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Member of The Filso.l Club 


Presenting the Theory of 


>t. - t r Fnghbh-speakiiig People L>( To <l)r 



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Presenting the Theory of 


An Eminent Ethnologist and Explorer, that the English-speaking People of To-day 

are Descended from the Scandinavians rather than the Teutons 

from the Normans rather than the Germans 














All Rights Reserved 

Uo. 2.2- 


THE native Kentuckian has a deep and abiding affection 
for the "Old Commonwealth" which gave him birth. 
It is as passionate a sentiment, too and some might 
add, as irrational as the love of a Frenchman for his native 
France. But it is an innocent idolatry in both, and both 
are entitled to the indulgent consideration of alien critics 
whose racial instincts are less susceptible and whose emo- 
tional nature is under better control. Here and there, a 
captious martinet who has been wrestling, mayhap, with a 
refractory recruit from Kentucky, will tell you that the aver- 
age Kentuckian is scarcely more "educable" than his own 
horse; that he is stubborn, irascible, and balky; far from 
"bridle-wise," and visibly impatient under disciplinary re- 
straint. In their best military form Kentuckians have been 
said to lack "conduct" and " steadiness "-even the men 
that touched shoulders in the charge at King's Mountain 
and those, too, that broke the solid Saxon line at the Battle 
of the Thames. 

Whether this be true or not in whole or in part we 
do not now stop to enquire. Suffice it to say that the Ken- 
tuckian has been a participant in many wars, and has given 

iv Preface 

a good account of himself in all. In ordinary circumstances, 
too, he is invincibly loyal to his native State; and when it 
happened that, in the spring of 1906, there came to Ken- 
tuckians in exile, an order or command from the hospitable 
Governor of Kentucky to return at once to the State, they 
responded with the alacrity of distant retainers to a signal 
from the hereditary Chieftain of the Clan. "Now," said 
they, "the lid will be put on and the latch-string left out." 

When the reflux current set in it was simply prodigious 
quite as formidable to the unaccustomed eye as the field- 
ward rushing of a host ; and it was in the immediate presence 
of that portentous ethnic phenomenon that the paper upon 
the "Lost Race" was first published; appearing in a 
local journal of ability and repute, and serving in some 
measure as a contribution to the entertainment of the guests 
that were now crowding every avenue of approach. 

It is not strange that the generous Kentuckians, then 
only upon hospitable thoughts intent, should imagine for 
one happy quart d'heure that the "Lost Race" of the morn- 
ing paper was already knocking at their doors. But they 
little imagined these good Kentuckians that their hospi- 
table suspicion had really a basis of historic truth. 

The handsome book now launched from the Louisville 
press is merely that ephemeral contribution to a morning 

Preface v 

paper,* presented in a revised and expanded form, with such 
illustrations as could come only from the liberal disposition 
and cultivated taste of Colonel R. T. Durrett, the President of 
The Filson Club. The title which the writer has given the 
book is recommended, in part, by the example of a great 
writer of romance, who held that the name of the book should 
give no indication of the nature of the tale. If the indulgent 
reader should be unconvinced by the "argument" that is 
implied in almost every paragraph, it is hoped that he will 
at least derive some entertainment from the copious flow of 
reminiscential and discursive talk. The book is addressed 
chiefly to those persons who may have the patience to read 
it and the intelligence to perceive that nothing it contains is 
written with a too serious intent. 

The writer makes grateful acknowledgments to the many 
friends who have encouraged him with approval and advice 
in the preparation of the work. For the correction of his 
errors and the continuance of his labors he looks with confi- 
dent expectation to the SCHOLARS OF THE STATE. 

The Morning Ledger (Maysville, Kentucky), June 20, 1906. 


WHILE the Home - Coming Kentuckians were 
enjoying their meeting, in Louisville, in the 
month of June, 1906, Doctor Thomas E. Pickett 
published a newspaper article which he had written for 
the Home-Coming Week, the object of which was to 
present the theory of Paul B. Du Chaillu as to the descent 
of the English-speaking people from the Scandinavians 
instead of the Teutons; and to show that the descendants 
of these Scandinavians were still existing in different 
countries, and especially in Kentucky. The author sent 
me a copy of his article, and after reading it I deemed 
it an ethnological paper worthy of a more certain and 
enduring preservation than a daily newspaper could 
promise, and concluded that it would be suitable for one 
of the publications of The Filson Club. I wrote to the 
author about it, and suggested that if he could enlarge 
it enough to make one of the annual publications of the 
Club, of the usual number of pages, and have it ready 
in time, it might be issued for the Club publication of 
1907. The author did as I suggested, and the book to 
which this is intended as an introduction is number twenty- 

viii Introduction 

two of The Filson Club publications, entitled "The Quest 
for a Lost Race," by Thomas E. Pickett, M. D., LL. D., 
member of The Filson Club. 

Many persons of the English-speaking race of to-day 
believe that the English originated in England. The 
race doubtless was formed there, but it came of different 
peoples, principally foreign, who only consolidated upon 
English soil. Half a dozen or more alien races combined 
with one native to make the English as we now know 
them, and many years of contention and change were 
required to weld the discordant elements into a homo- 
geneous whole. 

The original inhabitants of England, found there by 
Julius Caesar fifty-five years before the Christian era and 
then first made known to history, were Celts, who were 
a part of the great Aryan branch of the Caucasian race. 
Their numbers have been estimated at 760,000, and they 
were divided into thirty-eight different tribes with a 
chief or sovereign for each tribe. They were neither 
barbarians nor savages in the strict sense of these terms. 
They were civilized enough to make clothes of the skins 
of the wild animals they killed for food ; to work in metals, 
to make money of copper and weapons of iron, to have 
a form of government, to build cabins in which to live, 
to cultivate the soil for food, and to construct war chariots 

Introduction ix 

with long scythes at the sides to mow down the enemy 
as trained horses whirled the chariots through their ranks. 
They had military organizations, with large armies com- 
manded by such generals as Cassivelaunus, Cunobelin, 
Galgacus, Vortigern, and Caractacus, and once one of 
their queens named Boadicea led 230,000 soldiers against 
the Romans. The bravery with which Caractacus com- 
manded his troops, and the eloquence with which he 
defended himself and his country before the Emperor 
Claudius when taken before him in irons to grace a Roman 
triumph, compelled that prejudiced sovereign to order 
the prisoner's chains thrown off and him and his family 
to be set at liberty. There were enough brave men and 
true like Caractacus among these Celts, whose country 
was being invaded and desolated, to have secured to the 
race a better fate than befell them. After being 
slaughtered and driven into exile into Brittany and the 
mountains of Wales by Roman, Saxon, and Dane for 
eight hundred years, the few of them that were left alive 
were not well enough remembered even to have their 
name attached to their own country. 

The Celt was entirely ignored and a name combined 
of those of two of the conquerors given to their country. 
Who will now say that Anglo-Saxon is a more appropriate 
name for historic England than the original Albion, or 

x Introduction 

Britannia, or Norman-French, or Celt? Anglo-Saxon, 
compounded of Anglen and Saxon, the names of two 
tribes of Low Dutch Teutons, can but suggest the piracy, 
the robbery, the murder and the treachery with which 
these tribes dealt with the Celts; while Norman- French 
reminds us of the courage, the endurance, and the refine- 
ment which were infused into the English by the Norman 
Conquest. Celt is a name which ought to have been 
respected for its antiquity of many centuries since it 
left its ancient Bactria and found its way to England 
without a known stain upon its national escutcheon. 
These Celts were once a mighty people occupying France, 
Spain, and other countries besides England, but their 
descendants are now scattered among other nations, 
without a country or a name of their own. 

There may be doubts whether the Angles, the Jutes, 
the Saxons, and the Danes all of whom shared in partial 
conquests of England and in the establishment of the 
English race were Scandinavians or Teutons, Normans or 
Germans. They all belonged to the great Aryan branch 
of the Caucasian race, and whatever differences or simi- 
larities originally existed between them must have changed 
in the thousands of years since they emigrated from their 
first home. There can be no doubt, however, about the 
nationality of William the Conqueror. He was Scandi- 

Introduction xi 

navian by descent from a long line of noble Scandinavian 
ancestors. The home of his ancestors was in Norway, 
far to the north of the home of the Teutons in Germany. 
In this bleak land of Arctic cold and sterility, on the 
western coast of Norway, where innumerable islands 
form a kind of sea-wall along the shore, his ancestor, 
Rognvald, who was a great earl holding close relations 
with King Harold of Norway, had his home and his land- 
locked harbor, in which ships were built for the vikings 
who sailed from that port to the shores of all countries 
which they could conquer or plunder. Here, his son 
Gongu Hrolf, better known as Rollo or Rolf, was born 
and received his training as a viking. On his return 
from one of his viking raids to the East he committed 
some depredations at home, for which King Harold ban- 
ished him. He then fitted out a ship and manned it with 
a crew of his own choice and sailed for the British Channel 
islands. When he reached the river Seine he went up 
it as far as Paris, and, according to the fashion of the 
times, laid waste the country as he went. King Charles 
of France offered to buy him off by conveying to him 
the country since known as Normandy and giving him 
his daughter in marriage, on condition that he would 
become a Christian and commit no more depredations 
in the King's domain. Rollo accepted the King's offer 

xii Introduction 

and at once ceased to be a viking, and began to build up, 
enlarge and strengthen the domain which had been given 
him with the title of Duke. In the course of time his 
dukedom of Normandy, with the start Rollo had given 
it and its continuance under his successors, became one 
of the most powerful and enlightened countries of the 

At the death of Rollo his dukedom was inherited by 
his son, William, and after passing through four genera- 
tions of his descendants who were dukes of Normandy 
it descended to a second William, known as the Conqueror. 
Duke William, therefore, could trace his Scandinavian 
descent through his paternal ancestors back to Rognvald, 
the great earl of Norway, and even further back through 
the earls Eystein Glumra, Ivar Uppland, and possibly 
other noblemen of hard names to write or pronounce or 
remember. It is possible that some of his ancestors 
were with Lief the Scandinavian when he made his dis- 
covery of America, nearly five hundred years before the 
discovery of Columbus. 

In 1066, Duke William took advantage of a promise, 
solemnized by an oath, which Harold had made before 
he was King of England, to assist him to the throne of 
England, but which he had not kept. Hence William 
invaded England with a great army, and at the battle 

Introduction xiii 

of Hastings slew King Harold and gained a complete 
victory over his forces. Duke William was soon after 
crowned King of England, and at once began that wise 
policy which in a few years enabled him to lay firmly 
the foundation of the great English nation. His conquest, 
though not complete at first, was more so than had been 
that of the Romans, or the Angles and Jutes, or the 
Saxons or the Danes. At the time of the Conquest of 
William there were hostile Celts, Romans, Angles, Jutes, 
and Danes in every part of his kingdom. It was not 
his policy to destroy any more of them than he deemed 
necessary, but to make as many of them citizens loyal 
to him as possible; hence his numerous army and the 
still more numerous hosts that were constantly coming 
from Normandy to England in time became reconciled 
to the people and the people to them, until all were con- 
solidated into one homogeneous nation. English history 
may be said to have begun with the Conquest of William, 
for all previous history in the island was but little more 
than the record of kings and nobles and pretenders con- 
tending against kings, nobles, and pretenders, and sec- 
tions and factions and individuals seeking their own 
aggrandizement. The Conquest of William began with 
the idea of all England under one sovereign, and he and 
his successors cuing to this view until it was accomplished. 

xiv Introduction 

England never went backward from William's Conquest 
as it did from others, but kept right on in the course of 
empire until it became one of the greatest countries in 
the world, and this conquest was made by Scandinavians, 
who, if they did not make Scandinavians of the conquered, 
so Scandinavianized them that it would be difficult to 
distinguish them from Scandinavians. 

The evolution of the English race from so many dis- 
cordant national elements reminds one of the act of the 
witches of Macbeth, casting into the boiling cauldron so 
many strange things to draw from the dark future a fact 
so important as the fate of a king. Who would have 
thought that from the mingling of the Celts and the 
Romans and the Angles and the Jutes and the Saxons and 
the Danes and the Normans and the French in the great 
national cauldron that such a race as the English would 
be evolved? But it is not certain that such a race would 
have been produced if William the Scandinavian and his 
French had been left out. He came at a time when a 
revolution was needed in manners and language as well 
as in politics, and imparted that refinement which the 
French had gotten from the Romans and other nations. 
The French language so imparted soon began to infuse 
its softening influence into the jargon of the conglomera- 
tion of tongues in vogue, and the French manners to 

Introduction xv 

refine the clownish habits which had come down from 
original Celt, Saxon, and Dane. The Saxons and Danes 
had inhabited England for the four hundred years which 
followed the same period occupied by the Romans, 
without materially changing the manners or the language 
of the English, but it was not as long as either of these 
periods after the Conquest before the Englishman acted 
and spoke like a gentleman and belonged to a country 
which commanded the respect as well as fear of all other 
nations. The Scandinavian's fondness for war soon 
infused itself into the English and made them invincible 
upon both land and sea, and now with a land which so 
envelopes the earth that they boast the sun always shines 
on some part of it, they may look back some hundreds 
of years to the origin of their greatness and find no one 
thing which contributed more to the glory of England 
than the Norman-French Conquest. 

But the reader had better learn the views of Paul B. 
Du Chaillu, an accomplished ethnologist and explorer, 
about the descent of the English from the Scandinavians 
instead of the Teutons as set forth in Doctor Pickett's 
book than from me in an introduction to it. Doctor 
Pickett explains the Du Chaillu theory, and gives 
examples of similar tastes and habits between English 
and Scandinavians which are striking. He also gives a 

xvi Introduction 

long list of names borne by Scandinavians in England 
and Normandy eight hundred years ago which are the 
same as names borne by Kentuckians to-day. In this 
introduction, I have rather confined myself to such 
historic matters as are involved, without alluding to the 
ethnological facts so well presented in the text by the 
author. The work is beautifully and copiously illustrated 
with halftone likenesses of the author and Du Chaillu 
and by a number of distinguished Kentuckians of Scandi- 
navian descent. There was both good taste and skill in 
placing among the illustrations the likenesses of Theodore 
O'Hara, John T. Pickett, Thomas T. Hawkins, and 
William L. Crittenden, who joined the filibustering expedi- 
tions of Lopez to Cuba. These distinguished citizens, 
like the Scandinavian vikings whom they imitated, lost 
nothing of their character by raiding upon a neighbor's 
lands, and are among the best examples of the theory 
of the descent of the English-speaking people from 
Scandinavians rather than Teutons. To be an admirer 
of this work it is not necessary to be a believer in the 
theory of Du Chaillu, that the English are descended 
from Scandinavians instead of Teutons. The truth is, 
all the northern nations connected with England were 
kinsmen descended from the same stock Celts, Romans, 
Angles, Jutes, Saxons, and Danes all being of the Aryan 

Introduction xvii 

branch of the great Caucasian race. They are so much 
alike in some particulars that fixed opinions about 
differences or likenesses between them are more or less 
untenable. There is one thing, however, in the book 
about which there can be no two opinions, and that is 
the value and importance of the list of names copied 
from records eight hundred years old, in England and 
Normandy. As many of them are the same as names 
now borne by living families in Kentucky, they can 
hardly fail to be of help to those in search of family 
genealogy. Doctor Pickett has presented in this work 
the theory of Du Chaillu in charming words and with 
excellent taste, as the theory of Du Chaillu and not as 
his own, and such has been my effort with regard to myself 
in this introduction. It is simply the resumption of 
a "Quest." 


President of The Filson Club. 



Thomas E. Pickett, M. D., LL. D Frontispiece 

Paul B. DuChaillu 4 

King William the Conqueror 8 

" The Map that Tells the Story " 12 

George Rogers Clark 16 

Daniel Boone 24 

Isaac Shelby 32 

Joseph Hamilton Daveiss 36 

Henry Clay 40 

Joseph Desha 48 

Abraham Lincoln (bas relief) 56 

" Our Beautiful Scandinavian " 64 

Jefferson Davis 72 

John C. Breckinridge 80 

William Preston 88 

Basil W. Duke 96 

The Marshall Home at "Buck Pond" 104 

Richard M. Johnson 1 12 

J. Stoddard Johnston 120 

Northumbria 128 

Theodore O'Hara 136 

John T. Pickett 144 

Thomas T. Hawkins 152 

William L. Crittenden 160 

William Nelson 168 

Humphrey Marshall 176 

John J. Crittenden 184 

Henry Watterson 192 

Bennett H. Young 200 

Reuben T. Durrett. .., . .208 

















xx Contents 












Contents xxi 









PERRY 101 




xxii Contents 














Contents xxiii 
















T TPON the northern border of Mr. James Lane Allen's 
**^ "Arcady" there rises with picturesque distinctness 
against a range of green hills the pleasant old Kentucky 
town of Maysville, which, unlike the typical town of the 
South, is neither "sleepy" nor "quaint," but in a notable 
degree animated, bustling, ambitious, advancing, and up- 
to-date. It must be confessed, however, that here and 
there, in certain secluded localities, it is architecturally 
antique. Constructed almost wholly of brick, and planted 
solidly upon the lower slopes of the wooded hills, the 
site is indescribably charming, and, looked at from a 
distant elevation in front or from the elevated plateau 
of the environing hills, presents a pleasing completeness 
and finish in the coup d'ceil. At one glance the eye 
takes in the compact little city, set gem-like in the 

2 The Quest for a Lost Race 

crescentic sweep of the river that flows placidly past the 
willow-fringed shore and the walled and graded front. 
The scene is likewise suggestive, since it marks the 
northern limit of the "phosphatic limestone" formation 
which assures the permanent productiveness of the over- 
lying soil a natural fertilizer which by gradual disinte- 
gration perpetually renews the soil exhausted by pro- 
longed or injudicious cultivation. 

The town is of Virginian origin. At one time, indeed, 
it was a Virginian town. The rich country to the south 
of it was peopled chiefly by tobacco planters from 
"Piedmont" Virginia, slaveholding Virginians of a 
superior class. 

In the infancy of this early Virginian settlement it 
was vigilantly guarded by the famous Occidental hunters, 
Kenton and Boone; the former a commissioner of roads 
for the primitive Virginian county, then ill-cultivated and 
forest clad: the latter, a leading "trustee" of the em- 
bryonic Eighteenth Century town. As we pass through 
the streets near the center of the place to-day we note 
the handsome proportions of a public edifice which has 
come down to us from the early mid-century days an 
imposing "colonial" structure with a lofty, well-propor- 
tioned cupola and a nobly columned front. It is that 
significant symbol of Southern civilization the Court- 

The Quest for a Lost Race 3 

house. To the artistic and antiquarian eye the building 
is the glory of the old "Virginian" town, since it appeals 
at once to civic pride and superior critical taste. 

It was here in the capacious auditorium of the Court- 
house, and in the closing quarter of the last century 
that a large and enthusiastic gathering of really typical 
Kentuckians, familiar from childhood with tales of wild 
adventure, greeted with rapturous applause the renowned 
hunter and explorer, Paul Du Chaillu, a native of Paris, 
France. A common taste for woodcraft had brought the 
alien elements in touch. The Frenchman was a swell 
hunter of big game, and had come hither to repeat his 
graphic recital of experiences in the equatorial haunts 
of that formidable anthropoid the Gorilla. Du Chaillu 's 
discovery of the gorilla and the Obonga dwarfs was so 
astounding to modern civilization that strenuous 
efforts were made to discredit it, notably by Gray and 
Earth. But later explorations amply vindicated the 
Frenchman's claims. 

He had a like experience later. The adventurous 
explorer had come to Kentucky in prompt response to an 
invitation from a local club, a social and literary organi- 
zation which owed its popularity and success chiefly to 
the circumstance that the genial members, though some- 
times intemperately "social," were never obtrusively "liter- 

4 The Quest for a Lost Race 

ary." The social feature was particularly pleasing to 
the accomplished Frenchman, who was a man of the 
world in every sense, and who dropped easily into con- 
genial relations with gentlemen who had an hereditary 
and highly cultivated taste for le sport in all its phases. 
Take them when or where you might, the spirit of cama- 
raderie was in them strong. They told a good story in 
racy English and with excellent taste. They had studied 
with discrimination the composition of a Bourbon "cock- 
tail." They had a distinctly connoisseurish appreciation 
of the flavor, fragrance, and tints of an Havana cigar. 
They had a traditional preference for Bourbon in their 
domestic and social drinking, but they always kept ample 
supplies of imported wines for their guests. 

The genial Frenchman was very indulgent to the 
generous tipple of his hosts. He drank their Bourbon 
without apparent distaste; he praised their imported 
Mumm and Clicquot. He did better still; he drank 
the imported champagne with appreciation a high com- 
pliment from such a source. 

Clearly enough the harmony between the guest and his 
environment was complete. These courteous and loqua- 
cious Kentuckians were not only brilliant and audacious 
raconteurs, but with their varied experiences as sports- 
men had a variety of marvelous stories to tell. When 


The Quest for a Lost Race 5 

their stock of pioneer exploits fell short, they would listen 
with polite interest to their guest's weird stories of the 
African jungle, and cleverly cap them with reminiscences 
of a miraculous outing on Reelfoot Lake or Kinniconick. 
They were themselves experts with the rifle and the long 
bow, and were loaded to the muzzle with authentic tradi- 
tions of the rod and gun. 

The jungle stories were all right, but the African hunter 
was never allowed to forget that he was in the land of 
the hunter Boone. The very ground upon which they 
commemoratively wassailed had been consecrated by the 
footsteps of the great explorer of the West. The beastly 
"anthropoids" that confronted him were armed with 
tomahawks and guns. A salient point of difference indeed. 
The clever and daring Frenchman listened with smiling 
interest to their characteristic spurts of "brag," and was 
silently remarking, no doubt, its curious affinity to the 
gasconade of France. He seemed to feel perfectly at 
home. And who of us that were present can ever forget 
the impression of that dark, resolute face, the illumining 
smile, the gleaming teeth, and the kindly, humorous glance 
of the piercing eye? His experiences at the clubroom 
only partially prepared him for the peculiar impressive- 
ness of the audience that greeted him at the stately old 
Courthouse. There were the same men, to be sure, hand- 

6 The Quest for a Lost Race 

some, graceful, courteous, smiling, and soft of speech; 
but the women! with their lovely faces, their handsome 
dresses, their enchanting manners, their distinction, ease 
and charm ! The Frenchman was never more of a philoso- 
pher than when he gazed upon this scene. 

He told his tale of the jungle simply, but with a viv- 
idness that was realistic and startling to a degree. The 
fascination of the audience was complete. He not only 
described that strange encounter in the African forest, 
but he re-enacted the part, a representation which gave 
a curiously thrilling quality to the tale not appreciable 
when told in print, admirably as it is told in the author's 
famous book. 

When the voice of the speaker ceased, as it did all 
too soon, the silent, fascinated audience, aroused from 
its strange African dream, broke into round after round 
of hearty, appreciative applause. For several moments 
the lecturer stood in a grave, thoughtful attitude, gazing 
intently upon the moving throng, not as though idly 
observing the dispersion of a village gathering, but as 
some philosophic tourist from another sphere, studying 
the aspect, the attitude, characteristic manner and physi- 
ognomical traits of an alien race. He asked but one 
question. Turning eagerly to the gentleman who accom- 
panied him, he inquired with an expression of intense 

The Quest for a Lost Race 7 

interest, as his glance fell upon a graceful Kentuckienne 
near the center of the throng a lovely blonde with exquis- 
ite complexion, hair and eyes "Who is our beautiful 
Scandinavian?"* The answer seemed to please him, and 
he walked thoughtfully toward the door, an object of 
respectful attention from the slow-moving throng, linger- 
ing as if it longed to stay. Though of small stature, 
he would have attracted attention anywhere. His figure 
was compact, lithe, elastic, and perfectly erect, his cranial 
outline (typically French) denoted intellectual strength and 
physical vigor, his facial contour was bold, regular, and 
pleasing a singularly virile countenance softened and 
dignified by the discipline of thought. The crowd of 
which he is now the central figure is composed largely 
of men wholly different from Du Chaillu in air, stature, 
carriage, countenance, complexion, and racial type. Yet 
Nature seldom evolves from any source a solider bit of 
man than this gallant Frenchman from the heart of France . 

*OuR BEAUTIFUL SCANDINAVIAN. It may interest the general public to know that 
"The Beautiful Scandinavian" of the French traveler was Mrs. Elizabeth Wall, 
wife of that popular gentleman, Judge Garrett S. Wall. Her maiden name was 
BUCKNER Elizabeth Buckner a native of Kentucky and daughter of a famous 
Southern house. That she was a very beautiful woman, her portrait (taken years 
after marriage) amply attests ; and until her ill-health came, her beauty retained, 
in almost ideal perfection, its characteristic grace and charm. The Beautiful 
Scandinavian, from whose portrait in oil a halftone likeness is presented in 
this book, now takes her place in history and moves down its interminable lines 
with an escort that recalls the "bands of gallant gentlemen" attendant upon 
FAIR INEZ when she "went into the West." 

8 The Quest for a Lost Race 

The distinguished guest took his departure on the 
following day, not with a cold adieu, but with an airy 
au revoir as of one who, charmed with his welcome, 
was meditating an early return. But was he pleased? 
Apparently he was, and if not, he had the Frenchman's 
happy art of seeming to be. If here simply for observa- 
tion, he certainly found no degeneracy, but rather, we 
should say, certain pleasing lines of variation in the Occi- 
dental evolution of the race. It seems impossible that 
he should not have had a pleasant impression of his hosts 
these genial sons of "Arcady," forever piping their minty 
elixirs with oaten straws, whose drinks even when "straight- 
est" were not stronger than their steady heads so hos- 
pitable to strangers, so chivalrous to women, so courteous 
to men, so gracious in manner, so happy in speech, so 
loyal to kin, so proud of their Commonwealth, their 
ancestral traditions, and their indomitable race. They 
drank naught from the skulls of their enemies, but they 
were adepts in filling their own. Their potations were 
pottle deep, and the intervals between were not need- 
lessly prolonged. And yet they rose refreshed from 
their heady cups, ordered their stud a drench, and sighed 
for work. 

The adventurous Frenchman was no glutton in de- 
bauch, but in a modest symposium could always hold 


The Quest for a Lost Race 9 

his own, and doubtless imagined in this festal reunion of 
Bourbon and Champagne that he had re-discovered the 
Nouvelle France of the royal days when Louis le Grand 
was King.* 

*M. Paul Du Chaillu's visit to Maysville (which is here described) took 
place in February, 1876. His arrival was handsomely noticed in the local papers 
in the Eagle, edited by Mr. Thomas Marshall Green, the author of " The Spanish 
Conspiracy "; the Ledger, edited by Mr. Thomas A. Davis, who still presides over 
its columns with all the old-time ability; and the Bulletin, edited by Mr. Clarence 
L. Stanton, a son of Judge R. H. Stanton, and a gallant officer in the Confederate 
Navy during the Civil War. All these gentlemen were present at the lecture, and 
the distinguished traveler was introduced to the audience by Colonel Thomas M. 
Green. The lecture was followed by an entertainment at the Limestone Club, 
which was pleasantly noticed by Captain Stanton in his paper of the following 
day. The Committee of Reception and Entertainment was composed of Major 
Thomas H. Mannen, Judge Garrett S. Wall, Colonel Francis P. Owens, and 
Doctor Thomas E. Pickett (the President of the Club). 

io The Quest for a Lost Race 


In the early autumn of 1889, the writer of this paper 
had the good fortune to be present at the Newcastle 
meeting of the British Association. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
standing at the very gateway of Scotland and looking 
out from the Tyne upon the great North Sea, is a famous 
old city in English history, that lay directly in the path 
of conquest and migration and was literally cradled in 
war, alternately rocked by Scandinavian or Dane, Saxon 
or Norman, Englishman or Scot. To-day it is big, pros- 
perous, and progressive; even in the midst of peace per- 
petually sounding the note of preparation for war. True 
to its oldest and best traditions it is staunchly loyal to 
the Crown, proudly proclaiming its fealty on every coast, 
from the mouths of mighty guns cast in its own Cyclo- 
pean shops. From the days of the Scandinavian sea-rover 
through centuries of ruthless conflict she has stood out 
stoutly against the enemies of England, just as to-day 
her long sea-front of solid wall resists the encroachments 
of the Northern sea. 

Here the shipbuilder is ceaselessly busy, construct- 
ing in his immense yards the great modern ship with its 
heart of fire and frame of steel. In any large yards the 

The Quest for a Lost Race n 

whole scheme of construction in all its branches may 
be seen at a glance, from the laying of the keel to the 
launching of the ship. The best work in modern engi- 
neering can be seen on the Tyne; and this is not sur- 
prising when we remember that upon the banks of this 
river the Locomotive was born, giving to this aggressive 
contemporary people a command of the earth as com- 
plete as their immemorial mastery of the sea. So enor- 
mous is the demand for fuel in the shipyards of the North- 
east Coast that it will take but a few centuries of work 
in these busy shops to exhaust the supply. The old 
proverb has lost its point. The most careless or unobser- 
vant tourist may see the steam-drawn trains "carrying 
their coals" to Newcastle, now, at all hours. 

Nor does the Northern farmer sit with idle hands. 
All industries rest upon him. The farms are small, but 
the joint product is large. Thousands of farm laborers 
in Northumberland have each their "three acres and a 
cow." The Northern cattle-market in Newcastle would 
have filled the Highland caterans with delight. The 
weekly supply of cattle exceeds two thousand ; the number 
of sheep is not less than twenty thousand. This was 
nearly twenty years ago. What must it be now? But 
even thus, how it speaks for the varied gifts and exhaust- 
less vigor and vitality of this old Northumbrian race! 

i2 The Quest for a Lost Race 

Their rage for "river improvement" carries a lesson for 
men of their blood elsewhere. Between 1860 and 1889 
the material dredged from the bed of the river Tyne 
amounted to more than eighty millions of tons. "Now,"- 
it was said at the Newcastle meeting " there are more 
vessels entering and leaving this port than any other in 
the world." Among the outgoing vessels at that time was 
a gallant Norwegian barque which bore the name of 
"Longfellow." A few years before a score, perhaps 
the writer had seen upon a famous track in Kentucky 
a racer of great note who bore the same illustrious name 
almost a contemporaneous compliment from widely 
separate branches of the same race. But what more en- 
during than the singer's own verse? 

"Once as I told in glee 
Tales of the stormy sea." 

A fit place of meeting this old gateway of the North 
for a select body of England's brilliant, busy, clear-headed 
and practical savants, and especially for that marvelously 
fruitful mid-century "section" which here first received 
supreme scientific recognition, having been organized at 
the Newcastle meeting by the British Association in 1863. 

Though the youngest of the sections, its proceedings 
are singularly fascinating and the attendance always 
large. The meeting was held in the reading-room of the 


The Quest for a Lost Race 13 

Free Library. Upon a long, low platform to the left of 
the entrance there sat facing the audience, a group, not of 
"scientists," but of really scientific men, their names as 
familiar to the English reading world as household words. 
The central figure of the group, Sir William Turner of 
Edinburgh, was the chairman of the section a man of 
striking personality, who read a paper on Weismann and 
his theories which was listened to with closest attention, 
the novelty of the doctrines eliciting many expressions of 
doubt or dissent, though presented by the author of the 
paper with singular lucidity, fairness, and force. Sir 
William graced his position well, not merely by reason of 
intellectual gifts, but by virtue of a personal dignity 
which admirably comported with his commanding pres- 
ence. He was a large, handsome man, with a robust 
frame, an erect carriage, and a notably aggressive air. 
Seated near him, and firmly supporting his somewhat 
heavy presence, were a number of men with world-renowned 
names Francis Galton, famous for his studies in heredity 
and the publication of an epochal work; Sir Henry Acland, 
a learned anthropologist and medical scholar a thinker 
of deep and varied scientific resource; Boyd Dawkins, 
the pioneer "Cave Hunter" and writer upon prehistoric 
archaeology; John Evans, an able, learned, and indus- 
trious writer upon archaeological themes; Doctor Bruce, 

14 The Quest for a Lost Race 

the eminent historian of the Roman Wall; General Pitt 
Rivers, equally famous as soldier and savant, a quiet, 
dark-faced gentleman of easy, pleasant manners, dressed 
in the plainest fashion and judiciously expending an income 
of 30,000 a year. His large benefactions for scientific 
purposes made him truly a Prince of Science, gracious, 
munificent, and wise. The most striking and conspicu- 
ous figure in this solid English line was George Romanes, 
then in his prime and in apparently perfect health, tall, 
erect, dark-haired, with pale, handsome features and 
scholarly, high-bred air a most impressive personifica- 
tion of intellectual pride and strength. As he sat in the 
midst of that animated group, cold, proud, silent but 
keenly observant, he vividly recalled the figure of the 
famous Kentuckian who once presided over the United 
States Senate, calmly noting the portents of impending 
war. In both, one easily discerned the same high quali- 
ties of intellect, resolution, and reserved force. By the 
side of the stately Romanes there sat the learned and 
vivacious Canon Isaac Taylor, slender, gray-haired, keen- 
eyed, alert, humorous, and full of tact one of those 
clerical scholars and gentlemen who have done so much 
for English literature and have been a characteristic charm 
of English social life men most admirably depicted by 
the novelist Bulwer in his better moods. Canon Taylor 

The Quest for a Lost Race X 5 

was the most animated figure in this noble English group. 
Near him sat two foreigners, each in curiously striking 
contrast with the other; one of these, a tall, ruddy, broad- 
shouldered blonde, with a strong, lithe, well-knit frame, 
an eager, alert expression, and a somewhat restless air, 
was the celebrated Scandinavian explorer Fridjof Nansen, 
then just twenty-six years of age, but already made world- 
famous by his recent explorations in the polar seas. At 
the left of the young Scandinavian, and presenting a 
remarkable contrast to that impressive figure, there sat 
a somewhat older man of small stature, of compact, vig- 
orous frame, of clear, dark complexion, keen, clear, thought- 
ful eyes, and features typically French. The reader 
recognizes the description at once. It is our old friend, 
Du Chaillu, who has come to the northern coast of Eng- 
land, and standing in the very pathway of old Scandina- 
vian invasions and confronting some of England's best 
thinkers upon their own ground, has calmly looked out 
upon the "grim troubled" sea of England's Saxon King 
and boldly proclaimed his theory of the direct Scandina- 
vian origin of the English race. 

It was the sensational paper of the day, and even 
the most phlegmatic English scholar was stirred by this 
defiant bugle-blast from a philosophic French explorer who 
was not only disturbing the settled convictions of Eng- 

16 The Quest for a Lost Race 

lish thinkers, but still worse was running counter to cher- 
ished prejudices of the English race. That historic hyphen- 
ation of racial appellatives "Anglo-Saxon" was a sacred 
immemorial conjunction of names representing a fusion 
of racial elements not to be shaken asunder by a blast 
upon the ram's horn of a wandering Gaul. The assault 
was not altogether "Pickwickian"; but the Frenchman 
was a stout antagonist, and found an incidental con- 
firmation of his theory in the occasional flash of Berserker 
rage which followed his masterly game of parry and thrust. 
Nor was he ill-equipped for his controversial work. From 
certain antiquities which he had found during his recent 
explorations in the North he inferred the existence of 
commercial relations between the Northmen of that 
period and the peoples of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome 
and Greece being at that time in direct communication 
with these seafaring peoples of the North. The tribes 
of Germania, on the contrary, were "a shipless people," 
and according to the Roman writers were still in an 
uncivilized state. He said there were settlements in 
Britain by the Northmen during the Roman occupa- 
tion; that England was always called by the Northmen 
one of their Northern lands; that the language of the 
North and of England were similar in the early times; 
that the early Northern Kings claimed part of England 

V -t fef 


The Quest for a Lost Race 17 

as their own; that the Northmen were bold and enter- 
prising navigators, pushing their explorations wherever 
a ship could survive the perils of the sea. On the 
contrary, neither the Saxons nor the Franks were a 
seafaring people, either at the time of Charlemagne or 
at any earlier period. 

It was this Scandinavian element which had infused 
a spirit of enterprise into the English race that they had 
never lost, and which had made it in all its branches, where- 
ever they had sailed their fleets or pushed their invading 
columns, the invincible masters of earth and sea. Its 
resistless movement across the American continent, he 
declared, was the most dramatic spectacle in history. 

This, in brief, was the Frenchman's startling theory; 
first broached in England on the borders of that rude 
North Sea which the Vikings had swept in early days, 
and upon the banks of the peaceful Tyne, where many 
a Scandinavian rover had moored his little barque. The 
discussion of M. Du Chaillu's paper took a wide range, 
all the distinguished ethnologists present Dawkins, Tay- 
lor, Turner, Evans, Galton, and others participating in 
this rattling ethnological debate. Du Chaillu, who had 
very much the attitude of a French suspect in a German 
camp, maintained throughout his Gallic aplomb, listening 
with admirable composure and with apparent interest, 

i8 The Quest for a Lost Race 

though his dark skin visibly reddened at times under the 
critical lash, however courteously applied. Canon Tay- 
lor, who evidently was in full sympathy with Du Chaillu's 
startling views, gave a happy turn to the little imbroglio 
by a cleverly parodied quotation from Tennyson's Wel- 
come to the Sea-King's Daughter from over the Sea- 

" For Saxon or Dane or Norman, 
Teuton or Celt or whatever we 
Saxon or Norse it is nothing to me, 
We are all of us one in our welcome of thee," 

the closing line being given with a politely sympathetic 
inclination of the head toward the gentleman from France, 
and with a gracious smile more expressive than his words 
the smile interpreting to his hearers the startling dis- 
claimer: "It is nothing to me." The clever ecclesiast 
read a very learned paper at the same meeting on a similar 
theme, and the two gentlemen who sat near him, Du 
Chaillu and Nansen, were ideal representatives of two 
of his four ethnological types, the Auvergnat type of 
Central France and the long-headed Scandinavian of the 
North. Indeed, as a matter for courteous rational dis- 
cussion the question of "Saxon or Norse" had the pro- 
foundest interest for the amiable savant, who seemed 
to possess in perfection that fine philosophical quality 
of intellect which the French have happily termed justesse 

The Quest for a Lost Race 19 

d' esprit a quality of mind in which even the ablest 
disputant may sometimes be deficient. 

But, nothing disconcerted by criticism or compli- 
ment, M. Du Chaillu remarked, with cold dignity, as he 
rose in final response: "Opinions, gentlemen, may differ 
in England from opinions in France, but the truth on 
both sides of the Channel is the same" a sentiment to 
which all present responded with that fine sympathy 
and with that perfect courtesy "wherein to derogate 
from none the true heroic English gentleman hath no 

20 The Quest for a Lost Race 


"Every schoolboy" (to quote Macaulay) is familiar 
with the salient facts in the history of the Normans; 
their origin in Scandinavia; the seizure of a fertile 
province in France (wrung from a faineant heir of 
Charlemagne); their extraordinary evolution as the great 
ethnic force of the period; their absolute mastery of sea 
and land on every shore, from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the Red Sea, and notably their Conquest of England, 
their perfect fusion with the conquered peoples, and 
the resulting evolution of the English race. All this 
is commonplace to every historical reader. But recent 
investigators, going deeper, have inquired if the laws, 
institutions, language, and material constructions which 
mark the pathway of Norman conquest are simply 
the memorials of an extinct race? Is the Norman still 
living, still powerful, progressive, and prolific? Or is it 
an exhausted racial force, pithless, impotent, and effete, 
with no recognizable evidence of its ancient prepotency 
in racial struggles for existence in the conflicts of the 
past? Or, in a word, is it, as Mr. Freeman affirms, a 
Lost Race? The answer to these questions depends 
largely upon the answer to other queries, to wit: Was 
the conquest and sequential settlement of England merely 

The Quest for a Lost Race 21 

a military invasion? or was it a vast popular migration 
such as America has witnessed in later times? or was it 
not in point of fact both an invasion and a migration, 
the one following the other? 

England was not conquered in a day. The battle 
of Hastings was decisive, but not conclusive. There 
was a long and bloody struggle before the invading force. 
Nearly four years (the duration of our "Civil War") of 
close, desperate fighting must be encountered before the 
work of subjugation could be declared complete. Every 
gap in the ranks of the invader must be filled by the impor- 
tation of forces from abroad. There was a perpetual 
draft upon the Continental populations, and a cease- 
less "rushing of troops to the front," precisely as in the 
protracted "War between the States." All Europe had 
become the recruiting ground of the Conqueror. He was 
peopling England even in the midst of war; and when 
the period of "reconstruction" came the stream of migra- 
tion continued to flow. England was the bourn from 
which no immigrant returned; and under the military 
or reconstructive methods of the Conqueror, every invader 
was permanently planted upon the soil. 

Apparently, these considerations furnish a conclusive 
answer to certain critical objections which shall be cited 
as we proceed. The facts upon which our conclusions 

22 The Quest for a Lost Race 

rest are found, chiefly, in the official records of England 
and in the authentic annals of the Anglo-Norman races. 

Here, then, we must infer the existence of an immense 
multitude of Norman immigrants mingling and eventually 
fusing with the subjugated race. What has been the result 
of this intimate commingling of ethnic elements upon 
English soil? Is it possible that so daring and success- 
ful a gamester as the Norman was lost in the shuffle when 
an auspicious destiny was directing the game? The writer 
of this paper thinks that he found in the great Library 
of the British Museum evidence that the Norman people 
are still a power upon this planet; to be as carefully 
counted with in the struggles of the future as in the 
conflicts of the past. 

Recent investigation has disclosed the fact that con- 
temporary records in England and Normandy records 
of two different countries of seven hundred years' stand- 
ing, relating to different branches of the same race are 
so minutely detailed as to enable the philosophic enquirer 
"to trace the identity of families and even individuals, in 
two countries." And this has been done by placing the 
Great Rolls of the Norman Exchequer in juxtaposition with 
similar English records of the Twelfth Century. This com- 
parative juxtaposition of contemporary official records of 
kindred races geographically separate has been made the 

The Quest for a Lost Race 23 

basis of an alphabetical series of English or Anglo-Nor- 
man surnames, which is remarkably full, though neces- 
sarily incomplete since the compiler, a very able English 
scholar, was not in position to enumerate all the families 
then extant; but it contains five times as many names 
as the famous Battle Abbey Roll, and conclusively shows 
that the ancestry of the intellectual aristocracy of Eng- 
land was Norman. The Anglo-Saxon and the Dane were 
shown to be in a hopeless minority. The enquiry which 
resulted in the compilation of the alphabetical list was 
restricted entirely to surnames of a purely Norman ori- 
gin still existing in England. A third or more of this 
English population is Norman, directly descended from 
the Norman migration that preceded, accompanied, or fol- 
lowed the Conquest. 

Can evidence be more conclusive that the Norman 
was neither extinguished nor absorbed by the sluggish 
Saxon who accepted his yoke? 

Mr. Thomas Hardy, in his powerful fiction, "Tess," 
plainly accepts the conclusiveness of these views. His 
heroine, though of humble origin, clearly owed her invol- 
untary seductiveness and fatal charm to the transmitted 
potency of her Norman blood, and it is said that in cer- 
tain secluded parts of England may be found to-day 
rural or village populations of the same class gathered 

24 The Quest for a Lost Race 

about some old Norman castle, donjon, or keep; their 
Norman descent distinctly visible in their inherited per- 
sonal traits; a certain characteristic combination of intel- 
lect, courage, beauty, and social charm distinguishing 
them at a glance from the dull, heavy, long-bodied, short- 
legged, unshapely Saxon of a neighboring town or shire. 
The same restless blood or the same spirit of adventure 
which brought the Scandinavian to Normandy and the 
Norman to English soil, in time drove him to the great 
settlements beyond the Atlantic Sea settlements known 
by the English of to-day as "The States." Their brethren 
in Ireland followed in great numbers at a later day, and, 
wherever in recent wars the American flag has been 
unfurled, "the fighting race" has stood beneath its folds 
always in force and always at the front, each with the 
line of battle beneath his feet and the fire of battle in 
his eye. 

"We fight wheriver a gintleman should," 

Says Murphy, and Kelly, and Shea; 
"We fight wheriver the fighting is good; 

And here's to the good, straight fighting blood!" 

Says Murphy, and Kelly, and Shea. 

Thither, too, came the indomitable Scot, precisely as 
he came in the Colonial and Revolutionary days. "The 
Lowland race," says Mackintosh, "Briton and NORMAN 
and Saxon and Dane, gave the world a new man the 



The Quest for a Lost Race 25 

Sea Rover, the Border Soldier, the Pioneer . . . 
The folk speech, from Northumberland to the Clyde and 
the Forth, is Northern English or Lowland Scotch; and 
the future man of Bannockburn and KING'S MOUNTAIN 
is beginning to appear. He is the man with the blood 
of the Sea Rover mixed with the blood of the Borderer, 
and the soldier, the scholar and thinker, the statesman 
and lawyer, the trader and farmer." He is the man that 
crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains as a pioneer. He is 
the man that sat in the conventions that organized the 
State, and stood in an unbroken line in all the pioneer 
battles of his race. The earliest migration of the Anglo- 
Norman folk was to the Colony of Virginia, as many of 
the old Virginian surnames, Bacon, Baskerville, Boys 
(Bois), Cabell, Clay, etc., clearly attest; and the State of 
Kentucky deriving a large population of English descent 
from Virginia, we should naturally find a strong infusion 
of Anglo-Norman blood in the people of this State an 
inference fully sustained by the transcript of Anglo-Nor- 
man surnames which the writer made from the list that 
he found in the great Library in London. 

The late Professor Shaler is frequently quoted to the 
effect that ethnological research discloses the existence 
in Kentucky of the largest body of nearly pure English 
folk to be found on the face of the globe that has been 

26 The Quest for a Lost Race 

separated for two hundred years from the parent English 
stock. But the facts do not warrant the assumption 
that the Kentuckian is of purely "Anglo-Saxon" deri r 
vation. In him, at least, the blood of the Norman is 
not wholly lost. He is, however, as Professor Shaler 
says, an "Elizabethan" Englishman. 

We print elsewhere a list of names familiar to Ken- 
tuckians, which clearly points to the same general con- 
clusion. With more leisure and space this list might 
be greatly extended. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 27 


But what are the characteristic traits of the Norman 
as we find him in his early habitat in France? We 
are told by a contemporary observer Geoffrey Mala- 
terra that the typical or "composite" Norman of his 
day was prodigiously astute, a passionate lover of liti- 
gation, an eloquent speaker, skilled in diplomacy, saga- 
cious in council, convincing in debate ; a son of the Church, 
but not too deferential to prelates nor too precise in the 
observance of ecclesiastical forms; a bold and tireless 
litigant, but not over-scrupulous in his methods of pro- 
cedure and not always strictly judicial in his construction 
of the law. "If he was born a soldier," said Edward 
Freeman, "he was also a born lawyer." In spite of this 
pronounced legal penchant he was swift (if not restrained) 
to disregard and override the law; in the phrase of the 
old chronicler, the gens was effrenatissima recklessly wild, 
unbridled and dangerous, nisi jugo justiticB prematur] dar- 
ing, resolute, destructive in mutiny or revolt; seditious, 
piratical or even revolutionary, unless the reins of govern- 
ment were in strong and competent hands. 

We had a notable mid-century exemplification of this 
"unbridled" quality of temper in the introductory razzia 
of Lopez at Cardenas. When the Kentuckians, whose 

a8 The Quest for a Lost Race 

unerring rifles had crumpled up the Spanish cavalry and 
successfully covered the slow retreat of Lopez to the sea, 
were followed by the pursuing warship Pizarro into the 
harbor of Key West, nothing daunted they coolly seized 
the United States fort, took possession of its batteries, 
and deliberately trained its guns upon the Spanish man- 
of-war. Gens effrenatissima, indeed. The fighting habits 
of the Liberators were notoriously loose (especially under 
tropical suns); but what is to be particularly noted in 
this instance is, that the reins of power in our highly civ- 
ilized government were unpardonably lax. It is possible, 
however, that the reckless and "unbridled" conduct of 
the Kentuckians was due, in part, to the circumstance 
that the chaplain of the Expedition had been killed. 

The subsequent official investigation showed to the 
entire satisfaction of our Anglo-Norman lawyers that 
practically everything had been done under "the forms 
of law." 

The word effrenatus was almost overworked by Cicero. 
It perfectly described the Catilines of old Rome and the 
banded ruffians that wrought their will. But in his very 
lawlessness the Norman of Malaterra never forgot the 
law. He scrupulously observed its "forms." Even the 
Conquest of England was "justified "by a pronunciamento 
of legal assumptions subtly and elaborately drawn. The 

The Quest for a Lost Race 29 

Norman was a shrewd and successful trafficker, and this 
tradition of commercial skill and thrift is current in Nor- 
mandy to-day. When he settled on English soil or sailed 
in English ships he did not lose his inherited commercial 
instincts. He made England the trading nation that 
she is. An eminent Kentuckian, who bore the distinctive 
marks of Norman blood, once said to a group of keenly 
attentive listerners, "The meanest of all aristocracies is 
a commercial aristocracy." A like disparaging concep- 
tion of a powerful adversary was implied in the remark 
attributed to Napoleon, that "the English were a nation 
of shop-keepers" un peuple marchand. It was this same 
race of innocuous Anglo-Norman traffickers that crushed 
Napoleon's iron columns at Waterloo, and forever closed 
his conquering career. But the Norman, who was a 
soldier, a lawyer, a diplomatist, orator, hunter, horseman 
and trader, was also a successful cultivator of the soil, 
and the Norman agriculturist of to-day who reminds the 
tourist in his physical traits, hair, eyes, and complexion, 
and even in the intonations of his voice, of an English 
farmer of the Anglo-Norman type, bears a more striking 
resemblance to his English kinsman indeed than to his 
dark-visaged compatriot, the vigneron of Southern France. 
We must add, to complete the portraiture left us by 
Malaterra, that the Norman was a passionate lover of 

30 The Quest for a Lost Race 

horses, of the breed immortalized by the genius of Bon- 
heur; a bold equestrian, skilled in the use of arms; at 
home upon the sea, and literally reared in the lap of war. 
And he was also a brilliant orator, passionately fond of 
eloquent speech. From his early boyhood, says the 
chronicler, he assiduously cultivated his natural aptitude 
for that persuasive art, that power of ready and effec- 
tive utterance which, though often profane, made him 
dominant in the councils of war and of peace; in the 
cabinets of diplomacy, and even in the chamber of the 
King. Gens astutissima beyond all doubt. 

To return to our beginning what think you was in 
the mind of Paul Du Chaillu as he stood that memorable 
evening before an audience of mid-century Kentuckians ? 
this philosophic thinker who had been for years a critical 
observer of "the most dramatic spectacle in history" 
the sweeping, ceaseless, transcontinental march of the 
Anglo-Norman race what did he think of the environ- 
ing conditions as he stood in that old Courthouse which 
had resounded with the eloquence of Anglo-Norman 
orators; which had echoed and re-echoed generation after 
generation to the "Oyez!" "Oyez!" of Anglo-Norman 
sheriffs? and which was still standing, an impressive 
memorial of days when the ground upon which it was 
built was the camping-ground of the dominant figure in 

The Quest for a Lost Race 31 

this Westward march the Anglo- Norman leader Boone 
or "Bohun" a name which in its very sound or utter- 
ance (mugitus bourn) was in "dark and bloody" times 
a challenge to mortal combat a deep bellowing defiance 
of "battle to the death"? 

What were his thoughts as he looked with wondering 
eyes upon that charming Southern matron with her fair, 
delicate features and high-bred air? Was the vision a vivid 
reminder of blue-eyed "Scandinavian" maidens with faces 
as white as their native snows and locks with the softened 
shimmer of the midnight sun? One must acknowledge 
that the very exquisiteness of form and tint made this 
a rare type, even in Kentucky, but there were many 
interesting variations of it to be seen at our great mid- 
century "Fairs" from the rich "auburn" of Marie Stuart 
to the "carroty" tresses of the Virgin Queen framing 
lovely faces and crowning tall, willowy figures of queenly 
mold. But probably the prevailing tint of hair was 
that ascribed by the wizard romancer to the Lady Rowena 
with her dash of Scandinavian blood something between 
flaxen and brown; all in clear and brilliant contrast with 
a type that glowed with the superb brunette finish of 
Southern and Central France. Had Du Chaillu been with 
us in earlier days we could have shown him likewise 
figures of a striking masculine type tall, soldierly figures 

32 The Quest for a Lost Race 

that might have graced the "Viking age" men who, 
after the fashion of early Norman days, would have been 
equally at home in camp or court. One of these gallant 
gentlemen, whom many of us remember, was in some 
respects a striking counterpart of a Scandinavian sailor 
that figures in a late romance, "Wolf Larsen"; like him 
even in the soubriquet prefixed to his Scandinavian name; 
of gigantic stature and strength; big-brained, passionate, 
strong-willed, energetic, proud, combative and sagacious, 
with a deep instinctive love of the sea. But his chronic 
irascibility of temper, often manifest on trifling provoca- 
tion in unbridled bursts of Berserker rage, sadly marred 
the brilliancy of his military career, and engendered deep 
and implacable enmities which brought his career as a 
soldier to a speedy and tragical close. 

In other respects he radically differed from Norsemen 
of the Wolf Larsen type. In his relations with his family 
and friends he was delicate, generous, and kind; the ten- 
derest of sons, the kindest brother, the most devoted and 
loyal of friends: a lover of literature, music, and the 
finer pleasures of social life. Strangest of all, he was 
reverent and devout. He respected the forms of the 
Church, and every night, even in the rude environment 
of the camp, he knelt beside his soldier's couch and repeated 
the Lord's Prayer. But the soubriquet fastened upon 


The Quest for a Lost Race 33 

him both by resentful enemies and admiring friends recalls 
his fictitious counterpart Wolf Larsen. Whenever the 
name of the Federal commander came up for discussion 
during our great Civil War whether in Confederate 
camp or by Kentucky firesides, or by the campfires of 
his own loyal division he was invariably known, by 
reason of his huge figure, his big bovine head, his flaming 
black eyes, his fierce, tumultuous energies, his headlong 
courage and gigantic strength, by the soubriquet "Bull" 
BULL NELSON a sea-trained soldier with a bellowing 
soubriquet prefixed to an honored racial name a mid- 
century Kentuckian, who in mediaeval battle might have 
swung the battle-axe of Front-de-Bceuf. 

There were many others Kentuckians of an ideal 
Anglo-Norman type who would have brought to M. Du 
Chaillu the strongest confirmation of his philosophic views 
had he visited us during the cyclonic "sixties," or in 
that halcyon interlude "before the war." 


The Quest for a Lost Race 

Returning now to the discussion of the masterly paper 
read by M. Du Chaillu at the British Association,* we 
may consider certain aspects of the question more in 
detail; conceding at the same time full credit to the 
ability of the disputants who dissented from the views 
expressed by the foreign savant. M. Du Chaillu was pecu- 
liarly fortunate in his critics. If his theory should survive 
the searching and trenchant criticisms of such men, his 
scholarship would command respect even if they should 
decline to accept his conclusions in full. 

A loyal Briton does not lightly abandon what he con- 
ceives to be established or traditional views. This trait 
does not imply defect of philosophic insight or want of 
wide research. It denotes simply the influence of pre- 
possession, opinionated habit, and conscious power. Nor 
is this influence unusual. Scholars differ even as " doctors " 
disagree. Dr. George Craik, whose name is familiar to 
every scholar of the English race, was liberal enough to 
concede, a quarter of a century before the advent of Du 
Chaillu as a Scandinavian protagonist, that the English 
language might have more of a Scandinavian than of a 
purely Germanic character; or, in other words, "more 
nearly resembled the Danish or Swedish than the modern 

* British Association for the Advancement of Science, Newcastle Meeting, 1889. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 35 

German." The invading bands, he adds, by whom the 
dialect was originally brought over into Britain in the 
Fifth and Sixth centuries, were in all probability drawn 
in great part from the Scandinavian countries. At a 
still later date, too, this English population was directly 
and largely recruited from Denmark and the regions 
around the Baltic. Eastern and Northern England, from 
the middle of the Ninth Century, "was as much Danish 
as English." In the Eleventh Century the sovereign 
was a Dane. 

M. Du Chaillu's theory rests upon other and perhaps 
stronger grounds, but these concessions from a thoughtful 
scholar at least will carry weight. The continuous exist- 
ence of Scandinavian influence in England is suggestive 
of the circumstance that the Danish conquest of England 
preceded the Norman conquest by "exactly half a century." 
An Englishman (Odericus Vitalis), writing almost con- 
temporaneously with the Norman conquest, describes 
his countrymen as having been found by the Normans 
"a rustic and almost illiterate people" (agrestes et pene 
illiterates). And yet, says Dr. Craik, the dawn of the 
revival of letters in England may properly be dated from 
a point about fifty years antecedent to the Norman con- 
quest. To what, then, must be ascribed this scholastic 
renascence? Very clearly to the intirnate relations estab- 

36 The Quest for a Lost Race 

lished between England and Normandy by Edward the 
Confessor. But there is no trace of the new literature 
(that of the Arabic school which was prevalent in Europe) 
having found its way to England "before the Norman 
conquest swept into the benighted old kingdom, carrying 
the torch of learning in its train." The name of Lanfranc 
alone gives splendor to that civilization which his genius 
created for the English race. He not only lighted the 
torch of learning, but he strengthened the reins of power. 
He restrained the lawless impetuosity of William the 
Conqueror; he imposed iron conditions upon the accession 
of William Rufus; he checked the atrocities, and finally 
broke the power, of Odo of Bayeux. His work was well 
done, and its effects are visible to this day. He was the 
real power behind the throne. It is not easy, says an 
eminent English writer, to trace through the length of 
centuries "the measureless and invisible benefits which the 
life of one scholar bequeaths to the world." But such was 
the life, the work, the bequest of this Norman scholar, 
who died honored and beloved even by the rude, sullen, 
and implacable race which had been subjugated by the 
Norman kings. But Dr. Craik, with all his liberality 
and learning, is not disposed to accept the theory of a 
great migration or settlement preceding, or accompanying 
or following, the Norman conquest in the Eleventh Cen- 


The Quest for a Lost Race 37 

tury. To be sure, this theory was not elaborately or 
effectively presented until of late years; but Dr. Craik, 
writing as far back as the opening of our "War between 
the States," seems to contradict this theory by anticipa- 
tion "In point of fact, the Normans never transferred 
themselves in a body, or generally, to England. It was 
never thus taken possession of by the Normans. It was 
never colonized by these foreigners, or occupied by them 
in any other than a military sense. It received a foreign 
government, but not at all a new population." Yet even 
Dr. Craik seems to appreciate the lesson of "names." He 
thinks it remarkable, for instance, that though we find 
a good many names of natives of Gaul in connection with 
the last age of Roman literature, scarcely a British name 
has been preserved. Even in Juvenal's days the pleaders 
of Britain were trained by the eloquent scholars of Gaul. 
The significance of a name in determining family origin 
is a common assumption of our familiar speech. "That is 
a Virginian name," we say; and if we find many Virginian 
names in a given locality we naturally infer that the town, 
or the county, or the locality, large or small, was originally 
settled by Virginians. In one of our old Bluegrass counties 
two of these settlements were made in pioneer times, 
about two fniles, apart. One is known as "Jersey Ridge," 
the other as "Tuckahoe." If in both localities we find 

38 The Quest for a Lost Race 

an English stock with Anglo-Norman names we should 
naturally assume a common derivation from the Anglo- 
Norman branch of the great British race. 

But that accomplished philologist, Dr. Craik, seems to 
be quite in sympathy with the views of Du Chaillu touch- 
ing the ancestral relations of the Scandinavian to the 
English race; and Dr. Craik's eminent American compeer, 
Mr. George P. Marsh, is not hopelessly wedded to fixed 
conclusions, and has by no means overlooked the obvious 
Scandinavian affinities of the English tongue. "Almost 
every sound," says the latter, "which is characteristic of 
English orthoepy, is met with in one or other of the Scan- 
dinavian languages, and almost all their peculiarities, 
except those of intonation, are found in English; while 
between our articulation and that of the German dialects 
the most nearly related to the Anglo-Saxon there are many 
irreconcilable discrepancies." If to determine the relative 
proportions of linguistic and ethnic elements in dialect 
and race were "a hopeless and unprofitable task," this 
would seem to invalidate all general conclusions in the 

A few days after the very lively discussion of M. Du 
Chaillu's epochal paper in the Free Library of Newcastle, 
there appeared in a great newspaper a contemporary 
estimate of his views, which was received by its multi- 

The Quest for a Lost Race 39 

tudinous constituency with profound interest and respect. 
It was the rolling voice of "the Thunderer "- the famous 
London Times. In all crises in the national life, the 
influence of this journal is felt. It is not a mere priestly 
oracle, silent except at times, but a divinity that never 
ceases to speak; clothed with strangely beneficent powers, 
and in the exercise of legitimate influence as resistless as 
the fabled might of the Scandinavian Thor. It forms 
opinion; it fixes opinion; it reflects opinion; it gives 
effect to the popular will. It has been felicitously charac- 
terized as the "vast shadow of the public mind." 

On the aist of September, 1889, the Times, after a 
full report of the ethnological discussion in Section H, had 
this to say by way of editorial comment: "Perhaps the 
great sensation of the Section was M. Du Chaillu's paper, 
intended to prove that we are all Scandinavians. 
This paper, combined with that of Canon Taylor, and the 
discussion that followed both, seemed to show that the 
time is ripe for a perfectly new investigation of the whole 
question of the origin and migration of the races which 
inhabit Europe and Asia; and, that, on lines in which 
language will play only a subordinate part." 

Thus much for the startling theory discussed by the 
Anthropological Section at Newcastle. 

In a subsequent correspondence, which appeared in 
the London Times, M. Du Chaillu challenged archaeologists 


The Quest for a Lost Race 

to point out remains in any other part of Europe so like 
those of the early Anglo-Saxons in England as the relics 
he figures from Scandinavia in England. It is not always 
easy to indicate with precision the cradle of an ancient 
race; and even if such remains were found on the coasts 
of Holland and North Germany, the discovery would not 
seriously affect the conclusions that seem to have been 
reached as to ancestral relations of the Scandinavian and 
the Norman to the English race in England and the United 
States. One might abandon altogether the main line of 
M. Du Chaillu's argument, (i) his careful analysis of the 
Sagas and other ancient documents and (2) his comparison 
of the antiquities upon which the challenge rests, and 
yet there would remain something more than a strong 
presumption that the animating principle of the English 
race, in its leading branches, is the Scandinavian blood. 
It would seem to be quite in conformity with the law of 
nature that the daring, crafty, and indomitable race which 
still shapes the political destinies of men, which is his- 
torically traceable in its schemes of conquest and subju- 
gation for a thousand years, and which is precisely traceable 
upon geographical lines in its movements of colonization 
or war, should have derived its enterprising characteristics 
from the only race which has demonstrably transmitted 
its conquering and colonizing traits within historic times: 



The Quest for a Lost Race 41 

to wit, the Scandinavian pirates that were conceived 
upon stormy waters, spawned upon an icy coast, and 
swept, apparently in a career of predestined conquest, from 
the waters of the Baltic to the ends of the earth. The 
nations shrank from the Rover in fear. The Frenchman, 
at least, learned to dread his power, and the Saxon sub- 
mitted with sullen acquiescence to his rule. He sowed the 
seed of conquest with his blood, and upon whatever shore 
he drove his keel he planted himself fiercely upon the 
soil to stay. Is it to be supposed for an instant that this 
puissant racial force was dissipated and lost? Not so. 
The light, the fire, the sweep, the coruscating energies, 
the resistless currents, the driving forces are still there. 
The power is not "off"! 

Nevertheless, it may be to use the phrase of the 
London Times that "the time for a new investigation 
of the whole question is now ripe." 

42 The Quest for a Lost Race 


Those were stirring days in the old Northumbrian 
city by the sea. And to the utmost border of that ancient 
kingdom the busy populations were alive with expectation 
and hope. Little cared they for the Sea Rover now. 
He no longer enjoyed, as once, the freedom of the city 
and the sea. They were really as indifferent to the vexed 
question as the philosophic Canon Taylor humorously 
affected to be. The loquacious savants might settle 
matters to suit themselves; but there was another question, 
probably of equal importance, for popular consideration; 
and a question of far greater moment too, to a man with 
blood in his veins; a question which touched at once the 
pocket and the heart; to wit, the last of the classic races 
at Doncaster, the St. Leger and the great Yorkshire 
Stakes. Will the Duke of Portland's "Donovan" a 
Southern horse of great beauty, speed, and "luck"- win 
in the coming contest with "Chitabob," the pride and 
hope of the North? There was anxiety in every face. 
The touts had come from their work at Doncaster, and 
Chitabob was reported to be lame; his old enemy (rheu- 
matism) had seized his foreleg; he was not equal to a canter: 
could do only three hours' walk in the paddock near the 
ring. In spite of the conditions and the resulting con- 

The Quest for a Lost Race 43 

sternation of Chitabob's friends, his nervy young owner 
insists that "matters are not so bad as they seem, and 
the horse will run." Meantime, the betting is against him 
two to one on Donovan; in rapid sequence six seven 
ten against Chitabob. The situation was highly sensa- 
tional; the state of excitement in Doncaster was intense; 
even Chitabob's friend, "Guyon" (a noted sportsman), 
had surrendered hope. The owner, young Mr. Perkins, 
was alone undismayed; and the men of the stalls were 
as game as the horse. "He can win on three legs," 
they declared. "I do not think so," said Guyon, "and 
though common sense prompts me to go for Donovan, I 
am full of hope and sympathy for Chitabob. The splendid 
fellow has always carried my money, and I will back him 
to-day. He is too grand a horse to let him run loose, but 
it is very clear to my mind that Donovan will win." 
The loyal sportsman proved to be an infallible prophet 
Chitabob lost. 

As one looks intently upon such a scene as this, Don- 
caster disappears and Kentucky rises on the eye. The 
story of Chitabob recalls the traditions of Grey Eagle, 
that superb and exquisite idol of the mid-century Ken- 
tuckian's heart; his brilliant and exciting contest with 
Wagner; his gallant start, his matchless stride, the vast 
crowd, the wild applause; "the strained tendon," the 


The Quest for a Lost Race 

slackened speed, the failing strength the lost race. But 
the defeated racer was always (like Clay or Breckinridge) 
the idol of the State; the Champion of Kentucky as 
Chitabob was the Champion of the North. 

Imported "Yorkshire" was, likewise, a famous horse 
in the history of the Southern turf, and his blood still 
mingles with that of our finest strains. We note in Ken- 
tucky a noble reproduction of the old lines, both in man 
and horse; it was entirely fit that such a Virginian as 
Commodore Morgan should bestow such a gift as "York- 
shire" upon such a Kentuckian as Henry Clay. It was 
a gift for a king, and there were marks of royal lineage 
in both man and horse; lines that were souvenirs of a 
royal race. Traditions tell us, and the casual traveler 
notes abundant proof of the fact, that the "typical Ken- 
tuckian" is indebted for many of his traits to the old 
Northumbrian blood. Even the familiar speech of the 
Yorkshireman recalls much that is characteristic in the 
dialect of Kentucky; as "mad," for angry or vexed; 
"thick," for friendly or intimate; "thumping," for big; 
"rattling good," for very good; "plump," for quite or 
entirely, as "shot plump through"; "whole lot," for a 
large number; "what's up?" for what's the matter? etc. 
Were not these words and phrases conveyed by racial 
migration from the North of England to Virginia and from 

The Quest for a Lost Race 45 

Virginia to Kentucky in days lang syne? Have you 
never heard among the old horsemen of the Bluegrass 
the odd expression, "The colt will be two years old 
next 'grass' "? "It is curious," says Mr. Marsh, "that 
the same expression is used in Scandinavia." In Den- 
mark and Sweden, he adds, as well as in England, the 
gentlemen of the chase and turf reckon the age of their 
animals by " springs "- the season of verdure being the 
ordinary "birth season" of the horse; and a colt, there- 
fore, is said to be so many years old next "grass." 

The same writer informs us that the names of the two 
brothers, Hengist and Horsa both names of the genus 
horse are words in one or another form common to all 
the Scandinavian dialects. A Danish colonel told Mr. 
Marsh that in a company in his regiment there were two 
privates bearing these names, who were as inseparable 
in their association as the Hengist and Horsa of old. An 
ardent theorist, like a jealous lover, may find confirmation 
strong in trifles light as air. It is a far cry from old Scan- 
dinavia to old Kentucky, but what brain is broad enough, 
what spirit is subtle enough, to comprehend the variety 
and infinitude of delicate, airy, intangible influences by 
which the busy hands of destiny have brought them to- 
gether? Not the least of these agencies were affinities, 
customs, explorations, battles, contests, migrations, and 
the "wingy mysteries" of kindred names or words. 

46 The Quest for a Lost Race 

Edward Lee Childe, in his admirable life of his kinsman, 
General Robert Lee (Paris, France, 1874), says that in 
1192 we find a Lionel Lee at the head of a company of 
gentlemen accompanying Richard of the Lion-Heart in 
his third Crusade. In the original the word here trans- 
lated "gentlemen " is gentilshommes . A word of somewhat 
different connotation from its English equivalent, but 
sufficiently alike in meaning to justify the assumption 
that England is indebted to Normandy for the word, and, 
essentially, for what the word connotes or implies the 
chief or leader of a family or gens. The followers of Lionel 
Lee were, therefore, a military elite. The original con- 
ception of the word still lingers among the Anglo-Norman 
races. That the word in its later English form has taken 
on a finer sense is illustrated by the famous speech of the 
Great Nicholas to Sir Hamilton Seymour. The diplomacy 
of the Czar neither asked nor conceded conventional 
guarantees. "Before all things," he said, "I am an Eng- 
lish gentleman" (un gentilhomme Anglais). The word 
" cavalierism, " used by M. Taine, reminds us that 
England, long before the Conquest, was indebted to Nor- 
mandy for the " Cavalier "; that the " man-on-horseback " 
was the Cavalier; that the Cavalier and gentilhomme were 
conspicuous in the ranks of the Conqueror, and, not to be 
too precise, may be said to have come down the centuries 

The Quest for a Lost Race 47 

together. In a certain conventional sense it is proper, 
no doubt, to say that the Cavalier in England was a gen- 
tleman; and, always, in Normandy un gentilhomme. But 
it was only in later days, as in the splendid epoch of the 
Stuarts, that the qualities of the gentleman, fusing with 
the character of the Cavalier, gave a peculiar dignity, 
elevation, and distinction to the natural and recognized 
leaders of the English race. But the bonniest cavalier, 
undisciplined by social culture, had precisely those defects 
of his qualities which the term " cavalierism " was invented 
by Sir Walter Scott to express. The qualities depicted 
in Esmond by Thackeray were not conspicuous in Scott's 
portraiture of " Claverhouse " or "Montrose." Gentil- 
homme, Cavalier, and Gentleman were descriptive terms 
evolved under similar historic conditions, and derived 
from the same linguistic source. An Anglo-Norman Ken- 
tuckian who figured conspicuously in the late War between 
the States humorously adjusted all differences as to the 
proper designation in that day, by addressing his friends 
in familiar conversation as "Gentle-homines," a felicitous 
appellative not only for Kentuckians, but for friendly 
Indians as well. The effigies of the " man-on-horseback " 
(a familiar phrase in English ears) was officially intro- 
duced to the English public by an English king, who in 
everything save birth and blood was typically Norman 

48 The Quest for a Lost Race 

himself. It is indelibly stamped upon the Great Seal of 
England, and not upon one seal alone. The most casual 
inspection of the famous Guildhall collection will show, 
stamped upon Seal after Seal through a long succession 
of Anglo-Norman kings, the same equestrian figure which, 
obviously of Norman origin, had appeared in England 
before the Conquest ; and which centuries later was designed 
by an Anglo-Norman engraver upon the Great Seal of the 
American Confederate States. The artist was Wyon 
(engraver to the Queen), and the original of the symbolic 
figure was that immortal Cavalier, GEORGE WASHINGTON 
a man of Anglo-Norman blood. 

It may be said that Kentucky offered physical con- 
ditions that were exceptional, for the production of 

A scientific explorer found upon the icy coast of the 
Straits of Magellan a growth of English grass fresh, 
green, flourishing, and as full of fight for existence as the 
stock or race from which it took its name. It was like 
the grass described in the Hudibrastic skit of the blue- 
grass Colonel: 

"Where bluegrass grew the winter through 
And where it blooms in summer, too." 

It was a species of Poa, closely akin in its character- 
istics to Poa Pratensis, the famous Bluegrass of Kentucky 


The Quest for a Lost Race 49 

a cosmopolitan grass; at home everywhere, but always 
seeking congenial skies; rooting itself firmly and clinging 
tenaciously; standing in with the rich soils and the strong 
races; unseating old sod; standing off all casual intruders; 
driving out all competing grasses; casting its own lines in 
pleasant places; dividing honors with Zea Mays, the 
stateliest of all grasses, and yielding to no competition 
save here and there to the cryptic, mossy growth that at 
last covers with oblivion the homes and the tombs of men. 
Even the grasping, aggressive Poa yields to the power of 
moss; and mossback monstrosities may be found even 
among the vigorous offshoots of the Anglo-Norman race. 
Yet, was it not an extraordinary incident of the evolution 
of our Western world that in the genesis of the Common- 
wealth of Kentucky two such factors or agencies as the 
Race and the Grass inseparably linked should be pre- 
destined each to a special function in the common work? 
"Either," said a sagacious observer from New England, 
"no other land ever lent itself so easily to civilization as 
the Bluegrass region, or it was exceptionally fortunate in 
its inhabitants." The alternative suggests that if this 
miracle of evolution be attributable to either of the causes 
named civilizableness of the land or adaptableness of race 
then there can be but one conclusion should the result 
be ascribed to the operation of both. This speculative 

so The Quest for a Lost Race 

suggestion as to the genetic or determining element in 
the evolution of the Bluegrass State came from the pen 
of that gifted and genial writer, Charles Dudley Warner, 
many years ago. He was then visiting Kentucky, and 
reporting in a series of papers his observations, as a visitor, 
for an influential publication in the East. Please note 
this unconscious implication as to grass and race from 
a philosophic tourist of the olden times. "Grass" or 
"Race" but what Race? 

The Quest for a Lost Race 5 1 


The continuous application of three acute and power- 
ful minds along the same line of thought, in the first half 
of the last century an unconscious or undesigned collabo- 
ration (so to speak) of Lamarck, St. Beuve, and Hippolyte 
Taine evolved a marvelous instrument of critical and 
philosophic research; furnishing for every capable thinker 
a method adapted to the investigation of all subjects, 
great and small; neglecting no phase, shrinking from 
no interpretation, rejecting no authentic fact, and having 
in perfection the magical quality of adjustment to condi- 
tions described in the Arabian tale. In his English notes, 
for example, M. Taine, if too frank, is singularly felicitous 
and discriminative in his physical descriptions of certain 
Anglican types of race presenting, first, the beastly, 
repulsive traits of the MALE; the lowering, dog-like phys- 
iognomy, the huge jowl; the dull red eyes; the glutton- 
ous chops; the swinish snout, the congested facial tissues; 
the gross, unwieldy figure, the bloated features and the 
protuberant accumulations of abdominal fat thus graph- 
ically depicting, by way of philosophical illustration, an 
anthropoid incarnation of animal appetite. The picture 
is not flattering, but it certainly embodies some familiar 
traits, of which it is entirely pardonable to make a philo- 

52 The Quest for a Lost Race 

sophic use. Next he introduces the Boadicean or Brob- 
dingnagian FEMALE "broad, stiff, and destitute of 
ideas" with heavy features, lifeless, fishy eyes, coarse, 
congested complexion, a clumsy figure, large feet, unshapely 
hands, and an utter lack of style and taste notably in 
the bizarre combinations of color in her dress. More- 
over, he says, two out of every three have their feet shod 
with stout masculine boots, and as to their long, project- 
ing teeth huge white teeth it is impossible to train 
oneself to endure them. "Is this," he inquires philo- 
sophically, "a cause or an effect of the carnivorous regime?" 
Plainly enough the cause the remote cause at least 
the determining cause, is what is designated by M. Taine 
elsewhere as "the hereditary conformation of race." These 
fat, huge, fierce, vicious, dull, ill-shaped creatures are 
distinctly of a Saxon strain. In Cedric's day they 
were the Gurths who herded the swine, and the "gigantic 
jades" who in the very teeth of Mother Church persisted 
in a merciless disciplinary "flogging of their slaves." 
Suggestions of racial derivation are seldom questioned 
in ordinary life. Every English thinker recognizes the 
fact. The biographer of an eminent English lawyer says 
that he combined, in the most pleasing fashion, fineness 
of physical texture with courage, high character, and the 
perfection of personal charm. The same writer thinks it 

The Quest for a Lost Race 53 

necessary to explain that on the maternal side the gifted 
lawyer "came of gentle blood." Apart from personal 
characteristics, the very name of the maternal gens bore 
witness to her Norman descent a name that has been 
familiar in Kentucky from the foundation of the State. 
According to the same biographer the conditions on the 
paternal side were quite different. An uncle, of the ruder 
strain, declared, in view of prospective Revolutionary 
tribunals, that his veins were " uncontaminated with one 
drop of gentility." He stood among the intellectual 
aristocracy of England just the same. 

But, if the philosophic Taine is severe in his character- 
ization of the "carnivorous types" of the English race, 
he makes ample amends in his descriptions of others. 
Not every Englishman is like the landlord in Barnaby 
Rudge "half ox, half bull." "On the contrary," says 
this admirable Frenchman, "when the person is a cultured 
and intelligent gentleman, the phlegmatic temperament 
imparts to the English personality a perfectly noble air. 
I have several of them in my memory, with pale complexion, 
clear blue eyes, regular features, constituting one of the 
finest types of the human species. There is no excess 
of cavalierism, of glittering gallantry after the style of 
the French gentleman; one is conscious of a mind wholly 
self-contained, a brain which can not lose its balance. 

54 The Quest for a Lost Race 

They elevate this quality of their temperament into a 
virtue; according to them the chief merit of a man is 
always to have a clear and cool head. They are right; 
nothing is more desirable in misfortune and in danger. 
This is one of their national traits." Taine's historic 
ideal of this type is William Pitt. The awkwardness and 
erubescent bashfulness, so often observed in English 
social life, "is wholly physical," says M. Taine, "and a 
peculiarity of Teutonic nations." It is certainly not the 
fine repose that is supposed to mark the caste of Never 
Care. Another type admired by this clever Frenchman 
is thus described: "The blond maiden with downcast 
eyes, purer than one of Raffaelle's Madonnas, a sort of 
Eve, incapable of falling, whose voice is music, adorable 
in candour, gentleness, and goodness, and before whom 
one is tempted to lower the eyes out of respect. Since 
Virginia, Imogen, and the other women of Shakespeare 
or his great contemporaries from these to Esther and 
to the Agnes of Dickens English literature has placed 
them in the foreground; they are the perfect flower of 
the land." 

The Section of the Association at Newcastle which 
listened to the paper of M. Du Chaillu with an air of cour- 
teous self-restraint, listened also, and apparently in a like 
mood, to Sir William Turner in the reading of his very 

The Quest for a Lost Race 55 

able paper on the pathological aspect of the doctrine of 
"Heredity," as recently expounded in the revolutionary 
hypothesis of Professor Weismann, a famous German pundit 
in pathology. It was the first appearance of the so-called 
Weismann " theory " before the scientific public of England. 
Professor Weismann rejects the view that the character- 
istics acquired by parents through their own experiences 
or environment can be transmitted to their offspring. 
It is only those characteristics that have pre-existed in 
the germ of reproduction: that is, the congenital peculiari- 
ties alone; those which distinguish the race and breed 
that can be transmitted, according to the teachings of 
Professor Weismann. A German philosopher, for example, 
may transmit a superfluous toe or a prognathic jaw, but 
not his portentously developed brain. Sir William Turner 
did not accept in full the German's "theory." Under 
the exclusive operation of a law which transmits only 
from congenital variations, how is it conceivable that the 
development of species can be brought about? On the 
other hand, does not the law of the survival of the fittest 
operate to correct the tendency to transmit defects of 
structure and organization? Thus, affirmed our sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon savant, the hereditary tendency, properly 
understood, is in perfect harmony with the theory of 
natural selection. It is needless to say that the Section 

56 The Quest for a Lost Race 

and the speaker were quite at one upon these perplexing 
points. The conclusions of Darwin upon "Descent" were 
as little open to assault as their own conviction as to the 
origin of the Anglo-Saxon race. At all events, an Eng- 
lishman's established opinions would not tumble at the 
first blast of a ram's horn from Germany or France. 

The discussion of the physical peculiarities of our 
ancestors never loses its interest among the thinkers 
of the various branches of the English race. How trip- 
pingly upon the tongue of the Anglo-Saxon child 
come the familiar lines of the English poet, a bard 
of the Georgian period: 

" Deep-blooming, strong, 
And yellow-haired, the blue-eyed Saxon came." 

a pleasing description of peculiarities which holds 
good of the Northern races to this day. But by a 
process of ethnic differentiation the separate or diver- 
gent races, with changed milieu and lapse of time, took 
on some structural change ; the Scandinavian, for example 
(and possibly the Kentuckian), coming to the front 
with cranial dimensions exceptionally large and men- 
tal capacities to correspond. Laing's curious note to 
Snorro Sturleson (quoted by Lytton) says that in the 
Antiquarian Museum of Copenhagen the handles of almost 
all the swords of the early ages, in these collections, "indi- 


(Bas relief by a French Artist.) 


The Quest for a Lost Race 57 

cate a size of hand very much smaller than the hands of 
modern people of any class or race." The Norman is said 
to have retained this peculiarity of physical structure 
longer than the Scandinavian from whom he sprang. It 
was probably the result of social conditions which soon 
ceased to exist. "Here and there," says an eminent 
English writer, "amongst plain countryfolk settled from 
time immemorial in the counties peopled with the 
Anglo-Dane (Scandinavian), may be found the 'Scythian 
hand and foot,' the high features, and the reddish au- 
burn hair." "But amongst the far more mixed breed," 
he adds, "of the larger landed proprietors (comprehended 
in the peerage), the Saxon attributes of race are strikingly 
conspicuous, and amongst them the large hand and foot 
common to all of the Germanic tribes." (Lord Lytton.) 
Virginia and the Virginian States were peopled chiefly 
from the former class. If any inquirer wishes to prose- 
cute this inquiry under favorable conditions, he may find 
a contemporary transmission of racial peculiarities in 
the vast Scandinavian population in our Northern belt 
or tier of States men of the old blood, in a broad, 
congenial field, with boundless energy and big brains. 

58 The Quest for a Lost Race 


One of the most interesting results of a very pro- 
longed process of ethnic differentiation is mentioned by 
John Fiske, in comparing two remote branches of the 
so-called "Aryan" race the short, fat, pursy Hindoo, 
and the wiry, long-limbed Kentuckian. It is not incredi- 
ble that these were simply original marks of race 
"Scythian," in the one instance; Scandinavian in the 
other. It is a far cry, too, from old Benares to the Blue- 
grass; but it is possible that if missionaries from Ken- 
tucky could remain in Hindustan long enough there might 
be a gradual reversion of the Occidental variety to the 
ancient or original type. If Mr. Fiske 's deductions be cor- 
rect, as possibly they are, the Aryan brothers have wan- 
dered far apart, and perhaps it is hardly safe, in studying 
the genetic conditions of development in the Bluegrass, to 
stray beyond the broad, well-traveled highway that reaches 
from the Baltic Sea through Normandy and the British 
Isles to the shores of the Old Dominion, to the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, the "Hills of Breathitt," and the Bluegrass low- 
lands of Kentucky. The streams of population from the 
Scandinavian seas are still flowing, and in all likelihood the 
Scandinavians of the Virginian States (the old settled 
populations of the States of the South and West) will 

The Quest for a Lost Race 59 

ultimately fuse with the Scandinavian populations of 
the North and establish in the heart of the continent the 
empire of the world. The great Scandinavian settlements 
of the Northwest are now almost equal in numbers to the 
Anglo-Norman populations that from the days of the 
Virgin Queen have been gathering and growing in Old 
Virginia and in the Virginian sisterhood of States. Cole- 
ridge once said that England's insular position had made 
her a mother of nations. It would seem that like condi- 
tions an environing wilderness and an estranging sea- 
have helped to make Virginia a "mother of States." The 
lawless elements that poured into Kentucky were not 
segregated by social or other necessities, and, cast out 
by time or poverty, permanently isolated in one rude 
locality. This was at one time a popular theory among 
the savants. But there was always a tendency to law- 
lessness wherever the Anglo-Norman went. If any "con- 
vict" blood muddied the turbulent, brawling stream of 
migration, it was not from the race, but from the chance 
intermingling of a degenerate caste or breed, and whether 
you find that degenerate admixture in the rugged high- 
lands or in the lovely champaign country at their feet, 
the convict blood is still there. In the highlands or the 
lowlands, in the mountains or the Bluegrass, generation 
after generation is weighted with the curse. The family, 

60 The Quest for a Lost Race 

the clan, the community never loses the criminal taint. 
But the great, strong, daring, gifted race sweeps on 
untouched by the vile marks of degeneracy that would 
put a proud, ambitious caste to shame. 

The trade of political assassination was plied with great 
activity in the good old Norman times, but apparently 
there was nothing that was beastly, or basely criminal, 
in the work; on the contrary, it seems to have been pal- 
liated almost invariably by the conditions of a traditional 
feud, and, where sentiment or authority was very exacting, 
the offense was sometimes justified under "the forms of 
law." This was not murder in any ordinary or vulgar 
sense. It was merely an indispensable modus vivendi in 
times that imperiled men's bodies as well as tried their 
souls; one of those protective devices conceived by the 
savagery of mediaeval statecraft in a transition period of 
Christian civilization. Even at this day it is difficult 
for a competent and experienced Anglo-Norman jury to 
detect decisive evidence of crime when looking through the 
subtile meshes of a technical defense. William himself 
had a strong disinclination to take life under the forms of 
law; and, possibly, had his loyal guardians yielded to a 
like weakness in the early days of his succession, the solid 
fabric of English or Anglo-Norman civilization would now 
be as unsubstantial as a castle in Spain. But they did 
not share the weakness of their ward, and promptly settled 

The Quest for a Lost Race 61. 

the right of succession by assassinating all troublesome 
pretenders to the throne. The only sin of blood upon 
William's soul "the blackest act of his life" was the 
execution of a judicial sentence against Waltheof upon 
the hill of St. Giles. The only inexplicable crime of Wal- 
theof 's life was his murder of the brothers Carl, staunch 
comrades who had stood by his side at York. The judicial 
murder was wrought by the orders of a Norman king. 
It was apparently premeditated, and done with the utmost 
deliberation and under established forms of law. The 
Carl brothers were the victims of an ancient feud. Their 
grandsire had slain the father of Waltheof, and the grand- 
sons of the murderer were slain to avenge this ancient 
deed of blood. They were the victims of a transmitted 
hate: of a vindictive passion that had lost its heat. But 
the murderer perished at last, under the forms of law 
which he had denied to the innocent victims of a feud. He 
could slay with impunity on his own account, but he was 
not allowed to conspire even in thought against the king. 
He, too, suffered the penalty long years after the offense. 
Waltheof was the last of the Saxon earls. 

Not long ago that eminent publicist, Mr. Andrew D. 
White, delivered an address on the subject of "High Crime 
in the United States." The following excerpt will be read 
with interest: 

"Simply as a matter of fact the United States is, among 
all civilized nations of the world, the country in which 

62 The Quest for a Lost Race 

the crime of murder is most frequently committed and 
least frequently punished. Deaths by violence are increas- 
ing rapidly. Our record is now larger than that of any 
other country in the world. The number of homicides 
that are punished by lynching exceeds the number pun- 
ished by due process of law. 

"There is too much overwrought sentimentality in 
favor of the criminal. The young ward toughs look up 
with admiration to local politicians who have spent a 
part of their lives in State prison. Germs of maudlin 
sentimentality are widespread. On every hand we hear 
slimy, mushy-gushy expressions of sympathy; the crimi- 
nal called 'plucky,' 'nervy,' 'fighting against fearful odds 
for his life.' 

" It may be said that society must fall back on the law 
of self-preservation. It should cut through and make 
war, in my opinion, for its life. Life imprisonment is not 
possible, because there is no life imprisonment. 

"In the next year nine thousand people will be murdered. 
As I stand here to-day, I tell 'you that nine thousand are 
doomed to death with all the cruelty of the criminal heart, 
and with no regard for home and families, and two thirds 
will be due to the maudlin sentiment sometimes called 
mercy. I have no sympathy for the criminal. My sym- 
pathy is for those who will be murdered, for their fami- 
lies, and for their children." 

The Quest for a Lost Race 6 3 


The Normans were a brilliant and enterprising race; 
but what before all things (says Freeman) "distinguished 
them from other nations, was their craft." This was 
manifest in everything, at all times, and everywhere 
in statesmanship, in war, in traffic, and in the trivial 
interactions of social and domestic life. Craft was no 
more characteristic of a Norman king in the past than of 
a Norman trader in modern times. It is as distinctly 
racial as the commercial "cuteness" or cleverness univer- 
sally attributed to the American people of to-day. Lord 
Wolseley may have noted this trait when he said of our 
people, "They are a race of English-speaking Frenchmen." 
He may have observed, too, even during the War between 
the States, that Americans were at times exceedingly 
profane in their speech, just as in the olden time it was 
said that the Normans were "peculiarly fond of oaths." 
Camden tells us that when Carolus Stultus made over 
Normandy to Rollo, the rude ingrate refused to kiss the 
king's foot. When urged to do so he viciously exclaimed, 
"Ne se, by God!" "Whence" adds the chronicler "the 
Normans were familiarly known as Bigodi or Bigods." At 
every other word, he says, they swore by God. For a 
like reason, at a later day, the English were known through- 

64 The Quest for a Lost Race 

out Europe as the English "Goddams." All of us know 
how terribly the army swore in Flanders. The profane ten- 
dencies of the race seemed to have been stimulated by war. 
"Then, the SOLDIER," says Shakespeare, "full of strange 
oaths. " Was it not one of our innocent Bluegrass girls who 
declared that up to the close of her "teens" she believed 
the familiar phrase "damned Yankee" to be a single 
word? But it was the Conqueror of England and the 
founder of the Anglo-Norman race that swore the greatest 
oath of all. When the merry burghers of Alencon were 
hurling insults from their walls upon the burly son of 
Arietta and upon her sire the tanner of Falaise the 
infuriated Norman swore an oath which lights up the 
page of history like the flare of a conflagration " By the 
splendor of God!" he exclaimed as he swept to his wild 
revenge. The profanest Kentuckian in his palmiest days 
never rose in his profanity to such a plane as this. He 
preferred the direct and trenchant speech of that Virgin 
Queen who helped to shape the destiny of our common 
race. "Do as I say," she said to a recalcitrant prelate, 
"or by God I will unfrock you!" Even her stately minis- 
ters were not safe from the fire of her Anglo-Norman wrath. 
In the royal council-chamber she sometimes fell to cursing 
like a very drab. In certain Virginian circles profane 
swearing seemed to have been proscribed except in a 


The Quest for a Lost Race 65 

softened or attenuated form, such as "Jeems" River," 
as an ejaculatory substitute for a very blasphemous 
phrase. Thomas Jefferson did not regard profane "exple- 
tives" as a very rational or philosophic mode of speech; 
but George Washington, though puritanically truthful, 
would sometimes infuse into an imprecation the spirit and 
effectiveness of a prayer. We have all heard of Stonewall 
Jackson's "teamster" and the moving quality of his profane 
speech; but Jubal Early never allowed the words to be 
taken out of his mouth in this way. He did his own swear- 
ing, and, presumably, did it well. Swearing or fighting by 
proxy was not his forte. Judged by military results, Jack- 
son's was probably the better method. As a tactical incen- 
tive upon the firing line nothing could be more effective 
than one of Early 's oaths; but for general strategic pur- 
poses, nothing could surpass the effectiveness of the deadly 
imprecations that lurked in Stonewall Jackson's prayer. 
This was a Cromwellian modification of the Anglo-Norman 
oath. In the good old Commonwealth of Kentucky there 
seems to have been a relapse into the simpler forms of 
profanity Anglo-Norman and Early English. The histo- 
rian Collins tells us that one of the pioneer Governors hav- 
ing refused to notice the " challenge " of a truculent upstart, 
the fellow threatened to "post him a coward." "Post 
and be damned," said the old soldier, "you will only post 

66 The Quest for a Lost Race 

yourself a damned liar!" The retort was profane, but it 
was in punctilious accord with the spirit and habits of the 
time. Better still, it was more effective than a "gut-shot" 
at short range. As a rule, the Kentuckian had an instinc- 
tive aversion for puritanic oaths. That consecrated phrase, 
"Jeems' River," had a brief career in this State. The 
last person to use it, probably, was an elderly, smooth, 
genial, charming gentleman at the bar who was for many 
years the judge of a local court in the good old County of 
Fleming. He was in many respects a marked exception 
to the common rule.* It might have been different had 
he left the Old Dominion at an earlier date. What brandy 
is for heroes, strong oaths were for the pioneer. Not mere 
dicer's oaths; nor the mauldin imprecations of a sot, nor 
the rounding touches of a raconteur; but good, honest, 
English oaths, such an oath as that which settled the 
insistent Corporal Trim the generous and daring oath 
that our Uncle Toby swore when the young Lieutenant 
lay sick of a fever. " 'He shall not die, by God,' cried 
my Uncle Toby." And the accusing spirit that "flew to 

*In an admirable letter written in pioneer times to Boiling Stith, in Ken- 
tucky, by his Virginian mother, she says : "I hear you have become a notorious 
rattle and never open your mouth without an oath." To correct this vicious ten- 
dency she recommends the example of the "great and good General Washing- 
ton. " Excellent advice. The General's oaths were not so frequent as Boiling's. 
They were louder, deeper, " heartier. " 

The English traveler, Fordham, says that the Virginians of that day were 
" addicted to oaths." 

The Quest for a Lost Race 67 

Heaven's chancery with the oath" had the grace to blush 
when he gave it in. God bless our Uncle Toby; he was 
the Uncle Toby of us all, and is as fresh in our remem- 
brance as the good old uncles who told his story and praised 
his virtues and swore his oaths by the family fireside in the 
auld lang syne. Tradition throws a strong light on one 
of these old Kentuckians who denounced with suggestive 
picturesqueness of phrase a ruthless master who had sold 
and separated a family of hereditary slaves: "He is the 
damnedest scoundrel between hell and Guinea!" the old 
gentleman exclaimed, giving in effect a touch of lurid or 
local color to his imprecatory speech. But when one of 
his own negroes a broken, helpless creature was accused 
of marketing for his own benefit the products of the farm, 
he gently answered, "Ah, well, I am not sure that, after 
all, the old slave is not taking his ownl" As one recalls 
that kindly speech, with its reminiscent touch of Uncle 
Toby, he recalls, likewise, the sentiment of a famous line 
from a foreign source tenderly adapted to a modern 

"Mais oft sont les ntgres ctanian?" 

Where are those dusky bondsmen of the past? They 
mingle their dust with the dust of them they served : 
and resting in old country graveyards, in the peace of 

68 The Quest for a Lost Race 

immemorial graves, they await the Morning Light and 
the Master's Call. 

Among the most popular of the well-trained African 
servitors of the mid-century days in the Bluegrass was 
our versatile drudge, Ben Briler, one of the most active 
and useful functionaries of that old-time tavern life. 

"Ben Briler swept the poker-room 

And gathered up the 'chips'; 
Was 'mixer,' bootblack, cook, and groom, 
And salted down the 'tips.'" 

Evil days came to Ben's master, and Ben was sold 
becoming the joint chattel of the young swells of the 
poker-room. But the joint chattel proved to be too 
versatile for his vocation, and one of the stockholders 
denounced him as "a damned kinky-headed corporation," 
and kicked him downstairs. As Governor Desha, in a recent 
message to the Legislature, had effectively arraigned 
those " dangerous corporations which embodied the interests 
of powerful men," the prompt action of the stockholder 
at the old tavern brought great relief to the public mind. 
It showed .that corporations could be reached that, con- 
trary to the general impression, they had "bodies that 
could be kicked and souls that could be damned." 

The advent of the abolition "emissary," the eman- 
cipated negro, and the "burnt cork" minstrel was prac- 

The Quest for a Lost Race 69 

tically contemporaneous in Kentucky. In the gentle 
mid-century days a company of strolling minstrels had 
announced an entertainment at the old county seat of 
Mason the town where Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe (a 
frequent guest of Mrs. Marshall Key) first witnessed a 
"sale" of negro slaves. On the evening announced for 
the entertainment, the Courthouse was packed from floor 
to dome. Among the conspicuous figures toward the 
front was Colonel Robert B., a fine old Kentuckian of antique 
Norman type tall, ruddy, high-featured, light haired; 
hearty, convivial, and profane a boon companion and 
ban vivant. He sat expectantly but at ease, a bandaged 
arm resting upon the seat in front. He was cordially 
greeted by kinsmen and friends in every part of the house. 
The curtain rose and the minstrels filed upon the stage, 
looking for all the world like a lot of "free nigger" swells. 
Their very appearance was an offense, and provoked at 
once a collision with the young Mohawks of the town. 
The violoncello was shivered into splinters, and the flutes, 
fiddles, and castanets went singing through the air. No 
trace of harmony was left. There was a universal dash 
for windows and doors; none stood upon the order of his 
going. All went at once all except "Colonel Bob," who 
sat unmoved, fixed to his seat as if fascinated by the mov- 
ing scene in front. The spectators were amazed. "Hell's 

70 The Quest for a Lost Race 

fire, Bob!" exclaimed an anxious friend, "don't you know 
there is a fight going on down there ? ' ' The Colonel looked 
incredulous. "I wish I may be damned," he said, "if I 
didn't think it was part of the play I" There was universal 
condemnation of these minstrel folk by persons who did 
not see the show; but the Colonel, who was a "stayer," 
insisted that "the niggers made a good fight." 

Unquestionably there is a certain lack of modernity, 
or at least of civilized amenity, in such a manifestation as 
this: but there was a spontaneous and elemental vivacity 
in their unpremeditated assault upon the counterfeit Afri- 
can bucks which betrayed the rude fantastic humor of their 
Norman blood, and imparted a pleasant tang to the crude 
flavor of early plantation life. Mr. Barrett Wendell finds 
in the still earlier life of the West conditions described as 
existing in the times of the Plantagenet kings; and Mr. 
Owen Wister seems inclined to adopt his startling views. 
Apparently, then, we must count with inherited conditions 
and characteristics even in the politics of the times. The 
modern world is probably not ideally moral, but it is 
sensitively fastidious and scrupulously observant of "good 
form." It would wreck a railway, perhaps, or deplete a 
bloated insurance exchequer, but it would not launch an 
ungentlemanly imprecation or utter a trivial or unproduc- 
tive oath. It even discountenances the oath in court 

The Quest for a Lost Race 71 

a solemn asseveration or attestation before a judge. It 
utterly discredits socially and otherwise the blas-phe- 
mous ejaculation or the vulgar " cuss- word, " or the light 
conversational "swear" familiar in the dialect of the 
"back shop," the groggery, and the street. The variety 
of oath known as a "swear," considered psychologi- 
cally, is not a very serious offense. In a philosophical 
aspect, indeed, it is in some sense a temperamental 
necessity, dependent on physiological conditions, and is 
essentially the result of a defensive or protective instinct. 
Where not merely idle, wanton, and unmeaning, it is a 
psychological regulator nervorum. It is the unpremedi- 
tated product of a prompt cerebral reaction. It gives the 
centers of speech a chance to rally when thrown into dis- 
order by a sudden attack. There is no time for the pick- 
ing and arranging of words, and, except in persons of 
lymphatic temperament, no capacity for the leisurely 
elaborations of speech. One is confronted, not with a 
problem, or theory or condition, but with an emergency 
that must be decisively met. Silence perhaps is golden, 
but there is a certain steel-like quality in trenchant speech. 
Profane, "rapid-fire" ejaculation is not only a deeply 
implanted instinct, but by frequent indulgence becomes 
an invincible habit a habit so odious and offensive as 
to make even a Chesterfield swear. As a racial instinct 

72 The Quest for a Lost Race 

it survives transplantation to any clime, and religious 
training of every sort. Even the disciplinary methods of 
Calvinism fail to eradicate it. But an "inherited drill" 
may at times soften, or modify, or mask the mode of mani- 
festation, as is cleverly illustrated in the familiar lines 

"The Blue Light Elder knows 'em well 
Says he 'There's Banks, we'll give him well! 
That's Stonewall Jackson's way.' ' 

A Kentuckian casually encountering a distinguished 
New Englander at the buffet of an exclusive Eastern club, 
exclaimed: "Does a Puritan drink?" "I would not give 
a damn," was the decisive answer, "for a Puritan that 
could not drink, pray, and fight. " It is probably no secret 
that in our amphibious Scandinavian, General William 
Nelson, the swearing instinct was abnormally developed. 
He did not swear "like a sailor," to be sure; nor "like 
a trooper" of the olden time; since neither soldier nor 
sailor of the ordinary type was ever gifted with his extra- 
ordinary abundance and facility of profane expression. It 
is but just to say, however, that at times he struggled man- 
fully against the habitual inclination. "Christ give me 
patience!" he cried when his favorite aide, Colonel Samuel 
Owens (a joker of the Norman type), inadvertently "sat 
down" upon his military hat. The utterance was a sin- 
cere and reverent appeal for Divine help. He instinc- 


The Quest for a Lost Race 73 

tively shrank from the coming torrent of profane ejac- 
ulation, and with a prayerful effort was bracing him- 
self against the flood. 

"There is some soul of goodness in things evil"; but 
in this instance one does not lessen the force of the evil 
by modifying or "softening" the form of the oath. The 
essence remains unchanged. When Pecksniff slams 
the door in a rage, he simply "swears" what Hood 
describes as a "wooden damn." The devout Moslem will 
not tread upon a scrap of paper in his path, "Lest," 
he says, "the name of God be written upon it"; but 
the impetuous Anglo-Norman recklessly flings the name 
of God into the contaminated environment of his 
daily life. And he has done so, history attests, since 
the day he sprang full-armed upon the planetary sphere 
the most portentous apparition of mediaeval days. " Long 
ago," says Canon Bardsley, "under the offensive title of 
Jean Gotdam, we [the English] had become known as a 
people given to strange and unpleasant oaths." The very 
name Jean Gotdam vouches for its antiquity, as well 
as for the fearless sincerity of him who swore. 

There came into one of our Bluegrass communities 
just after the war a clever Confederate adventurer, who 
speedily established very pleasant social relations by 
exploiting his military record. A venerable Kentuckian, 


The Quest for a Lost Race 

who had come through the war with his Confederate 
principles and Virginian prejudices intact, was asked by 
a friend how he liked their Virginian visitor the ci-devant 
"aide to General Lee." "I don't like him, sir," he said 
with vicious emphasis, "he is not what he professes to be; 
I never in my life heard a Virginian gentleman say ' God 
dernl' He either swore or he didn't swear." He had no 
indulgence for a marked card nor for an emasculated 
oath. He would not substitute a sickly, modernized 
variant for a venerated traditional form. By "Gad" 
or by "gosh" or by "gobbs" was good enough for a 
reforming purist; for himself he preferred to say, with the 
irascible Robert of Normandy, "Ne se, by God!" It is 
not the form, after all, but the sentiment or suggestion, 
that lies behind the "swear." 

It is discouraging to the spirit of philosophic optim- 
ism to note the slinking figure of the iconoclast now run- 
ning amuck in every field. The instinct and habit of 
reverence is almost gone, and the solidest traditional 
reputations are no longer safe. We no longer say with 

"There is a consecrating power in Time, 
And what is gray with years to man is godlike." 

Even the fine historic character of WASHINGTON is 
"at a discount" in the modern world partly on account 

The Quest for a Lost Race 75 

of his alleged indulgence in profane speech, but chiefly 
because of his recognized incapacity to tell a lie. He had 
not only lost (we are told by one biographer) the useful 
the indispensable instinct of "prevarication," but (as 
we are told by another) " when deeply angered, he would 
swear a hearty English oath." One may survive in the 
Darwinian struggle without the capacity to swear, but 
scarcely without the capacity to deceive. There seems to 
be no salvation in this life except for the successful liar; 
but for the man of many oaths there appears to be no 
salvation either in this life or the next. Happily, the 
material prosperity of Virginia was but little affected by 
the ethics of the Washingtonian Code. Her commercial 
instincts had been powerfully quickened in her early 
years by an admonitory imprecation from a royal, or 
official, source. When the Commissioners of Virginia were 
pleading the interests of "learning and religion" before 
the Attorney-General of Charles II (an Anglo-Norman 
lawyer, no doubt), he promptly responded with a hearty 
English oath " Damn your souls! Grow tobacco!" There 
is no need for such an adjuration to the planters of the 
fine old Anglo-Norman Commonwealth of Kentucky. 
The tobacco will be . planted, whatever may become of 
their souls. 

76 The Quest for a Lost Race 


An English scholar of sound judgment and exceptionally 
sound views has recently said that the Emperor Napoleon 
was the greatest administrator of all time. His greatest 
work, perhaps, is the system of administrative centrali- 
zation which, through a century of the severest tests that 
political madness could apply, has maintained the condi- 
tions of social order even in the midst of war and under 
every form of organized misrule, and secured almost 
unparalleled prosperity for the municipalities and provinces 
of France. But it must not be forgotten that William 
the Norman solved a like problem with apparently even 
greater success, and under antagonizing conditions which 
only a statesman of original genius could successfully con- 
front. Not for one century, only, of marvelous effective- 
ness in civic administration, but for eight hundred years 
of advancing and expanding civilization, the conceptions 
evolved by the Norman's brain have been doing their 
beneficent work ; and great as was the genius of the Corsican 
adventurer, it is not incredible that even he, the master 
of Europe, did not disdain the lesson which had been taught 
the nations by that magnificent Son of France. The Cor- 
sican was a close student of military history, and secretly 
meditated a descent upon modern England in imitation 

The Quest for a Lost Race 77 

of the earlier Conqueror's work. It is not likely that he 
would overlook the methods of reorganization that fol- 
lowed the war, with its machinery of sheriffs, judges, 
justiciaries, etc. executive officers directly responsible 
to the king bringing the throne in direct touch with the 
people, and drawing every subject, at least in every cen- 
tral shire, in direct personal allegiance to the throne. 
The Marquessess, or wardens of the Marches, were able 
and ambitious warriors whose sole concern was with dan- 
gers from without. But even Napoleon could not foresee, 
in this guarded initiatory recognition of the landowner, 
the ultimate evolution of a territorial democracy that 
was to affect the political and social destinies of the Eng- 
lish race. Monarchs of a later date Henry the Eighth 
and his masterful daughter Elizabeth saw in the people 
the sole source of power; and the loyal Englishman even 
of this generation will proudly tell you that in his country 
the sole fountain of honor is the king. There were at 
least two American statesmen who were illustrious disciples 
of the Norman's political school. They were men of Nor- 
man blood, who wrought in American statecraft with the 
Norman's constructive brain and there was still another 
of the same imperial strain who, with a philosophic con- 
ception of all that was of value in the principles of Anglo- 
Norman administration and a just appreciation by actual 

78 The Quest for a Lost Race 

experience of government as a practical art, never failed 
throughout a long, brilliant, and successful career to teach 
the doctrine that the People Themselves were the sole 
fountain of honor and the exclusive source of power a 
principle in the philosophy of government and in political 
administration equally patent to William the Conqueror, 
when he anxiously sought a declaration of "personal" 
allegiance from the subjects in that great gathering of 
potential "sovereigns" upon Salisbury Plain. In the long 
succession of administrators that followed the Norman 
king, there was none that seems to have grasped so com- 
pletely and applied so skillfully his principles and methods 
of political administration as a daughter of the Tudor race. 
She may not have loved the people in any modern sense; 
but she knew their power, she recognized their rights; 
she studied their interests, and her jeweled finger was 
always upon their pulse. The best of all treatment, she 
thought, was to anticipate with soothing remedies the rude 
distempers of the times. She considered rather the Con- 
stitution of the Subject than the Constitution of the State ; 
since, collectively, one embraced the other. 

Mr. Barrett Wendell, in his admirable work, " A Literary 
History of America, ' ' discourses with great brilliancy and 
charm upon the Elizabethan influences that governed in 
a large measure the development of the Puritan and the 

The Quest for a Lost Race 79 

Virginian race. The reader of the present paper will note 
with curious interest the bearing of the following quota- 
tions from this work upon the theories which the present 
writer has discussed. "Broadly speaking," he says, "all 
our Northern colonies were developed from those planted 
in Massachusetts; and all our Southern from that planted 
in Virginia." The statement is "socially" true, he says, 
to an extraordinary degree. The Elizabethan type of 
character " displayed a marked power of assimilating what- 
ever came within its influence." This trait, akin to that 
which centuries before had made the conquered English 
slowly but surely assimilate their Norman conquerors, the 
Yankees of our own day have not quite lost. Our native 
type still "absorbs" the foreign. The children of immi- 
grants insensibly become native. The irresistible power 
of a common language and of the common ideals which under- 
lie it still dominates. This tendency, he adds, declared 
itself from the earliest settlements of Jamestown and 
Plymouth. " North and South alike may be regarded 
as regions finally settled by Elizabethan Englishmen." 
The dominant traits of the English race of that time were 
" spontaneity, enthusiasm, and versatility." But the Eliza- 
bethan English of Virginia, he says, were notably different 
in this: they were men of a less "austere" type of char- 
acter than their compatriots of the North; of more adven- 

8o The Quest for a Lost Race 

turous "instincts," and were "men of action" as the 
New Englanders were "men of God." The peculiar 
power of assimilation and the " pristine alertness of mind ' ' 
were the same in both. The economic superiority of the 
North was manifest; the political ability of the South 
seemed generally superior. Pleasantly putting aside the 
traditional claims of exclusive "cavalier" descent, Mr. 
Wendell says: "At least up to the Civil War the personal 
temper of the better classes in the South remained more 
like that of the better classes in Seventeenth Century 
England than anything else in the modern world." He 
frankly concedes that the most eminent statesmen of 
Colonial and Revolutionary days were Virginians. Recall- 
ing what has been said in regard to the constitutional 
sluggishness of the Anglo-Saxon, his mental inertness, his 
settled or stereotyped habits of thought, and his absolute 
lack of racial initiative until the Norman came, we read 
the following passage from Mr. Wendell with curious inter- 
est: "Such literature as the English world has left us 
bespeaks a public whose spontaneous alertness of mind, 
whose instant perception of every subtle variety of phrase 
and allusion, was more akin to that of our contemporary 
French than to anything which we are now accustomed 
to consider native to insular England." This transforma- 
tion Mr. Wendell attributes to " the spontaneous, enthusias- 


The Quest for a Lost Race 81 

tic versatility of the English temperament," in the spa- 
cious Elizabethan days. What has produced or determined 
this extraordinary differentiation of race? What are the 
original, genetic factors behind this varied manifestation 
of power in that old, Elizabethan stock? With the 
advent of the Seventeenth Century; with the turbulence, 
and trouble, and austerity of Cromwellian days ; with migra- 
tions following Cromwellian war; with the evolution of 
a transatlantic type of the English race, there came an 
end to those spacious and splendid days to the creative, 
prolific epoch of the Virgin Queen. 

The most trivial fact that connects the name of Shakes- 
peare with Virginia is of interest to the Virginian and his 
multitudinous clans. Captain Newport, Vice-Admiral of 
Virginia, commanded the ship Sea Adventure, which was 
wrecked on the Devil's Islands. Sir George Somers, sitting 
on the poop and misled by a flaming apparition on the 
masts, unconsciously guided the vessel in a fatal course. 
William Strachey, "Secretary in Virginia," wrote the ac- 
count of the "Tempest" published in Purchas. Thus was 
the "king's ship" boarded and burned by the spirit Ariel 
at the command of his master Prospero, and wrecked on 
those "Bermoothes" which are "still vext" by that rude, 
tempestuous sea. It is of interest, too, to note that the 
special Supervisors and Directors of this Elizabethan colony 

82 The Quest for a Lost Race 

were William Shakespeare's friends the Earl of South- 
ampton; the Earl of Pembroke; the Earl of Montgomery; 
Viscount Lisle (brother of Sir Philip Sidney) ; Lord Howard 
of Walden; Lord Sheffield; and Lord Carew of Clopton, 
who sold Shakespeare, in 1597, the house in which he 
lived till 1616 all of them Elizabethan cavaliers derived 
from Anglo-Norman stock. There is another Elizabethan 
name of still greater interest to all people of the Anglo- 
Virginian race Sir Edwin Sandys, the author of the 
political charters upon which the free institutions of 
Virginia rest; and not only Virginia, but the United States. 
Educated at Geneva and the son of an English Archbishop, 
he was thoroughly seasoned with the doctrines of the 
Genevan school ; and aimed not only to found the American 
Republic on Genevan lines by the creation of a " free state ' ' 
on the Atlantic coast, but to make ample provision in 
the charter itself for the ultimate "expansion" of the young 
republic toward the Pacific Ocean. This statement may 
not, even yet, be universally accepted; but it is incon- 
testably true. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 83 


In the spring of 1885, a pamphlet was published by a 
citizen of Kentucky directing attention to the effect of 
certain racial influences in molding the institutions of 
this State. It was entitled "The Genesis of a Pioneer 
Commonwealth." The suggestions offered by the writer 
as to the sources of our organic life were subsequently 
illustrated and confirmed by an eminent Virginian scholar, 
Dr. Alexander Brown, in his " Genesis of the United States," 
published in 1890 a marvel of masterly investigation; a 
work which throws a flood of light upon the broad expanse 
of early American history, and is especially remarkable for 
the critical elaboration, lucidity, and acuteness with which 
the author has arranged the results of his extensive scheme 
of historic research. In this work he has noted and traced, 
from English records contemporary with the first settle- 
ment of Virginia, the beginnings of that great duel between 
conflicting civilizations which closed with the destruction 
of Spain's naval power at Manila and Santiago. And 
every scholar who seeks a precise comprehension of the 
origines of the late war should closely follow the course of 
investigation pursued by Dr. Brown. Every accessible 
detail of the desperate and protracted Anglo-Spanish con- 
flict including the exploits of Elizabeth's captains and 

84 The Quest for a Lost Race 

the destruction of the Great Armada come out under 
this historic searchlight as distinctly and vividly as ma- 
terial objects under the light of day. To citizens of Ken- 
tucky who have a critical and philosophic interest in 
the historic evolution of the Commonwealth, it will be 
peculiarly attractive in the circumstance that it con- 
nects, and in a special sense includes, the Genesis of 
Kentucky with that of the United States. He suggests 
in a most interesting way that this Commonwealth is 
not only a lineal product of the Elizabethan civilization 
which he has sought to trace, but that cartographically 
at least it formed an integral part of the first Republic 
established in the New World. In an explanatory com- 
munication addressed some years ago to the present 
writer, Dr. Brown says: "The bounds of the charters 
which contained the popular charter rights which were the 
germ of this republic extended between thirty-four degrees 
(34) and forty degrees (40) north latitude, and from 
ocean to ocean. Kentucky, therefore, was embraced 
within the first Republic in America. ' ' 

The sagacious statesmen of Spain were not slow o 
detect the menacing significance of this Virginian settle- 
ment, small as it was; and the conflict then initiated did 
not cease until the navies of Spain went down under the 
guns of Dewey and Schley. The persistent machinations 

The Quest for a Lost Race 85 

of Spanish -intrigants to obtain control of Kentucky in 
the closing years of the Eighteenth Century were part of 
the same prolonged contest for supremacy upon American 
soil. Every resource of diplomacy, intrigue, and corrup- 
tion or, in modern phrase, of craft and graft was exhaust- 
ed by Spain to wrest the germinant Commonwealth from 
the parent stem. On the other hand, no scheme was more 
popular with the bold and enterprising Kentuckians 
the Vikings of the West than to wrest the control of the 
Mississippi River from the desperate grasp of Spain. 
Even the splendid and seducing allurement of a Span- 
ish alliance was powerless against the transmitted 
instincts of a Scandinavian or Anglo-Norman stock. But 
the racial inclination for territorial expansion Kentucky 
never lost. There was a later manifestation of this spirit 
or instinct in the annexation of California; an appropria- 
tion by force, to be sure, but under recognized "legal 
forms"; and, still later, it was manifested in disastrous 
expeditions to the Cuban coast, in which the reckless 
survivors barely escaped, like the man of Uz, with the skin 
of their teeth thanks to a swift steamship and to an 
indulgent interpretation of the violated law. In the near 
future, perhaps, we shall have an annexation of the Island 
under forms which will fully justify the act; annexation 
on the old lines. As far as race could make them so, the 

86 The Quest for a Lost Race 

daring adventurers who poured to foreign war from the 
vast network of streams and streamlets that flowed sea- 
ward from the mountains and lowlands of Kentucky were 
Vikings, with all the fighting characteristics of that 
ancient breed.* Not Vi- Kings, nor "kings "of any sort, 
but simply the Vik-ings or " Creek-men" who followed their 
expatriated Jarls wherever a dragon-prow would float; to 
the land of the Saxon under his greatest king ; to the heart 
of Ireland, where the natives were already "absorbing" 
the alien Norse; to the ancient Kingdom of Gaul; to 
Scotland and to the islands of the Atlantic Ridge; and 
above all to Iceland, the land of mist and snow and fire; 
to the incomparable mistress of the Northern seas. 
Through the beautiful Mediterranean, too, they sailed; 
and gathering to the support of the decadent despotisms 
of the East, became famous in history and romance as 
the Varangian Guard which held at bay the Saracen and 
the Hun. They were "rebels" when they fled from the 
consolidating despotism of ^Harold Fairhair. They have 
been rulers or rebels ever since. 

But the story of their greatest exploits you read in the 
histories of the English race. We have analyzed the claims 

*That acute and philosophic observer, Goldwin Smith, says in his description 
of the " Night-hawk " Kentuckians (1812): "In all his proceedings he showed a 
lawless vigor which might prove the wild stock of civilized virtue." Gens 
effrenalissima ! 

The Quest for a Lost Race 87 

which Mr. Barrett Wendell has made for the Elizabethan 
settler upon the Atlantic Coast; and it is instructive to 
note that another gifted son of New England, Mr. John 
Fiske, has reached conclusions which he at least would 
acknowledge give confirmation to the present views, as 
strong as proof of Holy Writ. " The descendants of these 
Northmen," he says, "formed a very large proportion of 
the population of the East Anglian counties, and conse- 
quently of the men who founded New England. The 
East Anglian counties have been conspicuous for resistance 
to tyranny and for freedom of thought." By parity of 
reasoning, we may easily prove that the kindred Norman 
was the founder of civilization in England, and, in direct 
sequence and by filiation of race, of civilization in the 
Colony of Virginia; and, by a gradual evolution, in the 
States of the South and West. 

Far back in the history of our race there stands, luminous 
and large, in his milieu of mediaeval mist, a mounted 
conqueror with sword and torch the immediate offspring 
of Scandinavian Jarls the remote progenitor of the 
Virginian "Cavalier." It is the founder of that Anglo- 
Norman civilization of which we form a part, and 
which, in many ways, still responds to the impulse of 
that imperial brain. 

88 The Quest for a Lost Race 

William the Norman presented in vivid epitome the 
characteristic traits of his race, with other traits or varia- 
tions of these traits that made him almost an abnormal 
figure even in the history of those times. He has been 
commonly depicted as physically a giant among his fellows ; 
but Lord Lytton (a good authority) discredits these legends 
of gigantic stature; it is seldom we find, he declares, the 
association of great size and commanding intellect in great 
men; it is really a violation of the natural law, though 
possibly the great Norman may have been, like Abraham 
Lincoln, an exception to the general rule. His physical 
forces were certainly subjected to severe tests. His per- 
sonal leadership in the wintry marches through the North 
of England were, practically, paralleled in later days by 
the wintry marches of our Scandinavian general, George 
Rogers Clark, in the vast territories of the North and West. 
The prodigious fortitude and endurance manifested in 
these campaigns proved beyond all question the staying 
capacity of the Scandinavian blood. The royal Norman 
had all the tastes of a forest-born man; not a mere taste 
for the sports of the field as known to the English gentle- 
men of a later period, but a wild, almost demoniac passion 
for the atrocities of the chase as practised by the early 
Norman kings. A love of royal sport does not discredit 
a modern ruler of men; but scarcely such sport as this. 


The Quest for a Lost Race 89 

The "wild king," says an old English chronicler, "loves 
wild beasts as if he were a wild beast himself and the 
father of wild beasts." Churches and manors were swept 
away to create forests and dens and retreats for the creatures 
he loved to slay. He ruled, conquered, hunted, ravaged, 
"harried," and subjugated from Brittany to Scotland; 
and yet, says the same old chronicler in his "Flowers 
of History," "he was such a lover of peace that a girl 
laden with gold might traverse the whole of England 
without harm." 

This may or may not be a "flower of history"; but if 
true, it is a startling historic fact. 

go The Quest for a Lost Race 


As the Conqueror stood among the sovereigns of that 
day, so stood the Normans among the contemporary races. 
They were of peculiar type, these men both sovereign 
and subject and were cast in a like mold. They had 
body, sap, color, concentrated vigor, and inbred Thracian 
fire. They had a sort of racial distinction which in its 
merely personal aspects was never lost. Mingling with all 
races, they yet stood in a sense separate and apart from 
all. They were as the Haut Brian among the wines of 
the Bordelais. But, unlike their native vine, they bore 
transplantation to any land, and drew perpetual vigor 
from every soil. Strange as it may seem, there is a confessed 
incapacity for colonization in the Frenchman of to-day, 
and stranger still is the remedy for this defect which some 
of their leading thinkers have proposed, to wit, that the 
Frenchman should transmogrify himself into an Anglo- 
Saxon. Certainly a grotesque transformation, if effected 
in the manner proposed by those pessimistic prophets 
Demolins and Lemaitre. France (they say) must have 
colonial expansion! The Anglo-Saxon is the only success- 
ful expansionist; we must Anglo-Saxonize France! They 
forget that the Anglo-Saxon himself is indebted for his 
success as a colonist and trader to the Scandinavian French- 

The Quest for a Lost Race 91 

men who colonized England under William the Conqueror, 
and that it was not until the Norman's demoniac spirit 
of "enterprise" took possession of the Anglo-Saxon thegns 
and ceorls that they even felt the impulse to "go down 
to the sea in ships." Later, too, they should remember, 
there was an industrial colonization of England by the 
Frenchmen who were relentlessly expatriated in the days 
of the dragonades. What France then lost has never 
been fully regained. When she lost the Norman element 
in its early Scandinavian form, her capacity for colonial 
expansion was seriously impaired. When she colonized 
England by an indiscriminate exclusion of the Huguenots 
from her own soil, her capacity for normal evolution was 
lost. The recanting or subjugated element that remained 
is probably represented by the prescriptive "free-thinking" 
anti-clerical element of to-day. The profane spirit of the 
English "Bigod" had been imported into the religion of 
France, and "bigotry" may discredit the claims of the 
noblest faith. The extreme reactionary result in this in- 
stance is an intolerant unbelief, passing at times into a 
ferocious contempt for country, constitutions, and creeds. 
The storms of Norman conquest seemed scarce to touch 
the depths of Anglo-Saxon life. No marked change in 
the methods of local administration accompanied the 
change of kings. The rude strength of the old manorial 

92 The Quest for a Lost Race 

system was proof against radical change. Far less com- 
plex than the centralized administration of modern France, 
it was even better calculated to accommodate itself to the 
changes wrought by the hand of war. Built low and strong, 
it stood four-square to every shock and blast. It was 
only the high towers that toppled in the sweep of the 
storm. When it passed, the village-group, the manorial 
life, and the rude strong sons of the soil were still there. 
Andrews, an authority upon early Anglo-Saxon life, gives 
us a picture of the "yeoman" which leaves much to be 
desired in the way of picturesqueness and charm. Upon 
the testimony of priests and leeches he is depicted as a 
swinish, servile sort of creature gross, stupid, sensual, 
superstitious, cruel, and even "beastly"; with no concep- 
tion whatever of "freedom," and only the most bestial 
conceptions of life. The routine of husbandry after the 
Conquest knew no change. A Norman baron unseats 
the Saxon thegn, but the villein and ceorl take up the 
labors of the old manorial life; the new lord receives 
the customary dues, and protection against lawlessness 
is extended to bond and free. This servile Saxon class 
were the descendants of a soldier race which many 
years before the advent of the conquering Norman had 
rudely dispossessed the ancient inhabitants of the soil, 
and were themselves first to "harry," no doubt (for 

The Quest for a Lost Race 93 

harry is an old Saxon word imported from the North), 
the whole of that turbulent realm which William harried 
only in part. But the Norman harried well. It may be 
said that Northumbria never rallied from the devastation 
until the magical agencies of modern industrialism came 
to repair the ravage that he had wrought. But elsewhere 
the "Conquest" worked no such change. The Norman 
simply gave completeness, variety, elevation, splendor, and 
finish to the Saxon's rude but solid work. The transfor- 
mation wrought through the genius of the soldier-statesman 
was not the plodding reconstruction of a shattered kingdom 
upon ancient lines, but the orderly evolution of a new 
and splendid civilization within conditions "visualized" 
by the Conqueror's creative brain. The primordial and 
paramount condition of this work was the permanent 
establishment of English unity at the gathering of the 
people upon Salisbury Plain. When the people rallied 
in loyal allegiance to the throne, the old conceptions of 
"feudalism" ceased to exist vanishing centuries before 
Cervantes smiled Spain's "chivalry" away. In our own 
Websterian phrase, England was henceforth " one and indi- 
visible." The fusion of warring elements was now as 
complete as if welded together by the hammer of Thor. 
The consequences of that initial step are told in the 
history of the English race consequences which this 


The Quest for a Lost Race 

imperial statesman alone had the genius to forecast. To 
no mere man does the line of the Nineteenth Century 
poet so well apply 

"He dipt into the future far as human eye could see." 

This Norman adventurer who had now practically 
established all his pretensions legitimate and illegitimate 
was destined to establish, also, a line of Anglo-Norman 
princes who showed in varied ways that transmitted blood 
would tell. Shakespeare, in his splendid series of his- 
torical plays, has painted in vivid colors and fine dramatic 
sequence the manifestation of this Anglo-Norman influence 
through a succession of closely connected reigns weaving 
into brilliant and picturesque history the fireside traditions 
which fascinated his youthful mind. The story that he 
tells is unique, not only in the literature of the race, but 
in the literature of man. " The only history that I know, ' ' 
said an English statesman discussing the annals of his 
race, "is the history that Shakespeare wrote." No for- 
mal historic writer has presented so faithfully or effectively 
the characteristic traits and temper of that time. It is 
a philosophic study, resting chiefly upon a traditional 
basis, and cast in a powerful dramatic form. And who so 
fit as Shakespeare to depict the features of a royal race? 
This strong portrayal of their salient or their subtler 

The Quest for a Lost Race 95 

qualities, in statecraft or in war, is something quite be- 
yond the reach of a mere historian's art. Through all this 
dramatic movement we note the wild tricks of an heredi- 
tary blood; the troublous or turbulent play of passions 
flowing from an alien source. It is in this record alone 
we find that magical touch, that moving speech, that 
strange, pathetic eloquence which flows from royal lips 
inspired to utterance by the sorrows of an Anglo-Norman 
brain. Doubtless it is Shakespeare's noblest work. It is 
certainly a product of the same imperial spirit that 
breathes in the aspirations, the utterances, and the acts of 
the "melancholy Dane." 

Recent researches among the Scandinavian population 
of the Northern States seem to show marked psychological 
distinctions in the several branches of the Scandinavian 
stock, denoting original differences in the mental make-up 
and manifestations of the Norwegian, the Swede, and the 
Dane ; brainy races all, but the psychological manifestations 
of their daily life differing in each. The Swede and his 
Norwegian brother have a strong, instinctive inclination 
for the ruder activities of their social environment 
building, boating, agriculture, railway construction, com- 
mercial operations, etc. ; the Dane, on the contrary, mani- 
festing an equally marked predilection for life in its con- 
templative or aesthetic aspects for philosophy, the belles- 

96 The Quest for a Lost Race 

lettres, the fine arts, and the higher lines of scholastic 
research. His physiognomy is differentiated, so to speak, 
by "the pale cast of thought." Is it not possible that 
this deep intra-racial distinction was recognized by the 
creator of the "melancholy Dane"? 

But " Hamlet" was not altogether a product of Shakes- 
perean imagination. The original lines of the character 
seem to have been found in the personality of a contem- 
porary thinker, himself, like Hamlet, an obstinate ques- 
tioner of invisible things. In those eager Elizabethan 
times when Drake and Raleigh were "discovering" other 
worlds and Shakespeare imagining new, there . lived near 
the ancient city of Bordeaux a modest country gentleman 
a grand seigneur of peculiar distinction who on his 
father's side was of direct English descent. He bore a 
patrician title ; he was lord of a rich domain, and enjoyed 
social and civic distinctions of the highest sort. His 
scholarship was ample and unique; his social pretensions 
were not in excess of his rank; and he bore his weight of 
learning "lightly like a flower." Rank, riches, scholar- 
ship, distinction all these he had, and more; he had the 
prodigious gift of common sense, with a sort of cynical 
humor flashing through an habitual mood of philosophic 
thought that gave to his writing and notably to his book 
of observations and reflections a peculiar archaic charm. 


The Quest for a Lost Race 97 

One could not pay a higher tribute to his literary power 
than to add, that his writings had a powerful fascination 
for Shakespeare himself. These philosophic essays sup- 
plied the great dramatist with many subtle and striking 
thoughts, and the very personality of the modest country 
gentleman made a profound impression upon Shakespeare's 
mind; so marked an impression indeed that according to 
the affirmation or suggestion of an ingenious modern 
scholar, the great English writer himself of Anglo-Norman 
blood found in this Anglo-French philosopher the original 
of that incomparable dramatic figure the "melancholy 
DANE." If this theory be correct, it simply adds to the 
evidence of a certain bizarre weirdness in the working of 
that old Scandinavian blood. Be this as it may, if the 
mind of Shakespeare could be touched and inspired by 
the philosophic reflexions of a provincial thinker in France 
(a Frenchman with a strong suspicion of Anglo-Norman 
blood), there are doubtless others (some with the same 
ethnic affinities) that may profitably be reached in the 
same way; and lest the Anglo-Normans of our Bluegrass 
"Arcady" should take themselves too seriously, as even 
the wisest may do, in the momentous matter of "family, " 
"rank," "blood," and "race," it would be well at parting 
to introduce for their consideration the antiquated opinions 
of the same ingenious Frenchman, who, wise as he was, 

98 The Quest for a Lost Race 

did not always perhaps take matters seriously enough. 
In this instance no doubt his views will carry weight. 

Thus much by way of preface and apology (if there be 
need of either) in closing an excursive dissertation upon the 
ethnological theories of Monsieur Paul Du Chaillu, accom- 
panied with some interesting reflections from the pen of 
another Frenchman who, though not "modern" in the 
same sense, seems to have been in some of his conceptions 
quite judicious and even elevated in his views. This 
quaint, genial, and sagacious philosopher the author of a 
famous book of "Essays" was the Seigneur de la Mon- 
taigne, Count of Perigord and sometime Mayor of Bor- 
deaux, whose greatest title to fame is this that he was 
the favorite author of William Shakespeare, the foremost 
writer of all time. Possibly Montaigne by contribution 
of thought was an unconscious collaborator in the con- 
struction of "Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark," a drama 
which illustrates in brilliant, powerful, and fantastic 
fashion the varied intellectual and emotive capacities of 
the Scandinavian blood. In that royal Anglo-Norman, 
"Prince Hal" of England, the English dramatist depicts 
the man of action; in Hamlet, the brooding Prince of 
Denmark, he presents the man of thought. They were 
the favorite children of Shakespeare's prolific brain. 

'Tis a scurvy custom and of very ill-consequence," 
says the ingenious Chevalier Montaigne, " that we have 

The Quest for a Lost Race 99 

in our kingdom of France to call every one by the name 
of his manor or seigneury, and the thing in the world that 
does the most prejudice and confounds families and 
descents. . . We need look no further for example than 
our own royal family, where every partage creates a new 
sir-name, whilst in the meantime the original of the family 
is totally lost. There is so great liberty taken in these 
mutations that I have not in my time seen any one advanced 
by fortune to any extraordinary condition who has not 
presently had genealogical titles added to him new and 
unknown to his father. 

" How many gentlemen have we in France who by their 
own talk are of royal extraction? More I think than who 
will confess they are not. 

"Was it not a pleasant passage of a friend of mine? 
There were a great many gentlemen assembled together; 
about the dispute of one lord of the manor with another, 
which other had in truth some pretty eminence of titles 
and alliances, above the ordinary scheme of gentry. Upon 
the debate of this priority of place, every one standing up 
for himself, to make himself equal to him; one, one extrac- 
tion, another another; one the near resemblance of name; 
another of arms; another an old worm-eaten patent, and 
the least of them great-grandchild to some foreign king. 
When they came to sit down to dinner, my friend, instead 

ioo The Quest for a Lost Race 

of taking his place amongst them, retiring with most 
profound congees, entreated the company to excuse him 
for having lived with them hitherto at the saucy rate of 
a companion; but being now better informed of their 
quality, he would begin to pay them the respect due to 
their birth and grandeur; and that it would ill become 
him to sit down among so many princes; and ended the 
farce with a thousand reproaches. 

" Let us in God's name," continues the illustrious 
writer, "satisfy ourselves with what our fathers were con- 
tented and with what we are; we are great enough if we under- 
stand rightly how to maintain it; let us not disown the fortune 
and condition of our ancestors, and lay aside those ridiculous 
pretences that can never be wanting to any one that has the 
impudence to alledge them. ' ' 

The Quest for a Lost Race 101 


The alphabetical series of Norman or Anglo-Norman 
names here given was selected by an English scholar from 
an English official directory and published, anonymously, 
in the latter half of the last century, to illustrate a theory 
of the genesis of the English race. The present selection 
represents only in part the series or lists originally 
published, embracing several thousand names. To this 
selection the writer has added Norman or Scandi- 
navian names from other sources, together with "notes" 
that serve to confirm in detail the general theory of inherited 
racial traits. The list which he first published has been 
greatly enlarged and many additions made from the 
original English series.* 

Mr. Freeman says that the Normans "lost them- 
selves" among the people whom they conquered. 
Very clearly, however, the "names" were not 
lost. The original Norman may be said to have had, 
in a high degree, that personnaliti absorbante which, 
according to Littr, is characteristic of every great man. 
It is not remarkable, therefore, that after every Norman 
invasion the resulting ethnical transmutation was com- 
plete. The new element became at once the 

* The Norman People. 

io2 The Quest for a Lost Race 

vitalizing power of the "absorptive" or subjugated race. 
This gift of racial transformation was so great that the 
Scandinavians, seizing a Gallic province, became French 
or Norman; subjugating England, they became English; 
overflowing Ireland, they fused at once with the native 
race; actually becoming " Irisher than the Irish" them- 
selves Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores. The Duke of Argyle 
once said in the English House of Lords that three of the 
Irish leaders of that day (one of them John Redmond, 
the present Irish King) were genealogically superior men 
men of illustrious descent leaders of royal or noble Nor- 
man blood; confirming the declaration made by the author 
of the "Peerage" that it is not lands but ancestors that 
make a nobility. The career of the Norman as a con- 
quering or migratory race has been a perpetual masquerade ; 
in England taking the form of an Irishman and controlling 
the Parliament; in the same guise leading the armies of 
England and France; in America, demoniacally possessed, 
becoming the personal director of a lynching, the boss of 
a strike, or the leader of a lawless expeditionary force. 
But everywhere he leads] The name of the race disap- 
pears, but the original, indestructible, irresistible, invisi- 
ble and protean force is still there. If we reject the exis- 
tence and operation of this subtle and pervasive influence 
in the ancestral strains of Kentucky, the evolution of the 

The Quest for a Lost Race 103 

typical Kentuckian can not easily be explained. The race 
is "lost," not because the visiting Norman is absorbed 
by his host, but because the visitor appropriates all that 
his host may have, even his personality and all that it 
implies. The Englishman, or the Irishman, or the Scotch- 
man, disappear, and a transmogrified Norman takes his 
place. It is not English, nor Irish, nor French absorp- 
tiveness, but Norman appropriativeness, that has done 
the work. Precisely thus, to compare great things with 
small-: the English Whigs once went in swimming, and 
the Norman Tories "stole their clothes." But the Nor- 
man's act of appropriation usually goes deeper than the 
skin. He is not content with a petty theft of "clothes." 
With an almost satanic subtlety and finesse he appro- 
priates the very soul. It becomes, indeed, his very own. 
That incomparable illusionist, Benjamin Disraeli, was a 
past-master in these Norman arts, and in perfect sym- 
pathy with those Anglo-Norman Tories who followed his 
fortunes in victory or defeat. But Norman or Saxon were 
equally indifferent to him. It was glory enough for Sem- 
itic ambition to build success upon the needs of both; 
and yet, in doing it, this man of alien blood and ancient 
race repeated the miracle of Lanfranc the scholar and 
statesman who, in the old Norman days, had not only 
cooled the hot blood of the Normanized Scandinavian 

104 The Quest for a Lost Race 

and conciliated the respect of the proud, implacable 
Saxon, but, linking their interests in inseparable associa- 
tion, had brightened with a prospect of imperial splendor 
the destinies of the common race. So, too, the Semitic 
statesman charmed the rudest elements with his Orphean 
song. His brilliant successor, Salisbury, added to parts 
and learning the technical information of a savant. 
Disraeli had something better He had that deep, 
philosophic insight which seems to be bred into the elect 
of an ancient stock. It is a mystical gift. 

"He saw things, now, as though they were, 
And things To Be in things that are." 

This (if we may believe Haeckel) was the " inspiration " 
of the Jewish Law-giver. 

How little escaped the thoughtful eyes of our Semitic 
statesman, as he surveyed from his coign of vantage the 
shifting currents of our modern world! In depicting Mon- 
signore Berwick, a descendant of an old Scottish family 
that for generations had mingled Italian blood with its 
own, the writer looks quite beyond the native environ- 
ment, and sees only the old Northern blood in the flaxen 
hair and light blue eyes of the young Italian priest. Describ- 
ing a nineteenth century function at the beautiful English 
home of Hugo Bohun, he sees at once in Mr. Gaston Phoe- 
bus the most gifted and attractive of the swells whom 
fashion has herded in this social jungle of Bohun not a 


(Near Versailles, Kentucky.) 
Built in 1783 by Colonel Thomas Marshall, father of Chief Justice Marshall. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 105 

modern Englishman, but a Gascon noble of the Sixteenth 
Century, clothed with all the attractions of a contemporary 
courtier of France the France of Louis le Grand. In 
" Gaston Phoebus" says the philosophic statesman 
" Nature, as is sometimes her wont, had chosen to reproduce 
exactly the original type." When the subtle Semitic 
thinker introduced an American "Colonel" at the swell 
function of Hugo Bohun, why should he take him from 
the South, and give him a Norman name? Had nature 
reproduced in Colonel Campian the antique Norman type? 

It is a notorious fact, says Herbert Spencer, that the 
Celtic type disappears altogether in the United States. 

Doubtless some vague conception of a potential under- 
current of ancestral blood must have been passing through 
the mind of that fine old gentleman, Mr. Isaac Shelby of 
Fayette, when dispensing his stores of bachelor wisdom 
to his young friends just "after the war." He would 
say, " Depend on it, young gentlemen, there is no cross 
like a Virginian cross." The differentiating quality was 
there. It was observed, but not accurately depicted per- 
haps, by Disraeli, by Barrett Wendell, and by Isaac le 
Bon. What was it? If a racial quality, what race? 
Two of these acute observers were of Scandinavian stock. 
The other did not need to say, even to the proudest states- 
man at Potsdam or St. James, " Your race is of but yester- 

106 The Quest for a Lost Race 

day compared with my own." One of Disraeli's favorite 
themes was race. Indeed, a statesman could not be 
ignorant of the subject in his day. The claims of race 
were sweeping over diplomatic arrangements and dynastic 
rights. Bismarck was unifying the German people by 
removing ancient landmarks, by "appropriating" autono- 
mous territories, and by appropriating or absorbing a 
large population of the Scandinavian race; and the third 
(and last) Napoleon undertook to unify the Latin races 
by placing an Austrian prince upon the Mexican throne. 
But the Napoleonic prince pushed his reconstructive 
theories of race to a destructive conclusion when, in free- 
ing Italy, he furnished a formidable partner to the Triple 
Alliance, that ultimately destroyed France. The senti- 
ment of race, properly directed, has its uses. But the 
director must not be a despot or a despot's agent. The 
feeling must be popular in origin and expression volun- 
tary, spontaneous, normal, autonomous. There was never 
a better illustration of its power than in the prolonged 
struggle of Kentucky for existence as an American State. 
There was never a better illustration of popular capacity 
in statecraft and of enterprise in war than in the early 
years of the last century (1800-12). They the people- 
discharged the functions of an independent State. Ken- 
tucky was in fact a little nation. Raising and equipping 

The Quest for a Lost Race 107 

armies, receiving diplomatic emissaries or agents, defend- 
ing her frontiers, guarding the Atlantic border, protecting 
the territories of the Northwest, and in conjunction with 
the "sea-power" of Commodore Perry actually conducting 
war upon foreign soil. The very guns on Perry's ships 
were "sighted" by riflemen from Kentucky; and when 
the day came to try conclusions with the bold English- 
man on his own soil, one of the most efficient aides upon 
Shelby's staff was Perry himself. Is there nothing in this 
record to appeal to a sentiment of national pride in the 
Kentuckian's heart? And does it not inspire a disposi- 
tion to revive and invigorate those pristine instincts of 
our common race? Probably the recent manifestation of 
"home-coming" sentiment was denotive of some such 
stirring of racial impulse and emotion long dormant in 
the soul. 

io8 The Quest for a Lost Race 


When following the long > dim path of Gothic migra- 
tion we found but little that seemed to be in vivid relation 
with the ethnology of our own race; and it was not until 
we were afloat upon the Scandinavian seas, with Rolf 
Ganger looking out upon the kingdoms of the earth, that 
we began to feel ourselves (to speak in paradox) firmly 
planted upon historic ground. Here the conditions of the 
old parable are reversed. The genius of civilization is 
offering the kingdoms of the earth to the Devil himself. 
With the old pirate of the Norwegian coast begins the 
great movement that frees, elevates, and modernizes man.* 
Henceforth all is plain sailing for the historical inquirer. 
The reader may take down his map and trace the foot- 
prints of the Norse freebooters wherever they dropped a 
Scandinavian name upon our ancestral soil. These ancient 
"place names" are found everywhere north of the Avon, 
and may easily be traced along the eastern coast of England, 

*When Otto, the Saxon, a remote kinsman of our race, became a Roman 
Emperor, he became the CONSERVATOR of Rome and all her works. When 
William the Norman became King of England and the leader of Gothic 
races, it was his chosen mission to undo, in part, the work which Rome had 
done. As a soldier and statesman, the Norman leader had been trained in the 
"school" of the Saxon King. Read Mr. Freeman's "Western Europe in the 
Eighth Century." It is an impressive introduction to that " realm of shadows " 
which forms the background of the Norman Conquest. It was the genetic 
period of modern civilization. The geographic outlines of great modern States 
were just beginning to appear. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 109 

from the Tyne to the Thames; or, proceeding westward 
and northward, far beyond the line of the Cheviot Hills ; 
far beyond the waters of the Tweed. The Scandinavian 
has resolved to stay wherever he has been planted by the 
fortunes of war. When his Norman kinsman seized the 
counties of Southern England, the practical result of the 
invasion was to reinforce the Anglo-Saxon whom he came 
to rob. The Norman invader was warmly received by 
those English Normans the Danes -in his "wintry 
marches" to the north. From the dragon teeth thus sown 
sprang the Kentuckian of to-day, two thirds "dragon" 
and one third "bull." The "half horse, half alligator" 
was an Anglo-Norman assimilation of a later date. 

It is conceivable that by reason of exhausted material 
resources coal, iron, etc. our present splendid civiliza- 
tion, in the course of a few thousand years, will disappear; 
leaving here and there, perhaps, in some happy isle of the 
Pacific seas, a prosperous and cultivated population de- 
scended from some surviving element of the present 
American stock. Peering painfully through the mists of 
tradition, they have vague glimpses of ancestral races 
fighting for supremacy in a vast continental war the 
Yenghees in the North and the Dixees in the South- 
remote ancestral races in internecine conflict. 

It was thus with the Teutonic and Scandinavian races of 
to-day. In far-off Central Asia, beyond the Caspian Sea 

no The Quest for a Lost Race 

and beyond the definite historic boundaries of the past, 
they see great races in perpetual movement of migration 
or war; multitudinous peoples; two distinct groups or 
divisions; but all of one race. As they emerge into the 
twilight of history into the savage gloaming betwixt the 
dog and the wolf the observer recognizes two races, 
the Teutones and the Gothones, or Goths. The vast 
migratory columns of the former take possession of Central 
Europe. The other column, the kindred Gothones or 
Goths, making its exit from Central Asia, sweeps along 
the valley of the Vistula, follows the southern shores of 
the Baltic Sea, and moving to the mouths of the Elbe and 
the Rhine directs its columns of colonization into Den- 
mark and the Danish Islands, and to the vast Scandinavian 
peninsula of the north. As the northern column loitered 
along the shores of the Baltic they gathered great quanti- 
ties of amber from the sea, which with early instincts of 
commercial thrift they sold to the Teutones on the south, 
by whom, with early mechanic aptitude, it was wrought 
into many exquisite and profitable shapes for the markets 
of the world. "Made in Germany" is an antique trade- 
mark in the history of men, and there is a pleasant, if 
trivial, significance in the circumstance that the first his- 
toric article of traffic between these primitive races the 
founders of modern civilization was the substance which 

The Quest for a Lost Race m 

first manifested the property of "electricity" to the eyes 
of man. 

But in pursuing this inquiry we are less concerned in 
ascertaining the exact relations of the ancestral kinsmen 
than in studying the ethnic material (in this instance the 
Scandinavian) which was molded or modified by the 
geographical milieu. What was the moral geography of 
the race? Why should the Norseman differ from his 
kindred Teuton in the South ? There may have been origi- 
nal differences in the psychology of race which made one, 
for example, an explorer and trader, and the other an 
unrivaled artisan and exploiter. But there is something 
to be considered in the plastic influence of the physical 
and social conditions. It is no melodramatic assumption, 
for example, to declare that no slave could live in the 
free air of Scandinavia. Not because the air is "free," 
but because the soil is thin. The slave could not subsist 
himself, much less pay tribute to a lord. If slavery or 
serfage was impossible, a nobility was equally so. Where 
subsistence was scant, accumulation was at least slow. 
Wealth could not exist as a basis of privilege, and class 
legislation upon primogeniture gave support to this natural 
law. The "five" and "fifty" acre holdings could not be 
consolidated into big estates. The rocky ridges, the high 
levels, the nipping airs, the thin, worn soil, the short 

ii2 The Quest for a Lost Race 

seasons, and the fleeting harvests were conditions fatal 
to the growth of feudalism. Retainers were superfluous 
where slaves could not make their keep. Fish from the 
sea, a little pasturage in the glens that was all. No 
smiling abundant harvests; no patient laborious thralls, no 
baronial has or boss; none of those iron Teutonic laws 
that not only shaped the conditions of society but wrought 
changes in the very soul of man. The Scandinavians 
were not Germans or Saxons or Angles or Celts. This 
rocky Scandinavian peninsula was cradling the masters of 
the world. They were literally driven by their wild, arid 
nurse to follow the furrows of the sea and recast the 
corrupted civilizations of the earth. Between the shelter- 
ing group of islands that fringe the western front of Norway 
and curtain the main shore, there is a broad passage of 
the sea where a navy of dragon-prows might float secure 
from observation or attack. Near the center of this 
insular barrier, Rolf Ganger the greatest force of that 
hyperborean world had constructed a system of dry- 
docks, from which, in the idle hours of summer and 
autumn, he launched those portentous fleets of dragons 
and serpents that sailed upon every sea and ravaged the 
most distant shores. From one point of view, it was a 
nest of Scandinavian free-booters ; from another, it was 
the naval station of a great sea-faring race a race that, 


The Quest for a Lost Race 113 

having failed as traders in amber and timber and fish, 
were now about to try their luck in ravage and loot upon 
the gravelly loams of the Cheviot Hills and deep in the 
sunny heart of France. 

William the Conqueror was fifth in descent from this 
great Captain of the northern seas the potential recon- 
structor of the modern world. 

ii4 The Quest for a Lost Race 


When the great Gothic column of migration, sweeping 
past the Caspian and crossing the Asian frontier, followed 
the river valleys and the shores of the Baltic Sea, making 
a reconnoissance in force that reached as far as the waters 
of the northern sea, it pushed its exploring columns through 
every part of Scandinavia, peopling every shore it passed, 
and leaving every promontory and peninsula in every 
nook and hook and cranny and on every continental 
headland, every island inlet, and in every peaceful arm of 
the Danish seas strewn with the wrecks of the migrant 
column, battered by the hardships of a long, unbroken 
march. Only the strong survived. The weak and unen- 
terprising, as the head of the resistless column bent toward 
the northern sea, shrank from the toils and terrors of a 
march in a northern clime. Upon these geographical 
points of "refuge" the racial weaklings had been gathering 
for years. Nothing stayed the mighty Goth. The Norman 
could turn the sharpest corners in the Danish world. 
Once planted in the footsteps of a pioneer, even a phleg- 
matic Teuton might pursue his way. But the exhausted 
weakling dropped in his tracks, and crawled to the shelter 
of some inviting angulus or nook. Here they were 
the drift in the eddy of an archipelagic sea. Jutes from 

The Quest for a Lost Race 115 

Jutland (in Denmark) ; Saxons from the shores to the south ; 
Angles, from the Anglen in Sleswick in all a seething 
colluvian of ethnic stragglers swarming for an ultimate 
raid upon British soil. The great Teutonic nation was 
seemingly planted on the best lands of Central Europe; 
the great Scandinavian people lay far to the north; the 
Jutes, the Angles, the Saxons, the Frisians, lay between; 
the Angli, who gave their name to England, lying at the 
point (Angulus) where the coast of the Baltic first bends 
sharply toward the north. Are these the peoples that 
gave substance and strength and splendor to the English 
race? The men who fall out in a forced march (said a 
great Virginian captain) are not the men to stand up in 
a long fight. 

Toward the close of the Eighth Century the Scandina- 
vians of the North began their work of devastation upon 
English soil. For at least three centuries the Anglo- 
Saxons held the Rover's name in dread. Contemporary 
English abounds with Scandinavian words and forms; 
numerous traces of Scandinavian occupancy are found 
on English soil to-day. The men of the Heptarchy were 
in the main bred upon English soil. At least they were 
not a broken race of stragglers when they came. They 
were a vigorous, fighting breed. But if Bismarck were 
looking for "mixed races" in his carefully calculated 

n6 The Quest for a Lost Race 

career of annexation (no "dreaming" here), he certainly 
found what he sought at the point where the column of 
Goths that had marched from Central Asia, turning its 
head to the German Ocean, took courage from the bracing 
prospect and gathering their veterans into one compact, 
invulnerable mass debouched boldly toward the vast, 
inhospitable regions of the North. The Angles and Saxons 
were cradled among the mixed or mongrel peoples that 
had been dropped by the great migrant races in the south- 
eastern corner of the northern sea a population, says 
Marsh, of "very mixed and diversified blood." These 
furnished the original "comelings" upon British soil, but 
it is scarcely credible that the outcome of this mongrel 
stock was the Anglo-Saxon Race, which in the great 
Triple Alliance of Norman and Saxon and Dane has 
for centuries maintained an unbroken front and kept 
the world in awe. 

The Quest for a Lost Race n; 


The learned author of "British Family Names," speak- 
ing of certain lists of ancient Norman names alleged to 
be authentic, says: "Of this great array of time-honored 
names, few are now borne by direct representatives. 
They exist among the old gentry rather than in the peer- 
age. In the majority of cases, the later descendants of 
illustrious families have sunk into poverty and obscurity, 
unconscious of their origin." They have not "vanished 
from the world" (as Mr. Freeman says), but are daily 
coming to the front in circumstances requiring capacity 
for leadership in affairs. "Even now," says the observant 
author of an anonymous treatise,* "agricultural laborers 
and coal miners can not combine for objects which demand 
the exercise of practical ability without finding themselves 
led by those who, though in humble stations, bear names 
of undoubted Norman origin," citing, by way of example, 
Joseph Arch (De Argues, Normandy). These quotations 
will fitly introduce to the reader the long and suggestive 
alphabetical series of Norman names which the com- 
piler has made the basis of extended critical remark. 

In examining this series, one naturally inquires: How 
do we know that the thousands of names, taken from an 

* The Norman People. 

ii8 The Quest for a Lost Race 

old English Directory, are Norman? Simply by the cir- 
cumstance that the same names occur in the records of 
Normandy in the Eleventh and Twelfth centuries the 
references in most cases being to the great Rolls of the 
Exchequer, 1180-1200. Comparative reference to the Eng- 
lish records at an early date Eleventh, Twelfth, and 
Thirteenth centuries raises a strong presumption that 
names appearing on the Norman Rolls before the Conquest, 
and on English records after the Conquest, were derived 
from Normandy, and that names now accounted English 
were originally Norman names. A similar correspondence 
between the names in the records of a Virginian court 
house and those of official records in Kentucky, to the 
mind of a contemporary genealogist, would carry decisive 
weight. It is the weight of concurrent testimony of high 
character from authentic sources. Identitas colligitur ex 
multitudine signer urn. Even one surname in like circum- 
stances is a significant record of individual descent. What 
shall be said of thousands historically traced the contin- 
uous record of a single race? Thirty years ago it was 
estimated by an English scholar that the English race 
proper comprised thirty millions of people a great com- 
posite nation; the Saxon, Dane, and Norman a trinity 
of races all derived from the same ancient stock (the 
Gothic) and each forming about one third of a homogeneous 

The Quest for a Lost Race 119 

race. The Saxon came immediately from the south- 
eastern shores and islands of the North Sea, and is of 
Gothic descent; the Dane from Denmark or the Danish 
Isles, and is of pure Scandinavian stock; the Norman 
from Normandy, remotely Gothic, is of direct descent 
from the Scandinavian race. If this statement be correct 
the conclusion seems to be inevitable, not that "we are 
Scandinavians" as the London Times says but that we 
are all deeply Scandinavianized and that there is a pre- 
ponderance of Scandinavian blood in the English race. 
If there has been a thorough intermixture of the three 
racial elements during the past eight hundred years, 
we may assume that every Kentuckian of Anglo- Virginian 
stock represents a practically definite ethnical product: 
Saxon, one third; Scandinavian, two thirds for all con- 
troversial purposes a sufficiently conclusive result. The 
long-commingled blood of this composite race is, in effect, 
an adamantine cement, and the racial plexus, fusion, or 
combination is one and inseparable in every sense. If 
it were possible to remove either of these constituent ele- 
ments the Scandinavian or Saxon the Kentuckian in 
his present admirable form would disappear and nothing 
but a restoration of the racial balance by a reconstitution 
of the original parts would restore him to the position of 
primacy assigned him by Mr. Bart Kennedy in his recent 

120 The Quest for a Lost Race 

contribution to the London Mail. How true, then, in a 
deep ethnological sense, the familiar legend of our Com- 
monwealth "United we stand, divided we fall." 

Be this as it may, it is desirable to have it understood 
that so long as the Saxon holds his own (and no more) 
in the constitution of our common race, there can arise 
no possible "unpleasantness" between the parts of which 
it is composed. In that duplex anthropoidal abnormity 
to which its creator has given a significant binominal 
appellation Jekyll and Hyde some regulative element 
seems to be lacking. Is it an element of race ? The author 
does not say as much in express terms, but apparently 
he suggests it in his selection of names. Have we not a 
Norman in Mr. Jekyll? And a Saxon in Mr. Hyde? That 
we have not a normal Englishman is quite clear. Is the 
dominant Scandinavian element short JOT has some demoniac 
"Berserker" blood slipped into the cross? 

Subtle and descriminative writers (such as Stevenson 
and Disraeli) do not express themselves after a careless 
fashion, as a rule. They mean something, even in the 
selection of a name. 

There is something, too, no doubt, that appeals to the 
popular imagination merely in a Norman name, and Lord 
Lytton has cleverly exploited this predilection in many 
fascinating volumes of historical romance; tales of love 


The Quest for a Lost Race 121 

and chivalry that in our soft mid-century days had rivaled, 
and for a time eclipsed, the magical creations of Scott. 
The later school of Scandinavian writers has not won the 
Kentuckian from his early love of English and Scottish 
romance. His conception of the actual Scandinavian 
the Scandinavian in the flesh the Scandinavian of to-day, 
is still undefined and vague. Until Du Chaillu came he 
had given the matter but little thought. And, yet, fifty 
years before in the busy, brooding twenties another 
Frenchman, wandering among the Scandinavians of Gothia, 
describes their predominant characteristics thus: "Fair 
hair, blue eyes, a middle stature, light and slim; a physiog- 
nomy indicating frankness, gentleness, and a certain 
sentimental elevation of mind, especially among the fair 
sex. The people in the other provinces partake of these 
different physical and moral qualities." 

How completely this description by a Frenchman in 
Scandinavia verifies the casual observation of another 
Frenchman in Kentucky! Their hospitality, M. Du 
Chaillu informed us in his charming lecture, was almost 
without bounds, and at times to a Kentuckian would have 
been embarrassing in the extreme, as when those snowy- 
handed hostesses bathed the traveler's feet and tucked 
him away in bed. But Monsieur seems to have suffered 
no embarrassment on this account. 

122 The Quest for a Lost Race 

Among the population of the Northern provinces of 
Scandinavia there are men of almost gigantic stature, 
with dark hair, deep-set eyes, a look somewhat fierce, 
but full of expression and vivacity. Their muscles are 
large, firm, and distinct, the bones prominent, the features 
regular and clear cut. A cheerful temper and " an enter- 
prising disposition" are qualities common to the whole 
population. A stranger is welcome in all circles. Even 
in the polar circles the hospitality loses none of its warmth. 
Probably it is in dispensing their hospitality that their 
passion for "strong liquor" is most marked. This liquor 
they drink out of horns; and that is why, said Du 
Chaillu, convincingly, that we say in Kentucky, "Will 
you take a horn?" But the Kentuckian seems to derive 
this peculiarity from every side. " Fill the largest horns," 
said the Saxon, Cedric, when his slaves were arranging the 
banquet for his Norman guests. 

The Quest for a Lost Race I2 3 


The impression we derive from the foregoing descrip- 
tion of the Scandinavian physique among the more northern 
tribes recalls Professor Shaler's conclusions from a careful 
study of the measurement of fifty thousand troops from 
Kentucky, made by the astronomer Gould (a distinguished 
mathematician), who after the war took service in the 
Argentine Republic. "The results," he says, "are surprising. 
Their average height was nearly an inch greater than 
that of the New England troops ; they exceed them equally 
in girth of chest, and the circumference of head is also 
very much larger. In size they come up to the level of 
the picked regiments of the Northern armies of Europe."* 
Yet these results were obtained from what was a levy 
en masse. It did not include "the rebel exiles" who were 
the "first running from the press," or, as is often said, 
" the flower of the State," and being in the main of a more 
exuberant habit of body would doubtless have given 
still better results. It is questionable if all Scandinavia 
could furnish two such heads as William Nelson's and 
Humphrey Marshall's. Ceteris paribus, said Leidy, "size 
is a measure of power" referring to size of head. When 
General Marshall was warned that his great size would 
attract the attention of sharpshooters, he answered, " I 
have provided for that. I have a fat staff. There be 

KENTUCKY. By N. S. Shaler (Harvard College). 1885. 

124 The Quest for a Lost Race 

six Richmonds in the field!" His aide and secretary was 
a Norman of wholly different type; of a slight figure, but 
of an activity, courage, vivacity, and endurance wholly 
unsurpassed. Captain Shaler (himself a capable soldier, 
with a strong dash of New England blood) singles out for 
special commendation the soldiers and officers of Morgan's 
command. He especially notes their high social quality, 
their physical vigor and activity, their endurance under 
severe tests, and their peculiar aptitude and penchant 
for the business of war. He waxes vigorously poetic 
in describing the martial qualities of the " Orphan Bri- 

Sf! 3JC *f 5(5 5|S 5J* 5(5 5|C 

Hereditary surnames are said to be memorials of race 
that can never be obliterated. If thousands of men, swept 
along in some great historic migratory movement which 
is followed and described by critical observers through 
country after country, through century after century, 
never "breaking ranks" except to plant and build, leaving 
the same names upon the official records of every duke- 
dom, or kingdom, or commonwealth through which they 
pass; when their names, their features, their instincts, 
their mental habits, their daily speech, their terms of law, 
the language and routine of their courts, are impressed 
with the same ethnic stamp; when the same mental, 
physical, and moral characteristics are manifest generation 

The Quest for a Lost Race 125 

after generation; when myriads of minute resemblances 
confirm the conclusions of the larger view, why lose one's 
self in the haunting mystery of apparent discrepancies in 
detail? Let us give full credit to each member of the 
triune ethnical Trust which is charged with all the respon- 
sibilities of this magnificent modern world. If you wish 
to know how much can be said to thrill with delight that 
old SAXON element of your blood, read what the Count 
de Montalembert (another Frenchman) has said in his 
"Monks of the West." The enormous difficulties encoun- 
tered by the Church in that old chaotic day approximately 
measure the shortcomings of the race. That the crude, 
repulsive Saxon should have been fashioned into the noble 
figure which Montalembert describes, speaks well for the 
essential worth of the Saxon; but what a tribute to the 
miraculous power of the Monkl 

In the original prolusion and in the present preface the 
writer has simply tried to prepare the way for investigators 
of greater gifts. Here the PHILOLOGIST is in his proper field. 
In pursuing this work, he becomes the genealogist of a 
race. Names of localities, names of men, are subject 
like all other words to every variety of phonetic change, 
and, it may be said, are in a perpetual state of flux. But 
there is a soul that survives all changes. It is for the 
scholar to catch it on the wing and fix a fleeting syllable 
for all time. 

126 The Quest for a Lost Race 


The student who is interested in this subject may find 
some help in the following series of NAMES (to which fre- 
quent reference has been made), compiled by an anonymous 
English scholar whose learning and ability have been 
recognized in the critical reviews. It was to one of these 
reviews that the present writer was indebted for sugges- 
tions that at once quickened his interest in M. Du Chaillu 
and his researches, and induced him in the republication 
of the English writer's list (taken from a London Direc- 
tory) to add to the selections a few names of obvious 
Scandinavian derivation Danish, Swedish, and Old Norse. 
Any fixed rule of selection, in a discussion like this, it is 
difficult to apply. Readers who comprehend how easily 
errors creep into an ordinary record of "family" pedigrees 
will make due allowance for errors that may be found in 
this modestly illustrative Anglo-Norman list, in which 
there is but little attempt to trace lineal family descent. 
With a body of names so pregnant with significance as 
this, the credentials of any branch of the Anglo-Norman 
race in any part of the earth will be recognized as good. 
The difficulties of the problem are apparent to all. Its 
interest and importance it is impossible to exaggerate or 
deny. If more simply stated, probably it were more 

The Quest for a Lost Race 127 

easily understood, but, failing in simplicity of statement, 
very frequent repetitions may be excused. 

The origin of the general discussion ought to encourage 
every scholar. According to the pleasing conception of 
the great Scottish romancer, the originator of this contro- 
versy was a Saxon slave who understood the art of deducing 
philosophic conclusions from unconsidered trifles. While 
herding his master's swine in the West Riding of York- 
shire, he spoke to a fellow thrall who stalked about in the 
full enjoyment of Saxon freedom with a brazen collar about 
his neck: 

"And swine is good English," said the jester. "But 
how call you the sow when she is flayed, drawn and quar- 
tered, and hung up by the heels like a traitor?" 

"Pork," said Gurth. 

"And pork, I think, is good Norman French. When 
alive and in charge of a Saxon slave, she goes by a Saxon 
name. She is a Norman when dressed for the table in the 
castle hall. What dost thou think of that, friend Gurth ? ' ' 

"It is but too true doctrine, friend Wamba, however 
it got into thy fool's pate." 

This is elementary, but it was an inspiration to one of 
the greatest writers of France. The nimble wits of 
the Scottish wizard are not at the service of all the 

Wambas of the Saxon race. 
******* * 

128 The Quest for a Lost Race 

"The Norman has vanished from the world," 
says Mr. Freeman, "but he has indeed left a name 
behind him"; and not only the "name," but wher- 
ever found he still exhibits " the indomitable vigor of the 
Scandinavian with the buoyant vivacity of the Gaul." 
It must be remembered, in discussing so large and com- 
plicated a subject as this, that philosophic scholarship is 
seldom narrow, absolute, final, or exclusive in its views. 
It would be folly to affirm, says the anonymous English 
writer who anticipated in certain aspects the theories of 
Du Chaillu, that the possession of Norman and Danish 
blood "always implies energy and intellect; and Saxon 
descent, the reverse." We have too much evidence to the 
contrary. It is not individual instances that are now under 
consideration; it is the comparative qualities of race. We 
can only safely affirm, in a rational and considerate discus- 
sion of the question, that our people are not Saxons nor 
Scandinavians, nor Normans, but broadly speaking, are 
a great branch of the English race which happily mingles 
the highest qualities of the THREE; the stolid conservatism 
of the first, the daring enterprise of the second, the "buoy- 
ant vivacity," the " spontaneity, enthusiam, and versatility" 
of the third. When these racial elements were fairly 
balanced, as in the time of Elizabeth, the evolution of the 
Englishman was complete. It was then that, surcharged 



The Quest for a Lost Race 129 

with complex currents of racial vitality, the adventurous 
"Elizabethan" sought our shore. The Virginian hunter 
followed or formed a trail in every wilderness, and the 
Yankee skipper trafficked on every coast. The march 
begun in Central Asia was resumed upon the American 
Continent, and "the most dramatic spectacle in history" 
was gradually unfolded before the eyes of men. 

We should find many Anglo-Norman or Scandinavian 
names upon the company rolls of that vast host. Many 
of these names we have already heard, and, beside the bold 
Norman, others walk unseen men of blended races cast 
in the same heroic mold. It is the mark of a " true Ken- 
tuckian" that, like the amiable and sagacious Isaac le 
Bon, he appreciates a good "cross," and to the end of 
time he will carry the cross which was originally stamped 
upon his English ancestor in the ancient nursery of the 
race. He has no quarrel, therefore, with his Anglo-Saxon 
blood. "Nature," as Mr. Disraeli says: "natural selec- 
tion," as others say, seems to delight in working with a 
purpose and upon a plan; and, when impelled to frame 
a creature that could do the work which apparently 
the Anglo-Norman was called to do, she seems to have 
found her model in the man of ancient ROME: she made 
him strong a man of oak and bronze. 

Illi tobur et CBS TRIPLEX. Some of the elements may 
be crude, but all must be strong. A Roman trireme might 

i3 The Quest for a Lost Race 

safely carry a Vergilian body and an Horatian soul; but 
only a vessel framed with the toughest constituents at 
Nature's command could carry for century after century, 
in every land, upon every sea, in the "teeth of clenched 
antagonisms," and upon fixed predestinated lines, the 
fortunes of the English or "Anglo-Norman" race. 

In point of fact, DESTINY itself seems to have directed 
the process of evolution when the germ-plasm of those 
picked races the Norman, the Saxon, and the Dane 
was united to create the English or Anglo-Norman race, 
the Norman element by virtue of peculiar traits being 
dominant in the "cross." The Kentuckian is no degenerate 
product of this magnificent ancestral "blend," and one 
of the objects of the "Names" and the accompanying 
"Notes" is to show that in every characteristic respect 
he has bred true to the ancient blood. If the storm of 
Norman conquest scarcely touched the solid elements of 
that old manorial life, so the continuous intermingling, 
through many centuries, of the blood of three remotely 
kindred races has served to fix and transmit the charac- 
teristic traits which are stamped upon the Kentuckian of 

The Quest for a Lost Race 131 


Perhaps no critic has thrown more light upon 
mediaeval history than Mr. Freeman, who in his discrimi- 
nating analysis of the Norman character declares the supreme, 
the directive, the dominant quality to be craft: a special 
power of intellect which seems to have been created or 
evolved by the necessities of those times intellect fused 
with instinct and directed by a conscienceless common 
sense. Mr. Freeman detected its manifestations in all 
the Norman's great affairs. In legal proceedings, in 
court intrigues, in ecclesiastical relations; in diplomatic 
affairs, in local or in provincial administration, and, most 
notable of all, in the conduct of war. It was in war-craft 
that the Saxon fell short. If success in battle had come 
with a sturdy frame, a stout heart, and a short sword, 
the Saxon would seldom have failed in war. But he was 
not strong (Mr. Freeman says) in "the wiles of war." 
From the very outset the Scandinavian has won battles 
by sheer weight of brain, and nature certainly "turned 
loose a thinker" when she projected a Scandinavian free- 
booter upon the soil of France. 

This attribution of craft, and all that it implies, to the 
Norman, does not rest solely upon the deductions of a 
studious historian. The conception did not originate in 

132 The Quest for a Lost Race 

the closet of a scholar; it seems to have come first from 
the "great common people"; from the field, from the 
market, the fireside, and the street. It is proverbial in 
the speech of France. 

"C'est un Normand, c'est un fin Normand, c'est un 
Normand, adroit. 

" Reponse normande, reponse ambigue. Que cela pent 
etre vrai est peut e"tre faux; la reponse est un peu nor- 

These popular conceptions of the Norman character 
did not necessarily imply disparagement or reprobation. 
On the contrary, in that wild mediaeval struggle for 
existence, astuteness and duplicity were the winning 
cards. In the councils of the forest the popular favorite, 
Renard, was at the front. Even the imperious Isangrim 
was handicapped by lack of wit: a deprivation not unlike 
that of the clawless cat in Hades. 

This sinister and sagacious quality of the Norman 
intellect seems to have had full play through all the varied 
experiences of the race; but its most enduring effects were 
visible in the great triune nationality evolved upon English 
soil. It quickened the sluggish wits of the Saxon; it 
tempered the rudeness and ferocity of the Dane, and became 
a shaping factor in the civilization of the world. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 133 


The " Names" which follow, and the occasional " Notes" 
that accompany them, are intended to illustrate the theory 
of descent which has been advocated in this discussion. 
To find a large body of people in Kentucky derived from 
English sources and bearing Norman surnames is in itself 
a circumstance of peculiar interest and of almost conclu- 
sive weight. But to find noted in connection with an hered- 
itary surname certain characteristics that are common 
to two races and apparently derived along certain his- 
toric lines from the same ethnical source, materially streng- 
thens the argument in favor of the assumed origin of the 
later or remoter race; and if, therefore, we conclude that 
the people of the Commonwealth of Kentucky are derived 
from that old Norman strain, we ought to be able to indi- 
cate without difficulty characteristic and conspicuous 
points of resemblance between the original and the deriva- 
tive stock. Taking in hand the exact and vivid charac- 
terization of the old Norman by the contemporary chron- 
icler, Malaterra, we ask ourselves, "Are the Kentuckians 
also marked by the characteristics here described ? ' ' Are 
they persuasive orators, able lawyers, brilliant fighters, 
ready and practical thinkers; astute and successful nego- 
tiators? Have they scholarly tastes? Social gifts and 

134 The Quest for a Lost Race 

accomplishments ? A passion for travel, exploration, adven- 
ture, field sports, and fine horses? "I like him very 
much," said the English swell St. Aldegonde, speaking 
of Colonel Campian, the Southern colonel. "He knows 
all about horses and tobacco."* 

A little information of this kind ought to be found in 
our "Notes" by way of giving confirmation to the infer- 
ence suggested by the "Names." There is something in 
the name, but not everything. We have a notable 
a brilliant example in the current history of a Ken- 
tuckian who is a Norman in almost everything except 
the name, and he belongs to a family that is character- 
istically Norman in many respects; and yet it has borne 
with great distinction for generations a fine old Saxon 
name. Not a few of our leading families are in the same 
category. The impartial agencies of evolution have given 
them their due proportion of Norman or Scandinavian 
blood, the name being a secondary consideration with 
the evolutionary Fates. 

For Saxon or Norman, or "whatever we" 
Celtse, Saxones, or Norseman or Gaul, 

There's no better stuff for a family tree, 
Wherever the seed of the races may fall. 

DON'T FORGET TO REST YOUR HORSES. The observant traveler in Norway 
notes at the foot of every steep hill a sign-post with the inscription' ' Don't forget 
to rest your horses." Possibly this Scandinavian consideration for the horse runs 
with the blood. The Kentuckian, however, has learned to "rest his horses" 
before he has learned to read. 

The Quest for a Lost Race 135 

Note the broad and generous philosophy in these lines; 
and, some might add, the imaginative touch which almost 
gives the quatrain a poetic value. The Kentuckian, at 
least, has but little reason to criticise the stuff of which 
he is made, particularly since he stands easily first among 
the modern races of men. This is an estimate from an 
impartial source a writer for the English press.* Is it 
not a fit conclusion to our ethnological tale ? 

*Mr. Bart Kennedy, London Mail- 

136 The Quest for a Lost Race 


There came at last a shadow over our memory of the 
bright Arcadian days. "The beautiful Scandinavian" 
was fatally stricken in her prime by an insidious malady 
which gradually sapped her strength but scarcely touched 
the saint-like beaxity which was the glory and charm of 
her youth. The Great Traveler, who construed at a glance 
the ethnical significance of those embodied charms, has 
long ago passed to his eternal rest. In her children she 
seems to live again. Her sons handsome young Scan- 
dinavians of the higher type are winning success and 
distinction in the great industrial movements of the times; 
and her beautiful daughter, vividly reproducing the attrac- 
tions of the mother, is a passionate lover of travel, and 
but recently has demonstrated the Scandinavian quality 
of her blood in the midst of a terrific nine days' storm 
that swept the seas near the coast of Japan. 

With this parting glance at the impressive figures which 
appeared in the early pages of this paper, the " explanatory 
preface" comes to a close; and the reader the patient 
reader is at last introduced to a rare lexicon of Names- 
names which carry on their light wings the histories of 
States and men. Here the humblest scholar may read 
without effort, in almost continuous narrative, the mar- 
velous story of three kindred stocks transmuted by the 



The Quest for a Lost R-ace 137 

fires of internecine conflict into one invincible race, which 
after centuries of almost unbroken struggle in peace and 
in war may almost be said to have made the earth its own . 
What part it has played in the genesis of our own Com- 
monwealth, each student of this "lexicon" must judge for 
himself, remembering that the decision of this question 
must rest upon a clear judicial faculty at last. Many 
"names" might be added, but here mere numbers do 
not count. "To the quick eye of genius" says Max 
Miiller "one case is like a thousand"; and it may be 
that the scholarly enquirer will find in the brilliant 
Du Chaillu an illustration of this maxim of the great 
German scholar. 





Derived from 

English Official Records 

and from other Authentic 

[The learned Canon of Carlisle assures us that not only 
has Normandy supplied us with many of our family names, 
but it enjoys the distinction of having been the first to 
establish an hereditary surname. Few stop to consider 
that a surname thus conceived is not merely an heraldic 
vanity or device to give social dignity and distinction to 
those who bear it, but is in reality a scientific advance in 
the working nomenclature of a race. If to "name" is 
but to classify, the addition or introduction of the surname 
simply adds completeness and precision to the racial 
classification. Here, then, we have in the following list 
a large body of surnames coming almost directly from 
the land in which surnames are said to have originated. 
If a name, therefore, be merely that by which a thing is 



known, it would seem that a people who have borne 
these names continuously (as is historically attested) for 
eight hundred years have in all likelihood inherited the 
characteristic traits, as well as the distinctive surnames, 
of the antique Norman race. In Kentucky, the original 
tone and vigor of the Norman people are unimpaired. 
Changes there have been; changes there will be; but, 
whatever changes may occur, there remains this one unal- 
terable characteristic of the Norman race, that "the more 
you change it, the more it is the same."] 

Abbett, a form of Abbott. 

Abbey, for 1'Abbe. 

Abbott, or Abbot, Abbas (1180, 
Normandy) , Abbot, Abbet, 
Thirteenth Century. 

A bel, Aubeale, Normandy,Twelf th 
Century; Sir John Abel of 
Kent, 1313. 

Aberdeen, Aberdern, Abadam, 
from Abadon. Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Achard, 1238, Berks. 

Ackin, from Dakin. 

Acland, or de Vantort, from Van- 
tort in Mayenne; the baronets 

Acton, or Barnell. From this 
family, Lord Acton. 

Adderley, from Adderley Salop. 

Addington, de Abernon, Nor- 
mandy, 1112; one branch in 

Adrian, Hadrin (Normandy), 

Adrien (England). 
Agate, a form of Haggett or 


Agne, Battle Abbey Roll. 
Agnew, or Aigneaux, near Bayeux, 

England, Twelfth Century ; 

Scotland, baronets Agnew. 
Ains, from Aignes, near Angou- 

Airey, Castle of Airey, Normandy; 

Airy celebrated astronomer. 
Albert, Walter and Peter Albert 

(Normandy, 1180). 
Albin, or Albon, St. Auben (Rob- 

Alden, Normandy, 1195. 
Aid-worth, or De la Mare. 
Aleman (Allman). 
Alfee, for Alis or Ellis. 
Alison, Barnard de Alenc.on (Sir 

Archibald Alison). 


Allan, for Alan. 

A Hanson, Alison. 

A llebone. 

Alley, from Ailly, near Falaise, a 
form of Hallett or Allet. 

A lleyne. 


A llman. 

Alpe, for Heppe or Helps. 

Alpey, Averay. 

Alvers, or Alves. 

A mand. 

Amber, from Ambrieres. 

Ambler, from Ampliers, or Aum- 
liers, near Arras. England; 

Amblie, Hamley. 


Amery, from Hamars, near Caen. 

Ames, from Hiesmes, Normandy. 

Amherst, or Henhurst. 

Amias, Ames. 

Amman, Amond, Amand. 

Amory, Darmer. 

Amos, Ames. 



Ancell. "Ansel," a famous col- 
ored "trainer" in Kentucky. 

Anders, from Andres, near Bou- 

Andersen or Anderson (Scand.) 

Anderson-Pelham, or De Lisle 
from the Castle of Lisle (Nor- 
mandy). Sire Edmund An- 
derson, Chief Justice, temp. 

Andersons of Kentucky, a dis- 
tinguished family. Connected 
by blood with George Rogers 
Clark. Major Robert Ander- 
son, of "Sumter" fame, was 
of this family. 

Andrew, from St. Andre, Evreux. 

Andrews. Geoffrey Andreas, 1 1 80 
(Normandy). Landaff W. An- 
drews, a bold, able, and popu- 
lar Whig leader (Ky.), con- 
spicuous in Congress (1842), 
and characterized by John 
Quincy Adams, who admired 
his courage and ability, as 
"a Nimrod Wildfire from Ken- 
tucky." (Vide Diary.) When 
he objected to one of Adams' 
resolutions (in which he was 
sustained by the Speaker) he 
looked, says Adams, "as savage 
as a famished wolf"; as Cir- 
cuit Judge in Kentucky, during 
the Civil War, he rendered cer- 
tain decisions that were dis- 
tasteful to the Federal authori- 
ties. ' ' That brother of yours, ' ' 
said General Palmer to Mrs. 
Thomas Steele, of Louisville, 
" is a bold judge." 

Angell, from De 1' Angle, from Les 
Angles, near Evreux. 

Anger, from Angers, Anjou; also 

Angle, Angell. 

Angwin, for Angevin. 

Ankers, for Anceres, vide Dancer. 



Anley, or Andley, near Rouen. 
Annable, or Annabell, from Anne- 

boutt (Cotentin). 
Anne, or Anns, from L'Agne, near 

Argenton (Normandy). 
A nnesley. 
A nsell. 

Anstruther, or Malberbe. 
Anthony, St. Antoine, near Bolbec. 
Anvers, or Danvers. 
Anvill, or Han well, from Ande- 

ville, near Valognes. 
Arch, or De Arques, from the 
Castle of Arques, near Dieppe. 
Joseph Arch, a famous English 
"labor leader." 

A rchdeacon, Archidiaconus, Nor- 
mandy, 1 180; England, 1086. 
Archer, Arcuarius (general of 
bowmen), Sagittarius (Norman- 
dy), H95- 

Archer, or De Bois, armorially 

identified with De Bosco ; Boys. 

Arden, or Ardern; a Norman 

family ; came to England in 


Argles, Hargle (Hargis), Nor- 
mandy, 1198. 

Aris, a form of Heriz or Harris. 
Arle, or Airel. 
A rmit. 

Arnold, Arnold. 

Arnold, Ernaldus or Ernaut, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80; in England, 1272. 

Arrah, Arrow. 

Arundel, Hirendale, Normandy, 

Ascouga, Askew. 

Ashburnham, or De Criol. 

Ashley, De Esseleia, Normandy, 

Ashley, Cooper, or De Columbers, 
from Colombieres, near Bayeux. 

Askew, for Ascuo. 

As pray, from Esperraye, Nor- 

A star, Willielmus Titz Estus or 
Estor, Normandy, 1180, 1198; 
England, 1272. 

Aubrey, the Norman origin of this 
name established. 

Ante, with an aspirate. (Hoare.) 
Johne de Aur was summoned 
in 1268 to march against the 

Auriol, L'Oriel. 

Austin, William Argustinus, Nor- 
mandy, Twelfth Century. 

A-ueling, Aveline, Evelyn. 

Avens, from Avernes, Normandy, 

Averance, from Avranches, Nor- 
mandy, 1130. 

Aver ell, Avril, Normandy, 1198. 

A-very, Every. 

A-very. Traced to Aubrey, a Nor- 
man form of Albericus. 

Awdry, from Audrien, or Aldry, 
near Caen. 

Ayers, Ayres, Ayre. 

Ay lard, Allard. 



Ayre, Eyre. 

Babington, Normandy, 1180; Eng- 
land, Thirteenth Century. Ber- 
nard de Babington. Little Bab- 
ington, Northumberland. 

Babot, Babo, Normandy, 1195. 

Bachelor, Normandy, 1195. 

Back, Sir George Back, Arctic 
explorer. Vide Beck. 

Bacon. (Roger and Francis Bacon 
members of this family.) Bacen 
or Bacco, Eleventh Century in 
Maine, Northman family. 

Bagehot, for Bagot. 

Bagot. A baronial family (Nor- 
mandy) ; came to England at 
the Conquest. Henry Bagod, 
ancestor of house of Stafford. 

Bailey, Baillie, from the Norman 
office of Le Bailli. The Baillies 
of Scotland a branch of De 

Baine, Bayne. 

Baird. Ralph Baiart in Nor- 
mandy before the Conquest. 
Godfrey Baiard in 1165 held a 
barony in Northumberland. 
From this line descended George 
Washington, the great Ameri- 
can General. 

Baker, Normandy, 1086; England, 

Baldwin, Normandy, William 
Baldwinus, n 80; Robert, 1183; 
England, 3116. 

Ballance, for Valence, Normandy, 

Bally, for Baly. 

Bamfyld, from Baionville, near 
Caen, 1093. In Thirteenth Cen- 
tury held lands of the Honour 
of Wallingford. 

Banard, for Bainard, Banyard. 

Bancroft, from Boncraft, near 
Warrington, Cheshire. See But- 

Band, from Calvus or Le Band, 
England, 1083. 

Bangs, for Banks. 

Banks, from Bane, near Honfleur ; 
England, 1130. The eminent 
savant, Sir Joseph Banks, a 

Banner, 1180, Normandy, Le 

Bannester, from Banastre, now 
Beneter, near Estampes. 

Banyard. Vide Beaumont. 

Barbot, Normandy, 1188. 

Barbour, from St. Barbe sur 
Gaillon, Normandy, where was 
situated the celebrated Abbey 
St. Barbara. (Vide British 
Family Surnames (Barber) Lon- 
don.) Barbour, a hamlet in 
Dumbartonshire. St. Barbe is 
on the Roll of Battle Abbey. 
William de St. Barbara, Bishop 
of Durham, 1 143 A. D. Le Bar- 



bier, Court of Husting, London, 
1258. John Barbour, a church- 
man and Archdeacon of Aber- 
deen (1357): traveled in France 
(temp. Edward III): employed 
in a high capacity in civil affairs : 
historian, poet, and Auditor of 
the Exchequer. James Barbour, 
born in Orange County, Vir- 
ginia, U. S. Senator (1815-1825): 
Secretary of War: Minister to 
the Court of St. James. Philip 
Pendleton Barbour, brother of 
James Barbour, Associate Jus- 
tice of the United States Su- 
preme Court. John S. Barbour 
(Virginia), member of Congress 
(1823-1833). James Barbour 
(Kentucky), Assistant State 
Auditor (under Helm) : Presi- 
dent Lexington and Danville 
R. R. : Cashier Branch Bank of 
Kentucky. Doctor Lewis Green 
Barbour of Louisville, late of 
Central University, is a fin- 
ished scholar. 

Bardo, for Bardolph. 

Bardolph, England, 1165. Held 
lands in Normandy (Honour of 
Montf ort) . 

Barefoot, Barfot, Normandy, 1 1 80 ; 
England soon after. 

Barker. Bercarius, Normandy, 
1 1 80. Le Bercher (England). 

Barker. Norman French La Ber- 
cher. English surnames Barca- 
rius and Le Barkere. William le 

Barnes, a form of Berners from 
Bernieres, near Falaise; Eng- 
land, 1086. 

Barnett. Barnet (Barney), Ber- 
nai, Normandy. 

Barnewall, from the Norman fam- 
ily De Barneval, England, 1086 

Barney, armorially identified with 

Barold, Vide Barrell. 

Baron, from Baron, near Caen, 
England, 1165. 

Barough, armorially identified 
with Barrow. 

Barr, from La Barre in the Coten- 
tin. Tiger de Barra (Normandy, 

Barr. La Barr, Normandy; Nor- 
man-French, De la Barre. 

Barrable, for Barbal, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Barre, armorially identified with 

Barrell, Richard Barel, Normandy, 
1 1 80. See Battle Abbey Roll. 

Barrett. (Domesday) Baret. 

Barrett. John Buret, 1195. Wal- 
ter de la Burette, Devon, 

Barrington, or De Barenton, from 
Barenton, near Candebec, Nor- 

Barrow, Barou was near Falaise, 
Normandy. England, Barene, 

Barry, armorially identified with 



Bartellot (or Bertelot), Normandy, 
1 1 80; England, 1272. 

Bartleet, a form of Bartelot. 

Bartrum, armorially identified 
with Bartram. 

Bar-well, from Berville, near Pont 
Andemar, 1165; England, 

Baskermlle, from Bacquerville, 
near Rouen. In 1109 Robert 
de Baskerville, on his return 
from Palestine, granted lands 
to Gloucester Abbey. The Bas- 
kervilles were early seated in 

Baskett. Walter Pesket, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. 

Bass. Richard le Bas, 1 1 80. John 
Basse, England, 1272. 

Bassett, from Bathet or Baset. 
Duke of the Normans of the 
Loire, 895. From this stock 
are descended the Doyleys 
(D'Ouilly), Lisores, and Down- 
nays. Osmond Basset accom- 
panied the Conqueror, 1066. 
There were Bassets in Devon, 
Essex, and Wales. 

Bassit, from Biszeilles, near Lithe. 

Bastable. Wastable, Normandy, 
1 1 80. Barnstaple (Lower). 

Bastard. Robert Bastard, a baron 
in Devon, 1080, son of William 
the Conqueror. Also Baistard, 

Bos-well, for Boswell. 

Batcheller. Vide Bachelor. 

Bateley, from Batilly, near Alen- 

gon, Normandy. 
Batell, armorially identified with 

Bateman, from Baudemont in the 

Norman Vexin. Roger de 

Battemound, Northumberland, 

Thirtenth Century. 
Bath. Ramier, afterwards De 

Bathurst. Bateste, Bathurts. 

Thirteenth Century, Cranbrook, 

Batten. Batin (Flemish?), 1272, 

Battle. Batell. 
Baity, from La Bathie, Maine, 

Ralph Baty, Thirteenth Cen- 
tury, Devon. 
Baugh, or De Baa, from Bahais, 

near Contances. 
Bavin, or Bavant, from Bavant, 

near Caen. 
Box, or Backs. 
Bayes, for Boyes. 
Bayley. Vide Baillie. 
Baynes, from Baynes, near 

Bazin, Normandy, 1 180; England, 

Fourteenth Century. 
Beach, armorially identified with 

Beche or De la Beche. From 

Bac in Normandy, frequently 

written Bech and Beche in 

Beacham, for Beauchamp. 



Beadel. Normandy, 1180. Bucks, 
England, 1086. Bishop. 

Beadle, for Beaddell. 

Beadon, from Bidon in Burgundy. 
Held a fee from the Honour of 

Beale, or Le Bele, a form of Bell. 


Beamis, formerly Beaumis, Beau- 
meys, or Beaumetz, from 
Beaumetz, near Abbeville. 
Dujardin Beaumetz was a 
famous medical savant of Paris, 
France, in the latter half of the 
Nineteenth Century. 

Beamish, for Beamis. 

Beamont, armorially identified 
with Beaumont of Yorkshire. 

Beamand, the same. 

Bean, for Bene. 

Beard, armorially identified with 
Bard, a form of Baird. 

Beards, for Beard. 

Bearfield, for De Berville, from 
Berville, near Caen. William 
de Bareville, Normandy, 1180; 
Robert de B., England, 1272. 

Bease, for Bisse. 

Beaten, for Beaton. 

Beaton, or Bethune. From the 
Carlovingian Counts of Artois. 
The Duke of Sully (Sully's 
" Memoirs ") was of this family. 

Beauchamp, from Beauchamp in 
the Cotentin. The same race 
astheMeurdracs,the Montagues 
and the Grenvilles. A familiar 

old-time name in Kentucky 
that has always appealed to 
lovers and writers of romance 
notably to Charles Fenno Hoff- 
man and William Gilmore 
Simms. ' ' This illustrious name, ' ' 
says Lower, "is found in many 
countries of Europe; in Scot- 
land, as Campbell; in England, 
as Fairfield; in Germany, as 
Schonau ; and in Italy as Camp- 
pobello. " It was introduced 
into England at the Norman 
Conquest by Hugh de Bel- 
champ, or Beauchamp, or de 
Bello Campo. Beauchamp is 
pronounced Beecham in Eng- 

Beaufoy, from Beaufay, near Alen- 
(jon, Normandy, 1 1 80. John de 
Beaufoy, England, 1320. 

Beaumont, or Bayard. Two lines 
in England. One of the Beau- 
monts held the Castle of St. 
Luzanne for two years against 
William the Conqueror. 

Beaver, for Bever. 

Beavill, or Seville, from Beaville, 
near Caen, England, 1086 

Beams, armorially identified with 
Beaufiz, England, 1316. 

Becket, or Beckett. In 1180, 
Malger Bechet, Rouen, John 
and William Beket or Bekeit, 
1198. Ibid. Thomas Beket's 
father was of Caen. Ralph de 



Beket, England, 1272; hence 
Thomas, the famous Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

Becks, for Beck. Vide Beach. 

Beckwith, adopted in lieu of the 
original Norman name of Mal- 
bisse (Lower). 

Bedding, or Bedin. Normandy, 
1196; England, 1272. 

Bedell, from the Suffolk gens 
(Thirteenth Century). 

Beech, a form of Beach. 

Beecham, a form of Beauchamp. 

Beecher, armorially identified with 
Beach, of which it is a corrup- 

Beeden. Vide Beadon. 

Beek, armorially identified with 
Beck or Bee. 

Beeman, for Beaman. 

Beeman, for Beaumont (Lower). 

Beerill, for Barrell. 

Beeson, for Beisin, Normandy. 

Beeton, for Beaton. 

Beever, for Beevor. 

Beevor. Berenger de Belver, or 

Belcher. Vide Belshes, England, 

Bell, from Le Bel, a common sur- 
name in Normandy. 

Bellaers, for Beller, from Bellieres, 
near Alenc,on. Normandy, 
1180. Ralph Beler, 1325. 

Bellairs. Vide Bellaers. 

Bellamy, or Bellameys, from Bel- 
meys or Beaumitz. Vide Bea- 

Bellany, from Bellannay, Nor- 

Bellard. Beald heard (strong). 
An ancient baptismal name, 
Balard (The Hundred Rolls). 

Bellas, a form of Bellowes. 

Bellchamber, for Bellencombre 
Castle, near Dieppe. England, 

Bellet. Belet, surmane in Nor- 
mandy, 1180; England, 1165. 
The Bellets were hereditary 
butlers to the King. 

Bellew, from Belleau or Bella 
Aqua, Normandy, 1180. The 
Lords Bellew of Ireland are of 
this family. 

Belling. A northern clan, noble 
and ancient. 

Bellis, armorially identified with 
Bellew of Cheshire. 

Bellowes, armorially identified 
with Bellew. 

Bellville, Belleville, or Bellavilla, 
near Dieppe, Normandy. 

Belshes, a corruption of Bellassidge. 

Belward, a form of Belwar, Belver, 
or Belvoir. See Beevor. 

Bemes, for Beamis. 

Bence. Robert and William 
Bence, Normandy, 1180; Eng- 
land, 1272. 

Bene. Hubert de Bene, Nor- 
mandy, 1180; England, 1298. 

Benivell, for Beneville, from Bene- 
ville, near Havre, Normandy, 
1 1 80; William de Bendeville, 
England, Twelfth Century. 


Benn, for Bene. 

Bennet, or Beneyt, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Bennett. Beneyt, or Benedictus, 
a Norman family. Bennets, 
Earls of Arlington and Tanker- 

Berey, for Barrey or Barry. 
Beringer, Normandy, 1195. 
Berks, for Perks or Parks. 
Bernard. Common name in Nor- 

mandy, 1 180; England, 1200. 
Bernes, from Bernes, near Beau- 

vais, 1167; England, 1272. 
Berney, from Berney, Norfolk; 

Bernai, near Lisieux. 
Bernwell, or Bamwall, 1086 

Berrell, for Barrell. 
Berrett, for Barrett. 
Berry, armorially identified with 

Bertie, a form of Bertin which 

occurs in Battle Abbey Roll, 

Normandy, 1195; 1433, Wil- 

liam Bertyn, one of the Kent- 

ish gentry. 
Bertin. Vide Bertie. 
Bertram. An illustrious Norman 

name. Vide Milford. 
Berwell. Vide Barwell. 
Best. An abbreviation of Bessett. 
Bever, or Beever, armorially iden- 

tified with Belvoir or Bovor of 

Be-verel. Richard de Beverel, 

Normandy, 1180. 

Bevington. Vide Bovington. 

Seville. Vide Beavill. 

Bevir, for Bever. 

Bevis, Beavis. 

Be-vis, armorially indentified with 
Beaufais, or Beauvais. Beau- 
vays, Yorkshire, 1313. 

Bew, for Bews. 

Bewett, armorially identified with 
Bluett, also Blewitt. 

Bewley, for Beaulieu. 

Bews, for Bayeux, Bayouse, Bey- 
ouse, Bews. 

Bewsay, for Bussey, or De Busci. 

Bewshea, for Bewsay. 

Bick, a form of Bee. 

Biddle, for Bidell. Vide Beadle. 

Bidon, for Bidun. Vide Beadon. 

Biggers, Durand le Bigre, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Ranulph de 
Bigarz, 1198. 

Bigot. Richard le Bigot, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80 ; Vide Wiggett. 

Biles, a form of Byles. 

Bill, a form of Boyle, armorially 
identified with Byle or Byles. 

Billes. Vide Bill. 

Billett. Bellet. 

Bing. Byng, Binge. 

Bingham, or De Buisle, from 
Builly, near Neuchatel (often 
supposed to be of Saxon origin). 
John de Bingham, named from 
his "lordship," Bingham, in 
Bucks. One of the family 
named the heiress of Turber- 


Birbeck, from Brabant. Henry 
de Birbecka, 1134. 

Birmingham, or Paynel. Vide 

Biron. Vide Byron. 

Birt. Vide Burt. 

Bishop. Radulphus Episcopus, 
Normandy, 1180; Sir John Bis- 
chopp, England, 1315. 

Bisse, armorially identified with 

Bissell, armorially identified with 
Bissett. Ralph and Henry 
Biset, Normandy, 1180. Sir 
John Byset, England, 1300. 

Black. Odo and Robert Niger 
occur in Normandy, 1180. 
Robertus Niger held lands in 
Kent, 1086 (Domesday). 

Blackett. An abbreviation of 

Blackstone, or Le Breton.^ 1 Black- 
stone, Devon, was held 1286 by 
Alured le Breton. In Thir- 
teenth Century William Black- 
stone held lands at Stones of 
the Honour of Wallingford.'* 

Blagrave, or Le Breton. Alicia de 
Blackgrave,Thirteenth Century. 
The name Le Breton indicates 
a Breton origin. 

Blake. Admiral Robert, the great 
naval commander of Cromwell, 
was of Somerset, in which 
county Walter Blache occurs, 

Blakey. The French pronuncia- 
tion of Blaket. Vide Bleckett. 

Blanch. William Blanc and Rob 
ert and John Blanche occur 
in Normandy, 1180. Henry 
Blanche, Oxford, 1272. 

Blanchard. Ralph and William 
Blanchart were of Normandy, 
1 1 80. Gilbert and William 
Blanchard had estates in Lin- 
coln. This fine old Norman 
family is readily traceable from 
Normandy to England, and 
from England to America. 
Colonel Robert Blanchard, with 
his tall, handsome figure and 
jocund face, would have thrown 
no discredit on his racial de- 
scent in any country, commu- 
nity, or social circle. His son, 
William Lytle Blanchard, an 
accomplished gentleman, was 
an officer in the Confederate 
service. Before the opening of 
the Civil War he had been an 
associate of Halliday (and other 
Anglo-Normans) in the estab- 
lishment of the great overland 
route. William Lytle Blan- 
chard was a first cousin of 
General William Haynes Lytle, 
of Cincinnati. The Blanchards 
are connected with the Rowans, 
Boilings, Lytles, Fosters, Stoths, 
[and other distinguished families. 

Blancherville, from the forest of 
B., Normandy. The family had 
branches in Ireland. 

Blanchet. Robert and Ralph 



Blanquet, or Blanket, Normandy, 
1 1 80. In England Blanche! or 

Blashfield. Anglicised form of 

Blaxton, for Blackstone. 

Blay, for Bleay. 

Bleakey, for Blakey. 

Bleay. De Ble, Normandy, 1180. 
De Blee, Stafford, 1180. 

Blennerhasset, or De Tillial, from 
Tilliol, near Rouen. Richard 
de Tilliol, lord of Blennerhasset, 
Cumberland, temp. Henry I. 
The younger branches bore the 
name of Blennerhasset. A 
name to which the "Burr Ex- 
pedition" gave a peculiar in- 
terest in Kentucky. 

Blessett, for Blissett. 

Blews, a form of Blew or Blue. 
Etard de Blew occurs in Kent, 
1199, and Robert de Bloi in 
Essex. The name is a form of 
Bloi, Bloin, or Blohin of Bre- 
tagne, often written Blue. Vide 
Bligh and Blue. 

Bley, for Bleay. 

Bligh, for De Bloin, from Bretagne. 
Vide Darnley. 

Blindell, for Blundell. 

Blizard, Blizart. Perhaps from 
Blesum, Blois, meaning a native 
of Blois. The name is evi- 
dently foreign. Blizzard, Bli- 
zard, Blezard, Blizart, Blissett. 
Even the best authorities 

have differed as to the origin 
of this name. One English 
writer says: "Perhaps it is 
from Blesum, Blois, meaning a 
native of Blois (Blizzard, which 
is Norman, is an analogous 
form). Another and later Eng- 
lish authority says: "Blizard, 
Blezard, from the Danish Blich- 
ert, a strong sword player." 
A correspondent of the New 
York Tribune, July 19, 1891, 
says: "The old English word 
blizzard, which describes so 
picturesquely the English snow- 
blast, is spoken of as an 'Amer- 
icanism.' Even such philolo- 
gists and lexicographers as Mur- 
ray treat the word as a recent 
'Americanism.' So far from 
its being American in origin, 
it was not till within the last 
thirty years (according to Bart- 
lett and other American philol- 
ogists) that the word was ever 
heard in the Eastern States, 
and in the Western a 'bliz- 
zard' meant a knock-down 
blow not from a snow-blast, 
but in an argument. ' ' . 

In reality, Blizzard is an old 
English surname, and is doubt- 
less of Norman origin. In April, 
1889, the writer of this note 
conversed with a Federal sol- 
dier, whose full name was 
Stephen Decatur Blizzard. He 



was of Anglo- Virginian stock; 
he was a soldier in the Civil 
War, and his name may still be 
found on the National Pension 
Rolls of that date. His postal 
address in 1889 was "Quincy, 
Lewis County, Kentucky. ' ' 

Possibly the "snow-blast" 
took its name from some windy 
Anglo-Norman disputant, who 
wielded the sword of the spirit 
and dealt in apostolic blows 
and knocks. 

The word "blizzard" does 
not appear in Worcester's dic- 
tionary, edition 1860. It is 
evidently of Scandinavian ori- 
gin (Danish or Norman). 

Blockey. The French pronuncia- 
tion of Bloquet or Ploquet. 
Vide Denman. 

Blomefield. Vide Bloomfield. 
Blomfield, bishop of London. 

Bloomfield, armorially identified 
with Blomville from the lord- 
ship so named near Caen and 
Toques. Thomas de Blum- 
ville had custody of the estates 
of Earl Bigod in Suffolk. 

Blossett. The Blossetts of Nor- 
mandy were barons of Beneval 
and Vidames. 

Blount. Le Blund, or Blundus, 
Normandy, 1180. Frequent 
notices of the name, Twelfth 
Century, in Essex. 

Blovice, for Blois, or Blesum, 
France. Thomas Blois, living 
at Norton, Suffolk, 1470, was 
ancestor of the baronets Blois. 

Blow, for Blue or Bloy. Vide 

Blue, Blew or Blews. Etard de 
Bleu occurs in Kent, 1179. The 
name was a form of Bloi 
(France). The original Norman 
form was Le Bleu. During the 
Civil War there came before 
one of our Kentucky courts 
a case in which there was 
a very interesting intro- 
duction of names that 
have been long traditionally 
associated Black and Blue ; 
the former the name of a great 
criminal lawyer (Jeremiah S. 
Black), and the latter the name 
of his client, Blew or Blue, the 
perpetrator of an atrocious 
crime. The case showed that 
the criminal was sadly "off" 
on color. He had killed an 
entire family of blacks ; but was 
finally acquitted by the inge- 
nuity and perseverance of his 
great "Scandinavian" lawyer. 

Black, Blake, Bleek, Bleikr (Norse). 
Admiral Blake was Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, 1651. Victor 
Blue, an officer in the American 
service, won great distinction 
during the Spanish-American 



Bluett. In 1084, Bluet, Normandy ; 
Buqueville le Blouette, the 
family seat. Bluet, long a 
name of eminence in the West 
of England. 

Blundafield, for Blindville. Vide 

Blundell. Vide Blunden. 

Blunt. Le Blount, Normandy, 
1 1 80. Hence baronets Blunt. 

Ely, for Bloi. Vide Bligh. 

Boag, for Bogne. 

Boase, for Bowes. (Vide Lower.) 

Boat, from Buat. The Castle of 
Buat, near Falaise. Sexus de 
Bue, Surry, 1 180. Vide Bowett. 

Boax, for Boase. 

Bobart, N. Popart, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Bockerfield, from Bocherville 
or Bucheville, Normandy. 

Bockett. Originally Bouquet, 
Normandy, 1198. 

Bodel, for Budell. 

Bodelly, for Botelly, or Batelly. 
Vide Battey. 

Badger. Boschier, Normandy, 
1 1 80. Le Boghier, England, 

Body. Norse. Diminutive of 
Bodvarr (wary in battle). Bodi, 
Bodin, Bot. French Bod<, 
Norman-French Bot. (1195.) 

Boffay, from Beaufay, near Alen- 
con, Normandy. Boffei, Nor- 
mandy, 1195. Sometimes Bop- 

Boggis. William de Bogis, 1180, 

Boggs. Vide Boggis. 

Bogne, for Boges or Boggis. 

Bois, from Normandy, several 
families, viz.: (i) De Bois 
Armand, hereditary servants of 
the Counts of Breteuil, sires of 
Poilly. Flourished in Leicester. 

(2) De Bois-Guillauman, of the 
bailifryof Caux, seated in Essex, 

(3) DeBois. Herbert, baron of 
Halberton, Devon; Hugo de 
Bosco, 1083, England. 

(4) De Bois. Robert or Roard, 
Bucks, 1086. 

(5) De Bois. Barony Breck- 
nock, 1088, named after him 

Bole, or Boels. 

Boles, a form of Boles. Vide Boyle. 

Boleyn. Queen Anna Boleyn was 
great-granddaughter of Sir 
Geoffrey Boleyn, Lord Mayor 
of London, temp. Henry VI. 
The family had formerly been 
of great consequence. There 
were two branches of it in Eng- 
land. William de Bolein held 
one fee in York and one in Lin- 
coln. In the preceding gener- 
ation Easton and Simon de 
Bologne, brothers of Pharamus 
de B., are mentioned in a char- 
ter of the latter. The familiar 
pronunciation is "Bullen." 


Bolland. Richard de la Boillante, 
Normandy, 1198. 

Bollen, armorially identified with 

Bolleng, for Boulogne, orBoleyne. 

Bollowe, for Belle we or Bellew. 

Bolster, for Bolster or Balistar. 
Vide Alabaster or Arbalister 
(Norman), a general of cross- 

Bolt, from Bolt, or Bout, near 
Bayeux. Tascelinus de Boalt, 
Normandy, 1 1 80. Reginald 
and Richard Bolt, Oxford, 
1272. "Ben Bolt" at all 
times and everywhere. Com- 
posed by an American ; cosmo- 
politanized by an Englishman. 
An "Anglo-Norman" song. 

Bolten-Nelson. From the Boltons 
of Suffolk descend the Earls 
Nelson, who obtained their 
title as the nearest heirs in 
blood of the renowned Nelson. 

Bompas, from Bonpas near Per- 
pignan ; a Visigoth family. 

Bonamy. Radulphus de Bono- 
Amico, Burgundy, 1180. Rob- 
ert and William Bon Ami, 1 198. 

Bone, armorially identified with 
Bohun of Midhurst, or De 
Falgeres. Vide Foulger. 

Bonell, or Bunel, Lords of Tissey, 
near Caen (Des Bois). 

Boner. Bartholomew Bonaire. 

Bonest, from Banaste, or Banastre. 
Vide Bannister. 

Boney, for Bonney. 

Bonfield, for Bonville, from the 
Castle of Bouneville.Bondeville, 

Bonham. Humphrey and William 
Bonhomme, Cambridge, 1272. 

Bonhote, or Bounot, a form of 
Bonnett, with which it is armo- 
rially identified. 

Banner. Norman-French. Bou- 


naire (courteous). 

Bonnett. Roger Bonitus, Sussex, 
1075. Family seat near Alen- 
con. The name occurs in Bat- 
tle Abbey Roll. 

Bonney. Nicholas and Richard 
Bonie occur in Normandy, 
1189. Agnes and Alicia Bonye, 
Oxfordshire, 1092. 

Bonnivelle, for Bonville. Vide 

Bonom, for Bonham. 

Bonus, armorially identified with 

Boodle, for Budell. Not familiar 
as a "surname" in Kentucky. 

Boog, for Bogue. 

Booker. Walter Bochier, Nor- 
mandy, u 80. The name in 
England is armorially identified 
with Borcher. In Kentucky, 
the Bookers are an old and 
prominent family. A Mayor 
of Louisville was (maternally) 
of the Booker blood. 

Boole, or Boyle. Buelles or Buels 
occurs in Normandy, 1195. 



Boolen, for Bullen, or Boleyn. 

Boots. Vide Boule. 

Boon, or Boone, armorially iden- 
tified with Bohun. The Nor- 
man family of that name de- 
scended from Humphrey de 
Bohun, who accompanied the 
Conqueror and was ancestor of 
the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford, 
Constables of England. 

Booser, for Bowser. 

Boosey. Alexander de la Buzeia, 
Normandy, 1 180. Ralph Buse, 
England, 1194. "Boozy" in 

Boot. The fief of Hugo Boot is 
mentioned in Normandy. "Per- 
haps a trader's name" says 

Boothby. A younger branch of 
the Barons de Tateshall, 1086 

Borne. Walter le Borne, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. 

Borough, or De Burgh, otherwise 
Tusard, which is the original 
Norman name. 

Borrell, armorially identified with 

Borrow, armorially identified with 
Borough and Burgh. 

Base, for Boss. 

Boshett, for Bushell. 

Bosher, a form of Bourchier 

Bosquet. Vide Bockett. 

Boss. Bos or Bose occurs in Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80; in Bucks, 1194. 
The original ' ' boss, " in the mod- 
ern sense (overseer, manager), 
was doubtless a burly, bull- 
necked Norman. It is note- 
worthy that "Boodle" is from 
the same source. 

Bossey. Vide Boosey. 

Bossey. Bussey. 

Bostel, for Postel. Ralph Postel, 
Normandy, 1180. 

Bostfield, for Bosville. 

Bosville. Bosville, near Cande- 
bec, Normandy. 

Bosivell, armorially identified with 
Bosville. Probably in Eng- 
land from the time of the Con- 
quest. The family emigrated 
from England to Scotland in the 
reign of David I. The change 
from ' ' ville " to " well " as a ter- 
mination is also seen in the al- 
teration of Rooseville to Ros- 
well, La Ville to Larwill, etc. 

Boterill. Geoffry Boterel occurs 
in a Beaton charter, 1081. 

Botevyle, from Bouteville, near 
Carenton, Normandy. The 
name occurs in Battle Abbey 
Roll. Butterfield probably a 
form of this old surname. 

Bolt. William Bott occurs in Nor- 
mandy, 1195. Walter Bott in 
Oxfordshire, 1189. The writer 
has seen the names William 
and Elizabeth Bott in old War- 


wickshire records, and in an old 
prayer-book, temp. George III 
(Virginian families) ; the name 
may, also, be seen to-day 
(Botts, not Bott) upon tombs 
in old graveyards in Eastern 
Kentucky. The literal suffix 
"s" to such names as Bott, 
Hay, etc., is said to be an 

Bottin. William Bottin, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Thomas But- 
ing or Boting. 

Bolting, for Bottin. 

Bottle. Roger Botel, Normandy, 


Bottrell, or Botterel, or De Boter- 
eaux, from Bottereaux, near 
Evreux. England, Twelfth 

Bouche, from Buces, now Bucels, 
near Caen. De Bueis, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. De Buche, Sur- 
rey, 1199. Roger Buche, Nor- 

Bouchelt, a form of Bockett. 

Bouffler, from Bouflers, near Abbe- 
ville. James Beaufleur (or Beau- 
flour), collector Port of India, 

Boughey, armorially identified 
with Bowett. The Baronets 
Boughey are maternally de- 
scended from Fletcher. 

Boughton, or Boveton, for Boven- 
ton. Vide Boynton. Baronets 
de Boveton were of county 
Warwick, Fourteenth Century. 

Boulder, from Baudre, near St. Lo 
in the Cotentin. Walter Bul- 
der, York, 1272. 

Boully. Vide Bulley. 

Boult, armorially identified with 

Bonn (or "Bourn"), armorially 
identified with Bohun of Mid- 
hurst. Vide Boone. 

Bound. The same as Bowne 
(Lower) . 

Boundy, from Bondy, near St. 
Denis, Isle of France. 

Bour, armorially identified with 
Boun or Bohun. Vide Boone. 

Bourchier, a form of Bousser, or 
Boursieres, Burgundy. John 
De Busser was a justice in Essex 
and Hertford, 1317. 

Bourdon. Geoffrey Bordon and 
others in Normandy 1180. 
Reginald and Roger Bordon in 
Gloucester, 1199. 

Bourke, for Burke or Burgh. The 
Earls of Mayo are of this name. 

Bourlet, or Borlet. Vide Barlett. 

Bourner or Earner, a form of Ber- 
ner or Berners. 

Bousfield, from Bousville or Bou- 
ville, near Ravilly, Normandy. 
Walter Andrew, Serlo de Bues- 
villa, or Buevilla, Normandy, 
1 1 80. In 1244 William de 
Boevill did homage for his 
lands in the bailifry of New- 

Bousher, armorially identified with 



Boutcher, for Boucher. 

Boutell. Vide Bulteel and Bottle. 

Boutroy. John and Roger Boteri, 
Normandy, 1 1 80. William 
Buteri, or Butery in England. 

Bouts. Vide Boot. 

Bouvier. Hugo Bovier and John 
Bovier of Normandy, 1180-95. 
Vide Bowyer. 

Bovay, for Beauvais. 

Boville. A baronial family from 
Booville or Bueville, Normandy, 
Suffolk, 1086 (Domesday). The 
family was widely spread 
through England ; Chief -Justice 
Boville came of this stock. 

Bovington, or Boventon. Vide 

Bowack, or Boag. 

Bowcher, for Bourchier. 

Bowden, from Bodin (Lower). 
Petrus Bodin, Normandy, 
Eleventh Century. 

Bawdier (from Hope Bowdler 
and other places, Salop). A 
form of De Boilers, or Bodlers, 
of Flanders. Vide Buller. 

Boiven. Bouvignes (Bely). 

Bowes, from Boves, Normandy. 
John de Bowes or Boves, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Hugh de Boves 
commanded in Poitou for King 
John (Roger of Wendover, 

Bowett. Alexander Bonet occurs 
in Normandy, 1180. Bowet, 
England, 1321. 

Bowker. Vide Booker. The 
names are armorially related. 

Bowles, or Buelles. Vide Boyle. 
Hence, W. Lisle Bowles, the 

Bowley, for Beaulieu (Lower). 
Simon de Bello Loco, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Alexander de 
Bello Loco, Bedfordshire, 1255. 

Bown, armorially identified with 
Bohun of Midhurst. Vide 

Bowne. Vide Bown. 

Bowran, or Bowering, for Beau- 
rain, near Cambrai, Flanders. 
Wybert de Beaurain, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. "Hence, the 
able writer, Sir John Bo wring." 

Bowry. Vide Bury. 

Bowser, armorially identified with 

Bowtell, for Boutel. U. S., Bou- 

Bowton, for Boughton. 

Bowyer. Norman-French, Bou- 
vier. This name, as appears 
by the arms, was originally 
Bouvier (Robson). Hugo Bou- 
vier, Normandy, 1180. Le 
Boyer, Kent, 1250. 

Bowyn, armorially identified with 
Bohun. Vide Boon. 

Boy all, a form of Boyle (Lower). 

Boyce, a form of Bois. 

Boyd. A branch of the Beeton 
family of Dinant. Vide Stuart. 
Descent from a brother of Wai- 



ter, the first High Steward of 

Boy/dell. Helto Fitzhugh, grand- 
son of Osborne Fitz-Tezzo, 
Baron of Dodelston, had issue 
Hugh Boydell, ancestor of this 

Boyes, for Bois. 

Boyle, from Boile, otherwise 
Boelles, or Builles, now La 
Buille, near Rouen. William 
de Boel, or Boeles, and Gilbert 
occur in Normandy, 1180. 
William de Buels was descended 
from Helias de Buel, temp. 
John. His son William set- 
tled in Hertford ; hence Ludo- 
ric Buel Boyle, ancestor of the 
Earls of Cork, Orrery, Shannon 
and other great houses. One 
of the most notable members 
of the Boyle family (U. S. A.) 
was Chief- Justice John Boyle, 
of Kentucky ; a very able, emi- 
nent, and fearless judge. 

Boyle, of Scotland, from Boyville, 
of Normandy, otherwise Boe- 
ville (vide Bousfield). Com- 
mon name in Normandy, 
Twelfth Century. William de 
Boeville (Bocville), Suffolk, 

Boyles, for Boyle or Buelleis. 

Boynell, armorially identified 
with Boyville. 

Boynton, or De Brus, abbreviated 
from Boventon. Vide Bruce. 

Robert Fitz-Norman Bruis or 
Bruce of Boventon, York, 1 129. 
A leading family (De Boventon 
or Boynton) in Twelfth and 
Thirteenth Centuries. 

Boys, or Boyse, for Bois (French). 
A Huguenot Bois in Holland 
would become Holtz ; in Ameri- 
ca, Wood. (Vide Bois.) 

Boy son. William Buisson of Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80; Roger Buzun, 
Norfolk, 1258. 

Bozzard, or Bussard, Bascart, or 
Buschart, Normandy, 1198. 
Boscard, 1203. 

Brabant, from the Netherlands. 
Arnold Braban (Brabant), of 
Hamford, occurs 1297. 

Brabazon, from Brabant. Thomas 
Braben^on, Normandy, 1198. 
John Brabazon, Oxfordshire, 

Brace, from Bracey. 

Bracebridge, or De Ardern. The 
family of Arden or Ardern was 
Norman and went to England 
in 1066. Ralph, son of William 
de Ardern, was Lord of Brace- 
bridge, Lincoln, Thirteenth Cen- 
tury. The Bracebridge fam- 
ily bears the arms of Arden. 
John Bracebrigge was living 
1305. Washington Irving has 
made ' ' Bracebridge Hall ' ' 
famous wherever English 
is read. The name at 
least will survive. It was the 



peculiar distinction of the blood 
of Arden that it flowed in the 
veins of Shakespeare. His 
mother was an Arden, and his 
magical "Forest of Arden" 
immortalizes the name. 

Bracey, from Brecy, near Caen. 
Henry de Brecy occurs in Nor- 
mandy, 1180-95. Robert de 
Br6cy, Cheshire. From a branch 
of this Cheshire family descend 
the present Brasseys, among 
whom the most distinguished 
was the eminent engineer, an 
honored servant of England 
during the Victorian reign. 

Bracher. Allen Bracheor, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Vide Brasier. 

Brack, for Brae. Vide Brake. 

Bragge, for Brae. Vide Brake. 
Evain de Brae, Normandy, 
1 1 80. Richard de la Brache, 
England, 1199. Bragg entered 
Kentucky in 1862. 

Brain, from Brain, Anjou; York- 
shire, 1199. 

Bran, for Brand. 

Branch, from St. Denis de Branche, 
Normandy ; Suffolk, 1219. 

Brand. Walter Brandus, Caen, 
1 165. William Brant, Norfolk, 
1086. Simon Brand, Hertford- 
shire, 1325. The Brands of Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, a well- 
known family. 

Brandram. William Brandram, 
Normandy, 1198. 

Branis, for Brain. 

Brant. Vide Brand. 

Brasier. William Braisier paid a 
fine, Normandy, 1180. Soon 
after ' ' William de Neelfa was a 
fugitive for slaying him." The 
name occurs also as Bracheor, 
and Broshear. 

Brasil, from Bresles, near Beavois. 

Brass, for Brace. Brass is one of 
Dickens' names. 

Brassey. Vide Bracy. 

Bratt, armorially identified with 

Braund. Brand. 

Brawn, for Braund. 

Bray, from Bray near Evreux, 
Normandy. William de Bray 
occurs 1189-95. A branch of 
the family was seated in Devon 
in the Thirteenth Century. Sir 
Reginald Bray, the eminent 
architect, temp. Henry VII. 

Brayne. Vide Brain. 

Brazier. Vide Brasier. 

Brazill, for Brasill. 

Breache. Vide Brache. 

Breckinridge. Vide Cabell. 

Breckinridge is from Bracken-rigg, 
a loc n. Cumb. Robt. J. Breck- 
inridge, John C. Breckinridge, 
and W. C. P. Breckinridge were 
descended on the maternal 
side from the Cabells a fa- 
mous Norman family. Vide 
Cabell. The Breckinridge family 
is directly of Scottish origin. 




The foregoing derivation rests 
upon the authority of the 
English genealogist, Doctor 
Henry Barber. But no Amer- 
ican family has ever given 
more varied and striking 
illustrations of the power 
of inherited Norman blood. 
Scarcely a characteristic trait 
is lacking. 

Brecks, for Brake. 

Brees. Vide Breese. 

Breese, a form of Brice, being the 
Norman-French pronunciation. 

Breeze. Vide Breese. 

Bren, armorially identified with 

Brennard, for Burnard. 

Brery, or De Brereto, Breuery, 
near Vesoul, France. 

Breton, from Bretagne. Baronial 
families in England (Devon, 
Bucks, Lincoln, etc.). 

Bretell. Normandy, 1126. 

Brett, from Brette in Maine, or, 
possibly, short for Breton. Geof- 
fry le Bret was one of the 
Barons of Ireland. 

Brettell, Lords of Gremonville, 
Normandy (Des Bois). Bre- 
tel, Kent, 1130. Bretel is near 

Brettle, for Bretel. 

Breun, or Brewn, for Brun. Vide 

Brew, one of the forms of 
Breux, Brews, or Braiose. 

Brewer, (i) from Brovers, or 
Brueria, now Breviare, near 
Caen. Seated in Devon at 
the Conquest. (2) From the 
English translation of Brace- 
ator, or Braceor. Vide Brazier, 

Brewhouse, for Brewis, or De 
Braiose, a baronial family, from 
Braiose, near Argenton, Nor- 
mandy. Branches in Ireland, 
Wales, Suffold, Sussex, Norfolk, 
Hants "and elsewhere." The 
name is frequently written 
Breose, Brewes, and is totally 
different from that of Bruce or 
Brus, with which it has often 
been confounded. 

Brewn. Vide Breun. 

Brian, armorially identified with 

Briant, for Breaunt, Breant, or 
Breante, near Havre. Fulco de 
Breante, or De Beent, England, 
temp. Henry VIII. (Roger 

Brice, from St. Brice, near Avran- 
ches, Normandy. Robert de 
St. Brice, Normandy, 1180. 

Brickdale, from Briquedale, Nor- 
mandy. The derivation of the 
name from "Brickdele, Lan- 
cashire," is doubted, on the 
apparently sufficient ground 
that there is no such place. 

Bride, or St. Bride, or St. Bridget. 
Vide Bridgett. 



Bridge, or De Ponte, Normandy, 
1 1 80; England about the same 
time. Bridges, 1328, Middlesex. 

Bridgett, for Brichet. Vide Briett. 

Brient, for Brent or Briant. 

Brier. Vide Bryer. 

Briett. Occurs in Normandy, 
1 1 80. Ralph de Brecet, Eng- 
land, 1272. 

Briley, from Broilly, near Valog- 
nes, Normandy. William de 
Broleio, 1180-95. Broily, Bed- 
ford, 1086. Bruilli, Lindores, 
Scotland, 1178. 

Brind, armorially identified with 

Brine, for Broyne, Brun, Browne. 

Brinson, or De Briangon, Middle- 
sex, 1189. Giles de Brianzon, 

Britain, for Breton. (Lower.) 

Brittain, for Britain. 

Brittan, for Britain. 

Britten, for Britain. 

Brixey, from Breze, Anjou; De 
Brexes, Lancashire, 1199. 

Brize, for Brice. 

Broach, for Brock. 

Brock, from Broc, Anjou; Robert 
de Broc, England, 1189; also 
Nigel and Ranulph de Broc. 

Brocke, for Brock or Broc. (Lower.) 

Bronaker, from Broncort, near 
Langres, France. Roger Brun- 
cort, Normandy, 1199. Proba- 
bly same as Bruencort and Bru- 
cort. (1180-98, Normandy.) 

Brond, for Brand. 

Brontofl, from Bernetot, near 
Yvetol. John de Bernetot held 
lands in Normandy, temp. Philip 
Augustus. The name of Berne- 
tot in Normandy at length 
changed to Bernadotte the 
name of one of Napoleon's mar- 
shals. Hence, the royal family 
of Sweden. Carew Isaac Tay- 
lor remarked at Newcastle in 
1889 that the royal families of 
Europe were of Scandinavian 
origin. But for the Norman 
derivation of the Bernadottes, 
here explained, the royal family 
of Sweden might have appeared 
to be an exception. 

Brook, for Broke. (Lower.) 
Brooks, for Brock; Brookes, 
for Broke. (Lower.) 

Brosee. Brusi, Brozi (old Norse). 
Brosee, now pronounced Bro- 
zee. William Brosee, the pro- 
genitor of the family in Ken- 
tucky, was a soldier in the Rus- 
sian campaign under Napoleon. 
Among the interesting "docu- 
mentary" proofs of this service 
(now in possession of the fam- 
ily) is a portrait of the old 
campaigner in his French uni- 

Broughlon, a branch of Vernon; 
' ' Broeton," Stafford, Thirteenth 
Century. The arms concur 
with the descent from Vernon. 



Brown. Vide Browne. 

Brown. Gilbert le Brun, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. The name Brunus 
or Le Brun frequently occurs 
in Normandy, 1180-98. Many 
Normans were Brun, or Browne ; 
but, in England, all Brownes 
were not Norman. The line of 
Hanno le Brun, Cheshire, temp. 
Henry II, is armorially con- 
nected with an Irish line. Wil- 
liam Brone witnessed the char- 
ter of Dunbrody, 1 178; Nigel le 
Brun had a writ of military 
summons, 1309, and Fremond 
Bruyn was one of the barons of 
Ireland, 1315-17. Richard de la 
Ferte accompanied Robert of 
Normandy to Palestine in 1096. 
He had eight sons, the youngest 
of whom, surnamed Le Brun, 
settled in Cumberland, where 
he had baronial grants, temp. 
Henry I. The family of De la 
Ferte, also called Le Brun, long 
flourished in Cumberland. The 
name Le Brun graduallychanged 
to Broyne, Brown, and Browne. 
Robert le Browne, M. P. for 
Cumberland, 1317-1339, was 
grandfather of Robert, from 
whom descended the Viscounts 
Montague, the Marquises of 
Sligo, and the Barons Kil- 

Brownett. Robert Brunet, Nor- 
mandy, 1209. 

Brownlow. The Brownlows, Lords 
Lurgan, bear the arms of the De 
Tankervilles, Chamberlains of 
Normandy. Vide Chamber- 

Bruce, from the Castle of Brus, or 
Bruis, now Brix, near Cher- 

... bourg, where are the ruins of 

^ an extensive fortress built by 
Adam de Brus in the Eleventh 
Century. Hence the Kings of 
Scotland, the Earls of Elgin, 
the Baronets Bruce. 

Brudenell, or De Bretignolles, 
from Bretignolles near Alengon, 
Normandy. William de Bre- 
tignolles, in 1263, had a writ of 
summons to attend with his 
military array at Oxford. From 
this family descended Sire Rob- 
ert Brudenell, Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas, 1520. The 
orthographic modifications of 
this Norman patronymic (from 
Bretignolles to Bredenell, to 
Bredenhill, and Brudenel) are 
clearly traceable upon the 

Bruen, armorially identified with 
Bruin, with Brun, Le Brun, or 
Browne, of Cheshire. 

Brunes, for Brun, now Brown. 

Brunker, armorially identified 
with Brounker. 

Brus. Vide Bruce. 

Brush. Richard Broche, Nor- 
mandy, 1198. 



Brushett. Chapon Broste, Nor- 
mandy, 1198. William Bruast, 
England, 1199. 

Bryan, or Briowne, from Brionne, 
Normandy. A branch of the 
Counts of Brionne and the 
Earls of Clare and Hertford, 
descended from Gilbert, Count 
of Brionne, son of Richard I 
of Normandy. Wido Brionne of 
the Welsh line had a military 
courtof summons, 1259. About 
this time the name was changed 
to Bryan, and the Barons of 
Bryan inherited it. William 
Jennings Bryan seems to have 
been, prenatally, a Kentuckian. 

Bryant, for Briant. 

Bryson. Vide Brison. 

Buckle, or Buckell. Identified by 
the arms (a chevron) with 
Bushnell. Hence the able 
writer Buckle. 

Budgell, for Bushell. 

Budgett, for Buckett. 

Buggins. Bogin, Normandy, 1180. 
Bogun, Derby, 1270. 

Buist. Roger Baiste, or Buiste, 
Normandy, 1198. 

Buley, or Bewley, from Beaulieu. 

Bullard. A form of Pullard or 

Bullett. Beringer Bulete, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. lorceline Bolet, 
1207. Normandy. In Ken- 
tucky, the Bullitts justify their 
Norman descent. They have 

achieved distinction in many 

Bullivani, or Bonenfant. Nor- 
mandy, temp. Henry V; Cam- 
bridge, 1253. Bonenfant. 

Button, or Bullen. A form of 
Boleyn. There is Bullen (or 
Boleyn) blood in Kentucky. 

Bully, for Builly. Vide Bingham. 

Buliver. Vide Wiggett. 

Bumpus, from Boneboz, Nor- 

Bunce, for Bence. 

Bunker, for Boncoeur. (Lower.) 

Bunn, from Le Bon. (Lower.) 


Burd, for Burt. 

Burden, a familiar name. 

Burden. Vide Burdon. ' ' Burdens' 
Grant" (Virginia). 

Burdett. French Bourdet. Vide 
Battle Abbey Roll. 

Burdett. From the Bordets, Lords 
of Cuilly, Normandy. Seated 
in England at the Conquest. 
Baronets Burdett-Coutts. 

Burdon. Bordon 1 180, Normandy. 
Robert Bordon, Yorkshire, 


Burfield. De Bereville, De Bare- 
ville, England, 1789. Some- 
times Berewell. 

Surges, Burgess. Simon de Bor- 
geis, Normandy, 1195. Ralph 
Burgensis, 1198. 

Burgess is an old way of spelling 



Burgoyne, Burgon, Burgin. De 
Bourgoyne, probably Gothic, 
from Burgundy. In 1083 Wal- 
ter Burgundiensis, or Borgoin, 
held lands in Devon. 

Burke. Vide Burgh. 

Burley. Roger de Burlie, Nor- 
mandy, 1198. "White Bur- 
ley," Kentucky. 

Burnett. The Scottish form of 
Burnard. From Roger de Bur- 
nard. The name became Bur- 
net in 1409. Bishop Burnet of 
Salisbury, celebrated writer, is 
of this gens. 

Burney, a form of Berney. Vide 
Berney. The name of a well- 
known family in Kentucky. 
James G. Birney was the first 
Free-Soil candidate for the 

Burr. Robert, Roger, and Peter 
Burre occur in Normandy, 1 180. 
Gilbert le Bor, England, 1227. 
Aaron Burr was a conspicuous 
and dramatic figure in the early 
history of Kentucky. Professor 
Shaler, the eminent Harvard 
professor, writing of Aaron 
Burr's expeditionary project, 
says that the Kentuckians "had 
inherited the spirit of the Eliza- 
bethan English"; and that the 
mass of the Kentucky people 
were always "filibusterish." 
There is not a decade in their 
history he adds that we do 

not find some evidence of this 
motive, to wit, "a natural 
hunger for adventure." 

Burrell, or Borel. Normandy, 
1 1 80. Burrells, Burrill. 

Burrough. (i) for Burgh; (2) 
for Burys, Burroughs, Bur- 

Burroughs. Vide Burrough or 

Burt. William Berte, Mortanie, 
Normandy, 1203. John Berte, 
England, 1272. 

Burton, or De Richmond. One 
of the family bore the feudal 
dignity of Constable of Rich- 
mond. The founder was Vis- 
count of Nantes, Bretagne. 
The Baronets Burton. 

Bury, from Bourry, near Gisors, 
Normandy. Armorially iden- 
tified with the family of Bury, 
Earls of Charleville. 

Busain, from Buisson, in the 

Bushe. Hugh de Bucis, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. 

Bush-well, for Boswell. 

Busse. Armorially identified with 

Butcher, for Bourchier. 

Butler, or De Glanville. This 
family derives its name from 
Theobold Walter, the first but- 
ler of Ireland, to whom that 
dignity and vast estates were 
granted by Henry II. The 

1 66 


Butlers bore the arms of De 
Glanville, a family of Glanville, 
near Caen. 

Butler. A name of peculiar dis- 
tinction in the heraldic geneal- 
ogies. The Butler or De Glan- 
ville family derives its name 
from Theobald Balton, temp. 
Henry II. The name has lost 
none of its distinction in the 
New World. The Butlers of 
Kentucky are thoroughly Anglo- 
Norman in their fighting 
instincts. All the male members 
(5) of this branch were officers 
in the Revolution ; all their sons 
but one were in the War of 
1812; nine Butlers of this branch 
were in the War with Mexico; 
and in the Civil War every male 
descendant of Captain Pierce 
Butler (of Kentucky) was in 
the Confederate Army (vide 
Historic Families). 

Butt, for Bott. A name made 
conspicuous in recent times by 
Sir Isaac Butt. Vide Butts, 

Butter. Earls of Larnsborough, 
descended from Hugo Pincerna, 
who, in 1086, was a baron in 
Bedford. Hereditary butlers 
of the Earls of Leicester and 
Mellent. Several other families 
of distinction bore the name 
Butler: (i) the Butlers of Corn- 
wall and Kent; (2) the Butlers 

of Essex; (3) the Butlers, Bar- 
ons of Warrington, feudal but- 
lers of Chester ; (4) the Butlers 
of Bramfield, and others. 

Butter field, for Botevyle. 

Buzar, for Buzzard. 

Buzzard. Hugo and William Bus- 
cart, Normandy, 1198. Henry 

! : Boscard, Salop, 1199. 

Byars, Byers, De Biars. (Lower.) 
In Kentucky, a familiar name. 
The Byars family of Mason 
was connected with the famous 
Johnston family. 

Byles. Armorially identified with 
Boyle. A distinguished judge 
bore the name. 

Byng, from Binge, Gerault, Nor- 
mandy. Reginald Binge was 
one of the gentry of Essex, 
1433. No one is likely to forget 
the Byng, who was shot pour 
encourager les autres. 

Byron, or De Beuron, near Nantes, 
Normandy. Sir Richard By- 
ron married, temp. Henry IV, 
the daughter and heiress of Col- 
wick of Notts; and from him 
descended Lord Byron, the poet. 

Cobban, or Cadban, from Cabanne 
or Chabannes in Perigord. 
Bartholomew Caban of Berkes, 
living 1322. 



Cabbell. Walter Cabel is on 
record as having witnessed 
a charter in Wiltshire, in 
the Eleventh Century. This 
Walter Cabel came over with 
the Conqueror. The Normans 
used the word caballus, instead 
of equus, for horse. It was so 
used in Domesday Book, and it 
seems certain, says Doctor 
Brown, that the family derived 
its surname from that, word. 
Hence, also, caballero. Doctor 
Brown gives at least forty-six 
different ways of spelling the 
name. Geoffrey Cabell owned 
land in Caux, Normandy, in 
1 1 80. The Cabells of Virginia 
are descended from the Cabells 
of France, in Somersetshire. 
In 1726 we find Doctor William 
Cabell in St. James Parish, 
Henrico, then deputy sheriff to 
Captain John Redford, High 
Sheriff of Henrico (Shire- Reeve) , 
officially the first man in the 

In June, 1785, "Polly" Cabel 
was married to John Breckin- 

The records show that Mary 
H. Cabell and John Breckin- 
ridge had issue : 

(1) Letitia Preston. 

(2) Joseph Cabell. 

(3) MaryH. (died in infancy). 

(4) Robert H. 

(5) Mary Ann. 

(6) John. 

(7) Robert Jefferson. 

(8) William Lewis. 

The political and social his- 
tory of these families and their 
annexions are quite familiar 
to the people of Kentucky and 
the South. 

Cadd, or Cade. Arnulf Cades, 
Normandy, 1184. Eustace Cade, 
Lincolnshire, 1189. 

Caffin. A form of Caufyn, or 
Calvin. Cavin, or Calvin, 
occurs in Normandy, 1180. 

Cain, from Cahaignes, Normandy. 

Cain. Sometimes of Hiberno-Cel- 
tic origin; generally, however, 
of Caen, or De Cadomo, Devon- 
shire, 1083. 

Caines, from the lordship of 

Caldecote. A Norman family bear- 
ing an English surname. 

Cale. A form of Kael. A Breton 
name. Vide Call. 

Calf. An English form of the 
Norman name Calxus, or Le 
Chauve. William Calf, Ireland, 

Call, or De Kael, from Bretagne 
or Poiton. Walter Gael, envoy 
to England, Thirteenth Cen- 

Callis. Callass, Cales, the usual 
forms of Calais in Sixteenth 

Calver. An abbreviation of Cal- 



Calvert, from Calbert, or Cauburt, 
near Abbeville. The "b" being 
changed into "v," as usual, 
1318. Henry Calverd was Mem- 
ber of Parliament for York. 
The Calverts of Maryland(Lords 
Baltimore). A familiar name in 
Kentucky. Formerly (in mid- 
century days and earlier) pro- 
nounced Colbert; now, we only 
hear Calvert. 

Cambray, from the Lordship of 
Chambrai, Normandy. Sire de 
Cambrai was at the Battle of 
Hastings, De Chambrai, Lei- 
cestershire, 1086. Corrupted 
to Chambreys, or Chambreis. 

Camel, from Campelles, or Cam- 
pell, in Normandy. Geoffry 
Campelles, Normandy, Twelfth 

Cameron. Scoto-Celtic. But there 
is one English family of the 
name derived from Champroud, 
near Coutances. Ausger de 
Cambrun, Essex, 1157. Robert 
Cambron and John de Cambron, 
Scotland, 1200 and 12 34. Cam- 
bronne, of the Guard, of fra- 
grant memory. 

Camfield, or Camfyled, a corrup- 
tion of Camville, from Cam- 
ville, near Coutances. 


Camp, from Campe, or Campes, 
Normandy. John de Campes, 
England, 1199. 

Campbell. Vide Beauchamp. 
Norman-French, de Camville(de 
Campo-Bello), vide British Sur- 
names, Barber (London, 1903). 
As early as 1812, Doctor John 
Poage Campbell, of Kentucky, 
in a series of ' ' Letters to a Gen- 
tleman at the Bar" (Colonel 
Joseph Hamilton Daveiss), gave 
a striking illustration of the 
high quality of his scholar- 
ship in his anticipation of Sir 
Benjamin Brodie and Professor 
Tyndall of our day in the detec- 
tion of the germinal ideas from 
which the Darwinian theory of 
evolution is derived (vide 
Green's Historic Families). An 
interesting illustration of the 
intellectual life of the pioneer 
period in Kentucky. 

Campion. William Campion, Nor- 
mandy, 1 184. Geoffry Campion, 
England, 1194. "Campian," 
American Colonel (Lothair). 


Candy, from Cande, near Blois. 
Nicholas Candy, Normandy, 


Cane, for Caen. (Vide Cain.) 
Cany. Richard Cane, Normandy 
1 1 80. Walter Cane, England, 

Canfell, for Camville. 

Cann, from Cane, Normandy. 
Geoffry de Can, Normandy, 
1195. Richard de Canne, Eng- 




land, 1272. (Cone, from bosne: 
loc n. France.) In Kentucky, 

Cannel, from Chanel, now Chenean, 
near Lille. 

Cannon. Radulfus Canonicus, or 
Le Chanoin, of Normandy. 
Robert Canonicus, England, 


Cant, for Gant. 

Cantis, for Candish, or Cavendish. 
A Norman baronial family. 

Cantor (translated Singer). Gauri- 
dus Cantor, Normandy, 1180. 
Christian le Chaunter, England, 

Cantrell. William and Roger Can- 
tarel of Normandy, 1188. 
Alberid Chanterhill, England, 
1 199. Richard Chaunterel, 1272. 
Kentucky, U. S. A., Cantrill, 
1906. Judge Cantrill, Court of 
Appeals, Kentucky. 

Cant-well. Cantelo. Chanteloup. 

Cape, or Capes, from Cappes. 
Vide Cope. 

Capel. A Breton family from La 
Chapelle, Nantes. Rainald de 
Capella, Essex, 1066. (Domes- 
day.) William de C., Suffolk, 
from whom the Lords Capel, 
Earls of Essex. Capel, from La 
Chapelle, near Alencjon. Seated 
in the West of England. Capell, 
for Capel. Monsignore Capel 
figures vividly in Lothair. 

Capern, for Capron. Richard 
Cepron, Normandy, 1180. Rob- 
ert Capron, England, 1194. Mrs. 
Laura Lee Capron, of Baltimore, 
Md., was a daughter of Richard 
Henry Lee, of Kentucky. 

Caplin, Capelen, or Chaplain. 
William Capellanus, Normandy, 
1180. Richard C., England, 
1190. John Chaplyn, Lincoln, 


Capun. Vide Capern. 

Carabine, for Corbin. Robert 
Corbin, Normandy, 1180. Geof- 
fry Corbin, England, 1 194. Wal- 
ter Corbin, England, 1127. 

Carbonell, Normandy, 1 1 80. Car- 
bonel, Hereford, 1086. Tht 
family long flourished in Here- 
ford, Bucks, and Oxford. 

Car den. An English local name. 
Also a form of Cordon, Cordun : 
Normandy, 1180; Essex, 

Card-well, for Cardeville, or Car- 
dunville, from Cardunville, near 

Cares, from Chars, Normandy. 

Carew. A branch of Fitzgerald. 
Gary, Carey. 

Carle, for Carel, or Carrell. 

Carles. Vide Carless, or Charles, 
from St. Karles de Percy, in the 
Cotentin. Charles family, in 
Thirteenth Century, seated in 
many parts of England. Carlish, 
for Carless. 



Came. Geoff ry le Caron, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Wischard de 
Charun, England, 1272. 

Cornell, from Carnelles, near 
Evreux. Geoffry de Carneilles, 
Normandy, 1180. Armorially 
identified with Charnell. In 
England, usually styled Charnel 
or Charnels. Carneal, a dis- 
tinguished name in Kentucky; 
Thomas D. Carneal. one of the 
founders of Covington, in that 

Carpenter. Bernard Carpentarius, 
Normandy, 1 1 80. William Car- 
pentarius, father of Henry Biset, 
baron, temp. Henry II. 

Carr, or Kerr, q. v. 

Carrell, or Caril, from Caril, near 
Ligieux. James II, after the 
loss of his throne, created a 
Baron Caryl. 

Carrey, for Carey. 

Carrington, for Carenton; from 
Carenton, in the Cotentin. Rob- 
ert de Carenton granted the mill 
of Stratton, Wilts, to Farley 
Abbey, 1125. 

Carritt, or Caret, for Garet. 

Carrol. In England, a form of 
Carrell. In Ireland it is Celtic. 

Carson. Probably from Corson, 
Normandy. Carcun, Thirteenth 
Century, Suffolk. 

Carter. William Cartier of Nor- 
mandy, 1195; 1203, William of 
Warwick. Thirteenth Century 

Ralph C. Worcester. Colonel 
Carter, of Cartersville, Va. 

Carterfield, or Quaterville, Nor- 
mandy, 1205. 

Cartwright. Armorially identified 
with Cateryke, or Catherick. 
A branch was seated in Notts; 
another in Cambridge, and the 
name there changed from Cater- 
yke to Cartwright. Of the for- 
mer branch was the celebrated 
reformer, and of the latter, 
Thomas Cartwright, the great 
Puritan leader, under Elizabeth. 
Peter Cartwright, an able revi- 
valist, was equally famous in 
the States of the Southwest. 

Car-veil. Ranulph de Carville, 
1180; Robert Carvel, 1195, 
Normandy. England, 1199. 
Richard de Carville. The Eng- 
lish derivation of this patro- 
nymic has given a name 
to a popular American novel. 

Cory, or Pipart. Waldin Pipart 
held Kari, 1086. (Domesday.) 
William Pipart held Kari, 
whence the name of De Kari, or 
Gary. Hence, the Earls of Mon- 
mouth and Viscounts Falkland. 

Case, for Chace. Armorially re- 
lated to Chancy, or Canci. 
Vide Chace. 

Casey, or Cassy. When English, 
it is a branch of Canci, with 
which it bears armorial rela- 
tions. Robert de Canecio, 1 180, 



Normandy ; Geoff ry de Chancy, 
England, 1194. Chace, Chase, 
or Chousey, armorially identi- 
fied to Casey. In various forms 
appears in all parts of England ; 
also, Hiberno-Celtic. 

Cash, for Cass. 

Cass. A form of Case, or 

Cassell, from Cassel, Flanders. 
Hugo de Cassel, London and 
Middlesex, 1130. Vide Cecil. 

Casson, for Gasson. 

Castang, for Casteyn. 

Castell. William Castel, Nor- 
mandy, 1198. Alexander de 
Castro, Castel, England, 1199. 

Castleman. The castellan of a 
castle. Ancient name; distin- 
guished in Kentucky. 

Castro, for Castell. Casto? 

Cote, or Catt. William Catus, Nor- 
mandy, 1180. Rudulphus Cat- 
tus, 1189. Alexander le Kat, 
England, 1272. 

Catherick. Vide Cartwright. 

Catlin, Catline, Castelline, from 
Castellan, bearing three castles 
(armorial). De Casleltan, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Sire Reginald de 
Casleltan, England, 1272. An 
eminent Chief Justice of Eng- 
land bore the name of Cattine. 
Catling, for Catlin ; also, Catlyn, 
Catlin, a famous American 
painter an illustrator of our 
aboriginal life. 

Cato, from Catot, or Escatol, in 
Normandy. Hugh de Escatol, 
Salop, 1189. 

Caton. Katune, Normandy, 1 198. 
England, De Catton. 

Cattel, or Chatel. Foreign origin 
Du Chastel, or De Castello. 

Cattermole, from Quatremealles 
or De Quatuor Molis (locality 
not ascertained) ; also, Catter- 
moul, Cattermull. 

Cattle, for Cattel. 

Cattlin, for Catlin. 

Catton. Vide Caton. 

Caudel, for Caudle. Roger Caldel, 
or Caudel, Normandy, 1180. 
Anistina and William Caudel 
(Mr. and Mrs. Caudle?), Cam- 
bridgeshire, 1272. 

Caulcoft. Vide Calcott. 

Caulfield, Calvil, Calfhill, or Ca- 
ville. Vide Cavell. Seated in 
Normandy, 1 1 80. In England, 
Gilbert de Calvel, Northumber- 
land, and Richard, of Kent, 
1 2 02. Sir Toby Caulfield, a 
renowned commander in Ire- 
land, descended from Bishop of 
Worcester, temp. Elizabeth. 
Hence, collaterally, Earls of 

Cave. John Cave, Adeliua de 
Cava, Normandy, 1180. Sire 
Alexander de Cave, commis- 
sioner of array and justiciary. 
Name of Norman origin. From 
Cave, in Yorkshire. 



Cavendish. The Gernons were a 
branch of the Barons of Mont- 
fichet (or Montfiquet, or Mont- 
fiket), in Normandy; so named 
after their Scandinavian ances- 
tor. The Montfichets were he- 
reditary standard-bearers, or 
military chiefs of London. The 
younger branches retained the 
name of Gernon. Alured Ger- 
non, brother of William de Mont- 
fichet, had estates in Essex and 
Middlesex, 1130. Geoff ry Ger- 
non, of this line, was surnamed 
De Cavendish, from his residence 
at Cavendish, Suffolk, 1302. 
He was grandfather of Sir 
John Cavendish, Chief Justice 
to Richard II. Cavendish and 
Gernon bear indiscriminately 
the same arms. The Dukes of 
Newcastle, Devonshire and 
other great families bearing the 
name of Cavendish (pronounced 
Candish), descended from the 
Gernons and Montfichet. The 
genealogists differ on these 
points, but the old heralds 
seem to agree. 

Caville, or Cavill, identified by its 
arms (a calf) with Calvel, or 
Cauvel. Robert Cauvel, Nor- 
mandy, 1198. William Cavell 
of Oxfordshire, 1292. 

Cawdery, or Coudray, Cawdray. 
A branch of the Beaumonts, 
Viscounts of Maine. (Vide 

Cawley, for Colley. 

Cawse, Calz, or Caux, from Caux, 
near Abbeville. Hence the 
English surname, Cox or Coxe. 

Cayley, from Cailly, near Rouen. 

Cecil, Cicelle, or Seyssel, from 
Kessel, or Cassel, east of Bruges, 
Flanders. Its arms (escutcheon 
charged with the lion rampant 
of Flanders) are still borne in 
Flanders by a family of the 
same name. Walter de Alterens, 
descended from Robert Fitz- 
Hamon, living 1165, is derived 
the noble house of Cecil. The 
great English statesman, Lord 
Burleigh (William Cecil) was of 
this family. 

Ceeley, or Seily, from Silly, Nor- 

Chabot, or Cabot. Robert Kabot, 
1198. Roger Cabot, of Eng- 
land, 1272. 

Chace, Chase, or Chausey. Armo- 
rially identified, also, with 
Chancy or De Canci. The name 
appears in all parts of England 
as Chancey, Chancy, etc. 

Chad, for Cadd. 

Chaff, from Chause. Vide Cafe. 

Chafjer, Chaffen, from Chevricres, 
Normandy, 1195. 

Chaffey, or Chaffy, a form of 
Chafe, or Chaff. 

Chaffin, for Caffin. (Lower.) 

Chalie, for Cayley. 

Challands, for Chalas. Vide Chal- 



Challen. A branch of the Counts 

of Chalons. 
Challenger, or Challenge, from 

Chalenge, Normandy. 
Challoner. Probably from Chalons. 
Chamberlain, Robert, Herbert, 
William Henry Camerarius, or 
Le Chamberlain, Normandy, 
1180-98. England, 1194-1200. 
Henry, Hugh, Ralph, Robert, 
Thomas, Walter, Richard Tur- 
bert Camerarius. The principal 
family of these was descended 
from the Barons of Tancarville, 
Chamberlains of Normandy ; 
also, Chamberlaine, Chamberlin, 

Chambers, or De Camera. William 
de Camera, England, 1189, 
Oxford, Essex, Sussex. The 
family appear early in York, 
Wilts and Norfolk. Chambre, 
or Camera, was in Brabant, the 
family seeming to have come 
thence at the Conquest. Gov- 
ernor John Chambers, of Ken- 
tucky, was one of the aides of 
General Harrison at the battle 
of the Thames ; was appointed 
Territorial Governor of Iowa 
by President Harrison. 
Champ. Vide Camp. 
Champin, for Campion, or Cam- 


Champney, from De Champigne, 

Chancellor, Cancellor, Chanslor. 
Chancillor, a Norman name. 
Ranulph Cancellarius. 
Chaney, for Cheyney. 
Channell. Armorially identified 
with Charnell. An eminent 
judge bore this name. 
Channon. Vide Cannon. 
Chantry, from Chaintre, near 


Chappel. Vide Capel. 
Chappius. Calvus, Normandy, 
1195. England, Cabous, 1311. 
Charge, from Gaurges, in the 


Charles. Vide Carless. 
Charnell, for Carnell. 

Charter, for Chartres. 
Charteris. The Scottish form of 


Chartres. Ralph Carnotensis (De 
Chartres) held estates in Lei- 
cester, 1086. Ebrard de Carnot, 
1148, Winchester. 
Chase. Vide Chace. 
Chattell. Vide Cattell. 
Chatwin, for Chetwynd. 
Chaucer. Geoffrey Chaucer, the 
poet, married a daughter of Sir 
Paine Roet, sister of John 
of Gaunt's wife, and was 
valectus, or esquire, to Edward 
III. The family of Chaucer, 
Chaucier, Chaucers, or Chaseor, 
had been seated in the eastern 


counties, and some members 
were in trade in London. The 
name, Le Chaucier (Calcearius) 
may have arisen from some 
sergeantry connected with the 
tenure of land. Probably a 
branch of the family of Male- 

Cheek. William Cecus occurs in 
Normandy, 1198; and in Glou- 
cester, 1189. Walter Chike of 
England, 1272. 

Cheiley, or Ceiley, a form of Cilly. 
Vide Ceely. 

Cheney. Vide Cheyney. 

Chenoweth. The history of this 
name is of peculiar interest. 
John Trevelesick, according to 
an old London record, married 
Elizabeth Terrel. Their son, 
John, received from his father 
a tract of land upon which he 
built a house, and called the 
place "Chenoweth," doubtless 
from an oak grove or woods 
upon the land. The initial 
syllable of the name is not 
uncommon in the genealogical 
nomenclature of Normandy ; 
and Cornwall is notably a land 
of Norman castles and druidical 
groves of oak. The Trevelesick 
family, as was a custom of the 
period, took the name of the 
place, and was henceforth know 
as "Chenoweth." This change 
may have been partly induced 

by the circumstances that there 
was a law which required the 
people to take names that were 
"easy" to the English. There 
seems to have been an early 
etymological connection be- 
tween the familiar Virginian 
names ' ' Chenoweth " and 
"Chinn." Vide Chinn, Cheyne, 
Chne, Chenoie, and the Scan- 
dinavian suffix with. In a list of 
names from Domesday Book 
we note the following : Cheneu- 
vard, Chenuard, Cheuvin, Che- 
nut. The Chenoweths of Ken- 
tucky are from Berkeley County, 
Virginia, the progenitor of the 
family being a "fighting 

Cherey. (i) De Ceresio. The early 
form, Cerisy. (2) Also from 
Cheeri, William Cheeri of 
Normandy, 1180. 

Chesney, from Quesnay, near Cou- 
tances ; De Chesnete in England. 

Chevalier (i. e. Miles), Normandy, 
1 1 80. Reginald Miles, England, 

Chew. William de Cayu, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. Walter C. Kew, 

Cheyne. Cheyney, Chinn, from 
Quesnay, near Coutances. Rob- 
ert de Chesneto, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, 1147. The Lords Cheyny 
were of this stock. Chinn is 
an old family name in Ken- 


tucky, and seems to be genea- 
logically connected with the 
Chenoweth gens. (Vide Chen- 
oweth.) The progenitor of the 
Chinn family in England and 
America was one Thomas de 
Cheyne, of Norman-French de- 
scent. Rawleigh Chinn, gent., 
married Esther Ball, a connec- 
tion of the Washington family , 
and came to America about 
1713 and settled in Lancaster 
County, Virginia. (See the 
"Register" for 1907, page 63.) 

Chick, or Chike, a form of Cheak 
(Robson). A prominent Ken- 
tucky family (Boyle). 

Child, the English form of Enfant. 
William and Roger le Enfant, 
Normandy, 1180. William and 
John Child, England, 1180. 

Childers. A corruption of Challen 
or Challers. Vide Smithson. 

Chinn. Vide Cheyney, Cheyne. 

Chitty. In 1272 was Cette. Roger 
Cette, Norfolk. 

Chivers, or Cheevers, from La 
Chievre, or Capra, Normandy. 

Choicy, a form of Chausy. 

Chollett. Collett. 

Cholmelsey, or Cholmondely. Wil- 
liam de Belwar, or Belvar, or 
Belvoir, married Mabilia, a 
daughter of Robert Fitzhugh. 
From this William de Belwar 
descended the House of Chol- 

Christian. Thomas and William 
Christianus, Normandy, 1180. 
Walter Christianus, England, 
1199. Crestien, Cristian, Cres- 
tin, England, 1272. 

Christmas. A translation of the 
Norman-French Noel. 

Chucks, a form of Chokes, or 
Chioches, from Choquet, Flan- 

Church. Vide Search. 

Churchill, or De Courcelle. The 
Churchills of Dorset, ancestors 
of the great Duke of Marlbor- 
ough, are traceable by the ordi- 
nary heralds' pedigrees to the 
reign of Henry VII. The fam- 
ily of Wallace (Walensis) was a 
branch of the Corcelles. From 
this family came the Great 
Duke. One of the later Dukes 
of Marlborough published a 
charming account of his visit 
to Kentucky, just after the war. 
He was entertained at "Ash- 
land " by Major Henry C. Mc- 

Clare. Two families, (i) De Clare 
of Browne. (2) The Norman 
House of De Clere. 

Claret. Walter Clarte, Normandy, 
1180. John Clarrot, England, 

Clark. George Rogers Clark. 

Clay, from Claye, near Maux. 
The name is borne by the 
Baronets Clay. The Clays of 


Bourbon and the Clays of 
Fayette, says General Cassius 
M. Clay, are descended from 
the same remote ancestor. 

Cliff, or Clift, Clive. 

Cochrane, Cochran. The family 
were resident in County Renfrew 
(says Lower) for many cen- 
turies. Vide Peerage, Earl of 
Dundonal. Renfrew has strong 
associations with John Knox, 
and according to Doctor Macin- 
tosh, the vigorous race he repre- 
sented had a strong infusion of 
Norman or Scandinavian blood. 
A recent legal decision connects 
the name of Cochrane with one 
of the most important cases 
ever brought before a Kentucky 



Collins. William de Colince or 
Colimes held lands at Chad- 
lington near Oxford. Coulimes 
was near Alengon. Hugh de 
Coulimes, 1165, held a barony 
of four fees. 

(i) The Collins family or fam- 
ilies of Kentucky have been 
notably distinguished. General 
Richard H. Collins was a law- 
yer of great ability. His sons, 
also lawyers, were brilliant and 
cultivated men. John A. Collins 
was a member of the Cincinnati 
bar, and a partner of Senator 

Pugh. Charles and William 
were writers of ability and dis- 
tinction. Richard was a gallant 
Confederate soldier and the 
artillerist of Shelby's command. 
Their father welcomed John 
Quincy Adams to Kentucky 
when he made his famous speech 
in vindication of Mr. Clay. 

(2) Judge Lewis Collins was 
a native of Kentucky and 
derived from pure Virginian 
stock. He was a man of the 
highest character. His history 
of Kentucky, a valuable work, 
was officially recognized by the 
Legislature of the State. His 
son, Doctor Richard H. Collins, 
a man of marked and varied 
ability, continued his father's 
historic labors; revised the vol- 
ume first published, added an- 
other volume, and increased 
the quantity of matter four- 
fold. No one has bestowed 
higher commendation upon this 
work than Professor Shaler, 
himself an historian of the 





Corker. De Corcres, Normandy, 

Costello, from Mac Ostello, descen- 
ants of Hostilio de Angelo, 




settled in Ireland, temp. Henry. 
In this instance the new settler 
took the prefix Mac, not an 
uncommon occurrence in those 
days. The native "Macs" and 
"O's" of Ireland were never at 
peace, and the Galwagians repu- 
diated both. When the Nor- 
mans came they gave the Celts 
"Fitz," and characteristically 
enough the Celts, who were dis- 
satisfied with "O" and "Mac," 
have been having "Fitz" ever 
since. Lower says that Eng- 
lish settlers sometimes assume 
the prefix "Mac," apparently 
from a desire of assimilation to 
the Celtic race. In Ireland "O" 
was held in higher esteem than 
"Mac" In Scotland, it was 
just the reverse. 



Cox, or Coxe; Cocks, Le Coq; 
Coke ; Cocus ; also, De Caux. 


Cripps. Armorially identified with 

Criitenden. A fine old name from 
Kent. The Crittendens of Ken- 
tucky have nobly illustrated the 
name. The founder of the fam- 
ily, John Crittenden, was an 
officer in the Revolutionary 
War. He came to Kentucky 
at the close of that struggle, 
and settled in Woodford, the 
heart of this State. His sons, 

John, Thomas, and Robert, 
were eminent at the bar, and 
Henry, who devoted his life to 
agriculture, was equally con- 
spicuous for talent. John J. 
Crittenden received his elemen- 
tary education at the local 
schools ; afterwards attended 
Washington Academy (now 
Washington-Lee University), 
and completed his studies at 
William and Mary. The effect 
of his classical training is shown 
in the clearness, finish, and 
felicity of his published speeches ; 
his peculiar power in forensic 
oratory must always be a 
matter of tradition. 

The name "Crittenden" is 
imperishably associated with 
that of Kentucky. It is pecu- 
liarly a family of soldiers, law- 
yers, and political leaders. One 
soldier of the name was immor- 
talized by his tragic fate 
William Crittenden, the proto- 
martyr of Cuba Libre. 

The history of the family is 
the history of the State, j 


Crook, or Crooke. 


Cummings, or Gumming. 


Currier. Richard Coriarius, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80, from Angerville, 
in the Cotentin. 



Cuss. A form of Cust. One may 
be a "Cuss" in Kentucky; but 
quite as often he is "Cust." 



Dangerfield, or D'Angerville. 






Davis. Mr. Burton N. Harrison, 
in his graphic "Century " narra- 
tive of the Capture of Jefferson 
Davis, records the last "War" 
speech of the Southern Presi- 
dent. It was addressed to a 
column of cavalry, under the 
command of General Duke, at 
Charlotte, N. C., the soldiers 
waving their flags and hurrah- 
ing for "Jefferson Davis." The 
speech was brief. He thanked 
them for their cordial greeting ; 
complimented the gallantry and 
efficiency of the Kentucky cav- 
alrymen; and expressed his 
determination not to despair of 
the Confederacy, but to remain 
with the last organized band, 
"upholding theflag." This was 

all. He said later to his faithful 
Secretary, "I can not feel like 
a beaten man." 

In a private letter written by 
Secretary Harrison to his 
mother about this time (unpub- 
lished), he says: "Thaddeus 
Stevens recently sent us an 
offer to become one of Mr. 
Davis' counsel if it were agree- 
able to us to have him serve." 
Mr. Harrison's letters to his 
family are admirably written 
and full of interest. 

It was the trained sagac- 
ity of an English statesman 
which in the midst of universal 
doubt and misconception en- 
abled him to comprehend at a 
glance the difficulties encoun- 
tered byjeff erson Davis in bring- 
ing order out of the wild chaos 
of secession in the Southern 
States. "He has created a 
Nation" said Mr. Gladstone. 
Doubtless, posterity, in full pos- 
session of the facts, will be dis- 
posed to let the judgment 
stand. These facts have never 
been more ably and accurately 
stated than in the eulogy by 
Colonel William C. P. Breckin- 
ridge upon that able and daring 
pilot in this great extremity of 
the South. The eulogist was 
competent to speak; he was 
early in the field; he was'close 



to the inner councils of the 
war; he saw and shared the 
struggle in every phase ; and at 
the close, he calmly accepted 
the results. His clear and rapid 
summary will carry historic 
weight : 

"When the world once un- 
derstands how it was possi- 
ble for the government, inaugu- 
rated at Montgomery, without 
a battalion of soldiers, or a ship 
of war, without arms or muni- 
tions of war, without provisions 
and military stores; a govern- 
ment not possessing within its 
borders a single factory at 
which a single weapon of war, 
or a single part of a weapon of 
war, could be manufactured, 
without credit or funds; a 
nation with her ports soon 
blockaded so as to be deprived 
of access to the markets of the 
world; a republic composed 
nominally of thirteen separate 
States, of which Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee and Missouri were prac- 
tically under the control of its 
enemy how such a nation 
could maintain such a war for 
a period of four years against 
the United States of America, 
and bring into the field an army 
more numerous than its entire 
adult white population, feed it, 
clothe it, transport it, arm it, 

take care of it and keep it in 
such . condition that it won 
unprecedented victories, has 
been an unsolved mystery. 
When it is added that during 
those years personal freedom 
was maintained, order pre- 
served, courts kept open and 
no rights usurped, thinkers will 
conclude that he who was the 
head and life, the spirit and 
chief must have been a very 
great man." 

The London Times, in its 
obituary notice, said: "As he 
was the first to perceive the 
true nature of the struggle, so 
was he the last to admit that 
the battle was lost. He fought 
a losing battle with unques- 
tionable ability and unflinch- 
ing courage. His achievements 
will secure him an honorable 
place in his country's history." 

In the last public address of 
Jefferson Davis, delivered in 
the capitol of Mississippi to the 
Legislature in joint convention, 
he said : "The people of the Con- 
federate States did more in pro- 
portion to their numbers and 
men than was ever achieved by 
any people in the world's his- 
tory. Fate decreed that they 
should be unsuccessful in the 
effort to maintain their claim 
to resume the grants to the 



Federal Government. Our peo- 
ple have accepted the decree; 
it, therefore, behooves them, 
as they may, to promote the 
general welfare of the Union; 
to show to the world that here- 
after, as heretofore, the patriot- 
ism of our people is not meas- 
ured by the lines of latitude and 
longitude, but is as broad as 
the obligations they have as- 
sumed and embraces the whole 
of our ocean-bound domain. 
Let them leave to their children 
and children's children the 
grand example of never swerv- 
ing from the path of duty, and 
preferring to return good for 
evil rather than to cherish 
the unmanly feeling of re- 
venge. ' ' 


Davy, or Davey. 


Hawkins, or Dakin. 





Dearing, or Deering. 

DeLacy, or Lacy. 

Delmar. An abbreviation of 
De la Mare. 

Denis, or Dennis. 

Denney, or Denny. 


Derry, for D'Arry or D'Airy. 

Desha. (Fr. Deshayes.) A grand- 
son of Governor Desha of Ken- 
tucky, visiting many years ago 
the Valley of Wyoming, the 
ancestral home-place of the 
Desha family, found a vener- 
able scion of the pioneer stock, 
who invariably spelt his name 
Deshay. Fields, woods, hedges, 
etc., give surnames to families. 
In the following line from an 
old French writer we find two 
family names, or at least words 
familiarly used as such: On 
lui dressoit des sentiers au tracers 
des hayes de lews bois. The 
name Desha is accented on the 
second syllable, in Kentucky, 
this doubtless being the original 
pronunciation as implied by 
the ancestral orthography 
"Deshay." Beyond the Seine 
in old Paris; beyond the Latin 
Quarter and the Faubourg St. 
Germain, near the fortifica- 
tions, there stands or did 
stand in the closing quarter of 
the last century a block of 
antique villas. One of these 
was known as the Villa De- 
shayes. Captain Deshayes, of 
the French man-of-war L e Grand 
Joseph, made a gallant fight 
against two British frigates 
during the Colonial wars. 

General Joseph Desha, after 
a brilliant military and polit- 



ical career, became Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky in 1824. 
His administration (says Collins, 
the old Whig historian) was 
strong and efficient. The mes- 
sage of Governor Desha of 
Kentucky, November 7, 1825, 
says Professor W. G. Sumner 
of Yale, "deserves attentive 
reading from any one who 
seeks to trace the movement of 
decisive forces in American 
political history." 

Judge Bledsoe (the father- 
in-law of Governor Desha) is 
reported to have said that 
"Desha commenced his career 
with as sound a set of politics 
as any man in Kentucky, but 
it was his misfortune never to 
change them." 

Even Desha's enemies con- 
cede that he made a brilliant 
and impressive appearance upon 
the hustings. His handsome 
person and carriage contributed 
much to this effect. He is 
described in that Hudibrastic 
skit, "The Stumpiad" (1816): 

"With chapeau-bras and good broad 

And fine as any English lord." 

(Vide sketch and portrait of 
Desha in No. 18 of the Pub- 
lications of The Filson Club: 
Battle of the Thames.) 

Demne. William le Devin, Nor- 
mandy, 1180-95. 


Dickens, or Digons. Digin or 
Diquon, an early "nurse-name" 
of Richard. Digg, Diggery, 
Dickman, Digman, Digins, Dig- 
gins, "Dickens" name of the 
novelist. Also, Dickson, Dick- 

"Dickins," used as a nick- 
name of Satan, is a contraction 
of the diminutive Devilkins. 

Dietrich. (Scan.) Didrik. Did- 
rich, Diderk, Diderisk. (From 
a list of Frisian Personal and 
Family Names Barber.) 

Dimmett, for Diment. 


Dixie. Armorially identified with 
Dicey. From Diss, Norfolk, 
which belonged to Richard de 
Lucy, Governor of Falaise. 
The Confederate war-song, 
therefore, bears a Norman 

Dodson. The son of Dode, 
Alwinus Dodesone, occurs in 
Domesday as a tenant-in-chief. 
It is an open question whether 
it is Scandinavian or Anglo- 
Saxon. Even Lower is doubt- 
ful. There is a large connection 
of this name in Maryland and 
Kentucky. One branch is con- 
nected with the Botelers of Vir- 
ginia. A good English stock. 




Doniphan. Probably an early form 
of Donovan. By old writers 
(says Lower) the name is writ- 
ten Dondubhan ("the brown- 
haired chief") changed to 
Doniphan by the familiar sub- 
stitution of p for b. The Doni- 
phans of Kentucky were a 
strong race lawyers, soldiers, 
physicians, etc. General Wil- 
liam Nelson's mother was a 

Joseph Doniphan came to the 
Fort at Boonesborough in 1777. 
He is said to have been the first 
school-teacher in Kentucky. 

At the battle of Bracito, the 
Mexican leader of a large 
force called upon Colonel 
Doniphan (a Kentuckian) to 
surrender, with the alternative 
"no quarter." 

"Surrender, or I will charge 
your lines!" 

The answer came at once 
"Charge and be damned.!" 

There was no surrender. The 
Mexicans lost. 

Colonel Alexander Doniphan 
was a close maternal kinsman 
of General William Nelson, of 
Kentucky, and like him in 
many respects. 
Dougles, or Dougless. 
Dover, from Douvres or Dovers, 
Normandy. A baronet family 
which derived its name from 

a Scandinavian Dover at the 
conquest of Normandy, 912. 
Dover, Kentucky, is doubtless 
in the same line of descent. 
Dowell, for Doel or Dol. Rivallon, 
Seneschal of Dol, ancestor of the 
Counts of Dol; connections of 
the du Guesclins (of France) and 
Stuarts (of Scotland). Passing 
into a Celtic environment, a 
Norman Dol or Dowell would 
naturally assume the Celtic pre- 
fix, "Mac," as in like circum- 
stances English settlers have 
done. In Lord Stair's list of 
Macs, he gives Do-wale, Douall, 
Dowell. McDowell is the form 
the name assumes in Virginia 
and Kentucky, one branch of 
the family (McDowells) being 
known as the McDoles, a tradi- 
tional pronunciation of the 
name. The progenitor of the 
family, Colonel Samuel M. 
Dowell, was a Colonial leader 
in Virginia, and conspicuous 
and influential as a pioneer in 
Kentucky. He was President 
of the Convention that organ- 
ized the State. 

The common derivation of 
"Dowell" is from Dougall, and 
was intended in the Highlands 
to apply exclusively to the 
Lowlander ; though quite as ap- 
plicable to the "man from be- 
low." (Vide Lower :Dhu, black; 
gall, a stranger.) 



Downing. Old English name 
familiar in Kentucky. A loc. 
n. Wore. (Eng.) 

Drake. There is no reason to 
doubt that the Drakes of Devon 
were all originally of the same 
race. They bore a dragon 
(Draco), showing that their 
name had been Draco. The 
father of Daniel Drake came to 
Kentucky in the closing years 
of the Eighteenth Century, set- 
tling in the rich bluegrass coun- 
ty of Mason. Along with a rifle 
and an axe, he brought five 
books to the wilds of Kentucky, 
to wit, a Bible, a hymn book, 
an arithmetic, a spelling book, 
and the "Famous History of 
Montellion, a Romance of the 
Ages of Chivalry." "The Let- 
ters of Lord Chesterfield," 
borrowed by the father of 
Daniel from a friend in the 
neighboring Virginian colony 
"fell in mighty close" says 
the son "with the tastes of 
the whole family." Chesterfield 
and Montellion : ideal educa- 
tors even in this "school of the 
woods," as it was happily 
termed by its most distinguished 
graduate, Doctor Daniel Drake. 
Daniel Drake was not only a 
skillful physician and accom- 
plished scholar, but he was the 
founder of a famous medical 

school, and an author whose 
productions, in the estimation 
of competent critics, have given 
him and his country a splendid 
and enduring renown. His elab- 
orate and systematic treatise 
upon the Diseases of the Valley 
of the Mississippi is a work which 
lays broad the foundations of 
medico-geographical research in 
the Western Hemisphere, and 
foreshadows in masterly fashion 
the rigorous methods of physi- 
cal science that are now univer- 
sally in vogue. The author was 
an explorer by right of birth. 
He was a true son of his pioneer 
father, and a typical scion of an 
adventurous race. The daring 
navigator, Sir Francis Drake, 
the son of a Devonshire yeoman, 
was a true kinsman in spirit, 
and probably in blood. The 
same passion for exploration 
which drove the one to circle 
the universal seas in an English 
keel inspired the other to toil 
through the vast spaces of a 
continental wilderness and 
explore the haunts of pestilence 
upon the shores of the Mexican 
Gulf. It is doubtless as the 
author of that unique work 
"The Diseases of the Great 
Interior Valley" that Daniel 
Drake will chiefly be remem- 
bered, and certainly no one 

1 84 


could desire a better title to 
remembrance. The motto of 
his famous "Journal," E SYL- 
vis NUNCIUS, is a succinct and 
happy characterization of the 
man. He was indeed an ambas- 
sador from nature, and his cre- 
dentials have passed unchal- 
lenged to this day. 





Duncan, or Dunkin. 

Duke. Le Due, Normandy, n 80- 
98. Radulphus Dux (or Duke), 
of Bucks, England, 1199. The 
name keeps its old distinction 
in Kentucky. It will long sur- 
vive in social tradition and 
always hold a high place in the 
history of the State. 

Dr. Basil Duke, born in Calvert 
County, Maryland, 1766; died 
in Washington, Ky., 1828; mar- 
ried, 1794, Charlotte Marshall, 
born, 1 777, in Fauquier County, 
Virginia; died in Washington, 
Kentucky, April 17, 1817. She 
was a sister of Chief- Justice 

i. Thomas Marshall Duke, 
born 1795, died about 1870; 
married : 

1. Bettie Taylor. 

2. Nancy Ashby. 

3. McCormick. 

2. Mary Wilson Duke, born 
February 7, 1797; married, May 
7, 1818, Dr. John F. Henry; 
died September, 1823. 

3. James Keith Duke, born, 
Washington, Ky., 1799; died 
August 2, 1863; married, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1822, Mary Buford. 

4. Nathaniel Wilson Duke, 
born 1806; died at Paris, Ky., 
July, 1850; married, October 4, 
1833, Mary Currie. Parents of 
General Basil Duke. 

5. John Marshall Duke, born, 
Washington, Ky., October 29, 
1811, died in Maysville, Ky., 
1880; married Hannah Morton. 

6. Lucy Ann Duke born 
Washington, Ky., January n, 
1814; died Rock Island, 111.; 
married, January 20, 1835, 
Charles Buford. 

7. Charlotte Jane Duke, born 
Washington, Ky., January 20, 
1817; died February, 1886; 
married, January 14, 1840, Har- 
rison Taylor, "War" Speaker 
of the House of Representa- 
tives. (Kentucky.) 

The Dukes of South Mason 
are descended from Alexander 
Duke of Maryland, a tall, vig- 
orous specimen of the Anglo- 
Norman breed who lived to be 
nearly one hundred years of 
age. His son, Dr. Basil Duke, 
was a brigade surgeon in the 
Confederate service. 




Durrell, from Durell. Armorially 
identified with Darrell, Durrant, 
Durran, Durrock, and possibly 
Durrett. (Vide Durrett.) Note 
how slight a change converts 
the Norman name Clarte into 
Claret. So, Druett into Durrett. 

Durrett. A surname traceable 
beyond the Conquest, and hav- 
ing all the marks of a Norman 
surname. If not of literal 
record in our various lists, it is 
evidence of defect in the list 
itself. It is a familiar tradition 
in Colonel Paul Durrett's fam- 
ily that the original form of the 
surname was Duret, and that 
the family was of French extrac- 
tion. Widely separated branches 
of the same stock have the 
same tradition. Every village 
in Normandy says Camden 
has "surnamed" a family in 
England. It is easy to perceive, 
therefore, that the number of 
surnames thus derived, added 
to the number derived from 
other sources, would oblige the 
compilers of genealogical dic- 
tionaries from sheer exhaustion 
to omit many names. There is a 
simple process of linguistic 
mutation which explains the 
genesis of many words. It is 
known as transposition. It may 
be a transposition of letters, as 
in the simple name Crisp, trans- 
pose the terminal letters and 

we have the familiar name 
Crips; or it may be a transpo- 
sition of syllables, of which we 
have a famous example in Al- 
macks, decelticized for Anglican 
uses by a simple transposition 
of the syllables in the Celtic 
surname Mack- All. So, Du- 
rand, Durant (vide Battle 
Abbey Roll and D. B.), 
DeRuelle, Durelle, Druell, Dur- 
ell, Durel, Durell (Huguenot, 
London, 1697), Durrell; so, too, 
Drouet (Nor. Fr.), Druet, Dru- 
ett, Durrett. Dure is a French 
surname easily Normanized by 
the addition of the diminutive 
suffix et or ett, giving us Dure", 
Duret, or Durett; and when 
consonantally braced (more 
Anglico) by doubling the " r, " 
we have Durrett a familiar 
surname in Kentucky. Dur, 
the adjective, means hard, dur- 
able, enduring; the noun Dur 
is door; ett is a Norman suffix; 
giving the ancient surname 
Durrett a characteristic Norman 
stamp, structure, and cachet. 

Dye, for Deye. 


Eames. Ames. 
Edmonds, or Edmunds. 

1 86 




Ellis, or Alls, from Alls near Pont 

de'l Arche. The sensational duel 
between Major Thomas Mar- 
shall and Captain Charles Mitch- 
ell was fought upon the place of 
Mr. Washington Ellis.near Mays- 
ville, Ky. It has been- well 
described by Dr. Anderson Nel- 
son Ellis, his son, an accom- 
plished writer and physician. 


Emet, or Emmett, from Amiot, 

English, or Inglis ; families of this 
name are all Norman. England 
is another form of Anglicus. 

Eve, or Ives. 

Everett, from Evreux. (Nor- 

Fail, for Faiel, Fales. William 
Faiel, Normandy, 1180. Regi- 
nald Fale, England, 1272. 

Faint for Fant. 

Falconer, or Falkner. 

Parish, or Fariss or Ferris. 

Farley, or Varley. 

Farrer, armorially identified with 
Ferrers of Bere. Ferrers, Farrow, 
the same. A large family, well 
and widely connected in Vir- 

ginia and Kentucky. Archdea- 
con Farrer is of the same gens. 
The name is variously spelled 
Farrer, Farrow, Farra, Farrers. 

Faulconer, for Falconer; also 

Fell, Fayle, or Fail, Fales. 


Field. Richard de la Felda is 
mentioned in Normandy, 
temp. John (Mem. Soc. Ant. 
Norm. V. 126). Burke (Landed 
Gentry) states under the head 
De la Field that this family 
was originally seated in Alsace 
near the Vosges Mountains. The 
author of ' ' The Norman People" 
says the name embraces both 
English and Norman families. 
Pierce's great two-volume 
"Genealogy" (profusely illus- 
trated) exhibits the prodigious 
growth in America, including 
such names as Cyrus Field, Jus- 
tice Field, Marshall Field, and 
Judge Curtis Field. The Ken- 
tucky Fields were connected by 
marriage with the Clays of 
Bourbon. Pierce's genealogy 
gives very pleasing views of 
"Auvergne," the home of the 
Field-Clays. This estate was 
inherited by Hon. Cassius M. 
Clay, Jr., of Bourbon. Henry 
Field (Eng. 1611) came to Vir- 
ginia in 1635. Lieutenant Henry 
Field,CulpeperCounty, Virginia, 



married Ann Lightfoot, May, 
1771. His will made November 
19, 1777- His daughter, Judith 
Field, married Francis Taylor, 
of Maryland, in Louisville, Ky., 
February 14, 1774. Francis 
Taylor studied law with Judge 
Sebastian in Louisville. Lucre- 
tia, a daughter of Francis and 
Judith Taylor, married Cap- 
tain James B. Robinson. The 
Fields family of Tennessee 
(afterward of Kentucky) are 
now in the North, the brothers 
James and Henry being con- 
spicuous in the management of 
important steel and iron trusts. 
Their sister, Mrs. Charles D. 
Lanier, is a resident of New 
York City. Her husband (a 
son of the famous Southern 
poet) is now at the head of 
"The Review of Reviews." 

Fillpot or Philpot, from Philipot, 
diminutive of Philip. 




Fisk, or Fyska. 

Fitch, or Fitz. 


Flanders, or Flamders. Common 
in England after the Conquest. 


Fleming. The Flemings of Flem- 
ing are derived from the Flem- 
ings of Virginia. 

Fleming. The Flemings of "Wig- 
ton" came from Flanders in 
the train of William the Con- 
queror. Sir Thomas Fleming 
came to Virginia in 1626. Col- 
onel John Fleming (another 
Wigtonshire Fleming) came 
from Virginia to Kentucky in 
1 790. His grandson, John Don- 
aldson Fleming, was also a 
pioneer and served with marked 
efficiency as United States Dis- 
trict Attorney for Colorado. 



Foakes, or Fowkes. 


Folk. Governor of Missouri. A 
political leader of distinction. 


Force, de Forz. 

Foreman, or Forman for Fairman. 
The Forman family of Ken- 
tucky (local pronunciation 
Fwr-man) forms one of the 
largest and most influential 
connections in the State. They 
are Scandinavians of a high 



Forster, or Foster. James Lane 
Allen was a Foster in the mater- 
nal line. 

Fountain, de Fonte. 

Fowke, Gerard, a Kentuckian, di- 
rected the later Horsford Ex- 

1 88 


cavations at Cambridge. He 
is a descendant of the "Eliza- 
bethan" Fowke, a Virginian 
pioneer. His latest paper de- 
scribed his explorations of the 
Lower Amur Valley. It was a 
cold trail, but the story is one 
of singular interest. 

Fowkes, or Fowke. See Foakes. 


Fox, or Reinard. The Norman 
name was translated in Eng- 
land after the Conquest, being 
previously Rainer, Renard, etc. 
The celebrated Fox family of 
England was derived from Le 
Fox, Normandy. Renard de 
Douvres is familiarly known in 
Kentucky as "Fox of Dover." 
The Fox family of Dover are 
descendants of a wealthy Vir- 
ginian, Arthur Fox, distin- 
guished among the pioneer citi- 
zens of the State. Judge Foun- 
tain Fox of Boyle and the 
Southern novelist, John Fox, 
were doubtless derived from the 
same Anglo-Norman stock. 

Francis, Governor of Missouri; 
Organizer of the World's Fair 
in commemoration of the Louis- 
iana Purchase. 

Frazee, Fraser, Frazier, P'raize, a 
loc. n. in France. Fr. Fraiseur. 
From fraiser, to fortify with 
stakes. Samuel Frazee, a revo- 
lutionary soldier, came to Mad- 

ison County, Ky., in 1792. 
Progenitor of a large and promi- 
nent family in the State. Doc- 
tor Lewis J. Frazee, of Louis- 
ville, was author of "A Medical 
Student, Europe," a. mid-cen- 
tury publication. 
Freyer, or Frier. (Old Norse.) 
Armorially identified in Nor- 
mandy with Frere. Ansgot 
Prater, of Normandy, 1198. In 
England, 1326. 


Gairdner, or Gardner (C. Jardi- 




Garrard, for Gerard; Ralph and 
William Gerard, Normandy, 
1180-95. Twenty-six of the 
name in England, 1272. 

Garratt. Roger and William Gar- 
rett, of Normandy, 1180. 






Gay. Ralph Gai, Normandy, 
1 1 So. Robert de Gay, a bene- 
factor to Osney, Oxford. 



Geary, or Gery, Normandy, 1165. 
William de Gueri. Of this 
name are the baronets Geary. 

Gentry, Chantry. From Chaintre, 
near Macon. 

Gibbon, or Gibbons. 




Gill, Gille or Giles. 


Gilpin, Galopin. 

Glen, or Glenn. 

Goble, for Gobel. 



Goggin, or Gogin, Normandy, 
1195; England, 1272. William 
L. Goggin was a mid-century 
Governor of Virginia. Lucien 
B. Goggin, his brother, was a 
prominent citizen of Kentucky. 
This ancient surname is distinct- 
ly traceable by record from 
Normandy to England; from 
England to Virginia; from Vir- 
ginia to Kentucky. And this 
is but one out of many names, 
officially recorded in Normandy, 
that reappear, hundreds of years 
afterward, in Kentucky. 

Go ode. 



Gordon, or Berwick (Anglo-Nor- 
man, also a Celtic clan name). 





Graham, in all the early records 
of England, means Grantham in 
Lincoln. William de Graham, 
who settled in Scotland, came 
from Grantham. Ralph, hered- 
itary chamberlain of Normandy, 
had two grandsons (i) Rabel, 
ancestor of the Chamberlains of 
Normandy. (2) William de 
Graham, ancestor of Montrose 
and Dundee. \^j 

Grand, Le Grant, Grand; Scot- 
tish Grants are Celtic. 


Gray, Greey or Grey. From 
Gray, Normandy, near Caen. 

Grenfell. Recalling the name of 
the gallant Englishman that 
rode with Morgan. 


Gunn. William de Gons, Nor- 
mandy, 1280. William Gun, 
England, 1272. Dennis Gunn, 
Kentucky, 1870. 

Gurney, from De Gournay. 

Gurdon, from Gourdon, near 

Hailie, for Hailly or D'Aily. 
Raines. From Haisne, near Arras. 
Haley, for Hailey. 

i go 


Haley, for Hailey. Percy Haley is 
notably Anglo-Norman. 


Halliday, or Holliday.' Recalls 
the famous Overland Route. 

Halliday, from Halyday, Nor- 
mandy. A name historically 
associated in America with the 
great Overland Route, as is 
alsoBlanchard(q.v.). Benjamin 
Holliday, William Blanchard, 
and Judge Thomas A. Marshall 
(President of the Central 
Pacific) were Kentuckians born 
within a few miles of each other, 
near the northern border of the 
State. All pioneers of Scandi- 
navian blood. 


Ham. From the Castle of Ham, 
Normandy. William du Ham, 
Normandy, 1 1 80. William de 
Ham, England, 1272. 

Hamer. Heirmir, the name of a 
jarl. It was that stout fighter, 
General Hamer, who sent 
Ulysses Grant to West Point. 

Hamilton. A well-known family 
in Kentucky. 

Hamilton. Gilbert de Hamelden 
had estates in Surrey, holding 
his lands from the Honour of 
Huntingdon, and, therefore, 
from the Kings of Scotland 
(1254). His elder son, Walter, 
was one of the Barons of Scot- 
land, and held the barony of 

Hamilton. The family dates 
from Normandy, 1130. The 
most illustrious descendant of 
this noble Scottish family was 
an American Alexander Ham- 
ilton who, according to that 
very eminent authority, Prince 
Talleyrand, "was the greatest 
man of his epoch," an epoch 
illustrated by such names as 
Napoleon and Washington 
his greatness consisting pecu- 
liarly in this, that he was not 
only variously gifted soldier, 
scholar, orator, administrator, 
political philosopher and finan- 
cier, but, like William of Nor- 
mandy, he was a creative or 
constructive statesman, and his 
mother, like the Maiden of 
Falaise, was a daughter of 
France. In a brilliant and pow- 
erful work descriptive of his 
life, he is fitly styled the "Con- 
queror," and an American Sena- 
tor, writing upon the same 
lines, adopts practically the 
same views. The discussion in 
both instances is conducted 
with perfect frankness and in 
perfect taste. In a speech 
at the recent Home-Coming in 
Louisville, an eloquent Ken- 
tuckian made felicitous refer- 
ence to a similar instance in 
which (it was alleged) destiny 
(or subterranean tradition) had 



assigned to a daughter of the 
people the same illustrious role. 
Whatever the facts, there is a 
philosophy that rises above con- 
ventions; precisely as if it 
should say "In the higher 
planes of life, the conceptions 
of social evolution are some- 
times predestinated and immac- 
ulate." Who knows? Thus 
much at least may be conceded 
to the maiden of the wilderness, 
to the daughter of the tropics, 
and to the Maiden of Falaise, 
that no three women who have 
figured in profane history as 
the mothers of great men have 
more profoundly affected the 
.destinies of the English or 
Anglo-Norman race. 


Hampton. Norman-French. De 

Hancock. Hancoc or Hencot 
These names were gradually 
changed to Hancock. 

Hanks. According to Lower, an 
old Cheshire "nick "-name of 
Randolph. The name Randolph 
has given rise to many ' ' dimin- 
utives," as Rankin, Randolph, 
Randy, Ranson, Hankin, 
Hankey, Hanks, resembling in 
this respect the prolific ' ' Peter " 
(q. v.). In the struggle for exist- 
ence the monosyllabic' ' Hanks ' ' 
has survived to share the dis- 

tinction of the original surname. 
To have been borne by the 
mother of Lincoln is quite 
enough to render it illustrious 
for all time. A contemporary 
said of her that "she was a 
woman of superior natural 
endowments of mind and of 
great amiability and kindness 
of heart. She was always gentle, 
always kind, but far more ener- 
getic than her husband. She 
was quick-witted, with a great 
relish for the humorous and a 
keen appreciation of fun." Her 
husband generously described 
her occasional "complaints" as 
"chirping" a gracious felicity 
of speech. Whatever the wit 
and charm of the woman, there 
was certainly humor, with ten- 
derness and imagination, in the 

Abraham Lincoln was born 
in Hardin County, Ky., in 
February, 1809, three and a 
half years after the marriage 
of his father and mother. She 
died in October, 1818. She was 
buried near the present site of 
Lincoln City, and lay for many 
years in an unmarked grave. 
A "sculptured monument" now 
marks the spot. It is a beauti- 
ful shaft of white marble and 
bears the impressive legend: 
"Beneath this shaft lies in 



peace all that is mortal of 
NANCY LINCOLN, mother of 
Abraham Lincoln, the six- 
teenth President of the United 

Hanson, Hausen (Scand). 

Harben (Norman) or Harbin, de 
Harpin: Harbinson. 

Harcourt. The Earls of Harcourt 
were descended from Bernard, 
"the Dane," who was chief 
counselor and second in com- 
mand to Rollo or Rolf in his in- 
vasion of Neustria, 875, and 
received for his services a 
chateau ("Harcourt") near 
Brionne in France. Robert de 
Harcourt attended William the 
Conqueror to the Conquest of 
England. "Harcourt" is not- 
ably a name of "high life." 

Harden, or Hardin. Walter Har- 
din, a true Norman name. 

Hardin. Ben Hardin, the great 
Kentucky lawyer, on one occa- 
sion when traveling the circuit 
breakfasted with his kinsman, 
Major Barbour, a prominent 
citizen of a pious community. 
Mrs. Barbour, who had little 
taste for the profane writers, 
but read her Bible daily, was 
truly a mother in Israel; and 
was as hospitable to sinners as 
to saints. The problem before 
the venerable hostess was to 
make the conversation interest- 

ing to the great lawyer. Roose- 
velt and the Kaiser were not at 
the front in those days, and the 
conversation naturally flagged; 
but the old lady soon found a 
satisfactory substitute for the 
great modem rulers, and turned 
suddenly upon her imposing 
kinsman with the query, ' ' Ben- 
jamin, what do you think of 
SOLOMON?" Ben had evidently 
studied the subject, for he 
answered instantly, " SOLOMON, 
madam, was a magnificent 
damned scoundrel." 

Hardin, Hardinge, D. B. Hard- 
ing, Hardingus, Hardine. In 
old Norse, Haddingjar. Harden 
for ArdernorHardern. Ralph de 
Ardern was Lord of Bracebridge. 
The family of Arden or Ardern 
(with aspirate, Harden) was 
Norman and went to England 
in 1066. Bernard "the Dane" 
was Regent of Normandy, 940. 

Harden , for Hardern or Ardern ; 
or Arden with aspirate. 


Harris, for Heris, Normandy. 
Harsee, Normandy, 1198. 

Harris, for Heriz. Ralph Heriz, 
Normandy, n8o-'95. Ivo de 
Heriz, England, 1130. 

Harrison. Philip and Gilbert Her- 
i<jon, Normandy, 1 1 80. Henry 
Harsent, England, 1272. In 
Virginia, a great name. 




(i) The famous French econ- 
omist, Michel Chevalier, traveled 
in the United States in 1835. 
He says in one of his Lettres 
that he remarked at the table 
of the hotel a man of about 60 
years of age who had the lively 
air and alert carriage of a youth. 
He was impressed by the 
amenity of his manners and by 
a certain air of command which 
peered even through his "lin- 
sey" habit. This, he learned, 
was the distinguished American 
general, Harrison, victor in the 
Battle of the Thames, one of the 
two very celebrated battles of 
the war, the other being the 
Battle of Tippecanoe. If a 
"Norman" battle was ever 
fought upon this continent, it 
was the Battle of the Thames. 
It might have recalled to the 
Conqueror his own baptism of 
fire. On the eve of battle the 
American commander changed 
his plans. Having learned that 
Colonel James Johnson's cav- 
alry had been drilled to charge 
in the woods, he ordered a 
charge to be made by the 
mounted Kentuckians upon the 
British line, which was drawn 
up in a wooded strip of ground 
between the river and the 
swamp. Their artillery was 
planted in the wagon road 

which bisected the center of the 
British line. The column of 
Kentuckians flanking the artil- 
lery was launched upon the 
right of the Saxon line with ir- 
resistible force. Reserving their 
fire and reversing the move- 
ment, they charged the broken 
and disordered line from the 
rear, pouring upon it a destruc- 
tive fire. The victory was com- 
plete. Colonel R. M. Johnson 
charged the Indians in their cov- 
ert on the left ; and it was here, in 
a close hand-to-hand struggle, 
thatTecumseh fell, bequeathing 
a lifelong controversy to his 
foes. It was ultimately settled, 
however, in the popular mind 
by the traditional couplet 

"Humpsy, Dumpsy, 
Huinpsy, Dumpsy, 
Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh." 

Harrison. Heri<jon, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Harrop. La Herupe. 



Hart. LeCerf , Ralph Cerfus, Nor- 
mandy, 1180-1198. In England 
translated into Herte, also 

Harvey, Harvie, Hervey, Her- 
veus, 1198, Normandy. Sire 
Hervey is mentioned in Piers 
Plowman. The early pronun- 



elation of Hervey was Harvey. 
Now, generally pronounced as 

Hawes. Richard Hawes, Confed- 
erate Governor of Kentucky. 
Hawkins. From the Manor of 
Hawkings, Kent, held by Walter 
Hawkins, 1326. Colonel Tom 
Hawkins of Kentucky, who 
fought with Lopez in Cuba, 
was a typical Anglo-Nor- 


Hay, or de la Haye. 

Hay, or de la Hey, Hay. Armo- 
rially identified with Hayes, 
from Hayes, near Blois. Vide 
Desha or Deshayes. 



Hayne, or Haynes. 

Hearn, from Heron, near Rouen. 


Helm. Andrew de Helm, England, 
1262. (Normandy, 1198.) 

Herd, for Hert, Hart. 


Hewett, or Hewitt. From Huest 
or Huet, near Evreux. Also, 


Hickey, Hequet, Normandy 


Higgin, Hequet, Normandy. Hig- 

Hill. The English form of De 
Morete. For Helle or de Heil- 
le, near Beaurais. The family 
was spread throughout Kent 
and Surrey. 



Hoare. Aure from Auray, in 
Bretagne. A ure, with aspirate, 
becomes Hoare. 

Hogg, orDeHoge. FromLaHogue 
in the Contentin. 

Hoghton, Hocton. 


Hoile, or Hoyle. Norman Hoel, 
a familiar name in Kentucky. 

Holburd, Halbert, Alberd, Albert. 

Holiday, or Holliday. Ben Holli- 
day, forerunner of the Stan- 
fords and Huntingtons. 

Holland, de Hoilant, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Holies, for Hollis. Robert de Holis, 
Normandy, 1198. 

Holmes (William der Holme). 

Holmes. From Norse Holmer 
(an islet in a lake). D. B. de 
Holme, a tenant in chief. Wil- 
liam du Holme, 1180-95. 

Hood. Norse Udi. Danish Hude. 
The popular hero, Robin, seems 
to have been of Scandinavian 
descent. John Hood, of Ken- 
tucky, was pre-eminently a 
"fighting general." Jesse James 
was the Robin Hood of our 





Hard. A Swedish name, borne by 
a general of Charles XII. 


Hudson. Hudson of Maysville, an 
intimate friend of General Grant. 


Hulbard. For Hubert. 



Humphrey. Notably a Norman 
name. As theologians, lawyers, 
scholars, the Humphreys of 
Kentucky have sustained the 
ancient distinction of the 

Hunt, Le Huant, Normandy, 

Hunter (Venator or Le Veneur). 

Hunter. English form of Le 



Hutchings, or Hutchins, Houchin. 

Hyatt (Haytt). 

Ingall. For Angall 
Ingle. For Angle. 
Inglis, or Anglicus. 


Innes (the Baronets. Innes). 
Ireland (DeHibernis, Normandy, 

Jack. For Jacques ; William Jack, 
England, 172. 

Jackson. A name of the family 

James. St. James, Normandy. 

Janvier. (January.) At least 
three branches in this country 
from a common ancestor in 
France. The name is some- 
times anglicized notably in 
Missouri and Kentucky. 

Jar-vis (Gervasius, Normandy, 

Jeffreys (with various forms), 
Geoffrey, Geoffrey's son, Jeffer- 
son. In the home-coming re- 
ception Mason and Jefferson 
hold the extremes of the receiv- 
ing line. 

Jennings, from Genn or Canon, 
Chanum, Chanon, Chanoun, 
Jenun, Jenning or Jennings, 
William Jennings Bryan. Vide 

Jewell, from Juel or Judae de 

Jewett, or Guet, Normandy, 1180. 

Johnson. The Johnsons of Ays- 
cough-Fee, County Lincoln, 



claim from the house of Fitz- 
John of Normandy (Guillim's 
Display of Heraldry). A dis- 
tinguished name in Maryland, 
Virginia, and Kentucky. 

Johnston is Scandinavian. Prob- 
ably the most conspicuous 
and influential Scandinavian in 
the United States at this time 
bears that name. He is a 
native of Scandinavia. The 
most notable American of that 
race and name was the Con- 
federate General Albert Sidney 
Johnston. There are two pic- 
tures of him that will live in 
the popular mind: (i) As he 
stood, silent and absorbed, 
beside his camp fire on the 
night before Shiloh: (2) As he 
led that dashing and successful 
charge on the following day. 
A soldier worthy of his race. 

Julian. From St. Julian, Nor- 

Kerr. Appears to be a branch 

of the Norman house of Espec. 

The name is variously given as 

Kerr, Karr, Carr, Carro, Caruni. 

Lucien Carr was author of a 

History of Missouri. 

Keats, for Keate. Keats the 
poet had a brother who lived 
in Louisville, Ky. 

Keats, Keat, Keyt, Kate. In 
Collins' History, page 557, Vol. 
2, the reader notes the following 
reference to this name "The 
most celebrated female school 
in the West at the time was 
in Washington, 1807-12; that 
of Mrs. Louisa Caroline War- 
burton Fitzherbert Keats, sister 
of Sir George Fitzherbert, of 
St. James Square, and wife of 
Reverend Mr. Keats, a relation 
of the celebrated poet." The 
Keats family of Louisville 
(closely related to the poet) 
was conspicuous in the early 
history of that city. They were 
connections of the famous 
Speed family of Kentucky. 

Kehoe. (French) Cahot; Cahut; 
Cayeux, p. n. 

Kenney (De Kani, 1198, Nor- 

Kentain, for Kintan or Quentin. 
Simon Kenton was always 
known among the plain people 
as Kinton, though, in early 
Kentucky statutes, the name 
is spelled Canton, no doubt 
as then pronounced, even by 
"scollards." Kenton, a " place " 
name near the northeast coast of 
England. Much of our old Ken- 
tucky stock is Northumbrian. 






Kimball, for Kemble. 

King (Rex de LeRoy, Normandy, 


Kinsey, for Kensey. 
Kirk, or Quirk, de Quergu. 
Kissill. For Cecil, which is also 

sometimes Sissell, Knight (Miles 

or Knight, Normandy). 
Knott, for Canot or Canute. 
Knott (Danish), Knouth. Norse 

Knottr (a ball or knob, as a 

Knot on oak). 
Kydd, or Kidd. 
Kyle, or Keyle. 

Lacy, or Lacey. A baronial name 
from Lasey, between Vire and 
Aulnay. Walter de Lacy was 
in the battle of Hastings, and 
Captain Walter Lacy of Ken- 
tucky was a soldier in the 
Mexican War. 

Lamb (Robert, Agnus, and Ralph, 
Normandy, 1 1 80) . 

Lambton. A Durham family from 
the Barons of Tarp and Nor- 

Landor, or Lander. From Landers, 
Burgundy. From this family 
Walter Landor, the poet. 

Larken, Larkin, Largan, Largant, 
Larcamp, Larkins, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Laurence, Lorenz, Normandy, 
1 1 80; also Lawrence. 

Lawson, from Loison, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Lee, Leigh, De la Mare. Stephen 
Lee, the progenitor of the Ken- 
tucky Lees, was born in Prince 
William County, Virginia, and 
died in Mason County, Ken- 
tucky. His first wife the 
widow Magruder was the 
mother of Priscilla Lee, who 
married William Botts of Vir- 
ginia. His second wife died 
without issue. His third wife 
was Mrs. Ann Dunn. Her son, 
Henry, who rose to distinction 
in the history of Kentucky, was 
born April 2, 1757. He married 
Mary Young. 

The question is sometimes 
asked, ' ' How were the descend- 
ants of Stephen Lee related to 
the Lees of the Northern Neck ? ' ' 
Many years ago the writer of 
this note saw in a collection of 
old papers made by that able 
and conscientious antiquary, 
William D. Hixson,* a letter 
from General Henry Lee of 
Virginia (' 'Light-Horse Harry' ') 

*W. D. Hixson, the "Old Mortality" 
of Mason, is now a resident of Mt. Ster- 
ling, Kentucky. 



to General Henry Lee of Ken- 
tucky, in which the latter was 
addressed as "Dear Cousin." 
The letter was in relation to 
certain lands in Mason County 
then owned by a daughter, 
Priscilla Lee; and was of pecu- 
liar interest as confirming the 
familiar tradition of a connec- 
tion by blood between the two 
families of Lee. The name 
"Lee" is traced by English 
genealogists to Scandinavia. 
(Vide sketch of the Lee family 
in the "Register," by Lucy 
Coleman Lee.) 

Lemon, Lemmus, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Lenard, or Lennard. For Leonard 
from St. Leonard near Fecamp, 

Lenney, or Linney, from Launer, 

Lewis, DeLues or Luiz, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. 

Liddell. From Lydale, on Scottish 
border; seat of a Norman. 

Lite, for Lisle. 

Lincoln. Alured de Lincoln came 
from Normandy with the Con- 
queror; held a great barony in 
Lincoln and Bedford. From a 
collateral branch, it is said and 
the branches were numerous 
descended the greatest of the 
"Rulers of Men," Abraham 

Lincoln. The following apprecia- 
tion of the character of Abra- 
ham Lincoln is from Paul 
Bourget's Outre-Mer. The judg- 
ment of posterity is probably 
anticipated in this discrimina- 
ting characterization by an able 
foreign writer: "That heroic 
struggle has left more noble 
vestiges than the shameful abuse 
of electoral pensions : the recol- 
lection in the first place of a 
common bravery, the proof 
that American industrialism 
has not in the least diminished 
the energies of the race; again, 
the legend of Lincoln, of one of 
those men who by their example 
alone model after their mind the 
conscience of an entire country. 
That personage, so American 
by the composite character of 
his individuality, humorous and 
pathetic at the same time : that 
politician experienced in all 
trickeries and nevertheless so 
capable of idealism and mysti- 
cism; that half-educated man 
who had at times magnificent 
simplicities of eloquence; that 
old wood-cutter, his face bitter 
with disgust, yet luminous with 
hope, worn out with trials and 
still so strong; that statesman 
so close to the people and 
nevertheless with so broad a 
vision, remains the most mod- 



ern of heroes, one whom the 
United States can boldly place 
in opposition to a Napoleon, a 
Cavour, a Bismarck. The 
South to-day recognizes his 
greatness as well as the North. 
He had the luck to be exactly 
the workman that was needed 
for the task which he under- 
took, and to die as soon as that 
task was achieved. Such cir- 
cumstances continued form 
great destinies." 

"Abraham Lincoln" (says 
one of his admiring compatri- 
ots) "was an incomparable 
leader of men. While McClellan 
and Grant could conduct more 
or less successfully the opera- 
tions of a hundred thousand 
men in the field, it was Abra- 
ham Lincoln alone that could 
keep in hand the vast and tur- 
bulent electorate of eighteen 
Northern States. It was Lin- 
coln's consummate generalship, . 
happily for the South, that 
held these radical and aggres- 
sive elements in check : ' Unus 
homo nobis cunctando restituit 

Lindsay, or de Lines. Branch of a 
baronial Norman house ; one of 
the sovereign families that 
ruled in Norway till dispos- 
sessed by Harold Harfager. 
The name "Lindsay" is from 

the Norman seigneury Limesay. 
There are various branches with 
armorial identifications point- 
ing to a common origin. Chief 
Justice Lindsay, of Kentucky, 
stands in the front rank of 
Anglo-Norman lawyers. 


Littell, or Little. Parvus or Le 
Petit, Normandy, 1180. 

Littleton, or Lytleton. 

Lockett, for Lockhart. 

Long. Petrus de Longa, Nor- 

La-veil. Louvel, Normandy, 1180. 

Lucas. From De Lukes or Luches. 

Luckett, for Lockett. 

Luke. From St. Luc, near Evreux, 

Luttrell, Ralph and Robert Lotrel, 
Normandy, 1180. 

Lyle, for Lisle. 

Lyon. From Lions, Normandy. 

Lyttleton. From Vantort, Maine. 
Lord Chief Justice Lytleton 
was of this house. 

Machin. From LeMachun or Le- 

Main-waring. Mesnil, Latin, a well- 
known Norman family. 

Major. Normandy, 1198. 

Maltby. (Scandinavian.) 



Malby. For Malbise, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Man, or Mann. 

Manning. From Maignon, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. 

March. From Marchie, Normandy. 

Markland. An old Scandinavian 
name. It was given by Eric in 
his voyage of exploration (year 
1000) to the "wooded" coast 
of Cape Breton, or Nova 

Marsh. DeMarisco, Normandy, 
1 1 80. 

Marshall. There are 62 coats of 
arms of this name, generally 
Normans, the principal of these 
being the Earls of Pembroke. 
Colonel Thomas Marshall of 
Virginia, the father of the great 
Chief Justice, lived near Wash- 
ington, Mason County, Ky. 
He died in 1802. His grave in 
the family burying-ground near 
the old home ("The Hill") has 
attracted many visitors of late 
years, and the family home- 
stead near Washington was 
once visited by the Chief Jus- 
tice himself. John Marshall 
was probably the greatest Amer- 
ican lawyer of Anglo-Norman 
descent; and certainly, as Mr. 
Barrett Wendell says, "the 
most eminent Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the 
United States." 

Judge Thomas A. Marshall, 
who recently passed away at 
Salt Lake City, a grandson of 
old Colonel Thomas Marshall, 
was also a "pioneer." He 
became the greatest mining 
lawyer in the West, and Presi- 
dent of the Central Pacific Rail- 
road. Lytleton, Coke, Chitty, 
Denman, and other great Eng- 
lish lawyers were derived from 
that same learned, astute, and 
litigious Norman race. 

Martin. Ralph, John, William, 
Normandy, 1198; William Mar- 
tin, England, 1178. 

Mason. William Le Mazon, Nor- 
mandy, 1198; Hugh Le Maun, 
England, 1198. Mason County, 
named after the famous Virgini- 
an, George Mason, by the Legis- 
lature of Virginia in 1788, and 
not (asrecently proclaimed) after 
a Governor of Michigan, who 
in all likelihood was not born 
when the county was named. 



Massy. A well-known Norman 
family, Macy, whence the name 
is derived, was seated near Cou- 
tances and Avranches, Nor- 

May. From De Mai, Normandy, 
1 1 80; De May, England, 1272. 
Maysville, Ky., named after 
John May. 




Mayhew, for Mayo. 

Mead, or Meade. The English 

form of De Prato, Normandy, 

1 1 80. 
Menzies, or De Maners, or later in 

Scotland, Manners. 
Mercer, Mercier; Normandy. 
Miall, Miel, Mihell, Mighell (the 

last a mediaeval form of Michael) . 

Lower also derives Mitchell 

from Michael through the 

French form Michel. 
Miller, or Milner, in Normandy 

Mills, from Miles. 
Milton, or Middle ton. Armorially 

identified with the Norman 

family De Camville, in the 

Co ten tin. The poet Milton 

was of this stock. 
Minors, or Minor. A distinguished 

family long settled in Virginia. 

De Mineriis, Normandy, 1198; 

in England also, 1198. 
Mitchell, for Michel. 
Mitchell. Rudulphus Michael, 

Normandy, n8o-'95. William 

de St. Michael, England, 1198. 

Michael, Michel, Michell. 
Montagu. From Montaigu or Mon- 

tacute, Normandy. 
Montgomery, DeMonte. Gourmeril, 

Normandy, many branches. 


Moore (de More). 

Morey. English pronunciation of 


Morton, for Moreton . 
Morton. Ralph de Morteine. 
Mountjoy. Pagonus de Montegaii, 

Normandy, 1097 ; the family was 

seated in Notts and Derby. 

Early settlers in Virginia and 

Mowbray. Baronial family, Castle 

of Molbrai. 
Mullins, for Molines. 
Mundey, for Munday. 
Murrell, for Morrall. 

Nelson, Nilson. Of Norman 
descent, who settled in Nor- 
folk, was the direct ancestor of 
Admiral Lord Nelson. Original 
form Neilson or Neilsen. 

Neville, De Nova Villa, Normandy, 
1 1 80. The families of Neville, 
Beaugenay, and Baskeville are 
descended from a common an- 
cestor. The Nevilles are most 
numerous in Lincoln. 

Newton. The most famous of this 
large family, Sir Isaac Newton, 
was of Norman descent. 

Nicholas. Richard Nicholas, Nor- 
mandy, 1198; Nicholas, Nico- 
laus, England, 1198. A distin- 
guished name in Kentucky. 



Norman. Ralph Normannus, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80; Henry Norman, 
England, 1272. This name has 
a social and official conspicuity 
in the State of Kentucky ; and 
in whatever position found it 
shows the characteristic marks 
of the old blood. 

Norris, William Norensis, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80 ; Thomas Norensis, 
England, 1198. 

Northcott, or Northcote. 

Norton, or Conyers. Elder branch 
of the family of Conyers, or 
Cognieres, Normandy ; named 
from the Barony of Norton, 
York, the chief English seat of 
the family. 

Nye, for Noye. 

O'Hara, Hare, O'Hare, O'Hara 
(fleet-footed). Scions of the 
House of Hare-court, or Har- 
court, Counts of Normandy. 

Theodore O'Hara was a Ken- 
tuckian by birth and training. 
He was a gallant soldier in the 
Mexican War; second officer in 
the first Lopez Expedition; a 
colonel in the Confederate 
service. He is best known by 
those fine elegiac lines which 
seem to be following the mili- 

tary cemeteries of the English 
speaking race : 

'On Fame's eternal camping-ground 
Their silent tents are spread." 

[See Ranck's Biography of 
O'Hara, and "Lopez's Expe- 
ditions," published by The Fil- 
son Club, No. 21, this series.] 


Orr (Danish) . A parish in Kirk 
and Brightshire. 

Orr. Norse, Orri (heathcock 
tetras tetrix) . 



Owen, from St. Owen, near Caen. 


Patterson, the son of Patricius 

(vide Lower). 
Paynter (de Peyntre). Thos. H. 

Paynter, United States Senator 

from Kentucky. 
Peel, Pele, Norman, 1180. Peels of 

Yorkshire and Lancashire, 

ancestors of Sir Robert Peel. 
Perry, or Perrie. 



Peters and Peter (Pierre). Doctor 
Thomas Lounsbury, who com- 
bines erudition most agreeably 
with common sense, says in a 
recent paper that at particular 
periods there is manifested a 
feeling of "hostility" to certain 
words. We have an illustration 
of this in the history of the 
proper name Peter, which, as 
one of the philologists tells us, 
"at one time was odious to 
English ears." For example, we 
find in the statistical nomen- 
clature of Wiltshire only six- 
teen Peters to ninety- two Johns, 
and the ratio elsewhere in 
other shires or districts is about 
the same. Yet we find many 
traces of Peter or Pierre (the 
original French form) in other 
names, as Pears, Peers, Pars, 
etc. Peter has been a prolific 
propagator of patronymics 
in spite of its temporary eclipse ; 
Peterson, Pearson, Peterman, 
Pierson, etc. It does not seem 
to have recovered its early popu- 
larity, or to be able to stand 
alone; but with desinences at- 
tached it takes and retains its 
old position, as in Perkins, 
Peterkin, Perrins, Perrutts, etc. 
It is a buoyant, resilient Nor- 
man vocable with the charac- 
teristic Norman facility of 
assimilation. This one surname 
covers many others. 




Picard, Pykart, Pecor, Pecar, 

Pickett. (Picot.) 


Pirtle. Norman French. A 
diminutive of "Pert"; is com- 
mon in the arrondisseinent of 

Pitt. Taine's ideal type of an 
Englishman was William Pitt, 
who is thus described by that 
admirable observer: "Some- 
times," in his rounds oi 
observation, he "detects the 
physiognomy of Pitt ; the slight 
face, impressive and imperious ; 
the pale and ardent eyes; the 
look which shines like the 
gleam of a sword. The man 
is of a finer mould, but his 
will is only the more incisive 
and firmer; it is iron trans- 
formed into steel." Contrast 
this portraiture of Pitt with 
his pictures of the taurine 
type of Englishman. 

That munificent English 
savant, General Pitt-Rivers, is of 
the same Norman stock. He was 
a gallant soldier in the Crimean 









Poyntz, or Ponz, a branch of Fitz- 
Poyntz, Ponz, tenant D. B. 
Nicholas Printz held land in 
Gloucestershire, temp. K. John. 
Under Poyntz, Lower says, Wal- 
ter Julius Ponz, a tenant in 
chief at the time of the Norman 
survey, was son of Walter Ponz, 
a noble Norman. The surname 
Poyntz may be traced from 
Normandy through England 
and Virginia to Kentucky. 
Many years before the es- 
tablishment in Kentucky of a 
club or society with a roving 
commission for historic research, 
there dwelt in the northern high- 
lands of the Bluegrass region 
a sagacious and successful cat- 
tle-breeder, who was a practical 
student of pedigrees and had 
put the knowledge thus 
acquired to a profitable use. 
All of his theories would not 
have been accepted by Weis- 
mann ; nor, on the other hand, 
would all of Weismann's the- 
ories been accepted by him. 
The conclusions which lay near- 
est his special vocation had 
been carefully "applied" after 
his own fashion, and he was 
satisfied with the results. Fran- 
cis Gal ton, himself, had no 
better grounds for belief in the 
laws of heredity. 

He was a Kentuckian of the 
early type not unlike the Ken- 
tuckians and Virginians that the 
English traveler, Mr. Pym 
Fordham, describes in a series 
of letters from the South and 
West. His mental gifts and 
pleasing manners, to say noth- 
ing of his commanding stature, 
not only made him conspicuous, 
but wherever he went assured 
him welcome and the right of 
way. There was a look of 
quiet resourcefulness in the 
man. His facial contour was 
striking. The features, seen in 
profile, were large, strong, and 
regular, and their impressive- 
ness was notably enhanced by a 
broad, flowing beard with the 
same reddish tinge that bright- 
ened his locks of long brown 
hair. His eye was steady, soft, 
and penetrating noting every- 
thing, overlooking nothing. 
His complexion was peculiar 
not "ruddy" or glowing from 
daily exposure, at all seasons, 
in the open air, but of an almost 
bloodless hue; as colorless, at 
least, and as clear as if untouched 
by sun, or wind, or rain, in 
his active routine of life upon a 
Bluegrass ranch. It was the 
life of a man whose time was 
largely given to observation 
and thought; and as one might 



suppose, he had an ample field 
for the indulgence of his studi- 
ous tastes. His special line of 
work was the propagation of 
' ' high-grade ' ' cattle by crossing 
our native stock with fine 
imported strains. 

In our pastoral mid-century 
days the casual traveler pass- 
ing along a mountain road in 
the Red River region of Eastern 
Kentucky could not have failed 
to observe, in the great forests 
that cast their dense shadows 
as far as the headwaters of 
Buckhorn, large herds of native 
cattle that browsed and 
"drowsed" in the shade of 
those deep Druidic woods. If 
the traveler were a man of 
the English race, and as well 
informed and observant as a 
traveler should be, he would 
say at once, "These cattle are 
in no degree akin to the Eng- 
lish blood-stock which I have 
seen in the Bluegrass lowlands 
of the State. They are wholly 
unlike; their 'lines' are wholly 
different, size, shape, coloring, 
deer-like delicacy of structure 
and peculiar curve of horn; 
nothing in their construction 
is heavy or cumbrous except 
the deep, rich golden udders of 
the kine. They remind one of 
no familiar English stock. 

They are not Durhams nor 
Herefords, nor Devons. Are they 
not Alderneys?" At all events, 
this was the native stock from 
which our practical Bluegrass 
theorist obtained his "high- 
grade" cattle, by crossing it 
judiciously with fine imported 
strains from the Channel Isles. 
The results were all that could 
be desired. The half-grade cat- 
tle were scarcely distinguish- 
able from the imported stock, 
and if the milk was not so 
"rich," the quantity was much 
larger. The same was true of 
the uncrossed mountain stock 
which was brought to Kentucky 
by the "comelings" of the 
Eighteenth Century, and was 
never a "degenerate" stock 
in any practical sense. The 
"deer-like" structure of the 
mountain cow came partly from 
environment and partly from 
race. It was one of the rough- 
hewn maxims of mountain hus- 
bandry "The best milker is a 
cow with a little foot," a 
foot that can thread the brush- 
iest "cove" or climb the airiest 
height to crop the nutrient 
herbage that makes the nutri- 
tious milk. The succulent 
"pea -vine" made the milk; 
the tissue-forming "mast" or 
acorn made the meat. The 



little-footed heifer had the free- 
dom of the range; and, by 
some subtle morphologic law, 
the locomotive organ that was 
small, firm, and well-shaped 
seemed to imply or determine 
the full symmetric development 
of thorax and brain and an easy, 
unobstructed operation of the 
functions associated with both. 
The loyal mountaineer of the 
old stamp was chauvinistic to 
the core. Though fifty years 
have passed, he still grows elo- 
quent when he recalls the 
"fighting bulls" and the flow- 
ing pails of his boyhood days. 
A handsome, vivacious High- 
lander of this class a gentleman 
of marked Gallic aspect and 
scion of an early pioneer stock 
recently boasted to the writer, 
and almost in the language of 
the Vergilian swain (bis -venit 
ud mulctram), that old "White- 
face" came regularly to the 
pail twice a day yielding six 
gallons in two milkings. These 
mountain kine were not large; 
but they were gentle, spirited, 
clean-limbed, fine-haired, and 
carried in their generous udders 
an abundance of wholesome 
milk. They bore indelible marks 
of race. Had they been larger, 
they might have remained to 
this day an untraveled stock. 

Their size favored easy trans- 
portation, and the canny emi- 
grant made note of the fact. 
As a consequence of this demand 
from emigrants, no doubt, great 
numbers of cattle were shipped 
from the Channel Islands to 
England in the early decades 
of the Nineteenth Century a 
circumstance which completely 
answers the assumption that 
our mountain cattle were 
derived originally from an Eng- 
lish stock. For many years 
the name "Alderney" was 
applied without discrimination 
to all cattle imported from the 
Anglo-Norman islands of the 
English Channel islands which 
England has held with an iron 
grip since the Conqueror brought 
them under English rule. The 
thrifty islanders descendants 
of the old Norman stock and 
for years clinging tenaciously to 
the old Norman dialect are 
now true Anglo-Normans, mak- 
ing daily proclamation of their 
loyalty to the English crown, 
and, until a very recent period, 
always in Anglo-Norman 

Only this then remains to be 
said. A thoughtful Bluegrass 
cattle-breeder, bearing a dis- 
tinctively Anglo-Norman name 
that had come down from Nor- 



mandy through England and 
Virginia to Kentucky* and 
bearing in his own person char- 
acteristics and distinctive marks 
of his Anglo-Norman descent 
utterly indifferent to "ethno- 
logical" theories and absolutely 
unconscious of his own descent 
from the Anglo-Norman race, 
is convinced not by "herd- 
books" or historic pedigrees 
but simply and solely by the 
evidence of his own eyes, that 
a certain native stock of cattle 
in the mountains of Kentucky 
were merely an earlier importa- 
tion than his own from the 
Anglo-Norman islands of the 
English Channel. He had the 
courage to put his theory to the 
touch of practical experimen- 
tation, and the astonished 
"experts" at the great cattle- 
fairs of the country bore gener- 
ous testimony to the quality 
of his work. 

If such conclusions are fairly 
deducible from an imperfect or 
incomplete study of a race of 
CATTLE in the mountain region 
of Kentucky, why should a logi- 
cal mind discredit like conclu- 
sions resting upon testimony 
that is singularly cumulative 
and convergent in regard to a 

*John Baldwin Poyntz. Norman 
name Poyniz in alphabetical list. 

contemporaneous race of MEN 
that is historically traceable 
from Normandy through Eng- 
land and Virginia to the same 
or a similar physical environ- 
ment in that same State of 
Kentucky? Could there be a 
better example of cumulative 

Preston. General William Preston, 
"The Last of the Cavaliers." 


Quantrell, or Quantrall. 
Quay, or Kay. 




Raynes, or Rains. 


Respess, Respis, Res-bisse, Respeig, 

One of the seconds of Casto 
in the famous Metcalfe-Casto 
duel was Colonel Thomas A. 
Respess, of Mason, a member 
of the Kentucky bar, and associ- 
ated for many years with the dis- 



tinguished jurist and author 
Judge Richard H. Stanton 
(Stanton and Respess). Colonel 
Respess is an able and scholarly 
man, and retains, at a very 
advanced age, the conversa- 
tional brilliancy of his prime. 


Riaud (pronounced Ree-o). An 
old Virginian name, of French 
derivation. In Norman records 
the name is Riau, not Riaud, 
the terminal "d" in the latter 
form representing the "terri- 
torial" particle in the original 
name; thus Riau de Alen^on; 
Riau d'Alengon; Riaud. By 
syllabic transposition (as Mack- 
all, Almack) Riaud is now Orear 
a well-known Kentucky 

Rich. Riche was near Nancy, in 
Lorraine. John de Riches, 
Thirteenth Century. Riche, 
Riches ; Richeson. 






Rowan. John Rowan, a jurist and 
scholar; lived at "Federal Hill," 
the Old Kentucky Home. 




Ryder. Hreidarr (Norse). 

Ryder. There was a Ryder in 
Mason County, who never rode, 
but was a great walker. 

Sandford. Scandinavian, San- 

Sargeant. Normandy, n 80; Eng- 
land, 1198. 


Scott, Governor of Kentucky. 


Scudder. Lower's orthography is 
"Skudder." On the very face 
it is Scandinavian, from the 
Danish Skyde, implying swift- 
ness of motion. Scudder is a 
name that may with equal 
propriety be applied to a 
Scandinavian rover scudding 
over a sea of ice, or a Calvinis- 
tical divine scudding over a sea 
of thought. In either case he 
is a scudder. 

Search (for Church). Thomas de 
Cherches, Normandy, 1180. 







Sinton, Santon, Normandy, 1180. 

Smith, originally Faber. A worker 
in iron and a maker of arms 


President of The Filson Club. 



the leading industry of that 
day. The name Smith is a 
translation of Faber, and first 
appeared in the Thirteenth 



Speed. Ivo de Spade, Normandy, 
1 1 80. John and Roger Sped, 
England, 1272. Attorney-Gen- 
eral Speed; Captain Thomas 
Speed, soldier and writer; repre- 
senting a Kentucky family of 
distinction and ability. 












Talbot, or Talebote and Taulbee, 
and Tallboy, are supposed to 
have the same derivation. 
From Talebois, or Taillebois, a 
name which goes back to the 
forests of Normandy, Taillis and 
Bois, apparently an equiva- 
lent for the English Underwood, 

from Taillebois, a cutter of 
taillis (underbrush) . William 
Preston Taulbee is a typically 
Norman name. 

Major William Taulbee was 
a soldier in the Mexican War 
and in the War between the 
States. Nine of his descendants 
are now in the military service 
of the United States, two of 
them graduates of West Point. 

Tanner. Hugo de Tanur, Nor- 
mandy, 1082. 

Taylor. Hugo Taillor, Normandy 
1 1 80. A distinguished name in 
Kentucky. Soldiers, lawyers, 
physicians and bankers repre- 
sent the various families of the 
State. General Zachary Taylor 
was a successful soldier who 
became President of the United 
States; he was a wealthy 







Todd. A distinguished name in 
Kentucky Mrs. Abraham Lin- 
coln was of this stock. Colonel 
Charles Todd was minister to 
Russia. A gallant soldier in 






Tudor. The Welsh form of Theo- 
dore the "people's" warrior 
a name which does not seem to 
have lost its original signifi- 
cance. Tudor is an old name 
in Kentucky. 




Valingford (Norman French) . The 
Conqueror passed through the 
town of Wallingford "in his 
winter march to the North." 
In its English form, an old name 
in Virginia and Kentucky and 
connected with the Ashbys, 
Mooreheads, Andersons, and 

Valler, or Waller. From Valeres, 
Normandy. De Valier, Valers, 
Waler, Walur, Waller. Sir Wil- 
liam Waler, the Parliamentary 
General, was of this family. 
Henry le Wallere is found in 
the old records. Henry Waller, 
of Mason, was a lawyer of ability 
and distinction. 

Vick, from the Fief of Vic, Nor- 


Wadsworth. Records show that the 
name was spelled Wordisworth, 
Wardysworth, and Wadys- 
worth; Wadsworth being the 
original form. Hugh de Wads- 
worth, Abbot of Roche, 1179, 
had a brother Henry. The fam- 
ily of De Wadsworth bore the 
arms of De Tilly, a family that 
was Norman and baronial. 

Walker. Norse, Valka (a foreigner). 

Wall (de Valle). A prominent 
family in Kentucky. Judge G. 
S. Wall, of Mason, was one of 
the State Commissioners to the 
World's Fair (St. Louis). 


Walton. From near Evreux, Nor- 

Warin, or Waring. "Waring's 
Run," in Mason County, was 
named after Thomas Waring. 

Waring, or Warin. Thomas War- 
ing, a pioneer of Virginia, was 
the founder of "Waring's Sta- 
tion." His grandson, Edward 
Waring, was the "honor" man 
of his class at Centre College 
in 1860. One of his classmates 
(another young Norman) bore 
the same name in French 
Guerraiit. The traditional pro- 
nunciation of Waring is War- 


War rick. 



Ward. From Gar or Garde, near 
Corbell, Isle of France; John de 
Warde, Norfolk, 1194. John 
Ward, Kirby Beadon, Four- 
teenth Century. Captain James 
Ward, a con temporary of Boone, 
was High Sheriff of Mason 
County for thirty years, and 
was practically "warden" of 
the marches from Bracken to 
the Virginian line. He was a 
man of high character and of 
unquestioned courage and ca- 
pacity. His granddaughter, 
Mrs. Mary Ward Holton, is now 
a resident of Indianapolis. The 
late Judge Quincy Ward, of 
Harrison, and Quincy Ward, 
the famous sculptor, were scions 
of the same distinguished stock. 

Washington. The President of the 
last Constitutional Conven- 
tion in Kentucky was George 
Washington (a native of the 
State), who was connected by 
blood with George Washington 
of Mt. Vernon, General of the 
Continental armies, President 
of the United States, and sole 
proprietor of the famous Mt. 
Vernon Mills, which produced 
a brand of flour known as far 
south as the West Indies, and 
popular wherever known. The 
proprietor had an Anglo-Nor- 
man eye for trade, and nothing, 
it is said, interested him more 

than "the prices of flour and the 
operations of his mill." He 
naturally became the leader of 
a "commercial aristocracy" in 
Virginia. Miss Mary Johnson, 
in her charming description of 
early colonial life in the Old 
Dominion, notes the same com- 
mercial predilections in the 
Elizabethan pioneers. They 
were merchants as well as 

Watterson. (Norman.) Walter, 
Walters, Waterson, Henry 
Watterson, a journalist dis- 
tinguished for Norman clever- 
ness, buoyancy, spontaneity, 
enthusiasm, versatility, and 



Willis, from Wellis, a fief in 


Willock (Walloche). 

Wingfield (Norman). 



Winter, for Vinter. 

Wise and Wiseman (Normandy). 

Withers, Normandy, 1 1 80. 


Woodward, Woodard. Oudard, 
Oudart (French). 

Worrell. William Werel, Nor- 
mandy, 1 1 80. H. Werle, Eng- 
lish, 1272. 



Wyalt. There are Kentucky fam- 
ilies connected with the Wyatts 
of Virginia. 

Wyclifte. Seated at Wycliffe, 
Yorkshire, soon after the Con- 
quest. The Kentucky Wick- 
liffes are of this race. "Cripps" 
is a well known Norman name, 
and Beckham is a Scandina- 
vian name, as Burnham, Dai- 
ham, Gresham, etc. 

Wyon. Ralph Wyon, Normandy, 
1 1 80, also Wyand. 

Wray, for Ray. 

Wroe, for Roe a Kentucky name. 

Youett, for Jewitt. 
Young, William Juven or Juvenis, 
Jouvin, 1178. 

Zealey, for Sealey. 

Zissell, for Sissel. See Cecil. 




A very able and scholarly Virginian, Mr. B. B. Green, 

of Warwick, Virginia, has compiled a list from 

which we make the following selections : 

Armistead Um'sted. 

Baird Beard. 

Berkely Barkly. 

Blount Blunt. 

Boswell Bos'ell. 

Burwell Bur'rel. 

Carter Cear'ter. 

Chamberlaine Chamberlin. 

Chisman Cheese'man. 

Deneufville Donevel. 

Didwiddie Dinwooddy 

Drewry Druit. 

Enroughty Darby ! 

Fauquier Faw'keer. 

( Fountain. 
" ' \ Fontin. 

Garvin Coin. 

Gibson Gipson. 

Gilliam Gillum. 

Gloucester ... Glaw'ster. 

Gower Gore. 

Haau f ton JHor'ton. 

Hawthorne J 

Hobson Hop'son. 


James Jeames. 

Jenkins Jin'kins. 

Jordan Jur'dn. 

Kean Kane. 

Ker, Kerr, Carr .... Keaar. 

Kirby Kearby. 

Langhorne Langon. 

Lawrence Lar'ance. 

Maury Mur'ry. 

Michaux Mish'er. 

Montford, Munford .Mumford. 

Morton Mo'ton. 

Napier Napper. 

Perrott Parrot. 

Piggot (from Picot) . Picket. 

Randolph Randal. 

Roper Rooper. 

Sandys Sands. 

Sayer Saw'yer. 

( Slaughter. 

\ Slater. 

Sample Sarm'ple. 

Sewell, Seawell .... Sow'el. 
Sinclair . . .Sinkler. 




Sweeny ... Swin'ny. 

Taliaf erro Toliver. 

Timberlake Timberley. 

Warwick Warrick. 

Woodward Wood'ard. 

Woolfolk Wool'fork. 

Wyatt Wait. 

"In living form, " says Mr. 
Green, "are now to be heard in 
the Southwest, words and pro- 
nunciations which have re- 
mained unaltered at least since 
the time of Simon de Montfort." 
"The Virginian" says the same 
writer "has a good opinion of 
himself ; is calm, well-balanced ; 
is self-reliant, and has the Eng- 
lish quality of not being afraid 
to take responsibility." In 
other words, his blood is Scan- 
dinavian or Norman, cooled by 
the icy currents of Wessex. 
A correspondent of the Spec- 

tator (London) writes: "It is 
often asked what has become 
of old English families. I have 
just gathered white water-lilies 
from the fields of 'De Vere,' 
now known as Diver; one of 
my neighbors is ' Bohun ' abbre- 
viated into Bone; 'Roy,' a 
grand sample of the English 
laborer, was recently carried 
into the old church-yard; for 
many years I employed the 
tall and stately 'Plantagenet, ' 
known on my labor books as 
Plant; a shop in the neighbor- 
ing town is kept by 'Thurcytel,' 
the modern spelling being Thir- 
kettle; 'Godwin,' the last of 
his race, died at a grand old 
age a year ago; 'Mortimer' 
buys my barley; and around 
me we have such names as 
Balding, Harrold, Rolf, Hacon, 
and Mallett." 


ACLAND, Sir Henry, Physician, 13 

ALFRED, King. "The grim-troubled" sea, 15 

ALLEN, James Lane. "Summer in Arcady," 1 

ANGLO-NORMAN orators and sheriffs, 29 

leader, Boone or Bohun, 2 

migration to Virginia, 25 

ANGLO-SAXON. System of political administration not complex, 
but solid and enduring. "Yeoman" as depicted by An- 
drews. No conception of freedom in the modern sense. 
His decadence. His progenitors a soldier race. Inca- 
pacity for progress until the Norman came, 92 

their ancestors "harried" the race they dispossessed. "Har- 
ry" an old Saxon word. William learned the word and 
all that it implied. He harried with unsparing ferocity, 
not the Saxon, but his own kindred, the Northumbrian 
Danes. The devastation was never repaired until an 
industrial civilization revived and regulated the ancient 
energies of the race. Elsewhere in England the Norman 
built at once upon the Saxon's rude but solid work, 93 

APPARATUS CRITICUS. Evolution of, by three Franch brains, 

Lamarck, Sainte-Beuve, Taine, 51 

"ARCADY," sons of. Impression upon their guest, Du Chaillu,. . . 8 
their social traits and habits, 8 

ARGYLE, the Duke of, on genealogical origin of prominent Irish 

leaders, 102 

"ASSIMILATIVE" power of Elizabethan Englishmen (Barrett 

Wendell), 79 


216 Index 

BISMARCK. Unifying the German people by "absorbing" a 

Scandinavian population, 106 

BLOOD OF NORMAN in obscure English families, 24 

in Ireland, 24 

in Kentucky, 25 

in Scotland, 24 

in "the States," 24 

in Virginia (earliest migration) , 25 

"BLUE GRASS" ; or a Poa found at the Straits of Magellan, 48 

"a cosmopolitan grass" with peculiar affinity for the soil of 
Kentucky. The "grass" and the "race." Opinion ex- 
pressed by a New England tourist, 49 

BOONE, the explorer. Early "trustee" of Maysville, 2 

name derived from Bohun, 2 

"BOURBON." Famous Kentucky distillate, 4 

BRECKINRIDGE, John C. Vice- President United States, 14 

BRITISH ASSOCIATION, 1889. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 10 

discusses paper on Scandinavian origin of English race, 10 

BRITISH savants stiff in opinion, 34 

BRUCE, Doctor. Historian of Roman Wall, 13 

BUCKNER, a Southern family (foot-note), 7 

Elizabeth, maiden name of the Beautiful Scandinavian, 7 

CARDENAS, battle of, ! . . 27, 28 

Kentuckians cover retreat to the sea. Chaplain of expedition 

killed. Liberators seize United States fort, 28 

CARLISLE, Canon of, quoted. English surnames are largely exotic. 
Normandy, he says, was the source of supply. What 
was the effect of the "Conquest" ? Anglo-Saxon "gram- 
mar" survived, but the stately old nomenclature of the 
race was hopelessly smashed. If comparative grammar 
can deduce the history of the Anglo-Saxon tongue from 
the habitual speech of an English plough-boy, what his- 
toric significance is to be attached to the flood of Norman 
surnames that were "absorbed" by the Saxon race? The 
native speech survived because the dialects which fed it 
were still living and intact, 141 

Index 217 

CAVALIER. An original product of Normandy. "The man on 

horseback," 47 

Guild-hall collection of seals. Equestrian figure, 48 

"CAVALIERISM." Origin of the word, 46, 47 

CELT, Normanized, or Scandinavian Celt. "The Fighting Race,". 24 
CHILDE, Edward Lee. "Life of Robert E. Lee" (Paris, France, 

1874), 46 

CLARK, George Rogers, a Scandinavian general. His "wintry 

marches" in the Northwest, 88 

COLERIDGE on England's insular position. Its effect, 59 


COMPARISON of the two races, Norman and Saxon. Origin of the 

discussion, 127 

COURTHOUSE (Maysville, Kentucky). Description of. Du 

Chaillu received at, 2 

CRAFT (says Mr. Freeman) is the dominant quality of the Norman 

character, 131 

popular recognition of the fact. The winning cards, 132 

CRAIK, Doctor George, an eminent British scholar, 34 

Eastern and Northern England from middle of the Ninth 

Centucy as much Danish as English, 35 

says English "more Scandinavian (Danish or Swedish) than 

the modern German," 34 

Scandinavian dialect imported by invading bands in Fifth and 

Sixth Centuries, 35 

views on a Norman migration, 36 

DANES (who were English Normans) fiercely opposed their kins- 
man, the Norman invader, 109 

every step obstinately contested in Northumbria, 109 

Northumbria the birth-place of the Puritan and the Virginian 

(vide Wendell and Fiske) , 86 

the Dane's (or English Norman's) passionate love of free- 
dom Ill 

DAVIS, Thomas A., 9 

DAWKINS, Boyd. "Cave Hunter," 13 

a warm debate ( Newcastle) , 18 

DESHA, Governor. Reference to corporations, 68 

218 Index 

DISRAELI repeats the miracle of Lanfranc, 103 

Gaston Phoebus as a Gascon noble, 105 

his philosophic insight, 104 

Monsignore Berwick and his inherited traits, 104 

nature's reproduction of type, 105, 129 

temp. Louis le Grand, 105 

the Southern "Colonel" with a Norman name, 105 

DONCASTER RACES : Chitabob and Donovan North against South. 
Deep popular interest. Wagner and Grey Eagle in 
Kentucky. Extremes touch, 42, 43 

Du CHAILLU, Paul. Explorer's visit to Maysville, Kentucky,. ... 3 

committee of reception (foot-note), 9 

date of visit to Kentucky (1876), 9 

description of hosts, 6 

encounter with gorilla, 6 

entertained by Limestone Club, 4 

his re-discovery of La Nouvelle France, 9 

interest in "the Beautiful Scandinavian," 7 

lecture at Courthouse, 3 

personal description of, 5-7 

"take a horn" Du Chaillu, 122 

verifies the observations of Maltebrun, 121 

vivid description of, 6 

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR established intimate relations between 

England and Normandy, 36 

EFFRENATISSIMA. Effrenatus use by Cicero, 28 

ELIZABETH TUDOR and Henry the Eighth, 77-79 

her recognition of the people, 78 

"ELIZABETHAN" Englishmen, the Kentuckians are (Professor 

Shaler), 26 

ENGLISH farmer of Anglo-Norman type. Resemblance to Nor- 
man farmer of present day, 29 

ENGLISH FOLK. Professor Shaler quoted, 25 

"largest body of nearly pure English" found in Kentucky, ... 25 

ENGLISHMAN, the Elizabethan. When the elements balanced, his 

evolution was complete, 128 

EVANS, Sir John. Writer on archaeology, 13 

Index 219 

EXAMPLES of atavism or reversion. The Scottish blood (which 
was the "dominant" in the Berwick cross) by a gradual 
process of selection from continuous or intermittent 
variations comes at last to the front; first manifested, no 
doubt, in the invigoration of the moral quality, and finally 
in a physical "mutation" a return to the original or 
characteristic color of eyes and hair in the paternal gens. 
The theory of transmission or inheritance of moral and 
physical traits in Gaston Phcebus from the Gascon noble 
is not materially different. The problem of "three" 
bodies (really two) in the genesis of the Englishman, 
though apparently more complex, is essentially the same, 
the "dominant" factor in the process being Norman or 
Norse. Whether the explanation be convincing or not, 
beyond all question it shows that the Darwinian "scien- 
tist" lacks the simplicity of the Disraelitish seer, 104 

FACILE PRINCEPS An English estimate generally accepted in 

Kentucky, 135 

FAMILY NAMES, BRITISH. Families bearing Norman names un- 
conscious of their origin, 117 

names now accounted English were originally Norman. The 
proof of this exists in two countries (England and Nor- 
mandy) in practically contemporary records, 118 

one Norman name upon an English record after the Conquest 
might be suggestive; five thousand names would be al- 
most conclusive. A legal maxim quoted, 118 

this basis of record proof for purposes of comparison unique, 118 

FISKE, John. On "ethnic differentiation." The Aryan broth- 
ers far apart, 58 

New England founded by East Anglian or Scandinavian 

Englishmen, 87 

the East Anglian's hatred of tyranny and passion for freedom 

of thought, 87 

RREEMAN, Edward A., says Norman a "born soldier" and "a born 

lawyer," 27 

GALTON, SIR FRANCIS. Writer on Heredity, 13 


220 Index 

GENTILHOMME, translated "gentleman." England indebted to 

Normandy for the word 46 

GOTHIC RACES. First seen in an historic twilight, 108 

a great racial march or movement across Europe in parallel 

columns, 110 

a Scandinavian naval station, with dry docks, 112 

"a wild and arid nurse," Ill 

description of the peninsular (Scandinavia) milieu, Ill 

difficulty of following the Gothic trail in their early Asian 
home. Modern illustrations of this Asian mystery. 
Warring nations of the same race. Teuton and Goths. 
Yenghees in the North, Dixees in the South. Divided 

and belligerent, but racially the same, 109 

drift in the eddies of an archipelagic sea. What became of it? 114 
ethnic differentiation. Why should the Norseman differ from 

the kindred Teuton in the south? Ill 

from the Caspian Sea to the mouths of the Elbe and Rhine,. . 110 
he ravages the shores of Northumbria and the rivers of 

France, 113 

loitering along the shores of the Baltic. Peopling Denmark, 

the Danish Islands, and the Scandinavian Peninsula,... 110 

their Asian migrations veiled by the mists of time, 109 

who were the original "comelings" on English soil? 116 

William the Conqueror fifth in descent from Rolf Ganger, 

the freebooting admiral of the Northern Seas, 113 

GREEN, Colonel Thomas M., author of "The Spanish Conspiracy," 9 
GREEN, Thomas Marshall, an accomplished speaker, introduces 

M. Du Chaillu to the audience, 9 


HAMLET. A psychological epitome of his race (Danish). The 
historic or legendary basis of the character. The "orig- 
inal" of the character in its intellectual aspects was a 
famous French scholar and essayist. His character and 
tastes. His literary work. The favorite writer of 

Shakespeare, 96 

advice to Kentuckians who take themselves "too seriously" 
from a philosophic observer who sometimes, it is thought, 
did not take things seriously enough. Essentially a mod- 
ern thinker, 97, 98 

Index 221 

HARDY, THOMAS, the novelist, 23 

his views in "Tess," a powerful work of fiction, 23 


INEZ. An allusion to Hood's poem, "O saw ye not Fair Inez?" 

( foot-note) , 7 

ISAAC LE BON and a Virginian "cross." The differentiating 

quality, 105, 129 

KENTON, Pioneer. Commissioner of Roads for Mason County, . . 2 
a famous hunter. Name in State enactments spelled Can- 
ton, no doubt as then pronounced, 2 

KENTUCKIAN, the. Loves a "good cross," 129 

Kentuckians and Normans ; points of remblance between the 

derivative and the original stocks, 133 

not a weak vessel, 130 

transmission of characteristic traits, 130 

KENTUCKY. Lawless elements. Origin and distribution, 59 

Anglo-Norman juries. A technical defense, 60 

political assassination. Murder as an administrative art, ... 60 

statecraft ; enterprise in war. "A little nation," 106 

"KING'S MOUNTAIN," The Man of, 25 

LAMARCK, the famous French savant; referred to in conjunction 
with Taine and Sainte-Beuve, naturaliste des esprits. "I 
began my intellectual life,' says Sainte-Beuve, "with La- 
marck and the physiologists," 51 

LANFRANC, the scholar, 36 

effects of his work still visible, 36 

restrains William Rufus and Odo of Bayeux, 36 

LAW. The Norman of Malaterra and "the forms of law," 28 

LEE, LIONEL, accompanies Richard of the Lion-Heart in Third 

Crusade, at the head of a company of gentilhommes, 46 

LEXICON OF NAMES. A marvelous number and variety of facts. 
What theory best explains these facts in their relations? 
A clear judicial faculty required to recognize the force of 

the cumulative verification, 136 

LIBRARY, FREE, Newcastle, 13 

a group of savants, 13 

Anthropological Section meets at, 13 

personal description of, 13 

222 Index 

LIMESTONE CLUB, entertainment by, 3 

LIMESTONE, phosphatic ; basis of Bluegrass region, 2 

LONDON TIMES. A contemporary estimate of Du Chaillu's views. 
An organ that forms, reflects, and fixes opinion. Ques- 
tion of the origin and migration of races. "Time ripe 

for a new investigation," 39 

letter from Du Chaillu to Times containing challenge to skep- 
tical archaeologists, 39, 40 

LONGFELLOW, the poet, 12 

Kentucky racer, 12 

Norwegian barque named, 12 

LOPEZ at Cardenas, 27, 28 

Louis NAPOLEON. Places an Austrian Prince on the Mexican 

throne to unify the Latin race. Its effect, 106 

MACKINTOSH, DOCTOR JOHN. "The man of King's Mountain,". . 25 
MALATERRA, Geoffrey. Describes the Norman in his original 

habitat, 27 

MANNEN, Major Thomas H., 9 

MARSHALL, General Humphrey. Notably large head, 123 

his aide and secretary Captain Guerrant, 124 

MARSH, George P., quoted. Peculiarities of Scandinavian tongues 

observed in English. "Irreconcilable discrepancies," ... 45 


a masculine type, 32 

MONTAIGNE, the French essayist. A quaint story with a cogent 

moral, 98-100 

MONTALEMBERT. His "Monks of the West." Estimate of the 

Saxon 125 

MORGAN, GENERAL JOHN. His command remarkable for military 

qualities. The opinion of Captain Shaler, 124 

Commodore Morgan presents "Yorkshire" to Henry Clay,. . . 44 

NAMES, the lesson of, 37 

additions to list, 126 

notes, 133 

Virginian names. Alphabetical series of, 101 

NANSEN, Fridjof. Arctic Explorer, 15 

Index 223 

NAPOLEON. The English MM peuple marchand, 29 

as an administrator, 76 

NELSON, General William. Description of, 32 

large head, 123 


Anthropological "Section" organized at (1863), 12 

British Association meets at, 10 

"carrying coals" to, 11 

description of, 10 

industrial progress, 10 

northern cattle market, 11 

Northumbrian vitality and vigor, 11 

NEWPORT, Captain of Sea Adventure. Vice-Admiral of Virginia, 81 

NORMAN EXCHEQUER, Great Rolls of, 22 

juxtaposition of with English records, 22 

NORMANIZED KENTUCKiAN who has "assimilated' everything Nor- 
man but the name, 134 

NORMANS distinguished from all other nations by their craft (E. 

A. Freeman), 63, 131 

leaders in England, France, America, 102 

the Norman in his ethnical transformation act 103 

this Norman craft akin in many respects to the "cuteness" and 

cleverness attributed to the American people, 63, 102 

NORMAN SURNAMES, alphabetical series of. ("The Norman 

People"), 23 


Conquest of England by, 21 

desperate and prolonged struggle, 21 

flow of migration post bellum, 21, 22 

great historic march of the Norman people, 124 

is it a "lost" race ? 20 

memorials of, 20 

The Continental recruiting ground, 21 

NORTH AND SOUTH. Traits in common, 80 

NORTHMEN in communication with peoples of the Mediterranean,. 16 

England one of their northern lands, 16 

language of, similar to English of early times, 16 

their settlements in Britain during Roman occupation, 16 

they were bold and enterprising navigators at a time when 

neither the Saxons nor Franks were "sea-faring" people, 17 

224 Index 


ODERICUS VITALIS (an English writer) on the illiteracy of his 

countrymen at the time of the Conquest, 35 

ORPHAN BRIGADE. Captain Shaler's estimate of, 124 

OTTO the Saxon and William the Norman. Conflicting missions, 108 
the shadowy background of the Norman Conquest. Forma- 
tive period of Western Europe (foot-note), 108 


"OvEZ !" of Anglo-Norman sheriffs, 30 

PERRY, Commodore. Furnishes "sea power" in 1812. Aide to 
Governor Shelby. Perry's sea-guns sighted by riflemen 

from Kentucky, 107 

PHILOLOGIST, The. His proper field, 125 

PIONEER COMMONWEALTH," "Genesis of a, 83 

PIRATES, Scandinavian. Transmission of traits to English within 

historic times, 41 

PITT RIVERS, general, soldier, and savant, 14 

PROFANITY. The Normans "fond of oaths." Rollo and Carolus 

Stultus, 63 

a regulator of the nerves, 71 

Ben Briler damned. Desha on corporations, 68 

Colonel Robert Blanchard and the "burnt cork" minstrels. 
Description of the entertainment. "Hell's fire, Bob." 
Conditions of life in the early West recalling the times 

of the Plantagenet kings (Barrett Wendell), 69, 70 

"damned Yankee" the two words fused by the fires of war, 64 
early Kentuckians (like Shakespeare's soldier) "full of 

strange oaths," 64 

fireside swearing in the auld lang syne, 67 

General William Nelson. His strong swearing instincts, ... 72 

"God dern" not a Virginian oath, 74 

imprecation upon a seller of inherited slaves. Parody on fa- 
mous line from Villon. The dusky bondsmen of the past, 67 
King William's oath at Alencon. Profanity of the Virgin 
Queen. "A very drab." "The Virginians addicted to 

oaths" (Fordham). Attenuated oaths, 65 

Pecksniff's "wooden damn," 73 

Index 225 

Stonewall Jackson. Jubal Early. Governor Scott, of Ken- 
tucky. Uncle Toby's oath. Boiling Stith. George 

Washington ( foot-note) , 66 

"The Blue Light Elder." "Does a Puritan swear?" 72 

the devout Moslem. Jean Gotdam (Bardsley), 73 

the Master's Call, 68 

the modern passion for "good form," 70 

the oath in court. The vulgar "cuss-word." The conversa- 
tional "swear," 71 

the slinking figure of the iconoclast, 74 

Washington, when deeply angered, swore. The Attorney- 
General of Charles II "damns the souls" of the Virginian 
Commissioners to stimulate their commercial instincts,. . 75 

QUATRAIN. (A Tennysonian Parody), 18, 134 

RACE between Wagner and Grey Eagle, 43 

RACIAL TRANSFORMATION. In England; Ireland; France; the 

United States, 102 

RETROSPECT, a brief, 135 

ROLF GANGER, the Scandinavian rover. The world before him 

where to choose. Scandinavian place-names, 108 

ROMANES, GEORGE. Interpreter of Darwin, 14 

description of appearance, 14 

ROME, the Man of Ancient, 129 


SAINTE-BEUVE, the French critic. Reference to, 51 

SALISBURY PLAIN. Political birth of the English people, 78 

researches among Scandinavians of Northern States. Psy- 
chological distinctions, 95 

SANDYS, Sir Edwin. Author of the earliest political charters, ... 82 
SAXON, The. Came directly from the southeastern shores and 
islands of the North Sea, and is remotely of Gothic 
descent: The Dane from Denmark and the Danish 
islands, and is directly of Scandinavian descent; the 
Norman, remotely Gothic, is immediately Scandinavian. 
The conclusion inevitable, not that we are Scandi- 
navians, but that we are deeply Scandinavianized, and 
that there is a preponderance of Scandinavian blood in 
the English race, 119 

226 Index 

a regulative element lacking in Stevenson's duplex mon- 
strosity, Jekyll and Hyde. Norman and Saxon 120 

Mr. Bart Kennedy in London Mail : Racially, the Kentuckian 

facile princeps, 120 

Stevenson and Disraeli as writers, 120 

the Kentuckian of Virginian descent a practically definite 

ethnical product, 119 

SCANDINAVIA and Kentucky. Relations between the two, 45 

cranial measurements of Scandinavians 56 

SCANDINAVIAN origin of English people, 15 

animated debate in Anthropological Section, 17 

description of scene, 18 

outline of theory, 17 

Scandinavians infused a spirit of enterprise into the English 

people they have never lost, 17 

"Scot, the indomitable." The Lowland Race, 24 

sensational paper on (British Association), 17 

SCANDINAVIAN population of the Northern States. Their energy 

and brains, 57 

possible fusion of with Scandinavians of the Virginian States 
to form a Continental empire. Description of Scandina- 
vians by Maltebrun, 57 

SCHOLARSHIP, philosophic, seldom narrow and never offensive, . . 128 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER. His romances popular in Kentucky, 121 

"SCYTHIAN hand and foot." A Scandinavian peculiarity trans- 
mitted to the Norman and the Anglo-Dane, 57 

"SEA ADVENTURE" wrecked on Devil's Island. Captain New- 
port, 81 

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. "Cromwellian Days," 81 

SHAKESPEARE and Virginia, 81 

Shakespeare's English friends, 82 

Shakespeare's portrayal of the Anglo-Norman kings, 94, 95 

SHALER, Professor (Harvard). Conclusions drawn from Gould's 

measurements, 123 

on "English Folk" in Kentucky, 25 

SNORRO STURLESON, Laing's note to; quoted by Lytton, 56 



SPECTACLE. The most dramatic in history (Du Chaillu), 129 

SPENCER, HERBERT. Disappearance of Celtic type in the United 

States, 105 

ST. ALDEGONDE, the English "Swell," 134 

STANTON, Captain Clarence L., 9 

TAINE, Hippolyte. Description of English types "Male" and 
"Female." "Carnivorous regime" or "Conformation of 
race" ? Mentions more attractive types. The women 
described by Shakespeare and Dickens, and the noble 

historic type represented by William Pitt, 51-53 

"erubescent bashfulness" a racial peculiarity, 54 

TAYLOR, Isaac Canon, description of, 14 

Impromptu parody by, 18 

TURNER, Sir William. Reads paper at British Association (New- 
castle, '89) on the Weismann Theory. First public ap- 
pearance of the theory in English scientific circles, ... 13, 55 
Sir William did not accept the theory in full. The hereditary 

tendency in harmony with the theory of natural selection, 55 

TYPES OF BEAUTY in Kentucky, 31 

UNITED STATES, genesis of. Beginnings of a great conflict, 83 

Anglo-Spanish conflict closed by Dewey and Schley, 83 

first Republic in New World (Dr. Alexander Brown), 84 

VIKINGS of the West. Control of the Mississippi, 85 

California appropriated by force "under legal forms," 85 

Cuba. Disastrous attempts at annexation. Prospective an- 
nexation on the old lines, 85 

passion for territorial expansion, 85 

Vikings : who were they ? 86 

VIRGINIA. Mason County settled by planters from, 2 

"Piedmont" Virginia, 2 

Virginia and the Virginian States, 39 

Virginia peopled by English countryfolk (Anglo-Danes), . . 57 

WALL, Mrs. Elizabeth Wall (Portrait) , 7 

Judge Garrett S. Wall, 9 

WARREN, CHARLES DUDLEY. Visit to Kentucky, 51 

228 Index 

WASHINGTON, George, of Anglo-Norman blood. Effigies of 

cavalier on Great Seal of Confederate States, 48 

Jared Sparks derives the family of Washington from William 
de Hertburn, who came into possession of "Wessington" 
(Washington), County Durham, prior to 1183. The 
family soon after assumed the name of Washington. 
The de Hertburns, who took the name of the place in 
Durham, were a Norman family. A Teutonic clan (says 
Freeman) gave the name Wascingas to a village in the 
North of England. From this name of a mark, or vil- 
lage, came the name of a family WASHINGTON ; Fer- 
guson deriving the name of Washington from Wass (an 
Anglo-Saxon), a derivation which Lower (one of the 
best authorities) says is clearly untenable. Ferguson de- 
rives the name Gustavus Vasa (a Swede) from huass, 
keen, bold (old Norse). Not an unworthy etymon (he 
says) for two great names Gustavus Vasa and Wash- 
ington. The first de Washington (says the judicious 
Lower) was much more likely a Norman who came in 
with the Conquest, and took the name which came with 
the estate. 
WENDELL, PROFESSOR BARRETT (Harvard), on early life in the 

West, 70 

dominant traits of the Elizabethan Englishman Puritan and 

Virginian, 79, 80 

his "Literary History of America," 78 

WHITE, ANDREW D. Excerpt from address on "High Crime in 

the United States," 61 

WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. Administrative methods and ma- 
chinery, 77 

"A lover of peace" ; Roger of Wendover quoted, 89 

descendant of Scandinavian jarls, 87 

effect upon France, 91 

embodied the characteristic traits of his race, 87 

English Unity permanently established upon Salisbury Plain. 
The foundations of feudalism destroyed. England made 
"one and indivisible," 93 

Index 229 

physical characteristics. Vigor and endurance tested in win- 
try campaigns, 88 

progenitor of Virginian "Cavalier," 87 

sovereign and subject cast in same mould. The Norman a 
race separate and apart, yet mingling with all. Capacity 
for colonization. Their sovereign the most successful 
colonizer in French history. A lost art in France. How 

to repair the loss, 90 

the Norman's Conquest of England transferred the capacity 

for colonization to the English race, 91 

the Norman's system of administration rested upon a Saxon 

basis, 92 

the wild king's passion for war and the chase, 88 

William's gift of political "visualization," 94 

he established a principle (unity) ; he "created a nation"; 
he founded a line of Anglo-Norman Princes. Shake- 
speare's dramatic characterization of the Anglo-Norman 

Kings. The significance of his work, 94, 95 

WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR and Waltheof. A judicial murder by 

a Norman king. A secret assassination by a Saxon Earl, 61 

"WOLF LARSEN." Character depicted by Jack London, 32 

a physical counterpart in "Bull" Nelson, 32 

WOLSELEY, Lord. "The Americans a race of English-speaking 

Frenchmen," 63 

WYON. Anglo-Norman Englishman of Norman origin. En- 
graver to the Queen. Engraved seal of the Confederacy, 48 

"YORKSHIRE" blood in Kentucky. Transmitted traits, 44 

George P. Marsh quoted, 45 

peculiarities of dialect, 44 

''YORKSHIRE/' Imported. Gift from Commodore Morgan to 

Henry Clay, 44 

Zea Mays and Poa Pratensis, 49 


no. 22 

Fllson Club, Louisville, Ky. 






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