicle, which is, 
with good reason, believed to be on extract from the work of 
Berosus, the ancient native hiatorinn. This Chronicle contains 
a table Irom the dynasties of the old Assyrian empire, assigning 
the date of each, and the addition of the figures gives the epoch 
2317 B.C. aa that of the foundation of the first monarchy. He 
thus attains a date fixed within certain limits, and differing so 
immaterially from that of the Biblical Chronology, that it would 
not be unreasonable to suppose iNinus to have been the great 
grandson, or, at all events, no very remote descendant of Aasbur, 
Abydenua,' in the Armenian edition of EiiBebiua's Chronicle, 
places hira sixth in descent from the first king of the Assyrians, 
whom he calls Betas; and the editor, in a note, produces somt; 
passages from Moses Choronensis and others, to show that such 
was the general opinion among the Anneniiins.' This account, 
which makes Ninus contemporary with Abraham,' the tenth 
generation from Shera, perfectly accords with the duration of 
the Assyrian empire, which all agree did not exceed 1300 years, 
from its rise to the fall of Sardanapalus. Sardanapalua died 
743 B.C., and if we reckon backwards 1300 years, we shall 
find that the reign of Ninua commenced 200 years after Nim- 

' Climnej's Sarre^ of tbe Euphrafea. 

* A disciple of AnilolU, anil a copyist of Eeroana. 
» (,'or)''i " Fragmonta," p. 09. 

* Idem., p. Z6, Fetariua aajs Abraham vu bom in t]i« twenlj-fuurlli 
year of Semiraniii'B leign, lib. i. c. 2. 



rod began to be mighty on earth, so that considering the 
great nge that men attained to, he may have been Nimrod 
himself, or the son of Nira^rod, as Bome bave inferred from the 
Btatement of Beroaus. In our view the evidence is yery satis- 
factory ; for while it is highly corroborative of the hypothesis 
that Babylonia and Asayria were originally two distinct king- 
doms, it is, Likewise, perfe4:tly consistent with the authorities 
wlio ascribe the foundation of the Asayrian empire to Ninus. 
Asahur was the founder of the monarchy only of Assyria, but 
the beginning of the empire,^ we consider, may be justly com- 
pated Irom the time of his deaeendant Hinua, who waa king 
of both Assyria and Babylonia, ■which were for the first time 
united in his reign. 

Justin, the Roman historian, who abridged the hiatory of 
Trogua Pompeiua in the second century, gives a little ac- 
count of him in the commencement of his work. He says, 
that "Ninas, king of the Assyrians, first brought wars against 
his neighbours, and conquered the people, as yet unused to 
resistance, to the very boundaries of Libya" — the name 
anciently applied to b\\ Africa, " There were, indeed (adds 
he), more ancient than he, Seaostria in Egypt, and Tanaus, 
king of Scythia; of whom one brought war into Pontus, 
the other even to Egypt. But they brought distant wai^ , 
not neighbouring ones ; they sought not empire for theaM 
selves, but glory tor their people ; and, content with Tictoi^fl 
abstained fi^)m government : 2)inuB confirmed the msft' ' 
nitude of his domination by continual possession. TTi b 
neighbours, therefore, being subdued ; when, by accession of 
strength, he was stronger, he passed to others ; and, every new 
viotary being the instrument of the nest one, he subdued the 
whole of tlie East," His last war was with Oxyartes, or 
Zoroaster, kiug of the Bactrians.* Here he met with a more 
powerful resistance than he had yet experienced ; hut after 
several fruitless attempts upon the chief city, he at lust con. 
quered it by the contrivance and conduct of Semiramie, wife 
to Uenon, president of the King's council, and chief governor 
of Assyria. Semiramis was bom at Aacalon, and said to be 
the daughter of Dercetis, the Assyrian Yenus ; but the a 
of her birth, as related by Diodorus,' is so well known, t" 

> Eiekiel, uiii. S3.— Jer. 1. 17, IS. ^ Justin, lib. L c 

> Biod. Sie, lib. ii. c. 1. 


in unneceBsary to recapitulute it htre. The ability, courage, 
aud beauty ot' Seniiramia bo CBptirated Nidus, tliut 3ie iiNcd 
every imaginable perBuaaioa and threat, to induce her husband 
to heatow hia wife upon him, Menon, however, would not 
consent, but in a fit of distnictioa he destroyed hiraeelf, and 
Bemimmia was advanced to the regal state and dignity. Ninua 
hud a SOD by Semintuis, named I4^inyaa, and died after the 
reign of fitty-two years,' leaving her the government of his 
kingdom. In honour of his memory she erected in the royal 
palace a monument, which remained till long after the ruin 
of NineTeh. Diodorus describes it as a mound of earth, one 
mile and two hundred yards high, by one mile and a quarter 
in hreadth. Semiramis had had so large a share in the ad- 
ministration of affairs during the reign of Ninus, that she was 
the fittest person to succeed him, especially us her son was a 
mitior ; she accordingly continued the policy that had prevailed 
in the latter part of the reign of her predecessor, and set her- 
self earnestly to settle and establish the empire. Shortly after 
her accession, she removed her court from Nineveh to Babylon, 
which she enlarged, embellished -with maguificent buildings, 
and Borrounded with walls; so that, if not the actual founder 
of the city, she rendered it the "mighty Babylon" bo re- 
nowned in history.' After this, she settled all the neighbour- 
ing kingdoms under her authority ; and wherever she went, 
left useful and magnificent monuments of her progress : many 
of her aqueducts, and highways cut through mountains, or 
formed by the filling up of Talleys, still eiisted when Diodorus 
wrote. She is said to have conquered great part of Ettiiopia, 
and to have consulted the oracle at Jupiter Ammon; but her 
greatest and last expedition was ngainat India. iTustin tells 
us that she was the only monarch who ever penetrated to India 
before the time of Alexander. Diodorus records, that, having 
resolved to conquer India, she ordered her troops to rendezvous 
in liaotria (the ancient name of part of Persia) ; was ultimately 
defeated by tho Indian king, and had to return with scurcely 
a third of her army. Nevertheless, in the course of a reign 
of forty-two' years, this qneen, the first on record, helped to 
GOuaoUdat« the oldest empire named in history. 

' Africinug and Eusebiui, See Cory's "Fragments." 
' Diod. Sic lib. ii. e. i. Heiod Clio, c ITS, ISO, 184. Q. Curt. lib. r. 
' «. 1. * Afriuanoi lad EuMbini. Sue Corf's " Fnigmgnu." 





Ninyaa, the son of Ninua and SeniiramiB, waa the next king 
of the Assyrian empire. As he appears to have cultivated the 
erts of peace, he is generally described by historians as a weak 
and offeffliniite prince. He made no wars, nor used any ea- 
deavoiiTB to enlarge hia empire ; but he took measures to es- 
tablish hia authority over the dominiona acquired by his 
parents, and by a judicious contrivance of governing hia pro- 
vinces, by means of deputies on whom he could depend, with 
a number of regular troops changed annually, he prevented 
the many revolts of distant countries which might otherwise 
have happened.' Shiioktbrd, in bis "Sacred and Profune 
History of the World Connected," has supposed that in the 
time of Abraham, the sent of ihe Assyrian government was la 
Persia, oneof the Asiatic nations subjected by Ninua, and thai 
the Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, of Moses, was identical with. 
Ninyas, observing that Araraphel was hia deputy in Shiiiar 
(probably Babylon) ; Arioeh at Ellaaar (Assyria?) ; and Tidiil 
his deputy over other adjacent countries," verifying the Assj- 
rian boast that its deputy princes or ehiel's were " altogether 
kings." After ahowing that Chedorlaomer had nations subject 
to his service eight or nine hundred milea distant from the oily 
of his residence, for bo far were Sodom and Gomorrah, and the 
other three cities whose kinp paid him tribute, he concludes 
that no power east of Aasyria would be likely to posstes do- 
minion west of the Euphrates, and consequently that Chedor- 
laomer could be no other than the head of tJie Aasyriiin empire.' 
Ninyas is reported to have commenced that state which 
oriental sovereigns subaequently improved ; maintaining him- 
Belf within hia palace with mysterious aecresy, in order lo 
excite the veneration of his aubjecta. He died after a reign of 
thirty-eight years,* tranamitting to his successors an empire so 
well constituted, as to remain is the hands of a aeries of kings 
for thirty generations.' AUhough we have no direct histurr 
of the acts of any of these sovereigns, beyond those sure indi. 
cations of their rule afforded by the sculptures and inscription? 
which have been found in Persia, Media, Armenia, Coelo-Hvri*, 

' Diod. Sic. lib. ii, 0. 2. ' Cfaneais. x'lv. 1, A, 6, 9. 

' Sliankfoni't ■■ Sao. and Viol. Hist. Con." bt. vi. 

' Itiod. Sic. lib. ii. c 2. 

' Awjrian Dju. Cory's '' Frsgrnenti," pp 70. 71, 76. 

r OF K»RKAs, 69 

and Cyprus ; tie records of other nations furnish oooaBioisul 
gleams of information connected with Assyria. 

Scripture tells us of Jacob's visit to his uncle Laban in 
Mesopotamia,' and of the servitude of the Israelites, under 
Cushan-Eishathaim, which occurred about 1409 b.c* 

Keykab, king of Armenia, appears to have niaintained a 
protracted contest with Amyntaa,^ seventeenth king of Assyria, 
who was at length subdued and compelled to do homage to 
the Armenian king: but his successor Belochus' recovered 
his territory, and killed Heykab. The roost interesting re- 
velations are likely to result from the readings of Egyptian 
monumenta, some of which lea^e it beyond doubt that Meso- 
potamia was conquered, and eicge laid to Nineveh and Baby- 
lon, by the Egyptians, between UOO and 1300 B.C. In 
Mr. Birch's " Observations on the Hieroglyphioal loscrip- 
tion of the Obelisk of the At Meidaa at Constantinopk," and 
on the " Statistical Tablet of Enrnak,'" he shows us the names 
of Saenlcare, Singara, or the Mesopotaroian Sennaar, and Naha- 
raina, Mesopotamia, the anro Neharjim of the Bible ;° be- 
sides many other names on whichhemosC ingeniously speculates, 
and numerous allusions to Asiatic customs, and to articles of 
tribute, to which we shall have occasion to refer in a subse- 
quent section. The period of the Obelisk is the reign of 
Thothmes III. (Menophra Thothmoais Iir.), 1341 B.C., as we 
gather from Theon, the Alexandrian mathematician, who says 
that the cycle of 1460 years, which terminated a.d. 140, was 
named the era of Menophres.'' " The tablet of Earnak records 
the tributes and exploits of the same king from his twenty- 
fifth to his thirty- fourth year," ' and the following reading of 
one line is especially worthy of note, " Nenjiu, in stopping — 
ichm hit MajeiUf came he set up his tethht to enlarge, (or, on 
aeeovnt of homing enlarged) the confines of Kam (Egypt)." 

Mr. Birch remarks, that though the identification of the 
word Nineveh is not perfectly satisfactory, yet the mention of 
tablets as landmarks of the empire is most important;^ and 

' GaaeaiB, iiix. 1 — H. ' Judges, ii[. I — 9. 

> Africauiu, Did. Am,, and Eiueljios, Arm. Cbrun. Cory'B " FragmentB," 
pp. 72, 73, 77. 

1 IWd. • Trani.Roy.Soc.Lit ,8pcondSerie8,Tol.ii.pp.2ia,317. 

' Dr. HincV'a "Lett*™ of Aneient Alphttbets.'' 

' Sharps'! '■ Chronology and GeDgrapiir of Ancient Egypt," p. fi, 

« Tmna. Boj. Soo. Lit p. 220. • ld<:m, p. 315. 



the great hiatorioal interest of both records is, that they an 
among the earliest which meniion Mesopotamia as the frontier 
of the Egyptian monarchy. The first notice of its being at- 
tacked by the Egyptians is in the reign of Thothmea I.' In 
the reign of Amenophie, the second eon, the aoa of Thothmes 
III., the officer who had been liireotiag fresh works at Tourab,' 
states, " that lie had 6et vp tablets for kii Majesty oi farnortk 
m Naharaina, and southieards to Kara (Kalaa);" and nnder 
Thothmea IV. the chie& of Mesopotamia are seen humbly pros- 
trated and preaenting tribute to that monarcli." The Egj-ptian 
monuments do not, as yet, furnish us with later data connecttil 
with AsByria, but it was under the reign of its early kings that 
llameses the Gfreat (the Seaostris of the Greeks) puraued his 
conquests in the East, far beyond Assyria. Flato makes the 
kingdom of Troy in the time of Priara 1184 s.c, ft dependant 
on the Assyrian empire ;' and Diodorus' says, that Teutamus 
the twentieth from Hinyaa, srnt 20,000 troops and 200 c)iarioti 
to the assistance of tbe Trojans, whose king Friant was a 
prince under the Assyrian empire, which had then e^Bted 
above a tbonsand years. 

The above is almost all we know concerning the warlike 
kings who extended their sway over Western Asia, untU. the 
revolt of Media, which is believed to have taken place about 
700 B.C. Herodotus says nothing of Assyria, until he begins 
to relate how Media became a nation. Thus, he says, when 
speaking of an event which happened 711 n.c. — that the 
Assyrians had ruled Upper Asia 520 years before that ;" a 
discrepancy from the etatemenU of other historians to be easily 
reconciled by the supposition that Ctesias dated from the earliest 
establishment of the monai'cby, while Herodotus confines him- 
self to the estabiishmeat of the great empire over central Asia. 

Further on, he speaks casually of tbe " Tigris which flows 
DearHineveh."' This little mention, we see, at once esta- 
blishes its locality and great antiquity. For Herodotus wrota 
B.o. 455, and had travelled in Asia, He mentions his inten- 

I Traoi. TLoj. Soc. Lit., p. 22.1, and LepsiiHi Auiwahl, T. liv. 
' Vysc'b Jdiirnoi, vol. iii. Toiimh Qiiarriea, pi. a 
■ Eighth Tomb at Gnuraah, Mod. £^pt. toI. ji. p. ISO. 
< De Leg. lib. iii. 685. See Eollin, vol. ii. 

* Died. Sio. lib. ii. «. 3; ailei Cteaias, lib. Ii. 

* Clio, icT, '' Euterpe, al. 


tion of relating the particulara of the taking of Nineveh 
" hereafter,"' but it ia uncertain whether he ever executed 
the intention at all. 

The historical period, properly bo called, of Assyrian history, 
begins with the revolt of the Modes and tlie fail of the first 
empire. Of this event we have two aceouatB from Greek 
authors ; that of Ctesias, as quoted by Diodorus, is in Euhstanoe 
as follows ; — " Sardanapalus, the thirtieth from Kinns, and ths 
last king of the Aaayrians, exceeded all his predeceaaorg in 
eloth and luxury ; for, besides that he was seen of none out 
of his family, he led a moat effeminate life, and proceeded to 
BUch a degree of voluptuousness," as showed him to be utterly 
ehameless. " Being thus corrupt in hia morals, he not only 
came to a miserable end himself, but utterly overturned the 
Assyrian monarchy, which had continued longer than any we 
read of. 

" For Arbaces, a Mede, a valiant and prudent roan, and ge- 
neral of the forces which were aent every year out of Media to 
Nineveh, was stirred up by the governor of Babylon, to over- 
throw the Asayrian empire. This governor's name was Belesia, 
a most famous Eabylonian prieat, oue of those uidled Chaldeans, 
expert in astrology and divination. * * * And now the 
year's attendance being at an end, new troopa succeeded and 
came into their place, and the former were sent away, one 
here and there, into their several countries. Hereupon Arbaeea 
prevailed with the Medes to invade the Assyrian empire, and 
drew the Persians, in hopes of liberty, to join in the confede- 
racy. Belesis, in like manner, persuaded the Babyloniana to 
stand up for their liberties. He sent m^aengers into Arabia, 
and gained that prince for a confederate. 

" Bardanapalns, being informed of the revolt, led forth the 
forces of the reat of the provinces against them ; whereupon, 
a battle being fougfit, the rebels were totally routed, and with 
agreat slaughter were forced to the mountains, seventy furlongs 
from Nineveh. 

" Being drawn up a second time in battalia, he fought them 
again, and destroyed many of the rebels, and forced them to 
fly to their camp upon the hills. * * * Another battle 
was fought, wherein the king gained a great victory, and pur- 
sued this revolters aa fJEtr as the mountains of Babylon." 
■ CUo, cri. 


While SaidanapaluB wna rejoicing at these Ticbmea, and 

feasting his army, Arbaces induced, the Baetriuns to revolt, ftU 
suddenly upon tlie kiug'a tamp, and made a great slaughter ol 
some, forcing the reet into the city. 

" Hereupon SardanapaluH committed the charge of the whole 
army to Salamenes, the queen's brother, and took upon liimself 
the defence of the city. But the rebels twice defeated the 
king's forccB, and the king being afterwards beeieged, many of 
the nations revolted to the confederates, so tliat Sardanapalus, 
now peroeifing that the kingdom was likely to be lost, sent 
post into all the provinces of the kingdom, in order to raise 
soldiers, and make all other preparations necesBftry to endure a 
siege. And he was the more encouraged to this, for that he 
was acquainted with an ancient prophecy, that ^t'neeth cmiU 
never he taken hy force till the rwer heeame tke city's atumg. 
* * * The siege continued two years. The third yeati 
it happened that the river, overflowing with continual raiaiil 
oame up into a part of the city, and tore down the walla twentgg 
furlongs in length. The king hereupon oonceiving that tk« ' 
oracle was accomplished, in tliat the river was an apparent 
enemy to the city, utterly despaired ; and, therefore, that he 
might not fall iut^ tke hands of his enemies, he caused a huge 
pile of wood to be made in his palace court, and heaped to- 
gether upon it all his gold, silver, and royal apparel, and 
closing bis eunuchs and bia concubines in an apartment wit _ 
tke pile, caused it to be set on fire, and burnt himself and thoB 
together ; which, when the revoltera came to understand, tlin 
entered through the breach in the walls, and took the city, miS 
clothed Arbaces with a royal robe, and committed to Mm " 
sole authority, proolaiming him king.'" 

This important event in the world's history is placed by Miv 
Bosanquet, the eminent chronologist, in the year 579 B.o," I 
The account of Herodotus ja, that " The Medes first of b]| 
revolted from their authority, and oontended with auoli obitir' 
nate bravery against their masters, that they were ultimately 
successful, and exchanged servitude for freedom. Other na- 
tions soon followed their example, who, after living for a Ume 
under the protection of their own laws, were again deprived rf 
' Diod. Sio. b. ii. 0. B. 
> Fall oX NineTeh and the B«ign of Sunnuberib, by J. W. Bounqi 

tlieir freedom" ' by Deioeea, a Made, who collected the Medes 
into one nation, over wliicli he ruled. Alter a reign of fifty- 
tliree years, he waa sacceeded by his 8on, Phraortes, who 
reduced the Persians under the dominion of the Aledes. " Su- 
preme of these two great and powerful nations, he overran 
Asia, alternately subduing the people of whom it was com- 
posed. He came at length to the Assyrians, and began lo 
attack that part of them which inhabited Nineveh. Theae 
were formerly the most powerful nation in Asia : their allies 
at tliie period had separated from them ; but thoy were etill, 
with regard to their internal strength, respectable. In the 
twenty-second year of bis reign, Fhraortea, in an excursion 
against this people, perished, with the greater part of his 
army."' He was succeeded by liis son, Cyaxares, " who pro- 
ceeded with all his forces to the attack of Nineveh, being 
equally desirous of avenging his father and becoming master 
of the city. He vanquished the Assyrians in battle; but when 
he was engaged in the siege of Nineveh, bo was surprised by 
an army of Scythians," who beat him iu a tixed battle, gaining 
not only the victory, but the em|>ire of Asia.' 

After a space of twenty-eight years, " Tbe Medes recovered 
their posseBsions and all their ancient importance; after which 
they took Nineveh. They moreover subdued tbe Assyriana, 
those only excepted which inhabited the Babylonian district."* 

TbuB far Herodotus, who, instead of contradicting Clesias, 
confirms and completes bis statement, provided we bear in 
mind that Cteaias apeake of the advance and victory of Arbaces, 
and of his establishment ou the throne of Nineveh ; and He- 
rodotus of another Median, who, more than a hundred years 
afttr, gathered strength sufficient to overthrow the elder race. 

Tbe warhke character of tbe four kings, whose victories are 
recounted in Scripture, has led to the eaceedingly probable 
opinion that they were not predecessors of Sardanapalns, but 
monarchs of the dynasty formed by Arbaces, The Median 
king Pbraorles is tbe Arphaxad slain by Nebucbodonosor, as 
related in the previous chapter. Herodotus states that Cyax- 
ares, bis son, was assisted in the expedition which destroyed 
Nineveh by Lubynitus, king of Babylon, probably Nabopo- 
lasKar, the Ahmuerus of Tobit, 

I'rom this time we bear no more of Nineveh nor of the As- 

■ Clio, 96. ' Idsm, 101, 102. > Idem, 103, 104. * Idem, 100 

74 NEiincEinuEzziR — babtt.on tjkrk by ctbtts. 

Syrian state, and Babylon became the seat of the imperial 
power. The gmnd era of Babylonian greatness commenoeB 
with Ni'buchadiiezzar, who succeeded his father shortly ofter 
the overthrow of Nineveh. Most of the great works for which 
hia capital became famous are due to him or Nitocria, his queen. 
It is underthismonareh that the Chaldeans, an old hut hitherto 
powerless race, appeared on the scene as a great aird warlike 
nation. It was they who invaded Judea, and carried away its 
people into captivity.' Under Nebucbadnezear, Babylon be- 
came the mistress of the East, and its va^t power caused the 
jealousy of Burronnding nations. Pharaoh-Necho was the first 
to take up arms against it; and after meeting with a. rebuff in 
the kingdom of Judah, joined battle with the Babylonians 
under Nebuchadnezzar at Charchemish, was defeated, and 
driven out of Asia. It was immediately after this that tha 
Chaldeans marched upon Jerusalem, dethroned the king whom 
the Egyptians had set up, and carried away a great number of 
prisoners, among whom were Daniel and his three friends, 
Hananiah, Micliael, and Azariah. The conquest of Egypt 
seems to have been the crowning work of Nebuchadnezzar's 
active iifej and on his return to Babylon, that monarch appears 
to have spent the remainder of hia reign in improving and 
beautifying the city. Of the story of tbe Hanging Qardena, 
lamiliar to every reader, it is unnecessary to apeak ; the gran- 
deur of the city has been a constant theme for poets. 

The Cha]dieo-Bab3'lonian empire, comprehending all Western 
Asia, as far as tbe Mediterranean, never exceeded the limits it 
had atteined under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar, and on the 
death of its founder it began to decline. The book of Daniel 
relates how it fell under his third or fourth successor, before 
the assault of Cyrus the Mede. Xenophon gives ua the mili- 
tary details ; — 

"He eame at last to Babylon" (Institution, Book VII.), 
"bringing with him a mighty multitude of horse, a mighty 
multitude of aTchers and javelin men, but slingers innume- 
rable !" He made preparations as if to blockade it, and the 
"people," says the historian, "laughed," for they knew that 
they had provisions for twenty years. It was then that Cynia 

' Jcr. niv. 5^ iht. 12, Ezekie!, lil. 13. Dan. i. 1, 2, Diftd. BiO. 
b. ii. c. 13. Ptol. V. Juscph. i. Eiueb. ii. 


diseovered that great plan of ruining them which ha* always 
been 80 eelebrattd. 

" He, Cj-niB, dug round the tohU on every aide a rery great 
ditch, and they threw up the earth townrda tliemaelves. In the 
first place, he built the turrets oa the river, laying their foun. 
dations on palm trees that were not less than a hundred feet in 
length ; for there are some of them that grow to a yet greuter 
length than that; and palm trees that are pressed hend under 
their weight as asses do that are used to the pack-saddle. He 
placed the turrets on these for this reason, that it migM carry 
the strojiffer appearanes of hu preparing to block wp the city" 

Of course this stratagem diverted the minds of the citizens 
from his real design. Tliey laughed louder than ever — but — 
" the ditchei were noie jinithed," says Xenophon. 

The ditches lying there— gaping, as it were, like graves for 
the town — the Babylonians had a great festival. Cyrus, then, 
when it grew dark, " took a number of men with him, and 
opened'the ditches by the river. When this was done, the 
water ran off in the night into the ditches, and ike pauage of 
the city through ike river beeame passable." 

C)Tus raarcheii in — gained possession — and thus Babylon 
wa? taken, B.C. 538, 

Babylon now remained subject to the Persian power. The 
army assembled in the city, at the close of tlie year in which it 
was taken, consisted, according to Xenophon. of "120,000 
horses ; 2000 chariots armed with scythes ; and 60,000 foot." 
Cyrus's empire at thia period of glory was "bounded to the 
east," toquotethesame writer, " by the Red Sea : to the north 
by the Euiine (Black) Sea ; to the west by Cyprus and Egypt j 
to the south by Ethiopia." 

During the two centuries which had elapsed since the taking 
of the city by Cyrus, the Persian power had fliictuatj?d, and 
soon after his death there began dissension and degeneracy. 
Under Xerxes the Persians invaded Greece in th« most famous 
expedition of all antiquity, and were defeated and destroyed 
by land and seu — so that the attempt of their monarch became 
a proverbial illustration of the insanity of ambition. 

Babylon of course fell under tlie sway of the all-conquering 
Alexander. "He traversed the whole province of Babylon," 
laya Plutarch, " which immediately made its submission. It 


was in thia famous city that lie great hero died of a fever, 
brought on by eastern habits " 

Seleucua, to whom tell the province of Buhylon as his share 
of the conquests at his mastt^ soou remoied the seut of empire 
t« Antioch, and Babylon became only a distant and ineignifl^ 
cant fragment of tlie Eoman empire growing dimmer^ant 
dimmer in fume and importance until, it eventually ahar 
the fate of its sister Nineveh, and sunk beneath the Terf 
Burfuce of the earth . 

The foregoing historical alalract has been driwn up wJthOB 
any attempt to analyse the dynasttc lists found in Greek aa 
Annenian historians because we strongly felt the diffleolty ( 
arrivingatany just contluBions from tile data they have hai ' 
down to US. Nevertheless chronolog) is so essential a pari; i 
our histoiy, that its omission might be esteemed a mark i 
oarelesBuess : and with a Tiew theretore to obtain the 
possible information on this branch of onr subject we applic 
to OUT valued fnend Mr Samuel Sharpe, the learned atitha 
of "The History ot Egypt &e for assistance He al ( 
acceded to our request and we t»ke this opportunity of eX'- 
pressing our warm acknowledgments for his liberolity in 
placing at our disjosal the results of his diligent researchee, 
which appear in the important cl ronulogicol table and histo- 
rical sketch fornimg the loUowing cbaptor 




Tbe Assjrinit records hove Baved for iis the names of thirty- 
six kiogB ivho reigned iu T^'ineTeli, on the banka of tbe Tigrit:, 
tiefiire whut we must now consider the beginning of AsByriuQ 
biEtoiy. The lust of theae was Bardanapalua, wboae true naine 
was, perhapa, Asaer-Hadan-Ful, eyllablea which we shall find 
used in the names of many of the later kinga. Hia throne 
IB overturned by an inrasion of the Medes, a people who 


dwelt on llie shores of tha Caspiiin Sea, und who were sepK- 
rateil from the kingdom ef Nintvuh by the mountaiuB a 
Kurdistan, Arbates, king of the Medea, led his army acrM 
these mountains, und made himself kiug of Assyria in aboid 
B.C. 804. 

After the death of Arhacea, the Mede, the Assyrians 
able to make themselves again independent. The first of th 
new line of kings was Put. In hia reign, Menahera, king 
Israel, was unwise enough to provoke a war with these neig 
hours. Tempted by tbe disturbed state of Assyria, in fi 
year s.c. 773, he led his army 300 miles northward, eiti 
conquering or passing by the king<lom of Syria; and th 
about 100 miles eastward to Tipsali or Tliapsacus, on the I 
phrtites, one of the nearest cities on that side of Assyria. ] 
was able ta conquer the place, and he put the inhabitants 1 
death with great cruelty.' But this was an unfortunate v' 
for the IsraetitcB, In the nest year Pu! marched in, hii ^^ 
into Samaria. The frightened Israelites could make no sun 
cient reeisCance, and they purchased a peace at the price c 
iboo talents of silver. With tbia booty Pul returned hom 
He reigned twenty-one years. 

[B.C. 753.] Tiglatli Pileaer, or Tiglath Pol Asser, thi 
king of Assyria, also found an excuse for invading Samaiu 
In the civil war between Israel and Judab, when tbe IsratditeC 
called to their help the king of Syria, whose capital was D» 
mascus, Aha2, king of Judah, sent a large sum of money W' 
purchase tbe help of the Assyrians from Nineveh. Tigtal& 
accordingly led the Assyrian army against Syria ; he o 
that country, conquered Damascus, aud slew Ileziu, the king.' 
He invaded the oountry of the Israelites, and so estirelv 
routed them, that he took from them the larger part at 
tlie kingdom. He then added to the .Assyrian empire, not 
only Syria, but tiilead and Kaplbali on the east of the Jordao^^ 
and Galilee to the north, leaving to the Israelites only thfi 
province uf Samaria. He carried his prisoners to tbe furthem* 
end of his own kingdom, and placed tbem on tbe banks of tb4^ 
river Kir, which flows into the Caspian Sea lat. 39'. Aba^' 
king of Judab, went in person to Damascus tA pay his homager 
to the Assyrian conqueror, and thauk him for his help,* 

' 2 £iDg>, IT. If. * 2 Eingii, xv. 29; zvL 9. 



By tins time we are able to mark the liraita of the great 
ABHyriiin empire. Nineveh, the oapital, was Bituated on the 
east bank of tho Tigris, a little above the point where the 
greater Zab falla into that river, and opposite to the modem 
city of Mosul. Near it were the cities of Eehoboth, and 
Culah, and Resen.' These cities together formed the capital 
of the upper part of the valley watered by the Tigris and 
Euphrates.' At this time the King of Nineveh held also, 
first, the mountains of Kurdistan, the country of the hardy 
Surds ; and, secondly, tlie country between Kurdistan and the 
Caucasus, being the valley of ttie rivers K.iri and Araxes, 
which rise iu the mountiuns of Armenia, and flow into the 
Caspian Sea. Tiglath was also master of the kingdom of 
Media, between Kurdistan and the southern end of the Caspian 
Sea, of the kingdom of Syria, which contained the sourees of 
the Euphrates and the valley of the Orontes, und of tlie north- 
ern part of Palestine. 

[b.c. 734,] Shalmaneser, the next king of Assyria, is also 
called Shalman by the prophet Hosea. In the ninth year of 
hia reign (b.c. 725), he led an army against the little kingdom 
of Israel, which was now reduced within the limits of Samaria. 
At the end of three years (b.c. 723), he wholly conquered this 
nnfortunate people, and carried away into captivity the chief 
men of the ten tribes. Ho placed them at Halah near Biue- 
veh, at Hubor on the river Gozan, and in some of the cities of 
the Medes.' He also conquered Sidon and Aere, and the island 
of Cyprus ; Tyro alone held out against a siege.' Shalmaneser 
reigned fourteen years, and died before this removal of the 
Israelites into captivity was completed. The prisoners were 
Bent home, says the prophet Uosea,* as a present to hia suc- 

[b.c. 720.] Sennaelierib, called Jareh by Hosea, succeeded 
Shalmaneser. He completed theearryingawayof the Israelites, 
and then invaded Judea, in the fourteeuth year of the reign 

' Oeneais, x. 11, 12. 

' Tliey mnj peihapB be identified with modem eitiei, thue : — 

Nuniit Eoajunjik. [ IteBun,, . .Nimroud (tbeLaritra of 

CJttlah Klinrsnbad. ] Xennption. tho Niaeish 

Rohoboth Mosul. 1 afSttabo). 

' 2 Ejngi, iriii. 11. ' M«naiicior, in JosepliuB. ' Chap, i, 6. 


of king Hezekiah (b.c. 714). He marched without interrup- 
tion through Galilee and Samaria, which were now provinces 
of ABsyria. Hia troops entered the country of Benjamin at 
Aiatfa and Migron. He laid up hia carriages at Michmash as 
he came upon the hiil country around Jerusalem. The peopla 
£ed at his approach, and all resiatance seemed hopeless. While 
Sennacherib was near Lachish, besieging that oity in person, 
Hezekiah sent messengers to beg for peace and to make terms 
of submission. The haughty conqueror demanded 300 talents 
of silver, and 30 talents of gold, a sum so large that Hezekiah 
had to take the treasures from the temple to enable him to 
pay it,' 

In the meantime, Sennncherih sent port of his army souHM 
ward, under the command of Tartan, against the cities « 
tlie coast. In passing by Jerusalem, Tartan endeavoured tt(l 
persuade the people to open the gates, and assured theni 
that it was in vain to look for help from Egypt. He made 
no attempt to stflrm the pity ; but moved forward, laid siege 
to Azotus in due form, and soon made himself master of the 

When Sennacherib had made terms with Hezekiah, he led 
his army against Egypt, provoked by the news tliat Tirhakah, 
the Ethiopian sovereign of that country, was marching to Out . 
relief of the Jews, He passed througli the desert, along U 
coast, and arrived at Felueium, the frontier town o 
easterly branch of the Nile, Here he was met by ai 
army, under the command of Sethos, a priest of MemphiB. ' 
But before any battle took place, some unknown cause had 
scattered and routed the Assyrians ; and while the Jews gave 
glory and thanks to JehoTah for their deliverance, the Egyp- 
tians set up a statue in the temple of their god PLh^ in 

Sennacherib himself escaped alive and returned home to 
Hineveh, but he was probably at the end of his reigo less 
powerful than at the beginning ; and Jlerodach-baladnTi, who 
was then reigning at Babylon, may have felt himself too strong 
to be treated as the vassal of Nineveh. Merodach made a 
treaty with Hezekiah, king of Judah,' which oould hardlr 



have been agreeable to Sennacherib. The latter years of Sen- 
nacherib's reign were probably employed in wars with Baby- 
lon against Merodach and his suceeasora; till, when old, as he 
was worahipping in the temple of tho Assyrian god Nisroch, 
he was murdered by two of his sons, Adrammeleoh and 
Sharezer. But they gained nothing by their crime. They 
Lad to flee from punishment, and they escaped over the north- 
ern frontier into Armenia, a mountainous country that had 
been able to hold itself independent of Assyria. Eaarhaddon, 
his third eon, then gained the throne of Ifineveh.' Senna- 
cherib had reigned for perhaps thirty-aeven years over Assyria, 
Media, Galilee, and Samaria, and probably held Babylon as a 
dependent province, governed by a tributary monarch. 

[B.C. 683.] The date of Esarhaddon's gaining the throne of 
Nineveh is uncertain, but the time that he became king of 
Babylon is better known, for in the. year b.c. 680, he put an 
end to a line of kings, who had reigned there for sixty-seven 
years.' Towards the end of his reign, he had occasion to 
punish Bome act of disobedience on the part of Manasseh, king 
of Judah. He sent an army against hira, and carried him 
prisoner to Babylon ; but, after a short time, he releaaed him, 
and again seated him on the throne of Jerusalem. ° Esarhad. 
don reigned perhapa aixteen years. 

[b.c. 667.1 Sardochieus, the next king, reigned over Ni- 
neveh, Babylon, and Israel for twenty years ; and over Media 
also, till that country revolted in the thirteenth year of his 
reign, b.o. 665. Media, imder Phraortes and his successors, 
remained independent for one hundred and twenty-eight years. 
The bright days of Kineveh's glory were already past. 

[b.c. 647.] Chyniladan reigned twenty-two years; hut, 
during this latter reign, Assyria was still further weakened by 
the loss of Babylon, which then fell into the hands of the 
Chill dees. 

The Kurds, a hardy race who inhabit tho monntaina of Kur- 
distan, between Nineveh and Media, are thought with some 
prebobility to be the peojile who, nnder the name of Chaldees, 
now made themselves masters of Babylon. In the j'car b,c. 

' 2 Zings, liL 37. 

' Ptolemy's Canun, and Lliat of Sjncclliu, in Cory'B " Frngincnts." 

' 2Cbron. ixiut. 11. 

625, their leader, Hahopolassar, waa king of that eity, and of 
the lower half of the yallcy of the Tigris and Euphrates. 
Two years later, he marched northward against Nineveh. The 
prophet Nahum. describes his storming and sacking that famous 
capital. Nineveh fell before the rising wealth of Babylon, a 
city three hundred miles nearer the sea, as Egyptian Thebes 
had already sunk under the cities of the Delta.' 

In this falling state of the <:ountry, while Media was inde- 
pendent, and civil war was raging between Nineveh and Baby- 
lon, Assyria waa further weakened by an inroad of the Scy- 
thians. These roving Tartars, passing the Caspian sea, whether 
on the west side or east eide is doubtful, first came upon the 
Medes, and wholly routed the army which Cyasarea, the king, 
sent against them. They then crossed Mesopotamia, laying 
waat« the country as they passed. They met with no resist- 
ance in Judea; but theirnumbers lessened under the hardshipi 
of their march. Psammetjchua, king of Egypt, waa able t» 
turn them aside from entering that country, and those that 
remained perished, as they marched northward, on the east 
shore of the Mediterranean.' 

On the conquest of Nineveh by Nabopolassar, the city was 
by BO means destroyed. It probably shared, with the rising 
Bab}'lon, the favour of the soTereign, who is still sometime* 
styled the king of Aasyria.' It was probably then that the 
Book of Jonah was written.' The Jews had expected that 
Nineveh, the great enemy of their nation, would have been 
wholly and for ever destroyed ; but Assyria is no longer un-- 
friendly to them, and the purport of the Book of Jonah is ta 
explain the justice of God's government in sparing that great 
city, which had repented of its enmity, and should now find 
favour in their sight, Josinh. king of Judah, finds a friend 
and protector in Nabopolassar, King of Assyria. 

Modem research has not yet helped us to understand ths 
ancient authors in tlieir description of Nineveh. It» walls 
surrounded a large space of cultivated land, and probably e 
braced what we may call several towns witliin their circuit. 

' C. Ptolemy, in Cory's " Frngmenls." ' Herodotus, i. 103. 

' 2 KingH. uiii. 29. 

* About one bamired and fifty years after tlie prophet liimsolf lived. 

A SKKTcn OF AsarniAN historv. 83 

Biodorua Sieulus (ii. 3) says that it was 480 stadia, or 48 En- 
glish miles round. The Boot of Jonah tells us that it was a 
great city of three days' journey, by which the writer seems 
to mean that it was a journey of three days to pass through 
the city ; but he adds rather more exHctly, that it held within 
its walls cattle for its maintenance, and a population of more 
than. 120,000 persons, who, in their heathen ignorance, he 
said, did not know their right hand from their left. Its pa- 
laces were, no douht, chiefly buiit in the reigns of Shahnan- 
eser, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon ; hut it is not impossible 
that it may have been farther ornamented with buildings and 
Bculjitures by Nabopolassar. 

These civil wars between Nineveh and Babylon may have 
given encouragement to Necho, liing of Egypt, to push his 
arms eastward, and to claim authority over Samaria and Judea. 
But Josiah, king of Judali, was true to the Babylonians. 
"When Neoho landed on the coast, and marched northwards 
towards the Euphrates, Josiah led an army against him. But 
the Egyptians were victorious; Josiah was slain at Megiddo, 
and Jenisulem and the whole of Palestine was in the power of 
the Egyptians, who set up a new king over Judah. A few 
years later, however, Nabopolassar again reduced the Jews to 
their former state of vassalage under Babylon.' 

Nabopolassar was now old, and his son Nebuchadnezzar 
commanded for him as general, and carried on the war against 
the Egj-ptians oa the debateable ground of Palestine. After 
three years Neeho again entered the country, and marched as 
far as Carchemish, on the Euphrates. Here he was wholly 
defeated by the Babylonian army under Nebochadnezzar.' By 
this great battle the Babylonians regained their power over 
Jerusak'm, and drove the Egyptians out of the country. 
Bebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon the Jewish nobles, 
and Judea remained a province of that great monarchy. 

In B.C. 605, Nebuchadnezzar suceecded to his father, and 
governed that kingdom in his own name, which he had 
hitherto been enlar^g as a general. He fixed his seat of 

> 3 Kinp, iJLiii. 29. 

' 2 Kings, iiLV, 1. 2 Chron, XMT. 20; sisvi. 1. BerosuB in Ju- 

government at Babylon, a city whith. soon became as large a 
Nineveh, which it had orerLhrown. Jerusiilem twice rebelled 
against him, but he easily reduced it to obedience, although 
on the second rebeUion Hophra, king of Egypt, cams 
help the Jews. Nebucbaduezzar defeated the Egyptia 
took away from tiem evtry posaession that they had held il 
Palestine, Arabia, or the island of Cyprus. He died in tht 
forty-ttiird year of his reign,' 

[b.c, 662.] After the dtath of Nebuchadnezzar, four olhet 
liiiigR of less note reigned over Babylon, and held Nineveh. 
But the Median power was now rising. The Medes were is 
close alliance wilh the Persians, and the young Cyrus, at tha 
head of the united armies, routed the Babylonians in seyeral 
battles, and at laat conquered Babylon, and put an end to tba 
monarchy. After a lew years, Cyrus united the kingdoms of 
Media and Persia, by right of inheritance ; and he thui. 
(B.C. 536) added to the land of his birth the whole of the pos- 
sessions which had heea held by Sennacherib, and more t" 
tinwe of Nebuchadnezzar. 

Notwithstanding its oouqueat by Persia, Babylon oontinuej 
a large city, being still the capital of the plain watered by tl 
Tigrifl and Euphrates. Though no longer the seat of govcnt- 
ment, it was still the seat of trade, and of great importance 
when visited by Alexander, on his overthrow of the Persian 
monarchy in the year b.c. 324. Alexander died there, and 
on the division of his wide conquests among bis generals. 
Babylon in a few yeara became the kingdom of Seleucua a 
his successors. This city of Nebuchadnezzar was now to & 
yet lower. It was governed by Greeks, and Seleuoug foui. 
Syria the most suitable province in his empire for the capitd 
Accordingly, he built Autioch, on the Orontes, for the sea 
his government, and Seteucia, on the Mediterranean, as 
port of that new city, and Babylon never rose again to I 
place of importance. 

The chronology of the times that we have been describiiL 

from Pul, king of Assyria, to Cyrua, king of Persia, will i 

better understood by the help of the following Table. By t 

%dB are written the years before our era ; at the top are i 

' BoroEUE in Joscpliue. 2 Kings, xxv.S. 


names of tlie countries ; anil from the whole we are enahled 
to see at a glance the width of kingdom under euch Bovereign. 
Wlien the wedj^e-shaped charactfira shall huve heen more cer- 
tainly read by the able decipherers now engaged on theia, wo 
shall no longer he at liberty to guess by what kings the 
palaces of NiueTeh were built aud omamenttd. In the 
meantime, it seems reasonable to suppose that it was during 
those years wlien the nation's energy was shown in its 
widtk of empire, that it was also engiiged on its largest, most 
costly and most Insting buildings. Success in arms is usually 
followed by success in arts ; and the size of the palace bears 
e proportion to the size of the kingdom. 

Among the Assyrian aeulptured monuments 
there lias been found a small ivory slab, or 
lid of a bos, ornamented witb Egyptian sculp- 
ture and rudely carved hieroglyphics (Fig. 13). 
Tliia naturally leads ua to enquire when and how 
far one of these nations was indebted to the 
I ? BU other for its knowledge of art. 
L r ll ''-'^'^ ^''^^ trace of Egyptian fashion in Nineveh 

" is in the name of King Tiglath Pileaer. Of this 
the latter half is formed of the Assyrian words 
Pul and Asser; but the first half is borrowed 
from the name of King Tacelothe, who reigned 
in BLibastis one hundred and fifty years earlier. 

*'";„o^i"^''Mt'"' ^" ^^^ ^""^^ """y ^^^ ^'^^ ^'^^ °f t**^ names of 
Kebo-pulussar, snd Nebochednezzar, is perhaps 

from the Egyptian word Neb, lord; which is nlao seen in 
the name of Neho. Again, when Hameees II. 
marched through Palestine, he left behind 
him sculptured monuments in boast of his 
victories. One of these is still remaining ia 
Sj'ria, near Beyrout ; and when the Assy. 
rian conqueror (perhaps Sennacherib, or 
perhaps the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar) 
afterwards marched through the same 
country he carved a yet larger monument, 

rig. It.— HiiD or on the face of the rock beside that of it-i- 
oisDB. meses, in imitation of the Egyptian but ia 

such less convenient place as was left for him. (Seo 



TTOod-cut, fig." 30, Nahr-al-Kelb monument.) Again, on a 
monument at PersepoliB, tlie Bculptured figure of Cyrus, 
the Pursian" king, bears an Egj'ptian head-dress (Fig. 14), It 
has horns copied from those of the god Knef, and above the 
horns are two basilisks or sacred serpents. 

These instances, taken together, are enough to prove that 
Egj-ptian fashion and Egyptian art were copied by their eastern 
neighbours ; and this is yet further shown in more modern 
cases. The namea of Soter, Philadelphus, and Euergetes, 
when used by kinga in Asia, had always been fy"'^ 
alreai^y used by kings of Egypt. The Egypt- \\^ j>] 

Jans seem in every case to have set the fashion l» fftni r 
to their neighbours, and were far before the I 9 O L.cL 
Assyrians in skill as artists. *'is- i6- — »""« 

This ivory slab of which we have been 
speaking, bears thename of Aoheno lla, written in hierogly- 
pliics, within a ring or oval, in the usud style of an Egyptian 
king's name. This is, however, not a king's _ 
name, butonlytheeastemwayof pronouncing the 
name of the god AmunfRa. On a mummy-case, 
in Dr. Lee's museum at HartweU, the name 
of the god ia written Obcn-Ila (Fig. 15) under a 
large disc or figure of the sun, as the head of 
the inscription (Fig. 15). The style of this 
mummy-case makes it probable that it was made 
at Uemphis, under the rule of the Persians, and 
no doubt at a time when those conquerors had 
introduced their^ own eun-worahip and pronunci- 
ation. On the sarcophagus of Amyrtteus, one of 
the Egyptian kings who rebelled successfully 
against the Persians, the name of the god is 
also spelt Oben-Ka (Fig. 16). (See Egyptian 
Inscriptions, plate 30.) These two instances of 
the use of this name, prove ita meaning on the 
ivory slab from Nineveh, while the last, which 
was Bculptured about B.C. 450, would lead us j.j j,, _ob„. 
to think the ivory slab not much, older. b». 

Tradition tells us that the city of Balbec, near Damas- 
cus, was ornamented with a temple to the Sun by a king of 
Aasyria who held Syria, and waa friendly to Egypt, from 


which country ho n-flfl wiUing to copy his custonia and re]i|^on. 
la Egyptiau Ueliopolis he fuimd a god bo like his own that he 
copied hia statue for his own temple ia Syria.' The city re- 
ceived an Egyptian name, Balbec, ths eity of Baal, from £aki, 
the Egyptian for cily, and was hy the Greeks afterwards called 
HeliopoUa, when the latter tempb was there built. " 
builder of this earlier templo can be no other than. TiglaQl J 



HAvme in the previoua sectianB aketehed the labonra of 
Rich, Botta, and Layard, and gone over such recordB, scriptural 
and classical, as are left to us of the early history of the 
Assyrian empire, it may now be desirablo to trace the genend 
topographical Deatuies of the locoU^ nhere the modeiii 

seareheB have been made for the discovery of the buried 
— Nineveh. 

Flowing down the eidcB of the raoantnins in which it 1 
its riae, the Tigris still for a while meanders at their baso, and 
then being enlarged by the tributary waters of the Peeoha- 
beur, it washes the western extremity of the mountain of 
GakA. From this point it atretthes away from the hills in 
■which it had its birth, leaving between them and itaelf a plaii 
which gradually widens, until, opposite Mosul, it shows a 
broad expanse. 

This plain is far from presenting the flat alluvial character 
offered by Mesopotamia in the lower port of the course of the 
Euphrates and the Tigris ; it is, on the contrary, extremely 
undulating, and deeply furrowed by the water-courses which, 
running down from the mountaias and following the general 
inclination of the ground, flow towards the river. The prin- 
cipal of thene streams is the Kliauser, which rises in the moun. 
tains, to the north of M<>sul, sud empties'itself into the Tigris 
after having traversed the boundaries of the ancient walls of. 
Hineveh itself. 

The town of M6sul is situated on the right shore of tha 
Tigris, being distant 190 miles eoulh-eaat of Siarbekir, and 
220 W-N-W. of Baghdad. Colonel Chesney informs na that 
the average width of the river, from Miisul to Baghdad, is 200 
yards, with a current, in the spring seaaon, of about four miles 
and a quarter an hour. 

It will greatly facilitate the subjoined description if thB 
reader will at once fancy himself transported to the city of 
MiSsul. He is invited tliither, not to gaze on its old wallv 
which withstood the fierce Baladin's hosts; nor its street^ 
which Genghis Khan once deluged with blood ; nor to watdit 
the many caravans which enter and emerge by its eight gates} 
nor to mark the manners of its large and motley population ^ 
but as MiSsul, the starting point of Assyrian research, 
will therefore at once cross the Tigris, here 400 feet wide, bjr 
the ricketty bridge of boa1«, and thus gain the eastern side «[ 
the river. 

Arrived here, the first objects that strike us are two shapes 
less mounds, standing duo north and south of each other, on ft 
level tract, and separated by the Khauser, a mere rivulet. They 
are the mounds of £ouyunjik and Nebbi Yunis: these 


emlnenceB being connected on the side nearest the TlgriB by a 
rampart and fosse, which run beyond them, turn to the eaat, 
and circumscribe un area having the form, of an oblong square. 
The rampart coneists of aun-dricd brick and earth. It varioa 
in height from ten to twenty feet, and haa here and there been 
broken through, but continuous traces remain, the whole 
hearing a striking resemblance to the Boman entrenchments 
still extant in our own country. 

Tlie mound of Ehorsahad is situated about 14 miles N.E, of 
Mosul,' on the left bank of the little river Ehauaer, and about 
8 miles S.S.E. of Miiaul lies the mound of Himroud, both 
mounds being visible, through a telescope, from the loftiest 
bouses in Miisul. A fourth mound, Earamles, is as far north 
from Niraroud as Ehorsabad is from Miiaul ; but olthough 
Assyrian remains are known to exist there, tlie mumid haa 
hitherto been only slightly examined. 

We will now proceed to" the mound of Khoraabad, distin- 
guished as that in which the first Assyrian building was dis- 
covered. Lying some distance on one side of the principal 
route which leads from M63ul to Diarhekir, it is not surprising 
that the village of Khuisabad, trom its situation and slight 
importance, had received but little notice from European in- 
■yestigators. Chance seems to have conducted Mr. Eich there, 
during a jonmey wliich he made from Misul to the convent of 
Babban-Orjnnzd ; and after visiting the ruined convent of 
Mar-Matteh, he regained the plain by traversing the first chain 
of hills which separate the waters of the Gomel from those of 
the Khauser. Following the base of the hills, he says lie saw 
several mounds situate near each other, and particularly one of 
considerable size with a flat top. There is little doubt but this 
was the mound of Khorsabad, for the village, called by Mr, 
Kich, Iman-Fadla, is certainly the Tillage of Fadlieh, situated 
at the foot of the mountain at half a league from Khorsabad ; 
the position of the place, the mention made of gardens in this 
locality, and still more, a comparison of the names, all concur 
in confirming the surmise. 

Niebuhr, also, followed the route of the Pesert to the west of 
the Tigris, on his way from Miiaul to Mardin ; he, conse- 
quently, did not pass near Khorsabad ; nevertheless tlie name 

1 Batta's Letter) od NineTsh. 

of thia village did not escape his researches, which ■ 
BO precise and exact : in his list of the yillagea situated to the 
north of MAsul and ta the east of the river, ia found the naina 
of Ehadabad, ouc of the Tariants still in for Khor»abad. 
This latter name, in fact, not being Arabic, and suggesting no 
meaning to the inhabitants, ia written and pronounced by tbem 
very variously.' According to them, the word means datnll- 
vig of the aid, a term which perfectly agrees with the insalu- 
brity of the neighbourhood. 

Two roads lead from Mi5siil to Khorsabad, passing north 
and south of Kouyunjik. In following the Borthem rente, it 
is necessary to traverse the Ehauser near its motitb, and then 
to recroaa it a little distance from KliorHabad. This passage, 
which is not always easily effected during t])e floods, is avoided 
by keeping on the left bank of the Khauser, to the south of 
Kouyunjik; and this route was that which Botta generallf 
took. The traveller enters the boundaries of old Nineveh by 
one of the cuttings made through the wall between the village 
of Niniouah and the roound of Eonyunjtk; and emerges from 
thence at the very point where the river, turning round tha 
mound, cuts the eastern rampart to penetrate the enclosed 
space : a few remains of masonry in the bed of the river at thit 

on the la." Yacoud, in tia Turkish Oiographicol LictioHary, lam "ThU 
is u vilUge \o the east or the Tigris, fotmine a portion of the diBtrict of 
Ninioua. Water is plentiful there, and there are namerons eardenl 
watered with the suiplivs of the waters of the Kas-GtNa'aur, which n*r 
called Jari'at. In Ihie neighbourhood there ia a ruiacd ancient atb 
called Saro'&n." With regaid to this city of Ssro'un, Yaconti ipeaki of ii, 
in the aame dictionary ae follows: — "Saro'fta with a falAa on the mi4 
and a ii/uwi on the m, was an ancient ctly in the diBtrict of Niniona, 
and the heat of the district of Mbsul. It is mined ; ancient treaauna 
are believed to eiiit there, and some individuals are said to have found- 
sufficient to satiary them. There ia a story on the suhjeet of this tawl; 
meationcd in the ancient chroniclea." It was Rawlinson who pointed ont 
this cuciaUB citation, which is all the more interesting, hecanse, whila 
fixing the real □ithograpfay of the name of KhorGahad, it proves the hlao- 
neu of an etymology already prapOBed, tbe hiatorical consequences ofwhidl 
were of some importance. The name of Khouroutbad might very well bt 
decomposed into Ekourom and obad, and tiius signify the dwelling of 
Cjrui; but the presence of a ( anil ai in Khouniatabaz re»durs thia deri- 
vation impossible. As to the eiiBtonca of an anuient town named Saro'QA 
on this spot, the present is not a fitting time to diicuiw the questioa. 



spot tcould aeem to indicate tbe ancient existence of a bridgG, 
' or rather of some work destined to support tlm continuation of 
the wall, but allowing at the eame time a iree passage for the 
water. From this point the road turns gradually to the north, 
, pantile! with the left bank of the Eliauscr, and then, after 
I having traversed a deep rariDO, which ultimately joins the 
' river, it eeparatea from the road to Bachika, at the foot of 
', the eminence on which the mined village of Uachemich is 
j situated. 

At the base of the elevations by which the road is bounded 

I on the east, are remarked those maaaes ot concretions considered 

' by Mr. Kich to he the remains of ancient maionry. On Uie 

) way from M6sul to Zakho masses of eongluo^erations precisely 

similar are found in the ravines which cut the plain tjans- 

versely as they descend from the mountains , and there is no 

reasou for believing that the origin of those which border ihe 

valley of the Khauaer is different. 

From the village of Hachemich up to Eborsabad, the road 
presents nothing remarkable ; it gradually Hears the chain of 
, the mountains, by traversing a vast undulated plain. 'Die 
Boil of this plain is capable of cultivation, but not a single 
tree breaks the mouotouy of it; and as soon as the sun, whose 
power is in this country felt at a very early period of the 
year, has dried up the vegetation, nothing can be more mourn- 
ful to behold, or more wearisome to travel across, than this 
I long succession of fields lying fallow or despoiled of their 

The road, after passing the bed of a torrent, rises gradually 

by a gentle undulation. On arriving at the highest point, 

I the traveller, for the first time, perceives Eborsabad, situated 

I in a plain comparatively very low, the verdure of which, in 

I summer, forms an agreeable contrast with the general aridity 

I of the country ; be then descends int« the plain, and soon 

penetrates into the ancient fortified enclosure by passing an 

opening through which a little stream Hows forlli ; lastly, ho 

I crosses the murshy land which occupies a large portion of tlie 

space contained within the old wall, and reaches the village, 

which, before Bottu's researches, was built upon the very 

summit of the mound. 

! Travelling thus from Uiisul to Eborsabad, it is remarkable 

that Qo truKi of the wuU wliieh, aucordlng to histurJuae, suf- 


94 LOOiLiTY OP snonsisiD. 

rounded Nineveh, is any where visible, Neither on the ofhar, 
route wliich. leads from Mosul to Khorsabad, by pusEing to the 
north of Kouyimjik, can any trace of the ancient wall be met 

" It IK," Bays Botta, " a well-known fact, that walls of 
baked bricks, auch as those which must have Burrounded 
Nineveh, leave behind them traces which, in some degree, are 
indelible; vre have a proof of this at Mosul itself, when< 
those which formed tlie enclosure of Niuevah 
perfectly distinct, and could not be mistaken by any one^ 
Since, then, no similar vestiges are found further on, we must 
conclude that the enclosure in question was that of the oitf^ 
itself, and that the palace of Ehursabad was placed at a great 
distance beyond it." How far subsequeut diacoverieB confirm 
this opinion we will not now stay to inquire ; but one word 
may be said ad interim. Kliorsubad, if a chief palace of tbfl: 
lords of Nineveh, would doubtless be witliin the boundaries of 
that great city in days when, to bo isolated, was to be is 

'■ The low ground in the middle of which Shorsobad is 
aituated is open completely to the west only ; to the south it 19 
bounded by the elevation of tho plain ; to the east arise tho 
calcareoua mountains separating the basin of the Tigris front 
the valley of Gomel ; and to the north stretches a chain of 
hills, through which the Khanaer pasaps. Towards thi 
only can the eye wander without hindrance over the plain 
watered by the Tigris, beyoad which are aeen the 1 
where dwell the Yezidis." 

" The low position of the ground, and the great quantitr of' 
streams which unite there, afford the inhabitants of Khorsabad 
great facilities for watering their plantations — a circumstance 
which accounts for the verdure of this little canton in the 
midst of the general aridity. Unfortunately the lowntss 
the position, so advantageous for uultivation, is attended far 
the evils inseparable from it in a hot climate ; for the supeiA 
fluous waters not finding an easy means of exit, form marshet' 
in the enclosure, and at different points round about thff 
mound, rendering the air, during tlie summer, very unhealthy. 
This insalubrity ia still more increased by the bad quality dt 
the water for drinking 1 but, in spiteof this evO, we cuneasili 
suppose that Uie plentiful supply of water was ewa of 


motiveB 'wliicli induced tlie kings of Assyi'ia to build at 
Khorsabad ao considerable a palace." 

The architecture of the Assyrians, as illustrated in its only 
relics, cannot be understood without some preliminary reference 
to the nature of the mounds on which the edifices were built. 
If the strongholds, palaces or temples were to be distinguished 
from the humbler dwellings around, it became essential to 
place them upon imposiiig sites, such as nowhere appeared in 
the broad expanse between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, 
and the boundaries farmed by the Armenian muuutaina. In 
the absence, therefore, of natural elevations, it became neces- 
sary to resort to art, and hence the origin of those vast sub- 
structures which arrested the attention of Xenophon, and 
which still astonish the traveller by their extent and solidity. 

As no mound has hitherto been, so fully explored as that of 
Khorsabad, and moreover, since no other gives us so much 
iusight into the plan of the cities, as well as the temples of 
the Assyrians, a description of its eonfiguration and structure 
will best give an idea of all the mounds. 

The following are the dimenflions of this double mound, 
taken as correctly as the unequal inclinations and the irregu- 
larities would allow : — 

Length from notth-w«9t to Boiith-esst . . . 97S feet. 
Brcadtli of the Isrga rectangle .... 975 „ 

Bieadtb of the litUe rectangle 6a0 „ 

The common summit is nearly flat, although not everywhere 
of the same level. Thenorth-west portion is the more elevated, 
and always preserves the same height. Within a line which, 
would pass over the mound, and sever the two mounds, the 
level gradually sinks towards the east, so that the south-east 
side is much lower than the north-west. About the middle 
of the south-west side, in the right angle formed by the junc- 
tion of the two portions, there is a little cone, which is the 
most elevated point, and commands all the other parts of the 
surface. Tbe isolation of this mass, in the midst of the plain, 
rendered its aspect sufEiciently imposing ; but' it is impossible 
to give the exact elevation : Botta says that it exceeded 40, 
and certainly did not exceed 61 feet in height. This cone is 
surmounted by a small square tower, altogether modem, and 
diffeiing in nothing from the actual style of buildings now in 
uae in tbeee farta. 

of the greatest fi-eehneaa giiahea forth in abundance ; this water, i 
according to the inhahitante, is much more healthy thaa that I 
in the neighbourhood. It has a tast« elightly eulphorouB. I 
The fact of the above-mentioned stone at the bottom of tha | 
well iuduuea the belief in its antiquity ; for it is a trouble that 



no one in these coTintries would take now-a-days. It is pos- 
aible that the ancient inhahitants, like the preaent onea, 
helieving io tbe salubrity of this water, thought of bringing 
it by u subterranean conduit from tho adjacent moutitain. 

The Bummit of the mound offers nothing worthy of atten- 
tion ; tbe village, placed upon tbe highest portion, and em- 
bracing the large cutting of tbe noith-west side, covered most 
of tbe ruins; the largest level part of it, which gently alopes 
down towards tbe interior of the enoloauro, was cultivated, 
and differed in nothing from the soil of the neighbourhood. 

Besides the mound of Kliorsabad, £otta distinctly traced 
the walls of an enclosure forming nearly a jwrf'ect square, two 
sides of which are 6750 feet, the other 5400, or rather more 
than an English mile each way, all the four angles being right 
angles, which face the cardinal points. (See Tig. 19.) One of 
its sides extended in a line drawD from the north to the west 
comers of the large mound, so that it would have cut off the 
smaller mound, had it not been broken into, so as to allow thu 
small mound, with its palace, fo rise in the gap. It is pro- 
bable that at tbe points where the line seems to be interrupted, 
tbe city wall was turned, so as to run round the lesser mound, 
as it is impossible to suppose that the palace was left the most 
esposed part of the city. 

The fortified enclosure of the mound of Ehorsabad forms a 
large and very regular square; the wall surrounding it, and 
which looks Ijke a long tumulus of a rounded shape, is sur- 
mounted, at irregular intervals, by elevations which jut out 
beyond it, inside as well as outside, and indicate the existence 
of small towers. , (See Fig. 19.) 

From the northern angle the wall stretches very regularly 
to the south-east, becoming more elevated and distinct ; as we 
advance, it assumes the aspect of a large causeway, a great 
number of fragraonta of bricks and gypsum being observable 
on tbe soil. At 490 feet irom the angle a wall springs out to 
the exterior, runs to the north-euat, and terminates in a 
rounded eminence, which seems to point out the place of a 
tower; there is a similar, but more considerable eminence on 
the boundary wall itself, Lastly, further on, a cutting is 
visible, through which a lazy stream, which here and there 
expands into a. marsh, penetrates into the interior of the ea- 
cloaure. The wall then continues in a straight line to the 


eastern angle, and is renartcBble for uothiag besides anotbe) 
tower ; the Dorth-eaatem aide has, therefore, three towers, i 
we include tliat which terminates the accessory walL BejonJ 
the cutting that affords a passage for the streamlet, the ei« 
terior ditch begins to be distinguished. On this base rit 
brick wall. As many as twelve regular layers of it i 
counted in a total heiglit of sb( feet and a-haif. These bride 
are similar in size to those composing the mass of the moun^ 
and they are not, any more than these latter, separated froa 
each other hy strata of reeda, nor uniti'd with bitumen no 
with any other kind of cement. 

The wall and ditch which form the south-eastern side Bf 
very disticet; but there is nothing else remarkable, except a 
external enlargement of the wall and two towers. 

Thesouthemangle, on coming up with the ditch, ceases to h^ 
distinct, bo that it appears to bound only two sides of the enolo- 
sure. At a short distance from the southern angle, the south'^ 
western side shows traces of some rather remarkable accessorf 
constructions. A wall springs out from it into the interior, ans 
forms a square. One of the sides of this square, in which M 
signs of any opening are Tisible, is formed by the wall of Uu 
enclosure itaeli', which is considerably widened at this poin^ 
and assumes the aspect of a mound, jutting out on the 61^ 
terior, sending into the plain two long prolongations or coun« 
terforts. This plan is very similar to that of the mound cr^ 
Khorsabad itself; and the resemblance would be complete, i 
the internal square, formed by the accessory wall, were fillei 
up instead of containing an empty space. Several excavatioai 
were made, but without success : all that was found wen 
some stones without any inscriptions or sculpture, and aom 
firagments of bricks. In its actual condition, it is impossibl 
to say what this kind of enclosure, without any outlet, i 
itself shut np in the great enclosure, could have been. 1 
south-western side of the latter contains nothing else remarlt* 
able, except two towers, placed so as to divide it into three 
pretty equal portions. There is also here another cutting, 
ihrough which the streamlet which enters the enclosure through 
the north-eastern side escapes. It is through this cutting thftt 
the road passes which leads from Mosul to Khorsabad. ~ 

Setting out from the weslem angle, the wall returns ti 
north-east, and forms a part of the north-west side; it g 

ad. ■ 

,ums to th^H 
t grudo&l^^l 


Binks towards its terminntion, leaving an opening between the 
mound and itself. Near its termination a email eminence 
points out the place of one more tower; and, lastly, there is 
a cutting. Through this a stream, which hranchea from 
the small river, and unites with the stream that traverses the 
enclosure. This Bame river runs parallel to th^ whole north- 
■weatem aide of the enclosure, gradually flowing nearer to 
it, BO as to pass very close to the western angle, round which it 
turns by making a slight hend ; it is a branch of the Na'our, 
and is employed in -watering the country, so that it is often 
dried up wlien its waters have been diverted upon the sur- 
rounding fields. 

It is evident from the description just given, that the out- 
ward wall of Khorsahad exhibits traces of eight towers. 
Jjeeides these, there are several similar mounds ecaltered here 
and there in the plain. Among others, one of considerable 
dimensions. The isolation and conical shape of these little . 
elevations do not allow a doubt of their artificial origin. They 
probably contain remains of ancient buildings. 

The openings which give access to the enclosure are five in 
number, and they are all situated in the nortb-weslem portion. 
Three of them seem to have been intended to afford the waler 
a free passage, but it is at present difficult to say whether they 
date &om ancient times, and are consequently part of the 
primitive plan, or not. If, as Botta supposes, this vast en- 
oloaure was destined to contain the gardens of the palace 
constructed upon the mound, we are justified in supposing 
that some of these cuttings were made in order to gire passage 
to the water necessary for horticultural purposes, and without 
vhich, in this country, vegetation is out of the question. 

The ground comprised within this vast enclosure is generally 
level ; at some points, however, where it is rather depressed, 
the waters collect and form swamps. The nature of the 
plants in these swamps indicate the presence of salt, and those 
portions of the soil wltich are dried up by the heat of the 
Bun during summer are covered with white efflorescences. 
It was this part of the road oonj;[H'iaed within the enclosure 
which oiTered the grealest obstacles in transporling the scuip- 
tures ; tor, although the ground appeared firm and sohd at 
the surface, at least during the hat season, it formed nothing 
I more than a thin crust, covering the water or mud, in n'hiuh 

i " 


the wheela of the waggon sank bo deeply, that the most bI 
I1U0U3 efforts were required to extricate them. 

The surrouading plain offers hurdlj- anything worth notion 
except that, opposite the mound, and on the right ehor 
the £hau8er, there are sooie undulations, which m&y indioatei. 
the existence of ancient ruiaa. 

Such is tiie actual condition of the mound, which serveB m 
abase for the palace of Khorsabad and of the wall intendei 
to enclose its dependenciee, Botta, being deceived by extenuf 
appearances, thought for a long time that the mound w. 
simply an accumuliition of earth which had been brought th«* 
for some purpose ; but excavations made at different plai 
showed that it was a, mass of bricks baked in the sun, a 
placed in regular layers. These bricks, unlike those baked i 
kilns, bear no inscriptiooB, nor are there any signs of cboppal 
straw visible in their composition ; the layers are nowhere sepK- 
rated, as at Babylon, by strata of reeds, nor are they united hf ■ 
any cement, either bituminoua or calcareous. The bricks at 
to be united merely with the same clay which was usad to m; 
them, so that they can be distinguished from the strata of Hi* 
soil by the regular and often diiferent- coloured lines, onljf 
perceptible on the aides of the opened trenchea; when t*"" 
sidea, however, have been a short time exposed to the aotii 
of the atmosphere and of the sun, these lines disappear, ai 
nothing is then left to distinguish these masses of unbur 
briekfl from the surrounding earth. 

It will be easy to conceive that umflas of earth, composed irf^ 
brick merely dried in the sun, would not long withstand the 
action of the elements and time. It would not be long before 
the upper part would wear down and spread over the plajn. 
To obviate this result, which would soon have assisted Jll~ 
the ruin of the palace, tlie mound woa sun'ounded with t 
strong supporting wall, which served as a coating to the mR| 
of bricks. This wail was constructed of blocks of a 
hard calcareous stone, obtained from the neighbouring i 

During the long succession of ages posterior to the r 
the Assyrian Empire, and the destruction of the Palaoa ^ 
Ehorsahad, the atone coating, in spite of its solidity, fell n 
eeaaarily into ruin, or was perhaps demolished, in order t' 
the remains of it might be employed fot othui purposes. 

SWiMFS. 101 

thing, then, any longer supporting tho masa of hricks, the 
upper portions, as a natural conseijiience, would cruratle away, 
and in this manner, doubtless, the slopes wcio formed. This 
natural operation may also have been hastened by the inha- 
bitants carrying away the earth to spread over their fields. 

The surrounding wall, 46 feet thick, consisted of a masa of 
unbumt bricks, supported on a base of stone rubbish, covered 
externally with a coating of calcareous stone. This basement 
was not high ; and the internal stone rubbish was composed 
of irregularly-shaped stones, piled together without cement. 
The blocks of the outward coating are cut only on their ex- 
ternal surfaee, and on the sides which touch each other; the 
surface nest to the rubbish is rough. 

The trench opened outaide the wall laid bare the ruins of 
another structure, which must have occupied the bottom or the 
external bank of the ditch. Perhaps there was a door at this 
Gpot, and the structure in question was the remains of a cause- 
way intended to serre as a means of passage across the ditch. 

This masa of unburnt brick wall was not buried suddenly ; 
it must have remained during several ages exposed to the ac- 
tion of the atmosphere and the rain, and have fallen to decay 
and sunk down gradually ; and this would have been the cose, 
also, with the great enclosure of Nineveh itself, which would 
likewise be subject to be carried away for agricultural purposes. 
To the gradual sinking of this earthen wall, which in some 
degree ehifted its base, is to be attributed its present engulph- 
ment, and the great breadth of the tumulus which marks its 
place. In proportion as the aummit was decomposed, the de- 
tritus grew up at the base, until the aummit was reduced to 
the level of the heaps of earth produced by tho decomposition 
of tho wall, and piled up on every aide. This natural dilapi- 
dation would then cease, and the last rows of bricks, being 
protected by the rubbish, are thus preserved up to our day, so it 
is not improbable, the great enclosure may have eluded the 
search of the explorers. 

On beholding these vast structures of brick, we naturally 
ask ourselves whence the earth employed to form them could 
have been procured ? The swamps in the enclosure, and those 
in the neigbbourhood, indicating, as tlicy necessarily do, depree- 
aions on the surface of the soil, appear to furnish ns with an 
answer to this question. These ewamps, it is true, ate n 



a-daya far {rom deep ; but it ia easy to conceive tbat they bars "^ 
been gradually filled up by tlio detritus of plante, and tbe accu- 
mulation of mud brought down by the various streams ; 
explanation which tho extreme antiquity of tht^se monuments 
reodcrB highly plausible. Besides this, the ditch, although 
hardly Tisible now, may formerly have been very deep, and the 
earth which wos taiieu out of it was, doubtless, enough to 
build the wall. It may be added that, at a little distance to 
the north of Khorsabad, there are vast moving bogs, which, ia 
all probability, also owe their origin to the estraction of the 
earth necessary to have made these bricks. 

We Bet out by stating that the mound of Khorsabad might 
be regarded as a geueral type of the artificial platforms of' 
the Assyrian plains. Having described that eminence in full, 
we will now give some account of the mound of Niraroud, the 
mine whence the Asajriun treuaures of our National Museum 
have been dug. 



} from Xhorsabad to MosuE, we will embark on a 
raft, to visit the great mound of Wimroud, and eoon reach the 
mound of Yarumjeh, ou the left buuk of tlie river; we shall 
stay only to notice that the flood-cmrent of the Tigris has 
made havoo with thiB mass, and cut it down to a precipice, 
exposing its artificial construction. Where the soil lias been, 
removed by the waters, remaiua of buildings are esliibited, 
such as layers of large stones, gome with bitumen on them, 
with a few burnt bricks and tiles. 

At about twenty-eight miles by the river, and twenty miles 
n direct distance, south, 12 E. below Nineveh, is the cele- 
brated dyke of solid masonry, called Zikru-i-aw4z, at that 



point which crosses the bed of the river. The stream, when 
full, rushes over this oliHtruction with great impetuosity, nnd 
ita roar may be heard for seferal miles. Seven miles lower 
down, there is another dyke, called Zikr Ismail, similar to the ' 
former, hut in a more dilapidated state. At the distance of 
about two miles and three-quarters 8,E. from Zikru-1-a 
are the ruins of H^imroud or Athur : they are about four miles 
in circumference, and are terminated at theN.W. angle by a 
great pyramidal mound, 144-j- feet high, and 777 in circum- 
ference, which was once coated with bricks. Some of these 
were found by Mr. Eith, who states that they are about the 
same size as those of Babylon, and are inscribed with arrow- 
headed characters. Here, ulso, ^r. Francis William Ains- 
worth discovered the foundations of some massive walls, which 
may possibly be those of the great city of Eesen,' placed 
between Nineveh and Calah, and which are still called aSUx 
"the mighty huntsman."' Aa the oonntry is in complete 
cultivation, these ruins have been nearly obliterated by the 
plough, and by the villages of the eullivators, so that it would 
he diffloult to ascertain the extent of the city. Tliere are fair 
grounds for supposing that Besen was identical with the La- 
risBa mentioned by Xeuopbon ;' the name, however, is Greek, 
and as there were no Greek settlements beyond the Tigris 
before the time of Alexander, Bochart judiciously conjectures, 
that when the Greeks asked the people of the country, " What 
city are these the ruins of?" they answered icn') La KeBsen, 
that is, of Rf sen, a word that might easily be softened by a 
Greek termination, and made Larissa. Taken aa an appel- 
lative, the word icn Resen signifies a bridle, or bit, that i 
restraint or curb on the neighbouring people, as a bridle ie 
an animal,' Xenophon describes the walls to have beea 
" twenty-five feet in breadth, one hundred in height, ™d two 
parasangas in circuit; all built with bricks, except the plinth, 
which was of stone, and twenty feet high. Close to the city 
stood a pyramid of stone, one hundred feet square, and two 
hundred feet high." Tbence they made, in one day's marofa, 
six parasangas, to a large uninhabited castle, standing near a 
town called Mespila, formerly inhabited also by Ifedes. Tbs 

' Qen. X. 12. ' Chcbney. "Siirtej' of Euphratos." 

Boysl Gods. Joiirn. tdI, ii. p. 35, and Bcqucl of GiinlinBOti'i notes. 
' Xetio|3iaa, Anab. bk. iii. * Xajlor oa Calintt, 


NiMBocn. — soTmjNJTK. — KAHiina;s. 105 


plinth of the wall was built with polished atone full of ahella, 
being fifty feet in hreadth, and ae many in height. Upon this 
stood a brick wall, "fifty feet also in breadth, one hundred in 
height, and sIk parasangoa in circuit." Ainaworth obserres, 
that the "conglomerate on which the walls of Nineveh are 
built, is like that of the Zab, a depoait of rolled pebblea of lime- 
atone, duallage rock, serpentine, hornblende rock, quartzes, 
jaspers, and Lydian atone." He BurmiBeB that, from the ele- 
vation of this deposit, it probably owes Ha origin to the break- 
ing down of a dyke, or of some natural resistance in the 
£urdiHtan mountains. 

The mound of Niniroiid is not less clearly defined than that 
of Khorsabad, which it resembles in the quadrangular form of 
•its line of conaecutive mounds. In the middle of the west 
aide of the mound is the celebrated north-weat palace, whence 
Layatd drew his atorea of treasure. Behind this, in the south- 
west angle, is the most recent palace hitherto laid open. It 
is principally built of slabs taken from previously existing 
edificea. In the next angle, and diagonally opposite to the 
pyramid at the north-west comer, ia an unintelligible building, 
nsually called, after the angle in which it was found, the 
Bouth-east edifice, A fourth building lies deep in the centre of 
the raound. Of these, the north-west is the only one which 
Las been explored to any extent. The shape of the platform is 
modified by three ravines which run into it — one between the 
Bouth-west and south-east edificea, a second to the north of 
the latter building, and the third immediately to the north of 
the old palace, a part of which has fallen into it. 

The construction of the mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebbi 
Tunis, in general, does not differ from those of Khorsabad and 
Nimroud, The former, also locally styled the Kaiah, or Castle 
of Minawe, rises steeply from the plain to the height of forty- 
three feet, and haa a level aummit, on which here and there an 
Arab cottage may be seen. This is one of the largest of the 
Assyrian mounds, having an extent of 7800 feet circumference. 
'When firat aeen it appeara to be a natural eminence ; bat on 
nearer examination traces of buildings are observable, and the 
vhole surface ia strewed with fragments of pottery, covered 
■with beautiful cuneiform writing, bricks, pieoea of pavement, 
and oocasionally aremnaat of a baa-relief. The southern mound, 
Ifebbi Tunia, or that of tha Tomb of Jonah, ia about fifty 

106 MUIDAllY OF 

feet in height, and extends 430 feet from east to ireet, by 3d$ 
feet from nortli t^ south. Hure etands a building, once a 
Christian church, dedicated Ui the divine messenger sent to 
Nineveh, but now a Mohammedan mosque, and reverenced as 
containing the tomb of the prophet. 

Itich states,' that " Bekir Effendi, when digging for stones to 
build tbe bridge of M^aul, found, on penetratiug into Kony- 
unjit, a sepulthra! chamber, iu which was an inscription ; and 
in the chamber, among rubbish and fragments of bone, the 
following articles : — A. woman's khalkhal, or ankle bracelet, 
of silver, covered witli a turquoise colonred rust ; a higil 
(another sort of anklet) of gold ; ditto, a child's; a bracelet 
of gold beads, qnile perfect ; Bome pieces of engraved agate." 
The gold and silycr were immediately melted down, the agates* 
thrown away, and the chamber broken up by the atones being 
taken out, and then buried in the rubbish. Such discoveries and 
dilapidations have continually been made ever since the destruc' 
tion of the city, but no account of them bus been preserved. 

The fourth locality, remarkable for its mound within tha 
supposed boundary of ancient Kineveh, is Karamles. No ex- 
tensive excavations, however, have been yet carried on in this 
mound ; but a platform of brickwork has been uncovered, and 
ita Assyrian character completely established by the inscriptions 

Layard's researches have satisfied him that a very con- 
siderable period elapsed between the earliest and latest build- 
ings discovered among the mounds of Nimroud. We inolina 
to this opinion, but differ from the surmise that the ruins of 
Nimroud and the site of Nineveh itself are identical. The 
dimensions of Nineveh, as given by Diodorus Siculus, were 
ISO stadia on the two longest sides of the quadrangle, and 90 
on the opposite; the square being 480 stadia, 60 miles; 
or, according to some, 74 miles. Layard tbiaka, that by 
taking the four great mounds of Nimroud, Eouyunjik, £hor- 
sahad, and Karamles, aa the comers of a square, the four sides 
will correspond pretty accurately with the 60 miles of the 
geographer, and the three days' journey of the prophet Jonah. 
It is worthy of remark, that just outside Lajard's bound- 
ary is a straight line of mounds, or hills, ext^Kling from ' 
£horsabad to three or four miles beyond Mar Daniel, the last 
> BicU'B Besiileace ia Kooidistaa, vol. i p, 136, 

r — 


eonspionoua elevation of the line. The words " Gebel Mek- 

loub," by which the range is designuted by the Arabs, meana 

the "overturned mountain," and is the same epithet which 

distinguishes a remarliable ruin in the plains of Babylon, 

called El Mugelebeb, in consequence of its presenting the 

appearance of being overturned. At the base of the range of 

hillB we are now speaking of, Bich describes m&ssea of iirti' 

ficial concrete, like buildings thrown down by an earthquake, 

I or by some besieging army ; and here we would place our 

boundary, induced by the singular coincidences of name and of 

the artificial structures described by Rich, but which appears to 

I have escaped the observation of more recent travellers. So fuU 

, of meaning is the phraseology of all eastern people, that such 

, coincidences are rarely accidental; and it would therefore 

I be highly desirable to make an examination of these masseB 

I of concrete at the foot of the range of the Gebel Mekloub, 

as well as of all places called " Tel," a word signiiying hiil 

both in Arabic and Hebrew,' The Wadi Jehennem, which 

signifies the " Valley of Hell," and the Wadi Jennen, "the 

Bewildering Valley," should also be examined, not only be. 

cause they are in the vicinity of ruing, but because also such 

epithets are rarely given by the Arabs without some reason. 

In the mean time, as we are desirous of accepting the concur- 

' rent testimony of bo many writers regarding the extent of 

Nineveh, we should be willing, in the absence of other data, to 

' adopt the area set forth by Mr, Layard, but for some objectiona 

that appear so insurmountable, as to induce us to ofi'er our 

own speculations on the subject. A reference to the following 

diagram, fig. 23, will most clearly illustrate our ideas. Having 

already premised that the extreme boundary wall of Nineveh 

is stated to have been a paraUelogrum, of which the sum of 

th« four sides was about 60 miles, we will now direct attention 

to the dotted line upon the map. 

Assuming Khorsabad to he the northern angle of the wall, 
■we proceed to run the boundary to the length of 18| miles ia 
the direction of Gebel Mekloub, which extends 16 miles to tha 
eastern angle ; wo then turn at a right angle, and run the 
boundary to the length of 11^ miles to the southern angle; 

' Ttl-ttbib, "Iiill of cora-eara." Eaelt. ii 
T6l-hBr>a, '■ hill at Iha forest," Ezra, ii. 69. J. Citiea in Eabjlon 
"■>-.-. t'hiilofBalt." £ara,r '" ' 

Iciii. Ifi.] 
»,ii. fi9.fCi 
a, il, £9.) 



whence we tnm again tn run the boundary of 18J- miles to ' 
tlie western angle ; and from thence we run the last lino of 
boundary until we reach our starting point at Khorsabad. 

The parollelogTam, or line of bonudary, being thna e 
pleted, we have now to ascertain how far it accorda with tha 
localities of the researchee ; and we find that it not only com- 
prehends the principal mounds which have already been \ 
examined, hut many othera, in which ruins are eiLher actually, 
or almost certainly, known to esist. No, 1 is Khoraabad. 
Following the line of the Oebel Uekloub, we find within the I 


KOTTtrag wiTsnf supposbd boukpart line. 109 

enclosure Nos. 2 and S, Sazani and Baabika, in close proximity 
to It village called Tel Billa, the designation Tel, hill, being, we 
think, a sure indication of an ancient site in a level country 
where every elevation is artificial. No. 4 is Ain Ea-sufra, 
ao called from its being the source of a yellow stream. No 5, 
Mar Daniel (Saint Daniel), a village or convent, built on the 
Gobel Jlekloub. No. 6, Tei^illa — probably Tel Gilla — from 
the easy mutation of r into I in the Arabic as well as in other 
languages, it would then possess the epithet which marks 
ruins— Tel~Ai«, Tel GUla. No. 7, Sheikh Emeer. No. 8, 
Kuramles, a known ruin, the largest mound within the enclo- 
sure, second in importance to the great nwund of Kouynnjik ; 
and here we should propose a mutation of the A in Earamles 
into the strong aspirate hh, which would indicate the site of 
some sacred structures. No. 9, £ara Eusb, also a known ruin. 
Kara in the Turkish means black, and seems in some way con- 
nected with ruins ; for in othur places where the word kara ia 
used, tliere are known to be ruins. No. 10, Earonmjeh, ruins 
known to eiistj but without this evidence the mound and 
name together would suggest the fact, the word roum among 
the Turks signifying the " territory or inhabitants of the 
Greek Empire," roum and ancient being synonymous terms. 
"We now cross the river, and o'.ir line conducts us to No. 11, a 
mound in the city of J[<eul itself, where a search would pro- 
bably be rewarded, as in other examples of mounds, by the 
discovery of antiquities. No. 13, Te! Kaif, "the bill or 
mound of delight ;" and here we again recogmse ia the name 
an ancient site, though no description of the place has as yet 
appeared. Tel Kaif completes the circuit to Khorsabad, 
whence so many sculptures have been extracted. Immediately 
within the enclosure, and opposite the city of Ifiiaul, are the 
well-known mounds of Kuuyunjik and Nebbi Tunis. It may 
here be noticed, that by the inutation of the n into m in the 
name of this mound (one which commonly takes place), we 
should have the word Kouyomnjik, the Turkish word for 
" silversmith, " a meaning more in harmony with the fact of 
silver ornaments having been dug out of it, than the word as 
it now stands, which signiflea " little sheep." These two con- 
spicuous mounds are surrounded by a chain of smaller eleva- 
tions, forming the irregular enclosure which Rich considered 
to bo the wuUs indosinj; the pulace. Although ihe foregoing 


description containB many nanies of places that liavo not tie 
eignificoDt uffix, Ttl, or Koum, we bave included them, from s 
persuasion that they all mark the sites of ancient buildings. 
In a country like that bordering tbe Tigris, any el^Tation 
above the ordinary level of the plain would, for obvious reasons, 
be sought ia fonoing a settlement ; and every height being 
manifestly artificial, it follows, almost beyond dispute, that all 
the hills, whether inhabited or otherwise, are likely to contain 
ruins. Another important object of remark, connected with 
this subject, is the thickness of the wall surrounding tie 
palace of Khoraabad, which Botta states to bo 15 metres, i. & 
48 feet 9 inches, a very close approsimation to the width of 
the wall of the city itself, which was " so broad, as that three 
chariots might be driven upon it abreast."' This is about 
half the thickness of the waJl of Babylon, upon which " sis 
chariota could be driven together,'" and which Herodotus' 
tells us were 37 feet broad, or nearly double that of the palace 
at Khorsabad. The extraordinary dimensions of the walls of 
cities is supported by these remains at Kliorsahad. The Median - 
waU(Bee page 6S) still existing, in part nearly entire, and which i 
croBBCB obliquely the plain of &f eaojiotamia from the Tigris to the 
banks of the Euphrates (see map, Fig. 9), a distance of 40 miles, 
is another example. The great wall of China, also, of like 
antiquity, we are told, " traverses high mountains, deep valleys, 
and, by means of arches, wide rivers, extending from the 
province of Sheu Si toWangliay, or the Yellow Sea, a distance 
of 1500 miles. In some places, to protect exposed passages, 
it is double and treble. The foundation and comer stones are 
of granite, hut the principal part is of blue bricks, cemented 
with pure white mortar, At distances of about 200 paces 
ore distributed square towers or strong bulwarks." ' In less 
ancient times the Homon walls in our own country supply ad- 
ditional proof of the universality of this mode of enclosing a 
district or guarding a boundary before society was established 
on a firm basis. It may be objected against the foregoing 
speculations on the boundary of Nineveh, that tlie river runs 
within the walls instead of on the outside. In reply, wa 
submit that when the walla were destroyed, as described by 
the historian, tlie fiooded river would force fur itself another 
i, bit. i. 


chaDnel, whicK in process of time would become more and 
more derioua from tbe obatructions offered by the accumulated 
ruins until it eventually took the channel in which it now 
flows. The area we have iudicated is of the recorded figure, 
and many important mounds are eituHted upon, or in the di- 
rections of, the lines of tlio wall, while the enclosure itself is 
full of known or inferential ruins. A consideration of the 
arguments leads us to the conclusion that the concurring facts 
strongly support the supposition that Ifimroud, instead of 
being a part of Hinereh, is really the Koaen of Genesis. The 
close proximity of the two cities dues not present itself as an 
objection to us, because it was obTioualy eaaential for men to 
congregate together for security, in eai'ly stages of society. 
£very settlement doubtless became the nucleus of a city, wbich 
was ultimately enclosed by walla sufficiently extensive to 
include not only dwellings for man, hut land for flocks and 
herds, and for the produce of grain ; hence we see no reason 
why the sites of Calah, Kesen, and Nineveh may not still ha 
recognised under the modem names of £alah Sherghat, Nim- 
roud, and Mintouah. 

Fig, !*,— WiLM OF 


A UTTLB more than forty miles in a direct line to the southJ 
ward of Nimroud, but on the right bank of the Tigris, therafl 
exists another mound, covering the ruins of Assyrian palaces.] 
The placo is now called Ealah Sherghat, and probably marks I 
the southern limits of the early Assyrian empire. But, apart 1 
from the interest attached to its position, and the character of I 
its remains, there is every reason to believe that it marks the f 
eite of the ancient Calah, one of the cities founded by Nim- 
roud, and alluded to in Holy Writ. 

"We follow with pleasure Mr, F. W. Ainsworth's graphic J 
account nf the journey t« Kuluh Sherghat and Al Hadhr, pub- fl 
liehed in Transactions of London Qeographical Society, as itil 
contains much valuable information on the natural characte^- 1 
isticB and resources of the country through which he passed : 

"We started on Saturday, April 18th, 18-10, travelling at I 
first across the cultivated alluvial plain south of M<5sul, named J 
the E^raki5Jah. At this season of the year, barley was in ear, 
and beans in flower ; fig, almond, and mulberry-trees were in 
full bloom, hut the pistachio as jet only budding. On th 
sandy deposits of tlie river the water-melon had put forth il 


ityledona. Bovee and quails had retiimed a few days before 
fiwm their migrutions. As the river wus high, we were obliged 
tfi turn lip the rocky uplands west of Es SBramum, an old 
CoUDtry reaidence of its PAsbds. 

" The rooky Hccliyitiea and stony valleys of the Juhailoh 
■were now clad with a beautiful vegetation. Grass was abun- 
dant, and the green sward was chequered with red ranuculusea 
and composite plantsof a golden-yellow liue, which enliven 
at this season of the year by th«:ir contraet the banjts of the 
Tigris and the Euphrates, wherever tiey are stony. Crossing 
the Jubailah, and leaving the village of Abd Jawfirl, ' the 
father of female slaves,' to onr left, we descended upon another 
alluvial plain, such as, on the Tigris and Euphrates, whether 
cultivated or covered with jungle, is equally designated Hdwi. 
The present one was cultivated, and contained the two vil- 
lages, both inhabited by Arabs, now pasturing their flocks. 

" At the end of this plain the ground rises, and at this point 
are the baths and a village, the latter inhabited by a few 
Cbaldees. settled here hy the I'&sbS. of Mdsul to cultivate the 
land. The thermal springis covered bya building, only com- 
modiona for half savage people, yet the place is much fre- 
quented by persons of the better classes, both from Baghdad 
and MtSsul. Close by is a mound about 60 feet high, called 
' the mound of the victor,' from a tradition of an engagement 
having taken place in this neighbourhood. 

"On the following morning leaving Hammim 'Ali, we 
crossed an extensive Hawi, near the centre of which is the 
■village of Safutus, inhabited by the Arab tribe of Juhaish, or 
' of the ass's colt.' We then turned off to the right to the 
ruined Tillage of Jeheinah, or Jehennem, ' Hell or the Lower 
Eegions," which name excited our expectatioDS, but we only 
found some old houses of a better class. Our road continued 
for three hours over verdant prairies, on an upland of gypsum, 
with some tracts of sandstone, when we arrived at llued- 
VuUey, the banks of a sluggish stream heing covered with that 
plant. We roused an old sow trom tbis cover, and captured a 
young pig which it waa obliged to leave behind. As the 
animal went grunting down the valley, it stirred up several 
others with their young ones, which we hunted down, catching 
two more, ono of which we liberated, as two were quite 
enough for our wants. We approacbtd the Tigris, a few miles 

below the tomb of Siiltan 'Abdullah, ■whioh was the extrcim 
jiiiint renehed by tlie Eiiphratee eteamer in 1839, nnd pasBing 
an abundant rivulet of waters which tilled the air wilh t' 
odour of sulphuric acid, we came to a lerel nuked spot, i 
cloaed by rocks of gypauia, on the floor of which were inuo- 
merable springs of asphalt or bitumen oozing ont of the soil in. 
little circular fouDtains, but often buried beneath or eurroutided 
hy a deep crust of indurated bitumen. A little beyond theao 
pits we found other springs, giving off an equal quantity o' 
hiLumen, These are tlie only caaca I know of springs i 
pure asphalt in Western Asia. 

" On the succeeding day, starting over a low range of hilla 
of red sandstone, we entered upon an extensive H&w!, over 
which we travelled two hours to a red cliff. The banks of the 
Tigris were well wooded and picturesque ; extensive tracts ot 
meadow land were bounded by green hilla, and terminated in 
islands of several miles in length, covered with trees and' 
bruBhwood, amid which winded the rapid Tigris, in a broad 
and noble expanse visible as far as the eye could reach. The 
quantity of lat^e wood near it is greater than on theEuphra 
and the resources for steam navigation are very great. 

" Passing the clifTB of red sandstone, from which point to the 
Harmln the Tigris follows a more easterly course, we can 
valley with abrackish rivulet, coming from the Wddl-l-A'hmer. 
Sleep clifls advanced beyond this t<i the banks of the river, and 
obliged us to turn inwards upon the uplands, from which wft 
first gained a view of Ealah Sbergbat, situate in the midst of 
a most beautiful meadow, well wooded, watered hy a small 
tributary to the Tigris, washed by tlie noble river itself, and' 
backed by the rocky range of the Jebel Kh&nilkuh, now covered 
with broad and deep shadows. In three liours' time we arriTed' 
at the foot of this extonsive and lofty monnd, where we toob 
up our station on the northern side, immediatoly below tbo 
central ruin, and on tlie bunks of a ditch formed hy the recoii 
of the Tigris. 

" Although familiar with the great Babylonian and Chaldean 
mounds of Bim Nimroud, Mujelebeh, and Oi'cljoe, the appear-' 
iince of tlie mass of construction now before us filled me with 
wonder. On the plain of Babylonia, to build a hill 
meaning; but there was a siruiige adherence to an anti^iift 
'n thus piling brick upon brick, without regard to tub 



coat and value of labour, where hills innumerable and equally 
good and elevated sites were easily to be found. Although in 
placea reposing upon solid rock (red and brown sajid-Btones), 
Etill almost the entire depth of the mound, which was in partB 
upwards of 60 feet high, and at this side 909 yards in extent, 
was built up of sun-burnt bricks, like the 'Aker Kiif and the 
Mujelebeh, only without intervening layers of reeds. On the 
■idea of these lofty artificial cliifs numerous hawks and crows 
neatled in security, while at their base was a deep sloping de- 
clivity of crumbled materials. On this northern face, which 
is the most perfect as well as the highest, there occur at one 
point the remains of a wall built with largo square cut stones, 
levelled and fitted to one another with the utmost nicety, and 
hevelled upon the faces, aa in many Saracenic atructures ; the 
top atonea were also cut away as in steps, Mr. Boas deemed 
this to be part of the still remaining perfect front, which was 
also the opinion of some of the travellers now present ; but so 
great is the difference between the style of an Assyrian mound 
of burnt bricks and this partial facing of hewn stone, that it 
ia difficult to conceive that it belonged to the same period, and 
if carried along the whole front of the mound, some remains 
of it would be found in tlie detritus at the base of the cliff, 
which was not the case. At the aamc time its position gave 
to it more the appearance of a facing, whether contemporary 
with the mound or subsequent to it I shall not attempt to de- 
cide, than of a castle, if any castle or other edifice was ever 
erected here by the Mohammedans, whose style it so greatly 

" Our rescBrcheB were first directed towards the mound 
itself. We fouiyl its form to bo that of an irregular triangle, 
measuring in total circumfercaee 4685 yards ; whereas the 
Mujelebeh, the supposed tower of Babel, is only 737 yards in 
circumference ; the great mound of £orsippa, known as the 
Birs Nimroud, 762 yards ; the Kosr, or terraced palace of Ne- 
buchadnezzar, 2100 yards ; and the mound called Kiiyounjik, 
at Nineveh, 2563 yards. But it is to be remarked of this 
Assyrian ruin on the Tigris, that it is not entirely a. raised 
mound of sun-burnt bricks ; on the contrary, several sections 
of itfl central portions displayed the ordinary pebbly deposit 
of the river, a common alluvium, and were swept by the 
Tigris; tlie mound appeared to be chiefly a mosa of rubble and 
' 12 


ruins, in wliieh bricks, pottery, and fragments ofeepnlehraln 
lay imbedded in humuB, or alternated with blooka of gypBum j 
finally, at the aouthem extremity, the mound sinks down nearly^ 
to the level of the plain. The aide facing the river dinplayea 
to uB Bome curious structures, which, not being noticed by Jfcj 
Eoss,' have been probably laid bare by floods subsequent te' 
bis visit. They consiated of four round towera, built of burai 
bricks, which were nine inches deep, and thirteen inches i9 
width outwarda, but only ten inches inwards, so as to adapl^ 
tiiem for being built in a circle. These towers were four fMt 
ten inches in diameter, well-built, and as fresh-looking aa if d 
yesterday. Their use is altogether a matter of conjecture;; 
they were not strong enough to have formed buttresses againBl 
the river; nor were they connected by a wall. Tiie genenl 
opinion appeared to be in favour of hydraulic purposes, eitliee 
as wells or pumps, coramunicating with the Tigris. 

"The Bouth-weBtem rampart displays ocoaBionally the rw 
mains of a wall constructed of hewn blocks of gypsum, and ii 
is everywhere bounded by a ditoii, which, like the rampazl^ 
eneirclea the whole ruins. 

" All over this great surface we found traces of foundatiouB 
of stone edifices, with abundance of bricks and pottery, as 
Borved before, and to which we may add bricks vitrified v 
bitumen, aa are found at BahSbah, Babylon, and other mint 
of the same epoch : bricks with impressions of ntraw, &c., son- 
dried, burnt, and vitrified ; and painted pottery witli colours still 
very perfect; butafter two hours' unsuccessful sporch by Mes* 
Mitford, Layard, and myself, Mr. Kass&m was the first to p 
up a brick close to our station, on which were well-defined a 
indubitable arrow-headed characters. . 

" On leaving Ealah Sherghat we kept a httle to the south. 
We travelled at a quick pace over a continuous prairie of grasMi 
and flowering plants, till we arrived at a'ridge of rocka, whid) 
rose above the surrounding country, and were constituted o' 
coarse marine-lime-stones. From a mound, upon which weTi 
a few graves, we obtained a comprehensive view of thai p 
of Mesopotamia, but without being able to distinguish I 
valley of the Tbarthar or the ruins of Al Hadlir. 

" Opinions as to the probable position of the latter were 3 

' " Dr. Rosa's Jouraef fram Bagdad to Al Hadbr, 1839-7," 
R. Obo. Sue., Tol ii. p. 413. 

BUIK3 1T &L haubk. 117 

favour of some mounds whicli were visible in the extreme diB- 
lance to tlie south.- west, and which turned out to he bare kills 
of ennd'Stone, the aouthent termination of a low ridge. 

" Changing our route, we started to the north- wes^ in which 
direction we arrived, after one aud a quarter hours' ride, at a 
Talley bounded in plaeea by rock terraces of gj'pBum, which 
indicated a wddi and a winter torrent, or aotaal water. To 
our joy we found the Tharthar flowing along the bottom of 
this vale, and to our great comfort the waters were very pota- 
ble. We proceeded up the stream in a direction in search of 
a ford, which we found after one hour's slow and irregular 
journey, and we lost half an hour refreshing ourselves with a 
' batb. We afterwards followed the right bank of the stream, 
being unwilling, as evening was coming on, to separate our- 
selves, unless we actually saw Al Hadhr, from the water so 
necessary for ourselves and horses. The river soon came from 
a more westerly direction, flowing through a valley everywhere 
dad with a luxuriant vegetation of grasses, sometimes nearly 
half a mile in width, at others only 300 or 400 yards, aud 
again still more narrowed occaBionally by terraces of gypsum. 

" On the following morning we deemed it best to keep on 
up the river, hut to travel a litlie inwards on the heights. 
This plan was attended with perfect saccess ; and we had 
lidden only one hour and a half, when we perceived through 
the misty rain, mounds, which we felt convinced were the 
80ugbt-for ruins. Hr. Bass^m and myself hurried on, but 
Boon afterwards, perceiving a flock of sheep in the distance, we 
became aware of the presence of Arabs, who could be no other 
than the Shamm6.r, so we waited for our friends and rode all 
together into a kind of hollow in which Al Hadhr is situated. 
Here we perceived the tents of the Bedwins extending far and 
■wide within the ruins and without the walls- The ruins thum- 
Belves presented a magnificent appearance, and the distance at 
■which the tall bastions appeared to rise, as if by enchantment, 
out of the wildernesB, excited our surprise. We were filled 
■with a. similar sense of wonder and admiration; no doubt in 
great part due not only to the splendour of the ruins, but also 
to the strange iilace where the traveller meets with them — 
'in media solitudine.' '" 

' Robs, Jouin. E. Geo. Boo, vol. ii. 

On one of the walls at AI Hadhr is the flnely-aculptaredflgOTB'i 
of a griffin, with twisted tail, about five feet from the ground, • 
also relieei of busts, birds, griffins, &c. ; on the southern wall, A 
about ten feet from the ground, ia a liae of eight monaters, i 
bulls with human heada, the relief Teaching to the shoulders ; .1 
they ore liiU-faced, and about .the size of life; a cornice W'J 
above ; one ball is 32 paces long, aod 1 2 broad, asd Ilie heightfl 
must apparently have been 60 feet. i 

The party having made an elaborate examination, of fhsl 
ruiiiB, and Layard having taken copiea of various ioacriptianl^.l 
and ritetches of some floulptures, tiey returned to Uoaid. 



HowBTRE uncertain and meagre may be our general records 
of the history of Assyria, we hove bHU exiating in various 
countries several monumcate which iadieputubly indicate the 
BDCient esteut of the empire. Guneifnrra inscriptions, sculp- 
turee, and in •ome instances, ruins, have heea disclosed, not 
merely in Babylonia, but in Persia, Media, Armenia, and 
Cyprus; and as some acquiiintance witb theee remains will 
importantly asaist in the investigation of the recent discoveries 
on the banks of the Tigris, we trust that the following siiort 
account of them, and of the localities where they are found, 
will not be misplaced. 

Having already, in the Historical Section, noticed the chief 
cities of Babylonia, tliose founded by Nimrod, we shall now 
limit ourselves simply to a cursory reference to the ruins of 
Babylon and the oilier principal mounds in this part of Meso- 
potamia. The first and most important is the Sirs Nimroud, 
■which, if not originally distinct from Babylon ileelf, appears 
to have been very early separated from it. The square super- 
ficies of the mound is 49,000 feet, and its elevation at the 
Bouth-east corner is 64 feet. To the south of it is the MujO' 
leheh, having a square superficies of 120,000 feet, and a height 


of only 2S feet ; beyond these again is the mound Araram Thn 
Aii, having an area of 104,000 feet, and an elbTution of 23 
feet. Tito Mujclcbeli has been read as if it were Mukallilia, 
from Kilba, "the overturned, or overthrown," whereas a raueh 
nearer affinity esiata in Miijelebeh, plural of Jelib, " a bIbtc 
or cnptive, the honae of the captives," and not improbably the 
residence of tlie Israelites who remained in Babylon. This 
readitig is favoured by the name Hanit and Marut given to 
tlie mound by the natives, from a tradition, that near the loot 
of the ruin there is an invisible pit, where D'Herbelot relates 
that the rebellious people are hung with their heels upwards 
until the Day of Jiidgjuent.' 

The kaar, or pakee, is a moand of aboat 2100 feet in length 
and breadth, and from the sculjitures, inscrihi'd bricks, and 
glazed aod coloured tiles, found there, it is generuliy regarded 
as the site of the targe pulace celebrated for its hanging gar- 
dens. The Amram. Ibn Ali has been plausibly identified with 
the western palace. Tliese tliree groups of mounds were all 
enclosed by ridges and mounds of raraparts forming two lines 
of defence in the shape of a triangle, of which the Alujelebeh, 
was one solid angle ; the other beyond Amram, and the third I 
to the east. The fourth quarter is marked in its central spaco j 
by the mound Al-Hcinikr, or Hamur, an isolated eminence I 
having a superBcies of 16,000 feet, and an elevation of 44 I 
feet, with a ruin on the summit eight feet high.' 
that in the time of Alexander antique monuments abounded ia I 
the Lamliim marshes, which are 76 miles south of Babylon, [ 
and Arian saya, that the monuments or tombs of the Asayrioa ' 
kings were reported to be placed in (he marshea; a report 'I 
nearly substantiated by the fact that Messrs. Prazer and Bosi J 
found glazed eartiienware coffins on some of the esisting 1 
mounds. Beyond Sardt, and below Kilt Amunih, are the ruins 
of B bridge of masonry over the Tigris, which bridge was pro- 
bably on the line of road attributed to Semiramis. At Teib, the 
road joins a causeway of considerable length, and it possibly I 
terminated at or near Tel Heiui&r.' It is to be regretted that I 
none of the researchea in the mounds of Babylon have hitherto 
thrown any light on the structural arrangements of the Assy- 
rian palaces ; in the absence, therefore, of the details which 
' AiuiworUi'a " JteBcsrcheB in AHjiia." p. 169. * Aingnorth. 

' Aiiuworlli's " UcBeuchiiA." 


PERSEPOLtS. ' 121 

ight be nnticipated, we tnnst content ourselvea with tlie fore- 
going brief mention of the mounds, and seek elsewhere for 
infonnation in aid of the immediate purpose of the present 

Ab the Persian empire grew out of the ruins of the Assyrian 
empire, and Persepolis, the capital of that empire, succeeded 
to those of Assyria, it is to Persepolis we should naturally 
direct our inquiries respecting the architecture of its prede- 
cessoTB ; and, fortunately for our object, the ruins of Persepolis 
consist of those parts of the buildings which have entirely dis- 
appeared from the remains in Assyria, such as gates, columns, 
and window-frames, besides the stair-caseB of the great plat- 
form, and those of the lesser elevations. The chief features of 
the ruins, however, are the tall, eleuder columns which stand 
out prominently to Tiew, from which the place has obtained 
the descriptive appellative of Tel el Minar, the " hill of mina- 
rets," the natives considering the columns of the palaces of the 
kings to resemble the minarets of their mosques. The remains 
of this magnificent capital lie in north latitude 29° 59' 39", 
east longitude 84°, and the appearance of the ruins, as ap- 
proached from the south-west, is most imposing. They are 
eituated at the base of a nigged mountain, and the artificial 
terrace on which they are built commands an immense plain, 
bounded on all sides by dark cliffs; the plain of the Merdasht 
is now, however, only a swampy wilderness, and a few solitjiry 
columns and scattered ruins are nJl that remain of the splendid 
city that once gave life and animation to the scene. It is to 
SirEohert Ker Porter we are indebted for the most copious, ac- 
curate, and intelligent actuunt of Persian an tiquitiea in general, 
nod to his Travels, therefore, must we turn for the best de- 
scription of Persepolis. Sir Robert conjectures, from the 
roomids and fragments scattered about in various directions, 
that the capital originally extended from the pillared ruins 
along the whole foot of the mountain, connecting itself with 
Kukslii Boustam, and thence spreading over the plain to the 
north-west. Tlie most conspicuous of the existing remains 
being the Tel-el-Minar, the palace thus described by DiodoruB 
Biculus :' "This stately fabric, or citadel, was aurrounded with 
a treble wall ; the first was sixteen cubits high, adorned with 
many sumptuous buildings and nspiring turrets. The second 
I Siod. Sio., VL. iTiL c. 7. 


was lilce to the first, but as high again as the other. The third 
was drawn like a quadrant, fo-ur square, Bixty cubits high, all 
of the hardest marble, and bo cemented as to continue for ever. 
On the tour sides are brazen gates, near to which are gallowa 
(or crosftes) of brass twenty cubits high ; these were raised to 
terrify the beholders, and the other for the better strength- 
ening and fortifying the place. On the east side of the citadel, 
about 4C0 feet distant, stood a. mount called the Boyal Mount, 
for here are all the sepulchres of the kings, many apartments 
and little cells being cut into the midst of the rocka ; into 
which cells there is no direct passage, but the coffins with the 
dead bodies are by instruments hoisted tip, and so let down 
into these vaults. In this city were many stately lodgings, 
both for the king and bis soldiers, of excellent workmanship, 
and treasury chambers most commodiously contrived for the 
laying up of money." 

Sir Robert's investigations included that part of the moun- 
tain situated behind the platfurm which Biodorus describes, as 
this division of the hill probably comprises the Eoyal Mount, 
where the t^mbs are found, and likewise on the ground above 
appear several mounds and stony heaps, marking three distinct 
lines of walls and towers. The artificial plain on which the 
ruins stand is a very irregular shape, the west front being 
1425 feet long; the north, 926 ; and the south, 802 feet.. 
The surface bus become very uneven from the fallen ruins and 
accumulated soil ; but to the north-west masses of the native 
rock show themselves, still bearing the marks of the original 
implements with which the mass baa been hewa. In the 
deeper cavities beyond the face of the artificial plain, a partially 
worked quarry is visible. Nothing can exceed the strength 
and beauty with which the rocky terrace has been constructed ; 
its steep faces are formed of dark -grey marble, cut into gigantic 
square blocks, exquisitely polished, and without mortar, fitted 
with such precision, that when first executed the platform 
must have appeared as part of the ^Itd mountain itself. The 
present height of the platform from the plain is 30 feet ; but 
Sir Robert's observations satisfied him that the clearing away 
of the rubbish would give an additional depth of SO feet, 
and probably more; though, on the southern side, it oould 
oeyer have exceeded 30 feet ; while to the north it varies 
from 16 to 26 feet. This artifioial plain ooosists of three ter- 

FESBEfoua. 123 

raceB ; tha loweet, emLracing the entire length of tlie southern 
fiioe, is 183 lect inwirfth; the second contoina the general 
area; and the most elevated was wholly covered with magni- 
ficent buildings. Along the edge of the lowest terrace appear 
fragments like a parapet wall, worked with the eanie eolossal 
strength and gigantic proportions which dietinguieh the reel of 
the edifice ; and on the edge of the highest terrace to the 
Bouth, are decided marks of a strong range of railing or pali- 
eadoes, the signs of which, however, cease at the top of the 
flight of steps which connect thia terrace with the one beneath, 
two large holes being cut deeply in the stone at the top of the 
steps to receive the pivots of the gates that ancienQj closed 
this entrance. The only ascent from the plain to the summit 
of the platform is by a magnificent staircase situated on the 
western side, but not in the centre, for the mean distance is so 
much as 961 feet from the southern face, and only SOS feet 
from the northern (see 1 oa plan Fig. 29). The staircase 
consists of a double flight of steps, rising from the north and 
south with BO gentle an inclination, that Sir Robert Porter in- 
variably rode his horse up and down them during his visits to 
the summit. Each step is 3i inches high and 22 feet long, and 
the blocks of marble of which they are composed are so large 
as to allow 10 or 14 steps to be cut into each solid mass. In all 
they number 55, and the space they cover is 67 feet by 22 feet. 
On ascending the first flight, en irregular landing-plaoe presents 
itself, of 37 feet by 44 feet, from whence springs a second 
flight farmed of 48 steps, and covering 59 feet by 22 feet. A 
couple of corresponding staircases on the opposite side meet 
them, and terminate on the grand level of tlie platform by a 
landing-plseo occupying 64 feet, so that the whole extent of 
tlie base from end to end was 388 feet, white a line dropped 
from the upper landing produced a distance of 29 feet; but 
there can he no doubt that the present visible height of the 
platform is not much more thsn half its original elevation 
from the plain, so that the lengths of the flights must have 
been abridged in the same manner. On reaching the platform, 
the lofty front of an immense portal (see 2 on plan) at once 
presents itself, the interior faces or jambs being sculptured 
into the forms of two colossal bulls looking towards the west. 
They are elevated five feet above the level of the platform, and 
at a considerable height over their backs ore small comparU 

124 FEUSEF0LI3. 

Bients filled with arrow-headed inacriptiona. The hcadii of 
the hulls are entirely gone, and there are no remains of any 
cornice or roof which may have connected the gateway at the 
top. The dimenBiona of each wall forming the sides of the 
portal are, breadth 5 feet, length 21 feet, and lieight 30 feet ; 
the walls lire 12 feet apart, and the space between them ia 
flagged with heauti fully- polished slabs cut from the neigh, 
bouring rock. Proceeding through the portal 24 feet in a 
direct line. Sir Eobert found the remains of four magniflcent 
eoluuins (see 3 on plan); they are placed 22 feet apart, and 
24 feet beyond them is yet a second portal (see 4 on plan), re- 
Berabling the first, except that the length is only 18 feet, and 
that the bulls have wings, and human heads with cylindrical 
caps surmounted with a coronet and roses, and surrounded by 
three hulls' -horns, in all respeelB almost identical with the 
symbolic images since found at Ehoriabad. At the distance 
of 162 feet to the right of this portal stands the magnificent 
terrace that supports the multitude of columns from which it 
takes its name. One object alone arrests attention in our pro. 
gress, namely, a cistern in dimensions 18 feet hy 16 feet, 
hewn out of the solid rock ; it was filled witli water by means 
of subterraneous aqueducts, and as another of these subterra- 
nean channels runs in a parallel line to the west, a corres. 
ponding reservoir probably lay in that direction. Sir Hobert 
says that " on drawing near the Chehel Minar, or Palace of 
Forty Pillars, the eye is riveted by the grandeur and beautiful 
decorations of the flights of eteps which lead up »o them. 
This superb approach (see 5 on plan) consists of a double 
staircase, projecting considerably before the northern face of 
the terrace, the whole length being 212 feet ; and at each e: 
tremity, east and west, rises another range of steps ; again 
about the middle, and projecting from it 18 feet, appear two 
smaller flights rising from the same points, whi're the extent 
of the range, including a landing-place of 20 feet, amounts to 
86 feet. The ascent is extremely gradual, each flight con. 
taining only thirty low steps, none exceeding 4 inohea in 
height, the tread 14 inches, and the lenglh 16 feet. The 
whole front of the vast range is covered with sculpture," the 
Bpaop immediately under the landing-place being divided into 
three compartmeuts. The centre may probably once have con- 
tftiued an iuiicription ; in that to the left arc four staading 

flanres ha 


figures habited in long robes and buskins; thoy wear a fluted 
flut-topped cap ; from their Bhoulders hang tkeir bow and 
quiver, and they hold in both bands a abort spear. On the 
right of the centre tablet are three similar figures facing to- 
wards the others; they, howeTer, have neither bows nor 
quivers, but carry only the spear, with the addition of a shield 
resembling a Bceotian buckler on the left arm. 

" As this seems to have been the grand approach t« the 
palace above, doubtless the spearmen just described must have 
been intended to pourtray the royal guards, the fashion of 
■whose dress perfectly accords with the account given of it by 
Herodotus (Terpsicliore, c. 49)." Sir Egbert remarks, that 
he did not find anything like what we should call a sword, 
and that Herodotus makes no meation of a sword, thougb 
Xenophon does (Cyrop. viii.). Oa the side correaponding with, 
the slope of the stairs, runs a line of figures 21 inches high, 
answering iu number to the steps, each one of which appears 
to form a pedestal for its relative figure. A narrow border of 
open roses finishes the upper edge of the frieze, while an equal 
number of figures ornament the interior face of the same stair- 
case. " Two angular spaces, on each side of the correspond- 
ing groups of spearmen described on the surface of the stair- 
case, are filled with duplicate representations of a fight between 
a lion and a bull." The objects on the face of the next flight 
of stairs include, ia the triangular space formed by the slope 
of the stairs, a repetition of the contest between the lion and 
the bull, occupying b length of 23 feet. It is divided by 
an almost obliterated inscriptiau, which reaches nearly from 
top to bottom. From this tablet commence the lines of 
three rows of sculpture, covering an expanse of 68 feet, and 
terminating at the top of the steps of the outward approach. 
Of the upper row, only the lower extremities remain, the rest 
having risen above the level of the terrace to form a kind of 
parapet, which ia now entirely broken away, though vestiges 
of it may be seen scattered over the ground below. A border 
of roses separates each row of bas-reliefs, which consists of an 
officer introducing a procession of people bearing implements 
and tribute. (See Xenophon'a description of first grand pro- 
oesaion of Cyrus,— Cyrop. viii.) Each figure carries a lotos, 
the symbol of divinity, purity, and abundance, and regarded 
by the feiaiaoB with peculiar aacctlty. " Oa ascendiiis the 


platform on which the Pulace of Chehel Minar once stood, 
nothing can be more striking than a view of its ruins ; eo yast 
and magnificent, so fallen and mutilated 
and silent. The immense space of the 
upper platform Btretches to north and 
soiiLh 350 foot, and from east t« west 
380, the greaterpart of which is cover- 
ed with broken capitals, shafts, and pil- 
lars, and counlleas fragments of build- 
ingB ; Bome of which are richly orna- 
mented with tlio most esquisite sculp- 
ture." The pillars were distributed in 
four diviaious, a centre of six deep 
every way, a northern division con- 
sisting of a double rank, six in each, 
Mliii distant from one another, and fall- 
ing 20 fifet back from the landing-place 
of the stairs; and two similar divisiona 
of twelve columns arranged in double 
ranks Haoking each of the sides east 
and west. '" On the western side (6 
on plim), they seem on the brink of a 
precipice, for there this upper terrace 
rises sLupendously from the plain be- 
neath; its perpendicular on that face 
descending directly to the level earth, 
whereas the base of the other three 
sides meeta the intervention of the vast 
fable surface of the great platform," 
on which this more elevated part is 
superimposed. From the western to 
the eaatern range (No. 8), the distance 
is 268 feet. The form of these columns 
in the same in all, and vepy beautiful 
(Fig. 28) i the total height of each is 
60 feet, the circumference of the shaft 
16, and its length from the base to the 
capital 44 ; the shaft is Unely fluted, 
Ihelower extremity being bound by a 
cincture, from whi^neo devolve 


pedestal in the form of the cup and leaves of a pendant iotua. 



The name of a Greek, in Greek charaoterf, hae been fonud en- 
graved on the base of a column at PeraepoliB, 

The capitals which remain show that they were once sur- 
mounted by an upper capital in the ibrm of the head, breaat, 
and bent forelega of a bull, richly ornamented witb cuUu'B, 
and other trappings ; which bUBt-like portion of the animal ia 
united at the back to a corresponding bust of another ball, 
both joining just behind the sliouIderBj but leaving a caTity 
between, sufficient to admit the end of a square beam of wood 
or stone, to connect the colonnade. The heads of the bulls 
forming these capitalB take the direction of the faces of the 
rcspectiye fronts of the terrace. Sir Bobert obaerveB, that 
the posts of the tombs at Ifakshi Itonstatn afford evidence 
that the pillars were intended to be so connected, and he 
likewise suggests that the superstructure was probably of 
timber, overlaid with a thin covering of stone to protect it 
from the weather. The centre body of thirty.six columns 
(see 7 on plan) slaod at a distHnce of GO feet from the double 
colonnades on three sides ; but tlie height of the columns ia 
only 55 feet, and the capitals are quit« of a different charac- 
ter, resembling tliose at tlie portal, where the winged bull is so 
conspicuous. Another peculiarity attached to the middle group 
of columns is, that their pedestals rise some feet higher than 
those by which they are surrounded, the stone-work being 
rough, and projecting in unshaken blocks, as if to sustain an 
additionally elevated pavement, whence it may be supposed 
that the marble pavement was covered with a flooring of some 
costly wood which enclosed the rough pedestals, and on which 
might have been erected the throne of the king. (See I Kings 
vii. 3—7; 2 Chron. ii. 17, 19.) The representations of pro- 
cessions bearing tribute, the faces all turned to the entrance 
which fronted this group of columns, appeared to mark their 
approach thither to some important object, which could scarcely 
be less than the king. The nearest building to the Chehcl 
Winar (So. 9), stands upon a terrace elevated about 7 or 8 feet, 
and occupying a space of 170 feet by 95. It is approached 
from the west by a double flight of stairs, the fragments of 
which show that they also had been decorated willi sculptured 
guards and other figures. The eastern side is so heaped with 
fallen ruins and earth that no trace of stairs is risible, but lo 
the aouUi tl>e whole face of the terrace which suatuins this 

structure ie occupied with a superb flight (No, ] 0), the landing 
place of which embraces neurly 48 I'eet by 10. The front 
is divided by an inscribed tH,blet, on each side of which stand 
Kpeanoen of gigantic height. Upon ascending this terrace W«j 
find towards tlie north an open space S5 feet wide, on which^ 
appear the foundations of some narrow walki and on eadil 
aide of tbie space, 40 feet tjjwarda the south, stand two lof^ 
entrances of tour upright solid blacks of marble of a nearl]) 
black colour; within the portals of each, as in all the portal* 
that seem like jmblic entrances into hall and chamber through' 
out these ruins, are bas-reliefs of two guards. Ou the irome 
diate verge of the landing-place from the western flight a 
Bteps, we enttr a portal of theee guards ; and at a Tery kw 
paces onward pass through a second doorway into a room (Noi. 
9), 48 feet square. From this chamber two doors open to thB 
north, two to the west, one to the south, and formerly two to thV 
east, and all have on their several sides duplicate bos-relieiis of S 
royal personage, with two attendants, one of whom holds ai 
nmbrella ; inscriptions are over tlio heads of all these groapdj 
On three sides of the room are several niches, each excavate* 
in one solid stone, to a depth of three feet, five in height, a 
six in width ; they have been highly polished, and uprif^ 
lines of cuneiform run along tlieir edges. Opening to 
south in the entire thickness of the wall, five feet, are i 
windows, 10 feet high ; and, finally, this room contoins thretf 
has-relici's, consisting of single combats between a. men and w 
lion ; a man and a griffin ; and a man and an animal with thA 
head of a wolf, the fore legs and body of a liou, neck scaled' 
or feathered, wings which extend nearly to its tail, whtdL 
is formed of a series of bones like the vertebrie of the baol^ 
hind legs like an eagle, and crooked hora projecting trom ill 
head. There is a division (So. 12) of the hiiildbg open t 
the south 48 feet by 30 feet, and terminating on each side gi 
the lauding of the stairs by two squai'e pillars, of one block o! 
marble, 22 feel high, covered in diflerent ranges with a van 
of inscriptions, Cuphic, cuneiform, Arabic, and Ferstun. I'm 
of a double colonnade are still visible along the open spue* 
which lies between the western brink of the great terrace, aoi 
the western face of the buililing, " We have now," snys Bi( 
Kobert, " men lion L'd the asceul. of three lerrnces from the DSr 
tural ground of the plain, — first, the grand platform wUi( 


Bupports all the others ; second, the Chehel Minar terrace ; 
1 third, the terrace that Hustains the edifice of the double cham- 
bers last described. A fourth elevation of tlie same kind pre- 
sents itfidf at 96 feet to the south of the prticediag. Its 
Bumrait is on a level with the last .... and a flight of sadly- 
mutilated steps in two ascents of fifteen each, is found at the 
north- west corner ; on these are the vestiges of much fine 
bas-relief decoration. On the plane of the terrace is a square 
I of 96 feet; 3B feet of the western side was occupied by the 
I depth of the approaches just described, whence ran along in 
I direct lines (No. 13) the bases of ten columns, their diameter 
being three ieet three inchea, and standing ID feet equidistant 
from each other : doubtless there was a continued piazza along 
every side : 58 feet of thia terrace at its south-west angle ia 
surmounted by an additional square elevation, the whole depth 
of which, trom the summit to the base, is 62 feet; and above 
, its upper surface are the lower parts of twelve pillars, divided 
into three rows, of the same diameter and distance from, each 
I other as those in the neighbouring colonnade." 

Immediately beyond this comparatively small terrace rises 

; a fifth and much more extensive elevation, of wliich the plan 

Beems to indicate part of the dwelling quarters of the royal 

residence, for the different offices were not only divided into 

courts, but were often distinct buildings. The site of this 

fifth terrace rises, even now, upwards of 20 feet above the 

level of the vast foundation ; beginning at the southern side, 

I we find at the eastern and western ends two flights of narrow 

steps (No. 18) descending to a lower level of 30 feet. Several 

faces of the building are, at present, only marked by their 

I foundations, with the exception of one window to the west, 

I and three to the east ; which open into a couple of correspond- 

ing wings, each subdivided into three spacious apartments, <the 

outer ones alone communicating with the external pillared 

courU(Ko. 16). In the centre of these courts stand the plinths 

of four small coluranB, two feet six inches in diameter, but 

placed at a distance of six feet from each other, and of 16 feet 

from the door that leads into a noble hall of 90 feet square, 

I the pavement of which is marked by the sites of 36 pillars, 

f three feet three inches in diameter ; a corresponding door on 

U the opposite side of the hall conducts iDC« the second ot)i;n 

L cooit of lour pillars (No. 16). Another portal leads to the 



Bimilar colTinme. Two doors pointing east and west lead from 
the vestibule into six smaller rooms, aod fronj similar found- 
ations they probubly joined others still more to the north ; the 
■windows are each formed of four large blocks of marble, the 
thicknesa of the walb six feet, in height they are four feet 
eight inches, and in width three feet sis inches ; on the inner 
faces of those that light the rooms are duplicate bas-reliefs 
occupying the whole surface, and consisting of two figures in 
each. OC other buildings upon the great platform is one 210 
feet square {No. 21), entered on each side hy doors guarded 
by colossal statues of bulls (Ho. 22) on pedestuls, 18 feet in 
length by Ave feet in height. Two of the doors are adorned 
■with sculpture, the highest compartment containing the king 
seated on a chair of state, with a footstool at his feet, and over 
his head a canopy with borders of lions and bulls : behind the 
Mng stand his fan-bearer, armour-bearer, and a third attend- 
ant, and beneath him are five successive ranges of guards, each 
range being separated from that above by a border of rosettes : 
the whole fricBcs indicating, according to the surmise of Sir 


EHEtern cotnnnitae nrdUlo. 

mr, and double flight of italre al sides 

Sidabielil!* '"" ' " '"'^P'" 
Flight of stalH to landing. 48 feet by 

At tile sido lit OiD buildLug faclnE tlila 

Room 4S fe']t [iL|iiHrd, entered at tbe 
punnlinilh giiardH, as at 9. and on 
north lir doorways on vhicta arebu- 
nHefb ot king and two atteadanU. 
I. DlTtalon of building. 4S f^t by 30, 

minuted by square piilars, 33 feet 
b!^, inaeriliiHl in fimr lanifuagsa. 

do'uVe Una af catumna S fBat 3 la 

I Dpbold Mse i>nl/ of gr 

* nfiargepDrUlaiH^inglntoanediace 

that to ths eaal, an ecnlptured [bree 
figures, 13 ftel <n height; in ths 

uljolnlng obaubeT open teltiB auntb, 

This edifice na lighted by a luge 

of lofty windows. 
. BlruotUTB aiO fcBt aqilara 
. Colosaai bulla on p^enlala IS feet In 

iBD^th by 6 in n»ghr. Tbfy are 

132 cisTLK or PASAEG*ra;. 

Bflbert, the throne on on elevation of five stepe, with tlien 
of guards who stood before it ; six of the remaining doors tg. 
this edifice are sculptured with coloGsal double guards ; whilft; 
on four others are sculptured human figures in combat mA 
lions and other animals. 

Adjoining tlie terraced platform, and about a quatter of a 
mile cast of the TeL cl Miaar, arc two excavated tombs, 72 feeit. 
broad by 130 feet high, resembling those at Nakshi Itoustam, 
which we shall briefiy describe. For further detuils of the 
ruins of Persepolis, we inust refer to the foregoing plan. 

It is not a little curious that some excavations conducted l^ 
Mr. W. £. Loftus in and amoDg the ruins of Susa during th# 
year 1853, brought to light the foundations of the royal ri 
dence in that city, which agrees in every particular of p 
with the great hall of Xerxes of Persepolis ; and on the l 
of a column of some ruins of the same city, an inscnption, 
was discovered recording the name of Pythogoras, son of AriB- 
tarohuB, one of the royal bodyguard, and stating that Arreueide* 
was governor of Susiana at that time. 

In the valley of Moui^aub, which lies about 49 miles nortb- 
east of Persepolis, are nutnerous ruins, — the first which arreetfl. 
observatiou being a platform of hewa stones raised nearly to * 
level with the rook which it adjoins. The length of the front 
measures 300 feet ; its sides to where they touch the hill 298 
feet ; and the height is 36 feet 6 inches, formed of 14 tieis 
of blocks of white marble. Every stone of the upper hori>^ 
Kontal surface is joined with the utniost nicety, being carefully 
clamped to its neighbour. There is no trace of ooluxms upon 
the top of the platform, but this, as Bir Robert remarks, fonnE 
no conclusive reason why a superstructure should not ban 
existed there ; its general appearance is rather that of extend- 
ing the horiaontal surface of the roek above, than of formtagf, 
a base for any heavy bulwark on its summit, and, moreovur, 
there are no vestiges of supporting fortifications ; nevertheleai, 
it is called by Pliny the Custle of Pasargadie, occupied by thft' 
Ifagi, and wherein was the tomb of Cjtus. Un the plain, at 
a quarter of a mile S.W. of this platform, is a square tower- 
like building, about nine feet each way ; and 49 feet high ; it 
was formed of blocks of marble, each measuring three feet six 
inches. Another quarter of a mile due south is a square piUu 
of only two stones, one over the other; the lower one is ~' 
te§t high, the other about seven or eight feet ; the wl^ole ti 

uouBnAUB. 13S 

minated nbove with Home broken work like a ledge. The 
faces were eocli neurly four feet wide, and on that towards the 
Borth wua an iastription of four lines in tlie arrow-headed 
character. Proceeding S.E. for rather more than a quarter of 
a miie, a Iot mound is reached, which hears evident marks 
of having heeu ascended by eteps. From the centre of it rieeB 
a perfectly round eolumn, finely polished ; the base ia buried 
in rubbiah, and the capital is gone, but the length of the shaft 
18 not lees than 40 or 50 feet, and the circumference measures 
10 feet. A spacious marble platform sup|>orts this immense 
fragment, the square shape of its area being marked by four 
pillars of similar style and dimensions to that just described. 
The four are distant Jiora each other 108 feet, and on one side 
of each was an inscription which labelled seyeral parts of the 
ruins, there being no difference between any of them, A 
third mass of marble, in a yet more mutilated state, staads 
30 feet in front of these, dividing exactly the middle of the 
Burfaee of the square. 'I'he couple of stones remaining are 
both inscribed. On the south-east is an immense platform 
elevation belonging to a former building, now entirely swept 
away, and which but for one fragment could only be marked 
by the bases on which stood its ancient columns. Its shape 
is B. [araUelogram, ISO feet by 81, divided by two rows of pe- 
destals of white marble, with the exception of one which is of 
the dark rock of the country, and six feet square. The sizes 
of these pedestals varied from three to four feet, and they 
were 15 feet apart; hut in the tranverse way towards the 
centre they left an opening of 21 feet, and an equal space 
firom side to side. This inequality in their dimensions. Sir 
Bfibert surmises, might, as in the case of the Tel el Minar, he 
intended, some to support an elevated floor, and others to sus- 
tain columns. At about six feet distant Irum the K.E. side of 
the building, and standing out in a parallel point to its centre, 
ia a square pillar perfectly distinct from all others. It is 
formed of one single block, about 15 feet high, and is sculp- 
tured with a curious bus-relief surmounted by a compartment 
containing a repetition of the usual inscription. The baa- 
relief consists of a profile of a man clothed in a long garment 
fitting rather close to the body, and bordered by a wavy fringe 
and small roses; this bordering runs up the side of tio dress 
to the bend of the arm. His right arm is upraised, with his 


134 NAKsH-r-EoirsTAir, 

hand open and elevated, and Irom his sbonldera iflsne foB 
wings ; two, Bpreading on each side, reach taigh above hii 
head, and the other two are depressed, nearly touching his 
feet. Hia head is covered with a cap close to the skull, and 
showing a small portion of hair beneath it, and the hair ii 
short, huahy, and ciirkd with great regularity. The taotb 
BiDguIar part of the sculpture, however, is the Egyptian orna- 
ment upon his head, which we have given in a previous chap- 
ter (see rig. 14). The figure from head to foot r 
seven feet, and the width of the atone where he stands is 
feet two inches.' 

At the distance of about a mile S.W. of these remai 
foundaqiiadrangleof about eOorSO feet on every side, agre«t 
gate appearing to have opened from it to the S.E. A. oon-> 
tinned range of small dark chambers even with the ground 
rans along the four sides of this square, with each a door 
scarcely four feet high opening into the quadrangle ; ove 
flat lintel of these cell-like entrances lies a huge stone, i 
larger every way than the doors were in length. About 200 
yards further south rises the structure called by the natives th* 
tomb of the motlier of Solomon, hut which is now generaUy 
recognised as the tomb of Cyrus, which our space will n 
allow us to describe. Before visiting the mountain of sepulchi 
at Naksh'i-IloustaDi, Sir Kobert examined what is called in t^ 
neighbourhood Tacht-e-Taoosht, Harecm of Jamshid, a hi^' 
piece of ground, on whiiih we see a magnificent and solita 
column nearly resembling those at PersepoUs, standing j 
eminent over a crowd of ruins which hud evidently belongt _^^ 
to some very ancient and stately edifice. Seven similar columng 
were lying on the ground, imd a few yards S.E. of them an 
remains of thick wuUs, and yet unmutilated marble work s] 
several large door-i'rames. The entire surface of the 
is covered with mounds of ruins of apparently two distiaofi 
edifices, a palace and a temple, with evidences besides of fortt- 
fioutioDB. Leaving this platform the next object Sir Bobcof 
investigated was the Naksh-i-Eoustam, The fece of thfl 
mountain is almost u perpendicular cliff scarcely less than & 
yards high ; of a whitish kind of marble, in which have been 
cut sculptures and excavations placed very near each, otheq 
and within the space of not quite the height of the mountain 
I Porlert TraTclfi, (oi. t. p. 493. 


Thoee highest on the rock are four, and etidently were intended 
for tombs, one being auppoied to be that of Dariue Hystaapea. 
Aa they present no exterior differences we may Buppoae that 
they vary but httle within, bo that a description of one may 
generally describe them all. The one eiamined by Sir Robert 
consiBts of an eieaTatioa of about 14 feet, in a form something 
reaembling the Greek cross, the upright division of which could 
not be less than iOO feet from end to end. The transverse 
lines present the front of the tomb, and the highest corapart- 
jnent is thickly Boulptured with figures. The entire front 
occupying a breadth of 53 feet, is ornamented by four pilas- 
ters about seven feet apart, and the same distance from the 
eaverned side of the exeavatioa. The bases terminate by a 
phnth projecting about eighteen inches, and the shafts ore 
crowned by the double bulls before described, the only differ- 
ence being that a horn issues from the foreheads of these. An 
additional capital (composed of three square stones piled on 
each other, the smallest and lowest fitting into the cavity be- 
tween the bulls' necks, and the largest stone at the top) sup- 
ports an architrave without any decoration excepting a row of 
TOodillona near its upper edge. Between the two centre pilaa- 
ters is the entrance, of which the door-frame is finely propor- 
tioned, having a carved and projecting architrave fluted and 
divided into leaves ; the greater part of the apparent door ia 
only marked hke one, the entrance being confined to a square 
space of four feet six inches high in it« lower eompartment. 
The division above the front of the tomb is the excavation 
which contains the friezes, and is cut into a sort of frame en- 
closing them. The representation within consists of a double 
row of 1 4 figures, each with their hands raised over their 
heada, supporting two beautiful cornices ; they are all habited 
in short tunics confined at the waist by a belt, some having 
a dagger hanging from it. Each side of the structure is 
furnished with a pillar which may be divided into four parts ; 
the base resembles an urn, on which rest the huge paw and 
limb of a lion, descending from the columnar part of the pillar, 
which is fluted horizontally half way up ; and from its summit 
issue the head and shoulders of the unicorn bull, but without 
ornaments. The back of the neck unites it with the highest 
cornice, so that the head and shoulders rise higher than the 
top of the Btiucturc. On this top stands a figure elevated on 


a pedestal of tlirce steps. Ho is dressed in flowing robes ; in. 
Ilia left band ha holds a bough, and his right arm is stretehed 
hulf out with his hand quite open ; he weurs bracelets ; 
head is bare, and bushily curled behind, while his beard 
flows upon hiii breast. Opposite to this figure ie an altar 
charged with the sacred Are, and high over it an aerial per* 
aonage, called, by SirEobert, the Ferouher, and reeembling the 
symbols we have so oouatantly seen at Nimroud. This orna- 
mental elevation, as we have said, is comprised within a sqnars 
frame; on the remaining exterior aurfuoes are figures three 
deep, those to the right of the altar being armed with spears, 
while those on the left have their hands raised to their faces, 
as if wiping away their tears. The only way to reach the 
tomb with the purpose of entering it was, to be hauled up by 
a rope tied round the waist; and Sir Robert did not hesitate 
at this expedient. On entering the tomb through the opening 
in the lower compartment of the door, he found himself in a 
vaulted chamber, at the ftirlher extremity of which were three 
arched recesses, which occupy the whole length of the ohamber, 
each containing a trough-hka cavity cut down into the nek, 
and covered with a stone of corresponding dimensions. The 
length of the cave which forms the wlioie tomb is 34 feet, its 
height nine ; each catacomb containing the cavity for the body 
is also nine feet ; length of sarcophagus cavity eight feet three 
inches by five feet ; depth four leet four inches ; the rest of. 
the height being contained in the bend of the arch. The open 
apace of tlie chamber between the catacombs and the dooc i» 
about five feet, and the entrance had originally been closed hf 
a block or blocks of stone, the deep holes which i^ceived their 
pivots being visible on each side. Of the three remaining 
tombs, that which is furthest eastward is cut in a receding 
ongle of the rock, and faces the west ; the second from this ie 
the only one whereon ore marks of insoription, but 
the whole tablet of the upper compartment, arrow-h 
letters are visible wherever thej could be traced, Strabo 
mentions and gives port of the inscription upon the torab of 
Darius Hystaapes. The sculptures on the higher range belong< 
to early Persian kings, while those of the lower range ore 
attributed to the Arsacedion and Sassanian races ; and it IB 
slrauge to observe how the tastea of the artists degenerated 
after they had been so long subjected to the Greeka, who wen 

TiATilfi, 137 

femed as masters ra design and esecution. As these, however, 
contain no cuneiform inscription, we at once direct our course 
to where such inacriptioas have been found in other countries. 

As ancient Media contains tbe most valuable of the inscrihed 
records of Assyria, the first we shall notice ia the mjstCTious 
slone in the side of Mount Elwand, which consists of an im- 
jnenae block of red granite of the choicest and finest texture, 
and apparently of many tons" weight. At full ten feet from 
the gronnd, two square excavations appear in the face of the 
Btone, cut to the depth of a foot, ahout five feet in breadth, 
and much the same in height. Each of these imperishable 
tablets contains three columns of engraved arrow-headed 
writing in the must excellent preservation. Several deep 
holes appear in the stone close to- the edge of the excavations, 
showing where iron fasteningB have been inserted to secure 
cross bars, or some other protection from outward injury. The 
natives think that these writings are the history of the treasure 
which is reserved for him who con decipher them.' 

Along the slopes of the Elwand, the ancient Orontea, is the 
elovated district of Hamadan, situated in a cultivated amphi~ 
theatre, shaded with elms, poplars, firs, &c., at the foot of the 
picturesque Elwand. This mountain ia covered with verdure 
almost to the enow-olad peak, and abounds with springs, in 
nddition to the fine stream wliich trarersea the town. Arrow- 
headed inscriptions mark the antiquity of a site (the Narwend, 
Morier, pp. 264-7) generally considered to be that of Ecba- 
tana, the capital of Media Magna. It boasts the castle of 
Darius, the sepulchres of Esther and Mordecai, with the tomb 
of the philosopher and physician, Avietmna? In the castle or 
palace of Ecbatana was found the original grant orinstniment 
of Cyrus, allowing the Jews to return and settle in their own 
country.' Sir Robert Porter discovered the broken shaft and 
base of a fluted column at Ecbatana, which satisfi-ed him that 
the architecture of the city was identical with that of Per- 
sepolis ; the flowing leaf of the lotus covered the whole of the 
pedestal, and its shape resembled the ranges of columns on the 
platform of Tacht-e-J"umshid (vol. ii. p. 1 1 6), The object of 
the inscriptions at Hamadan appears to be merely such as in- 
duces travellers to cut their names in localities diflicult of access. 
The legends were probably engraved on the oecaaion of one 
' Putter's IriTeli, tuL i. p. 120. '' Cheaasj. ' £irft, tL 2. 


of the annual journeys which the manarchs made betwerai 
JSabjlon and Ecbatana, their chief interest consiaLing in the 
indicatioa they afford of the ancient line of communication 
croBsing Mount Orontes. Thia road was ascribed in antiquity 
to SemiranuB, and Sir Henry Bawlinson assured himeelf, from 
minute examination, that throughout its whole extent it pre> 
aenta unequivocal marka of having been artificially and moat 
laboriously constructed.' 

We shEill now direct our course to Behistun, near Kerman- 
Bhuh, as the tableta tbund there, being trilingual, have furnished 
the key to the iuterptetation of all other Assyrian inaoriptiona 
and consequently poaaesa higher interest than any othera yet 
discovered. The sacred rock of Behistun, or Bositoon, ou tiu 
western frontiers of Media, situated on the high road con- 
ducting from Babylonia to the eastward, must in all ages have 
attracted the observation of travellers. "It rises," says 
Bawliuson, " abruptly from the plain, to a perpendicular 
height of 1700 feet, and its aptitude for holy purposi 
not to be neglected by that race which made 

It was named Bngistan, " the place of Baga," in reference, i 
Bawlinson suggests, to Ormazd, the chief of the Bagaa, c 
supreme deity. According to Diodorus, " When Semiramiai 
had finished all her works, she marched with a great army into 
Hedia, and encamped near to a mountain called Bugiatan; 
there she made a garden twelve furlongs in compuss; itwasia« 
plain champaign eouDtry, and had a great fountain in it, which, 
watered the whole garden. Mount Bagistan is dedicated t( 
Jupiter, and, towards one aide of the garden, has steep rock 
seventeen furlongs from the top to the bottom. She cu 
out a piece of the lower part of the rock, and caused her owl 
image to be carved upon it, and a hundrtd of her guards thsl 
■were lanceteera standing round about her. She wrote lik' 
wise in Syriao letters upon the rock, That Simiramu tuemd 
from the plain to the top of the mountain it/ iaying th» pacht a 
fardtU ofth» beaeii that followed her mte vpon another ."* '"" 
precipitous rock," says RawUnson,' "seventeen stadia 
1 B. M. Saw, vol. I. p. 320. 
■ Piod. Sin. b. ii. c, 1. ' Joui. S. Qeo. Boo. vol. ii 

jlT dehibiun, 139 

facing the garden, t)ie lai^ spring gushing out from the foot 
of the precipice, and watering the adjoining plain, end the 
Bmoothiug of the lower part of the rock, all convey an acciirate 
idea of the present appearance of Bebistun. But lehat can 
we say of the sculptures of Semiramis and the inscription ia 
Syriao oharacters ? There are only two tablets at Beliistun ; 
the one nearly destroyed, which contains a Greek insciiption, 
declaring it f« be the work of Oozartes, and the other a Per- 
eepolitan soulpture, which is adorned by nearly a thousand 
lines of cuneitbrra character." 

Sir Eobert Porter informs uB that the lower part of the roct 
"has been smoothed to a height of 100 feet and to a breadth 
of 150 feet; beneath which projects a rocky terrace of great 
solidity, embracing the same extent from end to end of the 
smooth cliff above, and sloping gradually in a shelving direc- 
tion to the level of the ground below. Its base for some way 
up is feced with large hewn stones, and vast numbers of the 
same, some in a finished, and others in a progressive state, lie 
scattered about in every direction, evidently intended to build 
up and complete the front to its higher level. . . . About 
fifty yards from this rocky platform, more towards the bridge 
andatthefootof the mountain, bursts aheautifully clear stream, 
and just over its fountain head, on a broad protruding mass of 
the rock, the remains of an immense piece of sculpture are still 
visible." , , , The first figure carries a spear, and is in the 
full Median habit, altogether resembling the guards at Perse- 
polis. The second is similarly attired, but has, in addition, a 
quiver slung at his back, bracelets, and holds a bent bow in 
his right hand ; and the third personage is of much larger 
stature, a usual distinction of royalty in oriental description, 
and his costume resembles that seen on the king at Naksh<i. 
Boustam at Persepolis. Kis right hand iit elevated, and his 
left grasps a bow, which, together with his foot, rests on the 
body of a prostrate man, who lies on his back, with outstretched 
arms, supplicating for mercy. This unhappy personage ia 
succeeded by nine others, all having their hands tied behind 
their backs, and they are united together by a cord tied round 
their necks to the extremity of the line. Tbc-ir costume is 
similar to that seen at Persepolis, consisting sometimes of a 
short tunic and belt round the waist, sometimes of long robes, 
in some instances with trowser or booted appeiu'ance about the 

140 acuLpTiriuts at HKiirsTtnT, 

lege ; but the ninth is distinguished hy wearing a prodigionsly 
high pointed cap, and hymore ample hair and henrd. " In the 
air, over the heoda of the centre figures, appears the floating In- 
telligence in his circle and car of ennbeains. Ahove the head of 
each individual in this bas-relief is a compartment, with an 
inscription in the arrow-headed writing, most probably de- 
scriptive of the characters and situation of each person, and 
immediately below the soulpture are two lines in the same 
language, mnning the whole length of the group. Under these 
again the excavation is continued to a considerable extent, 
containing eight deep and closeiy- written columns."' 

That the utmost pains had been taken to ensure the pennt- 
nency of the record, is evident from its elevated position ; the 
ascent of the rook being so precipit«uB, that in its natural 
state it must have been altogether unapproachable without 
the aid of a scalfold. Eawlinson remarks, that " the labour 
bestowed on the whole work must have been enormous. The 
mere preparation of the surface of the rock must have ooeupied 
many months ; and, on examining the tablets minutely, I ob- 
served an elaborateness of workmanship which is not to be 
found in other places. Wherever, in fact, from the uaeound- 
ness of the stone, it was difficult to give the necessary polish 
to the surface, other fragments were inlaid, imbedded in molten 
lead, and the fittings were so nicely managed, that a very 
careful scrutiny is required at present to detect the artifice. 
Holes or fissures, which perforated the work, were filled up 
also with the same material, and the polish which was be- 
stowed on the entire sculpture could only have been acoom- 

plisbed by mechanical means The inscriptions, tot 

extent, for beauty of execution, for uniformity and correctnesB, 
are perhaps uneiualled in the world." Rawlinson assigns the 
palm of merit to the Median writing, and infers from thence the 
employment of a Median artist ; at the same time, however, the 
Persian transcript is superior to any he had met with at FerM- 
polia or Hamadan, and the Babylonish legends are hardly 
below the standard of the usual tablets. He especially notioea' 
"a very extraordinary device which has been employed ap-' 
parently to give a finish and durability tfl the writing. It wai^ 
that after the engraving of the rock had been acoomplished, " 
coating of siliceous varnish had been laid od, to give a olei 
1 Forler'B Travels, vol. i. p. ISO. 


nesB of ontline to each indiriduai letter, and to protect the 
Burlace agninet the action of the elements. This varnish is of 
infinitely greater hardness than the limeatone rock beneath it. 
It has heen washed down in several places by the trickling of 
■water for three- and-t we nty centuries, and it lies in flakes upon 
the foot-ledge like thin layers of lava. It adheres in other 
portions of the tablet to the broken surface, and still shows 
■with sufficient distinctness the forms of the characters, although. 
the rock beneath is entirely honey- com bed and destroyed. It 
IB only, indeed, in the great fissures caused by the oulburstiitg 
of natural springs, and in the lower part of the tablet, where 
I suspect artificial mutilation, that the varnish has entirely 

AJnong the sites of iBscriptions visited by Eawlinson, 
is ihe Pass of Keii Shin, in the Kurdistan mountains, which 
separate the plains of UesopotaTnia from Azerbijan and 
Lake Ururaiyeh. He says that he "found, upon a little emi- 
nence by the side of the road, and nearly at the highest point 
of the pass, the famous Kelt Shin, the stories of which had 
long excited his curiosity. . . . The Keli Shin is a pillar 
of dark-blue stone, six feet in height, two feet in breadth, and 
one foot in depth, rounded off at the top and at the angles, and 
let into a pediment consisting of one solid block of the same 
sort of stone, five feet square, and two feet deep." 

" On the broad face of the pillar fronting the east, there is 
a cuneiform inscription of 41 lines, but no other trace of sculp- 
ture or device to be seen," . . . "At the distance of five 
hours from the pass which he ascended, there is a precisely 
Bimilor pillar, denominated also Eeli Shin (in £urdish, the 
blue pilhir), upon the summit of t)ie second range, which over- 
looks the town and district of Sidek. This is also engraved 
■with a long uiineiform inscription. . . . The chief value he 
attaches at present to these two interesting relics of antiquity, 
is the determination which they utford of a great line of com- 
munication existing in ancient days across the mountaius. 
This line could only have been used to connect two gn^t 
capitals, and these capitals must then aecesaurily have been 
Nineveh and Eobatana."-' 
The next iuscriptione 
record, are those in Armenia, < 
* Jour. £. At, Sm. vt 


the ruiEB atill called by the nativea Siiemiramgerd, or City of 
Semiramia. The tradition runs, that when SemiramiH Buccesa- 
fuUy termiDated the war in Armenia, she was eo etruok with 
the beautiful scenery of the Sea Akthamar (Lake TSn), that 
she forthwith employed 12,CO0 workmen, under 600 overeeera 
or architects, in building a magni^eent city, which Bubee- 
quently became her summer resideiiee. Moses Chorenensis, itt 
hiB History of Armenia, describes the caTerns, columns, and 
iuBcriptiona which formed part of the works ; and Professor 
Sohulze, who copied forty-two of these inBcriptions, 1827-8, 
deciphered the word " Shemiram," in several of these, particu- 
larly in one which is written in the arrow-headed characters 
so that tlie dominion of the ABBjrian queen of Armenia can no 
longer be said to rest wholly upon tradition. Most of the in- 
BCriptiona were found ou a kind of platform, which had formed 
the base of ancient structures ; others were found in caverns, 
and one of eighty-dgbt lines was at such an elevation, ae 
be difQcult of access. Inscriptions were found altogether 
fifteen places, one of which was Ehorklior, on the sou 
western side of the castle of Van, and another upon a rock 
the hanks of the stream called Schemiram, which flows into 
the lake. The most important of these records was erp^ved' 
on a large square tablet, 60 feet above the plain ; it was di- 
vided, by perpendicular lines, into three columns of euiieiform 
writing, each cnlumn consisting of 27 lines of writing, all in 
the highest preservation, Neither statues nor baBBi-rilievi 
were discovered, and M. Schulze's researches led him ulti- 
mately to the conclusion, that there arc no existing monuments 
in the neighbourhood of V4n, which can dale so fur back as 
the time of Semiramis. 

The nest inscribed tablets, to which we shall direct atten- 
tion, are those at the mouth of the Nahr al Eelb, 
vicinity of Beyrout, which possess peculiar interest at tho 
present day. A cast of the most perfect of these tables, DOW 
in the British Museum, was the first relic of the ancient As- 
syrian empire brought to this couutiy. The material points 
of the following short account formed the subject of a pap^ 
read to the Royal Society of Literature, June 25th, 1834 : — ' 

' H^moire !ur le Lsc de Ton et ses EurirocB, par H, P. W, Soholit, 
Jaumsl AsLutiijad, toI. in, 
' Xruu. R. Sot. lie Art. It., b; Jweph Boaonu, tdL ui.f. lOG, 

" TTahr Alkelb, the ancient Lycua, ia situated about two 
hours north-east of 'Beyrout. The rocks that sustain the road 
south of the river, preserve the remains of t^n monuments of 
great interest, aud of various epocliiB. The most aociejit, but 
imfortuDately the most corroded, are three Egyptian tablets : 
on them may be traced the name of Eameses, to which period 
innoissenr iE Egyptian art would have attributed them, 
a the evidence of the laamo had been wanting, from the 
teautiful proportion of the tablet, and its cavetto moulding. 

"The next in antiquity, also of great interest, are five 
Chaldffian tablets, four of which arc not less effaced than their 
more ancient companions ; but the highest one is as perfect as 
the least ancient monument this interesting spot affonls, owing, 
perhaps, to its being more ont of the spray of the sea, and 
farthest from the road ; it represents a figure of a man in the 
long dress of the eastern nations, with a large beard, cnrionsly 
plaited, holding in his right hand something like a fan, and in 
his leii; a stick. Nearly the whole of the background and 
dress of the figure is covered with the arrow-headed character, 
Tfhich ia in many places perfectly well preserved. 

" The hieroglyphic tablets have been protected by a kind of 
folding door, the holes for the hinges of which still remain. 
This oircnmstance is not at all incompatible with the stupen- 
dous works of the Egyptians, which seem to have been de- 
signed to resist the ravages of time, and to record to posterity 
the glorious deeds of their kings and heroes. Another circum- 
stance, which may perhaps throw some light on the nature of 
these inscriptions, is, that the Egyptian and Chaldiean tablets 
are always together. From tlie first group, which is on the 
present road, you ascend out of the path to the second, which 
has also ita accompanying Chaldaean figure, and, still higher, 
aru two more. These last are far above the modern road ; but 
jrora the appearance of the rocks, and the wide fiat space 
about tbem, it may be concluded that the Egyptian conqueror 
had cut his path over the mountain in this place, which was 
afterwards traversed by the Chald-tean hero, who took the Jews 
into captivity." 

The accompanying illustration C^'g- 30) may serve " to show 

the relative situation of the Egyjitian and ChaldBean tablets, 

which is in some measure interesting; forit will be evident that 

—the Chaldffiao sculptor has taken advantage of the rock pru- 


pared by the Egyptian, who had already occupied the sounde* 
and heat part of it in the execution of his'subject." 

A very full description of these curious monmnenta is to bi 
found at page 3Sd of " Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia, and tha 
Peninsula of Sinai," by Dr. R. Lepsiua, and published by Mri 
H. G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Gurden, aa well ae accurate en- 
gravings of the monuments in the great Prussian work, " Denk- 
maaler, aus .Sgyptien und ^thieopien," vol. vii. Part III,, 
Plate 197. We have been thus particular in pointing out 
these various sources of information on these important mona< 
ments of the Nahr ol Kelb, because the esistence of mme ot 
them has been called in question by M. de Saulcy. 

The caet of tbe Assyrian portion of this monument, wbi(^ 
•was made by the author of the present work and broight t 
England by him in 1834, was subsequently pri'sentcd to thv 
British Museum by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland. • 

The last Assyrian monument we shall describe is one fuundi 
at Lamaka, the ruins of the ancient Citiuni in tbe Island a 
Cyprus ; and we take occasion ta tbank our good friend Dr.' 
Xepsius for tho following purticulurs concerning it, which hoi 
has kindly sent in reply to onr queries, The monument wliiob 
waa discovered in 1845 exactly resembles ibat at Nubr al K«lbt 
consisting of a circular- headed stone, which coulains witbio a 
niche the liguie of a man holding up his right hand, e 

iNscuipnoNs. 145 

certain emblemB engrared on the back grouad on a level with 
the face of the man. The tablet is almost eDtirely covertd 
n-ith a cutieattc inecriptioa. Tlie diinenaiuna uf this tablet are 
aix feet eight incheB high, by two feet two inches wide, and 
the Htone ai which it ia made, being of a black colour, bus 
been oalteii basaltic, though it appears rather to be a kind of 
lava. When the relic was first found, M. Matl«i, the Prussian 
Consul at Cyprus, despatched an account of it, accompanii:d 
by a drawing, to his goTcrnment, and the importance of tlie 
discovery being immediately acknowledged, the monument 
was at once purchased and deposited in the museum at Berlin. 
Memoirs respecting it have since been published in the Ar- 
chteologioal Archives of S. Koss, Halie, 1846; and in the 
Itevue Arch eologi que, 1846, p. 114; and the French Govern- 
ment have sought and obLained a cast, which is now in the 
Louvre, EawJiiison, in passing through Berlin on his ■way 
to the East, examined the tablet, and recognised in the 
figure of the king that of the founder of Khursabad, but his 
brief sojourn did not admit of his then making fiirther inves- 
tigations. Dr. Lepsiua is not aware that the inscription on 
this monument has been studied and deciphered by any one, 
but as Eawlinsou took an impression in paper away with 
him, we turn to him for further light on this curioug and 
interesting chrcmicle. In tlie n>ean tiuie we may remark that 
B. passage in Menander of Epliesus is preserved, which is 
corroborative of llawlinson's surmise. The historian says, 
that the king of Tyre, Elulteus, "fitted out a fleet against 
the CittBDans (the people of Cittium) who had revolted, 
and reduced thera to obedience. But Sahnanasar, the king uf 
the Assyriftua, sent thera assiatance, and overran PhcBriicia : 
and when he had made peace with the Phcenicians he returnud 
with all his forces." Joseph. Ant. Jud., lib. ia., c. 14. 

Of other Aaayrian remains whose existence is known, we 
were informed some years ago by M. Linant, that he had seen 
ouneatie inscriptions in the desert, between the Nile and the 
Bed Sea; there is another at D&sh Tapjieh, in the plain of 
Mii^aud&b ; one on the banks of the Euphrates, between the 
towns of Hialaticb and Ehai-put; some at Hel Amir; one on 
a. broken obelisk on the mound of Susa ; and the black stone 
found among the ruins of Nineveh, and now in the posseesiun 



of the Earl of Aberdeen, In tlie last aeetion of this work vt 
shall have occasion to notice some more recent discoveries of 
the same kind. 

In eonclusion, we may observe, that thongh many of the 
iiuoriptiona are the chronicles of Uediun and Persian eorer«)gns, 
they still mark with equal certainty the extent of the pre- 
ceding Aasj-rian empire ; for the records being mostly (lilingual, 
induces the natural inference that the dialect peculiar to 
Assyria was at that time prevalent, and probably the vulgate 
of tile districts in which, tlie tablets are found. 




In elucidating the architecture and eonBtnictioa of the 
Assyrian palaces we have already turned for aid to Persepolis, 
the capital which itoraediately succeeded those of Assyria ; 
and by a singular coneurrencej many of those parts of the 
royal residences, which time or local circumstances have en- 
tireiy removed from the ruins of Khorsabad, such as windows, 
columns, and the grand flights of stairs to Ae summit of the 
platform, are preserved in those of Persepolis ; while many 
of those parts wliieh are wanting at Persepolis, such as senlp- 
tored and painted walls, and successive courts and chambers, are 
found at Khoraabad, and in other Assyrian mins. 

The leading features which distinguished the royal and 
Bocred buildings of Assyria from those of Egypt, are evidently, 
in the first plane, the artificial roouuds, by which they were 
raised 30 or 40 feet nboTe the level of the plain on which 
they stood ; and secondly, the architectural arrangements by 
which the summit of these mounds was attained. So far as 
has hitherto been ascertained from the explorations at Khorsa- 
bad and elsewhere, the pedestal or Bub-basenient of the 
Assyrian buildings was not a mere accumulation of loose earth 
incrusted with atone or bricks, but was a regularly construcl-ed 
elevation, built of layers of sun-dried bricks, so solidly 
united with the same clay of which the bricks themselves 
were made, that Botta was for aome time doubtful whether it 
consisted only of a mass of day well rammed together, as de- 

.« „„„„-„„„„.„„..,„.„.„. 1 


1 8cr bed by R ch or whether it 


' Lad ong nally been ent rely 

1 tormed of br cks ns subsequent 


nrest g tions have est sfaeto- 

r ly proT d It farther appears 

1 at tl a substructure was aolid 


11 roughout except ng -where 

drains orwater pipes were mBcrt" 


1 ed or where subterranean chan- 


1 a k 1 k« the aqueducts fonnd by 

S r Robert PorUr at Pcrsepoiii 

xsted and tb t the raass of. 

^^n ^SBf 

Vnekw rk form g the mound. 
was encased round the sidea.i 

ffiffir ^^"^ 

= M^Q ^^Mr 

w tU -nellsqired blocks of 

1 me stone In order to secure ■, 

= ^fflSw^^^ 

the soluble material of the mound 

; S^^^ 

tram tho act on ot the periodical 

ra ns not only were the b da 1 

S flOT^' 

nca-ied in stone but the whole 

5 M^ri "^ 

of the Tipper surface not oo- 

5 Mfr.fM 

cup ed by build nga was like- 

z sirf^' 

wise protected by two layers of 

kiln-bum bricks or tiles, from 

- is Pw- '=^ ^ 

11 to 13^ inches square by 5 

T » ,pffl ~-~i Si 

inches deep, all inscribed on the 

= S y^ \ i 

under side, and cemented to- 

b ^^a 1 ll ill 

gether, with a coating of bitu- 

men. These bricks are flat, and 

^H| > ^iiv 

about the size, colour, and sub- 

^j If /]fllBf 

stance of the tiles of the 8na- 

ll /«Mr 

pension Bridge, Hungerford 

ff ' Jm^~ 

Market. The upper layer waa 

ff JSF'~ I 

separated from the lower by a 

Htratum of sand six inches in 

eJ lil^lJm'^^zL 

thickness. So that if any mois- 


ture chanced to penetrate, it 

/ ^ll~— -"^-1 

would most likely he dissipated 

in the sandy stratum, and thence 

^^¥in '<«■ --( 

be drained off before it could 

f ^^^-^3L^ 

touch the second layer of tiles. 

The platform of Khorsahad -was 



not a quadrangle, but presented Bomewbat a T Bhape (see plan 
Fig. 20), the Btem of which was conaidurably more elevated 
than the transverae part. The latter, or south- eastern end, 
■was 975 feet long by 422 feet broad, and rose about 20 feet 
above the level of the plain, while the adjoining portion rose 
10 feet higher, and was 650 feet long, by 653 feet wide. 
The lower terrace projected into the walled enclosure (see 
rig. 19), but the upper, on which the principal sculptured 
monuments were found, advanced about 500 feet beyond the 
wall, being entirely unprotected, excepting from ita perpen- 
dicular elevation above tie level of the plain, which rendered 
it nearly inaccessible. The outer boundary of this elevated 
part of the platform seems to have been irregular, but though 
the form has not been distinctly ascertained, the angles of 
brick-work uncovered by Botta at various points are suffi- 
ciently indicative of the actual lines, and leave little room 
for doubting Mr. Fergusson' s suggestions respecting them.' 
Having thus far described the genera! appearance and struo- 
tuie of the mound, we will now [iroceed to examine the build- 

Fig. S3. 

pi. M). 

ings and soulpturea that were found upon it. We shall 
commence our investigations with the lower terrace, because 
it was here, at about 50 feet from the edge, that Botta dis- 
covered the fragments of walls, and the projecting facade (figure 
33), which apparently formed the great, if not the only, 
> Fnguuon'g " PaUcea of If insveh and FersepDlis Bcatored, 


, — CETinmiM. 151 

fitracturea on elevated foundationa like those of the Palaces of 
the Kings of Assyria. The great portal forming the centre 
of the facade, consisted on eath side of three colossal hulls, 
(fig. 35, p. 152), with human heads and eagles' wings, and a 
gigantic figure of a man -(fig. 36, p. 153), each formed of b. 
single block of alabaster. The bull which formed the jamb of 
the gateway was of much larger dimensions than were those 
forming the facade, which stood hack to hack, having the 
figure of the man between them. We eliall not pause to 
specially describe these aculpturea, but will at once pass 
through the portal (figure 33), the front of which is here 
represented without the accompanying figures of the fa9ade. 
Having passed through the gateway, we turn to the right oad 
arrive at the second platform, which, from its elevation, must 
have been mounted by means of steps, though, here again, 
Eotta haa not dug sufficiently in advance of the terrace to 
ascertain the exiatence of this mode of ascent. Upon mount- 
ing the platform, we find ourecives in court n (see plan fig. 
34), which we ahall call the Court of Assembly, the dimen- 
Bions of which are 340 feet by 157 feet. 

Placing ourselves opposite the entrance a (fig. 34), which is 
still standing, we find that it almost exactly resembles the 
portal we have already passed, and the repetition is sufficiently 
remarkable to induce ua to describe the figures composing it 
before we proceed farther. The symbolic figures guarding 
these entrances are combinations of the man, the bull, and 
the eoglo ; the countenance is noble and benevolent in ex- 
pression, the features, of true Persian type, probably resemble 
those of the reigmng king ; lie wears a high cap, aurmounted 
by a bund of rosettes and a row of feathers ; and three bulls' 
homa on each aide cloaely surround the base (see fig. of the 
head-dress at commencement of sec. v.) The hair at the back 
of the head has seven ranges of curls ; and the beard is divided 
into three ranges of curls, with intervals of wavy hair. In 
the ears, which are those of a bull, are pendant ear -rings. The 
dewlap is covered with tiers of curls, and four rows are con- 
tinued beneath the ribs along the whole flank ; on the back 
are aix rows of ciirts, upon the haunch a square bunch ranged 
successively, and down the back of t!ie thigh four rows. The 
hair at the end of the tail is curled, like the beard, with in- 
tervals of wavy hair. The hair at the knee-joints is likewise 

carled, terminating in. tlie profile views of tbe limba is a einglo 
curl, of the kind {if we may use the term) called eroeke asur. 
The elaborately -eculptured ■wings extend over the back of the 
animal to the very verge of the elab. Being built into the 
side of the door, one side and a front view only could be seen 
by the spectator, and the sculptor haa aeoordingly given the 
animal five legs, the four shown in the aide view being in the 
act of walking, while the right fore-leg is repeated, but standing 

In the top of one of the slabs of this deaeription, in the 
British Museum, is a hole one inch and a half in diameter at 
about the angle of the wing ; and it is also worthy of remark, 
that the large atones forming each sculptured slab do not break 
joint as is usual with stone work. 

These symbolical combinations, the human-headed figure of 
a hull with eagles' wings we regard as derived from the tra- 
ditional descriptions of the cherubim, which were handed 
down after the deluge by the descendants of Noah ; to the 
same origin, also, we are inclined to attributo their situation 
as guardians of the principal entrances of the palaces of the 
Assyrian kings. The cherubim guarded the gates of paradise.' 
The cherubic symbols were placed in the adytum of thetaber- 

Flg, as,— POBTiL 0» PALinS WITH TlOriES ut KlUHOn (lurrTt, pi. 7). 

nacle,' and afterwards in the corresponding sanctuary of tha 
temple ;' and here, in the Assyrian palaces, they are nevei 
found excepting as guardians of portals. 

The fore-fret of tliebuib forming the jarabs of the door are 
advanced to the line of the wall, the return of which ia faced 
by two smaller winged bulls with their backs to each other 
and their faces turned towards the court (fig. 35). Between 
> GfiD. iu.24. 'EiodnBiiiTi, 33. > IEingi,ii. 23; S Chron. iii. 10-13. 

pig. 37. 


these two minor bulla is the gigantic figure (fig. 36) we noticed at 
the first entrance, the whole group occupying a width of 39 feet' 
This gigantic figure, which is found between the bulla on eacb 
side of the centre aperture of court n, like that first seen, stands 
out in bold relief, and has bceu supposed to be the AssjTiaB 
Hercules ; but we hope to show that it is intended to repra- 
Bent the great progenitor of ihe Assyrian nation, the " mighty 
hunter," Hitorod himself. He is repre- 
juted strangling a young lion, which ha 
proBsea against his chest with his left arm, 
while he is clutching in his hand the for» 
aw of the animal, which seems canvuisei 
a the agony of his grasp. (Fig. 36.) 
- his right liand he holds an instrument thit 
weinfer to be analogous to theSommerengof 
the Australians, the Hunga Munga of South' 
Africa, theTrorahashof Central Africa, or thd 
Sellemof theSiehareen. It is an instrument 
■ usedbynll these different nations inhixntiog,, 
'ar, as described by Benham and Clappcrton, 
in their journey to Timbuttoo. The universality of this weapoil 
is sufficiently established by the fact of its being found in suiJl 
widely separated continents, and in evidence of its antiquitf 
we refer to the woodcut (fig. 37), taken from 
ancient basso-relievo at Thebes, where it ia coi 
monly seen in the hands of hunters. There 
likewise in the Egyptian HaU of the British Miu 
. another example of the instrument, ex* 
hibited in a picture of a huntsman who is about 
to throw it at some birds which are taking £ight 
over a papyrus grove. In the relievi at Kalabeh* 
also, the same weapon is seen in the hands of 
Asiatic people represented in flight before S 
meses II. The annexed engraving (fig. 38) 
taken from the one leen in the hand of the flgOTS 
I at the first entrance of the Palace at Khorsahad, 
miuoD'a H»Mi), because it seems to indicate a flatness and an ir« 
regularity ia the curve differing from that in the hand of th« 
figure at the second entrance, in this partioular mo 
resembling the modern Australian weapon, and the iron trom- 
hosh (fig. 40) of Central A&ica ; but therefore lew like tha 

and by Si 



U, TBOMBAStr, E3-BELLElt, 1 


used by tlie inhabitants of the Desert between tie Nile and 
■(be Eed Sua (fig. 41), wbicb is usually round, and made of 
the root o! the tree which produces the gum-arabic {Mimoia 
NiloUea). With this instrument partridges are killed, and 
gazelles and large animals wounded, so that a robust person 
can easily eatcb them. We tbini this subject so curious that 
■we have given drawings of all the different missiles of the 
bomraereng kind that we could collect. 

The most curiously curved is that from Southern Afiica, the 
Hunga Munga' {flg. 39) ; it is made of i: 
and used to throw at a retreating enemy. ' 
Trombash (fig. 40) is from Central Africa, f 
the neighbourhood of Dar Foor,' but we 1 
seen it thrown by a native of Dongola ; 
like the former, of iron, and chiefly use 
■war. The two following are made of w 
Fig. 41, called Es-sellem, is that used by the 
pastoral tribes of tlie Desert, between the Nile 
and the Red Sea ; and fig. 42 is the Australiaa 
Bommereng. We have given the sections of 
these missiles, as we conceive that peoulia: 
property of returning towards the thrower, Fig. a». 

may be in some measure dependent on its flat- 
ness, although an ancient Egyptian one, in the collection of 
Dr. Abbott of Cairo, is round, like the SeUem of the Bishureen, 

ithern Africa, the 


' Denham and Clapperton'a "Travels.'' 

» Sketch in the dolioction of the author. N.B. The bandlBi of Ihe'ifon 
iaitruineiile are bound round with tlionga of lenlhei' ; aad th« Biihareea 
ioatcamaut ii bequentlj' bound with brass wir" 



and like it also is made of tbe Sunt tree, the Mimoaa N^ilotiov 
an exceesively bai^ wood. The one in the hand of the ancient 
Egyptiaa of the Britiah Jluseuin may be ebony ; it appears to 
be carved at the thicker end to represent the head of a bird. 
The Australian BommereDg aeems to possess, in a higher degree 
the singular quality of returning to within a few yards of thq 
thrower. The foregoing examples of fiommerengs of variou* 
couatrieB and various ages, Justify our hypothesia that they are 
identical with the veapoD in the bond of the Aeayrlan status - 
at the entrances of Ehoraabad. Coupling this curious analogy , 
with the fact that the figure is grasping a young lion in his 
arms, the inference appears reasonable tiiai the statue repra- 
aentH Nimrod, tbe progenitor of tbe Assyrian race, tbe celebrated 
hunter, the destroyer of the wild beasts which originally in- 
fested the country in which he founded so many cities. Tin* 
like that previously seen, this oolosaal figure has his baic - 
elaborately curled ; he differsi also from it in dress and mincff 
details, for whereas tbe former wears only tbe short tunic, 
reaching to the knees, tliis has, in addition, a long outer gar- 
ment or mantle, descending from the shoulders to the heels, 
and iringed all round its embroidered border. Another point 
of difference is, that this figure wears sandals which cover the 
heela and tie over tbe instep, being at tbe same time kept close 
to the sole of the foot by a strap encircling the great toe. 
These differenees of costume had doubtless an intention, pro- 
bably in connection with the particular part of the palace in 
which the statue was placed ; thus the figures on the outer 
gate may represent the " mighty hunter " in his hunting o; 
warlilce costume — while those of the inner court may repre- 
sent him in the sacerdotal robe, or in that of a deified man, 
Btill, however, retaining the lion and Bommereng, as indicative 
of the special employment by which he is distinguished ii 

Before proceeding to examine the figures on the walls, of this 
and the succeeding courts and chambers, it may be necessary 
to observe that all the Ball doorways project from the line of 
wall even beyond the thickness of the blocks of which they aro 
formed, so that there is always a doulde recess behind the angia 
at which the front feet of the bulls meet. In tbe recess be- 
side the bull at the jamb of the door are sculptured two figureS) 
about three feet high ; and in the recess at the side of the bull 

on tfie fefade, is a Coloasal figure of n winged man, the dresses of 

the three resembling thut worn by the Nimrod ot the second 

entrunce (fag "IBV I" t''^ tor 

reaponduig recess of ihe tapide 

is a repetitun of the wint,ed 

figure and on the adjoining wall 

of the court he again appears 

his back being turned towarda 

the recess and his (ace ton irds 

a second and minor entrance to 

the court This entrance has 

a repetition of the hull on each 

jamb of the door but instead 

of the bull on the return we 

have another represi niation of 

the winged man or divimty as 

we suppose hira to be This 

figure has four wings two up 

raised and two deprestied he 

holds ID his npraised nght hand I 

a pine-eone, while in his left he 

carries a basket (see fig. 43). ^'s"— "-- •.- i"«> 

His head-dress is an egg-shaped cap, which terminates at 
the top in a kind of Jleur-de- lis, snd surrounding the base are 
four hulls' horns, two on eacli side. The hair and heard are 
arranged in olnsters of minute curls, so elaborately executed, 
that every huir seems to be represented in its exact place. We 
presume this beard to be the beau-ideal of beards according to 
Assyrian notions. The same care is bestowed on the execution 
of the beard in all the scnlptures of Persepotia — and at the 
present moment in Persia this appendage is cherished with 
peculiar care, its dyeing and dressing constituting the princi- 
pal operation in the bath. In bis ears he wears pendant ear- 
rings, on his wrists rosette clasp-bracelets, and on bis arm a 
massive armlet. The forms of both the tunio and the outer 
robe are the same as those already described ; namely, the 
tassel-fringed short tunio ; and long, fringed embroidered man- 
tle, which is apparently open in front, and which, after eross- 
ing the chest oblirinely from under one arm, hangs over the 
shoulder, showing the inside of the tasselled border. Besidus 
this LabylonisK richness of dress, there are also two cords, 

\ terminated by double tassels hanging from the waist. 



Immediately following this divinity is an attendant magna, 
priest, Bimilarly attired, excepting that, instead of the cap, ho 
wears a band with three rosettes ronnd his Ijead ; his upraised 
right hand is open, and in his left he carries a tri-lobed branch. 
"We are dispoaed to think that the four-winged figures here 
shown are intended to typify the god Cronus, the Ilua of tha 
Phmnicians,' the Allah of the Arabians, names all derived from 
the Hebrew word bK, El, God. Cronus is thus described by 
Sanchoniatho : — ° 

" But before these things, the god Taautus, having portrayed 
OaranuB, represented also the countenances of the gods Cronos 
aiid Dugon, and the sacred characters of the elements. He 
coatrived also for Cronus the ensign of his royal power, baring 
four eyes in the parts before and in the parts behind, two of 
them closing as in sleep ; and upon the shoulders four winga, 
two in the act of flying, and two reposing as at rest. And 
tlie symbol was, that Cronus whilst he slept was watching, 
and reposed whilst he was awake. And in like manner with 
respect to the wings, that he was flying whilst he rested, yet 
he rested whilst he flew. Bat for the other gods there wero 
two wings only U> each upon his shoulders, to intimate that 
they flew under the control of Cronus ; and there were tdsa 
two wings upon the head, the one as a symbol of the intelloo- 
tual part, the mind, and the other for the senses." Toautiu, 
we conceive, is the Thoth of the Egyptians— the Ibis-headed 
divinity, who appears as a scribe, with his palette and bniah,, 
on so many of the monuments of Egypt. These divinities oa 
each side of the doorway, turn their faces to the entrance, and 
present, us it were, the pine-cone to those who enter or coma 
ont, affording an exBm])le of a remarkable similarity with 
Egyptian temples, as to the appropriate significalive sculptura' 
for this very place, namely, tlis actual passage from one cham- 
ber to another. Here in Assyria, he who was privili 
r^ to enter by this door was met by the divinity _ 

i^ scnting him with, the flr-eone ; and there, in Gg^^ 
J i the king is represented receiving from the divinity, 

FiK. u. in the same way, the crux-ansata, the instrument 

'™EoypriJ»*' which is understood to signiify life (fig. 44), 
inBoi. uT Lift may be seen in a cast on the staircase of the British 
Museum, portraying Pharaoh, Bameses IV., entering his tomb 

' ' Cory's " FragraenU," pp. 13, IT. '* £uKb. Frsep. Etoh., lib. 

"" L'orj, p. lb. 


(fig. 45), at the threshold of which he is met by the divinity 
Horns. The presence of these divinities and the bulls toge- 
ther in this phice, as guardians of the same opening, would 
lead US to conclude that it forms tlie entrance 
to some chamber of especial importance. The 
remaining figures on the wiiU are those of the 
king and his officers, as they were wont to be 
assembled in this court, standing in the order 
of their rank (fig. 46). The king ia repre- 
sented as having just come out of the gate, 
which is guarded by the divinities. He is dis- 
tinguished by the richness of his apparel, and 
the tiara, shaped like B truncated cone, from 
the centre of which rises a small cone or point. 
As the tiara oppears to take the forra of the 
bead, we may suppose that it was made of 
some fiezible material, the whole exactly re- 
sembling the caps worn by the Persians of 

the present day, excepting that the tiara of the _, 

Assyrian kings was assuredly not composed of pi^. 4; 

th band f d m 

d I ts wh h ar 1 d c 
p to b il t t I 

g d th baa f th t ar 
dwbhdthbk thy 

Alth h th fig f th k 

bas 1 f > 


I it. Two ban- 

w th rosettes, ap- 

dage, which pass- 

tn houlders, hangs 

t d hy a fringe, 

it ia somewhat 

[N©^ ^fM^ 



''^m'^^WiH '^^' ^ 

1 fi'jVjT " Iff 


T ^4 fv 1 gMfJl 

i r 





difficult to make out clearly the form of his garments. Ftrat 
of all, he has a long tunic covered with regular rows of square^ 
in the middle of wliich are rosettes ; the bottom of this gar- 
ment is bordered with a fringe terminating in four row 
beads. Over the tunic is thrown a kind of cloak, coinposi 
two pieces one in iront and one at back These pieces ^ 
rounded off at the bottom and sewn together leaving an o^ 
ing however through which the head might pass; each a 
the upper comers of the mantle is atretclied out in the fon| 
of a band the front one being thrown backwards ( 
right shoulder and the posterior one being cast forward ont-^ 
tile left shoulder 

On compiriDg two sculptures in which thC 
king IS dad m the same dress the oneshowii^ 
hiB right and the other his kit side, it will ' 
Been that the explanation just given is ye 
satisfactory In both vieua the mantle a 
pears to be scooped out at the side as for 
the top while each halt is rounded off at t 
bottom In one case (fig 47} we see the o< 
r of tht posterior bait strelohing out a 
Ming over the right shoulder , but where I 
ire Iront Tie« of the body is obtained, ttiH 
halt IB remarked falling forward at the ee ~ 
I time that the angle ot the anterior half is b 
stretching out to poss over the left should^! 
' 1 the latter case, the right arm seems aa i 
^ passed ihrough a short armltt, or a hole n 
THB Biici.rl ao in the stuff and not between the two piecet^ 

"*■ '' Ihi. embroidery of the royal mantle is tt 

rich aa that of the tunic underneath ; the material is covered 
with large double rosettes ; all the edges, including that I 
the opening of the arm, and that through which the 
passes, arc bordered with a series of little rosettes, contained in 
squares. Lastly, a long fringe terminates the borders of thft 
two halves of the cloak. 

To complete the description of this Assyrian regal costumS). 
it must be added that the feet are shod with sandals, having 
an elevated heel cover, painted with red and blue stripes alU 
nately. In the front is a ring through which the great t 


pBBseB in order to fix tSie Bole, whict is also kept in ifa place 
by a cord passing over the foot and traversing alternately two 
holes in the inside and three on the outside of the heelpiece. 
Sandals precisely Eimilnr are still used in UcBopotamia, and 
particularly on Ifount SinjSr. 

The sheath of the sword is very reraarltahle. To judge hy 
its prismatic form, we may presume the hlade resembled tliose 
of our own court sworda, but it is much broader. Neat the end 
there is an ornament composed of two lions, which embrace 
the sheath with their paws, at the same time throwing their 
heads back. 

The kingoarriesalong staff in his left hand, and his right 
is raised ae if in the act of speaking to those in front. 

The costume of the sovereign Ln another sculpture deserves 
notice. The ear-rings are simple enough ; on each side of the 
ling there are three little heads, ■with a stem which is nearly 
spindle-shaped, and ornamented with a few knobs. The 
bracelets for the wrists are very rich. They are lonned of a 
plate, on which regularly -marked divisions appear to indi- 
cate flexible joints. This plate hears a number of large 
rosettes touching each other. The bracelets, which clasp 
the arm above the elbow, are spiral, formed of wires bound 

Following the king are two beardless personages, who, from 
the roundness of the features and the absence of any heard, 
were at first mistaken by Botta for women, but who are in- 
tended to represent eunnehs. One holds in his right hand a 
fl.y-flappcr oyer the head of the king, while in his ieft he has 
a bandelet. Behind this eunuch there is 
bow, a quiver, and a sceptre. 

These two eunuchs, and all those we shall subsequently 
Bee, are dressed in the same maiiQer. They wear a long tunic 
drawn tight round the neck, and falling down to the ankles; 
the sleeves terminating above the elbow. The bottom of the 
tunic is richly ornamented with a border of rosettes con- 
taiocd iu squares, while from it hangs a fringe of tassels sur- 
mounted hy three rows of little beads and tassels. On the 
feet are open sandals, leaving the heel and toes exposed. 

Above the tunic crossing the tiock and breast, and passing 
over the right shoulder and lefl; arm, is a broad scarf, from 
which hanga a long Mngc, leaching to the knees, where it 

lother carrying a 


. Kil E. BEACELETa.— 

terminatea in an even line, leaving the remainder of tha 
tunic exposed as fur aa the luwer border. This kind of 
ehoulder-belt is always richly embroidered ; tliat of the 
eunuch carrying the quiter lias three linea of rosottea in 
squareaj that of the other eunuch has three rows of 
centric squares. 

The huir of these peraonagea, like that of all Aaayrian 
figurea, ia arranged moat carefidly ; it is combed down upon the 
head, and spread out upoa the neck into a mass of curls whicli 
resta upon the ahouldera. We shall often meet with this style 
of wearing the hair, which latter, in all caaea 'where the colour 
has been preserved, is always painted black. 

The ornaments of these two eunucha arc alike ; they have 
each a pair of bracelets at the wrist, and a second pair round 
the arm ; the armlets being spirals farmed of wires attached 
to one another by other wires. Tho bracelets of the wrists 
also are composed of a parcel of wires, but they art 
spirals ; they form circles, broken by lions' heads, the muzzles 
of which touch. Besides these omameatB, the eunuchs of the 
baa-reliefa wear eai'-rings, which aeem. to have been very 
general among the Assyrians. They are rather simple, and 
in shape somewhat resemble a cross, to the ring being fixed 
a stem more or less ornamented, while two lateral branches 
emanate from the stem or ring itself. 

The objects which the first eunuch holds are, as before, 
mentioned, a fly-flapper (figs. 
48 and 49) and a kiud of 
bandelet. The fly-ttapper, 
like the parasol, appears to 
have ancieutly been one of 
the insignia of royalty in the 
East. The handle terminates 
at the bottom with a lion's 
head; at the upper extremi^ 
it spreads out into a fiowei 
with numerous sharp petals, 
like that into which ar 
serted the feathers of the long 
fun carried behind tho king in 
flower seems the snme that 
we shall often see, either in the king's hand or in the hands uf 

the sculptures of Egypt, 


ottera. From tho flower there springB out a tuft of feathers. 
The bandelet, which is held by the euuueh in the other hand, 
grows wider towards the bottom, and terminates in fringts 
that is painted red ; it is folded in two, and the handle thus 
formed goes round the thumb. 

The second eunuch carries weapons : the bow is slung on 
the left arm, and appears angular rather than eurred, its two 
extremities terminating in birds' heads, emblematic probably 
of the rapidity of the arrows ; in this bas-relief the bow is 
painted red. The quiver is hung under the left arm, by a baud 
passing over the shoulder, and fixed to two rings. Judging 
by a detailed sketeh of the ornaments with which the quiver 
is covered, its form appears to have been square. A series 
of broken lines borders the lower extremity, while at the 
upper are seen a kind of heading, formed of wires bound to- 
gether at intervals by other wires, and the feathered shaftB 
of the arrows. The end of the beading or cord extends 
beyond the feathera of the arrows, and is terminated by a 
ball surmounted by a little flower, like that on the handle 
of the fly-flapper. It is difficult to say with certainty 
what this cord was, but probably it is notiiing else than a 
reserved supply of bowstrioga. The ornaments of this quiver 
and the litUe tassels which adorn it were painted red. The 
sceptre has a cylindrical liandle ; the head is formed by a ball 
surrounded by a crown and the jaws of a lion; tho hilt is 
thinner than the other port of the handle, and appears to have 
been encircled with thin cord, in order that it might afford a 
firmer hold. There is also at this extremity a loop, intended 
to be passed round the wrist, and thus to prevent the handle 
e8cai)iDg from the grasp, an appendage that has induced the 
belief, that a mace, and not a sceptre, is intended to be repri- 
ses te-d. 

Opposite the king stands a bearded personage, whose right 
hand is opened and upraised, while his left rests upon his 
sword-hilt. The hair and beard are precisely like those of 
the king, but the head is encircled by a band irom which two 
red fillets, terminated by iringes, descend. His dress in other 
respects is exactly suailar to that of the eunuchs; but the 
sandals resemble those worn by the king, only they are painted 
blue. His sword-hilt is exceedingly rich ; at the top of it is 


a hemisphere, and then a hall between two flat discs ; lastly, 
the jaws of a lion eiuhrace the bliide, and termmat« the hilt 
at the sheath. Behind this personage is a eunuch, who, b 
may judge fi-om the poeilion of hia figure, is also in cor 
sation with the king ; and nea:t in succesaion another eunuch 
and two bearded officers of the court, all standing with their 
hands folded one over the other, in the prescribed attitude of 
reapBct ia the East to this day. Then appears a eunuoh, who 
is diatinguisbed from all the other persona of the court by the 
insignia of office, which consists of a double wand. These 
last three %urefl were found in situ, the others were more or 
less injured, and all thrown face downwards upon the groond. 
{See plate 40, — Botta's large work.) Then follow two more'. 
eunuchs, the last of whom has his left hand elevated, as in the- 
act of introducing a bearded military officer, followed by ai 
eunuch carrying two lion-beaded drinking-cups ; two bearded 
officers with spears ; and two eunuchs canying a table. Sehind' 
these is another beardless attendant with his hand upraieed, 
followed by three in the attitude of respect, and lastly, by. 
three more eunuchs, one bearing a lion-headed drinking-cnp, 
the next a basin, and the third a covered dish. The position 
of the person who heads thia last group, leads us to suggest 
that he repnsenls -nftn-n the " Melzar," or the steward, or 
dispenser. ThisofGcer of the household of Kebucbadnezzar 
was set over Daniel and his companions by Ashpenaz,' the 
prince of the eunuctis, to see that the food they had chosen to 
eat, instead of the "daily provisions of the king's meat," 
did not render them less well-favoured than the other young ■ 
persons who were being brought up to fill offices in the court 
of Babjlon ; or who had " ability in them to stand in the 
king's palace." " And the prince of the eunuchs said unto 
Daniel, I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your 
meat and your drink : for why should he see your faces worse 
liking than the children which are of your sort? then shall 
ye make me endanger my head to the king." 

The custom is still preralent in Turkey. A number of 
young men are educated within the walls of the seraglio at 
Constantinople to wait upon the Sultan and to fill offices in the 
government of the Turkish empire, according to the ability 

' Dun. i, 3,5,8, 10. 

EiBB. 165 

tliey show in the course of training ; and their governor woiild 
be held responsible for llie discharge of the duties of his situ- 
ation, under the like penalty. 

This completes the series of figures on one-half of the south- 
■westem. wall of court (h. Pig. 34). We wiU now turn to ex- 
amine the adjoining north-western side, the centre portion of 
which advances beyond the general line of wall, forming a re- 
cess on each side. Stationing ourselves opposite the entrance 
which is guarded by a single pair of bulls looking into the 
court, we see on our left the king, with his back to the door- 
way, and attended by a eunuch, in conversation with a bearded 
dignitary and chief eunuch, followed by one beardless and 
two bearded persons, in the attitude which, as wo have al- 
ready intimated, is always aaaumed by inferiors when in the 
presence of superiors. The lust of these is sculptured on the 
side of the recess, and is therefore not seen in the front view; 
behind these ofScers is a eunuch marshalling the procesaidn 
that follows. 

There first appear two persona wearing a costume that we 
have not yet seen. The head is covered by a closely folded 
turban or cap, from under which at the back falls a row of 
ehort spiral curls ; the dress consists of a long tunic, termi- 
' natinginatasselledborder, an outer garment with short sleeves, 
and upon the feet boots that lace up in front. They carry in 
their hands small models of turreted walls (fig. S8). Imme- 
diately followiug are four othera in the aame costume, the two 
foremost of whom bear cups of a simple shape, and the others 
sealed bags (see fig. 79,— Botta, plate 38). The procession is 
closed by two of the king's grooms leading two riuhly oapari- 
Boned horses. Here ends the wall in the west comer, meeting 
that first described. In the pavement at the recess, and close 
to the wall, are inserted two alabaster slabs, one containing 
four small holes, and the other contiguous to it having nine 
boles. The use of these holes canuot be well explaiued, unless, 
OS M. Botta has suggested, they wore for the guards to insert 
the end of their spears. 

Still maintaining our position opposite the entrance, we see 
on our right a repetition of the king and his court as just de- 
scribed, the same order being observed so far as the projection 
extends ; the side of the receas, however, is occupied by a 
%uiG of a priest, instead of a bearded officer in the answering 



Bide on our left The slabs on the wall of the receBs are de- 
voted to the repreaentutioa of the building of a port, 
making ot a road from the Loaift up to Bome iinportant mari' 
time city situated upon an extremely steep and rocky 
nfncej and large pieces of timber for the work are being 


closely folded turban we hi 

noticed among 
tribute- bear- 
ers, but in this 
stance their tunica 
are short, and 
adapted to their oc- 
cupation of land- 
ing and hauling on 
shore logs of wood 
(fig. 60). 

The vessels e 
ployed ore of a sin- 
gular form (se 
53), closely resem. 
bling some on the 
walls of Medbet 
Haboo, at Thel 
(see figures 51 and 
52), from which 


cirCTimstance we conjecture that they may belong to the people 
of the coast of 
the Medi terra 

horse, the emblem of the PhtBiiiciaiis and the Ciirthaginians, 
and the stem in the tad of a fiah ; whereaa in those of Me- 

168 KHOBSiBiD. — BAG ON. 

dinet Haboo the prow tenainatea in the head of a lion ; 
perhaps the device chosen by the Egyptians for the prow of 
their stiips of war. On the lop of the maBta of botii examples 
is a Tase-Bhaped enlargement, ia which in war-time an archer 
was stationed. In the slab we are describing, the ships thai 
are conveying the timber have the maet removed for the con. 
venience of placing the logs on the deck ; hut those that have 
landed their cargoes, and are returning for fresh supplies, have 
their masts erect. Besides the logs within the vessels, there 
are also other pieces of timber attached to the steme by 
a rope passed through a hole in one end of each. Whence 
the wood is conveyed we have no means of learning from the 
sculptures, which unfortunately are very imperfect at this end 
of the wall; but that it is brought some distance by sea is in- 
timated by its having to pass two considerable places, one 
built on a projecting piece of land, a rocky promontory, or per- 
haps island, which we would euggest might represent insular 
Tyre, whose king, ia the time of Solomon, supplied all the 
cedar and fir required for building the house of the Lord 
(1 Kings, V. G to 10 ; Ezra, iii. 7), (fig. S3,— Botta, plate 32), 
and the second a fort built on the coast, possibly Sidon. 

Among a great variety of marine animals, the Assyrian 
combination of the man, bull, and eagle, ia seen walking with 
stately gait ; and on the sama 
slab the divinity of the Philis- 
tines, half man half fish (figure 
51), the Dagon of Scripture,' is 
accompanying the expedition, and 
encouraging the men in the ar- 
i task of hauling the logs 
hore According to an an- 
t fable preserved by Berosus, 
a creature half man and half tish 
Fie. H.— D*GOB. carao out of " that part of the 

Erythnean Sea which bordera 
upon Babylonia," where he taught men the arts of life, " to 
construct cities, to found temples, to compile lows, and, in 
short, instructed them in everything which could tend to soften 
manners and humanise their lives."' Beroans adds that a 

" FragmenU," pp. 22, 28. 


representation of this animal Oannes was preserved even in 
his day. In another part of this frieee we see a wicged bull 
fiporting in the waves ; this animal has the ■wiiigH of the 
eagle, but not tbe bead of the man. 

Among the groups of sea monstera and fish we recognise 
the ahell-fish of the Tyrian dye. In none of these castellated 
buildings do wo see men in hostile position on the walls, and 
"we are farther assured of the pacific character of the opera- 
tions by the presence of the divinity of the coast, and of the 
Assyrian symbolic figures, uniting in countenancing and aiding 
Bome project, possibly, of defence executed by the natives 
of the coast. 'Hy learned friend Mr. Samuel Shorpe has &- 
Toured me with the foilowiBg reading of this representation : 
— " The ahipa are vessels of burden, some laden with timber, 
and some dragging after them planks which are tied to their 
Btem. The winged bull which accompanies them marks that 
thoy are employed in the service of Assyria. The water, full 
of fishes, may from its form be known to bo the sea, and not 
a river ; and the sea with which Assyria was most connected 
was the east end of the Mediterranean. Tho figure in the sea, 
half man and half fish, is Dagon, the god that was worshipped 
at Azotus. This tells us that the land washed by the sea is 
the coast of Palestine, On this coast we observe that planks 
of timber the same as those which are carried in the vessels, 
are being brought down a hill to the sea-side, there to be put 
on board tho vessels. This hill may he Mount Lebanon, the 
ODly hill on that cuast where timber is cut for exportation. 
And the castle on tbe coast at the foot of the hill may be the 
city of Tyre, which is there situated ; while the second castle 
in the sea may be insular Tyre, which is thus distinguished 
from that part of the city which atanda upon the main land. 
The horse's head on the prow of each vessel proves that 
they were Phosnician ships, and confirms tbe conjecture. 

" Now when Sennacherib invaded Judtea, us described in 
2 Kings, xviii. xix., Herodotus tells us that be marched for- 
Tvard ta the siege of Pelusiura ; and for this siege he might 
naturally require timber, and the ships of his Fhcenician allies; 
WB find, indeed, in 2 Kings, xix. 23, that be did cut timber 
from Mount Lebanon, but the Jewish history does not mention 
his employment of ships. Psalm xlviii., however, which ia a 
triumphal poem on the defeat and retreat of the Assyrians. 


mentiona the ships of Taraish, and aaya that the Lord scat- 
tered them with an east ■wind. Thus the Book of 
Kings, the History of Herodotus, this interesting pic- 
ture, and Psalm xlviii,, mutually explain one another." 
This curious subject occupies four entire slalw; 
and, judging from the oorresponding space at the other 
end of the wall behind the recess, four slabs more aro 
wanting to complete the side of the wall. As there 
are no traces of farther remains in this court, ve shall 
at once pass through the doorway in the norti- 
westem side, and enter the passage. 



The doorway we hoTe now passed seems to form 
the entrance to a passage chamber, communicating 
^ between two courts, the clear dimensions, not iiiclu£ 
ing the bulla at each end, being 46 feet long by nearly 
ssv. 10 feet wide. At the end of the chamber, just behind 
the first bulls, was tbrmerly a strong gate, of one leaf, which 
was fastened by a huge wooden 
lock, like those still used in the 
East, of which the key is as mudt 
ae a man can convoniently oarrjT, 
and by a bar which moved into a 
square hole in the wall. It ia to k 
key of this description that the 
prophet probably alludes, "And the 
key of the house of David will I 
lay upon his shoulder;" ' and it it 
remarkable that the word ibr laj 
in this passage of Scripture, ma 
(mufUh), is the same in use all 
over the East at the present \imi. 
The key of an ordinary street-doOT 
's commonly 13 or 14 inchea long, 
ind the key of the gate of a public 
building, or of a street, or quarter 
of a tows, ie two feet and more IS 
■ laiuiili, iiU, 22. 


SHOES ABiD . — KKTa . - 

length. "We have annesed b. drawing of a key (fig. 65) and 
the mode of carrying it (fig. 56), alluded to in iBaiah. The 
iron peg8 at one end of the pieces of wood oorreepond to bo 
many holes in the wooden bar or bolt of the lock, which, 
■when the door or gate is shut, cannot be opened until the key 
is inserted, and the impediment to the drawingback of the bolt 
removed by raising up so many iron pins that fall down into 
holes in the bar or bolt corresponding to the peg in the key. 
The pavement of this passage, unlike that in the court which 
we have just left, was made of slabs of gypsum ; and in the 
floor between the two bulla, at each end, was a slab engrayed 
with a long cuneiform inscription : there were likewise in- 
BcriptioDB between the fore and hind legs of all these bulla. 
Farther on were small holes in the pavement, in which might 
be inserted metal bars, to keep the door open at a certain angle. 
We will now walk through the passage to the extreme end 
before we begin the description of the sculptures, as we shall 
thufl meet the procession engraved upon the wails in the order 
in which it was marshalled to appear before the king. 

The slabs that encase the walls are divided into two rows of 
illnstratioa by a hand of cuneatic writing, the whole nearly 
entire, so that we have here, as it _ 

were, a perfect tapestry, or illus- 
trated record, of the tribute brought ^ 
hy two different people to the 
nareh who inhabited the palace. 
"We learn from the illustrations on 
the walls that the procession moved 
down this narrow chamber in two 
lines, headed by the ofScer we have 
previously noticed in the Court of 
Assembly as bearing a double wand. 
Here we see him again (fig. 57) in 
the exercise of the duties of hia 
ofBce, namely, marshalling and head- 
ing the procession of tribute -bearers 
. — an office indicated by the word 
]n-ifi, Tartan (2 Kings, xviii. 17), 
as surmised hy Calmet, whose con- 
jecture now acquires a probabUity 

Fig. B7.-T«; 



Assyria was esteemed of encli importance tliat, in the time of 
Sennacherib, we find he was sent with the chief of the 
eimuchH, cTtj-ai, Rabsaria, and the chief cup-bearer, np^-an, 
Ea.bBhakeh, on an enibaBBj- to Kezit- 
kiuh, liing of Jerusalem. 

The first eight persons 
upper lice tffl the right who follow 
Tartan, the chief of tribute, 
the close turbtms or caps, am 
dressed in long tunics, with short. 
outer garments, rounded at the cor> < 
ners and fringed, iometimes ■« 
clasp at the waist and boots laced ng 
in front. They are the Hame short- 
bearded race of people we saw- in tba 
court (n,Fig. 34), represented stani- 
ing among the other officers of fia 
king. The first carries the model of 
a city, indicative of his 
governor or sultan of a province (Hf^ 
68). These ofBcera — apparently 
native chiefs of the subdued provinea 
1, pi. an.) ' or city, Kro-io 'xhv, the Sultau 
Medinetha, of the conrt of Xebil- 
chadnezzar in the time of the prophet Daniel — were suD^ 
moned, among others, to come to the dedication of the ilaa^' 
which that monarch had net up in the plain of Dura in H 
province of Babylon.' This officer is followed by three j 
sons, the first two each bearing two cups, the produce 
manufacture of the province, and the third a sealed bag upo 
his shoulders, containing the amount of tribute, either in go\ 
dust or precious atones, furnished by the province of whil 
the venerable person at the head of the pTocession wu ti 
sultan or governor; or the tribute may possibly be pieces < 
gold, such as Naaman, the captain of the king of Syril 
brought as payment for hia cure ;" or such as Abraham ] 
for tiie cave of Machpelah, "current money with the i 
chant."' It was not, however, necessarily coined money, i 
coined money was probably not then invent'jd, hut merel] 
pieces of gold wire, of rarious thicknesses, such a 
> Dbe. iii. 2. > 2 Kingi, v. 6. 

Fig. 6R.-f 

KaOBSiBiD. OEDiBERilYA. 1 73 

money with the merchants of Sonaar and Central Africa not 
liiirty years ago. The fifth in succeHsion ia another governor 
of a province, or city, in the same division of the empire, as 
may he inferred from his similar attire, and the insignia of 
office which he carries. He is dialinguiahed by a pointed eap, 
(md is of more venerable appearance than the two nho follow 

I him bearing the tribute of the province. The tenth person ia 
the procession wears a short tunic and carries two tazze ; he 
is succeeded by a group of she-cainels, with one hump, of the 
Arabian breed (Plate 98, — Botta), driven by a herdsman alao 
in a short tunic. Then come four men, the foremost having a 
I long beard and carrying the turreted badge of ofQce, and the 
I others bringing the produce of the district, which, tike most 
I from this part of the empire, conaista of tazze, and the raw 
I materiel, or most valuable product, contained in sealed hags, 
I ■which the last peraon bears on his shoulders. This urrange- 
L Bientof one chief to four men bearing tribute, continuea t« 
the end of the line. In the last slab on this side of the 
chamber is an arch-shaped cavity, which received the wooden 
lock when the valve was completely open. 

Eeturning again to the place whence we started, we will ex- 
amine the upper line of sculpture oa the left-hand wall, as the 
division of the proceasion there represented evidently accom- 
I panied that which has jnst been described. Theline is headed 
I ty the deputy of the chief of tribute, possibly the tnau, geda- 
!' beraiya, of Daniel,' the khaznadar, or treasurer, of modem 
times. He ia in the act of admonishing the tribuie-bearers to 
proceed with order. "We find him aucceoded by six men, five 
of whom are in the dress before described ; but the upper part 
of this particular slab is too defaced to allow of distinguishing 
the chiefs from those who follow thera. The last person of this 
group wears a shorter and lese- decorated dress; he is leading 
two horses, richly caparisoned, and wearing the tasselled orna- 
ment in front of the cheat, to this day tie fashion in t)io Eaat. 
Then follow sixteen other figures in the long dress and upper 
garment. Some are in the act of humble supplication, and 
others bearing tribute : hut the figures on this wall are generally 
lcR9 well preaorved tlian those we have hitherto examined, so 
that there is a difficulty in ascertaining their number and the 

' Dun. iii. 2, 



diBtribution of tte chiefs ; but ^( 

□ make out twenty-B 
eight heing chiefs, five <i 
. bear the iosignia of walla 
citiea ; from what we have olread 
seen, however, we infer that the t 
bute of the part of the Assyrian t 
pire whence this people came, a 
sisted chiefiy of manufaatured artit 
' in the precious metals. 

The lower line of illnstration i 
presents the procession which w 
pose to have been nest introduced t 
the king. Like the upper line oi 
Bide of the cliamber, it is headed t 
the chief officer of tribute, who 
making a sign to advance. He is fi] 
lowed by a sultan, or governor of ( 
people we have not before seen (fig 
69,— Botta, plftte 129). Their hail. 
is arranged in Bymmetrieal corkBcrai 
' curls, and around their heads th<{| 
{BUTTA, pi. 149.) wear a fillet, over which, in front, m ~ 

generally allowed to hang one or two locks. Their beards m , 
short, and, except those of the chiefs, never hang lower tha 
the pit of the neck. Their tunics are scanty, and are confinei 
at the waist by a belt or saeh, formed of a collection of cor 
from which commonly hangs a button or triangular noo 
Over the tunic is a covering generally made of sheepskin, I 
occasionally of leopard skin, which is partly fashioned into fl 
garment : their boots are high, laced up in front of the lej_ 
and sometimes turned up at the toe. Tbe first person is i 
chief of the people, as signified by his longer beard, and t' 
model of a city : he is followed by a groom, carrying two spea 
and leading two horses richly caparisoned, having elegao 
crested ornaments upon their heads, and Insselled bunds a 
their chesta (Botta, plate 29). The nest person is also a 
but not of thu venerable aspect of the former ; he carries t 
insignia of office, and precedes two grooms, each carrying twt 
spears in one hand, and leading a caparisoned horse by tlu, 
other. Next succeeds a oliicfwcuring a leopard-skin mantle^ 
and followed by a groom, with two spears and two horses, ooe 



of which the groom is endeavouring to force hack into the line 
of march. After these comes a chief, also wearing a leopard 
ekin, hut not carrying the official insignia. Hia hands are 
held up in the attitude of astonishment oi awe. This peraoa 
contributes four horses, led h; two grooros, one in aheep-skin, 
and one in leopard-ekin. The chiefs and grooms are repeated 
until we have nineteen figures of the skin-clad race, including 
eight chiefs, three of whom are governors of towns. In the 
last slab occurs the hole in which the bolt of the lock wns in- 

In the lower line, on the left-hand side, occur eight chiofe, 
ten grooms, and fourteen horses, the toils of the horses being 
sometimes turned up and tied, and sometimes bound in the 
middle. All the chiefs are in the attitude of surprise, but 
none of them carry the small turr^ted models; hence we infer 
that those who do carry these models are the chiefs of provinces 
containing walled cities, and that those who are without this 
insignia, are govemora of the niral districts — a conjecture that 
is borne out hy the costume of the people, and the nature of 
the tribute they bring. 

The other people in the procesaion, who seem skilful in the 
arts and manufactured articles, are probably from the coast of 
Phcenicia. Thus in the chamber of passage, we conceire are 
exhibited the tribute-btarers from the two estremities of the 
Assyrian empire — an arrangement somewhat analogous to 
that in the small temple of Ealabshe in Nubia, the casts of 
whioh aculpturea are in the mummy-room of the British Mu- 
seum. On the north wall of the Nubian temple is sculptured 
the conquests of the Egyptian hero Eameses II. over the 
nations to the north ; while the south wall is occupied by & 
representation of the conquests of the same hero over the 
nations to the south, and of the tribute which this latter con- 
quest produced. 

The sculpture of the last slab on this line of wall has entirely 
disappeared, having been destroyed by the conflpgration of the 
door, which we presume was of wood,' and stood open against 
the wall at the time of the destruction of the building. From 
the fact of all the remaiuing slabs being uninjured by fire, 
Botta has inferred that this passage was originally open to the 
airi oud as it certainly had nocommuuicatioa withthe interior 
' 1 EingSj ti. 32. 


of the building, but simply connected two external open conrta, 
a roof was obTiouHly bo unueceBsary, that we see no reason 
reject his very pliiuaible conjecture. 

We will now pass, with the train of tribute-bearers, through 
the passage chamber iato the eecond coiurt — the king's court. 

On emerging from the passage chamber (x), we find 
BBlves within a court about 156 feet square, two sides of whicb 
were bounded by the external walla of the palace, while the 
north-western and north-eastern sides were apparently open 
to the country, though they may probably have been guarded 
by a parapet- wall. The size and decoration of the court we 
first entered (n) led us to assume that it was the place of 
nascmhly for those who offered tribute, or wlio sought the 
administration of justice. The direction taken by the people 
after assembling was inferred from the representations upon 
the walls of the passage, the pracessions of tribute-beorera 
being highly Bigidflcative that thia formed the line of commn- 
nication fiom the court without — and we finally arrived at th« 
conclusion, that the second court in which the passage termi- 
nated must have been the Court of Eeception — the place where 
the offerings were presented, and where justice was adm' 
tered; the King's Gate — the gate of judgment, tbe"p 
for the throne where he might judge, even tlie poreh of 
judgment.'" It was in a court or gate of this kind, called' 
jnn, teragn, gate, in the royal abode of Babj'lon, that in 
at^r- times the prophet Danie-l sat when Nebuchadnezzar had! 
made him fdivm, "the Sultan, or ruler over the whole pro-, 
vinee nrTi, medinet, of Babylon, and the psTO-ai, Bab Sig- 
neen, the chief of the (princca) governors over all the wiae- 
men, -o-sn, Hakims, of Babylon.'" And it was in a similiir 
court of the king's house, in Shusban the palace, that Haraan 
waited "to apeak unto the king to hang Mordecai,"' We 
have quoted these and other words of the test in the Hebrew 
character &om the peculiar interest that attaches to the relB- 
tionship between the Chaldee of the ancient race and the 
language spoken by their living descendants : most of the 
■words we have cited are even now current in the country, bo 
' Daniel, ii. 4S, 49. » Eailier, tL. 

KSOESiBiD. — THE dsq'b coukt. 177 

that if we were to -write thera in Arabic characters an Arab 
could rpad and comprehend tliem. 

In thifl court were wont to aasemble "the princes, the go- 
Temors, and captains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, 
the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces"' of Assyria, 
when the king, who inhabited the palace, gave audience. The 
porch, or seat of judgment, was on the south-western or shady 
side of the court, and communicated immediately, by severd 
entrances, with the interior of the palace. The facade, which 
advanced considerably beyond the line of wall, conaisted of a 
central and two minor side entrances, the principal gate being 
guarded by six symbolic figures, compounded of the man, the 
bull, and the pagle, differing in no particular from those we 
have previously noticed. 

The front of the piers of this gate, which extended on each 
side beyond the bay, was covered with two bulls, whose 
bodies were in profile, but whose heads were turned to the 
spectator. The bulls of each pier were turned in an opposite 
direction, so that their breasts formed the angles of the piers, 
their wings and tails touching each other, and the reiiiaiuing 
two bulla formed the jamba of the centre door, following the 
same arrangement as at the two former great entrances, ex- 
cepting that there is no figure of Nimrod between the bulls. 
The width of this advanced portal, including the opening, is 
47 foet, and it is formed of only four large blocks of gj-psura, 
13 feet square, and 3 feet 11 inches in thickness. "We will 
not here stop to consider the means employed by the Assyrian 
architect to quarry auch enormous blocks, nor to inquire how 
they were brought to the top of a mound more than 30 feet 
above the level of the plain, but simply remark that they are 
some of the largest blocks in the building. 

The two smaller entrances of this front recede from the 
general line of fumade, and are both decorated by a figure 
of a winged man,' one on each jarab, who present the pine- 
cone with the right hand to those who pass out or in at 
this door, and hold the square basket in the left haml ; the 
attitude and dress being precisely like that of fig. 43. Behind 
the winged figure on the jamb to our extreme right, follows 
an attendant priest, or magus (fig. 60), similaily atlired, ex- 
cept that he wears a wreath, of which three roses are seen, 
' Daoiol, ill. 2, 3. 


inBtead of t!ie horned cap ; that hia right Land ia elevated &iid. 
open as if ia the act of speaking and that in bia left he 
holds the branch of a tree terraiaating in three 
pomegraEates The divinity on the 
spending outer face of the jamb at the otheE , 
eitrcmity of the facade la hkewise followed 
by an attendant pneat (fig 60) and thus 
[ extremity of this facade is terminated by the 
' figure of a pneat Ihe inner aide ot the; 
jambs of theeo side doors were entirely caL- 
LUied b} the flames nhi h ruahed out tlmmgh,. 
the opening It is to be observed that all. 
these three entrances were originally closed by 
wooden valves, or folding doors; those of the. 
I centre being flush with the interior of tha. 
yj chamber, ■while those belonging to the ndos 
openings were half-way between the court ancli 
g. . piiRiT. (.^am]jgf. I'lje sculptures on the sides of tbft 
minor openings belonged, as far as the valves, to the 
and behind tlie valves, to the chamber; but tiie bulla of t 
centre openings, on the contrary, belonged entirely to 1 
court, BO that when the doors were closed, the deoorationa e 
both court and chamber were complete and uninterrupted, tilt 
openings appeiring merely like deep recesses in the wall On 
the recesses formed by the projecting part f tl e facade, aii(| 
the protruSiion of the statues of the bulls at the : 
entrances are stulpturtd two winged men 
in tie same [osiUun and with the usual attd> 
butes but the upper one h iving the head < 
on (.ogl and wuar ng tl e short tunic wilhoui 
the long outer garment (fig 61) Vta will noiT 
turn to examine that side of the court by which 

Commencing with the south comer we h«n 
just left, we mtiel with a small doorway, on encE 
side of wliich stands the four-winged diviiiit] 
wo huro designated llus, presenting the pina 
cone to those who cross the threshold of tl 
chamber within : and on both jambs of the e 
trance, which had been closed by a door, waa thg 
figure of a priest, wearing a wreath and carrjina 
a gazelle, u if stepping out into the courts ' 

< thi 
OB ad 



the Baorifieial offering. We next approach an opening 
which we recognise as the pnBaage chamber through ■which 
we entered, the sides being flanked hy buHa, little inferior 
in dimensiona to the smaller ones of the principal faqade of 
thia court. Proceeding onwards, we arriye at another figure 
of Hub, with his face turned toward the entrance of tha 
passage chamber, and followed by a priest wearing the wreath, 
and carrying the pomegranate branch. We now reach a third 
doorway, each aide of which ia guarded hy a two-winged 
divinity. The next figm^ is Eabsaris j then the Eab Signeen ; 
and, lastly, the king in eouversation with them. These slabs 
were all found lying on the ground, but the remaining sculp- 
ture of thia wall no longer existed, though the subjects may be 
inferred from those wo have seen in the outer court. Of the 
BCulptnreson the north-western wall, commencing ia thewestem 
angle, we have first in a shallow recess the armour-bearer of 
the king, the selikdar of the present monarchs of the soil ; then, 
upon a projecting pier, Rabaliakeh j next, in a second shallow 
recess, the king lumself, addressing the Hah Signeen, after 
whom succeeds, on a second pier, the Rahsaria. The wall 
here terminates, but whether 
it turned, or was continued 
much farther, we hare no means 
of learning, 

Thia eourti like the one we 
have left, is paved with square 
kiln - baked bricks, stamped 
with a cuneatio inscription, sup- 
posed to contain the name of 
the king who built the palace. 
Bttfore the three doors of the 
facade forming the porch, are 
holes tho size of one of the 
Vicks, and about fourteen 
inches in depth. These holes 
are lined with tiles, and have a 
ledge round the inside, so that 

they might be covered by one "'"'''(Bai^A^vhisa'.)'""' 

of the square bricks of the pave- 
ment, without betraying the exiatcnee of the cavity, 
these cavities liotta found small images of baked clay of 


irtgbtful aspect, BomctirnGs with I}iis bead oad buman bod^ 
and Bometiraea with human head and. lion'a body (see figs, 62 
and 63). Some have the mitre encircled at the bottom witih. 
a double pair of horns; they have one arm crossed c 
breast, and appear to hold a rod or stick, which is DC 
iiaperfeDt to ullow of its shape being described. Others have.' 
their hair roUsd in large curls, and others are huma 
upper part, but terminate with bulla' legs and tails. 

Another curious cireumstance respecting the pavement i% 
that the tiles or bricks cease at the threshold of the entrance^ 
their places being supplied by a single large slab of gypsunt 
covered with cuneatic inscriptions. The stab of the centre 
opening is the entire length of the jamb, about 15 feet by 
9 feet 9 inches wide, and the inscription ia divided into tw» 
ooIumiiB, to obviate, as we suppose, a difficulty which, is cont* 
monly felt, in reading wide pages of lettet-presa. And now- 
oomes the interesting question, for what purpose were thet 
secret cavities and long inscriptions placed at the tbresholdl 
As we have no analogous contrivances in the temples of Egypt 
or Greece, any attempt to account for these peculiarities in thfl 
Assyrian structure may, by some, he considered purely epeaoi 
lative ; nevertheless, we will venture to advance our surmiset^ 
In the first place, we may conclude, from the constant occux 
rence of the emblematic figures at the entrances, that thi 
part of the palace, or temple, in the Assyrian mind was of tfai 
greatest importance, and connected with the religious opinioiii 
of the nation. We find the principal doorways guarded eithci 
by the symbolic bulls, or by winged divinities. We next fii 
upon the bulls themselves, and on the pavement of the recess 
of the doors, long inscriptions, always the same, probably amoi 
tationa or prayers ; and finally, these secret cavities, in vhi<d 
images of a compound character were hidden. Thus thi 
sacred or royal precincts were trebly guarded by divinitiea 
inscriptions, and bidden gods, irom the approach of any sabdj 
'spirit, or more palpable enemy, that might have escaped t' 
vigilance of the king's body-guard. As regard the inacri^ 
tious, £otta found that they were oil repetitions one of anoUm^ 
and that they, as well as the bricks, contained the same nam^ 
either that ufa divinity or of the king. With respect to the oIm 
images, he offers no remarks ; but we would suggest that tl 
are the cnn, " Teraphin 


■whioh Hache! had stolen from lier father Laban, the Syrian, 
and "put them in the camel'B fiirniture, and sat upon thoni ;"' 
evidences whitih favour the conclusion that the teraphim, 
Laban's gods, were no larger than the images -we are speaking 
of. The toot, or original word, from which teraphim is de- 
rived, signifies to relax with fear, to strike terror, or nsi, 
" Kepheh," an appaller — one who makes others faint or fail ;' 
a signification that singularly accords with the terrifying 
aspect of the images found by Botta ; and from their being 
secreted under the pavement near the gates, we conclude that 
they were intended to protect the entrances of the royal abode, 
hy causing the evil-disposed to atumhle, even at the very 
threshold. Again, the word teraphim being in the plural 
form, each individual figure is generally nnderstood to have 
been a compound body, and this affords farther coincident evi- 
dence, as the Assyrian images were, likewise, always a com- 
pound. Another word, however, occurs to us to be equally 
worthy of consideration, as it agrees so remarkably with the 
places in which these images were found. It is the Arabic 
word t j jU. " Tarf," signiiying a boundary or margin — a 
meaning analogous to doorway, the margin or boundary of the 
chamber. Thus, in both the Hebrew and the Arabic, we have 
significations immediately conneeted with the gods Teraphim ; 
finally, we have another illustration furnished by the mo- 
dern Persians, who call their talismans "Telefln,"' really the 
same word, the I and the r being the same in some languages, 
and easily interchanging in many. If these analogies in 
themselycs do not amount to actual proof that the toraphim of 
Scripture are identical with the secreted idols of the Assyrian 
palace, they are, at all events, curious and plausible ; hut 
when supported hy what we know of the existing character- 
isticB and suporstitions of Eastern nations; of the pertinacity 
with which all orientals adhere t« ancient traditions and prac- 
tices ; of the strongly implanted prejudices entertained in the 
court of Persia respecting the going out and coming in of the 
Shah to his palace ; and of the belief in unseen agencies and 
the infiuence of the evil eye,* which lias prevailed in all 
< Gen. xiii. 10, 3D, 31. 

• 2 Sam. xxi. 16—22. • Cbirdin, Voy. vol. li. c. 10. 

* From a lupentition of tli<i sams kind, the lutu Vieeroi? of Egypt, 
' imad All, dbtbt, duiiog hi* long laga, Ml the eity of Caiio b 


countrieB, and still esista in some, more eBpecially In those of 
Asia and the south of Europe, our coDJecture Bcems to amount 
almost to B, certainty ; and we, therefore, have no hesitation ii 
offering it for conaideiation. 


Before proceeding to examine the interior of the pal 
will enter the door of chamber xiv. at the soutb-eaatern aide 
of the court, aa the remains here are quite isolated, and 
dently mnat originally have been a detached buUdijtg, the 
limits of which are defined by the two courts (« and u), the 
passage chamber (x), and the estemul boundary of tiie mound. 
The doorway we are about to enter ia the third on the south- 
eastern side ; and is guarded on each hand by a two-winged 
divinity with bia attendant priest. Lilio the entrances we have 
before described, this also la paved with a large slab divided 
into two columns of inacnption, and the door likewise vaft 
situated half way between the chamber and the court 
winged divmity on each aide of 
jambs stands before the valves to greet 
those who enter, while two Bmaltor 
winged h^res behind the valves, and 
therefore not seen when the doors were 
open, speed those who depart Turning 
to the nght we find the figure of a 
eunuch m the attitude of respect, and 
the lower part of whose garment is in- 
scribed next t« him, and in the comer' 
of the room, is sculptured an ornament 
somewhat resembling that uterlaciug oT 
the two aquatic plants of Egypt depicted 
on the thrones of the Pharaohs, and bold- 
Fig. M.— Bi-inK); TBBB. ing among Egyptian emblems the same 
rank andimportanee that Ihisenibtem does 
among the Assyrians, The centre stem occupies the comer of 
the room, its branches extending equally on both sides of tha 
angle. The stem is interrupted at intervids by transverse scroll- 

the ^te called Bah-el-badeed. A BheiUi had inranned him that if ha 
net vent out of Cairo b; tliat gat«, he would Dever letnm to the titj 

like ornaments, and haa likewise spikes, or points, all the way 
up to the top, whicli fans out somothing like a paloi-tree, every 
interweavement of the branches terminating in the Greek 
honeysuckle (see fig. 64). The end of the room is occupied 
by six figures, three standing before the king, and two behind 
him, namely, his cup-bearer and his sceptre-bearer, who is 
also his aelikdar. The upper part of all these figures is de- 
faced ; but sufficient remains to enable us to say that they are 
ia conversation with his majesty, since they all bear inscrip- 
tions on the lower part of their robes. The king carries the 
trilobed plant (see fig, 60). The aecond corner of the chamber 
is occupied by the embleraatio ornament, and then we see two 
more officers, each with an inscription. 

We now arrive at the doorway which leads into the inner 
chamber, and passing on, find that the remainder of the wall 
still standing has been covered with friezes of the same di- 
mensions as those in the passage chamber, and, like them, ia 
divided by a band of inscription, but unfortunately only the 
lower line of illustration remains, though this is sufdcicntly 
perfect to enable us to judge of the character of the deco- 

rations of the chamber. The ecnlpture represonta the siege 
of u highly-forti£ed place, bdongiug to the people who vesx 


ttie aheepskin ganuent, who ore most yaliactly repelling the 
onset of some crested wurriora, backed by Ecantily clothed 
archers, and these again by tlie regular troops under tlic com- 
mand of the Rabsoris or Rabfthakeb of the time. The created 
warriors we conceive to be Nysians, a colony of Lydiaaa from 
Mount Olympua, who wore helmets like the Greeks, and car- 
ried small shields and javeliua, hardened in the fire.' The 
castle is fortified by a double wall, and built upon an irre- 
gular hill, up the sides of which have been urged two batter- 
ing rams, w&icb are playing against the gates and towers of 
the city; the besieged, on the other hand, are throwing lighted 
torches &om the battlementSr to endeavour to set fire to tbo 
war-eoginea. Near the city is a remarkably steep hill, on 
which grow olive trees, and at the bottom of the hill flows a 
shallow stream, or a bay or arm of the sea (see fig. 65). 

Numerous cuneatto characU^rs are inscribed upon the walla 
of the city, but tlicy ore too email to bo rendered legible in 
our illustration. Nothing more remains of this interesting 
chamber, escepting a pieco of wall adjoining the entrance 
firom the court, which contains the last page as it were of tha 
history of this campaign of the Assyrian monarch. 

In order to show the interior of a walled enclosure, vast 
enough to include grazing land for the cattle, a solid structure 
for tho king, and tents for the people, the artist has given a 
ground plan. This place is situated by the side of a stream, 
and is surrounded by a wall flanked by towers at irregular 
intervals. In the upper half of the oval is placed the paluoe, 
in iront of which are erected the standards and an idtar or 
table, before which are two men. In the lower half are some 
tenta containing people occupied in preparing food, and various 
implements are suspended to tlie pole of the tent, as is still the 
custom. In the last paragraph of this historical roll, we read 
the termination of the campaign. Kanacled prisoners of the 
sheepskin. clad nation are brought under escort to the walla of 
the fortified enclosure (Botta, plate 146),° to be registered by 
two scribes, who are attended by a soldier holding a epear. 
The beardless scribe holds a pointed stylus in his left hand, 
and in the other probably a piece of moist clay, on which be 


is about to impreaa the cuneatio cbaraotera, or a piece of terra 
cotta OR which he is about to engrave them. He eeems to be 
addrcofling the prisoner. The bearded scribe ia writing on a 
roll or volume. The conclusion of the slab repreBcuts the 
same description of country, namely, a hilly coast or shore, on 
■which is situated the last fortified place taken in this campaign 
(Eotta, plate 147). It is built upon a hill, accessible by three 
roads constracted of hewn stone, and at the base of the hill 
flows the arm of the lake or river. The city is defended by 
bow-men on the upper and lower embattled walls. The attaak 
is led by crested speannen with round shields, followed by 
nearly naked bow-men, the rear being brought up by the 
regular troops, and upon the causeways are two war-engines' 
or battering-rama (figs. 66, 67). They move upon four wheels. 

-'WLZ — WL^ 

\hry, ^ ^hH/,- _ 

18, ST.— viK-ENoma (ei 

and the machine is covered with an ornamental hanging, which 
envelopes it on all sides, to protect the men employt'd in pro- 
pelling the machine. The forepart is very much raised to ele- 
vate the point of suspension of the rams, and thus give them 
more force :^ the rams arc provided with lancc-headed extre- 
mities, and it is plain they have already effected a small breach 
in the wall. 

The name of the city is written on the upper towers. 
' 3 Chron. xiivi. IS. 



Thia cliamber opena from that we have just examined, the 
entrance being nearly opposite the doonray leading into the 
court. In this ease tlie entrance or passago of eomniunication 
ia without valvea, and the jambs are occupied by two figures 
of priests, presenting the fir-cone to the symbolic ornament or 
tree, described in the preceding apartment, which, ia placed 
between them. Between the jambs the pavement consists of 
the slab, with an inscription divided iuto two columns. This 
chamtier also contains historical subjects, probably incidents 
in the same campaign, the termination of which we found re- 
corded in the last chamber. Like that, the walla are here 
divided by the band of cuneatic text into two lines of illus- 
tration, but unfortmiately only a few slabs, and those esclo- 
eively of the lower division, remain. Turning to the right, 
we shall foUow^the king in his chariot, preceded by a body of 
foot, and followed by a detachment of horse, setting out on a , 
campaign over a hilly country (Botta, plates 142, 143). They . 
are proceeding towards a city of the interior, of which the 
Assyrian artist has given ua soma views, and the representatioa • 
we have selected will be found to contain some highly sag- J 
gestiye details (fig. 68. Botta, pi, 141). 

FI(. At— i^uD uimtuE in 

B ataut toar [boiia, pt Ul). 



In the centre, etanding on a mound or sub-basement, is a 
building with a gable roof, showing that this mode of con- 
Btruetion was well known at tlie period of these eoulptureB. 
On the piera of the building are Biispendod shields, seen in. 
front and in profile. At the entrance stand two prieste, and 
upon the plain at the base of the mound on ivhich it is built, 
Bre two vases possibly containing the water for purification, 
irom which circuto stances we should Buimise this structure to 
he a sacred edifice. Above it is a line of euneatic, which may 
some day enlighten us on the subject. Upon the roof are 
some crested warriors, who are assisting their companions to 
scale the walla, " They shall tun to and iro in the city, they 
shall nm upon the 'wall, they shall climb up upon the houses ; 
they shall enter in at the windows like a thief.'" In one part 
of the city, built on a, rocky eminence already in the occu- 
pation of the invader, is seen on the top of a house a eunuch 
dictating to his scribes. To the right, some of the inhabitauta 
on the roofs of the houses extend their hands in supplicatioii 
towards the king. 

In another part of the city, two ennnchs are engaged in 
weighing the spoil. The beam of the scales is straight and 
suspended on a support, probably a tripod, the stems of which 
terminate in lion's feet. This apparatus is again placed upon 
a stand resting on legs, carved to represent buUa' or goats' feet, 
which are terminated in their turn by reversed cones. The 
eunuchs are habited in the long robe, hut without the fiiEged 

In the rocky ground beneath the eunuchs just described an 

I three individuals, each armed with a hatchet, busy hacking at 

I the limbs of a figure, from which they have olready separated 

, the arms, and which represents either a living taun or a statue 

(fig- 69). 

The executioners wear the same head-gear as the pillagers ; 
and the figure itself is clothed in a long robe, with a pointed 
cap descending to the neck. The most probable interpretatioii 
' of the matter seems to be, that they are breaking up a statue 
composed of one of the precious metals (Baruch vi. 39, 60, 
65, 67), and that the eunuchs are employed in weighing the 
fragments aa they are delivered to them. 

Parther off, we see others carrying away the spoil and oo- 


companying a car. We have cause to regret that there ai 
more eculpturea extant in tliia apartmpnt, which, like the last, 
may he regarded as an historic^ chamber. It may likewise 

iaOTTl, ;L UO.) 

be worthy of remark, that this Bection of the Polooe of £hor- 
Habad was not only isolated, but that it must have coiiBiated of 
a single floor, as there do not seem to be any places for the 
steps by which the upper stories could have been reached, un- 
less indeed they were constructed in the thickDcss of the wall 
which is destroyed. Itetuming to the court, we will now 
enter the small door in. the south comer, aud to the left of the 
passage chamber (x). 


Entering the chamber from the court, we shall meet ia 
the reoeaa, as already described, tie figures of two magi, 
each bearing on bis right arm a gazelle, and the left hand 
elevated as in prayer : behind the door-valves on each jamb 
there aie two small figures of priests, part of the deco- 
ration belonging to the interior. In the corner of the cham- 
ber, on our right, is another doorway, of which the jamba are 
identical. The room meaeurea 30 feet by 27 feet 6 inches, and 
all the figures occupying tha wails are of colossal dimensions. 
Teaching to the entire height of the slabB. This chamber, 

HAGicLms. 189 

unlike tho others we have seen, ia paved with kila-baked 
bricks, and in tho corner moat remote from the door leading 
to the court, there ia iDserted in the floor a slab of gypaiim, 
4 feet 6 inuhus by 3 feet 3 inehea wide, in which ia a circular- 
headed oblong depressiou. From theae evidencea, we infer 
that it waa in thia chamber that the king was wont to consult 
the magi who here examined tho victima, whoae blood wta 
poured into the cavity in the slab ; and aCRordingly the deeo- 
ratioQS show ua the king attended by hia officers ; but ao many 
slabs are wanting, that we have no tepresentation of the actual 
Bacnfl.ce to corroborate our aurmiae. 

Xhe figures of the magi which we have noticed at the entrance 
of the room, difler in nothing from the magi ao often described, 
but in the circumstance of their carrying a goat or gazelle. 
They are standing with the victim at the entrance of the cham- 
ber where the ritea were performed, and this chamber ia situ- 
ated in the king's court, contiguous to the gate or paaaage- 
chamber (x.) In the second verse of the second chapter of 
Daniel, four kinds of magicians are mentioned: tbeo'oa'in, 
chartuinim, the d'Bii'k, asaphim, the spsnyi, mecaaphim, et hd j, 
the casdira. The flrst word is supposed to signify enchanters, 
according ta the LXX., aophiata ; according ta Jerome, diviners, 
fortune-tellers, casters of nativitiea. The second word ao re- 
aembles the Greek (ffopo;, sophos) for a wise man, that it has 
been doubted which is the original word. The third, mecas- 
phim, by Jerome and the Greeks, is traaaiated " enchanters," 
such as used noxious herbs and druga — the blood of victims, 
and the bones of the dead, for their superstitious ritea. The 
tburth word has two significations — first, the Chaldean people ; 
and the second, a sort of philosophera, wtio were exempt &om 
all publio offices and employments ; their studies being physic, 
aatrology, the foretelling of future events, interprotutiou of 
dreams by augury, worship of the gods, &c.' The Chaldeana 
bad their origin from Chased, son of Nahor.' Jerome says the 
same thing : — " Chased, son of Jfahor, from whom Chaadim, 
afterwards Chaldiei." Chased, however, only united the scat- 
tered tribea into a nation of the land of Ur, and there ia tittle 

' The modarn pcufeuiiinul DiTiDSB of Egypt are called MaghrnbiD, 
theroby iatirnating that thej uriginallf oiuue Initn Tonu, Tripoli, oi Mo- 
tocci). cuiuitriu to the weat of ERvpt. 

I Cdllariiu, Ub. lil 16. 


doubt that they were a distinct nation, and not merely a 
tribe of priests ;' Strabo, who bad treated of them as philoao- 
pbers, knew them also as a nation. To which of the four 
daeaea the magus we are describing belongs, it would bo diffl* 
cult to determine, but from his carrying tbe gazelle, we should 
be inclined to place him in tbe tbird cloaa, and probably of the 
Chaldean race. His peraon is much thinner, and hia features 
more delinate than are those of the other attendants of the 
court, indicating sedentary occupations, and an exemption from 
the more active employments of life. Tbe beard and hair of 
all the magi are curled with the most extreme care, and they 
are distinctly blacked. "Wo will now return to the court, and 
visit tbe interior of tbe palace of Eboraabad. 

A glance at tbe detailed plan (fig 34) informs na that tbe 
obamber we are about to enter haa aix openings — three firom 
the king's court (n), one immediately fooing it, a lesser one 
on the same side, but farther to our left, and one to our right, 
at tbe end of tbe room. The three openings into the court, 
as well as tbe emaller opening on tbe opposite side, are aU 
furnished with double valves, or folding doors, but neither the 
central one, nor that at tbe end, have any such provision, 
being apparently used merely as passages of communication. 
All these doorways are paved with inscribed slabs, inserted in 
tbe floor, which is formed of bricks of tbe same dimensions 
as those of tbe couits, but which seem dried instead of kiln- 
baked, and they differ also from them in being without in- 
scriptions. We will also notice that at tbe extreme end of the 
room, a large uninscribed slab of gypsum is inserted in the 
floor; that in the floor between tbe two doors (a and h), there 
is a second uninscribed slab, with a circular hole in tbe centre, 
and that at each end of the slab there is a si^iiare hole in the 
pavement, like those for the teraphira in the oourta. 

Entering by the central opening or grand portal, and turn- 
ing to the right, we find that the conflagration of the roof has 
destroyed all the upper part of the slabs, so that we have only 

1 jErom. In Qui>ef. on Gen. :>iii. Heroilutiis, Clio, diiu. ; Diod. i. 
~" Ainaworlli's " Iteseurclios in Absjiib." 


the reinaina of eigit figures, including the lower pnrt of a 
long-robed person, with his feet fettered, brought up for judg- 
ment. Puasing tbe small door into the court, which haa lost 
its jambs, and the remains of two figures, we reach the corner 
of the room, which we find occupied by one slab, on which is 
sculptured the emblematic fioraL ornament. Setween.this 
emblematic oroainent and the opening (t), which we next ap- 
proach, nothing is left but the lower part of the dress of one 
of the officers of the king, on which iaan inscription. Passing 
the opening and the feet of a man, possibly the guard of the 
door, we arrive at the second comer of the room, with the 
emblematic ornament. On the length of wall which now oc- 
curs, ia sculptured a group composed of fifteen figures, nanieiy, 
the king, eight of his officera, and five persons of smaller stature, 
who are bound hand and foot : the fifteenth person doca not 
properly belong to this group, for he turns his face to the 
central opening (u), and ia the mogus or priest. 

Commencing at the central door we see the king with his 
chief cup-bearer ; before them are three prisoners, who wear 
caps with a tassel depending from the top, a long fringed tunic, 
and over this a cloak with a tassel at the corners : their beards 
are short, and no hair appears from beneath their caps. The 
foremost is on hia knees supplicatiiig the king, while two 
others stand behind, imploring hia mercy. The slabs on which 
these figures occur are very much, defaced, but from what wo 
are able to discern we are inclined to think the people repre- 
sented are some of the inhabitants of Palestine. Ei-hind the 
prisoners stand four persons, with inscriptions on the lower 
part of their tunica ; the first two are bearded, and seem to be 
the accusers ; the remaining two are nearly defaced, but behind 
the last appears the eunuch, whose of&ce it seems to be to 
usher into the presence of the king those who are permitted 
to appear before him. He is followed by another jitreon of 
the same race as those under punishment, but who is taller in 
stature (llotta, pi. 120) ; bis hands are manacled, and on his 
ankles are strong rings, fastened together by a heavy bar, the 
condilion, we read, in which tlie king of Assyria took Manas- 
seh to Bubylon,' and probably the very fashion of those fetters 
of brass in which, still later, the king of Cabylon bound Zedo- 


kiab.' This person is in the attitude of a supplicant, and on 
the lower part of his dress are several lines of cuneatic. The 
next group Tisible (fig. 70) ie a naked man, his limbs slretched 
out, and lua wrists and anklee fastened by a chain to pegs or 
pins inserted in the floor or table, while a tall bearded man in 
a short tunic, the (pnata st the Rah Tahachiya, the chief of the 
slayers, thf captain of the king's guard, (for so this ofBcerwas 
designated in the court of K ehuchadnezzar, in the time of the 
prophet Daniel,') is with a curved knife, beginning to remove 
the akin from the back of the arm of the prisoner, whose head 
is turned towards theking imploring pardon, the very words of 
vhich petition may possibly be contained in the cuneaticin- 

The prisouere are ehiefa of that race or nation (see fig. 59) 
■who are particularly distinguished by the sheepskin oiitfr 
garment raade with sleeves, hut terminating in the form of 
the unfaBhioned fleece, worn over a plain tunic reaching just 
below the knee. Instead of a belt, there seems, as we bate 
before observed, to he a cord wrapped several times round the 
waist, and terminating in a button or loop. Herodotus, in 
his enumeration of the nations that composed the army of 
Xerses,' mentions a people called Sagartii, who supplied a 
body of horse. He says, " These people lead a pastoral life; 
they have no offensive weapons, either of iron or brass, except 
their daggers ; their principal dependence in action is upon 
cords made of twisted leather, which they use in this manner; 
■when they engage an enemy tliey throw out these cords, 
having a noose at the extremity." These people are poasihly 
the same as the Togarmuh,' who traded with Tyre in horses 
and mules, people of Seythia and Turcomania, children of 
Gomer. The people represented on the slabs are a tall race of 
men, have short bearda terminating in spiral curls, seldom 
wear bracelets, earrings, or other effeminate omamenLc, and 
are, as we have seen by the nature of the tribute they bore in 
tlie chamber of passage, essentially a pastoral people, their 
entire cbanioteri sties being such as would seem to identify 
them with the Sagartii of Herodotus, and the Togarmah of 
Ezekiel. The three prisoners of this race in the centre of 
the frieze have their feet anil hands bound, and several 
lines of cuueatic run across the lower part of their dresses ; 
they are guarded by two bearded officers, the foremost of 
whom is a seeptre- hearer, and carries likewise a bow ; while 
the second, ■who wears a short tunic, has his hand raised ; they 
are introduced into the presence of the king by two eunuchs. 
Wo next arrive at the small doorway (s), which has ap- 
parently, like the passage (c), been guarded on each side by a 
priest, though only the lower part of one is remaining ; ou 
that part of the two jambs which belong to this chamber, is 
represented a winged divinity presenting the pino-cone, and 
followed by his attendant magus; their faces are direett^d 
toward the chamber, as in the act of meeting the person who 
was privileged to pass through the door into the inner apart- 
ment. In the floor of the doorway is the inscribed slub. On 
' Hetodotuf, Palyhfnmia, luxr. ' EEek.u 


ttie epace between thia door and the angle of the wall ^ 
prohably the figure of the king helonging to the last Bubject,! 
but the Blabs are wentieg. This brings ua to the emblem atiu 
comer omament, and to the wall at the end of the roooi^ 
from which we have selected, as a specimen of the BJgnifioantl 
decoration of the chamber, a raoBt reraarkahle scene. 

In the annexed representation (fig, 71) we recognise t 
fate which subsequently befel Zedekiah, king of Judah, 
recorded in the Second Book of Kings, and which we presume,* 
from the Bcnlptures in tliis chamber, 'waa no uncommonA 
punishment for the crime of rebellion. In the centre Btaiidi| 
the king, — before him are three persons, the foremost of \( 
is on bis knees, imploring mercy, and the two otben 
Htonding in a humble posture. The king is represeote 
thrusting the poiut of bis ^pear into one of the eyes of thd 
supplicant, while he holds in liis left hand the end of a corq 
which proceeds from rings that have been ineirted into thd 
lower lip of all three of the oaptiTes, who are likewise both 

pi. 118). 

manacled and fettered. Above their he-ad is an iD8orip< 
tion, — perhaps the very words they uttered. These prisoner 
wear the long tunic reaching to their ankles, and the Iw 
atanding have, in addition, a tight-fitting cap. The king ii 
attended by his cup-bearer and two bearded officers 1 


Bceptres. Facing the king, and imraediately behind the 
Bufl'erera, Btanih the ]-m3 m Kah Sigaeen, the chief of the 
governors, his right hand uplifted, as if in tlie act of speaking ; 
hehiad him are a eunuch and a, bearded officer. All three of 
these persons, as well as those behind the king, have an inscrip- 
tion on the lower part of their dresses. Leaving this scene, we 
pass the eymbolic comer ornament, and reach the small 
door-way (a), which leads into the court (n) on each side of 
which stands a magus, with his face towards the entrance ; 
but the sculptures on the jambs are gone. On the wall 
between this door and the central opening (m), is a siniilar 
representation of the king attended as usual, before whom are 
three fettered prisoners ; the foremost, who is on his knees, 
being clad in the long fringed tunic, and the two behind him 
in the short tunic j but the outer garment of sheepskin is not 
discernible, owing to the defacement of the upper part of the 
slab. From the foregoing description it will be found that in 
this chamber we have the record of the punishments inflicted 
on the chiefs of five nations, in which that of putting out the 
eyes, and that of flaying alive, are distinctly presented to 
us, while the preparatory minor cruelties of inserting a ring 
in the lip, and the putting on of heavy manacles and brazen 
fetters, are left to the imagination of the beholder. 

Passing out of the Hall of Judgment (vni,) by the passage 
of communication (t), we perceive on each side of us the 
king attended by his cup-bearer also walking out of the cham- 
ber, and met at the threshold by the Kab Signeen. (Botta, plate 
80.) Turning to our right, we find that from the opening to 
the comer there are eleven figures, the upper part of the whole 
being very much defaced by the calcination of the slabs, though 
enough of the frieze remains uninjured to show that the 
subject is very similar to those we have seen in the preceding 
chamber. Before the king, who is attended by his cup-bearer, 
sceptre- bearer, and a third person, are three prisoners, wear- 
ing the sheepskin garment, the foremost of whom is kneeling 
in supplication; Ihey are all fettered, and have the ring in 
the lower lip, to which is attached a thin cord held by the 


iing (fig. 72). Behind the captives are the E«b Signeen 
three other pereonH, who, as well as the three ofliuers following 
the king, have icscriptions on the lower part of their tiiniefc 
In the corner is the Bjmbolic ornament. 


ent; onv 

td, i« 

The end of the room, and all the adjoiBing side, 
entirely disappeared, till we come to a fragment of the low 
part of a bull which formed one of the jambs of o 
indicating that this chamber was an exterior apartment; 
therefore, that although now on the edge of the mound, i 
must formerly have led oat upon a court or terrace. From til ., 
hull to the nest comer both slabs and wall have disappearedf 
but on the wall at the end of tlic room we again see tliu ' 
executing judgment on some sheepskin clad prisoner 
Sagartii, two kneeling before him and two standing. Ben 
them is the accuser, or the king's chief counsellor, and atte 
ing the king is the cup-bearer, the whole group containil 
seven persons, all of whom, escepting the king and "" 
kneeling prisoners, have moi^or less insoriptinn on tbeir: 
After this scene we approach a door leading into a 
chamber (ni-). passing wiiioh wo reach the comer, which ■ 
again occupied by the syaibolic ornament that et 
peculiarly t« the corners of chambers where scenes of ju( 
ment and execution a: 


Proceeding from the coraer, we perceive two short-boarded 
priaonors manacled and fettered ; they have a simple band 
round their heads instead of tha cap, and are clad in long 
tuaies, with cords twisted round their waists ; have short 
cloaks, and wear Loots; they ure ushered into the presence of 
the king by the eunuch carrying the double rod (Botta, pi. 82), 
the Tartau of Scripture, who is preceded by two other officers 
of the court. 

We next aixive at a passage of communication (r), on eacli 
side of which is a magus ; and between thia opening and that 
at which we entered ia a scene containing tw(4ve figures, in- 
cluding the magus we have jiist passed. We have first three 
ofttcers of the court, preceded by the Rah Signeen, who is ad- 
dressing the king, between whom and himself are four pri- 
soners, iwo standing, and two kneeling to the king. The pri- 
Boners are of the race of men which we have before remarked 
to be of short stature, wearing short beards, tasselled caps, 
like the modem fez, and long tunics with short upper garment. 
The king has several lines of cuneatic on his rube, and, as 
usual, is attended by his cup-bearer and selikdar. The coun- 
tenances of these prisoners (Botta, pi. 83) do cot exhibit those 
peculiarities we find in other sculptures representing the 
people habited in the same way, but whether this be owing to 
the artist or to the imperfect condition of the upper part of 
the slabs, we know not. From the peculiarities delineated, 
we conceive that these people are natives of Palestine, Jews, 
probably Samaritans. In Daniel we learn tliat when Sbad- 
rach, Meshach, and Abednego were cast into the fiery furnace, 
they " were bound in their coats, their hosen, and their hats, 
and their other garments."' The close rcseniblanee be- 
tween the costume here described and that worn by these 
captives, and its contrast with the dress of the Assyrians, must 
strike every observer. In no instance, excepting in tlie king, 
do we aee the Assyrians with bats or caps upon their heads or 
with hoots upon their feet, whereas these captives wear hats 
or caps, and have boots or hosen on their feet. As in former 
bassi-rilievi, they have rings in their lips. It is not a little 
remarkable that when Sennacherib, a successor of the founder 
of this palace, invaded Judea, the prophetic message sent by 
Isaiah in reply to the prayer of Hezekiah should contain the 
1 Daniel, iii. 2a, 21. 


metaphor hera embodied, and probably enacted in these vi 
ciiambers. " I know thy abode, and thy going out, aod th] 
coming in, and thy rage against me. Because thy ra§l 
against me, and thy tumult, is come up into mine ears, theiw 
fore will I put my hook in thy nose, and m^ bridle tn thf 
lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thirid 

The first verse, "I know thy abode, and thy going out, a: 
thy coming in," we surmise alludea to the incantations aa 
idolatrous emblems and figures, which, oe we have see 
crowded together at the entrances of the Assyrian palat 
the means of ensuring the safety and success of the kings < 
Assyria in their going out and coming in. The Becoad t( 
ia here presented literally before ua. 

Eefore leaving this section of the palace we will [ 
through the opening (b) into 

cffAMBEE vn. 

This small chamber communicates with the one we b 
leaving, by an opening without doors, and the aides of whie 
have disappeared. Upon entering we find that there is n 
other outlet, and that the significant decorations on the wall 
are divided into an upper and lower illustration, by a band a 
cuneatic. The room may be likened to a small volume on tlH 
pleasures of the table and the chase, illustrated by bighti 
wrought engravings, the test occupying the middle of tbf 
page in twenty lines of cuneatio, and the whole volume pra 
seating a surface of 140 feet in length, and 9 feet in height. 

The first section of the volume is dedicated to the pleosm 
of the table ; unfortunately it is considerably damaged, b 
nevertheless, on turning to the right, we can still distinguialii 
on the upper part of the wall the figures of the guests Bitting[ 
on high seals, and holding up their drinking cups, in thi 
act of pledging each other, or of drinking the long's bealtk 
Between the tables stand the eunuchs attending on the coiu 
vivialiats, and at the end wall is an elegant folding tray, ten 
minating in the legs of an animal, on which some persons 
seem to be preparing food ; all the rest of this upper subjeot 

' iBoisb, lurii. 28, 29 ; Ezek. uiviii. 4 ; Deat, uviil G, 19 ; 2 Einn^ 
lii. 27; Amos, iy. 2; PbI. ciii. 8. 

IB defaced The lower Ijne of illuBtration or the Bection of 
the volume which la dedicated to the pleasures of the field, is 
n ore leg ble CommeuLiug at the entrtnoe we find in the 
corner to our right at the extremity of the hunting ground, 
an artihcial pieee of water m which we aoiue lish and two 
pleas ire boats On the margin af the lake is a kiosk or plea> 
Bure 1 ouse the roof supported by columnt resembling those 
of the lomc order m Ortcian architecture (fig 73) 

Surrounding the kiosk aro fruit-trees, possibly the fig and 
others, the branches of which appear to bear leavea and fruit ; 
the round appendages being painted blue, end the others red. 
Hear to tliis spot is a hiU and grove of fir-trees, abounding 
with pheasants ; and on the top of the hill is an altar, re- 
minding us of the graves and altars on high places, so often 
alluded to in the sacred writings, as a heathen custom which 
the people of Israel were forbidden to imitate. " They sacrifice 
on the tops of the mountains, and bum incense upon the hills, 
under oaks, and poplars, and elms (fir-trees), because the 
shadow thereof is good.'" This little monument ia raised 
upon a square base : the shaft htis six flutiogs, and the entab- 
lature eight; the whole is crowned in the middle and at the 
angles with step-like battlements. These details are not un- 
important, as they tend to show the similarity between this 

1 Hosea, it. 13. 

200 KHOBSiBi 

altar and the one engraved on the Babylonian stone known as 
tlie CaiUou de Mtehaud, preserved in the Cahinet of Anli- 
quitiea of the Bibliotliique Natianale at Paris. 

To this the king is hastening in his chariot, drawn by two 
horeea at full speed (fig. 74) ; he holds the I'uU-blown lotns, 
and two huda rKpresented after the Egyptian mode of deli- 
neating tl]e plant, and is accompanied by his charioteer and 



hand is painted blue. The LandJe of the driver's Tthip is a 
gazelle's foot. Immediately preceding the chariot are three 
spearmen and two sceptre -bearers on foot, and following the 
chariot are throe horsemen (fig. 75), perhaps two of the king's 
sons attended by a hearded domCBtic. Next follows a sceptre- 
bearer on foot, whom we take to be the keeper of the pleasure- 
grounds ;' ' thea a groom holding the horse of the king's son in 
one hand, and in the other his whip and a hare ; and in fig. 76 
we have the king's son shooting at a target, while over head 
are several birds upon the wing, and one which has been shot 
by an arrow- On the fragment that remains there appears 
also to be a diac, in the middle of which it ia easy to distin- 
guish the figure of a lion in which arrows are implanted. 
This may have been, the representation of a lion on a target 
for tlio king's sons cr young sportsmen to practice on previously 
to encountering the real object. The remaining portion of the 
division of the frieze on this wall, represents two eunuchs 
bearing game (fig. 77), 

The adjoining side of the chamber is entirely defaced until 
just before arriving at the entrance. Two horsemen are 

seen galloping in the midst of trees ; both are clothed in 
simple tunics, fastened with girdles, stockings made of 
rings of mail, and boots laced up in front. Tlie first has a 
lance, the second ia flogging bts horse with a whip that has 
' Nobemiah, il. 6. 

three lushes The hamcBs offers nothing reraarkahle 
birdfl are seen flying through the trcts, and juJgmg from 

two long feith era in their tails, they belong to the family of 
kata», or partridge, bo i ommon throughout tlie East In front 
of them ii.e have a continuation of the forest in the middle 
of which are two men on foot, one of whom holds a haro and 
the other a bird (flg. 78). Farther on is seen a horse witbonl 
a rider ; on its head there is a bird of prey, which seems by 
the shortness of its beak to be a &lcon. 


central opening (o) we find eacli aide of the passage of com- 
munication is BOulptured with a representation of the king 
followed by his chief cup-hearer, walking into the chamber 
(t), and met at the threshold by the Eab Signeea, the chief 
of the governors or one of the o-sn Hakim, or wise men of 
the court. On the floor of the passage is a slab inscribed with 
two colmnna of cuneatic. The chamber itself has four open- 
ings, two with doors, and two without, so that when the ieavea 
of the former were closed, the chamber became the sole lino 
of communication to the adjoining apartment through the 
passage (o). The smallyr entrance (a) on the left we shall 
designate the sacred door, because it is guarded by winged di- 
Tinilies and thetr attendant magi. Tho decorations on the 
walla are divided into two lines of illustration by the text in 
the vernacular of Aaayria, a text that we hope may aoon be aa 
intelligible as are the accompanying illustrations in the uni- 
versal language of art. 

Turning to the right so aa to read the eventa in their proper 
sncceaaion, or chronological order, we perceive that a large 
piece of the historical record is wanting ; nothing in fact being 
left until we pass the large door-way (b), asd then on the 
second slab of the upper line (Botta, pi. 89) nought but an 
indication of some chariots and horses which seem to belong 
to the king, who is receiving a procession of tribute- bearers 
(Botta, p!. 88} clad in richly embroidered abort tunics, with 
sleeves terminating ahove the elbow. They wear maaaive 
bracelets, a hand round the waiat, a short aword, but neither 
hoots nor shoes. Their beards are short, hut the head-dress 
cannot be discovered owing to the calcination of the upper 
part of the slabs. We may presume that the frieze represents 
the successful termination of the expedition against thia people, 
and that the former part of the campaign was t,o have been 
read oa that portion of the wall now defaced. The nest slab 
aflbrds ua nothing but tho feet of some fibres, and then the 
advance of the regular troops under cover of tall shields to the 
attack of a city. In advance of these ore those warriors who 
carry the round shield, and wear the crested helmet resembling 
the Greek in form, ooe of whom is, with terrible barbarity, 
plunging his sword into the throat of a auppiicaot, (Botta, pi. 
90). Almost the whole of the adjoining slab has disappeared, 
excepting a tower of the city seen behind two men in ehoit 



tnnioB and havisg oval fihielda, who seem detcnnioed to renst \ 
the furioiiB onset ef a charioteer (fig. 79). 

The bas-relief being in a bad condition, it is difficult to malia 1 
out the details; hut it would aeem Ihat the Tanquished are J 
again different from any we have sb yet seen. They have a. J 
short beard, and no hair ie visible upon the top of the liead^ 
they are clothed in a tunic descending only to the middls of 
their thighs ; their legs are encased in short boots ; their 

shields are of a pointed oval, and their sabres bent so as i 
reaomble a Turkish yatagan. One of these vanquished peopl 
is nndiT the horses' feet, while another appears up in Uie si 
through faulty perspective ; a third is flying before the car 
lastly, two of them are standing face to face with the eDcmj, 
and protecting their bodies with their shields, as if still tvish 
ing to defend theraselvea resolutely with the help of thei 

This brings us to the end of the room and to the angle ( 
e passage (□), on the sides of which the subject is continue 
(£otta, pi. 100), the chariots of the great king being oppoM 
by another body of the same people, who are again seen route 
by the regular cavalry (Botta, pi, 99), and also by the ohariol 
of the king, interaperacd with small detachments of cavalr^ 
(Botta, pi. 94), notwithstanding which successive disastei^ 
they continue to oppose on foot the progress of the invad 
"* ' now airired at the small side entrance (a), wluch 


have called til e "aacred dogr;" on the jambs bulongiDg l.o tlie 
room IB sculptured the figure of a magus, his right hand ele- 
vated, as if reciting the incantation inscribed on the slab of 
the pavement, and his left holding the trilobed plant. Be- 
tween this small recess and the entrance from the outer hall, 
the upper part of the slabs is entirely calcined. Here then, 
from the entrance (u) whence we set out, we begin to read the 
lower line of illustration. 

On the first slab the representation of a fort upon a hill ia 
indistinctly traceable, and we have, then, nothing further till 
slab 21 at the eod of the room, when wo have the attack of a 
city by some of the regular troops, bowmen, under cover of a 
high curved shield. What is left of the city walls seems to 
indicate that they were accessible only by scaling ladders, which 
some of the crested spearmen with round shields are mounting 
under cover of the arrows of the naked bowmen; there is 
now an interval of a slab, followed by another fort or city 
(Botta, pi. 97), situated on a hill, and also only accessible by 
scaling ladders. This city is defended by men wearing turbans. 
The subject of the next slab, 25, is misplaced in Botta in con- 
sequence of a mistake in the title. It represents the attack of 
another side of the same city by the crested spearmen. 

Paaaing the door (b) we find a fortress of one range of towers 
situated on a rocky hill ; the fort has been approached bj a 
body of the regular archers who wear a breast-plate (Botta, 
pi. 86) over a short tunic, and the pointed cap, and carry a 
round shield, with zigzag decoration round the inner margin. 
The towers are defended by men. who use the spear. It is to 
be remarked that the Assyrians have not set fire to the gates 
of this city, as appeared to be their usual practice in attacking 
a fortified place. Behind the bowmen is the general of tho 
Assyrian army, who heads the attack of the regular troops on 
this aide the city; he wears a breast- plate and long tuuiu, and 
is sheltered by a high shield, curving over at the top, home 
by a bearded man in a short tunie. Upon tho rucks on. which 
the fort is built is a native contending with ono of the enemy 
hearing the round shield. 

Wo next see that a troop of horse has been detached from 
the main army to the attack of a very remarkable place, built 
upon a precipitous rocky eminence on the sea cuust (Botta, 
pi. 89), and that on their march they encounter a body of the 



nativeB, among whom ia an African (Botta, pi. 88). The 
towers of tlio fort are defended by Bpearmen, and all Ihe people 
on the walla wear a hood, or cover their heads with a part of 
their cloak (fig. 80). As usual, the attack is led by the crested 

warriors, who carry the spear and round shield, followed by 
long-haired bowmen ; the military tactics displayed are worthy 
of remark, the van discharging their arrows kneeling on one 
knee, while the rear rank staad up so as not t^ interiere with 
the free action of the liue in advance. Though the place 
attacked ia of small dimensions, it ia evidently of importance, 
SB it forms the landing- pi ace guarding tlie pass to the in(«rior 
of the country, and is besides contiguous to a much larger 
place, of which the citadel, built on a detached hilt behind 
the town, is of considerable extent. Two battering rams have 
been propelled against the walls, up an inclined road built of 
hewn stone, and between the heaiegers and the castle are some 
cuneatic characters. Od the other side of the town the attack 
is conducted by the regular troops, under the command of the 
eunuch, who draws hia bow from behind Ihe shelter of the 
long curved shield. In advance of the heavy-anned infantry 
on this side also of the town, ia a troop of crested spearmen. 
Ifearer the passage of comrounication (o) is a group of inha- 
bitunta of the last town, carried away captive, and guarded b;, 
a bowman with pointed cap, and bearing a sceptre (Itott^ I 
pi, 92), fig, 81. Both men and women are tall, and wdar t) 


fringed haram, or blanket, tlirown over the head and left 
shoulder, exactly like that worn by the Araba at the present 
day. One of tho woinea ia carrying a small girbeh, or water- 
ekin, in her hand, and her feet, like those of the other prl' 
Sonera, ore bound with sandala exactly similar to those seen 
in Sennaar and Arabia. The sole ia maintained in the middle 
by a band fastened on each side of the foot to a strap that goes 

Fig, 81 CJPTlTBfl Ann BPOIL (BOTTi, pi. 92), tOWBR FABI. 

round it, passing behind the heel ; another strap secares the 
anterior extremity of the sole bypassing between the toes. A 
second female, clothed in the same manner, is seen carrj'ing a 
naked cliild astride on her left shoulder, jast as Arabian women 
do now. Before this woman is a eunuch with a pointed hel- 
met, raising his sceptre in hia right hand. This eunuch does 
not wear his usual civil attire, but ia completely armed : the 
coat of mail is seen on his shoulders, from which his quiver is 
suspended, and he holds a bow in hia left hand; his legs are 
covered with a tissue of close rings of mail, over which arc 
half-boots, laeed up in front. Three personages walk before 
the eunuch; they are men belonging to the same nation as 
the women j their dress is exactly the same, and their sex can 
only be distinguished by their physiognomy and their beard ; 
the latter is shorter than that of the Assyriaiis; the hair 
cannot be seen, as it is hidiJen by the hood. We shall see 
those prisoners conductt^d into the presence of tlie king. 


In iront of this group, which is coatinued on the walls o 
the opening (o), ia a chief of the same people, manuuled e 
guarded by one of the king's officers. He is brought Lefor^ 
the king, who obviously commauds his immediate executioQ 
(Botta, pi. 100), and the euuuuh holds the beard or tlirout a 
bis prieouer with one bond, while with the other he draws hi 
Bword fi;om the Bcabburd to execute the order. The king i 
ia hia chariot, preceded by two grooms, and, as he ia not 
the act of fighting, accompanied by the officer carrying t 
parasol. The horses' trappings ofi'er nothing new ; only a 
the details are in a good state of preser ration, we have a p^i 
feet view of the hook at the extremity of the yoke, to whi(d 
hook ia attached the tassel that bangs upon the hoTHes' flank; 
it is also evident that the bridle passed, into a ring inside f ' 
hook, and, after traversing it, divided into three thongs. 

The two grooms, who are etnading before the car, hold 
arms stretched out and lowered before them. Perhaps t 
attitude was intended to intimate to the prisoner that he wn 
to kneel down and undergo his fate. The dress of thaM 
warriors is simple : being merely a tunic tied by a girdl^ 
with a, piece of cloth wrapped round their loins, for so w( 
account for the appearance of the frioge which hangs obliquely 
before and behind. 

The eunuch ia in his war costume, every detail of which it 
beautifully made out. Ho has on a pointed helmet; c 
fringed at the bottom comes down to his knees, and hia breast 
is covered with a cuirass, formed of a tissue covered with rowtf 
of scales ; both cuirass and tunic have fringe round the bottom.' 
His legs are defended, not by chain-armour, but by a stocking 
covered with imbricated scales ; over this defensive armont 
are boots laced in front, and reaching up to the knee-pan. 
llie unhappy prisoner appears to raise his hands in a 8upp1i-< 
catmg manner. Passing the passage, we find the regulaC 
troops under the command of two beardless officers, the Bab- 
saris and Eabahakeh of the king (Botta, pi. 99), advanciajt 
under cover of tall shields to tlie attack of a well-fortifie4^ 
isolated hill (Botta, pi. 93), the inhabitants of which wear 
caps and use the how. Preceding the regular troops are eomK 
of the naked bowmen, their long hair hound up by a fillet, audi 
in advance of them the cresti^d warriors chrnb the rocks, anjl 
intend with the people upon the walls, while on the fartht-E 



side the fort is attacked by a second party of bowmen. The 
successful termination of tbe siege is intimated by some of tlie 
chiefs being brought by two of the regular troops to the liing, 
who, BB on the former occasion, is in bis chariot ; these people, 
however, do not wear the harara or blanket, and their feet and 
legs are protected by closely- fit ting boots. Proceeding past 
the " sacred door," we come to the siege of a Tery conspicuons 
place, assailed on both sides by tbe regular troops. A batter- 
ing tarn has reitched the walls by an Inclined plane of hewn 
stones; and immediately following this subject is the attack 
of another strongly- built place erected on still higher rocks, 
but the slabs are too much defaced to allow of any dctailedl 

Quitting this chamber by the passage of communication (o) 
at the end wall, we enter the Chamber of Audience. 

Walking over t 
sides of which, as we have before 
continuation of the conquests re- 
corded in the last chamber, wc find 
the apartment we have now en- 
tered has four openings, two of 
which are furaished with doors. 
Turning to the right, we see upon 
tlie wall two short-bearded men 
(Bottfl, pi. lOH), each bearing two 
cups of simple form ; they ore 
habited exactly like the one of 
which we give an engraving (fig. 
82), end are followed by two of 
the same race bringing sacks. The 
r('Bt of the wall is defaced until 
we reach a doorway (h) ; and then, 
in tbe space between tbe door and 
the corner of the roam, is anothrr 
of tbe same people bearing a sack, 
and with his face directed towards 
the corner, from which we con- 
jecture that he accompanies the group of fi' 
tured on the odjoining wall (Botta, pi. lOG), at the 


KHoaaiHAD. — CLASP. 

chamber, tlie two foremoat of whom carry cups, and tie 8 
others Batiks. The centre Baek-hearer (fig. 
garment fuateiJEd by a clasp (fig. 83), a peculiarity of costu; 
that leads to the surmise that these people are from the 
coast of Cilicia, and may be the people eulled Milyaj, who 
Herodotua tells us wore helmets of leather, and who had 
their vesta confined by clasps.' Upon the "waH between 
the Bccond comer and the passage of com mimi cation (i) 
■we have sixteen figures : near the opening the king at- 
tended by his Cup-bearer and Belikdar, and before him sevea 
offleers of hia court, the first three wanting the up)ier 
part of the figure, but the fourth is a governor or Knra, 
Pachavatha or Paahaw, one who is set over provinces bd- 
nexed to the kingiJoni by conquest; the fifth is a eunuch, 
and then another paahaw, or one of those called in Daniel,' 
KTjn-niTiK, aehashdarpenaiya, that is to say, one of those wl|^ 
has tree access to the palace and is privileged to stand b^VM 
the king. Kext comes a eunuch, and then another gov^3| 
or Hakim. These high functionaries we suppose to have 'hat' ' 
the administration of the principal province of the empire, 
offices which, at a subsequent period, were held by tlie three 
companions of the prophet Daniel, Shadrach, Meshach anJ 
Ahednego, who were " set over the affairs of the province of 
~ " ":. 49,) probably in obedience to an ancieEl 

After these dignitaries comes the chief 
I officer of tribute, with hia insignia tf\ 
I office, the two wands, introducing tin 
I Sultans of Medineta followed by two ■■■^ 
I Each carry two cups terminating in t^| 
head of a lion, and behind them are tjH 
I other men with the more ordinary finl 
of cup or tazza. Passing the entr^fl 
1 (x) we find the wall from the opening Ira 
corner occupied by nine figures, tai 
from the comer to the email door (t) it 
Fig. 83,— cLiBP. {jjg gQ^ pf ^[jg rf^m by five more, whioli 

properly belong to the same group. The subject ia nearly ■ 
duplicate of that we have just left, being the king attended by 
his cup-bearer addressing the seven chief officers of his lioUM- 
' Fulylym. Ixxvii. ' JJuu. i. 6. 

hold, who stand before him in the order ioiariubly observed : 
the remaining figiirts are the deputy chief of tribute intro- 
ducing two goveiTiorB of provinces, followed by two men ear- 
r}-ing lion-headed drinking cups. The smull door leads iutu 
the UiTiuing Chamber (ix) (fig. 31), and the sculptures on the 
jambs of the room we ate describing are occupied by two 
figures of sceptre- bearers. On the length of wall between 
tlie corner and the central entrance (o) there are twelve figures ; 
the king, his right hand elevated and his left carrying a full- 
blown lutuE and bud, is followed by bis Cup'beorer and Selik- 
dar ; in front are two persona of -whom we are entirely uncer- 
tain, owing to the defueement of the slabs ; but following 
these is a eunuch, then a governor, and then the deputy Tartan, 
who ia introducing four of the aame tribut«- bearers we have 
80 often seen, the first one bearing a tray on which are rosette 
clasps, two others also with trays containing earrings, and the 
fourth two cups, thus completing the decorations of tfaia cham- 
ber. We would point out to observation that the figure of the 
kiug is three times repeated on the walls, twice as walking 
out of the small divining chamber (ix), and once as coming 
out of the chamber (xi), in each instance to receiye tribute 
from the race of people who wear the turban or cap; the only 
exceptions to this head-dress being two of the cup-bearers, 
whose heads are bound with a fillet. 

We now return to the centre passnge of communication (x), 
in order to enter the Inner Chamber of Audience, 


Entering through the passage of communication (x), we are 
met on each side by the four-winged divinity. Hub, and bis 
attendant magus ; and turning t« the right we meet seven 
figures between the entrance and the comer. The first is a 
Sultan Uedinut, whose insignia iadicute that he is governor of 
two towns, or of a province containing two walled cities, then a 
Sultan, whose badges of office arc effaced, preceding two men, 
each carrying two cupa ; and again a governor of a pro- 
vince with two tawns, followed by two men bearing sacks. 
Thia brings Us to the corner, and to the end wall, on which 
we find four men bearing sacks, but they are proceeding in a 
contrary direction to those last dcRcribed, and evidently belong 
to tlie long proocBsion ou the adjoining wall, of wbieb littlu 
p 2 


beside the feet of the people remains ; of these, we recogniw 
the king witli his two attendants, and before Lim the af.vta 
officers of his court, Tartan, and five tribute- bearers. Ftma 
the third comer to the email door (e) are the figures of tM< 
sceptre- bearers, and on one side of the recess of the dooHfl 
another Boeplre-bearer, while on the answering recess atandafl 
beardless sijcarman. 

This person we conceive to be one of the mn, Teraania' ot ' 
porters, from his position at this important little doorway ; and 
as the word teraania is derived from a Chaldee word aignilyiiij 
a gate, we have little doubt it was the name by whith tLis 
officer was designated at the As.4yrian court. 

From the fourth corner to the entrance (x) are twelve figures; 
the king carrying the trilobed plant, followed by hia eiip- 
bearer and an armed spearman, probably the second door- 
keeper. Before the king are seven of his officers, the last but 
one being the deputy-Tartan, Having now arrived at the 
passage by which we entered, before leaving thia quarter ol 
the palace we will pass through the small doorway (e) j ' 
examine the chamber (sir) within. ' 



Passing tiie armed Teraania or door-keepe: , 

small apartment, 29 feet 3 inches by 19 feet 6 inches, whicJi 
from the representations upon the walls, we conjecture to haye 
been the cliamber where the king hold council with his officer 
before giving audience, and to which he probably retired while 
the prooesaion of tribute-bearers, or those to whom he gate 
audience, filed off. Upon the wall facing the entrance, we 
see the king, attended by hia cup-bearer, eouversing with bis 
chief minister, behind whom, on the adjoining wall, stand 
seven other officers, and two at the end between the comer 
and the door. On the adjoining wall behind thi; cup-beanr 
are six other attendants. It is to be remarked that the vhala 
of the officers and attendants in this room, escepting the Bab 
Signeen, are unarmed, and that they are uniformly in the at- 
titude of respect. We may suppose that they are ranged on 
the walls in the order in which they preceded and followed 
the king into the presence-chamber, where we have already 
Been them in. the same order occupying the entire space be- 
' Eita, Tu. 2i. 


tween the pasaage (x) and the upper end of tlie room ; tlie 
lower end of tlie room, beyond tlie opening, being apparently 
appropriated exeluaively to the tribute -bearers. 

Returning through the presence-chamber (xi) and the cham- 
ber of audience (vi) to the hall of posaage (v), we enter tlie 
next hall (ii), Uie Banqueting Hull. 


Placing- ourselves in the central doorway (e) we find that 
this must have been the door of entry, as oa each side of ua is 
BCulptured a full-length portrait of the king, attended by his 
cup-bearer, walking into the hall we are about to enter, and 
met by the Rab Signeen. Upon surveying the hall we per- 
ceive that it contains six entrances, three large and three small, 
all closed by folding doors ; and that the walls are decorated 
with two lines of illustration, divided hj a band of cuneatio. 
Turning to the right, we discorer that the upper illustration, 
as far as the comer, is a representation of a banqueting scene, 
the details of which, as well as the upper part of the slabs at 
the end of the hall, are almost entirely obliterated until we 
aiTire at the small door (a) on the opposite side, in one recess 
of which we see the lower part of the figures of some soldiers. 




All the sculpturea, however, from this point to the centMl 
door (f), are too much injured to admit of description. The 
next two slabs we meet show the attack of a city (fig. 84) 
(Botta, plate 70), on a ieaa elevated promontory on the river's 
bank than aome seen in chamber v, and which, is, therefore, 
more accessibla to the infantry, who have advanced to the very 
foot of the walls under cover of their tall shields. On the 
next three slahs we can trace the anncessful termination 
of the siege in the circnm stance of aome of the Bheep-skin 
clad warriors being brought before the king in his chariot. We 
have now reached tjie second email door (o) on thia side, in 
the recess of which, and on the wall beyond, only the indica- 
tion of figures can he discerned, till we arrive at the cod of 
the hall, when we see some prisoners in the sheep-akin outer 
garment, short tunic, and lioota, escorted along the banks of a 
stream ; the foremost is carrying a girheh, or water-skin, 
which had probably been used in crossing the river. Entering 
the recess of the gate (b) leading into the hall of audience, 
■we find a representation (fig. 85) of the attack of a city built 
on a very precipitous headland, backed by a conspicuous hill. 
The king's spearmen, who have gained the walls by traversing 
the rocky promontory, are supported in their onset by the 

raeroenariee who use the how, wear a short sword, and i 
naked to the waist, their only habiliment being a short 1 
The opposite walls of the city are attacked by the regi 



troops, and a battering ram, wbieh has beoa propelled up a 
well -construe ted causeway, to the very walla where its opera- 
tiona are beginning to take effect. IJt^liind is tlie king's gene- 
ral, perhaps his cup-bearer, accompanied by his shield-bearer, 
both of whom have advanced to within bow-shot of the walls. 
Tile inhabitants of both the upper aud lower city, people wear- 
ing the sheep-skin and armed with spears and square wicker 
shields, but using neither bows nor sn'ords, are defending 
themselves manfully from the aasault of the king's forces. 

Placing ourselves upon the cuneatic slab in the doorway (h), 
in the centre of tLe end wall of the hall, we see the represent- 
ation of a large vase standing upon the ground, that evidently, 
&om its dimensions, contained "royal wine in abundance, ac- 
cording to the state of the king."' Into this vase two eunuchs 
are dipping drinking oupa terminating in. the head of a lion. 
(See lig, 86.) 

These cups resemble the tprra-cotta drinking cups of the 
Greeks (fig. 88) in so far as they also terminate in tlio head of 
an animal, but we infer from the construction of the handle of 
the Assyrian cups (fl.g. 86) with a hinge-like articulation to 
the howl, which could not be effective except in metal, from 
their being used at the king's table, likewise irom the fact of 

their being brought as tribute, that they were made of gold, 

like those uicd at the royui feast given by King Ahasueras.' 

' Either, i. 7. ' E«ber, i. 7. 


Two eunuclis, with replenished cups, advance into the room, , 
preceded by another heardlees attendant in the attitude of re» I 
Bpect, carrying ttie minasha or fan. In advance of these ai* J 
three short-bearded perl'otmera on the Ijre, ushered into i 

great chamber by two eunncba. The muBicianB are dad i 
short tunic held fast by a girdle, and their hair la drawn i 
and terminates above the shoulders in a single row of cu^ 
They proceed with measured step, singing and twanging thai 
lyres, which are suspended by a broad band passing over tt ' 
right shoulder. The instrument itself (fig. 89) somewhat n_ 
sem hies the Greek lyre; it haa asq^uare body and upright sidck 
the latter being connected by a crossbar, 
which are fixed strings that seem to have h 
rather nmneroua, for we can count eight ift^ 
k'list, and in the part that is corroded an 
there is room for three or four more. Exao 
f Ij' similar instruments are now seen in Su] 
and Dongola, and the mode of playing ii 
rig. 80.— L>™.. |.jjg fig^t band holds a short plectrum to 
the intervals, while the left is used to atop and twang t 

Hext (fig. 90) are four bearded sceptre-bearers, 
tunica, hoMing up their drinking cups in the act of respond] 
to the toast, or of pledging each other. Between the Bceptr 


beorera is one of the dishea irith the food in it, placed upon 
the floor, as a.t this day in the east, where it is customary to 
deposit them as they ore hrought id, or removed from the 
I baDqueting hall ; then follow seven tables with legs termi- 
' Bating in lions' claws, and apparently fiimiehed with a cloth, 
on which the viands are placed. Four guests are at each table, 
sitting upon high seats richly earned and ornamented with 
bulls' heads : the feet are inverted cones formed of gradually 
decreasing rings. A |unuch stands behind each seat, to fun 
and wait upon the guests ;' they, aa well as the conviviuliHts, 
are attired in the long robe and fringed scarf. 

At the feast Ahasuerua made unt« all the people that were 
present in Shushan, the seats were of gold and silver, and it 
would appear from the word used to express the kind of seat, 
rwa, niatout, a couch, that it wbb to recline on. Whether 

such Beats were used on that particular occasion only, or 
whether the custom of reclining at meals, as we see represented 
in Roman haasi-rilievi, had at that time come into use, is very 
doubtfid ; but it ia quite certain, from Egyptian and other 
sources than the present example, that the more ancient mode 
was to sit at Tneals in tlie way we here see, and on seats with' 
outbacks. The fate of the prophet Eli also illustrates thia 
practice of using seats without backs, and "he fell from off 
the Beat backward by the side of the gate, and his neck brake. 

and he died."' In the friezes before us the attitude of all (b« 
guests is similar, the left hand resting on the knee or on Qit 
bull's head at the end of the har of the seat, while the rigbt 
hand is raised in the act of drinking the king's health at in 
pledging those on the opposite side of the table. (Botta, pL 
165.) Botta found the head of a bull in bronze, which might 
have belonged to one of these seats. The tables of guests l«r- 
minate the scene, and it seems to us not improbable that everj 
particular delineated upon tlie walls had been realised witl 
them. Thus it was in this chamber "Me harp and Tiol wi 
iu their feasts " in the days of their prosperity ; that the II 
ginal of the wine-vase of the king once stood within the m 
recess upon the wall of which we have now but the repreai 
tation; while the tables and seats just as represented, once 
substance, occupied the centre of this hall; and that it « 
here, in this very chamber of his palace, that the great kc 
was wont to feast the "nobles and princes of the provinces' 
- on his return fi-om his conquests. 

Having now accomplished the circuit of the apartment 
returned to the doorway (b) whence we started, we will b^ 
the esaminatioa of the lower line of illustration, aa we ca 
ceive that it was intended to be read so that the evenU of ti 
campaign should fallow each other in chronological sucoesda 

In the first slab we see the king, preceded by his stitndav 
bearer and accompanied by his other offtcers in war chariol 
pursuing a troop of the cavalry of his determined enemii 
the sheep-skin clad race, who had advanced to meet the i 
vader, but who are routed and overthrown before they ci 
gain the protection of a large and important city built on 1] 
shore of a take or banks of a stream. The citadel, which 
built on a fertile hill at the hack of the town, is surroundt 
by a wall, one part of the sloping side of the 1 
rendered inaccesaible by a high wall from its base : the toi 
itself is fortified by high embattled walls flanked by towel 
which are pierced with square windows ; the doora, on ti 
contrary, are evidently arohed — a fact worthy of nttentio 
There is a short inscription on the bottom of the kill on whii 
stands the citadel. (Fig. 9 1.) 

Fourteen of the inhnbitantfl, perhaps some of the obtbIi 

which bod attempted to arrest the advance of the king, a 

1 1 Sam. iT. IB. > Either, i. 3. 



-;:^p^- OBif 


^ ,JfflM 


mittcd by the Assyrians ; we know from tliese aul.hentic re. 
cords and from profane history that the dreadful punishment 
of impalement was no uncommon practice. Cariits impaled 
3000 of the chief nobility of Babylon,' and this cruel death 
is not unusual in Persia and Turkey even in our own time. In 
the scene before u.i wc find scaling ladders placed at d 
parts of the walls, and some of the bold crested i 
have already gained the second wall, seemingly without re- 
sistance. " They shall climb the wall like men of war; and 
they shall maruh every one on his ways, and they shall not 
break their ranks."' To the left, are seen tliree of them 
ascending one after the other. In the right hand they hold a 
lance, and in the left a large rounil shield, which appears 
covered with regularly-dispoai'd plates. 'I'hey also wear a 
sword suspended to a belt, which passes over the breast, and 
is crossed by another, so as to resemble exactly the belts of 
modern soldiers. 

The people within the walls have fled to the upper town 
and citudel, which is in flames, painted red, and the men are 
seen on the towers in attitudes exjiressive of the greatest con- 
sternation and distress. Ooe man, wounded by an arrow, 
> Herodotua, Thalia, clix. ' Joel, li. 7. 

220 KnonsABic, — keoistebinb the Bi!\na op the ( 

falls from the walls into the valley below, while ot>: 
ing on the hill raise their handa in all the agony of dtspur, 
Oq the opposite side of the city the regular troops of the king 
have advanced under cover of the tall shields. 

The nest scene, sculptured on the wtiU at the end of (hB 
hall, represents the termination of the first part of the ciB- 
paign against tliese people. The king in his chariot, attendtd 
by hia nmbrelln-bearer and charioteer, stops to question wne 
prisoners who are brougtit to liim and to command a leffiia 
to be made of their number, and of the number of the sImb 
whose heads are piled up in a heap before him,' The onstoiii 
of cutting off the heads of the slain still prevails in eastera 
warfare, and rewards are given to the soldier who can bring 
two heads from the field of battle, the iiumbera of the killrf 
being ascertained by counting the heaps that are brought. 
The Mohammedans, who should always be ready to take the 
field against the enemies of their faith, leave a tuft of hair oB 
the top of their heads in case they should die in battle »si 
consequently have their heads cut off, in order that the hilt 
might be used as a handle rather than the beard or mout)) 
the touching of these by the infidel would defile the i 
body. Tliis Bubjeet brings ua to the small door (c) in the eai 
wall, in the recess of which we see the escort of cavalry whi<^ 
accompanies the king. The succeeding friezue are all deftcol 
until we arrive at the small side door (b), where we did' 
gnish, on both sides of the recess, the king's cavalry foUowi 
his chariot, which appears on the first slab after ])asBi[ig til 
door, but we have then nothing legible until the ceutral opa 
ing (t) is passed. 

We now reach a very interesting piece of sculpture, showiai 
the speaking intelligibility of these representations. T^^ 
king's troops, chiefiy the light-armed infantry, ham I 
rived at a weU-bnilt city on a hill, defended by a double w._ 
flunked by towers. The vicinity of the city is distinguiehd 
by a remarkable irregularity of surface: hills of various shaiM^ 
rise abruptly from the plain ; one escessively steep hill ia fcft,' 
unoccupied, but the next, which is more accessible, is occupiti 
by the heavy armed troops of the king, while in advanoe, ift 
the rocky plain, the crested warriors are attacking the upper 
wall, which is well defeuded by the square shield BpearmeB' 
> 2 Singa, x. 8. 


«n the lower battlement* the inhabitants, seeing the soldiera 
setting fire to the gates, and the inevitable ruin ubout to befal 
the tity, are earnestly entreating for mercy. The same hilly 
country coutinuea on the farther side of the city, but in the 
plain we meet the light-arraed created spearmen, as well as 
the naked bowmen, Eome of whom are stationed on a conical 
hill discharging thuir arrows at the inhabitants upon the walla. 
Tbe next two slabs are defacei], hut on the third we see the 
regular troops advancing under cover of high ahielda — both 
square and those which appear to he raaiis of riisheB, the smaller 
ends of which are collected together in a sheath and bend 
over, while the lower are bound together by a similar con- 
trivance. We have now arrived at the recess of the second 
email door (s), in which we see sorae captivea of the sheep- 
akin clad people, among whom are a woman and child, the fore- 
most of tlie troop carrying a water-skin (Botta, pi. 69), and 
the whole urged forward by one of the regular troops, a bon- 
niaa wearing a pointed cap. 

The next scene (fig. 92) gives us the capture of that re- 
markubje city, surrounded by three lines of lbrtifir?ation riaing 
one above the other. On the siJe that first comes into view, 
the people are in the utmost distress, for the flames, shajied 



like stag's horns, are rising out of the to'werB of the citadd; 
while the light-araied besiegers who have passed the tombs tiA 
suburbs of the jilace, nnd guined the hill on which the citjB 
built, are setting fire to its gates. 

On the opposite aide, the crested warriors, guarded by ihdr 
round shields, are advancing to the attack, and behind theffli 
in therpcesB of the door (h) at this end of the hall, we w 
chariot of the commander of theregnlarforces, who hasaligliSe^ 
and is discharging his aiTowB under cover of his ehield-beBrer. 
Some cuneatic characters are engraved upon the upper walls rf 
the city. 

Passing on, we arrive at a rociy eminence, on which ii( 
fort with eight circular towers, without windowB, oocupjiq| 
the whole top of the hill. (Fig. 93,) ^^ 

The fort has evidently been set on fire, for the flamea a 
bursting from every tower, and upon the rocks lie, entirely 
despoiled, both the dying and the dead, while three beartlfli 
warriors, wearing' the pointed helmet, are recklessly dHvini 
their chariot in pursuit of the remnant of the inhabitants, w'^^^^ 
are flying over a rocky plain, strewn with headless bodies i i 
ther on, the pursuit is continued by a detachment of cavalrjj 
who carry both the bow and spear (Botta, pi. 67), the 1 
weapon only being used in the present pursuit. 

The next slab (66, Botta) exhibits the king in his chariot 
driving fiiriously, while discharging his arrows under c 
his bearded shield-bearer, and preceded by the regular cavalry. 


^B people, who from the towerB of the city descry hU furious 
drmiig ' aud tht; terrible eluugtiter hia troops are inukiug 
among those who are Bcnt to oppose thcra are in the greatest 
couatematioii but the Lity being strongly fortified by nature 
having on one Bide a deep ravine ■which torbids a[)proach the 
besieged stiU hold out until la the next scene we have the 
king in biB chariot diotating terms to tbem b) the mouth of a 
gii,aiitic wamor 

On the next slab ffig 94) is seen the continuation of the 
hill strewed with dead bodies, and the fortress surmounting 
it the fottresB has but one row ol towers, on which the be 

sieged are beheld in attitudes of despair. In this city tl)e 
king haa at eomo former period set up one of those circular- 
beaded tablets, auth as have been found at Nahr el Kelb (fig. 
32), Cyprus, and elsewhere, and which were apparently chron- 
icles or records of conquests, like those preserved in the temples 
of Byzantium.' From this circumstance we presume the 
people to have been a rebellious people, and t^ have more than 
once troubled the AsByrion monarchy, particularly as we find 
repealed representations of their chiefs in the halls of judg- 
ment, undergoing the severe punishment of rebellion, each 
representation, aa we imagine, recording the punisliment of a 
rL'petition of the crime. 

1 2 Kipss. it. 20. ' Hwodolus. Mi Ip. Imvii. 


) the plain country, we airive at an attuk 
made on another considerable place (fig. 95) situated o 
eminence, with an oblique road up to its gate. The citjr bi^ I 
first, one boundary- wall, which is battlemented ; and neit, 
another, which is fortified with, towers, above whose summil 
appear two or three flat-roofed houses, A few of the besii^ 
still defend thenisetves with their iancea, and cover 
bodies with square shields, the surface of which is reticukted, | 
most probably to represeat metallic plates. Others of the 
besieged, placed upon the lower walls, appear already to de- 
spair of the defence. The costume of these individuals appean | 
to consist merely of a simple tunic, scooped out butweeu Uie 
clavicles. Their hair is arranged almost in the earns manner 
as that of the Assyrians, but it is simply girt with a red band^ 

it is also ahorter, and does not fall upon the shoulders; the 
beard is short.and curled. A few corpses are etretclied on lis 
flanks of the hill on which the place is built. 

Among the besiegers there are two archers, all the upper por- 
tion of whose bodies, as well as their legs, is bare ; their only «*■ 
vering consists of a piece of hinged cloth, wrapped round tlie 
body,andheld initaplacehya large girdle; the sword is attached 
to a narrow baldric passing over the right shoulder, and tra- 
Tersing the breast, which is besides crossed by a cord, which Mr. 

McCanl writing from the British Museum suggests, ' is a spare boTT- 
Btring: the bow and tlie wood of thearrowa are painted red; the 
iron is painted blue. The beard of these two archers is, oa we 
have before observed, shorter than that of the Assyrians, and is 
simply curled ; they no doubt represent auiiliary troops. Be- 
fore them is a kneeling warrior, who has a casque with a 
curved crest, and furnished with a flap which covers the ears. 
Other soldiers, represented smaller, are kneeling near the 
gates, and covering themselves with their shields, while they 
try to set the place on fire by means of torches ; indeed, the 
flames, which are painted red, ore very plainly perceiTed be- 
ginning to consume the gates. N'ot with standing the vigour of 
the atbuik, and the firing of the gates, the besieged ofier a 
detennined resistance, both from tlje walls of the city, and of 
the citadel ; but within the lower town the inhabitants mani- 
fest the greatest consternation at seeing the gates on Are. 

The king himself does not appear to bo present at this siege, 
which is conducted by his chief eunuch, who advances under 

cover of the great moveable breast-work (fig, 96), Farlher 
on we perccivB the successive ranks or stages of advance which 
the regular troops have made, under the protection of the tall 
moveable breast- work, each division being commanded by a 
beardless officer, 

' AtheWBUm, No. 1412, Kot. 18, 18fi4. 



Ab tins concludes oiir second circuit of the banqueting-h 
before leaving the main body of the palace, 'we ^ill enter tbtl 
smalt doorway (o), at the lower end of the room. 


TJpon finding onrselvea within this chamber, wi 
that it haa two entrancea, both furniahed with foldic^ 
one into the Chamber of Judgment (it.), and the other, li 
which we entered, connecting it with the banqueting- hall jt 

This room, like the one we have left, was divided into ti„ 
lines of illuBtration, by a band of cuneatic, the remains ti 
which, with the figure of a warrior, are still visible in 
recesB of the doorway. Farther within the chamber t] 
only fragment now existing ia the subject we bare i 
(fig. 97). 



The sculpture represents a fortified city, built upon a ( 
siderahle elevation, opposite to which is a etill higher ci^ 
hill, BurmoTinted by a castellated tower, fromthebaseof ■»__ 
a narrow Blream flows down into the valley that sepamtae ti 
two liilb. It is cppocially to be observed that olive trees ai 
growing upon both the hills, but more particularly on the a 



npoB tlie suramit of which is the tower ; and that on the liiU 
of the city is a walk, or road, about half-way up, below which, 
and at the side of the Btreara, ia a row of tombs, or inferior 
houses. The relative situationa of these objects exactly ro- 
acmble the position of similar objects risible in approaching 
Jerusalem from the east. On our ieft we have Mount Moriuh 
and the high wall of the Temple ; at our feet the Brook Ke- 
dron, and the tombs of the Valley of Jehosaphat, or some in- 
ferior buildings at the base of Mount Moriah ; and, on our 
right, the Mount of Olives. The chief objection to this inter- 
jiretation of the scene is the circumstance of the stream taking 
its rise in the Mount of Olives — a topographical inaccuracy, 
however, that might easily he pardoned in the Assyrian artist, 
if time and the Arabs Lad hut spared us the other friezes to 
assist us in interpreting this relievo, and the other significant 
decorations of the chamber. 

We will now return into the Banqueting Hall, and proceed 
through the central door-way (f) into the inner court (l). 


Passing through the central opening (f) of the banqueting- 
hnll, we find, from the winged bulls at tlje jambs, that it is an 
external door-way leading into an open court. In the recess 
torraed at each side by the projection of the bulls, are three 
small figures, one above the other, probably the figures of 
priests; and on the side of the projection is a representation 
of the winged man with the eagle's head, and wearing only 
the short sacerdotal tunic, his position and attributes being 
exactly similar to those already described. Upon turning to 
examine the entire facade, we find that instead of the bulls 
placed back to back on each side of the central opening, as in 
the King's Court (n), their places are supplied by a represea- 
tu Lion of the king walking out of the door, followed by his 
attendant Babsaris and Selikdar, and met on the right by the 
Itab Signeen, with whom, as usual, he is in conversation. The 
wliole of these figures are in high preservation, retaining 
colour upon the simdalK, when found ; and they have been ad- 
mirably engraved in Plates 13 and 14 of Botbi's great work. 
In oiir collection of the British MuHtum we have a precisely 
Bimilai figure uf the king and his chief officer, brought by Mr. 

228 sROBsiB*!). — rRocEsaioir. ■ 

Hector, from Khorskhad. In each case tbe king carries in Wi I 
right haDd a Btuff, which ■was painted red. Herodotus' inJ 
Strabo' inform us that the Babylonians bore in Iheir handi i 
staff, ornamcDted at the head with some particular Sgiina, » 
that of an apple, a rose, a lily, an eagle, 8x. ; nor was illait- 
fnl for them to appear abroad without one of these atavfs. 
In the Assyrian Bculptures the staff ia entirely unadotnei, 
being simply a long stiek painted red ; and it is never canici 
by any one excepting the great king himself. Behind ihc 
Rab Signeen are two euauchs, making in all a group of lii 
figuree, like that at flg. 46, which completes this side m 
the right as for as the projection of the central entrance ei- 
tends. On the side of the projection ia a beardless attendnii, 
and on the receding wall beyond are two others, the last (.f 
whom holds up his left hand, bb if commanding those wli> 
follow him to advance. Continuing our course, rQ&d the n- 
oesB of the small door (o), which, as far as the leaves, belongs 
to the court, we find on each jamh the figure of a wingei 
vilh the eagle's head, followed by a magus with the iri- 
lohed plant, advancing to meet those about to ent«r the si 
or chamber (u<)> The dress of this and the other eagle-hea 


piece of wall to tho comer of the ooiirt contains ten figures ; 
first, two beardless men, eack carrjing two cups, the foremoHt 
of simple form, the other the lion-headed veBaels; and imme- 
diately fbUowing are two othcra, carrying on their shoulders a 
car, or rather arm-chair, placed upon two wheels, to be drawn 
by men, ia which the king was wheeled over any diflicult 
Dtainpass, or about the grounds attached to the-palace 
(fig. 98). The following is the manner in which this sort of 
carriage ia eonatrueted : — Tiie back is straight, and rises above 
tho arm, which ia bent in such a manner as to join the ante- 
rior leg, Between the arm and the seat there are three 
little bearded figures, wearing a tiara, garnialied at the side 
•with double bulls' "horns. Between the seat and a cross-bar 
which connects the back leg with the front one, is the little 
figure of a horse richly caparisoned, seemingly pushing forward 
with his cheat the leg against which he leans. The bar on 
which he stands is covered with ornaments resembling jlmir- 
Se-lis, placed base to base, and thus connected by a liga- 
ture ; and lastly, the termination of the legs is formed like a 

The pole ia at first atraight, but afterwards curves up- 
wards, terminating on a level with the arm of the chair, in a 
horse'a head; the yoke or bar, which is fixed a little below 
the horse's head, ia terminated at each end in the head of a 

Following these are two others, carrying an arm-chair, 
throne, or aeat of judgment, in which the king sat at the gate 
(fig, 99). A high seat, caQed Eurei, exactly like this, es- 
cepting in the decorations, (any representation of the human 
form being forbidden by the Korin,) ia to be found in the 
court-yard of all respectable houses in Cairo, where the master 
aits to give judgment in domestic affuirs. These seats are 
never wanting in Ihi^ourt-yard of the houses of Sheikhs, of 
heads of tribes, or of persons in autliority, whence judgment 
is delivered on matters brought by any inhabitants of the dis- 
trict, or by any individuals of the tribe over which the master 
of the house presides. The seat is placed in some shady part 
of the court, against a wall or column, exactly as described in 
Scripture;' and in some house* it is converted into a high 



Bofa continued the whole length of one aide of the court.' 
which cnao the master aits in one corner. In tbe emrap 
hefore us the hack la not much raised, and ia surmounted hj 


Fg no- II. B AtTin *sp cuiiuiT frg-m pis 1<< 19. a>.) 

a hearded figure, whoae coBtnme is similut to that of the peraon- 
agea we shall descrihe liy-and-hy. The head of this figms b 
covered wi til a tiara, Bunnonnted hy a dmible pair of bulV/ 
homs, in the middle of which is the JtBur-de-li». Foafi 
aimilar figures, with their right hands raised, support on thrtl 
heads the wm of the throne, which is very low ; and lastlK 
two others, standing on a tliick tranaveraal har, appear 
hear the bottom of the throne on their raised arms and opt 
bands. They are clothed like those preceding, but tlid 
heads are encircled by a diadem or band, ornamented witi 
rosettts. A little lower, another transverse har is sculpturrf 
with double Tolutes, united bac'k to tack by ligatures. 

The absence of the sword is the only peculiarity i 
the costume of the eunuchs who citfry the throne ; the. 
armleta are spiral stems, and their bracelets are aiinpt 

Other eunuchs succeed, carrying an altar, as we prssiunq 
from its hasin-shaped top, and from its resemblanee to OB 
represented in the soulplures of the isolated chamber (ht. 
in the king's court (h). The legs are terminated below tn 
lions' paws, and seem placed on a ptate which is itself Bi^ 


P ported by 


ported by inverted cones resembling fir-apples. A strong 
bar joins the lega above the terminal iions' paws. On tliia 
bar there are two bearded figures, with tiaras ornami'nted 
■with horna and the Jhur-de-lis ; they are turned towards one 
another, and their right hands are raised above their heads, 
to support the curved under-part of the table. These two 
figures are separated by a rouod fluted perpendicular bar, 
■which is, at intervals, encircled by rings ornamented by a 
row of scales of the fir-npple. 

Next follow two bearded men, carrj-ing a heary chariot. 
These athletic men are such m are intended to be repre- 
sented by the ■word pa) (^i'6or»»), mighty men,' wlio ■were 
commanded by Hebuohadnezzar tp bind Shadraoh, Meshaoh, 
and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning fiery 
furnace. Such men, ive are informed, were selected out of 
the army, not for that particular occasion only, as there could 
not have been any necessity to employ the strongest men to 
bind the innocent and helpless ; but, as the sculptures 
teach us, such gigantic or muscular men were always in 
attendance on the person of the king, or in the courts of 
the palace, in readiness to esocuto his special commands. It 
is Btili the custom, not only in the East, but also in Europe, to 
select men of unusual stature, as porters and servants in 
the palaces of kings and nobles. Tlie dross of these men 
differs materially from that worn by the other attendants. 
Tliey appear to have a tonic falling to the knee, with short 
eleeveaj an ample girdle encompasses the loins; and a piece 
of fringed cloth hangs below it, probably such as the inhabi- 
tants of Yemen wear round their loins. 

The armlets consist of a spiral stem ; and the bracelets 
of rings without any ornament. The earrings have a stem 
terminated by a small cone. The sword, the hilt of which 
is decorated with lions' jaws, is hung on a large baldric, 
ornamented with three rows of pearls, the middle row of 
which is broken by four plates of similar beads. The hair, 
as usual, is cullecteil into a mass of curls upon the shoulders. 
The beard is arranged like that of the king, except that the 
terminal treases are shorter, and have only two horizontal rows 
of curls, 

1 Dau. iii. 20. 


The car carried by ttess two individuals is, tiiiforb 
mutilated, and the ornaments which formerly decorated tl 1 
ar<: no longer distinguielmblc. Tbo body of the car is sqiUR, ' 
' strengthened in front by a strong piece, from the bottom of 
which the pole rises, and from the top of the anterior piece of 
the cat there deacends a shaft, which joins the pole obliquely. 

The yoke presents on each side of the pole two semicircdai 
depressions, each separated by a straight portion ; and ateaeh 
extremity there is a hook. The four semicirciilar depresdou 
are furnished with a pad for the necks of the horses, and de- 
cLire the car to be a quadriga, which is corroborated by the 
effort the gibor or strong man is making to carry it. 

The figures upon the adjoining wall of which we are now 
about to speak, follow in line, and, like those preceding, appeal 
to be bringing presents to the king. 

First (fig. 100) we have abearded personage leading four 
horses ; probably the four horses of the quadriga, borne on the 
shoulders of the two preceding figures. He is dressed like 
the men carrying the quadriga, with the exception of his tunic, 
which is simpler, and without embroidery on the sleeves. 

The four horses are placed very evenly abreast, their heads 
and legs being all in a straight line, and in the same position, 
in the manner seen aa ancient medals. By a peculiarity, the 


sculptor has represented four heacis, but only one breast, and 
eight legB. Parthcr, it is impossible to underatand the position 
of the man who is leading the horses. Hia right hand holds the- 
brtdle on the right side of the neck of the first horse, and jet 
luB body is on the left side of the fourth horse, since hia legs 
are partly hidden by those of the animals. It cannot be sup- 
posed an oversight ; consequently, we must conclude that 
this manner of representation was conventional, intending 
thereby to enhance the size of the man, as in the case of the 

The caparisons of the horses ore extremely rich ; over the 
chest passes a band, fixed to the withers, with a double row of 
tassels, and Binall beads. Another embroidered band comes from 
the top of the head, supporting under the jaws a tassel formed 
P of three tufts placed one above the other, and terminated also 
with beads. The head carries a plume, likewise of tiree tufts, 
on the tup of which is a hall. The bridle appears to be 
formed of the same pieces as ours. The head-dtall is trimmed 
with rosettes ; a thick band, formed of scales, passes over the 
eyes, and, where it joins Ibe head-stall, terminates in a small 
double-tufted tassel. The leather strap which supports the 
bit, and that which passes over the nose, are ornamented with 
rosettes ; the bit is fastened to the bridle by three branches 
forming the radii of an arc. The tail of the horse, which is very 
- long, is tied up in the middle by a broad strap. 

We now arrive at a email door, the jambs of which are 
entirely ruined, but before it are two holes for the Teruphim, 
and on the left side was a strong stone ring let into the ground. 
Passing the door, we sec the figure of one of the king's cup- 
bearers, carrying a high vase, which he supports with one 
hand, while with the other he covers the top. After him 
come two eunuchs, in their ordinary dress, carrying a long 
table. The bracelets on the wrists of these personages are, 
like those on the nniis, formed of wire transversely bound tnge- 
ther. The table tliey carry is flat at top, and is ornamented 
with lions' heads at the angles. Paws of the same animal 
terminate the legs, which ore square, and marked transversely 
with four rows of triple grooves. The legs are connected 
by a bar, on which are sculptured double volutes, placed 
back to back, and attached to each, other by bands with vertical 

234 KaouwBAD, — bitisiso cniMBEd of iirxen cotrm. 

Following are seen one eunuch carrj-ing a email table, sndi 
fifth, hringing in his ruiaed hands a large rouiid vase ; htikd 
them, ineleaii of tiie scarf and the bottom of the tunic «»• 
hroiilered with a series of roeetteB, Lave bands of wBelta 
intertwined with concentric squares. 

These ai'e all the figures that remain on this aide of li« | 
court; but in the line of wall there are indications of two , 
principal entrancPB flanked by the winged bull ; and af tm \_ 
lesser doors, without hulls ; the passages and chambers aOt 
■which they lead are more dilapidated than ony other put <C 
the palace. As therefore, there is uottjing farther to be 
on this aide of the court, we will place ourael 
central gate of the principal facade, 
on our left. 

We find that the arrangement from tlie centre to tberaul 
side door (b) is the Ramo as tiiat seen on our right, with tin 
exception of the last figure, which ia the native chief of bmM' 
province or town, bearing the insignia of his office, aof 
wearing the pointed cap and long flowing hair. Tiie jainli 
of the small door (b) toe decorated like that of the door (•) 
with the eagle-headed divinity, and between the door and m 
comer of the court are the figures of two eunuchs and anotbit 
Buttan Medinet, or governor of a province. In the adjoiiu% 
wall, and quite in the corner, we arrive at an untrance toki 
small chamber, analogous in position to the chamber for Ali 
consultation of the victim in the king's court (n) ; that iBta 
say, it ia conveniently situated on the right hand of those vUi 
may be going out of the principal apartments of the TmIsb^ 
for constdting the magus, as to the aatety of ihe king qnittiM' 
his abode by this court; or in going into the contiguoua ttpait' 
ments by this gate. 


In front of the door of this small chamber are the ubii 
holes for the Tcraphim, and the entrance is paved with tl 
inscribed slab. The exterior slabs on both sides of the do 
are wanting, but within the recess wo are met by the figni^' 
a priest on each jamb. Upon entering the apartment we fit 

it ia fumiahed with two alahs of gypsum, inserted in the pare- 
Bieat, containing circular- headed oavitics like that one in the 
divining chamber attached to the king's court, and also that 
the rest of the room is paved wilh kiln-burnt hricka. The 
■walls hare originally heen adorned with two lines of illiislra- 
tioQ, but all the friezes ahave the line of cuneatic are entirely 
calcined. On the right, behind the valve, is the figure of a 
soldier, and then we have the attack of a town with high 
walls. In advance of the tall sfaielde are some bowmeu wear- 
ing corslets and pointed caps contending with people on the 
battlements who use the spear and Bhidd. Passing the angle 
of the room, we see the first rank of some troops on one knee. 
These, unfortunately, are all the sculptures left on this side 
of the room ; but on the opposite wail we find tho result of 
the campaign, in a warrior armed with a spear, driving before 
him some women and a child, preceded by some of tlie sheep- 
skin clad people. 

It ia singular that this apartment, which resembles the 
divining-ch amber of the king's court (n) in so many particu- 
lars, should difler from that in one important point, namely, 
that tlie decorations should not be in harmony with what 
seems to have been the purpose to which it is so probable this 
room was applied. 

On quitting the chamber (i), and directing our course acrosB 
the court (l), in a line with the central doorway of the prin- 
cipal facade, we arrive 
at some steps whieh 
lead to a platform rais- 
ed six feet above the 
level of the court it- 
self. The sides of this 
upper platform are 
cased with slabs of 
limestone and finished 
with the Egyjitian 
curve tto moulding. 
(Fig. 101.) 

The surface of this 
platform, where there ' 
■were no walls, is paved 
with irregul urly eh ajied 


pieces of liraestone, and the wallB of the building, aa in the 
other parts of the palace, were of brick. The peooliaritj 
of the structure erected upon this base appears to bave )xea 
that the walls were cased with slabs of a, basaltic stone iDitead 
ofgypBum, of which surface the only fragment then diflcorered 
was a representation of the two winged fignrea making offHr- 
ings to the sj-mbolie tree. The number of chambers the build- 
ing contained has not been ascertained, but M. Botta found tracea 
of one apartment 40 feet by 30 feet, which had in the c 
of its south-western side a square block for an altar 
statue ; and likewise, among the ruins, the capital of a ; 
column decorated with palm leaves. The durability of the 
material of which the edifice was composed, the aubject of tie 
sculpture, and tbe other indications on this apper platfonn, 
have induced U. Botta to call it a temple. The almost entire 
devftBtfltioa of this building may readily be attributed la iu 
being cased in a hard stonu of especial yuluo in a diatriot where 
aucb useful material was rare ; and also to the ctrcumatance 
of its superior elevation and more exposed aituation on the 
edge of the mound. 

It will be Been by the diagram (fig. 101) that the maas of 
crude bricks, of which the second elevation or base of ths 
basaltic structure was made, was protected by a caaing of 
lime'Stono like those of the great mounds on which the palaces 
of Assyria were built. This engraving also showa the contri- 
vance by which the upper surface of the niounda was pro- 
tected, observable in all the courts and other parts of the 
mound unoccupied by building. A layer of kiln-baked tilea 
or bricks was jilaced on the top of the crude bricks, cemented 
together and to the crude bricks below them with bitumeo. 
These tiles or bricks had the inscription upwards, and upon 
them was placed a stratum of sand five or six incbea thick, 
upon which, again, another layer of kiln-baked bricka, with 
the inscription turned downwards, aud, like the former, 
cemented together with bitumen, so that the interior of the 
mound was most carefully protected from damp, and the build- 
ing erected on these artificial hills was effiactually raised above 
the miasma of the plain. 

We have already shown the Courts of Assembly and Judg. 
ment, and the public reception and banqueting -rooms of the 
palace ; we have osaumed the correctness of III. Botta's stir- 

. — THE king's house, 237 

mise, tliat the edifice which occupied the moat elevated and 
prominent position upon the mouEd, is the Temple ; but we 
have not, as yet, described any part of the structure that 
Beemed suited for those mysterioua precincts of an ABByrian 
palace — the private dwelling apartments of the sovereigns. 
It is our purpose, therefore, now to show that this small court 
(m) belongs to the quarter of the palace whith was eaprewly 
termed the "King's House." 

It may be remembered that the first two courts we passed 
through, namely, the Court of Asaembly («), and the King's 
Court (n), were both described as open to the country on two 
sides, the remaining sides being occupied by the walls of the 
palace; that the third or inner court (l) is enclosed on three 
sides, that to the north-west alone being open to the country ; 
'whereas that the court we are now ezamiuing is enclosed on 
all the four sides, each having a principal and some minor open- 
ings. The remains of bulla at &ese openings are suffieientiy 
indicative that they were estemal doors, and the whole ar- 
rangements show Uiat Ihe quadrangle into which they led was 
a central enclosed, court, siirrounded by chambers situated in 
the ruined spaces between the hoimdary of the court itself, and 
the walla of courts (l) on the north-west, and (m) on the 
north-east ; and on the vacant surface of the upper platform 
on the sides to the south-west and south-east. The door-way 
by which we entered from the inner court (i,) we consider to 
be the termination of a passage that we would call the king'a 
private way from his own private apartments to the public 
quarters of the palace. Our reason for concluding that this 
strictly retired enclosure was dedicated exclusively to theking, 
is derived from tlie walls themselves, evidence all but con- 
clusive where every illustration is ao pregnant with meaning. 
In the present instance, our inference ia drawn from the par- 
ticular place where wo foimd tha group of the king and his 
attendants. In every previous illustration the king is Bern 
in the courts of the palace walking frim the door; but in the 
present case he is walking tawnrds tlie door of the private 
way, Hs if about to leave the interior. As we have no aimOar 
e:tample of the king with his face thus directed towards the 
door in the act of departure, we think it may fairly be con- 
cluded that the quarter he is leaving is his own special dwell- 
ing place, and that the court itself is reuUy that " inner court 


of the king's house," to ent«r which waa death to all who were 
not called, " except such to wlioni the king shall hold w\ 
the golden eceptre, that he mii^ livi.'."' 

Before finally leaving the innercoun 
(i.) we must turn to the Bouth-eafleni 
Bide, and enter the passage gate (t), of 
which the fragments of the two winpd 
hulls are nlmoBt the only indicalion. 
This entrance leads into a court about 
105 or 106 feet square, with a eentral 
iBEijor opening und Bome minor ones on 
eu(,h side ; but all, excepting two Ot 
three elaha, bo entirely ruined as to pre- 
clude any regular description. Tbe 
only perfect sculpture remaining repre- 
sents the figure of a priest carrjing » 
guzelk. (Fig. 102.) 

This person we take to be a diviner 
or magi ui an, oEe of the four orden ot 
Chaldean a mentioned in Daniel, 
whom it was the custom for the king* 
- of Assyria to require the interpretaticn 
rBnwTwiTH^3s"'RLi,B— A HI "' drBatns, or any events whether tie 
Quais. (BoTTA, pi. «.j most important or the moet trivial ; oil 
of which they pretended to ascertain by various prooeesM, 
such as by an examination of the blood of the vicUms, tlia 
position of the stars, invocations of the diviniLies on whom bo 
see them attending, and by other superstitious practices strictly 
forbidden by the law of God. These figures are distinguiahed 
by a peculiarity of dress, which we have designated the Sa- 
cerdotal Dress, for it is worn only by them, the diviailies, and 
deified persons. Here then, at the entrance into tlie kjnjfs 
private apartments, the Hareemlik of the present inhahitanti, 
stood the most accomplished diviner of the court, ready lo 
show the king, by the use of noxious herbs and drugs, or the 
blood of victims, or the hones of the dead, what was to befall 
him at his going in or coming out of the private apartmentt. 
It is likewise must remarkable that these figures of priests ^^> 
tiiin more of the vermilion and of the black pigment in lb* 
hair and eyebrows than any other figures on (he w^a of 



Khoranbad and Niratoud, a circunjstnnoe which we think ia 
not to bo attvibttted to cliance, for the prophet Ezekiel, in 
epeaking of the figures of men sculptured on the walls of the 
Asaytian palacea, makes particular mention of " the images of 
the Chaldeans portrayed with Termilioa."' PoRaibly this 
class of tlie subjecta of the king of Assyria were, as in Egypt, 
ttie sculptors and painters, and therefore took especial care of 
their own portraits. Be that as it may, the fact is iucontest- 
able, and as we conceive, highly iliustrative of the passage 

The countenances of the king, of the eiimicha, and of these 
persons, aro all strongly marked by Iboae peculiarities which 
in the present day constitute beauty in the dominion of the 
Shah, and, indeed, in the East generally. They consist of 
large full black eyes with thick eyebrows meeting over the 
nose ; low forehead, that is to say, the apace from the eyebrows 
to the beginning of the hair shorter than the length of the 
nose ; small mouth ; compressed lips ; aquiline nose ; promi- 
nent chin ; aud round feoe: in the last of these characteris- 
tics, however, the priests or soothsayers who attend the winged 
figures do not partake ; on the contrary, they are of a thinner 
and less muscular form than any other of the attendants of 
the court. Beyond this figure of the priest, and a represen- 
tation of the king followed by lits cup-bearer and sehkdar, 
tliere was nothing farther discovered here, excepting some 
feet and the lower portions of alabs, affording indication that 
the walls of this court were decorated like the other por- 
tions of the palace ; but few and imperfect aa are the re- 
niaina, they are yet highly interesting and singularly sugges- 
tive of the character of this quarter of the royal residence. 

We have now taken our readera through every court and 
public room of the palace of Khorsahad, in the same way that 
a cicerone at home would have conducted a stranger through 
tlie chambers of Windsor Castle or Hampton Court. Our pro- 
gress has been directed by the architeclvral arrangements of 
the rooms, and we have endeavoured to ulcarly indicate and 
elucidate our course by the illustrations on the walla of the 
apartments themaelvea, which WB have selected from the mag- 
nificent French work. It is almost needless to insiat again 
upon the extraordinary iutereat attaching to thoae illustrations 


in the chambera; but still wo cannot leave this section of 
subject without noting the Taritd and sj-stematic care n 
which the Assyrian artist has dtBoribed the leading feHtuns 
of the couutrieB subdued and laid waste by tbe Ass^riaD im- 
queror, how carefully the peculiuritiea of eoatiime of the dif- 
ferent people have been portrayed, and the attention bestontd 
on the order of the conquest The walls of the chambcrBi 
thus converted iuto a highly illustrated historical voiume, _ 
rolled and displayed for the benefit of the nations and Isa- 
gaagea of which the Assyrian empire was composed ; wbei* 
they might read in this syatematiEed and uniTersal language rf 
art, the history of the conquests of their sovereigns ; whileli) 
the learned Ninevites historical particulars beyond the reach 
of the pictorial language, were communicated through tli« 
medium of the band of cuneatic writing which is found in iD 
the chambers dedicated to these historical records. 

The animus discoverable in the details, in the execation of 
the haasi-rilievi, and in the choice of subject, is the same that 
prompted the message and letter which Sennacherib sent ty 
the bund of hia chief eunuch Eabsaris, and his cliief-ciii>- 
bearer Eabshakeh, to Hezekiah, " Behold thon hast heard whit 
the kings of Assyria have done to all lands, by destroying 
them utterly : and shalt thou be delivered ? Have the gods of 
tbe nations delivered them which my fathers have deaUvyed; 
33 Gozan, and Haran, ond Rezeph, and tbe children of Eden 
which wero in Thelasar. Where ia the king of Hamath, Bod 
the Idng of Arpad, and the king of the city of Sepharraim, 
of Hena, and Ivah ?"' 

We have already noticed the Jewish and other nstioDs re- 
presented in the sculjiturea, but the enemies of " the great 
king, tJie king of Assyria," whom we see moat frequently re- 
presented, and who seem to be most determined in their oppo- 
sition, are the sheep-skin clad people, whom we have desig- 
nated Sagartii or Togarmah, a race of Scythians from the 
country lying between the Black and the Caspian Seas. They 
may, however, be the people of Gozan, mentioned in the epi* 
tie sent by Sennacherib to Hezekiah,' whom we take to be a 
pastoral race inhabiting the hilly and well-watered districts of 


Asia. The other opponents of the great king, whose tribute 
coQsiBta of momiiactured articles, may b th p pi I'k w'se 
mentioned by the measengera of Senn h bud th flam 
of Haniath/ a country including a gr at p t t th ast f 
Plitenicia — a surmise supported by th illustr t n (fi 53) 
■where we find the Aaayiian monarch mpl j n th t p pi 
in constructing some port or fortr ss und th a p a 
of the dirinity of the coast, conjointly w th th wing d bull 
of tlie Assyrians, We have tlie evidence of both history and 
the monumeata found atNahr el Eelb and Cyprus (see fig. 30), 
that the king of Assyria once held quiet possession of the 
coast of that part of the Mediterranean, Possibly the sculp- 
ture may represent the building of Tarsus, and the bringing 
wood for that purpose from the forests of Mount Caasus ; or 
(as Mr. 8. Sharpe has suggested) the conveying wood for siege 
operations against Pelusium, at the commencement of the war 
which terminated in the defeat of the army of Sennaeherib, 

Thus far as regards the sculptures and the people repre- 
sented in them ; but before leaving this chapter, we will ven- 
ture to offer a few conjectures respecting the mode of construc- 
tion employed iu these Assyrian buildings, and likewise give 
M. Botta's opinions on the destruction of the Talaee of Kkora- 

The section of lie wall on which is the keeper of the door 
of the council chamber (fig. 103), will serve to explain the 
structure of the walls, as well as our own notion of the con- 
struction of the roof or ceiling of the chambers. It would 
seem from the examination of the existing ruins, that the 
walls of sun-dried bricks having been raised to the required 
height, they were cased with slabs of gypsum to the height of 
t«n feet (a) ; that from the top of the slabs to tlie top of the 
wall, the unhumt bricks were cased with kiln-bumt tiles or 
bricks (b), the lowest course (c), which rested immediately 
upon the slab, being provided with a kind of projecting brick 
moulding or ornament, wliich curved over and beyond the 
slabs, so as to form a continuoua lock, to prevent their falling 
tiirn'nrd, the moulding being retained in its position by the 
weight of the courses above; and, finally, that the baked tiles 
or bricks (b) were painted on the surface presenteil to the 

' 2 King*, T 


interior of the rooms, in variouB coloiire and patterns, inclndiDg I 
B of men and animals. Thus far wc have iineqaiTocd I 
evidence of the stnc- I 
tiire of the ^alls of thi I 
chambers, but for iU | 
remainder of the d 
Btruction we ore depen* I 
dent entirely iiponspfrl 
culatioiL and analogietl 
ings. Our own coDJet-:f 
lure is, that the solii I 
the top was covered in 
with a cotiTBe of buint 
bricks cemented witk, 
bitumen, upon whiolv 
in the instance ol 

the c 

, thei 


stratum ofsand, and tiua 
another lajer of kilsi 
burnt bricks (»), " _^ 
cemented with bitumaj 
Upon this thick wall! 
we suppose the sur&oB> 
bricks of the chambec 
(b b) to have been eoi 
tinued for some fee 
occasional intervals b 
ing left for the admitf 
aion of light and i' 
according to the ploa 
,1 exhibited in the centiv 

!i — ' part of the roof of &$ 

hall of columns, in thf: 

F(s. in3.---M rr^v^-Mi^ii^i^^^coNSTKccTioH temple of Kamak, in 

the Uemnonium, and 
in other Egyptian temples. "We conceive that the beams of th« 
roof rested upon these dwarf walls, and reached across the entinii 
width of the chambers — an idea that is sustained by the re- 
markable narrowness of all the rooms in proporLion to Iheil 


length, the extreme width of the largest not esceediae thirty- 
three feet. That the forests of ttie mountaiDous regions north 
pf NiiieTeh would furnish an abandanoe of large timber, even 
6i cedar, the approved wood for the purpose,' there can be 
no question; hut even if the width of the chambacs had ex- 
ceeded the ordinary length of heama, it does not seem to us to 
present any objeetion, for we cannot admit that a people ao 
conversant with the working of stone and of metula, could be 
ignorant of some of the most simple principles of carpen- 
try — a science which must of necessity have preceded the 
ornamental arts. In the larger apartments we cannot have 
any diffieuity in adopting a wooden column, for Strabo tells 
ua that the Babylonians supported the roofs of tlieir houses 
by pillars of wood. The beams having been placed upon the 
dwarf walls, the rafters were next laid over them in the con- 
trary directian, and upon these again the planks of cedar, 
which, as well as the beams, we should ornament with ver- 
milion,' still a common and fashionable combination with 
green, for the ornamentation of the ceilings in the best cham- 
bers of the houses in Cairo. Above the planka tliere was 
probably a course of burnt bricks, cemented with bitumen, 
and then a layer of clay and earth, in the way that the roofs 
of honses in Syria are now made, for Botta found among the 
rubbish in the interior of some of the chambers, the stone 
rollers called mahadalet, resembling our garden rollers, and 
like those used to tliis day to roll and liarden the roofs of the 
Syrian houses after the winter rains. This implement being 
always kept on the roof then as now, it is supposed fell into 
the eharaber with the rafters at the time of tbe conflagra- 
tion, wliich reduced the palace to a ruinous heap. 

Tbe top of the solid wnUa, between the dwarf piers, afforded 
ample space for shady passages and aleepiag apartments during 
the hot months of tbe year, and at the same time gave every 
facility for regulating the shutters and other obvious contri- 
vances for excluding the rays of the sun, and for preventing 
the snow or rain from drifting into the chanihera below. So 
Bliiircascs, or means of gaining the upper apartments, have been 
dineorered ; hut as so much of the building hud disappeared 
before Botta began his investigations, we are not supriaed at 

the absence of all indication of those important parts i 
the edifice, especially as we kno-st- from the £^yptian temptg^ 
and from the Sacred text, that the staircase up to the roof fm 
frequently contained in the thickness of the wall.' 

Ah re^rd the courta, it is not improbable Ihat woojn 
columns were used, particiilarly in this court ,and in the wo( 
of the king's house, to support an awning tvhich waahelddovj 
and fastened to certain marble rings inserted in the pavemo^ 
and to the ring on the backs ef the bronze liona. (See fig. M 
sec. T.) Wo liave an example of this mode of protecting 
lat^e assembly from the effects of the sun in. southern latitude^ 
in the description of the feast given by king Ahasuerus, ' 
unto great and small, se^en days, in the court of the g 
of the king's palace. Where were white, green, and b 
hangings, fasti^ned with cords of fine linen and pui'ple to ailfli 
rings and pilhirs of marble."' 

We have repeatedly, in the course of our progreas throug 
the chambers, had occasion to mention the door which cIm 
some of the more important openings ; we are, howi-ver, qui 
in ignorance as to the contrivancu for the upper pivots of tho, 
doors, whether they were inserted into a slab which strotoha 
across the opening from jamb to jamb, or whether certain co 
per rings, which we possess in our national collection, wereo 
fixed into the walls above the slabs, for the purpose of n 
ceiving the pi vols. 

By refereueo to the detailed plan, it will be evident that tl 
proportion of the voids to the solid of the walls is a renitd 
able feature, in which the Assyrian structures diil'er (rorn I 
other ancient remains. Another leading characteristic of tfa 
palace of Ehorsabad is the almost scrupulcua symmetry' of tl 
plan, the chief openings being generally oppositJi ta eaui odie 
those leading from the Sing's Court (f) to the lanor Coin 
(l) forming a continuous line of comniunicatioa ; and, laat^ 
it will be found that the chambers are invariably rectangiilu 

Although in the foregoiog description we have assuioed ihi 
the roof of the Khorsabad pulace was flat, we have evidenfl 
in the illustrations upon the walls that pitched roo& wen 
likewise, used in Assyrian buildings. In fig. 68, we ha« 
given a representation of a structure which we term a st 
edifice, firom the symbols and vessels in front, and the bI 



suspended from the n^alls. This building is rained upon a 
platform reaetnliliiig that of the palacfi we are describing; and 
the roof is pitched, the pediment or gable-etid being preseated 
to the spectator. The aame iiluBtration affordB exampies of 
flat roofs and of numerous windows. ^ 

It ■will bo seen that our restoration, of the roof is in 
many respects analogous to ancient Egyptian temples, and to 
modem modes of construction in the East. It nearly agrees 
■with Mr, FeiTjussott's ingenious restoration of the palaces of 
Nineveh and Persepolis.' Mr. Fei^usson has adopted dwarf 
columns where we introduce walls ; and he lights the chambers 
beneath through the spaces between the columns, instead of 
through windows or perforations in the dwarf wall. Mr. Fer- 
gusson differs M'ith us in that he supports the roof of the 
chambers by double hnes of columns, and sustains his hypo- 
thesis by collateral evidence derived from the many existing 
buildings in India, particularly the mosque of Amedabad, and 
finally in the columns existing at Persepolis, Our space, 
however, does not admit of a full exposition of his views ; but 
a perusal of tlie book itself will amply repay the reader. 

We will conclude this chapter by a brief statement of M. 
Eotta's opinion concerning the destruction of the palace of 
Eborsuhad. " The want of consistence in the material em- 
ployed in building the walls of the palace of Khoraabad," 
Bays M. Botta, "rendered them inaiifBcient to ■withstand the 
strain of an arch ;' Uicj' were, nevertheless, able, through their 
great thickness, to support any amount of vertical pressure." 
There is nothing, then, in the manner in which the supports 
are constructed which is compatible with any kind of roof, 
except with one of wood, for which it is particularly suited. 
The proofs obtained in the interior of the chambers tend to 
show that this was actually the system resorted to at £horsa' 
bad. It is incontestable that, di]nng the excavations, a con- 
siderable quantity of charcoal, and even pieces of wood, cither 
half burnt or in a perfect state of preservation, were found in 
many places. The lining of the chambers also bears certain 
marks of the action of dre. All these things can be explained 

' FerjUBiDii's " Palacei of Nineveh and PerBopolis Rcatnrpd," 
1 This liaa boea rufuteJ by tlie diacoiery of arcliud ceilings to aams 
of the ubambera tbat hate l&telj been uncovered. 


only by Buppoaing the fall of a burning roof, which calcinri 
the Blabs of gypsum and converted them into dust. It would 
he absurd to imagiue that the burning of a small qnantity d 
furniture could hare left on the walls murka like those which m 
^to be seen through all the ebambera, with the exception of Od% 
which was only an open passage. It must have been » violait 
and prolonged fire to he able to oaleine not only a few plncM, 
but every part of these slabs, whioh were teu feet high ud 
several incbeB thick. So coniplete a decomposition can be it- 
tributed but to intense heat, such as would be occasioned by 
the fall of a burning roof. Wiien Botta began his researcha 
in Ehorsahad, he remarked that the iuaoriptiona engraved oa 
the pavement before some of the doora were incniBted with 1 
hard copper- coloured cement, which fi.lled the characters, vA 
had turned the surface of the stone green. He now 
that he had not at that time made suffitient observations t« 
enable him to understand what he saw. In giving an account 
of his diBcoveriea to M. Jlohl, he said that these insoriplioQi 
had been inerusted with copper, and that the oxidation of thii 
metal had produced the effect he remarked. This, he admits 
was an error, and subsequent observation has shown that tiie 
copper- coloured cement was hut the result of the iuaion of 
nails and bits of copper. He also found on the engraved 
flag-stones scoria and half-melted nails, so that there ' 
doubt that these appearances had been produced by the e 
of intense and loog-Buatained heat. lie remembers, beside^. 
at Ehorsabad, that when he detached some bas-reliefs from i " 
earthy substance which covered them, in order to copy the _ 
Bcriptiona that were behind, he found there coals and cindei% 
which could have entered only by ibo loji, between the wall- 
and the back of the bas-relieia. This can be cosily understood' 
to have been caused by the burning of the roof, but is inex- 
plicable in any other manner. 

"What tends most positively to prove that the traces of 
fire roust be attributed to the burning of a wooden roof ia, 
that these traces are perceptible only in the interior of tlM 
building. The gypsum aba that covers the walls inside ti 
completely calcined, while the outside of the building is nearly 
everywhere untouched. But wherever the fronting appears to 
have at all suffered from fire, it ia at the bottom : thus giving 
reason to suppose that the damage has been done by som* 


burning matter falling outeide, lu fact, not a Bingle bas-relief 
in a state to be remoTed was found in any of the chambers : 
they were all pulverised. Nearly all those of tlie outside 
might, on the contrary, have been detached and aent to France ; 
for though a few were broken, yet the atone on which they 
■were sculptured was in a state of good preservation. Is not 
this the effect that would be produced on an edifice by the 
fiiiUng in of a burning roof, and can this circumstance be 
otherwise explained? 

It. riandia, theartietwhoassistedlil.Botta in his researches, 
was of opinion that the quantity of coals and cinders did not 
appear so large as might be expected to remain after the 
burning of a roof as immense as that of Khoraabad. He also 
considered that the half-burnt beams whioh have been found 
in the chambers belonged to the doora near which they were 
generally discovered. This assertion, however, M. Botta 
thinks is far from being supported. Before M. Flandin's ar- 
rival, M. Botta states that he bad found coals, cinders, and the 
remains of burnt joists ; and in a letter published in the Journd 
of the Aficdic Society of Paris, he had particularly noticed this 
circumstance, as affording proof that the state in which the 
palace was found had been oocaeioned by the burning of the 
roof. The place in which burnt joists were first discorered 
was in the centre of one of the chambera, as far from any of 
the doors as it waa possible to be. The wood found there 
could not have belonged to the doors. With respect to the 
quantity, it will be easily seen that, after a fire, it will be 
more or less great according to circumstances that it is now 
impossible to account for. The relative rareness of these re- 
mains has doubtless been caused by the quality and dryness of 
the wood, by the influence of combustion — or tlie greater or 
loss length of time during which the floor of the chambers 
was exposed to the action of the elements before the palace 
was ingulfed. It is certain that the whole interior of the 
chambera is calcined, while the ontaide walls are untouched. 
It is impossible to attribute this effect to any other cause but 
tlie burnmg of a wooden roof; and this supposition is corrobo- 
rated by indications discovered during the excavations. The 
supposition of an arched roof, on tlie contrary, is on the whole 
incompatible with the nature of the materials employed in the 
coostruction of the walla. H. Uotta therefore concludes ihaX 


248 iHOHSinan. — DESiKnorios o 

there is no cause for doubtJDg that the palace of Ehonaliti 
was roofed with vood. la this opinion ha states thit 
iir. Layard coincides, for that several of the monumcmti found 
by him at Nimroad were covered over with pieoes ot wood, 
like those at Ehoraabod. 

lUH. (Bo[ti,pu.ii,i^nj 



Tb^b readers wbo have gone with us through the preceding 
pages describing what is left to ub of AsHyrion art in the riUDB 
of Ehoreabad, will turn with duuhle pleoBure towiirds those 
uhambcra of our National Museum which contain our share of 
the relics of ancient Assyria. Our friends, the French, are 
proud of the sculptures obtained by Botta, and now in the 
Louvre ; but we may fairly and sucaessMly choUeitge com- 


pariBon with them, by pointing to the British Museum. S» I 
one can visit that eBtabliBlinient without fet-ling the inipurt- [ 
Bnce and interest of our Asajrian acquisitions. The great I 
"Winged Bulls and Lions, which now grace the halis of out I 
British Museum, attract the notice of Tisitors, and by ihar I 
eize, their antiquity, and their strange story, induce those wh»« 
might otherwise pass on to other olijects, to stop and inqutt I 
for the companion antiques, which, once seen, caimot enalj 1 
be forgotten. 

By devoting the present chapter and the nest to the espedil 
account of the Assyrian rcliiis from Nimroud and from 
Kouyunjik, we shall at once render our work more conipkte, 
and adapt it for the companionship of those who may thin"' 
fit to go in search of the antiquarian treaaurea acquired b 
Mr. Layard and others for the Museum of their country. 1 
may be premised, that while this hook is passing through tbt J 
press, the autlioritiea of the British Museum are yet undecidel 
how the Nimroud marbles are t« be ultimately arranged, ani 
that, meanwhile, a. lai^e numlier of them occupy an apartment 
underground, the remainder being ranged against the walls of I 
kind of temporary passage- chamber to the left of the entrascM. 

In some of our descriptions we shall avail ourselves of tht 
articles originally contributed to the " AtheuEeum " and " H 
lostrated London News," which, howeTer, will be found ti 
he copiously enlarged. The Assyrian collecttoti in the Briliib 
Museum was not all contributed by Layard ; a portion of il 
is due to the exertions of Mr. Hector, Sir Henry RawlJnaoBf 
Mr, Lnftus, and Mr. Hormuzd Ilassain,of whom more presently^ 
Let us, however, first consider Luyard'soontributionB, adoptiagi 
as far as practicable, the same system of esamination aa wi 
have pursued in examining Botta's contributions to the Louvra, 

In considering the structures at ITimroud, or so much at 
them as have been uncovered, there is a striking peculiai 
that we cannot allow to pass unnoticed, — viz.: the absence a 
that uniformity of plan which eo remarkably choracterisei 
the Khorsahad Palace. There, most of the doors cither iace^ 
or were pendant to each other, and the principal chambetl 
likewise appeared to correspond ; while here, on the contrur, 
no two doors are opposite, and, apparently, no two ohambM 
answer to one another. 

The waLU of the palace at Ifimtoud, from which Uieoe \i 



of art were taken, like thoee of Kborsaba'I, are corapoeed of 
un burnt brick incrusted with slabs of marble (gypaam) eight 
inches in thickness, and seven feet wide. ITnlike the Palace 
of Kiioraahad, however, that of Nimroud presents no grand 
, portal to invite our entrance, and serve &s a guide to our 
course. We shall therefure, in the first instance, proceed to 
examine what, on a general survey, appears to be the principal 
existing chamber of the north-west quarter of the palace. 
Entering through a small door-way in the western side of the 
excavation, we are met on each eide by a winged figure with 
a garland on his head, and having a pine-cone in hia upraised 
right hand, while hia left holds u basket. Behind each figure 
is a slab covered with cuneatio inscription. Having passed 
the entrance, we find ourselves within a small ante-chamber 
about 40 feet by 20 feet, which has three entrances, — one 
answering to that at which we entered, and a wider one on 
the opposite side, leading into a large hall. On the wall be- 
tween the two lesser entrances we have a group of five figures, 
the centre being the king, holding a cup in his right hand, 
and bis bow in his left, while on each side of him are a eunuch 
and a winged divinity. The remaining walls are occupied 
with thirteen slabs, containing colossal winged figures, wear- 
ing the homed egg-shaped cap, and carrying the fir-cone and 
basket, arranged in pairs fai'ing each other but separated by 
the symbolic tree. (F g 64 ) 

Proceeding through the central open ng we are accompnmed 
on each side by winded 
human- headed lions 
and find ourselves in a 
large hall, 160 feet 
long by nearly 40 feet 
wide. The lions at 
the entrance are each 
9 feet long, and the 
same in height. The 
countenance is nohlc 
and benevolent in ex 
pression ; the features 
are of true Persiau 
type; he wears an egg 
^aped cap, with three 


horns, and oord round tbe base. The ear is hnnian, and not 
that of a litin. The benmi and hair of thi 
elaborately curled; but tlie hair on the legs and sides of tLe 
atatue represents the Bbpggy appendage of the animal; round 
the loins is a succession of numerous cords, which ore drawn 
into lour separate knots ; and at the extremities are fring^.' 
forming as many distinct tassels. At the end. of the hul >. 
daw is distinctlj' visible. Tiie strength of the animal u 
mirably and characteristically conveyed. TTpon the flat 
face of this slab is a cuneiforcn inacripljon ; twenty lines beinj 
between the fore legs, twenty-six in the middle, eighteoi 
between the hind legs, and seventy-one at the back. 

" The first was like a lion, and had eagles' wings."' "Ws 
have chosen this figure to cummence our work, because it if. 
an emblematic symbol of the Assyrian empire, as we lean 
from the Book of Daniel, who, in the first year of Belshaezu^ 
had a vision, informing liim of the future destiny of the mti 
narehy, which, at that time, had reached the pinnacle of ill 
glory ; and we present it here again as it actually occnn 
the entrances of the palaces and of the historical chambers 
are about to describe. 

Turning to the right, we perceive an upright slab, 7 t 
10 inches high, and ^ feet 10 inches wide. It repreaentsa 
winged human figure with the head of a carnivorous birii 
the PercnopteruB, or black and white eagle, very reooguiastia 
from the crest of feathers, and from the caruncles which covet 
the beak. This figure occurs very frequently in the Babyloniak 
cylinders, and has been taken, in those less perfect specimen* 
of the divinity, for the figure of a man with the head of • 
cock, the crest of feathers on the head having been supposed 
to represent the cock's comb. Tliis was tlie opinion of Mr. 
John Landseer, who first made these works of art known t* 
the world by his beautiful engravings and descriptions of them. 
The figure ia clothed in a short, fringed tunic, reaching odIj 
to the knee, and tied at the neck with a tasselled cord ; over 
this is an elaborate necklace with an ornament something liks 
a pomegranate ; and another of this favourite fruit, but quite 
distinct from the necklace, is hanging from a cord. Over ttw 
short tunic is a longer robe similarly trimmed, some part ot' 
which is shown at the haclc over the left shoulder. Tlw 


whole is covered by an ample garment fringed and embroidered, 
which reacliea to the anclo, leaving bare the right leg. It 
is especially to be noticed, that the same eogle-headod divinity 
in the palace of Shorsabad has not this long aniiile garment, 
because, as we hope to Bhow, this particular divinity had not 
acquired that celebrity which it attained to in a sabse- 
quent age. The feet of the figure are covered with sandala, 
in every respect like those worn by the king and his attend- 
ant; and the remoius of colouring matter are visible upon 
tliem. "With the right hand, which is elevated, he presents a 
pinb-Guce ; and in tlie left hand, which is advanced across the 
body, is a basket, or bag with a handle. His wrists are deco- 
rated with the rosette-rfiaped bracelet ; and on his riglit arm, 
at the insertion of the biceps, is a plain massive ring lapping 
over. The handles of two daggers appear on bb breast, just 
above the mantle ; and a double curd, knotted and terminating 
with tassels, is suspended in front of the advanced leg, — 
there being a similar one behind the leg, both curds spparestlf 
issuing from the girdle. The whole figure is less agreeable 
in its proportions than the divinity we sbull presently de- 
Boribe ; — and the muscles of the advanced leg are mure hareh 
and globular than in that sculpture. 

Several lines of cuneiform writing are engraved over the 
lower portion of the figure, entirely regardless of the hand, 
basket, and embroidered garment. The eharactcraare bo clear 
and sharp as to induce a belief that they are considerably lesa 
ancient than the figures ; but the other divinities in this col- 
leetion, and the Nahr el Eelb figure, as well aa that recently 
discovered on the coast of Cyprus, have inscriptious beginning 
at about the same part of the figure, and likewise carried 
all across the work, whence we inter that this, which seems 
t.0 ua a barbarous defacement of the sculptor's work, was not 
so regarded by the Aesyriana at any period, lor the examples 
cited comprehend BUch widely diU'eiing epochs and such dis- 
tant localitieH, as to include the very epoch and place of the 
sculptures before ua. 

To return to tlie main point, — the question as to what the 
AssyrianB may have meant by this winged man with an eagle'a 
head? We answer, they meant to jiurtray the god of victory 
or conquest, and that this eculpture is a rcpreseutation of that 
very Aasyiiaa Divinity in whoie hooae, and bdbre wliose 



altar, Sennacherib was murdered by his eons, Adramelech | 
and Bliarezer. Our reasona for entertaining this beiiKf u 
chiefly derived from the word im (^NisrocK), the name I 
that divinity, as recorded in the Second Book of Kings, clia^ J 
ter xix., and 27th verse. The meaning of the root -en ("*" I 
or niier), from which the name of the divinity is deriviid, ii 
to lacerate and tear, as birds of the eagle clasa do theii 
prey ; from which circumstance the same word, by a natunl ' 
suoceasiou of ideas, came also to signify victory or conquest ii 
the Arabic, and some of the cognate dialects of the Hebrev. 
Hence when we dig up an eagle -headed and iFinged figure ont 
of the ruins of an Assyrian palace, the conclusion ia forced 
upon U3 that it repreuents the divinity of conquest or victoij 
- — the particular god of the ambitious, conquest- seeking Sat- 

nacherih, the god to which he most frequently sucnliteti, i 
which is therrfore called, in the sacred text, ■m'm {aleioo), 1 
god. The T (ft or eh) at the end of the ward Niaroch -per ■ 
take to be analogous to the same letter in the Chaldee masculii 
plural noun ys-o {mrochin), which occurs seveTol times, i 
nifying, in the Book of Daniel, overseers, presidents. 

Thus the whole word would signity e. 

Ur it may be cousidered not opposed t 

ictionnrj' uf tbe CopUc fur Iho word ik, R^ifftl 


genins of the Hebrew to regard the t as a sufflx, in which 
oaae the word would mean "thy eagle," thus denying or 
repelling as it were all participatioa in the worship of the 

Passing the figure of Ifiaroch, we arrire at the comer, 
which is occupied by a symbolic tree ; the adjoining wall 
is divided into two lines of illustration, between which is a 
broad band of cnneatic inscription. The first subject on the 
upper line (fig. 107) represents the king, in front of the 
battle, in his chariot with his charioteor and shield bearer, 
who are both without helmets. The chariot closely resembleB 
tiie Egyptian. (See figs. 108 and 109 ) 

' The Ki«r nf the nuoient AraliB ia Buid to hive been irorehipped tmder 
(lie form qf on eugle. — Sote'i livlm. Disc., aoc. i, p. 19, 

The Nieroch of the ABayrians has beon tliougrliC to han br^cn nlflo re- 
presented bf tho some bird; and Che Tklithnu of tba Porsisna Imil ttad 
wingi of on eaj;1e, — Beyir, Addit. m Sclden da Bits Syria, tyal. ii. c. 10, 
p. 325; and Monl/nucoa, Ant., vol. il. p. 3C3; Ssnoph. Cyri^., lib. i\i. 
p. 300. 



To the Bides are attached, crosBing each other, two quirtts i 
full of arrows. Each quiver coataina a small bow, uid u | 
likewise furnished with a hatchet. Proceeding &om the frod 
of the chariot, over or hetween the horses, is a richly-em- 

broidered appondage, which seems ta be an appnratiis like tliiti 
used in India, for preventing the horses coming togetheTii 
The boBscd shield of the king is placed at the bock of lb, 
chariot, serving for farther security: in front is the bniasar' 
iron bar fixed to the pole, as in the chariots of £gypt, aat 
the pole terminates in the bead of a swan ; in tho EgypttU. 
esumple tbe tcrminatioa ia a bnU. The spear is insertld 
behind the chariot in a place appointed for it, df^oorated irifi> 
a humau bead. The bameas and trappings of Uie hoiSM 

yiMEonD. — iaaraiui ohabiot. 257 

precisely like the Egyptian. Pendant at the side of the horee 
is a circular ornament terminating in tasBels analogous t^ that 
divided into thongs at the side of the Egyptian horse, which, 
■we may presume, may be intended to accelerate the pace of 
the animal, as in the case of the spiked halls fastened to the 
tntppinga of the race horses of the Corso in Rome. In both 
examples seyeral hands pass over the chest, and, lapping over 
the shoulders of the horses, join the ligaments attached to the 
polo or yoke. A remarkable hand and thong, through the 
upper end of which posses a single rein, is the same in both 
harnesses. The tails of the Assyrian horses are fancifully 
compresaed in the centre, while the Egyptian horaes have a 
band round the upper part or root. Around the necks of the 
Assyrian horses is a string of alternately large and small 
beads, which appear to have cuneiform eharaotere cut upon 
them — poBsihly a chaplet of amulets, according to the custom 
of the oriental nations of the present day. The shield- 
bearer extends the bossed shield to protect his sovereign. 

The king's surcoat is richly embroidered. He has bracelets 
■with rosetCe-shapcd clasps upon his wrists ; and his bow arm 
is protected, aa are those of his officers, from the recoil of the 
Btring by a close-fitting shield fastened to the forearm at the 
elbow and wrist. Above the royal chariot is the winged 
divinity wearing the double-homed cap. He directs his arrows 
against the enemies of the king. A broad flat ring encircles 
this figure, paasing just above the feathery termination of his 
person, and behind and above his shoulders. Directly before 
the king, one of the enemy — perhaps the chief — is falling 
from the back of his chariot ; while his charioteer, unable to 
guide the horses, precipitates himself in iront. Behind, one 
of the king's soldiers has seized a flying enemy, and is about 
to kill him, notwithstanding the efforts of his companion to 
drag him off to the security of the city. Another of tiic enemy 
lies dead ; and others are rapidly flying for refuge towards 
the outworks of the city, which reach to the shores of a 
shallow stream running through a woody country. The 
victorious king has pnrsued the enemy up to the very con- 
fines of the city; which is protected by a ditch and double 
wall — fi'om behind which the enemy are diecharging their 
arrows. The city is represented with embattled towers ami 
arched gateway, Trom the towers the (memy ore shooiing 

258 sniEOirD. — siakdabd-beabers i 

arrows and throwing atoneB, under cover of wicker shieljth I 
The last figure— as far as the fracture allows u 
of a person endeaTouring to obtain a parley. He holds fail 4 
Blackened how ia hia left hand ; and hia right is upraised ii 
the act of bespeaking attention. 

Thenextaubjeet (fig. 110) that engages our attention, ill 
aontinuation of the last. It represents the standard'beaten I 
of the king, with their reepecttve charioteers. Each chariatB 
has attached a distinct banner — the foremost being a hidl, nil' 
the second two bulls. The chariots and trappings of d 
horses are exactly Hke those already described. There fl 
three horses to each chariot, but only six legs are shDWl 
The officers are bare-headed ; though in other rospecta f 

Ea TiciOBT. 259 

ing the horses of the cliariot, ia the king's groom, clothed in a 
short tunic, bordered and fringed ; belt round his waiat, aword 
suspended from the shoulders, sandals upon his feet, and hia 
uncovered hair elaliorately curled. In advance is a sceptro- 

bearer, armed, and wearing a pointed helmet. "Within the 
chariot ia the charioteer, holding the reins, and with a whip 
in his right hand, Hia dress is a, tunb, with a sash and belt 

Fig. lia.-BIillDlllD-BElBIBa 

round bis waist, and sword by hia side; but he wears no 

covering on jhia heud, nor armleta. The king is in his 

I coBtume; und behind bim stands a eunuch holding 


a parasol above his head. Immediatelly following the Idif 
IB a mounted warrior a richly capariaoned hor» 
Still farther behind, tut in the upper part of the slab, are hra 
warriors carrying sceptres in their elevated right hands, whils 
the dead and dying are scattered above and around. Freoeding, 
the king is the emblem of the Divinity, witli his right li ' 
pointing onward, hia left hanging down holding the bow. 

The fourth scene is a continuation of the last, and shon 
U3 the " Standard-bearers of the king in proeeBsion after 
victory." (Fig. 112.) 

In this frieze a war-chariot, dram 
by three horaea, conveys a etandaid*. 
f bearer, his charioteer, and t 

aut, who seems holding on by a 
1 trivance for the purpose, fixed in 
of the car. The standard-bearer i 
his right hand extended, while hia le 
sustidns a standard wiUi two bnllB. 
advance is another chariot, also d __^ 
by three horses, in processional paoaf 
and guided by a charioteer. It oosve 
a staiLdard- bearer, whose standard i 
Divinity drawing bis buw, andBtandiaf 

upon a bull: wherever thie standard 

ably precedes that which contains two bulls, from ivhicl 

ve infer tliat it is indicatiYe of superior rank. All tbeao 
figures are without any liead-dresa, and have their hair 
eliiborateiy curled. Hovering over the foremost horse is 
a bird of prey, a. trained falcon, carrying in his claw a 
human head from tfao field of battle. The fore part of the 
frieze ie divided inffl two Bectiona : the upper portion shows 
three musicians, the two elder of whom are each striking a 
nine-stringod inBtrument with a. long plectrum, while the 
third, a beardless youth, is playing with his fingers upon a 
cylindrical drum, like the Indian tom-tom, which ia auapeuded 
round his Deck. Advancing towards the musicians are two 
iinEirmed soldiers, bearing human heads in their hands, the 
foremost holding one forward, as if in evidence of hia prowess 
in the field. The lower division represents the two grooms 
belonging to the chariots, in advance of the horses, and before 
them are some of the king's soldiers in conical caps, their 
hands upraised, as if eagerly relating the occurrences of the 
day ; between the figures human heada are strewn, in- 
dicating tliat this is a part of the field of battle. The last 
group on the frieze consists of two unarmed soldiers, one of 
■whom holds human heads in his hands, while the other is ad- 
dressing him with handa upraised, as in the preceding group. 

The fifth frieze upon this upper portion of the wall ia ap- 
parently divided into four compartments, each of which is in 
itself so curious and 
interesting that we 
present the detached 
sections oa a larger 
scale than the accom- 
panying illustrations. 
The first compartment 
that we shall describe 
(fig. 113) represents 
a soldier fully armed 
and holding a sceptre, 
introducing four cap- . 
tivea of distinction, i 
all clothed in long 

robes, and with their .-«-— 

arms bound together by the rope which is held bytheir captbr. 
The king's cup-bearer, of gigantic stature, 

262 BiMHonn. — tambodba. 

Boners at the eDtrance of a pavilion, a mark of respect that 
leads to the ooncluaion that they ore captives of not« about to 
be led into the presence of the king. The entrance of He 
paviilon is formed of pillars ornamented up their entire shafts 
and further enriched hy highly decorated capitals, which are 
surmounted by goats very characteristically represented. A 
sort of tympanum to ihis temple-like pavilioa is decorated 
similarly to the pillan, 
and the cornice beneaih 
consists of suspended or- 
naments like pine-conea, 
slternaling with tasseli. 
The capital of the lost 
column of the pavilioD 
is ornamented with the 
heads of animals, but ths 
fracture prevents our 
learniug whether the tflp 
was likewise surmounted 
hy an animal. 

Immediately above the 
prisaoers is ttie second 
compartment (fig-. 1 J4), 
containing two manunen 
clothed in lion skins, tha 
heads forming masks. 
They are dancing a gro- 
tesque danco to the musio 
of a man who accompaniet; 
them on a sort of cithern,; 
played with a plectrum: 
the instrument is like tha 
tar with the long 
tiijjTL'r- board, still in nsB 
Poraia and Turkey, and 
I played in the same WKf 
with a plectrum (figs. US 
and 116). This insln- 
Fig. ii6.-T.xm,uw. Hg. UB.-«Dit »««■. mg„t_ ^■^^ tamboura, 
is 3^. 9 in. long, and its elegantly shaped sounding-board is 
6| mches wide ; it has ten strings of small wire, 47 stops, 


and ia invariably highly enriched and inlaid with mother of 
penrl. The tamboura iB in common use upon the shores of 
the Euphrates and Tigris, but in Egypt it liaa almoat totally 
disappeared, and in oU probability ero long there may be no 
example extant of an instrument that is possibly coeval with 
the time of David, Our illustration is copied from a Tam- 
boura, belonging ta some Syrians exhibiting some years since 
in the Egyptian Hall. 

In the centre of the frieze, and before the pavilion, is the 
third compartment (fig, 117), showing a servant curry-comb- 

ing a horse, while two other horses are feeding out of a Back 
of com, the stringa of which bang loosely down, and a fourth 
behind is admirably designed, turning its head to bite its 

The fourth compartment of this frieze (fig. U9) represents 
the interior of the royal kitchen. It consists of a — . 
circle with thirteen turreted towers at irregular inter- (^ 
Tab, like a walled town. Thia circle is divided into fi 
four compartments, exactly resembling the Egyptian *''s- "8. 
hieroglyphic {fig. 118), the determinative of country or dis- 

The first compartment oontaina a brazier and fire-place with 
clawed legs, and within the fire-place are several vases. A 

r fiy-flap in oae hand, and in tiie 
in the East at this day to retire 
the cooking or preserving ope- 

cunuch holding 

other a fan such as is used 

the charcoal, presides over 

The second compartment eootains a tahle ■with crossed legs 
terminated by cloven feet, and upon the table are cups and 
ether veasels. On one side atanda a eunuch boldiag 

napkin, el marrhama, over his left shoulder, and a fly-flap in 
his right hand. A second eunuch is sitting upon a low stool 
in front of the tahle, occupied in pounding in a mortar with 
his right hand, while his left holds a fly-flap over a small 
vessel before him, from which we may suppose that he is oom- 
pounding sherbet or aome sweet beverage. 


Below, in the third compartraent, is seen an aged eunuch, 
aBsisted by a young one, disjointiag an. animal which lies upon 
a table before them. 

The fourth, compartment or chamber shows a long-bearfed 
man, evidently a common attendant, superintending the boil- 
ing of a large pot with two handles. 

The last frieze (fig, 120) on this upper part of the wall re- 

presents a battle with the king in his chariot and the Divinity 
flying overhead. 

B. aiia,irt.iiiB. 

266 NiMEonD. — BOOT Aim i'light of the ewkmt. 

The Biith frieze (fig. 121) on this upper line of the w 
shows tlie chief eunuch in b&ttle. The eimuch is in his i 
chariot with three hoTHes which are guided by his charioteer. 
The usual arms are attached t« the chariot, all highlip deco- 
rated i the breast-plate and tunic of the chief officer are richly 
ornamented, and his bow arm is protected hy a plate of meUl. 
Immediately over the horses hovers a bird of prey ; and abore 
their heads and beneath their feet are two men falling, pierced 
by arrows, their weapons scattered over the battle-field. Be- 
hind the chariot, and with their baeka turned towards it, an , 
two of the enemy — one staodiug, the other kneeling — both 
dischai^ng their arrows ; arid in front of the horses is one 
who has already been wounded by two arrows, and who holdi 

his haw in his left hand, while with the right he endeaToniV 

to arrest the progress of the chariot. Another, likewise 


lently in retreat, has turned to discharge on arrow at tlM 
conqueror ; and before him is one of the king's soldiers deli- 
herately plunging his sword into the breast of an adyenuj, 
whom he has driven down on his knees. Behind these is 
earthwork or mound, upon which two are contending, both 
their knees; but the king's soldier retains his sword and 
wicker shield, whicli he holds between hiraself and foe, whi 
is quite disarmed, hta bow and quiver having Mien below. 
The king's soldiers wear the i^ouical cap ; the enemy the «' 
llie seventh friese (fig. 122) ia a contiuiiatioQ of Qie 


battle. The conquerora are led by two horsemen — a eunuch 
and his companion shield -bearer — after whom come two 
■bearded warriore, each discharging arrows at the flying in- 
fantry of the enemy. The slii eld-bearers have their ahielda 
slung at their buckB, and seem to be holding the reiuB of the 
horGea of their fighting companions and the manes of their 
own. The bearded infantry wearing the conical cap, and 
armed with bow, sceptre, and sword, follow in military order 
in parsuit of the enemy. Under the horse of the foremost 
bowman is a headless body ; and saspended from the tasselled 
treost-armour or ornament of the hoi'se (precisely like that 
■worn in the East at this day) is the head of one of the yan- 

quiahed. In front is a wounded soldier endeavouriag to shield 
himself with his hand. The bows and arrows of the faUen 
and Mling are strewn about the field of battle ; and a bird 
of prey hovers over head. 

The traveller, Sir John Chardir, when in Persia, was in- 
formed, that, down to the sixteenth century, fierce falcons from 
Uount Caucasus were trained to fly at men. We are disposed, 
therefore, to regard these eagles, hovering over the chiefs, as 
birds trained to accompany them in battle. In other parts of 
the sculptures from Kiraroud we find birds contending with 
the wounded, and chiefly attempting to pick out their eyes, 
thus exhibiting their natural instinct, as eagles and falcouB, 

OF THU Kora. 

when contending with large and powerful prey, at once 
the eyee of their victims. The cQHtom of employing t 
animais, that could he trained to aid in war, was not 
to the Assyriana, for Herodotus infornis us that SesoetriB n 
to battle with a lion, and we find, in the temple of i 
Bimhal, a repreaentation of Rameaea II., in his war-char 
actually going to hattle with a lion or panther at the 
the chariot (see fig. 108). "We have engraved thia Ej 
picture for a doiihle purpose ; in the flrat place, as illuatriilin 
of this historical fact; and in the second, as affording c 
readers an opportunity of comparing the trappings of t 
horses and the Conatruction of the chariot with those of A 
Byria. It is not a little remarkable that tliese birds of pre; 
are nowhere seen in the sculpturefl of Khorsahad, 

Fig. 134.— CQ.BIOT i»D OrFICItliB Of TUK OBEAT IIHO. SilS, « ft. JIJ In. b 

The eighth scene (fig. 123) shows the etandard-h 
the king in battle. The chariots, charioteera, and standi 
in all respects resemble those shown in fig. 112; and I 
officers are seen discharging their arrows among the eaen 
who ore falling beneath the feet of the horses. In front it 
toot soldier, and behind him two of the enemy, who are a 
ing their arrows at the offleera of the king. 

As this frieze terminates the upper line of hietorioal g 
jeots, we shall return to the comer whence we started, i 
commence the reading of the second line. 

The first subject (fig. 124) repTeaenta the chariot of t 
king drawn by three horses. In front of the chariot i 

HiKEorrn. — bcale asmotjb, 269 

king's groom ; and in the chariot itself ia the charioteer 
holding the reins and having a whip in his right hand. He 
ia clothed in a ttiuic, with a sash and helt round his waist, 
and a sword depending, but has no covering oa his head or 
bracelets on his arms. The head of the ^room is likewise 
uncovered, and his hair is elaborately curled. Ho ia clothed 
in a tunic down to his knees, bordered and fringed; has a 
belt round his waist, a sword suspended from his shoulders, 
and sandals on his feet. The body-guard behind the chariot 
wear bordered but not fringed aurcoats ; and have slung over 
their shoulders their shields highly bossed, and with a lion's 
head in the centre. Their swords are likewise enriched. 
Their feet are protected by sandals, and their heads by conical 
oaps. They hold bows in their left hands, and in their right 
the sceptre already described. Before the chajiot of the king 
are two soldiers clad in scale-armour, which reaches from the 
Tery cap, covering the neck and shoulders, down to the ankles. 
The back of one is turned towards the spectator, so that the 
entire sword is seen hanging from the shoulders, and secured 

I l)y a belt over the sash. He is directing his arrows upwards ; 
Vbile the other, who holds a dagger in his right hand, is pro- 
tecting his companion with a thickly-bossed shield. Every 
bowman in all these sculptures appears to be accompanied 
liy a shield -bearer. A third warrior, wearing a sword, but 
not clad in armour, is kneeling down in front, intimating 

. fighting in ranks. A bird of prey is directing its conrse 
towards the battle-field ; and another, behind and above the 
chariot of the king, is already tearing a dying man, one of the 
enemy, who appears to have fallen whilst in the act of ilying 
for refuge to the city. 

The next frieze (fig, 125) is a continuation of the foregoing. 
It represents the siege of a city situated in a plain, and pro- 
tected on one quarter by either a marsh, or a shallow, slu^sh 

■ river. On one side a satrap, or ally of the king, attended 
by his shield-bearer, is vigorously pursuing the attack. He 
'b habited in the long fringed and embroidered robe, sandals, 
bracelets, circlet on his head, and long sword, and is dis- 
charging arrows under covtr of the shield held by his attend- 
ant, who wears a helmet, and is partly clothed in nmil. Im- 
mediately before the sutrap is the standard of the Divinity 
upon the bull, like that which we have before observed 


270 HiMEOTTD. — wkn KKGiNna. — LraniD fire. 1 

alwaya precede the standard with the two biilla. The ^naign 
ia fixed to the head of a nicker war-engine and battering-raa, 
■which has effected a breach ia the walls. To divert the effect 
of the blowa, the besieged are endeavouring to raiae the polo 
of the ram by means of a chain, an effort that the besiegen 
are again counteracting, with the aid of large hooka, employed 
in puUing it down At the side of the war-engine a bownum 
on hia knees is dischargmg arrows, while hia companioa, 
armed with a dagger, defends him with hia shield. From tha 
foremost battlement the besieged are seen pouring some in- 
flammable liquid upon the war-enginea of the enemy, who^ 
in their turn are discharging water from the moveable tower,. 
to eJttingmsh the fire In the highest tower of the war-en- 
gine are men clad in mail, discharging arrows and caating 








uf^^ "^ift^SwoiSw. 


stones. On a lofty tower of the gate some women are wen 
tearing their hair in the agony of despair, while strenuoiw 
efforts to defend the citadel are being made by the mea ata-. 
tioned on the walls. Beneath the towers of tlie gate are two. 
men disputing the possession of a treasure which they hava> 
ftcoidentally discovered, whilst engaged in undermining the. 
wall : and farther on, two men, clad in mail, are effecting a, 
breach in the wall by means of celts, or bronze chiaela fixed 
at the end of polos, as Mr. James Tatea has satisfaetorily 
ahown these implements to be in a paper read at the Arohseo- 
logioal Society.' Notwithstanding the efforts of the besieged 
^^ ' '■ArcliMologiwl Joumnl," DMembBr, 1812. ^^ 


to defend the place, the oiit-'workB aeem to be fatally bom 
barded, and the people are falling in every direction trom the 

The city ia sairounded hy four rowa of battlemented walls 
the battlements, comiceB, and gateways he ng nchly decorated 
The principal gateway between the two towera is 1 ke the 
others, bivalved, and surrounded by an ornao ent commonly 
found in Saracenic architecture the very same decoration being 
ohaervahle on the walls of the Alhambra and on Taiioua 
Moorish buildings and mosques in Ca ro and Constant nople 
It ia to he particularly observed that on the side of the city 
which is already sufficiently protected bv the nver the arti 

Fig. 12S. 

ficifll fortifications consbt of low walls; whereas on the side 
where there is no natural defence the walls are hiij;h, and 
further fortified by numerous towera. Where the walla are 
high the besiegera are emplojiug war-engines in the shape of 
moveable towera ; and where they are low, mining operations 
are actively pursued. The next slab (fig. 126) completes the 

From a tower of the city the besieged are seen easting 
atones and discharging arrows upon the besiegers, who, armed 
with spears and swords, are mounting rapidly by their scaling 
ladders. One of these, of gigantic stature, protected by his 
wicker ahield, heads the Boaliug party, while beneath mining 
operations are carried on under cover of the ehields of the 

272 HiHBODi). — D.\itAscnfl. 

infantry. !Beh.iiid the scaling party stands the kin^ in !nv 
long embroidered lobe : he is dischorgiiig arron's at the cast' 
from under cover of the aquure wicker shield, which 1 
shield-hearer holds in hia left bund. The Bhield-bearet ii 
clad in a loDg coat of mail, and carries a javelin with tw* 
streamers, A bird of prey hovers over head. "And I 
will give thee to the ravenous birds of every sort.'" In»» 
mediately following the king are two eunuchs in long robes; 
the elder one, who ia of gigantic stature, holds the umbrellft. 
over the king with his left haad, and in his right appears iha 
handle of tho sceptre or instrument of authority. The youngtt 
or lesser attendant carries the king's quiver of arrows. Faiu 
ther on, three women and a boy are being led into captivilf 
by a soldier armed with sword and bow, who is also a soej' 
bearer, and therefore a person of authority attending the k 
The women are bare-footed and wear long robes pecalii 
ornamented, but without fringes ; around their waists H 
scarfs, and their haii hangs over their shoulders in lonj 
tresses,^ which they are tearing in despair. Among the ci 
tivea is a mother and her child. " I will cast thee out, i 
the mother that hare thee, into another country ;"' and t 
others maybe supposed to be her maidens. "For lo; o 
fathers have fallen by the sword, and our sons, and a 
daughters, and our wives are in captivity."' Above t 
women are three oxen, part of tlie spoil. 

May not these representations be a realisation of the pi 
phecy of Amos," " and the people of Syria sliall go into cap 
tivity unto Kir, saith the Lord," and the city of Damaacuai 
" For the king of Assyria went up against Damoscus, and U 
it, and carried the people of it captive to Eir, and alei 
Efzin.'" The site of Damascus resembles that indicated in ^--^_ 
friezes; two veiyi/kilbic streams, called Nahr Aawadji (^ftoM^ 
and Behairat-eUMur] (Lake of the Meadow) (^Pharpar), n ' 
through and meander about the walls of the city. " Are II 
Abona and Pharpar, rivera of Damascus, better than all t 
waters of Israel?'" Again, the liquid fire, poured by t 
besieged upon the besiegers, may probably be petroleum, wi 
which the adjacent country abounds. Another corroboraliTi 

' Eiekiel, i 
* 2 Chron, 
' 2 King!, T. 13, 

I Isakh, iWi 


point in support of our BUggestiou is the JoBcriptioa on the 
obeliBk, which, according to ItawlinBon's reading, coutaina 
mention of BamoBcus, and likewise the name of the go<l Rini' 
mon, tie divinity of tliut city ; lastly, it would seem that a 
large city was suhjected to attack, since all the appliances of 
war hare heen brought into requinition. 

The next friezes represent the king, who is followed by his 
chariot and attendanta, receiving the prisoners who have been 
captured in the conquered city. The following: illuatration 
(%. 127) is part of this icene. 

The walls of the city extend entirely across the frieze, in- 
dicating that only part of the subject is reprcsfuM Pour 

battlemented towers arc shown ; and beneath the battlements 
ore circular ornaments — a decoration that induces the surmise 
that these are not the walls of the city, hut the cxteroul 
boundaries of the palace. The id-ea is in some measure sus- 
tained hy the figures of the women, as the tipper story in 
eastern buildings is that appropriated to the females. On the 
walls ore several women, each having her hair confined by 
a fillet round the head, and flowing in long loose ringlets 
upon the abouiders. Their drosa consists of a simple robe, 
with a Bcarf or broad bond round the waist. They arc in 
Turious utlitudcs ; tbe first having hci arms extended and 
palms open, in tbe posture common in the East in pro- 
nouncing a blessing ; the second has her hands 


position, but the arms hk more advanced ; and the third, wliA 
is alone, and who ia apparently an older person, has only o 
hand raised. The gestures of the reraavning two, evideni 
youthful figures, are far more animated ; the foremost havi 
her hands extended, as if pointing to the view without ai 
the objects of interest still beyond, while her heod ia turned 4 
towards her corapanion, — who has one hand raised, and seentj 
speaking. Passing before the walls is a prooeeaion of chariotajT 
tie first drawn by two horses led by a groom. In it si 
the charioteer of a standard bearer Ihe emblem is contained 
in a oirele and represents aa armed figure standing upon i 
bull and discharging an irrow from his bow The nest" 
tharot r strntlea the last lut has no attendant groom. It, 

likewise, conveys the charioteer of a standard-bearer, the at 
of whose standard ia visible, though the emblem ia brol 
away. The arms and appointments, with the trappings of tl 
horses, are the same as those described in former aubjects. 

The three succeeding slabs present quite a new soene- 
paasage of a river hy the army of the great king and hia a 

Fig. 128, the front division of the subject, ia indicatq 
by the presence of the king, who is always placed foremo' 
in every transaction, whether in the battle or in the chaa 
Here he is in hie war-chariot j which has been put into 1 
long boat-like vessel. It ia directed towards the coast by8 
strong and naked eteersraan, with a long paddle, propelled ) "^ 
three rowers, and farther accelerated by men towing on tl 


bank. The king himself is in full panoply of war; 'having hia 
Bword and three diiggerB in his belt ; hia bow in his left hand, 
and two arrows in his right, while hia battle-ase and quivers 
of arrowH are attached to the side of the chariot. Before htm 
stands his eunuch, fully armed, pointing out to hia observation 
the position of the enemy ; and behind him ia another of his 
chief beardless officers, likewise completely flrmed. Four 
horses are swimming behind, being guided by the groom who 
eita within the boat; and above is a man swimming, supported 
by the skin which he is inflating. 

Then follows flg. 129. The soldiers have taken off their 

clothes and accoutrements which as well as the chanots ore 
conveyed in boats The horsei likew se relieved of the r 
trappings are guided by snimmers all the latter wheti er 
soldiers or grooms being aupp rted by skins which th(,y in- 
flate ua they progress In ndrunce of the othera is a boat 

in of Upper Egypt by the French, 

head-quarters ia Cairo i *' 
inrormatioD. Some liaji. hovrercr, bufore the ce 
ant iararniiition had heen communicated to the Arah chieb in Cafra, b; 
Dative, who had carried the deapatcbiM with bis food in an inSatud Bhei'p- 
■kin en which he hod performed the greater port of the jouiue}'. Thu 
Nile being at tlie time nmch Bwollen, and the current Tery rapid, the dis 
' u accomDliehed in an incredibly ehort iaterrul. 



rowed hy two men, and conveying domeatic fdmitnre and I 
bundlee — possiblj' the clothea of the b- 

Lastly we have fig. 130. One of the king's beardleii I 
officen, weariDg the ahort-fringed upper dress, end holding a 1 
whip in his right; hand, is superiatending the embarbatjon of I 
a royal chariot. The eunuch is preceded by an attendant in I 
helmet and short tunic ; he holds in his upraised right hand I 
what appears to be the hantlle of a whip, and in hie left ft J 
Bceptre. Behind the eimuch is another attendant, dressed J 
like the last, but fully ariued, and holding a sceptre 
right hand. Before them is the river, upon which a boat hotf 
been launched ; this boat c 

Kg. 130.— PBEFABl* 

by 7 fl. 

the paddle, and the other dding in placing the cbariat; 
third man of large stature is transferring the chariot from 1 
shoulderB to the boat. Around are men inflating skins, i 
ing upon them, and swimming without their aid, all 1 
quite naked, excepting for the belts round their waists, 
waves are large and turhuient, conveying the idea of a g 
river or body of water. The various boats represented in U 
scenes are singularly illustrative of the unchangeable fa 
of the people. "We see on the sculptures the very boat* o 
circular form which Herodotus tells us were " constnioted u I 
Armenia, in the parts above Assyria, where the sides of th*il 
vesseU, being formed of willow, are covered eiterouUy withV 

I, float* I 
1 being 1 

B faabikJ 

UFAH. 277 

pkins, and having no distinction of head or stem. The boats 
have two onra — one man to each ; one pulls to him, the other 
jmshes from him. On. their arrival at BahyloE they dispose 
of all their cargo, selling the ribs of their boats, the malting, 
and everything but the Hkina which cover them;" which they 
take hack to form into otlier similar vessels (Clio, cxoiv.). 
Fig. 131 ahows the kufah, or modern round baaket-boat, which 
is used on the Tigris and Lower Euphrates. " They are 
formed," says Colonel Chesney, "of osiers plaited together 
like baskets over a circular frame of stout materials. In some 
instances, the basket is covered with leather ; in others only 
with bitumen. The vessel is guided by one man, who uses a 
large-bladed paddle alternately on each side."' 


Colonel Chesney likewise informs us that small rafts are 
formed with four inflated skiDs, attached by withes of willow 
or tamarisk, over whieh are placed branches in layers at right 
angles to each other- " This constitutes the smallest kind of 
keliek, on one of which may be seen an Arab family, moving 
■with the stream from one pasture -ground to another, carrying 
its bags of corn and other effects, the animals swimming by 
the side of the raft.'" Kelleka of various sizes (fig. 132), 
Tip to 36 feet and 40 feet in length, and supported by from 50 

' See Isaiah, xvii. I, 2 ; alto Eiod. ii. iii. 

' Colonel ChesDflj, " SurTcy of the Euplirates," toI, ii. c 20. We ore 
indebted ta Mr, Eoinaiae for tlie foregoing and icrera' 
ing Bkelcliai, iUuslrabivc of tha Kenury and modern oi 
of ttu Uuplintei uid rigrii, 




to 300 inflated akina, readily re-iaflated by meana of & pee4 I 
pipe, are also used to carry merchandise, and the river has, 
in consequence, been called the chief camelier. On the plat- 
form of these kelleks is a fire-place, williin a little enclosure 
of damp clay, to prevent accidents. The rafts are generally 1 

kept mid-atream by means of two rude oars, made of the rougb i 
branches of treea, a palm-branch fan at the end of each fonniog 1 
the blade. I 

Ab iu the time of Herodotus, when the cargo has reHQhf4- J 
its destination, the materials composing the raft are sold foe 




fire-wood, and the skina taken back by land for future use. 
Tile boat of the Lamlum marshes is a larger and awifter VMsel 
email, low, and long like a canoe it 19 forued ch efiy of 
reeds, with the exception of being covered witb bitumen m 
stead of skins. The stem and stem are alike and the boat is 
propelled either by one man sitting towards the stern or by 
one at each extremity facing the direction m which the boat 
is proceeding, and using their paddles on opposite sides. 

The double line of illustration on this part of the wall ter- 
minates with fig. 130, and is succeeded by several groups of 
colossal figures. The first represents the king holding a cup 
and a. bow, Snd followed by his armour-benrer. The second 
contaiDs the king in conversation with the Eab Signecn. The 
third, a repetition of the king and his armour-bearer, but 
facing the reverse way. On the fourth slab is a winged 
figure, having a garland oa his bead, a basket in oue baud, and 


in the other a flower of fire branches, which he is presenting 
towards the small entrance (4) we are about Co pasa. Vpon each 
jumb, and looking into tho chamber, is a winged bnll, ff'ear- 
ing an egg-shaped, tripte-borned, head-dress; difl'ering only 
in the head-dreBa from the bulls so fully described at Khoraa- 
bod. Behind the bulls are large slabs, covered with cuneatio 
inscriptions. Passing on, wo find a second colossal winged 
being, exactly like that on the answering side of the door; 
and the remaining portion of the wall on this side is lined 
with a double row of iUustration. 

The first on the upper line, fig. 134, represents three men 
Bwimming across a mountain torrent, endeavouring to gain a 
stronghold built on its bank. Two of them, the chief and 

hia attendant, are supported on inflated skins. The vanguard 
of the Assyrian array ia seen descending from the hills in pur- I 
suit of the unfortunate men, who are already wounded by ' 
their shafts. On the outer tower ia seen the watchmen ; and 
on two other towera are women extending their hands in 
prayer for the safety of the fugitives. In the hilly country 
of this region grow trees of tie date and exogenous kinds. 
This city has great foundations built of hewn atones, and high 
battlemeoted walls ; the towers of the citadel have numerous 

The nest frieze, fig. 135, represents the attack of a fortified 
city. The king, accompanied by bis body-guurd carrying hift 


arras and attended by a einglt! eunncb, all on foot, directs hie 
arrowa against the city. The hody-gQai-d are clothed in sur- 
coata reaching midway dowa the legs. Each has a round 
Bhield, wliich he holds upraised, to protect the sovereign from 
the shafts of the enemy. The one behind the king has a 
quiver of arrows, and a sword. He holds two arrows in his 
right hand, for the king's use, while the guard beside him 
bears tho king's Javelin, and ia without a sword or quiver. 
Both guards wear aandala, and conical caps. The king's dress 
consists of a long robe, richly fringed, with a shorter tunic 
closing down the front, bordered and fringed. Two cords, 
knotted together, with tasselis, are suspended from the girdlp, 
in which ho wears two daggers, and a sword. He has a second 

arrow in his hand, besides the one which he is in the act of 
disohai^ng from hia bow. He weurs the royal head-dress, 
encircled by a plain undecoratcd fillet, tied behind with long 
rihunds. Ear-rings and bracelets are worn by all; the 
former aometimes distinguiahed by a three-lobed termination, 
eometimes consisting of rings with broad pendants. Thoae of 
the king, however, are longer than and different in form from 
the others. The bracelets on the king's wriata are oonapiouoiis 
from the roaettea, while those on the arms of his guard are 
aimply massive rings. The eunuch is habited in a robe down 
to his feet and fringed at the bottom; n sash is round hia 
^aist, over which the belt of hia aword is buckled. Un his 


left aide are a bow and a quiver of arrows, and in hia right 
hund is an implemeiit like a Elick, with a roselte ornament at 
one end, and a loop at the other. This instrument we hayfl 
everywliere deBignated a sceptre, because we remark that ii 
all the sculpturee the persoDaJ attendants of the king, whethet 
hia euniicli or his bearded guard, invuriably cany it. Xeno- 
phon tells us, that 300 soeptre-bearers, richly dresaed, attended 
the elder Cyrus upon every occasion. The eunuch's head ii 
uncovered, and his hair is formally curled. He has ear-riuga 
and bracelets, hut wears no sandals. Hia ^rortneiita, as wdl 
as those of the king, are elaborately embroidered and fringed. 
Immediately before the king ia a caetle formed of wick^' 
work, protected in front by curved projections of aome .' 
fragile material. This structure, which runa on wheela, ii 
high as the widls of the heaieged town. Both upper and 
lower tower have three loopholes for the discharge of arrowy 
and other missiles. The upper tower contains soldiers, bearing 
aquare wicker shields, and armed with bows, arrows, I 
Ht«nes. One soldier is discharging an arrow under the cove 
of hia companion's wicker shield, while the latter ia throwiq 
a stone. The wicker engine likewise carries with it a battel 
ing-ram, the alrokea of which have taken effect upon t' 
walla of the tflwn, aa may be perceived by the displaced Bi 
falling stones. The embattled walla of the city have at intfl 
vala lofty towers. The entrance to the city ia by an arotu 
gateway, opening with two valves, and protected by a towi 
on each side. There are loopholea and windows both in tl 
towers and in the walls above the gateway. The defendeiC 
posted on the walls (two men in each tower) are diacharging 
arrows, with which their quivers, slung over their sboulderu 
are well stocked ; and they also use the square wicker shteUt 
The besieged are distinguished in their costume from the W 
aiegera by the head-dress, for, inatead of the cap, they wear ft 
fillet round their heads resembling that worn hy a people t 
presented on the Egj-ption monuments. In the front of tl 
defenders is an elder of the city, who holds his slackened bo# 
in his left hand, and who appears by the action of hia tight H 
be endeavouring to obtain a parley. He is closing it by bringi 
ing the four fingers and thumb together — an action still in nil 
in the East to eojoin prudence, consideration, — and invariab^ 
accompanied by aome word implying patience and forbeartuei 

The next scene is of a totally different cliBrecter. It re- 
presents a lion hunt (fig. 136}. The king is in hie chariot, 
drawn hy three horses, which the charioteer is urging forwai-d 
to escape the attack of an infuriated lion that has already 
placed its fore paws upon the back of the chariot. The action 
■ uud countenance of the charioteer are not without an expres- 
sion of fear, and his flowing hair evinces the speed at which 
the horses are advancing. At this critical moment the royal 
descendant of the " mighty hunter " aims a deadly shaft at 
the head of the roaring and wounded monster, the position of 
whose tail and limbs is finely indicative of rage and ftiry. 
Behind the lion are two of the king's bearded attendants, fully 
armed, and holding their daggers- and shields ready to defend 

fteniBelvea in cnse the prey should escape tte arrow of the 
king. Before the chariot is a wounded lion, crawling from 
under the horses' feet; the cringing agony conveyed in its 
entire action is well contrasted with the undaunted fury of 
the former. The existence of a claw in the tuft at the end of 
the lion's tail was disputed for ages, but here in these ancient 
sculptures is an exaggerated representation of it, in support 
of this euriouB fact in natural hiBtory (fig. 137). The pecu- 
liarity was first recorded by Didymus of Alexandria, an 
early commentator on the Iliad, who flourished 40 years before 
the Christian era. Homer and other poets feign that the 
lion lushes his sides, and Lncan states that he does so to sti- 


Fig. 138.-, 


Dtulate himself to rage; but not oue of these writers odrerii 
to the claw ia the tail, although DidymUB, who lived lOO 
yeara before the last-named author, 
discovered it, and conjectured that iCi 
purpose WHS to effeut more readily 
what Lucan a&cribes to the tail alone. 
Whatever may have been the sap- 
Fic. 137,— cLiwn MOH'e Tin., posed use or intention of thia clav, 
PiDio Nimroud Scuiptnrei. jjg existence has been placed beyond 
dispute by Mr. Bennett, who, at one of the meetings of tha 
Zoological Society of London, in 1832, allowed a specimen of 
it, which was taken from a living aniinaL - 
in the Society's menagerie (fig, 138). 
(See " Proceedings of the Council of tl» 
Zoological Society of London," 1832, p, 1 
a 146.) It is no small gratification to be ablo 

, upjj j^ quote iu eridenee of the statement 

of Ifr. Bennett and his predecessor, Didymus of Alexandna, 
this original and authentic document, on the authority of the ve- 
ritable descendants of t)ie renowued hunter himself; a docn< 
ment too, that any one may read who will take the trouble b 
examine the slab under consideration. The king's bearded at 
tendants wear the conical cap, with a largo tassel dependiai 
from under the iiair at the back of the bead. The king himJ 
self is habited as before described ; the scabbard of 1 ' 
sword is adorned with lioas' heads. In its groove t 
hind the chariot is the king's javelin, decorated with ti 

The fourth scene which likewise relates to the chase, dis- 
plays a bull hunt (fig. 139). The king is attended by hii 
huntsman, who follows the chariot, riding sideways upon ono 
horse, and leading another with embroidered saddle, and richly 
caparisoned, for the king's use in the chase. The king, ill hit- 
chariot, turns round to seize a bull, whose fore legs are en- 
tangled in the wheels, and he secures the infuriated nnjiniil 
by grasping one of the horna with his left hitnd, while h 
right inserts a small dagger precisely between the seoond ai 
third vertebrtB — just where the spinal cord is most assailable. 
Ke performs this dangerous feat with dignity — with thai 
calmness and composure acquired by long experience. Anolhex 
bull, pierced with four arrows, lies dead on the ground. ' ' 



the accustomed pittcc is the royal spear, and like that in the 
hand of the huntsman, it has the addition of a fillet to arouse 
and frighten the wild animals. The same deficiency in the 
number of legs, both of the chariots horses and of the saddle. 
horses, is observable in this sculpture. 

As this subject completes the upper line of illustration, -we re- 
turn and commence reading the second line. Here the first scene 
relates to the conquests of the great king, fig. 140. It repre- 
Bents a procession conveytng prisoners and spoil to the feet of 
the conqueror. The procession ie led by two officers of ira- 
portance, habited in long fringed and embroidered robes, 
having sworda with ornamented scabbards and handles slung 
over their shoulders, and sandals on their feet. The one is 
bearded and the other beardless; the latter having a turban of 

embroidered linen on his head. Both have their hands crossed 
in the altitude of respect. A double hale of embroidered 
dotb 1-4 placed above, but not reeting on, their heads. Im- 
mediately succeeding these ore two other officers, similar in 
every respect, excepting that the head of the eunuch is un- 
covered, and that he is on the right instead of the left of the 
bearded figure. Three bars of prticious woods are placed above 
these two. Following them is a single eunuch, clad in the 
eame fashion, and having two tusks of an elephant placed 
above his head. His lelt band is upraised in the act of intrO' 
daciug a prisoner of distinction, as may be inferred from 

286 iriiiiioTjii. — 1 

his flowiog robes and the decorated fillet upon hie head, ubove 
which are two square vases. The fiict of this prisoner are 
bare, and hia arms are tied bebind him, the cord being held in 
the left hand of a gigantic soldier, who follows with liis 
cleuched right hand elevated, as if in the act of buffeting his 
prisoner. The costume of the soldier is the high conical cap, 
a tunic reaching midway down the kg, quiver slung at his 
back, and bow on his arm ; above hie head is a semi -circular 
vase of different form, with two handles. Then follows a eunuch, 
—excepting that he wears sandals, habited Jikes the first pri- 
soner, whose chief minister he probablj' is. Above his head is 
also a vase. His arms are bound and secured to the two hatt- 

Fig. 1 

. size, 3 

liiotod, and evidently inferior, prisoners who follow in euccesflion. 
These two wear short tunics and the fillet encircling the 
head. The cord which binds their arms and secures them to 
one another is held by another giganljc soldier, wealing 
the conical cap and short tunic, as in the former case: in the 
left hand he likewise holds his bow, the right being raised in 
the act of striking with the staff the captives before him. 
Some have considered that the rases and other implemenii 
above the heads of the people in this procession are intended to 
indicate the rank of each person ; but to our view, they re- 
present the spoil taken and brought with the prisoners, anil 
laid down on the ground before the conqueror, as in the baltlc 
scenes are represented on the ground the dead bodies of the 
slain. " I give bim charge to take tlie spoil, and to take the 

■prey, and to tread them down like tlie mire of the streets.'" Wa 
cannot leave this frieze without noticing especially the attitude 
of the principal prisoner who ia brought before the conqueror. 
The position of this prisoner suggests a passage in 1 Sumuel 
(o. XV., ver, 32), in which Agug is described as coming to Saul 
after the defeat of the Amalekites, " and Agag came unto him 

The next subject, fig. 141, may be called the League or 
Treaty of Peace ; for such ia its probable import. The great 
king having pursued his enemies who fled like wild beasts, as 
indicated by the suear furnished witli a fillet, into their strong 
places, haa alighted from his chariot to ratify a treiity of peace 

i»ith the Melek, or king, of the opposite party, particularly 
marked by his dress, but who, lite the former, ia attired in 
the richly embroidered upper garment, which is seemingly a 
royal vesture. Both kings are on foot ; hut the conqueror 
IB distinguished by the implements of war which he still re- 
tains, while his adversary raises his right hand in the act of 
BUppiieation. Jloreover, the favourable conditions ofthe treaty 
are further intimated by the surrender of the prisoners — as 
expressed by the figure In the conical cap kissing the feet of 
his sovereign and deliverer. Immediately behind the great 
king stands hia umbrella-bearer and a sceptre- bearer (see fig. 
142). Then follows the royul groom in front of the horses ; 
ttien one of the king's body-guard ; and, last of all at his post, 
the charioteer, 

' iMiah, I. S. 


The relative importance and rank of each of those officers 
of the royul household are iDtimated by the height of the 
person of the officer. Each bears hia appropriate inngnia; 
and all are armed preeistly aa in the rilievo before described. 
The horses in this, and in the second rilievo, have the fiill 
complement of legs. 

The next slab represents the return of the 
king from the ehase. It ie a perfect tab' 
leau de genre de haul ton, portraying the 
manners of the Assyrian court more than 
2500 years ago; resembling in sa many 
points the present customs of the East, tliat 
it is truly remarkable how little change the 
lapse of time has effected; and affording a 
most interesting illustration of the marked _ 
and peculiar characteristic of oriental i 
tiona, naaieiy, their tenacious regard for tl 
habits and cuetuniB of their ibrs&Utcr 
The king wears the usual truncated c 
long-fringed robe, and short highly e 
broidercd tunic, with the cord and tase 
Buapended from his girdle ; his sword ii 
buckled over hia sash, and the tasuels of h 
sword-belt are hanging from his Bhouldec 
both back and front, the mode of alingini 
jia.-i HnvAL tliem at this very day in the country wheooel 

scsiTBitBB.BiB. (jjegg BculpturGB were brought. Similar 
taflsels are suspended from under the hair at the back of the 
head; and he has roaetteclaaped bracelets, plain anukts, and 
a double string of beads round his neck. Fully armed, he 
stands in the centre of the compositioa ; his bow being still 
in his left hand, while with hia right he raises to his lipa the 
cup which he has just received from tlie hand of the cup-bearer. 
At his feet lies the subdued lion. He ia followed by two 
beardless attendants, who have accompanied him in the ohsse^ 
and who hear a reserve supply of bows and arrows, as well I 
for the king's use as for tieir own defence. They, as ubuhI, f 
wear no head-dress, and are attired in very richly-embroidered I 
robes reaching down to the ankles. Behind these are the king') 
bearded attendants, diatinguiahed by their short BurcMt^l 


reaching but little below the Imee, and as well as the laat two, 
carrying the scoptre. All theae we may fairly presume have 
accompanied tte king in the chase, and Lave arrived with him 
at the entrance of his palace, where he ia met by the offioera 
of the household. In. advance of these latter stands the royal 
cup-bearer (see fig. 143), the sharbetgee of modern times. 
Tlus functionary, haying presented his lord with the prepared 
beverage, ia occupied in dispersing the fliea, which, in hot cli- 
natea, aaaail with uncommon avidity all cool and sweetened 
fluids. The instrument which he holds in his right hand for 
this purpose will be recognised by aW travellers in the East as 
the mmasha — the very same fly- flap 
that is used at the present day. It is 
ordinarily made of the split leaves of 
the palm, faalened together at the 
handle, which in this representation 
appears to terminate ia the shape of a 
ram's head. Over his left shoulder is 
thrown, exactly as'in the present day, 
and BB borne by the young Cyrus at the 
court of AstyageSj' the long handker- 
chief or napkin {ehn&rrhama), richly 
embroidered and fringed at both ends, 
which he holds in his left hand in 
readiness to present to the king to wipe 
his lips. Behind the cup-bearer stand 
two ofBcers of the king's household in 
the attitude prescribed by Eastern 
etiquette— their hands folded quietly 
one over the other. The bearded per- 
Bon has a fillet round his head, with a Pfgi im. tuh uoval 
double necklace, indicating, as we cnp-BUBEn. 

presume, that he is the chief of those who attend upon the 
king in the lower apartments (the xalhtntik) of the palace. 
The other beardless attendant is the chief of the king's servants 
(the Kiilar Ago), who superintends the upperapartments (the 
hareemlik) of his palace. They are both clad in the long dress, 
richly embroidered and fringed, and wear swords. Their im- 
portance in the household again is intimated by the relative 
height of their figures. Behind stand the royal minstrels 
' CjTopsediB, bk. i. 

290 NiMaorrn. — mihsibels. — mdsiojh- isstedmewm. 

who celebrate the king's prowcaa Id the battle and in the 
ehaee, aooompanyicg themBelveson inatruineutsof DineatringB, 
held in the lett hund tttid suppoi'ted by & belt over tbe left 
shoiilder. These iDBtruments appear to be played like the 
Nubian harp, the fingera being used eometimes to stop a 
soiaetunes to twang the cords; and a plectrum or stick is 
the right baud, with which the chords are struck. Tbe pli 
truia, in thia inetance, is apparently a stick, instead of a sm 
piece of leather, commonly used at present. Erom the e 
tremity of the lEBtruraent, into which the pegs for the strings 
are inserted, hang five tasaelled cords. The inatrament in the 
hands of the nearest performer terminates in a humau hand, 
probably to indicate that the bearer is the chief musician, or 
the leader of the chorus : for we apprehend that tbe two in 
thi3 sculpture, as in all the representations of battles, rieges, 
hunts, &c., typify the many. With regard to the capa- 
bilities of such an instrument it is difficult to form any notion; 
for before sufficient tension of the chorda to produce sound 
could be obtained, it would br*ak at tho elbow formed by the 
arm and the body of the instrument. Either the sculptor has 
omitted the column to resist this tension of the strings, 
or the angle formed by the body of the instrument and 
the arm is not faithfully represented. Tlie minstrfls aro 
habited in long gannenta, fringed and embroidered ; but they 
wear no bracelets nor ear-rings. Their height, however, is in- 
dicative of considerable rank in the Assyrian court ; neverthe- 
less, their efforts to record the deeds of their sovereign faara 
not been so successful, in point of durability at least, as thoes 
of the sculptor. 

The last scene of this line of illustration (fig. 144) resembles, 
in moat particulars, the subject just described. 

The dress of the king is exactly the same, and as in that ha 
raises the drinking-cnp to his lips with his right bund, whila 
hisleft holds his bow. Behind the king is his umbrella- bearer, 
and following him are two eunuchs of lesser size, bearing 
sceptres and quivers of arrows. At the feet of the king is 
the bull which he has subdued, and before him staud the cup- 
hearer with his hy-fiap and the Kah Signeen, habited in ft 
short Burcont like that worn by ihc king. He holds his hands 
folded one over another, in the conventional attitude of resptvt. 


Eehind these is a beardless figure, entirely unarmed, and witli 
his tands folded before hiin. ; and after him succeed two 
musicians, singing and playing on the nine-stringed iuBtra- 
ment. The dress of the musicians is a long fringed robe, 
like those worn by the other actora in the scene, but in addi- 
tioa to it they wear short furred tunics, and their hair is 
elaborately curled. 

This subject brings us to the corner of the room which is 
occupied by the usual representation of the symbolic tree. 

Upon the adipining wall, forming the end of the hall, we find 
at each comer a winged figure wearing the egg-shaped three- 
homed cap, and holding a pine-cone and basket ; between them 
is a group of two winged figures and two kings, before the 
symbolic tree ; in all, sis colossal figurep, of wMch four are 
shown on the centre slab (fig. U5). The lai^e central group 
shows us the king twice repeated, for uniformity sake, 'per- 
forming some religious rite before the symbolic tree, in the 
presence of the chief divinity, which we consider to symboiifie 
liaal. The king holds the sceptre in bis left hand, bis right 
being upraised and his fore-&iger pointtd, aa if in conversa- 
tion with the winged divinity above, Ehjah apostrophises 
the priests of Baal ironically, by telling them to call louder on 
their god ; for, he says," he is a god; either he is fcdking, or he 
is pursuing, or he is io a journey, or poradventure he sleepetb, 
aiuliiiustbe awaked." (I Kings, zviii. 27.) We may judge ^ 


now, with these authentic docuinenta of the worahippere of 
Baal hefore ub, how cuttingly sarcastic was this address of tha 
prophet. Here truly he is talking ; elsewhere he is puiHuing, 
as we have aeen ; or on a journey ; or, peradventure sleeping 
this is the climax, of sarcaati], because sleep, as tho priests 
Baal well knew, is necessary hi the restoratioii of the faoultiea 

size, 6f^ bj 14f. 31n. 

of the mortal, and incompatible with divinity, " Behold, hfl 
that keepeth Israel ahall neither alumber nor sleep.'" 

We have given three illustrationa of this divinity or emblem. 
The tirst (fig. 146) is taken from the most elabosate specimoi 
we have yet seen, that in the above subject, in which th». 
radiating lines within the circle conspicuously typify the TByV 
of the sun. The seoond (fig, 
147), which we conceive had 
the same intention, occuis i 
less elaborated Hculptures ; an 
the third (fig. 148) is takes 
from the well - known figorsi 
that appears over the doorwByft' 
of the most ancient, as well aa 
of the more recent, EgjrpUan 
temples, and likewise over tain 
lets. We have little doubt but' 
n is the original of the Assyrian, a 

that the Egyptiac 

KiMEoira. — sTBinoL. — Lios wira hitmaji asms. 293 

that it bears subBtantially the same import. In every caae this 

figure appears in the upper part of the field, or ground of the 

basso-rilievo and over the head of the king, with whom he ia 

always acting in imiaon, either aiding him 

in battle; or, as if advising with him, aa in ^^^^ r^ ^^3 

the baa-relief (fig. 145) at the end of the ^^O^^ 

chamber. It is remarkable, that in the ^unT^^ 

Bculptures of Khorsabad there is no einglo 

instance of this particular divinity, so often ^ig. HT^-avmioL o« 

represented in the seiilptiireB from !Nimroiid. 

In the floor beneath this mystic basso-rilievo was found a 
dab, 10 feet by 8, and 2 feet thick, whieh was uBcecded bysteps, 
the sides being inscribed ; around the slab was a conduit, as 
Lay ard surmises, to carry off some fluid, perhaps the blood of 
liie victim, and under the stone there were found some bones 
and fragments of gold leaf. Besides the above, there were 
two other hoUowed square atones, in the north-eastern comer 
of the chamber. 

Passing the symbolic corner- 
stone, we find on the northern 
wall of the hall a divinity with 
four wings, his right hand 
elevated, his left hand holding 
a, sceptre, and his face directed, 
as usual, towards the adjoining doo 

entrance is lined with inscribed slabs ; on the jambs beyoi 
and with their backs turned towards the hail, are winged hu- 
man-headed lions, having likewise human arms, crossed upon 
their breasts. Proceeding onward, there are no remains of friezes 
until we arrive near the second entrance on this side, where 
the first that meets our view is a portion of the lower division. 

Fig. 149. Theking'schiefofBcer in his chariot, accompanied 
by hifl charioteer, pursuing the cavalry of the enemy, and 
driving it into a river. Four of the enemy are represented in 
rapid flight, while one of the infantry, who has been struck 
down, reaches out his hand for succour to a horseman, who 
attempts to aid him. One of the foremost of the fugitives 
seizes the opportunity to turn and discharge his arrows at the 
pursuers, and under the horses of the chariot ia a wounded 
man, trying to draw out the arrows with which he has been 
pierced in the side and in Ihe thigh. The direotioii of tha 

r-way(6). The recess of t! 

294 muHOun. — paethian BOWMEif. — wisoed bitinitt. 

heads is Teversed in thia frieze ; they face to the left instead 
of to the right, 

"The Roman dreads the Parthian's speed, 
Hia flying war and backward rccd," — Horace ii. Odea, 13. 
"Or Parthian, urging in his flight 
""' ' ■ 'e with reterted ateed!"— Horace i. Odea, 19. 

«EN size, T ft. b7 3 n. 

These two quofations from the Eoman poet exactly deacribe 

I baseo rilievo and the Assyrian artist has not Ihiled to re* 

prespot this peculiarity of Parthian war- 

1 r aIt)iough he does not acknowledge, 

1 I the 11 man poet, any dread of the 

f lb an flight, a mode of warfare 

I t made eren the Eoman soldiers fear 

\ neounter, and which, we have little 

It ■nas equally a source of appre- 

oa to the troops of the great king. 

1 be nest subject is a part of the last, 

1 shows the siege of a castle near a 

Ihc d uble line of historical iUnatrai- 
I u c Deludes with this scene, and the 
next slab fig. 150, shows us a colossal 
winged figure, having but two wings; 
holding on his right arm a fallow-deer, 
and in his upraised left hand a branch 
bearing five flowers erect. The figure 
faces towards the left, and is distiii- 


guished for the finished execution and high preserration of the 
eculpture. Hia elaborately curled hair is confined round the 
head by a circlet, with a roaette ornament in front ; and hiB 
mantle and robe, which resemble in form those already deBoribed, 
are both richly ornamented, as well as fringed and taaaelled 

This brings us to the fourth entrance (r) in the receaa of 
whichweagain find the inscribed slabs andon theonterjamba 
with their backs turned towards the hall are winged lions 
with human heads and arms — tbe left 
carrying a stag, and the right afiower 
with five blossoms. On the adjoining 
Bide of the door we meet a repetition 
of the figure we surmise to represent 
a deified person, because althougb he 
has wings, he has not the horns worn 
by divinities (see description, fig. 163) 
carrying the fallow-deer and branch 
and then, with the face directed the 
contraryway,awiiiged divinity carry 
ing the fir cone and basket, fig. 151. 

We have now reached the fourth, sym 
boIioconier-Btone,aBdbere, on the end 
wall, facing towards the large doorway 
(3) by which we entered, we find a 
second figure of Nisroch, fig. 152. His 
right hand is elevated, holding the pine 
coae.and the left bangs down, carrying D^* '?';'".??'' "J" "l™'"' 

,, ' 1 , . mT 1 ■ ■ ■^ Siza, 4 ft a in. by 7 ft. 10 in. 

the square basket. Ihe dress is similar 

in shape to those formerly described {page 252) — consisting of 
the long robe, mantle, and ornameDts; but the borders of the 
garments in this example are symbolically embroidered. One 
hem is decorated with the pino cone and lotus, another with 
the lotus and honeysuckle, tastefully intermingled, while a 
third portrays a battle between himself and the human-headed 
lion, in which the' former is victorious. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that the eagle-headed human figure in the embroidery 
bas/ottr wings. Another noteworthy point is the extravagant 
development of the muscle in the leg of the divinity. This 
exaggeration arises in no conceit or roannerisni of the artist, 
for it is to be seen in all the statues of the divinities, and 
eeenu to be peculiar to the aculpture of this particular age, the 


chsKcteriRlic not being so Rpptircnt in the examples at Khor- 



poTDposity of attitude are singularly indicative of the national 
vanity alluded to in the Psalia' oaeribed to the prophets Hag- 
gai and Zeohariah, who were most likely bom at Babylon 
during the captivity, and must have been acquainted with 
the fact — possibly with these very sculptures. We take 
it that the pine-cune in the hand of the god, and upon his 
robe, are erablematie of the same strength and pride ; for the 
Assyrians and other nations, as well as great kings, are con- 
stantly likened to cedars, to figure out their high station, glory, 
and protection they afford to others. (See Ezekiel, xvii., 
zxxi. ; 2 Kings, xiv. ; Amos, iL ; and Isaiah, ii. x.) 

The historical slabs in this chamber do not seem to relate 
throughout to one consecutive subject or campaign, each event 
following in easy succession or chronological order, as at 
Khoisabad. On the contrary, no single series seems to extend 
beyond three or four subjeetfi, which then terminate abruptly 
by the commencement of a totally dif- 
ferent scene. Again, in the case of the 
lion and bull hunts, the subjects do not 
follow one another, but are read up and 
d w — th tur fr m th h ' 


b t 

ry d 

d f th doo V 
1 al fig 
f d bl 11 frat 

wall th IT gulanty 
aim t q lly mark 1 gg t ng th 
b 1 th t th wb I 

th sculptor m th frmdp tf 

PBidm I 
' The word Sehkdar is literally swotd-bearer, but the appellation 
arma-bearer would better desoribe bis functiona ; at this day any ofSoer in 
the presence of the sovereign nsea the miQaaba or fly-Sap to cool the air 
BiUTOunding the royal person. 


8ome earlier edifice. In quitting the great hall we turn back 



to the Bide entrance (6) where we noticed the deified person 

■ ^ 




/\ ^^S^ i\^ 







^ 3^ 


r^—^Jrifi^T^^i ^ 

^ -'-'.A'"-'.V-'^"1 

t uv^;-"itJ^-/^- jf^ 

j'; , -H 





1 ' 




AV>^ X V 







CBTFying the fallow deer, and at once pass througli andatation 
ourselves opposite the opening. 

On the portion of the wuUh still standing, we find, firat in 
an angle to our left, a winged divinity, 14 feet high, wearing 
the three-horned cap, and carrying the fir-cone and basket; 
then, on the adjoining side, the king holding his bow and 
arrow, and followed by his Selitdat' (fig. 153) ; and feeing 
the king, the bearded dignitary whom we have elsewhere de- 
eignated the Bab Signeen, who ia followed by a eunuch. 
On our right we see the continuation of the procession, the 
figure next the entrance being again a bearded dignitary, after 
whom conies a eunuch, followed by people bringing, as tri- 
bute, monkeys, ear-rings, and bracelets. 

In the first figure (fig. 164) the bended knee and uplifted 
hands are expressive of submisaion and respect. Behind him 
follows an attendant (fig. 155) bearing on one shoulder a 
monkey, and leading another by a cord. The first wears a 
tnrban, and has a fringed mantle over a long under-robe; his 
attendant has a fillet round his bead, a mantle abort is front, 
and his under-dress reaching only to his knee. They both 
wear on their feet buskins, turned up at the toes, like iha 
papusch of Conatantiaople. These figures are short and mns- 
cular in form, resembling very much in countenance Ihe 
people of Caramania. Eighteen lines of inscription traverse 
the slab. 

Proceeding to the second entrance on this side of the great 
hall, we find a repetition of the same subject, but as our pur- 
pose is only to describe in detail those sculptures actually in 
the British Museum, we will at once direct our course through 
the other chambers of the palace. Crossing the great hall to 
the doorway (4) on the south side, we meet on each jamb a hu- 
man-headed and eagle-winged hull (dg. 156), This aniiDal 
would seem to bear some analogy to the Egyptian sphynx, 
which bears the head of the king upon the body of the lion, 
and is held by some to be typical of the union of inteUeatnal 
power with physical strength. The sphynx of the Egyptians, 
however, is invariably sitting, whereas the Nimroud figure is 
always represented standing. The apparent resemblaace being 
so great, it is at least worthy of consideration whether the 
head on the winged animals of the Ninevites may not be that 
> SmNoIs*, pBg«297. 



of the king, aod the intention identical with that of the 
Bphynx ; though we thiuk it more prohable that there is no 
Buch connexion, and that the intention of the Kiuevitea waa 
to typify the divinity under the comiaon emhlems of intelli- 
gence, strength, and swiftness, as signihed hy the attributes 
of the hull oc lion, and the bird.' According to some the 
king of Assyria adopted the symbolical form of the "Bull" 
in alluaion to the name of his people, " For the Bull ia 
called fw ichour and -nn lour, following the dialects of the 
Semitic idiom, its Assyria -mi' Asc/iour, snAAroupia. The addi- 
tion of Ihe article n before these words would produce Maschoar 

Fig IBS,- 

of Hatonr. Thus the goddess Hathor, borrowed by Egypt 
from Assyria, is represented under the form of a cow. This 
Hathor is the same as Venna; and the dove, the bird ( 
crated to this goddess in Syria and Cyprus, is called -m like 
the bull or eow."' The specimen immediately before ua ia 
of gypsum, and of coIobseiI dimensions, tlie slab being ten 
feel square, by two feet in thickness. It was built into the 
side of the doer, so that one side and a front view only could 
be Been by the Bpectator; and tho Ninevite sculptor, ia order 

' See page 162, Cup. 1. Soo. iv. 

' A. de LaagfineT, Notioe lies Anticjiiitea, Aebyriennei, Babyloaw 
Fsnet et Habniqiui, da Miuia du Loufie, 3rd edit. iSSi. 




to make both views perfect, has given the animal five legs, as 
before noticed in the esamplea at EhorBabad. 

In thia rilievo we have the same head, with the egg-shaped 
three-homed head-dress, exactly like that of the Hon, the 
ear, however, ia not human, hut is that of a bull. The hair at 
the hack of the head has seven ranges of curls ; and the 
beard, as in. the portraits of the king, is divided into three 
ranges of curb, with intervals of wavy hair. In the ears, are 
pendant ear rings The dewlap is covered with tiers of curls, 
and tour ron h are continued beneath the ribs along the Sank ; 
on the back ore six rows of curls, upon the haunch a square 

bunch, rangeil successively, and down the. back of the thigh 
four rows. The hair at the end of the tail is curled like the 
beard, with intervals of wavy hair. The hair at the knee 
i joints ia likewise curled, terminating in the profile views of 
I the limbs in a single curl. The elaborately sculptured wing* 
d over the back of the aninaal to the very verge of the 
I slab. All the flat surface of Uie slab is covered with cuneiform 
I inscription; there being twenty-two lines between the fore- 
legs, twenty-one lines in the middle, nineteen lines between 
f the hinJ-legs, and forty-seven lines between the tail and the 
. edge of the slab. 

U. Longp^riei atatee that the principal inBcriptioii of Ihil^ 



one lines oe one of the bullB at Khorsabad commeBces with 
the royal fonnula, " Sargon, king of tte country of Absut. 

The portioa of the jambs forming the recess to the charobcr 
"within are lined, as in the other openings, mth inBcribed 


The chamber we have now entered is apparently about 100 
feet long, by 25 feet broad, and has three doorways, the one 
we have just described (4), another of similar proportiona in the 
centre of the opposite side (7), and one in the comer of the end 
Trail on oni left (8). All the slabs upon the walls, excepting 
one, consist of figures of Nisroch presenting the fir-cone and 
basket to the Bymbolie tree (fig. 157). The exception is a 
slab at the side of the small entranc« (8), which contains a 
representation of the king, wearing an emblematic necklace, 
consisting of the sun surrounded by a ring, the moon, a cross 
like a Ualtese cross, likewise in a ring, a three-horned cap, 
and a By tubol like two horns, 


Passing through the sraall doorway (8), we Bee on each jamb 
a priest wearing a wreath, his rigbt hand raised, and his left 
holding a trUobed branch. Tho slabs on the recess, as usual, 
contain inscriptions. The apartmont we are now in is about 90 
feet in length, by 25 feet in breadth, and runs from north to 
south, instead of from east to west, like those we have juat 
seen. It has five entrances, thr^e on the west, ono on thu 
east, and the fifth in the centre of the south end. Advancing 
into the room, we find that the comers are all occupied by 
the symbolic tree, and that the entire north end is filled by 
three slabs (fig. 158), representing the king drinking or di- 
yining in the presence of the divinities of Assyria. At each 
end is the figure of a winged diTinity, wearing on his head 
tho horned cap, the symbol of strength and power ; ho ia 
presenting the fir-cono with bia right band, and holds in his 
left a richly ornamented square bag ; bis tunic and long 
mantle have the usual bingo, ajid are besides embroidered 


■with symbolic borders. The Asayrian monarch is represented 
as seated on his throne, attended by three of Oie iitiucipal 
beardlcBs oStoers of his household. In liis right hand ie the 
cup that has been presented to bim by the cup-beiirer, who 
Btirnds before him with the " Marrliama," or embroidered 
napkin, over his shoulder. The representation of this scene 
is most curiously illuBtrative of the following passage in Xeno- 
phon : — " Immediately Cyrua ie equipped as a cup-beurer, 
and advancing gravely with a serious countenance, a napkin 
upon his shoulder, and, holding the cup nicely with three 
of hia fingers, he presented it to the king." In the right- 
hand of this officer is the " Minasha," or fly-flap, while in 
hia left he holds the under eup, or possibly the wine-stntiner, 
an instrument in common use among the liltmscans, and of 
which there are many examplea in the museums of Europe. 
Behind the throne stands the king's " Selikdar," (see fig. 
153), or 8 word ■bearer,' an officer of high-rank in eastern 
oourtB. This functionary also ia occupied in tlio same mnnnor 
B9 the cup-bearer, tbat is, dispersing the flics, and fanning 
the king. So likewise, at this time, the prime-minister of n 
Boaha or Sultan would be employed while his master waa 
drinking a glass of sherbet, or sipping a cup of ooffee. Be- 
hind the Selikdar ia another carrying arma, and iu his right 
bond a sceptre. The robes of this last altondant arc not so 
richly emhroidered as are those of the cup-bearer and Selikdar, 
which are highly enriched with symbolic borders. The throne, 
or square stool, on which the king is seated, is decorated with 
a fringe, and surmounted by a cushion, ornamented with a 
honeycomb pattern. Each comer of the seat terminates in a 
bull's head, some of which, very beautifully cast, or wrought 
in bronze, were found in the excavationa of Khorsalnid, uud 
brought to Paris by U. Botta; eome examples from Nim- 
roud are also in our own Museum. The king's feet rt'st upon 
a footstool, with clawed legs. Hia dress oansiiU of lite Ions 
fringed robe and furred mantlu, the entire breast and broad 
borders being adorned in tlio most elaborate fashion, and the 
usual truncated tiara and ornamuutB; but he is quite unnimed. 
Twenty lines of inscription run across the ti^urca and ground 
of the work. These three slabs arc not only intoresliiig, I 
cause they are of the finest sculpture thut has yet arrived 
■ Bin NoU •, p. iw. 

"8- KB- . 

ved ir ^H 



this country, and because they are in b. high atate of prescrT-l 
atioa ; bat more particularly because they embody a metaphM m 
frequently used in the Psalms, and other sacred books of thtt 1 
Old Testament, expressive of the interference of the Divini^J 
inhuman affairs. Thus, ia the 16th Psalm it is aaid, "Thai 
Lord is the portion of mine inheritance and of my vof : thoQ'l 
maintainest my lot." And, again, in the 23rd Fsalm, " Thou J 
prepareat a table before me in the presence of mine e 
thou anointest my head with oil ; my cuj) runneth ove: 

The whole of the adjoining or eastern wall was covered by 1 
slabs representing in regular alternation the king with a cu^ I 
in his right hand, his left restiog ou his bow, and attended J 
by the cup-bearer and aelikdar ; and the king with two arrows J 
in his light hand, his bow in his lefl;, and attended by two 1 
divinities with fir-cone and basket. The south end of tha,l 
chamber is occupied by the doorway (10), guarded on each aidaV 
by a winged figure, and in the floor, at the comer, ia a squaiftl 
stone with a hole in the centre. On the adjoining aide, i ' 
nest to the symbolic com er- stone, ia a figure of Nisroeb guard _ 
an entrance(l 1), on the opposite side of which is a correBpond* 
ing figure of the same divinity. Between this figure and tJ 
next entrance (12) we have a repetition of the alternate g: 
king with attendants, and king with divinities, differing in n 
respect from the former, excepting that the hand of the ki 
rests upon his sword instead of upon his bow. ITpoD t 
neighbouring aide of the door we again find the Kisrooh, a 
in the floor between thia middle opening and that by wliioll 
we entered, a square slab with a hole in the centre. 

The evidences upon the walla lead us to auppoae that in (] 
chamber were practiaed the mysteries of divination, both h; 
the cup and arrows. This idolatrous people, as we leam f 
the sculptures, and infer from sacred and profane wri' 
never ventured on the slightest matter in war or polities, t 
at home or abroad, without having recourse to some s 
stitious rite; and it is probable that, on the wait before u 
may be a representation of the mode of divination by _ 

Many cups of the form of those seen in the hand of the kinf 
were found by Laynrd, in the ruina of Kimroud, and aie n 
exhibited in glass cases in the middle of the Assyriati g 
in the British Museum. They are made of bronze, of e 
, > IlliutRit«d London News, Dm. 31, ISSO. 

uurBoun.— DiviKiHG CUPS. 307 

quisite 'workmansbip, emboased in eeparate compartmentB 'with 
numerous figures, represeDtiDg men and animals. One of the 
most frequently-repeated figures ig that so common in Egyptian 
eculptures, beariDg reference to time, or cycles, or periods. 
Other cupB are embossed with the ABsyrian winged auiiDalH, 
Bome hare nodules of eiiver, and others again have small gar- 
nets set into the bronze at certain interlaoinga of the omaraent. 
They are all of beaten work,' in which art the ancienfa had 
attained great skill and perfection, as these tazze assure us, and 
appear to be of the nature of those " vessels of fine copper" 
spoken of by Ezra as " precious as gold."' 

There can hardly eiist a donbt, from the nature of the de- 
coration, that these are cups for divining, — a practice common 
fcj Syria and Egypt as early as the time of the patriarch Joseph, 
as the stratagem of hiding the cup in the sack of Senjamin 
■would lead us to believe. The question of the steward to 
the patriarch — " Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and 
whereby, indeed, he divineth ?"" — would lose half its force, 
if the custom had been unknown to the sods of Jacob. 

Mr. Layard has aUo brought to this country several drink- 
ing cups of like form covered with Hebrew characters. They 
are of much more recent date, having belonged to the Jews 
who lived in the cities of Mesopotamia and who, as it would 
seem, were affected by the same superstitions that are not yet 
eradicated from the land of their captivity. 

Ihrinking-cups, both of brass and silver, and of precisely the 
same shape, are in common use at present all over the East. 
They are generally decorated with some Arabic sentence bear- 
ing a mystic sense. lu Persia there is a tradition that there 
was a cup in which could be seen the whole world, and all 
the things which were doing in it. This wonderful cup is 
known in Persia by the name of " Jami Jemshid," the cup of 
Jemshid, an ancient king of that country. — According to the 
same tradition, this cup, filled with the elixir of immortality, 
was discovered ia digging the foundations of Persepolis. The 
Persian poets frequently make allusion to this cup ; and they 
ascribo to it the prosperity of their ancient monarchs. We 
ourselves have been acquainted with a Persian who had squan- 
dered considerable sums in experiments to convert the Iciib 

1 Nunibers, vxii. 4; Eiod. XMvii. 17—22. ' Ezra, mi, 27. 

* Gsneni, iUt. 6. 

precious tnetala into gold, and to find a dmg to prolong lift 

Babylon itself is called a " golden cnp,"' in the fig^uratiTS 
language of Scripture, possibly ia alluBion to her auperatitioaa. 
rites, and because of her sensuality, luxury, and affluence. 

It is probable that these wallB also show representations rf 
that kind of divination by arrows that -we read in £zekiel irac 
practised by " the King of Babylon, (icAo) stood at tie part- 
ing of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: 
he made bis arrows bright : he consulted with images (ten- 
pkim) : he looked in the liver." 

And, in confi.miation of tlie occasions of such consul tatjim,. 
we will quote the nest verse : — "At his right hand was tht 
divination for Jerusalem, to appoint captains, to open 
month in the slaughter," that is, where to begin the attack; 
" to lift up the voice with shouting, to appoint battering-ran 
against the gates, to cast a mound, and to build a forL'" 

All these circumstances of Assyrian warfare we have set 
described by the Assyrians themselves, in the course of oi 
rendering of the sculptures ; and we are very much indint 
to consider that, wherever the king is represented holding tn 
arrows, as in the rilievo wo have designated the league, ax 
in the Passage of the Biver, it is to bo understood that he 

Returning to the doorway (9), we are met on each i 
by divinities offering the fir-cone and basket, behind whi 
in the recess, are the inscribed slabs. The chamber t 
have now entered is about a hundred feet long by twen^ 
feet broad; like the last, it contains five entrances — thl 
by which we entered, another on the same side (13) ani 
three nearly equi-distant, oppoaito to us. An inspection i 
the wall shows us that the principal doorway is guarded by) 
divinity with a fillet round the head, and carrying the fir-o 
and basket; while the rest of the wall is covered with re| 
sentatiouB of the king with cup and bow, standing betwee 
divinities precisely similar to the guardians of the door. ~ 

maaoun.— THE hall of the oiucle. 



The second opening (13) in the western side of the room 
leads into a small chamber, the walls and pavement of which 
are entirely covered with inscribed slabs, one, on the northern 
side, being recessed. Leaving this apiulmeut, we enter the 
doorway (14), which is nearly opposite, and find ourselves in a 
long chamber or passage, 20 feet long by 10 feet wide, which 
turns at right angles, and is continued thirty feet farther, with 

Fig. ia9.-DiviB 

an increased width of five feet. The walls are divided into 
two lines of symbolic illustration, with a band of inscripttou 
running between. The upper linq consists exclusively of 
winged divinities (fig. Ifi9) kneeling before the symbolic d'ee ; 
and the lower line, excepting in one slab, of figures of Nisroch 
standing before the symbolic tree (see fig. 157). The excep- 
tion is a recess containing two beardless winged beings, appa- 
rently females, wearing the homod cap, and carrying a garland. 
The npper part of two of the slabs on the norHi side are re- 
ceued; and in the floor, ia tte centre of the same side, is a 


1 it IB also ill the floor at I 

Before quitting this passage we have to enter a email ohsnt*fl 
her (15) in the weateni side. The wallfl and pavement are a^9 
tirely covered with inscrihed slabs, but in one side there Ua4 
■receaa ho deep as to leave only the thicknees of a dab inter- J 
vening between this apartment and that which it adjoinf>J 
Each room was in itaolf complete, and the difference in thva 
thickness of the wall was not apparent in the out«r apartment 1 
As the whole of this palace seems to he dedicated to religions! 
pm^oses the question naturallv suggealB itself whether Ilia 1 
recess in this small chamber might not have been for ths-l 
Oracle which might have been delivered from the 
chamber through disguised openmg<< m the slabs Such Becrrt I 
chambers occur in the thickiieBS of the walls m the temple of' 1 
Medinet Haboo at Thebes and m temples of the Ptolemaio J 

period as well 

still less ancient temples of Pompeii. 1 
Ketitming to the hall of the Oraclf^ I 
we had that the centre □peDiDg(16Vfl 
on the eastern aide leads into a smattv 
chamber of which the walls onlv an V 
inscribed and that the third door- f 
way (17) leads into a passa^ 
chamber nearly identical in ehapdl 
and dimensions with the cbamb<C.i1 
of divinities just described. Almoitl 
the whole ot the walls are occupied'! 
by divmittes separated by the aym- a 
bolic tree, two of the dabs, how- J 
ever are recessed the lower paita 
contaming small winged figures and 1 
symbobc tree One slab (fig. 160}fl 
represents a young and heardleal 
personage habited in a long robe, the I 
bottom of which is ornamented with | 
a tasselted fringe. At the back, a 
depending from his waist to his onkl^'J 
of flve feather- slmped fringes — or embi()i>| 

■H Fouu wDiaa. 311 

dered cloth to imitate feathers ; and a cord with two tasaela 
w suBpended in front. The dress fits closely to the upper part 
of the body; round the neck is a cord aod tassels, and a neck- 
lace consistiog of lozeoge- shaped gems pl^ed alternately; and 
round the waist ia a broad girdle in which three daggers are 
placed. He has aandak on his feet, and his arms are decorated 
■with massive armlets and ornamented bracelets. On his head 
he wears the rouod cap with two horns, from under which, 
flows the usual crisply- curled hair adorned- by a more than or- 
dinarily long hunch tied with cords and tassels, and long 
pendant ear-rings. His right hand is elevated and open ; 
and his left is extended, holding a chaplet, composed of lai^ 
and small beads placed alternately. The countenance of this 
figure is handsome and dignified : and he difiera from the 
other winged figures ia having four winga — two smaller ele- 
vated, and two larger deflected and drooping ; and also in that 
round bis neck are suspended two rings, &om the upper of 
which depend three circles, each contaioing a rosette-shaped 
ornament — and &om the lower, four circles, each containing a 
atar. The difference between the two is strongly indicated. 
Twenty-aix lines of inscription run across the figure below the 
waist, avoiding, however, the left wing, with the exception of 
two or 'three letters, and only partially encroaching on tJie 
right wing. These star-like embleraa seera to be connected 
with the worship of the Assyrian Venus, Mylitta or Astarte, 
whom Lucian believes to be identical with the moon or queen 
of heaven. The horned head-dress may, therefore, he a far- 
ther emblem, as this goddess is sometimes repreaented with 
a bull's head, whose homa, according to Sanchoniatho, were 
emblems of the new moon. 

From the situation of this frieze in the deepest recess of the 
chamber, and from the circumstance of its having a square 
Blab of gypsum in the pavement before it, with a hole com- 
inunicatiog with a drain, there can be little doubt that some 
mysterious rites — auch ae libations to the Divinity it representa 
— were enacted before it. Indeed, all the chambers, in this 
quarter of the palace, aeem to bave been dedicated to thoae 
idolatrous rites and ceremonies connected with magic to which 
the people of Assyria were addicted, 

In the next five relicvi the figures are larger than thoae we 
have deauribed — and represent winged men, two of them ' 


312 KjuBorii. — BEEsa of sisa. 

ing in the left hand a boBket, and presenting ^ith the right a 
pine-cone. They are exactly in the position and dreea of the 
much larger figure of a divinity (fig. 162). Of the remaining 
three, two only wear the cop with horuB — which in this case 
are decorated. The third has a, circle of rosettes round 
the head. The right hand of each of these figures is raieed 
as ia the act of prayer, — and the left holds a branch with 
five pomegranates produced from one stem ; from which 
Bymbot we surmise that this divinity hears some affinity to 
that of Damascus, called in the Book of Kings, ir3-i, Rimmm 
{exalted — -pomegranate), in whose temple the king of Syria waa 
wont to lean on the hand of the captain of his host in pros- 
trating himself before the image — " When my master goelh 
into the house of Kimmon to worship there, and he leaneth 
on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Bimmon."' 
These probably came from the chamber we are now deEoribiog, 
which seems to have been specially devoted to the worship of 
this particular divinity. We have likewise in the same apart- 
ment a colossal figure of the king (fig. 161) represented in the 
act of walking ; his right hand being supported by a long staff, 
and his left resting on the hilt of his sword. The whole figuia 
is in such perfect preservation, and is so wonderfully finished, 
that we are induced to describe it in detail, especially as the 
embroideries on the garments appear to be legendary and sym- 
bolical : — The top of the truncated cap and the cone which 
surmounts it are covered with gems; and the tiara placed 
round the lower part of the cap is richly decorated and tied 
behind with fillets having several tassels at the ends. The 
mystic tree is delicately traced; and the sleeve has besides a 
border, of the stag butting at the honeysuckle. The lower 
part of the under-robe is bordered by a finnge; and above the 
fringe is embroidered a procession of the king and Ms attendants 
receiving the homage of conquered nations. Another margin 
of his fringed mantle is embroidered with the lotus and pina 
alternated, — and another has the human-headed lion, the bull, 
and the sacred tree. The cords which confine hia robo round 
the waist have large tasseb depending ; each end of his arm* 
lets is terminated by moat admirably esecuted bulb' heads ; 
upon his wrist are several sinall chains united by a rosette 
olasp ; and the point of his ornamented scabbard has two ^bt- 


314 KiMBouD, — SECOND Hill. OF DivnniTEa. 

ing lioca intertwined, as well as a Bmall prowling lion — 
all exquisitely finished and highly charact«riatic of the animali. 

The style and workmanship of this figure are so exactly like 
that of the king sitting on his throne, that we have no hesita- 
tion in attrihuting it to the same aitiat. 

Before quitting this sacred and aymholic chamber, we havo 
to enter a small inscribed room (IS), containing a deep recess, 
as if for the oracle, adjoining the Hall of the Oracle, which thus 
appears to have had a similar contrivance for oracular intelli- 
gence at each end. 

Leaving this section of the palace by the opening (10) facing 
the auhjeot of the king upon tie throne, we find ouraelves in a 
email antechamber and passage lined with colossal figorea of 
divinitiea like fig. 162. The only exceptions are the elob 
opposite the entrance, which contains the king holding his bow 
and two arrows, and two inscribed slabs at the entrance of a 
smaU aide chamber (19), coveted with inscriptions. 

Turning to the right, we pass through an opening (20) into 
a large court, about 130 feet equare, of which so much of the 
walla as are atandiog are covered with inscribed slaba. On the 
north side of the court is an entrance (7) formed by winged 
bulls; on the east are three entrances (12, 11, 20) communi- 
cating with the Hail of Divination, on the west the walla, 
excepting one entrance, have disappeared, and on the south 
are^two doorways (21, 27) and the chambers we are about to 



Entering by the small side-door (21), we find on each jamb 
coloesal divinitiea, back to back, one facing towards the cour^ 
and the other towards the interior, a hall about 90 feet long, 
by 30 broad. This hall has five openings, two on each eliU, 
and one in the western end. In the corner on our left we find 
the symbolic tree, then the king, with one hand resting ontha 
hilt of his sword and the other holding his atafT, fuid two 
eunuchs carrying anna, behind whom are symbolic trees. Oft' 
the adjoining wuU wo pass a small doorway (22), guarded oo 
each side by the coloaaal winged divinities so constantly pr^ 
Ecntfd to us. The next four slabs contain repreaontations of' 
the same divinity, separated by the tree ; we have then a doON 
way (23) guarded on each side by Nisroch i and on 

HlMBDTm, — 8RC0IID BilX OF DITmillES, 315 

ing walls are eixteen slabs, with, repetitions of the winged 
divinities separated hy the tree, and one slab divided by a band 
of inscription into two compartnients, containing winged 
beings. The jamba of the chief opening (27) into the court 
are formed hy winged bulls, but the otJiers have on them 
winged men holding a flower. 

Paesing througli the central opening (23) on the Boulh aide, 
we enter a hall about 65 feet long, by 20 wide, the walla of 
which are lined with slaha inscribed across the middle, and 
entirely without sculpture. In the western estremity of thia 
apartment was a amaJl opening (24) leading into an unscolp- 
tured chamber (25), communicating with one, the walla and 
pavement of which were covered with inscriptions, In the 
floor of the recess on the western side, was a slab with a hole 
leading to a drain ; and Layard informs ua that it was in this 
chamber he found the ivories and numerous other small orna- 
ments and articles now in the British Museum. 

fietuming through the two balls we have just described, we 
pass through the doorway (26) at the western end of the 
Second HaU of Divinities, into a small long chamber, the walla 
of which are lined with the oft-mentioned coIosbbI winged 
divinity (fig. 16i). In the floor at one comer ia a slab with a 
hole in tile centre. Passing out at the doorway (28) that opens 
into a passage leading into the centre court, we observe on each 
side a colossal wioged figure (fig. 163). The dreas ia nearly 
the same, excepting that he has a chaplet of flowers orrosettes 
uponhiabead. He faces towards the right, and holds agoatin 
bia left, and an ear of wheat in his upraised right hand. 

This we suppose to be one of those images to whom the 
king Nebuchadnezzar likened the fourth person he saw in the 
burning fiery furnace, into which Shadrach, Meahech, and 
Abed-nego bad been cast by hia order. " Lo ! I aaw four 
men looac, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no 
hurt; and the form of the fourth ia like the Son of God,'" or 
as the rn'Jx ">3, Bur Alein.lmay be rendered, a son of tho 
goda, a divine person, or angel, nan^ — Melakeh, angel, as 
the king calia tliia person in verse 28, — a more probable ren- 
dering, for what notion could the idolatrous king have of the 
second Person of the Trinity ? We apprehend that this parti* 
culnr figure, and likewise that in the great hall carrying tlie 
branch and fallotr-deer (fig. 150), ore the representation J^ 
' Daniel, iii. 25. ^^| 





men to whom tradition had attributed the cultivation of corn, 
and the nieana of preserving the fallow-deer (a aemi-domestic 
animal), and who had consequently been deified for the benefits 
they had conferred on mankind. We may reasonably euppoae 
that the flgurea of such persons adorned the wollsof the palaces 
in Babylon in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, as, if onr conjec- 
ture be correct, we know they did those of the palaces of 
Nineveh, with which the king must have been familiar. The 
following extract from the Chaldean Fragments, given in Epi- 
phanius, is curiously illustrative of this species of idolatry :— 
" And the followers of this (Hellenism) began with the nse 
of painting, making likenesses of those whom they had for- 
merly honoiired, either kings ot chiefs, or men who in ^their 
lives had perfotmed actions which they deemed worthy of re- 
cord by strength or eicellenee of body. The Egyptians and 
Babylonians, and Phrygians and Phte 
nicians, were the first propagators of th s 
superstition of making images, and of 
the mysteries."' 

Most part of the passage Ipading into 
the court is completely destroyed, hut 
four of the slabs found contained t 
double line of wmged figures, divided 
by a hand of inscnplion, and the r 
maining six slabs consisted entirely of 
colossal winged figures 

The only other rums in this quarter 
of the palace are the remains of two 
chambers, with mscnptions, m one 
which baa been read the name of the 
Khorsabad king. In the entrance of a 
third were three small winged lions. 

We proceed to the south-western *^|^ ^^ ^atiiid'^ 
quarter and centre ruins of the mound; i^twhuat. 

but as the walls and chan^bers arc gene- ^'"' ' "^ •'^ * ft- a in. 
rally too detached and scattered to allow of conveying any de- 
finite idea of the plan, we shall simply describe the remaining 
friezes in the order of their interest as historical subjects. 

Fig. 164 is an impetuous assault upon a city and citadel. 

fortified by two ranges of embattled walls, the lowest of which 

^^^ ■ QoTj'i "Fragmmta," pp. 51, 1 

318 BiMBOin). — AB-TTFiciAi. MOTirrT. 

is higher than a fuU-grown date tree. The city is built on a . 
plain, aa we gather from the ditch and well- construe ted earth- 
work of the beaiegera raiaed to a level with the base of the 
wall, and baring an inclined plane, along which the wheeled 
tower is directed againet the walls The bowmen in tbia 
moveable castle seem determined in their attack ; whilst in 
the beaiegers no less activity la displayed — the fight being 

Tigoronsly sustained by both aides on nearly equal terms. The 
dead are falling into the ditch beneath. Farther from the city 
soldiers are felling the date trees, and advancing with spear 
and shield. 

" And I will camp against thee round about, and will lay 
siege against thee with a mount, and I will raise forts against 

'* And lay siege against it, and buUd a fort against it, and 
cast a mount against it ; set the camp also against it, and eet 
battcring-tania against it round about,"' 

lIui■l^udx.a >£iekiel,iT.3i ni.S9, 

pline observed in those ancient days are but the prototype of 
our modem science. Here we have ranks of soldiers sheltered 
behind a wicker breastwork. The shield-bearer is clothed 

320 HntEOCD— PBI80HBE8 

the Bhort tnnic, while the bowman has the long fringed dress, 
and breast plate. Botb wear a form of cap not before seen. 
The figures in the rearmost rank having beea cut in two, no 
details can be furnished. Immediately before the soldiers is b 
Tvar-engine on wheels protected by a hanging, which has been 
impelled against the wall of the fort ap the etoep ascent M 
rocky eminence upon which the city is built ; an inclined road- 
way having evidentiy been formed by the besiegers for Iha 
purpose. The two speara of the engine have made a breach 
in a tower, on the top of which a man is extending his faands^ 
as if imploring a cessation of hostilities. In front, and within 
view of the citizens, are three men impaled, to strike tenw 
into the besieged ; while below, as if they had fallen from 
the walls, are seen a headless body and a dying man. Thii 
slab exhibits a cramp hole, by which it was secured to the 

Fig. 166 — The evacuation of a city — is likewise from tlie 
centre ruins. The city is built on an elevation, but not on b 
rocky eminence, like that last described, It contains a high 
building or citadel ; and the walls are protected by a deep 
trench, and defended by t^twera at regular intervals, which, as 
'well as the walls themselves, are surmounted by battlementa. 
Directed against the centre gate, which, like all the other 
entrances to the city, is closed, are two of the moveable war- 
engines that we have before named. Ko person appears on ths 
towers of the citadel, nor on any part of the walls, nothing but > 
solitary date-tree in full bearing being visible within the cityj 
but apparently issuing from some less important entrance is a 
car, drawn by oxen, and entirely different from a war-chariot, 
containing a young man, a woman, and child. Yet farthra 
in advance is a second car, drawn by oxen, and conveying 
women and a child, and soma animals ore quite in front. " lu 
the city is left desolation, and the gate is smitten with de- 
struction."' In the upper portion of the frieze are two scribe^ 
under the superintendence of an officer of rank, noting the 
spoil — flocks of sheep, rams, and goats, driven by a herdsman ; 
and still farther forward are two men, one carrying his child, 
bnt too much obliterated to enable us to distinguish their forms 
in detail. By these devices, and by the absence of people on 
the wails, we conjecture that the sculptor intended to luUmBtii 


the utter abandonment of the city — that neither man, woman, 
nor child were left in it ; and from the eircumBtance of the 
cur proceeding in the direction of the mesBenger or herald, 
who wears the long robe and sandals, and carries a wand in 
his hand, it would seem to ua that the evacuation of the city 
is by command of the Tictorious king. "For now shait thou 
go forth out of the city, and thou shall dwell in the field, and 
thou shalt go even to Babylon."' 

It was the custom of the AsByrian conquerors to carry away 
captive the inhahitanta of a vanquished province or country, and 
place them in some distant region within their rule, to thus de- 
prive them of all hope of returniog to their own land, while they 
colonised the less populous dislricta of the empire. An event 

similar to that here represented took place in the ninlh year 
of the reign of Hoshen, when Shalmaneaer, King of Assyria, 
" took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and 
placed them in Hulah and in Ilabor by the river of Gozaii, 
and in the cities of the Medes."' This rilievo was found in 
an underground chamber in the central part of the Monnil 
of Niniroud; and we have, therefore, no sufftciently clear 
knowledge of the order of its succession on the walls of the 
building to afford a clue to the city intended to he represented. 
We are, however, of opinion that it cannot be any of the 
cities of Samaria, because of the fruitful date-tree seen within 
ils walls, as that tree does not produce fruit in the northern 
district of Syria, 

> 2 Kings, XTii. 6. ^^ 

-ronr*BtE bhibui. 

Fig. 167 representB two bearded figures discharging a; 
at the walk of a citadel ; while the third, a eunuch, habited 
in a Bhort tunic, holds in his right band a dagger, and with his 
left supports a ebield or porloble hrenat-work, which reaches 
from the ground to confiiderably above the heads of those pro- 
tected by it. Between the shield and the fortress are three 
trees, — two of the endogenous class, which seem to be grow- 

■ out of the water, — the roond mass at tbe base of the 

FlB. 1B7.-^I»1 

citadel resembling what is undeniably water in. other friezes. 
We cannot, however, account for its abrupt termination, unless 
it is intended to represent & liike, or the rushing of a stream 
of water turned against the city by the besiegers. A man ia 
seen on the wall directing an arrow at the enemy- This slab 
exhibits the cramp-hole by which it was secured to the wall, 
as well as two drill-holea by which it was attached to the dab 

Fig. 168. Pnrsuit of an enemy: Vulture above. Tliia 
again repreaenls another scene of defeat and flight. Two^^ 


32F ■ 

horaemen, armed with spears and wearing the conical cap, i 
pursuing one whose horse has fallen. Behind is a falling 
figure ; and overhead ia a vulture carrying in his beali un- 
equivocal evidence of having alread;r preyed upon the slain. 
In. the sculptures of Khorsahad and Nimroud, the swiftneaa o£ 
the horses and the ferocity of their riders are well portrayed. 
" Their horses also are swifter than the leopards and are more 
fierce than the evening wolves : and their horsemen shall 
spread themselves, aad their horsenien shall come ftomfar; 
they shall fly aa the eagle that hasteth to eat.'" The Chal- 


dean cavalry were proverhial for awiftness, courage, and ortiolly. 
Oppianus, a Greek poet of Cilicia in the second century, m 
speaking of the horses bred about the Euphrates, says, " They 
are by nature war-horses, and so intrepid that neither the 
sight nor the roaring of the lion appala them ; &ud besides, 
ore astonishingly fleet." 
Fig. 169 represents an Arab on a dromedary, in rapid flight 

T 3 

324 CATiLBT PITKBmsO MiN OK beomeijaht. 

from the hot pursuit of two horaeraen arniecl with long spears. 
Dying and headkaa mea are etretched upon the plain. 

The next frieze contaioa a barefooted captive, apparently a 
female, tearing her hair with her upraised left hand, while the 
right carries a wine or water veseel. Following her are fcur 

The frieze which follows is separated into two subjects by a 
line of inscription, and is the only example in the collection 
illustrative of the way in which the sculptures were arranged 
upon the walls of the original edifice. The frieze ia not other- 
wise remarkable, the subject in the upper division representing 
the evacuation of a city, the scene being very nearly the same as 

that shown 

Fig. 170, 
chariot di 


Warrior hunting the lion. "We have here a 
by three horses, conveying a charioteer and 
bearded personage of distinctio-n, who is discharjsing arrows, 
A lion, which has been wounded with several arrows, is ptrug- 
gling in the path of the chariot. All the details in this &ieze 
are singularly perfect, but as they so closely resemble those 
previously described, it is not requisite to again particnlarUe 

The nest frieze represents a eunuch introducing four bearded 
prisoners whose hands are tied behind them. Two hands of 
another figure and part of a foot likewise appear ; shoviiig 




that this is but a, portion of a frieze, wanting the remaindsr 
of that figure and the margin of the top and bottom. The 
eunuch Lere wears the dresa so often desbribed ; but his poei- 
tion resembles that of Tartan (fig. 67), the left arm being 
*ieTated, aa if commanding the prisoners to halt in the pre- 
sence of some superior personage, who would probably appear 
oa the adjoining slab. The priaoners are clad only in a short 
kilt, and wear no fillet about the head, nor sandals. The exe- 
cutioa of the work is barbarous in the estreme, 

ceding Irieze we see the king, holding in his 
right hand two arrows and in his left a bow, engaged in ad- 
dressing an officer in the costume of the enemy. The king is 
attended by his umbrella bearer, and followed by hia chariot, 
the horses of which are led by a groom. Above is seen the 
figure of Baal. 

We have then a man driving' before him a flock of sheep 
and goats. The neighbouring fragment shows a captain of 
cavalry commanding a halt. Ho wears a crested helmet; hia 
horse is pierced by the arrows of the enemy, and behind are the 
foreparts of two horses apparently belonging to a chariot. The 
last rilievo is a representation of the king drinking. Behind 
liim staadB a bcardlesB attendant, bearer uf the kiug'e imple^ 

326 KiuaouD. — latest 

ments of war, together with ihe Bceptre alwaj-a held in ths 
hand by the officers immediately about the royal person. The 
elaborate finish of this sculpture is beyond all praise ; although 
there is much conventionality in the treatment of the hair and 
heard, — as, indeed, must always be the case in the art of sculp- 
ture. There is no doubt that the ancient A.ssyriana, lilce the 
modem Persians, bestowed much time and care upon their 
beards ; as in these sculptures is sufficiently evident from the 
formal termination of the king's beard — always in four row< 
of crisped convolutions — and the precise intervals of plain hair. 
The hair, too, is not without its prescribed form, — wavy in 
front and terminating in a profusion of carls ; from the cestis 
of which a tassel is usually depended, — a custom atill in UM 
among the women of the East, who interweave with the hair 
skeins of black silk. The borders of the dresses of both the 
king and his attendant are furred, fringed, and richly em- 
broidered in square compartmenfe. The other portions of the 
dresses of the king and his attendant are the same as before 
detailed. The remains of the quiver and feather end of the 
arrows, with the groove for the bowstring, are perfectly repre- 

"We are now about to examine the last contributions for- 
warded by Layord from the great Mound at Nimroud. 

The first figure that appears represents a priest with a 
twisted bandelet, decorated with rosettes, around bis head, 
and in the usual sacerdotal dress, see figs. 60 and 162. Se 
holds in bis left hand a branch of three flowers, and hia opea 
right hand is upraised. Eighteen lines of inscription run 
across the sculpture. The size of the slab is 8 ft. by 2 ft. 9 
inches, and it was situated at the side of a doorway, see de- 
scription, page 158. 

The second figure is precisely similar in aize and detul to 
the last, and occupied the corresponding] side of tbe entrance, 
facing towarda it. Across this slab run forty-sis lines of ia- 
ecription in a remarkably perfect condition. 

The third and largest dab of the collection is pecnliarlf 
interesting, both from the novelty of the subject, and from 
the figures presented to us. It portrays a Griffon pursued by a 
divinity, who is furiously hurling his thunderbolts at hira, fig. 
171, and is well executed throughout. The head of the griffon 
is that of a lynx, the face is snarling oxtravagantly, like tiiA 


lious Been in the lion hunt, fig. 136. The ears, bristling eje- 
brows, and teeth are oil strongly defined, and eminently illue- 
trate the rigid observance of amall matters, exemplified in the 
claw in the lion's tail, whilst cither carelosa or ignorant of im- 
jjortant characteristics, for example, the paw of the lion and 
the form of the molar teeth (see fig. 12, and griffon, fig. 171], 
which are those of a graminivorous, instead of a camivoroui 
animal. The fore legs and cluws of the monster before ne are 
those of a quadruped of the feline speciee; but the hind lega 
terminate in the claw of a carijiTorous bird, and flie tail ii 
likewise tijat of a bird. In the divinity pursuing the griffon 
we recognise the figure we have designated Ilus {6g. 43}; end 
fur the first time do we see this four-winged divinity in the 
sculptures brought from Nimroud. Ttie example before va 
wears the egg-shaped cap with three horns ; the long fringed 
robe with cord and tassels, the usual armlets and bracelets, 
and his lion- decorated scabbai-d slung over his shoulder. His 
four wings are widely expandtd. The divinity ia actively 
running, and both his arms ari; elevated, as if furiously hurl' 
ing the thunderbolts he grasps in his hands. Two of the 
thunderbolts arc wavy, aud have their extremities divided iDtO 
three distinct forks, but the centre bolt is 8traight,and pointed, 
thus indicating the two sorts of lightning. It is remarkable 
that in the battle scenes where the divinity we have called 
Baal (fig. 146) is aaaisting the king, the arrow he is discharg- 
ing is not terminated by an ordinary barb, but is three-forked 
like the wavy lightning, as if to intimate that he fighU with 
DO mortal weapons, bat with the bolts of heaven. These re- 
semblances are curious, and are highly suggestive of the iden- 
tity of the Ilus of Khorsabad with the Baal of Kimroud ; 
that in truth the latter is but a symbol of the former. Thia 
singular ancient Assyrian sculpture clearly embodies the doo* 
trine of the contention of the good and evil principles whicli 
subsequently took root in Persia under the types of OrmazS, 
the eternal source of light, and the antagonistic Ahriman, the 
father of evil, who in a continuous stru^le divide the dominion 
of the universe. The Assyrian artist has, however, decidedly 
given the victory to the good spirit, who is most unequivocally 
driving the evil one before him, and out of the temple, for thia 
rilievo was situated in an entra-Dce. 
This slab is crossed by thirty-six lines of inBcription. i 


The fourth BUbject, 
fig. 172, we have to 
notice IB also entirely 
new to us. It repre- 
Bents a divinity wear- 
ing the short fringed 
tunic, the long furred 
robe, the UBUitl orna- 
mentB, and two dag. 
gers. In his left hand 
he carries the richly 
decorated bag, and bis 
right is upraised asm 
the act of presenting 
the pine-cone His 
beard has the ordinary 
. el aboryte arrangement, 
itnd on bis bead is the 
egg-shaped cap with 
three borns, and the 
bull's ears, but the 
novelty in his dress la 
that the bead of a 6-,h 
surmounts his otl cr 
bead-dress while iIk 
body of llie fish falls 
over liis shoulders and 
continueB down It is 
backi th e whole hgu re 
in short, needs no other 
description than is con 
tained in the following 
fragment from Bero- 

"In the first year 
there appeared an nni- 
mill, by nameOaDDca, 
whose whole body (ac- 
cording tfl the account 
of Apoilodoriis) was 
that of a fish; that 
under the fish's head 

330 NiMHOCD. — o^iNKEa, 1 

he had another head with feet helow, similar to those of b man, 
Bubjoined to the fish's tail. His voice too, and language, wai 
articulate and human, and a repreaentation of him is preaerTed 
even to this day."' 

We have alrea^ly seen theDagon of the Philistinea exhibited 
on the walls of Khorsabad, and here we recognise the Chaldean 
Cannes, the Assyrian Dagon sculptured on the walls of Niin- 
roud. In Miss Fanny Corbeaus'a admirable papers on "The 
Bephaim,"^ she has some ingenious speculations to prove that 
the Chaldean Oannea — the Philistine Dagon — and the Miz- 
raimite On are identical. We have not space to follow the 
whole of her argument, but the following extracts will induce 
our readers to oocsiilt the entire paper. Miss Corbeaux 
says : — 

" The figure of the Chaldean Oannea, discovered on the 
Bculptured remains of ancient Nineveh, is valmible in two 
respects; firstly, in that it enables us to reunite him byname, 
to the Mizraimite On, his original ; and by his form, to ths 
particular portion of the Mizrsiuiite people inhabiting Feleshelh 
and its dependencies. Secondly, in that the mythical account 
by £eroRua, of the manner in which Oannes first made himself 
known on the shores of the Persian Gulf, by rieing &om the 
sea to instruct the Chaldeans in ail religious and useful know. 
ledge, implied that a certain learned and civilised people, who 
navigated those seas, were the medium of these communica- 
tions, and taught in his name 

" Oannea, flavv-Tis, thus introduced into the East, is merely 
the Hebrew Aon, p«, with a Greek case-termination ; and the 
Hebrew form ia only a transcript of an ancient Coptic word 
which, according to Champollion, signifies ' to enlighten.' 

" Aon was the original name of the god worshipped in the 
great sanctuary of Htliopolis, which is called in Scripture by 
its name, Beth- Aon, the ' house of On,' os well as by its Irano- 1 
lation, Seth-Shemeah, the ' house of the Sun.' The langaagA 
that explains a local god's name, surely points out the nation 
who first worshipped him under that name. The primitiva 
Aon was therefore the 'enlightener of man,' to a people 
Bpeaking the primitive language, out of which the Coplio 

' Corj'a Frofmenti, Scoond Edition, p. 22. 
* The Eephmia and their oonneclion with Egyptian Historj, JourB. 
Sa«nd Lihratute, vol. iii. So. 5. Suv SorUi, 


Bpraug, and such a people were the Caphtorim of Lower Egypt, 
■whom we afterwards find estftblialied among tho Philiatiues 
in Palestiiie. . . . 

" The maritime Aoa, or Phcenician and Chaldean Oannes, is 
a symbolical form peculiar to the people of the Bea-coaat, 
Pelesheth. It is the Dag-on, or Fish-on of Scripture, com- 
pounded of y\, dag, fish, and p on, contracted form of tho nnmo 
of the god. . . . 

"The Oannes of Chaldea, hy the internal evidence of his 
repreaentation and his Coptic, name, confirms the admission 
of Berosus that he was introduced into that country by 

The Bciilpture that now appears represents the four-winged 
divinity Bus (see fig. 43) ; he carries in his hand a sceptre 
with a round knob at the top, and lull tassel at the bottom ; 
the size of the slab is 7 ft. 9 in. by 4 ft. 2 in. 

We have next a colossal lion (see fig. 12). This lion has 
formed the jamb of au entrance, and is executed with con- 
siderable spirit ; but while the shaggy mane and atdea, as well 
as the savage snarling character of the countenance are strongly 
indicated, we see the same exaggeration of unimportant details 
and disregard of real characteristics, such as the form of the 
teeth, and the anatomical structure of the paw, tliat we have 
already remarked upon in describing the grifloa, fig. 171. Tho 
size of tho slab is 12 ft. 6 in. by 7 ft. 8 in., and it contains 
nineteen rows of inscription. 

The figure wo now meet is a small statue (fig. 1 73) in a 
sacerdotal dress. It apparently represents a priest holding in 
his left hand a sceptre, and in his right an inatniment shaped 
like a sickle. There is an inscription upon the breast, but the 
sculpture is chiefiy remarkable from exhibiting the exact form 
of one of the dresses frequently seen in the friezes. It is here 
shown as a long fringed cloth, wrapped round and round tho 
body, rising in a spiral form, and falling over tho front of tho 
shoulders. Many examples of this description of dress are 
found on Babylonian cylinders (see Cullimore's Specimens). 
The statue stands on its original pedestal of red limestone. 

The Meeo to be next degcribed (fig. 174) possesses peculiar 
intorest ; for it is one of those remarkable pillars, or chrono- 
logical tablets, which we have seen represented in one of the 
nibjectB at Khorsabad (fig. 94), and which have been fo^ ' 


elsewhere. The tablet before we has not been let i 


J the 

wull, nor sculptured 


rock, but appears to hav' 
bceo isolated, as in an example 
found at Cyprus. Like that, 
it is inscribed on the front, 
back, and sides ; the figure «( 
tbe king in position, dresB, end 
accessories, is also the same, 
and leeembliDg those on the 
rocks of Saiii el !Kelb standing 
in circular headed- cavities (fig. 
30) This circular head would 
seem to be the prescribed form 
for an historical tablet set up,' 
tither to commemorate some 
special event in the life of the 
monarch, as in tbe examples 
referred to ; or, as la the pre- 
sent iDstauee, we may presnme 
liom the great length of the 
lusLription, to record notmere- 
Ij one ftent, but every inci- 
dent ot bis reign, a cuiijecturo 
supported by the circumstance 
ot Its being discovered in one 
ot his own palaoea. Tbe stone 
IB covered with most exquisitely 
perfect cuneiform cb a meters 
in every part, excepting the 
upper portion of tbe figure, 
which is left clear. The face 
of the king has those marked 
peculiarities, such as the short- 
ness of the nose, that eati^[ 

ua at once that it is no merely conventional representat 
bat that it is intended for an actual portrait, as surely 
veying the characteristic features of tbe original as do t. 
of the Egyptian Amunothph and Rumeses. The eiee of' 
tablet is 10 ft. by i It. 6 in., and it has two boles at the ' ' 
und the sides. 

< Deal. urii. 2. 5. 

Sh Im ^&t tf-fiw ami 
1^- iMTuip ImkV dnn. Hit 

3NHIK ^ AmUmt 4> 3 ft. « an. te I ft. •• i 

^ a - - - - - 

_ .BMt tf k« ^iMw *^ tke «T-: : 
MOM te M iOer tka dw kn:; 

HTunoin). — JLiTTBTBATioir Of sumo;. 33fi 

tenance might nppear fat and fair. This was a qualification 
apparently no less essential in the officers of the court of the 
Eing of Assyria than in thoae who stood hefore the Eing of 
Babylon in the time of the prophet Daniel, c. i., v. 5. From 
the figure of a divinity embroidered on the neckband of this 
person's robe, we would presume that he was called after the 
name of the god whidi it represents, — " But at the last Daniel 
fiame in before me, whose name was Belteshozzar, according 
to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy 
gods."' So constant and unvarying are the customs of the 

The next is a colossal frieze — 5 ft. 9 in. by 7 ft. 10 in. — 
representing the king drinking and the attendant cup-bearer 
■with his fly-flap. The king wears the usual truncated cap, 
surmounted by the cone, and surrounded by a diadem tied by 
a fillet, the ends of which are riclily embroidered with the 
■winged bull. The neck of his robe is bordered with the 
winged bull and anttilopes, separated by the honeysuckle ; and 
round the sleeve is the honeysuckle and pine-cone ornament. 
He has two daggers in his girdle, ear-rings, and rosette brace- 
lets. In his left hand is a bow, and in his right a cup. The 
eunuch varies in no respect from those which have been already 
described ; hut the fly-flap, and the animal's head at the end 
of the handle are beautifully finished. 

The fourth, — a bearded head, with a rose-decorated fillet. 
Thifl is the head of one of the magi, or priests, as may he in- 
ferred &om the absence of roundness in the features and the 
Hack pigment on the heard and eyebrows being more conspi- 
cuous than in the other figures — peculiarities which we have 
already remarked in analogous figures at Ehorsabad. 

So. 5 is an admirably executed head of the king. 

No, 6. A head and shoulders of an individual of the sub- 
dued nations. The hands are in that position which we hare 
pointed out in describing the obelisk. The figure wears a 
turban of three folds, bracelets, armlets, and ear-ringa. He 
has a short beard, and apparently woolly hair, A few lines of 
cuneiform have been cut over the lower part of the figure. 

No. 7. Portion of frieze showing the winged emblem of 
the divinity in front : the king following — and after him & 
■winged figure with three-horned cap. Hound the king's neck 

) Dan. iv. 8, _^M 


So. 8. The king, his umbrella-bearer, and biB charioteer. 
The nest sciulpturea arc not riKeTJ, but iragmenta en nm 
basse. They heloug to one of those winged hulls with humu 
heads, such as M. Botta diacoTew 
at Khorsabad. On tbo 
eomething like a turban, b 
cd hj an ornamerjt in imitation d 
n cord or rope. The ears of a bull, 
and but ono psiir of horns, are Been 
The heard is ilaboratelj curled ia 
the prescribed fashion. The coon 
tenance will, in all probabilite 
prove to be llie portrait of one a 
the Asayriau monarch s whoa 
nes Rawlinson is said to han) 
f deciphered. The other g^menb 
IB the head and neck of a colossal 
human-headed bull with wingi 
(fig. ]76). Both of these frog* 
Fh 17B.— menta are in a much tiarder in^ 

Buifc slw^ifuio'..*""'^ terial than the tilievi, — being H 
compact flinty limestone. 
There were also several slabs of inscription — one a cunei- 
form inacription of twenty-two lines (aee 8ec. VI.)ex(iuiMt*Jy 
Bharp in execution, together with fragments of painted briokg^' 
which formed a continuous decoration above tlie sluba round 
many of the halls and charabcrH of the palaces of K'lmroudf 
and other inscribed tiles of rarious dimensions. Some frag.' 
ments of bronze, apparently belonging to the furniture of ths 
palace — teira-cotta vases, some of which arc gluzed with ■ 
blue vitrified substance resembling that used by the ancient 
Egyptians — fragments of glass — three engraved cylinders, or 
rolling seals, one of which is of transparent glass — beadv 
amongst which is an Egyptian ornament — a bronze nail with . 
a gilt head — a silver ring — fragments of ivory, delicat«lf 
carved, some being gilt — two small statues, in bronze, of stags 
— one of a sheep — and seventeen of a grouching lion, (bmiii^ 
a- aeries of varioua dimensions, firom the largest measuring^ 
twelve inches, down to the smallest of one Jnoh in leoBtii, 


J. 177). These slatuea of 
evidendy important i 
to conjecture their pur- 
pose, unleBB they were 
weights ; an opinion 
which we hazarded 
partly from our obser- 
Tstiona upon a large one 
in the French collec- 
tion from Khorsahsd, 
in which a ring is at- 
tached to the baot, ap. 
parently for a handle — 
which is differently 
Bupplied in the case of 
these from Nimroud — 
and partly front the fact that on the tombs at Thebes there are 
rapreaenlations of men weighing tings of gold, the weights 
having lilce these, the form of some animal, aa stags, sheep, 
gazelles, &c. It is now known that they are weights, and 
have their respective quantities in legible characters on the 
back of each ; there can, however, be little doubt that the 
larger ones were likewise .used to seoure the awnings in t!ie 
courts (see page 244). 

Two of die slabs, about 18 inclies long by 13 wide, are in- 
scribed on both sides with beautifully cut cuneatic characters. 
The inscription is the same in both, and most important docu- 
ments are they for the study of the language, because the ter- 
mination of the words can he precisely ascertained from then, 
Bs the length of the lines varies in both inscriptions, A very 
cursory examination will satisfy any one that these inscriptions 
are to be read from left to right; for, in order to avoid break- 
ing a word, the final characters are carried round the thickness 
of the slab. The story is contimied on the other face, and 
is read by turning the slab over ae ve do law documents, uinl 
medals or coins, so that what was the lower side of one puge 
biTOomes the upper side of the next. 

The basaltic sitting statue, from K&ldh Sberghat, and thu 
inscription, need no special description here ; but in addition 
to these are, as we have said, many painted bricks — some seiui- 
cylindrioal in form. The designs npon the bricks arc hand- 


some, containing the rosette and ornaments ■which we haye 
been in the habit of considering Greek ; but imquestionablj 
the most interesting of these fragraentB are the writttn und 
stamped cuneiform writings. It is most remarkable that 9a 
near an approach to printing as was made by the Assyrians und 
the Egyptians, more than three thousand years ago, did not 
sooner produce the invention of modem times ; especially when 
we find that even in its infant stale, the art was perfect as far 
as it went. The aft of block-printing may have been trane- 
raitted to China at this early period; and may there havehe«n 
advanced to that additional grade, nttmely, the transfer of the 
impression to paper, beyond which limit it has only recenll; 
advanced in that country. Besides the letters, another 
curious and interesting impTession is observable on one of 
these bricks: it is that of the footsteps of a weazel, which 
must have sported over the recent brick before it had left the 
hand of the fabricator. The Utile animal and the mighty king 
have stamped the record of their existence on the same pieco 
of clay.' 

The Nimroud obelisk is 6 feet 6 inches in height : the gi 
est width at top 1 foot 6J- inches, and at bottom 2 feet, 
■width at the sides being somewhat less. It is made of s 
very defective piece of black marble, traversed obliquely 
throughout its length by a broad vein of whitish heterogcneoH' 
matter. Tlie had quality of the marble indicates not merely 
the deSciency of good and suitable material in the neighbouiu 
hood, but an extreme paucity of resources in a nation appft*' 
rently so great ; for to no other oause can we attribute the 
of such an unsightly and bad stone for the purpose of a mo 
ment. We have formerly pointed out that these sculptured 
remains are far from remarkable for artistic beauty — and thi» 
obelisk forcibly illustrates our observations ; iur, howevet 
interesting as a historical document, as a wort of art no ons 
can rate it highly ; and we ourselves are by no means inclined 
to place it on a par with any Egyptian obelisk — or even 
compare it with that of the Fayoum, which bears fully 
many figures. There is a want of precision in the Nimronit 
," Not. 1025,1027, 1098,11 


speoimeD, sbown in the lines intended to be straight, 

the Bpacee intended to bo equal j a rciietition and feehlem 


invention, and a cardeBBcess of esecution throughout that most 
ever keep itlow in the scale of art. The form of thismoBument 
is sot, correctly Bpeuking, that of an obelisk, for the top is 
eurmouDted by three Bteps, and it is far from square in plan. 
The whole of the npper part, including the steps, is thickly 
iaatribed with cnneiform characters. Each side is then di- 
vided into five compartinentH of gculpture, witli cUBcifurm cha- 
ractera between and along the sides, and the base for 1 foot 
4 inches in height, is aurrouinied by entablatures of cuneiform, 
containing twenty-three lines. 

The first compartment of the front (fig. 178) represents thi^ 
great king, who, holding two arrows and attended by his 
eunuch and bearded domestic, the captain of hie guard, re- 
ceives the homage of a newly-Buhjugated province, to which 
ihe person standing erect before him ia constituted goveraor. 
The king seems to be in the act of preseDting the arrona and 
a bow, as insignia of office, or more probably using divination 
in the appointment of the new governor.' High in the btick- 
ground, between the great king and the satrap, are two 
blems : one of liaal ; the other a circle surrounding b star ; 
emblems being the same as those which occur on other Bculpton 
from Nimroud, and near the figures on the rocka of Kohr 
Kelb. Aa regards the meaoiag of the emblems, we take ( 
to be a contraction for that figure of the divinity which accoa 
panics the king to battle in the various rilievi ; but why i 
compauicd by the globe — which in the represeutation of 1 
next compartment is on the right instead of on the left ndfi 
it is difficult to conceive, unlesa it be to signity that the p 
aentation of tribute was eo vast that it occupied from aimr 
to sunset ; or that the dominion of the great king extended fn 
the rising to the setting aun. 

The second compartment comprisea the same number 
figures, and similarly arranged, excepting that the eunn 
behind the king holds an umbrella, and that in the place of] 
satrap stands the cupbearer with his fly-flup. In this repi 
seutation the forms of the cnp and robe of the purBon kisaii 
the leet of the king are more distinctly delineated, and fumi 
matter for consideration in describing another compartment 
tlie hack of the obelisk. 

In the third compartment are two men, each leading & Bt 

.^au camel. The men wear the fillet round the head and t 

I Eitt. iti. 21, 22. 


e'hort tunic, and are without boots and sandals — tlie dress being 
that of a people with whom the king is represented, in many oi 
the Bculpturea of Nimroud, to bo at war. 

The fourth compartment exhibits a forest ia a mountainous 
country, occupied by deer and wolves, or lions. This is an 
episode in the story related on the monument, intimating the 
vastnesB of the dominion of the king of Niueveh, which 
extended not only over populous districts, but over forests and 
mountains inhabited solely by wild beasts. Thus in Daniel : 
"And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of 
the field aud the fowls of the heaTen hath he given into thine 
hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all." ' 

The fifth and last compartment on this side of the obeliak 
represents a people with whom we have made acquaintance in 
the Hall of Judgment at Khorsahad, and of whom we remarked 
that they resembled in costume some figures we had seen from 
the ruins of Nineveh that we were sure represented Jen's. 
They are a short-bearded race, wearing long robes and boots, 
and a remarkable cap like a bag, the end of which is made to 
turn back instead of falling towards the front like the Phry-- 
gian. In this particular compartment the people carry wood 
or bars of met^, baskets with fruit, bags and bundles ; but on 
others the tribute oifered by the new race — the recent conquest 
of which the monument appears especially to commemorate — 
consists likewise of camels, fringed cloths, and vases of various 
forms and sizes. In evidence of tho conquest, the action of 
the figures must he particularly noted ; tho prostrate attitude 
ia the first two compartments, and of those wearing the same 
costume who head the tribute-bearers in subsequent represent- 
ations, being all indicative of fear or respect as exhibited in 
the bended back and knee, which as they advance is exchanged 
for the prostrate posture of Bubnission and homage yet com- 
mon in the countries from which the monument is brought, 
The other people, of whom we formerly spoke, as contending 
with the lung in battle, bring elephants, monkeys, and ba- 
boons with human faces. They are clad in short tunics, and 
wear a fillet round the head, but are barefooted. 

This completes the description of the front of the obelisk, 
and gives some idea of the people shown on the three other aides. 

Tbe first cotopartmeut on the left side (fig, 179) oontoios 
> Daniel, ii. 38. 



(; bcardeJ anil one bearilless fiRurp, npparentlj' belonging ti 

Fig. l79.-i.Err Bint. 

the suite of tke satrap of the great king, together with a gi 


in the vestments of the newly-conquered people, holding a 
richlj- caparisoned horse. The second oorapartment has a rype- 
tition of the bearded and heardless figures, ushering in three 
of the new race, the first of whoni is in the attitude of awe 
before muntioned, while the remaining two follow with tribute 
in a richly ornamented box and basket. The third represents 
a bull decorated for the sacrifice, followed bya straight-horned 
ox, as we judge from the cloven hoof, length of leg, and posi- 
tion of the horn (not a. rhinoceros, as has been Burmised), and 
an animal of the gazelle class. It ia to be observed that these 
animals are neither led nor held, and that the bull, the alepft, 
the leader, the chief of his class, is decorated for the sacrifice 
— from which we infer that they do not appear as tribute, but 
as showing the abundance of food in the king's dominions — 
and that as it was the custom to sacriflce to the gods the ani- 
mals intended for the royal table, the bull is decorated accord- 
ingly. The fourth compartment contains four figures of the 
race wearing the fillet round the head, and witb the feet bare. 
Two carry bundles, and the two behind bear a piece of fringed 
cloth slung upon a pole. The fifth again shows the bearded 
and t>Bardless attendants, and tliree of the people wearing the 
filfet, with boots upon their feet. The first is in the attitude 
of respect, the second curries a tiag, the third a basket. The 
inscription beneath contains twenty-seven lines. The custom 
of presenting robes as a mark of honour may be traced to the 
remotest antiquity in eastern countries, and even still prevails. 
The Median habit was made of silk, and among the elder 
Greeks it was only another name for a silken robe. Herodotus 
mentions that O^es, a Persian prince, himself and all his 
posterity, were annually presented with a Median habit.' Ho 
alto states that the Ethiopians, who border on Egypt, and a 
people_ of India, "once in every three years present to the king 
(Darius) two choenieeH of gold unrefined, two hundred blocks 
of ebony, twenty large elephants' teeth, and five Ethiopian 
youths." The Arabians contributed e^ery year to the same 
monarch frankincense to the amount of a thousand talents. A 
Persian present ia fully explained in the Anabasis (Book I.); 
it consisted of a horse with a gilt bridle, a golden collar, brace- 
lets, and a sword of the kind peculiar to Media, called aoiaaces, 
besides the silken vest. 
^ 1 Tbuliu, IlXxiT 

miTiiOTro. — Bid OF c 
Tho first eorapartment on the bock of the obelisk (fig. 180} 

eshibito two camels of the Bactrian race ; the first led by on* 


of the newly -conquered people, weaiing the peculiar cap and 

Fig. 181.— rouBTB >ii)i, 
boots, but short tCBtead of long robes; the second camel i 

346 KiMEOTra. — FOTTKrH sibk or obelisk. 

driven by one in a similar costume. The second compartment 
contains five of Ibe same people, clad in long robea, carrj-in; 
bars of precious woods, vases, wine- skins, wine-cup, andalooL 
two-handled basket, empty. The third compartment allows 
aa elephant and two bare-footed men wearing a fillet and short 
tunic : each man is leading a monkey, the hindmost having 
likewise a small monkey on his shoulder. The fourth com- I 
partment represents five of the same people, with long robes I 
and bare feet, carrying for tribute, baskets; and apparently \ 
pieces of cloth ; bugs, probably containing gold dust, and bun 
of wood 01 metal. The fifth compartment contains also five of 
the same people, similarly attired, carrying single- handled and 
two-handled baskets, and large bundles. The lower inscrip- 
tion on this side contains twenty-nine Hnes. 

The first compartment of the fourth side (fig. 181) contains 
five of the newly- conquered people, capped, booted, and long- 
robed ; hearing, as tribute, bare of metal or wood, roaod 
bundles, and long fiat baskets with fruit. The second com- 
partment is similar to the lost ; but the men carry square 
bundles and hags, like wine-skins, dyct their shoulders, and 
baskets in their hands — the last a long fiat basket, containing 
fruit, like pines. The third compartment contains two men, 
without cap or fillet, barefooted, and clad in the short tonic, 
guiding two human-headed baboons, chained. The fourth has 
four men wearing the fillet an d long rohea, and bearing baskets, 
long bundles over the shoulder, and bars of wood. The fi^ 
and concluding compartment resembles the last — but the tribute 
consists of baskets, sacks like the former, and bundles. The 
entablature of inscription on this side contains thirty-eight lines. 

This completes the details of the obelisk. 

" la the twelfth year of Ahaz, King of Judab, began Hosbea, 
the son £lah, to reign in' Samaria over Israel nine years. 
Against him came up Shalmaneser, King of Assyria ; and 
Hoshea became his servant, and gave liim presents. And the 
£ing of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea ; for he had sent 
messengers to So, King of Egypt, and brought no present to 
the King of Assyria, as he had done year by year ; therefore 
the King of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison."' 
The illustrallouB upon the obelisk, and the subjects on the 
walls of Assyrian palaces (particularly Khorsabad), are so 
' a Kingi, ivii. 1. 3. 6. 

HiMttOim. — MB. hectok'b conthibuiions. 347 

entirely in harmony with what we read of Sbalmaneser in the 
17th chapter of die second book of Kings, that we have, 
without further comment, not hesitated to insert it. 

We will now turn our attention to the yaluahle addition to 
OUT collection, for which we are indebted to the enterprising 
spirit of Mr, Hector, an English merchant long estahhshed at 
Baghdad, whose antiquarian knowledge and love of research 
induced him to essay some excavations in the neighbourhood 
of JI. Botta's rich but now entirely exhausted mine. It is not 
easy for a private individual to succeed in such tasks as Mr. 
Hector had undertaken; but he eventually surmounted all the 
difficulties in his way, and was rewarded by rescuing these, to 
us, unigiM remains, as all the other specimens from Khorsahad 
(excepting a few contributed hy Rawlinson) are in the hands 
of the French government. The importance of his exertions 
will be justly appreciated by all who know that without 
them our collection of these historical records would have 
been deficient in some essential links in the chain of re- 

As soon as Mr. Hector had secitred and packed his discoveries, 
he consigned them to the care of Mr. Stirling, of Sheffield — a 
gentleman distinguished alike for his intelligence and for a 
patriotic desire to secure to the nation any relics or information 
of value. Acting upon his knowledge of the interest enter- 
tained hy the public on the Buhject, Mr. Stirling at once 
proceeded to negotiate the sola to the British Museum ; and 
the trustees finally paid him 400^. for the curious property 
intrusted to him. The particular remains now under notice 
consist exclusively of isolated figures ; although there oan he 
but little doubt that these figures form portions of groups and 
of colossal ranges of sculpture etmilar in character to the 
smaller friezes from the walls at T^imroud. 

The most important of these remains are three figures, 8 ft. 
1 1 in. high. The flist is that of the king wearing the trun- 
cated cone-like cap, richly embellished; with the small cone 
quite perfectat the top, and the two long embroidered and fringed 
fillets depending from the back of the cap. He has long pen- 
dant car rings, braoelets with richly carved rosettes, and upon 
his arm is an ornamented armlet lapping over. His beard is 
very long, and, like the hair, is formally curled. His under- 
dress, embroidered with rosettes in square compartments, and 

348 UE. hectob'b collection fboic 

bordered with a tasaelled fringe, reaches to the fwt: hi» 
mantle ia decorated with rosettes, disporaed at regular inter- 
Tals over the whole surface, and a. fringe, with an embroidered 
heading, borders the mantle. He has sandals, of which the 
heel-piece ia painted in red stripes. His left hand rests 
npon the hilt of his sword — the two-lioned BCabbard of wliich 
appears at the back ; and his right hand is raised, holding a 
long staff or sceptre. 

The next figure is of the same dimensions as the last, and 
tho broken parte on these two and other slabs prove that ihey 
are but separated portions of continuous groups, representing 
aa interview between the great king and the Rab Signeen, the 
governor of some province of the vast Assyrian empire; hie 
dress bespeaking an important functionary. His head is 
uncovered, the hair elaborately curled, and the beard of that 
length and prescribed form which denote a personage of rank. 

This latter is still an infallible indication of rank ; for down 
to BO late as 1848, a little before the death of Mohammed Ali, 
an order from Coostantinople obliged even the venerable pacha 
himself to reduce his white beard to a hand's breadth below 
the chin. 

There are also indications of a fillet paaslcg round the head, 
the two long embroidered and fringed ends of which hang from 
the back ; and he wears highly-ornamented pendant ear 
rings, a richly-carved armlet lapping over, and bracelets vrith 
ten strings connected by a rosette-shaped clasp. The robe, 
which reaches to his instep, is highly decorated, and has a 
deep-knotted fringe with an embroidered heading; over the 
robe ifl worn, suspended from the ceck to below the waist, 
a broad band of embroidery like that on the robe, from the 
whole of which falls a double row of fiir or fringe reaching to 
the knee, covering the entfte back of the figure from the 
shoulder downwards, forming also a covering to the arm to a 
little above the elbow. The right hand of the figure is up- 
raised; and the left rests upon the hilt of the sword, which is 
thrust into the band, and appears under and behind theaurcoat. 

The third figure of the same dimensions is beardless, — the 
face is full and the hair formally curled in six rows, in the 
same fashion as all the other beardless figures. The delaiU of 
the costume are precisely like the last — excepting that the robe 
is without embroidery, tluit tlie armlet wraps twice round the 


arm, and instead of being carved all over, is only decorated at 
each, end ; and that the bracelets consiet of four rings con- 
nected by rosettes. The feet are much mutilated, yet there 
remains an indication of the sandal. The right hand of this 
figure ie clasped in the left, in the conventional attitude of 
respect, which would suggest that the person atands in the 
presence of one of superior rank, and therefore that it belongs 
to a group of figures. Of this we are unequivocally assured, 
also by a portion of a fringed garment, and part of the scab- 
bard of a Bword repreaented on the same aUb before the figure. 

The figures which we shall next describe are 3 ft. 3 in. in 
height, two of them apparently representing priests. In" the 
first, the hair and long beard are elaborately curled ; around 
the head is a chaplet of twisted corde and rosettes, tied at the 
back where tho tttssel is visible, together with the large tassel 
under the hair. He wears long earrings, overlapping armlets 
'^Trapped twice round the arm, and bracelets with three rings 
and rosette clasps. The right hand ia open, and raised in the 
attitude of prayer; and the left is slightly extended, holding 
a plant, with tiiree branches, either a mystic emblem or an 
offering. Tho figure is clothed in a short tunic, with em- 
broidery and tasselled fi^nge, with two cords and tassels de- 
pending from the waist; a long robe with a simple fringe; and 
passing under the right arm and over the let^ shoulder, is a deep 
fur or fringe headed by embroidery, the whole similar to the 
peculiar article of costume described in the second colossal 
figure. The feet are broken off. This figure our present 
knowledge of the plan of the palace of £horsabad permits us 
to define as one of the priests sculptured on the recess formed 
by the projection of the bulls at the centnd entrances, or as 
belonging to the divining chamber No. ix. Plan of Khorsabad. 

The second priest-like figure resembles the last in all piirti- 
culure, excepting that the short tunic is without fringe, whilst 
the upper robe is embroidered above the fringe ; that the brace- 
lets are simple rings; and that the feet ore perfect, and with- 
out sandals. In both these slabs a perforation bus been effected 
near tho upraised hands. 

The third figure is attired in a long tunic, with embroidered 
and scalloped iringe, the upper dress being open in the front ; 
the head is uncovered, and the beard is short and crisply 
curled. The left hand is raised, and holds a sack, which thu 

350 im. hbcioe's coixeotion fhom khorsabad. 

right haad supports at the back. We arc also enabled to 
assert that this persoa represents a tribute-bearer from the 
same port of the dominions of the king of Assyria as those 
persons we first became acquainted vith in the Court of As- 

eembly, and subsequently met in the Chamber of Passage 
which connecla the Court of Assembly with the King's Court,' 
This figure, from its diminutivencss, must have belonged to 
an apartment in some part of the palnee where the sculptur 


vsas divided into aa upper and lower line of illustration by a 
band of inscription. 

The fourth figure has likewise the head uncovered, the bait 
confined by an embellished fillet; and the short curled beard. 
In his left hand he holds a bow, and in bis right two arrows ; 
while his quiver is slung behind, and his sword ia by his side. 
His fringed and peculiarly ornamented tunic reaches onlyniid- 
way down the thigh. This is a representation of a person from 
some part of the vast dominiouH of the great king, one of the 
people whom we have met with aa his allies in eome of the 
battles on the walls of Khorsabad. 

The remaining sculptures are all detached fragments, as fol- 
low : — Two colossal horses' beads richly caprisoued in highly- 
decorated bead-ti'appiDgB, the parts of which resemble those 
at present in use in the East (fi!g. 182). A hand is seen hold- 
ing the horses ; but no other part of the figure remains. This, 
we presume, is a fragment of a. similar group to that now in 
the Louvre ; though in the specimen before us there are only 
two horses, while in that of the Louvre there ate fear. In 
this particular they both diflier from the sculptures formerly 
described, — the number of horses in each chariot being inva- 
riably three. 

Two fragments of horsea' heads similarly deoorated but of 
smaller dimensions. 

A fragment containing two human feet and the fetlock of 
a horse. The foot of the horse with a portion of the tail are 
in front; and immediately behind is a human foot, ivith a 
part of the fringed and embroidered robe above it. The second 
loot, which has a singular fringed garment above, belongs to a 
distinct ligure. Three rows of ouueil'urm characters in a very 
perfect state form, the base of thia fragment. Fragments witii 
horses' hoofs and cuneiform eliaraotera, all probably belong- 
ing to a procession, of tribute- bearers headed by the chiefs of 
provinces, as we have seen in the Passage Chamber (x) Khor- 
sabad. A few detached and uncouneot^d fragments of inscrip- 
tion : two hands and arms vrith rosette-clasped bracelets, one 
being of colossal size ; tho point of a scabbard decorated with 
the two lions; and tho following heads, complete the present 

A colossal human head, with a turban, represented by folds 
luid close round tho liead, or perhaps leather cap (fig. 1 6S\ ; u. 


1, HEcroE e ooLiEcnoN fbom kboosas^h. 

row of curia appears from underneath the turban at the hack, 
and the beard is short and formally curled. — This is the head 
of one of those colossal figures we were flrat introduced to in 
the Court of Assemhly — whom we afterwards met in tha 
Chamber of Audience at Khorsabud — again in the scene re- 
presenting tlie transport of timber, and wLich, from the latter 
circumstance, we hove conjectured may be a Tyrian. 

Fig- isa^sj 

Three heads of smaller size, the details of which are like 
the last. In one, howercr, the shoulder indicates that the left 
asm is raised ; and in another, tlie thumb and palm of the 
hand are risible upon the right shoulder. 

Six heads, uncovered, the hair arranged in six formal rows 
of curls at the back (see fig. 184). The faces are veiy fiill, 
and quite beardless. In five of the heads the three-lobed ~ 
ring is shown ; whilst in the ei^lh il is the long pent 

MU. HECTOa s coLLRCTios r 



one, tlio neck of the rohe is embroidered ; on another, em- 
broidery is visible upon the sboulder ; and on a third, an 
ornameat like a chain of metal plates appears over the ahouldet. 
The remaing of colouring-matter can be seen upon almost all 
these heads. — Finally, two smaller heads with chaplets, ap- 
parently belonging to priests; and part of a bead with a short 


All the heads ahave enumerated, except those of the beard- 
less figures, differ from those of the attendants of the great 
king, and from those who defead the walls of the beleaguered 
cities in the bas-reliefs from Ninaroud, in the form of the head- 
gear, and also in the fashion of the hair and beard. We ore 
now able to pronounce, with a probability almost amounliug to 
certainty, that they represent heads of that people of Sidon 
and Tyre, or the coast of the Mediterranean, who were expert 
in the arts, bs Homer informs us, and as we also learn fr^m 
the nature of their tribnt* exhibited in these sculptures. 

There now only remain to be noticed the sculptures for 


warded to this country from ELoraabad, and Nimroud, and by 
our diligent and indefatigable coTintryman, Sir Henry Baw- 
linBOn. Of these the moat important in size are — 

Two Btotues of Nebo, dedicated by PluJukh II. (Pul) and 
his queen, Sammnramit, from the South-East edifice, Tfim- 
roud. They ore of coarse lime-stone, and most rude in 
eiecution. From Khorsabad, two human-headed and winged 
bulls, 15 ft. in height. They wear the high cap surmounted 
by feathers and surrounded by rosettea, and in all other re- 
spects are so identical with those described, pages 251, 301, 
that farther details here oro quite unnecessary. 

I4^os. 3 and 4 of this collection are colossal figures of a 
winged man or divinity. They are in higher relief than the 
sculptures we have hitherto seen, and of larger dimensions, 
being 13ft. inheight. The head of both these figures ia turned 
towards the spectator ; but they otherwise resemble in position 
all the winged figures previously noticed, holding in the right 
hand the fir-cone, and in the left the square basket. The 
dress is also like those we have formerly described, consistiiig 
of the e^-ahaped two-horned cap, the short-fringed tunic, 
and the long-furred mantle.' The alabaster employed is of ft 
mottled kind, differing in this respect from the material of tlic 
other sculptures. In point of style these figures are inferior tn 
the other works of art from the same place ; the hands are larg^ 
the wrists thicker than the ankles, and the legs feeble for l' 
upper part of the figure. Both these figures must have b» 
long exposed to the rain, for the whole surface is corrodedj 
and the features are water- worn in a remarkable degree. 

No. 5 (fig. 185) is ft very interesting frieze in basalt, 
which we therefore conclude to have formed part of the c 
ration of the building M. Botta has designated " the temple' 
(ace page 236) ; but among the ruins of which he did notfiit 
any sculptures, excepting a representation of two divinitil 
before the symbolic tree. The subject before us is neei^ 
identical with fig. 77. It represents a eunuch in a fora 
shooting birds, and a forester attending, carrying a bow sa 
several arrows ; while a second forester has a hare in <Hi 
hand, and holds with the other a gazelle over his shoulders. 

In reviewing and comparing the palaces of Khorsabad aq 

Kimroud, the general features which are common to both, on 

' See " lUiutTBted Londoa Nens," Dec. 28, 1S50. 


the oharaeteriatica which are peciibar to each forcihlT present 
themselves for observation Ihe leading principles ol con J 

cesBive long and narrow chambers, the eourta, and the mode 
of decoration, seem to have been bo nearly alike in both edt- 
flcea, OS to indicate that the same priaciplea were in force, and 
that the same rules of construction prevailed ; but when we 
turn to examine the sculptures in detail, and their arrange' 
ment upon the walls, wo at once perceive the most distinctly 
different features. In the example at Khorsabad, the palace 
was built according to a regular and well-devised plan, of 
which the sculptured decorations formed an integr^ part ; 
whereas, in the palace at Ifimroud, although the plan of the 
chambers and courts is evidently according to preconceived 
designs, the sculptures generally have the appearance of being 
adventitious adjuncts, probably brought from other palaces, and 
adapted te the walls where they were found. Again, iu the first- 
named building, the character of the illustrations is chiefly regal 
and historical, — the divinities which are represented being 
introduced only as guardians of entrances, and not in direct 
attendance upon, or minial«riDg to, the king. At NlmiwaA-. 
(. 11.1. 


on the eontrary, the liiBtorical subjects bear but a comporai 
lively small pait in the decoratioa of the walls, and, even whu 
Been, are rarely found in eonsecutive order, while the king ii 
almost invariably represented in conjunction with a divinity. 
In Boine casee the divinities are ministering to him ; in other* 
he is in the act of adoration ; and in others he is occamptmief 
to the hattle-field, or in vietory, by the symbol of his god. 

Another remarkable peouliarity is, that entire chamben i 
^imroud are especially dedicated to particular divinitieH, or ' 
representations of the king attended by divinities; while : 
Khorsabad there are no analogous chambers or repreaentatioD 
At Nirnroud, the symbol, which we have designated Baal, 
repeated in every historical sabject where the king appean 
hut at Khorsabad there is not a single example of this eymbc 

At Nimroud we have the beardless divinity with four wing 
and the figures of deified men ; the Griffon, and Bagon ; whi 
at Khorsabad none of these diviuitios appear ; but we have, 
their atoad, the four-winged figure we have named Ilua, ooo 
pying prominent positions, and the representations of Nimra 

At Nimroud we have seen the king diriuing, both by 
and arrows ; hut at JDtorsabad there ia not one subject 
cative of divination. 

At KimroTid, trained birds of prey accompany the king, bi 
hover over every battle-field ; but at Ehorsabad, notwithstan 
ing the number of battle- scenes, not a single example of t 
bird ia exhibited. 

At Nimroud, the king ia frequently seen in the act of drin 
ing; but at Khorsabad he is never seen, otherwise than 
battle ; in the acts of walking, conference, and judgment; 
ia receiving homage and tribute. 

At Khorsabad, the principal wars of the king seem to 
with the pastoral people clothed in skins ; but at Nimroud the 
people are never seen ; and iix contention appears inTariah 
to he with the people who wear the fillet upon the head. 

At Nimroud, the tribute or spoil laid before the king i> 
always accompanied by captives, or by people in attitude* bft- 
■peaking penitence and earnest entreaties for mercy ; on tlie 
other hand, at Khorsabad, the numerous processions, carrytng 
tribute, suggest the idea that the offerings are voluntary gifts 

of regular vassals, presented by the governors of the "*~ 

~ ivinces, acknowledging the rule of the great kju) 


At Nimroud we find the sculpturea traversed by numeroue 
lines of inscription, without any regard to the figures origin- 
ally represented on the aluba ; but at Ehorsabad there are no 
examples of similar obliterative inscriptions. 

At Nimroud we have seen a peculiarity in the chariots, the 
intention of which is not clearly understood, namely, an ap- 
pendage to the pole, which seema to resemble the embroidered 
hanging, — and sometimes padded separation, between the 
horses and bullocks in the modern cars of India ; but at !Shor- 
sabad tbts appendage is never shown, the chariota being in all 
respects more simple, and 1^ decorated. 

Finally, the very marked differences in the atylaa of art 
which the sculptiires manifest, must strike every observer. At 
£borsabad, the style is broad, simple, and flowing, the minor 
details being olwuya subaervient to the more important features 
which the artiat desired to present to the spectator ; at I4imroud, 
on the contrary, almost everything is sacrificed to the minute 
delineation of the forms within the contour of the figure, — as, 
for example, the affectation of anatomical knowledge, and tbe 
multiplicatdoo of lines, particularly about the knee-joint. 

The inferences to be drawn from a consideration of the fore- 
going analysis are, that though the distinctive characteristics 
of the sculptures of the two palaces bear the stamp of national 
peouiiarity, yet that they were the works of the nation at dif- 
ferent periods; and that these periods were sufficiently distant 
to admit of the introduction of new customs and itiuovations 
such as'we have shown. It remains, therefore, to be deter- 
mined, to which the priority of antiquity is due : and, to this 
end, we venture to submit the following observations, derived 
from our readings of the sculptures themselves, and entirely 
irrespective of the interpretotious of the ouneatio inscriptions. 

First, in regard to the well-devised and aystematio arrange- 
ment of the sculptures at Ehorsabad, as contrasted with the 
irregulurity and nature of thtj illuatrations found upon the 
walls at Nimroud. At Ehorsabud we are impressed witb 
the conviction that a deliberate and mature design was me- 
thodically accomplished, in accordance with the original plan. 
At Nimrond, all that we see inilicates haste, — the general plan 
being imitated from existing examples, and being, apparently, 
carried out with the muteriale which had adorned previous 
qtruoturea. Ttiiui, irs And only some of the subjects placed 

358 co3ar*HATiTE aktiquitt of kuoksabad and kimkoci 

ill consecutive order ; some, one above the other; and others 
breaking off abruptly — a new Bubject ooramencing. without 
uny connection with the lafit. In one instance the double lino 
of illustration commences in the angle of the room, and, after ' 
continuing ibr some distoDco, ia abruptly terminated by a bu4- 
cessios of colossal slabs ; and, again, colossal elabs are awk- 
wardly placed in corners, regardless of architectural effect, ai 
if the builders had beea obliged to conclude their work with 
undue rapidity, and bad taken the first materials that pre- 
sented themselves. In support of these views of the hurried ' 
erection of the structure, and of^e employment of the i 
terials belonging to a previous buildiDg, we learn from Mr. 
Layard, that he found in one part of the ruins several slab* 
which were evidently in process of removal from one plaoo 
to another i thus indicating not only that the palace was in 
actual progress, and being hastily constructed out of the ruina 
of an earlier and larger building, but that the work was aV 
ruptly arrested before completion : from both of which circum- 
stances it may be inferred that the Palace of Nimroud dates 
subsequently to that of Kliorsahad, which was finished prior 
to the period of its destruction. 

Another important evidence ia favour of the superior an- 
tiquity of the Khorsahad palace is the absence of the inscrip. 1 
tion running across the sculptures, which we have remarkect J 
al Kimroud, At Khorsabad it would seem that there wera 
two classes of inscriptions, religious and historical. To the 
first class is to be attributed those inscriptions on the back of 
slabs, and those impressed lya the bricks forming the pave< 
ment of the courts, and cut on the kiln-burnt bricks of the 
walls; as well as the four iascriplions ou the bulls, which 
were apparently continuous portions of tlie same t«xt repeated 
ou each bull, and found more or less abridged on the paving 
slabs at the entrances. To the second class belong those on 
the walls of the chambers, generally forming a long band se- 
parating the two ranges of bas-reliefs ; and those engraved 
on the dresses of certain personages, over the heads of cap- 
tives, and upon the walls of the cities. These are all noto> 
riously historicftl, for the texts vary with the subjects repre- 
sented in the reliefs, and evidently relate to them ,- but instead 
of being placed so as to obliterate any port of the sculpture, 
vben an inscription is seen upon a figure it is invariably upon 

a plain part of the dress, and bordered by a line, the whole 
presenting tbe appearance of a label containing the name of 
the person, or the aenteace he is uttering. 

At Himroud, the iiiBcriptions which appear are, possibly, 
also religious and historical. Those of a religious character 
occupy positions at the entranceB, upon the bulls, and in the 
pavement, as in the example at Khorsabad ; but here the re- 
semblanoe ceases. We do not Snd one single inscription upon 
any representations of buildings, nor on any special figure ; 
but instead of these we have numerous lines of ouneatic run- 
ning across the centre of the large friezes, without any respect 
for the subject underneath. Hence it may reasonably be con- 
jectured that he who built the palace out of the ruins of a 
former one, did not scruple to appropriate the sculptures to 
himself, and to obliterate the oaonuments of his predecesBor 
by the record of his own exploits ; and if we consider these 
evidences, in conjunction with the dilferent styles of art of 
tbe respective structures, it follows almost indisputably that 
the Palace of Nimroud is of more recent date than that of 

A third evidence we would dednoe from the representations 
at both palaces, of the processions bearing tribute. At Ehor- 
sabad the offerings are the voluntary tribute of vassals from 
the very extremities of tie empire, which extends even to the 
coast of the Mediterranean, showing that at that time the 
empire of Assyria Proper was in the plenitude of its power ; 
whereas at Nimroud, tbe apparently forced tribute would seem 
to be rendered by revolted subjects, at least there are no extant 
processions of voluntary tribute-bearers, like those so frequently 
seen at Khorsabad. 

To descend to more minute particulars, derived from the 
customs which ore exclusively exhibited in the Nimrond sculp- 
tures, we will first instance the trained birds of prey, a custom 
probably imported from some of the neighbouring nations 
conquered by the kings of Assyria, and which continued to 
prevail in Persia so late as the seventeenth century. The 
practice of training animals for the chase and battle-field has 
existed in various countries from the earliest times, and his- 
tory tells us that the Egyptians, Indians, Romans, Gauls, and 
others, had animals especially trained for those purposes. The 
presence of the bird, therefore, at Nimroud is another testi- 

inony in faTour of the greater antiquity of Khorsabad, 8b 
obviously tlie custom did not prevail at the time the sculp- 
tures found there were executed. 

Another inuoTation apparent at Nimroud, is the alteration 
of the chariot, probahiy copied from Bome other country. We 
learn from Xeuophon (Cyrop. book vi.), that Cyrus built cha- 
riots of a new form, having found great incoaveniences in the 
old ones, the faahion of which came irom Troy, and had con- 
tinued in use till that time throughout all Asia ; and we may 
easily Burmiee that the walla at Nimroud supply examples of 
the Trojan, the intermediate stuge between those portrayed at 
Khorsabad and those introduced by Cyrus. 

The most important, however, of all the ohBraoteristica pe- 
culiar to Nimroud, are the divinities seen upon the walls, end 
the evidence thua afforded of the introduction of new gods, and 
of hero or demon-worship. In the very earliest stages of society 
the worship of mankind was pure and simple ; hut as the 
people spread over the earth, and became more corrupt, thie 
primitive worship of the Deity gradually gave place to types 
and symbols more within the comprehension of the degenerate 
race. The learned Dr. Faber has supposed that the cherubim 
were used in the worship of the true God prior to the deluge, 
and presumes from this that when idolatry sprang np, the 
demon-gods would be worshipped by the same emblemB that 
had been already consecrated to the true God. The uniform 
veneration of the world for the bull, lion, eagle, and man, he 
thinks, perfectly accords with the presumption that the com- 
mon origin can only be found in a period when all majikiiid 
formed one society. The inspired writers inform us, that, when 
the Jews departed from the worship of the true God, they 
adored partly the boat of heaven, aud partly certain beings, 
called, iu the New Testament, Demonia, and, in the Old Testa- 
ment, £aalim, or Siddim ; these demonia being the same as 
hero-gods, or the souls of eminent benefactors ixi mankind. 

When we turn to Khorsabad, we find Uiat the only gods 
represented on the walls are the human-headed eagle-winged 
bulls, which we regard as cherubic animala; the Ilua, or 
Cronus ; the divinity with two wings ; and an eagle-headed 
divinity, who, from his dress and the situations where he is 
. found, would seem to be of inferior importance. Hence, from 
I these few, simple, and generally noble symbols of the DiTiaity, 

we may infer that, at the time the Palace of Ehorsabad was 
built, the religion of the AMytians was comparatively pure. 
On directing our attention, however, to the walls of Nimroud, 
WB at oneo perceive degeneracy in the system of religion, ftt»m 
the increased number of divinitiea, and from the evident ma- 
nifestations of deified mortals, or hero-worship. 

We have first, the divinitiea eommou to both palaces ; 
namely, the Cherubic animal, combining the man, the eagle 
and the bill; the Ilus; the divinity with two wings; and 
the eagle-headed diviaity. In addition to these is the Cherubic 
animal, combining the man and tlie eagle with the lion ; we have 
the Griffon, the supposed spirit of evil ; and there is also the 
four-winged beardless divinity, nowhere visible at Ehorsabad ; 
which we, therefore, may suppose to be of more recent origin. 

We have a figure of Dagon, which, though represented in a 
Bubject piece, is nowliere showo at Khorsabad aa an Assyrian 

We have then the winged figures, which we consider to be 
deified mortals from their wearing the head-dress, and bear- 
ing the insignia of the magi ; the absence of which figures 
from the friezes at Ehorsabad, we take to be an indication of 
the greater antiquity of those sculptures. 

Weneitperceive that the eagle-headed divinity, so unimpor- 
tant at Ehorsabad, has become a leading and predominaitt 
divinity at Niraroud. 

Finally, we have the feathered symbol always accompanying 
the king in war and triumph ; and as we likewise &11A this 
particular divinity prevailing in the Persepolitaa aculptures 
after the period when the Assyrian empire had become absorbed 
in that of Persia, the inference is obvious that Nimroud, 
which has the emblem, occupies an intermediate place between 
Khorsabad and Persepolis, and consequently further confirms 
our view that the Palace of Ehorsabad is more ancient than 
that of Nimroud. 

We have been induced to enter thus minutely into the detail 
of these interesting sculptures, from the important light they 
throw upon our previous historical records ; for, although they 
can in no way be available for their beauty as works of art, 
the high state of civilisation which they manifest as regards 
the ornamoutal and useful sciences will at once be appret^tei' 
by tho intelligent and enlightened observer. 


Ir has already been mentioned (p. U) that M. Botta com- 
menced researches in the mound of Kouj-unjik in 1842, and 
that, meeting with little success, he abandoned his excaTationH 
in the following year. 

Undeterred by tlie failure of Botta, Layard, in 1846, opened 
some trenches in the southern face of the mound, but, at that 
time, without any important results. At a subsequent period, 
he made some enquiries respecting the bas-relief described by 
Ilich, and the spot where it was discoTcred having been pointed 
out ti) him in the northern group of ruins, he opened trenches, 
but not finding any traces of sculptures, discontinued hia 

Upon completing his labours at Nimroud in 1847, Layard 
detoimined on making some farther researches at Eouyunjik. 
He commenced at the south-westera corner, and not only dis- 
covered the remains of a palace, which had been destroyed by 
fire, but, within the short space of a month, had explored nine 
of its chambers. All the chambers were long and narrow, and 
the walls lined with bas-reiiefs of larger size than most of 
those he had found at Nimroud. The slabs were not divided 
by bands of inscription, but were covered with figures scattered 

Wiih sv«ViNn*.usl *.*aX xU\u5%Nt hVo ll^x^v »^f KKm*aSa^> awA 

A) I ho ^^)^ Ox\)UAn^\)^|; a (\^\UV W \\\\ a txS\^ 0»n«^\^^i\\ ^Hv«''^ilHl^>VK 
AU«I ;^\v>V W XAVU^UA AA^'Vtsl omMo)^^» y»(S' rh^M^\x)^^«>A) IaWh^ 
V^^ .'^SO. ,*^,*^:^, VV. KlV \\ WU *hj»^S^\X^^NSl» W \^A* liH)X)SNH^ 

b> lM\*'V»otV» AU*\ «\VAr \\ \\i\* A i>a)\s^)nSa|^uk \«\ Ivi^K^sl \^^aJ 
\vo»» plA^'tsI ««*lor \\w **hAV|i\* \^f Mv Kammmk iho K^jjtl^JK 

Whou \lr, h(>Ai>l iN'\m\i<s) K«M)>u)\t^k \u UHI\^ tW^^ xirtw 

Auvt'nutomlouoo of Mv, U^^ha, \\t»jv n\\\\ oi v« » m\A IUo w^^« 
lut'u omploxi^l hy ihi^vUou \\( iho Uuhnn MuHOMrn Ua«I lilW 
lunnoU Along iho wulU \\\()nn lUo moiimK ^^ maxoOio hvnM^ 

Ot' oloAViug U\VA\ tho HOtl, \\h\oU )«A«) AOiMimulnliHl to l|lll«l«(U«>( 

:U> Toot iibovo I ho vu\im, I'lulov (ho iltn^Mton of lii\\Ahl» (hA 

OXOAVUttOUM WOVl^ IVNIimoil \\\\\\ ^\Yl\\ HjltVH, iimli )M«l\t|V \\kf 

h\\m> oC \\\M\y Wookn. ih^vovaI oJhuu)m«vm \\\\\\ W\^\\ oiitovmli nilil 
uinnovotiN huN ivtioU ihnoovoivil (hio Jtitl). Itt4 IW( sU() 
foot, Appotun, Aiiyn liAyAVtU* ** (o Uavo UuiuimI a (Htiil-hs Mhiuinl 

~ ' ■» rt ««*<*;i- " 


i ^^i Uv 

hi Miv NYiUlftm Kl^»l»'t l.<>n<i>. ltii> »■: 
MVKlluu t^^uiti). In IHA4, Mv' Umm 

IVlMVM "f M><> Itt'ltlKll MlWUKI III l»t. 

Mi'Mi'lf niitlli™, wl'i'H, Hi linmlli, |ii>r 
hImiii I.. t,iiiiiin.ii->, \w nivn.iii nu<>>t> 'I' 

ll.n.K In ,1.. u.Ull.M'".!' Il>.< lU.UI.I.I, 

J : 1'v )lit'ilW 


TtJ. The other alahs represented exteriora of palaces, gardens, 
hattles, sieges, processions, &c., the whole forming the decora- 
tions of what must have been a epleiidid palace. 

Subsequently, in 1854, at the instance of Sir Henry Raw- 
linson,Mr, Loftus and his coadjutor, Mr. Boutcher, transferred 
their operationa from South Babylonia to Kineveh. At first, 
Mr, Loftus' excavations were Tinsucoessful, but about the begin- 
ning of August he discovered the remains of a building on a 
level twenty feet lower than the palace that Mr. Bassam was 
exploring, and which proved to be a lower terrace of the same 
building, even more highly elaborated and in better preserva- 
tion than those previously discovered in the ruins.' At the 
entrance of an ascending passage there was also found ' 
mass of solid masonry — apparejitly the pier of an arch — Uie 
springing of which is formed by projecting horizontal layers 
of limestone." 

Mr. Loftus, in his Itcport of the 9th October, observes ;— 

"The escavations carried on at the western angle of the 
Sorth Palace, Kouyunjik, continue to reveal many int«restinf 
and important facts, and to determine several points which 
were previously doubtful : — 

"1, The existence of an outer basement wall of roughly 
cut stone blocks, supporting a mud wall, upon which whits 
plaster still remains, and from which painted bricks bare 

" 3. At this corner of the palace, and at a considerable 
distance from the principal chambers, is an entrance hall, with 
column bases, precisely as we see them represented in tfa< 

" 3. Above this entiance hall and its adjoining chamb«n, 
there was formerly another story, ihe first upper rooms yet 
discovered in Assyria. This, with its sculptured slabs, bas- 
fallen into the rooms below. 

" 4. The various sculptures here disinterred are the worlU' 
of four, if not five different artists, whose styles are diatinotlj^' 

" It is evident that this portion of the edifice has been wil- 
fully destroyed, the woodwork burned, and the slabs broken, 
to pieces. The faces of all tlie ^rinci^ial figures are sU^tlf 
injured by blows o£ tiie oie" 


With this brief recapitulation of the progress and results 
of the excavations in the mound of Kouyurjik, we will pro- 
ceed to examine the important specimens of tie eculptures 
■which have heen deposited in the British Museum, 

In conducting our readers round the Kouyunjik gallery we 
shall, for convenience of reference, explain the sculptures 
in the order of their arrangement by the authorities of the 

No. 1. Senrtacherib. — This is a cast from a figure sculptured 
on the rocks of Nahr-al-kelb, (see p. 144}, and was the first 
AssjTian figure of life-size brought to England, It was pre- 
sented ta the British Museum by his Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland. The cast was made by the writer of this 
work under considerable difficulties. In the first place, the 
gypsum of which plaster fit for the purpose of casting is made, 
was only to be found in very small quantities at the shops of 
the attareen, or sellers of perfumes and cosmetics. The entire 
stock of this material in the whole city of ISeyrout, was not 
more than enough for the required oast, and was accordingly 
bought up. It was first broken into small pieces and sent to 
several bakers, then pounded by men with wooden shoes, and 
lastly, carried to the spot on the backs of mules. When at 
,Nahr-al-kelb, owing to the bad accommodation afforded by the 
.single miserable shed, the entire stock got spoilt by the rain 
which came through the roof at that part of the Khan in which 
ithad been deposited; so that after a fruitless attempt to procure 
B mould of the Egyptian relievo it was necessary to return to 
Beyrout. The same tedious process had t« be repeated, hut 
this time at a more favourable season. Fresh plaster was made, 
and a successful mould of the Assyrian figure was eventually , 
accomplished, as well as accurate drawings and measurements of 
all the other tablets in that interesting locality. The chance 
of conveying, safely, two inconveniently large slabs of plaster 
on the backs of mules, over a bad road, to a distance of three 
hours, was so doubtful that it was determined in preference to 
trust to an open boat and pull across the bay to the house 
of Mr. Abbott, the English consul, at that time living 
at Seyrout; and there, in his hospitablo mansion, was miulu 
the cast now safely plastered on the wa\\a oS Wa '^uiv^'ati'ila. 

jVd, S. Ai-med ffalley m motion: — A Eragmiiat xc-^it*R'B^">^% 

a double-banked Assyrian. war-gaJley conveying soldiers, vBfl 
shields are husg round the bowa of the vessel. j| 

No. 3.* IVagment of colossal hianan head. — The face ofX 
full-length portrait of one of the heflrdless attendants of Srai- 
nacherih ; very probably the cup-bearer whom that monarch 
Bent to Hezekiah. Kound full-U'ngth statues are so rare 
among Assyrian sculptures, that it may be presumed they 
were employed only to represent persona of the highest rant 
and dignity in the Assyrian court, in which light the office of 
chief cup-hearer was considered, as we learn both irom sacred 
writ and from these sculptures. 

No. 3. Combat by a riv'er side. 

Nob. 4 to 8. Matile in a marik, with reception and rtgiitraltM 
of the prisorters and spoil. Jt 

This seriea of bas-reliefa represents the conquest of aflat' 
marshy country, intersected by streams, on the borders of which 
grows, in great luxuriance, a plant that bears not tbe leaet 
resemblance to the papyrus; whence we apprehend that the 
country intended to he represented is not the Delta of the Nile, 
but that of the two great rivere, the Euphrates and the Tigria, 
close to the entrance of those streams into tbe Persian Ou]f. 

To show our legible and reliable are the topo- 
graphical notices which accompany these interesting recoris, 
we will quote the description of this repon which Mr. W. F, 
Ainawordi has giveji in his admirable work entilled " Ee- 
searches in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldssa :" — Speaking ot 
the "reed marshes of Chaldwa," he says, "To the south of 
these groat inundations, and to the point of union of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, the land is occupied by perpetual wateis, 
and hence covered wilh an aquatic vegetation, which derives 
its chief, if not its sole, choracters from a species of agrostis; 
which, like the eanehrake {anmdinaria) of North America. 
has the port and aspect of the true reed {arundo) of the north 
of Europe. These tracts present, hence, in every direction, 
great uniformity of feature; a boundless growth of planta of 
the same aspect; only here and there interrupted by lakes and 
ponds, or intersected by artificial canals." ' This descriptioa 
is so precisely in harmony wiih what we gather from thi« uh i 
cient topographical stone-picture that it reflects the great ' 
credit on the descriptive powers of both the ancient ardst a 
' BsBoarchw, &c, p. 129. 



I the modern author. It ib of thia reed that the Tuike and 
Arahs make their pens. 

The unfortunate natives are Been crowded together upon 
rafts made of these reeds, and so contrived as to ehelter them 
from tbeir aseaihints, at whom, at the same time, they can 
shoot from behind theii floating ecreen. The Assyrians are in 
boats made also of the canes, or reeds, in the same way that 
the papyrus boats of Egypt seem to have been made — that is 
to say, bundles of the plant bound together in the form of a 

The conquest of this marshy region being completed, we are 
next shown, as usual, the deportation of the inhabitants and 
their cattle. Their road lies principally by the side of a large 
stream whieh runs through a country abonnding in the date- 
palm — a circumstance further corroborative of the surraise that 
the marshy region we have just left is that of the embouchure 
of the two great rivers, and that the scene now before us is the 
plain country of Shinar, still famous for the production of the 
palm. Wending wearily along &re groups of men, some ma- 
nacled together, two by two, carrying provisions for the jour- 
ney ; others, less obedient, having their hands tied behind 
them. Each group is preceded by an Assyrian soldier, who 
Bometimes carries the head of one or two of those who have 
been slain in battle i while the stragglers in the rear are goaded 
on by blows from another Assyrian trooper. The women are 
Been in separate groups carrying their provender in bags and in 
the skins of kids or goats, being urged on their toilsome march 
through the hot plain country with little less harshness than 
is shown towards the mole prisoners. In order to afibrd more 
scope tor incident, the slab is divided into two horizontal com- 
partmeDts ; the upper line, however, is generally in less perfect 
preservation than the lower, owing to its having suffered most 
fivm the burning of the material of the roof both before and 
after it had fallen in, and also because since the destruction of 
the city it has become more subject to the influence of the 
periodica! abundant rains, which would penetrate the soil suf- 
ficiently to effect an obliteration of the sculptures on the upper 
half of the calcined slabs; nevertheless, enough is left unin- 
jured to show that in both lines occur groups of men, women, 
and cattle, urged on to the place of registration, and that the 
I legistratlou is performed, on each line, by two men — one 



370 ASSZE 

bearded and uaing tablets in whicli to record the prisoners and 
spoil ; while the second, who is beardless, seems to be writiEg 
on a roll of parchment or papyrus. Besides the registration of 
the captives and spoil, they also uotify the extent of the 
slaughter, by numbering the heads of the slain, which are 
brought and piled up at the feet of the registrars. 

No, 9. Slingera discharging stones. — The sling was a weapon 
of great importance, and we read (Judges xx. 16) that there 
were "seven hundred chosen men" of the tribe of Senjamio, 
"left-handed," who could use the sling with extraordinary 
dexterity. The slingers here represented are clad in mail, and 
cany a short sword. Slingers were sometimes also skilful 
bowmen (1 Chron. xii. 2). 

No. 10. Archers hehind screem. — A fragment representing a 
company of archers. The bow is among the earliest of the con- 
trivances of man ; and down to comparatively recent times it 
continued to be the principal weapon in the continent of Asis, 
both for the chase and for war. These sculptures show va 
that both slingers and archers were employed in Assyrian war- 
fare, whether in the field or in advancing to the siege of acity. 
Each bowman was accompanied by the bearer of a large shield^ 
under cover of which he could take deliberate aim at the people 
on the walls. That this was the constant practice of the Aft- 
eyrians in besieging a city, we learn from these historical soulp- 
tures of Kouyunjik, as well as from those of Khorsabad. Of 
the kind of shield here shown is to be understood the sentence 
in Isaiah {xxxvii. 33) speaking of this very King, " Nor come 
before it (Jerusalem) with shields." 

Nos, 11, 12. Warriors leading horses. 

No. 13. Part of a military procesmn. 

No. 14, Procession of led horses. 

These four sculptures exhibit specimens of Assyrian caTaliy, 
each man standing by the side of his horse, and armed witk 
the bow, arrows, spear, and sword. The Assyrian cavalry wa* 
numerous and excellent, and we are constantly reminded in 
contemplating the scnlptures from Nineveh of the boast of Bab- 
shakeb, the cup-bearer of the self-same King who caused theaa 
records of his conquests to bo engraved on the walls of hie 
palace — " Now, therefore, I pray thee, give pledges to my lord 
the King of Assyria, and! will deliver thee two thousand horses, 
if thou be able on thy port to act riders upon them" (2 Eingi 


'g I 



Nob. 15, 16, 17. Proceaiion of prisoners iciik collection and 
ftgiatraiion of ipoil. — FoUowing the iliustrationa of the va- 
rious diTisiona of the army of the King of Assyria, ifl this 
further esample of the registratioa of prtHoners and slain. It 
would appear that the spoil has already heea noted and clas- 
sified under four heads — vases, bows, swords, and furniture. 
Among the prisoners some women are hrought in a rude car, 
tlie wheels of which have but four spokes. As in the former 
representation, the bearded registrar uses tablets, and the 
beardless one a scroll. The regietration takes place under the 
shade of the ]ialm-trees which border the stream. 

No8. 18, 19. Part of a Military Procession. — These slabs show 
us another division of the Assyrian army, the spearmen, who 
carry the large circular shield, of which there is a specimen, as 
well as a fragment of one of the conical helmets, in a glass 
case in the collection of Assyrian Antiquities, in the upper 
apartments of the Museum. These men form the body-guard 
of the king, and are followed by the grooms, who stand before 
the horses of the royal chariot. 

Kos. 20 to 22. Soldiers advaneing to the tiege. 

Nos. 23 to 26. Siege of a eitt/ on a hill. 

Nob. 27 to 29. Warriors receiving prisoners and spoil. 

In the fragments above described, we have examples of the 
various regiments that constitute an Assyrian army ; and in 
the following (numbered 22 to 29) we have a complete de- 
ecription of the mode of warfare. The different regiments of 
the army having arrived before tbe city, the cavalry dismount 
(Noa. 20, 21, 22) ; the archers, under cover of tbe tall shield^ 
advance to the foot of the artificitd mound on which the city is 
built, and the slingers foUow. The van having already taken 
possession of the suburbs or the hoiisps built in the plain, the 
lighter troops, who wear the crested helmets and bear the 
small round shields, scale the mound, whence they direct their 
arrows with more certainty. 

The besieged (Nos. 23 to 26) discharge stones and arrows 
at the besiegers, but with little or no effect, for farther on 
(No. 27) we see some men and women of the same sheepskin- 
clad race, whose frequent rebellion is so clearly Doti£ed on the 
walla of Khorsabad, brought aa prisoners to the registrar* 
(No. 28) ; and still farther, on the same side of the city 
(Na. 29), we oome upon a detachment of cavalry, each n 

|L Z 


the side of hia horsB. The country in whicli thia city 
situated ia watered by a considerable stream, and is highly 
ductive of the yine and pomegranate. 

No. 30. Archers and sliagira. — A fragment portraying archi 
and, perhaps, a company of left-handed slingers. 

No. 31. Hortemminjlight. — Probably, some of the enem] _ 

No. 32. Honemm inpvrsuit. — All this eeriea has been bladk^ 
enedjwhother by the smoke of the more recent inhahitanta of the 
Koil, who may have occupied the chamber of which these skba 
formed a wall, as is analogous cases in the templea of Egypt, or 
■whether by the conflagration of the city, when it fell into the 
hands of the combined forces of the Medes and Scythians, it '" 
impoaaible to say. 

No. 33. Man with staff or spear — EcpresentB on 
with long hair, bearing a staff or apear. 

No3. 34 to 38. Soraea and grooms. 

No. 39. Attendant. 

No. 39*. Back of 39. 

No. 40. Horee and groom. 

These are sculptures on the walls of an inclined way, which 
led from the river to the palace of Sennacherib. Here we have 
on one wall, as if leaving the palace, some grooms of the royal 
stable, leading the king's horses down to the river to drink; 
and, on a projecting piece of thia wall (No. 39) ia the figure of 
the Sais-Eashee, or Master of the Horse, who probably stood in 
that very comer formed by the projection, to observe the pacea 
of each horse as it passed before him. The figurea ore nearly 

Nos. 41 to 43. Servitors hearing food for a hanquet. — These 
slaba represent bearded men carrying various articles of food, 
as if ascending the incline into the palace. The food canaiatl 
of boskets of fiat cukes and fruit, such aa grapes, pom^ranatHM 
and the kishta apple {Ajuma reticulata), known aa the cust nijM 
apple, ail probably the produce of the country north of Ninfr . 
veh, and brought down to the metropolis of Assyria by water. 
The baaketa containing the fruit are placed on traya, carried 
on the shoulders of two m.en. The two hindermost servitors 

iny locusts tied on sticks, ub we see cherries at the comerfl of 

Many other slabs of this passage are figured in Dr. Layard^ 
folio, in which a number of men aie eeen carrying ji ""' 


■with -watei 


"with, ■water, it being the Ticiversal custom, in. the East to inaert 
H branch of eome flowering ahrub in the mouth of a water jar, 
to keep it cool, and prevent flies from entering. In thcae slabs 
the tishta apple is more clearly defined, and also a fruit re- 
Bembling the pine-apple, only two esamples of which are 
shown and are triumphantly held up by two men, as tare and 
excellent productions of the king's gardens. 

The style of art of these men and horsee is so superior to the 
rest of the sculpture in this chamber, that one might suppose 
the Nineyite conqueror had captured some Greek artist of Asia 
Minor, or some very clever sculptor of Tyre or Sidon, and em- 
ployed his talents on this part of the palace. 

No. 44. Monumental tablet — tVagment of pavement slab. 

Wos. 45 to 47. Army of Aihurakhal III. in battle icith tka 
Siisians. — Ashurakbal is said to he the name of the Assyrian 
monarch who is here represented as having subdued a people, 
which the same inscription declares to be Susians. These im- 
portant details are derived from the cuneatic inscriptions on 
the slab, concerning which not more than eight or ten persona 
in the world can as yet venture to give any opinion. The lan- 
guage, however, which we pretend t« decipher, is the imiTersal 
language of art— a language which appeals to the understand- 
ing through the eye, and can, therefore, be interpreted more or 
less aucceasfully by all, according to the knowledge posseaaed 
of the peculiar idiora, so to speak, of the art in which the sub- 
ject matter is presented, and also according to the amount of 
acquaintance the expositor possesses of the manners and cuat^ims 
of the people represented. 

The slab is divided into five compartments. From the sub- 
ject contained in the upper compartment, we conjecture that 
the city was taken by surprise. Assyrian soldiers are falling 
upon some men occupied in grinding com and kneading dough 
in their kneading-trougha, and casting halters about their necks, 
before they hare time to rise ti'om the kneeling positioninwhich 
Orientals commonly perform the grinding and kneading pro- 
cesses of bread-making. The mode of grinding the com here 
represented, is that which we know, from Egyptian sculpture, 
was anciently practised in that country, and which was still in 
use twenty years ago, in Nubia, at which time the circular 
mill had not been introduced. Below, the Susians are seen 
in great disorder descending the artiflcial mound on which, 'va 

should expect to find the city, if the slab on tlie left hand were 
in existence. They are botly pursued into the plain, where, 
midway between, a river and the mound, the chariot — b 
quadriga — of the chief, or perhaps king, is overturned. Both 
the king and his charioteer are thrown out headlong. Farther 
on, we find the same person wounded and taken priaoner, but 
soon after rescued. At last, however, he is elain by some As- 
syrian spearmen, who mercilessly pierce him while in the act 
of Bupplicaticg for his life ; and lastly, his dead body is found 
among the slain by an archer of the Assyrian array, who cuta 
off his head for the reward, while another of the same regiment 
gathers up his helmet and arms. 

The Suaian army is completely routed, and the remnant is 
pursued into the river by the light infantry and a detachment 
of cavalry clothed in mail, and wearing the conical cap, whoB6 
horses are protected by a covering of hide, ingenioudy fitted 
to the horse by loops and buthtns. The carcases of horses and 
men ate seen floating down the river, in which are fiih of 
various kinds, the fresh-water crab being conspicuous. In tbs 
more distant parts of the field vultures and eagles are preying 
oa the dead and wounded. These birds usually begin ihtat. 
work by peeking at the eyes, or reach the softer parts at soma 
wound, as the Assyrian ^IJst has noted : bo, in the deserts of 
Egypt, when a camel dies the Tultures begin their attack, and 
are rarely able tK) do more than devour the eyes and the hamp 
before the dead animal becomes a natural mummy, the sun 
and wind of the desert so effectually drying and hardening tba 
skin that it becomes impervious even to the claws and beak at 
the large vulture that measures nine feet from wing to wing. 
In one compartment of this interesting bas-relief we sea 
some of the Assyrian soldiers bringing from the battle-field a 
number of heads, which are heaped up in the comer of a tent 
in which one bearded and two beardless Susians are standing, 
and to whom, it appears, the heads are shown, possibly for the 
purpose of aseertajning the rank of the persons slain, or, per- 
haps for intimidating the captives and inducing them to dis- 
close some important information : here, however, the context 
which might enable us to decide is wanting. 

In the upper part of this slab, at 47, are two lines of pri- 
soners, chiefly women aod children, being brought before thfl 
I ieg;istrats, or into the presence of the king ; foi"Ifthe; 

CRCELT1B9 or ine ASsyKiANa. 375 

the victory, they bring all to the king, as well the spoil as till 
things else" (I Esdraaiv. 5). 

None of tho SuBiaas wear armour, and their dress is other- 
wise distinguished from that of their conquerors, chiefly by 
two folds of embroidered linen, which seen) tied behind the 
head. The king, or chief, the last moments of whose bio- 
graphy are so distinctly related, weafs a closely-fitting cap 
with a single feather, which, unlike the usual mode of wearing 
such ornaments, is arranged bo aa to hang down the hack. 

Nos, 48 to 50. jyiumph of Ashwakbal III. over the Su- 
ltans. — In the upper part of the adjoining slab (So. 48) we 
are introduced to a soene of terrible cruelty. Two men are 
Etretched naked on the ground, with their feet and hands tied 
to pegs inserted in the soil. One man is suffering a dissection 
of the lumber muscles, the other has bad the skin removed 
from the anterior part of the thorax, and the operation is be- 
ing continued round the left side. To this last an Assyrian, 
with violent gesture, appears to be addressing a few words, 
probably the sentence written in ciineatic over his head. Be- 
neath these unhappy men are two other examples of Assyrian 
cruelty : the first is having his oars pulled off with some iu- 
Btrument, and the second is having his tongue taken out. These 
enormities take place in the presence of a division of the 
Assyrian army, and of the officers of the king. Two columns 
of the king's guard stand under the shade of rows of some 
variety of the pine-tree, and the space between is occupied by 
the prisoners and executioners. At the end of the avenue is 
his majesty himself in his chariot, accompanied by his cha- 
rioteer and umbrella-hearer. Immediately before the king, in 
two rows, stand, in attitude of respect, seven long-bearded and 
long-robed men — the hakim, or wise men (Esther vi. 13. 
Isaiah xix. 12. Dan. ii. 27 ; iv. 6 ; v. 7), and eounflellors of 
his majesty, and also ten of the king's beardless household 
Bsrvants, who assist at this judgment scene. Behind and 
about the royal chariot is a company of sceptre- bearers. 

Among the crowd of captives are some men of short stature 
and remarkable costume. They wear long fringed robes, boots 
that turn up at the toea, and a peculiar cap. They are fettered 
and manacled, and, to add to their misfortunes, are each made 
to cany, slung from the neck, tho head of a slain countryman 
(perhaps a near and dear relation). One is awiuting the trial 


fuHJnTiewofthecrueltieBJuBt described (Fig. 187'). Ado( 
Btands before the king, accused by a mtv who buffets him 
Bpitainhiflface. Hia oeouBer, theman who treats him with a 
great indignity, is apparently a fell ow-ooim try man. Althouj 
the heod-dreaa of both differs somewhat from that of the i ' 
mea before mentioned, yet they appear to belong to the 
race. The act of spitting in the face of a person (Deut. 
9) was considered the greateat indignity that could be offei 
(Job XXX. 10) , and to this day an Eastern in relating any ( 
cumstancc at nhich he desires to express the utmost contempt) 
will make the motion wiP"^ 
his mouth , We find recordf 
in Matthew (xxTi. 67), i 
in two other of the Evan 
lists (Mark xiv. 65, and Ji 
xviii. 22), an exactly para 
case to that represented in ' 
illustration, inasmuch as 
insult of spitting 
yated by the additional 
dignity of buffettiog; and: 
ther that these indignitiea 
curred before the judge . 
assembled court. 

In the line above is anol 
accused person, and near ] 
is an Assyrian soldier hand 
to a comrade a human hi 
which has been prepared 
~ hanground theneckof a D 
live by a cord passed tfaroi 
the mouth and under 
lower jaw. Standing in front of the chariot of the king are 1 
remarkably fat, beardless personages, Susians in dresa and 
pearance. One of them seems to he rending a proclamation 
of a roll which he holds in his hand, and the other to be adi* 
ing the prisoners. Each man has what appears to be a i 
stuck into his belt. Orer their heads and before the king: 
ption of eight lines in t1ie cuneatic. 
Near the chariot of the king are ranged a oompasy 
sceptre-hearers and a detachment of cavalry, each. 

J OH THE EULfflHS. 377 

aide of his horse. The fignres of the kiog and of his 
charioteer and umhrello- bearer have all been desigaedly de- 

In a lower compartment of this slah we perceive the arrival 
of the van of the victorious army before a considerable city of 
the Soaians situated at the confluence of two streams. Tbeee 
Btreama are probably tributaries of the greater stream ninning 
along the lowest part of the slab, and which may represent 
either the Clioaspes (now called the Kerkhah), which emptieB 
itfielf into the Tigris a little below its junction with the Eu- 
phrates ; or else that other large stream which ramifies through 
the whole of Susiana, entering the Tigris still nearer the Persian 
Gulf. In this latter ease, the town represented may ;be 
Shosan itself, — the great and decisive battle haring been fought 
at some place situated on the banks of the Choaspes, and more 
to the south, before the Assyrian army had advanced so far into 
tile country as the capital. The city in question is surrounded 
by a wall, flanked by numerous towers ; and the houses of the 
Buhurhs, situated among date-groves and pleasant gardens, ex- 
tend to the side of the river. Near is a remarkable inlet or 
lagoon fed by the parent stream. Two castles are buUt on the 
elevated banks of the more important of the two minor streams, 
which ia excessively rapid, its current impinging first on this 
side and then on the other. These evidences, particularly that 
of the rapidity of tlie current of which the artist has been so 
careful to iatbrra. us, are ho entirely in accordance with the 
import of the word 'Vik (ulai), which is derived from 'tk 

Sii), to be strong, as in our minds, to clearly identify the spot, 
ur conviction is, that the rapid river ia meant for that on 
Those bank the Prophet Daniel stood when he "was at Shu- 
■hon, ia the palace which is in the province of Elam," (Dan, 
fiii. 2), and that one of the two conspicuous buildings on the 
liankB of the river is the palac« alluded to in tho narrative of 
that famous vision recorded in the 8th chapter of the Dook of 
Daniel. The name of the city, according to tho Ninevites, is 

Srobably indicated by those distinct cuneatic characters in the 
at surface unoccupied by houses. 
It has been announced to the inhabitants that they and their 
city are to bo spared. The great king has sent two of his 
■uperior officers — one a eunuoh, with whose figure and face 
iUhe ftrtiat has taken particular care, and no doubt attempted, fc 


likeness. Perhaps it is a portrait of the e 
the Rabshakch, who was sent on & message to the good King 
Hezekiah, of whom the pompous bombastic gait reminds 
us, and contracts admirably 'with the humble posture of the 
captive Susiaa, who, with upraised hand, admonishes tha 
citizens of the utter hopeleasnesa of resistance after the lata 
disastrous affair, in which so many of their fellow-countrymen 
had periahed, and himself with numerous others had been 
taken prisoner. The costume of this important officer of the 
AsByriau army is most minutely defined — Uie hinge of the 
ear-flap of the conical helmet, — every scale of his coat of mail,. 
— the chain mail covering his legs, and the thongs of his left- ' 
thern boots, in shape not unlike those worn by the Calabriut 
peasants, are each carefully described, and fortunately in per- 
fect preservation. The military chiefe of the Susisn peoplft 
advance on their knees and kiss the ground and the feet of tiiia 
principal officer of the great king. During the enacting of' 
this sctne a company of musicians, led by tliree chief perform- 
ers, dance while playing upon instruments of ten and twenty- 
one strings (1 Esdras i. 15). 

Then follows a company of women playing on the harpt 
double flute, and timbrel. "Thesingcrs went before, the playert 
on instruments followed after; among them the damsels play* 
ing with timbrels" (Ps.lxviii, 25). So "Miriam the prophetes^: 
the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all tliK, 
women went out after her with timbrels and with dances'* 
(Exod. XV. 20; also 1 Samuel xviii. 6, and Judgessi. 34). Ww 
learn from these examples in Scripture, as well as from then 
sculptures, that the custom of going out with music and dancing 
on occasions of great rejoicing was not confined to Judea. LaeUj 
follow women and children in postures of joy and surpriee, 

Ifoa. 51, 52. S^tnaehmb ettpermtendmg the mmmaent of* 
eoloiml bull, and the comtrvetion of a mound. — The curiouB 
interesting details which the Assyrian artist has brought t _ 
ther in this superficies of forty-nine feet are highly worthy ol 
our consideration. In the first place, we have a descriptive 
view of the locality of Nineveh, its artificial mounds, its hanff 
ing gardens, its mighty river; and in the second all the detffiU 
and circumstances attending tlie moving a, great statue of I 
bull, exactly resembling those that we possess in our nntituiH 

"" ition, from the shore of the Tigris up to its place on U" 

■ bull,e 


top of the mound of Eouyunjik, or Nebbi Timis. To the in- 
faabitanta of Mesopotamiu the mode of convejing heavy weights 
on the river is, and must have been, bo cvery-day an occur- 
rence that the artist has sot deemed it necesaary to occupy 
say epBCe in delineating the raft upon which the colossus was 
brought from the quarries north of the capital, nor will we 
either occupy any of our space with a description of it, hut 
lefer our readera to page 277, Fig. 132. 

The coloBsus upon its sledge, having been landed on the 
quay at Nineveh, ia drawn up an artificial incline by com- 
panies of captives. Before, however, leaving the banks of the 
Tigria, let us remark how the artist has shown us that oppo- 
site the city the river spreads itself out, being divided into 
several channels by barren islands or sand-banks ; and, farther, 
bow np a narrow creek aoine men are engaged in raising 
water to irrigate the hangbg gardena. "We muat here pause 
to csamine the contrivance. One man stands on a pier, or 
artificial elevation built out into the river. Upon this pier are 
two columns or buttresses, carrying a pivot, to which is at- 
tached a long pole bearing a leathern bucket at one end and at 
the other a weight. By this means the man scoops out the 
■water five or six feet below his level, and draws it up with 
considerable ease. The water thus raised ia emptied into a 
reservoir, which flows to another similar machine where two 
liien are employed to raise it yet another six feet, and so on 
till the required elevation is attained, five such machines being 
■nfBcient to raise the water to the top of the tel or mound, a 
height of thirty feet, on which these palaces and gardens are 
oonstruoted. This mode of raising water ia precisely that 
^ractiaed at this day in irrigating the corn-fields on the banks 
of the Nile during six or eight months of the year, and that it 
Waa also the ancient way (in Egypt) we know from the paint- 
logs in the tombs — so unvarying are the customs of the East. 

To return to the colossus. Upon the top of the statue are 
four men, soeptro-bearera, directing the work. In the hand 
of one ia something like a trumpet, to aasemble the people 
together, or to warn them to make ready (Numbera x. 2 — 4, 
Ezekiel vti, 14). The fourth ia stooping to e.\amine the in- 
■ertion of a wedge, placed as a fulcrum to a lever to which a 
flompany of men are preparing to give effect by their collective 
veight Other men arc employed in btin^vi^ \i\ftiieft ul -^sfA- 


to place under the sledge. Four companies of captireB, urged 
on by cruel taskmaBtcrH, are attached to as many caliles fastened 
to the front of the sledge. The king has been wheeled up to 
the top of the incline in a chariot drawn by two taen. He is 
accompanied by his umbrella and fan bearers, as well as by 
Home bearded attendants. In front, on the brink of the pre- 
cipice, is the architect vehemently addressing the labourers, or 
imterating the commanda of hia msjeety : for if " he comraand 
to smite, they sraite ; if he command to make desolate, they 
make desolate ; if he command t« build, they build ; if he com- 
mand to cut down, they cut down; if he command to plant, 
tbey plant. So all his people and his armies obey him" (1 
Esdras iv. 8, 9, 10). The lower mound, signified by a second 
horiieontal line across the two slabs, is occupied by a company of 
the crested-helmet soldiers and a company of archers. Over the 
heads of the soldiers is another horizontal line, also across both 
slabs, representing the upper level or hanging gardens, in which 
the cypress and the fir, the pomegi'anate, the fig, and the Tine 
are distinctly portrayed. Above this, again, is the mountain- 
ous district to the east of Hiaeveh, in which grow, in luxuriant 
abundance, the same trees as those planted on the artificial 
mound. In the riglit-hand corner are some captives con- 
structing an inclined plane (as we infer, because the material 
used is not brick) for the purpose of conveying the heavy 
sculptures and blocks of stone Irom the plane to the summit ot 
the mound, whicli we shall see better in the nest slab. 

No. 53. Seameherib conatmetinff a mound. — "Thou didst 
show them no mercy ; upon the ancient hast thou verj 
heavily laid thy yoke." (Isaiah xlvii. 6.) "Woe to tl» 
bloody city." (Nahum iii, 1.) "Woe to him that buildeOi 
a town with blood, and stablisheth a city by iniquity." (Hab. 
ii. 12.) 

It is impossible to conceive of a more perfect embodiment ol 
the words of the above quotation (see Fig. 188*). If any 
would know the meaning of " building a city with blood," It' 
bim contemplate these ancient historical sculptures. 

The subject appeacs to be a number of Jewish and oth( 
captives employed in constructing a mound. The artist hi 
most successfully conveyed B remarkable espression of fatigos 
■ ••■ ■Kit 

a the attitudes, and of age in the countenances and limbs, 
captives. The younger men, and those whom the 


masters seek to afflict more heavily, wear fetters, others are 
chained two by two, and all arn girt for labour. A string of 
these poor men is seen coming doivn the incline, followed by a 

taskmaster, and the quick motion of descending with empty 
baskets is admirably given, contrasting well with the ^aiufiit. 
step and effort exhibited by tliose aaccaim^m'Cii.'Ocisi'aVwiis^ 

basliots. A row of crested-helmet Boldiers alternating with 
archers occupies the lower horizontal line, while the upper 
planted with the same varieties of trees as appear in the pre- 
ceding sculpture, the scene being evidently descriptive of nearly 
the same locality, hut higher up the river. Hardly to be di»« 
cerned are several men quarrying some large blocks of ston^ 
and below these is a line of soldiers, probably aa guards oyer 

No. 54. Slaves dragging a colossal figure. — In the upper 
part of this fragment of a slab is represented an angle or bend 
of the river where the soil is marshy and oeeupied by the reeds 
so common in the more southern latitudes. In the river the 
artist has shown, us the wicker boats still in use on the Tigris, 
The boats are impelled by four men, who use oars of a singulat 
construction, very well defined in this example {Fig. 189*) 
hut why of this form, and of what material they are made, wb 
are unable to say. The boats are conveying ropes and tackling ; 
for the works. There are, besides, some logs of rough timber,, 
on which are two men rowing, and two inflated sheepskins and 
a piece of matting. Below is a mound regularly planted — ycuny. 
trees alternating with older of the same species. SeneaUi thift 

^_ ^ horizontal line aifl 

'~~ " " ^ three sets of eap- 

■^ tives, oU those rf 
the same nutioa 
Fig. I8a*.-0AB TO rnopKL wiokek boat. being grouped ti 

gether. Those in the middle row wear a turban, and are pro- 
bably people from the coast of Syria (Syro-Phynieians) ; the: 
others are without any head covering, but all these variouC' 
people wear the hezam, or belt, to etrengtbeu their loins durin»[ 
work. Here we see very distinctly the mode formerly employei 
in Assyria when several men. had to pull at the same cablfc 
Each has a small rope over his shoulder precisely in the ei 
way that the modern boatmen on the Nile pull a boat in i 
of contrary wind. Three directors of the works, sceptre-beare^ 
and some men. carrying poles irregular in form, complete thft: 

No. 55. Movement of a colossal hull. — The upper part of this 
slab is occupied by a representation of the Tigris, The ortiafe 
has delineated three of the circular wicker boats covered witll 
, tJam or bitumen. These boats are laden with building t 



rials, briets, ropes, and some thiDgs which appear like pulleys. 
The artist has also instructed ua in one of the modes of catch- 
ing fish in those days, nor has he neglected to tell ub how pre- 
oariotis was the vocation. Two men are seated upon inflated 
skins, and each has a basket on his sboalder ; the basket of 
one is full, while that of the other ia empty. A variety of 
fish is seen in the stream, amongst others is a crab preying on 
a fiah; near the mai^in of the river is a plantation of cj-presa 
or of fir. 

Below, three sceptre- bearers head a procesaion of bearded 
and beardless persons carrying implements for the prosecution 
of the work, among whom are three eunuchs carrying eaws, 
shovels, and pickaxes. Ninety camel-loads of thia laet instru- 
ment have been found in a chamber of the Palace of Ehorsa. 
bad, with the point of the pick made of exceUent steel. The 
great number of picks that were found together would Burprise 
one, if we had not been informed by these historical sculptures 
that it was sometimes tbe custom of the Assyrian conquerors 
to raze a city to the ground — really and actually not to leave 
one stone upon the other. 

Behind is a large wheeled car, laden with ropes and Bpars, 
perhaps rollers, for the works on the mounds, drawn by two 
eunuchs ; and still further behind are three less well-CQU' 
Btrueted cars, containing tackle, liTtewiae drawn by eunuchs, on 
whom, by order of the Itabsuris, or chief of the eunuchs, this 
penonco has been indicted for some misdemeanour or refractory 

Below the first- mentioned car is an old man carrying a saw 
and some hatchets, accompanied by eunuchs carrying forked 
poles and thin ropes. In advance of these are four sceptre- 
bearers, directing the men drawing the cables attached to the 
■ledge, on which ia lying another colossal hull. On the atatue 
itself Btand three sceptre-bearers. In front some men are 
bringing roUera, whilo at the back a man adjusts the i'ulcrum 
of a great lever, to which others are waiting to give effect by 
means of ropes. Close to these last are some mon bringing in 
another lever. 

No, 56. Stnnaeherih iuperintending the movement of a colossal 
hill. — This fragment is highly suggestive of the marshy, flat 
country south of Nineveh, On the upper half of the Btooc, 
aro seen the banks of a sluggish attettm, to^wcai ■^\'0q. "ilwi 


plants already so frequently described, the abode of the wild 
boar and the etag. The Landseer of his day has delineated, 
ivith great knowledge, three separate figures of the latter ani- 
mal, and a, litter of nine pigis following a, huge Egw. In 
the lower half of the slab we have the king in his chariot 
superintending the works, and drawn by two of his beardless 
attendants; followed by his umbrella and fan bearers, whoM 
superior rank is intimated by their greater size. The car is 
surrounded by sceptre-bearers, six of whom walk before. The 
pole of the vehicle terminates in the head of a horse, and 
flowers, artificial or real, are pendent tiom the margin of tha 
umbrella. In the four lines of ouneatic in front of the figure 
of the king ia said to occur the name of that Assyrian monaroh 
who was slain by his sons, Adrammelech and Sharezor (2 Einga 
xix. 37, and Isaiah xxxvii. 38). 

KoB. S7, 58, 59. Sieffe of a city on a river, and reeeptwrn hg 
Smnacherib ofpriioners and apoit. — This subject is engraved on 
three consecutive slabs. The centre ia occupied by a wide 
stream, abounding with a variety of fish, among which the eel 
and the fresh- water crab are again conspicuous. On both hanki 
of this large river grow the date-palm in great luxuriance; 
and farther that the transactions recorded took place in the 
autumn of the year, the artist informs ua by representing Qa 
trees in full bearing. 

The subject engraved on the combined slabs is the siege, 
capture, and deportation of the inhabitaots of a city situate! 
on an island in the great river. The hanks of the lesser stream 
which flows at the back of the city are overgrown by the cane- 
reed so common to the marshy districts of the Tigris, and espe- 
cially at the embouchure of the two great rivers of Mesopo- 
tamia. To the left of the spectator is an epitome of the 
besieging army. The foremost ranks of conical- shaped helmets 
protected by the great shield- bearers, which supply the plan 
of the trenches and earthworks in a modern siege, havfri 
advanced within bowshot of the walls. Behind these are TaakKJ 
of the crested-helmet spearmen ; following are companJeaj 
of archers ; and, lastly, a detachment of cavalry. In adranoBj 
of all are some crested- helmet warriors, who, under the sheltet' 
of their round shields, are setting fire to the gates 
lower city. 

On the woUa of the citadel are Been the inhabitants imflw^ 


iag for raeroy ; then follows the never-faUing result of a con- 
qnest — namely, the deportation of the inhahitants — the men, 
ttie women, the children, the oattle,,the goods driven off bj' 
gigantic warriors, all emh()dying in the upper part of the 
combined slabs — "1 came, I aaw, I conquered;" with the 
Assyrian addition — " I eairied off." 

The next dirision of this subject occupies the lower part of 
the three slabs — viz., the king in his chariot witnessing the 
registration of the slain, the priBoners, and the spoil. Bows, 
Hpears, furniture, vases, and dead men's heads are heaped up 
under the shadow of the palm-treea in the afternoon or early 
morning of the day, as we gather from the pendant contrivance 
attached to the royal parasol to screen his majesty from the 
oblique raya of the sun in this southern dirision of the empire. 
The face of the king, and of his charioteer and umbrdla- 
bearer, have this time escaped the vengeance of the invaders 
of Nineveh. The chariot and horses, the grooms and the body 
guard, of the king in this slab are all uninjured; probably 
all those important functionaries that surround the Itoyal ear 
aie in some degree likenesses of the persons holding the 
respective offices at the time the slab was sculptured. 

The heads of the slain are being heaped up by a crested- 
belmet soldier, who seizes by the beard a manacled prisoner 
of rank. The other captives, chained two bj two, and carry- 
ing sacks, are driven into the presence of the king by a gigantic 

JSo. 60. The last piece of sculpture in this gallery is the 
figure of a man with a lion's head, whose legs probably tormi- 
Bated in the claws of an eagle, in the attitude of striking with 
a dagger. The slab on which this Assyrian composite figure 
VBS sculptured was probably built into the wall of the palace 
near a doorway, us representing one of those invisible imaginary 
beings whose office it was to guard the approaches to the royal 
ob ambers. 

In the centre of the gallery is a vase, aonlptured with men 
and lions. 

An obelisk of fonr gradients at the top, and the top of an 
obelisk terminating in three gradients. 

This completes the existing Eouyunjik gallery of the Sritish 
Museum ; the sculptures we are now about t» ives^-WoB, 
will be found in the lower cbam^jeis, ot (le&Ma, ol 'OacL ^riMi- 



ing, but as they are not yet formally placed, we haye not the 
advantage of any system of numberiiig to assist in guiding. 

It would appear that in the Palace of Kouyunjik there wu 
a large chamber devoted entirely to the eubjeot of Hunting the 
Lion ; and it is to this series of sculptures we will first direct 

Wn gather from a study of these interesting records, that the 
hunting ground was in a royal park, and that the space allotted 
to the exciting and dangerous amusement was, during the 
hunt, bounded or walled in by a double row of soldiers, those 
in the iront rank being armed with spears, and protected by 
large curved shields reaching from the ground to the shoulder, 
while behind was a row of bowmen. The Paradeisoa or Park 
probably extended seceral miles; for if we mistake not the 
typographical indications in the plain opposite Mosul, its boiui' 
dw7 is marked by a succession of low hills, including both the 
mounds of Eouyunjik and of ^ebbi Yunis. The place set apart 
for hunting the lion was a barren piece of ground, near to 
vhich there was an artificial mound, whereon was built the 
hunting-lodge, appropriately decorated with slabs, representing 
flcenes of the chase. One, showing the king in his chariot pur- 
sning a lion, has been supposed to be a perspective delineation 
of the subject, as seen at a great distance through an arob. 
Perspective, however, was either unknown to the artiste of 
Nineveh, or else was wisely considered incompatible with the 
sculptor's art; for if the laws of perspective had been observed, 
both we, and the persona for whose instruction and amusenient' 
these valuable records were d^sigoed, would have remained io 
ignorance of many important details of Assyrian manners and 

Here then, at the foot of this artificial mound, on the ap- 
pointed day, were wont ixi aseemble the personal attendants of 
the king and certain officers of his household, such aa the 
royal huntsman, and those who had charge of the hounds ; the 
sais basha, or master of the horse, and the royal grooms— 
those who had the care of the lions, and those who brought 
them in cages to the hunting-ground ; the sakkaeen, or water* 
carriers ; the military chiefs, commanders of the companies of 
spearmen, and commanders of the companies of archers. 

The barren plain, in which the hunt was to take place, wm 
surrounded by the coidou militaire — those in the tront 

RKK8, 387 

rant armed with spears and protected by the large curved 
shields formiag an almost impenetrable wall, each shield 
either touching the other, or lea.Ting only sufficient space for 
the passage of the javelin with which to pierce the infuriated 
beast, should be attempt to escape- Behind this pbalonz of 
spearmen stood a row of archers, so that if the lion escaped 
the javelins of the first rank, it would be scarcely probable 
that he could gain the shelter of the more wooded part of the 
Paradeisos before he received a mortal wound from one of the 
rank of bowmen. 

Wlien all was ready and the bunting-ground enclosed, a kind 
of iinproviso stable and coach-house were constructed at the 
base of the mound, on which stood the hunting-palace, by two 
divisions of spearmen forming themselves into a hollow square. 
Into this enclosure was led, each by Lis groom, the most vigo- 
rous of the royal stud. Here tbe artist has representod the 
master of the horse, who has already made hia choice of the 
two horses that are to be yoked tti the royal car, in the act of 
commanding the grooms to take the other horses away, lest 
they should hear the roar of the lions, and become unraaaage- 

In front of the hollow 
square is another enclosure, 
formed by a company of 
tbe king's eunuchs, hold- 
ing tall screena close to 
each other so as to form a 
wall, and thereby prevent 
the liorses from seeing the 
lions, (Fig. 199*). Within 
the space so enclosed, we 
see the king in his chariot, 
receiving his bow ; at the 
aarae lime, one of the 
bearded spearmen, who ac- 
companies bis majesty, 
presses down a strap to 
make firm tbe back wall 
of the car, while both he 
and his companion are 
anxiously looking towards 


the hunting-ground. lu front of the ear is the charioteer, aa- 
sisting two grooms, wlio are endeavouring to conquer a prudent 
reluctance manifested by one of the horses, by forcibly backing 
him into the tracea ; while a third groom, witli a hearty tug at 
a strap, secures the less terri£od animal to tho yoke. (1^'ig- 

This particular slab is in excellent preservation, and exhibits 
a minuteneas of eseoulion quite extraordinary. Every part of 
tiie king's dress, and that of the spearmen and of the charioteer, 
ia richly ornamented ; nor should we omit to notice the em- 
broidered mitten which tho king wears on his left hand, 
to protect the royal palm iroiu the friction of the boWi 
This scrupulous attention to the execution of details, particu- 
larly of those connected with tlie adornment of the person, is a 
prominent feature in aU the sculptures from rfineveh, and ona 
in which the slabs before us are in no way inferior to any thai 
have yet been brought to Europe. There is, however, in this 
individual compositiou a more important artistic quality — 
namely, a propriety and vigour of action in the figures of th« 
grooms and of the companions of the kiug, and an expresMoaof 
fear and trembling in tlie attitudes of tho horses, not exhibited 
in any of the former sculptures, in which we discover the in- 
tention of the artist to impre^ us with the danger of the sport) 
and the consequent prowess and daring of the king — as well 
as to intimate the inefficiency of the canvas walls fur keeping 
out the sound of the roaring of the lions. 

As the slabs are wanting which connect these preparations 
for the chase with the actual sport, there will be but littla 
impropriety in at ouce passing the phalanx of soldiers and 
entering tlie bunting ground iu the company of three horse- 
men, who gallop past their ranks. 

Immediately iu front of the living wall ia a man standing 
on the top of one of those cages in which the auimals werQ 
brought to the field. The man is iu the act of drawing up b 
portcullis fo let loose the last lion. (Fig. 191*.) This cag^ 
madeof strong logs ofwood,ia held securely fast by a peg drivea 
through a bauk spar into the ground ; and we recognise a do les* 
necessary precaution in the small cage at the top of the larger, 
the intention of which is to enclose the man should the lion turn 
^L and eeeay to make his keeper the first victim. In the '"'"'f^Vh 
^^^^^tiie burren plain we dewi*^ Vuc Vvq% \xk ^v& ^V.uiat^dj|^^| 


the dnvei urges on in purauit of the liona tha6 have escaped 
tiie mortal arrow from the how of the rojal huntsman Be- 
hind the tmg the hunting ground la strewn with dead and 

dying lions ; one infuriated monBtec only, springs at the back 
of the chariot and attaoka the speannen who are ahout to des- ■ 
spatch him with their javelins. Other lions, variously wounded, 
are in flight towards the opposite houndary of the hunting ^ 
gronnd, which here, as first described, is composed of a cordon . 
of Epearraen supported by another of archers. On this aide, i 
however, the apearmen stand with upraised javelins ready to I 
transfix any goaded and exasperated lion that should attempt a j 
breach in their ranks ; besides this significant array, we Bee, in f 
front of the line of apearmen, eever&l huQtaraen armed wiUi ] 
javelins, and each with a bloodhound eager to be let looae on. I 
the prey. (Fig> 1^2*.) All theae extm preoautions at this md of I 
the hunting ground, intimate that the last desperate effort of a f 
aligbtly wonnded sad highly infuriated beast was not alwayi I 
UBBuccessful — that liona did sometimes escape to the more I 
wooded parta of the royal park. To convey thia most possihla I 
and fiot improbable contingency more vividly to the mind of the I 
spectator, ihe ekllful designer has represented, behind the pb&- A 

, lanx of soldiers, the unarmed domeatios of the king, the wftter 
camera and their heordlcBa compaDions, with other ofiicera of 
the court, in great cocBtenution and in flight, some to gain the 
shelter of the plantation on the mound, and others the rofuge 
of the palace. Those who in their flight have reached the 
upper part of the mound, and who, consequently, have a more 
extensile view of the hunting plain, aeem, with mingled emo- 
tions of fear and respect, to be descrihing to their companions 
what ie taking place in the field ! — "0 yo men, do not men 
excel in etrengUi that hear rule over sea and land and aU thiaga 
in them. But yet the king is more mighty," (Eadraa ii, 2.) 

This series of slabs would be quite complete if onl^ iKafeBA. 
those which should join oa to tbe \B^t (tl 'i' 


which would, in all prolialiility, bIlow us the king's armour- 
Learer handiDg to Lis majeaty the bow, and the equestrian 
guard preparing to follow him to fie field. But for this hiatus, 
we have in these fourteen alabs the entire subject of the lion 
hunt; and we trust that we have been able to show a well, 
arranged design in the mind of the artist, perfectly in harmony 
with the subject, and in accordance with the slabs as they 
follow in their proper snooession. 

Before introducing our readers to the result of the sport, 
namely, the bringing in the elain lions and laying them at the 
feet of the king, we will examine a few other slabs of exactly 
the same size as those already described, executed evidently by 
the same artist, and probably taken from the same chamber. 
The slabs in question are eight in number ; they exhibit various 
inoideuts in that favourite and dangerous pastime of this 
particular descendant of Nimrod, which have been thought 
worthy of record in raarblo for the decoration of his palace at 
the place now called Eouyunjik. Six slabs in consecutive 
order, repeat, in some measure, what has been already described. 
The king is followed, at a great distance, by his equestrian 
companions in the chase, and the space between himself aod 
them is strewn with dying and dead lions. The new incident 
that we have to remark is that the royal chariot is being pur- 
sued by a ferocious lion, which wastes hia strength in a fruitless 
attack on the quickly revolving wheel. The king has givea 
his bow in charge to a beardless attendant, while, with appro- 
priate energy, he destroys the assailant with a spear. Before 
the chariot is a lion pierced through the fore part of the brain, 
rampant in spasmodic action. 

The nest subject contains another exhibition of the king's 
dauntless courage. A lion has succeeded in springing on the 
hack of the car. The king's two bearded attendants, with an 
expression of terror on their countenances, are attempting to 
slay him with their spears, while the khig, with dignified 
coolness, turus round and thrusts his short sword through the 
neck of the savage goaded animal before the apears of the 
guards have even touched him. The adjoining slab on which 
the horses appear in full gallop, contains a circular-headed 
cavity for the admission of the lock when the door was hiUj 
opened, the chamber in which these sculptures were found being 

long and narrow, like tlie paasage chamber in the palace of 

Let the spectator now examine these interesting seulpturea, 
and consider for himself the various attitudes of the dead. 
and dying Uons, What a familiarity with the result of the 
varioua wounds each separate example displays! How this 
lioness, wounded in the spinal cord, drags her paralysed hind 
quarters after her ! (Fig. 193*.) How that Hon, wounded in 

the eye, puts up'his paw with agony tfl the spot ! How ano- 
ther, pierced with four arrows, is staggering in the last convul- 
sion ! How yet another, wounded in the brain, has fallen over 
on his back ! How this one, wounded in the lungs, stops to 
pour out the life-stream ! (Fig. 194*,) And lastly, how cer- 
tain it is that the king and his court, and the in))abitanta of 
Hineveh in general, must have been familiar with such eihibi- 
tioDS, to have required so many cruel details at the hand of the 
artist ; and how equally certain it is (unacquainted as he has 
shown himself with anatomy) that the artist must himself have 
witnessed the dangerous sport more than once, to have been 
able to portray so accurately the momentary effects of such a 
Tarioty of wounds. 

Unquestionably a very considerable establishment for the 
keeping and rearing of lions must Iiavo existed at 'Svafc^*^x^si. 
order to supply saoh frequent 6sli\bi\Aoiia sa 'Oii.'e.Wi -it.wit.Sb* 



attest, "We now know, from their own documentB what fre- ] 
Jjuent and cruel ware the Assyrians waged with their neigh- 
honre for conquest- sake, for spoil lake for the supply of luxu- 1 
ricB ; we now also know wl er tl e li n did tear la pieces ] 

for ita whelps," and we now fully comprehend the singular pro* 
priety and the very remarkable applicahility of the prophet's 
metaphor, in speaking of Nineveh, " where is the dwelling 
place of the lions, and the feeding-place of the young lions." 
(Nahumii. 11, 12.) 

The termination of the lioa hunt is sculptured on five con- 
secutive elabs of about the same height as those on which 
have seen the chase itself displayed. These slabs appear to hava 
panelled a wall of an ascending passage cunnccliDg the lion- 
hunt chamber with the main body of the palace. On one wall 
of this passage was represented a procession of huntsmen witli 
mules, nets, ropes, and stakes, going out to the hiin ting-field;, 
while on the opposite wall we were shown the Reluni £roin 
the chase, with the results of the hunt. The best slabs front 
this part of the palace have been engraved from beautifnl 
drawings made by Mr. Boutcher, expressly for the present 
edition of " Nineveh and its Palaces." 

The illustration at the head of the chapter (Fig. 186*)repre- 
fenta the head hontamau, or chief of the lion bearerB, annodj 

BmrrsiiEN peocekbinu to the httntinq GaoiraDH 391 

■witt his bow, conducting a company of six ennuctB beonrg a 
huge lion, and followed by two olbtr eimuclis one carrying 
Eome smaller game, a bird with a nest full of young and the 
other a bird's neat and a hare, all picked up, pcsibly on their 
way, and about to be laid at the feet of the king (1 Eadras 
ii. 6.) The proceBsiou is closed by two spearmen with large 
shields, and an archer, with his bow and quivtr of arrows 

The next subject is exhibited on seven consecutive slabs 
fonning part of the opposite side of the ascending passage It 
represents eleven men and two mules, carrying out nets gins 
pegs and staves, for ensnaring and catching stugs and smaller 
game. "We have first (see Fig. 197*) two men bearing nets 

cords with pegs and staves followed by a youth leading a 
mule laden with nets — <md then the driver of the mule witJi 
a stick in his right hand To this group succeeds a repetition 
of the boy mule and driver followed by four men bearing 
nets cords and staves and lastly a shorter huntsman with a 
long staff in one hand, leads two dogs in leash Ihese men 
and the lion-bearers, appear to belong to the same class of do- 
mestics, whose office it was, as we here perceive to prepare 
all things necessary for the chnse, and to clear the hunting 
ground of the slain lions. 

The figures sculptured in this ascending passage, and on the 
fragment we are about to describe, are larger than are those 
on the other reliefs ; there is also, no doubt, a little cov«t 
compliment intended in the exaggetatei aSmssawma A ** 


lion, to carry wliich required the strength of six men ; wtience, 
as well BB &om the execution, we infer that the same skiUiil 


and courtly hand was ompioyed on these lions as on those in 
the hunting-ground hefore described. The nost subject in the 
order of succession (Fig. 198*) ia composed of two alabs, re- 
presenting the " Driving and snaring game." It was found 
in the chamber at the lowest end of the ascending passage, 
where the lion hunts were found. The artist intends to 
inform us that a considerable space, oomprehending rocky hilla 
and wooded valleys, has been euclosed with nets of sufficient 
height and strength to prevent the escape of animals of the 
t^zo of the fallow-deer. Two men are shown, the one trying 
to extricate the deer from, the trap in which it has been 
caught; and the other, at some dist^oe off, setting a trap or 
gin. Within the great field encloseJ, ore seen four deer, the 
foremost of a herd, in rapid flight towards the inevitable boun- 
dary ; and we no doubt should see the king in chose if we hud 
but the adjoining slabs on the left of the spectator. 

We now come to a series of small, highly-finished, cabinet- 
stone pictures, the Gerard Dows, and the Wovermans of the 
Boyal Niuevite ooUection. From Mr. Loftus' Report, they 
appear to have fallen Ihim the apartments above tlie Liou 
Hunt and adjoining chambers, The slabs on which the sub- 
jecte are sculptured are about the same height as the others, 
but they are generally divided into three horizontal compart- 
ments, of whiuh the upper and middle have in many instances 
been destroyed. Oa three consecutive pieces of the wall of 
the cabinet, we have in the upper division, the king on foot, 
killing a succession, of lions, whitjh are let out of cages, as we 
do pigeons, The king is attended by a shield- bearer, who 
seems to be in mortal fear, and by two armour-hearers, holding 
in readiness his quiver and arrows ; the lion he is immediately 
engaged with has sprung from the ground, and will bo de- 
Bpatched by a deadly shaft from his bow, while a second is 
running furiously towards him, and a third is being released 
irom his cage. 

In the second line, or compartment, the king seizes a ram- 
pant lion by the tail, and a second lion is sitting, in the atti- 
tude of a sphinx, facing one of the king's equestrian attendants. 
Whether Uiese be tanie lions, or lions of a less ferocious kind, 
described by the present inhabitants of the soil, or whether 
they have been drugged or prepared, ao ;« \ft Tt^'« '^lemi. 
harmleBs, aa are llio liuaa that apyeux octcs«vnw&^ ^^ tsva'^*'- 

atres are ounous 
queat ons which we 
annot pretend to 
dec de At a little 
1 stance s seea the 
K Dg B chanot with 
the chanoteer and 
t vo bearded Bpear 
men apparently 
awB tiiig hiB majes 
tj B return 

The third and 

lowest 1 ne repre 

sGuts the king poor 

UK ut a I baboD 

1 t re on altar ot 

ble covered w th 

cloth on which are 

placed some objects, 

or offering, difficult 

'" to define. Behind 

■I the altar is a tall 

; vase, hearing a coni- 

\f- col heading of some 

%. material, and at the 

king's feet lie four 

dead lions, a fifOi 

being brought by in 

^^pj B number of eunuch^ 
preced»id by twonitt* ^ 
flicians performing 
on the stringed in^ 
strument we havo; 
described in a 
mer cbaptcr (p. 
289). In attend 
once on the )da|_ 
lire two cup-boar* 
era, fanning tiim 
with their fiy flaps;' 

er ; and lastly, two beardlesa equestrian attendants, wlio have 
oaiy just dismounted to assist at tbia religious ceremony, which, 
we may imagine to be a kind of thanksgiving to the god of 
victory, or chase, for the escape of the royal hunter from the 
manyperilous situations in which we have aeen him eaposed. 
Three lines of cuneatio extend over the altar from the king 

Thia inscription has been thus translated by Eawlinson : 

"I am Assnr-bani-pal, the Supreme monarch, tiie king of 
Assyria, who, having been excited by the inscrutable divini. 
ties, Assur and Heltis, have slain four lions. I have erected 
over them an altar sacred to lahtar (Ashtareth), the goddess of 
war. I have oifered a holocauat over them. I sacrificed a 
kid{?) over them." 

One compartment of the next series of slabs (Fig. 199*) 
represents the king on horseback, leading a second horse, which 
is pursued and attacked by a wounded lion, but is defending 
himself by kicking vigorously. In the mean time, the horse 
on which the king rides is attacked in front by another lion, 
whose fate is sufficiently obvious — the king having tlirust his 
spear into the monster's mouth -with such force, that it has 
passed right through the neck and appears under the mane. 
Two mounted attendants follow at a considerable distance. 

In the upper compartment of thia slab the king, having dis- 
mounted, seizes an infuriated lion by the throat, and thrusts a 
short sword into its heart. The king is attended by his ar- 
mour-bearer, and a beardless groom, who holds his horse. It 
is to be observed that in these two examples the kiug wears a 
riehly-decorat«d fillet upon his head, instead of the pointed 
tiara, which is his usual distinctive head-dress ; and we are in- 
formed that this is a pecuhar feature in all the slabs of the 
series found in this part of the palace at Kuuyunjik. 

The lowest line of these slabs shows us gazelles full-grown 
and young, browsing, some of them pierced with arrows liom 
the king's bow. 

On a separate fragment we have the king and one attendant 
crouching down in u sort of pit made in iho sand of the desert, 
f in order to hide themselves from the timid animals, which 
would otherwise be detorred from coming within range of the 
arrows. The same method is pursued by thti ftoaJjsna "A 'Cs.^i 
present day. When an Arab, (or oni.WtOi.'ii.'^, ^^q.'A 'CSim 


town in the vicinity of a desert, has ascertained by the foot* 
prints in the sand that a herd of the aaimals frequents a pain 
ticular track, he makes a eufficient escavatioa in the sand t» 
allow of lying down, taking especial care that the surrounding 
ground shall not oppear raised or disturbed, or the quick eya 
of the gazelle would discern the trap, anil flee away, AH' 
being prepared, the hunter lies down in his trench to slecn 
until morning, when the animals come out to browse, and fttU. 
an easy prey to the watcher. 

The king, attended by horsemen, pursuing the wild borsek 
occupies several fragments of this smaller series. The horaea 
are nm down by dogs, sometimes caught by the lasso, but 
most frequently killed by the never-erring shaft of the ToyA 

Is another of these smaller compartments the king has 
mounted to superintend the dissection of a huge lion, during 
which ceremony one bearded and three beardless men prostrsta 
themselTes before him. 

Wo now arrive at what may be esteemed to be the ooncli 
sion of the scenes we have described, when the great kin 
relaxes from his labours, whether of the battle or of the chaa 
He is represented feasting with his queen in the garden of his 

The garden (el genina, el fnnlous) anciently aa at this day 
in the east, is the locality of kuif or pleasure. Shade, cook 
neas, and repose in the open air, seem always to have bees' 
essentials in the oriental mind for anything like an approaehf 
to a state of happiness. So here in a garden, " of all kuidi at 
fruits," (Eccles. ii. 5,) under the shade of a vine trained oreS' 
an avenue of fir-trees, the king and queen of Assyria werv 
wont to repose, during the autumnal months, in the moift' 
southern districts of their vast dominions. 

High on a richly-carved sofa, and supported by oushiong, 
reclines the great king ; while opposite to him, on a choir ot' 
state, sits her Assyrian majesty, " in raiment of needle-work** 
(Psal. slv. 14), and surrounded by her maidens. The elder 
woman (the malema), or chiefs of the hareera — known by 
their richer dress and furrowed cheeks, the beauties of & formtf ' 
reign — fan the king and queen. While some of the jonsget 
women are employed in bringing traya laden with delicaoiev' 
fithe table, those slullci m aim jw% aivancu performing on 


On a HgMy-decorated table between the royal peraonages are 
already placed aoroe viands ; aad an ivory casket, part of " the 
peculiar treasure of kings" (Eccles. ii. 8), such as those of 
■which we have fragmenta in the glass cases of the Kouyunjik 
gallery. ITear the sofa on the lower table, the king has de- 
posited his small bow and quiver, with his sword or eceptre. ^ 
Still nearer the margin, at this end of the slab, appears, from" 
behind a date tree, a hand holding a wand, but for what pur- 
pose it is impossible to guess, as we have not the adjoining slab. 

We must refer our readers to the sculpture itself for many of 
the above details, which the artist has been unable to include 
within the limits of his reduced drawing. 

On the ground at each end of the sofa is a vase, in which 
something is piled up in sugar-loaf fashion ; and over the ana 
of the sofa is slung a huge ehaplet of precious skmes. Both 
the king and queen are drinking out of embossed and jewelled, 
cups, of such as we have specimens. 

Her inajefity is not wanting in those personal qualificationt 
which are still considered ia. the cast as essential to beauty,^ 
nor has the artist neglected to give a certain rotundity of fono 
even to the less distinguished personages of the hareem, bh. 
qualify them to " stand before the king" (Dan, i. 5). 

Birds sing and graBshoppera chirp, yet, amid all this pictun 
of delights, there are touches of native cruelty in the incideBti 
selected by the Assyrian artist for illustration, and in thfl 
nature of the pastime indulged in by the king ; as, for instancy 
a bird seizes on a. grasshopper, and hard by, on a tree, hai^ 
the caricatured mask of a Suaian with a gash in the cheeuK, 
which probably has been employed in some sarcastio comift' 
performance, now to give place to the gratification of tl 
palate and the ear. 

" The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled witlli 
hearing" (Ecclesiastea, i. 6). The experiment of happinefli 
here delineated by the artist as being made by the king a{ 
Assyria, had already been tried three hundred years before If' 
a much more enlightened sovereign than Sennacherib, and th 
record of it, with notes and commentations written by tht 
esperi mentor himself, has fortunately come down to our timi 
Precisely in the same way, too, did he proceed in his Bean 
after this imaginary summum bonum of human existence, & . 
beaaja, " I made me goiieos BD.i OTOaeai?., aiA\'^iBai"iKjitiMl 




in them of all kind of &uits. ... I got me seryants and maidene. 

I gathered me also silver and gold and the peculiar treasuie of 

kings and of the proviacea. I gat me mea-singerB and women 

eiflgers, and 
I the delights 
I of the sons of 

men, as mu- 
I aical instru- 
I meate, and 
' that of all 

And what- 

eyes des' 
kept not &om 
them I with 
held not my 
heart from 

I nulanty be 

> tweea the 


and the writ 

t«n docn 

meats ends 
' for heyond 

tiuB thesculp- 

I tor'H art can- 

' not inform UH, 

I nor haa any 

thing like 

those va- 

Inable notes 

and commen- 
tations, the 

TCBult of the 

more ancient royal experimentor'fl reBcarchea, " the 

of the whole matter," been extracted trom fti.ft cMUKAiiTtB. 




Before quitting this atone picture, we will offer a few remarks 
OS Bome very interesting detaUa which it coataine. Darnel;', the 
curious carved casket upon the royal table, and the TarioM 
kinds of musical instruments in the hands of the musicians. 

We poageas ia the Britieh Muaeum fragmeBta of a box 
(Fig, 255), of which the design ia almost identical witii 
that shown in Fig. 199* Our reason for calling it part " of 
the peculiar treasure of kings" is, that such costly and beaa- 
tiful works of art, in which the skill of the designer, the 
sculptor, and the metallurgist was combined, could not hava 
belonged to any but kings and princes. It is evident more* 
over, from the box being placed so conspicuously close to tha 
king, that it was of importance, and especially his property! 
its form and contents, therefore, become interesting queatioDi, 
< — Did it contain the royal signet ? Did it contain some com* 
pound of the alchemist, which might have been considered an 
elixir of life? or did it contain some confection of opium or hemp, 
which might have been supposed, in ignorance and aensuality, 
to enhance the enjoyments by which the king ia'surrounded ? 

Such caskets are not common in the East or the West ; but 
Mr. Edward Ealkener, the architect, has kindly furnished ni 
with a description of one in his possession, which ia supposed 
to have been made for Haioun e' Rashid, the Kalif of Bagh- 
dad, and who, Sennacherib-Like, probably carried it about witli 
him, as it is furnished with a handle. 

The following is Mr. Falkener's description of the casket: 

" The small casket which I described to you ia now at Man- 
chester, BO I cannot give you a sketch of it except &om ro* 

" It is of bronze, and haa been inlaid with silver and gold. 
It has a cursive Arabic inscription at top and cu£c at bottom. 
It has two elaborate hingea at back, and one infrml, with a 
moveable handle at top. In the large circles are represented— - 

" lat. The hero crossing the desert, riding on a camel, witli 
a baldachin over him ; the camel is led by one slave and driveo 
by another. 

" 2d. He is on horseback, killing a panther with his sword* 

" 3d. Do. do., with his spear. 
4th. He returns to his lady-love with his sword, bow and 
iVB, and fitlcon. The lady is seated, and he standing. 


" Sfh. The lady takes his falcon, and is petting it, while he 
takes a guitar, and sings her praises. The lady holds tho fal- 
con before her face t« hide her blushes. 

" These are all the large medailions, but on the top, round 
the handle, the hero is represented on horseback, killing 
panthers in four different ways ; viz., with a sword ; a spear ; 
a bow and arrow; and a falcon. These are supposed to be 
Been between large medallions 3 and 4. Now come the re- 
joicings. On the heveUed edg-e of top, the hero is repre- 
sented seated on a throne, in a small medalHon on one side, 
and his lady in another, in opposite side; around them are the 
members of the court, drinking from large gobtets, playing 
upon guitars, flutes, triangles, tambarincB, harps, Sx. &c. 
The marriage hoa taken place, and the lady has the casket to 
keep her jewels in, 

" After haying had it ten years in my possession, I disco- 
vered that it had been closed by a most ingenious puzzle lock. 
This I have had restored, and have promised the contents of 
the citsket to any one who opens it. The inscription has not 
jet been deciphered." 

In noticing the various musical instruments of the Ninevites 
represented in this sculpture, it has been thought desirable to 
include instruments previously described (pp. 216, 261, 262, 
289). In order to compare them more conveniently with those 
mentioned in the £ible, and particularly with those in the 
third chapter of the prophet Daniel, we will begin by placing 
the Chaldee names in ttie order that they occur in the eacred 
text, by the side of the Septuagint, the Latin of Jerome, and 

imp, OaAir.-yE, tuba, Eomet. 

tTfsmvl, iripiyl, fistula, fluta, 

iruvp, EiBdpa, cithnTa, burp. 

M33D, canpittt, Bambuca, e^libut. 

prODi <i/aliri}pi6v, pBalterium, psallerf. 

msan, avfiftui'ia, ajmpboiiLa, aulcimer, 

Calmet says, " the musical instruments of the Hebrews are, 
perhaps, what has been liitherto least understood of any thing 
in scripture. The Babbins tiiemaelvcB know no more of this 


MUSICAL isaTBDMEsra — hahp, aACKBTrr, flittb. 

matter than otber commentators, who are least acquainted 
with Jewish affaire " 

Calmet bad no means of asaisting Ids speculations \>j ex- 
DiDiiuDg any lepreBentatioDs of the actual iustniraeots, and, 
indeed, nCTcr tiU now have we had ao good an opportunity of 
arriving at some definite knowledge of the form, and conBO> 

quently of the structure and quality of sound emitted by the 
above-mentioned instruments. 

In the sculpture (Fig. 200*) there are four performers, two 
men and two women ; the two centre figures being two officert 
of tbo Assyrian court we have elsewhere (p. l7l) designated 
as superintendents of the tribute of the provinces. 

The first instrument mentioned in the Hat, viz., ihe comet, 
KJTp (kama), from 3^p(kam),the horn of an animal, of whicb this 
instniment was probably first made, is met with in the scutp- 
tnte representing the removing of the colossal bull, but is not 
found in the sculpture before us. The second instrument in 
tho list, viz., the flute, (mashrubita) xn-pnwu, Irom (sharak) p-w, 
to whistle, very suggestive of the kind of sound that 
such short and Ibin tubes would make as those in the hands 
of the woman at tbe rigUt toud. The next In order ia the barp, 


(kitras) cvrp, from (kusli) kTi to be curved or bent like a bow, 
&om which, probably, the idea was taken, and of which struc- 
ture, in fact, ail ancient harps were, and Bome modem Indian 
harps still are; the strings being kept tight by the resistance of 
the back of the instrument, not by the support afforded by the 
column, as in European harps. This instrument has twenty 
or twenty-one strings, and ia played without a plectrum. 

The next in order ia the sackbut, (shabkah) was, from (sha- 
bak) 13D, to interweave, applied to the lattice of a window, being 
the Arabic word (shebbak) ji^Lt^ window ; and hence also 
the name of the instrnraent, there being a window or some orna- 
mented perforations in the sounding board, as in the European 
guitar. This instrument is still in existence in the east, and 
an accurate drawing of one which was brought from Aleppo 
by a native muBician ia to be found at Tigs. 115, 116. The 
ornamental perforations in this instance are at the sidea. The 
instrument has double strings, and is played with a short plec- 

The next in order is thepanltery, (phsannot^rio) rTUSS, from 
(pbsal) "joSp to carve, because the two columns which support the 
cross bar of this instrument are carved rain ■^a.'cv'iNW, ierwjst.-, 
the shorter of Ihe two columna ia ftift o.iiia\.eL\i\. "S.^'4'<».'a- 'si-- 


ampleB is commonly carved in the shape of a horse's head. 
hae UBually fire or eeven Btriugs, hut it may have ten ; it is thea 
called ashur, tiuv, or the ten atrioged : another variety of tills 
iustrument is seen in the hand of a man (Pig. 201*). 

mphonia) niBaTt>,t from 
(samak) TiO to lean or lay ; to impose as the hand upon any 
thing (see Fig. 202*) ; which exactly correBpouda to thiB idea, 
both because the instrument is supported by a belt over the 
left shoulder, and hecause the left elbow and hand are imposed 
upon it to tnang, or stop or modily the sound of the strings, 
which are struck with a short stick held in the right hand. 

It is to be remarked that this ingtrument is played by a 
person wearing a high cap, probably a chief musician. 

We have now gone through the list of all those instni- 
f In the conviotion that :t>jS7id is a gcDuiae Chaldee void, and not d 
rired rrom the Greelt, we bare rendered the letteia literally lumphon 
intte&d of iTinphoma. The word in Daniel ii the nnme of otu lingli Ai- I 
itmminl, whereas the Greek deiinttin ii a compound word, Ngoiiyiflg a . 
iannanff a/many inilruiMnt», 


ments trhich were employed to give notice to t 
people, natioiiB, and laiigiiagM at what time they were to fall 
down and worship the golden image which Nebuchadnezzai 
had set up ; and we have shown the true figures of them taken 
from these most authentio coeval commentatiunB on the Bible, 
as the Bculptures from Nineveh may fairly be considered. 

In the last psalm (cl,), which was probably composed after 
the return of the Jews to Palestine, there is also mention of 
fieveral musical instruments. 

The trumpet in this text, as in that from Daniel, is placed 
first ; but here it is called (suphar) ibw, from {saphar) law , to be 
bright, as the instrument would be if made of silver or brass. 
The next in this series is the psaltory, here called (nehbel) ^33i 
from ^aii a bottle, avessel, or jar, for the strings'were fastened 
over a kind of box or bowl, like the instrument still in use 
in Nubia. 

The next that occurs is translated harp, (kinnor) ""i3, from 
133, imitating a tremulous and stridulous sound. 

The next, timbrel,{tuph) an, from lan, to strike, to beat the ta- 
bret, This word, sn, may be taken to signify any kind of drum or 
tympanum ; and we have two specimens, one in the shape of a 
tambarine (Fig. 201*), the other like our drums (Fig. 203*), 

but played with the fingers as the Indians 

do the small horizontal drum, or tom-tom, 

at this day. 

The next, translated organ, aw (hug- 
gab), is supposed to have been a wind 

asfrument, perhaps a set of pipes of 

unequal length ; but we have not seen 

any thing of the kind represented in 

these sculptures. 

The last instrument mentioned among 

those in Psalm cl., is translated cymbals, 

(colzelim) o'juW, from (zb1)'''«, to tingle; 

n from (zalzil) V^k. roundness. Wu have 

A representation of it in the hands of a 

man with a beard. (Fig. 201*.} They 

appear to be flat, circular pieces of brass, 

fastened one in each band, and struck toge- 
ther, as are our instruments of the same 

name. All four of these musicians are at 


410 HCsrAir paiace. 

the Bame time dancing, as also it was the custora with the 
Jewfl, Psalm cl. 4. Religious dances are etill praetiaed by the 

We now come totwoalalis like that in the Konynnjik gallery 
(page 38fi), representing two lion-headed human iigurea with 
eagle's claws ; the right hands upraised holding daggers, and 
the lei^, crossing over, holding maces. The front of one 
figure, and the back of the other, are exhibited. The lower 
compartment of one of these slabs contains a figure, the 
upper part human, and wearing the three-homed cap ; and 
the body being that of a lion with eagle's wings. 

As we are not able to describe the slabs that follow accord> 
lag to any consecutive arrangement, we shall make olir se* 
lection of those which appear to be most replete with noT^ 
and suggestive matter. 

We shall first notice seveTal large fragments of sculptured 
elabs which formed the comer of a chamber, representing tht 
hesieging of a large city hiilt on the banks of a river, and defended 
by Susiana. On one fragment the same people are escaping . 
into the reed-grown margin of the river, indicating that the ' 
scene is in the southern district of Susiana, distinctly diSeriog 
from the Ulai or Euleus, whoso banks are wooded and whose 
stream is rapid. !BeIow in two lines is the subject of bringing 
the prisoners to the king i and the registration, as in the former 
examples, is performed by two scribes, one bearded, and the 
other beardless : in this instance, however, both hold what 
we hate described elsewhere (p. 184), as a cylindrical lump ■ 
of clay, and both use the instrument for engraving or iia> 
pressing the characters. Usually one scribe writes on a ecroUi i 
and the other on a two-leaved tablet. 

The npper half of the slab we shall now notice is occupied 
by the delineation of a magnificent palace surrounded by em- 
battled walls, and a ditch or narrow stream. The palace i|' 
built on an upper terrace; its gates are flanked by ooloasallionj, 
find winged bulls, or it may be that the columns of its portiooei. 
ore supported by lions and bulls, as are the columns of ths 
porticoes of some churches of the middle ages. The npper 
mound is surrounded by a single embattled and turretted waltj 
while the lower terrace is protected by a lower but doubld> 
wall of the same desoription. This very interesting sculptuM' 
maj' be a near view o£ ftial feovQ'oa Sviaian. palace which WM' 


considered one of the most magnificent in tbe world, and con- 
tainedj in after-times, all the treasure of the kinge of Persia. 
A email gat« opens out oil to the stream. 

The lower half of this slab describes, in three lines, the 
Susians in rapid flight. Some aro in cars drawn by mules — 
a few are on horseback, and others on foot. 

On the upper half of another slab is delineated a beautiful park 
or garden, containing all sorts of fruit, and other trees. At the 
top of a hill is a t«mple dedicated to some divinity, or to the king 
■whose historical tablet, of the prescribed fonn, is either buiit 
into thevallof thesekos, or more probably stands isolated at the 
top of a broad walk leading up to the side of the building. Be- 
fore the tablet is an altu like one which Layard found similarly 
placed before a tablet at the entrance of the temple at Nim- 
roud, H"arrow streams for irrigation intersect tbe garden, one 
crossing the broad path, and another flowing from beneath one 
arch of a scries in a valley between two hills. The arches 
are constructed as were those of the famous bridge over the 
Euphrates, that is, by approaching stones. We aro taught by 
the construction of tliis road or causeway that tbe Assyrians, 
■who as we know were acquainted with the true arch, were also 
acquainted with the self- destroying principle inherent in that 
mode of covering a space, and therefore, like the ancient 
Egyptians, never used the irw arch in large and important 
structures, but only in small and insignificant ones, and where 
the abutments were unexceptionable. These arches may pos- 
sibly serve for an aqueduct, or for a hanging garden, for con- 
necting the two hills, or for a road, planted with trees, leading 
to the front of tbe temple. This part of tbe slab is much 
affected by calcination, and is therefore partially indistinct. 

The lower half of tbe same slab ia divided into three lines, 
and as it is a continuation of the subject of the flight of the 
SusiauP, we may reasonably conclude that the garden in the 
upper part was that attached to the palace before described, 
Tery likely only one slab intervening. 

There are some other slabs representing the flight and de- 
struction of a people who ride on eamels and live in tents, 
probably Arabs ; but among the most interesting fragments 
are two showing the siege and capture of a oity inhabited by 
thin, lank men, with short beards and woolly h&w ■, iW s^iWw. 
of whom wear a single feather stuiik vv^xvaW. v&''is'iiA'A ^> 


band or fillet round their heads. TJiese woidd seem to be the 
eastern EthiopiEuiB mentioned by Homer (Odyss. ver. 22), 
Herodotus (lib.lvii), Pindar (Olym.2), HesiodTheog. (ver. 984), 
Dionyrius the geographer (t. 177), and Eustatbios, &I1 of 
whom apeak of Ethiopians located in CbaldEea and SuGiana, 
which Etatement receiTes a remarkable corroboration in this 
curious ancient scnlpture from the walls of a palace in Nineveh. 

On two other small fragments is represented the utter de- 
struction of a city of the Susians, The Assyrian soldiers are 
seen on the walls with pickaxes and crow-bars, digging and 
wedging out the stones, literally not leaving one stone upon 
another, while other parts of the city are in flames; as it 
is said, of this very Assyrian king, or his immediate predecessor, 
" now have I brought it to pass that thou shouldest be to lay 
waste fenced cities t'n'o ruicouB heaps." 2 Kings, xix. 25. ThiB 
sculpture explains the reason of the large number of picks 
found at Khoraabad (see p. 383). 

Other fragments represent the king hunting the wild hors«, 
which sometimes is caught by the lasso, and sometimeB is nm 
down by dogs. Fragments of three smaller sculptures shoir 
the king superintending the dissection of a huge lion, at whioh 
ceremony one bearded man and three eunuchs prostrate them- 
selves before him. 

Among the most curious of these highly finished cabinet 
sculptures is one, unfortunately very small Jragment, eshibiting; 
two singular persona bearing vases, and attended by some of 
the king's eunuchs. Prostrated on the ground are several 
men, both bearded and beardless. The two persons carrying 
vases wear long fringed robes, and are remarkable for titeit 
thin countenances and emaciated figures, and for the form of 
their head dresses and beards, as well as for two conspiouona 
curls that hang down from the right side of their heada. Pro* 
bably they represent Samaritan priests, or the chiefs of thA 
Jewish inhabiliants of Susiann at the time of the conquest of 
that country represented in this series of slabs, for one of theU 
men is brought before the king among Susian captives. 

Another piece of sculpture is in high relief. It representa 

the king putting his foot upon the neck of a captive, and 

about to thrust a spear int« his back. *' Joshua said unto ths 

oaptains of the men of war which went with him, come near, 

^Ot ^our feet upon the lu^ckK af t,li«iiQ kingK." Joshiia, x. 24. 


l^emporaiily placed apon tbe etaircase leading to the lov^er 
chambers of tie museum are the following sculptures. 

Two pereons playing on musical inBtrumenta. The figures 
Bre larger than naual, yet not life size, and they are executed 
in flat but carefully finished relief. The foremost person ap- 
pears to be a woman playing on a harp, and the one behind 
wears a singular head dress, like that worn by certain people 
met vitb on the baa-reliefs of Egypt. This person carries a 
lyre resembling that one which we have ventured to suggest 
is the piruDii, or psaltery, named iu the list of Baniel, because 
of the carved supports of the back to which the cords are 
attached. Sebind are two other figures with musical instru* 
ments (see Fig. 202*}. 

In the next slab we are shown three persons walking in a 
garden, containing various trees and flowers, the fruitful vine 
and date, the fir or pine being all represented, and among tbe 
flowers the lily, tbe marygold, and one resembling tbe lily of 
the valley. One of the figures wears a ehaplet of flowers, 
and another a head-dress of feathers; following the third is a 
tame iion looking behind him. In another fragment which 
belongs to the same slab, are a lion roaring, and a lioness Ifing 
on tbe ground. The careful execution of the animals re- 
sembles the work of the artist of tbe lion hunts. 

Another slab eshibits two soldiers, one being a spearman 
and the other an archer. 

Then we have two bearded figures and part of a third, all 
■wearing long fringed robes, embroidered baldrics and belts, 
and carrying sceptres or maces. 

Next, a small bas-relief of the same style as the larger of 
those just described. It represents three wingless divinities 
wearing the caps of the colossal bulls of Khorsabad ; the right 
band clenohed, holding a hatchet, the left down, holding a 
short sword. 

Tbe remaining two sculptures formed tbe sides of an en- 
trance to a chamber. They each contain three figures : the 
first wearing tbe egg-abaped three-horned cap : the second 
has the head of a lion, human body, and feet of an eagle, in 
his upraised right hand a dagger, and in his left a mace ; and 
the third is similar to the first, excepting that his head is hare 
and his hair arranged in peculiarly laiga iiwe, % " « --^ -- 


he holds in his hands a spear, or long ataff, with a spear or 
pinC'Shaped head. 

Upon the floor are seTeral large fragmenta of pavement slaha, 
most richly and elaborately carved with ele^nt ornamenta. 

The last piece of sculpture in this portion of the collection 
(Fig. 204*), is one of those chronological tablets we have 
so freqnentiy mentioned (FigB. 30, 94, 174). It is supposed 
to represeat Tiglath Pileser, and was discovered at Nimroud. 

The attitude is exactly like that of all the figures of kings 
in theae circular-headed tablets. The left ana ia naked from 
the elbow, and the hand holds a sceptre. The two fore-fingera 
of the right hand are extended towards the signs in the upper 
part of the field of the work, which consist of the horned cap, 
a winged globe, a moon, two horns, and a star within a diao 
like those at Fig. 174, and very dissimilar from, those carved 
on the Nahr al kelb tablet. The dress is altogether more aim- 
pie than in the other esamplES, but he has a narrow fillet 
crossed over the chest, and from, the neck is suspended a cross 
in shape like a Maltese cross. 

The block out of which the tablet is carved, ia of fine lime- 
atone, and an inscription covers the front, eide, and back, from 
the top to the base. The characters are aaid to be Babylonish. 

CoIobbbI Qgure of divinity mth four 
wings, riua, noldinj; a eceptre . ' 

Two kinn before symboLic tree ; _.._ 
emblem of Btitl above ; each king boa b 
aeepCm in hii left bond, Ihe rigiit hand 
beinff open and elevated, and be it fel- 
loweQ by a divinity cartyiag ftie ^\n4, 
mil fuakct . . . \ 









BlM of aisb. 





1 3s 


The king hunting the wild bull 

3 i X 7 1 



The return from the bull hunt 

do do. 




The king banting tbe lion . 

do. do. 



The return liom tbe lion bunt 

do. do. 




Sing on foot attacking afortified city 
The League or Treaty of Peace 

do. X 7 4 




3 X 7 3 



Fugitives crossing a torrent; castla 

2 10 X 7 4 




spoil .... 

7 4X3. 




King in bis chariot, discbarging an 
arron at the enemy, who are ruriooal' 
repeUbg the attack; on the ground are 
the dead and dying, upon whom the 

birds are preying — pocking out eyes 

Divinitj- ahove . . . 

3 1 X 7 i 




tinufltion of the aboie , 

3 X 7 1 

2» ; 



PreparatioDB for pasBsge of riyer 

3 X 7 



Continuation of abose, showing round 



3 X 7 

274 , 



Continuation of aho^e. sbowiug paa- 

lage of riT6t by king and bia allies 

3 10 X 7 3 




Charge of caxalry followed by in- 

fantry ; above, trained bird of prey 

3 3x71 


1 lOo 


Eunuch warrior in battle, above ia tbe 

trained bird of prey 

2 11 X 7 t 


' 104 


Triumphal procession towards the oilV; 

women on walls. 

3 X 7 10 


1 lis 


Eunuch receiving prisoners; mum- 
mora dancing; grooming borsea ; and [be 


royal kilchon .... 

2 11 X 7 1 




The king.holdingtwo arrows and fol- 
owad by his chariot, reeeiung a warrior; 
above is the emblem of BaiJ with ring 


(«omao on walls) 

3 X 7 1 





victory; aboic, trained bird with human 

bead in talons 

2 11 X 6 11 




battle-Geld, followed by asaddle-bone— 

k 144 

2 11 X 7 1 


^^» ... 

beaiegera mouuling ^^ M«ii\B^\»&4Bt»- 

B ' 

ffomenattdcliMYett\o4i»Viwi.i&'''''^l .' "i >. 1 \ 














a city, possibly Damascus ; warriora da- 
feniiing the walls and *ndeayonring to 
impede the action of the war engiue of 

the k'siirgers .... 




Continuation of the above. Chariot 
of the king and AeByriansoldiarB follow- 
ing mai led warriors i birds ofpieyaboYB, 

and tearing the djiug . 

2 llj X 7i 




King in his chariot besieging city . 




Standard bcarm of the king; con- 
tinuation of the above . 

3 X 7 1 




The Flight ; Parthian bowmen 


Head of priest with garland and re- 

mains of coloui- , 





Colossal figure i Deifiedman, wearinga 
circlet with a rosette ornament in front ; 
he carries a fallow deer on his rigbt arm, 

and a branch in his left hand . 

4 4i X 7 3 




Ditto, do. wearing garland and carry- 
ng a goat or gazelle on his left arm, and 

in his right hand an ear of wheat 

4 2 X 7 * 




Ditto, captive and attendant with mon- 

(sys at a tribillfi 

9 X 9 




Ditto of King (Ashurakbal 1,) walk- 
ing, his ligbt band holding a staff, and 


his left resting upon bia sword . 
Ditto, Sceptre bearer and divinity with 

4 Sj X 7 21 




pine cone and bag . 

6 S X 7 S 




throne, and with his feet resting on a 
fuotatooli he holds a wine cup in hie 
right hand, and behind bim stands a 

etmnch with a flv flnp . 

5 9 X 7 10 


I " 


Divinit; with pine cone and bag. fol- 
lowing the royal cup-bearer, who holds a 


wineslrainer and flj Hap 

6 8X78 



The foregoinK tbrea alabs form one 
subjeeMhekingdrinkingin the presence 


of ths Gods of Assyria. 


Ditto of tbs king{ABborakbaI I.lhold- 
wfth the pine cone and basket . 

7 4x7s 



Ditto, Divinity with offerings and 
royal attendant . 

\ >, 



ColoiBal figure, King (Aehuiakbal I.) 
dnnking, attended by hie cupbearer 

Ditto, Figure nith rosettcaiid twisted 
cirvlet, a pneet of the god Rimmcn, a 
tuijiag bmnch of three flowers in 
left Baud, covered with 46 lines of Tery 
perFact inscriptioD 

1 Ditto, Griffon pnraued by s 
winged divinity, wearing the egg-ahaned 
tbieu-horned cap nnd Lurling thun 
bolts with both fiie bands 

Ditto, copy of perfect figure of Dagon. 

Ditto, Oannes, the Assyrian Dagon 
imrrying square bag and buket . 

Cost from back of No. 30 

Small divinity, or deified man, wear 
inj; garland and holding a branch of live 
pomegranates in bis left band ; tbe right 
bciog raised as if in prayer 

Colossal figure uf|ineBt of Rimmot: 
likeNo. 27; 18 tines of inscription 

2 Do., Miaroch presenting pine cone an< 
basket (wines entire) . 

Do. 00., the wings pBTtly wanting 

Colossal figure, beardless divinity wit! 

four wings ; he wears a two-homed cap, 

and carries a garland in his left band . 

'Wanior in his chariot hunting the 

Cast from hack of Ho. 36 

Two divinities with two-homed cap, 
kneeling before symbolic troe . . 2 6 X 

Two beardless divinities (Ko. 35), 
holding garlands and etanding before 
symbofic tree . . . . 3 7 X 

7 Two figures of Nisroch before sym- 
bolic tree .... 

Coloasal figure of KinR (Aahuralihal 
I.), between figures of Sisrocb, beside 
symbolic tree .... 
2 Colossal divinity in egg-shaped cap, 
with three bulls' boms rauad the base. 
tie offeis pine cone and ba^et 

i 2 X 7 10 316 









1 B-n.. 



Size dF aiKb. 




Ft, In. Ft, In 




ETaoufltionof adty; scribea taking 

afCDimt of Che spoil 

3 3X98 




Horsemen pursuing man on a drome- 

3 4 X 3 9 

3 X 7 4 




auldioie Felling trees . 




Impalemeut of priaonera before the 

walls of a city . . . . 

3 7X37 




Fragment; two warriors protected bj- 
a moveable shield, discharging arrows at 
a fortress near a stream on the banks of 
which grow trees 


; 48 


Two horsemen armed with spears 
pursuing a third ; above ia a bird of prej 
with entrails of the elain 

* X S 8 



Female captive followed by camels . 




Man drising flock of sheep and goats. 



Frieze in two compartments sepa- 
rated by a band of inscription; apper 



Fragment; captain of cavalry com- 
manding u halt . 
Do., Lead of a statue 





Do., head and shoulders of the king's 


cnp-bearer . . . , 
"Man-headed bull, Khorsahad. 



Srooli divinity with two-homed oap, 
n left hand; the right taiBed as if in 


prayer . . . , 
Ditto, similar in all reBpeclfl . 
Ditto, with homed bead-dress and pre- 




senting pinecone and basket 



Ditto, ditto .... 




Colossal head with homed cap, also 
foot of bull . . . . 



Head and neck of colossnl human- 
headed hull; 5.W. Edi&ce 





CoiosaaJ Jion from eveal mounl 

AT % >^ \1. 



1 Siege of aeitf " . 

"^ ... 


1 420 I.18T or BcntwnEEfi. 1 






PL In. Ft. In. 

P»e« I 


Statne of a priest holding a eceptre 

and sickle . . . . 

3 4 



Circular altar willi three legs. 

2 4 X *! 9 

331 ' 


SUtue of Nobo. dedicated by Phulakh 

351 ' 


Ditto, dittd . . . . 

it. 1 


Sitting statue in basalt from Ealah 
Sherghat . . . . 



Cuneiform inscription of £2 Unea . 






Winded human-headed lion . 



An obelisk of black marble, 6(1. 6 in. 
in height ; grealtiBt nidtb at top, 1 It. St 
in, ; at base, 2ft. 

fragments of painted hricka 


sia, f 




ColoBBalfignrcoftheting . 

8 11 high. 


Bitto, Rab Bigneen, the goyecnor ota 

,,. 1 

province .... 


Ditto of a eunuch 



Figure of priest, wearing a wreath of 

rosettes and cards ; right hand elevated { 

left wiib trilobsd branch 

3 Shigb. 



Ditto, ditto .... 



Ditto, left hand carrying a nater-skiu, 

which the light eiipportA at the back . 

319 ' 


Armed figure, with bow in left hand 

and two arrows in tha right; his dress 

rcEemhleathBtofanEcvptian . 


Tn-o colossal horses' heads, richly 


1 9 

Colossal human head, with cap laid in 

folds cIdm to the head . 


'■ 10- 

Three heads like the last, but of 


smaller sixe .... 



Bii ditto, uncovered and beardless . 
Tha remains of colouring matter appear 
on almost all these heads. 



Part of a bead with a short beard . 




And numttous sw.iU ftapttwi^ 












1, 2 


ng tbe tigli cap lurmountcd by /qalhers 
nd surroundeil by roaettea, bbcd in tbc 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 


5 bigh. 


3, 4 

Colossal figures of a winged man or 
iTmily in BBg-ahaped two-horned cap, 

md hoM[ne the pine-cone and basket 

3 high. 



Frieie in basalt; Eunuoh in foreat 

[looting birds, forester attending with 
low and arrovi, while a SEcnnd foreatei 

as a haie in one band, and holds with 

he other a deer oicr hia shoulders 

5 5X40 





(of life aize) brought to this country 

367 ' 


Armed galley in motion 
Combat by a tiTsr aide 





Fragment of colossal human head 

.■*. 1 



Battle in a marsh, with reception and 
regiBtration of priaonera and spoil 

Arebers behind screens 
Warriors leading horses 






Ditto, ditto 

Part of Military Proeesiion . 




Procession ofled horses 



ProcoBsion of priaonera with collection 
and registration of the spoil. . 



Part of Military Procession . 


Soldiers mlraucing to tke siege 



Siege of a city on a M)l 


Archers and siingera '. 








Ditto, in pursuit 


Han with staff or spear 





Attendant . 



Back of 39 . 



Horse and groom 

[ .^ 
























Serviton bearing food for a banquet 
(ascending) . . • . 

Monumental tablet. Fragment of 
pavement slab • • * . 

Army of Asburakbal III. in battle 
with the Susians 

Triumph of Ashurakbal III. over the 
Susians. • . • . 

Back of 48 . • . . 

of a colossal bull, and the construction of 
a mound «... 

Sennacherib constructing a mound . 

Slaves dragging a colossal figure 

Movine a colossal bull .' • 

Sennacherib superintending the moving 
of a colossal figure • 

Siege of a city on a river, and recep- 
tion by Sennacherib of prisoners and 
spoil • * • * ' . 

Man with dagger . • . 

Basin with frieze of men and lions . 

Obelisk with four gradients at top . 

Top of Obelisk witk three gradients . 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 








This completes the whole of the Sculptures from Nineveh as yet placed 
in tbe gallenes. For the description of the additional new «culptures at 
present under repair, we will refer to the present chapter from page 366 
to page 415. 

Tkb iQQst Btriking facte that preseBt thtmaelves to our ima- 
gination, in conleinplating theremains of the AsByrian Palaces, 
are the perfection to ■which the art of sculpture had arrived at 
BO remote a period, and the important evidence they afford of 
conversance with the moKt refined arts of life ; both indicating 
a pitch of refinement that wo should find it dif&cult to reoon- 
cife with the most extended Boheme of chronology, if, at the 
same time, we were bound to Buppcse that the first settlers in 
the land wore in a parallel state of ignorance and degradation 
with the inhabitants of Kew South Wales, or with those of 
the back-wooda of America. The Scriptures, however, afford 
ample evidence of a primitive civiUsation, especially in the 
knowledge of the working in metals, and of other refined arts 
(Gen. iv. 17, 21, 22,) even before the Deluge; and this testi- 
mony, we apprehend, sufficiently aoeounte for any degree of 
proficiency we find in the works of art of these remote ages, 
and for that early civilisation of the human family which the 
contemplation of these sculptures suggests. 

The objecls of seulpturo iu &6 mQiB Tcmi'^ ^'t,«'> ^iw^'^ 



•rv of the 

I copies 

I anciet 

■ hypn 

simply to record the remarkable events in the history of the 
people and their Borereigns, and to make the record intelligible 
to those who could gain the required information from no 
other source, the neceasity for presenting the events vividly 
to the imagination of the spectator, unavoidably induced a 
conventional mode of representation, that, in course of time, 
became settled and determined by certain laws. To tbia cir- 
cnmstanoe we attribute the jnode of portrajing the humaa 
fignre, such as wo find in these and in the Egyptian rilievi, 
and even in those of Greece, which, when once adopted, was 
never after wholly abandoned, — because the art itself imposes 
certain limits, that the modema have in vain endeavoured to 
remove, by the introduction of perspective, bo essential an 
element in the sister art, but whieb is entirely incompatible 
with sculpture. It was not till this primitive object in the 
practice of sculpture had ceased in some measure to be bo 
rigidly observed, and the delineation of the human form' had 
become the more important aim of the artist, that sculpture 
began to leave the rigid trammels imposed upon it, and ulti- 
mately to attain that perfection we admire in the statues of 
the Fhidian age, when the beauty of the human form, in all 
its endless varieties, wae portrayed in the statues of the gods 
and heroes, — its chief aim being to assign to each a peculiarity 
of excellence which eventually became as much the attribute 
of the particular divinity as any emblematic attribute pecu- 
liarly belonging to it, as the thunderbolt to Jupiter, the cadu- 
ceus to Mercury, or the breast-plate to Minerva. 

From the very beginning, the Greek scidptors seem to have 
possessed a nicer perception of this quality, and a greater 
facility in expressing it, than the other people of antiquity, 
and they consequently quickly freed themselves irom the 
bonds which shackled them, The Egyptians, on the con- 
trary, tied down by a system of theocracy which regulated 
every action of their life, never shook off the prescribed rules ; 
their sculpture was always influenced by them ; and their 
productions in the time of the Eomans were but imperfect 
copies of the works executed during the reign of the most 
ancient Pharaohs, influenced iu a still more eminent degreo 
by prescribed and time-honored conventionalities. Thus, at 
■ present day, the painters who decorate the Greek or Ame- 
' l&aiah.'s.W'i.W, 


ciiiiucTERisTica or asbyeian abt. 425 

nian churches bend to consecrated rulea or habits, and are 
content tfl copy and reproduce the old Byzantine types in all 
their Btifliiesa ; wautiiig always a certain natural simplicity, 
which renders their copies inferior to the originals. 

The Egyptians, like all other people in their infancy, 
attached importance to the exterior line only. In their paint- 
ings and sculptures they made simple strokes of astonisbiiig 
holdnesB and character, by which both proportions and action 
were rendered with great perfection. But here their science 
stopped ; and in later times, as in the most remote, they never 
thought of completing these outlines by an exact representation 
of the anatomical details contained within them. Their finest 
Btatuea are, in tbia respect, aa defective as their bas-reliefs and 
paintings. Seizing on the characteristic forms of objects, thay 
never varied thera under whatever aspect ; thus the front view 
of the eye was always introduced in the profile face ; the pro- 
file foot in the front view of the figure ; and but extremely 
rarely does the front face occur, although the body may be 
facing, — a law which seems also to have considerably influenced 
the Greet sculptors in their compositions for bas-relief ; and, 
as it appears to us, one imposed by the art itself. All the 
necessary details, however, for characterising the objects in 
Egyptian and Assyrian reliefs are always made visible, whe- 
ther they could in the particular point of view be seen or 
not. Lastly, always sacrificing truth to the desire of hidtog 
nothing wbieh ia their eyes appeared more important, the 
Egyptian painters and sculptors have carefully avoided cross- 
ing the figures by accessory objects which would have hidden 
any part of them, — a law which the Greeks also observed ; 
and, possibly, to the same law may bo attributed, in these and 
Egyptian representations of battles, the larger diraenaions they 
have given to the conquerors than to the conquered. 

Sfost of these characteristics are found in Assyrian as well 
as in Egyptian art; but they are less strongly marked, and 
the careful observer can perceive that the art is emerging from 
its state of infancy. The bodies are no longer all full.face, if we 
may so express it, and they have also less conventional stiffness. 
The figures consist no more of mere outlines ; the heads are 
well modelled ; and the anatomiual details of the limbs, the 
' hones, and the muscles are always repreeonted, thoutgh. 
coarsely and i^orantly eipresBed, oni ■w\fti. & (MK^^sS^wiw^ 


I 426 

. 1. 


exaggerati:ia indicating a greaUr knowledge of anatomy, bnt 
a less artistic mode of conveying tlieir knowledge, than is 
found in Egyptian figures of the same age. The reader need 
only compare some Egyptian, figures in the British Mueeuni 
■with some of the ABsyrian has-reliefs in the same eetablieh- 
ment, to convince himself how enperior the latter are aa repre- 
sentations of real life; but, on tie other hand, they are de- 
cidedly inferior in justness of proportion and purity of draw- 
ing. In the Assyrian bas-reliefs the figures are generally too 
ehort, and the artist has not always succeeded in endowing 
lb em distinctly enough with animation. 

In both schools animals were represented with more fidelity 
tiianmen. The reason of this is, doubtless, that in tbisbraincti 
of bis art the sculptor was not shackled by rules and prejudices 
of so precise a description. The muscles and bones of the 
symbolic bulls are admirably modelled, although it is truej a 
little eiaggcrated ; the statues of the symbolic lions, however, 
are inferior to them, and the paw, in every instance that has 
yet arrived in Europe, is anatomically inferior to the lions in 
the Egyptian saloon ; those of Assyria representing the paw 
of a dog instead of tbe claw of the cat, to which class the lion 

Let us mark a peculiarity, which proves how tenociooa 
these ancient sculptors were of making the objects they repra- 
sented iippear perfect from wliatever point they were contem* 
plated ; for this purpose they gave these animals five legs, in. 
order that, whether seen in profile or in full, they should leave 
nothing for the mind of the spectator to supply. 

In the bas-reliefs at Nineveh may be seen, as it were, the 
first essays of that system which, brought to a state of per- 
fection by an intelligent people, deeply enamoured of physical 
beauty, produced the ehefs-d'ieuvre bequeathed to us by Kellenio 
antiquity. There is, however, between these two schools the 
whole distance which separates the results obtained by the 
first timid efforts of a novice from the perfection attained by 
genius favoured by the moat fortunutc circumstances; and 
whatever partiality we may entertain for Assyrian art, we are 
far from putting it on a footing of equality with that of Phidias 
and Pi-axitdes. 

As regards the age of these specimens of Assyrian sculpture, 
I recogciBe in them & degiadation from that simplicity of 

style which, oharacterisea the earliest apecimens in other 
ooimtries ; we are therefore inclined to suppose that tho art 
had passed that stage of early simplicity at a period anterior to 
the examples before us, and we regard Persian art, its imme- 
diate GUGceasor, as a continuation of tbo degradation ve ob- 
j, serve in the eculpturea from Wineveh, descending through 
the different periods of Xhoreahad, Kouyunjik, and ISira- 

After having compared the art of the Assyrians with that of 
contemporary nations, it will not perhaps bo out of place to com- 
pareit also with that of apeople wlio auceeeded them in the em- 
pire of the world — the ancient Peraians. 

The sculpture of Persepolia is seen accurately in the drawings 
of Ker Porter and in the fragments in the British Museum ; 
and these are sufficient to show that the Persians borrowed this 
art from their predeoesBorB, the Aaayrians, and that it only de- 
generated in their hands. There is the same difference between 
the haa-reliefa of Persepolis and those of Khorsahad as between 
the Egyptian haa-reliefa aeulptured in the time of the Ptolemies 
and those of an anterior age ; the falling-oif is the same in both 
cases. To be convinced of this, it is sufficient to look at the 
figure of a man leading a horse, sculptured at Persepolis ; it 
'Will then be seen, that if the school of sculpture is the same 
as at Nineveh, the drawing is less pure, and the forms heavier, 
■while the anatomical details are altogether wanting, or are 
badly indicated; it is, in fact, but a clumsy imitation of im- 
measurably superior models. 

Though the sculpture of the Assyrians was in some respects 
superior to that of the Egyptians, and though it iucontestably 
Burpaaaed that of the Peraians, their architecture, judging from 
our present knowledge of it, waa much inferior to that of both 
these people. Perhaps, however, this difference is only appa- 
rent, and after- rli SCO veries may poaaibly yet show us that 
architectural art ut Nineveh had made an equal prugreas with 
other arts. 

As we have already observed, the edifices discovered by 
Xayard in the mound of Nimroud are of similar ehai-aoter to 
those at Khorsahad, end are built in the same m:mner. It has 
no doubt been remarktd that the external and internal baa-reliefs 
bore evident traces of colours. The Asayriuns, then, employed 
the style of decoration which appears to ho.v<i W.ii."iwA.Vi i>^ 

428 eoLOUE or 

the people of antiquity ; and we ought, besides, to have ex- 
pected to find it at Nineveh, for the Bible expreesly mentionB 
it in a passage which eeems to bo a description of the sculpture* 
that we have seen. " She saw men portrayed upon tte wall, 
the images of the Cbaldseana portrayed with vermilion, girded 
with girdles upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upoa 
their heads, all of them princes to look to, after the manner of 
the Babylonians of Chaldiea, the land of their nativity."— 
Ezekiel, ssiii. 14, 15, This remarkable piece of evidence, 
added to the traces of colour still subsisting, proves without 
doubt that the Assyrians were atM3uetomed to paint their batt- 
reliefs. But another important question now presents itself. 
We did not find on the sculptures of Ehorsabad any colourB 
hut red, bine, and black, and those merely on the hair, the 
beards, and a few accessoriea. Must we, in the first place, 
believe that these were the only colours employed ; and, in the 
Becond, that they were only used in those places where we 
found their traces, whCe the remaining portions of the figorea 
and the background of the bas-reliefs wereentirelyoolourless? 
We are without facts to enable us to give a decided answer ; 
but it appears probable that the Dolours were more varied, and 
that the whole surface of the bas-reliefs was covered with them. 
Thus, on the bricks there are other tints than red, blue, and 
black : we found yellow, white, green, &c. ; and there ia ne 
reason why the AsBjrians should have used these latter coloun 
on their bricks, and not have employed them to paint their 
sculptures. Itis much morenatural to suppose that the portions 
not at present coloured were coloured formerly, aod that this 
was done with some substances which, being less lasting than 
the others, have been destroyed, either by fire at the time of the 
conflogralion, or by time and the earth, in which they hava 
been so long buried. Tl}i3, however, is but a conjeotnre ; and, 
consequently, not wishing to have anything hypothetical in- 
troduced into his work, Botta insisted that, in restoring the 
facades aod the chambers, no colour should be employed where 
he had perceived none. K. Flandin would have acted otherwise, 
because he believed that be had found a proof of the former 
colouring of the whole surfaoe of the slabs, and principally of 
the figures. The following ore bis reasons for this belief. 
They had found at Ehorsabad a head, on which not only was 
^tbe oluck colour of the hair and the beard perfectly preserred, 

coLOira OS aooLPniREB. 429 

but there was, besides, a yellowish crust spread over the whole 
surface, riaadin thought that this yellow tint had been pur- 
posely applied to repreaent the colour of the flesh. Botta 
examined' thia fragment carefully at Ehorsabad before packing 
it up, and afterwards at Paris, where it is at present; and it 
appeared certain to him that the bistre tone of the surface was 
purely accideatal. The head was bound with a red band, part 
of which had been carried away ; a portion, also, of the cheek 
■was wanting. Kow the places thus left empty by the missing 
fragments were covered with the same yellow crust as the face 
itself. This would not be the oaae had the colour been pur- 
posely applied, for then there would have been none in the 
mutilated parts. It cannot be said, either, that these mutila- 
tions existed at the time that the atone was sculptured, and 
that the places in question were painted like the rest of the 
head, because, in that case, the broken portion of the band 
■would have been painted red, and not yellow. It is most 
likely, therefore, that this tint was accidental, and that it was 
owing to some incrustation or other — a supposition which, 
ia rendered still more probable by the unequal and wrinkled 
surlace of these portions of the face. This fragment, however, 
is at present in the Museum at Paris, and tlie colours have not 
been injured by the voyage. 

It is unnecessary to assert the perfection of the arts at 
Nineveh, since we have just seen the proof of it ; yet we must 
call attention to the splendour of the costumes, the richness of 
tlie ornaments, and the good taste of the details, because these 
facts are new tons. We can now better understand what the 
Sacred Books say of the splendour of the court of the Assyrian 
kings, and the effect that it must have produced on the Hebrew 
people. But let us give a few details on tliis head, and pass 
in review what these newly -revealed facts have taught us. 

We have already remarked that the architecture of the 
palaces of Nineveh was not so perfect as that of Egypt at the 
same epoch ; yet it ia not the less certain that the Assyrians, 
by the dimensions of their buildings and the richness of their 
docorations, equalled, if not surpassed all that the various people 
of antiquity ever built. The ermeinhle of their edifices must 
have been as imposing as it was magnificent; and the efl'ect 
that must have been i)roduoed by their ^aTO\x6%ftM\&wi>iS.'S;'ra^»i'i 
weU correspoDda with the idea given ^ly Wei iewrv^i'ttsro.W'i-'s-''^^ 

Bible of the court of the kings of Assyria, Their furniture, 
by the richuess of its nature, differed completely &om T^hat ia 
now Been in the East, for the Assyrians used arm chttirs or 
Btools, and ate, lile us, off tables ; the representation of the 
banquets allow of no doubt with respect to tJiis. It will be 
seen, from the detailed deBcriptions we have already given of 
some few articles of furniture, that the tables and chairs 
were ornamented with as much richness as taste, and, what is 
very singular, with the same objects as are employed in deco- 
rating modem — that is, with lions' feet, animals' heads, &c. 
These models might be studied and copied at present with ad- 
vantage. The vases of diiferent kinds, already minutely de- 
scribed, were not less remarkable for their elegance. 

The ghirab, plural ghirbeh, or bottles, of various sizes and 

shapes, made of leather, for containing liquid butter or water, 

are now in use all over the East, more 

particularly in travelling, as any other 

kind of vessel, of less tough materials, 

would be comparatively useless. These 

modem examples have been introduced 

with a view of affording a comparisoii 

with the ancient representations of 

similar Tessels, occasionally seen in tha 

I. hands of the sheepskin- clad people in 

■ the sculptures from the walls of the 

Palace of Khorsabad (Fig. 81, p. 207). 

at least those of the pcrBonages attached to 

with the proof of a state of great luxury. 

The dresses ih 
the court, I'urcish 

find remind us strongly of Xenopbon's descrip^on of thi 
Median court. He says, " A.Bl-iiB^ea\iHiiaOii'«aa\\K,\.\Vi <ilQthed 



liEtd hia eyes Qoloured, his face painted, and his hair embellished 
■with artificial locks. Por the Medea affected aa effeminate life, 
— tobedreasediDBcarlet, andto wearnecklacea and bracelets."' 
The rohea of the Aaayriana were generally ample and flowing, 
btit differed in form from those of the Egyptiana and the Per- 
maoa. They couaiated of tnnica or robes varying in length, in 
mantles of diverse shapes, of long-fringed acarvca, and of em- 
broidered girdles. Ornamenta were scattered with profusion 
■.r these dresses, some of which appear to have been embla- 
matic of certain dignities or employmenta. Tlius the double 
mantle with, the points thrown over the shoulders is never worn 
except by the king, and that on state occaaiona only. This 
j principal personage, too, is the only one who wears the pointed 

Ftgs, l»a, 193, 1D4, 

tiara, which resembles in shape the Persian cap of the present 
day, Xenophon tella na that Cyrus wore " his upright tiara 
upon his head, encircled with a royal diadem. Hia under tunic 
was of purple raised with white, which was a colour peculiar 
to kinga. Over hie other garmenta he wore a large purple 
cloak. His hands were imcoverud." Cyrus likewise gave each 
of hia auperior offlcera and allies a dress of the Median fashion, 
t. fl., " long robes of a variety of the brightest colours, and 
richly embroidered with gold and silver,"" Other shaped 
head-dresaes were appropriated to the deified men and priests, 
who alone wear the robe scooped out in front, and the dtvinitieB 
the tiara girt with homs. The eunuchs — who, aa might have 
been exjiected, from the frequent mention of them in Hnl^ 
■ C/rop. bk i. ■* \U4.'\Jt.\vi 

fviBM^Me. vtcf u&Bt. nf Tate maK 


eeenl to be made of email pieoes of wood or metal, carefully 
joined together. The deaoratioa of the ABayrion bowe was 




Figs. 203, SOS, Wi, 206, aM, 307.— ABsrBixK bow, ibbow, ind ijitivesb. 

confined chiefly to the oxtremitieH, which were formed to re- 
Bemble the head of a bird. The quivers, howerer, were more 
elaborately decorated, and were slung over the back by cords 
attached, as represented in the engraving. 

The helmets of the Assyrians were of various shapes, and 
some were particularly elegant in form, bo much so that they 
furnished models to the Greeks. Herodotus describee them to 
have been made of brass ; those, however, which were dia. 
covered in the ruins appear to have been of iron, occasionally 
inlaid with copper. The Assyrian swords and sceptres were 
oilen richly decorated, as will be remembered by calling to mind 
the deacriptiona of them given in a preceding chapter. ■ The 
Bword-hilt was generally ornamented with several lions' heads, 
a/fisBged to form both handle asd croaabes. ~ 

The remainder of the sheath was 
boaaed or engraved. 




to, and was alwafs gathered up on the ehouldera in a lai^e 
■Tiunch of formal rows of curls. 

•^ Their eyelids, according to the ancient and unirerBai cuBtom 
I lof the East, were stained hiack 'with khol, a composition of 
powdered antimony and lamp-blaolt. Their arms and wrista 
iwere encircled with amulets and bracelets of various simple 
jlformB, and probably of massiye gold^ and they also vore 

Fig. aiB.-OlIBBILll (bOPTJ, pt 1811. Kg. BU— iflBIBliB BTiSUiBD («m«, pt IBS). 

ear-rings, varying in. the richneHS of their design, but most of 
■which might serve even in the present day as models for 
aimiiar ornaments. 

Among the bracelets ie a kind very commonly seen, that 

seems composed of wire, most probably gold, bound atintervala 
by tiauBTerBQ wires, which we preBume, from. tha.t (^v£<^ws.'&^iIts>&^« 

OEOUT or ronr.ET. — kinbteh. 

carry off everytliing of any value or interest, prior to oom- 
iBpleting their work of devastation by setting fire te the place. 

This BxplanatioD seems the more probable, from the fact that 
Layard, while excavating the mound of Nlmroud, found nume- 


"Writ, appear bo often — always wear the long robe, and hare 
nothing different from the guards, or from the principal per- 

The warlike weapons in uae among the ancient AsBjrians 
have been described from time to time ia a preceding chapter. 
Many of these, however, were richly ornamented, and require 
some present allusion on tijis account. The shields and bucklers, 
for instance, were often of the most enriched character, and it 
is supposed that these were formed occasionally of the precioua 

metals. The tall oblong shiells, however, that were uaed'a 
during a eiege to protect the entire person of the besieger from. | 
the speara aud arrows of the enemy, were constructed either j 
of wicker-work or of the hides of aniraaU; and even 
cular bueklera, which were cHafly used by the chariote 

Beem to be made of small pieces of wood or metal, carefully 
joined together. The decorat^ion of the AsBjriaa bows was 

confined chiefly to the extremities, which were formed to re- 
Bemble the head of a bird. The quivera, however, were more 
elaborately decorated, and were slung over the back by oorda 
attached, as represented in the engraring. 

The helmets of the AH4yriaiis were of variouB shapes, and 
Bome were particularly elegant in form, so much so that they 
furnished modelB to the Oreeka. Herodotus describee theai to 
have been made of brass ; those, however, which were dis- 
covered in the ruins appear to have been of iron, occaaionally 
inlaid with copper. The Assyrian swords and sceptres were 
often richly decorated, as will be remembered by calling to mind 
the dcBcriptions of them given in a preceding chapter. ■ The 
iword-hilt was generally ornamented V\ftv«ft'jetii.\\WQ.'iV^^^>»., 
arranged to form both handle aad ci:o6*^iik. "S\^gai^ A\«3Wk 

were also mtroduced about the scabbard wltb a boldness and 
originality tiat were productive of the moat Buccesatul result 

The remainder of the sheatli "was frei^uently elaborately e 
boEsed or engraTed. 

rai¥ iwonoB. Fig. J15.— boeptbb (sum, p], 158]. 

Like ail Orientals, the AsHyrianB appear to have taken ex- 
treme care of their beard, which, to judge by the baa-reliefs, 
they allowed to grow long, and arranged in so regular a manner, 
that the representations of It might almoBt be regarded as 
merely conventionul. The\i ^isii ^oa'wix.XtHaoaKitii^ ^^Koded 


This little Btatuo was found fixed to a flagstone that 
paved the recess formed by the projection, of a winged bull 
and pier oa the right sido of a doorway. There had been 
Himilar onea not only on the other side of this doorway, 
but at all the grand entrances, for the flagstones on which they 
had been fixed still remained. The present statue is the 
only one that had not disappeared ; and sotliiiig proves more 
than this fact with what avidity everj-thing of any value waa 
carried ofi' when the edifices were destroyed. This lion ia 
represonted in a quiet posture, with his fore-feet stretched 
out, on a square base, beneath which there is a stout conio 
stem that entered a hole in the pavement. The animal's pos- 
ture is perfect, and his head full of expression. With the 
exception of the mane, which forms a sort of pad round the 
neck, and the daws, there is nothing conventional in the 
■workmanship : it ia a true representation of nature. The 
statue is massive, and cast in a single piece, with the plinth 
and ring in the middle of the back. 

It appears to us that the purpose to which these bronze 
lions, £xed in the pavement, was dedicated, was to attach the 
cords of such temporary awnings and hangings as are described, 
in Esther, to have been in the court of the palace (Esther, i. 6). 
There are some rings in the British Museum, found by Layard at 
Kimroud, which may probably haveheen applied to the same use. 
Another relic was a bronze calf's head. This is not oast, 
but beaten out with a hammer. It must have been adapted 
to the angles of a seat or table, for we have seen similar ones 
represented as ornaments of the furniture in one of the Assyrian 

t banquets, lilven the little holes are seen through which pass 

I the nails that must have served to fasten it to the wooden 

* part of the ohair. 

The examples which succeed are from some of the bronzes 
brought by oij- indefatigable countryman from Simroud. In 
these remains we recognise fragraente of that costly "pleasant 
furniture" of which there was such abundance in the palaces 
of Nineveh, as we read in the book of the Prophet Nahum; 
and we are enabled to define each particular port with the 
same certainty that we could in a cabinetmaker's shop point 
out the back of a chair, the leg of a table, or the foot of a stool. 
Fig. 241 of our illustration is a pait o{ feeVe^ui tt,\QSiN«Ji^, 

I ibe poJBtB rested upon the grountl. 


3 of the form and kind called Vns, "Patliil, or Phatil," 
(Nob. 224 and 227,) derived from a word eigniiying to twist, 
and oommonly worn not only by the inhabitants olSIeaopotamia, 
but aleo, as we Icam from the Bcitlptures and the book of Genesis, 
by the people of other coiintriea. The iadiea of Syria and 
^ypt wear bracelets of this form, sometimes representing a 
twisted cord, and usually made of masgiye gold of the purest 
kind, the ductility of the metal permitting the oruaiuont to be 
bent round the wrist with the greatest ease. "We have given 
an engraving of the kind most commonly seen on the arm of 
the great king, temiinaticg ia the head of a hull, which, mas- 
BJve as it is, if made of the purest gold could be opened suffi- 
ciently to allow it to he placed over the arm. 

In Mr- Smirke's interesting review of the Assyrian sculptures, 
he remarks : — " Veiy few female figures occur ; but scarcely a 
male Assyrian figure is represented, whether priest or warrior, 
■without large ear-ringB, aud most of them have necklaces, 
hractlels, and armlets. (Pigs. 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 
321), 230.) It is t« be remarked, however, that not a single 

case occurs arajdat all this display of personal jewellery, of a 
Hiiger-risg; the entire absence of this ornament in sculpture, J 
wherein details of tiiiB naluie aie bq e\(iioia.\fc\-^ aai ^laiefuUy 


attended to, leads to the concIuBion that the finger-ring was au 
ornament then unknown. 

" The apparel of the Asaynana appears by these sculpturea 
to have been almost always riehly fringed, with wide borders 
ornamented with figiirea of men, animals, and foliage. The 
caparison of their horses is most gorgeous ; every strap of their 
head and body-housings is enriched ; to the chariot horses there 
is usually seen attached, apparently either tfl the extremity of 
the pole or to the trappings of the neck, and to the front of tho 
chariot itself, a long fish-shaped piece of drapery, fringed and 
embroidered. Layard is at a loss to designate this object. 
Perhaps ' the precious clothes for chariots,' alluded to by Ezekiel 
Bis being obtained by the people of Tyre from Dedan, may have 
reference to this singular piece of horse-farniture, 

" The same love of ornament above alluded to is apparent ia 
their pavUions, of which there are specimens in these sculptures, 
also in the fashion of their armour ; the hilts, handles, and 
Bheath-ends of the swords ; their knife handles, their slings, and 
their quivers. There are in the British Museum some lions' 
feet of bronze, apparently belonging to furniture, which formed 
part of Layard's collection at Himroud, and are equal to Greek 
workmanship in execution," 

In some things, Assyrian industry had attained a high degree 
of perfection. The Assyrians were able to work the hardest 
aa well as the softest substances, with a view to their employ- 
ment in building or other purposes. This is proved by the 
jasper or crystal cylinders, and by the baa-reliefs sculptured on 
gypsum or siliceous basalt. They were acquainted with glass, 
and various kinds of enamels. They could bake clay for bricks 
or vases, the quality of the clay varying in fineness according 
t« the purpose for which the vases were intended. Thus, the 
bricks employed in building were simply burnt in the sun or 
slightly baked, so as to remain tolerably soil, while those in- 
tended for paving were excessively hard. Thus, again, tho 
large funereal urns were of but middling consistency ; while, 
on the contrary, the cylinders of baked clay on which were any 
inscriptions, were manufactured out of a very fine and very 
hard kind of earth, Lastly, the arts of varnisbiiig pottery, 
and painting on pottery witli coloured enamels, were known at 

The Assyrians were ahoact^vi^ttteiS.m'Cii.'CaaTO^.tit.S.'siSQSsM*,'. 


whether certain doors had remained abut, and for this pwrpoaa 
the AfiByriiiDH aealed up their doors with these balls. This 
is the more probable, as the Bible teaches us that the kings of 
Assyria were, in certain casee, in the habit of doing so.' 

Funereal urns were also found. These nma or jars were 
buried in the mounds, and were found standing upright in 
rows- Tliey are oval and elongated in ahape, terminating at 
the bottom in a very narrow foot, ond widening out at the 
month. The only oiTiament on tbera is one rim or fillet round 
the neck, and another round the base. These urns are made 
of baked earth, and have no cover ; they are about four feet 
high, and their greatest diameter is about two feet and a half. 
They were, when discovered, entirely filled with a clay^ 
earth, in which was found a great many fragments of bones, 
that appeared calcined. Although there is no reason tK) doubt 
that the bones were those of the human skeleton, no single 
fragment was found considerable enough, or in a sufficient 
state of preservation, to give direct proof wbetJier it 
e other animal. (Figs. 216 and 247.) 

e at Jerusalem, some years ago, wo met witli J 
i Chlistiaa iuert1\aTit oi B&ghdad, who had come j 


445 I 

to visit the sacred localitieB, and to cajiy back with him a 
voucher of the due perlbrmance of the piigrimage, imprinted 
in indelible blue pigment in the Bkin of his right fore-arm, 
^o related to us ^^t the Araha, who tend their flocks in the 
vicinity of the mounds, in the plains of Mesopotamia, find 
huge vases, containing mummies, or skeletons of men, and 
that round the necks there is generally slung, by a string, ono^ 
of those cylindrical engraved stones. We apprehend that 
these vases are of the kind described by the merchant; and 
ve know that the cylindrical engraved stones are those known 
as Babylonish aeale. 

Painted bricks were discovered. In noticing the mode of 
building pursued at Khorsabad, it was evident that, above the 
coating of gypsum slabs, there had been several rows of kiln- 
burnt bricks, the united surfaces of which must have repre- 
sented subjects analogous to those which were aoulptured on 
the lower part of the walls. Unfortunately, only a few frag- 
ments of tiiese were found. They are aufflolent, however, to 
give an idea of this kind of decoration. 

Altars must next be mentioned as among the discoveries. 
Two blocks of calcareous stone, cut in the shape of altars, 
were lying on the ground, at a few steps from the Mound of 
Ehorsabad. Their trunks are triangular ; the tops of the 
angles are cut off, and terminate with lions' feet, very well 
sculptured, above and below which is a fiat band ; the angles 
beneath the feet are round like columns, instead of being flat. 
The whole stands on a plinth, and is formed of one single block. 
A cuneiform inscription is engraved on the circumference of the 
upper part. These remains are called altars, since no better ex- 
planution of their form could be given. Buth were exactly 
alike. Layard likewise found one (in situ) at Nimroud (p. 234). 

Hails of various forms were found in the earth that filled 
the chambers ; and fragments of copper utensils were also 
discovered. Of the nails, soma are small, and similar to those 
we call brads ; others were much bigger, wid were sq^uare, 
with round heads like those used to null ships' planking. All 
had probably belonged to the roof; for some appeared to have 
undergone the acUon of fire, and were partly melted, being 
mode of bronze. 

Besides these naila, the ring which, ■was fixed \u. tha^aU. 
above the smidl bronze lion, olreadj mfiafeuei., ■«>»■ tossft.. 

446 HniiATUBx 'wBA^onB mmzBD wite itolb. 

It was Becured in the well hy means of a Btrong equaro rod, 
annulated at intervals, so that it might not be torn out of ita 
place. All these objects are exceedingly well made, and much, 
auperior to any similar articles that could be maaufactured in 
tlie East at the present day ! 

A few words must now be said of the fragment of a si 
circle, whose use it is not easy to guess. There is no doubt 
that this fragment formed the portion of a wheel, or so 
thing similar, for on its concave side the roots of the spokes are 
atilt to be seen ; hut it is too email and slight to authorise us 
in believing that it is part of the wheel of a car. If tho 
reader, however, will again look at the wheels represented on 
the baa-reliefs, he will perceive that they were, in trutik, very- 
little, and the spokes remarkably slight, — a circumstance that' 
would induce ua to believe that these latter were formed of 
metal. We cannot believe, it is true, that felloes as narrow m 
those of the fragment in question could ever have supported a 
cor without sinking into the ground ; hut the bas-reliefs again 
furnish an answer to this difficulty. "We can see by them 
very distinctly that the felloes are formed of two superposed 
oirdes, the external circle being united by broad flaps to the 
internal one. It is very allowable to suppose that the 
Assyrians, finding great di^uity in uniting with precision 
the different parts of a wheel, thought of ctisting in one piece 
the interior portion, that is, the nave, the spokes, and the first 
circle of the felloe, and tlien completing it by another circle 
of wood, thicker and broader than the first, in order to 
increase the diameter of tho wheel, and prevent its cutting 
into the ground. This would explain the has-reliefa ; and the 
fragment in question might really have formed part of tlie 
wheel of an Assyrian car. 

We may pass ever, as possessing no interest, a large number 
of large thin plates of bronze, but must not omit mentioning Uis' 
small models of arms discovered in one of the pits containing^ 
the idols of baked clay. In this place were little lance-headn 
of bronze, with a handle hollowed out for the insertion of 
another one of wood. Bome tbin little crescents of the sams' 
metal, also furnished with a small handle, were likewise disci^i 
rered. As these playthings could have been of no use, 1 
were doubtless thus buried \)^ Ite aio o^ "ilaB \?uJa, mlelV 
with Bome sj-mbolic inWaWn- "S^* ttwica^ bsA sKW^-'tej* 


(rf which we here give engraviiigB (Figs. 248, 249), are taken 
from larger examples of the Bomu eymbols, and are drawn 
full size. 

A piece of lapis ollaris, flat and sculptured on several sides, 
was found near Amadia, a town situated at a distaace of fifteen 
hours' journey to the north of Miiaul, in the first range of the 
mountains of Kui^ietfin. One side represents two symholic 
figures Ij'ing one on the other, each of which is encompaseed 
by a cording in the form of a frame. The heads of these 
figures are human, with no boards, and are rather efieminate. 
Tirieir head-drcBses, which are Assyrian, are encircled with 
bands ; their bodies resemble that of a lion or feline animal, 
rather than that of a herbivoroua one, and wings completed 
their fantastic appearance. The other side is also divided into 
two compartments. In the lower one there is a goat, lying down 
and looking back ; in the upper one there are two of these 
animals also looking back, and standing with their foro-feet on 
B stem or tiunk placed between them. On each of the larger 
aides is seen a personage whoso form is entirely human : he 
has no heard, and is dressed in a lou% frwi%ftA. ■mV«., »wsst 
which he wears a cloak like a soit ot -^wm;, VaS. ttsa^isA. 
at the bottom. TTndemeath, It la iaiTo-«e&. '^^ 5s£.»s>» 


liaes, ■which, hj crossing each other, form lozenges. LaBtly, 
the top is bored with three holes, that penetrate nearly to tha 
base. It is very difficult to discover what could have been: 
the former use of this stone. 

Here it will not be out of place to add a few words on the 
commerce of ancient Assyria. With the exception of some 
isolated paasages in Scripture, we must entirely depend for 
the sources of our information on this subject upon writen 
who flourished later than the age of Cyrus. But it must bo 
'borne in, mind that the Orientals can preserve a traditionary 
poUcy, undisturbed and unaltered, for many generations. The 
ohaFacteriBtic attuchment to peculiar customs is exemplified in 
the well-known proverb, " The laws of the Medesand Persians 
alter not." This national repugnance to innovations of every 
description would have bean shared with equal seal by K 
despotic government, which wosld have watched with sus- 
picion the feeblest attempt to disturb ttie prestige of hereditary 
privileges. The conqueror would soon perceive the advantage* 
to be derived from the permanent and profitable employment 
of the people; the wonts of the vanquished would become in 
time those of the victor, and dues or presents would be exacted 
without difficulty, either from native or foreign merchante. 
'We may, indeed, fairly conclode that less mischief was inflicted 
on commerce by mere changes of dynasty and conquests. 
Bo-oalled, than by those fearful anarchies which, at a lateE,' 
period, caused a total suspension of the commerce of Persia..! 
As the more recent dynasties were built upon the same foun- 
dations with their predecessors, so their commerce must also 
have retained the same general character ; its principal Geat» 
remained unchanged, and the countries in which tbey were 
situated were at all times adorned with rich and flourishing ' 
cities, which, after the most cruel devastations, rose unimpaired. 
from their ruins. With these preliminary considerations beforttL 
us, a is easy to understand that when the sceptre of Assyrifr 
passed to the bond of the intelligent and active Persian, very, 
little, if any, change took place in the social condition Bnd, 
pursuits of the people ; and we may reasonably conjecture 
that their commerce ami manufactures were rather extended. 
tban djzniuislied by the intuH-Oa of a tresh stimulus to industry 
and exertion. At a very eat^'J -verLQi -Cue \B,v'ciatonwa, «t 
, Aesyria were celebrated ail o-x en \iite mSis«i^'K&% %& tr-" 

material required for these manufacturea, viz., flax, cotton, 
wool, and perhaps Eilk, were either not the produce of their 
soil, or certainl}' not in. Bufflcient quantity for their own con. 
Bumption. This fact aloue impliea the esiatence of a very 
extensire ahipping trade with the East. Accordingly, we find 
the prophet Isaiah (xliii. 14) alluding, in the eighth century 
before our era, to their maritime power — " Thus eaith the 
Lord your Redeemer, the HoJy one of Israel ; For your sake, 
I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nohlea 
and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in their ships." Again, the 
poet .^laehylua says in " The Persians," " Babylon too, that 
abounds ia gold, sends forth a promiscuous multitude, who 
embark in ships, and boast of their skill in archery." 

We must now take a rapid aurvey, as far as oitr limits per. 
mit, of the chief branches of this widely-spread traffic : first 
of manufactures. Among those who traded in " blue cloths 
and embroidered work" with Tyre, Bzekiel (xxvii. 24) enu- 
merates the merchants of Aeshur, or Assyria. In these stuifs, 
gold threads (Pliny viii. 48) were introduced into the woof of 
many colours, and were no doubt the " dyed attire and embroid- 
ered work" BO frequently mentioned in Scripture as the most 
costly and splendid garments of kings and princes. The cotton 
manufactures were equally celebrated and remarkable, and are 
mentioned by Pliny as the invention of Semiramis, who is 
stated by many writers of antiquity to have founded large 
weaving establishments along the banks of the Tigris and 
Euphrates. The silken robes of Assyria, the produce chiefly 
of the looms of Babylon, were renowned long after the tall of 
the Assyrian empire, and retained their hold of the market 
even to the time of the Koman supremacy. Frequent allusions 
are found in classic authors to the brilliancy and magnificence 
of the Babylonian carpets, which were embroidered with sym- 
bolic figures, together with animals and oonventional forms. 
One of these covered the tomb of Cyrus, when visited by 
Arrian (vi. 29), who giives a minute description of it. The 
country was characterized by Ezekiel (s\-ii. 4) as " a land of 
traffic, a city of merchants " and we can gather, even from 
the scanty materials at our command, that the Assyriaas car- 
ried on a very considerable commerce with India, Syria, and 
thence to Asia Minor, and even \iM\ia n^ "^wXat^s. ■%\ao^. 
Their moautaiia furuifihed a co\)iou& Bu^eV^'S ^ ^■^ Tp.'»s.K«*: 

metals, copper, lead, and iron, in great abtindance, which are 
stiU found in large quautities at no great distance from M^ul. 
The tribute obtained hy the Egyptians from Mesopotamia 
coDBisted of Tases of gold, silver, copper, and precious stones ; 
and similar artioleB were offered as presents by the prince of 
Syria to David (2 Samuel, viii. 6; 1 Chron. xviii. 10). The 
moat extraordinary tradilioEB were observed in antiquity of 
the enormous amount of gold collected at Nineveh, Every 
one will recollect the image of gold raised by Nebuchadnezzar 
(Daniel, iii. 1). This image of gold which Nebuchadnezzar 
IJie king made, and set up in the plain of Dura, in the pro- 
Tince of Babylon, was three-score cubits high, and six wide ; 
that is to say, its height was ten timea its width — proportions 
which wo are inclined to think cannot refer to the image of a 
man, but which agree perfectly with those of an obelisk, moat 
of the Egyptian obelisks being about ten times the width of 
the base in height; and as the word used for image in the 
Hebrew and in the Septuagint does not necessarily signify the 
image of a man, we think it more probable that it waa the 
figure or image of an obelisk. We are informed by Pliny 
that obelisks were considered the type of the solar rays, and 
dedicated to the Sun, or Sual. A cubit is generally considered 
to represent 1 ft. 6 in. of our measure ; so that this image set 
up by Nebuchadnezzar must have been 90 feet high and 9 
wide, of which dimensions there is still standing among the 
ruins of Karnak, in Egypt, an obelisk of one single block of 
granite, and we have only to fancy that monument to be co- 
vered with plates of gold to have present to the imagination 
the image of the plain of Dura. " Take ye the spoil of silver, 
take ye the spoil of gold, for there is none end to the store and 
glory out of all the pleasant furniture," says the prophet 
Nabum, ii. !). Copper conEtaatly occurs in their weapons, and 
it is most probable a mixture of it was used in the materials 
of their tools. M. Place discovered at Khorsabad a roll of thin 
copper which may have encased a wooden pillar. Its deco- 
ration imitated the trunk of a palm tree, and close to it were 
found some thin pieces of gold, which fitted exactly the orna- 
ment on tbe copper. The inference is, that the wooden columns 
were Srst encased in copper, and then plated with gold— 
"Se orerlaid the poets with, fine go^i." 1 Catwi. \iL 7. 
Tbey bid acquired tlie art ot matoni ^a»*i »»■ ■a«*«B:- 


tion usually attributed to the Phmniciaus. Several email 
bottlea or vaaes of tbia Bubatance, and of an elegant sbapej 

were found at Nimroud and Kouyunjik. The well-known 
cylinders are a Buffieient proof of their akill in engraving 
gema. Many beautiful specimens of carving in ivory were 

' also diacovered — an interefttii'iig iWaft'ctalusTi sS 
Ezekiel (ixrii. 6), where tine tom^sBi-j "A kiSKT^^i^ 


scribed as the makers of tte ivory benches of the Tyrinn 
galleys; — "The company of the Assburiles have made thy 
benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim." Some 
tablets of ivory from Nimroud are richly inlaid with blue 
opaque glass, lapis lazuli, &c. 

Herodotus (i. 195) meutioos the dclicately-carred heads of 

Fig. 253.-1 

walking-sticks, in the shape of on apple, a rose, lily, or tin 
eagle : some of these are still extant. 

Wb have selected for our illustrations of the lesser objects 

Bome fragments of sculpture in ivory found by Mr. Layard la 

a small chamber at the southern extremity of the north-west 

palace ottbe Jfound of NimrouA, 1\i.6'^\i.<Afi\iwa%'4^i4«yed 

, of the size of the originalB. 

FigB. 250 and 251 are fragmenta of two heads, which, hy 
reference to Fig. 252, will easily be understood to hare formed 
part of the decoratioa oa tlte Bides of a bos. The hair and 
treatment of these fragments are bo entirely Egyptian, that we 
have no hesitation in suiiposing ihem to huve been imitated 
from some Egyptian works of art. The eyebrows and eyes in 

theae are cnt out with great preeiaion, for the purpose of in- 
serting some other material, to represent with greater effect 
those important features of the human countenance, and to 
enhance the vaJue of the work. This practice was universal 
in Egypt, and numerous examples may be wa^Q^'*«.'n>'M!aK^- 
casea in the Egyptian rooms ot iVve Btv\;\6\vU.w4oMo- '^'^^f 
tbeao especial peculiariteB oE EgyuWan c.xvsia,'^* m-s^-^ 


a very remarkable Bimilarity in the yioaition of the ear, which 
in these fragments, as well as in the sculptures of Egypt, is 
placed considerably higher than in the statuea of Grecian 
and Boman workmanship, and higher likewise than it is found 
in the natives of either country, or in the humaa race gene- 
rally. Hence, again, we argue that this peculiarity must have 
been imitated from a fashioa or conceit which originated in 

Fig. 252 is a flat piece of ivory, which formed one of the 
ends, or part of the side, of an ivory casket. We are led to 
this conclusion from some similar fragments in the collection 
being fumished. U^e this, with projections from the upper and 
lower margin, which projections we take to be the tenons for 
securing it to the top and bottom of the casket. In the esample 
before us we have nearly the entire compartment containing 
the Egyptian mask, and below it is a singular ornament, 
which is imitated from one found only in the ancient tombs 
in the immediate neighhourbood of the great pyramid in 


rig. 253 is anolherflat piece of ivory, which likewise formed 
one of the ends, or part of the side, of a casket. The most 
extraordinary feature of this fragment ia, that it represents the 
Egyptian god Nilus in the attitude in which that divinity is 
usually sculptured upon the sides of the thrones of the 
Egyptian kings; that is to say, binding up the sterna of 
some water-plant, and with one foot placed againat a heart- 
shaped termination of a central stem or suppoit of a horizon- 
tal line. Our Egyptian example (fig. 254), illustrating this 
curious analogy, is copied from the throne of Pharaoh Necho, 
who carried his arms to the banks of the Euphrates, where 
he was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar (circa 610). In the work 
we are now examining, the inferiority of the Assyrian sculptor 
in the knowledge of the proportions of the human figure is 
very palpable, for the heads are much too largo for the bodies 
and limbs of the figures — a defect that is never found in 
Egyptian works of art. 

JFig, 255 (p. 403) is likewise part of the side or end of a box. 

It represents two lions with human heads, in the position, and 

wearing that peculiar covering for the fore-leg imitated from 

the lion in the throne of lL\vameeaCT.,^'Q. ^^lft V^wftwion of 

.Medinot Eaboo, and elaewliwe. '\:\icfttt&©aw«w^«ua&.\afi«. 

to back, after the fashion of the bulb of the facade of the 
King's Court in the pulaoa of Ehorsabail, and like them they 
are fumiahed witb wings — in this respect differing from any 
of the human-headed liona of iigypt, which are never repre- 
d with wings. 

riga. 256, 257, 258, 259.— It is difBoult to gueaa the pur- 
pose of these fragments. They represent gazelles or goata, 
and may have served for the handles of daggers or fly-flaps, 
Bnoh as we see in the hands of the attendants of the king in 

the sculptures from the walls of the palaces of Nimroud and 
Ehorsabad, These iragmentfi are flat, and in this respect 
Tig. 260, which is part o! a stotae ot a B)a,^^l\^^•Cil^'^■^■=aS^ 
Fig. 261 . — Two hands, ■w^e'h. -we. 'gteaM-'aiB'w'"'^^'''^ 


to a statue of a i 

bably, the robes 

Fig. 262 and : 

in the attitude of reBpect, of which, pro- 
B formed of some other material, 
e flat, and may be part of a box. 

Fig. 26S. — A carved ornament, resembling an architectural 
decoration of Greece, from the treasury of Atreus, which may 
be Been in the Elgin Room of the Eritiah Mueeum. 

Fig. 266 ia a fragmeDt, pait also oE a hoi, representing a 
0gure and dowers of the lotus. 
^'^ These iDtereBting fragments go toi Vi-SMift ft»i«Mi\*iii% 


the hypothesis of the intimate connexion between the arts of 
Egypt and Assyria, of which &o many curious illustrations 
have already been ehonn 

When the ivories we have delineated were ongmally dis- 
covered by Mr. Layjrd, owing either to their great antiquity, 
or, as is more probable, to the conflagration of the roof of the 
chamber in which they were found, they were m so fragile a 
condition as to render separation &om the soil almost imprac- 

ticable. However, by dint of (he utmost perseverance, Mr. 
Layard succeeded in collecting all possible iragmeats and iu 
transmitting them to the British Miisoum, where, by the inge- 
nious process of immersion in boiling isinglass, the animal 
matter was restored to the mineral structure, and the ivory 
lesuraed its natural appearance and solidity. 

Layard discovered in a room to the old Nimroud Palace, an 
extraordinary assortment of relics: shields, swords, pat«rffi, 
bowls, crowns, cauldroDs, ornaments in ivorv, nwt.h.M-at-Y»'i''N 
'&e. Tbe ressels are formed of a, \.m4 o^ co^^x, «t -viiiass 
broDBB, — some perfectly preBcrved, ttniaB\iTvi^'^M^%^^'*'^'^ 



the rust is removed. The engraviDgs and embossiitg on them 
are very beautiful and elaborate ; and comprise the same mythio 
Bubj'ectB which are found on the rohea of the figures in the 
Boulpturea, — men Btruggling with liona, warriora in chariots, 
and bunting scenes. 

He also is said to have found the throne on which the 
monarch, reigning about 3000 years ago, eat in hie eplendid 
palace. It is composed of metal and of ivory — tbcmctul being 



richly wrought, and the ivory- beautifully carved. The throne 
seems to havo been separated from the stote apartments by 
meana of a large curtain, the rings by which it was drawn and 
undrawn having been preserved. No human remains havo 
come to Ught, and evcrylhing indicates the deatruction of the 
palace by fire. It is soid that the throne has been partially 
fused by the beat. 

iesidi's the objecta above described, the gloss cases in the 
Koupmjik Gallery of the BriUaVi ^uft&um contain numeroua 
other most interesting relica, (3i\bi)» \M»duSi osA «^xiIuit^iA tiW 



Venuafrom Siisa ;— bronze hatchets, knives, &c, from Tel Sifr, 
South Bahylonia. Inscribed cones of the early Choldtei 
pire. Glass, terra cotta, and implements suppoaed to have been 
used in writing on clay, from Werka. Keedlea, copper wine 

Btrainer, and bells, from Nimrtroi, kai, fewoi ■^tso^^'si^ 
eevcral clay %iireB of Dagon, goiMoua ol iJbkixi «rBis.Nst,^iaJc 


olieta, kniveB, ladles, &e. ; clay records of Ashur-bani-pal U. ; 
glass vases and fragments. 

To the foregoing refinement of art the gema, the silk, cotton, 
ivory, and sugar-cane of India, and tlie spices of " Araby the 
blest," must have added their luxurious tribute. Indeed, a 
hasty glance at the map ih Hufficient to show that the country 
was favourably situated for commercial enterprise. Enclosed 
by two mighty rivers, which flow without inteiTuption to the 
Fersian Gulf, it presented one vast unbroken level, everywhere 
intersected by canals, which gradually decreased in size Ull they 
became mere ditches. The bonks were covered with inaume- 
rable machines for raising the water and spreading it over 
the soil. The aridity of the climste rendered this constant 
irrigation absolutely necessary ; but here, as in Egypt, the 
labour of man was rewarded by a luxuriant crop, such as the 
moat fertile valleys of Europe never produce. 

" Of all the countries I am acquainted with," says Hero- 
dotus (i. 193), "Babylon is by far the most fruitful in corn ; 
the soil is 80 particularly suitable for it, that it never producea 
less than two hundred fold, and in seasons remarkably favour, 
able it sometimes amounts to three hundred. The ear of the 
wheat, as well as the barley, is four digits broad, but the 
immense height to which the cenchrus and leaanum grow, 
although I have witnessed it myself, I dare not mention, lest 
those who have not visited this country should disbelieve my 
report." The fig-tree, olive, and vine, according to the same 
authority, were not found at nil ; but their place was supplied 
by an abundance of date or palm trees, which still grow in 
large quantities on the banks of the Euphrates. The vine 
occurs on the sculptures from Nineveh, and Ilabshakeh ex- 
pressly describes his country to the Jews as a "land of cora 
and wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive oil 
and of honey" (2 Kings, sviii. 32), as indeed the northern 
region of Mesopotamia is, and it was formerly, more productive. 
Of lofty trees the country is now destitute, but there is no 
reason for believing that it was always so ; on the contrary, 
the lop of charred wood, the remains of the beams of the roof 
found in the excavations, is an evidence 1« the contrary ; and 
among the sculptures from Mimroud in the British Uuseutn U 
a specimen of considerable dKmenavoua. 
Jlere we may borrow lUe -woiiB <it YwlesiOT ^i^sicti, <w 


whose valuable work on the commeroe of the principal natioDH 
cf antiijiiity we must rufer the reader who requires a more 
elaborate diseuBsioa of thia interesting subject. "Situated," 
lie Bays, " betweea the Indus and the Mediterranean, it was 
the natural staple of such precious wares of the East as were 
esteemed in the West, Its proximity to the Persian Gulf, the 
great highway of trade, which nature seems to have prepared 
for the admissioQ of the seafaring nations of the Indian seas 
into the midst of Asia, must be reckoned as another adTantago, 
especially when taken in connection with its vicinity to the 
two great rivers, the continuation, as it were, of tliis great 
highway, and opening a communication with the nations 
dwelling on the Euxine and the Caspian. Thus favoured by 
nature, this country neoeasarily became the central point where 
the merchantsof nearly all the civilized world assembled; and 
Buch, we are informed by history, it remained, so long as the 
international commerce of Asia flourished. Neither the de- 
vastating sword of conquering nations, nor the heavy yoke of 
Asiatic despotism could tarnish, though for a time they might . 
dim, its splendour. It was only when the European found a 
new path to India across the ocean, and converted the great 
commerce of the world from a land trade to a sea trade, that 
the royal city on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates began 
to decline. Then, deprived of its commerce, it fell a victim 
to the twofold oppression of anarchy and despotism, and sunk 
to its original state of a stinking morass and a barren steppe." 
The condition of the ruins is highly corroborative of the 
sudden destruction that came upon Nineveh by fire and sword. 
" Tben shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee 
off." ' It is evident from the ruins that both Khorsabad and 
Nimrou'l were sacked and set on fire. " She is empty, and 
void, and waste."' Neither Botta nor Layard found uuy of 
that store of silver and gold, and "pleasant furniture" wliich 
the palaces contained ; scarcely anything, even of bronze, escaped 
the spoiler, but he unconsciously left what is still more valu- 
able ; for to the falling in of the roofs of ihe buildings, by his 
setting fire to the columns and beams that supported them, and 
his subsequent destruction of the walls, we are indebted for the 
extraordinary preservation of the sculptures. In them we 
possess an authentic and coutempQtu.i:5 cnmiaciAa.'i'OTi. ct.. "^i^ 
' Nabum, Hi. lo. ■' \Vi.X\ "iA'i- 


propliecieB ; in them we read, in unmistakeable characters, an I 
evidence of that rapacity and cruelty of which the Aesyriaa I 
nation is accused. "For the Btone ahall cry out of the wall, ■ 
and the beam out of the timber ehall answer it. Woe to him I 
that buildeth a town with blood, and estahUaheth a city by ] 
iniquity!"' ' 





The weilge-ahaped and arrow-headed inacri^tvoia u^ "Owt tes^- 
nan palaces have been frequotil'Vy rtlettei. \» &.^Mv1i^■CXls.■^iT»- 
^rees of Ibis narrative. The ad^ea^viiea raii. saswawet ^ 


European Boholarahip in interpreting this writing would entitle 
the Bubject tj) especial notice, eveu were its contenta less im- 
portant to our future knowledge of Assyrian history. Inscrip- 
tioDB in wedge-shaped characters are found, aa we have already 
shown, on other mouumeDts than those of Nineveh, aod witit 
the external appearance of these, Europeans liave long been 
familiar through copies. Tlie wedge-shaped signs of Assyriut 
inscriptions, or the cuneiform characters, as they are com- 
monly called, are of two kinds : the firat form is that of a 
straight line divided at the top like the notch of an arrow, 
and ending in a point so aa to resemble a wedge, while otb^« 
look like the two sides of an obtuse angle. A number 
of these wedges of larger or smaller size, and perpendicular or 
horizontal in their arrangement, are grouped to ibrm a letter, 
and the letters are scpuratcd Iroiu eauh other by a particular 

Pietro della Valle and Figueroa were the first European tra- 
vellers who are known to have formed any coDJcctures re- 
specting the cuneiform characters ; they supposed that the ia- 
seriptjons were to be i-ead from left to right, and subsequently 
Chardin inoliued to the same view, though he thought they 
might poeeibly be read perpendicularly. Niebuhr publiehea 
the earliest e^iact copies of cuneiform inscriptions, and in 1788, 
Tychsen, of linstock, followed by Miinster, of Copenhagen, 
thought that they had ascertained the characters to be alpha- 
beticai, and to be read from right to left. Dr. Hager, in 1801, 
published a dissertation, to show that the characters were mo- 
nograms ; and Licliti-'nstein supposed that in the various com- 
binations only one was essential, the rest being added without 
necessity or rule, each group accordingly having the same 
value, and finuliy tliat the charaeters were to be read from 
light to left. 

It will be seen that down to this period no substantial pro- 
gress had been made in interpreting the cimei form. However, 
in the year 1800, au unknown scholar studying at the univer- 
sity of Bonn was bold enough to attempt, without the advan- 
tages of Orientul learning, to extract the latent meaning of 
au inscription copied by Niebuhr from a monument at Fer- 
sepolis. Uen of the most powerful inli^lleot had just been 
applying themselves to discover a phonetic language in the 
bieroglyybks of Egypt, with, w^^ ^wA i'i»i\» "ia \& >iffl^ 


^, s 



time of day sufficiently known. But the Rosetta atone dis- 
covered in Egypt contained a, Greek manuscript of the hiero- 
glyphical sentencea. Plutaroii had dissected the Pantheon, 
and given the namea of the gods : and Manetho had classified 
the dynasties, and transmitted the names of the kings : with- 
out euoh helps the meaning of the Egyptian aigns might have 
remained a mystery to this day. !No similar aid awaited the 
young German. The inscription upon which bo commenced 
his labours was written in three languages ; and whether 
either was a known tongue concealed under this carious al- 
phabet was uncertain. The first step, then, was to find out 
what sounds were represented by these signs, before inquiring 
what those sounds might aignify when ascertained. AU this 
has been done ; and with so much certainty, that Col. Bawlin- 
Bon at Baghdad, and Profeaaor Laaaen at Bonn, could sit down 
to interpret the same paaaage, and famish readings only jnat 
discrepant enough to show that they had not acted in concert. 
Kow, if this he but an accidental coincidence ; if by assuming 
that certain unknown signs are the equividenta of certain 
known letters, exactly the names which we might expect 
come out from the process ; if the right letters always occur 
at the right part of the worda, and are found in other words 
composed of the same elements; lastly, if all that is found in 
these inscriptions when interpreted agrees with history, and 
only varies to make it fuller and more exact, — then we 
have an accumulation of probabilities in favour of the sound- 
ness of the principle of interpretation, which cannot be re- 
jected without shaking the very foundations of evidence. 

It viaji Professor Grotefend, since Director of the Gymna- 
sium of Hanover, who first clearly determined nearly one- 
third of the alphabet. His first diacovery, communicated in 
the year 1800 to the Eoyal Society of Gottiugen, was reviewed 
by Tychaen, in the forty-ninth number of the G'6tting»»eh»n 
Gekhrtm Ameigen, September 18, 1802; and he afterwurds 
wrote an account of his system for M. Heeren, who publiahed 
it in his "Considerations on the Politics, Intercourse, and 
Trade, of the Principal Nations of Antiquity." Appendix ii. 
vol. 2. (Gottingen, 1815. Oxford edition, 1833.) 
The chief points of Grotefend's systems are : — 
That the cuneiform characters axe ncA\iet WTa^% tvit ■a.-^sass.- 
n'cal Bgurea, bat alphabetic cbaracteTa. 


That fie Peraepolitan lEBcriptioBs contain three different 
syetema of cuneiform, so that the deciphering of one would 
supply the sense of the others. 

That the characters are not eyUahic, as there are no words 
of ten syllables. 

That the inscriptions are to be read from left to right. 

That theaystems contain forty sign!, inclnding separafe 
characters, representing the long and the short related vowels, 
an opinion he supports by the analogy of the Zend. And, 

That the Pcrsepolitan inscriptions are in Zend, and belong 
to the period of Cyrus and Alexander. 

We cannot follow the entire process by which Grotefend ar- 
rived at these conclusiona after more than thirty years spent 
in patient investigation : a few words, however, will serve to 
indicate the systeni he pureued. Having in the first instance 
assumed that the inscriptions related to the kings whose por- 
traits they accompanied, he proceeded to carefully esamine 
and analyse them, word by word, and letter by letter, till at 
length he satisfied himself that he had found a genealogical 
succession of three distinct proper names. His inquiries into 
history having convinced him that the inscriptioLs themselves 
belonged to the Achsmenian dynasty, his next step was to 
try the names from Cyrus downwards; and here an important 
difficulty appeared, for the names in the inscriptions all began 
with difTerent letters, and at the same time were of nearly 
equal length ; so that both Cyrus and Cambyaes, and Cyrus 
and Artaxerxes, were successions equally irreconcilable. Find- 
ing that the first name of the inscription contained seven letter^ 

T7m£r-i<--J£ <£<-<Ti'<<A 

he gave a hypothetical value to these — 

which he compared with the Hebrew Daryavesch, Darigg 
The name of Xerses appeared to be formed of the foUom' 

KE - 8CH-H . E - ft - £-t:s.ra.5>,> 

fhe value of theso letters Vaviag ^leeu fti-aa ^e<l, fti.'a. '4 


four letters of the root of the word which he thought meant 
king were EH-SCH-P-H. He was informed that in the Zend, 
once spoken in the country of tho inscriptions — 


KH - BCH -E-H-I-O-H. (King.) 

wgxofled kiDg. The proper name of the king and his title 
having been thus disposed of, Grotefcnd was !ed by a concur' 
rence of reasons, apparently trivial when viewed apart, but 
sufficiently ooncluaive in tbeir connection, to consider the 
third word in each sentence which preceded the word " king," 
as an epithet or honorary title. It Lad four letters, the first 
of which, according to the hypothesis, ought to be an E, and 
the third an R, to agrca with the same characters found in the 
name of Darius — 

E - GH - R - E. (Grest) 

This time he went to the Zend, and finding that the word 
spelt E-GH-R-E meant "great," he adopted that reading 
here. Qrotefend had thua constructed a system by which the 
whole inscription might be read ; and be soon proceeded to 
tost it in a manner which may be more easily illustrated by 
the English names. Thus, if the three names were Hystaspes, 
Sarins, and Xerxes, it is evident that the first and second 
letters of the first name should not occur again ; the third 
should occur as the sixth of that name ; the t would not again 
appear ; the a must be the second of the second name ; the p 
must not occur again, but the e should appear in the third 

In its beginnings, Grotefend'a great discovery was tbua a 
guess ; he yet obtained in this manner the fragment of an al- 
phabet, and approached the true mode of spelling bo nearly, 
that those best qualified to form an opinion, have never hesi- 
tated a second as to its adoption. 

An important basis for future labours had now been laid, 
but beyond this nothing further appeared, until in 1836, U. 
Boumoaf, a scholar distinguialied iot \\w \^\;\oi.MSfcY-aw«V*.'j?. 
of thg Zend language, interptetei Wo oi ■Oac"S.VLm'^i»». ^s^.- 

468 naSEW ilfB EAWXINBON. 

acriptiona, and likewise ascertained that one of the Persepo- 
litan inscriptions contained numerouB proper nomea of ten ayl. 
lables, of which he was able to fii the true reading. The al- 
phabet was considerably extended by this performance, and 
confidence In its power was so fully established, that it only 
needed the application of a critical knowledge of Zend, Sans- 
crit, and other dialects cognate to the old language of Persia, 
to solve the difficulty. 

In Profesflor Laaaen, of Bonn, the pupil of A. W. Schlegel, 
a. man of almost unirersal Orientalism, these requisites were 
found; and between 1836 and 1844 he published three me- 
moirs, developing an alphabet which left scarcely anything 
farther to be accomplished. 

While the continental scholars were working in their quiet 
studies on copies of inacriptiooB more or less accurate, by soma 
happy fortune a young officer of the East India Company's 
anny, not behind any German reoluae in antiquarian zeal, WBB 
attached to our mission in Persia. Colonel RawHnsoD, being 
ignorant of what was going on in Europe, or of the processea 
by which Grotefend had been led to the discoveries of whicb 
he had heard, set to work to decipher two of the inscriptioiia 
at Hamadaa. He found them in every respect identicd, ex- 
cept an epithet, and the groups being arranged, like Grote- 
fend's, genealogically, he applied the same process, arrived at 
the same conclusion, and succeeded in reading part of the text 
of the inscription. At this time Bournouf a work and the 
great Behistun inscription supplied him with abundant analo-' 
gical and analytical aid; and he eventually succeeded ia coii- 
Btructing an alphabet which only varied in a single character 
from that formed by Lassen, at Bonn. 

One of the cuneiform alphabets had now been deciphered, 
and the language was found to be an ancient Persian, easily 
interpreted by the analogies of modern Zend, and the Sanacnt 
of the Tedas. The industry and acumen of Colonel Rawlin- 
Bon has worked out the problem so far, that further inquiry 
will relate only to the refinements of grammatical criticism. 

The same work had now to be performed for the Assyriaa 

texts; but here, while the process of anaiysia was essentially 

the same, ita application waa aocoin^med with tenfold diffl- 

eultiea. The Tersiau alphaVt coatavnei iort^ fctfawA^ ^ 

raoten; tie Assy riaa text 8pi;ettieiU> wiiv\*miW 

Kawlinsoa had worked at it for some timo, he found that some 
of these were only variants, or slightly deviating foriiiB of the 
Bame letter ; but having discovered this, and determined the 
value of the alpbabetio letters, the language still remained to 
be masterod. An unexpected aid was about this time dis- 
covered. Just as Arab, Fersiai), and Turk, exist side by side 
in Mesopotamia at the present day, so did the Assyrian, the 
Peraian or Mede, and the Scythian, in the days of Darius. 
To this circumstance we owe it that any progress has been 
made in their deciphenueat All of theni are trilingual ! one 

written in P 


A y 

d h 

a in a laa- 

guage wh h h t 

y tb 

f 11} d 

ph d Th 


inscriptio f m wh 

hC 1 

IE w] 

p k d 

t his As- 

Syrian cent f m 

80 t 

00 p p 

m h 

he could 

now read th P 

nti g t w 


not ditKculfc t 

t t 


I,h b tp 

tty nearly 

accurate. Th m 

f 1 


rr g w d 

ere soon 

recognised d wh 


d h 

d b pp 


determined t w 

d th t tl 1 

g g was 

ry nearly 

allied to th H b 



t 01 Id 

It will not 

be supposed that, e 

en after this discovery. Colonel Uawlin- 

s task was henceforth easy. Obstaclee lay in his way, of 
which students who learu a language with all the aids of 
lexicons, grammars, and annotated texts, have no conception. 
Thus, this Sebiatun inscriptioii is engraved on a rock at an 
elevation of 300 feet above the plain; and its delicat«ly- 
executed characters had to be read by the aid of a telescope ; 
besides which, a part of it was peeled oflf and irrecoverably 
lost. The inscriptions at Persepolia were so short, so crowded 
with proper names, and so full of repetition, that it was diffi- 
cult to ascertain what the real language was. In spite of all 
these impediments. Colonel Eawlinson considers the meaning 
of about 500 words as certainly determined ; and as these con- 
tWB many substantivea, verbs, and adjectives, with probably 
all the prepositions, they suffice to explain the meaning of any 
simple record of events, and such is the character of must of 
these inseriptiouB. 

The inscriptions at Khorsabad are never found upon any of 
the facades, but run along the aides of the chamherH, forming 
a line between the upper and Yowct \saa-'tiSwA6- '"i^wCT't ■««. 
tdao shorter ones engraved upon tti6\>Q\.\n\a.'i^ 'jiia4i.\'isa*i&'*- 


the different figures, and othere still briefer between the legs 
of the bulls at the doorways, as well as on the large flags 
which pave the entrance to the doora. Besides these, others, 
seemingly consistiDg of a single word, are to be seen over the 
heads of captives, and the representation of different towns. 
These Botta conjectures to be proper names. Another class of 
inscriptions was discovered upon the back of the gypsum slat» 
which formed the panelling of the chambers. Botta at fiiat 
accounted for this fact by supposing that tbe remains of some 
still more ancient building had been employed in the construo- 
lion of the Khorsabad monument ; but as the inscriptions were 
always the same, and invariably placed in the very middle of 
the block, he came to the conclusion that they must represent 
tbe name or genealogy of the monarch who raised tbe struc- 
ture, or else commemorate some historical fact. This suppo- 
sition is strengthened by the circumstance that the inscriptions 
in question are also cut upon the sides of the stones which 
formed the angle of the chambers. They were not executed 
with tbe same care and nicety as those upon the walls of tha 
chambers, but were evidently placed in tbe position they oc- 
cupied, in the same manner, and for the eume reasons, that 
coins and medals are deposited under the foundation-stones of 
modem buildings. 

Tbe inscriptions at Khorsabad arc, without exception, all 
written in the cuneiform character, and, with few variations, 
the same as that employed nt Nimroud. This fact Uses the 
data of the monument anterior to the termination of the As- 
syrian empire. Botta gives, at great length, a catalogue of tha 
characters he met with at Khorsabad, and also a list of the 
different groups formed by these simple characters or elements, 
and finds these groups, including the variations which be ob- 
served in their form, to amount to 642. The number of simple 
elements in each group varied from one to fourteen, but never 
exceeded the latter number. Botta is of opinion that the dif< 
ferent groups are not resolvable into their simple elements, bat 
that each represents a separate sound, as in Chinese: in this 
view he differs from all other inquirers. At Khorsabad ■ 
jcreat many inscriptions illustrate historical subjects, and it 
cannot be aappoaed tbat they always contain the same iudivi- 
duaj worilB. With so small anum^iei oi gtoa'^, >Xiwrfaws, iJt 
vV impossible each group can ba^e Te^ieseQ'iAi a.-woti\ "Caej^ 

ZKSCBiPTiORa.-^aiwijjiaoB. 471 

must eyidently stand for either a letter or a syllable. The 
wordfl, too, generally consist of a number of signs or groups, 
varying from one to four, from which it may be concluded that 
the language is syllabic, or that, at least, the aigns representing 
the consonants contain also the necessary accompaniment of 
vowels. Botta was at first inclined to believe in the co-exist- 
ence of another system of writing, on account of the complexity 
of the cuneiform, and also because he discovered bricks, vases, 
and gems, with inscriptions somewhat resembling the Fhoeni- 
cian character. He accounts for this, however, by supposing 
that the cuneiform letters may, like the Chinese, for ordinary 
use, ho written quickly, and, as is the ease with hieroglyphics, 
be reduced to such simplicity as to become almost irrecog- 
uisable as variants of the normal form. He also suggests, as a 
reason for the two systems of writing, that as the Phcenician- 
like characters were always found upon small articles, such as 
gems, vases, cylinders, &c., tbey might have been the work of 
foreign workmen, anxious to leave some mark of their nation- 
ality, or may have been engraved by the captives who were 
kept prisoners by the monarchs of Assyria. This may certainly 
have been the case at Babylon, where many of these objects 
with the inscriptions in question were discovered, and where 
there was a constant communication with the FhiBnician popu- 
lations inhabiting the shores of the Mediterranean. 

There is one remarkable fact connected with the cuneiform 
inscriptions of Khorsabad. No modification evor, or hardly 
ever, is observable at the commencement, or in the middle of 
the words. The termination alons is affected. This peculi- 
arity, Eotta thought, went far to prove that the language was 
not Semitic, as in the latter class of languages the changes 
always occur in the beginning ; nor is it of the Ariaa family, 
as there are no traces of prefixed prepositions or composed 

Having given, we trust, full credit to the acumen of Grote- 
fend and to the profound learning and skill of Lassen, we may 
now devote the lemainder of our space to an account of the 
labours of our own countryman, Eawlinson, of whom every 
Englishman may well be proud. We shall do this chiefly in his 
own words, aa contained in the "Journal of the Asiatic Society." 
In a memoir, prepared in ISM, buA uo\. \."t\«a ■^\i\Sv'i(i'A.,'^'i 

472 MscKiPTioirs. — hawxinboit. 

Colonel thus wrote respecting the labours of his predeees- 

" It would be interesting, perhaps, to the lovera of Oriental 
literature, if 1 could open the present memoir with a detailed 
account of the progress of cuneiform discorery, from the time 
when Profeaaor Grotefend firat deciphered the names of Cyrus, 
Xerxes, and Darins, to the highly improved condition which 
the inquiry now exhibits ; but my long absence from Europe, 
where the researches of Orientalists have been thus gradually 
perfecting the system of interpretation, while it has prevented 
me from applying my own labours to tbe current improvements 
of the day, has also rendered me quite incompetent to discrim- 
inate the dates and forms under which these improvementa 
have been given to the world. The table, however, in which 
I have arranged tbe different alphabetical systems adopted both 
by continental students and by myself, will give a general 
view of their relative conditions of accuracy, and — supposing 
the correctness of my own alphabet to be verified by the test 
of my translations — it will also show that the progress of dis- 
covery has kept pace pretty uniformly with tiie progress of 

"Professor Grotefend has certainly the credit of being the 
first who opened a gallery in this treasure house of antiquity. 
In deciphering the names of Cyrus, Darius, Serses, and Hys- 
taspes, he obtained the true determination of nearly a third of 
the entire alphabet, and thus at once supplied a sure and ample 
basis for further research. If. Saint lUartin, who resumed the 
inquiry on ita being abandoned by the Ocnuan professor, im- 
proved bat little on the labours of his predecessor : but shortly 
afterwards Professor Busk discovered the two characters re- 
presenting M and N, which led to several most important 

"Thomeraoirof M. Boumouf on the two cuneiform inscrip- 
tions of Hamadiin, published in 1 836, added several discoveries 
of interest; and the recent researches of Professor Lassen, 
supplying an identification of at least twelve characters, which 
had been mistaken by all hie predecessors, may entitle him 
almost to contest with Professor Grotefend the palm of alpha- 
betical discovery. 
"la a very few cases only, wbic^inB-'Y\>6 seen. o'n.ft.'Klisife'MR 
to tbe comparative table, have lin4eeito\iai<K.iiaEio^\»SiS)a,- 


with him as to the phonetic power of the eharactera, and in 
Home of the cases even, owing to the limited field of inquiry, I 
Lbvb little more than conjecture to guide me. 

" £ut in thuB tracing the outlines of the discoTcry as far as 
they are at present known to me, and in thus disclaiming any 
pretension to originality as far as regards the alphahet which 
ll I have finally decided on adopting, I think it due to myself to 
state briefly and distinctly how far I am indehted for my know- 
ledge of the cuneiform character, and of the language of the 
inscriptions, to the labours of continental students which have 
preceded the present publication. It was in the year 1835 
that I first undertook the investigation of the cuneiform cha- 
racter. I was at that time only aware that Professor Qrote- 
fend had deciphered some of the names of the early sove- 
reigns of the house of Achtemenes ; but in my isolated position 
at Kermanshah, on the western frontier of Persia, I could 
neither obtain a copy of his alphabet, nor could I diacorer 
what particular inscriptions he had ezAmined. The first ma- 
terials which I submitted to analysis were the sculptured 
tablets of Hamadan, carefully aod accurately copied by myself 
upon the spot ; and I afterwards found that I had thus, by a 
singular accident, selected the most favourable inscriptions of 
the class which existed in all Persia for resolving the diffi- 
culties of an unknown character. 

"These tablets consist of two trilingual inscriptions, en- 
graved by Darius Hystaspes and his son Xerses. They com- 
mence with the same invocation to Ormazd (with the exception 
of a single epithet omitted in the tablet of Darius) ; they 
contain the same enumeration of the royal titles, and the same 
statement of paternity and family ; and, in fact, they are iden- 
tical, except in the names of the kings and in those of their 
respective fathers. When I proceeded, therefore, U> compare 
and interline the two inscriptions (or rather, the Persian co- 
lumns of the two inscriptions ; lor as the compartments exhi- 
biting the inscription in the Persian language occupied the 
principal place in the tablets, and were engraved in the least 
complicated of the three classes of cuneiform writing, they 
were naturally first submitted to examination), X found that 
the characters coincided throughout, except in certain parti- 
cular groups, and it was only ioaaonBi\i\o \ft wv^ijwfc '^v&. "isa 
groups which were thug broug'ht out oai '■vaiksxii.xi.ttSis*!^ tssn^ 


represent proper name?. I further remarked, tliat there 
Tere but three of the»e distinct groups in the two inacriptioi 
for the group which occupied the aeooad place ia one 
Bcription, and '^rhich, from its position, sug-gested the idea 
its represeutLng the name of the father of the king who waa 
there commemorated, corresponded with the group which oo- 
eapied the first place in th« other inscription, and thna not ■ 
only served determinatelj to connect the two inscriptions toge- 
Uier, hut assuming the groups to represent proper names, ap<- 
peared aiso to indicate a genealogical succession. The natural 
inference is, that in these three groups of cliomcters I had 
obtained the proper names belonging to three consecutive ge- 
nerations of the Persian monarchy ; and it so happened that 
the first three names of Hystaspes, Sarins, and Xerxes, whick 
I applied at hasurd to the three groups, according to the buo- 
cession, proved to answer in all reapects satisfactorily, and 
were in fact the true identifications." 

The Colonel is not able, aft«r the lapse of so many years, to 
describe the means by which he ascertained the power of each 
particular letter, or to discriminate the respective dates of the 
discoveries ; hut he has no doubt that aome years ago he could 
have explained the manner in which he had identified these 
eighteen characters before he met with the alphabets of Qn>- 
tefend and Saint Martin. 

He continues: "It would be fatiguing to detail the gradual 
progress which I made in the enquiry during the ensuing year. 
The collation of the two first paragraphs of the great Behistuii ■ 
inscription with the tablets of Blwaud supplied me, in addi- 
tion to the names of Hystaapes, Darius, and Serjtes, with the 
native forms of Araames, A.riaramnes, Tcispcs, Achtemene% 
and Persia, and with a few old words, regarding which, how- 
ever, I was not very confident; and thus enabled me to oon*- 
struct an alphabet which assigned the same determinate values • 
to eighteen oharactere that I still retain after three years of 
further investigation. 

" During a residence at Teherdn in the autumn of 183 

had first an opportunity O'f becoming acquainted with the 

labours of Orotefend and Saint Martin. In Heeren's Idem, 

end ID Elapwoith.' & Aper^ de I' Origine des dwerset Eeriturtt, X- 

found the cuneiform alphabets ftii4UMiB\B.t\QUfwV\^^i^'\!«s» 

adopted in Genaany and Trance ■. \)ii\. ios fc*™^ iawfoiiw'^ 

iKBCRiPTroNa. — EiwLiNsoy. 475 

assistance from citbGr of these sources, I could not doubt that 
my OWE knowledge of the character, verified by its application 
to many names which bad not come under the observations of 
Grotefcnd and Saint Martin, was muoli in advance of their 
respective, and in some measure conflicting, systems of inter- 
pretation. As there were many letters, however, regarding 
which I was still in doubt, and as I had made very little pro- 
gress in the language of the inscriptions, I deferred the 
announcement of my discoveries until I was in a better con- 
dition to turn them to account. 

" In the year 1837 I copied all the other paragraphs of the 
great BehisLun ingeription that form the subject of the present 
memoir; and during the winter of that year, whilst I was 
still nnder the impression that cuneiform discovery in Europe 
was in the Bame imperfect state in which it had been left at 
the period of Saint Martin's decease, I forwarded to the Royal 
Asiatic Society my translation of the two first paragraphs of 
the Behistun inscription, which recorded the titles and genea- 
logy of Darius Hystaspes. It is important to observe that 
these paragraphs would have been wholly inexplicable accord- 
ing to the systems of interpretation adopted either by Glrotefend 
or Saint Martin ; and yet the original French and Ocrman 
alphabets were the only extraneous sources of iafoimation 
which, up to that period, I had been enabled to consult. It 
was not, indeed, until the receipt of tlie letters which had 
been sent to me from London and Paris, in answer to my com- 
munication te the Royal Asiatic Society, that I was made 
acquainted even with the fact of the inquiry having been 
resumed by the Orientalists of Europe ; and a still further 
period elapacd before I learnt details of the progress that had 
been made upon the Continent in deciphering the inscriptions 
eimultaneonsly with ray own researches in Persia. The 
memoir of M. Boumouf on the inscriptions of Hamad^n, 
which was forwarded to me by the learned author, and which 
reached me at Teheran in tha sa miner of 1838, showed me 
that I had been anticipated in the announcement of many of 
the improveraenta that 1 had made on the system of M. Saint 
Martin ; but I stilt found several essential points of difference 
between the Paris alphabet and that w\\\cl\ IVvaifovwieifeB^ 
tbe writing at SehistuD, and my o\iseiva.\.\i«v» tivi viie^ o'v'&swfc 
I poinlB of difference I at once Ru^jm\Xe\ \ft >&.- "^-^sasKi, 

476 issomPTioira. — EiwUNSOif, 

throagh the Secretory of the Eoj-al Asiatic Society of London. 
The materiala with which I had hitherto worked were far from 
being complete. The inscriptionBwhich Ihad copied at Hamadaa 
and Sehiatim eupplied my only mesna of alphaheticsi analysis ; 
and the researcheB of Anqnetil du Perron, together with a few 
Zend 1IS3., obtained in Persia, and interpreted for me by aa 
ignorant priest of Yezd, were my only guides in acquiring a 
knowledge of the ancient language of dte country. In the 
autumn, however, of 1838, I waa in a condition to prosecute 
the inquiry on a far more extended and satisfactory scale. Tha 
admirable commentary on the Ta^na by M. Bournouf, waa 
transmitted to me by Dr. Mohl, of Paris, and I there for tha 
first time found the language of the Zend AYesta critically 
analysed, and its orthographical and grammatical structura 
clearly and scientifically developed. To this work I owe in a 
great measure the success of my translations ; for allhongh I 
conjecture the Zend to he a later language than that of the 
inacriptions, upon the d6iris of which, indeed, it was probably 
refined and systematised, yet I belieTo it to approach nearer to 
the Persian of the ante-Aitxandrian ages than any other 
dialect of the family, except the Tedic Sanscrit, that is avail- 
able to modern research. At the same time, also, that I 
acquired, through the luminous critique of M. Sournouf, an 
insight into the peculiarities of Zend expression, and by this 
means obtained a general knowledge of the grammatical struc- 
ture of the language of the inscriptions, I had the good fortune 
to procure copies of the Persepohtan tablets which had been 
published by Niebulir, Le Brun, and Porter, and which had 
hitherto formed the chief basis of continental study. The 
enumeration of the provinces tributary to Darius Hystaspea 
I found to be in a greater detail, and in a far better state of 
preservation, in the Persepoliton inscription, than in the cor- 
responding list which I hud obtained at Behistun ; and with 
this important help, I was soon afterwards able to complete 
the alphabet which I have employed in the present translations. 
" On my arrival at Baghdad during the present year I 
deferred the completion of my translations, and of the memoir 
h^whiuh I designed to establish and explain them, until I 
obtained books from England whicH Taij^A anftble me to study 
wttb more care the peculiarities oi Sanacti^. gtwaiaM-, raii.'-«i 
ibe meaatime I busied myB«U wiO\ com^mafe^* i,«ft^«^li 


It woB at this period that I received through the Vioe-PreBident 
of the Royal Asiatic Society a. letter from Prot'esaor Lassen, 
containing a precis of his laat improved system of interpre- 
tation ; and the Sona alphahet I recognised at once to be 
infinitely superior to any other that had previously fallen nnder 
my ohservation. The ProfeBaor'a views, indeed, coincided in 
all essential points with my own, and since I have heen enabled, 
with the help of Sanscrit and Zend affinities, to analyse nearly 
every word of the cuneiform inscriptions hitherto copied in 
Persia, and thus to verify the alphabetical power of almost 
every cuneiform character, I have found the more reason to 
admire the skill of Professor Lassen, who, with such very 
limited materials as were alone at his disposal in Europe, has 
Btill arrived at results so remarkably correct. The close 
approximation of my own alphabet to that adopted by Professor 
Lassen will he apparent on a reference to the comparative 
table; and although, in point of fact, the Professor's labours 
have been of no further assistance to me than in adding one 
new character f* my alphabet, and in confirming opinions 
which were sometimea conjectural, and which generally 
required verification, yet as the improvementa which his sys- 
tem of interpretation makes upon the alphabet employed by 
M. Bournouf appear to have preceded not only the announce- 
ment, but the adoption of my own views, I cannot pretend to 
contMt with him the priority of eilphahetical discovery. Whilst 
employed in writing the present memoir, I have had further 
opportanities of esamining the Persepolitan inscriptions of 
Mr. Bieh, and the Persian inscription of Xerxes, which is 
found at Y&n ; and I have also, in the pages of the Journal 
Asiatique, been introduced to a better knowledge of the Pehlevi, 
by Dr. Muller, and I liaye obtained some acquaintance with 
Professor Lassen's translations, from the perusal of one of the 
critical notices of It. Jacqiiet." 

Eeepccting cuneiform writing in general, Eowlinson observes, 
that the Babylonian is nnqueHtiooably the moat ancient of the 
great classes of cuneiform writing. It is well known that 
legends in this character are stamped upon the bricks which 
are excavated from the foundations of all tiie buildings in 
Meeopotamia, Babylonia, anil Chaldoia.V.Wi.^asc^'i'CatVx'^'a*. 
md most authentic claims to anlii\uity, D.ui\\.\a^iM:&-3 (ixNi^ 
-vagant, therefore, to assign its in^enVwa to ftie ■^■Maiilvi^'^'*^ 

478 rascHiPnoMB. — KiWLiKSOif, 

■which settled in the plains of Shinar. It embraces, however,. 
BO many Tarieties, and is spread over such a vast extent of 
country, that Orientalists have hcen long divided in opinion as 
to whether its multitudinous hranchea can be considered aa 
belonging to one type of alphabet and language. Those who 
have studied the subject with most coro have arrived at tli9 
conviction that all the inscriptiona in the complicated cuneiforn^ 
character, which are severaUy found upon locks, upon bricka, 
upon slabs, and upon cylinders, firom the Persian mountains to 
the shores of the Mediterranean, do in reality belong to one 
single alphabetical system ; and they further believe th9 
variations which are perceptible in the diflerent modes of 
writing to be analogous, in a general measure, to the varietief 
of hand and test which characterise the graphic and glyphio 
arts of the present day. Colonel !Bawlinaon, however, can 
hardly subscribe in all its amplitude to. this general and 
complete amalgamation. He perceives modifications of a 
constant and peculiar character, which though insufficient to 
establish a distinction of phonetic organisation between tho 
Babyionian and Assyrian writing, but which may be held, 
nevertheleBs, to constitute varieties of alphabetical formation ; 
and the inscriptions of Elymaia also, from their manifest dissi- 
milarity to either one system or the other, are entitled, hs 
considers, to an independent rank. He then proceeds to exhi- 
bit a classification of the complicated cuneiform writing, 
according to the opinions which he has formed from an exten- 
sive examination of the inscriptions ; premising, at the same 
time, that he sees no auffloient grounds at present Ifl prevent 
us from attuchiog all tlie languages which Itie various alpha- 
bets are employed to represent, to that one great family, which 
it is the custom (improperly enough) to designate as iho 
Semitic ; and that ho leaves untouched the great and essential 
question, whether the difference of character indicates a dit 
I'erenco of orthographical structure, or whether the varieties 
of formation are merely analogous to the diversity which exists 
between the Estranghelo and the Nestorian alphabet, the 
printed and the cursive Hebrew, or the Cuiic and the modem 
The compUeated cuneiform chaiacteT, Vbeii, m^s.-j, Va ^vnlts, 
Ae divided into three distinct grovips— Btt\>^\om>iQ, k'wi^Twaj 
aadBJjmxaii; and the two former oE \iic&egi:o»^'«^<"™'^ 


admit of subdiviBion into minor "branchea. Of the Sabylonian 
there are only two marked varieties ; the character of the 
cylinders may be considered as the type of the one ; that of the 
third coiurnn of the trilingual inscriptiDns of Persia, of the 
other. The former is probably the primitive cuneiform 
alphabet. It is also of extensive application ; it is found upon 
the bricks which compose the foundations of the primaeval 
cities of Bhinar, at Babylon, at Erecb, at Accad, and at Celneh ; 
and if the Bira-i-Niraroud be admitted to represent the tower 
of Babel, aa identification which is supported, not merely by 
the character of the monument, but by the universal belief 
of the early Talraudiats, it must, in the substructure of that 
edifice, embody the vernacular dialect of Shinar at the period 
■when " the eib'th was of one language and of one speech." 
But it was not confined, as has been sometimes supposed, to 
cylinders and bricks. It has the same title as that of the 
trilingual iusoriptious to be conaidered a lapidary character ; 
for we have specimens of it on Sir Harford Jones's great slab, 
published by the Honourable the East India Company in 1803, 
as well as upon numerous stones and hard-baked pieces of clay 
that have been disinterred at Babylon at difierent periods, 
Korwas its employment, or at any rate its intelligence, restricted 
to that immediate vicinity ; Rawlinson copied, in the year 
1836, a very perfect inscription of thirty- three lines in this 
character, from a broken obelisk on the mound of Susa; and 
a black stone, which is engraved with 104 short lines, of the 
same writing, and which is now in tliepossessionof theEarl of 
Aberdeen, was excavated not long ago from, the ruins of 

The second form of this alphabet is the best known, as it is 
also unquestionably the least aneient, branch of the Babylonian 
writing. It is employed with little or no variation of type lo 
represent the transcript in tlie third column of all the trilingual 
tablets of Persia, and it may perhaps therefore be not inappro- 
priately termed tlie Achsemcnian- Baby Ionian. By what means 
it became simplified from the primitive writing, or by how many 
centuries its adoption preceded the rise of the Achoimenian 
dynasty, we have no data at present for determiiun^', ^i^ ^fci:^*^ 
it was in aso until alate period o£ttie'Eei6\Mi.em^\\ftA*"'P^^'^ 


in hieroglyphics and in tlie trilingual characters of the AcHbb- 
menionB. It is curious to remark that although at Penepoli^' 
at Hamad^D, at Van, aud at Eehiatun, this writing exhibits no 
seDBible variety, it may be doubted if a genuine Babyloi ' 
monument has been evei met with of which the cbaracter ia 
precificiy identical. The inacriptioDB published by Etch a 
certAiuly a near approximation, and Orot«fend observes that the 
writing upon the stone described by Mr. MiUin partly resembles 
the Eame type; but Bawlinson repeats that he is not aware of 
any legend discovered at Babylon that may lay claim to an 
absolute ideutity ; and this is the more to be regretted, as ws 
are indebted to the triliugnal inscriptions of Persia for our only 
key to the decipherment of the Babylonian alphabet, and any 

■ variation, accordingly, from the former type seriously imp ' 
the extension of the inquiry. 

Kespecting the Assyrian character, Eawlinaon says : " M. 
Botta, who has exhumed, under the liberal patronage of tho 
French government, the multitudinous inscriptions of Ehorsa- 
bad, and who will shortly, it is hoped, confer a more important 
benefit upon science by rendering their contenta intelligible, 
regards the Assyrian writing, wherever it may exist, as of one 
common and universal type. I do not pretend at present to 
contest this view, as far as itmay concern either the language 
or its alphabetical structure; but in respect to the configuration 
of the character, it requires, I think, to be somewhat modified. 
If the permutations of letters occurring in certain words (par- 
ticularly names) at Yan and at Khorsabad, were regular and 
constant, or if the frequent repetition of those words, either at r 
one place or the other, by a diff'erent employment of ugu ^ 
connected the two systems of orthography together, and ex- ' 
plained the process of amplifying, abridging, or modifying the 
respective characters at will, then, by an extensive assortment ' 
of variants, the alphabets perhaps might be brought to coalesce ; i 
but such I cannot find to be the case. On the contrary, I pe^• 
ceive characters at V^u which never occur at Khorsabad, and 
fiee vend; and without impugning, therefore, in anyway, the 
possible identity of language, or tbe probable identity of iti 
pbonetjc orjTiiiisatioii, as I have distinguished between the 
Babyhniim writing of the priniivwe eiii kaViamcwiaa-^tuidsY 

oo do I also recogaiee a difference fce\."«eeuXW "tteia-kw^-raa 
aad theAasyriaa aljihabeta. Uj ttie licio-Kwi^^ai. vi-^V*^ 


I indicate that wbioh ('^th the exception of the trilingual 
insoriptioa of Xerxea) is exclusively found on the iocIm at 
Vdn and its neighbourhood, which occurs at Dish Tappeh, in 
the plain of Miy&ud&b, and ou the stone pillar at the pass of 
Kel-i-Shin, and which, as far as I can judge from an imperfect 
specimen of the writing, is also the character employed in a 
rock inscription on the banks of the Euphrates, between the 
towns of Malatieh and Kharpilt. The Assyrian alphabet, on 
the other hand, appears to be peculiar to the plains of Assyria. 
In this character are engraved tie entire series of the marbles 
of Khorsabad. Broken slabs bearing the same writing, have 
been excavated froni the ruins of Nineveh, and I was also lately 

■ fevoured with the fragment of an inscription from Kimroud 
(perhaps tlie Rehoboth of Scripture), which is unt[ue8tionably 
of the Assyrian type. The bricks, moreover, which I have 
seen from Khorsabad, Nineveh, and Nimroud, are, as might be 
expected, impressed with legends in the Assyrinu character, 
and exhibit, in this respect, a very remarkable difference from 
the relics of the same class in Babylonia. Unfortunately I 
have never been able to obtain bricks stamped with tiie cunei- 
form character from either of the sites, which I suppose to 
represent the sister capitals of Eesen and Caluh. Such relics, 
however, I have every reason to believe, are found both at 
Shohrizor and at Holwfin, and if, when submitted to esamina- 
tion, the writing should prove to be of the Nineveh type, we 
then may claim for the Assyrian character au antiquity of in- 
vention and an extensiveneas of employment almost eq^ual to 
that of the primitive Babylonian. 

"I-have already mentioned the disinterment of a stone from 
the ruins of Nineveh, which exhibits a very loug and perfect 
inscription in the character of the Babylonian cylinders. The 
discovery of this relic, however, in titu, does not, as it appears 
to me, necessarily confound the limits of Assyrian and Baby* 
Ionian writing. It was probably of foreign manufacture, and 
may have been preserved by some inhabitants of Nineveh as 
an amulet or sacred curiosity. Under any circumstances, it 
can only be regarded as a specimen sm generif ; for the 
usual writing which ia found upon cylindriotd pieces of hard- 
baked clay excavated from Nineveh ia (^aite di«ii?w,t fetiw^ wsk'^ 
variety of obaracter which occura o\i. eWiW ■^e\i'A ^\,'%'aS>"^iKi^ 

The Assyrian running- hand, as it ma^ \je t^^i.Ns. ^-sSx^saiSei 

482 aiwiiMsoN oif the asstbian alphabets. 

minute and eonfusetl, and the letters, by their sloping pOBition, 
are made bo thoroughly to intermingle, that it is almost impos- 
sible to diacriminate their respective forms. Mr. Rich 
{Babyhn and Penepolu, Plate 9, No. 5) baa published a frag- 
ment of writing which appears to me to be in. this difficnlt 
character; numerous specimens of it are to be found ia the 
museums of Europe, but by far tbo most interesting and 
perfect relic of the class tbat has been ever hitherto) disco- 
covered, is 0. hexagonal cylinder of clay, iu the possession of' 
Colonel Taylor, which exhibits oa each side between seven^ 
and eighty lines of writing, in excellent preservation, but bo 
elaborately minute as, I fear, to deiy all attempts at analjsiB. 
I have, indeed, a paper impression of this curious record, in 
which the relief of the characters is more clearly marked than 
on the original cylinder, and yet, although I have repeatedly 
examined it with the aid of a magni£er, I hesitate to say 
whether it most reaetables the writings of Khorsabad or 


" Before I quit the subject of the Assyrian inscriptions, I 
must also notice the tablets at the mouth of the Nahr-el-Kalb, 
in the vicinity of Boyrout. I remember to have seen in Persia 
many years ago a litliographed sketch of the entire sculptures, 
executed by Mr. Bonomi ; but, as far as my recollection serrei 
me, there was no attempt in that sketch to delineate the forms 
of the characters. At present, I can only consult a drawing 
of the principal figure, made by an Armenian gentleman, 
together with a few detached specimens of characters; and I 
find from the materials that, although the style of sculpture at 
the Nahr'al-Kalb resembles in every particular the figures at 
£horsabad, the letters appear tji be of the Medo-Assyrian 
t3fpe — a circumstance which, if it should be verified by more 
elaborate examination, will have the important effect of deter* 
minately connecting the monuments of Van and Khorsabad. 
At any rate, in a locality accessible at all times to European 
curiosity, a question of so much interest to historical res^rch 
ought not to remain long in doubt. 

" It will thus be seen that the classification which I haTe 
adopted of the complicated cuneiform writing, embraces the 
following divitionB : — 

{ Primitive Bab^XoiiW'o, 

( Achtcniemaii.'UttbTiV'iuiAHi-, 

EiWLiHaoif ojj THE AiPHABKT AND waiiise. 483 

{Medo- Assyrian, 
Assyrian ; 
" It IB not my intention in this place to discuss the affinities 
of the respective alphabets. They all possess a great number 
of signs in coniDion, but thero are also certaia characters pecu> 
liar to each systeia, which, as they are constant in their 
respective localities, caa hardly be explained by tlie caprice or 
■ extravagatice of the artist. M. Botta has observed, that a 
person who can read the Khorsabad inscriptions can read every 
other species of the complicated character ; and I coosider bis 
opinions entitled to the utmost respect; but the principle will 
certainly not hold good in an inverse application, for my own 
acquaintance with the Acbsetnonian Babylonian is of some 
extent, and yet I have not hitherto succeeded in identifying a 
single Dame in tbe tablets of Vin or Khorsabad. 

"I will now add a few remarks on the attempts which have 
hitherto been made to decipher this interesting character. 
Germany took tbe lead in the inquiry, la the Mines de l' Orient, 
vols. IV., v., andVI. (1814 — 1816), there are several ekborate 
papers on tbe subject ; and I learn from Professor Grotefend's 
Essay on the cuneiform character, forming appendix No. 2 ffl 
the second volume of Heeren'a Besearches (publisbed in 1815), 
that his own labours were either subsequent to, or cotemporary 
with, those of a host of other archsologists. The names of 
Tychsen, Munter, Kopp, De Murr, Hager, Millin, and "Wahl 
are particularly conspicuous among the early inquirers ; but I 
do not perceive that any real advantage resulted irom their 
labours beyond the preliminary, but most necessary, process of 
classifying the characters. This classiUcation, I understand, 
has been carried to a much greater extent of late years in 
England by Mr. Cullimore, and it is probable that Signior 
Mussabini'a work, which I see announced for publication, may 
contain some att<!mpt at pbonelio expression. The laborious 
task, however, on which M. Botta has been engaged during 
his excavation of tbe Nineveh marbles, promises to be of far 
greater importance to the interpretation of the inscriptions 
than aU preceding efforts. Having an inexhaoslible field of 
companaon, he has been employed in. ctnisS.rac'uTi^ ■». wnsi?$is>*. 
table of variants, the frequent xe^retKWn. ot ft^^i »otqb-*i«^ 
with orthograpbical variationB oi mato it "^s^ KsJjenV ™=* 

484 BiWLiKSOs OS THE iLPHABEi A5D wamso. 

Dishing him with a key to the equivalent signs ; and by theae 
means be has succeeded, as he informs me, in reducing the 
Assyrian alphabet ta some manageable compaM. Sfy owa 
labours hay« been restricted to tbe AdiEemeniau Babylonian, 
as I have found it at PereepoliB, Hamad&n, and Behistun, and 
I have attempted nothing further at present than the determina- 
tion of the phonetic powers of the cfiaractere. I have obtained a 
tolerably extensive alphabet from the orthography of the fol- 
lowing namee : — Achtemenes, Cyrus, Smerdis, Hystaspea, 
DariuB, Artyatone, Xerxes, Artaxenea, Gomates, Uagns, 
Atrines, Naditabirua, Nabochodrossor, NaboniduB, Fhroortes, 
Xathrites, Cytaares, Martiua, Omanea, Sitratachmes, Veiadatee, 
Aracus, Phraates, Persia, Susiana, Margiana, and Oromasdes; 
but I have left the grammar and construction of the language 
hitherto untouched. 

"***It ia natural to infer, from the peculiar form of 
cuneiform writing, that in all ages and in all countries, it 
must have been confined exclusively to aculpttires and impres- 
sions. In Babylonia and Assyria there was certainly a cursive 
character employed in a very high antiquity, synchronously 
with the lapidary cuneiform. We meet with it occasionally 
on bricks and cylinders ; and if these relics were insufBcient 
to prove its authenticity, we might refer to the squared Hebrew 
which the Jews are believed to have adopted in Babylonia, 
and to have first substituted for the old Samaritan when they 
returned from the captivity with a language sensibly affected 
by their long residence on the Tigris and Euphrates. It is 
probably, however, the cuneiform character of Assyrian type 
to which Herodotus and Diodorus allude under tbe titles of 
Syrian and Assyrian writing; and the tablets of Accarus, 
regarding which Clemens of Alexandria has preserved so 
curious a notice, were inscribed, I should imagine, with tha 
same letters, but of tbe Acbeemenian Babylouian class. Tha 
latest monument upon which the ancient character is pre- 
served, is probably tbe inscription of Tarki, north of the 
Caucasus — a relic that M. Bournouf has, vrith some plausi- 
bility, assigiicd to the period of Arsacide dominion. In Baby- 
Joam Proper its employment could hardly have survived the 
era of Alexander the Great, aaA aa it a^^eona -Qe^et Va Viasft 
i>e0ii usedin Persia, except in con-ncctvim. ■w\'Cti.a.fc^e\gi.\« 
gaage, and for the purpose o£ mimstetms ^n ftva \ltv^ A 


AdiEemenion monarchB, who claimed to have inherited tiie 
science as well aa the wealth and glory of Babylon, it ceased, 
no doubt, to be understood to the eastward of the mountaina 
after the extinction of that dynasty. Grecian civilisation 
then, as it ia welt known, replaced for a while Semitic influ- 
ence in the interior of Persia ; and when the Macedonians 
retired, they were succeeded by that tide of immigration from 
the eastward which for many centuries imposed a Scythic 
character on the nsages, the religion, and porlwps also in some 
degree on the language of the Parthian nation." 

The great feats of interpretation which such a man as 
Bawlinson has accomplished, should not he suffered to blind na 
to the fact that our materials for Assyrian history even now, 
after a partial elucidation of such ioscriptiona as have been 
found, are extremely limited and fragmentary, and in their 
present state convey little that is positive in its results, at least 
80 far aa a chronological narrative is concerned. The system 
of Assyrian writing is still extremely obscure, and the lan- 
guage which it records is only partially intelligible through 
the imperfect key of the Beliistun inscriptions. Agaio, it 
should not bo forgotten, though valuable as arc the annals we 
possess of individual kings, and important as they may one 
day become as elements of a complete series, they go but a 
very little way towards filling tiie gap of sixteen hundred 
years, which must have intervened between the age of Nimroud 
and the destruction of Nineveh by Cyaxares. All we can 
expect at present is, that the inscriptions may supply ua with 
internal evidence respecting the relative position of the dif- 
ferent royal families, and the probable interval which elapsed 
between them, Future discoveries of sculptures asd a furtlier 
development of the alphabet, are to be expected from the zeal 
of those inquirers now in the field, and to these we must look 
for the more complete elucidation of the history of Assyria. 

Pending this development, tlie date of the chief sculptures 
can only be conjecturally assigned; Colonel !RawlinsoD thinks 
that the Nimroud marbles now in the British Museum are of a 
very high antiquity, and as the north-west palace appears, 
beyond all doubt, to have been the oldest building in Hiniroud, 
BO, too, the inseriplione are lhe-cu\,\w\.Tet(i\i%\a'^ftSN».'e&JiTci. 
cbaraeter which have been thetu ^jtow^A W \\'^^.- '^^^^ 
Coltmel BawliDBoa attributes to a VvQ^ "«^'«» i«<n«i^^ "* 

486 rawunsok's opraioif os the pebiod of msrEonn palace. 

SB ABsarailan-pal, and who ho thinks mny be identified with 
the WOT like Sardaoapolus of Callistheneti. 

But although this Sardanapalus may be the first king of As- 
syria whose annals bare been brought to light, he was neither 
the first king, the first founder of the city, nor the first great 
builder in Assyria. In all his inscriptions, Sardanapalua 
names both his father and grandfather, to each of whom he 
gives the title of King of Assyria; and when commemorating 
the building of the Palace of Nimroud, be says that the city 
was founded by Temen-bar. How many kings reigned in the 
interval between the two, it is impossible to say at present. 
The name of the king who succeeded Temen-bar is read 
Hemenk or Henenk, a word which resembles the Evechiua of 
the Greek cbronologers, which they say is the true Cbaldtean 
desigpation of Nimrod. The name of the next king is repre- 
sented by a group of characters, which Rawlinson takes to 
mean "servant of Bar," but to which he cannot give any 
syllabic form. 

We now come to the Aasar-adan-pal, or Sardanapalna, 
author of the inscriptions in the north-west palace atI4'imroud. 
The formula with which all these begin is, ",This is the palace 
of Sardanapalua, the humble worshipper of Assarao and 
Beltis," &c. After this introduction, the inscription goes on 
to notice the exertions of the king to establish the Assyrian 
worship ; and then follows, although the connexion is not very 
ohTious, what is taken for a long list of geographical namea of 
the nations then tributary to Nineveh. Could these namea be 
identified with certainty, we might be able to determine ths 
extent of the Assyrian empire when they were engraved. 

Thus has lEtawlinson been sedulously engaged in applying 

his discoveries to the inscriptions in the old north. west pdace 

at Ifimroud. He has read on the black obelisk, from th9 

centre of that mound, a record of the wars and history of 

thirty-one years of the seventh century before the Christian 

era; and it is not too much to expect, from his talents and 

power of application, that, should his life be spared, a most 

interesting chapter of the world's history may yet bejestored, 

Jfis tranelalion of this inscription ia as foUowa. 

Colonel Rawlinson, aHei stating tWV fee 'mwi't\'^"C\wi«n.'*.»i 

obelisk commences with an iiwocation \a t'tve ?,o^ '^^ ,^"^j 

to protect Ibe empire, goes on to saj ■. "1 wfluA ^^^V^- ■6J 

bawlihsoh's reabing of the obelisk. 487 

Benae of tie whole invocation, which takes up fourteen lineB 
of writing, as woll from the ohscurity of the titles apper- 
taining to the goda, aa from the lacunte in the test, owing to 
the fracture (of the comer edge of the gradines ; hut I per- 
ceive, I think, the foUowing passagcB : ' The god Asaarac the 
great lord, king of all the great gods; Ani, the king; Kit, 
the powerful, and Art«nk, the supreme god of the provinces ; 
Beltia, the protector, mother of the gods,' A few lines farther 
on, we have ' Shemir (perhaps the Greek Semiramia), who 
presides over the heavens and the earth,' (another god whose 
name ia lost). ' ISar," with an unknown epithet ; then 
' . . , Artenk, Lama, and Horus ;' and after the interval of 
another line, ' . . . Tal, and Set, the altendants of Beltia, 
mother of the gods.' The favour of all these deities, vifith 
Assarac at their head, the supreme god of heaven, is invoked 
for the protection of .Assyria. Temen-har then goes on to give 
bis titles aod genealogy; he calls himself king of the nationa 
who worship Husi (another name for the god Shemir) and 
Aasarac; king of Mesopotamia (using a term which was 
afterwarda particularly applied to the Euphrates); son of 
Sardanapalus, the servant of Husi, the Protector, who first 
introduced the worship of the goda among the many peopled 
nations (the exact terms being here uaed, which answer to the 
* dah-y&wa par wwa- zona' of Pcisepolis). Sardanapalus, too, 
ia caLed the son of Katibar (or 'the servant of Bar'), who 
iras king of Zahiri, which seems to have been one of the mcmy 
names of Assyria. 

"Temen-bar then aays : — 

" ' At the commencement of my reign, after that I waa 
established on the throne, I aaaemhled the chiefs of my people 
and came down into the plains of Esmea, where I took the city 
of Haridu, the chief city belonging to Nakhami. 

" ' In the first year of my reign, I crossed the Upper Eu- 
phrates, and ascended to the tribes who worshipped the god 
Husi. My servanta erected altora (or tablets) in that land to 
my gods. Then I went on to the land of Kham&oa, where I 
founded palaces, cities, and temples. I went on to the land of 
Hilar, end there I estahliahed the wotebiif <^qi Ib.'W6\ *it -coji 

" 'la the second vear. I went im to ftio cVct oltA'%'"«^a»- 


up in his city. I then crossed the Euphrates, and ocoupied 
the cities of Dabagu and Abnrta, belonging to the Shela, toge- 
ther with the cities which were dependent on them. 

" 'In the tliird year, Ahiini, Bon of Hateni, rebelled agaiuBt 
me, and having become independent, established his seat of 
govennnent in the city of Tel Baraaba. The country beyond 
the Euphrates he placed under the protection of the god Ab- 
sarac, tiie Excellent, while be committed to the god Kimmon 
the country between the Euphrates and the Arteri, with ila 
city of Either, which was held by the Bheta. Then I de- 
scended into the plains of Elets. The countries of Elets, 
Shakni, Dayini, Enem(?) Arzaskiin, the capital city of Arama, 
king of Ararat, Lazan, and Hubiska, I committed to the chaige 
of Detarasar, Then I went out from the city of Kineveh, and 
crossing the Euphrates, I attacked and defeated Ahuni, the 
son of Hateni, in the city of Sitrat, which was situated upon 
the Euphrates, and which Ahuni had made one of hia capitals. 
The rest of the country I brought under subjection ; and 
Ahuni, the eon of Hateni, with his gods and his chief priest^ 
his horses, his sons and his daughters, and all bis men of war, 
I brought away to my country of Assyria. Afterwards I 
passed through the country of ShelSr, (or Kel&r), and came to 
the district of Zoba. I reached the cides belonging to Nikti, 
nod took the city of Tedi, where Hikti dwelt.' [A good deal 
of this part of tbe inscription I have been obliged to translate 
almost conjecturally, for on the obelisk the confusion is quite 
bewildering ; the engraver having, as I think, omitted a line 
of the text which he was copying, and the events of the third 
nnd fourth year being thus mingled together ; while in the bull 
inscription, where the date is preserved, showing that the final 
action with Ahuni took place in the fourth, and not in tha 
third year, the text is too much mutilated to admit of our ob- 
taining any connecting sense. I pass on accordingly to the 
fifth year.] 

" ' In the fifth year, I went up to the country of Abyari ; I 
took eleven great cities ; I besieged Akitto of Eni in his city, 
taid received his tribute. 
" 'Ih the eixth year, I went out from the city of Nineveh, 
Bod proceeded to the country aitimtei on 'iiieTi'(«"MaV. t\*, 
raler of the country having refiistod m^ auWarvt^,"^ &w^w*A. 
Jii/D, and appointed Tsimba to bo 1ot4 ot ^^i6 ecis,Vtw.\.\ «wi.\ 


there MtabliBhed the Assyrian sway. I went out from the 
land on the river Belek, and came to the citiea of Tel-AtSk (?) 
and Eaboremya. Then I crossed the Upper Euphrates, and 
received tribute from the kin^ of the Sheta, Afterwards I 
went out from the land of the Sheta and came to the city of 
TJmen (?). In the city of Xfmen (?) I raised altars to the great 
goda. From the city of Xfmen (?) I went out and came to the 
city of Barbara. Then Hem-itlira of the country of Atesh, and 
Arhulena of Hamnth, and the kings of the Sheta, and the 
tribes which were in alliance with them, arose ; setting their 
forces in battle array, they came against me. By the grace of 
As&arflc, ttie great and powerful god, I fought with them and 
defeated them ; 20,500 of their men I slew in battle or carried 
into slavery. Their leaders, their captains, and their men of 
Var, I put in chains. 

" ' Id the seventh year, I proceeded to the country belonging 
to Khabni of Tel-ati. The city of Tel-ati, which was hia 
chief place, and the towns which were dependent on it, I 
captured, and gave up to pillage. I went out from the city of 
Tel-ati, and came to the laud watered by the head-streams 
which form the Tigris. The prieata of Assarac in that land 
raised altars to the immortal gods. I appointed prieata to 
reside in the land to pay adoration to Aasarao, the great and 
powerful god, and to preside over the national worship. The 
cities of this region which did not acknowledge the god Assa- 
rae I brought under subjection, and I here received the tribnto 
of the country of Nahiri. 

" ' In the eighth year, against 8ut-Baba, king of Tana-Bunis, 
appeared Sut-Bel-herat and his fotlowers. The latter led his 
forces against Sut-Baba, and took from him the cities of tha 
land of Beth-Takara. 

" ' In the ninth year, a second time I went up to Armenia 
and took the city of Lunanta. By the assistance of Assarao 
and Sut, I obtained possession of the person of Sut-Bel-herat. 
In the city of Umen(?)I put him in chains. Afterwards, 
Sut-Bel-herat, together with hia chief followers, I oondenined 
to slavery. Then I went down to Shinar, and in the cities of 
Bhinar, of Borsippa, and of £etika, I erected altars and founded 
temples to the great gods. Thetil Nsen^.A'i'^ia. \ft ■&«,'\sisfii.^\. 
the Cbaldeea, and I occupied thevc cWvea, Ktti.\'Ki'(a^^'s& -a^ 
&r erea as tie tribes who dwdt u-^oii. "Ca-e wi&^i«M*- fcJ"*" 


wards in the city of Shinar, I received the tribute of the kings 
of the Chaldees, Hateni, the son of Dakri, and Eaga-Siit, the 
Bon of Hukni, gold, silver, geme, and pearls, 

" ' In the tenth year, for the eighth time I crossed the Eu- 
phrates, 1 took the cities belonging to Ara-Iura of the town 
of Shalumas, and gave them up to pillage. Then I went out 
from the cities of Shalumas, and I proceeded to the country 
belonging to Arama, who was king of Ararat, I took the city 
of Amia, which waa the capital of the country, and I gave up 
to pillage one hundred of tho dependent towns, I Blew the 
wicked, and I carried off the treaaures. 

" ' At this time, Hem-ithra, king of Atfish, and Arhulena, 
king of Hamath, and the twelve kings of the tribes who 
were in alliance with them, came forth arraying their forces 
against me. They met me, and we fought a battle, in which 
I defeated them, making priaonera of their leaders, and 
titeir captains, and their men of war, and putting them in 

" ' In the eleventh year, I went out from the city of Nineveh, 
and for the ninth time I crossed the Euphrates. I took the 
eighty-seven cities belonging to Ara-lura, and one hundred 
cities belonging to Araraa, and I gave them np to pillage. 
I setded the country of Khamfina, and passing by the country 
of Yeri, I went down to the cities of Hamath, and took the 
city of Esdimak, and eighty-nine of the dependent towns, 
Hlityiog the wicked ones, and carrying off the treasures. 
Again, Hcm-ithra, king of Atesh, Arhulena, king of Hamatb, 
and the twelve kings of the tribes' [or in one copy, the twelvo 
kings of the Sheta] ' who were in alliance with them, came 
forth levying war upon me ; they arrayed their forces against 
me. I fought with them and defeated them, slaying 10,000 
of their men, and carrying ioto slavery their captains, and 
leaders, and men of war. Afterwards I went up to the city 
of Habboril, one of the chief cities belonging to Arama (of 
Ararat), and there I received the tribute of Berbeninda, tha 
king of Shetina, gold, silver, horsrs, ahecp, and osen, &c. &a. 
I thea went up to the country of Ehamdna, where I founded 
palaces and cities. 
" 'In the twelfth year, I marchci fcrtV Itoto.'Swlw;^, koS. 
far tbo tenth time 1 crosaed, tiieEut'\iiaXe»)aii^'«^^'^^'*^ 


city of SevarrabubeD. I slew the wicked, and carried off tha 
treasures from thence to my own country, 

"'In the thirteenth year, I deacended to the plains de- 
pendent on the city of Assar-animet. I went to the district 
of T4ta. I took the forts of the country of T&.ta, slaying 
the evil-disposed, and carrying off all the wealth of the 

" ' In the fourteenth year, I raised the country, and assem- 
bled a great army ; with 120,000 warriors I crossed the Eu- 
phrates, Then it came to pass that Hem-ithra, king of Atesh, 
and Arhulena, king of Hamalh, and the twelve kings of the 
tribes of the upper and lower country, collected their forces 
together, and came before me offering battle, I engaged with 
them, and defeated them ; their leaders, and captains, and men 
of war I cast into chains. 

" ' In the fifteenth year, I went to the country of Nabiri, 
and established my authority throughout the country about 
the head-streams which form the Tigris. In the district of 
AkhSbi I celebrated' [some great religious ceremony, probably, 
which is obscurely described, and which I am quita unable to 

" 'Afterwards I descended to tho plains of Lanbuna, and 
devastated the cities of Arama, king of Ararat, and all the 
country about the head waters of the Euphrates; and I abode 
in tho country about the rivers which form the Euphrates, and 
there I set up altars to the supreme gods, and left priests IE 
the land to superintend the worship, HasS, king of Dayini, 
there paid me his homage, and brought in his tribute of horses, 
and I established the authority of my empire throughout the 
land dependent on his city. 

'"In the sixteenth year I crossed tho river Zab, and went 
against the country of the Arians. Sut-Mesitek, tlie king of 
the Arians, I put in chains, and I brought his wives, and his 
warriors, and his gods, captives to my country of Assyria ; and 
I appointed Tanvu, the son of Ehanab, to be king over the 
country in his place. 

" ' In the seventeenth year, I oroased the Euphrates, and 
went up to the country of £ham^na, where I founded palaces 
and cities. 
'"In tJbe eighteenth year, foT ttie sixteeafti. 'utnaA ^s*^**"^ 

492 hawlihsob's beading of the obelisk, 

of his captains, and 460 of hia superior ckiefa, with tlie troops 
they commanded, I defeated in this war.' 

*' ' In the niceteentii year, for the eiphteeiith time, I crossed 
the Euphrates. I went up again to £lam(ina, and founded 
more palaces and temples, 

" ' In the twentieth year, for the nineteenth time, I crossed 
the Euphrates. I went up to the country of Berfihui. I took 
the cities, and despoiled them of their treasures. 

" ' la the twenty-firflt year, for the twentieth time, I croBsed 
the Euphrates, and again went up to the country of Khazakao. 
of Atesh. I occupied his territory, and while there received 
the tribute from the countries of Tyre, of Sidon, and of 

"'In the twenty. second year, for the twenty-first time, I 
crossed the Euphrates, and marehod to the country of TuhaL 
Then I received the submiasioa of the twenty-four kings of 
Tubal, and I went on to the country of Atta, to the gold country, 
to Belui, and to Ta-Esferem. 

" 'In the twenty-third year, I again crossed the Euphrates, 
and occupied the city of Huidara, the stronghold of Ellol of 
Heluda ; and the kings of Tubal again came in to me, and I 
received their tribute. 

" ' In the twenty-fourth year, I crossed the river Zab, and 
passing away from the hind of Khorkhar, went up to the country 

' " It nag to caipmemorKte tliis cmnpaign that tfae coloesiU bulla round 
in the centre of the moimd »t Nimroad were set up. The inBCriptiolI 
upon tbem reeordine the ■wsi is, of course, fax more detailed tLeu tha 
brief eunnunij oa the obeliilc, and 1 maj a> well, therefore, gite aij 
tending of iU 

" It commenteB with a geographical calalogae i—' The upper and loww 
countries of Nihiri. the eiteDsiTe land whieb irorehlpped the god Husi, 
Ehnmina and the Slieta, the conntriea alone the course of the Tigris, and 
the countries watered by the Kuphrates, fcotn Srelali to ShHlni, front 
Bhakni to Meludo, froin Melnda to Dajlini, from Daj£ni to ArreekliD, 
from AfzfbIibii to Latsan, from Lati4n to HubiEka ; the Ariana uid tlibe* 
of the ChaldecE who dwell upon the lea-coaat. 

" ' Id the eighteenth year, for the tiitt<entb time, 1 croraed the Eu» 

^brsto. Then Ehazakan of Atesh ealleeled hia warriors and came forth ; 

Ibeae warriors be comimlled to a man of Arancrsa, who had odminiatcred 

the ooualry of Lemnan. Him he appointed oViiI lJl^l\^»IKl^. lengagod 

vitb him, and defeated bim, alayine and cafr^in^ TO^^l Aiwen 'V^S'sft A 

i"'" n^bting men, and making prisoneia \\T^ «^ ^v* la^wva, »iA V!» 

'"penor omcera, with their coborU.' " 


of the Ariang. Yanvu, whom I had made kingof tlie Arians, 
bad thrown off h'm allegiance, so I put him in chains, I cap- 
tured the city of Eaakslia, and took Beth-Ttlabon, Beth-Everek, 
and Beth-Taida, his principal cities. I slew the evil-disposed, 
and plundered the treasureB, and gave the cities over to pillage. 
I then went out from the land of the AriauB, and received the 
tribute of tlie twenty-seven kings of the Persians. Afterwards 
I removed from the land of the Perfiians, and entered the 
territory of the Medes, going on to Hatsir and Kharkhar; I 
occupied the several cities of Kakhidra, of Torz^ceni, of Irleban, 
of Akhirablud, and the towna which depended ou them. I 
punished the evil- disposed. I confiscated the treasures, and gave 
the cities over to pillage, and I establiBhed the authority of my 
empire in the city of Kharkhar. Yanvu, the son of Ehaban' 
[usually written Khanab], ' with his wives and his gods, and 
his sons and daughters, his servants and a!l hia property, I 
carried away captive into my country of Assyria. 

" ' In the twenty-fifth year, I crossed the Euphrates, and 
received the tribute of the kings of the Sheta. I passed by 
the country of Khamina, and came to the cities of Akti of 
Berhui. The city of Tabura, his stronghold, I took by assault. 
X slew those who resisted, and plundered the treasures : and all 
the cities of the country I gave over to pillage. Afterwards, 
in the city of Bahura, the capital city of Aram, sonof Hogus, 
I dedicated a temple to the god Bimmon, and I also built aroyal 
palace in the same place. 

" ' In the twenty-sixth year, for the seventh time, I passed 
through the country of KhamSna. I went on to the cities of 
Akti of Berhui, and I inhabited the city of Tanaken, which 
■was the stronghold of Etlak ; there I performed the rites which 
belong to the worship of Assarac, the supreme god ; and I re- 
ceived as tribute from the country, gold and silver, and com, 
and sheep, and oxen. Then I went out from thecityof Tanaken, 
and I came to the country of Leman. The people resisted me, 
but I subdued the country by force. I took the cities, and slew 
their defender ; and the wealth, of the people, with their cattle 
Bud corn, and moveables, I sent as booty to my country of 
Assyria. I gave all their cities over to pillage. Then I went 
on to the country of Metheta, -w^ete V\\ft -^Q^ft -^ii. '\Sisra. 
homage, and I received gold an4 saVjet as "Ocext \xto;Sfc. "V 
appointed Akharriyadon, the Bon.o£ ii.V\A, \o\«.Vai%OT'at''l!i»«»^ 


Afterirards I went up to EhamSna, -where I founded mora 
palaces and temples ; until at lengtli I returned to my country 
of Assyria, 

" 'In the twenty-seventh year, I assembled the captains of 
my army, and I sent Detarhassar of IttSna, the general of the 
forces, in command of my warriors to Armenia ; he proceeded 
to the land of EhamSna, and in the plains helonging to the city 
of Anibaret, he crossed the rivor Artaeni, Asidura of Armenia, 
hearing of the invasion, coOected his cohorts and came forth 
against my troops, offering them battle ; my forces engaged 
with him and defeated him, and the country at once auhmitted 
to my authority, 

" ' In the twenty-eighth year, whilst I was residing in the 
city of Calah, a revolt took place on the part of the tribes of 
Shetina. They were led on by Sherrila, who had succeeded to 
the throne on the death of Labami, the former king. Then I 
ordered the general of my army, Detaraaar of Ittana, teiaarcli 
with my cohorta and all my troops against the rebels. Detar- 
aaar accordingly crossed the Upper Eaphratea, and marching 
into tho country, established himself in the capitul city Eanala. 
Then Sherrila, who waa seated on the throne, by the help of 
the great god Assarac, I obtained possession of his person, and 
hia officers, and the chief of the tribes of the Shetina, who had 
thrown oif their allegiance and revolted against me, together 
with the sons of Sherrila, and the men who administered affws, 
and imprisoned or punished all of them ; and I appointed Af> 
hosit of Sirzakisba to be king over the entire land. I exacted 
a great tribute also from the land, consisting of gold and silver 
and precious stones, and ebony, &c. &c. &(s, ; and I cEtablished 
the national worship throughout the land, making a great 
sacrifioe in the capital city of Kiinala, in the temple which had 
been raised there te the gods, 

" 'In the twenty-ninth year, I assembled my warriors and 
captains, and I ascended with them to the country of the Lek. 
I accepted the homage of the cities of the laud, and I then 
went on to tho Sbenjiba. 

" In the thirtieth year, whilst I was still residing ia tho 

ci'ly ofCalab, I summoned Detarasar, the general of my army, 

and I sent bim forth to war in commani <it tk^ to'aorta oad 

forces. He crossed the river Zab, and firat tMae \b "iii% ra.'oai 

cf Mabiaka : he received the tiibute o* De.'W'ii^ «^ "asitt^ 


, and he irent out from thence and came to the country belong- 
ing to Mekadul of Melakari, where tribute wb3 duly puid. 
Leaving the cities of Melakari, he then went on to the country 
of Huelka of Minni, Huelka of Minni had thrown off his 
allegiance and duclared himself independent, establishing his 
Beat of government in the city of Taiharta. My general there- 
fore put him in chains, and carried off his flocks and herds 
and all his property, and gave hia cities over to pillage. 
Passing out from the country of Minni, he next came to the 
territory of Selshen of Kharta ; he took poasession of the city 
of Maharsar, the capital of the country, and of all the towna 
which depended on it; and Selshen and his sons he made pri- 
Boners and sent to his country, dispatching to me their tribute 
of horses, male and female. Hs then went into the country 
of Sardera, and received the tribute of Artaheri of Sardera ; 
he afterwards marched to Persia, and obtained the tribute of 
the kings of the Persians ; and he captured many more cities 
between Persia and Assyria, and he brought all their riches 
and treasnres with him to Assyria, 

" ' In the thirty-first year, a second time, whilst I abode in 
the city of Calah, occupied in the worsliip of the gods Asaarac, 
Hem, and Nebo, I summoned the general of my army, Detara- 
aar of Ittfina, and I sent him forth to war in command of my 
troops and cohorts. He went out accordingly, in the first 
place, to the territories of Daten of Hubiska, and received his 
tribute; then he proceeded to Enseri, the eapitwl city of the 
country of Bazatsera, and ho occupied the city of Anseri, and 
the thirfy-eis other towna of the country of Bazatsera; he 
continued his march to the land of Armenia, and he gave over 
to piUflge fitty cities belonging to that territory. He after- 
wards proceeded to Ladsdn, and received the tribute of Hubu 
of Ladsdn, and of the districts of Minni, of Banana, of Khar- 
ran, of Sliarram, of Audi,' [and another district of which the 
name is lost], 'sheep, oxen, and horses, male and female. 
Afterwards he went on to a district ' [of which the name Is 
lost], 'and he gave up to pillage the cities Biaria and Sithuria, 
cities of consideration, together willi the twenty-one towns 
which were attached to them. And he afterwards penetrated 
flsiorsHlie land of thePerBiaii&,taV.\ng^0B*eswsviiA^w6>^ft>»» 
of Baiset, Siei-^hamana, and A.koi\-XiiiHawio., aSi. (A. 'vSuaai. 

496 RAWXINSON s EEiDisa op the obelisk, 

places of Btrength, and of the twenty-three towns which de- 
pended on them ; ho slew those who resisted, and he carried 
off the wealth of the citiea. And he afterwards moved to the 
oountry of the Arians, where, by the help of the gods Assarao 
and But, he captured their cities, and continued his march to 
the country of Kharets, taking and despoiling 250 towns; 
Trntil at length he descended into the plains of Esmes, above 
the country of "Dmen (?).'" 

' " It is eitremclj difficult to distingnisli throughout these Iset tiro 
ps.TagrBpha between the Bist and third perBons. In liict the grammBticnl 
prefixea which mark tlie persons nee frequently pul one for the other even 
ID tbe same senttnce, Erom the opening elauae aC the parngraphB, I cer- 
tainly understand that the Asajrinn Beneml conduolcd both of these ei- 
pedilioni into High Asia ; j^et it would seem ae if the king, in abrouiclinj[ 
tha war, wished to e-ppropnate the schievomenla to himself. 

•' It remains that I should notice the epigraphs which are engraved on. 
tha obelist abore the five series of figures. Tbese epigraphs contain I 
sort of register of the tribute sent in by fite different nations to the Assy, 
riankinffj butthejdo not follow the series of offerings as the; are re- 
presentM in the sculpture with any approach to exactitude. 

"The first epigraph records the receipt of the tribute from Sbehua of 
Lads^n, a country which jnined Armenia, and which I presume, therefi 
to be connected with the Lazi and Laziatan. 

" The second line of offerings are said to have been sent by Yahua, 
of Hubiri, a prince of whom thers is no mention in the annals, and ot 
whose natire country, therefore, I am ignorant. 

" This is fallowed by the tribute of a conntry which is called Miir, and 
which there are good grounds for supposing to be Egypt, inasmuch as we 
are sure from the numerous indications afforded to the position by tha 
inscriptions of Xhorsahad, that Misr adjoined Syria, and aa the lanu 
name (that is a name pronounced in the samo manner, thouah written 
with different phonetic charactersj is given at Bebistun ns the BabTloniait 
equiralent of the Fenian Hudraya. Misr is not once mentioned in the 
obelisk onnsls, and it may be prHSumed, therefore, to haTa remained ia 
complete subjection to Assyria during the whole of Temen-bar's reign. 

"The fourth tribute is that of But-pat-adac, of the country of Sheki, 
probably a Babylonian or Elymsean prince, who is not otherwise men- 
tioned; and the series is closed by tho the tribute of Barbarenda, thg 
Shetino. a Syrian tribei which I rather think is tho same as the Sbarutana 
of the hieroglyphic writing. 

<■ I cannot pretend at present to identi^ the Tarious articles which ars 

Darned in tbese epigraphs ; gold and silver, pearls and gems, ebony and 

/rsiy, maj- be made out, I think, with more ot less cerlainlj ; but I can- 

not coDJectare the nature ot marj olVei o! \.\«i oSetinga ; they may ba 

rmra wooda, or aromatic gums, ot melali, oi we'^ sMii'aKrticWM i^asa — 



Since the foregoing reading of the Nimroud Obelisk waa 
published by Colonel BawliiiBon, a paper by Dr. Grotefend, 
" On tho ago of the ObeliBk found at Nimrud," haa been pre- 
sented to the Royal Society of Gott.ingen (12th August, Id.lO), 
and printed in the G'uttingisohen Qelehrten Anzeigen, Ko. 13, 
Angust 26th, 1S50. A translation of this paper by the Rev, 
Br. Renouard, was communicated by Dr. John Lee of Hart- 
well, to tlio Syro-Eji^yptian Society, January 13th, 1852, and 
ve avail ourselves of Ur. Lee's Mod permission to introduce a 
brief account of Dr. Grotefend'a memoir to our readers. 

He observes in the commencement, that though Rawlinson 
is able to make out the general meaning of the inscription, to 
are yet ao far in the dark as to the proper value of some of tlia 
Assyrian characters, that there is no aeeurity for the correct 
reading of the proper names by which the periods could be 
determined ; and that he himself is persuaded that the Aaay- 
riana distinguished the proper names of their kings more by 
their signification than by their aound. As, however, a know- 
ledge of the general import of the inaeriptiou can be of little 
use, unless we can determine the time aC which the Obeliek 
waa erected, he haa turned his attention to the events recorded 
on the monument ; and the conclosion he arrives at perfectly 
coincides with our own views. The Professor is of opinion 
that irreapective of the high state of civilisation which the 
arts and sciences must have reached in Assyria, it is incredible 
that thia nation could have made the great conquests in west- 
ern Aaia chronicled on the Obeliak, without some report of 
them having reached contemporary writers in Holy Writ, or 
the inquiring Greeks of a later period, to whom the ancient 
Boureea of information were acceaaible. Ho infers thence the 
improbability of the Obeliak being erected so early aa the 
12th or 13th century before Christ; and considers, (from certain 
lingual coincidences occurring in ehronologicul order, which 
he copiously explains) that the monument may he referred to 

"tVitli rogard to the Bainmls, thtxe alone tibieh I can ccrtalnlf identity 
are horsm and camflfl. tlis latter being, I thinlc, dewribcd aa ' beula of 
the desert witli the double hack.' 

" I do net think any ot the remsrliable animala, Buch as the elepliant, 
IIjo will! ball, the unicorn, the anielopo, aiii >.\ie ■nuio.'i.'i^* «»!. "M^wmias 
are ipoeiSed ia Ibe epitaphs ; but it u -poMMe feu^ toikj >ft v^^issa A a* 
lara aaimalt from [he river of Atlti waA ilie coxwAfj ^jii^oai-'Xii **»- 


the end, or, reckoning bnctward, to the beginning of the 
eighth century before Christ, when Shalmaneaer waa conti- 
nuing the conquesta which had been commenced hy Pul and 
Tighith Pileaer. After analyeing the name of Shalmaneaer, 
Hiid suggesting that Temenbor should be read Shalmanassar, 
he coneidera that the ABsar-adaa-pul and Kati Har of Eawlin- 
Bon may be read so as to accord with Tiglath -pileaer and Pul ; 
he proceeds to investigate his history, and shows that BawIiu- 
aon's reading of the Obelisk agrees exactly with the time and 
events of the reign of Shalmancser. " If, however, it is be- 
lieved tiat the last ten years recorded on the Obelisk elapsed 
after the death of Shalmaneaer, because we read in 2 Kings, 
xviii. 13, &c., that Sennacherib, at that time King of Assyria, 
took all theatrongcitiesof Judffia, wemay, on the other hand, 
remark that he, aa well as Sargon (Isaiah xx. 1), was only a 
subordinate king, who made no scruple to take upon himself 
the title of King of Assyria." (A surmise supported by hia 
reading of the inscription on the Obelisk itself.) Grutefeod odds : 
" That the remarkable event by which the vast army under 
Sennacherib was destroyed, should be wholly unnoticed on 
the Obelisk, though described in a fabulous manner by Jewish 
and Egyptian writCTs, will occasion no surprise when we eon- 
aider the anxiety of the Assyrian to publish nothing respect- 
ing himself but what redounded to his fame. I therefore 
refer the account of the twenty-first year of the Assyrian 
king's reign, in which he took possession of the territory of 
Khazakan of Ateth, and there received tho tribute from 
Tyre, Sidon, and Byblns, to the campaign mentioned bylaaioh 
(xJt) and Nahnm (iii. 8). 

" In fine, as bo much which the inscription, on the Obelisk 
states concerning the Assyrian king, coincides vith what wB 
know from other sources of the history of Assyria in the eighth 
century before the birth of Christ, and as even the determin- 
ation of the years agrees, no essential contradiction is found ; 
it will therefore be the more readily oeknowledgod that tho 
Obelisk, whether we reckon backwards or forwards, must 
have been erected at the close of that century, as everything 
wAJoh Layard baa observed rcBpecting the remains of Nineveh 
Dnltee in corroborating that euppoailion, -wXiWft Taxnii m*^ \ia 
recalled to mind -which militates agamati 'Cue aM-^YMslona. (S. ^ 
^'Sber antiquity." 


Dr. HinekB makes out that the king on the second line of 
Boulpturea on the Obelisk, ia Jehu, Eing of Irsael, and there- 
fore that the date of the lelic is about 875 b.c, ahout one 
hundred yeare earlier than Orotefend's view. (See " Athe- 
nEEum," Dec. 27th, 1851.) 

The following most interesting paper by Colonel Eawlinson, 
which establishes the identity of the king who built the 
palace at Eouyunjik with the Sennacherib of Scripture, is 
curiously corroborative of Dr. Grotefend's opinions. He saye, 
in writing to the "Athenteum" — 

" I have succeeded in detenninately identifying the AsByrian 
kings of the lower dynasty whose palaces have been recently 
excavated in the vicinity of M^sul ; and I have obtained &oni 
the aanals of these kings oontemporary notices of events which 
agree in the moat remarkable way with the statements pre- 
served in sacred and profane history. 

" The king who built the pahice of Khorsabad, excavated by 
the French, is named Sargina (the P^ (Sargon) of Isaiah) ; but 
he also bears, in some of the inscriptions, the epithet of Shal- 
maneser, by which title he was better known to the Jews. In 
the first year of his reign he came up against of Samaria 
(called Samarina, and answering to the Hebrew r^ov Sainarin) 
and the tribes of the country of Beth-Homri ("^"W or 'Omri, 
being the name of the founder of Samaria, ] Kings, xviii. 16, 
&c.) He carried off into captivity in Assyria 27,280 families, 
and settled in their places colonists brought from Habylonia, 
appointing prefects to administer the country, and imposing 
the same tribute which had been paid to former kings. The 
only tablet at Khorsabad which exhibits this conquest in any 
detail (Plate i^s.) is unfortunately much mutilated. Should 
Monsieur de Sauley, however, whom the French are sending 
to Assyria, find a duplicate of Shalmaneaer's annals in good 
preservation, I think it probable that the name of the king of 
Israel may yet be recovered. 

" In the second year of Shalmaneeer's reign he subjugated 
the kings of Libnah (?) and Khazita (the Cadytis of Hero- 
dotus) who were dependent upon 'Egypt ; and in the seventh 
year of his reign he received tribute direct from the king of 
thstoounliy, wboisnamedPirhu, pro\«iAA^&ti'\a';v^'^Vi.¥4j5Q>j, 
tbe title by which the kings o( Egypt Njexti Vtia-sii. ^Kl '^Ji«> 
Jews and other Semitio nations, 'tbia ■B\niv^wL'«A cl ■*» 

600 hawlihbor'b pdbthbr iubootekies. 

Egyptians by Sargon or Shalmaneaer is alluded to ia the 20t)i 
chapter of leaioh. 

"Among the other exploits of Sb aim oneser found ia his 
EUrnals, are, — the conqueBt of Asbdod, also alluded to in 
leaiah xx, 1, and his reduction of the neighbouring city of 
Jamnai, called Jabneh or JaiDUeh in the Bible, Jaomaaa in 
Judith, aad 'ldfj,viia by the Greeks. 

" In conformity with Menander'a statement, that 8hal- 
maneser assisted the Cittteans against Sidon, we find a statue 
and inBcriptian of this king, Sargina, in the island of Cyprus, 
recording the event ; and, to complete the chain of evidence, 
the city, built by him, and named after him, the ruins of which 
are now called Khorsabad, retained among the Syrians the titla 
Sarghun as late as the Arab conquest. 

" I am not Bure how long Shalraaneser reigned, or whether 
he made a second expedition into Palestine. His annals at 
Khorsabad extend only to the 15th year ; and although the 
names are given of numerous cities which he captured in Cailo- 
Syria and on. the Euphrates — such as Hamath, Bertea, Damas- 
cus, Bambyce, and Carohemish — I am unable to trace his atepa 
into Judaia Proper. On a tablet, however, which he set up 
towards the close of his reign in the palace of the first Sarda- 
napaluB at Nimroud, he atylea himself ' conqueror of tha 
remote Judiea;' and I rather think, therefore, that the expe- 
dition in wliich, after a three years' siege of Samaria, he 
(iorried off the great body of the tribes of Israel, and which is 
commemorated in the Bible us having been concluded in the 
sixth year of Hezekiah, must have taken place subsequently to 
the Palace of Kborsubad. 

" Without this explanation, indeed, we shall ho embarrassed 
about dates ; for I shall presently, show that we have a distinct 
notice of Sennacherib's attack upon Jerusalem in the third 
year of that king's reign ; and we are thus able to determine 
an interval of eighteen years at least te have elapsed between 
the LiBt-named event and the Samaritan campaign ; whereas 
in the Bible we find tlie great captivity to date from the sixth 
jear of Hezekiah, and the invasion of Sennacherib from the 

"I now go on to the anriBla oi SennaftVetfti, Ttia^attia 
^wg wbo baih the great Palace oi X.oMyanyiti^Vi^'^, 
J^jwd baa been recently exca^atios. lis ^ea "i!^ «°^ «* 


Sargina or Shalmaneser ; and his name, expressed entirely by 
monogTams, may have been pronounced Sennaehi-riba. The 
erentfl, at any rate, of his reign, place beyond the reach of 
dieputfl his historic identity. He eomraenced his career by 
Bubjugating the Babylonians, under their king Merodach- 
Baladan, who hod also been the antagonist of his father; two 
important points of agreement being thus obtained both with 
Scripture and with the account of Polyhistor. The annala of 
the third year, however, of the reign of Sennacherib, which I 
have just deciphered after the copy of an inscription taken by 
Mr. Layard from one of the bulls at the grand entrance of 
the Kouyunjik Palace, contain those striking points of ooinoi- 
dence which first attracted my attention, and which, being 
once recognised, have naturally led to the complete unfolding 
of all this period of history. In his third year, Sennacherib 
undertook, in the first insUnce, an expedition against Luliya, 
king of Sidon (tke 'EXouXa/'ot of Menander), in which he was 
completely successful. He was afterwards engaged in opera* 
tiona against some other cities of Syria (which I hare not yet 
identified) ; and, whilst so employed, learned of an insurrection 
in Palestine. The inhabitants, indeed, of that country had 
risen against their king Padiya, and the officers who had been 
placed in authority over them, on the part of the Assyrian 
monarch, and had driven them out of the province, obliging 
them to take refuge with Hezekiah, king of Jerusalem, the 
capital city of Judtea. (The orthography of these three names 
corresponds very nearly with the Hebrew reading: Khazakiyahu 
representing Trpin, TJrsalimma standing for cbvrv^ and Tahuda for 
f™",^. The rebels then sent for assistance to the kings of 
Egypt ; and a large army of horse and foot marched to their 
assistance, under the command of the king of Pelusium (?). 
Sennacherib at once proceeded to meet the army ; and, fighting 
an action with them in the vicinity of the city of Allaku (?), 
completely defeated them. He made many prisoners, also, 
whom he executed, or otherwise disposed of, Padiya then 
returned from Jerusalem, and was reinstated in his govern- 
ment. In the meantime, however, a quarrel arose between 
Sennacherib and Hezekiah, on the Bubjtct of tribute. Sen- 
jtaaberib ravaged the open country, Xttoa^ > ^ ■Ob* fesisafi. 
eitieB of Judab,' and at last threatened Sertt.wie.wi- "^«uS^^ 
then made hia submission, and tendeiei \a \ivft'Sii-n%«S. Kss^t™ 


aa tribute, 30 taJenta of gold, 300 talents of silver, the orna- 
ments of the Temple, elaves, boys and girli and men-serranta 
and maid-Bervaiite for the use of the palace. All these things 
Sennacherib received. After which he detached a portio: ' 
Hezekiah'a Tillages, and p1a.Ged them in dependence on 
cities which had been faithful to him, such as Hebron, Ascalon, 
and Cftdytis. He then retired to Assyria. 

"14'ow this IB evidently the campaign which is alluded to in 
Scripture (2 Kings xviii. 13 — 17) ; and it is perhaps the same 
which is obscurely noticed in Herodotus, lib. ii. c. 141, and 
which is further described by Josephus, Ant. lib. x. c, 1. The 
agreement, at any rate, between the record of the Sacred 
Historian and the contemporary chronicle of Sennacherib which 
I have here copied, extends even to the number of the talent* 
of gold and silver which were given as tribute. 

" I have not yet examined with the eare which it requires 
the continuation of Sennacherib's chronicle ; but I believe that 
moat of the events attributed to that monarch by the historians 
Polyhistor and Abydeaus will he found in the onnals, . 
pretended conflict with the Oreeks on the coast of Cilicia will, 
I suspect, turn out to be his reduction of the city of Javnai, 
near Ashdod, — the mistake having arisen from the similari^ 
of the name of Jmnai to that of Jm^ani, or lonians, by whioa 
the Greeks were generally known to the nations of the East. 
At any rate, when Polyhistor says that ' Sennacherib erected 
a statue of himself as a monument of his victory (over the' 
Greets), and ordered his prowess to be inscribed upon it in 
Chaldffian characters,' he certainly alludes to the famous tablet 
of the Eouyunjik king at the mouth of the Kahr-al-£elb, 
which appears from the Annals to have been executed after 
the conquest of the city of Javnai, 

" The only copy which has yet been found of Sennacherib's 
annals at Kouyunjik is very imperfect, and extends only to th» 
seventh year. The relio known as Colonel Taylor's cylinder 
dates from one year later ; but I have never seen any account . 
of the events of the latter portion of his reign. His reign, ' 
howeyer, according to the Greeks, extended to eighteen years, 
ao that bis aecond espedition to Enieatvae, KoAttie miracolous 
deatrnotion ofhia army, musttave occwrtei loMrtewi wSiSwrai. ; 

EiwiniaoiJ'B FURTHEB DiflcovEBrEs. 503 

Bet much store by the Greek dates ; but it may be remarked 
that Hezekiah would hare been still living at the period of the 
miraculoua destruction of Sennacherib's army, eren if, bb I 
have thus conjectured, the second invasion of Judsea had 
occurred fourteen or fifteen years later than the first ; for the 
earlier campaign is fixed to the fourteenth year of hia reign, 
and hie entire reign extended to twenty-nine years. , 

" I will only further mention that we hare upon a cylinder 
in the British Museum a tolerably perfect copy of the annala 
of Eaaar-Haddon, the sou of Sennacherib, in which we find a 
further deportation of Israelites from Palestine, and a further 
settlement of Babylonian colonists in their place; — an expla- 
nation being thus obtained of the passage of Ezra (iv. 2), in 
which the Samaritane speak of Esar-Haddon as the king by 
whom they had been transplanted. 

"Many of the drawings and inscriptions which have been 
recently brought by Mr. Layard from Nineveh refer to the son 
of Esar-Haddon, who warred estenBively in Susiana, Baby- 
lonia, and Armenia, — though, ae his arms never penetrated to 
the westward, be has been unnoticed in Scripture history : and 
under the son of this king, who is named Sarncus or Sardana- 
palns by the Greeks, Nineveh seems to have been destroyed. 

"One of the most interesting matters connected with this 
discovery of the identity of the Assyrian kings is, the pros- 
pect, amounting almost to a certainty, that we must have in 
the bas-reliefs of KhorGabad and £ouyunjik representatives 
from the chisels of contemporary artists, not only of Samaria, 
hut of that Jerusalem which contained the Temple of Solomon. 
1 have already identified the Samaritans among the groups of 
captives portrayed upon the marbles of Eliorsabad ; and when 
I«haU have accurately learnt the locality of the different 
bas-relief that have been brought from Eouyunjik, I do not 
doubt hut that I shall be able to point out the bands of Jewish 
maidens who were delivered to Sennacherib, and perhaps to 
distinguish the portraiture of the humbled Hezekiab. 

H. C. R4WLINS0N.- 

" London, Angiaat IS, 18S1. 

''P.S. It will be seen that in. the above aVetftk I V'sn'f.V^ 

tbe question of the Upper AeByriaa d'jQoA'j B\\«%fc'^'s^ '*^- 

touched. The kings whom I tave iiestAei, ^.i "sVii ''■'^^^ 

_ what is usauUy dialled the Lower A.wyt'viwi i-j-aoA-^N «-^ 

oyer a period from about 740 to 600 b.c. Antecedent tjD Shal- 
maneser there must have been, I think, an interreRnum. At any 
rute, although ShalmaueBer'a father seems to he mentioned in one 
insoription, there are no means of connecting hie line with the 
Upper AsBjrian dynasty. Of that dynasty we have the names^of 
about fifteen kings ; but I have never yet found — nor indeed 
doj I expect to find — any hiBtorical HyncbroniBms in their 
annala which may serve to fix their chronology. Implicitly as 
I believe in the honesty, and admiring as I do the general 
BCeuracy, of Herodotus, I should be inclined to adopt his 
limitation of 520 years for the duration of the Assyrian Empire 
— a calculation which would fijE the institution of the monarchy 
at about 1126 B.C., and would bring down the date of the 
earliest marbles now in the UuHeum to about 1000 b.o. But, 
at the same time, I decline without further evidenoe commit- 
ting myself to any definite statement on this subject." 

At the meeting of the British Afieociation in 1850, a paper 
on the language and mode of writing of the Ancient Assyrians 
was read by the Rev. Dr. Hineks of Belfast, to whose inde- 
fatigable Jaboura we are indebted for much light upon cuneiform 
writings, especially for tie discovery of the numerals, and 
more recently of the Dame of Nebuchadnezzar on some Baby- 
lonian, bricks, and of that of Sennacherib on some of the 
inscriptions of Kouyunjik. 

In this paper the author began by observing that the lan- 
guage and mode of writing of the Assyrians are themselves 
two important ethnological fiicta. The language of the 
Assyrio- Babylonian inscriptions is generally admitted to be of 
the family called Semitic. It is in many respects strikingly 
like the Hebrew, but has some peculiarities in common with 
the Egyptian, the relationship of which to the Semitic lan- 
guages has been already recognised. The mode of writing of 
the Assyrians differed ^ra that of tho Hebrew and other 
Semitic languages, and agreed with the Egyptian in that it 
was partly ideographic. Some words consisted entirely of 
ideographs ; others were written in part phonetically, hut had 
Jdeographa united with the phonetic part. As to the part of 
the writmg which consisled of phonographs, Dr. Hineks majn- 
faiaed, in opposition to all other writers, V\ia\, \ivc iJiiB.taji\.OT* 
Mad all dedaite sj-I/abic values ; there be\G6ao co-aaciTio.ii.Va.B.-Q^. 
jOMwegueaf/jr flo necessity or liberty o£ aupv^^mg f^.'seia- "CttaJ 


use of characters rcpresentiiig Bj'llables, lie considered to be 
an indication that though the language of the Assyrians was 
Semitic, their mode of writing was not so. A second proof 
that the mode of writing was not Semitic, he derived from the 
absence of distinct syllables to represent corobinations of the 
peculiar Semitic consonants, Eoph and Ain. From these 
facts he inferred that the Assyrio-Buby Ionian mode of writing 
vaa adopted from some Indo-European nation who had pro- 
bably conquered Assyria ; and he thought it likely that this 
nation had intercourse with the Egyptians, and b^ in part, 
at least, derived their mode of writing from that most ancient 

I'his paper having been read. Colonel Kawlinson observed 
that Dr. Uincks had stated that be considered the difference 
between the two systems ado[)ted by Colonel Eawlinson and 
himself of interpreting the inscriptions to be, that the one 
took the signs for letters, and the other for syllables. Sow 
he (Colonel Rawiinson) by no means admitted that he did take 
die signs altogether for letters. He believed them all to have 
once had a syllabic value, as the names of the objects which 
they represented, but to have been subsequently used — usually 
its initial articulation — to express a mere portion of a syllable. 
He could adduce numerous instances where the cuneiform signs 
were used as bon/lfide letters : but, at the same time, the two 
systems of interpretation might now be said to be very nearly 
identical; so far, indeed, as he understood Dr. Hincks' paper, 
there appeared to be only about half-a-dozen out of a hundred 
letters on the phonetic powers of which they were not agreed. 
Certain inscriptions were found in various parts of Persia 
engraved in three different lungnagea and alphabets, all of 
which were originally unknown. 

The first of these that was deciphered, very nearly resembled 
the Sanscrit. The language of the second class of cunefio 
inscriptions was found t* be closely allied to the Sanscrit, 
being in fact the language of the Aborigines. This tongue 
was of the same sort as the Mogul and Tartar, and he believed 
it to have been spoken by the greater part of the aboriginal 
inhabitants of Persia. At any rate, it was the native lan- 
guageof the Partbiana and the other gteftl\.ri\«ft'wVQ\s&a