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CAPTAIN ALFRED PIRTLE, 
Member of The Filson Club. 




FILSON CLUB PUBLICATIONS No. 15 



THE 



Battle of Tippecanoe 



READ BEFORE THE FILSON CLUB 
NOVEMBER i, 1897 



BY 

CAPTAIN ALFRED PIRTLE 

Member of The FlUon Club 




LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY 

JOHN P. MORTON AND COMPANY 

'Printers to The Filson ffilwb 

1900 



3V 



COPYHIGHTED BT 

THE FILSON CLUB 

1900 



PREFACE. 



BEGUN as a paper to be read at a meeting of 
The Filson Club, this history has reached such 
proportions that it may be termed a book. For more 
than three years it has been in hand not worked upon 
constantly, but never out of sight. Much time has been 
consumed in making research after small details which 
add to the completeness of the work. 

It is with great pleasure the names of the following 
friends are mentioned, who have assisted the author 
by affording opportunities for securing family histories : 
Messrs. John J. Harbison, Henry D. Robb, and James 
Henry Funk, of Louisville ; Honorable John Geiger, of 
Morganfield, Kentucky ; Judge B. B. Douglas and W. C. 
Wilson, Esquire, of Corydon, Indiana ; Judge Charles P. 
Ferguson and Colonel John Keigwin, of Jefferson ville, 
Indiana, and Mrs. Susan E. Ragsdale, of Bowling Green, 



iv Preface. 

Kentucky. Samuel M. Wilson, Esquire, of Lexington, 
Kentucky, gave valuable assistance in research. Colonel 
R. T. Durrett, The Polytechnic Society of Louisville, and 
Mr. W. E. Henry, Librarian of the State Library at 
Indianapolis, all offered free and unlimited access to the 
resources of their libraries. General Lew Wallace, at 
Crawfordsville, Indiana, was likewise very kind. 

To all of these I tender my sincere thanks. 

Colonel Durrett has, since reading the manuscript of 
this work, offered to write an introduction, and to no 
better hands could the task be committed. Therefore it 
remains for the author to only ask generous treatment 
from his readers, and with this brief envoi make his bow. 

ALFRED PIRTLE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE Battle of Tippecanoe has been supposed by some 
to have been the result of the ambition of General 
Harrison for military glory. Others have thought that it 
was caused by the depredations of the Indians upon the 
life and property of the white settlers in the Indiana 
Territory. Yet others have believed that it was nothing 
more nor less than the traditional and the inevitable result 
of the contact of civilization with barbarism. 

While all of these as well as other causes may have 
had their share in this battle, there was one supreme and 
controlling cause which brought the white man and the 
red man together in mortal conflict on the banks of the 
Tippecanoe. That cause was a struggle for the land on 
which the battle was fought, and for the adjacent and the 
far-away lands of the Indians. It was as essentially a 
conflict for the soil as ever existed between the Indians 
and the French, the Indians and the Spanish, the Indians 
and the British, or the Indians and the Americans. While 



vi Introduction. 

this may not readily appear upon the surface, a deeper 
view will hardly fail to disclose the fact. Behind the 
depredations and the thefts, and even the murders by 
the Indians, there was a hope and a purpose of regaining 
the Indians' lost lands or of arresting further intrusions 
upon them by the whites. Let us appeal to history and 
see if it does not establish the truth of this statement. 

When the white man began settlements in America 
in the early part of the seventeenth century the whole 
country was occupied by the red man. This occupancy 
was not like that of the white man, but it was the red 
man's mode of occupancy a spot for his wigwam and 
an empire for his hunting - grounds which had thus 
existed from a time so far back that neither history nor 
tradition reached to its confines. Whence the Indians 
came into this occupancy, whether from older countries 
to the east or to the west of them, or whether created 
and located here as auctochthons of the land is a problem 
which has baffled learned attempts at solution. About 
the essential fact, however, that the white man found the 
Indian here when he discovered America, and that he was 
here when the colonization of the country began, and that 
he is still here, there is no dispute. 

All along the Atlantic shore from Maine to South 
Carolina the great Algonquin family had located its 



Introduction. vii 

numerous tribes, and from Carolina to the southern limits 
of Florida the Mobilian family had distributed its tribal 
divisions. With the exception of the five sections occupied 
by the Huron-Iroquois, the Cherokees, the Catawbas, 
the Uchees, and the Natches, these two great nations 
extended their occupancy of the country not only from 
Maine to Florida, but from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
Mississippi River. Their hunting-grounds extended beyond 
this great river, but with their trans-Mississippi possessions 
we are not now concerned. Their mode of occupying this 
vast territory differed essentially from that of the Americans. 
They were not cultivators of the soil, but left the land 
clothed with the original forests for the protection of the 
wild animals they used for food and clothing. A patch 
of ground for corn and vegetables, cultivated by the squaws 
in the most primitive way, was all of their vast territory 
they reduced to absolute use. They had no schools nor 
churches, and their dwelling-houses were rude structures 
of cane and bark. They were hunters and fishermen, 
and lived mainly upon the products of the forest and the 
stream. They had no fences around their lands nor any 
marked trees to show the limits of their territory, but 
depended upon the hills and valleys and streams to define 
their boundaries. Nothing more distinguished their savage 
life from that of civilized man than the quantity of land 



viii Introduction. 

required to support a family. It has been estimated that 
there were one hundred and eighty thousand Indians 
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River 
when the whites began taking their lands from them. 
This would give about six square miles, or three thousand 
eight hundred and forty acres, for each Indian, and more 
than nineteen thousand acres for every family of five. In 
Kentucky, which is not a densely populated State, there 
are about forty-eight inhabitants for every square mile, 
and about thirteen acres for each individual. 

This was a pretty extravagant quantity of land and 
a very poor way of handling it, but it was the Indian's 
mode of occupancy which had been sanctioned by long 
centuries of use. It was not such an occupancy, however, 
as the white man, with his civilization and Christianity, 
respected. Bigotry and intolerance and religious persecu- 
tion were then rife in the civilized world, and they chose 
to consider the Indian a heathen unfit to hold lands. It 
mattered not how long the Indians had possessed the 
country nor from what source they derived their title, 
even if an all-wise Creator might have placed them here 
for their continued occupancy, they were pronounced barba- 
rians and required to give place to Christian civilization. 

So soon, therefore, as white settlements were made at 
Jamestown, the country began to pass from the Indian 



Introduction. ix 

to the white man. Parts of it passed by conquest and 
parts by purchase, but most of it by a species of legalized 
robbery. Section after section of the slope between the 
Atlantic and the Alleghanies were absorbed by the whites 
until all was gone. Then the mountains were scaled and 
the valley of the Mississippi invaded. 

As a specimen of the bargains given the whites by the 
red men, or rather extorted from the Indians by the white 
man, we may mention the treaty of 1775 between the 
Cherokees and Richard Henderson & Company. In this 
deal the Indians transferred to Henderson & Company 
the whole of Kentucky south of the Kentucky River, 
embracing about twenty million acres, for the price of 
fifty thousand dollars, payable in goods. It is not likely 
that the Indians got these goods at absolute cash value. 
It is probable that they were sold to them at a good 
round profit, and that the Indians did not really get more 
than the half of fifty thousand dollars for their lands. 
But estimating the goods to be really worth fifty thousand 
dollars, the Indians only got about two and a half mills, 
or one fourth of a cent, per acre for their lands. 

Another big sale was made by the Indians in 1818, in 
which Kentucky was also interested ; it was known as 
the Jackson purchase. In this sale the Chickasaw Indians 
transferred to the Government all their lands between the 



x Introduction. 

Tennessee and the Mississippi rivers and between the 
Ohio River and the southern boundary of Tennessee for 
an annuity of twenty thousand dollars for fifteen years, 
and some other payments amounting to less than five 
thousand dollars. The territory sold contained more 
than seven million acres, and the price obtained at the 
end of fifteen years was about four and one third cents 
per acre. 

As a matter of course such of the Indians as stopped 
to think and had mind enough to think correctly must 
have known that such sales as these would at no distant 
day exhaust their lands and leave them but little, if any 
thing, to show for them. The wonder is that some mighty 
chief, having the confidence of his people and the ability 
to direct them, did not make his appearance at an earlier 
day and attempt to arrest the transfer of their lands by 
uniting all the tribes and making transfers more difficult. 
If all the tribes of the Algonquin and Mobilian families 
had been united into one grand confederacy and their 
warriors placed under the lead of one chief against the 
whites, it is difficult to see how the settlements along the 
Atlantic coast could have been maintained until they were 
numerous enough and strong enough to spread westward 
to the mountains and then leap over these barriers into 
the Mississippi Valley. 



Introduction. xi 

In 1806, Tecumseh, aided by his brother, known as 
the Prophet, attempted to unite all the Indian tribes 
against the Americans. His conception of a great con- 
federacy of all the tribes was not entirely original. Tradi- 
tion had probably informed him of the effort of King 
Philip to unite different tribes against the New Englanders 
in 1675. And still nearer his own times was the attempt 
of Pontiac to form a grand confederacy against the British 
in 1763. He must have known, too, of the disastrous 
failure of both of these great chiefs in their undertaking 
to array barbarism in an united effort against civilization. 
The whites were used to united effort, and in war as in 
peace were held together by laws which made them invin- 
cible in the face of disjointed foes who as often became 
a rabble as a phalanx or legion of soldiers. The Indian 
as an individual, or as part of a limited number, was a 
foe to be dreaded, but his efficacy never increased propor- 
tionately with numbers. An hundred warriors hid behind 
rocks and trees were more formidable than a thousand 
in the open field. 

Tecumseh, however, aided by the Prophet, improved 
upon the efforts of Philip and Pontiac in planning a con- 
federacy. A striking difference in their plans was that 
Philip and Pontiac made war upon the whites the primary 
object of their confederations, while Tecumseh sought 



xii Introduction. 

first and foremost to prevent the whites from securing 
any more of the Indian's lands. War must have followed 
the plans of Tecumseh, but it would come secondarily 
and not primarily, as in the plans of the other two chiefs. 
Philip does not seem to have looked beyond a portion of 
New England for his confederates, and Pontiac seems to 
have had as much in view a restoration of the French to 
the position they held in America before the peace of 
1763 as he did the benefits of his own race. His plan 
embraced primarily the taking of the British forts, and 
secondarily the destruction of the British settlements. 
He succeeded in destroying eight out of the twelve forts 
assailed, but failed to take the Detroit fort assigned to 
his especial care. Hence the second part of his plan to 
direct the confederated Indians against the British settle- 
ments never materialized. He miscalculated the relative 
power of barbarism and civilization when arrayed against 
one another, not in a single battle, but in a series of battles. 
The British had just whipped the French and Indians 
combined, and it is strange that as great a man as Pontiac 
should then undertake to whip the English with Indians 
alone. 

Tecumseh's conception of a grand confederacy of all 
the tribes of the Indians was broad and clear. It had 
none of the narrowness of Philip nor the French duality 



Introduction. xiii 

of Pontiac. He wanted to secure to his race the rest of 
the lands then held by them, and the difficulty with him 
was how to do it. After giving the subject much thought, 
he reached the conclusion that the country belonged to 
the Indians in common, and that one tribe could not 
alienate the lands it occupied without the consent of all 
the others. He claimed that the Great Spirit had placed 
the Indians in this country and given the lands to all of 
the race in common, without designating any specific 
portion for any particular tribe. The land, while occupied 
by any particular tribe, carried with it the right of 
occupancy, but when abandoned it reverted to all the 
other tribes in common. Tecumseh believed that if the 
Indians once agreed that the lands were held by them in 
common, the sales by individual tribes would be rare from 
the difficulties of getting the consent of all, and that the 
chances of a sale being for the good of all would be 
much increased if all approved of it. He was familiar 
with the principal treaties that had been made between 
the Indians and the whites, and the quantities of land 
that had passed by them. He knew of the lands that 
had passed by conquest as well as by purchase, and in 
the transactions between the whites and the Indians for 
hundreds of years he knew that the lands never went 
from the white man to the red man, but always went 



xiv Introduction, 

from the Indian to the white man. Having reached the 
conclusion that the lands belonged to all the tribes alike, 
and that one tribe could not sell without the consent of 
the others, he arrogated himself into a chosen instrument 
in the hands of the Great Spirit to establish this doctrine. 
He was a great orator, and did not doubt his ability to 
convince the Indians of the wisdom and the necessity of 
his doctrine. He went from tribe to tribe as the apostle 
of his creed, and found eager listeners wherever he went. 
He first visited the neighboring tribes and then those on 
the lakes, and finally those on the distant gulf and those 
beyond the Mississippi. 

But Tecumseh, great and eloquent and persuasive as 
he was, needed something more than his own eminent 
powers to establish his land - law among the Indians. He 
had a brother, known as the Prophet, who was possessed 
of the talents that were needed to further his schemes. 
The Prophet was an adept in cunning and duplicity and 
imposture, and withal as eloquent as Tecumseh. He 
found no difficulty in assuming the place of another 
prophet who had just died, and in convincing the super- 
stitious Indians of his inspiration as a seer. He believed, 
as Tecumseh did, that the lands all belonged to the 
Indians in common, and that no tribe could sell its lands 
without the consent of the others. He used visions and 



Introduction. xv 

trances and incantations and conjurings with which to 
impress this land - law upon them, and, knowing that 
such a doctrine might sooner or later lead to war between 
the Indians and the Americans, he had special visions 
and trances and communications with supernatural powers 
from which he derived the authority to render warriors 
proof against the bullets and the swords of the Ameri- 
cans. By such means the Prophet helped Tecumseh to 
the union of the tribes and to the doctrine of all the 
tribal lands being held in common. 

While Tecumseh was far from home explaining this 
land -law to the distant tribes of the south, the Prophet 
was at Tippecanoe preying upon the superstition of his 
followers. He convinced them that his charms could 
protect them against the bullets of the Americans, and 
made them believe that they could stand in the midst of 
battle and shoot down the whites without injury to them- 
selves. The Prophet had possibly, in the enthusiasm of 
convincing his followers of their being bullet - proof, led 
himself to that belief. He assured them that his charms 
had turned the powder of the Americans into sand and 
deprived their bullets of penetrating power. All the 
Indians had to do was to attack the Americans and 
satiate their thirst for white blood without being in danger 
of harm. 



xvi Introduction. 

Such was the belief of the warriors of various tribes 
from far and near that the Prophet had assembled at 
Tippecanoe while Tecumseh was in a far - distant land. 
The eager warriors, thirsting for blood and believing in 
their immunity from hurt, rushed upon the camp of the 
Americans in the darkness of the night and soon learned 
that the bullets of the enemy were not of the kind 
described by the Prophet. Instead of glancing harmlessly 
from the bodies of the Indians, they went through and 
through and inflicted wounds that ended in immediate 
death or long suffering. The Americans were neither 
asleep nor drunk, and if their powder was sand, it was a 
kind of sand which hurled deadly missiles just as powder 
did. They were driven from the American camp, and 
left their dead and wounded as proof that the Prophet 
was an impostor. 

The Battle of Tippecanoe was the end of the grand 
confederacy of Tecumseh. Those who had escaped from 
the bullets of the Americans soon bore the news to 
adjacent tribes, and it was not long before distant tribes 
knew the result. The village of Tippecanoe, the home 
of Tecumseh and the Prophet, was burned to the ground, 
and the Prophet had fled to hide among stranger tribes. 
After all the boasting of charms and visions and trances 
by the Prophet, it was any thing but convincing of his 



Introduction. xv 

superhuman power to see his village in ashes and himself 
a fugitive. Before the battle was over the Prophet was 
far from the scene of danger. 

When Tecumseh reached his home and saw the ruin 
his brother had wrought, his feelings may be better 
imagined than described. His work of years trying to 
teach the various tribes that their lands should be held 
in common to secure them against the Americans had 
been undone by a battle that ought never to have been 
fought in his absence. The bright future he had marked 
out for himself was all darkness now. He sought an 
interview with Governor Harrison and with the President 
of the United States, for the purpose of laying his plans 
before them, but failed to secure it. Despairing of ever 
being on living terms with the Americans, he joined the 
English on the breaking out of the War of 1812, and, 
after engaging in a number of battles against the Ameri- 
cans, died a soldier's death at the Battle of the Thames. 
He was one of the greatest Indians ever born on the 
American continent, and was so famous as a warrior, 
orator, and statesman that many soldiers claimed to have 
killed him in the Battle of the Thames. Nor is it known 
to this distant day with any degree of certainty which of 
the many claimants ended the life of this distinguished 
chief. 



Introduction. 



It is not likely that even if the Battle of Tippecanoe 
had not been fought and Tecumseh had succeeded 
in forming a great confederacy of all the Indians the 
United States would have recognized the right claimed 
for the combination to sit in judgment upon the sale of 
the lands of any individual tribe. The United States 
had again and again recognized the right to sell by the 
tribe occupying the land, and has ever since adhered to 
this view. Nevertheless, the Battle of Tippecanoe must 
have the credit of having broken up in its infancy the 
grand confederacy of Tecumseh and the Prophet, and 
prevented the endless collisions which its crude notions of 
land -law might have brought about between the two 
races. It was, moreover, the avant - courier of the War 
of 1812. Viewed in this connection, although it was 
insignificant when compared with the defeats of Braddock 
and St. Clair, and the victories of Forbes and Wayne, it 
was yet of vast and lasting importance. It cost much 
suffering and some valuable lives, but we can not say 
that it was not worth all it cost and more. General 
Harrison and his brave soldiers whom a night attack by 
hideous savages could not strike with panic should be 
remembered for their courage and for the victory they 
won over savages converted into demons by the Prophet's 
incantations. 



Introduction. *ix 

In the account of the Battle of Tippecanoe, which 
follows this introductory chapter, Captain Pirtle has been 
faithful in collecting all the important facts relating to it 
and in presenting them in an unostentatious but effective 
way. He has gathered some information from old manu- 
scripts and newspapers not before used in any history of 
this battle, and has been very careful to collect all acces- 
sible information concerning the Kentuckians who were in 
the action. In his narrative will be found the names of 
Kentuckians not before known to have been in this battle, 
and their descendants can hardly fail to be grateful to 
the author for rescuing these names from oblivion. If 
Captain Pirtle's monograph shall so direct public attention 
to Joseph Hamilton Daviess and Abraham Owen and 
other heroes of this battle as to insure suitable monu- 
ments over their unmarked graves, a good work will have 
been done in behalf of brave men and accomplished 
soldiers. They sleep on the battlefield which their 
deaths helped to consecrate to fame, but their sleep is 
an undistinguished repose and should have some land- 
mark to point the living to the spots of earth hallowed 

by their mortal remains. 

R. T. DURRETT, 

President Filson Club. 



THE BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE. 



Part First. 

THE BATTLE AND THE BATTLE-GROUND. 

ON the waters of Mad River, at a place now known 
as West Boston, not far from Springfield, Ohio, 
there were three boys born at a birth to a Shawnee war- 
rior of a captured Creek squaw, ' ' Methotaska " by name. 
From the fact that the North American Indians had no 
written language, the date of this event is not certainly 
known, being given variously from 1768 to 1780. One 
of the boys passed into obscurity and oblivion, leaving 
behind only his name, "Kamskaka." 

The other two boys became by name and deeds for- 
ever blended with the name of Harrison in the history 
of the Northwest, and always associated with his record 
in the minds of cotemporary Kentuckians "Tecumseh" 
and "The Prophet." 

With the picturesque appropriateness that attaches to 
Indian names, we find that " Tecumseh" stood for "The 
Wildcat Springing on its Prey, " and ' ' Elkswatawa " 



2 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

(the Prophet) meant "The Loud Voice." This, it is 
said, was a most suitable name, and was given him only 
as late as 1805, when he had made a reputation as a 
conjurer and orator. Previously he had been known as 
' ' The Open Door, " having become remarkable for stupidity 
and drunkenness.* 

In the year 1800 the Indiana Territory, northwest of 
the Ohio, was formed, including the present States of 
Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and that part of 
Minnesota east of the Mississippi, and its eastern bound- 
ary established by moving the southern terminal of it 
from a point on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of 
the Kentucky River to the mouth of the Big Miami 
River, which became, and remains, the western bound- 
ary of the State of Ohio. 

William Henry Harrison, born in Charles City County, 
Virginia, February 9, 1773, was the third son of Benja- 
min Harrison, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. On reaching manhood he joined the army 
with the rank of ensign, was soon promoted to lieutenant, 
and served with General Wayne in his campaign against 
the Indians in 1794. The historians likewise regard 
Tecumseh as being very active in this same campaign, 
making his mark as a young warrior. 

*Lossing Field Book of the War of 1812, page 188. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 3 

In 1797 Harrison had reached the rank of captain, 
but he resigned from the army to go into political life, 
becoming Secretary of the Northwest Territory, which 
embraced all the region belonging to the United States 
west of Pennsylvania and north of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky. He was thus quite a young though energetic 
man when he was made the first Governor of Indiana 
Territory in 1801. 

Passing by the next nine years of the history of the 
prominent characters already introduced into this paper, 
1810 found Tecumseh the foremost Indian in all the 
Territory, aspiring to be a second Pontiac and to unite 
all the tribes of his race in war against the ever- 
encroaching whites. His schemes and exertions were 
those of a statesman, ever endeavoring to draw the 
Indians into his plan of joint efforts against the common 
enemy, whose inroads into his own territory he resented 
in every possible way. 

The Prophet was a cunning, unprincipled man, pre- 
tending to see visions and to work charms, gaining thus 
almost unlimited influence among his followers. 

By 1808 a town located by the brothers, situated at 
the junction of Tippecanoe River with the Wabash, 
about one hundred and fifty miles up stream from Vin- 
cennes, was said to contain hundreds of the Prophet's 



4 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

followers, who avowed themselves to be tillers of the 
soil and strict abstainers from whisky. By a short 
portage the Indians could go by canoe to Lake Erie or 
Lake Michigan, or by the Wabash reach all the vast 
system of water courses to the south and west. It 
was only a twenty-four hours' journey by canoe, at a 
favorable stage of water, down stream to Vincennes, the 
capital of the white man's territory, where Governor 
Harrison had a considerable garrison of troops of the 
regular army. From the town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe River Tecumseh made his tours, and here 
his followers and those of the Prophet assembled. This 
location was well chosen, being in a very rich country 
and very accessible. Members of most remote tribes, 
from the headwaters of the Mississippi as well as west of 
that stream, drawn by the fame of the Prophet, visited 
this town. 

The new settlement was on the western bank of the 
river just below the mouth of the Tippecanoe, and was 
known to the Indians as Keh-tip-a-quo-wonk, ' ' The 
Great Clearing,"* and was an old and favorite location 
with them. 

The whites had corrupted the name to Tippecanoe, 
and it now generally became known as the Prophet's 

* Fourteenth Annual Report United States Bureau of Ethnology, 
1892-1893, Part II. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 5 

town. It is said the Indians had used this spot as a 
camping - ground for more than thirty years before the 
battle. 

Tecumseh and Elkswatawa were not chiefs by birth- 
right and had no such authority by official station, yet 
the former rapidly rose to a position -of the greatest 
influence by his talents. He made his brother a party 
to his plans only in so far as he could be of use, and 
the two, imposing upon the credulous ignorance of the 
Indians, raised the Prophet to a plane of great power 
through his incantations, charms, and pretended visions 
of the Great Spirit. The Prophet was no ordinary 
"medicine man," but a seer and a moral reformer among 
his people, making prophecy his strong point. He 
denounced drunkenness most strenuously ; he preached 
also the duty of the young to care for the aged. He 
was boastful of his powers, claiming them to be super- 
natural. His main characteristics were cunning and a 
showy smartness of speech as well as manner. He was 
possessed of none of the noble qualities of his brother, 
who was noted for his bravery in action and his 
eloquence in council. By the year 1809 Tecumseh had 
achieved a great reputation, not only as a leader in 
council but as a great warrior, and this added many 
followers to the cause for which he exerted all his 



6 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

faculties. He was far above the Prophet in all that 
ennobles a man. 

The policy of the United States Government had for 
some years been to extinguish by treaties the claims the 
Indians had to lands lying in Indiana Territory. These 
treaties, made by long negotiations, usually brought the 
Indians quantities of articles which they highly prized. In 
conformity with the instructions of the President, James 
Madison, Governor Harrison, at Fort Wayne, September 
30, 1809, concluded a treaty with the head men and chiefs 
of the Delaware, Pottawatomie, Miami, Eel River, Kickapoo, 
and Wea Indians, by which, in consideration of $8,200 
paid down, and annuities amounting in the aggregate to 
$2,350, he obtained the cession of nearly three million 
acres of land, extending up the Wabash beyond Terre 
Haute, below the mouth of Raccoon Creek, including the 
middle waters of White River. Neither Tecumseh, nor the 
Prophet, nor any of their tribe had any claim to these 
lands, yet they denounced the Indians who sold them, 
declared the treaty void, threatened the makers of it with 
death, and steadily maintained their unwavering opposition 
to the making of treaties except by consent of larger 
bodies of Indians, claiming that the domain was not the 
property of small tribes. This was a part of Tecumseh's 
scheme of a general confederation among all the Indians. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 7 

The Wyandotts, the tribe most feared by the other Indians, 
about this time became firm friends of the Shawnees, to 
which the two brothers belonged. 

With prophetic vision Tecumseh saw that if this 
immense body of land was opened to settlement by 
the whites, the game upon which the Indians had to 
depend for subsistence must soon be exterminated, and 
that would lead in a few years to the removal of his 
own race to more distant and strange hunting-grounds. 
And this thought he used with insistence upon his 
countrymen. 

In the spring of 1810 the Indians at the Prophet's 
town refused to receive the "Annuity Salt" sent them 
in boats in compliance with the treaty, and insulted the 
boatmen, calling them ' ' American dogs ! " These, with 
other indications of hostility, caused Governor Harrison 
to send several pacific messages to Tecumseh and the 
Prophet. There was no doubt trouble brewing, and Gov- 
ernor Harrison seems to have made decided efforts to 
prevent an outbreak. Tecumseh sent word he would pay 
the Governor a visit, and accordingly on August i2th he 
arrived at Vincennes with four hundred warriors fully 
armed, encamping in a grove near the town. The pres- 
ence of such a large body of the savages was alarming to 
the people of the town, but no encounter took place 



8 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

between the two races, the Governor managing affairs so 
as to prevent any collision. 

The burden of Tecumseh's arguments was against the 
treaty-making power of the Indians who had made that 
of 1809, announcing his determination not to allow the 
country to be settled. After two days' conference the 
matter was ended by the Governor promising to lay it 
before the President. Not long after this a small detach- 
ment of United States troops under Captain Cross were 
moved from Newport Barracks, Kentucky, to Vincennes, 
and three companies of Indiana milicia and a company 
of Knox County Dragoons, added to the regulars, made 
a formidable force at the town. 

The winter of 1810-11 passed without any serious out- 
break, though there were numerous raids and petty 
annoyances on the part of the Indians which brought 
counter - movements on the side of the settlers. 

The population of Indiana Territory had then reached 
about twenty -five thousand; Kentucky by the 1810 
census had a population of four hundred and six thou- 
sand five hundred and eleven, while Jefferson County 
had thirteen thousand three hundred and ninety - nine, of 
which Louisville possessed one thousand three hundred 
and fifty -seven. Lexington at the same time had four 
thousand two hundred and twenty - six. 






Ml 



<rf =3 

< ^ ^ 

PI ^ RSJ 

S I c^n 




C 

-i 

H 




The Battle of Tippecanoe. 9 

Most of the writers of the period speak of the influ- 
ence exerted on the minds of the Indians in Ohio and 
Indiana at this juncture by the British from their out- 
posts on the shore of Lake Erie and at Maiden, opposite 
Detroit. The relations of the United States and Great 
Britain had become strained, and the Indians were read- 
ily brought to take their share of arms, ammunition, and 
blankets without any great amount of urging. New British 
guns were found in the Prophet's town, with the list 
covers still on them and the maker's mark still unsullied, 
when it was captured by Harrison. Captain Geiger brought 
one of them home to Louisville and used it for years. 

Harrison was very likely alive to the prospect of mili- 
tary glory to be gained by a successful campaign against 
the Indians, so that when events had so shaped them- 
selves as to make a collision with them probable he 
would hardly have prevented it. 

General Clark, writing to the War Department from 
St. Louis, July 3, 1811, reported as follows: "All the 
information received from the Indian country confirms 
the rooted enmity of the Prophet to the United States, 
and his determination to commence hostilities as soon as 
he thinks himself sufficiently strong. His party is increas- 
ing, and from the insolence himself and party have lately 
manifested and the violence which has lately been com- 

3 



io The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

mitted by his neighbors and friends, the Pottawatomies, 
on our frontiers, I am inclined to believe the crisis is 
fast approaching." 

In this same month Harrison suggested, as a means 
to prevent war, that the calamity might be avoided by 
marching a considerable force up the Wabash and dis- 
persing the ' ' banditti " the Prophet had collected. 

All during the summer of 1811 the War Department 
was in receipt of letters from Indiana, Illinois, and near 
the British lines, telling of the operations of the British 
to foment hostilities between the Indians and the whites. 

In a report to the War Department from Vincennes, 

September 17, 1811, Harrison said: " reports 

that all the Indians of the Wabash have been, or now 
are, on a visit to the British Agent at Maiden ; he has 
never known more than a fourth as many goods given to 
the Indians as they are now distributing. He examined 
the share of one man (not a chief), and found he had 
received an elegant rifle, twenty-five pounds of powder, 
fifty pounds of lead, three blankets, three strouds of 
cloth, ten shirts, and several other articles. He says every 
Indian is furnished with a gun (either rifle or fusil) and 
abundance of ammunition." This same person says further: 
"Although I am decidedly of the opinion that the ten- 
dency of the British measures is hostility to us, candor 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 1 1 

obliges me to inform you that, from two Indians of dif- 
ferent tribes, I have received information that the British 
Agent absolutely dissuaded them from going to war 
against the United States." 

In June, 1811, General Harrison sent the following 
speech to Tecumseh, the Prophet, and others, by Captain 
Walter Wilson: 

' ' Brothers, listen to me : I speak to you about matters of 
importance both to the white people and yourselves ; open your 
ears, therefore, and attend to what I shall say. Brothers, this 
is the third year that all the white people in this country have 
been alarmed at your proceedings ; you threaten us with war ; 
you invite all of the tribes to the North and West of you to 
join against us. Brothers, your warriors who have lately been 
here deny this, but I have received information from every 
direction ; the tribes on the Mississippi have sent me word that 
you intended to murder me, and then to commence a war 
upon our people. I have also received the speech you sent 
to the Potawatomies and others to join you for that purpose, 
but if I had no other evidence of your hostility towards us your 
seizing the salt I lately sent up the Wabash is sufficient. 
Brothers, our citizens are alarmed, and my warriors are pre- 
paring themselves, not to strike you, but to defend themselves 
and their women and children. You shall not surprise us as 
you expect to do ; you are about to undertake a very rash 
act. As a friend I advise you to consider well of it ; a little 
reflection may save us a great deal of trouble and prevent 
mischief; it is not yet too late. 

"Brothers, what can be the inducement for you to under- 
take an enterprise when there is so little probability of sue- 



12 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

cess ? Do you really think that the handful of men that you 
have about you are able to contend with the Seventeen Fires, 
or even that the whole of the tribes united could contend 
against the Kentucky Fire alone ? Brothers, I am myself of 
the Long Knife Fire (Virginia and Kentucky). As soon as they 
hear my voice you will see them pouring their swarms of 
hunting-shirt men, as numerous as the mosquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Brothers, take care of their stings. Brothers 
it is not our wish to hurt you. If we did we certainly have 
the power to do it. Look at the number of our warriors east 
of you, above and below the Great Miami ; to the south on 
both sides of the Ohio, and below you also. You are brave 
men, but what could you do against such a multitude ? We 
wish you to live in peace and happiness. 

"Brothers, the citizens of this country are alarmed. They 
must be satisfied that you have no design to do them mischief, 
or they will not lay aside their arms. You have also insulted 
the Government by seizing the salt that was intended for other 
tribes. Satisfaction must be given for that also. Brothers, you 
talk of coming to see me, attended by all of your young men, 
this, however must not be so. If your intentions are good, 
you have need to bring but few of your young men with you. 
I must be plain with you ; I will not suffer you to come into 
our settlement with such a force. 

' ' Brothers, if you wish to satisfy us that your intentions are 
good, follow the advice I have given you before ; that is, that one or 
both of you should visit the president of the United States and lay 
your grievances before him. He will treat you well, will listen to 
what you say, and if you can show him you have been injured, you 
will receive justice. If you will follow my advice in this respect, 
it will convince the citizens of this country and myself that you 
have no design to attack them. Brothers, with respect to the 
lands that were purchased last fall, I can enter into no negotia- 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. *3 

tions with you on that subject ; the affair is in the hands of the 
President. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you 
with the means. 

' ' Brothers, the person who delivers this is one of my war 
officers. He is a man in whom I have entire confidence. 
Whatever he says to you, although it may not be contained in 
this paper, you may believe comes from me. 

"My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man and a 
brave warrior. I hope you will treat him well. You are your- 
self a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

At great personal risk this letter was delivered to the 
Indians. It is said that Tecumseh received it with great 
courtesy. In reply he sent the following : 

' ' Brother, I give you a few words, until I will be with you 
myself Tecumseh. 

' ' Brother, at Vincennes, I wish you to listen to me while I 
send you a few words ; and I hope they will ease your heart. 
I know you look on your young men and your women and 
children with pity, to see them so much alarmed. Brother, I 
wish you to now examine what you have from me. I hope it 
will be a satisfaction to you, if your intentions are like mine, 
to wash away all these bad stories that have been circulated. 
I will be with you myself in eighteen days from this day. 
Brother, we can not say what will become of us, as the Great 
Spirit has the management of us at His will. I may be there 
before the time, and may not be there until that day. I hope ' 
that when we come together, all these bad tales will be settled. 
By this I hope your young men, women and children, will be 
easy. I wish you, brother, to let them know when I come to 
Vincennes and see you, all will be settled in peace and happi- 



14 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

ness. Brother, these are only a few words to let you know that 
I will be with you myself ; and when I am with you I can inform 
you better. Brother I find I can be with you in less than 
eighteen days, I will send one of my young men before me, to 
let you know what time I will be with you." 

In accordance with this promise he had arrived late 
in July within twenty miles of Vincennes, accompanied 
by about three hundred Indians, some twenty or thirty 
of whom were women. He was intercepted by Captain 
Wilson with a message from Governor Harrison, in 
which he objected to Tecumseh approaching any nearer 
with such a large body. Tecumseh replied that he had 
but twenty-four warriors in his party, and that the 
remainder had come voluntarily. 

The people of Vincennes particularly were alarmed, 
believing the wily chief intended to do them great mis- 
chief, and, overawing the Governor, endeavor to gain 
possession of the Wabash lands he so greatly craved. 

To meet this, Governor Harrison reviewed, on the day 
of the arrival of the Indians, seven hundred and fifty 
well armed Indiana militia, and stationed two companies 
of militia infantry and a detachment of dragoons on the 
outskirts of the town. Whatever designs Tecumseh may 
have had, he was astute enough not to incur any danger 
to his people by his conduct. He made the most 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 15 

friendly protestations to Governor Harrison, disclaiming 
any intention of making war on the Government. Yet 
he made earnest but modest demands for the lands ceded 
by the Fort Wayne treaty. 

Tecumseh, August 5th, started south with twenty 
warriors in his party to lay his plans of a confederation 
against the whites before the Creeks, Cherokees, and 
Choctaws of Tennessee and Alabama. It is impossible 
to understand what induced so wary a foe to make such 
a mistake at such a juncture ! 

After his departure on the journey to the south, the 
remainder of his followers retired to the Prophet's town 
deeply impressed with the martial display of the military 
strength of Harrison's command. 

The Prophet from his town kept up his incantations, 
charms, and jugglery, thus increasing his importance and 
his influence over his superstitious followers. His town 
had grown into a large collection of warriors, squaws, and 
their children, said to have reached the number of two 
thousand. 

The young men, restless and bent on plunder, crossed 
the line of the white settlements in many places, and the 
killing of a settler or the running off of horses became 
so frequent as to throw the whole Territory into a great 
state of excitement. 



1 6 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Under the direction of the Secretary of War the 
Fourth Regiment, United States Infantry, Colonel John 
Parke Boyd, with a company of riflemen, about four 
hundred strong in all, floated down from Pittsburgh to 
the Falls of the Ohio, whence, on the call of Governor 
Harrison, they marched to Vincennes. Adding these to 
those already there, Harrison had a very handsome force 
at hand, about five hundred being regulars. 

Immediate action before Tecumseh could return was 
urged by Harrison's friends and by many of the 
frightened settlers. 

War with England seemed so imminent, and the 
anticipation of it had so marked an effect upon the 
behavior and attitude of the Indians, that Harrison could 
now see an opportunity for a military career, for which 
he had been preparing himself by military studies. 
During the summers of the two years just passed he 
had introduced excellent discipline among the Indiana 
militia whenever on duty, improving their morale and 
thus making them valuable as soldiers. 

Harrison passed the month of August in raising forces 
for an expedition to satisfy the wishes of the Western 
people, drilling them and preparing them as rapidly as 
possible for the field. No doubt was felt on the Ohio 
that he meant to attack the Indians at Tippecanoe, and 




COLONEL JOSEPH HAMILTON DAVIESS. 
From an oil portrait by Peale, owned by R. T. Durrett, of Louisville, Kentucky. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 17 

so serious a campaign was expected that Kentucky 
became eager to share it. Among other Kentuckians, 
Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Aaron Burr's prosecutor 
in 1806, wrote to Harrison August 24th, offering himself as 
a volunteer : "Under all the privacy of a letter," said he, 
' ' I make free to tell you that I have imagined there 
were two men in the West who had military talents ; 
and you, sir, were the first of the two. It is thus an 
opportunity of service much valued by me." Daviess 
doubted only whether the army was to attack at once 
or provoke attack. 

As the summer advanced Harrison called for volunteers, 
which call was met with a prompt and ample response. 
He was very popular, his voice stirring the people like a 
bugle call. Old Indian fighters like Major General 
Samuel Wells and Colonel Abraham Owen, of the Ken- 
tucky militia, instantly started for the field. Colonel 
Joseph Hamilton Daviess of course joined the command. 
Captain Frederick Geiger, residing in Jefferson County, 
Kentucky, raised a company of mounted riflemen. 

Frederick Geiger, senior, known generally as Colonel 
Geiger, was born in or near Hagerstown, Maryland, 
June 8, 1753.* He was descended from settlers of the 
Mohawk Valley in New York. Nothing is now known 

* He died at his home near Louisville, Kentucky, August 28, 1832. 

4 



1 8 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

as to his education or his history until 1789 or 1790, when 
he came with his wife to Kentucky and penetrated to 
the region of country near where Bowling Green now 
stands, but family tradition has it that he did not remain 
there a year. It is of record that he bought land on 
Chenoweth's Run, in Jefferson County, on May 14, 1790. 
In 1802 he bought a large body of land fronting on the 
Ohio River, running back quite a distance. Some of this 
tract was opposite where the Towhead Island has since 
formed. In May, 1808, he purchased the original part of 
what became his homestead on the road to Bardstown, 
now occupied as the Dennis Long place. The new addi- 
tions to the city of Louisville bring it only about a mile 
from the limits. All these lands were heavily timbered 
with the virgin trees. 

When Governor Harrison visited Louisville in August, 
1811, for the purpose of raising troops, the emergency was 
so great that he sent a messenger to Governor Scott, of 
Kentucky, asking permission to call out volunteers. 
Captain Peter Funk, who carried the message, several 
years after the battle dictated a report of his connection 
with the expedition which is very interesting. 

Colonel Geiger, under the call from Governor Harrison, 
at once raised a company who encamped on his land in 
an apple orchard on the left bank of Beargrass Creek, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 19 

just opposite the grounds of the Mellwood Distillery (as it 
is now), between Frankfort Avenue and the Brownsboro 
Road, in the month of September. They crossed the 
Ohio opposite Jeffersonville and marched to Vincennes. 
If other Kentuckians accompanied them on this march 
there is no record of the fact, but it is quite probable. 

Captain Peter Funk was born August 14, 1782, at 
Funkstown, Maryland. He came to Kentucky in 1795, 
and resided for many years in Jefferson County, on the 
Taylorsville Road, about ten miles from Louisville, being 
in the neighborhood of such well - known citizens as 
William C. Bullitt, John Edwards, George and Jacob Hikes, 
Jacob and Andrew Hoke, Frederick Yenowine, Benjamin 
Levy, and Henry Garr. There may be many of the 
readers of this who remember Captain Funk (for he lived 
until April 9, 1864) and who heard him narrate his 
experience at Tippecanoe. 

At the date of this visit of Governor Harrison to 
Kentucky there lived in Jefferson County another citizen 
whose descendants have made their impress on the com- 
munity and transmitted his patriotism. I refer to Judge 
John Speed,* the father of James and Joshua Speed and 
their brothers and sisters. 

Judge Speed lived on the road to Bardstown, and his 
place, called " B'armington, " was even then famous for 

*The Speed Family. Thomas Speed, page 95. 



20 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

the hospitality there dispensed. By reason of physical 
infirmity he did not serve in the campaign of 1811 or 
later. In 1827, when a candidate for the legislature, he 
published an address to his fellow-citizens, from which is 
selected the following, as giving an insight not only into 
his own feelings and actions, but into the spirit of the 
inhabitants of the city where we now live : 

"The call made by Governor Harrison, then Governor of 
Indiana, to resist a numerous body of Indians, is known by you. 
... I was in a condition for years, both before and after this 
period, which forbade my performing a journey of any distance, 
either on foot or horseback. I, however, immediately equipped, 
at my own expense, a nephew, the son of a widowed mother, 
whom I had raised, and started him as a horseman in a com- 
pany of Colonel Daviess' Blues. I furnished the late Colonel 
Springer Augustus, then a young man, another horse. I equipped 
our schoolmaster, the much-lamented Mr. Somerville, who was 
killed in action, with a rifle, etc. They were all killed in the 
battle of Tippecanoe. 

"When it was announced that they (the returning soldiers) 
were approaching the river (Ohio) on their return, at my instance 
and by my active exertions a most respectable number of the 
citizens of Louisville mounted their horses, and we met them on 
the bank of the river. There, at my request, they were formed 
into a square. Frederick W. S. Grayson, Esquire, with but a 
few moments' preparation, advanced on horseback and delivered 
them a neat, patriotic, and appropriate speech, closing with the 
thanks and twirling hats and huzzas of the surrounding citizens 
to the brave defenders of their country." 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 21 

% 

Captain Peter Funk says in his narrative that Gov- 
nor Harrison was in Louisville in August, 1811, when 
the narrator was in command of a company of militia 
cavalry there. At Harrison's request he hastened to 
Governor Scott, at Frankfort, and obtained permission to 
raise a company of cavalry to join the forces of Governor 
Harrison at Vincennes for an expedition up the Wabash. 
Captain Funk enrolled his company in a few days, and 
early in September joined Colonel Bartholomew's regi- 
ment then marching on Vincennes. At this point he 
found Colonel Joseph H. Daviess, with whom there were 
four young gentlemen from Louisville, namely, George 
Croghan, John O'Fallon (who years afterward became a 
prominent citizen of St. Louis), Mr. Moore, afterward a 
captain in the regular army, and a Mr. Hynes. Also 
from Lexington, Colonel Daviess' residence, James Mead 
and Ben Sanders.* 

By the rolls of the companies there were ninety- three 
in all enrolled in the force under Major Wells. Credit 
must also be given Kentucky for others whose names 
appear elsewhere in the records of this battle. 

The Indiana militia from various points in the Territory 
gathered at Vincennes to the number of about six hundred. 

*This narrative, written in 1862 by Mr. D. R. Poignand, of Taylorsville, 
Kentucky, from Captain Funk's dictation, is quoted freely in Lossing's Field 
Book of War of 1812. 



22 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

< 

The Fourth United States Infantry arrived at the 
rendezvous early in September. 

The rolls of Captain Geiger and Captain Funk bear 
the names of ninety-one men and officers. To these 
must be added the names of General Wells, Colonel 
Abraham Owen, Major Joseph Hamilton Daviess, George 
Croghan, John O'Fallon, Adjutant James Hunter, James 
Mead, Ben Sanders, Mr. Moore, and Mr. Hynes. These 
have all been recorded as having participated in the cam- 
paign. The total thus arrived at reaches one hundred 
and one names, making a large increase in the number 
heretofore said to have been from the State of Kentucky. 
All other authorities give credit for about sixty Ken- 
tuckians. 

It is possible that this error arose from not noting 
the men led by Captain Funk, as also the individuals 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The fact that 
so many more Kentuckians than the sixty-odd usually 
allowed were there is clearly shown, and hereafter the 
Commonwealth should have credit for every one of her 
sons who was present at the battle or took any part in 
the campaign. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 



ROLL OF FIELD AND STAFF, BATTALION KENTUCKY LIGHT 
DRAGOONS, BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date of Enlistment. 


To What Time. 


Samuel Wells .... 
James Hunter . . . 


Major. 
Adjutant. 


October 16, 1811. 
1 1 11 it 


November 24, 1811. 
tt t * * ( 



ROLL OF CAPTAIN PETER FUNK'S COMPANY. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date of Enlistment. 


To What Time. 


Peter Funk 


Captain. 


September 


H, 


1811. 


November 25, 


1811. 


Lewis Hite 


Lieutenant. 


t * 


j i 


, t 


( t (4 


4 4 


Samuel Kelly . . . 


Cornet. 


t < 


( ( 


* f 


i t t ( 


1 4 




Adam L. Mills 


Sergeant. 


1 1 


II 


4 t 


Killed. 




James Martin .... 


< 


< t 


I 


t 1 


Wounded. 




Henry Canning. . . 


<( 


1 1 


( 4 


( ( 


November 25, 


1811. 




ii 


4 ( 


( 4 


( ( 


4 ( 44 


ii 


Elliott Wilson 


Corporal. 


4 ( 


( ( 


1 ( 


44 41 


4 t 


William Cooper. . . 


Trumpeter. 


(( 


t i 


I ( 


( t 44 


4 4 


Samuel Frederick . . 


Farrier. 


t t 


( ( 


t ( 


' t (4 


4 4 


William Duberly. . 


Private. 


t ( 


t ( 


t ( 


( 44 


4 4 


John Edlin 


t 


4 ( 


( i 


4 4 


ft 44 


44 


William Ferguson . 


1 1 


t 4 


( ( 


4 4 


4 t 44 


4 4 


Benjamin W. Gath. 


* t 


4 4 


t t 


4 t 


4 t 44 


4 4 




1 4 


( ( 


4 ( 


4 4 


* t H 


44 


I. Hollingsworth . . 


t 4 


( 4 


4 ( 


4 4 


44 t 4 


4 4 


Joseph Kennison.. 


( 4 


4 t 


( ( 


' 


44 44 


( ( 


William M. Luckett 


4 4 


(( 


II 


t 4 


(4 44 


4 t 


John Murphy .... 


( ( 


4 ( 


t 4 


4 t 


4 f 44 


4 4 


James Muckleroy . . 


t 


I 4 


( ( 


4 4 


t 4 44 


4 4 




( ( 


( ( 


II 


4 t 


(1 44 


4 4 




Thomas P. Mayers. 


( 


t ( 


4 4 


4 ( 


it (4 


4 4 


Thomas Stafford . . 


( t 


( t 


4 t 


4 4 


i ( 44 


4 4 


William Shaw .... 


1 ( 


( 4 


( ( 


t ( 


14 44 


4 4 


John Smith . . . 


f 1 


( ( 


( 1 


t 4 


14 41 


t 1 




William T. Tally . . 


(1 


1 1 


( ( 


t t 


44 44 


44 


M. Williamson. . . . 


( 1 


t ( 


( ( 


t ( 


44 t t 


4 4 


Samuel Willis 


(t 


4 t 


II 


1 4 


44 (4 


4 4 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 



ROLL OF CAPTAIN FREDERICK GEIGER'S COMPANY, KENTUCKY 
MOUNTED RIFLEMEN. 



Name. 


Rank. 


Date of Enlistment. 


To What Time. 


Frederick Geiger. . . 


Captain. 
Lieutenant 


October 23, 1811. 

ft it ft 


November 18, 1811. 

1 1 1 1 tt 


William Edwards. . . 
Daniel McClellan. . . 
Robert Mclntire . . . 
Robert Edwards . . . 
John Jackson .... 


Ensign. 
Sergeant. 

t i 
t < 
t t 


t 1 < ( tt 
it 1 1 t i 
it 1 1 ( ( 
t * ft (i 

( t if t i 


it tt 1 1 

tf it 1 1 

if if ft 
ft ft if 

ft tt it 


Stephen Mars .... 


Corporal 


it (i i * 


Killed. 






i it i i 


November 1 8 1 8 1 1 . 




1 1 


It if t t 


it t i 1 1 


Henry Waltz 


f t 


ii ft if 


it 1 1 1 1 


Joseph Paxton 


Trumpeter. 


i i t ( t ( 

1 1 it it 


it it ft 


Philip Allen 








Thomas Beeler .... 
William Brown .... 
James Ballard 


i 1 

1 1 
1 1 


{ ( tt t i 
it 1 1 it 
i 1 t i it 


1 1 1 1 tt 

t i it it 

it t t If 


Charles L. Byrne. . . 
Joseph Barkshire. . . 
Adam Burkett 


1 t 
1 i 

( t 


( t t i t i 
1 1 1 1 1 1 


t i t t f i 


John Buskirk 








Charles Barkshire . . 
Robert Barnaba. . . . 
Temple C. Byrn . . . 


( 

( ( 


( t tt t t 
(i it t t 
1 1 i i it 


t f 

November 18, 1811. 

it tf it 


Thomas Calliway. . . 
William Cline 


( t 

( < 


i i 1 1 it 
tt t i t i 


ft tt t f 
it 1 1 1 1 


John Dunbar 


i t 






James M. Edwards. . 
Richard Findley . . . 
Nicholas Fleener. . . 
Joseph Funk 


i 1 
1 1 
( t 


t t it i i 

t i t t t t 

it 1 1 t t 


if it tt 
ft it tt 

Wounded. 


John Grimes ... 








Isaac Gwathtney . , . 
Henry Hawkins. . . . 
James Hanks . . 


( ( 


ft t f ft 
it it it 


tt tt tt 

1 1 it ft 


Zachariah Ingram. . 
Joshua Jest 


t ( 


it it i i 


t t it it 


Elijah Lane 


( I 


f I ft it 













The Battle of Tippecanoe. 



ROLL OF CAPTAIN GEIGER'S COMPANY CONTINUED. 



Name. 



Rank. 



Date of Enlistment. 



To What Time. 



John Lock 

Hudson Martin .... 

John Maxwell 

Josh Maxwell 

Daniel Minor 

John Ousley 

Michael Plaster. . . . 

Samuel Pound 

Jonathan Pound. . . . 

Peter Priest 

Patrick Shields .... 

Edmund Shipp 

John W. Slaughter. . 

Joseph Smith 

^Augustus Springer . . 
Thomas Spunks .... 
James Summerville. 

Wilson Taylor 

Thomas Trigg 

William Trigg 

Abraham Walk .... 
George W. Wells. . . 
Samuel W. White . . 
Greensberry Wrighl 



Private. 



October 23, 1811. 



November 18, 1811. 

<t 1 1 it 

Killed. 

Wounded. 
November 18, 1811. 



Killed. 

( t 

November 18, 1811. 

Killed. 
November 18, 1811. 



Wounded. 



This is evidently Springer Augustus, not Augustus Springer. See Judge Speed's article, 
page 20. 

As fast as it could be done, troops were sent up the 
Wabash about sixty-five miles to a point in the purchase 
of 1809 where the city of Terre Haute now stands, and 
there, October 6th, Governor Harrison joined them. He 
had for one of his aids Thomas Randolph, a prominent 
politician of Indiana Territory in those days. Colonel 
Abraham Owen, of Kentucky, an old Indian - fighter, 



26 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

having served under St. Clair twenty years before, was 
also an aid. 

Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, of Kentucky, was a 
volunteer aid with the rank of major. Daviess occupied 
a singular position, which, in these times, we can hardly 
understand, for he raised no men, but had a commission 
as Major of Indiana Militia given him by Harrison while 
at Vincennes. He had seen service, was a man of 
unquestioned bravery, had immense influence with the 
soldiers, and was a leader of men. His reputation as 
one of the foremost of Kentucky lawyers had preceded 
him and increased his hold upon the volunteers. Perhaps, 
too, he had dreams of military glory, as hinted at in 
the letter to Governor Harrison written before he left 
Kentucky. He acted on the day preceding the battle as 
though he was determined a fight must be brought on 
before they marched back. 

Soon after his arrival Harrison began the erection of a 
stockade fort, which was completed near the close of the 
month, and by the unanimous request of the officers was 
called "Fort Harrison." Less than a year afterward 
Captain Zachary Taylor (the twelfth President) here resisted 
and drove off a large body of Indians. It was built of 
timber from the neighboring forest, and was not intended to 
endure the fire of artillery. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 27 

While the building of the fort was going on, during the 
night of October i ith, one of the sentinels was fired on and 
wounded, causing considerable excitement. 

The command was turned out, line of battle formed, and 
scouting parties sent out in various directions, but no enemy 
was found. Harrison regarded this as the commencement 
of hostilities by the Prophet, and decided to act as if war 
had been declared by the Prophet. October i3th Harrison 
reported to Secretary Eustis that ' ' our effectives are but 
little over nine hundred. " The rank and file consisted 
of seven hundred and forty-two men fit for duty. 
Thinking this too small a force, he sent back to Vincennes 
for four companies of mounted riflemen. Two of the four 
companies joined him, but their strength is not given. 
The returns showed that the army thus amounted to at 
least one thousand effectives. One of the officers of the 
Fourth United States Infantry, writing after the battle, 
November 2ist, said the force was a little upward of eleven 
hundred men. 

Harrison was delayed at Fort Harrison by the failure of 
the contractors to deliver provisions in the agreed time, 
much to the Governor's annoyance. The low water in 
the Wabash may have been the cause, since transporta- 
tion by flatboats was relied upon until the command left 
the block-house below Vermilion River. From there the 
command depended on wagons. 



28 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Lieutenant Colonel Miller with a small command was 
left to garrison Fort Harrison* when the main body resumed 
the march. This Lieutenant Colonel Miller was the ' ' I'll 
try" hero of the battle of Niagara, July 25, 1814. 

The Americans were bent on having a battle before their 
return, while the Indians are said to have been strictly 
ordered by Tecumseh to keep the peace, and they showed 
some intention to avoid Harrison's attack. As early as 
September 25th the Prophet sent a number of Indians to 
Vincennes to protest his peaceful intentions, and to promise 
Harrison's demands should be complied with. To these 
1 Harrison returned no answer and made no demands. 
But the next day, September 26th, the advance was 
made from Vincennes, and Harrison left for the camp, 
joining his troops October 6th, as has been mentioned. 
Had he not wanted war, he had ample time to negotiate 
for peace. 

While lying in camp and the fort was building, Harrison 
wrote the following letters to Governor Scott, of Kentucky, 
which complete the narrative of their stay at this point, 
as well as throw light on the causes of the apparent delay 
of a part of the command to join him : 

* It was on a spot famous in the traditions of the Indians as the scene of 
a desperate battle far back in the history of the aborigines between the 
Illinois and Iroquois. For this reason the French, who had early settled that 
region, had named it Battaille des Illinois." 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 29 

" CAMP BATTAILLE DES ILLINOIS, 

ON THE WABASH, 25th Oct, 1811.* 

" MY DEAR SIR : The commencement of hostilities upon the part 
of the Prophet, and a decisive declaration made by him to the Dela- 
wares, of his intention to attack the troops under my command, made 
it in my opinion expedient to increase my force which has been 
much diminished by sickness. I took the liberty, therefore, upon 
the sanction of a letter which you wrote to me by Captain Funk, to 
request General Wells of Jefferson county, to raise two companies 
of volunteers in that county, to be joined by two others from this 
territory, and come on to me as soon as possible. I conceived that 
the General would be enabled to march from the Ohio with these 
men, before a letter could probably reach you and return ; but as 
they are to be volunteers and the officers are to be commissioned by 
me, there is, I conceive, no further harm done, than an apparent 
want of attention to you for which you will no doubt pardon me, 
knowing as you do the sincerity of my attachment to your person, 
and my high respect for your official character ; under this impres- 
sion I shall make no further apology. 

' ' I am unable to say, whether the Prophet will to the last main- 
tain the high tone of defiance he has taken, or not. Our march 
thus far, caused all the Weas and Miamis to abandon his cause, and 
I am told that nearly all of the Potawattamies have also left him. 
Indeed I have within a day or two, been informed that he will not 
fight ; but the same person who gave me this information, says that 
he intends to burn the first prisoner he can take." 

' ' The fort which I have erected here is now complete (as to its 
defence). I wait for provisions, which I expect to-morrow or the 

* The Lexington, Kentucky, Reporter, November 9, 1811, taken from the 
Frankfort Argus. 



30 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

next day, when I shall immediately commence my march, without 
waiting for the troops which are in the rear. I am determined to 
disperse the Prophet's banditti before I return, or give him the 
chance of acquiring as much fame as a Warrior, as he now has as a 
Saint. His own proper force does not at this time exceed 
450, but in his rear there are many villages of Potawatimies, 
most of whom wish well to his cause. I believe they will 
not join him, but should they do it, and give us battle, I have 
no fear of the issue. My small army, when joined by the mounted 
riflemen in the rear will be formidable it will not then exceed 
950 effectives, but I have great confidence in them, and the 
relative proportion of the several species of troops, is such as I 
could wish it." 

" I am, dear Sir, your sincere friend, 

(Signed) WM. H. HARRISON." 
" Gov. SCOTT." 



"CAMP BATTAILLE UES ILLINOIS, 25th Oct. 1811. 

" MY DEAR SIR., Since my letter to you, of this day was written, 
I have received one from General Wells, in which was inclosed a 
copy of your's to him. I regret exceedingly that any omission of 
mine, should have given you the least room to believe that I had 
treated you with the smallest neglect or disrespect. The fact is, 
that I did not believe there would be time to obtain your sanction, 
and I recollected that in the application I made to you for leave for 
Capt. Funk to join me, you answered by expressing your regret 
that I had not asked for infantry as well as cavalry. In any sudden 
emergency, the laws of this territory give authority to colonels to 
turn out their commands without waiting for the governor's author- 
ity, and as my letter to General Wells contemplated volunteers 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 3 1 

only, and not a regular militia corps, I did not think the application 
to you (on account of the distance) was so material ; however I 
acknowledge in strict propriety, it ought to have been done, and 
beg you to believe, that there is no man whom I more cordially love, 
nor no Governor for whom I feel a greater respect than yourself 
the bare idea of your entertaining a different sentiment of me, is 
extremely distressing." 

' ' I have the honor to be 

With great truth 

Your sincere friend, 

(Signed) WM. H. HARRISON." 
" Gov. SCOTT." 

October 28th, a little more than a month from the 
beginning of the campaign, the command broke camp at 
Fort Harrison and began the march up the Wabash. 

This day the Governor reported to Secretary of War 
VV. Eustis : 

"The Delaware chiefs arrived in camp yesterday and gave 
an account of their efforts to induce the Prophet to lay aside 
his hostile designs. They were badly treated and insulted, and 
finally dismissed with the most contemptuous remarks upon 
them and us. The party which fired upon our sentinels arrived 
at the town when the Delawares were there ; they were Shaw- 
nees and the Prophet's nearest friends." 

The Governor remained one day longer at Fort Har- 
rison, and thence sent some friendly Indians to the 
Prophet with a message requiring that the Winnebagoes, 



32 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Pottawatomies, and Kickapoos at Tippecanoe should 
return to their tribes ; that all stolen horses should be 
given up, and that murderers should be surrendered. 
He intended at a later time to add a demand for host- 
ages in case the Prophet should accede to these prelimi- 
nary terms. Harrison did not inform his messengers 
where they were to deliver their answer. 

The last of the Kentuckians, General Wells, Colonel 
Owen, and Captain Geiger's company, joined the com- 
mand here. 

October 3ist, after passing Big Raccoon Creek, near 
where is now Montezuma, the army crossed to the west 
bank of the Wabash. To avoid the woods, the troops 
marched over a level prairie to a point about two miles 
below the mouth of Vermilion River, not far from the 
bridge of the Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City Railroad, 
where they erected a block - house to protect their boats, 
which up to this point had conveyed the provisions of 
the expedition, and were to be held there until the return 
of the column. 

The Prophet's town was fifty miles away, and every 
foot after passing Vermilion River was hostile country ; 
crossing that stream was invasion. 

Having followed the expedition thus far, let us look at 
its composition. 




GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. 
From an old wood-cut owned by R. T. Durrett. of Louisville, Kentucky. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 33 

The rolls that have been preserved are said to be 
incomplete, and are, perhaps, somewhat erroneous, but 
they are the only data now available. The writer has 
not made any personal research, contenting himself with 
the work of his predecessors, but the attempts to make 
the accounts of the various writers agree have been 
laborious. 

Taken up with care, the results here given will be 
sustained ; the names have been mentioned by one 
author, and many of them by more than one, and 
wherever a name appears there is some authority 
for it. 

The expedition consisted of nine companies of United 
States Infantry, six companies of infantry from the 
Indiana Militia, three companies of Indiana Mounted 
Riflemen, two companies Indiana Dragoons, two com- 
panies Kentucky Mounted Riflemen, and one company of 
Indiana Riflemen, also a company of scouts. 



34 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

TIPPECANOE CAMPAIGN. 
Roster of the command considered as- a Brigade : 
Governor WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, Commander-in-Chief. 

GENERAL STAFF. 

William McFarland, Lieutenant Colonel and Adjutant General. 

Colonel Abraham Owen,* Colonel Kentucky Militia and 
Aid-de-Camp. 

Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess,* Kentucky Militia, Aid- 
de-Camp, also Major commanding Indiana Dragoons. 

Henry Hurst, Major and Aid-de-Camp. 

Walter Taylor, Major and Aid-de-Camp. 

Marston G. Clark, Major and Aid-de-Camp. 

Thomas Randolph, * Acting Aid-de-Camp. 

Captain Piatt, Second United States Infantry, Chief Quarter- 
master. 

Captain Robert Buntin, Indiana Militia, Quartermaster of 
Indiana Militia. 

Doctor Josiah D. Foster, Chief Surgeon. 

Doctor Hosea Blood, Surgeon's Mate. 

Second Lieutenant Robert Buntin, junior, Indiana Militia, 
Forage Master. 

THE TROOPS. 

Colonel JOHN PARKE BOYD, Fourth United States Infantry, 
immediate commander of the troops, with rank of 
Brigadier General. 

George Croghan, of Kentucky, Volunteer Aid. 

Nathaniel F. Adams, Lieutenant and Adjutant. 

* Killed. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 35 

FOURTH UNITED STATES INFANTRY. 
Major GEORGE ROGERS CLARK FLOYD, commanding. 

The roll of the officers of the Fourth United States 
Infantry here given is not precisely the same as that 
appearing in another part of this history. This is the 
roster as found at Washington at the present day : 

Captain W. C. Baen.* 

Captain Josiah Snelling. 

Captain Robert C. Barton. 

Captain Return B. Brown. 

Captain George W. Prescott. 

Captain Joel Cook. 

First Lieutenant Abraham Hawkins. 

First Lieutenant George P. Peters, f 

First Lieutenant Charles Larrabee. 

Second Lieutenant Jacob W. Albright, First Infantry, com- 
manding a company of Seventh Infantry. 

Second Lieutenant George Gooding.f Fourth Infantry. 

Second Lieutenant Henry A. Burchester, Second Infantry, 
doing duty with the Fourth Infantry. J 

A battalion of Indiana Militia under command of 
Joseph Bartholomew, Lieutenant Colonel. 

* Wounded November yth and died November 9, 1811. 

f Wounded. 

J It is possible that the list given of the Fourth Infantry is not com- 
plete, but the returns and rolls of the Fourth Infantry are incomplete 
and in very bad condition, and do not afford full and exact information. 
[Adjutant General's Office, United States Army, 1896.] 



36 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Also a battalion of Indiana Militia under Lieutenant 
Colonel Luke Decker : 

Captain Josiah Snelling, junior. 

Captain John Posey. 

Captain Thomas Scott. 

Captain Jacob Warrick.* 

Captain Spier Spencer.* 

First Lieutenant Richard McMahan.* 

Second Lieutenant Thomas Berry.* 

Captain Wilson, f 

Captain John Norris.f 

Captain Hargrove, f 

Captain Andrew Wilkins. 

Captain Walter Wilson. 

Captain James Bigger. 

Captain David Robb. 

Battalion of Kentucky Volunteers : 

Major Samuel Wells, commanding. 
Lieutenant James Hunter, Adjutant. 
Captain Peter Funk. 
Lieutenant Presley Ross. 
Captain Frederick Geiger.J 
Lieutenant Lewis Hite. 

Two companies of Dragoons : 

Major Joseph H. Daviess, commanding. 
Captain Charles Beggs. 
Captain Benjamin Parke. 
Lieutenant Davis Floyd, Adjutant. 

* Killed. 

\ Mentioned in Harrison's report ; they were all from Indiana. 

J Wounded. 



The Battle of Tifipecanoe. 37 

About two hundred and seventy of the command 
were mounted, and very few of the entire force had ever 
been in battle. 

The military training of a considerable part of the 
militia had been obtained only during the campaign. 

Harrison anticipated resistance, yet not an Indian 
appeared, and November 3d the army resumed its 
march, keeping in the open country until Tuesday, 
November 5th, at evening, it arrived unmolested within 
eleven miles of the Prophet's town. 

The route on the left bank of the Wabash would 
have been shorter, but it was wooded and favorable to 
ambuscades. Harrison had had that route reconnoitered, 
and preparations made as if preparing to open a wagon 
road. It was very probable that the Prophet, expecting 
Harrison to march by this route, neglected to scout the 
country to the north of the Wabash where Harrison did 
march, for no Indians or Indian signs were met with 
until a day before the command reached the town. No 
signs of scouting parties were seen until the 5th of 
November. In support of this theory, call to mind the 
statements made later, that messengers had been sent to 
Harrison on the road down the left bank of the river. 

The route taken by Harrison, from a military point of 
view, was decidedly the best for an advance, but for a 



38 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

retreat after a lost battle it would have been all wrong. 
A victorious enemy between him and his base, with a 
wide river to cross, would very probably have been fatal. 
If he could have spared the time to have had his boats 
accompany the column, it would have been the better 
plan. No pen can describe the sufferings of the wounded 
who agonized in those wagons on the fifty miles back to 
the boats. 

The column moved in a formation that prepared it for 
instant battle. The old officers and some of the men 
had previous experience in marching in the Indian 
country, and the utmost precautions were taken to avoid 
surprise. 

As was said by Joe Daviess to some younger men 
while they were preparing to start on the march to join 
Harrison at Vincennes : " When you get into the Indian 
country act always as if in the presence of the enemy ; 
and in fact you always are. However secure you may 
seem, be sure some of the savages are watching your 
march, and will strike you at the first opportunity." 

Therefore, after passing the Vermilion River the 
column was made up thus : The mounted men formed 
the advance and rear guards and small parties on either 
flank ; the infantry marched in two columns, one on each 
side of the trail, while the baggage wagons, led animals, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 39 

and beeves took the center. On all sides scouts moved 
to prevent surprise. Harrison had devised this plan of 
march while serving under General Wayne in 1794. 

Cotemporary newspapers speak of this as an " army. " 
To us, after the gigantic military movements we have 
so recently passed through in the civil war, it seems a 
mere handful of men, but they were destined to mark 
an immortal page in history. And this band of brave 
men on the night of November 5th had come to within 
a short day's march of the Prophet's town without having 
seen an Indian, though discovering signs of them. The 
morning of the 6th they were seen in front and on both 
flanks, when within five or six miles of the town. 

Two miles from the town the army unexpectedly 
entered a difficult country, thick with woods and cut by 
ravines, where Harrison was greatly alarmed, seeing him- 
self at the mercy of an attack, and changed the forma- 
tion of the column to resist the enemy, but the defile 
was passed without hindrance in any way. 

When clear of the woods, within a mile and a half of 
the town, he halted and declared he was going into 
camp. Daviess and all the other officers urged him to 
attack the town at once, but he replied that his instruc- 
tions would not justify him in attacking the Indians 
unless they refused his demands, and he still hoped to 



40 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

hear something in the course of the evening from the 
friendly scouts (Indians sent out at Fort Harrison). 
Daviess remonstrated, and every officer supported him. 
Harrison then pleaded the danger of further advance. 
' ' The experience of the last two days, " he said, ' ' ought 
to convince every officer that no reliance ought to be 
placed upon the guides as to the topography of the 
country ; that, relying on their statements, the troops had 
been led into a situation so unfavorable that but for 
their celerity in changing their positions a few Indians 
might have destroyed them ; he was, therefore, deter- 
mined not to advance to the town until he had pre- 
viously reconnoitered. " 

In a letter to Governor Scott, of Kentucky, of Decem- 
ber 1 3th, he gave another reason which reads very differ- 
ently and sounds as unlike as possible the reasons given 
to his officers. ' ' The success of an attack upon the 
town by day, " he said, ' ' was very problematical. I 
expected that they would have met me the next day to 
hear my terms, but I did not believe they would accede 
to them, and it was my determination to attack and burn 
the town the following night." 

Daviess and the other officers, looking at the matter 
only as soldiers, became more urgent, until Harrison 
yielded at last, and, resolving no longer to hesitate in 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 4 1 

treating the Indians as enemies, ordered an advance with 
the determination to attack.* 

They advanced about a quarter of a mile when three 
Indians, sent by the Prophet, came to meet them, bring- 
ing pacific messages and urging that hostilities should be 
avoided if possible. They assured Harrison that messen- 
gers with friendly intent had gone to meet him down the 
eastern bank of the Wabash but had missed him. 
They were surprised at his coming so soon, and hoped 
he would not disturb them or frighten their women and 
children. 

Harrison in a letter, f written a few days after the 
battle, said : "I answered that I had no intention of 
attacking them until I discovered they would not comply 
with the demands I had made ; that I would go on and 
encamp at the Wabash, and in the morning would have 
an interview with the Prophet and his chiefs, and explain 
to them the determination of the President ; that in the 
mean time no hostilities should be committed." 

His hesitation was probably due to his being unpre- 
pared for battle at the moment, and his ignorance of the 
strength of the enemy. He knew he had about eight 
hundred men for duty, and the Indians might have more 

* History of the United States. Henry Adams, Vol. 6, page 99. 
j- Secretary Eustis, November 18, 1811. 



42 'I'lic Battle of Tippecaiioc. 

than six hundred. He remembered that no victory had 
ever been won over the Northern Indians where the 
numbers were any thing like equal. Before him was an 
unknown wilderness ; behind him a weary way of one 
hundred and fifty miles. With the rations in the wagons 
and the drove of beeves under charge of the Quarter- 
master, he had supplies for only a few days. He could 
not trust the Indians, and certainly if they suspected his 
plans as to their town they would not trust him. 

Daviess felt the Governor's vacillation so strongly that 
he made no secret of his discontent, and said openly not 
only that "the army ought to attack, but also that it 
would be attacked before morning, or would march home 
with nothing accomplished." 

Indeed, if Harrison had not come thus far to destroy 
the town, there was no sufficient reason, from a military 
standpoint, for his command being there at all. It 
appears almost certain that the little army was wanting a 
fight badly, and were apprehensive they might not get it. 

Having decided to wait, it was next in order to choose 
a camping-ground. They marched on, looking for some 
spot on the river where wood, as well as water, could be 
had, coming finally within one hundred and fifty yards of 
the town, when numbers of the Indians, in alarm, called 
on them to halt. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 43 

The Indians had cleared off the timber which had 
originally bordered the Wabash, extending their fields for 
a long distance down the stream, as well as back from 
the river's edge, thus removing the fuel that the com- 
mand needed for warmth and cooking. They had also 
cultivated the ground in their rude way, which made it 
undesirable as a camp-ground. Encountering such a 
surface led the column on until halted by the Indians on 
the very verge of the town. 

Harrison told them to show him a spot suitable for a 
camp. They pointed toward the northwest as a proper 
place, back from the Wabash, on the borders of a creek, 
less than a mile away. 

Two officers, Majors Taylor and Clarke, were sent 
with Quartermaster Piatt to examine it. As they reported 
it being excellent for their use, Harrison put the com- 
mand in motion, and parted with the chiefs who had come 
to meet him, after an exchange of promises that no hos- 
tilities should be commenced until after an interview to 
be held the next day. 

In his dispatch to the Secretary of War, written from 
Vincennes, November i8th, Harrison thus describes the 
battle-ground : 



44 '1 lie Battle of Tippecanoe. 

"I found the ground designed for our encampment not alto- 
gether such as I could wish it. It was indeed admirably calcu- 
lated for the encampment of regular troops that were opposed 
to regulars, but it afforded great facility for the approach of 
savages. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet 
above the level of a marshy prairie in front, and nearly twice 
that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which, 
and near to this bank, ran a small stream clothed with willows 
and other brushwood. Toward the left flank this bench of land 
widened considerably, but became gradually narrower in the 
opposite direction, and at the distance of one hundred and fifty 
yards terminated in an abrupt point." 

Is it not possible that the wily Prophet and his fol- 
lowers had an eye single to their plans when they 
selected the ground ? 

And yet in all the region round about for some dis- 
tance there is no better spot for a camp where abun- 
dance of wood and water are required. 

Remember the nights at this season were very cold, 
and since only the officers and the regulars had tents, 
huge fires were necessary to procure any degree of com- 
fort. These fires were built lavishly, usually in front of 
the lines occupied by each portion of the command as it 
lay in camp, and the light of the fires at the outbreak 
of the battle was the cause of much loss among the 
whites, since the enemy had them at a disadvantage the 
moment a man came within the glare. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 45 

Those of my readers who have visited the battle- 
ground on the ' ' Monon Route " will recognize the general 
features of it as described by Governor Harrison. 

Going north on the railroad, we cross the Wabash 
canal as soon as we leave the city of Lafayette. Pass- 
ing around a slight eminence, the train rushes out into 
view of the Wabash River bottom, here quite wide. Off 
to the left we see the hills and broken country which 
excited Harrison's fears as he found his column of weary 
troops among them on the morning of Wednesday, 
November 6th. We ride across the river, and to our 
right is the ground where he halted about noon and held 
the conference with his officers regarding their situation. 
The mouth of the Tippecanoe is not distinguishable as 
we look up the river because of the trees, but it is about 
a long mile away. The train soon traverses the bottom 
land, and we come in sight of a creek on the left, which 
is Burnett's Creek, and a moment later we whirl along 
the side of a fine area of grass enclosed by a tall iron 
fence, and that is the battle-ground, but the station by 
that name is yet a little ways beyond. Alighting at the 
platform we find a large village before us, which we only 
skirt on our walk back to the scene of the conflict, pass- 
ing an extensive enclosure devoted to camp-meetings, and 
also a college. 



46 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Facing toward the broad fields in front of the battle- 
ground at the gate of the fine iron fence we see just at 
the foot of the railroad embankment the marshy prairie, 
and at the distance of about a mile is the site of the 
Prophet's town. No trees dot the surface, but we can 
see it was near the mouth of the Tippecanoe River, 
whose clear waters flow into the Wabash. 

Entering the park, for the State of Indiana, with 
commendable liberality, keeps the enclosure always in 
good order, we can imagine it in its virgin state with a 
great many more trees, some logs and brush. It indicates 
now that it was then an excellent site for a few men to 
hold against a host. The creek still flows, but the hand of 
improvement has graded the steep bank and made a 
roadway. The willows and small brush still spring up 
as they did at the battle. 

The town and other improvements stand upon the 
woods that opened toward the northwest. 

Harrison was criticized after the battle for not entrench- 
ing his camp that afternoon, or at least throwing up some 
barricades of logs or fallen trees. He said that the army 
had barely enough axes to procure firewood. The prob- 
abilities are that the men had little time after reaching 
camp to make preparations for the night, but, after all, 
the Governor should have given the orders if he thought 



Tlie Battle of Tippecanoe. 47 

it necessary. The army pitched its tents, lighted its fires, 
and proceeded to make itself as comfortable as possible 
under the circumstances, with no other protection than a 
single line of sentinels, although the creek in the rear 
gave cover to an attack within a few yards of the camp. 
Harrison arranged his camp with care on the after- 
noon of November 6th in the form of an irregular paral- 
lelogram on account of the conformation of the ground. 
On the front was a battalion of United States Infantry 
under the command of Major George Rogers Clark Floyd * 
(a native of Jefferson County, Kentucky), flanked on the 
right by two companies, and on the left by one company 
of Indiana Militia under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Bar- 
tholomew. In the rear was a battalion of United States 
Infantry under Captain William C. Baen, acting Major, 
with Captain Robert C. Barton, of the regulars, in imme- 
diate command. These were supported on the right by 
four companies of Indiana Militia led respectively by 
Captains Josiah Snelling, junior, John Posey, Thomas 
Scott, and Jacob Warrick. This battalion of Indiana 

* Major Georgii Rogers Clark Floyd was appointed Captain of the 
Seventli United States Infantry in 1808 ; promoted to Major of the Fourth 
Infantry in 1810. He served in this rank until August, 1812, when he 
was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and transferred to the Seventh Infantry. 
Becoming dissatisfied with the service, he resigned in April, 1813, return- 
ing to the vicinity of Louisville, Kentucky, near his native place. Subse- 
quently he studied law. He died in 1821. 



48 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Militia was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Luke Decker. 
The right flank, eighty yards wide, was filled with mounted 
riflemen under Captain Spier Spencer. The left, one hun- 
dred and fifty yards in extent, was composed of mounted 
riflemen under Major Samuel Wells, commanding as Major, 
and led by Captains Frederick Geiger and David Robb. 

David Robb was born in Ireland, July 12, 1771, but 
came to America at an early age. His father, David 
Barr Robb, had a family of ten children, and settled in 
Jefferson County, Kentucky, near Mann's Lick. David 
Robb, while making his home near Mann's Lick, became 
a famous hunter and a fine shot. His hunts sometimes 
took him as far up the Ohio River as the Kentucky 
River, whence he floated to Louisville with his furs. 

One season he accumulated a large stock of fine furs 
which he loaded into a boat, and, with a small company, 
voyaged down to New Orleans to dispose of them. 
Thence he sailed for Philadelphia, intending to cross the 
mountains and reach Louisville by the Ohio, but on the 
voyage the ship and its company were captured by 
pirates. He made his escape, reached Philadelphia after 
many adventures, and returned home about a year after 
his friends had given him up for dead. 

He removed to Indiana Territory about November, 
1800, being one of the first settlers in Southern Indiana, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 49 

where he raised his company in the neighborhood of 
Corydon. He was a friend of Governor Harrison, who 
sent him a personal appeal to raise volunteers for the 
expedition, which he did, enrolling about seventy men. 
Years after the War of 1812 he became land agent at 
La Porte, occupying the office for a long period. He 
died April 15, 1844. 

His brother, James Robb, enlisted in his company, was 
badly wounded, being shot through both legs. After his 
recovery he returned to Kentucky, became a citizen of 
Jefferson County, and lived to a good old age. 

Resuming our account of the formation of the camp, 
we find that two troops of Dragoons under Colonel 
Joseph H. Daviess, acting as Major, were stationed in the 
rear of the front line on the left flank; and at right angles 
with these companies, in the rear of the left flank, was a 
troop of cavalry under Captain Benjamin Parke. Wagons, 
baggage, officers' tents, etc., were in the center. 

As was his custom, Harrison gathered the field officers 
in his tent at a signal and gave them instructions for the 
night. He ordered that each corps that formed the 
exterior line of the encampment should hold its ground 
in case of an attack until relieved. In the event of a 
night attack the cavalry were to parade dismounted, with 
their pistols in their belts, and act as a reserve. 

8 



50 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

A camp guard of one hundred and eight men, two 
captains, and two subalterns were stationed under the 
command of the field officer of the day. This was not a 
large guard, but it was as many as could be expected 
from a corps of less than a thousand for duty. The 
army was thus encamped in order of battle. 

Though late in the night the moon rose, the night was 
dark, with more or less rain at intervals ; the troops lay 
with guns loaded and bayonets fixed, but many of them 
slept but little because of being so exposed, not having 
blankets. 

The general understanding among the men was that 
the next day Governor Harrison would make a treaty 
with the Indians, yet those who had seen service thought 
there would be fighting. Only a small part of these men 
had ever been on the march or in camp in an enemy's 
country, and three months before a majority of them 
were working in the pursuits of peace. The routine of 
military life had made them somewhat like soldiers, 
yet they were still to be tried as to their steadiness and 
courage. Comparing the stand they made the next 
morning with most of the experiences of militia for the 
first time under fire, there is reason to be proud of the 
manner in which they conducted themselves, leaving a 
record that their children in Indiana and Kentucky have 



The Battle of Tippccanoe. 51 

never had occasion to be ashamed of. We will see when 
we come to review the events of the daylight scenes of 
the ;th that they were excited, as most raw troops are 
the day after the battle is over, but they did not run 
away nor seek shelter during the battle nor afterward. 
There were no prisoners lost, and no stragglers left the 
ranks. 

Lossing* gives an account of the incantations of the 
Prophet that night in his town, at which he aroused the 
anger of his dupes against the whites, and promised 
them freedom from danger if they attacked the sleeping 
soldiers. 

Another author f says : " It is believed that the treach- 
ery of the Indians did not take the shape of an attack 
on Harrison's camp until late that evening, it having 
been primarily arranged that they should meet the Gov- 
ernor in council and appear to agree to his terms. At 
the close the chiefs were to retire to their warriors, when 
two Winnebagoes selected for the purpose were to kill 
the Governor and give the signal for the uprising of the 
Indians." ' 

It looks to us at this lapse of time that the leaders of 
both sides were trying to match treachery with treachery. 

* Field Book War 1812, page 203. 

\ Indian Biography, Samuel G. Drake, 1832, page 337. 



52 7^ he Battle of Tippecanoe. 

The Indians made it a practice to assault their ene- 
mies under cover of the dark hours just before daybreak, 
which is probably the reason the shock came when it did. 
They were on their own ground, and, knowing exactly how 
the whites had pitched their camp, they selected the best 
spot for dealing the first blow, expecting to rush upon 
the sleeping men, make a lodgment in the camp, and 
disperse the command without delay. Being familiar 
with the lay of the land, they chose their points of attack, 
having surrounded the silent camp and approached it 
noiselessly from every side, save the portion surmounting 
the steep banks of the creek, which were almost perpen- 
dicular and difficult to ascend at any time, but especially 
so in the darkness of a misty, rainy night. 

While campaigning against the Indians it was always 
thought best, when near any body of them, to rouse the 
camp quietly some hours before daylight, and in this way 
be prepared for any thing that might happen. Harrison 
had learned this when a younger man, having been a 
captain in the regulars, and on this campaign he was in 
the habit of rising at four o'clock, calling his men to arms, 
and keeping them in line until broad daylight. On this 
dull morning of Thursday, November 7, 1811, he was just 
pulling on his boots at the usual hour, before rousing his 
men for parade, when a single shot was fired at the north- 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 53 

western angle of the camp, near the bank of Burnett's 
Creek. 

The man who thus opened this famous little battle was 
a Kentuckian named Stephen Mars, and such a name 
appears on the roll of Captain Frederick Geiger's company, 
which was raised in Louisville and Jefferson County. 
After delivering his fire he ran toward the camp, but was 
shot before reaching it. 

The horrid yells of the savages woke the camp, and 
were followed by a rapid fire upon the ranks of the com- 
panies of Baen and Geiger that formed that angle of the 
camp. Their assault was furious, and several of them 
penetrated through the lines but never returned. 

The whole camp was alarmed at once. 

The officers with all possible speed put their different 
companies in line of battle as they had been directed the 
night before. The fires were now extinguished, as they 
were more useful to the assailants than to the assailed. 
Under the alarming circumstances the men behaved with 
great bravery and coolness, and very little noise or con- 
fusion followed the first awakening. The most of them 
were in line before they were fired upon, but some were 
compelled to fight defensively at the doors of their tents. 
It is likely this happened near the fires, at the point 
where the enemy pierced the lines. Here the Indians 



54 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

made their great rush which was to have been a surprise, 
but it failed, and after that the battle was a trial of skill, 
endurance, and courage. It had to be fought out when 
the first dash had not been successful. 

Harrison called for his horse at the first alarm, and 
would have been at the scene of the earliest fighting had 
he not met with a short delay caused by his horse break- 
ing his tether just at the moment the Governor was 
ready for him. 

It will be noticed in the various accounts of the battle 
the "white horse" is discussed a great deal. The Gov- 
ernor usually rode a white horse, but at the onset of the 
battle the noises of the combatants proved to be too much 
for the animal, and he broke away, escaping from the 
hostler just as the Governor ordered him. Harrison imme- 
diately mounted a bay horse that stood snorting nearby, 
and- rode away with his aid, Colonel Owen, who was 
riding his own horse, which happened to be white. Tra- 
dition has it that the Indians, having seen the Governor 
on his white horse at the Prophet's town, took Colonel 
Owen for the Governor, and Owen fell almost at once in 
the fierce combat that began the battle. Colonel Daviess 
is also said to have ridden a white horse, likewise to have 
worn a white blanket coat. In a letter written long after 
the battle Captain Funk said Daviess rode a roan horse 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 55 

bought of Frank Moore at Louisville. The latter is 
doubtless the exact fact. 

When Corporal Stephen Mars gave the alarm in the 
dense darkness of the hour before day that cold morning, 
he ran toward the camp. This was most natural, for he 
was pursued closely by the Indians, who, bent on making 
their way into the camp, rushed right at his heels. The 
companies of Captain Barton and Captain Geiger were 
thrown into great confusion at once, became mixed up 
with the enemy, and hard fighting followed. One of 
Captain Geiger's men lost his gun and reported it to his 
commander, who made his way to his tent to get a new 
piece for the soldier. Arrived there, Captain Geiger found 
the Indians ransacking its contents, prodding with their 
knives into every thing. A brief struggle took place, 
which ended in their rapid retreat. Captain Geiger's 
saddlebags received several extensive slashes from the 
scalping - knives of the savages, and the grandchildren of 
the Captain looked upon them years afterward with many 
a shudder. 

Harrison criticized his sentinels for not attempting to 
hold the enemy for a short period at least, in order that 
the camp might have time to form in line, but this was 
precisely what the Indians did not intend to allow, for it 
was essential to their plan of attack not to permit a moment 



56 The Battle of Tippecanoc. 

to be lost in throwing the whites into confusion. They 
succeeded to a certain extent, since a number of them 
were killed inside the lines and remained where they fell. 
Those killed outside the lines were sometimes carried out 
of sight and range. The plan of battle on their part was 
to attack on the three sides (front and the flanks) simul- 
taneously, but the alarm was given before those on the 
right flank were fully ready, though the entire line was 
finally assaulted. 

The Indians were commanded by White Loon, Stone 
Eater, and Winnemac. Signals during the battle were 
given by rattling strings of dried deers' hoofs. 

Arriving at the spot where the attack began, Governor 
Harrison found that Barton's company had suffered 
severely, and the left of Geiger's company had broken badly. 
He immediately ordered Cook's company and that of the 
late Captain Wentworth, under Lieutenant Peters, to be 
brought up from the center of the rear line, where the 
ground was much more defensible, and form across the angle 
in support of Barton and Geiger. At that moment the 
Governor's attention was directed to the firing at the 
northeast angle of the camp, where a small company of 
United States riflemen, armed with muskets, and the 
companies of Baen, Snelling, and Prescott, of the Fourth 
United States Infantry, were stationed. There he found 



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The Battle of Tippecanoe. 57 

Major Joseph H. Daviess forming the dragoons in the rear 
of those companies. 

Daviess 'was gallant and impatient of restraint. One 
of his party was Washington Johns, of Vincennes, a quarter- 
master of the dragoons, and intimate with Harrison. 
Daviess sent him to the Governor when the Indians made 
their first attack, asking for permission to go out on foot 
and charge the foe. ' ' Tell Major Daviess to be patient ; 
he shall have an honorable position before the battle is 
over," Harrison replied. In a few moments Daviess made 
the same request, and the Governor the same reply. 
Again he repeated it, when Harrison said : ' ' Tell Major 
Daviess he has heard my opinion twice ; he may now 
use his own discretion." The gallant Major, with only 
twenty picked men, instantly charged beyond the lines 
on foot, and was mortally wounded. He was a con- 
spicuous mark in the gloom, as he wore a white blanket 
coat. * 

"Unfortunately," says Harrison in his dispatch to the 
Secretary of War, ' ' the Major's gallantry determined him 
to execute the order with a smaller force than was sufficient, 
which enabled the enemy to avoid him in front and attack 
him on his flanks. The Major was mortally wounded 
and his party driven back." 

* Statement of Judge Naylor arid Captaiu Fink. Lossing, page 205. 

9 



58 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Many years after the battle Doctor N. Field, then 
living in Jefferson ville, Indiana, contributed to the Evening 
News of that city an article describing a visit of General 
Harrison to that town in 1836. His visit ended, he went 
to Charlestown by the way of a steamboat to Charlestown 
Landing. 

After his arrival at that place, Harrison was called on 
and requested to gratify the people by making a speech. 
He replied that it was entirely unexpected to him, but 
he would not make a set speech. He was told they were 
anxious to have him give them some account of Tippe- 
canoe, which he did in conversational style. He proceeded 
to refute the charges so often made before as to the Indians 
selecting his camping-ground, being surprised, changing 
horses with Colonel Abraham Owen, and sacrificing Colonel 
Joe Daviess. His narrative of the manner of Daviess' 
death differs from any other that the writer has met with, 
and is here given just as Doctor Field recorded it. The 
simplicity and clearness, entirely divested of any thing 
dramatic, throw a light upon the bravery and ambition of 
Daviess that reveals clearly the motive of his action 
he panted to distinguish himself. Taken with the record 
of the day immediately preceding, it illustrates the idea 
advanced elsewhere in this paper, that Daviess was deter- 
mined to make this battle an epoch in his life or never 
survive : 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 59 

"As to Colonel Joe Daviess, who commanded a company of 
dragoons and insisted on having something to do, disliking very 
much to stand idle holding horses while the infantry were so 
hard pressed. I told him there were some Indians behind a log 
some seventy -five yards from our lines shooting our men, and to 
charge them on foot. He was instructed to form them, and 
when ready the line would open to let them pass out. Instead 
of charging them abreast, the Colonel, ardent and impetuous, 
rushed out, calling on his men to follow him in single file. Before 
reaching the log he was mortally wounded, and died the next 
day." 

The following has been taken from "The History of 
Mercer and Boyle Counties," by Mrs. Maria T. Daviess, 
Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1885 : 

"Colonel Allin, his bosom friend and comrade in arms, came 
to tell his kindred the sorrowful tidings" (the death of Jo Daviess). 
"All day long," he said, "he lay under the shade of a giant 
sycamore tree, his life ebbing slowly away, and he awaiting his 
last enemy, death, with unquailing eye. His spirit passed out 
with the setting sun, and by the starlight his soldiers laid him in 
his rude grave, wrapped only in his soldier's blanket, and as the 
thud of the falling earth fell on their ears they wept like children." 

Captain Funk, from Louisville, says he attended Major 
Daviess about nine o'clock in the morning, and assisted in 
changing his clothes and dressing his wound. He was 
shot between the right hip and ribs, and it is believed 
the fatal shot proceeded from the ranks of his friends 



60 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

firing in the gloom. Daviess was afraid the expedition 
might be driven away and leave the wounded behind. 
He exacted a promise from Captain Funk that in no 
event would he leave him to fall into the hands of the 
savages. He survived until about one or two o'clock in 
the afternoon of the same day. Speaking of him, Har- 
rison said in his report: "Never was there an officer 
possessed of more ardor and zeal to discharge his duties 
with propriety, and never one who would have encoun- 
tered greater danger to purchase military fame." 

Immediately on the fall of Daviess, Harrison promoted 
Captain Parke to the position, just as intelligence was 
brought that Captain Snelling with his company of 
regulars had driven the enemy from their location with 
heavy loss. 

The Indians now pressed the battle on all sides except 
a part of the rear line. They fell with great severity on 
Spencer's mounted riflemen on the right, and on War- 
rick at the angle. The fighting on the line of the right 
flank became very severe as well as bloody, and marked 
by many examples of heroic courage. Captain Warrick 
was shot immediately through the body, and borne from 
the scene to the field hospital located some distance 
within the lines of the encampment, where his wound was 
dressed ; as soon as this was finished (being a man of 



The Battle of Jippecanoe. 61 

unusual vigor of body, and yet able to walk) he insisted 
on returning to head his company, though it was evident 
he had not many hours to live. He survived to see the 
result of the battle, but died during the day. 

Other officers in this part of the field also gave up 
their lives. Spencer and his lieutenants were killed, and 
yet their men and Warrick's held their ground gallantly. 
They were speedily reinforced by Robb's riflemen, who 
had been driven or ordered by mistake from their position 
on the left flank, toward the center of the camp, and at 
the same time Prescott's company of the Fourth United 
States Infantry was ordered to fill the space vacated by 
the riflemen, the grand object being to hold the lines of 
the camp unbroken until daylight, so that then the army 
could make a general advance. In doing this the Gov- 
ernor was very active, riding constantly from point to 
point inside the lines, holding the troops to their positions, 
and keeping every weak place reinforced. 

At length day came, disclosing the strongest bodies of 
the enemy on both flanks. After strengthening these, he 
was about to order a charge by the dragoons under Major 
Parke upon the enemy on the left flank, when Major 
Wells, not understanding the order, led his Kentuckians 
to execute the movement, that was gallantly and effect- 
ually done. The Indians, driven from their positions on 



62 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

this front, were charged by the dragoons, who pursued 
them as far as their horses could be urged into the wet 
prairies that lay on both sides of the ridge upon which 
the battle was fought, and thus the Indians escaped fur- 
ther pursuit. 

While this was going on, the troops of the right flank 
had rushed upon the foe and driven them into the marshy 
ground, while others fled beyond gunshot, disappearing 
among the willows or bushes on the borders of the creek. 

The battle had lasted about two hours. Tradition 
says the Prophet stood upon a rock on the west side of 
the valley beyond the creek, encouraging the Indians by 
songs and promises of victory. He joined in the general 
retreat to the town. There the fugitive warriors of many 
tribes, Shawnees, Wyandotts, Kickapoos, Ottawas, Chippe- 
was, Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes, Sacs, and a few Miamis, 
rallied, all of whom, having lost faith in the potency of 
his conjuring, covered the Prophet with reproaches. He 
cunningly told them that his predictions had failed, his 
friends had been killed and wounded, because during the 
incantations before the battle his wife had touched the 
sacred vessel and broken the charm ! 

Even these superstitious creatures could not swallow 
this story, and the impostor was deserted by his dupes, 
being compelled to take refuge with a small band of 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 63 

Wyandotts on Wild Cat Creek, which falls into the 
Wabash from the south near the Tippecanoe. The foe 
scattered in all directions at once, into regions where the 
whites would not venture.* No pursuit was attempted, 
and it seems strange, for there must have been a large 
force of mounted men in the command. But it is highly 
probable that the air was full of rumors of bodies of 
Indians in every direction. Having driven off the enemy 
and lost many men killed and wounded, attention to 
them demanded the services of all that could be spared 
for such duties. 

Harrison was much criticized for not even sending out 
a single scouting party, though he had the dragoons and 
the Kentucky mounted men, to scour the country, but it 
must be said for him that his guides had not been such 
as he could trust, since they had led him into very diffi- 
cult country on the march to Tippecanoe, and perhaps 
he would not trust them again. At any rate he 
remained quiet for a day. 

Harrison was continually exposed during the action, 
but escaped without injury. A bullet passed through his 
hat and grazed his head. His loss in killed and wounded 
was one hundred and eighty-eight. Of those the Ken- 

*The Prophet died in 1834 west of the Mississippi River, a pensioner 
of Great Britain since 1813. 



64 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

tuckians had a considerable share, but only a few are 
recorded by name. Colonel Abraham Owen, from Shelby 
County, Kentucky, an aid to the Governor, was killed, 
when he and the Governor, early in the engagement, 
rode to the point of first attack. He was upon a white 
horse, which made him a mark for the enemy. 

The enemies of Harrison afterward charged that he 
changed horses with Owen. The fact was the Governor 
took a dark colored horse, the first one he could lay his 
hands on, after his white horse had run away, as has 
been narrated elsewhere. The horse Owen rode was his 
own. He had left Kentucky with Captain Geiger's com- 
pany, and Harrison had accepted him as a volunteer aid. 
He was a good citizen and a brave soldier. 

Colonel Abraham Owen was born in Prince Edward 
County, Virginia, in 1769, and emigrated to Kentucky in 
1785. His first public service was upon Wilkinson's 
campaign, in the summer of 1791, upon White and 
Wabash rivers. He was a lieutenant in Captain Lemon's 
company in St. Clair's defeat, November 4, 1791, being 
wounded at that engagement in the arm and on the chin. 
He was in the expedition led by Colonel Hardin to White 
River, and took part in the action which routed the 
Indians from their hunting-camps. In 1796 he was a 
surveyor in Shelby County, and afterward a magistrate. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 6 5 

He commanded the first militia company raised in Shelby 
County, of which Singleton Wilson, an old comrade in 
the Wilkinson campaign, was lieutenant. Captain Owen 
soon became major and rose to colonel, while Wilson 
advanced in rank to captain. Colonel Owen was soon 
after elected to the legislature, and, in 1799, was chosen 
a member of the Constitutional Convention. Shortly 
before his death he was a member of the State Senate. 

In December following the battle the Legislature of 
Kentucky went into mourning for Daviess, Owen, and 
others who had fallen at Tippecanoe, and in 1819-1820 
the memory of Colonel Owen was perpetuated by forming 
a county to which was given his name. Of him Harrison 
said in his official report : ' ' Colonel Abraham Owen, 
commandant of the Eighteenth Kentucky Regiment, joined 
me a few days before the action as a private in Captain 
Geiger's company ; he accepted the appointment of vol- 
unteer aid-de-camp to me ; he fell early in action ; the 
representatives of his State will inform you that she pos- 
sesses not a better citizen nor a braver man." 

The disposition of the troops for the night was judicious 
but open to criticism, which Harrison apprehended, for 
he said in his report: "In the formation of my troops 
I used a single rank, or what was called Indian file, 
because the extension of the line is a matter of the first 



66 The Battle of Tipfiecanoe. 

importance. Raw troops maneuver with much more 
facility in single than in double rank." 

The irregular parallelogram was also good, as it 
afforded opportunity for furnishing support promptly at 
the points of attack. 

Harrison certainly expected the enemy would assault 
him that morning, and he was only a little behind time in 
waking his men. A better moment for the Indian attack 
could not have been chosen, but its failure to demoralize 
and scatter the whites was discouraging to them. 

It was a trying ordeal for a late captain of infantry to 
be placed in, and Harrison behaved well under the cir- 
cumstances. He said : ' ' Our troops could not have been 
better prepared than they were, unless they had been 
kept under arms all night, as they lay with their accoutre- 
ments on and their arms by their sides, and the moment 
they were up they were at their posts. If the sentinels 
and guards had done their duty, even the troops on the 
left flank would have been prepared to resist the Indians." 

He might have added that some of the militia, poorly 
provided with blankets, covered the locks of their muskets 
with their coats to keep the pans of their guns dry. 
The infantry used principally cartridges containing twelve 
buckshot, which was a very effective charge for close 
action or a night attack. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 67 

The fires gradually blazed up again here and there, 
affording great assistance to the Indians in aiming. How 
fatal their aim was shown by the fate of Captain Spier 
Spencer. Captain Spier Spencer was the most heroic in 
the manner of his death of all the victims of this battle. 
The simple statement in Harrison's official report shows 
what a determined, brave man he was : ' ' Spencer was 
wounded in the head ; he exhorted his men to fight val- 
iantly. He was shot through both thighs and fell ; still 
continuing to encourage them, he was raised up and received 
a ball through his body, which put an immediate end to 
his existence." Could any thing have displayed true 
courage and manhood in a higher degree ! 

The force of his example imbued his men so fully with 
his spirit that they not only stubbornly held their ground 
for two hours, but drove the enemy backward, defending 
the right flank of the field until the fight was ended. 

Spencer was a man of importance in Harrison County, 
having raised his company in or near Corydon. He 
came to that place in 1809 from Vincennes, and upon 
the organization of the county was appointed sheriff. 
The tradition in the family is that he had come from 
Kentucky to Vincennes (but the year is not known), and 
this seems very likely, as a brother, who was seriously 
wounded in the battle, died on his way home when the 



68 The tt attic of Tippccanoe. 

command had reached the crossing of the Wabash River, 
bequeathing in a will made there certain property to friends 
in Kentucky. Spencer's wife was also from that State, 
being Elizabeth Polk, daughter of Charles Polk. 

In company with her mother (maiden name Delilah 
Tyler) she and three other children were together cap- 
tured and forcibly taken from Kentucky to Detroit by 
Indians, from whom they were ransomed by a French 
officer, Captain DuPuyster, who had learned that Charles 
Polk was a Mason. Captain DuPuyster sent word to the 
husband of the whereabouts of his wife and children, and 
had the pleasure of seeing them reunited. 

Harrison speaks of Captain Spencer in his report in a 
way that would indicate that the Captain was one well 
known in the Territory. It is regrettable that so brave a 
man, who was such a sterling citizen, should not have 
had some contemporary historian, because the records 
and memoranda regarding him are almost all lost. He 
left several descendants, but they have only family tra- 
dition and neighborhood tales to give for even so brief 
a sketch as this. 

His company, being mounted, had yellow trimmings 
on the uniform, which gave them the campaign name of 
"Spencer's Yellow Jackets," and they resembled those 
pugnacious insects, judging by the manner they stung the 
enemy. 



The Battle of Tippccanoe. 69 

Spencer took his fourteen - year - old son on the expedi- 
tion, who became Governor Harrison's personal care after 
the loss of his father, being quartered in the Governor's 
tent during the remainder of the campaign. Harrison 
continued his interest in the boy, securing for him and a 
brother, at the proper age, admission to West Point. 

Of the conduct of the militia Harrison said : 

"Several of the militia companies were in nowise inferior to 
the regulars. Spencer's, Geiger's, and Warrick's maintained 
their posts amidst a monstrous carnage, as, indeed, did Robb's 
after he was posted on the right flank ; its loss of men (seventeen 
killed and wounded) and keeping its ground is sufficient evidence 
of its firmness." 

Some of the militia exhibited great daring. One young 
man, finding the lock of his gun out of order, in spite of 
the remonstrances of his comrades went up to a fire, and, 
having made a light, remained there until he had repaired 
it. Though in the glare of the fire and repeatedly fired 
at, he escaped injury. 

The Indians exposed themselves with unusual reckless- 
ness, since the Prophet had assured them that the pale- 
faces would be asleep or drunk, and that their bullets 
would be harmless and their powder turned to sand. 
They did not, as always practiced, avail themselves of 
every cover, but fought out in the open like the whites. 



yo The Battle of Tippccanoe. 

One of the warriors, having loosened his flint, went to a 
fire, which he brightened into a blaze, and sat down delib- 
erately to his work. Soon he became a target for the 
enemy's fire and fell dead. A regular soldier rushed out 
to take his scalp, but not being an adept he was slow in 
his horrid task, and he, too, received a shot, but carried 
off his bleeding trophy and reached the lines of his friends 
only to die of his wound. 

One hundred and fifty-four privates were returned 
among the casualties ; fifty-two of them were killed or 
died of their wounds. The losses of the Indians were 
serious, but are variously reported. According to one 
report they left thirty-eight dead on the field. Six more 
dead were found in graves in the town. As was their 
almost invariable custom, they carried off all their 
wounded. The enemy must have suffered as severely as 
Harrison. Major Wells, of Kentucky, said to a friend 
that after the battle he counted forty-nine new graves 
and fifty-four Indians lying on the ground. An Indian 
woman captured said that one hundred and ninety-seven 
Indians were missing. From the reckless exposure before 
mentioned, they must have experienced heavy losses. 

The yth of November was spent in burying the dead, 
caring for the wounded, and throwing up log breastworks 
to defend the camp, for rumors were circulated that 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 7 1 

Tecumseh was on the march to rescue his brother at the 
head of a thousand warriors. 

' ' Night, " says Captain Funk, ' ' found every man 
mounting guard, without food, fire, or light, and in a 
drizzling rain. The Indian dogs during the dark hours 
produced frequent alarms by prowling in search of car- 
rion about the sentinels." 

They were evidently a good deal worked up and 
entirely on the defensive. If the army had cause for 
anxiety the morning of the 7th, it had considerably more 
when its situation became more fully understood. By 
Harrison's own account he had had with him on 
entering the battle only about eight hundred men. Of 
these almost one fourth had been the victims of death 
or wounds. His camp contained very little flour and no 
meat, for the few beeves brought along with the column 
were either driven off by the Indians or stampeded by 
the noises of the battle, and Vincennes was over one 
hundred and fifty miles away. 

One writer says, "The soldiers had no meat this day 
but broiled horseflesh."* The mounted men had lost 
several of their horses in the stampede. Many of the 
cattle and most of the horses were recovered on the 8th 
and gth. 

*Eggleston, page 229. 



72 The Battle of Tippccanoe. 

Harrison was naturally a cautious man ; he felt his 
condition keenly and the dangers surrounding him, and 
this apprehension finally reached his men. Hence the 
excitement that kept the command on the qui vive all 
the night of the 7th. 

Small wonder that this battle furnished fireside talk 
for many years in Indiana and Kentucky ! 

Captain Geiger had been wounded but not disabled, 
retaining command of his company. His record in this 
short campaign was so creditable that in the War of 
1812, when volunteers were called to take the field under 
General Harrison, he again raised a company, served 
through his term of enlistment, was again wounded, and 
returned to his home in Jefferson County, Kentucky, 
where he lived highly respected. 

After peace he accumulated a fortune, and died 
August 28, 1832, leaving many descendants. His grave, 
marked by a granite headstone, lies on the old Bonny- 
castle place on the Bardstown road. Ann Funk Geiger, 
his wife, was born November 19, 1753, and died March 
1 8, 1822. 

Probably the most prominent man in the Indiana 
militia was Thomas Randolph, a distinguished politician 
in the early history of the Territory. Having been unsuc- 
cessful in a recent canvass, he joined the little army 




ELKSWATAWA, THE PROPHET. 
prom an old wood-cut owned by R. T. Durrett, of Louisville, Kentucky. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 73 

organized the summer of 1811. Harrison would have 
given him a position but there were no vacancies, and 
Randolph volunteered as a private, but was acting aid-de- 
camp to Harrison at Tippecanoe when he was mortally 
wounded. The Governor bent over him, asking if there 
was any thing he could do for him. Randolph replied 
that he was gone, but to watch over his child, "And so 
died as a gallant gentleman in the service of his country, 
and they buried him on the field by the side of his 
friend, the Kentucky hero Jo Daviess."* 

Major Henry Hurst was born in Jefferson (then Fred- 
erick) County, Virginia, in 1769. When quite a young 
man he became a citizen of Kentucky, marrying in early 
life a Miss Sebastian, by whom he had a son named 
Benjamin. His first wife did not live long, and in due 
time after her death he married a Miss Stanhope, of 
Virginia, by whom he had two children, William Henry 
Hurst, and Mary, who became Mrs. William Leviston, 
whose daughter, Mrs. Nannie S. Trigg, now resides in 
Greenville, Mississippi. The descendants of William 
Henry Hurst removed to Missouri years ago. 

When Henry Hurst married the second time he 
removed to Vincennes, Indiana, to practice law, though he 
may not have become a citizen there until 1806. 

*Americau Commonwealths. Indiana. Dunn, page 410. 

ii 



74 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

He was a practicing lawyer when he came to Clark 
County, Indiana, to attend the County Court held 1802, at 
Springville, a small place the exact site of which is now 
lost in the cultivated lands about a mile west of Charles- 
town. On appearing at court he announced that he was 
Deputy United States Attorney General, ready to indict 
and prosecute, in the name of the United States, all viola- 
tors of the law. He must have had influential friends to 
have secured such a position, and probably knew Gov- 
ernor Harrison well, for in raising the troops in 181 1 
Hurst volunteered, was made a major of the militia, and 
appointed aid on the staff of the Governor, with whom 
he served with great credit. The intimacy continued 
until Harrison's death, since, at the inauguration, March 
4, 1841, Major Hurst, mounted on a white horse, rode at 
the right hand of the President-elect, while the officer 
who had been General Harrison's aid at the battle of the 
Thames rode upon his left. 

Major Hurst became a familiar figure in Clark County 
after the battle of Tippecanoe. He is said to have been 
a man of fine presence and an able lawyer. He served 
as clerk of the United States District Court, making the 
journey from Jeffersonville to Indianapolis on horseback to 
attend to his official duties there. In i838-*39 he was a 
member of the legislature from Clark County. With the 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 75 

dignity of a gentleman of the old school, his portly figure, 
bandanna handkerchief, and snuff-box were well known 
to all the inhabitants of Jeffersonville. He was rather 
blunt of speech, fond of a joke, enjoyed a social glass, 
and played cards, but only for diversion. He traveled the 
circuit for years, more for the pleasure of the company 
of the members of the bar than for the value of his pro- 
fessional income. His home for many years still stands, 
a two-story brick dwelling with high basement and stone 
front steps, on the wharf, a short distance below the 
ferry landing. His death occurred January i, 1855, and 
his head-stone in Walnut Grove Cemetery recites that he 
was "aged eighty-five years." 

Harrison estimated the number of the Indians at six 
hundred, but had no definite information. Tecumseh after- 
ward spoke of the attack as an " unfortunate transaction 
that took place between the white people and a few of 
our young men at our village," as though it was under- 
taken by the young men against the will of the older 
chiefs. Tecumseh commonly told the truth. 

Harrison's ablest military movement was availing him- 
self of Tecumseh's overconfidence in leaving the country 
open to him for attack. 

The Indians fled precipitately from the town, leaving 
all their household goods and supplies, as well as several 



?f> The Battle of Jtypecanoe. 

new firearms of British make. An Indian chief left 
behind with a broken leg died some time after the battle, 
but delivered to the Indians Harrison's message, that if 
they would leave the Prophet and return to their own 
tribes they would be forgiven. 

November the 8th the dragoons and other mounted 
men took possession of the town. After getting all the 
copper kettles forsaken by their owners and as much 
beans and corn as they could transport, the army applied 
the torch, destroying all the huts and a considerable sup- 
ply of corn which the Indians had stored for winter. 
Meanwhile preparations had been made for a rapid return 
march. The wagons could hardly carry all the wounded, 
therefore the Governor abandoned the camp furniture and 
private baggage. ' ' We managed, however, to bring off the 
public property," he said. 

At noon on the gth the train of twenty-two wagons, 
each having a load of the wounded, left camp, and by 
night had passed the dangerous ground where a small 
force of Indians might have inflicted serious injury. 

Six days of uneventful marching brought them to Fort 
Harrison, from which point the wounded floated to Vin- 
cennes in the boats. Captain Snelling and his company 
from the Fourth United States Infantry were left as a 
garrison. The remainder of the command arrived at Vin- 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 77 

cennes on November i8th. By the end of the month the 
militia was mostly mustered out and sent to their homes. 

The immediate result of this battle was to destroy all 
hopes of the confederacy among the Indians that had 
been the object of so many years of labor to Tecumseh. 
Also it gave the people of Indiana a quiet winter. 
Tecumseh, having been absent, could not do any thing to 
retrieve the damages done his cause by the blunder of 
his brother. He spent some months in negotiations with 
Governor Harrison to arrange for a visit of himself and a 
body of chiefs to President Madison, but, failing in the 
accomplishment of this and most of his plans, he went 
over to the British, to become the most prominent Indian 
character in the War of 1812.* 

The battle of Tippecanoe was at once an object of 
pride throughout the Western country, and Harrison 
received the thanks of Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. 

The following preamble and resolution were adopted 
by the Legislature of the Territory of Indiana, November 
18, 1811: 

"WHEREAS, The services of His Excellency, Governor Harri- 
son, in conducting the army, the gallant defense made by the 
band of heroes under his immediate command, and the fortunate 
result of the battle fought with the confederacy of the Shawnee 

*He was killed in the battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. 



7 8 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Prophet near Tippecanoe on the morning of the 7th instant, 
highly deserve the congratulations of every friend to the interests 
of this Territory and the cause of humanity ; 

"Resolved, therefore, That the members of the Legislative 
Council and House of Representatives will wait upon His 
Excellency, Governor Harrison, as he returns to Vincennes, and 
in their own names and in those of their constituents welcome 
him home, and that General W. Johnston be, and he is hereby, 
appointed a committee to make the same known to the Governor 
at the head of the army should unforeseen circumstances not 
prevent." 

The same winter the Legislature of Kentucky passed 
the following resolution offered by John J. Crittenden : 

' ' Resolved, That in the late campaign against the Indians 
on the Wabash, Governor W. H. Harrison has, in the opinion 
of this legislature, behaved like a hero, a patriot, and a general ; 
and that for his cool, deliberate, skillful, and gallant conduct in 
the battle of Tippecanoe he deserves the warmest thanks of the 
nation." 

The counties in Indiana named for participants in the 
battle of Tippecanoe are : Harrison (organized before the 
battle), Spencer, Tipton, Bartholomew, Daviess, Floyd, 
Parke, Randolph, Warrick, and Dubois. 

But Harrison's account of the victory was not taken 
everywhere without criticism, the battle being fought 
again and again through the press and in private. The 
Fourth United States Infantry more than hinted that had 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 79 

it not been for their steadiness the whole party would 
have been massacred. At Vincennes Harrison's conduct 
was severely attacked. In Kentucky criticism was open, 
for the family and friends of Daviess were old Federalists 
who had no interest in the triumphs of a Republican 
official. Humphrey Marshall, Daviess' brother-in-law, 
published a sharp review of Harrison's report, hinting 
plainly that Daviess had been a victim to the Governor's 
blunders. With characteristic vigor of language Marshall 
.called Harrison "a little selfish, intriguing busybody," 
and charged him with having made war without just 
cause for personal objects.* 

It is not clear that Harrison was in any degree 
responsible for Daviess' death, for the latter evidently 
panted for military fame and occupied the place of a 
leader, while his well - known reputation for bravery is 
sustained by his conduct. That he was rash is more than 
probable, for he dashed upon the enemy without a sufficient 
body of men ; but that Harrison was to blame for his 
death seems unsustained. Who knows what dreams of 
glory had been in his mind all through the expedition ! 
It seems as though he courted prominence from his 
behavior on all occasions during the brief campaign. 
His death was a great blow to his friends, yet it did 

*Marshall's Kentucky, Volume II, pages 507, 521. 



8o The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

more to hand his name down to history than all the 
other deeds of his remarkable career. 

He was born in Bedford County, Virginia, March 4, 
1774, being the son of Joseph and Jean Daviess, who 
were of Scotch - Irish descent, though born in Virginia, 
and from them he inherited the indomitable energy and 
great coolness of the Scotch, and the sympathetic heart 
and free hand of the Irish. When young Daviess was 
five years old his parents removed to Kentucky and 
opened a farm near Danville. Joseph was educated there 
and in Harrodsburg, becoming a good classical and mathe- 
matical scholar. At an early age he began to evince the 
eccentricity that always marked his history. It was a 
habit with him to go off into the woods, select a proper 
spot, and study, lying at full length on his face. Though 
he became a dreamer, he was easy and graceful, and, 
when he so desired, captivating in his manners. 

In 1793 he joined, as a volunteer, a corps of cavalry 
raised by Major John Adair to escort a train of provisions 
to the forts north of the Ohio. Near Fort St. Clair 
he was under the fire of the savages, but escaped unhurt 
and saved his horse, which was the only one of the 
company's brought off. 

Returning home, he studied law in the office of George 
Nicholas, then the leading lawyer of the State. 



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The Battle of Tippecanoe. 81 

When he became a lawyer his fame as an orator was 
soon spread abroad, while the stories of his strange eccen- 
tricities made him an object of interest wherever he went. 

He became a Federalist, rising to great prominence 
among that party, but it was largely in the minority in 
the State, and hence, though ambitious of the honor, he 
never occupied a seat in Congress. 

At the age of twenty-live he had achieved the repu- 
tation of being one of the best lawyers and most powerful 
speakers in the State. It is said that at twenty-six he 
had but two rivals as a public speaker Clay and Bledsoe. 

His eccentricity had grown by indulgence into such 
proportions that it seemed to amount to insanity. This 
whimsicality was most noticeable in his modes of dress. 
He sometimes appeared in court in hunting - shirt and 
coonskin cap ; but in town he often wore a kind of 
uniform consisting of a blue coat with white sleeves, collar, 
and facings. One day you might meet him lounging 
around in a coat and vest of homespun cotton, with perhaps 
a slit a foot long on each shoulder, old corduroy breeches, 
and slip-shod, unblackened, untied shoes. The next time 
he might be clothed in full in the finest broadcloth, made 
up in the most elegant style, when his appearance was 
superb. It is traditional that he had a suit of red broad- 
cloth made up just before his departure for Washington 

12 



82 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

and Philadelphia on his first trip to the East. This occa- 
sioned remark, of course, and, being asked why he had 
it prepared, said : " Unless I wear something of the kind, 
how will the people there ever know Jo Daviess is in 
town ?" 

He was the first lawyer from the West to make a 
speech in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

December 12, 1800, he was appointed United States 
Attorney for the District of Kentucky, the only public 
office he ever held, remaining in office until George M. 
Bibb was appointed his successor, March 14, 1807. He 
made his home in Lexington in 1801. 

In the autumn of 1806 Aaron Burr and his daughter, 
Mrs. Alston, came to Frankfort and mingled freely in the 
gayeties of the season. 

As United States Attorney, Daviess rose in court 
November 3d and moved Judge Innis for an order 
requiring Aaron Burr to appear and answer to a charge 
of high misdemeanor in levying war against a nation 
with which the United States was at peace. Great 
excitement followed, as Burr and Daviess were of oppo- 
site political parties, and Daviess was accused of making 
the charge for political purposes. 

Burr, who was in Lexington at the moment, appeared 
in court the next day just as the judge had overruled 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. <^3 

the motion. After hearing what it was, he calmly 
requested the court to reconsider the matter and enter- 
tain the motion, which was done, and the 25th was set 
as the day for trial. When that date arrived, Daviess 
was compelled by the absence of witnesses to ask for a 
continuance. On December 3d Burr, with Clay and 
Allen for his counsel, appeared, and the case was tried. 

After a struggle such as could only have occurred 
between such intellectual giants, the victory remained with 
Mr. Clay, and popular feeling was all in his favor, but 
many, hostile to the prosecution, went away in doubt as 
to which one the palm of superiority should be awarded. 

In a few days Daviess had his revenge, when authen- 
tic reports arrived in rapid succession of the armed occu- 
pation of Blannerhasset's Island, the escape of the expe- 
ditionary boats from the Muskingum River and their 
flight down the Ohio, and finally the proclamation of the 
President warning the people of the West against Burr, 
and denouncing his schemes as dangerous and treasonable. 

Certain it is that this trial greatly injured Daviess' 
popularity, besides crippling his practice. He never entirely 
recovered the former until his heroic death at Tippe- 
canoe. 

"As a lawyer he was unsurpassed ; as an orator he 
had few equals, and those who maintain that he was 



84 The Battle of Tippccanoe. 

great only as a lawyer forget that the man who is truly 
great, not merely distinguished or accomplished in one 
respect, is capable of being great in all."* 

The State of Illinois, wishing to do honor to his 
memory, named a county "Jo Daviess, " in order that it 
might always show which man it intended to immortalize. 

The State of Kentucky in 1815 named a county 
Daviess for him. 

Colonel Daviess was tall with a vigorous frame, which, 
combined with the fine intellectual expression of his face, 
gave him a remarkably commanding and impressive 
appearance. The light of his eyes was softened by a 
melancholy tenderness, the fine mouth sweetened by a 
smile of ineffable kindness. His bearing was grave and 
dignified, his manner courteous, even affectionate to those 
he loved. He was a charming colloquist, the life of 
every circle he entered. Although very careful to keep 
files of all the letters addressed to him, none of his own 
were found filed in his desk. There are two of his 
printed works extant : one an address to the Congress 
of the United States elaborating a system of defense for 
the country by organized militia, and the other a criticism 
on the President's conduct. His strong tincture of Fed- 
eralism, however, so prejudiced the then supreme party 

*Jo Daviess, of Kentucky. R. T. Coleman. Harper's Magazine, 
Volume 21. 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 85 

(Democratic) that they did not entertain his comprehen- 
sive, and, possibly, also, very wise views.* 

In 1812 the Masons of Lexington, Kentucky, held a 
special meeting in their hall in that city in honor of 
Colonel Joe Daviess, at which they passed eloquent reso- 
lutions of respect to his memory. 

A writer in 1820 said: "But few vestiges of the 
battle were remaining. Here and there the bleached 
skull of some noble fellow lay on the grass, and more 
than once I stumbled over the logs that had formed part 
of the temporary breastworks thrown up after the battle, 
and which have since been scattered over the field. At 
an angle of the encampment, and where the carnage had 
been greatest, was a slight mound of earth, scarcely 
raised above the surrounding surface. Near it stood an 
oak tree, on the bark of which the letters ' J. D. ' were 
rudely carved. This was the only memorial of one of 
the most favorite sons of Kentucky, for under that mound 
reposed all that remained of the chivalrous, the generous, 
the eloquent and highly gifted Joe Daviess. "f 

In 1857 Judge Levi L. Todd, of Indiana, who early 
in life was the friend and pupil of Joe Daviess, and who 
had for many years owned the sword of Colonel Daviess, 

* From "The History of Mercer and Boyle Counties" (Kentucky), by 
Mrs. Maria T. Daviess, Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1885. 

| Signed "Indiana." Romance of Western History. Hall, page 361. 



86 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

worn by him when he was killed at Tippecanoe, pre- 
sented the sword to the Grand Lodge of Masons of 
Kentucky, of which Colonel Daviess was Grand Master 
at the time of his death. The reception address was 
made by Colonel Charles G. Wintersmith. The presen- 
tation ceremonies were among the most interesting inci- 
dents in the history of Masonry in Kentucky. 

The sword is preserved with great care in the vault 
of the Masonic Widows and Orphans Home in Louisville. 

Were the results of this campaign worth the cost ? 
It would appear now that they were hardly equivalent 
to the value of the noble lives thus sacrificed, yet it gave 
the Western men a Western man for a commander, around 
whom the volunteers of the War of 1812 rallied with great 
enthusiasm, and in this Harrison reached the one great 
point of his ambition he was of necessity the coming 
military man. The Battle of Tippecanoe was the out- 
break of the people of Indiana and Kentucky against the 
Indians, but its consequences were to hasten the War of 
1812. The settlers of Indiana, having measured the mili- 
tary qualities of Harrison, were ready for him to assume 
the position of their leader, and, taking advantage of the 
prominence given him by the battle, he was readily 
induced to take the leadership. The young and ambi- 
tious men of both sides of the Ohio ranked him as a 



77/6' Battle of Tippccanoe. 87 

brave and skillful officer to whom they could confide their 
cause. As to the Indians, the settlers thought them not 
the invincible fiends that they had been vaunted to be, 
and they looked upon the Battle of Tippecanoe as an 
illustration of the white man's ability to meet and defeat 
them. 

But the Indians soon forgot the lesson of Tippecanoe, 
for in April, 1812, they once more began their ravages of 
the homes of the people of Indiana Territory. 

How did the Kentuckians look upon the campaign ? 
Generally they hailed it as a victory, eulogized the dead, 
praised the living, and also made heroes of the wounded. 
They read and talked over the expedition all of the 
remainder of the winter, and by the arrival of spring 
were prepared to enthusiastically volunteer in the coming 
war. It was in this manner that the Battle of Tippecanoe 
became the forerunner of that war, yet it is not clear 
that it had any great influence in beginning it. True it 
had shown the Indians could be successfully resisted, and 
that they were not invulnerable nor invincible with any 
thing like equal numbers. 

And besides all this, we have the proud legacy of 
knowing that in this little but bloody battle the untrained 
sons of Kentucky behaved with honor to themselves and 
glory to our dear old Commonwealth. 



88 



The Battle of Tippccanoe. 



OFFICIAL LIST OF THE KILLED AND WOUNDED. 

A general return of the killed and wounded of the army 
under the command of his Excellency, William Henry Harrison, 
Governor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory, 
in the action with the Indians near the Prophet's town, Novem- 
ber 7, 1811 : 





General StaflE. 


d 

CO 

y> 

T3 

a 


2 
c 




United States 
Infantry. 


Colonel Decker's 
Militia. 


Major Redman's 
Militia. 


Major Daviess' 
Dragoons. 


Major Wells' 
Mounted Riflemen. 


Captain Spencer's 
Mounted Riflemen. 


Spies, Guides, 
Wagoners. 


rt 




KILLED : 


I 


















I 


Lieutenant Coloiiels, 


































































Subalterns 
















2 




2 


Sergeants, 




















I 


Corporals 






2 














2 


Privates, 






K 




6 




6 


c 




an 


WOUNDED (since dead) : 
Lieutenant Colonels, . 






















Majors 






















Captains, 






















Subalterns, 






















Sergeants, 






















Privates, 






















WOUNDED : 
Lieutenant Colonels, . 




2 
















2 


Adjutants 




I 
















I 


Surgeon's Mate, .... 




I 


















Captains, 




















2 


Subalterns, 






3 
















Sergeants, 






6 


2 














Corporals, 






2 
















Musicians, 






I 














I 


Privates, 








16 




































Total 




















188 








77 
77 










^ 







The Battle of Tippecanoe. 89 



NAMES OF OFFICERS KILLED AND WOUNDED, AS PEK 
GENERAL RETURN. 

Killed. 

Colonel Abram Owen, Aid-de-Camp to the Commander in 

Chief (General Staff). 

Wounded. 

Field and Staff : Lieutenant Colonel Bartholomew, command- 
ing Indiana Militia Infantry ; Lieutenant Colonel Decker, com- 
manding Indiana Militia Infantry ; Major Joseph H. Daviess, 
since dead, commanding squadron Dragoons ; Doctor Edward 
Scull, of the Indiana Militia ; Adjutant James Hunter, of Mounted 
Riflemen. 

United States Troops : Captain W. C. Baen, acting Major, 
since dead ; Lieutenant George P. Peters ; Lieutenant George 
Gooding ; Ensign Henry Burchsted. 

Colonel Decker's Detachment : Captain Warrick, since dead. 

Major Redman's Detachment : Captain John Norris. 

Major Wells' Detachment : Captain Frederick Geiger. 

Killed. 

Spencer's Camp and Berry's Detachment : Captain Spier 
Spencer ; First Lieutenant Richard McMahan ; Lieutenant 
Thomas Berry. 

([Signed) NATHANIEL F. ADAMS, 

Adjutant to Hit Army. 
To His Kxrellcncy, the Commander in Chief. 



90 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

The ' ' Battle-ground " is a tract of sixteen and fifty- 
five hundredths acres bought by the State of Indiana from 
John Tipton, who entered a body of about two hundred 
acres, of which it is a part, November 13, 1829. Tipton 
was a Tennesseean who enlisted at Corydon, Indiana Ter- 
ritory, in the company of Captain Spier Spencer. He had 
risen from corporal to ensign at the date of the battle, 
and, his superior officers having been killed in the action, 
he was promoted to captain. 

Harrison buried his dead and burned logs over them 
to conceal the graves, but the Indians discovered the 
attempt to deceive them and unearthed the contents. 
The next year General Hopkins visited the scene and 
replaced the scattered remains. 

In 1830 General Harrison, with other distinguished 
persons, attended a great gathering of the survivors on 
the field. The bones of the dead, on November 7, 1836, 
were placed in one grave in the tract deeded to the 
State on the above date. 

Since 1840 this has been a favorite place for holding 
great political gatherings. 

The Indiana Constitutional Convention of 1851 made 
provision for the preservation of the battlefield, saying : 
' ' It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide 
for the permanent inclosure and preservation of the 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 91 

Tippecanoe Battle-ground." It was soon after inclosed 
with a good board fence, which was followed in 1873 by 
a substantial and handsome iron fence, in erecting which 
and taking care of the grounds the State expended eighteen 
thousand dollars. Since then three thousand five hundred 
dollars was appropriated in 1887 for repainting the fence 
and necessary repairs, and three hundred dollars a year 
appropriated for repairs and maintenance. 



Part Second. 

COMMENT OF THE PRESS. 

THE newspapers of those days, as they have usually 
done, reflected the trend of public opinion, and con- 
tained many interesting items concerning the campaign, 
together with political views. The following have been 
selected as giving a fair average of the current news. The 
Lexington, Kentucky, papers were then in the lead, as 
that city was the center of improvement and enterprise, 
having early attained that position. 

From the Kentucky Gazette, of Lexington, Kentucky, 
Tuesday, November 5, 1811 : 

' ' We have received no account from the Wabash since the 
last statements ; but we have no doubt we shall soon be informed 
of the commencement of hostilities. From the strength of 
Governor Harrison's forces, we do not anticipate a very favorable 
result. If a combination has taken place between the northern 
and southern tribes, as seems most probable, the odds are against 
him. The Reporter of Saturday last says : ' Governor Harrison 
has ascertained that the presents from the British to the Indians 
for the last season were unusually great in Arms, Ammunition, 
etc.' " 



94 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

From the same number : 

"Extract of a letter of Colonel John M. Scott to the editor 
of this paper, dated Vincennes, October 23, 1811 : 

' ' Since my arrival at this place I have had only one letter from 
the Governor, and in that he merely mentioned that a party of 
Delaware chiefs had gone to the Prophet's town, their object to 
prevent war, and to persuade him to accede to the Governor's, 
propositions they had not returned, I was informed, on Saturday 
last. It appears to be the general opinion that there is a division 
among the Indians, relative to war measures, though the Prophet 
is for it and a majority of his adherents joined to the whole 
Kickapoo tribe. Their attack upon the centinels and wounding 
one of the regular soldiers, was done no doubt to shut the door 
of accommodation, and to bring on the war, and thereby, to 
compel an union among themselves for common security. 

"The Governor will not give up the point ; he will bring them 
to his measures, either by fair means or hard knocks they 
may have their choice ; it would not do to relinquish the object 
now the Prophet would grow insolent beyond measure. As 
soon as the Kentucky volunteers join, we shall hear of decisive 
measures immediately no more temporising they must be 
brought to a sense of their duty ; and nothing but a good drub- 
bing, in my opinion, will have the effect. 

" Laprouzier, whose speech you gave us some weeks ago in 
your paper, has changed his tone, and says he was deceived by 
the prophet thinks him a bad man, and to show his cincerity, has 
removed his people, women and children, near to the Governor's 
encampment and claims the protection of the United States. 

' ' The Wabash is rising, and has been for three days past ; this 
will enable the contractors to bring forward supplies for the army, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 95 

which were likely to fail ; the Governor has been detained some 
time, for the necessary deposits of provisions. There are about 
iioo men under his command, including militia and regulars. 
Col. Daveiss is a very active officer. When the fight begins we 
calculate he will do wonders or be killed he is all for glory, and 
I suppose would not miss the chance of a fight on any account." 

Kentucky Gazette, Tuesday, November 19, 1811: 

" BRITISH - SAVAGE WAR ! FROM THE WABASH. 
[From the Western Courier.] 

"It is painful to us in the extreme to hear of the loss of 
Colonel Daveiss, Colonel Owen, and others ; but whilst we lament 
the death of so many brave men who have thus fallen in defense of 
our country, we congratulate our readers upon the issue of the 
battle and the victory that resulted. 

' ' We have alternately indulged the hope that our differences 
with the Indians would have been amicably terminated, and again 
from various circumstances, such as the conference of the Indi- 
ans with our good friends, the British, at Maiden, the presents 
there made to them, and the intrigues which the British have 
uniformly had with them whenever any hostile attitude was taken 
by that government toward us, together with facts, we have 
believed that war would ensue. War we now have ; and when we 
consider that the blow is struck in the Western woods at the same 
moment that Great Britain is sweeping our vessels off the ocean, 
and her minister is making demands which he knows can not pos- 
sibly be indulged or acceded to, we can not but consider these 
events as proceeding from one common source the English Cab- 
inet. Such has been her career from the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion to this day ; she has always been first to ' light the savage 



96 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

fire. ' The Indians are but her tools, her allies, her agents. We 
hope, therefore, to witness no more protracted moderation against 
such inflexible hostility. Will Timothy Pickering's friends yet 
continue to repeat with him that Great Britain has done us ' no 
essential injury'?" 

In another part of the paper it was said that the 
Indians had killed the sentinels with arrows, and thus 
were able to penetrate into the camp. Twenty-six men 
were thus lost ! 

In the Kentucky Gazette for November 26, 1811, it 
is said : 

"The Louisville Western Courier of Friday last announces the 
arrival of Major G. R. C. Floyd and the volunteers of that neigh- 
borhood from the Wabash expedition, on whose authority a few 
additional particulars respecting the late battle and the army are 
given : 

"The troops under Governor Harrison left the Prophet's town 
for Vincennes on the morning of the 9th, and arrived without 
molestation from the enemy on the evening of the i8th, having 
put part of the wounded on board boats at Fort Harrison, a num- 
ber of whom died on their way down. The regulars were left at 
Fort Knox, a few miles above Vincennes. That one hundred and 
seventy-nine were killed and wounded, fifty-two of whom were 
found dead on the battle-ground, or died since of their wounds. . . . 
The aggregate amount of their loss (Indians) appeared to be about 
three hundred. In addition to the number of whites stated in our 
former paper to have been killed in the battle, the following is a list 
of the killed and wounded of Clark County (Indiana Territory). 



w 
n 



bd 



W 

6 



z 

o 



o 
z 

H 
< 
W 




The Battle of Tippecanoe. 97 

No other returns have been received, but we believe we can state 
with certainty that no more of the troops from Kentucky were 
killed than were mentioned in our first number. Some few were 
wounded. 

"A list of the killed and wounded of Clark County (Indiana 

Territory) : 

" KILLED. 

"Joseph Warnock, Thomas Clendennan, William Fisler, Will- 
iam Hutchinson, Henry Jones, William Kelly. 

" WOUNDED. 

"John Drummond, J. Robertson, Thomas Gibson, Colonel 
Bartholomew, Captain Norris. " 

In the December 3d number of the Kentucky 
Gazette we find the following very interesting statement 
of the effect of the battle on the public mind : 

" 'The Wabash Expedition' is at this time as much talked of 
in Kentucky as were many years ago Scott's and Clarke's cam- 
paigns, St. Clair's defeat, or Wayne's victory. Every one has his 
own story to relate and his own remarks to make on this memor- 
able expedition. Some are disposed to censure the President, 
others to blame Governor Harrison, but with very little reason for 
either. All applaud the bravery of the soldiers and deplore the 
loss of the heroes who sunk on the field of battle beneath the 
weight of their laurels. Two of the volunteers from Lexington 
have returned to their friends. A few days ago one of Governor 
Harrison's aids passed through this place with dispatches for the 
Executive. We will patiently await the developments of their 
contents without hazarding conjecture. Our friends that were in 

14 



98 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

the battle, it is true, have given us some information, sufficient to 
form our own views of the subject, but the official dispatches, say 
this day two weeks, will reach us from Washington City." 

[Imagine readers of news waiting two weeks now to hear from 
anywhere in civilization ! ] 

" In the mean time we have but little to add to former state- 
ments. On the part of our army about every fourth man was 
either killed or wounded ; and on the part of the Indians, unless 
their numbers greatly exceeded ours, about every third man killed 
or wounded. Upwards of one hundred Indians, it is ascertained to 
a certainty, died on the field of battle ; their wounded, agreeable 
to the usual proportion, must therefore have amounted to two or 
three hundred more. The Prophet's town was razed to the 
ground on the succeeding day after the battle, except one hut, in 
which was found an old squaw. 

"Since the return of the army to Vincennes, two or three 
friendly Delaware chiefs came in ; their representation of the dis- 
appointment of the Indians after the defeat was striking. The 
Prophet had told them that the white people should all be asleep 
or drunk, and that he would, by his conjurations, turn their powder 
into sand, and furnished every warrior with a charm to render him 
invulnerable. 

' ' The Potawattamies and Kickapoos are said to form the great- 
est number of hostile Indians. A report prevailed at Vincennes 
that Tecumseh, with three hundred warriors from the southern 
tribes, was on his march up the Wabash ; this was believed, but 
little fear existed of depredations from them ; it was supposed they 
would disperse when made acquainted with the fate of the allies. 
Little Turtle is said to have abandoned his nation, reprobating their 
folly in commencing hostilities. We could add many other rumors 
and some speculations, but we forbear until additional facts occur. 



The Battle of Tippecanoc. 99 

The committee appointed in Congress to examine Indian affairs 
and Governor Harrison's dispatches may throw some light upon 
the subject. 

' ' The part our good friends, the BRITISH, have acted in this 
business, we hope will be explained in due time." 

A short time after we note the legislature had been 
showing its approval of the record made by General 
Wells : 

"We learn that a dinner was given on Friday last at Frankfort 
by the members of the legislature to General Wells, in honor of 
his bravery and distinguished services in the late bloody and 
memorable engagement with the (British) Prophet's Indians on the 
Wabash. Governor Scott, Commodore Richard Taylor, and a 
number of the old soldiers were among the guests. " 

A little later the Frankfort Argus published extracts 
politely furnished it from a letter from Governor Harrison 
to Colonel John M. Scott, of Frankfort : 

"ViNCENNES, Dec. 2, i8u. 

"Within this hour, two principal Kickapoo chiefs have arrived 
to sue for peace ; they are certainly humbled and if they speak 
truth, there is scarcely a vestige remaining of the late formidable 
combination that was headed by the Prophet. He (the Prophet) 
remains at a small Huron village, about 12 miles from Tippecanoe, 
with about 40 warriors, and 12 or 15 Wyandots. He has applied 
to the Kickapoos of the Prairie to get their permission to retire 
to their town, but it was refused. He then requested to be 
permitted to send some of his people, in company with Kickapoo 
mission to me this was refused. 



ioo The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

"No mischief of any kind has been done, since the action, and 
the frontiers appears to enjoy as profound peace as ever they have 
done. Before the late expedition commenced, not a fortnight 
passed by without some vexatious theft being committed. Indeed, 
the insolence of the Indians, (not those only who were immediately 
under the control of the Prophet) had become insupportable. To 
chastise them was absolutely necessary, there was no species of 
injury and insult, that they did not heap upon us ; and our forbear- 
ance had excited their contempt to so great a degree, that they 
scarcely considered us as warriors. About six weeks since some 
young men of the village of Peoria, told their chiefs, in the pres- 
ence of a man in the employment of General Wm. Clark ' that 
they could kill the Americans, as easily as black birds.' It is 
greatly to be regretted that these scoundrels, could not have been 
made to respect our rights and our national character, but by the 
sacrifice of such men as Owen, Daviess, White Baen, Spencer, 
Warrick etc. But much as they are to be lamented, their fall has 
not been inglorious, nor useless, to their country. The victory 
which was sealed with their blood, will ensure the tranquility of our 
frontiers, and one of the finest tracts of land in the world, will be 
settled in peace, and give abundance and plenty to a smiling and 
happy population. Even in the event of a war with Great Britain 
I think that the Indians will now remain neutral. They have wit- 
nessed the inefficiency of British assistance for that assistance has 
been afforded in as ample a manner as it could have been, if war 
had actually prevailed between us and that power. Within the 
last three months, the whole of the Indians on this frontier, have 
been completely armed and equipped out of the King's stores at 
Maiden. Indeed they were much better armed than the greater 
part of my troops. Every Indian was provided with a gun, scalp- 
ing knife tomahawk and war club, and most of them with a spear ; 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 101 

whilst the greater part of my riflemen had no other weapon than 
their rifle. The Indians had moreover an amply supply of the 
best British glazed powder ; some of the guns had been sent to 
them so short a time before the action, that they were not divested 
of the list covering in which they are imported. All of the infor- 
mation which I have received since the action corroborates the 
opinion I had formed immediately after it i. e. that the combina- 
tion under the Prophet, was much more extensive than I had 
believed and that many of those who were warmest in their pro- 
fessions of friendship to the United States, afforded him all the aid 
in their power. The Delaware chiefs were all sincere, so was the 
Turtle ; a few of the Miamis and three or four Potawatamie chiefs. 
All the rest were either openly, or secretly engaged in his cause. 
The principle by which the Prophet professed to be governed, viz, 
that of putting a stop to the progress of our settlements, had 
gained him an astonishing popularity amongst the young men of 
every Tribe ; and I have no doubt that hundreds of them were in 
the action that now pretend to have been at a considerable dis- 
tance. However as peace is the object of the government, and as I 
believe it can now be presumed, I intend to dissemble my suspicions 
of those whose conduct was equivocal, and to admit the excuses 
of those even whom I know to have been active against us. The 
two Kickapoo chiefs inform me that the Prophet and his party had 
determined to attack me, even if I should have advanced no far- 
ther than Fort Harrison." 

Being prominent in politics, Governor Harrison was 
thus made the subject of all sorts of attacks. The news 
of the campaign had hardly time to reach the readers of 
the papers of the day ere detraction and criticism began. 



io2 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Reports of this condition of things reached the Governor 
at his post, calling from him a letter, which appeared 
toward the last days of December in the Frankfort Argus, 
Kentucky Gazette, and the Lexington Reporter. 

Copy of a letter from Governor Harrison to Governor 
Scott, communicated for publication : 

"ViNCENNES, Dec i3th 1811. 
' ' My dear Sir, 

"I had the pleasure to receive your favour of the 27th ult by 
the mail of Wednesday last ; and I beg you to accept my sincere 
thanks for the friendly sentiments it contains. 

" You wish me to give you some account of the late action, that 
you 'may be the better enabled to do me justice against the cavils 
of ignorance and presumtion. ' I would do this with great pleasure, 
but the Legislature of the Territory being about to close it's 
session, and having an unusual pressure of business, I am unable 
to give you such an account as would be satisfactory. There is, 
however, the less need of this as my official account to the govern- 
ment will probably reach you nearly as soon as this letter. It 
appears to me from some of the hints contained in some of your 
news papers, that the charge of. error in the planning or execution 
of the late expedition, has been more particularly aimed at the 
President than myself. I most sincerly thank these gentlemen for 
placing me in such good company ; and it is hardly necessary to 
inform you, that the charge against the administration is as 
unfounded in this instance as in all the others, which have flowed 
from the same source. The orders of the government with regard 
to the expedition, evince as much wisdom as humanity. It was 
determined to protect its citizens, but if possible, to spare the 
effusion of human blood this last object was prevented ; but by 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 103 

whom ? Why, in a great measure by those very persons who 
are now complaining because a battle could not be won without 
loss. At least in this Territory, the clamor is confined to those 
who opposed the expedition to the utmost of their power, and 
by whose exertions in circulating every falsehood, that malice 
and villainy could invent : the militia were prevented from turning 
out; and instead of a force of from 12 to 1500 men which I 
expected to have had, I was obliged to march from Fort Harrison 
with less than Soo : my personal enemies have united with the 
British agents in representing that the expedition was entirely 
useless, and the Prophet as one of the best and most pacific of 
mortals, a perfect Shaker in principle, who shuddered at the 
thought of shedding blood. Every one of his aggressions upon 
us was denied or palliated and excused with as much eagerness 
as is the conduct of Great Britain by this same description of 
people in the Atlantic States. A party sent by the Prophet fired 
upon and wounded one of our centinels, upon our own ground ; 
the fact was at first boldly denied, 'the man was shot by one of 
your own people ' and I believe it was even asserted that he shot 
himself. When the whole circumstance was brought to light, 
these indefatigable gentry, shifted their ground and asserted that 
' the poor Indian fired in his own defence, and that he was merely 
gratifying an innocent curiosity in creeping to see what was going 
on in our camp, and that if he had not shot the sentry, the sentry 
would have shot him.' 

"I regret exceedingly that the friends of Col. Daviess should 
think it was necessary to his fame to suppose a difference of 
opinion between him and myself, which never existed ; that I had 
slighted advice from him which was never given, and that to give 
colour to this they had listened to stories with regard to the 
operations of the army that were absolutely without foundation. 



104 The Battle of Tippecauoe. 

If the utmost cordiality and friendship did not exist between the 
Colonel and myself from the time of his joining the army until 
his death, I have been very much deceived ; if our military 
opinions were not almost always in unison, those which he 
expressed (and no man who knew him will accuse him of hypoc- 
risy,) were not his own; the Colonel's messmates, Maj G. R. C. 
Floyd and Capt Piatt, are well acquainted with the entire confi- 
dence which subsisted between us ; they are acquainted with 
circumstances which indisputably established the fact ; and they 
and others know that I was the object of his eulogy, to an extent 
which it would be indelicate in me to repeat. Col. Daviess did 
indeed advise me as to measures the day before the action, in 
which he was joined by all the officers around me whether the 
advice was good or bad is immaterial to the present discussion, 
since it was followed to the extent that it was given. It is not 
necessary to express my opinion of the Colonel's merits at this 
time, since it will be found in my official letter, and I have no 
doubt that it will be satisfactory to his friends. 

' ' With regard to my own conduct, my dear Sir, it is not in my 
power to enter into a defence of it, unless I were to know in what 
particular it has been arraigned. However I may with safety rely 
for my defence upon the opinion of my army. Believing most 
sincerely that you do feel that ' lively interest in my fame and 
fortune ' which you profess, I am sure you will peruse with inter- 
est the inclosed declaration, signed by all the field officers of the 
army, (one only who was absent,) and the Resolutions entered 
into by the militia of this country who served upon the expedi- 
tion ; the testimony of men who fought and suffered by my side, 
ought, I should suppose, to be conclusive. 

"An idea seems to prevail in your state, that in the action 
of the 7th the whole army was completely surprised, and that 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 105 

they were placed in a situation where bravery only decided the 
contest, and where there were no opportunity whatever for the 
exercise of military skill of any kind ; this was however, far from 
being the case. It is true that the two companies forming the 
left angle on the rear line, (Barton's and Geiger's) were attacked 
before they were formed, and that some of the men were killed 
in coming out of their tents ; but it is equally true that all the 
other companies were formed before they were fired on, and that 
even those two companies lost but very few men before they 
were able to resist. Notwithstanding the darkness, the order of 
battle, (such as had been previously prescribed) was taken by all 
the troops the officers were active, the men cool and obedient, 
and perhaps, there never was an action where (for the number of 
men engaged) there were so many changes of position performed ; 
not in disorder and confusion, but with military propriety the 
companies, both regulars and militia, were extended, or contracted, 
wheeled, marched, and made to file up by word of command. 
My orders (and they were not a few) were obeyed with prompti- 
tude and precision. And if I am not most grossly deceived, that 
mutual dependence which ought to exist between a commander 
and his arm was reciprocally felt. 

"It has been said that the Indians should have been attacked 
upon our arrival before their town, on the evening of the 6th. 
There were two reasons which prevented this, first, that the 
directions which I received from the Government, made it neces- 
sary that I should endeavour, if possible, to accomplish the object 
of the expedition (the dispersion of the Prophet's force) without 
bloodshed, and, secondly, that the success of an attack by day 
upon the Town was very problematical. 

' ' I certainly did not understand my instructions to mean that 
I should jeopardize the safety of the troops, by endeavoring to 

15 



io6 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

bring about accommodation without fighting. But if I had com- 
menced an attack upon them, after they had sent a chief to 
inform me that they were desirous of an accommodation, and 
that they had three days before sent a deputation to me for that 
purpose, who can doubt but that a much greater clamor would 
have been raised than exists at present ; the cruelty of attacking 
those innocent people would have been pourtrayed in the 
strongest colours ; the administration would have been repre- 
sented as murderers, and myself as their wretched instrument. 
But the army were exposed to the ' nightly incursions ' of the 
Indians : It has been well observed by a writer in The Argus, 
that if a ' nightly incursion ' was really so much to be dreaded 
by the army, it had no business there. But the author of those 
objections perhaps will be still more surprised when he learns that 
a 'nightly incursion,' was precisely what I wished, because from 
such a one only could I hope for a close and decisive action. 
If they had attacked us by day they would certainly have done 
it upon ground favorable to their mode of fighting ; they would 
have killed (as in General Wayne's action) a number of our men, 
and when pressed they would have escaped, with a loss compar- 
atively trifling. In night attacks discipline always prevails over 
disorder, the party which is able to preserve its order longest, 
must succeed. I had with me 250 regulars that were highly 
disciplined, and my militia had been instructed to form in order 
of battle to receive the enemy in any direction, with facility and 
precision. But in the immediate neighborhood of the enemy, 
' why were not the Troops made to continue under arms through 
the night?' I answer, that troops can only bear a certain por- 
tion of fatigue, and when in the presence of the enemy it is a 
matter of calculation with the commander, when they should be 
kept under arms and when permitted to rest. Upon this occasion, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 107 

I must acknowledge that my calculations were erroneous. In 
common with the whole army, I did believe that they would not 
attack us that night. If it was their intention to attack, why 
had they not done it upon our march, where situations favorable 
to them might easily have been found ? Indeed within three 
miles of the town we passed over ground so broken and disad- 
vantageous to us that I was obliged to change the position of 
the troops several times in the course of a mile. They had 
fortified their town with care and with astonishing labor for 
them, all indicating that they were meant to sustain the shock. 
It was the scene of those mysterious rites which were so much 
venerated, and the Prophet had taught his followers to believe 
that both his person and his town were equally inviolable to us. 
I expected that they would have met me the next day to hear 
my terms, but I did not believe however, that they would accede 
to them and it was my determination to attack and burn the 
town the following night. It was necessary therefore that the 
troops should be refreshed as much as possible. But, although 
the men were not made to remain all night under arms, every 
other precaution was used as if attack was certain. In fact the 
troops were placed precisely in that situation that is called by 
military men ' lying upon their arms ; ' the regular troops lay in 
their tents with their accoutrements on, and their arms by their 
sides the militia had no tents, they slept with their pouches 
on, and their arms under them to keep them dry. The order of 
encampment was the order of battle for a night attack, and as 
every man slept opposite to his post in the line, there was 
nothing for them to do but to rise and take their post a few 
steps in the rear of the fires, and the line was formed in an 
instant. So little time was required for this operation that if 
the guard on its left flank had done its duty as well as the rest 



io8 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

of the army, the troops on that flank would have been formed 
before the Indians came near them. It was customary every 
evening as soon as the army halted, to examine the ground of 
the encampment and surroundings, and afterwards to call together 
the field officers of the army, and give them their directions for 
the night. At these meetings (where every one was required freely 
to express their sentiments) every contingency that was likely to 
happen was discussed. The orders that were proper to be given 
to them, were then by the field officers repeated to the captains. 
Every one being by these means possessed of my intentions there 
was no room left for mistake or confusion. The orders given on 
the night of the 6th. were solely directed to a night attack, the 
officers were directed in case of such an attack, to parade their 
men in the order in which they were encamped, and that each 
corps should maintain itself upon it's own ground until other orders 
were given. With regulations such as these, and with such a state 
of discipline as we claim, you must allow, my dear Sir, that we had 
no reason to dread ' a night incursion, ' more than an attack by 
day. Indeed it was preferable, because in no other could it have 
been so completely decisive. In the latter we might have lost as 
many men as we did loose, without having killed a third as many 
of the enemy. 

"In my letter to the Secretary it is asserted that the Indians 
had penetrated to the centre of the encampment. I believe, how- 
ever that not more than two Indians got within the lines men 
were certainly killed near the center of the camp, but it must have 
been from balls fired from without. 

' ' From this letter and my official despatch to the Secretary of 
War, you will be enabled, my dear General, to form a correct 
opinion of the battle of Tippecanoe. When an action is over, and 
we have time to meditate upon the circumstances that attended it, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 109 

there is no great judgement necessary to discover some error in the 
conduct of it, some thing that was done, which might have been 
better done, or something that was omitted, which if done might 
have produced great advantage. I believe the greatest Generals 
have admitted that they could fight a second battle upon the 
same ground, much better than the first. If this is true with 
respect to them ought it not to be a motive to shield me from the 
severity of criticism with which some of my fellow citizens are 
desirous of scanning my conduct. 

' ' A victory has been gained, and the army which gained it 
impute it in part at least to the measures of the commander, but 
this is not sufficient it should have been achieved without loss on 
our side. There is certainly no man more fully impressed with the 
exalted merits of those brave men who fell in the action, than I 
am amongst them were many for whom I felt the warmest regard 
and friendship but they were exposed to no dangers but what 
were common to the whole army, and if they were selected by 
divine providence, as the price of our important victory, there is 
nothing left us but to honor their memory, and bow submissively to 
a decree which we can not alter. 

"It would however imbitter the remaining part of my life, if I 
could suppose that their fate was produced by any misconduct of 
mine. But upon this subject I have nothing to accuse myself. I 
am satisfied that all my weak powers were exerted to the utmost, 
for the safety and glory of my troops. Indeed no commander had 
ever greater reason to do so, for none ever received greater confi- 
dence and attachment from any army, than I many of the corps 
forgetful of their own danger, seemed only anxious for me and a 
sentiment springing from personal attachment alone was imputed 
by them to a belief that their fate was intimately connected with 
mine. For such troops it was impossible that I should not be will- 
ing to shed the last drop of my blood. 



no The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

"Your friendship, my dear General, will pardon the egotism 
contained in this letter perhaps I ought to disregard the idle tales 
that have been circulated to my prejudice ; knowing as I do that 
there are not ten persons who served under me upon the late expe- 
dition that will not be ready to contradict them ; I have sufficient 
stoicism, however, to rest easy under unmeritted reproach, and 
with the consciousness of having rendered some service to my 
country, I can not bare to be deprived of the good opinion of my 
fellow-citizens. 

" With great regard, I am, my dear Sir, your friend and humble 

(Signed) WILL'M HENRY HARRISON. 

" P. S. I should have covered my troops every night with a 
breast work of trees, but axes were so scarce (after having pro- 
cured every one that the Territory afforded) that it was with dif- 
ficulty that a sufficiency of wood could be procured to make the 
men comfortable ; and the militia were without tents, and many of 
them without blankets. The story which has been circulated in 
some of the papers, of officers fighting without any clothes but 
their shirts, is absolutely false. W. H. H." 



Part Third. 

ROLL OF THE ARMY COMMANDED BY GENERAL 

HARRISON. 

THE following roster is taken from ' ' The Battle of 
Tippecanoe, " by Reed Beard, published in 1889, 
pages 102 et seq. The names are said to have been taken 
from the official rolls at Washington. 

There were necessarily many absent on duty elsewhere, 
sick, or (as mentioned) deserters, so that the effective force 
was probably about nine hundred men. 

Roll of the general staff of the army commanded by 
General (Governor) Harrison from September 6 to Novem- 
ber 24, 181 1 : 

William McFarland, Lieutenant Colonel and Adjutant ; Henry 
Hurst, Major and Aid-de-Camp ; Waller Taylor, Major and Aid- 
de-Camp ; Marston G. Clark, Brigade Inspector, promoted to the 
same September 2Oth ; Robert Buntin, junior, Second Lieutenant 
and Forage Master ; Robert Buntin, senior, Captain and Quarter- 
master ; Nathaniel F. Adams, Lieutenant and Adjutant, belonged 
to the United States regular army. 



ii2 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Roll of Captain Dubois' company of spies and guides 
of the Indiana Militia from September 18 to November 
12, 181 1 : 

Toussaint Dubois, Captain. Privates : Silas McCulloch, G. R. 
C. Sullivan, William Bruce, William Polk, Pierre Andre, Ephraim 
Jordan, William Shaw, William Hogue (discharged October 4th), 
David Wilkins, John Hollingsworth, Thomas Learneus, Joseph 
Arpin, Abraham Decker, Samuel James, David Miles, Stewart 
Cunningham, Bocker Childers, Thomas Jordan. 

Roll of a detachment from the field and staff of Indiana 
Militia from September n to November 24, 1811, under 
the command of Lieutenant Colonel Bartholomew : 

Joseph Bartholomew, Lieutenant Colonel, wounded in action 
November /th ; Regin Redman, Major; Andrew P. Hay, Sur- 
geon's Mate ; Joseph Brown, Adjutant ; Joseph Clark, Quarter- 
master, appointed Surgeon's Mate October 2gth ; Chapman Duns- 
low, Sergeant Major ; James Curry, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Roll of the field and staff of the Fourth Regiment of 
Infantry of the Indiana Militia, under the command of 
Colonel Decker, from September 18 to November 19, 
1811 : 

Luke Decker, Lieutenant Colonel ; Noah Purcell, Major ; 
Daniel Sullivan, Lieutenant Adjutant ; William Ready, Sergeant 
Major; Benjamin V. Becker, Quartermaster; William Gamble, 
Quartermaster Sergeant, appointed Quartermaster Sergeant Sep- 
tember 25th, and made up for pay as private on rolls of Captain 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 113 

Wilson's company of infantry to September 2ist ; Edward Scull, 
Assistant Surgeon ; James Smith, Quartermaster, promoted to 
Captain on November gth, and paid as such on the rolls of 
Captain Warrick's company. 

Roll of the field and staff of Major Parke's Dragoons 
of Indiana Militia from September 21 to November 19, 
1811 : 

Joseph H. Daviess, Major, killed in action November 7th ; 
Benjamin Parke, Major, promoted from the time ; Davis Floyd, 
Adjutant ; Charles Smith, Quartermaster ; General W. Johnston, 
Quartermaster, promoted from the ranks October 30, 1811 ; Will- 
iam Prince, Sergeant Major. 

Roll of Captain Spier Spencer's company of mounted 
riflemen of the Indiana Militia from September 12 to 
November 23, 181 1 : 

Spier Spencer, Captain, killed in action November 7th ; Richard 
McMahan, First Lieutenant, killed in action November 7th ; George 
F. Pope, Second Lieutenant, resigned October 2ist; Samuel 
Flanagan, Second Lieutenant, promoted from Ensign to Second 
Lieutenant ; John Tipton, Captain, promoted from private to 
Ensign ; Jacob Zenoe, Second Lieutenant, promoted from private 
November 7th ; Phillip Bell, Ensign, promoted from private to 
Ensign November 7th ; Pearce Chamberlain, Sergeant ; Henry 
Batman, Sergeant ; Elijah Hurst, Sergeant ; Benjamin Boyard, 
Sergeant ; Robert Biggs, Corporal, badly wounded ; John Taylor, 
Corporal ; Benjamin Shields, Corporal ; William Bennington, Cor- 
poral ; Daniel Cline, Musician ; Isham Stroude, Musician. 

16 



i 1 4 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Privates : John Arick, Ignatius Able, Enos Best, Alpheus Bran- 
ham, Gadow Branham, Daniel Bell, James Brown, Jesse Butler, 
Mason Carter, John Cline, Marshall Dunken (killed in action 
November /th), William Davis (killed in action November yth), 
Thomas Davidson, James Dyce, Henry Enlow, William Hurst, 
William Hurst, junior, Beverley Hurst, James Harberson, James 
Heubbound, Robert Jones, James Kelley, Thomas McColley, Noah 
Mathena, William Nance, Thomas Owens, Samuel Pfriner, Edward 
Ransdell, Sandford Ransdell, James Spencer, Christover Shucks, 
Joshua Shields (badly wounded), Samuel Sand (killed in action 
November 7th), George Spencer, Jacob Snider, Jon'n Wright, 
James Wilson, John Wheeler, James Watts, Isham Vest, George 
Zenoe, P. McMickle, Levi Dunn (deserted), William Fowler (not 
duly mustered). 

Roll of Captain Jacob Warrick's company of infantry 
of the Indiana Militia from September 16 to Novem- 
ber 19, 181 1 : 

Jacob Warrick, Captain, mortally wounded in action ; James 
Smith, Captain ; William Calton, Lieutenant, discharged Septem- 
ber 27th ; James Duckworth, Ensign ; Robert Montgomery, Ser- 
geant ; Robert McGary, Sergeant ; Jeremiah Piercall, Sergeant ; 
Isaac Woods, Sergeant ; Benjamin Venables, Corporal ; Thomas 
Black, Corporal ; Robert Denney, Corporal ; Thomas Montgom- 
ery, junior, Corporal, promoted to Lieutenant September 3Oth in 
place of William Calton. 

Privates : James Alsop, James Stewart, Jesse Key, Bennet 
Key, Jesse Brewer, Richard Davis, Asa Musick, Smith Mounce 
(deserted October i5th from garrison), James Stapleton, Fielding 
Lucas, John McGary, Thomas Montgomery (discharged from gar- 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 115 

rison October 1 5th), John Montgomery, James Weathers, Ephraim 
Murphy, Langston Drew, William Gwins, William Black, Joshua 
Capps, Andrew McFaddin, Lewis Sealy, James Bohannon (deserted 
from burrow September 27th), Daniel Duff, Squire McFaddin, Wil- 
son Jones, Jeremiah Robinson, Hugh Todd, Martin Laughon, Will- 
iam Todd, John Gwins, Burton Litton, George Linxwiler, Peter 
Whetstone (deserted from garrison October I5th), William Stevens, 
Timothy Downer, John Coyler, Benjamin Stoker (promoted to 
Corporal September 3Oth), Thomas Aldmond, Miles Armstrong, 
William Aldmond, William Young, Thomas Duckworth, Maxwell 
Jolly, John Robb, John Neel, Randolph Clark, William Black. 

Roll of Captain David Robb's company of mounted 
riflemen of the Indiana Militia from October 25 to 
November 19, 181 1 : 

David Robb, Captain ; Joseph Montgomery, Lieutenant ; John 
Waller, Ensign ; Elsberry Armstrong, Sergeant ; William Maxidon, 
Sergeant ; Ezekiel Kite, Corporal ; George Anthees, Corporal ; 
Bryant Harper, Trumpeter. 

Privates : Abm. Decker, James Tweedle, John Za. Orton, 
Amstead Bennett, William Peters, Stewart Cunningham, Francis 
Hall, Booker Shields, William Tweedle, John Slaven, John 
Suverns, James Langsdown, Thomas Sullivan, Jesse Music, Daniel 
Fisher (mortally wounded on November 7th, and died November 
1 2th), William Allsop, Joseph Garress, Thomas C. Vines, Edward 
Butner (mortally wounded November 7th, and died next day), 
Samuel James, Thomas Shouse, Frederick Reel, William Selvey, 
James Bass, George Leech, junior, David Mills, Thomas Givens, 
John Black, Jonah Robinson, Isaac Rogers, John Rogers, William 
Carson, George Litton, David Knight, William Downing, Thomas 



n6 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Jordan (transferred to Captain Dubois' company November 2oth), 
James Blanks, William Bass, James Minor, Hugh Shaw, Peter 
Cartwright, David Lilley, Thomas Garress, James Asberry (killed 
in action November 7th), Joseph Tobin, Robert Wilson, John Riggs, 
John Christ, Theodorus Davis, Thomas Parker Vampett, John 
Crawford, Kader Powell (killed in action November yth), Thomas 
Dunn, Jacob Korter, William Askin, Jonathan Humphreys, Alex. 
Mahen (badly wounded November 7th), William Witherholt, Moses 
Sandridge, David Edwards, John Dragoo, Samuel Hamilton, 
Robert Tennesson, Richard Potts, Joseph Wright, George Robin- 
son (badly wounded November 7th), Thomas West. 

Roll of Captain Norris' company of infantry of the 
Indiana Militia from September 1 1 to November 24, 
1811 : 

John Norris, Captain, wounded in action November 7th ; John 
Harrod, Lieutenant ; Joseph Carr, Ensign ; George Drummond, 
Sergeant ; William Coombs, Sergeant ; Brazil Prather, Sergeant ; 
David Smith, Sergeant ; Henry Ward, Corporal ; John Harman, 
Corporal ; Joel Combs, Corporal ; Robert Combs, Corporal ; 
David Kelly, Corporal, appointed Corporal September 3Oth ; 
Elisha Carr, Drummer ; Joseph Perry, Fifer. 

Privates : Robert McNight, William Stacey, Gasper Loots, 
Samuel Duke, Edward Norris, James Shipman, Henry Cusamore, 
Peter Sherwood, C. Fipps, George Ditsler, John Gray, John Kelly, 
Jacob Daily, David Cross, Thomas Clendennan (killed in action 
November 7th), Robert Cunningham, Abraham Kelley (substituted 
in place of Samuel Walker, and killed November 7th), Henry Jones 
(killed in action November 7th), James Curry, Samuel McClung 
(Quartermaster Sergeant September 27th), James Smith, John 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 117 

Perry, Jevis Fordyce, Benoni Wood, James Kelley, Cornelius Kelly, 
Amos Goodwin, E. Wayman, William Harman, John Newland, 
John Tilferro, Micajah Peyton, Loyd Prather, Adam Peck, Samuel 
McClintick, Benjamin Thompson, John Weathers, William Eakin, 
Evan Arnold, John D. Jacob, Hugh Espy, Robert Tippin, Townly 
Ruby, John McClintick, William Rayson, William Aston, Reuben 
Slead, Josiah Taylor, George Hooke, Daniel McCoy, Jacob 
Pearsall, Henry Hooke, Samuel Neal, Thomas Highfill, Robert 
McClellan, James Taylor. 

Roll of Captain William Hargrove's company of 
infantry of the Indiana Militia from September 18 
to November 19, 1811 : 

William Hargrove, Captain ; Isaac Montgomery, Lieutenant ; 
Gary Ashley, Ensign, resigned in October, 1811 ; Henry Hopkins, 
Ensign, promoted to Sergeant October 27, 1811 ; Bolden Conner, 
Sergeant ; James Evans, Sergeant ; Daniel Millar, Sergeant, pro- 
moted from Corporal October 27, 1811 ; William Scales, Sergeant, 
promoted from private October 27, 1811; David Johnson, Corporal ; 
David Brumfield, Corporal, promoted in October, 1811. 

Privates : Samuel Anderson, John Braselton, Jer. Harrison, 
John Fleanor, Joseph Ladd, Pinkney Anderson, Thomas Archer, 
William Archer, James Lenn, Charles Collins, Joshua Day (deserted 
October 2, 1811), Charles Penelton (deserted October 16, 1811), 
William Person, John Mills, Robert Milborn, Jon'n Cochran, John 
Lout, Nathan Woodrough, James Young, John Tucker, Arthur 
Meeks (deserted October 12, 1811), John Conner, Reuben Fitz- 
gerald (wounded slightly November 7th), Zachary Skelton, Jacob 
Skelton, Benjamin Scales, William Gordon, Laben Putman, Red- 
ing Putman, John Many, Johnson Fitzgerald, Thomas Arnett, 



ii8 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

James Skelton, Elias Barker, Samuel Whealor, Robert Whealor, 
William Mangorn, Coonrod Lancaster (deserted October 2d), James 
McClure, Haz. Putman, Benjamin Cannon, Joshua Stapleton, 
William Skelton, William Harrington, Randolph Owens, Isaac 
Twedle, James Crow, Richard M. Kirk, George Coningham, 
James Skidmore, Joseph Mixon, Samuel Gaston, Edward Whita- 
cor, Charles Meeks (reduced from Corporal October 26th), Robert 
Skelton (badly wounded November 7th), David Lawrence (dis- 
charged September iQth), Joseph Inglish (discharged September 
igth), Robert Montgomery (discharged September igth), Cabreen 
Merry (discharged September igth). 

Roll of Captain Thomas Seott's company of infantry of 
the Indiana Militia from September 18 to November 19, 
1811 : 

Thomas Scott, Captain ; Jon'n Ptircell, Lieutenant ; John 
Scott, Ensign ; John Welton, Ensign ; Francis Mallet, Ensign; 
Lanty Johnston, Ensign , Samuel Request, Ensign ; John Moore, 
Corporal ; Abr'm Westfall, Corporal ; Elick C. Dushane, Corporal ; 
Charles Bono, Corporal. 

Privates : Jesse Willas, James McDonald, Jon'n Hornback, 
Alpheus Pickard, John McCoy, Zebulon Hogue, Andrew Westfall, 
William Watson, Walter Wiel, William A. Clark, William Welton, 
Henry Lain, Abraham Wood (killed November 7th), John Collins, 
William Williams, Sam'l Risley, William Collins, Charles Fisher, 
Robert Johnston, Absolom Thorn, William Penny, William Young, 
William Jones, John Collins, junior, William Bailey, Charles Mail, 
Richard Westrope, Thomas McClain, Joseph Ridley, Henry 
O'Niel, Joseph Alton, Baptist Topale, Antoine Gerome, Mitchel 
Rusherville, Charles Dudware, John Baptist Bono, Joseph Bushby, 
Henry Merceam, Augusta Lature, Louis Abair, Charles Soudriett, 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 119 

Ambrose Dashney, Francis Berbo, Francis Bonah (killed November 
7th), Senro Bolonga (died November i8th), Louis Lovelett, 
Francis Boryean, John Mominny (discharged October 8th), Pierre 
Delurya, senior, Pierre Delurya, junior, Joseph Besam, Louis 
Boyeam, Dominic Pashy, Antoine Cornia, Antoine Ravellett, John 
Baptist Cardinal, Jack Obah (killed November 7th), Toussaint 
Deno, Joseph Reno, Eustace Seranne, Nicholas Valmare, Joseph 
Sansusee, Francis Arpah, Antoine Shennett, Madan Cardinal, 
Louis Lowya. 

Roll of Captain Walter Wilson's company of infantry 
of Indiana Militia from September 18 to November 18, 
1811 : 

Walter Wilson, Captain ; Benjamin Beckes, Lieutenant, 
appointed Quartermaster November i8th ; Joseph Macomb, Ensign; 
Thomas I. Withers, Sergeant ; John Decker, Sergeant ; Thomas 
White, Sergeant ; Isaac Minor, Sergeant ; Daniel Risley, Corporal ; 
William Shuck, Corporal ; John Grey, Corporal ; Peter Brinton, 
Corporal. 

Privates : William Gamble, William Brinton, Batost Chavalar, 
Asa Thorn, Thomas Chambers, Joseph Harbour, Adam Harness, 
James Jordan, John Chambers, John Anthis, Lewis Frederick, Lewis 
Reel (died October isth), Richard Greentree, Samuel Clutter, 
Jacob Anthis, James Walker, Nathan Baker, John Barjor, Sin- 
elky Almy, Peter Bargor, Moses Decker, Joseph Voodry, Woolsey 
Pride, Robert Brinton (deserted October 24th), Abraham Pea, 
Thomas Milbourne (deserted October 24th), William Pride, Ben- 
jamin Walker, Jacob Harbonson (deserted October 24th), Sutton 
Coleman (deserted October 24th), Joab Chappel, Robert McClure, 
John Risley (deserted October 24th), Jon'n Walker (deserted 
October 24th), Isaac Walker, David Knight, James Purcell. 



120 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Roll of Captain Andrew Wilkins' company of infantry 
of the Indiana Militia from September 18 to November 
18, 1811 : 

Andrew Wilkins, Captain ; Adam Lisman, Lieutenant ; Samuel 
McClure, Ensign ; John Hadden, Sergeant ; Thomas Black, 
Sergeant ; Samuel Leman, Sergeant ; Charles Booth, Sergeant ; 
Daniel Carlin, Corporal ; John Edwards, Corporal ; Richard Engle, 
Corporal ; Abraham Bogard, Corporal. 

Privates : John Johnston, John Mills, Abraham Johnston, James 
Mitchel, Robert Murphy, Jesse Cox, William Ashby, Louderick 
Earnest, Edward Wilks, Rubin Moore, Thomas Anderson, Samuel 
Middleton, James Calleway, James Tims, Isaac Luzader, Samuel 
Carruthers, Asa McChord, Nathaniel Adams, Robert Lilley, John 
Elliot, William Hollingsworth, William Francis, Obediah F. 
Patrick, Aron Quick, John Murphy, Ebenezer Blackston, James 
Harrel, Samuel Culbertson, John Davis, Christopher Coleman, 
Robert Elsey, Henry Matny, Robert Britton, William Flint, John 
Rodarmel, John Culbertson, Joseph Hobbs, Albert Davis, Thomas 
Harrel (discharged September 26th), Joseph Edwards, William 
Hill (appointed Corporal October iSth), John Engle, Henry Col- 
lins, John Meek, Thomas Johnston, Madison Collins, William 
Black, Luke Matson, John Harden, Edward Bowls, Robert Polk, 
Charles Ellison, George Gill, James Grayham, Joseph McRonnels, 
Jon'n Purcell, George Bright, Peter Lisman, William Arnett, 
Samuel Ledgerwood, Martin Palmore. 

Roll of a company of riflemen of the Indiana Militia 
commanded by Captain James Bigger from September 
ii to November 24, 1811 : 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 121 

James Bigger, Captain ; John T. Chunn, Lieutenant ; Joseph 
Stillwell, Ensign ; John Drummons, Sergeant, wounded on Novem- 
ber loth ; Isaac Nailor, Sergeant ; Rice G. McCoy, Sergeant ; 
Thomas Nicholas, discharged October i6th ; Josiah Thomas, pro- 
moted Sergeant October 6th ; James B. McCullough, Corporal ; 
Jonathan Heartley, Corporal ; Thomas Chappie, Corporal ; David 
Bigger, Corporal ; John Owens, Drummer ; Jacob L. Stillwell, Fifer. 

Privates : James Robertson, Joseph Warnick (killed in action 
November jth), John Hutcherson, Daniel Peyton, Daniel Williams, 
James Garner, Amos Little, Hezekiah Robertson, Joseph Daniel, 
John Denney, James King, John Gibson, junior, John Walker, 
Daniel Pettitt, John Carr, William Nailor, Vinyard Pound, Andrew 
Holland, John Heartley, Daniel Kimberlain, Samuel Stockwell, 
David Owens, junior, Robert Robertson, junior (deserted September 
25th), Absalom Carr, Thomas Gibson (wounded November 7th), 
James Robertson, junior, James Anderson, William Tissler (killed 
in action November 7th), William Hutto, Thomas Burnett, 
Charles Mathews, John Covert, William Wright, John Finley, John 
Martin, Isaac Stark, John Kelley, Wilson Sergeant, David Copple, 
William G. Gubrick, James Elliot, John Agins, Moses Stark, John 
Reed, George Reed, Benjamin Pool, James McDonald, Isaac D. 
Huffman, Alexander Montgomery, William Hooker (deserted 
October I4th), Leonard Houston (wounded November 7th), 
James Mooney, Tobias Miller, Lucius Kibby, John Gibson, senior. 

Roll of Lieutenant Berry's detachment of mounted 
riflemen of the Indiana Militia from September 12 to 
November 23, 1811 : 

Thomas Berry, killed in action November 7th ; Zachariah 
Linley, Sergeant, badly wounded. 

17 



122 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Privates : John Briere (not regularly mustered), John Beck, 
Frederick Carnes, John Dougherty, Thomas Elliott, Griffith 
Edwards, Joseph Edwards, Peter Hanks (mortally wounded 
November 7th), David Hederick, Henry Hickey (killed November 
7th), Caleb Harrison, Anthony Taylor, William Lee, Jacob Lutes, 
Daniel McMickle (killed November 7th), Henry Moore, Peter 
McMickle (badly wounded), George Mahon, Frederick Wyman, 
Samuel Lockhart. 

Roll of Captain Benjamin Parke's troop Light Dragoons 
of the Indiana Militia from September 18 to November 
19, 181 1 : 

Benjamin Parke, Captain, promoted to the rank of Major ; 
Thomas Emerson, Lieutenant ; George Wallace, junior, Lieuten- 
ant ; John Bathis, Cornet ; Christian Grater, Sergeant ; W'illiam 
Harper, Sergeant ; Henry Rubbe, Sergeant ; John McClure, Ser- 
geant ; William H. Dunnica, Corporal ; Charles Allen, Corporal ; 
Reuben Sallinger, Corporal ; Levi Elliot, Corporal ; John Braden, 
Saddler. 

Privates : Charles Smith, Peter Jones, Joshua Bond, Permena 
Becks, William Prince, Jesse Slawson, Touissant Dubois, junior, 
Thomas Randolph, John McDonald, Miles Dolahan, John Elliot, 
Mathias Rose, junior, Henry Dubois, Jesse Lucas, William Berry, 
William Purcell, John Crosby, Leonard Crosby, William Mehan 
(killed in action November jth), Samuel Drake, Samuel Emerson, 
Samuel Alton (never joined), Nathan Harness, Daniel Decker, 
John Seaton (never joined), Howson Seaton, John Flint (never 
joined), John D. Hay, Heram Decker, Ebenezer Hilton, John 
I. Neely, John McBain (appointed Trumpeter September 29th), 
Pierre Laptante, James Steen, Andrew Purcell, John Pea, Albert 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 123 

Badolett, Josiah L. Holmes, William W. Holmes, Thomas Coulter, 
Charles McClure, Jacque Andre, Thomas McClure, John Bruce 
(never joined), Thomas Palmer, General W. Johnston, William A. 
McClure, Clanton Steen (never joined), James McClure, Archd. 
McClure, James Neal, John.Wyant, Charles Scott, James S. 
Petty, Isaac White (killed November 7th), John McClure, Henry 
I. Mills, Robert M. Evans (never joined), James Mud, George 
Croghlin, Abner Hynes, Benjamin Sanders, James Nabb, John 
O'Fallon, William Luckett, Landon Carter, Robert Buntin, junior, 
John I. Smith, Robert Sturgen, James Harper. 

Roll of a company of Light Dragoons of the Indiana 
Militia commanded by Captain Charles Beggs from Sep- 
tember n to November 23, 1811 : 

Charles Beggs Captain ; John Thompson, Lieutenant, pro- 
moted Lieutenant September i8th ; Henry Bottorf, Lieutenant, 
promoted Lieutenant September i8th ; Mordecai Sweeney, Cornet, 
promoted Lieutenant September i8th ; Davis Floyd, promoted 
Adjutant September 2Oth ; John Carr, Sergeant, promoted Sergeant 
October 24th ; James Sage, Sergeant ; James Fisler, Sergeant ; 
Abraham Miller, Sergeant ; George Rider, Corporal ; Sion Prather, 
Corporal ; Hugh Ross, Corporal ; Samuel Bottorf, Corporal ; 
John Deats, Trumpeter. 

Privates : Jacob Cressmore, William Kelley (killed in action 
November 7th), William Lewis (not regularly mustered), James 
Ellison, Timothy R. Rayment, John Cowan, Jon'n Gibbons, 
William Perry, Edward Perry, John Goodwin, James Hay, John 
Newland, George Twilley, Milo Davis-, Marston G. Clark (promoted 
Brigade Major September 2Oth), Samuel Carr, Joseph McCormack, 
Richard Ward, John Farris, Charles F. Ross, John Thompson 
(promoted Lieutenant September i8th). 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Roll of Captain Peter Funk's company of Kentucky 
Mounted Militia is given elsewhere in this history. 

Roll of Captain Frederick Geiger's company of Ken- 
tucky Mounted Riflemen is given elsewhere in this history. 

Roll of the field and staff of the Fourth Regiment of 
United States Infantry for November and December, 1811 : 

John P. Boyd, Colonel ; Zebulon M. Pike,* Lieutenant Colonel ; 
James Miller, Lieutenant Colonel ; G. R. C. Floyd, Major ; Josiah 
D. Foster, Surgeon ; Hosea Blood, Surgeon's Mate ; John L. 
Eastman, Assistant Adjutant ; Josiah Bacon, Quartermaster ; 
Nathaniel F. Adams, Paymaster ; Winthrop Ayer, Sergeant Major ; 
William Kelly, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Roll of a company of infantry under the command 
of Captain Josiah Snelling, of the Fourth Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel John P. Boyd, from August 31 to 
October 31, 181 1 : 

Josiah Snelling, Captain ; Charles Fuller, First Lieutenant ; 
John Smith, Second Lieutenant ; Richard Fillebrown, Sergeant ; 

*The fact that the name of Lieutenant Colonel Zebulon M. Pike 
appeared on the rolls of this regiment attracted my attention, and on 
making inquiry at the Adjutant General's office the following reply explains 
the situation: ..ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, 

"Returns Division, Oct. 22, 1898. 

" Z. M. Pike was Lieut. Col. 4th U. S. Infy. from Dec. n, 1809, to 
July 6, 1812. James Miller was Major of same regiment July 8, 1808, to 
November 30, 1810, when promoted to Lieut. Col. 5th U. S. Infy. but 
remained with 4th Infy. for some time after, Lt. Col. Pike being on de- 
tached service." , D 

- \ . i . 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 125 

Jacob D. Rand, Sergeant ; Daniel Baldwin, Sergeant ; Ephraim 
Churchill, Sergeant ; John Shays, Corporal ; Timothy Hartt, Cor- 
poral ; Samuel Horden, Corporal ; Benjamin Moores, Corporal ; 
Amos G. Corey, Musician. 

Privates : John Austin, Cyrus J. Brown, James Brice, Michael 
Burns, John Brewer, George Blandin, Cephas Chase, Jacob Col- 
lins, William Clough, Thomas Day, William Doles, John Davis, 
Abraham Dutcher, Philip Eastman, Samuel French, Rufus Good- 
enough, Alanson Hathaway, William Healey, William Jackman, 
Henry Judewine, Abraham Larrabee, Asa Larrabee, Gideon Lin- 
coln, Edward Magary, Serafino Massi, Lugi Massi, Vincent Massi, 
James McDonald, Samuel Pritchett, James Sheldon, Samuel 
Porter, James Palmer, Joseph Pettingall, William B. Perkins, 
Samuel Pixley, Jonathan Robinson (died October 6th), Greenlief 
Sewey, Elias Soper, Westley Stone, Seth Sargeant, John Trasher, 
Phillip Thrasher, Joseph Tibbetts (killed in action November 7th), 
David Wyer, Mark Whalin, John Whitely, John P. Webb, Giles 
Wilcox, Thomas Blake (died October i ith), Daniel Haskell 
(deserted September 2 % 5th). 

Roll of a company of infantry under command of 
Captain George W. Prescott, of the Fourth Regiment, 
commanded by Colonel John P. Boyd, from October 31 
to December 31, 1811 : 

George W. Prescott, Captain ; Ebenezer Way, First Lieuten- 
ant ; Benjamin Hill, First Lieutenant ; John Miller, Sergeant ; 
William Huggins, Sergeant ; Aaron Tucker, Sergeant ; Robert 
Sandborn, Corporal ; Ephraim D. Dockham, Corporal ; John 
Silver, Corporal ; Samuel Fowler, Corporal ; Moses Blanchard, 
Musician ; John Ross, Musician. 



126 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Privates : John Ashton, Ira Bailey, George Bailey, Abel Brown, 
Benjamin Burnham, Enoch Carter, Almerin Clark, Stephen Clay, 
Nathan Colby, Jonathan Colby, John Corser, William Corser, 
James Cobby, Abraham Folsom, John Forriest, Thomas Glines, 
Henry Godfrey, John Gorrell, Levi Griffin, Peter Griffin, John 
Green, Edmund Heard, Benjamin Hudson, Jonathan Herrick, 
Amos Ingulls, David Ingulls, William Kelley, William Knapp, 
Stephen Knight, Peter Ladd, Aaron Ladd, Samuel Ladd, Johnson 
Levering, Moses Mason, James Merrill, John Norman, Ezra C. 
Peterson, Lemuel Parker, John Sandborn (mortally wounded 
November jth, and died November loth), Barnard Shields, Nath- 
aniel Simpson, Luther Stephenson, William Sharpless, Israel 
Tilton, John Virgin, Oliver W'akefield, Silas Wells, Isaac Wes- 
cott, Jonathan Willey, James Williams. 

Roll of Captain Baen's company of infantry under 
command of Lieutenant Charles Larrabee, in the Fourth 
Regiment, commanded by Colonel John P. Boyd, from 
October 31 to December 31, 1811 : 

William C. Baen, Captain, mortally wounded in action Novem- 
ber yth, and died November gth ; Charles Larrabee, First Lieuten- 
ant ; Lewis Beckham, Second Lieutenant ; James Tracy, First Ser- 
geant ; Bernard A. T. Cormons, Second Sergeant ; William Stoney, 
Third Sergeant ; Simeon Crume, First Corporal ; Edward Allen, 
Second Corporal ; Amos G. Carey, Musician ; Zebolon Sanders, 
Musician. 

Privates : George Bentely (died December i6th at Fort Knox), 
Darius Ballow, Augustus Ballow, William Button, Jeremiah Boner, 
Ebenezer Collins, John Donihue, Sylvester Dean, Daniel Delong, 
Daniel Doyers, John Davis, Dexter Earll (mortally wounded in 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 127 

action November 7th), Timothy Foster, Brian Flanigan, Russel 
Freeman, Andrew Griffin, John Glover, Samuel Gunison, Samuel 
Hawkins, Peter Harvey, John D. Hall, John Jones, Titus Knapp, 
Wetherall Leonard, John T. Mohonnah, John Miller, Nathan 
Mitchell, Francis Nelson, Smith Nanthrup, Benjamin S. Peck, 
James Pinel, Isaac Rathbone, Daniel Rodman, Benjamin Vande- 
ford, Nathaniel Wetherall, James Whipple, William Williams, Job 
Winslow. 

Roll of a company of infantry under command of 
Captain Joel Cook, in the Fourth Regiment, commanded 
by Colonel John P. Boyd, from October 31 to December 
31, 1811 : 

Joel Cook, Captain ; Josiah Bacon, Second Lieutenant ; James 
A. Bennett, Sergeant ; Daniel Shelton, Sergeant ; Caleb Betts, 
Sergeant ; Harvey Munn, Sergeant ; Nathaniel Heaton, Corporal ; 
John Anthony, Corporal ; David B. Kipley, Corporal ; Abijah 
Bradley, Musician ; Samuel Thompson, Musician. 

Privates : William Bird, Alexander Brown, Gurden Beckwith, 
George Brasbridge, William Barnett, Alfred Cobourne, Denison 
Crumby (died of his wounds December 28th), Eliakins Culver, 
Robert Coles, Charles Coger (died of his wounds December 3d), 
William Foreman, Joseph Francis, Ezra Fox, Levi Gleason, Ben- 
jamin Holland, Roswell Heminway, John Hutchinson, Michael 
Houck, Abraham Johnson, David Knickerbocker, George Kilbourn, 
Daniel Lee (died of his wounds on the battlefield November 
8th), William Moore, William Neville, James Penkitt, Michael 
Pendegrass, Elisha Persons, James Parker, John Pinkley, Amos 
Royce (died of his wounds on the battle-ground November 8th), 
Robert Riley, Nathan Snow (died of his wounds November I4th), 



128 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Daniel Spencer, Everett Shelton, William M. Sanderson, Samuel 
Smith, John St. Clair, Robert Thompson, Anson Twitchell, John 
Williams, Jonathan Wallingford, Jesse Elam. 

Roll of a company of infantry under command of 
Captain Return B. Brown, of the Fourth Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel John P. Boyd, from October 31 to 
December 31, 1811 : 

Return B. Brown, Captain ; Oliver G. Burton, First Lieuten- 
ant ; John Smith, Second Lieutenant ; Ebenezer Moweer, Sergeant ; 
David Robinson, Sergeant ; Levi Jenison, Sergeant ; Daniel Reed, 
Sergeant ; Ephraim Sillaway, Corporal ; Joel Kimball, Corporal ; 
William D. Ausment, Corporal ; Samuel S. Bingham, Drummer ; 
Henry Hayden, Fifer. 

Privates : Lewis Bemis, Bazalul Bradford, Elias Barrett, 
Augustus Bradford, Benjamin Bartlett, Eli Boyd, Henry Breck, 
Zalmon Blood, Caleb Cotton, William W. McConnell, Comadovas 
D. Cass, Rowland Edwards, Joseph Flood, Joseph Follet, Ebenezer 
P. Field, Harvey Geer, Peter Greeney, Walter T. Hitt, Samuel 
Hillard, Moody B. Lovell, Bliss Lovell, John Morgan, William 
Murgetteroyd, David H. Miller, Obediah Morton, Moses Pierce, 
Jacob Prouty, James Roberts, Mayhew Rollings, Jared Smith, 
Peter R. Stites, David Tuthill, David Wells, Josiah Willard, John 
Yeomans (killed in battle). 

Roll of Captain Robert C. Barton's company of John 
P. Boyd's Fourth Regiment of United States Volunteers 
for November and December, 1811 : 

Robert C. Barton, Captain ; Abraham Hawkins, Second Lieu- 
tenant ; Orange Pooler, Sergeant ; Marshall S. Durkee, Sergeant ; 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 129 

Horace Humphrey, Corporal ; William Turner, Corporal, pro- 
moted to Corporal November ist, and wounded in action ; Daniel 
Kellogg, Drummer. 

Privates : John Andrickson, Jesse S. Clark, Philip Coats, 
Robert Douglass (wounded in action November 7th), William 
Foster (wounded in action November 7th), Ichabod Farrar, John 
D. Jones, David Kerns (mortally wounded in action November 
7th, died November 8th), Isaac Little, Timothy McCoon, John 
McArthur, Joseph Poland, Silas Perry, William Stephenson, 
Samuel Souther (wounded in action), Rowland Sparrowk, Lewis 
Taylor (mortally wounded in action November 7th, died Novem- 
ber 8th), Leman E. Welch (mortally wounded in action Novem- 
ber 7th, and died November 8th), George Wilson, Henry Bates, 
Thomas Clark. 

Roll of a company of infantry (the late Captain Went- 
worth's) under command of Lieutenant Charles Fuller, 
of the Fourth Regiment, commanded by Colonel John P. 
Boyd, from October 31 to December 31, 1811 : 

Paul Wentworth, Captain, resigned October 2pth ; Nathaniel 
F. Adams, First Lieutenant and Paymaster ; Charles Fuller, First 
Lieutenant ; John L. Eastman, First Lieutenant ; George P. 
Peters, Second Lieutenant ; Isaac Ricker, Sergeant ; David H. 
Lewis, Sergeant ; James Pike, Sergeant ; Jedediah Wentworth, 
Corporal ; Henry Moore, Corporal ; Solomon Johnson, Corporal ; 
Henry Tucker, Corporal ; Nathan Brown, Musician ; Joel Durell, 
Musician. 

Privates : William Andrew, John Adams, William Brown, 
William Bowles, John Burns, Joseph Burditt (mortally wounded 
November 7th), Samuel Cook, Caleb Critchet, Ivory Courson, 

18 



130 The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

Samuel Coffin, Elisha Dyer, Jeremiah Emerson, Jonathan Elkins, 
Noah Turnald, Joseph Farrow, Robert Gordon, John S. Gordon, 
William Griggs, Solomon Heartford, John Kurd, William Ham, 
Jonathan W. Ham, Stephen Hawkins, Stephen Harris, Nathaniel 
Harris, Joseph Hunt, James Heath, David Heath, Amos Jones, 
Samuel King, William King (killed in action November 7th), 
Jacob Keyser, Asa Knight, Joseph Layman, William Layman, 
Joseph Mears, James McDuffie, Robert Mclntosh (confined at 
Fort Knox under sentence of general court-martial), Jerry Maul- 
throp, Isaac M. Nute (wounded November /th and died next 
day), Jacob Nute, Jonathan Nute, Henry Nutter, Richard Perry, 
William Perkins, Jacob Pearcy, Curtis Pipps, John Rowell, John 
Rice, Stephen Ricker, John M. Rollins, Stanton Smilie, Isaac 
Tuttle, John S. Watson, Ichabod Wentworth, Robert Whitehouse, 
Enoch Worthen, John Welch, Silas Whood, Charles Wait, 
Timothy Waldron, Zadoc Williams, Philip Allen. 

Roll of a company of infantry (the late Captain 
Welche's) under command of Lieutenant O. G. Burton, of 
the Fourth Regiment, commanded by Colonel John P. 
Boyd, from October 31 to December 31, 1811 : 

O. G. Burton, First Lieutenant ; George Gooding, Second 
Lieutenant ; Montgomery Orr, Sergeant ; Knewland Carrier, 
Sergeant ; Major Mantor, Sergeant, promoted to the rank of 
Sergeant November ist ; James Mitchell, Corporal, killed in battle 
November 7th ; Daniel L. Thomson, Corporal ; John Rice, 
Corporal ; Lucius Sallis, Corporal ; William Demon, Corporal ; 
Ellas Prentice, Musician. 

Privates : Leonard Arp, Noyes Billings, Amos Blanchard, Calib 
Barton, Levi Gary (killed in battle November 7th), Jonathan 



The Battle of Tippecanoe. 131 

Crewell (died November 8th), Zenos Clark, Daniel Gilman (died 
November i7th), Issachar Green, Thomas Harvey, William King, 
Samuel Pettis, William Pomaroy, Joseph Russel, James Stephen- 
son (died of wounds December 6th), John Spragen, William 
Sargeants, Samuel B. Spalding, Morten Thayer, Samuel Tibbets, 
John Vickery, Alexander Bowen. 

Roll of the late Captain Whitney's company of rifle- 
men under command of Lieutenant A. Hawkins, of the 
Rifle Regiment commanded by Colonel Alexander Smythe, 
from October 3 1 to December 31, 1 8 1 1 : 

Pretemon Wright, Sergeant ; Reuben Newton, Sergeant ; 
Aaron W. Forbush, Sergeant ; James Phillips, Sergeant ; Henry 
Barker, Corporal ; Aaron Mellen, Corporal ; William Hunter, 
Corporal ; Henry Nurchsted, Ensign ; Adam Walker, Musician. 

Privates : Ebenezer T. Andrews, Otis Andrews, John Averin, 
William Brigham (died in hospital December 4th), Stephen Brown, 
William Brown, Samuel Briggs, Robert Cutter, Jonas Dalton, 
Reuben Durant, Francis Ellis, Thomas Hair, James Haskell (died 
at Fort Knox, December 2d), Ephraim Hall, Samuel Johnson, 
Silas Kendall, Patrick Norton, Israel Newhall, Frederick Roods, 
Marcus D. Ransdill, Thaddeus B. Russell, William Reed, Francis 
Reittre, Edward R. Suck, Samuel Hing, Ira T. Trowbridge (killed 
in action November /th), Neh'm. Wetherill, Ezra Wheelock. 



INDEX. 



Abair, Louis 118 

Able, Ignatius 114 

Adams, John 129 

Adams, Martin 24 

Adams, Nathaniel 120 

Adams, Nathaniel F . . in, 124, 129 
Adams, Nathaniel F. , Lieutenant 

and Adjutant 34 

Agins,- John 121 

Albright, Jacob W. , Second Lieu- 
tenant 35 

Aldmond, Thomas 115 

Algonquin Family vi 

Allen, Charles 122 

Allen, Edward 126 

Allen, Philip 24, 130 

Allin, Colonel, Account of Death 

of Daviess 59 

Allsop, William 115 

Almond, William 115 

Almy , Sinelky 119 

Alsop, James 114 

Alton, Joseph 118 

Alton, Samuel 122 

Anderson, James 121 

Anderson, Pinkney 117 

Anderson, Samuel 117 

Anderson, Thomas 120 

Andre, Jacque 123 

Andre, Pierre 112 

Andrew, William 129 

Andrews, Ebenezer T 131 

Andrews, Otis 131 

Andrickson, John 128 



Annuity Salt 7 

Anthees, George 115 

Anthis, Jacob 119 

Anthis, John 119 

Anthony, John 127 

Archer, Thomas 117 

Archer, William 117 

Arick, John 114 

Armstrong, Elsberry 115 

Armstrong, Miles 115 

Army Crosses the Wabash 32 

Army Much Exposed to Attack . . 39 

Army Wanted a Fight 42 

Arnett, Thomas 117 

Arnett, William 120 

Arnold, Evan 117 

Arp, Leonard 130 

Arpah, Francis 119 

Arpin, Joseph .112 

Arrangement of Camp 47 

Asberry, James 116 

Ashby, William 120 

Ashley, Gary 117 

Ashton, John 126 

Askin, William 116 

Aston, William 117 

Atlantic Ocean vii 

Attack Fell Upon Baen and 

Geiger 53 

Augustus, Springer 20, 25 

Ausment, William D 128 

Austin, John 125 

Averin, John 131 

Ayer, Winthrop 124 



134 



Index. 



Bacon, Josiah 124, 127 

Badolett, Albert 123 

Baen, Captain W. C 35, 89 

Baen, William C 126 

Bailey, George 126 

Bailey, Ira 126 

Bailey, William 118 

Baker, Nathan 119 

Baldwin, Daniel 125 

Ballard, James 24 

Ballow, Augustus 126 

Ballow, Darius 126 

Bargor, Peter 119 

Barjor, John 119 

Barker, Elias 1 18 

Barker, Henry 131 

Barkshire, Charles 24 

Barkshire, Joseph 24 

Barnaba, Robert 24 

Barnett, William 127 

Barrett, Elias 128 

Bartholomew, Colonel 21, 97 

Bartholomew, Lieutenant Colonel 89 

Bartholomew, Joseph 112 

Bartholomew, Joseph, Lieutenant 

Colonel 35 

Bartlett, Benjamin 128 

Barton, Calib 130 

Barton, Captain Robert C 35 

Barton, Robert C 128 

Barton Company and Geiger 

Thrown into some Disorder . . 56 

Bass, James 115 

Bass, William 1 16 

Bates, Henry 129 

Bathis, John 122 

Batman, Henry 113 

" Battaille des Illinois " 28 



Battle-Ground, Annual Appropria- 
tion for Care of 91 

Battle-Ground, Approach to from 

LaFayette 45 

Battle-Ground, Description of . . . 46 
Battle-Ground, Description of in 

1820 85 

Battle-Ground Placed Under Care 

of State 90 

Battle-Ground, the Size of 90 

Battle Lasted Two Hours 62 

Battle of Tippecanoe Forerunner 

of War of 1812 87 

Beard, Reed 1 1 1 

Beck, George 24 

Beck, John 122 

Becker, Benjamin V 112 

Beckes, Benjamin 119 

Beckham, Lewis 126 

Becks, Permena 122 

Beckwith, Gurden 127 

Beeler, Thomas 24 

Beggs, Captain Charles 36 

Beggs, Charles 123 

Bell, Daniel 114 

Bell, Philip 113 

Bemis, Lewis 128 

Bennett, Amstead 115 

Bennett, James A 127 

Bennington, William 113 

Bentely, George 126 

Berbo, Francis 119 

Berry, Thomas 121 

Berry, Lieutenant Thomas 89 

Berry, Second Lieutenant Thomas 36 

Berry, William 122 

Besam, Joseph 119 

Best, Enos 114 



Index. 



Belts, Caleb 127 

Bigger, Captain James 36 

Bigger, David 121 

Bigger, James 121 

Biggs, Robert 113 

Billings, Noyes 130 

Bingham, Samuel S 128 

Bird, William 127 

Black, John 115 

Black, Thomas 114, 120 

Black, William 115, 120 

Blackston, Ebenezer 120 

Blake, Thomas 125 

Blanchard, Amos 130 

Blanchard, Moses 125 

Blandin, George 125 

Blanks, James 116 

Blannerhasset's Island 83 

Blood, Hosea 124 

Blood, Hosea, Surgeon's Mate . . 34 

Blood, Zalmou 128 

Bogard, Abraham 120 

Bohannon, James 115 

Bolonga, Senro 119 

Bonah, Francis 119 

Bond, Joshua 122 

Boner, Jeremiah 126 

Bono, Charles 118 

Bono, John Baptist 118 

Booth, Charles 1 20 

Boryean, Francis 119 

Bottorf, Henry 123 

Bottorf, Samuel 123 

Bowen, Alexander 131 

Bowles, William 129 

Bowls, Edward 120 

Boyard, Benjamin 113 

Boyd, Colonel John Parke 16 



Boyd, Eli 128 

Boyd, John P 124 

Boyd, John Parke, Colonel Fourth 

United States Infantry 34 

Boyeam, Louis 119 

Braden, John 122 

Bradford, Augustus 128 

Bradford, Bazalul 128 

Bradley, Abijah 127 

Branham, Alpheus 114 

Branham, Gadow 114 

Brasbridge, George 127 

Braselton, John 117 

Breck, Henry 1 28 

Brewer, Jesse 114 

Brewer, John 125 

Brice, James 125 

Briere, John 122 

Briggs, Samuel 131 

Brigham, William 131 

Bright, George 1 20 

Brinton, Peter 119 

Brinton, Robert 119 

Brinton, William 119 

British Agents Represented that 
the Expedition was Entirely 

Useless 103 

British Arms Found at Prophet's 

Town 9 

British Firearms Found in the 

Prophet's Town 76 

British Influence on the Indians g 
British Intrigues with Indians 

Mentioned 95 

British, Part Acted in the Cam- 
paign 99 

Britton, Robert 120 

Brown, Abel 126 



136 



Index. 



Brown, Alexander 127 

Brown, Captain Return B 35 

Brown, Cyrus J 125 

Brown, James 114 

Brown, Joseph 112 

Brown, Nathan 129 

Brown, Return B 128 

Browu, Stephen 131 

Brown, William 24, 129, 131 

Bruce, John 123 

Bruce, William 112 

Brumfield, David 117 

Bullitt, William C 19 

Buntin, Robert 123 

Buutin, Robert, Captain, Quarter- 
master Indiana Militia 34 

Buntin, Robert, junior in 

Buutin, Robert, junior, Forage- 
master Indiana Militia 34 

Buntin, Robert, senior in 

Burchester, Second Lieutenant 

Henry A 35 

Burchsted, Henry, Ensign 89 

Burditt, Joseph 129 

Burkett, Adam 24 

Burnett, Thomas 121 

Burnham, Benjamin 126 

Burns, John 129 

Burns, Michael 125 

Burr, Aaron 17 

Burr, Aaron, Before United States 

Court 82 

Burton, O. G 130 

Burton, Oliver G 128 

Bushby, Joseph 1 18 

Buskirk, John 24 

Butler, Jesse 114 

Butner, Edward 115 



Button, William 126 

Byrn, Temple C 24 

Byrne, Charles L 24 

Calleway, James 120 

Calliway, Thomas 24 

Calton, William 114 

Camp Furniture and Private Bag- 
gage Abandoned 76 

Camp Guard 50 

Canning, Henry 23 

Cannon, Benjamin 118 

Capps, Joshua 115 

Cardinal, John Baptist 119 

Cardinal, Madan 119 

Carey, Amos G 126 

Carlin, Daniel 120 

Carnes, Frederick 122 

Carr, Absalom 121 

Carr, Elisha 116 

Carr, John 121, 123 

Carr, Joseph 116 

Carr, Samuel 123 

Carrier, Newland 130 

Carruthers, Samuel 120 

Carson, William 115 

Carter, Enoch 126 

Carter, Landon 123 

Carter, Mason 114 

Cartridges Contained Twelve Buck- 
shot . 66 

Cartwright, Peter 116 

Gary, Levi 130 

Cass, Comadovas D 128 

Catawbas vii 

Cause of the Battle v 

Chamberlain, Pearce 113 

Chambers, John 119 

Chambers, Thomas 119 



Index. 



137 



Chappel, Joab 1 19 

Chappie, Thomas 121 

Chase, Cephas 125 

Chavalar, Batost i ig 

Cherokees vii, ix 

Chickasaw Indians ix 

Childers, Booker 112 

Christ, John 1 16 

Chunn, John T 121 

Churchill, Ephraim 125 

Clark, Almerin 126 

Clark County, Indiana Territory, 
List of the Killed and Wounded 

of 97 

Clark, General, Reports on Con- 
dition of Indians g 

Clark, General William 100 

Clark, Jesse S 129 

Clark, Joseph 112 

Clark, Marston G in, 123 

Clark, Marston G., Major 34 

Clark, Randolph 115 

Clark, Thomas 129 

Clark, William A 1 1 8 

Clark, Zenos 131 

Clay 8: 

Clay, Stephen 126 

Clendennan, Thomas 97, 1 1 6 

Cline, Daniel 113 

Cline, John 114 

Cline, Thomas 24 

Clough, William 125 

Clutter, Samuel 119 

Coats, Philip 129 

Cobbs, William 116 

Cobby, James 126 

Cobourne, Alfred 127 

Cochran, Jon'n 117 



Coffin, Samuel 130 

Coger, Charles 127 

Colby, Jonathan 126 

Colby, Nathan 126 

Coleman, Christopher 120 

Coleman, Sutton 119 

Coles, Robert 127 

Collins, Charles 117 

Collins, Ebenezer 126 

Collins, Henry 120 

Collins, Jacob 125 

Collins, John 118 

Collins, Madison 120 

Collins, William 118 

Combs, Joel 116 

Combs, Robert 116 

Command Arrived at Vincennes on 

Return March 77 

Command Generally Did Not Ex- 
pect Battle 50 

Conduct of Men in Battle. . . .50, 51 

Conduct of the Militia 69 

Conflict for the Soil v 

Coningham, George. . . . .' 118 

Conner, Bolden 117 

Conner, John 117 

Cook, Captain Joel 35 

Cook, Joel 127 

Cook, Samuel 129 

Cooper, William 23 

Copple, David 121 

Corey, Amos G 125 

Cormons, Bernard A. T 126 

Cornia, Antoine 119 

Corser, John 126 

Corser, William 126 

Cotton, Caleb 128 

Coulter, Thomas 123 



Index. 



Courson, Ivory 129 

Covert, John 121 

Cowan, John 123 

Cox, Jesse 120 

Coyler, John 115 

Crawford, John 116 

Cressmore, Jacob 123 

Crewell, Jonathan 131 

Critchet, Caleb 129 

Crittenden, John J 78 

Croghan, George 21, 22 

Croghan, George, Volunteer Aid. 34 

Croghlin, George 123 

Crosby, John 122 

Crosby, Leonard 122 

Cross, David 1 16 

Crow, James 118 

Crumby, Denison 127 

Crume, Simeon 126 

Culbertson, John 120 

Culbertson, Samuel 120 

Culver, Eliakins 127 

Cunningham, Robert 116 

Cunningham, Stewart 112, 115 

Curry, James 112, 116 

Cusamore, Henry 116 

Cutter, Robert 131 

Daily, Jacob 116 

Dalton, Jonas 131 

Daniel, Joseph 121 

Dashney, Ambrose 119 

Davidson, Thomas 114 

Daviess, Colonel Joseph H 21 

Daviess, Colonel Joseph Hamilton, 17 

Daviess, Joseph Hamilton 22 

Daviess, J. H., Major 34 

Daviess, Joseph H 113 

Daviess, Major Joseph H .... 36, 89 



Daviess, Account of His Charge. 57 
Daviess Again Urges Harrison to 

Attack 42 

Daviess and Other Officers Urge 

Attack on the 6th 40 

Daviess and Others Urge Attack. 39 
Daviess Appointed United States 
Attorney for District of Ken- 
tucky 82 

Daviess, Birth of 80 

Daviess County, Kentucky 84 

Daviess, Death Not from Any 

Fault of Harrison 79 

Daviess, Description of 84 

Daviess' Dread of Falling Into the 

Hands of the Indians 60 

Daviess' Eccentricity Early Mani- 
fested 80 

Daviess, Encomiums on 83 

Daviess, First Lawyer from the 
West to Make a Speech in the 
Supreme Court of the United 

States 82 

Daviess, Friends of Criticize Har- 
rison 79 

"Daviess, Jo," County, Illinois, 

Origin of Name 84 

Daviess, Joseph Hamilton, Un- 
marked Grave of xix 

Daviess, Joe, on Precautions 

Against Indians 38 

Daviess, Letter from, to Harrison, 17 
Daviess, Location of His Death 

Wound 59 

Daviess, Prediction Regarding. . . 95 
Daviess, Singular Position of. ... 26 
Daviess' Struggle in United States 
Court with Henry Clay 83 



Index. 



Daviess' Suit of Red Broadcloth. 82 
Daviess, Sword of Presented to 

Grand Lodge of Masons .... 86 
Daviess, Volunteer in 1793 Under 

Fire Near Fort St. Clair 80 

Daviess' Whimsicality of Dress. . 81 

Davis, Albert 120 

Davis, John 120, 125, 126 

Davis, Milo 123 

Davis, Richard 114 

Davis, Theodorus 116 

Davis, William 114 

Day, Joshua 117 

Day, Thomas 125 

Dead, Bones of Placed in One 

Grave 90 

Dean, Sylvester 126 

Deats, John 123 

Decker, Abm 115 

Decker, Abraham 112 

Decker, Daniel 123 

Decker, Herman 122 

Decker, John 119 

Decker, Lieutenant Colonel 89 

Decker, Lieutenant Colonel Luke . 36 

Decker, Luke 112 

Decker, Moses 119 

Delong, Daniel 126 

Delurya, Pierre 119 

Denney, John 121 

Denney, Robert 114 

Deno, Toussaint 119 

Demon, William 130 

Destruction of the Prophet's Town 76 

Detroit 9 

Difference in the Plans of Philip 

and Pontiac and Tecumseh . . xi 
Ditsler, George 116 



Dockham, Ephraim D 125 

Dolahan, Miles 122 

Doles, William 125 

Douihue, John 126 

Dougherty, John 122 

Douglas, Robert 129 

Downer, Timothy 115 

Downing, William 115 

Doyers, Daniel 126 

Dragoo, John 116 

Drake, Samuel 122 

Drew, Langston 115 

Drummond, George 116 

Drummond, John 97 

Drummons, John 121 

Duberly, William 23 

Dubois, Toussaint 112, 122 

Dubois, Henry 122 

Duckworth, James 114 

Duckworth, Thomas 115 

Dudware, Charles 118 

Duff, Daniel 115 

Duke, Samuel 116 

Dunbar, John 24 

Dunken, Marshall 114 

Dunn, Levi 114 

Dunn, Thomas 116 

Dunnica, William H 122 

Dunslow, Chapman 112 

DuPuyster, Captain 68 

Durant, Reuben 131 

Durell, Joel 129 

Durkee, Marshall S 128 

Dushane, Elick C 118 

Dutcher, Abraham 125 

Dyce, James 114 

Dyer, Elisha 130 

Eakin, William 117 



140 



Index. 



Earll, Dexter 126 

Earnest, Louderick 1 20 

Eastman, John L 124, 129 

Eastman, Philip 125 

Edlin, John 23 

Edwards, David 1 16 

Edwards, Griffith 122 

Edwards, James M 24 

Edwards, John 19, 120 

Edwards, Joseph 120, 122 

Edwards, Robert 24 

Edwards, Rowland 128 

Edwards, William 24 

Effect of the Battle on the Public 

Mind 97 

Elam, Jesse 128 

Elkins, Jonathan 130 

Elkswatawa no Chief by Birth- 
right 5 

Elkswatawa, the Indian Name of 

Prophet, the meaning of 2 

Ellis, Francis 131 

Ellison, Charles 1 20 

Ellison, James 123 

Elliot, James 121 

Elliot, John. . 120, 122 

Elliot, Levi 122 

Elliott, Thomas 122 

Elsey, Robert 120 

Emerson, Jeremiah 130 

Emerson, Samuel 122 

Emerson, Thomas 122 

England, War with Anticipated. . 16 

Engle, John 120 

Engle, Richard 120 

Enlow, Henry 114 

Equipment of Every Indian 100 

Espy, Hugh 117 



Estimate of Number of Indians. . viii 

Eustis, Secretary, Report to 31 

Eustis, Secretary, Reports of Har- 
rison to, of His Effective 
Strength at Fort Harrison. . . 27 

Evans, James 117 

Evans, Robert M 123 

Events of November 7th 71 

Expedition Consisted of 33 

Falls of the Ohio 16 

Farrar, Ichabod 129 

Farris, John 123 

Farrow, Joseph 130 

Ferguson, William 23 

Field, Doctor N 58 

Field, Ebenezer P 128 

Fillebrown, Richard 124 

Findley, Richard 24 

Finley, John 121 

Fipps, C 116 

Fires, Made Large for Comfort, 

Cause of Loss 44 

Firing on the Sentinel at Fort 

Harrison 103 

Fisher, Charles 1 18 

Fisher, Daniel 115 

Fisher, James 123 

Fisher, William 97 

Fitzgerald, Johnson 117 

Fitzgerald, Reuben 117 

Flanagan, Samuel 113 

Flanigan, Brian 127 

Fleanor, John 117 

Fleener, Nicholas 24 

Flight of the Indians 63 

Flint, John 122 

Flint, William 120 

Flood, Joseph 128 



Index. 



141 



Florida vii 

Floyd, Davis 113, 123 

Floyd, George Rogers Clark, Bi- 
ography 47 

Floyd, G. R. C 124 

Floyd, Lieutenant Davis, Adju- 
tant 36 

Floyd, Major George Rogers Clark 35 
Floyd, Major G. R. C., arrived 

in Louisville 96 

Floyd, Major G. R. C 104 

Follet, Joseph 128 

Folsom, Abraham 126 

Forbush, Aaron W 131 

Fordyce, Jevis 117 

Foreman, William 127 

Formation of the Column 38 

Forriest, John 126 

Fort Harrison 26, 76 

Fort Harrison, Delay There .... 27 
Fort Harrison, Sentinel Fired on 

at 27 

Fort Harrison, Strength of Com- 
mand There 27 

Fort Knox 96 

Foster, Josiah D 124 

Foster, Josiah D., Chief Surgeon 34 

Foster, Timothy 127 

Foster, William 129 

Fourth United States Infantry. 16, 22 
Fourth . United States Infantry 
Hinted that had it not been 
for Them there would have 

been a Massacre 79 

Fowler, Samuel 125 

Fowler, William 114 

Fox, Ezra 127 

Francis, Joseph 127 



Francis, William 120 

Frankfort Argus 99, 102 

Frederick, Lewis 119 

Frederick, Samuel 23 

Freeman, Russell 127 

French, Samuel 125 

Fuller, Charles 124, 129 

Funk, Captain 54 

Funk, Captain, Assisted in Dress- 
ing Daviess' Wound 59 

Funk, Captain Peter 18, 19, 36 

Funk, Captain Peter, Commands 

Company 21 

Funk, Joseph 24 

Funk, Peter 23 

Gamble, William 112, 119 

Garner, James 121 

Garr, Henry 19 

Garress, Joseph 115 

Garress, Thomas 1 16 

Garter, Christian 122 

Gaston, Samuel 118 

Gath, Benjamin W 23 

Geer, Harvey 128 

Geiger, Captain 9 

Geiger, Captain Frederick . . .36, 89 
Geiger, Captain, and Indians in 

his Tent 55 

Geiger, Frederick 17, 24 

Geiger, Frederick, Biography ... 72 
Geiger, Home of on the Road to 

Bardstown 18 

Gerome, Antoine 118 

Gibbons, Jon'n 123 

Gibson, John, junior 121 

Gibson, John, senior 121 

Gibson, Thomas 97. 121 

Gill, George 120 



142 



Index. 



Gilman, Daniel 131 

Givens, Thomas 115 

Gleason, Levi 127 

Glines, Thomas 126 

Glover, John 127 

Godfrey, Henry 126 

Goodenough, Rufus 125 

Gooding, George 130 

Gooding, George, Lieutenant ... 89 
Gooding, Second Lieutenant 

George 35 

Goodwin, Amos 117 

Goodwin, John 123 

Gordon, John S 130 

Gordon, Robert 130 

Gordon, William 117 

Gorrell, John 126 

Gray, John 116 

Grayham, James 1 20 

Grayson, Frederick W. S 20 

Green, Issachar 131 

Green, John 126 

Greeney, Peter 128 

Greentree, Richard 119 

Grey, John 119 

Griffin, Andrew 127 

Griffin, Levi 126 

Griffin, Peter 126 

Griggs, William 130 

Grimes, John 24 

Gubrick, William G 121 

Gunison, Samuel 127 

Gwathmey, Isaac 24 

Gwins, John 115 

Gwins, William 115 

Habits of the Indians vii 

Hadden, John 120 

Hair, Thomas 131 



Hall, Ephraim 131 

Hall, Francis 115 

Hall, John D 127 

Ham, Jonathan W 130 

Ham, William 130 

Hamilton, Samuel 116 

Hanks, James 24 

Hanks, Peter 122 

Harberson, James 114 

Harbonson, Jacob 119 

Harbour, Joseph 119 

Harden, John 120 

Hargrove, Captain 36 

Hargrove, William 117 

Harman, John 116 

Harman, William 117 

Harness, Adam 119 

Harness, Nathan 122 

Harper, Bryant 115 

Harper, James 123 

Harper, William 122 

Harrel, James 120 

Harrel, Thomas 120 

Harrington, William 1 18 

Harris, Nathaniel 130 

Harris, Stephen 130 

Harrison i 

Harrison, Caleb 122 

Harrison, General v 

Harrison, Jer 117 

Harrison, Account of the Death 

of Daviess 59 

Harrison Attacked Through the 

Newspapers at an Early Date 

After the Battle 101 

Harrison, Brief Biography of. ... 2 
Harrison Buried the Dead and 

Burned Logs over them 90 



Index. 



Harrison, Commander in Chief.. 34 
Harrison Criticized for not Send- 
ing out Scouting Parties 63 

Harrison Criticized his Sentinels 55 
Harrison Defends Disposition of 

his Troops 65 

Harrison Defends Himself 
Against Charge of Differing 

with Colonel Daviess 103 

Harrison Describes Camp-Ground 44 
Harrison, Encomium on Daviess. 60 
Harrison, Estimate of Him as a 

Leader for War of 1812. ... 86 
Harrison Estimated the Number 

of the Indians at Six Hundred 75 
Harrison, Final Orders After 

Night 49 

Harrison Gives the Strength of 

Command 30 

Harrison Halts on 6th November 39 
Harrison Joins the Command. . . 25 
Harrison, Letter from, to Gov- 
ernor Scott from Vincennes, 

December 13, ign 102 

Harrison, Letter to Governor 

Scott 29, 40 

Harrison, Letter to Secretary 

Eustis 41 

Harrison Mounted a Bay Horse. 54 
Harrison, Narrow Escape from 

Wound 63 

Harrison Raising Troops in 

August 1 6 

Harrison Reaches Rank of Captain 3 
Harrison Ready to Rouse the 

Men when Attacked 52 

Harrison, Reason for not En- 
trenching . 46 



Harrison, Reasons for not Attack- 
ing on 6th 40 

Harrison Received Thanks of 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Illi- 
nois 77 

Harrison, Report to War Depart, 
ment 10 

Harrison Reviews Militia at Vin- 
cennes 14 

Harrison's Ablest Military Move- 
ment 75 

Harrison's Anxiety on November 
7th 72 

Harrison Says he Marched from 
Fort Harrison with Less than 
Eight Hundred Men 103 

Harrison Secretary of the North- 
west Territory 3 

Harrison Sends Messengers to 
the Prophet 31 

Harrison, Speech Sent to Tecum- 
seh and the Prophet 1 1 

Harrison Suggests Means to Pre. 
vent War 10 

Harrison, Treaty with Indians at 
Fort Wayne g 

Harrison Very Likely Alive to 
the Prospect of Military Glory 9 

Harrison, Visit to Jeffersonville 
in 1836 58 

Harrison Visits Louisville in 
August, 1811 18 

Harrod, John 1 16 

Hartt, Timothy 125 

Harvey, Peter 127 

Harvey, Thomas 131 

Haskell, James 131 

Haskell, Daniel 125 



144 



Index. 



Hathaway, Alanson 125 

Hawkins, Abraham 128 

Hawkins, Abraham, First Lieu- 
tenant 35 

Hawkins, Henry 24 

Hawkins, Samuel 127 

Hawkins, Stephen 130 

Hay, Andrew P 112 

Hay, James 123 

Hay, John D 122 

Hayden, Henry 128 

Healey, William 125 

Heard, Edmund 126 

Heartford, Solomon 130 

Heartley, Jonathan 121 

Heartley, John 121 

Heath, David 130 

Heath, James 130 

Heaton, Nathaniel 127 

Hederick, David 122 

Heminway, Roswell 127 

Henderson, Richard & Company, ix 

Herrick, Jonathan 126 

Heubbound, James 114 

Hickey, Henry 122 

Hicks, John 24 

Highfill, Thomas 117 

Hikes, George and Jacob 19 

Hill, Benjamin 125 

Hill, William 120 

Hillard, Samuel 128 

Hilton, Ebenezer 122 

Hing, Samuel 131 

Hite, James 23 

Hite, Lewis 23 

Hite, Lieutenant Lewis 36 

Hitt, Walter T 128 

Hobbs, John 120 



Hogue, William 112 

Hogue, Zebulon 118 

Hoke, Jacob and Andrew 19 

Holland, Andrew 121 

Holland, Benjamin 127 

Hollingsworth, 1 23 

Hollingsworth, John 112 

Hollingsworth, William 120 

Holmes, Joshua L 123 

Holmes, William W 123 

Hooke, George 117 

Hooke, Henry 117 

Hooker, William 121 

Hopkins, General, Visited Battle- 
ground in 1812 90 

Hopkins, Henry 117 

Horden, Samuel 125 

Horse Flesh Eaten by Soldiers. . 71 

Houck, Michael 127 

Houston, Leonard 121 

Hudson, Benjamin 126 

Huffman, Isaac D 121 

Huggins, William 125 

Humphrey, Horace 129 

Humphreys, Jonathan 116 

Hunt, Joseph 130 

Hunter, Adjutant James 36, 89 

Hunter, James 22, 23 

Hunter, William 131 

Hurd, John 130 

Huron-Iroquois vii 

Hurst, Beverly 114 

Hurst, Elijah 113 

Hurst, Henry in 

Hurst, Henry, Once Clerk United 

States District Court 74 

Hurst, Henry, Practiced Law in 
Vincennes 73 



Index. 



Hurst, Major Henry 34 

Hurst, Major Henry, Biography. 73 

Hurst, William 114 

Hurst, William, junior 114 

Hutcherson, John 121 

Hutchinson, John 127 

Hutchinson, William 97 

Hutto, William 121 

Hynes, Abner 123 

Hynes, Mr 21, 22 

Immediate Result of Battle 77 

Indiana, Counties of Named for 
Participants in the Battle. ... 78 

Indiana Territory Formed 2 

Indian Considered Heathen Un- 
fit to hold Land viii 

Indian Cultivation of the Soil ... vii 

Indian Plan of Battle 56 

Indian Signs First Seen 39 

Indians, About Three Hundred 

near Vincennes 14 

Indians Began Ravages in Indiana 

Territory, 1812 87 

Indians, Dire Awakening of to 

the Power of American Arms . xvi 
Indians Exposed Themselves 

Recklessly 69 

Indians Fled Precipitately from 

the Town 75 

Indians had Cultivated Ground . . 43 
Indians, Insolence of had Be- 
come Unsupportable 100 

Indians Meet Harrison near Town 40 
Indians Plan to Attack Just Be- 
fore Day 52 

Indians Plan to Kill Harrison ... 51 
Indians said to Have Best British 
Glazed Powder 101 



Indians Show Place for Camp'. . . 43 

Indians Steal Horses 15 

Indians, Tribes Engaged in the 

Battle 62 

Inglish, Joseph 118 

Ingram, Zachariah 24 

Ingulls, Amos 126 

Ingulls, David 126 

Instance of Daring Young Man. . 69 

Jackman, William 125 

Jackson, John 24 

Jackson Purchase ix 

Jackson Purchase, Area of x 

Jackson Purchase, Price Paid for. x 

Jacob, John D 117 

James, Samuel 112, 115 

Jenison, Levi 128 

Jest, Joshua 24 

Johnson, Abraham 127 

Johnson, David 117 

Johnson, Samuel 131 

Johnson, Solomon 129 

Johnston, Abraham 120 

Johnston, General W 113, 123 

Johnston, John 120 

Johnston, Lanty 118 

Johnston, Robert 118 

Johnston, Thomas 120 

Jolly, Maxwell 115 

Jones, Amos 130 

Jones, Henry 97, 1 16 

Jones, John 127 

Jones, John D 1 29 

Jones, Peter 122 

Jones, Robert 114 

Jones, William 118 

Jones, Wilson 115 

Jordan, Ephraim 112 



146 



Index. 



Jordan, James 119 

Jordan, Thomas 112, 1 1 6 

Judewine, Henry 125 

Kamskaka i 

Kelley, Abraham 116 

Kelley, Cornelius 117 

Kelley, James 114, 117 

Kelley, John 121 

Kelley, William 123, 126 

Kellogg, Daniel 129 

Kelly, David 1 16 

Kelly, John 116 

Kelly, Samuel 23 

Kelly, William 97, 124 

Kendall, Silas 131 

Kennison, Joseph 23 

Kentuckians Join the Command. . 32 
Kentuckians, Number who were 

in Campaign 22 

Kentucky 12 

Kentucky Gazette 102 

Kentucky Gazette, Large Esti- 
mate of Indian Loss 98 

Kentucky Gazette, Selection from 93 
Kentucky, Impression made in 
that the whole Army was Com- 
pletely Surprised 104 

Kentucky, Inhabitants to Square 

Mile viii 

Kentucky River ix 

Kentucky, State of 22 

Kerns, David 129 

Key, Bennet 114 

Key, Jesse 114 

Keyser, Jacob 130 

Kibby, Lucius 121 

Kilbourn, George 127 

Kimball, Joel 128 



Kimberlain, Daniel 121 

King, James 121 

King, Samuel 130 

King's Stores at Maiden Equipped 

the Indians i oo 

King, William 130, 131 

Kipley, David B 127 

Kirk, Richard M 118 

Kite, Ezekiel 115 

Knapp, Titus 127 

Knapp, William 126 

Knickerbocker, David 127 

Knight, Asa 130 

Knight, David 115, 119 

Knight, Stephen 126 

Korter, Jacob 116 

Ladd, Aaron 126 

Ladd, Joseph 117 

Ladd, Peter 126 

Ladd, Samuel 126 

Lain, Henry 1 18 

Lancaster, Coonrod 1 1 8 

Lane, Elijah 24 

Langsdown, James 115 

Laptante, Pierre i 22 

Larrabee, Abraham 125 

Larrabee, Asa 125 

Larrabee, Charles 126 

Larrabee, Charles, First Lieuten- 
ant 35 

Lature, Augusta 118 

Laughon, Martin 115 

Lawrence, David 118 

Layman, Joseph 130 

Layman, William 130 

Learneus, Thomas 112 

Ledgerwood, Samuel 120 

Lee, Daniel 127 



Index. 



Lee, William 122 

Leech, George, junior 115 

Leman, Samuel 120 

Lenn, James 117 

Leonard, Wetherall 127 

Levy, Benjamin 19 

Lewis, David H 129 

Lewis, William 123 

Lexington Reporter 102 

Lilley, David 116 

Lilley, Robert 120 

Lincoln, Gideon 125 

Linley, Zachariah 121 

Linxwiler, George 115 

Lisman, Adam 120 

Lisman, Peter 120 

Little, Amos 121 

Little, Isaac 129 

Little Turtle said to have Aban- 
doned his Nation on Account 

of Hostilities 98 

Little Turtle said to have been 

Sincere 101 

Litton, Burton 115 

Litton, George 115 

Lock, John 24 

Lockhart, Samuel 122 

Loots, Gasper 116 

Losses of the Indians 70 

Loss in Killed and Wounded .... 63 

Louisville 9, 20 

Louisville Western Courier 96 

Lout, John 117 

Lovelett, Louis 119 

Lovell, Moody B 128 

Levering, Johnson 126 

Lowya, Louis 119 

Lucas, Fielding 114 



Lucas, Jesse 122 

Luckett, James 123 

Luckett, William M 23 

Lutes, Jacob 122 

Luzader, Isaac 120 

Mackey, Enos 23 

Macomb, Joseph 119 

Madison, James 6 

Magary, Edward 125 

Mahen, Alexander 116 

Mahon, George 122 

Mail, Charles 118 

Maine vii 

Maiden 9 

Mallet, Francis 118 

Mangorn, William 118 

Mantor, Major 130 

Many, John 117 

Mars, Corporal Stephen 55 

Mars, Stephen 24 

Mars, Stephen, Alarmed the 

Camp 53 

Marshall, Humphrey, Sharp Re- 
view of Harrison's Report ... 79 
Marshall, Humphrey, Vigorous 
Language Toward Harrison. . 79 

Martin, Hudson 25 

Martin, James 23 

Martin, John 121 

Mason, Moses 126 

Masons of Kentucky Held Meet- 
ing in Honor of Daviess 85 

Massi, Lugi 125 

Massi, Serafino 125 

Massi, Vincent 125 

Mathena, Noah 114 

Mathews, Charles 121 

Matny, Henry 1 20 



148 



Index. 



Matson, Luke 1 20 

Maulthrop, Jerry 130 

Maxidon, William 115 

Maxwell, John 25 

Maxwell, Josh 25 

Mayers, Thomas P 23 

McArthur 129 

McBain, John 122 

McChord, Asa 120 

McClain, Thomas 1 18 

McClellan, Daniel 24 

McClellan, Robert 117 

McClintick, John 117 

McClintick, Samuel 117 

McClung, Samuel 116 

McClure, Archd 123 

McClure, Charles 123 

McClure, James 118, 123 

McClure, John 122, 123 

McClure, Robert 119 

McClure, Samuel 120 

McClure, Thomas 123 

McClure, William A 123 

McColley, Thomas 114 

McConnell, William W 128 

McCoon, Timothy 129 

McCormack, Joseph 123 

McCoy, Daniel 117 

McCoy, John 1 18 

McCoy, Rice G 121 

McCulloch, James B 121 

McCulloch, Silas 112 

McDonald, James ....118,121, 125 

McDonald, John 122 

McDuffie, James 1 30 

McFaddin, Andrew 115 

McFaddin, Squire 115 

McFarland, William 1 1 1 



McFarland, William, Lieutenant 

Colonel 34 

McGary, John 114 

McGary, Robert 114 

Mclntire, Robert 24 

Mclntosh, Robert 130 

McMahan, Richard 113 

McMahan, Richard, First Lieu- 
tenant 36, 89 

McMickle, Daniel 122 

McMickle, P 114 

McMickle, Peter 122 

McNight, Robert 1 16 

McRonnels, Joseph 1 20 

Mead, James 21, 22 

Mears, Joseph 130 

Meek, John 120 

Meeks, Arthur 117 

Meeks, Charles 1 18 

Mehan, William 122 

Mellen, Aaron 131 

Merceam, Henry 118 

Merrill, James 126 

Merry, Cabreen 118 

Messages to Tecumseh 7 

Methotaska, Mother of Tecumseh i 

Middleton, Samuel 120 

Milborn, Robert 117 

Milbourne, Thomas 119 

Miles, David 112 

Militia Covered Gun Locks with 

Their Coats 66 

Millar, Daniel 117 

Miller, Abraham 123 

Miller, David H 128 

Miller, John 125, 127 

Miller, Lieutenant Colonel 28 

Miller, Tobias 121 



Index. 



149 



Mills, Adam L 23 

Mills, David 115 

Mills, Henry I 123 

Mills, John 117, 120 

Minor, Daniel 25 

Minor, Isaac 119 

Minor, James 116 

Mississippi River vii 

Mitchel, James 120 

Mitchell, Nathan 127 

Mixon, Joseph 118 

Mobilian Family vii 

Mohonnah, John T 127 

Mominny, John ng 

Montgomery, Alexander 121 

Montgomery, Isaac 117 

Montgomery John 115 

Montgomery, Joseph 115 

Montgomery, Robert 1 14, 1 18 

Montgomery, Thomas 114 

Montgomery, Thomas, junior. ... 114 

Mooney, James 121 

Moore, Frank, of Louisville .... 55 

Moore, Henry 122, 129 

Moore, John 1 18 

Moore, Mr 21, 22 

Moore, Rubin 120 

Moore, William 127 

Moores, Benjamin 125 

Morgan, John 128 

Morton, Obediah 128 

Mounce, Smith 114 

Mounted Men, Number of 37 

Moweer, Ebenezer 128 

Muckleroy, James 23 

Mud, James 123 

Munn, Harvey 127 

Murgetteroyd, William 128 



Murphy, Ephraim 115 

Murphy, John 23, 120 

Murphy, Robert 120 

Music, Jesse 115 

Musick, Asa 114 

Muskingum River 83 

Nabb, James 123 

Nailor, Isaac 121 

Nailor, William 121 

Names of Officers Killed and 
Wounded as per General 

Return 89 

Nance, William 114 

Nanthrup, Smith 127 

Nash, John 24 

Natches vii 

Neal, James 123 

Neal, Samuel 117 

Neel, John 115 

Neely, John 1 122 

Nelson, Francis 127 

Neville, William 127 

Newhall, Israel 131 

Newland, John i *7i J 23 

Newton, Reuben 131 

Nicholas, Thomas 121 

Night, Kind of on 6th 50 

Norman, John 126 

Norris, Captain 97 

Norris, Captain John 36, 89 

Norris, Edward 116 

Norris, John 1 1 6 

Norton, Patrick 131 

Nurchsted, Henry 131 

Nute, Isaac 130 

Nute, J acob 130 

Nute, Jonathan 130 

Nutter, Henry 130 



Index. 



Obah, Jack 119 

O'Fallon, John 21, 22, 123 

Official List of Killed and Wounded 88 

O'Niel, Henry 1 18 

Original Occupancy of America . . vi 

Orr, Montgomery 130 

Orton, John Za 115 

Ousley, John 25 

Owen, Abraham, Aid-de-Camp. . 34 
Owen, Abraham, Should Have a 

Monument xix 

Owen, Colonel Abraham, 17, 22, 64, 89 
Owen, Colonel Abraham, Biog- 
raphy 64 

Owen, Colonel Abraham, Fell ... 54 
Owen, Colonel, on a White Horse. 54 
Owen, Harrison's Official Report 

on 65 

Owens, David, junior 121 

Owens, John 121 

Owens, Randolph 1 18 

Owens, Thomas 114 

Palmer, James 125 

Palmer, Thomas 123 

Palmore, Martin 120 

Parke, Benjamin 113, 122 

Parke, Captain Benjamin 36 

Parke, Captain, Promoted on the 

Field 60 

Parker, James 127 

Parker, Lemuel 126 

Pashy, Dominic 119 

Patrick, Obediah F 120 

Paxton, Joseph 24 

Pea, Abraham 119 

Pea, John 122 

Pearcy, Jacob 130 

Pearsall, Jacob 117 



Peck, Adam 117 

Peck, Benjamin S 127 

Pendegrass, Michael 127 

Penelton, Charles 117 

Penkitt, James 127 

Penny, William 118 

Perkins, William 130 

Perkins, William B 125 

Perry, Edward 1 23 

Perry, John 117 

Perry, Joseph 1 1 6 

Perry, Richard 130 

Perry, Silas 129 

Perry, William 123 

Person, William 117 

Persons, Elisha 1 27 

Peters, First Lieutenant George P. 35 

Peters, George P 129 

Peters, George P. , Lieutenant ... 89 

Peters, William 115 

Peterson, Ezra C 126 

Pettingall, Joseph 125 

Pettis, Samuel 131 

Pettitt, Daniel 121 

Petty, James S 123 

Peyton, Daniel 121 

Peyton, Micajah 117 

Pf riner, Samuel 114 

Philip, King, Effort to Form Con- 
federacy x 

Phillips, James 131 

Piatt, Captain 104 

Piatt, Captain, Chief Quarter- 
master 34 

Pickard, Alpheus 118 

Piercall, Jeremiah 114 

Pierce, Moses 128 

Pike, James 129 



Index. 



Pike, Zebulon M 123 

Pinel, James 127 

Pinkley, John 127 

Pipps, Curtis 130 

Pittsburgh 16 

Pixley, Samuel 125 

Plaster, Michael 25 

Poiguand, D. R 21 

Poland, Joseph 129 

Polk, Charles 68 

Polk, Elizabeth 68 

Polk, Robert 120 

Polk, William 1 12 

Pomaroy, William 131 

Pontiac, Cause of Failure xii 

Pontiac, Effort of in 1763 x 

Pontiac, Plans of xii 

Pool, Benjamin 121 

Pooler, Orange 1 28 

Pope, George F 113 

Population of the Prophet's Town 15 

Porter, Samuel 125 

Posey, Captain John 36 

Potts, Richard 116 

Pound, Samuel 25 

Pound, Vinyard 121 

Powell, Kader 116 

Prather, Brazil 1 16 

Prather, Loyd 117 

Prather, Sion 123 

Prentice Ellas 130 

Prescott, Captain George W . . . . 35 

Prescott, George W 125 

Prescott Reinforces Left Flank. . 61 

President, Proclamation of 83 

Pride, William 119 

Pride, Woolsey ng 

Priest, Peter 15 



Prince, William 113, 122 

Pritchett, Samuel 125 

Prophet and His Party Deter- 
mined to Attack Harrison. . . . 101 

Prophet, Death of 63 

Prophet Explains How His Charms 

Failed 62 

Prophet Fled from Battle- Ground, xvii 
Prophet Flees from the Town ... 63 
Prophet, His Incantations, etc., 

Night Before Battle 51 

Prophet May Have Selected 

Battle-Ground 44 

Prophet on a Rock West of the 

Field 62 

Prophet, The xi, i 

Prophet, The, Character of ... xiv, 3 
Prophet, The, Deception of the 

Indians by Him xv 

Prophet, The, Endeavors to Send 
Messengers to Governor Har- 
rison 99 

Prophet, The, Incantations of . . . 15 
Prophet, The, No Ordinary "Med- 
icine Man" 5 

Prophet, The, Principle by Which 
He Professed to be Gov- 
erned 101 

Prophet, The, Refuge in Wild Cat 

Creek with Huron Indians. . . 99 
Prophet, The, Sent Messengers to 

Harrison 28 

Prophet's Banditti 30 

Prouty, Jacob 1 28 

Purcell, Andrew 122 

Purcell, James 119 

Purcell, Jon'n 118, 120 

Purcell, Noah 112 



Index. 



Purcell, William 122 

Purpose of the Indians in Wars 

on Whites vi 

Putman, Haz 1 18 

Putman, Laben 117 

Putman, Reding 117 

Quantity of Land Occupied by In- 
dians viii 

Quick, Aron 120 

Rand, Jacob D 125 

Randolph, Thomas 25, 72, 122 

Randolph, Thomas, Acting Aid- 

de-Camp 34 

Randolph, Death of 73 

Ransdell, Edward 114 

Ransdell, Sandford 114 

Rausdill, Marcus D 131 

Rathbone, Isaac 127 

Ravellett, Antoine 119 

Rayment, Timothy R 123 

Rayson, William 117 

Ready, William 112 

Redman, Regin 112 

Reed, Daniel 128 

Reed, John 121 

Reed, William 131 

Reel, Frederick 115 

Reel, Lewis 1 19 

Reittre, Francis D 131 

Reno, Joseph 119 

Resolution of Legislature of Ken- 
tucky 78 

Resolution of Legislature of Ter- 
ritory of Indiana 77 

Return March Began November 

9th 76 

Rice, John 130 

Ricker, Isaac 129 



Ricker, Stephen 130 

Rider, George 123 

Ridley, Joseph 1 1 8 

Riggs, John 116 

Right Flank Drives the Enemy. . 62 

Riley, Robert 127 

Kisley, Daniel 119 

Risley, John 119 

Risley, Samuel 118 

Robb, Captain David 36 

Robb, David 115 

Robb, David, Biography of 48 

Robb, James 49 

Robb, John 115 

Robb Reinforces Spencer 61 

Roberts, James 128 

Robertson, Hezekiah ....121 

Robertson, James 121 

Robertson, James, junior 121 

Robertson, J 97 

Robertson, Robert, junior 121 

Robinson, David 128 

Robinson, George 116 

Robinson, Jeremiah 115 

Robinson, Jonah 115 

Robinson, Jonathan 125 

Rodman, Daniel 127 

Rudarmel, John 120 

Rogers, Isaac 115 

Rogers, John 115 

Rollins, John M 130 

Rollings, Mayhew 128 

Roods, Frederick 131 

Roquest, Samuel 1 1 8 

Rose, Mathias 122 

Ross, Charles F 123 

Ross, Hugh 123 

Ross, John 125 



Index. 



Ross, Lieutenant Presley 36 

Ross, Presley 23 

Roster of the Command 35 

Route, The, on Left Banks of 

Wabash 37 

Rowell, John 130 

Royce, Amos 127 

Rubbe, Henry 122 

Ruby, Townly 117 

Rusherville, Mitchel 118 

Russel, Joseph 131 

Russell, Thaddeus B 131 

Sallis, Lucius 130 

Sallinger, Reuben 122 

Sand, Samuel 114 

Sandborn, John 126 

Sandborn, Robert 125 

Sanders, Ben 21, 22 

Sanders, Benjamin 123 

Sanders, Zebolon 126 

Sanderson, William M 128 

Sandridge, Moses 116 

Sage, James 123 

Sansusee, Joseph 119 

Sargeant, Seth 125 

Sargeants, William 131 

Scales, Benjamin 117 

Scales, William 117 

Scott, Captain Thomas 36 

Scott, Charles 123 

Scott, Colonel John M., Letter 

from Harrison to 102 

Scott, Governor 21, 99 

Scott, Governor of Kentucky. ... 28 

Scott, John 118 

Scott, John M., Colonel, Extract 

from Letter of 94 

Scott, Thomas 118 



Scull, Doctor Edward 89 

Scull, Edward 113 

Sealy, Lewis 115 

Search for a Camp-Ground 42 

Seaton, Hawson 122 

Seaton, John 122 

Selvey, William 115 

Seranne, Eustace 119 

Sergeant, Wilson 121 

Sewey, Greenlief 125 

Sharpless, William 126 

Shaw, Hugh 1 16 

Shaw, William 23, 112 

Shawnees, Tecumseh and the 

Prophet 7 

Shays, John 125 

Sheldon, James 125 

Shelton, Daniel ..127 

Shelton, Everett 128 

Shennett, Antoine 119 

Sherwood, Peter 116 

Shields, Barnard 126 

Shields, Benjamin 113 

Shields, Booker 115 

Shields, Joshua 114 

Shields, Patrick 25 

Shipman, James 116 

Shipp, Edmund 25 

Shouse, Thomas 115 

Shuck, William 119 

Shucks, Christover 114 

Signals, Indian, During Battle . . 56 

Silver, John 125 

Sillaway, Ephraim 128 

Simpson, Nathaniel 126 

Skelton, Jacob 117 

Skelton, James 1 18 

Skelton, Robert 118 



154 



Index. 



Skelton, William 1 18 

Skelton, Zachary 117 

Skidmore, James 118 

Slaughter, John W 25 

Slaven, John 115 

Slawson, Jesse 122 

Slead, Reuben 117 

Smilie, Stanton 130 

Smith, Charles 113, 122 

Smith, David 116 

Smith, James 113, 114, 116 

Smith, Jared 28 

Smith, John 23, 124, 128 

Smith, John I 123 

Smith, Joseph 25 

Smith, Samuel 128 

Snelling, Captain Josiah 35 

Snelling, Captain Josiah, junior . 36 
Snelling, Captain, Left in Com- 
mand of Fort Harrison 76 

Snelling, Josiah 124 

Snider, Jacob 114 

Snow, Nathan 127 

Somerville, Mr 20 

Soper, Elias 125 

Soudriett, Charles 1 18 

Souther, Samuel 129 

Spalding, Samuel B 131 

Sparrowk, Rowland 1 29 

Speed, James and Joshua 19 

Speed, Judge John 19 

Speed, Judge John, Address of.. 20 

Spencer, Captain Spier 36, 89 

Spencer, Captain Spier, Heroic 

Death of 67 

Spencer, Daniel 128 

Spencer, George 114 

Spencer, James 114 



Spencer Killed 61 

Spencer, Spier 113 

Spencer, Spier, Biography 67 

" Spencer's Yellow Jackets ". . . . 68 

Spragen, John 131 

Springville Has Now Disappeared 74 

Spunks, Thomas 25 

Stacey, William 116 

Stafford, Thomas . . 23 

Stapleton, James 114 

Stapleton, Joshua 1 18 

Stark, Isaac 121 

Stark, Moses 121 

St. Clair 26 

St. Clair, John 128 

Steen, Clanton 123 

Steen, James 122 

Stephenson, James 131 

Stephenson, Luther 126 

Stephenson, William 129 

Stevens, William 115 

Stewart, James 114 

Stillwell, Jacob L 121 

Stillwell, Joseph 121 

Stites, Peter R 128 

Stockwell, Samuel 121 

Stoker, Benjamin 115 

Stone Eater 56 

Stone, Westley 125 

Stoney, William 126 

Stroude, Isham 113 

Sturgen, Robert 123 

Suck, Edward R 131 

Sullivan, Daniel 112 

Sullivan, G. R. C 112 

Sullivan, Thomas 115 

Summerville, James 25 

Suverus, John 115 



Index. 



Sweeney, Mordecai 123 

Taylor and Clarke Report on 

Camp-Ground 43 

Taylor, Anthony 122 

Taylor, Commodore Richard. ... 99 

Taylor, James 117 

Taylor, John 113 

Taylor, Josiah 117 

Taylor, Lewis 129 

Taylor, Walter in 

Taylor, Walter, Major 34 

Taylor, Wilson 25 

Taylor, Zachary 26 

Tecumseh i, 2, 14 

Tecumseh Aspires to be a Second 

Pontiac 3 

Tecumseh Claimed to be Inspired 

by the Great Spirit xiii 

Tecumseh, Date of Death of. ... 77 
Tecumseh, Epitome of His Char- 
acter xvii 

Tecumseh Failed in His Attempt 

to Found Confederacy 77 

Tecumseh Familiar with Former 

Treaties xiii 

Tecumseh, Fate of xvii 

Tecumseh Goes Over to the British 77 
Tecumseh, Letter to Harrison. . . 13 

Tecumseh, Meaning of i 

Tecumseh Not Chief by Birthright 5 
Tecumseh, Not Known Positively 

Who Killed xvii 

Tecumseh, Prophetic Vision of 

the Fate of His People 7 

Tecumseh, Report of His March- 
ing on Vincennes with Three 
Hundred Warriors 98 



Tecumseh Returns to Find His 

Plans Destroyed xvii 

Tecumseh's Attempt to Unite all 

the Indians xi 

Tecumseh's Conception of a Con- 
federacy xii 

Tecumseh Spoke of the Attack as 
an ' ' Unfortunate Transac- 
tion " 75 

Tecumseh Starts South 15 

Tecumseh Visits Far and Wide . . xiv 
Tecumseh, Visit to Vincennes. . . 7 

Tennesson, Robert 1 16 

Terre Haute 6, 25 

Thayer, Morten 131 

Thomas, Josiah 122 

Thompson, Benjamin 117 

Thompson, John 123 

Thompson, Robert 128 

Thompson, Samuel 1 27 

Thomson, Daniel L 130 

Thorn, Absolom 118 

Thorn, Asa 119 

Thrasher, Phillip 125 

Tibbets, Samuel 131 

Tibbetts, Joseph 125 

Tilferro, John 117 

Tilton, Israel 126 

Tims, James 120 

Tippecanoe, Assembling of the 

Warriors at xvi 

Tippecanoe, Battle of, Avant- Cou- 
rier of War of 1812 xviii 

Tippecanoe, Battle of, End of 

Confederacy of Tecumseh ... xvi 
Tippecanoe, Battle of, of Lasting 
Importance xviii 



156 



Index. 



Tippecanoe, Home of Tecumseh 
and the Prophet Burned to 

the Ground xvi 

Tippecanoe, Meaning of 4 

Tippecanoe, Town of 3 

Tippin, Robert 117 

Tipton, John 113 

Tipton, John, Made Captain at 

the Battle 90 

Tissler, William 121 

Tobin, Joseph 116 

Todd, Hugh 115 

Todd, Levi L 85 

Todd, William 115 

Topale, Baptist 1 18 

Town Destroyed 76 

Town Occupied on November 8th, 76 

Tracy, James 126 

Trasher, John 125 

Treaty of 1775 ix 

Treaty of 1818 ix 

Trigg, Thomas 25 

Trigg, William 25 

Trowbridge, Ira T 131 

Tucker, Aaron 125 

Tucker, Henry 129 

Tucker, John 117 

Tully, William T 23 

Turnald, Noah 130 

Turner, William 129 

Tuthill, David 128 

Tuttle, Isaac 130 

Twedle, Isaac 1 18 

Tweedle, James 115 

Tweedle, William 115 

Twilley, George 123 

Twitchell, Anson 128 



Uchees vii 

United States and Great Britain, 

Strained Relations 9 

United States, Policy of Toward 

Indians 6 

Valmare, Nicholas 119 

Vampett, Thomas Parker 116 

Vanderford, Benjamin 127 

Venables, Benjamin 114 

Vest, Isham 114 

Vickery, John 131 

Vincennes 14 

Vines, Thomas C ....115 

Virginia 12 

Virgin, John 126 

Voodry, Joseph 119 

Wabash 25 

" Wabash Expedition, The " . . . . 97 

Wabash, March Begins up 31 

Wabash, The 21 

Wait, Charles 1 30 

Wakefield, Oliver 126 

Waldron, Timothy 130 

Walk, Abraham 25 

Walker, Adam 131 

Walker, Benjamin 119 

Walker, Isaac 119 

Walker, James 119 

Walker, John 121 

Walker, Jon'n 119 

Wallace, George 122 

Waller, John 115 

Wallingford, Jonathan 128 

Waltz, Henry 24 

Ward, Henry 116 

Ward, Richard 123 

Warnick, Joseph 121 



Index. 



Warnock, Joseph 97 

Warrick, Captain 89 

Warrick, Captain Jacob 36 

Warrick, Jacob 114 

Warrick Mortally Wounded 60 

Watson, John S 130 

Watson, William 118 

Watts, John 114 

Way, Ebenezer 125 

Wayman, E 117 

Wayne, General 2 

Wayne, General, How he Marched 39 

Weathers, James 115 

Weathers, John 117 

Webb, John P 125 

Welch, John 130 

Welch, Leinan E 129 

Wells, David 128 

Wells, General 22 

Wells, General, Dinner to 99 

Wells, George W 25 

Wells, Major 21 

Wells, Major, Charges the Enemy 61 
Wells, Major General Samuel. . . 17 

Wells, Major Samuel 36 

Wells, Samuel 23 

Wells, Silas 126 

Welton, John 118 

Welton, William n8 

Wentworth, Ichabod 130 

Wentworth, Jedediah 129 

Wentworth, Paul 129 

Were the Results of Campaign 

Worth the Cost ? -. . . . 86 

Wescott, Isaac 126 

West, Thomas 116 

Westfall, Abr'm 1 18 

Westfall, Andrew 1 18 



Westrope, Richard 118 

Wetherall, Nathaniel 127 

Wetherill, Neh'm 131 

Whalin, Mark 125 

Whealor, Robert 1 18 

Whealor, Samuel 118 

Wheeler, John 114 

Wheelock, Ezra 131 

Whetstone, Peter 115 

Whipple, James 127 

Whitacor, Edward 118 

White Horse Mentioned 54 

Whitehouse, Robert 130 

White, Isaac 123 

White, Lee 23 

White, Samuel W 25 

White, Thomas 119 

White Loon 56 

Whitely, John 125 

Whood, Silas 130 

Wilcox, Giles 125 

Wild Cat Creek 63 

Wilkins, Andrew 1 20 

Wilkins, Captain Andrew 36 

Wilkins, David 112 

Wilks, Edward 120 

Will, Walter 118 

Willard, Josiah 128 

Willas, Jesse 118 

Willey, Jonathan 126 

Williams, Daniel 121 

Williams, James 126 

Williams, John 128 

Williams, Wm 1 18 

Williams, William 127 

Williams, Zadoc 130 

Williamson, M 23 

Willis, Samuel 23 



Index. 



Wilson, Captain 3& 

Wilson, Captain Walter n, 3 6 

Wilson, Elliott 23 

Wilson, George 129 

Wilson, James 1 *4 

Wilson, Robert 1 16 

Wilson, Walter 1 19 

Winnemac 56 

Winslow, Job 127 

Wintersmith, Charles G 86 

Witherholt, William 116 

Withers, Thomas I 119 

Wood, Abraham 118 

Wood, Benoni 117 

Woodrough, Nathan 117 

Woods, Isaac 114 

Worthen, Enoch 130 



Wounded Crowded Into Wagons. 76 

Wright, Greensberry 25 

Wright, Jon'n 114 

Wright, Joseph 116 

Wright, Pretemon 131 

Wright, William 121 

Wyandotts, The 7 

Wyant, John 123 

Wyer, David 125 

Wyman, Frederick 122 

Yenowine, Frederick 19 

Yeomans, John 128 

Young, James 1 1 7 

Young, William 115, i T 8 

Zenoe, George 114 

Zenoe, Jacob 113 



THE 

FILSON CLUB PUBLICATIONS. 



The Filson Club is an historical, biographical, and literary 
association located in Louisville, Kentucky. It was named after 
John Filson, the first historian of Kentucky, whose quaint little 
octavo of one hundred and eighteen pages was published at Wil- 
mington, Delaware, in 1784. It was organized May 15, 1884, 
and incorporated October 5, 1891, for the purpose, as expressed 
in its charter, of collecting, preserving, and publishing the history 
of Kentucky and adjacent States, and cultivating a taste for his- 
toric inquiry and study among its members. While its especial 
field of operations was thus theoretically limited, its practical 
workings were confined to no locality. Each member is at lib- 
erty to choose a subject and prepare a paper and read it to the 
Club, among whose archives it is to be filed. From the papers 
thus accumulated selections are made for publication, and there 
have now been issued fifteen volumes or numbers of these 
publications. They are all paper bound quartos, printed with 
pica old-style type, on pure white antique paper, with broad 
margins and halftone illustrations. They have been admired 
both at home and abroad, not only for their original and valu- 
able matter, but also for their tasteful and comely appearance. 



The Filson Club Publications. 

They are not printed for sale in the commercial sense of the 
term, but for free distribution among the members of the Club. 
There are always, however, some numbers left over after the 
members are supplied, which are either exchanged with other 
societies or sold. The following is a brief descriptive list of all 
the Club publications to date : 

1. JOHN FILSON, the first historian of Kentucky: An account 
of his life and writings, principally from original sources. Pre- 
pared for The Filson Club and read at its second meeting in 
Louisville, Kentucky, June 26, 1884, by Reuben T. Durrett, A. 
M., LL. D., President of the Club. Illustrated with a likeness 
of Filson, a fac-simile of one of his letters, and a photo-litho- 
graphic reproduction of his map of Kentucky printed at Phila- 
delphia in 1784. 4to, 132 pages. John P. Morton & Co., Printers, 
Louisville, Kentucky. 1884. Out of print. 

2. THE WILDERNESS ROAD : A description of the routes of 
travel by which the pioneers and early settlers first came to 
Kentucky. Prepared for The Filson Club by Captain Thomas 
Speed, Secretary of the Club. Illustrated with a map showing 
the roads of travel. 4to, 75 pages. John P. Morton & Co., 
Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1886. Out of print. 

3. THE PIONEER PRESS OF KENTUCKY, from the printing of 
the first paper west of the Alleghanies, August 11, 1787, to the 
establishment of the Daily Press, 1830. Prepared for The Filson 
Club by William Henry Perrin, member of the Club. Illustrated 
with fac-similes of the Kentucky Gazette and the Farmer's 
Library, a view of the first printing-house in Kentucky, and like- 
nesses of John Bradford, Shadrack Penn, and George D. Prentice. 
4to, 93 pages. John P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. 1888. Out of print. 



The Filson Club Publications. 

4. LIFE AND TIMES OF JUDGE CALEB WALLACE, some time a 
Justice of the Court of Appeals of the State of Kentucky. By 
Reverend William H. Whitsitt, D. D., member of The Filson 
Club. 4to, 151 pages. John P. Morton & Co. , Printers, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. 1888. Out of print. 

5. AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, Louisville, 
Kentucky, prepared for the Semi-Centennial Celebration, Octo- 
ber 6, 1889. By Reuben T. Durrett, A. M., LL.D., President of 
The Filson Club. Illustrated with likenesses of Reverend Will- 
iam Jackson and Reverend Edmund T. Perkins, D. D., and views 
of the church as first built in 1839 and as it appeared in 1889. 
4to, 90 pages. John P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. 1889. Out of print. 

6. THE POLITICAL BEGINNINGS OF KENTUCKY : A narrative of 
public events bearing on the history of the State up to the time 
of its admission into the American Union. By Colonel John 
Mason Brown, member of The Filson Club. Illustrated with a 
likeness of the author. 4to, 263 pages. John P. Morton & Co., 
Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1889. Out of Print. 

7. THE CENTENARY OF KENTUCKY. Proceedings at the cele- 
bration by The Filson Club, Wednesday, June i, 1892, of the 
one hundredth anniversary of the admission of Kentucky as an 
independent State into the Federal Union. Prepared for publi- 
cation by Reuben T. Durrett, A. M., LL.D., President of the 
Club. Illustrated with likenesses of President Durrett, Major 
Stanton, Sieur LaSalle, and General Clark, and fac-similes of 
the music and songs at the centennial banquet. 4to, 200 pages. 
Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, and John P. Morton & 
Co., Louisville, Kentucky, Printers. 1892. $3.00. 



The Filson Club Publications. 

8. THE CENTENARY OF LOUISVILLE. A paper read before the 
Southern Historical Association, Saturday, May i, 1880, in com- 
memoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the beginning 
of the City of Louisville as an incorporated town under an act 
of the Virginia Legislature. By Reuben T. Durrett, A.M..LL.D., 
President of The Filson Club. Illustrated with likenesses of Col- 
onel Durrett, Sieur LaSalle, and General Clark. 4to, 200 pages. 
John P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1893. $3.00. 

9. THE POLITICAL CLUB, Danville, Kentucky, 1786-1790: 
Being an account of an early Kentucky debating society from 
the original papers recently found. By Captain Thomas Speed, 
Secretary of The Filson Club. 4to, xii-i67 pages. John P. 
Morton & Co. , Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1894. $3.00. 

10. THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF RAFINESQUE. Prepared for 
The Filson Club and read at its meeting, Monday, April 2, 1894. 
By Richard Ellsworth Call, M. A., M. Sc., M. D., member of The 
Filson Club. Illustrated with likenesses of Rafinesque and fac- 
similes of pages of his Fishes of the Ohio and Botany of Louisville. 
4to, xii-227 pages. John P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, 
Kentucky. 1895. Out of print. 

11. TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY: Its origin, rise, decline, and 
fall. Prepared for The Filson Club by Robert Peter, M. D., and 
his daughter, Miss Johanna Peter, members of The Filson Club. 
Illustrated with a likeness of Doctor Peter. 4to, 202 pages. John 
P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1896. $3.00. 

12. BRYANT'S STATION and the memorial proceedings held on 
its site under the auspices of the Lexington Chapter, D. A. R., 
August 1 8, 1896, in honor of its heroic mothers and daughters. 
Prepared for publication by Reuben T. Durrett, A. M., LL. D., 
President of The Filson Club. Illustrated with likenesses of the 



The Filson Club Publications. 

officers of the Lexington Chapter, D. A. R., President Durrett, 
Major Stanton, Professor Rancke, Colonel Young, and Doctor 
Todd, and full-page views of Bryant's Station and its spring, and 
of the battlefield of the Blue Licks. 4to, xiii-277 pages. John 
P. Morton & Co., Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1897. $3.00. 

13. THE FIRST EXPLORATIONS OF KENTUCKY: The journals 
of Doctor Thomas Walker, 1750, and of Colonel Christopher Gist, 
1751. Edited by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, Vice-President 
of The Filson Club. Illustrated with a map of Kentucky showing 
the routes of Walker and Gist through the State, with a view of 
Castle Hill, the residence of Doctor Walker, and a likeness of 
Colonel Johnston. 4to, 256 pages. John P. Morton & Co., 
Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1898. $3.00. 

14. THE CLAY FAMILY. Part First The Mother of Henry 
Clay, by Honorable Zachary F. Smith, member of The Filson 
Club ; Part Second The Genealogy of the Clays, by Mrs. Mary 
Rogers Clay, member of The Filson Club. Illustrated with a full- 
page halftone likeness of Henry Clay, of each of the authors, and 
a full-page picture of the Clay coat-of-arms ; also four full-page 
grouped illustrations, each containing four likenesses of members 
of the Clay family. 4to, vi-276 pages. John P. Morton & Co., 
Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1899. $4.00. 

1 5. THE BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE. Part First The Battle and 
the Battle-ground ; Part Second Comment of the Press ; Part 
Third Roll of the Army commanded by General Harrison. By 
Captain Alfred Pirtle, member of The Filson Club. Illustrated 
with a likeness of the author and likenesses of General William 
Henry Harrison, Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, and Elkswa- 
tawa, "The Prophet," together with three full-page views and a 
plot of the battle-ground. 4to, xix-158 pages. John P. Morton & 
Co., Printers, Louisville, Kentucky. 1900. $3.00. 



BH4DING LIST 



F4B 
no. 15 



Fllson Club, Louisville, Ky. 
Publications 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY