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THOMAS E. PICKETT, M. D., LL. D:
Member of The Filso.l Club
FHE QUEST FOR A
Presenting the Theory of
L B. DUCHA1LLU
>t. - t r Fnghbh-speakiiig People L>( To <l)r
< & COMPANY
FILSON CLUB^PUBLIC ATION No. 22
THE QUEST FOR A
Presenting the Theory of
PAUL B. DuCHAILLU
An Eminent Ethnologist and Explorer, that the English-speaking People of To-day
are Descended from the Scandinavians rather than the Teutons
from the Normans rather than the Germans
THOMAS E. PICKETT, M.D., LL.D.
MEMBER OF THE FILSON CLUB
READ BEFORE THE CLUB OCTOBER 1, 1906
JOHN P. MORTON & COMPANY
PRINTERS TO THE FILSON CLUB
THE FILSON CLUB
All Rights Reserved
THE native Kentuckian has a deep and abiding affection
for the "Old Commonwealth" which gave him birth.
It is as passionate a sentiment, too and some might
add, as irrational as the love of a Frenchman for his native
France. But it is an innocent idolatry in both, and both
are entitled to the indulgent consideration of alien critics
whose racial instincts are less susceptible and whose emo-
tional nature is under better control. Here and there, a
captious martinet who has been wrestling, mayhap, with a
refractory recruit from Kentucky, will tell you that the aver-
age Kentuckian is scarcely more "educable" than his own
horse; that he is stubborn, irascible, and balky; far from
"bridle-wise," and visibly impatient under disciplinary re-
straint. In their best military form Kentuckians have been
said to lack "conduct" and " steadiness "-even the men
that touched shoulders in the charge at King's Mountain
and those, too, that broke the solid Saxon line at the Battle
of the Thames.
Whether this be true or not in whole or in part we
do not now stop to enquire. Suffice it to say that the Ken-
tuckian has been a participant in many wars, and has given
a good account of himself in all. In ordinary circumstances,
too, he is invincibly loyal to his native State; and when it
happened that, in the spring of 1906, there came to Ken-
tuckians in exile, an order or command from the hospitable
Governor of Kentucky to return at once to the State, they
responded with the alacrity of distant retainers to a signal
from the hereditary Chieftain of the Clan. "Now," said
they, "the lid will be put on and the latch-string left out."
When the reflux current set in it was simply prodigious
quite as formidable to the unaccustomed eye as the field-
ward rushing of a host ; and it was in the immediate presence
of that portentous ethnic phenomenon that the paper upon
the "Lost Race" was first published; appearing in a
local journal of ability and repute, and serving in some
measure as a contribution to the entertainment of the guests
that were now crowding every avenue of approach.
It is not strange that the generous Kentuckians, then
only upon hospitable thoughts intent, should imagine for
one happy quart d'heure that the "Lost Race" of the morn-
ing paper was already knocking at their doors. But they
little imagined these good Kentuckians that their hospi-
table suspicion had really a basis of historic truth.
The handsome book now launched from the Louisville
press is merely that ephemeral contribution to a morning
paper,* presented in a revised and expanded form, with such
illustrations as could come only from the liberal disposition
and cultivated taste of Colonel R. T. Durrett, the President of
The Filson Club. The title which the writer has given the
book is recommended, in part, by the example of a great
writer of romance, who held that the name of the book should
give no indication of the nature of the tale. If the indulgent
reader should be unconvinced by the "argument" that is
implied in almost every paragraph, it is hoped that he will
at least derive some entertainment from the copious flow of
reminiscential and discursive talk. The book is addressed
chiefly to those persons who may have the patience to read
it and the intelligence to perceive that nothing it contains is
written with a too serious intent.
The writer makes grateful acknowledgments to the many
friends who have encouraged him with approval and advice
in the preparation of the work. For the correction of his
errors and the continuance of his labors he looks with confi-
dent expectation to the SCHOLARS OF THE STATE.
The Morning Ledger (Maysville, Kentucky), June 20, 1906.
WHILE the Home - Coming Kentuckians were
enjoying their meeting, in Louisville, in the
month of June, 1906, Doctor Thomas E. Pickett
published a newspaper article which he had written for
the Home-Coming Week, the object of which was to
present the theory of Paul B. Du Chaillu as to the descent
of the English-speaking people from the Scandinavians
instead of the Teutons; and to show that the descendants
of these Scandinavians were still existing in different
countries, and especially in Kentucky. The author sent
me a copy of his article, and after reading it I deemed
it an ethnological paper worthy of a more certain and
enduring preservation than a daily newspaper could
promise, and concluded that it would be suitable for one
of the publications of The Filson Club. I wrote to the
author about it, and suggested that if he could enlarge
it enough to make one of the annual publications of the
Club, of the usual number of pages, and have it ready
in time, it might be issued for the Club publication of
1907. The author did as I suggested, and the book to
which this is intended as an introduction is number twenty-
two of The Filson Club publications, entitled "The Quest
for a Lost Race," by Thomas E. Pickett, M. D., LL. D.,
member of The Filson Club.
Many persons of the English-speaking race of to-day
believe that the English originated in England. The
race doubtless was formed there, but it came of different
peoples, principally foreign, who only consolidated upon
English soil. Half a dozen or more alien races combined
with one native to make the English as we now know
them, and many years of contention and change were
required to weld the discordant elements into a homo-
The original inhabitants of England, found there by
Julius Caesar fifty-five years before the Christian era and
then first made known to history, were Celts, who were
a part of the great Aryan branch of the Caucasian race.
Their numbers have been estimated at 760,000, and they
were divided into thirty-eight different tribes with a
chief or sovereign for each tribe. They were neither
barbarians nor savages in the strict sense of these terms.
They were civilized enough to make clothes of the skins
of the wild animals they killed for food ; to work in metals,
to make money of copper and weapons of iron, to have
a form of government, to build cabins in which to live,
to cultivate the soil for food, and to construct war chariots
with long scythes at the sides to mow down the enemy
as trained horses whirled the chariots through their ranks.
They had military organizations, with large armies com-
manded by such generals as Cassivelaunus, Cunobelin,
Galgacus, Vortigern, and Caractacus, and once one of
their queens named Boadicea led 230,000 soldiers against
the Romans. The bravery with which Caractacus com-
manded his troops, and the eloquence with which he
defended himself and his country before the Emperor
Claudius when taken before him in irons to grace a Roman
triumph, compelled that prejudiced sovereign to order
the prisoner's chains thrown off and him and his family
to be set at liberty. There were enough brave men and
true like Caractacus among these Celts, whose country
was being invaded and desolated, to have secured to the
race a better fate than befell them. After being
slaughtered and driven into exile into Brittany and the
mountains of Wales by Roman, Saxon, and Dane for
eight hundred years, the few of them that were left alive
were not well enough remembered even to have their
name attached to their own country.
The Celt was entirely ignored and a name combined
of those of two of the conquerors given to their country.
Who will now say that Anglo-Saxon is a more appropriate
name for historic England than the original Albion, or
Britannia, or Norman-French, or Celt? Anglo-Saxon,
compounded of Anglen and Saxon, the names of two
tribes of Low Dutch Teutons, can but suggest the piracy,
the robbery, the murder and the treachery with which
these tribes dealt with the Celts; while Norman- French
reminds us of the courage, the endurance, and the refine-
ment which were infused into the English by the Norman
Conquest. Celt is a name which ought to have been
respected for its antiquity of many centuries since it
left its ancient Bactria and found its way to England
without a known stain upon its national escutcheon.
These Celts were once a mighty people occupying France,
Spain, and other countries besides England, but their
descendants are now scattered among other nations,
without a country or a name of their own.
There may be doubts whether the Angles, the Jutes,
the Saxons, and the Danes all of whom shared in partial
conquests of England and in the establishment of the
English race were Scandinavians or Teutons, Normans or
Germans. They all belonged to the great Aryan branch
of the Caucasian race, and whatever differences or simi-
larities originally existed between them must have changed
in the thousands of years since they emigrated from their
first home. There can be no doubt, however, about the
nationality of William the Conqueror. He was Scandi-
navian by descent from a long line of noble Scandinavian
ancestors. The home of his ancestors was in Norway,
far to the north of the home of the Teutons in Germany.
In this bleak land of Arctic cold and sterility, on the
western coast of Norway, where innumerable islands
form a kind of sea-wall along the shore, his ancestor,
Rognvald, who was a great earl holding close relations
with King Harold of Norway, had his home and his land-
locked harbor, in which ships were built for the vikings
who sailed from that port to the shores of all countries
which they could conquer or plunder. Here, his son
Gongu Hrolf, better known as Rollo or Rolf, was born
and received his training as a viking. On his return
from one of his viking raids to the East he committed
some depredations at home, for which King Harold ban-
ished him. He then fitted out a ship and manned it with
a crew of his own choice and sailed for the British Channel
islands. When he reached the river Seine he went up
it as far as Paris, and, according to the fashion of the
times, laid waste the country as he went. King Charles
of France offered to buy him off by conveying to him
the country since known as Normandy and giving him
his daughter in marriage, on condition that he would
become a Christian and commit no more depredations
in the King's domain. Rollo accepted the King's offer
and at once ceased to be a viking, and began to build up,
enlarge and strengthen the domain which had been given
him with the title of Duke. In the course of time his
dukedom of Normandy, with the start Rollo had given
it and its continuance under his successors, became one
of the most powerful and enlightened countries of the
At the death of Rollo his dukedom was inherited by
his son, William, and after passing through four genera-
tions of his descendants who were dukes of Normandy
it descended to a second William, known as the Conqueror.
Duke William, therefore, could trace his Scandinavian
descent through his paternal ancestors back to Rognvald,
the great earl of Norway, and even further back through
the earls Eystein Glumra, Ivar Uppland, and possibly
other noblemen of hard names to write or pronounce or
remember. It is possible that some of his ancestors
were with Lief the Scandinavian when he made his dis-
covery of America, nearly five hundred years before the
discovery of Columbus.
In 1066, Duke William took advantage of a promise,
solemnized by an oath, which Harold had made before
he was King of England, to assist him to the throne of
England, but which he had not kept. Hence William
invaded England with a great army, and at the battle
of Hastings slew King Harold and gained a complete
victory over his forces. Duke William was soon after
crowned King of England, and at once began that wise
policy which in a few years enabled him to lay firmly
the foundation of the great English nation. His conquest,
though not complete at first, was more so than had been
that of the Romans, or the Angles and Jutes, or the
Saxons or the Danes. At the time of the Conquest of
William there were hostile Celts, Romans, Angles, Jutes,
and Danes in every part of his kingdom. It was not
his policy to destroy any more of them than he deemed
necessary, but to make as many of them citizens loyal
to him as possible; hence his numerous army and the
still more numerous hosts that were constantly coming
from Normandy to England in time became reconciled
to the people and the people to them, until all were con-
solidated into one homogeneous nation. English history
may be said to have begun with the Conquest of William,
for all previous history in the island was but little more
than the record of kings and nobles and pretenders con-
tending against kings, nobles, and pretenders, and sec-
tions and factions and individuals seeking their own
aggrandizement. The Conquest of William began with
the idea of all England under one sovereign, and he and
his successors cuing to this view until it was accomplished.
England never went backward from William's Conquest
as it did from others, but kept right on in the course of
empire until it became one of the greatest countries in
the world, and this conquest was made by Scandinavians,
who, if they did not make Scandinavians of the conquered,
so Scandinavianized them that it would be difficult to
distinguish them from Scandinavians.
The evolution of the English race from so many dis-
cordant national elements reminds one of the act of the
witches of Macbeth, casting into the boiling cauldron so
many strange things to draw from the dark future a fact
so important as the fate of a king. Who would have
thought that from the mingling of the Celts and the
Romans and the Angles and the Jutes and the Saxons and
the Danes and the Normans and the French in the great
national cauldron that such a race as the English would
be evolved? But it is not certain that such a race would
have been produced if William the Scandinavian and his
French had been left out. He came at a time when a
revolution was needed in manners and language as well
as in politics, and imparted that refinement which the
French had gotten from the Romans and other nations.
The French language so imparted soon began to infuse
its softening influence into the jargon of the conglomera-
tion of tongues in vogue, and the French manners to
refine the clownish habits which had come down from
original Celt, Saxon, and Dane. The Saxons and Danes
had inhabited England for the four hundred years which
followed the same period occupied by the Romans,
without materially changing the manners or the language
of the English, but it was not as long as either of these
periods after the Conquest before the Englishman acted
and spoke like a gentleman and belonged to a country
which commanded the respect as well as fear of all other
nations. The Scandinavian's fondness for war soon
infused itself into the English and made them invincible
upon both land and sea, and now with a land which so
envelopes the earth that they boast the sun always shines
on some part of it, they may look back some hundreds
of years to the origin of their greatness and find no one
thing which contributed more to the glory of England
than the Norman-French Conquest.
But the reader had better learn the views of Paul B.
Du Chaillu, an accomplished ethnologist and explorer,
about the descent of the English from the Scandinavians
instead of the Teutons as set forth in Doctor Pickett's
book than from me in an introduction to it. Doctor
Pickett explains the Du Chaillu theory, and gives
examples of similar tastes and habits between English
and Scandinavians which are striking. He also gives a
long list of names borne by Scandinavians in England
and Normandy eight hundred years ago which are the
same as names borne by Kentuckians to-day. In this
introduction, I have rather confined myself to such
historic matters as are involved, without alluding to the
ethnological facts so well presented in the text by the
author. The work is beautifully and copiously illustrated
with halftone likenesses of the author and Du Chaillu
and by a number of distinguished Kentuckians of Scandi-
navian descent. There was both good taste and skill in
placing among the illustrations the likenesses of Theodore
O'Hara, John T. Pickett, Thomas T. Hawkins, and
William L. Crittenden, who joined the filibustering expedi-
tions of Lopez to Cuba. These distinguished citizens,
like the Scandinavian vikings whom they imitated, lost
nothing of their character by raiding upon a neighbor's
lands, and are among the best examples of the theory
of the descent of the English-speaking people from
Scandinavians rather than Teutons. To be an admirer
of this work it is not necessary to be a believer in the
theory of Du Chaillu, that the English are descended
from Scandinavians instead of Teutons. The truth is,
all the northern nations connected with England were
kinsmen descended from the same stock Celts, Romans,
Angles, Jutes, Saxons, and Danes all being of the Aryan
branch of the great Caucasian race. They are so much
alike in some particulars that fixed opinions about
differences or likenesses between them are more or less
untenable. There is one thing, however, in the book
about which there can be no two opinions, and that is
the value and importance of the list of names copied
from records eight hundred years old, in England and
Normandy. As many of them are the same as names
now borne by living families in Kentucky, they can
hardly fail to be of help to those in search of family
genealogy. Doctor Pickett has presented in this work
the theory of Du Chaillu in charming words and with
excellent taste, as the theory of Du Chaillu and not as
his own, and such has been my effort with regard to myself
in this introduction. It is simply the resumption of
R. T. DURRETT,
President of The Filson Club.
Thomas E. Pickett, M. D., LL. D Frontispiece
Paul B. DuChaillu 4
King William the Conqueror 8
" The Map that Tells the Story " 12
George Rogers Clark 16
Daniel Boone 24
Isaac Shelby 32
Joseph Hamilton Daveiss 36
Henry Clay 40
Joseph Desha 48
Abraham Lincoln (bas relief) 56
" Our Beautiful Scandinavian " 64
Jefferson Davis 72
John C. Breckinridge 80
William Preston 88
Basil W. Duke 96
The Marshall Home at "Buck Pond" 104
Richard M. Johnson 1 12
J. Stoddard Johnston 120
Theodore O'Hara 136
John T. Pickett 144
Thomas T. Hawkins 152
William L. Crittenden 160
William Nelson 168
Humphrey Marshall 176
John J. Crittenden 184
Henry Watterson 192
Bennett H. Young 200
Reuben T. Durrett. .., . .208
THE "SCANDINAVIAN EXPLORER," DUCHAILLU, VISITS KEN-
TUCKY A CORDIAL RECEPTION I
BRITISH ASSOCIATION MEETING AT NEWCASTLE, 1889 A
SENSATIONAL PAPER INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY OF MODERN
NORTHUMBRIA A NOTABLE GROUP OF SAVANTS IO
REVELATIONS OF ANCIENT RECORDS BEARING UPON THE ORIGIN
OF THE ENGLISH RACE 20
CHARACTERISTIC TRAITS OF THE EARLY NORMANS TRANS-
MISSION OF RACIAL QUALITIES MlD-CENTURY KEN-
DOCTOR CRAIK'S VIEWS ENGLISH MORE SCANDINAVIAN
THAN GERMAN GEORGE P. MARSH EDITORIAL COM-
MENT ON THE " SENSATIONAL PAPER" 34
SCANDINAVIANS AND KENTUCKIANS CHARACTERISTIC
TRAITS IN COMMON THEIR PASSION FOR THE " HORSE "-
DONCASTER RACES "CABULLUS" IN NORMANDY CRU-
SADING "CAVALIERS" THE "MAN-ON-HORSEBACK"-
His "EFFIGIES" ON ENGLISH SEALS THE PRODUCTION
OF CAVALIERS THE GRASSES 42
A FRENCH SAVANT ON ENGLISH TYPES WEISMANN'S
"THEORY" "SNORRO STURLESON" QUOTED BY LORD
LYTTON THE "HOMICIDAL HUMOR" NOT INVENTED BY
KENTUCKIANS, BUT POSSIBLY INHERITED ANDREW D.
WHITE QUOTED 51
JOHN FISKE ETHNIC DIFFERENTIATION THE HINDOO AND
THE KENTUCKIAN ARYAN BROTHERS A BROAD HIS-
TORIC "HIGHWAY" FROM THE BALTIC SEA TO THE BLUE-
GRASS STREAMS OF SCANDINAVIAN MIGRATION "THE
VIRGINIAN STATES" -ANGLO-NORMAN "LAWLESS-
NESS" DEGENERATE CASTES OR BREEDS "POLITICAL
ASSASSINATION" AS PRACTICED BY NORMAN AND SAXON
"THE HOMICIDAL HUMOR NOT AN INVENTION OF KEN-
TUCKY" (SHALER) ; NOT INVENTED, BUT DERIVED
ANDREW D. WHITE ON THE AMERICAN MURDER RECORD . 58
PECULIAR NORM AN TRAITS CRAFT PROFANITY A" SWEAR-
ING" RACE HISTORIC OATHS KENTUCKIANS FULL OF
STRANGE OATHS 63
WILLIAM, THE NORMAN; NAPOLEON, THE CORSICAN; GREAT
ADMINISTRATORS THE CONDITIONS OF ENGLISH CIVIL-
IZATION AMERICAN STATESMEN 76
EARLY VIRGINIAN HISTORY RESEARCHES OF DOCTOR ALEX-
ANDER BROWN KENTUCKY A DIRECT PRODUCT OF
ELIZABETHAN CIVILIZATION THE " VIKINGS OF THE
WEST" PROFESSOR BARRETT WENDELL'S VIEWS 83
THE NORMAN AS A COLONIZER As A DEVASTATOR REVIVAL
OF NORTHUMBRIA BY MODERN INDUSTRIALISM THE
POWER OF SCANDINAVIAN ENERGY IN PUSHING THE
VICTORIES OF PEACE ENGLISH UNITY ESTABLISHED
ON SALISBURY PLAIN THE SCANDINAVIAN IN LITERA-
TURE SHAKESPEARE AND HIS HISTORICAL PLAYS
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRASTS OF MODERN SCANDINAVIAN
RACES SHAKESPEARE'S FAVORITE AUTHOR EVOLUTION
OF THE "MELANCHOLY DANE" ADVICE FROM A THOUGHT-
FUL FRENCHMAN: "LET us NOT DISOWN THE FORTUNE
AND CONDITION OF OUR ANCESTORS" 90
A BODY OF ANGLO-NORMAN NAMES IN KENTUCKY CONCUR-
RENT TESTIMONY OF MANY COINCIDING FACTS THE
RACE "LOST," BUT NOT THE NAMES ETHNICAL TRANS-
MUTATIONS THE NORMANS EVERYWHERE AT HOME
DISRAELI ON DESCENT His THEORY OF TRANSMUTED
TRAITS H^CKEL THE JUNGLE OF BOHUN BERWICK
AND GASTON PHCEBUS " ISAAC LE BON" BISMARCK-
NAPOLEON MID-CENTURY "CLAIMS OF RACE" KEN-
TUCKY A SOVEREIGN COMMONWEALTH SHELBY AND
THE GOTHIC MIGRATION SCANDINAVIAN PIRATES THEIR
FOOT-PRINTS ON ENGLISH SOIL NORMANS HOTLY
RECEIVED BY THEIR KINDRED, THE DANES OLD GOTHIC
WARS "THE YENGHEES AND THE DIXEES" WEST-
WARD MARCH OF THE TEUTON AND THE GOTH GENESIS
OF THE SCANDINAVIAN CRADLE OF THE RACE ROLF
GANGER A POTENTIAL FORCE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE
MODERN WORLD WlLLIAM OF NORMANDY . Io8
STRAGGLERS IN THE GOTHIC MIGRATION JUTES, ANGLES,
SAXONS THE TWO GREAT RACES; TEUTONS AND SCAN-
DINAVIANS "MIXED RACES" PLANTED ON THE SOUTH-
ERN SHORES OF THE NORTH SEA 114
AUTHENIC LISTS OF OLD NORMAN NAMESDESCENDANTS
OF ILLUSTRIOUS FAMILIES THE NORMAN CAPACITY FOR
LEADERSHIP NOT "LOST" ALPHABETICAL SERIES OF
NAMES (FROM "THE NORMAN PEOPLE"); ENGLISH
NAMES ORIGINALLY NORMAN FAMILIAR AS HOUSEHOLD
WORDS IN KENTUCKY A LEGAL MAXIM ELEMENTS OF
THE ENGLISH RACE PREPONDERANCE OF SCANDINA-
VIAN BLOOD STEVENSON AND DISRAELI LORD LYT-
TON MALTEBRUN SCANDINAVIAN CHARACTERISTICS-
PHYSIQUE SOCIAL TRAITS PASSION FOR "STRONG
LIQUOR" HOSPITALITY 117
CAPTAIN SHALER QUOTED MEASUREMENTS OF AMERICAN
SOLDIERS BY THE MATHEMATICIAN GOULD SUPERIOR
PHYSICAL VIGOR OF THE "REBEL EXILES" GENERAL
HUMPHREY MARSHALL His AIDE CAPTAIN GUERRANT -
GENERAL WILLIAM NELSON "THE ORPHAN BRIGADE"
HEREDITARY SURNAMES AS MEMORIALS OF RACE
EVERY STEP OF NORMAN MIGRATION NOTED BY THE
HISTORIC EYE MoNTALEMBERT ' 'MONKS OF THE WEST"
THE RUDE SAXON TRANSFIGURED BY THE ELOQUENCE
OF THE GIFTED WRITER A FIELD FOR THE PHILOLOGIST 123
THE ALPHABETICAL SERIES OF NAMES ANGLO-NORMAN
SURNAMES NAMES OF OBVIOUS SCANDINAVIAN DERIVA-
TION THE ORIGINAL DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL
QUESTION AN EXCERPT FROM SlR WALTER SCOTT
THE " ELIZABETHAN" A PRODUCT OF A BALANCED RACE
THE MARCH OF THE GOTH RESUMED THE VIRGINIAN
HUNTER THE YANKEE SKIPPER A MAN OF OAK AND
NORMAN CRAFT MR. FREEMAN QUOTED POPULAR ATTRI-
BUTION OF THE QUALITY ITS VALUE IN MEDIAEVAL
DAYS ITS PREVALENCE TO-DAY 131
NAMES AND NOTES KENTUCKIAN AND NORMAN CHARAC-
TERISTICS IN COMMON NORMAN TRAITS AND SAXON
NAMES ESTIMATE OF THE KENTUCKIAN FROM AN
ENGLISH SOURCE 133
SHADOWS IN "ARCADY" BRIEF PREFACE TO THE ALPHA-
BETICAL LIST 136
ALPHABETICAL SERIES OF NORSE, NORMAN, AND ANGLO-
NORMAN, OR NON-SAXON, SURNAMES 141
THE QUEST FOR A LOST RACE
THOMAS E. PICKETT, M. D.
T TPON the northern border of Mr. James Lane Allen's
**^ "Arcady" there rises with picturesque distinctness
against a range of green hills the pleasant old Kentucky
town of Maysville, which, unlike the typical town of the
South, is neither "sleepy" nor "quaint," but in a notable
degree animated, bustling, ambitious, advancing, and up-
to-date. It must be confessed, however, that here and
there, in certain secluded localities, it is architecturally
antique. Constructed almost wholly of brick, and planted
solidly upon the lower slopes of the wooded hills, the
site is indescribably charming, and, looked at from a
distant elevation in front or from the elevated plateau
of the environing hills, presents a pleasing completeness
and finish in the coup d'ceil. At one glance the eye
takes in the compact little city, set gem-like in the
2 The Quest for a Lost Race
crescentic sweep of the river that flows placidly past the
willow-fringed shore and the walled and graded front.
The scene is likewise suggestive, since it marks the
northern limit of the "phosphatic limestone" formation
which assures the permanent productiveness of the over-
lying soil a natural fertilizer which by gradual disinte-
gration perpetually renews the soil exhausted by pro-
longed or injudicious cultivation.
The town is of Virginian origin. At one time, indeed,
it was a Virginian town. The rich country to the south
of it was peopled chiefly by tobacco planters from
"Piedmont" Virginia, slaveholding Virginians of a
In the infancy of this early Virginian settlement it
was vigilantly guarded by the famous Occidental hunters,
Kenton and Boone; the former a commissioner of roads
for the primitive Virginian county, then ill-cultivated and
forest clad: the latter, a leading "trustee" of the em-
bryonic Eighteenth Century town. As we pass through
the streets near the center of the place to-day we note
the handsome proportions of a public edifice which has
come down to us from the early mid-century days an
imposing "colonial" structure with a lofty, well-propor-
tioned cupola and a nobly columned front. It is that
significant symbol of Southern civilization the Court-
The Quest for a Lost Race 3
house. To the artistic and antiquarian eye the building
is the glory of the old "Virginian" town, since it appeals
at once to civic pride and superior critical taste.
It was here in the capacious auditorium of the Court-
house, and in the closing quarter of the last century
that a large and enthusiastic gathering of really typical
Kentuckians, familiar from childhood with tales of wild
adventure, greeted with rapturous applause the renowned
hunter and explorer, Paul Du Chaillu, a native of Paris,
France. A common taste for woodcraft had brought the
alien elements in touch. The Frenchman was a swell
hunter of big game, and had come hither to repeat his
graphic recital of experiences in the equatorial haunts
of that formidable anthropoid the Gorilla. Du Chaillu 's
discovery of the gorilla and the Obonga dwarfs was so
astounding to modern civilization that strenuous
efforts were made to discredit it, notably by Gray and
Earth. But later explorations amply vindicated the
He had a like experience later. The adventurous
explorer had come to Kentucky in prompt response to an
invitation from a local club, a social and literary organi-
zation which owed its popularity and success chiefly to
the circumstance that the genial members, though some-
times intemperately "social," were never obtrusively "liter-
4 The Quest for a Lost Race
ary." The social feature was particularly pleasing to
the accomplished Frenchman, who was a man of the
world in every sense, and who dropped easily into con-
genial relations with gentlemen who had an hereditary
and highly cultivated taste for le sport in all its phases.
Take them when or where you might, the spirit of cama-
raderie was in them strong. They told a good story in
racy English and with excellent taste. They had studied
with discrimination the composition of a Bourbon "cock-
tail." They had a distinctly connoisseurish appreciation
of the flavor, fragrance, and tints of an Havana cigar.
They had a traditional preference for Bourbon in their
domestic and social drinking, but they always kept ample
supplies of imported wines for their guests.
The genial Frenchman was very indulgent to the
generous tipple of his hosts. He drank their Bourbon
without apparent distaste; he praised their imported
Mumm and Clicquot. He did better still; he drank
the imported champagne with appreciation a high com-
pliment from such a source.
Clearly enough the harmony between the guest and his
environment was complete. These courteous and loqua-
cious Kentuckians were not only brilliant and audacious
raconteurs, but with their varied experiences as sports-
men had a variety of marvelous stories to tell. When
PAUL B. DuCHAILLU.
The Quest for a Lost Race 5
their stock of pioneer exploits fell short, they would listen
with polite interest to their guest's weird stories of the
African jungle, and cleverly cap them with reminiscences
of a miraculous outing on Reelfoot Lake or Kinniconick.
They were themselves experts with the rifle and the long
bow, and were loaded to the muzzle with authentic tradi-
tions of the rod and gun.
The jungle stories were all right, but the African hunter
was never allowed to forget that he was in the land of
the hunter Boone. The very ground upon which they
commemoratively wassailed had been consecrated by the
footsteps of the great explorer of the West. The beastly
"anthropoids" that confronted him were armed with
tomahawks and guns. A salient point of difference indeed.
The clever and daring Frenchman listened with smiling
interest to their characteristic spurts of "brag," and was
silently remarking, no doubt, its curious affinity to the
gasconade of France. He seemed to feel perfectly at
home. And who of us that were present can ever forget
the impression of that dark, resolute face, the illumining
smile, the gleaming teeth, and the kindly, humorous glance
of the piercing eye? His experiences at the clubroom
only partially prepared him for the peculiar impressive-
ness of the audience that greeted him at the stately old
Courthouse. There were the same men, to be sure, hand-
6 The Quest for a Lost Race
some, graceful, courteous, smiling, and soft of speech;
but the women! with their lovely faces, their handsome
dresses, their enchanting manners, their distinction, ease
and charm ! The Frenchman was never more of a philoso-
pher than when he gazed upon this scene.
He told his tale of the jungle simply, but with a viv-
idness that was realistic and startling to a degree. The
fascination of the audience was complete. He not only
described that strange encounter in the African forest,
but he re-enacted the part, a representation which gave
a curiously thrilling quality to the tale not appreciable
when told in print, admirably as it is told in the author's
When the voice of the speaker ceased, as it did all
too soon, the silent, fascinated audience, aroused from
its strange African dream, broke into round after round
of hearty, appreciative applause. For several moments
the lecturer stood in a grave, thoughtful attitude, gazing
intently upon the moving throng, not as though idly
observing the dispersion of a village gathering, but as
some philosophic tourist from another sphere, studying
the aspect, the attitude, characteristic manner and physi-
ognomical traits of an alien race. He asked but one
question. Turning eagerly to the gentleman who accom-
panied him, he inquired with an expression of intense
The Quest for a Lost Race 7
interest, as his glance fell upon a graceful Kentuckienne
near the center of the throng a lovely blonde with exquis-
ite complexion, hair and eyes "Who is our beautiful
Scandinavian?"* The answer seemed to please him, and
he walked thoughtfully toward the door, an object of
respectful attention from the slow-moving throng, linger-
ing as if it longed to stay. Though of small stature,
he would have attracted attention anywhere. His figure
was compact, lithe, elastic, and perfectly erect, his cranial
outline (typically French) denoted intellectual strength and
physical vigor, his facial contour was bold, regular, and
pleasing a singularly virile countenance softened and
dignified by the discipline of thought. The crowd of
which he is now the central figure is composed largely
of men wholly different from Du Chaillu in air, stature,
carriage, countenance, complexion, and racial type. Yet
Nature seldom evolves from any source a solider bit of
man than this gallant Frenchman from the heart of France .
*OuR BEAUTIFUL SCANDINAVIAN. It may interest the general public to know that
"The Beautiful Scandinavian" of the French traveler was Mrs. Elizabeth Wall,
wife of that popular gentleman, Judge Garrett S. Wall. Her maiden name was
BUCKNER Elizabeth Buckner a native of Kentucky and daughter of a famous
Southern house. That she was a very beautiful woman, her portrait (taken years
after marriage) amply attests ; and until her ill-health came, her beauty retained,
in almost ideal perfection, its characteristic grace and charm. The Beautiful
Scandinavian, from whose portrait in oil a halftone likeness is presented in
this book, now takes her place in history and moves down its interminable lines
with an escort that recalls the "bands of gallant gentlemen" attendant upon
FAIR INEZ when she "went into the West."
8 The Quest for a Lost Race
The distinguished guest took his departure on the
following day, not with a cold adieu, but with an airy
au revoir as of one who, charmed with his welcome,
was meditating an early return. But was he pleased?
Apparently he was, and if not, he had the Frenchman's
happy art of seeming to be. If here simply for observa-
tion, he certainly found no degeneracy, but rather, we
should say, certain pleasing lines of variation in the Occi-
dental evolution of the race. It seems impossible that
he should not have had a pleasant impression of his hosts
these genial sons of "Arcady," forever piping their minty
elixirs with oaten straws, whose drinks even when "straight-
est" were not stronger than their steady heads so hos-
pitable to strangers, so chivalrous to women, so courteous
to men, so gracious in manner, so happy in speech, so
loyal to kin, so proud of their Commonwealth, their
ancestral traditions, and their indomitable race. They
drank naught from the skulls of their enemies, but they
were adepts in filling their own. Their potations were
pottle deep, and the intervals between were not need-
lessly prolonged. And yet they rose refreshed from
their heady cups, ordered their stud a drench, and sighed
The adventurous Frenchman was no glutton in de-
bauch, but in a modest symposium could always hold
KING WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
The Quest for a Lost Race 9
his own, and doubtless imagined in this festal reunion of
Bourbon and Champagne that he had re-discovered the
Nouvelle France of the royal days when Louis le Grand
*M. Paul Du Chaillu's visit to Maysville (which is here described) took
place in February, 1876. His arrival was handsomely noticed in the local papers
in the Eagle, edited by Mr. Thomas Marshall Green, the author of " The Spanish
Conspiracy "; the Ledger, edited by Mr. Thomas A. Davis, who still presides over
its columns with all the old-time ability; and the Bulletin, edited by Mr. Clarence
L. Stanton, a son of Judge R. H. Stanton, and a gallant officer in the Confederate
Navy during the Civil War. All these gentlemen were present at the lecture, and
the distinguished traveler was introduced to the audience by Colonel Thomas M.
Green. The lecture was followed by an entertainment at the Limestone Club,
which was pleasantly noticed by Captain Stanton in his paper of the following
day. The Committee of Reception and Entertainment was composed of Major
Thomas H. Mannen, Judge Garrett S. Wall, Colonel Francis P. Owens, and
Doctor Thomas E. Pickett (the President of the Club).
io The Quest for a Lost Race
In the early autumn of 1889, the writer of this paper
had the good fortune to be present at the Newcastle
meeting of the British Association. Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
standing at the very gateway of Scotland and looking
out from the Tyne upon the great North Sea, is a famous
old city in English history, that lay directly in the path
of conquest and migration and was literally cradled in
war, alternately rocked by Scandinavian or Dane, Saxon
or Norman, Englishman or Scot. To-day it is big, pros-
perous, and progressive; even in the midst of peace per-
petually sounding the note of preparation for war. True
to its oldest and best traditions it is staunchly loyal to
the Crown, proudly proclaiming its fealty on every coast,
from the mouths of mighty guns cast in its own Cyclo-
pean shops. From the days of the Scandinavian sea-rover
through centuries of ruthless conflict she has stood out
stoutly against the enemies of England, just as to-day
her long sea-front of solid wall resists the encroachments
of the Northern sea.
Here the shipbuilder is ceaselessly busy, construct-
ing in his immense yards the great modern ship with its
heart of fire and frame of steel. In any large yards the
The Quest for a Lost Race n
whole scheme of construction in all its branches may
be seen at a glance, from the laying of the keel to the
launching of the ship. The best work in modern engi-
neering can be seen on the Tyne; and this is not sur-
prising when we remember that upon the banks of this
river the Locomotive was born, giving to this aggressive
contemporary people a command of the earth as com-
plete as their immemorial mastery of the sea. So enor-
mous is the demand for fuel in the shipyards of the North-
east Coast that it will take but a few centuries of work
in these busy shops to exhaust the supply. The old
proverb has lost its point. The most careless or unobser-
vant tourist may see the steam-drawn trains "carrying
their coals" to Newcastle, now, at all hours.
Nor does the Northern farmer sit with idle hands.
All industries rest upon him. The farms are small, but
the joint product is large. Thousands of farm laborers
in Northumberland have each their "three acres and a
cow." The Northern cattle-market in Newcastle would
have filled the Highland caterans with delight. The
weekly supply of cattle exceeds two thousand ; the number
of sheep is not less than twenty thousand. This was
nearly twenty years ago. What must it be now? But
even thus, how it speaks for the varied gifts and exhaust-
less vigor and vitality of this old Northumbrian race!
i2 The Quest for a Lost Race
Their rage for "river improvement" carries a lesson for
men of their blood elsewhere. Between 1860 and 1889
the material dredged from the bed of the river Tyne
amounted to more than eighty millions of tons. "Now,"-
it was said at the Newcastle meeting " there are more
vessels entering and leaving this port than any other in
the world." Among the outgoing vessels at that time was
a gallant Norwegian barque which bore the name of
"Longfellow." A few years before a score, perhaps
the writer had seen upon a famous track in Kentucky
a racer of great note who bore the same illustrious name
almost a contemporaneous compliment from widely
separate branches of the same race. But what more en-
during than the singer's own verse?
"Once as I told in glee
Tales of the stormy sea."
A fit place of meeting this old gateway of the North
for a select body of England's brilliant, busy, clear-headed
and practical savants, and especially for that marvelously
fruitful mid-century "section" which here first received
supreme scientific recognition, having been organized at
the Newcastle meeting by the British Association in 1863.
Though the youngest of the sections, its proceedings
are singularly fascinating and the attendance always
large. The meeting was held in the reading-room of the
"THE MAP THAT TELLS THE STORY."
The Quest for a Lost Race 13
Free Library. Upon a long, low platform to the left of
the entrance there sat facing the audience, a group, not of
"scientists," but of really scientific men, their names as
familiar to the English reading world as household words.
The central figure of the group, Sir William Turner of
Edinburgh, was the chairman of the section a man of
striking personality, who read a paper on Weismann and
his theories which was listened to with closest attention,
the novelty of the doctrines eliciting many expressions of
doubt or dissent, though presented by the author of the
paper with singular lucidity, fairness, and force. Sir
William graced his position well, not merely by reason of
intellectual gifts, but by virtue of a personal dignity
which admirably comported with his commanding pres-
ence. He was a large, handsome man, with a robust
frame, an erect carriage, and a notably aggressive air.
Seated near him, and firmly supporting his somewhat
heavy presence, were a number of men with world-renowned
names Francis Galton, famous for his studies in heredity
and the publication of an epochal work; Sir Henry Acland,
a learned anthropologist and medical scholar a thinker
of deep and varied scientific resource; Boyd Dawkins,
the pioneer "Cave Hunter" and writer upon prehistoric
archaeology; John Evans, an able, learned, and indus-
trious writer upon archaeological themes; Doctor Bruce,
14 The Quest for a Lost Race
the eminent historian of the Roman Wall; General Pitt
Rivers, equally famous as soldier and savant, a quiet,
dark-faced gentleman of easy, pleasant manners, dressed
in the plainest fashion and judiciously expending an income
of 30,000 a year. His large benefactions for scientific
purposes made him truly a Prince of Science, gracious,
munificent, and wise. The most striking and conspicu-
ous figure in this solid English line was George Romanes,
then in his prime and in apparently perfect health, tall,
erect, dark-haired, with pale, handsome features and
scholarly, high-bred air a most impressive personifica-
tion of intellectual pride and strength. As he sat in the
midst of that animated group, cold, proud, silent but
keenly observant, he vividly recalled the figure of the
famous Kentuckian who once presided over the United
States Senate, calmly noting the portents of impending
war. In both, one easily discerned the same high quali-
ties of intellect, resolution, and reserved force. By the
side of the stately Romanes there sat the learned and
vivacious Canon Isaac Taylor, slender, gray-haired, keen-
eyed, alert, humorous, and full of tact one of those
clerical scholars and gentlemen who have done so much
for English literature and have been a characteristic charm
of English social life men most admirably depicted by
the novelist Bulwer in his better moods. Canon Taylor
The Quest for a Lost Race X 5
was the most animated figure in this noble English group.
Near him sat two foreigners, each in curiously striking
contrast with the other; one of these, a tall, ruddy, broad-
shouldered blonde, with a strong, lithe, well-knit frame,
an eager, alert expression, and a somewhat restless air,
was the celebrated Scandinavian explorer Fridjof Nansen,
then just twenty-six years of age, but already made world-
famous by his recent explorations in the polar seas. At
the left of the young Scandinavian, and presenting a
remarkable contrast to that impressive figure, there sat
a somewhat older man of small stature, of compact, vig-
orous frame, of clear, dark complexion, keen, clear, thought-
ful eyes, and features typically French. The reader
recognizes the description at once. It is our old friend,
Du Chaillu, who has come to the northern coast of Eng-
land, and standing in the very pathway of old Scandina-
vian invasions and confronting some of England's best
thinkers upon their own ground, has calmly looked out
upon the "grim troubled" sea of England's Saxon King
and boldly proclaimed his theory of the direct Scandina-
vian origin of the English race.
It was the sensational paper of the day, and even
the most phlegmatic English scholar was stirred by this
defiant bugle-blast from a philosophic French explorer who
was not only disturbing the settled convictions of Eng-
16 The Quest for a Lost Race
lish thinkers, but still worse was running counter to cher-
ished prejudices of the English race. That historic hyphen-
ation of racial appellatives "Anglo-Saxon" was a sacred
immemorial conjunction of names representing a fusion
of racial elements not to be shaken asunder by a blast
upon the ram's horn of a wandering Gaul. The assault
was not altogether "Pickwickian"; but the Frenchman
was a stout antagonist, and found an incidental con-
firmation of his theory in the occasional flash of Berserker
rage which followed his masterly game of parry and thrust.
Nor was he ill-equipped for his controversial work. From
certain antiquities which he had found during his recent
explorations in the North he inferred the existence of
commercial relations between the Northmen of that
period and the peoples of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome
and Greece being at that time in direct communication
with these seafaring peoples of the North. The tribes
of Germania, on the contrary, were "a shipless people,"
and according to the Roman writers were still in an
uncivilized state. He said there were settlements in
Britain by the Northmen during the Roman occupa-
tion; that England was always called by the Northmen
one of their Northern lands; that the language of the
North and of England were similar in the early times;
that the early Northern Kings claimed part of England
V -t fef
GENERAL GEORGE ROGERS CLARK.
The Quest for a Lost Race 17
as their own; that the Northmen were bold and enter-
prising navigators, pushing their explorations wherever
a ship could survive the perils of the sea. On the
contrary, neither the Saxons nor the Franks were a
seafaring people, either at the time of Charlemagne or
at any earlier period.
It was this Scandinavian element which had infused
a spirit of enterprise into the English race that they had
never lost, and which had made it in all its branches, where-
ever they had sailed their fleets or pushed their invading
columns, the invincible masters of earth and sea. Its
resistless movement across the American continent, he
declared, was the most dramatic spectacle in history.
This, in brief, was the Frenchman's startling theory;
first broached in England on the borders of that rude
North Sea which the Vikings had swept in early days,
and upon the banks of the peaceful Tyne, where many
a Scandinavian rover had moored his little barque. The
discussion of M. Du Chaillu's paper took a wide range,
all the distinguished ethnologists present Dawkins, Tay-
lor, Turner, Evans, Galton, and others participating in
this rattling ethnological debate. Du Chaillu, who had
very much the attitude of a French suspect in a German
camp, maintained throughout his Gallic aplomb, listening
with admirable composure and with apparent interest,
i8 The Quest for a Lost Race
though his dark skin visibly reddened at times under the
critical lash, however courteously applied. Canon Tay-
lor, who evidently was in full sympathy with Du Chaillu's
startling views, gave a happy turn to the little imbroglio
by a cleverly parodied quotation from Tennyson's Wel-
come to the Sea-King's Daughter from over the Sea-
" For Saxon or Dane or Norman,
Teuton or Celt or whatever we
Saxon or Norse it is nothing to me,
We are all of us one in our welcome of thee,"
the closing line being given with a politely sympathetic
inclination of the head toward the gentleman from France,
and with a gracious smile more expressive than his words
the smile interpreting to his hearers the startling dis-
claimer: "It is nothing to me." The clever ecclesiast
read a very learned paper at the same meeting on a similar
theme, and the two gentlemen who sat near him, Du
Chaillu and Nansen, were ideal representatives of two
of his four ethnological types, the Auvergnat type of
Central France and the long-headed Scandinavian of the
North. Indeed, as a matter for courteous rational dis-
cussion the question of "Saxon or Norse" had the pro-
foundest interest for the amiable savant, who seemed
to possess in perfection that fine philosophical quality
of intellect which the French have happily termed justesse
The Quest for a Lost Race 19
d' esprit a quality of mind in which even the ablest
disputant may sometimes be deficient.
But, nothing disconcerted by criticism or compli-
ment, M. Du Chaillu remarked, with cold dignity, as he
rose in final response: "Opinions, gentlemen, may differ
in England from opinions in France, but the truth on
both sides of the Channel is the same" a sentiment to
which all present responded with that fine sympathy
and with that perfect courtesy "wherein to derogate
from none the true heroic English gentleman hath no
20 The Quest for a Lost Race
"Every schoolboy" (to quote Macaulay) is familiar
with the salient facts in the history of the Normans;
their origin in Scandinavia; the seizure of a fertile
province in France (wrung from a faineant heir of
Charlemagne); their extraordinary evolution as the great
ethnic force of the period; their absolute mastery of sea
and land on every shore, from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Red Sea, and notably their Conquest of England,
their perfect fusion with the conquered peoples, and
the resulting evolution of the English race. All this
is commonplace to every historical reader. But recent
investigators, going deeper, have inquired if the laws,
institutions, language, and material constructions which
mark the pathway of Norman conquest are simply
the memorials of an extinct race? Is the Norman still
living, still powerful, progressive, and prolific? Or is it
an exhausted racial force, pithless, impotent, and effete,
with no recognizable evidence of its ancient prepotency
in racial struggles for existence in the conflicts of the
past? Or, in a word, is it, as Mr. Freeman affirms, a
Lost Race? The answer to these questions depends
largely upon the answer to other queries, to wit: Was
the conquest and sequential settlement of England merely
The Quest for a Lost Race 21
a military invasion? or was it a vast popular migration
such as America has witnessed in later times? or was it
not in point of fact both an invasion and a migration,
the one following the other?
England was not conquered in a day. The battle
of Hastings was decisive, but not conclusive. There
was a long and bloody struggle before the invading force.
Nearly four years (the duration of our "Civil War") of
close, desperate fighting must be encountered before the
work of subjugation could be declared complete. Every
gap in the ranks of the invader must be filled by the impor-
tation of forces from abroad. There was a perpetual
draft upon the Continental populations, and a cease-
less "rushing of troops to the front," precisely as in the
protracted "War between the States." All Europe had
become the recruiting ground of the Conqueror. He was
peopling England even in the midst of war; and when
the period of "reconstruction" came the stream of migra-
tion continued to flow. England was the bourn from
which no immigrant returned; and under the military
or reconstructive methods of the Conqueror, every invader
was permanently planted upon the soil.
Apparently, these considerations furnish a conclusive
answer to certain critical objections which shall be cited
as we proceed. The facts upon which our conclusions
22 The Quest for a Lost Race
rest are found, chiefly, in the official records of England
and in the authentic annals of the Anglo-Norman races.
Here, then, we must infer the existence of an immense
multitude of Norman immigrants mingling and eventually
fusing with the subjugated race. What has been the result
of this intimate commingling of ethnic elements upon
English soil? Is it possible that so daring and success-
ful a gamester as the Norman was lost in the shuffle when
an auspicious destiny was directing the game? The writer
of this paper thinks that he found in the great Library
of the British Museum evidence that the Norman people
are still a power upon this planet; to be as carefully
counted with in the struggles of the future as in the
conflicts of the past.
Recent investigation has disclosed the fact that con-
temporary records in England and Normandy records
of two different countries of seven hundred years' stand-
ing, relating to different branches of the same race are
so minutely detailed as to enable the philosophic enquirer
"to trace the identity of families and even individuals, in
two countries." And this has been done by placing the
Great Rolls of the Norman Exchequer in juxtaposition with
similar English records of the Twelfth Century. This com-
parative juxtaposition of contemporary official records of
kindred races geographically separate has been made the
The Quest for a Lost Race 23
basis of an alphabetical series of English or Anglo-Nor-
man surnames, which is remarkably full, though neces-
sarily incomplete since the compiler, a very able English
scholar, was not in position to enumerate all the families
then extant; but it contains five times as many names
as the famous Battle Abbey Roll, and conclusively shows
that the ancestry of the intellectual aristocracy of Eng-
land was Norman. The Anglo-Saxon and the Dane were
shown to be in a hopeless minority. The enquiry which
resulted in the compilation of the alphabetical list was
restricted entirely to surnames of a purely Norman ori-
gin still existing in England. A third or more of this
English population is Norman, directly descended from
the Norman migration that preceded, accompanied, or fol-
lowed the Conquest.
Can evidence be more conclusive that the Norman
was neither extinguished nor absorbed by the sluggish
Saxon who accepted his yoke?
Mr. Thomas Hardy, in his powerful fiction, "Tess,"
plainly accepts the conclusiveness of these views. His
heroine, though of humble origin, clearly owed her invol-
untary seductiveness and fatal charm to the transmitted
potency of her Norman blood, and it is said that in cer-
tain secluded parts of England may be found to-day
rural or village populations of the same class gathered
24 The Quest for a Lost Race
about some old Norman castle, donjon, or keep; their
Norman descent distinctly visible in their inherited per-
sonal traits; a certain characteristic combination of intel-
lect, courage, beauty, and social charm distinguishing
them at a glance from the dull, heavy, long-bodied, short-
legged, unshapely Saxon of a neighboring town or shire.
The same restless blood or the same spirit of adventure
which brought the Scandinavian to Normandy and the
Norman to English soil, in time drove him to the great
settlements beyond the Atlantic Sea settlements known
by the English of to-day as "The States." Their brethren
in Ireland followed in great numbers at a later day, and,
wherever in recent wars the American flag has been
unfurled, "the fighting race" has stood beneath its folds
always in force and always at the front, each with the
line of battle beneath his feet and the fire of battle in
"We fight wheriver a gintleman should,"
Says Murphy, and Kelly, and Shea;
"We fight wheriver the fighting is good;
And here's to the good, straight fighting blood!"
Says Murphy, and Kelly, and Shea.
Thither, too, came the indomitable Scot, precisely as
he came in the Colonial and Revolutionary days. "The
Lowland race," says Mackintosh, "Briton and NORMAN
and Saxon and Dane, gave the world a new man the
The Quest for a Lost Race 25
Sea Rover, the Border Soldier, the Pioneer . . .
The folk speech, from Northumberland to the Clyde and
the Forth, is Northern English or Lowland Scotch; and
the future man of Bannockburn and KING'S MOUNTAIN
is beginning to appear. He is the man with the blood
of the Sea Rover mixed with the blood of the Borderer,
and the soldier, the scholar and thinker, the statesman
and lawyer, the trader and farmer." He is the man that
crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains as a pioneer. He is
the man that sat in the conventions that organized the
State, and stood in an unbroken line in all the pioneer
battles of his race. The earliest migration of the Anglo-
Norman folk was to the Colony of Virginia, as many of
the old Virginian surnames, Bacon, Baskerville, Boys
(Bois), Cabell, Clay, etc., clearly attest; and the State of
Kentucky deriving a large population of English descent
from Virginia, we should naturally find a strong infusion
of Anglo-Norman blood in the people of this State an
inference fully sustained by the transcript of Anglo-Nor-
man surnames which the writer made from the list that
he found in the great Library in London.
The late Professor Shaler is frequently quoted to the
effect that ethnological research discloses the existence
in Kentucky of the largest body of nearly pure English
folk to be found on the face of the globe that has been
26 The Quest for a Lost Race
separated for two hundred years from the parent English
stock. But the facts do not warrant the assumption
that the Kentuckian is of purely "Anglo-Saxon" deri r
vation. In him, at least, the blood of the Norman is
not wholly lost. He is, however, as Professor Shaler
says, an "Elizabethan" Englishman.
We print elsewhere a list of names familiar to Ken-
tuckians, which clearly points to the same general con-
clusion. With more leisure and space this list might
be greatly extended.
The Quest for a Lost Race 27
But what are the characteristic traits of the Norman
as we find him in his early habitat in France? We
are told by a contemporary observer Geoffrey Mala-
terra that the typical or "composite" Norman of his
day was prodigiously astute, a passionate lover of liti-
gation, an eloquent speaker, skilled in diplomacy, saga-
cious in council, convincing in debate ; a son of the Church,
but not too deferential to prelates nor too precise in the
observance of ecclesiastical forms; a bold and tireless
litigant, but not over-scrupulous in his methods of pro-
cedure and not always strictly judicial in his construction
of the law. "If he was born a soldier," said Edward
Freeman, "he was also a born lawyer." In spite of this
pronounced legal penchant he was swift (if not restrained)
to disregard and override the law; in the phrase of the
old chronicler, the gens was effrenatissima recklessly wild,
unbridled and dangerous, nisi jugo justiticB prematur] dar-
ing, resolute, destructive in mutiny or revolt; seditious,
piratical or even revolutionary, unless the reins of govern-
ment were in strong and competent hands.
We had a notable mid-century exemplification of this
"unbridled" quality of temper in the introductory razzia
of Lopez at Cardenas. When the Kentuckians, whose
a8 The Quest for a Lost Race
unerring rifles had crumpled up the Spanish cavalry and
successfully covered the slow retreat of Lopez to the sea,
were followed by the pursuing warship Pizarro into the
harbor of Key West, nothing daunted they coolly seized
the United States fort, took possession of its batteries,
and deliberately trained its guns upon the Spanish man-
of-war. Gens effrenatissima, indeed. The fighting habits
of the Liberators were notoriously loose (especially under
tropical suns); but what is to be particularly noted in
this instance is, that the reins of power in our highly civ-
ilized government were unpardonably lax. It is possible,
however, that the reckless and "unbridled" conduct of
the Kentuckians was due, in part, to the circumstance
that the chaplain of the Expedition had been killed.
The subsequent official investigation showed to the
entire satisfaction of our Anglo-Norman lawyers that
practically everything had been done under "the forms
The word effrenatus was almost overworked by Cicero.
It perfectly described the Catilines of old Rome and the
banded ruffians that wrought their will. But in his very
lawlessness the Norman of Malaterra never forgot the
law. He scrupulously observed its "forms." Even the
Conquest of England was "justified "by a pronunciamento
of legal assumptions subtly and elaborately drawn. The
The Quest for a Lost Race 29
Norman was a shrewd and successful trafficker, and this
tradition of commercial skill and thrift is current in Nor-
mandy to-day. When he settled on English soil or sailed
in English ships he did not lose his inherited commercial
instincts. He made England the trading nation that
she is. An eminent Kentuckian, who bore the distinctive
marks of Norman blood, once said to a group of keenly
attentive listerners, "The meanest of all aristocracies is
a commercial aristocracy." A like disparaging concep-
tion of a powerful adversary was implied in the remark
attributed to Napoleon, that "the English were a nation
of shop-keepers" un peuple marchand. It was this same
race of innocuous Anglo-Norman traffickers that crushed
Napoleon's iron columns at Waterloo, and forever closed
his conquering career. But the Norman, who was a
soldier, a lawyer, a diplomatist, orator, hunter, horseman
and trader, was also a successful cultivator of the soil,
and the Norman agriculturist of to-day who reminds the
tourist in his physical traits, hair, eyes, and complexion,
and even in the intonations of his voice, of an English
farmer of the Anglo-Norman type, bears a more striking
resemblance to his English kinsman indeed than to his
dark-visaged compatriot, the vigneron of Southern France.
We must add, to complete the portraiture left us by
Malaterra, that the Norman was a passionate lover of
30 The Quest for a Lost Race
horses, of the breed immortalized by the genius of Bon-
heur; a bold equestrian, skilled in the use of arms; at
home upon the sea, and literally reared in the lap of war.
And he was also a brilliant orator, passionately fond of
eloquent speech. From his early boyhood, says the
chronicler, he assiduously cultivated his natural aptitude
for that persuasive art, that power of ready and effec-
tive utterance which, though often profane, made him
dominant in the councils of war and of peace; in the
cabinets of diplomacy, and even in the chamber of the
King. Gens astutissima beyond all doubt.
To return to our beginning what think you was in
the mind of Paul Du Chaillu as he stood that memorable
evening before an audience of mid-century Kentuckians ?
this philosophic thinker who had been for years a critical
observer of "the most dramatic spectacle in history"
the sweeping, ceaseless, transcontinental march of the
Anglo-Norman race what did he think of the environ-
ing conditions as he stood in that old Courthouse which
had resounded with the eloquence of Anglo-Norman
orators; which had echoed and re-echoed generation after
generation to the "Oyez!" "Oyez!" of Anglo-Norman
sheriffs? and which was still standing, an impressive
memorial of days when the ground upon which it was
built was the camping-ground of the dominant figure in
The Quest for a Lost Race 31
this Westward march the Anglo- Norman leader Boone
or "Bohun" a name which in its very sound or utter-
ance (mugitus bourn) was in "dark and bloody" times
a challenge to mortal combat a deep bellowing defiance
of "battle to the death"?
What were his thoughts as he looked with wondering
eyes upon that charming Southern matron with her fair,
delicate features and high-bred air? Was the vision a vivid
reminder of blue-eyed "Scandinavian" maidens with faces
as white as their native snows and locks with the softened
shimmer of the midnight sun? One must acknowledge
that the very exquisiteness of form and tint made this
a rare type, even in Kentucky, but there were many
interesting variations of it to be seen at our great mid-
century "Fairs" from the rich "auburn" of Marie Stuart
to the "carroty" tresses of the Virgin Queen framing
lovely faces and crowning tall, willowy figures of queenly
mold. But probably the prevailing tint of hair was
that ascribed by the wizard romancer to the Lady Rowena
with her dash of Scandinavian blood something between
flaxen and brown; all in clear and brilliant contrast with
a type that glowed with the superb brunette finish of
Southern and Central France. Had Du Chaillu been with
us in earlier days we could have shown him likewise
figures of a striking masculine type tall, soldierly figures
32 The Quest for a Lost Race
that might have graced the "Viking age" men who,
after the fashion of early Norman days, would have been
equally at home in camp or court. One of these gallant
gentlemen, whom many of us remember, was in some
respects a striking counterpart of a Scandinavian sailor
that figures in a late romance, "Wolf Larsen"; like him
even in the soubriquet prefixed to his Scandinavian name;
of gigantic stature and strength; big-brained, passionate,
strong-willed, energetic, proud, combative and sagacious,
with a deep instinctive love of the sea. But his chronic
irascibility of temper, often manifest on trifling provoca-
tion in unbridled bursts of Berserker rage, sadly marred
the brilliancy of his military career, and engendered deep
and implacable enmities which brought his career as a
soldier to a speedy and tragical close.
In other respects he radically differed from Norsemen
of the Wolf Larsen type. In his relations with his family
and friends he was delicate, generous, and kind; the ten-
derest of sons, the kindest brother, the most devoted and
loyal of friends: a lover of literature, music, and the
finer pleasures of social life. Strangest of all, he was
reverent and devout. He respected the forms of the
Church, and every night, even in the rude environment
of the camp, he knelt beside his soldier's couch and repeated
the Lord's Prayer. But the soubriquet fastened upon
GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY.
The Quest for a Lost Race 33
him both by resentful enemies and admiring friends recalls
his fictitious counterpart Wolf Larsen. Whenever the
name of the Federal commander came up for discussion
during our great Civil War whether in Confederate
camp or by Kentucky firesides, or by the campfires of
his own loyal division he was invariably known, by
reason of his huge figure, his big bovine head, his flaming
black eyes, his fierce, tumultuous energies, his headlong
courage and gigantic strength, by the soubriquet "Bull"
BULL NELSON a sea-trained soldier with a bellowing
soubriquet prefixed to an honored racial name a mid-
century Kentuckian, who in mediaeval battle might have
swung the battle-axe of Front-de-Bceuf.
There were many others Kentuckians of an ideal
Anglo-Norman type who would have brought to M. Du
Chaillu the strongest confirmation of his philosophic views
had he visited us during the cyclonic "sixties," or in
that halcyon interlude "before the war."
The Quest for a Lost Race
Returning now to the discussion of the masterly paper
read by M. Du Chaillu at the British Association,* we
may consider certain aspects of the question more in
detail; conceding at the same time full credit to the
ability of the disputants who dissented from the views
expressed by the foreign savant. M. Du Chaillu was pecu-
liarly fortunate in his critics. If his theory should survive
the searching and trenchant criticisms of such men, his
scholarship would command respect even if they should
decline to accept his conclusions in full.
A loyal Briton does not lightly abandon what he con-
ceives to be established or traditional views. This trait
does not imply defect of philosophic insight or want of
wide research. It denotes simply the influence of pre-
possession, opinionated habit, and conscious power. Nor
is this influence unusual. Scholars differ even as " doctors "
disagree. Dr. George Craik, whose name is familiar to
every scholar of the English race, was liberal enough to
concede, a quarter of a century before the advent of Du
Chaillu as a Scandinavian protagonist, that the English
language might have more of a Scandinavian than of a
purely Germanic character; or, in other words, "more
nearly resembled the Danish or Swedish than the modern
* British Association for the Advancement of Science, Newcastle Meeting, 1889.
The Quest for a Lost Race 35
German." The invading bands, he adds, by whom the
dialect was originally brought over into Britain in the
Fifth and Sixth centuries, were in all probability drawn
in great part from the Scandinavian countries. At a
still later date, too, this English population was directly
and largely recruited from Denmark and the regions
around the Baltic. Eastern and Northern England, from
the middle of the Ninth Century, "was as much Danish
as English." In the Eleventh Century the sovereign
was a Dane.
M. Du Chaillu's theory rests upon other and perhaps
stronger grounds, but these concessions from a thoughtful
scholar at least will carry weight. The continuous exist-
ence of Scandinavian influence in England is suggestive
of the circumstance that the Danish conquest of England
preceded the Norman conquest by "exactly half a century."
An Englishman (Odericus Vitalis), writing almost con-
temporaneously with the Norman conquest, describes
his countrymen as having been found by the Normans
"a rustic and almost illiterate people" (agrestes et pene
illiterates). And yet, says Dr. Craik, the dawn of the
revival of letters in England may properly be dated from
a point about fifty years antecedent to the Norman con-
quest. To what, then, must be ascribed this scholastic
renascence? Very clearly to the intirnate relations estab-
36 The Quest for a Lost Race
lished between England and Normandy by Edward the
Confessor. But there is no trace of the new literature
(that of the Arabic school which was prevalent in Europe)
having found its way to England "before the Norman
conquest swept into the benighted old kingdom, carrying
the torch of learning in its train." The name of Lanfranc
alone gives splendor to that civilization which his genius
created for the English race. He not only lighted the
torch of learning, but he strengthened the reins of power.
He restrained the lawless impetuosity of William the
Conqueror; he imposed iron conditions upon the accession
of William Rufus; he checked the atrocities, and finally
broke the power, of Odo of Bayeux. His work was well
done, and its effects are visible to this day. He was the
real power behind the throne. It is not easy, says an
eminent English writer, to trace through the length of
centuries "the measureless and invisible benefits which the
life of one scholar bequeaths to the world." But such was
the life, the work, the bequest of this Norman scholar,
who died honored and beloved even by the rude, sullen,
and implacable race which had been subjugated by the
Norman kings. But Dr. Craik, with all his liberality
and learning, is not disposed to accept the theory of a
great migration or settlement preceding, or accompanying
or following, the Norman conquest in the Eleventh Cen-
JOSEPH HAMILTON DAVEISS.
The Quest for a Lost Race 37
tury. To be sure, this theory was not elaborately or
effectively presented until of late years; but Dr. Craik,
writing as far back as the opening of our "War between
the States," seems to contradict this theory by anticipa-
tion "In point of fact, the Normans never transferred
themselves in a body, or generally, to England. It was
never thus taken possession of by the Normans. It was
never colonized by these foreigners, or occupied by them
in any other than a military sense. It received a foreign
government, but not at all a new population." Yet even
Dr. Craik seems to appreciate the lesson of "names." He
thinks it remarkable, for instance, that though we find
a good many names of natives of Gaul in connection with
the last age of Roman literature, scarcely a British name
has been preserved. Even in Juvenal's days the pleaders
of Britain were trained by the eloquent scholars of Gaul.
The significance of a name in determining family origin
is a common assumption of our familiar speech. "That is
a Virginian name," we say; and if we find many Virginian
names in a given locality we naturally infer that the town,
or the county, or the locality, large or small, was originally
settled by Virginians. In one of our old Bluegrass counties
two of these settlements were made in pioneer times,
about two fniles, apart. One is known as "Jersey Ridge,"
the other as "Tuckahoe." If in both localities we find
38 The Quest for a Lost Race
an English stock with Anglo-Norman names we should
naturally assume a common derivation from the Anglo-
Norman branch of the great British race.
But that accomplished philologist, Dr. Craik, seems to
be quite in sympathy with the views of Du Chaillu touch-
ing the ancestral relations of the Scandinavian to the
English race; and Dr. Craik's eminent American compeer,
Mr. George P. Marsh, is not hopelessly wedded to fixed
conclusions, and has by no means overlooked the obvious
Scandinavian affinities of the English tongue. "Almost
every sound," says the latter, "which is characteristic of
English orthoepy, is met with in one or other of the Scan-
dinavian languages, and almost all their peculiarities,
except those of intonation, are found in English; while
between our articulation and that of the German dialects
the most nearly related to the Anglo-Saxon there are many
irreconcilable discrepancies." If to determine the relative
proportions of linguistic and ethnic elements in dialect
and race were "a hopeless and unprofitable task," this
would seem to invalidate all general conclusions in the
A few days after the very lively discussion of M. Du
Chaillu's epochal paper in the Free Library of Newcastle,
there appeared in a great newspaper a contemporary
estimate of his views, which was received by its multi-
The Quest for a Lost Race 39
tudinous constituency with profound interest and respect.
It was the rolling voice of "the Thunderer "- the famous
London Times. In all crises in the national life, the
influence of this journal is felt. It is not a mere priestly
oracle, silent except at times, but a divinity that never
ceases to speak; clothed with strangely beneficent powers,
and in the exercise of legitimate influence as resistless as
the fabled might of the Scandinavian Thor. It forms
opinion; it fixes opinion; it reflects opinion; it gives
effect to the popular will. It has been felicitously charac-
terized as the "vast shadow of the public mind."
On the aist of September, 1889, the Times, after a
full report of the ethnological discussion in Section H, had
this to say by way of editorial comment: "Perhaps the
great sensation of the Section was M. Du Chaillu's paper,
intended to prove that we are all Scandinavians.
This paper, combined with that of Canon Taylor, and the
discussion that followed both, seemed to show that the
time is ripe for a perfectly new investigation of the whole
question of the origin and migration of the races which
inhabit Europe and Asia; and, that, on lines in which
language will play only a subordinate part."
Thus much for the startling theory discussed by the
Anthropological Section at Newcastle.
In a subsequent correspondence, which appeared in
the London Times, M. Du Chaillu challenged archaeologists
The Quest for a Lost Race
to point out remains in any other part of Europe so like
those of the early Anglo-Saxons in England as the relics
he figures from Scandinavia in England. It is not always
easy to indicate with precision the cradle of an ancient
race; and even if such remains were found on the coasts
of Holland and North Germany, the discovery would not
seriously affect the conclusions that seem to have been
reached as to ancestral relations of the Scandinavian and
the Norman to the English race in England and the United
States. One might abandon altogether the main line of
M. Du Chaillu's argument, (i) his careful analysis of the
Sagas and other ancient documents and (2) his comparison
of the antiquities upon which the challenge rests, and
yet there would remain something more than a strong
presumption that the animating principle of the English
race, in its leading branches, is the Scandinavian blood.
It would seem to be quite in conformity with the law of
nature that the daring, crafty, and indomitable race which
still shapes the political destinies of men, which is his-
torically traceable in its schemes of conquest and subju-
gation for a thousand years, and which is precisely traceable
upon geographical lines in its movements of colonization
or war, should have derived its enterprising characteristics
from the only race which has demonstrably transmitted
its conquering and colonizing traits within historic times:
HONORABLE HENRY CLAY.
The Quest for a Lost Race 41
to wit, the Scandinavian pirates that were conceived
upon stormy waters, spawned upon an icy coast, and
swept, apparently in a career of predestined conquest, from
the waters of the Baltic to the ends of the earth. The
nations shrank from the Rover in fear. The Frenchman,
at least, learned to dread his power, and the Saxon sub-
mitted with sullen acquiescence to his rule. He sowed the
seed of conquest with his blood, and upon whatever shore
he drove his keel he planted himself fiercely upon the
soil to stay. Is it to be supposed for an instant that this
puissant racial force was dissipated and lost? Not so.
The light, the fire, the sweep, the coruscating energies,
the resistless currents, the driving forces are still there.
The power is not "off"!
Nevertheless, it may be to use the phrase of the
London Times that "the time for a new investigation
of the whole question is now ripe."
42 The Quest for a Lost Race
Those were stirring days in the old Northumbrian
city by the sea. And to the utmost border of that ancient
kingdom the busy populations were alive with expectation
and hope. Little cared they for the Sea Rover now.
He no longer enjoyed, as once, the freedom of the city
and the sea. They were really as indifferent to the vexed
question as the philosophic Canon Taylor humorously
affected to be. The loquacious savants might settle
matters to suit themselves; but there was another question,
probably of equal importance, for popular consideration;
and a question of far greater moment too, to a man with
blood in his veins; a question which touched at once the
pocket and the heart; to wit, the last of the classic races
at Doncaster, the St. Leger and the great Yorkshire
Stakes. Will the Duke of Portland's "Donovan" a
Southern horse of great beauty, speed, and "luck"- win
in the coming contest with "Chitabob," the pride and
hope of the North? There was anxiety in every face.
The touts had come from their work at Doncaster, and
Chitabob was reported to be lame; his old enemy (rheu-
matism) had seized his foreleg; he was not equal to a canter:
could do only three hours' walk in the paddock near the
ring. In spite of the conditions and the resulting con-
The Quest for a Lost Race 43
sternation of Chitabob's friends, his nervy young owner
insists that "matters are not so bad as they seem, and
the horse will run." Meantime, the betting is against him
two to one on Donovan; in rapid sequence six seven
ten against Chitabob. The situation was highly sensa-
tional; the state of excitement in Doncaster was intense;
even Chitabob's friend, "Guyon" (a noted sportsman),
had surrendered hope. The owner, young Mr. Perkins,
was alone undismayed; and the men of the stalls were
as game as the horse. "He can win on three legs,"
they declared. "I do not think so," said Guyon, "and
though common sense prompts me to go for Donovan, I
am full of hope and sympathy for Chitabob. The splendid
fellow has always carried my money, and I will back him
to-day. He is too grand a horse to let him run loose, but
it is very clear to my mind that Donovan will win."
The loyal sportsman proved to be an infallible prophet
As one looks intently upon such a scene as this, Don-
caster disappears and Kentucky rises on the eye. The
story of Chitabob recalls the traditions of Grey Eagle,
that superb and exquisite idol of the mid-century Ken-
tuckian's heart; his brilliant and exciting contest with
Wagner; his gallant start, his matchless stride, the vast
crowd, the wild applause; "the strained tendon," the
The Quest for a Lost Race
slackened speed, the failing strength the lost race. But
the defeated racer was always (like Clay or Breckinridge)
the idol of the State; the Champion of Kentucky as
Chitabob was the Champion of the North.
Imported "Yorkshire" was, likewise, a famous horse
in the history of the Southern turf, and his blood still
mingles with that of our finest strains. We note in Ken-
tucky a noble reproduction of the old lines, both in man
and horse; it was entirely fit that such a Virginian as
Commodore Morgan should bestow such a gift as "York-
shire" upon such a Kentuckian as Henry Clay. It was
a gift for a king, and there were marks of royal lineage
in both man and horse; lines that were souvenirs of a
royal race. Traditions tell us, and the casual traveler
notes abundant proof of the fact, that the "typical Ken-
tuckian" is indebted for many of his traits to the old
Northumbrian blood. Even the familiar speech of the
Yorkshireman recalls much that is characteristic in the
dialect of Kentucky; as "mad," for angry or vexed;
"thick," for friendly or intimate; "thumping," for big;
"rattling good," for very good; "plump," for quite or
entirely, as "shot plump through"; "whole lot," for a
large number; "what's up?" for what's the matter? etc.
Were not these words and phrases conveyed by racial
migration from the North of England to Virginia and from
The Quest for a Lost Race 45
Virginia to Kentucky in days lang syne? Have you
never heard among the old horsemen of the Bluegrass
the odd expression, "The colt will be two years old
next 'grass' "? "It is curious," says Mr. Marsh, "that
the same expression is used in Scandinavia." In Den-
mark and Sweden, he adds, as well as in England, the
gentlemen of the chase and turf reckon the age of their
animals by " springs "- the season of verdure being the
ordinary "birth season" of the horse; and a colt, there-
fore, is said to be so many years old next "grass."
The same writer informs us that the names of the two
brothers, Hengist and Horsa both names of the genus
horse are words in one or another form common to all
the Scandinavian dialects. A Danish colonel told Mr.
Marsh that in a company in his regiment there were two
privates bearing these names, who were as inseparable
in their association as the Hengist and Horsa of old. An
ardent theorist, like a jealous lover, may find confirmation
strong in trifles light as air. It is a far cry from old Scan-
dinavia to old Kentucky, but what brain is broad enough,
what spirit is subtle enough, to comprehend the variety
and infinitude of delicate, airy, intangible influences by
which the busy hands of destiny have brought them to-
gether? Not the least of these agencies were affinities,
customs, explorations, battles, contests, migrations, and
the "wingy mysteries" of kindred names or words.
46 The Quest for a Lost Race
Edward Lee Childe, in his admirable life of his kinsman,
General Robert Lee (Paris, France, 1874), says that in
1192 we find a Lionel Lee at the head of a company of
gentlemen accompanying Richard of the Lion-Heart in
his third Crusade. In the original the word here trans-
lated "gentlemen " is gentilshommes . A word of somewhat
different connotation from its English equivalent, but
sufficiently alike in meaning to justify the assumption
that England is indebted to Normandy for the word, and,
essentially, for what the word connotes or implies the
chief or leader of a family or gens. The followers of Lionel
Lee were, therefore, a military elite. The original con-
ception of the word still lingers among the Anglo-Norman
races. That the word in its later English form has taken
on a finer sense is illustrated by the famous speech of the
Great Nicholas to Sir Hamilton Seymour. The diplomacy
of the Czar neither asked nor conceded conventional
guarantees. "Before all things," he said, "I am an Eng-
lish gentleman" (un gentilhomme Anglais). The word
" cavalierism, " used by M. Taine, reminds us that
England, long before the Conquest, was indebted to Nor-
mandy for the " Cavalier "; that the " man-on-horseback "
was the Cavalier; that the Cavalier and gentilhomme were
conspicuous in the ranks of the Conqueror, and, not to be
too precise, may be said to have come down the centuries
The Quest for a Lost Race 47
together. In a certain conventional sense it is proper,
no doubt, to say that the Cavalier in England was a gen-
tleman; and, always, in Normandy un gentilhomme. But
it was only in later days, as in the splendid epoch of the
Stuarts, that the qualities of the gentleman, fusing with
the character of the Cavalier, gave a peculiar dignity,
elevation, and distinction to the natural and recognized
leaders of the English race. But the bonniest cavalier,
undisciplined by social culture, had precisely those defects
of his qualities which the term " cavalierism " was invented
by Sir Walter Scott to express. The qualities depicted
in Esmond by Thackeray were not conspicuous in Scott's
portraiture of " Claverhouse " or "Montrose." Gentil-
homme, Cavalier, and Gentleman were descriptive terms
evolved under similar historic conditions, and derived
from the same linguistic source. An Anglo-Norman Ken-
tuckian who figured conspicuously in the late War between
the States humorously adjusted all differences as to the
proper designation in that day, by addressing his friends
in familiar conversation as "Gentle-homines," a felicitous
appellative not only for Kentuckians, but for friendly
Indians as well. The effigies of the " man-on-horseback "
(a familiar phrase in English ears) was officially intro-
duced to the English public by an English king, who in
everything save birth and blood was typically Norman
48 The Quest for a Lost Race
himself. It is indelibly stamped upon the Great Seal of
England, and not upon one seal alone. The most casual
inspection of the famous Guildhall collection will show,
stamped upon Seal after Seal through a long succession
of Anglo-Norman kings, the same equestrian figure which,
obviously of Norman origin, had appeared in England
before the Conquest ; and which centuries later was designed
by an Anglo-Norman engraver upon the Great Seal of the
American Confederate States. The artist was Wyon
(engraver to the Queen), and the original of the symbolic
figure was that immortal Cavalier, GEORGE WASHINGTON
a man of Anglo-Norman blood.
It may be said that Kentucky offered physical con-
ditions that were exceptional, for the production of
A scientific explorer found upon the icy coast of the
Straits of Magellan a growth of English grass fresh,
green, flourishing, and as full of fight for existence as the
stock or race from which it took its name. It was like
the grass described in the Hudibrastic skit of the blue-
"Where bluegrass grew the winter through
And where it blooms in summer, too."
It was a species of Poa, closely akin in its character-
istics to Poa Pratensis, the famous Bluegrass of Kentucky
GOVERNOR JOSEPH DESHA.
The Quest for a Lost Race 49
a cosmopolitan grass; at home everywhere, but always
seeking congenial skies; rooting itself firmly and clinging
tenaciously; standing in with the rich soils and the strong
races; unseating old sod; standing off all casual intruders;
driving out all competing grasses; casting its own lines in
pleasant places; dividing honors with Zea Mays, the
stateliest of all grasses, and yielding to no competition
save here and there to the cryptic, mossy growth that at
last covers with oblivion the homes and the tombs of men.
Even the grasping, aggressive Poa yields to the power of
moss; and mossback monstrosities may be found even
among the vigorous offshoots of the Anglo-Norman race.
Yet, was it not an extraordinary incident of the evolution
of our Western world that in the genesis of the Common-
wealth of Kentucky two such factors or agencies as the
Race and the Grass inseparably linked should be pre-
destined each to a special function in the common work?
"Either," said a sagacious observer from New England,
"no other land ever lent itself so easily to civilization as
the Bluegrass region, or it was exceptionally fortunate in
its inhabitants." The alternative suggests that if this
miracle of evolution be attributable to either of the causes
named civilizableness of the land or adaptableness of race
then there can be but one conclusion should the result
be ascribed to the operation of both. This speculative
so The Quest for a Lost Race
suggestion as to the genetic or determining element in
the evolution of the Bluegrass State came from the pen
of that gifted and genial writer, Charles Dudley Warner,
many years ago. He was then visiting Kentucky, and
reporting in a series of papers his observations, as a visitor,
for an influential publication in the East. Please note
this unconscious implication as to grass and race from
a philosophic tourist of the olden times. "Grass" or
"Race" but what Race?
The Quest for a Lost Race 5 1
The continuous application of three acute and power-
ful minds along the same line of thought, in the first half
of the last century an unconscious or undesigned collabo-
ration (so to speak) of Lamarck, St. Beuve, and Hippolyte
Taine evolved a marvelous instrument of critical and
philosophic research; furnishing for every capable thinker
a method adapted to the investigation of all subjects,
great and small; neglecting no phase, shrinking from
no interpretation, rejecting no authentic fact, and having
in perfection the magical quality of adjustment to condi-
tions described in the Arabian tale. In his English notes,
for example, M. Taine, if too frank, is singularly felicitous
and discriminative in his physical descriptions of certain
Anglican types of race presenting, first, the beastly,
repulsive traits of the MALE; the lowering, dog-like phys-
iognomy, the huge jowl; the dull red eyes; the glutton-
ous chops; the swinish snout, the congested facial tissues;
the gross, unwieldy figure, the bloated features and the
protuberant accumulations of abdominal fat thus graph-
ically depicting, by way of philosophical illustration, an
anthropoid incarnation of animal appetite. The picture
is not flattering, but it certainly embodies some familiar
traits, of which it is entirely pardonable to make a philo-
52 The Quest for a Lost Race
sophic use. Next he introduces the Boadicean or Brob-
dingnagian FEMALE "broad, stiff, and destitute of
ideas" with heavy features, lifeless, fishy eyes, coarse,
congested complexion, a clumsy figure, large feet, unshapely
hands, and an utter lack of style and taste notably in
the bizarre combinations of color in her dress. More-
over, he says, two out of every three have their feet shod
with stout masculine boots, and as to their long, project-
ing teeth huge white teeth it is impossible to train
oneself to endure them. "Is this," he inquires philo-
sophically, "a cause or an effect of the carnivorous regime?"
Plainly enough the cause the remote cause at least
the determining cause, is what is designated by M. Taine
elsewhere as "the hereditary conformation of race." These
fat, huge, fierce, vicious, dull, ill-shaped creatures are
distinctly of a Saxon strain. In Cedric's day they
were the Gurths who herded the swine, and the "gigantic
jades" who in the very teeth of Mother Church persisted
in a merciless disciplinary "flogging of their slaves."
Suggestions of racial derivation are seldom questioned
in ordinary life. Every English thinker recognizes the
fact. The biographer of an eminent English lawyer says
that he combined, in the most pleasing fashion, fineness
of physical texture with courage, high character, and the
perfection of personal charm. The same writer thinks it
The Quest for a Lost Race 53
necessary to explain that on the maternal side the gifted
lawyer "came of gentle blood." Apart from personal
characteristics, the very name of the maternal gens bore
witness to her Norman descent a name that has been
familiar in Kentucky from the foundation of the State.
According to the same biographer the conditions on the
paternal side were quite different. An uncle, of the ruder
strain, declared, in view of prospective Revolutionary
tribunals, that his veins were " uncontaminated with one
drop of gentility." He stood among the intellectual
aristocracy of England just the same.
But, if the philosophic Taine is severe in his character-
ization of the "carnivorous types" of the English race,
he makes ample amends in his descriptions of others.
Not every Englishman is like the landlord in Barnaby
Rudge "half ox, half bull." "On the contrary," says
this admirable Frenchman, "when the person is a cultured
and intelligent gentleman, the phlegmatic temperament
imparts to the English personality a perfectly noble air.
I have several of them in my memory, with pale complexion,
clear blue eyes, regular features, constituting one of the
finest types of the human species. There is no excess
of cavalierism, of glittering gallantry after the style of
the French gentleman; one is conscious of a mind wholly
self-contained, a brain which can not lose its balance.
54 The Quest for a Lost Race
They elevate this quality of their temperament into a
virtue; according to them the chief merit of a man is
always to have a clear and cool head. They are right;
nothing is more desirable in misfortune and in danger.
This is one of their national traits." Taine's historic
ideal of this type is William Pitt. The awkwardness and
erubescent bashfulness, so often observed in English
social life, "is wholly physical," says M. Taine, "and a
peculiarity of Teutonic nations." It is certainly not the
fine repose that is supposed to mark the caste of Never
Care. Another type admired by this clever Frenchman
is thus described: "The blond maiden with downcast
eyes, purer than one of Raffaelle's Madonnas, a sort of
Eve, incapable of falling, whose voice is music, adorable
in candour, gentleness, and goodness, and before whom
one is tempted to lower the eyes out of respect. Since
Virginia, Imogen, and the other women of Shakespeare
or his great contemporaries from these to Esther and
to the Agnes of Dickens English literature has placed
them in the foreground; they are the perfect flower of
The Section of the Association at Newcastle which
listened to the paper of M. Du Chaillu with an air of cour-
teous self-restraint, listened also, and apparently in a like
mood, to Sir William Turner in the reading of his very
The Quest for a Lost Race 55
able paper on the pathological aspect of the doctrine of
"Heredity," as recently expounded in the revolutionary
hypothesis of Professor Weismann, a famous German pundit
in pathology. It was the first appearance of the so-called
Weismann " theory " before the scientific public of England.
Professor Weismann rejects the view that the character-
istics acquired by parents through their own experiences
or environment can be transmitted to their offspring.
It is only those characteristics that have pre-existed in
the germ of reproduction: that is, the congenital peculiari-
ties alone; those which distinguish the race and breed
that can be transmitted, according to the teachings of
Professor Weismann. A German philosopher, for example,
may transmit a superfluous toe or a prognathic jaw, but
not his portentously developed brain. Sir William Turner
did not accept in full the German's "theory." Under
the exclusive operation of a law which transmits only
from congenital variations, how is it conceivable that the
development of species can be brought about? On the
other hand, does not the law of the survival of the fittest
operate to correct the tendency to transmit defects of
structure and organization? Thus, affirmed our sturdy
Anglo-Saxon savant, the hereditary tendency, properly
understood, is in perfect harmony with the theory of
natural selection. It is needless to say that the Section
56 The Quest for a Lost Race
and the speaker were quite at one upon these perplexing
points. The conclusions of Darwin upon "Descent" were
as little open to assault as their own conviction as to the
origin of the Anglo-Saxon race. At all events, an Eng-
lishman's established opinions would not tumble at the
first blast of a ram's horn from Germany or France.
The discussion of the physical peculiarities of our
ancestors never loses its interest among the thinkers
of the various branches of the English race. How trip-
pingly upon the tongue of the Anglo-Saxon child
come the familiar lines of the English poet, a bard
of the Georgian period:
" Deep-blooming, strong,
And yellow-haired, the blue-eyed Saxon came."
a pleasing description of peculiarities which holds
good of the Northern races to this day. But by a
process of ethnic differentiation the separate or diver-
gent races, with changed milieu and lapse of time, took
on some structural change ; the Scandinavian, for example
(and possibly the Kentuckian), coming to the front
with cranial dimensions exceptionally large and men-
tal capacities to correspond. Laing's curious note to
Snorro Sturleson (quoted by Lytton) says that in the
Antiquarian Museum of Copenhagen the handles of almost
all the swords of the early ages, in these collections, "indi-
(Bas relief by a French Artist.)
The Quest for a Lost Race 57
cate a size of hand very much smaller than the hands of
modern people of any class or race." The Norman is said
to have retained this peculiarity of physical structure
longer than the Scandinavian from whom he sprang. It
was probably the result of social conditions which soon
ceased to exist. "Here and there," says an eminent
English writer, "amongst plain countryfolk settled from
time immemorial in the counties peopled with the
Anglo-Dane (Scandinavian), may be found the 'Scythian
hand and foot,' the high features, and the reddish au-
burn hair." "But amongst the far more mixed breed,"
he adds, "of the larger landed proprietors (comprehended
in the peerage), the Saxon attributes of race are strikingly
conspicuous, and amongst them the large hand and foot
common to all of the Germanic tribes." (Lord Lytton.)
Virginia and the Virginian States were peopled chiefly
from the former class. If any inquirer wishes to prose-
cute this inquiry under favorable conditions, he may find
a contemporary transmission of racial peculiarities in
the vast Scandinavian population in our Northern belt
or tier of States men of the old blood, in a broad,
congenial field, with boundless energy and big brains.
58 The Quest for a Lost Race
One of the most interesting results of a very pro-
longed process of ethnic differentiation is mentioned by
John Fiske, in comparing two remote branches of the
so-called "Aryan" race the short, fat, pursy Hindoo,
and the wiry, long-limbed Kentuckian. It is not incredi-
ble that these were simply original marks of race
"Scythian," in the one instance; Scandinavian in the
other. It is a far cry, too, from old Benares to the Blue-
grass; but it is possible that if missionaries from Ken-
tucky could remain in Hindustan long enough there might
be a gradual reversion of the Occidental variety to the
ancient or original type. If Mr. Fiske 's deductions be cor-
rect, as possibly they are, the Aryan brothers have wan-
dered far apart, and perhaps it is hardly safe, in studying
the genetic conditions of development in the Bluegrass, to
stray beyond the broad, well-traveled highway that reaches
from the Baltic Sea through Normandy and the British
Isles to the shores of the Old Dominion, to the Blue Ridge
Mountains, the "Hills of Breathitt," and the Bluegrass low-
lands of Kentucky. The streams of population from the
Scandinavian seas are still flowing, and in all likelihood the
Scandinavians of the Virginian States (the old settled
populations of the States of the South and West) will
The Quest for a Lost Race 59
ultimately fuse with the Scandinavian populations of
the North and establish in the heart of the continent the
empire of the world. The great Scandinavian settlements
of the Northwest are now almost equal in numbers to the
Anglo-Norman populations that from the days of the
Virgin Queen have been gathering and growing in Old
Virginia and in the Virginian sisterhood of States. Cole-
ridge once said that England's insular position had made
her a mother of nations. It would seem that like condi-
tions an environing wilderness and an estranging sea-
have helped to make Virginia a "mother of States." The
lawless elements that poured into Kentucky were not
segregated by social or other necessities, and, cast out
by time or poverty, permanently isolated in one rude
locality. This was at one time a popular theory among
the savants. But there was always a tendency to law-
lessness wherever the Anglo-Norman went. If any "con-
vict" blood muddied the turbulent, brawling stream of
migration, it was not from the race, but from the chance
intermingling of a degenerate caste or breed, and whether
you find that degenerate admixture in the rugged high-
lands or in the lovely champaign country at their feet,
the convict blood is still there. In the highlands or the
lowlands, in the mountains or the Bluegrass, generation
after generation is weighted with the curse. The family,
60 The Quest for a Lost Race
the clan, the community never loses the criminal taint.
But the great, strong, daring, gifted race sweeps on
untouched by the vile marks of degeneracy that would
put a proud, ambitious caste to shame.
The trade of political assassination was plied with great
activity in the good old Norman times, but apparently
there was nothing that was beastly, or basely criminal,
in the work; on the contrary, it seems to have been pal-
liated almost invariably by the conditions of a traditional
feud, and, where sentiment or authority was very exacting,
the offense was sometimes justified under "the forms of
law." This was not murder in any ordinary or vulgar
sense. It was merely an indispensable modus vivendi in
times that imperiled men's bodies as well as tried their
souls; one of those protective devices conceived by the
savagery of mediaeval statecraft in a transition period of
Christian civilization. Even at this day it is difficult
for a competent and experienced Anglo-Norman jury to
detect decisive evidence of crime when looking through the
subtile meshes of a technical defense. William himself
had a strong disinclination to take life under the forms of
law; and, possibly, had his loyal guardians yielded to a
like weakness in the early days of his succession, the solid
fabric of English or Anglo-Norman civilization would now
be as unsubstantial as a castle in Spain. But they did
not share the weakness of their ward, and promptly settled
The Quest for a Lost Race 61.
the right of succession by assassinating all troublesome
pretenders to the throne. The only sin of blood upon
William's soul "the blackest act of his life" was the
execution of a judicial sentence against Waltheof upon
the hill of St. Giles. The only inexplicable crime of Wal-
theof 's life was his murder of the brothers Carl, staunch
comrades who had stood by his side at York. The judicial
murder was wrought by the orders of a Norman king.
It was apparently premeditated, and done with the utmost
deliberation and under established forms of law. The
Carl brothers were the victims of an ancient feud. Their
grandsire had slain the father of Waltheof, and the grand-
sons of the murderer were slain to avenge this ancient
deed of blood. They were the victims of a transmitted
hate: of a vindictive passion that had lost its heat. But
the murderer perished at last, under the forms of law
which he had denied to the innocent victims of a feud. He
could slay with impunity on his own account, but he was
not allowed to conspire even in thought against the king.
He, too, suffered the penalty long years after the offense.
Waltheof was the last of the Saxon earls.
Not long ago that eminent publicist, Mr. Andrew D.
White, delivered an address on the subject of "High Crime
in the United States." The following excerpt will be read
"Simply as a matter of fact the United States is, among
all civilized nations of the world, the country in which
62 The Quest for a Lost Race
the crime of murder is most frequently committed and
least frequently punished. Deaths by violence are increas-
ing rapidly. Our record is now larger than that of any
other country in the world. The number of homicides
that are punished by lynching exceeds the number pun-
ished by due process of law.
"There is too much overwrought sentimentality in
favor of the criminal. The young ward toughs look up
with admiration to local politicians who have spent a
part of their lives in State prison. Germs of maudlin
sentimentality are widespread. On every hand we hear
slimy, mushy-gushy expressions of sympathy; the crimi-
nal called 'plucky,' 'nervy,' 'fighting against fearful odds
for his life.'
" It may be said that society must fall back on the law
of self-preservation. It should cut through and make
war, in my opinion, for its life. Life imprisonment is not
possible, because there is no life imprisonment.
"In the next year nine thousand people will be murdered.
As I stand here to-day, I tell 'you that nine thousand are
doomed to death with all the cruelty of the criminal heart,
and with no regard for home and families, and two thirds
will be due to the maudlin sentiment sometimes called
mercy. I have no sympathy for the criminal. My sym-
pathy is for those who will be murdered, for their fami-
lies, and for their children."
The Quest for a Lost Race 6 3
The Normans were a brilliant and enterprising race;
but what before all things (says Freeman) "distinguished
them from other nations, was their craft." This was
manifest in everything, at all times, and everywhere
in statesmanship, in war, in traffic, and in the trivial
interactions of social and domestic life. Craft was no
more characteristic of a Norman king in the past than of
a Norman trader in modern times. It is as distinctly
racial as the commercial "cuteness" or cleverness univer-
sally attributed to the American people of to-day. Lord
Wolseley may have noted this trait when he said of our
people, "They are a race of English-speaking Frenchmen."
He may have observed, too, even during the War between
the States, that Americans were at times exceedingly
profane in their speech, just as in the olden time it was
said that the Normans were "peculiarly fond of oaths."
Camden tells us that when Carolus Stultus made over
Normandy to Rollo, the rude ingrate refused to kiss the
king's foot. When urged to do so he viciously exclaimed,
"Ne se, by God!" "Whence" adds the chronicler "the
Normans were familiarly known as Bigodi or Bigods." At
every other word, he says, they swore by God. For a
like reason, at a later day, the English were known through-
64 The Quest for a Lost Race
out Europe as the English "Goddams." All of us know
how terribly the army swore in Flanders. The profane ten-
dencies of the race seemed to have been stimulated by war.
"Then, the SOLDIER," says Shakespeare, "full of strange
oaths. " Was it not one of our innocent Bluegrass girls who
declared that up to the close of her "teens" she believed
the familiar phrase "damned Yankee" to be a single
word? But it was the Conqueror of England and the
founder of the Anglo-Norman race that swore the greatest
oath of all. When the merry burghers of Alencon were
hurling insults from their walls upon the burly son of
Arietta and upon her sire the tanner of Falaise the
infuriated Norman swore an oath which lights up the
page of history like the flare of a conflagration " By the
splendor of God!" he exclaimed as he swept to his wild
revenge. The profanest Kentuckian in his palmiest days
never rose in his profanity to such a plane as this. He
preferred the direct and trenchant speech of that Virgin
Queen who helped to shape the destiny of our common
race. "Do as I say," she said to a recalcitrant prelate,
"or by God I will unfrock you!" Even her stately minis-
ters were not safe from the fire of her Anglo-Norman wrath.
In the royal council-chamber she sometimes fell to cursing
like a very drab. In certain Virginian circles profane
swearing seemed to have been proscribed except in a
"OUR BEAUTIFUL SCANDINAVIAN."
The Quest for a Lost Race 65
softened or attenuated form, such as "Jeems" River,"
as an ejaculatory substitute for a very blasphemous
phrase. Thomas Jefferson did not regard profane "exple-
tives" as a very rational or philosophic mode of speech;
but George Washington, though puritanically truthful,
would sometimes infuse into an imprecation the spirit and
effectiveness of a prayer. We have all heard of Stonewall
Jackson's "teamster" and the moving quality of his profane
speech; but Jubal Early never allowed the words to be
taken out of his mouth in this way. He did his own swear-
ing, and, presumably, did it well. Swearing or fighting by
proxy was not his forte. Judged by military results, Jack-
son's was probably the better method. As a tactical incen-
tive upon the firing line nothing could be more effective
than one of Early 's oaths; but for general strategic pur-
poses, nothing could surpass the effectiveness of the deadly
imprecations that lurked in Stonewall Jackson's prayer.
This was a Cromwellian modification of the Anglo-Norman
oath. In the good old Commonwealth of Kentucky there
seems to have been a relapse into the simpler forms of
profanity Anglo-Norman and Early English. The histo-
rian Collins tells us that one of the pioneer Governors hav-
ing refused to notice the " challenge " of a truculent upstart,
the fellow threatened to "post him a coward." "Post
and be damned," said the old soldier, "you will only post
66 The Quest for a Lost Race
yourself a damned liar!" The retort was profane, but it
was in punctilious accord with the spirit and habits of the
time. Better still, it was more effective than a "gut-shot"
at short range. As a rule, the Kentuckian had an instinc-
tive aversion for puritanic oaths. That consecrated phrase,
"Jeems' River," had a brief career in this State. The
last person to use it, probably, was an elderly, smooth,
genial, charming gentleman at the bar who was for many
years the judge of a local court in the good old County of
Fleming. He was in many respects a marked exception
to the common rule.* It might have been different had
he left the Old Dominion at an earlier date. What brandy
is for heroes, strong oaths were for the pioneer. Not mere
dicer's oaths; nor the mauldin imprecations of a sot, nor
the rounding touches of a raconteur; but good, honest,
English oaths, such an oath as that which settled the
insistent Corporal Trim the generous and daring oath
that our Uncle Toby swore when the young Lieutenant
lay sick of a fever. " 'He shall not die, by God,' cried
my Uncle Toby." And the accusing spirit that "flew to
*In an admirable letter written in pioneer times to Boiling Stith, in Ken-
tucky, by his Virginian mother, she says : "I hear you have become a notorious
rattle and never open your mouth without an oath." To correct this vicious ten-
dency she recommends the example of the "great and good General Washing-
ton. " Excellent advice. The General's oaths were not so frequent as Boiling's.
They were louder, deeper, " heartier. "
The English traveler, Fordham, says that the Virginians of that day were
" addicted to oaths."
The Quest for a Lost Race 67
Heaven's chancery with the oath" had the grace to blush
when he gave it in. God bless our Uncle Toby; he was
the Uncle Toby of us all, and is as fresh in our remem-
brance as the good old uncles who told his story and praised
his virtues and swore his oaths by the family fireside in the
auld lang syne. Tradition throws a strong light on one
of these old Kentuckians who denounced with suggestive
picturesqueness of phrase a ruthless master who had sold
and separated a family of hereditary slaves: "He is the
damnedest scoundrel between hell and Guinea!" the old
gentleman exclaimed, giving in effect a touch of lurid or
local color to his imprecatory speech. But when one of
his own negroes a broken, helpless creature was accused
of marketing for his own benefit the products of the farm,
he gently answered, "Ah, well, I am not sure that, after
all, the old slave is not taking his ownl" As one recalls
that kindly speech, with its reminiscent touch of Uncle
Toby, he recalls, likewise, the sentiment of a famous line
from a foreign source tenderly adapted to a modern
"Mais oft sont les ntgres ctanian?"
Where are those dusky bondsmen of the past? They
mingle their dust with the dust of them they served :
and resting in old country graveyards, in the peace of
68 The Quest for a Lost Race
immemorial graves, they await the Morning Light and
the Master's Call.
Among the most popular of the well-trained African
servitors of the mid-century days in the Bluegrass was
our versatile drudge, Ben Briler, one of the most active
and useful functionaries of that old-time tavern life.
"Ben Briler swept the poker-room
And gathered up the 'chips';
Was 'mixer,' bootblack, cook, and groom,
And salted down the 'tips.'"
Evil days came to Ben's master, and Ben was sold
becoming the joint chattel of the young swells of the
poker-room. But the joint chattel proved to be too
versatile for his vocation, and one of the stockholders
denounced him as "a damned kinky-headed corporation,"
and kicked him downstairs. As Governor Desha, in a recent
message to the Legislature, had effectively arraigned
those " dangerous corporations which embodied the interests
of powerful men," the prompt action of the stockholder
at the old tavern brought great relief to the public mind.
It showed .that corporations could be reached that, con-
trary to the general impression, they had "bodies that
could be kicked and souls that could be damned."
The advent of the abolition "emissary," the eman-
cipated negro, and the "burnt cork" minstrel was prac-
The Quest for a Lost Race 69
tically contemporaneous in Kentucky. In the gentle
mid-century days a company of strolling minstrels had
announced an entertainment at the old county seat of
Mason the town where Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe (a
frequent guest of Mrs. Marshall Key) first witnessed a
"sale" of negro slaves. On the evening announced for
the entertainment, the Courthouse was packed from floor
to dome. Among the conspicuous figures toward the
front was Colonel Robert B., a fine old Kentuckian of antique
Norman type tall, ruddy, high-featured, light haired;
hearty, convivial, and profane a boon companion and
ban vivant. He sat expectantly but at ease, a bandaged
arm resting upon the seat in front. He was cordially
greeted by kinsmen and friends in every part of the house.
The curtain rose and the minstrels filed upon the stage,
looking for all the world like a lot of "free nigger" swells.
Their very appearance was an offense, and provoked at
once a collision with the young Mohawks of the town.
The violoncello was shivered into splinters, and the flutes,
fiddles, and castanets went singing through the air. No
trace of harmony was left. There was a universal dash
for windows and doors; none stood upon the order of his
going. All went at once all except "Colonel Bob," who
sat unmoved, fixed to his seat as if fascinated by the mov-
ing scene in front. The spectators were amazed. "Hell's
70 The Quest for a Lost Race
fire, Bob!" exclaimed an anxious friend, "don't you know
there is a fight going on down there ? ' ' The Colonel looked
incredulous. "I wish I may be damned," he said, "if I
didn't think it was part of the play I" There was universal
condemnation of these minstrel folk by persons who did
not see the show; but the Colonel, who was a "stayer,"
insisted that "the niggers made a good fight."
Unquestionably there is a certain lack of modernity,
or at least of civilized amenity, in such a manifestation as
this: but there was a spontaneous and elemental vivacity
in their unpremeditated assault upon the counterfeit Afri-
can bucks which betrayed the rude fantastic humor of their
Norman blood, and imparted a pleasant tang to the crude
flavor of early plantation life. Mr. Barrett Wendell finds
in the still earlier life of the West conditions described as
existing in the times of the Plantagenet kings; and Mr.
Owen Wister seems inclined to adopt his startling views.
Apparently, then, we must count with inherited conditions
and characteristics even in the politics of the times. The
modern world is probably not ideally moral, but it is
sensitively fastidious and scrupulously observant of "good
form." It would wreck a railway, perhaps, or deplete a
bloated insurance exchequer, but it would not launch an
ungentlemanly imprecation or utter a trivial or unproduc-
tive oath. It even discountenances the oath in court
The Quest for a Lost Race 71
a solemn asseveration or attestation before a judge. It
utterly discredits socially and otherwise the blas-phe-
mous ejaculation or the vulgar " cuss- word, " or the light
conversational "swear" familiar in the dialect of the
"back shop," the groggery, and the street. The variety
of oath known as a "swear," considered psychologi-
cally, is not a very serious offense. In a philosophical
aspect, indeed, it is in some sense a temperamental
necessity, dependent on physiological conditions, and is
essentially the result of a defensive or protective instinct.
Where not merely idle, wanton, and unmeaning, it is a
psychological regulator nervorum. It is the unpremedi-
tated product of a prompt cerebral reaction. It gives the
centers of speech a chance to rally when thrown into dis-
order by a sudden attack. There is no time for the pick-
ing and arranging of words, and, except in persons of
lymphatic temperament, no capacity for the leisurely
elaborations of speech. One is confronted, not with a
problem, or theory or condition, but with an emergency
that must be decisively met. Silence perhaps is golden,
but there is a certain steel-like quality in trenchant speech.
Profane, "rapid-fire" ejaculation is not only a deeply
implanted instinct, but by frequent indulgence becomes
an invincible habit a habit so odious and offensive as
to make even a Chesterfield swear. As a racial instinct
72 The Quest for a Lost Race
it survives transplantation to any clime, and religious
training of every sort. Even the disciplinary methods of
Calvinism fail to eradicate it. But an "inherited drill"
may at times soften, or modify, or mask the mode of mani-
festation, as is cleverly illustrated in the familiar lines
"The Blue Light Elder knows 'em well
Says he 'There's Banks, we'll give him well!
That's Stonewall Jackson's way.' '
A Kentuckian casually encountering a distinguished
New Englander at the buffet of an exclusive Eastern club,
exclaimed: "Does a Puritan drink?" "I would not give
a damn," was the decisive answer, "for a Puritan that
could not drink, pray, and fight. " It is probably no secret
that in our amphibious Scandinavian, General William
Nelson, the swearing instinct was abnormally developed.
He did not swear "like a sailor," to be sure; nor "like
a trooper" of the olden time; since neither soldier nor
sailor of the ordinary type was ever gifted with his extra-
ordinary abundance and facility of profane expression. It
is but just to say, however, that at times he struggled man-
fully against the habitual inclination. "Christ give me
patience!" he cried when his favorite aide, Colonel Samuel
Owens (a joker of the Norman type), inadvertently "sat
down" upon his military hat. The utterance was a sin-
cere and reverent appeal for Divine help. He instinc-
PRESIDENT JEFFERSON DAVIS
The Quest for a Lost Race 73
tively shrank from the coming torrent of profane ejac-
ulation, and with a prayerful effort was bracing him-
self against the flood.
"There is some soul of goodness in things evil"; but
in this instance one does not lessen the force of the evil
by modifying or "softening" the form of the oath. The
essence remains unchanged. When Pecksniff slams
the door in a rage, he simply "swears" what Hood
describes as a "wooden damn." The devout Moslem will
not tread upon a scrap of paper in his path, "Lest,"
he says, "the name of God be written upon it"; but
the impetuous Anglo-Norman recklessly flings the name
of God into the contaminated environment of his
daily life. And he has done so, history attests, since
the day he sprang full-armed upon the planetary sphere
the most portentous apparition of mediaeval days. " Long
ago," says Canon Bardsley, "under the offensive title of
Jean Gotdam, we [the English] had become known as a
people given to strange and unpleasant oaths." The very
name Jean Gotdam vouches for its antiquity, as well
as for the fearless sincerity of him who swore.
There came into one of our Bluegrass communities
just after the war a clever Confederate adventurer, who
speedily established very pleasant social relations by
exploiting his military record. A venerable Kentuckian,
The Quest for a Lost Race
who had come through the war with his Confederate
principles and Virginian prejudices intact, was asked by
a friend how he liked their Virginian visitor the ci-devant
"aide to General Lee." "I don't like him, sir," he said
with vicious emphasis, "he is not what he professes to be;
I never in my life heard a Virginian gentleman say ' God
dernl' He either swore or he didn't swear." He had no
indulgence for a marked card nor for an emasculated
oath. He would not substitute a sickly, modernized
variant for a venerated traditional form. By "Gad"
or by "gosh" or by "gobbs" was good enough for a
reforming purist; for himself he preferred to say, with the
irascible Robert of Normandy, "Ne se, by God!" It is
not the form, after all, but the sentiment or suggestion,
that lies behind the "swear."
It is discouraging to the spirit of philosophic optim-
ism to note the slinking figure of the iconoclast now run-
ning amuck in every field. The instinct and habit of
reverence is almost gone, and the solidest traditional
reputations are no longer safe. We no longer say with
"There is a consecrating power in Time,
And what is gray with years to man is godlike."
Even the fine historic character of WASHINGTON is
"at a discount" in the modern world partly on account
The Quest for a Lost Race 75
of his alleged indulgence in profane speech, but chiefly
because of his recognized incapacity to tell a lie. He had
not only lost (we are told by one biographer) the useful
the indispensable instinct of "prevarication," but (as
we are told by another) " when deeply angered, he would
swear a hearty English oath." One may survive in the
Darwinian struggle without the capacity to swear, but
scarcely without the capacity to deceive. There seems to
be no salvation in this life except for the successful liar;
but for the man of many oaths there appears to be no
salvation either in this life or the next. Happily, the
material prosperity of Virginia was but little affected by
the ethics of the Washingtonian Code. Her commercial
instincts had been powerfully quickened in her early
years by an admonitory imprecation from a royal, or
official, source. When the Commissioners of Virginia were
pleading the interests of "learning and religion" before
the Attorney-General of Charles II (an Anglo-Norman
lawyer, no doubt), he promptly responded with a hearty
English oath " Damn your souls! Grow tobacco!" There
is no need for such an adjuration to the planters of the
fine old Anglo-Norman Commonwealth of Kentucky.
The tobacco will be . planted, whatever may become of
76 The Quest for a Lost Race
An English scholar of sound judgment and exceptionally
sound views has recently said that the Emperor Napoleon
was the greatest administrator of all time. His greatest
work, perhaps, is the system of administrative centrali-
zation which, through a century of the severest tests that
political madness could apply, has maintained the condi-
tions of social order even in the midst of war and under
every form of organized misrule, and secured almost
unparalleled prosperity for the municipalities and provinces
of France. But it must not be forgotten that William
the Norman solved a like problem with apparently even
greater success, and under antagonizing conditions which
only a statesman of original genius could successfully con-
front. Not for one century, only, of marvelous effective-
ness in civic administration, but for eight hundred years
of advancing and expanding civilization, the conceptions
evolved by the Norman's brain have been doing their
beneficent work ; and great as was the genius of the Corsican
adventurer, it is not incredible that even he, the master
of Europe, did not disdain the lesson which had been taught
the nations by that magnificent Son of France. The Cor-
sican was a close student of military history, and secretly
meditated a descent upon modern England in imitation
The Quest for a Lost Race 77
of the earlier Conqueror's work. It is not likely that he
would overlook the methods of reorganization that fol-
lowed the war, with its machinery of sheriffs, judges,
justiciaries, etc. executive officers directly responsible
to the king bringing the throne in direct touch with the
people, and drawing every subject, at least in every cen-
tral shire, in direct personal allegiance to the throne.
The Marquessess, or wardens of the Marches, were able
and ambitious warriors whose sole concern was with dan-
gers from without. But even Napoleon could not foresee,
in this guarded initiatory recognition of the landowner,
the ultimate evolution of a territorial democracy that
was to affect the political and social destinies of the Eng-
lish race. Monarchs of a later date Henry the Eighth
and his masterful daughter Elizabeth saw in the people
the sole source of power; and the loyal Englishman even
of this generation will proudly tell you that in his country
the sole fountain of honor is the king. There were at
least two American statesmen who were illustrious disciples
of the Norman's political school. They were men of Nor-
man blood, who wrought in American statecraft with the
Norman's constructive brain and there was still another
of the same imperial strain who, with a philosophic con-
ception of all that was of value in the principles of Anglo-
Norman administration and a just appreciation by actual
78 The Quest for a Lost Race
experience of government as a practical art, never failed
throughout a long, brilliant, and successful career to teach
the doctrine that the People Themselves were the sole
fountain of honor and the exclusive source of power a
principle in the philosophy of government and in political
administration equally patent to William the Conqueror,
when he anxiously sought a declaration of "personal"
allegiance from the subjects in that great gathering of
potential "sovereigns" upon Salisbury Plain. In the long
succession of administrators that followed the Norman
king, there was none that seems to have grasped so com-
pletely and applied so skillfully his principles and methods
of political administration as a daughter of the Tudor race.
She may not have loved the people in any modern sense;
but she knew their power, she recognized their rights;
she studied their interests, and her jeweled finger was
always upon their pulse. The best of all treatment, she
thought, was to anticipate with soothing remedies the rude
distempers of the times. She considered rather the Con-
stitution of the Subject than the Constitution of the State ;
since, collectively, one embraced the other.
Mr. Barrett Wendell, in his admirable work, " A Literary
History of America, ' ' discourses with great brilliancy and
charm upon the Elizabethan influences that governed in
a large measure the development of the Puritan and the
The Quest for a Lost Race 79
Virginian race. The reader of the present paper will note
with curious interest the bearing of the following quota-
tions from this work upon the theories which the present
writer has discussed. "Broadly speaking," he says, "all
our Northern colonies were developed from those planted
in Massachusetts; and all our Southern from that planted
in Virginia." The statement is "socially" true, he says,
to an extraordinary degree. The Elizabethan type of
character " displayed a marked power of assimilating what-
ever came within its influence." This trait, akin to that
which centuries before had made the conquered English
slowly but surely assimilate their Norman conquerors, the
Yankees of our own day have not quite lost. Our native
type still "absorbs" the foreign. The children of immi-
grants insensibly become native. The irresistible power
of a common language and of the common ideals which under-
lie it still dominates. This tendency, he adds, declared
itself from the earliest settlements of Jamestown and
Plymouth. " North and South alike may be regarded
as regions finally settled by Elizabethan Englishmen."
The dominant traits of the English race of that time were
" spontaneity, enthusiasm, and versatility." But the Eliza-
bethan English of Virginia, he says, were notably different
in this: they were men of a less "austere" type of char-
acter than their compatriots of the North; of more adven-
8o The Quest for a Lost Race
turous "instincts," and were "men of action" as the
New Englanders were "men of God." The peculiar
power of assimilation and the " pristine alertness of mind ' '
were the same in both. The economic superiority of the
North was manifest; the political ability of the South
seemed generally superior. Pleasantly putting aside the
traditional claims of exclusive "cavalier" descent, Mr.
Wendell says: "At least up to the Civil War the personal
temper of the better classes in the South remained more
like that of the better classes in Seventeenth Century
England than anything else in the modern world." He
frankly concedes that the most eminent statesmen of
Colonial and Revolutionary days were Virginians. Recall-
ing what has been said in regard to the constitutional
sluggishness of the Anglo-Saxon, his mental inertness, his
settled or stereotyped habits of thought, and his absolute
lack of racial initiative until the Norman came, we read
the following passage from Mr. Wendell with curious inter-
est: "Such literature as the English world has left us
bespeaks a public whose spontaneous alertness of mind,
whose instant perception of every subtle variety of phrase
and allusion, was more akin to that of our contemporary
French than to anything which we are now accustomed
to consider native to insular England." This transforma-
tion Mr. Wendell attributes to " the spontaneous, enthusias-
HONORABLE JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE.
The Quest for a Lost Race 81
tic versatility of the English temperament," in the spa-
cious Elizabethan days. What has produced or determined
this extraordinary differentiation of race? What are the
original, genetic factors behind this varied manifestation
of power in that old, Elizabethan stock? With the
advent of the Seventeenth Century; with the turbulence,
and trouble, and austerity of Cromwellian days ; with migra-
tions following Cromwellian war; with the evolution of
a transatlantic type of the English race, there came an
end to those spacious and splendid days to the creative,
prolific epoch of the Virgin Queen.
The most trivial fact that connects the name of Shakes-
peare with Virginia is of interest to the Virginian and his
multitudinous clans. Captain Newport, Vice-Admiral of
Virginia, commanded the ship Sea Adventure, which was
wrecked on the Devil's Islands. Sir George Somers, sitting
on the poop and misled by a flaming apparition on the
masts, unconsciously guided the vessel in a fatal course.
William Strachey, "Secretary in Virginia," wrote the ac-
count of the "Tempest" published in Purchas. Thus was
the "king's ship" boarded and burned by the spirit Ariel
at the command of his master Prospero, and wrecked on
those "Bermoothes" which are "still vext" by that rude,
tempestuous sea. It is of interest, too, to note that the
special Supervisors and Directors of this Elizabethan colony
82 The Quest for a Lost Race
were William Shakespeare's friends the Earl of South-
ampton; the Earl of Pembroke; the Earl of Montgomery;
Viscount Lisle (brother of Sir Philip Sidney) ; Lord Howard
of Walden; Lord Sheffield; and Lord Carew of Clopton,
who sold Shakespeare, in 1597, the house in which he
lived till 1616 all of them Elizabethan cavaliers derived
from Anglo-Norman stock. There is another Elizabethan
name of still greater interest to all people of the Anglo-
Virginian race Sir Edwin Sandys, the author of the
political charters upon which the free institutions of
Virginia rest; and not only Virginia, but the United States.
Educated at Geneva and the son of an English Archbishop,
he was thoroughly seasoned with the doctrines of the
Genevan school ; and aimed not only to found the American
Republic on Genevan lines by the creation of a " free state ' '
on the Atlantic coast, but to make ample provision in
the charter itself for the ultimate "expansion" of the young
republic toward the Pacific Ocean. This statement may
not, even yet, be universally accepted; but it is incon-
The Quest for a Lost Race 83
In the spring of 1885, a pamphlet was published by a
citizen of Kentucky directing attention to the effect of
certain racial influences in molding the institutions of
this State. It was entitled "The Genesis of a Pioneer
Commonwealth." The suggestions offered by the writer
as to the sources of our organic life were subsequently
illustrated and confirmed by an eminent Virginian scholar,
Dr. Alexander Brown, in his " Genesis of the United States,"
published in 1890 a marvel of masterly investigation; a
work which throws a flood of light upon the broad expanse
of early American history, and is especially remarkable for
the critical elaboration, lucidity, and acuteness with which
the author has arranged the results of his extensive scheme
of historic research. In this work he has noted and traced,
from English records contemporary with the first settle-
ment of Virginia, the beginnings of that great duel between
conflicting civilizations which closed with the destruction
of Spain's naval power at Manila and Santiago. And
every scholar who seeks a precise comprehension of the
origines of the late war should closely follow the course of
investigation pursued by Dr. Brown. Every accessible
detail of the desperate and protracted Anglo-Spanish con-
flict including the exploits of Elizabeth's captains and
84 The Quest for a Lost Race
the destruction of the Great Armada come out under
this historic searchlight as distinctly and vividly as ma-
terial objects under the light of day. To citizens of Ken-
tucky who have a critical and philosophic interest in
the historic evolution of the Commonwealth, it will be
peculiarly attractive in the circumstance that it con-
nects, and in a special sense includes, the Genesis of
Kentucky with that of the United States. He suggests
in a most interesting way that this Commonwealth is
not only a lineal product of the Elizabethan civilization
which he has sought to trace, but that cartographically
at least it formed an integral part of the first Republic
established in the New World. In an explanatory com-
munication addressed some years ago to the present
writer, Dr. Brown says: "The bounds of the charters
which contained the popular charter rights which were the
germ of this republic extended between thirty-four degrees
(34) and forty degrees (40) north latitude, and from
ocean to ocean. Kentucky, therefore, was embraced
within the first Republic in America. ' '
The sagacious statesmen of Spain were not slow o
detect the menacing significance of this Virginian settle-
ment, small as it was; and the conflict then initiated did
not cease until the navies of Spain went down under the
guns of Dewey and Schley. The persistent machinations
The Quest for a Lost Race 85
of Spanish -intrigants to obtain control of Kentucky in
the closing years of the Eighteenth Century were part of
the same prolonged contest for supremacy upon American
soil. Every resource of diplomacy, intrigue, and corrup-
tion or, in modern phrase, of craft and graft was exhaust-
ed by Spain to wrest the germinant Commonwealth from
the parent stem. On the other hand, no scheme was more
popular with the bold and enterprising Kentuckians
the Vikings of the West than to wrest the control of the
Mississippi River from the desperate grasp of Spain.
Even the splendid and seducing allurement of a Span-
ish alliance was powerless against the transmitted
instincts of a Scandinavian or Anglo-Norman stock. But
the racial inclination for territorial expansion Kentucky
never lost. There was a later manifestation of this spirit
or instinct in the annexation of California; an appropria-
tion by force, to be sure, but under recognized "legal
forms"; and, still later, it was manifested in disastrous
expeditions to the Cuban coast, in which the reckless
survivors barely escaped, like the man of Uz, with the skin
of their teeth thanks to a swift steamship and to an
indulgent interpretation of the violated law. In the near
future, perhaps, we shall have an annexation of the Island
under forms which will fully justify the act; annexation
on the old lines. As far as race could make them so, the
86 The Quest for a Lost Race
daring adventurers who poured to foreign war from the
vast network of streams and streamlets that flowed sea-
ward from the mountains and lowlands of Kentucky were
Vikings, with all the fighting characteristics of that
ancient breed.* Not Vi- Kings, nor "kings "of any sort,
but simply the Vik-ings or " Creek-men" who followed their
expatriated Jarls wherever a dragon-prow would float; to
the land of the Saxon under his greatest king ; to the heart
of Ireland, where the natives were already "absorbing"
the alien Norse; to the ancient Kingdom of Gaul; to
Scotland and to the islands of the Atlantic Ridge; and
above all to Iceland, the land of mist and snow and fire;
to the incomparable mistress of the Northern seas.
Through the beautiful Mediterranean, too, they sailed;
and gathering to the support of the decadent despotisms
of the East, became famous in history and romance as
the Varangian Guard which held at bay the Saracen and
the Hun. They were "rebels" when they fled from the
consolidating despotism of ^Harold Fairhair. They have
been rulers or rebels ever since.
But the story of their greatest exploits you read in the
histories of the English race. We have analyzed the claims
*That acute and philosophic observer, Goldwin Smith, says in his description
of the " Night-hawk " Kentuckians (1812): "In all his proceedings he showed a
lawless vigor which might prove the wild stock of civilized virtue." Gens
The Quest for a Lost Race 87
which Mr. Barrett Wendell has made for the Elizabethan
settler upon the Atlantic Coast; and it is instructive to
note that another gifted son of New England, Mr. John
Fiske, has reached conclusions which he at least would
acknowledge give confirmation to the present views, as
strong as proof of Holy Writ. " The descendants of these
Northmen," he says, "formed a very large proportion of
the population of the East Anglian counties, and conse-
quently of the men who founded New England. The
East Anglian counties have been conspicuous for resistance
to tyranny and for freedom of thought." By parity of
reasoning, we may easily prove that the kindred Norman
was the founder of civilization in England, and, in direct
sequence and by filiation of race, of civilization in the
Colony of Virginia; and, by a gradual evolution, in the
States of the South and West.
Far back in the history of our race there stands, luminous
and large, in his milieu of mediaeval mist, a mounted
conqueror with sword and torch the immediate offspring
of Scandinavian Jarls the remote progenitor of the
Virginian "Cavalier." It is the founder of that Anglo-
Norman civilization of which we form a part, and
which, in many ways, still responds to the impulse of
that imperial brain.
88 The Quest for a Lost Race
William the Norman presented in vivid epitome the
characteristic traits of his race, with other traits or varia-
tions of these traits that made him almost an abnormal
figure even in the history of those times. He has been
commonly depicted as physically a giant among his fellows ;
but Lord Lytton (a good authority) discredits these legends
of gigantic stature; it is seldom we find, he declares, the
association of great size and commanding intellect in great
men; it is really a violation of the natural law, though
possibly the great Norman may have been, like Abraham
Lincoln, an exception to the general rule. His physical
forces were certainly subjected to severe tests. His per-
sonal leadership in the wintry marches through the North
of England were, practically, paralleled in later days by
the wintry marches of our Scandinavian general, George
Rogers Clark, in the vast territories of the North and West.
The prodigious fortitude and endurance manifested in
these campaigns proved beyond all question the staying
capacity of the Scandinavian blood. The royal Norman
had all the tastes of a forest-born man; not a mere taste
for the sports of the field as known to the English gentle-
men of a later period, but a wild, almost demoniac passion
for the atrocities of the chase as practised by the early
Norman kings. A love of royal sport does not discredit
a modern ruler of men; but scarcely such sport as this.
HONORABLE WILLIAM PRESTON.
The Quest for a Lost Race 89
The "wild king," says an old English chronicler, "loves
wild beasts as if he were a wild beast himself and the
father of wild beasts." Churches and manors were swept
away to create forests and dens and retreats for the creatures
he loved to slay. He ruled, conquered, hunted, ravaged,
"harried," and subjugated from Brittany to Scotland;
and yet, says the same old chronicler in his "Flowers
of History," "he was such a lover of peace that a girl
laden with gold might traverse the whole of England
This may or may not be a "flower of history"; but if
true, it is a startling historic fact.
go The Quest for a Lost Race
As the Conqueror stood among the sovereigns of that
day, so stood the Normans among the contemporary races.
They were of peculiar type, these men both sovereign
and subject and were cast in a like mold. They had
body, sap, color, concentrated vigor, and inbred Thracian
fire. They had a sort of racial distinction which in its
merely personal aspects was never lost. Mingling with all
races, they yet stood in a sense separate and apart from
all. They were as the Haut Brian among the wines of
the Bordelais. But, unlike their native vine, they bore
transplantation to any land, and drew perpetual vigor
from every soil. Strange as it may seem, there is a confessed
incapacity for colonization in the Frenchman of to-day,
and stranger still is the remedy for this defect which some
of their leading thinkers have proposed, to wit, that the
Frenchman should transmogrify himself into an Anglo-
Saxon. Certainly a grotesque transformation, if effected
in the manner proposed by those pessimistic prophets
Demolins and Lemaitre. France (they say) must have
colonial expansion! The Anglo-Saxon is the only success-
ful expansionist; we must Anglo-Saxonize France! They
forget that the Anglo-Saxon himself is indebted for his
success as a colonist and trader to the Scandinavian French-
The Quest for a Lost Race 91
men who colonized England under William the Conqueror,
and that it was not until the Norman's demoniac spirit
of "enterprise" took possession of the Anglo-Saxon thegns
and ceorls that they even felt the impulse to "go down
to the sea in ships." Later, too, they should remember,
there was an industrial colonization of England by the
Frenchmen who were relentlessly expatriated in the days
of the dragonades. What France then lost has never
been fully regained. When she lost the Norman element
in its early Scandinavian form, her capacity for colonial
expansion was seriously impaired. When she colonized
England by an indiscriminate exclusion of the Huguenots
from her own soil, her capacity for normal evolution was
lost. The recanting or subjugated element that remained
is probably represented by the prescriptive "free-thinking"
anti-clerical element of to-day. The profane spirit of the
English "Bigod" had been imported into the religion of
France, and "bigotry" may discredit the claims of the
noblest faith. The extreme reactionary result in this in-
stance is an intolerant unbelief, passing at times into a
ferocious contempt for country, constitutions, and creeds.
The storms of Norman conquest seemed scarce to touch
the depths of Anglo-Saxon life. No marked change in
the methods of local administration accompanied the
change of kings. The rude strength of the old manorial
92 The Quest for a Lost Race
system was proof against radical change. Far less com-
plex than the centralized administration of modern France,
it was even better calculated to accommodate itself to the
changes wrought by the hand of war. Built low and strong,
it stood four-square to every shock and blast. It was
only the high towers that toppled in the sweep of the
storm. When it passed, the village-group, the manorial
life, and the rude strong sons of the soil were still there.
Andrews, an authority upon early Anglo-Saxon life, gives
us a picture of the "yeoman" which leaves much to be
desired in the way of picturesqueness and charm. Upon
the testimony of priests and leeches he is depicted as a
swinish, servile sort of creature gross, stupid, sensual,
superstitious, cruel, and even "beastly"; with no concep-
tion whatever of "freedom," and only the most bestial
conceptions of life. The routine of husbandry after the
Conquest knew no change. A Norman baron unseats
the Saxon thegn, but the villein and ceorl take up the
labors of the old manorial life; the new lord receives
the customary dues, and protection against lawlessness
is extended to bond and free. This servile Saxon class
were the descendants of a soldier race which many
years before the advent of the conquering Norman had
rudely dispossessed the ancient inhabitants of the soil,
and were themselves first to "harry," no doubt (for
The Quest for a Lost Race 93
harry is an old Saxon word imported from the North),
the whole of that turbulent realm which William harried
only in part. But the Norman harried well. It may be
said that Northumbria never rallied from the devastation
until the magical agencies of modern industrialism came
to repair the ravage that he had wrought. But elsewhere
the "Conquest" worked no such change. The Norman
simply gave completeness, variety, elevation, splendor, and
finish to the Saxon's rude but solid work. The transfor-
mation wrought through the genius of the soldier-statesman
was not the plodding reconstruction of a shattered kingdom
upon ancient lines, but the orderly evolution of a new
and splendid civilization within conditions "visualized"
by the Conqueror's creative brain. The primordial and
paramount condition of this work was the permanent
establishment of English unity at the gathering of the
people upon Salisbury Plain. When the people rallied
in loyal allegiance to the throne, the old conceptions of
"feudalism" ceased to exist vanishing centuries before
Cervantes smiled Spain's "chivalry" away. In our own
Websterian phrase, England was henceforth " one and indi-
visible." The fusion of warring elements was now as
complete as if welded together by the hammer of Thor.
The consequences of that initial step are told in the
history of the English race consequences which this
The Quest for a Lost Race
imperial statesman alone had the genius to forecast. To
no mere man does the line of the Nineteenth Century
poet so well apply
"He dipt into the future far as human eye could see."
This Norman adventurer who had now practically
established all his pretensions legitimate and illegitimate
was destined to establish, also, a line of Anglo-Norman
princes who showed in varied ways that transmitted blood
would tell. Shakespeare, in his splendid series of his-
torical plays, has painted in vivid colors and fine dramatic
sequence the manifestation of this Anglo-Norman influence
through a succession of closely connected reigns weaving
into brilliant and picturesque history the fireside traditions
which fascinated his youthful mind. The story that he
tells is unique, not only in the literature of the race, but
in the literature of man. " The only history that I know, ' '
said an English statesman discussing the annals of his
race, "is the history that Shakespeare wrote." No for-
mal historic writer has presented so faithfully or effectively
the characteristic traits and temper of that time. It is
a philosophic study, resting chiefly upon a traditional
basis, and cast in a powerful dramatic form. And who so
fit as Shakespeare to depict the features of a royal race?
This strong portrayal of their salient or their subtler
The Quest for a Lost Race 95
qualities, in statecraft or in war, is something quite be-
yond the reach of a mere historian's art. Through all this
dramatic movement we note the wild tricks of an heredi-
tary blood; the troublous or turbulent play of passions
flowing from an alien source. It is in this record alone
we find that magical touch, that moving speech, that
strange, pathetic eloquence which flows from royal lips
inspired to utterance by the sorrows of an Anglo-Norman
brain. Doubtless it is Shakespeare's noblest work. It is
certainly a product of the same imperial spirit that
breathes in the aspirations, the utterances, and the acts of
the "melancholy Dane."
Recent researches among the Scandinavian population
of the Northern States seem to show marked psychological
distinctions in the several branches of the Scandinavian
stock, denoting original differences in the mental make-up
and manifestations of the Norwegian, the Swede, and the
Dane ; brainy races all, but the psychological manifestations
of their daily life differing in each. The Swede and his
Norwegian brother have a strong, instinctive inclination
for the ruder activities of their social environment
building, boating, agriculture, railway construction, com-
mercial operations, etc. ; the Dane, on the contrary, mani-
festing an equally marked predilection for life in its con-
templative or aesthetic aspects for philosophy, the belles-
96 The Quest for a Lost Race
lettres, the fine arts, and the higher lines of scholastic
research. His physiognomy is differentiated, so to speak,
by "the pale cast of thought." Is it not possible that
this deep intra-racial distinction was recognized by the
creator of the "melancholy Dane"?
But " Hamlet" was not altogether a product of Shakes-
perean imagination. The original lines of the character
seem to have been found in the personality of a contem-
porary thinker, himself, like Hamlet, an obstinate ques-
tioner of invisible things. In those eager Elizabethan
times when Drake and Raleigh were "discovering" other
worlds and Shakespeare imagining new, there . lived near
the ancient city of Bordeaux a modest country gentleman
a grand seigneur of peculiar distinction who on his
father's side was of direct English descent. He bore a
patrician title ; he was lord of a rich domain, and enjoyed
social and civic distinctions of the highest sort. His
scholarship was ample and unique; his social pretensions
were not in excess of his rank; and he bore his weight of
learning "lightly like a flower." Rank, riches, scholar-
ship, distinction all these he had, and more; he had the
prodigious gift of common sense, with a sort of cynical
humor flashing through an habitual mood of philosophic
thought that gave to his writing and notably to his book
of observations and reflections a peculiar archaic charm.
GENERAL BASIL W. DUKE.
The Quest for a Lost Race 97
One could not pay a higher tribute to his literary power
than to add, that his writings had a powerful fascination
for Shakespeare himself. These philosophic essays sup-
plied the great dramatist with many subtle and striking
thoughts, and the very personality of the modest country
gentleman made a profound impression upon Shakespeare's
mind; so marked an impression indeed that according to
the affirmation or suggestion of an ingenious modern
scholar, the great English writer himself of Anglo-Norman
blood found in this Anglo-French philosopher the original
of that incomparable dramatic figure the "melancholy
DANE." If this theory be correct, it simply adds to the
evidence of a certain bizarre weirdness in the working of
that old Scandinavian blood. Be this as it may, if the
mind of Shakespeare could be touched and inspired by
the philosophic reflexions of a provincial thinker in France
(a Frenchman with a strong suspicion of Anglo-Norman
blood), there are doubtless others (some with the same
ethnic affinities) that may profitably be reached in the
same way; and lest the Anglo-Normans of our Bluegrass
"Arcady" should take themselves too seriously, as even
the wisest may do, in the momentous matter of "family, "
"rank," "blood," and "race," it would be well at parting
to introduce for their consideration the antiquated opinions
of the same ingenious Frenchman, who, wise as he was,
98 The Quest for a Lost Race
did not always perhaps take matters seriously enough.
In this instance no doubt his views will carry weight.
Thus much by way of preface and apology (if there be
need of either) in closing an excursive dissertation upon the
ethnological theories of Monsieur Paul Du Chaillu, accom-
panied with some interesting reflections from the pen of
another Frenchman who, though not "modern" in the
same sense, seems to have been in some of his conceptions
quite judicious and even elevated in his views. This
quaint, genial, and sagacious philosopher the author of a
famous book of "Essays" was the Seigneur de la Mon-
taigne, Count of Perigord and sometime Mayor of Bor-
deaux, whose greatest title to fame is this that he was
the favorite author of William Shakespeare, the foremost
writer of all time. Possibly Montaigne by contribution
of thought was an unconscious collaborator in the con-
struction of "Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark," a drama
which illustrates in brilliant, powerful, and fantastic
fashion the varied intellectual and emotive capacities of
the Scandinavian blood. In that royal Anglo-Norman,
"Prince Hal" of England, the English dramatist depicts
the man of action; in Hamlet, the brooding Prince of
Denmark, he presents the man of thought. They were
the favorite children of Shakespeare's prolific brain.
'Tis a scurvy custom and of very ill-consequence,"
says the ingenious Chevalier Montaigne, " that we have
The Quest for a Lost Race 99
in our kingdom of France to call every one by the name
of his manor or seigneury, and the thing in the world that
does the most prejudice and confounds families and
descents. . . We need look no further for example than
our own royal family, where every partage creates a new
sir-name, whilst in the meantime the original of the family
is totally lost. There is so great liberty taken in these
mutations that I have not in my time seen any one advanced
by fortune to any extraordinary condition who has not
presently had genealogical titles added to him new and
unknown to his father.
" How many gentlemen have we in France who by their
own talk are of royal extraction? More I think than who
will confess they are not.
"Was it not a pleasant passage of a friend of mine?
There were a great many gentlemen assembled together;
about the dispute of one lord of the manor with another,
which other had in truth some pretty eminence of titles
and alliances, above the ordinary scheme of gentry. Upon
the debate of this priority of place, every one standing up
for himself, to make himself equal to him; one, one extrac-
tion, another another; one the near resemblance of name;
another of arms; another an old worm-eaten patent, and
the least of them great-grandchild to some foreign king.
When they came to sit down to dinner, my friend, instead
ioo The Quest for a Lost Race
of taking his place amongst them, retiring with most
profound congees, entreated the company to excuse him
for having lived with them hitherto at the saucy rate of
a companion; but being now better informed of their
quality, he would begin to pay them the respect due to
their birth and grandeur; and that it would ill become
him to sit down among so many princes; and ended the
farce with a thousand reproaches.
" Let us in God's name," continues the illustrious
writer, "satisfy ourselves with what our fathers were con-
tented and with what we are; we are great enough if we under-
stand rightly how to maintain it; let us not disown the fortune
and condition of our ancestors, and lay aside those ridiculous
pretences that can never be wanting to any one that has the
impudence to alledge them. ' '
The Quest for a Lost Race 101
The alphabetical series of Norman or Anglo-Norman
names here given was selected by an English scholar from
an English official directory and published, anonymously,
in the latter half of the last century, to illustrate a theory
of the genesis of the English race. The present selection
represents only in part the series or lists originally
published, embracing several thousand names. To this
selection the writer has added Norman or Scandi-
navian names from other sources, together with "notes"
that serve to confirm in detail the general theory of inherited
racial traits. The list which he first published has been
greatly enlarged and many additions made from the
original English series.*
Mr. Freeman says that the Normans "lost them-
selves" among the people whom they conquered.
Very clearly, however, the "names" were not
lost. The original Norman may be said to have had,
in a high degree, that personnaliti absorbante which,
according to Littr, is characteristic of every great man.
It is not remarkable, therefore, that after every Norman
invasion the resulting ethnical transmutation was com-
plete. The new element became at once the
* The Norman People.
io2 The Quest for a Lost Race
vitalizing power of the "absorptive" or subjugated race.
This gift of racial transformation was so great that the
Scandinavians, seizing a Gallic province, became French
or Norman; subjugating England, they became English;
overflowing Ireland, they fused at once with the native
race; actually becoming " Irisher than the Irish" them-
selves Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores. The Duke of Argyle
once said in the English House of Lords that three of the
Irish leaders of that day (one of them John Redmond,
the present Irish King) were genealogically superior men
men of illustrious descent leaders of royal or noble Nor-
man blood; confirming the declaration made by the author
of the "Peerage" that it is not lands but ancestors that
make a nobility. The career of the Norman as a con-
quering or migratory race has been a perpetual masquerade ;
in England taking the form of an Irishman and controlling
the Parliament; in the same guise leading the armies of
England and France; in America, demoniacally possessed,
becoming the personal director of a lynching, the boss of
a strike, or the leader of a lawless expeditionary force.
But everywhere he leads] The name of the race disap-
pears, but the original, indestructible, irresistible, invisi-
ble and protean force is still there. If we reject the exis-
tence and operation of this subtle and pervasive influence
in the ancestral strains of Kentucky, the evolution of the
The Quest for a Lost Race 103
typical Kentuckian can not easily be explained. The race
is "lost," not because the visiting Norman is absorbed
by his host, but because the visitor appropriates all that
his host may have, even his personality and all that it
implies. The Englishman, or the Irishman, or the Scotch-
man, disappear, and a transmogrified Norman takes his
place. It is not English, nor Irish, nor French absorp-
tiveness, but Norman appropriativeness, that has done
the work. Precisely thus, to compare great things with
small-: the English Whigs once went in swimming, and
the Norman Tories "stole their clothes." But the Nor-
man's act of appropriation usually goes deeper than the
skin. He is not content with a petty theft of "clothes."
With an almost satanic subtlety and finesse he appro-
priates the very soul. It becomes, indeed, his very own.
That incomparable illusionist, Benjamin Disraeli, was a
past-master in these Norman arts, and in perfect sym-
pathy with those Anglo-Norman Tories who followed his
fortunes in victory or defeat. But Norman or Saxon were
equally indifferent to him. It was glory enough for Sem-
itic ambition to build success upon the needs of both;
and yet, in doing it, this man of alien blood and ancient
race repeated the miracle of Lanfranc the scholar and
statesman who, in the old Norman days, had not only
cooled the hot blood of the Normanized Scandinavian
104 The Quest for a Lost Race
and conciliated the respect of the proud, implacable
Saxon, but, linking their interests in inseparable associa-
tion, had brightened with a prospect of imperial splendor
the destinies of the common race. So, too, the Semitic
statesman charmed the rudest elements with his Orphean
song. His brilliant successor, Salisbury, added to parts
and learning the technical information of a savant.
Disraeli had something better He had that deep,
philosophic insight which seems to be bred into the elect
of an ancient stock. It is a mystical gift.
"He saw things, now, as though they were,
And things To Be in things that are."
This (if we may believe Haeckel) was the " inspiration "
of the Jewish Law-giver.
How little escaped the thoughtful eyes of our Semitic
statesman, as he surveyed from his coign of vantage the
shifting currents of our modern world! In depicting Mon-
signore Berwick, a descendant of an old Scottish family
that for generations had mingled Italian blood with its
own, the writer looks quite beyond the native environ-
ment, and sees only the old Northern blood in the flaxen
hair and light blue eyes of the young Italian priest. Describ-
ing a nineteenth century function at the beautiful English
home of Hugo Bohun, he sees at once in Mr. Gaston Phoe-
bus the most gifted and attractive of the swells whom
fashion has herded in this social jungle of Bohun not a
THE MARSHALL HOME AT "BUCK POND."
(Near Versailles, Kentucky.)
Built in 1783 by Colonel Thomas Marshall, father of Chief Justice Marshall.
The Quest for a Lost Race 105
modern Englishman, but a Gascon noble of the Sixteenth
Century, clothed with all the attractions of a contemporary
courtier of France the France of Louis le Grand. In
" Gaston Phoebus" says the philosophic statesman
" Nature, as is sometimes her wont, had chosen to reproduce
exactly the original type." When the subtle Semitic
thinker introduced an American "Colonel" at the swell
function of Hugo Bohun, why should he take him from
the South, and give him a Norman name? Had nature
reproduced in Colonel Campian the antique Norman type?
It is a notorious fact, says Herbert Spencer, that the
Celtic type disappears altogether in the United States.
Doubtless some vague conception of a potential under-
current of ancestral blood must have been passing through
the mind of that fine old gentleman, Mr. Isaac Shelby of
Fayette, when dispensing his stores of bachelor wisdom
to his young friends just "after the war." He would
say, " Depend on it, young gentlemen, there is no cross
like a Virginian cross." The differentiating quality was
there. It was observed, but not accurately depicted per-
haps, by Disraeli, by Barrett Wendell, and by Isaac le
Bon. What was it? If a racial quality, what race?
Two of these acute observers were of Scandinavian stock.
The other did not need to say, even to the proudest states-
man at Potsdam or St. James, " Your race is of but yester-
106 The Quest for a Lost Race
day compared with my own." One of Disraeli's favorite
themes was race. Indeed, a statesman could not be
ignorant of the subject in his day. The claims of race
were sweeping over diplomatic arrangements and dynastic
rights. Bismarck was unifying the German people by
removing ancient landmarks, by "appropriating" autono-
mous territories, and by appropriating or absorbing a
large population of the Scandinavian race; and the third
(and last) Napoleon undertook to unify the Latin races
by placing an Austrian prince upon the Mexican throne.
But the Napoleonic prince pushed his reconstructive
theories of race to a destructive conclusion when, in free-
ing Italy, he furnished a formidable partner to the Triple
Alliance, that ultimately destroyed France. The senti-
ment of race, properly directed, has its uses. But the
director must not be a despot or a despot's agent. The
feeling must be popular in origin and expression volun-
tary, spontaneous, normal, autonomous. There was never
a better illustration of its power than in the prolonged
struggle of Kentucky for existence as an American State.
There was never a better illustration of popular capacity
in statecraft and of enterprise in war than in the early
years of the last century (1800-12). They the people-
discharged the functions of an independent State. Ken-
tucky was in fact a little nation. Raising and equipping
The Quest for a Lost Race 107
armies, receiving diplomatic emissaries or agents, defend-
ing her frontiers, guarding the Atlantic border, protecting
the territories of the Northwest, and in conjunction with
the "sea-power" of Commodore Perry actually conducting
war upon foreign soil. The very guns on Perry's ships
were "sighted" by riflemen from Kentucky; and when
the day came to try conclusions with the bold English-
man on his own soil, one of the most efficient aides upon
Shelby's staff was Perry himself. Is there nothing in this
record to appeal to a sentiment of national pride in the
Kentuckian's heart? And does it not inspire a disposi-
tion to revive and invigorate those pristine instincts of
our common race? Probably the recent manifestation of
"home-coming" sentiment was denotive of some such
stirring of racial impulse and emotion long dormant in
io8 The Quest for a Lost Race
When following the long > dim path of Gothic migra-
tion we found but little that seemed to be in vivid relation
with the ethnology of our own race; and it was not until
we were afloat upon the Scandinavian seas, with Rolf
Ganger looking out upon the kingdoms of the earth, that
we began to feel ourselves (to speak in paradox) firmly
planted upon historic ground. Here the conditions of the
old parable are reversed. The genius of civilization is
offering the kingdoms of the earth to the Devil himself.
With the old pirate of the Norwegian coast begins the
great movement that frees, elevates, and modernizes man.*
Henceforth all is plain sailing for the historical inquirer.
The reader may take down his map and trace the foot-
prints of the Norse freebooters wherever they dropped a
Scandinavian name upon our ancestral soil. These ancient
"place names" are found everywhere north of the Avon,
and may easily be traced along the eastern coast of England,
*When Otto, the Saxon, a remote kinsman of our race, became a Roman
Emperor, he became the CONSERVATOR of Rome and all her works. When
William the Norman became King of England and the leader of Gothic
races, it was his chosen mission to undo, in part, the work which Rome had
done. As a soldier and statesman, the Norman leader had been trained in the
"school" of the Saxon King. Read Mr. Freeman's "Western Europe in the
Eighth Century." It is an impressive introduction to that " realm of shadows "
which forms the background of the Norman Conquest. It was the genetic
period of modern civilization. The geographic outlines of great modern States
were just beginning to appear.
The Quest for a Lost Race 109
from the Tyne to the Thames; or, proceeding westward
and northward, far beyond the line of the Cheviot Hills ;
far beyond the waters of the Tweed. The Scandinavian
has resolved to stay wherever he has been planted by the
fortunes of war. When his Norman kinsman seized the
counties of Southern England, the practical result of the
invasion was to reinforce the Anglo-Saxon whom he came
to rob. The Norman invader was warmly received by
those English Normans the Danes -in his "wintry
marches" to the north. From the dragon teeth thus sown
sprang the Kentuckian of to-day, two thirds "dragon"
and one third "bull." The "half horse, half alligator"
was an Anglo-Norman assimilation of a later date.
It is conceivable that by reason of exhausted material
resources coal, iron, etc. our present splendid civiliza-
tion, in the course of a few thousand years, will disappear;
leaving here and there, perhaps, in some happy isle of the
Pacific seas, a prosperous and cultivated population de-
scended from some surviving element of the present
American stock. Peering painfully through the mists of
tradition, they have vague glimpses of ancestral races
fighting for supremacy in a vast continental war the
Yenghees in the North and the Dixees in the South-
remote ancestral races in internecine conflict.
It was thus with the Teutonic and Scandinavian races of
to-day. In far-off Central Asia, beyond the Caspian Sea
no The Quest for a Lost Race
and beyond the definite historic boundaries of the past,
they see great races in perpetual movement of migration
or war; multitudinous peoples; two distinct groups or
divisions; but all of one race. As they emerge into the
twilight of history into the savage gloaming betwixt the
dog and the wolf the observer recognizes two races,
the Teutones and the Gothones, or Goths. The vast
migratory columns of the former take possession of Central
Europe. The other column, the kindred Gothones or
Goths, making its exit from Central Asia, sweeps along
the valley of the Vistula, follows the southern shores of
the Baltic Sea, and moving to the mouths of the Elbe and
the Rhine directs its columns of colonization into Den-
mark and the Danish Islands, and to the vast Scandinavian
peninsula of the north. As the northern column loitered
along the shores of the Baltic they gathered great quanti-
ties of amber from the sea, which with early instincts of
commercial thrift they sold to the Teutones on the south,
by whom, with early mechanic aptitude, it was wrought
into many exquisite and profitable shapes for the markets
of the world. "Made in Germany" is an antique trade-
mark in the history of men, and there is a pleasant, if
trivial, significance in the circumstance that the first his-
toric article of traffic between these primitive races the
founders of modern civilization was the substance which
The Quest for a Lost Race m
first manifested the property of "electricity" to the eyes
But in pursuing this inquiry we are less concerned in
ascertaining the exact relations of the ancestral kinsmen
than in studying the ethnic material (in this instance the
Scandinavian) which was molded or modified by the
geographical milieu. What was the moral geography of
the race? Why should the Norseman differ from his
kindred Teuton in the South ? There may have been origi-
nal differences in the psychology of race which made one,
for example, an explorer and trader, and the other an
unrivaled artisan and exploiter. But there is something
to be considered in the plastic influence of the physical
and social conditions. It is no melodramatic assumption,
for example, to declare that no slave could live in the
free air of Scandinavia. Not because the air is "free,"
but because the soil is thin. The slave could not subsist
himself, much less pay tribute to a lord. If slavery or
serfage was impossible, a nobility was equally so. Where
subsistence was scant, accumulation was at least slow.
Wealth could not exist as a basis of privilege, and class
legislation upon primogeniture gave support to this natural
law. The "five" and "fifty" acre holdings could not be
consolidated into big estates. The rocky ridges, the high
levels, the nipping airs, the thin, worn soil, the short
ii2 The Quest for a Lost Race
seasons, and the fleeting harvests were conditions fatal
to the growth of feudalism. Retainers were superfluous
where slaves could not make their keep. Fish from the
sea, a little pasturage in the glens that was all. No
smiling abundant harvests; no patient laborious thralls, no
baronial has or boss; none of those iron Teutonic laws
that not only shaped the conditions of society but wrought
changes in the very soul of man. The Scandinavians
were not Germans or Saxons or Angles or Celts. This
rocky Scandinavian peninsula was cradling the masters of
the world. They were literally driven by their wild, arid
nurse to follow the furrows of the sea and recast the
corrupted civilizations of the earth. Between the shelter-
ing group of islands that fringe the western front of Norway
and curtain the main shore, there is a broad passage of
the sea where a navy of dragon-prows might float secure
from observation or attack. Near the center of this
insular barrier, Rolf Ganger the greatest force of that
hyperborean world had constructed a system of dry-
docks, from which, in the idle hours of summer and
autumn, he launched those portentous fleets of dragons
and serpents that sailed upon every sea and ravaged the
most distant shores. From one point of view, it was a
nest of Scandinavian free-booters ; from another, it was
the naval station of a great sea-faring race a race that,
COLONEL RICHARD M. JOHNSON.
The Quest for a Lost Race 113
having failed as traders in amber and timber and fish,
were now about to try their luck in ravage and loot upon
the gravelly loams of the Cheviot Hills and deep in the
sunny heart of France.
William the Conqueror was fifth in descent from this
great Captain of the northern seas the potential recon-
structor of the modern world.
ii4 The Quest for a Lost Race
When the great Gothic column of migration, sweeping
past the Caspian and crossing the Asian frontier, followed
the river valleys and the shores of the Baltic Sea, making
a reconnoissance in force that reached as far as the waters
of the northern sea, it pushed its exploring columns through
every part of Scandinavia, peopling every shore it passed,
and leaving every promontory and peninsula in every
nook and hook and cranny and on every continental
headland, every island inlet, and in every peaceful arm of
the Danish seas strewn with the wrecks of the migrant
column, battered by the hardships of a long, unbroken
march. Only the strong survived. The weak and unen-
terprising, as the head of the resistless column bent toward
the northern sea, shrank from the toils and terrors of a
march in a northern clime. Upon these geographical
points of "refuge" the racial weaklings had been gathering
for years. Nothing stayed the mighty Goth. The Norman
could turn the sharpest corners in the Danish world.
Once planted in the footsteps of a pioneer, even a phleg-
matic Teuton might pursue his way. But the exhausted
weakling dropped in his tracks, and crawled to the shelter
of some inviting angulus or nook. Here they were
the drift in the eddy of an archipelagic sea. Jutes from
The Quest for a Lost Race 115
Jutland (in Denmark) ; Saxons from the shores to the south ;
Angles, from the Anglen in Sleswick in all a seething
colluvian of ethnic stragglers swarming for an ultimate
raid upon British soil. The great Teutonic nation was
seemingly planted on the best lands of Central Europe;
the great Scandinavian people lay far to the north; the
Jutes, the Angles, the Saxons, the Frisians, lay between;
the Angli, who gave their name to England, lying at the
point (Angulus) where the coast of the Baltic first bends
sharply toward the north. Are these the peoples that
gave substance and strength and splendor to the English
race? The men who fall out in a forced march (said a
great Virginian captain) are not the men to stand up in
a long fight.
Toward the close of the Eighth Century the Scandina-
vians of the North began their work of devastation upon
English soil. For at least three centuries the Anglo-
Saxons held the Rover's name in dread. Contemporary
English abounds with Scandinavian words and forms;
numerous traces of Scandinavian occupancy are found
on English soil to-day. The men of the Heptarchy were
in the main bred upon English soil. At least they were
not a broken race of stragglers when they came. They
were a vigorous, fighting breed. But if Bismarck were
looking for "mixed races" in his carefully calculated
n6 The Quest for a Lost Race
career of annexation (no "dreaming" here), he certainly
found what he sought at the point where the column of
Goths that had marched from Central Asia, turning its
head to the German Ocean, took courage from the bracing
prospect and gathering their veterans into one compact,
invulnerable mass debouched boldly toward the vast,
inhospitable regions of the North. The Angles and Saxons
were cradled among the mixed or mongrel peoples that
had been dropped by the great migrant races in the south-
eastern corner of the northern sea a population, says
Marsh, of "very mixed and diversified blood." These
furnished the original "comelings" upon British soil, but
it is scarcely credible that the outcome of this mongrel
stock was the Anglo-Saxon Race, which in the great
Triple Alliance of Norman and Saxon and Dane has
for centuries maintained an unbroken front and kept
the world in awe.
The Quest for a Lost Race n;
The learned author of "British Family Names," speak-
ing of certain lists of ancient Norman names alleged to
be authentic, says: "Of this great array of time-honored
names, few are now borne by direct representatives.
They exist among the old gentry rather than in the peer-
age. In the majority of cases, the later descendants of
illustrious families have sunk into poverty and obscurity,
unconscious of their origin." They have not "vanished
from the world" (as Mr. Freeman says), but are daily
coming to the front in circumstances requiring capacity
for leadership in affairs. "Even now," says the observant
author of an anonymous treatise,* "agricultural laborers
and coal miners can not combine for objects which demand
the exercise of practical ability without finding themselves
led by those who, though in humble stations, bear names
of undoubted Norman origin," citing, by way of example,
Joseph Arch (De Argues, Normandy). These quotations
will fitly introduce to the reader the long and suggestive
alphabetical series of Norman names which the com-
piler has made the basis of extended critical remark.
In examining this series, one naturally inquires: How
do we know that the thousands of names, taken from an
* The Norman People.
ii8 The Quest for a Lost Race
old English Directory, are Norman? Simply by the cir-
cumstance that the same names occur in the records of
Normandy in the Eleventh and Twelfth centuries the
references in most cases being to the great Rolls of the
Exchequer, 1180-1200. Comparative reference to the Eng-
lish records at an early date Eleventh, Twelfth, and
Thirteenth centuries raises a strong presumption that
names appearing on the Norman Rolls before the Conquest,
and on English records after the Conquest, were derived
from Normandy, and that names now accounted English
were originally Norman names. A similar correspondence
between the names in the records of a Virginian court
house and those of official records in Kentucky, to the
mind of a contemporary genealogist, would carry decisive
weight. It is the weight of concurrent testimony of high
character from authentic sources. Identitas colligitur ex
multitudine signer urn. Even one surname in like circum-
stances is a significant record of individual descent. What
shall be said of thousands historically traced the contin-
uous record of a single race? Thirty years ago it was
estimated by an English scholar that the English race
proper comprised thirty millions of people a great com-
posite nation; the Saxon, Dane, and Norman a trinity
of races all derived from the same ancient stock (the
Gothic) and each forming about one third of a homogeneous
The Quest for a Lost Race 119
race. The Saxon came immediately from the south-
eastern shores and islands of the North Sea, and is of
Gothic descent; the Dane from Denmark or the Danish
Isles, and is of pure Scandinavian stock; the Norman
from Normandy, remotely Gothic, is of direct descent
from the Scandinavian race. If this statement be correct
the conclusion seems to be inevitable, not that "we are
Scandinavians" as the London Times says but that we
are all deeply Scandinavianized and that there is a pre-
ponderance of Scandinavian blood in the English race.
If there has been a thorough intermixture of the three
racial elements during the past eight hundred years,
we may assume that every Kentuckian of Anglo- Virginian
stock represents a practically definite ethnical product:
Saxon, one third; Scandinavian, two thirds for all con-
troversial purposes a sufficiently conclusive result. The
long-commingled blood of this composite race is, in effect,
an adamantine cement, and the racial plexus, fusion, or
combination is one and inseparable in every sense. If
it were possible to remove either of these constituent ele-
ments the Scandinavian or Saxon the Kentuckian in
his present admirable form would disappear and nothing
but a restoration of the racial balance by a reconstitution
of the original parts would restore him to the position of
primacy assigned him by Mr. Bart Kennedy in his recent
120 The Quest for a Lost Race
contribution to the London Mail. How true, then, in a
deep ethnological sense, the familiar legend of our Com-
monwealth "United we stand, divided we fall."
Be this as it may, it is desirable to have it understood
that so long as the Saxon holds his own (and no more)
in the constitution of our common race, there can arise
no possible "unpleasantness" between the parts of which
it is composed. In that duplex anthropoidal abnormity
to which its creator has given a significant binominal
appellation Jekyll and Hyde some regulative element
seems to be lacking. Is it an element of race ? The author
does not say as much in express terms, but apparently
he suggests it in his selection of names. Have we not a
Norman in Mr. Jekyll? And a Saxon in Mr. Hyde? That
we have not a normal Englishman is quite clear. Is the
dominant Scandinavian element short JOT has some demoniac
"Berserker" blood slipped into the cross?
Subtle and descriminative writers (such as Stevenson
and Disraeli) do not express themselves after a careless
fashion, as a rule. They mean something, even in the
selection of a name.
There is something, too, no doubt, that appeals to the
popular imagination merely in a Norman name, and Lord
Lytton has cleverly exploited this predilection in many
fascinating volumes of historical romance; tales of love
COLONEL J. STODDARD JOHNSTON.
The Quest for a Lost Race 121
and chivalry that in our soft mid-century days had rivaled,
and for a time eclipsed, the magical creations of Scott.
The later school of Scandinavian writers has not won the
Kentuckian from his early love of English and Scottish
romance. His conception of the actual Scandinavian
the Scandinavian in the flesh the Scandinavian of to-day,
is still undefined and vague. Until Du Chaillu came he
had given the matter but little thought. And, yet, fifty
years before in the busy, brooding twenties another
Frenchman, wandering among the Scandinavians of Gothia,
describes their predominant characteristics thus: "Fair
hair, blue eyes, a middle stature, light and slim; a physiog-
nomy indicating frankness, gentleness, and a certain
sentimental elevation of mind, especially among the fair
sex. The people in the other provinces partake of these
different physical and moral qualities."
How completely this description by a Frenchman in
Scandinavia verifies the casual observation of another
Frenchman in Kentucky! Their hospitality, M. Du
Chaillu informed us in his charming lecture, was almost
without bounds, and at times to a Kentuckian would have
been embarrassing in the extreme, as when those snowy-
handed hostesses bathed the traveler's feet and tucked
him away in bed. But Monsieur seems to have suffered
no embarrassment on this account.
122 The Quest for a Lost Race
Among the population of the Northern provinces of
Scandinavia there are men of almost gigantic stature,
with dark hair, deep-set eyes, a look somewhat fierce,
but full of expression and vivacity. Their muscles are
large, firm, and distinct, the bones prominent, the features
regular and clear cut. A cheerful temper and " an enter-
prising disposition" are qualities common to the whole
population. A stranger is welcome in all circles. Even
in the polar circles the hospitality loses none of its warmth.
Probably it is in dispensing their hospitality that their
passion for "strong liquor" is most marked. This liquor
they drink out of horns; and that is why, said Du
Chaillu, convincingly, that we say in Kentucky, "Will
you take a horn?" But the Kentuckian seems to derive
this peculiarity from every side. " Fill the largest horns,"
said the Saxon, Cedric, when his slaves were arranging the
banquet for his Norman guests.
The Quest for a Lost Race I2 3
The impression we derive from the foregoing descrip-
tion of the Scandinavian physique among the more northern
tribes recalls Professor Shaler's conclusions from a careful
study of the measurement of fifty thousand troops from
Kentucky, made by the astronomer Gould (a distinguished
mathematician), who after the war took service in the
Argentine Republic. "The results," he says, "are surprising.
Their average height was nearly an inch greater than
that of the New England troops ; they exceed them equally
in girth of chest, and the circumference of head is also
very much larger. In size they come up to the level of
the picked regiments of the Northern armies of Europe."*
Yet these results were obtained from what was a levy
en masse. It did not include "the rebel exiles" who were
the "first running from the press," or, as is often said,
" the flower of the State," and being in the main of a more
exuberant habit of body would doubtless have given
still better results. It is questionable if all Scandinavia
could furnish two such heads as William Nelson's and
Humphrey Marshall's. Ceteris paribus, said Leidy, "size
is a measure of power" referring to size of head. When
General Marshall was warned that his great size would
attract the attention of sharpshooters, he answered, " I
have provided for that. I have a fat staff. There be
KENTUCKY. By N. S. Shaler (Harvard College). 1885.
124 The Quest for a Lost Race
six Richmonds in the field!" His aide and secretary was
a Norman of wholly different type; of a slight figure, but
of an activity, courage, vivacity, and endurance wholly
unsurpassed. Captain Shaler (himself a capable soldier,
with a strong dash of New England blood) singles out for
special commendation the soldiers and officers of Morgan's
command. He especially notes their high social quality,
their physical vigor and activity, their endurance under
severe tests, and their peculiar aptitude and penchant
for the business of war. He waxes vigorously poetic
in describing the martial qualities of the " Orphan Bri-
Sf! 3JC *f 5(5 5|S 5J* 5(5 5|C
Hereditary surnames are said to be memorials of race
that can never be obliterated. If thousands of men, swept
along in some great historic migratory movement which
is followed and described by critical observers through
country after country, through century after century,
never "breaking ranks" except to plant and build, leaving
the same names upon the official records of every duke-
dom, or kingdom, or commonwealth through which they
pass; when their names, their features, their instincts,
their mental habits, their daily speech, their terms of law,
the language and routine of their courts, are impressed
with the same ethnic stamp; when the same mental,
physical, and moral characteristics are manifest generation
The Quest for a Lost Race 125
after generation; when myriads of minute resemblances
confirm the conclusions of the larger view, why lose one's
self in the haunting mystery of apparent discrepancies in
detail? Let us give full credit to each member of the
triune ethnical Trust which is charged with all the respon-
sibilities of this magnificent modern world. If you wish
to know how much can be said to thrill with delight that
old SAXON element of your blood, read what the Count
de Montalembert (another Frenchman) has said in his
"Monks of the West." The enormous difficulties encoun-
tered by the Church in that old chaotic day approximately
measure the shortcomings of the race. That the crude,
repulsive Saxon should have been fashioned into the noble
figure which Montalembert describes, speaks well for the
essential worth of the Saxon; but what a tribute to the
miraculous power of the Monkl
In the original prolusion and in the present preface the
writer has simply tried to prepare the way for investigators
of greater gifts. Here the PHILOLOGIST is in his proper field.
In pursuing this work, he becomes the genealogist of a
race. Names of localities, names of men, are subject
like all other words to every variety of phonetic change,
and, it may be said, are in a perpetual state of flux. But
there is a soul that survives all changes. It is for the
scholar to catch it on the wing and fix a fleeting syllable
for all time.
126 The Quest for a Lost Race
The student who is interested in this subject may find
some help in the following series of NAMES (to which fre-
quent reference has been made), compiled by an anonymous
English scholar whose learning and ability have been
recognized in the critical reviews. It was to one of these
reviews that the present writer was indebted for sugges-
tions that at once quickened his interest in M. Du Chaillu
and his researches, and induced him in the republication
of the English writer's list (taken from a London Direc-
tory) to add to the selections a few names of obvious
Scandinavian derivation Danish, Swedish, and Old Norse.
Any fixed rule of selection, in a discussion like this, it is
difficult to apply. Readers who comprehend how easily
errors creep into an ordinary record of "family" pedigrees
will make due allowance for errors that may be found in
this modestly illustrative Anglo-Norman list, in which
there is but little attempt to trace lineal family descent.
With a body of names so pregnant with significance as
this, the credentials of any branch of the Anglo-Norman
race in any part of the earth will be recognized as good.
The difficulties of the problem are apparent to all. Its
interest and importance it is impossible to exaggerate or
deny. If more simply stated, probably it were more
The Quest for a Lost Race 127
easily understood, but, failing in simplicity of statement,
very frequent repetitions may be excused.
The origin of the general discussion ought to encourage
every scholar. According to the pleasing conception of
the great Scottish romancer, the originator of this contro-
versy was a Saxon slave who understood the art of deducing
philosophic conclusions from unconsidered trifles. While
herding his master's swine in the West Riding of York-
shire, he spoke to a fellow thrall who stalked about in the
full enjoyment of Saxon freedom with a brazen collar about
"And swine is good English," said the jester. "But
how call you the sow when she is flayed, drawn and quar-
tered, and hung up by the heels like a traitor?"
"Pork," said Gurth.
"And pork, I think, is good Norman French. When
alive and in charge of a Saxon slave, she goes by a Saxon
name. She is a Norman when dressed for the table in the
castle hall. What dost thou think of that, friend Gurth ? ' '
"It is but too true doctrine, friend Wamba, however
it got into thy fool's pate."
This is elementary, but it was an inspiration to one of
the greatest writers of France. The nimble wits of
the Scottish wizard are not at the service of all the
Wambas of the Saxon race.
128 The Quest for a Lost Race
"The Norman has vanished from the world,"
says Mr. Freeman, "but he has indeed left a name
behind him"; and not only the "name," but wher-
ever found he still exhibits " the indomitable vigor of the
Scandinavian with the buoyant vivacity of the Gaul."
It must be remembered, in discussing so large and com-
plicated a subject as this, that philosophic scholarship is
seldom narrow, absolute, final, or exclusive in its views.
It would be folly to affirm, says the anonymous English
writer who anticipated in certain aspects the theories of
Du Chaillu, that the possession of Norman and Danish
blood "always implies energy and intellect; and Saxon
descent, the reverse." We have too much evidence to the
contrary. It is not individual instances that are now under
consideration; it is the comparative qualities of race. We
can only safely affirm, in a rational and considerate discus-
sion of the question, that our people are not Saxons nor
Scandinavians, nor Normans, but broadly speaking, are
a great branch of the English race which happily mingles
the highest qualities of the THREE; the stolid conservatism
of the first, the daring enterprise of the second, the "buoy-
ant vivacity," the " spontaneity, enthusiam, and versatility"
of the third. When these racial elements were fairly
balanced, as in the time of Elizabeth, the evolution of the
Englishman was complete. It was then that, surcharged
The Quest for a Lost Race 129
with complex currents of racial vitality, the adventurous
"Elizabethan" sought our shore. The Virginian hunter
followed or formed a trail in every wilderness, and the
Yankee skipper trafficked on every coast. The march
begun in Central Asia was resumed upon the American
Continent, and "the most dramatic spectacle in history"
was gradually unfolded before the eyes of men.
We should find many Anglo-Norman or Scandinavian
names upon the company rolls of that vast host. Many
of these names we have already heard, and, beside the bold
Norman, others walk unseen men of blended races cast
in the same heroic mold. It is the mark of a " true Ken-
tuckian" that, like the amiable and sagacious Isaac le
Bon, he appreciates a good "cross," and to the end of
time he will carry the cross which was originally stamped
upon his English ancestor in the ancient nursery of the
race. He has no quarrel, therefore, with his Anglo-Saxon
blood. "Nature," as Mr. Disraeli says: "natural selec-
tion," as others say, seems to delight in working with a
purpose and upon a plan; and, when impelled to frame
a creature that could do the work which apparently
the Anglo-Norman was called to do, she seems to have
found her model in the man of ancient ROME: she made
him strong a man of oak and bronze.
Illi tobur et CBS TRIPLEX. Some of the elements may
be crude, but all must be strong. A Roman trireme might
i3 The Quest for a Lost Race
safely carry a Vergilian body and an Horatian soul; but
only a vessel framed with the toughest constituents at
Nature's command could carry for century after century,
in every land, upon every sea, in the "teeth of clenched
antagonisms," and upon fixed predestinated lines, the
fortunes of the English or "Anglo-Norman" race.
In point of fact, DESTINY itself seems to have directed
the process of evolution when the germ-plasm of those
picked races the Norman, the Saxon, and the Dane
was united to create the English or Anglo-Norman race,
the Norman element by virtue of peculiar traits being
dominant in the "cross." The Kentuckian is no degenerate
product of this magnificent ancestral "blend," and one
of the objects of the "Names" and the accompanying
"Notes" is to show that in every characteristic respect
he has bred true to the ancient blood. If the storm of
Norman conquest scarcely touched the solid elements of
that old manorial life, so the continuous intermingling,
through many centuries, of the blood of three remotely
kindred races has served to fix and transmit the charac-
teristic traits which are stamped upon the Kentuckian of
The Quest for a Lost Race 131
Perhaps no critic has thrown more light upon
mediaeval history than Mr. Freeman, who in his discrimi-
nating analysis of the Norman character declares the supreme,
the directive, the dominant quality to be craft: a special
power of intellect which seems to have been created or
evolved by the necessities of those times intellect fused
with instinct and directed by a conscienceless common
sense. Mr. Freeman detected its manifestations in all
the Norman's great affairs. In legal proceedings, in
court intrigues, in ecclesiastical relations; in diplomatic
affairs, in local or in provincial administration, and, most
notable of all, in the conduct of war. It was in war-craft
that the Saxon fell short. If success in battle had come
with a sturdy frame, a stout heart, and a short sword,
the Saxon would seldom have failed in war. But he was
not strong (Mr. Freeman says) in "the wiles of war."
From the very outset the Scandinavian has won battles
by sheer weight of brain, and nature certainly "turned
loose a thinker" when she projected a Scandinavian free-
booter upon the soil of France.
This attribution of craft, and all that it implies, to the
Norman, does not rest solely upon the deductions of a
studious historian. The conception did not originate in
132 The Quest for a Lost Race
the closet of a scholar; it seems to have come first from
the "great common people"; from the field, from the
market, the fireside, and the street. It is proverbial in
the speech of France.
"C'est un Normand, c'est un fin Normand, c'est un
" Reponse normande, reponse ambigue. Que cela pent
etre vrai est peut e"tre faux; la reponse est un peu nor-
These popular conceptions of the Norman character
did not necessarily imply disparagement or reprobation.
On the contrary, in that wild mediaeval struggle for
existence, astuteness and duplicity were the winning
cards. In the councils of the forest the popular favorite,
Renard, was at the front. Even the imperious Isangrim
was handicapped by lack of wit: a deprivation not unlike
that of the clawless cat in Hades.
This sinister and sagacious quality of the Norman
intellect seems to have had full play through all the varied
experiences of the race; but its most enduring effects were
visible in the great triune nationality evolved upon English
soil. It quickened the sluggish wits of the Saxon; it
tempered the rudeness and ferocity of the Dane, and became
a shaping factor in the civilization of the world.
The Quest for a Lost Race 133
The " Names" which follow, and the occasional " Notes"
that accompany them, are intended to illustrate the theory
of descent which has been advocated in this discussion.
To find a large body of people in Kentucky derived from
English sources and bearing Norman surnames is in itself
a circumstance of peculiar interest and of almost conclu-
sive weight. But to find noted in connection with an hered-
itary surname certain characteristics that are common
to two races and apparently derived along certain his-
toric lines from the same ethnical source, materially streng-
thens the argument in favor of the assumed origin of the
later or remoter race; and if, therefore, we conclude that
the people of the Commonwealth of Kentucky are derived
from that old Norman strain, we ought to be able to indi-
cate without difficulty characteristic and conspicuous
points of resemblance between the original and the deriva-
tive stock. Taking in hand the exact and vivid charac-
terization of the old Norman by the contemporary chron-
icler, Malaterra, we ask ourselves, "Are the Kentuckians
also marked by the characteristics here described ? ' ' Are
they persuasive orators, able lawyers, brilliant fighters,
ready and practical thinkers; astute and successful nego-
tiators? Have they scholarly tastes? Social gifts and
134 The Quest for a Lost Race
accomplishments ? A passion for travel, exploration, adven-
ture, field sports, and fine horses? "I like him very
much," said the English swell St. Aldegonde, speaking
of Colonel Campian, the Southern colonel. "He knows
all about horses and tobacco."*
A little information of this kind ought to be found in
our "Notes" by way of giving confirmation to the infer-
ence suggested by the "Names." There is something in
the name, but not everything. We have a notable
a brilliant example in the current history of a Ken-
tuckian who is a Norman in almost everything except
the name, and he belongs to a family that is character-
istically Norman in many respects; and yet it has borne
with great distinction for generations a fine old Saxon
name. Not a few of our leading families are in the same
category. The impartial agencies of evolution have given
them their due proportion of Norman or Scandinavian
blood, the name being a secondary consideration with
the evolutionary Fates.
For Saxon or Norman, or "whatever we"
Celtse, Saxones, or Norseman or Gaul,
There's no better stuff for a family tree,
Wherever the seed of the races may fall.
DON'T FORGET TO REST YOUR HORSES. The observant traveler in Norway
notes at the foot of every steep hill a sign-post with the inscription' ' Don't forget
to rest your horses." Possibly this Scandinavian consideration for the horse runs
with the blood. The Kentuckian, however, has learned to "rest his horses"
before he has learned to read.
The Quest for a Lost Race 135
Note the broad and generous philosophy in these lines;
and, some might add, the imaginative touch which almost
gives the quatrain a poetic value. The Kentuckian, at
least, has but little reason to criticise the stuff of which
he is made, particularly since he stands easily first among
the modern races of men. This is an estimate from an
impartial source a writer for the English press.* Is it
not a fit conclusion to our ethnological tale ?
*Mr. Bart Kennedy, London Mail-
136 The Quest for a Lost Race
There came at last a shadow over our memory of the
bright Arcadian days. "The beautiful Scandinavian"
was fatally stricken in her prime by an insidious malady
which gradually sapped her strength but scarcely touched
the saint-like beaxity which was the glory and charm of
her youth. The Great Traveler, who construed at a glance
the ethnical significance of those embodied charms, has
long ago passed to his eternal rest. In her children she
seems to live again. Her sons handsome young Scan-
dinavians of the higher type are winning success and
distinction in the great industrial movements of the times;
and her beautiful daughter, vividly reproducing the attrac-
tions of the mother, is a passionate lover of travel, and
but recently has demonstrated the Scandinavian quality
of her blood in the midst of a terrific nine days' storm
that swept the seas near the coast of Japan.
With this parting glance at the impressive figures which
appeared in the early pages of this paper, the " explanatory
preface" comes to a close; and the reader the patient
reader is at last introduced to a rare lexicon of Names-
names which carry on their light wings the histories of
States and men. Here the humblest scholar may read
without effort, in almost continuous narrative, the mar-
velous story of three kindred stocks transmuted by the
COLONEL THEODORE O'HARA.
The Quest for a Lost R-ace 137
fires of internecine conflict into one invincible race, which
after centuries of almost unbroken struggle in peace and
in war may almost be said to have made the earth its own .
What part it has played in the genesis of our own Com-
monwealth, each student of this "lexicon" must judge for
himself, remembering that the decision of this question
must rest upon a clear judicial faculty at last. Many
"names" might be added, but here mere numbers do
not count. "To the quick eye of genius" says Max
Miiller "one case is like a thousand"; and it may be
that the scholarly enquirer will find in the brilliant
Du Chaillu an illustration of this maxim of the great
NORSE, NORMAN, AND ANGLO-NORMAN,
OR NON-SAXON, SURNAMES.
English Official Records
and from other Authentic
[The learned Canon of Carlisle assures us that not only
has Normandy supplied us with many of our family names,
but it enjoys the distinction of having been the first to
establish an hereditary surname. Few stop to consider
that a surname thus conceived is not merely an heraldic
vanity or device to give social dignity and distinction to
those who bear it, but is in reality a scientific advance in
the working nomenclature of a race. If to "name" is
but to classify, the addition or introduction of the surname
simply adds completeness and precision to the racial
classification. Here, then, we have in the following list
a large body of surnames coming almost directly from
the land in which surnames are said to have originated.
If a name, therefore, be merely that by which a thing is
known, it would seem that a people who have borne
these names continuously (as is historically attested) for
eight hundred years have in all likelihood inherited the
characteristic traits, as well as the distinctive surnames,
of the antique Norman race. In Kentucky, the original
tone and vigor of the Norman people are unimpaired.
Changes there have been; changes there will be; but,
whatever changes may occur, there remains this one unal-
terable characteristic of the Norman race, that "the more
you change it, the more it is the same."]
Abbett, a form of Abbott.
Abbey, for 1'Abbe.
Abbott, or Abbot, Abbas (1180,
Normandy) , Abbot, Abbet,
A bel, Aubeale, Normandy,Twelf th
Century; Sir John Abel of
Aberdeen, Aberdern, Abadam,
from Abadon. Normandy,
1 1 80.
Achard, 1238, Berks.
Ackin, from Dakin.
Acland, or de Vantort, from Van-
tort in Mayenne; the baronets
Acton, or Barnell. From this
family, Lord Acton.
Adderley, from Adderley Salop.
Addington, de Abernon, Nor-
mandy, 1112; one branch in
Adrian, Hadrin (Normandy),
Agate, a form of Haggett or
Agne, Battle Abbey Roll.
Agnew, or Aigneaux, near Bayeux,
England, Twelfth Century ;
Scotland, baronets Agnew.
Ains, from Aignes, near Angou-
Airey, Castle of Airey, Normandy;
Airy celebrated astronomer.
Albert, Walter and Peter Albert
Albin, or Albon, St. Auben (Rob-
Alden, Normandy, 1195.
Aid-worth, or De la Mare.
Alfee, for Alis or Ellis.
Alison, Barnard de Alenc.on (Sir
Allan, for Alan.
A Hanson, Alison.
Alley, from Ailly, near Falaise, a
form of Hallett or Allet.
Alpe, for Heppe or Helps.
Alvers, or Alves.
Amber, from Ambrieres.
Ambler, from Ampliers, or Aum-
liers, near Arras. England;
Amery, from Hamars, near Caen.
Ames, from Hiesmes, Normandy.
Amherst, or Henhurst.
Amman, Amond, Amand.
Ancell. "Ansel," a famous col-
ored "trainer" in Kentucky.
Anders, from Andres, near Bou-
Andersen or Anderson (Scand.)
Anderson-Pelham, or De Lisle
from the Castle of Lisle (Nor-
mandy). Sire Edmund An-
derson, Chief Justice, temp.
Andersons of Kentucky, a dis-
tinguished family. Connected
by blood with George Rogers
Clark. Major Robert Ander-
son, of "Sumter" fame, was
of this family.
Andrew, from St. Andre, Evreux.
Andrews. Geoffrey Andreas, 1 1 80
(Normandy). Landaff W. An-
drews, a bold, able, and popu-
lar Whig leader (Ky.), con-
spicuous in Congress (1842),
and characterized by John
Quincy Adams, who admired
his courage and ability, as
"a Nimrod Wildfire from Ken-
tucky." (Vide Diary.) When
he objected to one of Adams'
resolutions (in which he was
sustained by the Speaker) he
looked, says Adams, "as savage
as a famished wolf"; as Cir-
cuit Judge in Kentucky, during
the Civil War, he rendered cer-
tain decisions that were dis-
tasteful to the Federal authori-
ties. ' ' That brother of yours, ' '
said General Palmer to Mrs.
Thomas Steele, of Louisville,
" is a bold judge."
Angell, from De 1' Angle, from Les
Angles, near Evreux.
Anger, from Angers, Anjou; also
Angwin, for Angevin.
Ankers, for Anceres, vide Dancer.
Anley, or Andley, near Rouen.
Annable, or Annabell, from Anne-
Anne, or Anns, from L'Agne, near
Anstruther, or Malberbe.
Anthony, St. Antoine, near Bolbec.
Anvers, or Danvers.
Anvill, or Han well, from Ande-
ville, near Valognes.
Arch, or De Arques, from the
Castle of Arques, near Dieppe.
Joseph Arch, a famous English
A rchdeacon, Archidiaconus, Nor-
mandy, 1 180; England, 1086.
Archer, Arcuarius (general of
bowmen), Sagittarius (Norman-
Archer, or De Bois, armorially
identified with De Bosco ; Boys.
Arden, or Ardern; a Norman
family ; came to England in
Argles, Hargle (Hargis), Nor-
Aris, a form of Heriz or Harris.
Arle, or Airel.
Arnold, Ernaldus or Ernaut, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80; in England, 1272.
Arundel, Hirendale, Normandy,
Ashburnham, or De Criol.
Ashley, De Esseleia, Normandy,
Ashley, Cooper, or De Columbers,
from Colombieres, near Bayeux.
Askew, for Ascuo.
As pray, from Esperraye, Nor-
A star, Willielmus Titz Estus or
Estor, Normandy, 1180, 1198;
Aubrey, the Norman origin of this
Ante, with an aspirate. (Hoare.)
Johne de Aur was summoned
in 1268 to march against the
Austin, William Argustinus, Nor-
mandy, Twelfth Century.
A-ueling, Aveline, Evelyn.
Avens, from Avernes, Normandy,
Averance, from Avranches, Nor-
Aver ell, Avril, Normandy, 1198.
A-very. Traced to Aubrey, a Nor-
man form of Albericus.
Awdry, from Audrien, or Aldry,
Ayers, Ayres, Ayre.
Ay lard, Allard.
COLONEL JOHN T. P1CKETT.
Babington, Normandy, 1180; Eng-
land, Thirteenth Century. Ber-
nard de Babington. Little Bab-
Babot, Babo, Normandy, 1195.
Bachelor, Normandy, 1195.
Back, Sir George Back, Arctic
explorer. Vide Beck.
Bacon. (Roger and Francis Bacon
members of this family.) Bacen
or Bacco, Eleventh Century in
Maine, Northman family.
Bagehot, for Bagot.
Bagot. A baronial family (Nor-
mandy) ; came to England at
the Conquest. Henry Bagod,
ancestor of house of Stafford.
Bailey, Baillie, from the Norman
office of Le Bailli. The Baillies
of Scotland a branch of De
Baird. Ralph Baiart in Nor-
mandy before the Conquest.
Godfrey Baiard in 1165 held a
barony in Northumberland.
From this line descended George
Washington, the great Ameri-
Baker, Normandy, 1086; England,
Baldwin, Normandy, William
Baldwinus, n 80; Robert, 1183;
Ballance, for Valence, Normandy,
Bally, for Baly.
Bamfyld, from Baionville, near
Caen, 1093. In Thirteenth Cen-
tury held lands of the Honour
Banard, for Bainard, Banyard.
Bancroft, from Boncraft, near
Warrington, Cheshire. See But-
Band, from Calvus or Le Band,
Bangs, for Banks.
Banks, from Bane, near Honfleur ;
England, 1130. The eminent
savant, Sir Joseph Banks, a
Banner, 1180, Normandy, Le
Bannester, from Banastre, now
Beneter, near Estampes.
Banyard. Vide Beaumont.
Barbot, Normandy, 1188.
Barbour, from St. Barbe sur
Gaillon, Normandy, where was
situated the celebrated Abbey
St. Barbara. (Vide British
Family Surnames (Barber) Lon-
don.) Barbour, a hamlet in
Dumbartonshire. St. Barbe is
on the Roll of Battle Abbey.
William de St. Barbara, Bishop
of Durham, 1 143 A. D. Le Bar-
bier, Court of Husting, London,
1258. John Barbour, a church-
man and Archdeacon of Aber-
deen (1357): traveled in France
(temp. Edward III): employed
in a high capacity in civil affairs :
historian, poet, and Auditor of
the Exchequer. James Barbour,
born in Orange County, Vir-
ginia, U. S. Senator (1815-1825):
Secretary of War: Minister to
the Court of St. James. Philip
Pendleton Barbour, brother of
James Barbour, Associate Jus-
tice of the United States Su-
preme Court. John S. Barbour
(Virginia), member of Congress
(1823-1833). James Barbour
(Kentucky), Assistant State
Auditor (under Helm) : Presi-
dent Lexington and Danville
R. R. : Cashier Branch Bank of
Kentucky. Doctor Lewis Green
Barbour of Louisville, late of
Central University, is a fin-
Bardo, for Bardolph.
Bardolph, England, 1165. Held
lands in Normandy (Honour of
Montf ort) .
Barefoot, Barfot, Normandy, 1 1 80 ;
England soon after.
Barker. Bercarius, Normandy,
1 1 80. Le Bercher (England).
Barker. Norman French La Ber-
cher. English surnames Barca-
rius and Le Barkere. William le
Barnes, a form of Berners from
Bernieres, near Falaise; Eng-
Barnett. Barnet (Barney), Ber-
Barnewall, from the Norman fam-
ily De Barneval, England, 1086
Barney, armorially identified with
Barold, Vide Barrell.
Baron, from Baron, near Caen,
Barough, armorially identified
Barr, from La Barre in the Coten-
tin. Tiger de Barra (Normandy,
Barr. La Barr, Normandy; Nor-
man-French, De la Barre.
Barrable, for Barbal, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Barre, armorially identified with
Barrell, Richard Barel, Normandy,
1 1 80. See Battle Abbey Roll.
Barrett. (Domesday) Baret.
Barrett. John Buret, 1195. Wal-
ter de la Burette, Devon,
Barrington, or De Barenton, from
Barenton, near Candebec, Nor-
Barrow, Barou was near Falaise,
Normandy. England, Barene,
Barry, armorially identified with
Bartellot (or Bertelot), Normandy,
1 1 80; England, 1272.
Bartleet, a form of Bartelot.
Bartrum, armorially identified
Bar-well, from Berville, near Pont
Andemar, 1165; England,
Baskermlle, from Bacquerville,
near Rouen. In 1109 Robert
de Baskerville, on his return
from Palestine, granted lands
to Gloucester Abbey. The Bas-
kervilles were early seated in
Baskett. Walter Pesket, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80.
Bass. Richard le Bas, 1 1 80. John
Basse, England, 1272.
Bassett, from Bathet or Baset.
Duke of the Normans of the
Loire, 895. From this stock
are descended the Doyleys
(D'Ouilly), Lisores, and Down-
nays. Osmond Basset accom-
panied the Conqueror, 1066.
There were Bassets in Devon,
Essex, and Wales.
Bassit, from Biszeilles, near Lithe.
Bastable. Wastable, Normandy,
1 1 80. Barnstaple (Lower).
Bastard. Robert Bastard, a baron
in Devon, 1080, son of William
the Conqueror. Also Baistard,
Bos-well, for Boswell.
Batcheller. Vide Bachelor.
Bateley, from Batilly, near Alen-
Batell, armorially identified with
Bateman, from Baudemont in the
Norman Vexin. Roger de
Bath. Ramier, afterwards De
Bathurst. Bateste, Bathurts.
Thirteenth Century, Cranbrook,
Batten. Batin (Flemish?), 1272,
Baity, from La Bathie, Maine,
Ralph Baty, Thirteenth Cen-
Baugh, or De Baa, from Bahais,
Bavin, or Bavant, from Bavant,
Box, or Backs.
Bayes, for Boyes.
Bayley. Vide Baillie.
Baynes, from Baynes, near
Bazin, Normandy, 1 180; England,
Beach, armorially identified with
Beche or De la Beche. From
Bac in Normandy, frequently
written Bech and Beche in
Beacham, for Beauchamp.
Beadel. Normandy, 1180. Bucks,
England, 1086. Bishop.
Beadle, for Beaddell.
Beadon, from Bidon in Burgundy.
Held a fee from the Honour of
Beale, or Le Bele, a form of Bell.
Beamis, formerly Beaumis, Beau-
meys, or Beaumetz, from
Beaumetz, near Abbeville.
Dujardin Beaumetz was a
famous medical savant of Paris,
France, in the latter half of the
Beamish, for Beamis.
Beamont, armorially identified
with Beaumont of Yorkshire.
Beamand, the same.
Bean, for Bene.
Beard, armorially identified with
Bard, a form of Baird.
Beards, for Beard.
Bearfield, for De Berville, from
Berville, near Caen. William
de Bareville, Normandy, 1180;
Robert de B., England, 1272.
Bease, for Bisse.
Beaten, for Beaton.
Beaton, or Bethune. From the
Carlovingian Counts of Artois.
The Duke of Sully (Sully's
" Memoirs ") was of this family.
Beauchamp, from Beauchamp in
the Cotentin. The same race
and the Grenvilles. A familiar
old-time name in Kentucky
that has always appealed to
lovers and writers of romance
notably to Charles Fenno Hoff-
man and William Gilmore
Simms. ' ' This illustrious name, ' '
says Lower, "is found in many
countries of Europe; in Scot-
land, as Campbell; in England,
as Fairfield; in Germany, as
Schonau ; and in Italy as Camp-
pobello. " It was introduced
into England at the Norman
Conquest by Hugh de Bel-
champ, or Beauchamp, or de
Bello Campo. Beauchamp is
pronounced Beecham in Eng-
Beaufoy, from Beaufay, near Alen-
(jon, Normandy, 1 1 80. John de
Beaufoy, England, 1320.
Beaumont, or Bayard. Two lines
in England. One of the Beau-
monts held the Castle of St.
Luzanne for two years against
William the Conqueror.
Beaver, for Bever.
Beavill, or Seville, from Beaville,
near Caen, England, 1086
Beams, armorially identified with
Beaufiz, England, 1316.
Becket, or Beckett. In 1180,
Malger Bechet, Rouen, John
and William Beket or Bekeit,
1198. Ibid. Thomas Beket's
father was of Caen. Ralph de
Beket, England, 1272; hence
Thomas, the famous Archbishop
Becks, for Beck. Vide Beach.
Beckwith, adopted in lieu of the
original Norman name of Mal-
Bedding, or Bedin. Normandy,
1196; England, 1272.
Bedell, from the Suffolk gens
Beech, a form of Beach.
Beecham, a form of Beauchamp.
Beecher, armorially identified with
Beach, of which it is a corrup-
Beeden. Vide Beadon.
Beek, armorially identified with
Beck or Bee.
Beeman, for Beaman.
Beeman, for Beaumont (Lower).
Beerill, for Barrell.
Beeson, for Beisin, Normandy.
Beeton, for Beaton.
Beever, for Beevor.
Beevor. Berenger de Belver, or
Belcher. Vide Belshes, England,
Bell, from Le Bel, a common sur-
name in Normandy.
Bellaers, for Beller, from Bellieres,
near Alenc,on. Normandy,
1180. Ralph Beler, 1325.
Bellairs. Vide Bellaers.
Bellamy, or Bellameys, from Bel-
meys or Beaumitz. Vide Bea-
Bellany, from Bellannay, Nor-
Bellard. Beald heard (strong).
An ancient baptismal name,
Balard (The Hundred Rolls).
Bellas, a form of Bellowes.
Bellchamber, for Bellencombre
Castle, near Dieppe. England,
Bellet. Belet, surmane in Nor-
mandy, 1180; England, 1165.
The Bellets were hereditary
butlers to the King.
Bellew, from Belleau or Bella
Aqua, Normandy, 1180. The
Lords Bellew of Ireland are of
Belling. A northern clan, noble
Bellis, armorially identified with
Bellew of Cheshire.
Bellowes, armorially identified
Bellville, Belleville, or Bellavilla,
near Dieppe, Normandy.
Belshes, a corruption of Bellassidge.
Belward, a form of Belwar, Belver,
or Belvoir. See Beevor.
Bemes, for Beamis.
Bence. Robert and William
Bence, Normandy, 1180; Eng-
Bene. Hubert de Bene, Nor-
mandy, 1180; England, 1298.
Benivell, for Beneville, from Bene-
ville, near Havre, Normandy,
1 1 80; William de Bendeville,
England, Twelfth Century.
Benn, for Bene.
Bennet, or Beneyt, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Bennett. Beneyt, or Benedictus,
a Norman family. Bennets,
Earls of Arlington and Tanker-
Berey, for Barrey or Barry.
Beringer, Normandy, 1195.
Berks, for Perks or Parks.
Bernard. Common name in Nor-
mandy, 1 180; England, 1200.
Bernes, from Bernes, near Beau-
vais, 1167; England, 1272.
Berney, from Berney, Norfolk;
Bernai, near Lisieux.
Bernwell, or Bamwall, 1086
Berrell, for Barrell.
Berrett, for Barrett.
Berry, armorially identified with
Bertie, a form of Bertin which
occurs in Battle Abbey Roll,
Normandy, 1195; 1433, Wil-
liam Bertyn, one of the Kent-
Bertin. Vide Bertie.
Bertram. An illustrious Norman
name. Vide Milford.
Berwell. Vide Barwell.
Best. An abbreviation of Bessett.
Bever, or Beever, armorially iden-
tified with Belvoir or Bovor of
Be-verel. Richard de Beverel,
Bevington. Vide Bovington.
Seville. Vide Beavill.
Bevir, for Bever.
Be-vis, armorially indentified with
Beaufais, or Beauvais. Beau-
vays, Yorkshire, 1313.
Bew, for Bews.
Bewett, armorially identified with
Bluett, also Blewitt.
Bewley, for Beaulieu.
Bews, for Bayeux, Bayouse, Bey-
Bewsay, for Bussey, or De Busci.
Bewshea, for Bewsay.
Bick, a form of Bee.
Biddle, for Bidell. Vide Beadle.
Bidon, for Bidun. Vide Beadon.
Biggers, Durand le Bigre, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Ranulph de
Bigot. Richard le Bigot, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80 ; Vide Wiggett.
Biles, a form of Byles.
Bill, a form of Boyle, armorially
identified with Byle or Byles.
Billes. Vide Bill.
Bing. Byng, Binge.
Bingham, or De Buisle, from
Builly, near Neuchatel (often
supposed to be of Saxon origin).
John de Bingham, named from
his "lordship," Bingham, in
Bucks. One of the family
named the heiress of Turber-
Birbeck, from Brabant. Henry
de Birbecka, 1134.
Birmingham, or Paynel. Vide
Biron. Vide Byron.
Birt. Vide Burt.
Bishop. Radulphus Episcopus,
Normandy, 1180; Sir John Bis-
chopp, England, 1315.
Bisse, armorially identified with
Bissell, armorially identified with
Bissett. Ralph and Henry
Biset, Normandy, 1180. Sir
John Byset, England, 1300.
Black. Odo and Robert Niger
occur in Normandy, 1180.
Robertus Niger held lands in
Kent, 1086 (Domesday).
Blackett. An abbreviation of
Blackstone, or Le Breton.^ 1 Black-
stone, Devon, was held 1286 by
Alured le Breton. In Thir-
teenth Century William Black-
stone held lands at Stones of
the Honour of Wallingford.'*
Blagrave, or Le Breton. Alicia de
The name Le Breton indicates
a Breton origin.
Blake. Admiral Robert, the great
naval commander of Cromwell,
was of Somerset, in which
county Walter Blache occurs,
Blakey. The French pronuncia-
tion of Blaket. Vide Bleckett.
Blanch. William Blanc and Rob
ert and John Blanche occur
in Normandy, 1180. Henry
Blanche, Oxford, 1272.
Blanchard. Ralph and William
Blanchart were of Normandy,
1 1 80. Gilbert and William
Blanchard had estates in Lin-
coln. This fine old Norman
family is readily traceable from
Normandy to England, and
from England to America.
Colonel Robert Blanchard, with
his tall, handsome figure and
jocund face, would have thrown
no discredit on his racial de-
scent in any country, commu-
nity, or social circle. His son,
William Lytle Blanchard, an
accomplished gentleman, was
an officer in the Confederate
service. Before the opening of
the Civil War he had been an
associate of Halliday (and other
Anglo-Normans) in the estab-
lishment of the great overland
route. William Lytle Blan-
chard was a first cousin of
General William Haynes Lytle,
of Cincinnati. The Blanchards
are connected with the Rowans,
Boilings, Lytles, Fosters, Stoths,
[and other distinguished families.
Blancherville, from the forest of
B., Normandy. The family had
branches in Ireland.
Blanchet. Robert and Ralph
Blanquet, or Blanket, Normandy,
1 1 80. In England Blanche! or
Blashfield. Anglicised form of
Blaxton, for Blackstone.
Blay, for Bleay.
Bleakey, for Blakey.
Bleay. De Ble, Normandy, 1180.
De Blee, Stafford, 1180.
Blennerhasset, or De Tillial, from
Tilliol, near Rouen. Richard
de Tilliol, lord of Blennerhasset,
Cumberland, temp. Henry I.
The younger branches bore the
name of Blennerhasset. A
name to which the "Burr Ex-
pedition" gave a peculiar in-
terest in Kentucky.
Blessett, for Blissett.
Blews, a form of Blew or Blue.
Etard de Blew occurs in Kent,
1199, and Robert de Bloi in
Essex. The name is a form of
Bloi, Bloin, or Blohin of Bre-
tagne, often written Blue. Vide
Bligh and Blue.
Bley, for Bleay.
Bligh, for De Bloin, from Bretagne.
Blindell, for Blundell.
Blizard, Blizart. Perhaps from
Blesum, Blois, meaning a native
of Blois. The name is evi-
dently foreign. Blizzard, Bli-
zard, Blezard, Blizart, Blissett.
Even the best authorities
have differed as to the origin
of this name. One English
writer says: "Perhaps it is
from Blesum, Blois, meaning a
native of Blois (Blizzard, which
is Norman, is an analogous
form). Another and later Eng-
lish authority says: "Blizard,
Blezard, from the Danish Blich-
ert, a strong sword player."
A correspondent of the New
York Tribune, July 19, 1891,
says: "The old English word
blizzard, which describes so
picturesquely the English snow-
blast, is spoken of as an 'Amer-
icanism.' Even such philolo-
gists and lexicographers as Mur-
ray treat the word as a recent
'Americanism.' So far from
its being American in origin,
it was not till within the last
thirty years (according to Bart-
lett and other American philol-
ogists) that the word was ever
heard in the Eastern States,
and in the Western a 'bliz-
zard' meant a knock-down
blow not from a snow-blast,
but in an argument. ' ' .
In reality, Blizzard is an old
English surname, and is doubt-
less of Norman origin. In April,
1889, the writer of this note
conversed with a Federal sol-
dier, whose full name was
Stephen Decatur Blizzard. He
COLONEL THOMAS T. HAWKINS.
was of Anglo- Virginian stock;
he was a soldier in the Civil
War, and his name may still be
found on the National Pension
Rolls of that date. His postal
address in 1889 was "Quincy,
Lewis County, Kentucky. ' '
Possibly the "snow-blast"
took its name from some windy
Anglo-Norman disputant, who
wielded the sword of the spirit
and dealt in apostolic blows
The word "blizzard" does
not appear in Worcester's dic-
tionary, edition 1860. It is
evidently of Scandinavian ori-
gin (Danish or Norman).
Blockey. The French pronuncia-
tion of Bloquet or Ploquet.
Blomefield. Vide Bloomfield.
Blomfield, bishop of London.
Bloomfield, armorially identified
with Blomville from the lord-
ship so named near Caen and
Toques. Thomas de Blum-
ville had custody of the estates
of Earl Bigod in Suffolk.
Blossett. The Blossetts of Nor-
mandy were barons of Beneval
Blount. Le Blund, or Blundus,
Normandy, 1180. Frequent
notices of the name, Twelfth
Century, in Essex.
Blovice, for Blois, or Blesum,
France. Thomas Blois, living
at Norton, Suffolk, 1470, was
ancestor of the baronets Blois.
Blow, for Blue or Bloy. Vide
Blue, Blew or Blews. Etard de
Bleu occurs in Kent, 1179. The
name was a form of Bloi
(France). The original Norman
form was Le Bleu. During the
Civil War there came before
one of our Kentucky courts
a case in which there was
a very interesting intro-
duction of names that
have been long traditionally
associated Black and Blue ;
the former the name of a great
criminal lawyer (Jeremiah S.
Black), and the latter the name
of his client, Blew or Blue, the
perpetrator of an atrocious
crime. The case showed that
the criminal was sadly "off"
on color. He had killed an
entire family of blacks ; but was
finally acquitted by the inge-
nuity and perseverance of his
great "Scandinavian" lawyer.
Black, Blake, Bleek, Bleikr (Norse).
Admiral Blake was Warden of
the Cinque Ports, 1651. Victor
Blue, an officer in the American
service, won great distinction
during the Spanish-American
Bluett. In 1084, Bluet, Normandy ;
Buqueville le Blouette, the
family seat. Bluet, long a
name of eminence in the West
Blundafield, for Blindville. Vide
Blundell. Vide Blunden.
Blunt. Le Blount, Normandy,
1 1 80. Hence baronets Blunt.
Ely, for Bloi. Vide Bligh.
Boag, for Bogne.
Boase, for Bowes. (Vide Lower.)
Boat, from Buat. The Castle of
Buat, near Falaise. Sexus de
Bue, Surry, 1 180. Vide Bowett.
Boax, for Boase.
Bobart, N. Popart, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Bockerfield, from Bocherville
or Bucheville, Normandy.
Bockett. Originally Bouquet,
Bodel, for Budell.
Bodelly, for Botelly, or Batelly.
Badger. Boschier, Normandy,
1 1 80. Le Boghier, England,
Body. Norse. Diminutive of
Bodvarr (wary in battle). Bodi,
Bodin, Bot. French Bod<,
Norman-French Bot. (1195.)
Boffay, from Beaufay, near Alen-
con, Normandy. Boffei, Nor-
mandy, 1195. Sometimes Bop-
Boggis. William de Bogis, 1180,
Boggs. Vide Boggis.
Bogne, for Boges or Boggis.
Bois, from Normandy, several
families, viz.: (i) De Bois
Armand, hereditary servants of
the Counts of Breteuil, sires of
Poilly. Flourished in Leicester.
(2) De Bois-Guillauman, of the
bailifryof Caux, seated in Essex,
(3) DeBois. Herbert, baron of
Halberton, Devon; Hugo de
Bosco, 1083, England.
(4) De Bois. Robert or Roard,
(5) De Bois. Barony Breck-
nock, 1088, named after him
Bole, or Boels.
Boles, a form of Boles. Vide Boyle.
Boleyn. Queen Anna Boleyn was
great-granddaughter of Sir
Geoffrey Boleyn, Lord Mayor
of London, temp. Henry VI.
The family had formerly been
of great consequence. There
were two branches of it in Eng-
land. William de Bolein held
one fee in York and one in Lin-
coln. In the preceding gener-
ation Easton and Simon de
Bologne, brothers of Pharamus
de B., are mentioned in a char-
ter of the latter. The familiar
pronunciation is "Bullen."
Bolland. Richard de la Boillante,
Bollen, armorially identified with
Bolleng, for Boulogne, orBoleyne.
Bollowe, for Belle we or Bellew.
Bolster, for Bolster or Balistar.
Vide Alabaster or Arbalister
(Norman), a general of cross-
Bolt, from Bolt, or Bout, near
Bayeux. Tascelinus de Boalt,
Normandy, 1 1 80. Reginald
and Richard Bolt, Oxford,
1272. "Ben Bolt" at all
times and everywhere. Com-
posed by an American ; cosmo-
politanized by an Englishman.
An "Anglo-Norman" song.
Bolten-Nelson. From the Boltons
of Suffolk descend the Earls
Nelson, who obtained their
title as the nearest heirs in
blood of the renowned Nelson.
Bompas, from Bonpas near Per-
pignan ; a Visigoth family.
Bonamy. Radulphus de Bono-
Amico, Burgundy, 1180. Rob-
ert and William Bon Ami, 1 198.
Bone, armorially identified with
Bohun of Midhurst, or De
Falgeres. Vide Foulger.
Bonell, or Bunel, Lords of Tissey,
near Caen (Des Bois).
Boner. Bartholomew Bonaire.
Bonest, from Banaste, or Banastre.
Boney, for Bonney.
Bonfield, for Bonville, from the
Castle of Bouneville.Bondeville,
Bonham. Humphrey and William
Bonhomme, Cambridge, 1272.
Bonhote, or Bounot, a form of
Bonnett, with which it is armo-
Banner. Norman-French. Bou-
Bonnett. Roger Bonitus, Sussex,
1075. Family seat near Alen-
con. The name occurs in Bat-
tle Abbey Roll.
Bonney. Nicholas and Richard
Bonie occur in Normandy,
1189. Agnes and Alicia Bonye,
Bonnivelle, for Bonville. Vide
Bonom, for Bonham.
Bonus, armorially identified with
Boodle, for Budell. Not familiar
as a "surname" in Kentucky.
Boog, for Bogue.
Booker. Walter Bochier, Nor-
mandy, u 80. The name in
England is armorially identified
with Borcher. In Kentucky,
the Bookers are an old and
prominent family. A Mayor
of Louisville was (maternally)
of the Booker blood.
Boole, or Boyle. Buelles or Buels
occurs in Normandy, 1195.
Boolen, for Bullen, or Boleyn.
Boots. Vide Boule.
Boon, or Boone, armorially iden-
tified with Bohun. The Nor-
man family of that name de-
scended from Humphrey de
Bohun, who accompanied the
Conqueror and was ancestor of
the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford,
Constables of England.
Booser, for Bowser.
Boosey. Alexander de la Buzeia,
Normandy, 1 180. Ralph Buse,
England, 1194. "Boozy" in
Boot. The fief of Hugo Boot is
mentioned in Normandy. "Per-
haps a trader's name" says
Boothby. A younger branch of
the Barons de Tateshall, 1086
Borne. Walter le Borne, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80.
Borough, or De Burgh, otherwise
Tusard, which is the original
Borrell, armorially identified with
Borrow, armorially identified with
Borough and Burgh.
Base, for Boss.
Boshett, for Bushell.
Bosher, a form of Bourchier
Bosquet. Vide Bockett.
Boss. Bos or Bose occurs in Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80; in Bucks, 1194.
The original ' ' boss, " in the mod-
ern sense (overseer, manager),
was doubtless a burly, bull-
necked Norman. It is note-
worthy that "Boodle" is from
the same source.
Bossey. Vide Boosey.
Bostel, for Postel. Ralph Postel,
Bostfield, for Bosville.
Bosville. Bosville, near Cande-
Bosivell, armorially identified with
Bosville. Probably in Eng-
land from the time of the Con-
quest. The family emigrated
from England to Scotland in the
reign of David I. The change
from ' ' ville " to " well " as a ter-
mination is also seen in the al-
teration of Rooseville to Ros-
well, La Ville to Larwill, etc.
Boterill. Geoffry Boterel occurs
in a Beaton charter, 1081.
Botevyle, from Bouteville, near
Carenton, Normandy. The
name occurs in Battle Abbey
Roll. Butterfield probably a
form of this old surname.
Bolt. William Bott occurs in Nor-
mandy, 1195. Walter Bott in
Oxfordshire, 1189. The writer
has seen the names William
and Elizabeth Bott in old War-
wickshire records, and in an old
prayer-book, temp. George III
(Virginian families) ; the name
may, also, be seen to-day
(Botts, not Bott) upon tombs
in old graveyards in Eastern
Kentucky. The literal suffix
"s" to such names as Bott,
Hay, etc., is said to be an
Bottin. William Bottin, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Thomas But-
ing or Boting.
Bolting, for Bottin.
Bottle. Roger Botel, Normandy,
Bottrell, or Botterel, or De Boter-
eaux, from Bottereaux, near
Evreux. England, Twelfth
Bouche, from Buces, now Bucels,
near Caen. De Bueis, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. De Buche, Sur-
rey, 1199. Roger Buche, Nor-
Bouchelt, a form of Bockett.
Bouffler, from Bouflers, near Abbe-
ville. James Beaufleur (or Beau-
flour), collector Port of India,
Boughey, armorially identified
with Bowett. The Baronets
Boughey are maternally de-
scended from Fletcher.
Boughton, or Boveton, for Boven-
ton. Vide Boynton. Baronets
de Boveton were of county
Warwick, Fourteenth Century.
Boulder, from Baudre, near St. Lo
in the Cotentin. Walter Bul-
der, York, 1272.
Boully. Vide Bulley.
Boult, armorially identified with
Bonn (or "Bourn"), armorially
identified with Bohun of Mid-
hurst. Vide Boone.
Bound. The same as Bowne
Boundy, from Bondy, near St.
Denis, Isle of France.
Bour, armorially identified with
Boun or Bohun. Vide Boone.
Bourchier, a form of Bousser, or
Boursieres, Burgundy. John
De Busser was a justice in Essex
and Hertford, 1317.
Bourdon. Geoffrey Bordon and
others in Normandy 1180.
Reginald and Roger Bordon in
Bourke, for Burke or Burgh. The
Earls of Mayo are of this name.
Bourlet, or Borlet. Vide Barlett.
Bourner or Earner, a form of Ber-
ner or Berners.
Bousfield, from Bousville or Bou-
ville, near Ravilly, Normandy.
Walter Andrew, Serlo de Bues-
villa, or Buevilla, Normandy,
1 1 80. In 1244 William de
Boevill did homage for his
lands in the bailifry of New-
Bousher, armorially identified with
Boutcher, for Boucher.
Boutell. Vide Bulteel and Bottle.
Boutroy. John and Roger Boteri,
Normandy, 1 1 80. William
Buteri, or Butery in England.
Bouts. Vide Boot.
Bouvier. Hugo Bovier and John
Bovier of Normandy, 1180-95.
Bovay, for Beauvais.
Boville. A baronial family from
Booville or Bueville, Normandy,
Suffolk, 1086 (Domesday). The
family was widely spread
through England ; Chief -Justice
Boville came of this stock.
Bovington, or Boventon. Vide
Bowack, or Boag.
Bowcher, for Bourchier.
Bowden, from Bodin (Lower).
Petrus Bodin, Normandy,
Bawdier (from Hope Bowdler
and other places, Salop). A
form of De Boilers, or Bodlers,
of Flanders. Vide Buller.
Boiven. Bouvignes (Bely).
Bowes, from Boves, Normandy.
John de Bowes or Boves, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Hugh de Boves
commanded in Poitou for King
John (Roger of Wendover,
Bowett. Alexander Bonet occurs
in Normandy, 1180. Bowet,
Bowker. Vide Booker. The
names are armorially related.
Bowles, or Buelles. Vide Boyle.
Hence, W. Lisle Bowles, the
Bowley, for Beaulieu (Lower).
Simon de Bello Loco, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Alexander de
Bello Loco, Bedfordshire, 1255.
Bown, armorially identified with
Bohun of Midhurst. Vide
Bowne. Vide Bown.
Bowran, or Bowering, for Beau-
rain, near Cambrai, Flanders.
Wybert de Beaurain, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. "Hence, the
able writer, Sir John Bo wring."
Bowry. Vide Bury.
Bowser, armorially identified with
Bowtell, for Boutel. U. S., Bou-
Bowton, for Boughton.
Bowyer. Norman-French, Bou-
vier. This name, as appears
by the arms, was originally
Bouvier (Robson). Hugo Bou-
vier, Normandy, 1180. Le
Boyer, Kent, 1250.
Bowyn, armorially identified with
Bohun. Vide Boon.
Boy all, a form of Boyle (Lower).
Boyce, a form of Bois.
Boyd. A branch of the Beeton
family of Dinant. Vide Stuart.
Descent from a brother of Wai-
ter, the first High Steward of
Boy/dell. Helto Fitzhugh, grand-
son of Osborne Fitz-Tezzo,
Baron of Dodelston, had issue
Hugh Boydell, ancestor of this
Boyes, for Bois.
Boyle, from Boile, otherwise
Boelles, or Builles, now La
Buille, near Rouen. William
de Boel, or Boeles, and Gilbert
occur in Normandy, 1180.
William de Buels was descended
from Helias de Buel, temp.
John. His son William set-
tled in Hertford ; hence Ludo-
ric Buel Boyle, ancestor of the
Earls of Cork, Orrery, Shannon
and other great houses. One
of the most notable members
of the Boyle family (U. S. A.)
was Chief- Justice John Boyle,
of Kentucky ; a very able, emi-
nent, and fearless judge.
Boyle, of Scotland, from Boyville,
of Normandy, otherwise Boe-
ville (vide Bousfield). Com-
mon name in Normandy,
Twelfth Century. William de
Boeville (Bocville), Suffolk,
Boyles, for Boyle or Buelleis.
Boynell, armorially identified
Boynton, or De Brus, abbreviated
from Boventon. Vide Bruce.
Robert Fitz-Norman Bruis or
Bruce of Boventon, York, 1 129.
A leading family (De Boventon
or Boynton) in Twelfth and
Boys, or Boyse, for Bois (French).
A Huguenot Bois in Holland
would become Holtz ; in Ameri-
ca, Wood. (Vide Bois.)
Boy son. William Buisson of Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80; Roger Buzun,
Bozzard, or Bussard, Bascart, or
Buschart, Normandy, 1198.
Brabant, from the Netherlands.
Arnold Braban (Brabant), of
Hamford, occurs 1297.
Brabazon, from Brabant. Thomas
Braben^on, Normandy, 1198.
John Brabazon, Oxfordshire,
Brace, from Bracey.
Bracebridge, or De Ardern. The
family of Arden or Ardern was
Norman and went to England
in 1066. Ralph, son of William
de Ardern, was Lord of Brace-
bridge, Lincoln, Thirteenth Cen-
tury. The Bracebridge fam-
ily bears the arms of Arden.
John Bracebrigge was living
1305. Washington Irving has
made ' ' Bracebridge Hall ' '
famous wherever English
is read. The name at
least will survive. It was the
peculiar distinction of the blood
of Arden that it flowed in the
veins of Shakespeare. His
mother was an Arden, and his
magical "Forest of Arden"
immortalizes the name.
Bracey, from Brecy, near Caen.
Henry de Brecy occurs in Nor-
mandy, 1180-95. Robert de
Br6cy, Cheshire. From a branch
of this Cheshire family descend
the present Brasseys, among
whom the most distinguished
was the eminent engineer, an
honored servant of England
during the Victorian reign.
Bracher. Allen Bracheor, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Vide Brasier.
Brack, for Brae. Vide Brake.
Bragge, for Brae. Vide Brake.
Evain de Brae, Normandy,
1 1 80. Richard de la Brache,
England, 1199. Bragg entered
Kentucky in 1862.
Brain, from Brain, Anjou; York-
Bran, for Brand.
Branch, from St. Denis de Branche,
Normandy ; Suffolk, 1219.
Brand. Walter Brandus, Caen,
1 165. William Brant, Norfolk,
1086. Simon Brand, Hertford-
shire, 1325. The Brands of Lex-
ington, Kentucky, a well-
Brandram. William Brandram,
Branis, for Brain.
Brant. Vide Brand.
Brasier. William Braisier paid a
fine, Normandy, 1180. Soon
after ' ' William de Neelfa was a
fugitive for slaying him." The
name occurs also as Bracheor,
Brasil, from Bresles, near Beavois.
Brass, for Brace. Brass is one of
Brassey. Vide Bracy.
Bratt, armorially identified with
Brawn, for Braund.
Bray, from Bray near Evreux,
Normandy. William de Bray
occurs 1189-95. A branch of
the family was seated in Devon
in the Thirteenth Century. Sir
Reginald Bray, the eminent
architect, temp. Henry VII.
Brayne. Vide Brain.
Brazier. Vide Brasier.
Brazill, for Brasill.
Breache. Vide Brache.
Breckinridge. Vide Cabell.
Breckinridge is from Bracken-rigg,
a loc n. Cumb. Robt. J. Breck-
inridge, John C. Breckinridge,
and W. C. P. Breckinridge were
descended on the maternal
side from the Cabells a fa-
mous Norman family. Vide
Cabell. The Breckinridge family
is directly of Scottish origin.
COLONEL WILLIAM L. CRITTENDEN.
The foregoing derivation rests
upon the authority of the
English genealogist, Doctor
Henry Barber. But no Amer-
ican family has ever given
more varied and striking
illustrations of the power
of inherited Norman blood.
Scarcely a characteristic trait
Brecks, for Brake.
Brees. Vide Breese.
Breese, a form of Brice, being the
Breeze. Vide Breese.
Bren, armorially identified with
Brennard, for Burnard.
Brery, or De Brereto, Breuery,
near Vesoul, France.
Breton, from Bretagne. Baronial
families in England (Devon,
Bucks, Lincoln, etc.).
Bretell. Normandy, 1126.
Brett, from Brette in Maine, or,
possibly, short for Breton. Geof-
fry le Bret was one of the
Barons of Ireland.
Brettell, Lords of Gremonville,
Normandy (Des Bois). Bre-
tel, Kent, 1130. Bretel is near
Brettle, for Bretel.
Breun, or Brewn, for Brun. Vide
Brew, one of the forms of
Breux, Brews, or Braiose.
Brewer, (i) from Brovers, or
Brueria, now Breviare, near
Caen. Seated in Devon at
the Conquest. (2) From the
English translation of Brace-
ator, or Braceor. Vide Brazier,
Brewhouse, for Brewis, or De
Braiose, a baronial family, from
Braiose, near Argenton, Nor-
mandy. Branches in Ireland,
Wales, Suffold, Sussex, Norfolk,
Hants "and elsewhere." The
name is frequently written
Breose, Brewes, and is totally
different from that of Bruce or
Brus, with which it has often
Brewn. Vide Breun.
Brian, armorially identified with
Briant, for Breaunt, Breant, or
Breante, near Havre. Fulco de
Breante, or De Beent, England,
temp. Henry VIII. (Roger
Brice, from St. Brice, near Avran-
ches, Normandy. Robert de
St. Brice, Normandy, 1180.
Brickdale, from Briquedale, Nor-
mandy. The derivation of the
name from "Brickdele, Lan-
cashire," is doubted, on the
apparently sufficient ground
that there is no such place.
Bride, or St. Bride, or St. Bridget.
Bridge, or De Ponte, Normandy,
1 1 80; England about the same
time. Bridges, 1328, Middlesex.
Bridgett, for Brichet. Vide Briett.
Brient, for Brent or Briant.
Brier. Vide Bryer.
Briett. Occurs in Normandy,
1 1 80. Ralph de Brecet, Eng-
Briley, from Broilly, near Valog-
nes, Normandy. William de
Broleio, 1180-95. Broily, Bed-
ford, 1086. Bruilli, Lindores,
Brind, armorially identified with
Brine, for Broyne, Brun, Browne.
Brinson, or De Briangon, Middle-
sex, 1189. Giles de Brianzon,
Britain, for Breton. (Lower.)
Brittain, for Britain.
Brittan, for Britain.
Britten, for Britain.
Brixey, from Breze, Anjou; De
Brexes, Lancashire, 1199.
Brize, for Brice.
Broach, for Brock.
Brock, from Broc, Anjou; Robert
de Broc, England, 1189; also
Nigel and Ranulph de Broc.
Brocke, for Brock or Broc. (Lower.)
Bronaker, from Broncort, near
Langres, France. Roger Brun-
cort, Normandy, 1199. Proba-
bly same as Bruencort and Bru-
cort. (1180-98, Normandy.)
Brond, for Brand.
Brontofl, from Bernetot, near
Yvetol. John de Bernetot held
lands in Normandy, temp. Philip
Augustus. The name of Berne-
tot in Normandy at length
changed to Bernadotte the
name of one of Napoleon's mar-
shals. Hence, the royal family
of Sweden. Carew Isaac Tay-
lor remarked at Newcastle in
1889 that the royal families of
Europe were of Scandinavian
origin. But for the Norman
derivation of the Bernadottes,
here explained, the royal family
of Sweden might have appeared
to be an exception.
Brook, for Broke. (Lower.)
Brooks, for Brock; Brookes,
for Broke. (Lower.)
Brosee. Brusi, Brozi (old Norse).
Brosee, now pronounced Bro-
zee. William Brosee, the pro-
genitor of the family in Ken-
tucky, was a soldier in the Rus-
sian campaign under Napoleon.
Among the interesting "docu-
mentary" proofs of this service
(now in possession of the fam-
ily) is a portrait of the old
campaigner in his French uni-
Broughlon, a branch of Vernon;
' ' Broeton," Stafford, Thirteenth
Century. The arms concur
with the descent from Vernon.
Brown. Vide Browne.
Brown. Gilbert le Brun, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. The name Brunus
or Le Brun frequently occurs
in Normandy, 1180-98. Many
Normans were Brun, or Browne ;
but, in England, all Brownes
were not Norman. The line of
Hanno le Brun, Cheshire, temp.
Henry II, is armorially con-
nected with an Irish line. Wil-
liam Brone witnessed the char-
ter of Dunbrody, 1 178; Nigel le
Brun had a writ of military
summons, 1309, and Fremond
Bruyn was one of the barons of
Ireland, 1315-17. Richard de la
Ferte accompanied Robert of
Normandy to Palestine in 1096.
He had eight sons, the youngest
of whom, surnamed Le Brun,
settled in Cumberland, where
he had baronial grants, temp.
Henry I. The family of De la
Ferte, also called Le Brun, long
flourished in Cumberland. The
name Le Brun graduallychanged
to Broyne, Brown, and Browne.
Robert le Browne, M. P. for
Cumberland, 1317-1339, was
grandfather of Robert, from
whom descended the Viscounts
Montague, the Marquises of
Sligo, and the Barons Kil-
Brownett. Robert Brunet, Nor-
Brownlow. The Brownlows, Lords
Lurgan, bear the arms of the De
Tankervilles, Chamberlains of
Normandy. Vide Chamber-
Bruce, from the Castle of Brus, or
Bruis, now Brix, near Cher-
... bourg, where are the ruins of
^ an extensive fortress built by
Adam de Brus in the Eleventh
Century. Hence the Kings of
Scotland, the Earls of Elgin,
the Baronets Bruce.
Brudenell, or De Bretignolles,
from Bretignolles near Alengon,
Normandy. William de Bre-
tignolles, in 1263, had a writ of
summons to attend with his
military array at Oxford. From
this family descended Sire Rob-
ert Brudenell, Chief Justice of
the Common Pleas, 1520. The
orthographic modifications of
this Norman patronymic (from
Bretignolles to Bredenell, to
Bredenhill, and Brudenel) are
clearly traceable upon the
Bruen, armorially identified with
Bruin, with Brun, Le Brun, or
Browne, of Cheshire.
Brunes, for Brun, now Brown.
Brunker, armorially identified
Brus. Vide Bruce.
Brush. Richard Broche, Nor-
Brushett. Chapon Broste, Nor-
mandy, 1198. William Bruast,
Bryan, or Briowne, from Brionne,
Normandy. A branch of the
Counts of Brionne and the
Earls of Clare and Hertford,
descended from Gilbert, Count
of Brionne, son of Richard I
of Normandy. Wido Brionne of
the Welsh line had a military
courtof summons, 1259. About
this time the name was changed
to Bryan, and the Barons of
Bryan inherited it. William
Jennings Bryan seems to have
been, prenatally, a Kentuckian.
Bryant, for Briant.
Bryson. Vide Brison.
Buckle, or Buckell. Identified by
the arms (a chevron) with
Bushnell. Hence the able
Budgell, for Bushell.
Budgett, for Buckett.
Buggins. Bogin, Normandy, 1180.
Bogun, Derby, 1270.
Buist. Roger Baiste, or Buiste,
Buley, or Bewley, from Beaulieu.
Bullard. A form of Pullard or
Bullett. Beringer Bulete, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. lorceline Bolet,
1207. Normandy. In Ken-
tucky, the Bullitts justify their
Norman descent. They have
achieved distinction in many
Bullivani, or Bonenfant. Nor-
mandy, temp. Henry V; Cam-
bridge, 1253. Bonenfant.
Button, or Bullen. A form of
Boleyn. There is Bullen (or
Boleyn) blood in Kentucky.
Bully, for Builly. Vide Bingham.
Buliver. Vide Wiggett.
Bumpus, from Boneboz, Nor-
Bunce, for Bence.
Bunker, for Boncoeur. (Lower.)
Bunn, from Le Bon. (Lower.)
Burd, for Burt.
Burden, a familiar name.
Burden. Vide Burdon. ' ' Burdens'
Burdett. French Bourdet. Vide
Battle Abbey Roll.
Burdett. From the Bordets, Lords
of Cuilly, Normandy. Seated
in England at the Conquest.
Burdon. Bordon 1 180, Normandy.
Robert Bordon, Yorkshire,
Burfield. De Bereville, De Bare-
ville, England, 1789. Some-
Surges, Burgess. Simon de Bor-
geis, Normandy, 1195. Ralph
Burgess is an old way of spelling
Burgoyne, Burgon, Burgin. De
Bourgoyne, probably Gothic,
from Burgundy. In 1083 Wal-
ter Burgundiensis, or Borgoin,
held lands in Devon.
Burke. Vide Burgh.
Burley. Roger de Burlie, Nor-
mandy, 1198. "White Bur-
Burnett. The Scottish form of
Burnard. From Roger de Bur-
nard. The name became Bur-
net in 1409. Bishop Burnet of
Salisbury, celebrated writer, is
of this gens.
Burney, a form of Berney. Vide
Berney. The name of a well-
known family in Kentucky.
James G. Birney was the first
Free-Soil candidate for the
Burr. Robert, Roger, and Peter
Burre occur in Normandy, 1 180.
Gilbert le Bor, England, 1227.
Aaron Burr was a conspicuous
and dramatic figure in the early
history of Kentucky. Professor
Shaler, the eminent Harvard
professor, writing of Aaron
Burr's expeditionary project,
says that the Kentuckians "had
inherited the spirit of the Eliza-
bethan English"; and that the
mass of the Kentucky people
were always "filibusterish."
There is not a decade in their
history he adds that we do
not find some evidence of this
motive, to wit, "a natural
hunger for adventure."
Burrell, or Borel. Normandy,
1 1 80. Burrells, Burrill.
Burrough. (i) for Burgh; (2)
for Burys, Burroughs, Bur-
Burroughs. Vide Burrough or
Burt. William Berte, Mortanie,
Normandy, 1203. John Berte,
Burton, or De Richmond. One
of the family bore the feudal
dignity of Constable of Rich-
mond. The founder was Vis-
count of Nantes, Bretagne.
The Baronets Burton.
Bury, from Bourry, near Gisors,
Normandy. Armorially iden-
tified with the family of Bury,
Earls of Charleville.
Busain, from Buisson, in the
Bushe. Hugh de Bucis, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80.
Bush-well, for Boswell.
Busse. Armorially identified with
Butcher, for Bourchier.
Butler, or De Glanville. This
family derives its name from
Theobold Walter, the first but-
ler of Ireland, to whom that
dignity and vast estates were
granted by Henry II. The
Butlers bore the arms of De
Glanville, a family of Glanville,
Butler. A name of peculiar dis-
tinction in the heraldic geneal-
ogies. The Butler or De Glan-
ville family derives its name
from Theobald Balton, temp.
Henry II. The name has lost
none of its distinction in the
New World. The Butlers of
Kentucky are thoroughly Anglo-
Norman in their fighting
instincts. All the male members
(5) of this branch were officers
in the Revolution ; all their sons
but one were in the War of
1812; nine Butlers of this branch
were in the War with Mexico;
and in the Civil War every male
descendant of Captain Pierce
Butler (of Kentucky) was in
the Confederate Army (vide
Butt, for Bott. A name made
conspicuous in recent times by
Sir Isaac Butt. Vide Butts,
Butter. Earls of Larnsborough,
descended from Hugo Pincerna,
who, in 1086, was a baron in
Bedford. Hereditary butlers
of the Earls of Leicester and
Mellent. Several other families
of distinction bore the name
Butler: (i) the Butlers of Corn-
wall and Kent; (2) the Butlers
of Essex; (3) the Butlers, Bar-
ons of Warrington, feudal but-
lers of Chester ; (4) the Butlers
of Bramfield, and others.
Butter field, for Botevyle.
Buzar, for Buzzard.
Buzzard. Hugo and William Bus-
cart, Normandy, 1198. Henry
! : Boscard, Salop, 1199.
Byars, Byers, De Biars. (Lower.)
In Kentucky, a familiar name.
The Byars family of Mason
was connected with the famous
Byles. Armorially identified with
Boyle. A distinguished judge
bore the name.
Byng, from Binge, Gerault, Nor-
mandy. Reginald Binge was
one of the gentry of Essex,
1433. No one is likely to forget
the Byng, who was shot pour
encourager les autres.
Byron, or De Beuron, near Nantes,
Normandy. Sir Richard By-
ron married, temp. Henry IV,
the daughter and heiress of Col-
wick of Notts; and from him
descended Lord Byron, the poet.
Cobban, or Cadban, from Cabanne
or Chabannes in Perigord.
Bartholomew Caban of Berkes,
Cabbell. Walter Cabel is on
record as having witnessed
a charter in Wiltshire, in
the Eleventh Century. This
Walter Cabel came over with
the Conqueror. The Normans
used the word caballus, instead
of equus, for horse. It was so
used in Domesday Book, and it
seems certain, says Doctor
Brown, that the family derived
its surname from that, word.
Hence, also, caballero. Doctor
Brown gives at least forty-six
different ways of spelling the
name. Geoffrey Cabell owned
land in Caux, Normandy, in
1 1 80. The Cabells of Virginia
are descended from the Cabells
of France, in Somersetshire.
In 1726 we find Doctor William
Cabell in St. James Parish,
Henrico, then deputy sheriff to
Captain John Redford, High
Sheriff of Henrico (Shire- Reeve) ,
officially the first man in the
In June, 1785, "Polly" Cabel
was married to John Breckin-
The records show that Mary
H. Cabell and John Breckin-
ridge had issue :
(1) Letitia Preston.
(2) Joseph Cabell.
(3) MaryH. (died in infancy).
(4) Robert H.
(5) Mary Ann.
(7) Robert Jefferson.
(8) William Lewis.
The political and social his-
tory of these families and their
annexions are quite familiar
to the people of Kentucky and
Cadd, or Cade. Arnulf Cades,
Normandy, 1184. Eustace Cade,
Caffin. A form of Caufyn, or
Calvin. Cavin, or Calvin,
occurs in Normandy, 1180.
Cain, from Cahaignes, Normandy.
Cain. Sometimes of Hiberno-Cel-
tic origin; generally, however,
of Caen, or De Cadomo, Devon-
Caines, from the lordship of
Caldecote. A Norman family bear-
ing an English surname.
Cale. A form of Kael. A Breton
name. Vide Call.
Calf. An English form of the
Norman name Calxus, or Le
Chauve. William Calf, Ireland,
Call, or De Kael, from Bretagne
or Poiton. Walter Gael, envoy
to England, Thirteenth Cen-
Callis. Callass, Cales, the usual
forms of Calais in Sixteenth
Calver. An abbreviation of Cal-
Calvert, from Calbert, or Cauburt,
near Abbeville. The "b" being
changed into "v," as usual,
1318. Henry Calverd was Mem-
ber of Parliament for York.
The Calverts of Maryland(Lords
Baltimore). A familiar name in
Kentucky. Formerly (in mid-
century days and earlier) pro-
nounced Colbert; now, we only
Cambray, from the Lordship of
Chambrai, Normandy. Sire de
Cambrai was at the Battle of
Hastings, De Chambrai, Lei-
cestershire, 1086. Corrupted
to Chambreys, or Chambreis.
Camel, from Campelles, or Cam-
pell, in Normandy. Geoffry
Campelles, Normandy, Twelfth
Cameron. Scoto-Celtic. But there
is one English family of the
name derived from Champroud,
near Coutances. Ausger de
Cambrun, Essex, 1157. Robert
Cambron and John de Cambron,
Scotland, 1200 and 12 34. Cam-
bronne, of the Guard, of fra-
Camfield, or Camfyled, a corrup-
tion of Camville, from Cam-
ville, near Coutances.
Camp, from Campe, or Campes,
Normandy. John de Campes,
Campbell. Vide Beauchamp.
Norman-French, de Camville(de
Campo-Bello), vide British Sur-
names, Barber (London, 1903).
As early as 1812, Doctor John
Poage Campbell, of Kentucky,
in a series of ' ' Letters to a Gen-
tleman at the Bar" (Colonel
Joseph Hamilton Daveiss), gave
a striking illustration of the
high quality of his scholar-
ship in his anticipation of Sir
Benjamin Brodie and Professor
Tyndall of our day in the detec-
tion of the germinal ideas from
which the Darwinian theory of
evolution is derived (vide
Green's Historic Families). An
interesting illustration of the
intellectual life of the pioneer
period in Kentucky.
Campion. William Campion, Nor-
mandy, 1 184. Geoffry Campion,
England, 1194. "Campian,"
American Colonel (Lothair).
Candy, from Cande, near Blois.
Nicholas Candy, Normandy,
Cane, for Caen. (Vide Cain.)
Cany. Richard Cane, Normandy
1 1 80. Walter Cane, England,
Canfell, for Camville.
Cann, from Cane, Normandy.
Geoffry de Can, Normandy,
1195. Richard de Canne, Eng-
GENERAL WILLIAM NELSON.
land, 1272. (Cone, from bosne:
loc n. France.) In Kentucky,
Cannel, from Chanel, now Chenean,
Cannon. Radulfus Canonicus, or
Le Chanoin, of Normandy.
Robert Canonicus, England,
Cant, for Gant.
Cantis, for Candish, or Cavendish.
A Norman baronial family.
Cantor (translated Singer). Gauri-
dus Cantor, Normandy, 1180.
Christian le Chaunter, England,
Cantrell. William and Roger Can-
tarel of Normandy, 1188.
Alberid Chanterhill, England,
1 199. Richard Chaunterel, 1272.
Kentucky, U. S. A., Cantrill,
1906. Judge Cantrill, Court of
Cant-well. Cantelo. Chanteloup.
Cape, or Capes, from Cappes.
Capel. A Breton family from La
Chapelle, Nantes. Rainald de
Capella, Essex, 1066. (Domes-
day.) William de C., Suffolk,
from whom the Lords Capel,
Earls of Essex. Capel, from La
Chapelle, near Alencjon. Seated
in the West of England. Capell,
for Capel. Monsignore Capel
figures vividly in Lothair.
Capern, for Capron. Richard
Cepron, Normandy, 1180. Rob-
ert Capron, England, 1194. Mrs.
Laura Lee Capron, of Baltimore,
Md., was a daughter of Richard
Henry Lee, of Kentucky.
Caplin, Capelen, or Chaplain.
William Capellanus, Normandy,
1180. Richard C., England,
1190. John Chaplyn, Lincoln,
Capun. Vide Capern.
Carabine, for Corbin. Robert
Corbin, Normandy, 1180. Geof-
fry Corbin, England, 1 194. Wal-
ter Corbin, England, 1127.
Carbonell, Normandy, 1 1 80. Car-
bonel, Hereford, 1086. Tht
family long flourished in Here-
ford, Bucks, and Oxford.
Car den. An English local name.
Also a form of Cordon, Cordun :
Normandy, 1180; Essex,
Card-well, for Cardeville, or Car-
dunville, from Cardunville, near
Cares, from Chars, Normandy.
Carew. A branch of Fitzgerald.
Carle, for Carel, or Carrell.
Carles. Vide Carless, or Charles,
from St. Karles de Percy, in the
Cotentin. Charles family, in
Thirteenth Century, seated in
many parts of England. Carlish,
Came. Geoff ry le Caron, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Wischard de
Charun, England, 1272.
Cornell, from Carnelles, near
Evreux. Geoffry de Carneilles,
Normandy, 1180. Armorially
identified with Charnell. In
England, usually styled Charnel
or Charnels. Carneal, a dis-
tinguished name in Kentucky;
Thomas D. Carneal. one of the
founders of Covington, in that
Carpenter. Bernard Carpentarius,
Normandy, 1 1 80. William Car-
pentarius, father of Henry Biset,
baron, temp. Henry II.
Carr, or Kerr, q. v.
Carrell, or Caril, from Caril, near
Ligieux. James II, after the
loss of his throne, created a
Carrey, for Carey.
Carrington, for Carenton; from
Carenton, in the Cotentin. Rob-
ert de Carenton granted the mill
of Stratton, Wilts, to Farley
Carritt, or Caret, for Garet.
Carrol. In England, a form of
Carrell. In Ireland it is Celtic.
Carson. Probably from Corson,
Normandy. Carcun, Thirteenth
Carter. William Cartier of Nor-
mandy, 1195; 1203, William of
Warwick. Thirteenth Century
Ralph C. Worcester. Colonel
Carter, of Cartersville, Va.
Carterfield, or Quaterville, Nor-
Cartwright. Armorially identified
with Cateryke, or Catherick.
A branch was seated in Notts;
another in Cambridge, and the
name there changed from Cater-
yke to Cartwright. Of the for-
mer branch was the celebrated
reformer, and of the latter,
Thomas Cartwright, the great
Puritan leader, under Elizabeth.
Peter Cartwright, an able revi-
valist, was equally famous in
the States of the Southwest.
Car-veil. Ranulph de Carville,
1180; Robert Carvel, 1195,
Normandy. England, 1199.
Richard de Carville. The Eng-
lish derivation of this patro-
nymic has given a name
to a popular American novel.
Cory, or Pipart. Waldin Pipart
held Kari, 1086. (Domesday.)
William Pipart held Kari,
whence the name of De Kari, or
Gary. Hence, the Earls of Mon-
mouth and Viscounts Falkland.
Case, for Chace. Armorially re-
lated to Chancy, or Canci.
Casey, or Cassy. When English,
it is a branch of Canci, with
which it bears armorial rela-
tions. Robert de Canecio, 1 180,
Normandy ; Geoff ry de Chancy,
England, 1194. Chace, Chase,
or Chousey, armorially identi-
fied to Casey. In various forms
appears in all parts of England ;
Cash, for Cass.
Cass. A form of Case, or
Cassell, from Cassel, Flanders.
Hugo de Cassel, London and
Middlesex, 1130. Vide Cecil.
Casson, for Gasson.
Castang, for Casteyn.
Castell. William Castel, Nor-
mandy, 1198. Alexander de
Castro, Castel, England, 1199.
Castleman. The castellan of a
castle. Ancient name; distin-
guished in Kentucky.
Castro, for Castell. Casto?
Cote, or Catt. William Catus, Nor-
mandy, 1180. Rudulphus Cat-
tus, 1189. Alexander le Kat,
Catherick. Vide Cartwright.
Catlin, Catline, Castelline, from
Castellan, bearing three castles
(armorial). De Casleltan, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Sire Reginald de
Casleltan, England, 1272. An
eminent Chief Justice of Eng-
land bore the name of Cattine.
Catling, for Catlin ; also, Catlyn,
Catlin, a famous American
painter an illustrator of our
Cato, from Catot, or Escatol, in
Normandy. Hugh de Escatol,
Caton. Katune, Normandy, 1 198.
England, De Catton.
Cattel, or Chatel. Foreign origin
Du Chastel, or De Castello.
Cattermole, from Quatremealles
or De Quatuor Molis (locality
not ascertained) ; also, Catter-
Cattle, for Cattel.
Cattlin, for Catlin.
Catton. Vide Caton.
Caudel, for Caudle. Roger Caldel,
or Caudel, Normandy, 1180.
Anistina and William Caudel
(Mr. and Mrs. Caudle?), Cam-
Caulcoft. Vide Calcott.
Caulfield, Calvil, Calfhill, or Ca-
ville. Vide Cavell. Seated in
Normandy, 1 1 80. In England,
Gilbert de Calvel, Northumber-
land, and Richard, of Kent,
1 2 02. Sir Toby Caulfield, a
renowned commander in Ire-
land, descended from Bishop of
Worcester, temp. Elizabeth.
Hence, collaterally, Earls of
Cave. John Cave, Adeliua de
Cava, Normandy, 1180. Sire
Alexander de Cave, commis-
sioner of array and justiciary.
Name of Norman origin. From
Cave, in Yorkshire.
Cavendish. The Gernons were a
branch of the Barons of Mont-
fichet (or Montfiquet, or Mont-
fiket), in Normandy; so named
after their Scandinavian ances-
tor. The Montfichets were he-
reditary standard-bearers, or
military chiefs of London. The
younger branches retained the
name of Gernon. Alured Ger-
non, brother of William de Mont-
fichet, had estates in Essex and
Middlesex, 1130. Geoff ry Ger-
non, of this line, was surnamed
De Cavendish, from his residence
at Cavendish, Suffolk, 1302.
He was grandfather of Sir
John Cavendish, Chief Justice
to Richard II. Cavendish and
Gernon bear indiscriminately
the same arms. The Dukes of
Newcastle, Devonshire and
other great families bearing the
name of Cavendish (pronounced
Candish), descended from the
Gernons and Montfichet. The
genealogists differ on these
points, but the old heralds
seem to agree.
Caville, or Cavill, identified by its
arms (a calf) with Calvel, or
Cauvel. Robert Cauvel, Nor-
mandy, 1198. William Cavell
of Oxfordshire, 1292.
Cawdery, or Coudray, Cawdray.
A branch of the Beaumonts,
Viscounts of Maine. (Vide
Cawley, for Colley.
Cawse, Calz, or Caux, from Caux,
near Abbeville. Hence the
English surname, Cox or Coxe.
Cayley, from Cailly, near Rouen.
Cecil, Cicelle, or Seyssel, from
Kessel, or Cassel, east of Bruges,
Flanders. Its arms (escutcheon
charged with the lion rampant
of Flanders) are still borne in
Flanders by a family of the
same name. Walter de Alterens,
descended from Robert Fitz-
Hamon, living 1165, is derived
the noble house of Cecil. The
great English statesman, Lord
Burleigh (William Cecil) was of
Ceeley, or Seily, from Silly, Nor-
Chabot, or Cabot. Robert Kabot,
1198. Roger Cabot, of Eng-
Chace, Chase, or Chausey. Armo-
rially identified, also, with
Chancy or De Canci. The name
appears in all parts of England
as Chancey, Chancy, etc.
Chad, for Cadd.
Chaff, from Chause. Vide Cafe.
Chafjer, Chaffen, from Chevricres,
Chaffey, or Chaffy, a form of
Chafe, or Chaff.
Chaffin, for Caffin. (Lower.)
Chalie, for Cayley.
Challands, for Chalas. Vide Chal-
Challen. A branch of the Counts
Challenger, or Challenge, from
Challoner. Probably from Chalons.
Chamberlain, Robert, Herbert,
William Henry Camerarius, or
Le Chamberlain, Normandy,
1180-98. England, 1194-1200.
Henry, Hugh, Ralph, Robert,
Thomas, Walter, Richard Tur-
bert Camerarius. The principal
family of these was descended
from the Barons of Tancarville,
Chamberlains of Normandy ;
also, Chamberlaine, Chamberlin,
Chambers, or De Camera. William
de Camera, England, 1189,
Oxford, Essex, Sussex. The
family appear early in York,
Wilts and Norfolk. Chambre,
or Camera, was in Brabant, the
family seeming to have come
thence at the Conquest. Gov-
ernor John Chambers, of Ken-
tucky, was one of the aides of
General Harrison at the battle
of the Thames ; was appointed
Territorial Governor of Iowa
by President Harrison.
Champ. Vide Camp.
Champin, for Campion, or Cam-
Champney, from De Champigne,
Chancellor, Cancellor, Chanslor.
Chancillor, a Norman name.
Chaney, for Cheyney.
Channell. Armorially identified
with Charnell. An eminent
judge bore this name.
Channon. Vide Cannon.
Chantry, from Chaintre, near
Chappel. Vide Capel.
Chappius. Calvus, Normandy,
1195. England, Cabous, 1311.
Charge, from Gaurges, in the
Charles. Vide Carless.
Charnell, for Carnell.
Charter, for Chartres.
Charteris. The Scottish form of
Chartres. Ralph Carnotensis (De
Chartres) held estates in Lei-
cester, 1086. Ebrard de Carnot,
Chase. Vide Chace.
Chattell. Vide Cattell.
Chatwin, for Chetwynd.
Chaucer. Geoffrey Chaucer, the
poet, married a daughter of Sir
Paine Roet, sister of John
of Gaunt's wife, and was
valectus, or esquire, to Edward
III. The family of Chaucer,
Chaucier, Chaucers, or Chaseor,
had been seated in the eastern
counties, and some members
were in trade in London. The
name, Le Chaucier (Calcearius)
may have arisen from some
sergeantry connected with the
tenure of land. Probably a
branch of the family of Male-
Cheek. William Cecus occurs in
Normandy, 1198; and in Glou-
cester, 1189. Walter Chike of
Cheiley, or Ceiley, a form of Cilly.
Cheney. Vide Cheyney.
Chenoweth. The history of this
name is of peculiar interest.
John Trevelesick, according to
an old London record, married
Elizabeth Terrel. Their son,
John, received from his father
a tract of land upon which he
built a house, and called the
place "Chenoweth," doubtless
from an oak grove or woods
upon the land. The initial
syllable of the name is not
uncommon in the genealogical
nomenclature of Normandy ;
and Cornwall is notably a land
of Norman castles and druidical
groves of oak. The Trevelesick
family, as was a custom of the
period, took the name of the
place, and was henceforth know
as "Chenoweth." This change
may have been partly induced
by the circumstances that there
was a law which required the
people to take names that were
"easy" to the English. There
seems to have been an early
etymological connection be-
tween the familiar Virginian
names ' ' Chenoweth " and
"Chinn." Vide Chinn, Cheyne,
Chne, Chenoie, and the Scan-
dinavian suffix with. In a list of
names from Domesday Book
we note the following : Cheneu-
vard, Chenuard, Cheuvin, Che-
nut. The Chenoweths of Ken-
tucky are from Berkeley County,
Virginia, the progenitor of the
family being a "fighting
Cherey. (i) De Ceresio. The early
form, Cerisy. (2) Also from
Cheeri, William Cheeri of
Chesney, from Quesnay, near Cou-
tances ; De Chesnete in England.
Chevalier (i. e. Miles), Normandy,
1 1 80. Reginald Miles, England,
Chew. William de Cayu, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. Walter C. Kew,
Cheyne. Cheyney, Chinn, from
Quesnay, near Coutances. Rob-
ert de Chesneto, Bishop of Lin-
coln, 1147. The Lords Cheyny
were of this stock. Chinn is
an old family name in Ken-
tucky, and seems to be genea-
logically connected with the
Chenoweth gens. (Vide Chen-
oweth.) The progenitor of the
Chinn family in England and
America was one Thomas de
Cheyne, of Norman-French de-
scent. Rawleigh Chinn, gent.,
married Esther Ball, a connec-
tion of the Washington family ,
and came to America about
1713 and settled in Lancaster
County, Virginia. (See the
"Register" for 1907, page 63.)
Chick, or Chike, a form of Cheak
(Robson). A prominent Ken-
tucky family (Boyle).
Child, the English form of Enfant.
William and Roger le Enfant,
Normandy, 1180. William and
John Child, England, 1180.
Childers. A corruption of Challen
or Challers. Vide Smithson.
Chinn. Vide Cheyney, Cheyne.
Chitty. In 1272 was Cette. Roger
Chivers, or Cheevers, from La
Chievre, or Capra, Normandy.
Choicy, a form of Chausy.
Cholmelsey, or Cholmondely. Wil-
liam de Belwar, or Belvar, or
Belvoir, married Mabilia, a
daughter of Robert Fitzhugh.
From this William de Belwar
descended the House of Chol-
Christian. Thomas and William
Christianus, Normandy, 1180.
Walter Christianus, England,
1199. Crestien, Cristian, Cres-
tin, England, 1272.
Christmas. A translation of the
Chucks, a form of Chokes, or
Chioches, from Choquet, Flan-
Church. Vide Search.
Churchill, or De Courcelle. The
Churchills of Dorset, ancestors
of the great Duke of Marlbor-
ough, are traceable by the ordi-
nary heralds' pedigrees to the
reign of Henry VII. The fam-
ily of Wallace (Walensis) was a
branch of the Corcelles. From
this family came the Great
Duke. One of the later Dukes
of Marlborough published a
charming account of his visit
to Kentucky, just after the war.
He was entertained at "Ash-
land " by Major Henry C. Mc-
Clare. Two families, (i) De Clare
of Browne. (2) The Norman
House of De Clere.
Claret. Walter Clarte, Normandy,
1180. John Clarrot, England,
Clark. George Rogers Clark.
Clay, from Claye, near Maux.
The name is borne by the
Baronets Clay. The Clays of
Bourbon and the Clays of
Fayette, says General Cassius
M. Clay, are descended from
the same remote ancestor.
Cliff, or Clift, Clive.
Cochrane, Cochran. The family
were resident in County Renfrew
(says Lower) for many cen-
turies. Vide Peerage, Earl of
Dundonal. Renfrew has strong
associations with John Knox,
and according to Doctor Macin-
tosh, the vigorous race he repre-
sented had a strong infusion of
Norman or Scandinavian blood.
A recent legal decision connects
the name of Cochrane with one
of the most important cases
ever brought before a Kentucky
Collins. William de Colince or
Colimes held lands at Chad-
lington near Oxford. Coulimes
was near Alengon. Hugh de
Coulimes, 1165, held a barony
of four fees.
(i) The Collins family or fam-
ilies of Kentucky have been
notably distinguished. General
Richard H. Collins was a law-
yer of great ability. His sons,
also lawyers, were brilliant and
cultivated men. John A. Collins
was a member of the Cincinnati
bar, and a partner of Senator
Pugh. Charles and William
were writers of ability and dis-
tinction. Richard was a gallant
Confederate soldier and the
artillerist of Shelby's command.
Their father welcomed John
Quincy Adams to Kentucky
when he made his famous speech
in vindication of Mr. Clay.
(2) Judge Lewis Collins was
a native of Kentucky and
derived from pure Virginian
stock. He was a man of the
highest character. His history
of Kentucky, a valuable work,
was officially recognized by the
Legislature of the State. His
son, Doctor Richard H. Collins,
a man of marked and varied
ability, continued his father's
historic labors; revised the vol-
ume first published, added an-
other volume, and increased
the quantity of matter four-
fold. No one has bestowed
higher commendation upon this
work than Professor Shaler,
himself an historian of the
Corker. De Corcres, Normandy,
Costello, from Mac Ostello, descen-
ants of Hostilio de Angelo,
HONORABLE HUMPHREY MARSHALL.
settled in Ireland, temp. Henry.
In this instance the new settler
took the prefix Mac, not an
uncommon occurrence in those
days. The native "Macs" and
"O's" of Ireland were never at
peace, and the Galwagians repu-
diated both. When the Nor-
mans came they gave the Celts
"Fitz," and characteristically
enough the Celts, who were dis-
satisfied with "O" and "Mac,"
have been having "Fitz" ever
since. Lower says that Eng-
lish settlers sometimes assume
the prefix "Mac," apparently
from a desire of assimilation to
the Celtic race. In Ireland "O"
was held in higher esteem than
"Mac" In Scotland, it was
just the reverse.
Cox, or Coxe; Cocks, Le Coq;
Coke ; Cocus ; also, De Caux.
Cripps. Armorially identified with
Criitenden. A fine old name from
Kent. The Crittendens of Ken-
tucky have nobly illustrated the
name. The founder of the fam-
ily, John Crittenden, was an
officer in the Revolutionary
War. He came to Kentucky
at the close of that struggle,
and settled in Woodford, the
heart of this State. His sons,
John, Thomas, and Robert,
were eminent at the bar, and
Henry, who devoted his life to
agriculture, was equally con-
spicuous for talent. John J.
Crittenden received his elemen-
tary education at the local
schools ; afterwards attended
Washington Academy (now
and completed his studies at
William and Mary. The effect
of his classical training is shown
in the clearness, finish, and
felicity of his published speeches ;
his peculiar power in forensic
oratory must always be a
matter of tradition.
The name "Crittenden" is
imperishably associated with
that of Kentucky. It is pecu-
liarly a family of soldiers, law-
yers, and political leaders. One
soldier of the name was immor-
talized by his tragic fate
William Crittenden, the proto-
martyr of Cuba Libre.
The history of the family is
the history of the State, j
Crook, or Crooke.
Cummings, or Gumming.
Currier. Richard Coriarius, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80, from Angerville,
in the Cotentin.
Cuss. A form of Cust. One may
be a "Cuss" in Kentucky; but
quite as often he is "Cust."
Dangerfield, or D'Angerville.
Davis. Mr. Burton N. Harrison,
in his graphic "Century " narra-
tive of the Capture of Jefferson
Davis, records the last "War"
speech of the Southern Presi-
dent. It was addressed to a
column of cavalry, under the
command of General Duke, at
Charlotte, N. C., the soldiers
waving their flags and hurrah-
ing for "Jefferson Davis." The
speech was brief. He thanked
them for their cordial greeting ;
complimented the gallantry and
efficiency of the Kentucky cav-
alrymen; and expressed his
determination not to despair of
the Confederacy, but to remain
with the last organized band,
"upholding theflag." This was
all. He said later to his faithful
Secretary, "I can not feel like
a beaten man."
In a private letter written by
Secretary Harrison to his
mother about this time (unpub-
lished), he says: "Thaddeus
Stevens recently sent us an
offer to become one of Mr.
Davis' counsel if it were agree-
able to us to have him serve."
Mr. Harrison's letters to his
family are admirably written
and full of interest.
It was the trained sagac-
ity of an English statesman
which in the midst of universal
doubt and misconception en-
abled him to comprehend at a
glance the difficulties encoun-
tered byjeff erson Davis in bring-
ing order out of the wild chaos
of secession in the Southern
States. "He has created a
Nation" said Mr. Gladstone.
Doubtless, posterity, in full pos-
session of the facts, will be dis-
posed to let the judgment
stand. These facts have never
been more ably and accurately
stated than in the eulogy by
Colonel William C. P. Breckin-
ridge upon that able and daring
pilot in this great extremity of
the South. The eulogist was
competent to speak; he was
early in the field; he was'close
to the inner councils of the
war; he saw and shared the
struggle in every phase ; and at
the close, he calmly accepted
the results. His clear and rapid
summary will carry historic
"When the world once un-
derstands how it was possi-
ble for the government, inaugu-
rated at Montgomery, without
a battalion of soldiers, or a ship
of war, without arms or muni-
tions of war, without provisions
and military stores; a govern-
ment not possessing within its
borders a single factory at
which a single weapon of war,
or a single part of a weapon of
war, could be manufactured,
without credit or funds; a
nation with her ports soon
blockaded so as to be deprived
of access to the markets of the
world; a republic composed
nominally of thirteen separate
States, of which Kentucky, Ten-
nessee and Missouri were prac-
tically under the control of its
enemy how such a nation
could maintain such a war for
a period of four years against
the United States of America,
and bring into the field an army
more numerous than its entire
adult white population, feed it,
clothe it, transport it, arm it,
take care of it and keep it in
such . condition that it won
unprecedented victories, has
been an unsolved mystery.
When it is added that during
those years personal freedom
was maintained, order pre-
served, courts kept open and
no rights usurped, thinkers will
conclude that he who was the
head and life, the spirit and
chief must have been a very
The London Times, in its
obituary notice, said: "As he
was the first to perceive the
true nature of the struggle, so
was he the last to admit that
the battle was lost. He fought
a losing battle with unques-
tionable ability and unflinch-
ing courage. His achievements
will secure him an honorable
place in his country's history."
In the last public address of
Jefferson Davis, delivered in
the capitol of Mississippi to the
Legislature in joint convention,
he said : "The people of the Con-
federate States did more in pro-
portion to their numbers and
men than was ever achieved by
any people in the world's his-
tory. Fate decreed that they
should be unsuccessful in the
effort to maintain their claim
to resume the grants to the
Federal Government. Our peo-
ple have accepted the decree;
it, therefore, behooves them,
as they may, to promote the
general welfare of the Union;
to show to the world that here-
after, as heretofore, the patriot-
ism of our people is not meas-
ured by the lines of latitude and
longitude, but is as broad as
the obligations they have as-
sumed and embraces the whole
of our ocean-bound domain.
Let them leave to their children
and children's children the
grand example of never swerv-
ing from the path of duty, and
preferring to return good for
evil rather than to cherish
the unmanly feeling of re-
venge. ' '
Davy, or Davey.
Hawkins, or Dakin.
Dearing, or Deering.
DeLacy, or Lacy.
Delmar. An abbreviation of
De la Mare.
Denis, or Dennis.
Denney, or Denny.
Derry, for D'Arry or D'Airy.
Desha. (Fr. Deshayes.) A grand-
son of Governor Desha of Ken-
tucky, visiting many years ago
the Valley of Wyoming, the
ancestral home-place of the
Desha family, found a vener-
able scion of the pioneer stock,
who invariably spelt his name
Deshay. Fields, woods, hedges,
etc., give surnames to families.
In the following line from an
old French writer we find two
family names, or at least words
familiarly used as such: On
lui dressoit des sentiers au tracers
des hayes de lews bois. The
name Desha is accented on the
second syllable, in Kentucky,
this doubtless being the original
pronunciation as implied by
the ancestral orthography
"Deshay." Beyond the Seine
in old Paris; beyond the Latin
Quarter and the Faubourg St.
Germain, near the fortifica-
tions, there stands or did
stand in the closing quarter of
the last century a block of
antique villas. One of these
was known as the Villa De-
shayes. Captain Deshayes, of
the French man-of-war L e Grand
Joseph, made a gallant fight
against two British frigates
during the Colonial wars.
General Joseph Desha, after
a brilliant military and polit-
ical career, became Gov-
ernor of Kentucky in 1824.
His administration (says Collins,
the old Whig historian) was
strong and efficient. The mes-
sage of Governor Desha of
Kentucky, November 7, 1825,
says Professor W. G. Sumner
of Yale, "deserves attentive
reading from any one who
seeks to trace the movement of
decisive forces in American
Judge Bledsoe (the father-
in-law of Governor Desha) is
reported to have said that
"Desha commenced his career
with as sound a set of politics
as any man in Kentucky, but
it was his misfortune never to
Even Desha's enemies con-
cede that he made a brilliant
and impressive appearance upon
the hustings. His handsome
person and carriage contributed
much to this effect. He is
described in that Hudibrastic
skit, "The Stumpiad" (1816):
"With chapeau-bras and good broad
And fine as any English lord."
(Vide sketch and portrait of
Desha in No. 18 of the Pub-
lications of The Filson Club:
Battle of the Thames.)
Demne. William le Devin, Nor-
Dickens, or Digons. Digin or
Diquon, an early "nurse-name"
of Richard. Digg, Diggery,
Dickman, Digman, Digins, Dig-
gins, "Dickens" name of the
novelist. Also, Dickson, Dick-
"Dickins," used as a nick-
name of Satan, is a contraction
of the diminutive Devilkins.
Dietrich. (Scan.) Didrik. Did-
rich, Diderk, Diderisk. (From
a list of Frisian Personal and
Family Names Barber.)
Dimmett, for Diment.
Dixie. Armorially identified with
Dicey. From Diss, Norfolk,
which belonged to Richard de
Lucy, Governor of Falaise.
The Confederate war-song,
therefore, bears a Norman
Dodson. The son of Dode,
Alwinus Dodesone, occurs in
Domesday as a tenant-in-chief.
It is an open question whether
it is Scandinavian or Anglo-
Saxon. Even Lower is doubt-
ful. There is a large connection
of this name in Maryland and
Kentucky. One branch is con-
nected with the Botelers of Vir-
ginia. A good English stock.
Doniphan. Probably an early form
of Donovan. By old writers
(says Lower) the name is writ-
ten Dondubhan ("the brown-
haired chief") changed to
Doniphan by the familiar sub-
stitution of p for b. The Doni-
phans of Kentucky were a
strong race lawyers, soldiers,
physicians, etc. General Wil-
liam Nelson's mother was a
Joseph Doniphan came to the
Fort at Boonesborough in 1777.
He is said to have been the first
school-teacher in Kentucky.
At the battle of Bracito, the
Mexican leader of a large
force called upon Colonel
Doniphan (a Kentuckian) to
surrender, with the alternative
"Surrender, or I will charge
The answer came at once
"Charge and be damned.!"
There was no surrender. The
Colonel Alexander Doniphan
was a close maternal kinsman
of General William Nelson, of
Kentucky, and like him in
Dougles, or Dougless.
Dover, from Douvres or Dovers,
Normandy. A baronet family
which derived its name from
a Scandinavian Dover at the
conquest of Normandy, 912.
Dover, Kentucky, is doubtless
in the same line of descent.
Dowell, for Doel or Dol. Rivallon,
Seneschal of Dol, ancestor of the
Counts of Dol; connections of
the du Guesclins (of France) and
Stuarts (of Scotland). Passing
into a Celtic environment, a
Norman Dol or Dowell would
naturally assume the Celtic pre-
fix, "Mac," as in like circum-
stances English settlers have
done. In Lord Stair's list of
Macs, he gives Do-wale, Douall,
Dowell. McDowell is the form
the name assumes in Virginia
and Kentucky, one branch of
the family (McDowells) being
known as the McDoles, a tradi-
tional pronunciation of the
name. The progenitor of the
family, Colonel Samuel M.
Dowell, was a Colonial leader
in Virginia, and conspicuous
and influential as a pioneer in
Kentucky. He was President
of the Convention that organ-
ized the State.
The common derivation of
"Dowell" is from Dougall, and
was intended in the Highlands
to apply exclusively to the
Lowlander ; though quite as ap-
plicable to the "man from be-
low." (Vide Lower :Dhu, black;
gall, a stranger.)
Downing. Old English name
familiar in Kentucky. A loc.
n. Wore. (Eng.)
Drake. There is no reason to
doubt that the Drakes of Devon
were all originally of the same
race. They bore a dragon
(Draco), showing that their
name had been Draco. The
father of Daniel Drake came to
Kentucky in the closing years
of the Eighteenth Century, set-
tling in the rich bluegrass coun-
ty of Mason. Along with a rifle
and an axe, he brought five
books to the wilds of Kentucky,
to wit, a Bible, a hymn book,
an arithmetic, a spelling book,
and the "Famous History of
Montellion, a Romance of the
Ages of Chivalry." "The Let-
ters of Lord Chesterfield,"
borrowed by the father of
Daniel from a friend in the
neighboring Virginian colony
"fell in mighty close" says
the son "with the tastes of
the whole family." Chesterfield
and Montellion : ideal educa-
tors even in this "school of the
woods," as it was happily
termed by its most distinguished
graduate, Doctor Daniel Drake.
Daniel Drake was not only a
skillful physician and accom-
plished scholar, but he was the
founder of a famous medical
school, and an author whose
productions, in the estimation
of competent critics, have given
him and his country a splendid
and enduring renown. His elab-
orate and systematic treatise
upon the Diseases of the Valley
of the Mississippi is a work which
lays broad the foundations of
medico-geographical research in
the Western Hemisphere, and
foreshadows in masterly fashion
the rigorous methods of physi-
cal science that are now univer-
sally in vogue. The author was
an explorer by right of birth.
He was a true son of his pioneer
father, and a typical scion of an
adventurous race. The daring
navigator, Sir Francis Drake,
the son of a Devonshire yeoman,
was a true kinsman in spirit,
and probably in blood. The
same passion for exploration
which drove the one to circle
the universal seas in an English
keel inspired the other to toil
through the vast spaces of a
continental wilderness and
explore the haunts of pestilence
upon the shores of the Mexican
Gulf. It is doubtless as the
author of that unique work
"The Diseases of the Great
Interior Valley" that Daniel
Drake will chiefly be remem-
bered, and certainly no one
could desire a better title to
remembrance. The motto of
his famous "Journal," E SYL-
vis NUNCIUS, is a succinct and
happy characterization of the
man. He was indeed an ambas-
sador from nature, and his cre-
dentials have passed unchal-
lenged to this day.
Duncan, or Dunkin.
Duke. Le Due, Normandy, n 80-
98. Radulphus Dux (or Duke),
of Bucks, England, 1199. The
name keeps its old distinction
in Kentucky. It will long sur-
vive in social tradition and
always hold a high place in the
history of the State.
AN ANGLO-NORMAN FAMILY.
Dr. Basil Duke, born in Calvert
County, Maryland, 1766; died
in Washington, Ky., 1828; mar-
ried, 1794, Charlotte Marshall,
born, 1 777, in Fauquier County,
Virginia; died in Washington,
Kentucky, April 17, 1817. She
was a sister of Chief- Justice
i. Thomas Marshall Duke,
born 1795, died about 1870;
1. Bettie Taylor.
2. Nancy Ashby.
2. Mary Wilson Duke, born
February 7, 1797; married, May
7, 1818, Dr. John F. Henry;
died September, 1823.
3. James Keith Duke, born,
Washington, Ky., 1799; died
August 2, 1863; married, Feb-
ruary 5, 1822, Mary Buford.
4. Nathaniel Wilson Duke,
born 1806; died at Paris, Ky.,
July, 1850; married, October 4,
1833, Mary Currie. Parents of
General Basil Duke.
5. John Marshall Duke, born,
Washington, Ky., October 29,
1811, died in Maysville, Ky.,
1880; married Hannah Morton.
6. Lucy Ann Duke born
Washington, Ky., January n,
1814; died Rock Island, 111.;
married, January 20, 1835,
7. Charlotte Jane Duke, born
Washington, Ky., January 20,
1817; died February, 1886;
married, January 14, 1840, Har-
rison Taylor, "War" Speaker
of the House of Representa-
The Dukes of South Mason
are descended from Alexander
Duke of Maryland, a tall, vig-
orous specimen of the Anglo-
Norman breed who lived to be
nearly one hundred years of
age. His son, Dr. Basil Duke,
was a brigade surgeon in the
HONORABLE JOHN J. CRITTENDEN.
Durrell, from Durell. Armorially
identified with Darrell, Durrant,
Durran, Durrock, and possibly
Durrett. (Vide Durrett.) Note
how slight a change converts
the Norman name Clarte into
Claret. So, Druett into Durrett.
Durrett. A surname traceable
beyond the Conquest, and hav-
ing all the marks of a Norman
surname. If not of literal
record in our various lists, it is
evidence of defect in the list
itself. It is a familiar tradition
in Colonel Paul Durrett's fam-
ily that the original form of the
surname was Duret, and that
the family was of French extrac-
tion. Widely separated branches
of the same stock have the
same tradition. Every village
in Normandy says Camden
has "surnamed" a family in
England. It is easy to perceive,
therefore, that the number of
surnames thus derived, added
to the number derived from
other sources, would oblige the
compilers of genealogical dic-
tionaries from sheer exhaustion
to omit many names. There is a
simple process of linguistic
mutation which explains the
genesis of many words. It is
known as transposition. It may
be a transposition of letters, as
in the simple name Crisp, trans-
pose the terminal letters and
we have the familiar name
Crips; or it may be a transpo-
sition of syllables, of which we
have a famous example in Al-
macks, decelticized for Anglican
uses by a simple transposition
of the syllables in the Celtic
surname Mack- All. So, Du-
rand, Durant (vide Battle
Abbey Roll and D. B.),
DeRuelle, Durelle, Druell, Dur-
ell, Durel, Durell (Huguenot,
London, 1697), Durrell; so, too,
Drouet (Nor. Fr.), Druet, Dru-
ett, Durrett. Dure is a French
surname easily Normanized by
the addition of the diminutive
suffix et or ett, giving us Dure",
Duret, or Durett; and when
consonantally braced (more
Anglico) by doubling the " r, "
we have Durrett a familiar
surname in Kentucky. Dur,
the adjective, means hard, dur-
able, enduring; the noun Dur
is door; ett is a Norman suffix;
giving the ancient surname
Durrett a characteristic Norman
stamp, structure, and cachet.
Dye, for Deye.
Edmonds, or Edmunds.
Ellis, or Alls, from Alls near Pont
de'l Arche. The sensational duel
between Major Thomas Mar-
shall and Captain Charles Mitch-
ell was fought upon the place of
Mr. Washington Ellis.near Mays-
ville, Ky. It has been- well
described by Dr. Anderson Nel-
son Ellis, his son, an accom-
plished writer and physician.
Emet, or Emmett, from Amiot,
English, or Inglis ; families of this
name are all Norman. England
is another form of Anglicus.
Eve, or Ives.
Everett, from Evreux. (Nor-
Fail, for Faiel, Fales. William
Faiel, Normandy, 1180. Regi-
nald Fale, England, 1272.
Faint for Fant.
Falconer, or Falkner.
Parish, or Fariss or Ferris.
Farley, or Varley.
Farrer, armorially identified with
Ferrers of Bere. Ferrers, Farrow,
the same. A large family, well
and widely connected in Vir-
ginia and Kentucky. Archdea-
con Farrer is of the same gens.
The name is variously spelled
Farrer, Farrow, Farra, Farrers.
Faulconer, for Falconer; also
Fell, Fayle, or Fail, Fales.
Field. Richard de la Felda is
mentioned in Normandy,
temp. John (Mem. Soc. Ant.
Norm. V. 126). Burke (Landed
Gentry) states under the head
De la Field that this family
was originally seated in Alsace
near the Vosges Mountains. The
author of ' ' The Norman People"
says the name embraces both
English and Norman families.
Pierce's great two-volume
"Genealogy" (profusely illus-
trated) exhibits the prodigious
growth in America, including
such names as Cyrus Field, Jus-
tice Field, Marshall Field, and
Judge Curtis Field. The Ken-
tucky Fields were connected by
marriage with the Clays of
Bourbon. Pierce's genealogy
gives very pleasing views of
"Auvergne," the home of the
Field-Clays. This estate was
inherited by Hon. Cassius M.
Clay, Jr., of Bourbon. Henry
Field (Eng. 1611) came to Vir-
ginia in 1635. Lieutenant Henry
married Ann Lightfoot, May,
1771. His will made November
19, 1777- His daughter, Judith
Field, married Francis Taylor,
of Maryland, in Louisville, Ky.,
February 14, 1774. Francis
Taylor studied law with Judge
Sebastian in Louisville. Lucre-
tia, a daughter of Francis and
Judith Taylor, married Cap-
tain James B. Robinson. The
Fields family of Tennessee
(afterward of Kentucky) are
now in the North, the brothers
James and Henry being con-
spicuous in the management of
important steel and iron trusts.
Their sister, Mrs. Charles D.
Lanier, is a resident of New
York City. Her husband (a
son of the famous Southern
poet) is now at the head of
"The Review of Reviews."
Fillpot or Philpot, from Philipot,
diminutive of Philip.
Fisk, or Fyska.
Fitch, or Fitz.
Flanders, or Flamders. Common
in England after the Conquest.
Fleming. The Flemings of Flem-
ing are derived from the Flem-
ings of Virginia.
Fleming. The Flemings of "Wig-
ton" came from Flanders in
the train of William the Con-
queror. Sir Thomas Fleming
came to Virginia in 1626. Col-
onel John Fleming (another
Wigtonshire Fleming) came
from Virginia to Kentucky in
1 790. His grandson, John Don-
aldson Fleming, was also a
pioneer and served with marked
efficiency as United States Dis-
trict Attorney for Colorado.
Foakes, or Fowkes.
Folk. Governor of Missouri. A
political leader of distinction.
Force, de Forz.
Foreman, or Forman for Fairman.
The Forman family of Ken-
tucky (local pronunciation
Fwr-man) forms one of the
largest and most influential
connections in the State. They
are Scandinavians of a high
Forster, or Foster. James Lane
Allen was a Foster in the mater-
Fountain, de Fonte.
Fowke, Gerard, a Kentuckian, di-
rected the later Horsford Ex-
cavations at Cambridge. He
is a descendant of the "Eliza-
bethan" Fowke, a Virginian
pioneer. His latest paper de-
scribed his explorations of the
Lower Amur Valley. It was a
cold trail, but the story is one
of singular interest.
Fowkes, or Fowke. See Foakes.
Fox, or Reinard. The Norman
name was translated in Eng-
land after the Conquest, being
previously Rainer, Renard, etc.
The celebrated Fox family of
England was derived from Le
Fox, Normandy. Renard de
Douvres is familiarly known in
Kentucky as "Fox of Dover."
The Fox family of Dover are
descendants of a wealthy Vir-
ginian, Arthur Fox, distin-
guished among the pioneer citi-
zens of the State. Judge Foun-
tain Fox of Boyle and the
Southern novelist, John Fox,
were doubtless derived from the
same Anglo-Norman stock.
Francis, Governor of Missouri;
Organizer of the World's Fair
in commemoration of the Louis-
Frazee, Fraser, Frazier, P'raize, a
loc. n. in France. Fr. Fraiseur.
From fraiser, to fortify with
stakes. Samuel Frazee, a revo-
lutionary soldier, came to Mad-
ison County, Ky., in 1792.
Progenitor of a large and promi-
nent family in the State. Doc-
tor Lewis J. Frazee, of Louis-
ville, was author of "A Medical
Student, Europe," a. mid-cen-
Freyer, or Frier. (Old Norse.)
Armorially identified in Nor-
mandy with Frere. Ansgot
Prater, of Normandy, 1198. In
Gairdner, or Gardner (C. Jardi-
Garrard, for Gerard; Ralph and
William Gerard, Normandy,
1180-95. Twenty-six of the
name in England, 1272.
Garratt. Roger and William Gar-
rett, of Normandy, 1180.
Gay. Ralph Gai, Normandy,
1 1 So. Robert de Gay, a bene-
factor to Osney, Oxford.
Geary, or Gery, Normandy, 1165.
William de Gueri. Of this
name are the baronets Geary.
Gentry, Chantry. From Chaintre,
Gibbon, or Gibbons.
Gill, Gille or Giles.
Glen, or Glenn.
Goble, for Gobel.
Goggin, or Gogin, Normandy,
1195; England, 1272. William
L. Goggin was a mid-century
Governor of Virginia. Lucien
B. Goggin, his brother, was a
prominent citizen of Kentucky.
This ancient surname is distinct-
ly traceable by record from
Normandy to England; from
England to Virginia; from Vir-
ginia to Kentucky. And this
is but one out of many names,
officially recorded in Normandy,
that reappear, hundreds of years
afterward, in Kentucky.
Gordon, or Berwick (Anglo-Nor-
man, also a Celtic clan name).
Graham, in all the early records
of England, means Grantham in
Lincoln. William de Graham,
who settled in Scotland, came
from Grantham. Ralph, hered-
itary chamberlain of Normandy,
had two grandsons (i) Rabel,
ancestor of the Chamberlains of
Normandy. (2) William de
Graham, ancestor of Montrose
and Dundee. \^j
Grand, Le Grant, Grand; Scot-
tish Grants are Celtic.
Gray, Greey or Grey. From
Gray, Normandy, near Caen.
Grenfell. Recalling the name of
the gallant Englishman that
rode with Morgan.
Gunn. William de Gons, Nor-
mandy, 1280. William Gun,
England, 1272. Dennis Gunn,
Gurney, from De Gournay.
Gurdon, from Gourdon, near
Hailie, for Hailly or D'Aily.
Raines. From Haisne, near Arras.
Haley, for Hailey.
Haley, for Hailey. Percy Haley is
Halliday, or Holliday.' Recalls
the famous Overland Route.
Halliday, from Halyday, Nor-
mandy. A name historically
associated in America with the
great Overland Route, as is
Holliday, William Blanchard,
and Judge Thomas A. Marshall
(President of the Central
Pacific) were Kentuckians born
within a few miles of each other,
near the northern border of the
State. All pioneers of Scandi-
Ham. From the Castle of Ham,
Normandy. William du Ham,
Normandy, 1 1 80. William de
Ham, England, 1272.
Hamer. Heirmir, the name of a
jarl. It was that stout fighter,
General Hamer, who sent
Ulysses Grant to West Point.
Hamilton. A well-known family
Hamilton. Gilbert de Hamelden
had estates in Surrey, holding
his lands from the Honour of
Huntingdon, and, therefore,
from the Kings of Scotland
(1254). His elder son, Walter,
was one of the Barons of Scot-
land, and held the barony of
Hamilton. The family dates
from Normandy, 1130. The
most illustrious descendant of
this noble Scottish family was
an American Alexander Ham-
ilton who, according to that
very eminent authority, Prince
Talleyrand, "was the greatest
man of his epoch," an epoch
illustrated by such names as
Napoleon and Washington
his greatness consisting pecu-
liarly in this, that he was not
only variously gifted soldier,
scholar, orator, administrator,
political philosopher and finan-
cier, but, like William of Nor-
mandy, he was a creative or
constructive statesman, and his
mother, like the Maiden of
Falaise, was a daughter of
France. In a brilliant and pow-
erful work descriptive of his
life, he is fitly styled the "Con-
queror," and an American Sena-
tor, writing upon the same
lines, adopts practically the
same views. The discussion in
both instances is conducted
with perfect frankness and in
perfect taste. In a speech
at the recent Home-Coming in
Louisville, an eloquent Ken-
tuckian made felicitous refer-
ence to a similar instance in
which (it was alleged) destiny
(or subterranean tradition) had
assigned to a daughter of the
people the same illustrious role.
Whatever the facts, there is a
philosophy that rises above con-
ventions; precisely as if it
should say "In the higher
planes of life, the conceptions
of social evolution are some-
times predestinated and immac-
ulate." Who knows? Thus
much at least may be conceded
to the maiden of the wilderness,
to the daughter of the tropics,
and to the Maiden of Falaise,
that no three women who have
figured in profane history as
the mothers of great men have
more profoundly affected the
.destinies of the English or
Hampton. Norman-French. De
Hancock. Hancoc or Hencot
These names were gradually
changed to Hancock.
Hanks. According to Lower, an
old Cheshire "nick "-name of
Randolph. The name Randolph
has given rise to many ' ' dimin-
utives," as Rankin, Randolph,
Randy, Ranson, Hankin,
Hankey, Hanks, resembling in
this respect the prolific ' ' Peter "
(q. v.). In the struggle for exist-
ence the monosyllabic' ' Hanks ' '
has survived to share the dis-
tinction of the original surname.
To have been borne by the
mother of Lincoln is quite
enough to render it illustrious
for all time. A contemporary
said of her that "she was a
woman of superior natural
endowments of mind and of
great amiability and kindness
of heart. She was always gentle,
always kind, but far more ener-
getic than her husband. She
was quick-witted, with a great
relish for the humorous and a
keen appreciation of fun." Her
husband generously described
her occasional "complaints" as
"chirping" a gracious felicity
of speech. Whatever the wit
and charm of the woman, there
was certainly humor, with ten-
derness and imagination, in the
Abraham Lincoln was born
in Hardin County, Ky., in
February, 1809, three and a
half years after the marriage
of his father and mother. She
died in October, 1818. She was
buried near the present site of
Lincoln City, and lay for many
years in an unmarked grave.
A "sculptured monument" now
marks the spot. It is a beauti-
ful shaft of white marble and
bears the impressive legend:
"Beneath this shaft lies in
peace all that is mortal of
NANCY LINCOLN, mother of
Abraham Lincoln, the six-
teenth President of the United
Hanson, Hausen (Scand).
Harben (Norman) or Harbin, de
Harcourt. The Earls of Harcourt
were descended from Bernard,
"the Dane," who was chief
counselor and second in com-
mand to Rollo or Rolf in his in-
vasion of Neustria, 875, and
received for his services a
chateau ("Harcourt") near
Brionne in France. Robert de
Harcourt attended William the
Conqueror to the Conquest of
England. "Harcourt" is not-
ably a name of "high life."
Harden, or Hardin. Walter Har-
din, a true Norman name.
Hardin. Ben Hardin, the great
Kentucky lawyer, on one occa-
sion when traveling the circuit
breakfasted with his kinsman,
Major Barbour, a prominent
citizen of a pious community.
Mrs. Barbour, who had little
taste for the profane writers,
but read her Bible daily, was
truly a mother in Israel; and
was as hospitable to sinners as
to saints. The problem before
the venerable hostess was to
make the conversation interest-
ing to the great lawyer. Roose-
velt and the Kaiser were not at
the front in those days, and the
conversation naturally flagged;
but the old lady soon found a
satisfactory substitute for the
great modem rulers, and turned
suddenly upon her imposing
kinsman with the query, ' ' Ben-
jamin, what do you think of
SOLOMON?" Ben had evidently
studied the subject, for he
answered instantly, " SOLOMON,
madam, was a magnificent
Hardin, Hardinge, D. B. Hard-
ing, Hardingus, Hardine. In
old Norse, Haddingjar. Harden
for ArdernorHardern. Ralph de
Ardern was Lord of Bracebridge.
The family of Arden or Ardern
(with aspirate, Harden) was
Norman and went to England
in 1066. Bernard "the Dane"
was Regent of Normandy, 940.
Harden , for Hardern or Ardern ;
or Arden with aspirate.
Harris, for Heris, Normandy.
Harsee, Normandy, 1198.
Harris, for Heriz. Ralph Heriz,
Normandy, n8o-'95. Ivo de
Heriz, England, 1130.
Harrison. Philip and Gilbert Her-
i<jon, Normandy, 1 1 80. Henry
Harsent, England, 1272. In
Virginia, a great name.
HONORABLE HENRY WATTERSON.
(i) The famous French econ-
omist, Michel Chevalier, traveled
in the United States in 1835.
He says in one of his Lettres
that he remarked at the table
of the hotel a man of about 60
years of age who had the lively
air and alert carriage of a youth.
He was impressed by the
amenity of his manners and by
a certain air of command which
peered even through his "lin-
sey" habit. This, he learned,
was the distinguished American
general, Harrison, victor in the
Battle of the Thames, one of the
two very celebrated battles of
the war, the other being the
Battle of Tippecanoe. If a
"Norman" battle was ever
fought upon this continent, it
was the Battle of the Thames.
It might have recalled to the
Conqueror his own baptism of
fire. On the eve of battle the
American commander changed
his plans. Having learned that
Colonel James Johnson's cav-
alry had been drilled to charge
in the woods, he ordered a
charge to be made by the
mounted Kentuckians upon the
British line, which was drawn
up in a wooded strip of ground
between the river and the
swamp. Their artillery was
planted in the wagon road
which bisected the center of the
British line. The column of
Kentuckians flanking the artil-
lery was launched upon the
right of the Saxon line with ir-
resistible force. Reserving their
fire and reversing the move-
ment, they charged the broken
and disordered line from the
rear, pouring upon it a destruc-
tive fire. The victory was com-
plete. Colonel R. M. Johnson
charged the Indians in their cov-
ert on the left ; and it was here, in
a close hand-to-hand struggle,
thatTecumseh fell, bequeathing
a lifelong controversy to his
foes. It was ultimately settled,
however, in the popular mind
by the traditional couplet
Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh."
Harrison. Heri<jon, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Harrop. La Herupe.
Hart. LeCerf , Ralph Cerfus, Nor-
mandy, 1180-1198. In England
translated into Herte, also
Harvey, Harvie, Hervey, Her-
veus, 1198, Normandy. Sire
Hervey is mentioned in Piers
Plowman. The early pronun-
elation of Hervey was Harvey.
Now, generally pronounced as
Hawes. Richard Hawes, Confed-
erate Governor of Kentucky.
Hawkins. From the Manor of
Hawkings, Kent, held by Walter
Hawkins, 1326. Colonel Tom
Hawkins of Kentucky, who
fought with Lopez in Cuba,
was a typical Anglo-Nor-
Hay, or de la Haye.
Hay, or de la Hey, Hay. Armo-
rially identified with Hayes,
from Hayes, near Blois. Vide
Desha or Deshayes.
Hayne, or Haynes.
Hearn, from Heron, near Rouen.
Helm. Andrew de Helm, England,
1262. (Normandy, 1198.)
Herd, for Hert, Hart.
Hewett, or Hewitt. From Huest
or Huet, near Evreux. Also,
Hickey, Hequet, Normandy
Higgin, Hequet, Normandy. Hig-
Hill. The English form of De
Morete. For Helle or de Heil-
le, near Beaurais. The family
was spread throughout Kent
Hoare. Aure from Auray, in
Bretagne. A ure, with aspirate,
Hogg, orDeHoge. FromLaHogue
in the Contentin.
Hoile, or Hoyle. Norman Hoel,
a familiar name in Kentucky.
Holburd, Halbert, Alberd, Albert.
Holiday, or Holliday. Ben Holli-
day, forerunner of the Stan-
fords and Huntingtons.
Holland, de Hoilant, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Holies, for Hollis. Robert de Holis,
Holmes (William der Holme).
Holmes. From Norse Holmer
(an islet in a lake). D. B. de
Holme, a tenant in chief. Wil-
liam du Holme, 1180-95.
Hood. Norse Udi. Danish Hude.
The popular hero, Robin, seems
to have been of Scandinavian
descent. John Hood, of Ken-
tucky, was pre-eminently a
"fighting general." Jesse James
was the Robin Hood of our
Hard. A Swedish name, borne by
a general of Charles XII.
Hudson. Hudson of Maysville, an
intimate friend of General Grant.
Hulbard. For Hubert.
Humphrey. Notably a Norman
name. As theologians, lawyers,
scholars, the Humphreys of
Kentucky have sustained the
ancient distinction of the
Hunt, Le Huant, Normandy,
Hunter (Venator or Le Veneur).
Hunter. English form of Le
Hutchings, or Hutchins, Houchin.
Ingall. For Angall
Ingle. For Angle.
Inglis, or Anglicus.
Innes (the Baronets. Innes).
Ireland (DeHibernis, Normandy,
Jack. For Jacques ; William Jack,
Jackson. A name of the family
James. St. James, Normandy.
Janvier. (January.) At least
three branches in this country
from a common ancestor in
France. The name is some-
times anglicized notably in
Missouri and Kentucky.
Jar-vis (Gervasius, Normandy,
Jeffreys (with various forms),
Geoffrey, Geoffrey's son, Jeffer-
son. In the home-coming re-
ception Mason and Jefferson
hold the extremes of the receiv-
Jennings, from Genn or Canon,
Chanum, Chanon, Chanoun,
Jenun, Jenning or Jennings,
William Jennings Bryan. Vide
Jewell, from Juel or Judae de
Jewett, or Guet, Normandy, 1180.
Johnson. The Johnsons of Ays-
cough-Fee, County Lincoln,
claim from the house of Fitz-
John of Normandy (Guillim's
Display of Heraldry). A dis-
tinguished name in Maryland,
Virginia, and Kentucky.
Johnston is Scandinavian. Prob-
ably the most conspicuous
and influential Scandinavian in
the United States at this time
bears that name. He is a
native of Scandinavia. The
most notable American of that
race and name was the Con-
federate General Albert Sidney
Johnston. There are two pic-
tures of him that will live in
the popular mind: (i) As he
stood, silent and absorbed,
beside his camp fire on the
night before Shiloh: (2) As he
led that dashing and successful
charge on the following day.
A soldier worthy of his race.
Julian. From St. Julian, Nor-
Kerr. Appears to be a branch
of the Norman house of Espec.
The name is variously given as
Kerr, Karr, Carr, Carro, Caruni.
Lucien Carr was author of a
History of Missouri.
Keats, for Keate. Keats the
poet had a brother who lived
in Louisville, Ky.
Keats, Keat, Keyt, Kate. In
Collins' History, page 557, Vol.
2, the reader notes the following
reference to this name "The
most celebrated female school
in the West at the time was
in Washington, 1807-12; that
of Mrs. Louisa Caroline War-
burton Fitzherbert Keats, sister
of Sir George Fitzherbert, of
St. James Square, and wife of
Reverend Mr. Keats, a relation
of the celebrated poet." The
Keats family of Louisville
(closely related to the poet)
was conspicuous in the early
history of that city. They were
connections of the famous
Speed family of Kentucky.
Kehoe. (French) Cahot; Cahut;
Cayeux, p. n.
Kenney (De Kani, 1198, Nor-
Kentain, for Kintan or Quentin.
Simon Kenton was always
known among the plain people
as Kinton, though, in early
Kentucky statutes, the name
is spelled Canton, no doubt
as then pronounced, even by
"scollards." Kenton, a " place "
name near the northeast coast of
England. Much of our old Ken-
tucky stock is Northumbrian.
Kimball, for Kemble.
King (Rex de LeRoy, Normandy,
Kinsey, for Kensey.
Kirk, or Quirk, de Quergu.
Kissill. For Cecil, which is also
sometimes Sissell, Knight (Miles
or Knight, Normandy).
Knott, for Canot or Canute.
Knott (Danish), Knouth. Norse
Knottr (a ball or knob, as a
Knot on oak).
Kydd, or Kidd.
Kyle, or Keyle.
Lacy, or Lacey. A baronial name
from Lasey, between Vire and
Aulnay. Walter de Lacy was
in the battle of Hastings, and
Captain Walter Lacy of Ken-
tucky was a soldier in the
Lamb (Robert, Agnus, and Ralph,
Normandy, 1 1 80) .
Lambton. A Durham family from
the Barons of Tarp and Nor-
Landor, or Lander. From Landers,
Burgundy. From this family
Walter Landor, the poet.
Larken, Larkin, Largan, Largant,
Larcamp, Larkins, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Laurence, Lorenz, Normandy,
1 1 80; also Lawrence.
Lawson, from Loison, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Lee, Leigh, De la Mare. Stephen
Lee, the progenitor of the Ken-
tucky Lees, was born in Prince
William County, Virginia, and
died in Mason County, Ken-
tucky. His first wife the
widow Magruder was the
mother of Priscilla Lee, who
married William Botts of Vir-
ginia. His second wife died
without issue. His third wife
was Mrs. Ann Dunn. Her son,
Henry, who rose to distinction
in the history of Kentucky, was
born April 2, 1757. He married
The question is sometimes
asked, ' ' How were the descend-
ants of Stephen Lee related to
the Lees of the Northern Neck ? ' '
Many years ago the writer of
this note saw in a collection of
old papers made by that able
and conscientious antiquary,
William D. Hixson,* a letter
from General Henry Lee of
Virginia (' 'Light-Horse Harry' ')
*W. D. Hixson, the "Old Mortality"
of Mason, is now a resident of Mt. Ster-
to General Henry Lee of Ken-
tucky, in which the latter was
addressed as "Dear Cousin."
The letter was in relation to
certain lands in Mason County
then owned by a daughter,
Priscilla Lee; and was of pecu-
liar interest as confirming the
familiar tradition of a connec-
tion by blood between the two
families of Lee. The name
"Lee" is traced by English
genealogists to Scandinavia.
(Vide sketch of the Lee family
in the "Register," by Lucy
Lemon, Lemmus, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Lenard, or Lennard. For Leonard
from St. Leonard near Fecamp,
Lenney, or Linney, from Launer,
Lewis, DeLues or Luiz, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80.
Liddell. From Lydale, on Scottish
border; seat of a Norman.
Lite, for Lisle.
Lincoln. Alured de Lincoln came
from Normandy with the Con-
queror; held a great barony in
Lincoln and Bedford. From a
collateral branch, it is said and
the branches were numerous
descended the greatest of the
"Rulers of Men," Abraham
Lincoln. The following apprecia-
tion of the character of Abra-
ham Lincoln is from Paul
Bourget's Outre-Mer. The judg-
ment of posterity is probably
anticipated in this discrimina-
ting characterization by an able
foreign writer: "That heroic
struggle has left more noble
vestiges than the shameful abuse
of electoral pensions : the recol-
lection in the first place of a
common bravery, the proof
that American industrialism
has not in the least diminished
the energies of the race; again,
the legend of Lincoln, of one of
those men who by their example
alone model after their mind the
conscience of an entire country.
That personage, so American
by the composite character of
his individuality, humorous and
pathetic at the same time : that
politician experienced in all
trickeries and nevertheless so
capable of idealism and mysti-
cism; that half-educated man
who had at times magnificent
simplicities of eloquence; that
old wood-cutter, his face bitter
with disgust, yet luminous with
hope, worn out with trials and
still so strong; that statesman
so close to the people and
nevertheless with so broad a
vision, remains the most mod-
ern of heroes, one whom the
United States can boldly place
in opposition to a Napoleon, a
Cavour, a Bismarck. The
South to-day recognizes his
greatness as well as the North.
He had the luck to be exactly
the workman that was needed
for the task which he under-
took, and to die as soon as that
task was achieved. Such cir-
cumstances continued form
"Abraham Lincoln" (says
one of his admiring compatri-
ots) "was an incomparable
leader of men. While McClellan
and Grant could conduct more
or less successfully the opera-
tions of a hundred thousand
men in the field, it was Abra-
ham Lincoln alone that could
keep in hand the vast and tur-
bulent electorate of eighteen
Northern States. It was Lin-
coln's consummate generalship, .
happily for the South, that
held these radical and aggres-
sive elements in check : ' Unus
homo nobis cunctando restituit
Lindsay, or de Lines. Branch of a
baronial Norman house ; one of
the sovereign families that
ruled in Norway till dispos-
sessed by Harold Harfager.
The name "Lindsay" is from
the Norman seigneury Limesay.
There are various branches with
armorial identifications point-
ing to a common origin. Chief
Justice Lindsay, of Kentucky,
stands in the front rank of
Littell, or Little. Parvus or Le
Petit, Normandy, 1180.
Littleton, or Lytleton.
Lockett, for Lockhart.
Long. Petrus de Longa, Nor-
La-veil. Louvel, Normandy, 1180.
Lucas. From De Lukes or Luches.
Luckett, for Lockett.
Luke. From St. Luc, near Evreux,
Luttrell, Ralph and Robert Lotrel,
Lyle, for Lisle.
Lyon. From Lions, Normandy.
Lyttleton. From Vantort, Maine.
Lord Chief Justice Lytleton
was of this house.
Machin. From LeMachun or Le-
Main-waring. Mesnil, Latin, a well-
known Norman family.
Major. Normandy, 1198.
Malby. For Malbise, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Man, or Mann.
Manning. From Maignon, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80.
March. From Marchie, Normandy.
Markland. An old Scandinavian
name. It was given by Eric in
his voyage of exploration (year
1000) to the "wooded" coast
of Cape Breton, or Nova
Marsh. DeMarisco, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Marshall. There are 62 coats of
arms of this name, generally
Normans, the principal of these
being the Earls of Pembroke.
Colonel Thomas Marshall of
Virginia, the father of the great
Chief Justice, lived near Wash-
ington, Mason County, Ky.
He died in 1802. His grave in
the family burying-ground near
the old home ("The Hill") has
attracted many visitors of late
years, and the family home-
stead near Washington was
once visited by the Chief Jus-
tice himself. John Marshall
was probably the greatest Amer-
ican lawyer of Anglo-Norman
descent; and certainly, as Mr.
Barrett Wendell says, "the
most eminent Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court of the
Judge Thomas A. Marshall,
who recently passed away at
Salt Lake City, a grandson of
old Colonel Thomas Marshall,
was also a "pioneer." He
became the greatest mining
lawyer in the West, and Presi-
dent of the Central Pacific Rail-
road. Lytleton, Coke, Chitty,
Denman, and other great Eng-
lish lawyers were derived from
that same learned, astute, and
litigious Norman race.
Martin. Ralph, John, William,
Normandy, 1198; William Mar-
tin, England, 1178.
Mason. William Le Mazon, Nor-
mandy, 1198; Hugh Le Maun,
England, 1198. Mason County,
named after the famous Virgini-
an, George Mason, by the Legis-
lature of Virginia in 1788, and
not (asrecently proclaimed) after
a Governor of Michigan, who
in all likelihood was not born
when the county was named.
Massy. A well-known Norman
family, Macy, whence the name
is derived, was seated near Cou-
tances and Avranches, Nor-
May. From De Mai, Normandy,
1 1 80; De May, England, 1272.
Maysville, Ky., named after
COLONEL BENNETT H. YOUNG.
Mayhew, for Mayo.
Mead, or Meade. The English
form of De Prato, Normandy,
1 1 80.
Menzies, or De Maners, or later in
Mercer, Mercier; Normandy.
Miall, Miel, Mihell, Mighell (the
last a mediaeval form of Michael) .
Lower also derives Mitchell
from Michael through the
French form Michel.
Miller, or Milner, in Normandy
Mills, from Miles.
Milton, or Middle ton. Armorially
identified with the Norman
family De Camville, in the
Co ten tin. The poet Milton
was of this stock.
Minors, or Minor. A distinguished
family long settled in Virginia.
De Mineriis, Normandy, 1198;
in England also, 1198.
Mitchell, for Michel.
Mitchell. Rudulphus Michael,
Normandy, n8o-'95. William
de St. Michael, England, 1198.
Michael, Michel, Michell.
Montagu. From Montaigu or Mon-
Montgomery, DeMonte. Gourmeril,
Normandy, many branches.
Moore (de More).
Morey. English pronunciation of
Morton, for Moreton .
Morton. Ralph de Morteine.
Mountjoy. Pagonus de Montegaii,
Normandy, 1097 ; the family was
seated in Notts and Derby.
Early settlers in Virginia and
Mowbray. Baronial family, Castle
Mullins, for Molines.
Mundey, for Munday.
Murrell, for Morrall.
Nelson, Nilson. Of Norman
descent, who settled in Nor-
folk, was the direct ancestor of
Admiral Lord Nelson. Original
form Neilson or Neilsen.
Neville, De Nova Villa, Normandy,
1 1 80. The families of Neville,
Beaugenay, and Baskeville are
descended from a common an-
cestor. The Nevilles are most
numerous in Lincoln.
Newton. The most famous of this
large family, Sir Isaac Newton,
was of Norman descent.
Nicholas. Richard Nicholas, Nor-
mandy, 1198; Nicholas, Nico-
laus, England, 1198. A distin-
guished name in Kentucky.
Norman. Ralph Normannus, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80; Henry Norman,
England, 1272. This name has
a social and official conspicuity
in the State of Kentucky ; and
in whatever position found it
shows the characteristic marks
of the old blood.
Norris, William Norensis, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80 ; Thomas Norensis,
Northcott, or Northcote.
Norton, or Conyers. Elder branch
of the family of Conyers, or
Cognieres, Normandy ; named
from the Barony of Norton,
York, the chief English seat of
Nye, for Noye.
O'Hara, Hare, O'Hare, O'Hara
(fleet-footed). Scions of the
House of Hare-court, or Har-
court, Counts of Normandy.
Theodore O'Hara was a Ken-
tuckian by birth and training.
He was a gallant soldier in the
Mexican War; second officer in
the first Lopez Expedition; a
colonel in the Confederate
service. He is best known by
those fine elegiac lines which
seem to be following the mili-
tary cemeteries of the English
speaking race :
'On Fame's eternal camping-ground
Their silent tents are spread."
[See Ranck's Biography of
O'Hara, and "Lopez's Expe-
ditions," published by The Fil-
son Club, No. 21, this series.]
Orr (Danish) . A parish in Kirk
Orr. Norse, Orri (heathcock
tetras tetrix) .
Owen, from St. Owen, near Caen.
Patterson, the son of Patricius
Paynter (de Peyntre). Thos. H.
Paynter, United States Senator
Peel, Pele, Norman, 1180. Peels of
Yorkshire and Lancashire,
ancestors of Sir Robert Peel.
Perry, or Perrie.
Peters and Peter (Pierre). Doctor
Thomas Lounsbury, who com-
bines erudition most agreeably
with common sense, says in a
recent paper that at particular
periods there is manifested a
feeling of "hostility" to certain
words. We have an illustration
of this in the history of the
proper name Peter, which, as
one of the philologists tells us,
"at one time was odious to
English ears." For example, we
find in the statistical nomen-
clature of Wiltshire only six-
teen Peters to ninety- two Johns,
and the ratio elsewhere in
other shires or districts is about
the same. Yet we find many
traces of Peter or Pierre (the
original French form) in other
names, as Pears, Peers, Pars,
etc. Peter has been a prolific
propagator of patronymics
in spite of its temporary eclipse ;
Peterson, Pearson, Peterman,
Pierson, etc. It does not seem
to have recovered its early popu-
larity, or to be able to stand
alone; but with desinences at-
tached it takes and retains its
old position, as in Perkins,
Peterkin, Perrins, Perrutts, etc.
It is a buoyant, resilient Nor-
man vocable with the charac-
teristic Norman facility of
assimilation. This one surname
covers many others.
Picard, Pykart, Pecor, Pecar,
Pirtle. Norman French. A
diminutive of "Pert"; is com-
mon in the arrondisseinent of
Pitt. Taine's ideal type of an
Englishman was William Pitt,
who is thus described by that
admirable observer: "Some-
times," in his rounds oi
observation, he "detects the
physiognomy of Pitt ; the slight
face, impressive and imperious ;
the pale and ardent eyes; the
look which shines like the
gleam of a sword. The man
is of a finer mould, but his
will is only the more incisive
and firmer; it is iron trans-
formed into steel." Contrast
this portraiture of Pitt with
his pictures of the taurine
type of Englishman.
That munificent English
savant, General Pitt-Rivers, is of
the same Norman stock. He was
a gallant soldier in the Crimean
Poyntz, or Ponz, a branch of Fitz-
Poyntz, Ponz, tenant D. B.
Nicholas Printz held land in
Gloucestershire, temp. K. John.
Under Poyntz, Lower says, Wal-
ter Julius Ponz, a tenant in
chief at the time of the Norman
survey, was son of Walter Ponz,
a noble Norman. The surname
Poyntz may be traced from
Normandy through England
and Virginia to Kentucky.
Many years before the es-
tablishment in Kentucky of a
club or society with a roving
commission for historic research,
there dwelt in the northern high-
lands of the Bluegrass region
a sagacious and successful cat-
tle-breeder, who was a practical
student of pedigrees and had
put the knowledge thus
acquired to a profitable use.
All of his theories would not
have been accepted by Weis-
mann ; nor, on the other hand,
would all of Weismann's the-
ories been accepted by him.
The conclusions which lay near-
est his special vocation had
been carefully "applied" after
his own fashion, and he was
satisfied with the results. Fran-
cis Gal ton, himself, had no
better grounds for belief in the
laws of heredity.
He was a Kentuckian of the
early type not unlike the Ken-
tuckians and Virginians that the
English traveler, Mr. Pym
Fordham, describes in a series
of letters from the South and
West. His mental gifts and
pleasing manners, to say noth-
ing of his commanding stature,
not only made him conspicuous,
but wherever he went assured
him welcome and the right of
way. There was a look of
quiet resourcefulness in the
man. His facial contour was
striking. The features, seen in
profile, were large, strong, and
regular, and their impressive-
ness was notably enhanced by a
broad, flowing beard with the
same reddish tinge that bright-
ened his locks of long brown
hair. His eye was steady, soft,
and penetrating noting every-
thing, overlooking nothing.
His complexion was peculiar
not "ruddy" or glowing from
daily exposure, at all seasons,
in the open air, but of an almost
bloodless hue; as colorless, at
least, and as clear as if untouched
by sun, or wind, or rain, in
his active routine of life upon a
Bluegrass ranch. It was the
life of a man whose time was
largely given to observation
and thought; and as one might
suppose, he had an ample field
for the indulgence of his studi-
ous tastes. His special line of
work was the propagation of
' ' high-grade ' ' cattle by crossing
our native stock with fine
In our pastoral mid-century
days the casual traveler pass-
ing along a mountain road in
the Red River region of Eastern
Kentucky could not have failed
to observe, in the great forests
that cast their dense shadows
as far as the headwaters of
Buckhorn, large herds of native
cattle that browsed and
"drowsed" in the shade of
those deep Druidic woods. If
the traveler were a man of
the English race, and as well
informed and observant as a
traveler should be, he would
say at once, "These cattle are
in no degree akin to the Eng-
lish blood-stock which I have
seen in the Bluegrass lowlands
of the State. They are wholly
unlike; their 'lines' are wholly
different, size, shape, coloring,
deer-like delicacy of structure
and peculiar curve of horn;
nothing in their construction
is heavy or cumbrous except
the deep, rich golden udders of
the kine. They remind one of
no familiar English stock.
They are not Durhams nor
Herefords, nor Devons. Are they
not Alderneys?" At all events,
this was the native stock from
which our practical Bluegrass
theorist obtained his "high-
grade" cattle, by crossing it
judiciously with fine imported
strains from the Channel Isles.
The results were all that could
be desired. The half-grade cat-
tle were scarcely distinguish-
able from the imported stock,
and if the milk was not so
"rich," the quantity was much
larger. The same was true of
the uncrossed mountain stock
which was brought to Kentucky
by the "comelings" of the
Eighteenth Century, and was
never a "degenerate" stock
in any practical sense. The
"deer-like" structure of the
mountain cow came partly from
environment and partly from
race. It was one of the rough-
hewn maxims of mountain hus-
bandry "The best milker is a
cow with a little foot," a
foot that can thread the brush-
iest "cove" or climb the airiest
height to crop the nutrient
herbage that makes the nutri-
tious milk. The succulent
"pea -vine" made the milk;
the tissue-forming "mast" or
acorn made the meat. The
little-footed heifer had the free-
dom of the range; and, by
some subtle morphologic law,
the locomotive organ that was
small, firm, and well-shaped
seemed to imply or determine
the full symmetric development
of thorax and brain and an easy,
unobstructed operation of the
functions associated with both.
The loyal mountaineer of the
old stamp was chauvinistic to
the core. Though fifty years
have passed, he still grows elo-
quent when he recalls the
"fighting bulls" and the flow-
ing pails of his boyhood days.
A handsome, vivacious High-
lander of this class a gentleman
of marked Gallic aspect and
scion of an early pioneer stock
recently boasted to the writer,
and almost in the language of
the Vergilian swain (bis -venit
ud mulctram), that old "White-
face" came regularly to the
pail twice a day yielding six
gallons in two milkings. These
mountain kine were not large;
but they were gentle, spirited,
clean-limbed, fine-haired, and
carried in their generous udders
an abundance of wholesome
milk. They bore indelible marks
of race. Had they been larger,
they might have remained to
this day an untraveled stock.
Their size favored easy trans-
portation, and the canny emi-
grant made note of the fact.
As a consequence of this demand
from emigrants, no doubt, great
numbers of cattle were shipped
from the Channel Islands to
England in the early decades
of the Nineteenth Century a
circumstance which completely
answers the assumption that
our mountain cattle were
derived originally from an Eng-
lish stock. For many years
the name "Alderney" was
applied without discrimination
to all cattle imported from the
Anglo-Norman islands of the
English Channel islands which
England has held with an iron
grip since the Conqueror brought
them under English rule. The
thrifty islanders descendants
of the old Norman stock and
for years clinging tenaciously to
the old Norman dialect are
now true Anglo-Normans, mak-
ing daily proclamation of their
loyalty to the English crown,
and, until a very recent period,
always in Anglo-Norman
Only this then remains to be
said. A thoughtful Bluegrass
cattle-breeder, bearing a dis-
tinctively Anglo-Norman name
that had come down from Nor-
mandy through England and
Virginia to Kentucky* and
bearing in his own person char-
acteristics and distinctive marks
of his Anglo-Norman descent
utterly indifferent to "ethno-
logical" theories and absolutely
unconscious of his own descent
from the Anglo-Norman race,
is convinced not by "herd-
books" or historic pedigrees
but simply and solely by the
evidence of his own eyes, that
a certain native stock of cattle
in the mountains of Kentucky
were merely an earlier importa-
tion than his own from the
Anglo-Norman islands of the
English Channel. He had the
courage to put his theory to the
touch of practical experimen-
tation, and the astonished
"experts" at the great cattle-
fairs of the country bore gener-
ous testimony to the quality
of his work.
If such conclusions are fairly
deducible from an imperfect or
incomplete study of a race of
CATTLE in the mountain region
of Kentucky, why should a logi-
cal mind discredit like conclu-
sions resting upon testimony
that is singularly cumulative
and convergent in regard to a
*John Baldwin Poyntz. Norman
name Poyniz in alphabetical list.
contemporaneous race of MEN
that is historically traceable
from Normandy through Eng-
land and Virginia to the same
or a similar physical environ-
ment in that same State of
Kentucky? Could there be a
better example of cumulative
Preston. General William Preston,
"The Last of the Cavaliers."
Quantrell, or Quantrall.
Quay, or Kay.
Raynes, or Rains.
Respess, Respis, Res-bisse, Respeig,
One of the seconds of Casto
in the famous Metcalfe-Casto
duel was Colonel Thomas A.
Respess, of Mason, a member
of the Kentucky bar, and associ-
ated for many years with the dis-
tinguished jurist and author
Judge Richard H. Stanton
(Stanton and Respess). Colonel
Respess is an able and scholarly
man, and retains, at a very
advanced age, the conversa-
tional brilliancy of his prime.
Riaud (pronounced Ree-o). An
old Virginian name, of French
derivation. In Norman records
the name is Riau, not Riaud,
the terminal "d" in the latter
form representing the "terri-
torial" particle in the original
name; thus Riau de Alen^on;
Riau d'Alengon; Riaud. By
syllabic transposition (as Mack-
all, Almack) Riaud is now Orear
a well-known Kentucky
Rich. Riche was near Nancy, in
Lorraine. John de Riches,
Thirteenth Century. Riche,
Riches ; Richeson.
Rowan. John Rowan, a jurist and
scholar; lived at "Federal Hill,"
the Old Kentucky Home.
Ryder. Hreidarr (Norse).
Ryder. There was a Ryder in
Mason County, who never rode,
but was a great walker.
Sandford. Scandinavian, San-
Sargeant. Normandy, n 80; Eng-
Scott, Governor of Kentucky.
Scudder. Lower's orthography is
"Skudder." On the very face
it is Scandinavian, from the
Danish Skyde, implying swift-
ness of motion. Scudder is a
name that may with equal
propriety be applied to a
Scandinavian rover scudding
over a sea of ice, or a Calvinis-
tical divine scudding over a sea
of thought. In either case he
is a scudder.
Search (for Church). Thomas de
Cherches, Normandy, 1180.
Sinton, Santon, Normandy, 1180.
Smith, originally Faber. A worker
in iron and a maker of arms
COLONEL REUBEN T. DURRETT, LL. D.
President of The Filson Club.
the leading industry of that
day. The name Smith is a
translation of Faber, and first
appeared in the Thirteenth
Speed. Ivo de Spade, Normandy,
1 1 80. John and Roger Sped,
England, 1272. Attorney-Gen-
eral Speed; Captain Thomas
Speed, soldier and writer; repre-
senting a Kentucky family of
distinction and ability.
Talbot, or Talebote and Taulbee,
and Tallboy, are supposed to
have the same derivation.
From Talebois, or Taillebois, a
name which goes back to the
forests of Normandy, Taillis and
Bois, apparently an equiva-
lent for the English Underwood,
from Taillebois, a cutter of
taillis (underbrush) . William
Preston Taulbee is a typically
Major William Taulbee was
a soldier in the Mexican War
and in the War between the
States. Nine of his descendants
are now in the military service
of the United States, two of
them graduates of West Point.
Tanner. Hugo de Tanur, Nor-
Taylor. Hugo Taillor, Normandy
1 1 80. A distinguished name in
Kentucky. Soldiers, lawyers,
physicians and bankers repre-
sent the various families of the
State. General Zachary Taylor
was a successful soldier who
became President of the United
States; he was a wealthy
Todd. A distinguished name in
Kentucky Mrs. Abraham Lin-
coln was of this stock. Colonel
Charles Todd was minister to
Russia. A gallant soldier in
Tudor. The Welsh form of Theo-
dore the "people's" warrior
a name which does not seem to
have lost its original signifi-
cance. Tudor is an old name
Valingford (Norman French) . The
Conqueror passed through the
town of Wallingford "in his
winter march to the North."
In its English form, an old name
in Virginia and Kentucky and
connected with the Ashbys,
Mooreheads, Andersons, and
Valler, or Waller. From Valeres,
Normandy. De Valier, Valers,
Waler, Walur, Waller. Sir Wil-
liam Waler, the Parliamentary
General, was of this family.
Henry le Wallere is found in
the old records. Henry Waller,
of Mason, was a lawyer of ability
Vick, from the Fief of Vic, Nor-
Wadsworth. Records show that the
name was spelled Wordisworth,
Wardysworth, and Wadys-
worth; Wadsworth being the
original form. Hugh de Wads-
worth, Abbot of Roche, 1179,
had a brother Henry. The fam-
ily of De Wadsworth bore the
arms of De Tilly, a family that
was Norman and baronial.
Walker. Norse, Valka (a foreigner).
Wall (de Valle). A prominent
family in Kentucky. Judge G.
S. Wall, of Mason, was one of
the State Commissioners to the
World's Fair (St. Louis).
Walton. From near Evreux, Nor-
Warin, or Waring. "Waring's
Run," in Mason County, was
named after Thomas Waring.
Waring, or Warin. Thomas War-
ing, a pioneer of Virginia, was
the founder of "Waring's Sta-
tion." His grandson, Edward
Waring, was the "honor" man
of his class at Centre College
in 1860. One of his classmates
(another young Norman) bore
the same name in French
Guerraiit. The traditional pro-
nunciation of Waring is War-
Ward. From Gar or Garde, near
Corbell, Isle of France; John de
Warde, Norfolk, 1194. John
Ward, Kirby Beadon, Four-
teenth Century. Captain James
Ward, a con temporary of Boone,
was High Sheriff of Mason
County for thirty years, and
was practically "warden" of
the marches from Bracken to
the Virginian line. He was a
man of high character and of
unquestioned courage and ca-
pacity. His granddaughter,
Mrs. Mary Ward Holton, is now
a resident of Indianapolis. The
late Judge Quincy Ward, of
Harrison, and Quincy Ward,
the famous sculptor, were scions
of the same distinguished stock.
Washington. The President of the
last Constitutional Conven-
tion in Kentucky was George
Washington (a native of the
State), who was connected by
blood with George Washington
of Mt. Vernon, General of the
Continental armies, President
of the United States, and sole
proprietor of the famous Mt.
Vernon Mills, which produced
a brand of flour known as far
south as the West Indies, and
popular wherever known. The
proprietor had an Anglo-Nor-
man eye for trade, and nothing,
it is said, interested him more
than "the prices of flour and the
operations of his mill." He
naturally became the leader of
a "commercial aristocracy" in
Virginia. Miss Mary Johnson,
in her charming description of
early colonial life in the Old
Dominion, notes the same com-
mercial predilections in the
Elizabethan pioneers. They
were merchants as well as
Watterson. (Norman.) Walter,
Walters, Waterson, Henry
Watterson, a journalist dis-
tinguished for Norman clever-
ness, buoyancy, spontaneity,
enthusiasm, versatility, and
Willis, from Wellis, a fief in
Winter, for Vinter.
Wise and Wiseman (Normandy).
Withers, Normandy, 1 1 80.
Woodward, Woodard. Oudard,
Worrell. William Werel, Nor-
mandy, 1 1 80. H. Werle, Eng-
Wyalt. There are Kentucky fam-
ilies connected with the Wyatts
Wyclifte. Seated at Wycliffe,
Yorkshire, soon after the Con-
quest. The Kentucky Wick-
liffes are of this race. "Cripps"
is a well known Norman name,
and Beckham is a Scandina-
vian name, as Burnham, Dai-
ham, Gresham, etc.
Wyon. Ralph Wyon, Normandy,
1 1 80, also Wyand.
Wray, for Ray.
Wroe, for Roe a Kentucky name.
Youett, for Jewitt.
Young, William Juven or Juvenis,
Zealey, for Sealey.
Zissell, for Sissel. See Cecil.
SOME VIRGINIA NAMES SPELLED ONE
WAY AND CALLED ANOTHER
A very able and scholarly Virginian, Mr. B. B. Green,
of Warwick, Virginia, has compiled a list from
which we make the following selections :
Enroughty Darby !
" ' \ Fontin.
Gloucester ... Glaw'ster.
Haau f ton JHor'ton.
Ker, Kerr, Carr .... Keaar.
Montford, Munford .Mumford.
Piggot (from Picot) . Picket.
Sewell, Seawell .... Sow'el.
Sinclair . . .Sinkler.
Sweeny ... Swin'ny.
Taliaf erro Toliver.
"In living form, " says Mr.
Green, "are now to be heard in
the Southwest, words and pro-
nunciations which have re-
mained unaltered at least since
the time of Simon de Montfort."
"The Virginian" says the same
writer "has a good opinion of
himself ; is calm, well-balanced ;
is self-reliant, and has the Eng-
lish quality of not being afraid
to take responsibility." In
other words, his blood is Scan-
dinavian or Norman, cooled by
the icy currents of Wessex.
A correspondent of the Spec-
tator (London) writes: "It is
often asked what has become
of old English families. I have
just gathered white water-lilies
from the fields of 'De Vere,'
now known as Diver; one of
my neighbors is ' Bohun ' abbre-
viated into Bone; 'Roy,' a
grand sample of the English
laborer, was recently carried
into the old church-yard; for
many years I employed the
tall and stately 'Plantagenet, '
known on my labor books as
Plant; a shop in the neighbor-
ing town is kept by 'Thurcytel,'
the modern spelling being Thir-
kettle; 'Godwin,' the last of
his race, died at a grand old
age a year ago; 'Mortimer'
buys my barley; and around
me we have such names as
Balding, Harrold, Rolf, Hacon,
ACLAND, Sir Henry, Physician, 13
ALFRED, King. "The grim-troubled" sea, 15
ALLEN, James Lane. "Summer in Arcady," 1
ANGLO-NORMAN orators and sheriffs, 29
leader, Boone or Bohun, 2
migration to Virginia, 25
ANGLO-SAXON. System of political administration not complex,
but solid and enduring. "Yeoman" as depicted by An-
drews. No conception of freedom in the modern sense.
His decadence. His progenitors a soldier race. Inca-
pacity for progress until the Norman came, 92
their ancestors "harried" the race they dispossessed. "Har-
ry" an old Saxon word. William learned the word and
all that it implied. He harried with unsparing ferocity,
not the Saxon, but his own kindred, the Northumbrian
Danes. The devastation was never repaired until an
industrial civilization revived and regulated the ancient
energies of the race. Elsewhere in England the Norman
built at once upon the Saxon's rude but solid work, 93
APPARATUS CRITICUS. Evolution of, by three Franch brains,
Lamarck, Sainte-Beuve, Taine, 51
"ARCADY," sons of. Impression upon their guest, Du Chaillu,. . . 8
their social traits and habits, 8
ARGYLE, the Duke of, on genealogical origin of prominent Irish
"ASSIMILATIVE" power of Elizabethan Englishmen (Barrett
BATTLE ABBEY ROLL.. 23
BISMARCK. Unifying the German people by "absorbing" a
Scandinavian population, 106
BLOOD OF NORMAN in obscure English families, 24
in Ireland, 24
in Kentucky, 25
in Scotland, 24
in "the States," 24
in Virginia (earliest migration) , 25
"BLUE GRASS" ; or a Poa found at the Straits of Magellan, 48
"a cosmopolitan grass" with peculiar affinity for the soil of
Kentucky. The "grass" and the "race." Opinion ex-
pressed by a New England tourist, 49
BOONE, the explorer. Early "trustee" of Maysville, 2
name derived from Bohun, 2
"BOURBON." Famous Kentucky distillate, 4
BRECKINRIDGE, John C. Vice- President United States, 14
BRITISH ASSOCIATION, 1889. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 10
discusses paper on Scandinavian origin of English race, 10
BRITISH savants stiff in opinion, 34
BRUCE, Doctor. Historian of Roman Wall, 13
BUCKNER, a Southern family (foot-note), 7
Elizabeth, maiden name of the Beautiful Scandinavian, 7
CARDENAS, battle of, ! . . 27, 28
Kentuckians cover retreat to the sea. Chaplain of expedition
killed. Liberators seize United States fort, 28
CARLISLE, Canon of, quoted. English surnames are largely exotic.
Normandy, he says, was the source of supply. What
was the effect of the "Conquest" ? Anglo-Saxon "gram-
mar" survived, but the stately old nomenclature of the
race was hopelessly smashed. If comparative grammar
can deduce the history of the Anglo-Saxon tongue from
the habitual speech of an English plough-boy, what his-
toric significance is to be attached to the flood of Norman
surnames that were "absorbed" by the Saxon race? The
native speech survived because the dialects which fed it
were still living and intact, 141
CAVALIER. An original product of Normandy. "The man on
Guild-hall collection of seals. Equestrian figure, 48
"CAVALIERISM." Origin of the word, 46, 47
CELT, Normanized, or Scandinavian Celt. "The Fighting Race,". 24
CHILDE, Edward Lee. "Life of Robert E. Lee" (Paris, France,
CLARK, George Rogers, a Scandinavian general. His "wintry
marches" in the Northwest, 88
COLERIDGE on England's insular position. Its effect, 59
"COMMERCIAL ARISTOCRACY," 29
COMPARISON of the two races, Norman and Saxon. Origin of the
COURTHOUSE (Maysville, Kentucky). Description of. Du
Chaillu received at, 2
CRAFT (says Mr. Freeman) is the dominant quality of the Norman
popular recognition of the fact. The winning cards, 132
CRAIK, Doctor George, an eminent British scholar, 34
Eastern and Northern England from middle of the Ninth
Centucy as much Danish as English, 35
says English "more Scandinavian (Danish or Swedish) than
the modern German," 34
Scandinavian dialect imported by invading bands in Fifth and
Sixth Centuries, 35
views on a Norman migration, 36
DANES (who were English Normans) fiercely opposed their kins-
man, the Norman invader, 109
every step obstinately contested in Northumbria, 109
Northumbria the birth-place of the Puritan and the Virginian
(vide Wendell and Fiske) , 86
the Dane's (or English Norman's) passionate love of free-
DAVIS, Thomas A., 9
DAWKINS, Boyd. "Cave Hunter," 13
a warm debate ( Newcastle) , 18
DESHA, Governor. Reference to corporations, 68
DISRAELI repeats the miracle of Lanfranc, 103
Gaston Phoebus as a Gascon noble, 105
his philosophic insight, 104
Monsignore Berwick and his inherited traits, 104
nature's reproduction of type, 105, 129
temp. Louis le Grand, 105
the Southern "Colonel" with a Norman name, 105
DONCASTER RACES : Chitabob and Donovan North against South.
Deep popular interest. Wagner and Grey Eagle in
Kentucky. Extremes touch, 42, 43
Du CHAILLU, Paul. Explorer's visit to Maysville, Kentucky,. ... 3
committee of reception (foot-note), 9
date of visit to Kentucky (1876), 9
description of hosts, 6
encounter with gorilla, 6
entertained by Limestone Club, 4
his re-discovery of La Nouvelle France, 9
interest in "the Beautiful Scandinavian," 7
lecture at Courthouse, 3
personal description of, 5-7
"take a horn" Du Chaillu, 122
verifies the observations of Maltebrun, 121
vivid description of, 6
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR established intimate relations between
England and Normandy, 36
EFFRENATISSIMA. Effrenatus use by Cicero, 28
ELIZABETH TUDOR and Henry the Eighth, 77-79
her recognition of the people, 78
"ELIZABETHAN" Englishmen, the Kentuckians are (Professor
ENGLISH farmer of Anglo-Norman type. Resemblance to Nor-
man farmer of present day, 29
ENGLISH FOLK. Professor Shaler quoted, 25
"largest body of nearly pure English" found in Kentucky, ... 25
ENGLISHMAN, the Elizabethan. When the elements balanced, his
evolution was complete, 128
EVANS, Sir John. Writer on archaeology, 13
EXAMPLES of atavism or reversion. The Scottish blood (which
was the "dominant" in the Berwick cross) by a gradual
process of selection from continuous or intermittent
variations comes at last to the front; first manifested, no
doubt, in the invigoration of the moral quality, and finally
in a physical "mutation" a return to the original or
characteristic color of eyes and hair in the paternal gens.
The theory of transmission or inheritance of moral and
physical traits in Gaston Phcebus from the Gascon noble
is not materially different. The problem of "three"
bodies (really two) in the genesis of the Englishman,
though apparently more complex, is essentially the same,
the "dominant" factor in the process being Norman or
Norse. Whether the explanation be convincing or not,
beyond all question it shows that the Darwinian "scien-
tist" lacks the simplicity of the Disraelitish seer, 104
FACILE PRINCEPS An English estimate generally accepted in
FAMILY NAMES, BRITISH. Families bearing Norman names un-
conscious of their origin, 117
names now accounted English were originally Norman. The
proof of this exists in two countries (England and Nor-
mandy) in practically contemporary records, 118
one Norman name upon an English record after the Conquest
might be suggestive; five thousand names would be al-
most conclusive. A legal maxim quoted, 118
this basis of record proof for purposes of comparison unique, 118
FISKE, John. On "ethnic differentiation." The Aryan broth-
ers far apart, 58
New England founded by East Anglian or Scandinavian
the East Anglian's hatred of tyranny and passion for freedom
of thought, 87
RREEMAN, Edward A., says Norman a "born soldier" and "a born
GALTON, SIR FRANCIS. Writer on Heredity, 13
GENS EFFRENATISSIMA (Malaterra), 27
GENTILHOMME, translated "gentleman." England indebted to
Normandy for the word 46
GOTHIC RACES. First seen in an historic twilight, 108
a great racial march or movement across Europe in parallel
a Scandinavian naval station, with dry docks, 112
"a wild and arid nurse," Ill
description of the peninsular (Scandinavia) milieu, Ill
difficulty of following the Gothic trail in their early Asian
home. Modern illustrations of this Asian mystery.
Warring nations of the same race. Teuton and Goths.
Yenghees in the North, Dixees in the South. Divided
and belligerent, but racially the same, 109
drift in the eddies of an archipelagic sea. What became of it? 114
ethnic differentiation. Why should the Norseman differ from
the kindred Teuton in the south? Ill
from the Caspian Sea to the mouths of the Elbe and Rhine,. . 110
he ravages the shores of Northumbria and the rivers of
loitering along the shores of the Baltic. Peopling Denmark,
the Danish Islands, and the Scandinavian Peninsula,... 110
their Asian migrations veiled by the mists of time, 109
who were the original "comelings" on English soil? 116
William the Conqueror fifth in descent from Rolf Ganger,
the freebooting admiral of the Northern Seas, 113
GREEN, Colonel Thomas M., author of "The Spanish Conspiracy," 9
GREEN, Thomas Marshall, an accomplished speaker, introduces
M. Du Chaillu to the audience, 9
HAMILTON JEFFERSON LINCOLN, 77
HAMLET. A psychological epitome of his race (Danish). The
historic or legendary basis of the character. The "orig-
inal" of the character in its intellectual aspects was a
famous French scholar and essayist. His character and
tastes. His literary work. The favorite writer of
advice to Kentuckians who take themselves "too seriously"
from a philosophic observer who sometimes, it is thought,
did not take things seriously enough. Essentially a mod-
ern thinker, 97, 98
HARDY, THOMAS, the novelist, 23
his views in "Tess," a powerful work of fiction, 23
HENGIST AND HORSA, 45
INEZ. An allusion to Hood's poem, "O saw ye not Fair Inez?"
( foot-note) , 7
ISAAC LE BON and a Virginian "cross." The differentiating
quality, 105, 129
KENTON, Pioneer. Commissioner of Roads for Mason County, . . 2
a famous hunter. Name in State enactments spelled Can-
ton, no doubt as then pronounced, 2
KENTUCKIAN, the. Loves a "good cross," 129
Kentuckians and Normans ; points of remblance between the
derivative and the original stocks, 133
not a weak vessel, 130
transmission of characteristic traits, 130
KENTUCKY. Lawless elements. Origin and distribution, 59
Anglo-Norman juries. A technical defense, 60
political assassination. Murder as an administrative art, ... 60
statecraft ; enterprise in war. "A little nation," 106
"KING'S MOUNTAIN," The Man of, 25
LAMARCK, the famous French savant; referred to in conjunction
with Taine and Sainte-Beuve, naturaliste des esprits. "I
began my intellectual life,' says Sainte-Beuve, "with La-
marck and the physiologists," 51
LANFRANC, the scholar, 36
effects of his work still visible, 36
restrains William Rufus and Odo of Bayeux, 36
LAW. The Norman of Malaterra and "the forms of law," 28
LEE, LIONEL, accompanies Richard of the Lion-Heart in Third
Crusade, at the head of a company of gentilhommes, 46
LEXICON OF NAMES. A marvelous number and variety of facts.
What theory best explains these facts in their relations?
A clear judicial faculty required to recognize the force of
the cumulative verification, 136
LIBRARY, FREE, Newcastle, 13
a group of savants, 13
Anthropological Section meets at, 13
personal description of, 13
LIMESTONE CLUB, entertainment by, 3
LIMESTONE, phosphatic ; basis of Bluegrass region, 2
LONDON TIMES. A contemporary estimate of Du Chaillu's views.
An organ that forms, reflects, and fixes opinion. Ques-
tion of the origin and migration of races. "Time ripe
for a new investigation," 39
letter from Du Chaillu to Times containing challenge to skep-
tical archaeologists, 39, 40
LONGFELLOW, the poet, 12
Kentucky racer, 12
Norwegian barque named, 12
LOPEZ at Cardenas, 27, 28
Louis NAPOLEON. Places an Austrian Prince on the Mexican
throne to unify the Latin race. Its effect, 106
MACKINTOSH, DOCTOR JOHN. "The man of King's Mountain,". . 25
MALATERRA, Geoffrey. Describes the Norman in his original
MANNEN, Major Thomas H., 9
MARSHALL, General Humphrey. Notably large head, 123
his aide and secretary Captain Guerrant, 124
MARSH, George P., quoted. Peculiarities of Scandinavian tongues
observed in English. "Irreconcilable discrepancies," ... 45
MID-CENTURY FIGURES, 30
a masculine type, 32
MONTAIGNE, the French essayist. A quaint story with a cogent
MONTALEMBERT. His "Monks of the West." Estimate of the
MORGAN, GENERAL JOHN. His command remarkable for military
qualities. The opinion of Captain Shaler, 124
Commodore Morgan presents "Yorkshire" to Henry Clay,. . . 44
NAMES, the lesson of, 37
additions to list, 126
Virginian names. Alphabetical series of, 101
NANSEN, Fridjof. Arctic Explorer, 15
NAPOLEON. The English MM peuple marchand, 29
as an administrator, 76
NELSON, General William. Description of, 32
large head, 123
Anthropological "Section" organized at (1863), 12
British Association meets at, 10
"carrying coals" to, 11
description of, 10
industrial progress, 10
northern cattle market, 11
Northumbrian vitality and vigor, 11
NEWPORT, Captain of Sea Adventure. Vice-Admiral of Virginia, 81
NORMAN EXCHEQUER, Great Rolls of, 22
juxtaposition of with English records, 22
NORMANIZED KENTUCKiAN who has "assimilated' everything Nor-
man but the name, 134
NORMANS distinguished from all other nations by their craft (E.
A. Freeman), 63, 131
leaders in England, France, America, 102
the Norman in his ethnical transformation act 103
this Norman craft akin in many respects to the "cuteness" and
cleverness attributed to the American people, 63, 102
NORMAN SURNAMES, alphabetical series of. ("The Norman
NORMAN RACE, 20
Conquest of England by, 21
desperate and prolonged struggle, 21
flow of migration post bellum, 21, 22
great historic march of the Norman people, 124
is it a "lost" race ? 20
memorials of, 20
The Continental recruiting ground, 21
NORTH AND SOUTH. Traits in common, 80
NORTHMEN in communication with peoples of the Mediterranean,. 16
England one of their northern lands, 16
language of, similar to English of early times, 16
their settlements in Britain during Roman occupation, 16
they were bold and enterprising navigators at a time when
neither the Saxons nor Franks were "sea-faring" people, 17
NORTHUMBRIAN INDUSTRIES, 1 1
ODERICUS VITALIS (an English writer) on the illiteracy of his
countrymen at the time of the Conquest, 35
ORPHAN BRIGADE. Captain Shaler's estimate of, 124
OTTO the Saxon and William the Norman. Conflicting missions, 108
the shadowy background of the Norman Conquest. Forma-
tive period of Western Europe (foot-note), 108
OWENS, COLONEL FRANCIS P., 9
"OvEZ !" of Anglo-Norman sheriffs, 30
PERRY, Commodore. Furnishes "sea power" in 1812. Aide to
Governor Shelby. Perry's sea-guns sighted by riflemen
from Kentucky, 107
PHILOLOGIST, The. His proper field, 125
PIONEER COMMONWEALTH," "Genesis of a, 83
PIRATES, Scandinavian. Transmission of traits to English within
historic times, 41
PITT RIVERS, general, soldier, and savant, 14
PROFANITY. The Normans "fond of oaths." Rollo and Carolus
a regulator of the nerves, 71
Ben Briler damned. Desha on corporations, 68
Colonel Robert Blanchard and the "burnt cork" minstrels.
Description of the entertainment. "Hell's fire, Bob."
Conditions of life in the early West recalling the times
of the Plantagenet kings (Barrett Wendell), 69, 70
"damned Yankee" the two words fused by the fires of war, 64
early Kentuckians (like Shakespeare's soldier) "full of
strange oaths," 64
fireside swearing in the auld lang syne, 67
General William Nelson. His strong swearing instincts, ... 72
"God dern" not a Virginian oath, 74
imprecation upon a seller of inherited slaves. Parody on fa-
mous line from Villon. The dusky bondsmen of the past, 67
King William's oath at Alencon. Profanity of the Virgin
Queen. "A very drab." "The Virginians addicted to
oaths" (Fordham). Attenuated oaths, 65
Pecksniff's "wooden damn," 73
Stonewall Jackson. Jubal Early. Governor Scott, of Ken-
tucky. Uncle Toby's oath. Boiling Stith. George
Washington ( foot-note) , 66
"The Blue Light Elder." "Does a Puritan swear?" 72
the devout Moslem. Jean Gotdam (Bardsley), 73
the Master's Call, 68
the modern passion for "good form," 70
the oath in court. The vulgar "cuss-word." The conversa-
tional "swear," 71
the slinking figure of the iconoclast, 74
Washington, when deeply angered, swore. The Attorney-
General of Charles II "damns the souls" of the Virginian
Commissioners to stimulate their commercial instincts,. . 75
QUATRAIN. (A Tennysonian Parody), 18, 134
RACE between Wagner and Grey Eagle, 43
RACIAL TRANSFORMATION. In England; Ireland; France; the
United States, 102
RETROSPECT, a brief, 135
ROLF GANGER, the Scandinavian rover. The world before him
where to choose. Scandinavian place-names, 108
ROMANES, GEORGE. Interpreter of Darwin, 14
description of appearance, 14
ROME, the Man of Ancient, 129
ROWENA, LADY, 31
SAINTE-BEUVE, the French critic. Reference to, 51
SALISBURY PLAIN. Political birth of the English people, 78
researches among Scandinavians of Northern States. Psy-
chological distinctions, 95
SANDYS, Sir Edwin. Author of the earliest political charters, ... 82
SAXON, The. Came directly from the southeastern shores and
islands of the North Sea, and is remotely of Gothic
descent: The Dane from Denmark and the Danish
islands, and is directly of Scandinavian descent; the
Norman, remotely Gothic, is immediately Scandinavian.
The conclusion inevitable, not that we are Scandi-
navians, but that we are deeply Scandinavianized, and
that there is a preponderance of Scandinavian blood in
the English race, 119
a regulative element lacking in Stevenson's duplex mon-
strosity, Jekyll and Hyde. Norman and Saxon 120
Mr. Bart Kennedy in London Mail : Racially, the Kentuckian
facile princeps, 120
Stevenson and Disraeli as writers, 120
the Kentuckian of Virginian descent a practically definite
ethnical product, 119
SCANDINAVIA and Kentucky. Relations between the two, 45
cranial measurements of Scandinavians 56
SCANDINAVIAN origin of English people, 15
animated debate in Anthropological Section, 17
description of scene, 18
outline of theory, 17
Scandinavians infused a spirit of enterprise into the English
people they have never lost, 17
"Scot, the indomitable." The Lowland Race, 24
sensational paper on (British Association), 17
SCANDINAVIAN population of the Northern States. Their energy
and brains, 57
possible fusion of with Scandinavians of the Virginian States
to form a Continental empire. Description of Scandina-
vians by Maltebrun, 57
SCHOLARSHIP, philosophic, seldom narrow and never offensive, . . 128
SCOTT, SIR WALTER. His romances popular in Kentucky, 121
"SCYTHIAN hand and foot." A Scandinavian peculiarity trans-
mitted to the Norman and the Anglo-Dane, 57
"SEA ADVENTURE" wrecked on Devil's Island. Captain New-
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. "Cromwellian Days," 81
SHAKESPEARE and Virginia, 81
Shakespeare's English friends, 82
Shakespeare's portrayal of the Anglo-Norman kings, 94, 95
SHALER, Professor (Harvard). Conclusions drawn from Gould's
on "English Folk" in Kentucky, 25
SNORRO STURLESON, Laing's note to; quoted by Lytton, 56
SPECTACLE. The most dramatic in history (Du Chaillu), 129
SPENCER, HERBERT. Disappearance of Celtic type in the United
ST. ALDEGONDE, the English "Swell," 134
STANTON, Captain Clarence L., 9
TAINE, Hippolyte. Description of English types "Male" and
"Female." "Carnivorous regime" or "Conformation of
race" ? Mentions more attractive types. The women
described by Shakespeare and Dickens, and the noble
historic type represented by William Pitt, 51-53
"erubescent bashfulness" a racial peculiarity, 54
TAYLOR, Isaac Canon, description of, 14
Impromptu parody by, 18
TURNER, Sir William. Reads paper at British Association (New-
castle, '89) on the Weismann Theory. First public ap-
pearance of the theory in English scientific circles, ... 13, 55
Sir William did not accept the theory in full. The hereditary
tendency in harmony with the theory of natural selection, 55
TYPES OF BEAUTY in Kentucky, 31
UNITED STATES, genesis of. Beginnings of a great conflict, 83
Anglo-Spanish conflict closed by Dewey and Schley, 83
first Republic in New World (Dr. Alexander Brown), 84
VIKINGS of the West. Control of the Mississippi, 85
California appropriated by force "under legal forms," 85
Cuba. Disastrous attempts at annexation. Prospective an-
nexation on the old lines, 85
passion for territorial expansion, 85
Vikings : who were they ? 86
VIRGINIA. Mason County settled by planters from, 2
"Piedmont" Virginia, 2
Virginia and the Virginian States, 39
Virginia peopled by English countryfolk (Anglo-Danes), . . 57
WALL, Mrs. Elizabeth Wall (Portrait) , 7
Judge Garrett S. Wall, 9
WARREN, CHARLES DUDLEY. Visit to Kentucky, 51
WASHINGTON, George, of Anglo-Norman blood. Effigies of
cavalier on Great Seal of Confederate States, 48
Jared Sparks derives the family of Washington from William
de Hertburn, who came into possession of "Wessington"
(Washington), County Durham, prior to 1183. The
family soon after assumed the name of Washington.
The de Hertburns, who took the name of the place in
Durham, were a Norman family. A Teutonic clan (says
Freeman) gave the name Wascingas to a village in the
North of England. From this name of a mark, or vil-
lage, came the name of a family WASHINGTON ; Fer-
guson deriving the name of Washington from Wass (an
Anglo-Saxon), a derivation which Lower (one of the
best authorities) says is clearly untenable. Ferguson de-
rives the name Gustavus Vasa (a Swede) from huass,
keen, bold (old Norse). Not an unworthy etymon (he
says) for two great names Gustavus Vasa and Wash-
ington. The first de Washington (says the judicious
Lower) was much more likely a Norman who came in
with the Conquest, and took the name which came with
WENDELL, PROFESSOR BARRETT (Harvard), on early life in the
dominant traits of the Elizabethan Englishman Puritan and
Virginian, 79, 80
his "Literary History of America," 78
WHITE, ANDREW D. Excerpt from address on "High Crime in
the United States," 61
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. Administrative methods and ma-
"A lover of peace" ; Roger of Wendover quoted, 89
descendant of Scandinavian jarls, 87
effect upon France, 91
embodied the characteristic traits of his race, 87
English Unity permanently established upon Salisbury Plain.
The foundations of feudalism destroyed. England made
"one and indivisible," 93
physical characteristics. Vigor and endurance tested in win-
try campaigns, 88
progenitor of Virginian "Cavalier," 87
sovereign and subject cast in same mould. The Norman a
race separate and apart, yet mingling with all. Capacity
for colonization. Their sovereign the most successful
colonizer in French history. A lost art in France. How
to repair the loss, 90
the Norman's Conquest of England transferred the capacity
for colonization to the English race, 91
the Norman's system of administration rested upon a Saxon
the wild king's passion for war and the chase, 88
William's gift of political "visualization," 94
he established a principle (unity) ; he "created a nation";
he founded a line of Anglo-Norman Princes. Shake-
speare's dramatic characterization of the Anglo-Norman
Kings. The significance of his work, 94, 95
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR and Waltheof. A judicial murder by
a Norman king. A secret assassination by a Saxon Earl, 61
"WOLF LARSEN." Character depicted by Jack London, 32
a physical counterpart in "Bull" Nelson, 32
WOLSELEY, Lord. "The Americans a race of English-speaking
WYON. Anglo-Norman Englishman of Norman origin. En-
graver to the Queen. Engraved seal of the Confederacy, 48
"YORKSHIRE" blood in Kentucky. Transmitted traits, 44
George P. Marsh quoted, 45
peculiarities of dialect, 44
''YORKSHIRE/' Imported. Gift from Commodore Morgan to
Henry Clay, 44
Zea Mays and Poa Pratensis, 49
Fllson Club, Louisville, Ky.
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