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Full text of "Official guide to the museums of economic botany"

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ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS. KEW. 



„ OFFICIAL GUIDE 

TO THE 

MUSEUMS OF ECONOMIC BOTANY. 



No. 1. 
DICOTYLEDONS. 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND AUGMENTED. 




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LONDON: J ^ 

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
By DARLING & SON, Ltd., 34-40, Bacon Street, E. 

1907. 



Price Tenpence. 



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GUIDE 

TO THE 

MUSEUMS OF ECONOMIC BOTANY. 



The collections occupy three separate buildings. 

Museum No. I. overlooks the Ornamental Water, and 
is directly opposite to the Palm House. 

Museum No. II. is at the northern end of the Her- 
baceous ground, three minutes walk from No. I. 

Museum No. III., devoted chiefly to specimens of 
Timber and large articles unsuited for exhibition in the 
glazed cases of the other Museums, occupies the building 
formerly known as the Orangery, at the northern 
extremity of the Broad Walk leading to the Ornamental 
Water and Palm House. The Annexe contains the 
Gymnosperms. 

The Object of the Museums 

is to show the practical applications of Botanical Science. 
They teach us to appreciate the general relations of the 
Vegetable World to man. We learn from them the 
sources of the innumerable products furnished by the 
Vegetable Kingdom for our use and convenience, whether 
as articles of food, of construction and application in the 
arts, of medicine, or curiosity. They suggest new^ channels 
for our industry : they show us the variety in form and 
structure presented by plants, and are a means of direct 
instruction in most important branches of useful know- 
ledge. We see from them the particular points upon 
which further information is needed, especially as to the 
origin of many valuable timbers, fibres, and drugs, in 
order to perfect our knowledge of economic botany ; in 
brief, the Museums show us hoiv little, as well as hoiv much, 
we know of the extent to which herbs, shrubs, and trees 
contribute to our necessities, comforts, and numberless 
requirements. 

2000 Wt 13254 5/07 D&S 29 25782 



Origin of the Museums. 

The foundation and progress of these collections, not 
only by far the most extensive in existence, but the first 
of their kind established, may be briefly traced since the 
conception of their plan by the first Director of the Royal 
Gardens, Sir W. J. Hooker. 

In 1847 the building now occupied by Museum No. II.,. 
which up to that year had been in use as a fruit store- 
house, &c., was added, by command of Her Majesty, to the 
Botanic Garden proper. Permission was immediately 
sought by the Director to have one room of this building 
fitted up with suitable cases for the exhibition of 
vegetable products, — objects which neither the living 
plants of the Garden nor the preserved specimens of the 
Herbarium could show. Sir W. J. Hooker's request was 
liberally met by the Chief Commissioner of Her Majesty '& 
Woods and Forests, and the Museum was forthwith com- 
menced ; its nucleus consisting of the Director's private 
collection, presented by himself. 

No sooner was the establishment and aim of the Museum 
generally made known than contributions to it poured in 
from all quarters of the globe, until, in a few years, the 
ten rooms of the building, with its passages and corners,, 
were absolutely crammed with specimens. Its apprecia- 
tion by the public being thus demonstrated, application 
was made to Parliament for a grant to defray the expense 
of an additional building for the proper accommodation 
of the objects, and the house occupied by Museum No. I., 
opened to the public in the spring of 1857, is the result. 

In 1881 the extension of Museum No. I. on the west 
side, containing a new and commodious staircase, was 
erected at a cost of £2,000, met by a grant from the India 
Office, in order to supply the additional accommodation 
required from the Indian collections mentioned below. 

From the Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, and from the 
Paris Exhibitions of 1855 and 1867, large additions were 
made to the Museums, both by the presentation of 
specimens, and also by their purchase, aided by grants 
from the Treasury and Board of Trade. Many eminent 
firms engaged in the importation and manufacture of 
vegetable substances, have most liberally contributed 



Yarious illustrative series. By the different Government 
Departments, by our Colonial officers and foreign Repre- 
sentatives, and by numerous private travellers also, the 
most important services have been and continue to be 
rendered. 

Besides these sources of contribution must be mentioned 
the reinforcement of the Indian element in the Museums, 
first in 1878 by the collection of forest produce, presented 
by the Government of India (consisting of 1,113 speci- 
mens), and secondly in 1880 by the transference to Kew 
of the entire Economico-botanical collections, forming 
part of the India Museum at South Kensington. From 
these about 4,000 specimens were selected for permanent 
exhibition ; these are distinguished by a light blue label 
bearing the words India Museum. 

On the staircase, at the first landing, has been placed 
the stained glass window in four lights, removed from the 
Guildhall, and presented to the Royal Gardens in 1878 by 
Alderman W. J. R. Cotton, M.P. It represents the growth 
and manufacture of cotton. 

The Arrangement of the Objects. 

The specimens exhibited in Museums No. I. and No. II. 
are arranged in the order of what is termed the natural 
affinities of the plants which respectively furnish fchem. 
They are grouped under Natural ORDERS. These are, 
in some cases, very large, in others comparatively small. 
Some abound in economic products, while others afford 
but few. 

Between the members of each Order the rule is, that a 
closer relationship subsists than with the members of any 
other Order. This relationship or affinity amongst plants 
is based upon the amount of similarity, chiefly in the 
form and arrangement of the parts of their flowers and 
seeds ; and the correctness of this method is confirmed 
by a remarkable general and corresponding uniformity in 
the character of the products and properties of the plants 
thus brought together. For example, note the tough, 
fibrous Barks of the " Nettle " Order, of the " Mezereon" 
Order, and of the " Linden " and " Mallow " Orders ; — 
the Bitter or Tonic properties of the " Gentian " Order, 



6 

and of the " Quassia " and " Peruvian Bark " Orders ; — 
the Resins of the "Amyris" or "Frankincense " Order ; 
— the Narcotic or Poisonous character of the " Night- 
shade " Order, which includes the Deadly Nightshade, 
Henbane, and Tobacco. 

In dividing the extensive arranged collections between 
the two Museum buildings, advantage has been taken of 
the two grand Classes under which the Orders of flower- 
ing plants are found to be grouped in nature. One of 
these great Classes occupies Museum No. I. The other 
Class, together with all the products, &c., yielded by those 
plants which are commonly regarded as not bearing 
flowers (as Ferns, Mosses, Seaweeds, Lichens, and Fungi), 
are contained in Museum No. II. 

The same details of arrangement obtain through both 
Museums. The upright cases are numbered outside, 
above the glass doors : the numbers correspond to those 
on the margin of this Guide. The botanical name of 
each Natural Order is exhibited inside, at the top of the 
cases ; also wherever an Order begins, if on a lower shelf. 
A brief note on each Order is given in this Guide, 
preceding the enumeration of the noteworthy objects 
belonging to it. 

To simplify and facilitate reference, every object of 
great importance enumerated bears, upon a card, mounted 
close hy it, a conspicuous corresponding number [_e.g., 26]. 
One numbering runs through the whole of each 
Museum. 

The proportion of numbered objects to the whole is 
very small ; this is a necessity which a handy guide-book, 
intended for visitors rather than students, imposes. As 
nearly every object is properly labelled, the deficiency is 
rather apparent than real. This Guide is not intended to 
supplant a system of copious instructional labelling, 
which is being constantly improved upon, and printed 
labels substituted for those written by hand. Any 
suggestion bearing upon these, or hints repecting our 
deficiencies, those who have the charge of this im- 
portant branch of the Kew establishment will be most 
happy to receive. Such should be addressed in writing, 
to the Keeper of the Museums, or to the Director of the 
Royal Gardens. 



Maps are placed in the cases, showing in red colour 
the countries furnishing the products near which they 
are placed. 



GUIDE TO MUSEUM No. I. 

The chief botanical features which characterise the 
plants represented by their products or other specimens 
in this Museum, are these ; — 1. In their early condition, 
while yet enclosed in the seed, they nearly always have 
two (or sometimes more) little opposite lobes or leaflets 
(cotyledons : hence called Dicotyledons). 2. Those which 
form a woody stem, increase in thickness by a ring of 
new wood growing year by year on the outside of, and 
continuous with, the old. 3. The parts of the flowers are 
most frequently in fives or fours. 4. The small veins of 
the leaves are, commonly, irregularly netted. 

The Collections occupy three Floors. The numbering 
begins upon the Top Floor, in the cabinet (No. 1) 
immediately round the corner to the left, on reaching 
the head of the stairs, and is continued on the left hand 
throughout the floor. The collections of the Middle and 
Bottom Floors follow the same order. 

The collection of portraits of Botanists is partly hung 
on wall spaces in this Museum. The nucleus of it was 
formed by the late Sir W. J. Hooker, and after his death 
was purchased by the Government. 



Top Floor. 



Ranunculus Order {Rammculaceae). A family 
widely spread, especially in cool climates. Few species 
have woody stems. Its general properties are acrid and 
poisonous. The Buttercup and Larkspur are common 
examples of the Order. 

No. 1. Inner bark of TRAVELLER'S JOY (Clematis 

Vitalba, L.), used in Switzerland for straining whey from 

curd. The slender stems, peeled, are used for basket 

work, and in France to bind faggots, and their tips are 

sometimes pickled. 



CASE No. 2. Pila-Jari, Yellow Root {Thalictrum folio- 
] . losum, DC). Common throughout temperate Himalaya. 
Roots fibrous, about the thickness ol a crow quill, 
externally dark brown, internally yellow. Tonic and 
aperient ; used in India in mild intermittent fevers. 
Exported from Kumaon, under the name of Mam IRA. 

No. 3. Black Hellebore Roots or Christmas 
Rose {Hellehorns niger^ L.). A perennial herb of Central 
and Southern Europe. As seen in commerce it consists 
of the rhizome with rootlets attached. Cathartic and 
anthelmintic. Imported from Germany. 

No. 4. Yellow or Golden Seal or Yellow 
PUCCOON Roots {Hydrastis canadensis, L.). A small 
perennial herb of North America, rhizome used as a 
tonic, aperient, and diuretic, also as a brilliant yellow 
dye. 

No. 5. COPTIS or MiSHMBE Tita. The small v;oody 
rhizome of Coptis Teeta, Wall. A native of the Mishmee 
Mountains in East Assam. Used in India as a pure bitter 
tonic. 

No. 6. Gold Thread. Roots of Coptis trifotia, 
Salisb. A perennial, common in North America, where 
it is largely used as a pure bitter tonic. 

No. 7. Fennel-flower Seeds {Nigella sativa, L.). 
An annual, native of the Mediterranean Region. When 
fresh the seeds have an aromatic odour like fennel and 
a slightly acrid taste. Used as a spice by French cooks, 
and in the East for flavouring curries and other dishes ; 
as a carminative and also to protect woollen goods against 
insects. 

No. 8. Aconite, Monkshood or Wolfsbane 
(Aconitum Napellus, L.). A perennial herb, with short 
fleshy rootstock, common throughout Europe, temperate 
and sub-arctic Asia and North America. The rootstocks are 
collected chiefly from wild plants, and used for medicinal 
purposes to allay pain or in rheumatic affections. It is a 
very virulent poison ; deaths have occurred through mis- 
taking Aconite-root for Horseradish. A little care, 



ft 

however, might obviate this ; the Aconite has a short CASE 
dark-coloured tapering root, from which numerous 1. 
rootlets are given off ; the Horseradish is much longer, 
of more uniform thickness throughout, of a yellowish 
colour, and without root-fibres. The rootstocks of Aconi- 
turn sptcatum, Stapf, and other species furnish the BiSH 
poison of India, used for poisoning the arrows in tiger 
traps, &c. A tiger trap from the Sikkim Terai is exhibited. 
Note also sheep muzzle from Sikkim made of split 
Bamboo. When the shepherds take their flocks across 
districts where Aconite grows, they halt and a muzzle is 
made for e:ich sheep to prevent its being poisoned. 

No. 9. Black Cohosh, Black Snake Root, or 
BUGBANE {Chnicifuga racemosa, Nutt.). A perennial 
herb common in ths United States and Canada. The 
rootstocks are bitter, slightly acrid and astringent, and are 
employed medicinally in North America. 

Mag'nolia Order (Magnolia ceae), remarkable for its 
fine trees, bearing handsome flowers. Natives chiefly of 
the tropical and temperate Asiatic Mountains and of the 
United States. 

No. 10. Eucommia ulmoides, Oliv. A small tree, 
native of China. The bark contains caoutchouc, and is a 
valued medicine of the Chinese. 

Observe WINTER'S BARK, the aromatic bark of Drimys 
Winteriy Forst, a widely distributed South American tree. 
It takes its name from Capt. Winter, who commanded 
the " Elizabeth," under Sir Francis Drake, and who, on 
his return voyage from the Straits of Magellan in 1579, 
used the bark " as a spice and medicine for scurvy." 

No. 11. Star Anise (lUicium verum. Hook f.). A 
small tree, native of China. The fruit is star-shaped, 
consists of several carpels, and is agreeably aromatic. It 
is imported from China into Europe, America, and India, 
for flavouring liqueurs and spirits, chiefly the Anisette 
de Bordeaux. Oil of Anise distilled from the fruit has 
aromatic, stimulant, and carminative properties. Its chief 
constituent is Anethol. Illicium anisatiim, L., is the 
Japanese Star Anise, the fruits of which have a faint 
odour and taste of bay leaves, and are poisonous, fatal 
cases having arisen from the use of the oil. 



10 

CASE No. 12. Tulip Tree {Llrlodendron tuUpifera, L.). 
2. A large tree of North America. Wood fine and even 
grained ; used in America for cabinet work, door panels^ 
&c. Imported into this country in considerable quantities 
as Whitewood or Poplar for similar purposes. The 
inner bark is used under the name of Yellow Poplar 
Bark as a stimulant tonic. 

Custard Apple Order {Anonaceae). Trees or shrubs,, 
often climbing and aromatic, natives chiefly of the tropics 
of the Old World. Several afford excellent fruits. 

No. 13. Wood of Dugiietia quifarensis, Bth., a tree 
of South America, said to be one of the Lancewoods of 
coach-builders. Note also Bocagea laurifoUa, B. & H., 
which affords White Lancewood, and B. virgata^ 
B. & H., Black Lancewood, shipped from the West 
Indies ; the two latter are the chief sources of supply. 

Observe fruits of CALABASH NuTMEG {Monodora 
grandiflora^ Bth.), a tree of West Tropical Africa. 
The seeds are aromatic, and used by the natives as a 
condiment. 

No. 14. Cherimoyer {Anona Gherimolia, Mill.). A 
delicious fruit, produced by a small tree of Ecuador and 
Peru, now widely distributed in sub-tropical countries. 

No. 15. Sour Sop {Anona miiricata, L.). A small 
evergreen tree of Tropical America. The fruit is edible 
and has an acid flavour. 

No. 16. Sweet Sop {Anona squamosa, L.). A low 
stunted tree of irregular growth, native of Tropical 
America. The leaves, seeds and immature fruits contain 
an acid principle destructive to insect life. 

No. 17. Bullock's Heart or Custard Apple 
{Anona reticulata, L.). A low spreading tree of Tropical 
America The fruit is edible, and is employed medicinally 
as an anti-dysenteric and vermifuge. 

Note also fruits of the ALLIGATOR Apple {Anona 
palustris, L.), a low tree of Tropical America, found on 
marshy shores. The fruit, said to be narcotic and even 
poisonous is, however, greedily eaten by alligators ; the 



11 

wood known as CORK WOOD is employed for stopping CASE 
casks and bottles, and for lining boxes. 2. 

No. 18. African, Guinea or Negro Pepper. 
Fruits of Xylojna aethiopica^ A. Rich., a large tree of 
Upper Guinea. The black quill-like aromatic and pungent 
fruits are sold in the native markets for use as pepper and 
as a stimulant in medicine. 

Moonseed Order (lfems;;ermaceae). Climbing tropical CASE 
shrubs, with bitter and narcotic properties. Observe the 3^ 
curious arrangement of the wood in cross section of stem 
and root. 

No. 19. Pareira Brava (Ghondodendron tomento- 
s?<///, R. & P.). A woody climber of Peru and Brazil. The 
root has a bitter taste, but no smell ; used as a mild tonic 
and diuretic. 

No. 20. GULANCHA {Tinospora cordifolia, Miers). A 
woody climber common in India and Ceylon. The roots 
and stems have bitter, tonic, antiperiodic, and diuretic 
properties. 

No. 21. COCCULUS Indicus {Anamirta paniculata, 
Colebr.). A large climbing shrub with corky bark, native 
of India. The fruits are kidney-shaped, about the size of 
a large pea. Imported into this country for the prepara- 
tion of ointments and for the adulteration of beer. 

No. 22. False Calumba (Coscinium fenestratum, 
Colebr.). A climber, native of the forests of Ceylon, 
Malacca, and Malabar. Wood bright greenish yellow, 
strongly marked in cross section by broad medullary rays. 
Said to have been long in use in Ceylon and Southern 
India as a tonic and yellow dye. 

No. 23. Calumba or Colombo Root {Jateorhiza 
Coliimha, Miers). A perennial climber with short root- 
stock and numerous fleshy fusiform roots. It grows in 
the forests of Mozambique and Quillimane. Calumba 
root of commerce consists of the dried and sliced root. 
Shipped to this country either from Zanzibar direct, or 
by AN ay of Bombay. It has a bitter taste and is a mild 
tonic. 



12 

CASE No. 24. Velvet Leap or Spurious Pareira Br ava 
S. {Cissampelos Pareira, L.). A slender woody climber, 
cosmopolitan in warm regions. The root is a bitter tonic 
and diuretic but is not in use in European medicine. 

Barberry Order {Berlje7ndeae). Shrubs and per- 
ennial herbs of temperate climates. Many have acid or 
astringent berries and bright yellow wood, which yields 
a dye. 

No. 25. Indian Barberry {Berheris Lycium, Royle). 
A shrub, native of the Western Himalayas. The root bark 
is bitter and tonic, as are also those of B. asiaiica, Roxb., 
and B. aristata, DC. Under the name of RUSOT, a 
watery extract prepared from the stem and root bark of 
various species is used in ophthalmia and as a tonic and 
febrifuge in India. In the bazaars the stem, extract and 
fruit are always obtainable. 

No. 26. May Apple or Podophyllum Roots (Podo- 
jjhyllum peltatum, L.). A perennial, common in moist 
woods in the United States and Canada. The rhizome 
and roots are collected about August, when the principle 
is most active, and thoroughly dried. They are slightly 
bitter and acrid, and furnish the medicine known as 
Podophyllin. 

Water Lily Order {Nymphaeacene). Herbs with 
floating leaves, found in various parts of the globe. 

No. 27. Flower and leaf of Victoria Water Lily 
{Victoria legia, Ldl.). A native of Guiana and Brazil, 
where the leaves sometimes measure 12 feet across, and 
the expanded flowers about one foot in diameter. The 
maximum size attained by leaves in this country is about 
7 feet. The seeds are eaten by the Indians. 

No. 28. Egyptian Lotus {NelumUum spcciosum, 
Willd.). Regarded by the early Egyptians, and by 
Buddhists and Hindus of the present day as an emblem 
of peculiar sanctity. Observe the seeds, or more properly 
fruits, imbedded in the dry top-shaped receptacle. They 
are imported into India from Persia in large quantities as 
an article of diet. The roots and scapes are used as food 
in India and China in times of scarcity. 



Side Saddle Order {Sarraceniaceae), Chiefly bog CASE 
herbs of North America, remarkable for the tubular 4.. 
form of their leaves. The powdered root of Sarracenia 
purpurea^ L., has been recommended as a remedy in 
small-pox, but is valueless. 

Poppy Order {Papavey^aceae). Principally herbs 
abounding in milky juice. Natives of temperate climates, 
especially of Europe. They are remarkable for their 
narcotic properties. 

No. 29. Heads of the Opium or White Poppy 
{Papciver somniferuni^ L.). Cultivated from early 
antiquity for the sake of its well-known dried juice 
known as Opicjm. Asia Minor, Egypt, Persia, and India 
yield the principal supply. The milky juice is obtained 
by incising the poppy-heads, from which it slowly 
exudes, turning to a brown colour. Its subsequent pre- 
paration varies in different countries. The instruments 
employed in the Indian Opium manufacture are exhibited 
in this case, and are separately marked by small numbered 
descriptive labels. The poppy heads (1) are scarified by 
little lancets (2) which are drawn from the bottom to the 
top of the "heads" (3); the juice is collected in small 
scoops (4), poured into plates or bowls (5, 6), from which 
part of the moisture drains off, and is carried to the 
factory in jars (7), where, after sampling by bamboo 
scoops (8), it is assorted, mixed with similar qualities in 
vats, and stirred by rakes (9), to insure uniformity. 
i\.fter sufficient exposure it is made up into cakes covered 
by petals of the poppy (14, 15), cemented together (18) 
with inferior opium. A chest divided into compartments 
for the Chinese opium trade is numbered 22. The balls 
of opium (23) are packed in " poppy trash " (24). 

No. 30. Specimens of Opium from Smyrna, Egypt, 
Persia, and India ; also specimens of the various alkaloids 
obtained from it. For medicinal purposes Indian opium 
is of much less value than that from Asia Minor or 
Persia, in consequence of its containing a much lower 
percentage of morphine. 

No. 31. Complete OPiUM-SMOKiNG APPARATUS from 
China. Also carving in Pai'cha wood {Euoriymus 



14 

CASE europaeus, L., var. hamiltonimius) from Ningpo, illus- 

4. trating the manner of smoking opium. For this purpose 
the opium is prepared in a liquid form ; a drop about the 
size of a pea is roasted over the lamp and then placed 
over thcj little aperture in the bowl of the pipe ; the 
smoker in a reclining posture keeps it alight by holding 
it over the flame. 

The opium poppy is also cultivated in cool countries 
for the sake of the capsules and seeds, the former used in 
fomentations for allaying pain, the latter as an oil-seed 
(Maw-seed). The residue of the seeds, after the oil has 
been expressed, forms an oil-cake for feeding cattle. 
CASE Observe petals of the Common Red or Corn Poppy 

5. {Papaver Rlioeas, L.). They have a somewhat unpleasant 
odour and slightly bitter taste. Used in medicine chiefly 
at a colouring agent. Observe also fruits, seeds, and oil 
of Argemone mexicana^ L. 

No. 32. Blood Root or Puccoon {Sanguinaria 
canadensis, L.). A perennial herb, with a fleshy root-stock 
of a dull red colour outside, and a bright red within. 
The plant has a wide distribution in Canada and the 
United States. It has a bitter acrid taste, and is stimulant 
and diaphoretic. 

Crucifer Order {Cruciferae). Nearly all herbaceous, 
abounding in the temperate countries of the northern 
hemisphere. They are called Cruciferae (cross-bearing) 
from the four flower leaves (petals) being disposed, more 
or less distinctly, in the form of a cross, as in the Wall- 
flower, Cabbage, and Cress, familiar examples of the 
order. None are poisonous, but all are nitrogenous ; they 
are often acrid, and occasionally antiscorbutic. 

No. 33. The so-called ROSE OF Jericho (Anastatica 
hierochuntica, L.). An annual plant from the deserts of 
Arabia and Egypt. After withering, its spreading 
branches roll themselves up in a ball, and the whole 
plant is detached and blown about by the wind, the 
branches expanding again with the first rainfall. By this 
means the plant is readily dispersed. 

No. 34. Horse-Radish. The root-stock of (7oc/i/ea>*?a 
Armoracia, L. A perennial herb, origin unknown, 



15 

naturalized in damp waste places through the greater part CASE 
of Europe. It is largely grown in gardens for use as a 5. 
condiment, as well as in medicine. 

No. 35. Mustard. The pulverised seeds of ^rass/ca 
alha^ Bpiss., and B. nigra, Koch ; the first, the White, 
the second, the Black Mustard. They are annuals found 
over a great part of Europe, the former being also found 
in Asia Minor, Algeria, and China ; and the latter in Asia 
Minor, Norih-West India, and North Africa. In this 
country White Mustard is cultivated chiefly in Essex and 
Cambridgeshire, and Black Mustard in Lincolnshire and 
Yorkshire. Mustard of commerce, or Flour of Mustard, 
is usually prepared from the mixed seeds. Besides the 
use of Mustard as a condiment it is important as a 
stimulant and powerful rubefacient. 

No. 36. A series of seeds of different forms (GUZERAT 
Rape, etc.) of Brassica campestris, L., from various parts 
of India. Largely grown for expressing oil for food 
purposes. 

Observe seeds and Oil of Rape or CoLZA {Brassica 
camjjestris, sub. sp. Napus, L.). Rape is grown in this 
country as a green fodder, and on the Continent for the 
oil expressed from the seeds. Used both for lamps and 
lubricating purposes. 

No. 37. Models and drawings of Swede Turnips. 
The fleshy tuberous roots of Brassica campestris, sub. sp. 
ramjjestris, extensively cultivated under many varieties 
for feeding cattle. 

No. 38. Common Turnip (Brassica campestris, sub. 
sp. Rapa, L.). A hardy perennial found in corn fields 
and similar places in this country. The root is hard and 
woody in the wild state but becomes succulent under 
cultivation. 

No. 39. Cabbage {Brassica oleracea, L.). In its wild CASE 
state this is found on cliffs by the sea in several parts of 6. 
England, but under cultivation it is well known in 
many forms as Brussels Sprouts, Savoy, Cauliflower, 
Kohlrabi, Broccoli, Red Cabbage, Scotch Kale, etc. 



16 

CASE No. 40. Cabbage Walking Sticks, the stems of a 
6. variety of the Garden Cabbage {Brassica oleracea^ L.), 
grown in the Channel Islands. The growth in height is 
promoted by constantly stripping off the lower leaves. 

No. 41. Wo AD, a dye yielded by Isatls tinctoria^ L., 
used by the ancient Britons to stain the skin blue. Its 
culture for this purpose was probably very general at a 
remote period. The manufacture of Woad in this country 
is rapidly dying out, and at the present time is carried on 
only in the neighbourhood of Wisbech. It is used in 
combination with indigo for dyeing purposes. 

Observe seeds and models of varieties of RADISH 
(Raphantfs sativiis^ L.). 

Caper Order {Gapparideae), Herbs or trees, fre- 
quently spiny. Many are found in hot and dry countries. 
The fruit is often curiously raised upon a distinct stalk 
above the scar of the withered flower. 

No. 42. Capers, the flower buds of Capparis spinosa,, 
L., a scrambling bush of the Mediterranean region. It is 
largely cultivated in Spain, France, Italy, Algeria and 
Sicily, the Capers being shipped in casks chiefly from 
Marseilles and Bordeaux. The flower buds of Zygophyl- 
lum Fahago, L., are occasionally substituted. 

Note fruits of Capparis Mitchelli^ Lindl., the Queens- 
land Pomegranate, a shrub with large white flowers. 
The fruits are one to two inches in diameter with a rough 
exterior rind ; the pul^D, which has an agreeable perfume, 
is eaten by the natives. Observe also fruits of Capparis 
oleoideSy Burch., a South African plant introduced into 
America about 1867 under the name of Frugtus 
SiMULO as a remedy for epilepsy. 

CistUS Order {Cistineae). A small order of plants 
abounding in Spain, Portugal, and N.W.Africa, represented 
by the Rock Roses and Gum Cistus of our gardens. 

No. 43. LabdanuM. a resin exuded by the leaves 
and branches of Cistus polymorphus, Willk., and other 
species of the Levant, largely used as a medicine during 
the prevalence of the plague. At the present day it is 
chiefly employed by the Turks in perfumery. It is 



17 

collected by whipping the plants with an instrument CASE 
called a Ladanisterion, which consists of long thongs 6. 
attached to a rake-like frame, the resin adhering to the 
straps. Two of these instruments are exhibited, one from 
Crete and the other from Cyprus, 

Note 4.n passing, under the Order Resedaceae, dried 
specimens of Weld or Dyer's Weed {Reseda Luteola, 
L.), a common British wayside plant largely used at one 
time as a yellow dye. Also the Violet Order ( Violarieae), 
the roots of several species of which possess emetic or 
purgative properties, especially those of lonidium Ipeca- 
cuanha^ Vent., which furnishes some of the FALSE 
Ipecacuanha that occasionally finds its way into the 
English drug market. Its root can however be readily 
distinguished by being marked with fine longitudinal 
lines and not annulated as in the true drug. The roots of 
other species of lonidium, viz. — /. glutinosum., Vent.^ 
and /. heterophyllum, Vent., are also occasionally substi- 
tuted. All these species are natives of Brazil. 

Canella Bark Order {Ganellaceae). A small group 
of trees or shrubs, with aromatic bark, natives of tha 
West Indies and tropical America. 

No. 44. Canella Bark {Canella alba, Murr.). An 
evergreen tree 30 to 40 feet in height, native of the West 
Indies and South Florida. The bark is imported from 
Nassau in New Providence in quills of irregular length. 
It is orange or buff coloured externally, and yellowish 
white internally. It has a bitter, acrid, and pungent 
taste, and an agreeable odour resembling Cinnamon. It 
is used in the West Indies as a condiment, and in this 
country occasionally as an aromatic stimulant. Note also 
bark of Red Canella or Mountain Cinnamon {Cinna- 
modendron corticosum, Miers). Native of the West 
Indies. It has an aromatic odour and was formerly used 
as a substitute for Winter's Bark, which see. 

AnnattO Order {Bixineae). Shrubs or trees of the 
hottest parts of the globe. 

Note specimens of KUTEERA GUM of the Indian 
bazaars, furnished by Cochlospermum Gossypium, DC, 
used in the United Provinces as a substitute for Traga- 

25782 B 



1« 

CASE canth. The name Kuteera is applied in India to other 
6. light-coloured gums, such as those from species of 
Btermlia and Astragalus. 

INO. 45. Annatto, an orange or yellow dye for silks 
and staining cheese, prepared from the red- coloured pulp 
■which covers the seeds of Bixa Orellana, L., a small 
bushy tree with handsome white or pinkish flowers, 
widely distributed in the tropics. Both the prepared 
dye and the seeds are imported, chiefly from South 
America and the West Indies. Dried specimens of the 
plant are shown with the red seeds attached to the inside 
of the fruit capsules. 

CASE Observe snuff boxes and ornaments, made of the round 
7 fruits of Oncoha spinosa, Forsk., by the native tribes of 
Natal. 

No. 46. Kei Apples {Aheria Gaffra, Harv. & Sond.), 
the fruits of a shrub, native of the Cape of Good Hope 
and Kaffirland, which when fresh, are acid and used as 
a pickle, and when ripe are made into a preserve. 

No. 47. Chaulmugra Oil, from the seeds of Tarak- 
togenos Kurzii^ King, a tree of the forests of Sylhet, 
Chittagong and Burma. It is used in India for the treat- 
ment of skin diseases and dysentery and is also employed 
medicinally in this country. 

Note LUKRABO Seeds, the produce of Hydnocarpus 
anthelminficus, Pierre. They are exported in consider- 
able quantities from Siam and Cochin China to China, 
where, under the name of Ta-FUNG-tsze, they ar^ in 
repute in the treatment of various skin diseases. 

Pittosporum Order {PUtosporeae), A small group 
of shrubs and trees confined to the Old World. They 
are chiefly Australian and Polynesian. 

No. 48. Wood of Pittosporum hicolor, Hook., and P. 
undulatum, Vent., from New South Wales and Tasmania, 
They are close grained and adapted for turning and 
wood engraving. 

Milkwort Order {Pohjgaleae). Characterised by a 
bitter principle. 



19 

No. 49. Senega or Snake Root {Poly gala Senega, CASE 
L.). A perennial herb of the United States. The root has a 7. 
distinctive odour and sweetish taste, changing to a sourish 
acrid. Used against chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheu- 
matism, &c. 

Near tiiis note Maloukang, Maluku, Ankalaki, 
or Black Beni Seeds {Folygala hutyracea, Heckel), 
occasionally imported from West Africa as oil-seeds. 
The oil is said to be of " excellent quality and of 
very agreeable taste." Note also BUAZE Fibre and nets 
made of the fibre of Securidaca longepedunculata, Fres., a 
branching shrub of Eastern Tropical Africa. 

Observe also SWAN RiVER BROOM (Comesperma sco- 
parium^ Drum.). From a small knotty rootstock a 
quantity of slender twiggy branches arise, the whole 
forming a natural broom, which has only to be cut to be 
ready for use. 

No. 50. Rhatany Root (Krameria argentea, Mart.). 
Imported from Para. The bark is a powerful astringent 
and tonic, employed in diarrhoea and dysentery. K, tri- 
andra, Ruiz, and Pav., is the source of Peruvian Rhatany 
and K. Ixina, L., that known as Savanilla, or New Granada 
Rhatany. 

CMckweed Order {Caryophylleae), to which the 
Pink, Carnation, and Catchfly belong. Chiefly herbs 
inhabiting cold and temperate regions. A saponaceous 
principle pervades many of the species, as Saponaria 
officinalis^ L., Gyjosophila Struthium, L., G. Arrostiu 
Guss., and G. paniculata^ L. The roots of the three last 
named are used for washing silks and other delicate 
fabrics. The Italian soap-root appears to be derived from 
G. Arrostii ; that of Asia Minor from G. paniculata. 

No. 51. Tufts of Arenaria miisciformis. Wall., and CASE 
Thylacospermum rupifragum, Schrenk, from exposed 8. 
rocks 14,000 to 18,000 feet above sea-level in the 
Himalaya. 

Purslane Order {Portulaceae). Succulent herbs or 
small shrubs, found chiefly in dry arid places in South 
America and at the Cape. Some are of value as pot-herbs, 
as Portulaca oUracea, L. 



20 

€ASE No. 52. Spjetlum Root (Lewisia rediviva^ Pursh). 
8. The roots are collected as food by the Indians of the 
Upper Oregon territory. They retain their vitality for a 
long time. 

Tamarix Order {Tamariscineae). Bushes or small 
trees, widely distributed. Several species produce galls, 
notably Tamarix articulata^ Vahl. Abundant in Sind 
and the Punjab, and distributed in Baluchistan and 
westward to Egypt and South Africa. T. gallica^ L., is 
common in India, Burma, and Ceylon, also Europe and 
Tropical Africa. Tamarix galls are used in medicine 
as an astringent, and are also employed for dyeing. 

Tutsan Order, or St. John's Worts (Hypericineae), 
Plants with opposite undivided leaves, often dotted with 
minute oil glands, easily seen when held against the 
light. A few are used in medicine, as Hypericiirn 
perforatum, L. 

Gamboge Order {Guttiferae). Tropical trees and 
shrubs, with entire, opposite, smooth, and rather thick 
leaves. Many of the representatives of the order afford 
valuable oil-seeds and a yellow, purgative, resinous juice 
which in some Eastern species is collected as Gamboge, 
the well-known pigment and medicine. 

No. 53. Karamani Resin {Symplmnia glohuUfera, 
L.). A tree of British Guiana. The resin is chiefly collected 
by the negroes from among the roots of old trees. It is 
used in medicine and as a cement for fixing arrow- and 
spear-heads. In Jamaica it is called Hog Gum. 

No. 54. Fruit of the Butter or Tallow Tree of 
Sierra Leone (Pentadesma hutyracea, Sabine). When 
cut these fruits yield a greasy yellow juice which becomes 
solid on exposure to the air. It is mixed by the negroes 
with their food. 

No. 55. Portion of trunk of the " TONG RONG " or 
Gamboge Tree of Siam {Garcinia Hanhuryi, Hook, f.), 
spirally gashed to cause the resin to flow into joints of 
Bamboo placed to receive it. Note also samples of Siam 
Gamboge which forms the bulk of the Gamboge of 
commerce. 



I 



21 



No. 56. Bitter or Male Kola of Tropical Africa CASE 
{Garcinia Kola^ Heckel). The seeds are reputed to have 3. 
similar properties to those of the common Kola {see 
No. 7G). 

No. 57- Fruits of Garcinia indica, Choisy, a small 
Indian tree. The fruit is similar in appearance to a small 
apple, and has an acid flavour. From the seeds a solid 
oil is obtained which is known as KOKUM Butter, used 
in India in the preparation of ointments, &c. 

No. 58. Bark and young wood of the Ceylon GAM- 
BOGE Tree (Garcinia Morella, Desr.), showing the 
coloured juice which has exuded and dried upon the 
cut edge. Ceylon Gamboge is obtained by making 
incisions in the bark, or by cutting out pieces of it ; the 
juice oozing from the wounds hardens on exposure, and 
is scraped off. 

Various samples of Gamboge obtained from different 
species of Garcinia in India are shown. 

No. 59. Mangosteen. Fruits of Garcinia Mango- 
stana, L., a moderate-sized tree of Malacca and the Malay 
Archipelago introduced into Ceylon and the West Indies. 
The fruits are about the size and shape of a small apple, 
reddish brown when ripe. The juicy white pulp sur- 
rounding the seeds is eaten, and has a refreshing delicate 
flavour ; it is considered by some the choicest of all 
tropical fruits. 

Note flower-buds of Ochrocarpus longifoUus, Benth. CASE 
and Hook, f ., used in India, under the name of SURINGI, 9, 
for dyeing silk a yellow, or deep orange colour ; they are 
also employed in medicine. Note also fruits of the 
African Mammbe Apple (Ochrocarpus africanus, 
Oliv.), from Sierra Leone and the Niger. 

On the lower shelves are shown fruits and woods of 
several species of Calophyllum, including the Alexan- 
drian Laurel (C. Inophi/lhim, L.), from the fresh 
seeds of which a fragrant green oil is obtained, in India 
known as PiNNAY or DOMBA oil. Used for burning in 
lamps, and externally as a medicine in the treatment of 
rheumatism. The seeds of Galea (C. Calaha, Jacq.), 
Keena (C. tomentosum, Wight), and Nagesar (Mesua 



^2 

CASE ferrea^ L.), all contain oil ; all three species yield strong 
9. and durable woods. 

On the bottom shelf are fruits of the Mammee Apple 
{Mammea americana, L.), a large West Indian tree. 
The fleshy part of the large russet brown fruit is sweet 
and aromatic and is used for making preserves. A 
liqueur is prepared from the flowers, and the gum is used 
to destroy the Chigoes (Culex penetrans) in the feet of 
negroes. 

Observe two necklaces made of the remarkable velvet- 
like seeds of Quiina jamaicensis, Oris., from Jamaica, 
and Q. guianensis, Aubl., from British Guiana. Also 
fruits of Touroulia Jenmani, Oliv., of British Guiana, 
and a necklace made oc the seeds which are similar to 
those of Quiina in their velvety appearance, but larger 
and of a darker colour. 

CASE Tea Order {Temstroemiaceae). Trees and shrubs, 
j^O^ chiefly South American and East Asiatic. 

No. 60. SOUAKI NUTH, the fruits of Caryocar nuci- 
ferujn, L., and 0. tomentosiwi, Willd. The kernel is said 
to be the most delicious of the nut kind. It contains a 
sweet oil, used in South America. The timber of 
C. iomentosum is valuable for shipbuilding. 

On a lower shelf observe specimens of the wood of the 
MuRA PiRANGA {Haploclathra paniculata^ Bth.), from 
Brazil. The wood is extremely hard and close grained 
and is used by the people lor making walking sticks, 
spears, &c. In the upper part of the case is a MURUCU 
or Staff made of this wood and used by the Tuchauas 
or chiefs of the Uaupe Indians. 

Note also wood, seeds, and oil of Camellia Sasanqua, 
Thb., a native of China and Japan, where the oil is used 
for a variety of domestic purposes. The dried leaves are 
fragrant, and are said to be used to mix with tea. 

The most important member of the order is the TEA 
Plant {Caynellia Thea^ Link.). It is a native of Assam, 
and probably also of China, though in the latter country, 
so famed for its production, it is only known under 
cultivation. Black and green teas are prepared from the 
same plant by peculiar methods of drying or curing ; 
the leaves made up into green being more rapidly dried 



23 

and not permitted to remain in a moist and flaccid CASE 
state so long as those intended for black tea. Tea is 10. 
largely produced in India, Ceylon, China, Japan and Java, 
and to a less extent in Formosa, the Caucasus, Natal, &c. 
The total imports of tea into the United Kingdom for 
1905 aniounted to 309,601,776 lbs., of this quantity 
259,088,591 lbs. were entered for home consumption. In 
the last division of this case note examples of Chinese 
Tea-root carvings from Amoy. 

No. 61. A box of ingredients used in China for the 
artificial colouring of the lower grades of green tea. 

No. 62. Brick Tea of Tibet, pressed and dried in 
moulds. It is largely used in Central Asia boiled with 
salt, butter, &c. In the table case at the head of the 
stairs near Case No. 1 are various articles employed by 
Tibetans in the preparation of this tea for consumption. 
Observe in the tea case " wheatsheaf ," " lozenge " and 
other forms of fancy teas. Upon the adjoining wall are 
hung Chinese drawings on rice paper, illustrating the 
history of the tea plant from its first introduction in 
fabulous times to human notice by a monkey, to the 
packing and exportation of the present period. 

Wood-Oil Order {Dipterocarpeae). A small group of CASE 
gigantic forest trees of India, Burma and Ceylon, valuable 11, 
as timber trees, and for the most part abounding in resin 
and wood-oil. They have characteristic winged fruits, of 
which various forms are shown. 

No. 63. Gar JAN or Kanyin Oil, obtained chiefly 
from Dipterocarpus turhinatus, Gaertn. A lofty ever- 
green tree of India, Burma, and the Andaman Islands. 
Large quantities of the wood-oil are collected in the 
Chittagong forests and exported to Calcutta. To extract 
. the oil deep incisions are made in the trunk about 3 to 
5 feet from the root and tire is applied to cause the f 

oil to exude. It is used in medicine in India as a sub- 
stitute for balsam of copaiba ; also as a varnish for 
preserving timber. The oleo-resin known as In or Eng 
Oil is obtained by a similar process from D. tubarciUatuSy 
Roxb., a large deciduous tree of Burma ; this is used for 



24 

CASE water-proofing and for torches. Note torches filled with 

11. the resin of D. alatns, Roxb., covered with leaves of 
species of Pandanus. 

No. 64. Log of Sumatra Camphor Tree {Dryo- 
halanops aromatica^ Gaertn.). The crystallized camphor 
is shown in situ on the wood. It does not reach 
Europe, but is an important article of commerce with 
China and Japan, the people of those countries attribut- 
ing to it extraordinary virtues and paying a high price for 
it, in preference to ordinary camphor, their own produce. 
Specimens of Sumatra Camphor-Oil are also exhibited. 

No. 65. Fine mass of resin from Vateria acuminata^ 
Heyne, a handsome tree of the moist low country of 
Ceylon, where the wood is used for coffins and minor 
purposes. Vateria indica, L., yields PiNEY Resin 
Indian Copal, or White Dammar, used in varnish on 
the Malabar coast. Piney tallow, used for candles, is 
obtained by roasting, grinding and boiling the seeds. 

No. 66. Wood of the Sal or Saul Tree (Shorea 
robusta, Gaertn.)^ A large timber tree widely distributed 
in India, and forming extensive forests. The wood when 
thoroughly seasoned is of great strength, elasticity and 
durability, and is used for piles, beams, railway sleepers, 
gun carriages, &c. By tapping, the tree yields large 
quantities of a whitish transparent resin or dammar, used 
for caulking boats and as incense. The seeds are eaten 
in times of scarcity and also yield a hard white oil used 
for cooking and lighting. Other species of Shorea and 
Hopea afford valuable timbers. 

On bottom shelf observe Dammar Holder from 
Perak. It is used in the same way as a candlestick and 
is made to support two cylindrical torches made of the 
spathe of Areca Catechic, filled with a Dipterocarpeous 
resin. 

CASE Mallow Order {Malvaceae). A large order most 

12, numerous in the tropics, diminishing in numbers towards 
the poles. Remarkably destitute of all noxious pro- 
perties ; but mucilaginous and affording from the inner 
layers of the bark a useful fibre. The pink mallows of 
<)ur roadsides represent the order in Britain. 



25 

Tribe I. Malveae. Observe Marsh Mallow Root CASE 
{Althaea officinalis^ Ij,), which yields the Guimauve of 12. 
French pharmacy. Note also fibres from Sida rhombi' 
folia^ L., East Indies ; S. panictdata^ L., Botanic Garden, 
Mauritius ; Ahutilon indicum^ Sweet, East Indies ; and 
A. Avicennae the source of Jute or Hemp of Northern 
China. 

Tribe II. Ureneae. Note fibres furnished by species 
of Malachra, Urena^ and Malvaviscus. 

Tribe III. Hihisceae. 

No. 67. Rozelle or Red Sorrel (Hibiscus Sah- 
dariffa, L.). An annual, widely cultivated in tropical 
countries for the fleshy calyx which is used for the pre- 
paration of cooling refreshing drinks, preserves, &c. The 
stems yield a strong silky fibre known as Rozelle Hemp, 
and the seeds afford excellent food for cattle. Note also 
H. cannabinus, L. An annual or perennial, cultivated 
throughout India and in most tropical countries as a fibre 
plant. It is the source of Deccan and Ambari Hemp 
and also of the fibre known as Kanapf produced on 
the shores of the Caspian. Other species of Hibiscus 
afford useful fibres. 

No. 68. Okro or Gombo (Hibiscus esculentus, L.). 
A large annual herb reaching five or six feet in height, 
largely cultivated in tropical countries as also in the 
Mediterranean region, for the sake of the fruits, which 
vary in length from three to eight inches, and are used 
in a green state as an article of food and for thickening 
soups. Gombo soup is a characteristic dish of the 
Southern United States. The roasted seeds have been 
used as a substitute for coffee. 

Observe MusK Seeds (Hibiscus Abelmoschus, L.), 
cultivated in most tropical countries. The seeds are 
used for imparting a musky odour to sachets and hair- 
powder. They are occasionally imported into this 
country. 

No. 69. Cuba Bast, the inner bark of the Mahoe 
(Hibiscus elatus, Sw.), a West Indian tree, formerly used 
for tying plants in gardens, as well as for tying up 
bundles of cigars. It is also utilized, after bleaching or 



26 

CASE dyeing, for making ladies' hats. The wood is very flexible 

12. and durable and is used for fishing-rods, gunstocks, &c. 
CASE In this case note flowers, fruits, gum, and fibre of the 

13. Portia Tree (Thespesia po2)ylneii, Corr.), a coast tree 
of India, Ceylon, the Pacific Islands, &c. The fibre from 
the inner bark is said to be used in Demerara for making 
coffee bags. The wood is tough and durable and is used 
in India for furniture, cart and carriage building, gun- 
stocks, &c. 

No. 70. Cotton consists of the delicate, tubular, 
hair-like cells which clothe the seeds of various species 
of Gossypium ; its commercial value depends on the 
length and tenacity of these hairs. 

The species yielding the cottons of commerce are, (1) 
Sea Island Cotton {G. viti folium^ Lamk., and possibly 
also G. harhadense, L.) ; (2) Short Staple American {G, 
lierhaceum^ 1..) ; (3) Upland, Georgian, and Egyptian {G, 
hirsiitiim, L. Sp. PI. non Herb.) ; (4) Indian — (a) Surat, 
Broach, &c. (G. obtusifolium, Roxb., of which there are 
many varieties, the best being G. ivightianum^ Tod.), 
and (b) Bengals {G. neglectam^ Tod.) ; (5) Brazilian, Bahi? 
and Pernambuco {G. hraslliense^ Macf.) ; (6) Peruvian 
((t. peruviamimy Cav.) ; (7) China and Japan (G. Nank- 
ing^ Meyen). 

The name Nankin Cotton came into use to denote any 
khaki-coloured cotton. All wild cottons have rufous 
floss and every cultivated plant by reversion tends to 
produce red-coloured cotton so that any species may 
afford a Nankin cotton if by Nankin be meant a rufous 
or khaki-coloured floss. 

A portion of this case is devoted to the different 
sorts of commercial cotton, grown in the United States, 
South America, India, Africa, and the warmer parts of 
Europe ; also to specimens of cotton cloths in various 
stages of manufacture both by civilised and barbarous 
nations. 

The use of Cotton dates from a very early period. 
Sanscrit records carry it back at least 2,600 years, while 
in Peruvian sepulchres cotton cloth and seeds have been 
found. No. 71 is a piece of cotton cloth from a 
Peruvian mummy. 



27 

Exhibited in this case is a tinder box and matches with CASK 
tinder of burnt cotton rag. Such were in universal use 13. 
throughout England before the invention of lucifers. 

A cotton plant from Georgia, mounted specimens of 
cotton pods from China, Assam, Brazil and Cuba, and a 
collection, of Indian Cotton in various stages of manufac- 
ture are shown in special cases near Case 5. 

The total imports of raw cotton into the United King- 
dom in 1005 amounted to 19,674,957 cwts. 

No. 72. Oil from cotton seeds, used extensively as a 
substitute for Olive Oil, for soap-making, and oil-cake for 
feeding cattle. The imports of cotton seed into the United 
Kingdom in 1905 amounted to 568,928 tons. 

Tribe IV. Bomhaceae, Silk Cotton Trees. These 
are nearly all tropical, some being of immense size, as the 
Baobab, Monkey Bread or Monkey Tamarind {Adan- 
sonia digitata, L.), native of Tropical Africa, cultivated 
in India and Ceylon. The bark has been introduced for 
making paper of which specimens are exhibited. Note 
also cloth prepared by beating out the inner bark of the 
tree. 

No. 73. Wood of the Baobab, together with fine 
specimens of the gourd-like fruits which contain an 
edible acid pulp. The fruits are used in India as floats 
for fishing nets and bottles for holding water. Trunks 
have been measured 30 feet in diameter. The wood is 
light, soft, and of little use. 

Adansonia Gregorii^ F. Muell., is the AUSTRALIAN 
Baobab or Gouty Stem Tree. To the aborigines it is 
probably the most useful tree in Tropical Australia ; the 
pulp of the fruit is eaten both without preparation and 
after grinding and moistening. The kernels are slightly 
baked. 

Observe SiLK COTTON or Semul, the silky covering > 

of the seeds of Bomhax fnalaharicum, DC, a large soft- 
wooded tree of India, Burma, Java, &c. The wood is 
used for toys, scabbards, tea boxes, &c., but is not durable. 
Ropes are made from the fibrous bark and a gum called 
MUCHERUS, employed in India in medicine, exudes from 
the tree when the bark has been injured by decay or 
insects. The Silk Cotton is used for stuffing cushions. 



28 



CASE No. 74. Kapok Tree (Eriodendron anfractuosum, 

13. DC.), of the tropics o£ the old and new worlds. The Silk 
Cotton surrounding the seeds is more valued than that 
obtained from Bombax, and is exported in large quantities 
from Java to Europe and Australia for stuffing mattresses 
and for the manufacture of life-saving apparatus. The 
seeds are also exported to Europe as oil-seeds. 

The Cork or Wool tree of the West Indies {Ochroma 
Lagopus, Sw.), yields a Silk Cotton of no commercial 
value. 

Note nest of the "Doctor Humming-bird" formed of 
this substance. 

No. 75. DURIAN Fruits (Durio Zibethinus, Murr.). 
A tree cultivated in Malacca and the Malay Islands. By 
those who have overcome its civet odour and turpentine 
flavour, it is considered one of the most delicious of 
fruits. 

Note fruits of Neesia aliissima^ Blume, from Penang, 
and the flower of the HAND PLANT {Cheirostemon 
platanoides, Humb. and Bonp.). Venerated by the ancient 
Mexicans on account of the singular resemblance to a 
clawed hand presented by the curved stamens of the 
flower. 

Sterculia Order {StercuUaceae). These resemble in 
many points of structure and in their qualities the Mallow 
tribe. 

Several species of Sterculia^ natives of the East and 
West Indies, Ceylon, Australia, Tropical Africa, &c., yield 
fibrous barks, from which ropes are made. A light 
coloured semi-transparent gum, like Tragacanth, is also 
furnished by many of them. That from Sterculia livens^ 
Roxb., is used medicinally in India as a substitute for 
Tragacanth and also for making sweetmeats, and is known 
as KUTEBRA Gum (See Cochlos]iermum. Gossypmm, p. 17). 
CASE On an upper shelf of the first compartment of this case 

14. observe fruits of BOA-TAM-PAIJANQ of the Siamese 
{Sterculia scaphigera, Wall.), remarkable for the 
mucilaginous character of their pericarps when immersed 
in water. They contain nearly 60 per cent, of Bassorin, 
and are used by the people of Siam and China for making 
a mucilaginous drink as well as for making jellies which 
are eaten as a delicacy. 



29f 

No. 76. Cola or Kola Nuts {Gola acuminata^ CASE 
Schott and Endl.), the seeds of a small tree, native of West X4:. 
Tropical Africa, naturalized in the West Indies. Powdered 
cola nuts thrown into foul water are said to possess the 
virtue of clarifying it and rendering it agreeable to the 
taste. They are chiefly used, however, to satisfy the 
craving of hunger and enable those who eat them to 
endure prolonged labour without fatigue. The Cola seed 
or " nut " is highly esteemed by the natives of Tropical 
Africa and enters largely into the social and dietetic 
economy of their daily life. Cola paste, similar to 
chocolate, is prepared from the ground seeds which con- 
tain about 2 per cent, of cafiCeine. 

No. 77. Cocoa or Chocolate {Thedbroma Cacao, 
L.). A small tree of Central and South America, culti- 
vated to a large extent throughout the tropics of both 
hemispheres, particularly in the West Indies, the chief 
places being Trinidad, Venezuela, and Grenada, and 
latterly Ceylon, Jamaica and Lagos. There are numerous 
well-marked varieties divided into two groups known in 
the West Indies as FORASTERO and Criollo Cacao. The 
fruit contains many seeds closely packed in pulp. These 
after being removed from the pods are fermented and 
rubbed (or in some cases washed) and afterwards care- 
fully dried in the sun. The cocoa or chocolate of shops 
is prepared by roasting the seeds which are afterwards 
ground between hot cylinders to a paste (for chocolate) or 
mixed with sugar, starch, &c. (for cocoa). CocOA NiBS 
consist of the seeds merely broken. OIL of Theobroma 
or Cacao Butter is expressed from the seeds and 
used medicinally. A collection of specimens of Cocoa 
from various countries, with its different preparations, 
presented by Messrs. Fry & Sons, is here exhibited. In 
1905, 54,565,589 lbs. of raw cocoa were imported into the 
United Kingdom, 46,496,174 lbs. being entered for home 
consumption. 

Theobroma speciosa, Willd. is cultivated in Gruatemala. 
It is the Tabasco Cacao of the Atlantic slopes of Central 
America, and probably identical with the celebrated 
SOCUNUSCO Cacao of the Pacific slopes. The latter is 
supposed to be the best Cacao known, and little, if any, 
finds its way into foreign markets. 



3Q 

CASE No. 78. Flowering and fruiting branch and root of 
' 15. Glossostemo7i Brugiiieri, Desf. The latter is sold in 
Egyptian bazaars under the name of MOGHAT for use with 
other ingredients in the preparation of Moghat powder 
employed by Coptic and Arabian women as a strengthen- 
ing medicine. 

Illustrations of the fibrous character of many Indian 
species of the order are exhibited in this case, including 
Abrorna cmgusta, L., the Devil's Cotton. The fibre 
is strong, white and is chiefly employed for cordage. 
Note also Bastard Cedar (Guazuma tomentosa, H. B. 
and K.), this also affords a strong fibre, but is chiefly 
regarded as useful on account of the foliage and fruit 
which arc used in the West Indies as food for stock. 

Linden Order (Tiliaceae), to which belongs our Lime 
or Linden tree. The inner bark or bast of some furnish 
very valuable fibres, specimens of which, belonging to 
several species of Grewia, Trmmfetta, &c., are exhibited. 

No. 79- Jute or Gunny Fibre obtained from Cor- 
chorus ccqjsularis^ L., and C. olUorius, L., used for making 
rice and sugar bags in India. It is an article of large and 
increasing importation into this country, being used in 
the manufacture of carpets, and other fabrics. Specimens 
of Jute in various stages of manufacture are shown, 
including carpets and printed tapestry. 

No. 80. Bast from the common LiMB (Tilia vulgaris, 
Hayne), usually prepared in Russia, hence the name 
*' Russia matting." The wood of the Lime though close 
grained is easily worked, and is pre-eminently a carver's 
wood. The wood carvings of Gibbons, executed in the 
time of Charles II., are in Linden wood. 

CASE Note Basswood {Tilia americana^l^,), imported from 

16. North America for cheap furniture, carriage building, 
turnery, &c. It is not strong, but is easily worked. 

No. 81. Macqui Berries (Aristotelia Maqui, 

L'Herit.). A small evergreen tree of Chili. The fruits are 

eaten either fresh or preserved, and are exported to Europe 

for colouring wines. The leaves are used medicinally. 

CASE Note in this case examples of the use of the stones of 

17. species of Elaeocarpus, especially E, Ganitrus, Roxb., 



31 

India (which are made into rosaries by Brahmins), and CASE 
E. grandis, F. Muell., of Australia. 17, 

Flax Order (Lineae). A small order of trees, shrubs, 
or annual herbs, with showy, fugitive flowers, character- 
ised by the tenacious fibre of the inner bark. The most 
important species is the common FLAX {Linum usitatis- 
simum, L.), specimens and products of which are 
exhibited in this case. Note a series of mounted speci- 
mens of fruits and seeds from the screenings of imported 
Linseed. 

No. 82. Linseed, the seeds of the Flax plant, from 
Russia, Sicily, Egypt, India, and America. The husk, or 
testa of the seed, abounds in mucilagp, which is set free 
in water. Largely used for the expression of Linseed oil, 
the residue being — 

No. 83. Oil-cake for cattle-feeding. 

No. 84. White Linseed from India. It yields 45 
per cent, of oil of a very light colour, recommended for 
use by artists on that account. 

No. 85. Specimens of Flax as harvested. 

No. 86. Same, steeped and " broken," ready for the 
operation of '* scutching," which, whether by hand or 
machinery, consists in beating and shaking the '' broken " 
flax, in order to free it from loose and useless particles. 

No. 87. Flax, as imported, of Russian and other 
growths. 

No. 88. Hand Hackles, of two degrees of fineness. 
Through the upright pointed wires of the hackling-frame, 
the stems of flax are drawn to disentangle or comb 
them out, being freed, at the same time, from residual 
extraneous matter. The wire pins are arranged on 
different frames, in progressive degrees of fineness. The 
process is now performed by special machinery. 

No. 89. Linen cloth used to envelop the dead by 
ancient Egyptians, among whom Flax was cultivated 
from remote antiquity. 



32 

CASE This case also contains various fabrics manufactured 

17. from flax. Note also an old spinning wheel from Saffron 
Walden. 

In 1905, 74,794 tons of Dressed and Undressed Flax,, 
and 15,304 tons of Tow or Codilla were imported into the 
United Kingdom. Of Linseed 1,923,940 quarters were 
imported in the same year. 

CASE No. 90. A bundle of the dried leaves of the CoCA 

18, {Erythroxylon Coca, Lamk.), the masticatory of the Andes 
and Peru. The Coca bush is extensively cultivated by 
the Indians. The leaves are either infused as tea, or, as 
is usual, chewed with a little unslaked lime. The imme- 
diate effect is a gentle excitement, with sensations of high 
enjoyment. It use lessens the desire for food, and enables 
the chewer to undergo an enormous amount of fatigue 
from an increase of nervous energy. The active principle. 
Cocaine, is a local anaesthetic. Observe the " Pompoyia^'' 
or lime-flask, of the Indian Coca-chewer, also " I'padu^^ 
the powdered leaf, mixed with a little tapioca, the ashes 
of Quinoa, Cecropia, &c. The cultivation of this plant 
and its varieties has been extended into several British 
Colonies, notably Ceylon. During the year 1904, 896 tons 
of Coca leaves were exported from Peru, principally to 
Germany and the United States, for the manufacture of 
Cocaine. Between 7 and 8 cwts. of Cocaine were exported 
from Peru, almost entirely to Germany, during the same 
period. [" Coca " must be distinguished from " Cocoa " 
of the shops, the produce of Tlieohroma Cacao, see 
Case 14 ; from the Coco plum, see Case 47 ; and from 
the Cocoa Nut Palm {Cocos nucifera, L.), see Museum 
No. 2.] 

Malpigllia Order {Malpighiaceae). A family chiefly 
Tropical South American, often with long twining or 
pendant stems (lianes\ bearing opposite leaves, and 
gaudy flowers with clawed petals. 

No. 91. Transverse section of the stem of an unknown 
species of Malpighiaceae. Observe the curious structure. 

Note also Shoemakers' Bark {Byrsonima spicata, 
Rich.). A West Indian tree 30 to 40 feet high ; the bark 
is used for tanning. 



■ 



33 



Guaiacum Order {Zygophylleae). The abundance, CASE 
especially of spinous species, of this order is characteristic 18. 
of desert vegetation in Egypt and Western Asia. Some 
of them are fine trees. 

Observe mounted specimens of the CREOSOTE PLANT 
{Larrea niexicana, Moric), a shrubby plant of North 
America. The twigs are covered with a resinous sub- 
stance or lac which the Indians mould into balls, and also 
use in rheumatism. It is sometimes called SONORA GUM. 

No. 92. Lignum Vitae {Guaiacum officinale, L.). 
A small ornamental tree, native of Tropical America. 
The wood is remarkable for the singular brownish green 
of the heart-wood ; its extreme hardness and toughness 
adapt it for use for the sheaves of pulleys, pestles, 
mortars, skittle-balls, &c. It contains a green resin, 
obtained either from incisions in the trunk, or by heating 
the wood when broken up into fragments. This is 
greatly used in rheumatism and skin diseases and as a 
stimulant. 

G, sanctum, L., a tree much resembling the foregoing,, 
found in Southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, St. 
Domingo, &c., is the source of Lignum Vitae exported 
from the Bahamas, as well as of some of that shipped from 
Hayti. 

Cranesbill Order {Geraniaceae). Herbs or shrubs,, 
of which the Scarlet Geranium and the common British 
Cranesbill may be taken as examples. Scattered very 
unequally over the globe, though particularly numerous 
at the Cape. Chiefly remarkable for the beauty of their 
flowers. 

The Rose-leaf Geranium {Pelargonium capitatumy 
Ait.) is largely cultivated in the South of France, Algeria, 
and the South of Spain for the oil which is distilled from 
the leaves, used as a perfume and as a substitute for 
Otto of Rose. Samples of the oil distilled in France and 
from English grown plants are exhibited. 

Observe the anomalous structure of the stem in 

No. 93. GiFDOORN or POISONOUS Thorn {Sarcocau- 
Ion Patersonii, Eckl. and Zey.), from Namaqualand. It 
secretes such a quantity of w^axy inflammable substance 

25782 C 



u 

OASE in the bark that, the woody core decaying away, the 
18. stems finally become mere tortuous tubes of wax which 
burn like a torch with a pleasant odour. 

No. 94. Parasol cover made of the fibre of the 
Garden Nasturtium, not to be confounded with the 
true Nasturtium (Watercress) belonging to the Crucifer 
Order. 

The tribe Oxalideae of this order frequently has com- 
pound leaves, which are sometimes sensitive, and possess 
considerable acidity, due to the presence of an acid 
oxalate of potash. Natives of tropical and temperate 
countries, chiefly of South America or South Africa. 

The tubers of several species of Oxalis are edible after 
being boiled ; those of O. crenata, Jacq., a native of Peru, 
are exhibited. 

No. 95. Oxalic Acid, prepared from the Wood- 
Sorrel {Oxalis Acetosella, L.). 

No. 96. The Bilimbi (Averrhoa Bilimhl, L.). The 
fruit of a Tree-Sorrel cultivated in tropical countries. In 
India it is generally used in pickles and in curry ; the 
flowers are made into preserves. 

Notice also the Carambola {A. Caramhola, L.), 
another widely cultivated species. The fruit is eaten in 
India and elsewhere, and is said to be an excellent 
antiscorbutic. 

Rue Order (Rutaceae), Chiefly trees or shrubs, widely 
scattered over the warmer temperate regions of the globe ; 
numerous in Australia, at the Cape, and in Tropical 
America. The order is characterized by the prevalence 
of a bitter, odorous, essential oil, contained in glands 
scattered over the leaves, bark, &c. ; these parts in several 
species are employed in medicine as febrifuges, antispas- 
modics, &c. 

No. 97. CUSPARIA or ANGOSTURA Bark, from a 
small tree (Cusparia febrifuga, Humb.), found in the 
eastern parts of Venezuela. It is a stimulant aromatic 
tonic and febrifuge, producing in large doses nausea and 
purging. 



35 

No. 98. Leaves and oil of common RuB (Ruta CA^E 
graveolens, L.), a plant much esteemed in ancient and 18. 
rustic medicine. 

Observe wood, fruits, and seeds of the Wild Chestnut 
(Calodendron capensis, Thunb.), an ornamental tree of 
the Cape "of Good Hope. The shining black seeds are 
used for necklaces and similar ornaments. 

No. 99. BuCHU leaves, from three species of ^arosma CASE 
(B. cremilata, Hook., B. seri^atifolia^ Willd., and B. \^^ 
betuUna, Bart.), all natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 
They have tonic, diuretic, and stimulant jproperties, and 
are regularly imported into this country. 

Note on the bottom shelf of this case specimens of 
West Indian and Porto Rico Satinwood sometimes 
known as YELLOW SANDERS WoOD furnished by one or 
more undetermined species of Zantlioxylum. 

No. 100. Portion of stem of Zanthoxylum Clava- 
HerculiSy L., of the West Indies, with walking sticks 
made from it. Observe the curiously tubercled bark. 

No. 101. Japan Pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum, 
DC). Used as a condiment in China and Japan. The 
fruit capsules are remarkably fragrant when bruised, 
from .a pungent- aromatic principle residing in the 
tubercles of the rind. 

In the middle division of this case are shown samples of 
Jaborandi leaves of commerce obtained from Pilocarpus 
Jahorandi, Holmes, and other species. Employed medi- 
cinally as a powerful diaphoretic and sialagogue. 

Bark of Toddalia aculeatay Pers., a straggling plant of 
India, Ceylon, Java, &c. The root bark (which under 
the name of LoPEZ ROOT was at one time a noted remedy 
for diarrhoea in Europe) is highly valued in India as a 
stimulating tonic. The whole plant is hot and pungent, 
the ripe berries being fully as pungent as black pepper ; 
an excellent pickle is prepared from them in India. 

Leaves of Murraya Koenigii, Spreng., known as the 
Curry Leaf tree in India, the aromatic leaves being 
used to flavour curries. The wood is durable and used 
for agricultural implements. 



36 

CASE No. 102. Fruits of the Wampi of China {Clausena 

19. Wampi, Oliv.)^ cultivated in India. The fruits have a 
sub-acid flavour and are said to make excellent preserves. 

Observe in this and the following case fruits of different 
varieties of Lime, Shaddock or Pampelmousse, Lemon, 
Forbidden Fruit, Orange, &c., all afforded by trees nearly 
related to each other, and difficult to distinguish in the 
absence of fruit. These, and especially the Orange, are 
cultivated in warm countries. 

No. 103. Fruits, oil, &c., of the LiME {Citrus medicay 
L., var. acida. Brand.), a native of India regularly culti- 
vated in Montserrat, Dominica, and Jamaica, more 
particularly for its juice, which is imported into this 
country in large casks. 

No. 104. Pampelmousse or Shaddock, fruit of 
Citrus decumana, Murr. The PuMELO or POMALO is a 
smaller-fruited variety. The Grape Fruit cultivated in 
the West Indies is another variety of this species. 

CASE No. 105. Lemons, the fruii of Citrus medica^ L., var. 

20. Liraonum^ Brand. Largely cultivated on the Mediterra- 
nean coast and in Spain, Portugal, the Canaries and Azores, 
Sicily supplying the largest quantity for export purposes. 
The candied rind of the fruit forms Lemon peel, and Oil 
or Essence of Lemon is expressed from the fresh rind. 
From the juice of the Lemon, as well as from that of the 
Lime and Bergamot, CiTRTC AciD is manufactured, 
samples of which are shown. 

No. 106. Fingered Citron, a variety of Citrus 
medica, L., having the fruit curiously divided into large 
finger-like lobes. 

Fruits of the KuMQUAT {Citrus Aurantium, L., var. 
japonica, Hook, f.), cultivated in China and Japan. 
They are usually preserved whole in syrup. 

No. 107. Sweet, Chinese or Portugal Orange 
{Citrus Aurantium^ L.). There are numerous varieties 
very extensively grown for their fruits in the w^armer 
parts of the world. In the island of St. Michael, in the 
Azores, a single tree has been said to produce 20,000 
Oranges fit for exportation. Of Lemons and Oranges 



37 

5,905,554 cwts. were imported into the United Kingdom CASE 
in 1905. 20. 

Oils of Neroli and Bergamot, highly esteemed as 
perfumes, are obtained, the first from the flowers of 
C. An rant turn by distillation, and the second from the 
rind of the Bergamot variety, either by distillation or ex- 
pression. The small immature fruits which drop from the 
trees, when collected and dried, form the Orange Berries 
of pharmacy. They are used for flavouring Curacoa, &c. 
The smaller ones, smoothed by a lathe, form Issue-peas. 

No. 108. Fruits, leaves and gum of the WOOD APPLE 
{Feronia elephantum, Corr.), a large Indian tree. The 
pulp of the fruit is acid and is made into a jelly. A gum 
similar to gum arable is exuded by the tree, and the 
Avood is used in house-building, for agricultural imple- 
mentSj &c. 

No. 109. Bael, or Bela of India {Aegle Marmelos, 
Corr,). The pulp of the fruit is an aperient and a 
valuable remedy in dysentery ; its rind and the dried 
unripe fruit are astringent. 

Quassia Order {Simarubeae). Trees or shrubs, 
growing mainly in the tropical parts of America and 
Africa, distinguished by an intense bitterness. Some 
species are employed medicinally as tonics. 

No. 110. Surinam Quassia Wood (Quassia 
amara, L.). This wood is the Original Quassia of the 
Materia Medica and the one upon which the reputation 
of Quassia as a medicine was established, but as the tree 
yielding it was small and slow-growing the supply was 
soon exhausted, and it is now unknown in British 
medicine. See also No. 113. 

No. 111. Fruits and seeds of Cedron (Simaba 
Cedron, Planch.), a small tree of Central America. The 
seed is considered a valuable specific for snake bites, 
intermittent fevers and for stomach complaints. The bark 
and wood have bitter and tonic properties. 

No. 112. SiMARUBA Bark {Simaruba amara, 
Aubl.). A large tree, native of Tropical America, &c. 



38 

CASE The root-bark of this and probably of *S'. glauca, DC, 

20. comes to this country packed in bales, usually direct from 
Jamaica. Used as a bitter tonic and in the treatment of 
dysentery. 

Observe mounted specimens of silkworms and samples 
of silk of the Ailanthus silkworm of China (Attacus 
Cynthia, Drury), now introduced extensively into Western 
Europe and Algeria ; it feeds on Ailanthus glandulosa, 
Desf., which is perhaps the most successful tree for the 
experimental rearing of different species of silkworms. 

Note also Mattipal, the fragrant resin of Ailanthus 
malabartcaf DC, used in India medicinally, especially 
in dysentery, and sometimes burnt as incense in Hindu 
temples. 

CASE No. 113. Quassia Wood {Plcraena evcelsa, Ldl.). 

21. A large tree, native of Jamaica and other West Indian 
Islands. This tree furnishes the Quassia or Bitter Wood 
of chemists and is imported into this country in logs 
of varying length ; it has an intensely bitter taste and is 
made into* cups for holding water to produce a tonic 
draught. Quassia is also used by brewers as a substitute 
for hops in the manufacture of beer and ale, and in 
horticulture as an insecticide. 

Note root of Pbnawar Pait or Bedara Plum 
(Eurycoma longifolia, Jack), used by the natives at 
Singapore as a febrifuge. 

No. 114. DiKA Bread. Made from the seeds of 
the Wild Mango of Sierra Leone {Irvingia Barteri, 
Hook. f.). The tree is a native of West Tropical Africa 
and attains a height of :^0 to 40 feet. The seeds contain a 
quantity of oil or fat similar to cocoa butter which is used 
by the natives in cooking. The oily seeds of the Owala 
{Pentaclethra macrophylla, Benth. : see Case 43) are some- 
times used for mixing with those of Irvingia. Note fruits 
of the Cay Cay (/. Oliveri, Pierre), from Cochin China, 
where the fat from the seeds is also used as food. Note 
fruits, wood and bark of Balanites Ro.rbifrghii, Planch., 
a small thorny Indian tree. Nearly all parts of this tree 
are used in native medicine in India and the nut is 
employed for fireworks ; a small hole is drilled through 
which the kernel is extracted ; the nut is then filled with 



3? 

posvder which bursts with a loud report. From the fruits CASE 
of the Egyptian Myrabolan {B. aegyptiaca, Deiile), an 21. 
intoxicating drink is made by the negroes on the West 
Coast of Africa. 

Ochna Order {Ochnaceae). A small order of glabrous 
shrubs or trees found in the tropins of both hemispheres. 

Note the'winged fruits, the seeds, and wood of Lophi7^a 
alata, Banks. The kernels yield " Mbni " oil employed 
by the natives of Sierra Leone in cookery and for dressing 
the hair. The wood is imported into this country from the 
West Coast of Africa as " African Oak " and is used for 
furniture and in turnery. True African Oak is Oldfieldia 
africana^ Benth. 

Myrrh. Order {Burseraceae). All shrubs or trees, 
with compound, dotted leaves, growing in warm countries. 
Very many abound in fragrant balsams or resins, em- 
ployed in medicine, fumigation, and perfumery. 

No. 115. Cum Olibanum or Frankincense. The 
produce of Bosivellia Carteri, Bird., and probably other 
species inhabiting the Somali coast and also the south 
coast of Arabia. The gum exudes from wounds made in 
the stems ; when first removed from the trees it is very 
soft, but quickly hardens. It is collected for commercial 
purposes exclusively in the countries mentioned above. 
Olibanum is regarded as stimulant, diuretic, and dia- 
phoretic, but is seldom used in medicine at the present 
time. Its chief application now is as an ingredient in 
incense for use in churches. 

No. 116. LuBAN Maiteb. a very fragrant resin 
obtained from Bosivellia frereana^ Bird. Largely used 
in the East as a masticatory. 

Also GUGAL, the resin of the Salai Tree of India 
{B, serrata, Roxb.), where it is used for incense. 

NO; 117. Myrrh. Much doubt exists as to the 
botanical origin of this product which is a gum-resin 
afforded by species of Commipliora \_Balsamodendron'], 
shrubs of Somali-land, Southern Arabia, &c. AFRICAN 
Myrrh is believed to be obtained from Gommiphora 
Schimpn'i, Engl., and perhaps other species of the same 



40 

CASE ^enus ; that from Arabia is probably afforded by C. Myrrha, 
21. Engl., C. Opobalsamum, Engl., and C. sim'plicifolia, 
Schweinf. A.^ it exudes from the tree, Myrrh is at first 
soft, of an oily nature, and of a yellowish colour. It 
ultimately hardens, changing from a golden tint to a 
reddish brown. Most of the Myrrh finds its way to 
Bombay, where it is sorted and re-shipped to Europe and 
elsewhere. Myrrh is used in medicine as a stimulant, 
tonic, and expectorant, and also as a wash for strengthen- 
ing the gums. Its use as an ingredient in incense and 
perfumes dates from high antiquity. " It entered into 
the composition of the holy oil in use by the Jews, and 
also into the Kyphi of the Egyptians, which was usrl 
in fumigations, and for embalming," &c. 

No. 118. Balsam of Mecca. This oleo-resin is 
supposed to be the produce of Commiphora [^Balsamodoi- 
dron] Opohalsamum, Engl. It is a greenish, viscid, turbid 
liquid, with an agreeable odour when fresh, thickening 
and becoming of a yellowish colour with age. It is the 
Balsamum of the Romans and wonderful properties were 
formerly attributed to it, but its use has become obsolete 
in Europe. In the East, however, it is still esteemed for 
its fragrance and medicinal properties. The plant is said 
to be extinct in India and Egypt where it formerly grew. 
The present small supply is obtained from Arabia. 

Observe specimens of Indian Bdellium from Cojnini- 
phora Mukul, Engl., African Bdellium from G. 
africanum^ Engl., BisSA BoL from C. Kataf^ Engl., and 
HOTAI from C, Playfairii (Balsamodendron Playfairii, 
Hook. /.). 

Further light is still needed as regards the true sources 
of these resins ; and specimens of the shrubs (in flower 
or fruit) which furnish them, accompanied by a sample 
of the product, would be greatly valued. 

Other resinous products are exhibited in this case. 
Amongst them Carana, a gum-resin, possibly that of 
Protium Carana, March, extracted by the Maquiritare 
and Piaroa Indians on the Orinoco. Used in medicine for 
plasters. 

No. 119. Hyawa Gum {Protium heptaphylliim , 
March). Used as incense in British Guiana. 



41 

No. 120. Scented wood of the LlN-A-LOA of Mexico CASE 
{Bursrra delpechiana^ Poiss.). Used in San Francisco in 21. 
the manufacture of furniture ; an otto prepared from it 
is used in perfumery. 

GOMMIER or WEST INDIAN BiRCH {Burseva gummi- 
fera^ L.). All parts of the tree yield a fragrant gum-resin, 
used for- flambeaux or torches. Note examples from 
Dominica. 

No. 121. Manila Elemi or Brea. A fragrant gum- CASE 
resin derived from Canarium luzonicum, A. Gray, 22. 
extensively used in the Philippines in caulking boats, and 
for making torches. It is exported to Europe for 
medicinal purposes, being employed in this country for 
the preparation of ointments. The seeds are edible and 
yield an oil. 

Note specimens of the carved fruits of Canarium 
Pimela, Kon., from Amoy. There is a considerable trade 
done in the district in these carvings, which may be 
purchased for a few cents, or a much higher figure, accord- 
ing to their merit and the popularity of the carver. 

No. 122. Black Dammar, the produce of (7«/2ariMm 
strictum, Roxb., a large deciduous tree of the Western 
Ghats. The resin is obtained by gashing the lower parts 
of the stem and then setting it on fire. Used in India in 
the manufacture of bottling wax, varnishes, &c. C. he7iga- 
lense, Roxb., yields an amber-coloured resin, employed in 
India as incense. 

Note the fruits of Santirlopsis Ijalsamifera, Engl., which 
yield the Balsam of St. Thomas, also specimens of 
Gum Opal or Incense Gum from the Mountain 
GOMMIER {Dacryodes hexandra, Gris.), from the West 
Indies. Also wood and oil of West Indian Sandal 
{Amyris halsamifera, L.), a native of Jamaica. 

Melia Order {Meliaceae). Trees or shrubs, often with 
pinnated leaves ; growing principally in the warmer parts 
of America and Asia. 

No. 123. Neem or Margosa {Melia Azadirachta, 

L.). An important Indian tree, held in great estima- 
tion by the natives. Almost every part of the tree has its 
use. Idols are made of the wood, which is also used for 



42 

CASE furniture, shipbuilding, &c. The bitter bark is employed 

22. as a febrifuge ; the leaves are used for poultices, and when 
dried are employed in protecting clothing and books 
against insects ; the clear amber-coloured gum is con- 
sidered stimulant. From the pulp of the fruit is 
expressed a yellow-coloured fixed oil, which is bitter and 
acrid ; used for burning, and in medicine as an antiseptic 
and anthelmintic. 

No. 124. Persian Lilac, Bastard Cedar, or 
Bead Tree {Mella Azedarach, L.). A tree commonly 
cultivated throughout India and all warm countries. The 
wood is handsomely marked, takes an excellent polish, 
and is used for furniture. The fruit yields an oil, the 
nuts are strung as beads, and the bitter root-bark is 
employed in medicine as an anthelmintic. 

Note flowers of Aglaia odoi^ata^ Lour., used by the 
Chinese for scenting tea. 

Also edible fruit of the LANS A or LANGS AT {Lansiiim 
domesticum, Jack), of the Malay Islands. It is much 
esteemed in Java, where it is known as " doehoey 

No. 125. Wood and fruits of Walsura piscidia. Roxb., 
a moderate-sized tree of India and Ceylon. The wood is 
used in Southern India for various purposes, and the 
pulp of the fruit is employed to intoxicate fish. 

CASE No. 126. Mafureira Seeds {TrichiUa emetica, 

23. Yahl.). A tree widely distributed in Tropical Africa. 
The seeds afford a thick heavy oil used in native cookery. 
During the year 1900, ~70 tons of these seeds were 
imported into Marseilles from Inhambane, probably for 
soap-making. 

No. 127. Mahogany, the wood of Swietenia Maha- 
goni^ L., *S'. macropliyUa^ King, and perhaps of other large 
forest trees of Tropical America and Cuba. One of the 
most valuable of furniture woods. There is a record of 
a single log which lay near the south coast of Cuba, too 
heavy to carry to a port, measuring 9 ft. broad, 6 ft. iiigh, 
and 12 ft. in length ; supposed weight about 18 tons. It 
had been there many years, and probably remained till it 
decayed. The two species mentioned above have been 
introduced into India, where they are largely planted. 



43 

No. 128. Model of a truck, laden with mahogany, as CASE 
employed in bringing the logs to the works, from the 23. 
interior of Honduras. 

No. 129. Crab Tree {Garapa guianensis, Aubl.). 
A large tree of Tropical America and Africa. The wood 
is used in British Guiana for furniture, shingles, and the 
masts and"^ spars of vessels, &c. The seeds yield a fatty 
oil called Carap or Crab Oil, used by the natives for 
burning in lamps, for anointing the hair, and in medicine 
as an anthelmintic, also for the healing of wounds. 

No. 130. Wood and fruits of the Cail-CEDRA or 
Mahogany Tree of the Gambia {Khaya senegalensis, 
Juss.). This is one of the many trees furnishing the so- 
called " Mahogany " exported from the West Coast of 
Africa. 

No. 131. Bark and wood of Rohan Tree or Indian 
Redwood {^Soymida fehrifuga, A. Juss.). A large and 
beautiful tree of Central and Southern India. The dark 
coloured, heavy and durable wood is used for construction, 
well-work, ploughshares, and oil-mills, and it is stated to 
be not much attacked by white ants. The bark has 
bitter and astringent properties, and is used as a febrifuge, 
in tanning, and as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery. 

No. 132. Chittagong W^OOD, the beautifully figured 
wood of Chickrassia tahularis, A. Juss., a large tree of 
India, Burma, &c. Used for furniture and for carving. 
The bark is powerfully astringent, and the flowers give a 
red or yellow dye. 

No. 133. Cedar Wood of New South Wales, ToON 
of India {Cedrela I'oona, Roxb.). A tall handsome tree 
of the Sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, Burma, South 
India, &c. The wood is durable and beautifully marked, 
and is used both in India and Australia for all kinds of 
furniture, house joinery, and ornamental work. It is not 
attacked by white ants. The wood is imported into this 
country from Burma under the name of " Moulmein 
Cedar." The bark is astringent, yields a resinous gum, 
and is employed in India as a febrifuge. The flowers 
yield a red and yellow dye and the young shoots and 
leaves, as well as the seeds, are used to feed cattle. 



44 

CASE No. 134. Wood, gum, &c., of West Indian Cedar 

23. {Gedrela odorata, L.). The wood is considered the best 
for cigar boxes as it cuts freely, is durable, and has a 
pleasant smell. 

[Although called Cedars, the Cedrelas are quite distinct 
from the true Cedar (Gedrtis Libani, Loud.) which belongs 
to the Pine Order. See Museum No. III.] 

No. 135. Satin Wood, afforded by Chlo7\)xylon 
Swietenia, DC, a moderate-sized tree of India and 
Ceylon. The wood is durable, close-grained and of a 
beautiful satiny lustre, and is largely employed in cabinet- 
work, and for the backs of brushes, &c. It takes an 
excellent polish, preserving a handsome appearance for a 
long time. 

CASE No, 136. Yellow Wood (Flindersia oxleyana, 

24. Muell.). A tree of New South Wales and Queensland. 
The timber is strong, durable, and fine-grained, and is 
used in Australia for boat-building, cabinet-work, &c. 
Note specimens of wool in various shades of yellow- 
brown dyed with this wood. 

Olax Order (piacineae). An order of trees, shrubs 
or climbing plants, widely dispersed over the tropical and 
sub-tropical regions of the globe. 

Observe fruits and seeds of Cotila edulis, BailL, a 
native of West Tropical Africa. The kernels are edible 
and yield an oil. 

No. 137. Fruits and wood of Ximenia americana^ 
L., a shrub or small tree found in the tropics of both 
hemispheres. The acid- sweet and aromatic berries are 
eaten both in the West Indies and in India. The wood is 
often powdered and used as sandal-wood by the Brahmins 
of the Coromandel coast. Under the name of Sennett the 
seeds are sometimes imported into Liverpool from West 
Africa as oil-seeds. Observe also the oleaginous seeds of 
an undetermined species of Heistetna, also occasionally 
imported into Liverpool for the sake of the oil. 

Note fruits, and wood of Pliytocrene gigmitea, Wall., a 
gigantic climber of the Chittagong and the Burmese 
forests. " The stem on being cut gives out a quantity of 
fresh water good for drinking." 



45 

SNo. 138. Odall fruits, and oil obtained from seeds CASE 
of Sarcostigiiia Kleinii, W. and A., from Cochin, where 24. 
the oil is used in rheumatism. 

Holly Order {Ilicineae). A group of shrubs and 
trees, represented in Britain by i\\Q Holly. The species 
are not numerous, though widely scattered over the 
world. 

No. 139. Wood of the Holly {Ilex Aquifolium, L.), 
the favourite European evergreen. The hard white wood 
is used in making Tunbridge ware, for the stringing or 
lines in cabinet work, calico-printers' blocks, &g. The 
straight, flexible shoots are used for walking sticks and 
whip handles. BiRD-LiMB is the juice of Holly-bark, 
extracted by boiling, mixed with a third part of nut-oil. 

Note Yaupon or Yapon Tea (Ilex Cassme, Walt.), an 
evergreen shrub of the Southern United States. The 
leaves contain caffeine, and on that account were formerly 
much employed by the Indians and are now occasionally 
used by white settlers as tea. 

No. 140. Yerba de Mate, or Paraguay Tea, the 

leaves of Ilex paragiiensis, A. St. Hil., (of which there 
are several varieties) and possibly of other species of Ilex 
found in South America. 

The leaves are prepared for commerce by being scorched 
and dried while still attached to the branches brought in 
by the collectors ; they are then beaten, separated, 
coarsely ground in rude mills, and packed in skins and 
leathern bags or in a more attractive form as will be seen 
from, examples in this case, as also in the black table case- 
on the centre of this floor. 

The leaves are infused in small teapots, of which 
several forms are here shown, and the tea is imbibed either 
from the spout or by : — 

No. 141. BOMBILLA, or tube with wire network or 
perforations at the bottom. Mate is one of the most 
important economic products of South America and is the 
favourite drink of much of the population in the southern 
parts of Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, the Argentine Re- 
public, &c. The consumption is enormous. Mate haa 
been found to contain 0*13 per cent, of caffeine, and ia 
occasionally advertised for sale in this country. 



46 

CASE Spindle-Tree Order (Celastrineae). A family of 

24. woody plants, mostly extra-tropical, though widely spiead, 
both in the north and south hemispheres. In Britain 
the order is represented by a single small tree, the 
Spindle Tree (Euonymus eurojjaeus, L.). The ripe 
fruits remain on this tree long after the leaves fall, and 
open while still attached, exhibiting the bright orange- 
coloured pulp (the arillus) by which the seeds are 
embraced. The young shoots formerly furnished skewers 
for butchers. 

No. 142. Wood of Pai'CHA {Eiionymus eiiropaeus,L., 
var. hamiltonianus). A small tree, native of India, Japan 
and China. Used at Ningpo, China, for carving, and 
proposed as a subtitute for boxwood for engraving 
purposes in this country. A block prepared for engraving, 
as well as one engraved, are exhibited; also a carved frame 
from Ningpo. (See also No. 31.) 

Note leaves of the Khat, Qat or Cafta of Arabia, the 
so-called Arabian Tea {Gatha edulis, Forsk.). These, 
together with the twigs, form a considerable article of 
commerce amongst the Arabs, who chew them, both in the 
green and dry state to promote wakefulness. In the 
interior a decoction resembling tea is said to be made from 
the leaves. They do not, however, contain caffeine nor 
any alkaloid related to it. 
CASE Specimens are here shown of the bark, fruit, seeds and oil 

25. of the KOKOON tree of Ceylon (KoJwona zeijlanica, Thw.). 
The yellow inner bark is employed medicinally, and is 
also used in the preparation of a kind of snuff, considered 
beneficial in headache. Oil is expressed from the seeds 
and used for burning in lamps. 

Observe various specimens of hard, close-grained woods, 
belonging to the genus Elaeodendron from South Africa 
and India, also the curious fruits and seeds of species of 
Hijjpocratea. 

Note seeds and oil of Celastrus panicidatus, Willd., a 
large climbing shrub found throughout India, Burma and 
Ceylon. Two kinds of oil are obtained in India from the 
seeds, one by expression, which is of an orange colour and 
is used for burning in lamps and in medicine. The other 
form is known as BLACK Oil or Oleum Nigrum being 



47 

obtained by destructive distillation of the seeds. Used CASE 
by the Hindus as a diuretic and as a remedy for Beri- 25. 
Beri. 

Buckthorn Order {Rhamnaceae). An extensive 
group of- trees and shrubs, often armed with spines. 
Found nearly all over the globe, excepting the extreme 
north. Two species grow in Britain. 
/Note PuPLi-CHBKKE {VentUago maderaspatana, 
Gaertn.). A forest climber of India, Burma, and Ceylon. 
The root bark is a much valued dye-stuff in Southern 
India, as it is rich in a beautiful red colouring matter. 

No. 143. LOTE Fruit {Zkyphus Lotus, Lam.), of 
the Mediterranean region, said to be the Lotos of the 
ancient Lotophagi. 

No. 144. Indian Jujube or Chinese Date {Zi^y- 
phus Jujuba, Lam., and allied species). A wholesome 
fruit, preserved in syrup by the Chinese after the surface 
has been scratched in numerous fine longitudinal lines ; 
used also when dried and in a pickled state. Z. Jujuha 
is a small prickly tree regularly cultivated all over India 
and widely distributed in tropical countries. The leaves 
are commonly used as food for the Tasar silkworm. 

Z. sativa, Gsertn. \_Z. vulgaris, Lam.], also yields an 
edible fruit commonly eaten in the countries bordering 
the Mediterranean. 

Observe Cascara Sagrada (Sacred Bark), identical 
with Chittem Bark, produced by a small tree, 12 to 20 feet 
high (Bhamnus purshiana, DC), found on the Pacific 
slopes of the United States. The bark has a characteristic 
odour and persistent, nauseous, and bitter taste ; it is 
much employed in North America and in this country, in 
medicine, as a tonic-laxative. 

No. 145. Wood of Alder Buckthorn (Rhamnus 
Frangula, L.). A slender straggling bush, 6 to 12 feet 
high, in woods and hedges in this country ; found also 
throughout Europe, and in Siberia, Caucasus, and North 
Africa. The bark of the trunk and larger branches is 
purgative and is employed in medicine. The wood is 
used by gunpowder makers under the name of DOGWOOD 



48 

CASE in the manufacture of the best rifle powders, and is 

25. imported for this purpose in large quantities from Holland 
and Belgium. 

Observe specimens of Lo-KA.0, or Chinese Green 
Indigo, prepared in China from the barks of R. dahuHcay 
Pall., and R. tinctoria, Waldst. and Kit., and used for 
dyeing various shades of green. At one time this product 
was largely employed at Lyons for dyeing silks. 

No. 146. Sap Green, a well-known pigment obtained 
from the ripe l)erries of the common BUCKTHORN 
{R. cathartica, L.), and other species, prepared by mixing 
the fresh jnice of the berries with lime and evaporating 
to dryness. 

No. 147. Persian or Yellow Berries, the fruits 
of Rhamnus infectoria^ L., and probably other species. 
The berries, the size of currants, grow in clusters ; the 
expressed juice of the young berries is bright yellow and 
mixed with indigo forms a brilliant and durable green, 
used in dyeing wool for Oriental carpets, also for dyeing 
mixed fabrics and by leather-dressers and calico-printers. 
The fruits are variously known in commerce as " Persian 
Berries," " Avignon graines," " Spanish Berries," and 
'' Turkish Berries." 
CASE On an upper shelf of the first compartment of this 

26. case note fruits of the CORAL Tree {Hovenia dulcis, 
Thb.), a small tree distributed over China, Japan, and the 
Himalayas. The fruits, which are about the size of a 
pea, are borne on enlarged fleshy peduncles which contain 
a sweet juice and are edible. 

No. 148. Mabee Bark, produced by Geanothtis 
reclinatus, L'Herit. \_Goluhrina recUnata. Brongn.], a 
native of South America. The bark is largely used in 
the West Indies for the preparation of a stomachic drink. 

Note specimens of Chaw Stick or Chew Stick 
(Gouania domingensU^ L.) from the West Indies. The 
stem affords an agreeable bitter used locally as a sulistitute 
for hops in ginger beer. Reduced to powder it forms an 
excellent dentifrice, and the slender stem cut into short 
lengths serves the negro as a tooth-brush. Also the stem, 
curiously flattened in alternating triangular joints, of 
Golletia c/t^uciata, Gill, and Hook., a Chilian shrub. 



49 

Vine Order {AmjMideae), of which the Grape- Vine CASE 
(Viiis viniferay L.), the most important plant of the 2Q. 
order, may be taken as the type. They are all climbing, 
jointed shrubs, often with abortive flower-branches serving 
as tendrils to lay hold of their support. They are chiefly 
East Indian. The Grape-Vine now cultivated so exten- 
sively in France, Germany, South Europe, the Atlantic 
Islands, the United States, the Cape, &c., was very probably 
native originally of Western Asia, and to the south of the 
Caspian. From its innumerable varieties, affected by 
different climates and soils, we have, besides grapes 
yielding the various wines of commerce, other sorts which 
are dried, forming the Valencia, Muscatel, and Sultana 
(without seeds, from Turkey) Raisins ; also Currants, the 
dried fruit of a small-fruited variety of the Grape-Vine 
(F. tvn//era, var. corinthiaca)^ cultivated in the Ionian 
Islands, Greece, Lipari, &c. These are quite distinct from 
any species of Ribes, the currant of our gardens, to which 
they are not botanically related. 

Nearly 12,000,000 gallons of Wine were entered for 
home consumption in 1905, 5,713,393 gallons of which 
were imported from Spain and Portugal. 

Of Raisins 687,162 cwts., and of Currants 1,078,069 cwts., 
were entered for home consumption in the same year. 

Grape seeds contain about 18 per cent, of oil, which is 
extracted for illuminating purposes in Italy, Greece and 
the Levant. 

Amongst other , products of the grape exhibited are 
Argol from Greece, deposited on the sides of wine vats,, 
and containing 50 to 70 per cent, of Tartaric Acid. 
Wine Lees from Greece, containing about 30 per cent, of 
Tartaric Acid. TARTAR from St. Antimo, Italy, prepared 
from Lees or Argol, and containing 65 to 77 per cent, of 
Tartaric i^cid. Also crude Tartrate op Lime, and a 
very fine specimen of crystallised TARTARIC ACID. 
Specimens are also exhibited of Yeso, a kind of plaster^ 
from Port St. Mary, Cadiz Bay, used in Spain to sprinkle 
on the grapes before being pressed. SPANISH Earth, 
used likewise in Spain, and to a small extent in 
England, for fining wine. Grape SUGAR, which is 
less sweet than cane, and is not so readily dissolved 
in water. 

25782 D 



50 

CASE In this case are numerous illustrations of the progress 

26. of the Phylloxera and other diseases to which the Vine is 
subject. 

Soapwort Order {Scqylndaceae). Trees or climbing 
plants, chiefly of tropical countries. The fruits of several 
are edible ; others possess a saponaceous principle, and 
lather freely in water. Those belonging to the sub-order 
Acerineae are trees principally of temperate Europe, Asia, 
and America, having opposite and mostly lobed leaves, 
with the veins radiating from the leaf -stalk. The Syca- 
more {Acer Pseudo-platanus^ L.), extensively planted in 
Britain, is an example of this group. 

Observe stems and seeds of Cardios])ermu?n Hali- 
cacahum, L., a climber found throughout India and in 
most tropical and sub-tropical countries. The roots are 
employed in India in rheumatic and nervous diseases. 
The seeds and leaves are used in medicine and the latter 
are also cooked as a vegetable in the Moluccas. 

No. 149. GUARANA Bread of Brazil, made from 
the pounded seeds of Paullinia Ciipana, H. B. and K. 
[P. sorhilis, Mart.]. The powder is kneaded with a little 
water and the paste made into rolls or sticks and more 
recently into ornamental figures. These are dried in the 
sun. A cooling drink is made from this product in the 
interior provinces of North Brazil by grating into water 
the hard paste on the rough tongue of a fish, the Piraruca 
{see specimen), sugar being sometimes added. Guarana 
contains Caffeine to the extent of 4*3 per cent., and has 
been used medicinally in nervous headache. It is 
occasionally imported into this country. 

Near these specimens are shown stems of Paullinia 
curassavicaj Jacq., and P. s^jhaerocarpa, Rich., of the 
West Indies, used as walking sticks, and known as 
Supple Jacks in consequence of their flexibility. 

CASE No. 150. Wood of the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus 

27. Eippocastanum, L.). A Turkish tree, long planted for 
shade and ornament on the Continent and in England. 
The wood, which is soft, and not durable, is turned to 
little account. The fruits are used in Switzerland and 
Turkey for feeding sheep, horses, &c. 



hi 

Note also fruits, seeds and wood of the Indian Horsb CASE 
Chestnut (A. Indica, Colebr.). A handsome ornamental 27. 
tree similar in appearance to the European species. In 
India the wood is employed for a variety of purposes, but 
more particularly for turned articles. The fruits are 
given as food to cattle and goats, and in times of scarcity 
are grouiid and mixed with flour and consumed by the 
hill tribes. 

No. 151. Fruit of the Akee {BHghia sapida^ Koen.). 
A tree of West Tropical Africa. The edible portion is 
the arll^ the succulent socket developed round the base of 
each seed. This aril is eaten when cooked and forms a 
very palatable food but it must be eaten before fermen- 
tation sets in, otherwise it is considered unwholesome. 
The seeds yield by expression a solid oil or fat, a sample 
of which is exhibited. 

No. 152. Wood, fruits, oil, and twigs bearing lac, of 
the KosuMBA (Schleichera trijuga^ Willd.), an important 
deciduous forest tree of India, Burma, &c. The wood is 
very strong and durable; used for oil and sugar mills, 
rice-pounders, agricultural implements, &c. The fruits 
are edible, and the seeds yield an oil used for burning 
in Southern India and Burma, and reputed to be the 
original Macassar oil. The best lac is produced on this 
tree. 

No. 153. Soap Berries, the fruits of Sapindus 
Saponaria^ L., a small tree of Tropical America and the 
West Indies, where the seed-vessels, which contain 
saponin, are employed as a valuable substitute for soap. 
The hard black seeds take a fine polish and are used for 
making necklaces, buttons, &c. 

The fruits of S. trifoliatus^ L., and S. Mukorossi, 
Gaertn., Indian species, are also used as soap for washing 
silk and woollen fabrics, clothing, &c. 

No. 154. LiTCHis (Nephelium Litchi, Camb.), the 
fruits of a handsome evergreen tree of China, now largely 
cultivated in northern India. The fleshy aril surrounding 
the seed is highly esteemed for dessert, more particularly 
in a fresh state. The dried fruits may frequently be seen 
in fruiterers' shops in this country. 



52 

CASE No. 155. LONGANS {NepJielium Longana, Camb.)» 

27. the fruits of a large evergreen tree of India, Burma, 
Ceylon, &c. The fruits are somewhat smaller than those 
of the Litchi, and are much inferior in flavour. 

Note LoNGAN Pulp prepared in Formosa by peeling 
and stoning the fruit of N. Longana, and drying and 
baking the pulp. This product is largely used by the 
Chinese for the preparation of a refreshing drink or 
as a febrifuge. 

No. 156. Rambutans, the fruits oiN.lappaceum, L.^ 
a small tree of the Malayan Archipelago. The fruits when 
fresh are of a bright red colour, and the sub-acid pulp is 
highly esteemed by the natives. 

No. 157. Tulip Wood of Australia (EarpuUia pen- 
dula, Planch.). A strong and durable wood much used 
for cabinet work in Australia. 

CASE No. 158. Wood of the Sycamore (Acer Pseudo- 

28. platanus, L.), and Maple {A. campestre^ L.). The white 
soft wood of the former was much used before the 
general introduction of earthenware for making trenchers, 
bowls, platters, &c. At the present day it is chiefly used 
for table-tops, bobbins, and other turnery. Maple wood 
is employed for similar purposes. 

Observe specimens of the wood of various species of 
Acer from the East Indies and North America. Amongst 
them are Acer dasycarpum. Ehr., and A. rubrum^ L., the 
latter being used for cabinet work, turnery, &c. Note also 
facsimiles of the leaves of these species, showing 
autumnal colouration. 

No. 159. ^Vood of the Sugar Maple or Hard 
Maple {Acer saccharinum^ Wang.). A large ireQ of 
great economic value, of the United States and Canada. 
The wood is hard, heavy and close-grained, and largely 
used for furniture, interior finish, flooring, &c. Sometimes 
the wood exhibits beautiful curled and spotted markings 
(Bird's-Eye Maple), which is much valued for inlaying, 
panelling, and for high-class furniture. 

No. 160. Maple Sugar is principally made from 
this species in North America, The sweet sap is collected 



53 

in the spring by tapping the tree to the depth of about CAS^ 
half-an-inch with an auger, and inserting a spout. The 28. 
juice is boiled down to a syrup, clarified and crystallized. 
Good Sugar Maples yield each about an average of four 
pounds of sugar in the season. 

In the small Order Sahiaceae^ note fruits of the Snake 
Nut {Ophiocaryon paradoxum, Schomb.). A large tree 
of British Guiana, the embryo of which is coiled up in 
the form of a snake. 

Cashew-Nut Order {Anacardiaceae). Chiefly large 
tropical trees, often with a resinous or caustic juice ; 
several species bear very valuable fruit. They occur both 
in the Old World and the New ; some extend invo tem- 
perate countries, a few reaching the south of Europe. 
The flowers are usually very small. 

No. 161. A very complete and unique series, illustrat- ^^^ -^ 
ing the preparation of .JAPANESE Lacquer, and the 29. 
manufacture of lacquer ware. (1) Stems of the LACQUER 
Tree {Rhus vernicifera, DC.), showing the incisions 
made for collecting the juice ; (2) Instruments used for 
making the incisions, paring the bark, &c. ; (3) Bamboo 
pot for holding the lacquer : (4) Glove used to protect the 
hand of the collector from the effects of the acrid juice. 
Note also numerous specimens of lacquer in different 
stages of preparation, or used for different kinds of work. 
Also dyes, colouring matters, and other materials, together 
with brushes, squares and compasses used by the artists 
in drawing the designs. On the top of the case is a drying 
press, in which the work is put to dry. Boxes of finished 
lacquer ware are also shown on the upper shelves of the 
next case, and in a special case near Case 40, is a fine 
collection of finished specimens, and some others showing 
the progress of the work. 

No. 162. Japan Wax. Afforded by the small fruits CASE 
(specimens of which are exhibited) of Rhus vernicifera^ 30. 
DC, and R. succedanea, L., employed in candle-making. 

Some of the species of Rhus are very poisonous, notably 
the Poison Oak (also termed POISON Ivy) of North 
America {Rhus Toxicodendron^ L.), contact with the 
leaves of which produces in some constitutions violent 
inflammation followed by blisters and ulcers. 



54 

CASE No. 163. Woo-PEi-TSZE or Chinese Galls {Rhus 
30. semialata, Murray). Imported from China and Japan for 
dyeing purposes. 

No. 164. Sumac or Sumach. The powdered leaves 
of Rhus Coriaria, L., a hardy shrub of the rocky slopes 
of Sicily and elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. 
When the Sumach is cut, it is spread on the field to dry, 
the leaves are then broken from the stems, packed in 
bags and conveyed to the mills, and subsequently ground 
into powder. It is used in dyeing for the production of 
grey colours, also for tanning the finer kinds of leather. 
Note the peculiar pruning hook (ronco) with which the 
twigs are gathered and the flail {hovillo) with which they 
are thrashed. There is a large annual import of this 
product, chiefly from Sicily. 

Venetian Sumach or Young Fustic consists of the 
twigs of Rhus Cotinus, L., a southern European species. 
It yields a beautiful bright yellow dye, much used in 
calico printing. Fruits, leaves, and bark of the NORTH 
American Sumach (Rhus glabra, L.) are here shown. 
They are astringent and used in America for tanning 
leather. 

No. 165. Chi an Turpentine, the oleo-resin of 
Pistacia Terehinthus, L., a bush or small tree ; some- 
times however, attaining a height of from 20 to 40 feet, 
common on the islands and shores of the Mediterranean, 
as well as in Asia Minor. The resinous juice, exclusively 
obtained from the island of Scio, is yielded after incisions 
in the bark. Chian turpentine has stimulant and diuretic 
properties, and was formerly used in medicine for the 
same purposes as the coniferous turpentines and has also 
been employed in the treatment of cancer. At the present 
day it is used for preserving^ wine, especially when it has 
to be shipped, for flavouring Raki, a cordial largely con- 
sumed in the Levant, and to a small extent in medicine. 
In consequence of the small quantity of this turpentine 
annually collected, it always realises a high price, and is 
commonly adulterated, chiefly with coniferous turpentines. 
The wood, fruits, and oil expressed from the kernels at 
Scio, together with galls produced on the species, are also 
shown. 



No. 166. Pistachio-Nuts. Frmts oi Plstacia vera, CASE 
L., a small tree of Western Asia and the Levant, now 30. 
spread far along the shores of the Mediterranean. The 
kernels possess an agreeable flavour and are eaten either 
uncooked like dried almonds or made into articles of 
confectionery. 

Observe galls of Pistacia Khinjuk, Stocks, and resins 
of P. Khinjuk and P. mutica, Fisch. and Mey., var. 
cabuUca, small trees of Beluchistan and Cabul. Also 
galls of P. atkmtica, Desf., from Palestine and Algeria. 
The galls of P. integerrima, Stewart, a deciduous tree of 
N.W. India, are sold in the bazaars under the name of 
Kakrasingi ; they are used for dyeing and tanning and 
also medicinally. The wood is extremely hard, has a 
mottled grain, and is used for furniture, carving, &c. 

No. 167. Mastic. A resin obtained in the Greek 
Archipelago, chiefly in Scio, from incisions made in the 
bark of Pistacia Lentiscus, L. Formerly used in 
medicine in the same way as Chian turpentine. The resin 
appears in commerce in the form of small tears, and is 
used in this country in dentistry and in the manufacture 
of varnishes. Its principal consumption is at Constan- 
tinople and in the East, where it is used as a masticatory 
for sweetening the breath and preserving the teeth and 
gums. It is also employed in the East for fumigating 
and in the preparation of confections and cordials. 

Quebracho Colorado (Quebrachia Lorentzii, Griseb.). 
A tree abundant in the northern parts of the Argentine 
Republic, attaining a considerable size. The wood is 
valuable as a building material as it is practically 
imperishable when exposed to both air and water. It is 
of a red colour, hence used to give a claret tint to wine. 
The bark is used locally and the wood is exported to 
Europe in considerable and increasing quantities for 
tanning. 

No. 168. Mango (Mangifera indica, L.). A large 
umbrageous tree cultivated very generally in tropical 
countries, though especially common, under a multitude 
of varieties, in India. Like all highly cultivated fruits 
the Mango varies much in size and quality. All the best 
sorts are grafted. Jamaica Mangoes may be frequently 



56 



CASE seen in fruiterers' shops in this country. The fruit is 

30. most delicious ; unripe it is used for tarts, preserves, 
chutney, &c. Fruits and drawings and various products 
are exhibited in this case and in Case 31. 

CASE PiURl, a yellow colouring matter obtained in India 

31. from the urine of cows fed upon Mango leaves. It is an 
article of import into this country. 

No. 169. Cashew-Nut. Fruit of Anacardium 
occidentale, L., a tree of Brazil, Central America, and the 
West Indies, cultivated elsewhere in the Tropics. It is 
naturalised in many parts of India. The fruit rests on a 
fleshy edible peduncle from which a spirit is distilled 
both in Mozambique and in Western India. The fruit 
when roasted yields a tar employed as a preservative for 
boats and wood-work. The kernels, sometimes known 
as Promotion Nuts, after being roasted, are used for dessert 
and may generally be purchased in this country. The 
kernels also yield an oil and from the stem a gum exudes 
which is said to be used by book-binders in South 
America. Specimens of the products mentioned will be 
found in the case. 

No. 170. CuDDAPAH Almonds. The kernels of 
Buchanania latifolia, Roxb. They somewhat resemble 
pistachio nuts, and are largely used in native sweetmeats ; 
a sweet and wholesome oil is extracted from them. The 
fruit has a sweetish acid flavour, and is eaten by the hill 
tribes of Central India. The bark is used in tanning. 

No. 171. Burmese Lacquer or Varnish Tree 
{Melano7^rhoea usitata, Wall.). Every part of the tree 
abounds in a thick, viscid, greyish fluid which is collected 
by making incisions through the bark of the trunk and 
principal boughs, and inserting joints of Bamboo to 
receive the fluid as it flows. This forms the famous 
black varnish or Thitsi of the Burmese used for lacquer 
work, both red and black, examples of which are 
exhibited, also as size in gilding, and i'or covering 
buckets to make them watertight. It has also been used 
as an anthelmintic. The wood is used for tool-handles, 
gun-stocks, railway-sleepers, &c. 



57 

Observe fruits of the BLOOD PLUM of the Niger CASE 
{Haematostaphis Barteri, Hook. f.). They are edible 31. 
:and have an acid flavour. 

No. 172. Wood and gum of Odina Wodier, Roxb., 
a deciduous tree, 40 to 50 feet high. The wood is used 
for spear-shafts, scabbards, wheel-spokes, oil-presses, rice- 
pounders, &c. ; the tree is pollarded for fodder, especially 
for elephants. The brittle gum is used for sizing paper 
by the Nepalese ; it is also used for mixing with lime in 
whitewashing. 

No. 173. Marking Nuts, the fruit of Semecarpus 
Anacardmm, L. til., a moderate-sized deciduous tree of 
the East Indies. The juice of the nut mixed with a little 
quicklime and water is used all over India for marking 
linen, and is far more durable than the marking inks of 
Europe ; undiluted it acts as a blister. The bark is used 
in dyeing. 

Note KuRAKA Nut {Cory nocar pus laevigata^ Forst.), 
a New Zealand tree 40 feet high ; the fruit is a fleshy 
drupe an inch long, the palp is edible, the kernel is 
poisonous, but is eaten by the Maoris after preliminary 
roasting and washing in salt water. 

Note fruits, oil, and gum, of HOG Plum or Wild 
Mango (Spondias mangifera, Willd.), a tree of the dry 
forests of many parts of India and Burma. The ripe 
fruit is used as an acid vegetable and pickled. " Deer eat 
it greedily, and heaps of the hard kernels are found 
everywhere in the forests where this tree grows." 

Fruits of Otaheite Apple {Spondias dulcis, Willd.), 
and of other species of the genus are exhibited in this 
case. 

Observe edible fruits of Kaffir Date or Plum 
{Harpephylliim caffrum^ Bernh.), from the Cape. 

Moringa Order (Moringeae). A. small family of 
deciduous soft- wooded trees. Natives of Northern Africa, 
Western Asia, and the East Indies. 

No. 174. Fruits of the Horse-Radish Tree (Mor^ 
inga pierygosperma^ Gaertn.), cultivated in the Eastern 
tropics on account of its leaves, flowers and pods, all of 



58 

CASE which are eaten when young. The fruits are also pickled 

31. and the seeds yield a clear limpid oil. In India the root 
is accepted by Europeans as a perfect substitute for 
horse-radish ; it also used medicinally as a vesicant. The 
stem affords a reddish gum used in calico-printing and 
in native medicine. 

Observe pods and winged seeds of Moringa concanensis^ 
Nimmo, also those of M. aptera, Gaertn., the seeds of 
which are not winged. The latter species is found in 
Abyssinia, Upper Egypt, Syria, and Arabia, and the seeds 
are supposed to have yielded true Oil of Ben. 

CASE Connarus Order (Gonnaraceae). A group of erect 

32. or climbing shrubs or trees. Natives of tropical 
countries. 

Note Cattle-ropes, made of twisted stems of Rourea 
santaloides, W. and A., and Connarus monocarpus^ L., 
used in Ceylon. Also specimens of Zebra Wood, an 
ornamental hard wood of British Guiana used for 
inlaying, furnished by Connarus guianensis^ Lamb. 
\_Omphalobmm Lambertii, DC.]. 

Leguminous Order (Leguminosae). The specimens 
and products illustrating this great order extend from 
Case 32 to Case 47. The species number about 6,000 to 
7,000. They are herbs, shrubs, or trees, and are widely 
distributed over the surface of the globe. One division 
of the order is marked by the curious form of the flower, 
the petals being unequal in size and disposed in a form 
which has suggested the name Papilionaceous^ or butter- 
fly-like. The fruit is commonly a pod (legume) more or 
less resembling that of the Bean or Pea. Many species 
are natives of Britain (Broom, Whin, Clover, &c.), and 
large numbers are cultivated, both as important food-plants 
(Peas, &c.), and for ornament (Acacias, Laburnum, Lupin, 
&c.)- This large order is sub-divided into three sub- 
orders. 

Sub-Order I. Papilionaceae. On the middle shelf 
of the first division of this case are samples of leaves of 
two species of Cyclopia used as tea in South Africa, 
namely C. genistoides, Vent., en lied Honigthee, and C. 
suhternata^ Vog., Cape or Bush Tea, also Borhorda 
•Toarviflora^ Lam., known as Stekelthee. 



59 

Note also roots of Wild Indigo (Bajjtisia tinctoria, CASE 
R. Br.), employed in medicine in the United States as an 32. 
antiseptic in ulcerated sore throats and putrid fevers. 

No. 175. Sunn or East Indian Hemp {Crotalaria 
hmcea, L.),- extensively cultivated in India, more particu- 
larly in Mysore and the Deccan, for the sake of its fibre, 
which by proper treatment becomes soft, fine, and white, 
bearing comparison with flax. Samples of the stems 
with the bark beaten out showing the fibre, also of the 
cleaned fibre, together with fishing lines, cables, nets, 
sacking and paper stock, and paper made from it are 
exhibited. 

No. 176. Seeds of Lupins. Several species of Lii- 
pimis (L. luteus, L.. principally) are largely cultivated 
on the Continent for the sake of the seeds. They should, 
however, be regarded with suspicion, as they frequently 
produce poisonous effects, due to an alkaloid, lupinine, 
which paralyses the nerve-centres. Lupins are chiefly 
grown in this country as ornamental garden plants. 

Note specimens of yarn sheeting and cloth prepared 
from fibre, obtained by maceration from the young shoots 
of Genet d'espagne or Spanish Broom {Spartium 
juncetmi, L.). From Herault, France. 

On a lower shelf are specimens of the white wood of 
the common FuRZE (Ulex europaeus^ L.), together with 
rough and finished walking sticks made from the stems, 
and a drinking cup made from the root. 

No. 177. Baskets and mats made m Madeira of the 
twigs of the Yellow Broom {Cytisus scoparius, Link.). 

On the bottom shelf of this division are specimens 
of the dark-coloured hard wood of the LABURNUM 
{Lahurnum vtilgare, J. Presl.), used for inlaying, 
turning, &c. 

Also seeds of Tagasaste {Cytisus proUferus, L. til., 
var. 2:)cdmensis), a small tree common in the mountains of 
the Canary Islands. The leafy branches form a valuable 
food for cattle in dry climates and the flowers are said to 
be much frequented by bees. 

No. 178. 'Fe'sjigreek (Trigotiella Foenum-graecum 
L.). An annual herb one to two feet high, native of the 



60 

CASE East, from Greece to Persia, and cultivated largely in th€ 
32. Mediterranean region. Central Europe, Egypt, Abyssinia 
and India. Fenugreek is used as a fodder plant, but U 
cultivated more particularly for the seeds, which ar€ 
extensively employed in veterinary practice, also as ar 
ingredient in curry powder, for mixing with concentrated 
cattle -foods, and as a condiment for flavouring damaged 
hay. The seedlings are eaten in Alexandria and Bombaj 
as a green vegetable. 

Observe on the middle shelf a mounted series of the 
singular pods of the genus Medicago to which the 
Lucerne (J/, sativa, L.) belongs. 

No. 179. Samples of Red and White Cloveb 
Seed {TrifuUum pratense, L., and T. reiiens^ L.), 
Upwards of 316,000 cwts. of " Clover and Grass " seedg 
were imported in 1905. Frequently adulterated with old 
and dead, or kiln-dried seed, and with the cheaper Hoi 
Clover {T. jorociimhens, L.), &c. 

No. 180. Prairie Turnips, the tuberous roots oj 
Psoralea esculenta, Pursh,, a native of North Wesi 
America, where they form a large portion of the food oi 
the native population. The plant was introduced int( 
Europe in 1846 by Lemare-Picquot as a substitute for the 
Potato. It was cultivated for some time in France undei 
the name of PiCQUOTiANE, but the results were noi 
encouraging. 

Psoralea corylifolia^ L., an East Indian species, bean 
small black pods with dark brown seeds, which have ar 
aromatic and somewhat bitter taste, and are used in the 
treatment of cutaneous affections by native practitioners 
They occasionally come to this country as an oil-seed 
under the name of Bawchan Seed. 

Note seeds of white, black, and grey varieties ol 
Cyamopsis psoralioides^ DC. The plant is cultivated in 
India not only for its ripe seeds, but as a green vegetable, 
the pods being eaten like French beans. The dry beans 
are employed as food for man and cattle. 

No. 181. Indigo. Obtained principally from three 
or four species of Indigofera {1, siimatrana, Gaertn., 
/. Anil, L., /. tinctoria, L., /. arrecta, Hochst., &c.) 



61 

)y soaking the plant in large masses in tanks. After its CASE 
emoval, the water is stirred and beaten with paddles, 32. 
ts colour passes to a blue, and the suspended particles 
ettle to the bottom forming a blue mud, which after 
he water is drawn off, is dried in the sun and cut into 
ubes. Of this dye-stuff 8,201 cwts. of the value of 
U1G,902 were imported in 1905, whilst artificially pre- 
>ared indigo to the extent of 32,246 cwts. of the value 
if £121,269 were imported during the same period. 
Specimens are exhibited from Egypt, Nicaragua, Siam, 
he East and West Indies, also a series of photographs 
llustrating the industry in India and a model of an Indigo 
factory placed near the entrance door to this museum. 
?he '* blue " of the laundress is prepared from Indigo. 
Specimens are shown. A colouring matter similar to 
rue indigo is furnished by several other plants as 
Polygonum tinctormm, Lour, {see Case 93), Loncliocarpus 
yanescenSj Benth., Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br. {see Case 
7), Strohilayithes Jiaccidifoiius^ Nees, and Isatis indigo- 
ica, Fort. Owing to the competition of synthetic indigo 
he area under cultivation in India is stated to have been 
educed 66 per cent, during the last ten years. 

On an upper shelf of the next division of this case are 
vood, seeds, &c., of the Umzibiti tree of South Africa 
Millettia caffra^ Meissn.). 

Note also wood of the LOCUST or False Aoacia 
Rohmia Pseud-acacia, L.), a North American tree. Used 
or posts, treenails, ribs of vessels, turnery, &c. This 
vood is very durable in contact with the ground. 

No. 182. KOLILA Kat. Mat made of stems of 
Keshan i a paludosa, Prain. Sold in Calcutta. Samples of 
he fibre and rope made of the same are also exhibited, 
ogether with wood and fibre of an allied species, Seshania 
legyiJiiaca, Poir. 

Observe pods of CAFE DE BRUSCA, or Chilinchile 
Seshania occidentalis, Poir.), from Magdalena. 

No. 183. Afghan Knife enclosed in a sheath 
30und with bands of the bark of Garagana decorticans, 
Eemsl. It is used for this and similar purposes on 
iccount of its bronze-like appearance. 



62 

CASE Observe GuM Sarcocolla, Anzerut or Gujar 
32. {Astragalus Sarcocolla^ Uymock). It is imported into 
India from the Persian Gulf and is an important in- 
gredient in the preparation of plasters employed by 
Parsee bone-setters. 

No. 184. Tragacanth. A viscid gum yielded by 
Astragalus gum'tnifer^ Lab., A. eriostylus, Boiss. and 
Haussk., A.adscendens^ Boiss. and Haussk., A. hrachycalyx^ 
Fisch., A. microceplialiis^ Willd., and other species, natives 
of mountainous districts in iVsia Minor, Persia, Syria, and 
Greece. They are spiny shrubs, as shown in the mounted 
specimen of A. gummifer, upon which the gum has 
exuded from cracks in the bark. Tragacanth is not 
simply the juice of the plant hardened by exposure, " but 
a more or less complete transformation of the cells of the 
pith and medullar}^ rays of the stem into a mucilaginous 
mass. Tragacanth is collected for commercial purposes 
either from natural exudations or from incisions made in 
the stems. The first produces the common sorts or small 
irregular pieces, the second produces Flake Tragacanth, a 
very fine sample of which is shown, together with vermi- 
form or vermicelli Tragacanth and other sorts. Gum 
Tragacanth is used in medicine as an emollient and demul- 
cent, also in confectionery, and as a mucilage and for 
stiffening crape, calico, &c. [Specimens of Tragacanth- 
yielding species, with information on the mode of collect- 
ing the gum are much wanted.] 

No. 185. Liquorice Root {GlycyrrJiiza glabra,!^.), 
cultivated chiefly in Spain, Italy, Asia Minor, Southern 
Russia, and China, and to some extent in Yorkshire. 
Spanish Juice is the sweet extract evaporated to dryness; 
made up with gum, gelatine, &c., it forms Pipe- juice. 
Liquorice is used in medicine in lozenges, &c. In England 
it serves to flavour porter ; in France it is made into drinks 
for the sick. Block Liquorice, known as LIQUORICE 
Paste, is largely used in America for soaking tobacco 
leaves in the form in which they are made up for chewing. 
The bulk of Liquorice root exported from Smyrna goes to 
the United States for this purpose. 

Turkish Liquorice is not so sweet as that of Spain or 
Sicily, but keeps better. Specimens of dried roots peeled 



63 

and nnpeeled as imported, also Solazzi, Corigliano, and CASE 
other juices, and Pontefract cakes are shown. 32. 

Note specimens of Manna from the CAM EL-THORN 
{Alhagi matirorum, Medic). A small shrub widely spread 
from Greece and Egypt through Western Asia and 
Afghanistan to the plains of North-Western India. The 
leaves are eaten as fodder by camels. The Manna is 
collected near Candahar and Herat from the bushes at 
the period of flowering. 

No. 186. West Indian Ebony. Furnished by 
Bri/a Ebenus, DC, a small tree of Jamaica and Cuba. 
It takes a beautiful polish, and is used for turnery, 
inlaying, walking sticks, &c. COCUS WOOD, used for 
making flutes, flageolets, &c., is supposed to be produced 
by this plant. 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment note specimens 
of the light wood of the i^MBASH or PiTH TREE of the 
Nile {Herminiera elaphroxylon, Guill. and Perr.), used by 
natives as floats in swimming across the river. 

No. 187. Shola (Aeschynomene aspera, L.). A 
marsh plant, growing in the lakes and jheels of India. 
The wood is extremely light, is a bad conductor of heat, 
and on this account is used for helmets, and to protect 
liquids from heat. Helmets, model of an Hindu temple, 
carved figures, &c., from India are shown. 

No. 188. Ground NuT^u Pods and seeds of ^racMs 
hypogaea, L., an annual herb. Remarkable from the 
plant, after flowering, forcing the young pods under- 
ground, where they ripen. Extensively grown in warm 
climates as an important article of food, and for the sake 
of its oil, which is largely used as a substitute for olive 
oil, for soap-making, burning in lamps, and by watch- 
makers, also by perfumers in pomades, cold cream, &c. 
Its value as an oil seed was first recognised in Europe 
about 1840. Its native country is somewhat doubtful, 
but it is probably of American origin. 

On the lower shelves are seeds of Gram or CHICK Pea 
{Cicer arietinum, L.), an annual herb, cultivated from an 
early period in warm countries, especially in India, where 
it is used in cakes, curries, &c. It was known to the 



64 

CASE ancient Egyptians, Hebrews, and Greeks. An acid liquid 

32. is obtained by collecting the dew from the plant in the 

early morning ; it contains oxalic, acetic, and perhaps 

malic acid in solution. The Persian weight "nukhud,"* 

y^ oz. avoirdupois, is a seed of Cicer arietinum. 

No. 189. Series of seeds and models of pods of the 
Field Bean, and Broad or Windsor Bean ( Vicia Faha^ 
L.), a native of Persia and the borders of the Caspian Sea, 
now extensively cultivated over the globe. Large quanti- 
ties of the seeds, both of home growth and imported from 
Egypt, are used in this country for feeding horses. 
Cultivated varieties in the green or unripe state form an 
important vegetable. 

No. 190. Lentils. The seeds of Lens esculenta, 
Moench., an annual, the native country of which is 
unknown, though it was cultivated by the Hebrews, and 
in Europe since the days of the Roman Empire. It is 
cultivated at the present time throughout the East, in 
many parts of Europe, North Africa, West Asia, and 
North- West India. The seeds of the cultivated varieties 
vary considerably in size and shape, as will be seen from 
the specimens exhibited. Lentils are used as food, either 
whole, split, or ground, in the form of Lentil flour. " The 
" foods in common use for invalids, &c., and known under 
" the names of Ervalenta and Revalenta, and generally 
" sold at extravagantly high prices, are essentially composed 
"of lentil meal." 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment note seeds of 
Lathy rus sativus, L., extensively cultivated in Southern 
Europe and eastward as far as the plains of India. In 
the latter country it is known as Jarosse or Gesse. In 
the Mediterranean region the dried peas or seeds are used 
as food, the pods are eaten green and the whole plant is 
cut for fodder. In India there are about half a million 
acres under this crop annually. In spite however of this 
extensive cultivation the seeds are well known to possess 
poisonous properties and their continued use by man and 
animals has led to injurious results. 
CASE Observe models of varieties of the cultivated Pea 
33. (Pistim sativum, L.), probably native originally of 
countries bordering the Black Sea. Presented by Messrs. 



65 

Sutton & Sons of Reading. Note also a series of seeds of CASE 
Pisiim arvense, L., cultivated in India. 33. 

No. 191. Crab's Eyes, seeds of Ahrus precatorius, 
L., used in India by jewellers and druggists as a weight 
(rati) averaging a little less than 2 grains. They are 
often strung together for necklaces, rosaries, &c. Under 
the name of Jequerity seeds they were introduced into 
this country in 1882 for the treatment of ophthalmia. 
They are said to be occasionally used as an article of food 
in Egypt ; the powdered seeds are harmless Avhen eaten, 
but rapidly produce fatal results when introduced 
beneath the skin even in small quantity. They are used 
criminally in India in " Sui " poisoning, the object being 
to obtain the skins of the poisoned animals. The 
poisonous action is due to the presence of Ahrine^ a 
proteid (hence rendered inert by heat) closely allied to 
albumen in composition, and obtainable from the roots 
and stem as well as from the seeds. The roots are said to 
be employed in India as a substitute for Liquorice, and 
the bark is twisted into a coarse cordage. 

No. 192. Soy Beans {Glycine hispida, Maxim.). 
An annual, cultivated largely in China, Japan, and India. 
In the two former countries a sauce known as Soy is 
produced in large quantities and in Japan a kind of 
cheese or curd cake is prepared known as " Natto." 

The chief products of Manchuria are bean oil and bean 
cake. The seeds yield 17 per cent, of an edible oil 
obtained by expression, and the residue is made into 
large circular cakes, weighing about 60 lbs,, similar to 
that exhibited, used in the East for feeding cattle and 
also as manure. Soy is imported into Europe in barrels 
and is said to form the basis of most of the popular 
sauces. 

Observe on the middle shelf tubers of Eryth7Hna 
acanthocarpa, E. Mey., from South Africa. These are 
extremely light and are used for making hats, &c., a 
specimen of which is exhibited. 

On a lower shelf are tubers of Apios tuberoscCy Moench., 
a climbing plant of North America ; they are farinaceous, 
and edible when cooked. 

25782 E 



6Q 

CASE No. 193. CowuAGB or Cow -ITGB. (Mucuna2n%crtens, 

33. DC). A woody twiner, common in India, cultivated or 
partially wild throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. 
The pods, about 4 inches long and J inch wide, slightly 
curved at each end, are densely covered with stiff brown 
hairs, which readily separate from the pods, and, pene- 
trating the skin, produce an intolerable itching. They are 
used in medicine as a mechanical anthelmintic, in syrup, 
honey, or treacle, but not so much as formerly. Cowhage 
is imported into Europe from Bombay and the West 
Indies for the supposed preparation of some patent 
vermifuge. The young pods are eaten as a vegetable and 
the root has diuretic properties. 

Pods of several other species of Mucuna are shown from 
the East Indies, Brazil, Africa, &c., all more or less coated 
with strong penetrating hairs. The seeds are sometimes 
drifted across the Atlantic by the Gulf Stream from the 
West Indian Islands to the Azores, Irish, Scotch, and 
Norwegian coasts, where they are occasionally picked up. 
The seeds of Mucuna capiHta^ W.&A., are used in India 
as a weight {Massa)= 8 rati or about 16 grs. 

No. 194. Bengal Kino (jBi^^ea/ronc/o5a,Roxb.). The 
resin exuded either naturally or from incisions in the 
bark of an erect tree common throughout the j)lains of 
India, Burma and Ceylon, where it is stated to thrive on 
salt lands and in water-logged places. The resin has no 
smell, but a strong astringent taste, for which reason it 
is employed in medicine. The seeds are used as a 
vermifuge in India, and from them MuDUGA oil is 
obtained. 

The flowers (TISSOO or PULAS) are used for dyeing 
yellow and orange red. The inner bark yields a fibre 
for cordage and caulking the seams of boats, and a lac 
is produced on the twigs by the puncture of a Coccus. 
Samples of the various products mentioned are shown. 
CASE On an upper shelf of the first division of this case 

34. observe portion of stem, and the yam-like tubers of 
Pueraria tuderosa, DC, the latter are said to form an 
article of food in the Punjab. 

No. 195. Ko of China, KuzA of Japan (Pueraria 
thunbergiana, Bentb.). A large woody climber of China, 



67 

Japan, Formosa, &c. From the stems fibre is obtained CASE 
especially at Kiukiang, in Corea, &c. Note cloth from 34. 
Corea, China and Japan made from it. It is said to be the 
oldest textile material in China, cloth made from this fibre 
having been in use 1,000 years B. C. In Japan it was 
formerly largely used in the manufacture of summer 
clothing, hot getting limp, nor clinging when wetted, like 
cotton, and soon drying. Kuza fibre was only used for 
the woof, the warp being silk, flax, hemp or cotton. 
It was stiffened with starch made from the root (a sample 
of which is shown). It is now nearly superseded by 
Hufu or paper cloth, made from Kozu, the fibre of 
Broiissonetia papyrifera^ Vent, {see Case 111.). Note on 
lower shelves of this compartment mounted pods and seeds 
of Canavalia ohtusifolia, DC, Bay Bean of Bermuda ; 
a common shore plant in nearly all warm countries, the 
seeds of which germinate after long immersion in sea- 
water ; and G. ensiformis^ DC, Overlook Bean of the 
West Indies. The former species has bright red seeds 
whilst the latter are marbled or mottled and the pods 
scimitar shaped. The young tender pods and seeds of 
G. ensiformis are eaten in India. 

No. 196. Ordeal Beans of Old Calabar {Physo^- 
tigma venenosurn, Balf .), a large perennial climber found 
only near the mouth of the Niger and Old Calabar, West 
Tropical Africa, and even in these localities it is said to be 
somewhat rare in consequence of the plants having been 
destroyed by order of the Government. Formerly these 
beans were used in the neighbourhood of Old Calabar 
as an ordeal. They are imported into this country from 
Western Africa for medicinal purposes, being used in 
ophthalmic diseases, tetanus, epilepsy and other nervous 
affections. In commerce the seeds of P. cylindrospermian, 
Holmes, are sometimes mixed with those of the true 
Calabar bean. 

Observe also a series of seeds of Moth (Phaseolus 
aconitifolius, Jacq.), widely cultivated in India as a hot- 
weather crop. It yields a valuable fodder and the grain 
is employed as a food for horses and oxen. 

No. 197. A large series of seeds of Green Gram or 
Mtjng of India {Phaseolus Mungo, L.), largely cultivated 



68 

CASE under various forms as a food crop. Flour and cakes 

34. made from it are also shown. The seeds of P. Miingo, 

var. radiatiis^ are used in India, under the name of Urd 

grains, each equalling a quarter of a rati or about .half 

a grain. 

Note also a fine series of seeds of SCARLET Runner 
Beans (Phaseohis muUiflorus, Willd.), and of French 
Beans (P. vulgaris, L.), and models of their pods from 
Messrs. Sutton and Sons, of Reading. 

No. 198. Meal of the Sugar or Lima Bean 
(Phaseohis lunatus, L.) from Jamaica. There are two 
varieties, one with white, the other with purple variegated 
seeds ; the latter are esteemed poisonous in Mauritius 
owing to their producing, like Bitter Almonds, prussic 
acid when macerated in water. This would be dissipated 
in cooking, and they would then be wholesome. 

No. 199. Numerous specimens showing the great 
variety in the seeds of Chowlee of India (Vigna 
Catiang, Walp.), a plant perhaps originally Malayan, very 
extensively cultivated in India and the tropics of the 
Old World for the seeds which are used as food. The 
leaves are said to be used as a dye in Bengal, and in 
China, where the plant is known as Tow COK they are 
mixed with Indigo in dyeing native cloth blue. A black- 
eyed variety is grown in Southern Europe under the namo 
of Faggiola del Occhio. 

On a lower shelf are seeds of the Bambarra GROUND 
Nut {Voandzeia suhterranea, Thouars), a creeping 
annual of Madagascar and Tropical Africa. The pods 
are matured underground like those of Arxtchis hypogaea 
(No. 188). The seeds are largely eaten in Tropical Africa 
as also in Brazil where they have been introduced by 
negro slaves. They are imported into Western India 
from Mozambique under the name of MOZAMBIQUE 
Gram. 

No. 200. Yam Bean {Pacliyrldzus tiiberosiis, 
Spreng.). A native of Tropical South America, and 
cultivated in the West Indies. The young pods are 
cooked and eaten like French beans, and the tubers also 
form an excellent vegetable. A flour of very good quality 



69 

may also be obtained by slicing the tubers drying them CASE 
in the sun and then reducing them to powder. The raw 34. 
seeds are said to be poisonous, but wholesome when 
cooked. 

Pods of an allied species P. angulattts, Rich., from 
plants grown in the Botanic Garden, Ceylon, are also 
shown. It is probably of Central American origin, but is 
now widely cultivated in the tropics of both hemispheres. 
The young tubers are eaten like those of P. tuherosus, 
and a starch is also obtained from them. 

No. 201. A series of seeds of Wall or Shim (DoZzcAos CASE 
Lahlah, L.), a climbing perennial, or under cultivation 35^ 
an annual, common in India where the seeds, which 
vary much in form and colour, are employed as food. 
The fresh stems are used as fodder. 

On the middle shelf are seeds of the HORSE Gram 
(Dolichos Mflorus, L.), used as food by the poorer classes 
in India and also for feeding cattle. The stems are 
employed as fodder. 

On the shelves below are numerous specimens of seeds 
of the Pigeon Pea or Dal (Cajanus Indicus, Spreng.), an 
erect shrub, widely distributed in the tropics. Numerous 
varieties are cultivated as food ; the seeds vary exceedingly 
in shape, size, and colour, as will be seen from the speci- 
mens exhibited. 

Note the pretty blue seeds of Rhynchosia cyanosperma, CASE 
Benth., from the River Niger. They are known as 3^ 
Damabo on the Gold Coast, and are used for weighing 
gold dust. 

Observe Waras a substitute for Kamala {see Case 108) ; 
it consists of the epidermic glands of the young pods of 
Flemmgia congesta, Roxb., a native of Tropical Asia and 
also of F. grahamiana, W. & A., a Nilgiri shrub. 

Wood of the SiSSOO of India {Balbergia Sissoo, Roxb.), 
a dark-coloured, even-grained hard wood, highly valued 
for furniture and for carving ; also employed for boat 
building, -gun carriages, wheelwrights' work, &c. 

No. 202. ROSEWOOD. Specimens from Brazil and 
Central America. The best Brazilian Rosewoods, ex- 
ported from Rio, are afforded by a species of Dcdhergia, 
[Little is known of the trees furnishing the different 



70 

CASE varieties of this valuable cabinet-wood, and authentic 
36. specimens of flower and fruit, from the timber-producing 
trees, with sections of the wood, are much wanted.] 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment are specimens 
of the hard and heavy wood of Dalhergia melanoxylon, 
Guill. and Perr., used in Tropical Africa for furniture, &c. 
Note a native comb of this wo(>d from East Tropical 
Africa. 

No. 203. Blackwood or Rosewood of Southern 
India (Dalhergia latifoUa, Roxb.), a large deciduous tree 
widely distributed in India. The wood is extremely 
hard, and of a dark colour, and is very valuable for 
furniture, carving, fancy work, as also for cart-wheels, 
gun carriages, &c. Note model of the Kootub of Delhi, 
carved in Blackwood. Also picture frame, book-rest, 
cups and other articles. 

Observe Paitan or White Chandan Wood (Dalhergia 
hupeana, Hance), and pulley and model of a Chinese 
Orderly carved in the wood. From the Ningpo District, 
China. 

A series showing the variety in structure of the fruit 
obtaining in the group of Dalhergieae arranged by the 
late George Bentham, Esq., is exhibited on an adjoining 
wall. 

Observe curious winged pods of Centrolohium paraense, 
TuL, also specimens of Barwood, a well-known red dye- 
wood from West Tropical Africa probably furnished by 
Pterocarpus Soyauxii^ Taub. 

No. 204. Bastard Teak (Pterocarpus Marsupium, 
Roxb.), a large deciduous tree of the forests of Central 
and Southern India. The dark brown wood takes a fine 
polish, and is much used in India for furniture, carpentry- 
work, boat-building, &c. From incisions made in the 
trunk of this tree KiNO is.obtained (No. 205); as it exudes 
it has the appearance of red currant jelly, hardening 
upon exposure to the air. It has astringent properties, 
and is used in medicine on that account. There is a con- 
siderable demand for this product for export, much of it 
going to France. Over the window near this case is a 
portion of a stem which has been deeply gashed to 
obtain Kino. 



7i 

No. 206. Red Sanders or Calliature Wood CASE 
{Pterocarpiis santaliniis^ L.), affording a reddish-brown 36, 
dye, used for woollen cloths. It is also said to be 
used for colouring wine. The tree grows to a height of 
about 20 to 25 feet, occupying only a small area in 
Southenv India, more particularly in the Cuddapah 
District. The wood is also extensively used for carved 
work. Note a carving of the God of Wisdom, Ganesha, 
in this wood from Madras. 

On the lower shelves note Andaman Redwood or 
Andaman Padauk {Pterocarpus dalhergioides^ Roxb.). 
A very large tree of the Andaman forests. The wood is 
hard, close-grained, of a deep red colour and durable, 
and is largely exported to Europe and America for 
furniture, railway-carriages, balustrades, &c. Note also 
wood and gum of Pad AUK of Burma (P. macrocarpuSy 
Kurz.). The wood is harder and heavier than the 
Padauk of the Andamans, and is probably not used 
outside Burma. 

No. 207. African Rosewood {Pterocarpus erina- 
cms, Poir.), from the Gambia. BoiS RoUGE or Santal 
Rouge of Gabon. This species affords African Kino 
of commerce, specimens of which are exhibited ; it was 
the original source of the drug which derives its name 
from Kano, which the tree was called in the Mandingo 
language. 

Note sample of wood, and small box of Amboyna 
Wood, a beautiful ornamental wood, said to be imported 
from Singapore, and supposed to be furnished by a 
species of Pterocarpus. It is sometimes known as KiA- 
BOocA Wood, 

Observe on the middle shelf of the first compartment Q^gjj 
of this case YoRUBA INDIGO from Loncliocarpus cyanes- 37^ 
cens, Bth., also yarns dyed with it from Sierra Leone. 
Note also cordage made from fibre of Derris uUginosa, 
Bth., from Ceylon, and TOOBA roots {Derris elliptica, 
Bth.), from Singapore, where they are used as a fish 
poison. 

Wood, fruits, and oil of Pongamia glabra. Vent., are 
here exhibited. The pods and leaves are used in native 
medicine in India, and the oil expressed from the seeds 
is also used both medicinally and for burning. 



72 

CASE On the bottom shelf are fine specimens of the wood and 

57. bark of the WHITE DOGWOOD of Jamaica (Piscidia 

Erythrina^ L.). The powdered leaves and twigs are used 

to poison fish ; the root bark is used in the United States 

as a narciotic. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment note fruits 
and bark of Macayo of Mexico (Andira excelsa, H.B. 
and K.)- The bark is used for tanning. 

Near these are specimens of Araroba or GOA Powder 
afforded by a Brazilian tree described under the name 
Andira Araroba, Aguiar. Specimens of the plant in the 
Kew Herbarium agree more nearly with the genus Tipii- 
ana, therefore it is greatly to be desired that specimens 
of the Goa powder plant, together with the fruits should 
be forwarded to Kew for determination. GOA powder is 
^extensively used in India and in other tropical countries, 
where coolie labour is employed, for the treatment of ring- 
worm and other cutaneous affections. Also Cabbage 
Tree Bark of Jamaica (Andira ijiermis^ H.B. and K.), 
used in the West Indies as an anthelmintic. Fruits and 
wood of this species are also shown. 

Note walking sticks and ruler of Partridge Wood, 
believed to be furnished by a species of Andira. The 
wood is imported from Brazil, and is also employed for 
cabinet-making, turnery, &c. 

Canaran or Bastard Tonquin seed {Geoffroea, sp. 
near G. superha, H. & B.), imported from Brazil. 

On the middle shelf, note pods, seeds, and oil of 
Dipieryx oleifera, Bth., known as the Ebor tree of the 
Mosquito shore. The fruits and seeds are very similar to 
those of D. odorata, but are entirely devoid of fragrance. 
A large quantity of fatty oil is obtained from the seeds, 
used by the natives as a hair oil, and said to be used in 
the composition of Macassar oil. 

No. 208. Tonquin Be ans (Z)^>^eryr o^ora^a, Willd.), 
from Guiana. They are very fragrant, with the odour of 
new-mown hay, and are largely used by perfumers for 
bouquets, and in the preparation of sachet powders. The 
tree grows to a large size and produces a hard wood, 
sections of which are shown. 

On a lower shelf observe specimens of CAMWOOD 
produced by Baphia nilida^ Lodd., a West African shrub 



73 

^ or 10 feet high. The heart- wood is imported for CASE 
■dyeing a deep red colour. 37. 

On the upper shelf of the next compartment note pods, 
seeds, and wood of Frigolito {Sopliora secundifiora^ 
Lag.), of New Mexico. The seeds contain an exceedingly- 
poisonous .alkaloid, known as Sophoria, and the Indians 
in the neighbourhood of San Antonio use them as an 
intoxicant, half a bean producing exhilaration, followed 
by sleep lasting two or three days, and a whole bean being 
sufficient to kill a man. 

Note also section of the wood of Sophora japonica, L., 
a well-known ornamental tree of China. Also Wai-fa, 
flower buds of the same species, used by the Chinese for 
dyeing yellow, or rather for rendering blue cottons and 
silks green. 

On a lower shelf observe pods of the MORETON BAY 
Chestnut or Bean Tree (Castanospermu?n australe^ 
A. Cunn.). The seeds are steeped in w^ater for Several 
days, dried and roasted, then ground into a coarse meal, 
which is made into cakes and used as food by the 
aborigines. The wood has been recommended for 
cabinet work. 

Note also the bright red seeds, with a black blotch, of 
several species of Ormosia, 

No. 209. Balsam op Tolu, furnished by Myroxylon CASE 
Tolidfera^ H.B. and K. The tree, which grows to a height 38« 
of 80 feet, is often unbranched for a distance of 40 to 60 
feet from the ground. It is a native of Venezuela and 
Colombia, where the balsam is collected by making 
V-shaped incisions through the bark to the wood of the 
growing tree, and inserting cups made of calabashes, as ' 
shown in the specimen exhibited. The balsam is finally 
put into cjdindrical tins for exportation to Europe. 
Balsam of Tolu is used in medicine as an expectorant 
and stimulant. Tolu lozenges are well known as a 
remedy for allaying coughs. 

No. 210. Balsam of Peru, yielded by Myroxylon 
Pereirae, Klotzsch, a spreading tree about 50 feet high, 
found in woods on the Sonsonate Coast, San Salvador, 
Central America. To collect the balsam the bark is 
beaten and removed, heat is then applied with a torch to 



74 

CASE the bared portion of the trunk, which is covered with 
38. cloths. These when saturated with balsam are boiled 
in water for some time, the cloths being finally wrung 
in a rope press, such as is exhibited. By this means 
very little of the balsam is wasted. When it is cooled 
the water is poured off, and the balsam transferred to 
the canisters for exportation. One of these canisters is 
shown, together with two eartheuAvare jars, such as were 
formerly used for the purpose. Balsam of Peru is used 
in perfumery, in the manufacture of soap, and to a slight 
extent in medicine, in cases of bronchitis, asthma, &c. 
Fruits and wood of the tree are also shown. 

Sub-Order II. Caesalpinieae. On an upper shelf of 
the next compartment of this case are seeds of the Chiga 
(Campsiandra comosa, Bth.), and starch obtained from 
them from the Upper Orinoco, where the flour or starch 
is used for making bread and tarts. 

Note samples of Peach Wood, Brazil Wood, and 
Lima Wood, dye woods usually attributed to Caesalpinia 
echinata, Lam. The sources of these woods are, however, 
not satisfactorily known. Authentic specimens of leaves 
and flowers would be valuable. [Braziletto wood is 
the product of Peltophorum Linnaei^ Bth. (Caesalpinia 
brasiliensis, L.), native of Jamaica and some other West 
Indian Islands, but not of Brazil.] 

On the lower shelves are pods of several species of 
Caesalpinia from South America, East Indies, &c., the 
more important being Tarra (C tinctoria^ Domb.), used 
in Lima for making ink. Pods and leaves of Barbados 
Pride {C, 2^ulch('rrima, Sw.) used in the East Indies as a 
substitute for Senna. Pods of Tereb, Teri, or TOWRI 
((7. digyna, Rottl.) from Assam, used for tanning. Also 
pods, entire and pounded — showing the amount of resin 
contained in them — of C. hrevifolia, Baill. (Balsamocar- 
pum brevifolium, 67os.), from Santiago, likewise used for 
tanning and known as Algarrobo. 

No. 211. Divi Divi pods {Caesalpinia coriaria, 
Willd.). A powerful astringent imported from the East 
and West Indies and South America for the use of tan- 
ners. Specimens are exhibited from Maracaibo, Savanilla, 
und other parts, also leather tanned with the pods. 



75 

No. 212. Pods and seeds of Caesalpinia Bonducella, CASE 
Flem., a common climbing shrub on tropical shores. 38. 
Seeds are exhibited that have been washed up on the 
shores of Kaffraria, Tristan d'Acunha, and St. Helena ; 
they are also occasionally washed up on the Irish, Scotch, 
and Norwegian coasts. 

The seeds, known as NiCKBR NUTS, are used in India 
in medicine. Their principal use, however, is for making 
into bracelets, necklaces, rosaries, &c. They are of a slate 
colour. An allied species is C. Bonduc, Roxb., the seeds 
of which are of a yellow colour, as may be seen from the 
specimens. 

No. 213. Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia Sappan, L.). 
A red dye-wood, furnished by an East Indian tree grow- 
ing to a height of 30 or 40 feet. It is imported from 
India, Siam, and Ceylon. 

No. 214. Logwood. The heart wood of Haemato- CASE 
xijlon campechianum, L., a small spreading tree of 39. 
Central America introduced into Jamaica in 1715, and 
now naturalised. The wood is imported in logs, which 
are cut up into chips and ground for the use of dyers and 
printers. Esteemed as one of the best deep-red and 
black dyes. Medicinally Logwood is a mild astringent. 

Note ' wood and pods of the Kentucky Coffee 
Tree {Gymnocladus canadensis, Lam.). The wood is 
occasionally used in America for cabinet-work, posts, 
rails, &c., and the roasted seeds were formerly employed 
as a substitute for coffee. The fresh leaves macerated 
and sweetened are sometimes used as a poison for house 
flies, its action is said to resemble that of the Calabar 
Bean (see No. 196). 

Observe a mounted specimen with pod of Gymnocladiis 
chinensis, Baill. From the pods a soapy substance is 
obtained, used by the Chinese for washing purposes. 
They are steeped for two days in water, and the liquid 
resulting is used as soft soap, or it can be dried into hard 
soap. Note also pods of Oleditschia sinensis, Lam. The 
ashes of these are used by the Chinese to restore 
animation in partially drowned persons, and the pods 
themselves are used as soap. On the top of the case is a 
section of the remarkable spiny stem of this species. 



7^ 






CASE Wood and pods of the HONEY LOCUST of North 
39. America (Gleditschia triacanthos, L.), are also shown, as 
well as pods of Wagatea spicata^ Dalz., a robust prickly- 
climber of Western India, which contain a large per- 
centage of tannin. 

In the next compartment of this case are various 
products of the genus Cassia. On an upper shelf are 
specimens of the wood of Cassia siamea, Lam., a 
moderate-sized tree of India, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula, 
and Siam ; the heartwood is dark brown, and often 
beautifully marked. It is used in Burma for walking 
sticks, mallets, &c. 

Negro Coffee, the seeds of Cassia occidentalism L., 
naturalised in Tropical Africa, where they are used, as 
well as in Central America and the West Indies, as a 
substitute for coffee. 

No. 215. Pods, seeds, and bark, of the Tanner's 
Cassia (Cassia au^Hculata, L.), a shrub common in 
Central and Southern India. The bark is one of the 
most valuable of Indian tans, and the wood is converted 
into native tooth brushes. The root is employed in 
tempering iron and steel. In the South of Ceylon, it is 
known as the Matura Tea plant, its leaves being 
infused as a substitute for tea. 

On the lower shelves are pods and seeds of Cassia 
Tora, L., an annual weed widely spread in India and the 
tropics generally. The seeds yield a yellow dye and 
are employed in India in the treatment of cutaneous 
affections. Also pods and seeds of C. Sophera, L., a 
species which contains chrysophanic acid. Note also the 
woody pods of C. grandls^ L., the produce of a tree of 
Brazil. 

No. 216. Pods of the PURGING Cassia (Cassia 
Fistula, L.), an ornamental tree, 30 to 50 feet high, 
bearing numerous racemes of bright yellow flowers. It is 
a native of Tropical Asia, and is frequently planted in the 
West Indies, Central America, Brazil, &c. The pods, are 
pendulous, often 2 feet long, cylindric, and when ripe, 
of a dark purplish brown. They contain a large 
number of small seeds, each embedded in pulp, of a 
blackish-brown colour, which has a sweetish taste, and is 



77 

used in medicine as a mild laxative. They are imported CASE 
from the East and West Indies, but chiefly from the 39. 
latter. Wood, bark and gum of this species are also 
shown. The bark is in considerable demand in some 
parts of India for tanning purposes. 

Observe specimens of American Senna, the leaflets 
of Cassia mari/Jandica, L., a perennial herb, 3 or 4 feet 
high, common on low sandy ground throughout the 
United States. American Senna is usually found in 
commerce in compressed, oblong cakes, often containing 
leaflets, petioles and flowers. 

No. 217. Alexandrian or Nubian Senna (Cassia 
acuiifolia, Delile). A shrub about 2 feet high, native 
principally of Nubia, Sennaar, and Kordofan. This kind 
of senna is imported in large bales from Alexandria, 
hence its name. It is sometimes adulterated with Argel 
leaves (Solenostemma Argel, Hayne). [See case 78.] 

No. 218. Arabian or Tinnivelly Senna (Cassia 
angustifolia^ Vahl). A small shrub of Southern Arabia, 
Somali Land, Scinde, and the Punjab. The leaflets when 
gathered and dried form part of the senna of commerce, 
known as Arabian, Mocha, Bombay, or East Indian Senna. 
These sorts are exported from Mocha, Aden and other 
ports of the Red Sea to Bombay, from whence they are re- 
exported to Europe and America. They are regarded in 
commerce as of inferior quality in consequence of their 
being carelessly dried and often mixed with portions of 
legumes, stalks and flowers. All the Sennas are purgative. 
The kind known as Tinnivelly Senna is furnished by the 
same plant grown in Southern India, and on account of 
its more luxuriant growth and careful preparation, is 
considered in commerce as a fine kind. The best Senna, 
however, is that afforded by C. acuti folia. 

Observe also specimens of Italian, Tripoli, or 
Jamaica Senna (C. obovata, CoUad.), the first kind 
known to botanists, a shrubby perennial found in Egypt, 
Nubia, Abyssinia and Tripoli. Cultivated in Italy in the 
first half of the 16th century, and now naturalised in 
Jamaica. 

No. 219. CaroBj St. John's Bread or Locust CASE 
Bean, the pods of Ceratonia Siliqua, L., a branching 40. 



78 

CASE tree about 30 feet high, native of the Mediterranean coast, 

40. It is cultivated for the sake of the pods which contain a 
quantity of saccharine pulp, and are used in Southern 
Europe for feeding horses, mules, pigs, and even for 
human beings in times of scarcity. Large quantities are 
imported into this country and form one of the ingredients 
of concentrated cattle foods. The small seeds are said to 
have been the original carat weight of the jewellers. The 
knotted branches when straightened make excellent 
walking sticks, for which purpose they were at one time 
imported in large quantities ; specimens are shown, as well 
as the wood itself. 

On the lower shelves observe various specimens of the 
woods, pods, barks and fibres, and cordage made from the 
fibres of various species of Baiihinia. The Indian species 
represented are B. racemosa, Lam., B, variegata^ L., 
B. retusa, Ham., B iricemosa, Lam., and B. malaharica, 
Eoxb. 

No. 220. Rain Caps (Ghooms) made of leaves of 
Baiihinia Vahlii, W. & A.; also platters, and bellows used 
for smelting iron by native smiths in Central India. 

Observe in the last compartment of this case stems of 
species of Baiihinia^ showing a remarkable mode of 
growth, being flattened and corrugated in the middle ; they 
are termed "Land-turtles Ladders." Also sections of 
stems showing anomalous structure, and pods of unnamed 
species of Bauhinia, Macrolohium^ and allied genera. 
Sections of the trunk of the JuDAS TREE {Cercis Siliquas- 
trum, L.) are also shown. 

CASE No. 221. JURUPARI, sent by Mr. Spruce from the 

41. Uaupes, a branch of the Amazon, where they are used on 
the occasion of certain superstitious rites as musical instru- 
ments. They are wrapped up in the folds of Eperuu 
grandifiora^ Bth. 

On the middle shelf of this compartment are woods, 
pods, seeds &c. of the Wallaba of British Guiana 
(Eperua falcata, Aubl.). The wood is used for shingles 
and vat staves. Note also Gum and Frankincense from 
the BUNGO Tree of Sierra Leone (Daniella thurifera 
Benn.), and Ogea Gum and wood from West Tropical 



79 

Africa believed to be derived from one or more species of CASE 
Cyanothyrsus so far undetermined. 41, 

No. 222. War Clubs from the Fiji Islands made 
of the dense hard wood of Afzelia hijuga, A. Gray. A 
native pillow, cannibal fork and dish, kava bowl, spear 
(over the c^-se), and other articles made of the wood from 
the Pacific Islands. 

No. 223. Tamarinds. The pulp of the pods of 
Tarnarindus indica, L., imported from India and the 
West Indian Islands. That from India is usually in the 
form of a clammy dark mass, consisting of the pulp and 
seeds, whilst that from the West Indies is of a lighter 
colour, and generally preserved in sugar syrup. The 
name Tamarind appears to be derived from the Arabic 
Tamar-Hindi (Indian Date). The tree grows to a height 
of 60 to 80 feet, with a wide spreading head of dense 
foliage. It is now found in all tropical countries, but 
Africa is, in all probability, its country of origin. Culti- 
vated chiefly for its fruits, in warm countries it is often 
grown as a shade tree, or for the fragrance of its flowers. 
Tamarinds have laxative properties and an agreeable acid 
taste, and in hot countries are used to make cooling 
drinks. Dried fruits, gum and wood are shown. The 
latter is very heavy and sinks in water ; a table made of 
it is exhibited in Museum No. III. 

No. 224. Wood of West Indian Locust Tree, 
SiMiRi of British Guiana (Hymenaea Gou7^haril, L.), 
tough and close-grained, valuable for treenails and timber 
of steam-engines. Some of the Brazilian Locust trees, 
according to Yon Martins, attain a size so great that 15 
Indians with outstretched arms could just embrace one of 
them. A resin resembling Anime exudes from the trunk 
and is found in lumps at the bases of old trees. It is used 
for varnish making. Samples of the resin as well as of 
the woody pods are shown. 

No. 225. Metatb or Trough made of the wood of 
Hymenaea Courharil, L. Used by the Caribs for rubbing 
down flour for making cakes. It was found in a Carib 
cave in Dominica, and is of great antiquity. On the top 
of Case No. 36 is a native canoe made of the bark of 
the tree. 



80 

Case No. 226. Copal or Anime, various commercial vari- 
42. ties. The produce principally of Trachylobium home- 
mannianum, Heyne, a tree of Zanzibar. The best Anime 
is that which is dug from the ground near the roots of 
trees, or where the trees once stood, and is in a semi-fossil 
state. Specimens of recent Copal attached to the bark of 
the tree are exhibited, also fruits of the Copal tree. 
Specimens of the flower and fruit of other Copal trees 
are much desired. T. verrucosum, Oliv., of Madagascar 
is a closely allied species. 

Note on an upper shelf of the next division of this case 
a section of the trunk with Copal exuding, of an undeter- 
mined species of Trachijlobium, together with another 
sample of the copal, from the Congo. 

Observe also fruits of the Dattock of the Gambia 
{Detarium senegalense, Gmel.). The edible pulp is prized 
by the negroes. 

No. 227. Balsam of Copaiba. An oleo-resin obtained 
by making incisions in the trunks of several species of 
Gopai/era, the principal of which is C. Lansdo7\ffii^ Desf., 
a tree widely distributed in Brazil, varying in height from 
that of a shrub to 60 feet. The other species which yield 
Balsam of Copaiba are G. officinalis^ L., a native of 
Venezuela, Trinidad and Central America ; G. Martii^ 
Hayne, of British Guiana and North Brazil ; C. guyanensis, 
Desf., of the same localities, and probably some other 
species. The balsam as it flows from the trees is very thin 
and colourless, but soon becomes thicker and assumes a 
yellow tint. It is imported from Maracaibo, Rio Janeiro, 
Demerara, Carthagena, and some of the West Indian 
Islands, and reaches this country often by way of Havre 
or New York. A specimen of the stem of a species of 
Gopaifera is exhibited showing the balsam exuding. 

No. 228. Purple Heart, the wood of Gopaifera. 
pubiflora, Benth. A large timber tree of British Guiana, 
where the wood, which is of a beautiful purple colour 
when freshly cut, is used for structural purposes on 
account of its great strength and durability. 

On the lower shelves are various specimens of African 
Copal : — Lisbon Copal, recent and fossil ; Pebbly 
Copal ; a fine mass of Accra, and another sample from 



81 

the Gold Coast ; and Benguela ; all probably furnished CASE 
by species of Gopaifera. Specimens are also exhibited 42. 
of the Sierra Leone Copal {Copaifera guibou?^tiana, 
Bth.). Inhambane Copal is produced by Copaifera 
gorskiana^ Bth. 

In the last compartment of this case are sections of the 
hard wood of Anjan {Hardwichia hinata, Roxb.), a 
large deciduous Indian tree. The wood is extremely 
durable, and is employed in India for bridge and house 
posts and ornamental work. Note also rope made from 
the bark, and resin yielded by the tree. The tree is much 
pollarded for fodder and manure. Samples of resin and 
oleo-resin from H. pinnata, Roxb., are also shown. 

No. 229. Wood, pods and bark of Mora (Dimor- 
pJiandra Mora, Bth.). A tree 100 to 1.50 feet high, and 
frequently unbranched for nearly half the height ; native 
of Britisb Guiana. The trunk is often from Z to 2\ feet 
in diameter. The wood is extremely hard and durable, 
and considered first-class for shipbuilding ; it does not, 
however, resist the Teredo, as a specimen in the case will 
show. A large square trunk of Mora wood is exhibited 
in Museum No. III., British Guiana Coll. No. 13b. The 
seeds, which are very large, are eaten by the natives in 
times of scarcity. 

Observe embryos, in spirit, of Dimorphandra olelfera, 
Triana, from Rio Grande, Panama. One measures 14 inches 
round and 6^ inches in the widest part. This is probably 
the largest embryo in the vegetable kingdom. 

No. 230. Sassy Bark of Sierra Leone {Erythro- CASE 
plileum giiineense, G. Don). A tree 40 to 100 feet high, 43. 
native of tropical Africa. The bark is a powerful poison, 
and is used by the native tribes as an ordeal (called 
Casca on Lower Congo, used merely as a strong emetic 
" to bring up the devil "; MWAVI in Makua country). A 
red juice flows from the tree, which is used for the same 
purpose. 

Sub-Order III. Minioseae. On the middle shelf of 
this compartment are shown pods and seeds of the 
OWALA or Opochala of West Africa (Pentaclethra 
macrophylla, Bth.). The pods are very thick and woody 

25782 F 



82 

CASE and the valves powerfully hygroscopic. The seeds are 
43. edible and contain 45 per cent, of oil or fat suitable for 
candle and soap-making, and 30 per cent, of albuminoids, 
suitable, after the expression of the oil, for cattle food. 

On the lower shelves are pods, &c., of various species 
of ParMa, of which note Cafe de Soudan, the seeds of 
Parkia africana, R. Br., which, when roasted are used as 
a substitute for coffee and chocolate ; the tree was long 
supposed to be identical with Cola {see p. 29). 

No. 231. Pods of Cacoon, Mackay Bean, Sea 
Bean {Entada scandens, Bth.). A large woody climber, 
widely distributed in the tropics. Some of the legumes 
measure 4 feet in length by 4 or 5 inches in breadth. 
The seeds are about 2 inches across, dark brown, hard and 
shining, and are often made into spoons or small boxes, 
and are used for crimping linen. They are also eaten by 
natives in North Queensland after baking, pounding and 
steeping in water in a dilly bag for 12 hours. This 
process is probably necessary on account of the presence 
of saponin which is to some extent poisonous. These 
seeds are frequently washed up on shores distant from 
the place of growth ; specimens are exhibited that have 
been so washed up on the coasts of Western Europe and 
Africa, from the tropics to the North Cape. Observe the 
curiously twisted stem of this plant, also fibre and rope 
prepared from it. Under the name of SiNTOH or GOGO 
the stem is beaten out, dried and used in place of soap in 
Perak. 

No. 232. NiOPE Snuff, made from the pods of 
PijJtadenia peregrbia, Bth., by the Indian tribes of the 
Rio Negro, Brazil, with the instruments used in its pre- 
paration. The pods are also shown. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment observe 
sample of Angico gum from Pipiadenia macrocarpa^ 
Bth., introduced into London from Brazil in 1888 under 
the name of Brazilian Gum Arabic. Specimens of 
the wood and bark are shown. Note also bark of 
Barbatimao {Stryphnodendron Barhatimam^ Mart.), 
from Brazil. It has astringent properties and is used for 
tanning. 



83 

No. 233. Red Wood, or sometimes called Red CASE 
Sandal Wood {Adenanthera %)avonina^ L.). A 43. 
deciduous tree of India, Malay Islands, China and the 
Philippines. The heart-wood is red, hard, and close- 
grained, and is used in South India for hou^e-building, 
cabinet purposes, and as a red dye. The seeds are worn 
as necklaces by the women and children, and are used as 
weights by goldsmiths and jewellers, weighing on an 
average four grains each. They also yield an oil. 

Note roots of Elephantorrhiza Burchellii, Bth., known 
as Elands Bontjes, occasionally imported into this 
country from Natal for tanning purposes ; note also the 
curious pods of Tetrapleura Thonningii, Bth., from West 
Africa, remarkable for the strong ridge down the back of 
each valve. They contain saponine and are sold in the 
markets of Sierra Leone for washing purposes and are 
also occasionally imported into this country as a soap 
substitute. 

On a lower shelf observe wood of the Mesquit Tree 
(Prosopis jaliflora^ DC.) from Jamaica, where it is known 
as Cash AW. The wood is hard and durable, and a gum 
resembling Gum Arabic exudes from the trunk. The 
leaves, shoots and pods are used to feed cattle. In dry 
weather the pods are said to be as nutritious as corn ; but 
after rains horses often die from the distention due to the 
germination of the seed in the stomach. It is a nativ'e of 
the West Indies and Central America. P. pubescens, Bth., 
sometimes called the Screw Mesquit of which the 
twisted pods are also used as fodder, is found in Texas, 
New Mexico and California. 

No. 234. Candlestick, work-bags, and other orna- CASE 
mental articles formed of the shining brown seeds of 44. 
Leucaena glauca, Bth., a low erect tree, probably native 
of Tropical America, but now widely spread throughout 
Tropical Asia and Africa. 

No. 235. Iron WOOD of Pegu and Arracan (Xylia 
dolahriformis, Bth.). A large deciduous forest tree. 
The timber is durable, heavy, but difficult to work ; 
it is however largely used for railway sleepers in Burma 
and India, and is also recommended for paving blocks, &c. 



,84 

CASE Tanning extract is obtained from the wood, specimens of 
44. which are shown. 

No. 236. Pods and flowers of Acacia farnesiana, 
Willd. A shrub or low tree widely distributed in 
America, East and West Indies, Australia and Africa, and 
often planted for its ornamental character or for the sake 
of the perfume from its flowers, known as Cassie. It is 
cultivated largely on the perfume farms of the South of 
France, and thrives better at Cannes than in any other 
part of Europe. A model of a still used by the 
perfumers for distilling flowers is here shown, also frames 
upon which a layer of fat is spread, over which the 
flowers are sprinkled, the perfume being absorbed by the 
fat. The perfume from flowers is also obtained by 
spreading cloths saturated with the finest olive oil over 
the wire frames here shown, and laying the flowers upon 
these cloths, leaving them for a long time till the oiled 
cloths have absorbed the perfume ; the oil is afterwards 
obtained from the cloths by means of a screw press. 

No. 237. Babul Gum from Acacia arctbica, Willd., 
a moderate-sized tree found in India, Arabia, Egypt, 
Tropical and Southern Africa. Numerous samples of 
gum are shown of very different character, some in large 
agglutinated blocks, nearly black in colour, others in 
small roundish colourless tears. It forms some of the 
East Indian Gum Arabic of commerce, but is mostly 
mixed with other gums. In India it is employed in 
native medicine, dyeing and cloth printing. The wood 
is very durable if well seasoned, and is used in India for 
wheels, sugar and oil presses, rice-pounders, agricultural 
implements, &c. The bark is used for dyeing and 
tanninsf. In Scinde and Guzerat large quantities of lac 
are collected from the tree. 

No. 238. Gum Arabic, obtained chiefly from 
Acacict Senegal, Willd., a tree about 20 feet high, native 
of Senegal and the Soudan. The gum exudes from the 
branches, " principally during the prevalence of the dry 
*' desert winds from the north and east, which blow in 
" the winter after the rainy season," In some districts 
the issue of the gum is facilitated by incisions. The best 



85 

gum comes from Kordofan. The gum collected in CASE 
Senegal is mostly shipped to Bordeaux to the extent of 44. 
30-35,000 cwts. annually for the last few years. The 
import of Gum Arabic from all sources into the United 
Kingdom during 1905 amounted to 73,222 cwts. of 
the value M £105,062. The bulk of the imports come 
through Egypt. 

Though the best Gum Arabic of commerce is furnished 
by the species under notice, other species furnish inferior 
qualities. The following are the names of some of the 
principal Gum Arabic yielding plants, with the trade 
names of the gums. 

Acacia Senegal, Willd., yielding Kordofan, Picked Turkey, 

White Sennaar or Sene- 
gal Gum. 
A. ste^iocarjM, Hochst. „ Suakin, Talca, or Talha 
and A . Seijal, Delile, Gum. 

var. Fistula, 
A. ccrabicccy 'WiWd. ... „ Morocco, Mogadore, 

Brown Barbary, or East 
Indian Gum. 
A. horrida, Willd. ... „ Cape Gum. 
A. 2^ycnuntlia, Bth. ... "] 
A. decurrens, Willd.... 

A. dealhata, Link. 1 „ Australian or Wattle Gum. 
A. homalophylla, A. ( 

Cunn., and perhaps j 

other species ...J 

Gum Arabic is largely used for giving lustre to crape 
and silk, for thickening colours and mordants in calico 
printing, in the manufacture of ink and blacking, amd 
very largely as a mucilage. 

No. 239. CuTCH or Black Catechu prepared by 
boiling the heartT^^ood and pods of the Khair (Acacia 
Catechu, Willd.), and A. Suma, Kurz., forest trees of • 
India and Burma. It contains much tannin, and is exten- 
sively exported to Europe for the use of tanners. 

The word Catechu signifies tree-juice. It is sometimes 
called Terra Japonica, a name which is more correctly 
applied to Uncaria Gambier (see case 63). 



86 

CASE Catechu is packed for exportation in mats, bags, or 

44. boxes, the best quality coming from Pegu. Bengal and 
Burma, however, furnish a very large proportion of that 
imported into this country and America. Observe fine 
samples of Catechu, also of the wood, which is extremely 
durable, a rice-pounder made of the wood, and cordage 
prepared from the bark. This order {Legtiminosae) is 
continued oji the next floor. 

Middle Floor. 

Observe opposite Case 45 a small cabinet made of 

Australian woods containing a valuable series of materials, 

fruits, &c., from the ancient Pile dwellings in the Swiss 

lakes. 

CASE The first compartment of this case contains woods, pods, 

45. gums, &c., of species of Acacia chiefly from India and 
Africa. In the next division are numerous specimens of 
the woods, barks and gums of Australian species of Acacia, 
among which may be noted the bark of Dead Finish 
(^Acacia tetragonophylla, F. Muell.), and bark of MULGA 
{A. aneura, F. Muell.), both of which are useful for 
tanning purposes ; the hardwood of the latter species is 
employed by the aborigines for boomerangs, spear-shafts, 
&c. Note also specimens of Myall Wood (Acacia 
homalophylla, A. Cunn.), valued for its dark colour, hard- 
ness, and fragrance, resembling fresh violets. It is much 
used for turners' work, and for the manufacture of tobacco 
pipes. The odour emitted from the tree vhen in flower, 
and just before rain, is said to be almost unbearable. 

No. 240. Australian Blackwood (Acacia meZa- 
noxylon, R. Br.), sometimes called LiGHTWOOD, chiefly in 
Tasmania. A large-sized tree affording a timber noted 
for its hardness and durability, by some people it is 
considered to be the most valuable of all the Australian 
timber trees. It was introduced into India more than 
50 years ago, and is now completely naturalised in the 
Nilgiris. The wood is employed in Australia for a great 
variety of purposes, being much valued for furniture, 
picture frames, cabinet work, &c. Specimens are shown 
in the case and on the adjoining walls of axe and spade 
handles, shafts for carriages, wagons, &c. 



87 

In the last compartment of this Case may be noted CASE 
l);irks of the following species of Acacia from Australia : — 45. 
(iiiEEN Wattle or Black Wattle {Acacia 7noUissima^ 
Wilkl.), Silver Wattle (A. dealhata, Link.), and 
r.ROAD-LEAVED or GOLDEN Wattle {A. 2jycnantha, 
lu'iith.). These species are among the more important 
()! the tanning barks of New South Wales, known as 
Wattle Barks, the last named being described as 
'• the best of the Australian tan barks," and one of the 
richest tanning barks in the world. Some of the Wattles 
aie cultivated in India and Natal. 17,513 tons of Black 
Wattle bark of the value of £102,666 were exported from 
IHirban during 1905. The twigs of A. dealhata are some- 
times used for basket-making. 

The first compartment of this Case contains specimens Q^gg 
(>i wood of various species of Acacia from Australia of ^g 
more or less use for cabinet-making and building 
}>nrposes. Note also BOOMERANGS, Australian weapons, 
which recoil when thrown, made of the wood of unknown 
species of Acacia. 

No. 241. Sabicu. The wood of Lysiloma Sctbicu 
Bth., a native of Cuba. The wood is valuable for its 
extreme hardness and durability. It has been used for 
shipbuilding and for various structural purposes, also for 
making shuttles, as a substitute for boxwood. Note a 
specimen of Horseflesh Mahogany from Bahamas, 
apparently furnished by the same tree. Also wood of 
Wild Tamarind {Lysiloma Icdisiliqua, Bth.), of Florida 
and the West Indies. Used locally in boat- and ship- 
building. 

The lower portion of this compartment and upper part 
of the next contain numerous specimens of woods, barks, 
and gums of different species oi Alhizzia^ such as Albizzia 
procera^ Bth., a large deciduous tree widely spread in the 
West Indies, Malay, and Philippine Islands. The wood is 
even-grained and durable ; used for sugar-cane crushers, 
rice-pounders, agricultural implements, &c. A. odoratis- 
sima^ Bth., also a large tree of the central Himalaya, Ceylon, 
and Malacca. The wood is durable, and takes a good 
polish ; it is used for wheels, oil mills, and furniture. The 
leaves and twigs are used as cattle fodder. A, amara, Boiv., 



88 

CA.SE a native of South India. The wood is very strong, close " 
46. grained, hard, and durable, and is used for beams, native 
houses, and carts, ^i. Lehhek, Bth., a large tree found 
throughout India and Ceylon, West Burma, and Tenas- 
serim. It is often grown as an avenue tree, and its wood 
varies greatly in weight and strength. It is used for oil 
mills, wheel work, furniture, &c. A considerable amount 
of it has been exported to London of late years from the 
Andamans as a furniture wood under the name of East , 
Indian Walnut. The leaves and twigs are used to feed 
camels. A stipulata^ Boiv., a large tree of the Tropical 
Himalayas to Ceylon and Burma. It is used for building 
purposes, cart w^heels, furniture, and "has been tried for 
"tea boxes, for which purpose it will probably suit well." 
A gum exudes freely from the stem and is used for sizing 
Daphne paper in Nepal. A. Julihrissin, Durazz., a., 
moderate-sized tree found throughout the Himalayas, and 
distributed in Abyssinia, Eastern and Central Asia, China, 
and Japan. Like all the species, the tree is of rapid 
growth, and very handsome when in flower. The wood is 
used for furniture. 

No. 242. Pods of the Rain Tree {Pithecolobiion 
Saman, Bth.) ; a native of the West Indies and South 
America. The name of Rain tree is derived from its 
being spoken of as occasionally in South America dis- 
tilling moisture to such an extent as to wet the ground 
beneath. This is described as being caused by "multi- 
"tudes of cicadas sucking the juices of the tender young 
" branches and leaves and squirting forth slender streams 
" of limpid fluid." The pods are sweet, and are used for 
feeding cattle. The plant has been introduced into India 
and other countries, and is considered a valuable shade 
tree in tropical pastures. In India the phenomenon said 
to be observed in South America does not occur. A 
photograph of the tree is shown, as well as a specimen of 
the wood, pods and seeds. 

On the lower shelves are specimens of wood and pods 
of several other species of Pithecolohmm. Note also the 
nearly circular pods of Enterolohiwn Timhouva^ Mart., 
known as the Orejera, and used as a detergent in 
Columbia. Saponin is found in all the organs of the 
plant, but more especially in the pericarp of the fruit. 



r 



89 



Note in the first compartment of this case the long and CASE 
rope-like pods of Inga ediiUs, Mart., a Brazilian tree ; 47. 
and wood and pods of some undetermined species of 
Inga and miscellaneous Leguminosae. 

Rose Order (Eosaceae). A numerous family of 
trees, shFubs, or herbs, abounding principally in 
cool and temperate climates, and including many species 
of great importance. The Apple, Cherry, Rose, and 
Strawberry may be taken as familiar types of the group. 

Coco Plum {Ghrysohalanus Icaco, L.). A shrub or 
small tree of Tropical Africa and 'I'ropical America. On 
the Gambia the seeds, called Varach, are strung on a 
stick and used as a candle. In Honduras the Spanish 
settlers express from them a bland fine oil. The fruits 
are about the size of an ordinary plum, and are either 
white, purple, red, or yellow. They have an acid pulp, 
and are eaten in the West Indies either raw or made into 
a conserve. Wood, fruits, and the strung seeds are 
shown. 

No. 243. Bark of the Caraipi or Pottery-Tree 
of Para {Moqiiilea lUllis, Hook. f.). The iDOwdered bark, 
baked with an equal quantity of clay, makes vf^ssels 
(No. 244) for domestic use, capable of withstanding 
a great amount of heat. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment are . 
fruits of numerous species of Parinarium. The seeds 
of many of them contain oil, and are occasionally im- 
ported as oil seeds. The principal of these are : OlTZlKA 
seeds from Brazil, and NiKO seeds from West Tropical 
Africa. Specimens in flower and fruit are much needed 
for their accurate determination. Mabo seeds, hard, 
bony, two-celled stones, the kernels of which are very 
oily, appear to be furnished by ParinccfHum Mobola, 
Oliv., known as the MOLA plum in Zambesi-land. 

The other species, fruits of which are exhibited, are the 
following : — P. 2Jolya?idrum, Bth., from Upper Guinea, 
the fruit of which is described as "hardly edible"; 
P. curatellaefolium, Planch., a small tree of Zanzibar and 
the Niger River, where it is said to be one of the best 
native fruits ; P. capense, Harv., a low shrub of Lower 
Guinea, South Central Africa, and the Cape. The Gray 



90 

CASE or Rough-skinned Plum of Sierra Leone (P. excelsum^ 
47. Sabine), a large tree ; the pulp of the fruit is described 
as " dry, farinaceous, and, owing to the size of the stone, 
** small in quantity, with an insipid taste." The BURI 
NUT or Maketa of the Fijis (jP. lauriniim^ Gray) ; the 
kernels are beaten up, made into a kind of putty, and 
used for stopping holes in canoes, and for fixing spear- 
heads {see specimen from the Admiralty Islands) to the 
shafts. 

No. 245. Buck Pot made by Caribs from the ashes 
of the Kauta bark {Hirtella americana^ L.) of British 
Guiana. Also specimen of the bark. 

Observe specimen of the herb of the Meadow Sweet 
{Spiraea Ulmaria, L.), formerly used in medicine in this 
country. 

No. 246. QuiLLAiA Bark (Quillaja SajJonaHay 
Mol.). An evergreen tree, native of Chili and South 
Brazil. An infusion of the bark is much used in the 
arts as a detergent for washing silks, clothes, &c. In 
France, under the name of BoiS DE PANAMA, a tincture 
made from the wood is used as an agent in preparing 
emulsions from various balsams and oils. In medicine 
it has been proposed as a substitute for Senega root. It 
is imported into this country for the preparation of a hair 
wash and for other purposes. Recently an unfamiliar 
bark has appeared in commerce as Quillaia, but so far its 
botanical source remains undetermined. 

Note on a lower shelf wood of Sakura {Priimis 
Pstudo-cerasus, Lindl.), used by the Japanese for turnery, 
printing-blocks, carving, pipe-stems, &c. The flowering 
branches are much esteemed for ornament and are con- 
stantly introduced in artistic decorations. 

The next compartment contains specimens of wood of 
several species of Primus, chiefly from North America, 
also specimens of Prune Bark {Prumis occidentalism 
Sw., a native of the West Indies), and a liqueur prepared 
from it. Wild Black Cherry Bark (P. serotina, 
Ehrh.), used in medicine in North America. Wood of 
the Cherry Laurel (Prunns Laurocerasus, L.), a well- 
known shrub or small tree, the leaves of which yield 
hydrocyanic acid, and are used for making laurel water, 



91 

flavouring sweetmeats, &c. It is recommended, however, CASE 
that " they should be emploj^ed with caution, as on 47. 
"account of their poisonous properties they may produce 
*' injurious, or even fatal effects." The fruits are said to 
be eaten in Imeritia, East of the Black Sea. 

Observe wood, bark, and gum, of the COMMON Cherry CASE 
{Primus Gerasus^ L.). Also walking sticks and tobacco 48. 
pipes made of cherry wood. Near these are fruits of 
Prunus insititia, L., the officinal prune of India. 

No. 247. Plums, the fruits of Prunus clomestica, 
L. The plum tree grows to 15 or 20 feet high. The 
French or St. Julien Plum, or Prune, is the produce of 
a variety, known as Juliana, grown in France, chiefly in 
ih.Q valley of the Loire, " especially about Bourgueil, a 
" small town lying between Tours and Angers." It is 
also largely grown in S.W. France, especially in the 
department of Indre-et-Loire and Lot-et-Garonne. The 
fruit when thoroughly ripe is washed, exposed to the sun 
and then subjected to three or even four cookings on trays 
in immense ovens ; the cookings each last six hours, the 
first is at a temperature of 50° C, the second of 70' C, 
and the third of about 90^ C. After each cooking, the 
prunes are exposed to the air, and then flattened between 
two cylinders covered with india-rubber. Two claies or 
drying trays are exhibited in this Case. An inferior kind 
of dried prune is imported, Avhen French prunes are 
scarce, from Germany. It is there known as Quetschen 
or Zwetschen, and is the produce of Prunus domestica, 
var. prunealina, DC. Another variety of Prune is largely 
produced in Serbia and sent chiefly to Austria-Hungary 
and Germany, to the value of about £250,000 per annum. 
There is also an important Prune industry in California. 

Prunes are valued for their nutritious, demulcent, and 
laxative properties. Amongst the other varieties of plums 
exhibited are Carlsbad plums from Germany, Elva plums 
from Portugal, Mirabelle Plums, and Greengages. 

No. 248. Peaches, the fruits of Prunus Persica, 
Stokes, a small tree, supposed by some to be native of 
Persia, but considered by De CandoUe to be probably a 
native of China. Early introduced to and cultivated in 



92 

CASE this country for the fruits. The nectarine is a variety of 
48. the same species. Peaches from Natal, and green peaches 
from France are exhibited. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment are dried 
Apricot Fruits {Prunus armeniaca^ L.), an important 
article of food in the N.W. Himalaya. Oil for lamps, 
cooking, &c., is expressed from the kernels. Observe flat 
cake of compressed Apricot pulp, sold in bazaars at 
Damascus. Note on lower shelf shovel made of Apricot 
Wood, used in water irrigation of fields in Ladak, and a 
club for crushing rice in Ladak, made of the same wood. 

Observe walking sticks made of the Sloe or BLACK- 
THORN {Prunus spinosa^ L.), also portion of fishing line 
from Essex, the hooks being formed of the thorns of this 
plant. 

No. 249. Jordan and Valencia or Sweet Almonds, 
the kernel of the fruic of Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes, var. 
dulcis^ a tree, cultivated in the North of Africa, Italy, 
Spain, &c. Jordan (corruption of Jardyne or Garden, i.e. 
cultivated) and Valencia Almonds are imported from 
Malaga, without the shell, and differ from other sorts by 
their large size and oblong form. 

No. 250. Bitter Almonds chiefly from Barbary, 
Sicily, (fee, of smaller size than the sweet variety, are the 
produce of P. Amygdalus, var. amara. Almond Oil is 
pressed from them on account of the greater value of the 
residual cake. This when crushed and distilled with 
water yields the Essential Oil, which is extremely 
poisonous owing to the presence of Hydrocyanic (Prussic) 
acid. 

On a lower shelf are shown leaves of Ruhus strigosus, 
Michx., from North America ; also a sample of wool dyed 
with the juice of the fruit of the common Blackberry 
(Rubus fruticosus^ L.). 

On an upper shelf of the last compartment of this case 
are specimens of "Blackberry" root {Ruhus occidentalism 
L.), from North America. Note also bundles of the dried 
herbs of the following : — Avens {Geum urba7ium, L.), 
Wild Strawberry {Fragaria vesca, L.), Tormentil {Poten- 
tilla Tormentilla, Neck.), Cinquefoil (P, reptans^ L.), 
Silverweed (P. Anserina^ Ij.), Agrimony {Agrimonia 



93 

Eujmtoria, L.), Salad Burnet (Poterium Sanguisorha^ L.). CASE 
These were all, at one time, used in medicine in this |y 
country, and are still used to a certain extent in rustic 
practice. 

No. 251. KOUSSO or KOSO. The flowers of Bray era 
anthelmifitica, Kunth, a handsome tree about 20 feet high, 
native of the higher mountainous districts of Abyssinia, 
and commonly planted near towns and villages through- 
out the country. For commercial purposes Kousso is 
gathered before the seeds are ripe, it is hung in the sun to 
dry, and then made up into bundles or cylindrical rolls, 
varying in length from 10 inches to a foot. These are 
packed in boxes, and reach England by way of Aden or 
Bombay. Kousso has a pleasant herby odour, and a 
bitterish acrid taste ; it is used as an anthelmintic, and is 
\Qvj effectual in its action on tape worm. In large doses 
it has produced dangerous and even fatal results. 

No. 252. Rose Bedeguars : "Robin Redbreast's 
pincushions." Mossy excrescences often found on the 
common Dog-rose (Rosa canina) in hedges ; they are 
occasioned by the puncture of Ehodites Rosae^ L. Observe 
the Bedeguars cut across, showing the cavities containing 
the larvae. 

On an upper shelf of the first compartment of this CASE 
case note Petals of the French, Provins, or Red Rose 49. 
{R. gallica, L.), cultivated in this country near Mitcham, 
in Surrey, as well as in Oxfordshire and Derbyshire, and 
to a large extent in Holland, and in the neighbourhood of 
Paris, for the petals, which after being gathered and 
dried, are used, for colouring medicines, as well as for 
making confection of roses, a specimen of which is 
exhibited. 

No. 253. Attar or Otto of Roses, obtained by 
careful distillation from the petals of sweet scented 
species of Rose, Rosa gallica, L., R. centifolia, L., 
R. moschata, Herrm., and R. damascena, Mill., a cultivated 
race of R. gallica. Cultivated on the lower slopes of the 
Balkans, in Roumelia, for the prodviction of Attar. 

For the manufacture of Attar, the flowers are collected 
before sunrise in April and May. They are distilled as 



94 

CASE soon as possible after gathering. " The first portions uf 
49. " the distillate are returned to the still ; the second is set 
" by for a day or two, and kept at a temperature not lower 
" than 60°, in order that the oil may separate. The oil in 
" a fluid state is then skimmed from the surface of the 
" water by means of a very small tin funnel, having a 
" fine orifice, and furnished with a long handle." The 
average annual produce of Roumelia, from whence the 
London market is chiefly supplied, is about 4,000 lbs., 
valued at £60,000. Some Attar is also obtained in the 
South of France, Tunis, and Persia, as well as at Ghaze- 
pore, in India. The Turkish Attar is almost invariably 
adulterated with the oil of an Indian grass (Andropogon). 
See Museum No. 2, Cases 97 and 98. Various specimens 
of Attar are exhibited, together with the tins in which it 
is exported, and a glass flask in which the Attar separates 
from the water and is skimmed off by a pipette which is 
also shown. 

No. 254. Quince (Pyrus Cydonia, L.). The fruit 
is eaten stewed, in tarts and confectionery, or made into 
marmalade. Quince seeds are used in medicine for their 
mucilaginous properties. It grows wild in the South of 
Europe. 

Note near these a series of fruits of JAPANESE QuiNCE 
(Pyrus jcqjonica, Thb.), from plants grown in the Royal 
Gardens. Also fruits of Chinese Quince (P. catha- 
yensis^ Hemsl.), a native of China and Japan. 

On the lower shelf of this compartment are specimens 
of woods of several species of Pyrus from India, North 
America, and Algeria. 

No. 255. Apple {Pyrus Malus, L.). Note dried 
and sliced apples, and Normandy pippins, also refuse 
" Trash " left in cider and perry making, used in Switzer- 
land as fuel for stoves. Ordinary Cider contains about 5 
to 6 per cent, of Alcohol and about 3 per cent, of ash, 
mostly due to alkaline salts. Specimens of the close and 
even-grained wood are shown, together with a gun-stock 
made of the wood, also branches injured by American 
Blight {ScMzoneura lanigera). Models of several 
varieties of Apples and Pears are shown in a small case 
near top of stairs. 



95 

No. 256. Pear (Pyrtis communis, L.). Dried and CASE 
compressed fraits are shown together with specimens of 49. 
the hard and even-grained wood used for drawing squares 
and curves, specimens of which and a gun-stock are 
exhibited. 

No. 257. Medlar {Pyrus germanica, L.). Common 
in many parts of Europe, and occurring in English 
hedgerows. 

On the middle shelf of this compartment are specimens 
of the wood of the Mountain Ash or Rowan tree 
{Pyrus Aucuparia, Gsert.) ; useful as a nurse-tree in 
plantations, enduring severe exposure. Formerly re- 
garded as a charm against witchcraft, &c. 

Also wood of the Wild Service tree {Pyrus tormi- 
nails, Ehr.), and on the lower shelves fruits and woods of 
several species of Crataegus. 

No. 258. Wood of the Hawthorn {Crataegus 
Oxyacantha, L.), and its variety the Glastonbury Thorn, 
which flowers sparingly in mid-winter. The wood is 
extremely hard, close-grained, and has been recommended 
as a substitute for box for wood engraving. A prepared 
block is exhibited. 

No. 259. LoQUAT or Japanese Medlar, a dessert cASE 
fruit^afforded by Eriohotrya japonica, Lindl. A native 5Q 
of China and Japan, cultivated in most warm temperate 
countries. 

On the lower shelves are specimens of woods of species 
of Photinia and Amelanchier. 

Gooseberry and Currant Order {Saxifrageae), 
Trees, shrubs, or herbs of temperate or mountainous 
countries. Note woods of Indian species of Hydrangea, 
the native Laurel of Tasmania {Anopterus glandulosus, 
Lab.), and the Lightwood of New South Wales {Cerato- 
petalum apetalum, D. Don.), a light, tough and fragrant 
wood used for boat and coach building, tool handles, &c. 

Also fruit of Davidson's Plum {Davidsonia pruriens, 
F. Muell.), ripened in the Palm House at Kew. It is a 
native of Queensland. 



96 

CASE No. 260. Gooseberries {Biles Grossularia, L.), 
' f'O. and Curra:nts (R. riihrum, L.), plants native of Britain, 
and largely cultiTated for the sake of their edible fruits ; 
numerous varieties both of the gooseberry and currant 
have arisen by cultivation. The fruits are very whole- 
some, and large quantities are bottled for winter use. 

Witch Hazel Order {Hamamelideae). A small group 
of trees and shrubs widely distributed over the globe. 

Observe fruits of Altingia excelsa^ Noronha, a tree 
growing from 60 to 100 feet high in Assam, Bhotan, 
Pegu, Java, and Yunnan. The wood is used in Assam for 
building and ordinary domestic purposes. Samples of oil 
and balsam obtained from the tree in India are exhibited. 

No. 261. Liquid Storax a sofi: viscid resin the pro- 
duce of Liquidambar orientalis^ Mill., a handsome branch- 
ing tree, 30 or 40 ft. high forming forests on the extreme 
south-west of Asia Minor. Liquid Storax is extracted 
from the inner bark by boiling in water when the resin 
is separated and skimmed off. The boiled bark is sub- 
mitted to heavy pressure in hair bags, hot water being 
added to cause the resin to flow more freely. The residue 
forms the fragrant foliaceous cakes of bark known as 
Cortex Thymiamatis^ a specimen of which is exhibited. 
Liquid Storax is chiefly exported in barrels to Constanti- 
nople, Smyrna, Syra and Alexandria. Some goes to 
Smyrna packed in goat skins, and transferred to barrels 
is shipped mostly to Trieste. It is also exported to 
Bombay by way of the Red Sea, and from thence finds 
its way in considerable quantities to China, which with 
India are the principal markets. Liquid Storax, has 
stimulant and expectorant properties, and is said to be 
useful in chronic bronchial affections. It is little used in 
this country except in perfumery. 

Observe also fruits and wood of Liquidambar for- 
mosantty Hance, a tree of Formosa, upon the leaves of 
which a silkworm feeds. Cocoons of this siJkworm are 
exhibited. The wood is much used in China for tea 
chests. 

On a lower shelf are specimens of wood, fruits, and 
balsam of Sweet Gum (Liquidamhar styracifliia, L.), 
a large American tree extending from Connecticut and 



I 



97 



Illinois southward to Mexico and Guatemala. The resin CASE 
exudes either from natural fissures or from incisions. 50. 
The wood is imported into this country as Satin 
Walnut, American Red Gum, &c. It is fairly hard, 
tough, and close-grained but warps badly in seasoning. 
Used for furniture, paving blocks, &c. 

Mangrove Order {Rhizoiihoreae). Opposite-leaved CASE 
trees, growing on the muddy shores of tropical countries. 51. 

No. 262. Germinating seeds of two species of. MAN- 
GROVE {Rliizopliora Mangle, L., and R. ')niicronata. Lam.); 
germinating in the fruit they form a long root before 
dropping to the ground, which they sometimes reach 
before becoming detached. 

No. 263. Mangrove Barks and Extracts prepared 
from them, which from their astringency, are used in 
tanning. 

Note Tengah Bark and Extract {Ceriops candol- 
lecma, x4.rn.), employed in the Straits Settlements, &c., for 
dyeing and tanning. 

Myrobalan Order {Comhreiaceae). All tropical trees 
and shrubs, growing in both hemispheres. They are 
characterized by some degree of astringency. 

No. 264. Fruits, wood, gum, and oil obtained from the 
kernels of Baheka {Tei^minalia helerica, Roxb.),^a large 
deciduous tree of India and Ceylon. The fruit is one of 
the Myrobalans and is occasionally exported to Europe 
for dyeing and tanning, but it is thought little of and is 
barely worth the cost of collection and carriage. It is 
known in the London Market as Bed A NuT. In India it 
is employed in native medicine and for making ink. 

On the lower shelves of this compartment are speci- 
mens of fruits, wood, bark and gum of ASAN, Terminalia 
tomentosa, W. & A., one of the mostly widely distributed 
and important of Indian forest trees. The wood is 
largely used for house building, carts, ship and boat 
building. When polished it resembles walnut, and is 
considered one of the best woods for making stethoscopes 
at the Government Medical Store Depot, Bombay. 

25782 G 



98 

CASE No. 265. Tusseh Silk, raw, and dyed ; also speci- 

51, mens of the insects which produce the silk in India. 
These feed upon the loaves of Termmalia tomentosa and 
of those of several other trees. 

No. 266. Myrobalans or fruits of HiRDA {Termi- 
nalia Chehula^ Retz.). A large deciduous tree found 
throughout India and Burma. The hard woody fruits 
are exported in large quantities from Bombay to Europe 
for the use of tanners. S^jecimens are also shown of 
astringent galls which form on the young tw^igs, and are 
employed in India for making ink, as well as for dyeing 
and tanning. The wood is hard and fairly durable ; 
used for furniture, agricultural implements, &c. 

Several other species of Termifialia are represented in 
this case including T, angiistifolia^ Jacq., the Bois 
Benzoin of Mauritius. It yields a fragrant resin like 
Benzoin {see Case 74), said to be used in Mauritius in 
churches as incense. 

• Note also fruits, wood, bark and oil of the INDIAN 
Almond {T, Catajjpa, L.). The kernels of the nuts are 
eaten at dessert and also yield an oil. Specimens are 
also shown of T. Oliveri, Brandis, the Than tree of 
Burma where an extract of the bark, though itself poor 
in tanning, is used to adulterate Cutch {see No. 239). 
CASE On an upper shelf are gum, leaves, and wood of 

52. Anogeissus latifolia^ \Yall., a large tree common from the 
Himalayas to Ceylon. The wood is highly valued for its 
great strength and toughness, and is employed for furni- 
ture, ship-building, &c. The gum is extensively used in 
cloth printing in India, and the leaves in tanning. 

The remainder of the compartment is devoted to woods, 
barks, and fruits of other Combretaceous plants. 

Myrtle Order {Myrtaceae). A very large Order, 
numbering about 1,800 species, trees or shrubs ; abound- 
ing in hot countries, especially South America, the East 
Indies, and Australia. The most northern member is 
the common Myrtle {Myrtus comtnunis, L.), a native of 
Southern Europe. The Order abounds in a volatile oil, 
frequently fragrant, and giving character to the products 
of the group. The opposite and evergreen leaves, dotted 
-with numerous little oil-glands, are marked by a marginal 



99 

\ein. None of the Order have bine flowers. Observe CASE 
the numerous specimens of Australian woods furnished 52. 
by the genera Melaleuca (Australian Tea-trees, &c.) and 
Eucalyptus (the Gum, Iron-bark, and Stringy-bark). 
Some of the Gum and Stringy-bark trees rise to a great 
height, haying straight, unbranched trunks, from 100 to 
150 feet. Note also the variety in structure of the bark. 

On an upper shelf of the central compartment observe 
specimens of oil from various species of Melaleuca, 
including M. Wilsonii, F. Muell, M. linariifolia\ Sm., if. 
Jiyperici folia ^ Sm., and M. deciissata, R. Br. 

No. 267. Bark, annually shed, of Melaleuca Leuca- 
dendron^ L. It is extremely durable, impervious to 
water, and is employed in Australia for thatching. 

No. 268. Cajuput Oil. Obtained by distillation 
from the leaves of Melcdeuca Leucadendron^ L., var., 
'tninor. A small irregular tree of the Indian Archipelago 
and Malayan Peninsula. Cajuput oil is mostly obtained 
from Celebes, Bouro, and Amboyna, and comes in 
ordinary beer or wine bottles. It is used internally as 
a stimulant and antispasmodic, and externally as a 
rubefacient. 

The last compartment of this case contains woods, 
fruits, &c., of various species of Melaleuca, AyigopJiorct, 
and of the important genus Euccdyptus, of which may 
be noted fruits, kino, wood and gun-stocks of the wood 
of Spotted Gum {Euccdyptus maculata, Hook.), from 
New South Wales. The wood is strong, close-grained 
and durable, and is in demand for ship-building, bridges, 
girders, and for general building work. From the leaves 
of E. maculata. Hook., var. citriodora, the Citron, or 
Lemon-scented Gum of Queensland, a fragrant oil is 
obtained. A sample is here shown. 

On the bottom shelf are specimens of wood, kino, 
Lerp, and other products of Euccdyptus vhnincdis, Lab., 
the Manna Gum of Australia, so called, as Lerp or 
Mellitose, a kind of Manna exudes from the bark from 
injuries believed to be caused by the " Great Black or 
Manna Cicada" ((7. moerens). Lerp has a pleasant, 
sweet taste, and is in much request by the aborigines as a 
food in the summer season^ 



100 

CASE The whole of this case is devoted to further illustrations 
53. of woods, oils, resins, &c. of the numerous species of 
Eucalyptus. 

In the first compartment note the hard wood of the 
Red Gum Tree {Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlecht.), of 
Australia, together with kino from the same species ; also 
tool-handles and wheel spoke of the wood of the Iron 
Bark Tree of Now South Wales {^E. leucoxijlon, F. Muell.). 

On a lower shelf observe spoke, felloe, and nave of 
wheel of York Gum (E, loxojMeba, Benth.) of Western 
Australia. This timber is stated to be the best in 
Australia for wheelwright's work. 

In the next compartment note mounted specimen of 
the bark of the Peppermint Tree (E. 2^fperitcc, Sm.), 
from New South Wales, showing natural deposit of kino. 
Also specimens of wood, kino, oil from the leaves, and a 
photograph of the base of a tree of Eucalyptus amyg- 
dcUina, Lab., from Victoria, Australia, known as *' Rig 
Ben". The tree measured 56 feet in circumference at the 
base and was 400 feet high. This species forms the 
highest of all known trees, one is recorded measuring 
470 feet high, far exceeding even the well-known Giant 
trees of California {Sequoia giganteay Torr.), iS^e Museum 
No. III. 

No. 269. Blue Gum {Eucalyptus Globulus, Lab.), of 
Victoria and Tasmania. One of the largest known trees, 
occasionally reaching a height of over 300 feet, and of 
remarkably rapid growth. Of late years this tree has 
become familiar, having been introduced and widely 
cultivated in many parts of the world, especially in the 
malarious parts of Italy and other districts of the Mediter- 
ranean region, and in many parts of India, especially in 
Southern India in the Nilgiris. In Australia the hard 
wood is employed for a great variety of purposes, includ- 
ing mill work, ship building, railway sleepers, poles and 
shafts for vehicles, tool handles, &c. The fruits are 
occasionally used for rosaries and necklaces. The leaves 
possess febrifugal properties and are smoked in the form 
of cigars or cigarettes, as a remedy for asthma. From the 
fresh leaves of this and of other species of the genus, 
Eucalyptus Oil of commerce is distilled. Considerable 



101 



attention has of late been bestowed upon the chemical CASE 
constituents of these oils and they have been found to 53. 
vary greatly in character. Their commercial value 
depends upon the percentage of Eucalyptol they contain. 

Note in the last compartment mounted specimens of 
the flowers^ and fruits of E. macrocarpa^ Hook. Also 
road paving blocks of. Karri {E. diversicolor, F. Muell.), 
and of Jarrah {E. marglnaia^ Sm.), two of the most 
important timber trees of Australia. The Karri is 
described as the finest and most graceful tree of the 
Australian forests. It is strictly confined to the South- 
western Division of Western Australia. An average tree 
attains a height of 2<^>0 feet with a diameter of 4 feet near 
the base ;• it is not unusual, however, to meet with trees 
300 feet high. The timber is hard, heavy, elastic and 
tough, red in colour, and is very similar in appearance to 
Jarrah but not so easily worked. Its chief uses are for 
bridge planking, shafts, spokes, felloes, wagon work, 
beams, mining timber and paving blocks. The Jarrah is 
the principal timber tree of Western Australia, found only 
in the South-western Division of the Colony. The 
average height is 90 to 100 feet with a diameter of 2^ to 
3^ feet at the base. When thoroughly seasoned the wood 
weighs 60 lbs. per cubic foot, is red in colour, takes a good 
polish and is comparatively easily worked. Some of its 
principal uses are for piles, jetties, bridges, boat-building, 
furniture, railway sleepers and paving blocks. Fine 
Specimens of these timbers will be found in Museum 
No. III. 

This case contains woods and other products of unde- CASE 
termined species of Eucalyptus, also weapons and other 54. 
articles made by the aborigines. 

No. 270. Bark of a EucalyiJtus, upon the inner 
surface of which drawings have been made by tlie 
aborigines of Victoria. 

In the first compartment of this case note specimens of CASE 
the wood, and essential oil distilled from the leaves of the 55. 
Scrub or Native Myrtle of Queensland (Backhousia 
citriodora, F. Muell.). The lemon-scented oil is used in 
Ausiralia as a perfume for soap. Small quantities of it 
have recently been imported into this country as a 
perfume. 



102 

CASE No. 271. Models and preserved Fruits of Guava 
55. {Psidium Guajava^ L.). A Bmall tree, prol3ably 
indigenous to Mexico and other parts of tropical America^ 
but now cultivated and naturalised in most tropical 
countries for the sake of the fruits, which are used for 
dessert. Two distinct varieties are known ; the apple- 
shaped or Red Guava (var. pomiferum), and the pear- 
shaped or White Guava (var. pyriferum). 

Guava jelly, prepared from the fruits, is imported into 
this country from the West Indies. 

On the top shelves of the next compartment are 
specimens of wood of Common Myrtle {Myrtus 
communis, L.), a well-known evergreen plant of the 
Mediterranean region. On the outside of the case is a 
well-rope formed of the branches of this plant from 
Cyprus. 

No. 272. Allspice, Pimento, or Jamaica Pepper, 
the dried, unripe fruits of Pimenta officinalis^ Ldl., a tree 
common in Jamaica ; from whence large quantities are 
imported into this country. Pimento is very largely used 
as a spice, also in medicine for its aromatic and stimulant 
properties. Oil of Pimento, obtained by distillation from 
the fruits, is often used for similar purposes as the Oil of 
Cloves, as well as in perfumery. Sticks of the pimento 
are imported in very large quantities for walking sticks 
and umbrella handles. 

From the leaves of an allied species (P. acris, Kostel.), 
the oil of bay or bay berry is obtained, used in the manu- 
facture of Bay Rum, employed in the United States as a 
refreshing perfume in faintness, or to sprinkle about sick 
rooms, as well as for hair washes. The dried, unripe 
berries have similar properties to pimento or allspice. 

No. 273. Cloves. The dried, unopened flower-buds 
of Eugenia caryophyllata, Thunb., a tree originally brought 
from the Moluccas ; now cultivated for this valuable spice 
in Amboyna, Malacca, Penang, Mauritius, Zanzibar, 
Pemba, in the West Indies principally at Grenada, and in 
other tropical countries. Cloves are collected hy hand or 
broken from the trees by means of bamboos, cloths being 
placed beneath the trees to receive them, and simply dried 
in the sun. They are gathered in the green state, before 



103 

they ripen or turn red, and in drying they change to the CASE 
familiar brown colour. Several varieties are known in 55. 
commerce, those from Penang being considered the best. 
Cloves and Clove-stalks yield essential oil by distillation 
extensively used by soap makers, perfumers, and in 
medicine. Cloves tliemselves are very largely used as a 
spice, and iTi medicine, on account of their stimulant and 
aromatic properties. 

During 1905, 136,724 cwts. of Cloves of the value 
of £287,073 were exported from Zanzibar; these were 
mostly grown in the island of Pemba. The bulk was 
exported to India, and nearly £35,000 worth came to the 
United Kingdom. Of Clove stems exported during the 
same period 92 per cent, went to Germany. Observe 
the curious and fragrant ornamental models from 
Amboyna made of Cloves strung together. Also silvered 
Cloves, and Clove confectionery from India. The dried 
fruits of the Clove Tree, under the name of MOTHER 
Cloves, are sometimes imported. They contain, however, 
less oil than cloves, and are inferior in fragrance. 

No. 274. Rose Apples, the fruits of Eugenia 
Jambos, L. A small tree of India, and cultivated in 
many tropical countries. The tree is planted for hedges, 
shade, and ornament, as well as for the sake of the fruits, 
which have a fragrance similar to rose water, but a very 
insipid taste. They are usually about the size of a small 
apple, but vary in colour, some being white, others rose 
pink. Candied Rose Apples, preserved with sugar, are 
exhibited. 

No. 275. Fruits and models of fruits of the Jam- 
BOLANA {Eugenia Jainbolana^ Lam.), a large evergreen 
tree, generally distributed throughout India, Ceylon, the 
Malay Archipelago to Australia. The fruits are edible, 
and vary in size, the result of cultivation. The powdered 
seeds and also fluid extracts of the fruit and bark have a 
reputation in the treatment of diabetes. The wood, of 
which specimens are shown, is hard and durable, and is 
used for building purposes, agricultural implements, &c., 
and the astringent bark is used in dyeing and tanning, 
and in medicine. This tree is one upon which the Tasar 
silkworm feeds. 



104 

CASE The rest of the compartment consists of woods and 

55. fruits of various other species of Eugenia. 

CASE Note on central shelf of the first division of this case 

56. the angular, float-like fruits of Barring ton? a speciosa, 
Forst., a tree found in India and Ceylon, and extending 
to the shores of the Malay Islands, Australia, and 
Polynesia. Specimens are exhibited that have been 
washed ashore on the East Coast of Africa and Madagascar. 
Also fibrous inner bark of B. racemosa, BL, and cloth 
prepared from it on the Zambesi. The bark is also used 
in North Queensland to stupefy fish. 

On a lower shelf observe calyces of the flowers of 
Careya arborecty Roxb., used in Scinde as a remedy for 
colds. The wood is used in Burma for gun stocks, house- 
building, cabinet-work, &c., and the fibrous bark for 
coarse, strong cordage, and also for slow matches. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment are wood 
and fruits of Anchovy Pear (Grias caulijiora, L.) a 
native of the West Indies. The fruit may be sometimes 
eaten by the natives, but is never gathered for sale to 
Europeans. The wood is said to split easily, and has 
been recommended for cask staves. 

Observe also the woody fruits of species of Couratari 
from tropical America. The bark when beaten out is 
used to make articles of clothing. *' While stopping for 
breakfast, some of the boatmen took the opportunity of 
making themselves new shirts. A young tree of the 
proper size was stripped of its bark to a height of 8 or 10 
feet. This was taken to the river, placed on a log or 
stone, and beaten with a stick. When free from the 
outer bark the fibres are opened and form a good cloth. 
This is then folded in the middle, a space left for the arms, 
the sides sewn to near the bottom, and a slit cut for the 
head. When old these shirts are as soft as linen ; and 
thus easily are the boatmen of the Beni supplied with 
clothing." — Proc. E.G.S.y Jane 1883, p. 324. 

No. 276. Fruit of the Cannon-Ball tree (Cotirou' 
pita guianensis, Aubl.), from St. Vincent, so called 
from its spherical shape. 

Under the name of MOXKBY POTS the fruits of several 
species of Lecythis are known. They are very remarkable, 
consisting of a hard, round or lengthened capsule, con- 



I 



105 

taining the seedy, and opening transversely by a lid at the CASE 
top. They grew in the forests of the hottest parts of 56. 
South America. The fruits of many species are used, 
after the seeds have been removed, as water vessels. 
Amongst the species exhibited are Lecythis ampullaria, 
Miers, L. cimpla, Miers, L. urnigera, Mart., L. lacunosa, 
Miers, L. usitata^ Miers. 

In the last compartment of this case note wood of 
Wadadura {Lecythis grandiflora^ Aubl.), of British 
Ouiana. It is even-grained, dense, takes a j?ood polish 
and is employed for furniture, turnery and barrel staves. 
Also observe wood and specimens of the bark of 
Kakaralli (L. Ollaria, L.), of British Guiana. The 
wood is very dense and even-grained. It is said to resist 
both teredo and barnacles, and to be more durable in 
water than greenheart {see Case 98). Used for house 
framing, wharves, sluices, &c. The papery inner bark is 
employed by the natives of British Guiana for cigarette 
wrappers. 

No. 277. Sapucaia Nuts, the edible seeds of 
Lecythis usitata, Miers, and of L. Ollaria, L., gigantic 
forest trees of Brazil and Guiana. Sapucaia-nuts are 
regarded as greatly superior in delicacy and flavour to 
the closely allied Brazil-nut. 

No. 278. Brazil-nuts, about twenty-four of which 
are contained in one of the hard-shelled fruits of the 
Bertholletia excelsa, H.B., an enormous tree, growing on 
the Amazon. 

Note in the upper portion of this compartment, a kind 
of garment known as " Tacae " worn by Cuben Indians 
on the Rio Uaupes, a tributary of the Amazon, made 
partly of the fibrous bark of a Myrtaceous tree. 

On the lower shelves and in the next case the 
Melastom Order {Melastomciceae) is represented ; a 
very large tropical family, characterized by opposite 
three-veined leaves, and splendid flowers with curious 
stamens, but affording very few economic products. 

Note in the first compartment of this case, wood and CASE 
combs made from the wood of Memecylon edide, Roxb., 57. 
from Southern India, also specimens of the leaves which 
are used as a dye. 



106 

CASE Loosestrife Order {Lythrarieae). Principally herbs 

57, with entire, opposite leaves, widely dispersed over the 

globe, some of the tropical species being shrubs or trees. 

The common Purple Loosestrife {Lythruyn Salicaria, L.) 

of wet ditches, represents the Order in Britain. 

Observe the dried flowers, wood, bark, and gum of 
Woodfordia jiorihunda^ Salisb., a large shrub common 
throughout India and distributed in Tropical Africa, 
Madagascar, and China. The flowers are used for dyeing 
red in India. 

No. 279. Tulip Wood, from Physocalymma scaher- 
rimum, Pohl, a Brazilian tree. The wood is beautifully 
marked with red streaks, and is used for inlaying costly 
furniture, caskets, &c. ; a small box made of the wood is 
exhibited. 

No. 280. Henna, the powdered leaves of Lawsonia 
alha, Lamk., a shrub found throughout India, in Cabul, 
Persia, &c., and cultivated in many tropical and warm 
countries. Made uj) into a paste, and used by the Eastern 
women to dye their nails, by way of ornament, an orange- 
colour. The colour lasts from three to four weeks. 
Specimens are exhibited from Erzeroum, East Indies, 
Somali Coast, &c., also a packet of Henna as sold at 
Damascus. Fruits, wood, and bark of the shrub are 
likewise shown. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment are 
specimens of the leaves, fruits, bark, and wood of 
Lagerstroemia Flos-regintv, Retz, described as the chief 
timber tree of Assam, Eastern Bengal and Chittagong, 
and one of the most important trees of Burma. Wood 
used for ^^hip-building, boats, canoes, gun-carriages, &c. 
Note also wood, bark, and gum, of L. iKirviflora^ Koxb., a 
large forest tree of India. The wood is employed by the 
natives for house-building, agricultural implements, &c. 
The bark is used both for dyeing and tanning, and the 
leaves are eaten by the Tasar silkworm. 

No. 281. Pomegranates, the produce of Punica 
Granatiim^ L., cultivated from early antiquity for its 
fruit ; naturalised in the Mediterranean region, but a 
native of Western Asia, south of the Caspian, and not of 



107 

Carthage, as its name would denote {Malum punicum). CASE 
It was known to the Hebrews under the name Eimmon, 57. 
and is mentioned in Deuteronomy as a product of 
Palestine. The root is an excellent vermifuge ; the bark 
gives the colour to yellow morocco leather, which is 
tanned with it. The dried rind of the fruit is valued as a 
remedy in India for diarrhoea and dysentery. The flowers, 
under the name of Balaustine flowers, are sometimes 
used for their astringent properties. Walking sticks are 
made from the stems of young plants imported from 
Algeria. 

Evening" Primrose Order (Onagrarieae). Herba- 
ceous plants or shrubs, mostly of temperate countries ; 
some species, chiefly American, bearing beautiful and sho wy 
flowers, as the Clarkias and Fuchsias of Gardens ; Willow- 
Herbs are among the British members of the group. 
They do not possess any marked properties. 

No. 282. Water Chestnuts, the horned fruits of 
species of Trapa^ growing in ponds, lakes, &c., in 
temperate Europe and Asia. In some parts of Southern 
Europe the seeds of T. natans, L. [J', bicornis, L.], are 
ground into flour which is made into bread. 

The same species is collected in large quantities in 
China for use as food. Another widely distributed 
species, namely, T. hisjnnosa, Roxb., found throughout 
India and Ceylon, is cultivated extensively for food in 
Kashmir and in the lakes, tanks, and fresh- water reservoirs 
of the North West and Central Provinces of India. In 
Kashmir it is stated to furnish almost the only food 
of at least 30,000 people for five months of the year. 
Samples of flour prepared from these seeds in India and 
known as Singhara flour are exhibited. During the 
Hooly festival the flour is mixed with a dye from the 
flowers of Butea frondosa and thrown over persons in 
sport. 

Observe rosaries made of the fruits of Trapa natans^ 
var. verhanensis, De Not., called Frutti Dl Lago from 
Lago di Varese and Lago Maggiore, Italy. 

In the small order Turneraceae observe specimens of 
D AMI AN A {Turnera diffusa, Willd. and its var. apliro- 
diisiaca). 



108 

CASE Passion Flower Order {Passifloreae). A group of 
57. twining herbs or shrubs, natives chiefly of South 
America. Some of the species produce edible fruits, as 
the Granadillas {Passiflora quadrangulm^is^ L., and 
P. macrocarpa. Mast.), Sweet Cup or Pomme d'or 
(P. maliformiSy L.), also Bell Apple [P. laurifolia, L.), 
natives of Tropical America and the West Indies. These 
fruits, of which examples are shown, may occasionally be 
seen in Oovent Garden Market. 

No. 283. Papaw, fruit of Carica Papaya^ L. Though 
now Avidely scattered in the tropics, it is believed to have 
originated from the warm part of the American continent. 
In cultivated plants the fruits are V ins. to 15 ins. long, 
pear or melon- shaped, and are eateji by all classes in the 
tropics, and may occasionally be bought in this country. 
The milky juice has the property of rendering meat 
tender ; it also yields Papain, a vegetable pepsin widely 
employed in the treatment of dyspepsia, &c. Note also 
fruits of C. candamarcensis, Hook, f., cultivated in 
Ecuador, up to an altitude of 9,000 feet. The fruit is 
described as possessing a delicious scent and grateful 
taste. 

Gourd Order {Cucurbitaceae). A group of prostrate 
or climbing plants wdth palmately-lobed leaves and 
tendrils, — chiefly tropical, with but few species extending 
Into cool regions. Cucumber {Cucumis sativus, L.) and 
Melon (0. Melo, L ) belong to the Order. Many of the 
species are acrid and purgative. 

Observe on the lower shelves fruits and seeds of 
Hodgsonia heteroclita. Hook. f. and T., a large clim.ber of 
India, Burma, and Malaya. Also the large acutely ribbed 
fruit of Telfairia occidentalism Hook, f ., a native of tropical 
Africa, cultivated for the seeds which are boiled and 
eaten. Fruit and seeds of 2\ pedata^ Hook., from East 
Africa are also shown. The seeds are covered with a 
fibrous network, and the kernels yield oil ; they are also 
boiled and eaten by negroes. 

Observe the variety in form of the fruit of various 
species of gourd here exhibited, especially the snake 
gourd {^Trichosanthes anguinct, L.). 



109 

The next two compartments contain a large collection CASE 
of tropical GoURDS and CALABASHES, some of remarkable 57. 
size and shape ; they are principally the shells of the fruit 
of Lagenarla vulgaris, Ser. They are employed for an 
innumerable variety of purposes, — as domestic utensils, 
drums, musical instruments, snuff-boxes, &c. The outer 
surface is^often elaborately carved or painted. Specimens 
are exhibited from China, East Indies, Australia, New 
Zealand, and Central and Southern Africa. Dried gourds 
imported from Zanzibar into Bombay for making the 
natiye guitars (Tamboora) are considered much superior 
to the Indian. [The name Calabash is also applied to the 
shell of the fruit of Grescentia. See Case 87a. — In 
Museum No. II., a huge Gourd is suspended from the 
ceiling in the large room.J 

No. 284. Fruits of Liiffa acutangula, Roxb., var. 
amara. A climbing plant met with all over India where 
the fruits, seeds, and leaves are employed in medicine as. 
an emetic, and the dried fibrous portion of the fruit serves 
as a brush for sizing paper. 

No. 285. Towel Gourds or hooFAK&(LuffaaegijP' 
tiaca, Mill.), cultivated throughout the tropics. The close 
vascular network of the inside of the fruit serves as a 
scrubbing brush, sponge, and to strain palm wine. It is- 
also worked up into, light ornamental articles, baskets, &c. 

In the German army it is used for stuffing saddles, and 
in the French as a lining for helmets. In a young state 
the fruits are edible and have been grown in this country 
under the name of SOOLY Qua. 

Observe fruit and model of fruit of Chijsese Wax 
Gourd or White Gourd Melon (Benincasa ceriferay 
Savi.). The plant is cultivated in China, Japan, India, 
and Africa, and often met with in a wild state. The 
White Gourd is used in India as a cooked vegetable, as a 
curry, and also for the preparation of a sweetmeat called 
heshim. The fresh juice from the fruit is used as a 
specific for haemorrhage from internal organs. 

Note also fruits and seeds of the Naras {Aca^ithosicyos 
horrida. Welw.). A prickly dwarf shrub confined to the 
coast region of Angola and Dammaraland, bearing abun- 
dance of pleasant melon-like fruits of which the natives- 



110 



OASE are passionately fond. " They crowd down to the coast 

57. " region and almost live upon, and then carry away with 

" them, sacks of the seeds which are edible." These are 

also broiisfht down by the coasters for market to Cape 

Town. 

On the lower shelves of this compartment are fruits 
and models of fruits of Momordica Charcmtia. L., a 
climbing plant cultivated throughout India, Malaya. &c., 
for medicinal uses and as food. Also of 31. cochinchinensis, 
Spreng., a species widely distributed in Tropical Asia. 
The fruit is occasionally used as food in India. 

No. 286. Models of fruits of varieties of MELONS 
(Cticumis Melo, L.), presented by Messrs. Sutton, of 
Reading. 

Models of Cucumbers (Cticumis sativiis, L.), are also 
shown. 

Note on a lower shelf of this compartment models of 

Water Melons, the fruits ot" Citrullus vulgaris, Schrai., 

a plant commonly cultivated in the east and Mediterranean 

region of Africa and Europe, as well as in the Western 

.hemisphere, for the sake of its fleshy edible fruit. 

No. 287. COLOCYNTHS, peeled and unpeeled. The 
fruits of Citrullus Colocynihis, Schrad., a perennial herb 
having a v/ide range from North-west India to Spain, 
Northern, Western, and Southern Africa, and Japan. 
The Colocynth is valued for the pulp in which the seeds 
are embedded. As seen in commerce the fruit is usually 
peeled. The pulp has no smell but an intensely bitter 
taste, and is used as a powerful cathartic, usually in 
combination with other ingredients. 
CASE Observe on the upper shelf of the first compartment 
.58. roots and fruits of the Squirtlng Cucumber {EcbalUum 
Elaterium, A. Rich.), a prostrate perennial herb, common 
in waste places in the south of Europe. The active 
principle, Elaterium, is prepared from the juice which 
flows from the fruit when nearly ripe ; ii is used as a 
very powerful cathartic. 

Note fruits of Coccinia indica, W. & A., a climbing 
plant common throughout India, often cultivated. The 
fruits are eaten fresh when ripe, and cooked in curries 
when green. 



Ill 

No. 288. Models of fruits of various kinds of Gourds CASE 
as Vegetable Marrow, Dolphin Gourd, Knotted Poteron, 58. 
Custard, Crown, &c., furnished by Cumtrhita Pepo^ DC. ; 
also the Portmanteau and other Gourds from India, the 
produce of Cucurbita moschatcc, Duch., and Turban, 
Yellow Ppteron, Cushion and Ribbed Gourds, the fruits 
of C. maxima, Duch. Ornamented Gourds of the latter 
species from Bahia and Old Calabar are show^n. 

Note in the centre compartment of this case the acrid 
and cathartic roots of the common Bryony {Bryonia 
rtVo/ca, Jacq.),also fruits of Melo Coton (Sicana odorifera, 
Naud.), from Jamaica and Brazil ; the spiny fruits of 
Chayotilla (Hanburia mexicana. Seem.) a Mexican 
climbing plant, and the fruits of Chayote, Choco or 
Christophine {Sechium edule, Sw.) of Tropical America. 
The latter is a favourite vegetable in the West Indies and 
Madeira, and is sometimes sold in this country. The 
root yields starch, or it may be eaten when quite young as 
a substitute for the potato. 

Observe also the beautiful winged seeds of Zanonia 
macrocarpa, Blume, a climbing plant of Java, and the 
fruits and seeds ot the ANTIDOTE CocoON of Jamaica 
(Fevillea cordifolia, L.). The negroes in Jamaica fasten 
a number of the latter upon a skewer and setting fire to 
the uppermost, they burn very gradually to the bottom. 
The oil extracted from them burns in lamps with a clear, 
fine light and has been used for car.dle-making. The 
seeds are also used locally as an aperient medicine. 

The bottom shelf contains undetermined cucurbitaceous 
fruits, seeds, &c. 

Indian Fig* Order {Cacteae). A singular group of 
succulent shrubs, most variable in form — angular, flattened, 
or almost spherical, and frequently spinous, bearing often 
large and showy flowers. Thej^ are almost exclusively 
American, although the Indian Fig {Opuntia Ficus-indioa^ 
Webb), has long been naturalised in Southern Europe and 
hot countries. The fruits of various species of Opuntia 
and of Cerent giganteuSy Engel., and G. Tliurberi, Engel., 
are eaten and much esteemed by the Indians of New 
Mexico and Arizona. 



112 

CASE Observe specimens of the stem of the Turk's Cap 
58. Cactus {Melocactus communis^ Link and Otto), from the 
West Indies ; also plants of Echinocactus cylindraceus, 
EngeL, with long curved spines. 

No. 289. Calcium oxalate deposited in immense 
quantities in the tissues of various Cacti (Cereus spp.). 

No. 290. Portions of the Old Man Cactus {Cereus 
senilis, Salra-Dyck), so called from the long white hairs 
which crown the columnar stems. One species in Western 
North America {C. giganteus, Engel.) attains a height of 
45 to 50 feet. 
CASE ^^ *h^ upper shelves of the first compartment are 
59^ fruits, &c., of various species of Cereus, chiefly from 
Venezuela, also portions of stem and a photograph of 
C. gigauteus, EngeL, and flowers of species of PhyJlocactus 
and Bhijosalis. 

No. 291. Woody portion of stem of Opuntla Bigelovii, 
Engel., from Arizona. 

No. 292. Cochineal. Small hemipterous insects 
subsisting upon species of Opujitia and iVo^^aZea, to which 
the wingless females attach themselves. Cultivated in 
the Canary Islands, Mexico, and Brazil, for the sake of 
their rich crimson dye, from which carmine and the lakes 
of the artist are made. Different kinds of Cochineal are 
known in commerce, as silver grain, black, white, &c. 
Specimens are exhibited from Teneriffe (which is the 
principal source of British imports), Mexico, East Indies, 
Java, &c. A view in the Cochineal Gardens or Nopaleries 
at Santa Cruz, Teneriffe, is shown in the Korth Gallery 
(No. 522). 2,388 cwts. of Cochineal were imported into 
the United Kinsrdom during 1905 of the value of £2o,718. 
The remainder of this compartment is filled with fruits of 
various species of Opxmtia. 

No. 293. Fibrous portions of stems of NoPAL {Opunila 
Tuna, Mill.), made into various ornamental articles. From 
Algeria. 



't>" 



Fig-Marigold Order {Ficoideae). A tribe of succu- 
lent plants, remarkably characteristic of the hot desert 



113 

plains of South Africa ; their flowers are often very CASE 
beautiful. The Order is unimportant from an economic 59. 
point of view but several of its representatives are 
employed for medicinal purposes in South Africa. 

Umbellifer Order {Umhelli ferae), so called from the 
arrangement of the flower-stalks in heads or " umbels." 
There are about 1,300 species, all herbaceous and abound- 
ing in temperate climates. The products of the group vary 
much in character. Some species are acrid and poisonous, 
some secrete gum-resins, others again are aromatic and 
useful as condiments. Celery, Fennel, Parsnip, Carrot, 
and Parslev, are all familiar esculents belonging to the 
Order. 

Observe leaves of the INDIAN PENNYWORT {Hydrocotyle 
asiatica, L.), used in India, internally as a tonic, and 
externally as a local stimulant, being more especially 
useful in cutaneous affections. The drug is generally 
much mixed with grass and weeds and is occasionally 
imported into this country. 

No. 294. Balsam Bog (Azorella gleharia, A. Gray), 
a singular feature in the landscape of the Falkland Islands* 
forming huge, hard, and perfectly hemispherical hillocks, 
often 2 to 4 feet in height. It yields a gum which has 
been used in medicine, [A " hillock " of the plant is 
exhibited in a glass case, opposite Case 49.] 

Observe also tufts of plants of Azorella Selago, Hook, f ., 
a \eY\ abundant plant in Kerguelens Land often covering 
the ground with dense masses of vegetation. 

No. 295. Epidermis of the leaves of Hermas gigantea, 
L., separated from the veins and midrib by the Hottentots 
of South Africa. Used as a tinder, and made into minia- 
ture socks, gloves, &c. 

On a lower shelf observe roots of the Sea Holly 
{Erynglum maritimum, L.). A British sea-coast plant, 
the roots of which are sometimes preserved in sugar and 
eaten as a sweetmeat. 

Also leaves of the HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum, L.), 

a biennial herb on waste ground and hedge banks in many 

parts of England. Under the name of Conium it is used 

as a sedative and antispasmodic. In the East it is 

25782 H 



114 

CASE prescribed as a neurotic in painful affections of the skin 
59. and subjacent tissues. The juice, probably mixed with 
Opium, was given by the Athenians to citizens condemned 
to death, as in the case of Socrates and Phocion. 

No. 296. Tubers of the Arracacia {Arrcicaria 
xanthorrhiza, Bancr.), and starch obtained from them, 
from Jamaica. The tubers when boiled are eaten as a 
vegetable ; grated they may be employed for thickening 
soup. 

In the last compartment of this case observe models of 
the Celery plant (Apiiim graveolens^ L.), the blanched 
stalks of which are eaten as a vegetable. In its wild state 
the Celery is found in marshy places by the sea in England 
and Ireland. 

No. 297. Umbels of Ammi Visnaga^ Lam., brought 
from Africa and the Levant to Marseilles. The *' rays " 
are used in the South of Europe as tooth-picks. They 
possess the same grateful aromatic taste as the whole 
plant, which gives them an advantage over ordinary quill 
tooth-picks. 

On the same shelf are shewn fruits (familiarly known 
as seeds) of the AJOWAN of India (Caritm copticum^ 
Benth.), an annual herb, cultivated in many parts of 
Egypt. Persia, Afghanistan, and adjacent countries, and 
abundantly in Bengal. Ajovvan fruits are stimulant and 
carminative, and contain a quantity of oil from which 
Thymol or Thymic Acid is obtained ; both are exhibited. 

No. 298. Caraway Seeds, the fruits of Carum 
Carvi\ L., a biennial or annual plant, naturalised in this 
country and common in Northern and Central Europe 
and West Asia to the Himalayas. It is cultivated in Essex 
and Kent, Holland, Prussia, and North. Russia. Caraway 
fruits, called seeds in commerce, contain a quantity of oil, 
which is readily obtained by distillation. Both the fruits 
and oil are aromatic and stimulant ; the oil is also used 
for scenting soap. By far the largest consumption of 
Caraways is as a spice for flavouring confectionery, &c. 

On the same shelf observe stems of Siiini heJenianum, 
Hook. f. one of the few indigenous plants of St. Helena. 
The green stems are sold in the markets under the name 



115 

of Jellico, (no doubt a corruption of Angelica, which CASE 
the plant resembles,) and eaten raw. 59. 

Fi'uits are also exhibited of the FENNEL {Foeniculum 
vi/l(/are, Mill.), a well-known garden herb. They are 
aromatic and carminative. Large quantities are used in 
cattle medicines, and the oil in cordials. 

Observe also the fruits and roots of Prangos paJmlaria^ 
Lindl., a perennial herb, known as the Hay PLANT of 
Tibet, used as a fodder plant, for which its cultivation in 
other countries has attracted some attention. 

No. 299. SuMBUL or Musk Root {Ferula Sicmhul, CASE 
Hook. f.). A perennial, dying after flowering, discovered 60. 
in 1869 in the mountains south-east of Samarkand, at an 
elevation of 3-1,000 feet. Sumbul root, of commerce, is 
in roundish pieces, — transverse sections of the root, which 
vary considerably both in diameter and thickness. It has 
a bitter, aromatic taste and a strong, but pleasant, musky 
smell, which it retains for a long period. It is imported 
into this country and America exclusively from Russia, 
and is used in dysentery, diarrhoea, hysteria, and similar 
cases. 

Note specimens of GuM Sagapenum, a rare drug, 
believed to be the produce of an Umbellifer of Western 
Asia, perhaps Ferula jjerslcay Willd., or F. Szotvitsiana, 
DC. Also on middle shelf a stool made of pieces of the 
stem of Ferula communis, L., from the Island of Amorgos, 
Greek i^rchipelago. 

No. 300. ASAFOETIDA. A gum-resin obtained from 
the thick roots of Ferula Narthex, Boiss., F. foetida, 
Regel, and probably other allied species. These species are 
lar^e perennial herbs, which die after flowering. The first 
is a native of dry sunny places on the northern slopes of 
the mountains dividing Kashmir from Western Tibet, and 
yields Tibetan Asafoetida. The second grows on the east 
of the Sea of Aral, and also south-east of Samarkand and 
in Northern Afghanistan : it probably extends over a wide 
district in South Western Asia. It furnishes Persian 
Asafoetida. The gum-resin is collected about the middle 
of April or somewhat later, when the plant has ceased to 
grow. The root is cut with a sharp knife, covered with a 
small domed structure of twigs and clay, and after six 



116 



CASE weeks the juice is scraped off with a broad iron spatula 

60. and put into a cup. At each collection a thin transvers«- 
slice is taken off, which causes the juice again to flow, ami 
this is done till the root is exhausted. The contents <»r 
the cups are emptied into large vessels, and the juice 
exposed to the sun lo harden. Asafoetida is mostly mvx 
with in commerce in lumps, and rarely in separate tears, 
varying in size from that of a pea to a walnut. It is a 
stimulant, antispasmodic, and expectorant, used to some 
extent in veterinary practice ; much more, however, on 
the Continent than in England. In India and Persia it is 
also used as a condiment. 

Observe stems, fruits and umbels of Ferula foetUhiy. 
also umbel of F, alliacea,, Boiss., from Kerman, Persia, 
yielding the Asafoetida exported to Bombay under the 
name of Hing. 

CASE No. 301. Gum Galbanum, afforded by Ferula 

61. galhanifiua^ Boiss. and Buh., native of Afghanistan and 
Persia, and F. ruh^Hcaulis, Boiss., of Persia. Ferula 
Schair, Borszc, of the desert regions of the Syr-Darja, on 
the confines of Siberia and Turkestan, is also a source of 
the drug. In the first-mentioned species the stem, on 
injury in an early stage of growth yields an orange-yellow 
gummy fluid which slowly consolidates. The gum is 
commonly found adhering to the lower portions of the 
stem. No artificial means are employed in its collection. 
Galbanum finds its way by the Persian Gulf to Arabia 
and India and thence to Europe, but the principal supply 
is by way of the Levant. It occurs in commerce eirher 
in tears or masses formed of agglutinated tears with 
impurities of various kinds. It is separated from these 
by melting and straining. Galbanum is an antispasmodic 
and stimulant expectorant ; externally, it is applied as a 
plaster in chronic pulmonary affections. It is, however, 
not so much used as formerly. 

No. 302. Gum Ammoniacum, obtained from Dorerna 
Ammoniacum^ Don, a large herbaceous plant, found in 
South-west and Northern Persia and Northern Afghanistan. 
It contains an abundant milky juice, which exudes upon 
the puncture of beetles, and dried by exposure to the air 
constitutes Ammoniacum of commerce. For commercial 



117 

purposes Ammoniacum is obtained almost entirely by Cx\SE 
way of Bombay, where it arrives in bales often mixed 61. 
w^ith large quantities of extraneous matter, from which it 
is sorted and sent to the various markets. It occurs in 
tears of a yellowish straw colour, or in lumps^ the tears 
becoming agglutinated by pressure or heat. It is a 
powerful srimulating expectorant and valuable in chronic 
bronchitis and other pulmonary affections. Externally it 
is applied as a local irritant. Ammoniacum is, however, 
not so much used as formerly : it has a strong alliaceous 
smell. 

A specimen of DOREMA root is also shown, which is 
imported into Bombay from Persia in large quantities, 
and used as incense in the Parsee fire temples. It " was 
" some years ago exported to Europe as Bombay sumbul, 
*' after having been cut up and impregnated with musk." 
When old or worm-eaten it becomes spongy, and might 
be mistaken for sumbul. Stems of the plant are shown 
at the back of the case. 

The Ammoniacum here referred to is not that of 
Hippocrates, Dioscorides, and Pliny, which was used for 
fumigation and was derived from Africa. This last forms 
an article of trade between Egypt and Arabia and is 
furnished by a species of Elaeoselinum. A specimen 
collected in Morocco is shown on the bottom shelf. 

A gum-resin very similar to the Ammoniacum of 
commerce is furnished by Dorema Aucherl, Boiss., a 
plant widely distributed in the western provinces of 
Persia and the neighbourhood of Ispahan. 

Note also Dill seed, the fruits of Peiicedanum gixweo- 
leiis, Bth. and Hook, f., an annual found throughout 
Southern Europe, extending from Spain to the Caucasus 
and Persia, and also into Egypt and Abyssinia. It was 
introduced into England at the end of the 16th century 
and is cultivated for the sake of the fruits, from w-hich 
oil of Dill is readily obtained by distillation. Dill 
possesses stimulant, carminative, and aromatic properties, 
and is often administered in the form of Dill water. 

On a lower shelf are models of PARSNIPS, the roots of 
Peucedanum sativum^ Bth. and Hook, f., cultivated forms 
of the common wild Parsnip. The parsnip has been 
cultivated as an esculent from a very early period ; 



118 

CASE numerous varieties are known, some of which grow to a 
61. great length, particularly in the Channel Islands. 

No. 303. Opopanax. The gum-resin of a species 
of Opopanax^ perhaps 0. Chironium^ Koch, a native of 
North x^frica, Spain, and Dalmatia. This gum-resin has 
been described in old drug books since the time of 
Dioscorides, but even to the present time, little or nothing 
is known of its collection except that it exudes from 
wounds made in the roots. When first introduced 
Opopanax was not received with much favour as a 
perfume ; of late, however, it is said to have had a larger 
sale than any other except Eau de Cologne. 

At the present day the gum-resin known in commerce 
as Opopanax is believed to be derived from Commipliora 
Kataf, Engl., a native of Arabia, where the native women 
employ it for washing the hair. 

Observe fruits of the Coriander {Coriandrum sativumy 
L.), known in commerce as CORIANDER seeds. The plant 
is an annual, found in many parts of the Mediterranean 
region. Corianders, at the present time, are cultivated 
largely in most warm countries of the globe, and in 
smaller quantities in some parts of Europe as well as in 
England, chiefly in Essex. They are stimulant and 
carminative, but are little used in medicine ; sometimes 
however employed in veterinary practice, but their chief 
consumption is as a flavouring agent for culinary purposes 
and in the distillation of gin. They yield about one-half 
per cent, of volatile oil, samples of which are shown. 

Note fruits of CuMiN {Cuminum Cymimim, L.), an 
annual herb cultivated from earliest times in the Mediter- 
ranean countries, used chiefly as a condiment in India, 
and as a constituent in curry powder, also to a small 
extent in medicine, and largely in veterinary practice. 
Cumin fruits are exported from Morocco, Sicily, Malta, 
Bombay, and Calcutta. 

No. 304. Models of Carrots, the roots of Dann'^ 
Carota, L., a biennial found in a wild state in fields and 
on the sea shores in England, and extending through 
Europe, North Africa, North and West Asia to India. By 
cultivation the roots of the wild carrot have become 
fleshy, and the various forms of Garden Carrot have been 



produced. 



I 



119 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment observe roots, CASE 
umbels, and fruits of Tha/jsia (/(uyanica, L., one of the 61. 
plants supposed to be identical with the Silphium of 
Oyrenaica ; a blistering substance obtained from the roots 
is largely used in France in the preparation of plasters. 

Ivy Oj^der {Araliaceae). Resembling the Umbellifers 
in many respects, but chiefly woody-stemmed ; many of 
the species grow in hot countries. 

No. 305. Virginian Sarsaparilla, the climbing 
stem of Aralia nudicauUSy L., used medicinally in the 
United States. 

No. 306. Ginseng, the root of Aralia qiibiqaefuUa, 
Decne. and Planch., var. ginseng^ Reg. and Maack, native 
of North China. So highly valued as a tonic and stimulant 
medicine in China that it is sold at from 20 to 250 times 
its weight in silver, sometimes for 500 times this amount. 
Ginseng is a Government monopoly in Corea and the 
principal article of export from that country to China. 
During 1905, China received from Corea 107,485 lbs. of 
Red Ginseng of the value of £112,351. This variety of 
Ginseng ranks in quality next to Manchurian or Imperial 
and is prepared for export by steaming the roots for .about 
four hours in wicker baskets enclosed in a closely fitting 
earthenware vessel pierced at the bottom with holes and 
placed over boiling -water. 

Note also roots of A. qainquefolia^ Decne. and Planch., 
from North America, having slight demulcent properties, 
collected in the Alleghany highlands from Pennsylvania 
to Tennessee and sold at a dollar a pound for exportation 
to China as a substitute for the Eastern product. The 
average importation (of twentj' years) mainly through 
Hong Kong is about 400,000 lbs. It is ranked by the 
Chinese as about fourth in quality, Japanese being the 
legist esteemed. 

No. 307. Rice Paper. An instructive series, 
continued in the next case, illustrating the preparation of 
the " paper " from the pith of Fatsia, iKipyrifera^ Bth. & 
Hook, f., a tree of Formosa : — the large knives used to CASE 
cut sheets from the cylinders of pith, specimens of the 62. 
paper made into bundles (100 squares of about %\ or 



120 

CASE 3 inches, being sold by the Chinese for l^d. or 1^/.), 
62. dyed rice-paper, artificial flowers, and paintings on rice 
paper by Chinese artists. 

On the central shelf, in Ihe middle compartment of this 
Case, note rope made of fibre of the common IVY {Hedera 
Helix, L.;. together with very large section of the stem 
and a w^alking stick made of Ivy wood. 

Cornel Order {Gomaceae). A small group of trees 
and shrubs, scattered over the globe, most abundant in 
the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. 

Note Hassagay Wood {Curtisia faginea, Ait.). A 
tough wood used in South Africa for furniture, tools, 
wagons, &c., and by the natives for weapons. A. Zulu 
spear with the shaft of this wood is shown, and on the 
wall near Case 53 is a painting (by the traveller Baines) 
of a Zulu war dance in which the natives are armed with 
the Hassagay. 

On a lower shelf observe specimens of the hard and 
close-grained wood of the FLOWERING DOGWOOD of 
North America {Gorniis florida, L.). Used for bobbins 
and shuttles for weaving ; for the bearings of machinery, 
hubs of wheels, kc. The bark is tonic and astringent, 
and is. employed in medicine in North America. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment note 
woods of several species of Corn us from North America, 
and India, also wood of the CORNELIAN Cherry {Cornus 
Mas, L.), used in France for hammer and shovel 
handles, &c., and in this country under the name of 
" Acacia " for walking sticks. 

The wood is known to the Turks as KizziLJiCK and is 
employed by them for dyeing their fezzes. 

Observe edible fruits, preserved in syrup, of Nyssa 
cajntata, Walt., known in North America as Ogeechee 
Lime. They are said to have an agreeable acid flavour. 

Honeysuckle and Elder Order {CapHfoliaceae). 
It consists of shrubs or small trees distributed through 
the temperate and sub-tropical regions of the northern 
hemisphere. 

No. 308. Flowers of the American Elder {Sam- 
bucus canadensis, L.). Used in medicine in North 



121 

America. The flowers of the Common English Elder CASE 
(Sambucus nigra, L.), are used for making Elder flower 02. 
water, and the berries for making wine. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment are CASE 
specimens of wood of several species of Viburnum and 63. 
leaves of V. dilatatam, Thunb., used in the preparation of a 
beverage, Snd known as SWEET Tea in Szechuan. 

Note also lace parasol cover made in Ireland from the 
fibre of the HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera Pericli/menum, L.), 
and a walking stick made of Honeysuckle stem. 

Peruvian Bark Order {RuMaceae). A very large 
Order of trees, shrubs, or herbs, numbering about 2,800 to 
i^,000 species ; common in tropical countries. Characterised 
by opposite, undivided leaves, having scales {stipules) 
between the bases of the stalks. A small section 
{Stellatae), differing in having the leaves in whorls of 
from four to eight, represents the Order in cool countries. 
.Several species afford most important economic products. 

No. 309. Negro Peach of Sierra Leone. The dense 
fruit-heads of the Doundake or Egbessye {Sarcoce- 
plvihis esculentus, Afzel.). The root bark yields a j^ellow 
dye and a bitter astringent alkaloid, said to be a powerful 
antipyretic like quinine. 

In the next compartment note w^ood of Kadam {Antho- 
cephaliis Caa'amba, Miq.), used in India for building, and 
for tea boxes. x\lso wood of Haldu (Adina cordifolia. 
Hook, f.), an important forest tree of India. The wood 
takes a good polish, and is much esteemed in Northern 
India for combs and small articles of turnery ; it is also 
used for furniture, agricultural implements, &c. Note 
also w^ood of Keim {Stephegyne parvifolia, Korth.), 
another important forest tree of India, where the easily 
w^orked wood has similar uses to the last mentioned. 

No. 310. Gambier, Pale Catechu, or Terra 
Japonic A, an astringent extract, prepared by boiling 
down the leaves and shoots of Uncaria Gambier, Roxb., 
a climbing hooked shrub, growing in the Malay peninsula 
and islands, used by tanners and dyers. Note on outside of 
case the heavy w^ooden fork for removing the spent leaves 
from the boiling-pans. A series of specimens of Gambler 



122 



CASE ^^ various kinds is shown together with a view of a 
. 53^ Gambier Factory in Singapore. (See also model of a 
Gambier Factory, Museum No. 3.) 

Various species and varieties of Cinchona and Cascar'Ua 
barks are exhibited in this and the following Case. 
Cinchona bark comes into commerce in several forms, the 
chief, however, are quilled hark, which consists of that 
from branches and small trunks, which by drying roll up 
into pipes or quills, and flat hark., which is mostly from 
larger trunks, the bark being submitted to pressure. The 
barks of the various species of Cinchona contain in diverse 
proportions alkaloids of a valuable character, the most 
important of which is Quinine ; this, in the form of a 
sulphate, is a highly prized tonic and febrifuge. 

No. 311. Pale Cixchona, or Crowx Bark (Cin- 
chona officinalis, L.). A tree of 35 feet or more, but often 
found as a shrub, native of the mountain slopes of the 
Andes, at an altitude of 6-7,500 feet, in the district of 
Loxa, on the confines of Peru and Ecuador. Several 
varieties of this are known, the most distinct are Urihf- 
singa, condaminea, honplandiccna and crispa. Very little^ 
pale Cinchona bark is now imported from Loxa, the plant 
being extensively cultivated in India, Ceylon, Java, and 
other countries. Specimens of root-bark, stem-bark, and 
renewed bark are exhibited from the Government Cin- 
chona plantations, Darjeeling, from Madras, Ceylon, and 
Jamaica. 

Note also specimens of C. land folia, Mutis, C. pahii- 
diana, Howard, from Darjeeling, (7. peruviana, Howard, 
C. humholdUana, Lamb., and C. nitida, R. and P. 
CASE On the upper shelves of the first compartment are barks of 
64. C. rosulenta, Howard, C. macrocalyx, Pav., C. micrantha, 
K. and P., C. ovata, R. and P., and C. scrohiculata, 
H. and B. 

No. 312. Yellow Cinchona, or Calisaya Bark 
{Cinchona Calisaya, Wedd.). A large tree, native of the 
valley forests on the borders of Bolivia and South Peru, 
at an elevation of 4,500 to 5,400 feet. The plant is very 
variable in form, and several varieties have been culti- 
vated. The richest, however, in quinine, is that known 
as C. ledgeriana, Moens, which is grown both in the 



123 

Dutch plantations in Java, and in the Indian plantations CASE 
in Sikkim. Fine specimens of the bark of this variety G4. 
are shown from Darjeeling and Ceylon, and of ordinary 
(kilisaya from Bolivia, Peru, Darjeeling, and Jamaica. 

Note a series of ALKALOIDS obtained from Cinchona 
barks, consisting of Quinine, Cinchonine, Cinchonidine, 
Quinidifie, &c. Also samples of CiNCHOXA FEBRIFUGE, 
obtained from bark of Cinchona sncdriihra^ made and 
sohl in India; the Crystalline febrifuge, also prepared and 
sold in India, and the Sulphate of Quinine, manufactured 
at Mungpoo, near Darjeeling. 

No. 313. Red Cinchona Bark {Cinchona succt- 
r ultra, Pav.), a tree from 20 to 40 feet high, but sometimes 
attaining 80 feet. It was formerly common in the 
province of Huaranda, in Ecuador, but it has long been 
becoming steadily scarcer, and at the present time is found 
only on the Western slopes of Chimborazo, near Guayaquil, 
at an elevation of from 2,500 to 5,000 feet. This species 
has been very extensively cultivated in India, and also in 
Ceylon, Java, Jamaica, and elsewhere. Barks, mossed, 
unmossed, and renewed, are exhibited. Also various 
samples from Sikkim, Madras, Jamaica, Java, Ceylon, 
St. Helena, and South America. 

Observe on a lower shelf of this compartment specimens- 
of CUPREA Bark furnished by Remijia pxirdieana^ 
Wedd., and R. pediinculata, Flueck., from Colombia. 

Note also w^ood and bark of Hymenodictyon excelsunu 
Wall., from India, wdiere the soft wood is in use for 
scabbards, grain-measures, toys, &c., and the bitter astrin- 
gent bark is employed as a febrifuge and for tanning. 

Specimens are also shown of Degame WOOD, believed 
to be furnished by a species of Calycopliyllum. It is 
imported into this country in spars from the West Indies, 
and has similar uses to those of Lancewood. 

On the upper shelves of the last compartment of this 
Case are specimens of WEST INDIAN or Princewood 
Bark Tree {Exostemma caribaeiwiy R. and S.). The 
bark is bitter and had at one time a considerable reputa- 
tion as a febrifuge, similar to Cinchona bark. The wood 
is hard, strong, close-grained and takes a good polish. 

Observe Chay ROOT {Oldenlandla unihellata, L.), 
collected in India in considerable quantities for use as a 



124 

red dye. Also portion of stem of Posoqueria latifolia^ 
R. and S. ?, from Bahia, and walking sticks of the wood 
known as BRAZILIAN or CEYLON Oak. 

The first compartment of this Case contains chieflj' 
mounted specimens of fruits of species of Randia and 
Gardenia, notably R. diimetorum, Lam., the fruits of 
which are used in India as a fish poison, and, when ripe, 
are said to be roasted and eaten ; R. malleifera, Bth. and 
Hook, f., known as BooJAY in Sierra Leone, where the 
fruits are said to yield a pure indigo dye. Under the 
name of Blippo, the Niam-niam of Central Africa employ 
the dye from this plant for staining their bodies. Note 
also fruits of R. macrocarpa, Hiern, and of Oardenia 
Thunhergia, L. 

No. 314. Dikamali, the greenish yellow gum-resin 
obtained from Gardenia hicida, Roxb., and G. guminifera, 
L., small Indian trees. The odour of the resin is peculiar 
and offensive, like that of cat's urine. Used in India in 
the treatment of cutaneous affections, to keep away flies 
from sores, and also as an anthelmintic. 

A portion of a branch of G. luclda with the resin 
exuding, is shown. 

No. 315. Coffee, the seeds of Coffe:t arahica, L. A 
tree, native of Abyssinia and tropical Africa, now widely 
cultivated in hot countries. The East and West Indies, 
Java, Brazil, and Central America, afford the principal 
supply of this important product. The fruit of the Coffee 
tree, which resembles a cherry in size and colour, contains 
two seeds (beans), which are separated by mechanical 
means from the pulp. After fermentation and washing, 
the seeds pass through a rolling mill, which removes the 
parchment-like husk and the silver skin immediate!}^ 
enclosing the seeds. The commercial value depends on 
the size, form, and colour of the beans, and on their 
flavour. Pearl coffee is that in which the berry instead 
of bearing two seeds has only one which consequently 
takes a rounded form ; a proportion of pearl coffee is 
produced in every crop. TRIAGE consists of the damaged 
and broken beans which though not of so good an 
appearance is equal in quality to the other kinds of 
coffee. Specimens of Coffee in the berry, and of the 



125 

different Coffees of the London market are here exhibited CASE 
and continued in the next case. 65. 

The proportion of Caffeine in raw Coffee beans varies 
from about 1*10 to 1*28 per cent. It is not destroyed by 
roasting, and as a general rule, pure roasted coffee contains 
as much as 1*3 per cent. 

A series of photographs illustrating the cultivation of 
Coffee in Central America will be found on the wall near 
Case 61. 

Note Coffee sticks from Ceylon sometimes used as 
walking sticks, and tea made from the leaves of the Coffee 
tree, from Jamaica and the East Indies. 

x\lso model of a coffee peeler or cleaner from Ceylon, 
and on the outside of the case one of a coffee sizer, by the 
use of which berries of three sizes are sifted. 

No. 316. Liberia N Coffee (CoifeaZi^/ertcajHiern), CASE 
a glabrous shrub, native of Liberia. This plant has been 66. 
introduced into many Coffee-growing countries, in con- 
sequence of its more robust habit than the Coffea arahica. 
The beans are much larger, and it thrives at lower 
elevations. 

The total imports of raw Coffee into the United King- 
dom from all countries during 1905 amounted to 929,459 
cwts., of the value of £2,575,776. 

Part of this Case is devoted to illustrations of the 
various diseases to which the Coffee plant is liable, 
especially He^nileia vastatrix. Berk, and Br., a parasitic 
fungus common in the Ceylon plantations, and Cemiostoma 
coff'eellum, Mann, a small moth which has caused almost 
the entire destruction of the Coffee plants in Dominica. 

No. 317. Fruits, w^ood, and roots of Indian Mul- 
berry ; TOGARI of Madras (Mo7^i7ida citrifolia, L.). A 
small tree or shrub of very variable habit, cultivated 
throughout India chiefly for its roots which yield the red 
dye known as Al. Cloth dyed with this substance is said 
not to be attacked by white ants and on this account is 
universally employed to wrap round account books of 
bankers and shop-keepers. Specimens are also shown of 
M. tinctoria, Roxb., which affords a red dye apparently 
identical with that of M. citrifolia, and of M. angustifolia^ 
Roxb., and M, umhellata, L., employed in India as 
yellow dyes. 



126 



€ASE No. 318. Ipecacuanha. The root of PsycJwtria 

.^Q. Ippcacaanha, Stokes, a small shrubby plant found in most 

parts of Brazil and also cultivated in India and the Straits 

Settlements. The roots afford an important emetic and 

valuable specific for dysentery. 

During the year 1905, 454 bales of the drug, of an 
average weight of about 100 lbs., were imported into this 
country from Matto Grosso, Minas Geraes, Carthagena and 
Johore, the bulk coming from Brazil. It may be noted 
that Carthagena or New Granada Ipecacuanha is 
believed to be the i)roduce of P. amiminata^ Benth. 
Observe also STRIATED or BLACK IPECACUANHA (P. 
emetica, L.), a native of Colombia. This drug occasionally 
appears in the London Market and is one of the man> 
substitutes for the true product. 

On a lower shelf observe mounted specimens of 
Hydnophytum formlcarum^ Jack. 
OASE The first compartment of this case contains chiefly 
67. mounted specimens of species of Hydnophytum and 
Myrniecodia, including M. Beccarii., Hook, f., from 
Australia, and M. tuberosa^ Jack., from Malaya. These 
plants are constantly inhabited by ants. 

Note a sample of UNDULATED or FALSE IPECACUANHA 
(Richardsonia pilosa, H. B. & K.^, a very common plant 
in Brazil. When fresh it is pure white, becoming of an 
iron grey colour when dry. It is used for adulterating 
true ipecacuanha. 

No. 319. Madder, the root of Ruhia tinctorum, L., 
at one time largely grown for the sake of its valuable red 
dye, in France, Southern Europe, and the Levant. From 
it alizarine, carmine, &c., are made. Its cultivation has 
almos!: entirely disappeared, owing to the more general 
use of alizarine artificially made from coal-tar dyes. 
Specimens of Alizarin, Rubianic acid, and Purpurin 
obtained from Madder roots are exhibited. 

No 320. Indian Madder, or Munjeet. The roots 
of Ruhta cordifoUa^ L., a climbing perennial, common 
throughout the hilly districts of India, and extending into 
Ceylon, Malacca, Japan, Java, tropical Africa, &c. ; it 
yields an important red dye used in India. Observe 
ispecimen of Munjistin from R. cordi folia. 



127 

Valerian Order. ( Valerlaneae). Herbs of temperate CASE 

climates, often aromatic or strong-scented. 67. 

No. 321. Spikenard {Nardostachys Jatamansi, 
DC). A x)lant of the Himalayas, the rootstock has been 
highly valued in India from a remote period as a per- 
fume. 

Observe specimens of VALERIAN ROOTS (Valeriana 
({(ficinalis^ L.), a perennial herb common in this country, 
and widel}^ distributed in Europe and in Asia, as far 
as Japan. Valerian is an antispasmodic cultivated for 
medical use near Chesterfield in Derbyshire, in Holland, 
and in the United States of America. 

Teazle Order {Bipsaceae), A small group of plants 
destitute of important properties, having numerous flowers 
collected into dense heads, from which in some species the 
flower-leaves (bracts) project in pointed or hooked pro- 
cesses, as in 

No. 322. Fuller's Teazle {Blpsacus falloiium, 
L.). Cultivated in Yorkshire and on the Continent, for 
the use of woollen cloth manufacturers, who use the heads 
fixed in frames to give a '' nap " to their fabrics, by raising 
to the surface some of the fine fibres of the wool. The 
heads are assorted commercially into different sizes and 
qualities, known as " King's," '' Queen's," '' Seconds," and 
" Buttons." Every piece of fine broadcloth requires from 
1,500 to 2,000 teazles to bring out the proper nap, after 
which they are useless. 

Note parasol handles formed of the fasciated stem of 
this plant. 

Composite Order {Comimsltae). One of the largest 
and at the same time most naturally defined families of 
the Vegetable Kingdom : it is found almost all over the 
globe, from the tropics to very high latitudes. The Order 
is botanically marked by the flowers (florets) being 
collected into dense heads, the whole resembling a single 
flower, as in the Daisy and Dandelion ; the stamens united 
in a ring by their anthers, and the simple structure of the 
fruit. Some species abound in a bitter aromatic principle, 
as the Wormwoods and Chamomile ; others afl'ord a milky, 
narcotic, or bitter juice, as the Lettuce and Dandelion. 



128 

CASE Note mounted specimens of several species of Lyclino- 
67. phora from Brazil. Also the small black fruits of 
BuCKCHB {Vermmia anthelmintica, Willd.), used in 
India for the treatment of cutaneous affections, for preserv- 
ing woollen goods from the attacks of insects, and for the 
expression of an oil. Ayapana Tea, the leaves of 
Eajiatorium triplinerve, Vahl., from Reunion. The 
plant is a native of Tropical America and naturalised in 
many parts of India. The leaves have stimulant, tonic, 
and diaphoretic properties. THOROUGH WORT, the leaves 
of E. perfoliaiiint, L., a North American medicinal plant. 
Bitter Bush of Jamaica {E. villoswn, Sw.), esteemed 
as a tonic and proposed as a substitute for hops. 

GUACO {Mikania arnara^ Willd.). The leaves are used 
in South America and the West Indies as a febrifuge and 
anthelmintic, and also as a cure for snake-bites. Leaves 
of the Deer's Tongue {Trilisa odoratissima, Cass.), 
used in North America for scenting cigars and tobacco and 
also as a flavouring agent and perfume. BUTTON Snakf- 
ROOT {Liatris spicata, Willd.), used as a diuretic in 
North America. 

No. 323. Musk WOOD of Tasmania, Victoria and New 
South Wales (Olearia argophi/Ua, F. Muell.). The timber 
is close-grained, of a beautiful mottled colour and takes a 
good polish. It is well adapted for turnery, cabinet work 
and perfumery. The whole plant smells strongly of musk 
and it also yields a brilliant sap green. 
CASE On the upper shelves of the first compartment note 
68. woods of species of Commidend ron, as G. spiirium, DC, 
and C. rohustu)}}, DC, known as GUM WOODS in St. 
Helena, where they form some of the few endemic trees 
still remaining on the island. 

The wood of the Bl^ck Cabbage TREE (Melano- 
dendron integrifoliuin^ DC), another species endemic in 
St. Helena, is also shown. 

No. 324. Coat made of the tough leaves of the 
Leather Plant of the Colonists of New Zealand 
{Celmisia coriacea^ Raoul). 

No. 325. Ai, Ngai, or Blumea Camphor obtained 
from Blumea halsamifera, DC, an evergreen shrubby 



I 129 

■i' 

plant of South China, the Islands of Hainan and Formosa, CASE 
and a common v/eed in Eastern India. The Camphor is 68. 
produced in Kwangtung and Hainan, refined in Canton, 
and realizes about ten times the price of ordinary 
Camphor. It does not find its way into Europe as an 
article of trade, but is used in China in medicine and for 
perfuming the fine kinds of Chinese ink. 

On a lower shelf observe Tinder made from the leaves 
of Phagnalon riqjestre, DC, used in Spain. 

No. 326. Tuft of plant of Raoulia eximia, Hook. f. 
It grows in large tufts on the mountains of New Zealand 
and is known as the Sheep Plant from its resemblance, 
even at a short distance, to that animal. B. mammillaris^ 
Hook, f., is called the New Zealand Pincushion, and 
tufts of it are often used by the shepherds' wives for the 
purpose that its name implies. 

Some fine tufts of these plants are exhibited in a special 
Case opposite Case 49. 

On the middle shelf are dried leaves of Helichrysum 
serpyllifolium, Less., known as Hottentot's Tea, and 
H. nudifolmm, Less., called Kaffir Tea, both from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

No. 327. Plant of Cape Everlasting {Helichrysum 
vestitum^ Less.). The white silvery flower-heads are 
imported into this country in large quantities for decora- 
tive purposes. Observe Chaplet, or Immortelle, made of 
the flowers of the "Yellow Everlasting" {Helichrysum 
orientale^ Gaert.), commonly hung about tombs on the 
Continent. Other Everlasting Flowers used for decoration 
exhibited in this Case are H. hracteatum^ Willd., Helip- 
terum Mcmglesii^ F. MuelL, &c. 

On a lower shelf observe root of Elecampane {Inula 
Helenium^ L.), used in medicine as well as in the French 
liqueur Absinthe. 

No. 328. Plant of a Guayulb {Partheniuyn argenta^ 
turn, A. Gray), from Mexico. This plant has recently 
come into notice as a source of rubber. There seems, 
little doubt that it will yield rubber of fair quality, but it 
remains to be seen whether its extraction upon a com- 
mercial scale will prove successful. 

25782 I 



i30 

(3ASE On the bottom shelf note Bhangra, the herb Eclipta 
68. erecta, L,, used in Hindoo medicine as a tonic and in 
tattooing for producing an indelible bluish black. 

No. 329. Jerusalem Artichokes, the tubers of a 
Sunflower {Helianthus tuherosus^ L.), originally intro- 
duced from the Northern United States. The Jerusalem 
Artichoke has been cultivated in England as an article of 
food since early in the 17th century. The tuber does not 
contain starch, hence it is not floury when boiled, like 
the potato. 

Sunflower Seeds (H. annuus, L.) are here shown, 
together with samples of oil expressed from them. The 
sunflower is grown for this purpose in Russia and other 
countries, and it has also been introduced into India. 

The seeds form an excellent food for poultry, and are 
also given to horses and cattle to keep them in good con- 
dition. The oil is extensively used as a food stuff and is 
said to approach more nearly to olive oil than any other 
vegetable oil known. The oil cake is rich in nitrogenous 
matter and is largely used on the Continent for fattening 
cattle. 

No. 330. Niger, Ixga, or Ramtil Seeds {Quizotia 
abyssinica^ Cass.). The plant is a native of tropical 
Africa, but is cultivated in many parts of India for the 
small black seeds, from which an oil is expressed, used as 
a lamp oil, for anointing the bod}", and as a condiment. 
In this country the seeds are employed as a medicine for 
cage birds. 

Observe roots of the Pellitory OF SPAIN (Anacyclus 
Pyrethrum, DC), a perennial herb found wild in Algeria, 
and occasionally cultivated in English gardens ; it is 
exported from Algeria to Leghorn and Egypt, from whence 
large quantities are sent to India. It is used in medicine, 
chiefly as a local irritant and sialagogue. An allied species 
(A. officinarum, Hayne), furnishes the root known as 
German Pellitory. It is cultivated for similar pur- 
poses to the last mentioned in Saxony, Prussia and 
Bohemia. 

No. 331. Colorado Rubber Plant {Hymenoxys 
sp.). From the roots a rubber-like substance is obtained. 



131 

It does not however compare very favourably with many CASE 
of the inferior grades of rubber already in commerce. 68. 

No. 332. Chamomiles. The flower-heads of An- 
themis nohiliSy L., a perennial herb, wild, and cultivated 
in Europe, West Asia, and North Africa. Chamomiles 
are cultivated in this country, chiefly at Mitcham. The 
plant so grown " is always the ' double ' state, in which 
the yellow disc flowers have all or nearly all become 
converted into white ray flowers." They are used in 
medicine as a stimulant, aromatic tonic. Oil of Chamo- 
mile, a specimen of which is shown, is mostly distilled 
from the entire plant, though sometimes from the flowers 
alone. It is a valuable carminative. 

Observe specimens of YARROW, or MILFOIL {Achillea 
Millefolium^ L.), a common British plant, used as an 
aromatic tonic and astringent. Also flowers, whole and 
pulverized, of Chrysanthemum coccineum, Willd., which 
furnishes Persian Powder, and flowers of G. cin- 
erariaefolium, Vis., the source of Dalmatian Insect- 
POWDER ; both are well-known insecticides. 

On a lower shelf are Wild Chamomile flowers 
{Matricaria Ghamomilla, L.), which have somewhat 
similar properties to true Chamomile, and for which they 
are used as a substitute both in India and Europe. 

Note also tuft of Abrotanella forsterioides^ Hook, f,, 
which forms dense green cushions on the summits of the 
Tasmanian mountains. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment of this CASE 
case are specimens of Tansy {Tanacetum vulgar e^ L.), 69. 
formerly used as a tonic, febrifuge, and vermifuge. 
Observe also specimens of the Genepi DES Alpes 
(Artemisia glacialis, L.) and the Genepi Blanc (A. 
Mutellina, Vill.). Both species are collected in the Alps 
for the manufacture of Genepi, a rich green liqueur of 
the Absinthe type. 

On the middle shelf observe specimen of WoRMSEBD 
or Santonica {Artemisia maritima, L.) This drug 
consists of the very small, un expanded flower-heads of 
the plant, collected on the steppes or vast plains of the 
Kirghiz in Northern Turkestan. It is an anthelmintic. 
The crystalline substance to which the action of worm- 



132 

CASE seed is due is Santonin ; it constitutes from 1| to 2 per 
69. cent, of the drug. It is not limited to the flower-heads, 
but occurs also in the small leaflets. It reaches its maxi- 
mum in July and August and disappears immediately 
after the flowering. 

No. 333. Wormwood {Artemisia Absinthium, L.). 
An herbaceous perennial, common in this country, and 
distributed through the northern temperate old world. 
It has also become na,turalised in the United States, and 
is cultivated at Mitcham and other places in England. 
The plant flowers and is collected in July and August. 
Wormwood has a strong aromatic smell, and a bitter, 
slightly aromatic taste. It was formerly extensively used 
as an anthelmintic, and had a reputation as a specific in 
intermittent fevers, before the introduction of Cinchona 
bark. A volatile oil is contained in the plant (a specimen 
of which is exhibited) ; it is one of the principal ingredi- 
ents in the French liqueur known as Absinthe. 

On a lower shelf note tinder formed of the epidermis 
of the leaves of Liahum Bo7iplandiiy Cass., from Quito- 

No. 334. Flowers, leaves, and root of Arnica or 
Mountain Tobacco {Ajmica man tana, L.). A perennial 
herb, native of moist meadows throughout Northern and 
Central Europe, and found on mountains in Switzerland, 
North Italy, and the Pyrenees. Arnica root of commerce 
consists of the dried rhizome and attached rootlets. These 
and the flowers have a slight aromatic odour, and an acrid 
bitter taste. Internally they are stimulant and irritant. 
Arnica, however, is chiefly used in the form of a tincture, 
for outward application in sprains, bruises, chilblains, &c. 

On an upper shelf in the next compartment note flowers 
of the Marigold (Calendula officinalis, L.), formerly in 
repute as a domestic medicine. 

No. 335. Dogwood of Tasmania {Bedfordia soli- 
cina, DC). A shrub 12 to 14 feet high. The wood, 
which is well mottled, and used for ciibinet work, emits a 
foetid smell when cut and is exceptionally difficult to 
season. 

Note plants of Echinops strigosus, L., used for making 
tinder by the mule drivers in Spain. 



133? 

Note also a model of the Cardoon {Gyyiara Gardun- CASE 
culus^ L.). A hardy perennial. The blanched stalks of 69. 
the inner leaves are eaten as a vegetable. 

.Also Artichoke Heads {Cynara Scolyrrms, L.), a 
hardy perennial, cultivated in this country as a vegetable. 
The part eaten is the lower fleshy portion of the imbri- 
cated scales of the involucre and the receptacle. 

Observe Kenguel Seeds {Silyhum Marianum^ 
Gfertn.), from Asia Minor, where they are roasted and 
used as a substitute for coffee. They are also believed by 
the Turks to have a medicinal value. 

No. 336. CosTus of the Ancients, the root of 
Saussurea Lappa^ Clarke {Aucklandia Oostus, Falc), a 
plant of Cashmere, where it is called KOOT. Large 
quantities of it are sent to different parts of India, the 
Persian Gulf, and China. It is used in medicine in India 
and China, and in Cashmere for protecting bales of 
shawls from the attacks of insects. 

No. 337. Safflower. A beautiful rose-colour, used 
as a dye and rouge, obtained from the flowers of Car- 
thamus tinctorius, L. Cultivated in China, India, the 
South of Europe, &c. The fruits contain a large quantity 
of oil, which is expressed and used in India for culinary 
purposes, and for burning in lamps ; it is also said to be 
an ingredient in macassar hair oil. Under the name of 
Kurdee Seeds they are imported into Europe from 
Southern India as an oil seed. 

Observe roots and leaves of Gerbera lanuginosa, Sch. 
Bip. Also specimen of yarn made from the woolly leaves, 
and a bag made from the yarn and used by the Jampanees 
or carriers in the Himalayas for holding meal, for making 
into bread. 

Note also PiPlTZAHOAC root and PiPiTZAHOAC acid 
obtained from roots of Perezia rigida, A. Gray, from 
Mexico. 

No. 338. Chicory, the root of Gichorium Intyhus, 
L., a plant wild and cultivated in England and other parts 
of Europe and largely used for the purpose of mixing 
with coffee. The roots are sliced, kiln-dried, roasted, and 
ground. 



134 

CASE No. 339. Dandelion Roots {Taraxacum officinale, 

69. Wiggers), a common and troublesome weed almost 
wherever cultivation extends. Dandelion roots are ino- 
dorous, have a bitter taste, and are tonic, aperient, and 
diuretic. An extract is prepared from them. The roots 
dried, roasted, and ground are sometimes used to adulterate 
coffee, or even as a substitute for it. The blanched leaves 
are used on the Continent as a salad. Observe crystallized 
Mannite from the Dandelion. 

Note a specimen of Lactucarium or Lettuce Opium 
obtained from several species of Lactuca as L. virosa, L., 
L. Scariola, L., &c. It is used in medicine as a mild 
narcotic. The leaves of the Garden Lettuce (L. Scariola) 
are very largely used as a salad. 
CASE In the first compartment of this Case note roots of 

70. SCORZONERA {ScoTzonera hispanica, L.), a native of Spain, 
cultivated for the roots, which are used as a vegetable, 
as are also those of the Salsafy (Tragopogon po7^rifolius, 
L.), which is found in wet meadows in some localities in 
Britain, but nowhere wild. It is occasionally cultivated 
in this country as a vegetable, but much more extensively 
on the Continent. 

In the small order Goodenovieae, note Taccada Pith 
from the stems of Scaevola Koenigii, Vahl, used by 
Malays and Siamese for making artificial flowers, &c. 
Observe models of fruits in this pith from Amboyna. 

Bluebell or Harebell Order (Campanulaceae). A 
group of herbs or undershrubs scattered throughout the 
globe. Very few have any economic value. 

No. 340. Indian Tobacco {Lobelia Winflata, L.). 
An erect annual or biennial herb, from one to two feet 
high, an inhabitant of dry places in the Northern United 
States, extending to Hudson's Bay and Saskatchewan on 
the one hand and to the Mississippi on the other, and found 
also in Kamtschatka. Lohelia inflata as imported into 
this country consists of the dried herb cut into pieces of 
varying sizes, and mostly compressed in the form of 
oblong, rectangular-shaped packages. Lobelia in small 
doses is expectorant and diaphoretic, in full doses emetic, 
and in excessive doses a powerful acro-narcotic poison ; 
its effects being similar to those of tobacco. 



135 

Cranberry Order (Vacciniaceae), Shrubs or small CASE 
trees, natives chiefly of cold and temperate regions. The 70. 
fruits of some are edible, as the WHORTLEBERRY or 
Bilberry {Vaccinium Myrtillus, L.), the Cowberry 
(F. VitiS'Idaeay L.), and the Cranberry (Oxycoccus 
palustris, Pers.). Large quantities of Cranberries are 
brought to this country from Canada. They are the fruits 
of another species, O. macrocarpus, Pers. 

Observe specimen of Broussa Tea ( Vaccinium Arcto- 
stajohylos, L.), used at Broussa and sold at about Sd, per 
pound. 

Heath. Order {E^Hcaceae), All woody plants, often 
bearing beautiful flowers, abounding in the temperate 
parts of the world, and the mountains of intertropical 
countries. Heaths are remarkably numerous in species 
at the Cape of Good Hope. In Europe, numerous indi- 
viduals of two or three species cover very large areas, as 
the common Ling or Heather {Calluna vulgaris, Sal.). 
Note a Besom of this species on the top of the case. 

Observe woods of species of Arbutus remarkable for 
the smooth chocolate-coloured bark. 

Also leaves of the Bear-berry {Arctostaphylos Uva- 
ursi, Spreng.), a dwarf sub-alpine shrub found in Europe, 
North Asia, and North America. The leaves have astrin- 
gent properties, and are used in medicine chiefly in the 
form of infusion. 

A specimen of cake made from the compressed fruits 
of Gaultheria Shallon, Pursh, from Vancouver Island, is 
also here exhibited. 

Note leaves, and oil distilled from the leaves of the 
Spring Winter Green or Partridge Berry (Gaul- 
theria procumhensj L.), a dwarf shrub of North-West 
America. The leaves are used as an aromatic stimulant, 
and in some parts of North America as a substitute for 
China tea, under the name of Mountain or Salvador tea. 

No. 341. Woody Root, Tobacco Pipes in the 
rough, and a finished Pipe of the Tree Heath (Erica 
arborea, L.), from the South of Europe. This wood is 
the Briar Root of commerce, so much used for making 
pipes and chiefly produced at the present time in Calabria ; 
the blocks being cut into shape upon the spot and shipped 



136 ^ 

CASE to Leghorn, where they are selected and packed for 

70. export, the name Briar being a modification of the French 
'bruyere. 

Observe sample of leaves of Ledum latifolium, Jacq., 
known as Labrador Tea. The leaves have an agreeable 
odour and taste and are esteemed for their pectoral and 
tonic properties. They are said to have been employed 
as a substitute for tea during the American War of Inde- 
pendence. The plant is found in damp situations in the 
United States and Canada. 

No. 342. Rhododendron nivale, Hook. f. Believed 
to attain the loftiest elevation of any Alpine shrub known ; 
inhabiting a height of 17,500 to 18,000 feet, in the Eastern 
Himalaya, where it is, for eight months of the year, 
buried under many feet of snow. 

On a lower shelf observe a sample of poisonous honey 
collected from the flowers of Rhododendron ponticum, L., 
from Erzeroum. 

Also a Yak Saddle made of the wood of Rhododen- 
dron Hodgsonii, Hook. f. Used in the Himalayas. 
CASE In the upper portion of the first compartment are 

71. exhibited woods of several species of Rhododendron. 

Note leaves of Spotted Winter Green or Pipsis- 
SEWA {Chimajjhila umbellatcf, Nutt.), employed in North 
America as a tonic and astringent medicine. 

EpacriS Order (Epacrideae). A group corresponding 
very closely to the Heath Order in general appearance and 
structure, and representing that family in Australia. A 
few afford edible berries. 

No. 343. Observe specimens of Richea pandanifolia, 
Hook, f., a native of Tasmanian forests, which presents a 
peculiarly striking appearance from the huge crown of 
waving leaves surmounting a slender naked stem, often 
36 feet in height. 

Note in the small order Plumhagineae the peculiar 
structure of the woods of Statice, also roots of Plumbago 
rosea, L., employed in India in the treatment of cutaneous 
affections, dyspepsia, &c. The root-bark is a powerful 
vesicant. Specimens are also shown of the roots of P. 
zeylanica, L., which have similar properties to those of 
P. rosea, though to a much milder degree. 



137 

Observe also in the Primrose Order {Primulaceae) CASE 
flowers of the COWSLIP {Primula officinalis^ Jacq.), used 71. 
for making wine, and the dried plants of the Pimpernel 
(Anagallis arvensis^ L.), an abundant annual weed known 
as the Poor Man's Weather-glass in consequence of 
the flowers generally closing on the approach of rain.. 

Note allso Ham AM A, the Amomum spurium of early 
writers on Materia Medica. It consists of the moss-like 
tufts formed by Dionysia diapensiaefolia, Boiss. The 
aromatic constituent probably resides in the glandular 
hairs with which the plant is more or less covered. It is 
a native of Persia from whence it finds its way into the 
Bombay Market. 

Myrsine Order {Myrsineae). A group of tropical or 
subtropical shrubs or small trees of no great economic 
value. On the low^er shelf, woods of several species of 
Myrsine are shown, and on an upper shelf of the next 
compartment is a pestle and mortar, as used in Dominica 
for cleaning coffee, beating yams, bread-fruit, &c., into 
pulp for use as food. The mortar is made of the wood of 
Adegon (Ardisia sp.), and the pestle of the BoiS 
Riviere (Chimarrhis cymosa^ Jacq.) belonging to the 
natural order Buhiaceae. 

No. 344. Fruits of Emhelia Rihes, Burm., a scan- 
dent shrub found throughout India, Malaya, and South 
China. The berries are used as an anthelmintic, and to 
adulterate black pepper. 

Sapodilla Order {Sapotaceae). Mainly trees and 
shrubs of tropical countries ; frequently abounding in a 
milky juice. Several species afford edible fruits. 

No. 345. Star Apple {Chrysophyllum Cainito, L.), 
a well-known and highly esteemed fruit of the West 
Indies and Tropical America. Spirit obtained from Star 
Apples and specimens of wood of the tree are also 
shown. 

On the lower shelf of this compartment are fruits and 
wood of the Mammee Sapote or Marmalade Plum 
(Lucuma mammosa, Gaertn.), a native of the West Indies 
and South America, where the tree is cultivated for its 



138 

CASE fruit, which contains an agreeably flavoured pulp. The 

71. seeds contain hydrocyanic acid, and are used in the West 
Indies for flavouring, as a substitute for bitter almonds. 

CASE In the first compartment of this Case note fruits of 

72. Sideroxylon dulcificum, A. DC, the MIRACULOUS Berry 
of the West Coast of Africa. The fleshy portion of the 
fruit contains a peculiar sweetening property, and when 
eaten has the effect of neutralizing bitter and acid 
substances, such as quinine, lemon, &c. 

On the outside cf the Case observe section of stem and 
branches, with fruit, of Argania Sideroxylon, R. and S., 
a tree growing in Morocco. The pulp of the fruit is 
eaten by cattle ; from the kernels Argan Oil, resembling 
Olive Oil, is expressed. A sample is exhibited in the 
Case, also a series of fruits showing the varied forms they 
assume ; the wood is extraordinarily hard and dumble. 

Note on a lower shelf fruits of the Nasebbrry or 
Sapodilla Plum (Achras Sapota, L.), a native of tropical 
America, the West Indies, and generally cultivated in 
the tropics. The excellent fruit is much esteemed, and 
tastes like a superior medlar. An elastic gum furnished 
by the plant, and known as Chicle Gum, is imported into 
New York from Mexico for use as a masticatory. The 
wood is extremely hard and very durable. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment are 
samples of Gutta Percha, known as Niato Bunga, 
NiATO TUNBAGA Or NiATO Balam from Palaquium 
ohovatum, King & Gamble, also gutta from P. clarkeanum^ 
King & Gamble, both large trees of Malaya. Note also oil 
obtained from seeds of Dichopsis grandis, Benth., a large 
tree of Ceylon, and bark and gutta known as Pauchontee 
from Dichopsis elliptica, Benth., a large tree of Southern 
India. 

No. 346. Gutta Percha from Palaquium Guttay 
Burck [_Dichopsis Gutta, Benth.], a large evergreen tree 
of the Malayan Peninsula. This is the true Gutta Percha 
tree, and is described as being probably the most valuable 
of all the trees of the Peninsula. It is the source of 
Taban Gutta or Taban Merah, obtained by felling the 
trees and ringing the bark. Owing to the destructive 
method of collecting the gutta, the tree has become scarce 



132 

in a wild state ; it is now, however, being much planted, CAS^B 
and there is every probability of its again becoming 72. 
common. 

This destruction was stated in 1878 by Dr. Dennys, " to 
be so enormous that it seems impossible for the supply 
to long continue, it is computed that over 7,000 trees 
were cut down during 1877 in the neighbourhood of 
Klang, while 4,000 must have perished near Selangor in a 
single month to furnish the 270 piculs (a picul = 133^ lbs.) 
returned as exported. The estimated annual export from 
the Straits Settlements and the Peninsula was given 
as 10 millions of pounds in 1875, which at the high 
average ot 16 lbs. to a single tree would give 800,000 trees. 
The demand seems always to exceed the supply." The 
quantity of Gutta Percha imported into this country in 
1901 amounted to 88,438 cwts. of the value of £1,382,646, 
whilst the imports of this product during 1905 only 
amounted to 45,434 cwts. of the value of £361,475. 

Various samples of crude Gutta Percha of different 
qualities are shown from Perat, Borneo, Singapore, &c. 

Observe section of stem from Singapore which has been 
gashed for the extraction of gutta. 

The last compartment of this Case contains numerous 
articles made from Gutta Percha. Note also sections of 
marine telegraph cables, telephone wires, &c., insulated 
with this substance. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment of this CASE 
Case observe specimens of Gutta Percha from Palaquium 73. 
Gutta, Burck, var. oblong i folia, a large evergreen tree of 
the Malayan Peninsula, and Getah Puteh and Getah 
Taban Simpor (P. Maingayi, King & Gamble), a tree 
attaining a height of 60 feet, also of the Malayan 
Peninsula. Near these note Getah Soentei from P. 
oleosum, Burck, and a sample of concrete oil from the 
seeds, from Sumatra. Other gutta-yielding species of 
Palaquium are contained in this Case. 

No. 347. Mahwa or MOWA Tree {Bassia laiifolia, 
Roxb.). This is one of the most important forest trees of 
India, where it is much cultivated, and where cultivated, 
frequently self-sown. It yields an excellent timber but 
is valued more particularly for the sweet and fleshy 



140 

CASE corollas of the flowers, which form an important article 

73. of food both for men and animals in Central India, and 

yield by distillation a large percentage of spirit. The 

average yield of flowers per tree is estimated at 2^ maunds 

and they sell at about 12 annas per maund. 

The fruit, ripe or unripe, is also valuable. The outer 
coat is eaten raw, or cooked as a vegetable ; the inner one 
is dried and ground into meal. From the kernel a greenish- 
yellow oil or butter is obtained, largely used by jungle 
tribes or sold for soap-making. The oil cake is employed 
for feeding cattle. 

No. 348. Seeds and oil of the Mee or Illupi {Bassia 
longifolia^ L.), a large evergreen tree of India. The 
flowers are eaten in the same way as those of the last- 
named species, and the oil expressed from the seeds is used 
for similar purposes to that of Mahwa. The leaves, bark, 
and young fruit are used medicinally. 

In the next compartment observe the seeds and vege- 
table butter of B. hutyraceay Roxb. The solid white oil 
obtained from these seeds is of the consistence of lard. 
It keeps a long time without deteriorating, and is said to 
make good soap and candles. It is perfumed and used as 
an ointment in rheumatism. 

The pulp of the fruit is eaten, and in Sikkim the bark 
is employed as a fish poison. 

Note seeds of Diiilocnema sebifera^ Pierre, believed to 
be the source of the vegetable fat exported from Borneo 
under the name of MiNJAK Tankawang. A sample of 
the fat is shown. Observe also wood, bark and Getah 
SUNDEK from Payena Leerii, Benth. and Hook, f., Perak. 
It is a tree growing from 80 to 100 feet high, and yields a 
second-rate variety of Gutta Percha and is probably also 
the source of Getah Sundi of Sumatra. 

No. 349. Balata, the inspissated juice of the Bul- 
let or Bully Tree {Mimusops globosa^ Gaertn.), a large 
forest tree of tropical America. Balata is analogous to 
Gutta Percha, for which it is employed as a substitute in 
some industries where the use of the best quality of Gutta 
is not imperative ; it is chiefly produced in the Guianas 
and Venezuela, from whence it is exported to European 
countries. 



i 141 

Specimens of this substance, both raw and in a manu- CASE 
factured state, together with samples of the hard, heavy 73. 
and durable wood, are exhibited. 

Observe portion of the stem and samples of the concrete 
milk of the Massaranduba or Cow-Trbe of Para 
(Mimiiso^ elata^ Allem.) ; the milk, resembling good 
cream in consistence, exudes slowly from the wounded 
bark. It is too viscid to be a safe article of diet. 

In the next compartment observe fruits, flowers, and 
oil expressed from the seeds of Mimusops Elengi, L. 
The fruit is largely eaten in Guiana and elsewhere, the 
fragrant flowers are used for making garlands, and the 
bark yields a tonic and febrifuge. 

No. 350. Fruits and Seeds of Karite or Shea 
Butter Tree {Butyros2)ermwn Parkii, Kotschy), 
grown in Western Africa. From the kernels a fat is 
obtained, called Shea butter, and used as butter by the 
natives. Samples of the fat as imported are shown, 
together with soap made from it. Gutta Shea, a hydro- 
carbon obtained from the fat in the manufacture of soap, 
is present to the amount of from '5 to '75 per cent. The 
milky juice of the tree when solidified is stated to have 
all the properties of Gutta Percha. 

V' Ebony Order (Ehenaceae), consisting principally of 
tropical Indian trees, several of which afford a heavy and 
valuable wood. 

On the lower shelves and in the next compartment, are 
specimens of woods of species of Maha^ Euclea, and 
Diospyros. 

No. 351. Calamander or Coromandel Wood 
(Diospyros quaesita, Thw.). A large tree of the forests 
of Ceylon, below 1,000 feet. 

This is the chief of the trees producing Calamander 
wood, now unfortunately scarce ; it is a most beautiful 
cabinet wood, taking a high polish, and is so hard that 
edge tools can scarcely work it. Boxes and other articles 
made from it are exhibited. 

No. 352. Andaman Marble or Zebra Wood 
(Diospyros Kurzii, Hiern). An evergreen tree growing 



142 

CA SE to a height of about 60 feet. Native of the Andaman and 
73. Nicobar Islands. 

This splendid wood does not appear to be known in 
commerce, though it might prove of value in the European 
market, if it could be supplied in sufficient quantity. 

It is recommended for cabinet-work, sticks, frames and 
carvings, but is said to be difficult to season, and liable to 
shrink and warp. 

No. 353. Ebony. The chief source of this wood is 
(Dins2jyros Ebenum, Koenig). A large tree of Southern 
India and Ceylon. Very little of the wood is exported 
from India, as in that country the tree is usually of small 
size and somewhat scarce. Ceylon exports about 300 tons 
of the wood annually, the chief markets being England, 
Germany, and China. In Europe, Ebony is employed for 
turnery, cabinet-work, piano keys, rulers, &c. This wood 
is characterised by the extremely dark colour and hardness 
of the heart- wood (duramen)^ the sap-wood {alhurnuni) 
being white, and not durable. 

The Greeks and Romans were acquainted with Ebony ; 
it is mentioned by Dioscorides, Pliny, &c. Indian 
caskets, inkstand, and other articles, carved in Ebony are 
shown. 

CASE ^^* «^54. Gaub Fruits (Dios^njros Emhryopteris, 
rj^ Pers.). The Gaub is a tree growing to a height of about 
35 feet, extending through India from the Himalaya to 
Ceylon, Siam, and the Malay Archipelago. The large 
round fruit is of a reddish colour and contains a viscid 
pulp, which is used as gum in bookbinding, and in place 
of tar for covering the seams in fishing boats. The fluid 
contains a large quantity of tannin, and is used medici- 
nally as an astringent. The oil extracted from the seeds 
is also used by the natives in medicine. The leaves are 
used as cigarette wrappers in Bombay. 

Note woods, fruits, &c., of other species of Diospyros^ 
including D. eh7'etioides, Wall., a common Burmese tree, 
and D. Melanoxylon, Roxb., a tree of the Deccan 
Peninsula and Ceylon. This species yields Ebony, and 
the leaves are largely used as cigarette wrappers in 
Bombay. Note also edible fruits of European Date 
Plum (Z). Lotus, L.), a native of Italy and of the East. 



143 

The fruit is eaten by Afghans, either fresh or dried, and CASE 
is also employed as a remedy for diarrhoea. Specimens 74. 
are also shown of the edible fruits of D. mespiliformis, 
Hochst., the MONKEY GUAVA of Upper Guinea. It is a 
shrub or small tree with a black heart-wood similar to 
Ebony, and is widely distributed in tropical Africa. 

On the lower shelves note fruits and wood of the 
Persimmon {Diospyros virginiana, L.), a tree common 
in the Middle and Southern United States. The fruit 
has a strong astringent taste, and is hence used medi- 
cinally ; when fully ripe or blett^d it is edible. From 
the unripe fruit an indelible ink is made in the Southern 
States. The bark is bitter and a febrifuge ; the wood is 
dark-coloured and hard, and used for weaving-shuttles, 
turnery, shoe-lasts, &c. 

Observe on the upper shelves of the next compartment, 
edible fruits of the CHINESE DATE Plum or Kaki of 
Japan (Diospyros Kaki, Linn. f.). They are highly 
esteemed in the East, both in the fresh and dried states. 
The plant has been introduced into European gardens, 
and the fruits may occasionally be seen in fruiterers' 
shops in this country. By cutting this fruit in halves, 
and putting it in water, the Chinese are stated to obtain 
an oil, which they employ for waterproofing umbrellas 
and hats. 

Storax Order (Styraceae). A small group of woody 
plants affording the fragrant resins Benzoin and true 
Storax. 

Observe LODH BARK (Symploces racemosa, Roxb.), an 
Indian shrub or small tree. It was formerly regarded in 
Europe as a cinchona bark and known as ' China nova ' 
and * China californica.' At the present day the leaves 
and bark are used to a considerable extent in India for 
dyeing, giving yellow and red tints. The bark is also 
employed in medicine. Woods of other species of 
Symplocos are shown on the adjoining shelves. 

No. 355. True Storax, a fragrant gum-resin 
obtained from wounds in the stem of Sty rax officinale, 
L., a small tree of Southern Europe and Asia Minor. 
This substance was held in great estimation from the 
time of Pliny to the close of the 18th Century, since 



144 

CASE which time it has completely disappeared from commerce. 
74. Liquid Storax is obtained from Liquidamha^^ orientalis, 
Mill. (See No. 261.) 

No. 356. Gum Benjamin or Gum Benzoin, obtained 
from Sty rax Benzoin^ Dry and. A moderate -sized tree, 
found abundantly in Sumatra (where also it is cultivated), 
Java, Borneo, and in the Malay Peninsula, where, probably, 
it has been introduced. 

Benzoin of commerce is obtained both from Sumatra and 
Siam. That from the latter country is procured from the 
district east and north-east of Luang Prabang, in the 
Shan States, but the plant furnishing it has not yet been 
identified. 

Benzoin is collected in Sumatra by cutting deep 
incisions into the bark when the trees are about six or 
seven years old ; as the resin exudes it becomes hard, and 
is scraped off with a knife. The best quality is that which 
is obtained during the first three years, and for the next 
seven or eight years the produce is browner in colour, and 
less valuable. A quantity of Benzoin is scraped from the 
wood of the tree after it is cut down ; this is of a still 
darker colour, and is often mixed with pieces of bark and 
other impurities. Sumatra Benzoin always comes into 
commerce in lumps, and is of inferior quality to that from 
Siam, which comes either in tears or in masses of 
agglutinated tears. Benzoin is used as a stimulant and 
expectorant in chronic bronchitis and other affections of 
the lungs. It is one of the principal ingredients in 
" Friars' Balsam." Its chief use, however, is for incense, 
both in Europe and in the East. Various specimens of 
Benzoin are exhibited from Sumatra, Siam, Penang, and 
India. Of special interest is a sample which formed part 
of a ton of Benzoin recovered by divers in Table Bay 
about 20 years since. From the cases in which the gum 
was packed and from the date, 1691, which they bore, 
there is little doubt that it formed part of the cargo of 
a Dutch East Indian Company's Merchantman, bound for 
Europe, and wrecked in the Bay. Note also Benzoic acid 
and oil from Benzoin. 

Olive Order {Oleaceae), A family characterised by 
opposite leaves and flowers with two stamens, natives of 
temperate latitudes ; represented by the Ash in Britain. 



145 

Observe MOHLE FLOWERS {Jasminum Samhac, Ait.) CASE 
and oil obtained from them, used in perfumery in India. 7^. 
They are also largely used by Hindus for making 
garlands. 

Note also flowers of Harsinghar {Nyctanthes Arhor- 
trlstis, L.), employed in India as a yellow dye for cotton 
cloths. They also yield an essential oil used in perfumery, 
and like those last mentioned, are made into garlands by 
the Hindus. 

Observe wood of AMERICAN ASH (Fraxinus americana, 
L.), and various articles made of it. This wood is inferior 
to English Ash and is used for agricultural implements, 
carriages, tool-handles, oars, (fee. 

No. 357. Manna, the concrete, sweet juice of the 
Manna Ash (Fraxinus Ornus, L.), growing in Sicily and 
Southern Italy. It is obtained from incisions in the bark, 
made in summer and autumn. A portion of a trunk 
showing the incisions is exhibited, also mannite and 
manna sugar. Manna is a mild and agreeable laxative. 

No. 358. Insect Wax, from China, secreted by 
Coccus Pe-la, Westw. The insects live and reproduce 
themselves spontaneously on Ligustrum lucidum, Ait. 
The Chinese transport the females and cultivate them in 
Western China on Fraxinus chinensis, Roxb., which is 
readily propagated by cuttings; in Eastern China Ligus- 
trum lucidum itself is used. The wax is employed for a 
variety of purposes by the Chinese, as for coating candles 
(note examples), glazing paper, polishing furniture, and 
finishing the plastered walls of rooms {see also Case 75). 

No. 359. Wood of the Common Ash {Fraxinus excel- 
sior, L.), the toughest and most elastic of British timbers, 
greatly valued by the cart-wright, wheel -wright, cooper, 
machine-framework, and agricultural implement maker. 
In request in olden time for spears, and used at the 
present time for the shafts of lances carried by the British 
cavalry. An English ash-shafted cavalry lance is exhibited 
over the doors. 

Note in the Case a series of specimens illustrating the 
manufacture of tennis rackets, an alpenstock, and other 
articles made of Ash. 

25782 K 



146 

CASE Woods of other Bpecies of Fraxinus, chiefly from 

74. U.S. America, may be noted in this compartment. 

In the last compartment of this Case note wood 
specimens of Fraxinus floribunda, Wall., a large 
deciduous tree of India, Burma, &c. The wood is tough 
and hard, and is employed in India for oars, jampan poles, 
ploughs, and other purposes. 

On the lower shelves observe woods of several species 
of OsmanthuSf Notelaea^ and Olea^ including Notelaea 
ligustrina^ Vent., known as IRONWOOD in Australia and 
Tasmania. The wood is exceedingly hard, close-grained, 
and is used for mallets, sheaves of blocks, turnery, &c. 
Also Indian Olive, Kahu of Sind {Olea cuspidata. 
Wall.). The wood takes a good polish, and is highly prized 
for turning, for combs (specimens of which are shown), 
agricultural implements, &c. An oil obtained from the 
fruit is employed in medicine as a rubefacient. Both the 
fruits and the oil are shown. 

On the bottom shelf observe Black Ironwood of 
Natal and the Cape {Olea laurifolia^ Lam.). The wood 
is close-grained and very durable, and is extensively 
employed in South Africa for wagon work ; it is also 
stated to be an excellent furniture wood. 

CASE No. 360. Branches of the Olive Tree {Olea europaea, 

75, L.), emblems of peace and plenty. A tree of Syria and 
Greece, naturalized abundantly on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, cultivated also in California and South 
Australia. Valued from a remote period for the sake of 
the oil obtained by pressure from the pulp of its fruit. 
Note Rosaries made of the wood and seeds of the Olive 
from Jerusalem. Also fruits from France, Italy, Spain, 
and California. 

No. 361. Samples of Olive Oil, from Portugal, 
Spain, Sardinia, Tuscany, South Australia and California. 
During the year 1905, 7,690 tuns of Unrefined or Raw 
Olive oil, of the value of £256,601, and 4,352 tuns of the 
Refined or Edible oil, of the value of £184,885 were 
imported into the United Kingdom. The best quality of 
Tuscan olive oil is imported into London in casks. 

Olive oil does not reduce silver nitrate, which cotton 
seed oil does. This affords a means of detecting as small 



147 

an adulteration as one per cent. Castile soap is made of CASE 
olive oil and soda. 75. 

On a lower shelf observe IBOTA Wax from Tokio, 
Japan, obtained from Ligustnim Ihota, Sieb., and 
probably the secretion of a Coccus, 

Note also Chinese White Wax and candles prepared 
with the same. 

Mustard Tree Order {Salvadoraceae), a small group 
of trees or shrubs, natives of hot countries, of but little 
economic value. 

Observe wood, bark, fruits, and oil of Tooth-Brush 
Tree {Salvadora persica, L.). A small glaucous tree 
of India, Ceylon, Arabia, &c. The Mahomedans of 
Persia form tooth-brushes of the twigs. The bark has 
an odour like cress and the root-bark is very acrid and 
acts as a vesicant. The leaves are eaten as salad, and are 
also given as fodder to cattle. The seeds yield an oil. 

Dogbane Order (Apocynaceae). Erect or twining 
shrubs, often with a milky, elastic, and sometimes very 
poisonous juice, mostly natives of the tropics. The 
Periwinkle ( Vinca) of our gardens belongs to the Order. 

The remainder of this Case and a portion of the next 
is devoted to illustrations of India-rubber or caoutchouc- 
producing plants. 

Observe dried mounted specimen of Leuconotis eugeni- 
folius^ A. DC, an evergreen shrub of Penang, Sumatra, 
and Borneo, and one of the sources of the Borneo Rubber, 
known under the name of Menungan. Note also a 
portion of the stem, and a sample of Rubber from 
Leuconotis Griffithiiy Hook, f., an evergreen shrub of 
Malacca. 

Near these are portions of stems and rubber from 
Willughheia firma, Blume, a large climber of Singapore, 
Sumatra, and Borneo. In both Borneo and Singapore it 
is said to yield the " GUTTA SiNGARlP." Note also 
specimens of Willughheia flavescenSj Dyer, a large climber, 
yielding rubber, from Singapore. 

On a lower shelf are samples of rubber and of the 
edible fruits of Willughheia edulis, Roxb., an immense 
climber of India, Burma, Malacca, and Borneo. Also 
fruits, portions of stem and rubber from species of 



148 

CASE Glitandray including rubber from C. henriquesiana, 
75. Schum., a shrubby plant and one of the sources of root 
rubber from Lower Guinea. 

This form of rubber is obtained by cutting the rhizomes 
into small pieces and extracting the rubber therefrom by 
pounding or beating. 

On the bottom shelf observe specimens of rubber from 
the Gambia, probably yielded by Landolpliia Heudelotii, 
A. DC., a shrub or climber of Tipper Guinea, and one of 
the most valuable sources of West African rubber. Also 
rubber from L. turhinata^ Stapf, Uganda, and portion 
of root and rubber from L. ThoUonii, Dew., a dwarf 
shrub of Lower Guinea and a source of root rubber. 
The last compartment of this Case contains fruits, stems, 
and rubber from various species of Landolpliia from 
Tropical Africa. 

No. 362. Fruits, portions of stem and rubber from 
Landolpliia oivariensis^ Beauv., a more or less scandent 
shrub or tree widely distributed in Tropical Africa, and 
one of the principal sources of African rubber. L, Klainei, 
Pierre, a scandent shrub of Upper and Lower Guinea 
and the principal rubber vine of the Gaboon district. L. 
fiorida, Benth., a tall, climbing shrub widely distributed 
in Tropical Africa. The fruits of this species are very 
sour, but are eaten by the natives of the West Coast and 
are known as Aboli. Opinions as to the economic 
value of L, florida as a rubber producer are highly 
contradictory. 

On a lower shelf observe fruits, portions of stem and 
rubber from L. Kirkii, Dyer, a scandent shrub, and one 
of the most important rubber plants of East Africa. Also 
samples of rubber from Vahy {Landolj)liia madagas- 
cariensiSj Bth. and Hook, f.), a climbing plant of con- 
siderable size, and one of the sources of Madagascar 
Rubber. 

CASE No. 363. Root Rubber from Carpodinus lanceo- 
7g^ lata^ K. Schum., a glabrous perennial erect herb of 
Lower Guinea and South Central Africa. This species 
yields most of the root rubber of the Congo. 

No. 364. Fruits and Rubber of Mangabeira 
{Hancornia speciosa, Gomez). A small tree native of 



149 

Brazil, and the source of Mangabeira or Pernambuco 
Rubber of commerce.. During 1905, 1,404,825 lbs. of 
this rubber, of the value of £144,751 were exported from 
Brazil. The fruits known as Mangaba have an agreeable 
taste, and are eaten either in a fresh state or cooked in 
various ways. 

Note fruits of the Karaunda (Carissa CarandaSy L.), 
cultivated in most parts of India; the half ripe fruit is 
much used for pickles, and is also employed for tarts and 
puddings. When ripe, it makes good jelly, and is 
universally eaten by the natives. The wood is well 
adapted for turning. Spoons delicately carved from it in 
South India are exhibited. 

Note specimens of the leaves, wood, &c., of Acokanthera 
Schimperi^ Schwein., a glabrous shrub of East Tropical 
Africa. From the wood, the Wy Nyika and other tribes 
prepare a poisonous extract, used as an arrow poison over 
an extensive area in East Africa. Samples of the poison 
are shown. 

Observe on the same shelf roots of Acokanthei^a 
venenata, G. Don, employed in the Taita District of 
South Africa as an arrow poison. 

Note on the bottom shelf a Fijian native dress made of 
leaves of the VONO {Alyxia stellata, Roem. et Sch.). 

In the next compartment note fruits of the Tanghin 
{Cerbera Tangliin, Hook.), containing a poisonous juice, 
formerly used in Madagascar as an ordeal in cases of 
suspected crime or apostasy. Also fruits, oil from the seeds, 
and wood of Ce^^hera Odollam, Gaertn., an evergreen tree of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. The oil is used for burning. 
Note also fruits of the POKOSOLA (Ochrosia elliptica, 
Lab.), from the Solomon Islands. The flat kernels are 
said to be edible. 

No. 365. Paddle -Wood, the remarkable buttressed 
or fluted stem of Aspidos]3erma excelsiim, Bth. A tree of 
Guiana used for the rollers of cotton-gins, and by the 
Indians in making paddles. Observe the beautiful 
winged seeds. 

Observe also bark, wood, and fruits of QUEBRACHO 
BLANCO (Aspidosperma Qtiebracho-blanco, Schlecht.), a 
tree native of the Argentine Republic. An extract has been 
used medicinally in various forms of dyspnoea. 



150 

The wood is used for tanning, but is not so valuable for 
this purpose as that of the Quebracho Colorado. (See 
Case 30.) 

Note wood, bark, and weaving shuttle made of Cape 
Boxwood or Kamassi (Gonioma Kamassi, G. Mey.). 
The bark is employed at the Cape as a substitute for 
Angostura bark in making bitters. 

Specimens are here shown of the wood and bark of 
Alstonia scholaris, ti. Br., a tree of tropical Asia, Africa, 
and Australia. The bark, called DiTA Bark, has been 
recommended as a most valuable antiperiodic, anthel- 
mintic, and tonic. The milky juice yields a substance 
resembling gutta percha. Another species, A. constricta, 
F. Muell., a native of Queensland and New South Wales, 
has a tonic bark. 

No. 366. Fruit, portion of stem and samples of 
Getah Jelutong or Pontianac from Dyera costulata, 
Hook, f., a large tree of Malaya. Getah Jelutong 
resembles a poor quality of gutta percha, and is mostly 
shipped to the United States of America. 

On a lower shelf observe fibre and cloth called DODO 
cloth from the KPOKPOKA TREE (Conopharyngia 
pachysipJion, Stapf). A shrub of Upper Guinea. 

Observe wood and bark of KURCHI or CONESSI 
(Holm^rhena antidysenterica^ Wall.), a small Indian tree, 
the wood of which is largely used for carving, turnery, 
furniture, &c., and the bark and seeds in Hindoo medicine. 
The former is one of their principal remedies for dysentery; 
both are very bitter. 

No. 367. Frame carved in the hard, white wood of 
Wrightia tinctoria, R. Br., much used in India for 
carving and turning, and the leaves in dyeing. Note also 
fork, spoon, and platters carved in wood of WrHghtia 
tomentosa, R. & S., from India. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment note 
fruits and seeds of species of Strophanthus, including 
those of KOMBE {S. Kombe^ Oliv.), a rambling or climbing 
shrub of the Mozambique District. The seeds are im- 
ported into this country for medicinal purposes, being 
chiefly used for the treatment of cardiac affections. 



151 

On a lower shelf observe edible fruits and rubber from CASE 
Kybtpaung {Urceola esculenta, Benth.), a large climbing .78 
evergreen shrub of Burma, where it is common in the 
Teak forests. Note also samples of fibre from Apocynum 
cannabinum, L., and articles prepared from the fibre by 
North American Indians. Also fibre from the bark of 
Anodenclron paniculatuniy DC, a climber of India and 
Ceylon. The fibre is strong and is used for fishing 
nets, &c. 

No. 368. Fruits, portion of stem incised for the 
■collection of rubber, and various samples of rubber, from 
the Ire or Silk Rubber Tree of Lagos (Funtumia 
elastica, Stapf), a large tree and one of the most 
important sources of West African Rubber. This species 
has been recently found in Uganda. A native drum made 
from the wood of this tree from the Gold Coast is also 
shown. 

Asclepias Order (Asclepiadeae), represented in hot- 
houses by the fleshy-leaved Hoyas and other beautiful 
species. The Asclepiads are mainly tropical, many of 
them African and Indian twining shrubs, frequently with 
a milky juice. The structure of the flowers is very 
anomalous. 

No. 369. Indian Sarsaparilla, the root of Hemi- 
desmus indicus, Br., a twining shrub, used medicinally in 
India. 

No. 370. Yercum or Madar Fibre, obtained from 
Calotropis gigantea, Br., common in waste places in India. 
The fibre obtained from the inner bark is very durable 
and is used for bow-strings, fishing lines and nets. 
Attempts have been made to weave the hair or floss from 
the seeds, without, however, any satisfactory results. 
The plant abounds in acrid milk, which has powerful 
medicinal properties. Stems of the plant with the fibre 
partially removed are exhibited, also twine made from 
the fibre, and a specimen of woven fabric made from the 
floss. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment observe CASE 
specimens of fibre from the bark, floss from the seeds, 79. 



152 

CASE which, like the last mentioned, is known as Madar, and 
79. roots of Calotropis procera^ Br. The dried bark of the 
root has alterative, tonic and diaphoretic properties. 

Ob-erve stems and bark of Condurango (Mai^sdenia 
Cundurango, Nichols.), a climbing plant of South 
America. The bark has alterative and tonic properties, 
and is a reputed cure for snake bites and cancer. 

Also Rajmahal Hemp, the fibre of Marsdenia tenacis- 
sima, Wight and Arn., a large twining shrub of India. 
The fibre is very strong and durable, and is used for 
making bow-strings. Marsdenia tinctoria, Br., was 
formerly cultivated in Java as a source of indigo. 

Note specimens of the seeds of Asclepiads, showing 
the beautiful crest of silky hairs which usually surmount 
them. 

Strychnos Order (Loganiaceae). Chiefly tropical, 
bearing opposite, undivided leaves. The Order is 
eminently poisonous, affording some of the most 
dangerous drugs known to us. 

Note False Jasmine Root {Gelsemium sempervirenSy 
Ait.), a woody vine, native of North America. Used in 
medicine, especially in cases of neuralgia, rheumatism, 
and fevers. 

Observe herb of the INDIAN, or Maryland Pink Root 
(S2ngelia marilandica^ L.), a native of the Southern 
IJnited States. It is an acro-narcotic poison, and is used 
in medicine in America. 

No. 371. Fruits, seeds, wood, and bark of Nux- 
VOMICA {Strychnos Nux-vomica, L.), a moderate-sized 
tree of India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

No. 372. Strychnine, a poisonous alkaloid prepared 
from Nux-vomica seeds. Valued in medicine as a 
tonic and stimulant. 

No. 373. WOURALI or CURARE of Guiana, a virulent 
poison, prepared from the bark of Strychnos toxifera^ 
Schomb., by scraping it, steeping it in water, and con- 
centrating the fluid by evaporation. It is used by the 
Indians to tip weapons for war and the chase. Note 
small calabash containing the poison as kept by the 
Macusi Indians, the principal makers of it. 



153 

Observe wood and seeds of the CLEARING NuT Tree CASE 
(Strychnos potatorum, Linn, f.), a moderate-sized tree of 79. 
India and Ceylon. The ripe seeds are used to clear 
muddy water, by rubbing them round the inside of the 
vessel. 

They are also much used in medicine, and the pulp of 
the fruit is eaten and made into preserve. The wood is 
used for ploughs, building purposes, cart-wheels, &c. 

No. 374. St. Ignatius' Beans. The seeds of CASE 
Strychnos Ignatii, Berg., a shrub or small tree, native of 80. 
the Philippine Islands. The properties of these seeds are 
identical with those of Nux-vomica, hence they are largely 
used in India, and with us for the manufacture of 
Strychnine. The supply, however, is very irregular. 

Note seeds of Mussaenda Coffee {Oaertnera vagi- 
nata. Lam.), from Reunion. It is a low erect shrub, and 
the seeds have been recommended as a coffee substitute, 
but are of little value, as they do not contain caffeine. 

Gentian Order {Gentianeae). A numerous and 
widely dispersed family of herbaceous plants, generally 
with smooth, entire, opposite leaves and iDeautifully 
coloured flowers. They are characterised by a powerful 
bitterness in every part ; hence their use by all nations as 
febrifugal and stomachic medicines. 

Note specimens of root of Oentiana Kurroo^ Royle, 
occasionally used in India in medicine. 

No. 375. Gentian Root {Gentiana lutea, L.). Native 
of France, Germany, the Alps, Pyrenees, &c. ; principally 
employed as a tonic. 

Note also roots of Field Gentian (Genticma cam- 
pestris, L.), employed in rustic medicine as a tonic and 
stomachic. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment observe 
Chiretta or KiRAYAT of India (Swertia Chirata, 
Ham.). The entire plant is collected when in flower, and 
is valued in Hindu medicine on account of its tonic, 
anthelmintic, and febrifuge properties. It is frequently 
imported into this country for medicinal purposes. 

Note also Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata, L.), a 
perennial marsh herb of this country, used in medicine 



154 

CASE as a tonic and febrifuge, and also to add bitterness to 

80. beer. 

Borage Order (Boragineae). Rough-leaved plants^ 
with one-sided flower-spikes ; growing in temperate 
countries, especially around the Mediterranean. The roots 
of some species afford dyes. 

Observe woods of several species of Corclia, including 
that of the Sbbesten Tree {Gordia Myxa, L.) ; also 
cordage made from the bark. It is a moderate-sized tree, 
found throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon. 

The upper shelves of the last compartment contain a 
continuation of woods and fibres furnished by species of 
Gordia and of Ehretia. 

On a lower shelf observe Alkanet-ROOT {Alkanna 
tinctoria, Tausch.), from the shores of the Mediterranean. 
It yields a red dye, used to stain furniture, &c. 
CASE ^^ ^^ upper shelf of the first compartment are 

81. specimens of The de Montagne, the plant of Litho- 
spermum officinale, L., dried and used as tea in the 
Pyrenees. 

Bindweed Order (Convolvidaceae), Usually twin- 
ing herbs or shrubs, with handsome plaited corollas, 
abundant all over the tropics. Represented in Britain by 
the common Bindweeds. The roots commonly possess an 
acrid and purgative juice. 

No. 376. Vera Cruz Jalap, the tubers of Ipomoea 
Piirga, Hayne, a well-known drug, named Jalap from 
Xalapa, a city of Mexico, near to which the plant grows. 
This species is the principal source of Jalap. Specimens 
are also shown of Tampico Jalap (/. simulans, Han- 
bury), and of Orizaba or Male Jalap (/. orizahensisy 
Led.). During the year 1905, 119 tons of Jalap of the 
value of £3,948 passed through Vera Cruz for export. 

No. 377. Sweet Potato. The tubers of Ipomoea 
Batatas, Poir. Extensively cultivated in all tropical coun- 
tries, although not known in a wild state. The tuber 
contains much starch and saccharine matter. In the 
Azores it is largely cultivated for the distillation of 
alcohol which is exported to Lisbon. 



155 

Models of tubers, sliced tubers, and starch obtained from CASE 
them are shown. 81. 

Note also tubers of the KUMARAH {Ipomoea chrysor- 
rhiza, Hook, f.), of the natives of New Zealand ; 
probably a variety of the last. 

No. 378. SCAMMONY, a gum-resin obtained from the 
roots of Convolvulus Scammonia, L., a native of Asia 
Minor and Syria. It is chiefly exported from Smyrna and 
Aleppo, and is employed in medicine as a cathartic and 
vermifuge. Scammony is very frequently adulterated by 
the collectors, who mix with it carbonate of lime, wheat 
flour, sand, black lead, and other substances. Specimens 
of the root and of different qualities of Scammony are 
shown. 

Nightshade Order (Solanaceae). A large and widely 
distributed group of herbs and shrubs, most abundant 
between the tropics, characterised by dangerous and 
narcotic properties. Familiar representatives are the 
Potato, Tomato, and Tobacco. 

No. 379. Tomatoes, the fruits of Lycopersicum 
esciilentum, Mill. A plant probably of Mexican or South 
American origin ; commonly cultivated as an esculent. 

Observe fruits of the Brinjal, or Aubergine {Solarium 
Melongena, L.), a plant largely cultivated in hot countries. 
The fruits, which are more or less egg-shaped, varj' con- 
siderably in size and colour, being either white, yellow, 
violet, purple, or nearly black. They are very highly 
esteemed in France, and are sometimes seen in the 
markets in this country. 

Note also stems and herb of the Bitter-Sweet, or 
Woody Nightshade (Solanum Dulcamara^ L.), a well- 
known hedge plant in this country ; used in medicine 
in the form of decoction, in rheumatic or cutaneous 
aflections. 

On an upper shelf of the first compartment of this Case CASE 
observe edible tubers, and models of tubers, of Solanum 82. 
Maglia, Schlecht., native of Chili. This species is under 
experimental cultivation in this country. 

Observe a large series of models of Potatoes {Solanum 
tuberosum, L.) 



156 

CASE The next compartment is chiefly devoted to illustrations 
82. of the uses of the Potato, our most important esculent. 

No. 380. Plant of Potato, showing the tubers to be an 
altered (thickened) condition of subterranean stems. It is 
a native of Chili, and is represented by nearly allied 
forms in the South- Western States of America. The 
potato was brought first to Great Britain in 1563. It w^as 
not, however, till late in the 18th century that it became 
popular. In the wild state the tubers are very small, 
seldom exceeding the size of a walnut. Specimens of 
these are shown in the second compartment. Observe 
British Gum or Dextrine, an altered product of potato 
starch, used for postage stamps ; STARCH or English 
arrowroot, syrup and sugar from potatoes ; dried com- 
pressed potatoes. 

The potato is very liable, especially in hot and damp 
seasons, to attacks of disease caused by a fungus known 
as Phytophtliora infestans, De Bary. A drawing is ex- 
hibited showing the progress of the disease in a potato 
leaf. Note also specimens and description of Colorado 
Potato Beetle {Doryphora Decemlineata^ Say.), a 
potato pest of North America. 

Observe fruits of TREE TOMATO {Gyphomandra hetacea^ 
Sendt.), a shrub or small tree, native of Peru, cultivated 
in the South of Europe, West Indies, and other warm 
countries. When ripe the fruit is eaten for dessert and 
is also made into a preserve. 

Also fruits of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana, 
L.), a native of Tropical America and cultivated in India 
and other parts for the fruits which are eaten raw or 
made into a preserve. 

No. 381. Capsicums and Chillies, the acrid biting 
fruits of Capsicum annuum, L., and C. frutescens, L., 
respectively, cultivated in all hot countries for use as a 
condiment. 

Cayenne Pepper consists of the pulverised rind or 
skin and is chiefly prepared from the smaller fruits known 
as Bird-peppers or Chillies. The latter are regularly 
imported into this country, chiefly from Zanzibar and 
Sierra Leone for medicinal purposes, and for use as a 
condiment. 



157 

The upper portion of the first compartment of this Case CASE 
contains Capsicum fruits from South America. 83. 

Observe also fruits of Panirband ( Withania coagulans^ 
Dun.), a small undershrub of Northern India and 
Afghanistan, where the fruits are employed by the natives 
to coagulate milk instead of using rennet, to which they 
object on religious grounds. 

Specimens are also shown of Mandrake root {Man- 
dr agora officinarum, L.). It was known to the ancients, 
and credited with many virtues, on account of the 
supposed resemblance of the root to the human figure. 

No. 382. Deadly Nightshade (Atropa Bella- 
do7ina, L.). A dangerous powerful narcotic poison^ 
usefully employed in medicine. It is an herbaceous 
plant, with solitary, lurid flowers, and violet-black berries, 
on short stalks, springing from the bases of the rather 
large ovate leaves. Found in waste places, often near old 
buildings, in England and on the Continent. Leaves and 
cigars made from them, also root and extract, as well as 
the alkaloid atropine, are exhibited. 

No. 383. Thorn Apple or Stramonium (Datura 
Stramonium^ L., and allied species), a poisonous narcotic 
used in medicine. The leaves, fruits, and extract are 
shown. 

No. 384. Henbane {Hyoscyamus niger, L.). A 
viscid and hairy weed, growing in waste places about 
villages, with a dingy yellow flower, veined with purple. 
It is used in medicine as a sedative and substitute for 
opium, and is cultivated near Banbury in Oxfordshire, as 
well as in Surrey, Herts, Bedfordshire, and Cambridge- 
shire. The plant is known under two forms, annual and 
biennial. The latter produces in the first year only a 
large tuft of spreading radical leaves, and is preferred for 
medicinal purposes, an extract being prepared from the 
leaves. 

Observe foliage of PiCHi (Fabiana imbricata, R. & P.), 
a small shrub of Peru. It has been found useful as a 
diuretic and for the treatment of kidney diseases. 

The remainder of this Case is devoted to TOBACCO, the 
dried leaves of species of Nicotiana (N. Tabacum^ L., and 



158 

CASE N, rustica, L.), both of American origin. During the 

83. year 1905, the total imports of Tobacoo, manufactured and 
unmanufactured, into the United Kingdom, amounted to 
about 87,000,000 lbs., of the value of over £3,000,000. By 
far the greater proportion of the Tobacco consumed in the 
United Kingdom, is the produce of the United States. 
From Cuba, the Northern provinces of South America, 
Manila, Borneo, &c., further supplies are obtained. 

The peculiar and characteristic narcotic principle of 
Tobacco, is developed in the leaf after it is collected, by a 
fermentative process, promoted by moistening it with 
syrup or brine. Latakia tobacco, specimens of which are 
shown in this Case, derives its peculiar aroma from the 
fact of its being dried over the smoke of the burning 
wood of Queyxus Mobur. 

The last compartment of this Case contains various 
forms of Tobacco including samples from Persia, China, 
Japan, and Fiji. 
CASE The whole of this Case is devoted to Tobacco. 

84. Observe in the first compartment samples from Manila, 
Borneo, Sumatra, &c., and in the second division various 
forms of Indian and Ceylon Tobacco and cigars. 

Of the samples exhibited in the last compartment note 
specimens from Africa and commercial forms from 
America. 
CASE The exhibit of Tobacco is continued in this Case. On 

85. the upper shelves of the first compartment note specimens 
from the West Indies. 

No. 385. English-grown Tobacco, and cigars made 
from the leaf, also samples of manufactured Tobacco from 
plants grown in Ireland. 

Observe also in this Case various specimens of cut 
Tobacco, Cigars, Snuff, and a Water-pipe, as commonly 
used in China for smoking tobacco. 

The last compartment contains a collection of Tobacco 
Pipes from various parts of the world. 

No. 386. PiTURl. The broken leaves and twigs of 
Duhoisia Hopwoodi^ F. Muell., a bush or small tree found 
in the barren deserts from the Darling River to Western 
Australia. Pituri leaves are chewed by the natives as a 
stimulating tonic to strengthen them in long journeys, or 



159 

to give them courage in warfare. Observe dilly bags as CASE 
used by the natives for carrying Pituri ; they are made in 85. 
North Queensland from the split young leaves of Pan- 
danus aquaticus^ F. Muell. 

The Australian Case on the opposite side contains a 
large series of Drift fruits and seeds from the shores of 
the Wesf Indies, Ecuador, Keeling Islands, Solomon 
Islands, Fiji, New Guinea, Java, &c. 

Ground Floor. 

Figrwort Order (Scrophularineae)y a numerous family, CASE 
with a wide distribution, but few are prominent in 86. 
economic use. Several are highly valued as ornamental 
flowers, as Calceolaria, Pentstemon, and Paulownia. 

In the first compartment of this Case observe MuLLBIN 
{Verhasciim Thapsus, L.), a widely distributed plant, 
found in waste dry places. The leaves were formerly 
used in this country in domestic medicine in catarrh, and 
the wool for lamp wicks. The stems are occasionally 
used as walking sticks, specimens of which are shown. 

Also herb of the FiGWORT {Scrophularia 7iodosa, L.), 
found in damp woods and thickets, and formerly employed 
in this country in medicine, as a purgative and emetic. 

Specimens of the wood, fruits, and oil from the seeds 
of Paulownia imperialis, Sieb. and Zucc, are exhibited 
on the lower shelves. The wood is much valued by the 
Japanese for making boxes ; one is exhibited. 

Observe also flowers of Lyperia atropurpurea, Bth., 
from the Cape of Good Hope, used both in medicine, and 
for producing an orange dye. 

No. 387. Foxglove {Digitalis purpurea, L.). A 
tall and handsome plant, frequent in hedges in Britain. 
A powerful poison, used in medicine as a sedative and 
diuretic. The stems are occasionally used as sunshade 
handles. 

Observe rhizomes of KUTKI {Picrorhiza Kurroa, Royle), 
a small plant of the Alpine Himalaya, employed in Indian 
medicine as a bitter tonic and antiper iodic. 

Also Culvers root ( Veronica virginica, L.), a native 
of the Eastern United States, where it is used in medicine 
as an emetic and cathartic. 



160 

CASE Near this are specimens of The d'Europe and The 

86. DE Mont Cbnis, the first is composed of the leaves of 
Veronica officinalis^ L., and the second of those of V, 
A/lioniif Vill. ; both are used as medicinal teas. 

Note also herb of the Eyebright (Euphrasia 
officinalis, L.), a British plant, found in meadows and on 
heaths. It is astringent, and was formerly used in the 
preparation of an eye wash. 

Broom-rape Order (Orobanchaceae), characterised 
by parasitical habit, browm colour, and absence of other 
than mere scale-like leaves. 

No. 388. Mounted specimens of Broom-RAPE 
{Orohanche minor, Sutt.), showing its parasitism on 
Clover and on Garden Pelargonium. 

Trumpet-flower Order (JBz^nony'ac^ae), characterised 
by twining or climbing stems, often bearing divided 
leaves and magnificent flowers. They are mainly inter- 
tropical. Note the beautiful membrane-like wing, often 
of curious microscopic structure, surrounding the seeds of 
several species of the Order. 
CASE The first division of this Case contains chiefly mounted 

87. fruits and seeds of various species of Bignonia, Adeno- 
calymma, Pithecoctenium^ &c. 

No. 389. Red Pigment, prepared from the leaves of 
the Chic A {Bignonia Chica, H. & B.), used by the 
Indians of South America as a paint for their bodies. 

In the next compartment of this Case are pods, seeds, 
wood and bark of Oro.rylon indicum. Vent., a small 
deciduous tree, found throughout India. The fruit and 
bark are used for tanning and dyeing, and the winged 
seeds as a lining for hats and for making umbrellas ; for 
the latter purpose they are placed^between two layers of 
wickerwork. 

In the last compartment observe wood of Tecoma 
leucoxylon, Mart., from the West Indies, also West 
Indian Boxwood {Tahehuia pentaphylla, Hemsl.). 
Both woods are hard and even grained. Sometime since 
the latter was proposed as a substitute for boxwood, for 
engraving purposes. This w^ood is exported in consider- 



able quantities from Maracaibo to the United States, under CASE 
the name of Maracaibo Boxwood. 87. 

The first two divisions of this Case contain chiefly CASE 
fruits, and woods, of species of Spathodea^ Dolichandrone, 87a. 
Heterophragma and Stereosjjermum^ from India and 
Burma. 

No. 390. Calabashes, the shells of the fruit of 
Crescentia Gujete, L., a tree of the West Indies and South 
America, applied to various domestic purposes, and often 
carefully carved or painted. 

No. 391. Woody fruits of species of Kigeliay from CASE 
Mauritius, Abyssinia, &c. 88. 

Sesamum Order {Pedalineae), A small group of 
herbaceous plants distributed over the tropical and sub- 
tropical regions of the New and Old Worlds. 

No. 392. Remarkably armed fruits of Marty nia 
diandra^ Glox., and of M. fragrans^ Lindl. 

The rind of the fruit of the latter species is used by the 
Pima Indians of Arizona for basket work. Strips prepared 
for plaiting and a basket ornamented with them are shown. 

No. 393. Fruits of the Grapple Plant {Harpago- 
phytum procumbenSf DC), from South Africa. 

No. 394. Seeds of Sesamum, Beni, Benne, Til or 
GiNGELLY (Sesamum indicum^ L.), an annual, cultivated 
in warm countries, especially in Asia Minor for European 
demand, for the sake of the valuable — 

No. 395. Oil of Sesamum or Gingelly Oil, 
expressed from the seed. It is " the Oil " of India, where 
it is universally used in cooking, anointing, for soaps, &c. ; 
in England it is used chiefly in soap-making, and to burn 
in lamps, and also for mixing with olive oil. In France 
and Italy cold drawn oil of Sesamum is used for salads, and 
in Japan and China the lampblack used in making the 
best Chinese ink is obtained by burning Sesamum oil. 

Acanthus Order (Acanthaceae), A tribe of plants 
chiefly tropical, including, besides many weeds, some very 
beautiful hothouse species ; but few have any economic 
value. 

25782 I» 



162 

CASE Observe Room or Maigyeb, a blue dye (indigo) 

88. produced by Strohilanthes flaccidifolius^ Nees, a shrub of 
North and East Bengal, extending from Assam into South 
China, where it is thought finer than the blue dye 
obtained from any other plant. 

Note also stems of the Kariyat (Andrographis 
paniculata^ Nees), a plant common in dry, shady places in 
nearly all parts of India and Ceylon, and introduced into 
the Mauritius and West Indian Islands. It has bitter, 
tonic and stomachic properties similar to Chiretta and 
Gentian, with the former of which it has been confounded 
in Indian medicine. 

Observe flowers, leaves, and wood of Adhatoda Vasica^ 
Nees, a small shrub of India, Burma, and Malaj'a. The 
leaves yield a yellow dye, but their chief use is as a 
dressing for rice-fields, as they seem to have the power of 
killing aquatic weeds. An infusion of them is also used 
as an insecticide. The wood is employed for charcoal for 
making gunpowder. 

Note specimens of root of Tong-PANG-Chong {Rhina- 
canthus commu7iis, Nees), used in India and China in the 
treatment of ringworm and other cutaneous diseases. The 
plant is universally known in Lower India as N AGAMULLIE. 

Note a few products of a minor character belonging to 
the small order Myoporineae, an order of shrubs and 
small trees, chiefly Australian. 

Vervain Order ( Verhenaceae), A large Order widely 

distributed over the New and Old Worlds, but most 

abundant within the tropics ; some of the species furnish 

valuable timbers. 

CASE Observe wood of Petitia domingensiSy Jacq., from the 

89. West Indies where it is one of the woods known as 
FiDDLEWOOD, the name being a corruption of Bois-fidele, 

No. 396. Teak (Tectona grandis, L.). A deciduous 
tree attaining a height of 120 to 150 feet, with a girth of 
20 to 25 feet. Native of India, Burma, and the Malay 
Archipelago. This is the chief export timber of India 
and Burma, and it is also exported from Java, where there 
exist large plantations of great value. Once seasoned, 
Teak-wood does not split, warp, or alter its shape ; its 
principal value is its great durability. It is one of the 



163 

most useful timber-trees, for ship and railway-carriage CASE 
building. In India the wood is used for house building, 89« 
bridges, railw^ay-sleepers, &c., and in Burma it is 
extensively used for carving. 

Various ^ specimens are shown including a musical 
instrument and screen, carved in it. 

No. 397. Teak, quite sound, from Salsette in Bombay, 
supposed to be 2,000 years old. 

The rest of this Case is devoted to species of Premna 
and GmeMna, from India and Burma. 

The first compartment of this Case is devoted chiefly to CA.SE 
specimens of woods and fruits of species of Vitex. 90. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment are 
woods of Avicennia nitiday Jacq., from British Guiana, 
and A, officinalis^ L., from Queensland. They are some- 
times known under the name of White Mangrove, in 
consequence of their growing in tidal estuaries near the 
sea coast. 

Labiate Order (Ldbiatae). A large and well-marked 
group of about 3,000 species, prevailing in dry situations 
in the warmer temperate regions. Marked botanically by 
the four-angled stem, opposite dotted leaves, whorls of 
lipped (labiate) flowers, often of great beauty, as in Salvia^ 
and a deeply four-lobed dry fruit. The order is devoid 
of hurtful properties. Many species are highly fragrant 
Jand aromatic, as Sage, Pennyroyal, Lavender, Peppermint, 
Marjoram, &c., specimens of which, with many essential 
oils, are here exhibited. 

Observe rosaries made of beads turned from the roots of 
TOOLSI {Ocimum sanctum^ L.) a plant cultivated through- 
out India, sacred to Vishnu and held in great veneration. 
The beads are worn round the necks and arms of the 
Vishnu Brahmins. In North Queensland the leaves are 
crushed in water which is drunk by the natives in fever 
.and sickness ; dried, the white people make ' bush tea * 
of them. 

Note also seeds of Hyptis spicigeray Lamk., an annual ; 
probably a native of America, but also widely spread in 
Tropical Africa. The seeds have been occasionally 
imported into this country, both from the East and West 
African Coasts, as oil seeds. 



164 

CASE Near these are shown tubers of Plectranthiis madacfas- 

90. cariensis, Bth., and of Coleus parvijiorus^ Bth., the former 

occasionally cultivated in Madagascar and Mauritius as an 

article of food, and the latter in Java for the same 

purpose. 

No. 398. Lavender Oil is distilled from the flowers 
of Lavandula vera, DC. A native of the South of France, 
Spain, North Italy, and other parts of the Mediterranean, 
It is cultivated extensively in the neighbourhood of 
Mitcham in Surrey, as well as in Lincolnshire. The oil 
distilled from the plants grown at Mitcham is considered 
the finest quality, and fetches the highest price. It is 
chiefly used in perfumery. 

No. 399. Patchouli, the essential oil of Pogostemon 
Heyneanus, Bth. [P. Patchouli, Pell.], a plant of India. 
A powerful perfume, not so much used in this country at 
the present day as formerly. 

No. 400. Japanese Paper, steeped with " Yegoma," 
oil, obtained from the seeds of Perilla ocymoides^ L., made 
to imitate leather, and used for walls of rooms, book- 
binding, &c., also for water-proof papers for windows, 
umbrellas, &c. Seeds of P. ocymoides, L., and oil 
expressed from them in Japan, are shown. 

Observe herb of PENNYROYAL {Mentha Pulegium, L.), 
carminative and stimulant. Spearmint (If. viridis, L.), 
also used as a carminative, as well as for flavouring. Oil 
is distilled from this plant chiefly in the United States, 
where it is used as a perfume by soap makers. 

On a lower shelf are specimens of Japan Peppermint 
(Mentha arvensis, L. var.), and oil. Also Menthol, or 
Peppermint Camphor, the crystalline portion of the oil, 
used in neuralgia and as an antiseptic. 

No. 401. Peppermint (Mentha piperita, L.)- A 
well known perennial, a doubtful native of this country, 
but extensively cultivated for medicinal purposes in the 
neighbourhood of Mitcham, Lincoln, Cambridge, and 
Herts. Two forms of Peppermint are cultivated at 
Mitcham, one known as the Black Mint, and the other the 
White Mint, both of which are forms of M. piperitay var. 
officinalis. The white yields the best oil. Peppermint is 



165 

largely grown in America, France, Germany, Russia, &c, CASE 
It possesses aromatic properties, and the oil is used in 90. 
medicine, cordials, lozenges, &c. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment of this CASE 
Case are specimens of Sweet Marjoram {Origanum 91. 
Marjorana, L.), of Thyme {Thymus vulgaris^ L.), and on 
a lower shelf Sage, the foliage of Salvia officinalis, L., 
all culinary herbs. 

Note also Phaskomylia Tea, the leaves and twigs of 
Salvia triloha^ L., as sold in Athens ; also Sage Apples, 
galls formed on S, triloba from the puncture of Cynips 
Salviae, eaten as fruits at Athens. Observe also Chia 
SEEDS {Salvia Columhariae^ Bth.), used in North America 
in the preparation of a mucilaginous drink. 

The adjoining shelves contain specimens of the dried 
plants of Rosemary {Rosmarinus officinalis, L.), w^hich 
yields an oil used in perfumery and medicine, both in 
this country and in India. 

Observe also AMERICAN HORSE MINT {Monarda 
punctata, L.). Employed in medicine in the United 
States of America as a stimulant and carminative. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment note 
Cat Mint {Nepeta Cataria, L.). It has tonic and anti- 
spasmodic properties and, like the last mentioned, is used 
medicinally in the United States of America. 

Also HOREHOUND {Marrubium vulgare, L.), a tonic 
and aromatic stimulant, sometimes used in the form of 
tea or candied with sugar. 

Near this observe tubers of Crosnes or Chinese 
Artichoke {Stachys Sieboldii, Miq.). Introduced into 
this country in 1885 as a new esculent, and also cultivated 
in France for the Paris markets. 

Plantagro Order {Plantagineae). A small order of 
herbs widely spread over the globe, but principally in the 
temperate regions of the Old World. 

No. 402. Ispaghul, or Spogel Seeds {Plantago 
ovata, Forsk.). An annual, found wild in North-western 
India, and cultivated for the seeds, which are of a greyish 
pink colour, and boat shaped. They have neither taste 
nor smell, but are extremely mucilaginous, yielding a 



166 

CASE thick jelly in water, and are highly valued in India for 

91. their demulcent properties. 

Marvel of Peru Order {Nyctagineae). A group of 
herbs, shrubs, or trees, natives chiefly of Tropical 
America. The order has but little economic value. 

Note roots of Boerhaavia repens, L., a widely distributed 
medicinal herb of India, Ceylon, &c. In India the roots 
are employed in the treatment of asthma, and as a laxative, 
diuretic, and anthelmintic. . 

In the order Illecehraceae note The Arabe or 
Algerian tea, the flowers of Paronychia argenteay 
Lam., and P. capifata. Lam., used as a medicinal tea in 
Algeria, and sold in Paris. 

Also Sergena Roots (Corrigiola littoralis, L.). They 
are dried in quantities at Arzilah, Morocco, for export as 
a dye. 

In the Amaranth Order (Amarantaceae) observe seeds' 
of Amarantlius paniculatus, L., and A. gangeticus^ L., 
cultivated throughout India and Ceylon for use as food. 

CASE Goosefoot Order (Chenopodiaceae). A group of 

92. herbaceous, weed-like plants, with insignificant flowers, 
growing in waste places all over the world ; least numerous 
in hot climates. Some, as Spinach and Orach, are used as 
pot-herbs. 

No. 403. Models of varieties of Beet-ROOT, red and 
white, of market gardens. All forms, originated under 
cultivation, from a native seaside plant Beta vulgains^ L. 

No. 404. Beet-root Sugar. Several varieties of 
Beet are cultivated in Europe and North America for the 
production of sugar. During the year 1905, 8,182,108 cwts. 
of unrefined Beet-root Sugar of the value of £4,368,867 
were imported into the United Kingdom from the 
Continent, of this quantity 5,510,108 cwts. came from 
Germany and 1,054,998 cwts. from Belgium. 

No. 405. Models of roots of Mangold Wurzel, a 
cultivated variety of the Beet {Beta vulgaris^ L.). 

In the next compartment observe specimen of SPINACH 
{Spinacia oleracea^ L.), prepared by Messrs. Chollet's 
process. 



167 

No. 406. QuiNOA. The farinaceous seeds of Cheno- CASE 
podium Quinoa, Willd., an important article of food on 92. 
the slopes of the Andes of Chili, Peru, and Central 
America. 

Note wood of the Sacsaoul {Haloxylon Ammodendron^ 
Bunge), a small tree, with the habit of a conifer, of 
Western and Central Asia in the Kizil-Koumi desert ; it 
forms small forests, and the wood, which is so dense as to 
sink in water, is prized for fuel and also yields a green 
dye. 

Note samples of Barilla, an impure carbonate of soda, 
formerly an article of considerable commercial importance 
in soap and glass making. It was obtained from the 
ashes of several species of Salsola principally S. Soda, L., 
a South European and North African species. One of the 
samples exhibited is from Spain, obtained from Halogeton 
sativuSy Moq. A mounted specimen of the plant is also 
shown. Near these observe a cake of Barilla prepared 
from Suaeda fruticosa, Forsk., at Bir Ahmed near Aden, 
also specimens of Barilla from Sind known under the 
name Kharsugi and believed to be derived from a 
species of Salsola. 

On the middle shelf are tubers of Ulliccus tuberosus, 
Caldas, cultivated in Peru and Bolivia under the name of 
OCA-QUINA as a regular article of food. 

Under the Poke- weed Order (Phytolaccaceae), 
observe sections of the stem of Phytolacca dioica, L., the 
Bella Sombra, an umbrageous tree of South America, 
introduced into Spain, where it is planted as a shelter in 
public promenades. 

Note also fruits and roots of P. decandra, L., a North 
American species, with emetic, cathartic and narcotic 
properties. 

Buckwheat Order (Polygonaceae), Mostly herba- 
ceous plants, marked by the membranous sheath at the 
base of the stalk of their alternate leaves. Widely 
diffused ; many are common and troublesome weeds, as 
the Dock and Knotgrass. 

On a lower shelf note abortive flowers of Phog 
(CaUigonum polygonoides, L.). Used in Afghanistan, 



168;- 

CASE Punjab, and Sind as an article of food, either made into 

92. bread or cooked with ghee. 

CASE In the first compartment of this Case observe roots of 

93. Bistort or Snakeweed {Polygonum Bistorta, L.), a 
perennial herb in moist or swampy meadows in this 
country. The root or rhizome is a powerful astringent, 
and was formerly used in tnedicine as a gargle and 
injection. 

Also note on the upper shelves specimens of CHINESE 
Indigo plant {Polygonum tinctorium, Ait.), known as 
Tjok in Corea, with samples of indigo prepared from it. 
The plant is also commonly cultivated in Japan, and is 
the source of Mandschurian Indigo. 

No. 407. Buckwheat {Fagopyrum esculentum^ 
Moench). Long cultivated on the Continent of Europe, 
and generally in temperate countries, for its farinaceous 
seeds, from which an excellent bread is made ; it forms a 
staple food of the inhabitants of the Himalaya and Central 
Asia. Often planted in Britain for feeding game and 
poultry. Its native country is probably Russia or Western 
Asia. Specimens of seeds are exhibited from Japan, East 
Indies, New Brunswick, &c. 

The seed husks are commonly used as a packing 
material. 

Samples of Kangra Buckwheat {Fagopyrum lata- 
ricum^ Gaertn., var. himalaica, Batalin.) are here shown. 
It is grown as a hill crop in Kulu and is very rich in 
nutrient constituents. The typical plant {F. tataricum^ 
Gaertn.) is cultivated throughout the Himalaya, at 
elevations of 3,C00 to 12,000 feet. 

No. 408. Rhubarb, an important medicine, valuable 
for its mild purgative properties. As it appears in com- 
merce it consists of the dried root deprived of more or 
less of its cortex, the bulk of the drug being derived from 
species of Rheum natives of China and Tibet, of which 
the following are the principal ; — 

1. Rheum officinale^ Baill., a striking plant, with a tall 
loose inflorescence of white flowers, 7 to 8 feet high, 
found in the mountainous district of the Szechuan- 
Tibetan border. From the latest information upon the 
subject it appears probable that the bulk of Ta Huang 



169 

or Medicinal Rhubarb exported from China, by sea to CASE 
foreign countries, is the produce of this species. M. 93. 
officinale was first grown in this country in 1873 by the 
late Daniel Hanbury, since which time it has been 
cultivated at Bodicote near Banbury, and the roots have 
found their way into commerce. 

12. Eheum palmatiim, L., var. tanguticum^ a large 
Perennial herb of the Western Alpine region of Western 
fcansuh, where it is also cultivated for the drug. This 
ipecies was first found wild in 1872-73 by Col. Przewalski 
n the Tangut district of Kansuh,the extreme north-western 
province of China, whence it was long known that 
the root was procured. This is probably one of the 
sources of the product, formerly known in commerce as 
Russian or Turkey Rhubarb. 

3. Rheum Rhaponticum^ L., a well-known species, 
cultivated in our gardens for the acid leaf stalk, used for 
culinary purposes, and generally called English Rhuba b, 
is a native 'of Southern Siberia, and is known to have 
been cultivated at Padua early in the 17th century, from 
whence it was brought to England, the first plant being 
raised about the year 1628. It is largely cultivated at 
Bodicote for medicinal purposes. Fine samples of 
Rhubarb of different qualities and from different countries 
are exhibited, also, roots of other species of Rheum, 
besides those mentioned above. 

During the year 1904, China exported to Europe and 
America 9,648 cwts. of this drug, of the value of £14,044. 
Observe on a lower shelf of the middle compartment 
of this Case roots of Canaigrb or GONAGRA {Rujnex 
hymenosepaluSf Torr.), a plant found abundantly in the 
sandy soil of both sides of the Rio Grande, and northward 
over a large portion of Western Texas and New Mexico. 
The roots are much used as a tanning material and 
contain a large proportion of tannin. 

In the next compartment note fruits and wood of the 
Seaside Grape of Jamaica {Coccoloha uvifera, L.). 
When ripe the fruits are edible, but very astringent. The 
wood is used for fancy work and takes a fine polish. 

Podostemon Order {Podostemaceae), moss-like plants 
: growing in fresh water, chiefly in tropical countries. 



17a 

CASE Some fine specimens of Hydrostachys imbricata^ A. Juss., 

93. from Madagascar, are here shown. 

No. 409. Salt, called Caarura^ from the Uapes 
branch of the Amazon. Prepared from a Podostemacea. 

CASE Pepper Order (Piperaceae). A large family of jointed 

94. herbs or shrubby plants, with minute flowers borne on 
spikes. They grow in the hottest countries of the globe, 
chiefly Tropical America and India. Many species are- 
pungent and aromatic. 

On the upper shelves of the first compartment observe 
African Cubebs (Piper Clusii, C. DC), and Ashanti 
Pepper or Dojvie (Piper guineense, Schum. & Thonn.). 
The fruits of both species are employed by the natives of 
the West Coast of Africa as condiments. Note also 
Cubebs, dried fruits of Piper Cubeba^ L. fil., and Cubeb 
oil and Cubebine used in medicine. 

No. 410. PEPPER; Black and White. The fruit 
of Piper nigrum, L., a climbing Indian shrub, cultivated 
in India, Straits Settlements, Malaya and elsewhere in the 
tropics. Black Pepper consists of the dried unripe 
berries ; White Pepper is the ripe fruit deprived of its 
rind by macerating. Various specimens of both Black 
and White Pepper are exhibited. 18,563,635 lbs. of 
Pepper of the value of £481,371 were imported into the 
United Kingdom in 1905. Nearly half of this quantity 
came from the Straits Settlements. 

Observe Long-Pepper, the dried unripe fruit-spikes of 
Piper Ghaba, Hunter, and P. longum, L., Indian shrubs. 

No. 411. Matico. The coarse leaves of A^er an^i^s- 
tifoliiim, R. and P., a Peruvian shrub, used as a mild 
aromatic. A portion of the leaf or the leaf reduced to 
powder is very effectual in arresting haemorrhage. 

No. 412. Kava root (Piper methysticum^ Forst.), 
used in the Society and South Sea Islands, in the prepa- 
ration of a beverage, prepared by chewing the root and 
ejecting the saliva into large bowls, in which it is fer- 
mented, &c. In the Society Islands the plant is cultivated 
with great care, the root, which is dried and looks 
something like very large horse-radish, is pounded 



171 

between two stones ; it is then put into a wooden bowl 
(which after long use acquires a bluish, almost iridescent 
glaze, and is then much prized) and water is poured upon 
it ; it is then kneaded and the disintegrated debris is 
finally removed by drawing a bundle of Pandanus fibre 
through the liquor, which is then fit for drinking. It is 
slightly -intoxicant or narcotic and tastes like soapsuds ; 
but the taste for it seems to be easily acquired and it is 
said to quench the thirst better than any other liquid. In 
Samoa and elsewhere in the Pacific the root is cut into 
small pieces, and masticated into a paste before the 
addition of water. 

The active properties of Piper methysticum appear to 
be due to a resin, which like Cocaine, produces local 
insensibility. 

Note Kava Bowls from Samoa and Fiji. 

Nutmeg: Order (Myristiceae). Evergreen trees con- 
fined to the tropics, often characterised by their red viscid 
juice and aromatic properties. 

Observe fruits and seeds of various species of Myristica 
occasionally imported into Liverpool as oil seeds, amongst 
them M. surinamensis, Roland, M. angolensis, Welw., 
M, guatefnalensis, Hemsl. Butter obtained from seeds of 
M. Otoha^ H.B., from Antioquia, and seeds, mace and 
butter from M. malaharica^ Lam., from India. 

No. 413. Nutmegs, the seeds of if 2/r^sh'ca/ra^rans, 
Houtt. A beautiful tree of the Moluccas, scattered also 
in other islands of the East Indian Archipelago, and 
introduced into Mauritius, West Indies, and South 
America. The fruit of the nutmeg, which resembles a 
Peach, consists of a fleshy exterior, which is edible and 
splits into two, disclosing the solitary seed or nutmeg 
surrounded by the scarlet aril, which latter is the spice 
called Mace. Specimens preserved in fluid show the 
entire fruits, some of which are partly open, exhibiting 
the shell of the nutmeg and the Mace covering it. 

Other species allied to M. fragrans yield inferior Nut- 
megs. Observe instrument used in Banda for gathering- 
nutmegs from the trees. "By far the largest supply of 
nutmegs are derived from the Banda Islands. These are 
all at first shipped to Batavia." 



172 

During 1904, 433,432 lbs. of Nutmegs and 155,856 lbs. 
of Mace were exported from Java. The principal 
consumption of nutmegs is as a condiment, but they are 
also used in medicine for their aromatic and stimulant 
properties. 

No. 414. Concrete Oil OF Nutmeg, obtained in the 
Moluccas, from the seeds, by heat and pressure. 

Pitcher-Plant Order {Nepenthaceae). A small but 
strange group of plants of South-Eastern Asia, especially 
remarkable for the prolonged midrib of the leaf, which 
is hollowed in the form of a pitcher and surmounted by a 
lid-like expansion. " Pitchers " of several species are 
exhibited ; among them Nepenthes Rajah^ Hook, f., the 
largest known ; N. Edwardsiana, Low ; N. sanguinea, 
Ldl. ; iV. Lowii, Hook, f., and N. khasicma, Hook. f. 

On the upper shelves of the jBrst compartment of this 
Case note pitchers of several species of Nepenthes includ- 
ing N. Northiana^ Hook, f . 

Under the RafOlesia Order (Cytinaceae), which 
consists of fleshy herbs parasitic upon the roots of other 
plants, observe Cytinus Hypocistis, L., the only European 
representative. 

No. 415. Flowers of Rafflesia (R. Patma^ Bl., and 
R. Arnoldi, Br.). Of the latter, the largest flower in the 
world, see a model in wax, in a table-case, near Case 81 
on the middle floor ; it is a native of Sumatra, and consists 
of a flower alone, which grows parasitically on the trailing 
stems of a kind of vine. 

Birthwort Order (Aristolochiaceae)^ natives of the 
tropical parts of both hemispheres, with bitter and acrid 
properties. 

Observe ASARABACCA LEAVES {Asarum europaeum, 
L.), formerly used as a purgative and emetic medicine. 

Also Alpam Root {Bragantia Wallichii, R. Br.), used 
for the treatment of snake bites in India. Specimens are 
also shown of GUACO, the roots of unknown species of 
Aristolochia from Central America, where they have a 
reputation for the cure of snake bites. [See also GUACO 
{Mikania amara), Willd., Case 67, p. 128.] 



173 

No. 416. Virginian Snake Root (AristolocMa CASE 
Serpentaria, L.), a native of moist fertile woods in the 96. 
United States of America. At one time it had a reputation 
for the cure of the bites of venomous serpents, as its 
common and specific names imply. It is now used as a 
stimulant tonic. 

Observe on the bottom shelf flower of AristolocMa 
gigasj L., var. Sturtevantii, modelled from a plant grown 
in the Royal Gardens. 

In the last compartment of this Case note the remark- 
ably large flower of AristolocMa Goldieana, Hook, f ., from 
West Tropical Africa, together with a photograph of the 
flower produced in the Royal Gardens. Also roots of 
Jamaica CONTRAYERVA (AristolocMa odoratissima^ L.), 
used both as an alexipharmic and vermifuge. 

Australian Sassafras Order (Monimiaceae)- 
Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers chiefly natives of South 
America, represented also in the Mascarene Islands, 
Tropical Asia, New Zealand and Australia. 

No. 417. BoLDO Leaves {Peumus Boldus, Molin.). 
The Boldo is a shrub 10 to 20 feet high, native of Chili, 
and frequently grown in gardens for the sake of the 
agreeably scented flowers and fragrant evergreen leaves. 
These leaves are used in medicine for the purpose of 
assisting digestion. The fruit is sweet and is eaten in 
Chili, and the bark is used for tanning. 

Observe bark of Atherospermcc moschatum^ Lab., a large 
tree of Victoria and Tasmania. The bitter aromatic bark 
is used for making a kind of tea. It affords an essential 
oil, two drops of which it is said will almost stay the 
heart's action. 

Note also wood of Dorypliora Sassafras, Endl., also a 
large tree, native of New South Wales. An infusion of 
the bark is used as a tonic medicine. Both these trees are 

known as AUSTRALIAN SASSAFRAS. 

Laurel Order {Lccurineae), Fine trees, principally 
of cool islands and mountain slopes within the tropics. 
But one species, the Sweet Bay Laurel, is native of Europe. 
The stamens are remarkable for the mode in which 
their anthers open, by little valves or doors, as in the 
Barberry, 



174 



In the first compartment note fruits of Gry]otocarya 
Peumus, Nees. They are cooked and used as food by the 
poorer natives of the province of Aconcagua, Chili. 

Observe wood of Taraire, (Beilschmiedia Tarairi, 
Bth. and Hook. t.=Nesodaphne Tarairi, Hook, f.), and 
Tawa {B. Tawa, Bth. and Hook, f.), both large New 
Zealand trees. 

Near these are specimens of Massoy Bark (Massoia 
aromatica^ Becc), from the forests of Southern New 
Guinea ; the aromatic bark is an article of commerce 
amongst the Malays. 

On the lower shelves note woods of several species of 
Cinnamomiim, including O. Cecicodaphne, Meissn., which 
has a strong camphoraceous odour, C. iniinctum, Meissn., 
G. ohtusifolium, Nees, and (7. tavoyanum^ Meissn., from 
India and Burma. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment, speci- 
mens aro exhibited of the wood and bark of CASSIA 
Lignba or Cassia Cinnamon {Cinnamomum Tamala, 
Nees), an evergreen tree of India, where the aromatic bark 
is collected and sold under the name of Taj, as a 
substitute for, or as an adulterant of, true Cinnamon. 
The leaves are known as Tezpat or Tejpat and are used 
in medicine, and also to flavour curries. 

Note buds and bark of Cinnamomum iners^ Rwdt,, 
from the East Indies. This species is said to produce the 
Cassia Buds collected in Southern India. 

No. 418. Cinnamon, the bark of Cinnamomum 
zeylanicumy Br eyn., a, tree of Ceylon. Specimens of un- 
barked branches, affording the different qualities of this 
valuable spice, with the instruments used in peeling it, 
are exhibited, also a series of photographs illustrating the 
growth and preparation of Cinnamon in Ceylon. 871,642 
lbs. of Cinnamon of the value of £24,031 were imported 
into the United Kingdom in 1905. 

No. 419. Cassia Buds. The unripe fruits of Cmna- 
momum Cassia^ Bl., a tree of Southern China, used as a 
spice, chiefly in confectionery. 

Another Cassia Lignba, or Chinese Cassia as it Is 
sometimes called, is the bark of the tree that yields Cassia 
Buds. Specimens are exhibited, of different ages and 



1T5 

qualities, from Pakhoi and from Tai-wu and Luk-po in CASE 
Southern China. Cassia Bark is used in the same way ,9L 
as cinnamon, it is, however, more astringent. Note 
instruments used in collecting the bark, also samples of 
Cassia oil. 

No. 420. Camphor, obtained by distillation from 
the wood of Cinnamomum Camphora, Nees, a tree of 
Formosa, Japan and China. It is also cultivated in India 
and Ceylon. In the latter country successful experiments 
have recently been carried out for extracting Camphor 
from the leaves and twigs. Camphor of commerce is 
obtained from the root, trunk, and branches, broken up 
and heated with water in closed vessels, the volatilised 
Camphor being sublimed upon Rice-straw. It is further 
refined on its arrival in Europe. Samples of crude and 
refined Camphor are shown, also specimens of Camphor 
wood and Camphor oil. From this oil, Safrol, the prevail- 
ing ingredient of Oil of Sassafras Root [No. 423], is largely 
prepared in Germany. {See also Sumatra Camphor, 
Oase 11, No. 64, p. 24.) 

In the first compartment of this Case observe specimens CASE 
of the Muga, or Moonga silk and silkworms {Antheraea 98. 
assama^ Helf.). The insect feeds on the leaves of several 
Indian trees, amongst them Machilus odoratissima^ Nees, 
the wood of which is used for building purposes. 

No. 421. Avocado Pear, the fruit of Persea 
gratissima^ Gaert. Grown in Tropical America, the West 
Indies (where it is much esteemed), and in the Atlantic 
Islands. Note also the wood of this plant. 

No. 422. Nan-mu Wood {Persea Nanmu, Oliv.). 
This wood is highly esteemed by the Chinese on account 
of its great durability, and is employed by them for making 
€ofiRns, buildings, bridge work, book-cases, &c. A model 
of a cofi&n made from the wood is exhibited. 

Note wood, bark, and fruits of one of the trees known 
as Comino in Colombia {Aniha perutilis, Hemsl.). The 
wood is beautifully marked, and possesses exceptional 
qualities to recommend it for high class furniture and 
also for building purposes. 



176 

CASE On the lower shelves observe Stinkwood {Ocotea 

98. hullata, E. Mey.). A valuable South African timber, both 

strong and durable, and having a very disagreeable odour ; 

used for building purposes, wagon work, cabinet 

making, &c. 

On the outside of the Case is a large washing bowl cut 
from the solid trunk of a tree of Ocotea foetens, Bth. and 
Hook, f., from Madeira, It is the Til of the evergreen 
forests. 

No. 423. Root-bark, root, wood, and pith of Sassa- 
fras {Sassafras officinale, Nees). A fine tree of the 
United States and Canada. Used in medicine as an 
aromatic and sudorific. Sassafras owes its properties to a 
volatile oil, of which the root bark contains twice as much 
as the wood ; the prevailing constituent of this oil is 
Safrol. This oil is employed as a flavouring agent and 
for scenting soap. 

The wood is durable in contact with the soil and is 
largely used in North America for fencing and for 
cooperage. 

Observe PiCHURiM or PUCHURY BEANS {Nectandra 
Puchury, Nees). They are aromatic, and are used as a 
tonic and astringent and are occasionally imported into 
this country from Brazil. 

No. 424. Wood of the Greenheart {Nectandra 
Bodioei, Schk.), a remarkably hard timber, of British 
Guiana, highly valued for its strength and durability.. 
Note portions of old piles of this wood showing that the 
heart wood is not liable to attacks of Teredo. Note also- 
fruits of the Greenheart, and sulphate of Bebeerine. The 
bark occasionally enters commerce as Beberu or BiBiRir 
bark for use as a tonic medicine and comes from British 
Guiana. 

The next compartment contains chiefly fruits and woods 
of various species of Litsea. 

No. 425. Leaves and Fruit of the Sweet Bay 
{Laurits nobilis, L.). The classic Victor's Laurel, sacred 
to Apollo. A South European shrub. The aromatic 
leaves are employed in cookery. From the berries a green 
odorous oil is obtained, sometimes used in perfumery. 



177 

Observe also the filiform, or wiry twining stems of CASll 
species of Gassytha^ a group of leafless parasites found in 98. 
tropical regions. 

Protea Order {Proteaceae). Abounding in Australia 
and at the Cape of Good Hope, with a few outliers in 
India and South America. Termed Proteaceae from the 
extraordinary diversity in structure of their often 
beautiful inflorescence and of the fruit. They do not 
furnish many useful products. The wood, which seldom 
reaches a large size, is prettily marked by its peculiar 
"silver grain." Numerous specimens are exhibited in 
this Case, also in Case 99. 

. Note wood and fruits of the Silver tree {Leuca- 
dendron argenteum^ R. Br.), which in its native state is 
confined to a slope of the Table Mountain close to Cape 
Town. 

In the next compartment note wood and flowers of 
various species of Protea^ likewise from South Africa. 

On a lower shelf are specimens of the hard, heavy, 
and prettily grained wood, of Terblanz {Faurea salignaj 
Harv.), from Cape Colony and Uganda, 

No. 426. Wild Almonds, fruits of Brahejum 
stellatifolium^ L., a native of South Africa, where the 
seeds are eaten raw, and when roasted and ground, used 
as a substitute for coffee. 

Near these are the edible seeds of Gevuina Avellana 
Molina, from Santiago, and of the Queensland Nut 
{Macadamia ternifolia^ F. Muell.), The wood of the 
latter species is used in Australia for cabinet making, : 

shingles, staves, &c. 

Note also Wooden pears {Xylomelum pyriformCj 
Knight), so called from the extreme hardness and form of 
the fruits. 

. In the next compartment are. shown specimens of the 
■wood of the Silky Oak of Australia (GreviUea robusta^ 
A. Cunn.). A beautifully marked wood valued in the 
Colony for cabinet work and occasionally exported to this 
country for similar purposes. 

The remainder of this Case contains fruits and woods of 
various species of Hakea and Banksia from Australia. 

25782 M 



-J78 

CASE The first two compartments of this Case are mainly 
' 99. devoted to mounted cones and sections of woods of a large 

number of species of Australian Honeysuckle 

(BanTcsia), a genus endemic in Australia. 

Spurgre-Laurel or Lace-bark Order(Thymelaeaceae), 
A family of shrubby plants, with remarkably tenacious 
inner bark (liber) and caustic juice, represented in 
our gardens and greenhouses by Daphne Mezereum^ 
Pimelea, &c. 

In the last compartment of this Case observe specimens 
of bark of Mezereon (Daphne Mezereum^ L.). A slender 
straggling shrub, found in some parts of Britain and 
distributed throughout the sub-alpine districts of Europe. 
The bark which is very acrid is used in medicine, and for 
this purpose is imported chiefly from Germany ; near this 
are shown barks of the SPURGE Laurel (Daphne 
Laureola, L.), and SPURGE Flax (D. Gnidium, L.), used 
medicinally for the same purposes as D, Mezereum. 

No. 427. Fibrous bark of Daphne cannaUna, Wall., 
a tall evergreen shrub of the Himalaya and Khasia Hills, 
also "Half -stuff" and paper made from it, of various 
qualities and in different stages of manufacture. Nepal 
and Bhutia paper are made from this bark, which is also 
converted into rope for various purposes. 

Some models are shown illustrating the manufacture' 
of paper in India. Daphne paper is in common use in 
Northern India. It is extremely strong and durable, and 
the finer qualities are well suited for engravings. 
CASE On the upper shelves of the first compartment of this Case 
100. are specimens of the wood and bark of the BURN-NOSB 
or BONACE of Jamaica (Daphnopsis tini/olia, Griseb.). 
The inner bark is very fibrous, and is used for ropes, 
cordage, &c. 

Note also paper made in Japan from Edgworihia, 
Gardner if Meissn. Some of the finer kinds of NEPAL 
Paper are said to be manufactured from this plant, which 
is found in the Central and Eastern Himalaya and 
Bhotan. 

Specimens are also shown of paper made from. 
Wikstroemia viridijlora, Meissn., from Pakhoi, China. 



179 

No. 428. Stem, with the bark-layers partly turned CASE' 
back, of the Jamaica Lace-bark {Lagetta linteariay 100. 
Lam.), a tree of from 23 to 30 feet. The lace-layer is 
carefully removed through considerable lengths of the 
stem, and when pulled open made up in various orna- 
mental articles,— collars, purses, &c. 

, On the upper shelves of the next compartment, note 
fibrous bark of Lasiosiphon eriocephalus^ Dene. Also 
popes and paper pulp made from the bark which is also 
employed in India as a fish poison. 

No. 429. Eagle-wood or Lign-Aloes. The pro- 
duce of Aquilaria Agallocha^ Roxb., and A. malaccensisy 
Lamk. Both large evergreen trees, the first of Eastern 
Himalaya, Assam, Khasia and Martaban Hills and the 
latter of Malacca, Tenasserim and the Malay Islands. 
The woods are white, soft, and even grained, and when 
freshly cut give off a perfume. In the interior of old 
trees irregular masses of darker coloured and harder 
"wood are found, which are carefully removed and cleaned 
for commerce. These are known under the name Kayu 
Garu by the Malays and as Akyau by the Burmese. 

By some writers this substance is considered to be 
identical with the Aloes Wood of the Bible. 

Oleaster Order (Elaeagnaceae). Consisting of a few 
trees or shrubs with their leaves more or less covered, 
especially beneath, with minute silvery scales. They are 
chiefly Asiatic or European. 

No. 430. Trebizonde Dates, the fruit of Elaeagnus 
angustifolia^ L., a small tree widely distributed in 
Northern Asia, extending to Europe. The fruits are 
used as dessert, in the preparation of sherbet, and in 
Tarkand for the distillation of spirit. 

No. 43 1 . Buffalo Berries, the fruits of Shepherdia 
argentea^ Nutt., a somewhat spiny shrub of North 
America. In July and August it is sometimes loaded 
with bright red pellucid berries, which have the acidity 
and flavour of the red currants They are used for. making 
:^arts and preserves. ./;.. '\^! 



m 

CASE ' Mistletoe Order (Loranthaceae). A remarkable 

100. group of shrubs, almost invariably parasitical upon other^ 
plants, with leaves usually opposite, thick, and fleshy,. 
In tropical countries numerous species abound, some, 
"with large, brilliantly coloured flowers. These have not; 
yet been introduced into our hot-houses. In Europe, the:. 
Order is represented by the MISTLETOE ( Viscum album, 

L.). 

Observe gum of the Flame Tree {Nuytsia florihunday 
R. Br.), a tree endemic in Western Australia. 

Note on a lower shelf specimens of Flores db Palo 
or Wood Flowers from Guatemala. These curious 
growths are the matrices of dead Loranthus, and are 
occasionally offered for sale in this country as curiosities. 

CASE No. 432. Sections showing the mode of union which 

101. takes place between the wood of the Mistletoe and that of 
the Apple, Thorn, and Lime trees, upon which it 
generally grows. These parasites, frequently decaying 
after death, before the stock upon which they grow, leave 
curiously furrowed moulds or casts, answering to the 
space occupied by their attachment. 

Sandalwood Order (Santalaceae). Herbs, shrubs, 
3r trees, widely dispersed over the globe. 

Specimens are here shown of Sandwich ISLANDS 
Sandal- Wood (Santahmi Freycinetianum, Gaud.), and 
Fiji Sandal-Wood (5'. Yasi, Seem.). 

CASE iq-Q. 433. Boxes made of Sandal- Wood afforded by 

102. an Indian tree {Santalum album, L.). The wood is 
fragrant, and is used to burn as incense in temples and 
private houses. It is largely used for carving and for 
ornamental purposes. Observe samples of spotted wood, 
caused by. the growth of adventitious buds and known in. 
Kanarese as Naga or COBRA and Nawal kanu or 
Peacock's Eye. These woods are held in veneration 
by the Hindus. Note Sandal-wood oil used in perfumery 
and in medicine, also Chinese Joss-Sticks in part made> 
of Sandal- wood. Specimens are also shown of Australian 
Sandal-wood (Fusanusspicatus, R. Br., and F. acuntinatus^ 
R. Br.). The former yields the fragrant Sandal-wood 
of West Australia, while the latter has little or no 



I 



181 



perfume. Observe also the ornamental stones of the CASE 
fruit of this species, used for necklaces, bracelets, buttons, 102. 
&c. 

Also on a lower shelf observe leaves of BARK BosCH 
or Cape Sumach {Golpoon compressum, Berg.), a South 
African bush ; it is cut over every four or five years and 
used as sumac in tanning. It gives the peculiar bloom 
to leather characteristic of Sumac (see No. 164). 

Near this, note sample of Tea formed of the leaves of 
Osijris arborea^ WaW.^ from Kumaon. When specially 
prepared the leaves are said to smell remarkably like 
ordinary tea, but the infusion has powerfully emetic 
properties. 

BalanoplLora Order {Balanophoreae), Under this 
head are collected a few most anomalous plants of very 
different structure, agreeing in the absence of green 
colour and of leaves, and in their parasitism upon the 
stems and roots of other vegetables. 

Note specimens of Sarcophyte sanguinea, Sparrm.,, 
from South Africa. 

No. 434. Fqngus Melitensis, of the Old Writers 
(Gynomorium coccine.um, Michx.). It was valued by the 
Crusaders as a styptic, and was used in Malta as a remedy 
for dysentery. So highly indeed was it valued that the 
place where it grew was carefully guarded and "even 
up to a recent date the plant was gathered, and its growth 
secured by a person specially appointed to the office by 
the English Government." The plant grows in the 
Mediterranean region from the Canaries to Syria. 

No. 435. Candles made in Java from the wax 
secreted by Balanophora elongata^ Bl. 

Note on the lower shelves Balanophora fungosa, Forst., 
from North Australia. Also Cups used by the Himalayan 
tribes, Tibetans, &c., made from knots formed on the roots 
of Oaks, Maples, &c., by the parasitical Balanoplwra 
involucrata, Kook. t. Some of these, esteemed antidotes 
to poison, fetch a great price. 

The last compartment of this Case, as well as a portioijfc' 
of the first compartment of Case 103, contain further 
illustrations of plants of this Order. 



CASE Spurge Order (EuphorMaceae). A large family, 
' 103^. consisting of about 3,000 species, exhibiting great variety 
in floral structure, which is very imperfectly represented 
by our British Spurges. The order is widely diffused^ 
most abundant towards the Equator, especially in South 
America. Many contain a milky juice, which is often 
dangerously poisonous. Several species afford invaluable 
medicines ; some, after the removal of their venomous 
juice, yield excellent farina. 

Observe Queensland Asthma Herb (Euphorbia 
pihilifera, L.), a common weed in the tropics, employed as 
a remedy in asthma, bronchitis, and other diseases of the 
respiratory organs. Near this note Katti-mandu, the 
inspissated juice of Euphorbia trigona, Haw., employed 
in India for fixing knives into handles, and for similar 
purposes. 

On a lower shelf are wood and inspissated juice of 
Eup)horbia antiquorum^ L. The fresh juice is employed 
in medicine in India as a purgative and for the treatment 
of rheumatism and toothache. 

In the next compartment of this Case note specimens 
of iron coated with paint prepared from the gum of species 
of Euphorbia. The paint so prepared is said to be durable,, 
and a preservative against corrosion, and is used for ships' 
bottoms. Gum Euphorbium, an occasional article of 
import into this country, one of the ingredients used, is 
furnished by Euphorbia resinifera, Berg., a fleshy 
perennial plant of Morocco. It is obtained by making 
incisions in the plant, when the milky juice flows, and 
hardens on exposure to the air. It was formerly used as 
an emetic and purgative, but owing to its violent and 
dangerous action, it is now seldom employed, except in 
veterinary practice, and as a rubefacient and vesicant. 

' Specimens are also shown of the inspissated juice of 
EuphOi'bia TirucalU, L., a small tree, native of Africa, 
Cultivated in India and Burma as a hedge plant. This is 
probably the source of Almeidina, Potato Gum, or 
Cassoneira Gum, of Angola and Loanda, a poisonous 
gutta-like substance which Soon becomes brittle, but is* 
however believed to be employed as a substitute for Gutta 
iPercha in some industries. 



183 

No. 436. Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens, L.). A CASE 
well-known evergreen tree of Europe, growing in some 103. 
situations in Britain. Its dense, compact wood is 
admirably suited for the use of wood-engravers, for 
graduated scales, &c. Specimens of different qualities 
of boxwood are shown from Persia, Trebizonde, Anatolia, 
and of British growth ; also blocks prepared for wood 
engraving, one upon which the drawing has been made 
ready for engraving, and a finished engraved block, also 
shuttles, walking sticks, rules, &c. Russia and Persia are 
the principal sources of boxwood of commerce, but the 
supplies of late years have been decreasing. A hard even- ^ 
grained wood that would prove a perfect substitute for' 
boxwood has yet to be discovered. ■ 

Observe a specimen of Cape Boxwood furnished by 
Buxus Macowani, Oliv., a tree about 30 feet high, native 
of South Africa. 

The remainder of this compartment contains various 
Euphorbiaceous woods, mostly from the East. 

No. 437. Fruits of the Emblio Myrobalan CASE 
(Phyllanthus Emblica, L.), a moderate-sized tree of the : 104, 
Indian and Burmese forests. The fruits are edible, and 
are used for preserves, in medicine, and for dyeing and . 
tanning. The wood is durable, and is used for agriv: 
cultural implements, buildings, furniture, &c. 

Observe fruits and wood of Otahbitb Goosebbrry> 
(Phyllanthus distichus, Muell. Arg.), a deciduous tree of 
the East Indies. The fruits are acid and astringent, and' 
are used either in pickles, preserved with sugar, or in tarts. , 

On the lower shelf are specimens of bark of BiTTER' 
Bark or " Quinine Tree " {Petalostigma quadriloculare^, 
F. Muell.), introduced from Australia as a substitute foi? j 
Cinchona. 

It also yields a brownish-yellow dye. The wood is^ 
hard and fine-grained and useful for cabinet work. 1 

No. 438. African Oak or Teak {OldfieUia africana, 
Bth, and Hook, f.), from Sierra Leone. A fine, close- 
grained timber, formerly imported into this country for 
shipbuilding. At the present day this timber is hardly ' 
known in commerce. The " African Oak " now imported 
is the produce of Lophira alata, ^See Case 21.] 



QAS2 On the upper shelves of the next compartment of this 
104:. Case, note specimens of wood of Bischojia javanica, Bl., 
a deciduous tree of India, Burma, Malaya, &c. The 
timber is hard, heavy and durable, particularly in damp 
situations, and is recommended for pile foundations and 
railway sleepers. In Assam it is largely used for bridges 
and other works of construction. 

Note also KOKRA wood of Bengal (Aporosa Boxburghii, 
Baill.), a moderately hard and even-grained wood of a 
Hght red colour. The name KOKRA has occasionally been 
confounded with Cocus [See No. 186]. 

Observe fruits of Baccaurea racemosa, Maell. Arg. 
They are acid and eaten in Java. Also fruits of LUTQUA 
(B. sapida^ Muell. Arg.) ; these are eaten in India, and 
have an agreeable acid taste. The leaves are employed as 
a dye. Fruits are also shown of other edible species of 
Baccaurea^ including Rambeh (B, dulcis, Muell. Arg.), 
from the Malay Islands. 

On a lower shelf observe specimens of Antidesma 
Bunius^ Spreng., and of A, Ghaesembilla, Gaertn., small 
L trees of the East. The leaves and fruits of both species 

are eaten in India. 

Near these note large stones of fruits of Joannesia 
PrincepSy Veil. The fruit is about the size of an apple, 
and of an ash colour. The stones contain two seeds, 
which yield by expression a pale yellowish oil, used as a 
ciaithartic in Brazil. 

On the bottom shelf are seeds and oil from the Physic 
Nut (Jatropha Curcas^ L.), a bush or shrub of tropical 
America, but introduced into most tropical countries. 
The oil expressed from the seeds is a strong purgative. 
It is employed in medicine in India and is also used in 
the manufacture of soap and candles. 

On an upper shelf of the next compartment are seeds 
of Balucanat (Aleurites trisperma, Blanco), from the 
Philippines. Occasionally imported into this country 
as an oil-seed. 

No. 439. Fruits, seeds and oil from the TuNG Yu 
or Chinese Varnish Tree {Aleurites Fordii, Hemsl.). 
The oil known as WOOD Oil is an article of enormous 
consumption by the Chinese, who use it for caulking and 



18$ 

painting junks preserving wood work, varnishing OAsfe 
furniture, &c. 104. 

During the last few years large quantities of this oil 
have been exported from Hankow to European and 
American ports, by far the greater quantity going to 
America. Of ^54,501 piculs (the picul=133ilbs. avoir.) 
shipped from Hankow during the year 1905, 49,514 piculs 
i;vere absorbed by America. So far as can be gathered 
the applications of Wood Oil in the West are for the 
manufacture of linoleum, as a substitute for linseed in 
•other industries, and it is also believed to form the basis of a 
varnish to compete with that produced from Copal. The 
oil has poisonous properties, and the refuse cake is 
employed as manure in China. 

Note also fruits of Aleurites cordata^ R. Br., from 
Hong Kong. The seeds yield an oil similar to that of the 
last mentioned. 

No. 440. Candle-Nut or Country Walnut Oil, 
from the seeds of Aleurites triloba^ Forst., a handsome 
tree widely distributed in tropical countries. The seeds, 
strung upon a stick, are burnt as candles in the Sandwich 
Islands. When pressed they yield a large proportion 
of pure palatable oil. 

No. 441. Croton Oil, expressed from the seeds of 
Groton Tigliuw, L., a shrub of India and the Indian 
islands, a powerful purgative ; employed externally as a 
rubefacient. 

No. 442. Sweet Bark, or Cascarilla Bark 
(Croton Eluteria^ Benn.). It is a native of the Bahamas, 
is aromatic, bitter, and tonic, and was at one time used as 
a substitute for Cinchona. On account of its agreeable 
musky odour when burned it is used as an ingredient in 
fumigating pastilles. It is sometimes inserted in cigars to 
give a pleasant odour when smoked. 

Note COPALCHI Bark [Quina blanca of the Mexicans] 
{Croton niveus, Jacq.), "a shrub, native of Venezuela. 
This bark has bitter properties and is occasionally imported 
into Europe as a drug. 

No. 443. The whole of this Case is devoted to Para GAiSfe 
Rubber, the most important source of Rubber or 105. 



18^ 



i 



CASE Caoutchouc of commerce. It is obtained from incisions^ 
105. made in the trunk of Hevea hrasiliensis^ Muell. Arg., a 
large forest tree of Brazil, now extensively cultivated in 
Ceylon and the Straits Settlements. Various samples of 
the product are shown from Brazil, Ceylon, Straits 
Settlements, Burma, Gold Coast and Trinidad. Of the 
many forms from Brazil observe models of animals, 
bottles, &c., made by moulding the rubber over a clay 
base which was afterwards broken up and removed. This 
method of preparing the rubber for commerce is now 
obsolete. On the lower shelves of the middle compart- 
ment note a series of specimens to illustrate the industry 
in Brazil. Note (1) small axe for tapping the trees ; the 
milk falls into small bowls (2), whence it is poured into 
a collecting gourd (3), from which it is emptied into a large 
clay bowl (4). From the latter it is ladled with a cuia or 
calabash (5), and poured over the round blade of the 
paddle (6), which is then held in the smoke of the stove 
(7), the invariable fuel being Urucury nuts {Maximiliana- 
regia). This is the mode of production of the black 
rubber of commerce. Many of the numerous applications; 
of Caoutchouc, including those of hard vulcanised rubber 
for jewellery, &c., are here illustrated by a large series of > 
specimens presented by the India Rubber, Gutta Percha 
and Telegraph Company. 

The exports of rubber from Brazil during the year 1905 
amounted to 31,474 tons, of the value of £13,795,372*, 
The imports of rubber into the United Kingdom from' 
Ceylon during the same period were 60 tons 18 cwts., of 
the value of £34,594 ; and from the Straits Settlements) 
975 tons 14 cwts., of the value of £265,863. , >"• 

On the lower shelves of the last compartment of this ' 
Case are fruits, seeds, and rubber from other species of' 
Hevea including H. Spruceanci, Muell. Arg., from British 
Guiana, H. Benthamiana, Muell. Arg., and H. lutea, 
Ijlluell. Arg., from Brazil. Other important Caoutchoucs^ 
a^re afforded by species of Landolphia^ Carpodinus, &c., ' 
Case 75 ; Funtumia^ Case 78 ; Manihot^ Case 106 ; Sapiurrty. 
Case 108; FicuSy Case 114; and Castilloay Case 115. 

Q^;pP; Note on an upper shelf the dark green wood of Santal, 
i^»i Vert {Croton sp.) from Zanzibar. It is said to be- 



1^1 

exported from Zanzibar and Madagascar . into India, CASE 
where it is used for burning the bodies of Hindoos. XO^y 

No. 444. Figures carved in wood of Givotia 
rottleriformiSy Griff. The wood is exceedingly light, very- 
soft, but even-grained, and is much used in India for 
making toys as here shown. The seeds yield an oil 
valuable for lubricating fin6 machinery. > 

/I tr 
»,. ii. 

No. 445. Gbara or MANigOBA Rubber and specimen 
of the plant yielding the rubber (Manihot Olaziovii, 
Muell. Arg.), a South American tree, which has been 
introduced into India, Ceylon, and many other tropical 
countries. The tree grows rapidly and yields rubber of 
excellent quality. Of the specimens in the Case note a 
complete series of articles and photographs illustrating 
the cultivation and preparation of rubber in the Nilgiris. 
Specimens are also shown of the tuberous roots and starch 
prepared from them. 

No. 446. Cassava or Mandiocca Meal, obtained CASE 
from the root of two species of Manihot (M. utilissima, X07. 
Pohl, and M. palmata, Muell. Arg.) ; the former Bitter, 
the latter Sweet Cassava. 

The juice of Bitter Cassava, which contains Hydrocyanic 
(Prussic) acid, is highly poisonous. Cassava is grown 
chiefly in Brazil, Peru, and on the African Coast, — forming 
a main article of native food. The roots of Bitter Cassava, 
which are often large, weighing from 30 to 40 pounds, 
contain much farinaceous matter. They are grated after 
washing, the poisonous juice separated by pressure, and 
the residue made into thin cakes (No. 447), which are, 
baked. Prussic acid being volatile, the heat dissipates th« 
remaining poison. 

Observe Cassareep, the concentrated juice of Manihot 
roots rendered harmless by boiling. It is largely used in 
the West Indies for culinary purposes, and in this country 
as the basis for many table sauces. 

^ No. 448. Taptoca. A very pure form of Starch,^ 
"iyhich settles from the water employed to wash Cassava"^ 
ineal. It is granulated upon hot plates. A close imitation 
61 Tapioca is prepared from potato starch. 



18a 

6ASE ' No. 449. Mandiocca strainers. Long, cylindrical, 

107. plaited baskets in which the grated pulp is put after 
washing and pressed by torsion. 

No. 450. Mandiocca grater, studded with particles of 
granite, secured in the tough wooden frame by the viscid 
juice of Couma utilis, Muell. Arg., one of the Dogbanes. 
CASE Observe on an upper shelf of the first compartment of 

108. *^^^ ^^^^ mounted specimen of plant of Chrozophora 
plicataj A. Juss., a common weed in Indian Cotton fields, 
and sometimes known as Indian Turnsole, a purplish 
blue dye being obtained from the fruits. 

No. 451. Kamala. The red powdery substance 
obtained as a glandular pubescence from the exterior of 
the fruits of Mcdlotus philippinensis, Muell. Arg., a small 
evergreen tree of India, Ceylon, Malaya, &c. Kamala 
powder is extensively employed as an orange dye for 
silks, and in medicine as a vermifuge. The fruits, wood 
and bark are also exhibited. Both the bark and roots are 
r used for dyeing. Waras (Case 36) is sometimes. used as a 

substitute for Kamala. 

On a lower shelf observe Endi cloth made from silk of 
the Castor oil Silkworm (Attacus ricini, Boisd.), much 
used in Sikkim, Nepal, and Bhotan. Cocoons, moths, and 
raw silk made by the worm which feeds on the Castor oil 
plant are shown. 

No. 452. Castor Oil, obtained by pressure, either 
with or without some degree of heat, from the seeds of 
Ricinus communis, L., a native originally of India. It is 
now widely dispersed through tropical and warm 
countries. Known from antiquity as a valuable laxative 
medicine. Castor oil seeds vary considerably in size and 
colour. Specimens showing this variation are exhibited 
from the East and West Indies, Central Africa, &c. 
Various samples of oil are also shown. 

Note fruits, seeds, and roots of the BOMAH NuT of 
Natal {Pycnocoma macrophylla, Bth.). The fruits are 
used for tanning purposes, the seeds yield a sweet bland 
oil, and the roots are employed in medicine as a purgative. 

Observe also JAMAICA COB NUTS {Qmphalea triandra, 
L.), a small tree exuding a white juice which dries black, 
and bearing a yellow globose furrowed drupe, called 



189 

Noisettier in the French W. Indies and known in Jamaica CASE 
as pig or hog nut. When ripe the seeds burst from the 108. 
pericarp ; they are eaten raw or roasted. By compression 
they yield a fine flavoured oil. , ; 

Note also fruits, seeds, and oil from the seeds of , , L 
Omphalearmegacarpa, Hemsl., from the West Indies. The 
seeds and the oil extracted from them possess purgative 
properties. 

' No. 453. Tallow from the seeds of Sapium sehiferum; 
Roxb., largely collected in China for candle-making. 
The seeds, which are enveloped in the tallow, are steamed, 
beaten, and sifted. The coarse tallow thus obtained 
is strained through a cylinder of twisted straw. The 
candles are usually dipped in wax,— owing to the tallow 
becoming soft in warm weather. For festivals they are 
made very large, and ornamented. It is the most common 
shade-tree in New Orleans, and is said to be the only one 
which will sustain the vibration of the tram-cars. 

Observe wood of the Manchineel Tree {Hippomane 
Mancinella, h.). A tree of moderate size, native of 
tropical South America and the West Indies. Though of 
a poisonous character, its power, like that of the Upas, 
has been much exaggerated. The milky juice of the stem 
and fruit causes great pain if incautiously handled or 
allowed to come in contact with the eyes. 

In the next compartment note samples of COLOMBIAN ^ 

Scrap or Virgen Rubber, Touckpong from British - ■ ■— 
Guiana, and BOLIVIAN RUBBER, believed to be from 
Sapium Aucuparium, Jacq., a widely spread and variable 
tree of tropical America, but the precise source of thi 
particular rubber is still involved in some doubt. 

Specimens are also shown of JUMPING SEEDS, the 
carpels of Sehastiana Palmeri, Rose, from Mexico. 
Each carpel contains, when fresh, the larva of an insect 
(Carpocapsa saltitans), the movements of which cause 
the carpel to jump or jerk, especially when placed in a 
warna situation. 

. No. 454. Fruit of Sand-box Tree (Hura crepitansy 
L.). The valves of the fruit separate with much violence 
when mature and dry. It is a native of the West Indies 



190 

<GASE and tropical America, sometimes grown as a shade for 

108. Cacao. The seeds contain a purgative oil. 

CASE Nettle Order (Urticaceae), A large and important 

109. group represented in almost every climate by trees, 
shrubs, or herbs. Their economic properties are very 
varied. The order is divided into eight tribes as 
follows :— 

Tribe I. Ulmeae. — American and European species 
of which are valuable timber trees ; the English Elm 
{Ulmus campestris, L.), being especially suited for works 
in damp situations. Specimens of this wood as well as of 
the North American Bi^ecies U, fulva, Michx., U. amerir 
cana, L., and U, racemosa, Thomas, are shown. 

Observe section of the Wellington Elm, the tree under 
which the Duke of Wellington stood during part of the 
battle of Waterloo. 

Note also specimens of the beautiful wood of Keyaki 
of Jsiipan (Zelkova acuminata, Planch.), and boxes made 
of the wood. 

Tribe II. Celtideae. — Under this tribe are exhibited 
specimens of wood and bark of various species of Celtis 
and Trema, 

Tribe III. CannaMneae.—The Hop and the Hemp 
are alone included in this tribe. 

CASE No. 455. Samples of Hops used by brewers ; the 

110. dried heads of fruit of Humulus Lupulus, L. Remarkable 
among the great Nettle-tribe for its twining stem. A 
native of Europe, Russian Asia, and perhaps of England. 
Cultivated in Germany from the eighth century, and 
introduced into England under Henry VIII. for the sake 
of its odorous and resinous cones used in brewing. 

Note also Tallies as used in Hop gardens in Kent and 
Worcester, and HOP TEA formed of Indian Tea mixed 
with dried hops. 

No. 456. Hemp ((7anna&/s sa^tm, L.), cultivated in 
cool climates for its invaluable fibre ; in tropical India, 
-&C., for the narcotic resin exuded by the leaves and stem. 
Hemp grows wild in Northern India and temperate Asia. 
It was cultivated by the Greeks and Romans, but the 
Egyptians and Hebrews appear to have been unac- 



m 

<iuainted with it. Specimens of Indian, Russian, Prussian, CASE 
Spanish, and Italian Hemps are exhibited, with Hempen 110. 
cordage, &c., from the Royal Dockyards. The separation 
of the fibrous bark of the stem is brought about by 
soaking in stagnant water. The prepai-ation of the fibre 
is quite similar to that of Flax (Case 17). Observe 
portions of cable of the " Royal George," sunk at Spithead 
in 1782, and samples of paper made from it. 

On the bottom shelf of the middle compartment are 
Hemp seeds and oil expressed. from them. 

No. 457. Bhang or SiDEE,'the larger leaves of the 
Hemp plant, dried, roughly broken, and mixed with 
some of the fruits. It is dark green in colour, and has a 
strong narcotic odour and taste. It' is chiefly used in 
India for smoking, and an intoxicating drink is prepared 
by infusing it in water. Bhang when mixed with flour, 
eugar, &c., is made in India into a kind of sweetmeat 
called " Majoon." 

No. 458. GUNJAH or Ganja. The dried flowering 
tops of the female Hemp plant with the resin attached. 
In Assam Ganja is smoked in a Ghilam, an earthen 
receptacle used for ordinary tobacco smoking:. A wet 
rag is sometimes put round the Chilam which is held 
between the hollows of the smoker's hands. The hookah 
is scarcely, if ever, used ; when used it contains no water. 
To a beginner two or three pulls are sufficient to produce 
intense giddiness and prostration for five or six hours. 
Habitual consumers feel no inconvenience but expe- 
rience a refreshed feeling. Ganja smokers seldom smoke 
alone ; a single chilam does for a number of men. 
Ounjah, like Bhang, is of a dark greenish colour, and 
has a faint narcotic smell. It is chiefly used for smoking, 
and sometimes comes into the English market, where it 
is known as " Guaza." 

Hashish, which is used as an intoxicant by the Arabs, 
is a similar preparation. 

No. 459. Churras or Char as, the gum-resin of the 
Hemp-plant. Chiefly used for smoking. Various samples 
from dijffierent localities are exhibited. Lyall states that 
for the; production of Ganja rich in resin it is essential 



19g 

CASE that the ovaries should be abortive ; the hypertrophied 

110, perianth and bracts then secrete the Charas in larga 
quantities. It is therefore necessary in cultivation to 
eliminate the male plants. The finest Charas is produced 
in Yarkand and Kashgar. In collecting it men, clothed 
with leather garments, are said to walk about among the^ 
hemp plants, brushing up against them, the gum resin 
comes off and adheres to the garments, which are then 
taken off, and carefully scraped. 

Tribe IV. Moreae.— On this shelf note cigarettes 
smoked universally in Burma. They are covered with 
the leaves of a species of Gordia, and filled with a mixture 
of equal parts of tobacco and finely chopped wood of 
StreUus asper^ Lour. 

In Siam the bark of this tree, under the name of Tois 
Khoi, is much used in the manufacture of paper. A 
series of specimens illustrating this industry, as carried 
on near Bangkok, is shown. 

CASE In this Case note specimens of the bark of the Paper 

111. Mulberry {Broussonetia papyrifera^ Vent.). A small 
tree widely distributed in the East, and often cultivated. 
It is the source of Tapa or Kapa Cloth of the South 
Sea Islands prepared in the following manner : — The 
bark of slender stems is stripped off in ribbons ; after 
soaking in .water the outer bark, which is useless, is 
scraped off. Each ribbon of the white inner bark is 
beaten into a broad strip of cloth ; these are joined 
together with arrowroot, and beaten together so as to 
form pieces of any size desired. Note shells used for 
scraping the bark, and several specimens half prepared,, 
also many examples of finished Tapa cloth, and articles 
of clothing, &c., made from it. 

- No. 460 is a portion of a piece which originally 
measured 2 miles in length by 120 feet wide. 

In the middle compartment of this Case, note clubs-, 
made of the hard wood of Casuarifia equisetifolia, Forst., 
used in Fiji for beating the bark of the Paper MUL- 
BERRY, in the manufacture of Tapa cloth. 

Note memorandum books made in Burma of Brousso- 
netia paper coated with charcoal of Cassia Toi^.a, The 



I 



193 



^ctritint^ is done with a steatite pencil, and can be erased CASE 

with Betel leaves. 111. 

Note in this Case an interesting collection of articles CASE 

made of Broussonetia paper from Corea and Japan. 112. 

The first compartment of this Case contains a series of CASE 

specimens illustrating the manufacture (and various uses) 113. 
of paper in Japan from the barks of Broussonetia papyri- 
fera^ Vent., and B. Kaempferi^ Sieb. 

No. 461. Portions of branches, rough bark, and bark 
partially prepared of B. Kaempferi^ Sieb. Note on the 
adjoining wall copies of native drawings showing the 
different processes of paper making. 

No. 462. Fustic {Ghlorophora tinctoria, Gaud.), a 
large tree of tropical America and the West Indies. The 
yellow, close-grained timber is largely used in dyeing, 
and is chiefly imported from the West Indies and Brazil. 

Note wood of IROKO, HOKO, or Odum tree {Chloropho7^a 
excelsa, Benth. and Hook, f.) from Upper Guinea ; the 
wood, which has a finely mottled grain, is much used 
in building on account of its resisting the attacks of 
white ants. 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment are shown 
fruits of the OsAGE ORANGE (Madura aurantiaca,l^utt.), 
a North American tree, which has been used as a substi- 
tute for the Mulberry in feeding silkworms. Its yellow 
juice was formerly used by the Indians to disfigure their 
faces in war time. The wood is known in America as 
Bow WOOD, and is largely employed for fence-posts, 
paving blocks, &c. 

On the upper shelves of the next compartment are 
shown Cocoons, Moths, and silk of the Silkworm 
{Bomhyx Mori, L.). The insects feed on the leaves of 
the White Mulberry {Morus alha, L.), specimens of 
the wood of which, as well as of the BLACK MULBERRY 
(3f. nigra, L.), are also exhibited. The White Mulberry 
is cultivated in Southern Europe and China for the sake 
of its leaves for feeding silkworms, and the black chiefly 
in Kurope for its fruit. 

Observe CONTRAYERVA Root {Dorstenia hrasiliensis. 
Lamb.), from Brazil, formerly employed in medicine in 
this country as a stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic. Note 

25782 N 



194 

tJASE also roots of D, Contrajerva^ L., likewise known as 
' ll3. CONTRAYERVA, and formerly employed in medicine. 

Tribe V. Artocarpeae. — A group of tropical trees or 
: shrubs marked by a milky juice and the large scales 

(stipules) at the base of each leaf -stalk, which fall and 
leave a ring-like scar. 

Observe the skeletonised leaves of Ficus religiosa, L., 
the Peepul or Pipal tree of India, covered with 
gelatine and painted upon by Chinese artists. The tree, 
which is sacred to the Buddhists, is commonly planted by 
them in Ceylon and Burma, and also by the Hindoos 
throughout India. Observe photograph of Sacred Bo 
tree of Anarajapoora " in all probability the oldest 
historical tree in the w^orld," it was planted B.C. 288. 
The Buddhist priests object to "lop it with any weapon " 
and only distribute to pilgrims the leaves which fall 
naturally to the ground. Lac is produced in large 
quantities on the Peepul, specimens of which are shown. 

The last compartment contains specimens of wood, &c., 
of several species of Ficus from India, also a specimen of 
the Sycamore Fig (F. Sycomorus, L.), a large Egyptian 
tree affording a fruit used by the Arabs. Its light wood 
is said to be almost imperishable, and served to make 
the cases of Egyptian mummies ; specimens are shown. 

No. 463. Leaves, Wood, Bark, Cordage, and Lac of 
the Banyan (Ficus bengalensis, L.), one of the most 
famous trees of India, remarkable for its enormous 
extension by means of rooting branches. The milky 
juice is made into birdlime, the leaves are made into 
platters, specimens of which are shown. 
CASE Observe fruits of Ficus pumila, L., known as Ok-GUE 
114. in Formosa. These fruits are much used in Southern 
China and Formosa for making jelly. 

No. 464. Figs. The well-known heads of fruit of 
Ficus Uarica, L., long cultivated in South Europe and 
West Asia. 

Note Fig Pies or Cakes from Greece and Cyprus 
where they are used as an important article of food. 

In the next compartment are samples of Rubber, raw 
and manufactured, from the Abba or Abo tree (Ficus 
Vogelii, Miq.) from Lagos. 



195 

No. 465. INDIARUBBER FiG or CAOUTCHOUC Tree CASE 
of India and Malaya (AVifseZas^ica, Roxb.). A handsome 114. 
tree, with firm glossy leaves : often a parlour plant in 
England. The tree is usually epiphytic, the seeds 
germinating at the top of forest trees, it sends down 
innumerable aerial roots, which extend to considerable 
distances Below, giving the tree a wide spreading appear- 
ance. This is well illustrated by the accompanying 
photographs, as well as by some fine photographs on the 
staircase. 

Observe samples of Getah Rambong from Malacca, 
Get AH Karet from Sumatra and other forms of rubber 
obtained from this species from Assam, Java, &c. 

In the last compartment of this' Case note specimens of 
Bark Cloth from Uganda, prepared by beating out the 
bark of a species of Ficiis. 

Observe a fine series of Lac and Lac dyes. Lac is a resin CASE 
produced by the puncture of a small hemipterous insect 115. 
abounding in India on various trees, especially species of 
Ficus, Butea frondosa, Roxb., &c. The collection of Lac 
and its products is continued in the next compartment. 
Specimens are exhibited of shellac, grain, button, liver, 
seed, and thread lacs ; also a fine sample of bleached lac, 
sealing wax, into the composition of which lac is a 
principal ingredient, and various ornaments made from 
lac in India. 

No. 466. Lacquered Work from the Punjab, Scinde, 
Kashmir, and other parts of India, consisting of jewel 
cases, pen boxes, &c. 

No. 467. Concrete Milk and Wood of the Cow Tree 
(Brosimum Oalactodendon, Don.). It is a native of the 
South American forests, particularly in Venezuela, where 
it grows to a height of 100 feet, and often unbranched for 
60 or 70 feet. The milk, which is obtained from incisions 
in the trunk, closely resembles cow's milk. It is said to 
be wholesome, nourishing, and agreeable in taste, and is 
largely used by the people as an article of food. 

No. 468. Letter, Leopard or Snake- wood (Brosi- 
mum AiiUetii, Poepp.). A tree, often of considerable 
of Guiana, Northern Peru, Brazil, and 



196 

CASE Trinidad. The heart-wood is exceedingly hard and very 

115. finely marked or mottled with dark blotches, having a 

fancied resemblance to letters, or the skin of a leopard or 

snake. The wood is used for inlaying, walking sticks, 

bows, &c. 

No. 469. Upas. Inspissated juice of Antiaris 
toxicaria, Lesch., a large evergreen tree of India and 
Malaya. The fresh juice is a virulent poison (Ipoh), and 
is used by the Sakais and other aboriginal tribes of the 
Malay Peninsula to tip their arrows. Note quiver with 
Ipoh-tipped arrows and bamboo blow pipes from Perak. 

No. 470. Sacks made in Western India from the 
bark of Antiaris toxicaria, by soaking and beating the 
trunk until the bark is sufficiently loosened to be removed 
whole. A portion of the stem remains at the end to serve 
as a bottom. 

No. 471. Central American and West Indian 
Rubber from Castilloa elastica, Cerv. One of the 
largest forest trees of the North-east Coast of Mexico, and 
found also in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Guyaquil, 
&c. It is the Ule of the natives. The plant has been 
introduced into India, Ceylon, and other countries. 
Several specimens of different qualities of rubber are 
exhibited. - -"•j 

Observe fruits and seeds of the Okwa or African 
Bread-fruit (Treculia africana^ Dene.), also fruit of 
Affon {Treculia Affona, N.E.Br.). The seeds of both 
species are ground into meal and used as food by the 
natives of West Tropical Africa. 

No. 472. Bread-fruit (Artocarpus incisa, L.).^^A 
staple food of the South Sea Islanders, Introduced into 
the East and West Indies. Observe biscuits, &c., made of 
slices of the Bread-fruit ; also Bread-fruit Meal. 

No. 473. Jack-fruit (Artocarpus integ7vfolia, L.). 
Grown from time immemorial in Southern Asia. The 
fruit attains an enormous size. Certain varieties are 
highly esteemed as an article of food by the natives of 
India. The name "Jack" is derived from the Sanscrit 
name of the fruit, " Tchackka." Fruits from the East and 



197 



]West Indies are exhibited. Specimens of the wood, 
which is valuable for furniture, are also shown. 

In the next compartment are fruits and woods of other 
species of Artocarpus, and on the upper shelves of the 
next division of the case observe Tambaram bark 
(Artocarpus clastica, Reinw.,) and specimens of native 
cloths from Borneo, prepared by beating out the bark. 

Tribe VI. Conocephaleae. — Observe wood, bark, and 
cordage of TRUMPET WOOD {Cecropia peltata, L.), a soft- 
wooded tree of Jamaica. Note also Ambaubas, or drum, 
from Brazil, and a Jamaica rat trap made of the wood. 
The rough leaves are used in place of sandpaper by the 
Forest Indians of British Guiana in polishing their 
weapons. 

Tribe VII. Urticeae. — Represented by herbs, or some- 
times trees, bearing leaves often formidably armed with 
stinging hairs. Their economic value depends chiefly on 
the tenacious fibre of the bark. A few species are used 
in rustic medicine and cookery. The sting of some East 
Indian species is dangerous, occasioning great and long- 
continued suffering. 



CASE 1 
115. 



No. 474. Parasol-cover made of the fibre of the 
Common Nettle (Urtica dioica^ L.). The young tops of 
this plant are used as a pot herb. 

Note sections of the extremely light and open-grained 
wood of a gigantic nettle of Australia {Laportea gigas^ 
Wedd.), sometimes exceeding 80 feet in height. From 
the bark the Aborigines extract fibre, which they employ 
for their fishing nets and lines. 

Note specimens of the silky fibre of the Neilgherry 
Nettle (Girardinia palmata, Gaud.) used in Sikkim for 
ropes, twine and coarse cloth. 

The last compartment of this Case and the first division 
of the next contain a large series of specimens of China 
Grass, Ramie or Rhea (Boehmeria nivea, Gaud.). 
There are two forms of this plant, one (B. nivea) a 
temperate plant with leaves white felted beneath, and the 
other (J5. nivea, var. tenacissima) a tropical plant with 
larger leaves, which are green on both sides. [See Kew 
Bulletin, Additional Series II, Vegetable Fibres, pp. 
52-95.] 



CASE 
11^ 



198 

CASE In the next compartment observe wood and turned 

116. articles of Boehmeria rugulosa^ Wedd., a small evergreen 
tree of Northern India and Burma. The wood may be 
easily cut or carved without splitting or warping, and on 
this account is largely used in India for bowls, cups, plates, 
and other domestic utensils. 

Near these note stems and fibre of Maoutia Puya, 
Wedd., from which cloths, net-bags, fishing nets, &c., are 
made in India. 

Plane Order {Plaianaceae). A small order, consist- 
ing only of the genus Platanus, moderate-sized trees of 
Europe, Asia, and North America. Observe the beautiful ly 
marked woods of Platanus occidentalism L., the American 
Plane, used for cabinet work and for musical instru- 
ments ; and P. 07^ientalis, L., the Oriental Plane, 
or Lacewood, native of Greece, Macedonia, Northern 
Persia, &c. It is used for cabinet work, turnery, &c., and 
commonly in Persia for internal fittings. 

Walnut Order {Juglandcweae). Trees or shrubs, im- 
portant in economic botany from the value of the timber 
of two or three species, and the fruits of the Walnut and 
Hickory. 

No. 475. Hickory Nuts (Caf^ya alba, Nutt., and C. 
tomeniosa, Nutt.), the former species affording the principal 
supply. They are natives of North America, and the 
woods are both tough and elastic, especially that of C. alba, 
which is much used for spokes for carriage wheels, shafts, 
&c. The fruits and woods of several other species, all 
natives of North America, are shown. 

Note also Peccan Nuts {Gary a olivaeformis, Nutt.), 
occasionally to be found in English fruit-shops ; the 
kernels are sweeter than those of the former. 

CASE No. 476. Black Walnut {Juglans nigra, L.). A 

117. large tree of North America. The timber is durable, 
susceptible of a fine polish, and is largely employed both 
in North America and in this country for furniture, 
gun-stocks, boat -building, &c. 

No. 477. Walnut Wood {Juglans regia^ L.), figured 
and plain. The chief cabinet- wood of Europe before the 



199 

introduction of Mahogany. The tree is widely cultivated, CASEJ 
and is also found in the Himalayan forests, the timber 117. 
being commonly used throughout Kashmir and the 
Punjab for carvings, specimens of which are shown. 
Walnut is also the chief wood for gun-stocks, of which 
specimens are exhibited. 

No. 478, Walnuts, the kernel of the fruit of 
Juglans regia^ L., exported from the South of France. 
Introduced into Europe from the South of the Caucasus 
and adjoining parts of Russia. Note walnuts preserved 
in sugar, as used in Japan. 

No. 479. Walnut Oil, obtained from the kernels ; 
used as an article of food. Expressed with heat, it is 
a drying oil, much used in the arts. 

No. 480. Walnut Cake, remaining after the expression 
of the Oil ; used for cattle-feeding in the North of Italy. 

No. 481. Fruits, wood, and bark of Butternut 
{Juglans cinerea, L.). A large tree of the United States > 

and Canada. The wood is used for panelling, furniture, 
&c., and the bark as a yellow dye and cathartic medicine. 

On a lower shelf observe wood oi Engelhardtia spicata, 
Bl., a large deciduous tree of the Himalaya and Burma. 
Used for tea-boxes, building purposes, and for carving. 

Myrica Order {Myricaceae). Shrubs or trees, con- 
sisting of one genus only, namely, Myrica, to which the 
Sweet Gale of our bogs belongs. They are natives chiefly 
of North America and South Africa. 

Note leaves of Sweet Gale {Myrica Gale, L.), and 
Sweet Fern {M. asplenifolia, L.), used in medicine in 
North America. Also wax, and candles made of the 
same, from various species of Myrica from Colombia. 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment are specimens 
of the fruits, wood, and bark of M. cerifera, L., the 
Bayberry or Wax-Myrtle of North America, and 
Myrtle Wax, and candles made of the hard, but brittle 
wax, of M. cordifolia, L., from South Africa. 

In the last compartment of this Case are fruits, wood, 
and bark of Myrica Nagi, Thb., a moderate sized ever- 
green tree of India, Malaya, &c. The fruits, which have 



• 200 

dASE an agreeable acid flavour, are eaten and also made into 
117. sherbet. In India the bark is used in medicine as an 
aromatic stimulant and also affords a yellow dye. 

Beefwood Order (Casuarineae). A small group of 
leafless trees with jointed pendulous twigs. Some of the 
species afford a wood of extreme hardness, formerly used 
in the Pacific islands for war clubs, &c. 
. Note fruits, wood, and bark of BEEFWOOD or FOREST 
Oak of Australia {Casuarina eqidsetifolia^ Forst.), a 
large evergreen tree of India, Malaya, Australia, &c. The 
wood is used for fencing, gates, and shingles, and the 
astringent bark as a dye. The tree is chiefly valued in 
India from its capability of growing on coastlands close 
to the sea, thus preventing the encroachments of sand- 
drifts. 

On the lower shelves are fruits of species of Casuarina^ 

clubs made from the woods, also a sleeping pillow used 

by the natives in Fiji to prevent the hair from being 

PAOTT disarranged. 

Tift ^^ ^^^^ Case observe the hard wood of Casuarina 

^•*-^* suberosa, Otto & Dietr., which, in common with that of 

C equisetifolia, is known in Australia as Beefwood and 

Forest Oak. The wood is of fine grain and suitable for 

veneers for cabinet work. This tree is much valued in 

the interior districts of Australia as a fodder for stock, 

during periods of drought. Note also specimens of the 

finely figured wood of She Oak (C. stricta, Ait.), of 

Australia. This wood is used for furniture, turnery and 

wheel spokes, and also makes excellent fuel. The 

branches are also lopped for fodder in times of drought. 

Birch, Hazel, and Oak Order (CujjuUferae). This 
large family consists for the most part of trees, many of 
them of large size, and affords some most valuable 
timbers, such as oak, beech, &c. Very common in the 
forests of temperate countries ; many species of Oak and 
Chestnut extend to the Himalaya and Indian islands. The 
order is divided into three tribes as follows : — 

Tribe I. Betulae.—'No, 482. Bread made of 
Birch bark, from North- west America. 



201 

Note wood, bark, and gun-stock made of the wood of CASE 
Black Birch {Betula lenta, L.), of the United States 118. 
and Canada. The wood is heavy, strong, and close- 
grained, and is largely used for furniture and cabinet 
making. 

The first compartment of this Case contains various CASE 
ornamental articles made of the bark of the Paper 119. 
Birch {Beiula ijapyracea^ Ait.), in North America ; also 
specimens of printing on Birch bark. 

No. 483. Butter prints, Tap, and a series of speci- 
mens illustrating the manufacture of spools or cotton 
reels from wood of the BiRCH {Betula alha, L.). Also 
Bark of the Birch from Sweden, shoes and basket from 
Lapland, and Alp horn from Switzerland made of Birch 
bark. Note also Birch oil, used for imparting the charac- 
teristic odour to Russian leather. 

No. 484. Pedestal made of a beautifully marked 
sample of Karelian Birch or Masur Wood, the 
knotted or gnarled trunk of Betula alba, from Finland. 
Note also boxes, spoons and other articles made in 
Finland from ihe wood and bark of this tree. 

No. 485. Wood and bark of Betula utilis^ D. Don, a 
moderate-sized deciduous tree of the higher ranges of the 
Himalaya. The thin bark is used as paper for writing 
and packing, also for roofing houses, for umbrellas, and 
for the tubes of Hookahs. The wood is elastic, seasons 
well, and does not warp, and is largely used for building 
purposes. 

Note on the lower shelves wood specimens of several 
species of Alnus from America and India. 

No. 486. Wood, bark, and a series of specimens CASE 
illustrating the manufacture of clog soles in Ireland from 12O. 
the common Alder (Alnus glutinosay Medic). Also 
gun-stock, and young wood as used for making charcoal 
for the manufacture of gunpowder. 

Tribe II. Conjleae.—'No, 487. Wood of Hornbeam 
{Garpinus Betulus, L.) and various articles made from it 
as lasts for boot makers, shovel handles, bench screw, 



202 

CASE mallet, &c. The wood is extremely strong, dense, and 

120. not liable to split. 

In the next compartment are shown Turkey Nuts and 
Turkey Filberts, the fruits of Goryhis Colurna, L., 
imported from Smyrna ; also fruits and woods of oher 
species of Coryhis. 

No. 488. Kent Filberts and Barcelona Nuts. 
These are varieties of the common Hazel {Gorylus 
Avellana, L.). Filberts and cob nuts are grown largely 
in Kent, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Maidstone. 
Barcelona nuts are imported from Tarragona, in the 
district of Catalonia, Spain. The kernels contain a large 
quantity of sweet oil, a specicnen of which is shown from 
France. 

Observe walking sticks of Hazel, and on the outside 
of the Case rough and finished Alpenstocks of the 
same wood. 

Tribe III. Quercineae. — Observe a series of galls afiCect- 

ing oak leaves and twigs which have been punctured by 

minute insects (Cynips, Aphis, &c.). Some forms of Oak 

galls are valuable as sources of Gallic and Tannic i^cids. 

CASE In the upper portion of the first compartment of this 

121. Case are woods of Italian and Adriatic Oak, furnished by 
Quercus Cerris^ L. 

Note on the lower shelves specimens of Oak of 
historical interest, many of them being of great age and 
proving the durability of Oak timber. 

No. 489. Block from "Heme the Hunter's Oak," 
from Windsor Forest. 

No. 490. Piece of a beam from the Council Chamber 
of the White Tower in the Tower of London, probably 
coeval with the building of the Tower by William Rufus. 

No. 491. Portion of a pile of old London Bridge, in 
use about 650 years ; taken up in 1827. 

No. 492. A block recovered in 1840 from the wreck 
of the "Royal George," sunk in 1782 at Spithead. 

Note also portion of a pile of old Kew Bridge taken up in 
1900. Also another from the foundations of the Arsenal 



203 

at Venice, driven in 1312, and well preserved to the CASE 
present time. 121, 

On the upper shelves of the central compartment 

Ibserve woods of Dantzic, Memel, Stettin, and French 
laks, furnished by Q. Rohur. This Oak is known under 
Vfo forms, described by some writers as distinct species, 
aider the names of Q. sessiliflora^ Salisb., and Q. pedun- 
Ulata, Ehr. 



No. 493. Series showing stages in the manufacture of 
le Oak and Elm fasteners, used to secure rails to the 
f shoes " and " sleepers " on railways. 



No. 494. Series of products of destructive distillation 
of w^ood obtained from Oak, Beech, Ash, &c. Peeled 
Oak yields the largest quantity, and the stronger acid, 
one ton producing 131 gallons of acid and 5^ cwts. of 
charcoal. 

Observe on the outside of the Case Kype or WiSKET, 
a rough kind of basket made of Split Oak Saplings, used 
in Shropshire for general purposes. 

The last compartment contains specimens of Bog Oak 
from Norfolk and Ireland. xA.lso bracelets, brooch, and 
necklace of Bog Oak. 

The first compartment of this Case contains a continua- CASE 
tioo of specimens of wood of Q. Rohur, also some j^22. 
illustrations o.^' veneers and of machine carving in Oak. 

On a lower shelf observe model in Cork of the town of 
Fribourg, Switzerland. 

No. 495. Wood of Cork Oak (Quercus Siiher, L.) 
and specimens of bark (Cork) showing the formation of 
the several layers. The Cork tree grows in Spain, South 
of France, Italy, and Algeria. Cork is the thick outer 
bark, which may be removed from the same tree at inter- 
vals of 6 to 10 years after it attains an age of about 
30 years. The Cork collected previously is of inferior 
quality. The bark is heated, loaded with weights to 
flatten it, and then slowly dried. The operation of 
removing the Cork does not interfere with the healthy 
growth of the tree ; it is said, rather, to favour it. 
Specimens of various Bottle "Corks," finished and in 
progress, are exhibited. On the bottom shelf is shown a 



3(M 

CASE Cork box called a "Tarro," used in the province of 

122. Alentejo, Portugal, by agricultural labourers for carrying 
their food in and to keep it cool. Observe also a Cork 
hat, as used in Portugal. 

Note in the next compartment a sample of Kermes, 
the small insects which attach themselves to the leaves 
and branches of Quercus coccifera^ L., a native of the 
Mediterranean region. They furnish a crimson dye and 
are much used in the South of France, Spain, Morocco, 
and Turkey, chiefly for dyeing woollens and leather. 
CASE Specimens of wood and acorns of Holm or Evergreen 

123. Oak {Quercus Ilex^ L.) are shown on the upper shelves 
of the first compartment. Note also acorns of Q. Ilex, L., 
var. Ballota, sold in the markets of Spain and Morocco, 
and used as food. 

Observe also in this Case a collection of woods and 
acorns of Oaks from India, Malay Archipelago, Japan, 
China, &c. The following are amongst those exhibited : — 
Quercus lamellosa, Sm., Q. glauca, Thb., Q. fenestrata, 
Roxb., and Q. spicata, Sm., all East Indian species, 
Q. serraia, Thb., from Japan, and Q. cornea, Lour., from 
China, the last of which is edible. 

No. 496. Gall-nuts, or Mecca Galls, from the 
puncture of a Cynips, on Q. Lusitanica, var. infectoria, 
A.DC, a shrubby oak of Asia Minor. Galls produced on 
other species are also met with in commerce. 

No. 497. Tannin, extracted from Gall-nuts. The 
gelatinous tissue of a piece of raw hide immersed in a 
solution of tannin gradually combines with it, and retains 
it in the form of Leather. The colouring matter of 
ordinary ink is obtained by digesting Gall-nuts with a 
salt of iron. 

No. 498. Gallic Acid, obtained from Gall-nuts. 

No. 499. Valonia, the Acorn-cups of Q. Aegilops, L. 
That imported from Greece is furnished by the variety 
macrolepiSy and that from Asia Minor by the variety 
XJngeri. It is largely used by tanners and dyers. 
25,652 tons of Valonia of the value of £262,819 were 
imported in 1905. 



205 

Observe on a lower shelf section of Oak of Basan CASE 
(Q. AegilojJS, L.). 123. 

On an upper shelf of the first compartment of this Case CASE 
observe mounted specimens of Oak-feeding Silkworms, 124. 
Antheraea Pernyi^ Guer. Men., of North China, and 
A. Yama Mai, Guer. Men., of Japan. The former feeds 
on the " ts'ing-kang-liu " (Que7xus mongolica, Fisch.), and 
the "hoo-po-lo " (Q. dentata, Thb.) ; it has been acclima- 
tised in Spain and the United States. 

The lower half of the compartment is devoted to woods 
and acorns of North American species of Oak, including 
Q, rubra, L., Q. cinerea, Michx., Q. alba, L. The collec- 
tion is continued in the next division. 

The woods shown in this compartment include, amongst 
others, Q, Phellos, L., Q. nigra, L., Q. macrocarpa, Michx., 
Q. virginiana, Mill., and Q, aquatica, Walt. 

No. 500. Quercitron, the bark of Q. discolor. Ait., 
a useful yellow dye. It is also used for tanning, and in 
medicine as an astringent. Specimens are shown from 
Baltimore and Philadelphia. 

No. 501. Wood of the Chestnut {Castanea sativa, CASE 
Mill.). A valuable and highly ornamental European tree, 125, 
attaining, sometimes, an enormous size. Chestnut copses 
furnish hoops and vine-props in France. Saplings used 
for hoops, and the instrument for cutting them, are shown» 
The wood is very largely used in Corsica for the manu- 
facture of Chestnut Extract, which is used for tanning, 
and is the staple industry of the island. 12,860 tons of 
Extract were exported during 1904. Essence of Chestnut 
is manufactured in Northern France and exported to 
Belgium for a similar purpose. 

No. 502. Smoked and dried CHESTNUTS. First and 
second qualities, as prepared for food at Castigliano, in 
the mountains of Pistoja. Flour of Chestnuts is also 
shown, and " Necci " or cakes made from it by mixing it 
with water, placing the cake on a Chestnut leaf, and 
baking between heated stones. The Chestnut is an 
important article of food in the Apennines. 

Note also walking sticks formed of Chestnut saplings. 



206 

lo^ The knotted appearance is artificially produced by gashing 
4^^!. the plants during growth. 

4tin„. .^ ]N^0. 503. Wood of the Beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.). 
A fine forest tree, affording a valuable tenacious and 
flexible wood. Amongst the articles exhibited made of 
Beech are sabots, saddle frames, boxes, carpenters' planes, 
lasts for bootmakers, and a series of specimens illustrating 
the manufacture of Golf clubs. 

On the outside of the Case, is a bullock yoke from 
France, made of Beech. 

No. 504. Beech oil, obtained in Northern Germany 
from the fruit of the Beech '(Beech-mast), used for food 
and burning. 

No. 505. Refuse of Beech-mast, after expressing the 
oil. Used as fuel. 

No. 506. Specimens of the wood of the Tasmanian 
Myrtle {Fagus Cun^iinghamii, Hook.), abounding in 
the forests of Tasmania ; often attaining a height of i:00 
feet, with a girth of 40 feet. The wood is beautifully 
marked, and is used for cabinet work in the Colony. 

Willow Order (Salicineae). A group of trees, well 
represented by our Sallows, Osiers, and Poplars. Two 
genera alone constitute the order, namely, Salix and 
Populus. 

CASE No. 507. Wood of White Willow {Salix alba, L.). 
126. It is light and tough, and is used for various purposes. 
The young wood is made into charcoal, for the manu- 
facture of gunpowder. Specimens of the wood and char- 
coal are exhibited by Messrs. Curtis and Harvey ; also 
a series of photographs and wood specimens illustrating 
the manufacture of Cricket Bats, the best of which are 
generally believed to be made of White Willow. 

Near these are samples of Salicine, the active principle 
of the Willow. It has been obtained from more than 20 
species of Salix^ as well as from several species of 
Populus^ but the barks of S. alba, L., *S'. Caprea, L., 
S. fragilis, L., S. pentandra, L., and S. purpurea^ L., are 
said to yield the largest quantity. Willow barks and 



i 



207 

Salicine are used in medicine as a substitute for Cinchona CASE 
in intermittent fevers, acute rheumatism, &c. 126. 

On the bottom shelf of this compartment note Truck 

IlASKETS made of willow wood. Used in gardens, and 
y the peasantry in Sussex for general purposes. 
The middle compartment is devoted to models of 
tASKETS of various kinds in different stages of construe- 
on, made of unpeeled and peeled Willow shoots known 
3 Osiers. These are furnished by Salix viminalis, L., 
S. j)urpurea, L., ^S*. triandra, L., and other species. On 
the upper shelves of the last compartment some very fine 
specimens of split willow work are shown. 

No. 508. Exchequer Tallies (formerly made of CASE 
Hazel, Alder, or Willow), with an account of the mode of 127. 
usiner them. 

In the next compartment of this Case are various 
illustrations of the uses of willow wood, as sabots, spoons, 
and strips of wood as used in Russia for making matches 
and match-boxes. Also paper pulp, paper and a gun-stock 
made from ASPEN wood (Populus tremula, L.). In the 
last compartment are woods of various species of Populus. 

This Case contains a series of funeral wreaths and CASE 
flowers from the tombs of Aahmes I. and Ramses J I., 128. 
Kings of Egypt, of dates respectively 1700 B.C. and 1100- 
1200 B.C. 

Further specimens are shown on the wall of the 
descent staircase. 



209 



INDEX 



Abba, 194. 
Aberia, 18. 
Abo, 194. 
Aboli, 148. 
Abrine, 65. 
Abroma, 30. 
Abrotanella, 131. 
Abrus, 65. 
Absinthe, 129,132. 
Abutilon, 25. 
Acacia, 84, 120. 

, False, 61. 

, Locust, 61. 

Acanthaceae, 161 
Acanthosicyos, 109. 
Acer, 52. 
Acerineae, 50. 
Achillea, 131. 
Achras, 138. 
Acokanthera, 149. 
Aconite, 8. 
Aconitum, 8. 
Acorns, Edible, 204. 
Adansonia, 27. 
Adegon, 137. 
Adenanthera, 83. 
Adenocalymma, 160. 
Adhatoda, 162. 
Adina, 121. 
Aegle, 37. 
Aeschynomene, 63. 
Aesculus, 50. 
Affon, 196. 
Afghan Knife, 61. 
African Bread-fruit, 196. 

Kino, 71. 

Mammee Apple, 21. 

Oak, 39, 183. 

Pepper, 11. 

Rosewood, 71. 

Rubber, 148, 151. 

Teak, 183. 

Afzelia, 79. 
Aglaia, 42. 
Agrimonia, 92. 

25782 



Agrimony, 92. 

Ai, 128. 

Ailanthus, 38. 

Ailanthus Silkworm, 38. 

Ajowan, 114. 

Akee, 51. 

Akyau, 179. 

Al, 125. 

Albizzia, 87. 

Alder, 201, 207. 

Buckthorn, 47. 

Aleurites, 184. 
Alexandrian Laurel, 21. 

Senna, 77. 

Algarrobo, 74. 
Algerian Tea, 166. 
Alhagi. 63. 
Alizarin, 126. 
Alkanet Root, 154. 
Alkanna 154. 
Alligator Apple, 10. 
Allspice, 102. 
Almeidina, 182. 
Almonds, 92. 

, Cuddapah, 56. 

, Indian, 98. 

, Wild, 177. 

Alnus, 201. 
Aloes Wood, 179. 
Alpam Root, 172. 
Alstonia, 150. 
Althaea, 25. 
Altingia, 96. 
Alyxia, 149. 
Amarantaceae, 166. 
Amaranthus, 166. 
Ambari Hemp, 25. 
Ambash, 63. 
Ambaubas, 197. 
Amboyna Wood, 71. 
Amelanchier, 95. 
American Ash, 145. 

Blight, 94. 

Elder, 120. 

Horse Mint, 165, 

Plane, 198. 

Red Gum, 97. 

Senna, 77. 



210 



Ammi, 114. 
Ammoniacum, 116. 
Amomum Spurium, 137. 
Ampelideae, 49. 
Amyris, 41. 
Anacardiaceae, 53. 
Anacardium, 56. 
Anacyclus, 130. 
Anagallis, 137. 
Anamirta, 11. 
Anastatica, 14. 
Anchovy Pear, 104. 
Andaman Marble Wood, 141. 

Padauk, 71. 

Redwood, 71. 

Andira, 72. 
Andrographis, 162. 
Andropoffon, 94. 
Angelica, 115. 
Angico Grum, 82. 
Angostura, 34. 

Bark, 150. 

Aniba, 175. 
Anime, 79, 80. 
Anise, Star, 9. 
Anjan, 81. 
Ankalaki, 19. 
Annatto, 18. 
Anodendron, 151. 
Anogeissus, 98. 
Anona, 10. 
Anonaceae, 10. 
Anopterus, 95. 
Anthemis, 131. 
Antheraea, 175, 205. 
Anthocephalus, 121. 
Antiaris, 196. 
Antidesma, 184. 
Antidote Cocoon, 111, 
Anzerut, 62. 
Aphis, 202. 
Apios, 65. 
Apium, 114. 
Apocynaceae. 147. 
Apocynum, 151. 
Aporosa, 184. 
Apple, 94, 180. 

, Alligator, 10. 

, Bell, 108. 

, Custard, 10. 

, Kei, 18. 

, Mammee, 21, 22. 

, May, 12. 



Apple, Otaheite, 57. 

, Rose, 103. 

, Star, 137. 

. Thorn, 157. 

; Wood, 37. 

Apples, Sage, 165. 
Apricot, 92. 
Aquilaria, 179. 
Arabian Senna, 77. 

Tea, 46. 

Arachis, 63, 68. 

Aralia, 119. 

Araliaceae, 119. 

Araroba, 72. 

Arbutus, 135. 

Arctostaphylos, 135. 

Ardisia, 137. 

Areca, 24. 

Arenaria, 19. 

Argan Oil, 138. 

Argania, 138. 

Argel Leaves, 77. 

Argemone, 14. 

Argol, 49. 

Aristolochia, 172. 

Aristolochiaceae, 172. 

Aristotelia, 30. 

Arnica, 132. 

Arracacia, 114. 

Arrow Poison, African, 149. 

Artemisia, 131. 

Artichoke, 133. 

, Chinese, 165. 

, Jerusalem, 130. 

Artocarpeae, 194. 
Artocarpus, 196. 
Asafoetida, 115. 
Asan, 97. 
Asarabacca, 172. 
Asarum, 172. 
Asclepiadeae, 151. 
Ash, American, 145, 

, Comruon, 145, 203. 

, Manna, 145. 

, Mountain, 95. 

Ashanti Pepper, 170. 

Aspen, 207. 

Aspidosperma, 149. 

Asthma Herb, Queensland, 182. 

Astragalus, 62. 

Atherosperma, 173. 

Atropa, 157. 

Attacus, 38, 188. 



t 



Attar of Rose, 93. 
Aubergine, 155. 
Aucklandia, 133. 
Australian Blackwood, 86. 

Sassafras, 173. 

Avens, 92. 
Averiiloa, 34. 
Avicennia, 163. 
Avignon Graines, 48. 
Avocado Pear, 175. 
Ayapana Tea, 128. 
Azorella, 113. 



B. 

Babiil Gum, 84. 
Baccaurea, 184. 
Backhousia, 101. 
Bael, 37. 
Bahera, 97. 
Balanites, 38. 
Balanophora, 181. 
Balanophoreae, 181. 
Balata, 140. 

Balaustine Flowers, 107. 
Balsam Bog, 113. 
of Copaiba, 80. ' 

Mecca, 40. 

Peru, 73. 

St. Thomas, 41. 

Tolu, 73. 

Balsamocarpum, 74. 
Balsamodendron, 39. 
Balucanat, 184. 
Bambarra Ground Nut, 68. 
Banksia, 177. 

Banyan, 194. 
Baobab, 27. 
Baphia, 72. 
Baptisia, 59. 
Barbados Pride, 74. 
Barbatimao, 82. 
Barberry, Indian, 12. 
Barcelona Nuts, 202. 
Barilla, 167. 
Bark Bosch, 181. 

Cloth, Uganda, 195. 

Tree, West Indian, 123. 

Barosma, 35. 
Barringtonia, 104. 
Barwood, 70. 



Bassia, 139. 
Basswood, 30. 
Bastard Cedar, 30, 42. 

Teak, 70. 

Tonquin Seed, 72. 

Bauhinia, 78. 
Bawchan Seed, 60. 
Bay Bean, 67. 
Bay berry, 199. 
Bay Rum, 102. 
Bdellium, 40. 
Bead Tree, 42. 
Bean Tree, 73. 
Bear-berry, 135. 
Bebeerine, 176. 
Beberu, 176. 
Beda Nut, 97. 
Bedara Plum, 38. 
Bedfordia, 132. 
Beech, 203, 206. 
Beefwood, 200. 
Beet-root, 166. 
Beilschmiedia, 174. 
Bela, 37. 
Bell Apple, 108 
Ben, Oil of. 58. 
Beni, 161. 

Beni Seed, Black, 19. 
Benincasa, 109. 
Benne, 161. 
Benzoic Acid, 144. 
Berberideae, 12. 
Berberis, 12. 
Bergamot, Oil of, 37 
Berfcholletia, 105. 
Besom, 135. 
Beta. 166. 
Betula, 201. 
Betulae, 200 
Bhang, 191, 
Bhangra, 130, 
Bibiru, 176. 
Bignonia, 160. 
Bignoniaceae, 160. 
Bilberry, 135. 
Bilimbi, 34. 
Birch, 201. 

Bark, 200, 201. 

, Black, 201. 

, Karelian, 201. 

, Paper, 201. 

, West Indian, 41. 

Bird-lime, 45. 



^12 



Bird-peppers, 156. 
Bird's-eye Maple, 52 
Bischofia, 184. 
Bish, 9. 
Bissa B61, 40. 
Bistort, 168. 
Bitter Bark, 183. 

Bush, 128. 

Cassava, 187. 

Kola, 21. 

Wood, 38. 

Bitter-Sweet, 155. 
Bixa, 18. 
Bixineae, 17. 
Blackberry, 92. 
Black Birch, 201. 

Cabbage Tree, 123. 

Catechu, 85. 

Cohosh, 9. 

Dammar, 41. 

Iron wood, 146. 

Oil, 46. 

Snake Root, 9. 

Walnut, 198. 

Wattle, 87. 

Blackthorn, 92. 
Blackwood, 70. 

, Australian 86. 

Blighia, 51. 
Blippo. 124. 
Blood Plum, 57 

Root, 14. 

Blue Gum, 100. 
Blumea, 128. 

Camphor, 128. 

Bo Tree, Sacred, 194. 
Boa-tam-paijang, 28. 
Bocagea, 10. 
Boehmeria, 197. 
Boerhaavia, 166. 
Bogbean, 153. 
Bog Oak, 203. 
Bois Benzoin, 98. 

de Panama, 90. 

fidele, 162. 

Riviere, 137. 

Rouge, 71. 

Boldo, 173. 

Bolivian Rubber, 189. 
Bomah Nut, 188. 
Bombaceae, 27. 
Bomba-5, 27, 28. 
Bombilla, 45. 



Bombyx, 193. 
Bonace, 178. 
Boo jay, 124. 
Boomerangs, 87. 
Boragineae, 154. 
Borbonia, 58. 
Borneo Rubber, 147. 
Boswellia, 39. 
Bovillo, 54. 
Bow Wood, 193. 
Boxwood, 183. 

, Cape, 150, 183. 

, Maracaibo, 161. 

, West Indian, 160. 

Brabejum, 177. 
Bragantia, 172. 
Brassica, 15. 
Bray era, 93. 
Brazil Nut, 105. 

Wood, 74. 

Braziletto Wood, 74. 
Brazilian G-um Arabic, 82. 

Oak, 124. 

Rosewood, 69. 

Brea, 41. 

Bread, Birch Bark, 200. 

Bread-fruit, 196. 

, African, 196. 

Briar Pipes, 135. 
Brinjal, 155. 
British Gum, 156. 
Broad Bean, 64. 
Broad-leaved Wattle, 87. 
Broom-Rape, 160. 
Broom, Spanish, 59. 

, Swan River, 19. 

, Yellow, 59. 

Brosimum, 195. 
Broussa Tea, 1 35. 
Broussonetia, 67, 192. 
Bruyere, 136. 
Brya, 63. 
Bryonia, 111. 
Bryony, 111. 
Buaze Fibre, 19. 
Buchanania, 56. 
Buchu, 35. 
Buck Pot, 90. 
Buckche, 128. 
Buckthorn, 47, 48. 
Buckwheat, 168. 

, Kangra, 168. 

Buffalo Berries, 179. 



^3 



Bugbane, 9. 
Bullet Tree, 140. 
Bullock's Heart, 10 
Bully Tree, HO. 
Bungo Tree, 78. 
Buri Nut, 90. 
Burma, Cigarettes, 192. 
Burmese Lacquer, 56. 
Burn-Nose, 178. 
Bursera, 41. 
Bush Tea, 58. 

, Queensland, 163. 

Butea, 66, 107. 
Butternut, 199. 
Butter Tree, 20. 
Button Snakeroot, 128. 
Butyrospermum, 141. 
Buxus, 183. 
Byrsonima, 32. 



c. 

Caarura, 170. 
Cabbage, 15. 

Tree Bark, 72. 

• , Black, 128. 

Walking Sticks, 16. 

Cacoon, 82. 
Cacteae, 111. 
Cactus, 112. 
Caesalpinia, 74. 
Caesalpinieae, 74. 
Cafe cle Brusca, 61. 

• Soudan, 82. 

Caffeine, 125. 
Cafta, 46. 
Cail-Cedra, 43. 
Cajanus, 69. 
Cajuput Oil, 99. 
Calabar Bean, 67, 75. 
Calabash, 109, 161. 

Nutmeg-, 10. 

Calamander Wood, 141. 
Calcium Oxalate, 112. 
Calendula, 132. 
Calisaya Bark, 122. 
Calliature Wood, 71. 
Calligonum, 167. 
Calluna, 135. 
Calodendron, 35. 
Calophyllum, 21. 



Calotropis, 151. 
Calumba, False, 11. 

Root, 11. 

Calycophyllum, 123. 
Camellia, 22. 
Camel-Thorn, 63. 
Campanulaceae, 134. 
Camphor, 175. 

, Blumea, 128. 

, Sumatra, 24, 175. 

Campsiandra, 74. 
Camwood, 72. 
Canaigre, 169. 
Canaran. 72. 
Canarium, 41. 
Canavalia, 67. 
Candle-Nut, 185. 
Canella, 17. 
Canellaceae, 17. 
Cannabineae, 190. 
Cannabis, 190. 
Cannon-ball Tree, 104. 
Caoutchouc, 147, 186, 195 
Cape Boxwood, 150. 

Everlasting, 129. 

Gooseberry, 156. 

Sumach, 181. 

Tea, 58. 

Capers, 16. 
Capparideae, 16. 
Capparis, 16. 
Caprifoliaceae, 120. 
Capsicum, 156. 
Caragana, 61. 
Caraipi, 89. 
Carambola, 34. 
Carana, 40. 
Carap, 43. 
Carapa, 43. 
Caraway Seed, 114. 
Cardiospermum, 50. 
Cardoon, 1.^3. 
Careya, 104. 
Carica, 108. 
Carissa, 149. 
Carob, 77. 
Carpinus, 201. 
Carpocapsa, 189. 
Carpodinus, 148. 
Carrot, 118. 
Carthamus, 133. 
Carum, 114. 
Carya, 198. 



m 



Caryocar, 22. 
Caryophylleae, 19. 
Casca, 81. 

Cascara Sagrada, 47; 
Cascarilla, 122. 

Bark, 185. 

Cashaw, 83. 
Cashew Nut, 56. 
Cassareep, 187. 
Cassava, 187. 
Cassia, 76, 192. 

Buds, 174. 

Cinnamon, 174. 

Lignea, 174. 

Cassie, 84. 

Cassoneira Gum, 182. 
Cassytha, 177. 
Castanea, 205. 
Castanospermum, 73. 
Castilloa, 196. 
Castor Oil, 188. 
Casuarina, 192, 200. 
Casuarineae, 200. 
Cat Mint, 165. 
Catechu, Black, 85. 

, Pale, 121. 

Catha, 46. 
Cay Cay, 38. 
Cayenne Pepper, 156, 
Ceanothus, 48. 
Ceara Rubber, 187. 
Cecropia, 32, 197. 
Cedar, 43. 

, Bastard, 30, 42. 

, Moulmein, 43. 

, N. S. Wales, 43. 

, West Indian, 44. 

Cedrela, 43. 

Cedron, 37. 

Cedrus, 44. 

Celastrineae, 46, 

Celastrus, 46. 

Celery, 114. 

Celmisia, 128. 

Celtideae, 190. 

Celtis, 190. 

Cemiostoma, 125. 

Central American Rubber, 196. 

Centrolobium, 70. 

Ceratonia, 77. 

Ceratopetalum, 95. 

Cerbera, 149. 

Cercis, 78. 



Cereus, 111, 112. 
Ceriops, 97. 
Ceylon Oak, 124. 

Rubber, 186. 

Chamomile, 131. 

, Wild, 131. 

Chandan Wood, 70. 
Charas, 191. 
Chaulmugra Oil, 18. 
Chaw Stick, 48. 
Chay Root, 123. 
Chayote, 111. 
Chayotilla, 111. 
Cheirostemon, 28. 
Chenopodiaceae, 166. 
Chenopodium, 167. 
Cherimoyer, 10. 
Cherry, Common, 91. 

, Cornelian, 120. 

Laurel, 90. 

, Wild Black, 90. 

Chestnut, 205. 

Extract, 205. 

, Horse, 50. 

, Moreton Bay, 73. 

, Water, 107. 

, Wild, 35. 

Chew Stick, 48. 
Chia Seeds, 165. 
Chian Turpentine, 54. 
Chica, 160. 
Chick Pea, 63. 
Chickrassia, 43. 
Chicle Gum, 138. 
Chicory, 133. 
Chiga, 74. 
Chigoes, 22. 
Chilam, 191. 
Chilinchile, 61. 
Chillies, 156. 
Chimaphila, 136. 
Chimarrhis, 137. 
China Californica, 143. 

Grass, 197. 

Nova, 143. 

Chinese Artichoke, 165. 

Cassia, 174. 

Date, 47. 

Galls, 54. 

Green Indigo, 48. 

Indigo, 168. 

Ink, 129, 161. 

Varnish Tree, 184. 



215- 



f 



Chinese Wax Gourd, 109. 

White Wax, 147. 

Chiretta, 153, 162. 
Chittagong Wood, 43. 
Chlorophora, 193. 
Chloroxylon, 44. 
Choco,Jll. 
Chocolate, 29. 
Chondodendron, 11. 
Chowlee, 68. 
Christmas Rose, 8. 
Christophine, 111. 
Chrozophora, 188. 
Chrysanthemum, 131. 
Chrysobalanus, 89. 
Chrysophyllum, 137. 
Churras, 191. 
Cicada. 99. 
Cicer, 63. 
Cichorium, 133. 
Cider, 94. 
Cimicifuga, 9. 
Cinchona, 122, 183, 185, 207. 

Febrifuge, 123. 

, Pale, 122. 

, Red, 123. 

, Yellow, 122. 

Cinchonidine, 123. 
Cinchonine, 123. 
Cinnamodendron, 17. 
Cinnamomum, 174. 
Cinnamon, Mountain, 17. 
Cinquefoil, 92. 
Cissampelos, 12. 
Cistineae, 16, 
Cistus, 16. 
Citric Acid, 36. 
Citron, 36. 

Gum. 99. 

Citrullus, 110. 
Citrus, 36. 
Clausena, 36. 
Clearing Nut, 153. 
Clematis, 7. 
Clitandra, 148. 
Clog soles, Alder, 201. 
Clove, 102. 
Clover, 60, 160. 

, Hop, 60. 

Cob Nuts, 202. 

, Jamaica, 188. 

Cobra Sandal Wood, 180. 
Coca, 32. 



Cocaine, 171. 
Coccinia, 110. 
Coccoloba, 169. 
Cocculus Indipus, 11. 
Coccus, 66, 145, 147. 
Cochineal, 112. 
Cochlearia, 14. 
Cochlospermum, 17, 28. 
Coco Plum, 89. 
Cocoa, 29, 32. 
Cocus Wood, 63, 184. 
Coffee, 124, 133. 

Diseases, 125, 

, Kentucky, 75. 

, Liberian, 125. 

, Mussaenda, 153. 

, Negro, 76. 

Cohosh, Black, 9. 
Cola, 29. 82. 
Coleus. 164. 
Colletia, 48. 
Colocynth, 110. 
Colombian Rubber, 189. 
Colombo Root, 11. 
Colorado Potato Beetle, 156. 

Rubber, 130. 

Colpoon, 181. 
Colubrina, 48. 
Colza, 15. 
Combretaceae, 97. 
Comesperma, 19. 
Comino, 175. 
Commidendron, 128. 
Commiphora, 39, 118. 
Common Ash, 145. 
Oompositae, 127. 
Condurango, 152. 
Conessi, 150. 
Conium, 113. 
Connaraceae, 58. 
Connarus, 58. 
Conocephaleae, 197. 
Conopharyngia, 150. 
Contrayerva, 173, 193. 
Convolvulaceae, 164. 
Convolvulus, 155. 
Copaiba, Balsam of, 80. 
Copaifera, 80. 
Copal, 80. 

, Accra, 80. 

, African, 80. 

, Beuguela, 81. 

-, Indian, 24. 



216 



Copal, Inhambane, 81. 

, Lisbon, 80. 

• , Pebbly, 80. 

, Sierra Leone, 81. 

Copalchi Bark, 185. 
Coptis, 8. 

Tita, 8. 

Coral Tree, 48. 
Corchoras, 30. 
Cordia, 154, 192. 
Coriander, 118. 
Coriandrum, 118. 
Cork, 203. 

Model, 203. 

Tree. 28. 

Wood, 11. 

Cornaceae, 120. 
Cornelian Cherry, 1 20. 
Cornus, 120. 
Coromandel Wood, 141. 
Corrigiola, 166. 
Cortex Thymiamatis, 96. 
Coryleae, 201. 
t'orylus,'202. 
Corynocarpus, 57. 
Coscinium, 11. 
Costus, 133. 
Cotton, 26. 

, Devil's, 30. 

' , Silk, 27. 

Coula, 44. 
Couma, 188. 
Country Walnut, 185. 
Couratari, 104. 
Couroupita, 104. 
Cowberry, 135. 
Cowhage, 66. 
Cow-itch, 66. 
Cowslip, 137. 
Cow Tree, 141, 195. 
Crab Tree, 43. 
Crab's Eyes, 65. 
Cranberry, 135. 
Crataegus, 95. 
Creosote Plant, 33. 
Crescentia, 109, 161. 
Cricket Bats, 206. 
Crosnes, 165. 
Crotalaria, 59. 
Croton, 185, 186. 
Crown Bark, 122. 

Gourd, 111. 

Cruciferae, 14. 



Cryptocarya, 174. 
Cuba Bast, 25. 
Cubebine, 170. 
Cubebs, 170. 

, African, 170. 

Cucumber, 108, 110. 

, Squirting, 110. 

Cucumis, 108. 110. 
Cucurbita, 111. 
Cucurbitaceae, 108. 
Cuddapah Almonds, 56. 
Culex, 22. 
Culver's Root, 159. 
Cumin, 118. 
Cuminum, 118. 
Cuprea Bark, 123. 
Cupuliferae, 200. 
Curagoa, 37. 
Curare, 152. 
Currant, 96. 
Currants, 49. 
Curtisia, 120. 
Curry Leaf Tree, 35. 
Cushion Gourd, 111. 
Cusparia, 34. 
Custard Apple, 10. 

Gourd, 111. 

Cutch, 85, 98. 
Cyamopsis, 60. 
Cyanothyrsus, 79. 
Cyclopia, 58. 
Cynara. 133. 
Cynips, 165, 202, 204. 
Cynomorium, 181. 
Cyphomandra, 156. 
Cytinaceae, 172. 
Cytinus, 172, 
Cytisus, 59. 



D. 

Dacryodes, 41. 
Dal, 69. 
Dalbergia, 69. 
Dalbergieae, Fruits of. 70. 
Dalmatian Insect Powder, 1 3 1 
Damabo, 69. 
Damiana, 107. 
Dammar, Black, 41. 

Holder, 24. 

, White, 24. 



217 



Dandelion, 134. 
Daniella, 78. 
Daphne, 88, 178. 
Daphnopsis, 178. 
Date, Chinese, 47. 

, Indian, 79. 

, Kaffir, 57. 

, Trebizonde, 179. 

Date Plum, Chinese, 1 43. 

, European, 142, 

Dattock, 80. 
Datura, 157. 
Daucus, 118. 
Davidsonia, 95, 
Davidson's Plum, 95. 
Dead Finish, 86, 
Deadly Nightshade, 157. 
Deccan Hemp, 25, 
Deer's Tongue, 128. 
Degame Wood, 123. 
Derris, 71. 
Detarium, 80. 
Devil's Cotton, 30. 
Dextrin, 156. 
Dichopsis, 138. 
Digitalis, 159. 
Dika Bread, 38. 
Dikamali, 124, 
Dill, 117, 

Dimorphandra, 81. 
Dionysia, 137. 
Diospyros, 141. 
Diplocnema, 140. 
Dipgaceae, 127, 
Dipsacus, 127, 
Dipterocarpeae, 23. 
Dipterocarpus, 23. 
Dipteryx, 72. 
Dita Bark, 150. 
Divi Divi, 74. 

Doctor Humming Bird, 28, 
Dodo Cloth, 150, 
Doekoe, 42, 
Dog-rose, 93, 
Dogwood, 47, 

, Flowering, 120, 

, Tasmanian, 132. 

, White, 72. 

Dojvie, 170. 
Dolichandrone, 161. 
Dolichos, 69. 
Dolphin Gourd, 111, 
Domba Oil, 21. 



Dorema, 116. 
Dorstenia, 193. 
Dor^phora, 156, 173. 
Doundake, 121. 
Drift Fruits &c., 159. 
Drimys, 9. 
Dryobalanops, 24. 
Duboisia, 158. 
Duguetia, 10. 
Durian, 28. 
Durio, 28. 
Dyera, 150. 
Dyer's Weed, 1 7. 



E. 

Eagle-Wood, 179. 
East Indian Hemp, 59. 

Walnut, 88. 

Ebenaceae, 141. 
Eboe Tree, 72. 
Ebony, 142. 

,*West Indian, 63. 

Ecballium, 110. 
Echinocactus, 112. 
Echinops, 132. 
Eclipta, 130. 
Edgworthia, 178. 
Egbessye, 121. 
Egyptian Lotus, 12. 
Ehretia, 154. 
Elaeagnaceae, 179, 
Elaeagnus, 179. 
Elaeocarpus, 30. 
Elaeodendron, 46. 
Elaeoselinum, 117. 
Elands Bontjes, 83. 
Elaterium, 110. 
Elder, American, 120. 

, English, 121. 

Elecampane, 129. 
Elemi, Manila, 41, 
Elephantorrhiza, 83. 
Elm, 190. 
Embelia, 137. 
Emblic Myrobalan, 183. 
Endi, 188, 
Eng Oil, 23. 
Engelhardtia, 199, 
Entada, 82. 
Enterolobium, 88. 



2ia 



Epacrideae, 136. 
Eperua, 78. 
Ericaceae, 135. 
Eriobotrya, 95. 
Eriodendron, 28. 
Ervalenta, 64. 
Eryngium, 113. 
Erythrina, 65. 
Erythrophleum, 81. 
Erythroxylon, 32. 
Eucalyptus, 99. 

Oil, 100, 

Euclea, 141, 
Eucommia, 9. 
Eugenia, 102. 
Euonymus, 13, 46. 
Eupatorium, 128. 
Euphrasia, 160. 
Euphorbia, 182. 
Euphorbiaceae, 182. 
Euphorbiiim, Grum, 182. 
Eurycoma, 38. 
Everlasting Flowers, 129. 
Exchequer Tallies, 207. 
Exostemma, 123. 
Eyebright, 160. 



Fabiana, 157. 
Faggiola del Occhio, 68. 
Fagopyrum, 168. 
Fagus, 206. 
False Acacia, 61. 

Calumba, 11. 

Jasmine Root, 152. 

Fatsia, 119. 
Faurea, 177. 
Fennel, 115. 
Fennel-Flower Seeds, 8. 
Fenugreek, 59. 
Feronia, 37. 
Ferula, 115. 
Fevillea, 111. 
Ficoideae, 112. 
Ficus, 194. 
Field Bean, 64. 

Gentian, 153. 

Fig, 194. 



Fig Cakes, 194. 

, Indian, 111. 

Pies, 194. 

Fig wort, 159. 
Filberts, 202. 
Flame Tree, 180. 
Flax, 31, 19]. 

, Spurge, 178. 

Flemingia, 69. 
Flindersia, 44. 
Flores de Palo, 180. 
Foeniculum, 115. 
Forbidden Fruit, 36. 
Forest Oak, 200. 
Foxglove. 159. 
Fragaria,'92. 
Frankincense, 39. 
Fraxinus, 145. 
French Bean, 68. 
Frigolito, 73. 
Fructus Simulo, 16. 
Frutti di Lago, 107. 
Fuller's Teazle, 127. 
Fungus Melitensis, 181. 
Funtumia, 151. 
Furze, 59. 
Fusanus, 180. 
Fustic, 193. 



G. 

Gaertnera, 153. 
Galba, 21. 

Galbanum, Gum, 116. 
Gall-nuts, 204. 
Gallic Acid, 202, 204. 
Galls. Chinese, 54. 

, Mecca, 204. 

Gambler, 121. 

Factory, 122. 

Gamboge, 20, 21. 
Ganja, 191. 
Garcinia, 20. 
Gardenia, 124. 
Garjan Oil, 23. 
Gaub Fruits, 142. 
Gaultheria, 135. 
Gelsemium, 152. 
Genepi Blanc, 131." 
des Alpes, 131 



219 



Genet d'Espagne, 59. 
Gentian, 162. 

, Field, 153. 

Root, 153. 

Gentiana, 153. 
Gentianeae, 153. 
Geoffroea, 72. 
Geraniaceae, 33. 
Geranium, Rose leaf, 33. 
Gerbera, 133. 
German Pellitory, 130. 
Gesse, 64. 
Getah Jelutong, 150. 

Karet, 195. 

Puteh, 139. 

Ram bong, 195. 

Soentei, 139. 

Sundek, 140. 

Sundi, 140. 

Taban Simpor, 139. 

Geum, 92. 
Gevuina, 177. 
Glioom3, 78. 
Giant Trees, 100. 
Gifdoorn, 33. 
Gingelly, 161. 
Ginseng, 119. 
Girardinia, 197. 
Givotia, 187. 
Glastonbury Thorn,. 95. 
Gleditscbia, 75. 
Glossostemon, 30. 
Glycine, 65. 
Glycyrrhiza, 62. 
Gmelina, 163. 
Goa Powder, 72, 
Gogo, 82. 
Gold Thread, 8. 
Golden Seal, 8. 

Wattle, 87. 

Golf Clubs, 206. 
Gombo, 25. 
Gommier, 41. 
Gonagra, 169. 
Gonioma, 150. 
Goodenovieae, 134. 
Gooseberry, 96. 

, Cape, 156. 

, Otaheite, 183. 

Gossypium, 26. 
Gouania, 48. 
Gourds, 109, 111. 
Gouty Stem Tree, 27. 



Gram, 63, 67. 
Granadillas, 108. 
Grape Fruit, 36. 
Grape-Vine, 49. 
Grapple Plant, 161. 
Gray Plum, 89. 
Greenheart, 176. 
Green Gram, 67. 

Wattle, 87. 

Grevillea, 177. 
Grewia, 30. 
Grias, 104. 
Ground Nuts, 63. 

, Bambarra, 68. 

Guaco, 128, 172. 
Guaiacum, 33. 
Guarana Bread, 50. 
Guava, 102. 

, Monkey, 143. 

Guayule, 129. 
Guaza, 191. 
Guazuma, 30, 
Gugal, 39. 
Guimauve, 25. 
Guinea Pepper, 11. 
Guizotia, 130. 
Gujar, 62. 
Gulancha, 11. 
Gum Arabic, 83, 84. 

, Brazilian, 82. 

Ammoniacum, 116. 

Benjamin, 144. 

Benzoin, 144. 

Euphorbium, 182. 

Galbanum, 116. 

Olibanum, 39. 

Opal, 41. 

Sagapenum, 115. 

Sarcocolla, 62. 

, Sweet, 96. 

Tragacanth, 62. 

, Wattle, 85. 

Woods, 128. 

Gunjah, 191. 
Gunny Fibre, 30. 
Guttapercha, 138, 140, 141,150 
182. 

Shea, 14]. 

Singarip. 147. 

Gutti ferae, 20. 
Guzerat Rape, 15. 
Gymnocladus, 75. 
Gypsophila, 19. 



m 



H. 

Haematostaphis, 57. 
Haematoxylon, 75. 
Hakea, 177. 
Haldu, 121. 
Halogeton, 167. 
Haloxylon, 167. 
Hamama, 137. 
Hamamelideae, 96. 
Hanburia, 111. 
Hancornia, 148. 
Hand Plant, 28. 
Haploclathra, 22. 
Hard Maple, 52. 
Hardwickia, 81. 
Harpagophytum, 161. 
Harpephyllum, 57. 
Harpullia, 52. 
Harsinghar, 145. 
Hashish, 191. 
Hassagay Wood, 120. 
Hawthorn, 95. 
Hay Plant, 115. 
Hazel, 207. 
Heath, Tree, 135. 
Heather, 135. 
Hedera, 120. 
Heisteria, 44. 
Helianthus, 130 
Helichrysum, 129. 
Helipterum, 129. 
Hellebore Root, 8. 
Helleborus, 8. 
Hemidesmus, 151. 
Hemileia, 125. 
Hemlock, 113. 
Hemp, 190. 

, Ambari, 25. 

, Chinese, 25. 

, Deccan, 25. 

, East Indian, 59. 

, Rajmahal, 152. 

, Rozelle, 25. 

, Sunn, 59. 

Henbane, 157. 
Henna, 106. 
Hermas, 113. 
Herminiera, 63. 
Heshim, 109. 
Heterophragma, 161. 
Hevea, 186. 



Hibisceae, 25. 
Hibiscus, 25. 
Hickory Nut, 198. 
Hing, 116. 
Hippocratea, 46. 
Hippomane, 189. 
Hirda, 98. 
Hirtella, 90. 
Hodgsonia, 108. 
Hog Gum, 20. 

Nut, 189. 

Plum, 57. 

Holarrhena, 150. 
Holly, 45. 

5 Sea, 113. 

Honey Locust, 76. 
Honeysuckle, 121. 

, Australian, 1 78. 

Honigthee, 58. 
Hookah, 191. 
Hoo-po-lo, 205. 
Hop, 190. 

Tallies, 190. 

Tea, 190. 

Hopea, 24. 
Horehound. 165. 
Hornbeam, 201. 
Horse Chestnut, 50. 
Horseflesh Mahogany, 87. 
Horse Gram, 69. 

Mint, American, 165. 

Horseradish. 8, 14. 

Tree, 57. 

Hotai, 40. 

Hottentot's Tea, 129. 
Hovenia, 48. 
Hufu, 67. 
Humulus, 190. 
Hura, 189. 
Hyawa Gum, 40. 
Hydnocarpus, 18. 
Hydnophytum, 126. 
Hydrangea, 95. 
Hydrastis, 8. 
Hydrocotyle, 113. 
Hydrostachys, 170. 
Hymenaea, 79. 
Hymenodictyon, 123. 
Hymenoxys, 130. 
Hyoscyamus, 157. 
Hypericineae, 20. 
Hypericum, 20. 
Hyptis, 163. 






m 



I. 

IbotaWax, 14 7. 
Ilex, 45. 
Ilicineae, 45. 
lUecebraceae, 166. 
Illicium, 9. 
Illupi, 140. 
Immortelle, 129. 
In Oil, 23. 
Incense Gum, 41. 
India Rubber, 147. 
Indiarubber Fi?, 1 95. 
Indian Almond, 98. 

Barberry, 12. 

Copal, 24. 

Date, 79. 

Fig, 111. 

Madder, 126. 

Mulberry, 125. 

Olive, 146. 

Redwood, 43. 

Root, 152. 

Sarsaparilla, 151. 

Tobacco. 134. 

Turnsole, 188. 

Indigo, 60, 152, 162, 

, Chinese, 168. 

, Green, 48. 

Factory, Model of, 61. 

, Wild, 59. 

, Yoraba, 71. 

Indigofera, 60, 
Inga, 89. 

Seed, 130. 

Insect Powder, Dalmatian, 131. 

Wax, 145. 

Inula. 129. 
lonidium, 17. 
Ipecacuanha, 126. 

, False, 17, 126. 

Ipoh, 196. 
Ipomoea, 154. 
Ire Rubber, 151. 
Iroko, 193. 
Iron Bark, 100. 
Ironwood, 83. 146. 

, Black, 146. 

Irvingia, 38. 
Isatis, 16, 61. 
Ispaghul Seeds, 165. 



Issue Peas, 37. 
Italian Senna, 77. 
Ivy, 120. 
, Poison, 53. 



Jaborandi, 35. 
Jack-fruit, 196. 
Jalap, 154. 
Jamaica Pepper, 102. 

Senna, 77. 

Jambolana, 103. 
Japan Pepper, 35. 

Wax, 53. 

Japanese Lacquer, 53. 

Medlar, 95. 

Jarosse, 64. 

Jarrah, 101. 

Jasmine Root, False, 152. 

Jasminum, 145. 

Jateorhiza, 11. 

Jatropha, 184. 

Jellico, 115. 

Jequerity, 65. 

Jerusalem Artichoke, 130. 

Joannesia, 184. 

Joss-sticks, 180. 

Judas Tree, 78. 

Juglandaceae, 198. 

Juglans, 198. 

Jujube, 47. 

Juliana Plum, 91. 

Jumping ^eeds, 189. 

Jurupari, 78. 

Jute, 30. 

, Chinese, 25. 



Kadam, 121. 
Kaffir Date, 57. 

Plum, 57. 

Tea, 129. 

Kahu, 146. 
Kakaralli, 105. 
Kakrasingi Galls, 55. 
Kamala, 69, 188. 
Kamassi, 150. 



m 



Kanaff, 25. 
Kano, 71. 
Kanyin Oil, 23. 
Kapa Cloth. 192. 
Kapok, 28. 
Karamani Resin, 20. 
Karaunda, 149. 
Karelian Birch, 201. 
Karite, 141. 
Kariyat, 162. 
Karri, 101. 
Katti-Mandu, 182. 
Kauta Bark, 90. 
Kava, 170. 

Bowls, 171. 

Kayu Graru, 179. 
Keena, 21. 
Kei Apple, 18. 
Keim, 121. 
Kenguel Seeds, 133. 
Kentucky Coffee, 75. 
Kermes, 204. 
Keyaki, 190. 
Khair, 85. 
Kharsugi, 167. 
Khat, 46. 
Khaya, 43. 
Kiabooca Wood, 71. 
Kigelia, 161. 
Kino, 70. 

, African, 71. 

, Australian, 99, 100. 

, Bengal, 66. 

Kirayat, 153. 

Kizziljick, 120. 

Knotted Poteron Gourd, 111. 

Ko, 66. 

Kokoon, 46. 

Kokoona, 46. 

Kokra, 184. 

Kokum Butter, 21. 

Kola, 29. 

, Bitter, 21 

, Male, 21. 

Kolila Kat, 61. 
Kombe, 150. 
Koot, 133. 

Kootub of Dellii, 70. 
Koso, 93. 
Kosumba, 51. 
Kousso, 93. 
Kozu, 67. 
Kpokpoka, 150. 



Krameria, 19. 
Kumarah, 155. 
Kumquat, 36. 
Kuraka Nut, 57. 
Kurchi, 150. 
Kurdee Seeds, 133. 
Kuteera Gum, 17, 28. 
Kutki, 159. 
Kuzu, 66. 
Kyetpaung, 151. 
Kype, 203. 
Kyphi, 40. 



Labdanum, 16. 
Labiatae, 163. 
Labrador Tea, 136. 
Laburnum., 59. 
Lac, 33, 195. 

Dyes, 195. 

Lace Bark, 179. 
Lacewood, 198. 
Lacquer, Burmese, 56. 

, Indian, 195. 

, Japanese, 53. 

Lactuca, 134. 
Lactucarium, 134. 
Ladanisterion, 17. 
Lagenaria, 109. 
Lagerstroemia, 106. 
Lagetta, 179. 
Lagos Rubber, 151, 194. 
Lance wood, 10, 123. 
Landolphia, 148. 
Land-turtles Ladders, 78 
Langsat, 42. 
Lansa, 42. 
Lansium, 42. 
Laportea, 197. 
Larrea, 33. 
Lasiosipbon, 179. 
Latakia Tobacco, 158. 
Lathy rus, 64. 
Laurel, Alexandrian, 2L 

, Cherry, 90. 

, Spurge, 178. 

, Tasmanian, 95. 

Laurineae, 173. 
Laurus, 176. 
Lavandula, 164. 



m 



Lavender, 164. 
Lawsonia, 106. 
Leather Plant, 128. 
Lecythis, 104. 
Ledum, 136. 
Leguminosae, 58. 
Lemon, 36. 

Lemon-scented Gum, 99. 
Lens, 64. 
Lentils, 64. 
Leopard- Wood, 195. 
Lerp, 99. 

Letter- Wood, 195. 
Lettuce, 134. 

Opium, 134. 

Leucadendron, 177. 
Leucaena, 83. 
Leuconotis, 147. 
Lewisia, 20. 
Liabum, 132. 
Liatris, 128. 
Liberian Coffee, 125. 
Lightwood, 86. 

, N.S. Wales, 95. 

Lij?n- Aloes, 179. 
Lignum Vitae, 33. 
Ligustrum, 145, 147. 
Lilac, Persian, 42. 
Lima Bean, 6S. 

Wood, 74. 

Lime, 30, 36, 180. 

, Ogeechee, 120. 

Lin-a-Loa, 41, 
Linden, 30. 
Lineae, 31. 
Linen, 31. 
Ling, 135. 
Linseed, 31. 
Linum, 31. 

Liquid Storax, 96, 144. 
Liquidambar, 96, 144. 
Liquorice, 62, 65. 
Liriodendron, 10. 
LitcMs, 51. 
Lithospermum, 154. 
Litsea, 176. 
Lobelia, 134. 
Locust Acacia, 61. 

Bean, 77. 

, Honey, 76. 

, West Indian, 79. 

Lodh Bark, 143. 
Loganiaceae, 152. 



Logwood, 75 
Lo-Kao, 48. 
Lonchocarpus, 61, 1. 
Longan Pulp, 52. 
Longans, 52. 
Long-Pepper, 170. 
Lonicera, 121. 
Loofahs, 109. 
Loosestrife, Purple 10(5. 
Lopez Root, 35. 
Lophira, 39, 183. 
Loquat, 95. 
Loranthaceae, 180. 
Loranthus, 180. 
Lote Fruit, 47. 
Lotus, Egyptian, 12. 
Luban Maitee, 39, 
Lucerne, 60. 
Lucuma, 137. 
LufiPa, 109. 
Lukrabo Seeds, 18. 
Lupins, 59. 
Lupinus, 59. 
Lutqua, 184. 
Lychnophora, 128. 
Lycopersicum, 155. 
Lyperia, 159. 
Lysiloma, 87. 
Lythrarieae, 106. 
Ly thrum, 106. 



M. 

Maba, 141. 
Mabee Bark, 48. 
Mabo, 89. 
Macadamia, 177. 
Macassar Oil, 72. 
Macayo, 72. 
Mace, 171. 
Machilus, 175. 
Mackay Bean, 82. 
Madura, 193. 
Macqui Berries, 30. 
Macrolobium, 78. 
Madagascar Rubber, 1 1 8. 
Madar Fibre, 151. 
Madder, 126. 
Maf ureira, 42. 
Magnoliaceae, 9. 
Mahoe, 25, 



m 



Mahogany, 42. 

, Horseflesh, 87. 

Mahwa, 139. 
Maig^yee, 162. 
Majoon, 191. 
Maketa, 90. 
Malachra, 25. 
Male Jalap, 154. 

Kola, 21. 

Mallotus, 188. 
Mallow, Marsh, 25. 
Maloakang, 19. 
Malpighiaceae, 32. 
Maluku, 19. 
Malvaceae, 24. 
Malvaviscus, 25. 
Malveae, 25. 
Mammea, 22. 
Mammee Apple, 22. 

, African, 21. 

Sapote, 137. 

Manchineel, 189. 
Mandragora, 157. 
Mandiocca, 187. 
Mandrake Root, 157. 
Mangaba, 149. 
Mangabeira Rubber, 148. 
Mangifera, 55. 
Mango, 55. 

, Wild, 38, 57. 

Mangold Wurzel, 166. 
Mangosteen, 21. 
Mangrove, 97. 

, White, 163. 

Manigoba Rubber, 187. 
Manihot, 187. 
Manila Elemi, 41. 
Manna, 63, 145. 

Ash, 145. 

Gum, 99. 

Mannite, 134, 
Maoutia, 198. 
Maple, 52. 

, Bird's Eye, 52. 

, Hard, 52. 

, Sugar, 52. 

Maracaibo Boxwood, 161. 
Marble Wood, Andaman, 141. 
Margosa, 41. 
Marigold, 132. 
Marjoram, Sweet, 166. 
Marking Nuts, 57. 
Marmalade Plum, 137. 



Marrubium, 165. 
Marsdenia, 152. 
Marsh Mallow, 25. 
Marty nia, 161. 
Maryland Pink Root, 152. 
Masea, 66. 
Massaranduba, 141. 
Massoia. 174. 
Massoy Bark, 174. 
Mastic, 55. 
Matico, 170. 
Matricaria, 131. 
Mattipal, 38. 
Matura Tea, 76. 
Maw Seed, 14. 
Maximiliana, 186. 
May Apple, 12. 
Meadow Sweet, 90, 
Mecca Galls, 204. 
Medicago, 60. 
Medlar, 95. 

, Japanese, 95. 

Mee, 140. 
Melaleuca, 99. 
Melanodendron, 128. 
Melanorrhoea, 56. 
Melastomaceae, 105. 
Melia, 41. 
Meliaceae, 41. 
Mellitose, 99. 
Melo Ooton, 111. 
Melocactus, 112. 
Melon, 103, 110. 

, Water, 110. 

, White Gourd, 109. 

Memecylon, 105. 
Meni, 39. 

Menisperraaceae, IJ. 
Mentha, 164. 
Menungan, 147. 
Menyanthes, 153. 
Mesquit, 83. 

, Screw, 83. 

Mesua, 21. 

Metate, 79. 

Mezereon, 178. ^ 

Mikania, 128, 172. 

Milfoil, 131. 

Millettia, 61. 

Mimoseae, 81. 

Mimusops, 140. 

Minjak Tankawang, 140. 

Mint, Black, 164. 



225 



Mint, White, 164. 
Miraculous Berry, 138. 
Mishmee Tita, 8. 
Mistletoe. 180. 
Moghat, 30. 
Mohle Flowers, 145. 
Mola Plum, 89. 
Momordioa, 110. 
Monarda, 165. 
Monimiaceae, 173. 
Monkey Bread, 27. 

Guava, 143. 

Pots, 104. 

Tamarind, 27. 

Monkshood, 8. 

Monodora, 10. 

Moonga, 175. 

Moquilea, 89. 

Mora, 81. 

Moreae, 192. 

Moreton Bay Chestnut, 73. 

Morinda, 125. 

Moringa, 57. 

Moringeae, 57. 

Morus. 193. 

Moth, 67. 

Mother Cloves, 103. 

Moulmein Cedar, 43. 

Mountain Ash, 95. 

Cinnamon, 17. 

Gommier, 41. 

Tea, 135. 

Tobacco, 132. 

Mowa, 139. 

Mozambique Gram, 68. 
Mucherus, 27. 
Mucuna, 66. 
Mddiiga, 66. 
Muga, 175. 
Mulberry, 193. 

, Indian, 125. 

, Paper, 192. 

Mulga, 86. 

Mullein, 159. 

Mummy Wreaths &c,, 207. 

Miing, 67. 

Munjeet, 126. 

Munjistin, 126. 

Mura Piranga, 22. 

Murraya, 35. 

Murucu, 22. 

Musk Root, 115. 

Seed, 25. 

25782 



Muskwood, 128. 
Mussaenda Coffee, 153. 
Mustard, 15. 
Mwavi, 81. 
Myall, 86. 
Myoporineae, 162. 
Myrica, 199. 
Myricaceae, 199. 
Myristica, 171. 
Myristiceae, 171. 
Myrmecodia, 126. 
Myrobalans, 97. 

, Egyptian, 39, 

, Emblic, 183. 

Myroxylon, 73. 
Myrrh, 39. 
Myrsine, 137. 
Myrsineae, 137. 
Myrtaceae, 98. 
Myrtle^ 98. 

, Common, 102. 

. Native, 101. 

, Scrub, 101. 

, Taymanian, 206. 

, Wax, 199. 

Myrtus, 98, 102. 



N. 

Naga Sandal Wood, 180, 

Nagamullie, 162. 

Nagesar, 21. 

Nan-Mu, 175. 

Naras, 109. 

Nardostachys, 127. 

Naseberry, 138. 

Nasturtium, 34. 

Native Myrtle, 101. 

Natto, 65. 

Nawal Kanu Sandal Wood, 180. 

Nectandra, 176. 

Necci, 205. 

Neem, 41. 

Neesia, 28. 

Negro Coffee, 76. 

Peach, 121. 

Pepper, 1 1 . 

Neilgherry Nettle, 197. 
Nelumbium, 12. 
Nepenthaoeae, 172. 
Nepenthes, 172. 



Nepeta, 165. 
Nephelium, 51. 
Neroli, Oil of, 37. 
Nesodaphne, 174. 
Nettle, 197. 

, Neilgherry, 197. 

New Zealand Pincushion, 129. 

NRai, 128. 

Niato Balam, 138. 

Bung:a, 138. 

Tunbaga, 138. 

Nicker Nuts, 75. 
Nicotiana, 157. 
Nig-ella, 8. 
Niger Seed, 130. 
Nightshade, Deadly, 157. 

, Woody, 155. 

Niko, 89. 
Niope SnufE, 82. 
Nopal, 112. 
Nopalea, 112. 
Nopaleries, 112. 
Notelaea, 146. 
Nubian Senna, 77. 
Nukhud, 64. 
Nutmeg, 171. 

, Calabash, 10. 

Nux- Vomica, 152, 153. 
Nuytsia, 180. 
Nyctagineae, 166. 
Nyctanthes, 145. 
Nyraphaeaceae, 12. 
Nyssa, 120. 



o. 

Oak, Adriatic, 202. 

, African, 39, 188. 

of Basan, 205. 

, Bog, 203. 

, Brazilian, 124. 

, Ceylon, 124. 

, Cork, 203. 

, Dantzig, 203. 

, Evergreen, 204. 

, Forest, 200. 

, French, 203. 

, Holm, 204. 

, Italian, 202. 

, Memel, 203. 

, PoiBon, 53. 



Oak Relics, 202. 

, She, 200. 

, Silky, 177. 

, Stettin, 203. 

Oca-quina, 167. 
Ochnaceae, 39. 
Ochrocarpus, 21. 
Ochroma, 28. 
Ochrosia, 149. 
Ocimum, 163. 
Ocotea, 176. 
Odall, 45. 
Odina, 57. 
Odum, 193. 
Ogea Grum, 78. 
Ogeechee Lime, 120. 
Oil of Ben, 58. 
Oitzika, 89. 
Ok gue, 194. 
Okro, 25. 
Okwa, 196. 
Olacineae, 44. 
Old Man Cactus, 112 
Oldenlandia, 123. 
Oldfieldia, 39, 183. 
Olea, 146. 
Oleaceae, 144. 
Olearia, 128. 
Oleum Nigrum, 46. 
Olibanum, 39, 
Olive, 146. 

, Indian, 146. 

Oil, 27. 

Omphalea, 188. 
Omphalobium, 58. 
Onagrarieae, 107. 
Oncoba, 18. 
Ophiocaryon, 53. 
Opium, 13, 

, Lettuce, 134. 

Opochala, 81. 
Opopanax, 118. 
Opuntia, 111, 112. 
Orange, 36. 

, Osage, 193. 

Ordeal Bean, 67. 
Orejera, 88. 
Oriental Plane, 198 
Origanum, 1 65. 
Orizaba Jalap, 154. 
Ormosia, 73. 
Orobanchaceae, 160 
Orobanche, 160, 



2»l 



Oroxylon, 160. 
Osage Orange, 193. 
Osiers, 207. 
Osmanthus, 146. 
Osyris, 181. 
Otaheite Apple, 57. 

Gooseberry, 183. 

Otto of Rose, 93. 
Overlook Bean, 67. 
Owala, 38, 81. 
Oxalic Acid, 34. 
Oxalideae, 34. 
Oxalis, 34. 
OxycoocuB, 135. 



P. 

PachyrhizuB, 68. 
Padauk, Andaman, 71. 

, Burma, 71. 

Paddle Wood, 149, 
Pai'cha, 13, 46. 
Paitan, 70. 
Palaquium, 138. 
Pale Catechu, 121. 

Cinchona, 122. 

Pampelmousse, 36. 
Pandanus, 159, 171. 
Panirband, 157. 
Papain, 108. 
Papaver, 13. 
Papaveraceae, 13. 
Papaw, 108. 
Paper Birch, 201. 

, Bhutia, 178. 

Mulberry, 192. 

, Nepal, 178. 

Papilionaceae, 58. 
Para Rubber, 185. 
Paraguay Tea, 45. 
Pareira Brava, 11. 

, False, 12. 

Parinarium, 89. 
Parkia, 82. 
Paronychia, 166. 
Parsnip, 117. 
Parthenium, 129. 
Partridge Berry, 135. 

Wood, 72. 

Passiflora, 108. 
Passifloreae, 108. . 



Patchouli, 164. 
Pauchontee, 138. 
PauUinia, 50. 
Paulownia, 159. 
Payena, 140. 
Pea, 64. 
Peach, 91. 

, Negro, 121. 

Wood, 74. 

Peacock's Eye Sandal Wood, 180. 
Pear, 95. 

, Anohovy, 104. 

, Avocado, 175. 

, Wooden, 177. 

Peccan Nut, 198. 
Pedalineae, 161. 
Peepul, 194. 
Pelargonium, 33, 160. 
Pellitory, 130. 
Peltophorum, 74. 
Penawar Pait, 38. 
Pennyroyal, 164. 
Pennywort, Indian, 118. 
Pentaclethra, 38, 81. 
Pentadesma, 20. 
Pepper, 170. 

, African, 11. 

, Ashanti, 170. 

, Cayenne, 156. 

, Guinea, 11. 

, Jamaica, 102. 

, Japan, 35. 

, Negro, 11, 

Peppermint, 164. 

Tree, 100. 

Perezia, 133. 
Perilla, 164. 
Periwinkle, 147. 
Pemambuco Rubber, 149. 
Persea, 175. 
Persian Berries, 48. 

Lilac, 42. 

Powder, 131. 

Persimmon, 143. 
Petalostigma, 183. 
Petitia, 162. 
Peucedanum, 117. 
Peumus, 173. 
Peru, Balsam of, 73. 
Phagnalon, 129. 
Phaseolus, 67. 
Phaskomylia Tea, 165. 
Phog, 167. 



228 



Photinia, 95. 


Platanus, 198. 




Phyllanthus, 183. 


Plectranthus, 164. 




Pliyllocactus, 112. 


Plum, Bedara, 38. 




Phylloxera, 50. 


, Blood, 57. 




Physalis, 156. 


, Coco, 89. 




Physic Nut, 184. 


, Common, 91. 




Physocalymma, 106. 


, Date, 142, 143. 




Physostigma, 67. 


, Davidson's, 95. 




Phytocrene, 44. 


, French, 91. 




Phytolacca, 167. 


, Gray, 89. 




Phytolaccaceae, 167. 


, Hog, 57. 




Phytophthora, 156. 


, Kaffir, 57. 




Pichi, 157. 


, Marmalade, 137. 




Pichurim, 176. 


, Mola, 89. 




Picquotiane, 60. 


, Rough-skinned, 90. 




Picraena, 38. 


, St. Julien, 91. 




Picrorhiza, 159. 


, Sapodilla, 138. 




Pig Nut, 189. 


Plumbagineae, 136. 




Pigeon Pea, 69. 


Plumbago, 136. 




Pila-Jari, 8. 


Podophyllin, 12. 




Pilocarpus, 35. 


Podophyllum, 12. 




Pimelea, 178. 


Podostemaceae, 169. 




Pimenta, 102. 


Pogostemon, 164. 




Pimento, 102. 


Poison Ivy, 53. 




Pimpernel, 137. 


Oak, 53. 




Pincushion, New Zealand, 129. 


Poisonous Thorn, 33. 




Piney Resin, 24. 


Pokosola, 149. 




Pink Root, 152. 


Polygala, 19. 




Pinnay Oil, 21. 


Polygaleae, 18. 




Pipal, 194. 


Polygonaceae, 167. 




Pipe Juice, 62. 


Polygonum, 61, 168. 




Piper, 170. 


Pomalo, 36. 




Piperaceae, 170. 


Pomegranate, 106. 




Pipes, Tobacco, 136. 


, Queensland, 16. 




Pipitzahoac, 133. 


Pomme d'Or, 108. 




Pipsissewa, 136. 


Pongamia, 71. 




Piptadenia, 82. 


Pontianac, 150. 




Piscidia, 72. 


Poor Man's Weather Glass, 


137 


Pistacia, 54. 


Poplar, 10. 




Pistachio Nuts, 55. 


, Yellow, 10. 




Pisum, 64. 


Popli-chekke, 47. 




Pith Tree, 63. 


Poppy, 13. 




Pitheccctenium 160. 


Populus, 207. 




Pithecolobium, 88. 


Portia Tree, 26. 




Pittosporeae, 18. 


Posoqueria, 124. 




Pittosporum, 18. 


Portulaca, 19. 




Pituri, 158. 


Portulaceae, 19. 




Piuri, 56. 


Potato, 155. 




Plane, American, 198. 


Gum, 182. 




, Oriental, 198. 


, Sweet, 154. 




Plantagineae, 165. 


Potentilla, 92. 




Plantago, 165. 


Poterium, 93. 




Platanaceae, 198. 


Pottery Tree, 89. 





229 



I 



Prairie Tnmip, 60. 

Prangos, 115. 

Premna, 163. 
Primula, 137. V3fla 

Primulaceae, 137.^ 
Princewood Bark, 123. 
Propiotion Nuts, 66. 
Prosopis, 83. 
Protea, 177. 
Proteaceae, 177. 
Protium, 40. 
Prune, 91. 

Bark, 90. 

Prunus, 90. 
Psidium, 102. 
Psoralea, 60. 
Psychotria, 126. 
Pterocarpus, 70. 
Puccoon, 14. 

, Yellow, 8. 

Puchury, 176. 
Pueraria, 66. 
Pulas Flowers, 66. 
Pumelo, 36. 
Punica, 106. 
Purging Cassia, 76. 
Purple Heart, 80. 

Loosestrife, 106. 

Purpurin, 126. 
Pyonocoma, 188. 
Pyrus, 94. 



Q. 

Qat, 46. 

Quassia, 37, 38. 
Quebrachia, 55, 
Quebracho Blanco, 149, 

Colorado, 55, 150. 

Queensland Nut, 177, 

Pomegranate, 16. 

Quercineae, 202. 
Quercitron, 205. 
Quercus, 158, 202. 
Quetschen, 91. 
Quiina, 22. 
Quillaia Bark, 90. 
Quillaja, 90. 
QuinaBlanca, 185, 
Quince, 94. 
, Chinese, 94. 



Quince, Japanese, 94. 
Quinidine, 123. 
Quinine, 123. 

Tree, 183. 

Quinoa, 32, 167. 



R. 

Radish, 16. 
Rafflesia, 172. 
Rain Caps, 78. 

Tree, 88. 

Raisins, 49. 
Rajmahal Hemp, 152. 
Raki, 54, 
Rambeh, 184. 
Rambutans, 52. 
Ramie, 197. 
Ramtil Seed, 130. 
Randia, 124. 
Ranunculaceae, 7. 
Raoulia, 129. 
Rape, 15. 
Raphanus, 16. 
Rati, 65. 
Red Cinchona, 123. 

Gum, 100. 

Gum, American, 97, 

Sandal Wood, 83. 

Sanders, 71. 

Sorrel, 25, 

Redwood, 83, 

, Andaman, 71. 

, Indian, 43, 

Remijia, 123. 
Reseda, 17. 
Resedaceae, 17. 
Revalenta, 64. 
Rhamnaceae, 47. 
Rhamnus, 47, 
Rhatany Root, 19, 
Rhea, 197, 
Rheum, 168. 
Rhinacanthus, 162. 
Rhipsalis, 112. 
Rhizophora, 97. 
Rhizophoreae, 97. 
Rhodites, 93. 
Rhododendron,5l 36. 
Rhubarb, 168. 
Rhus, 53. 



230 



Rhynchosia, 69. 

Ribes, 49, 96. 

Ribbed Gourd, 111. 

Rice Paper, 119. 

Ricbardsonia, 126. 

Richea, 136. 

Ricinus, 188. 

Rimmon, 107. 

Robin Redbreast's Pincushions, 

93. 
Robinia, 61. 
Rohan Tree, 43, 
Roko, 193. 
Ronco, 54. 
Room, 162. 
Root Rubber, 148. 
Rosa, 93. 
Rose Apples, ] 03. 

, Attar of, 93. 

Bedeguars, 93. 

, Christmas, 8. 

of Jericho, 14. 

, Otto of, 33,. 93. 

Rosaceae, 89. 
Rosmarinus, 165. 
Rosemary, 165. 
Rosewood, 69, 70, 71. 
Rough-skinned Plum, 90. 
Rourea, 58. 
Rowan Tree, 95. 
Rozelle, 25. 
Rubber, African, 148, 151. 

, Bolivian, 189. 

, Borneo, 147. 

, Ceara, 187. 

, Central American, 196. 

, Ceylon, 186. 

, Colombian, 189. 

, Colorado, 130. 

, India, 195. 

, Ire, 151. 

, Lagos, 151, 194. 

, Madagascar, 148. 

, Mangabeira, 148. 

, ManiQoba, 187. 

, Para, 185. 

, Pernambuco, 149. 

, Root, 148. 

, Silk, 151. 

, Straits Settlements, 186. 

, Virgen, 189. 

, West Indian, 196. 

Rubia, 126. 



Rubiaceae, 121, 137. 
Rubianic Acid, 126. 
Rubus, 92. 
Rue, 35. 
Rumex, 169. 
Russia Matting, 30. 
Russian Leather, 201. 
Rusot, 12. 
Ruta, 35. 
Rutaceae, 34. 



s. 

Sabiaceae, 53. 
Sabicu, 87. 
Sacred Bo Tree, 194. 
Sacsaoul, 167. 
Safrol, 175, 176. 
Safflower, 133. 
Sagapenum, Gum, 115. 
Sage, 165. 

Apples, 165. 

St. Ignatius' Beans, 153. 

John's Bread, 77. 

Sakura, 90. 
Sal, 24. 

Salad Burnet, 93. 
Salai Tree, 39. 
Salicine, 206. 
Salicineae, 206. 
Salix, 206. 
Salsafy, 134. 
Salsola, 167. 
Salvador Tea, 135. 
Salvadora, 147. 
Salvadoraceae, 147. 
Salvia, 165. 
Sambucus, 120. 
Sandal Wood, 180. 

, Australian, 180. 

, Fiji, 180. 

, Indian, 180. 

, Red, 83. 

, Sandwich Islands, 180. 

, West Indian, 41. 

Sand-Box Tree, 189. 
Sanguinaria, 14. 
Santal Rouge, 71. 

Vert, 186. 

Santalaceae, 180. 
Santalum, 180. 



231 



Santiriopeis, 41. 
Santonica, 131. 
Sap Green, 48. 
Sapindaceae, 50. 
Sapindus, 51. 
Sapium, 189. 
Sapodilla Plum, 138. 
Saponaria, 19. 
Sapotaceae, 137. 
Sappan Wood, 75. 
Sapucaia Nut, 105. 
Sarcocephalus, 121. 
SarcocoUa, Gum, 62. 
Sarcocaulon, 33. 
Sarcophyte, 181. 
Sarcostigma, 45. 
Sarracenia, 13. 
Sarraceniaceae, 13. 
Sarsaparilla, Indian, 151. 

, Virginian, 119. 

Sassafras, 175, 176. 

, Australian, 173. 

Sassy Bark, 81. 
Satin Walnut, 97. 
Satinwood, 35, 44. 
Saul, 24. 
Saussurea, 133. 
Saxifrageae, 95. 
Scaevola, 134. 
Scammony, 155. 
Scarlet Runner Bean, 6S. 
Schizoneura, 94. 
Schleichera, 51. 
Scorzonera, 134. 
Screw Mesquit, 83. 
Scrophularia, 159. 
Scrophularineae, 159. 
Scrub Myrtle, 101 . 
Sea Bean, 82. 

Holly, 113. 

Seaside Grape, 169. 
Sebastiana, 189. 
Sebesten Tree, 154. 
Sechium, 111. 
Securidaca, 19, 
Semecarpus, 57. 
Semul, 27. 
Senega, 19, 90. 
Senna, Alexandrian, 77. 

, American, 77. 

, Arabian, 77. 

, Italian, 77. 

, Jamaica, 77. 



Senna, Nubian, 77. 

, Tinnivelly, 77. 

, Tripoli, 77. 

Sennett, 44. 
Sequoia, 100. 
Sergena Root, 166. 
Service Tree, Wild, 95. 
Sesamum, 161. 
Sesbania, 61. 
Shaddock, 36. 
She Oak, 200. 
Shea Butter Tree, 141. 
Sheep Plant, 129. 
Shepherdia, 179. 
Shim, 69. 

Shoemaker's Bark, 32. 
Shola. 63. 
Shorea, 24. 
Sicana, 111. 
Sida, 25. 
Sidee, 191. 
Sideroxylon, 138. 
Silk Cotton, 27. 

Rubber, 151. 

, Tasar, 103. 

, Tusseh, 98. 

Silkworm, Castor Oil, 188. 

, Mulberry, 193. 

, Oak, 205. 

Silky Oak, 177. 
Silphium, 119. 
Silver Tree, 177. 

Wattle, 87. 

Silver weed, 92. 
Silybum, 133. 
Simaba, 37. 
Simaruba, 37. 
Simarubeae, 37. 
Simiri, 79. 
Singhara, 107. 
Sintoh, 82. 
Sissoo, 69. 
Sium, 114. 
Sloe, 92. 

Snake Gourd, 108. 
— — Nut, 53. 

Root, 19. 

, Black, 9. 

, Button, 128. 

, Virginian, 173, 

Snakeweed, 168. 
Snake- Wood, 195. 
Snuff, 158, 



232 



Soap Berries, 51. 
Soap Root, 19. 
Solanaceae, 155. 
Solanum, 155. 
Solenostemma, 77 
Sonora Gum, 33. 
Sooly Qua, 109. 
Sophora, 73. 
Sorrel. Red, 25. 

, Wood, 34. 

Souari Nut, 22. 
Sour Sop, 10. 
Soy Beans, 65. 
Soymida, 43. 
Spaetlum Root, 20. 
Spanish Berries, 48. 
Broom, 59. 

Earth, 49. 

Juice, 62. 

Spartium, 59. 
Spathodea, 161. 
Spearmint, 164. 
Spigelia, 152. 
Spikenard, 127. 
Spinach, 166. 
Spinacia, 166. 
Spindle Tree, 46. 
Spiraea, 90. 
Spogel Seeds, 165. 
Spondias, 57. 
Spotted Gum, 99. 
Spurge Flax, 178. 

Laurel, 178. 

Squirting- Cucumber, 110. 
Stachys, 165. 

Star Anise, 9. 

Apple, 137. 

Statice, 136. 
Stekelthee, 58. 
Stephegyne, 121. 
Sterculia, 28. 
Sterculiaceae, 28. 
Stereospermum, 161. 
Stinkwood, 176. 
Storax, Liquid, 96, 144. 

, True, 143. 

Straits Rubber, 186. 
Stramonium, 157. 
Strawberry, Wild, 92. 
Streblus, 192. 
Strobilanthes, 61, 162. 
Strophanthus, 150. 
Strychnine, 152. 



Strychnos, 162. 
Stryphnodendron, 82. 
Styraceae, 143. 
Sty rax, 143. 
Suaeda, 167. 
Sugar Bean, 68. 

, Beet-root, 166. 

Maple, 52. 

Sumac, 54. 
Sumach, 54. 

, American, 54. 

, Cape, 181. 

, Venetian, 54. 

Sumatra Camphor, 24, 175 
Sumbul, 115, 117. 
Supple Jacks, 50. 
Suringi, 21. 
Sunflower, 130. 
Sunn Hemp, 59. 
Swan River Broom, 19. 
Sweet Bark, 185. 

Bay, 176. 

Cassava, 187. 

Cup, 108. 

Fern, 199. 

Gale, 199. 

Gum, 96. 

Marjoram, 165. 

Potato, 154. 

Sop, 10. 

Tea, 121. 

Swertia, 153. 
Swietenia, 42. 
Sycamore, 52. 

Fig, 194. 

Symphonia, 20. 
Symplocos, 143. 



Ta Fung-tsze, 18. 

Huang, 168. 

Taban Gutta, 138. 

Merah, 138. 

Tabebuia, 160. 

Tacae, 105. 

Taccada Pith, 134. 

Tagasaste, 59. 

Taj, 174. 

Tallies, Exchequer, 207. 

, Hop, 190. 



Tallow Tree, 20. 
Tamarind, 79. 

, Monkey, 27. 

, Wild, 87. 

Tamarindus, 79. 
Tamariscineae, 20. 
Tamarix, 20. 
Tambaram, 197. 
Tamboora, 109. 
Tampico Jalap, 154. 
Tanacetum, 131. 
Tanghin, 149. 
Tanner's Cassia, 76. 
Tannic Acid, 202. 
Tannin, 204. 
Tansy, 131. 
Tapa Cloth, 192. 
Tapioca, 187. 
Taraire, 174. 
Taraktogenos, 18. 
Taraxacum, 134. 
Tarra, 74. 
Tarro, 204. 
Tartaric Acid, 49. 
Tasar Silk, 103. 
Tasmanian Myrtle, 206. 
Tawa, 174. 
Tchackka, 196. 
Tea, 22. 

, Algerian, 166. 

, Bush, 58. 

, Cape, 58. 

, Hop, 190. 

, Matura, 76. 

, Osyris, 181. 

, Phaskomylia, 165. 

, Sweet, 121. 

Trees, Australian, 99. 

Teak, 162. 

, African, 183. 

, Bastard, 70. 

Teazle, Fuller's, 127. 
Tecoma, 160. 
Tectona, 162. 
Tejpat, 174. 
Telfairia, 108. 
Tengah, 97. 
Terblanz, 177. 
Teree, 74. 
Teri, 74. 
;Terminalia, 97. 
Terns troemiaceae, 22. 
Terra Japonica, 85, 121. 

25782 



Tetrapleura, 83. 
Tezpat, 174. 
Thalictrum, 8. 
Than, 98. 
Thapsia, 119. 
The Arabe, 166. 

d'Europe, 160. 

de Montague, 154. 

Mont Cenis, 160. 

Theobroma, 29, 32. 
Thespesia. 26. 
Thitsi, 56. 
Thorn, 180. 

Apple, 157. 

, Glastonbury, 95. 

, Poisonous, 33. 

Thorough wort, 128. 
Thylacospermum, 19. 
Thyme, 165. 
Thymelaeaceae, 178. 
Thymic Acid, 114. 
Thymol, 114. 
Thymus, 165. 
Tibetan Tea, 23. 
Til, 161, 176. 
Tilia, 30. 
Tiliaceae, 30. 
Tinder, 132. 
Tinnivelly Senna, 77. 
Tinospora, 11. 
Tipuana, 72. 
Tissoo Flowers, 66. 
Tobacco, 157, 192. 

, Indian, 134. 

, Mountain, 132. 

Pipes, 135. 

Toddalia, 35. 
Tooari, 125. 
Toiu, Balsam of, 73. 
Tomato, 155. 

. Tree, 156. 

Ton Khoi, 192. 
Tong-pang-Chong, 162. 
Tong Rong, 20. 
Tonquin Bean, 72. 

Seed, Bastard, 72. 

Tooba Roots, 71. 
Toolsi, 163. 
Toon, 43. 

Tooth-brush Tree, 147. 
Tormentil, 92. 
Touckpong, 189. 
Touroulia, 22. 



234 



Tow Cok, 68. 
Towel Gourds, 109. 
Touri, 74. 
Trachylobium, 80. 
Tragacanth, 17, 28, 62. 
Tragopog-on, 134. 
Trapa, 107. 
Traveller's Joy, 7. 
Trebizonde Date, 179. 
Treculia, 196. 
Tree Heath, 135. 

Tomato, 156. 

Trema, 190. 
Triage, 124. 
Trichilia, 42. 
Trichosanthes, 108. 
Trifolium, 60. 
Trigonella, 59. 
Trilisa, 128. 
Tripoli Senna, 77. 
Triumfetta, 30, 
Truck Baskets. 207. 
Trumpet Wood, 197. 
Ts'ing-kang-liu, 205. 
Tulip Tree, 10. 

Wood, 52, 106. 

Tung Yu, 184. 
Turban Gourd, 111. 
Turkey Filberts, 202. 

Nuts, 202. 

Turkish Berries, 48. 
Turk's Cap Cactus, 112. 
Turnera, 107. 
Turneraceae, 107. 
Turnip, 15. 

, Prairie, 60. 

Turnsole, Indian, 188. 
Turpentine, Chian, 54, 
Tusseh Silk, 98. 



u. 

U16, 196. 
Ulex, 59. 
Ulmeae, 190. 
XJlmus, 190. 
Ullucus. 167. 
Umbelliferae, 113. 
Umzimbiti, 61. 
Unoaria, 85, 121. 
Upas, 189, 196. 



I Urceola, 151. 
I Urena, 25. 
I Ureneae, 25. 

Urtica, 197. 

Urticaceae, 190. 

Urticeae, 197. 

Urucury Nuts, 186. 



Vacciniaceae, 135. 

Vaccinium, 135. 

Vahy, 148. 

Valerian Roots, 127. 

Valeriana, 127. 

Valerianeae, 127. 

Valonia, 204. 

Varach, 89. 

Varnish Tree, Chinese, 184. 
i Vateria, 24. 
I Vegetable Marrow, 111. 
i Velvet Leaf, 12. 
I Ventilago, 47. 
j Vera Cruz Jalap, 154. 

Verbascum, 159. 
j Verbenaceae, 162. 
I Vernonia, 128. 
j Veronica, 159. 
I Viburnum, 121. 

Vicia, 64. 

Victoria Lily, 12. 
! Vigna, 68. 
I Vinca, 147. 
\ Violarieae, 17. 
i Virgen Rubber, 189. 
j Virginian Sarsaparilla, 119. 

Snake Root, 173. 

I Viscum, 180. 
I Vitex, 163. 

Vitis, 49. 

Voandzeia, 68. 

Vono, 149. 



w. 



Wadadura, 105. 
! Wagatea, 76. 
i Wai-Fa, 73. 
i Wall, 69. 



235 



Wallaba. 78. 
Walnut, 198. 

, Black, 198. 

, Country, 186. 

, East Indian, 88. 

— — , Satin, 97. 
\Val8ura, 42. 
Wampi, 36. 
Waras, 69, 188. 
War Clubs, 79. 
Water Chestnut, 107. 

Melon, 110. 

Wattle Barks, 87. 

, Black, 87. 

, Broad-leaved, 87. 

, Golden, 87. 

, Green, 87. 

Gum, 85. 

, Silver, 87. 

Wax, Balanophora, 181. 

, Chinese White, 147. 

Gourd, Chinese, 109. 

, Ibota, 147. 

, Insect, 145. 

, Japan, 53. 

, Myrica, 199. 

Wax-Myrtle, 199. 
Weld, 17. 

Wellington Elm, 190. 
West Indian Birch, 41. 

Boxwood, 160. 

Ebony, 63. 

Rubber, 196. 

Sandal, 41. 

White Dammar, 24. 

Dogwood, 72. 

Gourd Melon, 109. 

Mangrove, 163. 

Whitewood, 10. 
Whortleberry, 135. 
Wikstroemia, 178. 
Wild Almond, 177. 

Black Cherry, 90. 

Chestnut, 35. 

Indigo, 59. 

Mango, 38, 57. 

Service Tree, 95. 

Strawberry, 92. 

Tamarind, 87. 

Willow, 206. 

, White, 206. 

Willughbeia, 147. 
Windsor Bean, 64. 



Wine Lees, 49. 

Winter Green, Spring, 135» 

, Spotted, 136. 

Winter's Bark, 9, 17. 
Wisket, 203. 
Withania, 157. 
Woad, 16. 
Wolfsbane, 8. 
Wood Apple, 37. 

distillation, 203. 

Flowers, 180. 

Oil, 23, 184. 

Wood-Sorrel, 34. 

Wooden Pear, 177. 

Woodfordia, 106. 

Woody Nightshade, 155. 

Wool Tree, 28. 

Woo-pei-tsze, 54. 

Wormseed, 131. 

Wormwood, 132. 

Wourali, 152. 

Wrightia, 61, 150. 

Wy Nyika Arrow Poison, 149, 



Ximenia, 44. 
Xylia, 83. 
Xylomelum, 177. 
Xylopia, 11. 



Y. 

Yak Saddle, 136. 
Yam Bean, 68. 
Yapon Tea, 45. 
Yarrow, 131. 
Yaupon Tea, 45. 
Yegoma Oil, 164. 
Yellow Berries, 48. 

Broom, 59, 

Cinchona. 122, 

Poplar, 10. 



236 



Yellow Poteron Gourd 

Puccoon, 8. 

Root, 8. 

Sanders Wood, 35. 

Wood, 44. 

Yerba de Mate, 45. 
Yercum, 151. 
Yeso, 49. 
York Gum, 100. 
Yoruba Indigo, 71. 
Young Fustic, 54. 



Ill, 



Zanonia, 111. 
Zantlioxylum, 35. 
Zebra Wood, 58, 141. 
Zelkova, 190. 
ZizyphuB, 47. 
Zwetschen, 91. 
Zygophylleae, 33. 
Zygophyllum, 16. 



\